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POPERY IN ITS SOCIAL ASPECT 

BEING 

A COMPLETE EXPOSURE 

OF THE 

IMMORALITY AND INTOLERANCE 

or 

ROMANISM 

BY 

THE REV. R. P. BLAKENEY, D.D., LL.D., 
Rector and Rural Dean of Bridlington and Canon of York 

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PREFACE. 



This work is a Supplement to " The Manual of the 
Romish Controversy." Popery is a politico-religious 
system, dangerous to the temporal and eternal interests 
of mankind. 

The Manual takes up the religious, while this volume 
treats mainly of the political question. Both subjects 
are of the utmost importance, relating, as they do, 
to the temporal and eternal wellbeing of mankind. 
Popery should be combated, not only with spiritual 
but political weapons — not only by the Church, but 
also by the State. 

The author, however, does not advocate intolerance 
towards Roman Catholics. He would give them full 
liberty of worship and of discussion, and only deprive 
them, as a measure of self-defence, of the power of 
carrying out their persecuting system and canon law; 
and of such a position in the state as enables them to 
subserve politically the papal designs. He bears no 
ill will to Roman Catholics; on the contrary, his 
" heart's desire and prayer to God is, that they may be 
saved." It is always important to remember the dis- 



IV PREFACE. 

tmction which exists between the person and the sys- 
tem — the sinner and the sin. 

It is earnestly hoped that this condensation of evi- 
dence, on the antisocialism of Popery, may tend, under 
God, to open the eyes of many to the fearful evils of 
that system, and to the dangers to which we are ex- 
posed from its nefarious designs. Who, that imparti- 
ally reads the evidence and facts of this work, can 
hesitate to see in Papal Home the fulfilment of the 
prophetic words, " And upon her forehead was a name 
written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE 
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS 
OF THE EARTH." Revelation xvii. 5. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. PAOE 

1. The Crisis, .... .... 1 

2. Dissimulation, and the Lawfulness of doing Evil that Good 

may come, ----..-.7 

3. Equivocation sanctioned by the Church of Rome, 19 

4. Romish Doctrine a3 to Oaths, '- - "*"*- - - - -30 

5. Romish Dishonesty and treacherous Violation of Compacts, 37 

6. Forgeries and Mutilation of Records by the Church of Rome, 45 

7. Romish Misquotation — Pious Frauds in modern times, - 53 

8. Rome Intolerant in principle, 61 

9. Canon Law and Laws of the Pope, 63 

10. The Inquisition — Its Objects, Proceedings, and History, 80 

11. Tortures aud Cruelties of the Inquisition, ... $8 

12. The Inquisition established by the Church of Rome, • 93 
13. 'Persecutions of the Protestants of France, - • - 106 

14. Persecution of Protestants in Britain, - - - - 117 

15. Romish Curses, Excommunication, and Interdicts, • 124 

16. Popery opposed to the Bible, 132 

17. Popery opposed to knowledge, ... - 140 

18. The Jesuits, 153 

19. The Influence and Power of the Confessional, - • 168 

20. False Pretensions of Rome to Unity, .... 179 

21. Schisms of the Papacy, ...... 199 

22. Tumults and Wars of the Popedom, 203 

23. Recent aggressive Allocutions of the Pope against Sardinia and 

Spain, ... . .227 

24. The Conventual System, ... - - 237 

25. Irish National Education, ... . 25Q 

26. History of Papal Attempts on Britain, • • 273 

27. Britain's Inconsistency and Sin, » « 286 

28. Necessary Remedial Measures, • 295 



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POPERY IN ITS SOCIAL ASPECT 



Chapter I.— The Crisis. 

(Written in 1854.) 

Surely the times in which we live are marked by the 
most extraordinary events ! Thrones have tottered, re- 
volutions have swept dynasties away, and the clouds which 
now gather thick and fast upon the political, as well as 
ecclesiastical, horizon, portend a fearful storm. 

The Reformation has been the stay, and bulwark, and 
glory of England. In primitive days Britain and Ireland, 
now the United Kingdom, were independent of foreign 
and Papal control , and when, in the sixteenth century, 
Britain returned to primitive Christianity, she arose in the 
scale of nations, and ascended to an eminence unequalled 
in the world — in her intelligence, laws, and noble consti- 
tution — the admiration of all enlightened and civilized men! 
" The sun never sets upon her possessions." Here the slave, 
who has fled from foreign despotism, or even from the land 
of boasted liberty, may breathe the air of freedom, and find 
a refuge from the master who had pursued him with blood- 
hound and scourge. Here the Louis-Philippes, the Guiz- 
ots, the Thomars, the Esparteros, the Mazzinis, and the 
Gavazzis, — the exiles from France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, 
and, indeed, from every nation under heaven, whether 
they be the oppressor or the oppressed, — may find a safe 
asylum, and a happy home.* 

Blest England ! dark would be the day for the human 
family spread over earth's wide domain, when thy free, en- 
lightened, and noble constitution should cease, and thy 

* On the return of the Pope to Rome in 1S49, and the overthrow of 
Italian liberty by the French republic, the Roman patriots fled to British 
Malta, but were refused an asylum by the British governor, who, being a 
Roman Catholic, and, as such, owing a first allegiance to the Pope, dared 
not to give refuge to the enemies of the Church of Rome. 



2 THE CRISIS. 

sun of glory set ! Defects may be in thee, for nothing 
human is perfect; but where, where, we boldly urge the 
challenge, is there a land so blessed in itself, or so beneficent 
in its influence upon mankind 1 Proudly may the Briton 
say, as he contrasts his own native land with other Euro- 
pean nations, or more distant climes, — whether France, 
so often saturated with the blood of her own children in 
revolutionary war, or dark, oppressed Spain, Italy, and Por- 
tugal, or the New World — upon whose banner is inscribed 
the word liberty, but upon whose escutcheon is the in- 
delible stain of the slavery of human kind : 

"England ! with all thy faults, I love thee still !" 

Who can contemplate impartially the present times, 
without arriving at the conviction, that " Great Britain" 
is in a position of extreme peril, and that elements have 
been admitted into her system which, if allowed to act in 
their natural course, will prove her ruin 1 

Time was, and not long since, when Britain was the un- 
wavering and bold champion of Protestantism in the earth. 
Time was, when Rome proscribed, massacred, and mar- 
tyred the Protestants of France, and when England em- 
ployed public remonstrance, and even her arms, in their 
defence. 

Time was, when Rome persecuted the Waldenses in the 
valleys of Piedmont, — 

"Slain by the bloody Piedmontese, that rolled 
Mother and infant down the rocks. The moans 
The vales redoubled to the hills, and they 
To heaven," — 

when, from valley to mountain, Protestants were hunted 
like wild beasts. 

"Avenge, Lord, thy slaughtered saints, whose bones 
Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold !" 

And then Great Britain interposed her shield between the 
blood-stained oppressor and the persecuted, and boldly 
bade the tyrant sheath his sword. 

Time was when British armies fought side by side with 
those who struggled for their very existence as Protestants 
in Germany, and when Protestants throughout the world 



THE CRISIS. 3 

appealed, not in vain, to England for sympathy and sup- 
port ; but, alas ! now there are indications of change. 

In 1842, England looked coldly on when Popery, at the 
point of the French bayonet, was forced upon the Queen 
and people of Tahiti, and British missionaries were com- 
manded to depart. Mark the tone which pervades too 
many members of the British, senate ! Indifferent to Pro- 
testant truth, Latitudinarianism and practical infidelity are 
openly avowed by them. The voice of the senate is no longer 
Protestant; and though the old English lion, roused from his 
slumber by the shock of the Papal Aggression, has shaken 
his mane, and made the land resound with his roar, yet 
the very fact, that such a bold and decided blow was struck 
at the authority and dignity of the Crown — at the Protes- 
tant Churches all ignored, and the liberty of the nation — 
taken in connexion with the circumstance, that the Papal 
authorities have not abated one jot of their pretensions, 
but, on the contrary, assumed a haughtier tone, shews the 
altered state of things. 

Formerly, Rome stood as a suppliant at the bar of the 
British nation ; now, she wears the mien, and assumes the 
tone of a conqueror, and can we wonder, when we con- 
template the progress which she has made both in a re- 
ligious and political point of view? 

I. Her places of worship, not fifty years since, scarcely 
numbered one hundred, now they amount to nearly seven 
times that number. Her missionaries traverse the land 
in every quarter. They preach in the open air to Protes- 
tant congregations, and challenge the clergy to discussion. 

Already upwards of a hundred clergymen of the Church 
of England have joined her ranks — a thing unequalled be- 
fore ! Vast efforts also are made to proselytize the people, 
and with some success. Tractarianism, which we think is 
Jesuitical in its origin, has unsettled the conviction of many. 
What is yet to come, time only can tell. 

II. In a political point of view, Rome has attained to 
a position of immense power. Her voice is heard in the 
senate, and all places of importance are now open to her 
votaries, except the throne and the woolsack. It has 



4 THE CRISIS. 

been proposed, by men calling themselves Protestants, 
(oh shame !) to abolish the Protestantism even of the 
throne. Her schools are supported by public grants, and 
in Ireland, the so called national system is in the hands 
of the priests. " The Royal College of Maynooth" enjoys 
an annual income from the British treasury of £30,000 a- 
year ; and a considerable sum is expended upon the sup- 
port of Romish ecclesiastics in the Colonies. In thus act- 
ing, England abandoned principle in the vain hope of 
conciliating Rome; and with what success? — Agitation, 
crime, rebellion in Ireland, and, last of all, the Papal 
Aggression.* 

The position of Romanists in parliament is such, that 
they can employ immense influence upon government. 
" The Canada Reserves" bill, which conceded to the Cana- 
dian parliament the power of alienating Church property, 
was carried by the Pope's brigade. In the same way the 
separation of the Scotch universities from the Church was 
effected by the influence of the same body, while " the 
Charitable Bequests Act" was so neutralised, as to leave 
the Church of Rome in reality untouched. 

An act has been passed to disallow the Papal titles , 
but it is not sufficient. It can be viewed only as a sort of 
national declaration without practical utility. The power 
of Rome will still remain, both politically and religiously, 
and we fear increase, unless actively resisted and counter- 
acted. Popery, a confederation of 200,000,000 of the hu- 
man family, directs a great portion of its energies upon Eng- 
land, knowing her importance, calculating most truly, 
that the destiny of Protestantism throughout the earth is 
intimately connected with her. Alas ! that Britain does 
not see her duty, and labour nationally for the conversion 
of Roman Catholics ! 

It was a part of Napoleon's military tactics to fall with 
his army en masse upon the enemy's centre, and thereby he 
often won his victories. 



* So much have Romanists changed their tone in England, that now 
it is customary, even at their public dinners, to give the health of the 
Pope before that of the Sovereign . 



THE CRISIS. 5 

So Home directs her main effort against Britain — the 
centre of Protestantism, and bulwark of the Reformation. 
Her object is to subvert our civil and religious liberties , 
and in proportion as she carries forward her system, will 
that object be attained. Every convert which she makes, 
every chapel which she builds, every step which she takes 
in her advancement to political power, is an inroad upon 
the independence of the nation and the religious liberty of 
the people. We desire not to inflict injury upon the Ro- 
manist in any point of view ; we are anxious to protect our- 
selves, as well as him from Romish tyranny. Popery is 
inimical to liberty, and destructive to morality ; it must be 
met, and shorn of its power. 

Let our cry, therefore be, Civil and Religious Liberty, 
and no Popery ! 

We have arrived at a great crisis. See how Rome has 
advanced her pretensions on the continent of Europe. It 
cannot be denied that the present dynasty in France is 
giving its " power to the beast." When the Pope fled, in 
the disguise of a servant, from his children in the faith at 
Rome, France, then republican France, stepped in to his 
aid. The people of Rome had but followed the example 
of the people of Paris, and established a republic. But 
Napoleon, the President of a republic, employs republican 
troops to crush the young republic of Italy ! Rome is be- 
sieged by the French, and the Pope returns to his throne 
at the mouth of the cannon, and over the bodies of his 
children. The rising liberty and Protestantism of Italy are 
thus crushed. But this is not all, — French troops occupy 
the capitol of the Caesars, and maintain the Papacy with 
their bayonets. Napoleon ascends the throne of France. 
The policy of the latter days of his great uncle he carries 
out, and espouses the cause of the Papacy. The Church 
of Rome, in France, rises, with extraordinary rapidity, to 
a position of great power Napoleon assumes the title of 
" Protector of the holy places." What right has he to 
assume such an office? With as much justice might he 
take the title of protector of Westminster Abbey He 
possesses as little authority over the holy places, which 



TIIE CRISTS. 

are in the dominions of the Sultan, as he does over the 
Churches of our own land. Nor is he content to assume 
merely a name. He is a man, it must be confessed, of 
deeds, as well as words. Lavallette, his ambassador, ap- 
plies to the Sultan, and succeeds, by threats of war, in 
withdrawing certain privileges from the Greek Church. 
Russia appears in the field, and now we find ourselves in- 
volved in a war with that great power,— a war which took 
its rise from the Papal pretensions to " the holy places." 
Napoleon cannot hold a review without a military mass ; 
he cannot send out a fleet without commending it to the 
virgin, whose image he devoutly inaugurates in the flag 
ship. Napoleon, be his private views what they may, is 
a champion of the Papacy, and the Papal authorities are 
loud in his praise. We have been drawn into this war 
by the cry that the balance of power is in danger, but let 
us take care lest, however unconsciously, we may be 
preparing a rod for our own shoulders. France espouses 
the Papacy. We have been drawn into her wake. Let 
us take care that we are not made " the cat's paw," and 
that, as the result of the war, Pome does not extend her 
views to the destruction of the balance of power, and the 
great detriment of liberty and Protestantism. If the Pa- 
pacy accomplish its designs in the East, it will come back 
with redoubled power on the West. We have, indeed, ar- 
rived at a great crisis. 

It is our duty to set our own house in order, and revert to 
the " good old paths." By so doing, we may hope again 
to obtain the favour of Heaven, and be enabled, single- 
handed, as formerly, to resist every combination which the 
Pope, and the powers of darkness, may array against us. 

The enemy, with unbounded enthusiasm and immense 
power, falls upon our ranks. There is treason, alas ! in 
our camp. Many have laid down their swords, or turned 
and fled. Position after position has been yielded up to 
our persevering foe. Oh ! that the soul of Luther were 
on earth again, to rally the scattered and divided bands of 
Protestants, and lead them on to victory 1 



DISSIMULATION. 7 

In the following pages we undertake to prove, looking for 
the Divine blessing, that Romanism is an evil of the most 
frightful magnitude — destructive to the best interests of 
men even in this world. We shall shew that the principles 
and discipline of the Church of Rome are incompatible with 
the liberty and the wellbeing of the country ; and, in con- 
clusion, it will be our object to point out what we conceive 
to be some of the remedies for the crying evil of the day. 



CHAPTER n. 

Dissimulation, and the Lawfulness of doing 
Evil that Good may come. 

As our evidence on these subjects will be adduced from 
St Alphonsus Liguori, and as we shall again have occasion 
to refer to the teaching of that Saint, it is necessary, in 
the outset, to exhibit the amount of authority in the Church 
of Rome which belongs to his works. 

AUTHORITY OF LIGUORl's WORKS. 

I. Liguori was canonized on May 26th, in the year 1839. 
The Dublin Roman Catholic Calendar for 1840, gives 

a full account of the canonization, and states that, — 

" Together with his Holiness Gregory XVI. the principal actor, there 
were 40 Cardinals, 130 Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops, all the 
Generals, Superiors, and members of religious orders in Rome, about 
17,000 clergymen from various countries, several kings and queens of 
different states, an innumerable number of princes, dukes, earls, and 
about 250,000 of various other classes, independently of the inhabitants 
of Rome and its environs." — P 78. Dublin, 1840. 

On this occasion, Alphonsus Liguori was canonized, not 
amid the darkness of the middle ages, but the boasted light 
and knowledge of the nineteenth century. 

II. His works underwent a rigorous examination, and 
received an unqualified approval. They were tried twenty 
times rigorously, as we are informed in the same Calendar, 
by the rules of Urban VIII. and Benedict XIV., and the 



6 AUTHORITY OF LIGUORI S WORKS. 

definitive judgment was pronounced, that they did not 
contain " one word worthy of censure." — (See the Calendar, 
ibid.) Cardinal Wiseman has lately published a life of 
the Saint, in which he speaks in the highest terms of his 
works. He says that he is " celebrated throughout the 
world for his theological writings." P. 2, Lives of Saints, 
London, 1846. Nothing, therefore, can be more decided 
than the sanction which the Church of Rome has given 
to the sentiments of Liguori. 

III. The Roinanum Missale contains the following pray- 
er for the 2d of August — the day dedicated to Liguori : — 

"-0 God, who, by the blessed Alphonsus, thy Confessor and Pontiff, 
inflamed with the love of souls, hast enriched thy Church with a new 
offspring, we implore that, taught by his admonitions, and strengthened 
by his example, we may be able to come to thee through the Lord." 

Thus, Romanists, on the day dedicated to Liguori, pray 
that they may be taught by his admonitions. It is impos- 
sible, therefore, for them to repudiate the teaching of that 
saint. Their Church is identified with, and responsible 
for, his sentiments in every way. 

LIGUORI TEACHES IT IS LAWFUL TO DISSEMBLE THE FAITH. 

The casuistry of the Church of Rome is of the most 
subtile character. She teaches that it is not lawful to deny 
the faith, and, at the same time, that it is lawful to dis- 
semble the faith. Liguori, in answer to tha question, 
Whether it is lawful to deny the faith 1 says, — 

" In no case is it lawful, whether it be done by voice or any other 
sign, Christ having said, ' He who hath denied me before men,' &c. 
Notwithstanding, indeed, although it is not lawful to lie, or to feign 
what is not, however it is lawful to dissemble what is, or to cover the 
truth with words or other ambiguous and doubtful signs for a just case, 
and when there is not a necessity of confessing."* — Mor. Theol., vol. 
I., p. 364. Vesuntione, 1828. 

Thus, he distinctly says that it is lawful to dissemble 

* " Nullo casu licet, sive voce, sive alio signo fiat, dicente Christo ; 
Qui negaverit me coram hominibus, etc. Interim vero, etsi licitum 
non est mentiri, seu similari quod non est, licet tamen dissimuiare quod 
est, sive tegere veritatem verbis, aliisvesignisambiguisetindifferentibus, 
objustam cuusam, etcum non est necessitas fatendi, est comm. S. Thom. 
Kon. dis. 15, dut. 2, n. 9. Laym. 1, 2, t. 1, c. 11 " — Moralu Theologta, 
p. 1>G4, vol. I. Vesuntione. 1828. 



IF ROMANIST ASKED ABOUT HIS RELIGION. £J 

religion for a good cause. We maintain, that to dissemble 
religion is to be ashamed of Christ, and exposes the dis- 
sembler to the wrath of God • " Whosoever therefore shall 
be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous 
and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of Man be 
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of His Father, with 
the holy angels." — Mark viii. 38. 

Liguori considers two general cases, — (1) That of the 
Romanist asked concerning his religion. — (2) That of the 
Romanist not asked concerning his religion. 

I. The Romanist interrogated concerning his religion 
may conceal and dissemble his faith — may tergiversate, 
and answer obscurely. The Saint says, — 

" He who being asked, either by private or public authority, is silent, 
or answers obscurely, or says that he does not wish to answer — that he 
is not justly interrogated — that he is not bound, nor does he wish to 
speak to others what he himself may believe, and in like manner ter- 
giversates, does not appear to deny the faith, but is unwilling to betray 
it. Whence, if thus he may be able to deliver himself from a trouble- 
some investigation, it is lawful ; for, generally, it is not true, that he 
who is interrogated by public authority, is positively bound to profess 
the faith, unless when that is necessary, lest he may appear to those 
present to deny the faith."* — p. 365, ibid. 

Having considered the lawfulness of flying to escape 
persecution, &c., he says, — 

" If a prince command the faithful, by a general law, that they should 
betray themselves by bearing a sign, or by avowing themselves, or other- 
wise, they arc not bound, since no one is bound to speak the truth, un- 
less specially interrogated, except there may be these circumstances: for 
example, this one, — that they who did not avow themselves may appear 
to deny the faith, — viz., if some were previously known, and thence, 
on this account, were thought to have fallen away. "t — p. 365, ibid. 



* " Qui rogatus seu privata, seu publics auctoritate, vel tacet, vel 
respondet obscure, vel ait, se nolle respondere, se jure non rogari, non 
teneri se, nee velle aliis dicere quid ipse credat, ac simili modo tergiver- 
satur, non videtur negare fidem, sed nolle prodere. Unde, si sic possit 
molesta inquisitione liberari, licet, ut habet Kon. 1. c. Generatim enim 
verum non est, quod interrogans ab auctoritate publica teneatur positive 
fidem profiteri, nisi quando id necessarium est, ne praesentibus videatur 
fidem negasse." — p. 365, ibid. 

t "Si princeps generali lege mandet fidelebus, ut se prodant, ge^tato 
mgno, vel sistendo se, vel aliter, non tenentur, cum nemo teneatur verum 
diesre, nisi specialiter rogatus. Excipe, nisi eie Bint circumstantiro, ut 



10 IF ROMANIST NOT ASKED ABOUT HIS RELIGION. 

II. He now turns to the case of the Romanist not asked 
■joncerning his religion : — 

" When you are not asked concerning the faith, not only is it lawful, 
but often more conducive to the glory of God and the utility of your 
neighbour, to cover the faith, than to confess it , for example, if con- 
cealed among heretics, you may accomplish a greater amount of good , or 
u, from the coufession of the faith, more of evil would follow, — for ex- 
ample, great trouble, death, the hostility of a tyrant, the peril of defec- 
tion if you should be tortured, — whence it is often rash to offer one' 3 
self willingly "t— P 365, ibid 

Such are the accommodating principles of the Church 
^i Rome, — convenient for the adoption of the Romanist, 
in order to accomplish the designs of his Church, but com- 
pletely at variance with the high and holy morality of the 
Gospel of Christ. 

The Saint further teaches, that the costume and badges 
of Infidels, Jews, Turks, <fec, may be worn, if merely as 
political distinctions, to dissemble the faith He adds, — 

" It is a lawful custom, when a Catholic (Roman) passes through an 
heretical country, and is in great danger of losing his life or goods, 
(not, however, if he only suffers derision or annoyance, as Bee maintains, 
c. ix.,) — for the purpose of dissembling the faith, to eat jlesh meat on 
fast days, because the command of the Church is not binding under 
such peril. "£ — P. 366, ibid 

To eat flesh meat on fast days is a sin of a grievous 
character, according to the Church of Rome , but yet, even 
that supposed sin may be committed to answer her purposes. 

Popery can accommodate itself even to the circumstances 
of countries. The Saint further says, — i 

*' In Germany, to hear the sermons of heretics, to attend at a iuneral, 



hoc ipso, quod se non prodant, videantur fidem negasse, ut v gr s* 
quidam antea noti essent et tuuc ex hoc putarentur detecisse ' — H>>d 

+ " Cum non rogaris de fide, non solum licet, sed s.-ppe melius est ad 
Dei honorem, et utilitatem proximi, tegere fidem quaro fateri ut si 
latens inter haereticos plus bom facias, vel si ex confessiom plus mall 
sequeretur, verbi gratia, turbatio, neces, excerbatio tyrannr, ponculum 
defectionis, si torquereris " — Ibid 

X Licitus item modus est. cum catholicus transit pei loca bxretica, et 
pereculum grave ei imminet vitae, v gr vel Ivmoruin (non tamen, si iler 

isiotantum, vel vexatur, ut habet. Bee, c ix , ) ad dissimulandum fidom, 
vesci carnibusdie prohibito, quia proeceptum Ecclesia- non obligat subtah 
periculo " — p 366, ibid 



SUMMARY — DISSIMULATION. 1 1 

to act as sponsor for a child in baptism, are not esteemed professing signs 
of the faith, or of communion with the religious affairs of heretics. Hence, 
when there is no danger, scandal, or prohibition, if it is for a good cause, 
it is lawful."*— p. 367, ibid. 

This, however, which is lawful in Germany, is abso- 
lutely forbidden in the Neapolitan kingdom ! — Ibid. 

RESULT. 

From these quotations, it is evident that the Church of 
Rome sanctions the following principles : 

I. It is lawful to dissemble the faith. She makes a dis- 
tinction between the dissimulation of the faith, a proceed- 
ing of which she approves, and the denial of the faith, a 
proceeding of which she disapproves. 

II. Even when interrogated by public authority, the 
Romanist is not bound to profess his faith. 

1. He may answer obscurely. 

2. He may use tergiversation. 

3. He may use equivocation, as we shall prove by and by. 

III. He may eat flesh meat on fast days, to conceal the 
fact of his being a Romanist. 

IV. He may listen to the sermons of heretics, attend at 
their funerals, and stand as sponsor for their children, pur- 
posing to imbue their mind with Romish sentiments. 

^ V. Connected with all this, however, there is an im- 
portant proviso. 

He must not " appear to those present to deny the faith." 
This is deep policy. If it appear that the Romanist is 
denying his faith, injury may arise to the Church, to whose 
advantage all other interests should be sacrificed. " For 
example," says Liguori, " if some were previously known, 
and then on this account, would be thought to have fallen 
away." Thus it is merely to " save appearances" that the 
member of the Church of Rome, under such circumstances, 
would acknowledge his faith. : 

* " In Germania audire conciones hsereticorum, deducere fumes, as- 
sestere baptismo pro patrius, non habentur signa professiva fidei, vel com- 
munionis cum hsereticorum sacris. Filliuc Azor. Sanch. 11. cc. Unde, 
seclusis aliia, v. gr. scandalo, periculo, prohibitione, etc., si ex justa, 
causa fiant, licent." — p. 367, ibid. 



12 THAOTAKIASS A3 ; . "ROBABLY JESUITS. 

Dissimulation well disguised is lawful , nay, even com- 
mendable, says the Saint , "for it is often more conducive 
to the glory of God and the utility of your neighbour to 
cover the faith than to confess it , for example, if conceal- 
ed among heretics, you may accomplish a greater amount 
of good" 

In accordance with such principles, Romish priests, 
wearing the garb of Protestant ministers, have laboured to 
propagate Romish views. 

Hallam, the historian, in reference to the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, says, — 

" Many of those itinerant priests assumed the character of Protestant 
preachers . and it has been said with some truth, though not probably 
without exaggeration, that, under the direction of the crafty court, they 
fomented the division then springing up, and mingled with the anabap- 
tists, and other sectaries, in the hope both of exciting dislike to the es- 
tablishment, and of instilling their own tenets, slightly disguised, into 
the minds of unwary enthusiasts 

We have too much reason to believe that similar events 
are now taking place. When we behold, on the one hand, 
the advocacy of the whole cycle of Roman doctrine by 
some Clergymen of the Protestant Church of England , 
and, on the other, men who profess to hold religious sen- 
timents opposed in the extreme to Popery, yet allied 
•losely with that Church for the attainment of her politi- 
cal advancement in these kingdoms, can we doubt, that Je- 
suits in disguise lie concealed among Protestants, and that 
their influence is felt amongst men of all religious views? 

Lately, a proposition was made by the Rev. George 
Spencer, a pervert to Rome, styled Father Ignatius, — a 
name not unsuitable, — that Romanists, Catholic servants, 
*/ course dissembling their faith, should enter the service 
of Protestant families, specially to imbue the minds of such 
families, if possible, with Romish sentiments' The pro- 
portion w.b, indeed, worthy of an Ignatius, — a true son 
wt tin- Church of Rome 

How often may the following ease occur — 

A devout Ronmmst M'cks tor the office of tutor, or go 
verness He 01 she dissembles his or her principles, even 



DOING EVIL THAT GOOD MAY COME. 1 3 

and the care of the children is entrusted, unknowingly, to 
a member of the Church of Rome ! The tutor, or governess, 
disseminates unsound principles amongst the members of 
the family, and an advance is stealthily made, until, at 
length, unsound doctrine takes deep root in the hearts of 
the children. Members of the family, and some of the 
children, consequently join the Church of Rome, and bring 
sorrow upon their parents, who, too late, discover the source 
of their calamity, and mourn over the awful consequence 
of Romish dissimulation ! 

No family, no community, no Church, is safe from Rome. 
Her dissimulation renders her more than a match for Pro- 
testants, and would ensure her ultimate triumph, were 
there not One above " from whom no secrets are hid," and 
who bringeth the devices of unsanctified men to nought. 

LIGUORI TEACHES THE LAWFULNESS OF DOING EVIL THAT 
& GOOD MAY COME. 

He says, — 

" Therefore the second opinion is the more probable one, that it is 
lawful to induce a man to commit a less evil, if he has already deter- 
mined to perpetrate a greater 

Hence Sanches teaches, No. 19, with Cajetan, Sot, Covar, Valent, that 
it is lawful to persuade a man determined to slay some one, to commit 
theft or fornication. . . . And this, adds Sanches, No. 23, 
with Sal, is lawful not only for private persons, but even confessors, pa- 
rents, and others, upon whom the duty is officially incumbent, to prevent 
the sins of those under him."* — p. 420, ibid. 

How truly Antichristian and immoral are these sen- 
timents ! If a man be determined to commit adultery, a 
confessor, a parent, or other in authority, says Liguori, 
may and should induce him to commit fornication in lieu 
thereof. We ask, Is not the power of the Gospel all-suffi- 
cient? Can it not alter the purpose of the most hardened and 
wicked heart, and shake the determination of the most ob- 
durate man 1 Yes ; and therefore the Christian should 
. ^ , 

* "Secundaigitursententiaprobabilior tenet, licitum esse minus mal~ 
um suadere, si alter jam determinatus fuerit ad majus exequendum. 
Hinc docet id. Sanch. u. 19, cum Cajet. Sot. Covar. Valent. parato 
nliquem occidere, licite posse suaderi, utabeo furetur, velutfornicetur„ 
. . . Et hoc addit Sanch. n. 23, cum Sal licere non solum privatis, 
sed etiam confessariis, parentibus, et aliis, quibus ex officio inoumbit, 
impedire peccata sirbditorum." — p. 420, Ibid. 



1 4 SUMMARY DOING EVIL THAT GOOD MAY COME. 

know of no other method by which to arrest the sinner in 
his course. What ! induce a man who is determined to 
commit adultery, to sin against God by fornication as a 
substitute 1 Such a compromise would be earthly, sensual, 
and devilish, and it were to expel one devil in order to 
make room for another. The Saint further says : — 

" It ia lawful for a master not to take away the occasion of stealing 
from his children or servants, when, notwithstanding, he knew that they 
had a propensity, and were prepared to commit theft ; that thus taken 
in the act, they may be punished, and come to repentance ; for then re- 
asonably he permits one theft that more may be avoided."* — p. 420, ibid. 

The Saint further states, that it is lawful for a husband 
to give occasion to his wife to commit adultery, in order 
to test her virtue , and he argues thus : — 

,l When a husband or master affords an opportunity of committing 
adultery or theft, he does not truly induce to sin, but he affords an 
occasion of sin, and permits the sin of another for a just cause, — viz, that 
he may preserve him from an evil that is to come ; for it is one thing to 
induce to — another thing to afford an occasion of tin. The fo?mer is in- 
trinsically evil. The latter is not intrinsically evil."t — P- 421, ibid. 

He further teaches, that a servant may bring a con- 
cubine to his master if he be under fear of great loss, and 
that he may, for a similar reason, open the door to a harlot, 
or accompany him to a brothel. — See pp. 424-427, ibid. 

RESULT. 

Thus he teaches . — 

I. That a master may afford an opportunity of stealing 
to his children or servants to accomplish a good. 

II. That a husband may afford to his wife an occasion 
to commit adultery to test her virtue. For that purpose 
he may introduce the adulterous villain ! ! ! 

III. That a servant may bring a concubine to his mas- 
ter, or admit a harlot, if he be in fear of grea*t loss. 

* " Hero licet non auferre occasionem furandi filiis, aut faraulis, cum 
eos nihilo minus ad furanduin propensos, et paratos novit, ut sic depre- 
hensi pumantur et resipiscant, tunc emm rationabditer permittit fur- 
tum unum, ut evadentur plura." — Ibid. 

t "Sed hoc non obstante, satis probalis videtur prima sententia, quia, 
cum maritus, vel dominus praebet ansam machandi, vel furandi, non 
vere inducit ad peccandum, sed praabet occasionem, et permittit peccatum 
altenus, ex justa causa, scil. ut se indemnem servet a periculo damni 
•bventuri. Aliud emm est inducere, aliud praebere occasionem. I1*"<1 
est intrinsece malum, not autem hoc." — p. 421, ibid 



DISSIMULATION ILLUSTRATED BY GAWTHORN. 15 

IV. That it is lawful to induce a man to commit a lesser 
sin, — for example, fornication, — to turn him away from a 
greater — adultery ! 

How awful are these principles ! They are scarce fit 
for perusal. The doing evil is thus allowed that good 
may come, which is so condemned in Romans iii. 8. 

A remarkable instance of, this recently occurred, and 
astounded all right minded men. 

A Mr Gawthorn, a bigotted Romanist, writes a letter 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, in which He 'pretends to 
be a Protestant \ and asks his Grace's opinion as to the va- 
lidity of orders conferred in foreign Protestant Churches, 
though not Episcopal. The Archbishop in reply acknow- 
ledges their validity. Mr Gawthorn then throws off the 
mask, and with a view of embroiling the Archbishop with 
the so-called High Church party, makes known his Grace's 
letter, though it had been marked as private. 

We give Gawthorn's letter, signed " Francis," and the 
note which he subsequently wrote, acknowledging the fact 
that he was the writer : — 

"47 Holywell Street, Westminster, June 18, 1851. 
" My Lord, — I am very sorry to find by the public prints that Bishop 
Blomfield joins with the notorious Mr Richards, of Margaret (now T-itch- 
field Street) Chapel, in casting a slur upon the orders of foreign Protes- 
tant Pastors, so many of whom met your Grace in friendly conference at 
Willis's Rooms, on Tuesday last; and that he even concurs with that 
gentleman (at least so it would appear, I hope I am mistaken) in regard- 
ing them as 'mere laymen,' to use Mr Richards's own words, from 
which the Bishop expresses no dissent,) just as the Romanists do all 
Protestant Clergymen, Mr Richards included, though I believe that 
gentleman repudiates the name of Protestant. 

[Here follow some severe strictures on the Bishop of 
London, which are omitted as irrelevant.] 

" I venture to trouble your Grace with thi3 communication, in order 
to inquire whether it is your Grace's opinion, and that of the majority 
of your brethren — in short, whether it is really the sentiment of the 
Church of England, that these excellent foreign Clergymen (whom we 
have most certainly led to believe that we recognise their orders) are 
not as truly Pastors of the Church of Christ as even the Bishops of the 
Established Church, or whether, on the other hand, we should regard 
them, with the Bishop and his jjrottgt, as 'mere laymen.' 

" I am myself a convert from Dissent to the Established Church (and 



16 CASE OF GAWTBORH 

I trust, therefore, your Grace will excuse me troubling you on tins 
point,) but 1 confess to your Grace that if the latter view is involved in 
adherence to the Church of England, or is the opinion of the majority of 
your Lordships, I, for one, shall certainly feel that the National Church 
has not a particle of claim to my a'legiance, and that such a view reallj 
sanctions, to a very great extent at least, the efforts of the Tractanans 
to 'unprotestantize' the Church of this country, and that they are not 
so very far wrong, after all, in speaking of the Romish as a ' sister 
Church' (vide 'Christian Year,' Sac.) But 1 cannot believe that your 
Grace regards the celebrated champion of Protestantism, Dr Cummmg, 
(who also, I believe, met your Grace on Tuesday, ) and indeed the whole 
Established Church of Scotland (which the Supreme Head of the Eng- 
lish Church under Christ has only just assured "of her 'sanction and 
support.' accompanying the assurance with a very large contribution,) 
as, as the Tractanans assert, without the pale of the Church of 
Christ,' which, however, they make to include the Romanist 

" I am most anxious to be informed of your Grace's sentiments on 
this subject, as the chief Ecclesiastical authority, (under Her Majesty, ) 
and I am confident, therefore, that your Grace will forgive the liberty 1 
have taken in venturing to trouble your Grace upon the subject I will 
only, in conclusion, humbly request your Grace's attention to Mr 
Richards' s avowed sympathy with Romamzers (including even Mr Har- 
per, who has just joined the Romish Church) and Romanists, (which is 
not rebuked by his Bishop,) and in particular with the French Jesuit 
Priest, Pere Ravignan, who, I see, assisted Archdeacon Manning in the 
performance of his 'first Mass' at the Jesuits' Church on the day pre 
vious to your Lordship's Convocation at Willis's Rooms; and Mr Man- 
ning's name reminds me also to request your Grace's attention to his 
friend Archdeacon Wilberforce's recent work (a ' History of Erastian- 
ism,) in which he distinctly charges his Church with 'heresy ' Witt 
many apologies and great respect, I have the honour to be, your Grace's 
most faithful humble servant, W. Francis. 



"47 Holywell Street, Westminster, July 1. 

11 Sir, — I was informed, on my return home this evening, that a gen- 
tleman had called and inquired for Mr Francis, and that he would come 
again to-morrow about half-past nine. 

" As I am going out early in the morning, and as I think I know 
the object of your visit, I thought it best to leave a few lines, in order 
that your second call might not be altogether to no purpose. 

" You no doubt wish to know if it was I who addressed Dr Sumner 
lately with respect to the sentiments of his brethren in regard to the 
1 foreign Pastors.* 

1 ' / beg to say that 1 did write to Dr Sumnei' on that subject, with 
a view to the benefit of a relative whom, 1 am trying to convert (for J 
am myself a Catholic, ) and that 1 omitted my surname in the signa- 



CASE OF GAWTHORN. 17 

ture of my letter, in case it should defeat the object I had in view, for 
I thought it was possible that Dr Sumner might have heard my name, 
and might know' that I was a Catholic, which would probably have 
prevented his giving me the information I desired. 

"I have also to add further, that all I have said in my note was 
strictly true, and that of course I intended to avoid acting in any way 
inconsistent with the ' private nature' of the communication. I mean, 
that I should not of course feel myself at liberty to publish it. I have 
much respect for Dr Sumner personally, though, I confess, none what- 
ever for 'the Church of England,' and am much obliged to him for his 
courteous reply to my note. If it is thought that the course I pursued 
in this matter was unjustifiable, or ' doing evil that good may come,' I 
can only say that / olid not think so, nor did others who are better able 
to judge. I have only shown the letter to personal fiends, for whose 
conversion to the Church I am most anxious. I am, Sir, your obedient 
servant, W. R. Francis Gawthorn. 

" For the Gentleman from Dr Sumner." 

Thus, Gawthorn, taught by a Church which sanctions 
dissimulation, justifies his conduct, which is well charac- 
terised by the Morning Chronicle in the following terms : — 

"A more base and revolting fraud — a more complete negation of 
every moral principle, the lie being varied with every circumstance of 
degrading hypocrisy — it were impossible to'conceive. ' The wildest fiction 
that ever attributed any conceivable violation of truth and decency to 
the pattern monster which is nicknamed a Jesuit, never excogitated 
anything half so detestable as this fact which is now before us — a fact 
which has serious bearings, far wider than the detection of Gawthorn.'''' 

How unlike is all this to the pure lessons of the Gospel ! 
which admit of no compromise with sin, under any pre- 
text, or for any motive. " Have no fellowship," saith the 
Apostle, " with the unfruitful works of darkness, but 
rather reprove them." — Eph. v. 11. 

Yet, in the name of religion, Rome teaches such prin- 
ciples ! and advances her cause by such practices ! Is it 
any wonder that on her orow should be written, — " Mys- 
tery, Babylon the Great , the mother of harlots, and abomi- 
nations of the earth?" — Rev. xvii. 5. 

Is it right that such a system should receive any patro- 
nage from the British government and people 1 Can any 
reliance be placed in the assurances of persons trained in 
such a faith 1 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What authority belongs to the works of Liguori 1 



18 SUMMARY 01- CHAPTER II 

A — Very great — 1 The author was canonized in 
1830 2 Hi- works were examined and deelared not to 
contain " on< j umd worthy of censure " 3 Romanists pray 
to he taught by his admonitions 

2 Q — What does he teach on dissimulation? 

A — That it is lawful to dissemble the faith under cer- 
tain circumstances 

3. Q — Does he say that it is lawful to deny the faith t 

A — No , but to dissemble it. He considers that, tc 
dissemble it is not to deny. 

4 Q — Do you think that the dissimulation of the faith 
is a denial of Christ, and contrary to the Word of God ? 

A. — Decidedly Christ says he shall be ashamed of 
those who are ashamed of Him. — Mark viii. 38 

5 Q. — In what way does Liguori say that a Romanist 
may dissemble the faith 1 

A — He may tergiversate and answer obscurely. He 
may he concealed among heretics to accomplish some ob- 
ject He may even eat flesh meat on fast days, and he may 
equivocate m the ways mentioned in the next chapter 

6. Q — He says that a Roman Catholic must not ap- 
pear to deny the faith. Why ? 

A. — Evidently because the Church would suffer from 
apparent denial. Well disguised dissimulation is lawful. 

7 Q. — How have these principles been carried out 1 

A. — Romish priests have worn the garb of Protestant 
ministers , and we have reason to fear that they do 9t 
now. 

8. Q. — On the subject of doing evil that good may come, 
what does he teach 1 

A. — That a confessor, or one in authority, may induce 
a man to commit a lesser sin instead of a greater, — for in- 
stance, fornication instead of adultery. He also teaches, 
that it is lawful for a master not to take away tJie occasion 
of stealing from his servants or children , and that a hus- 
band may afford an opportunity to his wife of committing 
adultery, in order to test her virtue ! ! ! 

9. Q. — What think you of such teaching 1 

A. — It is awfully immoral, and contrary to the Word 



EQUIVOCATION SANCTIONED BY ROME. 19 

of God, which commands, us to " have no fellowship with 
the unfruitful works of darkness." — Eph. v. 11. 

10. Q. — Can any reliance be placed in the assurances of 
persons influenced by such principles] 

A. — None ; and it is a gross sin in Britain to give any 
support to it. 



Chapter III.— -Equivocation Sanctioned by 
the Church of Rome. 

Liguori distinguishes equivocation into two kinds, — that 
which is not purely mental, (non pure mentalis,) of which 
he approves ; and that which is purely mental, (pure men- 
talis,) of which he disapproves. When, however, his ex- 
amples of lawful equivocation are examined, it will be 
found that the distinction is without a difference. The 
apparent distinction, notwithstanding, answers a, great 
purpose. If the Romanist be charged with holding the 
lawfulness of equivocation, he may deny it, meaning equi- 
vocation purely mental, thus employing equivocation in 
his very repudiation of the same. 

THE TEACHING OF THE SAINT ON EQUIVOCATION. 

Liguori says, — 

" To swear with equivocation (when there is a just cause, and equi- 
vocation itself is lawful) is not evil, because where there is a just cause 
for concealing the truth, and it is concealed without a lie, no detriment 
is done to an oath ; but if it is done without a just cause, it will not 
indeed be perjury, since, according to one sense of the word, or mental 
restriction, he swears true ; however, it will be of its own nature a 
mortal sin against religion, since it will be a great irreverence to take 
&n oath to deceive another in a grave matter." * — Moral Theoloyy, p. 
118, vol. II. Vesuntione, 1828. 



* " Jurare cum equivocation e, quando justa causa est, et ipsa aequi- 
vocatis licet, non est malum : quia, ubi est jus occultandi veritatem, et 
occultatur sine mendacio, nulla irreverentia fit juramento. Quod si 
sine justa causa fiat, non erit quidem perjurium cum saltern secundum 
aliquem sensum verborum, vel restrictionem mentalem verum juret : 
erit tamen ex genere suo mortale contra religionem, cum sit gravis irre- 
verentia, adalterum in si gravi decipiendum, usurpare juramentum." — 
Moralis Theoloyia. p. 118, vol. II. VesuDt. 1828. 



20 ROMISH DISTINCTIONS ON EQUIVOCATION. 

Thus, for a good cause, to swear with equivocation is 
lawful. Of such good causes we shall have specimens 
hereafter. The Saint proceeds, — 

" For the clearer understanding of what is said here, and to be said 
in this very difficult question, many distinctions are necessary. In the 
first place, we are to distinguish that one is double-speaking or equivo- 
cation, and the other is mental restriction 

" Double-speaking can be used in a three-fold manner : — 
1. When a word has a double sense — for example, volo signifies to wish 
and to fly. 2 When an expression has a double principal meaning, — 
as, this is Peter's book can signify either that Peter is the owner or 
the author of the book 3. When words have a double sense, one more 
common, the other less common, or one literal, and the other spiritual, 
as are these words which Christ spake of the Baptist, ' He is Elias,' 
and the Baptist said, I am not Elias.* 

" In which sense spiritual men say, that delicate food is hurtful to 
them, — that is, for mortification , those who are afflicted with diseases 
say, that they are very well, — that is, as far as strength of spirit is con- 
cerned. Thus also, he who is interrogated concerning anything which 
it is expedient to conceal, can answer, Dico non, M I say not," — that 
is, I say the word not Cardenas doubts concerning this ; but, in the 
absence of better counsel, undeservedly it appears, since the word dico 
in truth may have a double sense, for it signifies to make known and to 
assert, but in one sense dico is the same as profcro. These things 

BEING ESTABLISHED, IT IS A CERTAIN AND COMMON OPINION AMONGST ALL 
DIVINES, THAT, FOR A JUST CAUSE, IT IS LAWFUL TO USE EQUIVOCATION 
IN THE PROPOUNDED MODES, AND TO CONFIRM IT WITH AN OATH."* — Ibid. 



• " Ad raajorem claritatem pro hie dictis, et dicendis in hac materia 
tam dificili, plura sunt distinguenda. Primo loco distinguendum, aliam 
esseamphibologiam, siveaxjuivocationem ; aliam restrictionemm.entalem. 

11 Amphibologia triplici modo esse potest. I. Quandoverbum habet 
duplicem sensum, prout v olo significat velle et volare. II. Quandosermo 
duplicem sensum principalem habet, v. gr., Hie liber est Petri; signifi- 
care potest, quod Petrus sit libri dominus aut sit libri auctor. III. 
Quando verba habent duplicem sensum, unum magis communem, aliam 
minus, vel unum litteralem, alium spiritualem, ut verba ilia, quae dixit 
Christus de Baptista Ipse est Elias. Et Baptista dixit : Ego non sum 
Elias Quo sensu viri spirituales cibos delicatos dicunt ei nocere, id est 
mortificationi , doloribus afflicti dicunt bene valere, id est quoad robur 
spiritus Cardenas, diss 19. n. 47. Sic etiam quis interrogatus de 
aliquo, quod expedit celare, potest respondere, dico non, id est dico ver- 
bum now Card n. 52, de hoc dubitat, sed salvo meliori consilio, vide- 
tur immerito, cum verbum dico vere duplicem sensum habeat ; signifi- 
cat enim proferre, et asserere, in nostro autem sensu dico idem est ac 
profcro." " His positis, certum est et commune apud omnes, quod ex 
justa causu licitum sit uti aequivocatione modis expositis, et earn jura- 
mento tirmare.'' — p. 118, ibid. 



ROMISH EXAMPLES OF LAWFUL EQUIVOCATION. 2l 

Such are the general principles taught by Liguori. 
Words often have a double meaning, and the Romanist, 
according to the morality of the Saint, may avail himself 
of that ambiguity in order to deceive. 

We call special attention to this example which he gives : 

" Thus also he who is interrogated concerning anything which it is 
expedient to conceal, may say, " I say no," (Dico non,) that is, " I 
aay," the word " no." 

If a Romanist, whose object is to lie hid amongst Pro- 
testants in order to accomplish a greater amount of good, 
be asked if he be a Romanist, he may reply, " / say not" 
and thus deceive the inquirer, — meaning, in his own mind, 
that he only repeats the word not, but deliberately pur- 
posing to delude. Surely this saintly admonition by which 
Romanists pray to be taught, cannot be characterized by 
too strong a term ! What hateful deceit — what hypocrisy 
under the Christian name ! 

Liguori defines a just cause for which equivocation may 
be used, as follows : — 

" But a just cause is any honest end in order to preserve things good 
for the spirit, or useful for the body."* — p. 119, ibid. 

It is most important to bear this definition in mind. 
The Romanist may employ equivocation, even in oaths, for 
a just cause, — that is, " to preserve things which are good 
in a spiritual point of view, or in a temporal." It is well 
known how all-absorbing are the interests of the Church ! 

EXAMPLES OF LAWFUL EQUIVOCATION. 

I. — The Saint says, — 

" Hence it is inferred, — 1. That a confessor can affirm, even with an 
oath, that he does not know a sin heard in confession, by understanding 
as man, not as the minister of Christ "f — p. 122, ibid. 

A confessor, summoned to the bar of justice, may swear 
before the judges of the land that he does not know a cir- 
cumstance revealed to him in confession ; meaning, in his 

• " Justa autem causa esse potest quicumque finis honestus ad ser- 
vanda bona spiritui, vel corpori utilia." — p. 119, ibid. $ 

t " Hinc infertur. — 1 . Confessarius amnnare potest, etiam juramento, 
86 nescire peccatum auditum iu.confessione, subintelligendo, ut hominem, 
non autem ut mvnistrwm Christi." — p. 122, ibid. 



VI A CONFESSOR MAY DENT TRUTH EVEN ON OATH. 

own mind, that while he knows it as minister of Christ — 
in which capacity it was revealed to him — he does not 
know it as man. If, moreover, he should be asked, if he 
know it as minister of Christ, still he may answer in the 
negative, for the following reason : — 

" Because he who interrogates has not a right to be informed of a 
matter, unless that matter is communicable. Such is the knowledge of 
the confessor."* — Ibid. 

Still further, if the judge, aware of the teaching of the 
Church of Rome as to equivocation, should call upon the 
confessor to swear, without equivocation, a subterfuge is 
provided, by which the claims of law and justice may be 
evaded. Liguori says, — 

" What if he should be asked to answer without equivocation, even 
in that case he can answer, with an oath, that he does not know it, 
as more probably Lugo, n. 79, Croiz. 1. c. cum Stoz. et Holzm num 722, 
with Michel teach against others. The reason is, because the confessor 
verily answers according to the oath made, which is always understood 
to be made in the manner in which it was possible to be made, to wit, 
of manifesting the truth without equivocation, that is, without that 
equivocation which can be lawfully omitted, but as to the necessary 
equivocation which could not be omitted without sin, the other has not 
a right that an answer should be given to him without equivocation, 
neither, moreover, is the confessor bound to answer without equivocation." 
— p. 286, vol. 6. ut supra.f 

Thus it seems that there are two sorts of equivocation, 
the necessary and the unnecessary. When the Romanist 
swears that he does not employ equivocation, he means, 
in his own mind, that which may be laid aside, but not 
that which is necessary. The applicability of this princi- 
ple to the Romish oath, is discussed in our chapter on 
Romish dishonesty and treacherous violation of compacts. 

Thus is deliberate perjury sanctioned by a saint, by 
whose admonition the Romanist prays that he may be 
taught ! 

II. In reference to a witness, Liguori says, — 

" The accused, or a witness, not properly interrogated, can swear 
that he does not know a crime, which in reality he does know, by un- 

* " Ratio, quia interrogatus non habet jus, nisi ad sciendam notitiam 
communicabilem, qualis non est ilia confessarii." — Ibid. 
T For original, see Note at foot of page 43. 



EQUIVOCATION IN CASE OF AN ACCUSED, OR WITNESS, 23 

derstanding that lie does not know the crime, concerning which legiti- 
mately he can be inquired of, or that he does not know it so as to give 
evidence concerning it."* — Ibid. 

It appears that an accused or witness, who considers 
that he is not legitimately interrogated, may swear that he 
does not know the circumstance. For example, the sove- 
reign and authorities of this country being Protestants, 
and, in Romish estimation, heretics, are excommunicated 
and anathematized by even the council of Trent. The 
Romanist, therefore, whether he occupy the position of 
an accused or witness, considering that his judges are not 
properly and validly constituted, may swear that he does 
not know a circumstance, which in reality he does know. 
This reveals the secret of the non-convictions in Ireland. 
And strong measures are needed for the counteraction 
of such an evil 

III. Under other circumstances also the accused may 
false-swear, or, in plain English, perjure himself. The 
Saint adds, — 

" The same is true, if a witness, on another ground, is not bound to 
depose ; for instance, if the crime appear to himself to be free from 
blame ; or if he know a crime, which he is bound to keep secret, when 
no scandal has gone abroad. "t — Ibid. 

This, forsooth, is a most convenient principle. Garnet, 
the Jesuit, admitted that the gunpowder plot had been 
revealed to him in confession; but denied that he was 
guilty in the matter. Conscientiously, as a Romanist, he 
could thus deny, though he was guilty of a full participa- 
tion in the diabolical conspiracy; for the crime appeared 
to himself to be free from blame ; and, besides, he was 
bound to keep it secret. 

IV. Liguori states, that the accused or witness, legiti- 
mately interrogated f cannot use equivocation, except in the 
following case, which is well worthy of observation : — 

4 • Make an exception in a trial where the crime is altogether concealed. 

* " Reus, aut testis, a judice non legitime interrogatus, potest jurare, 
»e nescire crimen, quod revera sit. Subintelligendo, nescire crimen, dt 
quo legitime possit inquirL vel nescire ad devwnendwnJ n — d. 122, vol. 
II. ibid.' 

t " Idem si testis ex alio capite non teneatur deponere ; nempe si ipsi 
constet crimen caruisse culpa." — p. 122, ibid. 



24 AND IN CASE OF ONE LEGITIMATELY INTERROGATED. 

For then he can, yea, the witness is bound to say, that the accused did 
not commit the crime."* — p. 123, ibid. 

It seems that when the crime is " altogether concealed," 
(omnino occultum,) the witness may, or rather is bound 
to say that the accused did not commit the crime. It 
seems that Romanism is only honest when it is necessary 
to save appearances ! 

V. Liguori teaches distinctly, that the person who em- 
ploys equivocation, even without the above mentioned 
condition, may be absolved ; and he adds, that in cases 
where they cannot make satisfaction, he would altogether 
excuse them. 

"But I would even excuse them if they were altogether unable to 
make satisfaction for the present, or even for the future. "f — P- 123, ibid. 

"VI. He now considers the case of one who is legitimately 
interrogated, and he discusses the question, " Whether he 
can deny a crime, even with an oath, if the confession of 
the crime be attended with great disadvantage V 1 

Having given the opinions of some divines who think that he cannot, 
he quotes the names of several who, " with sufficient probability," he 
says, teach that " The accused, if in danger of death, or the prison, or 
perpetual exile, the loss of all property, the danger of the gallies, and 
such like, can deny the crime, even with an oath, (at least without great 
sin,) by understanding that he did not commit it so that he is bound to 
confess it, only let there be a hope of avoiding the punishment. The 
reason is, because human law cannot lay men under so great an obliga- 
tion with so severe a penalty. And Elbel adds, that this opinion, al- 
though less probable, should be suggested to the accused and confessors, 
that they may be delivered from great blame, in which they would easily 
fall if they should be bound to the confession of the crime. "J — Ibid. 



* "Excipe in judicio, si crimen fuerit omnino occultum: tunc enini 
potest, imo tenetur testis dicere reum non commisisse." — p. 123, ibid. 

t Sed etiam excusarem, si omnino essent impotentes ad satisfacien- 
dum in praesenti et in futuro. — Ibid. 

t "Sed satis probabiliter Lugo de just. d. 40, n. 15, Tamb., lib. 3, 
c. 4, 3, n. 5, cum Sanch. Viva q. 7, art 4, n. 2. Sporen de Praec. o. 
1, num. 13, item Elbel diet. Num. 144, card, in. Propt. Innoc. XI. 
diss. 19, num. 78, cum. Nav. Less. Sa. et Fill, et aliis pluribus, di- 
cunt, posse reum, si sibi immineat poena mortis, vel carceris, aut exilii 
perpetui, amissionis omnium bonorum, triremicum, et similis, negare 
crimen, etiam cum juramento, (saltern sine peccato gravi,) sabintelli- 
gendo, se non commisisse, guatenus tencatur Mud fateri, modo sit spes 
vitandi pcenam: ratio, quia, lex humana non potest sub gravi obiigari 



ROMISH MORALITY AS TO THEFT, ETCV 25 

liguori teaches, that the opinion is sufficiently probable, 
that the accused can deny his guilt even to a judge whom 
he considers rightly appointed, — for example, a Roman 
Catholic judge. Though he quotes the opposite as more 
probable, yet he refers to this as sufficiently probable, and 
without any mark of disapprobation, calls atteDtion to the 
statement of Elbel, and says that this opinion should be 
suggested to the accused and confessors. How gladly will 
the accused avail himself of such a suggestion ; and thus 
how completely may all law and equity be set aside ! 

VII. On the subject of what may justly be termed 
theft, the Saint says, — 

11 A poor man absconding with his goods for his support, can answer 
the judge that he has nothing."*— p. 124, ibid. 

This, too, is very convenient morality. He leads the 
judge, by this ambiguous answer, to suppose that he had 
taken none. 

VIII. Here follows a most singular instance of deceit, 
which may be of use to those fond of dinner parties : — 

M likewise, if any one, being invited as a guest, be asked, whether 
the food is good, which, in truth, is unsavoury, he can answer that it 
is good — to wit, for mortification ."+ — p. 125, ibid. 

IX. To those who are asked to lend money, Liguori 
suggests an easy mode of politely getting out of the diffi- 
culty, if they are unwilling to grant the request : — 

'• Also it is lawful to conceal the truth when there is a cause, — viz., 
when any one seeks money from thee, you can answer, Oh/ that I had 
it; or, I would delight to have it, <kc."Z — Ibid. 

The Saint, it seems, by whose admonitions Romanists 
pray that they may be taught, was as expert in the white- 
homines cum tanto onere. Additque Elbel hanc sententiam, licet mi- 
nus probabilem, insinuandam tamen esse reis et confessariis, ut liberen- 
tur illi a culpa gravi, in quam iacillime incident, si ad confessionem cri- 
minis obstringentar." — Ibid. 

* "Indigens bonis absconditis ad sustentationem, potest judici re- 
spondere, se nihil habere." — p. 124, ibid. 

t ' ' Pariter, si quis invitatus interrogetur an sit bonus cibus, qui re* 
vera sit insipidus, potest respondere esse bonum, scilicet, ad mortifica- 
lioncm." — p. 125, ibid. 

X " Licitum est etiam celare veritatem cum causa ; y. gr. si quis 
peiat a te pecuniam, potes respondere : Utinam haberem ! vel Gaud-.rem 
habere, &c. Card. diss. 19. n. tt."—Ibid. 



26 ROMISH MORALITY AS TO THE ADULTERESS. 

lie system as the most unprincipled and irreligous man of 
the world ! 

X. It will scarcely be credited, that a work, of which 
the sacred congregation declared that it did not contain 
" one word worthy of censure," could inculcate the follow- 
ing grossly deceitful and immoral lesson : — 

* * It is asked, whether an adulteress can deny adultery to her husband, 
understanding that she may reveal it to him. She is able to assert, 
equivocally, that she did not break the bond of matrimony, which truly 
remains ; and' if sacramentally she confessed adultery, she can answer, 1 
am innocent of this crime, because by confession it was taken away. 
Thus Cardenas, diss. 19, n. 54, who however here remarks, that she 
cannot affirm it with an oath, because, in asserting anything, the pro- 
bability of a deed suffices ; but in swearing certainty is required. To 
this it is replied that in swearing moral certainty suffices, as we said 
above, — which moral certainty of the remission of sins can indeed 
be had, when any, morally well disposed, receives the sacrament of 
penance." * — Ibid. 

Thus there are various means by which the adulteress 
can conceal her guilt. 

1. She may assert that she did not break the bond of 
matrimony, — an ambiguous expression, which may mean, 
that the bond of matrimony still remains, notwithstanding 
the guilty act. 

2. She can repair to the confessional, and having re- 
ceived absolution, come forth to her husband and say, " / 
am innocent?' 

Cardenas seems to think that this is not allowable in 
the case of an oath ; because no one can be certain that 
he is validly absolved. In reply to him,, however, Liguori 
says, that moral certainty suffices ! What a debasing, im- 



* " Quceritur 2, an adultera possit negare adulterium viro, intelli- 
gens, ut illi revelet. Potest aequivoce asserere, se non fregisse matri- 
monium, quod vere persistit. Et si adulterium sacramentaliter, con- 
fessa sit, potest respondere : Innocens sum ab hoc crimine, quia per 
confessionem est jam ablatum. Ita Card. diss. 19. n. 54. Qui tamen 
hie advertit, quod nequeat id affirmare cum juramento, quia ad asseren- 
dum aliquid sufheit probabilitas facti , sed ad jurandum requiritur cer- 
titudo. Sed responditur, quod ad jurandum sufficiat certitudo moralis 
ut diximus supra dub. 3 n. 147. cum Salm. c. 2. n. 44. Less. Sanch. 
Suar. Pal. et communi. Quae certitudo moralis remissionis peccati potest 
quidem haberi, quando quia bene moraliter dispositus recepit pcemtentiie 
sacramentum." — Ibid. 



AOT AT HOME. 27 

moral, and hypocritical system ! Rome allows the wife to 
dupe her husband in this case, and thus makes the path 
easy to the adulteress. 

With all the confidence which religion can inspire, she 
enables that unfaithful wife to assert her innocence, when, 
nevertheless, the marriage-bed is defiled, despite of the 
declaration, "Whoremongers and adulterers God will 
judge!" 

XI. The Saint, as if to instruct his disciples fully in the 
science of equivocation, considers every imaginable case. 
He descends even to the practice, which too much pre- 
vails, of persons denying that they are at home, and, in- 
stead of denouncing the dishonest system, he sanctions and 
justifies it : — 

" It is asked, 5. Whether a servant, by the order of his master, can 
deny that he is at home? Cardenas admits that he can place his 
foot on the step, and answer he is not here, because it is not mental re- 
striction ; but to this I do not assent, if the other by no means can un- 
derstand it. Eather I would concede, that he can say, He is not here, 
that is to say, not in this door or window, or he is not here so as that 
he may be seen. Also, Cardenas says, that he can answer that he de : 
parted from the house, by understanding a departure which took place 
some time past. For we are not bound, he says, with Lessius, to an- 
swer to the mind of him that interrogates, if there is a just cause." * — 
p. 126, ibid. 

What miserable deceit and lying ! It is scarcely con- 
ceivable that one, who called himself a minister of Christ, 
and a man of education, should sanction such immorality. 

The principle upon which this system of equivocation is 
based, is the above-mentioned, " that we are not bound to 
answer to the mind of him who interrogates ;" which i3 as' 
much as to say, that we may deliberately employ words 



" Quseritur 5. An famulus ex jussu domini possit negare, ipsura 
esse domi. Card. diss. 19. n. 75. admittit, ipsum posse figere pedem 
in iapidem, et respondere, non est hie, quia non est rcstristio mentalia: 
Sed huic non assentior, si alter nullo modo possit id advertere. .feiius 
concederem, euro posse dicere non est hie, scilicet non in hac janua, vel 
fenestra; vel (ut ait Toura. Mor. torn. 1. page 680) non est a c, qua- 
tenus videri possit. Item ait Carden. posse eum respondere, Egressus 
e domo est, inteliigendo in prceterito ; non enim tenemur, ait cum Less, 
ut supra, respondere ad mentem interrogantis, si adsit justa causa."— 
p. 126, ibiri 



28 WHAT CAN WE EXPECT FROM SUCH A SYSTEM ? 

which will convey a meaning to the minds of our hearers 
not in accordance with truth. 

As the reader considers the sentiments of Liguori on 
equivocation, — of which we have quoted but a specimen, — 
does not his bosom heave with honest indignation at such 
artful, unmanly, designing, antichristian immorality 1 ? 

Is it possible, that one who called himself a Christian 
Bishop, could advocate, — is it imaginable, that the highest 
authorities in the Church of Rome could declare free from 
all censure, — and that Roman Catholics can, from year to 
year, pray to be taught by, such admonitions? Incredible 
as it may appear, yet such is the fact, which admits of no 
contradiction. 

liguori, the author of the work, was on terms of the 
closest intimacy with Pope Benedict XIV. Miracles were 
said to have been wrought by him. His fame was borne 
to the skies ; and, finally, in May 1839, his works having 
been " twenty times'* rigorously examined, and declared 
not to contain " one word worthy of censure," he was 
canonized with great pomp, in the midst of countless mul- 
titudes, from various nations, at Rome. Romanists pray 
that they may be taught by his admonitions. 

Can truth and righteousness prevail amid the people or 
nation who are guided by such principles? 

Can Christian integrity, or even manly honesty, charac- 
terize the country where Romanism is ascendant? 

Can reliance be placed upon the statements, promises, 
or even oaths, of the devout Romanist ? 

No! the more devout the Roman Catholic, the more 
dishonest and immoral the man. 

The more Popish the country, the more debased and 
besotted the people. 

Let Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and the Popish parts of 
Ireland, be an exemplification of the tendency of Roman- 
ism to destroy man's interest even in this world ! 

Is it any wonder that Romanist Members of Parliament 
in Great Britain should have violated their most solemn 
oaths, and broken their most stringent compacts, seeing 
that they are nurtured /rom .^ailieat days on the milk of a 



SUMMARY ON EQUIVOCATION, ETC. 29 

Church which teaches such abominable trickery, deceit, 
and equivocation? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Into what two kinds does Liguori distinguish 
equivocation 1 

A. Into not purely mental, which he says is lawful ; 
and purely mental, which he says is not lawful 

2. Q. — How does it appear that there is no real distinc- 
tion between the two 1 

A. — Because, from the examples which he gives, t it is 
evident that the equivocation could not be at once per- 
ceived by the person upon whom it is practised. 

3. Q. — What is the general principle of Liguori as to 
equivocation ? 

A. — That it is lawful to use equivocation, and confirm 
it with an oath 

4. Q. — What is the character of his teaching upon the 
subject, and the instances which he gives ? 

A. It is utterly dishonest, and subversive of all inte- 
grity and justice amongst men 

5. Q. — State some of the cases in which, according to 
the Saint, it is lawful to equivocate ? 

A. 1. A confessor may swear that he does not know 
what was revealed in confession. 2. An accused or wit- 
ness not legitimately interrogated, i. e. y not interrogated 
by lawful authority, (Protestant authority is not lawful,) 
may swear that he does not know a crime which he does 
know. 3. If the crime appear to the witness to be free 
from blame, the accused or witness is not bound to de- 
pose. 4. Even legitimately interrogated, the accused or 
witness can use equivocation when the crime is altogether 
concealed. 5. Even without this condition, the equivo- 
cator can be absolved. 6. The witness, even legitimately 
interrogated, can equivocate in various instances. 7. A 
poor man absconding with goods necessary for his support, 
may answer the judge that he has nothing. 8. A guest 
asked if the food be good, may answer in the affirmative, 
though the food is bad. 9. A man asked to lend money, 
may say that he hsb none. 10. An adulteress may deny 



30 OATHS. 

her guilt. 11. A servant- may say that his master is not 
at home, though he is at home. 

6. Q. — "What is the inference from. all this? 

A. — That no reliance can be placed on the statements 
of devout members of the Roman Church. 



Chapter IV.— Romish Doctrine as to Oaths. 

We have already called attention, in a preceding chap- 
ter, to the sentiments of the approved Liguori (by whose ad- 
monitions Roman Catholics pray that they may be taught) 
as to equivocation. We have seen that, according to 
Roman theology, it is lawful even to swear with equivoca- 
tion. The Saint, however, proceeds to give a dissertation 
on oaths, which, we do not hesitate to say, is characterized 
by the most nefarious dishonesty, and which, if adopted 
generally, would subvert all truth, confidence, and justice 
amongst men. 

We shall give extracts in full from his work, and thus 
preclude the possibility of mistake : — 

" It is asked, how great is the sin of a feigned promissory oath, and 
how far its obligation extends ? I distinguish : any one can promise 
with an oath feignedly in a three-fold manner : — I. Without the mind 
of swearing; — II. Without the mind of binding himself; — III. Without 
the mind of fulfilling. 

"I. If any one swears without the mind of swearing, he sins indeed, 
even according to the 25th proposition condemned by Innocent XI. ; — 
which said, when there is a cause, it is lawful to swear without the 
mind of swearing, whether the matter be small or great ; — the reason is, 
because then he mocks the Divine testimony. But whether, in this 
case, does he sin grievously ? We answer in the affirmative, if he swears 
without the mind of fulfilling the promise ; if, with the true mind oi 
fulfilling, he only sins venially, as Sanches, Dec. lib. 3, cap. 6. N. 
10. Rone, de juram. cap. 4, q. i. r. 3. Tamburin de juram. lib. 3, c. 
3, § 2, N. 4, Elbel. de. jur. N. 129, Mazotta eod. tit. c. 3, q. 3, com- 
monly teach. But, rightly, they make an exception, in case the oath 
is made in contracts, or before a judge ; because then, although it is 
not perjury, it is, however, a grievous deception against justice. 

"II. But if he swears without thq mind of laying himself under 
an obligation, but with the mind of fulfilling, Cajetan, 2, 2, quaest. 
89, art. 6, Croix lib. 3, p. 1, N. 2, 9, item., S. Antoine, Nav. Scotns, 
Tamburin, and other*, ap. Sanch. loc. cit. hold that he erins mortally ; 



0ATH8. 31 

— first, because thus swearing, he signifies falsely that he has the inten- 
tion of laying himself under an obligation, which truly he has not; 
next, because, as Croix thinks, more probably, it appears a great irre- 
verence to adduce God as a witness, and be unwilling to be bound by 
His testimony. But very probably Sanches, N. 7, Tamburin, N. 6, 
Elbel, N. 21, Renai, de juram. p. 125, and Ant. A. Spir. S., to whom 
Roncaglia adheres in the cited place, 'hold that he only sins veniaUy. 
The reason is, because, — swearing in such a manner, when he has the 
mind of fulfilling, although he does not intend to lay himself under an 
obligation, — on the one hand, he does not swear falsely, because he as- 
serts the truth concerning his present will ; on the other hand, when he 
has not the will of laying himself under an obligation, in any manner, 
by the force of an oath, — the very nature of which is to induce the obli- 
gation of religion, — in reality, he does not swear, as Salmeron tract, 17, 
c. 1, N. 16, Elbel. loc. cit. Sporer. in. 2, preec. Cap. 1, N. 134, &c. 
say, according to a common opinion : and, moreover, this oath is the 
same as if made without the mind of swearing, which is only a venial 
offence, when he swears the truth, as is said above." * — p. 130, Moral 
Theology, torn. II. Venice, 1828. 

• '* Quaeritur, quale peccatum sit juramentum promissorium, fictum 
et ad quid obliget. Distinguo : tripliciter potest quis ficte promittere 
cum juramento ; I. Sine animo jurandi ; II. Sine animo se obligandi ; 
III. Sine animo implendi. I. Si quis juret sine animo jurandi peccat 
quidem, et ex prop. 25, damn, ab Innoc. XI. quae dicebat : cum causa 
licitum est jurare sine animo jurandi, sine res sit levis, sive gravis. 
Ratio, quia tunc illudit divino testimonio. An autem hie peccet gravi- 
ter? Respond, affirmative, si juret sine animo implendi promissionem ; 
si vero cum animo implendi, peccat tantum venaliter, ut communissime 
dicunt Sanch., Dec., lib. 3, Cap. 6, N. 10, Rone, de juram. cap. 4. q. 
1, r. 3, Tamb. de juram. lib. 3, c. 3, § 2, N. 4, Elbel. de juram. N. 
129. Mazzot. eod. tit. c. 3, q. 3. Recte vero excipiunt, si juramen- 
tum fiat in contractibus, vel coram judice : quia tunc, licet non sit per- 
jurium, est tamen gravis deceptio contra justitiam. Si autem jurat sine 
animo se obligandi, sed cum animo implendi, Cag. 2, 2, quaest. 89, 
art. 6, Croix, lib. 8, p. 1, N. 2, 9, item, S. Anton. Nav. Scotus, Tarn- 
bur, et alii communius ap Sanch. loc. sit., N. 5, tenent, hunc peccare 
mortaliter, turn quia, sic jurans, falso significat, se habere intentionem 
se obligandi, quam vere non habet ; turn quia, ut sentit Croix tanquam 
probabilius, videtur gravis irreverentia adducere Deum in testem, et 
nolle ejus testimonio obstringi. Sed valde probabiliter id. Sanch. N. 7, 
Tamb. N. 6, Elbel. N. 21, Rensi de juram. p. 125, et Ant. A. Spir. S., 
cui adhaeret Rone. loc. cit. r. 4, tenent, hunc non peccare nisi venialiter. 
Ratio, quia taliter jurans, cum habet animum implendi, quamvis non 
intendat se obligare, ex una parte non jurat falsum, quia assent verum 
de voluntate praesenti ; ex alia parte, cum hie voluntatem non habeat 
se ullo modo obligandi ex vi juramenti, de cujus intrinseca ratione est 
inducere obligationem religionis, re vera non jurat, ut ex communi 
dicunt Salm. tract. 17, c. 1, N. 19, Elbel. loc. sit. Sporer in 2. Proec. 
cap. 1, N. 134, &c, et ideo juramentum hoc idem est, ac si factum 
sine animo jurandi, quod non est nisi venial e, quando verum asseritur, 
ut supri dictum est." — p. 130, ibid. 



32 OATH WITHOUT INTENTION OF OBLIGATION. 

The subject discussed in the above passage is most im- 
portant. A case is supposed, — a man takes an oath, 
and, though with the intention of fulfilling it, yet with- 
out the intention of laying himself under an obliga- 
tion of fulfilling it. The question is asked, Does he sin 
grievously, or only venially? Scotus, Antoine, and some 
others, say that he sins mortally, for two reasons, which 
are most just : — 1. Because, by taking the oath, he leads 
those who administer it to suppose that he lays himseli 
under an obligation to fulfil what he promises ; 2. Because 
it is irreverent towards God, to adduce God as witness of 
an oath, when he who swears is unwilling to be bound 
thereby. But Sanches, Roncaglia, and Liguori — the Saint 
and the approved — teach that he is only guilty of a venial 
offence, and that, in fact, he does not swear at all ! 

We now come to the important question, whether he 
who thus swears, — i. e., without the intention of laying 
himself under an obligation, — is bound to perform the oath. 

Liguori having said that there are two opinions, — the 
first, that he is not bound to keep the oath, and the second, 
that he is, — gives his own judgment as follows : — 

* ' Either of the opinions is probable, but the first is more probable; 
for the reason of the second opinion supposes it as certain, that such an 
oath, made without the mind of binding one's self, is a true oath. But 
it is a more probable and common opinion, that such an oath is not a 
true oath; both because it wants the necessary condition to the nature 
of a promissory oath, such as is the intention of binding one's self; and 
because an oath follows the nature of the promise which it confirms as 
certain. But a promise made without such a mind is not, indeed, 
proposed; therefore, the promise being evanescent, the oath U also 
such, and is considered as made without the mind of swearing, which 
certainly, as we have seen, is null and void. But if no oath exist, 

THERE IS NO OBLIGATION OP FULFILLING* THAT OATH."* — p. 131, ibid. 



* M Utraque sententia est probabilis, sed prima est probabilior: nam 
ratio hujus secundae sententiae supponit ut certum, tale juramentum sine 
animo se obligandi emissum, esse verum juramentum. 

" Attamen probabilius est, et commune, ut asserunt Salm. c. 1. N. 
19, cum aliis ut supra, et etiam viva in proposit. 25, Innocent XI. num. 
13, (contra Less. diet. num. 37,) quod hujusmodi juramentum non sit 
verum juramentum: turn, quia caret conditione necessaria ad naturam 
juramenti promissorii, qualis est animus se obligandi; turn, quia jura- 
mentum sequitur naturam promissionis quam connrmut* ut certum est 



VIOLATION OF OATHS. 33 

"What a fearful principle ! The Saint teaches, that an 
oath taken without the intention of being bound by it is 
null and void ! 

Some theologians do not go so far as Liguori. The 
Gallican Church condemned and repudiated the principle, 
that " he who swears, without the intention of binding 
himself, is not bound by virtue of the oath ; (see Dens* 
torn IV., p. 190. Dublin. 1832;) but while the Gallicans 
are barely tolerated in their views, Liguori is canonized, 
— his works having been rigorously examined twenty times, 
and the decree passed unanimously, that they contained 
not " one word worthy of censure !" 

We give another specimen of the Saint's honesty : — 

" It is certain that, if you transgress only some part of what you have 
sworn, it xs not a grievous sin. for example, if you have sworn that 
you would not drink wine, you do not sin mortally in drinking a very 
little, — because then the smallness of the matter excuses; and thus they 
are excused who swear to observe the statutes of some chapter, college, 
university, 1/ afterwards they violate the statutes in some small way. 
And we say the same concerning sworn tublic registrars, and 

OTHER MINISTERS OF JUSTICE ; AS ALSO CONCERNING HIM who, from the 

sum which he swore that he would give to another, detracts only a 
little. Probably you are obliged by a promissory oath, although it may 
be extorted from you by injury and fear ; as if— forgetting to use equi- 
vocation — you promised to robbers to give booty, or usury to usurers."f 



ap Bus. n. 280, cum Less. Bon. etc. At promissio, sine tali animo 
facta, non est quidem propositum; ergo, evanescente promissione, evan- 
escit etiam juramentum, ethabitur ut factum sine animo jurandi; quod 
certe, ut vidimus, nullum est. Si autem nullum existit juramentum, 
nulla existit obligatio illud implendi." — p. 131, ibid. 

• The morality of Dens on this subject is not so bad as that of the 
Saint Liguori! 

f " Illud certum est, quod si ex eo quod jurasti, tantum modo parum 
aliquid non serves, non sit grave : v. gr. si jurasti te non bibiturum 
vinum, non peccas mortaliter parum bibendo. Sanch. t. 1, lib. 4, c. 
32, N. 21, quia tunc excusat parvitas materia ; et sic excusantur, qui 
jurant servare statuta alicujus capituli, collegii, universitatis, etc., si 
postea parvum aliquod statutum violent. Et idem die tabellionibus jur- 
atis, et aiiis ministris justitise ; ut, et de eo qui ex summa, quam alteri 
se daturum jurasset, parum tantum detraheret. Navar. Suar. Sanch. 
Vide Laym. Bon., p. 13. 

"Obligaris probabiliter juramento promissorio, etsi, extortum a te 
sit per injuriam, ac metum : ut si, oblitus uti aequivocatione, jurasti 
prsedonibus dare lytrum, uaurario usurain." — p. 134, ibid. 



34 VIOLATION OF PROMISE OF MARRIAGE. 

What convenient morality ! a man may subtract, or, in 
plain English, steal a little from the sum which he swore 
that he would give to another, and he does not sin grievously. 

So also, the statutes of a university may be violated in 
some small way : a gratifying doctrine for Dr Pusey and 
his friends, — who consider that they only in a small way 
violate the statutes of a Church and University, because 
they think that between that Church and University, and 
Rome, there is but a small difference ! 

A person, toOj is only probably obliged to observe an 
oath extracted from him by fear. If, however, when he 
makes the oath, he takes care to use equivocation, or to 
swear without the intention of obliging himself, there will 
be little difficulty in the matter ! What an accommodating 
scheme! The Saint, moreover, teaches principles m to 
promises of marriage all in the same strain. Having 
mentioned several in which it is not lawful to violate oaths 
without dispensations, he says : — 

"Nevertheless make an exception, if you have sworn to Titias to 
marry her, for in that case you may forsake her, and enter into a reli- 
gious order ; because the oath regards the nature of the act to which it 
pertains; but, in the promise of matrimony, there is this tacit condi- 
tion, wdess I enter a religious order."* — p. 137, ibid. 

So that, a man who has even sworn to a lady to marry 
her, may retract and enter a monastery or religious order, 
if he please ; because, forsooth, in every such promise there 
is the tacit condition, " unless I enter a religious order." 
The plighted vow may be as express as it is possible, and 
yet the lover may abandon his betrothed, without her con- 
sent, and leave her to pine in lonely and helpless sorrow. 

THE DISPENSATION OF OATHS. 

The Saint defines a dispensation thus : — 
" A dispensation is the absolute disposing of the obligation of a vow, 
made in the name of God. That such a dispensation may be valid, a 



• u Excipe tamen, si jurasses Titiae earn ducere: nam eo casu potea, 
ea relicta, ingredi religionem: quia juramentum sortitur naturam actus, 
cui apponitur; promissioni autem matrimonii haec tacita conditio inest, 
nisi ingredxar religionem. — Vide Laym. c. 6, Bon. d. 4, q. 1, p. 3 " 
-p. 1?7, ibid. * 



ALL OATHS DISPENSABLE BY THE POPE. 35 

just cause is required, — Euch as, for example, is the good of the Church, 
or the common well-being of the republic* — p. 193, ibid. 

As to oaths of the most stringent kind, he says, — 
" However, let them be eves so valid, they can be relaxed by 
-he Church t— p. 146, ibid. 

Thus Popes have absolved subjects from their allegiance. 
Thus Romanizers, or Romanists disguised in Protestant 
Churches, may be released from their Protestant vows, 
in order secretly to advance the Romish Church. 

Thus, if a Romanist swear to his fellow-man that he 
will not denounce him to the Inquisition, (Liguori gives 
this special case,) he may violate his oath. The following 
instance might occur : — A man takes a solemn oath, that 
he will not denounce a certain Protestant to the Inquisi- 
tion. The oath is accepted; but, because it is injurious 
to the Church of Rome, and contrary to her canons to let 
heretics go unpunished, it is null and void, or it may be 
removed by dispensation. The Protestant confides in the 
integrity of the Romanist ; but he is betrayed. At mid- 
night he is torn from his family. In vain he appeals to 
the sanctity of oaths ; but he is immured in the dungeon, 
and there must bear his awful doom. 

For actual instances of treachery and violation of oaths, 
we refer to our chapter which relates to that subject. 

POINTS PROVED. 

1. A Romanist swears without the mind of laying him- 
self under an obligation to fulfil the oath, and he does not 
sin grievously. 

2. He who swears without this mind of laying himself 
under an obligation, is not bound to keep the oath. 

3. Such an oath is null and void, but the man him- 
self alone knows of its invalidity. 

4. This doctrine is so gross, that even the Gallicans pre- 
tested against it, and yet Liguori, who teaches it, was cano- 



t " Dispensatio est absoluta obligationis voti condonatio, nomine Dei 
facta. Ad hanc, ut valeat, justa causa requiritur : qualis, v. gr. est 1, 
bonum ecclesiae, vel commune reip." — p. 193, ibid. 

t " Esto tamen essent valida, ab Ecclesia relaxari possunt."— p. 146, 
ibid. 



3tf SUMMAJIY ON OATHS. 

nized in May 1839, and his works declared free from all cen- 
sure. Romanists pray to be taught by his admonitions! 

5. A man who promises marriage, even by oath, may 
yet violate his oath and enter a monastery, or what is 
termed a religi6us life. 

6. Oaths may be relaxed by dispensation, let them be 
ever so binding ! ! ! 

Who can place reliance on Romish oaths, which can be 
so easily evaded by dissimulations, equivocations, restric- 
tions, tergiversations, and dispensations? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What does Liguori teach as to the act of swear- 
ing without the mind of swearing, but with the mind of 
fulfilling? 

A. — That it is only a venial sin. 

2. Q. — What does he teach as to the man who swears 
without the mind of laying himself under an obligation, 
but wi,th the mind of fulfilling? 

A. — He mentions with approval the views of several 
divines, who teach that it is only a venial sin. 

3. Q. — Is he who swears without the intention of lay- 
ing himself under an obligation, bound to keep the oath, 
according to the Saint? 

A. He gives it as a more probable opinion, that he is 
not bound ! 

4 Q, — What does he teach as to transgressing a small 
pArt of an oath ? 

A. — That it is not a grievous sin. As an instance, he 
mentions the case of one who, from a sum which he had 
sworn to give to another, subtracts only a little. 

5 Q. — What other example does he give of the lawful- 
ness of violating an oath? 

A — He says, that tho3e are excused who swear to ob- 
serve the statutes of an university, but yet violate them 
in p. small way. 

6. Q. — How may this have been applied in the case of 
Romanizers? 

A. — It is not improbable that such parties even in holy 
orders thus violate the principles of their Universities. 



ROMISH DISHONESTY ,37 

7. Q. — In what instance may a promise of marriage 
be broken, according to the Saint? 

A. — If the person who promises enters into the religious 
state. 

8. Q* — What does he teach as to the dispensation of 
oaths ? 

A. — That, be they ever so valid, they can be relaxed by 
the Church. 



CHAPTER V. 

Romish Dishonesty and Treacherous 
Violation of Compacts. 

"We have pointed out, in preceding chapters, the prin- 
ciples of the Church of Rome as to equivocation, dissimu- 
lation, and the dispensation of oaths. There have been 
numberless instances in which such principles have been 
carried out. We give, however, two leading examples of 
Romish treachery, — one of which took place in the begin- 
ning of the 15th century, and the other in our own age. 

MARTYRDOM OF JOHN HUSS, IN VIOLATION OF A SOLEMN 
COMPACT. 

The case of John Huss is well known, though the lesson 
which it teaches is too little felt. John Huss was an emi- 
nent Reformer, at the commencement of the 15th century, 
long before the time of Luther. He boldly rebuked the 
corruptions of the Church of Rome, and especially vindi- 
cated the right of the laity to receive the cup in the cele- 
bration of the Lord's Supper. He was therefore denounced 
as a heretic. Pope John XXIII. , a.d. 1410, a monster 
of iniquity, and afterwards deposed by the Council of 
Constance for his crimes, expelled Huss from the commu- 
nion of the Church, — an act which was treated with con- 
tempt by that Reformer. In the year 1415, however, Huss 
was summoned before the Council of Constance. He hesi- 
tated to obey; but having received from the Emperor 
Sigismund a safe conduct, or promise that he should be 



38 TREACHERY TO ENGLAND. 

unhurt, he went to the Council ; and yet, despite of that pro- 
mise, was burnt to ashes on the 6th July 1415 ! He bore 
the treacherous and cruel treatment which he received 
with great fortitude, and with his dying breath sealed the. 
truth of which he was a witness. 

The Emperor was at first opposed to the violation of 
the compact into which he had entered with Huss; but 
the Council of Constance overruled his scruples, and passed 
the following decree, which, in effect, proclaims that no 
faith is to be kept with heretics : — 

" The holy synod of Constance declares, concerning every safe con- 
duct granted by the emperor, kings, and other temporal princes, to here- 
tics, or persons accused of heresy, in hopes of reclaiming them, that it 
ought not to be of any prejudice to the Catholic faith, or ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, nor to hinder but that such persons may and ought to be 
examined, judged, and punished, according as justice shall require, if 
those heretics shall refuse to revoke their errors, although they shall 
have come to the place of judgment relying on their safe conduct, and 
without which they would not have come thither; and the person who 
shall have promised them security, shall not, m this case, be obliged to 
keep his prumise y by whatever tie he may have been engaged, when he 
has done all that is in his power to do." — Sac. Con. Labbei et Cossart, 
session xixl Lutet. Paris. 

What shameful dishonesty ! What diabolical treachery ! 
A synod attended, from first to last, by no less than a thou- 
sand fathers of the Church of Rome ! solemnly proclaims, 
that the promise of safe conduct is not to be kept with here- 
tics , and yet this Church professes to be infallible, and 
asserts that its Pope is the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth. 

A Reformer, relying upon the safe conduct of his Em- 
peror, repairs to the Council ; but, notwithstanding, falls 
a victim to the malice of his enemies, and is burnt to 
death by the command of " the holy Fathers!" 

Surely this is " speaking lies with hypocrisy." 1 Tim. 
iv. 2.) This is a fulfilment of the prediction, "Even him 
whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all 
power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceiv- 
ableness of unrighteousness." (2 Thess. ii. 9, 10.) 

ROMISH TREACHERY TO ENGLAND, AND VIOLATION OF THE 
OATH TAKEN BY ROMISH MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 

We now appeal to the conduct of Popish Members of 



ROMISH PROMISES. 39 

Parliament, as an exemplification of the same unrighteous 
deceit which has ever characterized the apostate Church 
of Rome. 

ROMISH PROFESSIONS AND PROMISES. 

Long was the struggle carried on for what is termed 
Catholic emancipation. Our fathers having had a dear 
bought experience of the intolerant spirit and hypocrisy 
of Rome, wisely excluded all the subjects and supporters 
of a foreign Prelate-Prince from the British Senate, and 
political power. But time rolled on, and too many Pro- 
testants, forgetful of the privileges which had been handed 
down to them, and hearkening to the solemn protestations 
of Romanists, who hypocritically, and with dissimulation, 
repudiated their anti-social views, raised their voices for 
the admission of Romanists to Parliament. 

With honied tongue, from time to time, the Roman 
Catholics made professions of good will to Protestant in- 
stitutions, and pretended to reprobate all hostility to 
Church and State. So early as 1757, a petition was pre- 
sented from Dr O'Keefe, and other leading Romanists, 
which contained the following passage, — 

"It has been objected to us, that we wish to subvert the present 
Protestant Establishment; we hereby solemnly and earnestly abjure any 
such intention, and we hereby solemnly pledge ourselves, that we will 
not exercise the privilege of the elective franchise, if granted to us, for 
any such purpose." — See Speech of Bishop of Exeter in the House of 
Lords. Lond. 1838. 

Such are the declaration and fair promises of those who 
laboured to obtain the elective franchise. 

A similar petition was presented in 1792 to the Irish 
Parliament, in which the petitioners said, — 

" With satisfaction we acquiesce in the establishment of the National 
Church; we neither repine at its possessions, nor envy its dignities; we 
are ready, upon this point, to give every assurance that is binding upon 
men." — See Repeal of the Emancipation Act. Lond. 1838. 

The demand seemed very moderate, and nothing could 
be more apparently satisfactory than the professions of the 
petitioners ; but what, we ask, is binding upon Roman 
Catholic men? 



40 ROMISH OATH AND ITS VIOLATION. 

Again, in 1813, another petition, presented by Lord 
Brougham, contained the following declaration : — 

" We distinctly disavow any intention to subvert the Protestant Esta- 
blishment, for the purpose of substituting a Roman Catholic Establish- 
ment in its stead." — See Bishop of Exeter's Speech^ ibid 

Even Dr M'Hale — the violent champion of Popery — 
when examined before the Commissioners of Inquiry on 
Education, 6th Nov. 1826, said,— 

"Without reference to parliamentary enactments, I do not consider 
the Church Establishments in Ireland as productive of benefit to the 
country; but as I am bound to obey the law, I shall acquiesce in the 
enactments of the legislature. If there were no laws to bind me, I 
should feel no respect for the Establishment. As it is, I am bound by 
the legislature of the country, and respect its enactments."— Ibid 

Such were the fair speeches and plausible statements of 
Roman Catholics. On every side, they asked for equal 
privileges, promising that, if admitted to power, they 
would respect the established institutions, and conduct 
themselves in every way as it becometh loyal citizens. 
The result is known. Their demands were granted, and 
the doors of the British Parliament were thrown open to 
them in 1829. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC OATEL 

As a security for the conservation of the Established 
Churches, the following oath was drawn up, and is now 
taken by all Romish Members of Parliament : — 

" I do swear, that I will defend, to the utmost of my power, the set- 
tlement of property within this realm, as established by the laws; and 
I do hereby disclaim, disavow, and solemnly abjure any intention to 
subvert the present Church Establishment, as settled by law, within 
this realm; and I do solemnly swear, that I never will exercise any pri- 
vilege to which I am, or may become entitled, to disturb or weaken the 
Protestant religion or Protestant government in the united kingdom; and 
I do solemnly, in the presence of God, profess, testify, and declare, that 
I do make this declaration, and every part thereof, in the plain and or- 
dinary sense of the words of this oath, without any evasion, equivocation, 
or mental reservation whatsoever." 

Nothing could be more explicit than this, and had we 
to deal with men whose moral or religious system taught 
that " lying lips are an abomination to the Lord," the oath 
would have proved effectual enough. But now we pass 
on to consider 



ROMISH MEMBERS, AND IRISH CHURCH. 41 

THEIR CONDUCT, AND THE WAY IN WHICH ROMAN CATHOLICS 
KEEP THEIR OATHS, AND ADHERE TO THEIR PROFESSIONS. 

We have quoted the loyal addresses of Roman Catholics 
in 1757 and 1792, which at length met with a response 
in the granting of the elective franchise ; but what was the 
result? The great rebellion of 1798 broke out. Priests* 
buckled on their swords, — a war of extermination raged 
against Protestants, — and the Roman Catholics entered 
into an alliance with England's foe, the French republic, 
and but for the kind interposition of Providence the re- 
sult might have been most disastrous. Still England pur- 
sued the course of concession to Roman Catholics, and the 
Emancipation Bill, so called, was passed in 1829. The 
advocates of the measure spoke as though it would prove 
the panacea for all the evils of the country. It was said 
that Roman Catholics would become attached to the Bri- 
tish throne and constitution, and that a millenium of peace 
would ensue ; but the result is known. Dissatisfaction be- 
came even more general, agitation more violent, and rebel- 
lion itself stalked abroad. The very men who took the 
above oath, and solemnly swore that they " had not any 
intention to subvert the present Church Establishment," 
and that they would not exercise their privilege " to dis- 
turb or weaken the Protestant religion," forthwith em- 
ployed all their influence for its utter destruction, and 
poured forth against her all manner of abuse. 

We now give extracts from the speeches of Mr O'Connell, 
and others, to prove that Roman Catholic members of par- 
liament have employed their influence in the senate, as well 
as out of doors, for the destination of the Protestant Church. 

Mr Daniel O'Connell, Roman Catholic M.P. for Dublin, on 5th Feb. 

1834, in the Debate on the " Report on the Address," said, — 

" But why should the people be compelled to pay for a clergy, whose 

service they did not want, and by whose labours they did not benefit? 

No juggle of legislation could uphold such a preposterous claim; and he 



* A priest na m ed Murphy was a great leader in the Rebel army, and 
boasted that he was invulnerable He had bullets secreted m his sleeve, 
which he occasionally shewed to his followers, as the balls which struck 
him without effect Ue was afterwards killed Many priests took 
part in the rebellion — bie Maxwell's But of the Rebtllion 



42 ROMISH MEMBERS AND IRISH CHURCH. 

therefore repeated, that he would exonerate the pec pie of Ireland from 
all contribution to the temporalities of a Church they did not belong to " 
Hansard Parliamentary Debates, vol 21, J? 119 

Mr Daniel O'Co.v.vell, Roman Catholic M.P for Dublin, on 16th 
March 1334, said,— 

' ' There could be no controversy about the oath as it now stood, be- 
cause there was nothing in it to prevent a Catholic from acting as he 
pleased with respect to the temporalities of tho Established Church, 
either a3 regarded the power, authority, or emoluments of the Church. 
— (See tract entitled, Repeal of the emancipation act. London, 1838 ) 
Mr Sheil, Roman Catholic M P. for Tipperary, quoted by Ma Ward, 
in his speech on the Irish Church, May 27th 1834, said, — 

" The collection of tithes is not the question; the amount of tithes is 
not the question ; but the question is, shall tho tithes be otherwise ap- 
propriated or not? (Hansard, vol. 23d, p. 1377.^ 
M?. Lambert, Roman Catholic M.P. for Wexford, quoted by Mr Ward, 
in his speech on the Irish Church, May 27th 1834, said, — 

' ' He thought the Catholic people of Ireland wronged and insulted, 
by being compelled to pay tithes to a Protestant Church. For his own 
part, he never paid them without feeling that there was no just right 
to compel him to do so. The law might give the right, but to h im it 
was a legal wrong.'* — Hansard, vol. 23d, p. 1378. 

Me Daniel 'Cornell, Roman Catholic M.P. for Dublin, in the 
debate on the Irish Church, March 20th 1835, said,— 

11 Were they not yet prepared to alleviate the real substantial griev- 
ance of that unhappy country, by declaring that a Catholic people should 
not be called on to support a sinecure church, from which they derived 
no spiritual instruction?" Hansard, vol. 27th, p. 45. 
•Mb Danul O'CoirNBLL, Roman Catholic M.P. for Dublin, in the 
&. debate on the Irish Church, 23d July 1835, said, — 

" Why was this Church Establishment) this National Church, to be 
endured!" Hansard, vol. 29, p. 1059. 

Yet Mr O'Connell, and the other honourable Roman 
Catholic gentlemen, had taken the Roman Catholic oath ! 

Mr O'Connell, in 1835, submitted to the Roman Ca- 
tholic Association a plan for the complete abolition of 
tithes; and even still later, at the season of his great 
monster meetings, urged his proposal for the destruction 
of the Irish Church, — promising only to preserve the 
vested rights of living incumbents. 
s That Church is denounced, as — 

14 The Church from which no imaginable good can flow, butevilafter 
evil in such black and continuous abundance.** — (See Bishop of Exeter t 
Speech. Lend. 1838.) r m 



EQUIVOCATION, AND THE ROMISH OATH. 43 

And yet the denouncers swore that they had not " any 
intention to subvert the present Church establishment ! " 

The question may naturally be put, how is it that 
Romish members can repudiate equivocation in the oath, 
and yet employ it, as their conduct shews? 

EQUIVOCATION AND THE ROMISH OATH. 

A passage from Liguori will explain the difficulty : — 

" What if he should be asked to answer without equivocation? Evea 
in that case, he can answer with an oath that he does not know it, as 
more probably Lugo, n. 79, Croix. 1. c. cum Stoz. et Holzm. num. 722, 
with Michel, teach against others. The reason is, because then the 
confessor verily answers according to the oath made, which is always 
understood to be made in the manner in which it was possible to bo 
made; to wit, of manifesting the truth without equivocation, — that is, 
without that equivocation which can be lawfully omitted. But as to 
the necessary equivocation, which could not be omitted without sin, the 
other has not a right that an answer should be given to him without 
equivocation, neither moreover is the confessor bound to answer without 
equivocation."*— p. 286, vol. VI. Moral Thcol. Venice, 1828 

The same principle is of course applicable in all cases. 
It seems that there are two kinds of equivocation, — that 
which is necessary, and that which is unnecessary ; or that 
which may not be laid aside, and that which can be laid 
aside. When the Romanist therefore swears, with a de- 
claration, that he does not use equivocation, he means a 
particular sort of equivocation, or that which may be laid 
aside, but not the necessary equivocation ! 

" One fact is worth a thousand arguments." 

Is it not a public fact that Romish Members of Parlia- 
ment deliberately take an oath not to injure the Estab- 
lished Church? 

Is it not a fact that, notwithstanding that oath, Romish 



• "Quid, si insuper rogetur ad respondendum sine sequivocatione? 
Adhuc cum juramento potest respondere, se nescire, ut probabilius di- 
cunt Lugo n. 79. Croix. 1. c. cum Stoz. et Holzm, num. 722 cum Michel 
contra alios. Ratio, quia tunc confessarius revera respondet secundum 
juramentum factum, quod semper factum intellijetur modo quo fieri po- 
terat, nempe manifestandi veritatem sine aequivocatione, sed sine aequi- 
vocatione ilia, quae licite omitti poterat - quoad sequivocationem vero ne- 
cessariam, quae non poterat omitti absque peccatto, nee alter habet jus,, 
ut sine aequivocatione ei respondeatur, nee ideo confessarius tenetur sine 
sequivocatione respondere." — p. 236. vol. VI. ut supra. 



44 8UMMARY OP ROME'S VIOLATION OF COMPACTS. 

Members of Parliament employ all their influence for the 
overthrow of the Establishment? 

What would we more to convince us of Romish dis- 
honesty, or to show the utter futility of entering into 
compacts with Rome? The Roman Catholic Members of 
Parliament have violated their agreement and betrayed 
their trust. Justice therefore demands that, as they have 
proved traitors to this Protestant nation, they shall be ex- 
cluded from Parliament, and be deprived of the power 
to do more harm. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Why does the case of John Huss exemplify the 
treachery of the Church of Rome ? 

A. — Because that good man was martyred, despite of the 
safe conduct which he had received from the emperor. 

2. Q. — Was his martyrdom an act of authority on the 
part of the Roman Church? 

A. — Yes; the violation of the compact was decreed by 
the Council of Constance ; as also the martyrdom of Huss. 

3. Q. — How has Romish treachery especially appeared 
in reference to England? 

A. — The Roman Catholics, from time to time, declared 
that they had no intention, if admitted to power, to injure 
the Established Church; and yet that declaration they 
have notoriously violated. 

4. Q. — How has that treachery further appearecF? 

A. — In the violation of the oath taken by Romish 
Members ! They solemnly swear that they have no inten- 
tion to subvert the Protestant Establishment, and yet, 
since their admission to Parliament, they have entirely 
disregarded that oath ! 

5. Q. — By what process of reasoning do they justify 
such conduct? 

A. — They assert that there is a necessary equivocation 
which may not be laid aside, and an unnecessary which may; 
that when sworn without equivocation or mental reserva- 
tion, they lay aside merely unnecessary equivocation; 
that the equivocation which is needed to enable them to 
destroy the Protestant religion, is necessary equivocation 






ROME'S FORGERIES — DONATION OF CONSTANTINE. 45 

and cannot be laid aside, because it is for the good of the 
Church of Rome to subvert the Protestant Church, the 
Protestant religion, and Protestant government. 

6. Q. — What practical lesson should we derive from 
the avowal of such principles ? 

A — That men trained to such systematic lying and per- 
jury as part of their religion, are disqualified to legislate 
in Parliament, or elsewhere, for Protestants; and that 
the preservation of our own civil and religious liberty re- 
quires that all Roman Catholics be excluded from Parlia- 
ment and power. 



Chapter VI.— Forgeries and Mutilation of 
Records by the Church of Rome. 

It was predicted by the Apostle Paul, that the progress 
of " the man of sin" would be accomplished by " deceiva- 
bleness of unrighteousness," (2 Thess. ii. 9,) and truly this 
has received a remarkable fulfilment in various ways. 
We have seen that the church of Rome teaches principles 
of deceit, and we have given instances of her treachery 
and violation of compacts. We shall now show that, even 
in a literary point of view, that Church is dishonest, and 
advances her pretensions by forgery and the mutilation of 
records. The first instance we shall give is, — 

THE DONATION OF CONSTANTINE A FORGERY. 

In the 8th century, the Bishops of Rome had acquired 
considerable power, but not content therewith, they aim- 
ed still higher. Conscious that Scripture and genuine an- 
tiquity gave no countenance to such assumptions, the ad- 
vocates of I*apal pretensions found a ready means of accom- 
plishing their object. Pious frauds were called to the aid of a 
Church which could not support its claims by honest means. 

" The Donation of Constantine," in which that Emperor 
was represented as granting the city of Rome and all the 
Western Empire to the Pope, with various other privi- 
leges, is a forgery. We give a quotation which will shew 
its character : — 



46 THE FALSE DECRETALS. 

" We choose the prince of the Apostie3 and his successors for our own 
intercessors with God, and as our imperial authority is revered upon 
earth, so ought to be respectfully honoured the sacred and holy Roman 
Church. 

' ' We ought even to glorify and exalt the very holy chair of Peter above 
our own imperial terrestrial throne, and render to it authority, glory, 
dignity, strength, and imperial power, and honour. 

" Farther, we decree and enact, that the lloman Church shall rule 
over the four patriarchal thrones of Antioch, Alexandria, Constanti- 
nople, and Jerusalem, as well as over all the other churches of God, 
that he who at all times shall be pontiff of the said Church of Rome shall 
be the superior and prince of all bishops; that all the cures to be taken 
for the support of Divine worship,' — and in order to reign pontiff, uni- 
versal pope of the city of Rome, confirm and strengthen the faith, — shall 
be directed by his judgments and by his supreme decision " " The 
Papal Power," p 49, vol II. Lond 1825. 

The Donation of Constantine is now admitted to be a 
forgery. Romish advocates are heartily ashamed of it, 
and Cardinal Baronius attributes it, without any manner 
of reason, to the Greeks ! ! 

This piece, however, did its work. 

Forged in an age (the 8th century) when ignorance 
reigned throughout the West, it had much weight with 
many, and served to advance the power ot the Bishops of 
l Rome. 

' THE FALSE DECRETALS. 

In the same age appeared certain decretals which pro- 
fessed to have been written by ancient Bishops of the 
Church of Rome. These magnified to the highest degree 
the office and dignity of the Pope. Victor, Pontian, Ste- 
phen I., are made to assume the title of universal Bishop. 

Sfr Anacletus and Marcellus are represented as exhorting 
the Bishop of Antioch to yield implicit obedience to the 
Roman Church, to which is attributed the government of 
the universal Church. 

Damassus is represented as saying, — 

"You know that to assemble a synod otherwise than by the authority 
of the Holy See, is to be no longer Catholic; a Bishop can never be legi- 
timately condemned but in a synod legally convened by order of the Holy 
Apostolic See. There never were true councils but those which have 
been furnished with the authority of the Roman Church." ' ' The Papal 
Pvwer," p. 73. London 1825. 



MUTILATION OF RECORDS AND MISQUOTATION. 47 

Sixtus II. is represented as saying, that all Bishops 
should appeal to the Holy See. 

Pelagius I. is represented as declaring, that the Arch- 
bishop who does not solicit the pallium from the Holy 
See, should be deprived of his dignity. 

Another Bishop of Borne insists that the orientals 
should conform to the Roman Church in all ceremonials 

Thus, by the forgery of letters from primitive bishops, 
the Church of Borne sought to establish her claim to 
antiquity The subtle device succeeded too well. For 
ages, the decretal epistles were received as authentic, 
and quoted as indisputable authority for the claims of 
Rome. Too late, the forgery was exposed. The Papal 
ascendancy had been received, and, though even F;tpal 
advocates acknowledged that an imposture had been prac- 
tised, the superstructure was allowed to remain. 

Cardinal Cusanus affirms, — 

" That, being compared with the times in which they are pretends I 
to have been written, they betray themselves.''' — Cusanus de Coneorit 
Cath., b. 3 

Cardinal Baronius designates them as — 

" Late invented evidences of no credit, and apocryphal." — p. 18, vol 
xv. Luc, 1744. 

Labbe and Cossart, the Jesuit historians of the Councils, 
prove that they are forged. — Labbe, p. 78, vol. xv. ut supra. 

These epistles are now so universally admitted to be spu- 
rious, that they have been designated "the false decretals."" 

We might refer to the forgery of "the donation of 
Louis-le-Debonnaire," granting and confirming temporal 
power to the Pope, and the epistle of St Peter to King 
Pepin in favour of the Roman Church; but we pass on 
to consider — 

THE MUTILATION OF RECORDS AND THE MISQUOTATION OF 
AUTHORITIES. 

1. An edition of the Council of Laodicea — published by 
-Tames Merlyn and Crab — gives a canon as follows : — 

4 Christians ought not to forsake the Church of God, and depart 
aside and invocate corners (anyulos) and make meetings, which arc 
things forbidden."- Colon, 1538. 



4S MUTILATION AHD MISQUOTATION OF AUTHORITIES. 

Whereas, according even to Cardinal Bellarmine, the 
decree should be. — 

" Christians ought not to forsake the Church of God, and depart 
aside and invocate angels (angelos) and maks meetings, wEich are 
things forbidden. Si Bell, de Band, beatit. lib. I, p. 417, torn. 2. 
Prag. 1721. 

Thus the word angelcs (angels) was changed to angulos, 
(angles,) in order- to avoid this most explicit condemnation 
of the invocation of angels ! 

2. The Council of Orange, in the 6th century, passed 
the following decree against the Pelagians : — 

' ' We solemnly profess and believe that, in every good work we our- 
selves do not first begin, and are helped afterwards by the mercy of 
God; but He — no good works of our own going before, (nullis proece- 
dentibus bonis meritis,) — doth first of all inspire us with faith and love 
to Him."— p. 831, torn. iii. Lutet, Paris, 1636. 

In reference to this, Sir H. Lynde, in his " Defence of 
'the via tuta" says, — 

"But observe your (the Popish) churchmen, for the defence of your 
merits, have falsified the canon, and quite perverted the sense and 
meaning of the Council; and, in place of nullis meritis, (no merits,) 
have inserted the word multis, (many merits ;) so that the Fathers of 
the Council are taught to read a new lesson flat contrary to the ancient 
doctrine of the Church. " — p. 65. London, 1850. 

3. The Council of Milvis passed the following decree : — 
" Those who offer to appeal beyond the sea, let them not be received 

into communion within Africa." — p. 868, torn. i. Lutet. Paris, 1638. 
Gratian, however, adds, — 

''Unless, perchance, they appeal to the Apostolic chair." — Gratia* 
Causa. 2, quozst. 6. 

Bellarmine confesses, — 

" This exception does not seem to square with the Council.** " Usee 
exceptio non videtur quadrare." — De Pont, p. 374, torn. i. Prag., 
1721. 

4. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, says : — 

"They have not the succession of Peter who have not the faith 
(fidem) of Peter."— De Poenit. C. 6., torn i., p. 156. Basil, 1527. 

Gratian, however, gives the passage a3 follows : — 

"They have not the inheritance^ ->f Peter who have not the seat 
(sedem) of Peter."— p. 16S7, torn. 1.* Lug. 1671. 

Thus, conveniently, the word fidem^ faith, is changed to 



MUTILATION AND MISQUOTATION OF AUTHORITIES. 49 

sedem, seat, and a complete alteration in the sense ef- 
fected ! 

5. Gregory the Great, Bishop of Rome, wrote as follows . 
" The king of pride is near, and, which is a thing terrible to men 

tion, an army (exercitus) of priests is prepared for his reception." — p 
744, lib. 4. Paris, 1705. 

The Antwerp edition gives the passage as follows : — 

"The king of pride is near, and, which is a thing terrible to men- 
tion, a departure (exitus) of priests is prepared for his reception." — 
Ant. 1515. 

The word exercitus is easily changed to exitus, and the 
sense completely altered! 

6. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, is misquoted to sup- 
port the primacy of the Pope. A Paris edition gives the 
following passage : — 

11 He who forsaketh Peter's chair, in which the Church was founded, 
doth he trust himself to be in the Church?" — Paris, 1616. 

Mr James, a writer of great erudition, in reference to 
this corruption, says, — 

"I have seen eight very ancient manuscripts, and can speak of my 
certain knowledge, that none of them have any such matter." — p. 82 
Lond. 1843. 

In a note he specifies, — 

" Two copies in the great library in Lambeth; two in New College, 
Oxford; one in Lincoln College library; another in the public library; 
the seventh at Salisbury, in the old library; the eighth at Benet Col- 
lege, (Corpus Christi,) in Cambridge." — Ibid. 

7. Origen is misquoted as follows, in Kirk and Berring- 
ton's work : — 

"Let him look to it, who, arrogantly puffed up, contemns the Apos- 
tolic words. To me it is good to adhere to Apostolic men, as to God 
and His Christ, and to draw intelligence from the Scriptures, according 
to the sense that has been delivered by them." 

Mr Pope, in his able work, entitled " Homish^Mismio- 
tation? p. 31, exposes this misquotation, and gives the 
true version as follows : — 

" To me it is good to adhere as to God and our Lord Jesus Christ, so 
also to his Apostles (Apostolis, ) and to draw intelligence from the Scrip- 
tures, according to the sense that has been delivered by them." 

Thus, the meaning of the passage was completely per- 
verted, as Mr Pope shows. According to Romish doc- 



DO FRAUDULENT ADDITIONS TO BORDEAUX TESTAMENT. 

trine, it is the duty of Christians to adhere to the teach- 
ing of Apostolic men, — that is, of those who have the 
supposed Apostolic succession, — and to take the sense of 
Scripture from them, a sense which it is vainly imagined 
has been handed down by tradition. Kirk and Berring- 
ton's translation goes to support that view; but the true 
version shows, that we are to adhere to the Apostles, who 
are the divinely appointed expositors of the Old Testament 
Scriptures ! 

8. Mistranslation of the Bible. — We do not now re- 
fer to the false rendering of the Douay version, but to the 
more gross imposture of the Bordeaux Testament. This 
version was published in the year 1686, with the sanction 
of the Archbishop of Bordeaux. The year before had 
been rendered remarkable by the revocation of the decree 
of Nantes; an act which deprived Protestants of all liberty, 
and exposed them to the most fearful persecution. Their 
Bibles were taken from them, and replaced, in many in- 
stances, by the Borcleaux version, which, it would seem, 
was composed in order to turn them from the faith. 

We give some instances of the gross imposition : — The 
words fraudulently added, to obtain Scripture authority 
for the special Bomish doctrines, are printed in italics : — 

"Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt tho* 
serve with latria." — Luke iv. 8. 

The Church of Borne has made the distinction in reli- 
gious worship of latria, intended for God alone, hyperdulia 
for the Virgin, and dulia for the Saints. The distinction 
is folse in theory, and useless in practice.* 

The intention, therefore, of the Bordeaux translation ie 
obvious. They would have our Lord to teach that, while 
it is lawful to give latma alone to God, dulia and hyper- 
dulia may be given to others. 

If so, we would observe in passing, Satan might have 
still urged our Lord to worship him. 

" Now, as they offered unto the Lord the Sacrifice of the Mass" — 
(Acts xiii. 2.) 

•See Manual of Romish Controversy, p. 143. 



FRAUDULENT ADDITIONS TO BORDEAUX TESTAMENT. 51 

" But he shall be saved as to himself; yet so as by the fire of purga- 
tory.'" (1 Cor. iii. 15.) 

"Join not yourselves by the sacrament of marriage." (2 Cor. 
vi. 14.) 

" But they who are joined by the sacrament of marriage." (1 Cor. 
vii. 10.) 

" Now, the Spirit distinctly says, in the latter times, some shall de- 
part from the Roman faith." (1 Tim. iv. 1.) 

" There is a sin that is not mortal, but venial." (1 John v. 7.) 

*' And not only ^hat, but was also appointed by the Churches the 
companion of our pilgrimage." (2 Cor. viii. 19.) 

** By faith the walls of Jericho fell, after a procession of seven days." 
(Heb. xi. 30.) 

" Thou shalt serve him only with latria." (Luke iv. 8.) 

There are many other gross corruptions in the Bordeaux 
Testament, but these will serve as specimens. The Testa- 
ment is now very rare. " Roman Catholics, no doubt, are 
anxious to remove all traces of this gross imposture. 
Those, however, who wish to consult the Testament for 
themselves, will find a copy of it in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

Here then are instances of Romish dishonesty carried 
into practice, even in a literary point of view. 

Can Protestants rely, with confidence, upon the quota- 
tions or translations of Romish advocates? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Is the dishonesty of the Church of Rome a sub- 
ject of prophecy 1 ? 

A, — Yes; " whose coming is after the working of Satan, 
with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all 
deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish." 
2 Thess. ii. 9-10. 

2. Q. — Mention some instance of the forged documents 
by which the Papal power advanced its pretensions. 

A. — The donation of Constantine, and "the false de- 
cretals.'* 

3. Q. — When was the donation of Constantine pub- 
lished, and what was its nature? 

A. — It was first brought into note in the eighth cen- 
tury. It professes to bestow upon the Bishop of Rome 
the government of the "Western World, and many other 



52 SUMMARY OF ROME'S FORGERIES AND MISQUOTATIONS. 

4. Q. — Is it admitted to be a forgery? 

A. Yes; by the highest authorities, — Baronius, <fcc. 

5. Q. — What are " the decretal epistles?" 

A. — Certain Epistles forged in the name of the early 
Bishops of Rome, in which they are made to assume all 
the authority of modern Popes. 

6. Q. — Are they admitted to be forgeries t 

A. — Yes; by Baronius, Cusanus, and modern Romanists. 

7. Q. — Were these forgeries mischievous? 

A. — Yes; they were implicitly received in the dark ages, 
and they served to advance the Papal cause. 

8. Q. — Give some specimens of the mutilation of the 
decrees of Councils? 

A. — (1.) The decree of the Council of Laodicea against 
angel worship is altered, — angelos, angels, being changed 
into angulos, angles, — (2.) The decree of the Council of 
Orange that works have no merit for salvation, framed 
against the Pelagian heresy, was altered into much merit, 
to suit Romish doctrine; and (3.) to the decree of the 
Council of Milvis against appeal to foreign churches, is 
appended by Gratian — the words, — " except to the Apos- 
tolic See." 

9. Q. — Have the works of the Fathers and others been 
corrupted? 

A. — Yes; in many instances, — Ambrose, Gregory the 
Great, Chrysostom, (fee. 

10. Q. — What is the Bordeaux Testamentl 

A. — It is an edition of the New Testament, published 
in 1686, with many gross mistranslations and additions 
introduced in support of Romish error. 

1 1. Q. — What has become of it? 

A. — It is now withdrawn; Romanists are ashamed of 
it. A copy may be seen in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

12. Q. — How should the knowledge of these falsehoods 
and forgeries of Rome influence as? 

A. — By leading us, not only to exclude Romanists from 
any share in our government, but to engage in a national 
effort by every possible Christian means for the conversior 
of Romanists 



Chapter VII. 53 

Romish Misquotation— Pious Frauds in 
Modern Times. 

We have called attention to the forged donation of Con- 
stantine, and to the false decretals, which, in the middle 
ages, contributed so much to the establishment of the Papal 
power. We have also referred to the corruption of Coun- 
cils and Fathers practised by members of the Apostate 
Church of Rome. 

The Author would now give some instances of Romish 
dishonesty, or rather pious frauds, which have come more 
immediately under his own notice, and which shew that 
Rome, even in this respect, issemper eadem — always the 
g( ie — a shuffling, evasive, and dishonest antagonist. 

I. THE WIGTON CONTROVERSY. 

The Author was announced to deliver a lecture on Po- 
pery, in Wigton, a town of Cumberland. The Priest of 
Wigton, who had the reputation of being a great contro- 
versialist, immediately published placards, intimating his 
intention to be present. Accordingly a discussion* took 
place, — the Rev. Mr Irving, the Vicar, in the chair. At 
the close of the proceedings that evening, it was agreed 
that the debate should be resumed at the expiration of a 
fortnight, upon the whole question between Protestants 
and Romanists. On his return home, the Author entered 
into a correspondence with the Priest, to settle prelimi- 
naries ; but finding that he was tergiversating and equivo- 
cating, he addressed him in the Carlisle Patriot, in order 
to render him amenable to public opinion. The Priest 
now published the private correspondence in the form of 
a pamphlet ; but added whole pages to his own letters ! 

The Author repaired at once to Wigton, held three 
meetings on consecutive evenings, and invited the Priest 
to come forward and defend himself, to which, however, 
he made no response. 

At the meeting, Mr Brisco, a gentleman of the highest 
respectability m the county, was deputed to institute a 



* Some of the particulars of the discussion may bo seen in " The 
Wigton C</ntroier.iy" published at 8 Exeter Hall, price Is. 6d. 



.>4 ROMISH MISQUOTATIONS. 

comparison between the alleged correspondence, and the 
Priest's letters in his own hand-writing. He did so m the 
presence of tho assembly, and then crave the following 
testimonial : — 

" I certify that, at the public meeting m Wigton, and in the presence 
of all, I compared the written correspondence of the Rev. Mr Kelly with 
the correspondence printed in his pamphlet, which he sold to the public 
as a true and faithful copy of his correspondence with the Rev. R. P. Blake- 
ney. In doing so, I found most gross misstatements, interpolations, 
and additions. 

" One of his letters in the print was so altered from beginning to end, 
that I could scarcely discover that it had anything to do with the original. 

11 I may also add, that I requested some one or any in the meeting, 
to come upon the platform, and assist me in the examination. 

" From my personal knowledge of the neighbourhood of Wigton, I 
can state that the controversy, and also the exposure of the deceptions 
practised by the Romish priest, have convinced the public that the Papacy 
is now what it ever has been, — a tyrant over body and soul, idolatrous, 
and the enemy of the human family. Robert Brisco. 

"2Wi July, 1846. 

" Low Mill House, Egrcmont, Cumberland" 

Thus a Roman Catholic priest publishes a correspondence 
between himself and a Protestant clergyman, but is found 
guilty of gross interpolation and forgery Such base dis- 
honesty on the part of one having the calling of a clergyman, 
is so thoroughly in accordance with the teaching of Rome, 
that, as a matter of course, this priest was permitted to 
continue to officiate in the same place unrehuked by his 
superiors. 

II. THE WHITEHAVEN CONTROVERSY. 

The Author delivered some lectures in Whitehaven, a 
tract -was circulated gratuitously, in reply. To this, the 
author gave a rejoinder; when, lo! a pamphlet was cir- 
culated on the same cheap terms. To this the author gave 
another reply, when the discussion closed. 

The pamphlet abounded with misquotations and mis- 
statements, of which we give two instances. 

I. The Romish advocate quotes Tertullian in favour of 
transubstantiation ; but he stops short in the passage, and 
omits Tertullian's explanation, which is utterly subver- 
sive of that dogma. We give the passages in parallel 
columns : — 



W0RK80P DI8CUSSI0N. 5B 

Teriullian according to the Tertullian according to himself. 
Romish advocate. il The bread taken and distri- 

11 The bread taken and distri- buted to his disciples, he made his 

buted to his disciples, he made body by saying, this is my body ; 

his body." that is, the figure of my body.*' 

What a pious fraud, intended for the good of the Church ! 

2. Again, when endeavouring to prove that Protestants 
worship insensible things, the priest gives the following 
quotation, with reference to the ceremony observed at 
opening and shutting the gates at the Tower of London. 

11 Here the officer in command of the main guard, with the men under 
his control, turns out and presents arms to the keys, the mere inani- 
mate keys. Then the warder takes off his bonnet, and bowing, exclaims, 
with reverence, * God save Queen Victoria's keys.' To this all the men 
on guard respond, * Amen.' " 

When Br Blakeney saw this, he determined at once to 
sift the matter, and ascertain if such a ceremony really 
takes place. He, accordingly, wrote both to the Chaplain 
and the Yeoman Porter, from whom he received immediate 
answers, that the guard do not exclaim, "God save Queen 
Victoria's keys," but " God save Queen Victoria." We 
place the false and true account in parallel columns : — t 

THE TRUE ACCOUNT. THE FALSE ACCOUNT. 

God bless Queen Victoria. God save Queen Victoria's keys. 

Surely there is a vast difference between Queen Victoria 
and her keys. 

III. THE WORKSOP DISCUSSION. 

A discussion took place at Worksop, Notts, in Febru- 
ary 1850, between the Rev. R P. Blakeney and the Rev 
J. B. Naghten, missionary priest of Brigg and Gains- 
borough. We give some specimens of the dishonesty of 
the Romish advocate. 

Mr B. had quoted from The Life of Mary of Egypt, — a 
Roman Catholic work, published by Grace, Dublin, — the 
following passage : — 

"She approached the holy wood, she reverently worshipped it. n 

Mr Naghten in reply, said, — 

" I would have you all understand, that the books in the hands of my 
reverend friend, are published by the Bible Society, and are, therefore, 
not ruueh to be credited. (Cheers and laughter.) They, the Bible So- 



56 EXPURGATION OF SECOND COMMANDMENT. 

ciety, are not merely content with publishing editions of the Bible and 
other works for themselves, but they will publish other editions for the 
Catholics also." (Hear, hear.) Mr Blakeney, (offering a book to Mr 
Naghten, ) — ( " "Will you take this book and examine it?" Mr Naghten. 
— " If I were to take one of his books, I must take a dozen. There is 
an old maxim, * Timeo hominem unius libri ;' and Mr Blakeney has got 
such a quantity of books with him, that it is really alarming." (Laugh* 
ter ) — Worksop Discussion, p. 30. London, 1850. 

The priest finding that he could not fairly evade the 
force of the quotation, resorted to the dishonest subter- 
fuge of asserting that the book, though it bore the due 
impress of the Romish bookseller and printer, was a for- 
gery got up by the Bible Society, — a ruse which elicited 
the applause of his own followers ! When Mr Blakeney 
offered the book for examination to Mr Naghten, he de- 
clined, but still persisted in his false assertion. 

Thus Mr Naghten proceeded throughout the debate, 
invariably asserting, that the books from which quota- 
tions were made, were published by Exeter Hall, or the 
Bible Society, while in fact the works were Roman Ca- 
tholic, printed by Romish printers, and published by 
Romish booksellers. 

The Protestants at once saw through the pious fraud, 
and even his own friends at length betrayed their dissatis- 
faction by their looks ! We mention these instances to 
show the dishonest shifts to which Roman controver- 
sialists resort, and to warn Protestants of what they may 
expect. 

IV. EXPURGATION OF THE. SECOND COMMANDMENT FROM 
ROMISH CATECHISMS. 

The charge against the Church of Rome under this head 
is, that she omits the second commandment in her cate- 
chisms, used generally in Ireland and in Roman Catholic 
countries, for the obvious purpose of concealing from her 
people the antiscriptural character of image worship. In 
order to keep up the number ten, and to cover the omis- 
sion, she divides the tenth commandment into two. The 
truth of this charge will best appear from the following 
tables, in which are given in parallel columns the com- 
mandments of God, and the commandments of Roma 



57 



2 •!§ ^ 

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I 



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58 EXPURGATION OF SECOND COMMANDMENT. 

THE COMMANDMENTS, FROM DR BUTLER*S CATECHISM. 

" Q. — Say the ten commandments of God? V 

u A. I. 1 am the Lord thy God ; thou shalt not have strange goda 
before me. 
II. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 

III. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath-day. 

IV. Honour thy father and thy mother. 
V. Thou shalt not kill. 

VI. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 
VII. Thou shalt not steal. 
VIII. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 
IX. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife. 
X. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's goods. (Exod. xx.") — 
The Most Rev. Dr James Butler's Catechism; revised, corrected, and 
enlarged, by the Right Rev. James Doyle, D.D., Bishop of Kildare, p. 
36. Dublin, 1842. 

In catechisms published in Britain, or in such as are 
likely to meet the eye of Protestants, a portion of the se- 
cond commandment is included with the first. 

Comment upon this impious suppression of the second 
commandment, — this dividing* into two the tenth com- 
mandment, — this adding to the first commandment, and, 
as a part of it, a portion of the second commandment, in 
the catechisms which circulate in Protestant countries, 
— and this general tampering with, and abridging the 
commandments themselves, would seem superfluous. 

It is plain that a Church which, in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, adheres to such subtraction from, and tampering 
with, the Word of God, and in addition thereto, has re- 
course to so many tricks and subterfuges to conceal her in- 
famous proceedings, will scruple at no falsehoods, however 
great, and at no act, however villanous, to serve her own 
antichristian purposes. Well do we remember the feel- 
ings with which we first heard a little Irish child repeat 
the commandments, not as in the Word of God, but as 
in the Romish catechisms. Surely British and Irish sub- 
jects, and British and Irish children, merit some better 
treatment from a Protestant Sovereign and Government 
than that it should be lawful to practise such deceptiou 
upon them. 



ROME'S WILFUL MISAPPLICATION OF SCRIPTURE. 59 

V. WILFUL MISAPPLICATION OF SCRIPTURE. 

Romish advocates, finding it impossible to discover any 
authority for saint worship, have resorted to as barefaced 
and atrocious a perversion of Scripture as can be found. 

This occurs in a controversial catechism by a Romish 
priest of the name of Keenan, already in its ninth edi- 
tion. It is no accident, but a wilful reiterated falsehood. 
The copy from which we quote is one of the ninth thousand, 
revised and enlarged. Edinburgh, 1851. 

^he question is put, — " 2. Should we honour the saints 
and angels?" and towards the close of a long answer in 
support of angel worship, we find, — " St John fell down 
to adore before the feet of the angel." — (Apoc. xxii. 8.) 
Thus, this priest adduces the conduct of John, as recorded 
in verse 8, as a warrant for angel worship ; but he wil- 
fully omits to refer to the condemnation of this act of 
John contained in the 9th verse. The full passage is as 
follows : — 

Rev. xxii. v. S-9, — " And I John saw these things, and heard them. 
And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet 
of the angel which shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, 
See thou do it not; for I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren the 
prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship 
God." 

While this case proves the impious shifts to which 
Popish priests have recourse in support of their miserable 
idolatry, as well as affords evidence that they know the 
falsehood of the doctrine for which they contend, it also 
illustrates the audacity with which the priests trade on 
the ignorance of their victims, even in the 19 th century, 
in the metropolis of Protestant Scotland, and under the 
eye of a Romish bishop. 

We think that this case cannot be sufficiently exposed, 
as it manifests, as much as any case can do, the iniquity 
of the system, and by this wilful perversion of Scripture, 
in even an enlarged and improved edition, the conscious- 
ness of the priests that that system is indefensible. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1 Q. — Mention one of the most powerful means by 
which the Church of Rome accomplishes her purposes? 



60 SUMMARY OF ROMISH MISQUOTATION. 

A. — Pious frauds and dishonesty, which, at all times, 
both ancient and modern, since her apostacy, have charac- 
terized her movements. 

2. Q. — Give a modern instance of pious fraud? 

A. — In the Wigton controversy, the priest published 
the correspondence which took placebetween himself and the 
Protestant minister, but added whole pages to his own letters. 

3. Q. — Give another instance? 

A. — In the Whitehaven controversy, the Romish advo- 
cate, when endeavouring to prove that Protestants worship 
insensible things, quoted a passage in which the guard of 
the Tower of London are represented as saying, " God 
save Queen Victoria's keys ;" whereas, in reality, they say, 
" God bless Queen Victoria." The little word keys was 
foisted in. 

4. Q. — Give another instance? 

A. — In the Worksop discussion, a Romish priest posi- 
tively asserted, that the Roman Pontifical, and several 
Romish works which were then produced, were not Roman 
Catholic books, but forgeries published by Exeter Hall. 

5. Q. — Give another instance? 

A. — The second commandment has been removed from 
several Romish Catechisms, intended for Roman Catholic 
countries. The Tenth Commandment is divided into two 
to make up the number of ten , and in Protestant coun- 
tries a portion of the Second is added to the First. 

6. Q. — Give an instance of the wilful misapplication of 
Scripture? 

A. — TnMrKeenan's Catechism, and other works: Rev. 
xxii. 8, is quoted in favour of image worship; but the 
ninth verse is left out, where such worship is condemned. 

7. Q. — What think you of such conduct? 

A. — It is needless to say that it is dishonest in the 
highest degree. It is a fulfilment of the prophecy, that 
the coming of the man of sin would be " with all deceive- 
bleness of unrighteousness." 



CHAPTER VIII. 61 

Rome Intolerant in Principle, 

The charge of intolerance is continually met with a posi- 
tive denial by members of the Church of Rome ; and when 
reference is made to the persecutions to which Protestants 
have been, at various times, exposed, it is replied, that 
these were but acts of the State, or outbursts of popular 
violence, for which the Church is not responsible. 

It is, therefore, important to shew, that the principles 
and teaching of the Church of Rome are thoroughly into- 
lerant, and the source to which we must attribute the dark 
dee'ds of the Inquisition, the midnight massacre, and the 
fires of martyrdom. 

I. PERSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF FATHERS. 

Many of the Fathers, though not Romanists, held into 
lerant sentiments; and it would seem that the Church of 
Rome, while she repudiates whatever is scriptural in their 
writings, gladly embraces whatever is intolerant and un- 
sound in the same. The Fathers were uninspired, and, 
like other men, subject to error. On various points, their 
views are diametrically opposed to the corruptions subse- 
quently introduced by Rome; though on others, they are 
tainted by superstition. 

We give some specimens of their intolerant sentiments 
from passages which the Church of Rome has embodied in 
her canon law. 

The decretals of Gregory XIII. , which are part of the 
canon law of the Church of Rome, contain passages from 
letters of Augustine, of which the following are speci- 
mens: Donatus, who wrote in the fifth century, thinks 
that no one ought to be compelled to embrace a certain opi- 
nion. Augustine, in reply, says, — 

" Attend to what the Apostle has said, — ' he who desires a bishopric, 
desirps a good work.' But since many are unwilling to receive the epis- 
copate, they are led, they are induced, they are guarded, they suffer 
what they are unwilling, until they acquire a wish to receive a good 
work. How much more ought you to be drawn from your pernicious 
error, in which you are your own enemy, and led to embrace and ac- 
knowledge the truth, not only that you may have honour, but lest you 
meet a terrible doom? For we, more effectually, do the will 



62 PERSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF FATHERS. 

of God, admonishing us that we compel (cogamus) you to return to the 
fold, than by consenting to the will of wandering sheep, in permitting 
you to perish." — p. 315. Colon. 1779. 

In another letter, Augustine quotes the decree of Nebu- 
chadonosor, King of Babylon, in jiistification of persecution : 

11 Nebuchadonosor, the King, decreed, saying, ■ Whosoever shall speak 
blasphemy against the God of Shadrach, Mesach, and Abednego, they 
and their houses shall perish.' 

' ' Lo ! in what manner the foreign king rages lest the God of Israel 
should be blasphemed, who had liberated three youths from the fire. 
And are Christians unwilling that kings should rage when Christ is 
insulted, — by whom, not three youths, but the whole world, with its 
kings, have been delivered from hell fire?" — Tract, ii. ad. c. 3. 

His reasoning is most strange. He says, — 
1 ' Hence, I ask, if good and holy men persecute none, but only suffer 
persecution, whose voice do they think that to be in the Psalm, where 
it is read, — ' I will persecute my enemies, and I will pursue them and 
not rest, until they are destroyed?' Therefore, it we wish to speak and 
acknowledge the truth, the persecution is unjust which the wicked em- 
ploy against the Church of Christ, but that persecution is just which the 
Church employs against the wicked." — Epist. 50. Anno. 417. 

Augustine surely, and the Popes and Councils, who 
have adopted his sentiments by incorporating them in the 
canon law, have forgotten that vengeance belongeth to the 
Lord, and that, though David was inspired to denounce 
woes against the transgressor, yet the Christian must bless 
and curse not ; the Christian's Lord having come, " not 
to destroy men's lives, but to save them." 

The sentiments of Isidore, A.D. 625; and of Cyprian, 
A.D. 225, are similar to those of Augustine on this point. 

Pelagius, Bishop of Rome, a.d. 556, writing in reference 
to certain persons in his day, who dissented from his views, 
says to Narsa, Patrician and General in Italy, — 

" Do not doubt, there! ore, to restrain such men with the chief and 
judicial authority ; because the rules of the Fathers have specially de- 
creed that, if any person of ecclesiastical office hath erected another 
altar, or made a schism, he shall be excommunicated and condemned. 
But if, perchance, he should even despise this, and continue making di- 
visions and schisms, he should be crushed by the public powers." — An. 
556. Romae. 

Jerome says, — 

" It is not cruelty, but piety, to punish crimes for God. Whence, 



PEBSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF POPES. 63 

also, in the law it is written : If thy brother, or friend, or wife, which 
is in thy bosom, should wish to draw thee from truth, let thy hand be 
upon them, and shed their blood." — Decreti. ii. Pars, causa xxiv. 
queestio iii. 

Jerome also says, — 

" Putrid flesh should be cut out, and the scabby sheep driven from the 
flock, lest the whole house, body and flocks, be corrupted, putrify, and 
perish. Arius, in Alexandria, was one spark ; but because it waB not 
immediately extinguished, it laid waste the whole world with its flame." 
— Epist. Galat. 

It is well for the honour of the Christian name, that 
these are the sentiments of men who were removed from 
the Apostolic age, some hundreds of years. Such principles 
are utterly opposed to the spirit of pure and primitive 
Christianity, whose weapons are not carnal, but mighty, 
through God, to the pulling down of strongholds. 

As time rolled on, the intolerance of the Church of Rome 
became greater. With scarce any exception, her Popes, 
school-men, and authors, breathe fire and faggot against the 
saints of the Most High God. 

We give some specimens of the sentiments of the Popes. 

II. PERSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF THE POPES. 

Gregory IX. having stated that a clergyman, when 
found guilty of heresy, is to be stripped of every pre- 
rogative of his order, and left to the will of the secular 
power, to be punished with due severity, — says, in refer- 
ence to the laity, — 

" But, if a layman,— unless, as aforesaid, having abjured his heresy 
and exhibited satisfaction, he shall have fled at once to the orthodox faith, 
— he should be left to the control of the secular power, to receive due 
•punishment according to the nature of his crime." — p. 238. Colon. 1779 

Innocent IV. enjoins the Inquisitors as follows : 
"If any one, being required, shall neglect to assist studiously, ac- 
cording to his office and ability, you shall proceed against them intre- 
pidly, by our authority, as the defenders and favourers of heretics, — the 
obstacle of appeal being taken away." — p. 103 torn. 1 Luxem 1727 

He concludes by stating, that he would invite to come 
to their aid against the heretics, Christian kings, and 
princes, and crusaders, who had devoted themselves to the 
succour of the Holy Land. 



64 PERSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF DOCTORS. 

Urban IV. also directs an epistle to the Inquisitors 
of heretical pravity, whom he exhorts to discharge assi- 
duously their duties : 

1 ' That, through the prudence of your solicitude, the root of the here- 
tical iniquity may be cut out from the aforesaid Lombardy and Marchia ; 
and that the vine of the Lord — when the heretics are exterminated, who 
injure the same with their perverse manners — may bear the fruits of Ca- 
tholic purity." — p. 122. ut supra. 

These are but specimens of the sentiments of Popes. 
A list of the bulls which they have issued upon the sub- 
ject of the extermination of heretics, will be found at page 
200 of the Manual of Romish Controversy. 

III. PERSECUTING SENTIMENTS OF DOCTORS. 

Dominus Dens says as follows : 

" Notorious heretics are infamous for this very cause itself, and are 
deprived of Christian burial. 

"Their temporal goods are, for this very cause itself, confiscated; 
but, before the execution of the act, the sentence declaratory of their 
crime ought to proceed from the ecclesiastical judge, because the cogniz- 
ance of heresy lies in the ecclesiastical tribunal. 

" Finally, they are also justly afflicted with other corporal punish- 
ments, — as with exile, imprisonment, &c. 

" Are heretics justly punished with death? 

"St Thomas answers — 2. 2. ques. 11, art. 3, 'Yes; because forgers 
of money, or other disturbers of the state, are justly punished with death, 
therefore, also heretics, who are forgers of the faith, and, as experience 
testifies, grievously disturb the state.' 

"This is comfirmed, because Grod, in the Old Testament, ordered the 
false prophets to be slain ; and in Deuteronomy, chap. xvii. v. 12, it is 
decreed that, if any one will act proudly, and will not obey the com- 
mands of the priest, let him be put to death. See also c. 18. 

"The same is proved from the condemnation of the 14th Article of 
John Huss, in the Council of Constance." — p. 88, torn. ii. Dublin, 1 832. 

Thus we see that Dens but follows the views of his great 
master, Thomas Aquinas. 

Alphonsus a Castro, chaplain to Philip of Spain, the 
consort of Mary Queen of England, on the same subject 
writes as follows : — 

" There are various punishments with which ecclesiastical sanctions 
and imperial laws order heretics to be punished. Some are spiritual 
and affect the soul alone, others are corporal and afflict the body. We 
wil] speak of each in its order, and first of corporal punishments, and 



PERSECUTING NOTES IN THE RHEIMISH TESTAMENT (JO 

afterwards about spiritual. Among corporal punishments, one which 
very much annoys heretics is the proscription and confiscation of their 
property. . . 

"The last punishment of the body for heretics is death ; with whick 
we will prove, by God's assistance, heretics ought to be punished. 

44 In Flanders, and other parts of Lower Germany, when I was there 
ten years ago, I saw heretics punished by decapitation. In Guilders, 
however, heretics, tied by the hands and feet, by order of Charles Duke 
of Guilders, were cast alive into a river, there to be swallowed up 1>\ 
the stream. 

14 From which words it is abundantly plain, that it is not a modem 
invention, but that it is the ancient opinion of wise Christians, that 
heretics should be burned with fire. — Chap. XL de punitione hereti- 
corum. 

Even Bossuet, the eagle of Meaux, as he is termed, ap- 
proved of the revocation of the decree of Nantes, by which 
Protestants were exposed to persecution in every shape 
He writes as follows : — 

44 Moved by such wonders, let us expand our hearts over the piety oi 
Louis; let us raise our acclamations even to Heaven, and say to this new 
Constantine — this new Theodosius — this new Charlemagne, what 630 
Fathers said in the Council of Chalcedon, — * you have confirmed the faith 
— you have exterminated the heretics — through you, heresy no longer 
exists.' " — Oraison Funebre de m. le. Chancelier p. 269. 

We pass over the rules of the canons, as this subject 
belongs more properly to our chapter on canon law ; and 
we close with — 



We find the following comment on Matt. xiii. 29, — 

44 But he said, Nay, lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up 
also the wheat with them." 

44 Lest perhaps] The good must tolerate the evil, when it is so strong 
that it cannot be redressed without danger and disturbance of the whole 
Church, and commit the matter to God's judgment in the latter day. 
Otherwise, where ill men (be they heretics or other malefactors) may be 
punished or suppressed, without disturbance and hazard of the good, 
they may and ought, by public authority, either spiritual or temporal, 
to be chastised or executed. " 

Here we observe the reason candidly stated, for which 
Protestants are not in certain cases extirpated, simply 

* Published at the College of Rheims, a.d. 1582. — A translation of 
authority among Romanists. 



66 PERSECUTING NOTES IN THE RHEIMISH TESTAMENT. 

because it cannot be done " without danger and disturbance 
of the whole Church !" 

But should that day ever arrive, when the balance of 
power shall so incline in favour of the Church of Rome, 
that the extermination of Protestants can be accomplished 
without such danger, — then, as in days gone by, may 
Protestants prepare for the sword and the faggot. 

The following comment is given on Pev. xvii. 6, — 

" And I saw the -woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and 
with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus." 

" ' Drvmk with the blood.''] It is plain that this woman signifies the 
whole body of all the persecutors that have and shall shed so much blood 
of the just, of the prophets, apostles, and other martyrs, from the be- 
ginning of the world to the end. The Protestants foolishly expound it 
of Rome, for that they put heretics to death, and allow of their punish- 
ment in other countries ; but their blood is not called the blood of saints, 
no more than the blood of thieves, mankillers, and other malefactors; 
for the sheddiny of which, by order of justice, no commonwealth shall 
answer." 

Thus Protestants are classed with " thieves, mankillers, 
and other malefactors," and, of course, to be dealt with in 
the same way. In chap. 23 of our Romish Manual, we 
have given other authorities. We shall revert to the 
subject in our next, in which we shall shew that the 
canon law is distinctly of the same character. 

Truly the whole system of Popery is intolerant. It 
sanctions, yea, it enjoins murder as being a religious duty 
— for we can call it by no milder term. 

Heresy is regarded as a crime against the Church, and 
a capital offence. We are willing, however, to take our 
place with the Apostle, and to say, " After the way that 
they call heresy, so worship we the God of our Fathers." 
— Acts xxiv. 14. 

Shall Britain support a system which, if it gain the 
opportunity, will employ its power in the destruction of 
liberty, and the persecution of God's people? What 
safety or wisdom can there be in a State which allows such 
a system of falsehood and persecution to grow up within it. 
Surely the State should take active measures in its de- 
fence, else the whole body politic will become corrupted. 



SUMMARY ROME INTOLERANT IN PRINCIPLE. 6? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — How have Romanists generally attempted t© 
answer the charge of intolerance? 

A. — By saying that the persecutions which took place 
in former ages were but acts of the State, and outbursts 
of popular feeling, for w r hich the Church is not responsible. 

2. Q. — How does this appear to be untrue ? 

A. — Because the Church of Rome is intolerant in her 
teaching and principle. 

3. Q. — How prove you this? 

A. — By an appeal to her standard works. 

4. Q. — Were the ancient Christians, who are generally 
termed Fathers, Romanists in principle ? 

A. — By no means. They held views directly the re- 
verse of Romanism on several points, though the later 
Fathers were tinged with superstition. 

5. Q. — Did any of the Fathers teach that it is lawful 
to persecute men for their religious views? 

A. — Yes; we regret to say that they did; but we are 
thankful that they lived at a great distance, in point of 
time, from the Apostolic age. 

6. Q. — Mention some of the Fathers who taught suofa 
sentiments? 

A. — Augustine, Isidore, Cyprian, and Jerome ; and be- 
sides these, Pelagius, and Urban II., Bishops of Rome. 

7. Q. — How can you account for the fact, that Chrin- 
tian authors could have advocated such views? 

A. — The Fathers were not infallible. They erred and 
disagreed. The adoption of intolerant principles was a 
part of that corruption which was then spreading wide, 
and at length developed itself in the great apostacy. 

8. Q. — Has the Church of Rome adopted the sentiments 
of those Fathers who sanction persecution ? 

A. — Yes , and embodied them in the Corpus, juris cano- 
nici, or body of canon law. Whatever is unsound in the 
works of the Fathers she generally adopts. Whatever k 
pure, she rejects. 

9. Q. — Have the Popes of the Church declared in fa- 
vour of thp same views? 



68 SUMMARY — HOME INTOLERANT IN PRINCIPLE. 

A.- Yes. It would fill a volume to give the bulls in 
which they urge the authorities and inquisitors to exter- 
minate heretics. 

10. Q. — Have Doctors of the Church of Rome taught 
the necessity of persecution? 

A. — Yes. Even Bossuet, the Bishop, sanctioned the 
revocation of the decree of Nantes, — a revocation by which 
Protestants were subjected to dreadful sufferings and per- 
secution. 

11. Q. — What do you mean by the Rheimish Testament ? 
A. — A Testament with notes, published at the College 

of Rheims, in 1582. 

12. Q. — What is the character of the notes'? 

A. — They are of the most antichristian and intolerant 
kind. They class Protestants with mankillers, thieves, &c, 
and deplare that they are worthy of death as such, and 
are to be exterminated, when they are so weak that no 
" disturbance or hazard" will arise therefrom. 

13. Q. — How should the Government of a Protestant 
State act with reference to such a system ? 

A. — It should adopt vigorous and active measures by 
missionaries, Scripture readers, the press, the school, 
and all other appliances, to convert to Christianity the 
deluded victims of Rome, and this not merely as a Chris- 
tian duty, but as a matter of State policy, essential for 
the well-being of the State. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Canon Law and Laws of the Pope. 

It has been assigned as a reason for the establishment 
of the Papal Hierarchy in England, that, without such a 
body, it will be impossible to introduce the canon law of 
the Romish Church. Now, in the very outset, we assert 
that no foreign power has a right to introduce its law for 
the government of British subjects. But waving this for 
the present, and assuming that such a hierarchy is* need- 



NATURE OF CANON LAW. 69 

ful for the introduction of that law, let us consider its 
nature. 

We shall inquire, in the first place, where the canon 
law is to be found ; and, in the second place, what are its 
leading enactments. 

I. WHERE CANON LAW IS TO BE FOUND. 

Mr Slivin, the Professor of canon law in Maynooth, 
was examined before the commissioners of education : — 

Q. — " 'Pray be so good as to state what books you consider as con- 
taining the text of the canon law ?' 

A. — "^ The canon law, or common law, of our Church is contained 
in a work known by the name of Corpus Juris Canonici. It was pub- 
lished by Gregory XIII., and it is composed of several parts or collec- 
tions of the canon law made at different times.' 

Q. — " ' Is not the text of the canon law to be found in their works?' 

A. — " 'What we call the text of the canon law, is to be found in 
these collections, so far as they go ; but to form a complete body of 
canon law, we must add the decrees of the Council of Trent, the dif- 
ferent bulls that have been issued by Popes since the time of Pope Six- 
tus IV., as none of a more recent date are included in the collection 
of Gregory XIII., which was published towards the end of the 16th 
century. The bulls that were issued after Sixtus IV., down to Cle- 
ment XII., have been included in the BuUarium Romanum; there is 
also a collection of the bulls of Benedict XIV ' " — See Minutes of Ex- 
amination before Commissioners of Education. 1828. 

Thus the canon law consists of the canons of councils 
and the bulls of Popes, with other documents contained 
in the Corpus Juris Canonici. The bulls of Popes, and 
especially those of Benedict XIV., are also to be included, 
though published since the time of Sixtus TV*. 

In order, therefore, to ascertain what is the nature of 
the canon law and -laws of the Popedom, we must appeal 
to the canons of councils, and the bulls which have been 
issued from time to time. 

II. LEADING ENACTMENTS IN CANON LAW. 

1 All Baptized Persons bound to submit to the 
Church. — In the Manual of Romish Controversy we have 
given the canon of the Council of Trent, which declares 
that the baptized are bound to submit to the Church. 
(Manual, p. 201.) Thus, all Protestants are regarded as 
subjects of the Pope. 



70 intolerance of canon law. 

2. Compulsory Administration of Confirmation. — 
In the same work (ibid,) - we have given the Tridentine 
canon, which requires that all baptized persons shall be 
compelled to receive Romish confirmation. 

3. Prohibition of Liberty of Conscience. —In the 
same work (p. 202,) we have given quotations from the 
Council of Trent, in which princes are exhorted to see 
that the enactments of the Council of Trent are observed 
by heretics so called. 

4. Confiscation of the Goods of Heretics so called. 
— We have given the 3d canon of the 4th Council of La- 
teran, which requires the above. — (P 203, ibid.) 

5. Excommunication of Princes who do not Extermi- 
nate Heretics from their Territories. — In the same 
canon this is required. — (Ibid.) 

6. Heretics Intestable, and to be Deprived of the 
Rights of Law and Justice. — Proved from the same 
canon. — (Ibid.) 

7. The Subjects of Heretical Monarchs, or those 
who abet Heresy, absolved from their Allegiance. — 
(Ibid.) 

We would merely refer to the admission of Dr Doyle, 
the well-known Romish Bishop, who said, in reference to 
this very canon — the 3d canon of the 4th Council of 
Lateran, — 

"Such a law in the present age would be immoral, urn just, impos- 
sible. It would be opposed to the natural disposition of the people of 
this empire. It would be contrary to all the. laws, usages, and customs 
of our country. It would not be suited to the times and circumstances 
in which we live. In place of being necessary or useful, it would up- 
turn the very foundations of society, and instead of benefiting the en- 
tire community, it would drench our streets and our fields in blood/" 
— Letter to Lord Liverpool, p. 111. 

What hypocrisy ! Dr Doyle must have known right 
well that this very canon was part of the canon law of 
his Church, — a law of which he admits, that " it would 
drench our fields with blood!" Let Protestants mark" 
this, and let them remember that it is the avowed object 
of the Papal Hierarchy to introduce this law. 



intolerance of canon law. 7 1 

8. Excommunication and Cursing of Protestants, 
from Bull Gjebje Domini : — 

"We excommunicate and curse, on the part of God Almighty, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; by the authority, also, of the blessed 
apostles, Peter and Paul; and by our own, all Hussites, Wicklephists, 
Lutherans, Zuinglians, Calvinists, Huegonots, Anabaptists, Trinitarians, 
and apostates whatsoever from the Christian faith ; and all and singu- 
lar other heretics, under whatsoever name they may be classed, and of 
whatsoever sect they may be; and those who believe, receive, or favour 
them; and all those who defend them in general, whatsoever they be ; 
and all those who, without our authority, and that of the Apostoli« 
See, knowingly read or keep, print, or in any way whatsoever, from 
any cause, publicly or privately, upon any pretence or colour whatso- 
ever, defend their books which contain heresy, or treat of religion ; also, 
schismatics, and those who pertinaciously withdraw themselves, or se- 
cede from obedience to us, and to the Roman Pontiff for the time 
feeing." — Preface, Bull Canoe Domini. Mag. Bull. Rom. Luxem. 
An. 1727 

The bull is not only intolerant, but completely subver- 
sive of the royal authority This was confessed by Dr 
M'Hale, now Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam in 
Ireland, who, when examined before the Commissioners 
of Irish Education, 1826, said, — 

" There is the collision that would be supposed to result from the 
reception of that bull with the established authorities of the country. 
This is an insurmountable objection."— Appendix, Eighth Report. 

Such is the admission of Dr M'Hale as to the bull 
Ccence Domini , and yet that very bull is a part of the law 
ef the Church to be introduced into this country I Surely 
Britain will take some step effectually to prevent this ere it 
is too late. 

9. The Restitution op Church and Forfeited 
Property. 

Benedict XIV., in reference to questions proposed by 
the Bishop of Antivari, on the subject of the restoration, 
by infidels, of property which had come into their posses- 
sion, applies the very same rule to what he terms heretics. 
He says : — 

"But when he foresaw that it would be objected to him, that that 
property, unless Catholics had bought it, would have remained in the 
power of heretics, who would receive the fruits of it. He answers, tha f 
tiiia is nothing to the purpose, since herit/cs also should be obligtd to 



72 CANTON LAW, AND THE lit 0UI5ITI0N. 

restitution. Finally, he counsels Catbclics, that, when treating with 
the owners of property, they should bargain and enter into new con- 
tracts with those, in the occupation of whose property they could retain 
possession with a safe conscience." — Mag. Bui). Rom. Luxem. a.d. 1752. 

This is worthy of particular observation, that " heretics 
also should be obliged to restitution"'' Nay, his holiness 
goes even still farther, and he declares that treaties en- 
tered into between Roman Catholic princes and the he- 
terodox are null and void : — 

" Finally, conventions and treaties entered into between lay Catholic 
princes and the heterodox, (or heretics,) as to the possession and deten- 
tion of property of the Church, are disallowed by the Apostolic See ; as 
P Schmalygrueber proves at length in the first volume of his Counsels, 
(Counsel 15, Gu. 1 ;) and these are the conventions to which this fore- 
cited author alludes." — Ibid. 

It appears that, even if the property be purchased by a 
third party, the sale is invalid, and the purchaser is bound 
to restitution. 

" Whether ecclesiastical property redeemed from infidels, ought ne- 
cessarily to be restored, or, at least, some transfer to be made ? And 
he answers, that it is to be restored, as well because the Christian, 
knowing that it is the property of the Church, possesses another per- 
son's property with a bad faith; as, because the infidel robber could 
not transfer to the Christian purchaser a right greater than that 
which he himself possessed over the property sold. Therefore, if the 
seller, by the crime of the rapine, had acquired no right over the 
property violently taken away, occupied, and afterwards sold ; so 
neither, by parity of reasoning, can he who bought it be said to have 
acquired any right over the same." 

"Then, finally, because it is a general rule, that he who (though 
ignorant of the theft) buys anything from a thief, is bound to restitu- 
tion as soon as the true and lawful owner appears." — Ibid. 

Thus, the purchaser losses all, — the property which he 
had purchased, and his money, — because the estate had 
passed from Romish to infidel or heretic hands. 

10. The Subjection of Heretics to the Inquisition. 

We give the bull of Benedict XIV., in exienso, under 
the title of the " Inquisition established by the Church of 
Rome." (Chap. XII.) It is, therefore, unnecessary to quote 
it at large here. "We would only extract one passage s— 

" Whether a criminal being charged with heresy, flying to a church, 
ought to be dragged out by the bishop or the inquisitor? The Ppa'tir, 



ROMANISTS SUBJECT IN TEMPORALS TO THE POPE 73 

having heard the votes, answered, that the criminal can be dragged out 
by the inquisitor, the bishop being certified of it, either before or after." 

So great is the crime of heresy in the estimation of 
Borne, that even the sanctuary, which affords protection 
under other circumstances, affords none to the heretic, 
who is to be dragged forth by the inquisitor to meet his 
doom. 

John XXII. issued a similar bull as follows : — 

"John XXII., Pope, — To the Inquisitors of heretical pravity, ap- 
pointed throughout the kingdom of France. 

" On your part, it has been lately proposed before us, that some guilty, 
or suspected, or accused of heretical pravity, or being converted from 
Jewish blindness to the Catholic faith, and afterwards apostatizing from it, 
tiy to churcheS, not as a remedy for their salvation, but that they may 
escape your hands, and may avoid the judgment of vengeance for their 
crimes, about which you have humbly implored the providence of our 
Apostolical See. 

"We, therefore, endeavouring with most anxious care to extirpate 
the enemies o) the orthodox faith, and to pluck out by the roots, from 
the garden of the Lord, such a noxious and pestiferous weed, we, by our 
Apostolical letters, commit to your direction, after the example of our 
predecessor of happy memory, Pope Martin IV., who, by his Apostolical 
letters, commanded the same to the inquisitors of heretical pravity, ap- 
pointed through the kingdom of France, — as far as respects those who 
shall appear to you to be guilty of heretical pravity, or to be notably 
suspected of the same; also, those accused of the aforesaid plague; 
also, converted Jews, and afterwards apostatizing from the faith, either 
openly, or on probable proofs, — that you should freely discharge the 
duty of your office according to the quality of their crime, just as if 
they had not fled to churches, or the aforesaid places, by suppress- 
ing, without any appeal, by ecclesiastical censure, those who oppose 
themselves. 

" And, that no obstacle* may be placed in your way on this behalf, 
we enjoin by these letters, our venerable brothers, the Archbishops and 
P>ishops appointed through the kingdom of France, that they should not 
throw any impediment in your way, so that you should not freely fulfil 
these commands, but rather that they should, on your requisition in 
these things, assist you as they may have opportunity. 

"Given at Avignon, on the Ides 01 August, in our first year." ibid. 
A.D., 1317 

Let the reader observe that these are the laws which 
are now to be introduced by the new Hierarchy. 



74 the bull unigexitus against the bible. 

11. The Subjection of Roman Catholics in Tempo- 
rals to the Pope. 

Benedict XIV. issued a bull, 

"Of not impeding the execution of citations, mandates, and other 
provisions of the Court of Rome, or the Apostolic See." 

The bull places Roman Catholics in subjection to tin 
Pope, so Jar as he may deem it nee ul for his own, no 
called, spiritual ^>urposes. 

As to citations, edicts, and mandates, we find the fol- 
lowing passage: — 

" Therefore, it has been declared and decreed, that as well verbal and 
personal citations, either at the house, or in the hands of domestics, or 
by edicts, as also all mandates whatsoever, may be freely done and exe- 
cuted without any other license, good pleasure, or exequatur, or requi- 
sition of the officials or ministers of the place, and that neither the 
aforesaid officials and ministers, even the cardinals themselves, and pre- 
lates, and clergy, and commissary of the chamber, and barons, and 
comptrollers of households, and other persons whatsoever, can, in this, 
afford any impediment, directly or indirectly, under the penalties con- 
tained in the Apostolical constitutions, against those usurping the juris- 
diction of the Apostolic See, and hindering it or its free exercise, or 
making a resistance to the Court, and being inadvertently and unduly 
required to give any license or good pleasure, they by no means can, nor 
ought, under the same penalties, to affix their exequatur, or otherwise 
put their hand in writing to these despatches of the tribunals of the 
Court of Rome."— Ibid. A. D., 1742. 

The following remarkable passage occurs : — 
Section 5. — " Besides, we ordain and define that all and every, the 
governors, rulers, presidents of any places, territories, and cities of a 
state, not only immediately, but even mediately, subject in tempo- 
rals to the Apostolic See; and, moreover, all prefects and presidents 
of provinces of the same state, though supported by any privileges or 
faculties whatsoever, even of legates, a latere. And, moreover, that 
the Pro-legate of Avignon, and even the Cardinals of the Holy Roman 
Church, even our own legates, a latere, and their ministers and officials, 
ought to be comprehended, and considered as comprehended in this same 
decree." — Ibid. 

"Even mediatbly, subject in temporals to the Apostolic See !" 

'Tis thus, that all Romanists are subject in temporals to 
the Pope — mediately. They are all members of the con- 
federation of which he is the head, and are subject to the 
spiritual direction of the confessor, who acts under the 
bishop, who acts under the Pope. 



THE BULL UtflQfcKITUB AGAINST THE BIBLE. 75 

12. Prohibition of Scripture, and Condemnation of 
Scriptural Sentiments in the Bull TJnigenitus. 

In this bull, certain propositions were selected from the 
works of Quesnelle, and condemned. We give some of the 
condemned propositions, — 

Extracts from the hundred and one propositions Con- 
demned by the Bull TJnigenitus, as taken from the Moral 
Reflections of Quesnelle on the New Testament 

" Proposition 2. The grace of Jesus Christ, the efficacious principle 
of good, of whatever kind it be, is necessary to every good work, and 
without it, not only nothing is done, but nothing can be done. (John 
xv. 5.) 

"4. Xq4 Lord ! all things are possible to Him, to whom you make 
all things possible, by working the same in him. (Mark ix. 22.) 

" 5. When God does not soften the heart, by the internal unction of 
His grace, exhortations and external graces do not serve, unless to harden 
it more. (Rom. ix, 18.) 

"8. We do not pertain to the new covenant, unless in so much as we 
are partakers of that new grace which works in us that which God com- 
mands us. (Heb. viii. 10.) 

" 14. How far remote soever an obstinate sinner may be from safety, 
when Jesus exhibits Himself to his view in the salutary light of His 
grace, it is fit that he should devote himself, run to Him, humble him- 
self, and adore his Saviour. (Mark. v. 6.) 

" 15. When God accompanies His command, and His external address, 
by the motion of His Spirit and the internal force of His grace, that 
works the obedience in the heart which He seeks. (Luke ix. 60.)- 

" 18. The seed of the word, which the hand of God waters, always 
brings forth its fruit. (Acts xi. 21.) 

" 25. God illuminates the mind, and heals equally with the body, 
by His will alone; He commands, and He is obeyed. (Lukexviii. 42.) 

11 26. No graces are given except through faith. (Luke viii. 48.) 

"27. Faith is the first graee, and the fountain of all others. (2 
Pet. i. 3.) 

" 30. All whom God wills to save through Christ, are infallibly 
saved. (John vi. 40.) 

" 32. Jesus Christ delivered Himself to death, to deliver for ever 
the first-born of His own blood, that is the elect, from the hand of the 
exterminating angel. (Gal. iv. 5, and v. 4-7.) 

" 45. The love of God not any more reigning in the heart of a sinner, 
it is necessary that carnal lust should reign in him, and corrupt all his 
actions. (Luke xv. 13.) 

" 52. All other means of safety are contained in faith, as in their 
germ and seed ; but this faith is not without love and confidence. (Acts 
x. 43.) 



76 THE BULL UNIGENITUS AGAINST THE BIBLE. 

.-* 

11 58. There is neither God nor religion where there is not chanty 
(1 John iv. 8.) 

11 77. He who does not lead a life worthy of a son of God and a mem- 
ber of Christ, ceases to have God in his heart for his Father, and Christ 
for his head. (1 John ii. 22.) 

" 80. The reading oi the Sacred Scripture is for all. (Acts viii. 28.) 

"81. The obscurity of the Sacred Word of God is no reason for lay- 
men to dispense themselves from reading it. (Acts viii. 31.) 

" 82. The Lord's Day ought to be sanctified by Christians for reading 
works of piety, and above all, of the Sacred Scriptures. It is damnable 
to wish to withdraw a Christian from this reading. (Acts xv. 21.) 

" 83. It is an illusion to persuade one-self, that a knowledge ot the 
mysteries of religion is not to be communicated to women by the read- 
ing of the Sacred Book. Not from the simplicity of women, but from 
the proud science of men, has the abuse of the Scriptures arisen, and 
heresies have been produced. (John iv. 26.) 

' • 84. To take away the New Testament from the hands of Christians, 
or to shut it up from them, by taking from them the means of under- 
standing it, is to close the mouth of Christ to them. (Matt. v. 2.) 

" 85. To interdict from Christians the reading of the Sacred Scrip- 
ture, particularly of the Gospel, is to interdict the use of the light from 
the 1 sons of light, and to cause that they should suffer some species of 
excommunication. (Luke xi. 33.) 

" 86. To take away from the simple people this solace of joining 
their voice to the voice of the whole Church, is a custom contrary to the 
apostolical practice and the intention of God. (1 Cor. xiv. 16.) 

"91. The fear of unjust excommunication should never impede us 
from fulfilling our duty. We are never cut off from the Church, — even 
when, by the wickedness of men, we seem expelled from it, — when to 
God, to Jesus Christ, and to the Church itself, through charity, we are 
still joined. (John ix. 32, 33.) 

" 92. To suffer excommunication in peace, and an unjust anathema 
rather than to violate truth, is to imitate the example of St Paul , let 
it be only provided, that it may not be to erect himself against authority, 
or to break unity. (Rom. ix. 3.)" . . . — Ibid. 

THE POPE'S CONDEMNATION 

of all these propositions is in the following terms : — 
" The suffrages of the aforesaid cardinals, and of other theologians, 
having been heard, as well by word of mouth as exhibited to us in writing , 
and in the first place, — the direction of the Divine light being implored, 
private and public prayers also being appointed for the same end, — we 
declare, condemn, and reprobate respectively, by this our constitution, 
perpetually in force for ever, all and singular, the propositions before in- 
serted, as false, captious, ill-sounding, offensive to pious ears, scandalous, 
pernicious, rash, injurious to the Church and its practice, — neither against 
the Church alone, but also against the secular power, contumacious. 



HEMAUKAKLE POINTS IN CANON LAW. 77 

seditious, impious, blasphemous, suspected of heresy, and savouring of 
heresy itself, also favouring heretics and hrresies and even schism, er- 
roneous, approaching to heresy, often condemned, and again even here- 
tical, and manifestly renewing various heresies, and chiefly those which 
are contained in the famous propositions of Jansenius, and, indeed, being 
received in that sense in which they were condemned. Commanding all 
the faithful in Christ, of either sex, not to presume to think, teach, or 
preach concerning the said propositions, otherwise than contained in this 
the same our constitution ; so that, whosoever shall teach, defend, publish, 
or treat, even in disputation, publicly or privately, unless it may be to 
impugn them, or any of them, conjointly or separately, shall be subject, 
' ipso facto, and without any other declaration, to ecclesiastical censures, 
and the other punishments decreed by law against the perpetrators of 
similar things. 

" We command, also, the venerable brothers, the Patriarchs, Arch- 
bishops, and Bishops, and other ordinaries of places, also the Inquisitors 
of heretical pravity, that they may, by all means, coerce and compel 
gainsayers and rebels whatsoever, by censures, and the aforesaid punish- 
ments, and the other remedies of law and fact, — the aid, even, of the 
secular arm being called in for this purpose, if necessary." — Ibid. 

" Thus, excommunications and all the censures of the 
Church, together with the merciful operations of the In- 
quisition, are to be employed against those who venture 
to teach that " the reading of the Scripture is for all" or 
who hold any of the above-mentioned views ; and yet Dr 
Murray, R. C. Archbishop of Dublin, when asked as to 
this bull, by the commons' Committee, admitted that it 
is received in Ireland! — p. 647 of the Examination. 
• v Now, in reference to the aforesaid bulls, we would con- 
sider some remarkable facts. 

I. An epitome of the works of Benedict XIV., contain- 
ing reference to these bulls, was appended to the works 
of Dens, in the form of an eighth volume, and published 
in Dublin in the year 1832 !! ! ..-.,., ~ 

Thus, the laws of the Pope were introduced into Ireland,, • 
it the 19th century, a few years after the Emancipation 
Bill, — laws which Romanists themselves confess, are sub- 
versive of the royal authority, and of the liberty of the 
subject. 

II. The same epitome is appended to the Moral Theology 
of Alphonsus Liguori, in the ninth volume, and published 
even in London. 



78 LAWS PROMULGATED AT ROME OBLIGATORY UPON ALL. 

III. The Papal bulls referred to above, with otters 01 
n similar character, are considered so hostile to the well- 
being of a nation, that they have been resisted by govern- 
ments which acknowledge the See of Rome. — It is remark- 
able that England is the only country in which the above 
and other Papal laws and bulls are published at pleasure. 
For evidence on this subject, we refer to " The Report 
from the Select Committee, appointed to report the Nature 
mid Substance of the Laws and Ordinances existing in 
Foreign States, <kc? London, 1816. 

IV. Some Roman Catholics hold, that bulls, in order 
to obtain force, should be published and received. 

Liguori, however, says, — 

" But the second very common and more probable opinion denies 
that, and holds that the pontifical laws oblige the faithful, though 
only promulgated at rome." — Vol I., Moral Theology de Legibus. 
Venice, 1828. 

It will be remembered, that Liguori is the very highest 
authority, and that of his works it has been pronounced, 
that they contain "not one word worthy of 'censure /" 

Could the Pope acquire the power, he would carry out 
these laws with terrible effect. Ultramontanism, or the 
doctrines which ascribe infallibility and temporal power to 
the Pope, are real Popery; and the opposition which has 
been given to such views in some Romish countries, is a 
semi-Protestant movement. 

"Were Great Britain enslaved by Rome, the world, it is 
to be feared, would follow in her wake, and the Popedom 
be established in the plenitude of its power. 

"Will Britons allow such laws to be introduced, — laws 
which peril their lives, their properties, and their best 
interests ? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What reason has been assigned by Romanists in 
justification of the establishment of the-Papal Hierarchy? 

A. — That without such a regularly constituted episco- 
pate, they cannot enjoy the benefits of the canon law. 

2. Q. — What is the canon law? 

A. — It is a collection of canons of councils, decretals 



SUMMARY ON CANON LAW. 79 

and bulls of Popes, published in the Corpus Juris Canonici f 
by Gregory XIII. in the 16th century, and the decrees of 
the Council of Trent. 

3. Q. — Are the decrees of the Council of Trent included 
in the canon law of the Church? 

A. — Certainly; and all bulls of the popes, whenever 
published, are properly the laws of the Papacy. 

4. Q. — What is the nature of the canon law? 

A. — It is intolerant in its character, and subversive of 
the liberties of the people and the rights of the throne. 

5. Q. — Is the 3d canon of the Fourth Council of Lateran 
for the extermination of heretics included in that law ? 

A. — Yes; it forms part of the Corpus Juris Canomci. 

6. Q. — And yet, what did Dr Doyle admit in reference 
to it? 

A. — That it would drench our fields with blood, 

7. Q. — Mention some of the bulls which are subversive 
of the royal authority and of religious liberty? 

A. — The bull Coenon Domini ; the bull of Benedict XIV., 
for the restitution of Church and forfeited property; a 
bull of the same Pope, for the subjection of heretics to the 
Inquisition ; a bull of the same, forbidding any opposition 
to the Pope's mandates, citations, &c. ; and the bull Uni- 
genitus, which exposes to ecclesiastical censure and excom- 
munication those who hold Protestant principles. 

S. Q, — An epitome of the works of Benedict XIV. has 
been published in the 8th vol. of Dens, in Dublin, 1832. 
Is there Anything remarkable in this? 

A.— Yes. It contains reference to those very bulls and 
persecuting authorities. 

9. Q. — Has it been published in any other form in Great 
Britain ? 

A . — Yes. At the end of the Moral Theology of A Iphon- 
sus Liguori, published within the last few years in London. 

10. Q. — What is Liguori's view as to the obligation of 
bulls and their publication? 4 

A. — He says, that though published only in Rome, 
Ihev bind the faithful. 



80 CHAPTER X. 

The Inquisition— Its Object, Proceedings, 
and History. 

The spread of truth by the Albigenses and Waldenses 
in France, gave rise to the Inquisition, in the beginning 
of the 13th century. These early Protestants, who had 
existed, even according to the testimony of their enemies, 
from time immemorial, were the special objects of Papal 
wrath ; and when it was found that they still flourished, 
despite of sword and canon law, " the Holy Office of the 
Inquisition" was established, in order to exterminate, by 
systematic and continuous efforts, all dissentients from 
Rome. In the Inquisition there existed a combination — 
of espionage, which extended far and wide into every 
circle, — of power, before which even crowned and mitred 
heads quailed, — and of cruelty, unequalled by the false 
prophet Mahomet, who propagated his mendacious system 
by the sword, or even by pagan Rome itself. 

Dominick, or rather Saint Dominick, is generally re- 
garded as the founder of the Inquisition, and with great 
justice; for though it was not fully established in his 
time, yet he was undoubtedly its founder. 

Bzovius, a Romish historian, says, — 

" About that time, Pope Innocent III., (as Sixtus V. relates in hi* 
diploma for the Institution of the festival of St Peter, the Martyr,) au- 
thorized the god-like Dominick to distinguish himself against the here- 
tics, by constant preaching and meetings for discussion, and by the office 
of the Inquisition, which he first entrusted to him ; and that he should 
either reconcile them to the Church, if they were willing to be recon- 
ciled, or strike them with a just sentence, if they were unwilling to re- 
turn."— Ch. 1215, Innocent III., 19. 

The crusades against " the heretics" had been carried" 
on with great vigour ; cities and towns were taken by 
storm ; fire and sword were borne far and wide through 
the dominions of the Count of Toulouse, in the south of 
France, by crusaders who wore a cross on the breast, to 
distinguish them from crusaders in the Holy Land, who 
wore the same symbol on the right shoulder. An army 
of no less than 500,000 took the field, amongst whom were 
conspicuous, archbishops and bishops, abbots and all orders 
of clergy, secular and religious. These spared neither age 



DOMINICK, FOUNDER OF THE INQUISITION. 81 

nor sex ; but, as a plague of locusts, literally devoured the 
land. 

Yet all this, it seems, was not sufficient. It was deemed 
expedient that a systematized effort should be made by 
holy Mother Church, — in truth, a cruel " step-dame," — 
for the utter extermination of Protestants. Dominick 
was selected as the man to commence the project. He 
was born in Spain in the year 1170. After his ordina- 
tion he travelled in France , and seeing the progress which 
Protestantism made, his zeal for Popery was inflamed, and 
he besought " his holiness'' that he might unite with those 
who had been sent forth to preach against the Waldenses. 
His wish being gratified, he soon distinguished himself by his 
energy, and occupied a leading position amongst the ene- 
mies of Protestantism. He became the founder of an or- 
der called Dominicans ; and when it was seen that exist- 
ing laws and efforts (though surely cruel enough) were not 
as effectual as it was wished, in checking the advance of 
Protestantism, he was appointed to make inquisition, inde- 
pendently of, but not against, the bishops, as to heretics, 
and to hand them over, when convicted, to the civil power, 
to be put to death This he did, it seems, most effectually 
It was not, however, until later years, that the Inquisi- 
tion was thoroughly established. Begun m France, it 
was soon after introduced into Spain and othei countries 
and for ages proved the most terrible engine of cruelty 
and injustice that ever disgraced the annals of the past 

Ere we proceed further with the history of the Inquisi- 
tion, we would now give some account of its 

PROCEEDINGS AND OFFICERS. 

Piazza, who was himself a judge of the Inquisition in 
Italy, wrote a history, in which he gives an interesting 
account of that terrible power There was a general in- 
quisitor, who was called II Padre Reverendissimo, the 
most Reverend Father, who presided over the High Court 
of the Inquisition, and generally lived in the capital city 
It belonged to him to appoint inquisitors for the provinces, 
to act as his vicegerents As St Dormmck was founder of 
the Inquisition, the officers were generally selected from 



82 DENUNCIATION IN INQUISITION 

among the Dominicans. Piazza further informs us, in refer- 
ence to the Italian Inquisition, that these judges had several 
officers who were called Slgnori Pateutati, — or, gentlemen 
who hold patents, and who are chosen in large numbers 
from the nobility and gentry. They enjoy peculiar privi- 
leges, — exemption from taxation — from the secular tribu- 
nals, an object anxiously sought by ecclesiastical despots 
in all countries, <fec, &c. These bore different titles and 
offices: — 1. Consultori, or counsellors, whose office it was 
to advise when called on. 2. Famigltari, or domestics 
belonging to the family of the inquisitor, whose duty it was 
to convey prisoners from their home to the Inquisition, or 
from prison to prison. 3. The Fiscal, to promote justice. 
4.' The Avocato de Rei, to plead for the accused. 5. Can- 
celliere, or notary, to write down all proceedings. 6. Mcin- 
datario, or messenger, to summon prisoners. 7. Barrigello, 
whose duty it was to imprison. 

All these officers are sworn solemnly not to reveal any- 
thing, but to maintain 'the utmost secrecy. Along with 
the inquisitor, the ordinary or bishop of the place is asso 
ciated as coniudex, or co-judge, showing the complete 
union of the Inquisition with the Church of Rome. 

THE DENUNCIATION. 

This was the first step towards the punishment of the 
accused. The suspected was denounced by a third party , 
or, as it sometimes happened, the confession, whether true 
or false, wrung from some poor wretch by torture, was 
made the ground of the interference of the Holy Office 
against the accused. We shall see in our chapter on " the 
Inquisition as sanctioned by Rome," that, according to 
the teaching of a saint, who was canonized in 1839, and 
whose works have been authoritatively approved, it is the 
duty of a father, in the case of heresy, to betray his own 
child, and o£ a child to betray his father to the Inquisition. 

To the denunciation, which was made in writing, were 
generally appended the names of those whom the de- 
nouncer considered as capable of giving evidence in the 
affair. Anonymous information was always accepted ; 
the accused was not allowed to know his accusers, or to 



IMPRISONMENT IN INQUISITION. 83 

meet them face to face ; and thus a full "opportunity was 
afforded to the malignant and revengeful to gratify their 
evil propensities, and to wreak vengeance upon the heads of 
those against whom they bore hate. Nay, even brother 
was compelled, through the medium of the confessional, to 
inform against brother, sister against sister, parent against 
child, and child against parent. The confessor, even with- 
out any breach of the seal, had only to withhold absolu- 
tion until his terms were fulfilled. The next step was 
what is termed the inquest, which consisted of the exami- 
nation of witnesses. Then followed " the censure of the 
qualifiers." The various tribunals of the Inquisition were 
consulted, in order to ascertain whether they had any 
charge against the denounced. If the reply were affirma- 
tive, the various charges were laid before the qualifiers, 
who were generally monks, for opinion as to the nature of 
the guilt which belonged to the accused. The next step was 

IMPRISONMENT. 

At dead of night, the muffled coach, with its masked 
attendants, rolled to the door of the accused, and de- 
manded their victim, in the name of that " Holy Office/' 
—the very mention of which caused the bravest hearts 
to quail. 

None ever thought of resistance, which would be ut- 
terly vain. The child was torn from its distracted mother, 
or the husband from the bosom of his wife, and hurried off 
to a cell, perhaps unconscious of any guilt, and utterly 
ignorant of any crime, to await his doom, — the victim, 
perchance, of malevolence and revenge. But few ever 
hoped to see their friends, if once arrested. The secret 
prisons were reserved for heretics, and there they were 
never allowed to see their acquaintances, or even to speak to 
their jailers, except when addressed. How terrible the fate ! 
How fearful the forebodings ! 'Mid solitude which was 
never broken, save by the visits of the attendants, who, 
in their masks and peculiar attire, were more like demons 
than men, the prisoner awaited his doom without occupa- 
tion ; and how slowly did the hours roll on, till at last he 
was i n t rod u ced to ss>- ' 



84 THE AUDIENCE AND TORTURE IN INQUISITION. 

THE FIRST AUDIENCE. 

If the accused, when brought before his judges, and ad- 
monished, as it was customary, to speak the truth, asked 
the nature of his accusation, he was simply informed, that 
the Holy Office never proceeded in any affair without 
due evidence. He was interrogated as to his relations; 
and if it were found that any of them had been guilty 
of heresy, their property was seized as forfeited to the 
Church. 

Indeed, the property of the prisoner himself, on his ar- 
rest, was invariably seized. If he were so happy as to te 
set at large once more, an inventory of his goods having 
been taken, arid the expenses of the arrest and of his sup- 
port while in the dungeons of the Inquisition having been 
defrayed, the remainder, generally a small balance, was 
restored. If found guilty, his property passed into the 
hands of the Inquisition, and thus afforded another motive 
to the judges, who, it is needless to say, were not very 
scrupulous, for finding him guilty. 

The prisoner was generally obliged to repeat the Creed 
and the Lord's Prayer, and any inaccuracy was accepted 
as additional evidence against him. After three such au- 
diences, in wh?ch every advantage was taken of the ner- 
vousness or weakness of the prisoner, the charges were for- 
mally made by the fiscal, and then came 

THE TORTURE. 

The accused either acknowledged altogether his guilt, 
and in that case he was tortured to confess more, — or ac- 
knowledged it in part, and then he was tortured to admit 
all, — or denied it in toto, which invariably led to torture, 
that he might admit some. Thus, there was no mode of 
escape. Say what he might, the unhappy prisoner was 
doomed to undergo a punishment severer than death 
itself! 

Of torture, there were various kinds, the details of which 
will ~be found in our chapter on the subject. 

The sentence at last was given, according to the de 
position of the witnesses. Few were honourably acquited. 
The slightest indiscretion subjected the accused to som 



HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION. 85 

punishment; and, even if saved from capital punishment, 
or death at the stake on the Autos daft, he returned 
home with a sullied reputation, or health broken. Some 
account of the Auto da f6, when persons were burnt to 
ashes at the stake in the presence of multitudes, will be 
found in Chapter XI. on the Tortures of the Inquisition. 
Having thus described the proceedings of the Inquisi- 
tion, we would now give further account of 

ITS HISTORY. 

The Inquisition was purely an establishment of the 
Church of Rome. It was founded for the express object 
of extirpating heresy. The first inquisitor and others of 
the judges have been canonized. Popes have issued bulls 
in its favour. It was not a State contrivance. Nay, 
generally speaking, on its first introduction, and even after 
its establishment, it was opposed by the people, and in its 
rise, at all events, it received no very cordial support from 
the state , for the property of heretics, previous to the rise 
of the Inquisition, was confiscated to the State, but, after- 
wards, it became the property of the Church. 

The Inquisition was established in the 13th century in 
France, Milan, Geneva, Arragon, Sardinia, and had a brief 
existence of a few years in Palestine. In the 14th century 
it was established in Poland Some attempts were made 
to introduce it into England, but it was successfully 
resisted. In Venice it existed in a modified form. The 
authorities protested against its complete introduction. 
After the Council of Constance, and the martyrdom of 
John Huss and Jerome of Prague, it was re-establish- 
ed with great power in Bohemia, and enabled to carry out 
its persecutions of the Hussites with terrific fury. Even 
in Spain, its stronghold, it was not more dreaded than hated 
by the people Its judges were sometimes exposed to 
popular violence, and were not unfrequently sacrificed by 
the populace Torquemada, in 1483, was appointed In- 
quisitor General of Spain, by Pope Sixtus, and confirmed 
m his office b) Innocent VIII He drew up a new code 
of laws, and resuscitated the Inquisition. He was a man of 
ability and courage, united with the utmost cruelty He in- 



86 HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION. 

troduced the Inquisition into Saragossa, which created vio- 
lent commotions amongst the people, who appealed to Fer- 
dinand for orotection. While the matter was pending, the 
the inquisitors did not relax their proceedings, which added 
still more to the popular discontent, and led to the formation 
of a conspiracy, embracing some of the highest classes. 

Arbues, one of the inquisitors, was assassinated, not- 
withstanding the precaution which he had adopted of wear- 
ing armour. He was put to death, while at prayers, by 
a wound in the neck. This circumstance greatly incensed 
the inquisitors, and there was scarcely a family in Sara- 
gossa which did not fall under their displeasure. 

In the provinces generally, the establishment of the In- 
quisition was opposed by the populace. 

King Ferdinand entered warmly into the plans ; and 
even the gentle Isabella was induced, by an appeal to her re- 
ligious devotion, to countenance the persecutions of the 
Inquisition. 

Torquemada was allowed an escort of fifty mounted 
familiars and two hundred infantry, when he travelled, t* 
protect him from personal violence. He died in 1498. 

In 1543, the Inquisition was established in Rome by 
" His Holiness," in order to check the rising reformation. 

Passing through various vicissitudes of power, this ter- 
rible tribunal flourished in various parts of the world, and 
proved itself a scourge of the human family. 

It is no longer ascendant. Its demoniacal proceedings 
were, at length, compelled to give way before the light 
and liberty which the blessed Reformation introduced, and 
which so far extended its influence to even the most bigot- 
ted Romish countries. 

In 1810, the Inquisition was abolished, by the inter- 
ference of Britain, in Goa. 

In 1820, the Cortes abolished the Inquisition in Spain; 
and, though religious despotism still exists there, " th« 
Holy Office" has not been re-established. 

In 1821, the Inquisition was abolished in Lisbon. 

Should ever Rome be permitted to re-establish her 
sway, then may we bid farewell to civil and religious 



SUMMARY OF THE INQUISITION 87 

liberty, and prepare for the Inquisition, which was so ter 
rible, that even many of the Roman Catholic laity re- 
sisted it, and thus exposed themselves to the wrath of 
their Church 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Who founded the Inquisition? 

A — Saint Dommick, who was empowered by the Pope 
to act against the Waldenses. 

2. Q. — Were not vigorous measures adopted against tht 
Waldenses independent of the Inquisition 1 

A. — Yes. A crusade was preached against them, and 
an immense army ravaged the country with fire and sword, 
sparing neither age nor sex. It was deemed necessary, how- 
ever, to establish the Inquisition, in order to carry on a 
permanent and systematic work 

3 Q. — What was the first step towards the punishment 
of the accused ? 

A. — Denunciation, which wa^ made in writing Some- 
times the tortured, in order to deliver themselves, would 
denounce the innocent. 

4. Q. — What peculiar injustice marked the accusations 
of the Inquisition ? 

A. — The accused knew not the accuser, nor was he 
even made aware of the points which were laid to his 
charge. 

5. Q. — What was the great object of the Inquisition ? 
A. — To exterminate heretics. 

6. Q. — Has it been a popular institution? 

A. — No. Even in Spain it was equally hated and 
dreaded by the people. 

7. Q. — How does it appear, from the case of Torque- 
mada, that the Inquisition was unpopular ? 

A. — He was compelled to travel with an escort of fifty 
mounted familiars and two hundred infantry. Arbues, 
one of the inquisitors, though he wore armour, was assas- 
sinated while at prayers. 

8. Q. — When was the Inquisition abolished in Spain? 
A. In 1821, when various discoveries were made, ex- 
hibiting the cruelty of the Inquisition. 



88 TORTURES OF THE INQUISITION. 

9. Q. — Does the Inquisition still exist at Rome? 

A. — When the Revolution took place in 1849, and the 
Pope had fled, the dungeons of the Inquisition were thrown 
open, and human remains found. Now that the Pope has 
returned to his throne, it is to be presumed that the In- 
quisition is restored. 



CHAPTER XL 

Tortures and Cruelties of the Inquisition. 

Having already given some account of the objects, rules, 
and history of the Inquisition, we shall now direct atten- 
tion to its tortures and cruelties. 

THE PULLEY, 

generally speaking, was the first torture to which the vic- 
tim of Romish power was subjected. 

Divested of all his clothes, except his drawers, his hands 
were tied behind his back, a heavy weight was fastened 
to his feet, and a rope, which passed through a pulley in 
the ceiling, firmly attached to his wrists. 

At a given signal, the wretched victim was suddenly 
hoisted up to a considerable height, by the rope attached 
to his wrists, where he was allowed to dangle, for what- 
ever period his priestly torturers thought well. Thus the 
arms were dragged backwards, out of their natural posi- 
tion, and the pain rendered still more acute by the weight 
at the feet. In this position, the unfortunate accused — 
who, probably, was guilty of no crime save Protestantism 
— was tortured in various ways, as if the dreadful position 
of suspension itself were not sufficient. The holy officers 
sometimes whipped the penitent thus suspended in the 
air, — sometimes pierced his body, or tore the flesh with 
red-hot instruments, — and then completed the fearful task, 
by suddenly allowing the prisoner to fall within some 
inches of the ground, the jerk of which caused excruciat- 
ing pain, and dislocated the joints. If the tortured still" 
maintained his innocence, the punishment was repeated ; 



TUT CHAFING DISH - TH( RACK gg 

or, if it were declared by the surgeon that he would die 
under a repetition of the tortuie, his joints were set, and 
he was borne to his cell, not with a view to his liberation, 
but that he might undergo the torture again 

THE CHAFING DISH 

The accused was secured in the stocks, so that he could 
move neither hand nor foot. A chafing dish, with burn- 
ing coals, was then so placed that the fire might affect the 
soles of his feet — the most sensitive part of the body 
The prisoner was commanded to confess, or, in other words, 
+ o accuse himself, even though he were innocent, and 
priests, with crucifixes, stood near, repeating their hypo- 
critical exhortations, unmoved by the sufferings and cries 
of their victim Not unfiequently were the feet, and 
especially the soles, rubbed with oil or greasy substances, 
— a process which incited the flame, and added to the 
sufferings of the victim, who was thus actually fried alive 
The prisoner would frequently shriek to his executioners 
that he was ready to confess, impelled by the agony of 
the occasion, to obtain a moment's reprieve. A board 
was then interposed between the intense heat and the 
boiling feet , but immediately removed when it was found 
that he had nothing of which to accuse himself. 

The Turkish punishment of the bastinado, or beating 
on the soles of the feet, is justly considered as most inhu- 
man , but it falls far short of this torture which was in- 
flicted by those, who added to the guilt of their inhuma- 
nity, the hypocrisy of bearing in their hands the crucifix, 
— the pretended symbol of the death of Him who came 
" not to destroy men's lives, but tc save them." 

THE RACK. 

This was another mode of torture, and applied in dif- 
ferent ways. 

1. The object, in one instance, seemed to be to drag 
the arms from the sockets. This was effected as follows . 
— The prisoner was placed with his back to a partition, 
behind which stood a windlass, which turned two ropes, 
or pulleys, passing in different directions, and fastened to 
the wrists of the accused. The anns were thus extended 



90 THE PENDULUM. 

to an unnatural degree, and torn from the sockets, 
deemed advisable by the officers of the holy Inquisition. 

2. Again, the victim was laid in a frame, with his back 
resting on a piece of wood placed across, and his feet ra- 
ther elevated above the head. He was then bound by 
his arms and legs to the sides, with cords, in which were 
inserted pieces of wood for the purpose of tightening. At 
a signal, these were turned, until the cords cut into the 
very bone, and were covered almost by the flesh. This 
torture was not unfrequently repeated on uninjured parts 
of the limbs, until the victim completely sunk into a state 
of exhaustion. 

3. Again, the victim, secured in the same, or a similar 
frame, underwent the torture by water. His nose being 
stopped, in order to impede the breathing, a linen bag 
was placed in his mouth, and filled with water This 
caused the most excruciating agony, and the wretched 
sufferer usually burst blood-vessels, in the heaving of his 
bosom, and his frantic efforts to relieve himself by breath- 
ing. Quarts of water have been thus poured into the vic- 
tim, and have slowly oozed through the linen. But, even 
at this point, the cruelty of the holy priesthood was not 
sated. If the sufferer still survived, he was placed on a 
sort of frame, with his head downwards, in order that the 
water might run out. The frame was made somewhat in 
the form of a triangle, with a slip of wood stretching from 
the vertex to the base, which was upward. 

Exhausted by the terrible struggles of the former tor- 
ture, what must have been the sufferings of the accused 
m undergoing this ! How callous to all sensibility were 
the hearts of the men who witnessed and directed, and 
applied such cruelties ' 

THE PENDULUM. 

The English translator of Lorrentis 1 works, states, that 
" on the abolition of the Holy Office by the Cortes in 
Madrid, 1820, a prisoner was found who was to have un- 
dergone death by the pendulum, winch was usually in- 
flicted as follows . — The condemned was fastened in a 
groove upon a table on his back Suspended above him 



THF AUTO DA FE. 91 

was the pendulum, the edge of which was sharp, and it 
was so constructed as to become longer every movement. 
The wretch saw this implement of destruction swin^in^ 
to and fro above him, and every moment the keen edge 
approaching nearer and nearer , at length it cut the skin 
of his nose, and gradually cut until life was extinct." — p. 
306, Hist, of In. Lond. 1850 

AUTO DA FE. 

Several persons who succeeded m escaping from the In- 
quisition, have given accounts of what they themselves 
witnessed and suffered 

Dellon, a Frenchman, in the seventeenth century, was 
so unfortunate as to fall into the power of the Inquisition 
at Goa, on the coast of Malabar The accusations against 
him were of such a frivolous character, that, after great 
suffering by confinement in the dungeons, he was liber- 
ated He'has wi itten an account of what he witnessed. 
He was present at the A ato da ft, and took part in the 
procession as a penitent, wearing a grotesque garment, 
but not doomed to death. 

Auto da ft means an act of /atth, because it is an act 
of faith to punish and burn heretics. This term is ap- 
plied to a certain day appointed for the burning of here- 
tics, and the acquittal or absolution of penitents. Delion 
was numbered amongst the latter, and therefore was not 
burned. 

A long procession, headed by Dominicans, is formed 
of prisoners dressed in various habits, and followed by fa- 
miliars on horseback. Those who are doomed to death are 
elevated on seats erected on stakes of several feet high. 
After much exhortation to be reconciled to the Church, 
the confessors say, that they " leave them to the devil, 
who is waiting at their elbows to receive their souls/* 
Then a great cry is raised by the mob, " Let the dogs' 
beards be made ;" and blazing furs are thrust into their 
faces, which are the parts first to suffer. Afterwards, the 
•whole pile is set on fire, and they all perish. 

Several persons, who have escaped from the power of 
the Inquisition, have written an account of their sufferings. 



92 LITHGOW'S SUFFERINGS IN THE INQUISITION. 

A Scotchman, named Lithgow, a.d. 1620, in his travels 
was arrested, and sent to the Inquisition at Malaga. He 
was discovered and released through the interference of 
the English Consul. On his arrival in England, his case 
excited so much interest, that he was visited by his Ma- 
jesty, King James the First. He wrote a history of the 
treatment which he received, from which we give the fol- 
lowing extract : — 

M After this, the alcade and scrivan, being both chair-set, the one to 
examine, the other to write down my confession and tortures, I was by 
the executioner stripped to the skin, brought to the rack, and then 
mounted by him on the top of it ; when, soon after, I was hung by 
the bare shoulders with two small cords, which went under both my 
arms, running on two rings of iron, that were fixed to the wall above 
my head. Thus being hoisted to the appointed height, the tormentor 
descended below, and drawing down my legs, through the two sides of 
the three planked rack, he tied a cord about each of my ancles, and 
then ascending upon the rack, he drew the cords upward, and bending 
forward, with main force, my two knees against the two planks, the 
sinews of my two hams burst asunder, and the lids of my knees being 
crushed, and the cords made fast, I hung for a large hour At last, 
the encarnador informing the governor that I had the mark of Jerusa- 
lem on my right arm, joined with the name and crown of King James, 
and done upon the holy grave, the corregidor came out of his adjoining 
stance, and gave direction to tear asunder the name and crown (us 
he said) of that heretic king, and arch-enemy to the holy Catholic, 
Church Then the tormentor, laying the right arm above the left, and 
the crown upmost, did cast a cord over both arms, seven distinct 
times; and then, lying down upon his back, and setting both hio feet 
upon my hollow pinched belly, he charged and drew violeutly with his 
hands, making my womb support the force of his feet till the seven se- 
veral cords combined in one place of my arm (and cutting the crown, 
sinews, and flesh, to the bare bones) did pull in my fingers close to 
the palm of my hands, the left hand of which is lame so still, and 
will be for ever. 

" Now mine eyes began to startle, my mouth to foam and froth, and 
my teeth to chatter like to the dabbling of drum-sticks. Oh ! strange 
inhumanity of monster men-manglers, surpassing the limits of their na- 
tional law; three-score tortures being the trial of treason, which I had 
and was to endure; yet thus to inflict a sevenfold surplusage of more 
intolerable cruelties; and notwithstanding of my shivering lips in this 
fiery passion, my vehement groaning, and blood -springing fonts from 
my arms, broke sinews, hams, and knees, yea, and my depending 
weight on flesh-cutting cords; yet tV.-y ^tr-iHc me on t'»e f^cc w ; tb 
cudgels, to abate and cea&e tuc UiUnu^.i^ i.O'm. oi to} wrebtiJig voice. 



LITHGOW S SUFFERINGS IN THE INQUISITION. 93 

"At last, being loosed from these pinnacles of pain, I was, hand- 
fast, set on the floor, with, this their incessant imploration, * Confess, 
confers, confess^ time, for these inevitable torments ensue ;' — where, 
finding nothing from me but still innocent, — 'Oh ! I am innocent, oh! 
Jesu^ ! the Lamb of God, have mercy upon me, and strengthen me with 
patience to undergo this barbarous murder.' 

"Then, by command of the justice, was my trembling body laid 
above and long upon the face of the rack; with my head downward, 
enclosed within a circled hole, my belly upmost, and my heels upward 
toward the top of the rack ; my legs and arras, being drawn asunder, 
were fastened with pins and cords to both sides of the outward planks, 
for now was I to receive my greatest torments. 

"Now, what a potaro or rack is, (for it stood by the wall, declining 
downward;) it is made of three planks of timber, the upmost end 
whereof is larger than a full stride; the lower end being narrow; and 
the three planks joining together, are made conformable to a man's 
shoulders; in the-downmost end of the middle plank there was a hole, 
wherein my head was laid. In length it is longer than a man, being 
interlaced with cords from plank to plank, which divided my supported 
thighs from the middle plank; through the sides of which exterior 
planks, there were three distant holes in every one of them, the use 
whereof you shall presently hear. \ 

" Now the alcade giving commission, the executioner laid fast a cord 
over the calf of my leg, then another in the middle of my thigh, and 
the third cord over the great of my arm, which was severally done on 
both sides of my body, receiving the ends of the cords from the six se- 
veral places, through the holes made in the outward planks, which were 
fastened to pins, and the pins made fast with a device; for he was to 
charge on the outside of the planks with as many pins as there were 
holes and cords, the cords being first laid meet to my skin; and on every 
one of these six parts of my body, I was to receive seven several tor- 
tures, each torture consisting of three winding throws of every pin, 
which amounted to twenty- one throws in every one of those six parts. 

" Then the tormentor having charged the first passage about my 
body, (making fast, by a device, each torture as they were multiplied,) 
he went to an earthen jar, standing full of water, a little beneath 
my head, from whence, carrying a pot full of water, in the bottom 
whereof there was an incised hole, which being stopped by his thumb 
till it came to my mouth, he did pour it in my belly; the measure being 
a Spanish sombre, which is an English bottle. The first and second 
services I gladly received, such was the scorching drought of my tor- 
menting pain, and likewise, I had drunk none for three days before. 
But afterwards, at the third charge, perceiving these measures of water 
to be inflicted upon me as tortures,— strangling tortures !— I closed 
my lips, gainstanding that eager cruelty. Whereat, the alcade enraged 
set my teeth asunder with a pair of iron cadges, detaining them there at 
every several turn, both mainly and unamiablv; whereupon, my hunger- 



94 LITHGOW's SUFFERINGS IN THE INQUISITION. 

charged belly waxing great, grew drum-like imbolstered; for it being a 
suffocating pain, in regard of my head hanging downward, and the water 
reingorging itself in my throat with a struggling force, it strangled and 
swallowed up my breath from yowling and groaning. 

"And now, to prevent my renewing grief, (for presently my heart 
faileth and forsaketh me,) I will only briefly avouch that, between each 
one of these seven circular charges, I was always re-examined, — each 
examination continuing half-an-hour,— each half-hour a hell of infernal 
pain, — and between each torment, a long distance of life-quelling time. 
Thus I lay six hours upon the rack, between four o'clock in the after- 
noon and ten o'clock at night, — having had inflicted upon me three 
score and seven torments. Nevertheless, they continued me a large 
half- hour, after 'all my tortures, at the full bending, where my body 
being all begored with blood, and cut through in every part, to the 
crushed and bruised bones, I pitifully remained, still roaring, howling, 
foaming, bellowing, and gnashing my teeth, with insupportable cries, 
before the pains were undone and my body loosed. True it is, it passeth 
the capacity of man, either sensibly to conceive, or I patiently to ex- 
press, the intolerable anxiety of mind, and affliction of body, in that 
dreadful time, I sustained. 

'" At last, my head being by their arms advanced, and my body taken 
from the rack, the water regushed abundantly from my mouth; then, 
— they reclothing my broken, bloody, cold, and trembling body, being 
all this time stark naked, — I fell twice in a sounding trance, which 
they again refreshed with a little wine and two warm eggs, not done out 
of charity, but that I should be reserved for farther punishment; and 
if it were not well known that these sufferings are true, it would almost 
seem incredible to many, that a man, being brought so low with starv- 
ing hunger and extreme cruelties, could have subsisted any longer re- 
serving life. 

"And now, at last, they charged my broken legs with my former eye- 
frighting irons; and done, I was lamentably carried on their arms t« 
the coach, being after brought and secretly transported to my former 
dungeon, without any knowledge of the town, save only these my law- 
less and merciless tormentors. "Where, when come, I was laid with my 
head and my heels alike high, on my former stones. The latter end of 
this woeful night, poor, mourning Hasier, the Turk, was sent to keep 
me; and, on the morrow, the governor entered my room, threatening 
me still with more tortures to confess; and so caused he every morning, 
long before day, his coach to be rumbled at his gate; and about me, 
where I lay, a great noise of tongues and opening of doors; and all this 
they did on purpose in order to affright and distract me, and to make 
me believe I was going to be racked again, to make me confess 
an untruth; and still thus they continued every day of five days t© 
Christmas. 

"Upon Christmas day, Marina, the ladies' gentlewoman, got permis- 
sion to visib me, and, with her license, she brought abundance of tears, 



DESCRIPTION OF THE INQUISITION AT LISBON. 95 

presenting me also with a dish of honey, sugar, some confections, and 
raisins in great plenty, to my no small comfort, besides using many 
sweet speeches for consolation's sake. 

" The twelfth day of Christmas expired, they began to threaten me 
on still with more tortures, even till Candlemas. In all which com- 
fortless time I was miserably afflicted with the beastly plague of gnaw- 
ing vermin, which lay crawling in lumps, within, without, and about 
my body; yea, hanging in clusters about my lips, my nostrils, and my 
eyebrows, almost enclosing my sight. 

" And for a greater satisfaction to their merciless minds, the governor 
called Areta, his silver-plate keeper, to gather and sweep the vermin 
upon me twice in eight days, which tormented me almost to death, 
being a perpetual punishment; for mine arms being broke, my hands 
broken and sticking fast to the palms of both hands, by reason of the 
shrunk sinews, I was unable to lift mine arms, or stir my fingers, much 
less to avoid the filthy vermin, neither could my legs or feet perform it, 
being impotent in all. Yet, I acknowledge, the poor infidel, some few 
times, and when opportunity served, would steal the keys from Areta, 
and about midnight would enter my room, with sticks and burning oil, 
and sweeping them together in heaps, would burn the greatest part, to 
my great release; or, doubtless, I had been miserably eaten up and 
devoured by them "—Hist, of Inq., p. 205. Lon., 1850. 

The " Courier FrancaiV gives the following account of 
the discoveries which were made when the Inquisition 
was thrown open in Lisbon in 1821 : — 

"On the 8th inst., (October, 1821,) the palace of the Holy Office 
was opened to the people. The number which crowded to see it, for the 
first four days, rendered it extremely difficult, and even dangerous, to 
attempt an entrance. The edifice is extensive, and has the iorm of an 
oblong square, with a garden in the centre. It is three stories high, 
and has several vaulted galleries, along which are situated a number of 
dungeons, of six, seven, eight, and nine feet square. Those on the 
ground-floor, and on the first story, having no windows, are deprived of 
both air and bght when the door is shut. The dungeons of the next 
story have a kind of breathing-hole in the form of a chimney, through 
which the sky may be seen. These apartments were allotted to prison- 
ers who, it was supposed, might be set at liberty. In the vaulted wall 
of each dungeon, there is a hole, of about one inch in diameter, which 
communicates with a secret corridor running along by each tier of dun- 
geons. By this means, the agents of the Inquisition could at any mo- 
ment observe the conduct of the prisoners, without being seen by them; 
and when two prisoners were confined in the same dungeon, could hear 
their conversation. In these corridors were seats, so placed, that a spy 
could observe what was passing in two dungeons, by merely turning his 
eyes from right to left, in order to look into either of the holes, betweea 
which be might be stationed. Human skulls and other bones have been 



06, PAUTrCtJLARS OF THE INQUISITION AT ROME. 

found in several of the dungeons. On the walls of these frightful holes 
are carved the names of some of the unfortunate victims buried in them, 
accompanied by lines or notches, indicating the number of days of their 
captivity. One name had beside it the date, 1809. The doers of cer- 
tain dungeons, which had not been used for some years, still remained 
shut, but the people forced them open. In nearly all of them human 
bones were found; and among these melancholy remains wer*, in one 
dungeon, fragments of the garments of a monk, and his girdle. In 
some of these dungeons, the chimney-shaped air-hole was walled up, 
which is a certain sign of the murder of the prisoner In such cases, 
the unfortunate victim was compelled to go into the air-hole, the lower 
extremity of which was immediately closed by masonry. Quicklime 
was afterwards thrown on him, which extinguished life, and destroyed 
the body In several of these dens of misery, mati'asses were lound, 
some old, others almost new, —a circumstance which proves, whatever 
may be said to the contrary, that the Inquisition, in these latter times, 
'\ as something more than a scarecrow. " — p. 396 Hist of In. Lon- 
don. 1850. 

It seems that the Inquisition still exists in Rome itself. 
On the flight of the Pope m 1849, the Inquisition was 
thrown open, dungeons were explored, and human remains 
found. In the examination room there was a trap-door 
which opened to a deep shaft, at the bottom of which was 
found long hair, like that of a woman In one of the 
dungeons, the following inscription, in English, was ob- 
served on the walls, — " Is this the Christian faith V The 
people were incensed by these discoveries, and would have 
destroyed the building, but for the interference of the 
civic guard. (Since the above was written, the temporal 
power of the Pope in Italy has been abolished.) 

We repeat the question inscribed on the walls of the 
dungeon, by some poor British captive, " Is this the 
Christian faith?" Is this the true Church which has 
established such a system 1 Can it be that the religion of 
the Prince of Peace, the Benefactor, the Saviour, the Re- 
deemer of man, could require such wanton cruelty, and 
demoniacal hatred 1 No ! the history of Paganism itself, 
though blood-stained, presents no such spectacle of sys- 
tematic persecution. True religion is " pure and peace- 
able." It revels not in blood, it appeals not to carnal 
weapons, but wins the sinner by love. Oh ! it is a mercy 
that God has set the broad mark of reprobation, in His 



SUMMARY OF TORTURES OF THE INQUISITION. 97 

prophetic Word, upon fallen Rome ; and tjius precluded 
the possibility of our holy religion being identified with 
such cruel oppression and injustice. He has warned us 
of Babylon and of " the woman drunken with the blood 
of the saints," whose sins have v reached to heaven. Popery 
bears the Christian name, but it is the foretold apostacy ; 
and, as affording an exhibition of the fulfilment of Gods 
Word, is a remarkable evidence of its truth. 

What unparalleled cruelties, and yet the Church of 
Rome established the Inquisition ! Its officers were priests 
and bishops, and Pius V. passed from the Inquisition to 
the Pontifical chair. Surely such a Church has no claim 
to be regarded as the Church of " the meek and lowly 
Jesus." Her spirit seems to have been set on fire of hell. 
She breathes fury against the people of God, and is 
drunken with the blood of the saints and the blood of the 
martyrs of Jesus. 

11 love-destroying, cursed bigotry ! 

Ambition's self, though mad 
And nursed on human gore, with her compared, 
Was merciful. Nor did she always rage : 
She had some hours of meditation set 
Apart, wherein she to her study went, 
The Inquisition, model most complete 
Of perfect wickedness, where deeds were done— 
Deeds ! let them ne'er be named; — and sat and planned 
Deliberately, and with most musing pains, ^ 
How, to extremest thrill of agony, 
The flesh and blood, and souls of men, 
Her victims, might be wrought ; and when she saw 
New tortures of her labouring fancy born, 
She leaped fur joy, and made great haste to try 
Their force — well pleased to hear a deeper groan." 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

1 Q. Mention some of the tortures of the Inquisition 1 

A. The pulley, the chafing dish, the rack, and the 

pendulum 

2. Q. — Whau was the torture of the pulley? 

A. — At a certain signal, the victim, with a weight 
fastened to "his feet, and a rope tied to his hands drawn 



98 THE INQUISITION ESTABLISHED BY ROME. 

backwards, was dragged np to the ceiling, and being sus- 
pended there for some time, was allowed suddenly to fall 
within a few inches of the ground, the jerk of which dis- 
located the joints. 

3. Q. — What was the torture of the chafing dish? 

A. — The accused was fastened in the stocks, and a 
chafing dish with hot coals, so placed as to affect the soles 
of the feet. 

4. Q. — "What were the tortures of the rack? 

A. — They were of different kinds. Sometimes, the arms 
of the accused were torn from their sockets, by means of 
ropes drawn in opposite directions. Sometimes, the victim 
was placed on his back in a frame- work, and cords so 
tightened around the limbs by pieces of wood, that they 
cut to the bone. Sometimes, the nose being stopped to im- 
pede breathing, a bag was placed in the mouth, and quan- 
tities of water poured into it, which slowly oozing through 
the linen, flowed into the body. 

5. Q. — What is the torture of the pendulum'? 

A. — A keen edged instrument, which, at each swing, ap- 
proaches nearer and nearer, and then cuts with irresisti- 
ble force, by slow degrees, into the human frame till death 
ensues. 

6. Q. — What is an Auto dafe? 

A. — It means an act of faith, and the term was applied 
to those public occasions when heretics were burned at 
the stake. 

7. Q. — Is the Church of Rome responsible for the acts 
of the Inquisition? 

A. — Yes. Her priests, and many of her leading men, 
have held offices in the Inquisition. Its rise and conti- 
nuance is attributable to her. 



Chapter XII.— The Inquisition Established 
by the Church of Rome. 

"We have given some account, in preceding chapters, of 
the cruelty of the Inquisition : and we have asked,— Cau 



THE INQUISITION IDENTIFIED WITH HOME. 99 

that be the religion of Christ which sanctions that system? 
It may, however, be imagined by some, who are not 
thoroughly conversant with the subject, that this terrible 
power was not properly identified with Rome, as a Church, 
but was rather an engine of the state. Indeed, this has 
been boldly asserted by a Romish Controversialist.* 

In considering the question, we shall adduce evidence 
that it was a special engine of the Church of Rome, botk 
negative and positive. 

NEGATIVE EVIDENCE. 

The very fact that the Inquisition, whose officers were 
bishops and priests of the Papacy, was allowed to carry 
on its work, at once renders that Church responsible for 
its blood-stained deeds, for Rome is ever watchful of everjr 
movement which takes place amongst her members ! 

Not a book issues from the press, of any importance, 
which is not subject to her scrutiny. The Index Prohi- 
bitorius, with an eagle eye, watches every publication; 
and, where it deems it necessary, condemns. No society 
or confraternity — whose principles are not in accordance 
with Romish principles, and the discipline of the Romish 
Church — can, for any length of time, hold up its head. 

It is therefore evident, that whatever, whether of prin- 
ciples or institutions, is not condemned by Romish authori- 
ties, is not inconsistent with Romish teaching. 

The Inquisition once existed in France, Germany, Spam, 
Portugal, Italy, Yenice, Palestine, and even on the coast 
of Malabar. It numbered amongst its judges— bishop* 
and archbishops — nay, even popes. It was never con- 
demned by the Church, and therefore its proceedings were 
not discordant with R-omish principles. 

POSITIVE EVIDENCE. 

The Inquisition was directly established by the Pope. 
He who calls himself the vicar of Jesus Christ, and wh« 
arrogates the right of appointing bishops throughout the 



* See Keenan's Catechism, p. 204,— Edinburgh, 1851,— where tiie 
author says, " It is a mere state engiue '" 



100 POPES' SANCTION THE INQUISITION. 

woMd, not only gave authority to St Dominick, as the first 
inquisitor, for the extermination of heretics ; but, in after 
ages, by various bulls, continued to uphold that satanic 
system. We give some of the many authorities which 
might be quoted : — 

1. Pope Alexander IV., A.D. 1254, issued a bull'in 
which, having t stated the great extent to which heresy 
existed in Italy, he established the office of the Inquisition 
ni*ainst heretics, " Inquisitionis officium contra hereticos," 
— and gives an exhortation to aid them. — See Mag. Bull. 
p. 103, torn. I. Luxem. 1727. 

2. Pope Urban IV. 1262, having assigned the same 
cause, — the spread of heresy in Italy, — issued a bull, — 

" That the office of the Inquisition might be more efficaciously ful- 
filled, .... and the vine of the Lord — the heretics being exter- 
minated — might bear the fruit of Catholic purity." — p. 122, idem. 

3. Pope Julius III., A.D. 1550, published a bull against 
those who should oppose the inquisitors in the discharge 
of their duties. — Ut supra, 

4. Pope Clement V., A.D. 1311, in the Council of 
Vienna, which is regarded by Rome as a general council, 
published a decree, in which he enacted that the bishop 
and inquisitor should unite in certain cases. We give the 
words of the decree : — 

' • But to deliver them into hard bondage, or close confinement, — 
which pertains rather to punishment than to close custody, — or to ex- 
pose them to tortures, or to proceed to sentence against them, the bishop 
shall not be able to do without the inquisitor, or the inquisitor without 
the diocesan bishop or his official." — Clement, lib. V. Tit. III. c. 1. Corp. 
Jur. Can. 

Thus the bishop and the inquisitor are to act in concert 
in the diabolical business of putting men to torture. Is 
it thus that bishops, as overseers, are to " feed the Church 
of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood!" 
— Acts xx. 28. 

5. Benedict XIV., A.D. 1750, published a bull, which 
is so important, that we give it in extenso : — 

BENEDICT XIV., POPE. 
" Beloved Son, Health and Apostolical Benediction. 
"At the close of last year, 1750, an Apostolical constitution 



BENEDICT XIV ON THE INQUISITION 101 

published by us, given in the Ides of March, the beginnin of which is 
" officii nostri," and which treats of the local immunity of churches. In 
that, we, adhering to the constitutions of our predecessors, Gregory XIV., 
Benedict XIII., and Clement XII., having removed certain cavils and 
subterfuges, by which the execution of them was impeded, decreed and 
appointed that he who was accused of an excepted crime, if at any time 
he should fly to a place of protection, ought to be dragged forth from it, 

AS OFTEN AS PROOF SUFFICIENT FOR THE TORTURE COULD BE HAD, which 

should prove his crime ; and that, moreover, he should not be dragged 
forth, unless by the authority of the bishop, and with the intervention 
of some ecclesiastical person, to be deputed by the same bishop ; and, at 
length, that, when he was handed over to the secular power, censures 
were to be declared to be incurred by the same, unless the person who 
had been dragged forth was to be restored to the Church, as often as, 
in the progress of his cause, the proofs had been cleared off, on which 
the accused was charged with the perpetration of the crime. 

u But because our before-mentioned predecessors had decreed that the 
extraction from a place of protection should not be made, except by the 
bishops alone, or by prelates wno were their superiors, excluding infe 
riors, although they were ordinaries and of no diocese, and those having 
a separate territory, in which case, the extraction of the culprit should 
devolve on the neighbouring bishop ; the same has been likewise decreed 
by us in our aforecited constitution. 

"Section 1. By adhering also to those regulations which have bee* 
decreed in the constitution of Gregory XIV., by which the rule and 
regulation of local immunity is prescribed. The crime of heresy, at 
you well know, is an excepted crime; and he who is accused of it cannot 
enjoy the refuge of a Church. But since, in the congregation of the holy 
Inquisition, held before us, according to custom, on the 28th of January 
of this year, 1751, a doubt was raised what rule was to be observed, and 
what mode to be adopted, as often as a person accused of heresy was U 
be dragged out of a Church to which he had fled, lest he might be take* 
to prison, — whether then he had escaped from chains in which he wa* 
held, or from the galleys, or any other place to which he had been con- 
demned, either for imprisonment or labour, we, who composed the afore- 
said constitution in the preceding year, have reserved to ourselves U 
pronounce unon this matter, which we now intend to set forth by those 
which we subjoin. 

" Section 2. Either the question is as to the crime of heresy, whicfc 
comes chiefly under the cognizance of the Holy Inquisition, or other ex- 
cepted ciimes which do not enjoy the protection of a sanctuary, or o4 
other crimes which are not excepted, and which do enjoy that protection, 
but therefore belong to that tribunal, because they ure committed by 
some of those who, as bcin~ subject to the jurisdiction of that tribunal, 
ought to unucigo its judgment. 



102 BENEDICT XIV. ON THE INQUISITION. 

i' Section 3. If the crime of heresy is treated of; since, by our pre- 
decessor, John XXL, who is called XXII., in his constitution beginning 
1 Ex parte vestra' in the Roman Bullarium, Vol I., it has been already 
decreed, " that heretics, or those suspected of heresy, — also Jews, who, 
when they had been converted to the Catholic faith, thence fell into 
apostacy, — if they fly to a Church, ought to be immediately dragged out 
from thence by the inquisitor 1 . It is by no means our intention to de- 
rogate fiom this aforesaid constitution ; on the contrary, it is our will 
that the same shall be observed, by attending to and following, however, 
that method which we now subjoin, namely, — that the inquisitor, as 
often as a criminal of this description is to be dragged out of a Church, 
should use all diligence that this should be done with all due reverence 
for the house of God. And since it cannot happen that, before dragging 
him forth, the proofs which are had against the criminal can be com- 
municated to the bishop, since the law of the secret by no means allows 
it ; and since, wherever it could be done, it would be wholly useless ; 
since it is known that the sacred tribunal of the Inquisition by no means 
proceeds to a capture, unless an almost complete proof of the crime has 
preceded. He should not, however, omit this, that, either before or 
after the capture, he should certify the bishop of it, as well on account 
«f the reverence which is due to his dignity, as that, as far as possible, 
that may be carried into effect which has been decreed in the constitu- 
tions of Gregory, Benedict, Clement, and ours ; — which also is decreed 
thus by us, on this account, because that we have seen formerly in the 
congregation of the holy office, which was held before our predecessor, 
Urban VIII., on the 10th of June, 1638, the case being proposed, and 
the doubt discussed. — ' Whether a criminal being charged with heresy, 
flying to a Church, ought to be dragged out by the bishop or the inqui- 
sitor?' the Pontiff having heard the votes, answered, — l that the crimi- 
nal can be dragged out by the inquisitor, the bishop being certified of it 
either bejore or after.'' 

" Section 4. But when the question is of other excepted crimes, which, 
nevertheless, are by no means belonging to heresy, and still more if it 
is of those which are not counted among excepted crimes, (that is, ex- 
cepted from the privileges of the sanctuary,) although they may belong 
to the cognizance of the sacred tribunal, either because they are com- 
mitted by some person subject to the jurisdiction of the same, or under 
any other name whatsoever ; we declare that those who are accused ot 
ciimes which are not at all excepted, ought to enjoy the immunity (ot 
the sanctuary) ; but, as often as those accused of cases excepted, but 
who are not accused, nevertheless, of heresy, ought to be dragged forth 
from a church, all those things ought to be exactly observed, as well 
those which are decreed in our constitution, as those which have been 
decreed in the other preceding constitutions, namely, — that 'he proofs 
vhich are sufficient for the TORTURE ought to be communicated to the 



THE HERETIC, AND THE TORTURE. 103 

bishop, since the law of the secret by no means prevents this ; besides, 
that the criminal ought not to be dragged forth without the authority ot 
the bishop, and the intervention of some ecclesiastical person deputed 
by him, and that all other things are to be observed, which are decreed 
in the aforesaid constitutions. ***** 

" Given at Rome, at St .Alary Major, on the 20th of February 1751, 
in the eleventh year of our Pontificate." 

Now, from this bull,\ve deduce several important answers. 

1. Benedict XIV. confirms the bulls of Gregory XIV., 
Benedict XIII., and Clement XII., as to the drawing 

' DO © 

forth of prisoners who had taken refuge m the church. 

2. He requires that, in the case of crimes which are 
excepted from the protection of the sanctuary, the seizure 
©f the refugee shall not be effected without the authority 
•f the bishop. 

3. To this there is'a remarkable exception. If the victim 
be guilty of heresy, the inquisitors are authorized immedi- 
ately to drag him out. 

4. Heresy is a crime of the deepest die, — no mercy can 
be shewn to the heretic in this case. 

5. The torture is solemnly legalized. 

There are some remarkable facts in connexion with this 
bull. 

1. It was not issued in the thirteenth century; and, 
therefore, can not be regarded as applicable to the Albi- 
genses and Waldenses alone. 

2. It was published in the eighteenth century, A.D. 
1751; and, therefore, refers directly to the Reformation, 
— against which, indeed, the Inquisition was a powerful 
engine. 

3. An epitome of the works of Benedict XIV. has been 
published at the end of the Moral Theology of Liguori, 
within the last few years, with special reference to this 
very bull, and in the works of Dens, published in Dublin, 
1832, with the approbation of the Romish Bishops, and 
with this very reference. 

4. This bull is part of the canon law, — the establish- 
ment of which,, it is now avowed, must follow the creation 
of the Papal Hierarchy in England. 

Here, then, is the Inquisition legalized bv the highest 



104 / LIGUORI ON THE TORTURE. 

modern authority, and one which, in all probability, will 
be brought to bear on the Protestants of this empire. 

Benedict XIV., in his works epitomised in Dens and 
Liguori, says, — 

" The bishop is bound, even in places where the office of the Holy 
Inquisition is in force, to take care to purge the diocese entrusted to him 
of heretics ; and if he find one, to punish him with canonical punish- 
ments. He ought, however, to take care not to impede the inquisitors 
from doing their duty." — Vol. IX. Liguori s Moral Theology, Epitome 
of Benedict's Works. 

Thus heretics are to be punished by bishops, according 
to the canons — the 3d canon of the 4th Council of Late- 
ran, &c. ; but care is to be taken that the inquisitors are 
not impeded in their duty ! 

The Inquisition is thus sanctioned by the very highest 
authority in the Church of Rome. Ere we close, we shall, 
however, give one other evidence on this point. 

Saint Liguori gives a treatise on the Inquisition, showing 
how its duties may be effectively carried out. He breathes 
not one word of censure against it; but, on the contrary, 
teaches that a child should denounce even his own father, 
and the father denounce his own child, to the Inquisition, 
in case of heresy. — p. 239, Vol. IV. Mor. Theol. Verrice, 
1828. 

In reference to the torture, Liguori says, — 

"Finally, if the accused confess the crime, the sentence is to be give*. 
If not, he is to be led to conviction, or the torture." — N. 201. 1$. IV 

Again, he says, — 

" We answer, 1. That to torture the accused, (if he pan be tor- 
tured, ) the signs, at least, of some great crime are required, which con- 
stitute a half full proof, (semiplenam probationem, ) that is, render 
the matter more than probable ; such is esteemed one unexceptionable 
witness."— N. 202. ibiok 

So that, on the testimony of one, who is considered 'an 
unexceptionable witness, the accused may be put to the 
torture ! 

Having given other cases in which the torture may be 
employed, he says, — 

" Because torture is a help to *vr>of f \v! en nv-tmrrrts anil v;;:»* u.& 
very efficacious, th*u tl.Ui> * luii pi\,or u»:.y be c! — „" — iinti. 



SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE ON THE INQUISITION. 105 

British Protestants ! think of torture being advocated 
by this saintly doctor,— by whose admonitions Roman 
Catholics pray that they may be taught ! 

Alas ! how Satan perverts the holiest things to his own 
purposes, when religion is thus made the handmaid of in« 
humanity ! Truly, Popery is Satan's masterpiece ! 

See a poor fellow-creature writhing in all the agonies of 
the rack, the pulley, or the pendulum, whose only crime, 
peradventure, is, that he is a Protestant ! Behold beings 
who wear the human form, — but who are more like de- 
mons, though they are distinguished by the priestly robe 
or the monk's cowl, — working the instruments of torture, 
and adding to the woe of the sufferer in every possible 
form , and when you learn, that this system was solemnly 
established by Rome, — sanctioned by the bulls of those 
who call themselves Vicars of Christ, and advocated by 
Saints to whom Romanists pray, — does not your blood 
boil with a manlv, yea, a righteous indignation?— and 
have you not proof sufficient in this — had you even no 
other — that the religion which teaches such a system is 
not from the Prince of Peace, but the Prince of Darkness, 
— is not from heaven, but from hell ? Oh ! could the walls 
of the Inquisition speak, what tales would they tell of sor- 
row, and suffering, and woe ! But there is a day coming 
when Great Babylon shall come into remembrance before 
God, — a day for which the blood of martyrs pleads. 

" How long, Lord, Holy and True, dost thou not judge and avenge 
our blood on them that dwell on the earth ! " (Rev. vi. 10.) 

Let British Protestants — if they value their free insti- 
tutions, their noble constitution, their homes, which not 
even the monarch can invade — protest against the national 
encouragement of a system, in whose train follows misery, 
and crime, and woe ! and let them take effective measures 
to convert their poor Roman Catholic fellow subjects from 
this anti-christian religion. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q, — How does it appear that the Inquisition is sanc- 
tioned by Rome? 



106 PERSECUTION OF FRENCH PROTESTANTS. 

A.' — Both from negative and positive evidence. 

2. Q. — What is the negative evidence? 

A. — The fact that Rome has not discountenanced the 
Inquisition. 

3. Q. — And what is the positive evidence 1 ? 

A. — The fact that the highest authorities in the Church 
of Home have approved of the Inquisition. 

4. Q.— What authorities? 

A. — Popes and Saints. Popes have, time after time, 
issued bulls in favour of the Inquisition ; and St Alphon- 
sus Liguori speaks with approval of the Inquisition and 
the torture. 

5. Q. — What does the fact that the Inquisition was 
established by the Church of Rome prove ? 

A. — That she cannot have the spirit of the blessed Jesus, 
who came "not to destroy men's lives, but to save them." 

6. Q. — What does it behove Protestants to do? 

A. — To resist Popery, lest they should lose their liberty 
and privileges. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Persecutions of the Protestants of Franca 

The history of Protestantism in France is at once the 
most interesting and painful. There, first in the Western 
World, a protest was made against the corruption of 
Rome; and there, martyrs, without number, sealed their 
testimony with their blood. 

The name and sufferings of the Waldenses are familiar 
to the reader of history, — the Waldenses, whose pedigree 
has been traced to the most primitive ages, shewing that 
they were connected with the Apostles themselves. 

Valdo, or Waldo, a merchant of Lyons, was not their 
founder; but being one of the most devoted teachers of 
Protestantism, those who agreed with him were designated 
by their enemies, in the way of contempt, Waldenses. 

In the year 1147, the Pope sent missionaries to convert, 
or rather pervert, these faithful men ; but finding, after 



THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE WALDENSES. 107 

/nauy efforts, that argument failed, the Pope appealed to 
carnal weapons — fire, faggot, and the sword, and every 
species of cruelty that human ingenuity could devise. 

It was under these circumstances that the Inquisition 
was established, — the founder of which, Dominick, was af- 
terwards enrolled amongst the saints, and invocated as such. 

Pope Innocent III. proclaimed a crusade against those 
whom he called heretics, — the account of which, and of the 
persecutions endured by the Albigenses and Waldenses, k 
described in the following terms: — 

Bzovius, a Roman Catholic Historian, says, — 
"Innocent III., A.D. 1209. 

"Pope Innocent could no longer brook the obstinacy of the erring 
Albigenses ; forasmuch as they were never moved by the miracles 
wrought by the godlike Dominick, nor by the truth of his doctrine, nor 
by the sanctity of his life, nor by the force of his reasoning, and they 
defended their contumacy with arms ; wherefore he proclaimed a sacred 
war against them, — and he animated the crusaders with many rewards, 
in order that they might carry it on strenuously. Simon Montfort lived 
in those days, — a man distinguished by his faith, bold in war, of great 
prudence, intelligent, munificent, splendid, and affable, a defender of 
the Catholic faith, and a most eager adversary of the heretics. By tb»; 
advice of the legates and the princes, he was appointed to command th« 

army Much trouble was expended in taking the camp of 

Minerva ; for there were found therein 180 persons, who preferred be in;,' 
burnt alive to adopting a pious creed. ... . . 

" This year, at the command and exhortation of Pope Innocent, a va >t 
number of crusaders came to Lyons on the feast of St John the Baptist. 
Chief among these were Peter, Archbishop of Sienna, &c. ; . . 

and, besides these, a great multitude of the nobility and potentates of 
France and Spain collected together, for the destruction of the Albigen- 
sian heretics ; so that 500,000 were reckoned in the Catholic army. . . . 

"In France the Albigensian war was prosperously carried on un- 
der the direction of Count Montfort. For when, as in the preceding 
year, the Albians had opened their gates to him, and had suffered n» 
injury, when they afterwards returned to their impiety, they did not 
escape with impunity, and the authors of the mischief were capitally 
punished. Vaurum itself was taken by storm ; there, also, the impious 
were delivered to the fire, when they persisted in their madness. 
" In the year 1211, Innocent III., An. 14. 

14 Lavavre being taken, Aymeric, the Lord of Mountroyal, who held 
the camp with a garrison, was hanged ; eighty others, who fell by tht 



108 PERSECUTION OP EARLY FRENCH PROTESTANTS. 

gibbet, were slain by the crusaders, who were impatient of the delay, 
by the orders of Simon, and innumerable heretics were burnt. . . . 
"In the same year, the crusaders obtained possession of another 
great city, by the Divine aid, situated near Toulouse, called, from 
*he event, the beautiful valley; in which, when, after an examination 
•f the people, all promised to return to the faith, 450 of them, hardened 
by the devil, persisted in their obstinacy, of whom 400 were burnt, and 
the rest were hanged. The same was done in the other towns and 
castles ; these wretches willingly exposing themselves to death. 

"Ch. 1215, Innocent III., 19. 

" About that time, Pope Innocent III. (as Sixtus V. relates in his 
diploma for the institution of the festival of St Peter the martyr) autho- 
rized the godlike Dominick to distinguish himself against the heretics, 
by constant preaching and meetings for discussion, and by the office oj 
the Inquisition, which he first entrusted to him, and that he should 
either reconcile them to the Church, if they were willing to be recon- 
ciled, — or strike them with a just sentence, if they were unwilling to re- 
turn." — p. 156. t. 13. Bzoviui Ecclesiastical Annals in Continuation oj 
Cardinal Baroniui Annals. 

It was in vain that Raymond, the Count of Toulouse, 
and his nephew, the Count of Beziers, unsheathed the 
sword to defend their Protestant subjects. All opposition 
was put down by overwhelming forces, who, animated by 
indulgences and promises of Paradise, were more cruel 
than the followers of Mahomet himself. 

The remains of the pious French Protestants sought a 
refuge amongst the Protestant inhabitants of the valleys 
of Piedmont, amongst whom they were at length blended, 
and were known only as the Vaudois. 

In the reign of Francis the First, in the 16th century, 
Lefevere, an eminent preacher, with his friend and dis- 
ciple, Farel, was the herald of salvation in France. 

It is remarkable that the Reformation in that country 
was altogether independent of, and unconnected with the 
same movement in Germany. 

Lefevere proclaimed the truths of the Bible in France, 
while Luther preached the Gospel in the German States. 

The monks at length complained to the Bishop of Meaux 
against his friend Lefevere, and not finding redress, — for 
the Bishop at first was firm, though he at length gave 
way, — they appealed to the Parliament. 






HORRIBLE CRUELTY OF HENRY II. OF FRANCE. 109 

Leclerc, the first martyr of the Reformation of the 1 6th 
century in France, was burned to ashes, and Lefevere was 
obliged to fly. 

When Francis was taken prisoner by Charles V. the 
Emperor of Germany, his mother, in order to please the 
Pope, consulted his holiness as to the best mode of repres- 
sing Protestantism in France. The Pope appointed the 
Inquisition, and commanded that all heretics should be 
given up to the secular power to be burned to ashes. 

Then a terrible persecution burst forth. Protestants 
were led to the stake as a spectacle to gratify the zealots 
of Rome, who, like the cruel Nero, rejoiced at the suffer- 
ings of martyrs. 

Francjs died, and was succeeded by Henry the Second, 
the husband of the famous Catherine de Medici. Mezerai, 
the historian, describes the scene which Paris presented, 
in order to greet the royal pair after the coronation, A.D. 
1549 :— 

' ' The court passed almost all this year in joy and carousals. The 

king and queen made a splendid entry into Paris "When 

the court was weary of these gay diversions, the scene changed, and piety 
succeeded to gallantry. A procession was made to the Cathedral of 
Notre Dame, in which the king joined, in order to manifest, by this 
public act, his zeal to maintain the religion of his ancestors, confirming 
the evidence of his intentions by the frightful punishment of multitudes 
of miserable Protestants, who were burned on the Place de Greve. They 
were fastened to beams with an iron chain and pulley, successively 
raised and plimged again into an enormous fire. The king chose U> 
least his eyes with this tragic sight; but it is said, that the cries of one 
of his own domestics, whom they tormented in this manner, so struck 
his imagination, that, all his life after, he was troubled by the recollec- 
tion, which made him shudder and turn pale as often as the image 
recurred." ] 

It is almost incredible that human nature could delight 
itself in such scenes of woe, and we should be disposed to . 
discredit the fact, were it not recorded by Roman Catho- , 
lies themselves. 

Protestantism at last enjoyed a respite. On account of 
the war with Germany, the king, from political motives, sus- 
pended the persecution of Protestants, who formed so large 
a portion of his own subjects; but the reign of toleration 



llO MASSACRE OP ST BARTHOLOMEWS DAY. 

was short, and again the " dogs of war were let slip" upon 
the friends of primitive Christianity. It would occupy a 
volume to tell of all their wrongs, and of the bloody per- 
secution which they endured. Frequently were they 
compelled to take the field in self-defence, as the object of 
their enemies was to extirpate them altogether 
We come, however, to 

THE MASSACRE OF ST BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY. 

Though the Prince de Conde, the brave general of the 
Protestant army, had been killed in battle, yet the Pro- 
testants, with the venerable and pious Admiral de Coligny 
at their head, had influence enough to obtain a favourable 
peace in 1570, Coligny, and many noble and distin- 
guished Protestants, were invited to court, with whom the 
King appeared to be on good terms. A marriage took 
place between Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV 
of France, (who before his accession to the throno, was 
the great general and champion of the Protestants,) and 
Margaret de Valois. 

When the heads and chief persons of the Protestant 
party were thus assembled together, a diabolical plot was 
concocted for their destruction. Festivity and gayety 
proved to be, on this occasion, but the cloak which Popish 
hatred and treachery had put on. Coligny, the admiral, 
was fired at and wounded, though not mortally, as he passed 
from the Louvre to his house. Charles IX. who professed 
to be his friend, and many Roman Catholic nobles, called 
on him to express their abhorrence of such a deed. The 
attempt on the life of Coligny was but the commencement 
of operations. 

On Bartholomew's Night, August 24th, 1572, the Ca- 
thedral Bell of St Germain Le Auxerrois tolled, as a signal 
for the work of destruction to commence, — the horrors of 
which we shall allow a Romish historian to describe : — 

" The daylight, which discovered so many crimes, which the darkness 
of an eternal night ought for ever to have concealed, did not soften their 
ardour by these objects of pity, but exasperated them more. The popu- 
lace, and the most dastardly, being warmed by the smell of blood, sixty 
thousand men, transported with their fury, and armed in different ways, 



THR POPE BEJ0ICES AT THE MASSACRE. Ill 

ran about wherever example, vengeance, rage, and the desire of plunder 
transported them. The air resounded with a horrible tempest of tlo 
hisses, blasphemies, and oaths, of the murderers, — of the breaking open 
of doors and windows, —of the firing of pistols and guns, — of the pitiable 
cries of the dying, — of the lamentations of the women, whom they 
dragged by the hair, — of the noise of carts, some loaded with the booty 
of the bouses they pillaged, others with the dead bodies, which they cast 
into the Seine, — so that, in the confusion, they could not hear each 
other speak in the streets ; or if they distinguished certain words, they 
were these furious expressions, — 'Kill, stab, throw them out of the 
window.' A dreadful and inevitable death presented itself in every 
shape. Some were shot on the roofs of houses, others were cast out of 
the windows. Some were cast into the water, and knocked on the head 
with blows of iron bars or clubs ; some were killed in their beds, some 
in the garrets, others in cellars ; wives in the arms of their husbands, 
— husbands on the bosoms of their wives ; sons at the feet of their 
fathers. They neither spared the aged, nor women great with child, 
nor even infants. It is related, that a man was seen to stab one of 
them, who played with the beard of its murderer, and that a troop of 
little boys dragged another, in its cradle, into the river. The streets 
were paved with the bodies of the dead or the dying; the gateways were 
blocked up with them. There were heaps of them in the squares ; the 
small streams were filled with blood, which flowed in fresh torrents into 
the river. Finally, to sum up in a few words what took place in these 
three days, — six hundred houses were repeatedly pillaged, and four 
thousand persons massacred, with all the confusion and barbarity that 
can be imagined." .... — MezcraZs Hist, of France, p. 1098, 
vol. ii. Paris, 1646. 

Such is the awful record of a Romish historian, which 
is sufficient to make the blood run cold. 

Intelligence of the event was borne to Rome; but how 
did his holiness, Gregory XI1L, receive the tidings? Did 
he go to St Peter's, to deprecate the revenge of God for 
so enormous a crime? No. He went to St Peters, not to 
mourn and pray, but to rejoice. Thuanus, the Roman 
Catholic historian, says, — 

"An account of the Parisian tumult having arrived, it was received 
with astonishing joy at Rome. For the letters of the Pope's legate 
having been read in the Senate of the Cardinals, in which he certified to 
the Pope that it was done with the King's consent, and by his command, 
it was instantly resolved, that the Pope, with the Cardinals, should 
straightway go to the Church of St Marl; and should solemnly return 
JmhIs to the Lord for so great a blessing conferred upon the R«aan 



112 THE POPE COMMEMORATES THE MASSACRE BY A MEDAL. 

See and the Christian world; also, that on the Monday following, a 
solemn service should be performed in the Temple of Minerva, and that 
the Pope and Cardinals should assist at it; and thence a jubilee should 
be published in the whole Christian world. Its causes were declared 
to be, that they should return thanks to God for the destruction of the 
enemies of the truth and of the Church in France, ha. In the evening, 
fireworks were discharged at Adrian's Mole, in -token of the public re- 
joicing, fires were kindled everywhere in the streets, and nothing was 
omitted which usually took place at all the greatest victories of the 
C! lurch of Rome. . These things being done at Rome, Car- 

dinal Fabius yrsinus was appointed as legate to France; a cross having 
been solemnly delivered to him, which is the ensign of so honourable an 
embassy, and he immediately commenced his journey." — lib. 53, Thu- 
anus* Hist. Lon. 1733. 

Fleury, another Romish historian, in his Ecclesiastical 
History, says, — 

M Gregory the XIII., only regarding the good which he thought likely 
to result from this to the Catholic religion in France, ordered a p: oces- 
sion, in which he himself joined, from the Church of St Peter's, to the 
Church of St Lewis's, to return thanks to God for so happy a result, 
and, to perpetuate the memory of this event, he caused several medals 
to be struck, wherein he himself is represented on the one side, and on 
the other side, an angel carrying a cross in one hand and a sword in the 
other, exterminating the heretics, and more particularly the Admiral. 
In Spain, the same deed was panegyrized in the presence of King Philip 
the II., and they dared to call it the triumph of the Qiurch Militant." 
—p. 557, vol. 23, book 173. Nismes. 1780. 

Thus the Pope returns thanks to God for the Mas- 
sacre of St Bartholomew, and causes a medal to be 
struck off to commemorate the deed ! ! ! 

Charles IX. lived little better than a year after the 
massacre, and once more the heat of persecution was mo- 
derated for a brief period. 

It would be beside our purpose to detail anything like 
a history of the commotions which shook France to its 
centre, in the efforts which were made to extinguish Pro- 
testantism ; but this much we say, that if the Church of 
Rome had it in her power, in the present day, she would 
repeat the same scenes in Britain. 

The only remedy for this is, that the Protestant British 
nation should immediately take active and wise measures, 



REVOCATION OF THE DECREE OF NANTES. 113 

by sending missionaries and readers, and by establishing 
Protestant Schools, and the like, for the conversion of the 
Roman Catholic subjects of the realm, and, at the same 
time, withdraw all aid from Popery. 
We pass on to 

THE REVOCATION OF TIIE DECREE OF NANTES. 

Henry of Navarre, at the head of the Protestant army, 
who only fought for toleration, at length found his way to 
the throne of France as rightful heir. 

In order to please the Romish party, which was the 
most powerful, he made a profession of the Romish faith, 
— an act which shall always remain as a stain upon his 
otherwise great name. He still, however, entertained fa- 
vourable feelings to Protestants, if not to Protestantism ; 
and about the year 1598, he published the Decree of 
Nantes, 'by which he granted to Protestants the free exer- 
cise of their religion, and many civil privileges; though he 
still forbore from raising them to an equality, in every 
respect, with Romanists. For this and other such liberal 
acts, he paid dearly, as he at last perished by the hand of 
the fanatic assassin, Ravaillac. 

Under the reign of his successor, Louis XIII., the Pro- 
testants were exposed to much hardship; but it was in 
the reign of Louis XI V., that the great act of injustice 
was done to them, in the revocation of the Decree of 
Nantes, about a hundred years after that decree was first 
published. The result was most fearful. 

" What less than blood," says a French historian, "are exile, pro- 
scription, vexations, and tortures? Can any one reflect, without shud- 
dering, on the cruelties of the dragoons ; the disunion of families ; the 
sight of a numerous, flourishing people, now wandering, naked fugitives ; 
aged persons, men famous for knowledge and virtue, accustomed to a 
life ot ease, now thrown into a dungeon, chained to the oar, perishing 
under the lash of the galley officers,— and only for the sake of religion ! 
The revocation of the Decree of Nantes, was dictated by 
priests equally fanatic and crafty. This edict, the fruit of the wisdom 
©f Henry IV., which even the sanguinary Richelieu had respected, was 
repealed by one most atrocious. The Protestants emigrated by thousands. 
Holland, England, and Germany, received them with open arms ; tbey 
♦arried away immense sums of money ; but what was still more valua- 
ble. tW carried away their arte, manufactures, v and industry, with 



114 PERSECUTION IN FRANCE, A.D. 1854. 

which they had enriched their country as well as themselves." — P. 189, 
part II. Hist, of Protestantism in France. London. 

PERSECUTION IN FRANCE, A.D. 1854. 

That the liberties of the French are now being se- 
riously abridged is evident from the following statement 
in the report of the Foreign Aid Society : — 

" The scenes of the last century, when the Church in France was in the 
wilderness, and in the clefts of the rocks of the Cevennes, have been re- 
newed in the year 1854-5. Deprived of their places of worship, even 
the school-room taken away from them, the children of God have met 
in the woods for edification. 'Our Pastor,' writes a correspondent 
from Alencon, ' ' and the rest of us, sat down upon some fragments of 
rocks, which we had covered with wild grass and moss; the weather 
was beautiful. I am persuaded that all present entered into the spirit 
meaning of these words of our hymns which we sung, ' God, thy temple 
is the world;' in another place, they held their meetings in a field of 
standing corn, and when the winter season came, and the snow wa^ on 
the ground, they 'did not forsake the assembling of themselves to- 
gether. ' The eagerdess,' says a correspondent, ' with which our 
friends attend the meetings in the open air, in spite of the fug, the rain, 
the cold, and the vigilance of our adversaries, is remarkable. Sunday 
last, the meeting was called for eight o'clock, the ground was as hard 
as a rock by the frost, and as we approached the place of rendezvous 
at that early hour, we saw no one directing his steps towards it ; 'It is 
too soon,' I said to my companion, ' there will be a meeting of us two 
only;' but to our agreeable surprise on drawing near to the place, we 
saw a row of heads above the tence of the field, and found a numerous 
congregation waiting our arrival. Not only the men had faced the in- 
clemency of the season, but their wives and their daughters and young 
children, so determined are these persons to hear the Word of God." 
These two examples may suffice to give the subscribers of the Foreiga 
Aid Society an idea of the present condition of religious liberty in se- 
veral parts of France : but the Committee of the Socie'te' Evange'lique still 
hope that the Central Government will redress these wrongs, and the 
local authorities, instigated as they are by the Romish hierarchy, will 
be compelled to cease the persecutions which now disgrace France in 
the middle of the nineteenth century. Your Committee discharge a 
painful duty in calling attention to a Commune, which has often beejt 
mentioned in the Society's former reports and circulars, and acquire! 
an interest in the prayers of mauy, the Commune of Villefavard. The 
Pasteur who still lingers about the closed church of that village, which 
for twelve years had been peaceably used lor the Reformed worship, 
thus writes, "Harassing proceedings of all kinds have been adopted 
ni siht Commune, in the hope of shaking the firmness of its inhabitants; 



PERSECUTION IN FRANCE, A.D. 1854. \\(j 

among other events they have seen in a short time, a Roman Catholic 
schoolmaster forced upon them, the furniture of their school taken away, 
and put into that of the master whom they repudiate : a new decree, 
dated 31st October, 1854, interdicts all religious meetings whatever. 
It is sad to have to relate such facts, but it is joyful to see the calmness 
of this inoffensive population, their patience and resignation in the midst 
of the difficulties which surround thorn. They often say to me, what 
harm do we in following the precepts of the Gospel ? Is it not that which 
teaches us our duty towards God and towards our neighbour ? is it not the 
Gospel which has brought morality into our Commune? is it not that which 
has spread among us the desire for instruction ? is it not by that we 
have learnt to succour our neighbour and love one another? is there in 
all France a Commune more united than ours, since the time the Gospel 
came amongst us?" Your Committee can hardly transcribe these things 
from the Report which was read in Paris a month ago without emotion, 
and they would commend to the prayers of English Christians the per- 
secuted Protestants in the Department of the Upper Vienne. Your 
Committee have a good hope that the intention of the French Govern- 
ment will be called afresh to these oppressive acts of some of the pro- 
vincial authorities, by the complaints which were lately made in a speech 
at a public meeting in Paris, by Mons. Guizot. ' For some time,' 
observed that distinguished statesman, "and on some points of our ter- 
ritory, we have met with obstructions to the progress of our schools, 
which we could not have expected ; in one single Department, eight 
Protestant schools, which had existed for many years, have been all on a 
sudden closed and interdicted. I might give the names of places and 
persons, but I have no desire to hurt any one's feelings.' Your Com- 
mittee need hardly remind their friends that these schools are all with- 
in the Department of the Upper Vienne, whose chief city is Limoges, 
the residence of the Prefet Petit De la Fosse. Mons. Guizot recommends 
patience and perseverance in claiming the rights of conscience, and he 
feels confident, with God's help, that the Protestants will succeed. Your 
Committee would join in the expression of that hope, but the success of 
religious liberty depends, as well in France as in Piedmont, upon the 
power which virtually reigns, whether it is to be the Romish hierarchy 
or the Civil Government, and it is fervently to be hoped that the present, 
energetic ruler of France will not split upon the rock on which so many 
governments of the Continent have made shipwreck, by giving over the 
liberties of conscience to the clamour of the agents of Rome." — p. 12, 
Report for the year 1855. 

This is really a painful state of things ! Napoleon, our 
imperial ally, not content with the re-establishment of 
the Papacy at Rome, which he effected by violence — not 
content with' the restoration of the Church of Rome to 



116 SUMMARY ON PERSECUTIONS IN FRANCE. 

her ancient regime in France — now employs all his influ- 
ence for the destruction of Protestantism in his empire. 

As the report of the Foreign Aid Society justly ob- 
serves, " the scenes of the last century, when the Church 
in France was in the wilderness, and in the clefcs of the 
rocks of the Cevennes, have been renewed in the year 
1854-55.' And yet he who is the agent of the Jesuits 
in doing these things, is high in favour in this country as 
our boasted ally ! Surely the British public are not gene- 
rally aware of these facts ! 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Who were the Waldenses? 

A. — They were French Protestants, who became con- 
spicuous in the 1 2th century, but who had existed from 
time immemorial. 

2. Q. — For what purpose was the Inquisition established? 
A. — To exterminate Protestants, or those whom the 

Church of Rome calls heretics. 

3. Q. — Was the persecution of the Waldenses sanc- 
tioned by the authorities of the Church of Rome? 

A. — Yes; Pope Innocent III. proclaimed a crusade 
against them ; and, accordingly, an immonse army carried 
fire and sword through their country. 

4. Q. — Who, in the 18th century, were the heralds of 
salvation in France? 

A. — Lefevere and Farel, who, on a complaint being made 
against them, were obliged to leave their native country. 

5. Q. — State the circumstances under which persecution 
commenced in the reign of Francis? 

A. — Francis having been taken prisoner by the Empe- 
ror of Germany, his mother, in order to please the Pope, 
consulted him as to the best mode of repressing Protes- 
tantism. In reply, the Pope appointed the Inquisition. 

6. Q. — How was the reign of Henry II. introduced? 
A. — In order to greet the king and queen after their 

coronation, a procession was formed, and multitudes of 
Protestants burned to ashes in the Place de Greve. 

7. Q. — Under what circumstances did the massacre of 
St Bartholomew take place? 

A. — AfW the Deace of 1570, — which the Protestants 



PERSECUTION OF PROTEST AKTS IN BRITAIN. 117 

by a bold stand had obtained, — the Admiral de Coligny, 
the head of the Protestant party, and several other influ- 
ential members of the Reformed Church, were invited to 
Paris, and apparently admitted into the king's confidence. 
A marriage took place between Henry of Navarre — a 
Protestant leader, — and Margaret de Valois. At this 
juncture, a plot was formed for the destruction of the Pro- 
testants, which was carried into effect on St Bartholo- 
mew's day, when one of the most bloody massacres that 
history records, was perpetrated. Coligny perished with 
the rest. 

8. Q. — How did the Pope, receive the tidings of this 
treacherous and wholesale murder? 

A. — He went to St Peter's, in solemn procession, to re- 
turn thanks to God ; and caused a medal to be struck off, 
to commemorate the event. 

9. Q. — What do you mean by the Decree of Nantes 1 
A. — The law which was m^de by Henry IV. — formerly 

the well-known Protestant general, Henry of Navarre, — 
granting toleration to Protestants. 

10. Q. — What do you mean by the revocation of the 
Decree of Nantes? 

A. — The repeal of that act of toleration, A.D. 1598, — 
a repeal by which Protestants were exposed to the 
greatest injustice and persecution, and which cost France, 
by banishment and death, a large portion of her population. 

11. Q, — Are ^Protestants in France at present exposed 
to persecution ? 

A. — Yes; Napoleon, not content with, patronising the 
Papacy, employs every means for the suppression of Pro- 
testantism. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Persecution of Protestants in Britain. 

In Britain, no less than in foreign lands, has a testi- 
mony been borne by martyrs at the stake, for the truth 
as it is in Jesus. It would be impossible, within our 



118 JOHN ROGERS — MARTYR. 

brief limits, to enlarge upon a question which has occu- 
pied many volumes. We can only give some idea of the 
sufferings to which Protestants were exposed in the time 
of Papal power. 

We pass over the persecutions of those who espoused 
the cause of truth under the teaching of Wickliffe,* in the 
middle ages, and come at once to the reign of Mary, 
known as the Bloody Queen. 

THE REV. JOHN ROGERS. < ' 

The Rev. John Rogers, Yicar of St Sepulchre's, and 
Prebendary of St Paul's in London, w^s one of the first 
to suffer in the reign of Mary. He had received his edu- 
cation in the University of Cambridge, and was chosen as 
chaplain to certain merchants at Antwerp, where he met 
Tindale and Coverdale, — the well known translators of the 
Bible, — through whose instrumentality he was led to re- 
nounce the superstition and idolatry of the Church of 
Rome. 

In the reign of Edward VI. he returned to England, 
where he was appointed to a post in St Paul's Cathedral. 
He laboured zealously in his master's work, until a stop 
was put to his proceedings in the reign of Mary. On her 
accession to the throne, he preached at St Paul's Cross, 
and exhorted the people to continue stedfast in the re- 
formed faith. For this supposed crime he had to render 
an account, and persisting in his faithful preaching of 
Christ crucified, he was thrown into prison, and examined 
by the Lord Chancellor and Council, January 22, 1555. 
He was finally condemned, on the following grounds, 
which we extract from " the condemnatory sentence :" — 

" We do find that thou hast taught, bolden, and affirmed, and obsti- 
nately defended divers errors, heresies, and damnable opinions, con- 
trary to the doctrine and determination of the Holy Church, as namely, 
these, — That the Catholic Church of Rome is the Church of Antichrist. 
Item, That in the Sacrament of the altar, there is not substantially nor 
really the natural body and blood of Christ." — Fox's Martyrs, p, 90. 
Lon. 1760. 



* Lord Cobham was roasted to death in chains, for his alleged heresy, 
in the reign oi Henry V. Lambert, and many other holy men, perished 
in the reign oi Henry VIII., for the denial of transubstantiation. 



BISHOP HOOPER— MARTYR. 1 1 9 

On the 4th of February, a.d. 1555, he was informed 
that he should at once prepare himself for death by fire. 
He made but one request of Bonner, Bishop of London, 
that he might be allowed to take a last leave of his wife, 
which was inhumanly refused. On his way to Smithfield, 
however, his wife and ten children met him,— an infant, 
the eleventh, being at home,— and caught a sight of the 
dear husband and father. Much as he felt for them, he 
did not waver, but went on his way rejoicing. 

At the stake, he was offered a pardon, on condition of 
his becoming a Romanist, which he refused. At last he 
was burnt to ashes, looking for the fulfilment of that pre- 
cious promise,—" Be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life." (Rev. ii. 10.) 

BISHOP HOOPER. 

In his early years, he was compelled to leave Oxford on 
account of his opinions. He then entered into the service 
of Sir Thomas Arundel, as steward, who, on discovering 
his sentiments, sent him to the Bishop of Winchester, 
with whom Hooper had much disputation. After this, 
he was obliged to seek refuge in France, but soon re- 
turned to England ; a second time he was reduced to th« 
unpleasant necessity of leaving, his native land. In Ger- 
many he met, and was intimate with, some of the conti- 
nental Reformers. 

On the accession of Edward VI. to the throne, he set- 
tled in England, and being distinguished by his able and 
consistent advocacy of Protestant truth, was at length 
made Bishop of Gloucester, and afterwards transferred to 
Worcester. With others, in the reign of Mary, he was 
called on to suffer, and was committed to prison, where 
many attempts were made, but without any success, to 
shake his constancy in the Protestant faith. 

When brought to the stake, February 1555, his con- 
duct was most remarkable. Three irons, — one for his 
neck, another for his middle, and the third for his legs, — 
were brought in order to bind him securely. He remon- 
strated, saying, " That God would give him strength to 
endure the pain, and thus render such precautions unne- 



120 ROWLAND TAYLOR — MARTYR. 

cessary." His persecutors thinking otherwise, he submit- 
ted, and even assisted in putting them on. 

All things being now ready, the executioner, or rather 
the person appointed to make the fire, sought his forgive- 
ness, which he readily gave. When the pile was being- 
made, he kissed two of the bundles which were placed 
within his reach, and embraced them. 

His sufferings were great. The fire, not being well 
kindled, burned only his hair and skin. The second fire 
was equally ineffective, when he cried out, " For God's 
love, good people, let me have more fire!" A third time 
the fire was kindled, and with effect. The martyr's last 
words were, " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" 
1 In all, he suffered the excruciating torments of the 
flame for about three-quarters of an hour, and then yielded 
his ransomed spirit to the God who gave it, 

THE REV. ROWLAND TAYLOR, D.D. 

He was Yicar of Hadley, where he laboured for a con- 
siderable time, " a workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed," and beloved by his flock. His persecution, in 
the reign of Mary, commenced in the following way : — 

Foster, a Popish parishioner, encouraged by the pro- 
ceedings of the Queen, employed a Romish priest to say 
mass in Hadley Church.. An altar was erected with 
much speed, but overthrown during the night. Next day 
the priest arrayed himself in his habiliments, and pre- 
pared to say mass. Dr Taylor having heard the ringing 
of the bell, repaired to the church, the doors of which he 
found closed, with the exception of the chancel door. On 
entering he found the priest ready to commence. 

Dr Taylor remonstrated, but was seized by armed men, 
who were in readiness, and compelled to leave. He was 
cast into prison. His wife, suspecting that the 5th . of 
February was fixed for the day of his removal, watched 
during the night at the gate, accompanied by an orphan 
girl, named Elizabeth, whom Dr Taylor had brought up, 
and their own child, Mary. 

Her surmise proved to be quite correct ; for she saw 
her husband led forth by the Sherift and his men. This 
last meeting between the husband and wife — the parent 



BRADFORD, RIDLEY, AND LATIMER — MARTYRS. 121 

and children, was so touching, that even the Sheriff him- 
self could not refrain from tears. The martyr having 
prayed with his little family, and commended them to God, 
took a last and long farewell. When led to the place of 
execution, he kissed the stake, and, of his own accord, 
went into the pitch barrel. His tormentors anxious, k 
possible, to add to his sufferings, frequently struck him, 
even while in the midst of the flames, and a blow from a 
halbert put an end to his woe. 

THE REV. JOHN BRADFORD. 

This eminent preacher of the gospel was born at Man- 
chester. He was appointed to a fellowship in Pembroke 
Hall, Cambridge, where he cultivated the friendship of 
Martin Bucer, the eminent continental divine, who was 
Professor of Divinity in that University. He was or- 
dained to the ministry by Bishop Ridley, and presented 
to a prebendal stall in St Paul's. Here he became a po- 
pular preacher, and was greatly blessed in his ministry. 

With John Leaf he received the martyr's crown i» 
Smithfield. When approaching the stake, he said, " Oh! 
England, England, repent of thy sins, repent of thy sins; 
beware of idolatry ; beware of Antichrist ; take heed they 
do not deceive you." Embracing his companion in tribu- 
lation, he said, " Strait is the gate, and narrow is the 
way, that leadeth to eternal salvation, and few there be 
that find it." He died rejoicing. 

DR NICHOLAS RIDLEY, BISHOP OF LONDON. 

Ridley was born in Northumberland, of an influential 
family. In college he distinguished himself, and became 
head of Pembroke Hall. In the reign of Henry VIIL, 
he was promoted to the Bishopric of Rochester ; and in 
that of Edward VI., translated to the See of London, 
where he proved himself a leading champion of the Re- 
formation. 

On the accession of Mary, he was amongst the first who 
were cast into prison, where he continued until he suf- 
fered martyrdom, on October 16, 1555. He wrote many 
letters Irom prison, and held many disputations with Ro- 



122 ARCHBISHOP CKANMER — MARTYR. 

mish priests. Of the manner of his death we shall speak 
when recounting that of Latimer. 

BISHOP LATIMER. 

He was once a bigotted Eomanist, but through the in- 
strumentality of Thomas Bilney, his views underwent a 
change, and he became an eminent preacher of Protestant 
truth. He fell under the displeasure of Mary, and was 
east into prison with Ridley. After sundry examinations 
and conferences, which are recorded in flbxs Lives of tlie 
Martyrs, he, with Ridley, was condemned to death. 

Fox describes their death as follows : — 

"Then they brought a lighted faggot, and laid it at Dr Ridley's feet. 
Thereupon Mr Latimer said, — ' Be of good comfort, Mr Ridley, and 
play the man; we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grave, 
in England, as, I trust, shall never be put out. y When Dr Ridley saw the 
fire flaming up towards him, he cried, with a wonderful loud voice, 
* Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my spirit;' and afterwards re- 
peated this often, 'Lord, Lord, receive my spirit.' Mr Latimer cried 
as vehemently on the other side, ' Father of heaven, receive my soul;' 
who received the flame as it were embracing of it. " Booh of Martyrs. 

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER. 

Thomas Cranmer was born in Nottinghamshire of an 
influential family. He was raised to the See of Canter- 
bury by Henry VIII., where he contributed much to the 
good work of Reformation. In the reign of Mary he was 
deposed and degraded. In an evil moment, after long 
confinement, and with dread of death by fire in view, he 
was induced to sign a recantation, which he shortly after 
retracted, deploring his unhappy fall. L_ 

His last end is thus described in Fox : — 
" But when he came to the place where the holy bishops and mar- 
tyrs of God, Bishop Latimer and Ridley, were burnt before him for the 
confession of the truth, kneeling down, he prayed to God; and not long 
tarrying in his prayers, putting off his garments to his shirt, he prepared 
himself for death. His shirt was made long down to his feet. His feet 
were bare. Likewise his head, when both his caps were off, was so 
bare that one hair could not be seen upon it. His beard was so long 
and thick, that it covered his face with marvellous gravity; and his 
reverend countenance moved the hearts both of his .friends and enemies. 
He died with great constancy." — Ut supra. 



SUMMARY OF PERSECUTION OF PROTESTANTS IN BRITAIN. 123 

Time would fail to tell of Wishan, Philpott, Saunders, 

and a host of others, who gave tW lives for the truth. 
Suffice it to say, that hundreds of men and women, with- 
out regard to age or station, perished in the most cruel 
manner, for the crime alon* of adhering to the Bible. The 
accession of Elizabeth to the throne, under God, saved the 
country ; and may we hold fast the privileges which were 
bought with the blood of martyrs. Well may we cry 
" No Popery." Well may we fear the wrath of God for 
our unfaithfully ,* to truth. Strange infatuation that per- 
mits the admission of the adherents of such a system into 
place and power in a Protestant State » 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Have Protestants in England been exposed to 
the persecutions of the Church of Pome % 

A. — Yes, at various times, before, and at the era of the 
Reformation. 

2. Q. — What persecutions took place before the Re- 
formation ? 

A. — Lord Cobham was roasted in chains over a slow 
fire, for his adherence to the truth as maintained by Wick- 
lifFe. All who were known to entertain the principles 
of that reformer were subjected to persecution in every 
shape. 

3. Q. — How did the Papal party manifest their hosti- 
lity to Wickliffe himself* 

A. — By exhuming and burning his bones to ashes. 

4. Q. — What persecutions took place at the Reformation ? 
A. — Hetiry VIII. put Lambert and other Protestants 

to death on account of their denial of the doctrine of 
Transubstantiation ; and Mary, the successor of Edward 
VI., burnt to ashes all who confessed Christ, and spared 
neither age nor sex. 

5. Q. — Mention the names of some of the leading mar- 
tyrs in the reign of Mary ( t 

A. — Archbishop Cranmer, Bishops Ridley, Latimer, 
and Hooper, the Rev. John Bradford, the Rev. John 
Rogers, the Rev. Rowland Taylor, and many others, of 
whom time would fail to tell. 



124 ROMISH CURSES, AND DENUNCIATIONS. 

6. Q. — When was the Reformation established in 
England ? 

A. — In the reign o£ Elizabeth — a good Queen — who 
not only gave rest to the Churches, but established truth 
on a firm basis throughout her realms. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Romish Curses, Excommunication, and 
Interdicts. 

" God is love ; and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth 
in God, and God in him." (1 John iv. 16.) Such is the 
declaration of the beloved John; and such is peculiarly 
the spirit of the gospel of love. 

Jesus came to bless — to save, and not to curse. 

Christians, who are members of his mystical body, are 
exhorted to cultivate the mind of Christ, and to follow 
after charity, which "beareth all things, believeth all 
things, hopeth all things, endureth all things." (1 Cor. 
xiii. 7.) Vengeance belongeth alone to the Lord, (Rom, 
xii. 19,) who is the sole judge of consciences. The re- 
vengeful spirit — the spirit of cursing — is diametrically 
opposed to the Christian character. 

Under the Mosaic law, it was said, " An eye for an eye, 
and a tooth for a tooth ;" but He through whom " grace 
and truth" came, and who spake as never man spake, 
taught the following beautiful lesson : — 

"But / say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, 
do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully 
use you, and persecute you." (Matt. v. 44.) 

How utterly has the Church of Rome departed from the 
spirit of the gospel, in cursing all who dissent from her in 
the slightest degree ! 

CURSES OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. 

On each of the following leading doctrines, the Council 



CURSE FROM ROMI8H PONTIFICAL. 



125 



of Trent gives the accompanying number of canons, each of 
which closes with an Anathema against the dissentient. 



1. On Justification, . 

2. On the Sacraments, 

3. On Baptism, 

4. On Confirmation, 

5. On the Eucharist, 

6. On Penance, . 

7. On Extreme Unction, . 

8. On Communion in one kind, 

9. On the Sacrifice of the Mass, 

10. On Orders, . 

11. On Matrimony, . 



No. of Canons. No. of Curse*. 



33 




33 


13 


.. 


13 


14 


... 


14 


3 


... 


3 


10 


.. 


10 


15 


... 


15 


4 


... 


4 


4 


... 


4 


9 


... 


9 


8 


... 


8 


12 


... 


12 



Total of Canons and Curses, . 125 ... 125 

In all, One Hundred and Twenty-Five Curses 

by the Romish Council of Trent!!! 

CURSE FROM THE ROMAN PONTIFICAL AGAINST THOSE WHO 
INTERFERE WITH NUNS. 

" From the Roman Pontifical, restored and edited by 
order of Clement -VIII. and Urban VIII., Supreme Pon- 
tiffs/ ' — part first, — we extract the following form of curs- 
ing, intended for use against those who should attempt to 
remove a nun from the cloister : — 

"By authority of Almighty God, and of his holy apostles, Peter and 
Paul, we solemnly forbid, under the curse of anathema, that any one 
draw away these present virgins, or holy nuns, from the divine service, 
to which they have devoted themselves, under the banner of chastity; 
or that any one purloin their goods, or be a hinderance to their possess- 
ing them unmolested. But if any one shall dare to attempt such a 
thing, let him be accursed at home and abroad ; accursed in the city 
and in the field ; accursed in waking and sleeping ; accursed in eating 
and drinking; accursed in walking and sitting; accursed in his flesh 
and his bones; and from the sole of his foot, to the crown of his head, 
let him have no soundness. Come upon him the malediction which, by 
Moses in the law, the Lord hath laid on the sons of iniquity. Be his 
name blotted out from the book of the living, and not be written with 
the righteous. His portion and inheritance be with Cain, the fratri- 
cide; with Dathan and Abiram; with Ananias and Sapphira;* with 
Simon the sorcerer, and Judas the traitor; with those who have said to 
God, * Depart from us, we desire not the knowledge of thy ways.' Let 



126 CURSE FROM THE ARCHIVES OF ROCHESTER. 

him perish in the day of judgment; and let everlasting fire devour him 
with the devil and his angels; unless he make restitution, and come to 
amendment. So be it ! So he it !" — 1st part, Roman Pontifical. 

What a terrible imprecation ! It is scarcely conceivable 
how a Church, calling itself Christian, or Christ-like, could 
employ such a form of denunciation. We have reason to 
thank the Lord that he has, in his word, repudiated such 
a system as utterly antichristian, and given such marks of 
the apostacy, that we can at once recognise in Rome the 
very Babylon foretold. 

FORM OF CURSE USED IN ENGLAND IN THE 1 3TH CENTURY. 

The records of the diocese of Rochester contain the fol- 
lowing curse, used in England in the 13th century, which 
is somewhat similar to that now given in the Pontifical. 
The curse has been verified in the archives of that diocese, 
by my reverend and valued brother in the ministry, Dr 
Cumming : — 

"By the authority of God Almighty, the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, and the undefiled Virgin Mary, mother and patroness of our 
Saviour, and of all celestial virtues, angels, archangels, thrones, domi- 
nions, powers, cherubims, and seraphims, and of all the holy patriarchs, 
prophets,' and of all the apostles and evangelists, of the holy innocents, 
who, in the sight of the Holy Lamb, are found worthy to sing the new 
song of the holy martyrs, and holy confessors, and of all the holy vir- 
gins, and of all saints, together with the holy elect of Gfod, may 

« be damned. 

" We excommunicate and anathematize him ; and from the threshold 
of the Holy Church of God Almighty we sequester him, that he may be 
tormented, disposed, and be delivered over with Dathan and Abiram, 
and with those who say unto the Lord, ' Depart from us, for we desire 
none of thy ways.' As a fire is quenched with water, so let the light 
of him be put out for evermore, unless it shall repent him, and make 
satisfaction. Amen. 

"May the Father, who created man, curse him ! May the Son, who 
suffered for iig, curse him 1 May the Holy Ghost, who suffered for us in 
baptism, curse him ! May the Holy Cross, which Christ, for our salva- 
tion, triumphing over his enemies, ascended, curse him ! 

. "May the holy and" eternal Virgin M^ry, mother of God, curse him ! 
May St Michael, the advocate of the Holy Souls, curse him ! May all 
the angels, principalities, and powers, and all heavenly armies, curse 
him. 



MODERN ALTAR DENUNCIATION. 127 

"May the praiseworthy multitude of patriarchs and prophets, curs* 
him I 

" May St John the Precursor, and St John the Baptist, and St Peter, 
and St Paul, and St Andrew, and all other of Christ's Apostles to- 
gether, curse him » and may the rest of our disciples, and evangelists, 
who, by their preaching, converted the universe , and the holy and 
wonderful company of martyrs and confessors, who, by their holy works, 
are found pleasing to God Almighty. May the holy choir of the holy 
virgins, who, for the honour of Christ, have despised the things of this 
world, damn him ! May all the saints, from the beginning of the world 
to everlasting ages, who are found to be beloved of God, damn him * 

" May he be damned wherever he be, whether in the house or in the 
stable, the garden or the field, or the highways, or in the woods, or in 
the waters, or in the church. May he be cursed in living and in dying! 

" May he be cursed in eating and drinking, in being hungry, in being 
thirsty, in fasting, in sleeping, in slumbering, and in sitting, in living, 
in working, in resting, in blood-letting ! 

" May he be cursed in all the faculties of his body 1 

"May he be cursed inwardly and outwardly ! May he be cursed in 
his brains, and in his vertex, in his temples, in his eye-brows, in his 
cheeks, in his jaw-bones, in his nostrils, in his teeth and grinders, in 
his lips, in his throat, in his shoulders, in his arms, in his fingers ! 

"May he be damned in his mouth, in his breasts, in his heart and 
purtenance, down to the very stomach ! May he be cursed in his reins, 
and in his groins, in his thighs, in his genitals and in his hips, and his 
knees, his legs and feet, and toe-nails ! May he be cursed in all his 
joints, and articulation of the members ! From the crown of his head 
to the sole of his feet may there be no soundness ! May the Son of the 
living God, with all the glory of his Majesty, curse him ! And may 
heaven, with all the powers that move therein, rise up against him, and 
curse and damn him, unless he repent and make satisfaction. Amen. 
So be it. Be it so Amen."* 

Truly the language of the apostle is applicable to Rome, 
" Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness." " Their 
feet are swift to shed blood." " Destruction and misery 
are in their ways, and the way of peace have they not 
known." " There is no fear of God before their eyes." 
(Romans iii. 14-18.) 

MODERN ALTAR DENUNCIATION. 

There have been manv instances in which the priests of 



* There is evidence for believing that a Romish priest, named Hog- 
gan, was denounced from the altar, a few years ago, in the United 
States, according to the form of this curse. 



128 DENUNCIATION, A WEAPON OF PRIESTLY POWER. 

the Church of Rome have employed altar denunciation 
with great effect in Ireland. The forms, which they use 
on such occasions, are generally substantially the same as 
those which we have given from the Pontifical and the 
Rochester Archives. On this subject, we quote the fol- 
lowing excellent observations from the Protestant Herald. 
Edinburgh, 1854, p. 36 : — 

" Every one acquainted with the state of Ireland knows that altar 
denunciations furnish the priesthood with the most powerful weapons for 
the spiritual and temporal subjugation of the people. The priest's 
curse is a fiery sword, turning every way, and forbidding access alike 
to the tree of spiritual life, and to civil liberty. If a man desire to 
read the Word of God, or to attend an evangelical church to hear the way 
of salvation, if he receive a missionary into his house, or send his children 
to a Protestant school, he is tei rifled by the threat that he will be de- 
nounced from the altar. If he has a vote to give for a member of Par- 
liament, or any other civil privilege to exercise, he must do so according 
to the dictation of the priest, or he will be denounced from the altar. 
Nor is the fear which this denunciation inspires always a mere supersti- 
tious dread of unreal spiritual terrors, or imaginary temporary evils, 
miraculously produced. There are men among the lower classes in Ire- 
land sufficiently educated to laugh to scorn such idle superstitions, but 
who would be unwilling to face the temporal consequences, of a real and 
palpable nature, which are certain to follow. It is no slight matter to 
be held up to an ignorant and superstitious neighbourhood as a child of 
the devil, and an heir of perdition, an object of horror and hatred, with 
whom all intercourse is forbidden, and against whom all violence is jus- 
tifiable. It is no slight matter for a man to find himself deserted by his 
nearest relatives, shunned by his former companions — to see them turn 
out of the way when they meet him on the road, and to sign themselves 
with the cross, to protect themselves from his satanic influence as they 
pass — to see his shop deserted, his forge or his mill forsaken, and him- 
self treated by all men as if he had the leprosy. But such is the inevi- 
table consequence of being denounced from the altar. The priest's curse 
is therefore a weapon of tremendous power, whether it is used to deter 
those who are willing, from entering into the way of life, or to bend to 
the priestly will the political privileges of the people. There have been 
instances in which this tremendous weapon has been braved, and protec- 
tion sought from the law of the land, but seldom with any good effect. 
There is at this moment in Edinburgh a well-known and efficient mis* 
sionary, who was ruined, and obliged to fly from his native country in 
consequence of the priest's curse, and in defiance of the law's protec- 
tion. He had been denounced for reading the Scriptures to his igno- 



INTERDICTS. 129 

rant neighbours. All the evils we have mentioned fell upon him in 
consequence. He appealed to the law — he gained his case — the curs- 
ing priest was found liable in heavy damages. But of what avail was 
all this ? The damages were paid — the priest remained — the poor man 
was ruined, and forced into exile." 

No system ever yet existed, Pagan or Mohammedan, 
which exhibits so intolerant a spirit as the Church of 
Rome. Can we regard those as free agents, or qualified 
for the exercise of the elective franchise, or to take part in 
the governn/ut of Protestants and freemen, who are 
themselves slaves to such a system as this. 

INTERDICTS. 

This was one of the most terrible engines of Papal 
power, when exercised towards those who acknowledged 
the Papal supremacy, and whose souls were bowed down 
by superstition. It has been frequently put into force, 
of which we would give two instances : — 

John, King of England, a.d. 1190, having refused to 
admit Stephen Langton, on his appointment by the Pope 
to the archbishopric of Canterbury, his holiness employed 
the power of the Interdict, which was calculated to awe 
the superstitious, and to compel the refractory to obey. 

'Mid solemn services, curses were fulminated, the lights 
in the church extinguished, and the interdict proclaimed. 
A stop was put to divine service, the doors of all the 
churches were closed, the images of the saints laid pros- 
trate on the ground, and the dead left unburied in the 
highways and ditches. 

John, for a time, remained firm amid such terrible 
scenes, but at last cowered before the Papal power, when 
the triple tyrant of Rome audaciously gave away the 
kingdom to the French monarch, whom he authorised to 
invade England's free shores. John's humiliation was 
complete, and even the crown was kicked from his brow 
by the Roman legate, in order to shew that the Pope was 

his lord. 

In the same century, Philip Augustus, King of Fiance, 
was compelled to yield to the same power. Philip had 
been divorced fiom his first wife by the French bishops, 



130 CONSEQUENCES OF THE INTERDICT. 

but the Pope refused to acknowledge the divorce. Philip, 
notwithstanding, married again ; which called forth the 
Pope's displeasure, who commanded him to submit. 
The king continuing obdurate, the Pope issued the inter- 
dict; the effects of which are eloquently described by R. 
P. James, as follows : — 

" Gloom and consternation spread over the face of France ; the link 
seemed, cut between it and the other nations of the earth. Each man 
appeared to stand alone ; each one brooded oyer his new situation with 
a gloomy despondency. No one doubted that the curse Of God was 
upon the land ; and the daily, nay, hourly, deprivation of every reli- 
gious ceremony, was constantly recalling it to the imaginations of all. 

"The doors of the churches were shut and barred; the statues of 
the saints were covered with black ; the crosses on the high roads were 
veiled. The bells, which had marked the various hours of tbe day, 
calling all classes Jo one beneficent God, were no longer heard ringing 
slowly over field and plain. The^erf returned from the glebe, and the 
lord from the wood, in gloomy silence, missing all those appointed 
sounds that formed the pleasant interruption to their dull toil, or 
duller amusements. 

"All old accustomed habits, these grafts in our nature which can- 
not be torn out without agony, were entirely broken through. The 
matin, or the vesper prayer, was no longer said; the Sabbath was un- 
marked by its blessed distinctness; the fetes, whether of penitence or 
rejoicing, were unnoticed and cold in the hideous gloom that overspread 
the land, resting like the dead amidst the dying. 

"Every hour, every moment, served to impress the awful effects of 
the interdict more and more deeply on the minds of men. Was a child 
born, — a single priest, in silence and in secrecy, as if the very act were 
a crime, sprinkled the baptismal water on its brow. Marriage, with 
all its gay ceremonies and feasts, was blotted, with other happy days, 
from the calendar of life. The dying died in fear, without prayer cr 
confession, as if mercy had gone by; and the dead, cast recklessly on 
the soil, or buried in unhallowed ground, were exposed, according to 
the credence of the day, to the visitation of demons and evil spirits. 
Even the doors of the cemeteries were closed, and the last fond com- 
mune between the living and the dead — that beautiful weakness which 
pours the heart out, even on the cold unanswering grave — was struck 
out from the solaces of existence. 

"The bishops and clergy in the immediate neighbourhood of Di- 
jon, first began to observe the interdict; and gradually, though stea- 
dily, the same awful privation of all religious form spread itself over 
France. Towards the north, however, and in the neighbourhood of the 



SUMMAKY ON PERSECUTION IN BRITAIN. 131 

rapital, the ecclesiastics were more slow in putting it in execution." — 
Philip Augiistyf. 

J^nilip Augustus at first stoutly resisted ; but his barona 
and people were more superstitious than himself. They 
quailed before the power of the Pontiff ; and Philip, for- 
saken in his time of need, at length gave way. 

Were England to acknowledge the Papal yoke, it would 
again submit to the tyranny of a foreign priest, and bow 
before his fiat. 

Does it not behove Britons, to resist Papal aggression, 
and to withcjraw all support from such a system of fraud 
and tyranny, seeing that it reduces the mind to thral- 
dom 1 Where would be the greatness and independence 
of Britain if it were subject to Papal rule ? With the 
power of the Interdict, what could not the Pope do ? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Is it in accordance with the spirit of Christianity 
to persecute for conscience sake % 

A. — No. Such persecution is altogether opposed to the 
gospel of love 1 

2. Q. — How does it appear that the Church of Rome 
is unchristian in this respect ¥ 

A. — Because she curses all who dissent, even in ih% 
smallest degrv)e. from her decrees., 

3. Q. — How cnn you prove that she anathematizes 
those who differ from her 1 

A. — By an appeal to the Oounoil of Trent, which has 
hurled one hundred and twenty-five curses against those 
who do not accord with Papal views. 

4. Q, — 1 8 there not a form of cursing provided in the 
Roman Pontifical / 

A. — Yes ; the unchristian character of which at once 
appears on its perusal. 

5. Q, — Is there not one recorded in the archives of the 
diocese of Rochester, which is absurdly profane 1 

A. — Yes ; it specifies all the members of the body, and 
curses the delinquent in them, -and in whatever position 
he can be found. 

6. Q. — What are interdicts ? 



132 POPERY OPPOSED TO THE BIBLE. 

A. — Mandates from the Pope, by which a stop is put 
to all church services and ministrations, and by which the 
dead are left unburied in the highways and ditches. 

7. Q. — Were not these interdicts successful in accom- 
plishing the wishes of the Pope in former ages? 

A. — Yes. People and realms were then so bowed down 
by superstition, that they dreaded the interdict ; — the 
terins of which the bishops and clergy, being so subject to 
the Pope, were always ready to fulfil. 

8. Q. — Give some special instances in which they com- 
pelled even crowned heads to yield to the Pope ? 

A. — The case of John, King of England, a.d. 1190, 
who was compelled to receive Stephen Langton, as Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury , and that of Philip Augustus, King 
of France, in the same century, who was forced to put 
away his wife, by the interdict. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Popery Opposed to the Bible. 

Nothing can be more decided than the opposition of the 
Ohurch of Rome to the free use and circulation of God's 
Word. She is opposed to the Bible, simply because the 
Bible is opposed to her. Christ said, " Search the Scrip- 
tures," (John v. 39 ;) but Rome places her members under 
such restrictions as to the use of the Word of God, as 
amounts to an absolute prohibition. We shall now give 
our various authorities, and establish our assertion by in- 
disputable evidence. 

I. The Council of Toulouse, a.d. 1229, passed the fol- 
lowing decree : — 

' ' We prohibit also the permitting of the laity to have the books of 
the Old or New Testament, unless any one should wish, from a feeling 
of devotion, to have a psalter or breviary for divine service, or the 
hours of the blessed Mary. But we strictly forbid them to have the 
above-mentioned books in the vulgar tongue." — Labbey and Cassort't 
Councils, part I., torn. ii. Paris, 1071. 



THE BULL UNIGENITUS, AND LIGUORI OPPOSED TO BIBLE. 133 

This decree was passed in the time of the Waldenses, 
and strictly carried out. 

II. Quesnel, a pious and eminent Roman Catholic, in 
bhe beginning of the 18th century, published a work 
which proved very distasteful to the Church of Borne. 
Accordingly, Clement XI. issued a bull, commonly en- 
titled the bull Unigenitus, in which he condemned certain 
propositions contained in the above work. See Chap. IX. 
on canon law. Amongst the propositions condemned 
were the following : — 

" It is useful and necessary, at all times, in all places, and for per- 
sons of every class, to study and to know the spirit, piety, and sacred 
mysteries of the Scripture. 

" The reading of the Holy Scripture is for all men." 

These propositions, so scriptural and truthful, with 
others of a similar kind, the bull condemns as — 

"Seditious, impious, blasphemous, suspected of heresy, and savour- 
ing of heresy itself ; favouring, moreover, heretics and heresies, and 
also schism ; as erroneous, nearly allied to heresy, often condemned, 
and finally, even heretical." 

The bull Unigenitus is of the highest authority. Ro- 
manists unblushingly admit it to be in full force even in 
the British kingdom. Dr Murray, Romish Archbishop 
of Dublin, gave evidence before the Committee of the 
House of Commons, in 1828, as follows : — 

"Is the bull Unigenitus received in Ireland? It is." — See Report,, 
p. 647. 

III. Saint Alphonsus Liguori, the high authority of 
whose works we have already pointed out in Chapter II., 
says,— 

" The Scriptures and books of controversies may not be permitted im, 
the vulgar tongue, as also they cannot be read without permission." 

The Saint refers with approval to the 4th rule of the 
Index, to which we shall call attention. 

IV. The second article of Pope Pius's Creed amounts 
to a prohibition of Scripture : — 

"I also admit the sacred Scriptures, according to the sense whick 
the holy Mother, the Church, has held, and does hold, — to whom it be- 
longs to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scrip- 



134: FOURTH RULE OF THE INDBX, AND POINTS THEREIN. 

tures ; nor will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than according 
to the unanimous consent of the Fathers." 

Here the Romanist promises to understand Scripture 
only according to the sense of the Church, and the unani- 
mous consent of the Fathers. But the Church has never 
given an authorized sense or commentary of Scripture ; 
and the unanimous consent of the Father^ is a non entity •, 
these ancient writers being divided on almost every point. 
Therefore* the conclusion irresistibly follows, that the 
Scriptures are not to be understood at all. 

Y. The fourth rule of the Index of the Council of 
Trent, distinctly prohibits the use of Scripture to the 
member of the Church of Rome, unless he can obtain the 
license or permission of the superior. The rule is as 
follows : — 

" Inasmuch as it is manifest, from experience, that If the Holy Bible, 
translated into the vulgar tongue, be indiscriminately allowed to every 
one, the temerity of men will cause wore evil than good to arise from 
it ; it is, on this point, referred to the judgment of the bishops, or in- 
quisitors, who may, by the advice of the priest or confessor, permit the 
reading of the Bible translated into the vulgar tongue by Catholic 
authors, to those persons whose faith and piety, they apprehend, will be 
augmented, and not injured by it ; and this permission they must have 
in writing. But if any one shall have the presumption to read or pos- 
sess it without such written permission, he shall notyeceive absolution 
until he have first delivered up such Bible to the ordinary. Book- 
sellers, however, who shall sell, or otherwise dispose of Bibles in the 
vulgar tongue, to any persons not having such permission, shall forfeit 
the value of the books, to be applied by the bishop to some pious use, 
and be subjected to such other penalties as the bishop shall judge proper, 
according to the quality of the offence. But regulars shall neither read 
nor purchase such Bibles without a special license from their superiors.*' 
— See Canons and Decrees of Council of Trent. Paris, 1832. 

Here several points are observable. 

1. It is taken for granted that the indiscriminate reading 
of holy Scripture will " do more harm, than good!" 

What ! the reading of the inspired volume do harm ! 
Yes ; such is the deliberate teaching of the Church of Rome. 

2. The bishop or inquisitor, not the parish priest, may 
give license to certain parties to read the Bible. 

3. These parties are those who, it is ascertained, will 



POINTS IN THE FOURTH RULE OF THE INDEX. 135 

derive no harm therefrom; that is to say, who are feo 
thoroughly imbued with Romish sentiment and feeling, 
that nothing can shake their adherence to Popery. 

4. The license must be given in writing. 

5. The person who possesses a Bible without such 
written license, must deliver up the Bible to the Church 
authorities. 

6. If he do not give up the Bible, he cannot receive 
absolution. 

7. Booksellers whd sell Bibles in the vulgar tongue to 
persons not possessing the license, must lose the value of 
the books, and be subject to other penalties, according to 
the: pleasure of the inquisitor. 

8. Even the clergy are not td read or buy such Bibles 
without the permission of the prelates. 

Such then ate the principles and discipline of the 
Church of Rome, in reference to the Bible and its use. 

This 4th rule is binding even at the present day. 

Dens says, — 

4 ' According to Steyaert, the law Has been received* and hitherto ob- 
served, (with some variation, according to the character of the coun- 
tries, ) in by far the greatest part of the Catholic world ; only where 
they lived amongst heretics^ a greater indulgence teas allowed." — p. 
103, vol. II. Dublin, 1832. 

The Bible is sometimes possessed by Romanists in Eng- 
land, and Protestant countries ; nay, it is even studiously 
paraded in the Jtoman Catholic book-shops, but Dens ex- 
plains the reason, — " WJiere they (Catholics) lived among 
Jieretics, a greater indulgence was allowed." The object is 
evident; even to lead Protestants to suppose that the 
Church of Rome is not the foe of the Bible* 

We cannot do better than ^uote a passage from Venn's 
excellent letter's to Waterworth, in which he shews that 
the 4th rule of the Index is referred to in the most recent 
bulls of the Pope as of the highest authority. 

"(1.) Pius VII., in a letter to Ignatius, Archbishop of Quesn, Pri- 
mate of Poland, dated June 29, 1816, alarmed at the progress of the 
Bible Society in that country, thus writes : — 

11 ' "We have boon truly shocked at this most crafty device, by which 
the very foundations of religion are undermined.' 'We 



13G FOURTH RULE OF THE INDEX OBLIGATORY 

again and again exhort you, that whatever you can achieve by power, 
provide for by counsel, or effect by authority, you will daily execute b> 
the utmost earnestness. And then he repeats the rules of the Index, 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4, an3 the Decree of Benedict XIV. 

" The same Pope, in his letter to the Archbishop of Mohilow, dated 
September 3, 1816, reproves him for having sanctioned the Bible Society; 
and adds, ' You ought carefully to have kept in view what our prede- 
cessors have already prescribed, — viz. that if the Holy Bible, in the 
vulgar tongue, were permitted everywhere, without discrimination, more 
injury than benefit would thence arise.' He afterwards proceeds to 
quote the bull Unigenitus, as expressing the opinion of the Church ; and 
in another passage of his letter, he reproves the Archbishop for quoting 
the first part only of Pius VI. 's celebrated letter to Martini, which is 
prefixed to the stereotype edition of the Rheimish New Testament, pub- 
lished at Belfast, 18IJ9, (which is so often appealed to by English Ro- 
manists as a proof that their Church is favourable to the free circula- 
tion and reading of the Scriptures,) and says, * That most wise Pontiff, 
for this very reason, commends a version of the Holy Scriptures made 
by that prelate, because he had abundantly enriched it by expositions 
drawn from tradition, accurately and religiously observing the rules 
prescribed by the sacred congregation of the Index. 

"In the year 1820, Pius VII. approved of the decrees of the sacred 
congregation of the Index, which condemned and proscribed two edi- 
tions of the New Testament translated into Italian by Martini. 

" These editions appear to have been exact reprints from the original 
work of Martini, but without any notes. The original work, consisting 
of 23 quarto volumes, needed no proscription.* 

"(2.) Leo XII., in his encyclical letter, dated May 3, 1824, says, 
and I adopt the translation by the Roman Catholic bishops in Ireland. 

" 'Our predecessors published many ordinances ; and, in his later 
days, Pius VII., of blessed memory, sent "two briefs," (from which I 
have just quoted.) . . . . 

11 * Reprove, beseech, be instant in season and out of season, in all 
patience and doctrine, that the faithful entrusted to you, (adhering 
strictly to the rules of our congregation of the Index,) be persuaded, that 
if the sacred Scriptures be everywhere indiscriminately published, more 
evil than advantage will arise thence, on account of the rashness of men. 
. • • • " ' The power of temporal princes will, we trust, in the 
Lord, come to your assistance,' &c. 

"In the year 1825, Leo XII. issued a mandate, dated March 26, 



* Martini's edition of the Bible needs no proscription, because it con- 
sists of 23 quarto volumes, and therefore cannot be purcha*ed by the 

tnnMseis. 



FOURTH RULE OF THE INDEX OBLIGATORY. 137 

and published in the last Index, in which all patriarchs, archbishops, 
bishops, &c, are charged to remember those things which are set forth 
in the rules of the Index, and in the ' observation' and • addition' re- 
specting the fourth rule. 

" (3.) Pius VIII. , in his encyclical letter, dated May 24, 1829, writes 
to the same effect as Leo XII. had done in the year 1824. 

" (4.) Neither has his successor, Pope Gregory XVI., been less earnest 
in this matter than his predecessors. 

" A decree was passed by the sacred congregation of the Index, dated 
January 7, 1836, to which a notice is subjoined, and in that notice it is 
said, — ' Those regulations are especially to be insisted on (omnino itzsis- 
tendum) which were set forth in the fourth rule of the Index.' 

" In the Index of prohibited books, published at Rome in 1841, not 
only does the 4th rule appear without any intimation of its even having 
been suspended ; but the notice enjoining the strict observance of it is 
placed among the prefatory and recognized documents. 

"The encyclical letter, dated the 25th of May last, (1845,) and ad- 
dressed to all patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops, is chiefly 
directed against the Bible Society , and not only are the translations of 
that Society condemned, but the principle itself, of the free circulation 
and reading of the Scriptures, is likewise condemned, and the observance 
of the 4th rule of the Index enjoined. The following are extracts from 
it. After mentioning the efforts made at the time of the Reformation 
to promote its doctrines, he says, ' Therefore, in those rules which were 
drawn up by the Fathers, chosen by the Council of Trent, and approved 
by Pius IV , and prefixed to the Index of prohibited books, it is read, 
established by general sanction, that Bibles in the vulgar tongue should 
not be permitted to any but those to whom the reading of them should 
be judged profitable, to the increase of faith and piety.' (Here a refer- 
ence is made to the 3d and 4th rules of the Index.) ' To this same 
rule, which was afterwards made more stringent by a new caution, on 
account of the persevering frauds of the heretics, the declaration was at 
length added, by the authority of Benedict XIV., that the reading of 
versions in the vulgar tongue, which have been approved of by the Apos- 
tolic See, or published with notes taken out of the holy Fathers of the 
Church, or learned and Catholic men, should be held henceforth per- 
mitted,' (i. e. permitted to those having a license ; not to all, as is 
proved by the context.) The Pope then goes on to attack the Jansen- 
ists and Quesnelists, who held the Protestant doctrine respecting the 
reading of the Bible, and observes, that their audacity is rebuked in the 
solemn judgments passed against their doctrines, with the applause of 
the whole Catholic world, by two Popes, — viz. Clement XL, in the bull 
1 Unigenitus? and Pius VI., in his constitution ' Auctorem, Fidei,' — 
that very Pius VI. who wrote to Martini on his translating the Bible. 



138 SUMMARY ON POPERY OPPOSED TO THE BIBLE. 

and who is so often ignorantly quoted as a friend to the free circulation 
and reading of the Holy Scriptures.'" p. 10, letters. — Hereford, 1845. 

Thus the Church of Rome, by her highest authorities, 
prohibits the circulation of the Bible in the vulgar tongue. 

It is true, that English Roman Catholics deny this; 
but their very denial of it only proves either that they are 
kept in ignorance of the laws of the Church, or that they 
wilfully deceive. We believe that the former alternative 
is the case, at least in most instances. 

The Church of Rome, in her rulers, is the deceiver; she 
prohibits the Bible, and yet denies the existence of that 
prohibition ; and thus adds hypocrisy to her other sins. 

How can Britons, who are characterized for honesty 
and love of the Bible, countenance such a system of fraud 
and hostility to God's Word as this? And yet the nation 
actually sanctions the exclusion of the Bible from its own, 
(the national,) schools in Ireland, and the education of 
the youth of that benighted country in ignorance of 
the Bible. Need we wonder that insulted Providence 
permits Ireland to be England's difficulty, and that evils 
overwhelm the sister isle. The remedy is to give to its 
people that blessed book, which the Lord has given for all, 
to be a lamp unto our feet, and a light unto our path, 
Psalm cxix. 105. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What prohibition, as to the use and reading of 
Scripture, did the Council of Toulouse issue 1 

A. — It decreed that no one should have the Bible ia 
the vulgar tongue, a.d. 1229. 

2. Q. — How does it appear, from the case of Quesnel, 
that the Church of Rome is opposed to the reading and 
circulation of the Word of God ? 

A. — Quesne* maintained, that "the Scriptures are for 
all;" and the Pope, in the famous bull Unigenitus, con- 
demned that sentiment with others, as injurious, blasphe- 
mous, &c. 

3. Q. — Is the bull Unigenitus now in force? 

A. — Yes. Dr Murray, Roman Catholic Archbishop of 



SUMMARY ON POPERY OPPOSED TO THE BIBLE. 1.39 

Dublin, admitted the fact in his examination before the 
Committee of the House of Commons. 

4. Q. — What does Saint Alphonsus Liguori say on the 
subject? 

A. — That "the Scriptures and books of controversies, 
may not be permitted in the vulgar tongue." 

5. Q. — How does the second article of Pope Pius's creed 
amount to a prohibition of God's Word? 

A. — It declares, that the Scriptures are only to be un- 
derstood according to the sense of the Church, and the 
unanimous consent of the Fathers. But no such thing as 
the sense of the Church, or the unanimous consent of the 
Fathers exists; and therefore it would follow, that the 
Scriptures are not to be understood at all. 

6. Q. — Has the Council of Trent prohibited the use and 
reading of Scripture ? 

A . — Yes ; in the Fourth Rule of the Index. 

7. Q. — What principle, insulting to God, does the 
Fourth Rule take for granted? 

A. — That the indiscriminate reading of Scripture would 
do more harm than good. 

8. Q. — To whom may the bishop or inquisitor grant the 
reading of Scripture ? 

A. — According to the Third Rule, to "learned and 
pious men!" 

9. Q. — What penalty do they incur who read the Scrip- 
tures without the written permission of the superior ? 

A. — They cannot receive absolution until they give up 
their Bibles to the Priest. 

10. Q. — Are booksellers included in this prohibition as 
to Scripture? 

A. — Yes. If they sell the Bible to persons who have 
not permission, they incur various punishments. 

1 1. Q. — How is it t'hat Bibles are often in the possession 
of Roman Catholics in England and Protestant countries? 

A. — The reason is explained by Steyaert. He says, 
that the Fourth Rule of the Index is relaxed amongst 
heretics, in which term the Church of Rome includes Pro- 
testants ; but strictly observed in countries " altogether 
(Roman) Catholic/' 



140 CHAPTER XVII. 

Popery opposed to Knowledge. 

It is remarkable, that while the .Church of Rome, by 
the doctrine of transubstantiation, denies the evidence of 
the senses, she seeks, in her whole system of worship, rather 
to gratify the senses by pageant and ceremonial, than to 
cultivate the mind and to inform the understanding. She 
has proved the foe of knowledge ; and though many of her 
leading men and priests are distinguished for learning and 
logical skill, — for " knowledge is power," — yet the great 
body of her communion in Romish countries, are sunken 
in the most abject superstition and ignorance. Knowledge 
is a power which she dreads to entrust to her followers in 
general, and which she reserves for her leading office- 
bearers, that they may employ it to her advantage, and 
keep the people in subjection to her authority. 

In England and other places where the great mass of 
the people are Protestants, members of the Church of Rome 
are found to be well informed and acute, for the simple 
reason, that, under such circumstances, every Romanist 
is a missionary; but in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, 
Ireland, &c., it is well known, that the people are in a 
state of ignorance bordering upon that of uncivilized life. 
In short, Pope»y, in its rules and discipline, imposes such 
restrictions as directly impede the progress of knowledge. 
1. Popery opposes Knowledge by the Rules of 
the Index. 

The following are the ten rules concerning prohibited 
books which have been approved by the council of Trent, 
and which we give at large, as they are not generally 
accessible. 

" 1 . All books condemned by the supreme pontiffs or general councils, 
before the year 1515, and not comprised in the present index, are, 
nevertheless, to be considered as condemned. 

" 2. The books of heresiarchs, — whether of those who broached or 
disseminated their heresies prior to the year above mentioned, or of 
those who have been, or are, the heads or leaders of heretics, as Luther, 
Zuingle, Calvin, Balthasar, Pu,cimontanus, Swenchfeld, and other simi- 
lar ones, — are altogether forbidden, whatever may be their names, titles, 
or subjects. And the books of other heretics, which treat professedly 
upon religion, are totally condemned, but those which do not treat 



RULES OF THE INDEX. 141 

upon religion are allowed to be read, after having been examined and 
approved by Catholic divines, by order of the bishops and inquisitors. 
Those Catholic books also are permitted to be read which have been 
composed by authors who have afterwards fallen into heresy, or who, 
after their fall, have returned into the bosom of the Church, provided 
they have been approved bv the theological faculty of some Catholic uni- 
versity, or by the general inquisition. 

"3. Translations of ecclesiastical writers, which have been hitherto 
published by condemned authors, .are permitted to be read, if they con- 
tain nothing contrary to sound doctrine. Translations of the Old- Tes- 
tament may also be allowed, but only to learned and pious men, at the 
discretion of the bishop, provided they use them merely as elucidations 
of the vulgate version, in order to understand the Holy Scriptures, and 
not as the sacred text itself. But translations, of the New Testament, 
made by authors of the first class of this Index, are allowed to no one, 
since little advantage, but much danger, generally arises from reading 
them. If notes accompany the versions which are allowed to be read, 
or are joined to the vulgate edition, they may be permitted to be read 
by the same persons as the version, after the suspected places have been 
purged by the theological faculty of some Catholic university, or by the 
general inquisitor 

"4. Inasmuch as it is manifest from experience, that if the Holy 
Bible, translated into the vulgar tongue, be indiscriminately allowed U 
any one, the temerity of men will cause more evil than good to arise 
from it, it is, on this point, referred to the judgment of the bishops or 
inquisitors, who may, by the advice of the priest or confessor, permit 
the reading of the Bible, translated into the vulgar tongue by Catholic 
authors, to those persons whose faith and piety they apprehend will be 
augmented, and not injured by it ; and this permission they must 
have in writing. But if any one shall have the presumption to read 
or possess it without such written permission, he shall not receive abso- 
lution until he have first delivered up such Bible to the ordinary. Book- 
sellers, however, who shall sell, or otherwise dispose of Bibles in the 
vulgar tongue, to any person not having such permission, shall forfeit 
the value of the books, to be applied by the bishop to some pious use, 
and be subjected to such other penalties as the bishop shall judge proper, 
according to the quality of the offence. But regulars shall neither read 
nor purchase such Bibles without a special license from their superiors. 

" 5. Books of which heretics are the editors, but which contain little 
or nothing of their own, — being mere compilations from others, — as 
lexicons, concordances, apothegms, similies, indices, and others of a 
similar kind, may be allowed by the bishops and inquisitors, after hav- 
ing made, with the advice of Catholic divines, such corrections and emen- 
dations as may be deemed requisite. 

"6. Books of controversy betwixt the Catholics and heretics of the 
present time, written in the vulgar tongue, are not to be indiscriminately 



142 RULES OF THE INDEX. 

allowed, but are to be subject to the same regulations, as Bibles in the 
vulgar tongue. As to those works in the vulgar tongue which treat of 
morality, contemplation, confession, and similar subjects, and which 
contain nothing contrary to sound doctrine, there is no reason why they 
should be prohibited ; the same may be said also of sermons in the vulgar 
tongue designed for the people. And if, in any kingdom or province, 
any books have been hitherto prohibited as containing things not proper 
to be read without selection by all sorts of persons, they may be allowed 
by the bishop and inquisitor, after having corrected them, if written by 
Catholic authors. 

" 7. Books professedly treating of lascivious or obscene subjects, or 
narrating or teaching them, are utterly prohibited, &c. But the works 
of antiquity y written by the heathens, are permitted to be read, because 
of the elegance and propriety of the language; though on no account 
shall they be suffered to be read by young persons. 

" 8. Books, the principal subject of which is good, but in which some 
things are occasionally introduced tending to heresy and impiety, divi- 
nation, or superstition, may be allowed, after they have been corrected 
by Catholic divines, by authority of the general inquisition. The same 
judgment is also formed of prefaces, summaries, or notes, taken from 
condemned authors, and inserted in the works of authors not condemned ; 
but such works must not be printed in future until they have been 
amended. 

" 9. All books and writings of geomancy, necromancy, magic, &c, are 
utterly rejected. The bishops shall also diligently guard against any 
persons reading or keeping any books, treatises, or indices, which treat 
of judicial astrology, &c. But such opinions and observations of natural 
things asare written in aid of navigation, agriculture, and medicine, 
are permitted. 

"10. In the printing of books or other writtings, the rules shall be 
observed which were ordained in the tenth session of the Council of 
Lateran, under Leo X. Therefore, if any book is to be printed in the 
city of Rome, it shall first be examined by the Pope's vicar, and the 
master of the sacred palace, or other persons chosen by our most holy 
Father for that purpose. In other places, the examination of any book 
or manuscript intended to be printed, shall be referred to the bishop, 
or some skilful person whom he shall nominate, and the inquisitor of 
heretical pravity of the city or diocese in which the impression is exe- 
cuted, who shall gratuitously, and without delay, affix their approbation 
to the work in their own handwriting, subject, nevertheless, to the pains 
and censures contained in the said decree, — this law and condition being 
added, that an authentic copy of the book to be printed, signed by the 
author himself, shall remain in the hands of the examiner ; and it is 
the judgment of the Fathers of the present deputation, that those persons 
who publish books in manuscript before they have been examined and 
approved, should be subject to the same penalties as those who print 



them ; and that those who read or possess them, should be considered 
as the authors, if the real authors of such writings do not avow them- 
selves. The approbation given in writing shall be placed at the head of 
the books, whether printed or in manuscript, that they may appear to 
be duly authorized ; and this examination and approbation, &c, shall 
be granted gratuitously. 

" Moreover, in every city and diocese the house or places where the 
art of printing is exercised, and also the shops of booksellers, shall be 
frequently visited by persons deputed for that purpose by the bishop or 
his vicar, conjointly with the inquisitor of heretical pravity, so that 
nothing that is prohibited may be printed, kept, or sold. Booksellers 
of every description shall keep in their libraries a catalogue of the books 
which they have on sale, signed by the said deputies ; nor shall they 
keep, or sell, nor in any way dispose of any other books without per- 
mission from the deputies, under pain of forfeiting the books, and being 
liable to such other penalties as shall be judged proper by the bishop 'or 
inquisitor, who shall also punish the buyers, readers, or printers of such 
works. If any person import foreign books into any city, they shall be 
obliged to announce them to the deputies j or if this kind of merchandise 
be exposed to sale in any public place, the public officers of the place 
shall signify to the said deputies, that such books have been brought ; 
and no one shall presume to give, to read, or lend, or sell any book, 
which he, or any other person has brought into the city, until he has 
shewn it to the deputies, and obtained their permission, unless it be a 
work well known to be universally allowed. 

" Heirs and testamentary executors shall make no use of the books 
of the deceased, nor in any way transfer them to others, until they have 
presented a catalogue of them to the deputies, and obtained their li- 
cense, under pain of the confiscation of the books, or the infliction of such 
other punishment as the bishop or inquisitor shall deem proper, accord- 
ing to the contumacy or quality of the delinquent. 

4< With regard to those books which the Fathers of the present depu- 
tation shall examine, or correct, or deliver to be corrected, or permit to 
be reprinted on certain conditions, booksellers and others shall be bound 
to observe whatever is ordained respecting them. The bishops and ge- 
neral inquisitors shall, nevertheless, be at liberty, according to the 
power they possess, to prohibit such books as may seem to be permitted 
by these rules, if they deem it necessary for the good of the kingdom, or 
province, or diocese. And let the secretary of these Fathers, according 
to the command of our Holy Father, transmit to the notary of the ge- 
neral inquisitor the names of the books that have been corrected, as well 
as of the persons to whom the Fathers have granted the power of ex- 
amination. 

" Finally, it is enjoined on all, Vie faithjvl, that no onepretiwe to 



144 SUMMAKY OP RULES OP THE INDEX. 

ktep or read any boolc contrary to these rules, or prohibited by this In* 
dex, But if any one keep or read any books composed by heretics, or 
the writings of any author suspected of heresy, or false doctrine, he 
shall instantly incur the sentence of excommunication; and those who 
read or keep works interdicted on another account, besides the mortal 
sin committed, shall be severely punished -at the will of the bishops." — 
Index Can. Councils of Trent. Paris, 1832. 

SUMMARY OF THE RULES OF THE INDEX. 

1. Thus the Index prohibits all the controversial works 
of Protestants ; so that it is impossible for the genuine 
Romanist to know both sides of the question. 

2. Translations of ecclesiastical writers made by con- 
-demned persons are allowed, if they contain nothing con- 
trary to sound doctrine, (Romish ;) but translations of the 
Scriptures are only permitted to learned men at the discre- 
tion of the Bishop. How much does Rome dread the Word 
of God, when, upon translations of ecclesiastical writers, 
which contain nothing contrary to her doctrine, she imposes 
no restriction, but limits the reading of Scripture to learned 
and pious men ; that is, to men who are thorough Roman- 
ists ! May not the inference be naturally drawn, that she 
considers the Word of God as opposed to her doctrine ? 

3. It is an established principle of the Church of Rome, 
that the general perusal of Scripture will do more harm 
than good. What an insult to the Divine Author of the 
Word of God! 

4. No one can read a version of the Scriptures in the 
vulgar tongue, without the permission of the inquisitor or 
bishop in writing. 

5. If any one presume to read the Bible without such 
permission, he cannot receive absolution until he has first 
given up the Bible to the ordinary, i.e., the Church 
authorities. 

6. If a bookseller sell a Bible to a person who has not 
that permission, he must forfeit the value of the book. 

7. Heathen works are allowed, on account of the ele- 
gance and propriety of the language. There is no restric- 
tion in this case, though the Bible is restricted. 

8. No book can be printed in Rome, until it has been 
first examined by the Pope's vicar, or other persons chosen 



HISTORY OF THE INDEX. 145 

for the purpose. In other places, the book must be re- 
ferred to the bishop or inquisitor. 

9. Printing offices are to be visited by the bishop and 
inquisitor, to prevent the printing of books not approved. 

10. Booksellers who publish or sell a book without the 
sanction of the bishop or inquisitor, shall forfeit the value, 
and be subject to such other punishments as the bishop or 
inquisitor may think fit. 

11. The buyers and readers shall be punished by the 
same. 

12. No one can import books for sale, until he has ob- 
tained permission. 

13. Heirs and executors can make no use of the books 
of deceased persons until they have obtained permission, 
without which they are liable to punishment from the 
inquisitor. 

14. The bishop or inquisitor can prohibit works which 
do not appear to be prohibited by the Index Prohibitorius, 
as if the long catalogue which that Index gives were not 
sufficient. 

15. Those who read heretical books, instantly incur ex- 
communication, and are guilty of mortal sin. 

Such are the solemn regulations of the " holy Fathers" 
of the Council of Trent. What a thorough system of 
tyranny ! 

It is worthy of particular observation, that the inquisi- 
tor takes a leading part in the infliction of punishment 
upon those who violate these decrees. The inquisitors 
in this, as in other matters, are the right hand of Rome. 

Where these rules are carried out, it is impossible that 
a rational knowledge can exist. 

The Index Expurgatorius, designed to purge books 
partly approved, and the Index Prohibitorius, intended for 
the prohibition of books altogether, were immediately 
drawn up, — a history of which is thus given by Saint Al- 
phonsus Liguori : — 

" But as far as relates to the congregation of the Index, it is to be 
known, that when the innovators, at the close of the 16th century, 
filled the west with their impious books, and the condemnation of these 



146 CERTAIN ROMISH WRITERS CONDEMNED BY THE INDEX. 

works could not come without difficulty to the knowledge of the faith- 
ful, especially on account of the wars, it was needful that an Index of 
forbidden books should be formed. Hence Paul IV., in the year 1557, 
committed to the inquisitors that they should form this Index, which then 
was finished, and published in the year 1559, by order of the same Paul. 
But because in that Index a better method, and other declarations, and 
the names of many other authors and books were wanting, hence Pius 
IV. committed the forming of a new Index to the Fathers of the Council 
of Trent, which was then being held. For this purpose the Council 
chose eighteen Fathers, who completed and presented the work; and be- 
cause the Fathers, overcome with fatigue, were solicitous about return- 
ing, and even now some had departed, they left the matter to be finished 
according to the judgment of the Pope, together with the rules made. 
Consequently, Pius IV. (many learned Fathers being applied to,) com- 
pleted the Index, and commanded that it should be observed by all the 
faithful everywhere, with his own rules; and decreed, that if any one 
afterwards should read any book condemned on account of the suspicion 
of false doctrine, or should have it in his possession, he should fall ipse 
jure into excommunication; and against him, as if suspected of heresy, 
proceedings should be taken; but he who should read books forbiddem 
for any other cause besides the supposed guilt of mortal % sin, that he 
should know that he would be severely punished at the pleasure of the 
bishop; so in the bull of the above mentioned Pius IV. 'of the Lord'a 
flock,' given on the 24th March 1564. Thence Philip II., King of 
Spain, Naples, &c., on the 15th February 1564, sent forth an edict. 
The edict of Philip II. is in Van Espen. Part i., tit. 22, de Congr., c. 
4, n. 34, at apud Hareim, in Annal. Belg., ad annum 1560, in whick 
he commands, that the above mentioned Roman Index, even as it was 
published by the Pontiff, should be received and observed by all his own 
kingdoms, and that he would transmit it to all the royal councils, that 
it should be published in the usual manner through the provinces, whick 
was done without any contradiction in the Neapolitan kingdom." — 
Appendix III. vol. i., Moral Theology of Liguori % Venice, 1828. ' 

The Index Expurgatorius and Prohibitorius contains a 
long catalogue of works, with reference to passages whick 
are considered as objectionable. 

"We mention a few names of Romish authors whose 
works are partly disapproved, and are therefore so unfor- 
tunate as to be placed on the black list. 

1. iEueas Sylvius. He had written strongly in favour 
of the Council of Basil, which maintained that Popes are 
subject to Councils. He afterwards ascended the Papal 
chair under the name of Pius II., and then, of course, hin 



PERSECUTION OF GALILEO. 147 

views underwent a change, and he became Pius JZneas / 
His works are in the Index. 

2. Cardinal Cajetan, though a staunch Romanist, had 
made some candid admissions. He had denied, for instance, 
that the words of Scripture were sufficient of themselves 
to prove transubstantiation. His name is on the list. 

3. ZeruB, in his commentaries, admitted, that the rock 
spoken of in Matth. xvL 18, is Christ; he is therefore 
placed in the Index. 

4. Claudius Espenceus, a dignitary of the Church of 
Rome, wrote ably and boldly against the praotical corrup- 
tion^ oi" his Church. He has* met the same fate. 

It is unnecessary to occupy space with further exam- 
ples ; suffice it to say, that every sentiment of every au- 
thor which is at all inconsistent with Romanism, is con- 
demned by the Index. The ecclesiastical thumbscrew is 
pressed to the very utmost, and a chain of the most op- 
pressive tyranny thrown around the members of the 
Church of Rome. Every measure is adopted to keep out 
the light of truth, and to obstruct the progress of know- 
ledge. Popery labours to keep the people in ignorance, 
and the system which it adopts is well calculated to ac- 
complish that object. 

II. POPERY OPPOSES KNOWLEDGE BY FORGERY AND THE 
MUTILATION OF RECORDS. 

In the 6th chapter we have given various instances of 
this. Popery gives a knowledge of falsehood and forged 
documents, but not of truth. The knowledge which Rome 
imparts, and which alone she regards as orthodox, is of a 
bastard kind. 

in. rome's treatment of galileo. 

As an instance of the opposition of Rome to the march 
of intellect and progress, we call attention to her treat- 
ment of the great astronomer and philosopher, Galileo. 
This great man had made many important discoveries in 
various branches, — geography, philosophy, and astronomy. 
To him is attributed the invention of the telescope. But 
his grand theory was — that which is now universally re- 
ceived — the revolution of the earth on its own axis, and 

m 



1 48 PROCESS AGAINST AND TRIAL OF GALILEO. 

round the sun. Before his time, it was believed that the 
sun revolved round the earth , but he corrected that no- 
tion, and was therefore exposed to great persecution from 
the Church of Rome. He was summoned twice before 
the Inquisition, the doctors of which pronounced, that his 
theory was " false in philosophy, and heretical in religion." 
He made a promise, extorted from him by compulsion, 
that he would not any longer teach his system. Having, 
however, neglected to comply with the demand of the In- 
quisition, he was summoned, at the advanced age of 
seventy, before its tribunal. The process against Galileo 
is given by Lembrach as follows : — 

" Whereas you, Galilius of Florence, aged 70, were informed against 
in the year 1615, in this holy office, for maintaining as true a certain 
false doctrine held by many, — viz., that the sun is the centre of the 
world, and immoveable, and that the earth moves round it with a daily 
motion. Likewise, that you have certain scholars to whom you have 
taught the same doctrine. Likewise, that you have kept up a corre- 
spondence with certain German mathematicians concerning the same. 
Likewise, that you have published certain letters concerning the solar 
spots, in which you have explained the same doctrine as true, and that 
you have answered the objections which, in several places, were made 
against you from the authority of the Holy Scriptures, by construing or 
glossing over the said Scriptures according to your own opinions. And, 
finally, whereas the copy of a writing, under the form of a letter, re- 
ported to have been written by you to one who was formerly your scho- 
lar, has been shewn to us, in which you have followed the hypothesis of 
Copernicus, which contains certain propositions contrary to the true 
sense and authority of the Holy Scriptures. 

"Now, this holy tribunal being desirous to provide against the in- 
conveniences and dangers which this statement may occasion to the de- 
triment of the holy faith, by the command of the most eminent lords, 
cardinals, &c, of this supreme and universal Inquisition, have caused 
the two following propositions concerning the immoveability of the sun, 
and the motion of the earth, to be thus qualified by the divines, — viz., 

" That the sun is the centre of the world, and immoveable, with a 
local motion, is an absurd proposition, false in philosophy, and abso- 
lutely heretical, because it is expressly contrary to the Holy Scriptures. 

" That the earth is neither the centre of the world, nor immoveable; 
but that it possesses a daily motion, is likewise an absurd proposition, 
false in philosophy, and, theologically considered, at least erroneous in 
point of faith. 



GALILEO'S ABJURATION. 149 

"But as it pleased us, in the first instance, to proceed kindly with 
you, it was decreed in the said congregation, held before our lord N. 
Feb. 25, anno 1616, that the most eminent lord Cardinal Bellarmine 
should command you, that you should entirely depart from the said 
false doctrine; and in case you should refuse to obey him, that you 
should be commanded by the commissary of the holy office to abandon 
the same, and that you should neither teach it to others, defend it, nor 
say anything concerning it; and that if you should not submit to this 
order, you should be put in gaol," &c, &c. — See Popery Opposed to 
Knowledge, p. 418. Lond., 1833. 

Galileo's abjuration. 

Galileo was compelled to make the following abjuration : 
"I, Galilius, son of the late vincentius Galilius, a Florentine, aged 
70, being here personally upon my trial, and on my knees before you, 
the most learned and eminent the lords, cardinals, inquisitors-general 
of the universal Christian commonwealth, against heretical wickedness; 
and having before my eyes the most holy Gospels, which I touch with 
my proper hands, do swear, that I always have believed, and do now be- 
lieve, and, by the aid of God, I will in future believe, everything which 
the holy Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church doth hold, preach, and 
teach. But whereas, notwithstanding after I had been legally enjoined 
and commanded by this holy office to abandon wholly that false opinion, 
which maintains that the sun is the centre of the universe, and immove- 
able, and that I should not hold, defend, or in any way, either by word or 
writing, teach the aforesaid false doctrine; and, whereas, also, after it had 
been notified to me that the aforesaid doctrine was contrary to the Holy 
Scripture, I wrote and published a book, in which I treated of the doctrine 
which had been condemned, and produced reasons of great force in favour 
of it, without giving any answers to them, for which I have been judged 
by the holy office to have incurred a strong suspicion of heresy, — viz., 
for believing that the sun is the centre of the world, and that the earth 
is not the centre, but moves. Being, therefore, willing to remove from 
the minds of your eminences, and of every Catholic Christian, this 
strong suspicion which has been legally conceived against me, I do, with 
a sincere heart and a true faith, abjure, curse, and detest, not only the 
foresaid errors and heresies, but generally, every other error and opi- 
nion which may be contrary to the aforesaid holy Church; and I swear, 
that, for the future, I will never more say or assert, either by word or 
writing, anything that shall give occasion for a like suspicion; but that 
if I should know any heretics, or person suspected of heresy, I will in- 
form against him to this holy office, or to the inquisitor or ordinary of 
the place in which I shall then be. Moreover, I swear and promise, 
that I will fulfil and fully observe all the penances which have been, or 



150 SUMMARY OF POPERY OPPOSED TO KNOWLEDGE. 

shall be hereafter, enjoined me by this holy office. But i£ which God 
forbid, it should happen that I should act contrary to my word, pro- 
mises, protestations, and oaths, I do hereby subject myself to all the 
penalties and punishments which have been ordained and published 
against such offenders by the sacred canons and other acts, both general 
and particular; so help me God, and these holy Gospels, which I now 
touch with my own proper hand. I, the above mentioned Galilius Ga- 
lilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and bound myself as above; and 
in testimony of these things I have subscribed, with my own proper 
hand, this present instrument of my abjuration, and have repeated it, 
word by word, at Rome, in the Convent of Minerva, this 22d day of 
July, anno 1633. I, Galilius Galilei, have abjured as above, with my 
own proper hand." — Ibid, p. 421. 

Poor Galileo was compelled to swear that he did not 
believe what he had taught, and of the truth of which he 
was thoroughly convinced. Such was the conduct of an 
infallible Church in reference to the system taught by 
Galileo, which is now received by herself!!! 

If Popery be established in the earth, her system will 
be completely carried out, as indeed it is enforced wherever 
she has the ascendancy. What a contrast does Rome's 
enslavement of the human mind afford to the freedom of 
British laws, and to the privileges which we possess ! Will 
Britons aid the advancement of such a system as this, or, 
from a spurious liberality, permit themselves to be en- 
thralled? We taste the sweets of religious liberty, and 
God forbid that we should ever taste the bitter fruits of 
religious slavery, and Popery, which enchains the mind, 
and, with the threat and the infliction of pains ^nd penal- 
ties, bids knowledge to depart. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What do you mean by the ten rules of the Index ? 
A. — Certain rules relating to books entirely or partly 

prohibited, drawn up by the Fathers of the Council of 
Trent. 

2. Q. — What books are expurgated and prohibited ? 
A. — Books, even of Bomish authors, partly approved, 

but which contain sentiments obnoxious to Borne, are 



SUMMARY OF POPERY OPPOSED TO KNOWLEDGE. 151 

expunged in the obnoxious passages. Books altogether 
disapproved are prolvibited. 

3. Q, — Are the books of Protestants prohibited? 

A. — Yes. Those especially which contain controversial 
matter. 

4. Q. — Is the Bible in the vulgar tongue prohibited? 
A. — Yes, unless it be used with the written permission 

of the bishop or inquisitor 

5. Q. — To whom may such written permission be given 1 
A. — To the "learned and pious/' — that is, to those 

who are thorough Romanists. 

6. Q. — What is the penalty of having a Bible without 
such permission? 

A. — The forfeiture of absolution, and other penalties, 
according to the judgment of the bishop or inquisitor. 

7. Q. — Are the works of heathen writers allowed ? 
A. — Yes. Though the Bible is forbidden. 

8. Q. — On what general principle does the 4th rule 
proceed ? 

A. — That the Bible, if generally read, will do more 
harm than good, which is an insult to its Divine Author. 

9. Q. — Are booksellers allowed to sell Bibles and pro- 
hibited books? 

A. — No. If they do, they forfeit the value of the 
book, and subject themselves to other punishment, ac- 
cording to the judgment of the inquisitor. 

1 0. Q. — What is the penalty of reading heretical books \ 
A. — Instant excommunication. 

11. Q. — What is the Index Expurgatorius el Prohibit 
torius ? 

A. — A long catalogue of expurgated and prohibited 
books. 

12. Q. — Are the works of Romish authors ever placed 
in the list? 

A. — Yes. Whenever they contain anything of liberal 
or candid sentiments. 

13. Q. — Give an instance. 

A. — Cardinal Cajetan stated, that transubstantiation 



152 SUMMARY OF POPERY OPPOSED TO KNOWLEDGE. 

could not be proved by Scripture alone, without the au- 
thority of the Church. His works are therefore placed 
amongst the expurgated books. 

14. Q, — What effect do these regulations produce in 
reference to knowledge? 

A. — They preclude the possibility of its acquisition, and 
render it impossible for Romanists to know more than one 
side of a question. 

15. Q. — How does Rome still further impede the pro- 
gress of knowledge 1 

A. — By forgeries, and the mutilation of books and re- 
cords. The knowledge which she gives is, therefore, of a 
bastard kind. 

16. Q. — What has rendered Galileo, the philosopher, 
illustrious 1 

A. — His theory that the earth revolves round the sun, 
and not the sun round the earth, as it was formerly sup- 
posed ; and many other important discoveries. 

17. Q. — How was he treated by the Church of Rome 1 
A. — He was summoned before the officers of the Inqui- 
sition, imprisoned, and compelled, by the dread of death, 
to swear that he did not believe his own theory, — a pro- 
cedure which was as unjust as it was ludicrous, and a re- 
markable instance of the fallibility of Rome ! 

18. Q. — What do you suppose is the reason for the line 
of conduct which has been pursued by the Church of Rome 
in reference to knowledge ? 

A. — She is well aware that " knowledge is power," and 
she fears to entrust that power to her enslaved members. 
Ignorance is the favourite handmaid of Rome. 

19. Q. — Are there not many instances of learned men 
in the communion of the Roman Church ? 

^ • — Yes. But their learning and acuteness are craftily 
employed for the furtherance of her system. Thus, the 
clergy maintain their superiority over the great body of 
the laity, and hold their souls in bondage. 

20. Q.— Are not the Romanists of England well in- 
formed? 1 



THE JESUITS — THEIR PRINCIPLES. 153 

A. — Yes. But that is attributable to the light and 
knowledge of this Protestant country. They live in a 
Protestant atmosphere. Besides, they are all missionaries 
employed to extend the faith. We must look for the ge- 
nuine fruits of Popery to countries where it is fully esta- 
blished and' developed. 

21. Q. — What would be the result if Popery were esta- 
blished in the earth 1 

A. — The ecclesiastical thumbscrew would be employed, 
and all freedom of thought would give place to supersti- 
tion,, immorality, and tyranny ! 

22. Q. — How does it behove Britons to act ! 

A. — >To resist Popery, if they would maintain their pri- 
vileges, and that freedom which is the glory of Old 
England. 



. Chapter XVIII.— The Jesuits. 

" He is a Jesuit," is a common term of reproach even 
amongst Roman Catholics, indicating the wide-spread per- 
suasion which exists, that Jesuitry is a system of dis- 
honesty and imposture. We shall, in the first place, call 
attention to the principles of the Jesuits ; secondly, refer 
to their peculiar policy and conduct ; thirdly, give a brief 
outline of their history; and, fourthly, conclude witk 
some practical observations. 

I. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE JESUITS. 

It has been admitted, nay, urged, by many of the most 
earnest Roman Catholics, that Jesuitry is inconsistent 
with liberty, truth, and morality. Hence the Jesuits 
have been, time after time, banished from Roman Catholi« 
countries. 

Pascal, in his celebrated Provincial Letters, and other 
Romish writers of great note, have exposed their abomi- 
nations ; and though Father Daniel, at the head of Jesuit 
advocates, has laboured to vindicate his order, yet the ori- 
ginal charges remain altogether ur. refuted. 



154 JESUITS ON KING-MURDER. 

We are much struck with the similarity which exists 
between the teaching of Saint Alphonsus Liguori and 
that of the Jesuits. In the second, third, and fourth 
chapters, we have laid bare the iniquities of Liguori; 
and, in so doing, have exposed those also of the Je- 
suits. The sentiments of Liguori on equivocation, dis- 
simulation, the doing of evil that good may come, and on 
the subject of oaths, are those of the Jesuits, from whose 
authors, indeed, he mainly quotes. The very sentiments 
for which Jesuits have been banished by an outburst of 
lay feeling, are those of the canonized Liguori ; and, 
therefore, what is still more important, those by which 
every Roman Catholic prays that he may be taught ! It 
will be unnecessary to recapitulate on the above subjects. 
We shall, therefore, only give some specimens of their 
views on two points. 

THE JESUITS ON THE POWER OF THE POPE AS TO KINGS. 

So far does the Jesuit Vasquez, advocate the power of 
the Popes, that he says, in reference to the case of an 
heretical king, — 

' ' But supposing all the princes of the royal blood to have beoome 
heretics, then hath the kingdom a right to elect a new king; and all 
those princes to whom the succession would otherwise have belonged, 
may justly be deprived of the kingdom by the Pope; because the good 
of the faith, which it is of the utmost importance to preserve, requires 
this to be done. But if the kingdom itself be infected, the Pope, as 
sovereign judge in matters of the faith, should, in order to secure the 
welfare of that kingdom, select and nominate a Catholic monarch, and, 
if it be necessary, put him in possession of the throne by force of arms. 
For the benefit of the faith, and of religion, demand that the sovereign 
head of the Church should give a king to a nation in such circum- 
stances, and that if necessity require it, he should, in doing this, dis* 
regard even the constitutional rights of that nation." * 



• Quod si oranes de stripe regia hseretici suit, tunc devolvetur ad 
regnum nova regis electio. Nam juste a pontifice omnes illi suecessores 
regno privari possunt; quia bonum fidei conservandae, quod majoris mo- 
ment]' est, ita postulat. Quod si etiam regnum-infectum esset, pontifex 
ut supremus judex in causa fidei,* assignare posset catholicum regem 



BELIGIOUS DOCTRINES OF JESUITS. 155 

THE EQUIVOCATION OF THE JESUITS. 

We have already given various specimens of Romish 
principles on this subject from the works of Liguori, in 
chapters 2, 3, and 4, to which the principles of the Jesuits 
are very similar, if not the same. 

SOME OF THE RELIGIOUS DOCTRINES OF THE JESUITS. 

The views of the Jesuits have been well described by 
Mosheim, the well known historian, in the following 
terms : — 

* "XXXIV. The third class of controversies that divide the Church 
of Rome, comprehends the debates relating to the nature, efficacy, and 
necessity of Divine grace ; together with those that concern original sin, 
the natural power of man to obey the laws of God, and the nature and 
foundation of those eternal decrees that have for their object the salva- 
tion of men. The Dominicans, Augustines, and Jansenists, with seve- 
ral other doctors of the Church, adopt the following propositions : — That 
the impulse of Divine grace cannot be opposed or resisted, — that there 
are no remains of purity or goodnes3 in human nature since its fall, — 
that the eternal decrees of God, relating to the salvation of men, are 
neither founded upcm, nor attended with, any condition whatsoever, — 
that God wills the salvation of all mankind ; and several other tenets 
that are connected with these. The Jesuits maintain, on the contrary, 
that the natural dominion of sin in the human mind, and the hidden 
corruption it has produced in our internal frame, are less universal and 
dreadful than they are represented by the doctors now mentioned, — that 
human nature is far from being deprived of all power of doing good, — 
that the succours of grace are administered to all mankind, in a measure 
sufficient to lead them to eternal life and salvation, — that the operations 
of grace offer no violence to the faculties and powers of nature, and 
therefore may be resisted, — and that God, from all eternity, has ap- 
pointed everlasting rewards and punishments as the portion of men in 
a future world ; not by an absolute, arbitrary, and unconditional de- 
cree, but in consequence of that Divine and unlimited prescience by 
which He foresaw the actions, merits, and characters of every indi- 
vidual. 

" XXXV. The fourth head in this division of the controversies that 
destroy the pretended unity of the Church of Rome, contains various 
subjects of debate relative to doctrines of morality and rules of practice, 



pro bono totius regni, et ipsum vi annoram si opus esset introducere. 
Nam bonum fidei et religion is hoc exposeit, ut supremuui ecclesise caput 
tali regno de rege provideat ; et jura regni si opus fuerit, transgrediatur." 
— Vosquez, in his Disputations on the Summary of St Thomas, torn. 
ii., disp. 169, chap. 4, p. 123; num. 42, 43. 



156 RELIGIOUS DOCTRINES OF JESUITS. 

which it would be both tedious and foreign from ous purpose to enume- 
rate in a circumstantial manner ; though it may not be improper to 
touch lightly the first principles of this endless controversy. 

" The Jesuits and their followers have inculcated a very strange doc- 
trine with respect to the motives that determine the moral conduct and 
actions of men. They represent it as a matter of perfect indifference 
from what motives men obey the laws of God, provided these laws are 
really obeyed ; and maintain, that the service of those who obey from 
the fear of punishment, is as agreeable to the Deity as those actions 
which proceed from a principle of love to Him and to Bis laws. This 
decision excites the horror of the greatest part of the doctors of the Ro- 
man Church, who affirm, that no acts of obedience that do not proceed 
from the love of God, can be acceptable to that pure and holy Being. 
Nor is the doctrine of the Jesuits only chargeable with the corrupt tenets 
already mentioned. They maintain, further, that a man never sins, 
properly speaking, but when he transgresses a Divine law, which is 
fully known to him, which is present to his mind when he acts, and of 
which he understands the true meaning and intent. And they conclude 
from hence, that, in strict justice, the conduct of that transgressor can- 
not be looked upon as criminal, who is either ignorant of the law, or is 
in doubt about its true signification, or loses sight of it through forget- 
fulness, at the time t^at he violates it. From these propositions they 
deduce the famous doctrines of probability and philosophical sin, that 
have cast an eternal reproach upon the schools of the Jesuits. Their 
adversaries behold these pernicious tenets with the utmost abhorrence, 
and assert, that neither ignorance, nor forgetfulness of the law, nor the 
doubts that may be entertained with respect to its signification, will be 
admitted as sufficient to justify transgressors before the tribunal of God. 
This contest about the main and fundamental pofrits of morality, has 
given rise to a great variety of debates concerning the duties we owe to 
God, our neighbour, and ourselves ; and produced two sects of moral 
doctors, whose animosities and divisions have miserably rent the Church 
of Rome in all parts of the world, and involved it in the greatest per- 
plexities." — p. 62, vol. ii. Eccles-iastical Hist. Glasgow, 1827. J 

Mosheim, alluding to the opposition which such views 
created, says, — 

" They were complained of in the strongest remonstrances, not only 
by the Dominicans and Jansenists, but also by the most eminent theolo- 
gical doctors of Paris, Poitiers, Louvain, and other academical cities, 
who expressed their abhorrence of them in such a public and solemn 
manner, that the Roman Pontiff thought it neither safe nor honourable 
to keep silence on that head."— p. 195, vol. ii. Glasgow, 1827. 

It is needless to call attention to the fact, for it is 
already well known, that the deepest animosity existed on 



THE JESUITS IN HINDUSTAN. 157 

the part of the other Romish orders — Dominicans, Fran- 
ciscans, &c. — against the Jesuits; and that the Romish 
Church at various times was torn by the violent contentions 
of the Jesuits and their enemies. We pass on to consider 

II. THE PECULIAR POLICY AND CONDUCT OF THE JESUITS. 

It has ever been the policy of the disciples of Loyala.to 
accomplish their objects by craft and cunning. Would 
they propagate Christianity in distant nations, or extend 
the influence of the Pope at home, they employed sinister 
means for the purpose. This is evident from their pro- 
ceedings in India, China, and Britain. 

1. India. — An Italian Jesuit, named Nobili, in order 
to gratify the peculiar prejudices of the people, gave him- 
self out to be a Brahmin \ and, in common with the popu- 
lar notion, claimed to be a descendant from the gods. In 
order to establish his pretensions to the honours and pri- 
vileges of that order, he produced & forged document, which 
declared, that the Brahmins of Rome were more ancient 
than those of India. When the genuineness of this docu- 
ment was called into question, Nobili solemnly swore, in 
the presence of the assembly, that he had derived his de- 
scent from the heathen god Bramal Father Jowvenci, a 
Jesuit, in his history of the order, attests this, and ap- 
plauds the fact. — See Hist, de Jesuites ; Norbert, Memoires 
Historiques sur les Missions des Malab, p. 145, torn. ii. 

In consequence of this, Nobili acquired an immense in- 
fluence over the people, and was so successful in his labours, 
that he is ranked after St Francis Xavier as an Apostle 
of the East. He was succeeded by those who completely 
carried out his views. The Jesuits, by such means, con- 
verted great numbers, and made a deep impression upon 
the province of Madura. 

2. China. — Here their efforts were of a similar char- 
acter. Mosheim describes their policy, and the result, as 
follows : — 

" XII. The grand accusation that is brought against the Jesuits in 
China, is this : That they make an impious mixture of light and dark- 
ness, — of Chinese superstition and Christian truth, — in order to triumph 
with the greater speed and facility over the prejudices of that people 



158 THE JESUITS IN CHINA. 

against the doctrine of the Gospel ; and that they allow their converts 
to retain the profane customs and the absurd rites of their pagan an- 
cestors. Ricci, who was the founder of the Christian Church in that 
famous monarchy, declared it as his opinion, that the greatest part of 
those rites which the Chinese are obliged by the laws of their country 
to perform, might be innocently observed by the new converts. To 
render this opinion less shocking, he supported and explained it upon 
the following principle : — That these rites were of a civil, and not of a 
sacred nature; that they were invented from views of policy, and not 
from any purposes of religion; and that none but the very dregs of the 
populace in China considered them in any other light. This opinion 
was not only rejected by the Dominicans and Franciscans, who were 
associated with the Jesuits in this important mission, but also by some 
even of the most learned Jesuits, both in China and Japan, and parti- 
cularly by Nicholas Lombard, who published a memorial, containing 
the reasons upon which his dissent was founded. This contest, which 
was long carried on in a private manner, was brought by the Domini- 
cans before the tribunal of the Pontiff in the year 1645; and from that 
period continued to produce great divisions, commotions, and caballing 
in the Church of Rome. Innocent X., in the year now mentioned, pro- 
nounced in favour of the Dominicans, and highly condemned the indul- 
gence which the Jesuits had shewn to the Chinese superstitions. But 
about eleven years after, A.j>. 1656, this sentence, though not formally 
reversed, was nevertheless virtually annulled by Alexander VII., at 
the instigation of the Jesuits, who persuaded that Pontiff to allow the 
Chinese converts the liberty of performing several of the rites to which 
they had been accustomed, and for which they discovered a peculiar 
fondness. This, however, did not hinder the Dominicans from renewing 
their complaints in the year 1661 ; and again, in 1674, under the pon- 
tificate of Innocent XL, though the power and credit of the Jesuit* 
seemed to triumph over all their remonstrances. This fatal dispute, 
which had been suspended for several years in China, broke out there 
again, in the year 1684, with greater violence than ever; and then the 
victory seemed to incline to the side of the Dominicans, in consequence 
of a decision pronounced in the year 1693, by Charles Maigrot, a doctor 
of tht Sorbonne, who acted as the delegate or vicar of the Roman Pontiff 
in the province of Fokien, and who was afterwards consecrated titular 
Bishop of Conon. This .ecclesiastic, by a public edict, declared the 
opinions and practices of the Jesuits in relation to the affairs of the 
Chinese mission, absolutely inconsistent with the purity and simplicity 
of the Christian religion. But the Pope, to whose supreme cognizance 
and decision Maigrot had submitted this important edict, refused to 
come to a determination on either side before the matter in debate had 
been carefully examined, and the reasons of the contending parties 
weighed with the utmost attention; and therefore, in the year 1699, 
he appointed a congregation of chosen doctors to examine and decide 
this tedious controversy. 

" This resolution of the Roman Pontiff was no ^ner made public. 



THE JESUITS IN BRITAIN. ■ 159 

than all the enemies of the Jesuits, in all quarters of the Church of 
Rome, and more especially those who wished ill to the order in France, 
came forth with their complaints, their accusations, and invectives, 
and loaded the transactions and reputation of the whole society with 
the most bitter reproaches. The Jesuits, on the other hand, were neither 
silent nor inactive. They attacked their adversaries with vigour, and 
defended themselves with dexterity and spirit." — p. 150, vol. »r. Ut 
supra. 

The result was, they were condemned by the Pope, 
though the order has since been revived. 

3. Britain. (1.) Hallam ,and Strype inform us, that 
immediately after the Reformation, Romish priests, in 
the garb of Protestant ministers, laboured to accomplish 
the objects of Rome, by sowing dissension in the Protes- 
tant camp, and inculcating their doctrines as far as 
expedient. 

(2.) M'Gavin, in " the Protestant, 1 ' gives an instance 
of this, taken from a work entitled " Foxes and Fire- 
brands ;" and which, he says, may be verified by reference 
to the Episcopal See of Rochester, in the book which begins 
Anno 2 and 3, Phil, and Mary, and continued to the 
15th Elizabeth: — 

" In the year 1568, one Thomas Heth came to the Dean of Rochester, 
and pretending to be a poor minister, requested the dean's influence 
with the bishop for some preferment. The dean very properly desired 
to hear him preach before he would recommend him. Accordingly, he 
did preach in the Cathedral Church ; and while doing so, on pulling 
out his handkerchief, he pulled out also a letter, which, unobserved by 
him, fell to the bottom of the pulpit, and was afterwards picked up by 
the sexton and carried to the dean. This letter was addressed to Heth, 
under the name of Thomas Fine, and subscribed by Samuel Malt, a no- 
torious English Jesuit, at that time in Madrid. The entire letter is 
given in the work before me, from which it appears, that money had 
been sent along with it, to be distributed by Heth wherever he thought 
it might be done to advantage. The writer acknowledges having heard 
of his popularity as a preacher, and advises him to persevere, with 
certain cautions not to overdo the work , and he is encouraged by the 
information, that three of his brethren had been sent into Germany to 
sow dissension among the heretics there This letter being shewn to 
the bishop, he ordered Heth to be apprehended ; and he was brought 
to an examination, in which he shuffled not a little. * After his ex- 
amination,' says my author, ' it was resolved to send to Heth's lodgings, 
at the Queen's Arms in Rochester, where, upbn search, in one of his 
boots, were found his beads and several papers. Among which were a . 
license from the fraternity of the Jesuits, and bull dated the first of 



160 THE JESUITS IN BRITAIN. 

Pius Quintus, to preach what doctrine that society pleased for the di- 
viding of Protestants, particularly naming the English Protestants by 
the name of heretics.' 

" In his trunk were found several books for denying baptism to in- 
fants, with several other horrid blasphemies, which being broucht before 
the whole assembly then present, the bishop adjourned the court, ap- 
pointing another day for further investigation, till they had acquainted 
her Majesty and her honourable Council -with these passages, and sent 
for further instructions how to proceed in the affair In the meantime, 
Heth was committed a close prisoner, and manacled, till order came 
from the board."— p. 583, The Protestant. Glasgow, 1846. 

(3.) A similar policy was adopted in Scotland. M'Crie 
gives the following instance : — 

" This change on the court could not fail to alarm the ministers of 
the Church, who had received satisfactory information of the project 
that was on foot. Their apprehensions were confirmed by the arrival 
of several Jesuits and seminary priests from abroad, and by the open 
revolt of some who had hitherto professed the Protestant faith. They 
accordingly warned their hearers of the danger they apprehended, and 
pointed at the favourite as an emissary of the house of Guise and of 
Rome. Lennox, after holding a conference with some of the ministers, 
declared himself a convert to the Protestant doctrine, and publicly re- 
nounced the Popish religion. 

" The jealousy of the nation was revived and inflamed by the inter- 
ception of letters from Rome, granting a dispensation to the Roman 
Catholics to profess the Protestant tenets for a time, provided they pre- 
served an inward attachment to the ancient faith, and embraced every 
opportunity of advancing it in secret. This discovery was the immediate 
occasion of that memorable transaction, — the swearing of the National 
Covenant." — M'Crie's Life of Melville, vol. i. p. 262. 

(4.) The fact is avowed in " the Catholic (Roman) 
Directory ■," that Parsons, the Jesuit, obtained admission 
into England in the disguise of a soldier, and made false 
representations. The Directory says, — 

u Accordingly, having provided himself with a military uniform, 
in order to personate a captain returning from Flanders to England, he 
passed to Calais on the 11th of June, and reached Dover next morning. 
Here finding all things propitious, and feeling that he was the object of 
Heaven's special favour and protection, he boldly presented himself to 
the officer whose duty it was to search and examine the various passen- 
gers ; and finding him very kind and condescending, requested of him 
to delay as little as possible a friend of his, a merchant, who was to 
arrive from Belgium in a few days,- as he was anxious he should join 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 161 

him in London as soon as possible ; at the same time, he gave notice of 
all to Campian, by return of the same ship that had brought him over " 
— p. 43, Catholic Directory. London, 1846. 

Here, then, Parsons himself, wearing a uniform, per- 
sonates a captain of the army; and deliberately states, 
that he expects his friend, a merchant, — the friend being 
no other than Campian, the famous Jesuit ! 

Alas ! we have reason to believe that such Jesuits are 
now in disguise, accomplishing their purposes by means 
t) which we shall advert when we have given, — 

III. SOME HISTORY OF THE ORDER OF THE JESUITS. 

Ignatius Loyala, the founder of the Jesuits, and a 
Spaniard by birth, was brought up to the profession of 
arms. At the siege of Pampnluna in 1521, he received 
a severe wound, by which he was laid aside for a long 
period. Now, having time for reflection and reading, he 
dedicated himself to religion, and determined to found a 
new order. The reformation had taken place, and given 
a tremendous shock to the Church of Rome, whose power 
in the western world had been almost supreme. The esta- 
blishment of the Jesuit order was therefore quite oppor- 
tune, in order to repair the falling cause of the Papal tyrant. 

Cardinal Guidiccioni, when first Ignatius made know* 
his intention to the Pope, opposed the proposal. The 
opposition, however, ceased when Loyala offered to change 
the articles of institution, and promised blind and unlimit- 
ed obedience to his Holiness. — (For this fact, seellistoire des 
Religieux de la compagnie de Jesus, p. 77, torn. i. Utrecht, 
1741.) Strange that the same unlimited obedience is vowed 
to the general of the order as to his Holiness, as though it 
were possible to serve two masters ! 

In less than half a century after the formation of th« 
society, they succeeded in establishing themselves in all 
Romish countries. They soon became wealthy and power- 
ful — an object of admiration to the advocates of ultra 
montane doctrine, and of dread to their enemies. While 
the monks led the recluse life, the Jesuits mingled in every 
circle, and found their way to the palaces of Kings, a* 
well as the cottages of the poor. Their sole object was to 



162 THE SECULARS, AND JESUITS. 

establish the power of the Pope upon the ruins of all 
institutions, and they left no artifice unemployed to 
effect this. 

They rolled back the tide of Reformation, which well- 
nigh had swept away the remaining power of Rome, and 
a host of controversialists, such as Bellarmine, employed 
their able pens to sustain the cause of the Pope. They 
became at length the most important class in the Papal 
Church; but their very services and honours called forth 
the hostility of other orders. Nothing could exceed the 
violence with which they were assailed by members of 
their own communion, nor the bitterness of spirit which 
they manifested in retort. Watson, a secular priest, wrote 
against the Jesuits as follows : — that 

' ' They surfeited sorer than Heliogabalus ; that they were taught by 
their arch-rabbis to maintain (with their equivocations) dissimulation, 
detraction, sedition ; that they were busied in making strife between 
kings and kings, states and states, priests and priests, raising rebel- 
lions, murdering princes, stirring uproars everywhere ; men unworthy 
to be called religious, or Catholic, or Christian ; for however they may 
boast of their perfection, their holiness, their meditation, and their ex- 
ercises, yet their plots are heathenish and satanical, fit to set Machiavel, 
Lucian, yea Don Lucifer himself to school. Wretched Jesuits ! who 
would have all Catholics depend on the arch-priest, when the arch-priest 
depended on John Garnet, Garnet upon Parsons, and Parsons upon the 
devil!" — Pope and Mag. Discuss., p. 337. Dublin, 1827. 

In retort, Parsons, who is, we presume, the very gen- 
tleman to whom w,e have already made allusion, says, in 
reference to the secular or parish priests, — 

"They be mad-heads — seditious libellers— notorious calumniators — 
factious — turbulent — of scandalous lives — writing egregious, malicious 
untruths — impudent, factious, wicked slanderers, — they are rebels to, 
and betrayers of the Catholic cause." — p. 336, ibid. 

Such were the violent controversies which raged be- 

o 

tween the Jesuits and their enemies. Still they met with 
great success during nearly two centuries ; but, at length, 
the time approached when they were doomed to sustain 
terrible, if not fatal, blows, even in Roman Catholic 
countries. 

Their overthrow in France arose from their own ava- 



CONDEMNATION OF THE JESUITS. 163 

rice. They had largely embarked in mercantile pursuits ; 
but owing to the war which raged in 1756, they lost to a 
great extent in their commerce with Martinico. They were 
unable to meet their responsibilities, and were therefore 
involved in a lawsuit, upon which the attention of the whole 
nation was fixed. They were defeated, and sustained im- 
mense losses. This encouraged their opponents, who took 
every opportunity of holding them up to the odium which 
they deserved. 

At length, in 1762, after the capture of Martinico by 
the English, they were condemned, as being inimical to 
the well-being of the country, and banished by Roman 
Catholics from the Roman Catholic realm of France. 

In bpain also they met with as great an overthrow, A.D. 
1767. Blow followed blow. They were condemned in 
Sicily the same year ; and, at length, were finally sup- 
pressed by Clement XIV. in 1773. 

But though they no longer existed in their public cor- 
porate capacity, yet they ceased not to exist as individuals, 
and privately. They still lurked, even in the countries 
from which they had been banished ; and they were called 
into public life again by Pope Pius VII., who restored the 
order in 1814. Villiers, the historian, in reference to this 
event, says, — 

" The order of the Jesuits — the most important of all the orders — 
was placed in opposition to the Reformation, and it acquired a prepon- 
derance proportioned to the enormous mass which it was intended t» 
counterbalance. It is with reference to the same object of opposing the 
Reformation that the present Pope (Pius VII.) has declared, that he should 
deem himself guilty of a great crime towards God, if, amidst the dangers 
of the Christian republic, (in other words, the cause of Popery,) he should 
neglect to employ the aids which the spedfril providence of God had put 
in his power : and, if placed in the bark of St Peter, and tossed by 
continual storms, he should refuse to employ the vigorous and expe- 
rienced rowers who volunteer their services. It is in vain that the ad- 
vocates of his Holiness will contend, that he denied the aid of the Jesuits 
against infidelity ; for where is the danger to be apprehended from infi- 
delity now ? 

"It is against the Protestant Church and cause that the Jesuits, 
those experienced rowers, have now embarked afresh ; and it is chiefly 
with reference to their assistance in roakine: head against the vessel of 



164 BRITISH ACT OF 1829 AS TO JESUITS. 

the Reformation, that the Pope has availed himself of their services."— 
P 395, Vol. II., Hist. Jesuits. 

In Britain, the Act 10 Geo. IV. cap. 7, 13th April 
1829, called the Roman Catholic Emancipation Act, after 
the following preamble : — " And, whereas, Jesuits and 
members of other religious orders, communities or societies 
of the Church of Rome, bound by monastic or religious 
vows, are resident within the United Kingdom ; and it 
is expedient to make provision for the gradual suppression 
and final prohibition of the same therein ;" enacts, 

Section 28. That every Jesuit, &c, then in the kingdom, 
was within six weeks to deliver to the clerk of the peace 
of the county of his residence, a notice of his name, age, 
birth-place, order, residence, &c, under a penalty of £50 
per month. 

Sect. 29. That any Jesuit, &c, coming into the realm, 
be banished for life. 

Sect. 30. That any natural born British subject, being 
a Jesuit, <kc, may return into the kingdom, but within six 
months after his return, he must give in his name to the 
clerk of the peace, under the penalty of £50 per month. 

Sect. 31. That the principal secretaries of state may 
grant licenses to Jesuits, &c, to come into the kingdom, 
and remainder a period not exceeding six months, with 
power of revocation, but that offenders shall be banished 
for life. 

Sect. 32. That accounts of licenses be laid annually be- 
fore Parliament. 

Sect. 33. That any Jesuit, &c, admitting or aiding in 
the admission of any person to be a member of the order 
of Jesuits, or of such other religious orders shall, in Eng- 
land and Ireland, b%punished as guilty of a misdemeanour, 
and in Scotland shall be punished by fine and imprisonment. 

Sect. 34. That any person becoming a Jesuit, or mem- 
ber of such religious orders, shall be banished for life. 

Sect. 35. That any banished person not departing from 
the kingdom for thirty days, may be conveyed out of the 
kingdom by order of the sovereign, by advice of the Privy 
Council. 



DANGERS FROM JE8UITI8M. , 165 

j Sect. 36. That any banished person not departing from 
the kingdom for three months shall be transported for life. 

Sect. 37. That female societies (this includes nunneries) 
are exempt from the operation of the act. 

Sect. 38. That the prosecutor for penalties against the 
act be the Attorney-General in England and Ireland, and 
the Lord- Advocate in Scotland. 

. The Jesuits, though .regarded as dangerous conspirators 
against morality and liberty by many eminent Roman 
Catholics — the Jesuits, though dissolved by Clement XIV., 
and banished from Catholic countries, and even lately 
from Rome itself — the Jesuits, though conspirators against 
life and property, and the enemies of social order — the 
Jesuits, though thus condemned by a British Act of Par- 
liament, so recently as 1829,— ARE NOW AT LARGE 
IN ENGLAND, WITH THEIR SEMINARIES AND 
INSTITUTIONS PUBLICLY ESTABLISHED IN 
STONEYHURST, AND ELSEWHERE. 

IV. PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS AND APPLICATION. 

1. Jesuitism is genuine Popery. Jesuits are the true 
and loyal sons of the Church. This is proved by the fact, 
that the sentiments of Alphonsus Liguori, which are sub- 
stantially the same as those of the Jesuits, were solemnly 
approved in the year 1839. — See Chap. II. 

It is true that the Jesuits have been opposed by many 
individuals in the Church of Rome, and banished from 
many Romish States ; but this was not the act of the 
Ghurch. Rather it was an outburst of manly and indig- 
nant feeling against a system of falsehood, hypocrisy, and 
deceit In many of these States they are now re-esta- 
blished ; and holy Church presses the order maternally to 
her bosom. 

2. It is the object of the Jesuits to overthrow Protes- 
tant institutions ; and even the Protestant throne. 

It is not at all unlikely, nay, it is highly probable, that 
Jesuitism is at the bottom of chartism, republicanism, and 
anti-state churchism ! How it would delight the members 
of that order to see England's Protestant Church and 
throne subverted ! 



166 SUMMARY ON THE JESUITS. 

3. We have seen that Jesuits often accomplish their 
purposes in disguise. They have worn the garb, and 
conformed to the peculiarities of Bralimin life, in order to 
convert the Brahmins to Popery. Immediately after the 
Reformation, they travelled in the guise of merchants and 
Protestant ministers. Is it not highly probable, nay, 
have we not abundant reason to think, that there are 
Jesuits in disguise amongst the Protestant bodies now ? 
How is it that the Irvingites have adopted most of the 
peculiarities of the Church of Pome ? How is it that Dr 
Pusey and his followers teach all Poman doctrines, and 
preach against the Reformation 1 Is there not Jesuitism 
here 1 The fact that Dr Pusey holds Roman doctrine, 
while he pretends to be a minister of a Protestant church, 
is proof sufficient that he is either a Jesuit, or under Jesu- 
itical influence ! 

He should be instantly expelled as a dishonest man, 
— a traitor to the Queen and Protestant Church — and 
expelled he would be, if Romish and Jesuit influence did 
not prevail somewhere. 

4. We see a British Act of Parliament passed in 1829, 
for the " gradual suppression, and final prohibition" and 
banishment of the Jesuits, &c, and yet we find them mul- 
tiplying in our land, and publicly establishing themselves, 
no steps being taken to enforce the laio. 

The cause of religious liberty and morality demands that 
the Jesuits should be banished,as the sworn enemies of social 
order. The interests of freedom and truth require that 
Popery should be discouraged, by every lawful means, as the 
parent of Jesuitism, which is its legitimate offspring ! 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Do the Jesuits teach immoral sentiments as to 
equivocation, dissimulation, the doing of evil that good 
may come, and the dispensation of oaths? 

^- — Yes. They sanction all these an ti christian princi- 
ples, and their teaching is, in fact, similar to that of Al* 
phonsus Liguori. 



SUMMARY ON THE JESUITS. •"/•" 167 

% Q. — Is this acknowledged by Romish writers? 

A. — Yes; many eminent Romanists, better than their 
creed, have written against the Jesuits, and denounced 
their tenets as contrary to all morality and truth. 

3. Q. — What has been their peculiar policy in advancing 
the Papal cause? 

A. — Dissimulation. They nave aostained from open 
attack upon the principles of their opponents, and resorted 
to intrigue and artifice. 

4. Q. — Give instances of this 1 ? 

A. — In India some of their most eminent missionaries 
pretended to be Brahmins, in order to obtain access to the 
people ; in China they tolerated Pagan notions and rites 
to make converts ; and in Great Britain they profess pro- 
testant opinions with a similar object. 

5. Q. — Specify more particularly their proceedings in 
Britain? 

A. — They travelled in the guise of soldiers, merchants, 
and ministers of the Protestant Church. They sowed dis- 
sension amongst the Reformed, and secretly inculcated 
their principles. 

6. Q. — The Jesuits were abolished as an order. When 
were they restored? 

A. — The society was dissolved in 1773, but restored in 
1814. It is now in full force. 

7. Q. — The Jesuits are openly established in England. 
Have we reason to fear from their machinations? 

A. — Yes ; and the laws regarding them are not enforced. 
Their object is to destroy the Established Church, to place 
a Papist on the throne, and to introduce the Papal yoke. 
We have therefore reason to believe, that Jesuitism moves 
the spring of action for Puseyites, Chartists, Republicans, 
and Anti -State Churchism. 



'168 

Chapter XIX.— The Influence and Power of 
the Confessional. 

In the seventh chapter of the Manual of Romish Contro- 
versy, we exhibited the unscriptural character of the Con- 
fessional, and dwelt briefly upon its immoral tendency, 
and the power which it gives to the priesthood. We 
would now, however, revert to the subject, and enlarge 
upon its influence and power. 

Let us recur to the nature of the confessional, and call 
to mind the position which the priest occupies therein. 
The confessor claims the power of authoritatively absolving 
from the guilt of sin. Hence, according to the Papal 
system, in order to its remission, at least all mortal sin 
must be disclosed, and all circumstances which affect the 
character of sin, in order that the priest, as judge, may 
exercise his discretionary power as to the withholding or 
granting of absolution. Thus, the doctrine of auricular con- 
fessipn to a priest, is founded upon the unscriptural notion, 
that he is authorized to forgive sin by an absolving form. 

Confession in the Church of Rome is auricular, i. e., 
secret; no third party can be present, and the priest is 
bound to observe secrecy on the subjects disclosed to him. 
As the question of the seal is most important, Ave shall now 
lay before our readers the views of St Alphonsus Liguori, 
an exponent of the Church of Rome, 

ON THE SEAL OF THE CONFESSIONAL. 

We need not quote his ipsissima verba, which would 
take up too great a space; but referring to p. 276, vol. 
VI., of his j Moral Theology, (Venice, 1828,) for confirm- 
ation of our statements, we give a synopsis of his views. 

1. The object for which the seal is so binding, isplainljr 
avowed, — lest the confessional should become odious to the 
people. (Quarum revelatio sac? -amentum redder et onero- 
sum, vel odiosum.) This reason is repeated again and 
again, and, indeed, it is self-evident. The confessional 
would soon be deserted if the people had not some gua- 
rantee that their sins would not be disclosed. The Saint 
does not say that the violation of the confidence reposed 






THE IMMORALITY OF CONFESSIONAL. 169 

by the penitent in the confessor would be intrinsically 
evil ; but he reprobates such violation on the grounds of 
expediency. 

2. The seal is to be maintained, even if the safety of a 
whole nation were at stake. It came out on trial that the 
gunpowder plot had been confessed to Garnet, who yet 
did not forewarn the nation of danger. 

3. Things revealed extra confessionally to the confessor 
do not come under the seal. 

4. The priest, with the permission of the penitent, may 
act on the knowledge acquired in confession. We would 
especially call attention to the following passage, — " If it be 
doubtful whether the confessor may have spoken with per- 
mission, the priest is to be believed rather than the penitent." 

Thus, after all, the poor Romanist is at the complete 
mercy of the priest! There is no third person present to 
attest whether permission was granted or not; but if a 
difference arise, the word of the priest is to be received 
rather than that of the penitent ! 

Having so far considered the nature of auricular con- 
fession and the obligation of the seal, we shall now proceed 
to point out 

THE IMMORAL AND UNCHASTE INFLUENCE OF THE CONFES- 
SIONAL BOTH UPON THE PRIEST AND THE PENITENT, BUT 
MORE ESPECIALLY UPON THE FORMER. 

Sin only, as we have seen, is the subject of discourse in 
the confessional,- — not purity, nor the beauty of holiness, 
— but crime in all its hideous forms' 

Let us, therefore, take the case of a young confessor. 
We shall suppose, what is very unlikely, that he arises, 
pure and untainted, from the study of Dens, Bailly, 
Liguori, &c, on matrimony, and the relative topics that 
we cannot here even mention ; and that, with high and 
noble purposes, he enters at last upon the practice of the 
system, for which it was deemed neeessary that he should 
receive such instruction. He is bound, by the unnatural 
law of celibacy, in diivct opposition to Scripture and the 
rule of the Apostle. (1 Cor. vn. 2 , 1 Tun. in.) Mama^t 
is absolutely forbidden to him , and yet he i> ol ",Mk<. 



170 THE IMMORALITY OF CONFESSIONAL. 

passions" with other men, for even the Apostles were 
such. (Acts xiv. 15.) He has a human heart, — out of 
which, alas ! proceed " evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, 
thefts, false-witnesses, blasphemies," (Matth. xv. 19;) and 
it is his lot, as well as that of others, to war against " the 
world, the flesh, and the devil." It will scarcely be denied 
by any, that tlie way to live chastely and righteously, is 
not only to pray for grace, but also to use the means of 
grace. " The way to avoid the forbidden fruit, is to 
avoid the forbidden tree." Would a man live chastely, 
let him abstain from the occasion of sin, and let him 
not go into temptation, nor " stand in the way of sin- 
ners," nor allow unchaste and impure thoughts to rest 
for one moment in his bosom. Such thoughts, when they 
come, should receive an immediate dismission, and for this 
end prayer is all powerful. 

See a young priest, bound by an unnatural law of celibacy, 
placed at the head of a parish or congregation ; — let us sup- 
pose that he desires to live " as it becometh the Gospel." 
In what a painful position is he ! He longs tc» abstain 
even from the thought of sin, and much more from its men- 
tion and occasion ; but this he cannot do, for his very vo- 
cation requires him to listen to details of a corrupting char- 
acter. He walks, and he must walk, upon the brink of a 
precipice ; and he cannot betake himself to the high road 
of holiness, by abstaining from everything that would sug- 
gest what is forbidden and polluting to the mind. 

Characters of every kind kneel by his side. ^He listens 
to subjects which the wife would not mention to her hus- 
band, — which the daughter would blush to repeat even to 
her mother. He must, whether he will or not, give ear 
to matrimonial secrets, — aye, and help to draw aside even 
the curtains of the marriage bed. Day after day this is 
his inevitable duty. He has a human heart — alas ! a wicked 
heart, (Jeremiah xvii. 9 ;) and from human lips are poured 
forth confessions of voluptuousness, and sin, and guilt in 
every foim. He must feel that he bears, indeed, a heavy 
burden, and that beholds an office, which, without danger, 
angels alone could fill 



CRIME IN PROTESTANT AND ROMISH COUNTRIES, 



171 



His mind, the receptacle of all the filth of his district 
charge, must at length itself suffer by the contact. It haa 
been well said, — 

"Vice is a monster of such hideous mien 
As, to be hated, need* but to be seen ; 
But seen too oft, familiar with her face, 
We soon approve, admire, and then embrace." 
The confessional is contaminating alike to confessor and 
penitent. The great ornament of the female is modesty 
and purity. But when a female is taught, that shame in 
the confession is a soul-destroying sin, and required to 
unfold all, even her secret thoughts to a man in private, 
can it be imagined, that modesty and purity do not suffer 
by such a system. 

Is it any wonder that immorality and degradation 
should characterize countries where Popery is dominant? 
Look, in proof, at 

THE STATISTICS OP CRIME IN PROTESTANT AND ROMISH 
COUNTRIES, 

as given by the Rev. M. Hobart Seymour, in his " Evenings 
with Jtomanists" Seeleys, London, 1854. 

ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS. 







No of 


No. of 


No. of 




Place. 


Year. 


births in 


legitimate 


illegitimate 


Proportion of 






the year. 


births. 


births. 


illegitimate. 


London 


1851 


78,300 


75,097 


3,203 


Four per cent. 


Paris 


1850 


29,628 


19,921 


9,707 

\ 


Thirty-three per 
cent, or one- 
third. 


Brussels . . 


1850 


5,281 


3,448 


1,833 


Thirty-five perct., 
or more than 
one-third. 


Munich. . . 


1851' 


3,464 


1,762 


1,702 


Forty - eight per 
cent, or nearly 
one-half. 


Vienna ] 


1841 


16,632 


8,941 


7,741 


Nearly one-half. 




I84y 


19,241 


8,881 


10,360 


Upwards of one- 
half. 


Rome 




4,373 


No of F 


jundlings 


Proportion of 








expose 


1 in one 


Foundlings to 








year, £ 


1160. 


births, 73 per 
cent., or near 
three-fourths. " 



172 CRIME IN PROTESTANT AND ROMISH COUNTRIES. 



MUEDERS. 



PJaoe 


i 

Population. 


Average 
No. of 
murders. 

in the 

year. 


Period for which the 
average was struck. 


Propor- 
tion to 
each mil- 
ion of 
Popula- 
tion. 


England and 
Wales, 


By census 1851, 
17,927,609 


72 


The ten years end- 
ing 1851 


4 


Ireland, before 
the famine... 




235 


From July 1836, 
till April 1839. 


33 


Ireland, since 
the famine. . . 


By census 1851, 
6,515,794 


130 


For 7 years end- 
ing 1851. 


19 


Belgium 


4,337,673 
(Census 1846.) 


84 


A period of 10 
years. 


18 


France 


35,400,486 
(Census 1846.) 


1089 


11 years, viz., the 
ten years ending 
1833, and the 
year 1851 


31 




Austria 


36,514,466 


1325 


20 years. 


36 


Bavaria 


4,520,751 
(Census 1849.) 


311 


5 years. 


68 


Sardinia 


4,916,084 


101 


7 years before the 
late Revolution. 


20 


Lombardy 


5,047,472 


225 


2 years. 


45 


Tuscany 


1,489,000 
(Census 1841.) 


84 


9 years. 


56 


Sicily 


1,936,033 
(Census 1834.) 


174 


Several years. 


90 




Naples 


6,066,900 


1045 


1 year, 1832. 


174 


Papal States... 


2,908,115 
(Census 1846.) 


339 

■ 


1 year. 


113 



Look at Italy itself,— the very centre and head of Ro- 
manism? Hear the unanimous testimony which is borne 
by travellers to the profligacy of Italian. priests and people ! 
We quote one passage from a well-known writer— Captain 
Bnsil Hall. J 



CAPTAIN BASIL HALL AGAINST THE CONFESSIONAL. 173 

" But the most truly hellish device that the wit of man has ever con- 
trived, is the celibacy of the clergy, and until that deep curse be re- 
moved from the nations of the Continent where the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion prev.-.ils, there seems not to he a gleam of hope of their obtaining 
that degree of domestic virtue, without which no genuine political free- 
dom can be hoped for. So long as there exists a numerous, widely- 
spread, and educated class of men in close alliance with the State, but 
whose interests are entirety separate from those of the rest of the country, 
and whose manners arc necessarily, andby universal usage, understood 
to he profligate, it is in vain to expect that domestic morals will be pure. 
Were it possible, indeed, to detach this privileged class from the rest of 
the community, there might be a hope , but when, through the medium 
of public preaching, and, above all, of oral confession, and the innu- 
merable other methods by which the priests obtain free admission every- 
where in those countries, they succeed in establishing their influence, 
there is little or no hope left It is needless, and would only be painful 
and disgusting, to go into any details But this may be said, that the 
wide-spread looseness of domestic manners in Italy, Austria, and other 
countries where the same system prevails, not only has its origin in the 
undue influence and profligate habits of the priests, but owes its conti- 
nuance to their instrumentality. This depravity pervades all classes 
to such an extent, that shame is out of the question/ and the whispers 
of conscience being, especially with such machinery, the easiest thing 
possible to set at rest, vice has it all its own way." — Schloss Ilainfield, 
by Captain Basil Hall —p. 198. Lond. 1836. 

The history of clerical celibacy and the confessional has 
ever been that of sin and crime. We have the following 
statements as to the effects of such a system from 

DR O'CROLY, A ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST: 
11 The prohibition of clerical marriages, did nothing but corrupt the 
morals of the clergy ; it gave occasion to illegitimate and promiscuous 
intercourse, and to deep hypocrisy, from the necessity of concealment. 
The fatal effects became every day more manifest. The seeds of immo- 
rality took deep and extensive root, until, at length, in the tenth cen- 
tury, trampling upon canons and statutes, church rules and church or- 
dinances, upon every law, human and Divine, churchmen cast aside the 
flimsy veil of exterior regularity, and exhibited clerical profligacy in 
all its native deformity. At that inauspicious period, the clergy of all 
ranks shook off the restraints of ecclesiastical discipline, and reduced the 
statutes of celibacy to a dead letter. They did not all, indeed, entei^ 
into the marriage state, which would be only a return to primitive, 
usage, — a step not to be condemned ; but, opposing themselves to the 
Divine law, they formed illegitimate connexions, and the Church, which 
was said to be infallible and undefined, groaned under the influence of 



1 74 PRIESTLY POWER IN THE CONFESSIONAL. 

•ourtezans, and the dominations of ecclesiastical bastards. Priests, 
Bishops, and Popes, revelled in all the excesses of sensual debauchery, 
to the disgrace of religion, and the scandal of Christendom. Ratherius, 
Bishop of Verona, who lived in that age, says ' That the clergy were in 
general so immodest, that scarcely a priest was to be found fit to be or- 
dained bishop, and scarcely a bishop fit to confer ordination.' He re- 
counts several shocking stories respecting the behaviour of ecclesiastics ; 
and he charges them principally with holding infamous conversation 
with profligate females. Pope Sergius and Pope John the Eleventh, — . 
the latter, son of the former, by his concubine Marosia, — and other 
Pontiffs of the same description, by their open profligacy, set the ex- 
ample to the inferior clergy of throwing off that mask which might 
•therwise conceal their debaucheries from the eyes of the world." — p. 
258. Inquiry. Dublin, 1836. 

We now turn from this painful subject to consider 

THE POWER WHICH THE CONFESSIONAL GIVES TO THE 
PRIEST. 

I. It corrupts his mind, and then affords opportunity 
to carry out the evil design. The confessor learns the 
state of the heart, and knows his victim. It is admitted 
by Roman Catholic authorities, that priests have lost 
their own souls, and those of their penitents in the confes- 
sional. * * * * * 

II. " Knowledge is power." In every sense this is 
true; but man, in his intercourse with his fellow, judges 
of mind only by outward actions, Could the diplo- 
matist see the hearts — the intentions — the real feelings of 
those with whom he has to deal, he could calculate with 
certainty upon success. In proportion as a man is ac- 
quainted with human nature, does he possess power in in- 
tercourse with his fellow. The confessor dives at once 
into the secrets of the human bosom. From the kin£ to 
the beggar all unfold their hearts to him, and officially 
the most ignorant priest acquires a knowledge of human 
purposes and dispositions, to which the most philosophic 
and acute cannot attain. 

III. Consider the influence which he possesses over 
those who acknowledge his pretensions. He is regarded 
in a fourfold point of view, — Physician, Counsellor, Father, 
and Judge, — in fact, as God in the confessional. Irre- 



EVASION OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION. WO 

spective even of character,* he is venerated as God's vice- 
gerent, invested with powers of a superhuman kind. % 

IV. Viewed in this light, he can exercise control by 
advice. What earthly parent, judge, or counsellor, in the 
estimation of the* devout Romanist, could have half the 
influence of the confessor. Regarded as one who possesses 
authority from God to forgive sins, and to change the 
elements of bread and wine into the Lord of life and glory, 
his advice is all potent, and influence unbounded. 

V. He can exercise control by threat. He holds the 
secrets of his penitent in his hand, and can, therefore, 
mould him at his will. Suppose that his object is to com- 
pel A to adopt a certain line of conduct towards B. If 
A be unwilling to carry out the priest's wishes, then a 
gentle hint, to the effect that he will give some intimation 
of a delicate affair to B, or to some one else whose dis- 
pleasure A dreads, will at once, in all probability, compel 
A to yield implicit obedience. Probably, in reply to this, 
it will be said, that the seal of the confessional would 
operate as an effectual bar to such unfair dealing. But 
there are various ways by which that seal can be evaded. 

1. We have seen that the priest, with the license of 
the penitent, may disclose a matter revealed under the 
seal. At an unguarded moment, or under the powerful 
influence of priestly control, the penitent may be induced 
to grant the license. 

2. The priest is to be believed in preference to the peni- 
tent if it be doubtful whether such a license was granted, 
or if the penitent even aver that he did not grant it. 
How readily may a priest, acting upon the principles of 
equivocation and dissimulation, to which we have already 
called attention, avail himself of this ! 

3. Whatever is revealed, save in the very act of confes- 
sion, does not come under the seal. How easily may a 
priest draw his penitent into such confessions! 



] * Dens distinctly says, that he is God in the confessional.— n. 160, 
torn. vi. Dub., 1832. 



176 POWER OF CONFESSIONaL IN THE DOMESTIC CIRCLE. 

VI. Let us consider some instances in which obviously 
the confessor exercises great control 

IN THE DOMESTIC CIRCLE. 

1. Is there a point to be regulated between husband 
and wife : here the confessor steps in. He pries even into 
the marriage bed ; and if the husband or wife do not 
follow his injunctions, he can inflict upon them that which 
is conceived to be, of all others, the most fearful punish- 
ment, — the withholding of absolution; or, if they disre- 
gard them, he may compel other relatives to interfere ! ! ! ( 

2. He controls, according to his own fancy, the parent's 
conduct towards the child, and the child's conduct towards 
the parent. If the parent be a Protestant, he can set the 
child as a watch upon his father, and he fortifies his mind 
against his heretical influence and control ; or if the child 
of a Romish parent become Protestant, he can compel the 
parent to turn his child out of doors, thus carrying out the 
Canon law, by threatening to withhold absolution. 

Liguori says, that a parent is bound to denounce his 
own child to the inquisition, and that the child, in the 
same manner, is bound to lift up his hand against his 
parent. The confessional will at once discover whether 
the parent has an heretical child, or the child an heretical 
parent, and the threat to withhold absolution will draw, 
in either case, the disclosure from the "devout member of 
the Church. 

3. Even in the making of wills, and the settlement of 
property, how great is the influence of the priest ! If a 
member of the family displease him, or be obnoxious to 
the Church, the confessor uses his influence to deprive 
him of his heritage. If a son or daughter become a Pro- 
testant, the confessor carries out the Canon law, and corn- 
pels the parent to strike out the name of the delinquent 
from the will. The same power exists in the making of 
wills favourable to the Church. The confessor may fur- 
ther not only use his. influence, which is almost unbounded, 
in order to obtain property, but he may require, as a 



THE CONFESSIONAL IN POLITICS. 177 

satisfaction, for certain sins, that money be left for masses, 
or property to the Church. 

He may use similar influence « 

IN A POLITICAL POINT OF VIEW. 

4. He controls the king. The confessor of the king of 
France used to say, — 

" With my God in my hand, and my king at my knee, 
Who can greater be?" 

He may compel the king, by a threat of withholding 
absolution, to persecute his Protestant subjects. The de- 
cree of Nantes, which granted toleration to Protestants, 
was revoked by the French Monarch, Louis XIV , and a 
cruel and fearful persecution of Protestants followed as 
the result. This was accomplished by the intrigues of 
the Romish party; and who can doubt that the confes- 
sional was employed for this purpose, and will again be 
so employed even m Britain, wherever offices of State, 
and places of trust, are held by Roman Catholics? 

5. The confessional controls the subject, and can render 
even the monarch helpless. When France was placed 
under an interdict in the time of Philip Augustus, that 
monarch defied the Papal power, calculating upon the 
loyalty of his barons and people But miserably de- 
ceived, he, at length, learned that loyalty to the Church, 
in the estimation o( Romanists, takes the precedence of 
loyalty to the crown. His own people, influenced through 
the confessional, were preparing to take up arms against 
him, and that compelled him to yield 

6. The confessional controls judges and authorities. 
How could Protestants, in causes where the interest of the 
Romish Church, or even of Romanists, is concerned, expect 
justice at the hands of Popish judges? Protestants are 
heretics according to Ron.e, and as such excommunicated, 
anathematized, and adjudged by Canon law to utter ex- 
termination. May not the confessor enforce these con- 
siderations upon the Romish judge, and compel him to 
adopt whatever course he thinks necessary in reference to 
Protestants. If the judge hesitate, from his love of honesty. 



178 SUMMARY OF THE CO.NFESSIONAL. 

the confessor persuades him by promise of absolution, or 
coerces him by the threat of withholding absolution? 

VII. The confessional is a widespread conspiracy against 
the liberties of nations. Confessors are all subject to their 
respective bishops, and bishops again to the Pope. The 
Pope has only to communicate his wish to the bishops, 
and thus, touching the spring of action, move the whole 
body. 

It is a system of impurity. Under the mask of reli- 
gion and of repressing sin, it perpetuates a knowledge of 
sin, and sinks both priest and penitent deeper in the pit 
of moral pollution. 

The true remedy against unholiness is the Gospel. Tell 
the sinner of Christ's love in making an atonement for 
guilt, and shew him, that as he has yielded " his members 
as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin," he should 
henceforth yield them " as instruments of righteousness 
unto God." Romans vi. 13. 

If this motive fail, — and it cannot fail when the Holy- 
Spirit applies it to the soul, — no other consideration or 
disciplinary system can effect a radical cure. The con- 
fessor assumes the place of God, — and penance, that of 
the Holy Spirit. 

" If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our 
sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." (1 John i. 9.) 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Upon what assumption is the practice of auri- 
cular confession based? 

A. — Upon the supposed power of the priest to absolve 
offences, and consequently his .right to know all sins. 

2. Q. — What is meant by the seal of the confessional] 
A. — The secrecy to which the confessor is bound. 

3. Q. — Can the priest avail himself of the knowledge 
communicated to him 1 ? 

A. — Under certain circumstances he can. If the matter 
be revealed extra confessionally, or if he have the license 
of the penitent. 

4. Q.— But suppose that a case arises in which it is 



FALSE PRETENSIONS OF ROME TO UNITY. 179 

doubtful whether the priest has spoken with the license of 
the penitent, what then? 

A. — The priest is to be believed in preference to the 
penitent ; and thuj3 the Romanist is left at the mercy of 
the confessor. 

5. Q, — How does it appear that the confessional is 
immoral? 

A. — The confessor and the penitent converse upon the 
most immodest subjects in private, — a practice which 
must corrupt the mind of both, and afford occasion to sin. 

(5 # Q % — How does the confessional give power to the 
priest? * 

A. — To the priestj as God, in the confessional all affairs 
are made known. " Knowledge is power," — and that 
power he can wield in a religious, social, and political 
point of view. He may interfere between man and wife, 
parents and children, and even in the making of wills. 
He may control on the one hand the king, and on the 
other the subject, and even the judges of the land. The 
confessional is, in fact, a widespread conspiracy against 
the liberties of nations. Confessors are responsible to the 
bishops, and bishops to the Pope. 



CHAPTER XX. 
False Pretensions of Rome to Unity. v> 

There is no subject upon which more misconception ex- 
ists than that of the boasted unity of the Church of Rome. 
It is generally assumed by Roman Catholics, in contro- 
versy, that their Church is pre-eminently one in doctrine, 
possessing a body of clergy who agree perfectly in all re- 
ligious points, and, in their unanimity, afford a contrast 
to the divisions of Protestants. 

A more false statement was never made, or one more 
completely opposed to facts. 

£ The convenient facility with which Romish advocates 
assume that their Church is peculiarly one in doctrine and 
worship is worthy of observation. 



180 ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO INFALLIBILITY. 

Dr Milner, pointing to the divisions of Protestants, 
says,— 

" Hence it follows, that the Church of Christ must be strictly ONE ; 
one in doctrine, one in worship, and one in government." — (The italics 
and capitals are his.) — End of Controversy, p. 121. London, 1841. 

He assumes that Rome is that Church, and "strictly" 
one. How far his assumption is according to truth we 
shall now see. 

Let it not "be supposed that, while we disprove the 
claims of the Church of Rome to perfect unity of senti- 
ment, we think such unity essential to the Church of 
Christ. Perfect; oneness of mind amongst fallen men can 
not be attained in this fallen world. It belongs alone to 
Heaven, where all is perfection, and where " we shall 
know even as we are known." Such unity never existed 
in the Christian .Church. Nay, we are persuaded that it 
was not designed to exist in the present dispensation. 

The assumption of perfect unity by the Church of Rome 
is refuted by facts, and exposes her to the charge of hypo- 
crisy and deceit. 

First, we shall prove that Romanists are, even at this 
moment, divided upon many important points , and that 
such division and disagreement of sentiment must lead, if 
they think at all, to great perplexity and doubt. 

Secondly, we shall point out some of the variations 
which the Church of Rome has undergone, from time to 
time, in doctrine and worship. 

I. DIFFERENCES IN THE CHURCH OF ROME. 

1. Infallibility of the Pope.— On this important 

question the Church of Rome is split, some holding that 
the Popo is infallible, some strenuously denying it.* On 
this subject there are no less than three opinions in the 
Papal Church. In order that there may be no misconcep- 



* At p. 2, in the Appendix of " The Manual of Romish Controversy, 
I have given the antagonistic opinions of Romish divines, in opposite 
columns. 



ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO INFALLIBILITY. 181 

tion on the point, I give the following quotation from 
Saint Alphonsus Liguori, who sets forth their differences, 
and the arguments for each. Having stated the Protes- 
tant opinion as the Jirst, — that the Pope is fallible, in all 
circumstances, like other men, — he then gives the three 
opinions entertained in the Romish Church. 

" The second opinion, altogether opposite, is that of Albertus Pighius, 
that the Pope cannot err, even when speaking as a private individual. 
The third opinion is that of not a few, that the Pope, without a Council, 
is fallible. .... But the fourth common opinion, to 
which we subscribe, is, that although the Pontiff, as a private indivi- 
dual, may err, (as also, he is fallible in questions of mere fact, which 
depend especially upon the. testimonies of men,) yet, as Pope, when he 
speaks as universal doctor, defining ex cathedra, from the supreme 
power delivered to Peter of teaching the universal Church, then we say, 
that he, in controversies of faith and manners, is altogether infallible." 
—p. 123, Vol. I. Venice, 1828. 

Such are the three opinions entertained in the Church 
of Pome, directly opposed to each other. 

Let us now consider the seriousness of this difference. 

Romanists believe, though without warrant, that the 
Pope, as successor of St Peter, is the rock of the Church 
against which the gates of hell can not prevail. It is 
therefore important to know whether the rock be fallible 
or infallible. If the Pope, the rock, be fallible, the Church 
must be fallible, for how can an infallible Church rest up- 
on a fallible rock 1 If the foundation be insecure, the 
building reposing thereon cannot be secure. Liguori, 
maintaining that the Pope — the rock — is infallible, con- 
sistently argues, that if the rock be not infallible the 
Church can not be infallible.* The difference, therefore, 
is a vital and fundamental one. It lies at the very root 
of the system, and must lead to perplexity and doubt. 

In order to illustrate this, we shall suppose that the 
following conversation takes place : — 

Albertus Pighius, Pope Adrian IV., and Liguori — re- 
presentatives of the three different systems — hold a con- 
versation in the presence of a Protestant. 

* His omnion will be found at ». 15 of the Manual. 



IS'J ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO INFALLIBILITY. 

Albertus Pighius (to Pope Adrian.) I am persuaded, your 
Holiness, that Popes are infallible, not only ex cathedra, 
but even when teaching as private individuals. If the 
Pope be the rock, and as such infallible, why should his 
infallibility be confined to Ms decisions ex cathedra ? 

Adrian IV. You are altogether wrong, O Albertus. 
Popes, as the facts of history too plainly prove, are fallible 
as individuals, and even when speaking ex cathedra. 

Alphonsus Liguori (interposes.) Albertus, you are now 
in a strange position. You say that Popes are infallible, 
even as private individuals. His Holiness now tells you 
that Popes are fallible. See your dilemma. If his Holi- 
ness be right, then Popes are fallible ; but if he be wrong, 
you can no longer hold that they are infallible, as private- 
individuals. The fact is, you are both wrong, for accord- 
ing to my opinion, the Pope is infallible ex cathedra. 
Your Holiness, (addressing the Pope,) is in great error on 
this point. The Pope is the rock of the Church, and if 
the Church be infallible, so must the rock. (Turning to 
the Protestant.) Do you not agree with me, O stranger? 

Protestant. I am a Protestant, and 

Liguori. What, a Protestant ! Then you deny the in- 
fallibility of the Holy Roman Church, to whom alone be • 
longs the mark of unity ! 

Protestant. Talk no more of infallibility or unity. 
Have I not just heard your differences. You can not agree 
whether your rock be fallible or infallible. See, Liguori, 
the consequences of your teaching. You say, 

If the Pope — the rock — be fallible, the Church must be 
fallible. 

But — says his Holiness — the Pope is fallible — 

Ergo — the conclusion which I drew from your united 
teaching is — the Church is fallible. 

Pray, gentlemen, settle your disputes first amongst your- 
selves, ere you boast of your unity. Say not, that the 
difference is non-essential, for it strikes to the very foun- 
dation of your Church, and, according to the, statement of 
the Saint, it affects her infallibility. (The infallibility 
of the Pope has been defined.) 



AS TO POPE, COUNCIL, AND LOCALITY OF INFALLIBILITY. 183 

Thus this very question of the infallibility of the Pope 
affects the foundation of the Church, and is more serious 
to the Romish cause than any difference among orthodox 
Protestants, because it concerns the rock of the Church. 

2- Pope and Council. — Upon this question, nearly 
akin to the former, the Church of Pome is also split. 
Many maintain that the Pope is inferior to a General 
Council, and may be deposed by it. Many think the 
Pope is above all Councils and Churches. We give the 
views in opposite columns, that the difference may at once 
appear. 

POPE INFERIOR TO COUNCIL. POPE SUPERIOR TO COUNCIL. 

Charles Butler, the well Liguori, whose writings 

known Roman Catholic ad- have been sanctioned by the 
vocate, says, — • Church, gives his own opin- 

ion as follows, and a long list 
of authorities who support 
his views : 

"The Cisal pines affirm, that in " But the third opinion to which 

spirituals the Pope is subject in we subscribe holds that the Pope, 

doctrine and discipline to the without doubt, is above a General 

Church, and to a General Council Council, and above all Churches, 

representing her." — Letter 10, p. even taken collectively, and this is 

102. Lond. 1825. held by St Thomas, St Bonaven- 

Liguori mentions the Fathers of ture, Alex de Ales, S. Joan, A. 

the Council of Basil, — Gerson, Al- Capist, S. Bern, Seu B.August, 

main Aliacensis, and we may also Triumphus, Barron, Bellarmiue, Is- 

add, the Council of Constance, fondiatus, Pallavic, Gurman, Schel- 

which is quoted by the Gallicans strate, Lupuss, Cabass, Cajet, and 

for the same point. many others." P. 142, vol. 1, ibid. 

This difference leads to serious consequences. Liguori, 
and those who agree with him, quote several passages of 
Scripture and Councils in favour of their views. The 
other party deny that these Scriptures and Councils bear the 
sense which is attributed to them. (The definition of 
the Pope's infallibility implies the superiority of the 
Pope to Councils.) 

3. Where is Infallibility?— This question is con- 
nected also with the preceding. There are four opinions 



184 DIFFERENCES ON TIIE PROMULGATION OF LAWS. 

on the subject in the Church of Rome. Some say that 
infallibility is in the Pope. Some in Councils. Some in 
Councils headed by the Pope ; and some in the Church 
diffusive.* We would only observe, that the promise of 
infallibility by the Church of Rome to her members, is 
like that of the old woman, who assured her votaries that 
they would find a pot of gold under the end of the 
rainbow. (The infallibility has been denned.) 

4. The Promulgation and Obligation of 

Pontifical Laws. — Romanists are divided upon the 
point, whether it is necessary that pontifical laws, pro- 
mulgated at Rome, must be received also in the places for 
which they are intended. 
We quote from Liguori. 

THE AFFIRMATIVE. THE NEGATIVE. 

" The first opinion affirms that "But the second very common 
they ought." — Vol. I, Moral The- and more probable opinion denies 
ology de Legibus. Ibid. that, and holds that the pontifi- 

cal laws oblige the faithful, though 
only promulgated at Rome." Ibid. 

This difference of sentiment leads to the greatest un- 
certainty amongst Romanists. 

Dr M'Hale, when examined before the Commissioners 
of Irish Education, in 1826, as to the bull " ccense domini," 
replied, 

"With regard to bulls of this sort, they are never binding upon us, 
unless we receive and publish them ; that bull was never published in 
.his country, and therefore we have nothing to do with its contents." — 
3ee Report of Examination, &c, before Parliamentary Committee. 

The Dr finds it convenient to ignore a bull which, he 
admits, " would lead to a collision with the established 
authorities of the country." He says, that it was not 
published in Ireland, and therefore not binding. But does 
he forget that, according to the common opinion, it is 
binding even if it were only published at Borne, t 

This difference of sentiment may lead practically to most 

* This point is largely treated in p. 10 of the Manual. (See also 
Appendix and Supplementary Paper to the Manual.) 

tM'Ghee, in his Laws of the Papacy, London, proves that it waa 
published in Ireland even at the time M'Hale was examined. 



KOMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO IMAGE WORSHIP. 185 

serious results. The Pope is regarded as Christ's vicar. 
He issues his law ; and sometimes promulgates it only in 
Borne. Many Romanists say that, under these circum- 
stances, it is not binding, if not received in the countries 
for which they are intended ; while many say that they 
are of divine obligation. 

A Romanist, in the case of bulls not received, can not 
be certain of his duty, according to his own principles. 
The Pope issues his bull upon some subject, either of doc- 
trine or practice. The country does not adopt it. The 
poor Roman Catholic is then tossed upon the waves of 
doubt and uncertainty. He knows not whether the law 
is binding or not. Some say it is, others that it is not. 

5. Worship Of Images. — All Romanists agree in 
the worship of images ; but as to the nature of that wor- 
ship a serious difference exists. St Thomas Aquinas, Bo- 
naventure, and others, teach that the same worship is due 
to the image as to the being represented ; while others 
deny this, and assert that it is unlawful to give latria, or 
divine worship, to any but God. The views of the oppos- 
ing parties will appear in the following contrast : 

LATRIA NOT DUE TO THE LATRIA DUE TO THE CROSS. 

CROSS. 

"And to give them (images) " Since therefore Christ is ador- 
the salutation and honorary wor- ed with the worship of latria, it fol- 
ship, not indeed the true latria, lows that his imago is to be adored 
which belongs to the divine nature with the worship of latria."-~ 
only." — Second Council of Nice, Saint Thomas Aquinas, p. 25. art. 
a. d. 787. Labbe & Cossart's 3. ter. par. Sum. Theol. Romse. 
Councils. Paris, 1672. 1686. 

St Bonaventure, and a host of divines, agree with Si 
Thomas, that latria is due to the cross, while this opinion 
is strenuously opposed on the authority of the second 
Council of Nice, a.d. 787, and by many others. 

The reasons which are assigned on both sides manifest 
the wide difference which exists between the contending 
parties. 

St Thomas argues, that the worship which is given to 
the crti& is designed for God, therefore.it should be divine. 



i86 KOMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO INTENTION. 

To give an inferior worship, would imply that it was given 
for the sake of the cross itself, which would be creature 
worship. 

On the other hand, the opposite party maintain that 
divine worship belongs alone to God, and given to a crea- 
ture, is idolatrous. Thus the saints and doctors are split 
upon this important question, and their arguments involve 
the charge against each other of idolatry. What a pity it 
is, that it did not occur to these divines that any kind of 
religious worship to a creature is unlawful ! 

Connected with this subject there is another point upon 
which Romanists disagree. "Vasquez, a great Jesuit au- 
thority, maintained that the worship of images under the 
Old Testament, was altogether forbidden, especially by the 
second commandment. He says, — 

" So far forth, (i. e., so far as the law of Moses was concerned,) 
every image was forbidden, as it was dedicated to adoration ; therefore, 
neither the cherubims, nor any other images, had any worship in the 
temple." — Disp. p. 769, torn. 1, Antv. 1621. 

In order, however, to justify worship in the present 
dispensation, he insisted that the second commandment 
was only ceremonial, and, therefore, abolished with the 
ceremonial law. 

Bellarmine, and others, disagree with him, and main- 
tain that the second commandment is not ceremonial, but 
moral, and not opposed to images. 

Thus the dissension of Romanists affect the very foun- 
dation of their worship. 

6. Intention in the Administration of Sa- 
craments. — We have already unfolded, at large, in the 
Manual, the views of the Council of Trent, and the Ro- 
man Missal, on this subject.* Here again Romanists are 
divided. The Councils of Trent and Florence, and the 
Roman Missal, appear decisive enough, but even still doc- 
tors differ, and differ widely. 

We shall allow Liguori to state the difference. 



* See pp. 43, 96, and 216, of the Manual. 



ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO INTENTION. 



1ST 



SECOND OPINION IN 
OPPOSITION. 

* * * * But the second common 
opinion, and to be followed, affirms 
that the intention of doing the sa- 
cramental rite, which the Church 
intends, is altogether necessary. 
This Bellarmine holds, where he 
says that the opposite opinion does 
not differ from that of the Innova- 
tors. Also Lugo, 1. c, where he 
says, that it is to he most deserv- 
edly rejected by all, and that at 
least it does not differ much from 
the errbr of the heretics. Vasquez, 
Disp. 138, who calls the opposite 
condemned. — Moral Theol. p. 1!), 
vol. t. Venice, 1828. 



FIRST OPINION. 

''But here occurs that great 
question, formerly raised, as they 
say, by Ambrosius Catharinus, and 
very much agitated in our own 
times, viz., whether it is required 
to the validity of the sacraments 
that the minister have the inten- 
tion of doing the sacred rite which 
the Church intends. The first o- 
pinion denies it, for it distinguishes 
a twofold intention, one of per- 
forming the external act alone, 
which the Church does, and this it 
says is necessary — the other of do- 
ing an external act, not simply, 
but as a sacred or sacramental act, 
which Christ instituted, and the 
Church intends, and this it regards 
as not necessary. This opinion has 
many patrons of renowned name, 
and especially Juenin, Conteusoni- 
um, M. Serry, Genetum, P. Mi- 
lante ; and Salmeron, seem to have 
delivered it not obscurely. 

The saint proceeds to quote a host of authorities, to 
show that the first view is rejected. 

How then stands the case? Catharinus and others hold 
— in pretty plain opposition to their own standards, — that 
an internal intention, on the part of the priest, is not ne- 
cessary. The majority of divines are thoroughly opposed 
to them. 

Catharinus, in a treatise on the subject, as recorded by 
Father Paul, argues as follows : 

" If a priest, having charge of four or five thousand souls, be an in- 
fidel, but a formal hypocrite, and in absolving the penitent, baptising 
of children, and consecrating the eucharist, have no intention to do 
what the Church doth, it must be said that the children are damned, 
the penitent not absolved, and that all remain without the fruit of the 
communion." — P. 241, lib. 2. History of the Council of Trent. 

These were the reasons which influenced Catharinus, 



188 DIFFERENCES AS TO THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION. 

and surely they commend themselves to every man s judg- 
ment! Catharinus, in other respects, however absurdly, 
maintained that the intention required by the Church 
had merely respect to the performance of an outward act, 
which, however done, and with whatever inward inten- 
tion, is valid. In this he, and those who agree with him, 
are opposed by the majority of Romish doctors, and by 
the express language of their formularies. Still his view 
is hot positively condemned, and the question is warmly 
agitated. Catharinus argues, that if the opinion enter- 
tained by his opponents be true, no Romanist can be cer- 
tain that he has a sacrament. We may add, no Romanist 
can be certain, according to his own principles, that he 
has a Christian Church at all, for he may have no orders — 
no sacraments ! Such then, Rom^w Catholics ! is the state 
of your Church ! A point is debated among your divines, 
which amounts to the question, whether you have a Chris- 
tian Church at all ! Here is a controversy existing in 
your own pale, which strikes at the very heart of your 
Church, and is far more serious, in its consequences, than 
any which exists amongst orthodox Protestants. See your 
divines arrayed against each other in opposite parties, — 
the former charging the latter with holding views which 
would remove all certainty from the Church, and involve 
her members in confusion and hopelessness ; and the lat- 
ter charging the former with inconsistency, and departure 
from the Church's principles ! No longer boast of the de- 
lightful unanimity which exists within your pale. 

7. Immaculate Conception of the Virgin 

Mary. — It is well known to all that a controversy on 
this subject has existed in the Church of Rome. The fa- 
vourers and opponents of the notion, that the Virgin was 
born without sin, denounced each other as heretics. 

The extent to which the bitterness of spirit was carried 
is manifest from the following passage in the Constitu- 
tions of Pope Sixtus V. 

" Certain preachers, as we have heard, of different orders, in their sec- 
mons to the people, have not hitherto been ashamed publicly to affirm in 
different cities and provinces, and do not desist from daily teaching, that 



DIFFERENCES AS TO THE INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 189 

all those who hold or agree that the same glorious and immaculate 
Mother of God was conceived without the stain of original sin, are guilty 
of mortal sin, or are heretics ; that those who celebrate the service of 
the said immaculate conception, and those who hear the sermons of those 
preachers who affirm that she was conceived without this stain, sin 
grievously."— p. 262, Can. et Dec. Trid. Lip. 1846. 

The Constitutions then forbid that either party should 
denounce the other as heretical. 

In fact, so wide was the gulph between both parties, 

that THERE WERE CERTAIN RELIGIOUS SERVICES IN THE 
CHURCH OF ROME IN WHICH THEY COULD NOT UNITE. For 

example, in the Carmelite confraternities, offices of the 
immaculate conception are used, in which there is cdnstant 
mention of the sinless conception of Mary. Now, those 
who dissent from that notion, could not join with Car- 
melites in offering up such prayers, and thus Roman Ca- 
tholics were so divided in sentiment, that on certain oc- 
casions they could not unite in prayer* 

The Council of Trent left the question undecided, but 
the present Pope Pius IX., on 8th December 1854, dog- 
matically decreed that the Virgin was conceived without 
sin. In thus deciding the point — 

(1.) He has added a new article to the creed, — an article 
never received as such until eighteen hundred years after 
Christ. 

(2.) He has contradicted the views of the fathers of the 
primitive Church, and many of the most eminent doctors 
and saints of his own Church. Canus, Bishop of the Canary 
Isles, says, 

' ' All the holy Fathers, with one consent, affirm the blessed Virgin to 
have been conceived in original sin." — Loc. Theol. p. 348. Colon. 1605. 

The Pope's decision has excited considerable commotion 
in the Church of Rome, and it yet remains to be seen 
whether his decision will be obeyed. 

8. The Invocation of Saints. — All Romanists 

agree in the invocation of saints, but as to the question 
how the saints, as finite creatures, can hear their prayers, 
they are divided. There are no less than four views on 
this subject amongst divines, Bellarmine says. 



190 DIFFERENCES AS TO VENIAL AND MORTAL SIN. 

" But concerning the manner in which they know our prayers, there 
are four opinions of doctors. Some say that they know them from the 
relation of angels, who now ascend to Heaven, now descend thence to 
us. Others say that the souls of saints, even as the angels, with a 
wonderful celerity of nature, are everywhere, and per se hear the pray- 
ers of suppliants. Others say that the saints see in God all things from 
a principle of their own beatitude, whatever pertains to them in any 
manner, and moreover even our prayers directed to themselves. So 
teach the blessed Gregory, the blessed Thomas, and Cajetan. Finally, 
others say that the saints do not see our prayers from a principle of 
their own beatitude, but that our prayers are only revealed to them when 
we pour them forth."— Lib. 1. c. 20. Ingol. 1590. 

This variety of opinion exhibits remarkably the difficul- 
ties in which the invocation of saints involves the members 
of the Church of Rome. 

9. Mortal and Venial Sin- — The differences be- 
tween divines of the Church of Rome on this subject are 
numberless. They all admit that there is such a distinc- 
tion; but they thoroughly disagree in detail, as to what 
sins are venial and what mortal. They generally enumer- 
ate seven deadly or mortal sins: pride, covetousness, 
lechery, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth ; (p. 1 1 6, Abridg. 
Christian Doct. Dublin, 1841;) but in detail, and practi- 
cally, they differ. For evidence on this subject we refer 
to Liguori's Treatise De Matrimonio, where numerous 
instances will be found. 

The Church of Rome teaches, that absolution in the 
tribunal of penance removes mortal sin, and that venial 
sins are taken away by good works, extreme unction, in- 
dulgences, &c. Surely, then, it is necessary that her con- 
fessors should positively know in detail what are mortal 
sins, in order to deal with certain cases, and not be left 
in a state of uncertainty and doubt. 

The inconvenience and evil arising from this want of 
unity, in the pretendedly infallible Church, will appear 
from the following illustration. Saint Alphonsus Liguori, 
in his Moral Theology, (p. 328, t. 2, n. 172, cap. 2. Mech- 
lin, 1845,) asks and discusses the question, — whether he 
who swears without the mind of laying himself under an 
obligation to keep the oath, commits venial or mortal sin? 



DIFFERENCES IN THE INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE. 191 

Tamburin, Scotus, and others, think that he sins mortally. 
Liguori himself, with Sanches, and others, think he sins 
veriially. We shall suppose the following conversation 
between a Romanist, Liguori, and Scotus. 

Romanist (to Liguori.) Right reverend and most holy- 
Father! I seek the instruction of holy Church upon a, 
subject which troubles my conscience. I have taken an 
oath, intending not to lay myself under an obligation 
thereby. Have I sinned mortally or venially'? 

Liguori. My child, you hav.e sinned veriially. What do 
you say, Scotus? (turning to Scotus,) for we know that, 
as a schoolman, your opinion deservedly has great weight. 

Scotus. My opinion is, that he has sinned mortally. 
The offence is a deadly one, as I think. 

Romanist. But pray, reverend Fathers! tell me what 
the Church says upon this. I desire to ease my conscience 
by her infallibility. 

Liguori and Scotus (together.) The Church has not 
spoken upon the subject. 

Romanist. Alas, alas, what am I to do ! If I think for 
myself, I am damned; and yet I am not to be informed 
whether I have sinned mortally or venially ! Wo is me I 

Upon various other points, as to certain sins of thiey* 
ing, doing evil that good may come, and the secrets of 
man and wife, &c. &c. there is the same doubt. 

10. The Interpretation of Scripture.— Here 

Romanists are also disagreed. This may be inferred from 
what we have already proved. Though the Church of 
Rome requires scripture to be understood according to 
her sense, and the unanimous consent of the Fathers, (2d 
article of Pius IV. 's creed,) yet she has given no sense, 
and her theologians in their interpretations widely differ ! 
Some interpret the scriptures so as to prove the infallibility 
of the Pope, others to prove the opposite ! Those who con- 
sult " the moral theologians" will find that many of the 
same texts are quoted by different Romish authors in sup- 
port of different and opposite opinions. Their want of 



192 ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO PROBABLE OPINIONS. 

harmony on the book of .Revelation is evident from the 
following note of the Douay Bible : — 

11 Many think that most things set down from the fourth chapter to 
the end will not be fulfilled till a little time before the end of the world. 
Others are of opinion that a great part of them, and particularly the fall 
of the wicked Babylon, happened at the destruction of Paganism, by the 
destruction of heathen Rome, and its persecuting heathen Emperors. 
• • • * In fine, others think that St John's design was, in a mys- 
tical way, by metaphors and allegories, to represent the attempts and 
persecutions of the wicked against the servants of God, the punishments 
that should in a short time fall upon Babylon, that is upon all the wicked 
in general." • 

11. The Probable Opinions.— On the subject of 

the probable opinions a great controversy has raged in the 
Church of Rome ; some holding that where two opinions 
are equally probable, the safer should be followed , others 
denying this, and holding that in such a case the safer 
need not be followed. Dens, on the probable opinion, 
says, " It hath carried into Christianity horrid monsters 
of doctrine, making lawful parricides, adulteries, perju- 
ries," &c. P. 411. torn. 1. Dub. 1832. Such is the view 
entertained even by Dominus Dens of this system ; and 
yet Saint Alphonsus Liguori teaches, that where two opi- 
nions are equally probable, we are not obliged to follow 
the safer course, or the one farthest removed from sin ! He 
says, " Hence I have remained persuaded that it is wicked 
to bind consciences when opinions are equally probable, to 
follow the safer coturse, with the peril of falling into many 
formal offences." — p. 92. torn. 1. Mech. 1845. He says, 
" Neither can it be denied, that our opinion, at least for 
eighty years, was the common opinion amongst authors on 
moral science."— p. 85. ibid. Thus, Dens, Liguori, and 
the divines of the Church of Rome, are opposed, denounc- 
ing each other's opinions as wicked in the extreme. Alex- 

* If the prediction relative to the fall of Babylon was fulfilled when 
Paganism fell in Rome, how will the Romanist explain this verse— 
" Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of 
devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean 
and hateful bird." Rev. xviii. 2. On the fall of Paganism did Rome 
become the habitation of devils? Did it pass from bad to worse when it 
gave up idolatry for Christianity? 



ROMISH DIFFERENCES AS TO ORDERS. 193 

ander YIL, in 1665, published a bull which seemed to 
condemn probablism, but Liguori casuistically shows, that 
the bull did not really condemn. 

12» OrderSa — Even upon the subject of Episcopacy 
the divines of the Church of Rome disagree. The differ- 
ence, existing amongst them, will appear from the follow- 
ing passage of Liguori : — 

' ' Thence it is inquired, Whether the Episcopacy be a distinct order 
from the Presbytery? St Thomas Bonaventure and others deny that 
it is ; who say that it is an extension of the Presbyterian order. But 
more commonly Bellarmine. Tournelly, Habert, Valentia, and A versa, 
affirm that it is." — p. 223. t. 7. n. 738. lib. 6. Mech. 1845. 

Thus, even on the subject of Presbyterianism, Romish 
divines disagree ! 

And now we pass on to notice some of the variations 
which the Church of Rome has undergone. 

II. VARIATIONS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. 

Dr Milner, in his " End of Controversy" labouring to 
show that the Church of England does not possess the 
mark of unity, says, — 

" You will recollect the account I have given in a former letter of 
the material changes which this Church has undergone at different 
times. — p. 124. ibid. 

Now, we do not deny that the Church of England haa 
undergone change, but we say that if this be a valid ar- 
gument against her possession of unity, it is as valid 
against the Church of Rome. 

The Dr thus employs a sword which cuts two ways, 
and can be wielded with as much power against his Church 
as any other. "We shall prove that the Church of Rome 
has changed in doctrine, creed, and ceremonial worship. 

1. Change Of Doctrine. — There are seven points 
upon which Roman Catholic authorities admit that there 
is a departure on ber part from primitive Christianity — 
(1.) Communion in one kind ; (2) Private mass ; (3.) The 
Apocrypha ; (4.) Prayers in an unknown tongue ; (5.) 
Transubstantiation as an article of faith ; (6.) Celibacy of 
the priests ; and (7.) The use and worship of images. 



19-t IIOMISH VARIATION OF DOCTRINE. 

1. I prove that private mass is a novelty. Cochleus 
says, — 

" Anciently all the priests did communicate together, as appeareth 
by the canons of the apostles, and writings of ancient fathers, but now, 
since the order of communicating together hath ceased, by the negligence 
of priests and pastor*, the Holy Ghost hath taught us a remedy against 
their slothfulness in celebrating of private mass." — Cassan, 9. 79. 
Colon. 1558. 

2. I now quote from the Council of Constance, proving 
that the sacrament in one kind is a novelty, — 

" Though Christ instituted the venerable sacrament under loth 
kinds, and though, in the primitive Church, the sacrament was received 
by the faithful in loth kinds, yet this custom, that it should be re- 
ceived by laymen under the kind of bread only, is to be held for a Jaw 
which may not be refused." — Iiabbe. Con. Sess. 13. Paris, 1672. 

St Thomas Aquinas says, — 

" According to the ancient custom, all those who once were partakers 
of the communion of his body, were partakers also of the communion of 
his blood.'*— In John, 6, vol. 3, p. 523. Venet, 1775. 

3. As to prayers in an unknown tongue, Nicholas de 
Lyra, a great commentator in the fourteenth century, 
says,— 

" If thou bless in the spirit, and the people understand thee not, 
what profit hath the simple people thereby, not understanding thee ? 
Therefore, in the primitive Church, the blessings, and all the common 
devotions, were performed in the vulgar tongue." — In 1 Cor. xiv. 
Argent, 1474. 

4. As to the novelty of image worship, Cassander says, — 

11 HOW much THE ANCIENT FATHERS DID ABHOR ALL HANKER OF WOR- 
SHIPPING of images ; even Origen declares against Celsus." — p. 975. 
Paris, 1616. 

5. As to the Apocrypha, Hugh de St Yictor, in the 
twelfth age, says, — 

" All the canonical Books of the Old Testament are twenty -two. 
There are other Books also ; as the Book of Solomon ; the Book of 
Jesus ; the Books of Judith, Tobias, and the Maccabees, which are read, 
but not written in the canon" — Prens. Elucid. de Scrip, et Scrip. Sacris, 
oap. 6, et cap. 7, torn. i. Fo iii. 

Nicholas D'Lyra says, — 

" After that, with the help of God, I have handled tbe canonical 
Books of scripture, beginning from Genesis, and proceeding to the end ol 



ROMISH CHANGE OF CREED. 195 

the ApocryrjJia. , being confident of the same aid and assistance, I 
propose to write of those Books which are not in the canon, as, namely, 
the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobias, and the Book of 
Maccabees."'' — In Praefe'ct Tobias. Argent, 1474. 

6. As to Transubstantiation, Scotus, professor of divi- 
nity of Oxford, in 1301, called the " Subtle Doctor," says 
distinctly, that before the Council of ' Later an transubstan- 
tiation was not an article of fa-dh. Ho also maintained 
that there was no place of Scripture express enough to 
prove that dogma without Church authority. — Bell, lib. iii. 
de Euch. cap. 23, sect. 12, p. 33, torn. 3. 

Saures, the Jesuit, in reference to this subject says, — 
" From the doctrine of the faith it is collected that those schoolmen 
are to be corrected who teach that this doctrine concerning this conver- 
sion or transubstantiation is NOT VERY ANCIENT, amongst whom 
are Scotus, and Gabriel Bid." — p. 594. Mogunt, 1610. 
The .Roman Catholic Bishop Tonstal said, — 
" Of the manner and means of the real presence, how it might be 
either by transubstantiation or otherwise, perhaps, it had been better 
to leave any one who would be curious to his own opinion, as before 
the Council of Later an it was left." — De Euch. lib. 1, p 46. 

7. Upon the subject of celibacy a similar admission is 
made. ^Eneas Sylvius, afterwards Pope Pius, said, — 

" Sacerdolibus magna ratione sublatas nuptias, majori restituendas 
videri." 

" Marriage, which was taken away from the priests with great rea- 
son, FOR GREATER REASON OUGHT TO DE RESTORED." p. 328. Plat. 

Vit. Pii. Colon. 1611. 

On all these points confessedly the Church of Pome has 
changed. 

II. Change Of Creed. — Another flagrant departure 
from primitive integrity is in reference to the Nicene 
creed. The Council of Ephesus forbade any alteration in 
it, and yet Pius TV. has added to it a creed of his own, 
^which was never heard of until 1564. The reader, if he 
consult the Romish work entitled " Canons and Decrees 
of the Council of Trent," will find that creed, with the 
date affixed, in which it first appeared. Despite of the de- 
cree of the Council of Ephesus the Church of Pome adds 
a new creed. 



196 m. Ohange of Ceremonial Worship. 

It is confessed that many of the ceremonies now used 
in the Church of Rome are of modern origin, and that not 
only does the present Church of Rome differ from the 
ancient, but at all times ceremonies have been different 
in different places. That she differs from the ancient 
English Church is manifest from the following passage 
in the vindication, by the Roman Catholic Bishop, Dr 
Baines, of a pastoral which he issued, as Vicar-Apos- 
toli c, to his priests a few years ago. Speaking of the wishes 
and intentions of the perverts to Popery — intentions of 
which he disapproved, the Romish Bishop says, — 

"By degrees the Roman missal was to be set aside, and the old Eng- 
lish missal of Salisbury substituted in its stead. The formulas of the 
Church were, as soon as possible, to be regulated by ancient English Be- 
nedictionals, &c, and, in short, the new English Catholie Church was 
to be made as like as possible to what the ancient one was, or was sup- 
posed to be, and to have as little resemblance to, or connexion with, the 
Roman Church, as the unity of faith and communion would justify." 

At another place he says, — 

" Under the pretext of diminishing the objections which Protestants 
have to a connexion with Rome, it was proposed to re-establish the ce- 
remonial of the ancient Church of England." — See Catholic Mag. p. 98, 
Sept. 1850. 

Here it is most distinctly affirmed by a Romish Bishop, 
that the ancient and modern worship are not the same. 

We have thus proved that the Church of Rome has 
changed in doctrine, creed, and ceremonial. And so, Dr 
Milner's words are turned against himself. 

Wheri the differences which agitate that Church are 
taken into consideration, it will not appear at all strange 
that parties within her pale — Jesuits and Jansenists, Domi- 
nicans and Franciscans, Seculars and Regulars, Probablists 
and Antiprobablists, have violently opposed each other. 

In the next chapter, XXI., will be adduced abundant 
evidence on the schisms of the Church of Rome, to show 
that, during many years, that Church was split into great 
sections, each following a different Pope. 

It will at once appear to the reader that the Church of 



SUMMARY OF ROMISH DIFFERENCES. 197 

Rome is divided into two great factions, (with all their 
minor shades of opinion,) those who exalt the Pope to a 
position of infallibility, and those who deny the Pope's in- 
fallibility. We hear a great deal about " High Church- 
men," and " Low Churchmen," as existing amongst Pro- 
testants. Rome exults in the division, while she has art- 
fully succeeded in keeping out of view her fearful schisms, 
and the fact that there are TJltra-Montanes and Gallicans, 
or, in other words, High Papists and Low Papists. 

I give the following recapitulation of the points which 
I have proved : — 

I. There are Differences in the Church of Rome upon 
the following points : — 

1. The infallibility of the Pope, or its extent. 

2. The relative authority of Pope and council. 

3. The person or persons in whom infallibility is vested. 

4. The promulgation and obligation of pontifical laws. 

5. The nature of the worship rendered to images. 

6. The doctrine of intention. 

7. The immaculate conception. 

8. The means whereby the saints hear prayers offered 

to them. 

9. The details of the distinction of sin into mortal and 

venial. 
10. The interpretation of scripture. 

II. The probable opinions. 

1 2. The nature of Episcopacy. 

II. The Church of Rome, according to her own admission, 
has undergone Variations in doctrine, creed, and worship. 

In Doctrine. 

1. Communion in one kind. 

2. Private masses. 

3. The Apocrypha. 

4. Prayers in an unknown tongue. 

5. Transubstantiation as an article of faith. 

6. The celibacy of the clergy. 

7. The use of images. 



198 summary of romish differences. 

In Creed. 
Pope Pius* creed first appeared a.d. 1564. 
In Worship. 

9 

The ceremonial worship of the modern Romish Church 
differs, by the admission of Romanists, from that of the 
ancient Romish Church. 

The Church of Rome continually refers to the changes 
which have taken place in Protestant worship and disci- 
pline, and exultingly points to the differences existing 
amongst those who- profess the Reformed faith, while she 
claims for herself the mark of unity and unchangeableness ; 
but the above matters of fact afford us an opportunity of 
hurling back the charge, and of proving, notwithstanding 
her bold and lofty pretensions, that she has neither unity 
in sentiment nor unchangeableness in worship; and I 
invite the Romish priests and Jesuits to refute my state- 
ments if they can. 

The true unity exists amongst those who have " washed 
their robes, and made them white in the blood of the 
Lamb;" and who shall meet around the throne of God 
at last. Christ is their centre and uniting point — " all 
inalL" 

questions and answers. 

1. Q. — Is the Church of Rome perfectly united in her 
members upon religious subjects? 

A. — No. They are divided on many essential points. 

2. Q. — Give an instance? 

A. — The subject of the infallibility of the Pope was 
warmly contested — -some asserting that he is infallible — 
others denying his infallibility. 

3. Q. — How is this of importance ? 

A. — Because, the Pope, as the successor of Peter, is re- 
garded as the rock of the Church. ]STow if the Pope, the 
rock, be fallible, as Liguori says, the Church which, they 
say, rests on it, is fallible also. 

4. Q. — Specify the twelve points upon which Romanists 
have disaoreed ? 



SUMMARY OF ROMISH DIFFERENCES. 199 

A.— (I ) The infallibility of the Pope. (2.) The relative 
authority of Pope and Council. (3.) The person or per- 
sons in whom infallibility is vested. (4.) The promulga- 
tion and obligation of pontifical laws. (5.) The nature of 
the worship rendered to images. (6.) The doctrine of in- 
tention. (7 ) The immaculate conception. (8.) The means 
whereby the saints hear prayers offered to them. (9.) The 
details of the distinction of sin into mortal and venial. 
(10.) The interpretation of scripture. (11.) The probable 
opinious. (1 9- ^ The nature of Episcopacy. 

5. Q. — Mention the seven points on which Rome admits 
that she has undergone variations in doctrine 1 

A. — (1.) Communion in one kind. (2.) Private masses. 
(3.) The Apoci^pha. (4.) Prayers in an unknown tongue. 
(5.) Transubstantiation as an article of faith. (6.) The 
celibacy of the clergy. (7.) The use of images. 

6. Q. — How has Rome undergone variations in creed? 
A. — By the introduction of novelties, and especially by 

the addition of twelve new articles by Pope Pius IV., 
in a.d. 1564, and the addition of the doctrine of the im- 
maculate conception as an article of faith, by Pope Pius 
[X., on 8th December 1854. 

7. Q. — How has she undergone variations in worship? 
A. — By changes of ceremonial. 

8. Q. — In the three respects, then, the Church of Rome 
has undergone changes'? 

A. — Yes — in doctrine, creed, and worship. 



Chapter XXI— Schisms of the Papacy, 

The uniuy of the Church of Rome is continually urged 
by Romanists as an evidence of its Divine original ; but 
we have found in the preceding chapter, that her boasted 
unity is a mere pretence and human contrivance. Her 
history plainly shows that she is an earthen vessel, sub- 
ject to feuds, tumults, divisions, and even open schism. 
To judge of that Church, according to the representa- 
tions of her modern advocates, she is a harbour of 



200 SCHISMS OF THE PAPACY. 

peace where no storm can ever reach; but, viewed in 
the light of history, she appears, not as the bark upon the 
tempest tossed sea, but as the sea itself when, in the 
storm, the angry and contending waves dash upon the 
rocks and sands the helpless bark and crew. 

We lay before the reader the following facts of authen- 
tic history, and we give them in the language of Roman 
Catholics themselves. We have no doubt they will be 
conclusive to every impartial mind. We begin with the 

ELEVENTH CENTURY. 

When Pope Sergius died, Gregory was elected to the 
Popedom by some Romans in opposition to Benedict 
VIII., who, being compelled to fly from Rome, implored 
the assistance of Henry II. of Germany, by whom he was 
reinstated in the Papal chair. 

" After the death, of Sergius there was a schism in the Church of 
Rome, between Benedict VIII., son of Gregory, Count of Frescati, and 
one Gregory, who was elected by some Romans who ousted Benedict. 
He fled to Henry, king of Germany, who immediately raised forces, and 
marched into Italy to re-establish him. As soon as the king arrived, 
Gregory fled for it, and Benedict was received without any opposition. " 
— DupvrCs Church History of the 11th century of Christianity, a.d 
1012, vol. 8. Dublin 1723. 

After the death of John XVIII., the son of the 
Count of Frescati, by the influence of his family, wa* 
raised to the Papal chair, with the title of Benedict IX. 
He was most immoral in his life, and the Romans, dissat- 
isfied with his inconsistencies, deposed him, and put in his 
place Sylvester III. Benedict, it seems, was induced to 
resign; but scarce three months had passed when he re- 
turned, and, aided by his relations, drove Sylvester out of 
the city, and regained his honours. Gratian, Archpriest, 
bought the Pontificate from Benedict, and assumed the 
name of Gregory. There were then two Popes, Gregory 
and Sylvester, both of whom were deposed by the Council 
of Sutri, which elected Clement II. in their stead. After 
the death of Clement, Benedict IX. a third time sought 
the chair; but was compelled to abdicate a third time by 
Henry II. Here are instances in which the Popedom* 



POPEDOM OBTAINED BY MONEY. 201 

which is regarded by so many as infallible, was obtained by 
money and violence I 

To these facts Dupin bears testimony as follows, — 

"1033. John XVIII. dying, Nov. 7th, 1033, Alberic, Count of 
Frescati, caused his son to be seated on St Peter's chair. He was 
nephew to the two last Popes, the Count's brothers, and not above 
eighteen years of age at the utmost. He changed his name of Theophy- 
lact into that of Benedict IX. Peter Damien speaks of him as a man 
that lived a very disorderly life, and was very unworthy of that dignity 
to which he had been advanced by the tyranny of his father. However, 
he enjoyed the Popedom very quietly for ten years together ; but at last 
the Romans, weary of his abominable irregularities, ousted him, and 
put up in his place the Bishop of S. Sabina, who took upon him the 
name of Sylvester III. He enjoyed his dignity but three months ; for 
though Benedict voluntarily resigned the Popedom, yet he returned to 
Rome, and, with the aid of Frescati's party, drove out his competitor, 
and re-assumed the Papal chair. But being altogether incapable of 
governing it, and having nothing more in his thoughts than the grati- 
fying of his brutal appetite, he made a bargain about the Popedom wHh 
John Gratian, Archpricst of the Church of Rome, and made it oxer to 
him for a sum of money, reserving to himself the revenues due from 
England to the Holy See. This Gratian took upon him the name of 
Gregory VI. In the meantime, king Henry, who had succeeded his 
father Conrad in the year 1039, being incensed against Benedict, re- 
solved to march into Italy to put an end to that schism. After he came 
thither, he caused the three Popes to be deposed in several Synods, as 
usurpers, simoniacs, and criminals. 

" He caused Suidger, Bishop of Bramberg, to be elected in their stead, 
who took upon him the name of Clement II., aud was acknowledged 
as lawful Tope by all the world. He crowned Henry emperor, and as he 
was waiting upon him home to Germany ; he died beyond the Alps, 
1047, nine months after his election. Immediately upon this, Benedict 
IX. returned to Rome and remounted the Papal Chair a third time, not- 
withstanding the emperor had sent from Germany, Poppon, Bishop of 
Bresse, who was consecrated Pope, under the title of Damasus II. ; but 
he died of poison, it is supposed, twenty-three days after his election. 
. . . . Bruno was elected unanimously Pope by the Romans, 1049, 
under the name of Leo IX. Benedict was forced to submit." — Dupin's 
Church History of the 11th century, vol. viii. c. iv. ut supra. 

Baronius notices these facts: — 

BARONIUS. AN. CH. 1044. 

" Let us see what remedy they first had recourse to in order to ex- 
tinguish this three headed beast, who had issued from the gates of hell. 
A remedy was devised precisely similar to that which the poets feigned 



£02 SEVERAL ANTI-FOPE8. 

in destroying the fabulous Cerberus, — namely, tb.e piling pf his jaws 
with a pitchy mouthful, by giving them something, so that they should 
altogether leave qff barking. But let us see who it was that prepared 
that remedy, which the unhappiness of the times demanded. Otho 
faithfully relates it as follows:— 'A certain pious prie3t, named Ghra- 
tian, seeing this most wretched state of the Church, and his zealous 
piety filling him with compassion for his mother, he approached the 
above-mentioned men, and prevailed upon them by money to depart 
from the Holy See ; — the revenues of England being made over to Bene- 
dict, because he appeared to be of chief authority. Upon this account 
the citizens elected the aforesaid priest for their Pope, as being the libe- 
rator of the Church, and called him Gregory VI.' " — An. torn. xi. Antv. 
1603. 

Another schism occurred shortly after. Anselm, Bishop 
of Lucca,, was elected under the name of Alexander II. , 
without the Emperor's knowledge, which so offended the 
mother of the youthful monarch, that she assembled a 
Council at Basil, and caused Cadolous, Bishop of Parma, 
to be elected, under the title of Honorlus II. Both parties 
appealed to arms, in which Alexander succeeded ; though 
Honorius could never be induced to give up his claim. 

A long contest took place between Gregory VII. and 
Henry IV of Germany. The king and several bishops 
deposed Gregory for his enormities, and raised the Arch- 
bishop of Ravenna to the chair under the title of Clement 
IIL This schism continued during a long period. Cle- 
ment III., who was master of Rome, acknowledged by a 
great part of Italy, continued to reign in despite of the 
Anti-Popes, Victor III., Urban II., and Paschal II. 

We ask, which of these Popes was the real successor of 
St Peter? Only one of the claimants could be regarded in 
that light, and yet no general council has decided the 
point. All the ecclesiastical acts of the pseudo Popes, of 
course, were invalid, and does not that invalidity affect 
the chain of apostolic succession? 

THE TWELFTH CENTURY. 

On the death of Paschal II., Gelasius II. was raised to 
the Pontifical chair, in opposition to the Archbishop of 
Braza, who assumed the name of Gregory VIII. Gela- 
sius soon after died, and was succeeded by Callixtus II., 



TWO HEADS OF ROME. 203 

who imprisoned his opponent, and remained the sole pos- 
sessor of the Popedom. To the contests which took place 
in this affair, we shall refer in the next chapter. 

On the death of Adrian IV., a new schism broke out. 
The Cardinals were divided. One party raised Roland, 
under the title of Alexander III., to the chair; and the 
other elected Octavian, under the title of Victor IV. Then 

THE CHURCH HAD TWO HEADS. 
Baronius, in reference to this schism, says, — 

" ROLAND REJECTED BY THE COUNCIL OF PAVIA. AN. 1160. 

" The Council of Pavia was called by the Emperor Frederick. There 
were about fifty prelates, as well archbishops as bishops, besides abbots 
and others without number. The cause having been examined for seven 
days by the bishops and clergy, at last Octavian, who was present and 
had persons to defend his cause; gained the victory ; and the Council 
decided in his favour, condemning and rejecting Roland. 

" SENTENCE OF THE COUNCIL OF PAVIA. 

. . . " The whole of the orthodox bishops assembled at Tavia, 
sitting in the name of the Lord, and having lawfully and canonically 
discussed and examined the cause for the space of seven whole days, 
without the intervention of a secular judgment, it has been sufficiently 
and canonically proved by fit witnesses before the whole Council, that 
the Lord Pope Victor, and no other, was elected in the Church of St 
Peter by the most healthy part of the cardinals, at the request of the 
people, and with the consent of the clergy, and that he solemnly received 
the Pontifical mantle. That, moreover, he was placed in the chair of 
St Peter in the presence of Roland, formerly Chancellor, who did not 
oppose it, and that the Tc Dcum laudamus was gloriously sung in the 
same place by the cardinals and the Roman clergy, &c. 

" On the day following — that is, on the Saturday — the Lord Pope, 
and we with him, have anathematized and delivered to Satan for the 
destruction of the flesh, in order that his spirit may be saved in the day 
of the Lord, Chancellor Roland, the schismatic, and his abettors," — This 
schism lasted about eighteen years. It closed, 1175. — An. torn. xii. 
ut svpra. a 

Alexander, who was hostile to the Emperor, fled t* 
France for refuge. Meanwhile Victor died, and was sue ( 
ceeded by Pascal III., who dying, Callixtus was elected 
in his stead. Alexander continued successfully to oppose 
the Emperor. 

On- the death of Alexander, Ubald, bishop of Ostia, 



&H THREE HEADS U* ROME. 

was elected to the Pontificate by the Cardinals alone. The 
Romans, considering that they should have had a voice in 
the election, -drove him out. The Council of Pavia failed 
in healing the schism. Roland, under the title of Alex- 
ander III., continued to reign. 

FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 

In this age occurred what has been well termed, 

THE GREAT WESTERN SCHISM 

On the death of Gregory XL, the Cardinals, overawed 
by the Roman people, who feared lest a Frenchman should 
be elected to the Holy See, chose a Neapolitan, who took 
the name of Urban VI. The Cardinals, tired of his in- 
solence and haughty bearing, withdrew to Naples, where 
they elected the Count of Geneva, who took the name of 
Clement VII. Clement resided in Avignon in France, 
and was acknowledged as lawful Pope by France, Spain, 
Scotland, Sicily, and Cyprus. Bzovius, the historian, 
alludes to the difference of opinion which existed : — 

" An. Dom. lo&O. Notwithstanding these things, the schism, which 
had arisen daily, acquired new strength, the Deity being incensed by the 
sins of the princes and of the people. Holy men, some of whom were 
most distinguished by evidences of the Divine favour, differing among 
themselves, —some followed Urban, and others Robert; hence there 
was a better excuse for the people, and the evil was more serious and 
lasting. Th« Christian princes were tired with the embassies sent to 
them , and different religious obligations were presented to every person's 
mind, than which nothing is more calculated to create a powerful sen- 
sation."— P. 43. Ecd. Ann. a.d. 1080 

THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 

The great schism was perpetuated until this age. At 
the commencement, Boniface IX., who resided at Rome, 
and Benedict, living at Avignon, were the Popes. The 
Council of Pisa, a.d. 1409, in order to heal the schism, 
condemned both, and elected Alexander V The two 
former Popes despising their decree, continued to hold 
office, and then 

THE CHURCH OF ROME HAD THREE HEADS. 

Alexander having died, John XXIII. was elected by 
his faction. Bzovius alludes to this schism as follows : 



THE COUNCIL OF BASIL AND REFORMATION. 205 

" Tlie Council of Pisa being terminated, whilst all were exulting, and 
whilst the Cardinals and the Councils considered that they had admirably 
consulted for the dignity of the Church, and had restored health to the 
Church, that schism, which was thought to be extinct, sprang up again 
worse than before ; or to speak correctly, it did not grow again, but 
whereas it was concealed as a hidden fire, it suddenly broke out with 
increased violence, and created a greater conflagration. For since Gregory 
and Benedict refused to obey the Council and to relinquish the Popedom, 
it became the subject of dispute, whether the Council of Pisa could con- 
demn them, especially since one or other of them was the true Pope, 
although which it was, was not quite manifest to everybody. Therefore, 
whereas this schism in the beginning had only two heads, and th4 Council 
was anxious to cut them both off, all at once three were in existence at 
the same time ; — for Benedict was called Pope, and the greatest part of 
Spain and some of the French princes acknowledged him. Gregory still 
retained the name of Pope, and Ladislaus and some of the States of Italy 
reverenced him as the true Pope. So Alexander, elected by the Council, 
but who shortly after died, succeeded John." — Ann. Ecc. a.d. 1411. 
Colon. 1616. 

This schism was healed by the Council of Constance in 
1414, which deposed all the Popes, and elected Martin V. ; 
but Benedict XIV., to the day of his death, continued t© 
assume the title of the Papacy. 

The schism broke out anew in the time of Eugenius 
IV. The Council of Basil was assembled for the Refor- 
mation of the Church in its head and members, but Euge- 
nius growing suspicious of its intentions, withdrew hi* 
sanction. The Council then decreed the deposition of the 
Pope, and elected Felix V. in his stead. On the other 
hand, Eugenius denounced the Council in the most violent 
terms. After the death of Eugenius, Felix resigned the 
Popedom. 

Romanists have not decided which were the true Popes. 
The acts of a false Pope are invalid. Where then is the 
apostolic succession? Schism may exist where there is n# 
open secession from, or disruption of the Church. Thus 
there were divisions in the Corinthian Church, 1 Cor. iii. 3. 
or, as the original word might be translated, schisms, though 
we read of no disruption in that Church. The preceding 
authorities, however, prove that disruptions have taken 
place in the Church of Rome. Many a Romanist knows- 



gOO SUMMARY OF ROMISH SCHISMS. 

rmt little of these schisms — (schisms they are called by 
Romish authorities.) 

We trust that the undoubted facts referred to 

ABOVE MAY, WITH God's BLESSING, BRING THE CONVICTION 
TO THE MIND OF THE ROMANIST, THAT HIS CHURCH IS OF 

earthly mould. And be it remembered that there is 
nothing but the presence of the Reformation to prevent the 
recurrence of the same divisions now. 

Do we not see in all these ups and downs, that the 
pretensions of the Popes are pure fiction ? - Nay, is it pos- 
sible to suppose that the Kings, Emperors, Nobles, and 
people engaged in these cabals and changings of Popes, 
•ould really suppose that these creatures of their hands, 
these puppets, set up and knocked down at the will of 
faction, intrigue, bribery, corruption and violence, were 
infallible, and the vicars of Jesus Christ, and had power 
to absolve, bind, and loose, and to send to hell, or heaven, 
as they pleased; or that they were anything more than 
bad, very bad specimens of fallen man; and yet is it 
not very strange that modern Romanists forget these facts 
recorded by their own historians, and concede to modern 
Popes, their absurd claim to be the successors of Peter and 
vicars of Jesus Christ, derived through the chain of enor- 
mities set forth in this chapter 1 ? 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Romanists boast of the unity of their Church, — 
have they ground for their boasting? 

A. — No. The Church of Rome has been frequently 
torn by schisms of opposing Popes. 

2. Q. — State some of the circumstances of the schisms 
which occurred in the eleventh century ? 

A. — 1. Gregory was elected in opposition to Benedict 
Till., who fled from Rome, and appealed to the Emperor 
Henry II., by whom he was restored. 2. Benedict IX. 
being deposed for immorality, Sylvester III. was elected 
in his stead. Benedict, however, succeeded in driving his 
rival from the Pontifical throne, and resumed his place. 
Gratian having bribed Benedict to yield the chair to him, 



SUMMARY OF ROMISH SCHISMS. £07 

assumed the name of Gregory. He, however, With his 
rival Sylvester, was deposed, and Clement II. called to the 
throne. After the death of Clement, Benedict IXi a third 
time sought the chair, but was compelled to yield by Henry 
II. 3. Anselm, under the name Of Alexander II., was 
opposed by CadoloUs, under the narile of Honorius IL 4» 
Gregory VIL was opposed by Clement III., Victor III., 
Urban II. , and Pasohal II. 

3. Q, — State some of the ciroumstancas of Papal schism 
'm\ the twelfth century. 

A. — 1. Gelasius II. was raised to the Pontifical chair 
in opposition to Gregory VIII* Gelasius having died, 
was succeeded by Calixtus II. , who imprisoned Gregory 
VIII. 2. The Cardinals being divided after the death of 
Adrian IV., two Popes were elected, — Alexander III. 
and Victor. Alexander survived both Victor and Paschal, 
who succeeded Victor. 3. Alexander having died, U bald, 
Bis'iup of Ostia, was elected in his stead, but the Roman 
people drove him out. 

4. Q. — State some of the circumstances of Papal schism 
in the fourteenth century? 

A. — Urban VI. having displeased the Cardinals, they 
elected in opposition to him Clement VIL, who resided 
in France, and was acknowledged by France, Spain, Scot- 
land, Sicily, and Cyprus. This is called the Great Western 
Schism. 

5. Q. — State some of the circumstances of Papal schism 
in the fifteenth century? 

A. — The Council of Pisa, in order to heal the schism 
existing between Boniface IX. and Benedict XIV., con- 
demned both, and elected Alexander ; but the two former 
Popes despising the acts of the Council, there were three 
Popes at one time. This schism, healed by the Council of 
Constance, broke out anew in the Popedom of Eugenius 
IV., who displeasing the Council of Basil, that synod 
elected, in opposition to him, Felix II. 



208 CHAPTER XXII. 

Tumults and Wars of the Popedom. 

The Papacy has ever proved the parent of tumult and 
discord in the Church. Even before its full development 
in the present form, the election, as well as the policy, of 
the Popes and his bishops have been the fruitful source of 
war and bloodshed. But few Roman Catholics are aware 
of the fact, that Popes have frequently appealed to the 
sword in order to settle their disputes. Many a child has 
been orphaned, and many a mother widowed, in the wars 
which have taken place, not only on account of, but between 
those who call themselves the vicars of Christ upon earth. 

"We prove our statement, as in the previous chapter, by 
an appeal to Romish authorities themselves. 

FOURTH CENTURY. 

Platina, in his life of Damasus, says, — 

" But Daraasus, when he was elected to assume the pontificate, had 
the deacon Ursicinus for a rival in the Church, called Sicinus, where 
many were hilled on both sides in the Church itself, since the matter 
was not only discussed by votes, but by force of arms." — Platina de 
Vita Dam. 1 Chr 366. 

FIFTH CENTURY. 

Cardinal Baronius describes the state of Rome in 498 : — 
" For many being bribed, he (that is, the Emperor) brought it to 
pass, that, contrary to ' custom, a certain Bishop should be elected, a 
Roman, named Laurentius. For the sake of these persons, murders, 
robberies, and numberless other evils, were perpetrated at Rome." . . 
. . "And not only did the clergy, but also the Roman senate, strive 
against each other upon this account, with mutual dissensions and quar- 
relling. Festus Probinus, two very powerful senators, undertaking the 
patronage of the one party, namely, that of Laurentus; and Faustus, 
the ex-consul, and the other senators, favouring the party of the other, 
namely, that of Symmachus. The conflict between them is described 
by Anastasius; but we shall relate everything in its proper place, ac- 
cording to the dates. For there was not a contest of this nature in the 
Roman Church for one only, but for many years, which, when frequently 

lulled to sleep, revived again with a more vehement eruption 

* * The state of the Church of Rome this year was most turbulent, since 
the clergy, divided among thems. Ives, contended with each other, and 
the senators of the highest rank fought amongst themselves very obsti- 
nately, at a great risk of destroying the whole city .' V Annals, p. 532. 
vol. VI. ut supra. 



POPE STEPHEN AND POPE FORMOSUS. 209 

SIXTH CENTURY. 

A controversy arose as to the orthodoxy of Origen, and 
on other subjects. Pope "Vigilius vacillated, — at one time 
approving, and another time disapproving, the same docu- 
ments. Baronius alludes to the circumstance as follows : — 

" Thus, therefore, to the great hurt of the Catholic Church, there 
were everywhere contentions, strife, quarrelling, and dissension; the 
orthodox fighting against each other, and mutually contending, being 
divided by an enormous schism ; whence the whole of this age was evi- 
dently rendered most unhappy." — Ibid, a.d. 548. 

SEVENTH CENTURY. 

The contention which arose as to the election of the 
Pope, 687, is thus described by Platina: — 

" For the Roman people, divided into two parties, on the one hand 
desired Theodoras, and on the other hand desired the Archdeacon Pas- 
chal. Theodoras, with his faction, had broken into the interior of the 
Lateran episcopal residence ; but Paschal occupied the exterior, from 
the oratory of StiSylvester to the temple of the house of Julia, which is 
close to the field. But when so great a strife and quarrelling took 
place there, that they did not hesitate to fight, and when neither seemed 
inclined to yield, except compelled by force of arms, the chief persons of 
the city, the clergy and the Roman militia, departing into one place, 
consulted what was the best to be done for allaying the sedition. Having, 
at length, discussed the matter, when they decided that neither of those 
who, by their ambition, had raised such a tumult, were fit to demand 
the Popedom, by the will of God, no one opposing it, they elected Sergius 
as Pope ; and raising him on their shoulders from the crowd, they first 
brought him into the chapel of the martyr Caesarius, and presently to 
the palace of Lateran, the doors being broken open by force, and those 
who occupied the place being repulsed. But Theodoras, having ascer- 
tained the general wish, saluted Sergius as Pope, and kissed him ; Pas- 
chal reluctantly did the same, the multitude which clasped their arms 
around him compelling him to do so." — p. 103. Ch. 687. Sergius I. 

NINTH CENTURY. 

Pope Stephen in this century carried the spirit of fac- 
tion so far, that he dug up the body of Pope Formosus, his 
predecessor, and treated it with indignity Platina says : 

" But let us return to Stephen, whom I would not dare to reckon 
among the Roman Pontiffs, as unworthy of so great a name, if I did 
not find this done by the ancients, since he first and alone disgraced 
the chair of Peter by a wicked and unheard of sacrilege.. Having 
forcibly collected a conventicle of bishops and of cardinal priests like 
himself as is recited in the acts of the Council held under Pope John 



810 VIOLENCE AND FACTION AT ROME. 

IX., (which will be recited in its place*) namely, Sergius, Benedict, 
Martyr, and the deacons John, Paschal, and another John, most aban- 
doned men, who violated the Pontifical burying place ; he thought pro- 
per to judge and condemn the venerable corpse of Formosus, which was 
dug Up and taken out of its tomb, and brought to judgment as a living 
man ; and for a punishment he decreed that it should te sunk in the 
Tiber, three of his fingers being cut off; — an hitherto unheard of 
wickedness, which is not only shocking to Christian ears, but which 
also* by its recital, repels uncivilized barbarians, shakes belief, and by 
its ferocity appears incredible." — Ann. Pope Stephen> A.©. 897. 
In reference to the election of John, Platina says, — 
" John X., a Roman, being created Pope$ re-established the interests 
of Formosus, a great part of the Roman people opposing it* whence so 
great a sedition arose, that a battle very nearly took place. But he 
going to Ravenna, and calling a Council of seventy bishops, condemned 
the acts of Stephen, and restored the acts of Formosus. I am of opinion 
that this occurred, both because the Popes themselves had deserted the foot- 
steps of Peter, and more especially because the Christian commonwealth 
had idle and slothful princes, whose chief interest it was that Peter's ship 
should be tossed about by the waves." — Life of Pope Romany 
a.d. 897. ut supra. 

TENTH CENTURY. 

Baronius, 'in reference to the tumults of this time, says, 

" Thus, indeed, at Rome, all things, as well sacred as profane, were 
mixed up with factions, so that the promotion to the Apostolic See wai 
in the hands of that party which was in appearance the most powerful ; 
so that at one time the Roman nobles, at another time the prince ot 
Tuscany, intruded, by their secular power, whatever Roman Pontit 
they wished, and cast out, whenever they could, him who was elevated 
by the contrary faction ; which things were in agitation during almost 
the whole of this century, until the Othos, the Emperors of Germany, 
who opposed both parties, interfered between them, arrogating to them- 
selves equally the election of the Pope and the deposition of the elected. 
" When he (that is, Christopher) was again cast out, that wicked 
Sergius again, who, as you have heard, proceeded such lengths against 
Formosus, being powerful by the arms of Adelbert, Marquis of Tuscany, 
and being the slave of every vice, what did he leave unattempted? He 
invaded the seat of Christopher, not of Formosus, as Luitprand relates, 
through forgetfulness, who it appears, indeed, after a bad entry and a 
worse course, attained a worse departure. These were most unhappy 
times, when each Pope, thus intruded, abolished the acts of his prede* 
cesser."— Ann. p. 8. An. 4. a.d. 900. ut supra. 
ELEVENTH CENTUKY. 

For the schisms of this century see chapter XXh 
Dupin, on the subject of the election of Benedict, says,— 



WAllS OF HILDEBRAND, AND HENRY IV. 211 

" The news of the Pope's death being brought to Rome, the court of 
Frescati and the Roman lords placed, by force, on the Papal chair, 
Mincius, Bishop of Velitra, to whom they gave the name of Benedict X. 
Peter Damien, and the other Cardinals who had no hand in this elec- 
tion, withdrew from Rome, after they had protested against it, — and 
being met at Rome, they elected for their Pope G-erard, Archbishop of 
Florence, a Burgundian by nation. They immediately sent an embassy 
to the Empress Agnes, to prevail upon King Henry to confirm this 
election. They had their request granted, and the Empress ordered 
G-odfrey, the Marquis of Tuscany, to place Gerard in the Holy See, and 
to turn out Benedict." — Eccles. Hist. a.d. 1058. 

The wars which took place between Gregory VII., com- 
monly called Hildebrandj and the Emperor Henry IV., are 
well known. It arose on the question of Investitures. It 
had been the custom, during a long period, when a Bishopric 
or Abbey became vacant, fbr the Emperor to elect a per- 
son and appoint him to the vacant office, by presenting 
him with the crosier and ting. This was distasteful to 
the Pontiffs, for two reasons, — because the monarch exer- 
cised the right of election to the vacant office, and because 
the badges of spiritual office were delivered to the bishops 
by laymen. Gregory boldly determined to wrest this right 
from the civil power, and pronounced anathema against 
whomsoever received the investiture of a Bishopric or 
Abbey from a layman, and alto against the person 
investing. 

Henry IV., against whom this measure was chiefly di- 
rected, determined to maiDtain his rights, in opposition to 
the Pope, which so exasperated that Pontiff; that he sum- 
moned the Emperor to appear before a council in Pome, 
to answer for certain alleged , crimes. Henry met this 
audacious treatment with just indignation ; for having 
convened a synod at "Worms, he deposed Gregory from 
the Papal chair, and issued an order for the election of 
another. Gregory, acting with great vigour in return, 
excommunicated the Emperor, and absolved his subjects 
from their allegiance. This led to open war. Henr) 
found a powerful confederation against him. The Duke 
Rodolph, with the Suabians and the Saxons, became 
rebels in this extremity. The Pope treacherously ex- 



212 WARS OP HILDEBRAND, AND HENRY TV. 

horted them to elect a new Emperor, and they agreed to 
leave the matter in the hands of his Holiness. 

The affairs of Henry being thus reduced to a position 
of difficulty, the monarch was advised to repair to the 
Pope, and implore his forgiveness and aid. Accordingly, 
he repaired to the fortress of Canusium, where the Pope 
lived with the Countess Matilda, and at the gate of 
which the- Emperor stood in the open air for three days, 
with his feet and head bare, and only a blanket for 
his covering. On the fourth day, he received absolution 
from the Pope, but was still kept in suspense as to re- 
storation to the throne. The Pope referred the matter to 
the decision of a coming congress, and meanwhile forbade 
the Emperor to assume his title or dignities. To this 
Henry agreed ; but being rebuked by several of his friends 
and upholders for his pusillanimous conduct, he violated 
his agreement with the proud Pontiff, and prepared for war. 

Henry sustained a defeat at the battle of Fladenheim 
1080, when the Pope again issued an excommunication 
against the prostrate monarch, and offered the crown to 
Duke Rodolph. Henry, however, though defeated, was 
not crushed ; but, on the contrary, a second time deposed 
the Pope, and raised Guibert, Archbishop of Ravenna, to 
the Papal chair, under the title of Clement III. 

Duke Rodolph, happily for Henry, was killed in battle, 
and the Emperor therefore marched into Italy to crush 
the Pontiff. After much hard fighting with the troops of 
Matilda, he laid seige to Rome, but was compelled to 
abandon it. In the midst of these calamities, Gregory 
died. The war still continued. Gregory's faction elected 
in his stead Victor III., while Clement III. occupied the 
city of Rome. The war continued to rage with great fury 
during the remainder of this century. 

TWELFTH CENTURY. 

In this age the war was renewed. Paschal II. adopted 
the same line, in reference to investitures, as Gregory VII. 
Henry IV. had also a new enemy to contend against, in 
the person of his own son, Henry, who, in the most unnatural 
and dastardly manner, at the instigation, it is said, of tlia 



WARS OF FREDERICK, AND THE POPE. 21t3 

Pope, who absolved him from his oath of allegiance, rebelled 
against his father, and compelled him to abdicate. Henry 
IV., broken-hearted, deserted by all his friends, died at 
Liege, 1106. 

Henry "V., however, when he seized the reins of power, 
manifested as much unwillingness to resign his right of 
investiture as his father. This occasioned the renewal of 
the war. Henry marched on Rome, and imprisoning the 
Pope, compelled him to yield. The Pontiff only complied 
for a time ; and in a synod assembled at the Church of the 
Lateran, A.D. 1112, expressed the greatest sorrow for his 
submission. In this measure he was supported by a power- 
ful party, even amongst the Emperor's own subjects. 
Henry, being excommunicated, and placed in the list of 
heretics, a second time marched on Rome. On the other 
hand the Pope made great preparations for a vigorous war, 
when death put an end to his efforts. Dupin alludes to 
the contest which took place in Rome, as follows : — 

" Upon these debates Henry summoned the Pope to crown him ; and 
upon his refusing to do it, ordered his guard to apprehend him and 
several cardinals. The news of this being noised about the city, the 
Romans ran to their arms, animated thereto by the Cardinals Fr.escat 
and Ostia, killed several Germans straggling in the city, and set upon 
the Emperor's forces very vigorously. The engagement was very obsti- 
nate on both sides ; the Emperor was in great danger of his life ; but at 
last repulsed the Romans, and marched out of the city two days after, 
carrying along with him the Pope and cardinals prisoners." — DupiiCs 
Hist, of Twelfth Century, a.d. 1111. 

During the Popedom of Callixtus II., those differences 
between the Emperor and Pontiff were compromised. 

A new war, occasioned by the haughtiness of the Pope, 
burst out in the same century. At the coronation of 
Frederick Barbarosa, the Pope insisted upon the Emperor 
holding his stirrup, which he did. On the death of Adrain 
IV., Alexander, then the anti-Pope, opposed the Emperor 
with all his might, which gave occasion to great tumults 
and commotions. After much hard fighting, the Emperor 
was compelled to make peace with the Pontiff in 1177. 
■* The tumults which arose in reference to Anacletus, are 
referred to by Baronius — 



214 WARS OP FREDERICK, AN1> THE POPE. 

" It truly appears, on all hands, that Anaclet acted as ill as possible; 
he being, contrary to equity and right, intruded in oppositipn to Innocent, 
who was truly a pious man, by his relations, aicjed by tb.e sepular power, 
hence there arose factions, plots, stratagems, conspiracies^ qnger, 1 uar " 
rels, contentions, — WW| that public force furnished arms against those 
who lawfully resisted. In this miserable state was the Church of Rome 
at that period, when, Antichrist triumphing, the true Vicar of Christ 
was obliged to banish himself from the holy temple, whilst the abomi- 
uation of desolation sat in Peter's chair. But hear these things related 
by an anonymous writer of that period, out of the Vatican manuscript : 
' A 'great discord was created in the pity, for the bishop and cardinals 
divided themselves into two parties ; but tne hotter an( l sounder part 
adhered to th,e same Innocent, who was the most accomplished and 
deserving. But Peter of Leo, with his followers, despising the humility 
of Innocent, did not place his trust in God, but confided in the multitude 
of his riches, and in the power of his relatives, and in the strength of 
his fortresses, and he attacked with an armed force the houses of the 
Frangipani, into which Innocent apd fyis adherents had retired. But it 
unexpectedly happened, that the followers of Innocent were but little 
injured, and that, on the contrary, the soldiers of Anaclet were repulsed 
with great loss. Hence, filled with anger and indignation, he rode 
against the Church of St Peter, which he took and forcibly entered, and 
sacrilegiously carried away the crowns, suspended in the sanctuary and 
on the golden crucifix, which crowns the Roman Pontiff and the ortho- 
dox Emperors had presented to the Church, with all the treasures of 
gold, and silver, and pearls. 

• * ' When, therefore, the Pope himself was besieged on every side, s* 
that no one could approach him in safety, he determined to quit Rome 
and to go to France, and he thereupon entered two galleys with all his 
brethren who adhered to him, except the Bishop of Sabinum, whom he 
left in Rome as his vicar.'" — Baronius. Ann. In. II., 1. a.d. 1130. 
THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 

Various feuds and contentions, on account of the Papacy, 
took place in this century. We give only one instance. 

Gregory IX. excommunicated the Emperor Frederick 
II., because he had put off his expedition against the Sa- 
racens. In the year 1228, Frederick at last set out and 
took Jerusalem. The treacherous Pontiff made war upon 
the Emperor in his absence, and took many of the im- 
perial cities. Frederick hearing this, returned home, and 
by vigorous movements regained his territories. A peace 
ensued, but was of short duration. The Pope 'summoned 
a general council to Rome, to depose the Emperor, but 



THE CONCLAVE SET ON FIRE. 215 

suffered the loss of his fleet, which conveyed many 
of the intended council, — an event which proved disas- 
trous to his cause, and hastened, it is said, his death. In- 
nocent IV. followed up the views of his predecessors, and 
declared the throne vacant. The Emperor maintained 
an undaunted position, and carried on a vigorous war, 
until he was out off by dysentry in 1 250. Then arose the 
factions of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, — the former sup- 
porting the Papal pretensions, and the latter maintaining 
the cause of the Emperor. 

FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 

Dupin, on the election of John XXII. , says, — 
M After the death of Clement V., twenty-three cardinals, which wer<* 
at Carpentras, where that Pope held his court, entered into the con- 
clave, and remained there from May to July 22d, in the year 1314, but 
could not fix upqn the election of a Pope. The Italian cardinals were 
very desirous to have a Pope of their nation, who might have his resi- 
dence at Rome ; and the Gascoygnes were for a Frenchman, who might 
reside on this side of the Alps. The Italians proposed the Cardinal of 
Praeneste, who had before been the Bishop of Aix, and wrote for him to the 
King ; but he was not at all liked by the French. Their contests lasted 
so long, that the people, gathering together under the conduct of Bertrand 
and Raimond Gott, the nephews of the deceased Pope, and coming 
armed to the conclave, demanded that the Italian cardinals should b« 
delivered to them ; and crying out that they would have a Pope, they 
set fire to the conclave. The cardinals thereupon made their escape, 
and were dispersed ; and it was a very hard thing to get them to gather 
after this accident, for the cardinals at Gascoygne were eager that tht 
conclave should be held at Carpentras, where Pope Clement V. died, or 
at least at Avignon ; but the Italian cardinals, thinking it not safe or 
consistent with their liberty to meet in those cities, desired to be at 
Rome. They had perhaps- both proceeded to a separate election, which* 
would have caused a schism, if Philip the Fair had not written to them 
to dissuade them from it, by proposing to them the city of Lyons as a 
proper place for an election, which could not be suspected by either 
party." — Nouv. Bib. de an. eccl. par Dupin, c. 1., torn. ii. 

In chapter 21st we gave some of the circumstances con- 
nected with the great schism at this period. The greatest 
confusion, division, and commotion existed in the Church. 

FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 

In this- age, as we have seen in the preceding chapter, 



216 THE PAPACY A MERE HUMAN SYSTEM. 

there were three Popes reigning together, which led to 
much commotion and war. The King of France besieged 
one of these Pontiffs, Benedict XIII., in Avignon, and 
compelled the Pope to seek for safety in flight. 

In this day much is said by Romish advocates of the 
advantages which would accrue, in the way of peace and 
unity, were the nations to receive the Papal yoke , but 

HISTORY ATTESTS THAT THE POPEDOM, EVEN IN ITS PALMI- 
EST DAYS, WAS A CONTINUED SOURCE OF TUMULT, BLOOD- 
SHED, AND WAR, EVEN AMONG ROMANISTS THEMSELVES. 

What a spectacle must the Church of Rome have pre- 
sented when there were two, and sometimes three Popes 
contending for St Peter's chair, and not unfrequently 
supporting their pretensions by the sword ! Then vice, in 
every form, prevailed, and o'er the prqstrate cause of true 
religion the infidel might laugh, and the Christian weep. 

From the perusal of these narratives of tumult and 
war, of these fightings and stirring up of fights among the 
nations, of these courtings and being courted in turn by 
contending parties, and of these turnings of everything 
to personal advancement, we feel convinced the impar- 
tial reader will be satisfied that the Pope is not the suc- 
cessor of Peter or vicar of Jesus Christ, the Prince of 
Peace ; and that his claimed apostolic succession, which he 
regards as necessary for the validity of the sacraments, 
has been rent in pieces by opposing Popes, each of whom 
professed to have obtained that succession exclusively; 
and that Popery is a widespread conspiracy, truly termed 
" the masterpiece of Satan," against the gospel of Jesus 
Christ, and against the civil and religious liberties of man, 
— a conspiracy, — which has raised up confusion, discord, 
and civil war in all countries in which it has obtained 
a footing, and which did not surrender implicitly and 
entirely to its will, accomplishing its end at one time by 
instigating foreign invasion, and at another by exciting 
the people, through the confessional and its other nefa- 
rious and Jesuitical devices, to rebel against their lawful 
Sovereign. 

While history and Romish historians thus record th? 



REFLECTIONS ON BRITAIN^ FOLLY. 217 

invariable doings of Popery in time past, is it not melancho- 
ly to see Protestant Britain, which in former days suffered 
so much from Popery, now misled by the Jesuitical cry of 
liberalism, subjecting herself once more, step by step, to 
Popish thraldom, and again admitting Popery as a recog- 
nised part of her constitution. We may rest assured there 
is no moderation in the Papacy — Popery is sin — moreover 
it is intolerant, ambitious, and unscrupulous, and will never 
rest till it attains its end — complete supremacy. Is it not 
then the extreme of folly that Britain, with her eyes open, 
should admit into places of power and authority, Romanists 
who cannot but use that power and authority, as stepping- 
stones to farther power and final supremacy. Short of 
supremacy, Popery cannot stop, for the attainment of that 
object is the main part of her religion; and when we 
see how the Popes in former times pitted the contend- 
ing parties of Europe against each other, see we not the 
secret of our own unhappy divisions, and how the Pope 
now a-days antagonises the contending parties in parlia- 
ment, so as between them to obtain his own ends — the 
advancement of Popery, and the downfall, in these king- 
doms, of Protestant truth. 

True patriotism and true liberty therefore require the 
exclusion of Romanists from Parliament, and from all 
offices and positions in a Protestant country, for which they 
are disqualified by the very genius and nature of the reli- 
gion to which they belong. Also the adoption, by the na- 
tion, of active and energetic, yet kind measures, for the 
conversion of Romanists, as we would seek to restore to 
sound health a diseased limb of our body. 

Passing over the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries,* the wars of which, as occasioned by the Papacy, 
are well known, we come to the 



* The wars against, and persecutions of Protestants in the sixteenth 
century ; — the persecution of the Piedmontese, and the continental wars 
against Protestant freedom in the seventeenth century ; — the wars of 
Louis XIV. of France in the eighteenth century. 



218 PAPAL AGGRESSION ON THE GREEK CHURCH. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY. 
PAPAL AGGRESSION ON THE GREEK CHURCH. 

The present war with Kussia had its origin in Papal 
aggression. So early as the year 1848, the Pope issued 
a bull to the Eastern or Greek Church, in which he de- 
manded that they should submit to his authority. Mr 
Bird, vicar of Gainsborough, states the case in the fol- 
lowing passage : — 

"The present Pope, (Pius IX.) it appears, is possessed with the 
ambition of ruling more widely than his predecessors. He has not 
only ventured on the aggression which England is now resenting, but 
he has also tried to extend his power over those who belong to the 
ancient Greek Church. Three year3 ago (1848,) he addressed a solemn 
Pastoral Letter to the members of that Church — in which he claims, 
their obedience on the usual ground of his being the heir of St Peter, 
and St Peter's being the Rock on which the Church is built. He ad- 
duces also the texts concerning the keys, and the indefectibility of Peter's 
faith, and his. having the sheep committed to him. 

" This attack upon the Greek Church has not been made with impunity. 
In 1848, there was printed at the Patriarchal press, in Constantinople, 
1 An Encyclic Letter, to all the orthodox,' signed by the Patriarch of 
Constantinople, the Patriarch of Alexandria, the Patriarch of Antioeh, 
(since dead,) the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and their respective synods. It 
is true, the Sees of these bishops are now poor and under the civil govern- 
ment of Turks, but the bishops themselves are not the less the repre- 
sentatives of the ancient bishops of those Sees — sees as old as that of 
Home itself; nay, in the case of Jerusalem and Antioeh still older. 

1 ' The four Patriarchs complain of the attempt of the Pope to sow 
division in their Churches, by his unscriptural and uncatholic claim. 

" ' For some time the attacks of Popes in their own persons had 
ceased, and were conducted only by means of missionaries ; but lately 
he who succeeded to the See of Home in 1847, under the title of Pope 
Pius IX., published this present year an Encyclical Letter, addressed 
to the Easterns, which his emissary has scattered abroad, like a plague 
coming from without.' 

11 They speak of ' the Seven (Ecumenical Councils,' "by which they 
mean those which preceded the Second Council of Nice, where ' the 
worship of Images' was established. The Westerns count that Council 
the Seventh General Council, the Easterns the Eighth. ' The lightning 
of the anathema of these Councils,' say the patriarchs, ' strikes the 
Papacy — because it has adulterated the Creed by its additions — which 
the Demon of Novelty dictated to the all-daring Schoolmen of the Middle 
Ages, and to the bishops of the elder Rome, venturing all things for lust 
ui power.' 



PAPAL AGGRESSION ON THE GREEK CHURCH. 21 & 

" Proceeding to a formal refutation of the propositions contained in 
the Pope's Letter, they say : — 

" * The Church of Rome founds its claim to be the throne of St Peter y 
only on one single tradition ; while Holy Scripture, Fathers, and Councils, 
attest that this dignity belongs to Antioch; which, however, never on 
this account claimed exemption from the judgment of Holy Scriptures, 
and synodical decrees.' To understand this fully, we must remember, 
that the Church of Rome herselt holds the tradition, that Peter was 
bishop of Antioch for several years, before he was bishop of Rome. 

" ' If the Church of Christ had not been founded on the rock of Peter's 
confession, (which was a common answer on the part of the Apostles,) 
but on Cephas himself, it would not have been founded at all on the 
Pope, — who, after he had monopolised the Keys of the Kingdom of 
Heaven, how he has administered them is manifest from' history.' 

" * Our Fathers, with one consent, teach, that the thrice-repeated 
command * Feed my sheep J conferred no privilege on St Peter above the 
rest, much less on his successors also ; but was simply a restoration of 
him to the Apostleship, from which he had fallen by his thrice-repeated 
denial. And the blessed Peter himself appears thus to have understood 
our Lord's thrice-repeated inquiry, ' Lovest thou me V and ' more than 
these' ; for, calling to mind the words, ' Though all shall be offended 
because of thee, yet will I never be offended,' he was grieved, because 
He said unto him the third time, * Lovest thou me?' 

" ' But his holiness says that our Lord said to Peter, ' / have prayed 
for thee that thy Faith fail not, and thou, when thou art converted, 
strengthen thy brethren.' Our Lord so prayed, because Satan had asked 
that he might subvert the faith ol all the disciples ; but our Lord allowed 
him Peter alone, chiefly because he had uttered words of self-confidence, 
and justified himself above the others. Yet this permission was only 
granted for a time, in order that when he again came to himself by his 
conversion, and shewed his repentance by tears, he might the more 
strengthen his brethren, since they had neither perjured themselves nor 
denied their Lord.' 

** * His holiness says that the bishop of Lyons, the holy Irenams, 
writes in praise of the Roman Church. ' It is fitting that the whole 
Church, that is, the faithful everywhere shall come together, because 
©f the precedency in this Church, in which all things have been preserved 
by all tho faithful, the tradition delivered by the Apostles. ' Who doubts 
that the old Roman Church was Apostolic or orthodox? Would any one 
of the Fathers or ourselves deny her canonical prerogatives in the order 
of the Hierarchy, — so long as she remained governed purely according 
to the doctrines of the Fathers, walking by the unerring canon of Scrip- 
ture and the holy synods ? But who is so bold as to dare to say that if 
Irenaeus were to live again, he, seeing the Church of Rome failing of the 
ancient and primitive Apostolic teaching, would not himself be the first 
to oppose the Novelties, and self-sufficient determination, of the Roman 
Church? When he heard of the Vicarial and Appellate jurisdiction of 
the Pope, what would he not say, who in a small and almost indifferent 
question, respecting the celebration of Easter, so nobly and triumphantly 
opposed and extinguished the violence of Pope Victor, in the free Church 
•f Christ? Thus, he who is adduced as a witness of the supremacy of 
the Roman Church, proves that its dignity is not that of a Monarchy ; 
nor even of arbitration, which the blessed Peter himself never possessed ; 
but a brotherly Prerogative in the Catholic Church, and an honour en- 
joyed on account of the celebrity and prerogative of the City/ 1 



220 FRENCH SUPPORT OP PAPAL AGGRESSION IN THE EAST 

" In like manner the Patriarchs refer to Clement, and afterwards to 
other ancient authorities, to overthrow the Pope's claim ; which they do 
effectually, and in a very dignified manner. 

" This Voice from the East comes at a very opportune time — chiming 
in with that which we of the English Church are raising in the West, in 
utter denial of the Pope's presuaaptuous claim. I will not weaken the 
impression of this solemn Protest by adding any more notes to the present 
Lecture, but will leave the voices of the four Patriarchs, of Constantinople, 
Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, to be the last which sound in the 
ears of my readers. They ought to sound in the ears of the Pope himself, 
as voices from the dead, calling him to return to primitive purity and 
humility." — p. 108. Romanism not Primitive. London 1851. 

FRENCH SUPPORT OF PAPAL AGGRESSION IN THE EAST. 

Napoleon having taken the reins of power, and assumed 
the title of Protector of the Holy Places, espoused, in the 
year 1850, the cause of the Latin or Roman against the 
Greek Church. We quote the following letter from Sir 
Stratford Canniug, our ambassador at Constantinople, to 
Lord Palmerston. — We have before us the blue books, 
which were laid before Parliament, from which we give 
our authorities. 

" Sir Stratford Canning to Viscownt Palmerston, (received June Z.) 

" Constantinople, May 20, 1850. 

11 My Lord, — A question likely to be attended with much discussion 
and excitement is on the point of being raised between the conflicting 
interests of the Latin and Greek Churches in this country. The imme- 
diate point of difference is the right of possession to certain portions of 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. The Greeks are ac- 
cused of having usurped property which belongs of right to the Roman 
Catholics, and of having purposely allowed the chapels, and particularly 
the monuments of Godfrey de Bouillon, and of Guy de Lusignan, to go 
into decay. The French Legation at this court considers itself entitled 
by treaty— the treaty I believe of 1740— to take the lead m vindicat- 
ing the alleged rights of the Latin Church; the French Consul at Jeru- 
salem, Mr Botta, has been recently here, and returns by and by to as- 
sist the cause; and General Aupick, who has received instructions from 
Paris, and to whom I am indebted for a conversational overture on this 
subject, has applied for a conference, with the probable intention of 
bringing his case at once under the notice of the Turkish government. 
It appears that the Pope has been moved to exert his influence in fur- 
therance of the views adopted by France; and that all the Catholic 
powers will be engaged by his Holiness to co-operate for the same 
purpose. 



FRENCH SUPPORT OF PAPAL AGGRESSION IN THE EAST. 221 

" General Aupick has assured me, that the matter in dispute is a 
mere question of property, and of express treaty stipulation. But it is 
difficult to separate any such question from political considerations ; 
and a struggle of general influence, especially if Russia, as may be ex- 
pected, should interfere on behalf of the Greek Church, will probably 
grow out of the impending discussion. The Porte, I conceive, will do 
well to abstain from committing itself to either side without the ma- 
turest deliberation. I have,- &c. (Signed) Stratford Canning." — 
Page 1. part 1. Correspondence respecting the Rights and Privileges of 
the Latin and Greek Churches in Turkey, presented to both houses of 
Parliament by command of Her Majesty. 1854. 

"We make the following observations on this letter : — 

1. The first appearance of the Eastern question, as a 
diplomatic point between Turkey and the powers, took 
place in May 1850. 

2. Previously to that date the great oowers were un- 
disturbed by the question. 

3. France moots the question, by supporting Papal 
claims. 

4. The Pope exerts his influence " with all the (Roman) 
Catholic powers to co-operate for the same purpose." 

5. Russia, as yet, does not appear in the matter at all. 
Sir Stratford Canning writes to Lord Palmerston, 

(June 5, 1850.) 
" The Greeks, as on former occasions, are understood to be preparing 
for a vigorous resistance ; and, judging from expressions which M. De 
Titoff has let fall in conversation, I have little doubt that they will be 
strongly, if not ostensibly, supported by Russian influence." — p. 2, 
ut supra. 

" Resistance" on the part of the Greeks, implies ag* 
gression on the part of the .Latins. 

Sir Stratford writes to Lord Palmerston, (July 5, 1850.) 
** On the part of the Greek interest, nothing that wears the appear- 
ance of an angry or hostile opposition has yet been manifested ; but no one 
seems to doubt that every nerve will be strained by that Church and 
nation to maintain their present vantage ground, and that Russian in- 
fluence, however masked, will be vigorously exerted, as on former occa- 
sions, to defeat the attack of the Latin party." — p. 3. — ut supra. 

Sir Stratford wrote to Lord Palmerston, (July 19, 1850.) 

" I avail myself of this opportunity to forward a transcript of all such 

articles of the treaty, concluded between France and the Porte in 1740, 



222 FRANCE THREATENS THE PORTE. 

as relate to the right claimed by France of protecting the Latins } and, 
on their behalf, the holy places at Jerusalem."— p, S.—ut supra. 

France claims the protection of the Latins — the sub- 
jects of the Porte ! 

France claimed, on behalf of the Pope, certain Churches 
at Jerusalem which were then in possession of the Eastern 
— the National Church, — and pleaded the treaty of 1740. 
The Greeks, in reply, urge, that the Churches were 
solemnly guaranteed to them by treaties which extend 
from the Turkish conquest in the 7th down to the 1 9th 
century. 

It is evident, prima facie, that the Latins, as members 
of a foreign Church, had no right whatever to claim the 
custody or possession of edifices belonging to the Greek 
communion. France, however, " on behalf of all Catho- 
lics," as Aupick, the French minister, says, urges her pre- 
tensions to the protectorate. — p. 12. ut supra. 

Sir Stratford, in a letter, (Feb. 25, 1851,) makes the 
first mention of Russian interference, 

1 ' I learn, on the other hand, that M. De Titoff, (the Russian mini- 
ster,) protests against all inquiry into the right of possession, and in- 
sists, in the Emperor's name, on the actual state of occupation." — p. 
13. — ut supra. 

It is unnecessary to quote more largely on this subject. 
Suffice it to say, that Turkey vacillated between the two 
rival powers. France threatened to employ force against 
Turkey, if the latter did not concede the French demands. 
This is so important that we give proof of it. 

Colonel Rose writes to the Earl of Malmesbury, (Nov. 
20, 1852.) 

"With these advantages, and the Porte's promise to M. Sabafcier, 
that the firman to the Greeks is not to be read, M. de Lavalette is satis- 
fied, and only protects his position by announcing the extreme measures 
he would take should the Porte leave any engagements to him unfulfilled. 
Be has more than once talked of the appearance of a French fleet off 
Jaffa, and once he alluded to a French occupation of Jerusalem, when, 
he said, "we shall have all the sanctuaries.'" — p. 47. — ut supra. 

The Colonel further says in the same letter, — 
" M. de Lavalette threatened to blockade the Dardanelles with a 
French fleet, if the Porte adhered to the status quo. The status quo is 



FRANCE THREATENS THE PORTE. 223 



protected by Russian, and attacked by French menaces ." — p. 48.- 
supra. 

This latter paragraph is very important, and very well 
expresses the cause of the Eastern difficulties. Franc* 
attacked the status quo. The world was in peace. The 
Greeks, though interrupted by Papal aggression, wor- 
shipped in their own edifices at Jerusalem. France, 
carrying out the ambitious designs of the Popedom, 
claimed certain rights and churches belonging to the 
Greeks who resist. The Porte having fifteen millions 
of Greek subjects, and yet afraid of French cannon, hesi- 
tates between both parties. Russia is at length brought 
upon the stage, and she threatens to break off diplo- 
matic relations with Turkey if she did not maintain 
the rights of the Greeks. The contest continues for 
about, two years, and at length Prince Menschikoff's visit 
takes place. The affair becomes gradually more compli- 
cated, until the present war arose, which threatens to 
involve the world in disaster and woe. We quote the 
following passage from a letter of 

Lord John Russell to Lord Cowley : — 

Foreign Office, Januaiy 28, 1853. 

* * * " But her Majesty's Government cannot avoid perceiving that 
the ambassador of France, at Constantinople, was the first to disturb the 
status quo in which the matter rested. Not that the disputes of tht 
Latin and Greek Churches were not very active, but that, without some 
political action on the part of France, those quarrels would never have 
troubled the relations of friendly powers. 

' ' In the next place, if report is to be believed, the French ambassador 
was the first to speak of having recourse to force, and to threaten th$ 
intervention of a French fieet to enforce the demands of his country." — 
p. 67. — ut supra. 

Upon this subject we need say no more. It is perfectly 
clear that the peace of the world has been disturbed 
in this century, as formerly, by Papal arrogance. The 
aggressions of the Pope, backed by France, upon the 
Greek Church, roused the Czar, and called up a storm 
which we fear will rage for some time to come. Mean- 
while the Romish Church keeps steadily to her object, 
and hopes that the result will be in her favour. 



224 POPISH BISHOPS ON THE RUSSIAN WAR. 

We quote from the Tablet, in October 1854, the fol- 
lowing addresses of Popish bishops : — 

ADDRESSES OF PAPAL BISHOPS ON THE WAR. 

The Bishop of Puy says, — 

" Yes : — and all see, and understand it, the cause of the Church and 
Catholicity, and, consequently, the cause of civilization is about to be 
pleaded, sword in hand, for helpless Poland is there to witness what the 
Church and Catholicity are under the sceptre of the Czar and in the 
shadow of his lying orthodoxy. * * * * Go forth, then, 
in the name of the Lord ; new crusaders, fly to the holy war." 

The Bishop of Rodez says, — 

" The result of the war, we are confident, will be, that the sons of 
the Redeemer, and of the Church, his spouse, that the true orthodox 
will obtain the facility of going and venerating both the cradle and tomb 
of their Divine Master ; to re-animate their faith and their fervour, that 
the ancient rights of the French will not only be restored to them, but 
shall be increased and consolidated ; that their piety will cause emula- 
tion in those who have quitted the fold ; that these latter will draw 
near to unity and truth, and thereby hasten the time when there will be 
one fold and one shepherd." 

The Bishop of Cahors says, — 

" Our cause is holy Divine Providence, from the gene- 
ral conflagration, will cause to emerge a new era of peace for the nations, 
and liberty to the Church." 

The Romish party are thus confident that the war in 
the hands of France, if successful, will establish their ascen- 
dancy. When we couple this with the fact, that French 
bayonets restored the Papacy on the ruins of liberty in 
Italy, and that French despotism now persecutes the Pro- 
testants of France, it surely behoves the Protestants of 
the British empire to be on their guard, lest a war which 
originated in such a way, and is conducted in the main by 
such a power, may not be detrimental, if not destructive, 
to their best interests ! How truly will it be said of Home, 
" And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, 
and of all that were slain upon the earth." Rev. xviiL 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — Has the Papacy originated tumults and schisms? 
A. — Yes; in every age. 

2. Q. — Did the Papacy exist in the 4th century? 



SUMMARY OF PAPAL WARS. 22$ 

A. — "No; it was not then developed, though the Bishop 
of Rome had acquired immense power. The Papacy may- 
be said to have existed in an incipient state at that time. 

3. Q. — Were there any tumults occasioned by the elec- 
tion of the Bishop of Rome in the 4th century? 

A. — Yes. Ursicinus opposed Damasus ; the rival parties 
resorted to carnal weapons, and many were killed. 

4. Q. — Was there any tumult in the 5th century? 

A. — Yes. So great, about the election of a bishop, 
that Cardinal Baronius says, that the rival parties ran a 
risk of destroying the whole city. 

5. Q. — What strife arose in the 6th century? 

A. — Pope Yigilius was attacked for his views as to the 
Council of Chalcedon, and the great schism which aros* 
nroduced dissension and quarrelling. 

6. Q. — Mention a stranger instance of contention for 
the Papal chair, which occurred in the 7th century? 

A. — Great strife and quarrelling arose between Theo- 
dosus and Paschal for the Pontifical chair. After much 
discussion and violence, the people determined to have 
neither, and therefore elected Sergius. 

7. Q. — What act of intolerance and uncharitableness 
did Pope Stephen commit in the 7th century? 

A. — He dug up the body of Formosus, his predecessor, 
and having cut off three of the fingers, sunk it in the Tiber. 

8. Q. — What Papal war arose in the 11th century? 

A. — There were two Popes. Henry IV. of Germany 
espoused the cause of one, and drove the other from the 
Papal chair. 

9. Q. — Mention another similar war. 

A. — Alexander was made Pope against the wishes of 
the Emperor Henry IY., who then elected another Pope, 
and laid siege to Rome. He was, however, beaten off by 
the forces of Matilda. 

1 0. Q.T-Did other wars break forth in the 1 1 th century % 
A. — Yes. A deep and lasting enmity existed between 

Henry IY. and Gregory VII., which gave occasion to 
many hard campaigns and great battles. 

1 1 . Q. — What indignity did Henry suffer from thePopo 1 



226 SUMMARY OF PAPAL WARS. 

A. — Disheartened by the desertion of many of his friends, 
Henry sued for peace ; and the proud Pontiff, wlio is, by 
tlie by, a saint of the Church of Rome, compelled the Em- 
peror to stand for three days at the gate of the fortress of 
Canusium with only a blanket for his covering. 

12. Q. — Was a lasting peace established between the 
Emperor and Pontiff? 

A. — No. Many of the Emperors friends, indignant at 
the treatment which he received, induced him to renew 
the war, and it raged with violence. 

1 3. Q. — On the death of Gregory VII., did peace ensue ! 
A. — No. The Emperor's son, induced by the new Pon- 
tiff, rebelled against his own father, and broke his heart. 

14. Q. — Were Henry Y. (the rebellious son) and the 
Pope on better terms than their predecessors 1 

A. — No. The war broke out again. 

15. Q. — What was the cause of the enmity between 
the Popes and Emperors] 

A. — They quarrelled on the subject of investiture, — the 
Emperor claiming, and the Pope denying to him, the 
right of nominating bishops. During the Pontificate of 
Calixtus II. these differences were settled. 

16. Q. — Did Papal war break out in the 12th century? 
A. — That between Frederick Barbarossa and Pope 

Adrian IV., occasioned by the haughtiness of the Pope. 

17. Q. — A war broke out in the 13th century between 
the Pope and Emperor. For what cause? 

A. — The Emperor Frederick II. having set out to the 
Holy Land, the Pope waged war upon him in his absence. 
The same Emperor and Innocent were also at war. 

18. Q. — What contest took place in the 14th century 
about the election of John XXII. ? 

A. — The Romans, anxious to have an Italian, and not 
a Frenchman for Pope, created a tumult, and set fire to 
the conclave. 

19. Q. — How many Popes reigned at one time in the 
14th century? 

A. — Three. One of them, Benedict XIII., was besieged 
ki Avignon by the king of France. 



PAPAL ALLOCUTIONS AGAINST SARDINIA AND SPAIN. 227 

20. Q. — What practical lesson is learned from these 
Papal wars? 

A . — That Papal assertions of the unity and peace which 
Popery is calculated to produce, are contrary to fact. 
They also afford a practical demonstration that the pre- 
tension of the Popes to be the successors of Jesus Christ 
the Prince of Peace, are false. 

21. Q. — How has Popery been the occasion of war in 
the 19th century? 

A, — The Pope issued a bull, a.d. 1848, demanding the 
submission of the Eastern Churches. In 1850, Napoleon 
assumed the title of Protector of the holy places, and 
claimed the custody of Churches which belonged to the 
Easterns. This, being backed by threats of violence, 
roused the Czar, and gave rise to the Eastern complica- 
tions, and the war. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Recent Aggressive Allocutions of the Pope 
against Sardinia and Spain. 

We are glad to observe that the kingdoms of Sardinia 
and Spain have taken very decisive measures for the sup- 
pression of monastic institutions, and the confiscation 
of their property, which is the truly effective way to get 
rid of such pernicious establishments. This, however, ha* 
called forth the displeasure of Pio Nono, who has fulmi- 
nated the following allocutions against these states : — 

(AGAINST SARDINIA.) 

ALLOCUTION OF PORE PIUS IX., PRONOUNCED IN SECRET 

CONSISTORY, JULY 26, 1855. 

[translation.] 
' ' Venerable Brothers — As you know well, Venerable Brothers, We 
1 uve often before, in your assembly, deplored with extreme grief the 
melancholy state of Our holy religion in the kingdom of Sardinia, but 
more especially in the Allocution which "We addressed to you on the 
22d of January in the present year, and which was printed, We com- 
plained once more of the grievous injuries which, for many years, the 
Piedmontese government has not ceased to inflict daily on the Catholic 
Church, on her power, her rights, her Ministers, her Pontiffs, on 



228 PAPAL ALLOCUTION AGAINST SARDINIA. 

Our sdtreme authority, and on the dignity of the Holy See. Iu 
that Allocution, raising once more Our Apostolic voice, We reproved, 
condemned, declared null and void, in the first place, all and 
each of the decrees passed by that government to the prejudice of 
religion, of the Church, and of the rights of the Holy See, and, in the 
second' place, that most unjust and most disastrous law which was then 
introduced, and by which it was proposed, among other things, to suppress 
almost all the monastic and religious communities of either sex, the col- 
legiate churches, all the simple benefices with right of patronage, and 
to hand over their revenues and property to the administration and free 
disposition of the civil power. Nor did We neglect in that Allocution 
to admonish the originators and promoters of this iniquity to reflect 
again and again on the censures and spiritual penalties which the Apos- 
tolic constitutions and cecumenic councils inflicted ipso facto upon those 
who usurp the rights and property of the Church. We were sustained 
by the hope that those, at least, who still boast of the name of Catholics, 
and who dwell in a kingdom where the very constitution itself declares 
that the Catholic religion shall be the only religion of the state, and 
guarantees the inviolability of all property without exception, would 
ultimately be overcome by the just remonstrances of Our Venerable 
Brothers, the excellent Bishops of the country, by Our remonstrances, 
by the complaints and paternal admonitions, which We repeatedly ad- 
dressed to them ; that they would recall their minds and their hearts to 
better ways ; that they would desist from persecuting the Church, and 
hasten to repair the grievous injuries which they had inflicted on it, 
which hope was held out to Us by certain promises made to those Bishops, 
and in which We thought that We might place confidence. 

" But, with grief We say it, not only has the Piedmontese government 
closed its ears to the supplications of its Bishops, and to Our own words, 
but, inflicting daily more grievous injuries on the Church, and on our 
authority and that of this Apostolic See, and despising openly Our re- 
iterated protestations and Our paternal admonitions, it has not hesitated 
to approve, to sanction, and to promulgate the aforesaid law, which has 
been altered in appearance, but the principle, the object, and the spirit 
•f which remain absolutely what they were. It is truly most afflicting 
and painful to Us, Venerable Brothers, to be obliged to depart from 
that gentleness and lenity to which We are naturally inclined, which 
We have observed, which We have moreover learned, from the Eternal 
Prince of Pastors, and which We have always endeavoured to manifest, 
and to adopt instead a severity that is completely repugnant to Our pa- 
ternal disposition. But when We see that for six years and more We 
have exerted in vain all the cares, and solicitude, and longanimity, and 
patience that were possible to repair the evils suffered by the Church ; 
"when there is no longer any room for hope that the authors of these 



PAPAL ALLOCUTION AGAINST SARDINIA. 229 

attempts would ever show themselves docile to Our exhortations, whereas, 
despising all Our admonitions, they persist in following their injustice, 
and in djing everything to oppress the Church in Piedmont, and to de- 
stroy her power, her rights, and her liberty, We are constrained to have 
recourse to means of severity that We may not appear as wanting in 
our duty and abandoning the cause of the Church. And in thus acting 
We do no more, as you are aware, than follow the illustrious examples 
of so many Roman Pontiffs, Our Predecessors, who, distinguished by 
learning and by holiness, have not hesitated to inflict on degenerate and 
rebellious children of the Church, who violated and usurped her rights, 
the penalties decreed by the holy canons against those guilty of such crimes. 
1 ' Wherefore We once more raise Our Apostolic voice in your august 
assembly, and We reprove again, and condemn, and declare null and 
void as well th% law above mentioned as all and each of the acts and 
decrees whidh have passed in Piedmont to the detriment of religion, of 
the Church, of Our authority, and of the rights of the Holy See — acts 
and decrees of which we have spoken with sorrow in Our Allocution oi 
January 22d of the present year, and in the present one. Moreover, 
it is with most extreme sorrow of heart that We are oblioed to declare 

THAT ALL THOSE IN PlEDMONT WHO HAVE DARED TO PROPOSE, OR AP- 
PROVE, qr sanction the aforesaid measures and the law against the 
Church and the rights of the Holy Sec; also, that all those who are 
acting for them, who give them their support, counsel, or adhesion, 
and those who become executors of their orders, nAVE incurred major 

EXCOMMUNICATION AND THE OTHER CENSURES AND ECCLESIASTICAL PE- 
NALTIES imposed by the sacred cakons, by the Apostolic constitution^ 
and by the decrees of the general council/, particularly by those of the 
Council of Trent — (Session 22, chap, xi.) 

" Although the inevitable necessity of fulfilling Our duty obliges us U 
employ Apostolic rigour, We nevertheless know and bear in mind that, 
notwithstanding Our unworthiness, We are the Vicar upon earth of Hint 
who, when He has been angry, has been still mindful of His mercy. 
Therefore, raising our eyes towards the Lord Our God, We humbly and 
earnestly supplicate Him that He would be graciously pleaded to illu- 
minate with the heavenly light of His grace, and to bring back to better 
sentiments the degenerate children of His holy Church in all ranks and 
conditions, whether lay or Clerical, invested even with the sacred char- 
acter, and whose errors can never be sufficiently deplored ; for nothing 
could be more grateful to Our heart, nothing more desirable or more 
consoling, than that those in error should enter into themselves and 
return. Nor do We neglect in the prayers and supplications which We 
offer with thanksgiving to implore of God, rich in mercy, that He would 
pour out the most abundant gifts of His Divine grace on all Our Vener- 
able Brothers, the Archbishops and Bishops of the kingdom of Sardinia, 



230 PAPAL ALLOCUTION AGAINST SPAIN. 

that IT Tould aid and console them in the midst of so much tribulation 
and anguish, so that after all they have already done for the glory of 
His name they may continue to defend courageously the cause of religion 
and of the Church by their Episcopal zeal, their fortitude, and their 
prudence, and may watch with the utmost care over the salvation and 
preservation of their flocks. Finally, we do not cease to offer the most 
humble and fervent prayers to the God of all mercy, that, in His infinite 
clemency, He would vouchsafe to fortify by His Divine assistance, not 
only the faithful Clergy of that kingdom, who, following, for the greater 
part, the example of their Bishops, admirably accomplish their duty, 
but also, so many eminent laymen of that country, who, animated with 
the purest Catholic sentiments, and heartily devoted to Us, and to this 
See of Peter, make it their glory to consecrate their efforts to the defence 
of the Church's rights." 

(AGAINST SPAIN.) 

ALLOCUTION OF POPE PIUS IX., PRONOUNCED IN SECRET 

consistory, july 26th, 1855. 

" Venerable Brothers — Not one of you is ignorant, Venerable Brothers, 
that during four years not yet elapsed We have spared neither anxiety, 
deliberation, nor labour for the interest of the Ecclesiastical affairs of 
Spain. You know the convention concluded by Us in 1851 with Our 
very dear daughter in Jesus Christ, Maria Elizabeth, Catholic Queen of 
Spain, which convention was solemnly promulgated as the law of the 
state in that kingdom. You are also aware that in this convention, 
among many other things enacted for the protection of the Catholic 
religion, it was, above all, decreed that this august religion, continuing, 
to the exclusion of every OTHER form of worship, to be the sole reli- 
gion of the Spanish nation, should be maintained as formerly throughout 
the Spanish dominions, with all the rights and prerogatives which it 
should enjoy according to the law of God and the canonical sanctions, 
that education in all public and private schools should be entirely confor- 
mable to the Catholic doctrine; that in the exercise of the Episcopal charge, 
and in all things that pertain to the exercise of Ecclesiastical authority 
and of the sacred order, the Bishops should enjoy that full and entire 
freedom which the sacred canons prescribe; that the Church should 
bave the full and free enjoyment of its natural right to acquire in all 
respects legitimate title to new possessions, and that this right of pro- 
perty in the Church should be inviolable with regard to the estates which 
it then possessed or should afterwards acquire. Affairs being thus re- 
gulated, We reposed in the confidence that our cares and solicitudes had 
been successful, and that, in accordance with Our wishes, the Catholic 
Church would be seen to flourish and prosper more and more in Spain ; 
and this confidence was the greater in proportion as that great nation 



\ 

fAPAL ALLOCUTION AGAINST SPAIN. ' 231 

glories in its profession of the Catholic religion and in its attachment to 
the Chair of St Peter. 

" Meanwhile, with heart full of astonishment and grief, We have 
seen what "We could never have thought possible, the convention of 
which we have spoken broken and violated with impunity in that king- 
dom, not only against the will of the Spanish nation, but in defiance of 
its protest and the manifestation of its grief, and new outrages commit- 
ted against the Church, its rights, the Bishops, and the sovereign power 
of Our person and the Holy See — outrages such as oblige us to express 
Our affliction to you, Venerable Brothers. Laws have been passed 
which, to the great injury of religion, destroy the first and second ar- 
ticles of the Concordat, and which ordain the sale of the property of 
the Church. Various decrees have been published, by which Bishops 
are forbidden to confer Holy Orders, and the virgins consecrated to 
God prevented from admitting others as novices in their own institute, 
and by which it is ordered that the lay confraternities and other pious 
institutions shall be completely secularised. As soon as We had learned 
that such grave offences had been proposed against the Church, against 
Ourselves, and against thi3 Holy See, We have, without delay, in ac- 
cordance with the duty of Our charge, whether by Our Cardinal Secre- 
tary of State, or by our Charge d' Affaires at Madrid, energetically pro- 
tested and reclaimed against everything which the Spanish government 
had dared of this nature. We have, moreover, caused it to be notified 
to this government, that if the law for the sale of Ecclesiastical property 
were not rejected, Our reclamations would be communicated to the 
Faithful, that they might abstain from the purchase of such property. 
We also reminded the cabinet of Madrid of what We had clearly and openly 
expressed in the Apostolic Letters relative to the Concordat, that if the 
engagements entered into by this Concordat should ever be, as they now 
so gravely are, violated or broken, We should regard as null and void 
the concession made by us with respect to this Concordat, and by which 
We declared that the purchasers of Ecclesiastical property sold prior to 
its conclusion should not be in any way disturbed, either by Ourselves 
or by the Roman Pontiffs our successors. 

" Not only have these Our just reclamations been useless, as well as 
the remonstrances of the excellent Bishops of Spain, but many of these 
Venerable Bishops, who themselves had, with such good right, opposed 
the aforesaid laws and decrees, have been violently torn from their dio- 
eeses and banished elsewhere. You perceive, Venerable Brothers, with 
what affliction We are struck at beholding all Our cares and solicitudes 
for the Ecclesiastical affairs of this kingdom thus rendered fruitless, and 
the Church of Jesus Christ there again endures the greatest evils — its 
liberty, its rights, Our authority, and the authority of this Holy See, 
are trampled under foot. For this reason, We have not permitted Our 



232 PAPAL ALLOCUTION AGAINST SPAIN. 

Charge d'Affaires at Madrid to remain there any longer, and We have 
ordered him to quit Spain, and return to Rome. Our grief is great at 
the idea of the perils in which the illustrious Spanish nation is placed 
in regard to religion by this new disturbance of religious affairs, that 
nation whose zeal for the cause of Catholicity and merits in the eyes of 
the Church, of Ourselves, and the Holy See, render so dear to Us. But 
as the duty of Our Apostolic Ministry requires absolutely that We 
should defend with all Our power the cause of the Church which has 
been divinely confided to Us, We cannot avoid expressing openly, pub- 
licly, and in the most solemn manner, Our complaints and remonstrances. 
"Therefore, raising Our voice in the midst of you, We complain of all 
that the lay power has done, and still does, unjustly in Spain against 
the Church, against its liberties, and rights, and against Us, and the au- 
thority of this Holy See, and We especially deplore, in the strongest 
manner, the violation of Our solemn Concordat, in contempt of thelaws of 
nations, and the interruption of the just authority of the Bishops in the 
exercise of the holy Ministry, the violence employed against them, and the 
usurpation of the patrimony of the Church, in defiance of all right, human 
and divine. Moreover, in virtue of our Apostolic authority, We reprove, 
abrogate, and declare, without value or force, and null and void, as 
regarding the past as the future, the laws and decrees aforesaid. 
Finally, with all the authority We possess, We admonish the authors of 
all those audacious acts, We exhort and supplicate them to consider se- 
riously that those who fear not to afflict and persecute the Church of 
God cannot escape the hand of the Almighty. 

" We cannot now avoid felicitating Our Venerable Brothers, the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops of Spain, and giving them the praise they so well 
deserve for fulfilling their duty regardless of danger, raising their Epis- 
copal voices with perfect unanimity of view, thought, and sentiment, 
and ceasing not to defend the cause of the Church with equal constancy 
and courage. We owe, also, especial praise to the faithful Spanisk 
Clergy who neglected nothing to satisfy the obligations imposed on them 
by their vocation and their duty. We also give the praises due to s# 
many distinguished Spanish laymen, who, signalising themselves by their 
piety and devotion for Our holy religion, for the Church, and for Our- 
selves and the Holy See, have gloried to defend energetically the rights 
of the Church by word and writing. Sighing, in the fervour of Our 
Apostolic charity, over the deplorable situation in which this illustrious 
nation, so dear to Our heart, and its Queen, are placed, We earnestly 
supplicate the good and powerful God to deign, in His boundless mercy, 
to protect, console, and remove from all dangers, this people and their 
Sovereign. 

" We also wish to say to you, Venerable Brothers, that We suffer inex- 
pressibly from the deplorable state to which Our most holy religion ia 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE PAPAL ALLOCUTIONS. 233 

reduced in Switzerland, and especially, alas ! in some of the principal 
Catholic cities of these confederated cantons. There the power of the 
Catholic Church, and its liberties, are oppressed, the authority of the 
Bishops and the Holy See trampled under foot, the sanctity of marriage 
and of an oath violated and despised, the seminaries of the Clergy and 
the religious communities either entirely destroyed or completely sub- 
jected to the will of the civil power, the collation of the benefices and 
the Ecclesiastical property usurped, and the Catholic Clergy followed 
and persecuted in the most deplorable manner. We now rapidly indi- 
cate to you those events, so sad, over which people cannot sufficiently 
lament, and which deserve all reprobation ; but Our intention is to 
speak to you another time on this painful subject. 

"Meantime, Venerable Brothers, let Us never neglect to pray, and 
supplicate, day and night, with fervour and constancy, the most cle- 
ment Father of Mercies and God of all consolation, to aid, with the 
power of His arm, His holy Church, oppressed on all sjdes by so many 
calamities, and tossed by so many tempests, and to defend and save her 
from all the adversities with which she is threatened." 

Upon these important documents we make the follow- 
ing observations : — 

1. The Pope complains of injury inflicted on the Catho- 
lic (Roman) Church, her power, rights, ministers, pon- 
tiffs, and he adds, " on our supreme authority, and on the 
dignity of the holy see." The last mentioned in the cata- 
logue is certainly not the least in the estimation of " His 
Holiness." He claims authority supreme over all secular 
and spiritual powers, and, according to the teaching of the 
holy see, it is the duty of all to render implicit obedience 
to him. 

2. The Pope " reproved, condemned, declared null and 
void, in the first place, all and each of the decrees passed 
by that government (the Sardinian) to the prejudice of 
religion, of the Church, and of the rights of the holy see." 
His Holiness, in this, gives an illustration of what he 
means by " our supreme authority." He absolutely de- 
clares the enactments of the Sardinian legislature to be 
" null and void." 

3. " His Holiness," lest there should be any mistake 
on the subject, again repeats his declaration of nullity 
against the Sardinian laws. 



'4. But thib is not all. In the hope that his denuncia- 



234 OBSERVATIONS ON THE PAPAL ALLOCUTIONS. 

tion mi^ht not be a brutum fulmen, he now, having waxed 
still hotter against the audacious men who had ventured 
to make laws for their own country, irrespective of his 
will, fulminates his " major excommunication,* and the 
other censures and ecclesiastical penalties'* against " all 
those who in Piedmont have dared to propose, or approve, 
or sanction the aforesaid measures," and also, " against all 
those who are acting for them, who gave them their sup- 
port, counsel, or adhesion, and those who become ex- 
ecutors of their orders :" That is to say, the Pope inter- 
poses his authority between the legislators of the country 
and their own people, not only exhorting the latter to 
disregard the law, — not only inciting them to open rebellion 
againstthe state, — but even subjecting them to the heaviest 
spiritual penalties if they do not play the part of rebels 
and traitors ! Surely this ought to open the eyes of all 
men to the utter incompatibility of Popery with the inde- 
pendence of nations. 

5. In his allocution against Spain, his holiness refers 
to the Papal convention with that country, according ta 
the terms of which, it was agreed that " this august (?) 
religion continuing, to the exclusion of every other form of 
worship, to be the sole religion of the Spanish nation, 
should be maintained, as formerly, through the Spanish 
dominions." In this country we hear much from certain 
parties 6f the tolerance of Romanism — we are told that it 
has changed, but here the Pope avows the existence of a 
Papal convention with Spain, which required " the exclu- 
sion of every other form of worship ! " Oh the mild and 
tolerant Church! 



* There are two kinds of excommunication, the lesser and greater. 
The lesser excludes from the use of the sacraments— the greater from 
all intercourse with the faithful. Nay, all are regarded as ipso fact* 
subject to the major excommunication-, who hold any converse with one 
who lies under the burden of the greater excommunication. It is for- 
bidden to converse not only with the excommunicated himself, but evcri- 
with those who hold any intercourse with him. An excommunicated 
person is deprived of all civil privileges. Such are the terrible inflic- 
tions which the Pope endeavours to place upon the Spanish and Sardi- 
nian reformers. We trust that his allocutions in this, as in other in- 
stances, will be a mere brut win fulmen 



THE TIMES ON THE PAPAL ALLOCUTIONS. 235 

6. Further, " His Holiness" refers to the fact, that, ac- 
cording to the same convention, education 'in all public 
and private schools should be entirely conformable to the 
Catholic doctrine. The Church of Rome grasps at the 
exclusive control of education in public, and even in pri- 
vate. She applies the thumbscrew to the utmost. Not 
content with a part, she must have all ! 

7. His Holiness again speaks of the " sovereign power 
of our pc rson and the holy see." Thus he assures us of 
his pretensions, both in words and deeds. In reality, he 
claims to be " king of kings." 

8. The Pope avows that he had " energetically protested 
and reclaimed against every thing which the Spanish 
government had dared of this nature." What audacity 
on the part of an Italian Bishop, to address such language 
to an independent state. 

9. He abrogates and declares null and void, the laws t* 
which he objects. 

In all this we at once see the evil of subjecting a people 
to foreign control. The Pope, by virtue of bis spiritual 
powers, exercises, or, in this instance, attempts to exercise, 
a control in the government of Spain and Sardinia. Th« 
acts of the state are set at nought by a foreign prelate 
prince ! It remains to be seen whether the people of these 
countries will now prostrate themselves before the Papal 
power. Meanwhile, even the Times is indignant at this 
piece of arrogance and tyranny, and writes as follqws : — 

" Here is a man — whose life, if left to the afiection of his own sub- 
jects, would not be worth half-an-hour's purchase, — stirring up discord, 
provoking revolution, denouncing, threatening, anathematising, nullify- 
ing, as if the world were at his feet, and he were the only arbiter and 
controller of the destinies of Europe. Truly we may ask, how long 
shall this man be a snare to us — how long is Europe to tolerate this 
miserable counterfeit of mediaeval priestcraft, founded upon mediaeval 
superstitipn. ? — this attempt tp import into modern times that power 
against which the intellect of man, rose up in successful rebellion three 
centuries ago?" — The Times in Sept. 1854. 

And yet Britons, forgetful of past history, and misled 
by the Jesuitical pretence that Popery has changed, per- 
mit that system to take its own course in their country. 



236 8UMMaBY OP THE PAPAL ALLOCUTIONS. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What were the circumstances which led to th'e 
Papal allocutions against Sardinia and Spain? 

A. — The suppression of monastic institutions, and the 
confiscation of their property by the state. 

2. Q. — What censure does the Pope impose in his 
allocutions? 

A. — He declares that the acts of the states in question 
are "null and void," and places under the sentence of 
the major excommunication, all promoters and favourers 
of the same. 

3. Q. — What is meant by the major excommunication? 
A. — It is the severest form of excommunication. The 

person suffering under it is not only debarred from the 
sacraments — which is the ordinary excommunication — but 
also from all society and intercourse with the faithful. 

4. Q. — How does Papal intolerance appear in these 
allocutions? 

A. — Not only in the act of censure itself, but in the 
reference which the allocution makes to the Papal con- 
vention, according to which " every other form of wor- 
ship" was to be excluded from the state. 

5. Q. — How does Papal arrogance appear in them? 

A. — In the terms which the Pope employs. He speaks 
of his "supreme authority" — "the dignity of the holy 
see" — " the sovereign power of our person, and the holy 
see," and of how the Spanish government had dared to 
enter upon such a course. 

6. Q. — How does the evil of Papal supremacy appear 
in all this? 

^- — We see in these facts that the Pope, though a 
foreign prince, interferes with the internal arrangements 
©f states, declaring their acts " null and void," and ex- 
eommunicating the legislators, and all who adhere to, or 
obey them It is evident that no country can enjoy na- 
tional independence which submits to the Pope or Popery. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 237 

The Conventual System. 

The monastic system is based upon two false principles ; 
— first, that celibacy is a holier state than the matrimonial ; 
and secondly, that total withdrawal from the social inter- 
course and business of life, is conducive to righteousness 
and true holiness. * 

It is most remarkable, that while the Church of Rome 
exalts matrimony to the rank of a sacrament, she, at the 
same time, forbids marriage to her clergy ; and induces her 
members to seclude themselves in monasteries and convents, 
under the unnatural vow of perpetual celibacy. Surely, 
if marriage be a sacrament, none should be excluded from 
the grace which it is supposed to confer ! 

That persons, as individuals, are at liberty to lead un- 
married lives if they please, is one of the first dictates of 
common sense ; but that whole communities should have 
the bond of celibacy imposed upon them, is at variance 
with justice and right reason. It avails but little to say, 
that the members of such communities voluntarily take 
the vows which they make. This may be true, and yet 
the vow of celibacy, and its subsequent bearing upon the 
individual, can be considered in no other light thaa 
compulsory. 

I. The vow is usually taken at an age, when the can- 
didate is utterly incompetent to judge, whether he possess 
the gift of continence. It is evident that continence is a 
gift; for the Apostle says, — 

1 Cor. 7. v. 7. " For I would that all men were even as I myself: 
but every man hath his proper gift of God, one after this manner, and 
another after that. V. 8. I say therefore to the unmarried and widows, 
it is good for them if they abide even as I. V. 9. But if they cannot 
contain, let them marry : for it is better to marry than to burn." 

The Apostle distinctly recommends those, who have not 
the gift of continence, to marry. 

The young candidate for deacon's orders, usually under 



* There is no doubt that many Protestants are attracted by such 
exhibitions to view the Church of Rome with complacency. The vow of 
celibacy is unnatural, and without any authority in scripture. 



238 THE AGE AT WHIOB THB VOW OP CELIBACY IS TAKEN. 

twenty years of age, and the young novice from the con- 
vent, attracted by the exhibition of veil-taking and senti- 
mentalism, are not sufficiently experienced ; and, therefore, 
cannot positively tell whether the vow oi* celibacy may 
not prove to them an intolerable yoke.* Upon this sub- 
iect we quote a passage from the Rev. Hohart Seymour's 
Lectures on Nunneries. 

" I have stated that the age at which they were admissible to those hon- 
ours was sixteen years, and, as the Cardinal has omitted to dwell on the 
subject, I shall now direct your attention 1 to the evidence on it. 

"And the first point to which I shall direct your attention is a narrative 
which we find in the Roman Breviary, a volume in the hands of every 
Roman Catholic priest, who is obliged, by his ordination vows, to read 
a portion of it every day. It speaks of St Rosa, of Lima, the first flower 
of sanctity. 

" ' The first flower of sanctity from South America was the virgin 
Rose, born of Christian parents, at Lima, who, evert from the cradle, 
shone with the presages of future holiness ; for the face of the infant 
being wonderfully transfigured into the image of a rose, gave occasion to 
her being called by this name ; to which afterwards, the virgin Mother 
of God added the surname, ordering her to be thenceforth called the Rose 
«f St Mary. She made a vow of perpetual virginity at five years of age.'' 

" If that young lady were so precocious in her sanctity, she certainly 
must have been precocious on other subjects if she understood the vows 
she was taking. 

11 I pass from the Breviary to that which the Cardinal told Us was 
the great authority in the Church of Rome, to which he and others had 
what some might be pleased to call a superstitious reverence ; ,he refer- 
red to the canons of the Council of Trent. Now the law, as set forth 
by the Council of Trent, is sufficiently explicit. In the 25th sessio^ 
and at the 17th chapter, I thus read : — 

" ' A girl, more than twelve years of age, wishing to take th* habit 
of a nun, is to be examined by the ordinary, and again, beiore making 
her profession. The Holy Councils^ considering the freedom of profes- 
sion of virgins to be dedicated to God, resolves and decrees, and that, if 
a girl, who is twelve years of age, wishes to assume the habit of a nun, 



* Of cobvents there ate two classes— the one founded upon the prin- 
ciple of perfect seclusion— the other upon that of active life. Both are 
regulated by the same vows, but are not equally secluded. The latter 
class, with limitations, are allowed to enjoy a certain degree of society, 
but the former, living in the cloisters, are shut out from all intercourse 
with society beyond their prison walls. In this we see a cunning adapta- 
tion of discipline to the natural disposition of persons. The gloomy and 
ascetic are placed in the cloisters, while those whose activity may be 
serviceable to the Church are allowed to enter the other state. 



THE AGE AT WHICH THE VOW OP CELIBACY IS TAKEN. 239 

she shall not assume it before the Bishop shall have examined her, nor 
shall she take the profession afterwards before the Bisbop shall again 
have examined her.' 

" So that we have, it here expressly stated, in the canons of the Coun* 
eil of Trent, that a girl, twelve years of age, may take * the habit' — 
that is, the vestigione, or commence the noviciate. 

" Now, while it will be felt that this is sufficiently early to begin, 
the Council goes on to state at what period the vows are to be made. In 
the 25th session, 15th chapter, are these ■words : — 

" ' In whatever order, whether of men or of women, the proiession 
is made, let it not be made until the completion of the sixteen years ; 
and let no one be admitted to make the profession in a less time than a 
year after taking the habit in the noviciate.' 

" So that we learn that the noviciate may begin so early as twelve 
years of age, and the profession may be made at sixteen years of age; 
and this was precisely the age to which I referred when I asked the 
question — What purpose of religion could it serve to immure girls of 
sixteen years of age in these ecclesiastical prisons ! The moment that 
young girl has taken the veil, hope and life are for her banished away 
for ever. Before her mind is sufficiently matured to form a right judg- 
ment upon the subject, she signs away her destiny. Before her heart 
has felt the flow of those affections' which, sooner or later, will flow and 
settle on some object, she is required to sign away her doom. Before 
her physical frame has developed so as to understand the mysterious 
voice of nature within, she has signed away she knows not what. Oh, 
I know not a greater cruelty, I know not a more unmanly outrage, than 
to take a young girl — a young, tender, innocent, generous, confiding, 
loving, warm-hearted girl — of fifteen or sixteen years of age, and ask 
her to sign away all the flower and blossom of her future life, to leave 
her to mourn in bitterness and broken-heartedness all her after years, 
and to learn that her maturer judgment, and her woman's feelings, and 
all her after life, have been sacrificed to the law of the Church of Rome, 
— a law that I feel is an offence against God, as well as an outrage 
against nature. 

" But, while the Cardinal told us of the postulancy, and of the novi- 
ciate, and of the profession, he omitted to tell us the precise age at 
which they were each to commence. He did tell us that, during the 
postulancy, the nuns were free as air to depart and escape, and that 
during the noviciate they were free as air to depart and to escape ; but, 
he did not tell us that the postulancy, being six months before the no- 
viciate — that six months before the twelve years of age this postulancy 
begins — that is at eleven years and a half; that the child is free till 
twelve, and that then commences the noviciate, which was sometimes 
four years ; that is, commencing at twelve and ending at sixteen : and 
K0 the whole period of her freedom is f.-om eleven and a half to sixteen 

/ 



240 PAPAL CURSE AGAINST INTERFERING WITH NUNS. 

years of age, when we all know the mind of such a girl is plastic, and 
can be moulded by any one around her to desire, or to wish, or to do 
almost anything which those who are thus around her may desire. 
When she is in this state, and has taken the last vows, the decree of 
the Council of Trent expressly says, that no one who has been so sanc- 
tified must be allowed to withdraw from the nunnery ; and then, to 
prevent the possibility of any hope, the Bishop or the Cardinal — as it 
may be, and as I myself have frequently witnessed — and as no doubt 
this very Cardinal has himself performed — while as yet the poor girl 
kneels in his presence he rises, puts his mitre on his brow, and pro- 
nounces that awful anathema which, when once heard, will for ever 
tingle in the ears of men. He stands in his place and utters this awful 
malediction against all persons who shall presume to assist her in mak- 
ing her escape. i By,' says the Cardinal, with his crosier in his hand, 
and his mitre upon his brow, and the veiled recluse kneeling before 
him — 

" * By the authority of Almighty God, and his holy Apostles Peter 
and Paul, we solemnly forbid, under pain of anathema, that any one 
draw away these present virgins, or holy nuns, from the Divine service, 
to which they have devoted themselves under the banner of chastity ; or 
that any one purloin their goods, or hinder their possessing them un- 
molested ; but, if any one shall dare to attempt such a thing, let him be 
accursed at home and abroad ; accursed in the city, and in the field ; 
accursed in waking and sleeping ; accursed in eating and drinking ; ac- 
cursed in walking and sitting ; cursed be his flesh and his bones, and, 
from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head, let him have no sound- 
ness. Let come upon him the malediction, which, by Moses in the law, 
the Lord hath laid on the sons of iniquity. Let his name be blotted 
out from the book of the living, and not be written with the righteous. 
Let his portion and inheritance be with Cain the fratricide, with Dathaa 
and Abiram, with Ananias and Sapphira, with Simon the sorcerer, and 
with Judas the traitor ; and with those who have said to God, Depart 
from us, we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. Let him perish, in 
the day of judgment, and let everlasting fire devour him, with the devil 
and his angels — unless he make restitution, and come to amendment." * 
— Nuns and Nunneries, p. 19. Bath. 

II. Again; even if it could be ascertained who really 
now possess the gift, it would be presumptuous and ha- 
zardous to make such a vow. Gifts may be withdrawn, 
and endowments, like health itself, often change. Even 
the life of St Anthony — a Romish story — affords evidence 
enough, that the hermit may be assailed with temptations 
to incontinence, though sheltered in his cell, and living 
on the herbs of the forest. 

Can the young man who believes to-day that he posses- 
ses the gift, and takes the vow, be certain that he shall 



NUNS BY COMPULSION. 241 

continue to possess that power in a year hence? No. And 
yet he rushes headlong into danger, and places himself in 
•uch a position that he cannot avail himself of the apostolic 
recommendation, — "Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, 
let every man have his own wife." (1 Cor. vii. 2.) 

Perhaps it may be said, that he takes the vow in reli- 
ance upon Divine aid ; but he has no right to expect such 
help from above, when he departs from the course which 
Divine wisdom points out. The Lord has declared, Heb. 
xiii. 4., that " marriage is honourable in all" in the cler- 
gyman as well as the layman j and however lawful, under 
certain circumstances, single life may be, when the gift of 
continence is possessed, we have no hesitation in saying, 
that a vow of perpetual abstinence from marriage is not 
only perilous in the extreme, but sinful ; inasmuch as it 
sets aside the state which God has provided for man, and 
renders it impossible to obey the apostolic injunction to 
which we have already referred. 

III. It is an undoubted fact, admitted indirectly by 
Roman Catholic authorities, that persons have been placed 
in convents against their own inclinations. We quote 
another passage from Seymour, who gives proof for this. 

V I hold in my hand a work which was published only four years 
ago in this country. It is entitled ' The True Spouse of Jesus Christ ; 
•r the Nun Sanctified by the Virtues of her State. By St Alphonsus 
M. Liguori.' This last canonized saint of the calendar wrote this work 
for the edification of nuns within the nunneries ; and, for the edification 
•f the young nuns of England, they have translated it and published it 
in English in 1848. Now, I refer to it for the fact, that young women 
are sometimes put into these establishments against their own inclina- 
tions, because the writer himself is addressing nuns in the nunneries 
who are avowedly there against their inclinations ; and he makes use of 
the fact that, in times past, nuns have been made nuns without their 
own inclinations, and yet afterwards have turned out very good nuns 
and very excellent saints. He says : — 

" 'Blessed Hyacintha Marescotti, a religious of the convent of St 
Clare, in Yiterbo, was also induced to take the sacred veil against her 
inclination, and for ten years led a very imperfect life. But being one 
day illumined with a divine light, she gave herself entirely to God, and 
persevered till death, for the space of twenty-four years, in a life of 
holiness, so that she has deserved to be venerated on the altar. ' 

" And not content with this example, he gives another : — 

" ' Likewise sister Mary Bonaventure, a nun in the convent of the 



242 NUNS BY COMPULSION. 

Torre Dei Specchi, entered against her wdl; but after a life of tepidity 
and dissipation, she went, during the first meditation of the spiritual 
exercises, and threw herself at the feet of Father Lancizio, of the Society 
of Jesus, and courageously said to him : Father, I have learned what 
God wishes from me ' I wish to be a saint, and a great saint, and I 
wish to be one immediately.' 

11 And so the writer, goes on to tell thoso nuns who are rnins thus 
against inclination, that if they can only bring their mind to like it, 
afterwards they may turn out very good nuns and excellent saints. 

11 But, since our friends are very anxious that we should have evi- 
dence on the subject, I shall read a little more of this edifying book. 
4 Perhaps,' says this saint, addressing the nuns — 

" ' But, perhaps, you will tell me you can never have peace, because 
you find that you have entered religion to please your parents, and 
against your own mil. I answer thus : if, at the time of your profes- 
sion, you had not a vocation, I would not have advised you to have 
made the vows of religious ; but I would have entreated you to suspend 
Your resolution of going back to the world, and casting yourself into the 
many dangers of perdition which are found in the world. I now see 
you placed in the house of God, and made (either voluntarily or unwil- 
lingly) the spouse of Jesus Christ. For my part, I cannot pity you 
more than I could pity a person who had been transported (even against 
his will) from a place infected with pestilence, and surrounded by ene- 
mies, to a healthful country, to be placed there for life, secure against 
every foe.' 

" I will not pause to examine the casuistry of this person, for I feel 
it would be a waste of your time and of my bwn ; but I shall read 
something more of it : — 

' " * I add ; grant that what you state is true ; now that you are pro- 
fessed in a convent, and that it is impossible for you to liave it, tell 
me what do you wish to do ? If you have entered religion against your 
inclinations, you must now remain with cheerfulness. If you abandon 
yourself to melancholy, you shall lead a life of misery, and will expose 
yourself to great danger of suffering a hell here, and another hereafter. 
You must then make a virtue of necessity. And if the devil has brought 
you into religion, for your destruction, let it be your care to avail your- 
self of your holy state for your salvation, and to become a saint. Give 
yourself to God from the heart, and I as'sure you that, by so doing, you 
shall become more content than all the princesses and queens of this 
world. Being asked his opinion regarding a person who had become a 
nun against her will, St Francis de Sales answered : It is true that this 
child, if she had not been obliged by her parents, would not have left 
the world ; but this is of little importance, provided she knows that the 
force employed by her parents is more useful to her than the permission 
to follow her own will. For now she can Say : If I had not lost such 
liberty, I would have lost true liberty* The saint meant to say, that 
had she not been compelled by her parents to become a nun, her liberty 
which would have induced her to remain in the world, would have rob- 
bed her of the true liberty of the children o God, which consists in u-ee- 
dom from the chains and dangers of the world.* 

" Here, then, I presume, we hate ample *videnoe that nuns are 
sometimes nuns against their inclinations, nuns by parental authority, 
and not by their own wills. And I ttsk any feeling man to conceive 



L1GU0RI S TESTIMONY ON NUNS BY COMPULSION. 243 

the case of one of these young girls, -who has been induced to make 
these vows, and now wisnes to escape from the nunnery ; to see her 
wandering tnrough the long passages, or, as sittihg in her lonely cell, 
and thinking over these things, she is haunted by the recollections ot 
the past • and as she looks up she sees, ' It is impossible for you to 
leave it ;' and as she looks below she reads, ' You must make a virtue 
of necessity. Is it any wondtr that the poor girl, with breaking heart, 
and feverea pulse, and burning brain, should be found to lapse into the 
drivelling of idiotcy, or into the frenzy of madness? 

" I will read one passage more, describing the state of the nun who 
is a nun against her will : — 

" ' It is true that, even in the cloister, there are some discontented 
souls ; for even in religion there are some who do not live as religious 
ought to live. To be a good religious, and to be content, are one and 
the same thing; for the happiness of a religious consists in a constant 
and perfect union of her will with the adorable will of God. Whosoever 
is not united to him cannot be happy ; for God cannot infuse his conso- 
lations into a soul that resists his Divine Will. I have been accus- 
tomed to say that a religious in her convent enjoys a foretaste of para- 
dise, or suffers an anticipation of hell. To endure the pains of hell, is 
to be separated from God ; to be forced against the inclinations of na- 
ture, to do the will of others : to be distrusted, despised, reproved, and 
chastised, by those with whom we live ; to be shut up in a place of con- 
finement) from which it is impossible to escape ; in a word, it is be in 
continual torture without a moment's peace. Such is the miserable 
condition of a bad religious ; and, therefore, she suffers on earth an an- 
ticipation of the torments of hell.'' 

" Here is the testimony of the ' Saint' himself, as he is called, that a 
young girl in a nunnery against her own inclination, ' suffers an antici- 
pation of hell :' these are the words. Again, he says, that she is there 
' forced against the inclinations of nature :' these are the very words. 
Again, that she is ' distrusted, despised, reproved, and chastised by 
those with whom she lives :' these are the very words. Again, she is 
' shut up in a place of confinement fiom which it is impossible to es- 
cape :' these, again, are the very words. She is in a state of '.continual 
torture, without a moment's peace :' these, again, are the very words. 
And yet more, ' she suffers on earth an anticipation of the torments of 
hell :' these are again the very words ! And can we wonder at anything 
befalling a young creature who reads these words, and remembers them 
in her cell ? Oh ! if there be an antichamber of madness for the human 
mind in this world, it must be in the state of the poor girl made a nun 
against her inclination. Her heart must be cold as marble ; her heart 
must be made of the ice of the coldest iceberg of the north, if her mind 
does not sink under the sorrows laid on her. The wonder is not that 
her reason should fail ; the wonder is, that she should preserve her rea- 
son and live !" — P. 25, ut supra. 

Connected with this painful subject is that of the de- 
portation of nuns. Again we quote an important passage 
from Seymour. 



244 DEPORTATION" OF NUNS. 

" I stated, on a former occasion, that one great evil connected with 
nunneries was the system of deportation. I stated that while we had 
those young women in nunneries in this country, they were under the 
broad aegis of our free institutions, and if they desired to escape there 
was, at least, if not a probability, a possibility of escape. But this is 
only while they are retained in this country ; and if there be a suspicion 
of their desire to escape, or if there be a suspicion of any change of reli- 
gious sentiment, it is in the power of those who conduct the establish- 
ment to remove her, with or without, her own consent, to some affili- 
ated nunnery on the continent — to remove her to some land where the 
ecclesiastical laws will sanction any and every restraint upon her person, 
and where she may be made a prisoner and a victim for life. I stated, 
as illustrative of this, four instances which occurred under my own 
knowledge. One was the daughter of a clergyman, known to many on 
this platform, who entered a nunnery in England, and soon afterwards 
was transferred to the continent. The second was a case mentioned te 
me by a gentleman, relative to his own daughter, who was afterwards 
removed to a nunnery on the continent. I also mentioned two cases in 
Ireland, both being cases where nun3 were removed — whether with or 
without their own consent, is a matter on which I cannot pass an opi- 
nion. I only speak as to the fact, that, having been in nunneries under 
our free institutions, they were removed from their protection, and sent 
to nunneries abroad. 

" Now I confess that I thought this was one of the most important 
points in my whole lecture. But, to my surprise, while the Cardinal 
was playing with and cavilling at the instances I have given, he admits 
the fact, not only that the inmates are sometimes sent from nunneries 
in this country to nunneries abroad, but that it is the nature of their 
system that the nuns shall be held liable to be removed at any time 
from the nunneries in this country to nunneries in other lands. I hold 
in my hand two reports of the Cardinal's address, one of them, namely, 
that in the Gazette, gives the Cardinal's words as follows : — 

" ' Of the cited examples of deported nuns, they had in like manner 
sought in vain of the writer of the pamphlet for a verification of his 
statements ; and of deportation generally he would only entreat them 
to make the inquiry whether the nuns who went abroad were of full age, 
and did so by their own consent ; if this were so, what was to prevent 
their going to an affiliated establishment on the continent, if they 
thought fit? There were but few convents in this country, in fact only 
two or three, that were affiliations of convents in France ; all the rest 
were perfectly independent. But if a nua chose to join one of the affi- 
liated houses, she was quite aware that one of the conditions which she 
accepted was, that she should go to any of the ujiliated institutions to 
which it might be desirable to send her.' 

" Thus we find the Cardinal expressly admits the fact, namely, that 
young women immured in nunneries in England are liable to be sent 
abroad to the affiliated nunneries upon the continent. The report 
the Chronicle is as follows : — 



DEPORTATION OF NUNS. 245 

" ' There were a few convents in this country affiliated on those in 
France. What was the reason ? One was for the purpose of taking care 
of orphans. The good nuns came over here and sunk their money in 
supporting a great number of orphans, without friends ; others came for 
the purpose of education ; others came to help the Catholics in the good 
work of education. But it was perfectly understood by those who en- 
tered the latter convents that they were not to settle, not to stay in 
particular houses, but were to go abroad? 

And thus the Cardinal admits the system of deportation, and that it is 
a part of their system in reference to the affiliated nunneries. 

" But be states that we ought to inquire whether it is done with 
their consent, and whether they are of full age. Now, as to this point, 
as the Cardinal has admitted so much to me, I will just quietly remind 
him that, according to the canon law. which he has been endeavouring 
to introduce into this country, the majority,, or age of a nun, according 
to the conventual system, is sixteen years, and not twenty-one as with 
us. Accordingly, when a girl of sixteen years of age is received into an 
affiliated convent, she is then of full age, according to the canon law ; 
and, therefore, at that age, she may be removed to the Continent, ac- 
cording to the statement of the Cardinal himself. L?. to its being with 
the consent of a girl of that age, I need scarcely say, speaking to men 
of the world, that we never find it difficult to persuade a girl of sixteen 
to go to the Continent ; there requires no great power of persuasion to 
induce her, on some plea or the other, to visit' continental scenes. And 
thus we learn, from the admission of the Cardinal, that painful and 
distressing fact, which seems to me one of the most objectionable and 
most painful features in the whole system, that these young creatures 
may, at any time, be removed from the safeguard of the free institu- 
tions of England to some nunnery in Mexico or Syria, in Spain or Italy, 
where any change of religious feeling could be punished as heresy ; and 
where any attempt to escape being made, she would be hunted down 
by the military and the police, as if she were a murderess ; and where, 
as a punishment, she may be sent to some insalubrious convent in some 
pestilential clime, or else placed in one of those monasteries where every 
vice of earth and every crime of hell is perpetrated, and where the 
shriek of outraged innocence, and the death-sighs of a broken heart, are 
suppressed and stifled within the walls, and never can be heard in the 
outer world. — P. 20, ut supra." 

TV. The monastic life, in itself, is peculiarly adapted 
to promote unhallowed thoughts and desires. Occupation 
is the natural condition of man. The Apostle says, that it is 
the Christian's duty to be " not slothful in business; fer- 
vent in spirit; serving the Lord." (Romans xii. 11.) 
Idleness is the source of much evil. It was when David 
was unoccupied and " walked upon the roof of the king's 



246 TEMPTATIONS OF MONASTIC LIFE. 

house/' that he was tempted to commit sin with Bathsheba. 
(2 Sam. xi. 2.) Occupation and abstinence from the occa- 
sion of sin, or that which leads to sin, are the great means, 
with prayer for grace, to avoid the wilful transgression of 
God's law 

But monks, friars, and nuns, are even, in this respect, 
placed in a deplorable state. 

1. They have not occupation. Their time, 'tis true, is, 
to some extent, engaged with the repetition of Pater Fos- 
ters and Ava Marias, in which it is hard to think that 
the mind can be much occupied. Vigour, both of mind 
and body, depends upon proper exercise. If the intellec- 
tual faculties receive not due cultivation and employment, 
they will be impaired, if not ultimately destroyed. If th« 
body receive not the benefit of free air and open exercise, 
it too will become unhealthy and unwieldy. Under such 
circumstances, the animal passions alone will increase m 
strength and vigour 

Shut a man up, and though his health will not prosper 
as it ought, his body will increase in rotundity, and in the 
power of mere animal propensities. So it is in the case 
of all animals, not excepting the friar, monk, or nun 
Where the Komish system is allowed to put forth it* 
genuine developments, uncontrolled by Protestant prin- 
ciples, or by prudential motives, is it not always found 
that the friar or monk is a lazy, fat, and it may be, jolly" 
fellow, eminent for his'abilities at the dinner table? The 
secret gratification of other appetites is the general result. 

2. The priesthood, who are encouraged to sin, by the 
facility of absolution from their fellow-priests, cannot en- 
joy on abstinence from the occasion of sin. Brought by 
their very profession into close contact with females in 
the confessional, they converse with them on the grossest 
subjects, such as are unfit for human ears. Ppund by an 
unnatural law of celibacy, — placed in cirpumstances in 
which their animal passions naturally bepqme ascendant, — 
with females in the confessional, and nuns in the cjpister 
at their disposal, — is it not likely that immorality will 
ensue? Both Protestant and Roman Catholic authorities 



ST BRIDGET ON MONASTIC IMMORALITY. 247 

afford us the answer, and tell that immoralities have 

tiSlldi/f 

Saint Bridget, who lived in the 14th century, denounces 

the immorality of monks and nuns, thus :— 

" Herein has arisen a grievous abuse, forasmuch as the possessions 
of the Church are given to laics, who do not marry because of the ca- 
nonical name, but impudently keep concubines in their houses by day, 
and in their beds by night, saying shamelessly, ' We may not marry, 
because we are canonical men.' The priests also, deans and sub-deans, 
formerly very greatly abhorred the infamy of an impure life. But now- 
some of them openly rejoice, because their strumpets come and walk 
among other women, with big bellies. Nor are they even ashamed if 
their friends say to them, ■ Behold, master, you will soon have a son or 
a daughter.' "—Chapter 43. 

Again, — 

" It is a sad thing to behold their rules (monks') changed into detest- 
able abuses" — Ibid. 

Again, — 

" The doors through which the sisters (nuns) are pleased to afford 
an entrance to clergymen and laymen, are open even at night; and 
therefore such places resemble rather houses of ill fame than holy clois- 
ters."— Ibid. 

Again, — 

"But truly the words which I spake, and the works which I wrought 
in the world, are altogether, as it were, forgotten and neglected, which 
is owing to none so much as the prelates of the Church, who are filled 
with pride and coyetousness, and with the putridity of corporeal 
enjoyments. 

" These bad prelates of the Churches, filled with the malignity of the 
evil spirit, have left men examples injurious to their souls ; and there- 
fore it behoves me to exact from them plenary justice, by inflicting 
judgments upon them, and by blotting them out of the book of life, and 
by placing them in hell near the enemy Lucifer, to be everlastingly tor- 
tured in the infernal regions." — Revelations of St Bridget. Cologne, 1629. 

The preface to this work states, that these Revelations 
were approved by Urban VI., Martin V., and Paul V., 
and yet they contain these terrible disclosures of the im- 
morality of monkish life. 

JSTicholaus de Clemangis, an Archdeacon of the Church 
of Rome, says, — 

" It now remains to speak only of nuns ; but shame forbids our say- 
ing much concerning them, lest we should make a long discourse, not of 
a band of virgins, but rather of harlots, of the arts and wantonness of 
strumpets, of lewd and incestuous deeds. For what, I pray you, are at 



248 MONASTIC IMMQRALITT. 

this time convents of girls other than, — I do not say sanctuaries of God, 
but execrable stews of Venus? — but receptacles for satiating the lusts 
of lascivious and immodest youths, that it is the same thing for a girl 
to take the veil as to expose herself as a public prostitute." — Nicholaus 
de Clemangis. — See Drwnmond's Speech, delivered in the Mouse of 
Commons, March 20, 1851. 

Bede, who lived in the 8th century, (and be it remember- 
ed, that he was a favourer of the monastic system,) says, — 

" I having now visited all this monastery regularly, have looked into 
every one's chambers and beds, and found none of them all, besides 
yourself, being about the care of his soul ; but all of them, both men 
and women, either indulge themselves in slothful sleep, or are awake 
in order to commit sin ; for even the cells that were built for prayers 
and reading, are now converted into places of feasting, drinking, talking, 
and other delights ; the very virgins dedicated to God laying aside the 
respect due to their profession, whensoever they are at leisure, apply 
themselves to weaving fine garments, either to use in adorning themselves 
like brides, to the danger of their condition, or to gain the friendship 
of strange men." — Bede, iv. c. 25. — Ibid. 

Again he says, with reference to the sons of nobles, or of 
distinguished soldiers, that — 

" Having nothing to do, and not marrying, though past the age of 
puberty, they are held by no tie of continence ; and, therefore, either 
go beyond the sea and abandon their country, which they ought to fight 
for ; or, with still greater wickedness and impudence, not being bound 
by chastity, become addicted to luxury and fornication, and do not ab- 
stain even from the very virgins who are dedicated to God (neque ab 
ipsis sacratis Deo virginibus abstineant.") — i. 127. — Ibid. 

Godeau, Bishop of Venice, says, — 

" There were many monasteries in the town of Milan, in which the 
greater part of the nuns did not live in cloisters, nor under obedience, 
nor in poverty, and sometimes not in chastity. . . He endeavoured to 
correct these irregularities ; but he found great resistance from the nuns, 
—from their relations, who improperly took their part, — and from the 
monk3 who had the conduct of them. ... St Charles conducted him- 
self so wisely, that he made the relations of these disorderly girls (ces 
Hies dtregltes) see that, in upholding them in their licentious way of 
life, (leur facon de vivre si licentieuse,) they dishonoured their fami- 
lies, besides the injury they brought upon the Church."— Extract from 
the Life of St Charles Borromeo, by Godeau, Bishop of Venice. — Ibid. 

Llorente, in his History of the Inquisition, says, — 

" A Capucin monk seduced thirteen out of seventeen of the nunc in 
a convent in which he was confessor."— LLortnte, Hint, of Inquisition. 
French edition, iii. 4.4.— IVid* 



MONASTIC IMMORALITY. 249 

Spillar says, — 

" Some years ago, it was my lot to become acquainted with a "Romish 
bishop, (since dead,) vicar-apostolic of British Guiana, Dr Claney. 
At the period of mj acquaintance with him, he was about departing 
from Ireland to his bishopric, and was taking with him a number of 
nuns for the purpose of founding a convent there. He did succeed in 
procuring some six or seven females, who set sail with him from Dublin. 
In an incredibly short period after her arrival there, one of the nuns 
insisted on returning, and threatened an appeal to the British Governor 
if her request were not complied with. It was granted, and upon her 
return to Ireland, she stated to myself, amongst others, that the revolt- 
ing scenes she was compelled to witness were the cause of her departure. 
It will be only necessary to inform my readers, that the bislop was 
confidently reported to have lived in open fornication with the mother 
abbess, while one of his priests, his vicar-general, became the avowed 
seducer of another, a young lady of the tender age of eighteen years. . 
. . . But Ireland teems with many such instances ; and I am aware 
of a convent in a town in the west of Ireland, situate close to a cavalry 
barrack, which was the regular resort of all the dissolute officers of the 
neighbourhood, who used to enter it under the cover of the night, and 
rarely emerge from it till break of day." — Extract from a Tract pub- 
lished in Zfublin, by i?. F. Spillar, formerly a flomanist. — Ibid. 

Mr Drummond, it will be remembered, made a famous 
speech in the House of Commons, on March 30, 1851, on 
" The Ecclesiastical Titles* Bill" — a speech in which he 
denounced the conventual system as grossly immoral. The 
Irish members created a great hubbub, and called on the 
honourable gentleman to retract. Instead of a retractation, 
however/ he published his speech with documentary evi- 
dence in proof of his statements. He took the trouble of 
writing to several parties, who know from experience the 
Romish system as it is now, and received the following 
answers, which we extract from the notes of his speech : 
Mr Drummond says, that he " can produce the names and 
addresses of all the writers of the following letters, except 
one, whenever it may be necessary to do so : 

" March 22, 1851. I heard a Franciscan friar preach a very good ser- 
mon, and I went subsequently to visit him in his convent. He gave us 
fruit and wine in his cell. He afterward offered me the use of his cell 
for the evening, and to bring any nun I would name out of the adjoining 
convent." 

4 ' Mr D. was perfectly right in the character which he gave of mo- 



200 MONASTIC IMMORALITY. 

nastic institutions. I well remember, when I was in Quebec, som* 
thirty-five years ago, one of these nests of iniquity was being taken 
down, and on clearing away the foundation, a quantity of the bones and 
rem^na of infanta were found under the pavement in a part of the cellar. 
It appears that this spot had been U3ed, time immemorial, by the pious 
sisterhood, for the burial-place of the poor beings who had thus been 
murdered to hide their shame and profligacy. The story soon got to 
the ears of the Papists, and the affair was hushed up." — Extract of a 
Letter from, an English Manufacturer in ike North 0/ England to a 
Merchant in London, 29th March, 1851. 

" I was a curate, officiating in the Roman Catholio Chapel of . 

My niece was a boarder or pensioner in the school of the nunnery of , 

from the age of four years to the age of eighteen. As her guardian, 
under her father's will, the duty devolved on me to ascertain from that 
young lady her intentions relative to her future state of life. I accor- 
dingly invited her to breakfast at my lodgings in the chapel-house of 
that chapel, and said to her, ' Do you intend to return into a nunnery 
or living in the world?' ' Nunneries,' she replied, ' are not such good 
places as you imagine : I would not pass my life in one of them for any 
consideration : as to the nuns, they are continually in a state of strife 
with each other, and the crimes committed by the young ladies are 
shocking to relate.' I accordingly, with her own approbation, placed 
her at a boarding-school of the highest reputation, in order to qualify her 
for filling her place in sooiety, where she remained until she married." 
— Extract of a letter from an Ex-Priest, 29th March, 1851. 

M I had a long audience of leave from the Pope, in 1848, and was 
charged by His Holiness with a message to a near relative living in a 
convent in England. On arriving, in June, I went to the convent, and 
rang at the priest's door ; I was told that the priest was not up, as he 
was not well, and I was shewn into a parlour'. After waiting some time, 
and fearing that I had been imprudent in asking to see him if he was 
really indisposed, I went up stairs and opened his bed-room door. The 
priest was quite well ; he was not more than half dressed, and a young 
nun waji standing by him, who, on seeing me, immediately fled; and 
the priest said that such a thing had never occurred before. I subse- 
quently made a representation to the bishop, who said that the priest 
was not fit to have the charge of females ; but, nevertheless, the priest 
was not removed.'* 

" When, during the late war, the English troops first went to Por- 
tugal, they found in the prison of the inquisition at Lisbon, a man, who, 
being very rich, and of a high family, had founded a nunnery of whioh 
he. had been appointed director. Availing himself of this character, four- 
teen out of twenty nuns had had children by him. The English let 
him in the prison. The French came soon after, and he escaped into 
Franoe."— Dr. C. to Bev. C. De L. 



THE MONASTIC SYSTEM A SOURCE OF WEALTH. 2/>l 

" In the year 1810, I was on the Staff of Sir John Stuart oommanu- 
ing in Sicily. During the fruitless attempt of Murat, with his 40,000 
Frenchmen, to cross the water in that year, several men deserted from 
the foreign corps then in the British service ; among the number were 
three grenadiers from the regiment de Watteville. It was thought 
that thev had joined the French cavalry. The officers knew many jolly 
priests, and by frequent supplies of good brandy, they became very com- 
municative, and spoke out very freely. Several hints were thrown out 
by them with respect to the three grenadiers and a convent just outside 
the gate of Messina. Our detectives were put upon the scent, and in a 
short time discovered the soldiers, well clothed and better fed. On an 
examination of the nuns, who, we are told by some members of your 
house, ' devote their whole time to the service of God, ' seven of those 
ladies were found in the family way, supposed, by the examiners, to be 
by the three grenadiers, who did afterwards confess to their stall-fed and 
happy mode of living for nearly seven months. " 

" Paris, April 3, 1851. — I have inquired of Padre L what 

he knows personally of nunneries in his own country : he tells me that 
he was confessor of only one for a short time not far from Turin, con- 
taining fourteen, and that he was solicited by five of them." — See 
JDrummond's Speech. Bosworth, London, 1851. 

Such immorality is the natural result of the conventual 
system. Priests at all times can have access to the nuns 
without fear of detection. 

Y. The conventual system is a source of enormous 
wealth to the Church of Rome. We quote a passage 
again from Seymour, who ably handles this point. 

'< But the Cardinal asks, What purpose or object can be assigned to 
induce cardinals, bishops, and priests, to allure girls into the nunneries? 
He asks, What assignable object can be given for their extending the 
monastic system ; what possible profit or advantage can be ascribed to 
them ? He asks this with great simplicity, and with a taking and win- 
ning innocence of manner. But it occurred to me, that in a case so lately 
before the public — the case of Miss Talbot — there were eighty-five thou- 
sand reasons — very earthly reasons, certainly, but very substantial rea- 
sons all the while. And the very same thought occurred to Bishop 
Hendren, of Clifton, for he wrote to the Times newspaper, saying that 
he did not see why the Roman Catholic Church should not get a share 
of that money ; and it is said he anticipated building a cathedral with 
a portion of it. But still the Cardinal asks, what assignable motive 
can exist for promoting the monastic system ? He had one very strong 
reason in the lecture before him for the solution of the question ; for on 
that occasion I showed that every young woman on coming to a nunnery, 
is called the Bride of Jesus Christ, and is expected to bring her dowry 



252 THE MONASTIC SYSTEM — A SOURCE OF WEALTH. 

with her ; that that varies in different countries ; that on my inquiries 
throughout Italy, I found that it extended from £300 up to £800 and 
£1,000, and that in Ireland it was at the lowest £500 ; and I remarked 
that all these nunneries were so managed, that the interest of the 
dowry was sufficient to maintain the ordinary expenditure of the nun, 
and that the capital was preserved intact. I stated that as money pro- 
duced six per cent on the Continent, £300 would give an interest of £18 ; 
and that this was adequate for the purpose, for I have been at a nun- 
nery in Belgium, where I asked the Superior the charge for a single in- 
dividual boarding in the establishment, and she told me it was only £12 
a year. This statement is substantiated by the fact that the Spanish 
Government, itself a Roman Catholic Government, and the people a 
Roman Catholic people, allows precisely £12, 3s. 4d. as the allowance 
for each individual in a nunnery. Well, then, if they have but £300 as 
the dowry, the interest is fully adequate to support the expenditure of 
the nun, and the capital is laid by and reserved for the purposes of the 
Court of Rome. 

:< I remarked, also, that when I was in Tuscany, they told me there 
were from five to six thousand nuns in that country, and that if we mul- 
tiply 5,000 (the lowest number) by £300, the smallest sum supposed 
for the dowry, it would give a capital of something like £1,500,000; 
and that if we went to the city of Rome, and its vicinity, where there 
are about 2,000 nuns, the lowest sum, £300, would give a capital oi 
£600,000, and, estimating the whole number in Italy at 12,000, — 
20,000 is nearer the true number — it would give a result not much 
short of £4,000,000 of capital. And I remarked that this was not a 
dead or inactive capital, but that, as each nun died, her dowry was 
available, being supplied by the dowry of her successor ; so that if aM 
the nuns died out in twenty years, the whole of the capital would be 
available in twenty years ; and if all the nuns died out in ten years, 
the whole of the capital would be available in ten years. And, there- 
fore, I observed, there was a premium on the rapid dying away of the 
nuns, for the faster they died out the faster was the capital necessarily 
available. Now, when it is considered that I applied my calculation 
only to Italy, and we are to add thereto the Church of Spain, and the 
Church of France, and also if we allow a calculation for these islands, 
then I think it will be found that the Court of Rome will be in posses- 
sion of a capital so enormous, that we shall have brought to mind what 
Hume says in his History of the Early Kings of England, that the Court 
of Rome drew a revenue from this country greater than all the national 
revenue of the Crown of England. 

" But the Cardinal has replied to all this, by stating that I have 
taken too high an estimate in naming £300 as the ordinary dowry of 
the nuns ; that his experience is, that £200 was nearer the mark ; that 
he seldom knew any beyond £200. Now I am not disposed to bandy 
words with the Cardinal, or any other man, or to set his word against 
mine, or any word against his. And I am sure that every man in this 



TIIZ MONASTIC SYSTEM — A SOURCE OF WEALTH. 253 

assembly would act a3 I would act myself, when I met. such rival and 
contradictory statements. I would ask if there were any certain or in- 
dependent authority distinct from either party. And, above all, if I 
found that the matter had come before any Law Court of England, and 
if the judgment of Jury and Judge had settled the question, I would 
defer to that judgment, and waive the opinion of Mr Seymour on the 
one hand, and that of the Cardinal on the other. Now, my own per- 
sonal experience was that, at Chiavari, in the north of Italy, I asked 
the question, and was told that the amount was £300 ; and when I was 
in Perugia, in Tuscany, they told me it was £300, and upwards ; and 
when I was at Rome, and asked the same question, they told me it waf 
£300, sometimes ascending to £800 and £1000 ; and when I h&TC&ak* 
ed the question in Ireland, they have told me that the very lowest was 
£500. But, as I have stated, I waive my own experience, and lay 
aside my own assertions. I come to what my friends are so anxious 
for ; I come to the evidence. 

" ' Now, the first proof I will give is the judgment of a Baron in, the 
Court of Exchequer, in the case known to lawyers by the name of 
" White v. Reed," in 1827. The Judge, in giving his judgment, used 
the following words : — 

" ' In 1825, this young woman entered into the establishment as a 
lodger, and unquestionably not as a person who had irrevocably bound 
herself to take the veil ; and what is that which was stipulated ? — viz. 
that she was not to be professed till she attained the age of twenty-one ; 
under this stipulation she entered the convent. And it was further 
agreed, that she was to pay £40 a-year until she took the veil, and 
afterwards £600.' 

" The Judge states further: — 

" ' Her brother in-law is denied access to her ; her sister is allowed 
to see her, but never without a member of the convent being present ; 
and in such circumstances as these she transfers £1100 to the convent, 
and the whole of her real estate, with the exception of some small por- 
tion of it, which she gave to her relations.' 

" Now here we have evidence in a court of law, that £600 was the 
dowry in that convent. That was the convent of Ranelagh, near Dublin. 

" But I am determined that the public in this city shall see how 
much and how far they are to depend upon the accuracy of the Cardinal. 
I am determined that when he visited this place and impeached my 
credibility, he must stand the test of his own. Now, bearing in mind 
what he said on that occasion, that he never knew the sum to be greater 
than £200, he must have had a knowledge of the case now before me. This 
case is one published in the Jurist, and is so far an official document, 
that that which I hold in my hand would be received in a court of law 
as evidence. It is the case of the Macarthys, tried in the year 1844, 
and appealed to the House of Lords two years ago. It appears from 
the evidence, and in the charge of the Judge, and in the documents be- 
fore the House of Lords, that ' Mary and Catherine Macarthy, in the 
lifetime of their father, and with his own consent, became members of 



f 

254 THE MONASTIC SYSTEM A SOURCE OF WEALTH. 

the Ursuline Convent at Black Rock, and he paid to the society a sum 
of £1000 with each of them as a portion.' I think, therefore, I have 
set at rest, so far as legal evidence is concerned, the fact that, when I 
stated £300 might be taken as a moderate estimate, I was not very far 
above the mark, whatever I might have been below it. 

" But I have not done with the credibility of the Cardinal. It is not 
every day I catch a Cardinal. The Cardinal stated, that he only knew 
of £200 given for a dowry, and he omitted — perhaps it was one of those 
lapses of memory to which I have before referred — he omitted to state 
that, whenever that dowry is given, much or small, it comprehends all 
rights and all properties to which that nun may ever afterwards become 
entitled. So that if she gives her £300 or her £1000, believing it to 
be all she has, yet, if in after times she inherits many thousands, or be 
bequeathed a million, the whole of that becomes part and parcel of her 
dowry, and is absorbed into the nunnery. The Cardinal omitted to 
state this in his lecture ; but it is stated broadly in the evidence before 
the House of Lords ; and if any gentleman wishes to question it, I will 
call a most competent witness before me. Let the crier call Cardinal 
"Wiseman ! I hold the Cardinal's evidence in my hand. There has been 
a committee of the House of Commons sitting on the ^Mortmain Act, 
and Cardinal "Wiseman was called as a witness before it. It may suit 
his purpose to tell an auditory in Bath, in a little private chapel, where 
no man can contradict him — it may suit his purpose to give any state- 
ment about the extent of dowry in a nunnery, and the rights and privi- 
leges involved therein ; but when he stands before the searching men of 
a committee of the House of Commons of England, his evidence bears 
ratLcr a different colour. ' Is it the case V was the question put to him, — 

1 ' ' That, according to the rules and regulations of the canon law, all 
such property as devolves on every nun after becoming a nun, becomes 
the property of the community of which she is a member? 

" ' It would become in Catholic countries, and be recognised in Ca- 
tholic countries as the property of the community, but in this country 
it is usual to make what is called a will beforehand, and that is practi- 
cally the rule pursued, to the best of my knowledge. 

" 'Are you acquainted with the convent of New Hall ! 

" ' I am, to a certain extent. 

" 'Do you think vows of poverty and obedience, such as nuns usually 
take, are in themselves sufficient to give the convent the right of the pro- 
perty ; supposing no contract to exist before they entered the convent? 

" ' In that case the property goes to the convent, but in this country 
a nun is herself considered legally entitled to it ; but, by the laws of 
Catholic countries, ipso facto, it is considered that the property goes to 
the convent.' 

11 With this testimony from Cardinal Wiseman himself I am sure I 
may dismiss this part of my subject, simply stating, that the Cardinal's 
calculation about the £200 and the £300, reduced my four millions to 
something like three millions, as the capital in Italy ; and, though I am 
not disposed to split hairs with the Cardinal, I have no objection to 
split the three millions with him. But it seems to me strange that, 



SUMMARY OF THE CONVENTUAL SYSTEM. 255 

when the Cardinal loves to launch out in the most vehement eloquence 
against the avarice of Henry VIII. for seizing the enormous wealth and 
estates of the monastic orders, in order that he might heap them on his 
flatterers and his followers, it seems like blowing hot and cold out of 
the same mouth. The monastic wealth is enormous and great beyond 
expression when he has to vilify the opponents of the nunneries ; but 
that wealth is a mere romance of my imagination, and they are all chil- 
dren of poverty, whenever he wants to applaud the defenders of those 
establishments." — P 29, ut supra. 

We think that the whole system should be suppressed. 
It is utterly inconsistent with the genius of this free coun- 
try to allow young women to be imprisoned for life, and 
left to the mercy of a " corporation of bachelors," who 
avowedly cross-question them in the confessional upon the 
most indelicate subjects. 

Besides, it is contrary to true policy to allow accumu- 
lations of property in monastic institutions. Before the 
Reformation, about one fourth of the property of) the 
country had fallen into the hands of the Churoh. Roman 
Catholic countries swarm with idle and inert monks and 
nuns, and the consequence is felt in the general deterio- 
ration of the people. If we desire that England should 
continue " great, glorious, and free,'' we must not permit 
the monastic system, with its necessarily debasing results. 
The proposed inspection of nunneries is wholly insufficient, 
because the vows of perpetual celibacy and seclusion, with 
their immoral consequences, would still continue. Monas- 
teries and nunneries must be completely abolished. 

QUESTIONS A2JD ANSWERS; 

1. Q. — The monastic system is based upon two false 
principles. What ate they ? 

A. — 1. That celibacy is a holier state than matrimony. 
2. That total withdrawal from the social intercourse and 
business of life is conducive to true religion. 

2. Q. — Of what inconsistency is the Church df Roifte 
guilty in reference to matrimony ? 

A.-^ She exalts it to the rank of a sacrament, and yei 
forbids marriage to the clergy. 

3. Q.-^-Whj do you object to the vow of celibaey ? 

jl. — '1. Because persons who usually take that vow at 
a comparatirely early age, are not fit jtidges as to whether 



256 SUMMARY OF THE CONVENTUAL SYSTEM. 

they possess the gift of continence. 2. It is hazardous to 
take a step for perpetuity in virtue of a gift which, if 
possessed, is not necessarily perpetual. 3. It is also un- 
scriptural. 

4. Q. — How is monastic life one of peculiar temptation] 
A. — The idle habits of monks and nuns increase the 

mere animal propensities, and produce great harm. 

5. Q. — Has the monastic system, as a matter of fact, 
been productive of immorality 1 

A. — Yes, and that according to the testimony of Ro- 
mish, as well as Protestant authorities. 

6. Q. — In what way are nunneries and monasteries un- 
constitutional 1 

A. — It is contrary to the principles of the British con- 
stitution, and of liberty, that British subjects should be 
allowed to take vows of the perpetual surrender of that 
liberty; or that such inst ; tutions, accumulating vast 
masses of property, should be permitted in our land. 

7. Q. — Would the inspection of nunneries be a remedy % 
A. — No. While nunneries exist at all, the unconsti- 
tutional vows of perpetual celibacy and seclusion, with all 
their attendant evils, must still continue. The .system is 
fundamentally bad. The evil is incurable. Nunneries 
and monasteries should be abolished. 



Chapter XXV.— Irish National Education. 

The subject of National Education is one of the most 
important that could occupy the attention of our legisla- 
ture. It is a question which affects the views, both reli- 
gious and secular, as well as the conduct of the rising ge- 
neration. We are commanded to " train up a child in 
the way he should go," and this duty devolves upon the 
State, as a parent, in reference to the children entrusted 
to its care. If the rising generation of a country be edu- 
cated upon right principles, we may look, under God's 
blessing, for the most important and happy results ; but 
if, on the contrary, they are brought. up, either without 



IRISH NATIONAL EDUCATION 257 

the fear of God, or in superstition and idolatry, the most 
deplorable consequences must ensue. If the fountain bo 
poisoned, the streams that flow therefrom can not be pura 
This is a subject to which the great principle taught by 
the Saviour applies : " Every good tree bringeth forth 
good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit." 
Matt. vii. 17. 

Ireland has long been " England's difficulty." Su- 
perstition, idolatry, and, as the consequence, wretchedness 
and rebellion, are in the land. Popery acts as a blight 
in every country where it prevails. Popery is hostile, 
from its very nature, to Protestantism, and so the Roman- 
ists of Ireland are hostile to the Protestant government of 
Britain. What is to be done to remedy these evils? The 
answer is obvious : Let England make it part of her na- 
tional duty to spread the benign influence of the gospel 
amongst the people, but especially to bring up the rising 
generation in sound Protestant principles. Inform their 
minds with wholesome knowledge. Instruct them in the 
word of God, and no longer will priestcraft and supersti- 
tion bow them down. Oh, it will be said, that is all very 
good, but is it practicable 1 ? Would the people, or if they N 
were not indisposed, would the priests permit the children 
of their flocks to be instructed in holy scripture? Are not 
the -dogmas and discipline of the Church of Rome diame- 
trically opposed to the course which you recommend? 
Now, in answer to these objections, it will appear, in the 
course of this chapter, that, despite of all the chains 
which Rome attempts to bind upon her people, the Ro- 
man Catholics, and especially the rising generation of Ire- 
land, living, as they do, under Protestant laws, and being 
brought into contact with various Protestant influences, 
are open, in a great measure, to the reception of gospel 
truth. 

But, first of all, the question arises, whom, or what 
machinery can we employ to discharge the office of edu- 
cating the people? To this important inquiry the an- 
swer is obvious. Ireland, like England and Scotland, 
has its Church. Every parish has its mi nister, and, 



258 NEGLECT OF THE GOVERNMENT. 

according to the establishment principle, it is the duty 
and privilege of the minister to educate the people placed 
under his charge, and of the State to supply him with the 
means. Why not then let every Church have its school ? A 
parish without a school is like a man without his right arm. 
But the parishes in Ireland have too often been left in a 
mutilated condition. The blame attaches chiefly to the 
State, which neglected to provide funds for the main- 
tenance of parochial schools. It trusted for the ex- 
tension of the Reformation to penal laws. It over- 
looked the truly legitimate mode of advancing the cause 
of the blessed gospel. And so, for ages, the rising gener- 
ation of Ireland was uncared for. The people were per- 
mitted to live and die in gross darkness — the prey of ig- 
norance, superstition, and idolatry. We say that the 
State in this matter is chiefly to blame. Its duty is, to 
provide the Church with sufficient means to carry out her 
great mission; but we cannot altogether exonerate the 
clergy, who have in time past too often seemed to lack 
Christian zeal and faithfulness, and who neglected to call 
upon the Legislature for that aid in the cause of education 
which it is the bounden duty of the State to give. Had 
the parochial school system been fully carried out — had 
the Church been enabled to provide for the education of 
the poor, there is no doubt »that Ireland, long ago, would 
have been emancipated from the moral slavery under 
which she now suffers. And what true Christian would 
not have rejoiced that the State should have embarked in 
this glorious work — the supplying of money for an ex- 
tensive and efficient machinery, as a means, under God, 
for the conversion of the Roman Catholics? Who, we re- 
peat, could say, that the State had not entered upon a holy 
and patriotic, and we may add, even if viewed as a matter 
of policy, a most politic and wise course, for what can 
be more dangerous to our own civil and religious liberty 
than the existence in Ireland, and in our own Protestant 
Britain, of hundreds and thousands of Roman Catholics, 
trained to hate Protestants with a perfect hatred, and to 
obey the orders of a foreign tyrant — the grand opponent 



THE KILDARE PLACE SOCIETY. 259 

on earth of God and man, and of civil and religious 
liberty. The nation, even as a mere matter of policy, 
commits a capital blunder in not taking measures for the 
conversion of the Roman Catholics, to bring them into 
harmony with the British constitution. 

We proceed now to consider three points : — The Kildare 
System, and its results — the so-called National System, 
and its results — and the only True National and Effectual 
System for Ireland. 

I- THE KILDARE PLACE SOCIETY 

was established in the year 1811. The State having 
neglected to supply the Church with means for the educa- 
tion of the people, the Kildare Place Society was estab- 
lished to meet, in some degree, the want. The principles 
of this society were as follow : — 

"The admission of pupils uninfluenced by religious distinctions, and 
the reading of the Bible or Testament, without note or comment, by all 
the pupils who had attained a suitable proficiency, excluding catechisms 
and controversial treatises ; the Bible, or Testament, not to be used as 
a class book, from which children should be taught to read or spell." 

So far as it went, the Kildare Place Society was 
good, though it might have been better. Education, 
to be thoroughly effective, should be placed in con- 
nexion with the parochial school, and carried into every 
parish. Under the circumstances, however, in which 
Ireland was placed at the establishment of this Society, 
we could hardly expect from a time-serving govern- 
ment, which every day became more lax in its views, a 
thorough and fully effective system of education upon 
scriptural and Church principles. Long after the Refor- 
mation, the minds of the people were open to favourable 
impressions. Indeed, for a considerable period, the masses 
attended reformed worship, but opportunities were lost, 
and the priests regained their hold upon the minds 
of the people. The Kildare Place Society was a move- 
ment in the right direction, and had it been allowed to 
proceed, there is no doubt that it would have resulted in 
an extensive and more definite system of education in 
connexion with the parishes of Ireland. The good which 



260 ROMANISTS WILLING TO RECEIVE BIBLE EDUCATION. 

was being effected by this society will appear from the 
following statistics : — 



Years. 


Schools. 


Pupils. 


Parliamentary 
Grants. 


1819 


241 


16,7S6 


£5,538 


1820 


381 


26,474 


j, 538 


1821 


513 


36,657 


10,000 


1822 


727 


51,637 


10,000 


1823 


1,122 


79,287 


14,000 


J 824 


1,490 


100,000 


22,000 


1825 


1,395 


102,380 


22,000 


1826 


1,477 


102,064 


30,000 


1827 


1,467 


98,063 


25,000 


1828 


1,497 


106,839 


, 25,000 


1829 


1,553 


124,449 


25,000 


1830 


1,634 


132,530 


25,000 


1831 


1,621 


137,639 


No Grant. 



Of the above, a large number were Roman Catholics, 
who manifested, in their attendance, year after year, an 
increasing disposition to receive scriptural instruction. 
But, in the year 1831, as the result of the policy esta- 
blished in 1829, and the opposition of the priests, the 
Parliamentary grant was altogether withdrawn from the 
Kildare Place Society. The government determined to 
attempt a system of mixed education. 

II. THE NATIONAL SYSTEM. 

We now proceed to consider the rules, tendency, and 
results of the National Board. The views and mo- 
tives of the founders of the new government scheme are 
apparent, from the following passages in a letter of Mr 
Stanley, now Earl of Derby, to the Duke of Leinster, 
written in the year 1831. 

" The determination to enforce, in all their schools, the reading of 
the holy Scriptures, without note or comment, was undoubtedly taken 
with the purest motives, with the wish at once to connect religious with 
moral and literary education 

" But i f - seems to have been overlooked, that the principles of the 
Itoman Catholic Church, (to which in any system intended for general 
diffusion in Ireland, the bulk of the pupils must necessarily belong,) 
were totally at variance with this principle ; and that the indiscrimi- 
nate reading of the holy Scriptures, without note or comment, by chil- 



* Commission of Inquiry established. 



TUE KILDARE PLACE SOCIETY PROSPERED. 26 i 

dren, must be peculiarly obnoxious to a Church which denies even to 
adults the ryjht of unaided private interpretation of the sacred volume, 
with respect to articles of religious belief. 

" Shortly after its institution, although the (Kildare Place) Society 
prospered and extended its operations, under the fostering care of the 
Legislature, this vital defect, (the reading of the Scriptures without note 
or comment, ) began to be noticed, and the Roman Catholic clergy began 
to exert themselves with energy and success, against a system to which 
tbey were, on principle, opposed, and which, they feared, might lead, 
in its results, to proselytism, even although no such object was contem- 
plated by its promoters." 

Upon this letter we make the following observations: — 

1. It is admitted that the Kildare Place Society "pros- 
pered and extended its operations" 

2. It is stated that the priests had " exerted themselves 
with energy and success" against " the indiscriminate 
reading of holy Scripture." 

The government, seeing the success of the Society, 
should have determined to support it still more, an4, 
seeing the opposition of the priesthood, should have lent 
their influence to discourage and discountenance that oppo- 
sition; but they decided upon the very opposite course. 
They inflicted a heavy blow upon the cause of Scriptural 
education, which had been successful to a great degree; 
and they strengthened the hands of an unrighteous priest- 
hood. The Kildare Place Society was virtually over- 
thrown, and the National Society established upon it* 
ruins. We now give an extract from the rules of the 
National Society. 

RULES OF THE NATIONAL BOARD. 

" Opportunities are to he afforded to the children of each school for 
receiving such religious instruction as their parents or guardians ap- 
prove of. 

" The patrons of the several schools have the right of appointing suek 
religious instruction as they may think proper to be given therein, pro- 
vided that each school be open to children of all communions ; that due 
regard be had to parental right and authority ; that, accordingly, no 
child be compelled to receive, or be present at, any religious instruction 
to which his parents or guardians object ; and that the time for giving 
it be so fixed, that no child shall be thereby, in effect, excluded, directly 
or indirectly, from the other advantages which the school affords. Sub- 
ject to this, religious instruction may be given either during the fixed 
school hours or otherwise. 

14 The reading of the Scriptures, either in the Protestant authorised 



262 RULES OF THE NATIONAL BOARD. 

§r Douay version, as M'ell as the teaching of Catechisms, comes within 
the rule as to religious instruction. 

"The rule as to religious instruction applies to public prayer, and 
to all other religious exercises. 

" If any other books than the holy Scriptures, or the standard books 
«f the church to which the children using them belong, are employed in 
•ommunicating religious instruction, the title of each is to be made 
known to the commissioners." 

We quote the following observations upon these rules 
from a work entitled " Education in Ireland ." 

" Before proceeding farther, it is well to notice the principles contained 
in the above extracts : — 

" First. Whatever " religious instruction" the patrons, parents, or 
guardians, approve of, is to be taught, be it good or bad, true or false, 
Scriptural or unscriptural. The Archbishop of Dublin, in a speech 
delivered by him at the Manchester Athenasum some years since, thus 
elucidated this fundamental principle of the Board : — 

" ' The system (of the National Education Board) was to give each child 
separate religious instruction in that mode, be it right or- wrong, which 
the parent should himself think fit.' 

" The Times newspaper expressed it more briefly: — 

" • There is money to educate Roman Catholic priests ; money to edu- 
cate the Irish youth, in any form of religion they may please.' 

" Secondly. Observe that even Protestant children, who may happen 
to attend National Schools under Romish patrons or masters, are liable 
to be taught the errors of Popery, if their parents have, through ignor- 
ance, remissness, or indifference, not taken the precaution to object to 
such teaching for their children. This will be more apparent on perusing 
the following passage from a published letter from the Board to the 
Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of St Patrick's, dated 12th May, 1 849 : — 

" ' We are further to state, that although the Board cannot sanction 
the forcing of any religious instruction to which the parents or guardi- 
ans object, yet if the children in any parish are left unprovided with 
any religious instruction which their parents consent to their receiving, 
the fault lies with their pastor, and not the Commissioners. 
*.' ' We are, sir, your very obedient servants, 

" ' Maurice Cross, ) 
. '-James Kelly, ' j Secretaries. 

11 ' The Hon. and Very Rev. Dean Pakenham.' 

" The majority of the National Schools of Ireland being under Popish 
management, it follows, therefore, that if the doctrines of the Romish 
Church are not taught to any Protestant pupils whose parents are reck- 
less about their soul's welfare, it is the priests or other managers who 
are to blame, and not the Commissioners ! And even under Protestant 
management, no religious instruction whatever may be given." 

•■ Thirdly. ' The leading of the Scriptures' coming within the rule 
•f * religious instruction ;' no child is to be present when they are read. 



atlZHD CHARACTER OF THE BOARD. 253 

whose pwrsnta object j a#d eonMquenUy a direct insult is offered to God, 
whogQ holy Word is hereby disparaged, gad pronounced by the Com- 
missioners to be an improper book for youth to be instruciad in ! 

" Fourthly. The Bibie, and other books which inculcate religious 
truth, are placed precisely under the same rule as the awful mis-transla- 
tion cf God's Word, called the ' Douay Version,' and other books which 
teach religious falsehood. The catechism which states there are but two 
sscr^monts, and that which enumerates seven, hold the same rank in 
the estimation of tfie Commissioners ; and the standard works of the 
Reformed Church, and those of the Romish apostacy, are considered 
equally worthy of commendation ! 

" What is all this but an effort to reconcile light with darkness, truth 
with falsehood, Christ with Belial? It is an infidel principle, unworthy 
of a Christian nation, and degrading to Britain as a Protestant state. 

" One word more on this subject. Although various school-books are 
supplied to the National Schools, an exception is made against the Bible ; 
and the names of the before-mentioned secretaries have been appended 
to another letter from the Board, which contains the following passage 
on the subject:" — 

ft • The Commissioners do kot supply copies of the sacred Scriptures.' 
"How fearfully does the language of the prophet Jeremiah apply here : 
Jeremiah ii. 12, 13. "Be astonished, ye heavens, at this, and 
be horribly afraid ; be ye very desolate, saith the Lord. For my people 
have committed two evils : they have forsaken Me, the fountain of living 
waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no 
water." — p. 4, Walbrook. Dublin, 1854. 

THE HETEROGENEOUS CHARACTER OF THE BOARD. 

In accordance with these rules, the Board of Manage- 
ment is made up of Romanists, Socinians, Nominal Pres- 
byterians, and members of the Church of England. For- 
merly Dr Whately, Archbishop of Dublin, belonged to 
the Board, but he was compelled at length to secede. 
The Bishop of Deny, who was promoted to the bench for 
his adoption of the views of the National Society is now 
the only Protestant bishop connected with it. 

But it may be said, that this system being a sort of 
compromise, the tendency and result will be as much in 
favour of Protestantism as of Popery. We answer, that 
even if it were, we are still guilty of inconsistency, and 
wrong in giving it our support. We must riot " do evil 
that good may come." The Jesuit principle, that " the end 
sanctifies the means," is nowhere found in holy Scripture. 
We cannot, if we are faithful to truth, sanction the prin 



264 THE SYSTEM NOT NATIONAL. 

ciple, that in education, the Bible may be withheld at the 
bidding of the priest, or that of the parent who acts under 
the priest's control. The State, by the national system, 
recognises a false version of Scripture — authorises the 
Romish priest as a teacher — acknowledges the Pope, a 
foreign prince, who gives authority to the priest, and sanc- 
tions the subjection of the Romish laity to.the priesthood. 
All this is wrong in principle; and even if it could be 
shown that the interests of Protestantism suffer no injury 
from the "National Society," we are still bound to protest 
against it. 

THE SYSTEM IS NOT NATIONAL. 

But we will now show that the term " National," as 
applied to this Society, is altogether inappropriate, as the 
Protestants of Ireland, from its Romish character, are 
unable to avail themselves of its provisions. 

1. The great majority of children in the Metropolitan 
Model Schools are Popish. The Commissioners' report, 
made in 1854, gives the following statistics: — 

Established Church, - - - 145 

Presbyterians, - - - - 21 

Jews, - - - 2 

Total of all except Roman Catholics, 168 

Roman Catholics, - - - 1311 

Total, - - - 1479 

It will be thus seen that the Romanists in the Model 
Schools are eight to one ! And that the system is not " Na- 
tional" but Romish ! 

_ 2. The majority of teachers trained in the Institute are 
Romish. The following statistics for 1852, are gathered 
from the above report : — 

Established Church, - - • 17 

Presbyterians, - - . - 43 

Dissenters, .... 2 

Total of all except Roman Catholics, 62 

Roman Catholics, - - - - 240 

Total, - - . 302 

The teachers are thus in the proportion of four to one! 
They that "sow the wind must reap the whirlwind.'* 



THE SYSTEM ROMISH. 265 

"What else, but the increase and consolidation of Popery in 
Ireland, can be expected from a system which provides 
such a staff of trained Romanists for the education of the 
young. 

3. The majority of the patrons of the National Schools 
are Romish priests. We refer the reader to the foregoing 
rules of the Board, according to which, great power is 
vested in the patron. Out of 4700 schools, 3360 are 
under Romish control. The Romish patrons are in the 
proportion of nine to one! And as it is the patron who 
fixes the religious instruction to be given to the children 
of these schools, it is manifest how exclusively Popish, 
how anti-Protestant, how anti-Scriptural, how anti-Bri- 
tish, that education must be ! 

4. The great majority of children educated in the three 
provinces, Munster, Connaught, and Leinster, — are Ro- 
mish — mark, educated in Romanism. The following are 
the statistics : — 

Established Church, 6,911 

Presbyterians, - - - - - - - 313 

Other Protestant Dissenters, - - - - 153 

Religious Denominations not stated, ... £42 

Total of all denominations except Roman Catholics* 7,919 
Roman Catholics, 338,464 

Total for Munster, Leinster, and Connaught, 346,388 
Thus, there are three hundred Romish children to every 
seven Protestants! Who can say that the system is 
national? If this educational plan were viewed by Pro- 
testants as a provision suitable for them, the attend- 
ance of Protestant children would be much larger than 
it is, as the Protestant population is to the Roman Ca- 
tholic much greater than the proportion indicated by the 
Protestant attendance on the National School. That is 
to say, for every three hundred Romish children, there 
should be about two hundred Protestant children, instead 
of only seven ! 

In justification of, and in sympathy with those Protes- 
tant parents who decline to send their children to the 
National Schools, we would bring prominently forward 



266 THE SYSTEM ROMISH. 

the fact, that the great majority of the schools are under 
the patronage, as it is technically called by the National 
Board, of the Romish priest of the district, who appoints 
one of his own creatures, a Romanist of course, as the Na- 
tional teacher. We ask British Protestants, who value 
the souls of their children, whether they themselves could 
be induced, by the prospect of even superior education, 
to commit the education of their children to a Popish 
schoolmaster? It seems evident that that system can not 
be called national, when all the provision which the nation 
makes for the education of the Protestants of Ireland is, 
for the most part, the offer of the instructions of a Popish 
schoolmaster ! 

5. Even in Ulster, where many of the Presbyterians 
have given their adherence to the National system, the 
majority of children in the schools aro Roman Catholics! 
Although Protestantism predominates in Ulster, yet such 
is the result; thus showing that even where the National 
system has the benefit of the support of the Presbyterian 
clergy, the antipathy of the Protestant laity to the system 
can not be overcome. In passing, we observe that the 
Presbyterian supporters of the Board, for a paltry advan- 
tage to themselves, have sacrificed the principle of Scrip- 
tural education. They hand over the Romish children t# 
the Romish priests. Had Ulster been faithful to truth, 
the National system would have fallen long since. But, 
as it is, even in Ulster throe-fifths of the children attend- 
ing the National Schools are of the Romish Church ! 

THE SYSTEM IS FAVOURABLE TO ROME,* 

proved by the following testimonies of Romish priests: 



* In evidence that the national system is virtually a national recogni- 
tion of Popery, we need only refer to the fact that, in the National School* 
•which have Popish patrons — nearly three- fourths of the schools— certaia 
of the Popish festivalsarc observed as holidays. Thus, for instance, on th« 
1 5th of A ugust, the day which Rome observes in honour of her legend, that 
the body of the Virgin Mary was taken up into Heaven, there is a holiday 
in the National Schools, when neither Romish nor Protestant children 
receive any instruction. "Who will not fail to perceive, that the observance 
of the Popish holidays must impress on the mind of a Protestant child 
the conviction that the nation acknowledges the truth of the event 
which tho holiday is designed to commemorate, and that the events 



THE SYSTEM KEEPS ROMISH HOLIDAYS. 267 

Dr Foran, Romish bishop of Waterford, in a letter to 
the Roman Catholics of Waterford, in January 1 85 2, says — 

themselves are true? "Who can be surprised that a Protestant parent 
declines to permit his child to be initiated into the " old wives' tables" 
of Rome, though such fables are sanctioned by the patronage of Protestant 
Britain ? Who can say that the nation is not identified with, these Popish 
holidays ? 

The following correspondence took place between my friend John 
Hope, Esq., and the Secretaries of the Commissioners of the National 
Education, Ireland : — 

To the Secretary, National Education Board, 
Marlborough Street, Dublin. 

Edinburgh, 31 Moray Place, 
12th December, 1854. 

Sir, — In a work now preparing for the press, it is stated that certain 
Roman Catholic festivals, or saint days, are observed as holidays in 
Marlborough Street Model School, and in various National Schools, of 
which Romish priests are patrons. 

To enable me to check the accuracy of this statement, will you be so 
good as to inform me what are the days, and the dates of said days, 
which the Board of National Education in Ireland has sanctioned, or 
are observed as. holidays in the Marlborough Street Model School, and 
the National Schools under charge of the Board, and the reason why suck 
days are observed as holidays. 

I beg you will excuse the trouble which the answering this letter may 
occasion. I thought it best to secure accuracy by applying to you. — 
I am, sir, your most obedient servant, John Hope, W.S. 

ANSWER. 

Education Office, 4th Jan. 1855. 
Sir, — Having laid before the Commissioners of National Education 
your letter of the 12th ult., we are to inform you, that the following 
holidays are observed in the Central Model Schools, Marlboro' Street, 
Dublin :— 

Ascension Thursday, *} 
Whit-Monday, I dates 

Corpus Christi, [variable. 

Queen's Birthday (kept) J 
VACATIONS. 

Christmas, - 2 weeks. 

Easter, - 5 days. 

Midsummer, - 4 week*!. 

With regard to holidays observed in the ordinary National Schools, 
the Commisioners do not interfere, except in cases of abuse, but leave 
the matter to the discretion of the local managers of the Schools. 

We are to add, that the Commissioners do not consider it to be their 
province to assign any reason for adopting such arrangements as they 
may see fit, with regard to holidays in the Central Model Schools. 
We are, Sir, your obedient Servants, 
John Hope, Esq. W.S. Maurice Cross. 

SI Moray Place, Edinburgh. James Kelly. 



The Circumcision, 


Jan. 1 


The Epiphany, - 


Jan. 6 


St Patrick's Day, - 


March 17 


The Annunciation, 


■ March 25 


S. S. Peter and Paul, 


- June 29 


The Assumption, 


Aug. 15 


All Saints, 


Nov. 1 



268 ROMANIST TESTIMONIES THAT THE SYSTEM IS ROMISH. 

" In the National Schools of this diocese there is in reality no mixed 
education, and the (Roman) Catholic clergy possess a control over them 
which is not at all allowed in a model school. The (Romish) clergy are 
patrons of their respective schools, and, consequently, teachers and 
books are alike subject to their authority and inspection." 

Dr Meyler, of Dublin, in an appeal to the public, in the 
Romish papers, in March 1851, says, — 

11 In these Andrean (National) Schools, the religion of the children 
(i. e. the Popish) is as zealously attended to as their literary improve- 
ment. Four clergymen of the parish, who are not engaged in the more 
active duties, have the inspection of them, and attend to the religious (!) 
department. If Pope Gregory XVI. declared, through a valuable re- 
script, that these schools should be gratefully received by (Roman) Ca- 
tholics, since, after the working of them during many years, no injury, 
in a religious point of view, had been sustained, how much more grate- 
ful to him would be the intelligence of this day, when he could be in- 
formed, that an additional argument of succeeding years of innocuous- 
ness in all religious concerns could be adduced to the former, and that 
many of our ruost zealou3 and active prelates have solemnly declared, 
that they never found their children so well instructed for confirmation 
as they have done since the establishment of the National Schools of 
education *' 

The Tahiti, in an article, Sept. 1851, says, — 

*' Kvi-ry Wly who knows any thing about Ireland, knows that the 
National system u not in practice, and never has been— a system of 
tetxed education, that the Catholic clergy who have adopted it, and 
worked it, are not in favour of a mixed system ; that every respectable 
•rtthohc clergyman, without exception, is in favour of purely Catholic 
schools ; that nine-tenths of the National Schools, frequented by Catho- 
lic children, are Catholic schools, taught by Catholic teachers, managed 
by Catholic masters and mistresses, subjected to the control of the priest 
of the parish, who, in the vast majority of instances, is their patron 
and director. What is called mixed education, therefore, is endured 
and tolerated, simply because it is not in fact what it is in name, and 
what it pretends to be; because it is another name for Catholic education." 
THE SYSTEM IS EVER CHANGING. 

On other grounds also we object to this so-called Na- 
tional education. It is not properly a system at all! It 
never was at best anything more than an attempt at com- 
promise. Ever since iteame into operation it has under- 
gone change alt.-. Jiauge, sO that, at the present day, it 
i» almost impossible to discover what are its principles. 



THE SYSTEM HAS NO FIXED PRINCIPLES. 2W 

In illustration we mention one of these changes. — When 
the Commissioners -were first appointed, they attempted 
to introduce certain books for the united education of all 
parties. These books, though more especially designed 
f jr secular education, contained a good deal of religious 
knowledge, and among them was included the Scripture 
lessons.* Certain other books, viz. the " Lessons on the 
Truth of Christianity," the " Introductory Lessons on the 
Christian Evidences," and the " Book of Sacred Poetry," 
were recommended by the Commissioners. 

By degrees the following changes have taken place : — 

1. The recommendations of the lessons on the Truth of 
Christianity, and the Introductory lessons on the Christian 
Evidences, have been withdrawn, and these books are n© 
longer published by the Commissioners. 

2. The Scripture lessons, originally prepared as a book 
to be studied by all in united education, is now put int« 
the list of religious books, the use of which is optional, and 
which are to be used only at the hour for separate religiou* 
instruction. 

Now that the management of the system is so entirely 
in the hands of the Roman Catholics, we may soon expect 
still greater changes — yet all effected quietly, and myste- 
riously, and without notice, the names of the books being 
retained for appearance sake, but the contents of the books 
being altered gradually and stealthily. 

Nor is it merely a change of system of which we have 
to complain. "We may have one concession granted in one 
locality, and another in another locality — the Commis- 
sioners thinking it their duty to vary their rules with the 
varying wishes of the district ; and even when, at last, we 
ascertain the rules applicable to a particular district, we 
have no surety that these rules will be carried out int# 
practice, because, by a recent change of rule, an objection bf 

• The Scripture lessons or extracts were taken neither from the au- 
thorised nor the Douay version, but consisted of a new translation made 
for the purpose, all subjects offensive to Romanists or Unitarians being 
excluded. They were translations merely of portions ot Genesis, Exodus, 
Deuteronomy, Luke, and Acts. Occasionally in notes, explanations 
were given, setting forth the Romish views of particular passages. 



270 THE PARLIAMENTARY GRANT OF £187,000. 

a child, or its parent, to any book or passage, leads to the 
disuse of such book or passage by such child, however 
much the book may be recommended by the Commis- 
sioners. As it is well known how entirely Romish parents 
and children are under the power of the priest, it is easy 
to see how this rule places the whole instruction in the 
hands of the priests. In short, the nation pays for, we 
know not what ! 

THE PARLIAMENTARY GRANT £187,000. 

These annual grants commenced in 1833 with £25,000 
— the sum withdrawn from the Kildare Place Society — 
and have been progressively increased until they have 
reached (1854) the enormous sum of upwards of £187,000. 
We believe that Protestant Britain is little aware of the 
prodigious sum she pays yearly to train the Irish in 
Popery, and to rivet on them the chains of Papal despot- 
ism. If mere education were the means of converting the 
Irish Romanists, who will say that we are not now en- 
titled to look for some fruits? The only result, however, 
which follows from this gigantic Educational Movement 
is, that the young and the hardy are emigrating to Ame- 
rica, transferring to that land their energies and their 
strength, instead of becoming more attached to their 
•ountry, and more loyal to their Queen. But what could 
we expect? Wo all know the power of early training, and 
certainly if the object were to train the youth of Ireland 
in Popery, it would not be easy to devise a more effectual 
♦r successful plan. 

W c now contrast the expense occasioned to government 
by the Bible-reading Kildare Place Society in 1830— the 
lost year in which that Society received the parliamentary 
grant— and the outlay which has been made by govern- 
ment on the so called National System of Ireland in the 
year 1S54. 



Kildare PI. Socty, 

National System, 



Yfar. 

IS^O 
1S54 



No. of i No. of | Amount | Cost to Govt 
-Schools Pupils, of grant, of each bchool. 

5178 |55G,55l|l87,073| 36 2 7 



Cost to Govt. 

of each pupil. 

•t'O 3 94 

6 84 

From these figures it is seen at a glance, that the train- 
ing of each pupil, under the present Popish system, costs 



THE CHURCH EDUCATION SOCIETY. 271 

the country nearly doubU what it cost under the Kildare 

Place Society. 

III. THE CHURCH EDUCATION 800IETT. 

And now, having ahown that the scheme is wrong, 
both in theory and practice, we proceed to lay before the 
reader the only beneficial and effective system of education. 
We have already expressed our conviction, that national 
education should be closely connected with our parochial ar- 
rangements. The government, however, never gave to 
the Church an opportunity of carrying out its high mis- 
sion in this respect, and of working thoroughly its paro- 
chial machinery. As the consequence, the great mass of 
the people were unprovided with that which they so much 
needed — a sound system of education. Now, the govern- 
ment having thrown overboard the Kildare Place Society, 
which was instituted, in some measure, to supply the defici- 
ency, attempted a oomtined education which, as we have 
seen, is thoroughly unsound in prinoiple, and, as a national 
system, unsuccessful in practice. The National Society, as 
it is miscalled, is rejected by the Established Church, whose 
clergy and people have instituted, by their voluntary 
efforts, " a Church Education Society." We give the 
following statement of its objects, and its operations. 

The following are the objects of the Society: — 
' "II. The objects of the Society are^o assist schools at present existing 
in the country, and to establish new schools on an improved system, for 
the purpose of affording to the children of the Church instruction in 
the Holy Scriptures, and in the Catechism, and other formularies of 
the Church, under the direction of the bishops and parochial clergy, 
and under the tuition of teachers who are members of the United Church 
of England and Ireland. 

"III. The Society will supply its schools with copies of the holy 
Scriptures, in the authorised version, or integral portions thereof, which 
shall be used in the daily instruction of every child in attendance who. 
is capable of reading ; and no other version of the holy Scriptures shall 
be used in the Society's schools. 

"IV. The schools of the Society shall be open to all children whatsoever, 
belonging to the parish in which the school may be situated, and having 
the parochial minister's approbation for attending it ; and no child shall 
be excluded on account of the inability of its parents to pay for its 
instruction." — Report for 1853. 



272 SUMMARY OF IRISH NATIONAL EDUCATION. 

We now give the number of schools in connexion witli 
the Society, and of children educated. 

" The number of schools in connexion with the Society, for the year 
ending the 31st of December last, ha3 been 18S0, and of scholars en- 
rolled in them, 99,234, showing an increase oi 22 schools, and a de- 
crease of 6153 scholars ; while the proportion of each denomination of 
religious persuasion is as follows: — 

" The Established Church, - - 61,380 

"THe Protestant Dissenters, - - 15,822 

«' The Roman Catholics, - - - 22,032 

"Total as above, - - 99,231 

Report for 1853. 

We believe that it is the duty of the State to make a sys- 
tematic provision for the education of the people in every 
parish in Ireland, in connexion with the Established 
Church; and as an advance towards that consummation, 
we hope that government grants will be made, ere long, 
to the Church Education Society. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — To whom does the duty belong of educating the 
rising generation? 

A. — The Church, aided by the State. 

2. Q. — Why did not the Irish Church educate the Irish 
people ? 

A. — Because the State neglected to supply it with the 
necessar^ funds. 

3. Q.— What society was established to meet the de- 
ficiency ? 

A.— The Kildare Place Society, a.d. 1811, which for a 
time received government support. 

4. Q.~ What was the leading principle of the Kildare 
Place Society? 

A.— The reading of the Scriptures without note or 
comment 

5. Q.~ Was the Kildare Place Society successful? 
^•— Yes - It prospered and extended its operations, 

and its schools were attended by large numbers of Roman 
Catholics as well as Protestants. 



HISTOBY OF PAPAL ATTEMPTS ON BRITAIN. 273 

6. Q.> — What led to the withdrawal of the Kildare Place 
Society Parliamentary grant in 1831? 

A. — The opposition of the Romish priests consequent 
on the success of the Society, and the pro-popish policy 
adopted by the State, in admitting Roman Catholics to 
Parliament and office in 1829. 

7. Q. — State the amount to which the annual grants to 
this Popish system had reached in 1854? 

A. — Upwards of £187,000. The nation paid formerly 
for a scriptural education 3s. 9Jd. for each pupil, and now 
pays for a Popish education 6s. 8^d. for each pupil. 

8. Q. — State, in brief, your objections to the National 
Board? 

A. — I object to it, because, 1. It is a mixed board, and 
a system of compromise. 2. It ignores religion and the 
Bible. 3. It is not national, for the Protestants avoid its 
schools. 4. Its teachers are Roman Catholics, and Pro- 
testants cannot intrust their children to such teachers. 
5. It keeps Romish saints' days. 6. It- is favourable to, 
and under the control of Rome, as 'is proved by the state- 
ments of Romish authorities. 7. Three-fourths of its' 
schools are under Popish patrons, generally priests, who 
regulate the instruction according to their own wishes. 
8. It has no fixed principle. 

9. Q. — What think you of the Church Education Society? 
A. — It ought to be supported by the government, and 

by Protestants, for it teaches the Bible, and Bible truths, 
as being the most important and useful subject that can 
be taught. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
History of Papal Attempts or Britain. 

The assumed authority and pretensions of the Pope 
have been, from time to time, a source of broil and trouble 
to the nations of the earth, and especially to those amongst 
whom he was enabled to enforce his laws. We would 



2'(-\ TliF. CONSTITUTION'S OF CLARENDON. 

give a brief notice of Papal efforts in relation to England, 
beginning with 

THE NORMAN CONQUEST. 

William Duke of Normandy appealed to the Pope to 
support liia pretended claims to the throne of England 
A.D. 106G. The Pope, no doubt, supposing that the affair 
offered an opportunity to extend his authority, at once 
entered into his plans. He accordingly excommunicated 
Harold, the rightfal sovereign, and his supporters, and 
sent a consecrated banner to the Norman host. Then 
followed, as all students of history know, the invasion of 
England, which entailed ruin, and misery upon many a once 
happy home. — HumJs England, vol. i. p. 185. Lond. 1807. 

THOMAS A EEOKET AND THE CONSTITUTIONS OP CLARENDON. 

Henry II. laboured to abridge certain privileges, or 
rather immunitim, winch the clergy had unjustly acquired. 
It is well known, that at this period the profligacy and 
crimes of flic clergy were enormous; and yet such crimi- 
nals were free from the authority of the secular tribunals 
and common law of the country, and could only be triod 
by clerical superiors. Henry was anxious to amend the 
state of affairs; but Thomas a Beeket, who had been raised 
by the king to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, opposed, 
with all his might, the royal efforts, and stood forth as the 
champion of what ho termed the privileges of tho clergy. 

The matter was soon brought to an issue. A priest 
had debauched a young lady, and murdered her father. 
The people were highly incensed against the assassin ; and 
the king insisted that he should be tried by the common 
tribunals. Beeket threw the shield of his archiepiscopal 
authority over tho ruffian, and pleaded for the privileges 
of the Church. 

Tho dispute was referred to a general assembly of the 
bishops and nobles at Clarendon, where the famous regu- 
lations, known as the Constitutions of Clarendon, were 
passed. They provided, that clergymen should be tried 
in the civil courts. Thus were the majesty of the law 
and the prerogatives of the crown vindicated, and set free 



ARCHBI8H0P OF MALTA ABOVE BRITISH LAW. 275 

from ecclesiastical supremacy and usurpation. Becket 
himself signed the articles. 

The Pope now interfered; and Becket, haying done 
penance for giving his oonsent to the Constitutions, re- 
paired to Rome, where he received a public audience, and 
was honoured with a place on the right hand of the Papal 
throne. " His Holiness" condemned the Constitutions of 
Clarendon, excommunicated the royal ministers, and all 
who supported British law. Becket returned in triumph ; 
and Papal authority trampled British liberty in the dust.* 
— Hurras History, at p. 414, vol. ibid. 

The struggle on this point has recently arisen in Sardi- 
nia, and again in our own dominions, but with singularly 
different results. In Sardinia, about the year 1850, the 
Siccardi laws, being similar in effect to the Constitutions 
of Clarendon, were enacted by the parliament of that coun- 
try, still, professedly, a Romish kingdom. It is well 
known that the Sardinian minister, on his dying bed, was 
refused the last rites of his Church, because he had suppor- 
ted these laws. In Malta, a dependance of the British 
Crown, by a law recently sanctioned by our own Queen, and 
our own government, which still calls itself Protestant, 
the Romish Archbishop of Malta has been declared free 
from the jurisdiction of the civil tribunals. Here, on the 
one* hand, we have the professedly Popish State of Sardi- 
nia abrogating the exclusive privileges of the Romish 
clergy, and, on the other, we see professedly Protestant 
Britain permitting the end of the wedge to be introduced 
at Malta, by the concession of the very principle, which 
our own ancestors, and the modern Sardinians have resisted. 
Who will say that we are not drifting back to Popery 
in its worst form, and that Rome is not seeking to regain 
her old position'? But it may be asked, How does Rome 
manage this in a country so decidedly Protestant as Bri- 
tain, and what is the remedy] The answer is simple. 



* Becket was afterwards assassinated by some of the king's followers, 
for which the king himself was whipped on the bare back, as a penance, 
at the tomb of Becket. 



276 THE MAGNA CHART A. 

While Romanists are in parliament, they 'will be found ever 
ready to sell their votes to any government, at the price of 
concessions to Rome. Exclude Romanists from parliament, 
and from all power in the country. Till this be done, 
there is no effectual check. Remove the Romanists and 
you remove this temptation. 

Popery in the 19 th century is (he same as in the 11th ! 

THE MAGNA CHARTA. 

John, the pusillanimous king of England, having con- 
tended with the Pope about the appointment of Stephen. 
Langton to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, at length 
yielded to the Pontiff, allowed the crown to be kicked 
from his head by the Pope's legate, and on his knees, with 
his hands between those of the legate, made the following 
declaration : — 

" I, John, by the gn.ro of God king of England and lord of Ireland, 
in order to exjjiate ray sins, from my own free will and the advice of my 
barons, give to the Church of Rome, to Pope Innocent and his succes- 
sor^ the kingdom of England, and all other prerogatives of my crown. 
I will hereafter hold them as the Pope's vassal. I will be faithful t« 
God, to the Church of Rome, to the Pope my master, and his successor 
legitimately elected. I promise to pay him a tribute of a thousand mark* 
yearly ; to wit, seven hundred for the kingdom of England, and thr«« 
hundred for the kingdom of Ireland." — Hume's Hist. vol. i. p. 71. ibid. 

Our very soul sickens at the pusillanimity of the monarch 
who could suffer such indignities; and our blood boik 
with indignation at the antichristian arrogance of th« 
Pontiff who could exact such a declaration, and eve* 
authorize, as he did, Philip of France to invade the shoFti 
of England. 

The nobility and clergy were naturally disgusted with 
these proceedings. Disaffection towards John prevailed; 
and, at length, the barons, with a large army, marched is 
Runnymeade, near Oxford, where they compelled th« 
king to sign the Magna Charta, which secured the liberty 
of the barons, clergy, and gentry, but still allowed of serf- 
dom and slavery. Its most important provision was, that 
"no freemen should be apprehended, imprisoned, out- 
lawed, banished, or in any way destroyed. Nor should 



PAPAL BULL AGAINST ELIZABETH. 277 

he be set upon, except by the legal judgment of his peers, 
or by the law of the land." The Charter, though so de- 
fective, was the foundation of British liberty; but the 
freedom which it conferred excited the indignation of the 
Pope, who issued a bull, and forbade the k ng to observe 
the Charter. Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
also incurred the displeasure of " his Holiness," because 
he did not excommunicate the barons. — p. 92, ibid. 

John, stimulated by the Papal advice, announced his in- 
tention to disregard the Charter, and a second war broke 
out. The king employed JBrabancon troops, and the 
country was everywhere devastated by the contending 
parties. The death of John put an end to the war. Pope 
Clement IV. afterwards absolved Edward I. three times 
from observing the Charter ; but the cause of freedom in 
course of time prevailed, and the Reformation in the 1 6th 
century consolidated British liberty. 

PAPAL EFFORTS IN ELIZABETH'S REIGN. 

For ten years after the accession of Elizabeth to the 
throne, the kingdom enjoyed comparative peace. The 
Pope, during that period, made many unsuccessful efforts 
to induce Elizabeth to receive his yoke, and at last, in the 
year 1569, issued a bull against her, from which we give 
an extract: — 

EXTRACT FROM BULL OF POPE PIUS V. AGAINST ELIZABETH. 

"Pius Bishop, servant of God's servants, for a future memorial of 
the matter. He that reigneth on high, to whom is given all power in 
heaven and in earth, hath committed His one Holy Catholic and Apos- 
tolic Church, out of which there is no salvation, to one alone upon 
earth, — namely, to' Peter, the chief of the apostles, and to Peter's suc- 
cessor, the Bishop of Rome, to be by him favoured with plenary autho- 
rity. Him alone hath He made prince over all people and all king- 
doms, to pluck up, destroy, scatter, consume, plant, and build ; that 
he may preserve His faithful people (knit together with the band of 
charity) in the unity of the Spirit, and present them spotless and un- 
blemished to their Saviour Being, therefore, supported 

with His authority whose pleasure it was to place us (though unable for 
so great a burden) in this supreme throne of justice, we do, out of the 
fulness of our apostolic power, declare the aforesaid Elizabeth, as bemy 
an heretic, and a favourer of heretics, and her adherents in the mat- 



278 PAPAL CONSPIRACY AGAINST ELIZABETH. 

tera aforesaid, to have incurred the sentence of excommunication, and 
to be cut off from the unity of the body of Christ. And, moreover,' we 
do declare her to be deprived of her pretended title to the kingdom 
aforesaid, and of all dominion, dignity, and privilege whatsoever ; and 
also the nobility, subjects, and people of the said kingdom, and all 
others who have, in any sort, sworn unto her, to be for ever absolved 
from any such oath, and all manner of duty, of dominion, allegiance, 
and obedience ; and we also do, by authority of these presents, absolve 
them, and do deprive the said Elizabeth of her pretended title to the 
kingdom, and all other things before named. And we do command 
and charge all and every, the noblemen, subjects, people, and others 
aforesaid, that they presume not to obey her or her orders, mandates, 
and laws ; and those which shall do the contrary, we do include them 
in the like sentence of anathema. And because it would be a difficult 
matter to convey these presents to all places wheresoever it shall be need- 
ful, our will is, that the copies thereof, under a public notary's hand, and 
sealed with the seal of an ecclesiastical prelate, or of his court, shall 
carry altogether the same credit with all men judicially and extra -judi- 
cially, as these presents should do if they were exhibited or shewed. 
Given at Rome, at St Peter's, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord 
1569, the fifth of the calends of March, and of our Popedom the fifth 
year." — p. 324, Mag. Bull., torn. ii. Luxem., 1727. 

One Felton had the audacity to fix a copy of the bull 
at the gates of the Bishop of London's palace, — for which 
treasonable act against his sovereign he suffered the ex- 
treme penalty of the law. 

About the same time, Mary Queen of Scots, who was 
the hope of the Romish party throughout the world, took 
refuge in England from the hostility of her own subjects. 
The Romanists, pretending that Elizabeth was illegiti- 
mate in her birth, espoused the cause of Mary, who was 
the next heir to the throne. This they made the fulcrum 
of their operations, and hoped, by raising Mary to the 
throne of England, to crush the Protestant cause, not 
only in that country, but throughout the world. At the 
close of 1569, a conspiracy was formed in Britain by the 
Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland — whose ad- 
viser was Nicholas Morton, an English priest — to carry 
out this object. An appeal was made to the Pope for 
pecuniary assistance, who returned a most favourable 
answer. The following lb 



THE SPANISH ARMADA. 279 

THE CONCLUSION OF THE LETTER OF POPE PIUS V. 

. . . . " Be of a courageous and constant mind, and desist not 
from the enterprise for any denunciation of danger or threatenings ; for 
God, in whom you ought to repose your trust, who plunged the chariot 
and army of Pharaoh in the sea, is able to "break the power and strength 
of His enemies, so that by you the pristine .religion, and its ancient 
dignity, may be restored to that kingdom; which, that it may be effect- 

ed, WK WILL HOT ONLY ASSIST BY PERFORMING THE OFFICES WHICH YOU 
DESIRE WITH CHRISTIAN PRINCES, BUT BY IMMEDIATELY GRANTING THE 

sum of money WHICH, according to our power, and agreeably to your 
request, we are able to supply, — as you will understand more clearly 
and fully by our beloved son, Robert Rodulfus ; using our endeavour to 
contribute hereafter a greater sum than the imbecility of our means can 
bear, and, with a prompt and cheerful mind, to assist your pious en- 
deavour wirti all our property and power, as we are able in the Lord. — 
Given at Rome, at St Peter's, under the seal of the Fisherman, the 
20th day of February, m.d.lxx., in the fifth year of our Pontificate." — 
Mendham's Life of Pius V. p. 132. London, 1832. 

Suoh is the letter of Pope Pius V. — a Saint of the 
Church of Pome — to the rebel chiefs, in which he ap- 
plauds the design, and encourages them to bold action. 
Northumberland and Westmoreland took up arms ; but 
their forces fled at the appearance of the royal troops. 
Northumberland was executed, and Westmoreland died 
in exile. Several other attempts were made to subvert 
the Protestant Queen, to some of which Mary lent her 
countenance. The most remarkable effort of the Papacy 
in Elizabeth's reign was 

THE SPANISH ARMADA, A.D. 1588. 

Long urged by the Pope, Philip of Spain determined 
to strike a decisive blow against British liberty and Pro- 
testantism. He made great preparations for three years, 
and at last, a.d. 1588, a hundred and fifty ships, of im- 
mense size, were ready to sail. The ships were stronger 
and larger than had been previously constructed. The 
fleet was victualled for six months, and manned by 8000 
sailors. In addition to these, it conveyed an army of 
20,000 men, and 2000 of the first gentlemen of Spain. 
An army of 35,000 soldiers at Dunkirk was ready to join 
with, and act in co-operation with the fleet. 



280 THE SPANISH ARMADA. 

The Pope issued the bull of excommunication against 
Elizabeth, and absolved her subjects from their allegiance. 
The eyes of all Europe were directed to this expedition, 
by which it was thought that the fate of Protestantism 
throughout the world would be decided. The magna- 
nimous Queen of England prepared, with great forti- 
tude, to meet the coming storm. England had but thirty 
ships of a smaller size to oppose this great force ; and it 
was expected that, if the enemy once effected a landing, 
the cause of Britain would be lost. 

s Providence interposed, and stayed the tyrant's arm. 
The admiral and vice-admiral died before anchor was 
weighed. The armada, after having set sail, was compel- 
led to put back by the weather. The enemy, greatly en- 
feebled, were attacked by the British fleet with success, 
and rendered unfit to prosecute the undertaking. On the 
way home, the armada encountered another storm, and 
many ships and lives were lost. Such was the success of 
the " invincible armada," which had been provided with 
instruments of torture for Protestants, some of which may 
now be seen in the Tower of London. 

We may well imagine what was the anxiety which per- 
vaded the homes of England when in suspense, and what 
was the joy, when tidings of victory o'er the proud Spani- 
ard and armies of Rome were borne throughout the land. 
Many a song of grateful praise arose to God) and many a 
Christian may have said, in the language of the children 
of Israel when delivered from the Egyptian host, — 

Exodus xv. 3, 6, 7, 10, 11. " The Lord is a man of war: the Lord 
is his name. Thy right hand, Lord, is become glorious in power : 
thy right hand, Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy. And in the 
greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up 
against thee : thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as 
stubble. Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them ; they 
sank as lead in the mighty waters. Who is like unto thee, Lord, 
among the gods ? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, 
doing wonders ?" 

Vain is the power of man against the power of God. 
The armada was considered invincible. It threatened to 
extinguish the light of truth— to persecute the saints of 



THE GUNPOWDER PLOT. 281 

the Most High — to establish the Papal throne upon the 
ruins of Protestantism ; but it sustained a signal defeat, 
and the few shattered vessels which returned home de- 
pressed the pride of the persecutor, and told that his ban- 
ner was trailed in the dust. 

Thus we see how the Lord prospered the Protestant 
sovereign, and our Protestant state, and brought to 
nought the wicked designs of the Papacy, and those who 
: ' gave their power to the Beast." Does not this suggest 
a reflection upon the fate which may befal our armadas, 
seeing that we have departed from our first principles, 
admitted Romanists into our Parliament, and places of 
power, and even into the privy councils of the sovereign ; 
have endowed and nursed Popery at home and abroad, 
and are voting hundreds of thousands of pounds year 
after year in aid of idolatry and superstition, at May- 
nooth, in the National Schools of Ireland, and the colo- 
nies. And yet we shrink from the adoption of national 
measures for the conversion of Roman Catholics, and the 
education of all in the knowledge of God's Word. 

PAPAL EFFORTS IN REIGN OF JAMES I. 
THE GUNPOWDER PLOT, 5TH NOVEMBER, 1605. 

In the succeeding reign of James I., the Romanists, 
finding that open force could not accomplish their designs, 
devised a diabolical plot for the destruction, at one blow, 
of King, Lords, and Commons. A conspiracy was formed, 
and, under the direction of Garnet the Jesuit, thirty-six 
barrels of gunpowder were placed in the vaults beneatk 
the House of Lords. It was intended to place Elizabeth, 
the infant daughter of James, on the throne, under the 
direction of a Popish protector. 

Lord Monteagle, a Romanist, received a letter from a 
friend, warning him not t.o attend Parliament on the day 
appointed; and though he made light of the anonymous 
communication, yet he laid it before the King. James, 
with extraordinary sagacity, penetrated the design, and 
ordered the vaults to be searched on the night previous to 
the meeting. Guy Fawkes was found ready to fire the 



282 PAPAL EFFORTS IN THE REIGN OF JAMES II. 

train, and immolate himself. He considered that he 
was doing God a service, by committing wholesale mur- 
der upon Protestants. So deluded by fanaticism are the 
votaries of* superstition ! 

The conspiracy was thus crushed on the eve of its ac- 
complishment, — and though Garnet the Jesuit admitted, 
on trial, that he had been made aware of the design, yet 
Romanists regard him as a martyr, and believe that mi- 
racles were wrought by his blood. 

PAPAL EFFORTS IN THE REIGN OF JAMES II. 

James II. was a Papist, and his object was to bring 
back Popery into England. In order to carry out his 
designs, he passed an Act of Toleration to all. 

He laboured, as far as possible, to papalize the army, 
and succeeded in Ireland ; but the English branch of 

THE SERVICE RESISTED HIS EFFORTS. 

The Jesuits were allowed, as they are now, contrary to 
law, to establish their seminaries everywhere, and the 
Romish worship was celebrated publicly. Four Papal 
Bishops were consecrated in the king's chapel, and Papists, 
contrary to the statutes, were forced upon the Universi- 
ties. Lord Castlemain was sent as an ambassador to the 
Pope, with a view to reconcile the nation to Rome. 

While the king adopted these measures in favour of 
Popery, he left no stone unturned in order to injure the 
Church. A commission of seven persons was appointed, 
with unlimited power over the Church of England. One 
of their first acts was to suspend the Bishop of London for 
refusing to suspend Sharp, who had preached against Popery 
—his only crime. They took the matter into their own 
hands, and summarily suspended both bishop and preacher. 
Seven of the bishops were tried for not publishing the 
kings declaration, but were acquitted by the jury. A 
shout of triumph was instantly raised by the populace at 
Westminster Hall, and, extending through the city, reach- 
ed and was taken up by the army at Hounslow heath. 
That cry, which betokened the national feeling, rang as a 
death-knell in the ears of the king, and he fled. William 



RECENT PAPAL EFFORTS. 285 

Prince of Orange, — the great General of the Protestant 
armies on the Continent, — was called unanimously -to the 
throne. James fled to France, and then to Ireland, 
whither William followed to decide their rival claims. 

ON THE BANKS OF THE BOYNE ON THE 1st 
JULY 1688, THE TWO ARMIES MET; VICTORY 
DECLARED ITSELF IN FAVOUR OF THE PROTES^ 
TANT CAUSE; AND THE COUNTRY WAS SAVED 
FROM POPERY AND ARBITRARY POWER. 

RECENT PAPAL EFFORTS. 

Since the revolution of 1688, the Romish party, shorn 
of strength, have been compelled to adopt artifice as their 
only resort. 

We have seen, in Chap. XVIII., that Jesuits in disguise 
iaboured under the Protestant garb after the Reformation, 
and we have reason to believe, that such is the case since, 
and even now. In Chap. V. we have dwelt upon the 
treachery by which Romanists have, step after step, ac- 
quired power, and fought their way even to the British 
Senate. We have seen that Romanists, repudiating all 
intention to subvert the Protestant Church, obtained the 
elective franchise in 1793. We have seen that, with 
honied tongue, they have opened an access for themselves 
to Parliament, and to all places of power, with the excep- 
tion of the throne, and the offices of Recent, Lord 
High Chancellor of England, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 
and Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland. Now they direct their energies to the attain- 
ment even of these, and in their general schemes they have 
met with great success. 

We believe, however, that their grand object has been 
to subveit the established Churches of the realm, which 
have ever proved her great foe. When open force, excom- 
munications, curses, armadas, and plots failed, they resort- 
ed to stratagem. If Jesuits have assumed the Brahmin garb 
in the east to convert Brahmins, why might they not as- 
sume the Protestant garb in Britain to convert Protestants? 



284 8UMMARY OP PAPAL EFFORTS. 

Their object is now to destroy the established Churches 
of the realm. If they can succeed in plundering the 
Church of her property, and reducing her to the volun- 
tary system, they will then, by the aid of their foreign 
endowments, occupy the country parishes, which, of ne- 
cessity, from want of means, must be evacuated by the 
Protestant clergy, and so they will eventually establish 
themselves throughout the land. 

The Puseyite movement, we thoroughly believe, has Je- 
suitism/or its source. "We do not assert that all Puseyites 
are Jesuits, but we are persuaded that Jesuits mingle 
among them, and urge them on. With the last Papal 
effort, commonly called the Papal Aggression, the public 
is familiar. The Pope now boldly claims all baptized 
Christians as his subjects, and commands Protestants to 
submit to the Papal yoke. The present is a dangerous 
crisis, — more dangerous than if arms were openly employed, 
which might be as openly resisted. Romish missionaries 
perambulate the country; and with all deceivableness of 
unrighteousness, labour for the extension of the Papal cause, 
while the nation does nothing to counteract them. God 
grant that, like other Papal efforts, this too may fail 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — How did the Pope interfere in the affairs of 
England at the time of the Norman conquest? 

-4- — He excommunicated Harold and his adherents, 
and sent a consecrated banner to the invading army. 

2. Q. — How did the Pope interfere with the course of 
justice in the reign of Henry II. ? 

A. — When the Constitutions of Clarendon were decreed 
by a council of the nation, — constitutions which subjected 
clerical criminals to the jurisdiction of the secular courte, 
—the Pope condemned the constitutions, and espoused th# 
cause of the rebellious Thomas a Becket. 

3. $.— What was the object of the Magna Charta? 
A.— To secure liberty to the higher estates of the nation 

—the nobles and gentry, while it allowed serfdom. 

4. Q.— Bid the Pope approve of the Magna Char tat 



SUMMARY OF PAPAL EFFORTS. 285 

A. — No; he stimulated John to violate the Charter. 
This gave rise to a civil war. Clement IV. afterwards 
three times absolved Edward I. from observing the same. 

5. Q. — What wicked step did the Pope take in refer- 
ence to Elizabeth, Queen of England? 

A. — He issued a bull of excommunication against her, 
and absolved her subjects from their allegiance, (a.d. 1569,) 
because she was a Protestant. 

6. Q. — To whom did the Romish party look as the 
rightful monarch of England, and by what means did they 
attempt to accomplish their wishes? 

A. — Mary Queen of Scots, whom they endeavoured t\ 
raise to the throne by various plots, in which the Pope 
had a share. 

7. Q. — What was the Spanish Armada? 

A. — The largest fleet then known, composed of 150 ship 
of immense size. 

8. Q. — What was the object of this fleet? 

A. — Philip of Spain, long urged by the Pope, raised 
this great fleet for the invasion of England, and the de- 
struction of the Protestant cause. 

9. Q. — What was the issue of the undertaking? 

A. — Through the kind interposition of Providence, the 
fleet was first much injured by a storm, and then com- 
pletely defeated in 1588. 

10. Q. — What was the object of the Gunpowder Plot? 
A. — To blow up the King, Lords, and Commons, when 

assembled in Parliament on 5th November 1605, and to 
establish Popery. 

11. Q. — How was the plot discovered? 

A. — An anonymous letter was sent to Lord Monteagle, 
warning him to absent himself from Parliament on the 
appointed day; and the letter having been laid before 
King James I., the design was penetrated. 

12. Q. — James II. was a Romanist Mention some of 
the steps which he took for the introduction of Popery? 

A. — He laboured as far as^ possible to papalize the 
army, — forced Papists on the Universities, — gave promi- 
nence to Roman Catholic worship, — aimed several blows 



Britain's inconsistency and sin. 

at the Church of England, and sent an ambassador to tho 
Pope to reconcile the nation to Rome. 

13. Q. — In what did his proceedings result? 

A. — In the glorious revolution of 1688, which placed 
William Prince of Orange on the throne, and secured the 
liberty of the nation. 

14. Q. — What has been the policy of Rome sinoe? 
A. — Artifice, as force had failed. 

1 5. Q. — Has the Romish party to any extent succeeded ? 
A. — Yes; by many fair promises — all of which -have 

been violated — it has found its way to places of authority 
and power. 

16. Q. — What think you of the Puseyite movement? 
A. — It appears to be Romish or Jesuitical in its origin. 

17. Q.— What is the latest Papal effort? 

A. — The Papal Aggression, by which the Pope claims 
all baptized Christians as his subjects. 



CHAPTER XXVIL 
Britain's Inconsistency and Sin. 

What country is so favoured as Great Britain ! She is 
but as a speck upon the ocean, compared with the vast 
continents of earth; and yet her dominion extends far 
and wide, and her name is a " tower of strength" amongst 
the most distant nations. 

To what shall we attribute her great success and pro- 
sperity, save to the God of Nations ?— to Him who doeth 
what He will amongst the armies of heaven and the 
children of men, and who said, " Them that honour me I 
will honour." 1 Sam. ii. 30. " Righteousness exalteth a 
nation : but sin is a reproach to any people." Prov. xiv. 34. 

When Britain became Protestant, taking the Word 
of God for her guide,— when the principles of the Bible 
regulated all her actions and legislation,— when she ac- 
knowledged it as her first duty and highest privilege, as 
a nation, to advance the cause of Christ, and framed 
her laws and institutions to that end only,— when she 



Britain's support of popery unwise. 287 

had cast off all connexion with Popery, declaring it il- 
legal to enter even into diplomatic relations with Rome, 
and excluding all Papal subjects from parliament and the 
management of her concerns, and all Jesuits from the 
realm, she enjoyed the favour of Heaven, and became 
great ; her people rose in character and intelligence, and 
manliness and honesty distinguished their conduct. Her 
arms prevailed; and the British constitution and British 
laws — the best that ever existed — were the admiration and 
praise of all the earth. 

Alas ! Britain, with all her privileges, has been, of late 
years, guilty of inconsistency and sin. With mistaken 
generosity and compassion, she has folded a viper in her 
bosom, which, it is to be feared, may yet prove her de- 
struction. She has acted unwisely, inconsistently, and 
sinfully. 

I. Britain's support of Popery is unwise. 

The Papacy has ever been the foe of liberty, and the 
disturber of the peace of nations. In the preceding 
chapters we have proved that Borne sanctions dissi- 
mulation, equivocation, and the violation of oaths. We 
have seen that she is treacherous in her conduct, intoler- 
ant in her principles, and exterminating in her canon 
law. We have learned that her principles of persecution 
have invariably been carried out whenever an opportunity 
offered, — that England's best blood was shed by her ruth- 
less hand, and France and other Continental nations made 
the scenes of havoc and destruction, to accomplish her 
schemes. In the days of her ascendancy, the Inquisition 
wr.s her right arm, and the rack, the pendulum, the pulley, 
and the stake, were the favourite instruments which she 
employed to hold her members in subjection, and to extend 
her borders. The Jesuits she sent forth as her chosen 
champions, — ready, as the occasion might demand, to act 
either the Papist or the Protestant, to attain her ends. 

Popery is a conspiracy against the liberty of nations, — 
the source of degradation to the human race, — the foe of 
knowledge and the Bible. In mediaeval days, the Church 



988 Britain's support op popery unwise. 

of Rome was torn by schism and the contentions of rival 
Popes, who not unfrequently appealed to the sword. The 
proud Pontiff again and again has deposed monarchs, and 
authorised the invasion of nations. Surely it is unwise, 
and the worst policy, for any nation to enter into an al- 
liance with such a system, or give it support. But this 
Britain has done, forgetful of all that holy martyrs have 
suffered to emancipate her from the yoke of Rome. 

Better were it to risk war — to incur any danger, than 
to encourage or support so diabolical a system, which ha3 
been well designated as " Satan's masterpiece." Roman- 
ists are admitted to places of power; the priesthood are 
educated, not in general knowledge, but in the Popish 
system, at the expense of the British treasury ; and those 
who bow to a foreign prelate-prince, are allowed to sit in 
Parliament, and legislate for our Protestant nation, and 
thus all our institutions are becoming papalized. 

We maintain that such a state of things is opposed to 
the dictates of sound wisdom, because 

1. Popery is immoral. — This we have found in preceding 
chapters. Morality ennobles the British character. The 
encouragement, therefore, of a system which would un- 
dermine national honour, integrity, and uprightness, is, to 
say the least of it, unwise. 

2. Popery is inimical to Protestantism. — See the curses 
which it pours forth against all ' who deny any of its ar- 
ticles ; and see its discipline and teaching, which require 
that heretics shall be exterminated. "After the way 
which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers." 
Acts xxiv. 14. The case of the Madiai, so well known 
in this day, and that of Miss Cunningham, show that 
Popery is unchanged. Protestantism is not heresy, but 
orthodoxy, the Bible being our witness; but according 
to the Church of Rome, Protestantism is heresy, and all 
its friends are held accursed. In Chapter xii. we 
have given proof that heresy, in the eye of Rome, is 
the greatest crime. We have seen, that while accord- 
ing to the bull of Benedict XIV., criminals of deep 
dye may find refuge in the sanctuary, those who are 



bbitain's suppo&t of-i^pery unwise. 289 

guilty of heresy can find none, but are doomed to be 
dragged forth to torture and death. 

Surely the dear-bought experience of those who lived 
under Papal power, ought to be sufficient to exhibit its 
deadly hatred to Protestantism ! Did Rome ever yet pos- 
sess the opportunity of oppressing and exterminating 
Protestants, without embracing it] No. Give her the 
power, and she will soon show that she has the will to op- 
press and persecute again. 

Britain is, or rather was, thoroughly Protestant. The 
people are Protestants, the laws are based on Protestant- 
ism, the throne is Protestant. The churches established 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland, bear a noble Protest- 
ant testimony. In short, Protestantism is the life-blood 
of England. It purifies the social atmosphere; it gives 
manliness and honesty to the people; and it has led to 
the establishment of such an equitable system of law, that 
each man's home is his castle. 

It is therefore unwise to support Popery. The Romanist 
will, nay must, if he be consistent, labour for the over- 
throw of Protestantism. He would papalize the laws and 
the throne, and erect his Church upon the ruins of our 
national establishments. He would bring back the su- 
perstition, the ignorance, the priestcraft, the tyranny, th* 
intolerance, of the middle ages. 

It is therefore unwise — nay it is perfect madness, mmI 
amounts to the guilt of a suicidal act, to admit Romanists 
to places of power, and to give them an opportunity •£ 
accomplishing their full designs. 

3. Popery is destructive to national greatness xnm 
independence. — The history of the Popedom records its 
continued and unwearied struggles to subdue the civM 
power and throne beneath its own sway. What wars, •* 
this account, have devastated Europe ! The reigns of Hen*y 
IV., Henry V., and the Fredericks — Emperors of Germany, 
the reigns of Philip Augustus of France, Henry II. ami 
John, kings of England, (many other instances might b« 
mentioned,) were embittered by the arrogant assumption* 
of the Papal tyrant. Where Romish claims are concerned, 



200 BRITAIN S SUPPORT OF POPERY INCONSISTENT. 

no reliance can be placed on the Romanist, for he acknouh 
ledges a divided allegiance. 

Even in the present day, see the struggles of the Sardi- 
nian kingdom against the Papal tyranny, and mark the 
woes and oppression of the Roman people — the Pope's own 
subjects and children. 

There is not a country under heaven where Rome is 
dominant, which is not degraded and oppressed. Spain, 
Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Austria, the Popish parts of 
Ireland, (for Protestant districts are an exception,) bear 
testimony that Popery is ruinous to the prosperity and 
greatness of a nation. Our sister America is alive to this, 
and hence the exertions she makes to expel the Popish ele- 
ment from the management of her concerns. 

It is remarkable that, in proportion as Popery rises in 
power in any country, the people desoend in the scale of 
nations. Popery prospers upon the degradation, ignorance, 
and serfdom of the human family. We say, therefore, 
again, that it was unwise to admit Romanists to power. 
Those only who themselves are free, are qualified to rule 
free men. We would give them toleration, but not an 
opportunity to bring woe and destruction upon all that 
we value and love. 

II, Britain's support of Popery is inconsistent. 

We have said that Britain is or was thoroughly Protes- 
tant. We would give some proof. 

4. The throne is Protestant. — Our gracious Sovereign, 
at her coronation, took the following 

CORONATION OATH. 
" I (A. B.) do solemnly and sincerely, in the presence of God, profess, 
testify, and declare, that I do believe, that in the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper there is not any transubstantiation of the elements of 
bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, at or after the con* 
secration thereof by any person whatsoever ; and that the invocation or 
adoration of the Virgin Mary or any other saint, and the sacrifice of tht 
mass, as they are now used in the Church of Rome, are superstition* 
and idolatrous. And I do solemnly, in the presence of God, profess, 
testify, and declare, that I do make this declaration, and every part 
thereof, in the plain and ordinary sense of the words read unto me, as 
tbey are commonly understood by English Protestants, without any 



BRITAIN S SUPPORT OP POPERY INCONSISTENT. 291 

evasion, equivocation, or mental reservation whatsoever, and without 
any dispensation already granted me for this purpose by the Pope, 01 
any other authority or person whatsoever, or without any hope of any 
such dispensation from any person or authority whatsoever, or without 
thinking that I am or can be acquitted before God or man, or absolved 
of this declaration, or any part thereof, although the Pope, or any other 
person or persons, or power whatsoever, should dispense ttith or annul 
the same, or declare that it was null or void from the beginning." 

5. By the act op Settlement, no Romanist can occupy 
the British throne. 

6. The National Churches, established by the laws, 
are Protestant. — 

(1.) The Church of England is Protestant. — In her 
Post Communion Rubric, she denounces Romanism as " ido- 
latry to be abhorred of all faithful Christians;" and through- 
out her articles and homilies she bears a deoided protest 
against Rome. We give one passage : — 

' ' Now, concerning excessive decking of images and idols, with paint* 
ing, gilding, adorning with precious vestures, pearl, and stone, what is 
it else, but for the further provocation and enticement to spiritual for- 
nication, — to deck spiritual harlots most costly and wantonly, which th* 
idolatrous Church understandeth well enough. For she being indeed 
not only an harlot, (as the Scripture calleth her,) but also a foul, filthy, 
old, withered harlot, (for she is indeed of ancient years, ) and under- 
standing her lack of natural and true beauty, and great loathsomeness 
which of herself she hath, doth, after the custom of such harlots, paint 
herself, and deck and tire herself with gold, pearl, stone, and all kind 
of precious jewels, that she, shining with the outward beauty and glo^r 
of them, may please the> foolish fantasy of fond lovers, and so entiot 
them to spiritual fornication with her, who, if they saw her (I will not 
say naked) but in simple apparel, would abhor her, as the foulest and 
filthiest harlot that ever was seen; according as appear eth by the de- 
scription of the garnishing of the great strumpet of all strumpets, the 
mother of'whoredom, set forth by St John in his Revelation, who by her 
glory provoked the 'princes of the earth to commit whoredom with her. 
Whereas, on the contrary part, the true Church of God, as a chaste 
matron, espoused (as the Scripture teacheth) to one husband, our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, whom alone she is content only to please and serve, and 
looketh not to delight the eyes or fantasies of any other strange lovert 
or wooers, is content with her natural ornaments, not doubting by suck 
sincere simplicity but to please Him who can well skill of the difference 
between a painted visage and a true natural beauty. And concerning 
such glorious gilding and decking of images, both God's Word written 



292 BRITAIN'S SUPPORT OF POPERY SINFUL. 

in the tenth chapter of the Prophet Jeremiah, and St Hierom's Com- 
xnentaries upon the same, are most worthy to be noted. First, the 
words of the Scriptures be these :— * The workman with his axe hewed 
the timber out of the wood with the work of his hands ; he decked it 
with gold and silver ; he joined it with nails, and pins, and the stroke 
•f an hammer, that it might hold together. They may be made smooth 
as the palm, and they cannot speak ; if they be borne they remove, for 
they cannot go. Fear ye them not, for they can neither do evil nor 
good.' "_p. 271, Homilies. London, 1843. 

(2.) The Church of Scotland is Protestant. — Of this 
we need give but one proof: — 

" There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ ; 
nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is that An- 
tichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in 
the Church against Christ, and all that is called God." — Conjession of 
Faith, chap. 25. 

(3.) The Church of Ireland is Protestant. — The Ar- 
ticles oftlte Irish Church, drawn up in 1615, contain the 
following declaration : — 

1 ' The Bishop of Rome is so far from being the supreme head of the 
aniversal Church of Christ, that his works and doctrine do plainly dis- 
cover him to be that man of sin foretold in the Holy Scriptures, whom 
the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and abolish with 
the brightness of bis coming." — Articles of the Ifish Church. 

Now, be it remembered, that these principles of the 
several Churches are also the law of the land. The Bri- 
tish nation adopts as its own the sentiment — the truthful 
statement — that Popish idolatry is inimical to the public 
weal, and that the Pope of Rome is the man of sin. It 
is, therefore, an act of gross inconsistency to patronise, 
and support, and enthrone , in power, that very system 
which the law has thus denounced. 

Is not the man unwise, who does what he believes will 
be detrimental to his own wellbeing? — and is not the na- 
tion as inconsistent, which encourages and supports a sys- 
tem which it believes will be injurious to itself 7 

III. Britain's Support of Popery is Sinful, and will 

PROVOKE NATIONAL PUNISHMENT. 

What is sin? It is denned by the inspired writer as 
" the transgression of the law." The law is set forth in 
the ten commandments, of which the second is, — 



BRITAIN'S SUPPORT OP POPERY SINFUL. 293 

Exod. xx. 4-6. " Thou Shalt not make unto thee any graven 
image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is 
in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth : Thxm 
shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy 
God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the 
children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me ; and 
shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my com- 
mandments." 

The Church of Rome palpably violates this. She bows 
down to, and serves images. She teaches her members, 
as a religious duty, to do that which is in reality the 
commission of sin, yet conscious of her sin, and desirous 
to conceal her guilt, she deliberately omits the second 
commandment from the catechism she publishes in Pop- 
ish countries. Popery is sin, — a violation of the law of 
God. Britain, in supporting and encouraging Popery, 
commits sin, and exposes herself to Divine wrath. If 
Popery be not idolatry, there is no such thing as idolatry 
in the world. It is creature worship of the grossest kind. 

The judgments of God are denounced against idolatry. 
We give but one specimen : — 

Deuteronomy iv. 25. " When thou shalt beget children, and 
children's children, and ye shall have remained long in the h}nd, and 
shall corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image, or the likeness of 
any thing, and shall do evil in the sight of the Lord thy God, to pro- 
voke him to anger ; v. 26. I call heaven and earth to witness against 
you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land where- 
unto ye go over Jordan to possess it ; ye shall not prolong your ttaya 
upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed." 

Here the Lord denounces national woe against tht 
commission of national idolatry, and we know how h« 
punished the Jews for this transgression of his law. 

Britain sins against light and knowledge. She has th« 
Bible in her right hand, — she declares that Romanism is 
idolatrous, — and yet she supports that idolatry. On what 
ground can we expect an exemption from divine judgments! 
Already we may see the finger of an avenging God. 

It was to conciliate the Komish party in Ireland that 
she passed the Emancipation Act of 1829, endowed May- 
nooth, and enacted other ungodly measures ; but are the 
Romanists of Ireland satisfied, or in a better condition ? 



294 SUMMARY OF BRITAIN S INCONSISTENCY AND SIN. 

No; the vials of God's wrath seemed to have been pour- 
ed out on that unhappy land. Ireland is now more than 
ever England's difficulty. Agitation, crime, bloodshed, 
famine, pestilence, the bankruptcy of nobility and gentry, 
and woe, have stalked throughout the land. 

The latest return for her liberality is the Papal 
Aggression. 

Romanism now holds an important position in the na- 
tion, and it never will rest until it is-ascendant, and Icha- 
bod, the glory hath departed, be written over the portals of 
the British nation. 

In our next Chapter we propose some remedies. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — How has Britain acted unwisely in admitting 
Papists to power, and supporting Popery 1 

A. — 1. Popery is immoral, and calculated to undermine 
that morality which distinguishes England. 2. Popery is 
inimical to Protestantism, and it never can rest while 
Protestantism exists. 3. Popery is hostile to the liberty 
and greatness of nations. It is, therefore, unwise to sup- 
port Popery. 

2. Q. — How has Britain acted inconsistently? 

A. — In declaring that Popery is idolatry, and yet sup 
porting it. 

3. Q. — How does Britain declare that it is idolatry? 

-4- — In the coronation oath, and by the testimony of 
the Established Churches. 

4. Q. — What is the nature of the coronation oath? 

A. — The Monarch declares, that the mass and the in 
vocation of Mary and the saints are idolatry. 

5. Q. — How does the Church of England bear testimony 
against Popery? 

A. — In her formularies she declares, that Popery is 
idolatry and apostacy, 

6. Q.— How do the Churches of Scotland and Ireland 
bear testimony against Popery? 

A.— They harmonize with the Church of England in 
denouncing Bomanism as idolatrous and a curse to nations. 



REMEDIAL MEASURES. 296 

7. Q. — Why should the views of these Churches be con- 
sidered the views of the British nation'? 

A. — Because they are established by law; — these views 
are, therefore, the law of this land. 

8. Q. — Has Britain acted sinfully in supporting Popery? 
A. — Popery is sin, being a violation of the law of God; 

and in supporting Popery she supports sin. 

9. Q. — What may she expect for such unfaithfulness? 
A. — National punishment, — God having denounced 

woes against the supporters of idolatry. 

10. Q. — For what motive did Britain betray her trust 
and support Popery? 

A. — To conciliate the Romanists of Ireland. 

11. Q. — Have they been conciliated? 

A. — No; Ireland never was more wretched or agitated 
since the passing of these measures. Britain's latest re- 
ward for her liberality has been the Papal Aggression. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Necessary Remedial Measures. 

We have pointed out the folly, inconsistency, and sin 
of Great Britain in supporting Popery, and we now turn 
to remedial measures, and such as we consider necessary 
for the wellbeing of the country. 

In the first place, we would premise, that the same 
principles of justice and law should be applied to Scotland 
Ireland, and the colonies, as to England herself. What 
is truth in England cannot be falsehood in Ireland or 
Australia ; and what is ruinous in a moral point of view 
to man in one country must be the same in another, and 
offensive to God. 

Popery produces the same deadly fruits everywhere; 
and though to accomplish its purposes it may sometim.s 
stoop and appear to change, yet it is in all places, and un- 
der all circumstances, debasing, superstitious, and soul- 
destroying. No change of clime or affairs can effect a 



296 OUTSPEAKING OF THE TABLEP. 

change in its inalienable hostility to liberty, morality, and 
truth. It was intolerant and cruel on tho coast of Mala- 
bar at the same time that it was persecuting the followers of 
truth in Europe. It laboured to extend its influence in 
India by fraud and deceit, at the same time that it was 
endeavouring to undermine, by similar arts, the cause of 
Protestantism in Britain. It boasts, both as to time and 
place, that it is " semper eadem" always the same. 

We say, therefore, that if Popery be bad for Britain, it 
is bad for Ireland and the colonies, and should be coun- 
teracted as much in the latter as in the former. 

We believe that Great Britain, at the present moment, 
is in a position of imminent danger. Popery occupies a 
stronghold in the country, and it laughs to scorn the Pro- 
testant spirit of the nation and the Government measures 
against Papal Aggression. In the Tablet (the Romish organ) 
is the following remarkable passage : — 

" All the while Parliament will be sitting and spending its time in 
notable attempts to vindicate the majesty of British Law, or rather La 
notable pretences to appear to do the same. And all the while the Ca- 
tholics of these islands, lay and clerical, are laughing at the legislature, 
breaking the law, and making fools of the whole Imperial Parliament, 
with Speaker and Lord Chancellor to boot. What a repulse given t« 
territorial aggression ! What a salvo to the dignity ot the British Lion ! 
What a fool, by the way, and in conclusion, the said British Lioa 
must be !"— Tablet, 1th Jwne, 1851. 

What can be more audacious than this 1 ? Popery, now 
patronised by the State, assumes its ancient tone of bold 
defiance, calculating on its strength, and on the vast support 
which it receives from France and other continental na- 
tions. Britain must certainly fall from her noble position 
if Popery, which is a conspiracy against the liberties of man- 
kind, and hostile to our institutions, be not boldly met and 
shorn of its power to harm. 'Twas but the other day, when 
the manoeuvres of its Romish brigade in Parliament, in 
league with the government, foiled not only the nation, but 
the decision of the Protestant majority of the House of 
Commons, on the Nunnery and Maynooth questions. 

We propose, as measures necessary to meet the evil,— 



ABOLISH THE MAYNOOTH GRANT. 297 

I, The withdrawal of all support and en- 
couragement, PECUNIARY OR OTHERWISE, FROM 
THE CHURCH OF ROME, BOTH AT HOME AND ABROAD, 

including the abolition of grants to the Romish schools, to 
Romish chaplains of jails, of workhouses, of the army, and 
to all other Roman Catholic institutions wherever and 
whatever they may be; including also the enactment of 
laws, which, while they would not interfere with the right 
of Romanists, or Protestants, to worship God according 
to their conscience in their own places of worship, would 
effectually prevent all acts or deeds of Romanists, Pro- 
testants, or any one else, which might, directly or in- 
directly, interfere with the civil and religious liberty of 
the subject; and the free use of the authorised version 
of the Bible by all. By the adoption of this course we 
would at once accomplish the following objects, — 

1. The great Maynooth, and all other Romish in- 
stitutions, would be disendowed. It is a crying sin to 
educate young men for an idolatrous priesthood, — to bind, 
in fact, their chains upon tliem. Idolatry is hateful to 
God and contrary to His law. Woe is denounced against 
the supporter of idolatry; and that woe must assuredly 
fall upon England if she repent not of her national sup- 
port of Popery. The grant to Maynooth is not employed 
in giving the rising priesthood even secular knowledge, 
but in imparting a one-sided, false, superstitious, and 
bigotted education. As soon as these young men are 
trained, they are sent forth, not only for the special in- 
struction of the Irish people, but in large numbers to Bri- 
tain, and the colonies, to spread their anti-British and un 
scriptural doctrines. It is not only sin against God, but 
absolute madness on the part of Britain, to employ any 
part of the national treasures in the instruction of young 
men in superstition, and hostility to her Protestant throne 
and institutions, or in the payment of Romish ecclesiastics 
in the colonies. Moreover, the college itself, erected by 
British gold, at present a huge monument of British fully 
and inconsistency, should be devoted to Protestant pur- 
poses. It would be false delicacy, nay, positive absurdity, 



298 NO POPISH SCHOOL GRANTS OR CHAPLAINCIES. 

to allow the Roman Catholics to retain such a building, 
erected as it was by a Protestant country which was de- 
ceived by the falsehood and misrepresentations of the 
Papists in 1845, and the unperformed promises of loyalty 
and contentment of an earlier period. 

2. The Little Maynooths, alias the National 
Schools of Ireland, would also fall to the ground. In 
Chap. xxv. we have shown at length how thoroughly Popish 
and perverted from their original design, and therefore, 
how indefensible even by their original supporters these 
schools have become. Their reform is impossible; nothing 
but the exclusion of Romanists from their management, 
and from the office of teachers, — nothing but the introduc- 
tion of the Bible, and a sound religious education, under 
the superintendence of the Church of Ireland, instead of 
that of the Romish priesthood, can be of any avail. 

3. Romish Chaplaincies, whether in jails, or work- 
houses, the army, or anywhere else, would also, as a matter 
of course, be disendowed. The national payment of these 
chaplains is clearly an initial step towards the regular en- 
dowment of the Romish Church, and should therefore be 
put an end to. It is thoroughly inconsistent for & 
Protestant state to support the teachers of Popery, 
just as it would be for the lovers of truth to be the pro- 
moters of falsehood. We are well aware that some par- 
ties adopt the Jesuit fallacy, suggested by Romanists, that 
the state should supply to the incarcerated Roman Catho- 
lics, when deprived of the power of attending mass, the 
services of a Romish priest. To such reasoning the simple 
answer is, that a Protestant state cannot, in any form or 
manner, be accessory to the teaching of Popery. More- 
over, it is well known, even by some of the parties who 
adopt this argument, that Romish teaching makes crimi- 
nals but does not reform them; (see the statistics on 
crime, Chapter xix., page 172,) and that the best thing 
that can happen to the convict is, that the period of his 
confinement should be turned to his advantage, by giving 
him some knowledge of the Bible and of Protestant truth. 
It is well he should hear both sides, which he never will 



NO GRANTS TO ROMISH CHAPLAINCIES. 299 

hear from his priest. It is perfectly unjust towards the 
convict, that the British nation should give the impress o£ 
its sanction to Romish error by the endowment of Roman 
Catholic chaplains. 

When the felon was at liberty he was free to attend 
any place of worship he pleased. Romanists now desire 
that he should be excluded from the instruction of all but 
themselves. This would be unjust to the felon, and as the 
rules of a prison can admit only the services of one deno- 
mination, it follows that that can only be the Protestant. 

Nor is there any stronger reason for the appointment 
of Romish chaplains in workhouses. These are the insti- 
tutions of a Protestant state which cannot with consis- 
tency be called on to acknowledge or recognise Popery in 
any form or shape. Moreover, such appointments would 
involve an acknowledgment inconsistent with a steadfast 
belief in Protestant truth. The inmates of a workhouse 
cannot derive any benefit from the instruction of the 
priests. Practically, the introduction of these function- 
aries, whether into jails or workhouses, has proved a 
source of discord and annoyance, and has led to demand* 
for the erection of altars, the performance of masses, and 
all the other mummeries — demands which we may expect 
as the natural result from the abandonment of principle. 

The appointment of Popish priests to the army, is, ia 
principle, as objectionable as the other cases, but it is spe- 
cially objeotionable from the authority which the priest of 
Rome necessarily exercises over the soldier. 

Again, and again, have we read in the Romish news- 
papers of exhortations to Romish soldiers, and of warnings 
to Protestants on the danger of their offending the great 
Popish powers of the continent. Now, while we are un- 
willing to take up an ill report against Roman Catholic 
soldiers, and while we remember how efficiently they 
acted under Protestant officers in the wars at the beginning 
of the present century, yet we must also beai in mind that 
in those days there were none of the Pope's officers — 
the priests — in attendance upon the army, ready to step for- 
ward with their advice — to hatch rebellion, or instil treason 



3UU HO KOMISH DENUNCIATIONS OR BEQUESTS. 

into the minds of the soldiers ; nor were the ultra montane 
views, now so common, then publicly advocated. On the 
contrary, Rome played the part of the amiable and the 
gentle. 

On the same ground we would object to the state taking 
into its pay the sisters of charity — the subtle allies of 
Rome. 

4. The Romish Endowments in India and the Colo- 
nies would also cease for the same reason. The sin and 
madness of Britain in these endowments is positively mar- 
vellous. 

5. Altar Denunciations should also fall to the ground. 
In Chapter xv., page 128, we have already enlarged 
on the iniquity and thraldom in which the votaries of 
Rome are held by this means. We need now only refer 
to what we have said, as our reason for including this 
subject in our enumeration of remedial measures. 

6. Deathbed bequests should also cease. Few will 
have the hardihood to maintain that Romanists should 
have the power of making such bequests, when we know 
the purposes to which the priests apply that power. It 
is manifestly better for the Roman Catholic that he should 
not have the option of disposing of his property by a death- 
bed bequest, seeing how frequently that power is exercised 
to the prejudice of the heir. Assuredly the state is not 
called on to stretch forth its arm to grant facilities for the 
swindling practices of the Romish priesthood, whereby, 
under the plea of saying masses for the release of the testa- 
tor from purgatory, vast sums come yearly to the cofiers of 
the Romish Church. The law has already declared the ille • 
gality of bequests for masses; but this is not sufficient, 
because the same priests, who, by their power over the 
dying man, are able to persuade him to disinherit his wife 
and family in favour of the Church, can, by the same 
power, obtain absolute bequests to their own confidential 
parties, and so the end is accomplished. The only effec- 
tual remedy, therefore, is to declare the Roman Catholic 
incapable of disposing of his property, on the death-bed. 
We recommend this, not merely to deprive the priests of 



REPEAL OP THE EMANCIP ATION ACT 1 8 li9. 301 

this plunder, but to rescue the poor Roman Catholic from 
the impious grasp of those who, fluttering round him in 
his dying moments, can compel him, by threats and spiri- 
tual terrors, to obey their commands. 

7. The Expulsion op Jesuits, Chap, xviii., p. 164. 

8. The Abolition op Nunneries, Chap xxiv., p. 255. 
These subjects must not be overlooked. 

9. The BrBLE. — In Chapter xvi., we have shown the 
hostility of Rome to the free circulation of Scripture, and 
how she steps forward, and declaring that the Bible, GodV 
best gift to man, is a dangerous book for the people, 
prohibits its free use and circulation. We should rejoice to 
see the enactment of a law prohibitory of this interference. 

II, The Exclusion of Roman Catholics from Par- 
liament, AND FROM POWER AT HOME AND ABROAD. 
By the adoption of this course we should at once accom- 
plish the following objects: — 

10. The Repeal of the Emancipation Act op 1829, 
i.e. of such portion of it as enables Roman Catholics to sit 
in Parliament. Our frequent reference to this subject 
renders detailed illustration unnecessary. 

Those only who themselves are free should have a voice 
in the Government of a free nation. Roman Catholics 
acknowledge a divided allegiance ; nay, rather, we should 
say, their loyalty to the Queen is subservient to that which 
they bear to the Pope. The Church, the throne, the majori- 
ty of the people are Protestant. Roman Catholics, ifconsis 
tent, are hostile to everything Protestant; and are, there 
fore, incapacitated to legislate for this Protestant country. 

The Disfranchisement of all Popish Boroughs is an 

ESSENTIAL PRELIMINARY TO TRUE PARLIAMENTARY Re-» 

form. — The proprietors of certain decayed towns, called 
borough-mongers, had, previously to 1832, the power 
of nominating members to Parliament. These nomina- 
tion, or rotten boroughs, as they were often called, were? 
disfranchised in 1832, because it was considered to be 
contrary to the principles of the British constitution, and 
dangerous to civil liberty, that any individual should 



302 THE PHIESTS RETURN IRISH MEMBERS. 

have such powers. In theory the system was porfectly 
indefensible, but it was said that in practice it worked 
well, in so far as it enabled the young unknown talent 
of the country, and experienced but unknown men 
from the colonies, to enter Parliament; and the fact that 
these boroughs were held as well by Whigs as Tories — the 
two great parties of the State — prevented many evil results 
of a practical character. Notwithstanding all these argu- 
ments, the rotten boroughs were disfranchised. 

Now-a-days, a new but far more dangerous species of rot- 
ten borough has sprung into existence. These rotten bor- 
oughs number sixty seats, and are on the increase ; and the 
imminent danger from them consists, not in their being 
divided between the two great political parties of the 
State, who, however much they differ in details, have 
both of them the interests of the nation at heart, but in 
the fact that all these new rotten boroughs belong to, and 
are under the control of one great borough-monger — the 
Pope — a foreigner, whose interests are alien to those of 
Protestant Britain, and to civil and religious liberty ! The 
head moves the body, but the Pope is head of the Romish 
Church. He controls the priests, and the priests control 
the people. The Pope thus exercises authority in every 
land where there are Roman Catholics, which clearly 
shows that it is dangerous to put political power into the 
hands of Romanists. 

It is notorious that the Pope and the priests return the 
Irish brigade. Although the power of this brigade in 
Parliament has been repeatedly referred to in the preced- 
ing pages, we give, in proof of our statement, the follow- 
ing extract from the Tablet, the leading organ of the Ro- 
manists in Ireland : — 

" This country of ours (Ireland) is a (Roman) Catholic country; the 
real constituents of it are the (Romish) bishops and the (Romish) priests. 
We take this for granted, and we do not see how it can be questioned. 
There are of course exceptions, places where lay influence predominates : 

BUT, ON THE WHOLE, THE IRISH REPRESENTATION 18 THE WORK OF THS 

priesthood. The Irish Members are in Parliament, because the priests 
have tent them there ; they know it perfeotly well, and the Protestants 
are not ignorant of it. The Irish (Roman Catholic) priests are also the 



THE PRIESTS RETURN IRISH MEMBERS. 303 

only priests in Europe or America who have suoh powers, and who lie 
under so grand a responsibility. 'It is in the united kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, in a Parliament fiercely Protestant, and in the face 
©f the most virulent hatred of the (anti) Christian religion, that the 
priesthood wields this formidable power. It is to their credit, and to 
the credit of the people they govern ; it is an honourable tribute to their 
worth, and to the excellency of their life. They can do in Ireland what 
the priests cannot do in France, Belgium, or Piedmont, and they do it 
openly in the face of the Government, and no man dares molest them.' 1 '' 
—Tablet, 25th August, 1855. 

Surely such language as this, and in the Romish dis- 
tricts it is true to the letter, will open the eyes of this 
Protestant nation. It also establishes the position we 
have maintained, that subjects of the Pope are not qualified, 
under such circumstances, for the exercise of the elective 
franchise, and that the conferring political power on them, 
in the name of Parliamentary reform, was simply con- 
verting the Romish constituencies of Ireland into so many 
rotten and nomination boroughs and counties, of which, 
as we have said, the Pope is the great borough-monger. 

Who would not feel it an intolerable grievance — an 
absurdity not to be endured for a moment — were the Em- 
peror Napoleon of France, or the Czar of Russia, to no- 
minate sixty of their subjects to be members of the House 
of Commons, and yet the nomination of the Irish brigade 
by the Pope is not less preposterous! The fitness of the 
individual for the trust reposed in him, whether elector 
or representative, is a principle thoroughly recognised in 
our constitution ; and as many parties under influence of 
independent action are disqualified — such as Government 
officials, or parties unable to discharge their functions, as 
females, persons under age, and the like — so there is no 
thing novel in holding that those who are the slaves of 
Rome, and have no free and independent action, are dis- 
qualified for the exercise of the rights and privileges of 
British freemen. The argument, that all members of a 
state are entitled to share in its ministration, irrespective 
•f their personal fitness, is preposterous. In principle, 
there is no ground for maintaining the present law, that the 
Sovereign must be a Protestant, if it be proper and right 



304 LORD eldon's speech against emancipation. 

to admit Komanists to Parliament ; yet few Protestants 
are wild enough, or blind enough, not to perceive that our 
Protestantism and liberties, as a nation, would be at an 
end were our Sovereign a Roman Catholic. On the same 
principle, none of our legislators, in Lords and Commons, 
should be Romanists. 

As a measure of expediency the Emancipation bill was 
passed, despite of the solemn warnings of the best friends 
of the nation. As a measure of expediency it has failed. 
The Romanists are not satisfied, and they can never be 
satisfied while Protestantism exists. Ireland is as wretched 
as ever ; and the solemn professions, in virtue of which Ro- 
manists are admitted to Parliament, are being violated 
every day. They swear not to injure the Established 
Churches, and yet they agitate unceasingly for the over- 
throw of these very Churches ! England, for her liberality, 
has been rewarded with rebellion, agitation, and, last of all, 
the Papal Aggression. What will come next, time alone 
can tell. Of tliis we 'are assured, that Romanists, if not 
expelled from Parliament, will bring ruin on the country, 
aided as they are by infidels and latitudinarians. The 
Churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland, will be sacri- 
ficed, the throne subverted, and the whole social fabric 
convulsed. Papal subjects and infidels are the enemies of 
God and man; and unless their power be speedily over- 
thrown, consequences the most disastrous will ensue. How 
remarkable was the last speech of Lord Chancellor Eldon 
in reference to the Emancipation bill, on 10th April 
1829. He said,— 

" Yon may flatter yourselves that these consequences will not follow, 
and God forbid that I should say yon are wrong, if, in voting for the 
third reading of this bill, yon do not conscientiously believe that you 
are placing in danger those Protestant establishments which ought to 
have, but which will not have, if this bill pass, a Protestant King and 
a Protestant Parliament. Those with whom we have to deal are much 
too wary to apprise us, by any immediate conduct, of our danger ; but 
that they will triumph— not to-day, nor to-morrow, but when I shall 
have been consigned to the urns and sepulchres of mortality — I have no 
more doubt than that I now stand here. I therefore, my Lords, pray 
to God that those evils may be averted which I foresee. I say to you— 



LORD ELDON'S SPEECH AGAIN8T EMANCIPATION. 305 

and I pray yon to hearken to the words of a man who must soon go to 
his last great account — that before I can bring myself to give my vote 
for this bill, I must first pray to God to forgive me for having outraged 
every notion which I have ever conceived should regulate my conduct, 
and every notion of the sacred nature of the oaths and declarations 
which I had ever taken. I think I know something of the Catholic 
clergy, and of their feeling towards our Protestant Church. I have long 
entertained certain opinions of them, and though this is late in life to 
utter one's opinion, yet I should be willing to think better of these 
clergy if I could. But I do declare, my Lords, that I would rather 
hear at this moment, that to-morrow morning I was to cease to exist — 
an illustration, however, which I do not put as one of great force, for I 
should look upon it as any thing but an affliction — I say, that, after all 
the consideration which I have been able to give to this question, rather 
than consent to an alteration of laws which I hold to be fundamental, 
and which I think to be essential to the support of the Throne, the 
safety of the Church, the good of the Aristocracy, and the preservation 
of the Constitution of the country, in King, Lords, and Commons, I 
would rather hear that I was not to exist to-morrow morning, than 
awake to the reflection, that I had consented to an act which had 
stamped me as a violator of my solemn oath, a traitor to my Church, 
and a traitor to the Constitution. (Cheers. ) — Hansard's Parliamentary 
debates, vol. 21, pages 639-640. April 10, 1829. 

This far sighted nobleman has long since been consigned 
to mortality and the tomb ; but the facts of the present 
day bear testimony to the truth of his words. 

Had the patrons of the Emancipation Bill been told that 
the passing of that measure, instead of giving satisfaction 
and establishing peace, would be followed by agitation, 
monster meetings, state trials, mid-day murders in Ireland, 
and the Papal Aggression in England, they would have 
laughed at the idea. We are persuaded that worse is 

YET TO COME, AND WE CAN SEE BUT ONE WAY TO AVERT THE 

EVIL, THAT THE NATION HUMBLE ITSELF BEFORE GOD AND 

RETURN TO THE OLD PATHS. 

Tf the British Churches, the British throne, the British 
fabric of social order and national greatness are to be main- 
tained, the subjects of a foreign prince must be expelled 
from Parliament, — those who are traitors by their very 
creed, and who have proved themselves to be such, must 
be turned out, and, to express it in other words, the 
Emancipation Act of 1829 must be repealed. 



306 POSITIVE MEASURES — EVANGELIZATION OF IRELAND. 

It is quite true that so decided a measure may cause 
much commotion and agitation; but it is better that a 
crisis should come while Protestantism has some remaining 
strength. Every day adds to the danger. Popery and 
infidelity are gaining power to crush evangelical truth. 
Rome will take the initiative, and trample British liberty 
in the dust, if Britons sleep much longer. The disease is 
dreadful. It needs, therefore, an instantaneous and bold 
operation. Better risk a war at once 'than permit all that 
we hold dear in Britain to be overthrown; better run 
any hazard than have the evils and woes of the middle 
ages brought back. 

III. Active or Positive Measures. 

Mere political measures will not be sufficient. Protestant 
Britain, in the reigns of Elizabeth, James, William, and 
succeeding monarchs, too much reposed in its political Pro- 
testantism, and forgot its religious duties. The time was 
when Ireland invited missionary efforts, and when, under 
the blessing of God, it might have been made, with little 
difficulty, a Protestant country. The Romish priests and 
bishops were few, and superstition held down its head. 
Then had Church and State done their duty, the blessed 
consequences would now be felt. But the Church slum- 
bered, and the State appointed to places of importance in- 
efficient men, who seemed to forget their high and holy 
calling. The result was, that Popery revived ; the Popish 
party in Ireland assumed a powerful position; and from 
that country all England's inconsistency has proceeded; 
and Ireland is now England's scourge. 

11. Evangelization of Ireland. — Still it is not too 
late. Let a great effort be made for the evangelization of 
Ireland. There is a fair opening. The Church of Ireland, 
tried in the furnace of affliction, has come forth like fine 
gold. A more apostolic Church never existed. Her 
ministers are blessed with a martyr's zeal and prophet's 
glow — laborious, patient, self-denying, godly, able, pious 
men. We speak of them as a body. The Roman Catholic 
population invite missionary labour. " The Church Mis- 



ECCLESIASTICAL PROMOTION OF MISSIONARY CLERGY. 307 

sions" has been greatly blessed. Through its labours 
fourteen new Churches have been recently built in the 
wildest part of the West for converts from Popery. A 
great work goes on in the land. Now is the time for the 
British Government to apply its energies, or rather to 
assist the Church, for the evangelization of the people. 
Make Ireland Protestant, and you will make it a happy 
and loyal country. But the State has much to do, not 
only for Ireland but the whole united kingdom. 

12. No Irish Educational Popish Grant. — The State 
must withdraw the national system of education in Ire- 
land, which contemplates a mixed education of Romanists 
and Protestants, and recognizes the Romish priest as an 
authorized instructor of the people. National education 
should be based upon the Bible, and the Bible alone. 
Is it not monstrous, that nearly £187,000 should be 
granted yearly by Protestant Britain for education in 
Popery? How long shall it continue? 

13. The Promotion of Clergymen of Missionary 
spirit. — The State should promote men of missionary spirit 
and Protestant zeal to places of authority in the Church 
Let faithfulness to God and his truth be the highway to 
honour, and not, as it is now, the sure road to ill-treatment 
and injustice. Government favour in Ireland is bestowed 
only upon those who support the national system of educa- 
tion. Is it not a fact, that some of the ablest advocates of 
Protestantism are allowed to occupy poor benefices, with 
scarce any stipend, while time-servers are advanced to 
places of emolument and trust? We do not think that this 
is owing to the present system of patronage,* for there are 
many instances in which the trustee and popular system oi 
elections produce no better results. No ; right Protestant 
principle is at a low ebb. Even professedly religious and 
evangelioal men have too much imbibed the infidel, if not 
the Romanizing policy of the age; and when patronage is 
in their hands, they overlook the claims of those whom they 
should consider as friends, and appoint men of luke~ 'arm 



* Some of the best appointments have been made by Government. 



308 ROYAL PREACHERS PROTESTANT LECTURERS. 

principle, — men who are not calculated to meet the giant 
evils of the day. 

This should not be so. Important charges should be' 
filled with ministers of principle, zeal, ability, and energy, 
commensurate with the wants of the times. In the legal 
and military professions, capability for the post is the 
first consideration. Why should it not be so in the Church 1 
It is a scandalous shame, that inefficient men are put into 
places of importance, while the really able and pious are 
allowed to remain in spheres of but little usefulness. 

14. Royal Preachers. — Let the plan of sending forth 
royal preachers to expose the errors of Rome, (which suc- 
ceeded so well in England at the Reformation,) with au- 
thority to enter any and every pulpit, be adopted again. 
This will prove a stimulus to Protestants, and secure the 
attention of the people. 

15. Special Mission to Romanists in Britain. — 
And while the missionary work is steadily pursued in 
Ireland, it will be necessary, as a provisional effort, to 
carry on a similar movement in Britain for the conversion 
of Roman Catholics. " The Protestant Reformation So- 
ciety, and Special Mission," is accomplishing much good 
in this way. 

16. Protestant Lecturers for Universities. — Pro- 
testant lecturers should be appointed in the Universities. 
The Bible and the pulpit won the Reformation, and 
the Bible and the pulpit must maintain it. The clergy 
move the masses, and therefore they especially should be 
well instructed in the grounds of our holy religion. It 
must be confessed, that ministers of the gospel, even in 
Ireland where Popery abounds, are not sufficiently in- 
structed in the controversy with the Church of Rome. 
It is not so with our adversaries. The priests of Rome 
are, to a man, minutely acquainted with all the mazes 
of controversy, and, armed at every point, are ever ready 
to take the field, especially when their opponents are 
not skilled in the work. This evil should at once be 
remedied, and our clergy thoroughly instructed and quali- 



PROTECTION OF CONVERTS — RECIPROCITY 309 

fied to unravel the sophistries, and expose the falsehood of 
the Church of Rome. 

17 General study of the Controversy. — Let all 
Protestants make themselves acquainted with the grounds 
of their faith, and so be enabled to resist intelligently the 
aggressions of Rome. 

18. Protestant Catechism in all Schools. — Protes- 
tant Catechisms should be introduced into all Schools.* 

19. Bible Distribution and Instruction. — Every 
British subject should be provided with a copy of the 
word of God, so that children be instructed, not only in 
gospel truth, but in the meaning of those passages of 
scripture which Roman Catholics pervert to the support 
of their views. * 

20. Protection of Converts. — It should give protec- 
tion to priests and members of the Church of Rome who 
leave that apostate communion, and thus expose themselves 
to persecution, and, as it often happens, to want. 

Oh ! that this great nation would awake from its apathy, 
and the Churches of our land put on their beautiful gar- 
ments, and go forth in right earnest to evangelize the 
people! Then would the wilderness and the solitary place 
be glad, and the desert blossom as the rose. 

There is another point to which we would direct atten- 
tion ere we close, and that is to 

THE NECESSITY OF RECIPROCITY. 

We have too long overlooked the claims of our Roman 
Catholic fellowmen in other lands upon our missionary 
exertions. Roman missionaries from Italy can labour 
here, — and we would not deprive them of liberty so to do. 
We should, in all justice, be allowed to labour there. The 



* The author has prepared a Protestant Catechism expressly for the 
purpose, published by Messrs Paton & Ritchie, 3 South Hanover Street, 
Edinburgh, price Fourpence, 72 pages demy 12mo. The Catechism can 
be obtained in quantities, not under 50, by grants from the Scottish 
Protestant Association, Edinburgh, on applicatioD, at Twopence a copy, 
prepaid. ^_, 



a 10 SUMMARY OF REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

foreign bayonet prevents the importation of the Bible and' 
the Protestant missionary into Italy, and even into 
France, though Britain permits the breviary and the 
missionary priest to come into our land. 

Let tli is injustice be represented to the people, and let 
Britain insist, we say again, upon reciprocity. Popery 
could not maintain its position in Italy or France were 
free discussion allowed ; and would Britain only do her 
duty in this matter, she might prove the apostle of the 
religious elevation of the human family, and the harbinger 
of peace to the world. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 

1. Q. — What is the first necessary measure which you 
would propose to meet the difficulties of the present crisis 
in reference to Popery? 

A. — The withdrawal of all support and encouragement 
from the Church of Rome, at home and abroad, and the 
enactment of laws to prevent all acts and deeds by Ro- 
manists or Protestants, or any one which might, directly 
or indirectly, interfere with civil and religious liberty, and 
the free use of the authorised version of the Bible. 

2. Q. — Specify more particularly what you mean ? 

A. — I refer especially, 1. To Maynooth college, and 
all Romish institutions. 2. The little Maynooths, alms 
the National Schools of Ireland. 3. The withdrawal of 
grants for Romish chaplains, whether in jails or work- 
houses, the army, or elsewhere. 4. Romish endowments 
in India and the colonies. 5. Prohibition of altar denun- 
ciations. 6. Prohibition of death-bed bequests. 7. The 
expulsion of the Jesuits. 8. The abolition of nunneries. 
9. Free circulation of the authorised version of the Bible. 

3. Q. — Do you recommend the repeal of the Emanci- 
pation Act of 1829? and if so, for what reason? 

A. — 10. I think it is absolutely necessary to repeal 
that measure. (1.) Roman Catholics are not free, but 
the slaves of the Pope; they are, therefore, disquali- 
fied for the government of a free Protestant nation. (2.) 



SUMMARY OF REMEDIAL MEASURES. 311 

The disqualification of Romanists, as representatives, 
is an essential preliminary to true parliamentary re- 
form. (3.) Roman Catholic Members of Parliament 
have violated their oath, in which they promised not 
to employ their influence for the injury of the Esta- 
blished Churches. (4.) As a measure of expediency it has 
failed. Ireland, for whose conciliation it was passed, is 
more wretched than ever. The Papal Aggression is Eng- 
land's reward for her liberality. 

4. Q. — Will mere political measures suffice? 

A. — No; in former days England reposed too much in 
her legislative enactments, and forgot her religious duties 
towards Romanists, for whose conversion it was her duty 
to have laboured. As a consequence of her negligence in 
this respect, Popery became powerful in Ireland 

5. Q.— What then should be? 

A. — 11. A great effort should be made for the evange- 
lization of the Roman Catholics of Ireland and Britain. 

6. Q. — In order to accomplish this, with God's blessing 
what is it necessary to do? 

A.— 12. To withdraw the national system of education 
in Ireland, — a system which recognises the right of the 
Romish priest as a teacher of religion. 13. Men of Pro- 
testant zeal and missionary spirit should be promoted to 
the high places in the Church. 14. Royal preachers 
should traverse the country to warn the people of the 
errors of Rome. 15. A great missionary effort should be 
made for the conversion of Roman Catholics in Britain. 
1 6. Lecturers on the controversy should be appointed in 
the universities to instruct the students.* 17. The study 
of the Romish controversy should be undertaken by all 
Protestants. 18. Protestant catechisms should be intro- 
duced into all schools. 1 9. Every British subject should be 
provided with a copy of the word of God. 20. Protection 
from persecution should be given to Romish priests and 
laymen becoming Protestants. 

7. Q. — W^hat do you suppose would be the result? 
A.— Under the blessing of God, Ireland would become 



312 SUMMARY OF REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

a Protestant and prosperous nation. Thus let England 
draw the sword of the Spirit on Ireland's behalf, and 
victory is sure. 

8. Q. — While these measures are being adopted at 
home, would you recommend any effort fur the conversion 
of Romanists on the Continent? 

A. — Most decidedly. I think that as Romish mission- 
aries are permitted to labour in this country, Protestant 
missionaries should be allowed to labour in Roman Catho- 
lic countries. 

Britain should insist upon reciprocity. 




INDEX. 



Act, Emancipation. See Emancipation. 
— of Settlement, 291. 
Administration, Compulsory, of Con- 
firmation, 70. 
Adultery, Fornication committed in 
lieu of, 13. 

— Men may give occasion to their 

wives to commit, 14. 

Adulteress,. An, can deny her crime, 26. 

£neas Sylvius condemned by the In- 
dex, 146. 

— on Celibacy, 195. 
Aggression, Papal, on Greek Church. 

See Greek Church. 

— on EDgland, 5, 12, 273-284. 
Albigenses and Waldenses, Crusades 

against the, 107. 
Alexander IV., Bull of, supporting 
the Inquisition, 100. 

— VII. Bull of, on the Probable 

Opinions, 193. 
Allocution, Papal, against Sardinia, 227 

— Spain, 230. 

Allocutions, Papal, Observations up- 
on, 233. 

— Times upon, 235. 
Altar Denunciation, 300 

— Modern, 127. 

— Heretics to be dragged from the, 

102. 
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, misquoted, 

43 
Anacletus, St, misquoted, 46. 
Apocrypha not in the Canon, 194 

— Hugh de St Victor on the, 194. 

— Nicholas de Lyra on the, 194. 
AQCiNASonCommunioninonekind,194. 

— on Image worship, 185 

— Persecuting sentiments of, 64. 
Arbues, Inquisitor, Assassination of, 86. 
Armada, The Spanish, 279. 
Arragon, Inquisition established in, 85. 
Augustine, Persecuting sentiments gf, 

61 
Austria, Murders in, 172 
Authorities misquoted by Rome See 

Misquotation 
Authors, Romish, condemned by the 

Index See Index 
Auto da fe', Description of an, 91 

B 

Babylon, Rome the Mystical, 97 



Baines, Dr, on Change of Ceremonial 

Worship, 196. 
Baptized persons, all, subject toRome, 69 
Baronius, Exposure of Romish misquo- 
tation by, 47. 

— on Papal Schism, 201, 203. 

— — Wars, 208-210, 214. 

Bartholomew Massacre. See Massacre. 

Basil Hall, Captain, on the Confes- 
sional, 173. 

Bavaria, Murders in, 172. 

Becket, Thomas a, and the Constitu 

tions of Clarendon, 274. 
Bede on Monastic Immorality, 248. 
Belgium, Murders in, 172. 
Bellarmine, Exposure of Romish mis 
quotations, by, 48. 

— on Intention, 187. 
Benedict XIV., Bull of, supporting the 

Inquisition, 100. 

— — directed against the 

Reformation, 103 

— Persecuting sentiments of, 72 

— Prohibits Scripture, 137 

— on Restitution of Church Pro- 

perty, 71. 

— Epitome of his Works published 

in Dublin, 77, 103. 
Bequests, Deathbed, 300. 
Beziers, Count of, fought for Protes- 
tantism, 108. 
Bible excluded from Irish National 

Schools, 138. 

— Circulation of, should be free, 301, 

309. 

— denounces Idolatry, 293. 

— Martini's, 136. 

— Mistranslation of the, 50. 

— Papists allowed possession of the, 

among Protestants, 135 

— Prohibited by 

Benedict XIV 137. 
Bull Dnigenitus, 75. 
Clement XI. 133. 
Council of Toulouse, 132 
Gregory XVI 137. 
Index of Council of Trent, 134 
Leo XII. 136. 
Liguori, 133. 
Pius IV. 133, 137. 
Pius VII. 135 
Pius VIII. 137 
Births, Illegitimate, in Romish ami 
Protestant countries, 1 7 1 



314 



INDEX. 



Bohemia, Inquisition established in, 85. 

Bonaventure on Image Worship, 185. 

Boroughs, The Rotten, 301. 

Bordeaux Testament, 50. 

Bossuet, Persecuting sentiments of, 65. 

Boyne, Battle of the, 283. 

Bradford, Ilev. John, Martyrdom of, 
121. 

Brahmins, Jesuits claimed to be, in In- 
dia, 157. 

Breviary, Anecdotes of young Nuns 
in the, 238. 

Bridget, St, on Monastic Immorality, 
247. 

Brigade, the Irish, Influence of, 4. 

— and the Tablet, 302. 
Britain a home for Exiles, 1. • 

— and other countries contrasted, 2. 

— Papal Aggression on, 5, 12, 273- 

284. 

— Number of Romish churches in, 3. 

— Policy of the Jesuits in, 159. 

— Proscription of the Jesuits in, 

164. 

— Jesuits do what they like in, 1 65. 
Britain's support of Popery is unwise, 

287. 

— support of Popery is inconsistent, 

290. 

— support of Popery is sinful, 292. 

— folly, Reflections on, 217. 
British Throne is Protestant, 290. 

— influence abolished the Inquisi- 

tion in Groa, 86. 

— Government neglected Irish Edu- 

cation, 258. 

— — scorned by Popery, 296. 

— Protestants, Persecution of, 117. 
Brussels, Illegitimate Births in, 171. 
Bull Camae Domini, 71, 184. 

— of Alexander VII. on the Probable 

Opinions, 193. 

— Benedict XIV. against the Refor- 

mation, 103. 

— Pius V. against Elizabeth, 277. 

— Unigenitus. See Unigenitus. 
Bulls issued in support of the Inquisi- 
tion. See Inquisition. 

— binding upon all, though only pub- 

lished at Rome, 78, 184. 
Butler on Infallibility, 183. 
Butler's Catechism, 58. 
Bzovius on Papal Schism, 204. 
— the Crusades, 107. 



Oenjj Domini, Bull of, 71, 184. 



CiENiE Domini, Bull of, Remarkable facts 

as to, 77 
Cahors, Bishop of, on the present war, 

224. 
Cajetan, Cardinal, condemned by the 

Index, 147 
Canada Reserves Bill, the, 4. 
Canning, Sir Stratford, on the holy 

places, 220 222 
Canon Law, of what does it consist? 69. 

— ■ Examination of Mr Silvin on, 69. 

— Leading enactments of, 09 
Canons, 125, of Trent, 125. 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, versus 

Gawthorn, 15 

Cassander on the novelty of Image 
Worship, 194. 

Castro, Alphonsus a, Persecuting sen- 
timents of, 64. 

Catechism, Dr Butler's, 58 

— Kcenan's, 59 

CATEcniSMS, Protestant, in Schools, 309. 
Catharinus on Intention, 187. 
Celibacy, age at which the vow is 
taken, 237. 

— a novelty, 195. 

— JEneas Sylvius on, 195. 

— of the Clergy, evil results of the, 

173. 

Ceremonial Worship, change of, 196. 

Ceremony, Idolatrous, in Tower of 
London, 55. 

Chafing Dish, a torture of the Inqui- 
sition, 89. 

Changes of the Church of Rome. See 
Variations. 

Chaplaincies, Romish, 298. 

Chart a, Magna, the, 276. 

China, Policy of the Jesuits in, 157. 

Christian Religion one of love, 124. 

Church Education Society. See Edu- 
cation. 

— Milner's mark of the true, 180. 

— of Rome had two heads, 203. 

— of Rome had three heads, 204 

— All baptized persons subject to 

Roman, 69. 

— Property, Restitution ol^ 71 
Clarendon, Constitutions of, 274. 
Claudius Espenceus condemned by the 

Index, 147. 

Clemangis, Nicholaus de, on Monastic 
Immorality, 247. 

Clement V., Bull of, supporting the In- 
quisition, 100. 

— XI. Prohibits Scripture, 133. 

— XIV. Suppressed the Jesuits, 163 



INDEX 



315 



Cobham, Lord, Martyrdom of, 118 
Cochleus on Private Mass, 194 
Coliony, Admiral, Assassination of, 

110 
Colonies, Support of Romish piiests in 

the, 4, 300 
Commandment, The Second, discarded 

by Rome, 57 
Communion in one Kind a novelty, 194 

— Council cf Constance on, 194 

— Thomas Aquinas on, 194 
Conception, Immaculate, of the Virgin 

Mary, 188 

— Sixtus V cursed the advocates 

of the, 188. 

— Pius IX decided the question of 

the, 189 
Conclave set on fire, 215. 
Confessional, Seal of the, 168. 

— Immorality of the, 169. 

— gives power to the priest, 174 

— rules the domestic circle, 176 

— Controls kings, 177. 

— — subjects, 177. 

— — judges and authorities, 177 

— a conspiracy against the liberties 

of man, 178. 

— Influence and power of the, 168. 

— of the, on the Continent, 173. 

— Captain Basil Hall on the, 173. 

— Dr O'Croly on the, 173. 
Confirmation, Compulsory Admini- 
stration of, 70. 

Confiscation of Heretics' Goods, 70. 

Conformity to Heretical Practices law- 
ful, 10. 

Conquest, The Norman, 274. 

Conscience, Liberty of, prohibited, 70. 

Constance, Council of, on Communion 
in one Kind, 194. 

Constantine, Donation of, a forgery, 45. 

Contrast between Britain and other 
countries, 2. 

Controversy, Study of the, 309. 

— The Wigton, 53. 

— ! The Whitehaven, 54. 

— The Worksop, 55. 
Conventicals, French, 114. 
Conventual System, The, 237. 

— Seymour on the, 238. 

Converts, Protection of, 309. 

Coronation Oath, The, 290. 

Cortes, The, abolished the Spanish In- 
quisition, 86. 

Cossart the Jesuit — Exposure of Ro- 
mish misquotation, 47. 



Council of Constance on Communion 
in one Kind, 194. 

— Laodicea misquoted, 47 

— Milvis misquoted, 48 

— Nice on Image Worship, 185 

— Orange misquoted, 48. 

— Pavia on Papal Schism, 203 

— Pisa on Papal Schism, 205 

— Toulouse Prohibits Scripture, 

132. 

— Trent, Curses and Canons of, 

the, 125 
Councils, Infallibility of, disputed, 

183. 
Cranmer, Archbishop, Martyrdom of, 

122. 
Creed, Changd of Romish, 195. 

— of Pius IV. Prohibits Scripture, 

133. 
Crime in Protestant and Romish coun- 
tries, 171 
Crusade against the Waldenses and 

Albigenses, 107. 

— Simon de Montfort leader of the, 

107. 

— against the French Heretics, 80. 
Curse against Interferers with Nuns. 

125, 240. 

— used in England in the 13th 

century, 126. 
Curses, 125, of the Council of Trent, 

125. 
Cursing and Excommunication of Pro 
testa nts, 71 

— the Grand feature of the Romish 

religion, 125. 
Cusanus, Exposure of Romish misquo- 
tation by, 47. 
Cyprian misquoted, 49. 

— Persecuting sentiments of, 62. 



Damassus misquoted, 46. 
Deathbed bequests, 300. 
Deceit, Romish doctrine of, 25. 
Decretals, The False, 46. 
Dens, Persecuting sentiments of, 64. 

— on the Fourth Rule of the Index, 

135. 

— on the Probable Opinions, 192 
Denunciation, Modern 'Altar, 127, 

300. 
Deportation of Nuns, 244. 
Derby, Earl of, on Irish Education, 

260. 



316 



INDEX. 



Differences of the Church of Rome on. 
Infallibility of the Pope, 180. 
Infallibility, Where is it? 183. 
Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, 

188. 
Intention in Administrating Sacra- 
ments, 186. 
Interpretation of Scripture, 191. 
Invocation of Saints, 189. 
Mortal and Venial Sin, 190. 
Obligation of Pontifical Laws, 184. 
Orders, 193. 
Popes and Councils, 183. 
' Probable Opinions, 192. 
Worship of Images, 185. 

Disguise, Jesuitism assumes any, 166. 

Divisions of Protestants, Milner on the, 
180. 

Doctors, Persecuting sentiments of Ro- 
mish . See Persecuting. 

Doctrine, Change of Romish, 193. 

Doing Evil that Good may come, 13. 

Domestic circle ruled by the Confes- 
sional, 176. 

Dominick, founder of the Inquisition, 
80, 108. 

Dominicans, Origin of the, 81. 

Donation of Constantine a forgery, 45. 

Drummond, Mr, on Monastic Immoral- 
ity, 249. 

Dublin, Archbishop of, on Irish Educa- 
tion, 262. 

Dupin on Papal Schism, 200. 

— on Papal Wars, 211, 213, 215. 

E 
Education, Irish National, 256. 

— Government neglect of, 258. 

— I. The Kildare Place Society, 

259 

— — Great success of the scheme, 

260. 

— II. The National System, 2C0. 

— — Ivirl of Derby on the, 260. 

— — Utiles of the National Board, 

261. 

— — — Archbishop of Dublin 

on the, 262. 

— — — Times on the, 262. 

— — Heterogeneous character of 

the Beard, 263. 

— — The system not National, 

264. 

— — The system favourable to 

Rome, 266 



Education, Irish National, Romish fes- 
tivals observed in the 
Schools, 266. 

— — Testimony of Dr Foran, 

268. 

— — Testimony of Dr Meyler, 

268. 

— — Testimony of the Tablet, 

268. 

— — The system ever changing, 

268. 

— — The Parliamentary Grant, 

270, 307. 

— III. The Church Education So- 

ciety, 271. 

— — Objects of the, 271. 
Eldon, Lord, on Catholic Emancipation, 

304. 
Elizabeth, Queen, and the Reforma- 
tion, 123. 

— Papal Efforts during the reign 

:f, 12, 159, 277. 

— Bull of Pius V. against, 277. 

— Papal Conspiracy against, 278. 
Emancipation, Catholic, Petitions for, 

39. 

— Catholic, Lord Eldon's Speech 

against, 304. 

— Repeal of, 301. 
Endowments, Romish in India, 300. 
England, Murders in, 172. 

— Curse used in, in the 13th Cen- 

tury, 126. 

— laid under an Interdict during 

the reign of King John, 129. 

— Inquisition, and, 85. 

— Effects of the Reformation in, 1. 

— Policy of the Jesuits in, 12, 159. 

— Progress of Romanism in, 3. 

— Pope's health drank before the 

Queen's in, 4. 

— Church of, opposed to ropery, 

2: J 1 . 
Epitome of the Works of Benedict X I V 

published in Dublin, 77, 103. 
Equivocation, Liguori teaches, 19. 

— Examples of lawful, 21. 

— and Mental Reservation, 20. 

— Necessary and Unnecessary, 22. 

— of tin.' Jesuits, 155. 

— and Romish Oath reconciled, 43. 
Evangelization of Ireland, 306. 
Excommunication and cursing of Pro- 

tCst:mt.s ? 71. 

— two kinds of, 234. 



INDEX. 



317 



Exiles, Britain a home for, 1. 
Exposers of Romish misquotation. See 

Misquotation. 
Expulsion of Jesuits, 301. 
Expdroatorius, Index, 145. 



Facts, remarkable, in reference to 
Bulls Unigenitus and Csenae Domini, 
77 

Faith, Lawfulness of dissembling the, 8. 

— not to be kept with heretics, 38. 
False Decretals, the, 46. 

Far el, the French Reformer, 108. 

Fathers, Persecuting sentiments of. 
See Persecuting. 

Festivals, Romish, kept in Irish Na- 
tional Schools, 266. 

Fleury on Bartholomew massacre, 112. 

Flight of the Pope in 1849, 96. 

Foran, Dr, on Irish Education, 268. 

Forfeited property, Restitution of, 71. 

Fornication committed in lieu of Adul- 
tery, 13. 

Fox on the Martyrs, 118, 122. 

France, Murders in, 172. 

— laid under an Interdict during 

the reign of Philip Augustus, 
129. 

— Overthrow of the Jesuits in, 163. 
Frauds, Pious, 53. 

French and Popery in Tahiti, 3. 

— Reformer, Farel, 108. 

— — Lefevere, 108. 

— Martyr, Leclerc the First, 109. 

— Conventicals, 114. 

— Heretics, Crusades against, 80. 

— Protestants, Persecution of, 2, 

108, 114. 

G 
Galileo, Rome's treatment of, 147. 

— Abjuration of, 149. 
Gallican Church at variance with Li- 

guori, 33. 
Garnet the Jesuit, 23. 
Gawthorn, Dissimulation of, 15. 
Geneva, Inquisition established in, 85» 
Germany, Inquisition in, 99. 
Goa, Inquisition abolished in, 86.. 
Godeau, on Monastic Immorality, 248. 
Governor of Malta refused shelter to 

the Roman Patriots, 1. 
Grants, all Popish, should be taken 
away, 297, 307. 

— Paxb'amentary, 4, 260, 270, 307. 



Greek Church, Papal Aggression on 
the, 218. 

— Papal Aggression on, supported 

by Napoleon, 5, 220. 

— Patriarchs' Protest against Pa- 

pal Aggression, 218. 
Gregory the Great misquoted, 49. 

— IX., Persecuting sentiments of, 

63. 

— XIII., Persecuting sentiments 

of, 112. 

— XVI., Prohibits Scripture, 137. 
Guidiccioni, Cardinal, opposed the 

Jesuits, 161. 
Guizot, M., Speech of, on Religious 

Liberty, 115. 
Gunpowder Plot, the, 281 

H 

Hallam's Account of Disguised Romish 

Priests, 12, 159. 
Heads, the Church had Two, 203. 

— — Three, 204. 
Henry IV. of Germany, Humiliatiuu 

of, 212. 

— VIII., Persecutions under, 118. 
Heretical Practices, Conformity to, 10. 

— Princes, their doom, 70, 154. 
Heretics, Crusades against the French, 

80. 

— Subject to the Inquisition, 72. 

— No Faith to be kept with, 38. 

— Intestable, 70. 

— Goods to be Confiscated, 70. 

— to be Dragged from the Altar, 

102. 

— No Mercy to be shown to, 102. 
Heth, the Jesuit, in England, 159. 
Holy Places, Origin of the present War, 

5, 220. 

— Napoleon Protector of the, 5 

— Sir Stratford Canning on the, 

220, 222. 
Hooper, Bishop, Martyrdom of, 119 
Humiliation of John, king of England, 

129, 276. 

— Henry IV. of Germany, 212 . 
Hume on Papal Attempts on Britain, 

274, 277. 
Huss, John, Martyrdom of, 37. 
Hussites, Persecution of, 85. 
Hypocrisy openly Taught in the Churcn 

of Rome, 21. 

I 

Idolatrous Ceremony In Tower of Lon 
don, 55. 



318 



INDEX. 



Idolatby taught in Church of Rome, 293 

— condemned by the Bible, 293. 
Ignatius, Father, Proposition of, 12. 
Illegitimate Births in Protestant and 

Romish Countries, 171. 
Image Worship, Novelty of, 194. 

— Inculcated, 55, 293. 

— Differences as to, 185. 

— Aquinas on, 185. 

— Bonaventure on, 185. 

— Cassander on, 194. 

— Second Council of Nice on, 185. 

— Vasquez, the Jesuit, on, 186. 
Immorality of the Confessional, 169. 

— of Liguori's Teaching, 14. 

— of the Monastic Life. See Mo- 

nastic. 

— of Popes Sergius and John XL, 

174. 

— of Popery, 288. 

India, Jesuits Pretended to be Brah- 
mins in, 157. 

— Romish Endowments in, 300. 
Independence and National Greatness, 

Popery destructive of, 289. 
Index, Fourth Rule of the, Prohibits 
Scripture, 134. 

— — Conditions of the, 134. 

— — Binding at the present 

day, 135. 

— — Approved by Benedict 

XIV., 137. 

— — Gregory XVI., 137. 

— — Leo XII., 136. 

— — Pius IV., 137. 

— — Pius VII., 135. 

— — Pius VIII., 137, 

— Expurgatorius, 145. 

— — Romish Authors con- 

demned by the, — 
iEneas Sylvius, 146. 
Cardinal Cajetan, 147. 
Claudius Espenceus, 147. 
Zerus, 147. 

— Prohibitorius, 137, 140. 

— Summary of the Rules of the, 

144. 
Infallibility of Popes and Councils 
disputed, 180. 

— Where is it? 183. 

— Butler on, 183. 

— Liguori on, 181. 

Innocent III., Persecuting sentiments 
of, 107. 

— IV., Persecuting sentiments of, 

63 



Intention, Differences on, 186. 

— Bellarmine on, 187. 

— Catharinus on, 187. 

— Liguori on, 187. 
Interdicts, Romish, 129. 
Interferers with Nuns, Curse against, 

125, 240. 
Interpretation of Scripture. See 

Scripture. 
Interrogation, Legitimate and not 

Legitimate, 24. 
Intestable, Heretics, 70. 
Intolerance of Rome, 99. 
Inquisition, Origin of the, 80. 

— Dominick, Founder of the, 80, 

108. 

— Proceedings and Officers of the, 

81. 

— Denunciation by the, 82. 

— Arrestment by the, S3. 

— Examination by the, 84. 

— Tortures of the, — 

the Pulley, 88. 
the Chafing Dish, 89. 
the Rack, 89. 
the Pendulum, 90. 
Auto da Fe, 91. 

— an Engine of the Romish Church, 

85, 99. 
Negative Evidence, 99. 
Positive Evidence, 99. 

— Popes who have issued Bulls in 

support of the, — 
Alexander IV., a.d. 1254, 

100. 
Benedict XIV., a.d. 1750, 

100. 
Clement V., a.d. 1311. 100. 
Julius III., a.d. 1550, 100. 
Urban IV., a.d. 1262, 100. 

— Sanctioned by Liguori, 104. 

— Supported by Ferdinand and 

Isabella, 86. 

— established in — 

Arragon, 85. 
Bohemia, 85. 
France, 85. 
Geneva, 85. 
Germany, 99. 
Malabar, 99 
Milan, 85. 
Palestine, 85. 
Poland, 85. 
Portugal, 99. 
Rome, 86. 
Saragossa, 80. 



INDEX. 



319 



Inquisition, established in — 
Sardinia, 85. 
Venice, 85. 

— England resisted the introduc- 

tion of the, 85. 

— Heretics subject to the, 72. 

— Lithgow's sufferings in the, 92 

— at Lisbon, Description of the, 95. 

— at Rome, Description of the, 96. 

— Rebelled against by Spaniards 

and Saragossans, 85, 86. 

— Officers of the, sacrificed to po- 

pular fury, 85, 86. 

— has given way before the Refor- 

mation, 86. 

— Abolished in Goa by British in- 

fluence, 86. 

— Abolished by the Cortes in Spain, 

86. 

— Abolished in Lisbon, 86. 
Inquisitor Arbues, Assassination of, 86. 

— General of Spain. See Torque- 

mada. 
Investitures, Disputed right of, 211. 
Invocation of Saints, 189. 
Ireland, Church of, opposed to Popery, 
292. 
■ — — Dan.O'Connell'sSpeeches 
on, 41. 

— — Mr Shiel's Speech on, 42. 

— — Mr Lambert's Speech on, 

42. 

— Evangelization of, 306. 

— Murders in, 172. 

— Power of the Priest in, 128. 
Irish Brigade, Influence of the, 4. 

— — and the Tablet, 302. 

— Educational Popish Grants, 307. 

— National Education. See Educa- 

tion. 

— — Schools, Bible excluded 

from, 138. 

— Rebellion of 1798, 41. 

Isidore, Persecuting sentiments of, 62. 



Jakes, ?. ? r, Exp-c^re of Romish mis- 
quotation, 49. 
jAirir.s L, Papal e^Lorts in the time of, 
9.81. 
— II. Papal efforts in tho time of, 
282. 
Jr^OME, Persecuting sentiments of, 63. 
'•s^ri' Movement, Puseyism a, 284. 
Cessartthe, Exposure of Homi&li 

• ' — '-.^.tMvo; 47. 



Jesuit, Garnet the, 23. 

— Heth the, in England, 159. 

— Labbe the, Exposure of Romish 

misquotation, 47. 

— Nobili the, Missionary to India, 

157. 

— Parsons the, in England, 160. 

— Suares the, on Transubstantia- 

tion, 195. 

— Vasquez the, on Image Wor- 

ship, 186. 

— — on King murder, 154. 
Jesuits, Ignatius Loyola, founder of 

the, 161. 

— Cardinal Guidiccioni at first op- 

posed the, 161. 

— promised blind obedience to the 

Pope, 161. 

— Religious doctrines of the, 155. 

— — led to great contention, 156 

— Equivocation of the, 155. 

— and Liguori, their principles 

identical, 154. 

— Progress of the, 161. 

— Contentions with the, 158, 162. 

— Policy of the, in India, 157. 

— — China, 157. 

— — England, 159. 

— — Scotland, 160. 

— Prohibition of the, in the United 

Kingdom, 164. 

— Overthrow of the, in France, 163. 

— — Spain, 163. 

— Suppressed by Clement XIV. 

163. 

— Restored by Pius VII. 163. 

— Do what they like in Britain, 1 65 . 

— Should be expelled, 301. 
Jesuitism is genuine Popery, 165. 

— assumes any disguise, 166. 

— Objects and Aims of, 165. 
John, King of England, humiliation of, 

129, 276. 

— XL, Immorality of, 174. 

— XXII., Persecuting sentiments 

of, 73. 
Judges controlled by the Confessional, 

177. 
Julius III., Ball cf, supporting the 

Inqxdsition, 100. 



Ebehan's OataobLa^, £9. 
Kildar3 Place Society. See Educatic 
King Slxjrdtr, Yasqaes the Jesuit 
15 i. 



320 



INDEX. 



Kings controlled by the Confessional, 

177. 
Knowledge, Popery opposed to, 140. 



Labbe the Jesuit, Exposure of Romish 

misquotation, 47. 
Lambert, Martyrdom of, 118. 

— Mr, on Irish Church, 42. 
Laodicea, Council of, misquoted, 47 
Latimer, Martyrdom of, 122. 
Leaf, John, Martyrdom of, 121 
Leclero, the first French Martyr, 109. 
Lefevere, the French Reformer, 108. 

— obliged to fly France, 109. 
Lembrach on Romish Persecution, 148. 
Leo XII. prohibits Scripture, 136. 
Liberties of man, The Confessional a 

conspiracy against, 178. 
Liberty of Conscience prohibited, 70. 

— Religious, Speech of M. Guizot 

on, 115. 
Liguori, Canonization of, 7 

— Fame of, 28. 

— Anniversary of, and the Roma- 

num Missale, 8. 

— Works approved of, 7 

— and the Jesuits, their principles 

identical, 154. 

— on Adultery, 14. 

— on Theft, 14. 

— teaches that an Adulteress may 

deny her crime, 26. 

— — Deceit, 25. 

— — Equivocation, 19. 

— — how to evade a Promise 

of Marriage, 34. 

— — how to evade lending 

money, 25. 
— — how to evade oaths, 30. 

— — Legitimate and not legiti- 

interrogation, 24. 

— — Perjury, 23. 

— — Servants to admit harlots 

• to their Masters, 14. 

— — Servants to deny their 

Masters, 27. 

— — Tergiversation, 9. 

— — to dissemble the Faith, 8. 

— — to do evil that good may 

come, 13. 
Reconciles Equivocation with the 
Romish Oath, 43. 

— Sanctions the Inquisition, 104. 

— Prohibits Scripture, 133. 

— Results of his teaching, 11, 14. 



Liguori, Immorality of his teaching, 13. 

— on Dispensation of Oaths, 34. 

— Infallibility, 181. 

— Intention, 187, 

— Mortal and Venial Sin, 190. 

— Nuns by compulsion, 241. 

— Orders, 193. 

— Probable Opinions, 192. 

— Validity of Bulls, 78, 184. 

— at variance with the Gallican 

Church, 33. 
Liguori 's History of the Indexes, 145. 
Lisbon, Description of the Inquisition 

in, 95. 

— Inquisition abolished in, 86. 
Lithgow's sufferings in the Inquisition, 

92. 

Llorente on Monastic Immorality, 248. 

Lombard y, Murders in, 172. 

London, Illegitimate Births in, 171. 

Love, the grand feature of the Chris- 
tian religion, 124. 

Lynde, Sir H., Exposure of Romish 
misquotation, 48. 

Lyra, Nicholas de, on Prayers in an 
unknown tongue, 194. 

— on the Apocrypha, 194. 

M 

Machinations of Romish Priests during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 12, 159. 

Magna Charta, the, 276. 

Malabar, Inquisition in, 99. 

Malta, Britain's Popish Governor of, 
refused to shelter Italian Pa- 
triots, 1. 

— Archbishop of, independent of 

civil tribunals, 275. 
Marcellus misquoted, 46. 
Marriage, how to evade a promise of, 

34. 
Martini's Bible, 136. 
Martyr, Leclerc, the first French, 109. 
Martyrdom of Bradford, Rev. John, 

121. 

— Cobham, Lord, 118. 

— Cranmer, Archbishop, 122. 

— French Protestants, 109. 

— Hooper, Bishop, 119. 

— Huss, John, 37. 

— Lambert, 118. 

— Latimer, Bishop, 122. 

— Leaf, John, 121. 

— Ridley, Dr Nichofas, 121. 

— Rogers, Rev. John, 118. 

— Taylor, Rev. Dr Rowland, 120. 



INDEX. 



32) 



Martyrdom, Fox on, 118, 122. 
Mart, Immaculate Conception of. See 
Conception. 

— the bloody Queen, persecutions 

under, 118. 
Massacre of St Bartholomew, 110. 

— Rejoicings at Rome on account 

of, 111. 

— Gregory XIII. returned thanks 

to God for, 112. 

— Medal struck to commemorate 

the, 112. 

— Fleury on, 112. 

— Mezerai on, 110. 

— Thuanus on, 111. 
Mass, Private, a novelty, 194. 

— Cochleus on, 194. 
Masters, servants can deny them, 27. 
Maynooth College, income of, 4. 

— should be disendowed, 297. 
Maynooths, the little, should be dis- 
endowed, 298. 

M'Crie's account of the Jesuits in 

Scotland, 160. 
M 'Gavin's account of the Jesuits in 

England, 159. 
M 'Hale's, Dr, Confessions as to Bull 
Csenoe Domini, 71, 1S4. 

— Professions, 40. 

Men may give occasion to their wives 

to commit adultery in certain cases, 

14. 
Mental Reservation and Equivocation, 

20. 
Meyler, Dr, on Irish Education, 268. 
Mezfrai on Romish Persecution, 109, 

110. 
Milan, Inquisition established in, 85. 
Milner on the Divisions among Pro- 
testants, 180. 

— on Unity, 193. 

Milner's mark of the True Church, 180. 
Milvis, Council of, misquoted, 48. 
Missale Romanum, and Liguori's An- 
niversary, 8. 
Missionary Clergymen, promotion of, 

307. 
Missions to Romanists, 308. 
Mistranslation ot the Bible, 50. 
Misquotation, Romish, of Authorities 
and Decrees, — 

Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, 48. 

Anacletus, St, 46. 

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, 49. 

Damassus, 46. 

Gregory the Great, 4P. 



Misquotation, Romish, of Authoritie.- 
and Decrees, — 

Laodicea, Council of, 47. 

Marcellus, 46. 

Milvis, Council of, 48. 

Orange, Council of, 4S. 

Origen, 49. 

Pelagius I., 47. 

Pontian, 46. 

Sixtus II., 47. 

Stephen I., 46. 

Tertullian, 55. 

Victor, 46. 
Misquotation, Romish, Exposers of, 46 

Baronius, Cardinal, 47 

Bellarmine, Cardinal, 43 

Cossart the Jesuit, 47. 

Cusanus, Cardinal, 47. 

James, Mr, 49. 

Labbe, the Jesuit, 47. 

Lynde, Sir H., 48. 

Pope, Mr, 49. 
Monastic life, Temptations of the, 246 

'■ — Immorality, St Bridget on, 247 

— — Bede on, 248. 

— — Drummond, Mr, on, 249 

— — Godeau, Bishop of Venice, 

on, 248. 

— — Llorente on, 248 

— — Nicholaus de Clemangis on, 

247. 

— — Spillar on, 249. 

— System, a source of wealth, 251 

— : — Seymour on, 251. 
Money obtained the Popedom, 201. 
Montfort, Simon de, 107. 
Mortal and Venial Sin. See Sin. 
Munich, Illegitimate births in, 171. 
Murders in Protestant and Romish 

countries, 172. 
Murray, Dr, on the Bull Unigenitus, 

77, 133. 
Mystical Babylon, Rome, the, 97. 



N 
Naqhten's, Priest, subterfuges, 56. 
Nantes, Revocation of the decree of, 113. 
National System of Irish Education. 

See Education. 
Naples, Murders in, 172. 
Napoleon III., a thorough Romanist 
in practice, 6. 

— Crushed the young Roman Re- 

public, 5. 

— Protector of the Holy Places, 5. 



322 



INDEX. 



Napolkon III. Supported Papal Aggres- 
sion in the East, 220. 

Necessary and Unnecessary Equivoca- 
tion, 22. 

Nice, Council of, on Image Worship, 
185. 

Nobili, the Jesuit Missionary in India, 
157. 

Norman Conquest, the, 274. 

Novelties in the Church of Rome. See 
Variations. 

Nunneries, Abolition of, 301. 

Nuns, Anecdotes in the Breviary about 
young, 238. 

— by compulsion, 241. 

— Deportation of, 244. 

— Curse against interferers with, 

125, 240. 


Oath, The Coronation, 290. 

— Roman Catholic, 40. 

— Romish, and Equivocation recon- 

ciled, 43. 
Oaths, Romish doctrine as to, 30. 

— Liguori on, 30. 

— Violation of, 33. 

— all, dispensable by the Pope, 35. 

— results of Romish doctrine as to, 

35. 
O'Connell's, Daniel, Speeches on Irish 

Church, 41. 
O'Croly, Dr, on the Confessional, 173. 
Opinion?, The Probable, 192. 

— Bull of Alexander VII. on, 193. 

— Liguori and Dens on, 192. 
Orange, Council of, -misquoted, 43. 
Orders, Differences oi Romish divines 

upon, 193. 
Oriqen misquoted, 49. 



Palestine, Inquisition in, S5. 
Papacy, a mere human system, 216. 

— Schism3of the. See Schisms. 
Papal Allocutions. See Allocution. 

— Attempts on Britain, 5, 12, 273- 

284. 

— Efforts in Queen Elizabeth's 

reign, 277. 

— in the Time of James I., 281. 

— intheTimeof James II., 2S2. 

— Recent, 283. 

— States, Murders in, 172. 
Papists among Protestants allowed to 

possess the Bible, 135. 



Papists should be excluded from Par- 
liament, 301. 

Subject in Temporals to the Pope, 

74. 

Paris, Illegitimate Births in, 171. 

Parliamentary Grants, 4, 260, 270, 
307. 

— Reform, 301. 

Parsons, the Jesuit in England, 160. 
Patriarchs, Greek, Protest againsl 

Papal Aggression, 218. 
Paul IV. opposed to Knowledge, 146. 
Pavia, Council of, on Papal Schism 

203. 
Pelagius, Persecuting sentiments of, 
62. 

— Misquoted, 47. 

Pendulum, a torture of the Inquisition, 

90. 
Perjury, Lawfulness of, 23. 
Persecuting Notes of Rheimish Testa- 
ment, 65. 

— Sentiments of Fathers, — 

Augustine, 61. 

Cyprian, 62, 

Isidore, 62. 

Jerome, 63. 

Pelagius, Bishop of Rome, 62. 

— Sentiments of Romish Doctors,-— 

Alphonsu3 a Castro, 64. 
Aquinas, Thomas, 64. 
Bossuet, 65. 
Dominus Dens, 64, 

— Sentiments of Popes, — 

Benedict XIV., 72. 
Gregory IX., 63. 
Gregory XIII., 112. 
Innocent III., 107. 
Innocent IV., 63, 
John XXII., 73. 
Urban IV., 64. 
Persecution of British Protestants, 
117-123. 

— French Protestants, 2, 108, 114. 

— Waldenses and Albigenses, 2, 

107. 

— Hussites, 85. 

— under Henry VIII., 118. 

— — the bloody Queen Marv, 

118. 

— Romish, Lembrach on, 143. 

— — Mezerai on, 109. 

Perversion of Scripture, Romish, 59. 

Philip Augustus, King of France, suc- 
cumbed to Rome, 131 

Pious Frauds, 53. 



INDEX. 



323 



Pisa, Council of, on Papal Schism, 205. 
Pius IV., new Creed of, 195. 

— Creed of, Prohibits Scripture, 

133. 

— Opposed to Knowledge, 146. 

— Prohibits Scripture, 137. 

— V., Bull of, against Queen Eliza- 

beth, 277. 

— Encouraged Rebellion, 279. 

— VII. Prohibits Scripture, 135. 

— Restored the Jesuits, 163. 

— VIII. Prohibits Scripture, 137. 

— IX., Decided the question of the 

Immaculate Conception, 189. 
Platina on Papal Wars, 208, 209. 
Plot, The Gunpowder, 281. 
Poland, Inquisition in, 85. 
Political Influence of Rome, 4, 283, 

302. 
Pontian misquoted, 46. 
Pontifical laws are binding over all 

the world, 78, 184. 
Pontifcal, Roman, Restoration of, 125. 
Pope, Mr, Exposure of Romish mis- 
quotation, 49. 

— can Dispense with all oaths, 35. 

— Flight of the, in 1849, 96. 
Pope's Brigade, Influence of the, 4. 

— Health drank before the Queen's 

in England, 4. 

— Stirrup held by Kings, 213. 
Popedom obtained by money, 201. 

— Tumults and Wars of the. See 

Wars. 
Popes Sergius and John XL, Immoral- 
ity of, 174. 

— Infallibility of, disputed, 180. 

— have fostered the Inquisition, 

100. 

— Persecuting sentiments of. See 

Persecuting. 
Popery and the French in Tahiti, 3. 

— Jesuitism is genuine, 165. 

— opposed to Knowledge, 140. 

— Immoral, 288. 

— Inimical to Protestantism, 288. 

— Destructive of National Great- 

ness and Independence, 289. 

— Scorns the British. Government, 

296. 
- — The National Churches opposed 

to, 291. 
« — Britain's support of, is Unwise, 

287. 

— — Inconsistent, 290. 

— — Sinful, 292. 



Popery, Remedial measures against, 

295. 
Popish grants should be discontinued, 

297, 307. 
Portugal, Inquisition in, 99. 
Prayers, Four opinions as to how the 
Saints hear our, 190. 

— in an Unknown Tongue, 194. 

— — Nicholas de Lyra on, 194. 
Preachers, Royal, 308. 

Priest, Power of the, in Ireland, 128. 

— The Confessional gives power to 

the, 174. 
Princes, Doom of heretical, 70, 154. 
Probable Opinions. See Opinions. 
Prohibition of Liberty ol Conscience, 70 

— of Scripture. See Bible. 
Prohibitorius, Index, 137, 140. 

— Summary of the Rules of the, 

144. 
Property, Restitution of Church and 

Forfeited, 71. 
Protection of Converts, 309. 
Protestant and Romish Countries, 
Crime in, 171. 

— The British Throne is, 290. 

— The National Churches are, 291. 

— Lecturers in Universities, 308. 

— Catechisms in Schools, 309. 
Protestantism, Popery Inimical to, 

288. 

— Counts of Beziers and Toulous* 

fought for, 108. 
Protestants, Excommunication and 
Cursing of, 71. 

— Milner on the divisions of, 180. 

— Papists allowed to possess tb« 

Bible when among, 135. 

— Persecution of British, 117-123. 

— Persecution of French, 2, 108. 
Pulley, the, a torture of the Inquisi- 
tion, 88. 

Puseyism a Jesuit movement, 284. 
Puy, Bishop of, on the present War, 
224. 



Quesnelle, Works of, Condemned by 
Bull Unigenitus, 75, 133. 



Rack, the, a torture of the Inquisition, 
89. 
— Three modes of applying the, 89 . 

Raymond of Toulouse fought for Pro- 
testantism, 108. 



324 



INDEX. 



Rebellion encouraged by PiuB V., 279. 

— Irisb, of 1798, 41. 
Reciprocity, Necessity of, 309. 
Reform, Parliamentary, 301. 
Reformer, Farel, a French, 108. 

— Lefevere the French, 108. 

— — had to fly France, 109. 
Reformation and Queen Elizabeth, 

123, 

— In England, Effects of the, 1. 

— Bull of Benedict XIV. directed 

against the, 103. 
Relioion, The Christian, one of Love, 
124. 

— of Rome, one of Cursing, 125. 
Religious Liberty, Speech of M. Gukot 

on, 115. 
Remedial measures against Popery, 

295. 
Republic, The Young Roman, Crushed 

by Napoleon, 5. 
Reserves Bill, The Canada, 4. 
Restitution of Church and Forfeited 

Property, 71. 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 113. 
Rheimish Testament, Persecuting Notes 

of, 65. 
Ridley, Martyrdom of, 121. 
Right of Investiture disputed, 211. 
Rodez, Bishop of, on the present War, 

224. 
Rogers, Rev. John, Martyrdom of, 

118. 
Roman Catholic Oath, 40. 

— Pontifical, Restoration of, 125. 

— Patriots refused shelter by Bri- 

tain's Popish Governor of Mal- 
ta, 1. 
Romanism, Progress of, in Britain, 3, 

296, 302. 
Romanist, Napoleon a thorough, 6. 
Romanists, Missions to, 303. 
Romanum Missal e, and Liguori's Anni- 
versary, S. 
Rome, Illegitimate Births in, 171. 

— Inquisition in, 85. 

— Description of the Inquisition 

in, 96. 

— Rejoicings at, over the Massacre 

of St Bartholomew, 111. 
' — Bulls published at, are binding 
upon all, 73, 134. 

— Violence and Faction at, 210. 

— Church of, Hypocrisy openly 

taught in, 21. 
-— — Idolatry taught in, 293. 



Rome, Church of, Differences of. See 
Differences. 

— — Variations of. See Va- 

riations. 

— Political Influence of, 4, 283, 

302. 

— Intolerance of, 99. 

— Inquisition, an Engine of. See 

Inquisition. 

— Main Efforts of, are directed 

against Britain, 5, 12, 273- 
284. 

— Irish Education favourable to, 

266. 

— False Pretensions of, to Unity, 

179. 

— Doctrine of, as to Oaths. See 

Oaths. 

— Discards the Second Command- 

ment, 57. 

— Perversion of Scripture by, 59, 

— Prohibition of Scripture by. See 

Bible. 

— Religion of, one of Cursing, 125. 

— the Mystical Babylon, 97. 
Rome's Treatment of Galileo, 1#47. 
Romish and Protestant Countries, 

Crime in, 171. 

— Archbishop of Malta Indepen- 

dent of Civil Tribunals, 275. 

— Authors Condemned by the In- 

dex. See Index. 

— Bishops on the present War, 224. 

— Chaplaincies, 298. 

— Churches, number of, in Bri« 

tain, 3. 

— Endowments in India and the 

Colonies, 4, 300. 

— Interdicts, 129. 

— Oath and Equivocation, 43, 

— Priests, Machinations of, during 

the reign of Q. Elizabeth, 12, 
159. 
Rose, Colonel, on the present War, 222. 
Rotten Boroughs, The, 301. . 
Royal Preachers, 308. 
Russell, Lord John, on the present 
War, 223. 



Saints, Invocation of, 189. 

— Four Opinions as to how they 
hear our Prayers, 190. 
Saragossa, Inquisition unpopular in, 

86. 
Sardinia, and the Siccardi Laws, 275. 



INDEX. 



325 



Sarddua, Inquisition in, 85. 

— Murders in, 172. 

— Papal Allocution against, 227. 
Schism, the Great Western, 204. 
Schisms of the Papacy, in the, — 

Eleventh Century, 200. 

— Dupin on the, 200. 

— Baronius on the, 201. 
Twelfth Century, 202. 

— Baronius on the, 203. 
Fourteenth Century,' 204. 

— Bzovius on the, 204. 
Fifteenth Century, 204. 

— Bzovius on the, 205. 
Scotland, Church of, opposed to Po- 
pery, 292. 

— Policy of the Jesuits in, 160. 
Scot us on the Novelty of Transubstan- 

tiation, 195. 
Scripture, Papists allowed possession 
of, among Protestants, 135. 

— Prohibition of. See Bible. 

— Romish Differences as to Inter- 

pretation of, 191. 

— Romish Perversion of, 59. 
Seal of the Confessional, 168. 
Sergius, Pope, Immorality of, 174. 
Servants may admit harlots to their 

Masters, 14. 

— may deny their Masters, 27. 
Settlement, Act of, 291. 
Seymour on the Conventual System, 

238, 251. 

Sheil, Mr, Speech on Irish Church, 42. 

Sicily, Murders in, 172. 

Silvin, Mr, Examination of, on Canon 
Law, 69 

Simon de Montfort, 107. 

Sin, Differences of Romanists as to Ve- 
nial and Mortal, 190. 

Sins, the Seven Deadly, 190. 

Sixtus II. misquoted, 47. 

Spain, Inquisition unpopular in, 85. 

— — Abolished by the Cc ies 

in, 86. 

— Overthrow of tbe Jesuits in, 163. 

— Papal Allocution against, 230. 
Spanish Armada, the, 279. 
Speech, Lord Eldon's, against Catho- 
lic Emancipation, 304. 

— of M. Guizot, on Religious Li- 

berty, 115. 

— of Mr Lambert, on Irish Church, 

42. 

— of Mr Sheil on Irish Church, 42. 



Speeches, Daniel O'ConnelTe, on Irish 
Church, 41. 

Spencer^ Rev. George, Infamous Pro- 
position of, 12. 

Spillar on Monastic Immorality, 249. 

Steal, Lawfulness of Tempting to, 14. 

Stealing, Romish Doctrine as to, 26. 

Stephen I., misquoted, 46. 

Stirrup, the Pope's, held by Kings, 
213. 

Study of the Controversy, 309. 

System, Monastic, a Source of Wealth, 
251. 

— The Conventual, 237. 

— The Papacy a mere human, 216. 
Suares, the Jesuit, on Transubstantia- 

tion, 195. 

Subterfuges of Priest Naghten, 56. 

Subjection of Heretics to the Inquisi- 
tion, 72. 

Subjects controlled by the Confes- 
sional, 177, 

Sufferings of Lithgow in the Inquisi- 
tion, 92. 



Tablet and the Irish Brigade, 302. 

— on Irish Education, 268. 

— scorns the British Government, 

296. 
Tahiti, the French and Popery in, 3. 
Taylor, Rev. Rowland, Martyrdom of, 

120. 
Temporals, Papists subject to the Pope 

in, 74. 
Temptations of the Monastic Life, 246. 
Tergiversation inculcated, 9 
Tertullian misquoted, 55. 
Testament, Bordeaux, 50. 

— Rheimish, Persecuting Notes of, 

65. 
Thuanus on Bartholomew Massacre, 

111. 
Times on Irish Education, 262. 

— on Papal Allocutions, 235. 
Tonstal, Bishop, on Transubstantia- 

tion, 195. 
Torquemada, Inquisitor-General oi 
Spain, 85. 

— a great Propagator of the Inqui- 

sition, 85. 

— Introduced the Inquisition into 

Saragossa, 86. 

— Required an armed. guard for 

Protection, 86. 



326 



Index. 



Tortures of the Inquisition. See In- 
quisition. 
Toulouse, Council of, Prohibits Scrip- 
ture, 132. 

— Raymond of, fought for Protest- 

antism, 108. 
Transubstantiation, Novelty of, 195. 

— Bishop Tonstal on, 195. 

— Scotus on, 195. 

— Suares, the Jesuit, on, 195. 
Trent, Fourth Rule of the Index of. 

See Index. 

— Council of, Curses and Canons 

of, 125. 
Tumults and Wars of the Popedom. 

See Wars. 
Tuscany, Murders in, 172. 

U 

Unioenitus, Bull of, 75, 133. 

— — Dr Murray on, 77, 133. 

— — Remarkable facts as to, 

77. 
Unity, False Pretensions of Rome to, 
179. 

— Milneron, 193. 
Universities, Protestant Lecturers for 

308. 
Unknown Tongue, Prayers in an. See 

Prayers. 
Urban IV., Bull of, supporting the* 
Inquisition, 100. 

— Persecuting sentiments oi, 64. 

V 

Variations of the Church of Rome,— 

1. Change of Doctrine, 193. 

2. Change of Creed, 195. 

3. Change jof Ceremonial Worship, 

196. 
Vasquez, the Jesuit, on Image Wor- 
ship, 186. 

— — King- Murder, 154. 
Venial and Mortal Sin. See Sin. 
Venice, Inquisition in, 85. 
Victor, Bishop of Rome, misquoted 

46. 

— Hugh de St, on the Apocrypha. 

194. '* ' 

Victoria's health drank after the Pope's 
in England, 4. 



Vienna, Illegitimate births in, 171. 
Violation of Oaths, 33. 

— of Promise of Marriage, 34. 
Vow of Celibacy, age when taken, 237. 



W 

Waldenses, Origin of the Name, 106. 

— Crusades against, 2, 107. 
War, Origin of the present, the Holy 

Places, 5, 220. 

— Colonel Rose on the, 222. 

— Lord John Russell on the, 223. 

— Romish Bishops on the, 224. 

— Sir Stratford Canning on the, 

220, 222. 
Wars and Tumults of the Popedom in 
the,— 
Fourth Century, 208. 

— Platina on the, 208. 
Fifth Century, 208. 

— Baronius on the, 208. 
Sixth Century, 209. 

— Baronius on the, 209. 
Seventh Century, 209. 

— Platina on the, 209. 
Ninth Century, 209. 

— platina on the, 209. 
Tenth Century, 210. 

— Baronius on the, 210. 
Eleventh Century, 210. 

— Dupin on the, 211. 
Twelfth Century, 212. 

— Dupin on the, 213. 
Thirteenth Century, 214. 
Fourteenth Century, 215. 

— Dupin on the, 215. 
Fifteenth Century, 215. 
Nineteenth Century, 218. 

Wars of the Jesuits, 158, 162. 
Whitehaven Controversy, 54. 
Wig ton Controversy, 53. 
Wiseman's Cardinal, Eulogy on Li- 

guori, 8. 
Worksop Discussion, 55. 
Worship, Ceremonial, Change of, 196. 

— of Images. See Image Worship, 



Zerus Condemned by the Index, 147. 



kdinbdrgh: printed by t. nelson and sons. 



BX 1765 .B542 1900z 

SMC 

Blakeney, Richard P. 

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Popery in its social 

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