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THE POPTTLAB 

AMERICAN DICTIONARY 

On the iMuris of WSBSTER, WORCESTER, JOHNSON, and the most 
eminent Sngliah and Ameiican Anthorities, 

CONTAINING OVER 32,000 WORDS, 

With Accurate DeinitionSj Proper Spelling and Exact 
Pronnncmtion. 

To whicli is added a mass of valuable information neyer gathered 
within the compass of one volume before, the whole forming 

A COMPLETE LIBRARY IN ITSELF. 

ENRICHED WITH 400 ILLUSTRATIONS. 



OUTLINE OF CONTENTS: 

liietlonary of the English Language— Complete Compenditim of Classi- 
cal Quotations— Complete List of Scripture Names— Popular Names 
of States and Cities— Metric System of Weights and Measures- 
Mythological Names— Americanisms— Government and Con- 
stitution of the United States— Biographical Dictiona^ of 
Distinguished Men— Outlines of American History- 
Vocabulary of English Synenyms. 



SPECIAL DEPAKTMENT 

On Commercial and Legal Question— Banks and Banking— Interest 

Tables and Laws— Stock and Stock Brokers— Foreign Commerce 

— Agricnltural Tables— Mercantile Law— Legal Phrases 

and Maxims, Etc., Etc. 



CmCjIGO AND NEW YORK: 

BELFORD, CLARKE & CO, 

1885, 



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QLLEG E 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIOHARY. 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARYc 



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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENBLISH LANBUAQE. 



ACCXPT 



A0CV8T0K 



fiiO«d&t-irig) a. disposed to 
oblige ; kind. 
AccoramodAtion« (ale -110111 • 
mo-dA'«hun) n. prorisiou of 
conTeniences; fitneas; re- 
conciliation;— 1){. oonreoi- 



Acoompaniment, (ak*knm^ 
pa-ne-meut) n. that which 
acoompanjef, or is added 
a« ornament. 

Accompanist, (ak'knm'pa- 
niet) n. the performer in 
music irho takes the ac- 
companying part. 

Accompany, (sk-kum'pa-ne) 
V. t to go or be with. 

AcoompUce, (ak-kom'plis) 
an associate in a crime. 

Accomplish, (ak-kom'plish) 
V. t to finish entirely; to 
bring to pass. 

Accomplished, (ak - kom 
plisht) pp. or a. finished ; 
completed ; refined. 

Accomplishment, (ak-kom' 
plish-ment) n. a comple- 
tion; an acquires^ent whieh 
adds grace. 

Accord, (ak-kordO n. an a- 
greement ; consent ; union ; 
—V. i. to agree; to haxr. 
monise. 

Accordance, (ak-kord'aas) n. 
agreement; harmony. 

Accordant, (ak-kord'ant) a. 
willing; consenting. 

According-to (ak-kord'ing- 
tdd)pr<p. agreeing; loita- 
ble. 

Accordingly, (ak-kord'lng-le) 
ad. agreeabljr ; conse- 
quently. 

Accordion, fak-kord'e-un) n. 
a modem small keyed wind 
instrument with metallic 
reeds. 



Accost, (ak-kosf) v <. to 
speak first to ; to address. 

Accostable, (ak-kost'a-bl) a. 
easj of access; familiar. 

Aooount, (ak-kounf) «. f. to 
reckon; to esteem; to as- 
sign the causes ;— «. regard ; 
explanation. 

Accountability, (ak-kount-a- 
hil'c-te) n. liability to giro 
account. 

AccountabIef^(ak-koant'a-lI ) 



a. subject to account; 

liable. 
Acoountableness, (ak-kounf- 

a-bl-nes) n. a being liable 

to answer for. 
Accountant, (ak-kount'antj 

n. one employed, or skill ul 

in -keeping aceounta 
Accouple, (ak-kup'pl) r. t to 

couple; to join together. 
Accoutre. (ak-k66't€r} v. f. to 

equip; to furnish. 
Accoutrements, (ak-kM'ter- 

ments) n. equipage; trap* 

A«:raSit, (ak-kred'it) «. (. to 
furnish with credentials. 

Accretion, (ak-kre'shnn) «. 
the act of growing to; in- 
crease. 

AcctetiTe,(ak-kre'tiT) a. in- 
creasing by growth. 

Accrue. (ak-kr66'> v. i. to »• 
rise: to be added. 

Accruing, (ak-kroo'ing) ppr, 
growing to. 

Aocnirotnt, (ak-kr66'meat) 
n. addition. [reclinin^^ 

Accumbent, (ak-knm'bont • a. 

Aceuniulate, (ak-ka'mO.-Ut) 
V. t or i to heap togetlyer; 
to increare. 

Accumulation, (alc-ka-niOi' 
li'shun) n. the act of acctt^ 
mulating : a heap. 

Accumulatire. (ak-k&'mfl* 
U-tiT)a. that accumulates. 

Accumulator^ (ak-kQ'ma-li« 
tfir) n. one who aecumu- 
lates. [aotness ; closeness. 

Aceurac/, (ak'kQ-ri<«e) n. cor* 

Accurate. (ak'kQ*rat) a. dono' 
with care; without error. 

Accurately, (ak'kQ-nt4e) od. 
exactly ; nicely. 

Accurse. (ak-ktssO «. f. to 
doom to misery ; to curseu 

Accursed, (ak - kurs '-ed) es. 
cursed: execrable. 

Accusant, (ak-ku'sant) n. an 



Accusation, (ak-ka-u'shun) 

n. act of accusing: chaiise 

of a crime. 
AccusatiTe. (ak-kOs'at-lT) a. 

accusing; noting a case in 

grammar. 
Accuse, (ak-kttsO «. C to 

charge with a crime; to 

blame; to impeach. 
Accuser, (ak-kOs'er) n. OBO 

who brings accxisatJon. 
Accustom, Tak-kus'tum)v. t 

to maks familiar bj osoi 



II 



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AOB 


8 ADAPT 




X 




. . .... 


• 


A 






of 


A 






d; 


A 






10^ 


A 














a. 


'a 






r. . 

10< 


A 






id. 

■a 


A 






Ik . 


A 






»t 


A 






Ja 


A 






n. 
1; 


A 








A 

A 






lb 


A 








A 






•k 


A 






a, 

w 


A 






k'- 


A 






ti 


A 






a-' 


*A 






^ 


A 






%■ 


A 






k 
>: 


A 






a 
m 


A 






% 
L 


A 






t)-. 


A 






ft 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENBLISH LANSUASL 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH UNGUAGE. 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



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A DICTIONARY OPTHE ENeUSH LANGUAGL 





IS 


ALLHAIL 


1 


'o 




a\ 


a 


rents. 
Album,- {allnim) n. a white 
table ;» Wank book. 


I 1 


AJ 


a 


Albumen, (al-ba'men) n. the 


A • 


AJ 

i 


i' 


-vhite of an egg. 
Aloahest, (allca-hest) h. the 


A t 

A 1. 


Ai 


• 


Alchemist,(al'kem-i8t)n. one 




Al 


i« 


who practices alchemy. 


i 


Al 


^ 


""^^j^y^^r-sr^ 




1 


t- 


J 1. 


A 


i. 


gold.' [spirit. 
Alcohol, (alOcS-hol) n. pure 
Alooholl& (al.kS-hol'ikf a. 

pertaiiSngtoaloohoL- 
Alcoran, (tS'ko-ran) n. the 


A t 


AJ 


A 




: 




A t 


( 




book of Mohammedan 




1 




faith. 


A i 


\ 




AldS^a%l'dIr\*Atoee of 


A t 


1 




several variet es.- 








Alderman, (awl'dfiisman) n. 


A ^ 




i 


a city magistrate : pi. Al- 


it t 




- 
















Alert, (a-lertO a. noting 


i( I 


A 


le 


• wa^^hful activity or leadi- 


A 


A 


A 


jj It. 
1 1' 


A 1 


A] 


ll 




A 


1 


l. 


Al le 




Al 
i1 


a 




A 
A 


A 


'6 
T. 


1 


A w 


AJ 


L 


Al II. 




A) 


%. 


< In 


A I 


■ 1 


B- 


Al 0- 




A- 


n 
n 


Al Id 


A *" 


Al 


:e 


Al ». 


A a 


Ai 


e 
>. 
I. 


< 
Al - 

1 
Al »• 


All?gTo. (al-le'grS) n. sprlght- 

ly movement in music. 
Alleluiah, (al-le-l^d'ya) it. 


Al 
A] 




1 jr 


,e 


sold. - 
Alienate, (Rl'ycn-at) v. t. to 


give praise to Jehovah. _ 
AUeviate, (al-le've-at) v. I to 






transfer to another; to 


make light; to ease; to 


A1 


)f 
I. 


estrange. 
Alienation, (al-yen-E'shun) n. 


AUeSion, {al.l«-ve:a'shun) 


AT 


)f 


a making over; estrange- 


• N. set of relieving, oc 


Al 
Al 


B- 


Alenator, (ftl^yen-a-tfir) n. 

Ahenee, (ttl-jen-e'4 n. one to 

whom a thing is S9l4.^, • 

Alignment, (iiaitt'Metoft «. 


AiKy,(Sfl«n. anwrrowTralk 


AJ 


te" 


htaltSi . 



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A INGTIONARYoFTNC ENGLISH LANGUA6L 



ALJnXEL IS AKOUHT 



% 

b* 

Amannih, bkm'arnnih) n. a 

flower that nerer fadea. 
Amaranthine, (am-a-ran'* 

this) a. unfading. 
Adum, (a-mas') a. L to eol* 

Icct into a Iteap; to ac- 

cumnlata. 
Amassment, (a-mat'mcnt) % 

a heap ; a eollecUon. I 

Amateur, (am-a-tar') n. a u 

lorer of the fine arte. a 

Aroativcnesi, (am'a4iT-ne^ K 

a. propensit/.to lore. 

IAmaMwy, (am'a-t9-Te) «. x«> U 

lating to. or induced bj L 

lore. a 

Anaa^(a<mia')«. & to eeop 
iound i—n. a mineled feel- u 

Ing of surprise and vouder. 
A»aaemeBi,(a-mas'meot)a. 'm 

astoolihment ; eonfnsian. 
Amadng, (a-mftxlng) a. voii> a 

Amaxon, (am'a-san) «. a >. 

-warlike iroman ; a Tlraea 



A mb awtd o r,/ (am*beis'a-dcr} 
SL the rnnrescntative of 
«oe serereictt at the court 
of another. 

Ambereris, (amlier^tCt) «. 
afrasrautdmg. 

Ambidexter, lam-be^elcs'- 
tcr) a. on^ who nfe« Luth 
liandiwith equal dexterity 



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A DICTIONARY OFTNE EN6LISH LAII6UA6E. 



AVGLUrG 



ir 



ANTS 



ioiu 

lun) 
ou; 

,.bl) 
tecL 
o.L 
; to 
xot 

{'&'• 



an) 



U) 



•. t to ailU to a furmcr 

numlwr. 
Auuuiiciat«, (an • nun'sc-IU) 

V. (. li> brmg tidui^s ; to an- 

nouitci*. 
Annunciation, fan-nun-so-il'* 

shun) H. actui niiuuuuciu^ 

thiuijaunuuuceiL 
AniKlyne, (an'O-Uiu) n. mcdU 

cine to a«sua.^« I>ain, and 

disitose tu sloepi— <!. miti- 

paling pain. [with oil. 

Anuint, (a-noinf) v. t to rub 
Aiioiuted, (a-uuiut'cd)M. the 

Messiah. 
Anoiutini;, (a*no{nt'ins) n. 

an unction; a c juwcration. 
Anointment, (a-nuiut'm«nt) 

n. act uf anoiutnis. ' 
Anomalisni, (a-noinVlizm) 

n. a deviation frum rule; 

anomaly. [a. inie?ular. 
A nomalistic,(a-noin-a-lis'tik) 
AUoinal<jus (u-num'a-lus) a. 

deviating from role of 
aualo/y. 
Anomaly. (a.nom'a*le)ii.that 

which duv;at«;8 from rule. 
At— '- ---'•— - nj 

Ai |«v 

AJ tyv 

Ai 





A] 


ns 




)se 




rly 






At 


|7. 






Ai 


n. 




m- 


Ai 


cc. 


Ai 


a 




)p. 


Ai 


to 




lY. 


Ai 


ik: 




^K' 


Ai 


th) 





J7t 



Ax ie- 

viatinp pain. 
Antarctic, (ant-&rk'tlk) a. 

opposite to the arclio. 
Ante, (an'te) in compouai 

vvrds ngoi&va UJoft, 
» , 



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^ 



Tur pnpiii AR AyrmnAV niirnnyAOP 



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A DiCTIONAftYorTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



APATHETIO 



APPLioABmrr 



AiMUhetie, (ap-a-thet'ik) a. 

withoutfeelm.-; inseusible. 
ilpathist, (ap'a-thist) n. one 

destitute of feelia . 
Apathy. (ap'&-thc} n. wan^of 

leslinlB. 
Ape, (ftp) n. a kind of mon* 

Jiej ; ft mimio or imitator : 

— ». t to imitate m an ape ; 

to mimic 
Aperient, (a-pc're-ent) a. 

gentlj pur«:atiTe;— n. a 

purgative. 
Aperture, (ap'er-tOr) n. 

an opening. 
Apctalous, (a*pet'a-lu8) a. 

navisg no petals. 
Apex, (&'pek8)t». tne snmmit 

or top of a tUinsj pL 

Apexes. 
Aphelion. (a-fel«>Qn) n. the 

part of a plaujt's orbit 

most distant frum tlio 



ApoeiTphalt (a-polc're-fal) a. 

not canonical ; doubtful. 
Apodal, (ap'od-al) a. baying 

no feet. 
Apogee, (ap'9*je) n. the point 

in the moon's orbit most 

distant from the earth. 
Apologetic, (a-pol-0-Jpt'ik) a. 

said/)/ wajr of delenoe or 

exeuke. 
Apologist, (a-poK9>Jist)n. one 

who maiLe» an knolo;^. 
Apologise, (a-porO*J)s) v. i 

to pkadoraualuejLcuse for. 



Apologuo, (ap'ol-og) n. a 

fable. 

AiMlogT, (a-pol'Or]*) »• au 



.excuse. 



Apoplectic, (ap-O-plek'tilc)d. 
* Dslon^ng to apoplexy. ^ 
Apoplevy, (ap'u-plek*80) li. 

sudd9n deprivation of leni 

and.motion. 
Ap3stasy, (a'Pos'ta*ie)ii. a 

departure from profr — " 

principles. 
Apostate, (a-poe'tftt) n. one 

tliatfovsakcd hia principles 

or ruligion;— a. foiling from 

faith. 
Apostatizei (a-pos't<^-t1z) 

V. i. to abandon one's faith 

or party. 
Apostemate, (a*po8'te-m&t) 

V. t. to form into an abscess 

and fill with pua 
ApoRteme, (ap^s-tsm) n. an 



Apostlo, (a-pos'sU n. a mcs- 

sen:rer to preach the compel. 
Apo8tIe;hip, (a-pos'il-ship}n. 

the ofhce of an ano-tle. 
Aiiostolie, (ap-03-tul'ik) a. re* 

Voting to, or like, an apos* 

tie. 
Apostrophe, (a>pos'tro-fe) n. 

in rlutonct a tuniins from 

real auditors to an ima- 

'gined one^ contraction of a 

word- 
Apostiophic, (ap-ot-trof'ik) 

a-pertaming to an apot' 

trophe. 
Apothecary, (a-poth'e-kar-e) 

n. a compounder of medi* 

cinea 
ApothegTO,(ap'o-thcm)n.a re- 
markable sajing: a ira xlm. 
Apotheosis, (ap-o the'u-s j) n. 

act of placiiui among the 

gods. [V. (. t3 deify. 

Apotheosize, (aiK>-thC'0-sit) 
Api^all, (ap-pawl') «. f. to 

smite irith terror. 
Appallinff, (ap-pawl'ing) a. 

adapted to depress courage. 
Apparatus, (ap-pa-rft'tus) Ji. 

tools; furniture; p2. Ap- 

I>aratus or Apparatuses 
Apparel, top-par'el) n. oloth- 

ing; raiment; eauipmeut; 

—v. L to dress; to oloth»; 

to deck. 
Apparout, (ap-pft?'ent) a. 

visible to the eye; seeming. 
A pparently, (ap • pftr 'ent-lej 

al. in appearance. 
Apparition, (ap - pa-ri«U'un) 

ti. appearance ; gUuit. 



Apparitor, (ap-par'ititr)*. aa 
oHicnr m the eccleuastieal 
courts. 

Appeal, (ap-p«r) N. remoral 
of a cause to a higher 
court;— v.f. or i to remove 
from a lower to a higher 
court. 

Appealable, (ap-pcra-bl) a. 
that may be appealed. 

A ppear, (ap-pCr' ) v. i. to be in 
sight ; to seem, or be evi- 
dent. 

Appearanoo, (ap-pCr'ans) n. 
a oommg in sight ; things 
seen ; probability ; show. 

Appeasable, (ap-pOs'a'bl) a. 
that may be appealed. 

Appease, (ap-pez') sl 1 to 
quiet, to pacify. 

Appeasement, (ap-pH'meat) 
n. act of appeasing. 

Appellant, (a;*- per ant) ik 
one who appeals. 

Appellate, (ap-perat) a. re- 
latin? to appcala 

Appellation, (ap-pel-ft'shtin) 
n. a name by v luch a thing 
is called. 

Appellative, (ap-pel'a-tiv)(i. 
common to many, general; 
»n. a oommon as distin- 
guished from a prop^ 
name. 

Appellee, (ap-pcl-e') is. tha 
defendant in appeal 

Appellor, (ap-percr) n. the 
plaintmm appeal.- 

Append, (ap-pcnd') «. f. to 
nang or attach ta 

Appendage, (ap-pend'lj) ik 
an addition, (naiudngto. 

Appendant, (ap-pend'ant) a. 

Appendix, (ap-pend'iks) n. 
something annexed: pi. 
Appendixes or Appendicea 

Appertain, (ap-pcr-t&n') v. t. 
to belong to ; to relate. 

Appetence, (ap'p>tcn.s) n. 
sensual desire ; appetite. 

Annetite. (aD'oe^tit) n. desire 



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AEBITSATOS 



/tit) n. 
rado or 
8 an ftp- 

ren'lls- 
aa ftp- 

9. t to 
iform. 
)p. or a. 

ilCO. 

W.Lto 
pproxi- 
ruwing 

trSoh'a- 
be ap- 

r5-ba'- 
ipproT- 

-btt-Uv) 
it ion. 
5'pro-a- 
appro- 

'pre-nt) 
a pur- 
telf; to 
ling to 

)ru'prc- 
;neu to 

»ro'pre- 

i.prO'- 
iar fit- 

)T5-pr8- 
anto ft 

'a-bl)a. 
ion. 
al) n. 

\ V. t 
of; to 

irok'ee- 
ringor 
to. 

rok-se- 
!h. 
rok'«e- 



ui-'ten- 
)eIonj;s 



ant) a. be!onuinx to by 

riKht. Tstone fmit. 

Apricot, (&'pr0-kot) «. a 
April, (l^pril) n. fourth 

mouth of the year. 
Apron, (a'prun, fi'pura) n. a 

part of dress worn in front. 
Apropos, (ap'rS-pO) ad, oppor* 



luoely. [reacly ; qualified. 
Apt. (apt) a. liable ' 



to; fit; 



Apteral. (ap't«r-al) a. hanng 
columns onhr in front. 

Apterous, (ap t^r-us) a. detf 
iitute of win;!8. 

Aptitude, (ap'te-tQd) n. fit- 
ness ; adaptation ; ton* 
dency. [fitly. 

Aptly, (sptle) ad. pmperly ; 

Aptness, (apt'nes) n. fitness ; 
readiness ; tendency. 

Aquafortis, (ak-va-for'tiB) n. 
nitric aoid. 

A9uatic,(a-kvat'ik) a. liring 
in vrater. 

Aqueduct, (ak'wC-dukt) n. a 
conduct- 




L-^ 



trators. 
Arbitrator, (*rT)e-trtHer) n. 
aatu&iiixtk 



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i 



A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



ASB017B 



21 



AHMOURER 



Axixmr, (4rl>fir) n. a shady 



Aitoreoos, (&r-b8're'tis) a. 

belon^iDg to trees. 
AxhonKuact, (Ar-bor-ca'cns) 

n. the reaemUanoe of a 

jlrboraseent, (Ar-hor^s'ent) 

a. growinc like a tree. 
A rboret, (*r b9-ret) n. a smaH 

tree. 
A re, (irk) n. part of a circle. 
Arcade, (ar-kid) n. a walk 

arched over. 
Arcanam, (Ar-k&'num) n. a 

secret ; fil. Arcana. 
Aroh, (Arch) a. chief; irag- 

gisn 'r-n. a part of a circle ; 

— «. t or V to form au 

arch. '''^ 
Archaeology, (Ar-ke-ol'o-je) n. 

the science of anticiaities. 
Archangel, (Ark-An'jel) n. a 

chief angeL 
Archbishop, (Arch-bish'np) 

n. a chief bishop. 
ATchbi8hopri& (Arch-bi8h'> 

vp-rik) n. diocese or office 

of an archbishop. 
Archdeacon, (Arch-delcn) n. 

a bishop's deputy. 
Arohduchess, (Arch-duch'es) 

n. a princess of the house 

of Austria, [grand duke. 
Archduke, (Arch-dak') n. a 
Arched, (Areht) a. in form of 

anarch. ( ^ 

Aicher, 'ArcVer) n. one who 

nhoots with a bow. 
Aicherjr, (Areh'«r-e) n. art of 

rhooting with a boMr. 
Aichetypal. fark'e-tip-al) a. 

Itelonging to Ihe original. 
Aichetype, (urk'e-tip) it. an 

original ; a pattern. 
Aichipeln^n, (Ar-ke-nel'a-fcS) 

tL a e]iief sea with many 

ixles. 
Archiopiscopal, (Ar-kc-e-p!s'- 

l;0-pal) a. belonging to an 

archbishop. 
Architert, (ArHce-tekt) n. a 

chief builder ; a cowtriver. 
Architectire, (Ar-ke-tek'tiv) 

c belonging to archltcc* 

tare. 
Ar-hitectnraU (Ar-ke-tek'- 

tor-al) a. pertaining to 

l^iilding. 
Arohittxturo, (ArHce-tek-tOr) 

», the science of building. 
Ar.'hitrare, (Ar'ke-trAv) |i. a 

inoulilitig ruuud a dour or 

irittduv. 



Arch ires, (Ar'kirz) n. pZ. re- 
cords, or places whctu they 
are kept. 

Archness, (Arch'nes) n. »ly 
humour. 

ArchMay, (Arch'wa) n. a pas- 
sage uudur an arcli. 

Arctic, (Ark'tik) a. lying far 
north. 

Ardency, (Ar'den-se) n. eager- 
ne58:zcal. [zcaluns. 

Ardent, (Ar'dent) a. hot; 

Ardour, (&r'd£r) n. warmth ; 
affection. 

Arduous, (Ar'dQ-us) o. hard 
to climb ; laborious. 

Area, (A'rC-a) n. an open sur- 
face ; superficial contents. 

Arcfaction. (ar-C-fak'^hun) n. 
the act of drying ; dryness. 

Arena, (a-r6'na) n. an o])en 
space of ground ; any place 
of public exertion. 

Arenaceous^ (ar-O-na'shS-us) 
a. oousistmg of sand. 

Areomotry, (ar-^-om'c-tre) n. 
art of ^measuring the 
specific gravity of Ix- 
quids. 

Argal, (Ar'gal) n. cmde tar- 
tar, [white. 

A Lke 

A 
A 



OS) 

A for 

A ler* 

A to 

>er- 

nuouo. iBuuer. 

Arguer, (Ar'gQ-cr) n. a rea- 
Argument, (Ar'ga-mcnt) n. 

reason allRged to induce 

belief y debate. 
Argumcutil, (Ar-gn-ment'al) 

a. belonging to argument. 
Ar».'umentation,(4r-gu-ment- 

A'shuu) n. act or process of 

reasoning. 
Argunientatire, (Ar • gd • 

mcut'a-tir) a. consisting 

of argument. 
Argus, (iir'gus) n. one who 

watches closely. 
Arian, (A'rc-au) n. one who 

denies the dirinity of 

Christ. 
Arid, (ar'id) o. dry ; parched. 
Aridity, (ai-id'e-ti;) n. dry- 
ness ; alwuncu of moisture. 



Aries, (A're-ez) n. the mm t 

one of the twclye si^ua of 

the Kodiaa 
Aright, (.1 -rit') ad. rightly. 
Arise, (a-rix') v. i. [pret. aroso, 

pp. arisen] to rise; to 

mount upward. 
Aristocrary, (ar-is-tok'ra-ec) 

n. povei'ument by nobles; 

nobility. 
Aristocrat, (ar^s-to-krat, ar- 

is'to-krnt) n. one who faT- 

ours aristocn-n-y. 
Aristocrntic,(ar-is-to-krat'ik) 

a. purtakiugof Rristocrarv, 
Aritnmutic, (a-rith'mG-iik) 

n. the srjence of numbt-rs. 
Arithmetical, (ar-ith-met'ik- 

al) a. according to arith- 

metia 
Arithmetician, (ar-ith-me- 

tish'e-aii) n. one skilled ia 

arithmetic. [chest. 

Ark, (Ark) n. a lumber vessel; 
Arm. (Arm) n. a limb.of the 

body; an inlet of water;— 

r. t or i. to furnish with, 

or take up arraa 
Armada. (Ar-m&'da)n. a largo 

fleet of armed ships. 
Armament, (Arm'a-ment) n. 

a force equipped for war. 
Armature, (Arm'a-tQr) n. ar- 
mour; defence. '' ) 
Annentine, (Ar'men-tln) a. 

relating to a herd of cattle. 
Armful, (irm'fool) n. what 

the arms can hold. 
Armhole, (Arm'hul) n. a hole 

for the arm. [bearing arms. 
Armigerous, (Ar-mij'cr-us) a. 
Armillarv, (Arm'il*la-re) a. 

eonsisting of rini;s like ik 

bracelet. 
Arminian, (Ar-min'e-an) n. 

one who denies predtfstina* 

tion, and holds to universal 

redemption. 
Armiuianisim, (Ar-min'e-an" 

izm) n. the tenets of Ar> 

miniana 
Armistice, (Ar'mis-tis) n. a 

cessation of arms. 
Annlct,(Arm'let)n. ubracclet 

or oma- 

m en t 

women 

the 

a r m. _^ ^ 
.Armour, (arm'gr) n. dcfca< 

sive arms. 
Armohrer, (Arm'cr-fir) it. a 

person that makes or selUl 

anus. 



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'ASZNZNS 



l) 
B 


XL 




H. 


1 


Jce 


l: 


.» 


1) 


a 


1. 


lUS 


a 






t 




(C 


B 


[n- 


U 






■e) 


T 




ei 


H, 


.' 


at- 


t 




M 


IL 


S 


ib- 


ii 


n'- 


h 


Jy 


t 






ft'- 




5r» 


>. 




% 


le- 




I— 


X 




« 


H. 


•i 






Bff 


,1 


a. 


D 


a. 


' 


^ 


!t 




•1 


n. 




be 


IC 


^e. 


tj 


m 




a. 


>l 


of 


) 


re- 


•a 


t; 




on 




1:8. 




di 




!^ 


Dl 




a 


le. 


11 


ir- 


D 


L 



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ABSTTHPTIOJr 


24 ATTSNITATB 


A 


ee; 


A 


*) 




lor. 


A 






lit- 




to 


A 


gal 




or. 




1 a. 


A 


at^ 


A 






><ie 


A 


an 




at) 


A 


im 




Til 


Aj 






VA- 




It; 


A 




A 


^ 


A 


J. 




l>2- 


A 


le. 


A 


le 




1*. 




Dff 


A 






^1> 




•a- 


A 




A 


A. 


A 


fc 


A 


d; 




a« 


A 


L 




lie 


.A 






K. 


A 






A 




at 


A 






*. 


A 


id. 




a. 


i 






iV 


i 






ff. 




if 


i 


n. 
1 



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A DICTIONARY WTW ENSUSH LANfiUAGE. 



r: 



ATTENTTATIOK 



ATTTOBIOGSAPST 



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ATrrOBIOGAAPHIOAL 


^ 


AZ7M0VS 






ka 






eu 






i. 






i 






;: 






9. 






"' 






s 






e 

e. 

1* 






1. 






l- 






1. 
h 

L 






4 

r 






k 






>. 












k 


A 




r 


A 






A 




a 


A 




L 


A 






A 






A 




1. 


A 




K 


A 






A 




I 



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k DlCnONABYoFTiiK ENGU8H LANGUAfii 




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THE POPUUUI AMERIIMW DICT10IUIK 



► 



BALLOT-BOX 




B 


na 




11. 


B 


in. 




rt- 


B 


Us; 




it I 


A 


to 


B 


Ite 


B 


N& 




^i 




ie. 


Si 


«. 




A. 


B 






» 


B 


to 


B 


a. 


3i 


a 


B 


• 




^ 


B 






1^ 


B 






M 




tfl. 


B 


W 


.B 






■*. 


B 






i; 




d! 


Si 


A 




h. 


B 


a- 




e- 


B 


»r 


B 




» 


a- 


St 




Bt 


.1 


sJ 


a- 


1 


<it 


J 
St 


It 


Si 




< 


u* 


si 


(iZ 





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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



SASHACLE 



BATTLE-ASSAT 



Si 

I 

Bl 



Bi 



Bi 

1 
U 

t 

H 

Bfl 

Ba 

I 
Ba 

i 
Ba 

1 



H 

Ba 
Ba 



1 

I 
I 



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A DlCnONARY oftnb ENGLISH LANGUA6E. 

( 7- 



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SEXX-HIKGiai 



S3 



BETSAYES 



Be 

Be 



Bo 

bJ 



Be 
Be 



Be 

Be 



Bo 

bI 

si 

Be 



Be 



Re 
Bi 
B< 
Jk 
Be 
Jk 
B( 



Bencficiary,(ben-C-fiBh'e-ar-e) 
n. one who holds a benefice; 
one benefited by another. 

Benefit, (ben'e-fit) w. advan- 
t*gc ; profit ; faronr con- 
ferred ; — V. t. to do good t-o. 

Benevolence, (LC-nev'O-lens) 
n. disposition to do Rood. 

BencTolent, (bc-uav'o-lent) a. 
having good will; idnd; 
affectionate. 

Benight, (l)e-nU') v. t. to In- 
volve in night. [kind. 
Senign. (bc-nin') a. erracious ; 
euignity, (be-nig'ue-te) n. 
graciousness. [ihg. 

Benison, (ben'e-zn) n. a biess- 

Bent, (bent) pret. and pp. of 
Send;—n. a curve; ten- 
dency. 

to 



reL 

at] 

ray 
on. 
ut) 
Lad 



» DCttr; »«;ibiuii. 

Berhyme, (be-rim') v. t. to 

mention in rhyme. 
Berry, (ber're) n. any small 

fruli with naked se&ds. 
Berth, (bfirth) n. a ship's 

station at anchor; a roum 

or sleeping place. 
Beryl, (beril) n. a grecniish 

mineral or gem. 
Beseech, (be-sCch') v. t [pret. 

and pp. besought] to eiv- 

treat ; to pray ; to beg. 
Beseem, (be-s^m') v. <. to be- 
come; to befit. 
Beseeming, (bc-sCm'ing) a. 

becoming:-^ comeliness. 
Beseemly. (be-semle) a. fit ; 

decent. 
Beset, (be-sef) v. t. [prrf. 

and pp. beset] to inolose on 

allnidM. 
Besetting, (bS-sefing) o. 

habituall7 attending or 

harassing. 
Beshrew, (MHshrdd') v. t. to 

vishaottTieto. 



Beside, (be-sld') pnp. at the 

side. 
Besides, (be-sidxO oA e^e^ 

and above. [siege to. 

Besiege, (be-eGJO v. t to lay 
Besictter, (be-acj'cr) n. one 

who besieges. 
Besmear, (be-smCrO v. t. to 

daub; to soil; to smear over; 
Be ' ish 

( Bh. 

Be Jce 

Be nd 



1 1. 

t 

ter 

rO. 

to 



Iff- 
er. 

to 

'-a. 

be. 



;e; 



EetaSe. (bc-tnk') v. i. [meL 

betook; iff. betaken] to 

have recourse to. 
Bethink, (be-thingk') v. L 

and i. [f.rPt bethought] to 

xeflect; to recoUeet; to con. 

sider. tbefaa 

Betide, (be-tid') v. i. or i to 
Betimes, (b€-tlm»') ad. in 

good time ; seasonably. 
Betoken, ib«-tO'kn) ». i. to 

signify. [Mc9. 

Betook, (he-took') prrf. of !>*«• 
Betray, (be-trft') ». t to di^ 

close treacherously ; to ea- 

trap. [(» trust. 

Betrayal, (be-tril'al)n. breaoh 
Betrayer, (b6-trft'fir) n. eutt< 

who betnifs; » traitor. 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



S£TROTH 



S3 



BILLOW 



.^si^ 



fietroth, (be-trani') v. t ' 

pled .'6 irtania^o .to. 
fictrothinent,ihc-trutVmei 

n. contracf of marHase. 
Betting, (»>et'ins> vp : layli 

a liraier;— n. act of layii 

a wa^or. 
Better, (l>ct'ter) a compnt 

tive of Good, mnmiojd', 

V. t. to make better. 
Betterment, ( bet'tsr^ment) 

improvement. 
Betters, (bet'tcnc) *k jsl i 

pcrion. 
Bett«)^ (bet'tfif) n. one w1 

bets. 
Bettj, (bct'te) n. a burelai 

instrument to break opt 

doors. [the middl 

Bettireen, {b5-twen')f>»'e/». ; 
Beirel. (beT'el) n. a kind i 

mleos- 

ed by 

masons 

pointed CT 

at one ^ — 

•nd;— IT. t [pp. berelhj< 

to eut to a bevel angle. 
Berel-wheels,(baT'el-hweIz'i 

irheels 

▼ork- 

incrln 

differ 

« n t 

plao- 

« B, 

har. 

1 n g 

their 

teeth eut at right anslca 
Beverage, (ber'er-ij) n. li^ 

nor; drink. 
Bevy, (bev'e) n. a flock c 

birds; brood. 
Bewail, (b«-wftl') «. t to It 

ment ; to grieve for. 
Beirate. (bs-wftr') ». i. to b 

cautions. * 
Bewilder, {bc-irn'dfirrr. I t 

puszle ; to lose in pathles 

plaeea • 
Bewildering, (be-wil'd^r-itts 

ppr. or A inrolviok lapei 

plezlty. 
Bewitch. (b8-wichO v. t. t 

charm ; to fascinate ; to ea 

chant. 
Kewitohing, p>»-wich'ing) « 

having power to ohitrra 

fascibating. Inoi 

Bey, (ba) n. a Turkish govei 
Beyond, (bO^rond') j>r«p. o) 

tbeinrtheratde)-<Kl. at < 




havi* 

»Idt 
•mi. 

' ■• 

lun) 
two 

mt.- 
eds 
on* 
iu«* 

th« 

iveo 

Id'a^ 

•pe. 

5t' 

%a« 

? 

eal 

L 
rd. 



«d 



Iff* 



le, 

to 

»te 
4; 



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A DICTIONARY )F THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



' yT.AHITR 




SUune, (blilm) v. t to cenaure; 

to enatse with a fault :—n. 
' exptessKua o^ <Iisapproba> 
' tion; imputation of a fault. 
Blameful, (blftm'fool) a. 

faulty; censurable. 
Blameleas, (bl&m'les) a. with* 

ovt blame; guiltless. 
Blameworthy, (blasn ' wur - 

ihe) a. desenring Uamo; 

censurable. 
Blanch, Iblansh) ». t or i. to 

-whiten ; to evade ; to Shift. 
Blano mange* (blong- 

monszh'j n. a prsparatiun 

of isinglass, milk, stigar, 

ftc,boUed. [mild; gentla 
Bland, (bland) a. courteous ; 
nandish, (bland'ish) v. t. to 

smooth; to wheedle; to 

caress. 
Blandishment, <bland ' ish* 

ment) n. soothinz speech. 
Blandness, (bland 'ue«) n. 

state of beio; bland. 
Blank, (blansk) a, whito ; 

pale ; unwritten ; witlunt 

Thyme;— n. void spaco ; dis< 
. appointment. 
Bhmket, (blangk'et) n. a 

woollen covering for a bod. 
Blare, (bl&x) v. i to roar; to 

bellow. 
Blarney, (bUr'ne) n. smooth, 

deceitful Ulk ; flattery. 
Blaspheme, (blas-fCm'} v. t. 

to speak with irrcvercnco 

of God. 
Blasphemer, (blas-fcm'er) n, 

a person who reviles God. 
Blasphemous, (blas'fc-mus) 

«. containing l>la8pl;cmy. 
Blasphemously, ( blos'f e-m us- 

le) ad. in a blasphemous 

way. 
Blasphemy, (Was'fe-nK) . 

lanjpia;;o uttcrud impiously 

agamst Ood. 
Blast, (blast) n. a gust of 

wind; blight; cxplosiun vi 

powder; ouo smultins of 

ore;— w. t tocawsc to w ith* r; 

to uplit with i>ow JfV; tu in- 
jure. . Iblast : cxpU>sion. 
Bla^iting, (blast 'iUi-M n, a 
Blase. (lifilz) v. t. ovi. toflamu; 

to tlilTuse a n'port;~»i. a 

flame ; a stn;ai» uf lti:;ht. 
Blazin{;,(blilz'iug)a. cmittius 
flante; making coitxp^jisuons. 
Blazon, (bla'zn) p. t. to di3< 
play witli ostentation ;— »u 
iho art of hurahiry. 

(blft'xn-ru) n. the 



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BLOOB-THIRSTT 




fiOILEBT 



Boaster, (W«t'fir) "InO***?]??. 

boasts. [haughty. 

Boastful, (bSst'fool) o.»Taiiij 
Boasting, (bOsfing) n. aet of 

boast iiif;. 
Boasti.vgly, (bOsfing-le) ad. 

in a bdUting, oatentatious 

manner. 
Boat, (but) n. a small open 

vessel ;— V. t to eonve/ m a 

boat. rgable with boats. 
Boatable, (bStVU) a. naTi- 
Boatman, (bci'man) n. one 

vho manaxes a boat 
BoatsAvain, (Ddt'swftn, bu'ni) 

n. an officer in a ship, vho 

has eh&rge of the bdats ana 

Be lat 



Jk 



B< nd 

Bode, (bod) v. tar L to pn- 

safe; toforeshoir. 
Bodice, (bod'is) n. a sort of 

stays. V , Ibody. 

Bodied, (bod'id) a. having s. 
Bodiless, (bod'6-les) a. irith- 
• out a body. 
■Bodily, (bod'e-Ie) «.' leUtins 

to the ))ody. 
Boding, (bod'ine) n. an omen. 
Bodkin, (bod^kin) n. aij in- 

etmment to bofe holes; a 

da^er. 
Body, (bod'c) n. the whol<i 

trunk of an animal ; iHsr- 

son; main i)ait; masili 

system. 
BoilyfiuaVd, (bod'e^ird) n. a 

guard of the perfqu. . 
Boff, (Vog) ». a ten or morass. 
Bogfile, ibo/l) V. i and t to 

hesitate fronv fear of diffi-. 

culties. 
Boggier, (bogl-fir) ». one tliat 

hesitates. • " . 

Bopfiy, <J»8'c)'«. marshlr; 



swampy. 

ohea, 0* 

1(ind of blac^ tea. 



Boh( 



ljo-he'> ti. a: coQTEft 



Boil, (boil) n. a «pre mrefljng; 
—t. %. to bubiJie through 
'heat;— V. t. to* cause tp boil. 

Boiler, (boil'fir) iw a vessel 
for 1x>i)ius. - {for boiling., 

Boil«ry, (boU'ar<ft) h. jkU|«os, 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



BOISXEROmi 


8T 


BOTH 




Be*-- -• 


, . . 


, - 


' a» 


I}< 






^' 


^ 






ro* 


Bi 






» 


» 






ta 


B. 








B 






m- 
ad 


Bi 






;»; 


B 






to 
to 

ne 

r. 


Bi 






to 


B 






IX. 


Bi 






th 


Ji< 






ir, 
rn. 


B 






lia 


1 






d; 


Ih 






tar* 


1 
B( 

1 






ho 


B< 








B^ 
1 






cs. 


1 






X 


B( 

) 
1 
1 






exw 
to 


B( 






tat 


Ik 






-ry 


1 






fi 


Be 
1 






Ok 


B« 









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BOTHEX 96 BEAT 












» 






a 


s< 






5". 


Bi 






in> 


^ 






S! 

IV© 

to 


B< 






»; 


B< 

i 






lb- 

tl: 
ho 


1 






if: 


PJ 






ho 


S( 






of 


Be 

i 

! 






for 


Be 

1 
^ 






on 


Be 

] 








»1 






a 


Be 

] 






Si 


Be 

I 






a 
es. 


Bf 






of 
im 


^ 








B( 

1 






he 


Ta 






to 


2< 

1 






. a 


B< 

] 






rit 


£( 






cr. 


bJ 








Bi 






an 


B< 






oir 


B< 






of 


B4 






to* 


B 









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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGUSH LANGUAGE. 




ajEzoAin 



Be 



Bi 

Bi 

i 
Bi 

J 

mamecL 
Bride-cake. (bridlctkVii. cakt 

distributed at a wedding; 
Bridegroom, (brid'grddm) «. 

a man newlj married or 

about to be married. 
Bridemaid, (brid'mftd) «, • 

woman > wh» attendi tbt 

bride. 
Bridewell, (brid'wel) ik • 

house of correotion. 
Bridge, (brij) n.a bnildinff to 

pass OTer water en : a sup- 
porter ;— v. t to fonn ft 

bridge over. 
Bridle, (bri'dl) «. an faiitn* 

ment to restiain a liorse^^ 

9. t to put <m a bridle} to 
' restrain. 
Bridoon, (brid-6dn0 n. allfhft 

snaffle distinct from tbak 

of the principal bit. 
Brief, (bref) a. short; condsa| 

—n. an epitome or shoif 

writing. [words. 

BrieflyTTor^^) ad. in f^ 
Brier, (bri'fir) n. a prickly 

shrub. Lhriers; rough. 
Briery, (bri'sr^) a. full of 
Brig, (biig) n. a vessel witb 

two 

masts 

sauare- 

rfgged, 

like a' 

ship's 

main-! 

mast 

and fore-mast 
Brigade, (brig-&dO n. trooM 

under a brigadier i—v, t W 

form into brigades. 




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41 



BX7IUEAT7 



■nnlr^ k.^*. 



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BUSQ 




Burg, (burs) n. a boreugh. 

Bargess, (bur'jcs) n. a froe- 
mtiaof acity. 

Bure'her. (burg'tr) n. a free- 
man of a borounh. 

Burglar, (burg'ljr) n. one 
who breaks into a house 
by night. 

Burglarious, (burgla-re-us) 
a. consisting in burglary. 

Burglary, (burg'la-re) n. the 
crime of hou?e • breaking 
by night, 'with intent lo 
stcaL 

Burgomaster, (buig'3-xnas- 
tor) »t. a magiatratc. 

Eui-gundy, (Cur'tuu-del n. 
w:ne made in Burgundy. 

Burial, (bcr'e-al) ii. tlio act of 
burying ; a fuuoral. 

Buried, (bcr'rid) pp. or ... 
covered wilU earth; con- 
cealed, [tool. 
I liuriu. (bn'rin) n. a graviu^' 
i Burl, (burl) v. t. to pick knot.', 
i Ac, from cloth lu fulliug. 
I Kurlcsquc,(bur-le8k')a.teud- 
ip-i to excite laughter ;— n. 
:. luJicrous representation; 
—v. t. to make ludicrous ; 
to turn to ridicule. 

BurHnces, (bur'le-nes) n. 
bulk ; bluster. 

Burly, ibur'ls^o. great- bois- 

tlT0U3. 

Burn, (bum) v. t. ©r f. [jjret. 

and rV' bumeU, bumvj to 

oonsume bj'lirc ; to score .i; 

f-c bo inflamed; to be on 

jrc i—n, a hurt caused by 

flrf 
Bu:"ncr. (bum'cr) n. one vho 

Eets en fire ; appendage to 

a lamp. 
3'Uming, (bnm'ing) n. com- 
bustion; heat; — u. flaming; 

Tchcment. 
Burnish, (bum'ish) v. t to 

polish ; to brighten ;—n. a 

gloss. 
Buniisher. fbum'ish-er) n. a 

person that burnishes. 
Burnt, (burnt) pret. and pp. 

of JJum. 
Burr, (bur) n. a roughness 

of voice in sounding the 

letter r. 
Burrow, (bur's) n. a lodge in 

the earth for rabbits, Ac. ; 

—V. i. to lodge iu the 

cailh. 
Bursar, (burs'er) n. the trea* 

surer of acuiiese; a char* 

Ity studuut. 



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CABB-TABLS 



OASmiiATED^ 



K 



ho 

ris- 
■fe) 
biff 



ks) 



Ctranele. (karimg-kl) it * 

imall fleshy excrescenoa 
Carve, (k^rv) «. t to oak 

vooa, itone, or meat 
Carver, (karv er) n. one wbo 

carves ; a soulptor ; a lajim 
. knife. I^IL 

Casoadi, (kasncad) %. a crater* 
Case, (k&s) n. a covopng: 

box; state; varia^/Ax of 

nouns :— V. t.toputiaacase. 
Caseharden, (kfts'hard-n) p. t 

to make hard on the oat- 
side. 
Case-knife, (kla'i^} n. 

table knife. 
Casemate, (kis'mat) n. 

vault or covered arch-work. 
Casement, (kas'ment) n. a 

part of a Trindo'Vr. 
- 'Caseous, (kft'se-us) a. resem- 
bling ohee&e. 
CMem, (k&'zem) n. a lodge 
. for soldiers. 
Case-shot, (klis'shot) n. old 

iron or baUs Jnolosed in 

Gases. 
"Cash, (kash) n. money : coin ; 

-«. L. to convert into 

money. 
Cash-book, (kash'book) n. a 

book in which accounts of 

money are kept. 
Cakhier, (kash-er') n. one who 

has the charge of money;-" 

V. C to dismiss from office. 
Cashmere, (kash'mer) n. a 

rich kind of shawL [ing. 
Casing, (kas'ing) n. a eoyerw 
Cask, (ka9k)n. a small barreL 
Casket, (kask'et) n. a chest 

for jewels. 
Casque, (kask) n. a helmet 
Cassia, (kash'ya) n. a sweet 

spice. 
Cassimere, (kas'se-mCr) «. a 

twilled woollen cloth. 
Cassino, fkas-si'no} n. a game 

at bards. 
Cassock, (kas'uk) n. & dose 

frockcoat for clergymen. . 
Cast, (kast) v. t [pr^ and po. 

east] to throw ; to flins; to 

found or form; to calculate; 

— n. a throw; motion; turn ; 
< appearance. 

Castanet, (kas'ta-nei) n. a 
rattling insbrumeut used in 

. dancing. 

Castaway, (kast'a-wft) n. one 

abandoned to destruotion. 

Caste, (katit) n. a tribe or raoe. 

Canteiiated. (Kas'tel-lat-ed) a, 

turreted, lijce a castle^- - 



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0A8ZE& 47 0AT7TE&IZS | 






Oh 

4 


lei 


Im 


H 


u- 


1 




■1 


0. 


• 






n. 


Oa 


. a 


< 




1 


rjf. 


On 


Hit 


oi 


m) 


1 


Eia 


Oi 




4 


i. 


0^ 


n. 


1 


lee 


Oi 


he 


Oi 


ul 


Ci 


of 


Oi 




1 


n- 


d 


re 


1 


il. 


J 


;A. 


Oi 


•p. 




ad 


Q 






jr) 


a 




d 


08 


j 


n* 


a 






n. 


1 


ro» 


a 






ch 




lit 


d 


. L 


G 






,h- 


Ci 






a 




ed 


Cl 


les 




>d- 


Oi 


DS 


a 


n. 


s 


n. 

ry. 




a'. 


1 


er> 


Oi 




1 


to 



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0ER06SAPHT' 



49 



Oevography. (86«roK'Ta-fe) n. 
tVa ut of enaraviaff on 
mx. Ingvlttx. 

Certain, (•er'tlii) n. aare: 

Cenaiuty. (sfir'Uii-te) n. fall 
asniranea. 

Certifioate, (s^v-tif e-kit) %. 
a testimony in irritinff. 

Certification, (8cr-tQ-fe-kft'> 
ahon) M. the act of cert if y> 
in^ [who certifies. 

Certifier, (•er'te-fi-er) n. one 

Certify, (scr'te-fi) v. <L to give 
certain notice. 

Certitude, (ser'te-tQd)}!. free- 
dom from doubt. 

Cerulean, (se-rQ'le-aa}a. sky 
colour^ ; blue. 

Ceivioal, (Ber've-kal) a. ro« 
lating to the neck. 

Cervine, (•cr'Yln) «• pertain- 
ing to 'deer. 

Cesaation, (ses-I'ihun) n^ 
stop ; pause ; reapite. 

Cession, (sesh'un) n. ^ giving 
up ; a yielding, {in verse. 

Cesara,(8e-zQ'i-a) n. a pause 

Cesurat, (se-zQr'al) a, xeiat* 
ing to a oesura. 

Cetaceotis, (se-t^i'she-xu) a, of 
the whale kind. 

Cetio, (se'tik) a. pertoininj 
to the whale. 

Chafe, (ch&f) v. f. and i to 
fret ;— n. irritation. 

Qiafery. (chafcr-e) n. a forge 
for Hammering iron into 
han. [fnuin. 

Chafl^ (ohaf) n. the husks of 

Ch.i«fer. (chaf 'f fir) ». t or t to 
bargam. 

ChafFerer, (ehaf'fer-«r) n. one 
who treats about bnying. 

Chaff}^ (ehM'e) a. full o< 

Chaflns-dish, (ohnf ins-dish) 
n. a dish for holding hot 

Chagrin, (sha-grenO n. ill- 
humour; vexation;— V. t. 
to vex ; to mortify. 

Chata, (chfin) n. a line of 
links i—v. t to fasten with 
a chain ; to enslave. 

Chaln-purop, (ehan'pump) n. 
a nump used in shijjs, && 

Chain-shot, (chOn'sUut; n. pt. 
• hot 
'•on- 
noet-, 

«aed for euttingdovamaata 
orxisgias. 



Chair, (ehb) «. a movable 

•eat. 
Chairman, (chtr'man) n, a 

presiding officer. 
Chaiae,(shu)it.atiiro-wheeled 

earruge. 
Chaloedony, (kal-sed'S-ne) «. 

a variety of quartz. 
Qi6lcogTaphy,(kal-kog'ra-fe) 

n. engraving on brass. 
Chaldron, (ohawl'drun.chil'- 

drun) n. a measure of 86 

bushels. (munion oup. 

Chalice, (chal'is) n. a eom- 
Cbalk, (chawk) n. a white 

calcareous earth;— ti. t. to 

mark with chalk. 
Chalky, (ehawk'e) a. oontain- 

ins chalk. 
Cliallenge, (challenj) v. t to 

claim ; to call to fight ; to 

object to;— n. a rummons 

to a contest; exception to a 

juror. 
Challengeable, (challenj-a- 

bl) a. that may be oUal- 

lengod. 
Challenger, (ehallenj-fir) n. 

one who challenges. 
Chalybeate, (ka-lib'e-st) a. 

impregnated with iron. 
Chamber, (chftmlifir) »». an 



upper room ;— V. (. or i. to 

lodge, [one who intrigues. 

Chamberer, (chttm'berrer) «. 



Chamberlain, (ch&m^bcr-lln) 



i 



Chanee, (cbans) n. an unfore- 
seen ocourrenoe;— V. i. to 
happen. 

Chancel, (chan'sel) fi. part of 
a chuioh vhcre the altar 



Chaneellor, (ehan'sel-Iar) n. 

an officer of state ; jnogii of 

a eourt of equity. 
Chancellorship, (chan'seMflr* 

ship) a. office of a chancel* 

lor. Icourt of equity. 

Chanoerr, (chan'scr-e) n. a 
Chandelier, (shan-de-lCt') n. 

branches for candles. 
Chandler, (ohand'ifir) n. one 

who d«us in candles; a 

general dealer. 
Chandlery, (chandlgr-a) «• 
* articles sold by a^iaadler. 
Change, (chinj) v. t or i. to 

alter ; to exchange ; — n. 

alteration ; small money. 
Changeable, (chtnj'a-bi) a. 

subject to chanco ; fickle. 
Changeableness, (chanj'a-bl* 

nes) n. fickleness. 
Chanceful , (chanj 'fool) a. full 

of Change. [constant. 

Changeless, (ohftnj'les) a. 
Channeling, (ch&njling) n. a 

fickle person : an idiot. 
Channel, (chan'nel) a. eoursa 

for a stream ; a furrow*: 

strait;— V. (. td cut inta 

channels; to groove. 
Channeled, (chan'neld) «. 

grooved lengthwise. 
Giant, (chant)>v. t or i to 

sing;— n. a song or singing. 
Chanter, (chant'fir) ii. a singer 

in a cathedral. 
Chanticleer, (chant'e-klfr) «. 

the male of domestic fowls; 
Chantress, (ehant'res) a. a 

female singer. 
Chaos, (ka'os) n. 

mass; confusion. 
Chaotic, (ka-ofik) «. _. 

bling chaos ; confused. 
Chap, (chop) n. a crack in 

flesh;— V. (. or i to open; to 

crack. [worship. 

Chapel, (ehan'el) n. a place of 
Chapelrv, jcnap'el-rei n. the 

jurisdiction of a chapeL 
Chaperon, (shap'e-rOn) v. t to 

attend on a lady in publia; 

—a. a lady's attendant. 
Chapiter, <chai>'it-er) n. ifaa 

upper part of a pillar. 
Chaplain, (chap^lin) n. % 

clenyman of the army «v 

navv, ke. 
Chaiilainey, (ohaplftn-aa) ik 

the oflloe of a chaplain. 
Chaplet, (chap'let) » a gar- 
land or wreath. [dealer. 
Chapman, (chup'man) a. a 
Chapter, (chap'^r) ti. a divi* 



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"OHiJt 



60 



GHZLDBED 



•kn of a book; anoftRanixed 

branch of lome bod j. 
Char. (chAr) k t to lednoe to 

eoaL Ithe day. 

Char, (chir) «. 1 to work by 
Charaeter, (kar'ak-tfir) it. a 

letter; peculiar aualitj; 

Tepiitation. 
Charactetiitie, (kar-ak>tfit- 

is'tik)a. conititutiug char- 

acten— H.that whiok marks 

the character. 
Characterize, (kar'ak-tsr Ji) 

«. t to describe by peculiar 

qoaKties. [of riddle. 

Charade, (sha-rSd') n. a kiud 
Charooai, (chAr'kOl) n. coal 

of wood. 
Charge, (obiri) «. t to^oln: 

*j> \n»A • f.n nt»lr« >n niiS4<^j 



br. 



re- 
former. Iqiuticut. 

Chary, (chRr'e) a. curcful ; 

Chaw;, (chils) v. t to hunt; tu 
pufKue: — n. pursuit; a 
printer a frame. 

Cnaser, (chas'sr) n. a pnrsu- 
er ; a kind ot fire-cracker. 

Chasm, (kazm) «. a ciufti 
cap; openingi 



Chast« Johlst) a. tmdefiled ; 

ChMten, (ehas'n) v. t to 
punish ; to correct in order 
to reclaim. ^i correction. 

Chastening, (chtii'n-ing) n. 

Chastise, idutf •til') «. t. to 
correct. 

Chastisement, ( ehas ' t!i - 
ment) n. correction; pun- 
ishment. Iwho punishes. 

Chastiier, (chas-tlz srj n. one 

Chastity, (chaste-te) n. puri- 
ty of body or words. ' 

Chat, (chat) 9. i. to talk fa- 
miliarly :--4i; idle or fa- 
miliar talk. 

Chateau, (shft-iS')*. a eastle 
or couutrj'-Mat. 

Chattel, (cliat'l) n. any mov- 
able propei-ty. 

Chatter, (chat'tfir) v. t to 
talk idlT;— II. a^prating; 
noiso of birds. 

Chatterer, (chat'tfirn^) n. 
oncthat chatters. 

Cheap, <ehap) a. of low price; 
common. 

Cheapen, (chep'n) v. (. to ask 
the price; to leswn ti:e 
price. [who chrapoi^s. 

Clwapencr, (ca^p'n-criii. ono 

Cheapnoss, (chep'ne^i n. luw- 
ncss of price. 

Cheat, (ctiet) n. a tr!ck ; a 
deceiver ;— ». L to dufraud; 
to impose on. 

Check, (chek) v. t to curb or 
restxuiu; to mnrk^as in a 
list ;— 7u restraint. 

Checker, (ohek'er) v. t to 
divo-sify ; aUo written 
Chequer. 

Checkers, (chek'erz) n. rl. a 
camo on a checKercd board. 

Clu'CKmatp, (chek'mflt) ti. a 
muveroent in chtss that 
ends the game. Ithc fac2. 

rhoek, (chCK) n. the side of 

Cheek-tooth, (chek'tooth; it. 
the back tooth. «, 

Cheer, (chCr) n. mirth; a 
shout of joy ;— «. t to ra- 
lute with joy ; to enliven. 

Cheerful, (chor'fool; chcr'- 
fool) a. lively; gay ; 
spri;;htly. 

Cheerfulness, (chBr'fool-ncs, 

cher'fool-nes) ». gayety. 
Cheerluss, (ohCrlcs) «. c^m- 

fortlcfis. 
Cheery, (chcr'o) a. gay 
sprightly : animated. 

Cheese, (chbz; it. tho curd 



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1 


S2 UIMUKHATIOATB 


a 
rn. 


Cipberint (■I'f.r.iiMrl ». Mt 
of performiiiff «aaM in 


: 


I >■ 




« 


hi 


Cirele. (sflrld) n. a nund 


1 


M) 


ca 


»J 


flffuro; an ^.. ^^ 

orb ; Bur» X X 


Cl 


!n 


rounding/ V 




Q 


V. ttomovei 1 


CJ 




round ;— ». t. \ / 




the 


to moTe dr- V y 


0» 


ini 


cularly. ^*-^ -^ 
Circlet, (wldct) «. a Uttl» 




lid 


ciwle. 


ci 


by 


Circuit. {HrTdt)ii.adirtrict. 
Circuitous, (sfir-ktl'ifc-ui) a. 


\ 


t«d 


round about, [ing round. 
Cinmity, (ssr-ka'i^ejik a go- 


Cl 


rk. 




ar; 


Circular! <Hr'ka-lfir) a. 
round: like a circle; end- 




A'- 


Cl 


Wl- 


ing in ItMdfL 


Cl 


«r 
■m- 


Circularity, (■er-ka-lar'e.te) 

n. a circular form. 
Cfhmlarl/. (ssr'ka-leT-Ie) odL 

in the form of a cirole. 


ci 


«. 


Circulato,(8erTttt-llt)».i to 




Ctl 




to 
ni. 


Cii in) 




Ing 


1 or- 


a 


nor 


1 Qg. 

Ci) r-e) 




of 


Ci; m- 


Cl 


of 


Ci UL 


Cl 




1 0. 




ng. 


Ci J»'- 


Cl 




1 ig. 




)a. 


Ci ar- 
4 ids 


Cl 


ort 


a circle. 




rk. 


Circumflex.(terlcnm-flek8) n. 




)a. 


an accent marked thus (*J. 


Cl 


a 


Circumfluence, (icr-kum'flll- 


Cl 




ens) n. an inolosing with 




<Rd 


waters. 


Cl 


by 


Circumfluent, (ssr-kum'flll. 


Cl 


us) 


ent) a. flowing round. 
Circumfus^, (s6r.kum-fQ«0 
». t to pour around. 


Cl 


n. 


Circumfusion. (sfir-kum-fa'- 




ies 


«hun) «. act of .pouring 




[in- 






•ent) dying around. . 


Cl 


. a 


ko'shun) tt. the use of iw 




hi- 






direct expressiona 


Cl 


are 


Circumlocutory, (ser-kfim- 




me 
3g; 


lok'a-tor-«) a. consisting in 
a circuit Of worda 


o 




ClnanuiaTigateb (sfit'lnm. 


l.m -y- « -yrr^ 





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00HP08ITS 



^~ 



iboHcaoiittA 



Compofite, (kom'po»>it) a. 
IIUM6 up of put*. 

CompotiUaii. (kom-pS-tUh* 
nn) n. a mlsture ; vritin^. 

Comporitor, (kom-poi'iHr) 
n. one vho leU type*. 

Comport, (kom'pQtt) n. a 
miztora for oimiiitb. 

Compotare, (kom-pO'zhar) n. 
a oompoMd ftote of miad ; 
caltoneis. 

Compokation, (kom<p5^U'- 
•ban) n. acfe <ndriiikins to- 
gether. 

Compound, (kom'poand)- a. 
formed of two or more in- 
gredient! i—n. a mixture. 

Compound, (kom-poond') v. f. 

^toaiXinonemMi; toad- 

Compoonder, (ko^n-pound'fir) 
n. one irho oompounds. 

Coniprehend,(kom-pre-hend') 
v.i. to contain; to.undec*^ 



Comprelieniibhik (kom-prf- 
hens'e-bl) a. that can be 
nndentood. 

(>>mprehensioi&; (kom-pre- 
hen'ihun) i^ act of com- 
prehending ; o^paoity. . 

ComprehenuTe» ;tkom-px€- 

' bene ' It i .o.^'./.embcaapg 
much.; ., 

ComprebenUndfiMi^ f kom • 
'pTMifens'iT-net) tt. vialUjr 
jot io^ttdiog mndL ' 

pompren, (kom-preel^f. l.to 



CompreM, (ko»'pret)rn.- a 

wm baadais-vied.liijr.iw 

geoofl. 

Compreniblli^, (iom- prtio - 

.\ buVte) n. Quality of being 



.,kom-prBi'd-bl> 

it may be eompretoed. 

vompnMd<»i,OHnn>pfwh'un) 

II. aet of p wUn together. 
ComprewiTe, (kom-pre elir) « . 

having powet to compnea 
Cbmpraenire, ikom-prwh'Qr) 
' M. prewttlre. 
CompriMl, (koin-pxli'al)- n. 

tlie act of oompneing. 
Comprin, ticom-pris') «, t to 

contain. 
Gompromiie. (kom'parO-mla) 

n. amicable agreement by 



•ettte Iv m\ 



utual m 



Oomfiromitt ( kMa 'pt9 -mit ) 
u t to pcomSie; to pledge. 



Compulntory,i'^(kom-p]i4'ffa* 

tor-e) a. compelling. 
Compulsion, (komTpnl'ibun) 

n. act of oompelling ; force 

applied. , ^- . 

CompulsiTe, (kom-purslT).(i^ 

compelliaff; forcmg. , 
Compulsi?eur, (kom-pul'slr< 

le) ad. by focoe. 
Compuncumi, (kom-pungk'- 

■bnn) n. remorse. . 
Compunctious, (kom-pungk - 

she-US) a. glTinff pe^ Igff 



Computable, (iom^pafa-bl) 
a. csMble of being com- 
puted. rshun}n.feckoning. 

Computation, (kom-pQ^ta'- 

Compute. (kom-pQt') ». !• (9. 
calculate f to reckon. '-1 

Computer, (^m-pOt'er) «. 
one- whp' oomputefj^^ 
reckons. --- -__Tt»^ 

Comradot (kom'rid, }eam' 
rtd)n. an associate. 

Con, <kon) a prefix deno^ot 

. wiA or against;-^, t to 
knoir;toxerolTe in thought. 

Conoamerate,(kon-kam'er4t) 
».f.toai«h. [v.ttollnk. 

Concatenate, (kon-kat'e^itt) 

Concatenation, (kon<kat-«-t 
Qg'shun) n. a series of links. 

Cottcafe,(kon'kiT)a. hoUbv: 

, *-4t.aboillow; 
arohorTanli 

ConcaTitr, 
(kon-kav'a* 
te)t».hoUow. 
nessofabody. ^ 

ConoaTo-cohTes, (koofka^o- 
kon'teksj a. concare on 
one Bid* and oouTez <N» the 
other. . . ^ . 

OoncaTO-ooncaTe, (kon-ka-'TS- 

' kon'klr) <i. oonoaTO on 
bothildef. __ •- 
9. I.; to 




li. act of udingj.a hiding 

plMe; ; - -_ 
Concede; (kon-Md^ fh t, to 

grsnti lo admit as true or 

proper. . [yielded. 

Conceded. ( ken -S6a/ ed ) a. 
Conceit, flcoB-sttO n. fanqr; 
' vanity ;—«. f. to fRn<7. 
ConceitwU Jtoa*tet ' ed ) a. 



Conceivable^ (kon^cer'a-bl} tL 
that mar be conceived. >« 

CbnceivaUeness. (kon-stra- 
bl-nes) «. quality ol fadng 

^conceivable. ' • 

Qonoeive, (kon-e^ 9. t ori. 
■ . to form in the mixul; to bo* 
ritji child. 



Conceiving, (k(»i«er1ng) n. 

..-iception. 
Conoenfiate, (kon-sen'trit) 



<!bnc( 



V. t to bring .to a common 

centre or to a closer union. 
Concentration,tkon-Ben-trft'- 

Bhun) n.tfitdL draving to 

aoentre. _ 
Concentratlvene08.(kon-Ben'- 
.^trtt-iv-nes) icfitculty of 
f ooneentraong the . Intel- 
*• leotual f oroe. < ^ . __. 
Concentrio{ (kon^en'mk) a. 
" having a common centre. 
(Tonoennicity, (kon-sen-tris'- 

•-te) n, state of being oca- 

oontrio. 

.Conoeptade, . <koiMep'ta41) 

Hi that which contains. 
Conoeption,(kon-4ep'sh«A)iw 

actof conoeiving'.idea. . ./; 
Gonoeptive. (kon-sep'tit) a. 

capable ci eonceivmg.- 
Conoem, <kDn-eem') v. t to 

ailbct; to interest; to belong 
' to;— tk. anaAIr; anxietj; 

solicitude. 

Concerning, (kon-sfia'ing) 

ppr. pertaining to. 
Oonoemment, (kan>Hm'« 



Concert, (kon-«erf ) .9, i. to 

oontoive together; to plan. 
Concert, Kkon'sfirt) n. agree- 
^ ment; a muiical entertain- 
ment. . _ 
Concertina, (kon-ssrt-Q'na) n. 

amusi- 

«al in- 

• tru-| 

ment 
' on the 

Aoccv>; 

4 i on 

prinoi- 

pie. 
Concea- 

iion, 

(kon-sesh'on) n. act of 

yielding. 
Conoessive, (kon-ses'iv) «. 

implying concession. 

— *^ (koogk) n. a marina 




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OOVOHOLOOT 




Gooehology, Oc(nw-kbro>je)». 

th« Mianoe of «beU& 
Condliatt. (kon-cU'e-at) ». I. 

to gaiAlorfaTouri to noon* 

OoneilUttne. ( kon-tfl ' e-lt* 

ing) A. gauiog faronr. 
Conoiliatfon* <kon-iil-e-i'> 

shun) n. Mt of reooncilinft. 
Conciliator, (kon-aU'e-it-tr) 

M. ono wbo oondliatos.' 
CimeiUatory, (kon-dl'e-«-tor* 

e) a. tendinc to reoonoile. 
Coneiae, (kon-iit') » brief; 

■hori. 
Condseness, (kon-tfi'bas) «. 

brevity • in speaking or 

vritins. la eutttng ofll 
OonciBion* (kon-sith^nii) n. 
CoDclaTe, (kon'klAT) n. an 

•saembly of eaidinali; a 

doM aflwniblT. 
Conclude, (kon-kladO «. f. to 

finish :— «. i. to infer. 
Concliuion,(kon-kU'thiin)ii. 

end ; inf evenoe ; defcennina- 

tioB. rdeci$iTe. 

ConelosiTe, Ocon-kio'eiv) a. 
ConcloaiTely, (kon-klQ'uT*Ie) 

•d. deoiiiY«Iy. 
ConelotiTeaeat. (kon-Uo'siT' 

net) n. qaaiitx «f being 

eoncIadTe. 
Conooct, (kon-kokf) v. t to 
- digest ; to^pen. 
Oonooction, (kon*kek'ahnn) 

n. digestion. 
ConoooliTe, (kon<kok'tiT) 

a. tending to digest or 

inataxe.' 
Ooneomitaiioe, (kon-kom'ii* 

ans) n. a being together. 
Concomitant, (kon-kom'it- 

ant)a. acoompaojing ;— n. 



Concord, (konglcord) n. bar- 
mouj ; union ; a compact. 

Concordance, (kon-kord'ans) 
«. an index to the Bcxip- 



OoBoordant, (kon<koi4'ant) 
«. agreeing ; suitable ; bar> 
' nonions. 
Conooane, (koogian) n. an 



Co9erete,(ko 



-_ ikou-krit') «. i or 

1 to unite in a mass. 

Ckmcrete, (konlcret) a. form- 
ed by eonoretion;-*!!. a 
«om pound. 

Ooneiation, (kon-krC'sbnn) n. 
Mt of ooo«l«iing. 



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CKmoBSQinoirAL 


63 


COVBEBTE 


Co - .- 


• - C. 




i 


u 


en'she-ut-nes) n. a senip«> 


< 




loas reeard to constiieooe. 


Co 


o 


Consoioiiable,(kon'»hun-»-U) 


4 




o. reasonable^ 


1 


n 


CoiMcioas, (kon'«h«-uB) a. ia- 


1 
1 


J. 

Lt 


ConBciousJy, (kon'shc-ua-Io) 
ad. with inward peivuasion. 

Ckmicioafnesa, (kon'the-aa- 
nes) n. perception of what 


Co 


1) 


1 




t 


;o 






poMOfl in the mind. 


Ct 


e) 


Conscript, (kon'skript) n. an 
enrolled miUtia-man ^~a. 


] 




1 


i) 


written. 


c< 


I- 


ConsoripUoB, rkon-tkrip'- 
shun) n. act d( enrolling or 








L 


registering, [to dedi(»te. 


6 


l. 


Consecrate. (konWkrtt) v. L 
shun) n. the act of dedicat- 


o 


b8 






c< 


^ 


ing to sacred uses. 


Ci 


t. 


Co 


o 


M 


Cc 


o 


t. 


.1 


Ci 


bo 


Cc 


o 


n. 


(k 


Ci 


xe 


(k 


c< 


a. 


i 




IS 


d 


o 




Cc 


c< 


^ 


C< 


C( 


to 


C< 


c< 


)1) 


c< 


c 


n. 

a- 


o< 


o 


et 


< sequence ; pompously. 




a- 


Consequentl}',(kon'Pc-kwtnt- 
Ic) od. by consequence. 


C( 


1-- 




10 


shun) n. preservation from 


G 


I' 


loss or injaiy. 
Conserrative, (kon-serv'at-iT) 


c; 


jy 


a. tending to or desiring to 




preserve, [n. a preserver. 
Conservator, (kon'Hrv-ttHsr) 
Conservatory- (kon-Sflrr'a- 

tor-e)o. tending to preserve; 

—n. a greenhouse for exotio 




n. 


: 


e. 


Ci 


>y 


Q 


J- 


plants. (sweetmeat. 
Conserve, (kon'^Hrv) n. » 
Conserve, (kon-iflrv') r. (. to 


C( 


iS 


1 




preserve. 




J 



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4 DICTIONARY sFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 





07 


ooFnsr 




^ ■ 




- ^ - 


•a 


Oi 






Uw 


a 






fir) 


(k 






n. 
ti- 
er. 


1 








^ 








Cc 






t<5 

no* 


Cc 






ho 


( 






top 
Lti« 








1 


Cc 






)». 


Cc 






Id. 


Cc 






*i; 








n. 


Cc 

1 






.3; 


C€ 






9Xf 


c< 






Of 


C( 






tea 


c< 






uto 


Cc 






to 
ixn) 


Cc 






iu 


d 






£. 


a 






[>n; 


c< 






to 
as 


o 






. » 


o 






Dff. 


o 






•py 

ei. 


c 






«0 



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OOFTBiaKT 



63 



OOltBOSIVS 



O * * " " • H) «. the 

ish abook. 

O >. t to at- 

imfration 

i. totnfle 

Iff in love. 

O !t'r«)n. 

. O n. a jilt* 

roman. 

O el uh) a. 

tte 
O genui <A 

iir shell*, 

growinff m the wttki — tt, 

made of coral 
Cor b, (kerb) n a1>a«1cet 
€orban,(kor'baaj ti- an almi- 

baiket [to tie. 

Cord, (kord) n. a line ;— v. t 
Cordu e, (kord'Iji h. ropes of 

a ship. (shaped. 

Cordate, (kord'it) a. heart- 
Cordeber, (kor de-Ier'} n. a 

Franciscan friar. 
Cordial, (kor'de-al) n. an ex- 

hilaratuu; liauor; any 

thing that cneerss—o. 

hearty ; sincere. 
CordiaUty, (korde^tre-te) n. 

sinoerity ; warm alTection. 
Cordially, (kor'de-al-le) ad. 

with sincere »/reccion. 
• Cordon, (kor^dong') n. a line 

of military posts or troops. 
Corduroy, (kor-dQ-roy') n, 

thick cotton stuff. 
Cordwainer, (kord'win-cr) n. 

a sheemaker. [inner part 
Core, (k6r) n. the heart or 
Corf, (korf) n. a basket used 

in mines. 
Coriaceous, (k6r-e-i'sh§-iis) 

a. oonsistins of leather. 
Cork,(kork)n. a tree or its 

bark; a stopper;— v. t to 

stop with a cork. 
Cork-screw, ikork'skr6A) n. a 

■orAiv f/» rimnr 4Vki>ka /tv^im 



Comet, (kor'net)*. aunslcal 

inttnunaat ; a cavalry 

oflioer. (of a comet. 

Cometcy, (kor'net-se) n. otfaee 
Cornice, (kot'nis) n. the top 

of a wall or eulumn; a 

mottlding. 
Cornucopia. (kor-nQ-ku'pc-a) 

n. the 

hori 

of 

fr. 

from 
which 

J 

I 
Co 
Co 





Coronet, (kor'O-net) n. an in- 
Xerior 
crown 
worn 
bytha 
nobil- 
ity; an 
orna* 
men- 
tal head-dress. ^ 

Corporal, (kor'po-ral) n. a 
military officer ;->a. per- 
taining to the body. 

CorporaUty, (kor-po-ralVte) 
n. state of being embodied. 

Corrorally, (kor'po-i^l-le) ad. 

Corporate, (kor'po-rfit) a. 

united in a community. 
Corporation, (kor-po-rft'shnn) 

1%. a society acting as an 

indiTiduaL 
Corporator, (kor-po-rftt'sr) n. 

a member of a corporation. 
Corporeal, (kor-pOl:«-al) a. 

haTineabody;not spirituaL 
Corporeity, (kor-p«-r6'it-«) n. 

bodily substance. 
Corps, <k9r) n. a bod/ of 
. tfoopi. 



Cc 



to&iM:i.ijr, jusnjr> 

Correctness, (kor-rekt'nes) n. 

accuracy, [who oorrect8< 
Corrector, (kor-rekt'er) it. one 
CorteUte, (kor're-Ut) n. » 

oorrelatire. 
Correlauye, (kor-rel'it-ir) a. 

having mutual relation. 
Correspond, (kor-re-spond') 

«. i to suit; to agree; to 

write to. 
Correspondenee, (kor-r6- 

■pond'ens) n. agreement; 

interchange of letters. 
Correspondent, ( kor • i6 • 

spond'ent) a. suited}— m 

one who has intercourse by 

letters. 
Corridor, (kor're-dSr) n. m 

gallery or open pascago 

round a honse. 
Corrigible, (kor're-je-bl) a. 

that may be corrected. 
Corroborant, (kor-rub'C-rant) 
' a. strengthening. 
Corroborate, (kor-rob'0-rlt) 

V. t to oon&rm;tastrengUi> 
' en. 
Corroboration, (kor-mb*-!*'- 

shunhi* &ct of confirming. 
Corroborative, (kor-rob'8-r»t-' 

iv ) a. tending to strengthen. 
X^rrode, (kor-rSd') v. <. to eat 

away or coniume by dqr 

grees. 
Corrodent. (kor-r6'd«ttt) «. 

baring the power of corrod- 
ing, [thatmaybeeorroded. 
Corrodible, (kor-rod'e-bl) a. 
Corroeion, (kor-rS'xhun) n, 

act of eating away. 
Corrosive, (kor-rus'iT) o. «afe 

IngawajgxadiutUj* 



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UOUJITKRTSVOB 



70 



OSAOaZHBfiUI 



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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



CRAM 



11 



OBiMnrAL 




Vram, (kram) v. L ot i. to 

staK 
Cramp, (kramp) n. a ;;;>«» «nn{ 

— ». t. to oonnno; to hinder. 
Crampfish. (kramp'&ih) n. 

the torpedo. 
Crajaberry, (krana)er-e) n. a 

berry gro\ring in swamps. 
Crane, (kr&n) n. a migratory 

fowl; a -^ 

maokine 

for rais- 
ing, low- 
ering.- 

and 

moving 

heavy 

weights; 

a pipe . ^ 

for drawing liquor out of 

a cask. 
CranioloRy,(kra-neH>l'o-jc) ». 

a treatise on the cranium 

or skuIL 
Ciunium, (krt'ne-nm) n. the 

skulL 
Crank, (kiangk) n. the end 

of an axis 

bent, used as 

a handle for 

commnui- 

cating circu- 
lar motion; 

— «. bold ; 

easilv oversetr 
Crannied, (kxan'id) a. full of 

chinks. [crack. 

Cranny, (kran'e) n. crevice -j 
Crape, (krap) n. a loosely 

woven stuff. 
Crash, (krash) v. i.to make a 

noise, as of thln^^s falling: 

— n. a loud noise as of 

thingsfallingand breaking. 
Crashing, (krash'ing) n. a 

mingled sound of things 

breaking. 
CraBsameut, (kras'a-meat) n. 

the red thick part of the 

blood. [inrossnesa. 

Crassitude, (kras'c-tnd) n. 
Crate, (krat) n. a wicker pan- 
nier for earthen ware. 
Crater, (krat'er) n. the mouth 

or aperture of a volcano. 
Craunch, (kr&nch) v. t, to 

crush with the teeth ; to 

chew. [cloth. 

Cravat, (kra-vaf) n. a neck- 
Crave, (krftv) V. ^ to ask 

earnestly. 
CraTin;ir.(kr&T'in«) o. greatly 

lunging for ; — n. urgent 

longing for. 




Craw,(kraw) n. the crop of 

Crawl, (krawl) r i. to creep ; 

to move as a worm. 
Crayon, (kra'on) n. a pencil ; 

a d rawing ;—». t to sketch 

with a crayon. 
Craze, (kr.ix) v. L to impair 

the intelloci. 
Craziness, ( krftz ' e • nea )- n. 

state of being deran^d ; 
- weakness. [ranged. 

Crazy, (kr&s'c) a. broken ; de- 
Crcak. (krsk; v. i to make a 

grating sound. 
Creaking, (krek'ing) n. a 

harsh, continuing noise. 
Cream, (krCm) n. the oily 

part of milk y-v. i. or (. to 

yield cream, [cream; rich. 
Creamy, (krem'e) o. full of 
Crease, (kres) n. a mark left 

by folding ;— v. t to mark 

.by folding. 
Create, (kre-ftf) v. t to bring 

into existence. 
Creation, (kre-a:'shun)n. the 

act of creating; the uni- 



fiuob^ xiiuuuuvt) i v&buuin; 

—V. L to believe : to trust ; 
to confide in. (reputable. 

Creditable, (kred^it-a-bl) a. 

Creditably, (kred'lt-a-blo) ad. 
reputably ; without dis- 
grace. 

C >ne 






Crescent, (kres'ent) a. in- 
creasing; growing;— n. the 
increasing moon; Turkish 
standard. [plant. 

Cress, (krcs) n. the name of a 

Cresset, (krea'et) n. a light 

set upon a"^ — 

beacon. 

Crest, (krest)n. 
a plume of 
feathers. 

Crested, 
(krest'ed) 
wearing 
crest. 

Crest-fallen, (krerit'fawl-n) a. 
dejected; cowed. 

Cretaceous, (kre-tfi'8he-us)a. 
of the nature of chalk. 

Crevice, (krev'is) n. a small 
crack. 

Crew, (kroo) n. a ship's com- 
pany;— prsf. of Crow. 

Crowd, (kr66'el) n. a ball 
rf .am . 4^w/i, . threaded 

C fc manger; 

C ) n. a game 

[sieve. 

C H. a com- 

C spasmodic 

op. 

n. a small 
ICrv- 

C and pp. of 

C one who 

[of law. 
C a violation 

C 'ii»«l) a. 



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OBIMINALITT 



72 



CBTTCOT 



•us) o. Iik« 

>ot: Uaek 
Bttles, &c; 

r-c) n. all 
1 earthen 

dll) n. an 
aal of the 

u anearljr 
Ifron. 
ttle home* 

r'na) n. an 

idtroman. 
ru an old 

1 bend; a 
-0. t ori. 

I) pp. or 
d krookt, 
d] bent; 

ok'ed-nes) 
crooked: 

I harrest; 
)ird;— w. U 

n. a capi* 
for ladies 

«. a hish* 




s-egz-am'- 
ne by the 

ppr. pass- 
» of pasa- 
LisLness. 
)n. pecT- 
B'pttr-pos) 



n. a oontrarjr pttipoee ; «a 
enigma. 

Cross-question, (krosHcwest- 
Tun) V. <. to cross-examine. 

Cross-jtoad, (kros'rOd) n. a 
way or road that crosses 
another, [form of a cross. 

Crosswise, (kros'wis) ad. in 

Crotch, (kroch) n. the fork- 
ing of a tree. 

Crotchet, (kroch'et) n. a note 
of half a minim ; a whir*. 

Croton-oil, (kr5'ton-oil) n. a 
violent purgative obtained 
from the seeds of a genos 
of tropical plants. 

Crouch, (krouch) v. i to 
stoop low ; to cringe. 

Croup, (krdup) n. a disease in 
the throat ; buttocks of a 
horse ; rump of a fowl. 

Croupier, (krdd'pe-jr, krdd'- 
per) n. Tice-chairman at » 
public dinner party. 

Crow, (krS) n, a black fowl ; 
the cock's voice ; — v. (. 
IpreL crowed] to utter the 
cry of a cock; — v. i. to 
boast ; to exult [iron bar; 

Crowbar. (krO'b&r) n. a heavy 

Crowd, (krowd) n. a throng ; 
a violin ;--t>. t, to press 
close; to urge; — v. «. to 
press together in a crowd. 

Crown, (krown) n. top of tho 
head; a 
royal or- 
nament; 
a garland; 
V. t to in- 
vest with 
a crown. 

Crown- 
lass, 



(krow 




>wn'glu3) n. a fine glass 

for windows. 
Crowning, (krown'ing) n. act 

of crowuing ; the finish. 
Crucial, ( kr66 ' she - al ) a. 

transvcrFC ; intersecting. 
Cruciate, (kroo'she-at) v. t, 

to torture. 
Crucible, (kroo'se-bl) n. a 

chemical vessel. 
Crucifier, (krod'sc-fi-er) n. 

one who crucifies. 
Crucifix, (kroo'sc-fiks) n. a 

little cross ; a painting of 

ifShriat on the cross. 
Crucifixion,(kr6o-8c-fik'?hun) 

n. a nailing to a cro^s. 
Cruciform, (kroo'se-form) a. 

in form of a cross. 
Crucify, ikroo M-fi) v. t to 



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CRTTDE 



73 



ommr 



fasten and put to deati 

« cross. [rough si 

Crude, (kr66d) a. in a ra 

Crudely, (krdodlel ad. ' 



Crudity, (krd6d'e-te) n. 

digested matter; in 

turity. [void of j 

Cruel, (kro^'el) a. inhua 
Cruelly, (kroo'el-le) ad. 

barbarous manner; 

humanly. [humai 

Cruelty, (kroo'el-te) n 
Cruet. (kroo'et) n. aria 

sauces. 
Cruise, (kr6uz) v. i to 

back toid forth on Jthe 

•^n. a cruising Toyage. 
Cruiser, (kroozV) n. a 

son or ressel that cruii 
Crumb, (kruin).n. a tragi 

or piece, as of bread. 
Crumble, (krum'bl) v. 

break into smaU pieo 

«. i to fall to decay. 
Crummy, (krum'e) a. fu 

CTumbt/ 
Crump, (kmmp) a. erool 
Crumpet, (krum'pet) : 

soft (iake. 
Cample, (kmm'pl) v. 

draw into wrinkles. 
Crupper, (krup'fir) i 

leather to hold a si 

back ; buttoicks of a h( 

—V. t to pat a crv 

Crural, (kr6d'ra1) a. pei 

ing to the leg. 
Cruaade,(krdoHiSdOn. a 

tary expedition to re< 

the holy land. 
Crusader, (krd6-s&d'fir)t 

employed in a emsadi 
Cmse^(kr66z)n. a Sioal 

orTiaL 
Chxset. (krW'sct) n. a 

■mitn's crucible or m< 

pot. 
Crash, (krush) v. t to t 

or break by pressun 

•ubdue ; to ruin ; — 

Tiolent collision and 1 
. ing;ruin: 
Crust, (krust) n. a him 

ering;— V. t.or L to 

vith a hard case. 
Crostaceous, (kms-tft'sl 

a. having jointed she! 

theloUter. I 

Crastily,(kmst'e-le) ad. 
Crusty, ( krust '0)0. 

crust vsnappish. 
€katcb.lkrach)ti. a its 



he 
bit 

Ud 

the 

in 

ore 
.n's 
Lhe 

on- 



henyy stick i-V. t to beal 

with a stick, [of a thing. 
Cue, (ka) n. the end or tail 
Cuff, (kuf) n. a blow ; part of 

a sleeve ;— p. t to strike 

with the fist. [plate. 

Cuiras8,(kwe-ras') n. a breast* 
Cuirassier, (kwe-ras-ser') n. a 

soldier armed with a cui< 

rasa 

Cul «. 

Ctt] m 



of 
ed. 
lie 

ip's 

ick 



Cu uL 

Cu IX* 

I 

Cu a. 

t 

Cu to 

i to 

i ^ 

1>jr vuii/ure. 

CultiTation, (kul-te-T&'shttn) 

n. improvement by tillage, 

or by study. 
Cultivator, (kul'te-vat-fir) n. 

one who tills. 
Culture, (kul'tor) n. act of 

cultivating. 
Culvert, ( kul ' vgrt ) n. an 

arched drain. [dove-taiL 
Culvertoil, (kul'ver-tftl) n. 
Cumber, (kum'bfir) v. t. to 

clog; to burden. 
Cumbersome, (kum'bfiT-sum) 

a. burdensome. 
Cumbersomeness, (kum'bfir* 

sum-nes) n. the quality of 

being cumbersome. 
Cumbrance, (kum' brans) n. 
- burden; clog. 
Cumbrous, ( kum ' brus ) a. 

troublesome ; oppressive. 
Cumin, (kum'iu) n. the bitter 

ai*oinatic seed of an annual 

plant of thaf 



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THE POrULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 



CUUULATB 



74 



CUTLET' 



Wreal 



Cnmnlate, (kam'Q-l&t) v. t 
to heap. 

Cumulatire, (knm'Q-lBt-iv)a. 
augment in.; by addition 

Cuncal. t^-i nu-al) a. sliaped 
bkc a vrcdifc. 

Cunning, (kun'ing) a artful,* 
crafty ,— )i. art; skill, crafty 
artifice. . [with art. 

CunninTly, (kun'in^-Ic) ad. 

Cup, (kup) H. a drinking \ei* 
scl;— ». t. to procure a dis- 
charge of bluod by scanfi- 
in^; and applying a cupyiug 
glass. 

Cupboard, (kup'bOrd, kub'- 
burd) tt. a case or iuclobure 
with shelves for cups, 
plates, &c. 

Cupel, ikU'pel) n a Uttlc cup. 

Cupellation, (kQ-pel-l& siiun) 
n. the process of refimui; 
motals. 

Cupiditj-, (ka-pid'e-te) n. in- 
ordinate dcsne, particu- 
larly of wealth. 

Cupola, (ka'pG-Ia) n. a dome; 
an arch- 
ed roof; 
pi. Ca« 
polas. 

Cupreous, 
JkQ'prc- 
«s) a. of 
or like 
copper. 

Cur,(kur) 
n. a dug , a snappish fellow. 

Curable, (kOra-bl) a. that 
may be cured. 

Curaroa, (kQ-ra-su') n. a cor- 
dial flavoured m ith orange- 
peel and spices. 

Curacy, (ka ra-se) n. oflSco of 
a curate. Ipricst. 

Curate, (ka'rSt) n. a parish 

Curative, (ka rftt-iv) a. tcnd- 
m:; to cure. (Luardian. 

O«rator, (ka rat'tr) n. a 

Curb, (kurb) v. t. to keep in 
subjection;— n. part of a 
bridle i box round a well ; 
restraint. < (milk. 

Curd, (kurd) n. coagulateO 

Curdle, ikurd'l) v. t. to co< 
agulate;— V (. to causa to 
cooifulatc or thicken. 

Cure, (kbr) n remedy; a 
hioling ,— V. t to restore to 
health , to salt and dry. 
CurcloBS, (kor'lus) a. incura- 
ble, (ins Ull. 
Curfow. (kur'fa) n. an even- 
CuruMily, (ku-ro-o«'e-te) a. 




at inquisltiTcncss ; a 
rarity. 

CurioBo. (ka-ro-o'su) n. one 
who loves new and rare 
thi<-.g8. [tivo , nice. 

Curious, (ka're-us) a luquisi- 

Curiously, (ku're-us-le) ad. 
inquisitAvelji neatly; art- 
fully. 

Curl, (kurl) n. a rin;let of 
hair ,—v t. or i. tu form or 
bend into riu-rlcts. 

Cui-hucss,(kur'lc-nts)n. state 
of bcins curly. 

Curly ,(kur'lc; a. havlnc; curls. 

Curmudgeon, (kur>muj'uu) 
n. a mis«.r ; a churL 

Currant, (kitr'out) n. a shrub 
and its fiuit. 

Cunt ncy, (kur'en-se) n. cir- 
•culation i paper passing for 
money. , 

Current, (kur'ent) o. circula- 
' tinq ; common ; now j-ass- 
ing ;— n. a siK.im -, covirse. 

Currently, (kur'cutlc) ad. 
With general reception i 
fashionably. 

Currcntness, (kur'ent-nes) n. 
circulation i Huenrv. 

Curricle, ( kur ' e - kl ) n. a 
chaise of two vLcols for 
two horses. 

Curlier, (kur'e-er) n, a dres- 
ser of tanned leather. 

Currish, ikurish) a. like a 
cross dog i 8n.'.pi)ish. 

Cuiry, (kur'cj v. t. to rub 
and clei'i. 

Currycomb. (kur'e-kSm) n. a 
comb to clean hoi^es. 

Curse, (Uur^) v t. to wish evil 

' to ;—». a wish of evil ; exe- 
cration. 

Cursed, (kur8t)pD. execrated. 

Cursed, (kurs ed) a. deserv- 
ing a curse; vexatious; 
hateful. [hasty. 

Cursive, ikur'siv) n. flawing ; 

Cursorily, (kur'sor-e-le) ad. 
m a cuisury manner; 
hastily. [blight. 

Cursory, (kur'sor-e) a. hasty ; 

Curt, (kurt) a. short , brief 
concise. 

Curtail, (kur-tar) v t. to cut 
short, to abridge; to cut off. 

Curtain, (kur tin) n. a hang- 
ing cloth for a bed or win- 
dow-.— v (. to inclose or 
furnish witkA curtain. 

Curtly, (kurtie) ad shortly ; 
oonoisely. (eurvcd , bent. 

Curvated, (kuxv'at-ed) a. 



Curvation, (kurv-a'shuu) u, 
iu a 



linn, 
,hli..' 



ti 
':-ftr) 

ml- ! 

t. to I 

ut of j 
cud- 



a) n. 
of a 

n. a 
; im- 

:-c)a. 
n. 

n. an 
at a 

tum- 
rhsie 

I. t>L 
orted 

rand 
hew; 
[fe or 

») c. 

the 
the 

« a. 

:in. 
broad 

naker 

bear* 



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A DICTIONARY or THE ENGLISH LANGUAGL 



OUTTEB 



75 



BANGS 




Cutter, (kufgr) n. a swift 

Bail- 

i a g 

Tcssel, 

irith 

one 

mast 

and a 

straight 

r an - 

nins . 

bc^sprit 

Catling, (kat'in?) a. severe: 

pungent;— n. a piece cut ofl^ 

Cut-water, (kut'waMr-ter) «. 

the fore part of a ship's 

prow. [round of time. 

Cycle, ( si ' kl ) n. a circle ; 

Cyclic, (si'klik) a. pertaiaing 

to a cycle. 
Cycloid, (si'kloid) n. a geo- 
metrical c\irve. 
O'cloidal. (si-kloid'al) a. per- 

taining to a cycloid. • 
Cydometry, (si-klom'c-tre) n. 

art of mej^uring cycles. 
Cyclopean* (8i-klo-p«'an) a. 



a 
ist. 
lay 
Lie. 
me 



pertaining to the CycIoH > 

vast. 
Cyclopedia, (si-kl5-t>C'de-a) n, 

a body or circle oi sciences. 
Cyclops, (si'klops) n. sing, and 

pi. in fxtluloua hUiorji^ a 

class of giants. 
Cy a 

I ni- 

f 
Cy la. 

c ler. 

Cy in- 



nt. 
ort 
irt. 
in 
iip) 

lUS 

face covered with the iodid 

of filver. 
Dahlia, (dal'e-a) n. a plant 

that bears a large beautiful 

compound flower, of every 

variety of colour. 
Daily, (d.i'le) o. being every 

Aiy— ad. every day; day 

by da/. 



form 

like a 

dish. 
Cynical, (sin'ik>al) a. surly; 

snarling; satirical. 
Cynic, (sin'ikj n. a morose 

man. 
Cynicism, (sin'e-sism) ». a 



Daintl7,(dfin'ie-Ie}ad. nicely; 
delioously. 

Dainty, (d&n'te) a. nice ; fas- 
tidious;— »« a nice bit; 
dclicacyv 

Dairy, (d&'re) n. the place 
where milk is set; the 
making of butter and 
cheese. 

Dale, (dfil) n. a space between 
hills; a vale. 

Dalliance, (dal'le-ans) n. act 
of fondness; mutual em- 
brace. 

Dally, (dalle) v. i. to delay ; 
to trine with ; to fondle. 

Dam, (dam) n. the mother of 
brutes; a bank to confine 
water;— V. t. to contiue or 
shut in water by dams. 

Damage, (dam'fij) n. injury ; 
hurt; — V. t' to injure; to 
hurt. 

Damageable, (dam'fij-a-bl) a. 
liable to receive damage. 

Damask, (dam'ask) n. a silk 
woven with flowere;— 1>. t 
to weave flowered work on 
stuffs. 

Damasked, (dam'askt) pp. or 
a. woven into flowers. 

Damaskeen, (dam-asJc-Ca') 



morose contempt of tha 
pleasures and acts of life. 

Cynosure, (sin'o-shodr, si'no< 
sh6dr) n. the star nearest 
the north pole; that which 
attracts. 

Cyprian, (sip're-an) a. b» 
longing to thfl isle of Cy- 

{>vu3 ; a term ai>pliei to a 
ewd woman. 
Cyprus, (si'pru.s) n. a thick 
stuff, black and trous- 



V. f. to fill incitions i» iroo- 

or steel with jfold or silvQi 

Wire. 
Dame, (dSm) n. a lady; a 

woman. 
Damn,tdam}v. t to condemn. 
Damnable, (dara'ua-bl) a. d<^ 

serving danmation; udioua 
Damnably, (daiu'u:i-b]o> aJL 

so as to incur damnation. 
Damnation, (dam-ua'shun) 

n. ftenteiice to everlasting 

punishment. 
Damnatory, (dam'na-for-e) 

a. tehdinj; to condemn. 
Damp, (damp) a. m^ist; 

humid ; watery :— n. moist 

OAT ; fog ;— V. *. to wet ; to 

dispirit. 
Daini>er, (damp'gr) n. a valve 

to stop air; that which 

damps. Ihumid. 

Dumpish,(damp'idh)a.muist; 
Dampness, <( dhmp ' nes ) n. 

humidity. 
Damps, (damps) n. pi. noxi- 
ous exhalations, [maiden. 
Damsel, (dam'zel) n. a young 
Damson, (dsun'zn) it. a smau 

black plum. 
Dance, (dans) v. i. to leap ; ttf 

move to music with varied 



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BIVCSB 


70 




! 




Ihe 


Di 




flit 


i 




§ 


Si 




08 


\ 
Di 




ff 


tu 




nft 


Pi 

i 

4 




a* 


d! 




to 


Di 






1 
Di 




id 






B» 


dI 






Di 

1 




& 


Di 




h 


Di 

4 




& 


Di 




> 


Di 

i 
1 
i 




(1 

1* 


Di 

1 




B« 


dI 






Di 

i 




a 


i>l 




V 


s! 




1- . 


i 
Di 




j- 


Di 
< 




u 


Dt 




1! 


1 
Di 

1 




k 


dI 

1 






u 


Ds 






I 




e 


t 

Da 




s 


1 




> 


I 




ft 


Da 







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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH UNGUAGE. 



BSBAVOHZET 



77 



DSGOBnOATI 



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SECORTICATIOK 



78 



DBFIHITJBB^SS 



: 



-I'e-kft-toM) 
dedication 
I o. <. to 
rcnco. 

s-das'ment) 
■ deduoed; 

Qs'e-bl) a. 
erred or de> 
Itraot. 
)v.t.togab- 
ik'shou) n. 
that which 

iukfiry a. 
iuced. 
action ; ex- 
; to convey 
to transfer 

. to think; 
to suppoEe. 
> to the bot- 
: artful ; inr 
ho 8ca; ~ 

. t. to make 

darken;— 

re deep. 

td. to a low 

nimalhttnt- 

p. t to dis- 
u 

f as'ment) n. 
e surface; 
Hop off. 
I'kat) V. t. to 
fal-kil'shun) 
is cut off; 
embezzle- 

al'kfit-er) n. 
Ezics money 
scare. 
'>a-m&'shun) 
umuy. 
■fam'a-tor-e) 
Idcr. 
)v. f. toslan> 
n'fir) n. one 

f&m'ing) n. 
ander. 
It') n. omis- 
>earanco in 
to call in 
iord for not 

[awlt'er) n. 
a peculator. 
-fCz'ans) n. 
iUio^ 



a 

lU 

n- 

«) 



at 



a 



le) 



Is; 
to 



it; 
ng 

BUL 

«s} 



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A DICTIOHARYoFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



1 DEFINITION 79 


SSKAND 


a 


at 


■! 




De 


oy 


e 


T» 


Dc 




i 


0. 


-« 




Pe 


Ok 


« 




D« 


le) 


« 




De 


a* 


De 


iv 


! 




1 


fc 


Jh 




i 


a) 


JU 


it- 


4 


n. 


1 

D« 


t 




in< 


jy 


Ik. 




a. 


^ 


ho 




>«L 


D< 




D 


t'^ 


D 


or 




s'- 


D 


ba 




D. 


D 


ta 


D 


la- 


D 


to 




r. 


D 


n. 




M 


D 






a*. 




la« 


I 






r&l 


£ 


er- 




er- 


U 


i«r. 




iCfc 


JD 


id. 




i. p 


S 






o^ 




Ma 


P 


to 




hb. 


/• 





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80 




SEPENSEHT 




J) - 





- U- 


crowded ; harfaiff Its party 


2 




of 


closely preaeed together. 
Density, (den«'e-te) n, com- 






Is) 






I> 




n- 


r~ 




.to 






a. 


D 




dfe- 


a> 




to 












!■: 


D 




. a 


B 




re. 


D 




*•. 






^ 


D 




a. 


3> 




N. 






th. 






a 


D 




OJf 


3> 




in 


D 




tha 


3) 




;e. 


D 




11. 


J> 




2J 












so 


D 




tb- 


J) 
















n) 


^ 




to 


5 




a 
a. 


Di 




4'. 


3) 




of 

N. 


D( 




If- 

L 


P 




it 


dI 




a 


J> 




l; 


D< 




m; 


3> 




r. 












0- 


D^ 




;6« 






L 






sw- 


I> 










■V 


]> 




n. 
10 


D< 




tte 


I> 






d1 




t 


J> 




t) 












to 


D< 




Je) 






/- 


dI 




,t 


i> 
















I- 


D< 




80 






LO 








3) 




t- 


dI 




^' 






n 
i) 

X- 


jdI 




a 


D 




1. 


Ik 
1 I 




ti 






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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAbL 



JfEBUOT 


Si DSBSBTBX 


^V »_^ i». _». «^.. -• . . 


to 


I)«J<torfy^d»-rtd'lni-U) 




a. 


D^ion, (d8.&im) M. a 




t 


Uaffhincat in eontempt 
PeriilTePlcl«.ris'i?) «. aoek- 




^ 


Deri ran). 
_n. iroe. 




It) 


Deri 1 «. 




;— 


•del 'd*. 
Tit om. 




E'- 


Deri loM 




ig. 


Den eia. 


i 


fc 


I&. « 




/, 


*nr^^s?«**" 




to 


Deroaation- <der-»<t'ih«U 




er 






n. 

a. 


Dert>ffatoi7.(dl-«og'i«t<nr^)a. 

Denrii^idfrVlf) «. ft Tnridili 
Deioant, (Set-kant') ». i to 








a. 
n) 


ofnpriAf «f an aaeestor. . 




to 


Dm^M, Ui6.f«i»d'ent) if< 




»j 


^Sbaffi'*^* 




kT- 


D«K»nt. (dt«iat^)% Vmiwi 




,a 


DeMS 'aA>l)4m 




y. 


thai ed. 




tt> 


Dewrl IT. tto 




€. 


rem reChar 




^1 


rign lerlUt. 




i») 


Dewil tr) n. 
Deacrj n. «&• 




Id 


who 




U' 


n.ai 
Dewtj HiV)a. 




Be 


^that (eoT%i: 




:or 


DeMr: todia. 
DCMO 9.1 to 




at 


pen sdfaiw 




le- 


fka dhitrt&icltom a lao- 




it) 
a- 


DeeerT^SSSoiV) n. a«»S 




J 


— «. i. to nm atraj. 




Deeert. (depart) «7iaiHar» 




&> 


-«i.awild«rneas. 




!h 


'w&iicrsf.&s: 



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4 DICTIONARY 3FTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARYc 



Digitized 



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■2 



2M 

I 

1 
Di 

i 
DJ 

j 

Di 
DJ 



DI 

D 



D 



D 
D 



I) 
S 



3) 
S 

S 



A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

BZVOT 85 snoipii 



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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



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iHE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 





'88 




**! 




L 


DJ 






Di 
1 




to 


DJ 
1 




n) 


D 




t 


d! 




i'. 


Pi 




a- 


pl 




r— 


DJ 




»• : 


DJ 

1 




m 


D 




W 


Di 




to 


H 




0. 


1 




M. 








Pi 

1 

1 






Pi 

] 




N. 


Pi 

1 




th 

t 


PJ 




u 
bo 


Pi 




g) 


PJ 
1 
^ 




d) 


Pi 




i'- 


Pi 










^ 


pi 

J 
1 

< 




r. 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGL 



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f 



A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGL 



vrrmaov m sobul 



I 

U) 
]) 

a) 



Dt 



i 
1 

Ik 






Be 



T)o 



3d 



to 

le. 



:t. 



P- 



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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 





XOAW 


8S 


S&TO 






— - 


■ "«S 


» 






TBi 


» 






iin^r 






odd. 








ba«> 


J> 






SI* 


D 






nate 


» 








3> 






1 fli 


D 






l6 0f 

of a 


ft 






I in 


g 






ittle 
kpL 


^ 






ffV 


» 






illeo. 


D 






Sl^i. 


J> 






IT. 
.1" 


ft 






dryj 


ft 






nw; 


ft 






oials 


ft 






one 


X 






inffo- 
flow, 
grow 








18) n. 
lavy. 








eity; 








ting. 








n. a 
ibour 








il;- 








hard 








tanoe 



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^:^r' 




BintABTTiTTT 



I 



Dumb-bells, (dum1)eli^ 
'Weights oscd 
tor exetcire. 

Dumbly, (i!um'« 
le) no. irith.out 
Ubiue weixla. 

D u ml) n c f s , 
(dum'nos) «. 
in&UiHty to 
8i»cak; mute* 
ness. 

Daminr,((lnm'e) 
n: a dumb person ; a ihiim 
package. ia a shop: the 
rourth or c^«s«d'iuind 
vhiia only three ptruan 
play at whist. 

Dumpish, (dump'itfl) O. 
stupid ; moping;. 

Dumplin?, (uumpliQl) n. % 
|Kvste ^coverliiff an applo 
Lolled. . I mophis state. 

Dumps, (dumps) fkr pU a 

Dumpy. (Uump'e) ^ ishert 
and thick. 

Dun, (dun) a. of ft dark col> 
our; gloumy;— «. a dark 
colour; a clamorous crcdi* 
tor:..-v. t t9 vigb tor a 
debt. _ 

Dunce, (fluns) n. abkfclchttRd. 

Dunilsh, (dun'fish) n. codfish 
cured in a particular man- 
ner. [of animals; manure. 

Dung, (duni) n. excrement 

Dunf eon, (duh'iun) a. a clo«o 

' prison. 

Diio,(d&'<»)n.adaet 

Duodecimal, (da^des'e-mal) 
er. vroceedluff by twelves. 

Dttodficimo, (da-o.des'c-mO) 
n. a boelt haviug twelve 
leaves to a sheet. 

Duodenum, (da-u*de'num) «. 
the first of the small intes- 
tines. 

Duoliteral, (dttHJ-llt'cral) a, 
cousistinc of two letters. 

Dupe, (dop) n. one e.\sily de- 
ceived i—v, t to impose on. 

Duple, (dQ'pl) a. double.. 

Duplicate. (dQ'ple>kat) v. t 
tp double ; — n. nn exact 
copy; — a. double; two- 
ti>ld. In. act of doubling. 

Duplication.(da-ple-k&'8hunl 

Duplicatm-e, (du'plo-k&t<ar> 
n. a fold. 

Duplicity, (dn-plis'c-to) ik 
doubleness ox heart or 
siK-eeh. 

Durability, (dQr-a-bil'e>te) n. 
L* I power of lasting witlumt 
I perisbius. 



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-•— 


_^. 


dI 




tn 




H 




i>i 




Di 




Di 




jy 




-]J 




Di 




Di 




% 




d; 




a 




2>! 

1 






IL 


m 


7el 


Ba;iJ!e«.(8.1«)*wg.Ung 


s 

1 


or 

be; 


bSS (est) n..tbfe.qnart« 
. vrhere the sun nsos;— a. 


S! 




lOf 


E 




from or toward the sun- 


£ 


an 


Easter, (Gs'tsr) n. the feast of 
Cbriet'fl resurrection. 


£ 


in. 


Easterly, (est'fir-lo) a. per- 


£ 


*».. 


taining to the cast. . ^ 
Eastemacst'flm) o. being in 




o£ 


or from the east. ^ , 


E 


th. 


Eastward, (Gst'wgrd) ad, to- 


1 


ir.ge 


•ward the east. - • . • 


k£ 


Easy, (€»'e> a. free from 




ar. 


anxiety ; not difficult. 


E 

£ 


^. 


Eat, (et)tf. tlvret. ate; pp. 
eat, eaten] to take food ; to 
eorrodoi— w. i. to take food. 

Eatable, (et'a-bl) «, fit to bo 




ora 


E 


to 


eaten ;— n. any thing to bo 


£ 




eaten. • [roof. 




on 


Eaves, (Stk) n. pi. edges of a 






s 




u. an insidious listenek-. 




^ 


Ebb, (eb) v. i. to flow back; 


s 


to decay; to dooIbQO :— 4». & 






recess of the tide ; decUne;* 


6 


tt 


Ebb-tide, (eb'ttd) *. n«az o< 




l\\i atiOe. 1 



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SBOV 


M «FJfLUVAUM 1 


Bboii,(e - 


n 


XbonyJ 




of hart 


[oh 


Sbriety. 


to 


exme«8 




Sballiei 


a. 


JEballiti< 




act of 


n. 


Ebornea 




relatiE 


ile 


Eccentri 


t. 


w^eel 


Id. 


r i 


Is. 


hay-V 


o. 




Ing^ 


le) 


i t ■ 




azia.oi 


.f. 


-«.in 




Eooentr 


Be) 


te)n. 




centre 


a. 


Ecelesia 


tu- 


tik)n. 




Boclesia 


1 


tik-al) 


Olf 


chuici 




Echo. (< 


OS) 


fleeted 


r. 


».i.or 


at) 


Teeoau 


lb. 


Eclaircii 




mODK) 

anafft 


bl) 

CO. 


Sclat. ( 




eflfecti 


08) 


Eclectic 




isg. 


08- 


Eclectic 


^ 


n.the 


oa. 


froinv£ 


rer 


Eclipee, 


n. 


wura- 


t 


tion 


a. 


of a| 


an 


heav- 




enly 


«e 


bodyl 




-y. «. 


to 


Ecliptic 


on 


Eclogue, 


u) 


al poei 


WJ 


Econom 


ip- 


a.8avi 




Ecouom 


la. 


one wl 


1, 


Econom 


a 


ori.t< 




Econom 


>Tf« 


frugal 




Ecstauy, 


Ik 


Bivejo 


fy- 


Mm. 


i«. 



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ZKB&OGATIOK 



XVOHAHTIHOLT 



Smbvooatian, (em>brO-kft'- 

•him) «. a moicteninff and 

rabuas wtth doth, «a« a 

diMoaM iMurtb 
Xmtaroidor, (em*broId''eTl v. t 

to border with^ «gured 

naedle-work. 
4Embrotder7« (em-broid'er-o) 

m. Tariegatod .needle-work. 
JBmbroiL (em-broil') n. U to 

disturb ; to oonf ose. 
JSmbroihuentt (em -broil'- 

ment) n. a state of coaten- 
^^on. 
JCmbxTo, (em'bnHS) n. the 

rudiments ot an animal or 

ffi" 



Smei 
iha 

Xmei 
sht 



Xrae 

Bme 

I« 

^^ 
Em« 

Xmfl 



Smf 

JB0M 

im 
oil 



-thing 

bl)a. 

La'. 

;-ftr) 
r im- 
ndinz. 
i'ftt- 
I n. a 

to rise 
-se) N. 
mt of. 
o-ris* 
n. tho 
[emor^ 
autol. 
t) n. a 
Jnoral 

roduo- 
medi- 

tSk 



Emigrant, (em'e-nrant) a. n-, 
morinx from one ooontrv 
or state to -another for resi- 
dence;— n. oo« vho Qjni- 

Emigrate, fem'e-crftt) ». i to 
wmove nom one ooantry 
or state to another for 
residenoe. 

Smicsation, (em-e-cr&'shnn) 
n^Mt of emigratinx to an- 
other oouutry. 

£minene^ (eni'e-neas) w. a 

f risinz ; distinetion; title of 
carduials. • 

Smlnoati (em'e^ient) a. ex- 
^alted in rank or publio 
MtinMttlon. 

Eminenil7,(em'04ient-le) ad. 
eonspiraously; in a hish 
[a secret acent. 
\ (em'is'sar-e) m 



Bmlssion, {«-midi'an) «. aet 
of sending out. [oat. 

Emit, (5-mif ) si. t io send 
£mroet, (em'et) n. an ant 
1Emolliate,(frinore-at)». t to 
BOfton. reofteoing. 

Emollient, (e-more«cnt) a. 
Jblmolument, (e-mora*ment) 

n. profit : gain. " 

Emolumental, ( 6 * mol - Ik • 
pient ' al ) o. produoing 
profit 
Emotion, (e-mS'shun) «i. ez- 
oitemeut of the feelings; 
agitation. 
Empale, (em-pftIO ». (. to in- 
eloae with pickets; to fix 
on a stake. 
Empalement, (em-pSl'ment) 
M. a forti^ing with stakes; 
anempoluig, 
Emparl^ (em-p4rk') «. t to 

inclose in a park. 
Eimperor (em'^^r-er) n. the 

sovereign of an empire. 
Emphasis, (em'fa>4is) n. foroe 
• Imliressed by prononciap 

tion ; pi. Emphases. 
Emphasize, (em'fa-siz) v. t to 
utter with a particular 
stress of voice. 
Emphatical, (om-fat'ik-al) a. 
forcible; strong; uttered 
with emphasis. * 
Emphatically, (em-fat'ikHd" 
Ic) ad .with omphasis or 
force, [ions of an emperor, 
Empire, (em'pir) n. domin< 
Empiric, (em-pir'ik) n. « 
. quack. 
EmpiricaL (em-plr'ik-al) 



fnmishad;— K I. «v i Io 

exhaust 
Emptvingfl, femp't«*inffi| 

It. pi. leue of boor, older, aa 
Empurple, (em-pur'pi) % t. 



to dye purpla. 
Empyreal,^ (em-] 



fomuKl of pureloni or Ikbt 
*pe-re'anT a. 
and panat 



Eiapyreaa, '(•■^Pf/^'Mi^ i^ 



i applied without 
[»• quackery. 

Empiricism, (em-vir'e-aizm) 

Employ, (em-plor) ». t to 
use ; to exercise ;— «. busi- 
ness ; object of industry. 

Emplovee, (em-plsy-A') n. ooa 
who IS employed. 

Employer, (em- ploy 'sr) n. 
one who employs. 

Employmeni^em-ploy'ment) 
n. business; office; avoca- 
tion. 

Emporium, (em-p8're-um) n. 
a place of merchandise ; a 
mart [to authorise. 

Empower, (ero-pow'sr) v. (. 

Empress, (em^presln. a wo- 
man invested with im- 
perial dignity. 

Emptiness, (empte-ne^ n. 
vanity ; vacuity, 

Envty* temp'te) a. Toid ; nn- 



the ._ 

heaven. 

Emulate, (em'O-lit) si. t to 

vie with; to strive to eqnaL 

Emulation, (em-a-lA'shon) «. 

rivalry. 
Emulative, (em'tt-Iat-lv) «. 
inclined to eontend lor 
superiority. 
EmuUtor, (emt-lit 

a competitor. 

Emulous, (orn'O-lu^ a. ri^ 
Emulsion, (A-mul'shttn) «. a 

softening medieineh 

Emulsive, (g-muFsiv) a. bmI- 

lifying. fniflea <a or on. 

En, (en) a prefix, nsoally rig* 

Enable, (en r bl) k t to malM 

able. 
Bnabteaaent, (m-t'bl-mait) 
n. the act of enabling; 
abiUty. [llsh by Uw. 

Enact, (en-akt'> ». c to estab- 
Euactive, (eu-akt'iv) a. hav- 
ing power to ostablish. oo 
law. 
Enactment, (en-akt'ment) a. 
the passing of a bill into a 
law. [who enacts. 

3nactor, (en-akt'er) n. ono 
Snamel, (en-am'el) n. a sub- 
stance imperfeotlsr vitii- 
fled ; substance on teeth t-« , 
V. t. to cover with enameL 
Enameller, (en-am'el-gr) 

one who enamels. 
Enamelling, (eo-au'el-ing) t 
n. the art of laying oi^ 
enameL «. 

Enamour, (eB-am'«r) « t la- 
inflame with love; to madio 
[i to pitch teats, 
mrkaittp') SI. t 



Encamp, («nrk( 



pment, (en - kamp ' • 

mont) a. act ot pttohing 

tents: a camp, 
encaustic^ (en-kaws'tik)' m. 

or n. painting in heated or 

burnt wax. 
Enchain, (en-ohinO « t to 

fasten with or bold ia a 



Enchant, (en*dMntO Ck t to 

charm. 
Enchanthigly,(«ii-chant'fng. 



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XVCHAHTJUUiT 




I0) <kL with Uw power of 



, {6n>eh«nt'- 

nentl n. faacinaiion; ir> 

TMiBtible influence. 
Snehantrest, (en-chuit'Tes) 

n. & soroercH. 
XachMe, («n-chla') 0. t to* 

adorn uf emboned work. 
Sncirule, (en-tcr'kl) r (. to 

inclose hj a circle. 
Xnclitic, (en-kht'ik) a. that 

incUnee or leans upon. 
Snclasp, (en-Uasi>') si 1 to 

embrace. 
Xnoomiast, (en-ko'me-act) n. 

one vho praises another. 
Zncomiastie, (en-kS-me-ast'- 

ik)a. containios praise. 
Xncomiura, (en-kdme-am) n. 

panegjrio: praiie. 
Xnoompess, (en-kum'pas) «. t 

to slittt in; to inclose. 
£neore,(&ng-kSr')ad. a word 

used to call for a repeti- 
tion of some performance. 
Encounter, (en-koun'ttr) n. 

a 9udden meeting; combat; 

engagement;— V. t to meet 

lace to face ; to meet snd« 

^cnly. [to give courage to. 
Encourage, (en-kur'tj) v. t 
£noouragement, (en-kur'Aj- 

ment) n. incftement; hope. 
Encouraging. (en-kuTij-ing) 

a. farouring. 
Encooragingrly. (en-knr'lt* 

ing-le) 00. so as to give 

hope of success. 
Encroach, (en*krOch') «. i to 

intrude on another's rights. 
Ehoroaehment, * (en-krCch'> 

ment) n. unlawful intra- 

•ion; inroad. 
Encumber, (en-knm'ber> v. L 

to impede action by a load 

or burden. 
Encumbranoe, (en-kum 

brans) n. a load; clog; bur* 

den on an esute. 
EncycUcal. (en-sik'Ukal) & 

feet to many persons or 

placet. 
Encyclopedia, (en-el-klo-pe'- 

de-a) n. a wurk that em- 

bodies the whole circle of 

•cienoes: also written En- 
cyclopaedia. 
Encysted, (en-sltt'ed) a. ti 

closed in a vesicle or bsff. 
End. (endjwn. extreme puiut; 

ultimate object ; close ; 

death ;—«,( or i (0 fluisU; 



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B80HSW 



lOA 



StJ&OPSAV 



. (««hd40 * t to 

thnn or avoid. 

Saoort, (M'kort) n. a guard. 

Aoort, (es-kort').*. U to 
attend and stiard. 

XMiitoir. (M'kre-twovO «• a 
box with ooDLTeniences for 
wiitinff. [for food. 

Xaeolent, (eslca-Ient) a. good 

Xioutcheoo, (es-kooh'on) n. 
ft shield ■ „,■ - 

or coot of ^ f 

arras. I I 

Esoteric, (es-9-t«r'ik) a 

seei^et. 
£spalierk (ef-P^l'JSj) *-}- 

ftamo or tiaUia <ar fruit 

trees. 
JB^ecial, (oi-pesh'e-al) 

Xspeoially* (et-pesh'a^l-ae) 
Sspial. (es-pVaU «. act ^ 

praoUce of empleyinc api 
JBvplaiuiide, (es*plapnia^ n. 



spies. 



BS'MHm^J) 

upleyinc 9 

__, , ..>plapnlo')i 

open space before a xoktifi< 
cation; a sloping grass- 
plot 

Xspousal. (es-pous'al) a. !«• 
latins to e^iwunls ;--n. a- 
doption; proteotion;-<-4i. pi. 
a eoutracting of marriage. 

Xspoose, (es*pous') v. t to do- 
troth; to mazxr; to em« 
braee^. rq>7' 

Xq>7* (es-piO V. f. to see : to 

Xsquire, let-kwlr') n. a title 
of nuMB^stiates and gentle* 
vien. [tempt. 

Xssay. (es^O v. i to at. 

Jtosay, (es'st) n. a trial; short 
treatise, [writer of cssaya 

Xssayist, (es'sft*ist) n. a 

.Xssence, (es'cons) n. the 
nature of a thing; perw 
fume ; soent ;«>^, i» to pf r> 
fume. 

Essential, (es^en'sbe^d) « 
secessaij to existonoe ;^-^ 
ehief point. 

Sssentially, (es-sen'shoral-le) 
tuL necessarily, 

SsUbTish, (es-tablish) v, f. to 
fix : to settle flhnly. 

Xstablisbmci^t, (cs-tAbliHh' 
nent) n. rottlome&t ; eon> 
Armation: pUcq «l veil* 
inoomia *^ 



Estote, (es-Uf ) n. condtt ion ; 

property, especially iaud. 
Esteem, (es-tCm't «. |. to 

value : to regard ; to m inV; 

— n. high Talue in opuion. 
Esthetic, (es-thet'ik) 4^ re> 

lating to sontimsns ~~ 

feeling. 
Estimable, . (es'iim-a-Mjf 



worthy of esteem | 
able. 



alu' 



Estimate, (es'tim*tt) «^ .^ to 

set a value on ;— n. cta%iUli^ 

tion ; value tet. 
Estimation, («s-tim-t1^ran) 

n. a valuing ; esteem h • ^on* 

our;opiuion. 
Estival, (es'Ur-al) a. penaiU' 

ing to summer. 
Estop, (OS-top') V. i. to bar ; 

to impede. [plea in bar. 
Estoppel, («s-top'cl) n, a 
Estovers, (es-tO'vfirB) is. pi. 

neoessorios; supplieai al- 

lowance. 
Estrange, (e5-tiilnj') «. i to 

keep at a distauoo; to ali- 
enate. 
Estrangement, ( M • trtnj '• 

ment)n. alicnatiuib 
Estray, (os-tra') n. 



wandering or lost. 
uaiSr. (« 



Esti 
arm 



ol^tbe 



[est'Q-ar-e) <» an 
a T^KOur 

jate, (est'a-«t) V. % to 

be agitated. 
Estuation, (est-a-ft'slittVI Oi. 

a boiling; agitatioa of 

water. 
Etoh, (ech) «. f. to cafntve 

by dztiwing lines thraagh 

wivx and corroding «i«m 

with nitrie acid. 
Etcliing, (ech'ing) n. iimres* 

sion from otobod oufiper* 

Jato. 

cruol, (e-tfim'al) a. faw (ng 

no beginning nor — " 



E<tuate 



Eton 



— aiipellation 

Eterunlly, (C-ttfru' 
poi-potually. 

Eternity, tc-tcm'e-ta|^ v Or- 
ation without bvMiug 
or end. 

Eternise, (ctemls) % # to 
immoitalise ; to taubt f nd' 
less. 

Etesian, (C-tC'shanl & de- 
noting ovrtaiu pMWi^xul 
wiuda ^ 

Ethor. (e'tber) n. ttefl^lile 



'o7a»^ 

ru'aMS ad. 



% 

tr. 

iat- 

ttd. 

ths 
lil. 



rt. 
ms 



1 



1st) 
57- 



Is. 
to 



cd 
ec- 
od 



E__-. 



he 

ly 



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XUTHAKAST IM 


SZOEXXXNT£T 


Bnfhawtf y, la-thaa'Me) n. 
^easydeatV 


r" ' - ' • 
c 


S 


Bvacuant, (e-Tak'Q-iuit) n. a 


t 


k1> 


.medicine that evacuates. 
Sracunte, (6-vak'Q-&t) v. t to 


E- 


ire; 


£ 




make empty; to quit. 




n. 


XTaeuatioD, (e-rak-a-A'shnn) 


E 




1^ act of ejecting; a with- 


E 


M* 


drawing from. 






Evade, (e-v*d') » t to aroid; 


E^ 


fS> 


to elude , to slip away 








IjJ 


.1. 


n. a giudual vanishing. 




ta> 




Hi 


a'. 


£vangeUca)« (e^vaa-Jel'ik-al) 
a. according to, or oon- 


i 

El 


on 


tafa»edtaU«go5)el. 


1 


m) 


Bvangellsm, (jB-van'jel-itm) 


E^ 






El 


!«• 


E?!iiigelirt, (B-van'jeWst) n. 


i 


)d- 


one who pxeaohes the gos- 

Christ. 
Bvaporate, rtrvap'sr-at) v. i. 
to pais off in vapour j to 


£t 


n^ 


4 

El 


It- 

a'o 


E-s 


to 
to 


waste insensibly. 


E^ 




Eraporation, (C-vap-jr-a'- 


E-^ 


n* 


shun) n. conversioii of a 


1 




_fluid into vapour. 
Evasion, (e-v*'shun) n. arti- 


E- 

1 


ft 


flce; equivocation. 


El 


It) 
71 


Evauv^ (e-Tft'aiv) a. using 


El 


Evasively, (•-va'siv-lejod by 


1 


a'« 


means of evasion. 


£« 




Evasiveness, (s-v&'siv-nes) n. 
the quality oc state of 


1 


to 


1 


l)eing evasive. 


E« 


ml 
to 


Eve, (ev) n. evening. 

Even, (e'vn) a. leVel; smooth; 


i 


—V. t, to make level or 


^ 


smooth :-a(L likewise; In 


i 




like manner. 


£i 




^ItSl^^Z^^ "• *^' 


E« 


»1T 

•le» 
jty 


Ewnness,^(e'vn-nes) n. the 
state of heing even. 


En 

1 


EveuUde, (e'vn-ttd) it. time 


i 


3S> 

to 
n. 


of evening. ^ [happens. 
ETjn&uuS^ventfool) I fil 




1 


tk 


£veutual^(e-venra'al)a. eon- 

sequeutiaL 
BFjr, (ev'fir) oO. at any Ume; 

Xvttr4ire«ni (er'sr-gren) n. a 


J 


A 


&! 


•le) 



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taozal' 


no 


VAHuuruJaV 


1 




■ 


•■ 


1 






% 


I 






i" 


.^ 






> 


! 






■ 


] 






; 


I 








I 






; t 


] 






!• 


J 






) 


] 






i 


3 






) 


3 






) 


] 






f 


] 
] 
3 

: 

1 

: 
] 






8 

) 

I 

> 

%. ■ 
n 

X- 

>) 

i; 

9- 




- 




u 



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r" ■ 




fAWNINGLY 


112 FERMEHTAXZVB 








hie) 




er. 




ital 








of 




ro( 




MX 




• a,- 




itr- 




the 




>m> 








be. 








D& 




or 




nae 




ith 




JM 




itf. 




P'. 




me 








ie- 




de- 




L 




re- 




<L 




ka 




BT- 




ICh 








K>* 




nr 




or. 




*t 




iet 




tv 




C 








bL 




a 


I; 


to 


F' 


Ui- 


r< 


il» 


. 


("^ 


4i* 


I'- 


*< 


^» 




*►* 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGUSH LANGUAGE. 




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A DICTIONARY OPTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



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7VB2BEBX08S 



inciit'ftl4e> -oA primarily; 

«nentiUl3r. • 
Fuiieral. (ta<ner-al) n. a 

barial;— a. used at th« bk^ 

termenfe of the dead. 
FttAereal, (fQ-ne'i«-al)a. suit* 

ing a funeral. 
Fungous, (fung'fius) a. like a 

muihroom; spongy. 



Funf(U8>(f ung'KUS)n. a musb- 

room: proud flesh. 
Funicular, (fa-nik'a-Ifir) a. 



consisting ot a small 
Funnel, (fun'el) u. passage 

for smoke; a tunnel for* 

pouring liquors in bottles. 
Funny, (fun'e)a. droll; comi* 

cal. 
Fur, (fur) lu fine, soft hair; 

skins :>-v. (.to line with 

fur. 
Furbish, (furbish) ». 1 to 

polish. 
Furcate,- (fur'kat) a. forked. 
Furious, (fa're-us) a. rushing 

violently; transported with 

passion. 
Furiously, (fa're-us-Ie) act. 

with great Tehemence ; 

madly. 
Furl, (furl) v. t to fold and 

fasten to a yard, fto. 
rurloi.ff. (fur'long) n, th« 

eishth Of a mile. 
Furlough, (fur'lo) n. tem- 
porary leave of absence ;^ 

V. t. to furnish with a fuxw 

lough. 
Furnace, (fur'nRs) n. a place 

for meltius metj^ls, or for 

heating water ; iuolosed 

firenlace. 
Furnish, (fur'nish) ». t to 

supply: to provide; to eqtfip^ 
Furnisher, (fur'nish-jr) tk 

one who supplies. 
Furniture, (fur'ne-tOr) »ik 

qaevable goo<l8. [in furs. 

Furrier, (fur'c-«r, n. a dealer 

Furrow, (fur'rO) n. a trench 

made hf a plough : a 

wrinkle ;— » t to cab In | 

furrows : to wrinkle. 

Furry, (f ur'e) a. covered with 

fur. 
Further, (fur'th^r) a. more 

distant ; addiliunal ;— <«/. 

to a greater Uistance ;— «. (. 

to assist; to promote^ to 

advance. In. prumotiou. 
Furtherance, (fur'tiier-ana) 
Furtherer, (fur'thsr-sr) «. a 

promoter, lad. moreover. 
Furthermore, (fur'tiifir-muri 



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OALYAVIO 



124 



GAZ£TTEZE 



GalTuiio, (8&l-mn'ik)a. per- 
tainiujs to galvauisnu 

GalTaulsm, (gal'ran iim) n. 
ft tifedtt of electricity. 

(talramzc, (eal'van-iz) ». t to 
affect Uj galvanism. 

Gamble, (gam'bl) ». i. to play 
for money, [that gamblos. 

Gambler, (gam'bleri n. one 

Gambling, (gam'blfnc) n. the 
practice of ganung for 
money. Igum-rebiu. 

Gamboge, (gam-boj) h. a 

Gambol, (gam'bolj w. a >ki|»- 
iting and leaping i—9. L to 
leap and ikip. 

Gambrel, (jtam'brel) n. the 
hind leg of a horae. 

Game, (gam) n. play; scheme; 
animals hunted;— v. i. U> 
play for money: to sport. 

Gamesome, (gtm ■am/ <>• SaJi 
sportive. 

Gamester. (gRm'st^r) n. one 
addicted to gaming. 

Gammon, (gam 'on) n. thich 
of a hog smoked;— «. t to 
pickle and smoke; to im- 
pose uix>n. 

Gamut, (gam'at) n. a scale of 
notesin . 

music J x.^.,. \-H 

d, ■ 



Gauglion, (gang'gle-on) n. 
tumour in the tendiuoi 



ler) H. CDEFCABC 

the male of the goose kiuiL 
Gang, (gang) n. a crew; a 
baud. 

«. a 

lOUS 

Iiarts. 
Gan^ne, (gang'RrCn)n. mor- 

titication of flesh. 
G Oo. 

G way 

G ind 

G W. 

<; «n- 

G the 



)at' 

ace 
of 



Gardening, (gir'dii-ing) n. 

horticulture. (gargle. 

Gar. arize, (ittr'gar-Is) v. L to 
Gargle, (ii4r'gl) v. t to wash 

the throat s— h. a liquid for 

trashing the throat. 
Garland, JgAr'land) n. a 

wreath of flowers, fplent. 
Garlic, (g4r'lik) «. a bulbous 
Garment, (cir'mcnt) h. au 

article of clothing. 
Gamer, (g&r'ucr) a. a store* 

house for graiii. 
Garnet, (cArnet) n. a precious 

stone of a red colour; a kind 

of tackle in ships. 
Garnish, (g&r'uit>h) 9. t to 

adorn ; to decorate;'— it. de- 

eoratiun. 
Gs II. 



Ga 



Go 

1 

1 
Gs 

] 
Ga 

metal frame 



)i9 




V. i. to boast; 

to bluster. T'orm of pas. 
Gaseous, (c:a'z^■U8) a. in the 
Gash, (gash) v. L to cut deep, 

— n. a deep and long out. 
Gaskius,- (gos'kinz) n. pt, 

wide, open hose. 
Gas-light, (easTit) n. light 

produced by ^as. 
Gasometer, (tas-om'et-fir) «. 

a resenroir for collecting 

gaw. 



Gaeometry, (gasnim'et-rc) «. 

art of measuring gases. 
Gasp, (gasp) v. i. or <. to oiicn 

the uiouth to catch bivath; 

— n. an oiwniug of the 

mouth to raUch breath. 
Gaktric, (gas'trik) a. belong* 

inc to the stomach. 
Oastriloquist, (r<u-tril'd- 

kwist) ft. one who speaks 

as from his belly. 
0< 0- 

od 

Gi a'- 



Ca ith 

«' ^• 

Ga y ; 

Ga irs 

a measure ; a rod for ineas- 

uring. Isanges. 

Ganger, (gSj'fir) n. oue who 
Gaunt. (fiAut) a. lean ; thin. 
Gauntlet, igAntlet) u, an 

iron 

glove. 
Cause , 

(gawz)n. 

a thin 

silk or 

linen. 
Gi 




Doking 

species 
paper, 
newa- 
) It. a 
.'al do* 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH UNGUAGE 



OSA& 


12k oEOBaruM siDim | 


«r-' •• " - ' ' 


1)6. 


Genuine, tien'O-in) «. free 
from adolteraUon. 


_g 


OS. 


Get 


re. 


^Genuinely, (jen'a-in-le) ad 


li 


fi. 
ee. 


GJ!^iu^!i!w.%en1l.te«ee)ii. 


Gei 


S 


a genuine quality; parity. 
Genus, (jG'nus) n. a clan em< 





ni- 


bracing niauj species; |iL 


Ge 

t 


ih« 


having the fame centre ai 


Ge 




a 


all 


the earth. 


Ge 


uU 


Geodesy. (je.od'e.fle) m. art ol 


^ 


aV- 


measuring the earth. 
Geogony, (Je-oe'o-ne) n. th» 
doctrine of. the formaUon 


1 




« 


at- 


of the earth. 


1 
Ge 


en- 


Geographer. (jeH)g'ra-fcr) n. 

one skilled in geograi>hy. 
Geographical. (je-o^raf^ik.al) 


^? 


ts; 




ing 


a. relatins to geography. 
Geography. Oe-og^ra-fe) n, . 


i 


L 


Ge 


Md 


description of !be earth's 


1 
^1 


In. 


g1?1o^''^1, UeK>.Io)'ik.«l) 0. 


Gc 


tan 


pertaining to geology. 


\ 


n; 


Geologist, (je<.ro-ji«t) II. OM 
rened in ireolofry. 


6i 




Qt 


tnO 


Geology, (je-ol'o-je) n. the 
interim ftruoture of tho 




ice. 


G( 


led 


earth. 




ad 


°s^aiu%°-"»*ssi 5 


G< 




fifeurea 




an 


Geometrica1.(je.o-met'rikHa) 




t. 




f^ 


mo 


try. 




-a. 


Geometrically, (jc-o-met'rik- 
al-le) ad. according to ge- 


G4 


n. 


ometry. 


G< 




Geometriclan,(J«H)TO-e-trish'- 




ild 


e-au) n. one gkilled in geo- 


G< 


or 


metry. 
Geometry, (Je-om'e-tre) n. 




fi. 


Gi 


ng. 


mensuration. / 




n. 


Geopouics. (je-o-pon'iks) n. 




ing 


f/L science of cultiyating 


G( 




the earth. 




an* 


Georama, (jc-o-rl'ma) n. % 




tie- 


machine exhibitiug a com- 


G( 




plete view of the eaith. 




n. 


George, (jorj) n. an ornament 
worn by knights of the 




ild. 


Gi 


ire. 


parter having the figure of 
St. George on horseback; a 


G< 


ly; 




;ive 


brown loaf. 
Georgic, (jorj'ik) a. relaUng 
to agriculture ;— n. a rural 


6< 


9 of 


o< 


red- 


poem. 


G4 


k'- 


Geonjium Sidus. (jori'e-um 
si'dus) n. one of the planets. 




ihe 


called aloo Uerschel or 


« 


> Uxanut. 1 



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GKRUnUM 



126 



CFLAVBXrOSM 



Ctenof mn, fif-ra'ne-^im) n. a 
green-hooM flower. 

0«nn. (Jerni) n. a secd>lmd of 
a plant; flnt prinoiple. 

Oennao, (Jer'maa) a. celated 
by blood. 

Germane, (jcr-miln') «. en- 
tirely appropriate. 

OeiminaU (jenn'in-al)a per- 
taininx to the rerm or lecd- 
bud. [to bud; tu tproui. 

Germinat**, (jfirm'in-&t) v. i. 

Gemunation, (J€nn*in«ft'- 
»huu) ft. the act of tprtrat- 
ine : crowth. [noun. 

Gerund, (jer'und) n, a verbal 

Gestation. (Jea-tA'abun) n. 
act of carrying young in 
the womb. 

Gesticulate, (jes-tik'Q-Ut) 
V. i to use gcstcrca 

GesticuUtion. (Jca-tik-n-li' 
■hun) n. act of making 
gesturea 

Gesture, (jeB'tQr) n. action; 
motion;— V. (. to accompany 
with Ecfiture or action. 

Get, (set) V. t {preL got ; pp. 

St, gotten] to gain ; to ob- 
in; to win; to learn. 
Gewgaw, (gO'gaw) n. a showy 

trifle. 
Ghastllness, fgastle-nes) n. a 

death-like look; paleneea 
Ghastly, (gast'le) a. pale; 

der.th-likc. (led cucnml^r. 
Gherkin, (ggr'kin) n. a pick- 
Ghost, (jrOstj n. a spirit; on 

apparition, fghostipale. 
Ghostly, (gostlo) a. like a 
Giant, (ji'aut) n. a mtm of 

eztraoitlinary stature ; — a. 

like a giant; unusually 

large. [male giant. 

Giantess, (ji'ant-es) n. a f e- 
GiantUkc, (ji'ant-lik) a. like 

a giant ; gigantic ; huge. 
Gibberish. (gib'§i^ish) n 

rapid, inarticulate speech. 
Gibbet, (jib'et) n. a gallows ; 
^.T?- *: ^ *****K on a gibbet. 
Gibbosity, (gib-osVte) ». 

protuberance; conrczity; 

roundnesa 
Gibe, (jib) ». i or t to rail at 

sneeringly ; — n. a sneer j 

taunt ; >-coft. 
Giblets, (jih'lets) n. joL the 

head, piulun* entrails, &c, 

of a lowL 
Giddiness, (gid'e-nes) a. a 

swimming of the head. 
Giddy, (gid'e) «. reeling; 

volatile. 



ndpp. 
tverlay 



Mpixa- 

'fiT) n. 

about 
odour. 
I with 
[borer. 

(mall 
(Tistor 



Gi ttilled 

1 „ , ihine; 

trap ; snare ;— a. L to clear 

cotton of its seed. 
Ginger, (jin'jer) n. a plant 

and Its root. 
Gingerbread. (jin'J8r>1«ed) m. 

a sweet cake flaToored 

with ginger, [cautiously. 
Gingerly, (jin'jfir-lo) (ul. 
Gipsy, (Jip'se) n. a Tagabond. 
Giraffe, (she-raf', Je-iaf ) n. 

the ca- 

melo« 

pard. 

the tall- 
est of 

a n i • 

mala* 
Gird. *J 

(gtrdj m ^ 

girtj to Und ; to tie round. 



Girder, (gerd'er) n. the chief 

timber in a floor. 
Girdle, (gcrd'l) a. a band 
round the waist '^-9. U to 
bind ; to out a ring round 
a tree. [man. 

Giii, (gerl) «- a young wo- 
Girlhood. (gerilipod) n. tho 
state of a girL [giri; giddy. 
Giriwh. (etrl'ish) c like & 
GirlishiMM, (gcrl'ish-nes) n. 
girlish mannezs: youthful- 
ncsa [sorroand. 

Girt,(gert) ». t to gird : ta 
Girth, (gsrth) n. a strap for a 
saddle; a drcnlar band* 
aga 
Gist, (jist) a. the mala point. 
Gire, (giv) «. t. or i. |pr«L 
gare ; rp. giren] to bestow) 
to yield; to grant; to ut- 
ter. [giTee. 
Girer. (giT'er) a. one v^ho 
Giring, (eiT'lng) n. the act of 

liestowug gratuitously. 

Girzard, (gii'erd) a. tha 

muscular stomach of a 

fowL Lice; ley. 

Glacial, (gli'she^) a. Jike 

Glaciate, (glft'she-it) ».^i to 



Glacier, (gl&'she-«r) n. a field 

or mass of ice eontinnins 

in valleys on high mouu- 

taioa 
Glacis, {^&'sis) ji. a sleping 

bank. 
Glad, (glad) a. aiTected with 

pleasure; — ?, t to make 
'glad. [make glad. 

Gladden, falad'n) ». (. to 
Olade, (glao) n. an opening 

through a wood er ice. 
Gladiator, (glad'o-it-tr) a. a 

sword-playcr. [ness. 

GIadly.(glad'le)e€Lwithglad- 
Gladness. (glad'nes) a. joy; 

pleasure. 
Gladsome, (glad'sum) a. 

pleased ; gay ;*causing joy. 
Gladsomene&s. ( glad 'ram • 

nes) n. moderate joy. 
Glair. (glAr) a. the white of 



Glance, (glans) a. • 

shoot of light; a cast of 
the sight;— V. i. or t to 
dart ; to fly off. 

Gland, (gbmd) n. a toft, 
fleshy organ -in r**^rf*^ 
and planta 

Glanders, (glan'dfin) n. pL % 
diccase of horsea 

Glandifomw (gland'a^onHil 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGUSH LANGUAGE. 



0LJjnnnJks^ 


IS?' ^A£ 1 


— "• « • 


" " M 


01 ■ 


en* 


c 


re 


1 


fOK 


c 


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ho 


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Gl 






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0] 


Lf. 






01 


ro. 






01 


yx 




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to 
an 




a. 


4 






!8. 


01 


gh 




il 








a. 


01 


t 




t 


01 

1 


m) 

e. 




'. 


01 


a. 




>& 


> 






y. 


01 


r> 




s; 


( 






d. 


01 


ff. 




y. 


1 


r. 




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01 


9ft 




I'- 


01 


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01 


pL 




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ro- 




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of 




d. 


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Oi 


to 




s; 


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Q* 


Oi 

1 


H!t 

ie. 




a 


Gi 


ff; 




— 


Gt 


ng 




id 


: 








Gi 


he 




a. 










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o- 








■>s 


Gl 


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all 




h. 
n. 




>n8 




G( 


r 




id 


G< 


% 




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«t. 


i 


lo< 


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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



OOAT 



128 



OOVEBVOB 






nature. 

CodlesB, (godles) a tmgodly; 
•wicked. 

Godlike, (god'lik) a. resem- 
bling God. 

Godliness, ^godle-nes) n. 
real piety : a reliitious life. 

Godly, <god.'le) a. pious j re- 
ligious. 

Goumother, (god'mu(li-ft) n. 
a female sponsor at l^ip- 
tism. 

Godson, (god'sun) n. a boy 
for whom one becomes 
sponsor at baptism. 

GoL'gle, (gog'l) V. i. to roll 
the eyes. 

Goggles, (goglz) n. pZ. gla^- 
M to protect the eyes. 

Goitre, (goi'tgr) n. bronch- 
ocele ; swelled neck. 

Goitrous, (goi'trus) a. affect- 
ed by the goitre. 

Gold, (gold) n. a precious 
metal ; money. 

Gold-beater, (gold'bct-fir) n. 

, ._V. 1 *- _ , .^ Jjj^^ 



uto of 

lb 4 

smaS 

n. a 

n. a 
cl in 




Gondolier, (gon'do-ler) n. 
one who rows a gondola. 

Gone, (gon) pp. of (f<h de- 
parted. ^ 

Gong, (gong) n. a kind of 
metal drum. 

Good, (good) 
a. valid; 
sound; suita- 
ble; — Ji. that 
which af- 
fords happi- 
ness; advan- 
tage. 

Goodliness, (goodle-nes) n. 
beauty ; grace. 

Goodly ,(good'le) a. beautiful; 
comely. 

Goodness, (good'nes) n. ex- 
cellence. 

Goods, (goodz) n. jt mova- 
bles ; housuhold furniture. 

Good-will, (good-wil'j n., be- 
nevolence; business facil- 
ities. 

Goose, (gdos) n, a fowl; a 
tailor's utensil ; pi. Oeese. 

Gordian-knot,(gor de-an-not) 
n. an ineT'.tricable diffi- 
culty. 

Gore, (gur) n. clotted blood ; 
triaugalar piece of cloth or 
land ;— V. t, to wound with 
the horns. 

Gorge, (gorj) n. the throat ;— 
V, t. to swallow with greedi- 
ness ; to satiate. 

Gorgeous, (gor'js-u8).a. very 
fine or showy. 

Georgeously, (gor'jc-ns-le) 
ad, splendidly. 

Gorget, (gor'jct) n. armour 
to defend the throat. 

Gorgon, (gor'gun) n. a fabled 
monster. 

Gorilla, (gor-il'a) 
largest of . \ 
the ape spe- 
oies.is found 
in western 
Africa, and 
when full 
gro'H'n is 
from 6 to 7 .>/ 
feet tn<.5-s 
height H 

Gormand, (gor'mand) n. 
glutton. « 

Gormandize, (gor'mand-is) 
V. i. to eat greedily. 

Gormandizer^, igor'mand-!s- 
fir) n. a voracious eater. 

Gone, (gors) n. * a thick 
prickly Bbrub. 




Qory, (s3r'«} a. stained vi£h 

gore. 
Goshawk, (gosliawk) «. a 

voracious hawk of large 
• size. [goose. 

Gosling, (goBling)ii. a young 
Gosi)el,<g08'pcl) n. gi>od news 

or tidings; the Christian 

revelation; one or all of the 

four Scriptural narratives 

of the life of Christ; th« 
. whole system of Christian. 

doctrine. 
Gossamer, (gos'a-msr) n. the 

down of puLuts floating in 

the air. ^ 
Gostiip, (gos'ip) H. one that 

tattles i-v. i. to teU idla. 

tales. 
Go8siping,rgos'if-ing)a.prat« 

jntr nr taf tiHnir 
G< 

6< 

Q( I. 

G( A« 

i 



G< a 

G< .a 

G( :al 

disease. . . 

Gout, (g66)n. taste; relish. 
Gouty, (gout'e) a. diseased 

with gout. 
Govern, (guv'em) v. U tortile; 

to control; to exerciso 

authority. 
Governable, (guT'fim-a-bl) a. 

subject to rule. 
Govt- rnance, (guvum-ans) iu 

management; ouutroL 
Governess, (guv'er-nes) n. a 

female who govenu. or ixk* 

structs. 
Government, (guv'^Tn-ment) 

n. conti-ul;executive power; 

an empire or state. 
Govenimental, (guv-fim* 

mental) a. pertaining to 

government. 
GoTemor, (gmr'aia-gr) «. 



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A DICTIONARY oFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAtit 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



QBATXILATB 



OBOO 



< 



Ch 

Cb 

oi 
O] 

oi 
^\ 
G] 

Ch 



a 

O 

a 

O: 

o 

G 
G 

O; 

O: 

Gi 

6j 
G: 

Gi 
Gi 



m) m. 
lb de- 
mons; 
itain. 
ivo of 



under 
ist of 
niire. 
colour 
fresh ; 
«;-*-n. 
graasy 
cre«n. 
J n. a 



roung 

'awrd) 

nlote; 

isaltt- 

us) a 

abaU 

') n. a 
»d )>y 
r Uia- 

d)ii.a 



ioum; 
aly 






1 


th. 


Gi 


frj 


Oi 


n. 


Qi 


iiy 


( 


in. 


1 


er. 


Oi 


. a 


Gi 


n. 


oi 


bh« 


\ 


tho 


Gi ,- , .. 

groundTto rub; 


- ^.ret 


to reduce 


Gi 


bo 


Gi 


. a* 


1 


ale 




1S> 


Gi 


; a 


Gi 


to 


< 


be 


1 


a 


Oi 


ns 


Gi 


l€t 


Gi 


uU 


Gi 


?«. 


Gi 


St* 




eL 


Gi 


of 


G] 


iM 


Gi 


iL 


G] 


V 


Gi 


Si 



Gi 

a 

acop mourn tui sound. 

Groanintr, (grOn'iii^) n. act 

of uttering groous ; lamen* 

Ution. [sterling. 

Groat, (grawt) n. fourpenco 

Uroats, (grants) it. t,L oatg 

coarsely ground. 

Grooer, (gros'sr) n. a dealer 

in sugar, tea. liquors, 

spioes, &o. [of grocers. 

Grocery, (gT4}8'er-e) n. goods 

Grog, (grog) u, epirit and 

>at8r. 



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A DICTIONARY 3F THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



GSOOBAX 



orrKPOwsiR 



, {gn/tinm) n. a 

staff made of silk and hair, 
ftroiw, (groin) n. the mrt 

between the belly ana the 

thieb. 
Croom, (srAdm) n. one wbo 

tends horsesi a newlj maiw 

riedman. 
Oroore. (crr66T) n. a f nrrow ; 

a long hollow cut by a tool; 

—V. t to cut a lorrow or 

duumel. 
Grope, (grup) fi i to feel in 

Grosa, (crOs) a. thick; bulky; 
eorpuTent; indelicate ;—i». 
the whols bulk; twelve 



Grossly, (grttole) ad. thickly; 

coarsely; palpably. 
Orottness, (grOs'nes)!!. tbiok* 

ness; fatness. 
Grotto, (srot'tS> n, a caTem ; 

an ornamental cure. 
Grotesque, (gru-tesk') a. 

wildl/ formed ; odd. 
Grouna, (ground) n. vpper 

part 01 land; soil;— pL Ices; 

— «. t or i to lay; to found; 

to run aground. 
Groundless,' (groundles) a. 

Toid of foundation. 
Ground-plot, (cround'pIot)ii. 

the site of a building. 
Ground-rent, (ground'rent) 

«. rent for building ground. 
Ground-work, (ground'wurk) 

n. foundation; first prin< 

ciple. 
Cbroup, (grMp) ni duster; 

crowd ; throng ; a»em- 

blage : — «. t 'to form a 

eloster. [wood. 

Grove, (grOv) n. a small 
Grovel, (gror'el) v. 1 to creep 

on the earth, (whooreepa 
Groveller, (grov'el-er) n. one 
Grovelling, (grov^-ing) <i. 



Grow, (gr5) v. (. or i Ipvtt 
gnrew ; ph. grown] to vese- 
tate ; to inerease : to raise. 

Growl, (flprowl) v. 1 or i to 
grnm lJe> to snarl;— a. 
cross murmur. 

Grown, (grOn) pp. of Orow. 

Growth, (grsth)n. Increase of 
■ixe ; progress; Tegetation. 

Qmb, (grub) n. a small 
worm :— V. t or <. to dig. 

Grudge, (gruj) v. 1 or 1 to 
envy the enjoyment of an- 
other ; — n. a cherished 



Gradgincly, (gruj'ing-le) ad. 

unwHUngly. 
Gruel, (gr66'el) a. food of 

meal boiled io water. 
Gruff, (grof) a. stem ; surly ; 

gram. [surliness. 

GrafSy, (grofle) ad. with 
Grum, (gnnn) a. sour ; surly; 

severe. 
Grumble, (grum^l) «. i to 

murmur with discontent ; 

to growV 
Grumbler, (grumbler) n. one 

who mutters or complaina 
Grumbling, (grumliling) n. 

a murmuring. [blood. 

Grume, (grodm) a. dotted 
Gramly, (grum'le) od. mor- 
osely, [clotted. 
Grumoos, (grM'mus) a. 
Grunt, (grunt) v. i. to utter a 

sound like a hog;— a. the 

sound of a hog. 
Guaiaeum, (gw&'ya-knm) a. 

the resin of lignum-Titas. 
Guano, (gw&'nO) a. a valua* 

ble manure eonsisting of 

sea -fowl dung, brought 

from the coarts of South 

America and Africa. 
Guarantee, (gar-an-t«') v. £ to 

warrant;— n. a surety for 

I>erformanoe. 
Guaranteed, (gar-an-ttd') pjx 

warranted ; vouched for. 
Guard, (gird) a. a watch; 

defence;— V. t to watch; 

to defend. 
Guardian, (gikrd'e-an) a one 

who has the eare of an- 

other ;— a. protecting. 
Guardianship, (gard'e-an- 

ship) a. Uie office of a 

guardian. 
Gubernatorial, (gtl-bfir-na- 

tO're-al) a. pertuning to a 
governor. 
Gudgeon, (gui'un) a. a fish^ 
pin on which a wheel 
iums. 



Guerdon, (ger'dun) a. a re- 
ward ; a reoompense ;— «. t 
to reward. 

Guerrilla, fgar-ril'a) a. a 
term applied to an irregu- 
lar mode of warfara • 

Guess, (ges) v. t to conjee- 
tare ;— a. a eonjecture. 

Gueat, (gest) n. a visitor who 
is received and entertained 
with hospitality. 

Guidance, (gid'ans) a. direc- 
tion ; care. 



snuad H iU-feeUng; VPite. KOuide, (gid) o. t to lead ; to 



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eVVBHOT 18S 




J ... _ - .- - 


Ooflto, (gwt^ n. 


lelish; 


pertaining to athletie exar^ 


1 ix- 


taste. 




cises for health. 


d. 


^\ 


to 


pi. the art of perforadng 




Gi 


nal 


athleUc exereisea 


C< .a 






Oynarohy, (jin'ar-ke) n. fa* 




Gi 


I'a) 


male government. 


Ox M» 


1 


ing 




! ^e 


J 
) 


.ia. 


N. female ascendency or 

• Gj-nocracy. 

Gypsoons, (jip'se-os) a relat- 
ing to gypsnm. 
Gy '*'-'-um)n. plaster 


Q\ el) 


Gt 


tge 


1 'tn, 
0\ ol; 


1 
Qx 

] 


be- 


Gi ih. 


Q\ 


to 






] 


in 


Gj a. whirlines 


Q\ rat 


1 




1 d. 


( ien 


Gi 


to 


Gj -a'shun) n. a. 


now. 




In- 


4 [on. 


OusMt, (fui'et) n. an ansniar 
piece of eloth for sirength? 




iil. 


G) rtor-e) a. mor- 


0] 


■ a 


J •• 


euingwmopartof^a^jjg. 


Q: 


mi 


Gj ivss are fettara 
i at the legs »* 


Out. (suit) «. tasta; a Uart 


0: 


a. 


1 le;tofottec 


H. 




'^'USS^T^' 


Hi 




Habeas Corpnt. (hilM-ai 


h1 




Jlot'dub) n. a writ ordering 
. a jailer to produce the bodj 
of a prisoner in eourt. 






Hi 








Haberdasher. (hab'er-dMh- 






er) N. a dealer in small 






wares, ribbons, tapes, Ac. 
Habergeon, (ha-bfir^e-un) n. 


Hi 
H> 




ancient armour to defend 






the nA9k and breast. 


B| 




HabiUment. (habil'e-ment) 






n. dress; clothing. . 


Hi 




Habit, (hab'it) n. tempera- 
ment of body or mind; 






h! 




aptitude gained bjr prao- 






tice; dress;— V. t to clothe. 


Hi 




Habitable, (hab'it^-bl> «. 






tliat oin be inhabited. 


m 










a place of abode. . 






UabituaL (ha-bit'tt-aUo. ao- 
quired by habit. 


H^ 








UabituaUy. (ha-blt'Q-aMe) 
ad. with noqnent praotioe. 


m 




Hi 




Habituate. (ha-bit'a<fttj v. 1. 






to accustom. 






UabitnJe. (hab'it-Qd) n. cut- 


Hi 




ternary praetioe; habit; 




a 




Hi 




Ha«k, (hak) 9. t to eat awk- 


( 


• 


wardly :->ii. a horse or 


1 


ft 


coach for hln; a aotdii a 
•ua. 


Hi 

1 


\ 



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\ 



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EOMOmOUBLT 



haTinc aeilta aigfak [cable. 



Hawien {hawi'fir) n. » mau 
Haj,Uik) n. gam dried for 

foOder^-A fc to diy wd 

enreasfnaL 
Hajiag, (U'iac) «b tha act 

or tima of maUiig haj. 

Hajma&ar, (hi'mik-firl «. 

ona vho euta aad cbiea 

sruHtorhaj. » 
Ha7-moir, (hi'moj «. a heap 

ofha/inabani. 
Hamd, (haz'trd) «. rifle of 

loM or aril ; danger ;-«. t 

torlsk. 
Hanrdooib (has'erd-Qfl) »• 

thatezposaa to daaoer. 
HaM,(kU}M.athin]iuit «r 

fog; 
HaxeU Oit'sl) «. a ahrml 

bearing nutB;->o» UIw a 

haxel-nut ; brown. 
Haxinew, (his'e^Mi) ik akaie 

of being ha«7. [dark. 

Haur. (hfta'e)a. foggK misty: 
He, (hfi) proH. of^be third 



i. upper part of 
bacbiaf;froi 



referxiikg to i 
mala. 

Se\>od7 ; thac&iaf r^nt; 

aonrca;— a. IL ov i to lead ; 

totoi^ (inthahead. 

Headache, (hed^ftk) n. pain 
Head-dress, (hed'dree) n. cot* 

ering worn on the head. 
Heading, (bed'ing) n. Um* 

ber for heads of casks. 
Headland, (hed'kad) i^ a 

promontory. 
Headlong, (bedlong) a. rash; 

predpitates-HMl. precipi* 

Head-quarten, (bed^kwawr* 

ten) n. pL qnarten of a 

chief commander. 
Head8tall.(hed>'sUirl) n. part 

of a bridle. ]ol»tinat«. 
Headstrong, (hed'strong) a. 
Headway, (hed'wi) fu pro* 

grass of an adrancin;! 

uiip. [to beoome weiL 
Heal, (hel) v. t to cure;~a. i 
Health, (helth) n. freedom 

from sickness \ sound state 

of body and mind. 
HealthAil, (hellh'fool) a. 

free from disease; whole* 

some. 
HealthineWi (Mith'iMflg n. 



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- ^ ■-" ^ ' " 

HIOKOBrY 1S7 BOS 



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BDXrBBSOU) 



140 



Be 

fi 
Bo 

n. 
Bo 

n 
B« 

tj 
Ho 

fi 
Ho 



Bo 

f< 
He 

a 
Bo 

t 
Bo 

o 
Ho 
Bo 

a 
Bo 
Be 

E 

Be 
I 







I0» 


B< 




.ft 












n 






5«. 






>W 


H< 




of 


H< 




le) 


b1 




Of 


nl 




«n 


Hi 




. ft 


h1 




i. 
ir. 


Bi 




is. 


b1 




4: 


Ht 




la. 


b' 




es) 

1. 


Bi 
Bi 




a. 
to 

Ld- 


bL — ^ 


, — _ — 





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X 


143 






I. 




t0 


^ 


Id 


to 


1 


lO 


1 




4 


f. 


Id 


«.' 


u 


r* 


] 


, 


i 


a 


( 


t» 


ji 


t- 


Id 


aw 


i 


a 


1 


ly. 






Id 


m- 


lb 

1 


)f 




I'O- 


lb 


n 


I( 




li 


d 


Ici 


.'•- 


i 


d 


t 


n. 


1 


h 










Id 


n. 


?i 


b- 


1 


n. 


1 


n 


Id 

1 


a. 


1 


ie 


Id 

i 


le) 


le! 


1. 


Id 




1 


le 


i 


Ie> 




r. 


Id 


to 


Id 


y 


1 




le] 

1 


9) 


i^ 


DC 


lo: 


it 


Id 


i» 


1 


r. 


1 


an; 


£ 




g 


is: 


1 


li 




ps 


1 


s. 


Id 


In. 


I« 


t. 




Ml. 


1 


fi 


Id 

1 


t 


1 




Id 


w* 


le. 

( 

4 


i 




xy 


lo^ 


h 


1 


in* 


U 

1 




Id 


ml 


Id 


a 


Id 


•0 


i 


.e 


i 




< 


s 


u. 


la- 


li 


« 


1 

1 


?' 


d 


a 


"^ 


k: 


4 


7 


Iff 


tot 


t 


L 


• 3 


o> 


Id 


I- 


Iff 




Id 


10 


1 


^) 


i 




Iff 


^' 


Id 

L 


o 


1 

1 


t 






'-^x*^"*«*^ . 



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A DICTIONARY 9FTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



ILUCrr 148 IMKOSEST { 


~ 




ir^ja'!:.lS»2?'iS5i£> 


Immature, (im-ma-torO i^ 

unripe ; unseasonable. 
I]iimaturit7«(im-ma-tur'e-ie) 






ill/ tionT 




X. 


Imasi u) t>. 1 or i 

%o tl iceire. 


n. nnxipeness; incomplete- 




id 


ness. 




i- 


Imbai ek') v. t to 


Immeasurable, (im-mesh'Or- 




1- 


incl md vith a 


apbl) a. that ean not be 




^ 


ban dtten Em- 


measured. 






ban [ment 


Immeasurably, (Im-mczh'Or- 




1. 


Imba; ee IB-mbarJe- 


a-ble) od. beyond all mea* 






Imbei Bel)a. weak 


f — 




ft*. 


inx r. 


In «. 






Imbe. L-bfr«a'e-te) 


^ at 




>. 


n.ii 
Imbe* ) V. t to 


In it. 

1 




!i- 


Binl sin abed. 


In :-a- 




•. 


Imbil ') t'. 1. to 


I Bd. 




9t 


drii nake bitter. 


In re. 






Imbil t'fiD V. t, to 


lis 




id 


Imbo >6i'am) v. t 








to embrace or bold in the 


In xst 




ik 


bofiom; aim wxifct«n £m- 


wn 




to 


Imbiittted, (im'bn-ktt^d) 


ri is: 






a. laid one under another, 

as tiles, [to make brown. 

Imbrown, (un-brown'> v. t 


In te) 




it) 


1 o; 




IB- 


Tastness. 






Imbrue, (im-brdd') «. t to 


Immerge, (im-m|ijO v. t to 




l'- 




immerse. 




a- 


In 






or 








M 


In 
In 






It. 








T- 


In 
In 






to 








to 


In 






Q. 








a) 
a. 


In 






a. 


III 






-t- 








>r 
); 


In 
In 






to 










In 






I) 


In 






d. 








B. 








in 


In 






I'- 

A- 


III 




, 


a-. 







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ZHPSRSOaiXLT 



Impendlng^^im-pead'jng) a. 
hanging QV«r ; Imminent. 

ImpenetraBllity, (im-peu-e- 
tra-bil'©4e) ». qu&litj of 
not b«k)g penetrable. 

Impane^ole, (im-pen'e-tnt- 
bi) a. that can not be pene- 
trated. 

Impenetrably, (im-pea'e-tra- 
ble) ad. so as. not to be 
penetrated. 

Impenitence, (fm-pen-etentl 
It. obduracy ;haidnep8 of 
heart . .. 

Impenitent, (im-pen'e-tent) 
a. not repentin{( of un. 

Impenitently, (im-pen'«« 
tent-le) od. withoiift re- 
pentance. *• . 

Imperative, (im-per'Et-iT) a. 
expressive of command. 

Impei-ativelr, (im-per'At-iT* 
le) ad. with command. 

Imperceptible, (im-Mr-sep'- 
te-bU jO. not to be i>«r> 

In 



the penom. 
ImpetMoaUy, (ia-piir'fa&> 



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XMJPAI88IBLS 



146 



IVAPPBXCZABUB 



ImprvMible, (im-preirVbl) a. 

thftt majr rtoeive impr*9- 

■ioa. 
ImproMlon, (im^precVim) n. 

eUmp; •diUon i inflaenoe; 

•ffiKt. 

ImpreniT*, (im-f>re«'iT) a. 
producing effect ; enicep* 

ImpressiTebr, (im-pres'iT-le) 
od so M to nuke impres- 
sion. 

impreumen^/im-pres'ment) 
«. the act of forcing men 
into serriee. 

Impressure, (im>presh'tir) n. 
nark by preMure. 



Imprimis, (im-pri'mis)ad. in 
the first c* 
mprint. (1 
mark oy pressure; to fix 



. le first place. 
Imprint^ (Im-print') *. f. to 



deep. 
Impnnt. (im'print) n. the 

publisher's name with data 

and place of publication. 
Imprison, Um-phz'n) v. t to 

put in a prison ; to confine. 
Imprisonment, (im-priz'n- 

ment) n. confinement. 
Improbability, (im-prob-a- 

bil'e>te)n. unlikelih(K>d. 
Improbable, (im*prob'a-bl} a. 

not likely. 
Improbably, * (im-probVble) 

ad. in a manner not likely. 
Improbity, (im-prob'e-te) «k 

dishonesty. 
Impromnttt, (im-promp'ta) 

md. iritnont previous study; 

off-hand. [not proper. 

Improper, (im-prop'sr) a. 
Improperly, <iu-prop'er-le} 

ad. unsuitably ; not fitly. 
Impropriety. (ira>pro-pri'e* 

te) n. nuatness; unsuita- 

bleness to time, place, or 

character. 
Improvable, fim-prAdr'a-bl) 

a. that maybe improved. 
Improvablenees, (im-proov'- 

a^bl-nes) n. susceptibility 

of improrement. 
Improve, (im-pr6dv') v. t to 

make bettei- ; to use to ad- 

vantage;— «. i to grow 

bettcn 
Improvemiot, (im-prMr'- 

uent) «k progreas from 

good to better; instruo- 

fiioni-tiL vnlnau* . ftddi- 

tioos. 
Improvidenoe, (im-pror'e- 

dena) n. want of foresight. 
ImmwTident, (im-pror'a- 



dent) 0. not making pro- 
vision. 

Improvidently, (im-prov'a* 
dent-le) md. viinont tan- 
thought. 

Improvisation, (im-pror'a* 
sa'shnn) m. art of oempoa- 
ing eztemporanaoualy. 

Improvise, (im'prO-ves) «. i 



It 



In I. 

( t- 

Impunity, <im-pa'no-ta) n. 

exemption from punish- 
ment. 
Impure. (im-pOrO a. not free 

from fecoUnpe ; unchaste ; 

fouL 
Impurity, (im-pflr'e4a) n. 

foulness. 
Imputable, (im-pat'arbl) a. 

that may be imputed. 
Imputation, (im>pa-ta'shun) 

n. act of imputing; can- 

sure. 
Imputative. (im-ptlt'a-tiT) a. 

that majr be imputed. 
Impute, (im-pQt') v. i. to 

charge upon ; to attribute. 
In, (in) a prefix, often givea 

to a word a negative sense; 

—pret. present ; within ;— 

ad. within soma place. 
Inability, (in-a-bil'a-te) n. 

want of power, maana, 

skUUftc. 
Inaccessibility, gn-akasa-a 

bil'e-te) n. IIm quality of 

being beroBd raateh. 
Inaccessible, (in-ak-aaa'e-bl) 

o. that can not be reached. 
Inaccuracy. (in-ak'ka>rft4S) 

«. want 01 aocuracf. 



Inaccurate, (in-ak'kQ-xit) a- 
erroneous. 

Inaccurately, (in-ak'kll-nt' 
le) ad. not oonectlji er- 
roneously. 

Inaction, (in-ak'shun) n. 
want <tf action, atata of 
rest ; idleness. 

Inactive, (in-ak'tlv) a. nnem- 
cloyed; idle; aluggiah; 

Inac&VitT, (Itf-ak.ttT'e-ta) a 

want of activity: idleneaa. 
Inadequacy, (in-ad'e>kwirae) 

n. insuf&ciency. 
Inadequate, (in-ad'e-kwit) & 

not equal to the purpose. 
Inadequately, (in-ad'fr-kwAt* 

le) ad. not fully. 
Inadequateness, .(in -ad '8* 

kwftt-nes) m. insufficiency ; 

inequality. 
Inadhesion, (In-ad-he'zhnn) 

n. want of adhesion. 
Inadhesive, (in-ad*be'siT) a> 

not adhering. 
Inadmis8ible,(in<«d4nia'e-bl) 

a. not proper to be ad* 

mitted. 
Inadvertenee, (in<«d-T«rt'« 

ens) n. negligence; over* 

sight 
Inadvertent, (in-ad'T£rt'ent) 

cheedlesa. 
Inadvertently, (in-ad-T<rt'« 

ent-le) ad. with negii- 
. genoe. 
Inalienable, (tn-U'yen-a-bl) 

a. that caa not be alien- 
ated. 
Inancdn-mOckVold; empty. 
Inanimate. (in-«n'a-mit) a. 

void of life. 
Inanition, (in-a'nish'un) n. 

want of fulness: emptiuesa. 
Inanity, (in-an'a-te) a. emp* 

tineas. 
Inappetenca, (in-ap'pC-tena) 






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nroLVinw 



lis 



zvooBAvraov 



Inooofltaney. (iu-kon'ftaa-«) 



IneoDfiU&t, ito-kon'iUtttl «. 
tatiii«ei to ohaafs (rf! opm- 
ion « Fwcpowi not «■•• 



id' 

dd- 
on* 



«t'- 



arbl) a. thAt eaa not M 

dianttted. 
Incoutestably. (to-kon-tesf- 

a-bl«) ad. bojond ditpote. 
Inoontinenoe,^ (In-kon t«- 

nena) *. nnchaitity. 
Ino<mti|ie&t,iin-]Mn't«-iient| 



eontrol ; immediatepr.^ 

InoontPorertible. Jto-loM- 

tre*vcrt'e-bU a. tbat caa 

not be dirottted. 
IncontroTertibly, .<to-w«r 

trt-TSTt'o-Uo) oi. bajond 

IiS5n?eni0m». (In-kon-Tf. 

Inconrenient, lin-lton-tf'ii*- 
ent) a. tnoiHniaodiow i 

I^rporeftl. (in.kor-pO'rt^l 
a. not consistiDK of mat- 
ter i not materiel. 

Incorporato, (in-k«Mr'p5-rttl 
V. t or 1 to form into » 
body : to unite. , 

Incorporation, (ta-Kbr^po-m • 
Bhun) «. aet of inoorpoiai- 
ins. 

Inwrreet, (to-kor-wW * 
inaccurate ; . contalnto* 
faulta. [twl-toaccurately. 

Incorrectly, (in-kor-rektOBl 

Incorrectneia, (in-kor-rekt • 
nee) n. want of accuracy. 

Inoorrigible, (in-kor're-je-M) 
a. that can not be corrected. 

Incorrigiblenew, (in-korj©- 
je-bl-nes) n. hopelaaa da- 

InoOTSjW(in-kor're.je4)W 
ad. beyond bope ^ amood* 
ment. _ 

Incorrupt, (in-kor-ruptQ «k 
free from oorruption . noa*> 
est ; pure. . . , . 

InoorruptibiUty, (ta-kor- 
rupt^Ul'e-te) ». the mud- 
ity of being inoorruptlbto^ 

lAcorrupUble, (in-korwrapv« 
e.bl) oTthat oan not booos* 
runted. 

InoorruptiMW (In-koiHnm* 



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ZHDXrSTBIOtrSLT 



151 



INTEOTIOtrSirBSS 



Ini 

• 

r 
d 
In( 
t 
1 



t 

Ini m- 

Ini lot 

t ca- 

ble. 

XiMffableoess, fin-era-bl-nes) 
n. aualitj of being unut- 
terable, [inexnressib]/. 

Ineflkbly, (in-ef'a-ble> ad. 

Ineffaeaable, (in-ef-fu'a-bl) 
a. tbat can not be effaced. 

Ineflectlre, (in-effekt'iv) a, 
produoing no effect; uae- 

Ineffectual, (In-^-fekt'a-itl) 
a. not producing effect. 

Ineffeetually^in-ef-fekt'Q-al- 
le) ad. without effect. 

Zneffioadout, (in-ef -f e-kft'she- 



Mi 
Ml 
b 
Ii 
Ii 
h 



h 
Xi 

Xi 
Ii 



nt) 



•le) 

I'e. 
ing 



)n. 
M) 
th; 
In- 



Inertly, (in-firile) oil slug- 
gishly. 

Inertnesf, (in-srt'nee) n. 
Quality of being inert. 

Inestimable, (in es'tim-a-bl) 
a. that is above pnoe; in- 
valuable. 

Inestimably, (tn<«i'tf m-e^ble) 
cuL so as twi to be estimated. 

Inevitable, (in-ev'it-arbl) a. 
that ean not be avoided. 

Inevitably.Tin-ev'it-a-ble) ad. 
unavoidably. 

Inezdet, (in-egs^diil a. not 
exaet; incmct. 

Inexactness, (in-egz-akt'nes) 
n. want of exactness. 

Inezcusable,{in-ek»-koz'a-bl} 
a. tbat can not be excused 
or justified. 

Inexcusablenest, ( in - eks • 
koz'a-bl-nes) n. quality of 
not being ezecusable. 

Inexcusably, (in-eks-kOx'a- 
ble) od so as not to be ex- 
cusable. 

Inezertioa, (in-e^fs^r'shnn) 
n. want 61 exertion. 

Inexccution, (in-eks-e-ktt'- 
shun) n. nei^eci of per- 
formance. 

Inexhalable, (in-egi-hll'a-bl) 
a. that can not be evapo* 
rated. 

Inexhausted, (In-ess-hanst'- 
ed) a. not emptied. 

Inexhaustible,(in<egs-baust'- 
e-bl) a. that can not fie ex- 
hausted. 

Inexistcnoe, (in-egs-ist'ens) 
n. want of existence. 

Inexistenty (in-egz-ist'cnt) a. 
not existing; net having 
being. 

Inexorable, (in^eks'Sr-A-bl) Oi 
not to be moved by en- 
treaty. 

Inexorably, (in-eks^r«-ble) 
ad. so as r?t to be moved 
by entreaty. 

Inexpediency, (in-eks-p^'de- 
en-se) n. want of fitness. 

Inexpedient, (in-eks*p«'de- 
ent) a. not suitabli^ 

Inexperience. (in<eks-pd're- 
ens) n. wans oi experience. 

Inexpert, (in^eks-pfirt') a. un- 

Inexpiable, (in-eks'pe-a-bl) 
a. admitung no atonement. 

Inexplicable, (in-eks'ple-ka- 
bl) a. that can not m ex- 
plained. 

Inexplicably, (In-eks'ple-ka* 



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jsnousD 



152 



nroLosioirsLT 



n 



.< A.^ \.,^.m^ mw^A «.. 



iaj 



ct 


, 


id. 


1 


D8) 


Is 


n. 


1 


S 


In 

1 


to 


II 


«1) 


II 


or 


1 




Ir 


be- 




iCO 


( 




Iv 


an 


lE 


Of 


^i; 


n. 






Is 



Infold. (in-fSldO v. (. to in- 

Tolve i to invrap. 
Inform, (in-form') v. t to 

tell ; to acquaint with. 
Informal, (in-form'al) «. 

wanting form ; irregular^ 
Informality, (in«form-al'e-te) 

n. want of osual forma. 
Informally, (in-form'al-le) 

adL vithont the n&ual 

forma. [one who tella. 

Informant, (in-fohn'ant) n. 
Information, ( in - form • ft ' • 

shun) n. notioe given} ia> 

telligence ; knowledge. 
Informer, (in-fonu'sr) n. ooe 

wlio tella. 
Infraction, (in*frak'ihim) n. 

breach : violation. 
Infrangible, (in-f rau'3e-bl) a. 

that can not be broken. 
Infrequency, (in-fre'kwen-0^ 

n. nncommonnees ; rarity. 
Infrequent, (In-fre'kwentj a. 

not usual ; rare. 
Infringe. (in-frinJO v. t to 

break, u oontractt; to 

violate. 
Infringement. ( in • frinj '• 

ment) n. violation. 
Infuriate, (iuf a're-ftt) «. t to 

enrage ;— o. l>ke a fury. 
Infuse, (in-fos') «. t. to potir 

in; to itecp in liquor i to 

inspire. 
Infusibility, an-fai-e-bll'e> 

te) n. capaeity of beinr 

1 ■ ""^ 

In mi 



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rj. 



XHVOZXOtrB 



IM 



orsaniATiov 



Ii ■• 

Ij a 

Ii IP 



Zi 
Zi 
Ii 
Zi 



II 
IJ 

Ij 

I] 

Ji 

Zj 
Ij 
Ii 
Ii 
Zj 
Zi 
Zi 
Zj 



Zx 
Ii 

1 
Zb 

) 
la 



I&qiilxT, dnrkvVn) •» m( of 

inquunnc. 
Inquisition, On*kwe4iih'aiiT 

n. judicial iiKioiiT : a pop- 
ish tribnxud fur^ifuns out 

of heresy. 
Inquisitional, On-kwe-iish'- 

ttu-al) a. portaiiung to ilk- 

quiry. 
luquisitive, (In-kwizlt-iT) a. 

given to inanirys curio 

ous. 
InquiBitirely, (fai-ktdzlt-iT- 

lu) ad. viih euriosity. 
Inqoisitiveneas, (in-kwiz'it* 

iv-nei) n. busy curiosity. 
Inquisitor, (in-kirix'it-cr) n. 

a member ol the inquisi- 

tion. 
Inquisitorial, (in-1cwix-ii^'- 

ro-al) a. pertainins to in*' 

quisition. 
Inroad, (in'xCd) n. guddea 

invasion. 
lDsalabrioui,rtn-«aplal}i»-us} 

a. unhealthy. 
Insalubrity, (in-sa^alm-te} 

n. unwholesome 



Insalutaiy, (in-sal'tt-tar^) a 
unfarourable to health. 



_ — ,(inH«in')< 

in mmd. 
Insanely, On-tanle) ad. 

madly ; foolishly. 
Insanity, (in-san'o-te) n. do* 

ranf^ement of intelleet 
Insatiable, (in-sft'she-a-bl) a. 

that can uot' be aalia- 

fled. 
Insatiablenefli, (in-s&'she-a* 

bl-nes) n. insatiable greedi- 

nces. 
Insatiably, (in*s&'8he<a*ble) 

od. vith greediness not to 

be satisfied. 
Insatiate, (in-sX'she4lt) o. 

not to be satisfied. 
Insatiety, (iu-ta-ti'e-te) «. 

insatiaoleness. 
Inscribable. (iB-skriVarbl) «. 

that may oe inscribed. 
Inscribe, (in-skrib') «. t to 

▼rite on. 
Inscription, (in-ekrip'shun) 

n. that which is written on 

eomethiuf: ; title ; address. 
Inscrutability, (iii-skrd64a- 

bil'e-te) n. the quality of 

being inscrutable. 
Inscrutable, (in-skrM'ta-bl) 

tu unsearohahle { undis* 

coverable. 



. (in-sem') •. t toim- 

press or mark with a seam. 



^ 



Insect, (in'sokt) «. • onaU 

animal, as • 

grasshopper. 
Insectivoruus,(in> 

sek-tir'6-rus) a, 

feeding on in* 

sects. 
Insecure^ (fai'SS* 

kor') a. unsafe: 

not confident of, 

safety. 
Insecurely, (!n-«e>kQrl«) mi. 

unsafely ; with hazard. 
Insecurity, (in-se-kQr'e-<«} «. 

want of safety. 
Insensate, (in-senf 'ftt) «. 

senseless: stupid. 
Insensibility, (m-sen»«-1>Sl'- 

e-te) n. want of emotiou or 

affection. 
Insensible, (in-cens'e^)!) a. 

destitute of feelingi impcr* 

ceptible. 
Insensibly. (in<flent'e-ble) od. 

imperceptibly; gradually. 
Insentient, iin-sen'she-ent}a 

not baring perception. 
Inseparable, (in-«ep'ar-a>Dl) 

a. that can not be disjoined. 
Inseparableness, (in-eep'or*- 

bl-nes) n. quality of teiag 

inst^Mirable. 
Inseparably, (in-fra'ar-a-ble} 

od withiadiscoloMe uoJon. 

Il^oAv* ./<n-Mrf'l « <_ to set 



In lar 

Is ie- 

I^ U) 

la of 

i iw- 

In pL 

In '•- 

( Si 



In 



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L 



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XBTSRUjIT 


••bl) «. nofr to to tap- 


1 


- ,', 


prested. 


1 


«. 


^^s^eisj?^** 


In 
i 


oc- 


Iiuarane«« (in-th66r'an8) n. 


1 


II. 


■ecority asainst low by 


In 


•e) 


paying a certain aum. 


i 


«. 


Inaure. (Initb66r') ». 1. to 


1 


ut 


make aure asainst loaa. 
Inaqrcent, (iu-«ar'jent) a. 
editing ie<UtioD:-.n. one 


la 




iB 




vho rlaes agidnai lawful 






authority. 


Ii 


In. 


Inaunnou£tabl6. (In-tur. 




c 


mount'a-bl) a. not to to 
OTeroorae ; inanparable. 
InsurirecUon, (m-mir-rek'- 




3^ 


Ii 


ly. 


ahun) n. open oppoaiUon 


Ix 


Bf. 


to lawful authority. 




»U 


Inaurreotionary. (in-«uiM«k'- 


Ix 




ahun-ar-e) a. relating to 




)•. 


iniurreotion. 


Ii 




te-bilVte) n. want of capa- 
eitytofeel 


Ii 


If. 


»»ffl'S'''i!;i"iisrn2: 


Ii 




ing. 




on. 


Intaglio. (In-taryS) n. a 


!» 


. * 


Ii 


k'- 


engraved on it 




PC. 


IntangibU, (in-tan'3e-bl) a 
not porceptiUe by touch. 

Integer, (in'te-jfir) n. a whole 
number 

Integral, (in'te-gral) n. an 
entire thing i— a. Whole; 


Ii 


op. 






li 


to* 
to 


Ii 


"j 


entire. 






neoeuaiy to conaUtute a 
thing. 
Integrate, (in'te-grtt) ». t to 


Ii 


a. 


Ii 




form one whole; to make 


Ii 


up. 
Integrity, (in-teg're-te) n. 


Ii 


2S 


wholeness j uprightness ; 




Bd^ 


purity. In. a covering. 
Integument, (in-teg'tx-ment) 
Intellect, (in'tel-lekt) n. thd 

mind ; the uuderstandiug. 


Ii 
li 


Dtt. 


Ii 


■*. 


Intelleotion,(ln-teMek'Bhun) 

ideas. 
Intellective, (in-tel-lekt'lT) o. 






Ii 


)•. 


Ix 


f- 


pertaining to the intellect. 
Xntellectuar.(in-tel-lekt'a-al) 




i*> 






a. pertaining to the un- 


Ix 


to 








Intellectually. (In-teHekt'tt. 


Ii 


n. 


al-le) ad. b^ means of the 




L 


Ix 


t 


lat«lligenc^^^l«-|eai) 


Ii 


ml 
1 



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1 ^ 


nno 


us 






ZVTI1U0IIB 








\. 

ft 
»•• 

»u 

«• 

oe. 
to 

da- 
irn 
ah- 

«. 
lat 

Bo- 
no 

M. 

& 
li 

■r. 

n. 
im 

s 

Si 

to 
Dit 

in 

& 
It. 

!£ 

». 
Hi) 








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XBSS8I8TIBLT 



100 



7APAS 



that oan net bo resisted 

with taeoen. 
InwisUblj, Ur^rt-zlit'e-ble) 

«mL so M not to be neisti* 

ble. 
Irresolute, (lr-m'0-lat) a. 

not firm in nurpose. 
Irrssolutien. (ir*res-9-10'- 

ihon) n. want o< flrmnsss 

of mind. 
IrrespeotlTo* (tr-re-spekt^) 

«. not regarding dtcnm- 



Iirespeotlrefy. (ir-rt-«pekt'- 

iT-le) ad. wfth^t regard to. 
Irresponsible, (ir-i«-spons'e> 

bl) a not responsible. 
Ixretrievable, (ir-re-t(€T'arbl) 

«. irreeorerable. 
IrretrloTably. (Ir-rC-trtr'a- 

ble) od. irreooverably. 
Irreverenoe, (ir-re?'er-ens) n^ 

want of rererenoe or rene- 



Irreverent, (irrer'fir-ent) a. 

wanting in reterenee. 
Irrsrersible, (ir>re-Tfirs'e-bl) 

a. that can not be reversed. 
ImrooaUe, (lr-reT'0-ka-bI) 

«. that can not be recalled. 
Irrerocably, (ir-rev'0*ka-ble) 

od. so as not to admit of 

recall Iwater, or wet. 

Irrigate, (ir're-g&t) v. 1 to 
Irrigation, (ir-re-gi'sbun) n. 

act of wataring. 
Irriguons, (ir-ng'0>iui) «. 

waterrv wet. 
Irritability, (irritntrbavte) 



JABBER, (JaVer) « i to 

talk rapidly and indistinct^ 

ly;--n. rapid talk. 
Jabberer, (jab'sr-cr) n. one 

who talks fast and indis* 

tinctly. 
Jacinth, a'a^lnth. ja'sinth) 

m. a pellucid gem. 
Jack, Oak' Vn. an engine. 
Jaokal, (isik'awi) n. an ani- 

maL la monkey ; an ape. 
Jackanapes, (Jak'arnaps) n. 
JaokbMts, qak'b66U) n. pL 

short 



rery Isxge Mots. 
Jacket, (jak'et) n. 
Jsok-knife. (jak'nlf) 
)ok. " • - 



pocket-knife. 
(Jak'S-Un) n. adi«- 



, Oak-S-bin'lk-al) 



a. capacity of being ixA- 1 

tated. 
IrritoUe. (Ir'rit-^^O) c sasily 

proToked. 
Irritant. (ir'ritHmt) n. that 

which eaeitec or irritates. 
Irritate, (ir'rit-&t) v. L to ex- 

eito neat and redness in 

the skin; to anger. 
Irriution, (ir-rit-a'ahna) «. 

act ai exciting. 
IrritaUre, (i?rit-»t-iT) a. 

serring to excite actioa or 

irritatloo. 
IrmpHon, (tr-rap'shna) n. 

sudden invasiim ; a Tiolent 

inroad. ling in or upon. 
Irruptire. (ir-rupt'lT) a. rush- 
Is, (is) third person singular 

of the Terb To Be. 
Isinalass, O'nng-glas) «. a 

substance prepared from 

the air-bladders of fish. 
Island, Isle, (i'land, U) k 

land surroimded hgr water. 
Islet, (I'let) n. a littll island. 
Isolate, (is'O-lit) ». (. to place 

in a detached situation. 
Isothermal, (i-sB-thfirm'aI)«. 

haTing eanal temperature. 
Israelite, (is'ra-eMt) n. a de- 
scendant of Israel ; a Jew. 
Issuable, (ish'6d-a.bl) o. that 

may be lesued. 
Issue, (ish'dd) n. oflEnrlng; 

final result ; a small ulcer 

kept open ;— si i to come 

or send out; to result;— 

V. t to put in drculatioo. 



J. 



a. pertaining to ■«»«• 

clubs against n>Temment 
JacobiniKD. (iak'5-fain-ism) 

n. reroluuonaiy doo- 

trinea 
Jade, (Jid) n. a tired horse; a 

worthless woman ;— e. L to 

wear down by exertion. 
Jag, (jag) n. a notdi ;-«. I. 

to notch : to indent 
J*CS7«U«8re) «• noldiad: on- 

eren. 



Jail, 0&l)n. a prison. 
''"— """^rf «. 01 

— ,, « ,, plant 

drug used as a cathartia. 



Jailer, (Jtl'firj 
keeps a iau. 
' Jafap) 



Jalap, (Jal'^) n. a 



one whin 
>Iant or 



Jam, (jam) n. a oonserre of 
fruits;— «. t to^squeese 
elosely i tc wedge UL 



Isthmian. (ist'm«-aa) 






Jamb, (Jam) ». lido pieea of 



W 



Fl 



Jane, (jftn) «. a 

kind of fus- 
tian. 
Jangle, (Jang'- 

gl) V. t or i , 
wransle ; J 

.. juarreL 
Jangler. (jsag'glfir) n. a 

wrangler. rkeeper. 

Janitor, (janVtor) a. a door- 
Jaaisary, (jan'e-tare) n. • 

Turkish soldier of tba 

guards. 
January, (itn'a-ar«} n. fini 
lonth (^ the year. 
Ti».?s 



Jai 



ftpan, (ia-naa' 
Tamishad ir* 



irockfHk t to 



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JOTFtrunsB 



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"^S'* Qua) ». *.M^ rf 



E. 

whl«h «riybito » vmzlety of 



aanutU anchor. 



Keel, (kcl) tt. the loirw tia&. 

lier of a ship. 
KcelhauU (kelliawl) «. C tO 

haul ;mder the keeL 



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larowABLS 



164 



RaowAble, (nO'arbl) •. tha* aCth* flnce-s, *e.»-«. i to 

maj W kiftowii. tabmit to in co&tMt. 

Kiiowin|d7t <n0'ing4«) ad. Koran, <kO'Taa) n. tha 

undamaadinglj. Mohammadan iMMk of 

Knowladfo. (ndl'ai) m. alaar faith, 

paroaptlon. Kraal, (krti) n. a Hofetaoftot 

KnookWi (imkD a. a J<rfai luit or Tillaca. 



Krullcr. (kxnl'er) n. a 
caka baked in fat. 

KTaniSB, (ki'an-Is) 9. L 
to pnaarre timber from 
tha diT xot bf tha oaa 
of a iolatlaQ «i Mmtkn 



Ik- 
ri 



le) 



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169 


XJTUBOY 


] 

1 
] 

i 

i 

: 
] 

j 

: 
1 




411 
Mr 

tt 

n 
»• 

m. 

tt. 

1. 

xi. 

»> 

te) 
n. 

bt 

L 

Si 

n* 

■0. 

1. 

& 

Ot 

!«• 

« 









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IVLL 



ITS 



I«II,nnI)tk 1 ori topvt 

tonrt. 
Xmllab^, (lul'a-bl) «. a tong 

to quiet infants. 
XmxnMgintHU, Uiim>bi}'ln- 

HI) a. pertuniiig to iiun> 

SmSbtigo, (liim>bft'gB) n. » 
ihenmAtio pain in the 
fma | ii of the oack. 

Lambar, (lom'bAr) a. per- 
taining to or near the 
loina 

Lumber, (Inml>flr) n. any 
thing QMlen or eumber- 
tome ; rough timber ^-«. f. 
to heap oueletsly to^ 
gether. 

Lumber-room. (Inm'bgr- 
rdom) a. a place for uaeleM 
thinga 

Lumiaarr, (in'min-ar-e) n. 
any body that gives lighL 

Luminoui, (iQ'min-us) a. en- 
Ughten«d; light. 

Lump, (lump) n. a shapeless 
mass;— V. t. to throw into 
a maH; to take in the 
gross. [dulL 

Lumpish/lump'ishla. heavy; 

Lnmpiehly, (lump'ish-le) ad. 
heavily. [lumps. 

Lumpy, (lump's) a. full of 

Lunaoy, (lQ'na«e) n. mental 
derangement ; madness in 
genenu. 

Lunar, (Uk'n&r) a. pertain- 
ing to Ihe moon. 

Lunarian, (iQ-oa're-an) n. in- 
habitant of the moon. 

Lunatic, (lo'aa-tik) a. affect- 
ed with lunacy ;—n. a per- 
son whose insanity is sup- 
posed to be influenced by 
the moon. 

Lonation, (lo-nl'shnn) n. re- 
volution of the moon about 
the earth. 

Lonob, (lunsh) n. food takan 



VAB. (toMSJi «. «nettof fhe 

llacadanin, (mak-ad'am-lt) 
V. t to form or oorer a 
road with small broken 

llaoaronL (m«k-a-xO'ne) n. a 
finical fellow ; a food made 
of vheaien paste formed 
Into IflBC dsBder tabes. 



f-' — 



M. 



L ensign af 

Ice. «u 

z \ 

ing \ 
in* ^ 



(mak-MkpTCt'ysn) a. aoo* 

sisting in ounning. 
Machinate, (mak'in-it) v. t 

to plot; to contrive. 
Maobination, (mak-fn-l'- 

shun) n. a malidoot 



Machine, (msrshCnO «. aa 
anginajlnstrumentof foroob 
Mscninwy, (nuMbin'ar-a) «• I 



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m XAHBLAVfiOdSB | 




^ — . ,-«_ ..-^Yj. 


f 11. 


f 




e 


Ml u) 


Ml 


^ 


Ml V. 


Ma la. 


v 


1. 


a ^ 


1 


Ml 


>) 


Ml .a 


Ml r 


e 


1. 


Ml a 


1 m- 


Ml 


li 


a 


a Ij. 


f 




Ma m. 


Hi me 


Ml 


a 


N » 


Ml a. 


fc 


[• 


1 


t 




man. j raving. 
Maniacal, (ma-nl'akal) a. 


Hi le) 


Ma 


a 


l£ 


r 
1 




Manifest, (man'e-fest) a. not 
ooncealcd, obscure, or diffi- 


i ift- 


x 






1 


Ml 





— «. an inroice of a cargo. 

ManifestaUon, (man-c-fest- 

I'shon) n. exhibiUon ; dis- 


111 Be) 


m 




f oe. 


Ml 


I 


Hi 
i to 


M^ 


I- 


play, iad. evidently. 
Manifestly, (maa'cfest-le) 
M.inifesto.lman-e-fest'il) a. a 


1 


^ 


1- 


Mi «. 


I 




pablio deelaraUon. 
Manifold. (man'e-Old) m, 
many ; diverse. 


JU ith 


Ml 
M^ 


1. 


_« »n. 


b) 


Manikin, (man'e-kln) n. a 


Jit le- 


• 




little man. 


2L nd 

< Lk; 

ae- 

4 Ice. 


Ml 

e 

Ml 

a 


a 

L 


Manipolar, (ma*n!p'a-l|r) a. 
pertatning to a hand. 

V. t to irsat, «r labour 


Ui ild 


M( 


a 


with the hand£ 


.Ml I'e- 


( 




Manipulation. (maHnIp-Q-li'- 


i BZ. 


Mi 


n 


shun) n. manual operation. 


,,* 


c 




Mankind, (man-kind') n. tba 


M) lat 


M( 


1. 


human race. 


-/ ^K: 


c 


r. 


Manlike, (manlik) a. becom- 


Ml iof 


M( 


le 


ing a man. 
Manliuess, (manae-nes) a. 


^ 


Mi 


f) 


haTYim..r. jm 


„< 




bravery ; dignity; qualitlee 


''iii-SJti^*^**^ 


Mi 

J, 


r- 


Manly, <manle) m. orave; 


•a emol- ^^ 
li^lOanft: alw wxiftten 


Q 


Manna, (man'a) n. the juioe 
of a txee. used as a medi> 
cine. 


' Malmiej^ (mAm'se) n. a sort 


i 




Manner, (man'sr) (t. form; 


of grape and wine. 


Ml 


a 


way; mode; air or mien. 


Malpraotice.(maI.ptak'ti8)ti. 
evU pnujtice. 


1 




Mannerism, (man'sr-ism) n 


Ml 


B« 


studied uniformity of man- 


Malt, (mawlt) n. badi^ 


u! 




ner. 


gtoeped and dried :-v. i to 

become malt. rmalt*maker. 

Maltster, (mawlt'iter) n. a 


1; 


""sf&a^^^^^^ 


1 


1. 


Ml 


1. 


Manners, (man'erz) a. p<. da- 


Ml 
1 


1') 

6. 


portment. 
Manoeuvre, (ma-ndd'vgr) n. 


meat) ti. ili-tnatment. 


Ml 


n 


evolution ; stratagem ; — 


Ml 


1- 


V. t to manage with ad- 


8httn)n.eTileonduet. 


y 


t- 


dress, (estate in landsL 


] 




Manor, (maa'or) n. a lordli 
Manorial, (ma-no're-al) a. 

pcrtainmg to a manor. 
Mansion, (man'shun) a. a 
^^large dwdling-houw. ^ 


Mamma, (mam-m*0 n. void 


Ml 


t. 


*!Slr'saii-s 


1 
Ml 


;o 

lO 




1 
< 


»■ 


Manslaughter, (man'slawf 
tfir) M. the k/lUng of a per- 



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ft 
n. 


H 








a* 


Hi 








a 


Ml 
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a 


Ml 








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^ 








0- 

to 


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MASK 


176 


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... 


^ ,_-._. 


^.__ ..._^--_.. _ 


. . . «_. — . — . — ,. _ _ 


- Hw 


1 








ce 


u 










u 








ft- 


H 








3C- 


u 








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er 


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n) 


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< 








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1 










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^ 










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m 


«i 








s 


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f 










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► 


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L 


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B. 


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lb 










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f 








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h 


Ml 
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ttf 


^ 

1 








St 


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1 








1. 



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lUZABIRB 



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278 



d 



V 

I 
M( 



h! 






Ut 



i 
lit 
Mc 

t 

lA 

I 

t 

Xc 



He 



it 



Iferamtil*. (mfirncaa-tll) a. 
oommerciaL 

HarceDary, (mflr'M-nar^) a. 
that maj be hired ; greedy 
of ffaUi. [deala in lilkn 

Mercer, (mer'aer) n. <m»irho 

Meroery. (mfirsfir-e) n. the 
goodi of meroers. 

Merchandiae, ( mir ' chan • 
dU) n. goods fur salej 
trade. 

Merchant, (Bi«r'ehani) n. an 
exporter or importer of 
good! ; a trader. 

Merchantable, (mer'eha&t'a- 
bl) a. fit for sale. 

Merchantman, (mer'chant* 
man) n. a ahip employed 
in trade. Lcompaisronate. 

Merciful, (mer'se-fool) a. 

Mercifully, (mfir'se-fool-le) 
ad. with compassion. 

Merdlen,(mir'w*lea} a. hard- 
hearted. 

Mercurial, (mgr-ka're^l) a. 
eompoaed of quicksilTer; 
spirited. 

Mercury, (mfir'ka-re) tt. 
quickailTer ; a planet. 

Mercy, (mer'se) n. tender- 
ness toward an oflTender; 
pardon. tmixed. 

Mtre, (mer) a. pure; un^ 



tre, ( 
crely, 



Merely, (mCrle) ad. singly ; 

only, tus) a. lewd; gaudy. 
Meretricious, (mer-««tnsh'e- 
Merge, (msij) «. t or i to 

immerse. 
Meridian, (ml-rldVan) n. a 

great circle which tha fun 

crosses at noon ; noon. 
Meridional, (me-ad'e-nn-al) 

a. pertaining to the me- 
ridian. 
Merino, (mf-re^nS) n. a rari- 

e t y of 

sheep or 

t h • i r 

weoL 
Merit,(msr'- 

it) n. de- 

s e r t ;' 

worth ; — 

V. f . to cam by serriocf ; te 

deserv e, [deterred. 

Merited, (roer'it-c4) a. 
Meritorious, (msr-e-tO're-os) 

«. deserring reward. 
Merle, (m«rl) n. a black-bird. 




Merriment, fmer'a-mant) tt 
gaiety with lan^tur ; 
noiqr sport. (joTial ; noisy. 

Merry, (mere) a. gay; 

MesentoTi (mos'en-tcre) n. 
a membrane in the intos* 
tines. 

Mesh, (mesh) «. a spaee be- 
tween thrMtds in a net ;— 
V. t to catch in a net. 

Mess, (mes) n. a dish of food; 
—V. i. to Join in a mess. 

Message, (mes'lj) n. notice 
senti olBeial communicap 
tion. 

Messenger, (met'en-jfir) 
one who boars a messa 
a harbinger. 



message; 
the 



Merlin, (mer'lin) n. a kind of 
hawk, [tabled sea^onuui. 
3feimaid, (m9r'maA 



Merrily, (mor e-le) ad. with 
mirth. 



Messiah, (mes-sra) n. 

anointed; CHRIST. 
Messiahship, (mcs-si'a-ship) 

n. office of the Messiah. 
Messuage, (mes'wftj) n. n 

house and adjoining land. 
Metal, (met'al) n. a simple, 

fixed, opaque substanco 

fusible by neat, as iron, 

fto. [taking of metaUr 

Metallic, (me-tafik) a. fax* 
Metalliferous, (met-al-irfit- 

US) a. producing metals.^ 
Metalline, (met'al-in) a. li^ 

metaL [skilled in metals. 
Metallist, (metV-ist) n. one 
MetaUurgic, <met-al-Qr'Jik) 

«. pertaining to mctal- 

M( M. 

II re* 

f 

Mc r* 

i 07 

c 
M« r*- 

f 

Me • 



ii 
Me 



,,^ 



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18S 



XOGTJL 



MteiT*, (mis'iT) « teat or 
thmt maj b« ient;— n. ft 



H 



Bnwige or leiMr tent. 

«pell erroneoulj. 
MiMpend, (mif-cpend') v. t 

[prcl. and pp. minpent] to 

-wmI* or spend IIL 
MiMUtto. (mU-fUf) f . t to 

•Ut« inaocuntely. 
UJMUtement, (mK-tUf- 

meat) «. » vront lUto- 



Uitt, (mill) n. nin in rtry 

fine drop*;— 9. i to x&in in 

flnadr-ps. 
Uiitake, (mis-tikO n. unin- 

tnxtUmal error;— 9. t or i 

to err. 
Mistaken, (mfs-tik'n) pp. or 

a. used ofthU%ot% misunder- 

•tood: u$ed V peitonit 

wrong : being in error. 
lliBtaqght* (mit-tawf) pp. 

oiUiiteach. [teach vrong. 
Viiteacb, (mit-tech') tC t to 
Hister, (mU'ter) n. a title of 
\ addren, used tor master, 
liisterm, (mis-tfirpt') v. (. to 

nanus erroneoosl/. 
Kisthink, (mUthlngk') v. t 

to think erroneously.. 
Kistbought. (mis4hawtO pp. 

Mistime. (mis-tlmO v. t noV 

to time aright. 
Mistiness, (mist'e-nes) n. 
. state of Ming mistj ; ob^ 

scurity* 
Mistle. Seelfiste. . 
Mistletoe. <mi('l-i9)n. aplant 

that grows 

ontreea. 




tians-l 

erroneously. ^ . , 
Mistranslation, (mls*txaas- 

U'shxtn) n. exionteut tmu< 

lation. 
Mistress, (mis'tres) «. a wo* 

man whe geTezas ; ft term 

Miltrust, jmU-tmst') ». wanV 
of confidence r saspieton 'f 
Ik t to regard with fuspl- 

•. faspioioiub 



MirtnstleM, {miM^trutlm) 



mingled mass. 
Miszenmast, (n^z'n-mast) n. 

the mast nearest the stem. 
Mnemonic, (ne-mon'ik) a. 

assisting the memory. 
Mnemonics, (ne-mon'iks) 

/t. pi. the art of memory. 
Moan, (mdn) v. i. or (. to 

mourn i—n, lamentation. 
Moanful, (mSn'fool) a. ex* 

pressing sorrow. 
Moat, (mot) n. ft ditch 

round a oastle. Ac. ;— v. t 

to surroudS-wlik a moat. 
Mob. (mob) n. a tumultuous 

crowd ;— ». t to attack as a 

evowd. 
Mobility, Jmif-bilVteln. ae- 

tiTlty;Bflklr -^ 



; the pop* 



Mocasiia, (mok'a-sin) 1%. a 
•hoo «f wf t leather, with- 



le; 

it: 
ra. 
do. 
ing 

ihe 

191' 



s» 



Modiltfon, (mS-dil'yon) a. a 

kind of bracket. (ablt. 
Modish. (mOd'ish) a. fashko. 
Modishly, (mOd^ith-ie) acL 

fashionably. 
Modiste, (m5<leitO a. a f^ 

male artist in dieit. 
ModuUte, (mod'a-Ut) v. t to 
• ▼ary sound*. 
Modulation, (mDd*&4&'Bhua) 

tk the tot of modulating. 
Modulator, (mod'Q>Ut^r) a. 

that which Taries soonda' 
Module, (mod'al) a» a modol 

or representation. 
Mogul, (m9<gul') a fonnod^ 



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StOHAIK 



isr 



xoinniEirTAL 






II 
U 



u 



v 

K 



u 

21 
II 
H 
JI 
II 
II 
H 

21 
JI 
31 

ai 
11 
u 

k 
u 

w 

I 

Hi 



Monadic, (mon-ftd'ik) a. har- 

Ing the nature of a monad. 
Monaroh, (men 'ark) n. a su- 
preme and perpetual ruler. 
Mbnarehical, {mon-4rk'ik-al) 

a. pertaininff-to a monarch. 
Monarchist, (mon'arktisi) n.' 

a friend to monarchy. 
Monarchy, Imon'ark-e) n. 

ffOTemment vested in one 

man: a kingdom. 
Monastery, <mon'as-tfir*e) n. 

a house of monks. 
Monastic, (mon-as'tik) a. per- 

taining to monks; seoluaed. 
Monasticism, (mon-as'te> 

siam) n. monastic life. 
Monday, (mnn'dl) n. seoond 

day of the neek. 
Monetary, (mun'e-tar-e) a. 

relating to money. 
Money, (mun'e) n. coin for 

current use in trade» or a 

suhstituto for it; pi. 

M one vs. 
Money-broker, (mun'8-brQk- 

M :h; 

] Jso 



>fa 
ni- 



■al) 



Monogamy, (mon-og'a-malNb 

marriage to one wif& 
Monogram, (mon'0-gram) n. 

.aciphercom* 

toosed of let* 

ten inters 

woven. 



Monograph, 
(mon C-graf) 




n.anaocouni 

of a single 

thing. 
Monographic, (moQ*0-graf'- 

ik) a. pertaiidnf to a Inono- 

graph. 
Monologue, (mon'S-Iog) a. a 

speech by one person. 
Monomania,(mon-o-nia'ne>a) 

n. derangement of a single 

mental faculty. 
Monomaniac, (mon'S-ma''ne- 

ak) n. a* person affected by 

monomania. 
Monopoll>t,(mon-op'ol-iit)N. 

one who monopofizee. 
Monopoliie, (mou-op'oMi) 

V. t. to engross tlie wholei. 
Monopoly, (mon-op'o-le) «. 
. entire control or approycla^ 

tlon. 
MonosylIabIc,(mon-9HriMab^ 
■ ik) a. of one syllable oalTt 
Monosyllableu imon-0-sU'W 

bi) n. a word of one syllablak 
Monotheism ^ mipn-Mnfim) 

n. the Ulief in one Ood 

only, [ftmeness of sound. 
Monotone, (mon'0-ton) n. 
Monotonous, (mon-ot'on^os) 

a. in the same tOM; withe 

out variety. 
Monotony, (mon<otVna) n. 

nnif ormity ol tone ; want 

of variety. 
Monsoon, hnoa's66i4 n» a 

periodical wind. 
Monster, (mon'stfir) n. some* 

thing horrid or unnaturaL 
Monstrositv, (mon-stroB'»-te) 

n. state of being monstrous. 
Monstrous, (mou'stms) a. 

unnaturaL 
Monstrously, (mon'stnxs-Ie) 

ad. in a shoeking, ua- 

natural manner. 
Month, (munth) n. eoid r^ 

volution of the moon ; also 

the twelfth part of the year. 
Monthly, (munth'Ie) a. hap* 

pening every month. 
Monument, (mon'tl-ment) n. 

a memorial ; a tomb. 
Monumental, (mon-Q*meAt'« 

al) «. presam&s i 



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XOOB 


ISA XOTOa 




^$^}!(U 


(moTHda'Mhto) *. 


one who exccutca a mort* 
gage- 


1 


a 


Uortifieatfon. (mor-te-fe-kf* 




in 




hamoored. 


1 


In 


Mortify, (mor'te-fl) ». t or t 


Moon, (mMn^ «. a Hitemto 




ad. 


to corrupt ; to humble. 






«rtiT»iss;?«t 


found it ; a month. 


1 


■d 


Ifoonli8lit.(m66n'lit)it. Bght 




idi. 


M?rUs*e,"*1inor'tfs) n. aa 


of the mooa. ^ 






lloor, (mMr) n. a bUck man; 


1 


>na 


openins or cut to reoeiTe a 


a manh ;— v. t to secure a 




the 


tenon ;— «. t to form witb 


▼enel bj «ablet and aa- 




et 


1 '•— 


dion. 


i 


lel- 


U an 


Hoorage. (mMr'U) n. a plaeo 


^he 




for mooring thiiMi. 

hold a chip. Ifeuny. 




iM 


M rk 






bd 


1 


th. 


1 rs; 




dn 


i«; 


1 


ih. 
in; 


li 


m» Ifenny. 


i 


ul- 


) 


M 001 manby ; 




ISS. 


M a 


Mool » discoM 


I 


n. 


1 n> 


or < lutable. 


1 


a 


1 la. 


Hoof u* N. a 






M )to 




y 


EOd 


1 i~ 


Mop. (mop) n. a cloth or col- 
lection ox thrums for clean- 






{ 


y 


an 


M ni 


ing floors, kc;—v. t to 
wipe with a mop. 




pi- 






>. 


U In 


Mope, (mop) V. i to be dull 
or •piriUMii— «. a stupid 


y 


i*y 


J 2 


penoB. fspirltless. 


y 


te; 


i 


Mopish, (mBp'ith) a. duU; 






M he 


Moppet, (mop'et) n. a puppet 


y 


eot 


1 le. 


made of eloth. 




a; 


n dl 


Moral, (moral) a. pertaining 






M la. 


to practice or manners in 


y 


n. 


1 


referenoe to rlffht and 




re* 


M fe. 


wrong; virtuous; mental: 
^bfafablo. , 


y 


10 

y. 


1 lb. 

1 la. 


Moralist, (mor'al-ist) n. <m« 


\y 


se- 


i 


who teaches morality. 






M d) 


Morality, (mCrale-te) «. 






t 


crstem or praetioe of moral 






M' ke 

I ly. 


MonOise.fmor'al-Is) 9. t at 
i. to disooHrM on moral 






M ^ 

M( Ik 


•nbioeU : to apply to moral 




a 


'i a 


MoSSSniior'al.le) ai.*honl 




"^ra^"{i^.M 


y 


Cor 

a 


«i 1 


sound or healthy. 
Morbidness, (mor'bid-nes) n. 
_ a diseased sute. 




.u 




se- 


1 £. 


I 


n. 
iSe 


JI; £ 








< a. 


a.bitiiic;»nastic. I 


_ H.lM< ^1 



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mwmom, im 


JKYXBOLOOt 


^ - I. 


K 


^ 


r* 




vU 


i t 


M 

m' 


.10 


J L 




Nft 


1 


M 


ka. 


1 B) 




U 


1 t) 


M 
t 


*p. 


] 1. 


4 


'a 


] «. 


M 


nL 


] k* 


u' 


bea 


1 !t 


1 

1^ 


& 


»; 


1 


ae. 


1 *. 


1 




r- 


M' 


lb* 


r. 


] 


^* 


] t 


^ 


tt 


If 


1 




r. 


m' 


at- 


1 « 




b 


X- 


1 


Ml 


^ 


U^ 


A, 


1 %. 


Ml 

1 




1 »- 


M 




« 


1 


a 


f 


m! 
1 


ho 


r. 


1 


in- 


1 i) 


Ml 






MJ 


lb- 

4. 


] »- 


1 




i- 


M 

1 


ho 


D- 


M 
M 


> 


g 


1 


B. 


lo 


M 




L 




I& 


ij 


M 


Oc 


a 


t 


df 


ratlMliiM. [n%iM meftL 


i 

M' 


1*1 


dy or harmony. [dioos. 
Kuiioal. (ma'tik-al) a. melo. 


1 
M' 

Ml 









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1 



THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



r^r' 



Itt 



. «. Mate «l biinrolMid7 «> 




akly. [Uuit mart be. 

Haeiwiy, (Mi'fli-Mr«) «. 
IlMeniUU. (aMes'»ttt) 

«l1 toeompeL 
HMsnitoaa. (nMM'rii^ «. 

Tnyneedj. 



tliat vhkli mut b»: _ 

tnoM indigweak 
Hetk, (nek) a. the peri be. 

tweentlieheed end bodj; 

a nexToWtnet of lend. 
Ileekelotli. (nek'Uoth) «. a 

doth for men'i neoka. 
Beekerohief, (nek'trH^if) n. 

aelothforthepeck. 
Veekleee, (nck1«e> n. a 

ttringot 

lit""'/' — ^• 

MgisteroC T 

the deed; 

or of '^•Mht. 
Beeromaneer, (nek'kO*ma&* 

eor) n. a conjurer. 
Beoromeney, (uek'r9-maa-w) 

n. conjontion. 
Beotar, (nok'iar) n. the 

febUd drink of the goda 
Bect&rean, (nek-ti're-aa) «. 

Lke nectar. 
BeeUrial. (nek-U*re^) a. 

perUining to the oeotery 

•fa»lant. 
Bectarine (nek'ta-rin) a. « 

tmlt of tiio plum kind. 
Beetary, (n«k'tar-e) n. the 

honey-cup ci a flower. 
Heed, (ned) n* ooeaaion for 

lomefching -r-v. t to want ; 

-H». i to be wanted, (wry. 
Needful, (n«d'fool) a. necee- 
Beodle, (n«'dl) n. a pointed 

inatmment for eewiug, 

and |br the mariner^ com- 
». Em*"*' *" ** fo5?__fa »to 



)a 
o_ 
Ph. 

.cC 
la 

ih. 



rda 
of 

KtO 



an 

J— 
k. 



at 

*. 
ta 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGUSH LANGUAGE. 







189 


JTOlOVATKnr 


& 






lli 


S: 






^ 


V( 
















S; 






ia 


» 






bo. 
ia 


vi 






by 


Vi 






Jy. 

A. 



xi 
vi 



Bl 



Si 



Si 

i 

i 

i 

m 

Kl 
SI 

SI 

s! 



th« 



Ilk* 

iia. 
ith 
ien. 
nt 



X 



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190 




H^^....- . — „--.-_.. ^ 




& 


V'i 




Zi 


ff! 




Km 


Vi 




re- 

ot- 


S< 




ffl. 


K| 




if 


< 
< 












S< 




to 


nI 




ok . 


N< 




bsr 


nI 




«» 


1 

1 






Vi 




Ik 


Si 




I'- 


Ni 




ll 


N( 




r 


N( 




N.- 


nI 




X* 


Ni 




y. 
n. 


N( 




«> 
r; 


Vt 




a* 


v\ 




17 

to 


4 




to 


Hi 







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A DICTIONARY oFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



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IM 



ocxjAsnnr 



Obdtek, (•Ve-Usk) n. a qxtad- 
rtngnlar 




polniee. 
ObeT.(»-l>«') •• t to oomplj 

with ; to Mrforni. 
out, (O'biO «. doaih; £e- 

Obltr «v*»/i»^j,^) „, n 

i2 "" 

Obje I. that on 

wh iploycd. 

Oliiw »• t to op- 

pot ' reaious. 

Otue( L'alivm} n. 

ad^ 

ObJ« »-i6k'Bhao> 

a-b oujeotiona. 

Obie< 'iv) o. coo- 

tai iecl 

Obje fir) «. ono 

wh 

Obla . broad or 

flattened at th« polea 

Oblation, (ob-U'ihun) n. an 
olTerinfii 

Obliffate, (ob1«-glt) «i I. to 
bind OT«r biy ooutraot or 
dutj. 

Obligation. (ob-le*gt'Bhim)ii. 
the binding force of a vow, 
law, or duty : a bond. 

Obligatory, (obOe-ga-tor-e) a. 
impoeing an obligatitms 
bindinip 

ObUee. (S-bmi fi t to con- 
strain ; to bind : to gratify. 

Obligee, (ob-le-J8') n. one to 
whom a bond ii ezeouted. 

Obliging, <0-bUj'ing) a. di»> 
poeed to do favoura; en* 
gaging. [civilly. 

0Migingly,(9-blU'ine-le) ad, 

Oblique,(ob-i«k'}a. deviating 
from a right line t not par- 
allel ; inmrect Idireotly. 

Obliuiely, <ob-l«kae) ad. not> 

ObUqUtT. (ob-li]c'we4e) ft. 
deriation from a right 
line, or from moral recti- 
tnda. [to blot out. 

gbliterata. (ob-Ut'er-at) v. t 
bliteimtton, <ob-lU-er'g- 
ahvn) N. aet of blotting 



ObliTion, (ob.Iir'a-an) «. fov- 

getfuliMM. 
ObliTlow, (ob-llT'e-ne) ^ 

eausing forgatf olnoM ; f6r* 

getfuL 
Oblong, (oblong) a. longer 

than broad;— n. a figare 

longer than it is bruad. 
Oblo<iuy, (ob'10-kwo) n. cal* 

nmnions language. 
ObiioxiouB, (ob-nok'ihe-vs) a. 

liable ; exposed. 
Ohtoone, (ob-6«n') a. groeely 

indelicate and disgusting. 
Obscenity, (ob-sen'e-te) n. 

impurity in expreseion, or 

in representation. 
Obecuration,(ob-sk or-l'iliiin) 

n. the act of darkening. 
Obscure, (ob-skor') a. dark r 

gloomy ; not easily under* 

stood ; not mnoh known ;— 

V. t to dariten ) to eload ; 

tp perplex. [darkly. 

Obscurely, (oVskOr'le a± 
Obscurity, (ob-skor'e-te) n. 

state of being obecure} 

darkness ; privacy. 
Obeecration, (ob-s«*krA'8hun) 

M. entreaty. 
Obsequies, (ob'sS-kwix) n. pL 

funeral solemnities. 
Obsequious, (ob-sO'kwe-us) a. 

•abmissive. • 
Obsequiously. (ob^lcwe-aB* 

le) ad. with serrila oom- 

Dlianoa. 
Obsequioosness, (ob-sCkwe* 

tts-nes^n. raeanooupliauoe; 

seivility. 
Observable, (ob-ignr'a-bl) a. 

that may be observed ; re* 



ObsoletnasL (ob'sQ-let-nM) «. 

state of disuse. 
ObsUclcu (ob'sta-kl) «. tliar 

whichhinden; obstruction. 
Obstetric, (ob-stet'rik a. per* 

taining to midwifery. 
N/bstinacy, (ob'ste-nas^) «. 

stubbornness. [bom. 

Obstinate, (ob'ste-ntt)a.stub* 
Ol)stinately, (ob'ste-nat4e) 

<u(. stubbornly. 
ObBtreperons,(ob<«ti«p'er-ni) 

a. clamorous; loud; tttrbU' 

lent. 
Obstrsperovsly, (ob-etrep'ciw 

ns*le) ad. clamoroualy; tur* 

bulently. 
Obstruct, (ob^tmktO «. 1 to 

hinder; to stop; to block 

01 nn^ 



Observably, (ob^erVa-ble) 
ad. in a manner worthy of 
note. ,1* • V 

Obsen-anoe, (ob^gr^'anf) n. 



. 



01 



)9. 

dor 
isa 

» 

on 



01: 




a. 


Ot 




to) 


Ob 
i 




£ 


01 




>t 


Ob 




& 


oi 




«i 


C 




Isu 


Ob 




t 


Ob 




>c 


t 




s 


t 




a. 


Ob 




«» 


Ob ._ . 




- -- m 


toward 






Obviate, 


(oVre-It) «L 


t to 


meet; 


to prerant; 


tero. 



Obvious,(o'b'T».as)a. endsnli 
Obviously. (ob'Te-os-teTiiS 

•vidently. 
Oosasiom (ok-kA'ihim) n. * 



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1 

J 

i 

i 
i 


19& 


OBzn 


9» 
M. 

M. 

al) 
n« 
»d. 

<is 

'«• 

h« 

io> 

its 

ho 
sr- 

ho 

er- 

H- 

lu- 

BQ^ 

5" 
& 
5 

ra> 

10- 

r- 

10- 

9- 








to) 

Dg 

■n. 

r: 

>r. 
s: 








n» 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY 



IM 



oTixzoim 



like bone [boiM. 

OmIoI*. (ot'e-kl) n. a imaU 
OiKflc. (oMirU) a. harinr 

power to onitj. 
OMtfloatkn, (oi-M-fa-kt'> 

■kon) m. tha prooets o< 
. ekftnging to bane. 
OHify. (o?fe-fl) •. L or i to 

ehaogo to bone 
OMiTorooi, (o4-<iT'S4Qi) c. 

faodinc on bones. 
Osteneibie, (oe-ten'ie-bl) a. 

•apparent 
Osteneiblr, (oe-teti'ao-ble) ad. 

plaasiblj. 
08tcn<ive.(Qe-ten'ilT)a. tend> 

ing to shoir ; exhlbitinir- 
OitenUtion, (oi-ten-t&'shan) 

n. ambitious display. 
' Ostentation t. (os-teo-tA'she* 



Ct 



Oi or 

UuBhir Uwt r** i to be 
rootalbr neoessary; to be 
' obliged. 

Ounce, (onns) n. 12ih of a 
pound trov, and I6th of a 
pound avoirduiMia Lua 

Our, (our) a. pertainine to 

Oun, (uui-x) f/Toa. noting 
what bcloug* to ns. 



Outermost, (oufer-mCst) o. 
on the extreme *>art. 

Outface, (out-f&s') ». L to bear 
down with, impudence. 

Outfit, (out fit) n. equipment 
for a Toya^pe. 

Ontgeneral, (out-jen'er^il) 
9. t to exceed in guneral- 
ship. limss. 

Outgo, (out-ffS') ». t to 8ur- 

OutgoiDff, (out'gO*ing} a. act 
of going out 

Outgrow, (out-gtO 0. t to. 
surpass in growth. 

Outherod.(out-her'od)v. t to 
exceed in cruelty or absur- 
dity. 

Outhouse, (oufhous) n. an 
appendage to the mansion. 

Outlandish, (out-land'isb) a. 
foreign; rustic. 

Onllast, (out-last') v. t to 
exceed in duration. 

Outlaw, (out^law) n. one ex- 
eluded from the bene tit of 
the law;— r. t to depnve of 
the benefit of the law. 

Outlawry, (out'law-re n. act 
of depriving of the benefit 
or protection of the I4W. 

Outlax* (out'U) «. expendi- 
ture. 

Outlet, (outlet) n. a passage 
outward. 

Outline, (outlln) 11. the ex- 
terior line of a figure; a 
sketch. [Vive 

Outlive, (out-liv') v. t. to sur- 

Outmost, (out'mOst) a. furth- 
est in the extremity. 

Outnumber, (eut-num'bfir) 
V. (. to exceed in number. 

Outppst, (out'pOst) n. a sta- 
tion without a oamvt or al 
a distance. 



Oobonr. (oat-pftO » t to 
pour ewt [aiAulOB. 

Ontpooxing; (ont'pltf^Jng) «. 

Outrage, (ont'rU) •. t to l» 
•ultj-N. Tloleneejiasal*. 

OtttrBgeovs, (ont-rU'e-ns) «. 
exoeeding all bounds o< 
reasozi, deeenqr, ftd 

OutreaA, (ont-i«oh') tk t to 
go or eztaad beyond. 

Gutiide, (oat-iUP) k. t to 
xida faster than. 

Outrider, (oot'iid-er) «. an 
attenduig ■errant on hmw 
back. rnadlately. 

Outright, (onfxitl od: im- 

Outrun, (oat-mn'') ti t to 
tnrpasiinmnniag} to eat- 

OtttsaiL (oat-OlO «. 1 to 
leave oehind in sailing. 

OntselL (out sel') at to ex- 
ceed in amonns of sales. 

Outset, (ont'set) Ml. beginning: 



opening. 

Outshine, Jont-shln') « t It 
excel in orightneMi 

Outside, {out%d) n. the out- 
ward part 

Outskirt, (out'skfirt) It bm^ 
der i suburb. 

Outspread. (out-spredO « t 
to 81/read open : to diffuse. 

OnUtanding, (eut-stand'ing 
a. npt collected : unpaid. 

Outstretch, (out-stieoh') % t 
to extend far. 

Outstrip, (out-strip') VL t t 
outgo : to exoeeu : to leav* 
belund. 

OutTute, (out-vCf) t t to ex- 
ceed in the number of 
rotes. 

Outwalk, rout-wawk')». t to 
leave behind in walking. 

Outward, (out'werd) a. ex- 
ternal;— ad. toward the 
outoide. [externally. 

Outwardly, (out'w»d-le) ad. 

Outwear, (out-w&r) •. t to 
endure or wear longer 
than. 

Outweigh, (ont-wt') sl 1 to 
:oeeain " 



weight or ^ 

Outwit, (out-ii^t') «. t to 
overoome by stratagem. 

Outwork, (out'wurk) n. 1^ 
fortification. 

Oral, (S'val) a. of the fomol 

an egg; ob- ^ 

Iouk;— n. a /^ ^S. 
body shaped ( ) 

like an eg^ V ^ 

Otarious, &» ^ 1-^^ 



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A DICTIONARY w im ENGLISH LANGUAGE 





arm 


m 


07ZBW0BX 


* 






T 









t- 









^ 









9 









i 









? 









t 


» 






a. 









L 









to 









t 









1. 


-> 






1- 









3. 









t 


a 






^ 


a 















1. 









x« 









» 









a 
I- 


o 















r. 











u 






t 











c 






1') 


c 






f. 


c 









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THE POPUUR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



OVICVLAB 198 FALSSTBIO 


Orioolar, (O-Tlk'Qler) a. p«r. 
plaining to an effg. 


Ownenhip. (Cn'flr-nhlp) n. 
ezcluiivo right of peeeea 


Oxygen. (obi>Jen)n. ft Wnd 


Orifornu (9'T«*fonn) a. egg- 


don. 
Ox, (ok»)^ii. a malo of 
tha bOTina genua; fL 


•old* ; the req>irable part 
of air. 


OTiparouf, (5-Tip'ar-iu) a. 


Oxygenate. fal«'iJ.«^U)ir. t 
to cause to combuM with 
oxygen. 


oit, (0)Tf io^ indebtod. 


Oxen. 
Oxalic, (oka-al'ik) a. relftthig 


Owing. (5'lng) ppr. or a. due; 


toBorrcL 


Oxygenous, (^ks-ij'len^is) a. 


Owl. (owl) m. a fowl that 
flies aft night 


Oxyd. (okf'id) n. a oom- 
Mood of oxygen amd a 


o^j^S^?2SuMr« 


Own, (5n) a. noting proper- 
ty ; belonging to ;—». t to 


Oxydation. (oka-ld-t'ibun) ». 
operation of cooTerting in* 


*%?-J3fS!/.*»'*^ 


ax ow ; to poMcat. 
Owner. (On'er) n. tha rifhi- 


to an oxyd. 


OioM, .sami «. a ptoOtai 
Dnndslo ia tta* ttanm. 


Cxydiie. (otald-Ii) v. t to 


f ul proprietor of anj thing. 


ooaTartiotoaa.oxjd. ph«n.~ 1 


P. 


PABULAR, -(DaMl-Ur) a. Pa ».. 


p>..*.I_t_^ l^'s^.^ 


t 


^ ,' 


P«^ ga 


1 E. 
< 


P; iJ 


Pa e 


h 


i 


Pa tl. 


Pa 


c 


1 


P& a 


Pi > 





1 
Pa 


Pa on 


Pi 
1 i 


^' 


vi 


^ " 


4 

Pa e 


1 


1 
Pa H 


P.* 


PJ i;i 


Pa no 


Pi >: 


> ri- • 
; al 


p; 1 


Pa to 


] »• 
1 >• 


t Lk. 
Pa of 


P^ a 


t .a 


pJ 


P^ »I 


1 1. 


Pa 


Pa i 


1 of 


( f. 
Pi »; 


Pa ^ 

1 


^ '^ 


« re) 


Pi [I 


pi 


1 
Pa k 


1 


i »P» »»• 1 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHS ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 





^Asxrn 


199 








' • ■• • ' ~ 






lai. 


i 








n. 
an- 


J 
] 

1 

] 

J 
] 








Ik) 
1. 

m'- 
ia 

tb« 

kaL 
a 
n. 

«J 

.f«) 

n. 

mb 

ik) 
en 
>w. 

o't 
oft 


] 








Ice 


i 
i 

J 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

i 

1 








la. 

QOO 

oq; 
>.t 

la'- 
of 
an* 
je, 

75- 

;S 

a. 
y. 

0T-, 

or 

an 
fcb« 


J 








tlo. 



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THE POPULAR AMEmCAN DICTIONARK 





FAXODT 


Fuabola. (pa»tk'0-la) M. " * 


te« 


Purabolie. /\ 




(parni-bol'lkj / \ 


i«r 

M. 


PuachuU. (par'ft-ihd6t)ii. 


3» 


initra- ,i,nifc 


na* 






prevent \v\x!mfPIP97/ 


^> 


JY^dZ N^IIMr 


9B, 


■cent in >^lU»r 






*'. 


ir- 


Fttf^eta^ ^^11^ 




kG5 !."» oomforter; i 


a. 




n; 


pouB «£dbition; mil!u 
dispUy;— 9. i. to assembl 


. a 


ia. 


u troops ;— v. t, to displi 
FttnuUffm. (par'aHilim) ». i 


Mt 


exampl0i amodeL 


sr* 


'visssr^'-^ 


£ 




in 


al) a. p«rtalQi]iff to pai 
PuradoK, (iMr'a-dok*) n. 


let 


or 
m 


teMt feamiBgly abfoi 


ra 


yettrua. 


le- 


Pkiadozieal, (par-a-doks'i 




al) a. kaYing the n«tttre 
a paradox. 


e 


ing a ayllable or letter. 


m, 


Paragon, ftwur'a-gon) n. pa 
term ef ezoeUencK 


n- 


diatinat partof a discoun 


n« 


or 


Pfcrallaotie, (p«r-a-lak'tik) 
pertaining to a parallax. 


le 


n. 


Pamllaz. (par'a-iaks) n. tl 
change of place in aheavei 


c • 


nr> 


\j body as viewed froi 
diflreTent points. 


to 


to 


Parallel^ar'al-leDa. equal! 






n* 


st 


points:— V. (. to compare. 




ParaUebW (par'al-leMzti 
^n. state of being parallel. 


^r. 




Parallelegram, (par-al-lel' 


re 


figure oi\ ^ 


D. 


«* 


wlMse ep^ \ 


>*' 


are equal and paxaUeL 


.. . V» 



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^ TMSEB 202 




P&Un, iv^t'tn) n. a maU i Pi 


onx 


pUte nted at ih« euckarlit. 






Patent, (iwt'ent) a. a crant 


Pi 


an 


of ezeloaire rt«ht ;-^: f. to 




nt. 


make a public grant of »- 


( 


.ol 


Patent, 'dSS-ent^O n. one 

to whom a patent U gnat' 

ed. (erlj : herwfitary. 

PatoniaU(pa-tfirW)a. fath- 

Pate, aty, (pa-tfir'ne-te) n. 


Tt 


its 


i 
Pa 


om 
lia. 


the relation of a father. 


Pa 




Paternorter, (pat'er-noe-tir) 


* J 


kL 


^•1., the Lord'i prayer. 


\ 




Path, (path) n. a way trod hy 


^ 


let 


man or beaet;oonrM of 


Pa 




life:~«.t to tread into a 
pfihitJe, (pa-thet'Ie) a. af. 


1 


rL 


1 
Pa 


Ik 


feoting or "»«-*"» ♦»•- •'ika- 


1 




■ions. th. 


1 


us 


Pathlese, (p ar- 


Pa 






< 


ti- 


me) n. ex the 


1 




paMionsai 


Pa 


of 


Patholoffio. 1 a. 


1 


itL 


pertaining 


Pa 


:» 


Pathologist, irt) 
n. one irt pa^ 


i 
< 


lal 


thology. 


Pa 


1. 


■^a-lasj^rsili^' -^ 


Pa 


BOS. 




tb- 


Paihoe. (pt'thoi) n. warmth; 

paedoa: that which ex- 
Pathway, (path VI) a a path 

eondactiug to any point. 
Patienee. (paihe^mern. the 

power of ittftering ; pene- 


S 


iL^ 


1 
t 


•d 


Pa 


rL 


( 


ho 


^( 




Teranee. 


Pa 


n. 


Patient, (pl'ihe-ent) «. en- 




^• 


during without murmnr^ 


■^ 


■1- 


ing ;— n. a sick person. 


Pa 


oC 


Patiently, 'pa'sho-ent-le) ad. 


Pa 


lA 


without discontent; calm- 


1 


ih 


ly. 


Pa 


of 


Patriarch, (pa'tre-Ark) «. the 


i 


It. 


head of a family or ehuruh. 


i 


ea 


Patriarchal, (pa-tro-Ark'afi a. 
pertaining to a patriarch. 


Pa 


s? 


I 


I*. 


Patrician, (pa-trish'ean) a* 


c 


.» 


of noble family i—n, a no- 
bleman. 


Pa 


d- 


I 

1 


a 




Pa 


th 


- tanoe. 


» 


it- 


Patrimony, (pat're-mun-e) n. 


I 


b. 


an esUto derired by In- 


Pa 


let 


heritanoe. 


I 


»- 


Patriot, (pa'tre^t) m. one 


c 


«. 


*^whotoTeehi«eountiT. 
Patriotic. (p^treHrt/il) o. 
having lore to one'a coun- 


c 


BO 


pi 


to 


tr/. c 





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A DIGTlONARYtFTHK ENGUSH LANGUAfii 



nszpvzmcovT 



PZBTIVAOZTr 



t.t 


Pi 


w- 






P« 


rE'. 




of 


Pc 


^r) 




1 a 


P« 


OS. 




a. 




le) 






Pf 


&t) 




te) 






Pfl 


to 




>g) 


1 



te) 



PerspicK* 

oiouB, (per-spe-kA'she-ui) 

a. quick-sighted; diaoeni' 

ing. 
Perspicacity, (per«pe-kas'*- 

te)n. acuteaeiaof d^em- 

ment or sight, 
renyicmty. (pflr«p»>k.Q'*-t«) 

n. clearness. 
Perspicuous. (per-spik'Q-vs) 

a. clear: plain. '^ 

Perspirable, (per'q>lr'a-bl) a. 

that may be perspired. 
Perspiration, (per-spe-ri'- 

shun) n. ezoretlon through 

the pores ; sweat 
Perspire, (per-spir') v. t or 

i to- emit fluid fnatter 

tbruugh tho poros; to 

sweat 
Persuade. (per-swidOv- (. to 

induce oy argument or on* 

treaty. 
Persuosible, (per-sw&'ze-bl) 

a. tliat may be pei^uaded. 
Persuasive, (iier-sw&'tdv) a. 

tending to persuade. 
Persuasiveness, (per-sw&'siv* 

nes) n. quality of being 

persuasive. 
Pert, (pert) a. smart; brisk; 

Pertain, (per-tta') v. i. to be* 

long : to relate. . 
Pertinacious, (per-to-n&'sho* 

us) a. holding hrmly to any 

opinion or purpose. 
Pertinacity, (pcr-te-nas'e-te) 

n. obstinaey in adhereaosb , 



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7XRTINEKCE 20« 


?HI£OS0PHSS 


Pertinenoe, (pcr'te-ncns) n. 
fltneas ; ■aiUblenesa. 


p-' -.•:.._- 


ISO 


Pertinent, (pcr'te-uent). a. 


pi 








n. 


FBrtinently, {pcr'te-nenMe) 






^ad. to the purpose, 
^id/** oA Bmartly ; 


P« 


m 


5brtPsJ(p€rt'nM) n.qiiality 




S 


_of being pert ; saucinees. 


P« 




ferturbate. (pcr-ti4rb'fit) ». t 
to disturb the mind: to 


P< 


N. 




a 


^affiUte. 

Perturbation, (per-turb-E'- 
8huD) n. dititurbance of the 


P< 


la 




tt, 


mind or passions; disquiet. 


P< 


iL 


Peruke, <p€-rak'. per'ook) «. 

an artinci&l cap of h&ir. 
Perasal, (per-QtIil) n. act of 


.** 


«. 




sw 


pleading, [with aUention. 


pi 


Qt 


Pwruae, (per-D«') ». 1. to read 


?c 




Pervade, (per-tftd') r. t to 


* ( 


I'. 


pass throush. 




IJC>> 


Porrasion, (pep-Tl'«hxin) n. 


Pc 




act of perradia^^. 


< 


\tB 


Pervasive, (per^v&'siv) &* 


Pc 


L 


tending to pervade. 


J 


it- 


Pcrvene, (per-vfirs') a. obeii- 


Pe 




natein the wrong; froward. 


1 




Perrerseneio, (pei'-vfirs'nes) 


Pe 


U> 


n. quality of beuigpervcrse. 
Perversion, (per-vor'shaB) n. 


1 
Pc 


>a> 


a diverting from the pro- 


1 




per use. 


f 


n) 


Perversity, (per-Tcn'a-te) «. 


Pe 


2 


eroEs disposition. 


i 


Perversive, (iier-vsrs'Jv) o. 
tending to pervert 


i 
Pc 


A, 


Perv.ert, (per-vfirt') v. t to 
turn from truth; to cor- 


> 


>'- 


1 


u 


rupt. 


Pe 




Penert, (pcr'vfirt) n. a Tro- 
testant who has embraced 


pi 


n 


Popery. 


1 




Pervious, (pfit've-us) a. that 


Pc 


2 


may be peneti-attd. 


1 


n. quality of be iug pervious. 


Pc 




fi 


ly 


Pest, (pest) H. plasue; pesti- 


Pe 




lence. 


( 


i) 


Pester, (pcs'tfit) v. t to haraoB 
with fittlo vexations; to 


I 


y. 


re 


m 


annoy. 


Pe 


Pest-house, (pestTiorfs) n. an 




19 


hospital for iufectioxis por- 


Pc 


V-' 




I'e 


Pf 


Pestiferous, (pes-tif 'fii^us) a. 


i 


O. 


pestilence, (pes ' te - len-y 


Pe 


io 


n. coutagioos distemper; 


Pe 


o- 


PeBtifeut, (pes 'te- lent) a. 


1 


iio 


Pe 




noxious to health, morals. 


i 


It 


society, &c. 


Pc 


Ott 


Pestilential, (pcs-to-ltiii'sho- 


i 





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7HIL0S0PBI0AL 



t 



Phflosophical, (fll^^f ik-al) 
a. pertauimff or aooordius 
to Philosophy i latioual 

Riiloaophioally, (fll^sof ik- 

»}-le) ud. aecordiDff to 

PhUosophy, calmly 
njlosopfuxe, »fil-o* u-fiz) v t. 

to rea«ou like a phUoao- 

Phor. 
Philosophy, (fil-os'G-fe) n. 

general laws or prmoiples 

ofMience. Ito excite loxe 
P^lten (fil'ter) j». a potion 
Phil, (lizi n. the face; visage. 
Fhlebotomist, (flc-bot 0-mibt) 

«. one who lets blood with 

a lancet. 
Phlebotomy, (fle-bot'Ome) n. 

•At or art oi opening a 

▼em. 
Phlevm. (flem) n. cold ani« 

mal fluid. 
Phle«matio, (flpg-mat'ik) a. 

abounding with phlegm; 

cold. 
Phonetic, {fo-netik) & ro- 

Utmg to the representa* 

tion ox fioonds by ohaiac* 

Phonography, (fo-n^g'ra-fe) 
». a lepreaentatiou of 
•ounds, each by its die- 
tinotire character. 

Phpnolory. Ifo-noro-je) «. 
the solence of vocal ele> 
mentary sounds. 

Phosphoresce, (fes- forces') 
V. i. to exhibit a phosphor- 
ic light 

A'hosphoresoenoe, (fos-for-es'* 
ens) n. a faint light with- 
out heat. 

Phosphorescent, (fos-for-es'- 
eut) a. fchlning without 
heat. 

Phosphorio. (fo^for'ik) se. ob- 
tamed from phosphorus. 

Phosphorus, (fos fur-u3) n. a 
combustible substance ex- 
hibiting a faint light in 
the dark. 

Photogenic, (fM3-jen'ik) a. 

producing ligJit. 
J'hoto^fraph, (fO'tO-'fraf) n. 
a picture obtamed by fix- 
r ing the images of the 
camera obscura en chcini- 
cally prepared. surfiioes. 

Phrase, tfi&t) n. a sentence ^ 
mode of speech . Ktyl«* i— 
V. t to n&uw or bt>lo. 
Pbraseolosy, (frft«e-oi'o-je} 
iMn«to of g pe e c li. 




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PKOXDLLtfB 



FLAOVB 



la 

u 



a) 



t* bind the 

vringt or 

arms. 
I'ink, (pingk) 

n ft flower ; a gmall eye 

reddish colour;— ». L 

work with ejelet-holes. 
rinmoney, (pin'mun-*) « 

■rife's poekei-moMjr. 



Pianaelek (irfnVkl) m. a tar- 
rat; aammit; hicneat point. 

Pint, (pint) n. haU a onart. 

FiAtla.(pin'tl) n. a little pin; 
» Ions iron bolt. 

Ptoneer. (pi*0-ner') «. one 
iTM co«s b«fMW t* ^ear 
iho waj. [godlj. 

Plova, (pi'as) «. relisieua; 

eimage,*& 
Pip*, (pip) M> a tabe : m cask; 
— ». «. or ' '^ — * ' 

pjp)^ (pip'kia) ni a imall 



: t U play on a 
[earthen ooiler 



Pippin, (pip'ia) n. a speeies 

of apple. 
Piananoy, (pik'an*se) n. 

Marpness: Mverity. 
Piquant, (pik'ant) r. prick* 

inffi punsent: eevere. 
Pique, (pek) n. offence taken; 

—v. I. to offend; to nettle; 

to itimulate. 
Piquet, (pe-kef) tt a game at 

cards. 
Piracy, (xd<ri'se) n. robbery 

•a ike Beas; literary theft. 
Pinte, (pl'rftt) n. one that 

robe on the seaa ;— ». f. or 1 

to rob on the aea ; to take 

without permifliion. 
Piratical, (pl-rat'ik-al) a. 

praetising robbery on the 

Piscatorial. (pi»-kfc-t9're^) 
a. that relates to fisKing. 

Piscatory, (pis'kft-tor-e) a. 
relating to fishes. 

Pish, (pish) ex. expression of 
eoatempt. [of a plant. 

Pistil, (pis'til) n. the poinfltl 

Pistol, Tpis'tol) n. the small- 



piteh»~«. i to rise and fall. 

as a ship ea the wares. 
Pitcher, (pich'er) a. a Tend 

with a gpow /or holdinf 

water. 
Pitohfork, (piekfork) a. a 

fork to tkrow fheaTCS. 
Pitehpipe, (pieh'pip) a. an 

instrusfteat to give the 



pit 

fth 



Pi 
Pi 

I 
Pi 

allowance. 
Pituitons. (pit.Q'it-ai) ( 

sistinf of mnciu. 
Pity. (pTt'e) n. sympathy for 

another's distresses;—*, t 

to hare sympathy for. 
PiTot, (piT'ut) n. a pin on 

which any thing turns 
Placability, (plft-ka-bil e-te) 

a. willingness to forgive. 
Placabl^ (pM'ka-bU a. will- 
ing to forgive. 
Placard, (pla-k&td') n a 

printed paper posted in a 

publie place; — *, k. to 

notify publicly. 
Place, (pits) n. a portion «l 

spaee; raDk;ofhce: roomi 

—V. 1. to fix; to locate. 
Placeman, (plas'man) n. one 

holding an ofhoe under 

goTemment. 
Plaeid. (plaa'id) a. calm, 

quic; mild. 
Placidity, (plasid'c-te) n. 

calmness; nnnifllc«l state. 
Placidly, (plas idle} ad. 
. calmly; mildly. 
Plagiarism, (pU Je-a nun) a. 

literary theft. 
Plagiarist, (plft'je-a-rist) n. 

one who purloins the writ 

ings of aaethesL 
Pls<«e, (piis) a. a taCMi. 



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iUE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 



TtXSTY 210 


POIHT 


Plenty, (plen'to) n. adeqnate 
•npply : abondance. 


Pl< 

c 


■ " «e- 


Pleonasm, (pl«'on-asm) n. 


PI. 


&- 


Rdund«B<7 of words. 


t 




PIooDutie, (ple-on-u'tik) a. 


Ph 


k») 


redtmdant i 


1 


Ir. 


flethon, (plAth'S.ra) n. ful- 
ness of blood ; repletion. 


s 
1 


n. 


Plethoric, (pleth- or' ik) a. 


E 


a. 


haring a fuU habit of 


Pll 




body. 


t 


is) 


Pleura, (pl66'ra) n. the mem- 


« 


he 


brane that covers the in- 


Pll 




side of the thorax. 


Pll 


oil 


Pleurisy, (pl6d're-ee) n. in- 
flammation of the pleura. ■ 


C 




Pll 


ne 


Pleuritic. (pl66-rit'i!0 a. dis- 
1 eased \rith pleurisy. 


1 




\ 


et. 


Pleziform, (pleks'e-form) a. 


x>n 


Ukenet-\rork. 


Pll 




PUabiUty. (pli-a-bil'e-tc) n. 


1 


all 


the quality of yielding; 


Pll 


J2Q 


flezibiencsa 


1 




Pliable, (pli'a-W) a. easiW 
Tieldmg to pressure ; fiexi- 


Pll 


»k) 


P^ 


iii 
ee. 


Pliancy, fpli'an-se) n. easi- 
ness to be bent: flexibility. 


t 


us- 


t 


edi 


Pliant, (J^'i^t) a. flexible ; 


pj 


as 

ty. 


pSrs,^|pli'er«) li. pi. an in- 


I 


a. 


strument to bend small 


i 


tig 


things. 


Pll 




Plight, (pllt) V. t to pledge, 
as the hand, faith, hon- 
our;— n. pledge; condition. 


I 


tti- 


c 




Pll 


ot 


PUghter, (plit'er) n, one 


f 




that pledges. 


t 


ho 


Plinth, (pUnth) n. the 


8 




sqnara member at the base 


Pll 


, % 


oi a eolama. 


f 




Plod.iplod) V. C to toil; to 


C 


<«• 


drudge. 


Pll 




Plodder, (plod'fir) n. a dull, 
heavy, laborious person. 


t 

f 


a. 

ble 


Plodding, (plod'ing) ». slow 


_c 




motion or study. 


PI 


ic- 


Plot, (plot) n. a stratagem: 


rii 


lia 


couFpiracy ; scheme ;— w. <.• 

to Plan ; to project. [er. 

Plotter, (ploffir) n. a sehem- 


i 

t 


th- 




^he 


Plotting, (plotting) n. tlw 
act of forming schemes. 


PI 


tfls 


PI 


m- 


Plover, (pluv'fit, pla'vfir) n. a 


1 




bird. 






Plough, (plow) n. an instru- 


pi 




ment to ^^-*. 


] 


sr- 


tux n_— ^ ^^^^- 


PI 


^ ^ '^nrnWSSr'^ 


pi 


ttd. 


breakJttMHI^P 






the soil^''''^^^*'^^ 




adi 


-4>. t to trench and tarn 


J 


to 


ap the ground; also writ- 


PI 
PI 


JP- 



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»OKT 


SIS jposTsraovs 


« — . „^ — 


.*.^_ . — ^,._. Tig|P«rtr»j«r,(p5^trl'BrK»»-«n» 






who paints or describe^ 




ti* 


Po««, (pOz) V. t to puzsle. 
Po«er, (pOi'er) ,»^- ..«>°« ^'»« 
pQsei : that whieh poxslea 




ag 






PodUon» (pO-xish'un) , n. 




a. 


■jtuatioa; pri&eipla laid 
down. 
Podtit -ir) a. cer- 




ae 






tain; afideat; ab- 




ix- 


Mint (abMlatelT. 
PoaitiT it.lr-lc> aU. 




nd 






PoueM 1 V. t to havo 




a 


or ho 1 own. 
Posseu lesh'un) n. 




r; 


th« a wuing; the 
thina L 




at 


Peneniiw, (poz-zes^iv) a. da- 
. notinff possession. 




of 


Possessor, Ipor-ztfs'fit) «. the 
person who holds or ooou- 








)■- 


piea 




a 


Posset, (pos'et) n. milk 
eurdled with wine or other 




>d 


liquors. 




a 


PossibilitT. (pos^-bil'e-te) n. 
the power of beinc or do- 
ing, imajr be. 

Possible, (pos'e-bl) a. that 




m 




to 


Possibly, (pos'e-ble) ad. ao 
that it may be. 




[1. 




in 


Post, (post) in compounds, 
ilguifies after :^n. a mes- 




a. 






— „— .. «««-.. «iaoe; a 




ir- 


atiou ;— 




Id 


(d«er. 
I money 




n. 


e of let- 
tt-office. 




a 


F ilonging 




in 






»r 


V ) ». t to 
tima 




a 


I de-lQ'To. 




?{. 


ter tbo 




to 


I t-ot) a. 




¥; 


ier, sub. 




n. 


J 're-orx) 




H 


parts of 
an animal. 




id 


Posterity, (pos-ter'e-te) a. de- 




e. 


scendants. 




0) 


Postern, (pSst'cm) a. a small 




0. 


Postfix. (pOkt'fiks) K. a letter 
or syllable added ; an aflix. 




©• 




^ 


Postfix, (pcst-fiks') V. t to 




ko 


anuffx at the end. 
Post-haste, (posi-hosf) ad. as 




le 


fast as possible. 




Posthomou*. (pOsfhom-tts) 1 



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PBSFEB 


215 


FB3DaBrrATioir 


Vxi- -- ~ ' 


-- • - 


■ " 0. 


c 




«. 


c 




0. 


Pr. 




t 


1 






Pn 




!'• 


i 




te 


Pn 




d. 


« 




8) 


a 




It) 


Pn 






a 




iy 


Pr 






a 

1 




n. 


Pr 

i 
i 






Pr 

1 
1 




1 


Pr 






Pr 
< 




or 


Pr 




s; 


i 
Pr 

i 




ad 


Pi 




if- 


H 




3: 


PI 




«. 


Pi 






Pi 




•r 


Pi 




rn, 


Pi 






Pi 




Ion 


P] 




»m 


Pi 




'Si 


Pi 




be* 


pi 




Si 


Pi 
Pi 




.^ 


pi 




)«. 


i 




*'- 



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■Mat) n. pnri§}u a»pr«- 
tMMiM. filMrtly.ieM. 

PrMMily, (FTM'Mit-U) a4. 

PNtMtnMlJprt-aMt'mrat) 
». >■■— atfwi bjr a gnmd 



iU«.(rrt4trT'a-bl)«. 
%tet MV M prtMrred. 
Pi um I Mha. (prM-«r-Tl'« 
■ shuil N. Mt •< f rflMrvinff ; 



PresOTTiitiT*, (prt-tQrrVtiv) 
'o. hariac sowar to pre- 
MTTtt ;-Hi. twit whidi pro- 



FrMMTT*, (pit^errO *. t to 
kMv MM : to Mve ; to do- 
fen« 'f-n. rmit prooerred. 

PrwMdo» (pn-dd') v. i to ex- 
orciM luperimtendenoe or 
coBhroL 
' rroddoBor, (pnt'o-deii<«e) n. 
oBoo or jurisdictiom ci 
preoidoat. » 

Pieiidenl, (pres'o-dent) n. 
one at the bead of a state 
oTMoietj. 

Pre^deanal, (pres-e-den'she- 
al) «. pertaining to a preii- 



(ing a nrriton. 
r«-sid'e-ia)a.' 




•iu)a.haT' 

r, pr»4ig'ae-fl) v. U 

to mgmtj Miorehaud. 
FrteMprce) «. (. to 

toerowdtto 

urge :— ». a 

naohine for 

preisiag; 

nrgency; 

crowd. 
Fret! • gang, 

(pret'gang- 

n, a crew 

that im- 

preaeee men ae seamen. 
Pressing, (pres'ing) a. argent 
Fvessmaa, (pres'man) a. the 

man who im»resses tho 

sheets in printing. 
Pressure, (presh'Qr) n. aot of 

pressing : weight; ttrgeaey. 
Presumable, (pre-zam'a-bi) 

m. that may be presumed. 
Presume, (pre-zQm'l t^ i to 

soppeso; ta venture with- 

ootleaTe. 
ProsumptioB,(pi«-iaa'shun) 

fi. bUnd conadcBoe. 
PresurapiiTO, tpr«-iamp'tiT) 

0. partaking of icesamp- 



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iat nunvoB 



let 

g* 

La 
U. 



•1) 



to 
ad 



by 



te> 
to 
i&> 

oi. 
•le, 
a. 
m> 

»b- 

e. 

at) 



te> 



le> 



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FKosxran 



vhiohii prudttoed or yteld- 

f»d: MiiL 
yrodudbto. (pr«a«'e-M) a. 

tbnk may be prodaotd. 
Pwdttct. (prod'ukt) ti.a ihlM 

inradoMdi cffcoti result; 

Prato}U<m, (pt»<luk'ihun) 
». aei of producing; fruit ; 
product. [fertUe ; efficient. 

Productive, (pro-duk'tij) a. 

ProduetiveneM.(pro-duk'tiT- 
nes) «. die ooaUty of pro- 

PrcSnUPrO'em) n. s pieftwe. 
Froemkl. (pro - em ' o •*l) a. 

intcodnctorr. . ., v » 
Profftnatian^prol-Mlftrinun) 

Ik A violation. 

ent to God uid U iwred 
fc to ▼ioUte; to 



things; 
put to I 



Profaaelj. (pro-fto'to) 
irrerereAtly. . , ^ , 

Profanity, (pt9-faa'e-te) 
impiety: irrererenoe w 

Profess. (prSfes') «. t to de- 
elars; toaToir. ^ , ^ . . 

Professedly, (pro -f es 6d ?» 
od. by avowal 

Profession, (prjB-fesh'un) «. 
open declaration: vocation. 

Professional, (prO-fesh un-al) 
a. belonging to one s pro- 
fession. . . . 

Professor. /prJ-fes'sr) f^ one 
vlio doolares his faith; a 
teaelier in litexaiore or 
science. . , . _ - . 

ProfessorrWp, (piO-fes'er- 
ship) n. ofBoe of a teacher. 

Proffer, Curofer) t>. t to pro- 
pose for aoccptonoe ;— n. an 
offer; Attempt ^ , . 

Proficiency, (prO-flsh'e-en-se) 
n. progress made. 

Profici^t, (pri>-lish'erent) n. 
one vho hasmade advances. 

Profile, (prO'fil) «l.^ outline ; 
sido facei~«. t to. draw a 
side view. 

Profit, (profit) ik ,galn : ad- 
▼anuge; — V. t or i to 
iMaefit. , „,. ^„ 

Profitable, (profit«-bl) a. 
yielding advantage; Incrap 
live. [with advantage. 

Profitably, (prof 'iVa-ble) ad. 

Profitless, (prof'it-les) o. void 
of gain- [vicious life. 

Pioflifiacy,(pTof'io-fi:a8-e) n. a 



■218 



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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAOE. 



HOXULOATOE 



tUf 



PBOlSOT 



Jtejjlj^^ notice, op«» 

Fnmitilsator. (piO'innl-fffti- 
or) n. one vho pnbUehee or 



Prone, (ptOn> a., bending 

downwmrd ; inolined. 
Proneneesi (ptOn'ne»)'n. fa\> 



iofafork. 

Prone (prong) w^ the branch 
pronominal, (]?t9-nom'in-al) 

& belonging to a pronoun. 
Pionoan, (prS'noau) n. a' 

vord need for a noun. 
Pronounce, (pi0>aonns') «, L 
. to speak ; to utter rhetori* 

eallj. 
PronounoeaUe, (prO-nountV 

bl) a. that can be pro- 



PronunciatloB, (prO-nun-«e< 

&'ihun) n. act or mode of 

ntteranoe. 
Proof, (pt6«I) n. trial; fnU 

eridenoe jr-a. impenetrap 

ble. 
Propk (prop) n. that on whieh 

a 9odj rests; lupport;— v.<. 

to fupport ; to upheld. 
PropaiRwdist, (ptop-a-gand'- 

ist)». a penoa who propar 

Kutet opinions. 
Propagate, tpropWftt) v. t. 

to generate; to increaae; 

to promote. 
PropantioD, (prop>a-g&' 

than) n. extension. 
Propasator, (pn^'a-gftt-or) n. 

one who propagatea^_ 
Propel, (pro-pel') ». L todrire 

forward. 
Propeller, (prO- peVer l 

s e r e w • ' — '■ 

wheel for 



Propbetess, (prof 'et-es) n. a 

female that predicts. 
Prophetical, (prO-fet'ik-al) a. 
. unfolding future events. 
Propinquity, (pro-pins' kwo- 

te) n. nearness in place, 

time, or relation. 
Propitiate, (prO-pish'e-at) v.t 

to conoillate. 
Propitiation, (pr5-pish-e-l'- 

shun) n. act of appeasing. 
Propitiator, (prO-pish'c-ft-tor) 

n, one who propitiates. 
Propitiatory, (prO-pish'e-l- 

tdr-e) a. adapted to atone.; 
■ — ». the mercy-seat. 
Propitious, (prO-pish'e-ns) a. 

highly favourable to sue* 

Pi**^ lb. 




boat 

Prepenae, 

I p r « • 

perns') o. inolined. 
Propensity, (prO-pms's-to) n 

inclinat'ou ; bent of mind 



Proper, (prop'er) a.one*sown; 
fit; just;oorrcot. 

Properly, (prop'sr-le) od. fit- 
ly; suitably. 

Property, (prop'tr-te) n, in- 
herent qtudiqr; owuersliJp; 
an estate. [diction. 

^opbecy, (profe-se) n. pro- 

Prophesy, rprof'e-si) v. t or i. 
to foretell events. 

Pvephe^ (prof 'etj n. one who 



Pj an) 

Dfor 

01 trrma 
Propodtiona], fprnp-S-sish'- 

un-al) a. belOui;iug to 'or 
X contained in a proposition. 
Propound, (prO-pound') v. t 

to propose ; to offer. 
Proprietary. (prO-pi1'e-tar-c) 

n. an owner;— a. eclonging 

to an owner. 
Proprietor, (prB-pil'e-tor) n, 
• a ixnscssor iii his own right; 

owner. 
Propriety^ (pr5-pri'o-te) n. 

fitnessi juatness; decorum. 
Proimlsion, (pro-pul'shun) n. 

act of driving forward. 
Prorogation, ( prO-rO-gft'shnn) 

n. euntiuuance,asof Parlia- 
ment. 
Prorogue, (prO-rUgO ». t to 

continue from session to 

session. 
Prosaic, (pr3-za'ik) a. consist- 



fttff in or like prose; com- 
monplace. 
Proscenium, (pr9-sl'ne-Q«> 

n. the front park of th* 

stage. 
Proscribe, (pr9-skrlb') «. t to 

denounce ; to interdict. 
Proscription,(prO-Bkrip'shun) 

». a doommg -to death; | 

utter rejection, [iu verse. • 
Prose, (pr6s) n. languatce nob 
Prosecute, (pros'e-knt) v. (. to 

pursue, as a claim. 
Prosecution, (pros • 8 - Iffl ' • 

shun) n. act of prosecuting. 
Prosecutor, (pios'9-kQt-or) n. 

one who prosecntea. 
Proselyte, (pros'O-lU) it. & 

new convert ;— ». L to oon> 

vert. 
Proselytism, (proe'C-IIt-lxm? 

n, seal to make converta 
Prosodist, (pros'O-dist) n. on* 

skilled in prosody. 
Prosody, (pros'0-de) n. thd 

part of grammar whieh 

treats of accent and versifl* 

cation. 
Prospect, (pros'pekt) n. & 

view; objeot of view; !«»• 

son to hop4. 
Prospective, fprO-spekt'lv) a, 

looking forward; regarding 

the future. 
Prospectus, (prO-spokt'us) n. 

plan of a propose J literary 

work. Isuccessful. 

Prosper, (pros'per) ». i. to b3 
l*roBpenty, (pros-per'e-tof n. 

good fortune; success. - 
Prosperous, (pros'ptr-us) a. 

successful. 
Prosperously, (proe'pfir-us-Je) 

ad. suooesszully ; fortu- 
nately. 
Prostitute, (pros'te-tQt) v. f. 

to debase;— <f. vicious for 

hire:— a. a female devoted 



i'- 



ing 



•ut. 
[lg» 



to 

iMre 



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FUSIfOSaK 



aTTABBAVetltAK 



parlform, (pOr'e-fonn) a. x»- 

Punf/. (yii/»-n) ». t or t to 

cU-auw : to rcftoa ; to grow 

pure. 
Puriat, (pnr'ist) n. one nlc* 

tn the ehoieo of vorda. 
PariUn, (pOr'o-tan) i». a oto- 

Mutar frdm tha church of 

Enffload. 
Poritauic, (pOr-o-tan'Ik) a. 

pertaining to tha-diaaen- 

tera and their dootrinea; 

^8^"^ . . . 

Puritanism, (pOr'a-tan-Ixm) 
n. the notiona or praetica 
of pnritanaL 

Purity. (pQr'e-te) n. doan- 
noM ; ehastit/. 

Pttri, (purl) ». ». to iUnr frith 
a gentle noise \—n. a f;en- 
tle murmur <if a atream ; a 
border; lace. 

Purlieu, (purlil) n. a border. 

Purloin, dmr^loin') sw t to 
steal ; to pilfer. 

Purloiuer, (pur4oin'er) n. 
one who steals. 

•*urple, (pur'pl) a. lad tingod 
irith blue;— ». a eoloar 
«ompo9ed of red and blue ; 
a robe;— «. t to ooloor 
withpiuplo- .. . 

Purport, (pur'pJJrt) n. that 
moioh ia meant ; teadencj. 

Purpose, (par'pOs) «. object 
to be accomplished ; dotcr- 
mined ehoicc ;— ». t to in- 
tend : to design ; to resolre. 

Purposely, (pur'iws-ltf) ad. <»i 
purpose. 

Purr, (pur). SaePur. 

Purse, (purs) n. a small 
money-ba-;;— ». t to put in 
a purse, [pride of n^ncy. 

Purse-pride, (purs'pnd) n. 

Purser,, (purs s^r) n. pay-, 
master m a ship. 

PuTsuanoe, (pur-sQ'«(ns) n. a 
following; consequence. 

pursuant, (pursii'ant) a. 
done in oonsoquonoe. 

Pursue, (pur-aa') ». t to fol- 
low ; to ohase. 

Pursuer, (pur-aa'ar) n. one 
t.iat foUows. . 

Pursait, (pur-saf) a. ad of 



i 



QWACK,(k«k)*Ll»oaT|Qmu>»«T.(«nn*'sM)«.j»-| «. » isaa «( ftwr u> 



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THE POrULAR AHERICAH DICTIONARY. 



aTTSSTIOlTLESS 



QoMtlonleM. (kweft'7vn*l«s) 

a. doubtleM. 
Qaibble. (kwiba) n. aa era- 
•ion of the truth ; a mtU ; 

a pan ;-«. L to erade : to 

tnfle. [•who qaibblet. 

Quibbler. (kinbler) n. one 
Qniok. (kwik) a. movins or 

acting with celerity jjliT- 

ing ;— od. toon ; haftily ;— 

n. any lensibl' "art. 
Quicken, (kwik u) v. f. to 

make alive ; to hasten. 
QnickUme. (kwikOim) n. 

lime untlacked. 
Quickly, (kwik'le) ad. in a 

•hoTt time, [speed ; haste. 
Qoickneis. (kwik'nes) n. 
Qniek-fland; (kwik'sand) n. 

sand sinking under the 

feet. [ing plant. 

Quicluet, (kidk'set) n. a Ut- 
Quicksilrer, (kwik'sil-vfir) n. 

mercury ; a fluid metaL 
Quiddity, (kwid'e-te) n. a 

trifling nicety. 
Quiddle, (kwida) ». i. to 

waste time in trifling. 
Quidnunc, (kwid'nungk) 

one curious to know erety 

thing, [rest ; silence. 

Quiescence, (kwi-es'ens) n. 
Quiescent, (kwies'ent) a. at 

rest ; silent 
Quiet, (kwi'et) a. free itom 

motion or disturbance;— n. 

rest ; tranquillity ;— v. t. to 

make quiet. . , 

Quietism, <kwl'et-izm) n. 

peace ; apathy. [ly. 

Quietly, (kwi'eV-le) ad. calm* 
. Quietude, <kwi'6t-ad) n. 

tranquillity. ^ . 

Quietus, (kwi-e'tos) n. final 

discharge ; repose ; death. 
Quill,(kwil) n. a large, strong 

feather ; a piece of roed ;— 

r.t to weave in ridges. 



SS4 



XACK-BSFT 



Be 



Aal>bl«, (zabi) n. a tnmiiltA- 

euscrowd:amob.^ . 
BaUd, (rabid) a. furious; 

niad. 
Baecoon, (tak*koon') n. a 

quadruped. 
Raoe, (r&s) it, a running; a 

breed. 
Bace-horte, (rlslien) n a 

horse kept for running. 
Raceme, itaL-atm') n a clo** 



'yAt Of Hmnn or fruit a^ 

*»?»ged along a stem. 
Ra^MSt (rU'e-nes) 



HapmcM. (TM'e-w 

ket, ^Jret) n. a^St^* 



ihA 

racy. 
eng^M.9t 



Baoket, 



iS^(mVi«nt} NTittit 
totheatmoik ^IH^ 



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BAPTmumB 



826 



BEAPPOIHTIESHT 



•laptaiouB, (mp'tor-us) 

cauftotf rapturo. 
Bara-aris, (ra'ra-a'Tlt) n. a 

rare bud; an uncommon 

rly 
un) 



ny. 



th- 



tiiu 
rat 



Basp. (tasp) n. a rough flla ; 

a crater :— ». t to rob or 

gfttte with a rasp. 
Raspberry, (ru'ber-e) n. a 

kind of berry. 
na»ui-e,(rft'shQr)ii. erasure. 
Rat, (rat) n. a well known 

aiiitnaL 
BaUblo. (rftt'a-bl) a. Uahle 

to be taxed or r^tod. 
Jtatan, (ra-lau') n. a small 

oiuia. 
Batchet. (rach'et) a. a tooth 

at the bottoiu of the f u«ue 

of a watoh to stop it in 

windiug up. 
Rate, (rat) a. a price; degree; 

value i-HK. t to value; to 

tax. [willmgly. 

Bather, (rach'fir) ad. mure 
Batification. (rat-e-fe-lia'- 

shua) a. the act of sano- 

titniing. 
Battflor, (rat'e-fi-fir) n. one 

« oo sanctiooB. 
Bat if y, (rat e-fi) v. (. to sane* 

ti lo. [tion } lata. 

Balio, (rf'she-O) n. prviwr- 
Batioolnatlon, (ra<sheHa<e- 

u&'shuu) a. aet of reasou< 

tag. Islons for a day. 

nation, (rft'shun) n. provi< 
Batluoal, (Buh'un-al) a. eu* 

Uuwed with reaseniacToe' 

aUato 



Bationale, (rash-*«-n&le} «. 

detail of reasons. 
Rationalist, (rash'nn-aMst) 

n. one who is guided sole* 

ly by reason. 
Rationality, (rash*an-al'«-to) 

n. the power of reasoning. 
Rationally, (rash'ttUHd-Ie) 

ed. reasonably. 
RatooQ, (rat-66n') n. a sprout 

from the root of twgar^ 

cane. Uor lats. 

Ratsbane/ratsliAn)*. yotaon 
Ratteen, {rat-t«n')4 athiok 

tweeled woollen stuff 
Ratting, (xat'ing) n. act of 

deserting a party. 
Rattle, (rat'l) «l i or L to 

clatter v— a. a suecessian of 

sharp sounds ; a toy. 
Rattles, (rat'ls) m. j)lL the 

croup. 
Rattling, (ratling) n. soo- 

oession of sharp sounds. 
Rauoity, (raw'se-to) «. 

hoarseness. 
Rarage, (rav'lj). v. L to lay 

waste in rarious ways ;— n. 

waste ; plunder. 
Rave, (rftv) v. i to he deliri- 
ous; to talk wildly;— «. 

upper timber of a oaxi. 
Ravel, (rav'el) k t or i to 

untwist 
Ravelin, (ravlln) «. a de- 
tached work in fortifica- 
tion. 
Raven, (ri^'n) v. i. to derour 

greedily ; — n. a bird of 

prey; rapine. 
Ravenous, (rar'en-as) a. 

voracious. 
Ravenously, (rav'en-us-le) 

ai. with ragiiig hunger. 
Ravine, (ra-v6n^ n. a long 

hollow l)eta een hills. 
Raving, (rav'iiig) «. furious. 
Ravish, (i-av'ish) v. t to 

oarry away by foroe; to 

transport with delight ; to 

know carnally by foroe. 
Ravisher, (rav'ish-fir) a. 0Q« 

who raviabes. 
Ravishment, (rav'ish-aoant) 

n. aot of ravishing; tfOHtasr. 
Raw, (rair) a. not eoolcea: 

crude; nniaanuf aetured ; 

cold and damp; bare of 

skin. [spectre. 

Rawhead, (rawlied) n. a 
Rawness, (raw'nes) {». stato 

of bein^r raw. 
Ray, (ri) n. a Une of light ; a 

fish ^-ikt to Bboot forth. 



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BSMTOT 



229 



SEF&ACTORT 



ilm.'hMUd 




B< 

i 
B< 

i 
lU 

i 
hi 

« 

hi 

bI 

I 

h* 

hi 

1 

B< 

h 

h 

M 
h 

h 

h 
B 
•B 



llMk«lfek)ii. •team: Tapour; i Rcferratial, (raf-tr-«n'slM4d| 
_— r. i to tend fwrth steam. u. that oontainsa nftrcaoft 
Beekjr. (rek'«) a. siuoky ; Referribla* (rl-fflr'vbl) « 
• dark. | tYiat may be raferred. 

Reel, (rtl) n. a frame to wind ; Refine, (re^Hn') v. (. cr i te 

4 

•f 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 




AtCmta, M-frfn') v. I. or i 

BefnnJiblUty, (if>fnn*> 
Ml'*-U) a. capftbiliVir of bo- 
tns tofiMtod. 

ftoCimncibU. (rt-fnn'Jo-bl) 
0. that nukT be lof nictod. 

B«fr . to 



1)0. 

i«nt)' 

KXL 

«at) 

BOOL 

r-tt) 



ni 
Bofr 

it.1 
lUfr 

•hi 
B«fr_ .^ t-or) 

n. an airtight Sox for 

koepteg things oool bj 
_ means of ioo. 
Befrigeratox7» (M-frij'fir-ft- 

tor^) n. a rotMl for oool- 

Ing ;«— €L cooU&gi 
Befugo, (teTiU) n. % sholter 

from dangor; aa ezpcdi' 
_«it. 
Befqgoo, (Ttf-a-jT) «. one 

who flMt for Mffttjr to a 

foroignpowor. 

BefalgenCHrt^^loiit) a. 
castlnc ft teMbi Ui^t: 
■plendid. ' UMjr Mck. 

B<tfand, (r«*fia«T«i t to 

Befosal. (rt-f Qi'al) n, donial; 
right of choloo s mtion. 

Befuse, (rc-f Qi') v. t to dm.j% 



to reject ;-«. i. xMt to com- 
ply with. 

Bef 000, (ref 'fit) n. worthless 
remains ;— «k worthless. ^ 

Befntable, (rt-fat'arbl) a. 
that ma^ be refat«L 

Befutatien, (refa-tft'shun) 
n. act of refuting, [false. 

Befute, (re-fat') ». t. to prove 

Bogain, (re-gin') v. L to ob- 
tain again, [kinglv. 

Begal, (re'gal) a. royal; 

Begale, (r«-g&l') o. t to re- 
fresh: to entertain de- 
lightfully. 

Be^ement, (r«-gil'ment)n. 
refreshment; entertain- 
ment. 

BegablL, (if-gtae-a) n. pi. 
ensigxis of royalty, as the 
crown, soeptre. kc [ty. 

Begality,(rB-gaI'e-te)n. royal- 

Begally, (r«'^-le) ad. as be- 
flu a lorereigiu 



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BSKXTTEHT 




SEPLjsvjlxi 



Repartee, (rep-ar-M') n. % 

smart ntiy. {afftin. 

Repass, (re-pas') v. (. to pats 

Rcput, (re-pasf) n. a meal ; 

food. [baok. 



Repay, (re-p&') •. «, to pay 
Repayable, (re-pfta-bl) a. that 
Is to be repaid. 



Repayment, (re-pi'ment) ft. 

act of repayi&c; thing re> 

paid. 
Repeal, (re-pelO v. (. tq make 

void ;— n. abrogation. 
Repealable, (re-pelabl) a. 

that may be repealed. 
Repealer, (re-pei'sr) n. one 

who abrogates or ■ deairef 

repeat [again. 

Repeat, (re-pef) v. t to d» 
■Repeatedlv, (rfr-pet'ed-le) ad, 

frequently. 
Repeater, (re>pet'fir) n. one 

who repeats; a watch Uuit 

strikes the hours. 
Repel, (re-pel') v. f. to drlr* 

back; to resist. 
Repellenoy, (re-peren-se) m. 

quality that repels. 
Repellcuc, el's- pel' ent) a. 

tending to r^peL 
^4pent, (rfl-penf) v. i. to feel 

sorrow for something done. 
Repentance, (re-pent'ans) n. 

sorrow for sins; penitenoe. 
Repentant, (r«*pent'ant) a. 

Borrowftu for sin: contrite. 
Bepeople, .(r«>pe'pi) v. t to 

supply anew with inbabi* 

tauts. 
Reperonsdox h'- 

un)n.aoto ;k; 

rebound, {i }k. 

ReperousdTS ir) 






Repertory, (i 

' book. of re4 

'tine. [s 

mepttiUcn,( n. 

Rep^ie, (le-j ret 

jKeplcsa, ft«-plisO v. t to pat 

again }b its place. 
Roplont, (rt-planf) ». t to 
* plant again. 
RepIeaiS, (re-plen'ish) v. t 

f fill ae^; to saM;>IJ' 
Replete, (rf'plet'j cr. fuU; 

completely filled. ^ulAMa.. 
Repletion, (rt^plB'shnn) n. 
Rej^etiTe. (rft-piet'iv) a.-r»- 

plenishing; "(^ 

Bepleriable, (xe-pley'»«-bD^ < 

a. thkt may be fwleried.- ^ 
EepleTi4,(re-pleT'inl n.ftwxtt T^ 

to reoOTor goods distrained. 



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A DICTIONARY OPTOB ENGLISH LANGUABE. 





}a 


1 


s 


sok 




J- 


B 


tt> 


S 


u» 


S 


ito) 




.of 


» 


oA 


B 


on) 


s 


?•: 


B 


;i4 


^ 


Lki 




ed! 




Bk. 


§ 


to 


R 


• 


B 


&• 


S 


«. 


A 


to 




u 


B 


»t) 


R 


»«L 




»•> 




lat 




in) 


B 


M. 




r» 




re* 


j 


rd. 


R< 


n. 


Bi 


re. 




ig- 


bI 


tct 


\ 


lot 


Ki 




: 


le< 




m« 


< 


koe 


B4 




] 


lU. 


1 


[n. 


Bi 


»at 


] 


iw 


K 


M. 


1 


u) 


B< 


to 



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BESEITTPTJl 2S4 RESTHIOT 



KfMmf «ni irfriMit'fooll o. I HtMBiless. (rt-xist ies) o. that I Respiratory, (re-spir'»-to«te) 

; ^ 

ft- 

to 
El » 

Bi »») 

< a. 

bI 

li 

a a) 

R 



1 

.8 



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BSSTSxcmor sss kktekebum 



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^ 



BXCOeSBT 



ftBTTiBi; revereticc. 

B«veruuti»l« <r«v<^r-c 
tA) «r. exuresiiiuK rerc 

fl«v«r«iii&ll7, (r«v-fir-t 
«i<|«i aji. with ii\ru. 

Bevttric, (KV'|j[r-e) n. 
Irregular tram •t th< 

BeT«nial, (rC-Tgrs'^t 
chauge U the oppoai 

Be verse (T6-Ttr»') v. 
change n-om eaa pi 
U H& eppMite; t« 
Teid;*-!!. opposite 
adversity ; Ticissitai] 
tamed backward. 

Beverelwe) (ra-TjiU'e-l 
•that may bo rvveniec 

BerenitD, (i^-Vftr'ehu 
the nitumef auest 
the grantor et hii 
SQceesdien. 

Berernonary* (re>Tfir 
ar<el a. that is to be 
ed m successioa. ■ 

BeVeniener, (n-Tar^sb 
lb eue entitled t» a 
mm. ltum;Uftai 

Bevert, (re-vfirf) p. i. 

BeTertible, (re-vfitt'e- 
that maj' revert. 

Be^w, (re-vaO .•• fc t 
eider again ; to inMNH 
caiefuT examinaCloj 
newttoA of troepi. 

Biftewer. (re-TffV) j 
whererjevs. an falsi 

Bevfte, (rO-vU') v.iU 
with abusire languai 

Bevfier, (rC-vil'fir) n. oi 
revilea 

BeTise. (re-vIs') v. L 
amine with care fer < 
tion:— n. a eeeond 
•heei Ivrho K 

BeTiser, (re-viz'er) i 

BevivLou, irs-vizh'un) 
of revising or revieAv 

Berisional* (rM'izh'ttii 
coutaiuiMg revision. 

Bevi8it.ir6-vi*'it)».«s,t 
again. 

Bevival, (rB-vir'al) a. i 
to life : an awakenin 

Bevivalist, (r6-viv'al-i 
ene wbo promotes re 

■tereerbidnkiolife 
to recevor life and rl 

BavlTifieatkm, Jt^y] 
WOiyuii n. a«t of X 
la<l tiSit. . . •.. 

BoTivify, ure-viT'e-fi) 

M^toUlB. 
Ill I liiriiili^l^i^ii III 



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A DICTIONARY OFTHE^NGLISH LANGUAGE 



1 — • — ^ i — w-^ 

Boxnros 239 bvstio | 


BvniMe, (roans) n. the handle 


Rr^ * - • ' 


^.,.W.._. j^ 


p. ^.^...-. >. ^ 


_of a i:riiitiu«-pix:88. 
Botmd. (round) a. spherical : 
circular: — n. a circle; a 




le 


JL\ to 


r! 


i« 


] ed 


to 




r 


1 id. 


be- 




Ri a 


ep. 






K< a. 


B I. a 


R 


n 


b! {. 


B «. 




L^i 


J 4i. 


B en- 


R 


" 


1 
R. 
L ,.. a«. * 


B n. 

ad; 


R 


r. 


Rummage, (rum'Sj) tu a cloea 
search ; — v. t. to tumbtb 




R 


r; 


about inltearching. 


B to 


R 


1- 


Rumour, (r66 mur) n. a fly* 


B fa 






ing or popular leport;— ».<• . 
to report. * 


R 


t. 


as- 




:t 


Rump, (rump) n. end of the 
back-bone i buttocks. 


to 






*^- 


R 


,'- 


Rumple, (rum'pl) v. L t« 
irribkie ;— n. a ^rrinkle : » 


B or 




i- 


B nd 






fold. 




B; 


it 


Run, (run) ».t or t InreL 


i 




;o 


ran or run; pp. runj to 


B er; 




L 


move with rapidity ; to 




^ 


ir- 


flo\7 ; to form iu a mould ; 


B 


Bi 


h. 


to smuggle ; — n. eourso ; 


B gs; 






small stream ; unusual de- 


h 


Ri 


s- 


mands on a bank. 


B the 




a 


Runaway, (run'a-wt) tu a 
fugitive ; a deserter. 

Bundle, (run'dl) n. round of 
a ladder. Icask. 


B tie 


1 




in- 


Ri 


t. 


_5 




a 


Runlet, (run'let) n. a small 


B ind 






Runner, (run'gri n. one that 


» T"- 


Bi 




runs ; a messenger^ 


B ho 




a 


Rupee, -(rdd-pe') n. an East 


B Hi; 




ij 


Indian silver coin, equal 






a 


to 2s. ; if of gold, 21>8. 


B an 


. < 


1. 


Rupture, (rup'tftr) r*. a 


m- 


Ri 


I. 


breach; a burst; bemfa; 




B^ 


• 


—V. t. to break ; to burst 


B ce. 






Rural, (rddr'al) o. belongin« 


a 


Ri 


n 


to tlic country. 


B Ki. 


) 




BuaJi, (rush) n. a violent 


Ri 


I. 


motion or course ; a plant ; 


•fS- 


J 


it 


—0. i. to pass with veho- 


lii- 






mence. 




R| 


i 


Rush-light. (rushMit) n. & 


B ho 




candle of rush-wick. 


B ste 


• 1 


i- 


Rushy, (rush'e) a. abounding 
with rushes. (cake 


»■ **• 


b! 


> 


Rusk, (rusk) n. a speeies of 


Bi sa 






Russet, (rus'ot) a. of a red- 


1 


Bi 


h 


dish brown colour; — n. 


Bi id ; 


) 




rustic dress ; an apple of a 


] di- 


1 


0' 


russet colour. 


eI 'i, 


1 


s. 


Rust, (rust) «». crust which 


Ri 





f';rm8 oh metals ;— ». i. to 


1 :ed 


' 


I- 




b! «. 


bI . 


i. 


rusty. 
Rustic, (mt'tik) a. raral^* 



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EV8TI0ATS 



X40 



8ALASZS9 



N. «a tnhahiUat «f the 

eoantrj. 
Btuticatc(nu'te-kat) v i or 

t to retide in, or banish to 

the country. 
Rttstication, (nu-te-kt'fhan) 

It. rosidcnoe in, or banish* 

ntent to the country. 
Eiuliettj. (rus-Us'e-te) .n. 



0ABAOTH, (n-bi'oth) r. 

armies : hosts. 
gabhaUrlyi, (sab-a-t&'re-an) 

«. Mrtaxuntf to th« Sab- 
Sabbath, (lab'ath) 11. tha 4ay 

of religioiu rast ; Sunday. 
Cabbathkss. (sabath-les) m. 

withattt InWmiasion of 

labour, 
flabhatical, (lab^t'ik-al) a. 

---' Lhiing to the Sabbath. 
(s&l)r) n. a sword with 



C]a4s^ 

SabTn^a'* 
tie-aa) n. 



•hk)per of tha sun, moon, 
and Stan. 

fiahle, (si'bl) M. an animal of 
the weasel kln4^>-a. dark; 
blaek. 

Saoebartoe, (sak'a-rin) a. 
bavins the qualities of 
sugar. Lpriestly. 

ISaeerdotal, (sas-tr^t'al) a. 

fkMhem, (sft'ltem) tt. an Indi- 
an chief. 

t3aek,<sak) n. abag; pillage 
<it a town : a sweet wine .— 
0. t to pillage ; to plunder. 

fiackeloth, (sak'kloth) a. 
clQth for taoks^ or for 
mourning. [for sacks. 

Sacking, (sak'ing) n. cloth 

fiaerament, (sak'ra-ment) n. 
a religieus ordinance ; the 
Lord's supper. 

Sacraniental. (sak-ra-ment!- 
al) a. pertaining to a sacra- 
ment. 

tiacred, (sft'kred) a. pertain- 
ing to Ood or religion. 

Sacredly^ (sA'kred-le) ad. re- 

Saoredness^ (sRTcred-nes) n. 

stale or auality of being 

_ sacred. [m saorifloe. 

flMrifie. (sirkrif ik) a. used 



mitio 

simplicity. 
Rustlness, (rust'e^ies) m. 

state or quality of being 

rusty. 
Rustle, (msl) v. i. to make 

a raiding noise, like silk. 
^usty, (mst'ej a. 

wiinmst. 



"CJi 



s. 



Rut. (rut) N. the trade of m 

wheel. 
Ruthless, (roothles) ci. ernel 

pitiless. 
Ruthlessly, (roothlet-Ie) ad 

without pits. 
Rye, (ri) n. a kind of grain. 
"-^ (li'ut) «. a ranter ot 
intheEastlndka, 



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flOAxsaz 243 scmafCB 


^., . . -, .. ^ ^^ infidel; alao written 


>• 
It 


Bccpticinn^ (skep'te-cism) %. 
uiUvenal doubt 


ti 


SMptre, (sep'tfiD h. enai<n (tf 




royalty. 


ij 


fioh«dale. (wd'Ql) n. an In- 


i* 


veatory of property, debt*. 
Scheme, (tkem) «. a plan; 


„ 




project ; coutnranoe ;—«. L 
to plan. 
Schemer, (ikfrn'tr) n. ft pro- 






jector ; a eontnver. 


r» 


Schiam, (tisui} n. diviaion or 


1 


^ aeparatiou in a church. 




^ aae guilty of soWam. 


e 


Schismatical, (siauat'lk-al) 


« 


m. pertaining to or partak- 




ing of ichlin). 
Scholar, (akol'ar) «. « leamp 


(. 


'. 


8cho\i?Uke. (akdrLr-likJ a. 


a 


Ukeasoholar. 




Scholarship, (skol'ar-diip) n. 


« 


learning; erudition. 
Schuluatic (skS4a«'tik) a. 


I. 


pertaining to a fohooL 




») 


Biam) u. the method or 


i> 


ittbUlities of the schools. 




Scholiast, (ekO'le-aiK) n. ft 


? 


eommt»ntator. 


Scholium, (cko'le-um) «. aa 


•r 


^ explanatory ebaervation. 
School, (ikitdl) B. a phice o£ 
discipline and instruction; 


i- 




a sect r^. L to imtmct: 


m 


to tutor. 




Scheol.house. (skd^l^houa) n. 


1. 


a house for a sehooL 


M 


Schooling. (skiM^'ing) n. la* 




•iruoUon. 


I. 




i. 


•ue versed la acholaaUo 


id 


divinity. 


t- 


s. the moat&r or toaoaer uf 


1) 


9 -^-' 

Sol 


r- 


1 
1 
t 




Sd 


h 

0. 
V- 


•i 
1 


16 


I 
Soi 


1 U : 


1 
Sa 



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il DICTIONARY 9F THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



SEinESTSEX 



247 



8EPTENAST 



SeUeitteni, (self-et-temO n. 

good opinion of one's self. 
8eIfeTident» (solf-eT'e-dcnt) 

a. needing no prool 
Belfiuterost, (self-in'tfir-est) 

n. telfishnen. 
Selfish, (selfish) a. regard* 

ing one'i own toterest 

Be&?VU>. (selfish -le) ocL 

with undae selMove. 
Selfisfincsa, <self' ish-nes) n. 

regard to one's ovru inUr^ 

est solely. [of self. 

BelMove, (self-IuTO n. love 
Selfsame, (self'etm) a. ex* 

actlr the same; identieaU 
EelfTTill, (self-vil') n. one's 

own -will ; obstinacy. 
Bell, (sel) V. «. [pnt. unl pp. 

vUJ K transfer property 

for money. Ikells. 

Seller, (sol'er) n. one who 
Belrago, (nVvii) n. tho edge 

of cloth J also TFritteu iaa- 

vedge. 
SelTe:,(BelTS)p].of5e;A 
Semblance, (sein'blaus) n. 

likeness. 
Semi, (som'c) used la oora- 

pound words, signifies ktti/. 
Scmiainiaal,(5em-e-aa'Aa-ai} 

a. half-yearly. 
Bcmibrcve, (sem'e-brBT) lu a 

note of two minima. 
Semicircle, (sem'e-sfirk:-4) n, 

half of aoir> 

Semieolob, 
(som" 
Ion) . .. . 
point marked thna (:). 

Eeroidiameter,(sem-«-dI-ftm'- 
e-t^r) n. half a diameter. 

Soroinal, (sem'in-al) a. per- 
taining to seed; erigiual; 

Semteolity. (sem-in-al'«-to) 

n. the nature of seed. 
Seminary, (sem'in-ar-e) n. a 

place of education I a col- 

lege ; academy. 
SenQnate, (sem^ln-lt) fk t to 

sow ; to propagate^ 
JSemiquaver, (sernVkwi-Ter) 

%, luUf m tiuarcT. fa teno. 
Eomitone, (sem'e-tOn) n. half 
Ben^Towl, (sem'e-rov-el) n. 

a consonant whleh make 4 

an imperfvbt sound, as 

f, 1, m, n, r, a 
BempiternaL (sem^pe-Hr' 

nal) 0. ereriasilDg. 
Pempitemlty, (sem-pe-ttr'* 



!ofaoir> 

ieoloiJ.- / \ 
a'e.ka.£ ^ 



ne-te) n. fatnre, endless 

duration. [ing six. 

Senary, (sen'ar>e) a. oontuin- 
Senate, (sen'at) lu a lcgis< 

lativo body. 
Senator, (seu'a-tfit) h. a mem< 

ber of a senate. 
Senatorial, (seu-a-tO're-al) «. 

pertaining f o, • or beoom< 

ing, n sonator. 
Senatorsbh), (senVtfir-sMp) 

n. the omc-* of a sonator. 
Send, (send) v. t [prat, and 

pp. sent] to cause to go ; to 

dispatch. 
Senexoencs, (s9*nee'eiis) n. a 

growing eld. 
Beneschal, (sen'es-sfaal) 

steward: head batlfff. 
Senile, (aa'nil) a, belonging 

to old age. lage. 

Senility. (sC-nil'e-te) n. old 
Senior, (sQ'ne-or) n. one older 

than another ;— a. older in 

age or oihcei. 
Seniority, (s0-ne'0r'e<«te) n. 

priority in aco or olhca 
'Senii!f2h^ (soa'nit) n. a >reek. 
6onsat«,t»ens'at) a. peroelvod 

Uy the senses. 
SQUfatlon, (Bens-ft'shtm) n. 

poroeptlon by thtr senses. 
Sdnse« (soue) n. faculty by 

-Whloh external objects aro 

peroeivud. 
Senseless, (sensles) a. want- 
ing porcoption ; foolish. 
Senselessly, (sens'lcsrle) ad. 

without sense ; foolishly. 
Bonsibillty. (seus-e-bire-ta} 

n. ^pabiiitv of sensatiou ; 

aontenes4 of porcv ption. 
Sensible (sens'e-bl) a. capable 

of perceptions; peiteptible 

by the senses. ' 
Sensibly, (sens'e-ble) ai. per- 

ceptibly : with j^ood.souso. 
Sensitive, (seus'lt-ir) a. hav- 
ing sense or feeling. 
Sensitively, (stfBs'it-ir-lc) ad. 

with nioe sensibiUty, ' 
Sonsitiveuess, (sena'lt-lT-nes) 

n. the state of being sensi- 
tive. 
Sensorial, (sen-sS're-al) a. 

pei-taining to the san- 

sorium. 
S«nsoriura, (sen-sO're-nm) n. 
. the organ of seDae,if«i9eeea 

to bu lu the bi'uiu. 
SMisual, (sens'd-al) n. alXeot- 

ing the senses ; oamaL 
SMMuallsm, (smM'Q-aMam) 

ti. a state of subjection te 



a. 

of 



of 



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BSPTEraiAL 



t48 



SEXTTUI 



(•8p't«n-«r-«J a. conrirttng 



M 

Bi 
r ^ 



8c c- 

6«aaence,Trt'kirens) n. order 

01 sttooeasiou ; leriet. 
Sequent, (tC'kweut) a. tol- 

lowing. Iv. t to set ap&rt. 
Setaenrate, (sC-kwes^tr&t) 
fJeaaestratiwn, (tt-kwes-tra'*. 

•nun) n. a tettiug apart; 

•ecladen. 
SeracHe, (M-ral'i-O) n. a 

palace f«r the wivea of the 

Bultan. [the highest order. 
Serap. , (ser'af ) n. an aneel of 
Seraphic, (s«-ra('ik) a. ansel- 

io ; pure ; sublime. 
ScrapLim, (ler'a-fim) n. pi. 

of 64raph. 
Serenade, (ser-e-nad') n. 

musie at night iu the cfpcn 

air ;— V. t to entertain with 

nootumal musie. 
Serene, (se-rOu') a. quiet; 

peaceful; a title of honour. 
Serenely, (tf-tCn'le) ad. caLm* 

\j ; quietly. 
Serenity, (s&'ren'e-te) ». clear* 

neis; calutness. 
Sevf, (ofirf) N. one In Mnri' 

tttde. [stuff. 

Serge, (nrj) n. a thin woollen 
Sergeant:, (s&r'jent) n. a nuu< 

commissioned officer; a 

Uwye r of the highest rank. 
Serial, (se're-al) a. pertaining 

to a series;— n. a tale, 4o., 

Issued in a series of num« 

bera. ^ . l»»lky. 

Sericeous, (si-rlsh'e-us) a. 
Scries, (se're-esl n. order; 

■uocession: course, [grave. 
, (se're-us) o. sober; 
(•t're-ue-le) ad. 

gravely; aolemnly; in 



Seriousuess. (M're-us-nes) n. 
gn,niy, eamMt attention. 




Sermon, (str'mun) n. a dit- 

course on a text of Scrip- 
ture. 
Sermoniie, (ser'mnn-Iz) v. i. 

to write or preach a sermon. 
Sermonizer, (s^r-mun>iz'fir) 

n. one who wnces sermons. 
Seroon, (st-r6dn') n. a pack- 
age in skina. 
Serocity, (se-ros'e-te) n. the 

watery part of blood. 
Serous, (ser'us) a. consisting 

of serum. 
'Serpent, (sfir'pcnt) 

animal 

that 

oreepe 

a fire 

work. , 
Serpent- 

i n e 

(ear' 

pent-in) a. winding, as a 

serpent. 
. Serrate, (scr'rit) a. indented 

like a saw. 
Serum, (so'rum) n. thin part 

of the blood, or of milk. 
Servant, (s^nr'ant) n. one 

who laboun for another. 
Serre, (scrv) v. t to work for; 

to obey; to worship ;— ». i 

to perform duties : to snic 
Service, (scrv'is) n. dutr of a 

servant ; worship; miUtary 

duty ; favour. 
Serriceable (serv'la-a-bl) 0. 

that doe» aervioe. 
Servile^ (ssrv'il) a. ilaTish; 

cringing, 
ServiUty, (serv-iKe-te) n. 

mnAn >iiVitnia«iviiii«iu j ol>- 

S n. a 

at. 
8 1) n. 

8 'stated 

body. 

S a hol- 

r sedi- 
1, also 

8 Id pp. 

ulate; 
w^ «n>.>^.<» »«w« .u« hori- 
aon ; — II. a number of 
things suited to each 
other. [bristly. 

Setaceous, (se-t&'khe-us) a. 

ttt-oB, (set 'of) n. an account 
set agonist uuotUer. 

Seton, (Ke ton) n. a cord to 
keep a wound vpcn. 



Se 



long 
(. to 



t) » 
e set- 
ire. 
I. pi 

L 

I one. 
) a. 

the 



Se 

<'» 

part in aeven; a musiud 

intervaL [times ten. 

Seventy, (sev'en-te) a. seven 
Sever, (sev'er) 9. t to part 

Tioientlj. 
Several, (svv'cr-al) a. separ- 
ate; many;— K. each; a 

separate plaoe. 
Severally, (sev'fir-al-Ie) . ad. 

separately. / 

Severalty, (sev'cr^al-te) %. a 

state of separation. 
Severauce, (sev'sr-ans) h. 

separation ; partition. 
Sever^ (st-vCi-') a. strict; 

cruel ; painful : extreme. 
Severely, <s«-ver'le) od. «ith 

severity. 
Severity, (se-Tsr'e-te) n. 

harshnees; rigour; auster. 

ity ; sti'ictness. 
Sew, (s9) v.tXo unite witb 

needle and thread. 
Sewer, (sQ'er) a. a passage 

uader ground for water. 
Pex, (seks) a. the distinctioo 

of male and female. 
Sexagenarian, (seks-a-jen-&'- 

rs-an) n. a person of sixty 

years of age. 
Sexagesima, (seks-a.jes'e-nuL) 

n. the second Sunday be- 
fore Lent. 
Sexennial, (seks-eu'ne-al) «. 

lastiag or happening caoe 

in six-yeara 
Sextant, (seks'tant) n. aa aa- 

tronomi- 




of planets 

sixty degteaapeiL 



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SEZTOir 



249 



SREATS 



aToraoiouc 




1 

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(jpff yyi 


250 


8S0RT 




m - ■ 


. -. ..... ^ . . 


_ . . .^ _.t_*^.- _ 1 


. <9«.l t_V* <.Vt— /-<*% 


- » 


m 








to 


n 








n- 


81 








ifta 


81 








•- 


a 








& 


81 








tt. 


s 








ft 


81 








•M 


81 








or 
to 


81 








n 


81 








s 


81 










81 








or 


SI 








U 


8) 








n. 


81 








n. 


61 








1. 


61 








ML 
U 

li- 
ft 


81 








IC 


81 








to 


81 








ft 


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.SROsnnr 


S51 


gyoTt 




i 








r 


^ 










R 








k> 


a 








it 


« 








d 


a 








1. 


m 








I- 

L 


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r- 

r- 


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s 








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t. 


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fi 








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a 


fi 








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aaax sst 


BXVGULABLT 


•^.fS'.s.r-«jh? 


gj. ..«,. 




BishtleM, (ait'kat a. wanUns 


Si 






Si 


ma 




Si 


of 


figtatr, (•»'!•) «. pleMin« to 
fiisn, (siu) n. a token: prouf ; 


1 


^ 


woiular; ooiuteUation ; — 


Si 




ft. 1 to sabKcilM one'! 


Si 


1* 


naiM ; to nark. 


^ 


"•^ 


filsnal.itif'DaDit. a dgu to 
giY« Botaee i— «. emitiout ; 


i 


oa. 


nmarkaft)!*. 


og. 


Siffnalue, (Hc'naMt) «. t to 
uiake dlBtincuMhed. 

Siffo Uy, (ilc'ual-lrij «i. ro- 
tuarkably. 


1 

Si 


& 


i 

Si 


«L 


Sijmatura. (lirnatQr) n. a 




m: 


rame or nark txgaied or 


1 




imptoMed. 


( 


the 


BlgiMr. Ijln'er) a. ono who 
tttbionbM hia nane. 


61 




1 


hM 


Siguot, (8Ur'n«t) m. a wal. or 


Si; 


to 


privatowaL 


1 


filgniftoanoB, (alff-nire-kr ns) 


Si 


n> 




hii 


a. 


fiigmficaat. (aiff-niro-kant) 
«. ezprMrtro «i aono fact 
or raoaalim. 


Si 




8.! 


■ti 


«Ei'^%5S:i£Srj:'"'"- 


Si 


«i 


Sienifloatiou. (sls-ue-fe-ka'- 


§i 




■hun) n. meanins bjr words 


Si 


'd 


or aigni. 






SifmiflcaUTo, (lic-nif ektt- 


Si 


Ml 


XV) a. havins or eyprewiug 






meaning. 




«. 


Slgnitjr, tiig'ne-n) «^ (. to 


Si 


L 


make known; — 0. i to 




rtL 


mean ; to imuoit. 
Bign-poiit. (sln^ost) n. a poet 

ou whioh a sign kanc». 
Sileuoe. (si'leus) n. stiDness; 


Si 


to 




do- 




tho 




Si 


•11 


to appease. L«tuiet 




m« 


Silent, (si'lent) 0. still: nmtu; 
k^ilentiy. (si'tent-le) al with- 








of 


out spoeoh or noise, 
fillez. t2leks) n. flint and 
its metaUio base. 


Si 
Si 


m; 

»ct. 


Silicious, (si-Ush'e-us^o. per* 




n. 


taining to ulez : flinty. 
BiUqu*, (sU'e-kwaw) n. a po<l 




tdi- 


Si 


with^seeds flzed to buth 






sutores. 




»ai^ 


Silk. (sHk) 11. the fine, soft 


Si 


n; 


thread prednrad by the 


Si 


■to) 


silk-worm, and oloth made 




of it;— a. eonslvting of 


Si 


y]0) 


silk. Mlk: like sUk: sofk 
BilkiNB, (lUk'o) 0. mftde of 


Si 



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iSirSBZA 



Smuggle, («m«cD «. i to 
import vtthont ptyiat 
duiiM ; to ooawj pnT«i«> 
I7. (vho f mugglM. 

Bmagglinf, (smvi'Iliig) «. 

unuivfml exyonatkm or 

importauoQ of goods tnb* 

j«o« to daty. 
Smut, (imttt) n. wot; foul 

mattar,— «. t or i to inark 

with mat. ** 

Smotob, (tmueh) «. t to 

bl&ckon iKth tmoko. 
SmottineH, (imut'o-ne*) «. 

■oil from i moke; obeoeaity. 
Smuttj. (emttt'e} a. loiled; 

obscene. Iput. 

Snack, (tnak) n. a duM ; re- 
Snaffle, (maf'l) n. a bridle 

vi(h a bit withoat 

brsuMbes. 
Snag, (eaag) n. a tooth 

standing oat ; a knot ; a 

rough branoh. 
Snoggj, (luag'e) m. foil of 

knots or sharp points. 
Snail, (sn&l) n. a slimy rep* 

tilo. (serpent. 

Snake. (snUc) n. a kind of 
Snap, ifintip) 9. t. to break 

shortT,— V. i. to bite at ;--ii. 

set of breaking suddenly. 
Snappish, (suap'ish) «. apt 

to snap ; peevish. 
Snare, (snAr) n. any thing 

vhich entraiM; a nooee;— 

V. t to insnare. 
Snaii, (snarl) 9. f. to entan- 
gle ;>-0. i. to growl, as a 

dog ; -K. entanglement ; a 

oomplieated difloolty. 
Snateh, (snaah) v. t to selie 

hastily i—n. a hasty catoh. 
Suath, (snath) a. handle of a 

scythe. 
Sneak, (snek) v. i to creep 
• slily : to behare meanly ; 

f . UtAm. 

So m. 

I It. 

fin Md. 

tin >n- 

I ^^ 

1 c 

Sn ha 



se»m. 
Snovxe, (sncs) ». i te «jeet ale 
saddeaiy thxuugh the aeM. 



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8TAXME& 




•oft anther of a flov«r ; pL 


'0 


Stamens, Stamina. 




*ftffiSffSiai:**" 


rl 


flump. (Stamp) » <. to strike 


l«k 


downward with the foot ; 


It* 


to mark ; to ooin money ; 
"-41. an instrument for 




CL 


makiaf an impression; 


1 la 

1 


_ mark impressed. 


Btampede. (itam-ped') n. a 
sudden iri^ht and runninff 


M 


1 


•f oattle, horses, *c. 


U, 


Stanch, (staush) «. t. to stop. 


i 


as flowing blood ;— a. firm ; 
sound: strong; also writ- 


i Df 


L 


ten Staunch. 


it 


Stuiohion, (stan'shtin) n. a 


i i; 


. prop or support; a small 
efnchless, fstAnshle^ a. 


^ 


i )r 


that can not be stoppcfd. 


a 


Stand, (stand) v. i or t. [prO. 


&- 


and pp. stood! to be on the 


B. 


feet ; to stop ; to remain ; 


i >r 


to pei-sJst :-~». a stop ; sta- 


{ M 


tion; musket and accoutre- 




ments. (en8i|fn;te»t. 
Standard, (stand ard) n. an 
Ptandish, (stand'ish) n. a 


: 1 


case for holding pens and 


. ink. f mine. 




BtannaiTt (stan'a-re) n. a tin- 
Stanza, (stan'sa) n. a staff or 
number of rerses in poe- 


£ 1) 


E a; 


1 try. , [ing to stanzas. 


£ h 


Btaiizaie,(stan-sft'ikj a. relat- 
Staple, (stft'pl) n. a loop of 


1. 




iron ; mart for goods ; the 


fi 1. 


pile of wood; principal 


>r 






principaL 
Star, (sUr) n. a lumlnons 
t)ody in the heavens; the 


i 




mark*; — 1>. t to set or 


i. 


adorn with stars. 


8 So 


Starboard. (st4r'b9rd) n. 
fright side of a ship. 


d 

^ »f 


Starch; (sUrch) n. a sub* 




stance to stiffen cloth ;— o. 




stiff -^v. t to stiffen with 


V 


starch. Tpredse. 


s 


Starohy, (sULreh'e) a. stiff; 
Stare, (st&r) r. i to look with 


10 


s 


eyes wide open ;— ». a fixed 


ft 


look. fgaier. 


s 


Starer, (stir'er) n. an eager 
Star-gaser, fstfcr'gfts.fir) n. 




8 


one who obeerres the stars. 
Stark, (sttek) a. sUff; strong; 
deep; — imL wholly; en- 
tirely* [no >ta>n visible. 






Starless. (stftrOes) a. bavins 
Btadictit, (stAfllt) n. ligSl 



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304 


STltAiraLES 


«- •'• 


^* ' - • 


... . . .. . ,^ 


Si! 




• 


. 1 

0t 




\ 


8t 

: 






H 

1 




L 
of 

to 


8t 




'a- 

DO 


6^ 




to 


Bt 




11. 


Si 




ML 


St 




on 

or. 


8t 




a. 


8t 




la- 


8t 






g 






8t 

1 




es. 


8^ 




X)n 


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8t 




na 


8t 

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ES: 


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A DICTIONARY OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



STSAKGinJlTZOK 




BtrancnlAtlon, (itrang-ga* 
1ft 'shun) n, tho act of 
strangling ; raiTooAtion. 

brangury, "'■ '^ - ' 

diffleulty 



in dUoharglng 



Strap, (itrap) n. a lonj 
of lMither;-v. tto^ 



Stratsujrem, (strat'a-jem) 

artifice: trick. 
Strategist (strat'e-Jist) n.one 

skilled in milituy move* 

ments. 
Strategy, (tirat'e-ja) n. that 
^ brancnof military science 

\rhioh oonsifts in conduct* 

ing great military mova- 

ments. . 
Stratification, (stral-e-fe-kr- 

shun) n. arrangement into 

strata. 
Stratify^ (stratVfl) «k I. to 

form into layers. 
Stratum, (strft'tum) n. a 

layer, as of earth; pL Strata. 
Straw, (straw) n. a stalk of 

grain ;— mass of stalks. 
Strawbanry, (straw'ber-ro) 

a plant and its fruit. 
Straw-oolour, (straw'kul-er) 

n. a beautiful jellowish 

colour. 
Stray, (ftrft) «. i to wander i 

to rove;— n. a beast that 

wanderiL ■ 
Streak, (strtk) n. a Une of 

colour; a stripe;— v. (. to 

stripe, [pp. or a. striped. 
Streaked, fstrfikt, strek'ed) 
Streaky, (strek'e) a.' striped. 
Stream, (strfim) n. a running 

water; a current;— «. i. or (. 

to flow, 
streamer, (strftn'sr) «>• a flac- 
Streamlet, (strOmlet) n. a 

small stream. 
Streamy, (strem'e) a. flowing 

with a current. 
Street, (strfit) n. a way or 

roadinaoity. 
Strength, (strength) n. power 

to oot ; force ; vigour. 
Strengthen, (strength'en) 

«. t or V to make or grow 

strong. 
Strs&gtnener, (strength 'en- 

fir) n. that which gives 

'^teength. 
Mrenffthless, (strength'les )a. 

oeifltnte of ftceagth. 



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2«» 


STTSFAOB 








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1 




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1 




1. 


1 




a) 


Sti 





1- 


i 




r. 


si 




Bt 


Sq 




t 


8tt 




t 


Sa 




a 


6u 




t. 
I« 


6u 




t- 


Sa 




> 


Sq 




r. 

Ik 


Sv 




» 


80 




0* 

If 


H 






Bn 




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S'^TXATnnsss 




flvcatinttK, (iwet'e-nes) it. 
4 noiitttrs nom penpira* 

tion. fwitn sweat. 

Sweaty, (swet'e) a. moist 
Sweep, (swcto) V. t Ipret. and 

pp. eweptj to brash with a 

i»room ; to pasv along ; to 

feteh a long stroke :--n. 

act of sweeping ; compass ; 

range ; a large oar. 
Sweepings, (swep'ings) n. pL 

things collected in sweep- 
ing. 
Sweepstakes, (swSp'stftks) 

n. pL the whole money 

won at a race. 
Sweeti (swet) a. grateful to 

th^laste. 
SwHfc-hread, (swefbred) n. 

the pancreas of a calf. 
Sweet-brier, (swfit'bri-fir) n. 

a thorny shrub of the rose 

kind which emits a veiy 

fragrant atneU. 
Sweeten, (ywU'n) v. t or i. to 

make or become sweei. 
Sweetener, (swet'n-er) t^ 

that which gives sweetness. 
Sweel-hsart. (swet'hart) n. a 

lover. tsweet. 

SweetUb, (swet'ish) a. rather 
SweeUy. (swetlej ad. yfith 



Sweetmeat, (swCt'met) n. 

fraifc preserved. 
Sweetaiess, Uwit'nes) n. 

gr9,tefulnesfc to the taste. 
Sweet-william, (swct-wil'- 

Sm) fi. a garden flower of 
B pink species. 
Sw'eU,^swelj v. I. to dilate or 
•ztendt'-fV. i to be laflt^t- 
eat--ii; extension of bulk. 
Swelling, uvel'ing) n. » 



Swefter, (swelftr) 9. i or t 

to melt or be oppressed 

with heat 
Sweltry, (swelt^re) a. uxdtty. 
8w#rw, {inirt} «. i. to devl- 

aU. . [celerity. 

Switl. (swift) a. moving with 
Btriftli. (sfwift'le) ad. rapid- 

ly: with Telocity. 

Swi^l, («wU) «. t to drink 
largely; -I- Ik drink for 

Swim, (iwioi) v. i Ipnt. 
•warn ; pp. urumj to move 
oaaflaiUi to »Mt; to be 
diaur. C?ho swima 

GviaBMr, UprimV) «• one 



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TAR-WATER 


274 




T< ' 




— ^ "- — ■ .a 


Ts 






Tj 




A- 


T£ 




r 


Ti 




IITf 


T: 




lK>. 

L 

op. 


Ti 




toy 
>er» 


T) 




. a 


Tj 




. a 


T; 




. a. 
atv 


Ti 




llA. 


T) 




L"- 


Ti 




aA 


Ti 




' 


Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 




ho 


T 




ho 


T 






T 




in. 
n. 


T 




rne 


T 




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T 




ti 


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TEgPERATS 275 TlRMBtB 






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IHSOIOOZOAL 


277 


THRALDOK 


T 




en 


r 




a. 


Tl 




or 


•R 






T 






t; 




c 


T 




^ 


T 




i 


T 




h« 


T 




Ij 


JT 




an- 


T 




n. 


T 




3: 


T 




of 


T 




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Ti 




t; 


T 




id 


T 




>: 


T 




cr. 


Tl 




le) 


X 




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Tl 






Tl 




t] 


T 




t: 


« 




or 


T 




3; 


T 







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TOIL 


280 






- • • • 


-.-. ...... ,_-. A. 


. « ,— .,„ .X-_ . - ._,_. jjj 


fi 






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II 








Ti 








T( 






?a 


T. 






^ 


T 








T 






ie 


?; 






h* 


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T( 






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T< 






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>9. 
II. 


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T( 








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^« 


T< 






» 


•r< 






tt- 
y. 


T« 






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TOTTSE 



n. martial sport- on hone- 

^baglE- land hauL 

Touie, (toaz) v. t to pull 

Totr« (tS) n. eoane part of 
flax;— t. t to draw by a 

_«»pe. [mg. 

Towage, (tO'fij) n. act of tow- 

Toward, (tO'ard) prep, in a 
direotion to; near to;--<(. 
ready to do or learn. 

•rowardly,(tO'ard-le)a. ready 
to learn. Ltractableness. 

Towardness, (tC'ard-nes) n. 

Towel, (tow'el) n. a cloth for 
the hands. 

Tower, itow'er) n. a high 
edifice : a citadel i—v. i, to 
soar aloft. 

Towering, (tow'§r«ing) a. 
very high ; elevated ; soar- 
ing. If or towing. 

Tow-line, (tSlin) n. a rope 

Town, (town) n. a large col- 
leotiott of housei; the in- 
habitants. 

Township, (town 'ship) n. 
territory of a town. 

Townsman, (townzman) n. 
one of the same tdwn. 

Towntalk, (town'tuwkj n. 
common discourBc. 

Toxicology, (toks-e-kol'o-je) 
n. the science which treats . 
of poisons. 

Toy, (toy) n. a trifle ; a play- 
thing;— V. t to dally: to 
trifle. [play. 

Toyful, (toy'fool) a. fall of 

Turishf (toylsh) a. given to 
dallying. 

Toyshop, (tey'shop) n. a shop 
where toys are sold. 

Trace, itras) n.amark drawn; 
a footstep: Testigo;— V. t. to 
delineate by marics ; to fol- 
low by the footprints. 

Traceable, (trfts'a-blj a. that 
may be traced. 

Traces, (tris'et) n. pL the 

f straps of a harness for 
drawing. [moutal work. 

Tracery, jtrtts'er-o) n. oma- 

Tra^a^ (tra-kd'a) n. the 

TtoK Urak) n. a footstep ; 

path;— ». t to follow by 

tiaces. ting no path. 

Trackless, (Irak'les) a. hav- 
Tract, (trakt) n. a space of 

Indefinite extent ; a short 

treatise. 
Tractable, (trakt'a-bl) o. 

easib' managed. 
Trao1«fa|Uty,(trakt-a.bil'e-te) 




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38S 



TSJLTB, 



I ffmnaeilption, (ir&n'«krip'- 

than) n. the act of eopjinf . 

TranBf«r, (traui-f er') *. t to 

conrej from one place or 

■ person to another : to lelL 
Transfer, (trans'fer) n. con- 

yeyance to another. 
Transferable, (trans-ffir'a-bl) 

a. that Diaj be oonveyed. 
Trausference, (trans'ffir'ons) 

n. act of traneferrln;. 
Transfisaration, (trans-fiff- 

Or-i'snon) n. change of 

form or appearance. 
Transfigure, (trans-fig'ar) 

o. t to change the exter- 

nal appearance of. 
Transfix, (trans-fiks') «. 1 to 

pierce through. 
. Tianrf orm, (trans-form') v. (. 

to change the form; to 

■ metamorphose. 
TranBformation,(trans-form- 

« t'shun)n. change of form. 
■ Transfuse, (trans-fox') v.U U 

pour into another. 
Transfusion, (traus-fa'shun) 

N. act of pouring from one 

into another. 
Transgress, (traus-gresO v. t. 

to pass berond ; to violate ; 

•-0. L to sin. 
Iransgressicn, (tracS-gresh'- 

un) n. violation of a law. 
Transgressor, (irans-gres'or) 

n. one whu tu^aks a law. 
Transient, (trlh'she-cnt) a.. 

passing: hasty; not stae 

tionary. Lad- hastily. 

Transiently, (trau'sbe-ent-le) 
Transientness, (trau'she-ent- 

nes) n. shortness of contin- 
uance. 
Tnnsit, (tran'sit) n. a pass- 
, ing as of goods through a 

country, or a« a planet 

over the sun's disk. 
Transition, (tran-sizh'un) n. 

a passage from one place 

or state to another; change. 
Transitional, (tran-sizh'un- 

al) a. denoting transition. 
Transitive, (trans'it-iv) a. 

expressing aotion pacing 
> from an agent to an ob- 

jeot. 
Tiansitoriness, (trans'e-tor-e- 

nes) n. a passing with 

shoi-t continuance. 
Transitory, (trans'e-tor-e) a. 

continuing but « short 

time. 
Translatable, (trans-lat'a-bl) 

a. tiutt nay be traiulated. 



Ti - 


to 
lio 


Tr 


m) 
ich 


Tr 


n. 


Tr 


er- 


Tr 


n') 


Tr 

Tr 

1 


le- 
ne 
er. 
ic- 
>m 



Tr 



Transmission, (trans-mish'. 
un) II. act of sending from 
one place to another. 

TiansmissiTc, (trans-mis'iv; 
a. transmitted. 

TransnA, (trans-mif) v. i. to 
send from one to another. 

Transmittal, (trans-mit'al) 
n. transmission. 

Transmutablo, (trans-mat'a- 
bl) a. that may be trans- 
muted. 

Transmutation, (trans-mnt- 
a'shun) n. change into an- 
other 8ul>stanoc. 

Transmute, (trans-mat') v i. 
to change into another 
substance. 

Transom, (tran'sum) n. a 
cross-beam. 

Ti-ansparency, (trans-p&r'en- 
se) n. the quality of being 
transparent. 

Ti-ansparent,- (trans-par'ent) 
a. transmitting rays of 
light } clear. 

Transpiration, (trans-pir-a'* 
shun) ft. act of passing 
through pores. 

Transpire, (trans-pir') v. t. or 
i. to emit in vapour ; to be- 
come known. 

Transplant, (trans-plant') v.f. 
to remove and plant in an- 
other place. 

Transplantation, (trans • 
plant -&' shun) n. act of 
planting in another place. 

Transplendent, (tran-splen'- 
dent) a. resplradent in a 
high degree. 

Transport, (trans 'pGrt) n. 



ecstasy i a ahip for tran» 

portal ion. 
Transijort, (tran8-p6rt')-o. & 

to convey; to banish; to 

ravish with pleasure. 
Transportable, (trans-pOri'a- 

bl) a. that may be trans- 
_^ ported. 
Transportation, (trans-puri- 

i'shun) n. act of convey- 
ing; banishment. 
Transposal, (trans-pOs'al) n. 

a changing of place. 
Transiwse, (trans-pCs') v. t to 

put each in plaoe of the 

otiicr. 
Traiiiipoaition, (trans • p3 • 

sish'uu) M.cluingc of places. 
Transpositional, (traus • po • 

zish'un-al) a. pertaining to 

transposition. 
Transuustautiation, (tran* 

sul)-stan-she-&'shim) n. a 

•uppesed change of the 

bread and wine in the 

eucharist intotlie body and 

blood of Olirist. 
TrauEude, (tran-sad'} v. i to 

pass out in sweat. 
Tiansversal, (trans-vfirs'al) 

a. running or bing across. 
Transverse, (trans'vers) «. 

the longer axis of an 

ellipse. 
Transverse, (trans-Tors') a. in 

a cross 

direc- 
tion. 
Trans- 

verscly, 

(trans- 

vsrs'lc) 

ad. in a 

cross direction. , 
Trap, (trap I h. ail engine to 

catch atumals ;-^v. t. or i. 

to catch in a trap; to 

insnare. 
Trapan, (tra.pan') v. L to 

insnare ;— n. a snare. 
Trap-door, (trap ' dor) n. a 

door in a tioor or roof. 
Trappings, (trap'ingx) n. pU 

ornaments. 
Trash, (trash) n. any waste 

matter; — 0. t to lop ot 

ci-op. 
Trashy, (trash 'e) ((.worthless. 
Travail, (trav'al) ». i to toil ; 

Ho labour ;— n. toil; labour; 

childbirth. 
Travel, (trav'el) v. i. to make 

a journey or voyago i—n. a 

journey or voyage. 




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TRXTAITT 



285 



TTTRGIDITT 



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TVfiXET 


ssd 








Tnritey. (tnrTte) m. a lar- 


. m_. ,x-f*._ ...» _ 


• Twitter. 


(twit'tr) V. 


i. to 


fowl, a natire of Amtnc 




make a 


noise as swallows : 1 


pi Turkeys. 






.»..ti 4.W1., 


—•ous 


Tarkoit,(tur.kofa')n.ab] 










iih ^m ; also written Ti 
" quoise. [Indian saifR 
Tarmerie, ftur'mer-iki 
Turmoil, (tur'moil) «. en 
















lar- 








r.f 


■tirjtroubioi— ». tori 








tm. 


harass. 








lie. 


Turn, (turn) 9. t or i. 








a 


moTO or so round; 








the 


change ;— «. act of morii 
^ round; a winding; ohanj 








ar. 








yi. 


Tumooat, (tum'kct) n. 








aa 


who changes sides or prj 
eiples. 
Turnery, (tum'fir-e)n. the t 








«r. 








rer 
re- 


of forming by a lathe. 
Turnip, ttur'nip) lu an es( 

lent root. 
Turnkey, (tum1c«) n. 

who keeps the keys o! 
















:oi> 








rcr 








de- 


ttiioa. 








ar. 


Turnpike, (tum'pik) n. 
toll-gate ; a road on whi 
are turnpikes ; — ». U 








m» 










* form a turnpike. 








re- 


Turnstile, (turn'stll) n. 










kind of turnpike in a fo< 
path. 
Turpentine, (tnr'pen-tin) 
a resinous juice from pi 








tr) 








ik> 








^ 


ireea. [baaene 










Turpitude, (tur'pe-tbdi 








iT- 


Turret, (tur'etj n. a smi 










tower. • 








it. 


Turreted, (tur'et-ed) a. fi 










nishcd with a turret; li 








IE. 


a tower. [tortoii 










Turtle, (tur'fl) n. a dove ; 








le) 


Turtledove, (tur'tl-duT) n. 








' a. 


dove or _^ • 










^pigeon. '^•J j 








K. 


.Tuscan, (tus'. A K 








r a 


kan) a. not- ,^9^ 








Dk 


ing an order vJ^^^ 








to 


J^iN"^^ 








•^ 


a lon?pointed tooth. 








bt; 


Tutelage, (ta'tel-5 j ) n. guai 








^^ 


ianship ; protection ; car 








-bi. 


Tutelary, (tQ'tel-ar-e) 








in- 


guardiug ; protecting. 
Tutor, (ta tor) n. one who i 
•tracts;— V. 1. to instruct 








Plo 








«o. 








Wf8 




u, 








UBIQUITA.RY. (a-blk'we- 


n. eslsteno* OTery 


Uflinsn. (Qsla-nM) 


n. a«. 




where. 


fonnlty 






vhers. ' 


Udder, (ud'ar) lu the Ug 
vitf;tkat««t8o{ftC9W,*o, 


"An 


^SLV- "-»* ] 



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TOBOLT 288 tJTOBIlAGElIT 


U»b '^ — --'-') 9. L to V 






Unb I') a. not 






ui 


Vn\y zam) «. t 
to mrobASed. 


U] 


: 


Unb jrt')a. not 


Ui 


Unb bounded) 




a. iu. 


Ui 


Unb bound'ed' 




le) ounds. 


Ui 


Unb 11) v.L to 
In idle. 


1 


Ui 


Unb i'kn) a. en- 


__1 


tire : wb'ole. 


Ui 


Unbrotberly,(un-brui!h'fir-le) 


Ui 


a. ««♦. K-^iM«4no. . hrotber. 


] 


Unb V. U to 


Ui 


un 




Unb n) V. t 


Ui 


to reUeTe. 


Ui 


Unb )a.not 


i 


int nttons. 


1 


Unb V. t to 


Ui 


Unci lid) a. 


1 


noi 




Uncanonical, {an-ka>uon'ik« 


Ui 




3 


canons. 


Ui 


UnceasintTi (nn-sSs'ing) o. 


] 

Ui 


Unc 'ing<le) 


1 


ad issioB. 


1 


Unc n-ser-e- 


Ui 


mi maL 


1 


Unc iln) 0. 


1 


no oL 


Ui 


Uue 'tin-le) 


i 


ad 


Ui 


Uco t&n-te) 


t 


n. doubtfulness; want of 


i 


certainty. [unbind. 


Vi 


Uucbain, (un-«h&n') v. t to 






1 


bl) a. not subject to 
change ; immutable. 


Ui 


< 


Uuchangeably. (uu-ohftnj'a- 


< 


Ui 


immutably. - 


1 


Uncharging, (unocb&nj'iag) 


Ui 


on. 


< 


U ».ta. 


^1 


u L^. 


J 
1 


of 


Ui 


yiiir 


u! 


of 


1 


ure. 


1 


« B 


1 


U 9.t 


] 


^ . u , 



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m, not Meonlinff to mili- 



tai7 rulea. 



VamindfaU (aii>mInd'fool> 

a. heifdltsM ; reganUecs. 
UnminslecL(u&*imng^gld) a. 

not raized. 
Unmitigated, (un«mit'e-sftto 

cJf a. not alleriated; not 

lenened. 
Unmoor, (un-mddr') i^ t to 

bring to a single anchor. 
Unmotherly, mn-muth'er-le) 

a. not beeoming a mother. 
Unmurmuring, (un-mur- 

mor-ingj a. not complain* 

ing. 
Unmatieal. (an<ma'zik-al)a. 

not harmuDious ; harth. 
Unnatoral, (un-pat'ar*al) a. 

contrary to the laws of 
^ nature. 
Unnaturally, (un-nat'Or-al- 

le) a± in opposition to 

nature. 
Unnecessarily, (un-nes'es* 

tar-e>lei act. without neces- 

Unnecessary, (nn-nee'es-sar- 

e) c. needless. 
Unneighbourly, (nn^n&'bur* 

le) a. not oecoming » 

neighboxir. 
UnneiTe, (nn-nerV) ». t to 

deprive of strength. 
Unnoticed, (un-nut'ist) a. 

not obsenred. 
Unnumbered, (un-num'bfird) 

a. not enumerated. 
Unobjectionabie,iun-ob>jek'-> 

•hun-a-bl) u. not liable to 

objection. 
Unobservable, (un-ob>Berv'a- 

bl) a. not to be ob8erv«d. 
Unobserring, (un-ob-tery'- 

ing) a. heedless. 
Unobtrusive, ( un-ob-trdds'lT) 

a. not forward. 
Unoccupied, (un*ok'kQ>pId) 

a. not possessed ; being at 

leisure. 
Unoffending,(un-of-fend'ing) 

a. not givmg offence. 
Unofficial, (un-of-fiah'e-al) a, 

not officiaL 
Unofficious, (un'of-flsh'e-us) 

a. not forward or inter* 

meddling. 
Unostentatioot, (un*os*ten* 

tft'she*ns) a. not making a 

showy display. [open. 

Unpack, (nn*pak') p. t to 
Unpaid, (nn-ptd') a. remain* 
' ing due. 
Unpidatable. (aa*pa'aHt*bl) 



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TOTAXraKT 


m 


VPBPBXirCI 




'i 


- - -" ■ ■ — 




■ — ■ 


" ' »• 


v\ 










v! 










si 










v\ 




















Vi 










III 










ul 










v\ 










i 

V: 

i 










Vi 










v\ 










ul 
» 1 
Ul 










ul 










Ul 
Ul 










s: 










ul 










ul 

uJ 











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_£i 



VIGIL 



Termin.fTfir'min) n. all sorts 

• of smiiU noxious animAls. 

TenniparoQs, (Tfir>mip'a-ras} 
a. piodaoing worms. 

TenniT(»t>a8, (Tfir-mir'd-rttB} 
a. feeding on worms. 

Tcmacular, (Tfir*nak'Q*lar) a. 
naU^e ; belonging to one's 
own oonntry. 

Texnal, (rer'nal) a. Mong- 
ing to the spring. 

Versatile. (rer'sa-tU) a. tam- 
ing; yariaole. 

Tenatilit7«(tfir-ea-til'e-te)n. 
qnalitj vc being Tersatile. 

Terse, (rers) n. in poetry, a 
line : a stanta ; in pi o«<, a 
short division of a composi- 
tion. Iknowing. 

▼ersed,(Terst) a. well skilled; 

Tersiflcation, (vers-e-fe-ka'- 
■hiin) «. tne art of com- 
posing Tersea 

Tersifier, {Tfirs'e-fi-tr) n. one 
who forms into verse. 

Tersify, (Tfirs'e-fi) v. t to 
make Terses;— v. i to re- 
late in Terse. [lation. 

Yersion, (vfir'ahan) n. tran«- 

Vertebra. (Tert'^bra) n. a 
joint of the spine; p?. 
VertebrsB. 

Tertebral, (vfirt'e-bral) a. 
relating to the spine. 

Vertex, (vert'eks) n. the 
-erown or top. 

VerUcaU (r^rt'ik-al) a. being 
in the lenith } perpendicu- 
lar, [m the Eunith. 

Vertically, (vfirt'ik-aL-le) ad. 

Verticity, (vsr-tis'e-te) n. 
power of turning; rotation. 

T '< t;inoas, (Tfir-ti j 'm-us j a. 
ly^ turning. 

\ ..t'o, (▼er-ti'giJ) n. swim* 
ming 01 the head. 

Very, (Ter'e) a. true; real; 
identical ^-ad. in a great 
degree. [blister. 

Vesicate, (Tes'e-kftt) v. t. to 

Vesication, (Tes-e-kB'shun) n. 
act ef raising bliatirs. 

Vesicle, (vee'e-kl) n. a little 
bladder on the skin. 

Vesiculous, (TC-sik'o-lus) a. 
oonsisting of vesicles. 

Vesper, (ves'per) n. the 
ovening star ; evening ; 
Venus;— pl.eveningfcervioe. 

Venel, (res'el) n. a cask; a 
iabe; a building for navi- 
gation. 

Teat, (vest) «. a waistcoat ;— 
«. t to iM^S ' > pat la 



Vicara&w, (vik'ar-ajj n. tho 

benefice of a vicar. 
Vicarial, (vi-ki're-al) a. be* 

longing to a vicar. 
Vicariate, (vi-ka're-lt) a. 

having delected iiotrer. 



Vicarious, (vi-ka're-us) a. 
acting in place of i * 
deputed. 



f another; 



Vice, (vis) n. a blemish; 

fault ; a kind of prcts ; a 

Latin prefix, denoting in 

Vi n.. 

( L 

Vi n. 

1 «e 



31 


vJ 




!h. 


pe- 


1 

Vi 




ig. 

^9 


is- 


Vi 

I 




n. 

«d. 


a. 


Vi 




Ell; 


of 


Vi 




hi. 


lo- 


1 








Vi 




«. 


m. 


1 




19. 


to 


^{ 




ng 

CO 


n. 


Vi 




«. 


>. 


t 






a. 


Vi 




>n 


is- 


Vi 




ft. 


of 


Vi* 




le) 


ire 


< 








Vi 




»n- 


a 


< 






ay 


Vi 




►ly 


to 


•^ 








Vi 




no 


}t- 


1 








Vi 




od 


i 


vl 




to 


1 


Vi 




to 


1 


Vi 

1 

1 




so* 
»n. 


n. 


Vi 




ho 


a. 


1 

Vi 




Ml 




nut >je Kwo. 




lei 


Vigil, 


«vij'ii) n. wateh : 


BOOi 




taxnald»vo(iaas»2ai«. 



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TiaiLAKOB 


S9d 


VITALITY 


V • — 




>IM 


V 




a. 


v 




ad. 


y 




n. 


' V 




a. 


I 




t«r 


V 




•e; 


V 






V 




he 


V 




er- 


V 






V 




S8. 


V 




n. 


V 




ft 


• , 




M. 


V 






V 




n. * 


? 






V 




re. 

It. 


V 




«- 


V 




tj 


V 




a. 


VI 




in< 
na 

or 


Vi 




J~" 


VI 




la 


Vi 




n. 


Vi 




te 


vi 




k; 


Vi 




set 
ie»- 


Vi 




Dg 


vi 




lia 






' 



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VITAIXY 






• •" "' ■■ • - 


nt 


Vi 




lU 


Vl 




j'» 


vi 




&• 


Vi 




!" 


vi 




I. . 
a. 


\ 




«; 


V 




lie 


VI 




'•*.' 
e^ 


VI 






vi 




a.' 


Vi 




>t* 


'vi 




»l 


VI 




ot 


Vi 




m 

it. 


vi 




a. 

Or 


Vj 




le) , 


Vi 




1^ 


VI 




i; 


Vi 

Vi 




XT' 

la- 


I 




***, 


Vi 
V 




of 

[^ 
ea 


V; 




ed 


Vi 






I 




US 


V; 




to 


V( 




ftt- 


V( 






V 




ir- 



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T 
T 

T 
V 

V 
^1 

■w 

■\\ 

w 
w 

w 



■w 






] 

i 

i 

1 

Vf 

Vf 



WAR 



802 



WJkZ 



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804 WEI8TIB 1 






y^ 


» 


\i 


' a 


V 


iv> 


yi 






bk- 


Y 






Ii0 


T 


m 




IM 




an* 


¥ 


& 


n 


<tf 




to 


Kl 


iMk 


¥ 


la. 




al* 




1. 


T 




V 


^- 


T 


to 


¥ 


la 




re> 


^ 


&: 




n. 


T 


Ml* 


T< 




11 


im 


H 


cn- 


^ 


ua 




•a 


Tl 


a. 


^\ 


ng 


S 


ly. 


K 


Sl 




lit 




rt 




»i 




at 




t«r 




»— 



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^VHISTIEB 



SOS 



WIHDOWSASQ 



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WZHSPIPE 



WOOD-LAHS 




Windpipe, (trind'pf p) a. pas- 

•aga for ih« breath. 
Windir^rd, (viod'ward) a. 

Ijiiif toward the wmd;— 

«. the poiDt from which 

the wind blows. 
Wind/, (wiod'e) a. stormy ; 

tempestoou* ; flatulent i 

empty. 
Wine, (win) n. fermented 

juice of grapes and of other 

Wine-bibber, (wln'bib-tr) n. 

a great drinker of wine. 
Wine-fflass, (win'glas) n. a 

tmau glass from which 

trine is drunk. 
Wing, (wins) «». the limb of 

ft Dirdi^v. t to furnish 

with wings ; to wound on 

the wing. 
Wink, (wingk) v. i to shut 

and open the eyelids; to 

connive}— Ik a closing of 

tbe eyelids ; % hint by tho 

eye. [wius. 

Winner, (win'er) n. he tlmt 
Winning, (wm'ing) u. at- 

tractiTe. 
Winnow, (win'O) v. t to 

separate chaff by wind. 
Winter, (win'tcr) n. the 

Gold season ;— v. i. or (. to 

pass the winter ; to feed in 

winter. 
Wintery, (win't«r-e) a. snitv 

ble to Winter ; cold. 
Wipe.(\i^p) V. L to clean by 

rubbioffi — n. a rub; a 

stroke. 
Wire, (wir) n. a thread of 

metaL 
Wire-draw, (wlr'draw) v. t 

to draw metal into wire. 
Wixe-diawer, (wlr'draw-^r) 



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808 



TULS 



twist : to tarn ; to itimJu ; 

to extort. 
Wrinkle, irinsncDn a crease; 

farrow ;— #. t. ur t. to eoa- 

tract into furronrg. 
Wrist, (rist) ». the joint 

connecting the hand with 

the arm. 
Wristband, (risfband) n. the 

Mrt of a sleeve that corers 

the wrist 
Writ, (riti n. a writing ; the 

Scriptoret ; legal process. 
Writ*, (rit) *. t h/irtt. wxote ; 



pp. written] to form letters 
and words with a pen or 
stjle ; to engrave ; to com- 
pose, [writes ; an author. 

'Writer, criter) «. one who 

Writhe, (rich) V. t or i to 
twist ; to be distorted with 
jpain. 

Writing, (rlt'ing) n. aet of 
writing;, that which is 
written : a book ; a deed. 

Written, (rit'en) a. ezprea»ed 
in letters. 

Wrong, (rong) a. it^oatioe; 



- ..>« -:_i.« 



ZANTHINEf (nathin) i 
reing 1 



yellow dyei 

madder. 
Xebec, irtTjck) , 

three-masted Tcssel osmIi 
, ia the Jdediternmean. i 



Xeninm, (M'ni-nm) n. a 
pre»ent giTen to a guest or 
stranger. 

Xerophagy, (le • rof ' a- je) n. 
the eating of dry meats. 

Xyiographic, (li-lS-graf'ik) 



TAGHT, (yot) n. a ressel of ! 
state or pleasure. i 

Taehting, urot'ing) it. 



sailing 
nis'lna 



r, on pleasure excnrdous' 
^ yacht. . 

Xankee. (yang^C) n. a bor< 

oiationof the 

iots, Engliihf 

a Kew-£pg- 

', a measure of 
n iuclosure ; a 
•timner. 
Lrd'stik) n. a 
»et in lengtiL 
n. spun -wool, 
ton; a stoiy 

a sailing boat 
at the stem. 

Kito gape; 
lpmg..^... . * 
second person 
m. ^certainly. 

yet; TCrily; 
L or t to bring 
[young sheep, 
o'ling) n. a 
welre montha 
r'ling) N. a 
old. 

ie) a. annual ; 
ry year:-Hi3. 

l^ t'to fert 
re: to-louff.. 
fi'aigiH.aQ<mg 



Teatt, (ytet) n. froth of 
liquors in fermentation. 

Telk, (yelk) n. yellow part of 
an egg. 

Yell, oel) V. i to ntter a 
sharp outcry;~4t. a hideous 
icream. 

Yellow .tlyeroL- of a gold 
colour ^n. a^old colour. 

Yellowish, (rel'G-ish) a. mod- 
erately yellow. 

Yelp, <yelp) v. «. to bark at a 
puppy or dog. 

Yelping, (yelp'ing) n. a bark- 
ing. 

Yeoman, (yO'maa) n. a free- 
bolder or farmer ; pL Yeo- 
men. . 

Yeomanry, (vCmkn-re) it ther 

■■ ooUeetive body of yeomen. 

York, (yerkj «. t to jerk. 

Yes, (yes) ad. yea; a word 
that affirms. * - " 

Yesterday, (yes't«r-da) n. the 

. day last past;— ad. on the 
day last past. ^ * - ' - ■ 

Y'estersight. (yes'tcr-nit) n. 
the night last past. 

Yet, (yet) eon. or ad, never- 
theless; besides ; at least. 

Yew.(Q)n. an evergreen tree. 

Yield, (jreid) v. t to produce; 
to alford ; — v. i to sur- 
render. 

Yieldingneti, (ysld'ingrnet) 
ti. auolity of yielding; 

Yoke, (yOk) it. an instrument 

^ f to MOBMi oxen fee workt 



a. belonging to woo^-en- . 

graving. > '' ' , 

Xylography, (d-log'ra-fe) ik | 

the ai't of engraving in 

wood, [feeding on wood. 
Xylophagous, isi-lof a-gus) a. 



bondage; a pair^^ t to 
connect ; to unite. "* "*» 

Yoke-fellow, (yuk'fel-l5)ii. an 
associate ; a eompanion. ^ 

Yolk, (yOk) n. the velk of an 

Yon, (yon) a. being at a dis-^ 

tance, but witbin^iew. 
Y'ender, (yon'dfir) od. at a 

distance. 
Y^ore, (yur) ad. of old time. 
You, (Q) proit. second peisoi) 

singular or pluraL 
Young, (yuug) a. not long 

bora;— li. the oiTcpring of 

animals, [so old as anotiier. 
Younger, (yung'ger) a. Jiot 
Youngest, (Tung^gest)\a.. 

having the least age. ^ 
Youngish, i yung ' ^V^ 

rather yoimg. - . 
Youngster, (yung'stcr) n. a 

young person, ling to you. 



Your,JCir) pron. udj. belong' 
Yourself, ( Qr • sell ' ) pnn. 

imrAatieaU you only. 
Youth, (Tdoth) n. the earl/ 

part of life; a joungper 

sou: young persons coU 

leclively» 
YoutMul, ry46th'fool) a 

young: fresh; vigoroua r 
Youthf ulness, lyduth ' fuol - 

net) ft. tlie sUte of being 

youthfuL * ; 

Yule, (OU n. the nama 

aneieutly girey to ClurisV 



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BRYomr 


310 


HAS 




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THE POPULAR AMEMCAN DICTIONAnt 



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A DICTIONARY OFTNE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



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THE POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



FOSXIGN W0BD6 AND PHRASBSL 



Emento, (t-rodM) Ft. IntnrreeUoii; uprov. 
ployed tj another. 



iUnc-pio-4-7D Vi: A penoa em* 



I ATaat I (Aiig-4-TAtig) 7r. Forwardl 

I maaw, (Ans-mfts) Fr. In a bodv. 

Snnul, («n-nd6^) Fr. LMiitada. 



Xn pMMot, (4ng-p*s-«ftnff) Fr. la paising; 

hj fh* yrtj. 
Xn route, (Ans-rMt) Fr. On the traj. 
Ens rationti, L. A creature of reaioii. 
Xntenu eordiale, (4n£-Unst-k3r<le-8l) Ft. 

Cordial ondentaading between tvo par- 

tiet. [selTcs. 

Xntre now, (&ngtr4k6d) Fr. Between our- 
Errare eat humanuni, L. To err is human. 
Erratnn, L. An error ; pL Errata, Errors. 
Esprit de eorps. {vj^t^t-kSr) Fr. The 

nirit of the body. 
Xst modus in rebus, L. There is a medium 

4n all fLKinM 

C: 

ixerj thing of 

Brutus I 
abundance. 



examrle. 

ins comes of 

oiBca. 

fact, or com- 

ncditation. 

trails. 

one learn aU. 



^ne prinoeps, L. The admitted chief. 

Facilis est descensus, L. Descent is easy. 

Fac simile, li. A close imitation. 
', Fairs mon deroir, (f ftr-m0ngHifi-T6o-4r) Fr. 
To do mj duty. 

Faire sans dire, (fir-s4ag-dQr) Fr. To act 

_ without ostentation. * 
, Fait accompU. (ft-t4-k0ng-ple) Fr. A thing 

already done. 
i FaU ohstant, L. The fates oppose it 

Faux pas. (f9-pa) Fr. A false step; a mistake. 

J'elo d(B se, L. A suicide. 

Ffite, (f&t) Fr. A feast. [feast 

Vete ohampetre,(f&t-sh'&ng-pAr) Fr. A rural 

Fides et justitia. L. Fidelity and justics. 

Fidus Achates, L. A faithful friend. 

Fills de chambre, (fB-y66-dfi«8hAugbr) Fr. 
)- A chambermaid. 

Finem respioe, L. Look to the end. 
•'Finis, L. The end. (work. 

I Finu fi9»Dat opai| L. Tho end orowus the 



Fbrtiter in re, L. With flMinflss in aoUng^ 
Fraoas, (fr4-k4) Fr. A slight onarret 
Fronti nulla fldes, "L. There is no tnisting 

to appearances. 
Fngit hora. L. The hour flies. 
Fudotus oncio, L. Out of office. 
Furor poetions, L. Poetical flra. 



Garson, (g&r^Qng) Fr. A boy ; a waiter. 
Garde du corps, (gArd-ofi-kOr) Fr. *A bo^ 

guard. a [polios 

Gens d'armes, (sh&ng-dArm) Fr. Armed 
Gloria in ezoelsis, L. Glory to God in the 

highest 
Gratis, L. Fornqthiagi 



Habeas corpus, L. In law, a writ for do- 

brerlng .a person from imprisonmeatk 
Hauteur, (h0-t6dr) Fr. Haughtiness. 
Haut gout. (hO-gdd) Fr. High flaToor. 
Ilicjacetli. Hero lies. 

h! ih- 

] rU 

1 



Ibidem, Ibid. L. In the same plaee; a 

note of r^fennet. 
Idest(t.s.i,L. That is. 
Ilium fuit, L. Troy has existed ; ^ such 

things bars been. 
Impcrium in imperio, L. A gOTcmment 

witliin a government 
Imprimatur,- L. Let it be printed. 
Imprimis, L. In the first place; especially. 
Impromptu, L. Without study. 
Improvjsatore, It An impromptu poet or 

story-teller. 
In articttlo mortis, L. At tho point .of 

death ; in the last struggle. 
In ooelo qui<)s, L. There is rest in hearcn. 
Incogmto, L. Unknown. 
In curii, L. In the court 
Index expurgatorius, L. A list of prohibit* 

ed books. 
In dubiis, L. In matters of doubt 
luequilibrio, L. Kqually balanced. 
Inft)Se,L. In being. 



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rOREION WORDS AUTD PHBASSSL 



0. 



OMitiL. n« or the died. 

Oteta prineipiis, L. ReaM the first begin- 

ninga. Idiviaea. 

Odium theolosricum, L. The hatred of 
Onmes, L. All. 
Omni* bona bonit, Ja. Ail things ar« good 

to tho good. 
Omnlirrmcit laboi^Ii. Labour oTezoomes 

aUihings. 
On connait Tami an beioin. (Sng-kOn-nSrla- 

me-e-be-s6«-Ang) Fr. A friend it known 

in the time of need. 
On dit, (Ong-do) Fr. They nj-; a flying 



OnoB probandL L. The harden of proTing. 
Oza et labonu L. Pray aud work. 
Om pro nobis, L. Fray for us. 



tempora ! moresl L. Oh the timesl Oh 

the manners 1 
Otiam eum dignitate, L, Ease with dignity; 

dignified leiiare. 
Outr«, (6d-tri) Fr. Out of the vtoal maimtrt 

•xtraTagant 



Pallida mon. L. Pale death. 



Papier mach«, (pft*pfi't-mUh>g) Fr. A fab* 

stance made of paper reduced to a palp. 
Par excellence, ipAr-fiks-sfil-langy) Fr. Bj 



way of eminence. 
Pari passu, L. With e<raal pace : together. 
Far nobile fratrum, L. A noble pair o< 

brothers; two just alike. * 
Pars pro toto. L. Part for the whole, 
Particeps criminis, L. An accomplice. 
Parvenu, (par*Tfi-n6d> Fr. A new comer: aa 

upstart. Ckey. 

Passe-pai-tont, (p&s-pftr-tM) Fr. A master* 
Passim, L. Ererywhere. .. w- 

Paterfamilias, L. The father of a fkmily. 
Pater noster, L. Our Father ; the LordVi 

prayer. 
Pax in hello, L. Peace in wai^. 
PeccaTi, L. I liaro sinned. 
Peachaut, (pang-shAng) Fh 

desire. 
Penseroso, It. Melancholy. 
Per annum, L. By the year. 
Per centum, L. By the hundred. 
Per contra, L. On the eontrary. 
Per diem, L. By the day. 



Per intenm, Ij. In the mean time. 


«aaBd 


pi 
Pe 
Pe 
Pe 
PI 
Pc 




[Uon. 
le qoas- 

ix«.noft 


Pc 




To lo. 


Pc 
P< 
Pc 

i 




ig-kdto* 
igep&ent 


Pc 




Ir-kSoff* 


Pi 
Pi 




1. 

^roMor 



smger. , 

Prima facie, L. On the first view. 
Primum mobite, L. The first morer; tho 

first impulse. 
Principia, L. First principles. 
Principia, non homines, U Prinoiples. not 

men. (sides. 

Pro aris et focif, L. For our altMiaaa flro> 



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Bn' " " " 


- " ■— ^ " "•••* 


"r« 


8n 






i 






n 






li 






v« 






Ti 






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Ti 






Tt 






Ti 






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£ 






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T< 






T< 






Ti 






T« 






T« 






T. 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






Ti 






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V 






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A BRIEF LIST 

OF 

MYTHOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL NAMES 

IN THE FABULOUS HISTORY OF THB GREEKS AND ROMANS. 



Achates (a-ka^'tez). The faithful friend of ^Eneas, the hero of 

Virgil's JEneid. 
Acheron (ak''e-ron). The son of Sol and Terra, changed by 

Jupiter into a river of hell, or the infernal regions ;— ^used also 

for hell itself. 
Achilles (a-kiKlez). A Greek, who signalized himself in the war 

against Troy; and having been dipped by his mother in the 

River Styx, was invulnerable in every part except his right heel, 

but was at length killed by Paris with an arrow. 
Actaeon (ak-te''on). The son of Aristeus, and a famous hunter, 

who, having surprised Diana as she was bathing, was turned by 

her into a stag, and killed by his own dogs. 
Adonis (a-do^nis). A beautiful youth beloved by Venus. He was 

killed by a wild boar. When wounded, Venus sprinkled nectar 

into his blood, from which flowers sprang up. 
^geus (e-je-'us). A king of Athens, who threw himself into the 

sea, which after him was called the ^gean Sea. 
^gis (e''jis). A shield given by Jupiter to Minerva. 
^neas (e-ne-'as). A Trojan prince, son of Anchises and the 

goddess Venus, the hero of Virgil's poem, the ^neid. 
^olus (e''o-lus). The god of the wind and storms, 
^sculapius Tes-ku-la^'pe-us). The god of medicine, and the son 

of Apollo, Killed by Jupiter with a thunderbolt on account of 

his skill, and particularly for having restored Hippolytus to life. 
Agamemnon (ag-a-mem'non). King of Mycenae and Argos, 

brother to Menelaus, and commander-in-chief of the Grecian 

army at the siege of Troy. 
Aganippe (ag-a-nip^pe). A fountain at the foot of Mount Heli- 
con, consecrated to Apollo and the Muses. 
Ajax (a-'jaks). The son of Telamon, and, next to Achilles, the 

bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war. 
. 821 



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322 POPULAR AMERICAN BICTIONARY. 

Albion (al^be-on). The son of Neptune, who went into Britain, 
where he established a kingdom. 

Alceste, or Alcestis (al-ses^te, or -tis). The daughter of Pelias 
and wife of AdmetuS, brought back from hell by Hercules. 

Alcides (al-sl-'dez). A patronymic or title of Hercules. 

Alecto (a-lek''to). One of the three Furies. 

Ammon (am-'mon). A title of Jupiter. 

Amphion (am-fl''on). The son of Jupiter and Antiope, who built 
the city of Thebes by the music of his harp. He and his 
brother Zethus are said to have invented music. 

Amphitrite am-fe-tri''te). The daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
goddess of the sea, and wife to Neptune. 

Andromache (an-drom^a-ke). The daughter of Eetion, king of 
Thebes, and wife of Hector. 

Andromeda (an-drom''e-da). The daughter of Cepheus and Cas- 
siope, who, contesting with Juno and the Nereids for beauty, was 
exposed to a sea-monster, but was rescued and married by Perseus. 

Antaeus (an-te-'us). The son of Neptune and Terra, a famous 
giant, killed by Hercules. 

Antigone (an-tig''o-ne). The daughter of CEdipus and Jocasta, 
famous for her filial piety. 

Apollo (a-pbl^lo). The son of Jupiter and Latona, and the god of 
music, poetry, eloquence, medicine, and the fine arts. 

Arachne (a-rak-'ne). A Lydian virgin, turned into a spider for 
contending with Minerva at spinning. 

Arethusa (ar-e-tha-'sa). One of Diana's nymphs, the daughter of 
Nereus and Doris, who was changed into a fountain. 

Argus (ar-'gus). The son of Arestor, said to have a hundred eyes; 
but being killed by Mercury when appointed by Juno to guard 
lo, she put his eyes on the tail of a peacock. 

Ariadne (a-re-ad^ne). The daughter of Minos, who, from love to 
Theseus, gave him a clew of thread, which guided him out of 
the Cretan labyrinth, and she became his wife ; but being after- 
wards deserted by him, she was married to Bacchus, and made 
his priestess. 

Arion (a-ri^on). A lyric poet of Methymna, who, in his voyage 
to Italy, saved his life from the cruelty of the mariners by means 
of dolphins, which the sweetness of his music brought together. 

Astraea (as-tre''a). The goddess of justice; changed into the con- 
stellation Virgo. 

Atalanta (at-a-lan^ta). A princess of Scyros, who consented to 
marry that one of her suitors who should outrun her. Hip- 
pomenes was the successful competitor. 

Atlas (af'las). One of the Titans, and king of Mauritania, who is 
said to have supported the world on his shoulders, and was 
turned into a mountain by Perseus. 

Aurora (au-ro^ra). The goddess of the morning. 



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MYTHOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL NAMES. 32S 

Bacchantes (bak-kan-'tez). Priestesses of Bacchus. 

Bacchus (bak-'us). The son of Jupiter and Scmele, and the god 

of wine and of drunkards. 
Bellerophon (bel-ler^o-fon). The son of Glaucus, king of Egypl, 

very beautiful. With the aid of the horse Pegasus he destroyed 

the Chimaera. 
Bellona (hel-Wna). The goddess of war, and sister of Mars. 
Belus (be^lus). The son of Neptune and Libya, and one of 

the first kings of Babylon or Assyria, to whose statue divine 

honors were paid, and to whom a magnificent temple was built. 
Boreas (bO''re-as). The son of Astraeus and Aurora; the name of 

the north wind. 
Briareus (bri-a''re-us). A giant that warred against heaven, and 

was feigned to have had fifty heads and one hundred hands. 
Busiris (bu-sl^ris). The son of Neptune and Libya, a tyrant of 

Egypt, and a monstrous giant, who fed his horses with human 

flesh, and was killed by Hercules. 
Byblis (bib^'lis). The daughter of Miletus, who wept herself into 

a fountain through love of her brother Caunus. 

Cacus (ka'Tcus). The son of Vulcan, a most notorious robber, 
slain by Hercules for stealing his oxen. 

Cadmus (kad-'mus). The son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, the 
founder of the city of Thebes, and the reputed inventor of 
sixteen letters of the Greek alphabet. 

Calliope (kaI-ll''o-pe). One of the Muses, who presided over elo- 
quence and epic poetry. 

Calypso (ka-lip^so). One of the Oceanides, and one of the daugh- 
ters of Atlas, who reigned in the island Ogygia, and entertained 
Ulysses. 

Camilla (ka-miHa). A famous queen of the Volsci, who opposed 
iEneas on his landing in Italy. 

Capaneus (kap''a-neQs). A famous Grecian, killed by a stone at 
the siege of Thebes. 

Cassandra (kas-san^'dra). The daughter of Priam and Hecuba, 
endowed with the gift of prophecy by Apollo. 

Castalides (kas-tal^i-des). The Muses, so called from the foun- 
tain Castalius, at the foot of Parnassus. 

Castor (kas^'tor). A son of Jupiter and Leda. He and his twin 
brother Pollux shared immortality alternately, and were formed 
into the constellation Gemini. 

Cecrops (se-'krops). A very rich Egyptian, the founder and first 
king of Athens, who instituted marriage, altars, and sacrifices. 

Centaurs (sen-'taurs). A people of Thessaly, half men and half 
horses, vanquished by Theseus. 

Cerberus (ser>'be-rus). The three-headed dog of Pluto, which 
guarded the gates of hell. Hercules overcame and brought 
him away. 



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324 I'OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Ceren (se'rez). The daughter of Saturn and Cybele, and goddess 
of com, harvest, and flowers. 

Charon (ka-'ron). Th^ son of Erebus and Nox, and ferryman of 

• hell, who conducted the souls of the dead, in a boat, over the 
Rivers Styx and Acheron. 

Charybdis (ka-rib^dis). A ravenous woman, turned by Jupiter 
into a very dangerous gulf or whirlpool on the coast of Sicily. 

Chiron (kl-'ron). The son of Saturn and Phillyra, a Centaur, who 
was preceptor to Achilles, taught -^culapius physic, and Her- 
cules astronomy; and who was made the constellation Sagit- 
tarius. 

Chryseis (kri-se^'is). The daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo, 
famed tor beauty and for her skill in embroidery. She fell to 
Agamemnon's lot in the cause of the Trojan war, but was after- 
wards restored, in order to stop a plague among the Grecians, 
which Apollo had sent at the request of her father. 

Circe (sir-'s^). The daughter of Sol and Perse, a noted enchantress. 

Clio (kll^'o). One of the Muses. She presided over history. 

Clytemnestra (klit-em-nes^'tra). The faithless wife of Agamem- 
non, killed by her son Orestes for her crimes. 

Comus (ko^'mus). The god of revelry, feasting, and jollity. 

Crocus (krO-'kus). A young man who was enamored of the 
nymph Smilax, and changed into the flower of the name of 
crocus. 

Croesus (kre-'sus). The king of Lydia, and the richest man of his 
time. 

Cupid (kfl-pid). The son of Mars and Venus, a celebrated deity; 
the god of love, and love itself. 

Cybele (sib''e-le). The daughter of Coelus and Terra, the wife of 
Saturn, and the mother of the gods. 

Cyclops (sI'Tclops). Vulcan's workmen, giants who had only one 
eye, in the middle of their forehead, and were slain by Apollo 
in a piquevagainst Jupiter. 

Daedalus (de^'da-lus). A most ingenious artist and artificer of 
Athens, who formed the Cretan labyrinth, and invented the 
augtr, axe, glue, plumb-line, saw, and masts and sails for ships. 

Danaides (da-na-'i-dez). The fifty daughters of Danaus, king of 
Argos, all of whom, except Hypermnestra, killed their husbands 
on the first night after marriage, and were therefore doomed to 
draw water out of a deep well, and eternally to pour it into a 
cask full of holes. 

Daphne (daf^'ne). The daughter of the River Peneus, changed 
into a laurel-tree. 

Daphnis (daPnis). A shepherd of Sicily, and son of Mercury. 
He was educated by the nymphs, and inspired by the Muses 
with the love of poetry. 



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\ 



MYx.xOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL NAMES. 325 

Dardanus (dar'da-nus). The son of Jupiter and Electra, and 
founder of Troy. 

Deidamia (de-id-a-ml^a). The daughter of Lycomedes, king of < 
Scyros, wife of Achilles, and mother of Pyrrhus. 

Deiphobus (de-if''o-tus). The son of Priam and Hecuba, who 
married Helena after the death of Paris, but was betrayed by 
her to the Greeks. 

Dejanira (dej-a-nl''ra). The daughter of CEneus, and wife of Her- 
cules, who killed herself in despair, because her husband burnt 
himself to avoid the torment occasioned by the poisoned shirt 
that she had given him to regain his love, according to the 
direction of Nessus, the centaur, from whom she received it. 

Deles (de^'los). An island in the -^gean Sea, where Apollo was 
bom, and where he had a famous oracle. ♦ 

Delphi (deKfi). A city of Phocis, famous for an oracle of Apollo. 

Deucalion (deu-ka^'li-on). The son of Prometheus, and king of 
Thessaly, who, with his wife Pyrrha, was preserve<J from the 
general deluge, and rg^eopled tie world by throwing stones 
behind them, as directed by the oracle. 

Diana (di-a^na). The daughter of Jupiter and Latona, and the 
goddess of hunting, chastity, and marriage. 

Dict3mna (dic-tin^'na). A nymph of Crete, and one of th^ attend- 
ants of Diana. 

Dido (dl^do). The queen of Carthage, daughter of Belus, and 
wife of Sichaeus. She built Carthage, and, according to Virgil, 
entertained ^Eneas on his voyage to Italy, and stabbed herself 
through despair, because iEneas left her. 

Diomedes (di-o-me-'dez). The son of Tydeus, and king of ^Etolia, 
who gained great reputation at Troy, and who, with Ulysses, 
&c., carried off the Palladium. 

Dirce (dir-'se). The wife of Lycus, king of Thebes, dragged to 
death by a mad bull. 

Draco (dra-'ko). An Athenian lawgiver, so severe as to punish 
every crime with death. 

Dryades (drl^a-dez). Nymphs who presided over the woods. 

Echo (ek^o). The daughter of AeV, or Air, and Tellus, who 

pined away through love for Narcissus. 
Electra (e-lek''tra). The daughter of Agamemnon and Clytem- 

nestra, who instigated her brother Orestes to revenge their 

father's death upon their mother and yEgisthus. 
Elysium (e-lizh-'e-um). The happy residence of the virtuous after 

death. 
Enceladus (en-seKa-dus). The son of Titan and Terra, and the 

strongest of the giants, who conspired against Jupiter, and at- 
tempted to scale heaven. 
Endymion (en-dim-'i-on). A shepherd and an astronomer of 

Caria, condemned to a sleep of thirty years. 



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326 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Epcus (e-pe-'us). An artist, who made the Trojan horse, and in- 
vented the sword and buckler. 
, Erato (er^a-to). One of the Muses : — she presided over l)rric and 

amorous poetry. 
Erebus (er^'e-bus). The son of Chaos and Nox, an infernal 

deity : — a river of hell, and often used by the poets for hell itself. 
Erinnys (e-rin^nys). The Greek name fot the Eumenides, or 

Furies. 
Eumenides (u-men-'i-dez). A name of the Furies. 
Euphorbus ^Q-for-'bus). The son of Panthous, slain by MeneJaus 

in the Trojan war. 
Euphrosyne Tu-fros^e-ne). One of the three Graces. 
Euryale ?u-rr a-le). A queen of tlie Amazons : — also one of the 

tJiree Gorgons. 
Euryalus (u-rl-'a-lus). A Peloponnesian chief in the Trojan 

war: — also a Trojan and a friend of Nisus, for whose loss 

i^neas was inconsolable. 
Eurydic^ (Q-rid^'i-se). The wife of Orpheus, killed by a serpent 

on her marriage day. • 

Eurylochus (Q-riFo-kus). One of the companions of Ulysses, 

and the only one who was not changed by Circe into a hog. 
Eurystheus (Q-ris-'the-us). The son of Sthenelus, and king of 

Mycenae, who, at Juno*s instigation, set his brother Hercules 

twelve different labors. 
Euterpe (Q^r-'pe). One of the Muses, — ^the one who presided 

over music. 
Fates (fates). Powerful goddesses, who presided over the birth 

and the life of mankind, were the three daughters of Nox and 

Erebus, named Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. Clotho was 

supposed to hold the distaff, Lachesis to draw the thread of 

human life, and Atropos to cut it off. 
Fauna (faw'na). A Roman deity, the wife of Faunus. 
Fauni (faw'ni). Rural deities, described as having the legs, feet 

and ears of goats, and the rest of the body human. 
Faunus (faw'nus). A king of Italy about thirteen hundred years 

before Christ ; fond of agriculture, and revered as a deity. 
Flora (flC'ra). The goddess of flowers and gardens. 
Fortuna (for-ta-'na). A powerful deity, .the goddess of fortune, 

from whose hand were derived riches and poverty, happiness 

and misery; — said to be blind. 
Furies (fQ-'ries). The three daughters of Nox and Acheron, 

Alecto, Tlsiphone and Megsera. 

Galataea (gal-a-te^'a). A sea-nymph, the daughter of Nereus and 
Doris, passionately loved by Polyphemus. 

Ganymede (gan-'e-mede). The son of Tros, king of Troy, whom 
Jupiter, ift the form of an eagle, snatched up and made his cup- 
bearer, instead ef Hebe. 



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MYTHOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL' NAMES. 327 

Qeryon (je^'re-on). A monster, represented as having three bodies 
and three heads, and as having fed his oxen with human flesh, 
and was therefore killed hf Hercules. 

Gordius (gor^'de-us). A husbandman, but afterward king of 
Phrygia, remarkable for tying a knot of cords, on which the 
empire of Asia depended, in so very intricate a manner, that 
Alexander, unable to unravel it, cut it asunder. 

Grorgons (gor-'gons). The three daughters of Phorcus and Ceto, 
named Stheno, Euryale and Medusa. Their bodies were cov- 
ered with impenetrable scales, their hair entwined with serpents ; 
they had only one eye betwixt them, and they could change into 
stones those whom Uiey looked on. 

Graces (gra-'sez). Three goddesses, represented as beautiful, 
• modest vii^ins, and constant attendants on Venus. 

Harpies (har-'pez). The three daughters of Neptune and Terra, 

named Aello, Celseno and Ocypete, winged monsters with the 

faces of virgins, the bodies of vultures, and hands armed with 

claws. 
Hebe (he^Tje). The daughter of Juno, goddess of youth, and 

Jupiter's cupbearer, banished from iieaven on account of an un- 
lucky fall. 
Hector (hek-'tor). The son of Priam and Hecuba, the most valiant 

of the Trojans, and slain by Achilles. 
Hecuba ^hek''u-ba). The daughter of Dimas, king of Thrace, and 

wife of Priam, who tore her eyes out for the loss of her children. 
Helen (hel-'en). The daughter of Tyndarus and Leda, and wife 

of Menelaus, the most beautiful woman of her age, who, running 

away with Paris, occasioned the Trojan war. 
Helenus (heFe-nus). The son of Priam and Hecuba, spared by 

the Greeks for his skill in divination. 
Helle (heFle). The daughter of Athamas, who, flying from her 

stepmother Ino, was drowned in the Pontic Sea, and gave it the 

name of Hellespont. 
Hercules (her^ku-lezj. The son of Jupiter and Alcmena, the most 

famous hero of antiquity, remarkable for his great strength, 
Hermione (her-ml^'o-ne). The daughter of M^rs and Venus, and 

wife of Cadmus, who was changed into a serpent. 
Hero (he-'ro). A beautiful woman of Sestos, in Thrace, and 

priestess of Venus, whom Leander of Abydos loved so tenderly 

that he swam over the Hellespont every night to see her; but at 

length being unfortunately drowned, she threw herself, in 

despair, into the sea. 
Hesione (he-sI''o-ne). The daughter of Laomedpn, king of Troy, 

delivered from a sea-monster by Hercules. 
Hesperides (hes-per-'i-dez). Three nymphs, daughters of Hes- 

oerus, who guarded t^ie golden apples which Juno gave to 
upitei^, 



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328 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Hesperus (hes^per-us). The son of Japetus, and brother to Atlas ; 
changed into the evening star. 

Hippolytus (hip-poKe-tus). The son of Theseus and Antiope, or 
Hippolyte, who was restored to life by iEscnlapius, at the request 
of Diana. 

Hippomenes (hip-pom-'e-nez). A Grecian prince, who, beating 
Atalanta in the race by throwing golden apples before her, mar- 
ried her. They were changed by Cybele into lions. 

Hyacinthus (hi-a-sin^'thus). A beautiful boy, beloved by Apollo 
and Zephyrus. The latter killed him; but Apollo changed the 
blood that was spilt into a flower called the Hyacinth. 

Hydra (hi^'dra). A celebrated monster, or serpent, with nine, or, 
according to some, a hundred heads, which infested the Lake 
Lema. It was killed by Hercules. 

Hymen (hitmen). The son of Bacchus and Venus, and god of 
marris^e. 

Icarus (il^a-rus). The son of Daedalus, who, flying with his father 
out of Crete into Sicily, and soaring too high, melted the wax of 
his wings, and fell into the sea, — thence cSled the Icarian Sea. 

lo (l^o). The daughter of Inachus and Ismene, turned by Jupiter 
mto a cow, and worshipped after her death, by the Egyptians,* 
under the name of Isis. 

Iphigenia (if-i-je-nl^'aj. The daughter of Agamemnon and Cly- 
temnestra, and a pnestess of Diana. 

Iris (l^ris). The daughter of Thaumas and Electra, one of the 
Oceanides, and messenger of Juno, who turned her into a rain- 
bow. 

Ixion (iks-I^on). A king of Thessaly, the father of the Centaurs, 
who killed his own sister, and was punished by being festened 
in hell to a wheel perpetually turning round. 

Janus (ja-'nus). The son of Apollo and Creusa, and first king of 
Italy, who, receiving the banished Saturn, was rewarded by him 
with the knowledge of husbandry, and of things past and future. 

Jason (ja'son). The leader of the Argonauts, who obtained the 
golden fleece at Colchis. 

Juno (jQ^no). The daughter of Saturn and Ops, sister and wife of 
Jupi.cr, the great queen of heaven, and of all the gods, and god- 
dess of marriages and births. 

Jupiter (ja-'pe-ter). The son of Saturn and Ops, the supreme deity 
of the heathen world, the most powerful of all the gods, and 
governor of all things. 

Laocoon (la-ok-'o-on), The son of Priam and Hecuba, and high 
priest of Apollo, who opposed the reception of the wooden horse 
mto Troy. 



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MYTHOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL NAMES. 

Laomedon (la-om-'e-don). A king of Troy, killed by Hercules 
for denying him his aaughter Hesione after he had delivered 
her from the sea-monster, to which she had been exposed on 
account of her father's refusal to pay Neptune and Apollo for 
building the city walls. 

Lares (la^'rez). Inferior gods at Rome, who presided over houses 
and families. 

Latona (la-to^na). The daughter of| Coeus the Titan and Phoebe, 
and mother of Apollo and Diana. • 

Leda (le^'da). The mother of Castor and Pollux, of Helen and 
Clytemnenira. 

Lucifer (la^se-fer). The name of the planet Venus, or morning 
star ; said to be the son of Jupiter and Aurora. 

Lucina (lu-sl^na). A daughter of Jupiter and Juno, and a goddess 
who presided over childbirth. 

Luna (la^na). The moon, the daughter of Hjrperion and Terra. 

Medea (me de^'a). The daughter of ^etes, and a wonderful sor- 
ceress, or magician. 

Medusa (me-da''sa). One of the three Gorgons, whose hair 
Minervtf changed into snakes. She was killed by Perseus. 

Melpomene (mel-pom^'e-ne). One of the Muses, — the one who 
presided over tragedy. 

Memnon (mem^'non). King of ^Ethiopia, the son of Tithonus and 
Aurora, and king of Abydon, killed by Acl^^les for assisting 
Priam, and changed into a bird at the request of his mother. 

Menelaus (men-e-la^'us). The son of Atreus, king of Sparta, 
brother oi Agamemnon, and husband of Helena. 

Mentor (men^tor). The faithful friend of Ulysses, the governor 
of Teiemachus and the wisest man of his time. 

Mercury (mer^ku-re). The son of Jupiter and Maia, messenger of 
the gods, inventor of letters, and god of eloquence, commerce, 
and travelers. 

Minerva (mi-ner^'va). The goddes.s of wisdom, the arts, and war; 
produced from Jupiter's brain. 

Minotaur (min-'o-taur). A celebrated monster, half man and half 
bull, killed by JTieseus. 

Mnemos3aie (ne-mos^e-ne). The goddess of memory, and the 
mother of the nine muses. 

Momus (mO^mus). The son of Nox, and god of folly and pleas- 
antry. 

Morpheus (mor^'fe-us). The minister of Nox and Somnus, and 
god of dreams. 

Naiads (na-'idz). Nymphs of streams and fountains. 
Nemesis (nem-'e-sis). One of the infernal deities, and goddess of 
vengeance. 



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330 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Neptune (nep^tttne). The son of Saturn and Ops, god of the sea, 
and, next to Jupiter, the most powerful deity ; represented with 
a trident in his right hand. 

Nestor (nes^tor). The son of Neleus and Chloris, and king of 
Pylos and Messenia. He fought against the Centaurs, was dis- 
tinguished in the Trojan war, and lived to a great age. 

Niobe (nl^'o-be). The daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Am- 
phion, who, preferring herself to Latona, had her fourteen 
children killed, and wept herself into a stone. 

Nox (noks). One of the most ancient of the deities, and goddess^ 
of night. 

Oceanides (0-se-an''i-dez). Sea-nymphs, daughters of Oceanus; 
three thousand in numoer. 

Oceanus (o-se-'a-nus). A powerful deity of the sea, son of Coelus 
and Terra. 

Orpheus (or-'fe-us). A celebrated Argonaut, whose skill in music 
is said to have been so great that he could make rocks, trees, etc., 
follow him. 

Osiris (o-sl^ris). The son of Jupiter, married to lo, and wor- 
shipped by the Egyptians under the form of an ox^ 

Pan (pan). The son of Mercury, and the god of shepherds, 

huntsmen, and the inhabitants of" the country. • 

Pandora (pan-dO''ra)r A celebrated woman, and, according to 

Hesiod, the 'first mortal female that ever lived. Jupiter gave her 

a box which contained all the evils and miseries of Ufe ; but 

with hope at the bottom. 
Paris (par^'is). The son of Priam and Hecuba, a most beautiful 

youth, who ran away with Helen, and thus occasioned the 

Trojan war. 
Pegasus (peg^a-sus) A winged horse belonging to Apollo and 

the Muses, which sprung from the blood of Medusa, when Per- 
seus cut off her head. 
Penates (pe-na^tez). Small'statues, or household gods. 
Penelope (pe-nel''o-pe). A celebrated princess of Greece, wife of 

Ulysses, remarkable for her chastity and constancy in the long 

absence of her husband. 
Philomela (fil-o-me^la). The daughter of Pandion, king of 

Athens, who was changed into a nightingale. 
Pluto (plu^'to). The son of Saturn and Ops, brother of Jupiter and 

Neptune, and the god of the infernal regions. 
Plutus (pla^tus). The son of Jasius and Ceres, and the god of 

riches. 
Pomona (po-mO^na). The goddess of gardens and fruit-trees. 
Priam (pri^'am). The last king of Troy, the son of Laomedpn, 

under whose reign Troy was taken by the Greeks, 



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MYTHOLOGICAL AND CLASSICAL NAMES. 331 

Prometheus (pro-me^'the-us). The son of Japetus. He is said 
to have^ stolen fire from heaven to animate two bodies which he 
had formed of clay ; and he was therefore chained by Jupiter to 
Mount Caucasus, with a vulture perpetually gnawing his liver. 

Proteus (prO^'te-us). The son of Oceanus and Tethys, a sea-god 
and prophet, who possessed the power of changing himself into 
different shapes. 

Psyche (sl^ke). A nymph beloved by Cupid, and made immortal 
by Jupiter. 

Pygmies (pig^'mies). A nation of dwarfs only a span high, carried 
away by Hercules. 

Remus (re''mus). The elder brother of Romulus, killed by him 
for ridiculing the city walls, which he had just erected. 

Rhadamanthus (rad-a-man^'thus). Son of Jupiter and Europa, 
and king of Lycia, made one of the three infernal judges on 
account of his justice and goodness. 

Romulus (rom^'u-lus). The son of Mars and Ilia; he was thrown 
into the Tiber by his uncle, but was saved, with his twin brother 
Remus^ by a shepherd ; and he became the founder and first 
king of Rome. 

Semele (sem^'e-le). The daughter of Cadmus and Thebe, and 

mother of Bacchus. 
Semiramis (se-mir^'a-mis). The wife of Ninus, and celebrated 

queen of Assyria, who built the walls of Babylon, and was 

slain by her own son Ninyas, and turned into a pigeon. 
Silenus (si-le^'nus). The foster-father, master, and companion of 

Bacchus, who lived in Arcadia, rode on an ass, and was every 

day inebriated. 
Sirens (sl^'rens). Sea-nymphs, or sea-monsters, the daughters of 

Oceanus and Amphitrite. 
Sis3rphus (sis^'e-fus). The son of iEolus, a most crafty prince, 

killed by Theseus, and condemned by Pluto to roll up hill a 

large stone, which constantly fell "back again. 
Somnus (som''nus). The son of Erebus and Nox, and the god of 

sleep. 
Sphinx (sfinks), A monster, who destroyed herself because 

CEdipus solved the enigma or riddle she proposed. 
Stentor (sten-'tor). A Grecian, whose voice is reported to have 

been as strong and as loud as the voices of fifty men together. 
Sylvanus (sil^'va-nus). A god of the woods and forests. 

Tantalus (tan-'ta-lus). The son of Jupiter, and king of Lydia, 
who served up the limbs of his son Pelops to try the divinity of 
the gods. 

Tartarus (tar-'ta-rus). The part of the infernal regioxis in which 
th« most impious and criminal were punished. 



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332 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Terpsichore (terp-sik''o-re). One of the Muses; — she presided 
over dancing. 

Themis Tthe^'mis). The daughter of Coelus and Terra, and god- 
dess of justice. 

Tisiphone (ti-siPo-ne). One of the three Furies. 

Titan (tl^'tanj. The son of Coelus and Terra, brother of Saturn, 
and ont of the giants who warred against heaven. 

Tithonus (ti-thO''nus). The son of Laomedon, loved by Aurora, 
and turned by her, in his old age, into a grasshopper. 

Trilpn (trl^tonj. The son of Neptune and Amphitrite, a powerful 
sea-god, ana Neptune's trumpeter. 

Venus (vc'nus). One of the most celebrated deities of the 
ancients, the wife of Vulcan, the goddess of beauty, the mother 
of love, and the mistress of the graces and of pleasures. 

Vertumnus (ver-tum-'nus). A deity of the Romans, who presided 
over spring and orchards, and who was the lover of Pomona. 

Vesta (ves-'ta). The sister of Ceres and Juno, the goddess of iire, 
and patroness of vestal virgins. 

Vulcan (vuKkan). The god who presided over fire and workers 
in metal. 



THE HISTORY OF DICTIONARIES. 

The earliest dictionary of which any record remains is one in 
the Chinese language, compiled by Pa-out-she, about B.C. iioo. 
Marcus Terntius Varro, who flourished B.C. 116-28, was one of 
the first classic authors who turned his attention to lexicography. 
But the most celebrated dictionary of antiquity is the Onomastican 
of Julius Pollux which was completed early in the third century. 
The earliest Latin dictionary of modem times was published by 
John Balbi, of Genoa, in 1460 ; but that of Calepio, published in 
1502, is much superior. Sebastian Munster*s Chalde Dictionary 
appeared in 1527; Pagninus' Lexicon of the Hebrew Language, in 
1529; Robert Stephens' Thesaurus, in 1535; Erpenius' Arabic 
Dictionary, in 1613; Shindler's Lexicon Pantaglottum, in 1612; 
Edmund Castell's Lexicon Heptaglotton, in 1669; and Phillip's 
New World of Words, in 1658. Moreri published his Biographi- 
cal, Historical, and Geographical Dictionary in 1673. Elisha 
Cole's English Dictionary appeared in 1677 ; and Bayle's Histori- 
cal and Critical Dictionary, and the Dictionary of the French 
Academy, in 1694. Dr. Johnson's English Dictionary was com- 
pleted in May, 1755. Walker's Dictionary appeared in 1791; and 
Francis Grose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, in 1785. 



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A BRIEF ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF 

AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, 

With their Derivation and Sigiufication. 



Accomac ^aklco-mak), Find.], land 
on the omer side, or beyond (the 
water). 

Adirondack (ad-e-ron'dak'), [Ind.], 
the Iroquois name of the Algonquins, 
signifying " he eats bark." 

Agamenticus (ag-a-raen'te-kus), 

[Ind.], on the other side of the river. 

Aeaw^am (ag-a-wam'), [Ind.], low 
land, marsh, or meadow; also, a place 
below, or. down-stream, — with refer- 
ence to some place above, or up- 
stream. 

Agiochook (ag-e-o-tshookO, [Ind.], 
place of the spirit of the pines. 

Albany (awlTaa-ne), (N.Y.), named in 
honor of the Duke of York and Al- 
bany, afterward James II, at the time 
it came into possession of the English, 
in 1664. 

Alleghany (aHe-ga-ne), [Ind.], river 
of the Allegewi. 

Altamaha (al-tah-mah'haw), [Ind.], 
the place of the village ; where the 
village is. 

America (a-mer'e-kah), named after 
Amerigo Vespucci, who, in 1497, 
landed upon the continent south of 
the equator. 

Ammonoosuc(am-mo-noo'suk)[Ind.], 
fish-story river 

Androscoggin (an-dros-kog'gin), a 
name changed, in compliment to Gov. 
Andros, from antaskohegan^ " fish- 
sp>earing." 

Annapolis (an-nap'o-lis), city of Anne; 
named in honor of Queen Anne, who 
bestowed several valuable presents on 
the town. 

Appalachicola (ap-pa-latsh'e-ko'la), 
[Ind.], town of the Appalachites. 

Arizona (ar-e-zO'nah), sand hills, 

Arkansas (ar-kan'sas, formerly and 
erroneously pronounced ar'kan-saw), 
from Kansas, with the French prefix 
of arc^ a bow. 



8d8 



Aroostook (a-roos'took), [Ind.], good 

river. 
Ascutney (as-kut'ne), pnd.]. fire- 
mountain, Irom having been burned 

over. • 

Assiniboine (as-sin'e-bo-in), [Ind.], 

Stone Sioux, a wandering band of the 

810UX. 
Atchafalaya (atsh-a-fa-la'yah), [Ind.], 

long river. 
Athabasca (ath-a-baslcah), [Ind.], 

swampy. 
Attakapas (at-tuk'a-paw), [led.], 

men-eaters. 

Balize (bah-leez'), corruption of IVaiiz, 
a name given by the Spaniards to the 
place, from its having been discovered 
and resorted to by an English pirate 
named IVallace. 

Baltimore (bawl'te-mOr), named after 
Lord Baltimore, who settled the 
province of Maryland, in 1635. 

Baton Rouge (bat'ong roozh'), ** red 
staff." It is said that when the place 
was first settled, there was growing 
on the spot a cypress (the bark of 
which tree is of a reddish color^, of 
immense size and prodigious height, 
entirely free from branches, except 
at its very top. One of the settlers 
playfully remarked that this tree 
would make a handsome cane; 
whence the name, Baton Rouge. 

Behring's Straits fbeer'inez str&tz), 
named by Captain Cook after Behr- 
ing; their discoverer. 

Bermudas (ber-ma'daz), named after 
Juan Bermudez, their Spanish dis- 
coverer. 

Boston (bos'tn), originally St. Bot- 
olph's town. 

Brazil (bra-zil', — Portuguese pron. 
Bri-zeel'), from the Spanish or Portu- 
guese name of the dyewood exported 
&oin the country. 



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334 



l>OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARV. 



California (kal-e-for'ne-ah), a name 
given by Cortes, in the year 1535, to 
the peninstila now called Lower or 
Old California, of which he was the 
discoverer. 

Canada (kan'a-dah), [Ind.], a collec- 
tion of huts; a. village; a town. 

Canandaigua (kan'an-dA"gua), [Ind.], 
a town set off or separated (from the 
rest of the tribe). 

Catskill (katzlcil), [D. Katzkill\, 
Mountains, so called from the pan- 
thers or lynxes which formerly in- 
fested them. 

Cattarauffus (kat'ta-raV^"gus), [Ind.], 
ba^-smelling shore. 

Cayuga (ka-yoo'gah), [Ind.], long 
lake. 

Carolina (kar-o-ll'nah), named after 
Charles I, of England. 

Chaleur (shi-loorO, [Fr.], bay of heats, 
so called on account of the extreme 
heat at the time of its discovery. 

Champlain (sham-plain'), named after 
the French officer, Samuel Cham- 
plain, who discovered it in 1609. 

Charleston (charl&'tn), S. C, named 
after Charles I, of England. 

Chautauqua (sha-tawlcwa), [Ind.], 
corruption of an Indian phrase, sig- 
nifying "foggy place." 

Chattahoochee (chat-ta-hoo'tshe), 
figured or painted stone. 

Chemunff (she-mung'), find.], big 
horn ;— 7rom a fossil tusk found in the 
river. 

Chesapeake (ches'a-peek), [Ind.], 
great waters. 

Chesuncook Jche-sun'cook), [Ind.], 
great goose lake. 

Chicago (she-kaw'go), a French form 
of anindian word signifying a^skunk ; 
also, a wild onion, from its strong and 
disagreeable odor 

Chicopee (chik'o-pej, [Ind.], cedar- 
tree ; otherwise bircn-bark place. 

Chili (chine), fPeruv.], land of snow. 

Chimborazo (chim-bo-rah'zo), [Sp.], 
a chimney. 

Chuquisaca (choo-ke-sahlcah) , [ Ind . ] , 
from Cheque Saca, r. e., bridge of 
gjold, firom the treasures formerly car- 
ried across the river at this pomt to 
Cuzco, the town of the Incas. • 

Cincinnati (sin-sin-nah'te), the Roman 
plural of Cincinnatus, tne patriot. 

Cocheco (co-cheTco), [Ind.], very 
rapid, or violent ; applied to falls or 
rapids on various streams. 

Cochituate (ko-chit'o-ate), [Ind.], 
land on or near falls or rapid streams. 

Cohasset (ko-has'set), [Ind.], place of 
pines. 



Colorado (kol-o-rah'do), [Sp.], red, or 
colored. 

Columbia (ko-lum'be-ah), named after 
Christopher Columbus. 

Connecticut (kon-net'e-kut), [Ind. 
Qunni-tuk-ut], [tite country] "upon 
the long river." 

Contoocook (con-too-kook^, [Ind.], 
crow river. 

Coos (ko-osO, [Ind.], place of pines. 

Crown Point (krown point), said to 
have been so named because " scalp- 
ing parties " were sent out from this 
place by the French and Indians. 

Dacotah Jda-kO'tah), [Ind.], leagued; 
allied ; tne common name of the 
confederate Sioux tribes. 

Dahlonega (dah-lon'e-gah), [Ind.], 
place ofgold. 

Damariscotta (dam'a-ris-kot"ta), 
[Ind.], alewife place. 

Delaware (del'a-ware), named in hon- 
or of Thomas West, Lord dela Ware, 
who visited the bay in 1610, and died 
on his vessel, at its mouth. 

Detroit (de-troitO, [Fr.], named from 
the river or "strait " [Fr. d^troit], on 
which it is built. 

Dominica (dom-e-neelcah), [Sp. 
Dominica', Sunday], named from the 
day of its discovery by Columbus. 

Ecuador (ek-wah'dOr), [Sp.], equator, 

so named from its position under the 

line. 
El Paso del Norte (el pah'so del nor'- 

tft), [Sp.], the North Pass. 
Erie (e're), [Ind.], wild cat ; the name 

of a fierce tribe exterminated by the 

Iroquois. 
Esquimaux (es'ke-mO), [Ind.], eaters 

of raw flesh. 

Florida (flor'e-dah), named by Ponce 
de Leon from the day on which he 
discovered it, Easter Sunday, called 
in Spanish, Pascua Florida. 

Georgia (geor'ge-ah), named in honor 
of George II, of England. 

Hayti (ha'te), find.], high land. 
Housatonic (hoo'sa-ton"ik), [Ind.], 

stream beyond the mountains. 
Hudson (hud'sn), named after Henry 

Hudson, who ascended the river in 

1607. 
Huron (hfl'ron), from Fr. hure,si 

name applied by the B^rench to the 

Wyandots. 



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AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. 



335 



Illinois (il-le-noiz', or il-le-noi'}, from 
Ind. illtni, men, «tnd the Frencn suflfix 
ois, "tribe of men." 

Indiana (in'de-an"ah), from the word 
Indian. 

Iowa (I'o-wah), tl|B French fdrm of an 
Indian word, signifying "the drow- 
sy "or the "sleepy ones"; a Sioux 
name of t^ Pahoja or " Gray-snow " 
tribe. 

Jamaica Cja-m&lcah), [Ind., Cay-may- 
ca, or Kay-ma-cd\^ said to mean " a 
country abounding in springs." 

Kalamazoo (karah-mah-zoo''), [Ind.], 
a name derived from stones seen 
through the water, which, by refrac- 
tion, look like otters. 

Kansas (kan'sas), find.], smoky water; 



also said to signify good potato. 
Katahdin {ka-tah'din), [Ind.], 



the 



highest place. 
Kearsarge (kcr'sahrj),[lnd.],thc high 

place. 
Kennebec (ken-ne-bekO, [Ind.J, long 

lake; a name of Moosehead Lake 

transferred to the river. 
Kennebunk (ken-ne-bunkO, [Ind.], 

long water place. 
Kenosha (Ice-nS'shah), [Jnd.], pike 

river. 
Kentucky (ken-tuk'e), [Ind.], at the 

head of a nver. 

Labrador (lab-rah-dOr'), [Sp.), named 
by the Spaniards Tierra Labrador, 
"cultivable land," to distinguish it 
from Greenland. 

Lima (ll'mah),— Peruvian 



lee'. 



mah), a corruption by the Indians or 

Spaniar' 

Rimac. 



trrupti 
of the 



ancient native name, 



Louisiana 'Qoo'e-ze-ah''nah), named 
after Louis A.I V, of France. 

Mackinaw (mak'e-naw), an abbrevia- 
tion of Michilimackinac . 
Manhattan (man-hat'tn), [Ind. mun- 
. noh-atanj, the town on the island. 
Manitouhn (man-e-too'lin), [Ind.], 

Spirit islands. 
Maryland (ma're-land), named- after 

Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I. 
Massachusetts (mas'sa-cha''sets), 

[Ind.1, about the great hills, z. e., the 

^' Blue Hills." 
MemphremaroK (mem-fre-m&'gog), 

[Ind.], lake of abundance. 
Menan (me-nanO, [Ind.], island. 
Merrimac (merre-mak), [Ind.], swift 

water. 
Memphis (mem'fis), the temple of the 

Good God. 



Mexico (meks'e-ko), [Aztec], the place 

of Mexitli, the Aztec god of war. 
/Michigan (mish'e-gn,— formerly pron. 

mish-e-gan')j [Ind.], a weir for fish. 
Michilimackinac (mish'il-e-mak'ln- 

aw), [Ind.], great turtle place. 
Milwaukee (mil-wawOce), [Ind.], rich 

land. 
Minnehaha (min'ne-hah-hah), [Ind.], 

laughing water, curling water, a 

waterfaU. 
Minnesota (min-ne-sO'tah), [Ind.], 

cloudy water; whitish water. 
Mississippi (mis-sis-sip'pe), [Ind.], 

^reat and long river. 
Missouri (mis-soo're), [Ind.], muddy. 
Mobile (mo-beel'), corrupted from 

Mouvill. 
Mohawk (mS'hawk), [Ind.], men- 
eaters. Literally, it signifies eaters 

of live food, — a name given by the 

New England or eastern Indians to 

the Iroquois. 
Montpelier (mont-pele-ir), [Fr.], 

mountain of the young girls. 
Monadnock (mo-nad'nok), [Ind.], the 

Spirit's place. 
Monongahela (mo-non-ga-helsQi), 

[Ind.], falling-in bank river. 
Montauk (mon-tawk'), [Ind.], a 

manito-tree. 
Montreal (mont-re-awlO, [Fr.], Royal 

Mountain, — so named by the French 

explorer, Jacques Cartier, 1534-35. 
Muskeego (mus-kee^go), [Ind.], place 

of cranberries. 
Muskingum (mus-king'gum), [Ind.], 

moose-eye river. 

Nahant (na-hantQ, [Ind.], at the 
point. 

Nashua (nash'u-ah), [Ind.], bctwecD 
[the rivers]. 

Naugatuck (naw'ga-tuk), [Ind.], fork 
of the rivers; point oetween two 
rivers. 

Nebraska (ne-braslcah), [Ind,], water 
valley, shallow river. 

Nepissing (nep'is-sing), [Ind.], at the 
small lake. 

Neshotah (nesh-O'tah), [Ind.], twins 
(the "Two Rivers," Wisconsin). 

Neversink (nev'er-sink), [Ind.], high 
land between waters. 

Newfoundland (nQ'fund-land), named 
by its discover, John Cabot, in 1497, 
first applied to all the territory ois- 
covered by him, but afterward re- 
stricted to the island to which it is 
now applied. 

New Hampshire (nu hamp'sheer), 
named after the county of Hamp- 
shire, in England. 



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POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 




New Jersey (nuja/zc), named in 
honor of Sir John Carteret, an in- 
habitant of the Isle of Jersev. 

Neiv York (nu york), nameci after the 
Duke oi York, afterward Tames II. 

Niagara (ni-ag'a-rah), [Ind.L neck of 
water :— connecting Lake Erie with 
Lake Ontario. 

Norridgewock (nor'rij-wok)/ [Ind.], 
place of deer. 

North River (north riv'er), {t. e., the 
Hudson, at New York^, so called in 
distinction from the Delaware, which 
was styled the South river. 

Norwalk (nor'wawk), [Ind.], the mid- 
dle land (a tract between two rivers^. 

Nova Scotili ^nO'va skO'she-ah), 
[Lat.], New Scotland. 

Ochmulgee (ok-mul'ge), [Ind.], the 

rivers, the water-courses. 
Oconee (o-k5'ne), [Ind.], water-course; 

small river. 
Ohio (o-hl'o), [Ind.], beautiful. 
Oneida (o-nl'dah), [Ind.], people of 

the beacon stone. 
Onondaga (on-un-daw'gah), [Ind.], 

place of the hills. 
Ontario (on*ta're-o), [Ind.], from 

Onont e, " a village on a mountain," 

the chief seat of the Onondagas. 
Oregon (or'e-gn), named by Carver 

Oregon or Oregan, /. e., River of the 

West. 
Orinoco (5're-n0"ko), [Ind,], coiling 

snake. 
Osage (o-saj0,[lnd.], the strong. 
Ossipee (os'se-pe), [Ind.], stony river. 
OsAvego (os-wCgo), the Onondaga 

name for Lake Ontario. 
Ottawa (ot'tah-wah), find.], traders. 
Owasco (o-woslco), [Ind.], a bridge. 

Passaic (pas-sa'ik), [Ind.], valley. 

Passamaquoddy (pas'sah-mah- 

quod"de), [Ind.j, great place for pol- 
lock. 

Passumpsic (pas-sum'sik), [Ind.], 
much clear river. 

Paw^catuck (pawTca-tuk), [Ind.], clear 
river. 

Pawtucket (paw-tuk'et), [Ind.], at 
the falls. 

Pawtuxet (paw-tuks'et), [Ind.], at the 
little falls. 

Pemigewasset (pem'e-je-wos"set), 
[IndT], crooked place of pines. 

Pennsvlvania (pen'sil-va"ne-ah), 
Penn s woods [Lat. Syiva, a wood], 
named after William Penn, who set- 
tled the country in z68i. 

Penobscot (pe-nob'scot)» at the rock, I 



rock land ; applied originally to a 

place near Castine — near to the river. 
Philadelphia (fil-a-delfe-ah), [Gr.], 

city of brotherly love. 
Piscataqua (pis-kat'ah-kwah), [Ind.], 

great deer river. 
Potomac (po-t6'm|ik), [Ind.]. place 

of the burning pine, resembling a 

council-fire. 
Poughkeepsie fpo-kipjje), [Ind.l. 

shallow inlet, sale harbor for smaJl 

boats. 
Prairie du Chien (pra're doo sheen), 

[Fr.], dog prairie. 
Presque Isle (presk'eel), [Fr.], "pen- 
insula.*' 

Quebec (kwe-bekO, an Algonquin 

term, meaning " take care of the 

rock." 
Quinebaug (kwin-e-bawgO, [Ind.], 

long pond. 
Quinnipiac ^kwin'ne-pe-ak), [Ind.], 

the surroundmg country. 
Quinsigamond (kwin-sig'a-mond), 

[Ind.]7 fishing-place for pickerel. 

Raleigh (rawie), named in honor of 
Sir Walter Raleigh^ who planted a 
colony on the Roanoke, about 1585. 

Rapidan (rap-id-anO or Rapid Ann, 
said to have been named in honor or 
Queen Anne. 

Rappahannock (rap-pa-han'npk), 
[Ind.], river of quick rising watere. 

Rhode Island (rode Hand), named 
from a fancied resemblance to the 
Island of Rhodes. 

Roanoke (ro-ah-nOk'), [Ind.], equiva- 
lent to Peagf sea-shell or wampum. 

Sagadahoc (sag-ah-dah-hokO, [Ind.], 

ending-place, /. e., mouth of the Ken- 
nebec. 
Sandusky (san-duslce), [Ind.], cold 

spring. 
San Domingo (sdn do-ming'go), [Sp.], 

Holy Sabbath. 
San Francisco (sinfran-sislco), [Sp.], 

St. Francis. 
San Jose (s4n ho-sa), St. Joseph. 
San Paulo (sdn pawlo), [Sp.], St. 

Paul. 
San Salvador (sin sil-vi-dOr), [Sp.], 

Holy Saviour. 
Santa Barbara (sAn'tah bar^i-rah), 

[Sp.], St. Barbara. 
Santa Cruz (sin'tah croos), [Sp.], 

Holy Cross. 
Santa Fe (sAn'tah fe), [Sp.], Holy 

Faith. 
Santiago (sAn'te-ah'go), [Sp.], for 

Sant fago, St. James. 



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AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. 



337 



Saranac (sar-ah-naW), [Ind.], rivef 

that flows under rock. 
Saratoga (sar-ah-t5'gah), [Ind.], place 

of the miraculous waters in a rock. 
Saskatchewan (sas-katsh'eh-wan), 

[Ind.], swift current. 
Schenectady (ske-nek'tah-de), [Ind.], 

river valley beyond or through the 

pine trees. 
Schoharie (sko-har're), [Ind.], so 

named from a tributary which throws 

out its waters so forcibly as to cross 

the main stream. 
Schoodic (skoo'dik), [Ind.], burnt 

lands, from large fires about 1675. 
Sebago (se-b&'go), [Ind.], place or 

region of river lake. 
Seneca (sen'e-kah), a corrupt Indian 

pronunciation of the Dutch sznniSar, 

vermilion. 
Shetucket (shc-tuk'et), [Ind.], the 

land between the rivers. 
Skowhegan (skow-he'gan), [Ind.], 

spearing. 

Tallahassee (tal-lah-has'se), [Ind.], 
©Id town. 

Tallahatchee (tal-lah-hatsh'e), [Ind.], 
river of the rock. 

Tallapoosa (tal-lah-poo'sah), [Ind.], 
swift water. 

Tennessee (ten-nes-seeO, [Ind.], river 
of the Big bend. 

Terra del Fuego (ter'rah del fii-a'go), 
rSp.], land of nre, discovered by 
Magellan, in 1520, and so named on 
account of the great fires which he 
saw along the coast, and which he 
supposed to be the eruption of vol- 
canoes. 

Terre-Haute (ter'reh-hot'), [Fr.], 
high land. 

Tioga (tl-5'gah), [Ind.], swift current. 

Tippecanoe (tip-pe-kah-noo'), [Ind.], 
a kind of fish living in this branch Of 
the Wabash river. 

Titicut (tit'e-kut), [Ind.], a contrac- 
tion of an Indian word, meaning "on 
the great river.** 

Toledo (to-le'do), [Lat. Toledum\ 

named by its Jewish founders from 

- Hcb. Ultdotk, generations, families. 



Toronto (to-ron'to), [Ind.], an Iroquois 
term denoting oak trees rising Irom 
the lake. 

Tortugas ftor-too'gahs), [Sp.], the 
" tortoises. » 

Umbagog (um-bA'gog), [Ind.], dear 
lake, shallow. 

Vancouver Island (van-coo'ver 
I'land), named after Vancouver ^ who 
visited the island in 1792. 

Vermont (ver-mont'), from Fr. verd, 
green, mont, mountain, green moun- 
tains. 

Virginia (vir-cjn'e-ah), named in honor 
ot Queen Elizabeth, the Virpn 
Queen, in whose reign Sir WaUer 
Kaleigh made the first attempt to 
coloniae this region. 

Wabash (waw^basb), [Ind.], a cloud 

blown forward by an equinoctial wind. 
Wachusett (wah-choo'set), [Ind.]« 

the mountain. 
Washington TwosVing-tun), named 

after George iVashinkton^ the first 

president of the United States. 
Washita (wosh'e*taw), [Ind.], niale 

deer. 
Wetumpka (we-tumTcah), [Ind.], 

waterfall, tumbling water. 
Winona (we-nO'nah), [Ind.], first-bom 

daughter. 
Winnipeg (vrin'ne-peg), [Ind.], turbid 

water. 
Winnipisiogee fwin-ne-pis-sok'ke) 

[Ind.J^ land of tne beautiful lake; 

otRerwise, beautiful lake of the high 

land. 
Winooski (we-nooslce), [Ind.], beau- 

tifiil stone river. 
Wiscasset (wis-kas'set), [Ind.], place 

of yellow pine. 
Wisconsin (wis-kon'sin), wild rushing 

channel. 

Yucatan (yoo-kah-tan'), from the Ind. 
juca tan, "What do you say?" a 
name given by the Spaniards from 
the answer retiumed by the natives to 
an inquiry concerning the name of the 
country. 



Digitized 



by Google 




POPULAR NAMES 



AMERICAN STATES AND CITIES. 



Acadia. The oricdnal, and now the 
poetic, name of Nova Scotia. 

Athens of America. A name some- 
times given to Boston, Mass. 

Badger State. A name popularly 
given to the State of Wisconsin. 

Bay State. A popular name of Mas- 
sachusetts, which was originally 
called the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay. 

Bayou State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Mississippi, 
which abounds in bayous, or creeks. 

Bear State. A name by which the 
State of Arkansas is sometimes desig- 
nated, on account of the number of 
bears that infest its forests. 

Blue Hen. A cant or popular name 
for the State of Delaware. 

Buckeye State. The State of Ohio ; 
popularly so called from the Buckeye 
tree, which abounds there. 

City of Brotherly Love. Phittdel- 
phia is sometimes so called, this be- 
ing the literal signification of the 
name. 

City of Churches. A name popu- 
larly given to the city of Brooklyn, 
N. Y.J from the unusually large num- 
ber of^ churches which it contains. 

City of Elms. A familiar denomina- 
tion of New Haven, Conn., many of 
the streets of which are thickly 
shaded with lofty elms. • 

City of Magnificent Distances. A 
popular designation given to the city 
of Washington, the capital of the 
United States, which is laid out on a 
very large scale. 

City of Notions. A popular name 
for Boscon, Mass. 

City of Rocks. A descriptive name 
popularly given to the city of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

City of Spindles. A name popularly 
given to the city of Lowell, Mass., 



the largest cotton-manu&cuuing town 
in the T Jnited States. 

City of the Straits. A name popu- 
larly given to Detroit, Wis., which 
is situated on the west bank of the 
river or strait connecting Lake St. 
Clair with Lake Erie, Ditroii is a 
French word, meaning " strait." 

Columbia. A name often given to 
America, from a feeling of poetic jus- 
tice to its discoverer. The applica- 
tion of the term is usually restricted 
to the United States. 

Corn-cracker. A popular nickname 
or designation for the State of Ken- 
tucky. The inhabitants of the state 
are often called Corn-crackers, 

Cradle of Liberty. A popular name 
given to Faneuil Hall, a laige public 
edifice in Boston, Mass. 

Creole State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Louisiana, in 
which the descendants of the original 
French and Spanish settlers consti- 
tute a large proportion of the popula- 
tion. 

Crescent City. A popular name for 
the city of New Orleans. 

Dark and Bloody Ground, The. An 
expression often used in allusion to 
Kentucky, of which name it is said 
to be the translation. 

Diamond State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Delaware, from 
its small size and great worth, or sup- 
posed importance. 

Empire City. The city of New York, 

the chief city of America. 
Empire State. A popular name of 

the State of New York, the most 

populous and the wealthiest state in 

the Union. 
Excelsior Statt. The Sute of New 

York, sometimes so called from the 

motto, " Elxcebior," upon its coat-of- 

arms. 



838 



Digitized 



by Google 



POPULAR NAMES OF STATES AND CITIES. 



339 



Fall City. Louisville, Ky.;— popu- 
larly so called from the falls which, at 
this place, impede the navigation of 
the Ohio river. 

Father of Waters. A popular name 
given to the river Mississippi on ac- 
count of its great length (3,160 miles), 
and the very large number of its 
tributaries, of which the Red, the 
Arkansas, the Ohio, the Missouri, the 
Illinois, the Des Moines, the Wiscon- 
sin and the St. Peter's or Minnesota 
are the most important. The literal 
signification of the name, which is of 
Indian origin, is said to be ** great 
river." 

Flour City. A popular designation of 
the city of Rochester, N. Y,, a place 
remarkable for its extensive manufac- 
tories of flour. 

Flower City. Springfield, 111., the 
capital of the State, which is distin- 
guished for the beauty of its sur- 
roundings. 

Forest City. Cleveland, Ohio ; — so 
called from the many ornamental 
trees with which the streets are bor- 
dered. Also, a name given to Port- 
land, Me., a city distinguished for its 
many elms and other beautiful shade- 
trees. 

Freestone State. The State of Con- 
necticut; — sometimes so called from 
the qparries of freestaqjc which it con- 
tains. 



Garden City. A popular name for 
Chicago, a city which is remarkable 
for the number and beauty of its pri- 
vate gardens. 

Garden of the West. A name usually 
given to Kansas, but sometimes ap- 
plied to Illinois and others of the 
Western States, which are all noted 
for their productiveness. 

Qarden of the World. A name fre- 
quently given to the vast country, 
comprising more than ;, 200,000 scniare 
miles, which is drained by the Mis- 
sissippi and its tributaries, — a region 
of almost unexampled fertility. 

Gate City. Keokuk, Iowa; — popu- 
larly so called. It is situated at the 
foot of the lower rapids of the Mis- 
sissippi (which extend twelve miles, 
with a fall of twenty-four feet), and 
is the natural head of navigation. A 
portion of the city is built on a bluff 
one hundred and fifty feet high, 

Gibraltar of America. A name often 
given to the city of Quebec, which, 
from its position, and \ • ural and arti- 



ficial means of defense, is the most 
strongly fortified city in America. 

Gotham (Go'tham). A popular name 
for the city of New York ; first given 
to it in '' Salmagundi " (a humorous 
work by Washington Irving, and Will- 
iam Irving, and James K. Paulding), 
because the inhabitants were such 
wiseacres. 

Granite State. A popular name for 
the State of New Hampshire, the 
mountainous portions of which are 
largely composed of granite. 

Green-Mountain State. A popular 
name of Vermont, the Green Moun- 
tains being the principal mountain 
range in the State. 

Hawkeye State. The State of Iowa ; 
said to be so named after an Indian 
chief, who was once a terror to voya- 
geurs to its borders. 

Hoosier State (hoo'zhur). The State 
of Indiana, the inhabitants of which 
are often called Hoosiers. This word 
is a corruption of husher, formerly a 
common term for a bully, throughout 
the West. 

Hub of the Universe. A burlesque 
and popular designation of Boston, 
Mass., originating with the American 
hulhorist, Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Iron City. A name popularly ^ven 
to Pittsburg, Pa., a city distinguished 
for its numerous and immense iron 
manufactures. 

Key of the Gulf. A name often given 
to the island of Cuba, from its posi- 
tion at the entrance of the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

Keystone State. The State of Penn- 
sylvania ; — so called from its having 
been the central State of the Union at 
the time of the formation of the Con- 
stitution. If the names of the thir- 
teen original States are arranged in 
the form of an arch, Pennsylvania 
will occupy the place of the key- 
stone. 

King of Waters. A name given to 
the River Amazon, in South America. 

Lake State. A name popularly given 
to the State of Michigan, which bor- 
ders upon the four lakes — Superior, 
Michigan, 'Huron and Erie. 

Land of Steady Habits. A name 
by which the State of Connecticut is 
sometimes designated, in allusion to 
the moral character of its inhabitants. 



Digitized 



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340 



TOTinJOi AMEWCAN DiCTIONAltY. 



Little Rhody. A popular designa- 
tion of Rhode Island, the smallest of 
the United States. 

Lone Star State. The State of Tex- 
as ; — so called from the device on its 
coat-of-arms. 

Lumber State. A popular designa- 
tion for the State of Maine, the in- 
habitants of which are largely en- 
gaged in cutting and rafting lumber, 
or converting it into boards, shingles, 
scantling, and the like. 

Mason and Dixon*8 Line. A name 
given to the southern boundary line 
of the yrfe State of Pennsylvania 
which separated it from the siave 
States of Maryland and Virginia. It 
was run — except about twenty-two 
miles — by Charles Mason and Jere- 
miah Dixon, two English mathema 
dcians and surveyors, between No 



excluding slavery from Missouri, the 
eccentric John Randolph, of Roa- 
noke, macfe great use of this phrase, 
which was caught up and re-echoed 
by every newspaper in the land, and 
thu^ gamed the celebrity which it still 
maintains. 

Modern Athens. A name oflen eiven 
to Boston, Mass., a city remarkable 
for the high intellectual character of 
its citizens, and for its many excellent 
literary, scientific and educational 
institutions and publications. 

Monumental City. The city of Bal- 
timore; — so called from the monu- 
ments which it contains. 

Mother of Presidents. A name 
frequently given to the State of Vir- 
ginia, which has furnished six presi- 
dents to the Union. 

Mother of States. A name some- 

. times given to the State of Virginia, 
the first settled of the thirteen States 
which united in the Declaration of 
Independence. 

Mound City. A name popularly given 
to St, Louis, on account of the numer- 
ous artificial mounds that occupied 
the site on which the city is built. 

Nutmeg State. A popular name for 
the State of Connecticut, the inhab- 
itants of which have such a reputa- 
tion for shrewdness, that they nave 
been jocosely accused of palming off 
wooden nutmegs on unsuspecting 
purchasers, instead of the genuine 
article. 



Old Colony. A name popularly given 
to that j>ortion of Massachusetts in- 
cluded within the original limits of 
the Plymouth Colony, which 'was 
formed at an earlier date than the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. In 
1692 the two colonies were united in 
one province, bearing the name of the 
latter, and, at the formation of the 
Federal Union, became the SiaU of 
Massachusetts. 

Old Dominion. A popular name for 
the State of Virs;inia. The origin of 
this term has been differently ac- 
counted for by different writers. 

Old North State. A popular design 
nation of the State ot North Caro- 



Palmetto SUte. The Sute of South 
Carolina ; — so oUled from the arms <^ 
the State, which contain a palmetto. 

Panhandle, The. A fanciful and cant 
name given to the most northerly 
portion of the State of West Vir- 
ginia, — a long narrow projection be- 
tween the Ohio river and the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania. 

Peninsula State. The State of Flori- 
da ; — ^so called from its shape. 

Pine-Tree State. A popular name 
of the State of Maine, the central 
and northern portions of which are 
covered with extensive pine forests. 

Prairie State. A name given to Illi- 
nois, in allusion to the widespread 
and beautifiil prairies, which form a 
striking feature of the scenery of the 
State. 

Puritan City. A name sometimes 
given to the city of Boston, Mass., 
m allusion to the character of its 
founders and early inhabitants. 

Quaker City. A popular name of 
Philadelphia, which was planned and* 
settled by William Penn, accompa- 
nied by a colony of English Friends. 

Queen City. A popular name of Cin- 
cinnati; — so called when it was the 
undisputed commercial metropolis of 
the West. 

Queen City of the Lakes. A name 
sometimes given to the city of Bu£^o, 
N. v., from its posidon and import- 
ance. 

Queen of the Antilles (an-teelzO. An 
appellation sometimes given to Cuba, 
which, from its great size, its rich 
natural productions, its fine harbors, 
its varied and beautiful scenery, and 
its commanding geographical posi- 



Digitized 



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ABBREVIATIONS. 



m 



ti»B. ranks first among all the islands 
of the West Indian group. 
Queen of the West. A name some- 
times given to Cmcinnati. 

Railroad City. Indianapolis, the capi- 
tal of the State of Indiana, is some- 
times called by this name, as being 
the terminus of various railroads. 

Salt River. A cant name for an 
imaginary river up which defeated 
political parties are Supposed to be 
sent to oblivion. 

Smoky City. A name sometimes 



given to Pittsburg, an important 
manufacturing city of Pennsylvania. 
Sucker State. A cant name given to 
the State of Illinois, the inhabitants 
of which are very generally called 
suckers, throughout uie West. 

Turpentine State. A popular name 
for the State of North Carolina, 
which produces and exports immense 
quantities of turpentine. 

Wolverine State. The State of 
Michigan ; — popularly so called from 
its abounding with wolverines. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING. 



A. A. S. lAcademiig Americance 
Soct'us.) Fellow of the American 
Academy. 

A. B. {Artium Baccaiaureus.) Bach- 
elor of Arts. 

A. B. S. American Bible Society. 

A. C. {Ante Christum.) Before Christ. 

Acct. Account. 

A. D. {Anno Domini.) In the year 
of our Lord. 

Adjt. Adjutant. 

Adjt.-Gen. Adjutant-General. 

iEt., M. {y^tatis.) Of age; aged. 

A. ft P. B. S. American and Foreign 
Bible Society. 

A. H. M. S. American Home Mis- 
sionary Society. 

Al., Ala. Alabama. 

A. M. {Artium Magister.}—MaiSteT 
of Arts. — {Ante Meridiem.) Before 
noon. — {Anno Mundi.) In the year 
of the world. 

Am., Amer. American. 

An. {Anno.) In the year. 

Anon. Anonymous. 

Ark. Arkansas. 

A.-S. Anglo-Saxon. 

A. S. S. U. American Sunday School 
Union. 

A. T. 8. American Tract Society; 
American Temperance Society. 

Att., Atty. Attorney. 

Atty.-Gen. Attorney-General. 

A.U. C. (Anno UrHs Condita.) In 
the year from the building of the city 
[Rome]. 



B. A. Bachelor of Arts ; British 
America. 

B. C. Before Christ. 

B. C. L. Bachelor of Civil Law. 

B. D. Bachelor of Divinity. 

Bd. Bound. 

Bds. Bound in boards. 

Bk. Bank* Book. 

B. L. {Baccaiaureus Legum.) Bach- 
elor of Laws. 

B. M. {Baccaiaureus Medicinal 
Bachelor of Medicine. 

Brig. Brigade ; Brigadier. 
Brit. Britsun; British. 

C. {Centum.) A hundred; Cent; 
Congress. 

C, Cap. {Caput.) Chapter. 
Cal. California; Calends. 
Capt. Captain. 
Cath. Catholic. 

C. C. P. Court of Common Pleas. 
C. E. Civil Engineer. 
Cent., Ct. {Centum.) A hundred. 
C. H. Court-House. 
C. J. Chief-Justice. 
Co. County; Company. 
C. O. D. Collect on Delivery. 
Col. Colonel; Colossians. 
Con. {Contra.) Against, or in oppo- 
sition. 
Con. Cr., C. C. Contra, Credit. 
Cong., C. Congress. 
Conn^ Ct. Connecticut. 
Cr. Cfredit; Cr^itor. 
Ct. Cent; Court. 
Cur. Current^ #r this m«nth. 



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POPULAR AMERICAN PICTIONARY. 



Cwt. (Otttum and weig^ki.) Hun- 

dredwei^t. 
D., d. (penarius.) Penny. 
D. C. District of Columbia. 
D. C. L. Doctor of Civil Law. 
D. D. {Divinitatis Doctor.) Doctor 

of Divinity. 
Del. Delaware; Delegate. 
Del. {DelineavU.) He drew it. 
Dep.y Dept. Department. 
Dep. Deputy. 
Dept., Dpt. Deponent. 
Dft., Deft. Defendant. 
D. Q. iDti GratM.) By the Grace 

of God-. 
Diet. Dictator; Dictionary. 
Dist.-Atty. Dustrict-Attomey. 
D. M. Doctor of Music. 
Do. {Dittos The same. 
Dols.,$. Dollars. 
D. P. Doctor of Philosophy. 
Dr. Doctor; Debtor; Dram. 

D. V. CDeo Volente.) God willing. 
Divt. {Denarius and weight.) Penny- 

weient. 

E. East; Earl; Eagle. 
Ecdus. Ecclesiasticus. 
Ed. Edition; Editor. 

E. G., c. g. {Exempli Gratia.) For 

example. 
E. Lon. East Longitude. 
E. N. E. East-Northeast. 
Eng. Eneland ; English. 
Ep. Epistle. 

E. S. E. East-Southeast. 
Esq., Esqr. Esquire. 

Et. al. (Et alii.) And others. 
Et. al. {Ei alibi.) And ebewhere. 
Etc., ftc. {Etaetera.) And others; 

and so forth. 
Pahr. Fahrenheit. 
P. A. S. Fellow of the Society of 

Arts. 

F. H. S. Fellow of the Historical So- 
ciety. 

Fl., Flor., Fa. Florida. 
Fo., Fol. Folio. 

F. R. G. S. Fellow of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. 

F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society. 
Ga. Georgia. 

G. B. Great Britain. 
Gen. General; Genesis. 
Gov. Governor. 

H., h., hr. Hour. 

Hae. Hageai. 

U. O. M. Her Britannic Majesty. 

Hhd. Hogshead. 

H. M. His or Her Majesty. 

H. M. S. His or Her Majesty's Ship 

<7f Service. 
Hod. HpMrakle. 
H. R. Rouse of Representatives^ 



H. R. H. His or Her Royal High- 
ness. 

la. Iowa. 

lb., Ibid. {Ibidem.) In the same 
place. 

Id. {Idem.) The same. 

I. c, i. c. (Id est.) That is. 

I. H. S. {Jesus Hominum Salvator,) 
Jesus the Savior of Men. 

111. Illinois. 

In. Inch; Inches. 

Ind. Indiana. 

Ind. Ter. Indian Territory. 

Inst. Of the present mpntn. 

Int. Interest. 

In trans. {In transitu.) On the 
passage. 

I. T. Indian Territory. 

J. C. D. {Juris Crvilts Doctor.) Doc- 
tor of Civil Law. 

J. D. {Jurum Doctor^ Doctor of 
Laws. 
P. Justice of the Peace. 



tr., Jun. Junior. 
. IL D. {Ju, ' 



J. tr. D. {Juris Utriusque Doctor^ 
Doctor of both Laws ; i. e., Canon 
and Civil Law. 

Ky. Kentucky. 

L., lb. {Libra.) Pound weight. 

L., 1., £. Pound Sterling. 

La. Louisiana. 

Lat. Latitude ; Latin. 

L. I. Long Island. 

Lib. Librarian. {Liber.) Book. 

Lieut., Lt. Lieutenant. 

Lieut.-Col. Lieutenant-Colonel. 

LL. B. {Legum Baccalaureus.) 
Bachelor of Laws. 

LL. D. {Legum Doctor.) Doctor of 
Laws. 

Lon., Long. Longitude. 

L. S. {Locus Sigilli.)y\A.ct. of the Seal. 

L. S. D., 1. s. d. Pounds, shillings; 
pence. 

M., Mon. Monday. 

M. A. Master of Arts; Militar> 
Academy. 

Mass., Ms. Massachusetts. 

M. B. {Medicinir Baccalaureus.) 
Bachelor of Medicine. 

M. B. {Musicee Baccalaureus.) Bach- 
elor of Music. 

M. C. Member of Congress ; Master 
Commandant. 

M. {>. {Medtcinee Doctor.) Doctor 
of Medicine. 

Md. Maryland. 

Me. Maine. 

M. E. Methodist Episcopal. 

Mem. {Memento.) RemOmber. 

Mem. Memorandum. 

Mtesrs., MM. {Messieurs.) Gen- 
tlemen; Sirs. 



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ABBREVIATIONS. 



343 



Meth. Methodist. 

Mex. Mexico or Mexican. 

Mich. Michigan ; Michaelmas. 

Minn. Minnesota. 

Min. Plen. Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Miss. Mississippi. 

Mo. Missouri; Month. 

Mens. Monsieur or Sir. 

M. P. Member of Parliament. 

MS. Manuscript. 

MSS. Manuscripts. 

N. A. North America. 

N. B. New Brunswick ; North Britain ; 
{Nota dem.) Mark well ; take notice. 

N. C. North Carolina. 

N. E. New England ; Northeast. 

Neb. Nebraska. 

N. P. Newfoundland. 

N. H. New Hampshire. 

N. J. New Jersey. 

N. Lat., N. L. North" Latitude. 

N. M. New Mexico. 

N. N. E. North-Northeast. 

N. N. W. North-Northwest. 

Non pros. {Nbn prosequitur.) He 
does not prosecute. 

N. P. Notary Public; New Provi- 
dence. 

N. S. New Style ; Nova Scotia. 

N. T. New Testament. 

N. W. Northwest. 

N.Y. New York. 

O. Ohio; Oxygen. 

Ob., ob. (OSiiL) Died. 

Ont. Ontario. 

Or. OrMfon. 

O. S. Old Style (before 1752). 

O. T. Old Testament. • 

Oz., oz. Ounce or ounces. 

P. E. Protestant Episcopal. 
P. E. I. Prince Edward Island. 
Per an. {Per annum.) By the year. 
Per cent., per ct. {Per centum.) By 

the hundred. 
Ph. D., P. D. {Philosophice Doctor.) 

Doctor of Philosophy. 
Pinx., Pxt. {Pinxit.) He or she 

painted it. 
P. M. {Post Meridiem.) Afternoon ; 

Postmaster. 
P. M. G. Postmaster-General. 
P. P. C. {Pour prendre conge.) To 

lake leave. 
P. Q. Province of Quebec. 
Prof.^ Professor. 
Pro tem. {Pro tempore.) For the 

time. 
Proz. {JProximo^ Next month. 



P. S. Privy Seal. {Post scriptum.) 

Postscript. 
Ps. Psalm or Psalms. 

Q. S., q. s. {Quantum sUjfflcit.) A 

sufficient quantity. 
Qu.,Qy., q. (Queere.) Query. 
Q. V<, q. V. (Quod vide.) Which 

see; — Quantum vis.) As much as 

you please. 

R. {Rex.) K\nz.—{Regina.) Queen. 

R. A. Royal Academy ; Royal Acade- 
mician; Royal Artillery; Rear Ad- 
miral. 

R. E. Royal Engineers. 

Rcc. Sec. Recording Secretary. 

Ref. Ch. Reformed Church. 

Reg. Prof. Regius Professor. 

Rep., Repub. Republic. 

Rev. Reverend; Revelation. 

R. I. Rhode Island. 

R. N. Royal Navy 

Rom. Romans. 

Rom. Cath. Roman Catholic. 

R. R. Railroad. 

Rt. Hon. Right Honorable. 

Rt. Rev. Right Reverend. 

S. Smith; Shilling; Sunday. 

S., St. Saint. 

S. A. South America. 

S. C. South Carolina. 

Sc. Sculp. (Sculpsit.) He or she en- 

g^ved It ; Sculpture. 
S. E. Southeast. , 

Sec, Sect. Secretary; Section. 
Serg., Seijt. ' Sergeant. 
S. I. C. Supreme Judicial Court. 
SoT.-Gen. Solicitor-General. 
S. P. A. S. {Societatis Philosophicce 

Atnericana Socius.) Member of the 

American Philosophical Society. 
Sq., Sqr. Square. 
SS., 88. (Scilicet.) To wit ; namely. 
S. S. E. South-Southeast. 
S. S. W. South-Southwest. 
S. T. D. (Sacra Theologiee Doctor.) 

Doctor of Divinity. 
Ster., Ste. (Sterling.) 
S. T. P. {Sacra Theologiee Professor.) 

Professor of Theology. 
Supt. Superintendent. 
S. W. Southwest. 

Tenn. Tennessee. 
Tex. Texas. 

Ult. {Ultimo.) Last month. 
U.S. United States. 
U. S. A. United SutesAr.uyt United 
States of America^ 



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344 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



U. 8. If. United States Mail; United 

States Marine. 
U. S.H. United Sutes Navy. 
U. S. 8. United States Ship. 
U. T. Utah Territory. 

V.Vi..Vld. (Fair.) See. 

V. v». ( yiersns.) Against. 

Va. Virginia. 

V.-C. Vlce-Chaneellor. 

VU. (P7d*/ie*t.) to wit; Namdy. 

V. R. ( k^icUrm R^hm.) Queen Vic- 

toria. 
Vt. Vermont. 



W. WcUh ; West. 

W. I. West India ; West Indies. 

Wis. Wisconsin. 

W. Lon. West Lonidtude. 

W. Va. West Virginia. 



Xmas., Xm. Christmas. 
Xn., Xtian. Christian. 



k 



erYr. Ywr. 
yard;-Ya8. Yanb. 



STATISTICS OF CHURCHES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Denominations. 



Baptist ^regular) 

Baptist (other) 

Christian 

Congregational 

Episcopal (Protestant) 

Evangelicsu Association 

Friends 

Jewish 

Lutheran 

Methodist 

Miscellaneous 

Moravian (Unitas Fratrum) 

Mormon v 

New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) . . 

Piesbyterian ^re^ar) 

Presbyterian (other]) 

Reformed Church in America (late 

Dutdi Reformed) 

Reformed Church in the United 

States (late German Reformed) 

Roman Catholic 

Second Advent 

Shaker 

Spiritualist 

Unitarian 

United Brethren in Christ 

Universalist 

Unknown (Local Missions) 

Unknown (Union) 



Total — ^All Denominations 73,459 



Church 
Organi- 
zations. 



14,474 
''355 
3,578 
2,887 
2,835 
815 



3,032 
25,278 

27 



90 
6,26a 
1,5^ 

47» 

1,256 

4,127 
225 
x8 
95 
331 
1,445 
719 
26 
409 



Church 
Edifices 



12,827 
1,105 
2,822 
2,715 

2,6oi 

641 

662 

2,776 
21,337 

«; 

171 

61 

5,683 

1,388 

468 

»,M5 

3,806 

140 

18 



310 

27 

552 



63,082 



Church 
Sittings. 



3,997,116 

363,019 

865,60a 

1,117,21a 

991,051 

193.796 

224,664 

73,265 

977,332 

6,528,209 

6,935 

25,700 

87,838 

i€,755 

2,.i98,9oo 

499,344 

227,228 

43*,700 

1,990,514 

34,555 

8,850 

6,970 

155,471 

265,025 

210,884 

11,925 
153,202 



21,665,062 



Church 
Property. 



^39,229 ,22 1 

2,378,977 
6,425,137 
25.069,698 

36,514,549 

3,301,650 

3,939,560 

5,155,234 

14,917,747 

69,854,121 

135,650 

709,100 

656,750 

869,700 

47,8a8,732 

5,436,524 

10,359,255 

5,775,215 
60,985,566 

306,240 
86,900 

100,150 
6,282,675 
1,819,810 
5,692,32s 

687,800 

965,295 



1354,483,581 



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mwr^ 



AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



Aboard, usedof things on shore, as " aboard a coach, railway," &c. 

Above one's bend, out of one's power : beyond reach. 

Absquatulate, to run away, especially in disgrace. 

Acknowledge the corn, to acknowledge or confess a charge or 
imputation. 

Ad, abbreviation of advertisement. 

Adobe, sun-baked brick used for building houses, &c. [Sp."] 

Advanced female, a woman who claims the rights and privileges 
of men. 

Africanise, to place under the control of Africans or negroes. 

Afterclap, an additional, and generally unjust, demand, beyond the 
bargain originally made. 

After night, after candle-light ; in the evening. 

Albany beef, the sturgeon which ascends the Hudson river as far 
as Albar^. 

All any more, no more. 

All-fired, very ; in a great degree. 

Alter, to geld, as animals. 

Amalgamate, To, applied to the mixing of the black and white 
races. 

Ambition, grudge; spite. 

Among, between. 

Anti, a bet placed in opposition to the dealer's bet in playing the 
game of poker — hence, To anti, to bet. 

Antony over, a game at ball played by two parties of boys on op- 
posite sides of a schoolhouse, over which the ball is thrown. 

Apple-brandy, a kind of brandy distilled from cider. 

Apple-butter, a sauce made of apples stewed down in cider, which 
is put away, like butter, in tubs, for use during the winter. 

Apple-jack. Same as Apple-brandy. 

Apple -slump, a New England dish, consisting of apples and 
molasses baked within a bread-pie in an iron pot. 

Appreciate, to raise the value of. 

Approbate, to express approbation of. 

Ark, a large flat boat used on some of the western rivers to trans- 
port merchandise. 

Arkansas toothpick, a kind of bowie-knife, which can be shut up 
into the handle. 



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346 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Arpent, an acre. [/V.] 

Airiero, a muleteer. [5^.] 

Arroyo, a ravine. [•^•1 

Atole, Indian corn gruel. [Sp.'] 

Avails, profits, proceeds. 

Avalanche, a corruption of ambulance. 

Axe to grind. A member of congress who supports some favorite 

project, which makes him appear generous while he acts from a 

selfish motive, is said to have an axe to grind. 

Back and forth, backward and forward. 

Backbone, firmness, stability of purpose, energy. 

Back out, to retreat from a diflSculty ; to withdraw from an en- 
gagement or contest. 

Backward, bashful ; timid. 

Bacon, To save one's, to preserve one*s self from harm. 

Bad, ill, as " I feel quite bad to-day." 

Bag, to capture. 

Bagasse, the dry remains of the sugar-cane after the juice has all 
been pressed out, used as fuel. \Fr.'\ 

Bagging, hempen bags for packing cotton in. 

Bail, the handle of a pail, bucket or kettle. 

Bail one's own boat, to mind one's own business, without waiting 
for help from others. ^ 

Balance, the remainder of ^wything, as " the balance of a speech." 

Bald-face, bad whisky. 

Bald-headed, To go it, to rush eagerly to do a thing as if with- 
out taking time to cover the head. 

Balk, to stop abruptly in one's course, as a horse. 

Bang, to beat — that is, to excel or surpass. 

Bang-up, an old word for a heavy overcoat. 

Bankable, receivable at a bank, as bills ; discountable, as notes. 

Bank-bill, a bank-note. 

Banker, a vessel employed in fishing on the banks of Newfoimd- 
land. 

Bannock, a cake of Indian meal fried in lard. [5rtf/.] 

Banquette, the name for the sidewalk in some of the southern 
cities. \_Fr.'\ 

Banter, to challenge to a match ; to provoke to a wager. 

Bar, in the west, the bear. 

Bar, to frequent the drinking-shop. 

Barfoot, said of tea or cofifee taken without sugar and cream. 

Bark a squirrel, to strike with a rifle-ball the bark on the upper 
side of a branch on which the animal sits, so that the concussion 
kills it without mutilating it. 

Bark up the wrong tree, to mistake one's object ; to pursue the 
wrong course to obtain it. In hunting, a dog drives a squirrel 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 347 

or other game into a tree, where by barking he attracts its at- 
tention until the hunter arrives. Sometimes the game escapes, 

or the dog is deceived, and barks up the wrong tree. 
Barnyard, a barnyard fowl. 
Barraclade, a home-mad^ napless blanket. [Z>. baare klederen, 

bare cloths.] 
Barranca, a deep ravine produced suddenly by heavy rains, and 

having steep banks. {_Sp.'] 
Barraque, a roof on four posts for sheltering hay or other produce. 

[Fr. baraque, barrack.] 
Barrens,* elevated lands or plains on which grow small trees unfit 

for timber. 
Base -ball, a game at ball, so called from the bases or bounds, 

usually four in number, which designate the circuit which each 

player must make after striking the ball. 
Basket-meeting, a picnic deriving its name from each member 

bringing his provisions in a basket. 
Batter- cake, a cake of Indian meal, made with buttermilk or 

cream. 
Bay, a tract of low swampy land, covered with bay-trees. 
Bayou, the outlet of a lake, a channel for water. [/>•. boyau, 

gut, bowel.] 
Bead, To draw a, to $re, from the practice of the western hunter, 

in taking aim, of gradually raising the front sight, which 

resembles a bead, to a level with the hind sight, and fking the 

moment the two are in a line. 
Bear a hand, to assist ; to be active and not delay. 
Beat, to surpass ; tQ excel. • 

Beautiful, applied indiscriminately to anything pleasing or good. 
Bee, an assemblage of people, generally neighbors, to unite their 

labors for the benefit of one individual or family. Apple-bee, 

an assembly to gather apples, or to^cut them up for drying. 

Husking-bee, an assembly for husking com. 
Bee-line, a direct or straight line from one point to another, from 

the practice of bees, when loaded with honey, returning to their 

hives in a direct line. 
Bellmare, a mare chosen to lead a caravan or drove of mules in 

the southwest ; the leader of a political party. 
Biddy, a domestic fowl ; a chicken. 
Bindery, a place where books are bound. 
Biscuit, a peculiar kind of "hot tea-roll, usually fermented. 
Blueback, a paper-money note of the Confederate stat«s. 
Blummachies, flowers. [j9.] 
Board, On. Same as Aboard. 
■ Beatable, capable of being nav^ated by boats; 
Bobbery, a squabble ; a row. 



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348 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Bob-sled, a sled for the transportation of large timber from the 

forest to a river or public road. 
Bockey, a bowl or vessel made from a gourd. 
Becking, a kind of baize or woolen cloth used to cover floors or to 

protect carpets. 
Bodette, a cot bedstead, so called in Canada. 
Boggle, to embarrass. 
Bogue, to come suddenly upon. 
Bogus, a beverage made of rum and molasses. 
Bogus, spurious; counterfeit. * 

Bolt, to start off suddenly — said originally of a horse starting from 

his course, afterward applied to politicians who suddenly desert 

their party. 
Bombproof, an official connected with the army, not expected to 

expose himself to the enemy's fire. 
Bonny-clabber, thick milk from which the whey is drained to get 

the curds out. 
Boost, to lift or push one up a tree or over a fence. 
Bootee, a boot without a top, or a shoe made like a boot without a 

leg. 
Bom in the woods to be scared by an owl. Not, too much 

used to danger to be easily frightened. 
Boss, a master; an employer of labor. [^. baas, a master.] 
Boss, a name for the buffelo among the hunters of the prairie. [L. 

bos, an ox.] 
Bossy, a familiar name for a calf. 
Boughten, which is bought. 
Bourbon, any old-fashioned party which acts unmindful of past 

experience. 
Brash, brittle. , 
Brave, an Indian fighting-man. 
Bravely, very well ; excellently. 
Breadstuff, denoting all the cereals that can be converted into 

bread. 
Brewis, crusts of rye and Indian bread, softened with milk and 

eaten with molasses. 
Brickley, brittle. 
Broom -corn, a variety of maize, from the tufts of which brooms 

are made. 
Buck, to put forth one's whole energy. 
Buckbeer, a very strong kind of beer. 
Buck party, a company without ladies. 
Buckra, a white man, used by the blacks. 
Buffalo chips, the dry dung of the buffalo, used as fuel on th 

prairies. 
Buffalo robe, the skin of the buffalo, dressed for use. 
Bug, a beetle. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 849 

Buggy, a single-seated, four-wheeled vehicle, with or with 
, top, drawn by one or two horses. 
Bulger, anything very large. 
Bummer, one who loots. 
Bumper, the buffer of a railway carriage. 
Bun, a familiar name for the squirrel. 
Buncombe, Buncome, pretended enthusiasm; fictitious 

pathy. 
Bunk, a wooden case used in country taverns and in offices, ^ 

serves for a seat during the day, and for a bed at night; ; 

or's sleeping-berth. To bunk, to go to bed. 
Bunkum. Same as Buncombe. 
Bunt, to butt; to push with horns. 

Burglarise, to steal. Burglarising, the occupation of a bu 
Burgle, to steal. 

Bush, a region abounding in trees and shrubs. 
Bushwhacker, a raw countryman ; a lawless person or a fu 

from justice, who has taken to the bush. 
Bust, to burst ; to fail in business ; a drinking-bout. 
Buster, anything large in size ; a man of great strength ; a < 

ing-bout. 
Butte, a detached hill or ridge rising abruptly, but not high ei 

to be called a mountain. [Z^^-] 
Buzzard, a spoiled piece of work. 
By and again, now and then. 

Cable, to send a m^essage by the telegraph cable. 

Caboodle, a crowd. 

Caboose, a small Railway car. 

Cache, a hole in the ground for hiding and preserving provi 

[/v.] 

Cacique, a chief of an Indian tribe ; the mayor of a New Mi 

town ; a pompous and self-sufficient individual.' 
Cakes, Hurry up the, be quick about it ! — originating in th 

tiality Americans have for hot cakes at breakfast, whi( 

order to be satisfactory, must be brought to the table as so 

they are baked. 
Calabash, the gourd; a drinking-vessel made from its fn 

weak and empty head. 
Calaboose, the common jail, in the southern states. [»S/). ( 

bozo.] 
Calculate, to esteem, suppose, believe, think, intend. 
Calibogus, a mixture of rum and spruce-beer. 
Calico, colored cotton-cloth, coarser than muslin. 
, Callithump, an assemblage of persons with tin horns, bells, r 

etc., who parade the streets making as much noise as pos 
Camfirt, camphor. 



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360 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Camp out, to spend the night in the open air. 

Can, to put in a can or air-tight vessel, as fruit. 

Canacks, Canucks, Canadians. 

Caney, applied to a place where cane either grows or once grew 
in abundance. 

Canon, Canyon, a narrow tunnel-like passage between high and 
precipitous banks, formed by mountains or table-lands, with a 
river running beneath. [Sp.'\ 

Cant, to turn over, as a piece of timber. 

Cant-hook, a wooji lever, with an iron hook at one end, with 
which heavy articles of merchandise or timber«are canted or 
turned over. 

Captain, the conductor of a railway train. 

Caption, a heading. 

Car, a carriage. 

Carlicues, Curlicues, fantastic ornaments. 

Carry, to lead. 

Carryall, a four-wheeled pleasure-carriage; in Canada, a sleigh. 
IFr. Carriole.] 

Casa, a country-house. [»^.] 

Cashunk, an exclamation imitative of a sudden noise. 

Cater-comered, Catty- cornered, diagonally. 

Caucus, a meeting of the leading politicians of a party to agree 
upon the plans to be pursued in an approaching election. 

Cavallard, a long string of horses and mules, laden with merchan- 
dise. ISp. Caballada.] 

Caveson, a muizle for a horse. [Fr, Cavecon.] 

Cavort, to speak or act in an extravagant manner. [From Sp. 
Cavar, to paw, applied to horses.] 

Chain-lightning, Chained-lightning, forked lightning ; inferior 
whisky. 

Chance, a certain amount or supply. 

Chaparral, a tract of land covered with shrubs and bushes, mostly 
armed with spines. [From Sp. Chaparra, an evergreen dwarf- 
oak.] 

Charm, money. 

Chaw up, to use up ; to demolish. 

Check, an impromptu meal of cold provisions. 

Cheek, a door-post. 

Chickaree, the popular name of the red squirrel. 

Chicken-fixings, a chicken fricassee. 

Chicken-pie, a southern term to designate the necessary expenses 
for purchasing legislative votes and newspaper influence. 

Chimbley, Chimley, chimney. 

Chinch, the bed-bug ; an insect that infests wheat. [»S^.] 

Chip, to be merry. 

Chipper, a lively, cheerful person. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 351 

Chisel, to cheat. 

Chock, to fill up. * 

Choke off, to stop a speaker when addressing an audience. 

Chomp, to champ; to chew loudly and greedily. 

Chop, quality. [Chin.']. 

Chore, small work of a domestic kind. 

Chowder, a favorite New England dish, made of fish, pork, onions 

and. biscuit stewed together. 
Chowderhead, a dunce. 
Chuck-full, a form of choke-full. 
Chunk, a short, thick piece of wood, etc. 
Chunky, short and thick. 

Clam, a common shell-fish. As happy as a clam^ a common ex- 
pression on those parts of the coast where clams are found. 
Clam-bake, the baking of clams in an improvised stove of stones 

and weeds. 
Clam-shell, the lips or mouth ; the patent lock on a mail-bag. 
Clapboard, a thin, narrow board, used to cover the sides of houses, 

and placed so as to overlap the one below it. 
Claybank, denoting the color most common to a bank of clay. 
Clever, good-nattired, obliging. 
Clifty, applied to a river on the banks of which limestone cliffs 

abound. 
Clip, a blow. To clip, to give a blow.. 
Clockmutch, a woman's cap composed of three pieces — a straight 

center one from the forehead to the neck, with two side-pieces. 
\_D. Klapmuts, a nightcap.] 
Clothier, one who makes and fulls cloth. 
Coast, to slide down a frozen or snow-covered hill on a sled. 
Coast, On the, near at hand. 

Cob, of corn, the spike or stipe on which the grains of maize grow. 
Cobbler, a beverage composed of wine, sugar, lemon and ice finely 

broken up, suck through a straw or other tube. 
Comical, strange, extraordinary. 
Complected, having a certain complexion. 
Condeript, thrown into fits. 

Conduct, To, to behave one's self (without the pronoun). 
Conferee, one of a number of persons delegated from the two 

houses of legislature for the purpose of devising an agreement on 

some point in dispute between them. 
Coniacker, a maker of false coin. 
Considerable, used as an adverb or as a noun. 
Consociate, to unite in an assembly, as pastors and delegates of 

churches.- 
Consociation, fellowship or union of churches by their pastors and 

delegates. 
Contemplate, to propose, to intend. 



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352 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Contraptions, new and peculiar things. 

Convenient, near at hand ; within easy reach. 

Coon, the raccoon ; a member of the whig party. A gone coon^ an 
individual in a serious or hopeless difficulty. 

Cooncry, whiggery. 

Cord, a lai^e quantity. 

Corduroy, a rough kind of road, consisting of loose poles or logs 
laid across a swamp, presenting a ribbed appearance. 

Com, maize. 

Corn-blades, the leaves of the maize. 

Corn-broom. Same as Broom-corn. 

Corn-dodger, a cake made of Indian com, so called from its 
disposition to dodge or jump about in the act of baking. 

Com-juice, whisky. 

Corn-shucking, an occasion on which a farmer invites his neigh- 
bors to his house or bam to assist him in stripping the shucks or 
husks from his com. It is accompanied with merry-making 
and frolic. 

Corp, corpse. 

Corporosity, the living body. 

Corral, a large enclosure for cattle formed of cedar-logs ; the ring 
formed by the wagons of a hunter's train, into which all the 
horses and cattle are driven at night to graze. \_Sp. Corro, a 
circle'.] 

Cotbctty, a man who interferes with woman's special duties jn a 
household. 

Cotton to, to take a liking to, to fancy, to stick to, as cotton would. 

Court, in New England, applied to a legislative body composed of 
a house of representatives and a senate. 

Court-house, in the south, a name often given to the county town, 
as Fairfax Court-housi, 

Coverlid, coverlet 

Cow-catcher, on a railway, a triangular fender of iron, placed in 
front of the locomotive, to clear the line of cattle, sheep, &c. 

Cowcumber, cucumber. 

Cracker, a squib ; a small hard biscuit. 

Cracklings, a southern dish consisting of pieces of the rind of pork 
roasted and baked into bread ; cinders. 

Crease, to shoot, as a deer, so that the ball cuts the skin at a precise 
spot of the upper part of the neck. 

Creature, an animal, especially a horse. 

Creek, a small stream. 

Crook, in tailoring, one who cuts out garments. 

Crowd, a company, not necessarily large. 

Cruise, To go a, on the New England coast, applied to going 
inland, as having an airing, riding on horseback or in a stage- 
coach, &c. 



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AMERicAi^ Words ai^d phrases. 363 

Cruller, a cake made of a strip of sweetened dough boiled in Uu-d, 
the two ends of which are twisted or curled together. [D, 
Knillcr.] 

Curtitude, shortness. 

Cuss, prob. a contraction of customer, in the sense of a person that 
one meets or has to do with. 

Cussedness, wickedness ; resoluteness. 

Custodize, to take into custody. 

Cut a swathe, to make a great, show ; to make a figure. 

Cut didoes, to be frolicsome. 

Cut dirt, to run away in haste. 

Cute, acute, sharp, cunning. 

Cut one's stick, to die. 

Cut up shines, to play tricks. 

Daddock, a trunk of a fallen tree rotting away and turning into 
mould. 

Daddyism, respect paid to good family and honorable descent. 

Dander, dandruff, scurf. To get one*8 dander up, to get into a 
passion. 

Dansy, failing from old age. 

Darky, a n^ro. 

Dawdle, one who loiters over his work. 

Daze, a state of utter bewilderment. 

Deacon a calf, to knock it on the head as soon as it is bom. 

Deacon berries, to place the largest on the top. 

Deacon off (at a meeting), to give the cue and lead the debate. 

Deadhead, one who enjoys whatever may be had for money vv^th- 
out paying, as a railway pass, etc. 

Decedent, a deceased person. 

Declension, the act of declining. 

Deed, to convey or transfer by deed. 

Delegate, a representative from a territory, having a voice in con- 
gress, but no vote. 

Deputise, to appoint a deputy. 

Desk, the reading-desk ; the clerical profession. 

Desperate, exceedingly. 

Dicker, to barter ; to chaffer. 

Dickey, a gentleman's shirt-collar. 

Dig, a hard-working student. 

Dike, a person in full dress. 

Dime, a silver coin of the value of ten cents. 

Dipsy, the sinker of a fishing-line. 

Dirt, soil. 

Disremember, to forget. 

District, the fraction of a state containing the number of inhabitants 
entitled to send one representative to the house ; to divide into 
districts. 



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354 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Divide, a watershed. 

Dixie, a name applied to the southern confederacy. 

Dobber, the float of a fishing-line. 

Docious, docile. 

Docity, docility. 

Dock-walloper, an idle fellow who loiters about the docks. 

Doctor, the cook on board a ship. 

Dodger. Same as Corn-dodger. 

Dogs, andirons. 

Dominie, a minister of the Dutch Reformed church. 

Donate, to give as a donation ; to contribute. 

Donnock, Donock, a stone. 

Doted, rotten ; spoiled. 

Dough -faces, a nickname given to the Northern abettors of n^ro 

slavery; pliable politicians. 
Doughnut, a small roundish cake, made of flour, eggs and sugar, 

moistened with milk, and boiled in lard. 
Dove, dived. 
Down, to humble. 

Dozed, Dozy, said of timber beginning to decay. 
Dratted, very; exceeding. 
Drink, a river; a pond. 

Driver, universally applied to one who drives horses^ 
Droger, a vessel built solely for burden, as for transporting cotton, 

etc. 
Drudge, raw whisky. 
Drummer, an agent of a commercial house, who solicits orders, 

, collects debts, etc. 
Dubersome, of an uncertain state of mind. 
Dumfoundered, stupefied. 
Dump, to unload a cart by tilting it up. 
Dunning, a peculiar operation for curing codfish. 
Dutiable, liable to duty. 
Dyed in the wool, ingrained ; thorough. 

Eagle, a gold coin of the value of ten dollars. 

Eat, to give to eat ; to provide with food. 

Editorial, a leading article in a newspaper 

Egg, to pelt with eggs. 

Elephant, To see the, to see all and know everything, taken 

from traveling menageries, in which the elephant forms the 

most attractive feature of the show. 
Emptyings, the lees of beer, etc., and yeast. 
Engineer, the driver of a railway train. 
Enthuse, to fill or be filled with enthusiasm. 
Erupt, to break out in an eruption. 
Essenoe-peddler, the skunk. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 355 

Euchre, a game at cards ; to defeat. 

Evening, afternoon ; the time between dinner and supper. 

Eventuate, to issue ; to come to an end. 

Everlasting, very; exceeding. 

Excurt, to make an excursion. 

Factory-cotton, unbleached cotton goods made at home. 

Fair, to clear up, said of the weather. 

Fall, to fell, to cut down. 

Fall, the autumn. 

Family, A man of, a man who has a family. 

Farallon, an isolated island or promontory f ^.] 

Fatticows, Fetticus, com salad [Z>. vettikost.] 

Favor, to ease, to spare. 

Fay, to fit. 

Feather, to rise, as cream on the top of a cup of tea. 

Feeze, To be in a, to be in a state of excitement 

Fellowship, To, to hold communion. 

Fence, To be on the, to be neutral, or to be ready to join the 

strongest party. 
Fement, opposite [Scot, foment]. 
Fetch, to perform. 
Fetch up, to stop suddenly. 
Fetticus, same as Fatticows. • 
Fice, a small, worthless cur. 

Finding- store, a store where shoemakers' t—h are kept for sale. 
Finnikin, Finniking, Finniky, finical. 
Fire, to throw. 
Fire-water, spirits. 
Fireworks, lucifer matches. 
Five -shooter, a revolver with five barrels. 
Fix, condition; predicament; dilemma. 
Fixings, arrangements, embellishments, trimmings, etc. 
Fizzle, a ridiculous failure. 
Flag, to signal, as a railway train. 
Flambustious, great and showy. 
Flapjacks, large pancakes, generally eaten at supper. 
Flashy, not sweet and fruitful. 
Flat-footed, firm-footed; resolute. 
Fleshy, stout. 
Flip, a drink of brandy and sugar mixed with beer, and heated by 

plunging into it a redhot iron. [5w. flepp. ] 
Floater, a candidate representing several counties. 
Flock, To fire into the wrong, to make a mistake in attempting 

to overcome an adversary. 
Flouring-mills, grist-mills. 
Flummux, to give up a purpose ; to die. 



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356 POPXJLAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Plunk, to back out from fear. 

Flutter- wheel, a very small wheel, reauiring but little water, and 

often not moving steadily. 
Fly, to flee. 

Fly around, to be quick at some pressing work 
Foot, To pull, to make great haste. 
Forehanded, well off; comfortable 
Fouty, trifling. 

F^x, in boot-repairing to put a new foot to old uppers. 
Foxed, said of a book, when the paper, owing to some fault in its 

manufacture, becomes spotted witfi light-brown or yellow spots. 
Freeze, to wish ardently. 
Freshet, an overflow of water. 
Frills, an assumption of style. 
Fruitist, a fruit-gardener. 

Funeralize, to perform a religious ceremony at a funeral. 
Funk, Funkify. Same as Flunk. 
Furr, far. 

Gab, loquacity. 

Gale, a state of excitement. 

Gamboller, a corruption of gambler. 

Gambrel, a hipped roof to a house 

Gas, moonshine ; idle boasting.^ 

Gaum, to soil. 

Gentle, to make gentle. 

Genymandering, a plan of arranging the political divisions of a 
state so that in an election one party may obtain an advantage 
over its opponent, even though the latter may possess a major- 
ity of the votes in the state. [So called from Elbridge Gerry, 
the instigator of the plan.] 

Get along, to get on. 

Gird, to take a, to make an effort. 

Girdle a tree, to make a circular incision, like a belt, through^ the 
bark and alburnum of a tree, in order to kill it. 

Given name. Christian name. 

Glass, to glaze. 

Glimpse, to get a glimpse of. 

Go ahead, to go forward ; to proceed. 

Goaheaditive, going forward; 

Go back on somebody, to abandon him ; to disappoint his ex- 
pectations. 

Go by, to call ; to stop at. 

Go it strong, to perform an act with vigor or without scruple. 

Gondola, a low, flat-bottomed boat, in which produce is carried to 
market. 

Gone with, become of. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 357 

Goney, Gpnus, a stupid fellow. 

Gonoff, a bungler at cheating. 

Go through [a man], to strip him of all his valuables, to expose 
his political treachery, etc. 

Gouge, imposition, cheat, fraud ; to cheat. 

Graham bread, bread made of unbolted wheat. [From S. Gra- 
ham, a lecturer on dietetics.] 

Grain, English com. 

Grass-widow, a wife separated from her husband for a time only. 

Greenback, the paper-money of the United States, so called from 
its color. 

Griddles, utensils for baking cakes ; the cakes themselves. 

Grit, courage, spirit. 

Gritty, spirited, courageous. 

Grocery, a grocer's shop. 

Groggery, a place where grog and othev liquors are drunk. 

Guess, to believe, suppose, imagine. 

Gully, to wear a gully or hollow channel in the earth. 

Gumption, understanding and discernment. 

Hacienda, a large plantation, with the mansion of the owner. [^.] 

Hack, a hired carriage. 

Happen in, to happen to come in. 

Happy as a clam. See Clam. 

Hard row to hoe, a matter difficult to accomplish, a metaphor 
derived from hoeing com. 

Hasty-pudding, Indian meal stirred in boiling water into a thick 
batter or pudding, and eaten with milk, butter and sugar, or 
molasses. 

Hatchet, Bury the, to make peace, to arrange a difficulty, from 
the Indian ceremony of burying the tomahawk or hatchet, 
when they make peace. 

Hatchet, Dig up the, to commence a war, to reopen a contro- 
versy, from the Indian practice of digging up the buried toma- 
hawk on the breaking out of a war. 

Haul weeds, to pull up weeds. 

Head-cheese, the ears and feet of swine cut up fine and, after be- 
ing boiled, pressed into the form of a cheese. 

Head off, to get before ; to intercept. 

Heap, a number ; a large quantity. 

Heft, to try the weight of a thing by raising it; weight; the 
greater part of a thing. 

Heifer, a wife. 

Heir, to inherit. 

Help, a servant; an operaUve in a factoiy. 

Hendy, handy. 

Herbsi simples. 



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358 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

High-faluting, high-sounding, bombastic, as a speech. ^ 

Hitch, to agree ; to get along amicably. 

Hity-tity, to make much of. 

Hoe-cake, a cake of Indian meal, baked before the fire. [From 

a primitive method of baking it on a hoe,] 
Hook, an angular point in a river. - 
Hookey, To play, to play truant 
Hoople, a hoop. [Z>. Hoepel.] 
Horse, a man of energy. A one-horse affair, anything small and 

insignificant. Wheel-horse^ the mam prop and support of a 

political party. 
Hot, did hit. 

Housekeep, to keep a house. 
How? what? 

Hub, a projection, a protuberance. 
Human, a human being. 
Hunk, a hunch, a large piece. 
Hunk, a gaol or place of refuge. 
Husbandhood, tiie condition of a husband- 
Hyper, to be busy. 

Ill, immoral ; of bad habits. 

Immediately, as soon as. 

Indian-file, single file, from the custom of the Indians in travers- 
ing the woods, or in marching to battle, one following after and 
treading in the footsteps of the other, in order to bafifle any 
guess as to the number that may have passed. 

Indian-giver, one who, after having given away a thing, wishes to 
have it back again, from the Indians expecting an equivalent 
in return for anything they may have given. 

Indian liquor, adulterated whisky. 

Indian summer, a short and beautiful season in the latter part of 
autumn. 

Interview, used as a verb. 

Invite, an invitation. 

It, added as an expletive to verbs. 

Item, a point of information. 

Jab, to handle harshly ; to strike or thrust with a knife. 

Jacal, a rough kind of dwelling, consisting of stakes, the inter- 
stices between which have been filled up with clay. \Mexican, 
xacalli, a straw hat.] 

Jack, to brand, as cattle. 

Jag, a small load. 

Jamboree, a row, a disturbance. 

Jersey-lightning, apple-brandy. 

Jessie, To give, to give a thrashing. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 369 

Jew, to haggle ; to bargain. 

Jigger, a small fishing-vessel. 

Johnny-cake, a cake of Indian meal baked before the fire. 

Jok, jowl. 

Jornada, a dry desert of considerable extent. [Sp., "a day's 

journey.*'] 
Joss-house, a small, insignificant building, used as a Chinese 

temple. 
Judiciary, The, the branch of government in virhich judicial power 

^ is vested. 
Jumper, a rude kind of sleigh, made of two elastic poles on which 

a box is fastened. 
Junk, a fragment of any solid substance. 

Keeler, a vessel in which dishes are washed. 

Keeling over, an entire overthrow of a man's hopes or circum- 
stances. 

Keener, a sharp man. 
. Keep, to live ; to have a place of business. 

Keeping-room, drawing-room. 

Kellick, a small anchor. 

Kelter, order and good condition. 

Key, quay. 

Kibblings, small fragments of fish used as bait on the banks of 
Newfoundland. 

Kid, a large box into which fish are thrown as fast as caught. 

Kill, a channel or arm of the sea; a stream; a river. 

Killock. Same as Kellick. 

Kilter. Same as Kelter. 

Kinkle, notion ; idea. 

Kinky, eccentric; fanciful. 

Kiver, to cover. 

Knife, to cut, as with a knife ; to stab. « 

Knocked into a cocked hat, knocked out of shape; spoiled; 
ruined. 

Kootoo, to bow to ; to flatter. [Chin,'] 

Ku-klux, men who, under the shelter of night and disguise, per- 
petrate political outrages. 

Lam, to beat or bang. . 

Landscapist, a painter of landscapes. 

Lane, a road inclosed on both sides by a fence. 

Lap-tea, a tea-party where, for want of room, the guests sit on 

each others* laps. 
Lariat, a rope of rawhide twisted for tying horses and mules 

together, or for fastening them to a st&e driven into the 

ground. [Sp, la reata, the rope.] 



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360 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Law, to go to Iaw# 

Lay, to lie. 

Laylock, lilac. 

Levee, an embankment on the side of a river, to confine it \^1iiin 

its natural channeL 
Lick, a place where rock-salt and salt-springs attract great numbers 

of bufialo and deer; a piece, a part. 
Lift hair, to scalp. 
Lig, a fish-hook wilh lead cast around its upper part, in order to 

sink it. 
Light-^read, wheaten bread as distingubhed from corn-bread. 
Lightwood, small chips of resinous pine-wood, so called firom 

their yielding a bright hght. 
Like, as. 
Lily-pads, places where the leaves of the water-lily form, as it 

were, floating islands on the surface of a pond. 
Limb, 1^. 

Line bees, To, to pursue the bee to its hive in a distant tree. 
Linguister, a talkative person. 
Links, sausages. 
Live, quick; green; active. 
Liven up, to stir, as the fire. 
Lives, lief. 
Loan, to lend. 

Lobby, to attempt to exert an influence on the members of a legis- 
lative body by persons not members of such body, from their 

attempts being confined to the lobby of the house. 
Local, a newspaper article of local interest only ; a reporter who 

collects local news. • 

Lodge (of Indians), a family, including the fighting-men, women, 

and children. 
Log, to get out Ibgs. 
Logicise, to reason. ^ 
Log-rolling, a system among members of the legislature, by 

which they engage to help each other. 
Logy, slow-moving ; heavy. 
Loo, to defeat, taken from the game at cards. 
Lot, a piece or division of land, originally assigned by drawing 

lots. 
Lumber, timber cut and sawed for use. 
Lumberer, Lumberman, one engaged in getting out lumbler or 

timber. 

Mail, to post, as letters, etc. 
Mailable, that may be carried in the mail. 
Make tracks, to leave ; to walk away. 
Mam||ioxed| seriously injured. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. , 361 

Mantle-place, mantel-piece. 

Marblehead turkeys, codfish. 

Marble, to move off. 

Marvel, marble. 

Mash, a corruption of Marsh. 

Matter, amount; extent. 

Meeching, skulking. 

Mightjr, in a 'great degree; very. 

Mind, to remember ; to take care. 

Misery, pain. 

Mitten, To have got the, to be jilted by a lady; said of a gentle- 
man who has been discarded by one to whom he has been pay- 
ing his addresses. 

Mobby, Mobee, punch (liquor). 

Moke, an old person disrespectfully spoken to. 

Monkey- spoon, a spoon bearing the figure of a monkey, carved 
in silver on the extremity of the handle, given at the funerals 
of great people in the state of New York to the pall-bearers. 

Most, almost. 

Muckrakes, poUtical persons who fish in troubled waters. 

Mud-lumps, applied to the earliest appearance of soft, spongy 
land at the mouth of the Mississippi. 

Mud -sill, the lowest class of society, originally the timber laid 
• down to form a foundation for a line of railway. 

fulling, bustling; stirring. 

Mung, confused ; apparently contradictory. 

Music, fiin; frolic. 

Musical, humorous. 

Musicianer, a musician. 

Muss, a difficulty ; a state of disorder. 

Natural, fierce, savage ; native. 

Near, to ; at. 

Needcessity, necessity. 

Nimshi,^nincompoop. 

Nocake, a powder made of Indian corn, parched in the ashes, and 
stuffed mto a leather bag to serve as provender for long jour- 
neys. 

Nor, than. 

Notch, an opening or narrow passage through a mountian or hill. 

Notify, to give notice to (a person). 

Notion, inclination. 

Notions, small wares or trifles. 

Nubbins, imperfectly formed ears of com. 

Oak-barrens, straggling forests of poor, stunted oak-trees. 
Oak-openings, undulating plains dotted over with groups of well- 
grown oaks. 



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362 . POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Obituarist, the writer of an obituary. 

Offish, distant or unapproachable in manners. 

Offset, a sum, account or value set off against another sum or ac- 
count, as an equivalent. To offset^ to make the account of one 
party pay the demand of another. 

Oldermost, oldest. 

Olycoke, a cake fried in lard. 

Onplush, a corruption of nonplus. 

Onto, upon. 

Orate, to make a speech. 

Osculate, to kiss. • 

Outside of, beside ; except. 

Outstorm, to overbear by storming. 

Overly, excessively. 

Paas, Easter. 

Paddy, unhusked rice. 

Paint, a spotted horse or other animal. 

Painter, the popular name of the cougar or panther. 

Palmetto, a species of dwarf palm. 

Pandowdy, a dish of stewed apples, into which the crust covering 

them has been stirred. 
Pappoose, an Indian baby. The word is an Indian corruption of 

babies. 
Pardner, partner. 
Park, a public square or inclosure. 
Parlour, drawing-room. 

Parquet, the pit of a theatre. [Fr. "an inlaid floor.*'] 
Passenger, to wake up the wrong, to be mistaken in a man. 
Patent-outside, an outside of a newspaper printed and purchased 

from a firm, which furnishes it with the paper required for the 

whole addition. 
Patroon, a grantee of land to be settled under the old Dutch 

governments of New York and New Jersey. 
Pay, What's to, what is the matter? 
Pay-streak, a digger's term used to denote the lode or vein which 

is to repay him for all his labor. 
Peak, Peke, to peep ; to pry into. 
Peaked, sickly-looking. 
Pea-time, the season of pease. The last of Pea-time, the 

time when a man is in great trouble. Pea-time is over, no 

chance remains. 
Peert, recovering after sickness. 
Pee-wee, a little marble. 
Pemican, Pemmican. See Diet. 
Peon, a laborer or small farmer of Spanish blood. 
Perk, lively; brisk; holding up the head. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 363 

Persimmons, To rake up the, to rake up the plums of 

simmon-tree ; to pocket the stakes. 
Persky, great ; very ; exceedingly. 
Persuasion, class ; rank ; occupation. 
Peskily, very ; extremely. 
Peter Funk, a person employed at an auction to bid on 

put up for sale, in order to raise their price. 
Picayune, in New Orleans the sixteenth part of a dollar. 
Pickanniny, the baby of a negro. 
Pick-up dinner, a dinner made up of such fragments 

meats as remain from former meals, 
Picra, anything mean and objectionable. 
Pie, a tart. 

Pile, an arrow. [Z>. pyl.] 
Pile, to make one's, to make one*s fortune. 
Pillow-bier, Pillow-slip, pillow-case. 
Pincher, a bill in the legislature which promises to secure 

niary reward from those who are interested in its defea 
Pine-barrens, level sandy tracts covered with pine-trees. 
Pine-blank, point-blank. 

Pinole, powdered Indian com mixed with sugar. 
Pinxter, Whit-Sunday. [Z>. pingster.] 
Pipe-laying, the employment by fraudulent means of pe 

voters who are not entitled to vote. 
Pirogue, a boat or canoe. 
Pit, the kernel of a fruit. 
Pitcher, a jug. 
Pizarro, piazza. 

Placer, the discovery of anything which promises a large n 
Plank, to lay, to put — applied to money. 
Planter, in Newfoundland, a person engaged in the fishery 
Planter, a piece of timber or the naked trunk of a tree, < 
of which is firmly planted in the bed of a river, while ti 
rises near the surface of the water. 
Plow, plough. 

Plum, a generic name for all berries. 
Plunder, personal baggage. 
Poker, a hobgoblin ; a frightful object. 
Pokerish, likely to excite fear. 
Politicate, to make politics a trade. 
Polt, a blow. 
Pond, a sheet of water smaller than a lake, but not conf 

artificial banks. 
Pone, a maze-cake. 
Pop-corn or Popped-corn, parched Indian com, so caU< 

the noise it makes on bursting open. 
Popular, conceited. 



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364 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Portage, a canying-place over land between navigable w^ers or 
along the banks of rivers, &c. 

Potty-baker, a potter. [D. potte-bakker.] 

Potwalloper, a slovenly person. 

Pow-wow, a public meeting, especially one at which there is more 
noise than deliberation, the name originally -given to any assembly 
of Indians to celebrate feasts, perform d^ces, or hold councils. 

Prairillon, a small prairie. 

Preach, preaching. 

Predicate, to base an argument. 

Prehaps, perhaps. 

Present, put on the back of letters to persons residing in the place 
. where the letter is written. 

Preserves, fruits preserved in sugar. * 

Presidential, relating to a president. 

Pretty, anything pretty. 

Prime, in a first-rate manner. 

Prospect, to go in search of a farm, plantation, mine, &c. 

Publishment, a publishing of the banns of marriage. 

Puke, a low, contemptible fellow. 

Pull up, to stop, from the pull on the reins when making a horse 
stop. 

Pull wool over the eyes, to attempt to blind a person's judgment, 
from the practice of pulling wool over the eyes of sheep, to 
make them go into the water, or into the pen where they are 
to be shorn. 

Puncheons, split logs, with their faces somewhat smoothed with 
an axe or hatchet. 

Punk, a species of fungus or rotten wood, easily set on fire. 

Punt, a small boat made of a hollow tree. 

Purgery, the room in which the sugar-cane juice is olaced in hot- 
heads, and allowed to drain off its molasses. 

Put, begone. 

Put through, to carry out successfully. 

Rafts, trees arrested as they have floated down a river by some 
sand-bar, where they lodge for years. 

Rag, a piece of linen. 

Rail, a railway ; to go by railway. 

Raise, to procure, to obtain ; to bring up. 

Raising, yeast. 

Rake up, to bring to light, to discover. 

Rancheria, the place where a number of rancheros collect to- 
gether; a collection of ranchos into a small village. 

Ranchero, one who lives in a rancho. [Sp.'\ 

Rancho, a rude hut of posts covered with branches or thatch, 
where herdsmen lodge at night. [.S^.] 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 865 

Rantankerous, given to quarreling. 

Reckon, to think, imagine, believe, conjecture. 

Red, a red cent, the smallest coin of the United States. 

Redetnptioner, one who purchases his release from debt or obliga- 
tion to the master of a ship by his services. 

Redistrict, to arrange the districts of a state. 

Rench, to rinse. 

Renev^edly, again, once more. 

Rent, rental. 

Resolute, to resolve ; to make a resolution. 

Retiracy, retirement. 

Retire, to go to bed. 

Revamp, to repair, to refit. 

Ride, to cany. 

Right off, immediately. 

Rights, To, directly, soon. 

Rile, to make angry. 

Rising, Rising of, more than, upwards of. 

Robustious, robust. 

Rock, a stone of any size. 

Rock, to throw stones at. 

Rokage, Rokeage, Indian com parched, ground to powder, and 
mixed with sugar. 

Rolling, undulating. 

Rookery, a congregation of seals on the coast of California. 

Room, to live in a room. 

Rooster, the male of the domestic fowl. 

Rope in, to take or sweep in collectively; to gather in; to enlist. 

Rosum, a corruption of rosin. 

Roundabout, a short jacket. 

Row up Salt River, To, to puffer a political defeat 

Rubbers, india-rubber overshoes. 

Rugged, vigorous, robust. 

Run, a brook or smaU stream. To be run, to be managed or 
kept, as a hotel. 

Run into the ground, to expose to constant and close persecu- 
tion, ending in destruction — originally used of forcing beavers 
and other burrowing animals to seek refuge in their holes 
underground. 

Runt, applied to cattle and men inferior in size. 

Rushers, persons going to the gold-mines. 

Rustics, the restive movements of an unquiet horse. 

Skchem, the title of an Indian chief; the name of the presiding 

officer of a portion of the Democratic party. 
Sag, to sink in the middle when supported at both ends, as a long 

pole. 



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366 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Sagamore, the title of an Indian chief, the same as Sachem. 

Salad, lettuce. 

Sarcophagus, a metallic burying-case used to transport dead bodies 
from distant places. 

Saw, a joke; to play a joke upon one. 

Scalping, total defeat ; utter annihilation in debate. 

Scaly, shabby, mean. 

Scoot, to move or run swiftly. 

Scramiy, lean and thin. 

Scrawl, brushwood or broken branches of trees. * 

Season, weather. 

Seep, to run through very small openings. 

Semi-occasionally, occasionally. 

Sense, to comprehend. 

Shackly, shaky. 

Sharpshin, the smallest quantity. 

Shin, to attempt to procure money in an emergency from friends 
and acquaintances. 

Shine, to take a fancy to a person. 

Shine, to hunt by means of a pan with fire, which shines in the 
eyes of the deer, and holds it spell-bound. 

Shingle, a wooden tile; a modest sign-board. 

Short, For, for brevity's sake. 

Short metre, quickly, in great haste. 

Shot-gun, a smooth-bored fowling-piece as distinguished from a 
rifle. 

Shot in the neck, drunk. 

Shuck, the outer husk of Indian com ; the husk or shell of a 
walnut, &c. ; a blueback, or paper-money note of the Confed- 
erate States. Not worth a shuck, good for nothing. 

Shut of. To get, to get rid of. 

Sickness, indisposition of any kind. 

Sight, a number, a great many. 

Sizzle, to shrivel up with a hissing sound. 

Skin, to extort. 

Skunk, to utterly defeat. 

Skute. Same as Scoot. 

Slab-bridged, Slab-sided, unreliable. 

Slash, a low ground. 

Slat, a narrow piece of board used to fasten together large pieces. 

Sleep, to furnish sleeping accommodation for. 

Sling, a drink composed of equal parts of rum and water sweetened. 

Slip, the opening between wharves or in a dock ; a long, narrow 
church-pew without a door. 

Slope, to disappear from sight. 

Snap, applied to the weather, as « a cold snap," a period of sudden 
cold weather. 



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AMERICAN WORDS AND oxxpacp^ 3^7 



Snore, a string with a button on one end to spin a top with. 
Sockdolager, a double hook, the two parts of which close with a 

spring as soon as the fish bites ; anything conclusive. [Said to 

be ft corruption of doxology.] * 
Soft sawder, flattery. 

Span (of horses), two horses of nearly the same color, and other- 
wise nearly alike, which are usually harnessed side by side ; to 

agree in color or in color and size. 
Spots, In, occasionally ; here and there. 
Spread, to enlarge one's power or territory. 
Spread-eagleism, exaggerated praise of. the greatness and glory 

of one's native country. 
Squash, a culinary vegetable. 
Squiggle, to move about as eels and worms do. 
Staddle, a young tree or sapling. 
Staff in one's own hand, To have the, to keep possession of 

one's own property ; to retain authority and obedience. 
Stand in, to cost. 

Steale, the stock or handle of a tool. 
Stich, to form land into ridges. 
Stoop, the steps at the entrance of a house; door-steps; a porch 

with seats; a piazza. [Z>. stoep.] 
Store, a shop. 

Story, The first, the floor next the ground. 
Streak, Streak it, to run as fast as possible. 
Streaked, To feel, to feel confused or alarmed. 
String-beans, French beans. 
Stuck, To be, to be taken in by false pretenses. 
Stud, stubbornness ; one who is stubborn. 
Succeed, to make successful ; to prosper. 
Succotash, green Indian com and beans boiled together. [G>rr. 

from the Indian name.] 
Suicide, to commit suicide. 
Suit, used in the expression, " a fine suit of hair." 
Sundown, sunset. 

Supper, the meal in England called tea. 
Sure, surely. 
Suspicion, to suspect. 
Swale, a tract of low, swampy land. 
Swash, a narrow channel of water between sandbanks or near the 

shore. 
Swinge, to whip; to punish. 
Swingers, the middle horses in a team of six. 
Switchel, molasses and water. 

Tackey, an uncouth-looking horse; a man of neglected and for- 
lorn appearance. 



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368 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Take it, to snnnise. Take up, to take, as horses, from pasture, to 
be made useful for riding, &c. 

Tall, great, excellent, fine; finely, exceedingly, highly. 

Tanglefoot, bad liquor. 

Tavern, an inn. 

Tax, to charge. 

*Teeter, to seesaw, to move up and down ; to be in a state of sus- 
pense. 

Tend, to attend. 

kler, a small flask for holding liquor; a book in which mer- 
chants register the names of those debtors who have to be re- 
minded to pay. 

Tie to, to rely on. 

Tiger, an extra cheer; a howl or yell. 

To hum, at home. 

Tole, to allure. 

Tongue, the pole of a wagon. 

Tore, the place where a boy stands to shoot marbles from. 

Tote, to carry. 

Trainers, the militia when assembled for exercise. 

Trampoose, to wander about listlessly. 

Trash a trail, to conceal the traces of a march. 

Tree, to take refuge in a tree ; to force to take refuge in a tree. 

Tree one's self, to hide behind a tree. 

Trig, trim; neat. 

Trimmings, bread and butter and other necessary eatables for the 
tea-table. 

Truck, produce ; cloth ; medicine. 

Tump, to draw a deer or other animal home through the woods 
after it has been killed. 

Ugly, ill-tempered. 

Uncommon, exceedingly; very. 

Up, to get up. 

Up to the hub, to the extreme point. 

Usable, able to be used. 

Use, to frequent a place. 

* 
Vendue, a public sale. [/^r,'\ 

Ventilate, as a verb, applied to persons, as << to ventilate the Presi- 
dent and his policy." 
Vigc, voyage. 
Voyageur, a Canadian boatman ; a traveling fur-trader, [/r.] 

Wabash, to cheat. 

Wagon, to carry ; to transport. 

Walking-papers, letters of dismissal. 



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DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 389 

War-path, Out on the, applied to one who is ahont to moke a 
deliberate attack on an adversary or a measurt. 

Wax, Sons of, shoemakers. 

Weddiner, a person in attendance on the bridegroom at a wedding. 

Wench, applied only to black females. 

Whip, to surpass. 

Wicket, a shed made of boughs to shelter the lumbermen at night 
and in bad weather. 

Wilt, to lose freshness, as flowers ; to droop. 

Winter-killed, To be, to be killed by the fr^fts of winter. 

Wolfish, savage ; savagely hungry. 

Wood, to supply or get a supply of wood. 

Wooding-place, a station on the banks of a river where the 
steamboats stop to take in supplies of wood^ 

Yank, to twitch or jerk powerfully. 
Yokeage. Same as Rokage. 



Velocity of Various Bodies. 

Per Hour. Per Seeon<L 

A man walks smiles. 4feet. 

Ahorsetrots 7 " 10 " 

A horse runs so " 39 " 

Steamboat runs x8 " 96 " 

Sailing-vessel runs xo " 14 ** 

Slow rivers flow 3 " 4 '* 

Rapid rivers flow 7 ** 10 ** 

A nfle ball moves x,ooo ** ^,i^ ** 

Sound " 743 ** i,»4a ** 

Ug^t " 192,000 miles per second. 

Electricity " 288,000 " " " 

Sizes of Tjrpe. ^ 

It requires 205 Unes of Diamond typft to make 12 inches; of 
Pearl, 178; of Ruby, 166; of Nonpareil, 143; of Minion, 128; 
of Brevier, 112^; of Bourgeois, 102^; of Long Primer, 89; of 
Small Pica, 83 ; of Pica, 71^ ; of English, 64. 

* 

* Strength of Ice. 

Solid ice 2 inches thick will bear men on foot; 4 inches thick 
will bear men on horseback ; 6 inches thick will bear catjtle and 
teams with light loads ; 8 inches thick will bear teams with heavy 
loads; 10 inches thick will bear a pressure of 1,000 pounds per 
square foot. 



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LIST OF SYNONYMS 

OF THE 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



One of the difficulties of "WTiting properly is to avoid the use of 
the same word over and over, which sounds very badly. It is called 
tautology or repetition. The object of this list is to help the writer 
in selecting different words to express the same meaning. For in- 
stance, it would not sound well to say, " The fair was held ab<nit 
half a mile from our house ; all the people about here went ; we 
got there in about ten minutes, after we started, and about five 
minutes before the Governor began to speak." Here the word 
"about" is used four times; to avoid this we say, "The fair was 
held about half a mile from our house ; all the people around here 
went ; we got there in about ten minutes after we started, and nearly 
five minutes before the Governor began to speak." 



Abandon, forsake, leave. 
Abandoned, forsaken, depraved. 
Abate, diminish. 
Abbreviate, shorten. 
Abdomen, belly. 
Abhor, detest, hate. 
Abide, dwell, stay. 
Ability, power, skill. 
Abject, mean, low. 
Abode, dwelling, home. 
Abolish, repeal, annul. 
Abominable, detestable. 
Abound, abundant, plenteous. 
About, concerning, nearly, 

around. 
Above, over. 
Abridge, contract, shorten. 
Abridgement, summary. 
Abroad, elsewhere. 
Abrupt, sudden. 
Abscond, flee. 
Absent, away. 



Absolute, positive. 
Absorb, imbibe. 
Abstain, refrain. 
Absurd, foolish, ridiculous. 
Abundance, plenty. 
Abuse, ill-treat, misuse. 
Abusive, harsh, rude. 
Accept, receive. 
Accident, chance, misfortune. 
Accommodate, aid. 
Accomplice, companion. 
Accomplish, finish, perform. 
Accord, agree, consent. 
Account, sake, story, reckoning. 
Accumulate, gather. 
Accurate, correct. 
Accusation, charge. 
Accustom, familiarize. 
Acknowledge, confess. 
Acquiesce, consent, agree. 
Acquire, gain, get. 
Acquit, discharge. 
370 



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SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 



371 



Across, over. 

Act, behave, perform. 

Active, nimble. 

Acute, sharp. 

Address, skill, harangue, dwell- 
ing, discourse. 

Adhere, stick. 

Adjust, settle, suit. 

Admirable, wonderful. 

Admirer, lover. 

Adore, worship. 

Adorn, embellish. 

Adrift, afloat. 

Advanc^ proceed, before-hand, 
progress. 

Advantage, benefit, superior- 
ity. 

Adventure, exploit. 

Adverse, contrary. 

Advise, counsel. 

Affliction, distress. 

Afford, yield. 

Afraid, fearful. 

Agile, nimble. 

Agony, pain, distress. 

Agree, concur. 

Aid, help, support. 

Aim, direct, endeavor. 

Alacrity, cheerful readiness. 

Alarm, apprehension. 

Allude, hint, refer. 

Allure, attract, decoy, entice. 

Almost, nearly. 

Alter, change, vary. 

Always, constantly, ever. 

Amass, gather, accumulate. 

Amazement, astonishment, sur- 
prise. 

Ambiguous, doubtful, equivo- 
cal. 

Amiable, charming, obliging, 
friendly. 

Ample, spacious, abundant. 

Amusement, sport, recreation, 
entertainment. 

Angry, provoked. 

Anguish, agony, distress. 



Animation, buoyancy, liveli- 
ness. 

Animosity, enmity, hostility. 

Annex, affix, attach, join. 

Annoy, molest, vex, tease. 

Answer, reply, response. 

Antagonist, adversary, oppo- 
nent. 

Anticipate, foresee. 

Antipathy, aversion, dislike. 

Anxiety, care, solicitude. 

Apathy, indifference. 

Aperture, opening. 

Apology, excuse, plea. 

Apparent, clear, distinct, evi- 
dent. 

Appearance, air, aspect, look. 

Applaud, extol, praise. 

Applause, acclamation, plaudit. 

Appreciate, esteem, prize, value. 

Apprehension, dread, fear. 

Approbation, approval. 

Appropriate, peculiar, proper. 

Approve, commend, esteem, 
like. 

Arbitrary, absolute. 

Ardent, eager, fervent, fiery. 

Arduous, difficult, hard. 

Argument, dispute, reason. 

Arrange, class, dispose, place. 

Arrogance, self-conceit, haugh- 
tiness, presumption. 

Artful, cunning, crafty. 

Artifice, trick, cheat, deception. 

Artless, fair, frank, honest. 

Ascendency, domination, sway. 

Ascendant, predominance. 

Ascribe, attribute, impute. 

Ask, demand, inquire, solicit. 

Aspect, air, appearance, mien. 

Asperity, acrimony, harshness. 

Asperse, calumniate, defame. 

Aspire, aim, desire. 

Assault, assail, attack. 

Assemble, collect, convene, 
gather. 

Assent, acquiesce, consent. 



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372 



POPXn.AR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Assessment, impost, rate, tax. 

Asseverate, affirm, assert, de- 
clare. 

Assign, allot, apportion. 

Assist, aid, help. 

Assistant, aid, helper. 

Associate, companion, partner. 

Assurance, confidence, impu- 
dence. 

Assure, promise, vouch. 

Astonishment, wonder, amaze- 
ment. 

Asylum, refuge, retreat, shelter. 

Atrocious, cruel, flagrant. 

Attach, adhere, annex. 

Attachment, fondness, affec- 
tion. 

Attain, acquire, gain, get, obtain. 

Attack, assail, assault. 

Attempt, effort, endeavor. 

Attentive, careful, heedful. 

Attitude, gesture, posture. 

Attract, allure, draw, entice. 

Attribute, impute, quality. 

Audacity, boldness, impudence. 

Augmentation, addition, in- 
crease. 

Auspicious, favorable, propi- 
tious. 

Authentic, genuine, authorized. 

Authority, power, sway. 

Avarice, cupidity, covetousness. 

Aversion, antipathy, dislike. 

Avidity, eagerness, greediness. 

Avocation, business^ calling, 
trade. 

Avoid, elude, shun. 

Avow, acknowledge, confess. 

Awake, arouse, excite. 

Awe, dread, fear. 

Awkward, unhandy, clumsy, 

Babbling, loquacity, talkative- 
ness. 

Bad, evil, wicked. 

Badge, mark, sign. 

Baffle, confuse, defeat, discon- 
cert. 



Balance, equalize, settle. 

Banter, rally, ridicule. 

Bare, naked, scanty, uncovered. 

Bargain, contract, trade. 

Base, low, mean, vile. 

Bashful, diffident, modest. 

Basis, foundadon, ground. 

Battle, fight, combat. 

Beam, gleam, ray. 

Bear, endure, produce, support. 

Beat, overpower, strike. 

Beau, gallant, spark, sweetheart. 

Beautiful, fine, handsome, 
pretty. * 

Beautify, adorn, decorate, em- 
bellish. 

Becoming, befitting, comely, 
graceful. 

Beg, beseech, entreat, implore. 

Begin, conunence, originate, 
start. 

Beguile, amuse, deceive. 

Behavior, demeanor, conduct. 

Beholder, observer, spectator. 

Belief, conviction, opinion. 

Below, beneath, under. 

Bend, crook. 

Bequeath, devise, give. 

Beseech, entreat, implore. 

Bestow, confer, give. 

Bewail, bemoan, lament. 

Blame, censure, reproach, re- 
prove. 

Blameless, faultless, guiltless, 
innocent. 

Bland, gentle, mild, soft. 

Blemish, defect, fault, fla% 

Blunder, error, mistake. 

Boaster, braggard. 

Boasting, vaunting. 

Boisterous, vehement, violent 

Bold, audacious, intrepid, dar- 
ing. 

Bondage, imprisonment, servi- 
tude, slavery. 

Border, brink, edge, margin. 

Bore, perforate, annoy. 



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SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



373 



Bound, limit, restrict. 

Boundless, illimitable, infinite. 

Bounty, generosity, liberality. 

Brave, bold, courageous, daring. 

Break, fracture, destroy, tame. 

Brief, concise, short. 

Bright, brilliant, clear, shining. 

Brilliancy, brightness, radiance, 
splendor. 

Broad, ample, wide. 

Broil, affray, quarrel. 
' Bruise, crush, pound. 

Bud, germinate, sprout. 

Build, construct, erect. 

Bulk, magnitude, size. 

Burden, weight, load. 

Burning, ardent, fiery. 

Burst, break, crack, rend, split. 

Business, employment, occupa- 
tion, profession. 

Bustle, hurry, tumult. 

But, except, however, notwith- 
standing, still, yet. 

Blitchery, carnage, slaughter, 
massacre. 

Buy, purchase. •. •• 

Cajole, coax, flatter, wheedle. 

Calamity, disaster, misfortune. 

Calculate, compute, estimate. 

Call, summon. 

Calling, occupation. 

Callous, hard, unfeeling. 

Calm, quiet, soothe. 

Cancel, abolish, revoke. 

Candid, artless, frank, honest. 

Capable, competent. 

Capacious, ample, spacious. 

Capacity, size, ability, genius, 
talent. 

Caprice, fancy, freak, humor. 

Capricious, changeable, fickle. 

Captious, peevish, petulant. 

Captivate, attract, charm, fasci- 
nate. 

Care, anxiety, concern, manage- 
ment, solicitude. 

Careful, attractive, cautious. 



Careless, thoughtless, heedless, 
rash. 

Caress, endear, fondle. 

Carry, bear, convey, transport. 

Case, condition, situation. 

Catch, capture, grasp, seize. 

Catching, contagious, infec- 
tious. 

Cause, motive, origin, reason, 
source. 

Caution, care, circumspection, 
warning. 

Cautious, careful, prudent. 

Celebrated, famous, renowned. 

Celerity, quickness, speed. 

Censure, blame, reproach. 

Ceremony, form, observance, 
rite. 

Certain, real, sure. 

Chagrin, vexation, anger. 

Chance, accident, opportunity. 

Change, alteration, variety, vi- 
cissitude. 

Changeable, fickle, uncertain, 
variable. 

Character, letter, mark, reputa- 
tion. 

Charge, accuse, commission, 
load. 

Charity, kindness, liberality. 

Charm, captivate, delight. 

Chastity, purity. 

Qhastise, punish. 

Cheat, deception, fraud. 

Check, curb, impede. 

Cheer, comfort, encourage. 

Cheerfulness, gayety, vivacity. 

Cherish, foster, shelter. 

Chew, masticate. 

Chiefly, principally, mainly. 

Childish, infantile, puerile. 

Choke, smother, stifle, suffocate. 

Choice, option, selection, pref- 
erence. 

Circulate, disseminate. 

Circumstance, event, incideift, 
situation. 



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374 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Circumspect, cautious. 

Circumstantial, minute, par- 
ticular. 

Civil, courteous, obliging, polite. 

Claim, pretension, ri^ht. 

Clandestine, hidden, private, 
secret. 

Class, grade, order, rank. 

Cleansing, purifying. 

Clear, apparent, evident, free, 
lucid, pure. 

Clemency, lenity, mercy. 

Clever, skillful, talented, wise. 

Climb, ascend, mount. 

Cling, adhere, hold. 

Close, compact, near, firm, nigh, 
dense. 

Clothes, apparel, dress, gar- 
ments. 

Clumsy, awkward, uncouth. 

Coalition, alliance, league, 
union. 

Coarse, rough, rude, vulgar. 

Coax, cajole, wheedle, flatter. 

Coerce, compel. 

Coherent, connected, consistent. 

Cohesive, adhesive, sticking. 

Coincide, agree, concur. 

Cold, frigid, reserved, chill. 

Colleague, associate. 

Collected, placid, assembled,, 
gathered. 

Color, hue, tinge, tint. 

Combination, league, coalition, 
union. 

Comfort, console, encourage, 
solace, support. 

Comfortless, desolate, forlorn, 
wretched. 

Comic, droll, ludicrous. 

Command, behest, order. 

Commanding, imperative, au- 
thoritative. 

Commence, begin, originate. 

Commend, praise, recommend. 
« Commensurate, equal, ade- 
quate. 



Comment, criticism, explana- 
tion, t 

Commodious, convenient, suit- 
able. 

Common, general, usual, ordi- 
nary. 

Commotion, disturbance, tu- 
mult. 

Communicate, impart, disclose. 

Communion, fellowship, inter- 
course. 

Compact, agreement, contract, 
firm, solid. 

Companion, comrade, associate. 

Company, assemblage. 

Compassion, pity, sympathy, 
commiseration. 

Compatible, suitable, consis- 
tent. 

Compel, necessitate, oblige, 
force. 

Compendious, short, succinct. 

Compensation, reward, recom- 
pense, remuneration. ,, 

Competent, able, capable. 

Competition, rivalry, emula- 
tion. 

Complain, bewail, lament. 

Complete, finish, perfect, termi- 
nate. 

Complex, intricate. 

Compliment, praise, congratu- 
late. 

Comply, acquiesce, assent. 

Compose, soothe, compound, 
write. 

Comprehend, embrace, include, 
understand. 

Compress, press, condense. 

Compulsion, force, coercion. 

Compunction, contrition, peni- 
tence, remorse, repentance. 

Compute, count, reckon, esti- 
mate. 

Concede, grant, yield. 

Conceal, disguise, secrete, hide. 

Conceit, fancy, pride, vanity. 



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SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



376 



Conception, imagination, idea. 

Concern, a%ir, business, care. 

Conciliate, reconcile. 

Concise, brief, short, succinct. 

Conclusion, deduction, infer- 
ence, termination, end. 

Conclusive, decisive, convinc- 
ing. 

Concur, acquiesce, agree. . 

Condemn, blame, upbraid, cen- 
sure, sentence. 

Condense, thicken, compress. 

Condescension, humility, com- 
plaisance. 

Condition, rank, situation, state, 
stipulation. 

Condolence, commiseration, 
compassion, sympathy. 

Conduce, contribute, lead, tend. 

Conduct, behavior, demeanor, 
guidance, management. 

Confederate, accomplice, ally. 

Confer, bestow, discourse. 

Confess, avow, acknowledge. 

Confide, rely, trust. 

Confident, trustful, bold, posi- 
tive. 

Confined, limited, narrow, re- 
strained. 

Confirm, establish, strengthen. 

Conflict, combat, fight, struggle. 

Conform, comply, submit, yield, 
confuse, abash, disconcert, em- 
barrass. 

Confused, indistinct, perplexed, 
mixed. 

Confute, disprove, refute. 

Congratulate, compliment, fe- 
licitate. 

Conjecture, surmise, think, 
guess. 

Connected, joined, united. 

Connection, tie, intercourse. 

Conquer, surmount, subdue. 

Conscious, aware, sensible. 

Consent, agree, comply, assent. 

Consequonce, efiect, result* 



Consequently, therefore, ac- 
cordingly. 

Consider, reflect, regard. 

Console, comfort, solace, soothe. 

Conspicuous, eminent,, distin* 
guished. 

Constancy, stability, steadiness. 

Constantly, continually, per- 
petually. 

Constitute, appoint, compose. 

Constraint, confinement, com- 
pulsion. 

Construct, build, erect. 

Consult, advise, confer. 

Consume, absorb, destroy. 

Consummation, perfection, 
completion. 

Contact, juncture, touch. 

Contagious, pestilential, infec- 
tious. 

Contain, embrace, include, 
hold. 

Contaminate, corrupt, defile, 
pollute. 

Contemplate, muse, meditate. 

Contemptible, despicable, pal- 
try, mean. 

Contend, argue, contest, strive. 

Contentment, gratification, sat- 
isfaction. 

Contiguous, adjacent, adjoin- 
ing. 

Continual, constant, incessant, 
perpetual* 

Contmuation, continuance, du- 
ration. 

Contract, agreement, bargain. 

Contract, abbreviate, abridge, 
shorten. 

Contradict, deny, dispute. 

Contrary, adverse, opposite. 

Contrition, penitence, repent- 
ance. 

Contrivance, device, plan, in- 
vention. 

Control, govern, restrain. 

Controversy, contest, debate. 



Digitized 



by Google 



376 



POPULAK AMERICAK DICTIONARY. 



n 



Convene, assemble, convoke. 

Convenient, adapted, suitable. 

Conversation, colloquy, dia- 
logue. 

Converse, speak, talk. 

Convey, bear, carry, transport. 

Conviction, persuasion, satis- 
faction. 

Copious, abundant, plentiful. 

Cordial, hearty, sincere, warm. 

Correct, amend, rectify. 

Correctness, accura<^, exact- 
ness. 

Corroborate, strengthen, con- 
firm. 

Corruption, adulteration, defile- 
ment, putridity. 

Costly, precious, valuable. 

Counsel, advise, consultation. 

Counteract, defeat, frustrate. 

Countenance, favor, support. 

Counterfeit, feigned, false, imi- 
tation. 

Couple, brace, pair. 

Courage, bravery, heroism. 

Course, career, road. 

Courteous, affable, polite. 

Covenant, agreement, contract. 

Covering, screen, shelter. 

Covetousness, avarice, cu- 
pidity. 

Coward, poltroon. 

Cowardice, fear. 

Crafty, artful, cunning. 

Crave, beg, entreat, implore. 

Create, cause, form, produce. 

Crime, sin, vice. 

Cringe, bow, crouch, stoop. 

Crisis, conjuncture. 

Criticism, censure, review. 

Crooked, bowed, curved, bent. 

Cross, fretful, petulant, peevish, 
embarrass, hinder. 

Cruel, barbarous, brutal. 

Culpable, blamable, faulty. 

Cultivation, tillage, refinement. 

Cunning, artifice, duplicity,wily. 



Cure, heal, restore, remedy. 

Curious, inquisitive, prying. 

Curse, execration, nialedictioa. 

Cursory, slight, superficial. 

Curtail, abridge, shorten. 

Custom, fashion, practice, usage. 

Damage, hurt, injury. 

Dampness, moisture, humidity. 

Danger, peril, risk, venture. 

Daring, bold, brave, fearless. 

Dark, gloomy, obscure, dim. 

Date, epoch, period, time. 

Dead, deceased, lifeless. 

Deadly, fatal, mortal. 

Dealing, commerce, trade, traffic. 

Dearth, scarcity, want. 

Debar, exclude, hinder. 

Debase, degrade, humble. 

Debate, argue, dispute. 

Debilitate, enfeeble, weaken. 

Debility, weakness, infirmity. 

Decay, decline. • 

Decease, death, demise. 

Deceit, deception, double deal- 
ing, duplicity. 

Decent, becoming, seemly. 

Decide, resolve, determine. 

Decisive, conclusive, convinc- 
ing. 

Declare, afiirm, announce, as- 
sert. 

Decline, decay, refuse. 

Decorate, adorn, embellish. 

Decoy, allure, entice. 

Decrease, diminish, lessen. 

Dedicate, consecrate. 

Deduction, inference. 

Deed, achievement, exploit 

Deface, deform, disfigure. 

Defame, slander, vilify. 

Defeat, baffle, frustrate, over- 
come. 

Defect, blemish, fault. 

Defective, faulty, imperfect. 

Defender, protector. 

Defence, excuse^ justification. 

Defer, delay, postpone. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNOKYMS Of tut EKGLlSti LANGUAGE. 



377 



Deference, regard, respect. 

Defile, corrupt, pollute. 

Deficient) defective. 

Definite, exact, limited. 

Deform, deface, disfigure. 

Defraud, cheat, deceive. 

Degrade, disgrace, lower. 

Degree, class, rank, quality. 

Dejection, depression. 

Delay, defer, postpone. 

Deliberate, caytious, circum- 
spect. 

Delicate, fine; nice, tender. 

Delighted, glad, pleased. 

Delightful, charming, delicious. 

Deliver, rescue, save, surrender. 

Delude, cheat, deceive. 

Demand, ask, claim, require. 

Demolish, destroy. 

Demonstrate, prove, manifest. 

Denote, betoken, imply, signify. 

Deny, contradict, refuse. 

Departure, death, exit. 

Dependence, trust, reliance. 

Deplore, lament, mourn. 

Deportment, conduct, behavior. 

Depraved, abandoned, corrupt. 

Depreciate, decry, disparage. 

Deputy, delegate, substitute. 

Derange, confuse, disconcert. 

Deride, banter, mock. 

Derive, deduce, obtain. 

Descent, birth. 

Describe, narrate, represent. 

Description, account, narration. 

Desigpi, sketch, mean, intend. > 

Designate, indicate, name. 

Desist, cease, discontinue. 

Despair, despond. 

Desperate, careless, hopeless, 
mad. 

Despicable, pitiful, vile. 

Despise, disdain, scorn. 

Despotic, absolute, arbitrary. 

Destination, appointment, fate, 
lot. 

Destitute, bare, scanty needy. 



Destroy, annihilate, consume. 
Detach, disjoin, separate. 
Detail, description. 
Detain, hold, keep, retain. 
Detect, discover. 
Deter, prevent. 
Determine, define, resolve. 
Detest, abhor, hate, loathe. 
Detriment, damage, loss, injury. 
Develop, disclose, unfold. 
Deviate, digress, err. 
Device, contrivance, design. 
Devote, apply, consecrate. 
Devout, holy, pious. 
Dexterity, ability, aptness. 
Dialect, idiom. 
Dictate, direct, prescribe. 
Die, expire, perish. 
Differ, disagree. 
Different, distinct, unlike*. 
Difficult, hard, troublesome. 
Difficulty, perplexity, trial. 
Diffident, bashful, modest. 
Dignified, stately. 
Diligent, active, persevering. 
Diminish, abate, decrease. 
Direct, guide. 
Direction, address, order. 
Directly, immediately. 
Disability, inability, weakness. 
Disadvatage, detriment, loss. 
Disagree, differ, dissent. 
Disaster, calamity, misfortune. 
Discard, dismiss. 
Discern, discover. 
Discernible, apparent, evident. 
Disclaim, deny, disown. 
Disclose, divulge, reveal. 
Disconcert, confuse, disturb. 
Discord, dissension. 
Discover, detect, disclose. 
Discredit, disgrace, dishonor. 
Discretion, prudence. 
Disdain, contempt, scorn. 
Disease, disorder, malady. 
Disgrace, dishonor, degrade. 
Disguise, conceal, dissemble. 



Digitized 



by Google 



378 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Disgust, aversion, dislike. 

Dishonor, disgrace, shame. 

Dislike, antipathy, aversion. 

Dismember, disjoint. 

Dismiss, discard, discharge. 

Disorder, bustle, confusion. 

Disparage, depreciate, degrade. 

Disparity, inequality. 

Disperse, scatter, spread. 

Display, parade, show, exhibit. 

Displease, offend, vex. 

Dispose, arrange, regulate. 

Dispute, altercation, debate, 
quarrel. 

Dissemble, conceal, disguise, 
hid^ 

Disseminate, spread, scatter. 

Dissertation, disquisition, essay. 

Dissipate, disperse, scatter. 

Distant, far, remote. 

Distaste, aversion, disgust. 

Distinct, clear, different,obvious. 

Distinguish, discern, discrimi- 
nate. 

Distinguished, eminent, con- 
spicuous. 

Distracted, confused, disturbed. 

Distress, affliction, trouble, an- 
guish. 

Distribute, allot, apportion. 

District, division, quarter, re- 
gion. 

Disturb, annoy, disquiet, inter- 
rupt. 

Diversion, amusement, devia- 
tion, sport, fun. 

Divide, share, separate. 

Divine, foretell, guess. 

Divulge, communicate, impart. 

Do, achieve, accomplish, per- 
form. 

Docile, gentle, teachable. 

Doctrine, dogma, maxim. 

Doleful, dismal, piteous. 

Doubt, hesitation, uncertainty. 

Doubtful, equivooaly dubious, 
uncertain. 



Drag, draw, haul, pull. 

Dread, apprehend, fear. 

Dreadful, awful, fearful. 

Dress, apparel, array, attire. 

Drink, beverage, portion. 

Droop, fade, languish. 

Dumb, mute, silent 

Durable, lasting, permanent. 

Dutiful, obedient, respectful. 

Dwelling, abode, residence. 

Eager, ardent, earnest. 

Earn, acquire, deserve, gain. 

Ease, facility, quiet, rest. 

Eccentric, odd,singular,strange. 

Economical, frugal, saving. 

Edifice, building, structure. 

Education, breeding, instruc- 
tion. 

Efface, cancel, obliterate. 

Effect, accomplish, fulBll, real- 
ize, consequence. 

Effects, chattels, property. 

Efficient, able, capable. 

Effort, attempt, endeavor. 

Elegant, beautiful, graceful. 

Elevate, exalt, raise. 

Embarrass, perplex, puzzle. 

Embellish, adorn, beautify. 

Emblem, figure, symbol. 

Embrace, clasp, comprise, hug. 

Emergency, exigency, neces- 
sity. 

Eminent, conspicuous, distin- 
guished. 

Emolument, gain, profit. 

Emotion, agitation. 

Employ, use. 

Employment, avocation, busi- 
ness. 

Empower, authorize, enable. 

Empty, vacant, void. 

Enchant, charm, fascinate. 

Encounter, combat, meetings 

Encourage, animate, cheer. 

Encroach, infringe, trespass* 

End, close, termination. 

Endeavor, aim, attempt. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



379 



Endless, eternal, perpetual. 

Endurance, fortitude, patience. 

Enemy, adversary, foe. 

Energy, powejr, strength, vigor. 

Enervate, enfeeble, weaken. 

Engage, employ, encounter, 
fight, win, promise. 

Engross, absorb, enlarge. 

Enjoyment, gratification, pleas- 
ure. 

Enlarge, extend, increase. 

Enmity, animosity, hatred. 

Enough, plenty, sufficiei^t. 

Enrage, incense, exasperate. 

Enrapture, attract, charm. 

Entangle, snare, eptrap. 

Enterprise, venture, under- 
taking. 

Entertainment, diversion, 
amusement. 

Entice, allure, decoy. 

Entire, complete, whole. 

Entreat, ask, beg, beseech. 

Envy, jealousy, suspicion. 

Epitomize, abridge, condense. 

Equal, adequate, equivalent. 

Equitable, fair, honest. 

Eradicate, extirpate, extermi- 
nate. 

Erase, cancel, efface. 

Erect, construct, establish, raise. 

Error, blunder, fault, mistake. 

Escape, evade, fly. 

Especially, chiefly, particularly. 

Essential, necessary, important. 

Esteem, respect, revere, value. 

Estimate, appraise, compute, 
value. . 

Eternal, endless, everlasting, 
perpetual. 

Evade, avoid, elude. 

Evasion, equivocation, escape. 

Even, equal, level. 

Event, adventure, incident, oc- 
currence. 

Ever, always, continually. 

Evidence, proof, deposition. 



Evil, bad. 

Exact, demand, extort, accurate, 
precise. 

Exalted, elevated, sublime. 

Examination, inquiry, investi- 
gation. 

Example, pattern, precedent. 

Exasperate, aggravate, excite, 
provoke. 

Exceed, excel, outdo, surpass. 

Excellence, goodness, emi- 
nence. 

Except, besides, but. 

Exception, omission, objection. 

Exchange, change, reciprocate, 
trade. 

Excite, arouse, irritate, provoke. 

Exculpate, acquit, justify. 

Excuse, apology, evasion, jus- 
tify. 

Execrable, abominable, detesta- 
ble. 

Execute, perform, achieve, com- 
plete. 

Exemption, freedom, liberation. 

Exercise, exert, practice. 

Exhaust, drain, spend, empty. 

Exigency, emergency, necessity. 

Exonerate, acquit, relieve, dis- 
charge. 

Expand, dilate, spread. 

Expectation, anticipation, trust 

Expedient, essential, necessary, 
requisite. 

Expedite, accelerate^ hasten, 
quicken. 

Expeditious, prompt, speedy. 

Expel, banish, exile. 

Expend, consume, dissipate. 

Expensive, costly, dear. 

Experience, test, trial. 

Expert, adroit, clever, skillful. 

Explain, elucidate, interpret. 

Explicit, definite, express, plain. 

Exploit, achivement, feat, deed. 

Explore, examine, search. 

Exposed, liable, uncovered. 



Digitized 



by Google 



380 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Expressed, definite, plain. 

Expressive, significant. 

Extend, enlarge, reach. 

Extensive, lau"ge, comprehen- 
sive. 

Extenor, external, outward. 

Exterminate, destroy, eradicate. 

External, exterior, outward. 

Extol, applaud, praise. 

Extricate, disengage, disen- 
tangle. 

Facetious, jocose, jocular. 

Facility, ease. \ 

Fact, circumstance, incident. 

Faculty, ability, talent. 

Failing, failure, foible, frailty. 

Fair, clear, equitable. 

Faith, belief, credit. 

Fallacious, sophistical, delusive. 

Falsehood, fiction, lie. 

Familiar, intimate, unceremoni- 
ous. 

Famous, eminent, illustrious, 
renowned. 

Fanatic, enthusiast, visionary. 

Fanciful, whimsical, capricious. 

Fancy, caprice, conceit. 

Fascinate, bewitch, attract. 

Fashion, custom, manner, mode. 

Fasten, attach, fix. 

Fastidious, particular, squeam- 
ish. 

Fatal, deadly, mortal. 

Fate, chance, destiny. 

Fatigue, lassitude, weariness. 

Favor, civility, grace. 

Favorable, auspicious, pro- 
pitious. 

Fault, blemish, defect. 

Fear, apprehension, alarm, ter- 
ror. 

Fearful, awful, dreadful, timid. 

Fearless, brave, heroic, intrepid. 

Feasible, practicable, plausible. 

Follower, adherent, disciple. 

Fondness, affection, love, ten- 
derness. 



Forsake, abandon, desert, quit* 

Foolish, absurd, ridiculous. 

Forbear, abstain, refrain. ^ . 

Forbid, prohibit. 

Force, compel, oblige. 

Forcible, potent, powerful, 
strong. 

Forebode, betoken, portend, 
foretell. 

Foregoing, former, preceding. 

Forego, relinquish, resign. 

Foreign, alien, extraneous, 
strange. 

Foretell, forebode, predict, 
prophesy. 

Forethought, foresight, pre- 
meditation. 

Forfeiture, penalty, fine. 

Force, counterfeit, feign, fabri- 
cate. 

Forgive, pardon, remit. 

Forlorn, forsaken, lonely. 

Form, ceremony, observance. 

Formal, ceremonious, stiff, pre- 
cise. 

Former, preceding, previous. 

Fortunate, lucky, successful. . 

Forward, onward, bold, confi- 
dent. 

Foster, cherish. 

Feat, achievement, exploit. 

Feeble, infirm, weak. 

Feeling, generosity, sensibility. 

Felicitate, congratulate. 

Felicity, bliss, happiness. 

Fertile, abundant, fruitful. 

Fertility, abundance, fecundity. 

Fervor, ardor, warm, zeal. 

Festivity, festival, gayety. 

Fickle, capricious, inconst«Hit. 

Fiction, fabrication, invention. 

Fidelity, honesty, integrity. 

Fiery, ardent, fervent. 

Figure, form, semblance. 

Fine, delicate, elegant, excel- 
lent. 

Finish, complete, terminate. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



381 



Finn, partnership, resolute, 
solid. 

First, earliest, primitive. 

Fitted, adapted, suited. 

Fix, appoint, fasten. 

Flag, languish, ensign. 

Flagitious, atrocious, flagrant. 

JFlattery, adulation, sycophancy. 

Flavor, savor, taste. ^ 

Flaw, blemish, defect. 

Fleeting, transient, transitory. 

Fleetness, celerity, quickness. 

Flexible, yielding. 

Fluctuate, change, vacillate, 
waver. 

Fragile, brittle, frail. 

Frailty, failing, weakness. 

Frame, fabricate, skeleton, 
form. • 

Fraternity, brotherhood. 

Fraud, cheat, deception. 

Freak, caprice, fancy. 

Free, exempt, open, uncon- 
strained. 

Free, liberate, rescue. 

Freedom, liberty. 

Frequently, often. 

Fresh, new, recent. 

Fret, chafe, vex. 

Fretful, captious, peevish. 

Friendly, amicable, kind. 

Fright, alarm, terror. 

Frightful, dreadful, fearful. 

Frugal, economical, saving. 

Fruitful, fertile, prolific. 

Frustrate, balk, defeat. 

Fully, abundantly, completely. 

Function, office. 

Futile, useless. 

Gain, acquire, get, obtain. 

Gait, walk, mien. 

Gale, gust, tempest. 

Gather, assemble, collect. 

Gay, cheerful, sprightly. 

Generally, usually, commonly. 

Generous, bounteous, liberal. 

Genius, ability, intellect, talent, 



Genteel, polite, refined. 

Gentle, mild, peaceable. 

Genuine, authentic, unalloyed. 

Germinate, bud, sprout. 

Gesture, attitude, posture. 

Get, acquire, gain. 

Giddiness, dizziness, unsteadi- 
ness. 

Gift, donation, present, talent. 

Give, bestow, confer. 

Glad, gratified, joyful. 

Glance, glimpse, look. 

Glitter, shine, sparkle. 

Gloom, dullness, darkness. 

Glory, fame, honor. 

Government, administration, 
regulation. 

Graceful, becoming, comely. 

Grand, dignified, majestic, splen- 
did. 

Grant, bestow, concede, conces-, 
sion, gift, stipend. 

Grasp, gripe, seize. 

Grateful, thankful. 

Gratification, pleasure, enjoy- 
ment. 

Grave, important, serious. 

Greatness, grandeur, magni- 
tude. 

Greediness, eagerness, voracity. 

Grief, distress, sadness. 

Grieve, afflict, lament. 

Group, assemblage, cluster. 

Grow, increase, vegetate. 

Guarantee, secure, warrant. 

Guard, defend, protect. 

Guess, conjecture, surmise. 

Guest, visitant, visitor. 

Guide, conduct, direct. 

Guilty, criminal. 

Handsome, graceful, beautiful. 

Happiness, bliss, felicity. 

Harass, distress, molest. 

Harbinger, forerunner. 

Hard, arduous, difficult, solid, 
callous. 

Hardihood, effrontery, audacity. 



Digitized 



by Google 



382 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Hardly, scarcely. 

Hardship, grievance. 

Harm, danuige, evil, hurt. 

Harmless, innocent, unoffend- 
ing. 

Harmony, concord. 

Harsh, rough, severe. 

Hasten, accelerate, quicken. 

Hastiness, precipitancy, rash- 
ness. 

Hasty, angry, passionate. 

Hate, abominate, detest. 

Hateful, execrable, odious. 

Haughtiness, arrogance, dis- 
dain. 

Hazard, chance, risk, venture. 

Headstrong, stubborn, obsti- 
nate. 

Heal, cure. 

Healthy, salubrious, salutary. 

Hear, hearken, listen. 

Hearty, cordial, sincere. 

Heaviness, dejection, gravity, 
weight. 

Heedless, careless, inattentive. 

Heighten, aggravate, raise. 

Heinous, atrocious, wicked. 

Help, aid, assist. 

Hence, consequently. 

Heresy, faithlessness, infidelity. 

Heroic, brave, courageous. 

Hesitate, falter, pause. 

Hidden, concealed, occult. 

Hideous, frightful, horrible. 

Hilarity, mirth, cheerfulness. 

Hinder, impede, obstruct. 

Hold, grasp, keep, possess. 

Honesty, frankness, integrity. 

Honor, respect, revere. 

Hope, expectation, trust. 

Hopeless, desperate. 

Horrible, dreadful, fearful. 

Hostile, adverse, inimical. 

Hostility, animosity, enmity. 

House, dwelling, lineage. 

However, yet, nevertheless, still. 

Humble, modest, unpretending. 



Humor, jocularity, temper. 

Hurry, expedite, hasten. 

Hurt, damage, grieve. 

Hurtful, detrimental. 

Hypocrisy, dissimulation, pre- 
tence. 

Idea, conception, thought. ' 

Idle, indolent, lazy. 

Ignorant, illiterate, untaught. 

Ill, misforturte, sick, evil. 

Illusion, deception. 

Illuminate, illumine. 

Imagine, apprehend, conceive. 

Imbecility, feebleness, infirm- 
ity. 

Imbibe, absorb. 

Imitate, copy, follow, mimic. 

Immaterial, insignificant, un- 
impQvtant. 

Immediately, direcdy. 

Immense, enormous, huge 

Imminent, threatening, impend- 
ing. 

Immoderate, excessive. 

Immodest, bold, indecent. 

Immunity, exemption, priv- 
ilege. 

Impair, weaken. 

Impart, communicate. 

Impatient, eager. 

Impeach, arraign, censtlre. 

Impede, hinder, obstruct. 

Impel, induce, instigate. 

Impending, threatening, immi- 
nent, imperious, commanding. 

Imperfection, defect, fault. 

Imperious, haughty. 

Impertinent, insolent, officious. 

Impervious, impenetrable, has- 
ty- 

Impetuous, vehement. 

Implore, ask, beg, beseech. 

Importance, weight, significa- 
tion. 

Imposure, delusion, fraud. 

Improve, amend, better. 

Impudent, bold, impertinent 



Digitized' 



by Google 



m 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



38B 



Impute, attribute, ascribe. 

Inactive, lazy, sluggish. 

Inadequate, insufficient, une- 
qual. 

Inattentive, careless, heedless. 

Incessantly, continually, un- 
ceasingly. 

Incident, circumstance, event. 

Incite, animate, encourage. 

Include, comprehend, contain. 

Incommode, annoy, disturb. 

Incompetent, incapable. 

Inconstant, changeable, fickle. 

Increase, augmentation, growth. 

Indecent, immodest, indelicate. 

Indicate, mark, show. 

Indifferent, regardless, uncon- 
cerned. 

Indigence, need, poverty. 

Indigenous, native. 

Indignation, resentment, dis- 
pleasure. 

Indignity, affront. 

Indirect, implied. 

Indiscretion, imprudence. 

Indiscriminate, promiscuous. 

Indispensable, essential, nec- 
essary. 

Indisputable, undeniable. 

Indistinct, doubtful, ambiguous, 
vague. 

Induce, instigate, persuade. 

Industrious, diligent. 

Inevitable, certain, unavoida- 
ble. 

Inexorable, relentless. 

Infect, contaminate, pollute. 

Inference, conclusion, deduc- 
tion. 

Inferior, lower, subordinate. 

Invective, abuse, satire. 

Invent, contrive, devise. 

Invert, overturn, reverse. 

Investigation, examination. 

Inveterate, obstinate. 

Invigorate, strengthen, fortify. 

Invincible, unconquerable. 



Involve, entangle, implicate. 

Irony, satire, sarcasm. 

Irrational, unreasonable, fool- 
ish. 

Irregular, disorderly. 

Irritate, exasperate, provoke. 

Issued consequence, emanate, 
flow. 

Jealousy, envy. 

Jest, joke. 

Jocose, facetious, witty. 

Join, combine. 

Joke, jest. 

Journey, tour, voyage, trip. 

Joy, delight, happiness. 

Judgment, opinion, discern- 
ment, sentence. 

Just, exact, honest. 

Justify, excuse, maintain. 

Keen, acute, sharp, cutting. 

Keep, retain, sustain. 

Kind, gentle, indulgent. 

Kind, sort, species. 

Knowledge, learning, acquaint- 
ance. 

Labor, toil, work. 

Laconic, brief, concise. 

Lament, bewail, complain. 

Language, speech, tongue, 
idiom. 

Languid, faint, weak. 

Large, capacious, great. 

Lassitude, fatigue, languor. 

Last, final, latest, hindmost. 

Lasting, continual. 

Latent, inert. 

Laudable, commendable, praise- 
worthy. 

Laughable, ludicrous, ridicu- 
lous. 

Lavish, wasteful, extravagant. 

Lazy, idle, indolent. 

Lean, thin, incline. 

Learning, erudition. 

Leave, abandon, depart. 

Legitimate, legal, lawful. 

Leisure, convenient, idle. 



Digitized 



by Google 



384 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Lengthen, extend. 
Lessen, abate, subside. 
Let, allow, lease. 
Level, flat. 

Levity, lightness, triviality. 
Liable, exposed, subject. 
Liberal, generous. 
Liberate, deliver, free. 
Lie, falsehood, fiction. 
Life, animation. 
Lifeless, dead, inanimate. 
Lift, hoist, raise. 
Light, enlighten, illuminate. 
Like, similar. 
Likeness, portrait. 
Liking, attachment. 
Linger, loiter, tarry. 
Liquid, fluid. 
Listen, hearken. 
Little, diminutive, small. 
Live, dwell, exist. 
Lively, active, agile. 
Lodge, harbor, shelter. 
Loftiness, haughtiness, eleva- 
tion. 
JfOiter, linger, saunter. 
Lonely, lonesome, solitary. 
Look, see. 

Loose, slack, free, dissolute. 
Loss, damage. 
Lot, destiny, fate. 
Loud, noisy, turbulent 
Love, affection, fondness. 
Lovely, amiable, charming. 
Lover, suitor, wooer. 
Low, base, humble, despicable. 
Lower, debase, depress. 
Lucky, fortunate. 
Ludicrous, comical. 
Lunacy, insanity. 
Luxuriant, abundant. 
Luxury, sumptuousness. 
Madness, frenzy, fury. 
Magnificent, grand, splendid. 
Mag^itude,bulk,size,dimension. 
Maintain, assert, continue, sup- 
• port 



Make, compel, form, produce. 

Malady, disease. 

Malice, grudge, spite. 

Malicious, malignant. 

Manage, contrive, direct 

Mangle, main, mutilate. 

Mania, lunacy. 

Manifest, clear, obvious. 

Manner, behavior, way. 

Margin, border, brim. 

Mark, brand, observe, indica- 
tion. 

Marriage, matrimony, nuptials, 
wedlock. 

Marvel, wonder, prodigy. 

Massive, bulky, heavy. 

Master, chief, conquer. 

Matter, affair, substance. 

Mature, perfect, ripe. 

Maxim, adage, saying. 

Mean, object, low, medium. 

Meaning, signification. 

Meanwhile, meantime. 

Mechanic, artisan. 

Meddle, interfere. 

Meditate, intercede. 

Meek, gentle, humble. 

Meet, assemble, encounter. 

Melancholy, gloom, sadness. 

Melody, harmony. 

Melt, dissolve, liquefy. 

Memory, rec6llection, remem- 
brance. 

Mend, correct, repair. 

Merciful, compassionate. 

Merciless, cruel, pitiless. 

Mercy, clemency, lenity. 

Merchant, shopman, dealer. 

Mere, simple, pure. 

Merit, desert, worthy, deserve. 

Merry, gay, joyous, mirthful. 

Messenger, carrier. 

Metaphor, allegory, emblem, 
figure, symbol. 

Method, mode, order, system. 

Middle, midst, intermediate, 
midway. 



Digitized 



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SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



386 



Mien, look, air. 

Migrate, emigrate. 

Mighty, potent, powerful. 

Mild, agreeable, gentle. 

Mindful, attentive, heedful, ob- 
servant. 

Minister, clergyman, envoy, 
contribute, supply. 

Minute, small. 

Mirth, hilarity, jollity, merri- 
ment. 

Miscellaneous, different, vari- 
ous. 

Mischief, damage, harm, injury. 

Miserable, wretched, unhappy. 

Misery, distress. 

Miserly, avaricious, penurious. 

Misfortune, calamity, disaster, 
mishap. 

Missing, lost, absent. 

Mistake, blunder, misconcep- 
tion, error. 

Mistrust, doubt, suspicion. 

Misuse, misapply, pervert. 

Mitigate, alleviate, mollify, 
poothe. 

Mix, mingle, blend. 

Mixture, compound. 

Moan, wail, lamentation. 

Mock, deride, limit. 

Model, pattern, specimen. 

Moderation, forbearance, tem- 
perature. 

Modem, new, novel, recent. 

Modest, bashful, diffident, un- 
assuming. 

Modify, alter, change. 

Moist, damp, humid. 

Molest, annoy, disturb, tease, 
vex. 

Mollify, appease, soften. 

Moment, weight, importance, 
instant. 

Monarch, potentate, sovereign. 

Monarchy, kingdom. 

Monster, brute, fright, big. 

Morose, gloomy, sullen. 



Motive, cause, reason. 

Mourn, bewail, grieve, lament. 

Move, actuate, instigate, incite. 

Munificent, bountiful, gener- 
ous, liberal. ♦ 

Muse, contemplate, ponder, 
meditate, reflect. 

Mutable, alterable, changeable, 
inconstant. 

Mutilate, deface, injure, maim, 
mangle. 

Mutinous, seditious. 

Mutual, reciprocal. 

Mysterious, dark, dim, hidden, 
latent, mystic, obscure, oc- 
cuh. 

Mystery, secret, enigma. 

Naked, exposed, simple, un* 
covered, unclothed. 

Name, appellation, denomina- 
tion, reputatioii, title. 

Narrate, relate. 

Narrative, story, tale. 

Native, genuine, indigenous, in- 
trinsic. 

Narrow, confined, limited, con- 
tracted. 

Nasty, dirty, filthy. 

Natural, unaffected, native. 

Naughty, bad. 

Nauseous, loathsome. 

Near, adjacent, close, contigu- 
ous. 

Nearly, almost, nigh. 

Necessary, essential, indispens- 
able, needful, requisite. 

Necessity, need, occasion, want. 

Need, poverty, want. 

Nefarious, unjust, wicked> ini- 
quitous. 

Negligent, careless, heedless, 
inattentive, remiss. 

New, fresh, novel, recent. 

Nigh, close, near. 

Noble, great, illustrious. 

Noisy, clamorous, loud. 

Noted, celebrated, eminent, dis* 



Digitized 



by Google 



386 



I»OPULAR AMERICAN DlCTIOMARY. 



tinguished, renowned, illnstri- 
ous. 

Notice, advice, intelligence, 
warning. 

Notion, cdhception, idea, opin- 
ion, perception, sentiment, 
thought 

Notorious, noted. 

Notwithstanding, nevertheless, 
however, yet 

Nourish, cherish, maintain, nur- 
ture, support. 

Obedient, compliant, dutiful, 
respectful. 

Object, aim, end. 

Object, oppose, demur, except. 

Objection, obstacle, exception, 
difficulty, hesitation, opposi- 
tion. 

Oblige, bind, compel, engage, 
favor, gratify. 

Obnoxious, exposed, offensive, 
disagreeable. 

Obscure, abstrtise, concealed, 
dark, indistinct. 

Observance, ceremony, atten- 
tion, form. 

Observant, attentive. 

Observe, keep, watch, re- 
mark. 

Obsolete, disused. 

Obstacle, difficulty, hindrance, 
impediment, obstruction. 

Obstinate, headstrong,' inflexi- 
ble, pertinacious, stuUx>m. 

Obstruct, bar, hinder, impede. 

Obtain, acquire, procure, gain, 
attain. 

Obtrude, intrude. 

Obtuse, dull. 

Obviate> prevent, remove. 

Obvious, apparent, clear, evi- 
dent, manifest, open, plain, 
visible. 

Occasion, occurrence, oppor- 
tunity. 

Occasional, casual^ incidental. | 



Occult, hidden, mysterious. 

Occupation, employment, avO« 
cation, business, profession^ 
calling, trade. 

Occupy, hold, possess, use. 

Occur, happen. 

Occurrence, event, incident 

Odd, uneven, singular. 

Odious, offensive, hatefiiL 

Offal, refuse, scum, manure. 

Odor, fragrance, perfume, scent. 

Offend, displease, vex. 

Offence, crime, indignity, in- 
jury, insult, misdeed, outrage. 

Offensive, abusive, impertinent, 
insulting, insolent 

Offer, tender, proposition, pro- 
pose. 

Offering, oblation, presenUtion. 

Office, ninction, place. 

Officious, forward* intrusive, 
obtrusive. 

Often, frequent 

Old, ancient, antique. 

Omen, sign, portent 

Ominous, portentous. 

Omit, neglect 

Omnipotent, almighty. 

Onerous, burdensome. 

Onward, forward. 

Only, alone, barely, simply, 
merely, singly, solely. 

Open, candid, frank, evident, 
free, ingenuous, sincere, un-- 
close. 

Opening, aperture, cavity. 

Operation, action, performance. 

Opinion, notion, sentiment. 

Opponent, adversary, antago- 
nist, enemy, foe. 

Oppose, resist. 

Opposite, adverse, inimical, 
contrary, repugnant. 

Opprobrious, abusive, insulting, 
insolent, offensive, scurrilous. 

Opprobrium, • disgrace, igno- 
miny, infamy. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



387 



Option, choice, election. 

Oration, address, speech, dis- 
course. 

Ordain, appoint, prescribe, in- 
vest. 

Order, method, rank, succes- 
sion, series, mandate, com- 
mand, injunction. 

Orderly, methodical, systematic, 
regular. 

Ordinary, common, mean, usual. 

Ordnance, cannon. 

Organize, arrange. 

Origin, beginning, reason, cause, 
source. 

Orifice, opening. 

Original, first, primitive, pristine. 

Ornament, adorn, beautify, 
embellish, decorate. 

Ornate, decorated, embellished. 

Oscillate, vibrate, swing. 

Ostensible, professed, plausible, 
specious. 

Ostentation, boasting, display. 

Other, diflferent. [parade. 

Otherwise, ^.Ise. 

Outlay, expense 

Outlet, escape. 

Outsid«, exterior. 

Outskirt, suburb, border. 

Outrage, affi-ont, violence, in- 
suh. 

Outlive, survive. 

Outward, exterior, external, 
outer. 

Overbearing, domineering, im- 
perious. 

Overcome, conquer, subdue, 
surmount. 

Overflow, deluge, inundate. 

Overreach, circumvent, deceive. 

Oversight, error, mistake, 
superintendence. 

Overwhelm, crush, subdue, 
overpower. 

Owner, master, possessor, pro- 
prietor 



Pack, bundle, load. 

Pacify, calm, quiet, appease, 

PaddlC) oar. 

Pain, agony, anguish, distress, 

suffering, torment. 
Paint, color, depict, portray, 

describe. 
Pair, brace, couple. 
Pale, pallid, wan, white. 
Palliate, cover, extenuate. 
Palpable, perceptible, discern- 
ible, plain. 
Palpitate, flutter, beat. 
Palsy, paralysis. 
Paltry, mean, pitifUL 
Pamper, overfeed. 
Panic, fright. 

Pang, distress, pain, torment 
Parasite, flatterer, sycophant. 
Pardon, absolve, acquit, clear, 

discharge, forgive. 
Parsimonious, avaricious, mi- 

serely, penurious. 
Part, action, concern, portion,- 

piece, share. 
Particular, circumstantial, dis- 
tinct, exact, nice. 
Particularly, chiefly, distinctly, 

specificalij'. 
Partisan, adherent, follower, 

disciple. 
Partition, division. % 

Partner, associate, coadjutor, 

colleague. 
Parts, faculties, pieces, region. 
Party, entertainment, assembly, 

faction. 
Pass, passage, thrust, outstrip. 
Passable, tolerable. 
Passage, clause, transit. 
Passible, impressible. 
Passion, anger, excitement, 

love. 
Passionate, angry, excitable, 

hot, hasty, irascible. 
Passive, calm, quiescent, patient, 

resigned,sttbmissive,unresi8ting. 



Digitized 



by Google 



^88 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY* 



Pastor, minister. 

Pastoral, rural, ministerial. 

Pathetic, affecting, touching, 
moving. 

Patience, endurance, fortitude, 
passivity, resignation. 

Patient, invalid, calm, com- 
posed, passive, enduring. 

Peaceable, calm, gentle, pacific, 
mild, quiet, undisturbed, 
serine, tranquil. 

Peculiar, appropriate, exclusive, 
particular. 

Peevish, captious, cross, fretful 
irritable, petulant. 

Pecuniary, financial. 

Pedantic, vain. 

Peddler, hawker. 

Pedestrian, walker. 

Pedigree, lineage. 

Peel, rind, bark. 

Peer, equal, nobleman, peep, 
gaze. 

Peg, pin. 

Pelt, skin, hide. 

Pencil, draw, sketch. 

Penalty, chastisement, fine, pun- 
ishment. 

Penetrate, pierce, perforate, 
bore. 

Penetrating, acuteness, dis- 

* criminating, discerning, saga- 
cious. 

Penitence, remorse, contrition, 
compunction, repentance. 

Pension, annuity. 

Pensive, thoughtfuL 

Pent, confined. 

Penuripus, beggarly, miserly, 
niggardly, parsimonious, spar- 
ing. 

Penury, indigence, need, pov- 
erty, want. 

Perceive, discern, distinguish. 

Perception, idea, notion, con- 
ception, sensation, sentiment. 

Perdition, ruin. 



Perhaps, perchance. 

Peremptory, absolute, arbitrary, 
despotic. 

Perfect, complete, finished. 

Perfidious, treacherous, faith-' 
less. 

Perforate, pierce; penetrate^ 
bore. 

Perform, accomplish, achieve, 
effect, execute. 

Perfume, fragrance,'odor, smell, 
scent. 

Peril, danger. 

Perjure, forswear, suborn. 

Period, age, date, epoch, era, 
time. 

Permanent, durable, lasting. 

Permit, allow, consent, suffer, 
tolerate. 

Pernicious, destructive, hurt- 
ful, mischievous, noisome, 
noxious. 

Perpetual, continuous, inces- 
sant, constant, unceasing. 

Perplex, confuse, tangle, em- 
barrass, harass, puzzle. 

Persevere, continue, insist, per- 
sist, prosecute, pursue. 

Perspicuity, transparency ,clear- 
ness, translucency. 

Persuade, entice, exhort, urge, 
influence. 

Pertinent, apposite, appropriate. 

Perturb, disturb. 

Peruse, read. 

Pervade, occupy. 

Perverse, cro^s, crooked, stub- 
bom. 

Pervert, corrupt, misapply. 

Pest, plague. 

Pester, vex, annoy. 

Pet, caress, fonder, favorite. 

Pestilential, contagious, infec- 
tious, epidemical. 

Petition, entreaty, request, sup- 
plication. 

Pettish, fretful, peevish. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



389 



Petty, small, trifling. 

Phrase, sentence. 

Pick, gather, choose. 

Picture, likeness, representa- 
tion. 

Piece, part, portion. 

Pierce, penetrate. 

Pilfer, steal. 

Pinnacle, top, summit, turret. 

Pious, devout, godly, spiritual, 

• holy, religious. 

Pique, grudge, malice, 'rancor, 
spite. 

Pity, compassion, commisera- 
tion, S3rmpathy. 

Pitiful, sad, sorrowful. 

Place, position, situation, site, 
dispose, lay. 

Placid, calm, quiet, serene, 
tranquil. 

Plague, annoy, harass, tantalize, 
tease, trouble, vex. 

Plain, distinct, manifest, evi- 
dent, obvious, simple. 

Plan, contrivance, device, pro- 
ject, scheme. 

Plausible, colorable, ostensible, 
specious. 

Pleasant, agreeable, cheerful, 
facetious. 

Please, delight, gratify. 

Pleasure, delight, enjoyment. 

Pledge, security, promise, vow. 

Plentiful, abundant, copious, 
plenteous. 

Pliant, flexible, yielding, supple. 

Plight, case, condition. 
* Plot, cabal, scheme, conspiracy. 

Plump, fat, sleek. ^ 

Plunder, rob, booty, pillage. 

Poison, venom, infect. 

Polish, smooth, refine. 

Polite, civil, courteous, polished. 

Politeness, affability. 

Politic, prudent. 

Pollute, contaminate, corrupt, 
defile. 



Pompous, lofty, magisterial 

Ponder, consider, reflect. 

Popular, prevailing, pleasing. 

Portion, division, dower, part, 
quantity. 

Portrait, picture, likeness. 

Position, place, situation, post, 
station. 

Positive, certain, dogmatical, 
ctjnfident, real. 

Possess, have, hold. 

Possible, feasible, practicable. 

Postpone, defer, delay. 

Posture, attitude, gesture. 

Potent, strong, vigorous. 

Pound, beat, strike. 

Poverty, need, penury, indi- 
gence. 

Pow*der, dust, gunpowder, sprin- 
kle. 

Power, strength, ability, force. 

Powerful, mighty, influential, 
potent. 

Practicable, feasible, possible. 

Practice, custom, habit. 

Praise, applaud, commend, 
eulogize. 

Prance, spnng, dance, leap. 

Prank, frolic, trick. 

Prate, prattle, gossip. 

Prayer, entreaty, petition, sup- 
plication. 

Precarious, doubtful, uncertain. 

Precedence, priority, prefer- 
ence. 

Precedent, example, previous, 
anterior. 

Preceding, previous, antece- 
dent. 

Precept, teaching, maxim. 

Precious, costly, valuable. 

Precipice, chasm. 

Precipitous, hasly, steep. 

Precipitate, rash, deposit. 

Precision, accuracy. 

Precise, accurate, exact, nice. 

Precocious, forward, premature. 



Digitized 



by Google 



390 



I>OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



^ 



Predatofy, plundering. 

Preconcerted, premeditated. 

Predestined, foreordained. 

Precursor, forerunner, har- 
binger. 

Predicament, plight, condition, 
situation. 

Predict, foretell, prognosticate, 
prophesy. 

Predominant, prevalent, pre- 
vailing, supreme. 

Preface, introduction. 

Prefer, choose. 

Preferment, preference, ad- 
vancement 

Prejudice, bias, detriment, hurt, 
injury. 

Preliminary, introductory, pre- 
paratory. 

Prelude, preface, introduction. 

Premature, hasty, unripe. 

Premonition, forewarning. 

Prepare, fit, qualify. 

Preposterous, foolish, absurd. 

Prerogative, right, privil^e. 

Presage, prognostic, foreshow. 

Prescribe, dictate, ordain. 

Preserve, keep, save. 

Present, gift, offer. 

Presentiment, apprehension. 

Presentation, introduction, do- 
nation. 

Presently, soon. 

Pressing, important, urgent, 
squeezing. 

Presume, conjecture, suppose, 
surmise, think. ** 

Presuming, arrogant, assuming, 
forward. 

Pretend, affect, simulate, feign. 

Pretext, excuse, pretension. 

Pretty, beautiful, handsome, fine. 

Prevailing, dominant, overcom- 
ing, prevalent, ruling. 

Prevaricate, evade, equivocate. 

Prevent, hinder, impede, ob- 
struct, preclude. 



Previous, anterior, prior, pre- 
liminary. 

Prey, booty, plunder. 

Price, charge, expense, cost, 
worth. 

Prick, pierce, spur. 

Pride, conceit, vanity. 

Prim, formal, precise. 

Primary, first, primitive, ori- 
ginal, pristine. 

Princely, royal, grand. 

Principal, capital, chief, import- 
ant, main. 

Principle, element, motive, doc- 
trine. 

Print, impression, stamp, mark. 

Prior, antecedent, anterior, pre- 
ceding, former, previous. 

Priority, precedence, preference, 
pre-eminence. 

Pristine, first, original, primitive. 

Privacy, retirement, solitude, 
seclusion. 

Privilege, right, prerogative. 

Prize, reward, value. 

Probability, chance, likelihood. 

Probity, honesty, integntj, up- 
rightness, veracity. 

Process, method. 

Proceed, advance, emanate, ^ 
issue. 

Proceeding, transaction, course. 

Proclaim, advertise, announce, 
promulgate, tell, pubhsh. 

Proclivity, inclination, ten- 
dency, proneness. 

Procrastinate, delay. 

Procure, acquire, gain, obtain, i 

Prodigal, wasteful, lavish, ex- 
travagant*, profuse. 

Prodigious, amazing, enormous, 
vast, monstrous. 

Produce, yield. 

Product, result, effect, form. 

Productive, fruitful, profitable. 

Profane, impious, irreverent, 
wicked. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



391 



Profess, declare, avow. 

Profession, avocation, calling, 
business, vocation, employ- 
ment. 

Proffer, offer. 

Proficiency, advancement, im- 
provement, progress. 

Profile, outiine. 

Profit, iidvantage, benefit, emol- 
ument, gain. 

Profligate, abandoned, deprav- 
ed, corrupt, wicked, vicious. 

Profound, deep, learned. 

Profusion, abundance. 

Profuse, lavish, prodigal, extra- 
vagant. 

Prognosticate, foretell. 

Progeny, issue, oflfepring, race. 

Prognostic, omen, sign. 

Progress, advancement, grada- 
tion, motion, proficiency. 

Project, design, scheme, plan. 

Prolific, fertile, fruitful. 

Prolix, diffuse, long, tedious. 

Prolong, delay, postpone, ex- 
tend, protract, retard, procras- 
tinate. 

Promenade, walk. 

Prominent, conspicuous, pro- 
tuberant. 

Promiscuous, indiscriminate, 
mingled. 

Promise, assurance, declaration, 
word, engagement. 

Promontory, headland. 

Promote, advance, prefer, en- 
courage, forward. 

Prompt, active, assiduous, 
ready. 

Prone, inclined. 

Pronounce, affirm, declare, arti- 
culate, speak, utter. * 

Proof, argument, demonstration, 
evidence, testimony. 

Prop, rest, support. 

Propagate, circulate, diffuse, 
disseminate, multiply, increase. 



Propensity, tendency, bias, in- 
clination, proneness. 

Proper, fit, just, suitable. 

Propel, push, drive. 

Prophecy, prediction. 

Prophesy, foretell. 

Propitious, auspicious, favor- 
able. 

Propitiate, appease, atone, re- 
concile, conciliate. 

Proportion, form, relation, rate, 
ratio, size, symmetry. 

Proportionate, adequate, equal, 
commensurate. 

Propose, bid, intend, offer, pur- 
pose, lender. 

Propriety, fitness, decorum. 

Prosaic, commonplace, dull. 

Proscribe, forbid, interdict. ^ 

Prosecute, pursue. 

Prospect, landscape, view, sur- 
vey. 

Prospective, forward, fiiture, 
foreseeing. 

Prosper, succeed, thrive, 
fiourish. 

Prosperous, fortunate, success- 
ful, lucky, flourishing. 

Prostrate, fallen, lying. 

Prostration, dejection. 

Protest, declare, objection, ob- 
ject. 

Protect, cherish, defend. 

Protract, defer, delay, postpone, 
prolong, retard. 

Protuberance, swelling, projec- 
tion. 

Proud, arrogant, assuming, con- 
ceited, haughty, lofty, vain. 

Prove, show, demonstrate. 

Proverb, adage, aphorism, max- 
im, apothegm, by-word, saw, 
saying. 

Provide, furnish, procure, pre- 
pare, supply. 

Provident, careful, economical, 
cautious, foresightiy, prudent. 



Digitized 



by Google 



392 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Proviso, provision, stipulation. 

Provoke, aggravate, exasperate, 
enrage, excite, irritate, tanta- 
lize. 

Prudence, carefulness, discre- 
tion, forethought, judgment, 
wisdom. 

Pry, lift, inspect, examine. 

Publish, advertise, announce, 
declare, proclaim, promulgate. 

Public, common, open. 

Publish, reveal. 

Puddle, pool. 

Puff; whiff, pant 

Pugnacious, quarrelsome. 

Puerile, boyish, childish. 

Pull, diag^ draw, haul. 

Puke, vomit. 

Pule, whine. 

Pulsate, throb. 

Pulverize, crush, powder. 

Punctual, exact. 

Pun, joke, play word. 

Puncture, prick, perforate. 

Pungent, sharp, acrid. 

Puny, weak, small. 

Punish, chastise, correct. 

Purchase, buy. 

Pure, clear, unpolluted. 

Purely, simply, merely. 

Purgative, cathartic, cleansing. 

Pur^, cleanse, refine. 

Purr, murmur. 

Purloin, steal, pilfer. 

Purport, meaning, signification. 

Purpose, object, intention, aim. 

Pursuit, business, chase. 

Push, urge, impel. 

Putrid, rotten, corrupt. 

Pursue, chase, continue, follow, 
prosecute. 

Puzzle, bewilder, embarrass, 
confound, entangle, perplex. 

Quack, charlatan, empiric, pre- 
tender. 

Quaint, odd, whimsical. 

Quantity, weight, amount, bulk. 



Queer, odd, strange. 

Qualified, adapted, fitted, com- 
petent. 

Qualify, adapt, fit, modify, pre- 
pare. 

Quality, accomplishment, attri- 
bute, property, rank, distinc- 
tion, grade. 

Quite, entirely, wholly. 

Quizzical, comic. 

Quarrel, affray, altercation, con- 
tention, dispute. 

Query, inquiry, question. 

Question, ask, examine, doubt, 
interrogate. 

Questionable, doubtfiil, sus- 
picious. 

Quick, active, expeditious, brisk, 
prompt, swift. 

Quiet, calm, ease, peaceable, 
placid, rest, repose, tranquil- 
lity, still. 

Quit, abandon, forsake, resign, 
leave, relinquish. 

Quota, proportion, share, rate. 

Quote, adduce, cite. 

Rabble, crowd, mob. 

Rabid, furious, mad. 

Race, breed, course, generation, 
family, lineage. 

Radiance^ brightness, brilliancy. 

Radical, inherent, thorough, 
rooted. 

Rage, anger, choler, fury. 

Raise, advance, collect, elevate, 
heighten, erect, exalt, propa- 
gate. 

Rally, banter, deride, collect, 
mock, ridicule. 

Ramble, rove, range, wander. 

Rant, rave, declaim. 

Rank,^ class, degree, exuberant. 

Ransom, free, manumit, re- 
deem. 

Rap, strike, knock. 

Rapacious, greedy, ravenous, 
voracious. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



393 



Rapidity, agility, speed, fleet- 
ness, celerity, swiftness, velo- 
city. 

Rapture,*ecstasy, transport. 

Rare, excellent, singular, incom- 
parable, uncommon, scarce. 

Rarely, unfirequently, seldom. 

Rash, hasty, headstrong, preci- 
pitate, thoughtless, violent. 

Rate, assessments, degree, pro- 
portion, price, quota, ratio, 
scold, value. 

Ratify, sanction. 

Rational, reasonable, sensible. 

Rattle, clatter. 

Ravage, waste, plunder, des- 
troy. 

Ravine, hollow, gully. 

Raving, furious. 

Ravenous, greedy, voracious, 
rapacious. 

Ray, beam, gleam, glimmer. 

Reach, extend. 

Ready, apt, facile, dexterous, 
prompt. 

Real, actual, positive, genuine, 
true. 

Realize, achieve, accomplish, 
complete, effect, consummate. 

Reason, argument, origin, mo- 
tive, proof, purpose, under- 
standing. 

Reasonable, fair, rational, just, 
equitable. 

Rebel, mutiny, revolter, revolt. 

Rebuff, check, repulse, repel. 

Rebuke, censure, expostulation, 
reproach, reproof, reprimand. 

Recall, revoke. 

Recant, abjure, recall, retract, 
revoke. 

Recapitulate, repeat, reiterate, 
recite, rehearse. 

Recede, retrograde, retire, re- 
treat. 

Receive, take. 

Recent, late, fresh. 



Recess, intermission. 

Recipe, presci!iption. 

Reciprocal, alternate, mutual. 

Recite, repeat, rehearse, reca- 
pitulate. 

Reckless, careless, heedless. 

Reckon, calculate, compute, 
estimate. 

Reclaim, recover, reform. 

Recline, lie. 

Recognize, acknowledge, per- 
ceive. 

Recollection, memory, reminis- 
cence, remembrance. 

Recommend, commend. 

Recompense, equivalent, com- 
pensation, reward, remunera- 
tion. 

Reconcile, conciliate, propitiate. 

Record, register, enroll. 

Recover, regain. 

Recreation, amusement. 

Recriminate, retort. 

Rectify, amend, emend, correct, 
mend, reform. 

Recruit, recover, replenish, re- 
pair, retrieve. 

Rectitude, straightness, upright- 
ness. 

Recumbent, reclining. 

Recur, return, reoccur. 

Redeem, rescue, ransom. 

Redress, amendment, remedy, 
relief. [due. 

Reduce, lessen, diminish, sub- 
Redundant, superfluous, super- 
abundant, excessive. 

Reel, stagger, wind. 

Refer, allude. 

Refined, elegant, genteel, polite, 
polished. 

Reflect, consider, ponder, muse, 
reproach, think. 

Reform, amend, better, correct, 
improve, rectify. 

Refractory, contumacious, per- 
verse, ungovernable, unruly. 



Digitized 



by Google 



^ 



394 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Refrain, abstmin, forbear. 

Refresh, cool, refrigerate, re- 
new, revive. 

Refuge, shelter. 

Refund, repay, restore. 

Refuse, deny, reject, waste. 

Refute, confute, oppugn, dis- 
prove. 

Regain, recover. 

Regale, entertain, gratify, feast, 
refresh. 

Regard, esteem, observe, heed, 
mind, respect, value, rever- 
ence. 

Regardless, heedless, indiffer- 
ent, negligent, unconcerned, 
unobservant. 

Region, country, district, quar- 
ter. 

Register, record. 

Regret, grieve, lament, repent. 

Regelate, adjust, direct, rule, 
dispose, govern. 

Rehearse, recapitulate, repeat. 

Reiterate, repeat. 

Reject, decline, repel, refuse. 

Rejoice, exult. 

Rejoinder, answer, reply, repli- 
cation, response. 

Relation, kindred, connection. 

Relevant, •apposite, proper, fit, 
pertinent. 

Reliance, confidence, depend- 
ence, repose, trust. 

Relics, remains, mementoes. 

Relieve, aid, alleviate, assist, 
help, mitigate, succor. 

Religious, devout, holy, pious. 

Relinquish, yield, forsake. 

Relish, enjoy. 

Reluctant, averse, unwilling. 

Rely, confide, trust. 

Remain, abide, continue, await, 
sojourn, tarry, stay. 

Remains, leavings, relics. 

Remainder, remnant, rest, re- 
sidue. 



Remark, annotation, note, ob- 
servation, comment. 

Remarkable, noteworthy, won- 
derful. 

Remedy, remove, medicine, 
cure. 

Remember, recall, recollect. 

Reminiscence, recollection, re- 
membrance. 

Remiss, careless, heedless, 
inattentive, thoughtless, neg- 
ligent. 

Remit, abate, absolve, liberate, 
forgive, pardon, relax, trans- 
mit. 

Remnant, remainder. 

Remonstrance, expostulation. 

Remorse, contrition, penitence. 

Remote, distant, far. 

Remunerate, recompense, re- 
ward. 

Rend, tear, rip, split. 

Render, yield, deliver. 

Renegade, vagabond. 

Renew, renovate, repeat. 

Renounce, abandon, abdicate, 
forego, quit, resign, relinquish. 

Renovate, renew, refresh. 

Renown, celebrity, fame, re- 
putation. 

Rent, fissure, cleft. 

Repair, recover; restore, retrieve. 

Repartee, reply, retort. 

Reparation, restoration, amends, 
restitution. 

Repeal, abolish, abrogate, annul, 
cancel, destroy, revoke. 

Repeat, recapitulate, rehearse, 
recite. 

Repel, repulse, resist. 

Repent, repine, regret. 

Repentance, sorrow, contrition. 

Repetition, recital, tautology. 

Replenish, fill, refill, supply. 

Reply, answer. 

Report, tell, account, rumor, 
sound. 



V Google 



SYiJONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



395 



Repose, ease, quiet, sleep, 
rest. 

Reprehensible, blamable, cen- 
surable, reprovable, culpable. 

Reproach, blame, censure, con- 
demn, reprove, upbraid. 

Reproof, blame, censure, repre- 
hension. 

Reprove, chide, rebuke, repri- 
mand. 

Repugnance, antipathy, dislike, 
aversion, hatred. 

Repugnant, adverse, contrary, 
hostile, inimical, opposite. 

Repulse, repel, defeat. 

Reputation, character, renown, 

credit, honor, repute, fame. 
. Require, ask, demand. 

Request, ask, beg, beseech, 
entreat, implore, solicit. 

Requisite, essential, expedient, 
necessary 

Requital, recompense. 

Rescind, repeal, annul. 

Rescue, deliver, save. 

Research, examination, inquiry, 
investigation. * 

Resemblance, similarity, like- 
ness, similitude. 

Resent, scorn. 

Reservation, reserve, retention. 

Residence, abode, dwelling, 
domicile. 

Residue, remainder, rest, rem- 
nant. 

Resign, abdicate, forego, yield, 
renounce, reUnquish. 

Resignation, acquiescence, en- 
durance, submission, patience. 

Resist, oppose, withstand, 
thwart. 

Resolute, firm, resolved. 

Resolve, determine, analyze. 

Resolution, courage, decision, 
determination, fortitude, firm- 
ness. 

Resort, frequent, haunt/* 



Resource, expedient, resort, 
means. 

Respect, attention, esteem, con- 
sideration, regard, deference, 
estimation. 

Respectful, civil, dutiful, obe- 
dient. 

Respective, separate, individ- 
ual. * 

Respire, breathe. 

Respite, interval, reprieve, sus- 
pension. 

Response, answer, rejoinder, 
reply, replication. 

Responsible, amenable, ac- 
countable, answerable. 

Rest, cessation, ease, intermis- 
sion, quiet, stop, repose, oth- 
ers, remain. 

Restless, uneasy, discontented. 

Restore, cure, repay, render, 
return. 

Restoration, amends, repara- 
tion, restitution. 

Restrain, coerce, limit, con,- 
strain, repress, restrict. 

Restrict, bind, confine, circum- 
scribe, limit. 

Result, consequence, issue, 
effect, event. 

Resurrection, revival. 

Resuscitate, revive. 

Retain, detain, hold, keep, re- 
serve. 

Retaliation, reprisal, repay- 
ment. 

Retard, defer, delay, hinder, 
postpone, prolong, procrasti- 
nate, protract. 

Retire, recede, secede, reB-eat, 
withdraw. 

Retirement, seclusion. 

Retract, abjure, recall, recant, 
revoke^ 

Repeat, retire, withdraw. 

Retrench, curtail, reduce. 

Retrieve, recover, regain. 



Digitized 



by Google 



396 



POPXJLAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Retrograde, backward. 

Reveal, communicate, disclose, 
divulge, impart. 

Revel, carouse, frolic. 

Revenge, avenge, vindicate. 

Revenue, income. 

Revere, reverence, venerable, 
adore. 

Reverse, change, subvert, over- 
turn. 

Review, notice, revision sur- 
vey. 

Revile, abuse, deride. 

Revise, review, re-examine. 

Revive, refresh, renovate, re- 
new, reanimate. 

Revoke, abolish, abrogate, an- 
nul, cancel, repeal, retract. 

Revolt, rebel. 

Revolve, turn, whirl. 

Reward, compensation, recom- 
pense, requital, remuneration, 
satisfaction. 

Ribald, low, obscene. 

Rid, free, clear. 

Riddle, enigma. 

Riches, opulence, affluence, 
wealth. 

Ridicule, banter, deride, laugh, 
lampoon, mock, rally, satirize. 

Ridiculous, absurd, preposter- 
ous, droll, ludicrous. 

Ripe, prevalent. 

Rifle, rob, plunder. 

Right, claim, direct, just, proper, 
immunity, privilege, straight. 

Righteous, equitable, honest, 
godly, incorrupt, just, upright, 
virtuous. • 

Rig^d, strict, exact, severe, stiff. 

Rigidity, strictness, stifihess 

Rill, streamlet, brook. 

Rim, border, edge. 

Rind, skin, bark. 

Ring, resound, chime. 

Ringleader, chief, principal. 

Ringlet, curl. 



Riot, uproar, tumult, disorder. 

Rip, tear, sunder. 

Ripe, mature. 

Ripeness, maturity, perfection. 

Rise, ascend, mount, origin. 

Risible, laughable, mirthful. 

Rising, ascension, rebellion. 

Risk, hazard, danger, peril. 

Rite, ceremony, form, obser- 
vance. 

Rival, competitor, antagonist, 
emulator. 

Rivalry, competition, emulation. 

Road, course, path, route, way. 

Roam, ramble, range, wander, 
rove, stroll. 

Rob, plunder, steal. 

Robber, highwayman, pirate, 
thief. 

Robust, strong, healthy. 

Rock, stone, oscillate. 

Rod, twig, stick, bar. 

Rog^e, knave, rascal. 

Roguish, mischievous. 

Romance, tale, fiction. 

Romantic, wild, fanciful. , 

Romp, tomboy, play. 

Room, apartment, space, cham- 
ber. 

Ropy, stringy, glutinous. 

Rot, putrify, decompose. 

Rotate, turn, whirl, revolve. 

Rotten, putrid, decomposed. 

Rough, harsh, rude, rugged, 
severe, unpolished, stormy, un- 
civil. 

Round, circuit, globe, sphere, 
orb, step, tour. 

Rout, defeat, rabble, party. 

Route, course, road, way. 

Rove, ramble. 

Royal, regal, kingly. 

Rub, Mpe, chafe. 

Rubbish, waste. 

Rude, coarse, impertinent, im- 
pudent, rough, saucy, unpol- 
ished. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.. 



397 



Ruffian, brute, villain, cut- 
' throat. 

Ragged, rough, shaggy, harsh. 

Ruin, overthrow, destroy, de- 
struction, devastate. 

Rule, government, guide, maxim, 
method, law, regulation, pre- 
cept. 

Rumor, report, story, hearsay. 

Rumple, wrinkle. 

Rural, rustic, country. 

Ruse, artifice, fraud, trick, wile. 

Sacrament, eucharist, commun- 
ion. Lord's Supper. 

Sacred, divine, devoted, holy. 

Sad, dejected, melancholy, 
gloomy, mournful, sorrowful. 

Sage, wise, discreet. 

Sagacity, acuteness, discern- 
ment, penetration. 

Salient, projecting, prominent. 

Sallow, wan, sickly. 

Salubrious, healthful. 

Salutation, greeting. 

Same, identical. 

Sample, specimen, pattern. 

Sanctimonious, pious. 

Sailor, marine^seaman. 

Salary, hire, pay, stipend, 
wages. 

Sanguinary, bloody, [tenance. 

Sanction, ratify, support, coun- 

Sapient, sagacious, sage, wise. 

Sarcasm, irony, ridicule, satire. 

Satiate, cloy, glut, satisfy. 

Satisfaction, contentment, 
atonement, remuneration, re- 
ward. 

Satisfy, cloy, gratify, glut, please, 
satiate. 

Saunter, wander, loiter. 

Saving, economical, frugal, 
penurious, sparing, stingy, 
thrifty. 

Saying, adage, aphorism, maxim, 
apothegm , byword , ^ proverb, 
relating, speaking. 



Scamp, rogue, knave. 

Scamper, run, hasten. 

Scant, sparse. 

Scandal, discredit, infamy, dis- 
grace, reproach. 

Scarcity, dearth, penury. 

Scarce, uncommon, rare. 

Scatter, disperse, spread, dissi- 
pate. 

Scent, fragrance, perfume, j^dor, 
smell. 

Schedule, list, catalogue. 

Scheme, plan, project. 

Scoff, jeer, jibe, sneer. 

Scope, aim, drift, tendency. 

Scorch, dry, wither, singe. 

Scruple, doubt, fluctuate, hesi< 
tate. 

Scrupulous, cautious, careful, 
conscientious. 

Scrutinize, examine, pry, in- 
vestigate, search. 

Scurrilous, abusive, insolent, 
insulting, offensive, oppro 
brious. 

Secede, recede, withdraw, re- 
tire. 

Seclusion, loneliness, privacy, 
retirement, solitude. 

Search, examination, investi- 
gation, inquiry, pursuit 
scrutiny. 

Secondary, inferior, subordi- 
nate, second. 

Secrete, hide, conceal. 

Secret, clandestine, covert, hid- 
den, concealed, mysterious, 
latent. 

Section, part, division. 

Secular, temporal, worldly. 

Secure, obtain, guarantee, guard, 
certain, confident, safe, sure. 

Security, defence, deposit, 
guard, pledge, safety, pro- 
tection. 

Sedate, calm, composed, quiet, 
still, serene, unruffled. 



Digitized 



by Google 



398 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Sediment, dross, lees. 

Sedition, revolt, insurrection. 

Sedulous, diligent, industrious. 

Seed, germ. 

Seduce, allure, attract, decoy, 
see, behold, look, eye, observe, 
perceive, view. 

Seek, examine, explore, search. 

Seemly, becoming, decent. 

Seethe, boil. 

Seize, grasp, clasp. 

Sensation, perception, senti- 
ment. 

Senile, aged, old, infirm. 

Sense, feeling, judgment, im- 
port, meaning, reason. 

Senseless, unmeaning, foolish, 
nonsensical. 

Sensibility, delicacy, suscep- 
tibility, feeling. 

Sensitive, sensible, susceptible. 

Sensual, carnal, greedy. 

Sentence, decision, judgment, 
period, proposition, phrase. 

Sentiment, feeling, notion, 
opinion, sensation. 

Sentimental, romantic. 

Separate, disjoined, parted, 
distinct, unconnected, detach, 
disengage, disjoin, divide, dis- 
unite, sunder, part. 

Sequel, consequence, result. 

Serene, quiet, peaceful. 

Series, order, succession, course. 

Serious, sober, grave, solemn. 

Servant, domestic, slave. 

Servile, fawning, slavish, mean. 

Settle, adjust, arrange, deter- 
mine, establish, regulate, fix. 

Settled, conclusive, decisive, 
confirmed, definitive, estab- 
lished. 

Settler, colonist. 

Settlings, sediment. 

Sever, detach, separate, disjoin, 
divide. 

Severe, austere, rigorous, cruel, 



harsh, rigid, stem, rough, sharp, 
strict, unyielding. * 

Several, different, distinct, di- 
verse, sundry, various. 

Shabby, worn, mean, ragged, 
paltry. 

Shackle, fetter, chain, bmd, 
fetters, handcuffs. 

Shade, shadow, obscure* 

Shaggy, rough, hairy. 

Shake, agitate, quake, totter, 
quiver, shiver, shudder, trem- 
ble. 

Sham, false, counterfeit. 

Shame, disgrace, dishonor, ig- 
nominy. 

Shameless, immodest, impu- 
dent, indecent. 

Shape, form, mould, fashion. 

Share, apportion, divide, dis- 
tribute, partake, participate. 

Sharpness, acrimony, pene- 
tration, acuteness, sagacity, 
shrewdness. 

Shatter, break, fracture. 

Sheath, case, scabbard. 

Sheen, brightness. 

Sheer, clear, immingled. 

Shelter, asylum, refuge, -retreat, 
cover, defend, harbor, lodge, 
protect, screen. 

Shine, coruscate, glisten, gleam, 
glare, sparkle, glitter. 

Shining, brilliant, bright, glis- 
tening, gUttering, radiant, 
splendid, resplendent, spark- 
ling. 

Shiver, quake, tremble. 

Shock, affright, appall, disgust, 
dismay, disturb, offend, terrify. 

Shocking, dreadful, disgusting, 
terrible. 

Shoot, fire, sprout, dart. 

Short, brittle, "brief, compend- 
ious, concise, defective, laconic, 
scanty, succinct, summary, 
wanting. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF TKE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



399 



Shortly, quickly, briefly. 

Shorten, abridge, contract, cur- 
tail, reduce. 

Shout, cry. 

Shove, push. 

Show, display, exhibition, pa- 
rade, pomp, representation, 
sight, spectacle. 

Showy, fine, gay, gaudy, grand, 
magnificent, ostentatious, 
sumptuous. 

Shrewd, acute, keen, penetrating. 

Shrill, sharp, piercing. 

Shudder, ^iver, tremble. 

Shuffle, mix, evade, prevaricate. 

Shun, • avoid, elude, eschew, 
evade. 

Shy, coy, reserved. 

Sibilant, hissing. 

Siccative, drying. 

Sickly, diseased, ill, indisposed, 
morbid, unwell. 

Side, party, interest 

Sidelong, oblique. 

Sign, mark, note, omen, prog- 
nostic, presage, signal, symbol, 
symptom, token. 

Signify, denote, imply, betoken, 
declare, express, intimate, tes- 
tify, utter. 

Significant, expressive, im- 
portant. 

Silence, stillness, taciturnity. 

Silent, dumb, speechless, mute. 

Silly, absurd, dull, foolish, 
simple, stupid, weak. 

Similarity, likeness, resem- 
blance, similitude. 

Simile, comparison, similitude. 

Simple, artless, plain, foolish, 
single, silly, stupid, weak. 

Simply, merely, only, solely. 

Simplicity, plainness, artless- 
ness. 

Simulate, pretend, counterfeit. 

Sin, wickedness. 

Since, as, because, inasmuch. 



Sincere, frank, plain, honest, 
true, incorrupt, upright. 

Sinew, tendon, strength, muscle. 

Single, only, sole, particular, 
singular. 

Sinister, left, unlucky, unfair, 
bad. 

Singular, eccentric, particular, 
odd, rare, scarce, strange. 

Sink, settle, subside. 

Situation, case, condition, lo- 
cality, place, predicament, 
plight, position, site. 

Size, bulk, magnitude. 

Sketch, outline, drawing, de- 
lineate. 

Skill, dexterity. 

Skillful, accomplished, adroit, 
expert, clever, dexterous. 

Skin, flesh, hide, rind. 

Skinflint^ niggard. 

Skittish, shy, timid. 

Skulk, lurk, hide. 

Slake, quench. 

Slander, asperse, calumniate, 
defame, detract, vilify. 

Slanting, sloping, inclining. 

Slave, drudge, servant 

Slavish, servile, mean. 

Slavery, bondage, captivity, 
servitude. 

Slay, kill, butcher, slaughter. 

Sleek, smooth, glossy. 

Sleep, repose, slumber. 

Sleepiness, drowsiness. 

Slender, fragile, slim, thin, 
slight. 

Slight, cursory, desultory, scorn, 
neglect, slim, superficial, weak. 

Slimy, viscous, clammy. 

Sling, hurl, throw. 

Slippery, glib, smooth. 

Slope, declivity, incline. 

Slothful, lazy, idle, sluggish. 

Slovenly, negligent, untidy. 

Slow, dilatory, dull, tedious, 
tardy. 



Digitized 



by Google 



400 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Sluggish, slow, lazy, inactive. 

Slumber, sleep, repose. 

Sly, artful, cunning. 

Smack, crack, kiss. 

Small, diminutive, infinitesimal, 
little, minute. 

Smart, quick, active, brisk. 

Smear, daub, soil. 

Smite^ strike, kill, blast 

Smell, fragrance, odor, perfume, 
scent. 

Smooth, bland, easy, even, 
level, mild. 

Smother, stifle, suppress, suffo- 
cate. 

Smutty, soiled, obscene. 

Snaggy, rough, rooty. 

Snappish, snarling, peevish. 

Snarling, cynical, snappish, 
waspish. 

Sober, abstemious, abstinent, 
temperate, grave, moderate. 

Sobriquet, nickname. 

Social, convivial, companion- 
able, conversable, familiar, 
sociable. 

Society, association, community, 
company, fellowship. 

Sod, turf, clod. 

Soft, compliant, docile, ductile, 
flexible, mild, pliant, tractable, 
yielding. 

Soil, stain, dirty, earth. 

Sojourn, tarry, stay. 

Solace, comfort, cheer, assuage. 

Sole, single, only. 

Solemn, grave, serious. 

Solemnity, ceremony. 

Solicit, ask, beg, beseech, en- 
treat, implore, supplicate, re- 
quest. 

Solicitation, importunity, invi- 
tation. 

Solicitude, anxiety, care. 

Solid, firm, hard, stable, sub- 
stantial. 

Solitaiy, alone, desolate, desert, 



lonely, only, retired, remote, 
sole. 

Solve, resolve, explain. 

Sombre, gloomy, dark. 

Somnolent, sleepy. 

Soothe, appease, cahn, assuage, 
compose, tranquillize, pacify. 

Sordid, mean, covetous. 

Sorcery, witchcraft, enchant- 
ment. 

Sore, tender, painful, ulcer. 

Sorrow, affliction, grief. 

Sort, kind, species. [tone. 

Sound, hearty, healthy, sane. 

Source, cause, fountain, origin, 
reason, spring. 

Sour, acid, acrimonious, acetose, 
acetous, sharp, tart. 

Souvenir, keepsake, remem- 
brancer. 

Sovereign, supreme. 

Spacious, ample, capacious. 

Spare, lean, thin, save, release. 

Sparkle, coruscate, glare, glitter, 
radiate, shine. 

Speak, articulate, talk, utter, 
tell, converse, discourse, pr<^ 
nounce. 

Species, class, kind, sort. 

Specific, particular, special. 

Specimen, model, sample, pat- 
tern. 

Specious, colorable, fair, feasi- 
ble, plausible, ostensible. 

Spectacle, show, sight. 

Spectator, beholder, witness, 
observer. 

Speculation, conjecture, theory, 
scheme. 

Speech, address, harangue, ora- 
tion. 

Speechless, dumb, silent, mute. 

Speedy, quick, hasty. 

Spendthrift, squanderer, prodi- 
gal. 

Spend, dissipate, exhaust, lavish, 
expend, squander. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



401 



Sphere, circle, globe, orb. 

Spicy, pungent. 

Spill, pour, shed, waste. 

Spine, backbone, thorn. 

Spirit, ardor, breath, soul, cour- 
age, ghost, temper. . 

Spirited, active, ardent, animat- 
ed, lively, vivacious. 

Spirits, animation, life, vivacity, 
courage. 

Spiritual, ecclesiastical, incor- 
poreal, unearthly, immaterial. 

Spite, grudge, malignity, malice, 
pique, malevolence, rancor. 

Splendid, grand, superb, magni- 
ficent, sublime. 

Splendor, brightness, brilliancy, 
lustre, magnificence, pageant- 
ry, pomp. 

Splenetic, fretful, gloomy, sul- 
len, morose, peevish. 

Splice, unite, join. 

Split, divide, separate. 

Splatter, bustle, stir. 

Spoil, fade, decay, plunder. 

Spongy, porous, soft 

Spontaneous, voluntary. 

Sport, amusement, game, diver- 
sion, pastime, play, recreation. 

Spotless, blameless, faultless, 
innocent, stainless, unblemish- 
ed, unspotted. 

Spout, jet. 

Spread, circulate, disseminate, 
diffuse, disperse, distribute, ex- 
pand, propagate, scatter. 

Spree, frolic, debauch. 

Sprig, branch, twig. 

Sprightful, gay, brisk, lively. 

Spring, arise, emanate, proceed, 
flow, leap, issue, start. 

Sprinkle, bedew, drizzle. 

Sprite, spirit, ghost. 

Sprout, bud, germinate, shoot. 

Spruce, neat, trim. 

Spry, nimble, brisk. 

Spume, firoth, foam. 



Spur, prick, incite. 

Spurious, false, counterfeit 

Spurn, scorn, reject, disdain. 

Spy, watch, discern. 

Squalid, foul, filthy. 

Squall, gust, scream. 

Squander, spend, waste. 

Squanderer, spendthrift. 

Squeamish, fastidious. 

Squeeze, press, compress. 

Squirm, twist, wriggle. 

Stability, firmness, steadiness, 
fixedness. • 

Staid, steady, grave. 

Stagnant, still, lifeless. 

Stain, blemish, blot, flaw, speck, 
spot, blot, foul, soil, sully, 
tarnish, color, discolor, dye, 
tmge. 

Stammer, falter, hesitate, stutter. 

Stamp, impression, mark, print. 

Standard, criterion, rule, test 

State, condition, position, plight, 
predicament, situation. 

Stated, regular, settled. 

Stately, august, majestic. 

Station, post, place, position, 
situation. 

Stationary, fixed, permanent. 

Stay, prop, staff*, support, abide, 
continue, delay, hinder, re- 
main, support, stop. 

Stead, place, room. 

Steady, firm, regular. 

Steal, purloin, pilfer. 

Sterility, aridity, unfruitfiilness, 
barrenness. 

Stem, austere, rigid, rigorous, 
severe, strict. [cious. 

Sticky, adherent, adhesive, tena* 

Stiff, unyielding, stubborn. 

Stifle, suffocate, choke. 

Still, allay, appease, assuage, 
calm, lull, pacify, quiet, silence. 

Stimulate, animate, excite, en- 
courage, impel, incite, insti- 
gate, urge. 



Digitized 



by Google 



402 



POPUUOl AMERICAN DIGTIONARY. 



Stock, accumulation, provision, 
supply, board, store, cattle, 
fund. 

Stoop, bend, condescend, sub- 
mit. 

Stop, cessation, intermission, 
rest, check, hinder, impede. 

Story, anecdote, incident, tale, 
memoir. 

Straight, direct. 

Strange, curious, eccentric, odd, 
singular, surprising. 

Stratagem, artifice, deception, 
delusion, finesse, imposture, 
fraud, trick. 

Strength, authority, force, might, 
power, potency. 

Strict, accurate, particular, exact, 
nice, precise, rigorous, severe, 
stem. 

Stricture, animadversion, cen- 
sure, contraction, criticism. 

Strife, contention, contest, dis- 
sension, discord. 

Strong, cogent, firm, hardy, 
muscular, powerful, robust, 
stout, vigorous. 

Structure, form, frame, edifice. 

Struggle, strive, endeavor. 

Stuff, material, rubbish. 

Stumble, trip, blunder. 

Stupendous, great, wonderful. 

Stupid, dull, inapt. 

Stupor, drowsiness, sleepiness, 
torpor. 

Sturdy, stout, strong, hardy. 

Stutter, stammer. 

Style, manner, phraseology, 
mode, diction, designate, char- 
acterize, denominate, entitle, 
name, mode, fashion. 

Subdue, conquer, subjugate, 
overcome, subject, surmount, 
vanquish. 

Subject, exposed, liable, matter, 
materials, object, obnoxious,^ 
subservient, subdue, subjugate. 



Subjoin, add, affix, attach, con* 
nect. 

Sublime, elevated, grand, ex- 
alted, great, lofty. 

Submissive, humble, compliant, 
obedient, yielding. 

Submit, surrender, yield. 

Subordinate, inferior, subser- 
vient, subject. 

Suborn, forswear, perjure. 

Subsequent, consequent, pos- 
terior, following. 

Subservient, inferior, subject, 
subordinate. 

Subside, abate, intermit, sink. 

Subsistence, living, mainten- 
ance, livelihood, sustenance, 
support. 

Substantial, responsible, strong, 
stout, solid. 

Substitute, change, exchange. 

Subterfuge, evasion, trick, 
quirk, shift. 

Subtle, artful, cunning, crafty, 
deceitful, insidious, perfidious, 
wily, sly. 

Subtract, deduct, withdraw. 

Subvert, invert, overturn, re- 
verse, overthrow. 

Successful, lucky, fortunate, 
prosperous. 

Succession, order, series. 

Succinct, concise, compendious, 
brief, short, laconic, summary. 

Succor, aid, assist, relieve, help. 

Succumb, yield. 

Such, like, similar. 

Sudden, hasty, unanticipated, 
unexpected, unlocked for. 

Suffer, allow, bear, tolerate, en- 
dure, permit. 

Suffocate, choke, smother, stifle. 

Sufficient, adequate, competent, 
enough. 

Suffrage, aid, voice, vote. 

Suggest, allude, hint, intimate, 
insinuate. 



Digitized 



by Google 




SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



403 



Suitable, agreeable, becoming, 
apt, fit, expedient. 

Suitor, lover, petitioner, wooer. 

Summary, brief, laconic, com- 
pendious, succinct, short. 

Summon, bid, call, invite, cite. 

Sundry, different, diverse, sev- 
eral, various. 

Superficial, flimsy, slight, shal- 
low. 

Supersede, displace, overrule. 

Supine, indolent, careless. 

Supple, pliable, flexible. 

Suppliant, entreating. 

Supplicate, ask, beg, beseech, 
entreat, implore, solicit. 

Supply, furnish, provide, pro- 
vision, store. 

Suppose, imagine, conjecture. 

Support, assist, cherish, defend, 
endure, favor, encourage, for- 
ward, uphold, maintain, nur- 
ture, patronize, protect, prop, 
sustain, £tay, second. 

Suppress, crush, restrain. 

Supreme, highest, chief. 

Sure, certain, confident, infalli- 
ble. 

Surety, certainty, bondsman, se- 
curity. 

Surface, outside, superficies. 

Surfeit, fullness, excess. 

Surly, morose, crabbed. 

Surmise, believe, conjecture, 
presume, suppose, think, sus- 
pect. 

Surmount, conquer, overcome, 
rise above, subdue, vanquish. 

Surpass, excel, outdo, exceed, 
outstrip. 

Surprise, admiration, astonish- 
ment, amazement, wonder. 

Surrender, cede, deliver, re- 
sign, yield. 

Surround, beset, encircle, en- 
compass, environ, enclose, in- 
vest. 



Survey, prospect, review, retro- 
spect. 

Suspend, hang, intermit, delay 

Suspense, doubt, indetermina- 
tion, hesitation. 

Suspicion, distrust, jealousy. 

Sustain, uphold, support, main- 
tain. 

Sustenance, living, mainten- 
ance, livelihood, subsistence, 
support. 

Swagger, boast, brag. 

Swap, exchange, barter. 

Swarm, multitude. 

Sweetheart, lover. 

Swelling, tumor. 

Swiftness, celerity, rapidity, 
speed, fleetness, quickness, 
velocity. 

Swindler, cheat, defrauder. 

Sycophant, flatterer, parasite. 

Symbol, emblem, figure, meta- 
phor, type. 

Symmetry, harmony, propor- 
tion. 

Sympathy, pity, compassion, 
agreement, commiseration, con- 
dolence. 

Symptom, mark, token, indica- 
tion, note, sign. 

System, method, schetne, order. 

Taboo, prohibit. 

Tacit, silent, implied. 

Tacitiftm, gloomy, morose, 
silent. 

Taint, corrupt, infect. 

Take, receive, seize, convey, 
assume. 

Tale, story, narrative. 

Talent, ability, capability, gift, 
faculty, endowment. 

Talk, chat, communication, con- 
ference, colloquy, conversation, 
discourse, dialogue, converse, 
mention, speak, state, tell. 

Talkativeness, loquacity, gar- 
rulity. 



Digitized 



by Google 



404 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Tantalize, aggravate, provoke, 
irritate, torment, taunt, tease. 

Taste, discernment, flavor, judg- 
ment, relish, savor, perception 

Taunt, revile, insiilt, upbraid, 
gibe, scoff. 

Tax, assessnitnt, contribution, 
custom, tribute, duty, rate, toll. 

Tedious, dilatory, slow, tire- 
some, tardy, wearisome. 

Tell, acquaint, disclose, commu- 
nicate, impart, inform, mention, 
report, reveal, state, talk. 

Temerity, rashness, heedless- 
ness, precipitancy. 

Temper, disposition, mix, qual- 
ify, soften, frame, humor, mood, 
temperament. 

Temperate, abstinent, abstemi- 
ous, moderate, sober. 

Temporal, secular, worldly, 
sublunary. 

Temporary, fleeting, transitory, 
transient 

Tempt, allure, attract, decoy, 
entice, seduce. 

Tempest, wind, commotion, 
storm. 

Tenacious, tough, persistent, 
adj;iesive. 

Tendency, aim, drift, inclina- 
tion, scope, proneness, pro- 
pensity 

Tender, delicate, soft, humftie, 
mild, bid, offer, propose. 

Tenderness, affection, be- 
nignity, fondness, humanity. 

Tenet, doctrine, opinion, dog- 
ma, position, principle. 

Tenor, course, purport. 

Tense, stiff, rigid. 

Tenth, tithe. 

Tenuous, thin, slender. 

Tepid, lukewarm. 

Term, condition, boundary, 
limit, expression, stipulation, 
wor'' 



Termagant, scold, vixen. 

Terminus, end, boundary. 

Terms, expressions, language, 
words. 

Terminate, complete, finish, 
end, close. 

Territory, country, land, do- 
main. 

Terrible, dreadful, fearful, ter- 
rific, frightful, horrible, shock- 
ing. 

Terror, alarm, apprehension, 
consternation, fear, dread, 
fright. 

Terse, smooth, neat. 

Test, criterion, trial, experiment, 
proof, experience, standard. 

Testify, declare, proof, signify, 
witness. 

Testimony, proof, evidence 

Testy, peevish, fretful. 

Thankful, grateful. 

Theory, speculation. 

Therefore, accordingly, so, 
hence, then, consequently, 
thence, wherefore. 

Thick, dense, close. 

Thin, slender, lean, dilute. 

Think, cogitate, corceive, con- 
sider, deliberate, contemplate, 
imagine, meditate, opine, pon- 
der, surmise. 

Thirsty, dry. 

Though, although, while. 

Thought, cogitation, conception, 
conceit, contemplation, fancy, 
deliberation, idea, imagination, 
meditation, notion, reflection, 
supposition. 

Thoughtless, careless, gay, in- 
considerate, hasty, indiscreet, 
foolish, unreflective. 

Thoughtful, anxious, attentive, 
circumspect, careful, consider- 
ate, contemplative, deliberate, 
discreet, reflective, solicitous, 
wary. 



Digitized 



by Google 




SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



408 



Thraldom, slavery, bondage, 

servitude. 
Thrifty, frugal, economical. 
Throb, beat, pulsate. 
Through, by, with. 
Throw, cast, fling, hurl, toss. 
Thrust, push, stab. 
Thump, beat, blow. 
Tidy, neat, cleanly. 
Tie, bind, fasten. 
Tight, tense, impervious. 
Time, age, date, duration, epoch, 

era, period, season. 
Timely, opportune, seasonably. 
Tip, end, point. 
Tired, fatigued, harassed, jaded, 

wearied. 
Tiresome, tedious, wearisome. 
Title, appellation, denomination, 

claim, name. 
Titter, laugh, giggle. 
Toil, labor, work. 
Token, indication, mark, note, 

sign, symptom. 
Tolerate, admit, suffer, allow, 

permit. 
Too, also, besides, likewise. 
Top, crown, apex, crest, tip. 
Toper, tippler, sot. 
Tophet, hell. 
Topic, subject. 
Topmost, highest, upper. 
Torment, pain, anguish. 
Torpid, sluggish, inactive, dull. 
Torrefy, roast, parch, bake. 
Torrid, burning, hot. 
Torsion, twisting. 
Torture, pain, anguish. 
Tortuous, winding, twisted, 

tormenting. 
Total, complete; whole, entire, 

gross. 
Totally, wholly, completely. 
Touch, contact, proof, test. 
Touching, affecting, moving, 

pathetic. 
Touchy, peevish, irritable.- 



Toughness, firmness, cohesion. 

Tour, circuit, ramble, excursion, 
jaunt, round, trip. 

Toy, plaything. 

Trace, mark, track, vestige, de- 
duce, derive. 

Trade, avocation, business, call- 
ing, dealing, employment, 
occupation, traffic. 

Traduce, calumniate, censure, 
condemn, degrade, decry, 
depreciate, disparage, detract. 

Traffic, commerce, barter. 

Trail, track, scent. 

Train, retinue, procession. 

Trammel, shackle. 

Tranquillity, calm, peace, quiet. 

Transact, conduct, negotiate, 
manage. 

Transcend, excel, exceed, out- 
do, surpass. 

Transparent, clear, pellucid, 
pervious, transpicuous, trans- 
lucent. 

Transient, fleeting, short. 

Transport, ecstacy, rapture. 

Travail, toil, labor. 

Travesty, parody. 

Treacherous, faithless, perfidi- 
ous, insidious. 

Treasonable, treacherous, trait- 
orous. 

Treat, entertain, negotiate. 

Treatment, usage. 

Treaty, contract, negotiation. 

Tremble, shake, quiver. 

Trench, ditch, encroach. 

Trend, stretch. 

Trepidation, agitation, tremor, 
emotion, trembling. 

Trespass, offence, misdemean- 
or, transgression. 

Tress, lock, ringlet. 

Trial, attempt, effort, endeavor, 
experiment, test, temptation, 
proof. 

Trim, neat, tidy. 



Digitized 



by Google 



406 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Trick, artifice, cheat, deception, 
fraud, sleight, finesse, impos- 
ture, stratagem. 

Trifling, futile, frivolous, incon- 
siderable, light, petty, unim- 
portant 

Trip, excursion, jaunt, ramble, 
tour. 

Trinket, jewel, ring. 

Trouble, adversity, affliction, 
anxiety, sorrow, vexation, dis- 
tress. 

Troublesome, importunate, an- 
noying, disturbing, harassing, 
irksome, teasing, perplexing. 

True, honest, plain, sincere, up- 
right 

Trust, belief, credit, confidence, 
faith, hope. 

Truth, faithfulness, fidelity, hon- 
esty, veracity. 

Try, attempt, endeavor, essay. 

Tug, hale, haul, pluck, pull. 

Tumble, drop, fall, rumple, 
sink. 

Turbulent, mutinous, riotous, 
seditious, tumultuous. 

Turgid, tumid, bombastic. 

Turmoil, commotion, trouble. 

Turn, bent, cast, meander, gyra- 
tion, bend, circulate, contort, 
distort, gyrate, twist, wind, 
wheel, revolve, whirl. 

Twine, twist, involve. 

Twinkle, sparkle. 

Type, emblem, figure, symbol, 
mark. 

Tyrannical, cruel, despotic. 

Tyro, beginner, novice. 

Ultimate, final, latest, last 

Umpire, arbiter, judge, arbitra- 
tor. 

Unalloyed, pure. 

Unaccountable, inexplicable. 

Unarmed, defenceless. 

Unassuming, modest. 

Unavailing, useless, ineffectual. 



1 



Unavoidable, inevitable. 

Unbecoming, ungraceful, un- 
suitable, unbefitting. 

Unbelief, disbelief, incredulity, 
skepticism, infidelity. 

Unbending, inflexible. 

Unbiased, impartial. 

Unbind, untie, loosen. 

Unblemished, faultless, irre- 
proachable, spotless, blameless. 

Unblushing, shameless. 

Unbosom, reveal, C(^nfess. 

Unbounded, boundless, illimit- 
able, infinite, interminable, un- 
limited. 

Unbroken, entire, whole. 

Unceasingly, always, constant- 
ly, continually, perpetually, 
ever. 

Unceremonious, informal. 

Uncertain, doubtful, precarious, 
dubious, equivocal. 

Unchangeable, unalterable, im- 
mutable. , 

Uncivil, impolite, discourteous, 
rude. 

Unclean, impure, foul. 

Uncomplaining, patient. 

Uncommon, choice, unfrequent, 
rare, scarce, singular, unique. 

Unconcerned, indifferent, re- 
gardless, uninterested. 

Uncouth, odd, strange, awk- 
ward. 

Uncultivated, rough, rude, un- 
tilled. 

Undesigning, artless, sincere. 

Uncover, denude, discover, ex- 
pose, reveal, strip. 

Undaunted, bold, intrepid, fear- 
less. 

Undeniable, incontrovertible, 
indisputable, irrefragable, un- 
questionable. 

Under, below, beneath, inferior, 
lower, subjacent, subject. 

Understanding, apprehension, 



Digitized 



by Google 



SYNONYMS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



407 



conception, comprehension, 
sense, faculty, intellect, reason, 
intelligence, perception! 

Undetermined, doubtful, hesi- 
tating, fluctuating, irresolute, 
unsteady, vacillating, waver- 
ing. 

Unfaithful, dishonest, disloyal, 
faithless, perfidious, treacher- 
ous. 

Unfold, develop, display, open, 
divulge, expand, reveal, un- 
ravel. 

Unhandy, awkward, clumsy, 
uncouth. ^ 

Unhappy, afflicted, calamitous, 
distressed, miserable, wretched, 
unfortunate. 

Uniform, alike, equable, equal, 
even. 

Unimportant, inconsiderable, 
immaterial, insignificant, trifl- 
ing, petty, trivial. 

Unison, accordance, agreement, 
concord, harmony, melody. 

Unlearned, ignorant, illiterate, 
iminformed, unlettered. 

Unlike, different, dissimilar, 
distinct. 

Unlimited, boundless, illimit- 
able, infinite, unbounded. 

Unmerciful, callous, merciless, 
cru6l, hardhearted, severe. 

Unmerited, unjust, undeserved. 

Unmindful, careless, heedless. 

Unmingled, pure, unmixed. 

Unmusical, inharmonious. 

Unnecessary, needless. 

Unnoticed, unobserved, over- 
looked. 

Unobserving, inattentive, heed- 
less. 

Unobtrusive, retiring, modest, 
backward. 

Unpitying, heartless, compas- 
sionless. 

Unpolished., rude, unrefii 



Unpleasant, disagreeable, im- 
attractive. 

Unpolluted, undefiled, unsul- 
lied. 

Unprejudiced, unbiassed, im- 
partial. 

Unpremeditated, sudden, un- 
foreseen. 

Unpretending, modest. 

Unprincipled, immoral. 

Unproductive, barren, unfruit- 
fuL 

Unpropitious, unfavorable. 

Unquenchable, inextinguish- 
able. 

Unravel, develop, unfold, dis- 
entangle, extricate. 

Unreasonable, unjust, non- 
sensical. 

Unrelenting, implacable, cruel, 
inexorable, relentless, hard- 
hearted. 

Unremitting^ continuTng, per- 
severing. 

Unripe, immature, green. 

Unruly, ungovernable, refrac- 
tory. 

Unsafe, dangerous. 

Unseasonable, late, unfit, un- 
timely, ill-timed. 

Unseemly, unbecoming. 

Unselfish, generous. 

Unsettled, undetermined, vacil- 
ating, wavering, unsteady. 

Unshaken, firm, immovable. 

Unsightly, deformed, ugly. 

Unskilled, inexperienced, bung- 
ling. . 

Unsound, defective, decayed. 

Unspeakable, ineffable, inex- 
pressible, unutterable. 

Unstable, changeable, incon- 
stant, mutable, wavering. 

Unsuitable, improper, unfit. 

Untimely, premature, inoppor- 
tune, unseasonable. 

Untidy, slovenly, careless. 



Digitized 



by Google 



408 



n 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



Untrue, false, un£sdthful. 

Unusual, rare, seldom, infre- 
quent 

Unwilling, averse, backward, 
disinclined, loth, reluctant. 

Upbraid, blame, censure, con- 
demn, reproach. 

Uproar, bustle, confusion, dis- 
turbance, tumult. 

Urbanity, afikbility, complai- 
sance, civility, courtesy, suavity . 

Urge, animate, encourage, impel, 
importune, instigate, incite, 
stimulate. 

Urgent, earnest, pressing, im- 
portunate. 

Usage, custom, treatment, fash- 
ion, prescription. 

Use, advantage, custom, habit, 
practice, service, utility, usage, 
employ. 

Usually, commonly, custom- 
arily, generally. 

Useless, fruitless, ineffectual, 
vain. 

Utility, advantage, convenience, 
benefit, use, service, usefulness. 

Utmost, extreme, greatest. 

Utopian, chimerical, ideal. 

Utterly, completely, fully, per- 
fectly. 

Vacant, empty, void, idle, 
devoid. 

Vacate, leave. 

Vacillating, fluctuating, incon- 
stant. 

Vagabond, vagrant. 

Vague, indefinite, loose, un- 
settled. 

Vain, conceited, fruitless, in- 
effectual, idle, useless. 

Valediction, farewell. 

Valiant, intrepid, brave, stout, 
bold. 

Valid, firm, legal. 

Valuable, costly, ertimable, 
pr«eiottfi, worthy. 



Valor, courage, bravery. 

Value, account; appredatioii, 
estimation, regard, price, rate, 
worth, appraise, assess, calcul- 
ate, appreciate, esteem, respect, 
estimate, compute. 

Vanish, disappear. 

Vanity, arrogance, conceit, 
pride, haughtiness. 

Vanquish, conquer, confute, 
defeat, overcome, subdue, sub- 
jugate. 

Vapid, insipid, flat. 

Variable, changeable, versatile, 
fickle, unsteady, wavering. 

Variance, discord, strife, dis- 
cussion. 

Variation, change, deviation, 
difference. 

Variety, diversity. 

Vary, alter, differ. 

Vassal, slave, servant, retainer. 

Vassalage, slavery, bondage. 

Vast, immense, great, numerous. 

Vault, arch, cellar, leap. 

Vaunt, boast, brag. 

Veer, turn, swerve. 

Vehement, earnest, eager, 
furious, ardent. 

Velocity, swiftness, speed, ra- 
pidity. 

Vend, sell, retail. 

Venerate, revere, respect. 

Vengeance, revenge, 'vindica- 
tion. 

Vengeful, vindictive, soiteful. 

Venial, pardonable, excusable. 

Venomous, noxious, poisonous. 

Vent, outlet, passage. 

Venture, risk, dare, hazard, 
stake. 

Veracious, truthfid, reliable, 
trustworthy. 

Verbatim, literally. 

Verbose, wordy, talkative, pro- 
lix. 

Verdant, green, fresh. 



Digi 



tized by Google 



arNdNYMS 9F THE ENGLJSH LANGUAGE. 



409 



Verdure, herbage, vegetation. 

Verge, border, brink, incline. 

Verify, confirm, ascertain. 

Verily, truly, certainly. 

Veritable, true. 

Versatile, turning, varied. 

Vexation, trouble, irritation. 

Vibrate, swing, oscillate. 

Vice, blemish, fault. 

Vicious, immoral, wicked. 

Victuals, food, provisions. 

Vie, rival, contend. 

View, see, observe, prospect, 
opinion. 

Vigilant, watchful, attentive. 

Vigor, strength, force, energy. 

Vile, low, mean, wicked, base. 

Vilify, defame, slander. 

Villain, knave, scoundrel. 

Vindicate, justify, defend. 

Violate, infringe, ravish, .break, 
disregard. 

Violence, force, vehemence. 

Virtue, strength, goodness. 

Virtuous, incorrupt, pure. 

Virulent, poisonous, malignant. 

Visible, plain, observable. 

Vision, sight, phantom. 

Vital, essential, necessary, im- 
portant. 

Vitiate, destroy, injure. 

Void, empty, vacant, unoccupied. 

Volatile, light, evaporating. 

Voluble, fiuent. 

Voluptuous, sensual, luxuriant. 

Vulgar, commoii, ordinary, 
mean, unrefined. 

Waggish, merry, droll. 

Walk, gait, path. 

Wanderer, rover, rambler. 

Wane, decline, decrease. 

Want, need, necessity. 

Wanton, lascivious, reckless. 

Warm, ardent, keen, zealous. 

Warning, caution, notification. 

Warp, twist, pervert. 

Wary, cautious, prudent. 



Waste, spend, squander, lavish* 
desolate, desert, loss, prodigal, 
ity. 

Watchful, vigilant, attentive, 
cautious, circumspect. 

Wayward, peryerse, froward. 

Weak, feeble, infirm, imstable. 

Wealthy, rich, opulent 

Weary, tired, fatigued. 

Weight, importance, heaviness. 

Welfare, health, prosperity, 
happiness. 

Wet, moisten, dampen. 

Wheedle, entice, flatter, coax. 

Whim, fancy, freak, idea. 

Whirl, turn, revolve. 

Whirlpool, eddy, vortex. 

Wholesome, healtliy, salu- 
brious, sound. 

Wicked, bad, evil, sinful. 

Wield, employ, manage, use. 

Wild, savage, uncultivated. 

Wile, trick, artifice, stratagem. 

Willful, perverse, obstinate. 

Willingly, gladly, cheerfully, 
voluntarily. 

Wilt, fade, wither, droop. 

Wily, cunning, artful. 

Win, gain, obtain. 

Wise, judicious, prudent, sage. 

Wish, desire, want. 

Witness, attest, observe, sec. 

Woful, calamitous, afflictive, 
miserable. [ment. 

Wonder, surprise, astonish- 

Wordy, verbose, talkative. 

Work, labor, toil, employment, 
movement, operation, em- 
broider, [annoy. 

Worry, tease, trouble, vex. 

Worth, value. 

Worthy, deserving, excellent. 

Wretched, unhappy, vile, afflict- 
ed, worthless. 

Wrong, injustice, erroneous, 
injury. 

Zeal, ardor, earnestness. 



Digitized 



by Google 



n 



DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 



Accellerando or Accel. Quick- 
en the time gradually. 

Adagio. Very slow. 

Ad Libitum or Ad Lib. At 
will. 

AfiTettuoso. Affecting, with 
pathos. 

Agitato. Agitated. 

Al. To the; as, Al Fine, to the 
end. 

Allegretto. Somewhat cheer- 
ful, but not so quick as Allegro. 

Allegro. Quick. 

Al Segno. To the sign, signify- 
ing that the performer must go 
back to the sign .•5.*, and play 
from that mark to the word 
Fine. 

Amoroso. Lovingly. 

Andante. Somewhat slow. 

Andantino. Not quite so slow 
as Andante. 

Animato. In an animated style. 

A poco a poco. Little by little. 

Aria. An air or song. 

Assai. Very, extremely. 

A tempo. In the regular time. 

Bis. Twice (repeat). 

Brillante. Brilliant. 

Calando. Diminishing gradu- 
ally in tone and speed. 

Cantabile. In a graceful sing- 
ing style. 

Con. With ; as Con expressione, 
with expression. 

Con Moto. In agitated style. 
With spirit. 

Con Spirito^ With quickness 
and spirit 



Coda. A few bars added to 
terminate a composition. 

CoUa Voce. With the voice or 
ipelody. 

Con Brio. With brilliancy. 

Con Expressione. With ex- 
pressione. 

Crescendo or Cres. Gradually 
increase the volume of tone. 

Da Capo or D. C. Repeat from 
the beginning to the word 
Fine. 

Decrescendo or Decres. Grad- 
ually diminish the volume of 
tone. 

Delicato. Delicately. 

Diminuendo or Dim. Same as 
Decrescendo. 

Dolce or Dol. In a sweet, 
smooth style. 

Doloroso. In a mournful, pa- 
thetic style. 

E." And. 

Fine. The end. 

Forte or f. Loud. 

Fortissimo or fif. Very loud. 

Forzando or Fz. Signifies that 
the note is to be given peculiar 
emphasis or force. 

Forza. Force. 

Fuoco. With fire. 

Grave. Extremely slow. 

Grazioso. In a graceful, ele- 
gant style. 

Impromptu. An extemporane- 
ous production. 

L. H. Left hand. 



«^ 



Digitized 



by Google 



^^aM 



WeriONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 



411 



Larghetto. Slow and solemn, 
but less so than Largo, 

Largo. Very slow and solemn. 

Legeremente. Lightly, gayly. 

Lentando. Slower by degrees. 

Legato. In a smooth and con- 
nected manner. 

Lento. In a slow time. 

Loco. Place, play as written. 

Maestoso. Majestic arid dig- 
nified. 

Martellato. Struck with force. 

Meno. Less. 

Mezzo or M. Neither loud nor 
soft — medium. 

Mezzo Forte or mf. Rather 
loud. 

Mezzo Piano or mp. Rather 
soft. 

Moderato. Moderate. 

Molto. Very. 

Mosso. Movement. 

Moto or Con Moto. With agi- 
tation and earnestness. 

Morendo. Dying away. 

Non Troppo. Not too much. 

Obligato. Cannot be omitted. 

Ottava, 8va. An octave higher. 

Patetico. Pathetically. 

Pastorale. A soft and rural 
movement. 

Piano or p. Soft. 

Pianissimo or pp. Very soft. 

Piu. Very. 

Poco. A little, somewhat. 

Pomposo. Pompous, grand. 

Presto. Very quick. 

Prestissimo. As quick as pos- 
sible. 

Quasi. As if. 

Rallentando or Rail. A grad- 
ual diminution of tone and 
retarding of movement. 

Religioso. In a solemn style. 

Ritardando or Ritard or Rit. 
Gradually slower4 



Rinforzando, Rf. With addi- 
tional force. 

Ritenuto. Hold back the time 
at once'. 

Scherzando. Playfully. 

Segue. " Contmue as before. 

Seria. Seriously. 

Sempre. Throughout — always. 

Semplice. In a simple, unaf- 
fected style. 

Seguo or :S:. Sign; as, Al 
Segno, to the sign ; Dal Segno ^ 
repeat from the sign to the 
word Fine. 

Senza. Without. 

Sforzando. Emphasized. , 

Sincopato. Forced out of time. 

Smorzando. Smoothed, de- 
creased. 

Soave. Soft and d«^licate. 

Sotto Voce. In an undertone. 

Sostenuto. In a smooth, con- 
nected style. 

Spirito or Con Spirito. With 
spirit. 

Staccato. Detached, short. 

Tempo. In time. 

Tempo di Marcia. In march- 
ing time. 

Tempo di Valse. In .waltz 
time. 

Tempo Primo. In the original 
time. 

Trillando. Shaking on a suc- 
cession of notes. 

Tranquillo. Tranquilly. 

Tutto Forza. As loud as jxw- 
sible. 

Veloce. With velocity. 

Vigoroso. Boldly, vigorously. 

Vivace. With extreme brisk- 
ness and animation. 

Vivo. Animated, lively. 

Volti Subito. Turn over the 
pages quickly. 

Zeloso. With zeal. 



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DBCI^ARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for 
one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected 
them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the ea»th, 
* the separate and equal station to which the laws of Nature and 
Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident : that all men are created 
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalien- 
able rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted 
among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed: tiat whenever any form of government becomes de- 
structive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to 
abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation 
on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form as to 
them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. 
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established 
should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accord- 
ingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to 
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves, by abol- 
ishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long 
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same 
object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, 
it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and 
to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the 
patient sufferance of these colonies, and such is now the necessity 
which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. 
The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of 
repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the 
establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove 
this, let facts be submitted to a candid world : 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 

, He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other laws for 
the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people 
would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature — a right 
inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

412 



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DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 413 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, 
uncomfortable, and distant from the repository of the public records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing, 
with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time after such dissolution to cause 
others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of 
annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exer- 
cise, the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to ail the dan- 
gers of invasion from without and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored 'to prevent the population of these States; 
for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalization of foreigners ; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and 
raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands. 

He has oDstructed the administration of justice by refusing his 
assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure 
of their offices and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither 
swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their sub- 
stance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, 
without the consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the military independent of and su 
perior to the civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws ; giv- 
ing his assent to their acts of pretended legislation : 

For quartenng large bodies of armed troops among us : 

For protecting them by a mock trial from punishment for any 
murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these 
States : 

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world i 

For imposing taxes on us without our consent : 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury : 

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended 
offenses ; 

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring 
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit 
instrument lor mtroducing the same absolute rule into these 
colonies : 

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable 
laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our government : 

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves 
invested with power to legislate for U8 in all cases whatsoever. 



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414 . POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



1 



He has abdicated government here by declaring us out of his 
protection, and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our 
towns, and aestroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreig^n mer- 
cenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny 
already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scajxely 
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the 
head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high 
seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections among us, and has en- 
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless 
Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for 
redress in the most humble terms ; our repeated petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury.' A prince whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. 
We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their 
legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We 
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and 
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and 
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our com- 
mon kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably 
interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have 
been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, 
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separa- 
tion, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in 
war, in peace friends. 

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, 
in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of - 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and 
by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly 
publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political con- 
nection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought 
to be, totally dissolved ; and that, as free and independent States, 
they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, 
establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which inde- 
pendent States may of right do. And for the support of this decla- 
ration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, 
we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our 
saored honor. 



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CONSTlTUtlON OP THE UNlTfeD STATES. 



415 



The Men who Signed the Declaration of Independence. 



Names and Place of Birth. 



John Hancock, Mass 
osiah Bartlett, Mass 
irniiam Whipple, Me 

Matthew Thornton, Ireland 
Samuel Adams, Mass 

iohn Adams, Mass 
Lobert Treat Paine, Mass.. 

Elbridge Gerry, Mass 

Stephen Hopkins, R. h 

William Ellery, R. I 

Roger Sherman, Mass 

Samuel Huntington, Conn. . 
William Williams, Conn.... 

Oliver Wolcott, Conn 

William Floyd, N.Y 

Philip Livingston, N. Y. ... 
Francis Lewis, Eneland.... 

Lewis Morris. N. Y. 

Richard Stockton, N. J 

John Witherspoon, Scotland 

Francis Hopkinson, Pa 

John Hart, N.J 

Francis L. Lee, Va 

Carter Braxton, Va. 

William Hooper, Mass 

Joseph Hewes, N. J 

John Penn, Va 

Edward Rutledge, S. C 



1793 
1795 
1785 
1803 
1803 
1826 
1814 
1814 
1785 
1830 

1793 

1796 

i8it 

1797 

1821 

1776 

1803 

1798 

1781 

»794 

1 791 

1780 

1797 

1797 

1790 

17; 

175 

1800 



Names and Place of Birih. 



Abraham Clarke, N.J 

Robert Morris, England 

Benjamin Rush, Pa 

Benjamin Franklin, Mass 

John Morton, Pa 

George Clymer, Pa 

James Smith, Ireland 

George Taylor, Ireland 

James Wilson^cotland 

George Ross, Del 

CsBsar Rodney, Del 

George Reed, Md 

Thomas McKean, Pa 

Samuel Chase, Md 

William Paca, Md 

Thomas Stone, Md 

Charles Carroll, Md 

George Wythe, Va 

Richard H. Lee, Va 

Thomas Jefferson, Va 

Benjamin Harrison) Va 

Thomas Nelson, Va 

Thomas Heyward, Jr., S. C. . 

Thomas Lynch, S. C 

Arthur Middletonj S C 

Button Gwinnet, England 

Lyman Hall, Conn 

George Walton, Va 



1794 ( 
1806 5 
i8i3( 
1790S 
1777 s 
1813 : . 
180686 
1781 65 



^ 



1798 
1780 
1783 
1798 
1817 
x8ti 
1799 
1787 
J 832 
1800 

1826 
1797 
1789 
1809 
1777 
1788 
1777 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

PREAMBLE. 

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more 
perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure 
the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

ARTICLE I. 

THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section I. — All legislative powers herein granted shall be 
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a 
Senate and House of Representatives. 

Section II. — i. The House of Representatives shall be com- 
posed of members chosen every second year by the people of the 



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416 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

several States ; and the electors in each State shall have the quali- 
fications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the 
State legislature. 

2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have at- 
tained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen 
of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an in- 
habitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among 
the several States which may be included within this Union, ac- 
cording to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by 
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound 
to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, 
three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be 
made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of 
the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, 
in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each 
State shall have at least one representative ; and until such enu- 
meration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be en- 
titled to choose thr^e; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; 
New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Mary- 
land, six; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, 
five; and Georgia, three. 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, 
the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill 
such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and 
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Section III.— i. The Senate of the United States shall be 
composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the legisla- 
ture thereof for six years, and eaqh Senator shall have one vote. 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of 
the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at 
the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration 
of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the 
sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year ; and 
if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess 
of the legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make tem- 
porary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which 
shall, then fill such vacancies. 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to 
the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 



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CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 417 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a Presi- 
dent pro tempore in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he 
shall exercise the office of President of the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. 
When sitting for that puij>ose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice 
shall preside : and no person shall be convicted without, the concur- 
rence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further 
than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy 
any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States ; but the 
party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indict- 
ment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law. 

Section IV. — i. The times, places, and manner of holding 
elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed m 
each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any 
time, by law, make or alter such regulations, Except as to the places 
of choosing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year ; and 
such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they 
shall by law appoint a different day. 

Section V. — i. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, 
returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of 
each shall constitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number 
may adjourn from day to. day and may be authorized to compel the 
attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such 
penalties as each house may provide. 

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, 
punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence 
of two thirds, expel a member. 

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from ' 
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their 
judgment require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members 
of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of 
those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without 
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to 
any other place than that in wnich the two houses shall be sitting. 

Section VI.^ — i. The Senators and Representatives shall re- 
ceive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, 
and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, 
in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be 
privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their 
respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same ; 
and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be quest 
tioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for 



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418 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the 
authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the 
emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time ; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a 
member of either house during his continuance in office. 

Section VII. — i. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in 
the House of Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or con- 
cur with amendments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representa- 
tives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to 
the President of the United States ; if he approve, he shall sign it ; 
but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in 
which it shall have originated ; who shall enter the objections at 
large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such 
reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the 
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, 
by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; and if approved by two 
thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases 
the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and 
the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall 
not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) 
after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law m 
like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their ad- 
journment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of 
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except 
on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President 
of the United States ; and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be approved by him ; or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed 
by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, accord- 
ing to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Section VIII. — The Congress shall have power — 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay 
the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare 
of the United States ; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be 
uniform throughout the United States : 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States : 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the 
several States, and with the Indian tribes : 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform 
laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States : 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign 
coin, and to fix the standard of weights and measures : 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securi- 
ties and current coin of the United States : 

7. To establish postoffices and post-roads : 



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tX)NStltUTION OF THE tJKlTtCD STATttS. 419 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by secur- 
ing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right 
to their respective writings and discoveries : 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court : 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on 
the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations : 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and 
make rules concerning captures on land and water t 

12. To raise and support amjies ; but no appropriation of money 
to that use shall be for a longer term than two years : 

13. To provide and maintain a navy : 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the 
land and naval forces : 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws 
of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions : 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the 
militia, and for governing such parts of them as may be employed 
in the service of the United States ; reserving to the States respect- 
ively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training 
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress : 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever 
over such district (not exceeding ten -miles square)' as may, by 
cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become 
the seat of government of the United States ; and to exercise like 
authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the legisla- 
ture of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of 
forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful build- 
ings ; — and ' 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers 
vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, 
or in any department or officer thereof. 

Section IX. — i. The immigration or importation of such per- 
sons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, 
shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand 
eight hundred and eight ; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
importation not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus- 
pended^ unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public 
safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in pro- 
portion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any 
State. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce 
or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another : nor shall 



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420 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, dear, or pay 
duties in another. 

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and 
account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall 
be published from time to time. 

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : 
and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shalL 
without the consent of Congress, accept of any present, emolument, 
office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or 
foreign state. 

Section X. — i. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, 
or confederation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money ; 
emit bills of credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender 
in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or 
law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of 
nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any im- 
posts or duties on imports or exportsi except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing its inspection laws , and the net produce of 
all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports, shall 
be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such 
laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
on tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter 
into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign 
power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such im- 
minent danger as will not admit of delay. * 

ARTICLE II. 

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section I. i . — The executive power shall be vested in a Presi- 
dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his office 
during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-I*resident, 
chosen for the same term, be elected as follows : 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature 
thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number 
of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled 
in Congress : but no Senator or Representative, or person holding 

,an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed 
an elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a 
list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each : which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 




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CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 421 

the seat of the gove|;nment of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having 
the greatest number of votes shall be President, if such number be 
a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if 
there be more than one who have such a majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then Lie House of Representatives shall 
immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President ; and if no 
person have a majority, tlien, from the five highest on the list, the 
said House shall, in like manner, choose a President. But in choos- 
ing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representa- 
tion from each State having one vote : a quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, 
and a majority of all the States sliall be necessary to a choice. In 
every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the 
greatest number of votes of the electors shall be Vice-President. 
But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the 
Senate shall choose from them, by ballot^ the Vice-President. 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, 
and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the 
United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the office of President : neither shall any person be 
eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty- 
five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United 
States, 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his 
death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of 
the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President ; aitd^ 
the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, 
declaring what officer shall then act as President ; and such officer 
shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President 
shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a 
compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished 
during the period for which he shall have been elected ; and he shall 
not receive within that period any other emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the excution of his office, he shall take 
the following oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute 
the office of President of the United States ; and will, to the best 
of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the 
United States." 



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422 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

SXCTXON II. — I. The President shall be Commander-in Chief of 
the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the 
several States, when called into the actual service of the United 
States. • He may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal 
officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject re- 
lating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have 
power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United 
States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators 
present concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors and other 
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all 
other officers of the United States whose appointments are not 
herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by 
law. But the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such 
inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the 
courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that 
may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commis- 
sions, which shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Section III. — He shall, from time to time, give to Congress 
information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measui^es as he shall judge necessary and expedient. 
He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either 
of them ; and in case of disagreement between them with respect to 
the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he 
shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public 
ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed : 
and shall commission all officers of the United States. 

Section IV. — The President, Vice-President, and all civil 
•fficers of the United States, shall be removed from office on im- 
peachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high 
crimes and misdemeanors. 

ARTICLE III. 

THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Section I. — The judicial power of the United States shall be 
vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Con- 
gress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices 
during good behavior ; and shall, at stated times, receive for their 
services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their continuance in office. 

Section II. — i. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in 
law and equity arising under this Constitution, the laws of the 



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CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 423 

• 
United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public 
ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of admiralty and maritime juris- 
diction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a 
party ; to controversies between two or more States ; between a State 
-and citizens of another State; between citizens of different States; 
between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of 
different States ; and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and * 
foreign states, citizens, or subjects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and 
consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme 
G)urt shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before 
mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both 
as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulation, 
as Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall 
be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said 
crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within 
any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as Congress may 
by law have directed. 

Section III.— i. Treason against the United States shall consist 
only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, 
giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of 
treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 
fcct, or on confession in open court. 

2. Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of 
treason ; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, 
or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. 

ARTICLE IV. 

MISCELLANEOtJS PROVISIONS. 

SECTION I.— Full faith and crtdit shall be given in each State to 
the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of evtty other 
State ; and Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in 
which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the 
effect thereof 

Section II. — i. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to 
all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other 
crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, 
shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdic- 
tion of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the 
laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any 
law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or laborer 



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424 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

bat shall be* delivered up on claim of the party to whom such 
service or labor may be due. 

Section III. — i. New States may be admitted by Congress 
into this Union ; but no new State shall be formed or erected within 
the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the 
junction of 'two or more States, or parts of States, without the 
consent of the legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of 
. Congress. 

2. Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all 
needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other 
property belonging to the United States ; and nothing in this Con- 
stitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the 
United States, or of any particular State. 

SectioH IV. — The United States shall guarantee to every State 
in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect 
each of them against invasion : and, on application of the legislature, 
or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), 
against domestic violence. 

ARTICLE V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem 
it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution ; or, on 
the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several 
States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as parts of this 
Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three- fourths of the 
several States, or by conventions in three- fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other mode of ratification may be' proposed by Congress ; 
provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner afifect the 
first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article ; ancl 
that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI. 

1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before 
the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the 
United States under this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which 
shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which 
shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme law of the land ; and the judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the 
members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and 
judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, 



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AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 425 

shall be bound by oath or affirmation to. support this G)nstitution ; 
but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any 
office or public trust under the United States. 

ARTICLE VII. 

The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be suffi- 
cient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States 
* so ratifying the same. 

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present, 
the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America the twelfth. In 
witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. 

George Washington, 

President t and Deputy from Virginia, 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Article I. — Congress shall make no law respecting an estab- 
lishment of religion, or .prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or 
abridging the freedom of speech or of the press ; or the right of 
the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for 
a redress of grievances. 

Article II. — A well-regulated militia being necessary to the 
security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 
arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. — No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered 
in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, 
but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

Article IV. — The right of the people to be secure in their 
persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches 
and seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall issue but 
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particu- 
larly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things 
to be seized. 

Article V. — No person shall be held to answer for a capital or 
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of 
a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or 
in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public 
danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be 
put twice in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in a^y 
criminal case to be witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor shall private 
property be taken for public use without just compensation. ^* 

Article VI. — In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall 
enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of 



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426 POPULAR. AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

the State and district wherein (he crime shall have been committed, 
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law ; and 
to be informed of the nature and cause of the. accusation; to be 
confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have the assist- 
ance of counsel for his defense. 

Articlb VII. — In suits at common law, where the value in 
controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury 
shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the 
rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. — Excessive bail shall not be required, nor 
excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments in- 
flicted. 

Article IX.— The enumeration in the Constitution of certain 
rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained 
by the people. 

Article X. — The powers not delegated to the United States by 
the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to 
the States respectively, or to the people. 

Article XI. — The judicial power of the United States shall 
not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commehced 
or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another 
State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. — i. The electors shall meet in their respective 
States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of 
whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves. They shall name in their ballots the person voted for 
as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice- 
President ; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for 
as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of 
the number of votes for each; which lists they shall sign and cer- 
tify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of theJJnited 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shalF then be 
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for 
I*resident shall be the President, if such number be a majority of 
the whole number of electors appointed : and if no person have 
such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, 
not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the 
House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballet, the 
President. But, in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken 
by States, the representation from each State having one vote : a 
quonpn for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from 
two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be' 
necessary to a choice^ And if the House of Representatives shall 



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AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 427 

tiot choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devotve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the 
Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or 
other constitutional disability of the President. 

2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have 
a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate 
shall choose the Vice-President. A quorum for the purpose shall 
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a ma- 
jority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice^ 

3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of Presi- 
dent shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

Article XIII. — Section I. — Neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

Section II. — Congress shall have power to enforce this Article 
by appropriate legislation. 

Article XIV. — Section I. — All persons bom or naturalked 
in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are 
citizens of the United States, and of the State wherein they reside. 
No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the 
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States ; nor shall 
any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law ; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Section II. — Representatives shall be apportioned among the 
several States according to their respective numbers, counting the 
whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not 
taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of 
electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, 
Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a 
State, or tlie members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of 
the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, 
and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except 
for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representa- 
tion therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number 
of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citi- 
zens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

Section III. — No person shall be a Senator or Representative 
in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any 
office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, 
who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United Slates, or as a member of any State legis- 
lature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support 
the CoQStitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insur- 



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428 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

rection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each 
house, remove such disability. 

Section IV. — ^The validity of the public debt of the United 
States, authorized by law, mcluding debts incurred for payment of 
pensions tmd bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or 
rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States 
nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any 
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all such debts, 
obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Section V. — ^The Congress shall have power to enforce by ap- 
propriate legislation the provisions of this Article. 

Article XV. — Section I. — The right of citizens of the United 
States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude. 

Section II. — ^The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
Article by appropriate legislation. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The Government of the United States is a government of the 
people. While modeled largely after the Conmion Law of England, 
It is purely Democratic. It is for the people and by the people, and 
is believed to promote and secure the rights, liberties and welfare of 
the people, generally, in larger measure 8ian any other civil govern- 
ment that has ever been established by man. 

Our present Constitution was adopted on the 15th of September, 
1787, except certain amendments, which have been added sub- 
sequently. Having been duly ratified by all the thirteen original 
States, it became the organic law of the land, March 4th, 17S9. 

Tie Gorvemment under the Constitution comprises three distinct 
and independent branches, viz, the Legislative ^ the Judicial and 
the Executive, Laws are enacted by the first, interpreted by the 
second, and enforced by the third. 

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH. . 

All Legislative powers are vested in Congress, which consists of 
a Senate and House of Representatives, corresponding with the 
House of Lords and House of Commons of Great Britain, or the 
British Parliament. 



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THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 429 



SENATE. 

Hie Senate consists of two members from each State, chosen by 
the State Legislature for six years. Every Senator must be at least 
thirty years of age, and a citizen of the State at the time of his 
election, and a citizen of the United States for nine years pre- 
ceding. 

The Vice-President of the United States is, ex-officio, the Pre- 
sident of the Senate. Besides its legislative functions, the Senate 
is vested with judicial functions, and may become a high court of 
impeachment. But the sole power of impeachment belongs to the 
Representatives. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

The members of the House of Representatives are chosen 
directly by the people, and serve for two years. The whole number 
is 292, and these are distributed among the several States, as 
determined by the decennial census. Each State, however, is 
entitled to at least one Representative. 

To be qualified for this office, the person must be at least 
twenty-Jive years of age, at least seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and an inhabitant of the State in which he is chosen. 

THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

The Judicial powers of the government are vested in the 
Supreme, Circuit and District Courts of the United States. These 
are called the Federal Courts. Congress, however, may establish 
such other and inferior courts as may be deemed advisable. 

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

This is the highest judicial tribunal in the land. It has a Chief 
Justice and eight Associate Justices. It has exclusive jurisdiction 
m matters between the States, and appellate jurisdiction from final 
decrees and judgments of the Circuit Courts, in cases where the 
matters in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceed the s^m of $2,000, 
and from final judgments and decrees of the highest courts of the 
several States in certain cases. It has also power to issue writs of 
prohibition and mandamus in certain cases. 

THE CIRCUIT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

They are held by a Justice of the Supreme Court assigned to 
the circuit, and by the judge of the district in which the court sits, 
conjointly. They have original jurisdiction concurrent with the 
courts of the several States, of all suits at common law, or in 
equity, when the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the 
sum of IJ500, and the United Slates are plaintifif, or an alien is a 



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430 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 

party, or where the suit is between a citizen of the State where the 
suit is Brought and another State. 

They have also exclusive cognizance of most of the crimes and 
offenses cognizable under the authority of the United States, and 
concurrent jurisdiction with the District Court of offenses cognizable 
therein. They have also appellate jurisdiction from judgments and 
final decrees of the District Courts of the United States, in all cases 
where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of ^50. 

The trial of issues o} fact in all suits, excepting those of equity, 
and admiralty, and maritime jurisdiction, is by a jury. 

THB DISTRICT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

These have exclusive original jurisdiction of all civil cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under the 
navigation laws, or of impost, or trade of the United States, where 
they are made upon tidewaters, saving, however, to suitors the right 
of a common law remedy where the common law gives it ; also of 
all crimes and offenses cognizable under the authority of the United 
States, committed within their respective districts, or upon the high 
seas in certain cases. They have also concurrent jurisdiction with 
the State courts in certain cases. The trial is by jury, except in 
certain cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 

JUDGES: HOW APPOINTED. 

The appointment of all Judges of the Federal courts is made by 
the President, by and with the approval and consent of the Senate ; 
and they hold their offices during jood behavior, and can be re- 
moved only on impeachment. 

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

The Executive power is vested in a President. He must be a 
native-bom citizen, a resident of the United States, and at least 
thirty-five years of age. He holds his office during a term of four 
years, and may be re-elected. 

He is the Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy, and, with 
the consent of the Senate, appoints all Cabinet, judicial and exec- 
utive officers; has power to grant pardons and reprieves for offenses 
against the United States, and it is his duty to see that the laws are 
faithfully executed. 

THE VICE-PRESIDENT. 

The Vice-President is chosen at the same time, in the same 
manner, and for the same term as the President, and must have the 
same qualifications. In case of the death or disability of the Presi- 
dent, the duties of the office devolve upon the Vice-President 
during the term. In. case of the death or disability of the Vice- 
President, the President of the Senate, pro tempore, takes his place. 



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THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 431 

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS. 

The President and Vice-President of the United States are not 
chosen by the direct vote of the p'eople, but through the machinery 
of what is termed an " Electoral College." Each State has as 
many Electors as it has Senators and RepresentJ»tives in Congress. 
These are chosen on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of 
November of tlie year in which they are to be api^ointed. Eacli 
State may provide for filling vacancies which may occur in its Col- 
lege of Electors. And in case the election held in any State should 
fail in making a legal choice, then the failure may be remedied 
subsequently in such manner as the State law provides. 

The Electors meet at the capitals of their respective States on 
the first Wednesday of December, and vote by distinct ballots for 
President and Vice-President, one of whom shall not be an in- 
habitant of their own State. 

Having made lists of the number of votes cast, and for whoi)^ 
given, they must sign, certify, seal up and transmit these lists, by a 
special messenger, to the President of the Senate at Washington. 
These are opened by the President of the Senate, and the votes are 
counted in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
who have convened on a day fixed for that purpose. 

The person having the greatest number of votes for President is 
duly elected, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
Electors appointed. If no person has such majority, then, from the 
persons having the highest number, not exceeding three in the list 
of those voted for, the House of Jlepresentatives shall choose 
immediately, and by ballot, the President. Should they neglect to 
do this before the 4th of March following, then the Vice-President 
shall act as President, as he would in case of the death or other 
constitutional disability of the President. 

ANNUAL SALARIES OF FEDERAL OFFICERS. 

President of the United States |5o,ooo 

Vice-President 8,000 

Cabinet Ministers, each 8,000 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 10,500 

Each Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 10,000 

Senators and Representatives, each* 5,000 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 8,000 

Secretary of the Senate 3,600 

Clerk of the House of Representatives 3,600 

Superintendent of Coast Survey 6,000 

Ministers Plenipotentiary to Great Britain and France 1 7,500 

Ministers Plenipotentiary to Russia, Prussia, Spain, Austria, Italy, 

China, Brazil and Mexico 12,000 

Ministers resident, to Portugal and other states 7>5oo 

Consul-General from 3,000 to 6,000 

Consuls from i ,000 to 7,000 

Secretaries of Legation from 1,500 to 2,700 

♦Senators and Representatives also receive twenty cents per mile as mileage. 
There is deducted from their salaries |8 per diem for each day's absence, unless 
eaused by sickness. 



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432 1»0I»ULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

THE CABINET. 

The administrative business of the government is divided into 
seven departments, or bureaus, each under the management of a 
special officer, selected by the President and approved by the Senate. 
These heads of department are termed members of the Cabinet. 
They arei 

I. THE SECRETARY OF STATE, 

who has charge of the great seal of the United States, but can 
only affix it to written documents by direction of the President. 
He conducts all treaties with foreign powers, conducts the cor- 
respondence with our ministers at foreign courts, and with ministers 
of foreign courts residing here ; grants passports, etc. 

II. THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

superintends all the financial matters of the government ; the set- 
tling of all public accounts; negotiating loans, etc., and recom- 
mends to Congress, in connection with his annual report of national 
finances, such measures as he may deem advisable in promoting 
public credit and private advantage. 

III. THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

has the exclusive control of the military affairs of the nation, and 
manages these in detail ; directs the making of public surveys ; the 
construction of fortifications, etc. The Adjutant-Generars office, 
Quartermaster-General's Bureau, the Ordnance, Topographical, 
Medical, Engineer and Subsistence Bureaus are all under his super- 
vision. 

IV. THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY 

superintends all naval affairs and directs the naval forces. The 
several bureaus, such as of Docks, of Navy Yards, of Construction, 
Equipment, and Repairs of Ordnance, and Hydrography, are all 
under his direction. 

V. THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 

He has control of all matters connected with the public domain, 
Indian Affairs, Patents, Public Buildings, Pensions, the Census and 
the Expenditures of the Federal Judiciary. 

VI. THE POSTMASTER -GENERAL 

has the charge of all postal arrangements within the United States, 
as well as with all foreign states. The Contract Office, the Ap- 
pointment Office and the Inspection Office, all come under his 
supervision. 



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ttATfe OF MORTALllY. 



438 



VII. THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL 

is the Law Counsel for the President and the other officers of the 
government. He is the constitutional adviser of all the govern- 
ment officials, and their legal defender. The official law authority, 
he makes decisions and takes measures to protect the legal rights 
and interests of the government and the nation. 
/ 



RATE OF MORTALITY IN AMEiRIGAN CiTIEd. 
Number of Deaths per Annuxii Out of x,ooo inhabitants. 



Baltimore 

Boston 

Brooklyn 

Buflfalo,N. Y 

Charleston, S. C 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Dayton,0 

Detroit, Mich 

Elmira, N, Y 

Erie, Pa , 

Knoxville, Tenn , 

Memphis, Tenn... 

Mobile, Ala 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark,N. J 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York ♦ . . 

Peterson, N. J * 

Petersburg, Va , 

Philadelphia ». 

Pittsburgh, Pa , 

Providence, R.I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

San Francisco 

Selma, Ala 

St. Louis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Toledo, O...... 

Washington, D. C 

Wheeling, W.Va 

Yonkers, N. Y , 



>87S. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


9 months. 


I year. 


1 year. 


10 motis; 


21.23 


21.26 


21.25 


19.1^ 


25. 


23.58 


20.43 


20.85 


25. 9» 


24.92 


2i;6i 


80.23 




x6.6x 


X0.43 


.... 


34.60 


30.72 


24.34 


48.96 


20.29 


20.42 


18.24 


^'75 


20.39 


23.10 


X7.8X 


X6.59 


14.22 


14.04 


12.29 


X3.07 


.... 


15.97 


14. 


.... 


17.01 
18.74 


15.56 


14.53 


x8.6a 


13.40 


X3.7» 


X3.XO 


14.25 


12.92 


^:S 


.... 


29.79 


24.78 


.... 


22. 


24.34 


U.14 


2X.X0 


14.64 


X8.78 
31.82 


16.84 


13.4^ 


43.17 


29.57 


2X.77 


20.29 


27.>5 


23.17 




20.79 


17.89 


X9.66 


x8.x8 


27.80 


26.89 


34.83 


32.4a 


29.79 


27.23 


24.36 


i5.47 


30.94 
31.06 


26.7a 


24.28 


2X.24 


31. 3X 


24.46 




24 -35 


24. 5x 


19.02 


X8.20 


21.69 


21.90 


'2-57 

x8.8i 


23.4X 


18.94 


X8.30 


»9.47 


t9.55 


27.95 


22.50 




24.97 


22.18 


21.93 


19-05 


19.28 


21.27 


X8.4X 


X4.82 


18.89 


X9.86 


X5.56 


22.53 


16.87 
13.48 


19. 62 


30.81 


16.19 


11.69 


X2.42 


.... 


10.26 


13. 20 


"33 


24.90 


14.80 


»3.54 


X2.32 


\U 


25. 8x 
21.35 


X7.8X 


27.28 


19.29 


23.37 


14. 40 



Digitized 



by Google 



-"v^ 



^ 



434 



POKJLAR AM^aCAN DICnONARV. 



THE PRESIDENTS OF 



Karnes.. 



Place of Birth. 



Name of Wife. 



George Washington.. 

John Adams 

Thomas Jefferson 

Tames Madison , 

^ames Monroe 

^ohn Quincy Adams . 



w. Jackson . 
I Van Buren . , 



Martin 

WiUiam H. Harrison. 

ohn Tyler*...* 

kmes K.Polk , 

Jachary Taylor 

Millard FiUmore*..., 

Franklin Pierce 

James Buchanan 

Abraham Lincoln f... 

Andrew Johnson 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Rutherford B. Hayes. 

James A. Garfield J . . . 

Chester A. Arthur 



Bridges Creek, Va 

Braintree, Mass. 

Shadwell.Va 

King George, Va 

Westmoreland Co., Va. 

Braintree, Mass 

Waxhau SetUem't.N.C. 

Kinderhook,N.V 

Berkley, Va 

Charies City Co., Va. . 
MecklenbergCo.,N,C. 
Orange County , Va.. . . 

Summer Hill, N.V 

Hillsboro, N. H 

Stony Batter, Pa 

Hardin Co., Ky 

Ralcieh, N.C 

Point Pleasant, O 

Delaware, O 

Near Cleveland, O 

Fairfield, Vt 



Mrs. Martha Custis 

Abigail Smith^ 

Mrs. Martha Skelton .. 
Mrs. Doroth. P. Todd. 

Miss Kortright 

Miss Johnson 

Mrs. SEichel Robards.'. 

Hannah Hoes 

Miss Symmes. 

Letitta Christian . 

Sarah Childress ....... 

Margaret Smith.. 

Abigail Powers ....... 

{ane Means ...... 
rnmarried . 

MaryTodd 

Eliza McCardle 

Julia F.Dent 

Lucy Ware Webb 

Lucretia Rudolph.. 

Miss Hemdon ........ 



* Presidents Tyler and Fillmore were twice married, the second wife of Presi- 
dent Tyler being Julia Gardner, and the second wife of President Fillmore beii^ 
Caroline Carmichael. 

t Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, at Ford's Thea- 
ter, Washington, D. C, on the evening of April 14, 1865, and died at 22 minutes 
past 7 o'clock the next morning, having remained imconsdous from the time he 
was shot until his death. 

t Tames A. Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Cuiteau, in the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad depot, Washington, D. C, July 2, i88x, and died from the 
effects of the wound at Long Branch, N. J., ^ptember 19, z88z— eighty days 
from the time he was shot until his death. 



^V 



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UST OF THE PRBSIDEMTS. 



435 



THE UNITED STATES. 



s 

1 


1 

l-H 


1 

1 


Term of Office. 


Place of Death. 


Date of Death. 


% 

1 


1772 
1794 

1797 

1795 
1813 
1844 

1826 
1834 

X842 

X848 


1789 
1797 
1 801 
1809 
1817 
1825 
1829 
1837 
X84I 
1 841 
1845 
1849 
1850 
1853 

Jill 

1865 
1869 

;li^ 

1881 


1 

li 

SI 

50 

§ 

57 
47 

55 
50 
51 


8years 

4 years •... 

8years 

8 years 

8 years 

"^4 years 

8 years 

4 years 

I month 

3 years xi mos.. 

4 years 

1 yr 4 mos. 5 d. 

2 yr. 7 mos. 26 d. 

4 years 

4 years 

4 yr. T mo. xo d. 
3yr. lomo. 20 d. 

8 years 

4 years. 

6 mos. 19 days . 


Mt. Vernon, Va. . 
Quincy, Mass. ... 
Monticello, Va. .. 
Mofltpelier, Va. . . 

New York 

Washington, D.C. 
Nashville, Tenn... 
Kinderhook, N.Y. 
Washington. D.C. 
Richmond, Va. .. 
Nashville, Tenn. . 
Washington, D.C. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Concord, N. H... 
Wheatland, Pa... 
Washington.D.C. 
Greenville, Tenn.. 

Alive 

Alive 


Dec. 14, 1799— 
July 4, 1826... 
July 4, X826... 
June 23, X836--. 
July 4, 1831... 
Feb'y 23, 1848... 
June 8, X845.-. 
July 24, 1862... 
April 4, 1841... 
Jan. 17, 1862... 
;une 15, 1849... 
, uly 0, 1850... 
March 8, 1874... 
Octobers, 1860... 
June I, 1868... 
April 15, x86s... 
July 31, 1875... 


68 

1 

68 
72 

U 


Long Branch, N.J. 
Alive 


Sept. 19, x88i... 


50 









Tly political affiliations of the different Presidents were as follows : Wash- 
ington, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Federalist ; Jefferson, Jackson, Van 
Buren, Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Democrat; Madison, Monroe, Democratic 
Republican: Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, Fillmore, Whig; Lincoln, Johnson, 
Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Republican. 

Presidents Tyler, Fillmore, Johnson and Arthur were elected Vice-Presidents, 
and succeeded to the presidency by the death of the President. 

President Grant was the youngest man ever elected President, and President 
Garfield was the youngest at the time of his death. 



Digitized 



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436 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



09 
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THE BANKS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



437 



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438 



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INTEREST TABLES. 439 

INTEREST TABLES. 



Digitized 



by Google 



440 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 



SIX PER CENT— (CoNTiNUBD). 




Time. 


it 


$» 


$i 


$* 


$5 


$6 


$7 


|8 


$9 


^0 


t'S 


$y> 


^zoo 


^000 


38 days 








1 


a 


a 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


za 


24 


48 


U'67 


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z 


I 


a 


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3 


4 


4 


5 


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25 


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s mos. 


z 


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3 


t 


1 


7 


8 


9 


zo 


25 


50 


z.oo 


zo.oo 


3 " 


z 


3 


t 


9 


10 


Z2 


;i 


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37 


75 


z.50 


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a 


4 


8 


10 


za 


14 


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2.00 


ao.oo 


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5 


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zo 


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20 


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25 


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35.00 


1 


6 
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>l 


za 

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15 
30 


18 
36 


az 
43 


'^ 


37 
54 


S 


75 
Z.50 


z.50 
3.00 


3.00 
0.00 


30.00 
60.00 



SEVEN PER CENT. 



Time. 


U 


^ 


$3 


$i 


is 


$6 


$7 


$8 


$9 


|zo 


I25 


$50 


$zoo 


|zooo 


zday 

































z 


a 


s 


9d^ys 






























z 


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4 






























z 


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57 


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a 


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77 


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4 


9 


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a 


5 


zz 


$z.z6 



























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6 


13 


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z 


3 


1 


«5 


1.55 


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z 








z 


4 


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Z.73 


zo *' 
















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Z.92 


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z 


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z 




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19 


35 «* 








z 




3 


3 


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4 


4 


za 


24 


4« 


4.«z 


z mo. 





z 


3 




1 


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5 


6 


14 




58 


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3 


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7 


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29 


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14 


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35 


42 


49 


56 


63 


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1.75 


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7.00 


70.00 



EIGHT PER CENT. 



Tim*. 


P 


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fe 


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125 


tSO 


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zz 


33 


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z 

3 


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3 


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5 


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31 


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Digitized 



by Google' 



INTEREST TABLES. 
TEN PER CENT. 



441 



Time. 


|i 


^ 


#3 


14 


is 


$6 


$7 


$8 


^ 


$xo 


las 


fco 


j^IOO 


$XOO* 


J^P 






















I 


I 


X 


a 


5 


XI 


|x.xo 
















X 


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a 


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2 


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32 


"a 


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a 


a 


2 


3 


3 


8 


x6 


33 


j6 " 










a 


a 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


II 


22 


44 


4.3; 


20 " 





X 




a 


a 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


14 


27 


55 


5.4a 


'A "■ 





X 




a 


3 


4 


4 


5 


b 


6 


17 


11 


66 


6.57 





X 




3 


4 


S 


5 


6 


7 


I 


19 


11 


7.67 

8.33 


I mo. 


X 


X 




i 


J 


s 


6 


6 


7 


ai 


n 


smos. 


a 


3 




xo 


12 


13 


15 


t7 


42 


X.67 


16.67 


3 !! 


a 


5 




xo 


13 


15 


17 


20 


23 


25 


62 


X 25 


a. 50 


as. 00 


^ 


3 


6 




la 


17 


ao 


23 


27 


30 


33 


«3 


1.67 


3-33 


41.67 


1;; 


4 


7 




15 


ai 


as 


29 


33 


37 


42 


1.04 


2.08 


4.X7 


5 


xo 


X5 


ao 


as 


Z 


35 


ff^ 


45 


50 


1.25 


2.50 


5.00 


So.oo 


lyear 


xo 


ao 


30 


40 


50 


70 


80 


90 


1. 00 


2.50 


5.00 


XO.OO 


100.00 



INTEREST RULES. 

Four Per Cbnt.— Multiply the principal by the number of days to run ; 
separate the right hand figure from product, and divide by 9. 

Five Pbr Cent.— Multiply by number of days and divide by 7a. 

Six Per Cent. — Multiply by number of days ; separate right hand figure, 
and divide by 6. 

Seven and Three-Tenths Per Cent.— Multiply by number of days, and 
double the amount so obtained. On |ioo the interest is just two cents per day. 

Eight Per Cent.— Multiply by number of dajrs, and divide by 45. 

Nine Per Cent. — Multiply by niunber of days ; separate right hand figure^ 
and divide by 4. 

Ten Per Cent.— Multiply by number of days, and divide by 36. 

Twelve Per Cent. — Multiply by number of days; separate right hand 
figure, and divide by 3. 

Fifteen Per Cent. — Multiply by niunber of days and divide by 24. 

Eighteen Per Cent.— Multiply by number of days ; separate right hand 
figure, and divide by 2. 

Twenty Per Cent.— Multiply by number of da^ and divide by x8. 



A Table of Daily Savings at Compound Interest. 



Cents per Day. 



Per Year. 
... $10 



#130., 
260., 



»7H' 
55... 



* 37- 



40. 

. 100., 

200., 

400., 

500., 



In Ten Years. Fifty Years. 

^»9«> 

5,800 

S20 xi,6oo 

1,300 29,000 

3,600 58,000 

S,aoo xi6,ooo 

6,soo 145,000 



By the above table it appears that if vou save a^ cents per day from the time 
you are ax till you are 70, me total with interest will amount to |3,9oo, and a 
dsuly saving of 27^ cents reaches the important sum of 129,000. 



Digitized 



by Google 



442 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



COMPOUND INTEREST TABLE. 




ShowiBg the amount of ti, from x Year to zs Years, with Compound Interest 
Added Semi-annually at Different Rates. 



Pmrn Cent. 



«Year. 
1 

a 

U 

xo 



"3 



1. 03 
X.04 
1.06 
1.07 
1.09 

z.xo 
x.ia 
X.X4 
X.16 
1. 17 
X.X9 
Z.21 
1.23 
1.24 
1.26 
X.28 
1.30 
1.32 

X.38 
1.43 
1.47 
X-5I 
X.56 



^.02 
1.05 


'J:3 


X.07 


X.09 


x.xo 


X.X2 


I.X3 


1. 15 


x.x8 


X.16 


Z.23 


X.2X 


X.26 


\:lt 


X.30 


1-34 


X.3X 


x.38 


1.34 


1.42 


J-37 


X.46 


1.4X 


1. 51 


v.i^ 


V'd 


"•52 


X.65 


'•55 


X.70 


\M 


\M 


;:£ 


1.91 
2.03 


1.90 


1:11 


1.99 


2.09 


2.42 



$x.o3 
X.07 
x.xo 

\:\t 

X.22 
1.27 

1.36 
1. 41 
1.45 

1.56 
1. 61 
X.67 

x-73 
X.79 
X.85 
X.92 
X.98 

2.X2 
2.28 

2.62 
2.80 



IX.04 
X.08 
X.X2 
X.16 
X.2X 
X.26 

X.36 
X.42 
X.48 

X.60 
1.66 
1.73 

x.8o 
X.87 
X.94 
2.02 
2.10 
2.X9 
2.36 
2.56 
2.77 
2.99 
3.24 



*i.o4 


#i.os 


1.09 


x.xo 


X.X4 


X-X5 


X.X9 


X.2X 


X.24 


1.27 


x.30 


1-34 


x.36 


X.40 


'•*2 


*.47 


x.48 
X.55 


;:g 


X.62 


1.71 


X.69 


\:U 

X.97 


1.93 

2. 02 


iia 


2. IX 


2.89 


2.20 


a.40 


2.30 


2-5a 


2.4X 


2.65 


2.63 


2.93 


2.87 


3.«a 


3.«4 


3.5s 


3.42 


3.6a 


3.74 


4.3a 



Number of Days from any Day in one Moo 
in Another Month. 



to the Saxn^ Day 



Months. 



January . . 
February . 
March.... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

•August ... 
September 
October .. 
November 
December. 



I 



304 


334 


273 


303 


245 


275 


214 


244 


184 


ax4 


153 


183 


X23 


xsa 


92 


X23 


61 


9X 


31 


6x 


365 

335 


aS 



Example. — To find the number of days from the xoth of May to the xoth of 
October following : Find May in the first column, and then in a line with that 
under October is 153 days. If from the xoth of May to the a5th of October, it 
would be 15 days more, or x68 days; but if from the xoth of May to the xst of 
October, it would be xo days less, or 143 days. In leap<year, when the last day 
of February ^ included between the two dates, there will be one day more than 
by the table. 



Digitized 



by Google 



INTEREST TABLES. 



443 



CONDENSED INTEREST TABLES. 

Showing at different rates the Interest on $i from x Month to x Year, and 
on $x4^ from I Day to i Year. 





Time. 


4 Per Ct. 


5 Per Ct. 


6PerCt. 


7 Per Ct. 


8 PerCt. 




1 


1 


g 


1 


1 






J3 

a 

(3 




1 


1 


i 


& 


52 


1 


1 


I month 

3 months 

3 monjths 

6 months 

13 months 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


o 
o 

I 

3 

4 


3 
7 

3 

o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


o 
o 

z 

3 

5 


t 

6 
5 












Z 

z 

I 


5 

5 













z 

X 

3 
7 


5 

z 
7 
5 












X 

3 

i 


6 

3 





1 


'day 

3 days 

3 days 

4 days ,. 

6 days 

^ I month 

3 months 

3 months 

6 months 

13 months 


o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
I 

3 

4 


z 
a 
3 
4 
S 
6 

o 
o 
o' 


z 

3 

4 

1 

7 
4 
7 
o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 

*o 
o 
o 
o 

z 

2 

5 


z 

3 

4 
8 

25 

50 




3 
7 

z 

3 
9 

I 

3 













z 

X 


X 

3 

I 

8 

ID 
50 

50 




6 
2 

6 
2 

















z 
z 
3 
7 


z 
3 
5 

7 
9 
zz 

it 

75 
50 



1 

8 
7 

I 
1 














X 

3 

i 


3 

i 

8 

IZ 

33 





3 
3 
7 
9 

X 

3 
7 
3 






Table Showing the Time in which a Sum will Double Itself at 
the following Rates of Interest. 



Rate. 



a percent 

3 percent 

4 percent 

5 per cent 

6 per cent 
8 percent 

zo percent 



Simple Interest. 



50 years 

33 years 4 months 

25 years 

30 years 

x6 years 8 months 
X3 years 6 months 
xo years 



Compound Interest. 



day 
23 years X64 days. 



35 years 



day 
X7 years 346 days. 
Z4 years 75 days, 
zz years 337 days. 

9 years s days. 

7 years xoo days. 



One Dollar Loaned zoo Years at Compound Interest would 
Amount to the Following Sums. 



z per cent #2.75 

3 per cent 19*25 

6 per cent..... 340.00 

xo per cent x3,8o9.oo 



X3 per cent $84,675.00 

Z5 per cent z,z74,405.oo 

z8 per cent X5,r45,207.oo 

24 per cent 3,55x, 799,404 .o» 



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444 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



INTEREST LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND CANADA. 

CompOed from the latest State and Territorial Statutes. Laws of each State 
and Territory rmtdina Rates of Interest and Pestles for Usury, with the law 
or custom as to Day of Grace on Notes and DraftK 



States and 
Territories. 


Legal 
Rate 
of Inc. 


Rate 
AUowed 

Contract. 


Penalties for Usury. 


Grace 

or 

No Grace. 




perct. 


per cent. 






Alabama 


8 


8 


Forfeiture of entire interest. 


brrace 


Arixona 


xo 


Any rate 


None. 


GriK:e. 


Arkansas 


6 


xo 


Forfeiture of principal and interest. 


No statute. 


Califomia 


7 


Any rate 


None. 


No grace. 


Colorado 


zo 


Any rate 


None,' except of excess. 


Grace. 


Connecticut.... 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of excess. 


Grace. 


Dakota 


7 


Z3 


Forfeiture of interest. 


Grace. 


Delaware 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of principal. 


Grace. 


Dis. of Columbia 


6 


xo 


Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


Florida 


8 
7 


Any rate 
Any rate 


None, 
None. 


No statute. 


Georgia 


Grace. 


Idaho 


zo 


x8 


Fine of $ioo or imprisonment. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest 


No grace. 


IllinoU 


6 
6 


8 
8 


Grace. 


Indiana 


Grace. 


Iowa........... 


6 

I 


xo 

X3 

8 


Forfeiture of xo per ct. on amount. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


Kansas 


Grace. 


Kentucky 


Grace. 




1 

6 


8 


Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


Maine 


Any rate 
6 


None. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 


Grace. 


Maryland 


Grace. 


Massachusetts.. 


6 


Any rate 


None. 


Grace. 


Michigan 


7 


xo 


None. 


Grace. 


Minnesota 


7 


13 


Forfeiture of excess over 12 perct. 


Grace. 


Mississippi 

Missouri 


6 


xo 


Forfeiture of excess of interest. 


Grace. 


6 


lO 


Forfeiture of entire interest. . 


Grace. 


Montana ...... 


zo 


Any rate 


None. 


No grace. 


Nebraska 


7 


xo 


Forfeiture of interest and cost. 


Grace. 


Nevada 


zo 


Any rate 


None. 


Grace. 


New Hampshire 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of thrice the excess. 


Grace. 


New Jersey 

New Mexico... 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


6 


X3 


Forfeiture of entire interest.- 


No statute. 


New York 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of principal and intVst. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


North Carolina. 


6 


8 


Grace. 


Ohio 


6 
8 
6 


8 
o 
6 


Forfeiture of excess above 6perc. 
Forfeiture of principal and int*est. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 


Grace. 


Oregon.... . .... 


Grace. • 


Pennsylvania . . . 


Grace. 


Rhode Island... 


6 


Any rate 


None. 


Grace. 


South Carolina.. 


7 


Any rate 


None. [fine. 


Grace. 


Tennessee 


6 


6 


Forfeiture of excess of int. and f zoo 


Grace. 


Texas 


8 
to 
6 


X3 

Any rate 
6 


None. 
None. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 


Grace. 


Utah 


Grace. 




Grace. 


Virgmia '.. 


6 


8 


Forfeiture of excess over 6 per ct. 


Grace. 


Washington Ter. 
West Virginia.. 


zo 


Any rate 


None. 





6 


6 


Forfeiture of excess of interest. 


Grace. 


Wisconsin 


7 


lO 


Forfeiture of entire interest. 


Grace. 


Wyoming 


12 


Any rate 


None. 


Grace. 


Canada 


6 


Any rate 




Grace. 


New Brunswick 


6 


Any rate 




Grace. 


Nova Scotia 


6 


Any rate 




Grace. 



No agreement to pay a higher than the legal rate can be enforced unless 
such a^ireement is expressly authorized b^ statute, the established presumption 
of thf Htw, in the absence of such lej^islation, being that such a rate is usurious* 



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STATUTES OF UMITATIONS. 



44S 



< 

< 
Z 

< 
o 

Q 
Z 

< 

CO 

{4 
< 

CO 

Q 

U\ 

hH 
Z 

D 

X 

fa 
O 

09 

o 

< 



fa 
O 

CO 

D 

09 



I 





III i« 



Judgm'nts 

of a Court 

of 

Record. 


ss 


io«o 


CO 


r^ 


SSSS : 


tn 


8 


Ill 


o« 


'<■-«• 


yo 


M 


88SS8 


'<■ 


2 


Notes and 
Contracts 

in 
Writing. 


>o m 


■<•-«■ 


« 


VO 


««0 roiO«0 


-«• 




M 


i 


fOCO 


M M 


«o 


« 




« 


W» 





Digitized 



by Google 



446 



T 
< 

< 
Z 
< 
o 

Q 
Z 

< 

09 

< 

09 

»-« 

» 
X 
H 

O 

09 

z 

o 

H 

s 

»-« 
iJ 

O 

09 

» 

< 
09 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



if* ° ^ 

3Vm K 



pi 



o o > 



•s"gg 







^1 



I 1 



6" 









s i 

B 5 



r 

A. 

m 



01 

•8 



;2 






fa 



88 IS* 



OONOOOt^ O0>oin00m00w> 



182822'" 82'^'^8 



28282 



OOMQOOr^ O O Vi->t o^yo 



\oyo Q O m 

M M M M 



WO roNO^OO O O tco^^O^O^O ro m 



fO^O coNO NO*OfO inin^M^O^ ^t^ f>«0 



fl.j 



lis! I|'|3|.9i 



liii 






Digitized 



by Google 



STATtJTES OF LIMITATIONS. 



447 




0.2 



ii 



IP. 



I? I III |l ^i I 







itilft 




Digitized 



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STOCK AND STOCK BROKERS. 



The tenn Stock is used under several significations. Among 
others, it expresses the capital or money invested in business by indi- 
viduals or firms, and also that of banking or other money establish- 
ments. The word " stocks," however, is the general name by which 
the public debt or debt of Uie government, and the securities of rail- 
roads, gas companies and other corporations are generally known. 
These stocks always have a market value, sometimes above and some- 
times below their nominal value. They form the subject of specula- 
tion, being bought or sold in the expectation of profit. Business is 
conducted under the rules and terms of organization of the Stock 
Exchange and for a fixed commission from which brokers are not 
permitted to deviate. The New York Stock Exchange was first 
regularly organized in 1 789. A similar organization had previously 
existed in Philadelphia. The stocks at first dealt in were United 
States stocks, and State, bank, and insurance stock. Railroad 
stocks first came into the market in 1S30. In 1823 the initiation 
fee of the New York Stock Exchange was $2$; in 1827, |Jioo; in 
1833, $iSo, At present a seat in the Board is worth ;^26,(xx>. The 
number of members is 1,060. From 300,000 to 500,000 shares of 
stock change hands on the New York Stock Exchange daily, and 
the operations frequently cover more than ;^2,ooo,ooo value of 
securities handled. 

The record of transactions is abbreviated in its expressions in 
the printed reports and on the "tape '* of the telegrapluc stock in- 
dicator; as, for instance, '*L. S. 400: 125 s. 60," which means 400 
shares of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad stock at 
;^I25, to be delivered at the seller's option anytime within 60 days. 
If recorded " b. 60," the option is with the buyer. The letters 
" ex." mean " less dividend." Applied to bonds " c." means 
** coupon," and " r." " registered; " ♦* o. b." stands for " delivered 
at the opening of the books of transfer." Stock is bought either 
for its full value in cash or on a margin. In the latter instance the 
client deposits with his broker 10 per cent, of the par value of the 
stock, thus securing the latter against loss, since he may sell if the 
stock falls to the point which the margin covers, or can call for more 
margin, and sell if the client declines further risk. 

Those who contract to deliver stock at a certain price at a future 
day are said to "sell short" and are technically called "bears," 
because they desire to squeeze or depress the market. " Bulls," on 
the contrary, buy stock for a rise, and are called " long of the 
stock" or <* bulls," because their interest is to raise the market 

448 



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COMMERCIAL TERMS AND AGENTS. 449 

price. The broker's commission for buying or selling is one-eighth 
of I per cent, except to members of the Board, who pay $2 per one 
hundred shares. The business in " stock privileges," as they are 
called, is a peculiar one, involving the technical terms "puts " and 
"calls." A broker who sells a "put" agrees to buy a specified 
stock, in a certain number of shares, within a ststted time at a 
specified price, provided the seller be willing to deliver the stock 
at the time and price named. If the broker sells a " call," he 
agrees to deliver a certain number of shares of a given stock on 
call, within a stated time at a specified price. The cost of these 
privileges is arranged between the parties in accordance with the 
condition of the market, the time involved, etc. 



COMMERCIAL TERMS AND AGENTS. 

A BROKER is an agent or intermediate person who transacts 
special business on account of another. The province o( a broker 
is to find buyers and sellers and bring them together to make their 
bargains, or to transact for them himself the business of such buy- 
ing and selling. The class is generally limited to cities and large 
towns, since in small places where the amount of trade done is 
very limited, buyers and sellers are generally familiar with each 
other and do not require to go to the expense of employing a third 
party or intermediary. Brokers are divided into different classes, 
according to the nature of the property in which they deal. 

A BILL BROKER is one who buys and sells notes and bills of 
exchange. An exchange broker buys and sells uncurrent 
money, and deals in exchanges relating to money in different coun- 
tries. An INSURANCE broker effects insurance on lives or prop- 
erty. A STOCK broker negotiates transactions in the public funds 
and deals in stocks of mining corporations, railroads, and other 
securities. The real estate broker buys and sells houses and 
lands and obtains loans of money upon mortgage. The merchan- 
dise broker buys and sells goods. The shipping broker deals 
with the purchase and sale of vessels, procures freights, etc. The 
pawnbroker advances money on various kinds of goods taken on 
pledge, conditionally on being allowed to sell them if the sum or 
sums advanced be not repaid within a certain time. Other brokers 
appraise or sell household furniture, etc. All these different classes 
of intermediary agents obtain their profits chiefly by commission on 
their transactions, though many of them indulge in speculations in 
their own behalf. 

Among the mediums in use for the payment of indebtedness and 
for other use of the circulating medium, the bill of exchange or 
draft may properly be considered here. This is a written order or 
request from one person to another desiring him to pay a sum of 
money therein-named to a third person mentioned, on his account 



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450 K)PULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

like a note of hand it must be made payable to order or bearer, in 
order to be negotiable or transferable. This was a method devised 
by merchants in different countries for the more ready remittance 
of money from one to another. By this means, at the present 
day, a man in any part of the civilized world may receive money 
from any trading country, instead of being obliged to carry from 
home all over the earth the money he requires. Transactions of 
this kind are usually conducted by persons known as exchange 
brokers, who are acquainted with different merchants in various 
places at home and abroad. 

Another important element which enters into commercial trans- 
actions and the value of goods is that which is known as Insur- 
ance. Marine insurance is that by which vessels of every kind, 
with or without their cargoes, are secured against the dangers of the 
sea, and is a special branch of the business. The underwriters 
who attend to this kind of insurance ascertain, as far as possible, 
what the risks are on every voyage by any particular vessels, and 
charge commission for insurance accordingly. 

A DRAWBACK in Commerce is an allowance made to merchants 
on the re-exportation of certain goods, which in some cases consists 
of the whole and in others of a part of the duties which had been 
paid upon the merchandise. A debenture is a certificate delivered 
at the Custom House when the exporter of any goods or merchan- 
dise has complied with the regulations, in consequence of which he 
is entitled to a bounty on the exportation. This certificate is signed 
by the officer of customs when the goods are regularly entered and 
shipped, and the vessel cleared for her intended voyage. A cer- 
tificate OF clearance gives her permission to sail. A " bill of 
credit " among merchants is a letter sent by an agent or other per- ' 
son to a merchant desiring him to give credit to the bearer for goods 
or money. A bill of entry is a written account of goods en- 
tered at the Custom House, whether imported or intended for 
exjK)rtation. A BILL of lading is a written account of goods 
shipped by any person on board of a vessel, signed by the master 
of the vessel, who acknowledges the receipt of the goods, and 
promises to deliver them safely at the place directed, dangers of 
the sea excepted. It is usual for the master to sign two or three 
copies of the bills, one of which he keeps in his possession, while 
one is kept by the shipper, and another is senj to the consignee or 
person who is to receive the goods at the end of the voyage. A 
BILL OF STORE is a license granted at the Custom House to mer- 
chants to carry such stores and provisions as are necessary for the 
voyage free of duty. An invoice is an account of goods shipped 
by merchants for their purchasers or agents abroad, in which the 
peculiar marks of the goods^ the value, prices and other particulars 
are given. The duties and charges upon them of every kind are 
recorded, and a book is kept in which they are didy entered. A 



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FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



451 



FOREIGN AGENT or FACTOR is a person in some foreign country 
employed by a merchant to transact business for him, for which he 
receives a commission of so much per cent, on all the sales he 
effects. He may buy and sell in his own name and is entrusted 
with the possession and control of the goods. In these respects he 
differs from a broker. Factors are also employed for domestic 
business, as, for instance, the cotton factors in the Southern States, 
who make advances upon crops, and who store, sell, and ship the 
cotton when baied, all of which business they do upon commission. 
An EMBARGO is an order from the Government prohibiting the de- 
parture of ships or merchandise from all or some of the ports 
within its dominions. Such detentions generally occur in actual 
war or when one nation is in a hostile attitude towards another. 
Quarantine is the time during which a vessel suspected of having 
malignant sickness on board, or of having come from a port where 
such malignant sickness is known to prevail, is forbidden to have 
any intercourse with the shore at which she arrives. The word is 
derived from the Italian quaranta, meaning forty, because forty 
days' detention was commonly prescribed for all vessels delayed 
under such circumstances. 



FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The vast increase of the foreign commerce of the United States 
is quickest seen in the following comparison. In 1840, in the be- 
ginning of successful ocean steam navigation, the entire receipts of 
foreign merchandise of the United States amounted to ^$86,250,335. 
In 1880 the total imports of merchandise amounted to 1^667,954,- 
746. The exports in 1840 were 1111,660,561 ; in 1880, I823,- 
946,353. The principal countries to which the agricultural and 
other products of the United States are sent stood in the order of 
value of exports in 1879 ^ follows: 

Great Britain and Ireland. .$346,485,881 
France 88,194,041 



Germany 56,164,394 

British America 28,281,569 

Belgium 27,470,003 

Russia 15,959,701 

Netherlands 13,802,840 

Spain 12,438,903 

Cuba 12,201,691 

Italy 8,657,203 

Brazil 8,106,928 

Australia 7,042 ,875 

British West Indies 6,779,153 

China 5,93o,594 

Mexico 5,400,380 

Colombia 5,199,648 

Portugal 4,897,290 

Turkey 3,989,230 

Payti 3,148,757 

Jt^Mm 2,674,601 



Austria % 3,640,648 

Hawaian Islands 3,288,1 78 

Denmark 3,284,784 

British Africa 2,168,076 

Sweden and Norway 2,138,461 

Argentine Republic 3,033,401 

Venezuela 1,926,923 

Porto Rico.. 1,771,483 

British Guinea. 1,7x9,827 

French West Indies 1,535,768 

Dutch East Indies 1,447,510 

Gibraltar 1,297,830 

Peru 1 ,293,991 

Chili 1,253,555 

British £^t Indies x, 142,196 

Central America....'. 1,110,603 

All other countries 8,538,*76 

Total ^699,538,742 



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452 



I>OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



1 

s 



Q a 
o S 

< o 



il!22 



•p»S J'Aoo 



•paa^ 



•soiBda 



•SUOIUQ 






■qo3 uo UJ03 



•jB^HM^iDna 



•XaiiBg 



•aX^ 



I 



I 






^8^8 



:^8^8 



\0«2>5 



:S>v8 



00 00 • 00 oo ^ 



^^^«s^^ 



H M M M 14 K 



tr> i/> 10 to m iTk 



M M M M M Ct 



,8 : : : :,8 



>5v5\5\0x5v5 



«>8 



lO lO •^0 O to 

to m • ■«♦■ to to 



n3«3vO I ^O to ^0 >0 to vO ^^ 



00 •OOOOOOOQO •00 
in tn . -4- "«■ •<«■>»• to • to to 



. .,s 



t? :t3t3t3t3t8 



• 10 • 10 10 to 



:g^ 



:^ 



:?:? 



tg : itS : : itStStS^ 



tOtO *^ ItOtOtO •tdtd 



O . •00 • • O ti 
10 • • to • • lOU 



« to «•*••»*. r* tv 

lOtOtOtO 'tOtOlO 



tS rtStStStStStStS^tS 



V^^^ 



I ioS> ! in ! 



g. :?. : laasaaa : :g.:R. : : :8.e.: : 



h M tOtO tOtOtOtOtO^tO to 10 Q to to to to to to to to NtO^O 
'^I0t0i0i0»0l0i0»0i0l0»0l0i0»0»010»010l0t0l0l01010 



a :%^%^ : :S?>5>S,S,S,;^:'^'^*^'^5.S.aR3.:& 



00 to 0000000 
•♦••♦• to •♦••♦• •♦• 



• »*.oo 00 00 CO «^ « 00 tvqo CO 00 00 00 CO O • 00 

. ^^•*-*-*-*tri-*-^-*-* •♦■^ ^ ^ 10 . '^ 



fo fo CO •€*)€*) CO CO fo fo fO CO ro tn co fo co ro co 



tOtOIOIOlOlO • lOlOtOtOlOlOIOf 



^^gtSt2tgt3t£^St3t3t£t8^3tS^3^B^3t3^BtBt8t3t8t8t3^8 



■•2 o-S . V. 

"3 w i5 g J 



I III 11 



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yi 






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AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



453 



10 ^^ sSvO '^O •NO^O^O^OvO 



SM : 



^S :^ : 



* IT) tom O 



m to m O U-) tn 



hS >d ^ H$ ^ 



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: :g.: : ;R.J!.:g.: 



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op op op *Q IJOO op 00 CO CO W-inO 00 



iQMNoeeitncieiMvOMM 
^ ^ fo ro ^ CO CO fo f) fo fo ro ro 



«8^^^^ I^3 Is6«0>OvO>0 



SJ 



-S2 






«; 


^ 


.»> 


C 


> 


2 








22 


1 








■5 


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^ o 


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to « 


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1 £ 


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1 ^ 


ID O 


no ♦* 






1 ^ 


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t) ^-i 


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•;md 8 


SnS 8 ^<S 8^ 8 ^<S g^. 8 


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g8a,g2^g.8^s8 8.8S> 


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g<S8 8^v8<g8 8iN8cg8 

^ HHHMMC«(ic«c4e«ro 


•IMO £ 


^ H M H H H H H « « 


•JM3 e 


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§ 22^*^8 a^sr^jj^jJij;? 




^'#'in>o Koo ovo M « »J>;J'2* 



Digitized 



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464 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

MBASURBMENT OP CORN 

In Cob* — Two heaping bushels of com on the cob i^dll make 
one struck bushel of shelled corn. Some claim that one and one- 
half bushels of ear will make one bushel of shelled com. Much 
will depend upon the kind of com, shape of the ear, size of the 
cob, etc. 

Jn Crib, — To measure com in a crib, multiply the length of the 
crib in inches by the width in inches, and that by the height of 
the com in the crib in inches, and divide the product by 2,748, and 
the quotient will be the number of heaped bushels of ears. If 
the crib flares at the sides, measure the width at the top and also 
at the bottom, add the two sums together and divide by 2, which 
will give the mean width. 

CISTBRNS AND CASKS. 

To Measure the Contents of Cisterns. — To ascertain the con- 
tents of circular cistems, multiply the square of the diameter in 
feet by the depth in feet, and that product by ^V^ for the contents 
in hogsheads, or by ^^ for barrels, or ^ lor the contents in 
gallons. 

Square Cistems, — Multiply the width in feet by the length in 
feet, and that by the depth in feet, and that again by ^*^ for hogs- 
heads, or JJ for barrels, or y-j^ for gallons. 

Another and simpler method is to multiply together the length, 
width and depth, in inches, and divide by 231, which will give the 
contents in gallons. 

Cask Gauging. — To measure the contents of cylindrical vessels, 
multiply the square of the diameter in inches by 34, and that by 
the height in inches, and point off four figures. The result will be 
the contents or capacity, in wint gallons and decimals of a gallon. 
Fbr b#er gallons multiply by 2& instead of 34. If the cask be only 
partially filled, multiply by the height of the liquid instead of the 
height of the cask, to ascertain actual contents. In ascertaining the 
diameter, measure the diameter at the bung and at the head, add 
together, and divide by 2 for the mean diameter. 

MEASUREMENT OF HAY. 

rhe only exact method of measuring hay is to weigh it, but 
the mles given below will be found sufficient for ordinary practical 
purposes. 

To Find the Number of Tons of Meadow Hay in Windrows, — 
Multiply together the length, breadth and height, in yards, and 
divide the product by 25. The quotient will be the number of tons 
in the windrow. 

To Find the Number of Tons of Hay in a Mow. — Multiply 
together the length, height and width, in yards, and divide by 15, if 



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AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT, 455 

the hay be well packed. If the mow be shallow, and the hay re- 
cently placed therein, divide by i8, and by any number from 15 to 
18, according as the hay is well packed. 

To Find the Number of Tons of Hay in Square or Long 
Stacks. — Multiply the length of the base in yards by the width in 
yards, and that by half the height in yards, and divide by 15. 

To Find the Number of Tons of Hay in a Load. — Multiply 
together the length, width and height, in yards, and divide the 
product by 20. 

To ascertain the value of a given number of pounds of hay, 
straw, or other commodity sold by the ton, at a given price per ton, 
multiply the numbei- of pounds by one-half the price per ton, and 
point off three figures from the right. The result will be the price 
of the article. 

MEASUREMENT OP WOOD AND LUMBER. 

A Cord of Wood contains 128 cubic feet. To ascertain how 
many cords there are in a pile of wood, multiply the length by the 
height, and that by the width, and divide the product by 128. 

To ascertain the circumference of a tree required to hew a sticl^ 
or timber of any given number of inches square, divide the given 
side of the square by .225 and the quotient is the circumference 
required. 

Round timber, when squared, loses one-fifth. 

To measure round timber, take the girth in inches at both the 
lai^e and small ends, add them, divide by two, which gives the 
mean girth ; then multiply the length in feet by the square of one- 
fourth of the mean girth, and the quotient will be the contents in 
cubic feet. This rule is commonly adopted, and gives four-fifths of 
the true contents, one-fifth being allowed to the purchaser for waste 
in sawing. 

To Measure Inch Boards,^^WoX\k^y th« kngA in feet by the 
width in inches, and divide the product by 12. The quotient will 



be the contents in feet. For lumber i % inches thick, add \( to 

If iV' inches tmck, 
add i^. If 2 inches thick, divide by 6, instead of oy 12. If 2^ 



the quotient. If 1% inches thick add %, If i^ inches 



inches thick, add ^ to the quotient, and so on. If 3 inches thick, 
divide by 4. If 4 inches thick, divide by 3. If 6 inches thick, 
divide by 2. To ascertain the contents (broad measure) of timber, 
multiply the width in inches by the thickness in inches, and that by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 12. The result will 
be the number of feet. * 

To ascertain how many feet of lumber can be sawed from a 
log, from the diameter of the log in inches substract 4 ; one-fourth 
the remainder squared and multiplied by the length of the log in 
feet, will give the correct amount of luofiberthat can be sawed from 
the log. 



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466 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



MEASUREMENT OP LAND. 

If the field be a square or parallelogram, multiply the length in 
rods by the width in rods, and divide by i6o, the number of square 
rods in an acre. If the field is triangular, multiply the length of 
the longest side in rods by the greatest width in rods, and divide 
half the prcWuct by i6o. If the field be of irregular shape, divide 
it into triangles, and find the acreage of each triangle as above. All 
straight-sid^ fields can be thus measured. Where the sides are 
crooked and irregular, take the length in rods in a number of places 
at equal distances apart, add them, and divide by the number of 
measurements, which will give the mean length ; proceed similarly 
with the width, multiply the mean length by the mean width, and 
divide by i6o. Where the field is in a circle, find the diameter in 
rods, multiply the square of the diameter by 7.854, and divide by i6o. 

To Lay Out an Acre in Rectangular Form. — An acre of land 
contains 160 square rods, or 43,560 square feet. Hence, to lay out 
an acre at right angles (square comers), when one side is known, 
divide the units in the square contents by the units of the same kind 
in the length of the known side. Thus : if the known side be 4 
rods, divide 160 by 4, and thS quotient, 40, will be the depth of the 
acre-plot. If the length of the known side bp 90 feet, divide 
43,560 by 90, and the quotient, 48, will be the depth of an acre- 
plot 

MEASUREMENT OF AN ACRE PLOT. 

Eith« of the foUowing measures include an acre plot : 



3 by 53 x-8 rods. 

4 by 40 


7 by 23 6-7 rods. 

8 by 30 '* 


10 by 16 rods 


II by 14 6-xx '* 


6 by 36 3-3 " 


9 by 17 7-8 " 


12 by 13 1-3 •• 






xa rods xo feet and 8^ incb 


es square make an acre. 





Square Feet and Feet Square in Fractions of an Acre. 


Fraction of 
an acre. 


Sauare 


Feet 
square. 


Frac'n of 
an acre. 


Square 


Feet 
square. 


i.x6 
x-8 
1-4 
»-3 


XO89O 
14520 


52M 

nV*, 

io4>^ 
120 J4 


1 
2 


31780 
43560 
87120 





Rails, Riders and Stakes for Every Ten Rods of Crooked. Fence. 



•Sj 


li 


1^ 


1! 


No. 


rails for each 
lorods. 


'2. 

•II 


1% 


ll 


5 rails 
high. 


6 rails 
high. 


Trails 
nigh. 


li 


13 


6 
I 


8 
10 
12 


20 5-8 
13K 


103 
69 


123 


116 

95 


48 


2X 

'4 



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AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



457 



Relative Number of Plants or Hills in an Acre. 



Giving the number in an acre v/kcn the direct and cross rows a«e 
unequal width: 


of equal or 




xo in 


12 in 


X5 in 


18 in 


20 in 


2 ft 


2j^ft 


3 ft. 


3Mft 


4ft 


4Mft 


5ft 


lO 
12 

\l 

20 


02720 
52272 

-? 

31362 
26132 
20908 
17424 

Y^ 

xi6z6 
10454 


g 

26136 
2x780 
17424 
14520 
12446 

I7X2 


27878 
23232 
20908 
17424 

11616 

9953 
8712 

6969 


X9360 
17424 
14520 
X1616 


15681 
13068 
10454 
8712 
7467 

tn 

5227 


10890 
8712 
7260 
6223 

4840 
4356 


4976 
4356 
3872 
3484 


4840 
4148 
3630 
3226 
2004 


3565 
31" 
2767 
2489 


2722 
2420 
2178 


2ISX 

1936 


174a 



TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF DRAINS REQUIRED 
FOR AN ACRE OF LAND. 



Distance Apart. 


12-inch 

Tiles. • 


13-inch 
Tiles. 


14-inch 
Tiles. 


15-inch 
Tiles. 


Drains X2 feet apsot require. . 


3.630 


3,351 


3,J" 


3,934 


:: u :: : 




2,904 


2,681 


2.489 


2,323 




2,420 


2,234 


2,074 


1,936 


" ax . " * 




2,074 


x,9H 


1,777 


i,6S9 


;; 24 




1,8x5 


1,675 
1,480 


1,556 


1,453 


. '7 :; : 




1,613 


1,383 


1,391 


" 30 " ' 




1,453 


1,340 


1,245 


i,x6a 


\[ H w \ 




X,320 


X,2X8 


x,x3X 


1,056 


' 36 " •• . 


1,210 


x,xx7 


1.037 


968 



Dry Measure, — 36 bushels make I chaldron. The standard 
bushel is the Winchester, containing 2,150.42 cubic inches, or 
77.627 pounds, avoirdupois, of distiUed water at its maximum 
density. Its diameter inside is 18^ inches; its depth is eight 
inches. Vegetables, fruit, meal, bran, and com on the ear, are 
usually sold by the heaping bushel measure. 32 British or Im- 
perial bushels are equal to 38 of our bushels. 

Weighing Liquids. — One gallon' of pure water weighs nearly 
%yi, lUs. avoirdupois. The gallon, containing 231 cubic inches, is 
the standard unit of wine measure. The British gallon, called the 
Imperial gallon, contains 277.274 cubic inches. 

To Measure Grain in Bins. — Multiply the length of the bin 
in inches by the width in inches, and that by the height in inches, 
and divide by 2,150 for struck bushels, and by 2,748 for heaped 
bushels. «The quotient will be the number of bushels contained in 
the bin. 



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4MB POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

TO ESTIMATE THE WEIGHT OP CATTLE. 

Multiply the girth in inches, immediately back of the shoulders, 
by the length in inches from the square of the buttock to the point 
of the shoulder-blade, and divide the product by 144, which will 
give the number of superficial feet. If the animal has a girth of - 
from 3 to 5 feet, multiply the number of superficial feet by 16, 
which will give the weight of the animal. If the girth is from 5 to 
7 feet, mukiply by 23, and if from 7 to 9 feet, multiply by 31. If 
less than 3 fleet girth, as in the case of small calves, hogs, sheep, 
etc., multiply by 11. Of course many circumstances, such as the 
build of the animal, mode of fattening, condition, breed, etc., will 
influence the weight, but the above will be found approximately 
correct. 

HOW TO TELL THE AGE OP CATTLE. 

A^'f of Cattle, — A cow's horn is generally supposed to furnish a 
correct indication of the age of the animal. This is not always 
true. However, for ordinary purposes, the following will be found 
to be approximately correct. At two years of age a circle of thick 
matter begins to form on the animaPs horns, which becomes clearly 
defined at three years of age, when another circle or ring begins to 
form, and so on year after year. Its age then can be determined by 
counting the number of rings, and adding two to their number. 
The rings on the bull's horns do not show themselves until he is five 
years old, so to the number of rings we must add five to arrive at 
his age. Unless the rings are clear and distinct this rule will not 
apply. Besides, dealers sometimes file off some of the rings of 
old cattle to make them appear younger. 

Age of Sheep and Goats. — At one year old they have eight front 
teeth of uniform size. At two years of age the two middle ones 
are supplanted by two large ones. At three a small toidth v^%g& 
on tacn side. At four there are six large teeth. At five all the front 
teeth are large, and at six the whole begin to get large. 

Quantity of Seed or Plants Required per Acre. 

Asparagus, in x3-inch drilb 16 quarts. 

" plants 4 by I ^ feet 8,000 " 

Barley a J4 bushels. 

Beans, bush, in drills, 3^4 feet i% ** 

" Pple* Lima, 4 by 4 feet 30 quarts. 

" Carolina, prolific, etc., 4 by 3 xo ** 

Beets and mangolds, drills, 1% feet 9 pounds. 

Broom com, in drills t 12 ** 

Cabbage, outside, for transplanting X2 ounces. 

Cabbage sown in frames 4 . '* 

Carrot, in drills, 2% feet 4 pounds. 

Celery, seed 8 ounces. 

'* plants 4 by 3i^ feet a5,8QO ** 

Qover, white Dutch xa poumds. 

" Lucerne ^ ... 4 . .1 ...<...« * 10 " 



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AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



459 



Qover, Alsike 6pounds. 

" lai^e red with timothy za •* 

'* " without i6 ** 

Com, sufar zo quarts. 

Coni,ficld ^ " 

Com salad, drill, zo inches aj^unds. 

Cucumber, in hills 3 quarts. 

" in drills 4 " 

Egg plants, plants 3 by 2 feet 4 ounces. 

Endive, in drills, 9}^ feet 3 pounds. 

Flax, broadcast. 20 quarts. 

Grass, timothy with clover 6 " 

" " without clover zo '* 

" orchard 25 '* 

** red tops, or herds ^. ... ao ** • 

" blue 28 " 

" rye ao " 

" miUet 32 ** 

Hemp, broadcast ^ bushels. 

Kale, German greens 3 pounds. 

Lettuce, in rows, a34 feet 3 " 

Leek V. 4 . " 

Lawngrass 35 " 

Melons, water, in hills, 8 by 8 feet 3 " 

" citron ** 4by4 ** a " 

Oats a bushels. 

Olcra, in drills, a% by }i feet 20 pounds. 

Onion, in beds for sets 50 '' 

" in rows for large bulbs 7 ** 

Parsnips, in drills, ajj feet 5 *' 

Pepper plants. 2^ by z i7,5oo ** 

Pumpkins, in hills, 8 by 8 feet a quarts. 

Parsley, in drills, 2 feet 4 pounds. 

Peas, in drills, short varieties 2 bushels. 

" " " " ztoiji " 

" broadcast 3 " 

Potatoes 8 " 

Radish, in drills, 2 feet xo pounds. 

Rye, broadcast ^ . . z V bushels. 

" drilled lU *• 

Salsify, in drills, a^fett zopounds. 

Spinach, broadcast ao ** 

Squash, bush, in hills, 4 by 4 feet 3 " 

" running, 8 by 8 feet a '* 

Sorghum ■ 4 quarts. 

Tumips, in drills, a feet 3 pounds. 

** broadcast a ** 

Tomatoes, in frame 3 ounces. 

" seed, in hills, 3 by 3 feet 8 " 

" plants 3,800 " 

Wheat, in drills i}^, busheb. 

" broadcast a " 

Suggested Rotation of Crops. 



3 years. 


4 years. 


6 years. 


Tobacco. 


Cotton. 


Com. 

Wheat. 

Qover. 


Tumips. 
Other roots. 
Barley. 
Clover. 
Wheat. 


Clover. 

Wheat. 

Wheat 

Clover. 

Corn. 

Wheat. 


Qover. 
Clover. 
Tobacco. 
Wheat. 


Clover or peas. 

Cotton. 

Wheat. 



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460 



POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 



The Number of Loads of Manure and Number of Heaps to Bach 
Load Riequired to- Each Acre, the Heaps at Given Distances Apart. 



Number of heaps in a load. 






538 

395 
ao3 
«39 

160 
131 
«i5 






151 
lao 

<7 

h 

»4H 



X08 

3a 
27 

23 

19% 



XSM 

X2 

log 
9% 



50K 
39^ 
3»H 
26^ 

19 
1654 

"^ 
"5^ 



67 

495^ 

37K 

Sk 

20 
'4> 

12L 

loJi 

I 

6 



3I5. 

26J^ 

21 M 
175^ 
»5 , 
12K 

IX 

k 



19K 

x6 
13K 
">^ 
10 

8K 



Comparative Value of Good Hay and Other Pood for Stock. 



xoo lbs. hay are equal to 


xoo lbs. hay are equal to 


.Wlbt 


. turnips. 


50 lbs 


. oats. 


r>o " 


carrots. 


46 " 


wheat. 


SOX ** 




54 ** 


rye- 


175 ;* 


boiled potatoes. 


64 " 


buckwheat. 


339 ; 


mangel-wurzel. 


57 " 


Indian com. 


^:; 


rye straw. 


45 " 


peas and beans. 


wheat straw. 


105 " 


wheat bran. 


x8o " 


barley straw. 


109 " 


rye bran. 


X50 " 


pea straw, 
buckwheat straw. 


167 " 


wheat, pea and oat chaff, 
rye and barley mixed. 


20O '* 


'U " 


275 " 


green Indian com. 


acorns. 



Table Showini^ Amount of Hay or its Equivalent Required Each 
Day for Every One Hundred Pounds of Live Stock. 

Working Horses ,.. .. 3.08 lbs. 

" Oxen 2'.4o ** 

Fatting Oxen 5.00 " 

" " whenfat 4.00 " 

Milch Cows from 2.25 to 2.40 '* 

Dry " 2.42" 

Yotmg Growing Cattle 3.08 " 

Steers •... 3.84 " 

Pig» 3.00 " 

Sheep ,,.. 3.00 " 



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AGRICULTURAL 1)EPARTMENT. 



461 



Amount of Butter and Cheese Contained in Milk. 



3 lbs. pure butter. 

7.8 " cheese. 

3.5 •* common butter. 

II. 7 *' common cheese. 

13.5 ** skim milk cheese. 



100 lbs. milk contain about 
xoo " '" " •* 

100 ** ** average ** 
100 '* " ** •* 

100 " skim milk yield " 



Time required for cream to rise to the surface of new milk at different tem- 
peratures: 

10 to 12 hours if the temperature of the air is 77° Fahr. 
18 to 20 " ** " " " 68° " 

24 " '* " " " 550 " 

36 " " •« u u yp 



Plowing:. , 

Distance traveled by a horse in plowing an acre of land, and the quantity of 
land cultivated per day, at the rate of 16 and 18 miles per day of 9 hours : 



B'dth 


Space trav- 






B'dth 


Space trav- 




of fur- 


eled in 


Extent p 


owed per 


of fur- 


eled in 


Extent plowed per 


row 


plowing 


^y. 


row 


plowing 


day. 


slice. 


an acre. 






slice. 


an acre. 




I-»ch. 


Miles. 


18 miles. 


16 miles. 


Inch. 


MUes. 


x8 miles. 


16 miles. 


I 


14 1-2 


I 1-4 


I 1-8 


"4 


7 


a x-2 


a x-4 


12 1-2 


I 1-2 


1 1-4 


15 


6 x-a 


a 3-4 


a a-5 


9 


II 


1 3-5 


I 1-2 


16 


6 1-6 


a 9-10 


a 3-5 


iO 


99-10 


I 4-5 


I 3-5 


]l 


5 3-4 


3 >-io 


a 3-4 


ii 


1... 


2 


I 3-4 


5 i-a 


3 >-4 


a 9-10 


la 


a 1-5 


I 9-10 


>9- 


5 x-4 


3 x-a 


3 x-xe 


3 


7 i-a 


2 1-3 


2 I-IO 


30 


4 9-«o 


3 x-5 


3 x-4 



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MEECANTILE LAW. 



LEGAL BUSINESS FORMS, PHRASES AND 
MAXIMS. 

Mercantile Law is that branch of the law which governs 
mercantile transactions. Common Law is that body of law which 
originates in principles of justice and the needs of society. Statute 
Law consists of special legislative enactments, such as acts of Par- 
liament or Congress. Common law gives way before a statute. In 
the United States the supreme law is the Federal Constitution, found 
on pages 415-433 of this work. The General Government is sov- 
ereign in those matters entrusted to it by the Constitution ; the States 
are sovereign in all matters within their own domain. In any par- 
ticular State we have, therefore, to regard — i. The Constitution and 
laws of the United States. 2. The Constitution of the State. 
3. The public and private statutes of the State, and — 4. The com- 
mon law, which is that of England at the time of the revolution, 
modified and developed by the decisions of the State courts of 
appeal. To this there is one exception, Louisiana, which was 
formerly a French possession, and hence derives its unwritten law 
from the Civil or Roman Law. 

AFFIDAVITS. 

Written statements of facts under oath or affirmation are called 
affidavits. The word itself means "^ has sworn." Affidavits 
may be made in lawsuits, or independently of legal proceedings, to 
verify certain facts. They must be made in the presence of an 
officer qualified to administer an oath, as a justice of the peace ; 
and must be made within the personal jurisdiction of such officer 
or court. Voluntary affidavits, not to be used in legal proceedings 
and not made under a statute, cannot be the cause of a prosecution 
for perjury, even though totally false. A deposition differs from an 
affidavit in that in the former the opposing party has the right to be 
represented when the deposition is taken and to make a cross 
examination on the subject-matter. 

A COUNTER-AFFIDAVIT is one made in opposition to an affidavit 
already made. The jurat is that part of the affidavit in which the 
proper officer certifies that the same was sworn to before him. The 
instrument should show on its face that it was made before some 
officer competent to take affidavits. Venue is the place where the 
affidavit is taken. Omission of the venue from an affidavit is a 

462 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 468 

0ital defect. The affidavit will not be vitiated by surplusage, the 
statement of immaterial matter, provided it is not inconsistent with 
the principal and necessary averments. Statements as to descrip- 
tions, amounts and parties should be clear, particular and positive. 

General Form of Affidavit. 

State op — — , — — County, Town of , ss. 

A. B. (of ' ) , being duly sworn, deposes and says (^r, alleges and says) : 
That : — {Here set out in full and accurate language the matters to he 
alleged). 

[Sbal] {Signature of Affiant.) 

Sworn {or affirmed) before me^ this day of , a.d. i8 — . 

{Signature of Justice or other oficer.) 
(If the affiant is unable to read, the subscription should be as follows) : 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this day of , a.d. i8— , the 

same having been by me (^r, in my presence) read to this affiant, he being ilHt- 
erate {or blind), and understanding tne same. 

( Oficer's signature and title. ) 

Affidavit to Accounts. 

Statb of——, County, ss. 

Before me, the undersigned, one of the justices of the peace in and for said 
county, persoually came F. G., of — , and being duly sworn according to law, 
deposes and says : That the above account, as stated, is just and true. 

That the above sum of dollars is now justly due and owing to this 

deponent by the above named L. P. 

That he, the f^s-d F. G., has never received the same or any part thereof, 
either directly or indirectly, nor any person for him, by his direction or order, 
knowledge or ccasent. F. G. 

Sworn and subscribed before me, this day of •— , a.d. i8 — . 

M. N., 
Justice of the Peace. 

Affidavit to Petition. 
Statb of , County, a§. 

A. B., being duly sworn, says : That the facts set forth in the foregoing peti- 
tion are true to the best of his knowledge and belief. A. B. 

Stuorn, etc. {as in other forms above). 

Affidavit to Signature of Absent or Deceased Witness. 
State of , County, ss. 

Be it rbmbmbbrbd, that on the day of , a.d. i8 — , before me 

the^undersiened, F. P., one of the justices of the peace in said county, personally 
appeared N. H., who, being duly sv^m, deposes and says : That C. S., one o* 
the subscribing witnesses to the within {will or deed) is {dead, or absent from 
the state, as the case may be). 

That he has frequently seen said C. S. write, and that he is well acquainted 
with the handwriting oksaid C. S. 

That to the best of his knowledge and belief {or, he verily believes) the name 
of C. S., signed to the same as one of the subscribing witnesses, is the proper 9A ' 
individual handwriting of said C. S. N. H. 

Subscribed and sworn to before mt, this day of , a.d. i8 — , 

F. P., 
Justice of the Peact, 



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464 t>OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIOKARV 

ATTORNEYS. 

Attorneys may be attorneys-in-fact or attomeys-at4aw. An 
attorney-in-fact is one appointed by special act to do some specifit 
thing. An attorney at-law is a sworn oflficer ot a court, employed 
by others (clients) to conduct legal proceedings for them. He has 
authority in all matters necessary to the prosecution and termination 
of the cause, but he cannot settle the points in dispute or give a 
release for damages or costs without the consent of his client. PTe 
is bound to use due diligence, to professional secrecy, and to a full 
accounting with his client. On all papers of his client in his 
hands and on judgments and costs which he may obtain he has a 
lien for his fees, which must be reasonable. 

In the United States the functions of the barrister and attorney 
are united in one and the same person. When a power of attorney 
is for use in a foreign country or another state, it should be acknow- 
ledged before a notary public. His signature should be attested, in 
the first case, by the consul of the foreign government in which the 
power is to be used ; in the second case, by the clerk of the superior 
court, or according to the statutory provisions of the state where it 
is executed. 

POWERS OF ATTORNEY. 

Short General Form. 

Know all Mbn by thbsb Presbnts : That I, the undersigned, of {Jlace), 
do hereby make, constitute and appoint John Doe of {place), my true and law- 
ful attorney, for me, and in my name and steaa to {here insert the subject 
tHotter of power), to do and perform all the necessary acts in the execution and 
prosecution of the aforesaid business, and in as full and ample a manner as I 
might do if I were personally present. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this loth day 
of May, A.D. 1881. 

JAMES SMITH, [l. s.] 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered in the Presence of 

Fuller General Form. 

Know all Mbn by thbsb Presents : That I, James Smith, of {place 
of residence's, have by these presents ordained, made and constituted, and in 
my name ana place, put John Doe, of {residence of attorney), to be my lawful 
and sufficient attorney, for me and in my name, place and stead, to {here insert 
the purpose or purposes for which the power is given). 

iliat I hereby grant unto my said attorney full authority and power, in and 
about said premises ; and to use all due course, means and process of law for the 
complete, effectual and full execution of the business above described ; and for 
said premises to appear and me represent before any governors, judges, justices, 
and ministers of law whomsoever, in any court or courts of judicature, and there 
on my behalf defend and prosecute all actions, causes attd matters «vhatsoever, 
relating to the premises ; and in all said premises make and execute all due 
acquittances, discharges and releases. 

That said attorney shall have full power and authority to do, act, determine, 
accomplish and transact all matters and things relating to the premises, as amply 
as I, his said constituent and principal, if present, might or ought, although said 
matters and things should require more speciaj authority than is herein com- 
prised and included. 



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MfeftCANTlLlS LAW. 465 

lliat I hereby allow, ratify and hold firm and valid all matters and things 
whatsoever my said attorney or his substitutes shall lawfully do or cause to be 
done in and about said premises by virtue of these presents. . 

In witness whereof, etc. {as in previous form). 

Power to Carry on Mercantile Business. 

{Draw the /brvi as above, and with the same acknowledgment: where it 
is indicated that the subject-matter should be stated, insert this clause:) to 
carry on, conduct and manage the entire business concerns included in and per- 
taining to {here state name and description of business) at {navne of place) in 
{stkt^ and county). 

For me, and in my name to use and employ all such means, rights, remedies 
and uses as are best calculated for the safe and successful prosecution of said 
business, and to insure accessions, increase and preservation of all property ; the 
diligent collection and settlement of indebtedness, the most judicious purchases 
and largest sales therein, and for all and every other tilatter or thinff, belonging 
or pertaihing to said business. 

Power to Purchase, Sell and Lease Real Estate. 

Purchase — {insert this clause:) — to purchase any real estate on my 
account, in fee simple or otherwise, at any prices or any exchanges whatsoever ; 
and lor these purposes to receive, confirm, make and execute any deeds, convey- 
ances, contracts, or other instruments whatsoever. 

Salb — {insert this clause:) — to sell, barter or exchange any real estate on 
my account to any person or persons whatsoever, for any price or any manner ; 
and for these purposes to execute and acknowledge all deeds, conveyances, and 
assurances, with general covenants of warranty against all persons or incum- 
brances, or any other covenants whatsoever. • 

Lease. — {Insert this clause:) — to receive all rents, issues, and profits of all 
my lands or tenements, or other real estate to which 1 am or may be entitled, and 
from time to time to renew the leases thereof, not extending the same, however, 
beyond the day of , a.d. i8 — . 

(Where these powers of lease, purchase or sale are to be confined to certain 
specific property, that should be ftilly described.) 

Full Power to Demand, Sue for and Recover Debts. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That I, Edward Wilson, have 
constituted, ordained and made, and in my place and stead put, and by these 
presents do constitute, ordain and make, and in my stead and place put, Thomas 
Grant, to be my true, sufficient and lawful attorney for me and in my name and 
Stead and to my use, to ask, demand, levy, require, recover and receive of and 
from all and every person or persons whomsoever the same shsJl or may con- 
cern, all and singular sums of money, debts, goods, wares, merchandise, effects, 
and things whatsoever and wheresoever they shall and may be found, due, 
owing, payable, belonging and coming to me the constituent, by any ways or 
means whatsoever. 

Giving and hereby granting unto my said attorney full and whole strength, 
power and authority in and about the premises ; and to take and use all due 
means, course and process in the law for the recovery and obtaining the same, 
and of recoveries and receipts thereof; and in my name to make, seal and exe- 
cute due acquittance and discharge ; and for the premises to appear, and the 
person of me the constituent to represent, before any governors, justices, officers 
and ministers of the law whatsoever, in any court or courts of judicature ; and 
there on my behalf to answer, defend and reply unto all aotions, causes, matters 
and things whatsoever, relating to the premises. Also to submit any matter in 
dispute to arbitration, with full power to make and substitute one or more 
attorneys as my said attorney, and the same again at pleasure to revoke. And 
generally to say, do, act, transact, determine, accomplish and finish all matters 
and things whatsoever, relating to the premises, as fully, amply and effectually, 
to all intents and purposes, as I, the said constituent, if present, ought or might 



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466 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

pcnonally, although the matter should require more special authority than is 
nerein comprised, I, the said constituent, ratifying ancl allowing and holding 
firm and valid, all and whatsoever ray said attorney or his substitutes shaU 
lawfully do, or cause to be done in and about the premises, by virtue of these 
presents. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this fourth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty, 

{Si^td) EDWARD WILSON, [l. s.] 

Signed, Stolid and Delivered in Presence of tts, 

ANTHONY TOWLE, 
kiCHARD BRINTONI 

BONDS. 

Bonds are written instruments by which one party binds himself 
to pay another a certain sum of money. If this is all, the bond is 
called a " simple bond "; but the word bond is more generally ap- 
plied to bonds with a condition attached, upon fulfillment of which 
the promise of payment is to be of no effect. .The party executing 
the bond is the obligor^ the other party the obligee^ and the amount 
specified \ht penal sum. 

The bond must be sealed, excepf in States where the use of 
private seals has been abolished by statute. Under the common 
law, the use of a seal makes it unnecessary to prove a considera- 
tion; it also extends the right of action (under most statutes of 
limitation) to twenty years. 

Should the condition of the bond be not 'fulfilled, the obligee 
cannot recover the full amount of the penal sum, as might be sup- 
posed, but will obtain only principal, interest and expenses, if the 
condition was the payment of money, or actual damages and costs 
if the condition was for the doing or not doing of certain things. 
The penal sum in a bond is usuSly made double the amount in- 
volved in the transaction. 

Bond to Pay Money. 

Know all Men by these Presents : That I, John Doe, of New York 
City, am held Mid firmly bound unto Richard Roe, of the same place, in the sum 
of ten thousand dollars (^10,000), to be paid to the said Richard Roe, or his 
certain attorney, executors, admmistratprs or assigns ; to v l.ich payment well 
and truly to be made I also bind my heirs, executors and administrators by these 
presents. Sealed with my seal, this 4th day of June, a.d. 1881. 

The condition of this obligation is such that if I, the said John Doe, shall 
pay to said Richard Roe the sum of five thousand dollars (^5,000^ and l^al 
mterest, on or before the 4th day of December, i8di, then the obligation shall be 
of no effect and void, but otherwise to remain in full power, force and virtue. 

Sealed and Delivered in the Presence of 

{Name of witness.) {Signed) JOHN DOE. [us.] 

Bond to Oive a Deed. 

Know all Men by these Presents : That I, , of , am hdd 

and firmly bound unto , of , in the penal sum of — — dollars, to be paid 

to the said , his executors, administrators or assigns ; t* which pajrment I 

hereby bind myself, my heirs, executors and administrators. 

The condition of tnis obligation is such that if the above bounden — — > idiall 
within months fi-om this date make, execute and deliver to the said — * a 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 467 

good and sufficient deed to convey to the said — — the {here deserve in/nii 
the pro^tr^ to be cenveyed)^ to hold the same in fee simple absolute with a 
covenant of warranty of the title, then this obligation shall be void, otherwise of 
force. 

y^ {Signature^ [l. 8.] 

Signed f Sealed and Delivered in the Presence of 

Condition of Bond for Performance of Contract. 
To BB Indorsed on an Agrbembnt or Contract. 
{Make the bond prober as in first fornt, and add this clause:) 
The condition of this, obligation is such that if the above bounden Jonn Doc, 
his executors, administrators or assigns, 'shall in all things well and truly keep, 
stand to, abide b^ and perform all ana singular the conditions, covenants and 
agreements contained in the within instrument, on his or their part to be kept 
and performed, at the time and in the manner and form therein specified, then 
the above obligation shall be void, otherwise to be of full virtue «nd effect. 
{Signed and Sealed as above.) 

CHATTEL MORTGAGES. 

Personal as well as real property may be mortgaged. A Chat- 
tel Mortgage is a mortgage of personal property. It is^n effect 
^ bill of sale of the goods together with a clause providing for the 
making the sale void and of no effect upon the payment of the debt 
for which the mortgage is made. The mortgagor retains possession 
of the property, and the instrument provides that the mortgagee 
may enter into possession if the condition of the mortgage is not 
fulfilled. A man cannot mortgage property which he does nol own ; 
hence a chattel mortgage made by a merchant upon all goods which 
he may hereafter purchase is of no effect. No seal is necessary in 
a chattel mortgage. If the mortgagor retains possession, the instru- 
ment is of no avail as against third parties unless recorded in accord- 
ance with the law of the place where it is made. 

Cai'e must be taken to follow the statutes in regard to NOTICE, 

FORECLOSURE, RECORDING and EQUITY of REDEMPTION, which is 

usually sixty days. We give below an abstract of the principal pro- 
visions as to chattel mortgages in the States and Territories. 

If it can be shown that a mortgage was given to defraud credit- 
ors, it will be void. 

Form of Chattel Mortgage. 

Know all Men by these Presents : That I, Charles Lewis, in consider- 
ation of the sum of one hundred dollars (|ioo), to me in hand paid by Susan 
Gay, have sold and transferred, and hereby sell and transfer, to her and her 
assigns, the goods and chattels mentioned in the schedule hereto annexed, marked 
Schedule A, and subscribed by me. 

This Instipment is a mortgage given by me to secure to the said Susan Gay 
and her assigns the payment of the said sum of one hundred dollars with the 
interest thereon (as promised in a promissory note made by me, bearing date the 
first day of June, a.d. 1875, payable to the said Susan Gay) six months aJter date ; 
and it is a condition hereof that if I or my legal representatives or assigns pay 
the said Susan Gay, her legal representatives or assigns, such sum ot money 
with the interest thereon, without fraud or delay, this instrument shall be void : 
and until default therein I am to retain the possession of the same goods and 
chattels. 



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But if there shall be any default in the payment of said sura of money, or the 
interest thereon, or any part thereof, the said Susan Gay, or her legsu repre- 
sentatives or assigns, may, with die aid and assistance of any person or persons, 
enter my dwelling house, store, or other premises, or other plaice where the said 
goods and chattels are or may be placed, and take and carry them away, and 
sell and dispose of them for the best price they can obtain, and out of the money 
arising therefrom retain and pay the said sum above mentioned, with interest axKl 
all charges touching the same, rendering the overplus (if any) unto me, my 1^^ 
represenutives or assigns. 
Witness my hand and seal, June z, 1875. 

{Signed) CHARLES LEWIS, [l. 5.J 
Executed and delivered in presence of William Eddy. [l. s.] 

Statb of , County, ss. ' 

This mortgage was acknowledged before me by Charles Lewis, this tst day 
of June, 1875^ ^^^ LANT, y.P. 

Form with Power of Sale. 
{Draw the mortgage as be/ore ^ and insert this clause before the signature .•) 

Provided, also, that until default by said mortgs^or, or his executors or 
administrators, in performing the condition aforesaid, it shall be lawful for him 
to keep possession of and to use and enjoy said granted property ; but in case of 
such default, or in case such goods and chattels are attached by other creditors of 
said mortgagor at any time l^fore payment, or if said mortgagor, or any person or 
persons whatsoever.shall attempt to sell,conceal, carry away, or in any way dispose 
of said property without notice to the said mortgagee, his executbrs, administrators 
or assigns, and without his or their written consent, then it shall be lavrful for said 
mortgagee, his executors, administrators or assigns, to take immediate posses- 
sion of all said granted property to his or their own use, and to sell and dispose of 
the same at public auction or at private sale, or any part thereof, giving due 
notice of the time and place of such sale, if public, to the said mor^agor or his 
l^al representatives; and after satisfying the amount of the debt due said 
mortgagee as above set forth, with interest and all expenses, the surplus, if any 
there may be, shall be paid over to said mortgagor or tiis legal representatives. 

CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS. 

When two or more persons agree, upon sufficient consideration, 
to do or not to do a certain thing, the result is a CONTRACT. Con- 
tracts may be by word of mouth or in writing. But it is always best 
when any important issues are involved to have the contract in writ- 
ing and signed by both or all the parties. Minors, insane persons 
and persons in a state of intoxication cannot legally contract. Fraud 
of any kind, or concealment of important facts will void a contract. 
Misspelling or bad punctuation will not void a contract, if the 
meaning of the parties is clear. A contract written with pencil is 
not void for that reason, but ink should always be used. Contracts 
made on Sunday are void, but if written on that day and deliverai • 
on another, they will hold good. 

In drawing a contract it should contain: — i. The true date. 
2. The full names and titles of the parties, who may be conveni- 
ently distinguished and referred to as " the party of the first part,*' 
" the party of the second part," etc. 3. The subject matter of the 
contract, with full details and specifications, and time and place of 
performance. 4. The covenants, warranties, forfeitures or penal- 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 469 

ties to be performed or incurred. 5. The signatures of the parties 
or their authorized agents, and of the witnessed. An agent should 
sign thus : A. B., by his agent (or attorney) C. D. 

Contract— Short General Form. 

This Agrbbmbnt Witnesseth : That A. B., of {place of residence ana 
profession or business), and C D., of (as before), have agreed together at 

l^/ace), this day of , a.d. 18 — , ana do hereby mutually a^ree and 

promise to each other, as follows : The said A. 6., in consideration of the prom- 
ises hereinafter made by the said C. D., and in consideration of {here state any 
other consideration A. B. fnay have, as money received), doth promise, cov- 
enant and agree with said C. D. that {here set out in detail what A. B. under' 
takes to performX: 

And saia C. IJ., in consideration of the promises hereinbefore made by A. B., 
etc. {fis before), doth on his part covenant and agree with said A. B. that 
{Jure state what C. D. undertakes to do). 

Witness our hands and seals to two copies of ttus agreement interchange- 
ably. 

S^yud, sealed and interchartjred^ 
in presence of ' E. F. J- {^Signed) A. B. [l. s.l 

G. H. ) C. D. [L. sj 

Form with Liquidated Damages. 

|[LiQUi DATED Damages are sums of money agreed and fixed upon b^ the 
parties as a forfeit or penalty for non-compliance. The $um mentioned will be 
considered by a court to be liquidated or fixed when from the nature of the case 
it appears that the parties have in advance agreed upon the sum after fair calcu- 
lation and adjustment, or when it is impossible to fix the amount of actual damase 
by any rule. Otherwise the sum mentioned will not necessarily be awarded, but the 
measure of damages will be the actual loss incurred.) 

Insert this clause :-^Kn^ for the true and faithful performance of each and 
all the promises and agreements above made and described, the said parties bind 

themselves, each to the other, in the sum of dollars, as liquidated damages, 

to be paid oy the failing party. 

For Sale of Real Estate. 

Articles of Agreement, made this day of , in the year of our 

Lord one thousand eight hundred and , between A. B., party of the first part, 

and C. D., party of the second part, Witnesseth : That said A. B., in consid- 
eration of the sum of — ^ dollars, to be paid as hereinafter mentioned, shall on 

or before the day ot — — next ensuing, well and sufficiently grant, sell and 

release unto the party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, all that tract or 
parcel of land situated in , and described as follows, to wit : {give descrip- 
tion of lot or parcel bv boundaries), by a good and sufficient warranty deed. 
That said conveyance snail be at the costs of said party of the second part (ex- 
cepting only counsel fees), and shall contain the usual covenants, that said prem- 
ises are free from all demands and incumbrances whatsoever at the time of such 
conveyance, and all other reasonable and usual conveyances. That said party of 
the second part, in consideration thereof, shall well and truly pay unto said party 

of the first part the sum of dollars, in manner and form following, to wit : 

the sum of dollars, cash in hand, the receipt of which is hereby acknowl- 
edged, and the balance {state terms of part payment, if any), the entire sum 
to be paid in full at or before the time herein fixed for the execution of said con- 
veyance. And in case of the failure of said party of the second part to make 
such payment as above specified, this agreement shall be forfeited and of no 
effect, if so determined by tne party of the first part ; and all payments already 
made shall be forfeited to said party of the first p.^rt, and by him retained in full 
liquidation of all damages by him sustained, and he, the said party of the first 
part, shall have the legal right to re-enter and take full possession of the prem- 
faes aboTO described. {Executed as in first form.) 



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Contract for Services. 

MBMORAwmni of an Agrssmemt made this day of ^—, aj>. z8 — , 

between A. B. and C. D. 

The said A. B. agrees to serve C. D. as foreman in his business of machinst 
in die City of Qereland, Ohio, for one year firom this date, at a salary of eigh- 
teen hun<ired d<^lars per annum, payable in equal monthly pajrments on the last 
day of each month by said C. D. And the said A. B. agrees to devote all his 
attention and skill to that business and superintend the same under the directions 
d the said C. D., as die^ may from time to time be given him ; and at all times 
to fiuiiish said C D. with any desired information concerning the busmess. 
{Executed a* in J^rtt form ^ 

DEEDS. 

A Deed is an instrument in writing and under seal, w^reby real 
property or some interest therein is conveyed. 

A deed poll is one executed by a single party, as distinguislied 
from an indenture y which purports to be executed by several parties. 

A QUIT-CLAIM DEED conveys all the right, title and interest in 
and to the land possessed by the grantor, and only that. In other 
words, there is no warranty that the grantor has any title to convey. 
Such a deed should never be accepted when a warranty deed can 
be obtained. To make the deed clearly a quit-claim, the words 
" release and quit-claim " should be used, instead of the usual words 
of conveyance, "give, grant, sell and convey," .as it is thought by 
some authorities that the latter words imply a certain assertion of title. 

The Deed must be made by a party legally capable of making 
contracts, and to a party able to be contracted -with. It must be 
signed with ink distinctly, or if the grantor cannot write, his mark 
must be attested. If signed by an agent or attorney, the seal should 
be that of the principal, and the authority of the s^ent to use the 
seal should itself be under seal. 

The Consideration on which the deed is based may be either 
good (as for love and affection), or valuable (as for money or other 
property). It is customary, though not necessary, to mention some 
nominal sum, as one dollar, or one pound, even when no mdney 
price is paid. The seller is not so far bound by his acknowledgment 
of the receipt of the price paid as to prevent him from suing to re- 
cover it, and proving that it has not in fact been paid. 

The Property to be conveyed should be described by bound- 
aries as minutely as possible. 

The estate passes upon the actual delivery of the deed. If it is 
retained until tiie grantor's death, it becomes void and of no effect. 
But where it is deHvered to a third person to transfer to the grantee 
upon the happening of some event, as the death of the grantor, the 
estate will pass upon that final delivery. Such a deed is callea an 
Escrow. 

It is always best that the execution of the deed should be wit- 
nessed, even though not required by statute. A witness should have 
no interest in the deed. Therefore a wife is not a proper witness 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 471 

of a deed to her husband. If witnesses are dead, proof of their 
handwriting will be admitted; if this cannot be obtained, proof of 
the grantor's handwriting is sufficient. 

The object of the public recording of a deed is not to give va- 
lidity as between the grantor and grantee, but to protect the grantee 
against subsequent bona fide purchasers or mortgagees, and against 
the grantor's creditors. Copies from the records have the same 
force as the records themselves. 

The Covenants usually made in a deed are : i. That the grantor 
is lawfully seized (or possessed) of the land ; 2. That he has good 
right to convey; 3. That the land is free from incumbrances ; 4. That 
the granifee shall quietly enjoy; 5. That the grantor will warrant 
and defend. The covenants of warranty and quiet enjoyment are 
said to "run with the land," because they may be taken advantage 
pf by the heirs and assigns of the original grantee. 

Tax Deeds are made by a public officer after sale of the land 
for non-payment of taxes. They differ from common deeds in that 
they do not in themselves transfer title. That is to say, any irregu- 
larity or illegality in the sale or other proceedings on which the deed 
is based will invalidate the deed itself. In many states the grantee 
of such a deed holds the property subject to the right of the owner 
to redeem it within a specified time, by paying taxes, costs and in- 
terest on the purchase money, at a fixed rate, greater than the usual 
rate of interest. 

Forms of Deeds. 

rit is of course impracticable to give here the various forms of 
deeas used in the different states. Printed blanks of such forms 
may be readily obtained in the several localities). 

LEASES. 

Leases are contracts by which one party, called the lessor^ or 
landlord, gives to a second, called the lessee^ or tenant, possession of 
land or other real estate, for a fixed period of time, receiving in re- 
turn for the use, possession and profits thereof a fixed compensation 
called the rent. 

Leases may be for life, at will, by sufferance, or for a term of 
years. A lease by sufferance of the lessor is presumed to exist 
when a lease for years or life has expired and the tenant is never- 
theless allowed to remain in possession. Such possession may 
be terminated without notice. A lease at will is one which exists 
only during the will of the grantor. It may be terminated at the 
will of either party, by any act of the lessor in assertion of his right 
of possession, by any act of abandonment of possession by the tenant, 
or by the death of either party. An estate for years is one which 
begins and ends at certain and spceified dates. 

It is usual for a landlord to agree to make all necessary repairs, 



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472 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY 

bot^ unless the lease expressly requires it, he is not bound to do so. 
The tenant usually covenants to leave the premises in good condi- 
tion, ** ordinary wear and usage excepted.** The tenant is not bound 
to make general repairs nor to pay taxes, unless he specially cove- 
nants so to do. He may always underlet the premises unless for- 
bidden to do so by the lease. It is not uncommon to insert a clause 
in the lease forbidding the tenant to use the premises for other than 
certain specified things. In case of a tenant at will, or one who 
holds over after the term is complete, a notice to quit is necessary 
to compel him to give up his possession. This notice must, as a 
rule, be given at a date before some " rent day," and distant from it 
by the usual period at which rent is payable. Thus, if it is payable 
monthly, there should be a month's notice ending on the day when 
rent is payable. If the rent is in arrears, only a brief notice is re- 
quired. In most of the states this is fixed at two weeks, fourteen 
da3rs. Such notice need not be made to end upon the day when 
rent is payable. 

Many states require leases to be recorded. Leases for more 
than one year must be recorded in the following states : — Connecti- 
cut, Mississippi, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee 
and Vermont In Connecticut and Mississippi leases must be exe- 
cuted in all respects like deeds. Leases for more than seven years 
must be recorded in Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New 
Hampshire. Leases for more than three years must be recorded in 
Ohio. In North Carolina and Texas all leases must be recorded. 
In Delaware and Pennsylvania all leases for more than twenty-one 
years must be recorded. 

MECHANICS' AND BUILDERS' LIENS. 

Valid claims against property (or, as the word itself signifies, a 
hold upon it), are termed Liens. One who holds a lien may, within, 
a time specified by law and by duly-prescribed methods, enforce his 
claim by having tiie property sold to satisfy the amount due him. 

Special liens are given by the statutes of the different states to 
mechanics, material -men — that is, those who supply material — and to 
builders. Before beginning action to enforce such a lien, notice must 
be given in writing by the holder of the lien to the owner of the 
property, and in order to guard against fraud to third parties the 
certificate of the claim must be filed with the county clerk or other 
officer as provided by the statute. The following form may be 
used: 

Notice of Lien. 

Takb NonCB, that I, A. B., of {residence's, herebv claim a lien against 
C. D., of {residence), amounling to the sum of {amount), due to me; and that 
the claim is made for and on account of {here state in full the nature of the 
work done or the materials furnished , with bill of particulars), work done 
and performed {pr materials furnished^ by me in building the premises 
(describe building in full) owned by the said C. D. 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 473 

And I claim a lien upon said house or building and the api^ufteaances 
thereof, and the lot on which the same stands, pursuant to the provisions of an 

act of the l^islature of the State of , to secure the payment of mechanics, 

laborers, and persons furnishing materials toward the erection, altering or re- 
pairing of buildings. 

Dated this day of , a.d. 18— . {Signed) A. B. 

MORTGAGES. 

Deeds conveying real property for the securing of a debt, the 
evidence of which may be a bond or obligation, or a promissory 
note, are known in law as Mortgages. The conveyance of the 
property is subject to the right of the debtor to redeem his estate by 
paying his debt, with interest, as agreed upon, and at the specified 
time. He who makes the conveyance is called the mortgagor; he 
who receives it the mortgagee. 

The bond or note is drawn precisely like any other instrument of 
the kind. In the case of notes, it is customary to state therein that 
they are secured by a mortgage of even date. 

Strictly speaking, the mortgagee has the right to take possession 
of the property at once, and hold it until the condition is fulfilled ; 
but it is now almost universal for the deed to provide that the mort- 
gagor may retain possession. 

Equity of Redemption. — By the theory of the transaction the 
mortgagee has the right to take immediate possession, when the 
debt for which the mortgage is security falls due and is not paid. 
But courts of equity, deeming this an undue hardship, long ago gave 
the mortgagor further time within which to redeem his title. This 
is called the equity of redemption. The rule has been adopted by 
courts of law and by statutory enactment. The time very generally 
allowed for redemption is tliree years. The right is such a positive 
one that it may be itself sold, and is of such a character that the law 
refuses to allow it to be foregone, even by the express agreement of 
the mortgagor himself. Thus a distinct contract in the deed itself 
that the mortgagee shall have full title as soon as the debt is due 
and unpaid, is void and of no effect, and the three years* equity still 
remains. 

Power of Sale. — It is now permitted, however, to insert an 
agreement to the effect that upon the debt becoming due the mort- 
gagee may, after a fixed time, enter upon the land, sell it, pay him- 
self debt, interest and costs, and return the balance left, if any there 
be, to the mortgagor. This is called a power of sale. The equity 
of redemption, or three years' grace, begins to run at the date when 
the mort^atgee takes the property into his own possession with the 
avowed intention of- foreclosing. That is, the note or bond may call 
for payment of the debt in, say, six years, but the debt may run on 
unpaid for ten, and the right of redemption be not exhausted and 
not even begun, because the mortgagee has taken no steps to fore- 
close. 



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474 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Insurance Clauses are often inserted, providing that insurance 
shall be maintained on the property at the expense of the mort- 
gagor. Where this is not done, the mortgagee must insure at his 
own cost, or run the risk of losing his security by fire. Where the 
right of dower still exists, the wife should join in the deed to release 
or extinguish her dower right. The execution and acknowledg- 
ment of mortgages must be performed exactly & in the case of deeds 
absolute. 

A Release of a mortgage must be in writing, and duly signed, 
sealed, acknowledged and recorded. It must distinctly declare that 
the debt which the deed was designed to secure has been fully paid 
and discharged. It may take the form of a quit-claim deed from the 
mortgagee to the mortgagor. A more common and convenient 
practice is for the register or recorder of deeds to draw a form of 
release and discharge on the margin of the record of the deed, and 
to obtain thereto the signature of the mortgagee. 

Unless stipulation is made to the contrary, the mortgagee, upon 
foreclosing absolutely — that is, not under a power of sale — ^is en- 
titled to all fixtures and buildmgs which have been added to the 
property by the mortgagor. On the other hand, if the mortgagee 
has made siich additions after taking possession with intention to 
foreclose, they fall to the mortgagor, if he redeems in time. The 
latter is also entitled to rents and profits received by the mortgagee 
while in possession. 

Mortgages may be assigned, and the written assignment should 
be indorsed on the back of the deed or attached thereto. 

Form of Mortgage vrith Power of Sale. 

This Indenture, made the day of , a.d. i8-^, between A. B., ot 

{mortgagor's residence), the party of the first part, and C. D., oi {mortgagee' s 
residence), the party of the second part : Whereas, the said A. B. of tne first 

{)art is justly inaebted to the said C. D. of the second part in the sum of {amount), 
awful money, secured to be paid by a certain bond or obligation {or promissory 
note, as the case may be) bearing even date with these presents, in the penal sum 
of {amount of penalty, if on a oond, and describe the bond or note), as by the 
saia bond or obligation {or promissory note) and the condition thereof, reference 
being thereunto had, may more fully appear. 

This Indenture Witnesseth, Tnat the said party of the second part, for 
the more fully securing the payment of the said sum of money mentionea in said 
bond {or note) with interest thereon, according to the true intent and meaning 
thereof, and also for and in consideration of the sum of one dollar to him in hand 
paid by the said party of the second part, at or before the ensealing and delivery 
of these presents, tne receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, has granted, 
bargained, sold, aliened, released, conveyed and confirmed, and by these presents 
doth grant, bargain, sell, alien, release, convey and confirm unto the party of the 
second part, and to his heirs and assigns forever, all those premises known {here 
describe land by bounds and metes -with great particularity). Together 
with all and singular the tenements, hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging or in any wa>r pertaining, and the reversion and reversions, rei]|^inder 
and remainders, rents, issues and profits thereof; and also all the estate, right, 
tide, interest, property, possessio*^, claim and demand whatsoever, as well in law 
as in equity, of the said party of the first part, of, in and to the same, and every 
part and parcel thereof, with the appurtenances : To have and to hold, mc 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 475 

abore mnted, bargained and described premises, with the apDurtenances, unto 
the said party of the second part, and his heirs and assigns, to his and their own 
proper use, benefit and behoof forever 

Provided Always, and these presents are upon this express condition, that 
if the said party of the first part, his heirs, executors or administrators, shall 
well and truly pay luito the party of the second part, his executors, administra- 
tors, or assigns, the said sum of money mentioned in the condition of the above 
mentioned bond (or in the note) according to the true intent and meaning thereof, 
and the interest tnereon at the time and manner mentioned in the said condition, 
that then these presents and the estate hereby granted shall cease, determine 
and be void. And the said A. B., for himself and his heirs, executors and ad- 
ministrators, does covenant and a^ee to pay unto the said party of the second 
part, C. D., or his executors, administrators or assigns, the said sum of money 
and interest as mentioned above, and expressed in the condition of the said 
bond. And if default shall be made in the payment of the said sum of money, 
or the interest or any part thereof, that then and from thenceforth it shall be law- 
ful for said party of the second part, his executors, administrators or assigns, to 
enter into and upon all and singular the premises hereby granted, or intended 
so to be, and to sell and dispose of the same and all benefit and equity of re- 
demption ofthesnid party of the first part, or his heirs, executors, administrators 
or assi^pis therein, at public auction. And out of the money arising from such sale 
to retam the principsd and interest which shall then be due on the said bond or 
obligation {or note), together with the costs and charges of advertisement and 
sale of the same premises, rendering the overplus of the purchase money (if any 
there shall be) unto tlie said A. B., his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns ; 
which sale, so to be made, shall forever be a perpetual bar, both in law and in 
equity, against the said party of the first part, and his heirs and assigns and 
all other parties claiming, or to claim, the premises, or any part thereof, by, 
firom or tmder him or them, or any of them. 

In Witness Whereof, etc. {Executed and acknowledged like othet 
deeds. See Deeds.) 

Clause to Release Dower. 

Insert when dower right is to be extinguished : — And for the consideration 
aforesaid, I, L. B., the wife of the said A. B., of the first part, do hereby release 
unto the said C. D., of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators and 
assigns, all my right of dower and homestead in the above described, baigained 
and granted premises. 

Insurance Clause. 

And it is expressly agreed by and between the parties to these presents, that 
the said party of the first part shall and will keep the buildinzs erected and to 
to be erected upon the lands above conveyed insured against loss and damage 
by fire, by insurers approved by the said party of the second part, and in an 
amount approved by said party of the second part ; and assi^ the policy and 
certificates thereof to the said party of the second part, and m default thereof 
it shall be lawful for the said party of the second part to effect such insurance, 
and the premium or premiums paid for effecting the same shall be a lien on said 
mortgaged premises, added to the amount of the said bond or obligation iof 
note), and secured by these presents, and payable on demand with interest at tne 
rate of — per cent, per annum. 

Release of Mortgage. 

This Debt, secured by the deed of mortgage dated the day of — •, 

a.d. i8 — ,and reco-ded with the recorder of deeds for the city of {or county), 

lib, , /joI. , has been paid to me by A. B., of , the mortgagor therein, 

and in consideration thereof^ I do discharge Uie mortgage and release the 
mortgaged premises to said A. 6., his heirs, executors, administrators and 
assigns. 

WiTNBas my hand and seal, this — day of——, a.d. i8— . 

{Signed) A. B. (l. a.] 
Executed and delivered in presence qf 



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476 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARV. 

AMignment of Mortgage. 

Kmcm ALL BfsN bt thbsb Prbsbnts : That I, C D^ of (rendenc^), the 
mortgagee named in a certain mortgage given by A. B., of (residence), to said 

C D., to secure the payment Qi{amouni) and interest, dated tne day of , 

AJ>. «•— . lecwded in v(^ume . on page , of the r^istry of deeds for the 

county <M , in consideration (^ the sum of dollars to me paid by E. F., of 

{resideuce), the receipt (^ which is hereby acknowledged, do hereby sell, transfer, 
set over, and convey unto said E. F., his heirs and assigns, said mor^;age and the 
real estate therd>y conveyed, together with the promissory note, debt and claim 
therebjr seaired and the covenants therein contamed {and to redemption accord- 

td seal, this — day o 

{Signature,) [l. s.j 



ing to law). 

In Witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this ^— day of 



Sipted, tealed and delivered^ 
im fretemce iff ^ 



Mortgage Bynd. 

Know all Mbit bt thbsb Pkbsbnts : That I, A. B., d[ {residence), 
am hdd and firmly bound unto C. D., of (residence) , in the penal sum ^ 
{insert twice the eunount of the actual debt), to be paid to the said C. D., his 
nein. executors, administrators or assigns, and to this payment I hereby bind 
mysof, my heirs, executors and administrators firmly by these presents. 

Sealed with my seal this day of , a.d. i8 — . 

Tub CoNorrxoN of the above oUigation is : That if I, the said A. B., or 
my heirs, executors or administrators, shall pay or cause to be paid unto the 

said C. D. the sum of {amount of debt) on the day of , with interest 

at the rate of per cent, per annum, payable months from the date, 

hereof and every — — months thereafter, until the said sum is paid, then the 
obligation shall be void and of no efieci ; but otherwise it shall remain in full 
force. 

And I further s^;ree and covenant that if any payment of interest be with- 
held or delayed for days alter such payment snail fall due, the said principal 

sum and all arrearage of interest thereon shall be and become due immediately 
on the expiration of days, at the option of said C. D,, his executors, ad- 
ministrators or assigns. 

A. B. iSeal\ 

Executed and delivered in \ 
presence of f 

PATENTS. 

Original contrivances belong to the inventor alone, so long as 
they are kept within his exclusive possession. When circulated 
abroad with the consent of the inventor they become public 
property, and the right of the originator is lost. The object of 
Patent law is to secure to the originator the benefits of his inventive 
skill, and at the same time to allow the public to enjoy the fruits of 
his invention. The consideration received by tJie inventor is 
protection in the sale and use of his production ; the compensation 
gained by the public is the privilege of benefiting by his skill for 
adequate remuneration, and the encouragement of invention and 
talent. 

A Patent is an exclusive right given to an inventor by a 
government, for a fixed time to use, manufacture and sell an inven- 
tion or improvement, made by him and not before known. 



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MERCANTILE LAW. 477 

What is Patentable.— ^-Patents may be obtained under the 
Acts of Congress governing the subject for " any new and useful 
art, machine, manufacture or composition of matter, or any new 
and useful improvement thereof, not before known or used by 
others in this country, and not at the time patented or described in 
any printed publication in this or any foreign country ; or for any 
new and original design for a manufacture, bust, statue, alto-relievo 
or bas-relief; or for any new and original ornament, impression, 
pattern, print or picture to be placed on or worked into any article 
of manufacture ; or any new and original shape or configuration of 
any such article, the same not having been known or used by others 
before the application for a patent." 

Who May Obtain Patents. — Aliens as well as citizens may 
obtain patents. When the inventor dies before application has 
been made, his executor or administrator may apply for and obtain 
a patent. 

Duration. — The exclusive right to use, sell and manufacture 
is granted for the term of seventeen years. No extension can be 
granted upon any patent issued since March 2, 1 86 1, and as more 
than seventeen years have now elapsed since that date, no patents 
capable of extension are now in existence. Patents for designs 
may be granted for fourteen years, seven years, or three years and 
six months, as the applicant may elect and petition for in his appli- 
cation. No patents issued for designs after March 2, i86i, can be 
extended. 

Re-issue. — When the original patent is invalid, because of an 
inefficient or defective specification arising from mistake or 
accident, the original patent may be surrendered, and a re-issue for 
the same period granted. All parties having any interest in the 
patent must concur in the surrender, which must be verified by 
oath that the original patent is not valid and available, that the 
error has arisen from inadvertence, mistake or accident, and 
without fraudulent or deceptive intention. The re-issue may be 
gnmted to the original patentee or his heirs, or to the collective 
assignees. 

How TO Get a Patent. — In obtaining a patent it is by far 
the best plan to employ a patent solicitor, who will fully understand 
the steps to be taken and who has experience in all pertaining to 
patent law. The first thing to be done is to have a special exami- 
nation made at the Patent Office in Washington to discover whether 
the alleged invention has been previously patented in this country. 
For this the usual charge is $$. The same fee is generally charged 
by solicitors for a written report on any point required, as in regard 
to re-issues, claims, assignments, joint ownership, etc. etc. The 
solicitor's charge for obtaining a patent will be from $2$ upward ; 
for a caveat, ;$io to ;$I5, or more. 

When satisfied tiiat his invention is original and undisputed. 



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4TO POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

the applicant must petition the commissioner of patents that a 
patent may be granted him for the invention described in the 
accompanying specifications. Tliis application must be signed by 
the actual inventor. 

Models must be sent where possible. They should be of 
durable material, and have the name of the inventor inscribed upon 
them. If practicable, working models should be sent. In case of 
works of design, photographs or drawings will be accepted. The ne- 
gative of a photograph should be sent. In the case of a composition 
of matter, specimens of the composition and of each ingredient 
must be* forwarded, with statement of proportion. For im- 
provements, in most cases a model of the part to be patented will 
suffice. 

Caveats. — A caveat is a petition to the commissioner from an 
inventor, who has not as yet fully perfected his invention, setting 
forth that he intends to apply for a patent, and asking that this 
notice or caveat be filed. Its effect is to prevent, for one year, the 
issue of a patent for the same purpose to another, except after due 
notice to the applicant. After such notice is given him he must 
complete his own application within three months. Caveats may 
be renewed for a second year by renewing the fee. They cannot 
be filed by aliens. The description in a caveat need not be as 
precise as in ordinary specifications, but the commissioner must be 
enabled to judge whether interference would exist with a subsequent 
applicant. 

The fees established by law must be paid in advance and before 
any application will be considered by the examiner. The final fee 
for the issue of the patent must be paid within six months of the 
date when the patent was granted. Fees may be deposited with an 
assistant treasurer, to be paid when necessary. The following is the 
list of fees under the present law : 

United States Patent Fees. 

On application for patent ^15 00 

On every caveat zo 00 

On application for design, for fourteen years 30 00 

** ** ** for seven years , 1500 

** ** ** for three and a half years 10 00 

On issuing each original patent 30 00 

On application for a re-issue 30 00 

On application for a division of re-issue 30 00 

On filing a disclaimer xo 00 

On appeal to examiners-in-chief. 10 00 

On appeal from examiners-in-chief to commissioner so 00 

On every copy of patent or other instrument, per 100 words xo 

On copy of drawing the cost of having it made. 

For recording assignment, under 300 words z 00 

** " ** over 300 words and under 1,000 words 2 00 

** ** " over 1.000 words ,... 300 

Interference is said to exist when two parties claim to be the 
original inventor of the same ^* art, machine, manufacture or corn- 



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MfiUCANTlLt LAW. 479 

position of matter." When a patent has been granted to one 
person, and the commissioner has reason to believe that another 
was the true inventor, he may grant a patent to the second also, and 
thus place them on an equal footing. And if, after interference has 
been declared, a third claimant appears, he will be allowed to come 
into the case. As a rule, the burden of proof will lie on those who 
oppose the party first making oath to the invention. Appeal lies 
in regard to decisions in inteiference cases in the same manner as 
when an application is rejected. 

Assignments. — Patents may be assigned in whole or in part. 
The assignment must be writing, but need not be sealed or attested. 
When the assignment is made before the patent issues, it should be ' 
recorded in the patent-office five days before the issue, if the patent 
. is to be made out in the name of the assignee. The assignment of 
exclusive territorial right should also be recorded. If not recorded 
within three months, the assignment will be void as against a sub- 
sequent purchaser or mortgagee for value. A five- cent stamp is 
required for every sheet on which the assignment is written. 

Sale of Patent-rights. — If the entire right is not sold, one 
of three methods is employed in selling patent rights, by territorial 
privilegfe, by j^^ right, and on a royalty. The territorial right 
may or may not include the right to manufacture ; it gives the pur- 
chaser exclusive right to sell the article within certain territory, as 
a state. By shop right is meant the privilege of manufacturing the 
article in a certain shop or factory and not elsewhere, without limit 
as to the number of articles sold. Royalty is a fixed sum paid to 
the patentee by some other person on each article made or sold. It 
is usual to stipulate that the royalty shall be paid on at least an 
agreed number of articles, >yhether sold or not» 

* Petition for Patent. 

To THE COMMISSIONBR OF PATENTS : 

Your petitioner. A. B., of Hartford. Connecticut, prays that a patent may be 
granted to him for the invention set forth in the annexed drawings and specifica« 
tions. ' {Signed) A. B. 

Form of Oath. 
State op Conwbcticut, 1 

City of Hartford, Hartford County, / * 

Personally appeared before me, the subscriber, a justice of the peace, in and 
for said city and county, on this lath day of May, 1882, the within named A. B., 
and made solemn oath that he verily believes himself to be the original and first 
inventor of the machine and mechanical contrivance {or process, or composition, 
or art. as the case may be) herein described ; and that he does not know or be- 
lieve tne same was ever before known or used ; and that he is a citizen of the 
United States. C. D., justice of the Peace, 

Application for Design. 

To THE Commissioner of Patents :--The petition of A. B., of the city oI 
Hartford, Hartford County, State of Coimecticut, respectfully represents : 

That your petitioner aforesaid has invented or produced a new and orl^nal 



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480 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

dwign for {describe nature a id use of design), which he verily believes has 
not been known prior to the production thereof by your petitioner. He therefore 
prays that letters patent of the United States may be granted him therefor, for 
the term <A {state whether 14, 7, or 3^ vears are destred)^ vesting in him and 
his l^;al representatives the exclusive right to the same upon the terms and con- 
ditions expressed in the Act of Congress in that case made and provided, he hav- 
ii^ paid — — dollars into the Treasury, and complied with the other provisions 
ot the act. {Signed) A. B. 

WILLS. 

A WILL, or LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT, IS an instrument by 
which property is disposed of, either absolutely or conditionally, to 
take effect from the time of the death of the maker thereof. 

The maker if a man is the testator, if a woman the testatrix. 
An executor or executrix is one appointed by the will to carry out 
its provisions and settle the estate. Any person may make a will 
who is of sound mind and has arrived at the age of twenty-one. 
Great care should be exercised in regard to the attesting witnesses. 
No person who is a legatee can serve as a witness. 

Short and Simple Will. 



worldly afl^rs, while I have strength and capacity, do make and publish this, 
my last will and testament ; hereby revoking and making void all former wilb by 
me at any time heretofore made. 

First : — I direct my executors, hereinafter named, to pay all my just debts 
and funeral expenses from my personal property not hereinafter disposed ofl 

Second: — I give to my wife, Mary, all the household furniture which may be 
contained in my homestead at the time of my death, also my library, carriage, 
carriage-horses, and harness a^jpertaining thereto, of which I may die possessed. 

Third: — I give to my wife, Mary, an annuity of $1,500 annually, which 
annuity I direct shall be a charge upon my estate. 

Fourth : — I devise to her for her natural life my homestead in Springfield, 
Hampden County, Massachusetts, known as No. 432 Main street, and all the 
land thereto pertaining, to be received and held by her without impeachment for 
waste, on condition, however, that she receive the same in lieu of her dower, 
and that on the request o** my executors after this will is proved, that she release 
her dower in the residue of my real estate. 

Fifth : — I give to my friend, William Edson, my gold watch an^ chain and 
the seals of the same. 

Sixth : — I give to my cousm, Ellen White, three thousand dollars to be paid 
out of my personal estate not otherwise disposed of. 

Seventh : — I bequeath and devise to my three children, all the residue of my 
estate, whether real or personal, to be divided into equal shares by my executors, 
one share or third of the personal and one share or third of the real property to 
be allotted to each, so that each child who shall survive me shall take one such 
share, and the children or issue of any child who may die before my death shall 
take one share, and hold the share of*^ the personal property absolutely, and the 
share of the real to his, her, or their heirs and assigns forever; the issue of any 
child taking the share of such child per stirpes and not per capita. 
Lastly : — I appoint Charles Grant and Edward Fox my executors. 

In Witness Whbrbof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal, and pub- 
lished and declared this instrument to be my last will and testament, the first day 
of May, 1882, in presence of the persons whose names are subscribed as attest- 
ing witnesses. {Signed) JAM^S GViAHT. [i..s.] 

On the first day of May, 1882, the above named James Grant, in our pres- 
enoe, signed the foregoing instrument, and declared to us that the same was his 



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PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE LAW, 481 

last will and testament, and requested us to subscribe our names hereto as wit* 
nesses ; and we in his presence and in the presence of each other, have, in com- 
pliance with such request, hereto subscribed our names. 

{Here follow the signatures qf witnesses; the residence ^ each should 
be added.) 



PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE LAW. 

There are certain legal phrases and maxims representing prin- 
ciples universally admitted to be just. These have, become the 
foundation of the common law of the land. Blackstone said that 
these phrases, for deiiniteness and exactitude, were as reliable as 
axioms of geometry. Bouvier's Law Dictionary gives over a 
thousand of these legal proverbs. They arc most commonly 
referred to in the Latin form ; but as this dictionary proposes to b« 
above all things a popular dictionary, the £iiglssh form only is 
retained : 

No one is bound to do what is impossible. 
Abundant caution does no harm. 
No one ought to accuse himself except before G©4. 
Equity follows the law. 
Wnat is good and equal is the law of laws. 
To conceal is one thing, to be silent another. 
Argument by analogy avails in law. 
No one ought to derive benefit from his own wrong. 
Consent makes law (in contracts). 
Custom is another law. 

Let punishment be proportioned to the offense. 
Time runs against the slothful and those who neglect their 
.rights. 

The law does not concern itself for trifles. 
With similar things the judgment is the same. 
There ought to be an end of lawsuits. 
An agent cannot delegate his power. 

The power which is derived cannot be greater than that from 
which it is derived. 

Every man's house is his castle. 

The laws sometimes sleep, but never die. 

Equality is equity. 

Equity suffers not a right without a remedy. 

Equity looks upon that as done which ought to be done. 

Facts are more jpowerful than words. 

False in one thing, false in all. 

Let justice be done though the heavens fall. 

It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 

A general expression is to be gencralljr €«BStni«dk 



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482 POPULAR AM£iaCAK BICTIOKAIIT. 

He who has committed iniquity shall not have equity. 
That is certain which may be rendered certain. 
To be able to know is the same as to know. 
It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear. 
"We may do anything allowed by law. 
Ignorance of facts excuses, ignorance of the law does not. 
Ignorance of the law excuses no one. 
Impossibility excuses the law. 

In a doubtful case the gentler course is to be pursued. 
In doubt follow the safest course. 
No one may be judge in his own cause. 
Things uncertain are held for nothing. 
A hidden intention is a bad one. 

It is for the public interest that lawsuits come to an end. 
The judge is the law speaking. 
The later decisions are stronger in law. 
A public right cannot be changed by private* agreement. 
Law regards equity. 
Gross negligence is equivalent to fraud. 
The contract makes the law. 

Subsequent laws repeal previous ones to the contrary. 
Construction of law obtains the force of law. 
Law provides for the future, the judge for the pait 
The law wrongs no one. 
Laws look forward, not backward. 
Law dislikes delay. 
Great neglect is fraud. 
The greater contains the less. 

In wills the intention of the testator is to be considered. 
When law is vague or uncertain, there is miserable slavery. 
Death dissolves all things. 
Nature makes no leap, nor does the law. 
Necessity is the law of time and place. 
Necessity malces that lawful which is otherwise unlawfuL 
Necessity has no law. 
A double negative is an affirmative. 
No one should be wiser than the law. 
No one can be punished twice for the same crime. 
No one may contradict his own deed. 
A man cannot give what he does not own. 
No one is heir to a living man. 
No one is bound to accuse himself. 
He who errs does not consent. 

He who is permitted to do the greater may, with greater reason, 
do the less. 

About rules of law there is no disputing. 

He is not deceived whe knows himself to bit deceived. 



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PROVEkfilAL ^HlLOSOMV or tUt LAW. 483 

Not everything legal is honorable. 

It matters not whether a revocation be by word or deed. 

No one may take advantage of his own Wrong. 

No rule without exceptions. 

Every will is consummated by death. 

Every oath should be founded on positive knowledge. 

Once a fraud, always a fraud. 

Once a mortgage, always a mortgage. 

Once a recompense, always a recompense. 

He is the best judge who relies least on himself. 

Possession is a good title, where no better appears. 

Strong presumption avails in law. 

First in time, first in right. 

What is done in court is presumed to have been rightly done. 

Things which do not avail singly, may when united. 

What is prohibited directly is prohibited indirectly. 

When the law gives anything, it gives tacitly what is incident 
to it. 

Confirming is not giving. 

He who acts thrpugh another acts for himself. 

He who adheres to the letter, adheres to the bark. 

He who uses his legal rights harms no one. 

He approves who does not disapprove. 

Neglect to forbid is equivalent to a command. 

Let him who wishes to be deceived be deceived. 

Whatever is affixed to the soil (or realty) belongs to it 

What is not good at the beginning cannot be rendered good by 
time. 

What avails in one of two similar things will avail in the other. 

The law does not demand that which is vain and useless. 

The reason of the law is the soul of the law. 

Remedies ought to be reciprocal. 

Money refused (uf. tender) liberates the debtor. 

A thing adjudged must be taken for truth. 

Rights never die. 

The safety of the people is the supreme law. 

To write is to act. 

The burden of proof lies on the claimi&t. 

A guardian, guilty of fraud toward his ward, shall be removed. 

So use your own as not to injure another's property. 

Laws are silent amidst arms. 

What is planted in the soil belongs to the soil. 

The height (extreme rigor) of the law is the height of wrong. 

Superfluities do no injury. 

Surplusage does no harm. 

Things silent are sometimes considered as expressed. 

Things are worth what they will sell f«r. 



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484 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Land passes with the incumbrances. 

When the number of witnesses is equal on both sides the i 
worthy are to be believed. 

One eye-witness is worth ten ear- witnesses. 

Trusts survive. 
' The law permits everything it does not forbid. 

It is safer to err on the side of mercy. 

Where there is the same reason there is the same law. 

Where there is a right there is a remedy. 

Usury is odious in law. 

What is useful is not vitiated by the useless. 

It shall avail as far as it can have effect. 

Words are to be taken most strongly against him using theou 

General words are to be understood generally. 

It is better that words should have no interpretation than an 
absurd one. 

Truth fears nothing but concealment. 

Man and wife in law are considered one person* 

He who consents cannot receive an injury. 

When the foundation fails all fails. 

When two rights concur the most ancient shall be preferred. 

Where there is equal equity the law must prevail. 



VOCABULARY OF BUSINESS TERMS. 

Abatement. Amount taken off a bill. 

Acceptance. Agreement to terms. 

Account. Statement of goods, or indebtedness. 

Accountant. A professional bookkeeper, or calculator. 

Account Cuif ent. A plain statement, or running account. 

Acquittance. A written discharge, or receipt in full. 

Ad valorem. According to value^ — assessment for custom duty. 

Affidavit. Declaration in writing, or oath before a magistrate. 

Annuity. Sum paid periodically. 

Annul. To make void; to cancel 

Antedate. To date beforehand. 

Appraiser. A valuator. 

Arbitration. Reference to persons chosen by the parties. 

Assessor. A person who estimates property for taxation. 

Assets. Funds of a person or firm in business. 

Assignee. A person to whom an assignment is made. 

Assignment. Conditional transfer of property for safe keefnog. 

Assignor. A person who makes an assignment. 

Audit. Regular examination of books, vouchers, etc. 

Auditor. A person who inspects and certifies accounts. 



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VOCABULARY OP BUSINESS TERMS, 486 

Balance. Difference between two accounts. 

Balance-sheet. A paper containing a concise statement of an 

account. 
Balancing Books. Making a balance-sheet from the ledger. 
Bale. A package of goods or produce. 
Bankbook. Passbook of a bank. 
Banker. A dealer in money. 
Bankrupt. A person not able to pay his debts. 
Bank-stock. Shares of a banking-company. 
Bear. A person who strives to depress stocks, in order to buy up. 
Bill of Entry. A bill of goods entered at the custom-house. 
Bill of Exchange. An order for the payment of money. 
Bill of Lading. A receipt from a railroad, ship, etc., for goods 

as freight. 
Billhead. A printed form, with business, address, etc. 
Bill. A detailed account of goods sold. 
Bill of Sale. A contract, under seal, for the sale of goods. 
Bill of Sight. A temporary form of entry at a custom-house, per- 
mitting goods to be provisionally landed for examination. 
Bills payable. The name given by a merchant, or other person, 

to notes made and issued. 
Bills Receivable. Notes taken or given in payment,— except 

one's own. 
Blank Credit. Permission given by a firm or person to draw 

money on account. 
Bona Fide. In good faith. 

Bond. A note or deed given with pecuniary security. 
Bonded Goods. Goods for which bonds are given for the duties 

instead of money. 
Bottomry Boi^d. A mortgage on a vessel. 
Bounty. A bonus, or premium, given to encourage trade. 
Broker. An agent, or factor. 
Bull. A person who strives to raise the price of stocks in order to 

sell up. 
Bullion. Uncoined gold or silver. 

Capital. Stock in trade ; the amount of assets. 

Capitalist. A person having surplus cash, or large property. 

Capitation. Poll-tax ; tax levied on male adults. 

Case. A box for holding goods or merchandise.^ 

Cash-book. A book of entry for money paid out and taken in. 

Cash Credit. Privilege of drawing money at a bank, obtained by 

depositing suitable security. 
Cashier. A person having the charge of moneys. 
Chamber of Commerce. An association of merchants foi the 

encouragement and protection of trade. 
Charter. The letting or hiring a ship by special contract. 



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486 P0PX7LAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Check. An order on a bank for pa3anent on demand. 

Check-book. A printed book of blank checks. 

Check-clerk. A clerk who examines the accounts of other clerks. 

Circular. A printed letter of advertisement. 

Closing an account. Balancing the Dr. and Cr. sides by placing 
the difference on the smaller side under the name of " Balance," 
or " Profit and Loss," and drawing lines beneath. 

Clerk. An assistant in a store, office, etc. 

Clearing. Entering a ship at the custom-house, particulars of 
freight, etc. 

Clearance. A certificate for clearing. 

Cocket. A custom-house warrant to show goods have been en- 
tered. 

Collector. A person authorized to receive money for another. 

Commerce. The business of exchanging one commodity for an- 
other, etc. 

Commission. The amount charged by an agent for transacting 
business for another. 

Company. A number of persons associated in business. 

Consideration. Bonus, — the sum given on account of anything. 

Consign. To send goods to an agent, or factor, for sale. 

Consignee. A person who receives goods in trust. 

Consignment. Goods sent to a distance, for sale by an agent 

Consignor. The person who consigns. 

Consols. Public stocks in England. 

Consul. A representative of a state in a foreign country whose 
duty It is. to protect trade. 

Contra. On the other side; per contra, a writing on the opposite 
side. 

Contraband goods. Articles on which there are heavy duties, or 
articles wholly prohibited by Government. 

Contract. An agreement between parties; a bargain. 

Contractor. A person who bargains. 

Contribution. Joint payment of money to an undertaking. 

Conveyance. A legal document transferring land or property from 
one person to another. 

Copartner. A person engaged in a partnership. 

Copying-ink. Adhesive ink, prepared with gums, etc., for trans- 
ferring writing. 

Copying-Press. An instrument for taking impressions from damp 
paper. 

Counter- entry. An entry to the contrary. 

Counting-room. A merchant's business-office. 

Currency. Paper money and coin established as the, circulating 
medium of a country. 

Customs. Taxes on goods imported or exported. 

Customer. A regular buyer of goods at a slated price. 



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VOCABULARY OF BUSINESS TERMS. 487 

Custom-house. A place appointed to receive customs. 
Custom-house entry. A statement made and fees paid in clear- 
ing a ship. 

Day-book. A book for recording daily transactions. 

Days of Grace. A period of three days, allowed by law or cus- 
tom, beyond the fixed time of payment. 

Debit. To make debtor in a person's books ; a charge entered. 

Debit-side. The left side of a ledger. 

Debt. Something due to another. 

Debtor. A person who owes another. 

Decimal. A tenth part. 

Deed. A legal instrument of agreement under seaL 

Default. A failure of payment. 

Defaulter. A person who makes away with goods intrusted to 
him. 

Defendant. A person accused and summoned to answer to a 
charge in a court of law. 

Deficit. A deficiency. 

Demurrage. Forfeit-money for detaining a ship beyond the time 
of agreement. 

Deposit. Money or goods intrusted to the care of others. 

Depositor. A person who has money in bank for safe keeping. 

Depot. A station ; a warehouse for the reception of goods. 

Depreciation. A lessening in value. 

Discount. A sum thrown off the amount of a bill or note. 

Discount-broker. A person who gives money on notes of hand. 

Discount-day. The only day on which some banks discount 

Dispatch. A letter or message by telegraph. 

Dissolution. A breaking-up of a partnership. 

Dividend. Interest on stod^; a share of the proceeds of a joint- 
stock company. , 

Dock-dues. Charges for the use of a dock. 

Docket. A ticket or mark on goods showing th'iir measurement or 
destination. 

Document. An official writing. 

Double -entry. Books containing the debit and credit of every 
transaction. 

Draft. An order to pay money ; a rough copy of a writing. 

Draw. To write an o^der on an order for money or goods. 

Drawback. An allowance or return of duty at the custom-house. 

Drawee. The person on whom the bill is drawn. 

Drawer. The person who draws a bill. 

Drayage. The charge made on goods hauled by a dray. 

Drummer. A person who solicits trade or custom for another. 

Dry-goods. The commercial name for cottons, woolens, laces, etc. 

Duplicate. A copy ; a second article of the kind< 



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488 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Effects. Goods; property on hand; the possessions of a person 

or firm. 
Ejectment. Forcing out; dispossession of houses or lands. 
Embargo. Restraint hy Government preventing ships from leaving 

port. 
Emporium. A mart ; a place of trade ; a commercial city. 
Engrosser. One who takes the whole ; a person who purchases 

such quantities of articles in a market as to raise the price ; a 

forestaller. 
Engrossing clerk. A clerk who copies ; a copyist. 
Enterprise. An adventure ; a projected scheme. 
Entry. A record made in a business book ; depositing a ship's 

papers on landing. 
Equi^ of Redemption. An advantage allowed to a mortgagor 

to redeem. 
Estimate. To appraise or value ; to judge by inspection. 
Exchange. Giving one commodity for another ; place of meeting 

of merchants, brokers, etc.; percentage on the sale of bilb, etc. 
Exchequer. A treasury; pecuniary possessions in general. 
Executor. A person appointed to carry out the will of a testator. 
Exhibit. A voucher or document produced in court. 
Expenditure. Outlay for expenses ; disbursement; expense. 
Exporter. A merchut who sends goods to another country for 

sale. 
Exports. Goods, wares or merchandise sent to another country 

for sale. 
Express. A regular and quick conveyance for packages, com- 

missions, etc. 

Face. The amount fipr which a note is drawn. 

Fac^isnle. An exact copy or likeness ; a counteqp^rt 

factor. An agent or br'oker; a commission merchant or con- 
signee. 

Failure. A becoming insolvent ; suspension of payment ; bank- 
ruptcy. 

Fancy gedds. Fabrics of vaneus colors, patterns, etc., as ribbons, 
silks, etc. 

Fare. Charge for passage or conveyance of a person from place to 
place. 

Fee. Charge of a professional man for services ; payment ; gra- 
tuity. 

Fee-simple. A fee without conditions or limits ; an absolute fee. 

Fellowship. Companionship ; mutual association ; partnership. 

Finance. Revenue ; public money ; funds. 

Financier. A person skilled in money matters or financial oper- 
ations. 

Fire-insurance. An indemnity against loss by fire. 



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VOCABULAJtY OP BUSINESS TBtlCS. 4M 

Fire»policy. The writing or instrument by which insurers engage 

to pay the insured for a loss sustained by fire. 
Firm. The name, title or style under which a company transacts 

business. 
Plat. .Lacking life in commercial dealings; inactive; depressed; 

dull. 
Plush. Full ; abundance of money. 

Foreclose. To cut off a mortgagor from equity or redemption. 
Forestall. To buy up goods before the regular time of sale. 
Porestaller. A person who purchases provisions or goods of any 

kind before they come to the market, with the view to raise the 

price. 
Forwarder. An agent who sends forward or transmits goods; a 

forwarding merchant. 
Forwarding-house. A merchant who forwards goods from one 

place to another. 
Pranking. The privilege of sending letters, etc., through the post- 
office free of charge. 
Freight. Lading or cargo of a ship, railroad-car, etc. 
Freightage. Charge for transportation ; expense of carriage. 
Freight-car. A nulroad-car for the transportation of mercmtndise. 
Freighter* A person who charters and loads a ship ; one whose 

business it is to receive and forward freight ; one for whom freight 

is transported. ** 

Freight-train. A railroad*train of freight-cars or goods-wagons. 
Funds. The stock of a national debt; public securities; ready 

money. 

Gauge. To measure the contents of a cask; measure or standard. 

Goods. A general term for movables, but us^alIy applied to mer- 
chandise. 

Grocer. A trader whe deals in tea, sugar, coffee, spices, liquors, 
fruits, etc. 

Gross. The whole weight, with box, barrel, etc ; — twelve dozen. 

Guarantee. A warranty; a security ; — indemnity against loss. 

Gunny-bajg:9. Bags made of a kind of coarse sacking for holding 
coffee, etc. 

Hand. A measure of the hand's breadth ; four inches ; a palm ; 
— used in measuring the height of a horse. 

Harbor-dues. Charges made for the use of a harbor. 

Hardware. Ware made of metal, as cutlery, kitchen furniture, etc. 

Honor. To accept and pay a draft, bill of exchange, etc. 

Hypothecate. To pledge as security ; to mortgage personal pro- 
perty. 



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41K) FOPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONAltY. 

Immovables. Lands, houses, structures, fixtures, etc 

Immunity. Exemption from any charge, duty, office, tax, or im- 
position. 

Imported. Brought from a foreign country. 

Importer. A merchant who brings goods from another country. 

Income. Receipts ; gains from trade, labor, etc. 

Income-tax. A tax upon a person's incomes, emoluments, profits, 
etc. 

Indorsement. A writing on the back of a note of hand, IhII, or 
other paper, as a person's name, an order for or a receipt of pay- 
ment, etc. 

Indorser. The person by whom a note of hand, check, etc.* is 
indorsed. 

Insolvent. Inability to pay one's debts as they fall due. 

Intelligence-office. A registry-office for domestics looking for 
employment. 

^terest. Share in business ; participation in value ; share ; portion; 
part. 

Inventory. A catalc^e or schedule of goods and chattels, wares, 
etc. 

investment. Money employed in business or in the purchase of 
property. 

Invoice. A written account of the particulars of merchandise 
^ shipped or sent to a purchaser, consignee, etc., with prices and 
charges annexed. 

Invoice-book. A book for entering copies of invoices. 

Jobber. One who purchases goods from importers and sells to re- 
tailers. 

Jobbing-house. A mercantile establishment which purchases from 
importers and sells to retailers. 

Joint stock. Stock held in company or owned by a number of 
persons^ 

Joint-stock company. Association of persons to carry on a large 
business. 

Journal. An account-book intermediate between the day-book and 
ledger. 

Journal-book. A book in which entries are made daily ; a day- 
book. 

Judgment. Judicial determination ; decision of a court ; — a com- 
pulsory decree for the recovery of a debt. 

Land-warrant. A certificate from the land-office authorizing the 
holder to assume the ownership of a tract of public land. 

Law-officer. An officer who has power to administer or execute 
laws; one who has legal authority. 

Law-writer. An engrosser, or copyists 



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VOCABULARY OF BUSINESS TERMS. 491 

Lease. A contract for the use of lands or tenements for a speci- 
fied time. 

Legal tender. Money which the law authorizes to be tendered in 
payment. 

Letter of attorney. A writing by which one person authorizes 
another to act in his stead. 

Letter of credit. A letter authorizing credit to a certain amount 
of money to be given to the bearer. 

Letter of license. A paper by which creditors allow an unfor- 
tunate debtor time to pay his debts. 

Letters of marque. A commission given to a private ship by a 
government to make reprisals on the ships of another state; 
hence, the ship itself. 

Letters close. Letters or writs closed up and sealed on the out- 
side, as distinguished from letters patent. 

Letters of administration. The instrument by which an ad- 
ministrator or administratrix is authorized to administer the 
goods and estate of a deceased person. 

Letters patent. A writing, executed and sealed, by which power 
and authority are granted to a person to do some act, or enjoy 
some right. 

Letters testamentary. An instrument granted by the proper offi- 
cer to an executor after probate of a will, authorizing him to act 
as executor. • 

Lien. A legal claim ; a charge upon real or personal property for 
the satisfaction of some debt or duty ; power to prevent sale by 
another. 

Liquidation. The act of settling and adjusting debts. 

Loan. Money or other property furnished for temporary use to a 
person at his request, on condition that the specific thing shaU 
De returned, or its equivalent in kind ; — a national debt. 

Loan-office. An office at which loans are negotiated, or at which 
the accounts of loans are kept, and the interest paid to the 
lender. 

Manifest. A list or invoice of a ship's cargo, containing a descrip- 
tion by marks, numbers, etc., of each package of goods, to be 
ejihibited at the custom-house by the proper person. 

Market. A place of public sale; a building where wares, pro- 
visions, etc., are bought and sold; a market-house. 

Marketable. Fit to be offered for sale; fit for market; current in 
market. 

Mart. A place of sale or traffic; a market. 

Maturity. Arrival at the time fixed for payment; time when a note 
falls due. 

Maximum. The highest price. 

Merchandise. The cbjects of commerce; whatever is usually 



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492 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

bought or sold in trade, or market, or by merchants; wares; 

goods; commodities. 
Messenger. The bearer of a message; an office servant. 
Minimum. The least quantity assignable, admissible, or posable, 

in a given case; — the lowest price. 
Mint. The place where money is coined ; the factory of coin. 
Money*broker. A broker who deals in money. 
Money- matter. An account consisting of charges of money ; an 

account between debtor and creditor. 
Money-order. An order for a sum of money deposited at one 

postoffice, on some other office where the payment is to be 

made. 
Mortgage. A conveyance of property, upon condition, as security 

for the payment of a debt or the performance of a duty, and to 
' become void upon payment or performance. 
Mortgage-deed. A deed given by way of mortgage. 
Mortgagee. The person to whom property is mor^aged, or to 

whom a mortgage is made or given. 
Mortgagor. The person who conveys property "as security for debt. 
Movables. Goods, wares, commodities ; property not fixed or real. 
Net. The clear amount ; the quantity remaining after all deduc- 
tions. 
Notarial Seal. The seal of a notary public. 
Notary public. A public officer who attests, or certifies, deeds 

and other writings, and protests bills of exduinge, notes, etc., for 

non-payment. 
Note-book. A book in which notes of hand are registered. 
Note of hand. A written or printed paper acknowledging a debt 

and promising payment at a specified time. 

Obligation. A bond with a condition annexed, and a penalty for 
nen-ftdfiUment ; a binding agreement. * 

Order. A coinmission to make purchases or supply goods ; a di- 
rection, in writing, to pay money. 

Order-book. A manufacturer's book in which orders are entered. 

Package. A bundle made up for transportation; a small parcel; 

a bale. 
Packer. A person employed in packing provisions or goods for 

preservation or for shipment. 
Panic. A monetary pressure or crisis. 
Paper. The name given by merchants to negotiable evidences of 

indebtedness, as notes of hand, bills of exchange, bank notes, 

and the like. 
Paper currency. Paper money of a country. 
Paper money. Notes or bills issued by authority, and promising 

the payment of money, circulated as the representative of coin. 



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VOCABULARY OP BUSIN£SS. TERMS. 493 

Partner. An associate in any business or occupation; a member 
of a partnership; an associate in business under the contract of 
partnership. 

Partnership. A contract between two or more competent persons 
for joining together their money, goods, labor, and skill, or any 
or all of them, under an understanding that there shall be a 
communion of profit between them, and for the purpose of car- 
rying on trade, business, etc. 

Par of exchange. The established value of the coin or standard 
of value of one country .^ffhen expressed in the coin or standard 
of another. 

Par value. The nominal value. 

Pass-book. A book in which a trader enters articles bought on 
credit, and then passes or sends it to the purchaser for his infor- 
mation. 

Payee. The person named in a bill or note, to whom, or to who$e 
order, the amount is promised or directed to b^paid. 

Payer. The person on whom a bill of exchange is drawn, and 
who is directed to pay the money to the holder. 

Payroll. A list of persons entitled to payment, with the sums to 
be paid. 

Percentage. The allowance, duty, or commission on a hundred. 

Per cent per annum. By the hundred for a year. 

Personal property. Movables; chattels; property other than real 
estate. , * 

Petty cash-book. A memorandum-book of small receipts and 
expenses. 

Policy. The writing or instrument in which a contract of insur- 
ance is embodied. 

Post-date. To date after the real time. 

Posting. Transferring from the daybook, journal, etc., to the 
ledger. 

Power of attorney. Written authority given to a person to act 
for another. 

Price-current. Statement or list, published statedly or occasion^ 
ally, of the prevailing prices of merchandise, stocks, specie, bills 
of exchange, etc. 

Prime. First in excellence ; of the highest quality ; superior. 

Principal. A capital sum of money, placed out at interest, due as 
a debt or used as a fund ; — so called in distinction from intenst 
or profit. 

Profit. Pecuniary gain in any transaction or occupation. 

Pro forma. According to form. 

Prompt. A limit of time given for payment of an account for 
goods purchased. 

Protest. Official notice from a notary public of the non-pa]rment 
of a note. 

Purveyor. A person who supplies provisions, or provides victuals. 



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494 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Quitrent. A rent paid by the tenant of a freehold discharging him 

from every other rent. 
Quotation. Current prices of stocks and shares, or aitides of 

produce in market. 

Rebate, or Rebatemen... ^eduction of interest, or any sum, etc, 
on account of prompt payment; abatement; discount; redac- 
tion. 

Receipt, A writing acknowledging the taking of money or 
goods; an acknowledgment of paym^t; an acquittance. 

Receipt-book. A book containing receipts. 

Receiver. A person appointed to receive and hold in trust money 
or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the 
suit. 

Receiving-house. A depot of stores. 

Resources. Pecuniary means; funds, money, or any property 
that can be con^rted into supplies ; means of raising money or 
supplies. 

Returns. Profit on an investment, or in business, trade, etc. 

Remittance. Money, bills, etc., transmitted to a distance. 

Renewal. The act of taking up a note of hand by giving a new 
note for a longer time ; an extension of time for the pajrment of 
a note. 

Sale. The transfer of property from one person to another, for a 

price in mone]^ paid or to be paid. 
Salesman. A person whose occupation is to sell goods or mer- 
chandise. 
Salvage. The compensation allowed to persons who voluntarily 

assist in saving a ship or her cargo from peril. 
Schedule. An ofHcial or formal list or inventory of goods, etc. 
Scrip. A certificate of stock subscribed to a joint-stock company, 

or of a share of other joint property. 
Secretary. A person employed to write orders, letters, dispatches, 

records and the like ; the recording officer of a society. 
Set-off. A counter-claim ; a cross-debt or demand. 
Shipper. One who ships or places goods on board a ship for 

transportation. 
Shipping. The collective body of ships in one place ; vessels of 

navigation generally ; tonnage. 
Shipping-articles. Articles of agreement between the captain 

of a vessel and the seamen on board, in respect to the amount 

of wages, length of time for which they are shipped, etc. 
Shipping-clerk. A clerk who attends to the forwarding of 

goods. 
Sight, at sight. The time when a bill is presented to a person on 

whom it is drawn. 



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T^~ 



VOCABULARY OF BUSINESS TERMS. 495 

Si|^ature. The name of a person written by himself. 

Silent partner A person who furnishes capital, but takes no 
active part in the business. 

Silent partnership. A partnership in which capital only is 
furnished by one or more partners, but having no action, direc- 
tion, or co-operation in the business. 

Staple. A principal commodity or production of a country or 
district. . 

Sterling. The British money of account, or the British coinage. 

Storage. The price charged for keeping goods in a store or ware- 
house. 

Storehouse. A building for keeping goods of any kind, especially 
provisions ; a magazine ; a repository ; a warehouse. ^ 

Sundry. Several ; more than one or two. 

Suspend. To stop pajrment, or to be unable to meet pecuniary 
obligations or engagements. 

Suspension. Inability to meet pecuniary obligations ; stoppage 
of work or business. 



Teller. An officer of a bank, who counts over money received, 

and pays it out on checks. 
Trade. The act or business of exchanging commodities by barter ; 

the business of buying and selling for money; commerce; 

traffic; barter. 
Trade- mark. A distinguishing mark or device jised by a manu- 
facturer on his goods or labels, the legal right in which is 

recognized by law. 
Trade-price. A lower price allowed to members of the same 

trade, or by wholesale dealers to retailers. 
Trader. A person engaged in trade or commerce; a dealer in 

buying and selling. 
Trade-sale. An auction by and for the trade, especially of the 

booksellers. 
Trades-union. A combination among workmen for the purpose 

of maintaining^their rights and privileges, as to wages, hours of 

labor, etc.^-^ - 
Traffic. Commerce, either by barter or by buying and selling ; 

the business done upon a railroad with reference to the number 
. of passengers or the amount of freight carried. 
Transfer. The conveyance of right, title or property, either real 

or personal, from one person to another, either by sale, gift, or 

otherwise. 
Transhipment. The act of transhipping, or transferring, from 

one ship or other conveyance to another. 
Transport. To remove goods, from one place to another; to 

carry ; to convey 



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496 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Transportation. The act of transporting, carrying, or conveying,- 
from one place to another; removal or conveyance of goods* 

Transit. A line of passage or conveyance through a country. 

Transit-duty. A duty paid on goods that pass through a different 
country from that in which they are produced. 

Transitu. On passage; on the way. 

Voucher. A book, paper, or document, which serves to vouch 

the truth of accounts, or to confirm and establish facts of any 

kind. 
Warehouse. A storehouse for goods; a place for depositing 

goods. 
Warehousing. The act of placing goods in a warehouse, or in a 

custom-house store. 
Warehousing-system. An arrangement for lodging imported 

articles in the custom-house stores, without payment of duties, 

until they arc taken out for home consumption. 
Waste-book. A book in which rough entries of transactions are 

made, previous to being carried into the journal. 



VOCABULARY OP GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS. 

Geography. A description of the surface of the earth. 

Natural or Physical Geography, treats of land, water, atmo- 
sphere, plants and animals. 

Political Geography, treats of the divisions of the earth made by 
man. 

Mathematical, or Astronomical Geography, treats of the form, 
size, motion, and imaginary lines of the earth. 

Empire. A country governed by an emperor. 

Kingdom. A country governed by a king or queen. 

Republic. A country governed by men chosen by the people. 

State. A division of a country with a form of government pe- 
culiar to itself. 

County. The largest division of a state. 

Town. A division of a county. 

City. A town invested with increased rights and privileges. 

Capital. The seat of government. 

Seaport. A harbor large enough for large vessels. 

Cardinal Points. Fixed or chief points — north, east, south and 
west. 

Map. A drawing of the whole Or a part of the earth's surface. 

Artificial Globe. A ball representing the surface of the earth. 

Mariner's Compass. A box with a needle which always points 
north. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL tERMS. 497 

Earth. A planet; a very lai^e opaque body. 

Axis. An imaginary line through the earth from north to south. 

Poles. The ends of the earth's axis. 

Meridian Circles. Circles round the earth passing thtoiigh the 
poles. 

Meridian. Half of a meridian circle. 

Longitude. Distance east or west from any given ineridian. 

Hemisphere. Half of a globe or sphere. 

Degree. The 360th part of a circle. 

Minute. In geography the 60th part of a degree, or one geo- 
graphical mile. 

Equator. A circle dividing the earth equally between the {xiles. 

Latitude. Distances from the equator. 

Zone. Belt or girdle. 

Frigid. Frozen or very cold. 

l^dhidi Violently hot. 

I'eihpefate. Between Vfro extremes; 

Arctic. Northern! 

Antarctic. Southern. 

Cancer. One of the twelve signs of the zodiad. 

Capricorn. One of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 

Zodiac. A broad circle in the heavens containing the twelve sigtis; 

Parallels. Lines running in the same direction, and at all points 
equally distant. 

Continent. The largest division of land on the earth; 

Island. Land surrounded by water. 

Peninsula. Land almost surrounded by watet. 

Isthmus. A strip of land joining the peninsula to the ihain land. 

Cape. A point of land projecting int6 the water. 

Promontory. A high point of land or cape projecting into the sea. 

Mountain. A large mass of earth and rock elevated above the 
surrounding country. 

Chain. Mountains connected together. 

Volcano. A burning mountain. 

Crater. Opening in the top of a volcano. 

Hill. An elevation less than a mountain. 

Valley. Land between hills or mountains. 

Plain. Flat, level country. 

Desert. A barren tract of land. 

Shore, or Coast. Land bordering on the sea. 

Ocean. The lai^est body of water on the earth. 

Sea. A branch of the ocean partly inclosed by land. 

Gulf, or Bay. A portion of a large body of water extending into 
the land. 

Strait. A narrow body of water connecting two larger bodies of 
water. 

Sound. A strait which can be sounded by lead and line. 



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498 POPULAR AMERICAN DiCTlbNARY. 

Channel. Similar to a strait 

Lake. A large body of fresh water, almost or wholly surrounded 

by land. 
River. A stream of water flowing through the country in an open 

channel. 
Source. The place where the river begins to flow. 
Mouth. The place where a river discharges its waters into some 

other large body of water. 
Branch. A river flowing into a larger river. 
Frith. A narrow arm of the sea into which a river empties. 
Archipelago. A sea interspersed with numerous isles. 



GEOMETRICAL DEFINITIONS. 

Angle. An opening between two lines that meet in a point. 
Right Angle. A straight line perpendicular to another. 
Obtuse Angle. An angle wider than a right angle. 
Acute Angle. An angle less than a right angle. 
Triangle. A figure with three sides and three angles. 
Equilateral Triangle. An angle having all sides equal. 
Isosceles Triangle. An angle having two of its sides equal. 
Scalene Triangle. An angle having all its sides unequal. 
Right-angled Triangle. A triangle having one right angle. 
Obtuse-angled Triangle. A triangle having one obtuse angle. 
Acute-angled Triangle. A triangle having all its angles acute. 
Quadrangle, or Quadrilateral, is a four-sided figure, and may be a 
Parallelogram, having its opposite sides parallel. 
Square, having all its sides equal and all right angles. 
Rectangle, having a right angle. 
Rhombus, or Lozenge, having all its sides equal and no right 

angles. 
Rhomboid, a parallelogram with no right angles. 
Trapezium, having unequal sides. 
Trapezoid, having only two sides parallel. 
Polygon, a plane figure having more than four si4es. 
Pentagon, having five sides. 
Hexagon, having six sides. 
Heptagon, having seven sides. 
Octagon, having eight sides. 
Nonagon, liaving nine sides. 
Decagon, having ten sides. 



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HISTORIC LANDMARKS. 



OUTLINES OF AMERICAN HISTORY PROM 1499 to z8Qs. 
A.D 

1492 America discovered by Christopher Columbus. 

1497 Coast of Newfoundland discovered by John Cabot. 

1498 The Cabots discover the Atlantic . coast. 

1499 Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci to America. 

15 1 2 Coast of Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon. 

1517 Mexico discovered by Cordova. 

1 52 1 Cortez conquers Mexico. 

1524 Verazzani's discovered in North America. 

1526 Pizarro discovers Quito. 

1528 Narvaez*s expedition to Florida coast. 

1532 Conquest of Peru begins. 

1534 Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence. 

1 541 De Soto discovers the Mississippi River. 

1562 Port Royal founded by Huguenots. 

1564 Florida colonized by Huguenots. 

1565 St. Augustine founded by Melendez. 
1576 Frobisher enters San Francisco Bay. 
1582 Sante F6 founded by Espego. 

1584 Expedition of Amidas and Barlow. 

1585 Raleigh's Roanoke settlements fail. 
1604 Settlements in Nova Scotia. 

1607 First Englisl) settlement, at Jamestown, Va. 

1608 Quebec settled by Champlain. 

1609 Henry Hudson discovers the Hudson River. Champlain*s 

discoveries. Virginia obtains a new charter. 
16 1 2 Virginia receives a third charter. 
1614 New Amsterdam (now New York) built by the Dutch. Smith 

explore. New England coast. 
1620 Puritans arrive at Plymouth. " Great Patent " to Virginia 

Company. 
1623 New Hampshire first settled. 
1627 Delaware settled by Swedes and Dutch. 

1629 Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

1630 City of Boston founded. 

1632 Lord Baltimore receives grant of Maryland. 

1635 Connecticut settlements at Hartford, Windsor, and Wethers- 
field under grant to Lords Say and Brooke. Roger 
Williams, driven from Massachusetts, settles in Rhode 
Island. 

X637 Pequod Indian War in Connecticut. 

499 



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660 l»OPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

1638 New Haven Colony founded. 

1644 Charter granted to Rhode Island. Indian massacre in 

Virginia. 
1664 New Jersey sold to Lord Berkeley; settled at Elizabethtown. 
" The English take New Amsterdam. NoRTp CarouNA 

settled. 
1670 South Carolina settled by the English. ♦ 

1673 Virginia granted to Arlington and Culpepper, Discoveries 

of Marquette and Joliet. 
1675 King Philip's War in New England. 

1 680 Mississippi River explored by Hennepin. Charleston founded . 
z683 William Penn settles in Pennsylvanla. Delaware granted 

to Penn. La Salle sails down the Mississippi and names 

Louisiana! 
1 685 Texas colonized. 
Z689 King William's War. French and Indians ravage New 

England frontier. Canadian expedition fails. 
z^a Salem witchcraft delusion. 
1697 End of King William's War. 
Z699 Further exploration of the Mississippi. 
1 701 The French found Detroit. 
170a Queen Anne's War begins ; treaty of French with the Five 

Nations ; Massachusetts frontier ravaged. 
1707 First expedition against Port Royal fails 
17 ID Port Royal taken and named Annapolis. 
17 1 1 Expedition against Quebec wrecked in the St. Lawrence. 
17 13 Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War. 
17 17 New Orleans settled. 
173a Birth of George Washington (Feb. 22). 
1733 Georgia settled at Savannah by Oglethorpe. 

1744 King George's War begun (third intercolonial war). 

1745 Capture of Louisburg by Pepperell. 
1748 War ended by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1753 French seize Hudson Bay Company's trading-posts. Wash- 

ington sent to St. Pierre. 

1754 French and Indian War begins; Fort Necessity built at 

Great Meadows ; Washington surrenders it to De Villiers 
with honors of war. Kentucky settled by Daniel Boone. 

1755 Gen. Braddock takes command of English forces. French 

Acadians taken from homes. Expedition against Fort Du 
Quesne; defeat of Braddock; Niagara expedition fails; 
Battle of Crown Point ; Dieskau defeated. 

1756 Failure of expeditions against Fort Du Quesne, Niagara 

and Crown Point ; Montcalm takes Oswego forts. 

1757 Expedition against Louisburg fails ; Montcalm captures and 

destroys Fort William Henry. 



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HISTORIC LANDMARKS. fiOl 

1758 Abercrombie takes command ; Fnglish take Louisburg, Cape 

Breton Island, and Prince Edward's Island; repulse at 
Ticonderoga; Fort George built; Fort Du Quesne taken 
by Washington. 

1759 Fort Niagara surrenders (July 23); Ticonderoga and Crown 

Point abandoned; Wolfe's expedition against Quebec; 
Battle of the Heights of Abraham (Sept. 13); English victory; 
death of Wolfe and Montcalm ; Quebec surrenders (Sept. 
18). 

1760 French fail to retake Quebec ; Montreal surrenders (Sept. 8); 

end of French and Indian War. 

1763 Treaty of peace with France. PoNTiAc's War; Indians 

capture English forts and massacre garrisons. 

1764 Indians sue for peace. End of Pontiac's War. Heavy 

duties on imports decreed by British Parliament. 

1765 The Stamp Act passed in England (March 22). Colonial 

Congress at New York (Oct. 7). Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland unite. 
Stamp Act resisted (Nov.). 

1766 Repeal of the Stamp Act (March 18). 

1767 Tax imposed on tea, paper, glass, etc. 

Z768 Petition against tax from Massachusetts. Gen. Gates sent to 
Boston. 

1770 Affray between soldiers and citizens in Boston (March 5). 

1 77 1 Gov. Tyrone defeats insurgents in North Carolina. 

1773 The « Boston Tea Party " (Dec. 16). 

1774 Boston Port Bill deprives Boston of its port rights. " Con- 

tinental '* or second Colonial Congress at Philadelphia (Sept. 
5); Declaration of Rights (Nov. 4). 

1775 Battle of Lexington (April 18); British retreat. Ethan 

Allen seizes Ticonderoga (May 10); union of the States 
(May 20); Howe, Burgoyne and Clinton arrive from Eng- 
land; George Wasijington appointed Commander-in- 
Chief (June 15). Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17); 
Americans retreat after stubborn resistance, only when 
ammunition is exhausted. Gens. Montgomery and Arnold 
invade Canada ; capture of St. John (Nov. 3); of Montreal 
(Nov. 12); repulse of Arnold at Quebec (Nov. 14); second 
and joint assult; Montgomery killed (Dec. 31); Ameri- 
cans defeated. 
X776 Evacuation of Boston by British (March 17). Declaration 
of Independence adopted by the thirteen States (July 4) 
(New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania and Georgia). 
Battle op Long Island (Aug. 27); defeat of Americans 
by Gen. Howe ; he occupies New York (Sept. 15); Battlk 



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602 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

OP White Planes (Oct 28); Gen. Howe defeats American 
forces; Battle of Lake Champlain (Oct 11-13); American 
fleet captured; Fort Washington taken by English (Nov. 
16); they occupy Rhode Islan(l; Battle of Trenton 
(Dec. 26); surrender of Hessians to Washington. 
X777 Battle of Princeton (Jan. 3); British forces defeated by 
Washington. Arrival of La Fayette ; he is made a major- 
general. Battle of Brandywine (Sept 11); Lord 
Comwallis defeats Americans ; he takes Philadelpma (Sept. 
26); Battle of Germantown (Oct. 3-4); Burgoyne 
defeats Americans; his armybis surrounded by Washington ; 
Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga (Oct. 17); Articles 
of Confederation adopted by Congress (Nov. 15). 
France recognizes American independence (Dec. 16). 

1778 Alliance with France concluded at Paris (Feb. 6). English 

evacuate Philadelphia (June 18). Battle of Monmouth 
(June 28) ; Massacre of Wyoming (July 3). Savannah 
seized by British forces (Dec. 29). 

1779 Battle of Briar Creek (March 3) ; Americans repulsed. 

1780 Surrender of Charlestown to the English. Battle of Cam>- 

DEN (Aug. 16); Comwallis defeats Gates. Benedict 
Arnold betrays his country; capture of Major Andr6 
(Sept. 23) ; he is hung as a spy (Oct. 2). 

178X Congress assembles (March 2), Articles of Confederation 
having been accepted by all the States. Battle of Cow- 
pens ; British defeated by Americans, Comwallis defeats 
Green at Guildford ; Battle of Eutaw ; Americans defeated. 
Surrender of Comvirallis at Yorktown (Oct. 19). 

178a Holland acknowledges the independence of the United States. 

1783 Armistice \nth Great Britain (Jan. 20). Peace with Eng- 

land COTicluded by Treaty of Paris (Sept. 3). New 
York evacuated (Nov. 25). Washington resigns (Dec. 23). 

1784 Treaty of Paris ratified by Congress (Jan. 4). 

1785 John Adams of Massachusetts received as Minister to England. 

1786 Shay's Rebellion in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 

Delegates meet at Annapolis and recommend a convention 
to rtinsg Articles of Confederation (Sept.). 

1787 Convention meets at Philadelphia (May) ; George Washing- 

ton presides ; United States Constitution agreed upon 
(Sept. 17). 

1788 Constitution ratified by eleven States. 

1789 First Congress meets at New York;- Washington becomes 

first President. North Carolina ratifies Constitution. 

1790 Alexander Hamilton's financial scheme proposed. Rhode 

Island ratifies the Constitution. 

1791 Vermont admitted as a State. St. Clair defeated by Indians. 

United St^tet Bank at Philadelphia, 



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HISTORIC LANDMARKS. 503 

xyga Kentucky admitted into the Union. Capt. Grey discovers 

the Columbia River. 
1793 Trouble with Genet, French Ambassador. Washington's 

second term begins. 
X794 " Whisky Rebellion" in Pennsylvania. Genet recalled. Jay*s 

Treaty with Great Britain. 

1795 Jay's Treaty ratified by Congress. 

1796 Tennessee admitted into the Union. Washington resigns. 

1797 John Adams inaugurated. Treaty. with France annulled. 

1798 War with France imminent. Naval conflicts. 

1799 Death of Washington at Mount Vernon. 

1800 Capital removed from Philadelphia to Washington. Treaty 

signed with France. 

1801 Thomas Jefferson inaugurated. War with Tripoli. 
i8oa Ohio admitted into the Union. 

1803 Louisiana purchased from the French. 

1804 Alexander Hamilton killed in a duel with Aaron Burr. 

1805 Treaty of peace with Tripoli. 

1806 Blockade of French and English coasts (** paper blockades") 

affects American commerce. 

X807 Aaron Burr tried for conspiracy ; acquitted ; Chesapeake fired 
upon by the Leopard; British "Orders in Council" pro- 
hibit trade with France. Embargo on American ships de- 
clared (Dec. 22). 

Z809 Embargo repealed (March i) ; Congress prohibits trade with 
Great Britain and France. James Madison inaugurated. 

18x0 Napoleon prohibits trade with Ujjited States. 

181 1 United States frigate President defeats English cruiser Little 
Belt. Battle of Tippecanoe; Harrison defeats Indians 
under Tecumseh. 

z8za Louisiana admitted as a State. War declared with Great 
Britain (June 18); Gen. Hull invades Canada; surrender 
of Mackinaw (June 17) ; Constitution captures the Guerriere 
(Aug. 19); Battle of Queenstown (Oct. 13); British vic- 
tory; United States frigate Wasp takes the Frolic (Oct. 
18); United States (frigate) takes Macedonia (Oct. 25); 
Constitution takes the yava. 

1813 Battle of Frenchtown (Jan. 24) ; American defeat ; Hornet 

tak«B the Peacock (Feb. 25) ; capture of York (Toronto) 
by Ajjttencans (April 27); Chesapeake (United States 
frigate) captured by the Shannon (June i) ; Battles of 
Stony Creek and Burlington Heights (June 6) ; American 
defeat; Battle pf Lake Erie (Sept. i6\\ Commodore 
Perry captures English fleet ; Battle of tne Thames (Oct. 
5); English burn Buffalo (Dec. 13); Madison's second 
term begins. 

1814 English defeated at Longwood (March 4); -Creek Indiins 



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■ubducd; English seize Oswego (May 6) ; Americans t^ke 
Fort Erie (July 3) ; Battle of Chippewa (July 5) ; Battle 
of Lundy 8 Lane (July 25); American victoiy; British 
victory at Bladensburg ; Public Buildings of Wash- 
ington burnt (Aug. 24^ Baltic of Lake Champlain ; Eng- 
lish fleet taken ; Unitea States Army defeated at Baltimore 
(Sept. 12); Hartford Convention (Dec. 14); Treaty of 
peace signed at Ghent (Dec. 24). 

Z815 BaUle of New-Orleans (Jan. 8) ; Jackson repels British 
under Packenham. Treaty of Ghent ratified (Feb. 17). 
War with Algiers. 

z8z6 Indiana admitted into the Union. 

1817 James Monroe inaugurated; Mississippi admitted. 

z8i8 Florida War; Jackson takes Pensacola. Illinois admitted. 

z8z9 Alabama admitted ; Arkansas made separate territory. 

z830 Florida ceded by Spain; "Missouri Compromise" Act 
passed ; Maine admitted. 

z8az Missouri accepts Compromise Act and is admitted. Monroe's 
' second term begins. 

zSaa "Monroe Doctrine" declared; independence of South 
American republics acknowledged. 

Z824 La Fayette visits the United States. 

zSas John Quincy Adams inaugurated. 

Z828 A " protective " tariff is adopted. 

Z829 Andrew Jackson inaugurated. * 

z83a New tariff law. Commercial Crisis. Black Hawk War. 
Excitement about tJnited States Bank and South Carolina 
" nullification." 

Z833 Jackson's second term. 

Z835 Seminole War in Florida. Great fire in New York. 

Z836 Arkansas made a State.- 

Z837 Martin Van Buren inaugurated ; Michigan admitted. 

Z839 United States Bank suspends payment. 

Z84Z William H. Harrison inaugurated ; dies (April 4) ; John 
Tyler inaugurated (April 6). M'Leod difficulty. 

z84a Ashburton or first Washington treaty signed with England. 

Z843 Dorr Rebellion in Rhode Island. 

Z844 Texas asks for annexation. First telegraph line. Joseph 
Smith, Mormon prophet, shot by the mob. • 

Z845 Texas annexed by Act of Congress ; JjBDf^l^^ ^^^ Iowa 
admitted. James K. Polk inauguratSP^ War declared 
by Mexico (June 4). 

Z846 Northwestern boundary fixed at 4^ deg. • Hostilities begin in 
Mexico; Battle of Palo Alto (May 8); victory of 
Gen. Taylor; Matamoras taken (May 18); Monterey taken 
(Sept. 24) ; Iowa admitted as a St^te. 

z&^7 Battle of Buena Vista (Feb. 23) ; Taylor defeats Santa 



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HISTORIC LANDMARKS. 506 

Anna: Battle of Cerro Gordo (April i8); Scott de- 
feats Mexicans ; also at Contreras (Aug. 20) ; Molino del 
Rey taken (Sept. 8) ; Gen. Scott enters the city of Mexico 
(Sept. 15). 
Z848 Treaty signed with Mexico (Feb. 2) ; Upper California ceded 
to United States ; gold discovered there. Wisconsin ad- 
mitted. 

1849 2^chary Taylor inaugurated. California "gold fever." 

Territory of Minnesota established. Astor Place riot in 
New York. 

1850 Death of Pres. Taylor (July 9) ; Millard Fillmore in- 

augurated (July io). California admitted; New Mexico 
and Utah made Territories. Fugitive Slave Bill passed. 

1851 Lopez's expedition to Cuba. Visit of Louis Kossuth. Fire 

in Capitol at Washington. 
Z853 Franklin Pierce inaugurated. Martin Kossta complications; 
h'e is surrendered. New York International Exhibition. 
Washington made a Territory. 

1854 Commodore Perry's treaty with Japan. Anti-Slavery riots at 

Boston. Nebraska and Kansas made Territories. Free- 
Soil and Pro-Slavery struggle in Kansas. 

1855 Treaty with Denmark annulled. 

1856 Slavery question much agitated. Attack on Sumner by Pres- 

ton Brooks in the Senate. Walker's Nicaragua Expedition. 
Fremont, candidate of new Republican Party, defeated by 
James Buchanan in Presidential election. 

1857 James Buchanan inaugurated. Riots in New York. Com- 

mercial panic. 

1858 Trouble with Mormons. Minnesota admitted as a State. 

Atlantic telegraph completed (Aug. 5). 

Z859 Oregon made a State. San Juan occupied. Death of the 
historian Prescott. Treaty with China. Walker's filibusters 
seized by United States troops. Harper's Ferry insurrec- 
tion; John Brown hanged (Dec. 2). Death of Washing- 
ton Irving. 

18^ Stephen Douglas nominated by Charleston Convention 
fApril 23) ; John Bell by Baltimore Convention; Abraham 
Lincoln by Chicago (Republican) Convention; second 
Democratic convention at Baltimore splits. Southern dele- 
gates nominating John Breckenridge. Walker shot at 
Honduras (Sept. 12). Prince of Wales visits the country. 
Presidential election in favor of Abraham Lincoln. 
South Carolina secedes from the Union (Dec. 20) ; 
Floyd, Cobb, and Cass resign from Cabinet. Star of the 
West fired on at Charleston. 

1861 Kansas admitted into the Union (Jan. 29). Pres. Buchanan 
refuses to withdraw forces from Fort Sumter. Mississippi 



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506 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. "^ 

secedes (Jan. 9); Florida (Jan. 10); Alabama (Tan. 11); 
GeoijiaCJan. 19); Louisiana (Jan. 26); Texas (Feb. i). 
Conttderated States of America formed (Feb. 4); Jef- 
ferson Davis declared President (Feb. 8); inaugurated (Feb. 
18). Abraham Lincoln inaugurated (March 4^. Attack 
on Fort Sumter (April 12-13). Morrill Tariff Bill goes into 
operation (April 11). Pres. Lincoln calls for 75,000 vol- 
unteers ; Northern States respond. Virginia secedes (April 
17). Mob attacks Massachusetts troops in Baltimore 
(April 19); Norfolk Navy-yard abandoned (April 21); 
Lincoln (ills for three-years volunteers (April 4). Arkan- 
sas secedes (May 6) ; North Carolina (May 20) ; Tennessee 
(June 8). Skirmish at Philippi (June 3)*. Battle of Big 
Methel (June to); Federal defeat. Missouri: — (Jen. 
Lyon defeats Confederates; Fremont takes command in 
the State; Battle of Wilson's Creek, Lyon killed 
(Aug. 10) ; Fremont proclaims martial law and* freedom to 
slaves (Aug. 31); Lexington surrenders (SepL 20); Fre- 
mont blamed and retired (Nov. 2). Virginia: — Federals 
take Harper's Ferry (June 16); Rich Mountain (July iij; 
Battle of Bull Run or Manasses, Federals routed (July 
21) ; McCIellan takes command of Army of the Potomac 
(Aug.) Fort Hatteras taken by CJen. Butler (Aug. 29). 
battle of Ball's Bluff (Oct. 21) ; Federals defeated. 
Port Royal (S. C.) taken (Nov. 8) ; Trent affair : Capt. 
Wilkes of United States steamer San Jacinto takes Mason 
and Slidell (Confederate commissioners) from British mail 
packet Trent (Nov. 8). Missouri and Kentucky secede 
(Nov.) 
z86a Mason and Slidell surrendered (Jan. i). Battle of Big Sandy 
River (Jan. 9) ; Mill Spring (Jan. 19) ; Federal victory ; 
Capture of Fort Henry (Feb. 6) ; of Fort Donelson 
(Feb. 16); of Roanoke Island, N. C. (Feb. 8); of Nash- 
ville (Feb. 23) ; Battle of Pea Ridge, Confederate de- 
feat (March 7). The Merrimac sinks Cumberland and 
Congress at Hampton Roads (March 8); defeated by 
Monitor (March 9). Newbem, N. C, taken by Federals ; 
Battle of Winchester, Confederate defeat (March 23). 
(Charleston blockaded; Shiloh (April 6); Island No. 10 
(April 7); Fort Pulaski (April 1 1 ) ; Yorktown evacuated 
by Confederates (May 3) ; Battle of Williamsburg (May 5). 
Farragut passes forts at mouth of Mississippi (April 24) ; 
New Orleans taken (April 25). Federals take Cbrinth 
(May 30). Battle of Fair Oaks (May 31-June i) ; Mem- 
phis taken (June 6). Fort Pillow taken. Pope placed 
over Fremont, Banks and McDowell (June 27); Lee 
drives NfcClellan back \ seven da^s battles from the Chick- 



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HISTORIC LANDMARKS. 507 

ahominy to the James (June 25-July i). Pres. Lincoln 
calls for 300,000 volunteers. Battle of Cedar Moun* 
TAIN ; Banks defeated by " Stonewall" Jackson (Aug. 9) ; 
second Battle of Bull Run (Sept. i) ; Pope defeated by 
Jackson; Pope sent to the Northwest; McDowell super- 
seded ; McCuiLLAN made Commander-in-Chief (Sept. 5) ; 
Confederates defeated at South Mountain (Sept. 15) ; at 
Antietam (Sept. 17); Harper's Ferry taken by Jackson 
(Sept. 15); he joins Lee; Federals lose Lexington and 
Mumfordsville ; Pres. Lincoln declares slaves free after 
Tan. I, if States do not return ; battle of Corinth (Oct. 4) ; 
indecisive ; Gen. Stuart TCon federate) enters Pennsylvania; 
Morgan's raid in Kentucky ; Alabama, Confederate cruiser, 
does much damage to commerce. Battle of Fredericks- 
burg (Dec. 13); Bumside repelled; Battle of Mur- 
FREESBORO' (Dec. 31-Jan. i) ; Gen. Bragg (Confederate) 
defeated. 

1863 Emancipation Proclamation by Pres. Lincoln (Jan. i). 

Gen. Hooker given command of Army of the Potomac. 
Federal attack on Charleston repelled (April 7). Battles 
of Grand Gulf and Port Gibson in Mississippi. Battle of 
Chancellorsville (May 2-3); Hookej defeated; Jackson 
mortally wounded ; dies (May 10). Defeat of Confederates 
at Jackson, Miss. (May 14); Grant invests Vicksburg( May 
18); assault repelled (May 22) ; Gen. Lee invades Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania (June). WesT Virginia admitted 
as a State (June 20). Hooker superseded by Mead (June 
27) : Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3) ; Confederates 
retreat. Surrender of Vicksburg (July 4); of Port 
Hudson (July 8). Draft riots in New York (July 13-16); 
Siege of Charleston (Aug. 21); Fort Sumter destroyed. 
Quantrell bums Lawrence, Kan. (Aug. 21). Battle of 
Chickamauga (Sept. 19-20) ; Bragg defeats Rosecrans, 
who is superseded by Grant, Thomas and Sherman. 
Battle of Lookout Mountain ; Thomas defeats Bragg 
(^Nov. 25) ; Missionary Ridge (Nov. 26) ; Longstreet 
oriven back (Nov. 29). 

1864 Attack on Richmond fails (Feb.-March) ; Grant succeeds 

Halleck as Commander-in-Chief. Sherman driven back 
by Kirby Smith (April 5). Fort Pillow Massacre (April 
12). Army of the Potomac crosses the Rapidan (May 4). 
Forrest's raids. Battles of the Wilderness (May 5-7) ; 
Spottsylvania Court House (May 7-12) ; Federal success. 
Cfen. Sherman marches on Atlanta (May 7). Lee driven 
back on Richmond; Grant invests Petersburg (June 15); 
assault repulsed (June 18). Alabama sunk by Kearsarge 
pff Cherbourg. Early invades Maryland (July 5). Battles 



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501 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

before Atlanta (July 20, 22, 28). Explosion of Petersburg 
mine ; assault repulsed (July 30). Farragut*^ fleet enters 
Mobile Bay (Aug. 5) ; Fort Gaines taken^Aug. 8). Mc- 
Clellan nominated for President by Democrats. Capture 
of Atlanta (Sept. i). General Sheridan defeats Early at 
Winchester; Battle of Cedar Greek (Oct. 19); St. Al- 
ban's raid ; Nevada admitted as a State. Re-election of 
Lincoln (Nov. 8). Sherman begins his << march to the 
sea'* (Nov. 14). Thomas defeats Hood (Confederate; in 
Tennessee (Dec. 14-16). Sherman takes Savannah (Dec. 
21). First assault on Fort Fisher /Dec. 24). 

1885 Fort Fisher taken (Jan. 15). Columbia, S. C, captured 
(Feb. 17). Charleston evacuated (Feb. 17). Wilmington 
taken (Feb. 22). Sheridan in Shenandoah valley; defeats 
Early (March 2). Lincoln's second term begins; Andrew 
Johnson, Vice-President (March 4). Battle of Goldsbo- 
rough, N. C. (March 21).; Battle of Five Forks (March 
31); Sheridan defeats Lee, who retreats; Petersburg and 
Richmond captured (April 2-3). Surrender of Gen. 
Lee to Grant (April 9). Sherman enters Raleigh, N. C. 
(April 13). Abraham Lincoln assassinated by Wilkes 
Booth at Ford's Theater (April 14) ; Mr. Seward and his 
son wounded. Andrew Johnson takes oath as President 
(April 15). Surrender of Gen. Johnston (April 26]. Jef- 
ferson Davis captured (May 10). Surrender ot Kirby 
Smith (May 26); end of the civil war. Pres. Johnson 
issues an amnesty (May 30). Execution of Mrs. Suratt 
and others for complicity in Lincoln's assassination (July 
7). Shenandoah surrenders to England* Habeas Corpus 
restored. 

Z866 Johnson vetoes Freedmen's Bureau Bill (Feb. 19); also Civil 
Rights Bill; veto overruled; bill to admit Colorado ve- 
toed (May); overruled. Fenian raids on Canada (May- 
June). Fourteenth Amendment passes the Senate. State 
elections sustain Congress as against the President. Pres. 
Johnson makes a speech-making tour. 

18C7 Further vetoes overruled by two-thirds vote. Nebraska ad- 
mitted as a State. Reconstruction Bill passed (March 20). 
Alaska purchased from Russia for 1^7,000,000. General 
amnesty proclaimed (Sept. 9). Republicans gain stipremacy 
in the South through negro votes. 

z868 Articles of Impeachment against Pres. Johnson agreed 
upon by the House, 127 — 47 (March 22); trial begins 
(March 23) ; acquitted (May 26). Wyoming Territory or- 
ganized. Southern States re-admitted over Johnson's veto. 
Presidential election; Grant defeats Seymour; Indian 
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ttlSTOmC LANDMARKS* 609 

iddg Convention on Alabama Claims signed with Great Britain 
(Jan. 14). Fifteenth amendment passed. Prosecution of 
Jefferson Davis dropped. Ulysses S. Grant inaugurated 
(March 4). ' • 

1870 Vii^nia ana Mississippi re-admitted to Congress (Feb. 3); 

also Texas and Georgia (April 20). Grant recalls Motley, 
Minister to Great Britain. New tariff bill passed. Death 
of Gen. Robert E. Lee (Oct. .12). St. Domingo project 
fails. 

1 87 1 **Ku Kliix Klan" outrages in North and South Carolina. 
• Treaty of Washington (on Alabama Claims) signed, agree- 
ing to Geneva arbitration (May). Corean forts destroyed 
(June^. Great Fire in Chicago (Oct. 8-1 1). Visit of 
Grana Duke Alexis. Geneva Commission meets. 

1672 Oeneral Amnesty Bill passed. Horace Greeley nominated 
for President by " Liberal Reptrblicans " (May 4); by Dem- 
ocrats (July 10). "Straight-out" Democrats nominate 
O'Connor. Award of G^eneva Arbitration, over ;^3,ooo,ooo. 
Death of W. H. Seward. San Juan difficulty settled. 
Grant defeats Greeley in elections (Nov. 5)^ death of Hor- 
ace Greeley (Nov. 29). 

1873 Defeat of troops oy Modoc Indians in Oregon. Grant*s sec- 

ond, term begins. Credit Mobilier scandal. Death of 
Chief- Justice Chase. Murder of Gen. Canby and others 
\jy Modoes (June i). Virginius troubles with Spain 
(Nov.). 

1874 Death of Charles Sumner (March 11). Grant vetoes Cur- 

rency Bill (April 22). Beecher-Tilton scandal in Brooklyn. 
Race conflicts in the South. Democratic gains in Congres- 
sional elections. Resumption Bill passed ( Dec.) . Troops 
eject members of Legislature at New Orleans. 

1875 Colorado made a State (Feb.). Civil Rights Bill passed. 

Death of Andrew Johnson (July 31). Centenary celebra- 
tion of Lexington and Bunker Hill. 

1876 Whisky frauds exposed. Belknap, Secretary of War, accused 

of corruption; resigns (March). Emma Mine frauds in 
England ; Minister Schenck resigns ; John Walsh succeeds 
him. Hayes and Wheeler nominated by Cincinnati (Re- 
publican) Convention (June 16). Massacre of Custer and 
his army by the Sioux. Tilden nominated by St. Louis 
(Democratic^ Convention. Centenary of the founding of 
the Repubhc (July 4). International Exhibition at 
Philadelphia (May-Nov.). Presidential election (Nov. 
7) ; doubtful result ; South Carolina, Florida, and Louis- 
iana claimed by both parties; Louisiana "Returning 
Board" throw out many votes on charges of intimidation. 
Electoral College casts 185 votes for Hayes, 184 for Tilden. 



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1877 Electoral Commission (to settle presidential dispute) agreed 

upon in G)ngress (Jan. 30). It confirms the election of 
Hayes and Wheeler; inauguration of Rutherford B. 
Hayes (March 4). Great railway strikes and riots in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia (July). Much property 
destroyed at Pittsburgh (July 22); loss of life ; Chicago mob 
suppressed ( Julv 26) . Death of Brigham Young (Aug. 7 . ) 

1878 Bland's Silve^ Bill passed; vetoed by President Hayes. Kear- 

ney agitation in California. Yellow fever spreads through 
the South. Congressional elections leave Congress 149 
Democrats, 130 Republicans, 10 Greenbackers. Gc^d 
reaches par. 

Z879 Specie resumption. Caleb dishing dies at Madrid. " Ex- 
odus" of negroes from South to West. Lowell made 
Minister to England. Fall elections favor Republicans. 

1880 Garfield and Arthur nominated by Chicago (Republican) 
Convention (June 9) ; Hancock and English by Cincinnati 
(Democratic) Convention. " Morey letter " foi^ery. Pres- 
idential election; Republicans receive 213 out of 369 
electoral votes. 

z88z James A. Garfield inaugurated (March 4). Contest be- 
tween Garfield and Senator Conlcling (N. Y.) about New 
York CoUectorship. Commercial treaty with China signed 
(May 5). Senators Conkling and Piatt resign (May 16). 
Great Britain pays j^ 15,000 award for Fortune Bay affair. 
Assassination of Pres. Garfield by Charles J. Gui- 
'teau at railway depot in Washington (July 2). "Dead- 
lock" in New York broken by election of Miller and Lap- 
ham to the United States Senate. Death of Pres. Gar- 
field at Elberon, N. J. (Sept. 19J ; burial at Cleveland 
(Sept 26). Chester A. Arthur took the oath and became 
President (Sept. 20). Special session of the Senate (Oct. 
10). Trial of Guiteau begins (Nov. 14). News of de- 
struction of ygannettej Arctic exploring vessel (Dec. 30). 

Z882 Guiteau convicted (Jan. 25); sentenced (Feb. 4); hanged 
(June 30). Great overflow of Mississippi River (March). 
Anti-Chinese bill (twenty years) passed (March 23) ; ve- 
toed (April 4) . Second Anti-Chinese bill (ten yestrs) passed ; 
signed by the President. River and Harbor bill passed 
over the President's veto. Return of survivors of North 
Pole expedition. Star Route trial ended by verdict of 
jury (Sept. 11 J acquitting Turner, convicting Miner and 
Rerdell, and disagreeing as to Brady, the Dorsey brothers, 
and Vail. Democrats carry elections in Arkansas (Sept. 
4); Republicans successful in Vermont (Sept. 4), and 
Maine (Sept. 11). 



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Biographical dictionary. 611 

1S83 Burning of the Newhall House, Milwaukee; nearly icx> lives 
lost (Jan. 10). Braidwood coal-mine horror (Feb. i6). 
Tornado on the Mississippi; over loo people killed 
(April 23). Opening of Brooklyn bridge (May 24). 
Great strike of the Brotherhood of Telegraphic Operators 
(July 20.) President Arthur spends his summer vacation 
in the Yellowstone Park (July-August). 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

OF DISTINGUISHED PERSONS. 
With Notts of their Principal Works, Inventions or Achievements. 

BORN. DIED. 

Abbott, J. S. C. American historian. " Life of Na- 
poleon," «* History of Russia " 1805 — 1877 

Abercrombie, John. Scotch metaphysician. " The 

Intellectual Powers " 1781 — 1844 

Adams, Charles Francis. American statesman. Min- 
ister to England, 1 861-8. American negotiator of 
the Treaty of Geneva 1807 

Adams, John. American statesman. Delegate to 
Continental Congress, 1774; commissioner to France, 
1778, Minister to Holland, 1781 ; one of the ne- 
gotiators of the treaty of peace with Great Britain, 
1782; Minister to Great Britain, 1785-88; Vice- 
President, 1789-97 ; President, 1 797-1 801 1735 — 1826 

Adams, John Quincy (son of John). American 
statesman. Minister to Holland, 1794; to Prussia, 
1797 ; to Russia, 1809. One of the negotiators of 
the peace with Great Britain, 1814. Minister to 
England, 1816-17. Secretary of State, 1818-25. 
President, 1825-29 1767— 1848 

Adams, Samuel. Governor of Massachussetts. One 

of the popular leaders of the Revolution 1722 — 1 803 

Addison, Joseph. English man of letters, poet, mor- 
alist, dramatist. Under-Secretary of State, 1705. 
M.P., 1708. His works may be found in ** The 
Tatler" and «« The Spectator," three-fourths of 
which he wrote 1672 — 1719 

Adelaide, Queen. Wife of William IV of England 1792— 1849 

Aschines. Athenian orator ; rival of Demos£enes 

' B.C. 389— 314 



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612 MPULAR AMKRICAN DICTIONARY* 

Atop. Greek fabulist of 6th century b.c »• 

Agassis, Louis. Swiss naturalist. Founder of Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zodlogy at Cambridge, Mass. 
r^fessor at Harvard. ** Researches on Fossil 
Fishes " 1807—1873 

Agricola. Roman general. Built line of fortresses 

across Scotland. Father-in-law of Tacitus ... 37 — 93 

Ains worth, William. H. Novelist "Jack Shep- 

pard," " Tower of London," etc., etc. » 1805— 1882 

Akenside, Mark. Poet. " Pleasures of the Imagin- 
ation " 1721 — 1770 

Albert, Prince. Consort of Queen Victoria 1819 — 1861 

Alcott, Louisa M. American author. " Little Women," 

«* Old Fashioned Giri " 1833 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. Novelist and poet. ** Pru- 
dence Palfrey," " Stoiy of a Bad Boy " 1836 

Alfred the Great. KingofWessex. Founded a navy, 

established schools and a system of police 849 — 901 

Antoinette, Marie. Queen of Louis XVI of France. 

Guillotined 1755 — 1793 

Aquinas, Thomasi Saint. Great theologian of the 

Middle Ages. « The Imitation of Christ" I224— 1274 

Argyle, Archibald Campbell. Eighth earl. Scottish 
Covenanter. Defeated by Montrose. Executed for 
treason 1598 — 1661 

Argyle, George Douglas Campbell., Seventh duke. 

Secretary of State for India. " The Reign of Law" 1823 

Aristotle. Great philosopher. " Ethics." Tutor of 
Alexander the Great. Voluminous author on 
physics, metaphysics, ethics, dialectics, logic, etc. . 384 — 322 

Arkwright, Richard,. English inventor. The spin- 
ning-jenny 1732 — 1792 

Arnold, Edwin. Journalist and poet. Exiitor of Lon- 
don " Telegraph." " The Light of Asia " 1832 

Arnold, Matthew. English poet and critic. " God 

and the Bible," poems, etc '. . 1822 

Arnold, Thomas. Master of Rugby school. "History 

of Rome" \ 1795— 1842 

Arthur, Chester A. American statesman. Bom in 
Vermont ; educated at Union College ; admitted to 
the bar ; Quartermaster-General of New York during 
the Civil War; collector of the port of New York, 
1871-78; Vice-President of the United States, 
1881 ; succeeded to Presidency on death of Garfield, 
Sept., 1881 — .- 

Astor, John Jacob. American millionaire 1763 — 1848 

Bacon, iRrancis, Viscount St. Albans, Lord Verulam. i 



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felOGRAPHlCAL blCTIONAkV. ^13 

English statesman and philosopher. Counsel to 
' Queen Elizabeth at 28; M. P. 1585-1614; Knighted, 
1603; Solicitor-General, 1603; Attorney-General, 
1606; Keeper of the Great Seal ; Lord High Chan- 
cellor, 1 61 8; Viscount St. Albans, 16 19; found 
guilty of corruption, 162 1. " The Wisdotn of the 
Ancients," " Novum Organum " 1561 — 1626 

Bailey^ Philip J. English poet. "FestUs," "The 

Mystic " 1816 — 

Bancroft, George. American diplomatist and his- 
torian. Minister to England, aiid to Germany; 
secretary of the navy. "History of the United 
States" 1806 -^^— 

Bamum, Phineas T. Atrterican showmail. . ; l8id 

Baxter, Richard. English Dissenting ttiinister, JsUid 

writer. "The Saints' Rest" 1615-^169! 

Bcde, "The Vehetible." Anglo-Saxon historian. 

" Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation "... 672 — 735 

fieecher, Lyman. American Congregational preacher, 

and theologian. "Views on Theology " 1775 — 1836 

Beecher, Henry Ward. American preacher, lecturer, 
and orator, at Brooklyn, N. Y. " Star Papers," 
" Sermons " 1813 

Beethoven, Louis Von. German composer. " Ninth 
Symphony." In 1805 appeared his opera of " Le- 
nore." He composed many symphonies, cantatas, 
and overtures 1770 — 1827 

Bennett, James Gordon. American journalist. Pro- 
prietor of the " N. Y. Herald" 1795—1872 

Beranger, Jean P. de. French lyric and patriotic 

poet .^ 1780— 1857 

Bozzaris, Marco. Greek patriotic leader in the Greek 

war of Independence. Slain near Missolonghi. . . 1789 — 1823 

Breckenridge, John C. American politician. Vice- 
President (1857-1861). Confederate general. A 
Democratic candidate for President, i860 i8»i — 1875 

Bronte, Charlotte. " Currer Bell." English nov- 
elist. " Jane Eyre," " Shirley," " Villette " 1816— 1S55 

Brougham, Henry, Lord. English lawyer, states- 
man and author. Lord Chancellor 1778 — 1868 

Browne, Charles F. "Artemus Ward." American 

humorous writer 1835 — 1867 

Browne, Sir Thomas. English author, physician and 
philosopher; practiced medicine for many years at 
Norwich ; published " Religio Medici," 1642; " En- 
quiries into Vulgar and Common Errors (P^udQ- 



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614 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

doxia Epidemica)," 1646; was knighted by 

Charles II i6o$— l6Si 

Browning, Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett. English poetess. 
«*Casa Guidi Windows;" daughter of a London 
merchaht; finely educated ; knew Greek and Latin ; 
wrote verses at ten ; in 1826, published " Essay on 
Mind;". 1838, " The Seraphim;" 1839, «* The Ro- 
toaunt of the Page;" 1840, " The Drania of Exile ;" * ^ 
1844, "Poems;" 1856, "Aurora Leigh;" married 
Robert Browning in 1846 *.;... 1809— 1861 

Browning, Robert. English poet. " The Ring and 
the Book ;" bom at Camberwell, near London ; ed- 
ucated at University of London; in 1835 appeared 
"Paracelsus;" 1837, "Strafford;" 1846, two vol- 
umes of shorter poems ; 1855, " Men and Women." 
Among his other works are " Pippa Passes," " The 
Blood on the Scutcheon," "The Red-Cottoil 
Night-Cap Country," and "Idylls** 1812 — *— 

Bruce, Robert. King of Scotland. Defeated Ed- 
ward II at Bannockbum, 1314 1274 — 1329 

Bnimmell, Geo. B. "Beau BrUmmell." English 

man of fashion I778 — 1840 

Bryant, William Cullen. American poet. " Thana- 
topsis." Bom in Massachusetts; at thirteen, wrote 
" The Embargo" and the " Spanish Revolution;" 
entered WUiams College; studied law; wrote " Tha^ 
natopsis"in 1816; published "The Ag^s," l82t, 
became an editor of the New York " Evening Post ** 
in 1826; more than forty years later appeared his 
translation of Homer 1794 — 1878 

Buchanan, George. Scotch . poet and historian. 

" History of Scotland " 1506 — 1582 

Buchanan, James. American statesman ; bom Pa.; 
admitted to bar, 1812; M. C, 1821-31 ; minister to 
Russia 1832-4; U. S. Senator, 1834-45 ; Sec'y of 
State, 1845-9; minister to England, 1853-6; signed 
Ostend Manifesto, 1854; President, 1857-61 1791 — 1868 

Buckle, Henry Thomas. English historian. ** His- 
tory of Civilization " 1822 — 1862 

Bunyan, John. English author. "Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress," " The Holy City," " The Holy War." Bom 
at Elston, near Bedford; son of a tinker, and followed 
that occupation ; for several years led a dissipated, 
wandering life; served in the Parliamentary 
army; joined Anabaptists in 1654; became Baptist 
minister, 1655 ; was sentenced to transportation 
for life for promoting seditious assemblies; ii^ 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 115 

prison, 1660-72; there wrote part of "Pilgrim's 
Progress (1678); after his release, was minister at 
Bedford 1628— 1688 

Burg03rrie, Sir John. British general. Surrendered at 

Saratoga 1792 

Burke, Edmund. English (Irish) orator, statesman 
and writer. Before entering public life, published 
his " Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our 
Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful ;" became M. P. , 
in 1766, and sat for many years; was paymaster 

of the forces, 1782; made a noble speech for the ' 

prosecution at the impeachment of Warren Hastings ^-^^ 

in 1788. His last great work was " Reflections on 
the Revolution in France *' 1730 — 1797 

Burns, Robert. Scotch lyric poet. "The Cotter's 
Saturday Night." Bom at Ayr ; the son of a poor' 
farmer; had little opportunity for education; 
worked hard on his father's farm, but heard ** many 
tales and songs "; studied mensuration and survey- 
ing, but was always falling in love ; fell into dis- 
sipated habits; 1785 formed a liaison with Jean 
Armour, whom he married in 1788; conceived 
project of emigrating^ but the great applause which 
his poems, first gathered in full in 1787, received, 
determined him to remain in Scotland ; afterwards 
an officer of the excise. " Tam O'Shanter," " To 
the Unco Guid," " Halloween," " The Jolly Beg- 
gars," " Holy Willie's Prayer " 1759 — 1796 

Burr, Aaron. American lawyer and statesman; Vice- 
President. Tried for (and acquitted) of treason. 
Killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel 1756— 1836 

Butler, Joseph. English theologian. Bishop of 
Bristol and Durham. "Analogy of Natural and 
Revealed Religion to the Constitution and Course 
of Nature " 1692 — 1752 

Butler, Samuel. English poet. *' Hudibras" i6t2 — 1680. 

Byron, George Gordon, Lord. English poet. " Childe 
Harold," " Don Juan; " travelled 1809-1 1, and on 
his return produced first cantos of "Childe Harold;'* 
1813, " Giaour " and " Bride of Abydos ; " 1814, 
" Corsair ; " married Anne Isabel Millbanke, 18 15; 
separated from her and left England, 1816 ; lived 
in Italy ; espoused cause of Greek independence, 
and died at Missolonghi 1788 — 1824 

Caesar, Caius Julius. Roman general and statesman. 
Dictator. Quaestor, 58 B.C. ; sedile, 65 ; ponti fex 
maximus 64 ; consul, 59 (alliance with Pompey and 



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Crassns called first triumvirate) ; was granted both 
the Gauls for 5 years ; conquered many tribes, and 
invaded England; crossed Rubicon and entered 
Rome ; conquered Pompey at Pharsalia (48) ; sub- 
dued Spain and Africa ; made imperator ; assassin- 
ated by Brutus, Cassius, and others B.C. 99^> 44 

Calhoun, John Caldwell. American statesman. 
Vice-President. Bom S. C. ; elected to Congress, 
1810; Secretary of War, 181 7; Vice-President, 
1829-32; resigned in latter year and entered 
Senate; Sec'y of State, 1844; re-entered Senate, 
1845 ; " State's Rights " leader ; left, among other 
writings, a " Treatise on the Nature of Govern- 
ment 1783—1850 

Caligula. Emperor of Rome (37-41). Insanely 

cruel, sensual, impious. Built temple to himself. . 12 — 41 

Calvin, John. French theologian. Withdrew to 
Geneva, where his religion and political principles 
made him extremely unpopular ; went to Germany, 
but was ultimately recalled to Geneva. His ** In- 
stitutes of Christian Religion" was intended to 
vindicate the Reformed Church. The fundamental 
doctrines of his theology were unconditional repro- 
bation and election. He published " Commentaries 
on the harmony of the Gospel." 1509-^1564 

Campbell, Thomas. Scotch poet. " The Pleasures 
of Hope." Son of a Glasgow merchant; educated 
at University of Glasgow; 1799, published 
" Pleasures of Hope;" 1800, visited Continent, and 
soon after his return published " Exile of Erin," 
" Ye Mariners of England," " Lochiel's Warning; " 
1803, married his cousin. Miss Sinclair; 1806, was 
pensioned; 1809, published " Gertrude of Wyom- 
ing ; " was author of biographies of Petrarch, Fred- 
erick the Great, and Mrs. Siddons 1777 — 1S44 

Canning, George. English statesman and orator. 
Prime Minister; entered Parliament, 1793; with 
Frere and others, wrote "Anti-Jacobin;" 1807, 
Secretary for foreign affairs; fought duel with 
Castlereagh; again secretary of foreign affairs, 
1822 ; premier, 1827 '. 1770 — 1827 

Canova, Antonio. Italian sculptor. "Venus Vic- 
torious." His "Daedalus and Icarus" (1778), 
and " Theseus and the Minotaur " were the begin- 
ning of a new era in modern sculpture. Among . 
his works are " Venus and Adonis," " The Graces," 
and a statue of Washington .«..>....•..••••. 1757—1322 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 517 

Carlyle, Thomas. Scotch historian and essayist^ 
educated at University of Edinbprgh ; became 
thoroughly familiar with German literature ; mar- 
ried Jane Welch (1825), and settled on a farm; 
published "Sartor Resartus," 1834; "French Re- 
volution," 1837; "Chartism," 1839; " Heroes and 
Hero Worship," 1840 ; "Past and Present," 1843; 
"Latter Day Pamphlets," "Oliver Cromwell's 
Letters and Speeches," 1845; "Life of John 
Sterling," 1851; "Life of Frederick the Great," 
1858-64 1795— 1881 

Castelar y Rissollo, Emilio. Spanish Republican 
orator and statesman; President of the Cortes, 1873. 
" Old Rome and New Italy " :...; 1832 

Catherine of Aragon. Queen of Henry VIII of 

England. Divorced 1486^1536 

Catherine d^ Medici. Queen of Henry II of 
France. Strenuous opponent of Protestantism and 
the Huguenots 1519 — 1589 

Cavour, Camillo B., Count. Italian statesman. First 
Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy, whose 
unity he did more than any other man to bring 
about 1810 — 1861 

Caxton, William. English printer. Introducer of 

printing into England 1412 — 1492 

Chalmers, Thomas. Scotch preacher and theologian. 
Founder of the " Free Church " in Scotland. " As- 
tronomy in its Connection with Religion " 1780 — 1 847 

Channing, William EUery. American Unitarian 
theologian and reformer; opponent of slavery. 
" Remarks on the Life and Character of Napoleon 
Bonaparte," " Self Culture," " The Elevation of 
the Laboring Classes," "Evidences of Christian- 
ity" 1780— 1841 

Charles I. King of England. Beheaded after vainly 

attempting to subdue his rebellious subjects 1600 — 1649 

Charles II. King of England, (i 660-1 685). Care- 
less, witty, and licentious 1630 — 1685 

Chase, Salmon P. American statesman and jurist. 
Secretary of the Treasury. Chief Justice of the 
U.S. 1808— 1873 

Chatham, WilUam Pitt, First Earl of. English 

statesman and orator 1708 — 1778 

Chatterton, Thomas. English poet and literary im- 
postor. " The Battle of Hastings," " The Tour- 
namcot," " Ode to Ella " 1752— 1770 



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518 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Chaucer, Geoffirey. English poet. ** The Canterbury 

Tales " . . : 1328 — 1400 

Choate, Rufiis. American lawyer, orator, and states- 
man. Most eloquent advocate of his time ; U.S. 
Senator from Mass 1799^1859 

Chopin, Frederick. Polish composer and pianist. 
Went to Paris in 1832, where he was most ad- 
mired ; was himself an accomplished and successful 
performer 1810 — 1849 

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Roman orator, statesman, 
and author. Received a thorough education, be- 
coming familiar with Greek literature. " On Old 
Age" B. c. 103 — 46 

Clay, Henry. American orator and statesman \ bom 
in Virginia ; removed to Kentucky in 1 797, and 
practised law; Speaker of U.S. Congress, j8ii; 
signed treaty of Ghent, 181 5; elected Speaker, 
181 5, and thrice re-elected; advocated U.S. Bank 
and Missouri Compromise; Secretary of State, 
1825 ; U.S. Senator, 1832-42 ; Whig candidate for 
President, 1844 ; re-elected to Senate, 1849 ^777 — '852 

Clemens, Samuel L. American humorist. ** Mark 

Twain." " The Innocents Abroad " 1835 

Cleopatra. Queen of Egypt. Mistress of Caesar and 
Antony. Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, upon 
whose death, 51 B.C., she became joint sove- 
reign of Egjrpt with her brother Ptolemy;, was 
beautiful and accomplished, but voluptuous ; was 
expelled from the throne by Rolemy, but reinstated 
by Julius Csesar (48) ; lived with Caesar at Rome 
(46-44) ; in 41, became the favorite of Mark 
Antony; at the battle of Actium she fled; she 
escaped Augustus by killing herself with an asp . B.C. 69 — 30 

Clough, Arthur Hugh. English poet. " Dypsychus," 
" Amours de Voyage," " Long Vacation Pastoral,'* 
" Ambarvalia " 1819 — 1861 

Cobden, Richard. English statesman and economist, 

leader of the Anti-Corn Law League 1804 — 1865 

Coke, Sir Edward. English Lord Chief Justice. 

" Reports " 1552 — 1633 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. English poet and phi- 
losopher. " The Ancient Mariner " .•. . . 1772 — 1834 

Coligny, Gaspard de. French admiral. Huguenot 

leader; killed in the massacre of St. Bartholomew 15 17 — 1572 

Columbus, Christopher. Discoverer of America; 
bom in Genoa ; studied at University of Padua ; a 
sailor at 14; removed to Lisbon, 1470; went with 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 619 

Portuguese navigators to Western Africa ; expected 
by sailing westward to find India ; left Palos (Aug. 
3, 1492) with 3 vessels ; discovered San Salvador 
Oct. 12 ; visited Cuba and Hayti ; 1493 discovered 
Porto Rico and Jamaica ; 1498, continent at mouth 
of Orinoco ; 1502, Honduras ; died in poverty and 
neglect 1436 — 1506 

Conkling, Roscoe. American Republican, lawyer 

and statesman. U.S. Senator from N.Y I828 

Cooper, Peter. Ame^can philanthropist ; founder of 

Cooper Union 1791 1883 

Cooper, James Fenimore. American novelist. 
Studied for a time at Yale College, and was a 
midshipman for a few years; published his first 
novel, " Precaution," in 1869. The sea stories are 
his best. Among his works are " The Spy," "The 
Pioneers," " The Pilot," " Lionel Lincoln," " The 
Prairie," " The Bravo," " The Red Rover," ** The 
Pathfinder," "The Deerslayer," " Wing and Wing," 
" Afloat and Ashore," " Oak Openings " 1789^1851 

Cromwell, Oliver. Lord Protector of England. M.P. 
in 1628 and 164O; entered army as captain of 
cavalry, 1642; led left wing at Marston Moor, 
1644; as Fairfax's lieut.-gen. led right wing at 
Naseby, 1645; won at Preston, 1648; signed 
death warrant of Charles I, 1649 ; made comman- 
der-in-chief, 1650; routed the Scotch at Dunbar, 
beat Charles at Worcester, 1651; dissolved Par- 
liament, 1653 ; was created Protector, 1654 1599^1658 

Cniikshank, George. English caricaturist. " Comic « 

Almanack." 1792 — 1878 

Curtis, George William. American orator, author, 

and journalist. " Nile Notes," "Potiphar Papers" 1824 

Cushman, Charlotte S. American actress. Great as 

" Meg Merrilies " 1816— 1876 

Cuvier, George C. L. D., Baron de. French natural- 
ist. " Animal Kingdom." Assistant professor of 
comparative anatomy at Paris Museum of Nat- 
ural History, 1795; published, 1817, his "Animal 
Kingdom," in whiok he divided animals into four 
classes; began in 1823 his "Natural History of 
Fishes ;• ' was founder of the science of comparative 
anatomy 1769 — 1832 

Dana, Charles A. American journalist. Editor of the 

NewYork"Sun" « 1819 

Dana, Richard Henry. American poet and man of 



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letten. •* The Buccaneer/' •'The Dying Rover," 

" The Idle Man " 1787— 1879 

Dana* Richard Henry. Son of the above. American 
lawyer and author. " Two Years Before the Mast** 
Editor of *« Wheaton's International Law " 1815— 1882 

Darwin, Charles. English naturalist. Originator of 
the theory of evolution ; held that all the various 
forms of animal and v^etable life have been pro- 
duced by a series of gradual changes in natural 
descent • " Origin of Species," •* The Desoent of 
Man;" " The Fertilization of Orchids " 1809— 1882 

D'Aubign^, Theodore. French soldier, historian and 

poet " LesTragiques" 1550 — 1630 

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Italian painter, sculptor, en- 
gineer and universal genius. " The Lord's Sup- 
per." Among his works are ** Madonna," ** Lisa 
del Giocondo " and " The Virgin on the Knees of 
St. Anne." In the last part of his life he was in . 
the service of Francis I of France 1452 — 1519 

Davis, Jefferson. American statesman. Graduated 
at West Point ; served in Black Hawk war; colonel 
in Mexican war; elected to U. S. Senate, 1847; 
Secretary of War, 1853-57 ; reelected to Senate, 
1857; President Southern Confederacy, 1861 — 
1865 1808 

De Foe, Daniel. English novelist ; son of a Dissent- 
ing London butcher. Took part in Monmouth's re- 
bellion, 1 701 ; published " The True-Bom English- 
n^an;" 1702, "The Shortest Way with Dissen- 
ters," for which he was imprisoned and pilloried ; 
was subsequently committed to Newgate ; produced 
his great work, ** Robinson Crusoe" in 17 19 ; " Moll 
Flanders, 1721 ; " Colonel Jack," 1721 1661 — 1731 

Delaroche, Pkul. French painter. " The Girondist 

in Prison" 1797— 1856 

Demosthenes. Greatest Greek orator. Had an impe- 
diment in his speech which he conquered with per- 
sistent effort; was an opponent of Philip of Mace- 
don, against whom, between 352 and 3^0 B.C., he 
delivered his 1 1 Philippics. It being proposed to 
give him a crown, iEschines opposed ; this was the 
cause of the noblest speech of Demosthenes, that 
" On the Crown ;" finally committed suicide; left 
60 speeches B.C. 385 — 322 

De Quincey, Thomas. English author. Son of 
wealthy Manchester merchant; educated at Ox- 
ford, where he contracted opium habit ; was a briU- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 521 

»ant magazine writer. " Confessions of an Opium 

Eater " 1.785— 1859 

Dickens, Charles. English novelist ; parliamentary 
reporter and journalist; published ** Sketches by 
Boz,*' 1836; next appeared "Pickwick Papers," 
" Oliver Twist,'* " Nicholas Nickleby," " The Old 
Curiosity Shop," "Bamaby Rudge," "American 
Notes," " Martin Chuzzlewit," " Dombey and Son," 
"David Copperfield, "Bleak House," "Hard 
Times," " Little Dorrit," " The Tale of Tw^ . ^ - 
Cities," " Great Expectations," " Our MutuaK 
Friend/* "Edwin Drood " l8l2~iSfO 

Diderot, penis. French philosopher and novelist. 

" Encyclopedic " 1713— 1784 

Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield. English 
statesman and novelist. Premier (i 874-1 880). 
English representative at the Congress of Berlin. 
« Coningsby,** " Vivian Grey," " The Young Duke," 
" Contarini Fleming," " Henrietta Temple," " En- 
dymion," " Lothair " 1805—1881 

Dumas, Alexandre (Jr.). French novelist and dram- 
atist. " La Dame aux Cam6lias " 1824 

Edwards, Jonathan. American metaphysician ; ablest 
defender of Calvinism. " On the Freedom of the 

Will" 1703-1758 

Elizabeth, The great queen of England ; daughter 
of Henry VIII. Educated by Roger Ascham. 
Among the great events of her reign were the re- 
pulse of the Spanish Armada and the execution of 
Mary Queen of Scots. Among her favorites were 
Essex, Leicester and Raleigh 1533 — 1603 

Elliott, Ebenezer. English poet. " The Com Law 
Rhymer." " Com Law Rhymes,'* " The Ranter,** 
" The Village Patriarch ;** painted social condition 
of the poor 1781 — 1849 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. American transcendental 
philosopher and poet ; graduated at Harvard ; was 
for a time a Unitarian minister in Boston ; settled in 
Concord in 1835; published "Essays on Repre- 
sentative Men,'* 1850; "English Traits,** 1856; 
The Conduct of Life, i860; "Poems,** 1840 and 
1867; "Society and Solitude," 1870, and sevend . 
volumes of " Essays ** 1803 — 1882 

Emmet, Robert. Irish patriot; executed for treason 1780 — 1803 

Evans, Marian ^George Eliot). English novelist; 
daughter of a clergyman ; was educated by Herbert 
Spencer J lived wiUi G, H, Lewes, and afterwards 



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522 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

married J. W. Cross ; published " Scenes of Clerical 
Life," 1857; "Adam Bede/' 1858; "The Mill 
on the Floss," 1859; " Romola/* 1863; "Felix 
Holt," 1866; « Middlemarch," 1871 ; "Daniel 
Dcronda," 1876; *' Theophrastus Such," 1879; 
" The Spanish Gypsy " (a poem^, 1868 1820^1880 

Zvarts, William M. American lawyer and states- 
man; Attorney - General of the United States; 
Secretary of State , 1816 

Everett, Edward. American orator, statesman and 

*•* 4|^om&tist^ U. S. Senator; Minister to Great 

Britain. " Orations and Speeches " 1794 — 1865 

Faraday, Michael. English man of science. Founder 
of the science of magneto-electricity. " Experimental 
Researches in Electricity " 1791 — 1867 

Parragut, David Glascoe. American Admiral. En- 
tered navy, 1812 ; commander, 1841 ; passed New 
Orleans forts and took New Orleans, 1862 ; made 
Rear Admiral same year; attacked defenses ^t 
Mobile, 1864 ; Admiral, 1866 1801 — 1870 

Pechter, Charles Albert. French actor. Famous in 

England and America. Best in " Hamlet*' 1824 — 1879 

Pield, Cyrus W. American capitalist. Laid the first 

Atlantic cable 1819 

Porrest, Edwin. American tragedian; eminent as 

"Metamora," "The Gladiator," " Virginius " . . . 1806— 1872 

Porster, William E. English Liberal statesman; 

Chief Secretary for Ireland (1880-2) • 1818 

Pox, Charles James. English orator and statesman ; 
entered Parliament, 1768, as a Tory; joined oppo- 
sition, 1773; became leader of the Whigs; For- 
eign Secretary, 1783 and 1806; opposed policy of 
Pitt ., . . . 1749 — 1806 

Pox, George. English religionist. Founder of the 

Quakers 1624 — 1690 

Pranklin, Benjamin. American statesman and phil- 
osopher. Bom in Boston; learned printer's trade; 
removed to Pennsylvania; published "Poor Rich- 
ard's Almanac"; discovered identity of lightning 
and electric fluid, 1752 ; deputy postmaster-generjd 
of the colony ; agent of Penn in England ; dele- 
gate to Continental Congress ; Minister to France, 
1776-85; President of Pennsylvania, 1785-87; 
member Convention of 1787 ^ 1706— 1790 

Fremont, John Charles. American explorer, politi- 
cian, and general. Republican candidate for Pres- 
identln 1856 1813 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. ^ 523 

Fuller, Thomas. English divine and author. " Wor- 
thies of England,*' " Holy and Profane States " . . i6oS— l66i 

Fulton, Robert. American inventor of the steam- 
boat. In 1793 tried to improve inland navigation, 
and in 1796 published a treatise on " Canal Nayi-'*' 
gation." Lived in Paris for several years, and 
while there invented the submarine torpedo. Re- 
turning to New York in 1806, with Robert Living- 
ston, he discovered steam navigation; built (1807) 
the steamer " Clermont," which made regular trips -^^ 

between New York and Albany '. 1765 — f»i5 

Gallatin, Albert. American statesman. Secretary of 

the Treasury 1761 — 1849 

Gambetta, Leon. French radical orator and states- 
man. President of the Chamber of Deputies. . . . 1838 1883 

Garfield, James. American statesman ; bom in Ohio; 
educated at Williams College ; teacher and lawyer ; 
brigadier-general, 1862; chief of staff to Rose- 
ccans, 1862; major-general for services at Chicka* 
mauga; M. C, 1862-1881 ; elected to Senate, 
1880; elected President, 1881 ; shot by Charles J. 
Guiteau, July 2, 1881 ; died Sept. 19 1831— 1881 

Garibaldi,* Giuseppe. Italian patriot and general; 

liberator of Italy 1807— 1882 

Garrick, David. EngUsh actor. Made his debut as 
"Richard III" in 1741. Among his great parts 
were "Lear," " Macbeth," " Romeo," " Hamlet," 
"Abel Drugger"; made his last appearance in 
1776 ; buried in Westminster Abbey 1716 — 1779 

Garrison, William Lloyd. American Abolitionist. . 1804 — 1879 

Gibbon, Edward. English historian; educated at 
Oxford and on the Continent ; passed most of his 
life at Lausanne ; " Memoirs," " Decline and Fall 
of the Ronvan Empire " •. 1737 — 1794 

Gladstone, W. E. Statesman and scholar; thrice 

Prime Minister of England i8l I 

Goethe, John Wolfgang Von. German poet, drama- 
tist, critic, novelist, man of science, statesman. 
" Faust," " Iphigenia in Tauris," " Wilhelm Meis- 
ter," "Egmont," "West-Eastern Divan," "The 
Sorrows of Werther," and many noble lyrical poems. 
In almost every department of literature, first 
among the Germans 1749^1832 

Goldsmith, Oliver. Irish poet, novelist and histo- 
rian. " Vicar of Wakefield," " The Traveller," 
" The Deserted Village; " studied at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and at Edinburgh; led wandering 



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524 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

life on Continent; published ** The Good^Natured 
Man," 1767; «*She Stoops to Conquer," 1773; 
'* Retaliation," 1777; was a gambler, and always 
in debt 1728— 1774 

Qough, John B. American temperance orator 181 7 

Grant, Ulysses S. American general. Bom in Ohio ; 
graduated at West Point, I039; served in Mexican 
War; afterwards, engaged in the leather business; 
brigadier-general, 1861; took Fort Donelson, 
1802; Vicksburg, 1863; lieutenant-general, 1864; 
President, 1869-77 1822 

Greeley, Horace. American journalist. Founder of 

the " New York Tribune " 181 1— 1872 

Gutenberg, John. German inventor of printing id,oo — 1468 

Haliburton, Thomas C. (" Sam Slick.") Nova Sco- 
tian judge and humon;>t. "Qockmaker; or, The 
Sayings and Doings of Sam Slick, of Slickville. . 1796—186$ 

Hall, Robert. English Baptist divine and eloquent 

preacher. "Apology for the Freedom of the Press " 1764— 1831 

Hallam, Arthur Henry. Hero of Tennyson's "In 

MeiAoriam" 1811— 1833 

Hallam, Henry. English historian. " Constitutional 

History of England," " Middle Ages" 1778—1859 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene. American poet. " Marco 

Bozzaris" 1790— 1867 

Hamilton, Alexander. American statesman and 
financier; bom in Island of Nevis, West Indies. 
Aide-de-camp and secretary to Washington in Rev- 
olutionary War; began practice of law in New 
York, 1783 ; leading member of the Convention of 
1787; principal author of the "Federalist"; Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, 1789-95; killed in a duel 
by Aaron Burr 1757— 1804 

Hampden, John. English statesman and patriot 
Refused to pay ship money, 1636; one of the lead- 
ers of the opposition in the Long Parliament; slain 
in a skirmish with Prince Rupert's forces 1594 — 1643 

Hancock, John. American Revolutionary statesman; 

President of the Continental Congress 1737 — 1793 

Hancock, Winfield S. American general; com- 
manded corps at Gettysburg; Democratic candi- 
date for President in 1880 1824 

Handel, George F. German composer; composed 
sonatas at 10; produced "Almeric," 1706; "Rod 
erigo," 1708; " Rinaldo," 17 10; became chapel 
master to George 1, 17 14, and spent the rest of his 
life in England. His oratorio gf " Saul " was pro 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 625 

duced, 1 740; his masterpiece, the " Messiah," 
1 741. Among his other works are " Moses in 
Egypt," " Samson," and « Jephthah " 1684— 1759 

Harrison, William Henry. American general and 
statesman ; Governor of Virginia ; bom in Virginia ; 
entered army in 1791; aide de-camp to Gen. Wayne; • 
Governor of Indiana, 1801-13; defeated Indians at 
Tippecanoe; made major-general, 181 3; elected 
to Congress, 1 81 7; to the Senate, 1824; Minister 
to Columbia, 1828 ; Whig candidate for President, 
1836 ; elected President, 1840 1773 — 1841 

Harte, Francis Bret American novelist and poet. 
"The' Heathen Chinee," "Gabriel Conroy," 
« Luck of Roaring Camp," " Flip " 1839 

Hartington, Spencer C. Cavendish, ~ Marquis of, 

English Liberal statesman 1833 

Hastings, Warren. British statesman and general ; 
President of the Council of Bengal ; conqueror of 
Hyder Aly ; impeached, but acquitted ;...<. 1733 — '^'^ 

Havelock, Sir Henry. British general in Sepoy re- 
bellion; defeated Sepoys at Cawnpore; relieved 
Lucknow 1795 — '^57 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. American romance writer. 
"Marble Faun," "The Scarlet Letter," "The 
House of Seven Gables," "The Blithedale Ro- 
mance," "Mosses from an Old Manse," "Septi- 
mius," "Twice-told Tales," "English Note- 
Books" 1804— 1864 

Hayes, Rutherford B. American potitician ; bom in 
Ohio; admitted to bar, 1845; brigadier-general in 
Civil War ; entered Congress at its close; re-elected, 
1866; Govemor of Ohio, 1868-76; President, 
1877-81 1822 

Hajme, Robert H. American lawyer and senator. 
NuUifier; Govemor of S. C; opponent of Webster 
in discussing Constitution 1791 — 1839 

Hegel, George W. F. German philosopher; pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Heidelberg and Berlin. 
" Encyclopoedia of the Philosophical Sciences" . . . 1770^1831 

Henry, Patrick. American orator and Revolutionary 

patriot. " Give me Liberty, or give me Death". . 1736— 1799 

Herbert, Rev. George. English Christian lyric poet. 

" Poems," " Our Country Parson " '593— 1633 

Herrick, Robert. English clergjrman and poet. 

" Hesperides ; or. Poems Human and Divine "... 1591 — 1674 

Holtnes, Oliver Wendell. American poet, physician 



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626 1>0PULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

and novelist. " Elsie Venner,'* '* The Autocrat of 
the Breakfast Table," ««The Guardian Angel," 
" Poems," «* The Iron Gate," " The Poet at the 
•' Breakfast Table." Professor at IJarvard Medical 
School 1809 - 

Homtr^ Greek epic poet. " Iliad " and " Odyssey." 
Seven cities churned the honor of his birth, but his 
actual birthplace is unknown ;. probably it was in 
Asia Minor. According to tradition, he was blind 
and poor — a sort of wandering minstrel. The times 
of his birth and death are likewise uncertain, and 
his existence is doubted by some, who maintain that * 
the " Iliad " and " Odyssey" are collections of songs 
by different authors B.C. loth cent'y. 

Hood, Thomas. English poet and humorist. " Song 
of the Shirt," " Whims and Oddities," " Eugene 
Aram's Dream" 1798 — 184$ 

Hugo, Victor. French poet, dramatist and novelist. 

" Les Miserables," " N6tre Dame " 1809 

Humboldt, F. H. Alexander Von. German naturalist. 
Traveled in South Amenca, Mexico and the United 
States, 1 799-1 804; lived in Paris for next twenty 
years, and published scientific results of his travels ; 
traveled m Asiatic Russia in i829;* published 
** Cosmos, an Essay of a Physical Description of the 
Universe," 1845-58 1769— 1859 

Huxley, Thomas H. English physicist. " Physiol- 
ogy" 1825 

Irving, J. "Henry B. English actor. Great in Shake- 

sperian parts 1838 * 

Irving, Washington. American author. "Brace- 
bric^e Hall," " The Sketch Book." Bom in New 
York; studied law; lived much abroad; was 
Minister to Spain, 1842. " History of New York," 
" The Conquest of Granada," " Life of Washing 
ton," " Columbus," " Tales of a Traveller, ** Wol- 
fert's Roost " 17^3— 1859 

Jackson, Andrew. American general and statesman. 
Bom in N. C; began to practice law at Nashville, 
Tenn., 1788;- M. C, 1796; Senator, 1797; 
resigned, 1798; Judge Tenn. Supreme Court, 
1798-1804; defeated Creek Indians, 1814; won' 
battle of New Orleans, 181 5; in Seminole War, 
1817-18; Senator, 1823 ; President, 1829-37 1767 — 1845 

Jackson, Thomas J. ("Stonewall"). American Con- 
federate general. Captured Harper's Ferry, with 
1 1,000 prisoners ; defeated Banks 1826 — 1863 



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B10GftAl»HlCAL DICTIONARY. 627 . 

tfelTersOn, Joseph. American actor. Great as " Rip 

Van Winkle" 1829 . 

Jtifierson, Thomas. American statesman. Bom ih 
Va.; studied law ; member of Va. House of Bur- 
gesses; in Continental Congress,. 1775; drew up 
Declaration of Independence, 1776; Governor of 
Va., 1779-81; Resident Minister at Paris, 1785- 
89; Secretary of State* 1789-93; Vice-President, 
1797-1801 ; President, 1801-9 1743 — 1826 

Johnson, Andrew. American statesman. Bom in 
N. C*; gleamed tailor^s trade in Tenn.; M.C., 1843 
53; Gov. of Tenn., 1853-7; Senator, 1857; Mili- 
tary Governor of Tenn., 1862; elected Vice-Presi- 
dent, 1864; President on death of Lincoln, April 

> 15,1865; impeached, but acquitted, 1868; sub- 
sequently reelected to the Senate 1808 — 187$ 

Johnson, Samuel. English poet, critic, an(f scholar. 
Bom in Lichfield ; educated at Oxford ; did hack 
work for booksellers; went to London with G^arrick, 
1737; published " London," 1738; " Life of Richard 
9avage, 1744; " Vanity of Human Wishes," 1749; 
" Dictionanr," 1756 ; " Rasselas," 1759 ; «* Lives of 
Poets," 1781 * , . 1709—1784 

{Udson, Adoniram. American missionary to Bnrmah 1789— 'I850 
tant, Immanuel. German philosopher. " Critique 

of Pure Reason ". ; .'. 1724 — 1804 

Keats, John, j^nglish ^et. Bom in London; 
appi'enticed to a surgeon ; died ftt Rome. " Eh- 
dymion," " Hyperion," "The Eve of St. Agnes" 1795— 182 1 

K*y, Fl-aneis SCott. American song writer. " Star- 

Spangled Banner" 1779 — 1843 

itidd, William. American pirate in the East Indies. 

Executed 1701 

King^sley, Charles! English divine and novelist. 

" Hypatia " 1819— 1875 

Knowles, James Sheridan. English dramatist. " Vir- 

ginius," " The Hunchback" 1784— 1862 

Knox, John. Scotch reformer. Fierce anti-Catholic. 

" The First Blast of the Trumpet " 1505— 1572 

La Payette, Marie J. P. R. P. Gilbert Motier, Mar- 
quis de. French patriot general in the American 
Revolution. Joined American army, major-general, 
1775; command advance guard of Washing- 
ton at Yorktown ; commander of French national 
guard, 1789 ; revisited America, 1824 ; took part in 
revolution of 1830 I757— 1834 



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628 POPULAR AMERICAN DICttOKARY* 

Landseer, Sir Edwin. English painter. " The Old 

Shepherd's Chief Mourner" lSo2 — 1S73 

Lincoln, Abraham. President of the United States, 
1861-5 ; Bom in Ky.; afterwards removed to 111.; 
captain in Black Hawk War ; admitted to Illinois 
l»r, 1836; Whig M.C., r846, unsuccessful candi- 
date for Senator against Douglas, 1856; elected 
President, i860; reelected, 1864; assassinated by 
J. Wilkes Booth, April 14, 1865; died April 15. . 1809—1865 

Limueus, Charles von. German botanist. Studied 
medicine and natural history ; published " System 
of Nature, 1735; "Genera of Plants," 1737; 
"Philosophia Botanica," 1751; "Species Plant- 
arum," 1753 ; designated each species of plants by 
adding single epithet to name of genus 1707 — 1 778 

Livingston, David. African explorer. " Narrative 

of an Expedition^o the Zambesi " 1817 — 1873 

Locke, John. Enghsh philosopher. " Human Under-, 

standing " 1^532 — 1704 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. American poet 
Bom in Portland, Maine; educated at Bowdoin 
College, where he was professor of modem lan- 
guages; held a similar chair at Harvard, 1835-54; 
published " Hyperion," 1839; " Ballads and otilier 
Poems," 1841; " Poems on Slavery," 1842; "The 
Spanish Student," 1843; " P^^^^ and Poetry of 
Europe," 1845; */ The Belfry of Bruges," 1^46; 
"Evangeline," 1647; "The Golflen Legend," 
1851; "Hiawatha," 1855; "Miles Standish," 
"Tales of a Wayside Inn," "Translation of 
Dante," " Aftermath," " Keramos," " Ultima 
Thule " 1807— 1882 

Lover, Samuel. Irish novelist. "Handy Andy". . 1797 — 1868 

Lowell, James Russell. American poet, cntic and 
diplomatist " The Bigelow Papers," " Tlie Vision 
of Sir Launfal," "The Commemoration Ode," 
" Fable for Critics," " The Cathedral," " Among 
My Books," " My Study Windows." Minister to 
Spain and England 1819 

Lowell, John. American statesman and lawyer. Pro- 
moted abolition of slavery in Massachusetts 1743 — 1802 

Loyola, Ignatius. Spanish founder of the Jesuits. . . 1491 — 1536 

Luther, Martin. German reformer 1483 — 1546 

Lytton, Lord Edward Robert Bulwer. ("Owen 
Meredith.") English statesman and novelist. 
"Ludle" 1831 — 

Macmulay, Thomas Babington, Lord. English histo- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, 62fl 

rian and essayist. " History of England," " Es^ 

says," " Lays of Ancient Rome V 1809^1859 

Macready, William C. English acton Great in 
Shakespearian parts. Made his dkhut (18 16) as 
**6restes;" played Richard III, and other Shake- 
spearian parts; visited U. S., 1848-9; retired from 
the stage in 1861 * . 1793— 1873 

Madisdii, James* American statesman. Membef of 
the Virginia Legislature, of the convention of 1 787, 
and a strenuous advocate of the Constitution ; joint 
author with Hamilton and Jay of the " Federalist ;" 
M. C, 1789-97; Secretary of State, 1 801-9; Presi- * 
dent, 1809^17 1751— 1836 

Mahomet. Arabian prophet. Founder of Moham- 
medanism. Lived in the practice of the regular 
religion till he was 40 years of age. Receiving a 
pretended revelation from Allah, he devoted him- 
self henceforth to the propagation of his new re- 
ligion. His faith was rejected at Mecca, but taken 
up at Medina. He fled from Mecca 622 (The 
Hegira) ; was originally a monogamist, and at first 
asserted liberty of conscience 570 — 632 

Marat, Jean P. French Revolutionist. Assassinated. 1744 — 1793 

Martineau, Harriet. English writer. "Society in 

America " 1804 — 1876 

Massinger, Philip. English dramatist. " New Way 
to Pay Old Debts," " The Virgin Martyr," " The 
City Madam" 1584 — 1640 

Mather, Increase. American theologian and author. 

*•* Essay on Remarkable Providences" 1639 — 1723 

Mathew, Theobald. " Father Mathew." Irish tem- 
perance reformer ; 1790 — 1856 

Melanchthon, Philip (Schwarzerdt). German Re- 
former and scholar. Succeeded Luther as leader 
of the Reformers. "The Augsburg Confession" 1497 — 1560 

Mendelssohn- Bartholdy, FeUx. German com- 
poser. In 1827 he produced " The Midsummer 
Night's Dream " and the opera " The Wedding of 
Camache." In 1836 appeared his " St. Paul," 
and in 1846 the oratorio of " Elijah." Among his 
most famous works are his " Songs Without 
Words." He produced many instrumental pieces 
and sonatas 1809^-1847 

Meyerbeer, James. German composer. " Robert 
le Diable," " Romildae Costanza," 1818 ; « Semi- 
ramlde Riconosciuta," 1819 ; " Crociato in 



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Egypto," 1824; «« Robert le Diable," 1831 ; 
"Huguenots," 1836; L'fetoile duNord," 1854". 1791—1864 

Michael Angelo (Buonarotti). Italian painter, 
sculptor, and architect. Painted the fresco of the. 
•* Last Judgment," and prophets, sibyls, etc., at the 
Sistine Chapel. Among his great sculptures are 
the gigantic marble " David " at Florence, a 
" PieSi " and " Moses ;" was appointed architect of 
St. Peter's, and formed a model for the dome; 
wrote sonnets and poems 1474 — 1564 

Mifflin, Thomas. American statesman. President of 

the Contiaental Congress 1744 — 1800 

Mill, John Stuart. English political economist and 
philosopher. " Examinadon of Sir W. Hamilton's 
Philosophy" 1806— 1873 

Millais, John E. English painter. " Return of the 

Dove to the Ark " 1829 

Miller, Hugh. Scotch geologist. *« Old Red Sand- 
stone " 1802-— 1856 

Milman, Henry H. * English divine and historian. 

" History of Latin Christianity " . 1 791 — 1868 

Milton, John. English poet. " Paradise Lost." Edu- 
cated at Cambridge, and passed some years in 
study and travel ; was a Republican, and Latin 
Secretary of the English Commonwealth; wrote ^ 
many prose political and controversial works. His 
sonnets are among the best in the language. His 
other works are " Comus," " L' Allegro," « II Pen- 
seroso," "Samson Agonistes," "Paradise Re- 
gained," "Lycidas "....' 1608—1674 

Mirabeau, Gabriel H. de Riquetti, Count of. French 
orator and revolutionist. Entered army 1767; im- 
prisoned by his father at various times for intrigues 
and debts ; wandered in England, France, and Ger- 
many, 1783-8; represented Aix in States General, 
1789; president of National Convention,i79i. . . 1749^1791 

Moliere, Jean Baptiste Poquelin de. French dram- 
atist. Became valet du chambre to Louis XIII in 
1640; four years later he took the name of Moliere, 
and became a comic actor. After playing in the 
provinces for some time he opened a theatre at 
Paris, in 1658. His " Pr^cieuses -Ridicules " ap- 
peared in 1659; "ficole des Paris" in 1661 ; 
"Misanthrope" in 1666; and " Tartuffe," his 
master-piece, in 1667. Among his other works 
are " Le Malade Imaginaire " and " Les Femmes 
Savantes " 1622— 1673 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DlCiTIONARY. 631 

Monroe, James. American statesman. Captain in 
Revolutionary War; studied law with Jefferson; 
delegate to Congress, 1783; opponent of Constitu- 
tion; Senator, 1790; Minister to France, 1794-6; 
Grovemor of Virginia, 1 799- 1802; Envoy- Extra- 
ordinary to France, 1802, Minister to England, 
1803; Governor of Virginia, 1811; Secretary of 
State, 181 1-17 ; President, 1817-25 1758— 1831 

Montezuma- II. Last Emperor of Mexico. Mor- 
tally wounded while attempting to quell insurrec- 
tion of his subjects against Cortez 1470 — 1520 

Morris, William. English poet. «*The Earthly 

Paradise " 1834 

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese. American inventor of 
telegraph. Studied painting at first; suggested 
electric telegraph in 1832, while returning from 
Europe ; constructed small recording electric tele- 
graph in 1835: applied vainly for Congressional 
aid in 1837 ; got it in 1843 ; constructed telegraph 
line from Washington to Baltimore, and brought 
telegraph into successful operation in 1846 1794 — 1872 

Motley, John Lothrop. American historian and di- 
plomatist. Mmister to England and Austria. " The 
Rise of the Dutch Republic " 1814— 1877 

Moultrie, William. American Revolutionary soldier. 
Defended fort on Sullivan's Island (1776) after- 
ward called Fort Moultrie 1731 — 1805 

Mozart, Johann C. N. A. German composer. Com- 
posed short pieces when 6 years old; gave con- 
certs in Paris and London, 1763-4; in 1781, 
composed *'Idomeneo;" 1783, " The Abduction 
from the Seraglio;" 1785, "Davidde Penitente;" 
1786, the comic opera of "The Marriage of 
Figaro;" 1787, his masterpiece of "Don Gio- 
vanni;" 1791, "The Magic Flute;" his latest 
work, the " Requiem," is his most sublime 1756 — 1791 

Muller, F. Max. German philologist in England. 

" Chips from a German Workshop " 1823 

Munchausen, Jerome C. F. von. German traveler 

and liar ? . 1720 — 1797 

Murillo, Bartholomew Stephen. Spanish painter. 
Enjoyed the advice and friendship of Velasquez at 
Madrid. Many of his works were painted for 
churches there, and at Cadiz and Seville. Hir 
virgin saints and his beggar boys are famous. 
Among his great works are "St. Elizabeth of 
Hungary," •'The Prodigal Son," "The Young 



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532 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

Beggar," " Moses Striking the Rock," " St. An- 
thony of Padua," and the "Marriage of St. 
Catherine " l6iS— l68a 

Nelson, Horatio, Viscount. English naval com- 
mander. Went to sea at 13 ; post captain, 1779; 
rear admiral, 1797 ; distinguished himself at battle 
of Mount Vincent; won battle of the Nile, 1798; 
second in command at Copenhagen, 1801 (but 
really won the fight) ; in 1 805, with 27 sail of the 
line and four frigates, defeated combined French 
and Spanish fleets at Trafalgar, where he was 
mortally wounded 1758 — 1805 

Kewton, Sir Isaac. English mathematician and phil- 
osopher. "Principia." In 1665 discovered the 
meUiod of fluxions; in 1668, that light is not 
homogeneous, but consists of rays of different re- 
frangibility ; in 1675, published his "Theory of 
Light and Color." His great work, the ** Princi- 
pia," appeared in 1687. (He had really discovered 
the extent of the force of gravity irf 1666.) In this 
he shows that every particle of matter is attracted 
by every other particle with a force inversely pro- 
portional to the squares of the distances 1642 — 1 727 

Nightingale, . Florence. English philanthropist. 

" Notes on Nursing " 1820 

Northcote, Sir Stafford H. English Conservative * 

statesman; Chancellor of the Exchequer (1874-^80) 1818 

O'Connell, Daniel. Irish orator and agitator ; advo- 
cate of Catholic Emancipation, and the repe^^ of 
the union 1775 — '^47 

O'Connor, Charles. American lawyer 1804 

Opie, Mrs. Amelia. English novelist. " The Orphan " 1 761 — 1807 

Otway, Thomas. English dramatist. " Venice Pre- 
served" 1651 — 1680 

Paine, Robert Treat. American lawyer and states- 
man; signed Declaration of Independence 1731 — 1814 

Paine, Thomas. American (English bom) deist and 
political writer. " The Age of Reason," " Com- 
mon Sense " ". 1737 — 1809 

Pamell, Charles Stewart. Irish politician and agi- 
tator; M.P.; head of the Land LfCague movement. 1847 ~~"" 

Pascal, Blaise. French philosopher and writer. **Pen- 
s6es." He wrote a treatise on conic sections at 16; 
invented a calculating machine at 18; established 
the theory of atmospheric pressure 1648; entered 
the cloister of Port Royal, where, in 1656, he pro- 
' duced the famous " Provincial Letters " against &e 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 533 

Jesuits. His Pens6es is really the fragments of a 
great work on the fundamental truths of religion. 
He was one of the greatest of French thinkers. . . 1623 — 1662 

Patrick, Saint. Apostle of Ireland. Born in Scot- 
land. One of the first to preach Christianity in 
Ireland 372 — 463 

Payne, John Howard. American dramatist and poet. 

" Home, Sweet Home" 1792 — 1852 

Peabody, George. American banker in London, 
philanthropist. Founder of homes for working- 
men in London, of museums, etc 1795 — 1869 

Peel, Sir Robert. English statesman and Prime Min- 
ister. Repealed the Corn Laws 1788 — 1850 

Pellico, Silvio. Italian patriot and author. " My^ 

Prisons " 1789 — 1854 

Penn, William. English Quaker. Proprietor of Penn- 
sylvania, courtier, statesman, philanthropist, author. 1 644 — 1 7 1 8 

Peppercll, Sir William. American colonial general, 

commanded at siege of Louisville, 1755 1697 — 1759 

Pepys, Samuel. English author. " Diary " 1632 — 1703 

Perry, Matthew C. American commodore. Chief 

of expedition to Japan , 1795 — 1858 

Perry, Oliver H. American naval commander. Won 

battle of Lake Erie 1785—1820 

Peter the Hermit, Preacher of the First Crusade. . . 1050 — 1115 

Pitt, William. English statesman and orator. He 
was the second son of Lord Chatham ; received a 
careful education, and entered parliament in 1781 ; 
he was made .Chancellor of the Exchequer (1782) ; 
became First Lord of the Treasury, and Prime 
Minister, 1783; resigned in 1801, but took oflfice 
again in 1804; was the head and front of the 
great coalition against Bonaparte ; an eloquent 
orator and a quick debater 1759— 1806 

Plato, Greek philosopher and writer; held that the 
human soul has always existed; an idea is an 
external thought of the divine mind ; among his 
works are " The Republic," "Phaedo," "Gorgias," 
" Crito," and " Apology for Socrates " B.C. 428 — 347 

Poe, Edgar Allan. American poet. "The Raven" 181 1 — 1849 

Polk, James K. American statesman. Bom North 
Caroliim; removed to Tennessee, 1806; studied 
law; member of Congress,- 1825 ; elected speaker, 
1835 and 1837; governor of Tennessee, 1839-41 ; 
Democratic President, 1845-49; prosecuted Mexi- 
can war ^ 179s — 1849 



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534 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. . 

Pontiac. American Indian chief; formed coalition 

of Western tribes against the whites 1742 — 1769 

Pope, Alexander. English poet. Son of a London 
linen draper ; educated by a priest named Ta ver- 
nier. " Pastorals," " Es&ay on Criticism," " Es- 
say on Man," «*Wndsor Forest," "The Dun- 
' dad," " Rape of the Lock," translation of 
"The Iliad" and the "Odyssey," "Satires," 
« Episties" 1688— 1744 

Porter, David. American naval officer ; commander 

of the " Essex" 1780— 1843 

Porter, David D. American naval officer ; admiral ; 

bombarded Fort Fisher 1813 

Prescott, William. American Revolutionary officer; 

commanded (probably) at Bunker Hill 1725 — 1795 

Prescott, William Hickling. American historian. 

" Ferdinand and Isabella " •. 1796—1859 

Pulaski, Count. Polish general in the American 
Revolution ; leader of " Pulaski*s Legion ; " killed 
at siege of Savannah 1747 — 1779 

Quarles, Francis. English poet. "Emblems"..... 1592 — 1644 

Quincy, Josiah. American statesman and author; 
Federalist member of Congress. " History of 
Harvard University " - 1772 — 1864 

Quincy, Josiah, Jr. American Revolutionary patriot 
and orator. " Observations on the Boston Port 
BiU " 1744— 1775 

Raleigh, Sir Walter. English courtier, statesman, 
and author. " History of the World." A favorite 
of Queen Elizabeth ; executed by James 1 1552 — 1618 

Ramsay, Allan. Scotch poet. " Gentle Shepherd " 1685— -1758 

Randolph, John, of Roanoke. American politician ; 
member of Congress ; Minister to Russia ; op- 
posed Missouri compromise ; caustic Vit 1773 — 1833 

Read, Thomas Buchanan. American poet and ar- 
tist. " The Wagoner of the Alleghanies " 1822 — 1872 

Red Jacket. American Seneca Indian chief. Fam- 
ous for his eloquence 1760 — 1830 

Renan, J. Ernest. French orientalist and author. 

" Life of Jesus " 1823 

Richelieu, Aimand Jean Duplessis, Cardinal. French 
statesman. Made Cardinal 1622; Prime Minister, • 
1624; secured exile of his foe, Marie de Medicis, 
1630; reduced the Huguenots and captured Ro- 
chelle ; supported German proteStants against Aus- 
tria; founded French Academy (1635); added 
Alsace, Loraine, aad Roussillon to France. . ^ . . .* 1585^-1642 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 635 

Rubens, Peter Paul. Dutch painter. " Descent from 
the Cross," "Last Judgment," "Battle of the 
Amazons," " Judgment of Paris," " Rape of the 
Sabines " 1577— 1646 

Ruskin, John. English art critic. " Modern Paint- 
ers" , 1819 

Salvini, Tommaso. Italian actor. Great as "Othello." 1833 

Sand, George. (Amontine L. A. Dupin Dudevant.) 
French novelist. "* Consuelo," " Indiana," " Val- 
entine," " Andr6." .' 1804— 1876 

Savonarola, Girolamo. Italian reformer. A Domin- 
ictn monk and preacher; denounced the corruptions 
of the Church ; prior of the convent of St. Mark, at 
Florence, 1491 ; became a leader of the liberals; 
was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI, in 
1497 ; deserted by his followers ; strangled 1452 — 1498 

Schiller, John C. F. von. German dramatist and 
poet. Studied law and medicine, but finally fol- 
lowed his own inclination to literature. In 1777 
appeared his drama of " The Robbers; " in 1791, 
his "Thirty Years* War," and in 1799 his " Wal- 
lenstein," upon which he had been long engaged. 
The same year he removed to Weimar, where he 
enjoyed the friendship and advice of Goethe. 
Among his other works are " The Maid of Orleans," 
" Mary Stuart " and " William Tell." Of his 
minor poems, " The Song of the Bell " is perhaps 
the best 1759— 1805 

Scott, Sir Walter. Scotch novelist, poet and his- 
torian. " Waverley " novels, " Marmion," " Lay 
of the Last Minstrel," "The Lady of the Lake," 
" Rokeby," « The Vision of Don Roderick." Son 
of an Edinburgh writer to the Signet ; educated at 
University of Edinburgh; sheriflf deputy of Sel- 
kirkshire ; lived at Abbotsford ; ruined by commer- 
cial speculation 1771 — 1852 

Selden, John. English statesman and jurist. " Mare 

Clausum," " Table Talk " ^ 1584— 1654 

Selkirk, Alexander. Scotch sailor. His adventures 
suggested " Robinson Crusoe." Lived alone on 
Juan Fernandez, 1704-9 1675 — 1723 

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. Roman philosopher. 

" Morals." 5— 65 

Shakespeare, William. Greatest English poet and 
dramatist. ** Lear," " I^mlet," " Macbeth," 
" Othello," " The Tempest," " Midsummer Night's 
Dream ;'^ b©m "* •'^♦^'-^r/i.oQ-Avon ; went to 



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536 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

London about 1586 and became an actor and play- 
wright ; after amassing a competence returned to 
his native town, where he spent the rest of his life. 
Was son of a glover and farmer ; educated at Strat- 
ford grammar school | married Anne Hathaway, 
158a; became dramatist and shareholder atBlack- 
fhars theater, and subsequently part proprietor ot 
the Globe: left London about 1608: produced 
"Venus and Adonb," and the ♦* Rape of LucrecCj" 
1593-4, the only works published under his own 
hand. The first collected edition of his works 
. appeared in 1623 1564-^1616 

Shell, Richard Lalor. .Irish orator and politician; 
member of Parliament. " Sketches of the Irish 
Bar" 1794— 1851 

Shelley, Percy Bysshe. English poet. "Cenci," 
"Adonais, Prometheus," "Revolt of Islam," 
" Alastor," " The Witch of Atlas." Came of an old 
Sussex family ; was expelled from Oxford for cir- 
culating a " Defence of Atheism ; " married against 
his father's will the daughter of an innkeeper; 
separated from her in 181 3; afterward married 
Mary Godwin ; was drowned off coast of Italy . . . 1792 — 1822 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. Irish orator, wit, and 
dramatist. "The School for Scandal," "The 
Rivals," " The Critic ; " friend of Fox ; member of 
Parliament; made great speech at impeachment of 
Warren Hastings 1751 — 1816 

Sherman, John. American politician and financier. 
Secretary of the Treasury, 1877-81 ; resumed specie 
payments ^ . 18^23 — 

Sherman, Roger. American Revolutionary patriot 
and statesman. Signed Declaration of Independ* 
dence ; U.S. Senator 1721 — 1793 

Sherman, William Tecumsefa. American general. 
Made the "March to the Sea;" commander 
American army 1820 — 

Siddons, Mrs. Sarah Kemble. English tragic actress, 
sister of J. P. Kemble, married Henry Siddons in 
1773; made her London debut in 1775. Among 
her great parts were " Belvidere," " Isabella," 
" Lady Macbeth." She retired from the stage in 
1812 1755— 1831 

Sigourney, Mrs. Lydia H. American poetess. 

" MorsJ Pieces in Prose and V^rse." 1791 — 1865 

Smith, Adam. Scotch political economist. " Wealth 

of Nations." 1723— 1790 



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BIOGRAPHICAL PICTIONARY. 637 

Smith, Horace. English poet and humorist. " Re- 
jected Addresses." , 1779— 1849 

Smith, Sydney, Rev. English divine and wit ; pro- 
jector of the "Edinburgh Review." "Peter 
Plymley's Letters." 1771— 1845 

Standish, Miles. Captain. Plymouth colonist and 

soldier 1584— 1656 

Stanley, Arthur Penryhn. English divine and his- 
torian. " Lectures on the History of the Jewish 
Church " 1813—1881 

Steele, Sir Richard. English essayist. Essays in 
' " The Tatler," " The Spectator" and " The Guar- 
dian " 1671-^1729 

Stephenson, George. English inventor of the rail- 
road and locomotive. In 1814 constructed a loco- 
motive which drew eight cars ; made great improve- 
ments on this the next year ; invented the steam 
blast pipe, and greatly improved the construction of 
the railroad; Hnally built an engine running 30 
miles an hour ; did for the locomotive what Watt 
did for the condensing steam engine 1 781 — 1848 

Stewart, Alexander T. American millionaire mer- 
chant '. 1803— 1876 

Stewart, Dugald. Scotch metaphysician. "Elements 

of the Philosophy of the Human Mind " 1753— 1 828 

Story, Joseph. ' American jurist. Justice of the Su- 
preme Court. " Commentaries on the Constitu- 
tion " 1779^1845 

Stowe, Harriet E. Beecher. American novelist. 

'^Uncle Tom'sCabin" 1812 

Strauss, Johann. German composer of waltzes 1804-^1849 

Stuyvesant, Peter. Dutch Governor of the colony 

of New Netherlands (New York) 1602-— 1682 

Sumner, Charles. American RepubUcan statesman, 

orator and senator. " True Grandeur of Nations " 181 1— 1874 

Swedenborg, Emanuel. Swedish religionist and 
naturalist. Up to 57 he devoted himself to mathe- 
matics and the natural sciences. Among his works 
on those subjects are " Principia," " The Animal 
Kingdom " and " Miscellaneous Observations Con- 
nected with the Physical Sciences." After 57 he 
engaged in religious speculations. Among his 
religious works are " The True Christian Religion " 
and "The Mysteries of Heaven." The central 
point of his theosophy is the correspondence of the 
natural and the supernatural 1689^-1722 

Swift, Jonathan. Irishdivine and satirist Educated 



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538 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

at Trinity College, Dublin; admitted into the house 
of Sir W. Temple ; entered church ; became dean 
of St. Patrick's; at first a Whig, afterwards a stren- 
ous Tory. " Tale of a Tub," " Gulliver's Travels " 1667—1745 

Swinburne, Algernon C. English poet. ** Atalanta 

in Calydon" 1837 

Taylor, Bayard. American traveler, novelist, poet ; 
printer and journalist; Minister to Germany. 
Translator of Goethe's "Faust," "Prince Deucalion," 
"Masque of the Gods," "John Godfrey's For- 
tunes" 1825— 1878 

Taylpr, Jeremy, Bishop. English author. "Holy 

Living" 1613—1667 

Taylor, Zachary. American general ; 12th President 
of the U. S. Bomin Va.; entered army in 1808; 
served in Black Hawk and Seminole wars, and was 
commander in Florida; major-gen. in Mexican 
War; won battles of Resaca de la Palma and 
Buena Vista; elected President by the Whigs in 
1848 1784—1850 

Tecumseh. American Indian chief. Formed alli- 
ance of the Western Indians ; defeat^ by Harrison 
at Tippecanoe 1770— 1813 

Tell, William. Swiss patriot and legendary hero. . . . 1354 

Temple, Sir William. English statesman and author. 
Negotiated the Triple Alliance of 1668. " Account 
of the United Provinces " 1628 — 1699 

Tennyson, Alfred. English poet. Educated at Cam- 
bridge ; made poet-laureate in 1850. " In Memo- 
riam," ** Enoch Arden," " The Princess," " Maud," 
" The Idyls of the King," " Locksley Hall," " The 
Lotus Eaters," " Ulysses," " Ode on the Death of 
the Duke of Wellington," "The Holy .GraU," 
" Queen Mary," " Harold " 1809 

Thackeray, William Makepeace. English novelist. 
Bom in Calcutta ; educated at Cambridge ; tried to 
be an artist. " Henry Esmond," " Vanity Fair," 
" The Newcomes," " Pendennis," " The Adven- 
tures of Philip," " The Virginians," " The Book of 
Snobs," " The Four Georges," " English Humor- 
ists" 1811— l86j 

Thiers, Louis Adolphe. French statesman and histo- 
rian. " History of the Consulate and Empire ". . . 1797 — 1877" 

Thomas, George H. American Federal general. 

Won battles Chickamaugfa and Nashville l8r6 — 1870 

Thoreau, Henry D. American author. " The Con- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 539 

cord and Merrimac Rivers," " The Maine 

Woods " 1817— 1862 

Ticknor, George. American scholar. " History of 

Spanish Literature " 1791 — 1871 

Tilden, Samuel J. American Democratic statesman. 

Candidate for President in 1876 1814 

Trumbull, Jonathan. American Revolutionary states- 
man. Governor of Connecticut; friend of Wash- 
ington rjio — 1783 

Trumbull, Jonathan. American revolutionary patriot ; 
Speaker House of Representatives ; U.S. Senator, 
and Governor of Connecticut 1740—^1809 

Van Buren, Martin. American politician. .Entered 
bar 1803; served in N. Y. Senate; Attorney-Gen- 
eral of N. Y., 1815 ; leading man of the "Albany 
Regency"; elected U. S. Senator by the Pemo- 
crats, 1821; Governor of N. Y., 1828; Secretary 
of State, 1829-31; Vice-President, 1833-37; 
President, 1837-41 1782 — 1862 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius. American capitalist 1794 — 1877 

Vane, Sir Henry. English statesman. Ambassador 
to Denmark and Sweden ; Secretary of State; con- 
victed of treason .* 1589 — 1634 

Veronese, Paul (Cagliari). Worked in Rome and 
Venice ; among his greatest works are " The Mar- 
riage at Cana," " The Pilgrims of Emmaus," and 
"The Rape of Europa" 1530— 1588 

Vespucius, Americus. Italian navigator. America 

was named after him 1451 — 1516 

Volney, Constantine F. C, Comte dc. French trav- 
eler and skeptic. " Ruins " 1757 — 1820 

Voltaire, Francois M. Arouet de. French philoso- 
pher, poet, historian, wit, skeptic 1694 — 1778 

Wade, Benjamin F. American politician. Republi- 
can senator from Ohio. Abolitionist 1800 — 1878 

Wagner, Richard. German Composer. "Lohen- 
grin," " GStterdammerung," " Nibelungeniied," 
" Tannhaiiser," "Rheingold"; held great musical 
festival at Bayreuth, 1876; produced " Parsifal" at 
Bayrcuth, 1882 '. 1813 1883 

Wallack, James W. English actor in America. 

Founder of Wallack's Theater, New York 1795— 1864- 

Wallack, John Lester. American actor. A finished 

comedian; manager of Wallack's Theater, N. Y. . 1 819 

Walpole, Horace. Fourth Earl of Oxford. Eng- 
lish wit and writer. "Catalogue of Noble Au- 
thors " rf^ * . - . • 1717— 1797 



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Walter, John. English printer. Founder of the 

" London Times" 1739 — 1812 

Walton, Izaak. English writer. "The Complete 

Angler" 1593— 1683 

Waslun^on, George. Commander-in-chief in the 
Amencan revolution. First President of the United 
States; aide-de-camp to Braddock in the Indian 
campaign of 1755; married Martha Custis, 1759; 
chosen to Congress, 1774; appointed Commander- 
in-chief, 1775 ; President, 1789-97 1732 — 1799 

Watt, James. Scotch inventor. Improver of the 
steam engine; discovered (1764) that water con- 
verted into steam expands to 1,800 times its bulk; 
learned (1765) to condense steam; a cool separate 
vessel exhausted of air; used the expansive force 
of steam to depress a piston ; discovered the com- 
position of water (though the honor ot this discov- 
ery is disputed) ; and improved engines for pump- 
ing water 1736^1819 

Wayne, Anthony. ** Mad Anthony." American rev- 
olutionary general. Captured Stony Point 1745 — 1796 

Weber, Charles M. F. £., Baron von. German com- 
poser. "Freischtttz"; produced "Das Waldmad- 
chen," 1800; was director of opera at Prague, 
1 81 3; manager of German opera at Dresden, 
181 7; produced "Der Freischutz, 1822; "Obe- 
ron," 1826 , 1786— 1826 

Webster, Daniel. American lawyer, orator, and 
statesman. Member of Congress, 181 2-16, and 
1822-28; entered the Senate (1828), where he re- 
mained all 1841, when he became Secretary of 
State; re-entered the Senate in 1844; again be- 
came Secretary of State in 1850 ; his greatest legal 
effort was io the Dartmouth College case; his 

§eatest Congressional speech was his reply to 
ayne 1782 — 1852 

Whately, Richard. Archbishop of Dublin. British 

divine and logician. " Logic " 1787 — 1863 

Whittier, John Greenleaf. American poet ; bom at 
Haverhill, Mass.; farmer, shoemaker, journalist, 
anti-slavery agitator. " Snow Bound," " Voices of 
Freedom," " Soi^s of Labor," " Home Ballads," 
" In War Time," " National Lyrics," " The Tent 
on the Beach," "Ballads of New England," 
"Hazel Blossoms" i«o8 

Whitman, Walt. American poet; bom at West 
Hills, Long Island; educated in public schools; 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 641 

editor, carpenter, narse, government clerk. 
" Leaves of Grass," " The Two Rivulets," " Drum 
Taps," " Democratic Vistas " 1819 — < 

Wilberforce, William. English philanthropist, 
statesman, and reformer. Secured abolition of 
slave trade 1759 — 1833 

Wilkie, Sir David. Scotch painter. " The Village 

Festival " 1785— 184I 

Willis, Nathaniel P. American author. "Pencil- 
lings by the Way" .T ' 1807— 1867 

Wilson, Henry. American Republican politician. 

Senator ; Vice-President 1812 — 1875 

Winthrop, John. Governor and founder of the 

Massachusetts Bay Colony 1588 — 1649 

Winthrop, Robert C. American orator and states- 
man. Speaker of the U.S. House of Represent- 

* atives 1808 

Winthrop, Theodore. American novelist and 

soldier. « Cecil Dreeme." 1828— 1861 

Wirt, William. American lawyer and statesman. 
Attorney-General of the U.S. " Life of Patrick 
Henry" 1772—1834 

Worcester, J. E. American lexicographer. " Dic- 
tionary " 1734 — 1866 

W^ordsworth, William. English poet; educated at 
Cambridge; with Coleridge produced "Lyrical 
Ballads," 1798; settled at Rydal Mount, 1803; 
published " Poems," 1807 ; " The Excursion," 
1814; "The White Doe of Rylestone," 1815; 
" Peter Bell," 181 6. Among his other works are 
" Ecclesiastical Sonnets," " The Wagoner," " Yar- 
row Revisited," " The Prelude " 1 770— 1850 

Yale, Elihu. Founder of Yale College 1648 — 1 721 

Young, Brigham. American religionist Head of 

the Mormons l8oi — 1877 

Zeno, Greek Philosopher. Founder of the Stoics. 

" Pain is no Evil "... B.C. 362 — 264 

Zenobia, Septimia. Queen of Palmyra (266-73). 
Daughter of an Arab chief ; beautiful ; familiar 
with Latin, Greek, Syriac and Egyptian, and of a 
warlike and masculine temper. Her husband, 
Odenathus, died in 266, leavii^ two minor sons. 
She then took the title of Queen of the East. Her 
dominions extended from the Mediterranean to the 
Euphrates, and included a large part of Asia 
Minor. She refused allegiance to Aurelian, who 
defeated her and captured Palmyra — 375 



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FACTS CONCERNING SCRIPTURE. 

TTic following interesting particulars respecting the Bible are 
valuable, and the knowledge of them will tend to endear the book 
to those who love its truths : 

Old Test. New Test. Total. 

Books 39 97 66 

Cbapten 929 260 1,189 

Vet»e« 23.3*4 7»959 3i.i73 

Words 592,239 181,253 773.692 

Letten 2,728,800 838,380 3,567,»8o 

The middle book of the entire Bible is Micah. 

The middle (and smallest) is Psalm xii. 

The middle verse is the 8th of Psalm cxviii. 

The middle line is in 2 Chron. iv. 16, 

The largest book is that of the Psalms. 

The largest chapter is Psalm cxix. 

TTie name Lord (Jehovah) occurs 6,859 times. 

The word ** and " occurs 46,227 times. 

The number of writers of the Bible is fifty. 

The middle book of the Old Testament is the Proverbs. 

The middle chapter is Job xxix. 

The middle verse is in 2 Chron. xx., between the 17th and 1 8th 
verses. 

The shortest book is that of Obadiah. 

The shortest verse is i Chron. i. 25. 

The alphabet may be traced in Ezra'vii. 21. 

2 Kings xix. and Isaiah xxxvii. are alike. 

Ezra ii. and iii., ist verse, is the same as Nehemiah vii. 6, 73, 
saving only difference of translation, and a few variations caused 
by carelessness in transcription. 

Psalm xiv. and liii. are alike, except in verse 5. 

Psalm Ix. from verse 5, and Psalm cviii. from verse 6, are alike. 

The book of Esther does not contain the name of God or Lord. 
Being a translation of part of the civil recprds of the Persian Em- 
pire, as far as relates to the Jewish Esther, who was Queen Ahas- 
uerus, the absence of God's name is not surprising. 

The first coffin spoken of, in the 2,370 years from the Creation, 
is that of Joseph, mentioned in Gen. 1, 26. 

Psalms XXV. xxxiv. xxxvii. cxi. cxii. cxix. cxlv.., and Proverbs 
xxxi. 10 — 31 ; also Lam. i. ii. iii. iv. are alphabetic in their own 
language; which maybe seen by the English reader in Psalm cxix. 

There is another Psalm (cli.) given in many old versions, on the 
contest of David with Goliah, but we, for good reasons, reject it as 
a forgery. 

542 



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li^TDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing 341 

Affidavits 462 

Agricultural Department 45^ 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States .... 423 

American Geographical Names 333 

American Words and Phrases ^45 

Amount of Butter and Cheese in Milk 461 

Amount of Hay required per diem for a Hundred Horses 460 

Annual Salaries of Federal Officers 43 1 

Assignment of Mortgage 476 

Attorneys 464 

Biographical Dictionary of Distinguished Persons 511 

Bonds 466 

Chattel Mortgages 467 

Commercial Terms and Agents 449 

Compound Interest Tables 442 

Condensed Interest Tables 443 

Constitution of the United States 415 

Contracts and Agreements 468 

Deeds 470 

Declaration of Independence 412 

Dictionary of the English Language 5 

Dictionary of Musical Terms 5x1 

Executive Department...*. , 430 

Facts Concerning Scripture 542 

Foreign Commerce 451 

Foreign Words and Phrases 314 

Form of Affidavits 463 

Form of Mortgages 474 

Geometrical Definitions 498 

How to Tell the Age of Cattle 458 

How to Tell the Weight of Cattle 458 

History of Dictionaries 332 

Historic Landmarks 499 

Interest Laws 444 

Interest Rules ' 441 

Interest Tables 439 

543 



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544 POPULAR AMERICAN DICTIONARY. 

♦ 

Judicial Department 429 

Leases 471 

Lq^islatire Department 4^8 

Measurement of an Acre Plot 456 

" of Casks and Cisterns 454 

" of Com 454 

of Hay 454 

•• of Land 45^ 

•• of Wood and Lumber 4S5 

Men who Signed the Declaration of Independence 4x5 

Mercantile Law 462 

Mechanics* and Builders' liens... 472 

Mortgages 473 

Mortgage Bond 476 

Mythological and Classical Name& 321 

Number of Drains required for an Acre of Land 457 

Number of Plants required for an Acre 457 

Patents 476 

Plowing • 461 

Popular Names of American States and Cities 338 

Powers of Attorney 464 

Presidents of the United States 434 

Proverbial Philosophy of the Law 481 

Quantity of Seed or Plants to an Acre 458 

Rate of Mortality in American Cities 433 

Rotation of Crops 459 

Statbtics of Churches in the United States 344 

Stock and Stock-brokers 448 

Synonyms of the English Language 370 

TheBanks of the United Sutes.......H 436 

The Cabinet of the United States Government 432 

The Government of the United States 428 

The Statutes of Limitations 445 

United States Patent Fees '. 478 

Value of Good Hay 460 

Velocity of Various Bodies 369 

Vocabulary of Business Terms 484 

Vocabulary of Geographical Terms 496 

Wills 480 



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