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• *••••• 

^ NEW-YORK: • l^V'.'^^ 


^ 1854. 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

^^2 718 

Eaterad according to act of Congress, in the year 1832, by S. G. Goodnch, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 


Thb English work, of which this is substantially a reprint, 
was prepared with care and accuracy, and brought down to 
the end of the year 1831. Yarious alterations and improire- 
ments have been made, and several European, and about 
three hundred American names have been added in the pres- 
ent edition. It is now believed to be a correct and conveni- 

f Qfft.mapijial of biography, and well adapted to the wants of 

' ^'im^ricntr.PutU^' 

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AA^ TAV DXB, the name of an andent and 
distuiflaiahed fiunily in the Netherlands. 
Geraia Tan der Aa, and his sons Adolphas 
and Philip, boie a prominent part in the 
noble lesiatanoe to the tyranny of Philip 
n. and his agents, and contributed greatly 
to the liberalioa of the United Pro? inoes 
from the Danish yoke. 

AAGESEN, SvBin), a Danish histori- 
an, better knovn by his Ladn name of 
SvESf o AeoNis, flourished about the year 
I18fi. and seems to hare been secretary to 
Arcabuhop Abealom, the minister of state, 
who directed him to write a compendium 
•f the history of I>enmark. Aaseeen is 
also the author oCa History of the Military 
Laws of Canute the Groat. 

AARON of Albxandsia. a Christian 
priest and pfaysidan, flourished early in 
the seventh century. His work, entitled 
Pandects, in thirty books, is a eoomienta- 

2, of no great merit, on the writings of 
e Greek phyridans. Aaron was the first 
who wrote on the smallpox^ which disease 
he considers to be of Egyptian origin. 

AARSBNS, FsANcis van, a Dutch 
statesman^ the son of the secretary of state 
to the United Prorinces, was bom at the 
Hague, in 1673, and was eariy placed un- 
der the care of Duplessis Mornay. He 
was at first agent, and subsequently am- 
bassador, from Holland to the court of 
France ; i»ut after baring resided there for 
fifteen years, and been m high &Tour. he 
mt such onence that he was recallea. — 
On returning to his own country, he took 
an aciiTe imd dishonourable part in the 
prooeediags against Bamereldt. The re- 
mainder m his life was spent in diplomatic 
missioBa lo Venioe, the Italian and Ger- 
man princes, Enriand, and France. Jn 
the latter eountry he gahied the esteem of 
the wily RicheUeu, who declared that he 
had nerer known more than three great 
politkiatts, Oienstiem, Viscardi, and Aar- 
seaa. He died m 1741. 

ABAUZrr, FiBMiir, a French writer, 
vaa bom at Uzea, in 1679, and died at 


Geneva, in 1767. Though ha published 
very little, he acquired an extentive scien- 
tific reputation, and was esteemed, for his 
genius, judgment, and profound learning, 
by the most eminent men of the age, many 
of whom consulted him upon difficult ques- 
tions. " You " said Newton, ** are a fit 
person to judge between Leibnitz and 
me.** Rousseau has given a glowing 
panegyric upon him in the Nouvdle He- 
loise. The modesty of Abauzit was not 
less consncnous than his erudition. 

ABBADIE. Jamss, a Protestant theo- 
logian, was bom at Nay. in Beam, in 
1667, acoooqianied Marshal Schomberg to 
Rngiand. and was with him at the battle 
of the Boyne. Till he was promoted to 
the deanery of KiUakw. he officiated i^ 
the French church in the Savoy. As a 
preacher he was mw^ admired ; but was 
at length obliged to quit the pulpit by the 
failure of his memory. He died in Mary- 
lebone^ 1727. AMwdie's prindtial work 
is his Treatise on the Troth of the Chris- 
tian Religion, which has been equally and 
justly applauded by Protestanto and Cath- 
olics. His compositions, though formed in 
his mind, were sometimes not committed 
to paper till the moment when they wen 
sent to the imsa. 

ABBOT, Oaoaoa, archbishop, bora m 
1662, and educated at Oxford, was tha 
second son of a clothworfcer, at GuikUbi4 

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b SanvT* He wis suooetsnTdy mtster of 
Unifwnty College, dean of Winchester, 
noe-chanoeUor oi (htford, bishop of Litch- 
ield, and of London, and archbishop of 
Canterbury. Of Calyinism he was a 
lealoos friend, and displayed great acri- 
■Mmy asainst lie followers of Arminios.— 
James 1. he offended by opposing the 
B004K of 9porU, and the divorce of the 
eonntess of Essex; and Charles I. by re- 
fining to license a slanah sermon which 
Sibtlrarpe had preached to justify one of 
Charles's unconstitutional proceedings. — 
FV>r this last honourable act he was sus- 
Mnded from his functions, but was soon, 
fliooffh not willittcty, restored to them. 
Laud and BuckingEam were his inveterate 
enemies.— A case of deep sorrow to him, in 
his latter days, was, his hsTinff accident- 
ally, while aiming at a deer, snot one of 
Lofd Zottch^ keepers. He died in 1S89, 
and was honed at GKiildfoid. He wrote 
serevai theological wodts. among whicfa 
•re six Latin Lectureaon DiTinity, and an 
SxpnsitioB of the prophet Jonah. 

ABBOT, SoBBiT, the ehler brother of 
the archbishop, was bom in 1650, was 
edncated at 6x£>rd, and soon became a 
▼ety popular preacher, and acquired the 
tsmitatioQ of being one of the first polemi- 
cal divines of the age. James I. whose 
chaplain he was, did him the honour to 
Mint his own Commentary on the Apoca- 
lypse along with Abbot's Antiohristi De- 
monstratio. After having obtained several 
1616, to 

face, whidi was ujgfly and Wrinkled, had 
such an eztraordmary flexibility, tha^ 
when he was reading a drama or a \aiei, 
he could vary his features tm spit the va- 
rious characters, as effectually as though 
he had assumed a mask for each peiaoo- 

s w e feim e nt s, he was raided, in 
oe bishop of Salisbury, but he 
i his elevation little more than two 

ABBT, THOMAS, a German writer, bom 
in 1738, was a nativt of Ulm. and, at the 
. age of only thirteen, pohlishea a disserta- 
tMo oTbonsiderable merit, entitled Histo- 
risB Vita Magistm. Abandoning theology, 
he directed his studies Ut phUoeophy and 
mathematics, and was successively profes- 
sor of the former at the umversity of SVank- 
Ibrt, and of the hitter at that of Rcnteln, 
in Westphalia. He died at the earhr 
age of twenty-eight, universally lamented. 
Among his numerous works, all bearinjj 
the stamp of genius, his l^eatise on Merit 
is conspicuous; it gained him the friend- 
ship ofthe reigning prince of Schaumburg- 
Lippe, who made nun one of his counsel- 
lors, buried him in his own chapel, and 
>vrote his epitaph. 

ABEILLE, Gaspau, a FVench dramat 
k writer, was bora, in 1648, at Riez, in 
Provence, and died at Paris in 1718. He 
wrote several tragedies^ comedies, and 
•paras, which have been long consigned 
to oblivion. His poems have shared the 
same fkte. In private life he was much 
emed. His c on ve r sation was animated, 
he had the art of giving piquancy 

evta to the oonmonest boBrnotSi 


celebrated for his eraditioii and his unier- 
tunate love, was bom at Palais, near 
Nantes, in Brilannj, in 1079. Devoted to 
learning from his mfoncy, he early aoauir- 
ed all the knowledge and sdenee or the 
age} scholastic philosophy was espedaUy 
cultivated by him. AAer having etudiad 
under WiUiun de Champeaux, aad other 
eminent Masters, he opened a school of 
theology and rhetoric, which, was aoon 
attended by more than three thiousand pu- 
pils of all nations. W|ule he was thus in 
the zenith of iiis popularitv, he becaaa 
enamoured o£| uid was beloved by, his 
pupil Heknse, the yonw, beautiful and 
accomplished niece of Fulbert, canon of 
Paris. Their imprudent interoourse grnva 
birth to a son. They were at length pti- 
vatdy married t but the lady, with a sin- 
^lular pervwaion of judgment, ptefomd 
the mistress of Abel- 

being coufidered as 
ard, and denied the mi 

ard, and denied the marriaffe to her uncle. 
Irruated at Abelard, who nad placed hk 
wife in a monastery, Fulbert basely hired 
rufllaBS, who broke into the cluunber of 
the kusband at night, and emasculated 
him. The unfortunate victim then hid his 
sorrows and his shame in a cloister, and 
Heloise took the veiL His subiequent iiia 
was not more tranquil. His theological 
doctrines were censured as heterodox; he 
war condemned by a council ; was driven 
from place to place ; and was even, impria* 
oned. The tempestuous existence of Abel- 
ard was closed in IMS, at the monastery 
of St. Haioellus, near Chalons. (Sea 

ABBLL, Jomr, an English musiciui, 
oelebratsd for his vocaL powers, and lua 
pe r fosmaace on the lata. Beinf a Catho- 
lio, he was. dismissed from the Ch^po 
Royal, in 1688, aAarwhieh he went abiead 

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ifliiiMKvgsnwa im vtgeiwraHtj dir 

teaqoudsrad lil» oMioey m mpidUy, that 

ItfiPM «iUa «NBp«ii«i to umI ob iooL 

with his late at Ids back. ^^TiiigrefoMa 

tosiagftothAkiiiffof Polmiid,the dM]x>tic 

oMnreh aidved nitt to be divwB. up m e 

chur to a teaeidgrafalr heigbt^ while teie- 

nl bean irere tuned loMe aito the haU 

btlow him, and thoo gacve him hia choioe 

of smgiiig or beine let down and defDwed* 

Abell ywfeiWMi tEe fifsl; ha retaned to 

Eoglaad, and waaat Ounbridge towaids 

the end of Queen Aaae's reign; b«it the 

time of h iadea th ir not known. 

ABRN-BZRA, AaaAHAM, a ndibia, sot'- 
oamad the Wiae. the ehreat,the Adnuiable, 
waa bora aft ^Mede, itt llt94 aad^ ia be- 
Beved to hare died at Rhodes, in 1174. 
He waa ait onee an Me astroDomer j phi- 
looopher, poet, philologist, giammanan, 
and oooMneBtator on the Scnotons. Bb 
tiavefiad eKtens i f aly in England, Italy, 

ABBBCKOIfltfR, Jons, a hortieaha- 
rist, waa the son of a peraonof tlrt 
ptefeesaon, near Bdiabarglk At the age 
of eighteen he came to Doadon. and was 
winiriyinl in eneof thewyalBamena. He 
died in 180«, aged eighty. Vacions works 
oa gmdening wens pablsdied by him f bat 
'"^ \ popalar is the Gardener's Calen* 

ioh waa ocigtnaUy sitea to the 

ocigtnaUy gitea 
lodnction ei Jfe. 

dar, wWoh 

wotU an the psodnction oT Mr. Hawe, 
who wns at thattima better known to the 
pobtta tbnn the feal aothot WM. 

ABBftOBOlffiY, PATaion, a physi 
dan, waa a aattve of FloifiD', bom in 1666, 
and BdiMtsd atSt. Andrew's. He abjur- 
ed tha PfeoCeatant faith, and was iqjipcnnted 
ahyaieinn to James IL Tht daU of his 
deatk is not ametly kaownt aome suting 
it to be 1716, and others 17M. The Mar- 
tial Aduevemaats of Gotland, in two toI- 
«Ma MiOy is kia poDo^pal won. 

ABBRCROMBY, Sn Ralvs, was 
1788, at Tillibodie, in Clack- 
hire, entered the army when only 
, aaa serfed with honour during 
the satea years' war and the American 
war. In 1787, ha attained the rank of 

Asa I 

isyor general. Darrngthedisastmuseam.. 
pMt of 1764 and 1796, in Flanders and 
Holland^ he disiinguished himself by his 
aotinty and skill, and was rewarded wiib 
the order of the Bath. In 1796, he held 
the chief oommand in the West Indies, 
and reduced Grenada, St. Liucia, St. Vii^ 
eent, Trinidad, Demarara, and Essequib*/. 
After his return, he cominanded in Ireland 
and flootland,^ and, in 1799, bore a con- 
s'pieuotts part m the expedition to Holland. 
Had he been at the head of it, that ex- 
peditbnwoald most probably haTe had a 
waa disgracafal termination. His last 
senke was performed ia Egypt, which, to 
1801, he was seat to rescue (nun the 
li^rench. In spite of a rigoroas opposition, 
he made good nis landing, and idso deieat- 
ed the enemy en the 13tE of Bfareh. The 
British anny was again attacked, on the 
21at, in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, 
aad an obstinate battle ensued, which end- 
ed in the total defeat of the French. Un- 
fortunately, hewcTer, the victors bought 
their success with the loss of their general. 
In the course of a char^, Sir Ralph was 
unhorsed, and wounded m two places, but 
succeeded in disarming his adversary, and 
* on the field thronghout the day. 

He died, however, a week afterwards, and 
was interred at llalta. Parliament voted 
a monument to his memory, which has been 
erected in St. Paul's, and a pension to 
his fiunily ; and his widow was created a 
baroness, with reversion of the title to his 
male heirs. 

ABERNETHY, John^ a dissenting min- 
ister, bom at Coleraine, m Ireland, in 1680, 
died in 1740. He is the author of some 
controversial tracts, and of six volumes of 
sermons, which bear testimony to his tal 
ents and theological knowledge. 

ABLANCOtJRT, Nicholas PsaaoT 
d', a member of the French academy, was 
boim at Chalons sur Marne, in 1606. and 
died ia 1 664. Like our Philemon Holland, 
d'Ablanoourt was an indefittigable transla- 
tor. He translated several of the class i cs , 
amonff which are Lucian, Xenophon, Am- 
an, Tnucydides, Cesar, and Tacitus. 

ABSALOIC, AacHBiBHOP; whose real 
name vras Axid, was bom m the Danish 
island of Zealand, in 1128. He rose to 
be primate of Denmark, Sweden and Nor- 
way, and was at once minister and general 
under Wakiemar I. and Canute Y I. As a 
statesman, a churchman, and a warrior, 
he was equally estimable. How boldly 
he maintained the independence of his 
country, may be seen in ms answer to the 
Emperor Fnderic Barbarossa's ambassa- 
dor. '* Learn, Couut Siegfrid," said he, 
" that Denmark is not Thnringia; tell thy 
master that, to dispose of this kingdom, it 
must be conquered ; and that the conquest 
can be aohievrd only by those who wear 

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6 ABU 

•oatt of iMil and steel gauatlets ; let liim 
know thmt the Danes have swords by their 
sides, with which the]r maintain their 
liberty, and prore their right to their con- 
quests ; tell him, in short, that the king my 
master cares very little for the emperor 
ofiiGermany*s friendship, and has no fear 
at all of his anger." Tms spirited prelate 
died at the age of seTenty-foor. 

ther of Ayesha, the faTonrite wife of Bfa- 
homet. He was a steady and useful fol- 
lower of the pseudo-prophet, for the truth 
of whose reTelations and pretended mira- 

cles he readily Touched. In the year 668. 
he was chosen to succeed him, but he died 
after haTinff held the cali ph ate only two 
years and three months. 

ABU-HANIFAH, sumamed al Noo- 
MAH. the founder of the Hanefites, one of 
the tour orthodox sects of Islamism, was 
bom at Cufii, in 699, and was originally a 
wearer, but afterwards studied the law. — 
Being a partisan of the house of Ali. he 
was thrown into prison, and poisonea, at 
Bagdad, in 767, by Abdallah IL There 
is an anecdote, which testifies strongly to 
his forbearance and forgirinff spirit. Hav- 
ing received a blow wta a brutal man, be 
merely said, " Were I Tindictive, I should 
return riolenoe for riolence ; were I an in- 
former. I should accuse you to the caliph ; 
but I like better to pray to God, that he 
will allow me to enter into heaTen with 
you at the day of judgment." 

US, GaaeoaT, was bom in 1286, at Bfala- 
tia, in Armenia. He was of the Christian 
sect of the Jacobites, and died bishop of 
Aleppo, in 1868. His Unirersal History 
was translated into Latin, by Dr. Pococke. 

ABUL-FAZEL, deemed the best and 
most learned writer of the east, of whom 
it was said that monarchs .dreaded his pen 
more than they did the sword of his mas- 
ter, was the secretary and vixier of the 
Mogul emperor Akbar, and was murdered 
in 1604, by order of Sultan Selim, son of 
Akbar, who was iealous of his infhience. 
His loss was deeply lamented by his sove- 
reign. He wrote a History of the Mogul 
Emperors, down to the year 1594. and 
superintended the compiling of the Ayeen 
Akbery, or Institutes of the ^nperor Ak- 

ABUL-FEDA, Isxasl, prince of the 
Syrian city of Hamah, was bom in 1873, 
and was equally remaricable for his military 
and literary talents, and for his love or 
•cienoe. In early life, he repeatedly dis- 
tinguished himself by his Talour ; and, after 
his accession to his prindpaJity, from 
which he had been exdudea for twelve 
years, he sedulously cultivated literature, 
and patronized learned men. His death | 


works, of wkkk the chief an, his Abfidf 
ed History of the Human Raoe, and hM 
geography, entitled The Troe Situation of 

the Tartars, descended on both sides in a 
direct line nom Genghis Khan, was bom, 
in the capital of Kharism, in 1606. After 
having reigned irith honour for twenty 
years, he resigned the throne to his son, 
and devoted Bis hours of retirement to 
writing a Genealogical History of the Tar- 
tars. He died in 1663. 

ACACIUS, bishop of Amida, on the 
Tigris^ immortalized himself by an act of 
Christian charity, which he performed 
during the war oetween Theodosius the 
Younger and Varanes, kinff of Persia. 
About the year 420, he sola the church 
plate of his diocess, to ransom and set i 
hack to their country seven thousand Per- 
sian slaves. Varanes was so much affected 
by this generosity, that he requested an in- 
terview with the bishop, and subsequently 
ccmcluded a peace. 

ACCIAJUOLI, DoNATus, sprang from 
an ancient Florentine family, and was bora 
at Fbrence in 1428. The most qninent 
masters were employed to form his mind, 
and he soon became an aocomp '' <hed mm, 
and one of the first hellenists of the age, 
and was admitted to the Uteranr conversa- 
tions which wen held under tae auspices 
of Lorenzo di Media. He filled several 
offices in the state, and, in 1473, was mada 
gon&lonier of the republic. He died, in 
1478, at Milan, while on an embassy, and 
his body was transported to Florence, and 
buried at the public charge. So disinter- 
ested was Acaajooli, that he left his five 
children vrithout fortune ; but his grateful 
country portioned his two daughters, and 
provided for his sons. His principal works 
are his Commentaries on the Euiics, and 
on the Politics, of Aristotle. 

ACCIUS, or ATTIUS, Lucnrs, a Ro- 
man tragic poet, was bora in the year of 
Rome 684. He was the author of several 
tragedies, the subjects of which, with « 
single exception, were borrowed mm the 
Greek theatre. His style was unpolished ; 
yet so highly was he esteemed^- Uiat a citi- 
zen was severely reprimanwii ny the mag- 
istrate, for having mentioned his aame in a 
disrespectful manner. Accius was also the 
author of Historical Annale in verse, and 
of other works. Of his productions only a 
few verses are now extant. 

cis, an Italian lawyer, bom et Florence, 
but whether in 1161, or 1188, is a matlor 
of dispute. He resigned hisjprolessorship 
at Bologna, to devote himseTto the cote- 
posmg of a work ezplanatoi, '^C the laws | 
he completed it in seven ye*'*, and U 

look plaoa in 1881. He wrote many {bears the name of The G^aatGlchS. This 

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of pnoeding Jiiriits, with his 
I, occupies six loUo Toluiim, and 
been as much underralued by some 
pef9oas as overpraised bv others. He died 
at BolognsL in 1229. His daughter was 
celebrated ibr her emdition, and lectured, 
in the uniTersity of Bologna, oa the Ronum 

A3«oKLU«, an eminent critic, who flourish- 
ed in the early part of the sixteenth century, 
was bom at Aqoila^ in the Neapolitim 
territory. Charles V. held him in much 
etrem. He lived thirty-three years at the 
oonrt of that mooardi, who employed him 
oi TarioQs missions in Germany. Poland, 
aad other northern coontries. Collecting 
«r old MSS. was his predominant passion, 
bat he was also a man of wit and of elegant 
•ooooiplishments. Ammianns Marcellmns. 
and several classic authors, are indebted 
to him Ibr namerous and valuable correc- 
tioQS. Having been wro n g fu lly accused of 
plagiarism, he indignantly asserted his 
mnooenoe, by a singular kind of oath, 
which is to be finrnd m his &ble, entitled 

AC HARD, FaAKcis Chaslss, an 
eminent chemist, a native of Prussia, was 
bom in 17S4, and died m 1821. To his 
experiments and exertions the mannlacture 
of sanr from the beet root is greatly in- 
debted ibr the perlecdon which it has ac- 

ACHENWALL, GoDranr, a celebrat- 
ed publicist, was bom in 1719, at Elbing, 
in Pmsoia. In 1746 he taught history, 
statistics, and the law of nations, at Ifar- 
barg| whenee, in 1748, he removed to 
Oottingen, where he became a professor, 
and his lectures were in high repute. He 
died in 1770. Achenwall was the creator 
ef the science of statistics. Among his 
ddef works are The Elements of Natural 
Law, and the Constitutions of the Eunypean 

Kingdoms and^States. 


Fnoch beneoictine and antk|uary, was a 
natiire of 9t Qnentin, bora m 1609, and 
earlr embraced a monastic life. Indefeti- 
^abn in his studies, he lived perfectly re- 
tired, seldom indulging in visits, or even 
in oooversation. His works are numerous 
and vohiminous. and display great erudi- 
tion. The best known of them IS his Spid- 
legium, in thirteen quartos, which contains 
an immense number of valuable and curious 
pieces relative to the middle age. He died 
m 1636, at the abbey of St. Germain de 

ACHILLES TATIUS, a native of 
Alexandria, lived about the end of the 
ssoood century. He was convearted to 
Christianity, and became a bishop. He is 
Ike author of a History of Great Hen, 

AOU 7 

TVsatises oo the Sphere and eo TMiik 
and a romance, entitled The Loves ei 
Clitophon and Leudppe. 

ACIDALIUS, Valbhs. a German ciit- 
ie, was bom at Wittstock, in 1667, and 
died in 1595. 4e studied medicine is 
Italy, but never practised. He wrote coip- 
ments on Quintius Curtius, Paterculus, 
PlautDS, Tacitus, and other classic authors. 
A short time before his death, he was ex- 
posed to much odium, as the supposed 
author of a sa t i ri cal tract den)1ng women 
to be rational beings ; which tract, howe- 
ver, he appean only to have transcribed, 
ana recommended to his printer as a witty 

ACKERMANN, CoiraAD, a celebrated 
actor, whom the Germans consider as the 
creator of their stage, was bom in the be* 
ginning of the eighteenth century. Ia 
1766, he nndertook the management of the 
Hainbttrgfa theatre ; a circumstance whwk 
formed an epoch in the dramatic history of 
Germany. Lessing aided him with all the 
weight of his powerful talents. Acker^ianB 
excelled in conuc parts. His wife also was 
an admirable actress. He died at Ham- 
burgh, in 1771. 

ACOSTA, UalK^ a Portuguese gentle- 
man, bom at Opotto, towards the end of 
the sixteenth century, of a femily origi- 
nally Jewish, was a can of learning sind 
talent ; but his life was rendered a burthen, 
by the endless persecutions which the fickle- 
ness of his rel^oos opinions brought upon 
him. Bom a Christian, he apostatized to 
Judaism^ and ended by being a deist and 
a materialist. He shot himself in 1647.-^ 
In his Exemplsr Vitss Humans^ he giyee 
an account or some of the miseries which 
he had suffered. 

ACROPOLITA, GxoaoK, a Byzantine 
statesman and historian, was bora at Con- 
stantinople, in 1220, filled, with rreat rep- 
utation, some of the highest ofines of the 
Greek empire, and died about the year 
1232. Gregonas Cyprius, the patriareh, 
says of him that " he was equal to Aris- 
totle in philosophy, and to Plato in divine 
things and attic eloquence." This praise 
is, undoubtedly, exaggerated, but it proves 
that Acropolita was no oidinanr character. 
A Chronicle of the Bvzantine Kmpire, front 
1204 to 1260, is his chief work. 

ACUNA, DoK Antonio Osoaio d', a 
Spaniard, of a noble femily. was bishop of 
Zamora, under the reigns ot FerdiDana the 
Catholic and Charles V. When, in de- 
fence of their liberties, the Spanish com* 
mons formed the union which was. not un- 
worthily, denominated " the holy league," 
he became one of its most distinguished 
leaden. Though in his sixtieth year, he 
fought at the bead of five Uiousaiid men 
with all the ardour of yoith. After the 
fotal defeat of the army of the cnmmm M 

Digitized by 

Google — 

• ADA 

m TiDmltr, in l63l.Aciraa wms taken 
pfitoner, and beheadea in the castle of 2%- 

ACUNA, PaaDwrAKD.D', a natire of 
Bladrid, was born in the beginning of the 
sixteenth centuiy, and died in ISSOi haTing 
acquired reputation in arms and in poetry. 
His poems gained him the approbation of 
his contemporaries, and especially of the 
celebrated Garcilaso de la Vega, who was 
his friend. 

ADALBERT, St. bishop of Pram, is 
considered as the apostle of Bohemia. 
Hungary, and Prussia. He was martyred 
by the infidels in 997, and Boleslaus, pnnce 
of Poland, ransomed his body with an 
equal weisnt of gold. The Poles Tenerate 
him as- the author of the wailike hymn 
Boga Rodzica, which they were accustomed 
to sing before a battle. 

archbishop of Bremen and Hamburgh, in 
1043, was one of those churchmen or a 
d^k age who employed great talents in 
promoung the interests of their own order, 
at the expense of both monarchs and peo- 
ple. Ambitious, subtle, magnificent, and 
aloquent, he spent his whole ufe in endear- 
onnng to aggrandize his see, which he as- 
pired to raise to the rank of a patriarchate. 
yet| on one occasion, he refused the tiara. 
While actinff as resent, during the minority 
of Henry I v . of Germany, he excited urn- 
▼ersal hatred by his despotic conduct. To- 
wards the close of his career, he lost two 
thirds of his domains ; and De at length 
died, in 1072, when he was heginniny to 
recover his ascendancy. 

ADAM DE LA HALE, supposed to be 
one of the earliest of the Frencn dramatists. 
liTed in the thirteenth centuir. Some or 
his pieces are extant. He lea a dissipated 
life, and ended his days in a oonTent. 

ADAH, ALCXAHDia, a schoohnaster 
and compiler, was bom at Rufifonl, in the 
shire of Moray, in 1741, and died m 1809. 
He obtained the degree of LL.D. and was 
for many years hrad master of the high 
school at Edinburgh. He compiled Bio- 
man Antiquities, a Latin Lexicon, and 
other school books, 

ADAM, RoBBsT. an architect, was bom, 
in 1728, at Kirkalay, in Fife, was educat- 
ed at Edinburgh university, leamt the 
principles of architecture firom his father, 
and studied the art in Italy. After his re- 
turn, he published, in a uH^ndid folio, with 
engrayings, an Account of Diocletian's Pal- 
ace at Sfmlatro, was appointed architect to 
his majesty, chosen a member of the Royal 
and Antiquarian Societies, and subsequent- 
ly elected M. P. for the shire of Kinross. 
Many of the most eminent men of the age 
. were his friends. In conjunction with his 
iMother James, he erected numerous man- 
aioiis, and pulilie boikKngs, among which 


isthoAddphi. He died in 17«, atkt hm 
brother in 1794. 

ADAMS, JoRK, a distinguished patriot 
of the American reyolution, was bom, in 
1735, at Braintree, Massachusetts. He 
was educated at the uniyersity of Cam- 
bridge, and received the denee of master 
of arts in 1 758. At this time he entered the 
office of Jeremiah Gridley, a lawyer of the 
highest eminence, to complete his leg^ 
studies ! and in the next year he was admit- 
ted to the bar of Sufiblk. Mr. Adams at an 

early ' " '^ 

and 1 
self I 
in re 

to the court of Veisailles, in 
the place of Mr. Dean, who was recalled. 
On nis return, about a year afterwards, 
he was elected a member of the convention ' 
to prepu a form of govemment. for the 
State of Massachusetts, and placed on the 
sub-committee chosen to draught the pro- 
ject of a constitution. Three uMoths afteff 
nis return, Congress sent him abroad with 
two commissions, one as minister jplenipo- 
tentiary to negotiate a peace,, the other to 
form a cgmmercial treaty with Great Brit- 
ain. In June 1780, he was appointed in 
the place of Mr. Laurens amoassador to 
Holland, and in 1762 he repaired to Paris, 
to commence the negotiation for peace, 
having previously obtained assurance that 
Great Britain would reccgnize the inde- 
pendence of the United States. At the 
close of the war Mr. A. was appointed the 
first minister to London. In 1789 he was 
elected vice-preudent of the United States, 
and on the resignation of Washington, soe- 
ceeded to the presidency in 1797. After 
his term of four years had expired, it was 
found, on the new election, that his adver- 
sary, Mr. Jefferson, had succeeded by the 
minority of one vote. On retiring to his 
fiurm in Qttincy, Mr. A. occupied nimself 
with agriculture; obtaining amusement from 
the literature and politics of the day. The 
remaining years or his life were passed in 
almost unmteiTupted tranquillity. He died 

on the floor of Congress—" Independenot 
forever.** Mr. Adams is the author of 
An Essay en Canon and Fsodal Law 

Digitized by 


tmiet of kttan pablislied onder the sig- 
utare of NoTanglos; and Discourses on 

ADAMS, Samusl, one of the most re- 
maricible men connected with the Ameri- 
can reTolntion, was born at Boston in 1732. 
He was edncated at Harvard Collq^, and 
receive d its honours in 1740. He was one 
of the first who organized measures of re- 
sistance to the mother country ; and for 
the prominent part whidi he took in these 
measures he was pgroscribed by the British 

EoTemment. During the revolutionary wior, 
e was one of the most active and influen- 
tial asserters of American freedom and in- 
defiendence. He was a member of the 
legislature of Massachusetts from 1766 to 
1774, when he was sent to the first Con- 
gress of the old Confederation. He was 
onei of the siners of the declaration, of 
1776, for the adoption of which he had al- 
ways been one of the warmest advocates. 
In 1781 he retired from. Congress, but only 
to receive fi»^ his native state additional 
proofs of her confidence in his talents and 
integrity. He had already been an active 
member of tha convention that formed her 
oonstimtioa; and. after it went into effect, 
he was placed in the senate of the state, 
and for sevarri yeaca presided over that 
body. In 178f M was elected lieut. gov- 
ernor, and held that office till 1794 ; upon 
the death of Hancock, he was chosen gov* 
emor, and vras annually re-elected till 1797. 
when he retired from public Hfe. He died 
in 1803. The foUowmg encomium upon 
Mr. Adams is from a work upon the Amer 
ican Rebellion, by Mr. Galloway, publish- 
ed in Great Britain 1780 : ** He eato little, 
drinks little, sleeps little, thinks much, ana 
is most indefatigable in the pOMuit of his 
object. It was this man, who by his sune- 
rior application, manased at once the ac- 
tions m Congress at Philadelphia, and the 
ftctions of New-England." 

ADAMS, Hank AH, a native of New- 
England, whose literary labours have made 
ner name known in Europe, as well as in 
her native land. Among her works are 
the View of Religions, History of the Jews. 
Evidences of the Christian Religion, ana 
a History of New-England. Sne was a 
woman ot high excellence and purity of 
character. She died in 1831, at the age 
of 76. 

ADANSON, MiGHAjCL, a celebmted 
botanist, was bom, in 1727, at Aix, in 
Provence. His whole life was devoted to 
the improvement of botanical science. He 
sacrifiosd his patrimonial property, for the 
porposc of exploring Senegu, where he 
remained Are years, and made a multitude 
of observations in aU the departments of 
aatnnl history. In 1775, he presented to 
the Academy of Sciences 120 MS. volumes, 
tad 76|000 figures of plants, intended to 

ADD • 

form the basis of an immense woric which 
he had planned. The revolution reduced 
him to penurv, and in his latter days he 
was partly indebted for subsistence to the 
devoted attachment of a female domestio 
and her husband. Napoleon, however, 
heard of his situation, and snatched him 
from want. Adanson was small in stature, 
and at first sight his countenance was not 
pleasing. He was, in the highest degree, 
disinterested ; but, towards the close of his 
life, his temper was somewhat soured by 
misfortune and age. He died in 1806. 
His chief published vrorks are his Voyage 
to SenesaL and his Families of Plants. 

ADDISON, Lakcklot, a native of 
Westmoreland, bom in 1632, was edncaited 
at Oxford, where he distinguished himself 
by his ability and apphcation. Durina 
the period of the Commonweal:h, he hvea 
retired in the neighbourhood of Petwortii. 
but was active inousseminating church ana 
king principles. After the restoration, he 
was chaplam at Dunkirk, and at Tangier, 
and subsequently obtained the living or 
Milston, in Wilts, and was made a preMnd, 
a dean, and an archdeacon. He died in 
1703. His literary talents were consider- 
able, and he publisaed several works, i 
ly theological. 

ADDISON, Joaara, one of the orna- 
ments of English literature, was the son 
of dean Addison, and was bora at Bfilston 
in 1672. At his birth, it is said that he 
was supposed to be dead bora, and was 
aooordinffly laid out. ' The Charter House, 
at which he became acouainted vrith 
Steele, and the Colleges oi Queen's and 
Magdalen at Oxford, have the honour of his 
education. The first written proofs which 
he gave of his talents were Latin poems, 
of very superior elegance. Some English 
poems, a translation of the fourth Georgia 
and a Discourse on the Georgics, sustained 
his reputation, and his praise of Kinr 
William gained him the patronage of Lord 
Somers. In 1699, Somers obtained for 
him an annual j)ension ofȣ.300 to enable 
him to travel m Italy. In that country 
he remained nearly three years, when, has 

Digitized by 




Mitioa being 1o«t by the death of King 
wiUbm, nece«tit]r drove bim home. Dur- 
ing hia mbeenee, be collected materials for 
a nanatiTe of bit tour, and wrote hia. Let- 
ter to Lord HalifliT) hia Dialogoes on 
Medals, and foor acts of Cato. On his 
retom, he published bis Travels. It was 
not, bowerer, till 1704 that fortone began 
to smile upon him. At the suggestioa of 
Halifii¥| be was then emplojred to cele- 
brate in Terse the splendid victory of 
Blenheim ; and, as soon as be had snown 
bis patrons the simile of the angel, be was 
rewarded with the place of Commissioner 
of Appeals. In 1706, be attended Lord 
Halimx to Hanover; m 1706, be was ap- 
pointed under aiiBcretary of state ; and m 
1709, he went over to Ireland as secretary 
to the lord lieutenant, the Marquis of 
Wharton, aAd also received the almost 
sinecure office of keeper of the records at 
Dublin, with a salary of £.300 a 3rear. 
During this period, he wrote the opera of 
Rosamond, and contributed a prologue 
and some scenes to Steele's Tender Hus- 
band. The Tatler was begun by Steele 
while Addison was in Ireland, and with- 
out the knowledge of the latter, who, how* 
ever, soon dete^ed his friend, and came 
forward to bis aid. In 1711, in conjunction 
with Steele, be began the Spectator, 
which alone would immortalize bts name. 
As an essayist, he subsequently contribut- 
ed to the Guanlian, the Loter, the Whiff 


he treated with a contemptuens 
that cannot easily be defended. He 
at Holland House, on the 17tb of June, 
1719. In bis last moments, be sent for 
Lord Warwick, whom be was anxious tc 
reclaim from irregular habits and errone- 
ous opinions, and, pressing his band, faint- 
ly said, ** I have sent wr you that yo« 
may see in what peace a Christian can 
die.** As a man, Addison was of blame 
less moralsj as a statesman, be was ill 
calculated lor office, for be bad not the 

Examiner, the Freeholder, and the 
Whig. In 1713, his Cato, to which Pope 
gave a prologue, was brought upon the 
stase, and tb^ state of parties at that time, 
at least as much as its intrinsic merit, en- 
sured its complete success. It did not, 
however, escape from the critics, among 
whom Dennis was conspicuous for bis 
acuteness and bitterness. This tragedy, 
the comedy of the Drummer, and the opera 
of Rosamond, constitute the whole of Ad- 
dison's dramatic efforts. He projected a 
tragedy on the death of Socrates, but 
went no further. In 1716, after a long 
sourtsbipj he married the countess dowager 
of Warwick ; a onion which was produc- 
tive of nothing but one daughter ana infeli- 
city. The lady was a woman vain of her 
rank, who had the folly to think that she 
bad honoured a commoner of genius by 
giving bim her hand ; and the result was 
mcb as was naturaOy to be expected. 
Though Hymen frowned on him, bis ambi- 
tion was gratified in the following year by 
the post of secreury of state. But the 
toil, nis own inaptitude fbr business, and 
bis suflerings from asthma, soon compelled 
bim to resign it, and he received a yearly 
pension of £.1600. After bis retirement 
he coripleted bis Treatise on the Christ^ 
ian Religion, and was engased in a politi- 
cal contest with bis old friend Steele whom 

nerve, promptitude of action, and readi- 
ness ofresouroe, whsch are more necessary 
in such a character than even the loftier 
intellectual powers ; as a poet and drama- 
tist, he cannot aspire to more than a place 
in the second class, and. perhaps, not ■ 
high place in that dass ; but as an essay* 
ist, be stands unrivalled for ethic inMruc- 
tiveness, skill in delineating life and man- 
ners, exquisite humour, fine iinaginatiQii| 
and a dulcet, moefhl, idiomatic flow or 
language, wfaicn amply justifier the eulogi- 
um of Johnson^ that ^whoever wishes to 
attain an Engbsb stiie, familiar but not 
coarse, and elegant out not ostentations 
must give bis days and nights to the vol- 
umes of Addison.** 

lish Benedictine monk, who lived under 
the reign of Henry I. Already possessed 
of superior knowledge to most <tf his con* 
temporaries, he resolved to increase it pj 
travelling, and accordingly visited not on- 
ly various parts of Europe, but also Egypt 
and Arabia. FVom the Arabic, be tnns- 
lated into Latin, with other works, the 
Elements of Euclid, before any Greek 
comr had been discovered. Some of bis 
Ma». on mathematics and medical sub- 
jects are still preserved at Oxford. 

ADELUNu, JoRK CmiBTorRn, ftn 
eminent German lexicographer and luera- 
ry character, was born, in 1734, at l^mn- 
tekow in Pomerania, became professor at 
the Erfiirt gymnasium, removed thence to 
Leipsk, and was subsequently appointed 
librarian to the elector, at Dresden, where 
he died in 1806. He was never marrit^ ; 
it was said of him, that bis writing desk 
was bis wife, and the seventy volumes 
which be irrote were bis children. Ade- 
lung was an agreeable companion, and 
loved good cheer ; be was so fond of pro- 
curing a variety of foreign wines, that his 
cellar, which he used to call bis Bibliocbe- 
ca selectissima, contained forty kinds. In 
this country he is best known by bis Gram- 
matical and Critical Dictionary of the 
German Language, in five vols. 4to. As 
an original writer, however, be is ef ne 

ADRIAN, PuBLivs JBlivs, the fif- 
teenth Roman e m peror, was of a flpanisfc 
family, and, according to some bisleriant 

Digitized by 



«w a Mav« «f 6|Miih thoasliochtn ailim 
Borne Id hmwe bean his nrthplaoe. He 
wu bom A. D. 76, and serred eariy in 
Spiin and Meesia. Haring married th^ 
meee of Um empiese Pletina, he roee ir- 
iiOj by the aia of her infloeDce and 1 
own merit, and filled the offices of qnestor, 
oonaal; trimine of the people^ and pietor. 
For hia oondoct in the Dtuaan var, Tra- 
jan saTo him the diamond which he him- 
•elfliad leceiTed from Nerra, as the si^ 
of adopcioQ. On the death of Trajan, u 
the year 117, Adrian sneceeded to the em- 
pire. Daring his long leign of tventy-one 
years, he Tisited ahnost every part of his 
dom iH io ns. While in Britain, be boilt the 
&moiis wall between the Soiway and the 
Tyne, to prerent the incursions of the 
Caledonians. The Jews having retolted, 
he defisated and almost exterminated them. 
Adrian had a robost oonstitation, went 
bareheaded, and usually made long march- 
es on foot; he had an extraordinary me- 
aory, was condescending, enacted many 
good laws, and lored poetry and the arts 
and sdenees. On the other hand he was 
saspicieas, not unfiequently creeL and dis- 
■noed himself by his uanatural possion 
for AntinoQs. He died at Bais, in his 
aixty-seoond year; hafing, for some time 
previously, been so tormented by diseai 
as to entreat'his friends to terminate his 
frmHimm. A fow days befofe his death 
he composed the Latin lines to his soul, 
which have been often translated into Tsci- 
OQS languages. 

iBLUJ^ CLAunnjs, aa historical wri- 
ter, bom at PrwMSte about the year 160, 
was a teacher of rhetone at Rome, under 
the emperor Antoaiaas. He is the author of 
Various Htttorr, and a History of Animals, 
in Greek, of wnieh language ne was a per- 
fect master. 

JBUANUS, Maoonrs, a Greek physi- 
cian of the second century, was the master 
•f Galen, who mentions him in terms of 
high praita. He was the first who made 
ase of the theriaca as li remedy and pre- 



yeagamst plsgue. 

JC9CHINBS. a philosopher of Athens, 
a disciple of Socrates, by whom he was 
much esteemed, Tisited tne court of Dio- 
nysius, at Ssrraoise, and was rewarded by 
hm lor his Socratic dialogues. He re- 
lamed to Athens, and tauj^ht philosophy 
and oratory. Tnree of his dialogues on 
moral philoeopby are extant. 

jraCHINES. a celebrated orator, the 
fital of Demosthenes, was bom at Athens 
a. c. 337, of a respectable fiunily. Being 
worsted m his stride with Demosthenes, 
he retired to Rhodes, and openivl a school 
er rhetoric He died at Samos, aged 
serentT ftwt. Of his orations only tmee 
are extant: twelve epistles are also attri- 

JBSCHTLUS, one of tne thrss great 
traffic writers of Greece, and the imprerer 
of Uie scenic art, was born at Athens about 
400 years s. c. With his brothers Cyn- 
egirus and Aminius, he distinguished him-, 
self at Marathon, Platsea, and Salamis. 
But neither his Takwr nor his transcendr 
ent genius could, at a later period, shield 
him from a charge of impiety, and a con- 
sequent sentence of death, which would 
hare been executed, had not his brother 
Aminius sared him, by throwing cff his 
own cloak, and showing to the judges his 
arm, reft of a hand at the battle of Sahimis. 
JEschylas was pardoned; but, disnsted 
with the manner in which he had been 
treated, and perhaps also by the triumph 
of his rival Sophocles, he withdrew to Si- 
cily. There, m his sixty-ninth year, he 
was killed by an eaale letting foU a l'^ 
toiee on his Mid hcan. which the bird mis- 
took for a stone. Unlortonately, of ninety 
tragedies which he wrote, only seven hava 
reached us. Sublimity is the ( ' 
tic of JBschyhis. 

.fiSOP, the prince of &bulists, and of 
whom so many fobles have been written. 
was a native of Phrygia, who flourished 
about 600 veus before Christ. The ac- 
count which is given of his repulsive de- 
formity seems to be entitled to no credi' 

inhabitants of which city, in revenge for 
his having censured and ridiculed them, 
brought against him a calnmnioos charge 
of sacrilege, and precipitated him from a 

JBSOP, Clooius, a Roman actor, the 
contemporary and rival of Roscius, was, 
like him, the friend of Cicero, to whom he 
rave lessons in oratorical action. He was 
fuxurions and extravagant, yet he died 
worth a hundred and sixty thousand pounds. 
At one of his feasts there was servvd up a 
* t made of sinsing birds, which cost near- 
nine hundred pounds. He left a son* 
JO surpassed him in profoseness. 
ARTIUS, a physician, who lived in- 

ly nil 


zed by Google 

juu Aoor 

Digitized by 



■is ikill, tet Ihe pope eBoiPed 

her to ■■coned ber &tlier, m» profeesor et 
BelogiHu Her keowledfe of mocient and 
taodeni fauMwifes wee also extenuve* Sbe 
died, in 179$, et Milan, where, aereral 
jmn beibre^ die bad takea the veil. Her 
^eat work if intitled Analytical Inttito- 
tione, and has been translated by professor 

AGNOLO, Bacoio D*, a Florentine 
scolpcor and arcbitecat, bom in 1460, and 
died in 1548, was originally a sort of or- 
amrntal carver in wood; be becane a 
colptor in the sane material, and, lastly, 
an eminent architect, and eadwUished Flo- 
rence with ma ny sp lendid edifices. 

AGORACRrrES, a Greek sedptoi 
bom at Faroe in the fifth century B. o. , 
was the finroorite popil of Phidias, and 
was worthy of that distinction. One of 
his jDoet ocaebrated works was a statue of 

AGRICOLA, CiTKius Julius, a Ro- 
man general, was bora a. d. 40, at Frejos, 
in Gaid. He senred early in Britain, un- 
der SoetoninB Paolinns, and filled several 
high offices under the reign of Nero. Ves- 

K*an, whose cause be lud espoused, sent 
into Britain to reduce the twentieth 
legion to obedience, and on Agricola*s re- 
turn be was made a patrician, and goTcmor 
of Amiitania. In toe year 77 he became 
consu with Domician, and in the fi»Uowing 
year be was appointed to command in Britp> 
ain. There be conciliated the natiTes* ex- 
tended his conquests, built a line of forts 
from the CIvde to the Forth, ami defeated 
Oalgaom, the chaaqpion of Caledonian in- 
dependenoe. Jealous of his successes, Do- 
■atian recalled him, de|iraaded him of the 
triumph which was his due, and u said at 
last to haveput an end to the hero by poi- 
son, A. D. M. Tacitus, the soo-in-ww of 
Agrippa, wrote a life of him which is wor- 
thy oi iu su^ect. 

AGRICOlA, Gkoroi a physician, 
and the most emirent mecaUnrgist of his 
age, was bora in 1494 at Gumchen, in 
Misnia. Sereral works on mineialocy and 
metaOnrgy proceeded firom his pen, but the 
chief of them is in twelve books, and is in- 
titled De re wutalUea, He was the first 
mineralogist who appmed after the revi- 
val of •cienee. He died at Chemnits in 
1666, and ae he had been hostilu to the 
Lutherans^ they rev en ged themaelvee by 
reftming hwi a grave amoi^ them; so that 
he vras Buried at Zieet* 

ATj^IUCOLA, Josir, a German divine, 
whose real aaiM was Schoitier, was bom 
St Eisleben, in 1480 or 1402, and was a 
disciple of Luther, and a popular minister. 
The sect oCthe AutimuBiaBt was founded 
by him; but it appears to be a eahmmy 
IhBt he taaiht the witili^ ofjood woriu. 
pwe esclreme oMooe 


to Ln- 


dMT and odwr refermers. Agrieola %at 
one of the divines whom Charles V. em- 
ployed in composing the Interim. Besides 
ttis controversial and theological woiks, he 
left a Collection of seven hundred and fifty 
Germanjproverbs, whh a conmieBtary. lie 
died at Berlin in 1666. 

AGRICOLA, RoDOLrH, whose real 
name was Hoessman, was bom, in 144S, 
near Groningen, studied under Thomas a 
Kempis, travelled into Italy, and acquired 
such a mastery of lang u a g es, literature, and 
the elegant arts, as was veiy uneomtoou hi 
that age. He retmrned in 1477, became 
professor at Heidelberg, and co nt rib ut e d 
greatly to spread chMsieal taste and knowl- 
throughout Germany. He died in 

AGRIPFA, MxH Esrius, i 
in the year of Rome 261, is celektated for 
having defeated the Sabines, and still more 
for having, by means of the itwenious apol- 
osue of the belW and the members, appeas- 
ed the anger of the Plebeians, who, indig- 
nant at tM tyrann y of the Patricians, hsd 
withdrawn to the Mons Saoer. 

man general, the friend of Augustus, was 
bora in the year of Rome 600. He feught, 
with ffreat valour, at Actium and Philippi. 
and oBtaued several victorfes in Gaul stnd 
Germany, for which he refiised the hoaoun 
of a triumph. Rome was embellished by 
him with magnifieent edifices, one of whicht 
the Pantheon, is still an object of admira- 
tion. He married first the niece, and af- 
terwards the daughter, of Augustm; and 
died, universally mmented, in me fifty-first 
year of his age. 

man of extraordinary abilities, bora ai 
Cologne, in 1486, Was, by turns, a soldier, 
phikwoj^ier, physician, chemist, lawyer, 
and writer, and m all these discordant char- 
acters displayed eminent talent. So su- 
perior in knowledge was he to his contem- 
poraries, that he was believed to be a ma* 
^cian, and to be accompanied bv a femil- 
mr spirit in the ehape of a black clog. Yet» 
notwithstanding his intellectnal superiority, 
he lived an unquiet, embarraased, wander^ . 
ing life, often persecuted, and often involv- 
ed in quarrds, and is said to have at leacth 
died in a hosMtal at Grenoble, in 1686. 
The most celebrated of his works are his 
Vanity of the Scienoea; and his Oeeidt 

AGUE88EAU, HsirmT Frahgis d', a 
natieeofLiawget, bora in 1668, was a sob 

of the iBteudaot of Langnedoe, and early 
disHnguifhed himaelf at the bar by his eb« 
qneooeaad legal knowfedge. After hap* 
ing, with honour to htflMelf, aud great ad. 
vantage to the iaterests of jnscioe, filled the 
oflices of advocate and prooorator g^sral, 
he waa raised, in 1717, te be chanoeikr. 

Trim iuA ofioe he was twiee renoTod, 
and was even exiled, but wu finally re- 
■tored in 1787, and held the teals ttU his 
death, which took place in 17A1. It was 
said of d*Agues8eau, tliat b« thought like 
a philosopher, and spoke like an orator. 
His forensic and other works form 18 toIs. 

AHRENDT, an eminent anticuianr and 
paheographer, was n native of Holitein, 
and iourneved on foot through Norway, 
Bweclen, Denmark, France, Spain, and 
Italy, to study Scandinavian and Runic 
remains, and the alphabets of the ninth, 
tench, and eleventh centuries. He was con- 
tinually travelling, and the singularity of 
uis manners and appearance involved him 
in several unpleasant adventures. He died 
in 1824, as he was returning fix>m Italy. 

AIGNAN, Stephen, a member or the 
French Academy, was born, in 1778, at 
Beau^ncv sur Loire. He adopted the 
principles of the revolution, and when only 
nineteen, held a legal situation in the dis- 
trict of Orleans. Subsequently he filled 
various offices under Napoleon. He died 
in 1824. He is the author of several dra- 
mas and poems, and of a verse translation 
of the Iliad, which ynm severely handled 
by die critics. He also translated the Vi- 
car of Wakefield, and other workii from 
the English. 

AIKIN, JoHV, M . D. (the brother of 
Mrs. Bariwnld) was bom at Kibworth, in 
Lancashire, in 1747, educated at Warring- 
ton and Edinburgh, and took his degree at 
Leyden, in 1784. He first settled as a sur- 
geon at Chester, whence he removed Co 
Warrington. It was at the latter place 
that he commenced his career as an author, 
by pdblishin|, in conivnction with his sister, 
a volume of Miscellanies. After having 
taken hw dcfnee, he fiiusd his residence at 
YarmooCh, where he remained for some 
Mrs. He then removed^ to the metropo- 
bs, in which, or its vicinity, be continued 
nil liif. decease. He died in December, 
1812, at^^MM Newington. Dr. Aikin 
was a maiiof^^^>ti<Mi ^"^ *n elmnt 

• Miriiml lli«g.4p^^and ocfaer original 


wonui, he edited the first twenty vohmhji 
of the Monthly Magazine ; the Athenenm ; 
and various editions of poets; and vnu 
one of the writers of a Ueneral Biogn^ 
phical Dictionary, in 10 volumes 4to. 

AIRMAN, William, a Scotch painter, 
bom in 1682, was origiiwUy intended for 
the law, but was allowed to follow th« 
bent of his inclination for painting. After 
having travelled in Italy, Turkey, and the 
Levant, he returned faiome in 1712, was 
patronised by the Duke of Argyle and 
Lord Burlington, and became fiiuiionable 
as a delineator of portraits. He died in 
1781. Aikman was the fiiend of Allan 
Ramsay and of Thomson, the latter of 
whom he assisted with his interest; and 
Thomson, in return, bewailed the artist's 
death in an elegy which contains soase 
lines of exquisite pathos. 

AITON, William, an eminent gar- 
dener and botanisC, was bora, in 1781, 
near Hamilton, in Lanarkshire. The cel- 
ebrated Millar obtained him a place in one 
of the royal gardens, and in 1768 be vms 
appointed botanical superintendent at Kew. 
In 1789, he published, in 8 volumes 8vo., 
his Hortus Kewensis. He died in 1788. 

AINSWORTH, Robert, a gramma- 
rian, bora in 1860, at Woodyale, in Lan- 
cashire, kept a boarding school at Bolton, 
and at various villages in the neighbour- 
hood of London. His exertions bemg 
rewarded by a competency, he retired from 
business, and amused his leisure by col- 
lecting old coins and curiosities at brokers* 
and other shops. Ainsworth was a FeUow 
of the Antiquarian Society, and published 
some tracts on antiquities ; but his princi- 
pal and most useful work is his Latin and 
English Dictionary, which has passed 
through numerous editions. He died in 

AKBAR, Mohahmkd, one of the 
ffreatest of tlw Mogul sovereigns, was only 
fourteen years of age when, in I5ft5, hs 
succeeded his father Humaoon.' The total 
defeat of the Patans, in the following year, 
was one of the first events that signsJised 
his reign. He held the throne for fifty 
jrears, during a considerable part of whicli 
time he had to contend against insurrec- 
tions and fofreig^n enemies. His arms 
were successful in all quarters. Akbar 
was valiant, generous, and the firiend and 
liberal patron of IsAving; he displayed a 
clemency uncommon in an oriental mon- 
arch; and a freedom firom bi«»try which 
was equally surprising in a Mussu 
He died in 1606, and his death 
or accelerated, by grief fiir the loss of a 
fitvourile son. 

AKENSIDE, Mark, bora, in 1721, at 
Newcastle upon Tyne, vras the son of a 
respectable butcher, who sent him to study 
divmity at Edinburgh, to qualify him foir 

fiag kowtiftTt the ned 

medical profeition, be 

HUM to Lejrdea, where, in 1744, he took 
ks doctor*! degree. In that year he pob- 
Lehed the Pleaaures of Imagination, for 
wfai^ Pope is said to have aaviaed Dods- 
Icy not to make a niggardly ofier, as the 
ambor was no every-day writer. His 
Epietle to Corio (Palteney),and ten Odes, 
appeared in the following year. He first 
settled as a physician at Northampton; 
but, being nnsoccessfiil there, be removed 
first to Hampstead, and next to London ; 
his friead Mr. Dyson generously allowing 
him three hundred pounds a year, to ena- 
ble him to make the necessary appearance. 
*^__i _« •^jrose in reputation, and would, 
i succeeded to the fiiH extent 
I, had he not been carried 
off by a putrid fever in 1730. Akenside 
was a learaed man, and an advocate for 
eivil and religious Uberty; but he is accu- 
sed of having been vain and irritable,— « 
diarge whidi has often been brought 
agaiatt men of genius, conscious of their 
own worth, and repelling the insolence of 
dunces. His Pleasures of Imagination 
will be read as lon^ as the English fain- 
gnage endures; it w a poem which ckthes 
fcfty tf 


restoration of the Medici. Francis I. of 
France gave him an asyhim, and even ap« 
pointed him his ambassador to Charles V. 
after the peace of Crepy. Alamanni had 
previously addressed Francis in a poem, 
in which, alluding to the imperial eagle, 
he said. 

'rapacious eagle he. 

me ami to maw 
Gradually he rofl 
perhaps, have si 
of his wishes. 

Two beaks who bears, that nM>r« he may 

In his speech, on hein^ presented, he com- 
menced several of his nuriods with the 
word Eagle, on which Charles repeated 
aloud the above cited verses. Alamanni, 
however, without hesitation, made such a 
reply as won for him the esteem of Charles. 
He died, at Amboise, in 1566. Of his nu- 
merous works, among which are two heroic 
poems, each in twenty-four books (Giroa 
the Courteous and the Avarchide), his di- 
dactic poem on . Agriculture ir the most 

ALAND, Sir John Fortk8ci7K, an 
eminent lawyer, was bom in 1670, and 
educated at Oxford. In 1714 ne was ap- 
pointed solicitor general to the prince of 
Wales, and, the next year, to the king. 
He was successively a judge in the ex- 
hequer, the king's bench, and t 

lofty thoughts in highly poetical diction, 
ana masterly blank verse. Hit Odes, 

thoogh not equal to his great work, have 
been vnjostly depreciated by Johnson. It 
is amiecessary to say any thing of his pro- 
fessional proanctions. 
AKER^LAD, a Swedish ohifehMrist, 


, the< 
pleas. In 1746, he resigned his office in 
the common pleas, and was created an 
Irish peer, under the title of Lord For- 
tMcue. He died soon after. He was the 
friend of Pope, to whom he furnished the 
tolesqne case of Stradling versus Styles. 
His nose, which was remarkable for its flat- 
ness, drew down on him a repartee firom 
a one-armed sergeant. « You argue this 
matter rather lamely** said Aland. " I 
will make it ta plain as the nose on your 
lordship's fece," retorted the counsel. 

ALARIC I., king of the Visigoths, de 
scended from the noble femily of the Bahi, 
served for some years in the Roman ar- 
mies, but, in consequence of being refiised 
preferment, he revolted a. d. 896, and 
•ravaged. Pannonia, Dacia, and Greece. 
After a short pause from hostilities, he in- 
vaded Italy in the year 400, and carri«Hl 
off an immense spoil and many captives. 
This predatory incursion he severef times 
renewed, and, thousfh more than once de- 
feated, he at length, in 410, compelled Rome 
to open its gates. He died in the following 
}iear, while he was mediuting the oonqmwt 
of Sicily and Africa. 

ALBANO, Francis, denominated the 
painter of the Graces, and the Anacreon 
of oainting, was bom, at Bok>gna, in 1578, 
and was a pupil <ii Calvart and the Ca- 
racci. Guido was his fellow student, and 
aided him by his counsels. Albano excels 
in the delineation of female and iofiuitine 
beauty ; in every thina that requires soft- 
ness and elegance. '^ " ~ 

lina that reqoir* 
The landscape 

WIvKwtHW li aln ateifalilk B«di«d{ 

AUBRONI, JoLiUf , CMrdinal, a great 
though not fertonate itateunan, was the 
•on of a gardenar, and waa born, in 1664, 
at Firensnola, a Tillase in the Parmesan. 
He had risen in the cnnrch to the dignity 
of canon, when he became known to the 
duke of Vendune, the French general, who 
was ftmck with his manners and conver- 
sation, made him his secretary, 'and took 
him to the army in Spain, where he em- 
ployed him in Tarioos secret missions for 
the senrioe of Philip V. The duke of 
Parma afterwards appointed him his polit- 
ical agent at Madrid. While fillimr that 
post, he aoouired the confidence of rhilip, 
and succeeded in bringing about a marriage 
between that monarch and the princess of 
Parma. Hii subsequent rise was rapid. 
He was made archbishop of Valencia, car- 
dinal, and*prime miniater. Ambitious of 
restoring Spain to her JMristine glory, he 
iatroduMd man^ domestic reforms, in- 
creased and re-mspirited the naval and 
military force, planned confederacies with 
other powers, wrested Sardinia from the 
emperor, invaded Sicilv, and protected the 
detaroninff of George i., ana the expul- 
sion of Uie duke of Orleans from the 

French regency. Th^ union of En^hind 
and France, and the invasion of Spam by 
the latter in 1726, compelled his sofereign 
to dismiss him, as the price of peace. iU- 
beroni retired to Italy, where Be was per- 
secuted ior three years, and even imprison- 
ed ; but he at leittth recovered his liberty 
and his clerical dignities, and was more 
than onee near being elevated to the papal 
throne. He died in 1762. Shallow rier- 
soBs have laughed at the prqjectsof Aloer- 
oni; but those projects ixwld have been 
conceived smh fa^ a man of genius, would 
have raised fiqMiin in tbeeyesof the world, 
and were frustrated by circumstances which 
cottlo neither be fo r ese e n nor controlled. 

Baftist, an eminent writer, painter, sculp- 
tor, and architect, denominated the Floren- 
tine Vitruviua, sprung ftxMn one of the oldest 
families of Florance, was bom in that city,i 
in 1S98 or 1400, took, orders, and becaaie 
a canon and abbot. Atthe am of twenty 
he wrote a Latin comedy, which was at 
first believed to be the work of Lepidus, 

But, thottffh his abil- 
ities as a writer, painter, ana acubtor, 
wars great* he is pnacipsBy indebtea for 
his foiue te his architect ur al talents, of 
which naay striking, proofii remain at Fk>- 
rence, Rome, Mantua, and Rimini. He 
died in 1480. Alberti was an iadefotiga- 
liafale, geoeroos, and entiray 

ALBERTI, AmiSTOTLK, a BofegnJan 
awhitact and engineer, of thsfiftespthcen- 


t«7^ -iHin is wM ta hata. ii— y i rf 
the tower of St. Mary, with afl Its 
to a distance of thirty paces, and set upright 
another which leanea five feet. For bia 
services in Hunaary he was knighted, aoNcI 
had the extraoroinary privilege of ooiaunf 
money In his own name. 

ALBERTINELLI, Maviotto, aoefe- 
brated Floreatine painter, died in 1920, au 
the age of forty-five. He wasa feUowpo- 
pil, and in close friendship, with Baccao 
della Porta, and so identical was their 
st^le^ that Baccio bavina left unfinished 
his picture of the Last Ju^^ment, his firiead 
completed it in such a manner that it 
seeined to be enttrelv by one hand. Al* 
bertinelli was of a changefol disposition, 
and was too much addicted to pleasure. 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, nSoseepitfaet 
of great was given him for his extraordi- 
nary acquirements, was of a noble family, 
was bom at Lauingen, in Swabia, either 
in 1103 or 1206, and studied at Pavia. 
After entering the Dominicans, lie lectured 
on the philos^y of Aristotle with unpre- 
cedented success, was made, in 1264, pro- 
vincial of his order in Germany, and set- 
tled at Cologne, where he died in 1280. 
Albertus constructed an automaton, said to 
be capable of movina and jpeakina, which 
was destroved by his disciple Thomas 
Aquinas, who imagined it to be a work of 
the devil; and he peHormed many curious 
experiments, which in that age of dark- 
ness were attributed to magic. His phi- 
losophical and other compositions mive 
been collected in 21 folio volumes { many 
of the pieces in this enormous mass are, 
however, erroneously ascribed to him. 

ALBINOVANUS, C. Pedo, a Latin 
poet, a friend of Ovid, by whom« and bv 
Martial and Seneca, he is highly praiseo. 
He composed eleaies, epigrams, and other' 
poems ; but nearly the wmde of his wofks 
are lost. Of the two degies that reBBaia* 
there is a tame English translation. 
^ ALBINUS, Bernard, a German phy- 
sician, whose real aame was Weiss, waa 
bom at Dessau, la 1668, and, after stody^ 
ing at Levden, where he took his decree* 
and traveiKna through France and Flan- 
ders, was made profeMor at Frankfort e« 
the Oder, and afterwards phvsiciau to the 
elector of Brandenburg, who heaped weakh 
and honours on him. In 1702 at becaaM 
professor at Leyden, where he died ia 1721. 
His medical works are numerous, and were 
much esteemed. Albinus had the merit of 
resigning a rich sinecure eanooshipyibe* 
cause it so increased his fbrtaae, uat he 
feared dissatisfoction and envy might be 
excited among the members of his profo^ 

ALBINUS, Bervard Siofribd, b 
SOB of the preceding, was boin at Frank- 
fort on the Oder, in 1697, and died at 


LiyiiaB, b 178t. EAMtoda^neiK/ 
fmt aQMomical knowledfe, he became 
OM cf the BKMt eminent enntomigtir cvf the 
afc; •nd when only twenty-two, he 
•ppoiated profiMsor at Ley den. ^ Amonf 
has exceHent worke may bt disthtfoiiiiea 
his Hieco^ of the Bones, and his History 
of the Muacks. His brother, CHRtSTiAH 
Bkbii AKD, was also eminent in the same 

ALB1ZZI» Bartbolomzw, known 
also as Bartholomew of Pisa, was a Pran- 
93Man monk, horn in the fourteenth ceoto- 
ry . and is Indebted for a sooiewfaat sinister 
celebrity to his absurd volnme on The Con- 
fermities of St. Francis with Jsinis Christ, 
in which he places the actions of his fa- 
vourite saint on an eqpiality with those of 
the Saviour. As a testimony of their ap- 
probation, the order made him a present 
of the dress worn by St.. Francb when 
•Uve. Albbsi died in 1401. HUvohmie 
is rardy to be fband unmotilated. 

ALBVQUEBCIUE, Alfhokso o% de- 
uomumxmu the Great, and the Portugoese 
Mars, was bom at Lisbon, in 1492, of a 
frmily which drew Its origin from the kin^ 
cf PortnfaL HaTinf ^ previously, by his 



eoldlf Ttoehred, tnd aed toon aftir if 

, twice acquired honour on the H 
qoB eoast, and in India, he was. 

1508, appointed viceroyof the settlements 
in the latter countryr with a very inade- 
quate Ibrce he reduced 6oa, Malacca, Or- 
mns, and various other places, and raised 
dm PorlUfuese oriental empire to a heiffht 
ef power which it had never attained oe- 
fiwe. In spite, hewever, of his splendid 
services, he was dooaied to experience the 
proverbial ingratitnde of monarchs. Lopez 
Boarea, his personal enemy, was appointed 
to rmlace him, and this disgrace, which he 
keenty felt, seems to have agmvated a dis- 
order under which he was labouring, and 
thus to have hastened his death. He died 
at Goa in 1515, and ''his last sighs re- 
proached the faith of kings." Emanuel. 
* n too late, bitterly regpetted the loss of 
I a 'feervant, and, as a proof of his re- 
aace, lavished &voura on Blaise, the 
sou of Alphoneo, and made him %isumehis 
Cither's cnristian name. Blaise published 
Memoirs of his ilhistrions paf^t. 

ALBUaUERQUE, Matthias d*, a 
Portuguese general, wa« sent to Brazil in 
1638, and suoeessfeUy defended the prov- 
fame of Pemambuooagainat the Dutch, but 
was reeaBed in 1685. He embraced the 
party of Bragansa, was made commander 
cf ne amy m 164^, obtained various ad- 
vaata^, and, the next year, sained the 
decisive victory of Campo Blayor, for 
which he was created count of Alegrete. 
and a grandee of Portugal. Bmng thwarted 
by his offcers in the ensuing eam^ign, he 
lupairad to eowt to make 

WARD !>*, marquis of Basto, a nMive of 
Portugal, fought with ^njkt bravery against 
the Dutch in the Brariltan war, continned 
fiuthfbl to Spain afler Brazil was repo^ 
sessed by the Piortuguese, retired to Mad- 
rid, where he wrote a history of the con- 
test in the cobny, and died in 1068. 

ALCJSUS, a celebrated Greek lyric 
poet, who flourished about~600 years B. o 
At Mitylene, in the isle of Lesbos, was a 
contemporaiT of Sappho, of whom he is 
said to have been also a ngeeted lover. As 
a poet, he was worthy of the higbmt praise ; 
as a man, he had few claims to esteem. la 
a battle against the Athenians, he threw 
away his arms, and took 6if^; and, afler 
having brutally lampooned Fittaeus for per- 
sonal defects, and raised amnst him an 
insurrection, he was reduced to accept a 
pardon from him. Of hb vrorks, only a 
few fragments remain. He was the Inveot* 
or of the Alcaic measure. 

pK, a Spaniard, bom in 1699, who settled 
at Lisbon, where he died in f66t, was bj 
profession a merchant, but amused hmsor 
with literature. He is the author of a 
work intitled Viridiarura AaagramaMtt- 
cum, and of five Tales, in the latter of 
whidi productions he has displayed much • 
perverse ingenuity, each tale having one of 
the five vowels wnolly excluded frmn it. 

ALCAMENES, a statuary,. the ^wpil 
and rival of Phidias, was a native of Ath- 
ens. His most celebrated vrorks were, a 
Venus Aphrodite, a Juno, a Vulcan, awl 
the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapith0,oB 
the pediment of the temple of Jupiter Oiym- 

ALCAZARA, Bartbolovsw ds, a 
Spanish poet, bom at Seville, iras a con- 
temporary of Cervantes. He particularly 
excelled in epigrams. His compositloaf 
of that kind were collected, in 1005, by 
Peter Espinosa, in his Flowers of Ilnstn- 
oos Poets. 

ALCIATI, Ahdrxw, an eminent eivit 
ian, was bom at Milan in 1492. So evly 
did he acquirea consummate knowledge of 
jurisprudence, that at the age of fifteen he 
wrote a work of great merit on the si^ 
ject. He was appointed law professor at 
Avignon, and afterwards at Milan, in which 
city jealousy of his success excited sueh a 
host of persecuting enemies that he was 
obliged to take refiige in France, where 
Francis I. gave him Uw professional ehak 

at Bourges. Akiati, h ^ 

called to his oountry by Francis Sferaa. 
He sneeenively taught at Pavia, Bokgna* 
* -"errara, anddled at Favia fai lOiO. 
IS greedy of mmwy. and wae emaal^ 

and F< 

Digitized by 


n ALO 

Wntdf M ^99^ WMT* Hli 

OQctioM, ui law mad Uteratore, octnpjtaar 
folio Tolnaei in the laat aditaoa. 

ALCIBIADES, a fiuaout Atbeaian m- 
Boral and gtatesman, born B. c. 460, the 
«0B of Clinias, and of Dionomache, the 
•ister of Pericleiu was a disciple of Soc- 
ratef. In 416 he was charged with the 
expedition to Sicily, of the conqoest of 
•vfaich iaand he was himself the adviser. 
Being accused of impiety dnring his ab- 
sence, hb property was confiscated, and he 
wjm compelled to seek refuge at Sparta. 
de was subsequently obliged to .fiv from 

I to Tissabhernes, one of the rersian 
jatraps. In 407 he was recalled by his 
countrymen, and, under his command, they 
recoTcnd their ascendency over the Spar- 
lans. Having, however, again become an 
4^ect of popoiar displearare, he sooffht 
the protection of Phamabasus, another 
Persian satrap, bv whom, at the instig»- 
tioa of Lysander, he was pot to death 
the year 404. 

ALCIPHRON, a Greek wnter, of the 
third eentory a. c. His letters, which 
have been translated by Bebe and Monroe, 
give an excellent picture of Grecian cue- 
toms and manners. It has, however, been 
suspected that they are, in reality, a pro- 
duction of the fourth century of the Chris- 
tian era. 

ALCMAN, an ancient Greek lyric poet, 
was bom ai Sardb, in Lydia, about the 
year 670 B. c, and was admitted a citiien 
of Sparta.' Of his works, consisting of a 
drama, and six books of verses in the 
Doric dialect, only a few lines are preserv- 
ed. He died of tne morbus pediculoeus. 

ALCOCK, JoHir, an English prelate, 
bom at Beverley, in Yorkshire, ana educa- 
ted at Cambridge. He obuined a deanery 
in 1461, aad rapidly rose to the highest 
oflkes in church and state. He was bish- 
op of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely, and 
twice lord chancellor; vras a man of infi- 
aite liberality and learning, and an ex* 
cellent architect. Jesus College, Cam- 
bridse, and a grammar school and chapel 
at HuU, vrere founded b^ him ; and he 
erected various elegant edifices. He died 
in 1500. Akock wrote several theological 
works, and was famous for preaching long 

ALCUm, or ALCUINUS, Flaccus 
Albirus, a native of Yorkshire, one of 
the most learned men of his age, at once 
a theologian, philosopher, orator, historian, 
poet, mathematician, and linguist, was sent 
on an embassy from 0(& to Charlemagne, 
who took him into his service and firiend- 
ship, and rewarded him munificently. Al- 
cuin was employed by that sovereign in 
■effotiations, and in disseminating know- 
laoga, and foundad many schools \t Paris, 


Ak k GhapaOa, and o^MT plMii. Ifo 

died ia 804, aged nearly seventy. 

ALDERETT, Dieqo Graciah DE,a 
learned Spaniard, bora towards the clone 
of the fifteenth century, died, aged nearly 
ninety, under the reign of PhiUp U., to 
whom, as well as to Charles V., he was 
private secretary. He was a good man. 
in great credit with his sovereiffot, ana 
muca respected at court. Spanisn litera- 

ture is indebted to him for elesant trans* 
lations of Xenopbon, TlmcyaidM, and 
other Greek writers. 

ALDHELM, or ADELM, St., an emi. 
nent scholar of thjs seventh century, rela- 
ted to king Ina, was bora at Mahnesbory, 
where he built a stately monastery, of 
which he was abbot more than thirty years. 
In 706 he was consecrated bishop oTSher* 
bume, and died in 709. He was a man of 
extensive leaning, the first Saxon who 
wrote proea and verse in Latin, was skilled 
in music and mathematics, and was de- 
clared by king Alfi^ to be the best of all 
the Saxon poets. 

ALDRICH, Hkrrt, a learned divine, 
bora at London in 1647, was educated at 
Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, 
and became D. D. in 1681. As a contro- 
versialist against the catholics, he so dis- 
tinguished nimself that, at the Revolution, 
he was refv-arded with the deanery of Chriat 
Qiurch. In that station his conduct' waa 
exemplary. In 1702 he was chosen prolo- 
cutor of the Convocation. He was one of 
the joint editors of darendon's History 
He died in 1710. Aldrich ^ps a good 
Latin poet, was skilled in musical compo- 
sition, and has left striking prooft of archi- 
tectural talent in his designs of Peckwater 
Square, All Saint's Church, and Trinity 
CoUege Chapel. 

ALDRQVANDUS, Ultssks, a natu- 
ralist, bora in 1627, at Bologna, in which 
city be became p^fessor of philosophy and 
physic He spent nearly his wnole life 
and fortune in collecting materials for his 
Natural History, in 13 vols, folio, of which, 
however, only four were published by him- 
self. It is said that he died mot and 
blind, b 1606, at a hospital in Bologin ; 
but the trathjof this is now doubted. The 
senate of his native city subsequently voted 
a considerable sum to continue the publi- 
cation of his work. 

ALDRUDE, countess of Bertlnoro, a 
native of Italy, renderMl herself celebrated 
towards the end of the twelfth century by 
her eloquence and her courage. She was 
Idft a widow in the bloom of youth, and 
her court became the resort of aU the 
Italian chivalry. Ancona was besieged by 
the imperial troops, and was redneed to 
extremity. Aldrude, however, harangued 
bar courtier knights, led them to the rallef 

Digitized by 


if lit 

ALEMAN, Matthsw, a mtiTeoTSo- 
vOle, WM barn about the middle of the 
■xteeatll eemOMTj, and was one of the ni- 
periaicodaats and comptroUen of the 

I to Philip II. 

He is 

the author of 

lereral works, but his fiu&e rests vpon his 
Life of Gusmau d'AI&rache, which has 
been transkued into several fauiguages. 

ALKMBERT, John le Roicd d% born 
at Paris in 1717, was the natural ion of 
M Deloaehfs and the celebrated Madame 
de Tenein. He was left on the steps of a 
dnrdi by his unworthy parents, and was 
so weak that, instead of 8endin|( hiAn to the 
Fonadling Honital, the cMnmissary of po- 
Doe intrusted nim to the care of a poor 
flksier's wife. Repenting of his barbarity, 
his £ither subsequently settled on him an 
aanoity of lifty jpounib. D'Alembert was 
bro u g ht up at Hazarin College, where he 
made surprising pr o gresB in mathematics. 
On his ouittiag tne college he went to re> 
side with his nurse, with whom he contina- 
ed for fiNty Tews, and loved her with filial 
afcction. He was admitted a member of 
die Academy of Sciences in 1741, and soon 
aequired a distinguished reputation by le- 
venJ matkematiod works. His merit at 
leqgth obtained for him a pension from 
^ goTenunent. He next cooperated with 
Diderot in compiling the Encyclopedia, 
for which he composed the preliminary 
discoorse. Nor was he only celebrated as 
a mathematician ; for he save to the world 
several valuable historical and philosophi- 
cal productions. Among them are the 
Ealofiea on the Members of the French 
AcaoaBiv, of which body he became secre- 
tan is 1772. Splendid offers were made 
to him by the empress Catherine and the 
Idag of Prussia, if he would quit his coun- 
try; but they were relived. D*Alembert 
died In 1783. 

------ at Pella, 

Philip of Maoedon, wa 
B. c 356, and very early gave indications 
ef that spirit. whidi bfaumd forth in his 
ipv fian. Laoaidas, LpmrndkoM, and 

Aiiitocfef ware his instmolort, but piiad 
pally the bst, who poorad forth to hii 

pupil all the treasures of a mighcj 

From Ljriimachus the youthAd here 

sd only ii^ury, his disposition being 

eager pup 
mind. Fi 

received * , , ^, 

corrupted bv the mercenary adulation o? 
his tutor. During the life of his fother, 
his midaunted courage was displayed on 
various occasions, particularly at Chero- 
n»a. Alexander ascended the throne in his 
twentieth jfAt, and immediately prepared 
to execute his fother^s projected invasion of 
Persia. It was previously neoesHuy, how- 
ever, to chastise the nei^bonring liarbari* 
ans, and to rivet the chains of the Greeks, 
and this he rapidly accomplished. Thebes, 
having revolted, was deetro^yed, with the 
exception of the houie of Pindar. At the 
head of nearly forty thousand men, Alex- 
ander now (a. c. S94) crossed the Helles- 
pont, defeated the forces of Darius on the 
danksof the Granicus, and b one cam- 
pai^, reduced Asia Minor. In the fol- 
lowmg year a dangerous illnem for a time 
urested his arms ; but, on his reoorery, he 
utterly routed the Persians, to the number 
of six himdred thousand men, at the battle 
of Issus, and took prisoners die whole 
family of Darius. He then subdued Tyrs, 
where he disgraced himself by his barba- 
rity; Eg^, where he ordered Alexandria 
to be built; and penetrated into Libya, 
where he caused the Ammonian oracle to 
declare him the son of Jupiter. Resuming, 
next year, hu operations against the Per- 
sian monarchy he completely defeated him 
at Arbehi, and this battle decided the fiite 
of Persia. Pausing awhile from conauest, 
he indulged in eruelty and debaucnery, 
burned Persepolis, to gratify the courtesan 
Thais, murdered his veteran general Par- 
menio, and shortlj^ after, in a nt of Intoxi- 
cation, stabbed his friend Clytus. Ilavinff 
put down some insurrections, he pOrsuea 
nis course to India, crossed theii^^, and, 
after many sanguinary contests ii^th Porus 
and other kings, he pushed forward beyond 
the Hydaspet, where, at length, his pro- 
gress was stopped, by the,^ retonl of Ma 
soldiart to advaaoa aqy purtkrr. On tki 

21 ALE 

liuika of dke Hydaipet be biult the dtlee 
of Nicsa and BuoiiiliaU, and tfaefi be^ 
nis retrograde moTement; diipat ch iny 
Nearchiu, with the fleet, down the Indne, 
to the Penian ffulf. After a toUsome 
mardi he reached Siua, whence he pro- 
ceeded to Ecbatana, and lastly, to Babprlon. 
In the latter city hia career waa cloeea. A 
fever, said to be caused, or aggravated, by 
excess of drhiking, carried him off, on the 
12th of April. B. c. 828, in the thirty- 
third year of his age, and the thirteenth 
cf his reisn. His remains were interred 
•t Alexandria. The praise of yalonr, mili- 
tary genius, extensive Tiews, a lore of 
learning, and, occasionally, noble feelings, 
■nst be awarded to Alexander; bnt his 
character is deeply stained with vanity, 
arrogance, and cruelty^ and with a reckless 
last of victorv, dommion, and £une, to 
gratify which tne blood and tears of millions 
of his fellow beings were unsparingly shed. 

ALEXAND^ SEVERUS, one of the 
best of the Roman emperors, was a native 
of Acra* in Phcenlcia, bom about a. d. 209, 
and was carefelly educated by his mother 
Manusa. Adopted by his cousin Helioga- 
balns, he soon, by his popularity, excited 
the hatred of that despicable betng, who 
made a fruitless attempt to poison him. 
When the tyrant was sbin by the m-etorian 
ffuards, they elevated Sevems in his stead. 
Though in a few instances he displayed 
weakness, the youthfel monarch aoom^ 
the throne by his virtues and his love of 
literature; but, in the year 285, he was un- 
fortunately murdered in a mutiny of the 
army, occasioned by his eflorts for the res- 
toration of discipline. 

ALEXANDER, Nstskoi, a Russian 
saint and hero, the son of the grand duke 
Jarosbtf, was bom in 1218. At the battle 
of the Neva, he was victorious over the 
combined Swedes, Danes, and Teutonic 
knights; he defeated the Tartan; and he 

gratitude enrolled him among the saints, 
and Peter the Great instituted an order of 
knighthood, which bears his name. 

ALEXANDER YL, Pops. This dis- 
graoe to the papal chair, whose femily 
name was Borgia, vvas bom at Valencia, 
im Spain, in 1481, and succeeded Pope 
Immcent Vm. in 1482^ His life was a 
•ades of crimes* Bv his concdbine Va- 
noaal, ne had fire diildren, worthy of such 
a fethff , and of these Cbsar^ the most in- 
fe■loas^wafhis fevoorite. In all his poli- 
tical cwmexTofti h<> was treacherous, be- 
yond the anal mtiMure of treachery in 
politioiaas. The pontifical claims to su- 
iNBaey kist nothing in his haacb* Itwas 
H wba divided between the SpaniaFda and 
|wit the rteantly discovered retins 


of America, by drawing a Ime final poll 
to pole, a hmktfed leagues to the vrestwar# 
of the Asores, and assigninr to the for- 
mer people all the realms to tne west of it, 
and to the latter, all those to the easC 
This hatefel pontiff died in the year 
1508; and is said to have fallen, by mia 
take, a victim to poison, which he and bin 
son Cesar had prepared for others. 

ALEXANDER, Polthistor, a pfaih» 
■opher, geographer, and historian, a nativ* 
of Phiygia, lived early in the first oentorj 
B. €., was made prisoner in the ware 
acainst Mithrioates, and wiM bought by 
CxNmelinf Lentubs, who confided to hiaa 
the education of hie children, and after- ' 
wards liberated him. He was burnt in hia 
house at Laurentum, and his wife destrcfed 
herself fi-om grief fee his loos. Forty-two 
works were written by hi% none of whieli 
are extant. 

ALEXANDER, Piiudomavtis, a 
celebrated impostor, was bora at AbonoCi" 
cIms, in Asia Minor, and flourished in the 
reign of Marcos Aurelius. By dint of 
boundless impudence, and such tricks Mev* 
ery slight-of-nand man can now excdl, ho 
contrived, for twenty years, to have iiMi^ 
merable devoted adinirers, and to raise aft 
enormous income from their ereddity. Ho 
died of an ulcer in his leg, at the age ef 
seventy years. 

ALEXANDER, Tralliarus, a na- 
tive of Tralles, in Asia Minor, was cd^* 
brated, as a philoaopher and aprofessor of 
the medical art, in the middle of the sixth 
century. Dr. Friend ref^ards him as ono 
of the best practiod physicians of antiqui- 
iv. He was among the first, perhaps tha 
first, who made a liberal internal use of 
preparations of iron. 

ALEXANDER, Sir Williah, ft 
Scotch poet and statesman, bora in 1660, 
was made a knicht, and gentleman usher 
to Prince Charfes, in 1»13 ; received a 
grant of Nova Scotia, in 1621; was ap* 
pointed secretary of state fi>r Scotland, in " 
1826; and, in Inland 1688, was cre- 
ated viscount and earl of Stirling. He 
died in 1640. His poems and traMdies 
have considerable merit, and were praised 
l^ contemporary poets, and also by ^Uddi- 
son. ^^ 

ALEXANDER, Nqxi., a learft^l Do. 
minican^ professor of theology, i 
of the Sorbonne, was bora at 
1689, and diod at Paris, in 17M$^after 
having been fe«> some years bHnd. He ia 
the author, among other woiks, of an Eo- 
olesiasticai History, in 96 vols. 8vo. and 
of a History of the Old Teotament ; the 
fi>rmer of vvhich, being fevourable to dio 
liberties of the Oiflioan chnreh, waa pro- 
scribed by Innocent XI. 

ALEitANDER I. empsrar of ] 
and king of Poland, waa oora, 


n ITTT.Md^oiitbeBvderof UifiuiMr* 
fa 1M]» Ve succeeded to tbe throne. lIU 

1605, hie attention wa« confined to hu own 
dominioBs ; bat, in that year, he coalesced 
with Aostria against Fiance. The coali- 
tion, howeTer, was broken, by tbe soccen 
of Napoleon at Aogterlits. In the follow- 
ing Tear, he joined with Pnmia ; but, in 
IWf , after having been defeated at Fried- 
land, he signed, at Tiliit, a peace with the 
French emperor, Terv looo after which he 
became one of his ckMest allies. The in- 
tenral between 1807 and 1812, was filled 
op with the seinre of Finland, and a war 
i^nst Tvrfcey. In tbe latter year hoetili- 
tMB were again commenced between France 
and Ramia, and were actively continued 
tin die downfid of Ntipoleon. During the 
campaigns of 1813 and 1814, Alexwder 
bore a share in the dangers of the field. 
Db the* oondnaioB of peace, he visited 
En^laBd. As the rewanl of his military 
asBMEtanoe, Poland was erected into a king- 
dom by the coimem of Vienna, and he 
was crowned in 1815. He died at Tagan- 
rok, in Novenoiber, 1825. His talents were 
above mediocrity ; and he did much to ame- 
liorate the ooaditioB of his subjects. 

ALEXANDER, William, a major- 
general in the American vm^, during the 
iwvolatsonaiy war, was bom in the ci^ of 
9 New-York, but pamed a portion of his 
life in New-Jerser. He acted an impor- 
tant part throu^^out the revolution, and 
distinguished himself particularly in the 
battles of Long Islaad, Gennantown, and 
Moonioatfa. He died at Afliaav, in 1788, 
at the age of fifty-seven years, leaving be- 
hind him .the reputation of a brave ol 
aad a learned man. 

ALEXANDRINI, Julius, a physii 
who died at Trent, in 1500, aged eighty- 
flv#, was the author of various medica 
worits, some of which are ia verse. He 
was the first who endeavoured to show the 
^connexion between tbe passions of the mind 
atod tbe diseases of the body. 

painter, known also -rndsr ue name of el 

SofdiSo dB Perada, beewa W wit deaf 
aad dumb, and the pupil of F^Tedn. He 
was bom at Madrid, in 1625, and, in spite 
of his natural defects, ao^ired considera- 
ble leputatioB, especially m portraits. His 
drawing and colouriM are good. Alexis 
died at Madrid, in ITUO. 

called fimn Farab, his birth place, but 
whose real name was Mohammed, was 
bora ia the tenth century. He studied at 
Bagdad, travelled through many countries, 
and became the most eminent of Arable 
philosophers. He is said to Imve spoken 
seventy langnaffes ; many of them, no doubt, 
only dialects. He died, in 960, at 

the sultan of whidi city was 
his (Nitron. Among his works are several 
treatises on Aristotte ; a Treatise on Mu- 
sic; and an Encyclopa»dia, the MS. ol 
which is in the library of the Eseurial. 

ALFIERI, ViCTOB, the most emineirt 
of Italian tragic poets, was bore at Asli, 
in Piedmont, in 1749. His femily was rich 
and noble. In his early youth be gave no 
promise of that talent which he finmly dis- 
played ; he learned little or nothiag, and 
tbe violence of hu temper was a bar to hb 
obtaining estcmn. At the age of sixteen, 
he became his own master, and the seven 
succeeding years were spent ia travelling, 
as fest as norses could carry him, over the 
greatest part of Europe, and in adventures 
which were marked onhf by dimipation and 
licentiousness. After his return to Turin, 

forth he continued constant to the Moses 
and to study; and the result was no less 
than femieen dramas in seven years, be- 
sides many compositions in verse and (ntise. 
He mastered Latin, French, and other lan- 
guages, of which tUl then he had been ut- 
terly i^pnorant; aad, even at the late age^f 
ferty-eigfat, he began Greek, and acquired 
such a knowledge of it as to translate sev- 
eral works. In France, where he next 
settled with the Fretender*s widow, the 
countess of Albany, whom he married, be 
composed five more tragedies. The (all of 
the throne, in 1792, drove him firom 
France; his property there was unjustly 
confiscated; and Almri ever after enter- 
tained a deadly hatred of that country. 
Worn out by his incessant literary labours, 
he died at Florence, in 1808, ana over his 
remains his widow erected a monument by 
Canova. In the following year came forth 
his posthumous works, in thirteen vol* 
two of which are occupied by his 

auto-biography. As a tragic writer. Alien 
has had many imitators in Italy, bat his 
throne is still unshared by any rival, no 
one has yet equalled him in aervwm dmr 

Digitized by 



logofty iajraadawofityle, (T mdwMlo-|feleDee0, wereaH known ^ bm^ At tbi 
•atioB otitrong pusioui nnd energetic age of twenty-one, he wrote hi^ Newtoni- 

aniam for the Ladies, intended to render 

ALFRED, justly denominated the 
Gkeat, the youngest son of Ethdwolf, 
was bom at Wantage, in Berkshire, in 
849, and succeeded to the English throne, 
in 871, on tlie death of Ethelred, the last 
sonrivor of his brother. From his acces- 
sion to the year 877, he was engafred in 
almost conUnual contesU with the Danes, 
who,atk»t, compelled biro to abandon the 
throne, and conceal himself, in disguise, in 
the cottage of one of his herdsmen. It was 
while be was thus concealed, that be was 
harshly^ reproved by his hostess, for having 
allowed some cakes to be burned, the bak- 
ing of which she had directed him to watch. 
He next retired, with a few followers, to 
the isle of Athelney, where he remained till 
be was called again into the field bv a vic- 
tory which the earl of Devonshire nad ob- 
tained over the enemy. Summoning round 
^im his nobles, be completely routed the 
Danes at Eddington, and recovered his 
throne. During a part of the remainder 
•f his reign, he had to contend against re- 
peated invasions, but was uniformly suc- 
cessful in repelling them. By sea and land 
be fought no less than fifty-six baules. 
As soon as he resumed his authority, he 
besan to cultivate the arts of peace. He 
reformed the laws; established trial by 
jury ; divided the country into shires and 
hundreds ; encouraged commerce and mar- 
itime discovery ; invited learned men from 
all ^uartecs ; endowed seminaries ; restor- 
ed, if not founded, the university of Oxford; 
and gave lustre to literature, in the eyes 
of the people, by himself composing and 
translating numerous works, on a varie^ 
of subjects. This exemplary sovereign 
died A. D. 900 (or 901), and was succeed- 
ed by his son, Edward the Elder. 

ALGAROTTI, Francis, an Italian 
Author, of multifitrious knowledge and tal- 
ent, was the son of a merchant, and was 
born at Venice, in 1712. The learned Ian 
, the elegant arte, and the 

the discoveries Tif Newton comprebensibk 
to the &ir sex. He was as much beloved 
for his manners and virtues as admired for 
his abilities. Frederick the Great made 
him his chamberlain, and gave him the title 
of count, the king of Poland appointed him 
a privy counsellor, and the Pope and many 
Italian princes highly distinguished him. 
He died at Pisa, in 1764. The first edi- 
tion of his works u in four volumes 8^o, 

ALHAZEN, an Arabian astronomer, ot 
the tenth and eleventh centuries, was a na- 
tive of Bassora. Havinj^ vaunted that ha 
could render regular the inundations of the 
Nile, the caliph Hakem employed him to 
accomplish tiiat purpose, and rewarded 
him beforehand. Albazen, however, Hav- 
ing examined the coarse of the river, iis- 
covered the folly of his scheme, and feigned 
madness to avert the wrath of the caJipb. 
He died at Cairo, in 1038. His Treatise 
on Optics has been translated by Rismer, 
and tnat on Twili^t by Gerard of Crenio« 
na. Kepler is said to have taken many 
ideas firom the latter work. 

ALI, the cousin, son-in-law, and last 
friend, of Mahomet, distinguished himself 
so greatly, hj his activity and valour in 
the service ot that impostor, that he gave 
him his daughter in marriage. Af^er the 
death of the pseudo-prophet, Ali was ex- 
cluded from the caliphate, by the intrigues 
of Ayesha. He succeeded to it, however, 
in 666, on the death of Olhman ; but his 
reign was a perpetual struggle against his 
enemies in the neld ; and at the end of four 
years he was assassinated. By the Per- 
sians, who venerate him as a martyr, he is 
considered as the only successor of Ma- 
homet, for vrhidi the Turks detest them as 
heretics. Ali had a well informed mind, 
and viras brave, generous, and a hater of 

ALI BEY, bom in the neiglibourhooA 
of the Caucasus, about 1728, was sold int^ 
Egypt, at the age of twelve or fourteen 
years, as a slave ; became one of the twen- 
ty-four beys who governed that country; 
and, in 1766, attained the supreme power, 
and threw off his obedience to the Porte. 
In conjunction with Shidc Daher, who had 
also revolted in Syria, he several times de- 
feated the Turkish armies ; but, at length, 
he was overthrown, by the treason of one 
of his own generals, and was either pois- 
oned or died of his vraunds. Amon^ other 
plans, formed durins his success. All med- 
itated the revival of the ancient mode of 
carrying on the commerce of Europe with 
India, by way of the Red Sea. 

ALI,TKPELiifi, Pacha of Jannina. This 
extraordinary ,man vras descended firom 

Digitized by 


Albaaian fiuDitf , and w»a 
•on St Tepetiiii, in ADwiita, in 1744. He 

lost his fiitber when he was only sixteen,' 
And made brave but frniiloss efforts to de- 
fend his patcrmd inheritance against the 
neighbooring pachas. After having sus- 
tained KveTal defeats, he was taken pris- 
oner; bat, at length, recovered his libert]^, 
and withdrew into a solitary retreat. This 
latter circnmstance is said to have led to 
his subsequent greatness. While, lost in 
reverie, be was one day involtmtarify posh- 
ing a stick backward and forward in the 
■and, his attention was roosed by the stick 
meetioe with resistance from a solid body. 
He looked, and saw in the sand a box, 
which proved to be filled with gold. With 
this treasure he was enabled to raise two 
thooHuid men, and take the field against 
hts enemies. He vras victorious, ai^ en^ 
tttnd triamphaatly into his native place. 
From that period, daring 6hv years of 
eoastant wamre, he was oniformly snc- 
oessial, and be broogfat under his sway a 
wide extent of territory, which the Porte 
aanctioiied his holding, with the title of 
pacha. He received asents from forei^ 
powers, and alternate^ intrigued with 
England, France, and BLiissia. At length, 
in the spring of 1820, be threw off the 
mask, and dechovd himself king of Epi- 
Tus. After a brief straggle, however, he 
was deserted by the majority of his troops, 
and even by bis sons, and was compelled 
to take rerage in a Ibrt, which he baa con- 
structed in an island of the lake of Jaanina. 
From that retreat he was at last decoyed, 
by the Turitish seneral, under pretence 
that the Forte had pardoned him, and he 
was then assassinated; but not till he had 
daia two of his assailants, and dangeroosly 
wvnaded a third. He perished on the 5th 
of Febmary, 1822. 'AU was brave, intel- 
ligent, and active ; bat sanguinary and per- 
Mloos in the highest degree. 

ALKMAAR, Hekrt of, whose real 

naiBe is believed to be Nicholas Bauman. 

and who flourished towards the latter end 

-i«f tbi fifteenth eentury, is the anthor of 


tlie popular German satire of I^ynund tha 
Fox, which Goethe has deemed worthv of 
being modernized, and paraphrased in 
hexameters It has been translated into 
several langoages. Bauman is said to have 
been an East Frieslander, and a civilian, 
and to have died in 1501. 


ALLEN, Ethan, a brigadier genera] 
in the revolutionary army, was bom in 
Saiisburv, Connecticut, but was educated 
principally in Vermont. In 1776, soon 
after tne Imttle of Lexington, be collected a 
body of about three hundred Green Moun- 
tain boys, as th^ were called, and march- 
ed against the fortresses of Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point; and in each of these 
enterprises he was soccessftd. He was 
shortly after taken prisoner and sent to 
Englamd ; of the events of his captivity he 
has himself given an interesting narrative. 
On release ft-om his confinement he repaii^ 
to the head quarters of §[<eneral Washing- 
ton, where he was received with mucn 
respect. As his health was much injured, 
he returned to Vermont, after having made 
an offer of his services to the commander 
in chief in case of his recotery. He died 
suddenly at Colchester, in 1789. Among 
other publications Allen was the author of 
a work entitled Allen's Theolocy, or the 
Oracles of Reason, the first formal at- 
tack upon the Christian religion issued in 
the United States. He was a roan of an 
exceedingly strong mind, bat entirely roogh 
and uneducated. 

ALLEN, or ALLEYN, Thomas, an 
eminent mathematician, was bom, in 1642, 
at Uttoxeter, in Staffordshire, and educat- 
ed nt Oxford. Sddon and Camden speak 
in the highest terms of his extensive know- 
ledge. Sudi was his mathematical skill, 
that the vulgar regarded him as a magician 
His acquaintance was courted by the great, 
and the earl of Leicester, who always con- 
sulted him on important aflbirs, offered 
him a bishopric, but his love of study and 
retirement induced him to decline the 
tempting' offer. He died in 1682. He 
pubiishMl, in Latin, the Second and Third 
Books of Ptolemy on the Stars, with an 

ALLEYN, Edward, a celebrated ac^ 
or, was bom in London, in 1506, and, after 
having acquired both popularity and riches, 
became proprietor of the Fortune play- 
house, and joim proprietor of the Royal 
Bear Garden, by which his fortune was 
still fiurther increased. Fhe wealth thus 
obtained, he nobly devoted to the founda- 
tion of Dulwich College, which was com- 
pleted in 1617, and in which he and his 
wife resided till their decease. He died in 
1626. Vulgar credulity long believed, thai 
the charitable ADern was induced to found 

N Digitized by 


il AM 

Uuf eoBMS ia cwieqoeniTa of hk lwy|M[ 
Iwen terrraed by the appearanoe of a real 
JemoD, while he waa pUying the part of 


AIXIONI. Chaklks, a PiedmonteM 
phyticaan and botaniit, was bom io 1726, 
and died in 1804, a man of extensive 
knowledge, aad a member of many learned 
societies His works, chiefly botanical, 
are numeroos, but the most prominent of 
them if his Piedmontese Fk»ra, m three 
folio volumes, with plates. His name was 
given, by Leoffling, to a fenos of plants. 

ALMAGRO, DiKOO d^, one of the Spa- 
nish conquerors of America, bora about 
the year 1468, is believed to have been a 
foundling. Tliougfa an uned uc a t ed man, 
he rose in the military service, acquired 
wealth and influence at Panama, and, in< 
ooDJunction with Piiarro, conquered the 
empire of Peru. A conteat for supremacy 
soon, howevw, took place between him 
and Piiarro, which ended in his down^. 
He was strangled in prison, in 1688. His 
•on. Die GO, avenged his fiuher*s death, by 
the assassination of Pixarro, but was ulti- 
mately overcome, in 1542, and beheaded 
by Castro da Vaca. 

ALMODOVAR, the duke of, a native 
of Spain, was successively ambassador to 
the courts of Russia, Portugal, and Enff- 
land. On bis retirement inm public lira, 
he devoted himself to the cultivation of 
literature. He puUished, at Madrid, a 
species of literary journal, and translated 
Raynal's history of the Indies. He died, 
at Madrid, in 179C 

ALMON, JoHir, bom at Liverpool, in 
1788, served his apprenticeship to a book- 
seller, went to sea, and, lastly, settled in 
London, in 1759, and became a political 
writer, and afterwards a bookseller. He 
died in 1805. His principal works are 
Reviews of the Reign of George IL, and 
of the flrst Mr. Pitt*s Administration; 
Anecdotes of Lord Chatham ; and Bioera^ 
phical Anecdotes of eminent Persons. The 
niat renilar publication, in numbers, of 
the Parliamentary Debates, was begun by 
Almon, in 1774. 

ONG-PRAW, a Binnan of bw extrac- 
tion, known by the humble name of 
Aumdzea, or the huntsman, gained 
crown, and immortalized his memory, by 
delivering his country fix>m the yoke oi the 
PMiians. About the year 1758, though 
onfy the chief of an inconsiderable villa^, 
he took up arms against the Peguan mon 
arch. Tm flames^ of insurrection were 
rapidly spread by him, his valour and pru- 
dence were conspicuously displayed, and, 
aftar a desperate struggle of four years, 
Iha sovereign of Pegu was dethroned. 
AkNi|ira aAarwards attacked the Siamese, 


and was besieging Siam when deaUi pat a 
stop to his progre ss . He died ia 1760, ia 
the fiftieth year of his age. 

ALPHONSO m. (called the Gbkat) 
king of Leon and AsUorias, was bora ia 
848, and succeeded his father, Ordogno, ia 
his eighteenth year. The early part of his 
reiffn was spent in repressing nis fictions 
nones. This being aocompushed, he at-^ 
tacked the Moors, sained numerous victo-* 
ries, and consideraoly enlarffed his king- 
dom. The taxes, however, which his wars 
occasioned, excited revolt, in which his 
wife and eldest aon joined, and AlphonsQ 
was compelled to abdicate. He died at 
Zamora, in 912. A Clironicle, from 
Wamba's reign to Qrdogno's, is attribu- 
ted to him. 

ALPHONSO X. (sumamed the Aa- 
TaoHOMER and the Philosophex) w%s 
bom in 1208, succeeded to the tirone of 
Loon and Castile in 1258, and mdae vam 
efforts to ascend the imperial throne, to 
which he had been elected by a ftction. 
After a stormy reign, he was deposed, ia 
1282, by the nobles and his own soa, and 
he firuitlessly endeavoured to recover his 
authority by the aid of the Moors. He 
died in 11»4. Alphonso was by hr the 
most learned prince of his age. Spain is 
indebted to him fi>r the Alphonsine Tables, 
and the code of laws denominated Las 

ALPHONSO V. (snmamed the Mie- 
NANiHOUs) kinff of Arragon, Naples, and 
Sicily, succeeded his father in 1416; and 
almost his first act was the generous one 
of destroying, without reading it, a list of 
nobles who had conspired against him. 
He died in 1458, at the age of seventy- 
four, afUr an active and m-illiant reign. 
His valour was often proved in his con- 
tinual wars ; he was eloquent, courteous, 
and humane; loved, understood, and pro- 
tected literature and the sciences ; abhorred 
duplicity ; and had but one defect, that of 
an immoderate fondness for women. 

fi>under and legislator of the PorU^^neee 
monarchy, was bom in 1094, and asramed 
the title of king after the celebrated battle 
of Ourique, or Castro Verde, which be 
^ined over the Moors, in 1189. He died 
in 1186, and was buried at Coimbra. Al- 
phonso was of extraordinary stature, being 
seven feet hirii 

ALPINI, PaosPER, a celebrated bot- 
anist, was born at Marostica, in the Ve- 
netian states, in 1668, and quitted tbe 
army to study physic atid boti^ny. In theae 
sciences, especially in the lattar, he ac- 
quired much celebrity. He resided three 
years in Elgypt, with the Venetian coaae^ 
and gained an intiamtaknowledit of eva^y 

Digitized by 



■i^^ fHBttrv to ttBt ctMUMiy* Wot wmm 
VHva bdbre his dasdi, wfaieh took plaoe » 
m6, he was professor of botany at Pa4aa. 
Be wrote several ▼alaable niedica] and 
botanical works. A senos of plants takes 
finon hha the name oT Alphiia. 


diTioe, was bom, in 1988, at Herbom, in 

I Nassaa, was p ro fes sor of philosophy and 

' theology hi hn native town, ana, subse- 

SKBtly,at Weissenberf , in Tranfrlvania. 
e died at the latter place in 1688. Als- 
Cedhv was such an indefiitigabfe writer, 
that his Dame was anagramatttixed into 
Sfdv/tfos (actirity) by some of the word- 
distorters of that age. Asoong his nomer- 
oos works may be mentioned, a Treatise 
oo the Milleaiam, asserting that it will 
eomaeace in 1604; an Encyclopedia; and 
a BS>lical Encyclopaedia, in wnich he ab- 
sordly attempts to prove, that the princi- 
pfes and materiau of all the arts and 
sciences shoald be sought for in the Scrip- 

ALSOP, RiCHAmD, a man of letters, 
was bom at Middletown in Connecticat, 
and resided in that place daring most of 
his life. Hb works are nomerous, and 
enUiraoe a great variety of subjects. He 
was one of the coatribators to the Echo, 
a jonmal that obtained considerable ce- 
lenity io its day for homour and smart- 
new. He poUiflhed varions translations 
from the French and Italian, and left in 
aamscript a poea^of considerable length 
called the Charms of Fancy. He died in 
1815, at the age of 57. 

ALSTON, Charles, a Scotch phvsi- 
caaa, bora in 1688, was educated at Glas- 
gow and Leyden, and settled at Edinburgh, 
where he lectured on botany an<f the ma- 
teria medica. His le c t ur e s on the latter 
sabiect were published by Dr. Hops, in 
1776, in two quarto volumes. Aliton is 
abo the author of Tirocinium Botanicum 
Edhibnrgense, in which he makes a formi- 
dable attack on the Limnsan lystem. He 
died ia 1760. Mutis has given the name 
of Abtonia to a new genus of plants. 

A^iSTROEMER, Jonas, u Swede, who 
d cseircs to be numbered among national 
bea^bctors, was bora, in 1685, of poor 
parents, in the province of Westrogothia, 
Made a fortune in England, by conunercial 
tpaealatioos, and then returaed to his na- 
tive laad. He introduced into Sweden 
iaiproTed breeds of sheep, the use of pota- 
toa, and the cultivation of dying drugs, 
established refineries of soear, vtd con- 
tributed to the formation of Uie Levant and 
East India companies. For these services 
ha wss enooblea, and had a statue erected 
to him on the Exchange. He died in 1761. 
dnuda, one uf his sons, was a pupil of 

AL¥ m 

a Gennaa ehiliaa, was bora aboa* tha 
middle of the sixteeeth eentanr, and died 
early in the seventeenth. He was pro- 
fessor of law at Herbora, and svmlic of 
Dremen. In 1608, he published his Po 
litica Methodice Digesta, in which hi 
boldly taught that kings sre nothinr mon 
than magistrates, that to the people belong 
the sovereignty, and that, as a nature 
consequence, they may change and erei 
punish their rulMS. Althusen is the sn 
thor of several other works, the principa 
of which is a Latin Treatise on Romai 

ALVA, FiRDiiiAifD Altariz di 
Toledo, duke of^ a descendant of on* 
of the most iUustnous fomilies io Spain 
which he disgraced bv hb crimes, wai 
bora in 1608, entered the army early, anc 
served in Italy, Hungary, and Africa. H« 
became a general in 1588; but hia firm 
marked exploit was hb gaining, in 1547. 
the battle of Muhlberg. From that time, 
he distinguished himself as a warrior and 
a statesman. In 1566, he was sent' into 
Flanders, as viceroy, to crush the risins 
spirit of the Flemings ; and he exercised 
his authority with the most infemous bar> 
barity. Eighteen thousand individuak 
perished on the scafibid, and more than 
one hundred thousand amimted. After 
hb recall, he was lent for a while into exile, 
but was soon restored to favour, hnd em- 
ployed in reducing Portugal to subjection. 
This sanguinary monster died in 1682. 

ALVARADO, Don Pedro, one of the 
cononerors of Spanish America, was bora 
at Bada^nx. He accompanied Cortes in 
his Mexican expedition, produced an in- 
surrection in Mexico, by hb cruelty and 
rapacity, and narrowly escaped with life. 
He wab subseqiientl^r appointed to the 
government of Goatimala; had violent 
contests with Pixarro; made discoveries 
on the Califoroiaa coast; and was, at • 
lenffth, killed in 1541. 

ALVARiDO, Alfhorso p', bora at 
Burgos, accomcAuied Pisarro in his expe> 
dition against Pera, distinguished himself 
greatly on various occasions, particubrl) 
at the battle of Salinas, was appointed 
captain-general, acted with such crueltx 
that he excited a revolt, was defeated Xty 
the revolters, and dicMcl, in 1553t panK 
from vexation that he had been vanquishea. 

ALVAREZ, Frahois, a native of Por 
togal, bora at Coimbra, towards the end 
ofthe fifteenth centur}', was almoner to 
King Emanuel, and was sent, in 1515, as 
secretary, with Galvao, on an embassy to 
Abyssinm. After residing in that country 
twMve years, he returned, was rewarded 
with a rich benefice, and, in 1540, pub- 
lished a folio volume, bearing the title of 
True Information concerning tLa Coaatrj 
of Prester John, acQording^ to what mm 



Mea hy Fraaeif Ahrves* Hii 
laiiM BDch corioiit iDibnnation. 

ALXINOER, JoBH Baptist d', a 
Gennan poet, born at Vienna, in 17M, of 
a rich fiiaiiW» early acquired a thoroogh 
linowledce otthe cksBics. Though he be- 
came a aoctor of laws, and held the title 
•f court adrocate, he availed himself of 
bis legal station only to make up disputes, 
•r plc»d for the poor. Poea7 was his ia- 
fourite porsuit. Besides minor pieces, he 
wrote Doolin of Mentx, and Bliombcaris, 
two chivafanesqne epi<A, in Widand'i style. 
Alxinger was liberal, and firmW attadied 
to his friends. He died in 1797. 

AMAK, a Persian poet of the elerenth 
century, b believed to have been a native 
of Bokhara, and was patronised by SnHau 
Khedar Khan, who pneed him at the hen^ 
of a poetical academy. His must celebrated 
work is, The Loves of Joseph and Zuleika. 
Amak lived to a irery advanced age, and 
was more &voured by fortntte than bards 
in Keaeral are; his sutcs were numerous, 
and he poss e ssed thirty riding horses, rich- 
ly caparisoned. 

AMALTHiEUS, Jkromk, a 
ckf a fiunily whidi jMnodooed many literary 
men, was bom in rriuli, in 1606, and bcH 
came eminent as a physician, philosopher, 
and Latin poet. For many years he taught 
medicine and moral philosophy at Padua. 
He died in 1574. Of the merit of his po- 
etry a judgment may be formed from nis 
beautihu epigram on Aeon and LeoniUa, 
which has oeen so often translated. 

AMBOISE, Gboroe d', cardinal, 
bom in 146D, of a noble French fomily, at 
Chaumont sur Loire, was a bishop at four- 
teen, and was successively archbishop of 
Narbonne and of Rouen. Louis XII. ob- 
tained for him the rank of cardinal, and 
appointed him his prime minister, in which 
post he maintained domestic tranquillity, 
^diminished the taxes, improved the manner 
of administering justice, and reformed the 
reUguMM orders. As papal lesate, he act- 
ed with equal uprightness. D^Amboise as- 
pired to be pope, but was defeated b^ a 
stratageu of Julian de la B9vere. He died, 
in 1610, at Lyons, and is said, on hik death 
bed, to have often excfcaimed to the friar, 
his attnndant, ** Brother John! why hare I 
not all mv life been brother Johni'' Prob- 
ably he taen repented of having incited his 
master to war against the Venetians, in 
revence for their having contributed to ex- 
clude him finom the papal throne. 

AMBROSE, St., a son of the wefect 
of Gaul, was bora at Aries, in 840, and 
received an excellent education. Being 
made governor of Lignria, he fixed his re- 
sidence at Milan. Aoxentius, the bishop 
of that city, having died^ an assembly was 
hoMl to elect a successor, at which a tumult 

«Lat Ambrose be our bUMp!*' and llH 
multitude, who looked upon this as a mi^ 
eestion from Heaven, accordingly cleded 
him. Nor did he prove himself unworthy 
of the episcopal dipiity . H is firmness waa 
nobly aisplayed, in refusing to allow the 
Emperor Theodosius to enter the church, 
till ne had, as far as possible, atoned for 
the massacre of Thessalonica. He died al 
Milan, in 887. His works form two folio 
vohunes. He is the author of the TeDenm 

AMEILHON, Hubert Pascal, a ju- 
dicious French historian, and a member of 
the Academy of Inscriptions, and of the 
Institute, was bom at Paris, in 1780, and 
died in 1811. Besides many minor essays 
and dissertations, he wrote the History of 
the Commerce of the Egyptians under the 
Ptolemies, and a continuation of Le Bean*a 
History of the Lower Empire. 

Abraham Nicholas, was bora at Or- 
leans, in 1884, and died poor at Paris, n 
1706. At the age of thir^r-five he was ap- 
pointed secretary to the French amhansa 
dor at Venice, in which city he resided 
several years. He translated Tacitus, Vei- 
ferus's History of the Government of Venice, 
and other works, pnblisbed the Letters ef 
Cardinal d'Ossat, and wrote "*h> originsd 
pieces, which are now forgotti 

AMELUNGHI, Jbromb, surnamed, 
from his deformity and the place of his birth, 
the Hunchback of Pin, an Italian poet, 
apfkears to have been ue inventor of bnr- 
Mque poetry among his countrymen. Be 
published his War of the Oiantt, in 1M6, 
under the diune of Forabosco. It was ac- 
companied by the War of the Dwarfr, at- 
tributed to Francis Aminta, but which, 
most probably, was by Amehnighi. 

AMERBACU, John, a celebrated print- 
er of the fifteenth century, was born nt 
Rutlingen, in Swabia, but settled at Ba«Bl. 
His editions are much valued for their a>r- 
rectness. Amerbach was the inventor of 
the Roman type, which he substituted Ibr 
the old gothic and italic. It was first used 
in a reprint of St. Augustine's works. H« 
died in 1615. 



AMES, Fishbr, one of the most elo- 
qnent ofAmerican writers and statesBoeiu 
was bora at Dedham in Massachusetts, ta 
the year 1766. He was educated at Hanr- 
ard College, where he received his degree 
in 1774. About seven vears afterwards lie 
began the practice of toe law, and an op- 
portunity soon occurred for the display of 
nis superior qualifications both as a n^ieak- 
er and essay writer. He distinguished 
himself as a member of the Massacbuaetin 
convention for rati^ 
in 1788, and firom I 

Digitized by ^ 

tiding the ConstitotioB 
ttlibody nasaed to Ike 



► -4 r<|iiuw8miii.t la thi Stale Wii- 
k SoM after he WM «lacted the im 
npreeeatatiTe of the Sofielk djirtrict in the 
Congrew of the Uaited State*, where he 
reaiained with the highest honour daring 
tile eight yean of Waehington's adminiftra- 
taoo. On theretirenent ofthe first Prefli- 
deat, Mr. Ames retamed to the praaioe 
of hu profession in his native town. Dar- 
ing the reouuniag jrears of his life his health 
was very omeh isspaifed* hot his mind still 
eontinnod deeply interested in politics, aad 
he published a eoasideraUe namber of es- 
says oa the BMMt stirriag topics of the day 
He died la 1W8. la the following year 
his works were issued ia one volume octa- 
TO, p r e l hted by a biographical notice firom 
the pea of his friend, the Rev. Dr. Kirk- 

AMES, JosBPB, a ^rpographical anti- 
^oarv, was bora, in l4w, at Yanaooth, 
m Norfolk, served his time to a plane 
■laker in London, aad sabseqoentlv be> 
eaaw an ironaionger aad ship-chandler 
Wappiag. He&ditf 1750. Ames vi 
a fedow of the Royal aad Antiqaartan 
Societies, and secretary of the latter socie- 
ty. His priacipal works are, his T^rpo- 
graphical Antiquities (which has siace 
Seen greatly enlarged by Herbert and 
Dihdin), anid the Pareataua, or Memoirs 
of the Family of Wren, the latter of which 
he drew ap from the MSS. of Wren. 

AMHERST, Jbfpert, lord, bom in 
1717, at Riverhead, in Kent, was a de- 
ereadant of an ancient fiunily. At the age 
of fomteea he catered the army, and, at 
the battles of Rooeoojc, Dettingen, apd Fon- 

n, vras aid-de-camp to Lord Ligonier. 
f68, beinff then a major-general, he 
rednced Loaimor^ and its dependencies. 
Beina appointed chief conuaander in Amer- 
ica, ne took several forts, and contributed 
to the conquests of Canada, and was re- 
warded vrith the order of the Both and a 
peerage. Between 1768 aad 1796, he held 
■any high military sitoations, among 
which was that qf commander in chie^ 
la 1796 he was aiade field marshal, and 
in the following year he died. 

AMHURST, Nicholas, a political 
writer, was born at Mardea, in Kent, aad 
educated at Oxford, whence he was ex- 
pelled, for which he «ven|ed himself by 
bitter^ satirising that uaiversity, in his 
Tcrre Filios. He thea settled ia London, 
and published a volume of Miscellanies, 
aad a poem called The Convocation. He 
waa aext engaged in The Craftsman, and 
carried it on for amnv years, with infinite 
spirit aad success. Whan his partv made 
taaii peace with the crown, they deserted 
him, aad he soon after died ot a brokeo 
heart, in 1742. 

AMILCAR, somaawd BAacAS, a Car- 
ilagiaiaa geheral, sprang from a Aaa*V 

lacietly the kinas of Tyre. Ha was m^ 
entrusted with muitary command, and for 
five years disdn^uisbed himself in Sicily, 
airainst those universal robbers the Romans. 
Ijie defeat, however, of Hanno, by the 
consul Liitatius, induced Carthage to make 
peace. On Amilcar's return be quelled 
the formidable rebellion of the mercenary 
troops, defeated the Numidians, and re- 
stored tranquillity. Spain was the next 
scene of his services. There, he conquer- 
ed several nations, and founded Barcelona. 
After having remained in that country nine 
years, he was slain in a battle against the 
Vettones. He was the fether of Annibal. 

AMIOT, Father, a Jesuit missionary, 
was bom at Toulon, in 1718, and died 
at Pekin, in 1794. During a residence of 
forr^-three years in China, he obttined a 
proKHmd knowledge of the arts, antiquities, 
and history of that empire, and of the Chi- 
nese and Tartar languages. On these sub- 
jects be wrote many vaRiable dissertations. 
He is also the author of a Life of Confiiciui, 
and of a Tartar-mantcheou Dictionary, ia 
three quarto volumes. 

AMMIANUS, Mabcxllihus, aLatia 
bistoriaa, was a native of Antioch, bom ia 
the fourth century, and, in his youth, serv- 
ed with distinction in Germany, Gaul, and 
Persia. Retiring firom a military life, he 
went to reside at Rome, where be wrote a 
valuable Hbtory of the Roman Emperors, 
from Nerva to Valens. It consisted of 
thirty-one books, of which the first thirteen 
are lost. He was also the author of a work 
in Greek, on the Grecian orators aad his- 
torians, of which only a firagawnt remains* 
He died A. D. 890. 

AMMIRATO, SciPio, a Neapolitan, 
bom at Lecce, in 1631, was desigiaed for 
the law, but abandoned it for literature. 
After many adventures and wanderings, he 
settled at Florence, under the patronage of 
the Grand Duke Cosmo, who employed 
him to write the History of Florence. 
This is his principal work. He died ia 

AMMONIUS, a peripatetic philosopher, 
who was one of the masters of Plutarch. 
He endeavoured to reconcile the doctrine 
of Arbtotle with that of Plato. Plutarch 
wrote his life, which is lost. 

PHORUS, a phikMopher of Alexandria, 
lived towards the end of the second centu- 
ry. Though bora in |K>verty, and earning 

a subsistence by carrying sacks of wheat 
(whence his name of Saccophorus), he stu- 
died philosophy with ardour. He is con- 

sidered as the founder of the mystic philoe* 
* ly, known as the Alexandrian, or neo* 
platonic. Plotinus, Longinns, and Origeut 
were among his pupils. His system was» 
in feet, a jumble of heterogenous opinions 
Uorrewedfrom various schools. Ha issaid 


to ham a^ottatixed from diristiaiiity, bot 
this is denied by eome. There was anoth- 
er Ammonias, an eclectic philosopher, who 
lived about the middle of the fifth century. 

AMO, Anthoitt William, a negro, 
bom on the Gold Coast, about the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century, was brought 
to Holland, in 1707, and presented to the 
duke of Brunswick, who sent him to the 
university of Halle, whence he removed to 
Wittenberg. He had a perfect knowledge 
of astronomy, and spoke Hebrew, Greek, 
Latin, German, Hutch, and French. Af- 
ter his patron's death, he fell into a deep 
melancholy, and at length quitted Europe, 
to lead a solitary life in his own cnontry. 
He died in one of the Dutch company's 

AMONTONS, William, was born at 
Paris, in 166S. Earlv in youth, he be- 
came deaf, and, being thus partly cut off 
from society, he sought for resources in 
the cultivation of his talents. He learned 
drawing and architecture, and was em- 
ployed on several public works. But his 
attention was principally directed to me- 
chanics and natural philosophy. Several 
improvements were made by him in the 
construction of barometers, thermometers, 
and hygrometers, and he was the original 
inventor of the telegraphic art. Amon- 
tons died at Paris, at the age of forty- 

AMORY, Thomas, Dr., a dissenting 
divine, bom at Taunton, in 1700, was an 
active and valuable minister. He died in 
1774. He wrote two volumes of sermc. ns, 
«nd tlie Lives of Grov^, Benson, «nd 

AMORY, Thoma^s, a son of coua^llor 
Amory, secretary for the forfeited (fuites 
in Ireland, is supposed to ha*» been 
brought up to the medical prcf(etti*3^, but 
be never practised. His cbanut^tf was a 
singular one; he lived recIJAe» shunned 
company, and never kft heme till the 
•vening He died m 1789, aged ninety- 
seven. Amory is the wither of Memoirs 
toncemin^ the Lives of certain Ladies of 
Great Britain, and cl the Life' of John 

AMYOT, JaMXS, was bora at Melun, 
1) 151S. His parents were so poor that, 
arhile he was finishing his education at 
Paris, all the aid they could give him was 
a weekly loaf. It is said, also, that, unable 
to purchase oil or candhss* he studied by 
l^e light. On leaving college, Lowevcr, 
bisSurit gained him friends, and he at 
lengtoVsM to be preceptor of the king's 
chudren^^rancis I. gave him an abbey; 
Charles iSSsJl'" pupil* appointed him 
grand ahnoneroK^rance ; and Henry III. 
made him a comnHiider of the order of 
thtt Holy Ghost. On^^f hb defects was 
ta MCMiifv loT« of DioiItT- He died at 


Amcerre, in 1698. Anomr his 
works, chiefly translations^ di 
brated is his version of Plutarch, vffaicli 
remains unsurpassed in the French lan- 

AMYRAUT, MosKS, a French Prot* 
estant divine, bom at Bourgeuil, in 1596, 
was educated for the civil law, bot pre^ 
ferred theobgy, and became professor of 
divinity at Saumur. In that profession 
he acquired the higliest reputation. Such 
was his influence that he succeeded ia 
introducing the doctrines of Arnlinius into 
th^ French reformed churches, tQ the great 
displeasure of the zealous Calvinists. Be* 
ing a friend to the doctrine of passive obe- 
dience, he was looked on with a fevourahle 
eye by Richelieu and Mazarine. Amy* 
raut was a man of moderation and can- 
dour, and bad the rare fortune to be 
esteoned bv men of all sects. His tiieo- 
logical works are numerous. He died ia 

ANACHARSIS, a Scyth'mn phikwo- 
pher, was sent on an embassy to Athens, 
about 692 B. c, became the friend and 
disciple of Solon, and was the first for- 
eigner who was made a citizen of Athens. 
After he quitted Athens, he travelled into 
other countries, and then retmmed to 
Scythia, where he was killed by some of 
his uwn countrymen. There is considera- 
ble pith and point in some of his recorded 

ANACREON, a celebrated Greek poet, 
bora about 630 B. c. at Teos, in Ionia, 
was, according to Plato, of a family which 
reckoned Codrus, the last king of Athens, 
vnon^ its ancestors.^ Folycrates, of 8a- 
mos, invited him to his court, and granted 
him hb friendship. On the death of Poly- 
crates, the poet went to Athens, and resided 
vith Hipparchus, till the latter was assassi* 
nated; We then returned to Teos, where 
he eontlttoed till the revolt of Histams 

npelled him to remove to Abdera, w t^r a 
he finally settled. A grape stone choked 
him, in nis eishty-fifth year, while he wnB 
in the act of orinking . Only a part of hit 
works ii mam; hut the 0<(m whidi tia» 


eqaaOed Anacreoo in «w«et- 

MMaBdefegaacc. Of hit morab little that 
m hiroanJtile can be said ; tbey were tainted 
by intemperance and imparity of the worst 

into English, bat the Tersioa by Moore is 
&r svperior to every other. 

ANAXAGORAS, a Grecian phikwo- 
pber, bom at dasomene, in Ionia, B. c. 
MO, became a disciple of Anaximenes, at 
MUrtas, and next settled at Athens, where 
he tao^' pluloaopby, and numbered the 
mo0t •minent men of the age among his 
papila. Being lalsely accu sed of impiety, 
ne w«a condemned to death; but die sen- 
lenee was commuted for banishment, and 
he retired to Lampnacns, where he died 
428 years B. c. His philosophical doc< 
■y thongh in some points erroneous, 
( fisr saperior to those of his oontem- 
It was he who first amigned the 
creation of all things to a purely spiritual 

ANAXARCHUS,a philosopher of Ab- 
dera, necompanied Akunder the Great io 
hm Asiatic eoqiedition, and, on various oc- 
casiomi, reproved the pride and presnraptioa 
of that eommeror. Yet his enemies have 
Bot ■crupled to accuse him of adulation. 
It is, however, not probable that he could 
be a qrcophant, who is acknowledged to 
have aometimes tpokea the honest truth; 
and who taught tost virtue is the sovereign 
^ood, and tluit the happ i new of a real nge 
m independent of external objects. Nico> 
oreon, tyrant of CVpnis, whom he had 
•flended, is said to have pounded him to 
death in a mortar, after the death of 
Afaxamier; bet the truth of this story is 

Alt AXIMANDER, a Grecian philoso- 
pher, bom at Miletus, 610 years b. c, was 
the disciple and successor of Tbales, the 
fiieader of the Ionic sect. He is said to 
have discovered the obliquity of the eclip- 
tic, fixed the epoch of the equinoxes and 
solstices, invented the sphere and ' the 
fBomon, and tanght that the earth re- 
volves, and that tlm sun is a globe of lire. 
Some of his philosophical opinions, how- 
fver, were grossly ansurd. He died 647 
fears B. c. 

ANAXIMENES, a philosopher of Mi- 
btttf was the disciple and successor of 
Anaximander. According to his system, 
aU tAiags originated 6rom the air; tlie sun, 
mooa,imd stars were formed from detached 
narU of the earth ; the eartli was a plain 
agm^f and the heavens were a solid con- 
•ave one, in which the stars were fixed 
She nails. He died 504 years B. c. 

ANAXIMENES, a native of Lampsa- 
fot, was a philoMo^Hier, orator, and hidto- 
riaii, and one of the preceptors of Alexan- 
der the Great. He wrote lives of Philip 

AND m 

and Alexander, aau a History of Greeca» 

all of which are lost. By a stratagem, ht 
saved his natal city firom ruin. Lampsacus 
having sustained a long sieee against Alex- 
ander, be resolved on iii destruction, and 
fi>reseeing that Anaximenes would plead 
for it, he positively swore to do the con- 
trary of what his preceptor should desire. 
Aware of this, Anaximenes requested him 
to destroy it; and the necessary conse- 
quence was, that I«ampsacus was <aved. 

ANCHIETA, JosEFH, a Portuffuees 
Jesuit, denominated the Apostle of the 
New World, was bom in 1538, in the 
island of Teneriflfe. In 1563 he landed in 
Brazil, and CRSte, in conjunction with 
Nobrega, he for many years exerted him- 
self strenuously in converting and civilix- 
ing the Indian tribes ; dispnying a cour- 
age, ibrtitttde, and Christian spirit which 
have seldom been equalled. He died in 

ANDERSON, Edmund, Sir, a native 
of Lincolnshire, was educated at Oxford, 
went firom thence to the Inner Temple, 
was made a judge about 1671, and chief 
justice of the Common Pleas in 1682, and 
died in 1606. He was one of the commis- 
sioners for trying the Queen of Scots, 
Anderson was of an intolerant spirit, and 
an inveterate enemy to the principles of 
libertv. His Reports of Cases, and his 
Resoiiitions and Judgmenti in the Courts, 
were pablished ailer his death. 

ANDERSON, Aleiander, a native 
of Aberdeen, professor of mathematics at 
Pal is, flouridied in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and published several mathematical 
works; among which may be mentioned ' 
Supplcgmentum Apollonii Redivivi, and 
some of Vieta's posthumous productions. 

ANDERSON, James, a Scottish ad- 
vocate, mninent as an antiquary, was bom 
at Edinburgh, in 1662, and died in 1728. 
He published Collections relative to the 
History of Mary, Queen of Scotland, four 
vok. quarto; Selectus Dipbmatum et Nu- 
mismatum Scotiae ; and other works. 

ANDERSON, Adam, a native of Scot- 
land, was for forty years a clerk in the 
South Sea House; ne was also a trustee 
for establishing the colony of Georgia, and 
one of the court of assistants of the Scotch 
Corporation. He died in 1766. He is the 
autlior of that laborious and useful work, 
the Historical and Chronological deduction 
of the Origin of Commerce, the best edi- 
tion of which is in four volumes quarto. 

ANDERSON, Walter, a Scottish 
clergyman and historian, who died in 1800, 
at his living of Churnside, which he hud 
held for half a century. In 1769, he pub- 
lished a History of France, during the 
reigns of Francis I. and Charles IX.. 
which, in 1773 and 1783, he continueA 
down to the peace of Mnnslcr. He is aba 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

10 Aim 

«I»B antlior of the Fhilomliy of anctent 
Greece mveftigated; and of a Life of (>«• 


ANDERSON, James, a Scotch agri 
culturist, and mi^llaneous writer, was 
born at Hermiston, near Edinburgh, in 
1789, and conmenced forming, as master, 
at the early age of fifteen. His exertions 
were successful. He was as active, though 
not quite as precociously, with his pen as 
with his aratorv instruments, and prodoc- 
ed many valuable works. His first prodnc- 
tion was a series of Essav* on Planting, 
collected into a volume in 1777, which as- 
sisted to obtain for him the degree of 
LL. D. from the university of Edinburgh. 
Besides his original compositions, chiefly ag- 
ricultural, he edited the Bee and the Recre- 
ations in Agriculture, and contributed to 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, and the 
Monthly Review. He died in 1808. 

ANDERSON, George, bom at Wes- 
ton, in Buckinghamshire, in 1769, was 
originally a day labourer ; but, in conse- 
quence of his dbplavinff great skill in 
arithmetic, the Rev. Mr. King sent him to 
Wadham College, and afterwiuxis procured 
him a situation under the Board of Con- 
troul. He rose to be accomptant general. 
His death took place in 1790. He trans- 
lated the Arenarius of Archimedes;' and 
wrote A General View of the East India 
Company's Afiairs. 

ANDRADA, Thomas d', a Portu- 
guese, better known under the name of 
Thomas of Jesus, was the reformer of the 
barefooted Auffustine friars, and belonged 
to a fiunily which numbered literary men 
and learned theologians amon^ its mem- 
bers. His claim to biomphical notice 
rests, however, on still hi^r grounds than 
theirs. He was t*ken prisoner in Sebas- 
tian's fatal . expedition to Africa; and 
though mone^ was sent over for his ran- 
som, he applied'it to the benefit of his com- 
panions in misfortune, and vohintarily re- 
mained in slavery, that he miaht console 
ami support them. In the peHormance of 
this pious office he died. While in captiv- 
ity be wrote a work intitled the Suffier- 
ings of Jesus. 

ANDRE, John, an adjntant ^nera) in 
the British army in North America during 
the revolutionary war. Being employ- 
ad to negociate with Arnold tm delivery 
of the works at West Point, he was appre- 
hended in disguise within the Amencan 
lines. He was condemned as a spy firom 
the enemy, and, according to the establish- 
ed usages of war, was executed in 1780, 
at the age of twenty-nine years. A monu- 
ment has been erected to his memory' in 
Westminster Abbey. He is the author of 
a poem entitled TV Coio Chase. 

|«ese admiral lie commanded, in 1518, 

tBe first Emtodmui fleet ^n4iigIi ewr ^ 
the coast of China. When he w«»deiNi^ 
ing from a port, he |yroclaimed that if aof 
native had oeen injured by a Portuguese, 
and wonld come Ibrvrard, he should reeeiw 
reparation, and the offender diould be 
punished. Hbequi^ and moderation vrsM 
on the point of being rewarded, by tha 
general openinr of the Chin ese ports to hie 
countrymen, when all his hopes wnre fraa* 
trated, by the arrival of another fleet, un- 
der his brother Simon, a mta\ of an oppo- 
site character, who excited universal ais* 
gust by his rapacity and violaMce. 

ANDRE1NI, Isabella, an emineat 
comic actress, but still more celebrated tor 
her literary talents and aceomplishnettts, 
was bom at Padua, in 1662, and displays- 
ed such extraordiaary precocity of eeniiis, 
that she composed a pastoral wnen nie'was 
scarcely able to read. She was well vers- 
ed in philosophy and hmpmges, sang and 
played divine!;^, vras beautifrd, and crowned 
the whole by irreproachable morals. She 
died at Lvoiis» in 1004. Her compositioas 
consist or poems, letters, aad diafegues. 
Francis, her husband, an actor, was io- 
consolable for her loss; he was a auin of 
considerable abilities, aad was the anther 
of three dramas, and of some misoellaneoas 

ANDREINl, John Bapti«t, the bob 
of the preceding, was bom at Florence, in 
1578. Like his parents, be was on the 
stage; and, like them, he po s sesse d talents. 
Aa an actor he was admired in Italy aod^ 
France.* His poems aad dramas are not 
without merit, out they betrajr a deficieacy 
of judgment, and their style is deplorabfy 
vitiatMl by the bad taste which the exam- 
ple of Marino rendereil prevalent at that 
period. His Adamo, a sacred drama, has 
acquired celebrity, from the circumstauoe 
of some persons bavinff maintained that it 
gave Milton the first icfea of Paradise Lost. 

ANDREOSSI, Fraitcis, a mathema- 
tician and engineer, was born at Pane, in 
I6S8, and died in 1688. He vras emplofw 

ed by Riqnet, to assist in forming the c 
of Languedoe; and, after the lajMe of Mora 
than a century and a quarter, a strenaoof 
but ineflectaaJ attempt was made, by one 
of his descendants, to claim for him dm 
honour of having projected that magnifi- 
cent work. He was, however, a man of 
ulent,and sncceeded to the superiatead- 
ance, on the death of Riqnet. He pnUiab- 
ed a map of the canal in three folio siieeu. 
ANDREOSSI, Count An thont Frah- 
cis, eminent as a soldier, diplomatist, and 
vrfiter, was bora at Castlenaudary, in Laa- 
guedoc, in 1761, was a lieutenant of aitil* 
lery at twenty, and served with distinction 
in Italy and c^ypt. Napoleon raised hkk 
to the ranks ofseneral and count. Ha WM 
lively ambassador to LendoR* Vte* 



IfapoiMm froB EJBtm, 
urn eaaw ; and he was ooe of the eoounis- 
doucn ciMMen to treat with the allies by 
the prtyvi«onal ^overnaieati He died in 
1827. A m o af hn works are, a History of 
the Caaalof Langaedoc; the Campaign of 
the GaHo-Batariaa Army on the Maya aad 
Redaitx; and Coastaatistople and the Thra- 

rhooi Eas cbiu s somames LocuAt, was 
aa inpostor, who, nader the reign of Tra- 

iaa, tad the art to penaade 
hy i W ii, that be was ordaiaed to be their 
liberator. He incited the Jews to a reroh, 
which extended through Esypt, Libya, and 
the island of C3rpms, and auriag which die 
Bust horrible craelticj were eommitted on 
both ^des. It was not suf i pi t ta s e d till after 
ataar sanzninary battles ksid been Ibasht. 

ANDREWS, Lancelot, aa eminent 
divine, bora at London, in 1665, was edo- 
eated at Gassbridge, where he became so 
celebrated for his preaching aad his theo- 
bgieal acqaweaMoU, that be obtained the 
i of the Earl of Hnatiagdon and 

sir Francis Wabiagham; aad, ia no lonr 
time, rose to be amster of Pembroke HaU 
{his own college), chaplain to Qaeea Elixa- 
beth, and dean of Westminster. He might 
haTo had a bishopric firom Elisabeth, ifne 
w u a ld have snbmitted to ^ spoliation of 
Hr rerenaes. Under her soeeessor he at- 

tained that dignity. Jaams was pleased 
with his preaching, aad still more with his 
deduce <k htm agahwt BeHarmin, who had 
attacked the nmoarch's book on the Righu 
of Kings. The dirine was soeoessivel] 

raised to tbe aees of Chichester, Ely, and 

inted lordal 
aer, aad a privy co na eeUor of England and 
Seodand. He died hi 1886. Miltoa wrote 


1 wasappoii 
r ooonetSiiori 


a Latin elegy on his death. His works 
attest his eraditioa; bat are d efen aed by 
the bad taste aad pedantry of the age in 
whieh he lived. Andrews was charitable, 
m^*fieeat, andapatronof leamiag. Wal- 
ler has r e corded aa iastanoe of this pre- 
late's wit. Neile, bishop of Durham, and 
Andrews, were standing behind the king's 
" aJa 

' at 'dinner, whea Xames soddealy tnra- 
ed to them, aad said, ** My lords, cannot I 
take my sabjeets' money when I want it. 

without all this formali^ in parii 
Bishop Neile qaicklv replied, *' Ood for 
bid, sir, bat yon shDOld ; you are the 

Id, sir, but von sBDOld ; you 
of oar noscKls.'* On this ^ king said <o 
the bishop of Wiachaster, « Well, my ktrd, 
aad vrhat say your' «Sir," repli«f An- 
drews, ** I Imve ao skill to judge of par- 
Ijamen t ary cases." The lung aetweredy 


** No pots off, my lord 

K" "Thea, sir/* i^id So, 'Mthink it 

wfal for yo* - « r >« mk 'r^ aer Neile's 

AND n 

ANDRtlWS, J AM K 8 Pbttit, was bora 

at Shaw-house, near Neirburv, in Berk- 
shire, in 17S7, and died at Srompton in 
1797. In his yrouth, he was an oflicer in 
the Berks militia, and was a police magis- 
trate at the time of hi« decease. He is the 
anther of a History of Great Britain, con- 
nected with the C^nology of Europe; 
a Continuation of Henry's English History; 
aad other works of merit. A pamphlel 
from his pen occasioned the first statnta 
that was passed for the protection of chim- 

ANdSeWS, Milbs Pbtbii, was the 
second son of aa eminent London merch- 
ant, and became principal proprietor of the 
bcrative Dartfoitl Powder Hills, on the 
death of his brother. On reoeivinff this 
accession of fortune, he pordiased a spiendiid 
mansion in Cleveland Row* mingled with 
the circles of foshion, and devoted his leis- 
ure hours to writing for the stage ; theatri- 
cals being his fovonrite amusement. Of 
his nine comedies not one is now acted. 
Manv prologues and epiloms were contri- 
buted oy htm to otber draraatisfei. An- 
drews was of a hospitable dimositioo, and 
kind to men of letters. He died in 1814. 

ANDRIEU, Bertbahd, was bom at 
Bordeaux in 1761, and died at Paris in 
1822; he distinguished himself greatly as 
an engraver of medak, of which art lie is 
considered as the restorer in France. A 
large part of the meda% in the royal cabi- 
act and library, whicl^ are looked upon as 
masterpieces, are tbe work of Andneu. 

ANDROMACHUS, head physician of 
Nero, was the mvertor^ of that heterogene- 
ous and absurd composition the Tbenaca, 
known by the modems as Venice treacle, 
and which was krag supposed to be a sove- 
reign antidote agAinst poison. The Greek 
verses, addresned to Nero, in which he 
describes the composition of this boasted 
remedy, are r.ill in existence. 

ANDRONICUS, of C^rresthes 4a Ma- 
cedonia, ai architect, built the octagoaaj 
Tower of (he Winds at Atheas, and invent- 
ed weathercocks. The tower is now con* 
verted mto a mosqoe for dervises. It haa 
more ^Aan once been imitated in modem 

ANDRONICUS, Linus, tbe most aa* 
cient of the Latin comic poets, li?ed aboni 
^MO years b. o. He Is said to have beea a 
Great slave, and to have acted in his own 
pieces. Androaicos also composed bymnf 
m honour of the gods. Nothing remains of 

hie workp,'exceiil lome iaflslated i 

ANDRONICUS, of Rhodes, a peripate- 
tic phikieopher, who flourished at Rome 68 
years B. c, was the first whoarranged the 
inedited works of Aristotle, and oomposed 
and tables of the diiiereat books 
He also wrote comnmataries oa thasB. whieh 

Digitized by 


tt ANQ 

an eminent French architect of the six- 
teenth century, wa« a native of Orleans, 
or, as some sav, of Paris He hegaM the 
Pont Ncuf in 1578, built several magnifi- 
cent mansions, and was chosen by Henry 
IV. to continue the gallery of the JLouvre. 
Androuet, however, did not complete the 
latter undertaking ; he being compelled to 
leave France because he was a protestant. 
The place and time of his death are un- 
known. He left several works on his art, 
of which the engravings were executed by 

\NEURIN, a British poet and chief- 
tain, who was called the prince of the 
bards. He distinguished himself at the 
battle of Cattraeth, which conflict he made 
the subject of a poem. None of his compo- 
sitions are extant, except that piece, and 
another, intitled the Odes of the Montlis. 
Aneurin died about a. d. 570. He has 
been supposed to be the same person with 

ter, a modem Latin poet, bom, in 1517, 
at Barga, in Tuscany, was master of Greek 
and Latin at ten years of age, relinquished, 
the study of law for literature, was obli^ 
to quit Bologna in consequence of havmg 
written some satirical verses, and became, 
during three years, a copyist of Greek 
MSS. for the French ambassador at Ven- 
ice. He visited Constantinople, Asia Mi- 
nor, and Greece, passed through several 
adventures, in which he manifesto his cour- 
age, and was, from 1546 to 1575, profes- 
sor of Greek and Latin at Reggio, and at 
Pisa. He subsequently resided at Rome, 
and at Florence, under the liberal patron- 
age of Ferdinand de Medicis, and at length 
died at Pisa, in 1596. His principal works 
are the Cynogeticon, a poem in six books, 
and the Syrias, in twelve books, on the de- 
liverance of the holy land. 

Sdfhoitisba, an Italian lady, of a noble 
Cremonese family, bora in 1535, manifest- 
ed an early love of drawing, and was put 
under the tuition of Gatti. In a short 
lime she became a complete mistress of 
'{^Ainting, and acquired a hi^ reputation. 
l^Up J I. invited her to Spam, patronised 
hm liberally, and rave her in marriage to 
EKm Fabricio de Noncada, who took her 
t» Sicily, his native country. After his 
death, she married a noble Genoese. At 
tlM age of sixty-seven, she lost her sight ; 
but she continued to be the charm of the en- 
lightened society which she collected around 
her. She died at Genoa, about 1620. 

AVGtttULARA, John Andrew 
okll', one aytthe most celebrated Italian 
poMs of the six^tfnth century, was bom at 
^*^>« in Tuscany/lll^t 1517; the period 
•f his death is ankoAwn* but must have 


been nbseqoent to 1564. His u iln cip ei^ 
work is his Translation of Ovid's Meta* 
morphoses, which, tlKMigh often unfaithfol* 
and sinning against good taste, has great 
merit. For the* representation of his trag- 
edy of (Edipus, a theatre was built at Vi- 
censa by the celebrated Palladio. AnguiU 
lara, however, lived and died in poverty. 

ANICH, Peter, the son of a peasant, 
near Inspruck, in the Tyrol, was bom in 
1728, and his early youth was spent in ag- 
ricultural labours. At the age of twenty- 
eight, however, his thirst mr knowledge 
induced him to go to the college of Inspruck» 
where, under the tuition of the Jesuits, he 
soon became an excellent geometer and 
astronomer, and one of the first mechani- 
cians in Europe. He constmcted globes 
and mathematical instruments, and at teng Ji 
undertook a general sur\'ey of the Tvml, 
on an extensive scale, which lie completed 
in an admirable manner. The empress 
granted him a trifling pension, but he did 
not enjoy it more tl^ two months. He 
died in 1766. 

ANIELLO, TuoMAS, commonly called 
Mas A niello, a native of Ami&lfi, bom 
in 1628, though only an humble seller of 
fish at Naples, shook to its basis the au- 
thority of the Austrian government over his 
native Qountry. After naving long oppres- 
sed the people, the duke of Arcos^the Aus- 
trian viceroy, imposed, in 1646, a tax upon 
all sorts of nruit; an onerous impost on the 
poor, as fruit constituted nearly their sole 
food.^ Stimulated by Aniello, the multi- 
tude rose, destroyed the toll-bouses, and 
rifled the palace of the viceroy, who with 
difficulty made his escape to a church. All 
power remained in the hands of Aniello, 
who was at the head of more than an hun- 
dred and fifty thousand men, besides vast 
numbers of armed women ; and the vice- 
roy was at length under the neoesAity of 
yielding to the demands of the populaoe. 
Aniello, however, did not long enjoy hia 
triumph, ibr he was shot by four assassins^ 
who were employed by the viceroy. 

ANNA COMNENA, daughter of the 
Greek emperor Alexis I., was bom in 1083, 
and, after hor father's death, conspired to 
place the crown on her husband's nead, to 
the 4>rejudice of her brotlier John. Her 
scheme was frustrated, but her brother 
treated her with lenity, and she spent the 
rest of her days in retiqement and literary 
pursuits. Her death took olace in 1148. 
She is the author of the Alociad, in fifteen 
books, a history of her father's rei^ ; a 
work of merit, but in which filial a(fecti« a 
sometimes does violence to truth. 

ANNETT, Peter, a deistica. wihei, 
said to be a native of Liverpool, and edu* 
cated as a protestant dissenting minister. 
He is the autlior, among other things, of 
The History of the Man after God's owa 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


BmuU tnA tte Free Iwpiirer, lor wkicb 
Itfler wotk he was pilloried mod impriiDii- 
ed. While Aaoett waa io the Kinsr's 
Beach, hia oeceBaitiea were relieved oy 
•rchbahop Seeker. He died in 1778. 


ANNIBAL, one of the ^reatc»t, perhaps 
Che matest, general of antiquity, was a 
GarthsLgbian, the son of Amilcar Barcas, 
and was horn 247 j»rs B. c. When he 
was only a child, his father made him 
swear at the altar eternal enmity to the 
Romans, and never was vow better kept. 
At the age of twenty-five, be succeeded to 
the command of the armv in Spain, on the 
death of AsdrabaL In tJiree years he re- 
duced Spain to subjection, and completed 
bis achievement by the destraction of Sa- 
gontam, an ally of the Romans. Hence 
aroae the second Punic war. Having 
conceived the daring scheme of attacking 
Rome in the very centre of her power. An- 
aibal passed the Pyrenees with a formida- 
ble army (b. c. 2lB), traversed Gaul, cros- 
sed the Alps, b spite of almost insurmount- 
able obstacles, and penetrated iato Ital^, 
where, at the outset, he vanquished Scipio 
oa the Ticino, and Sempronius on the 
Trebbia. In the following year, he entire- 
hr defeated Fhuninius, at the battle of 
Thrasymene. Fabius, bv his prudent ma- 
Bceuvres, for a while held him at bay ; but 
the battle of Caana;, brought on ( B. c. 216) 
by the presumption of Varro, reduced Rome 
to the verge of ruin. More than forty 
thomnnd luimaDS perished on that terrible 
, dav. The force ot Annibal, however, not 
being sufficient for the reduction of the 
city of Rome, he bent his march to Ca- 
pua, which opened its gates to V«m, and 
oe there took up hb winter quarters. It 
has heen id^ said, that the luxury of Ca- 
pua proved ratal to Annibal and his army. 
But this ridiculous assertion is refbted by 
Che &ct that, though taction deprived him 
of succours from home, he kept his ground 
m Italy for more than twelve years after 
Che battle of Canne, and did not quit it tiH 
he was reeaUed tc defend Carthage against 
Seipio. The decisive battle of Zama, 
' was feaght B. o. 201, eompettea the 


Carthaginians to submit to a humiliating 
peace. His cotmtrymen now conferred on 
Annibal the pretorahip, and he began to 
btroduce the reforms which were necessa- 
ry to ffive vigour to the state; but the 
mean dread and hatred of the Romans pur- 
sued him, and they sent commiMioners to 
insist on his being delivered into their 
hands. He was compelled to fly; and the 
remainder of his life was spent in almost 
continual wandering, and endeavours to 
excite hostility against the Roman domi- 
nation. Having Eeiile- in inspiring Anti- 
odiua, king of Syria, with his own spirit 
and fortitude, he lastly took refuge with 
Prusias, king of Bitnynia, and at the 
court of that contemptible monarch he 
poisoned himself, b. c. 188, in die sixty- 
fourth year of his age, to avoid being sur- 
rendered up to those whom he had so often 

ANNIUS, of Viterbo, whose real name 
was John Nanki, was a Dominican, 
bom at Viterbo, about 1 182, and died at 
Rome, in 1502. He was a learned man, 
but disgraced his learning by applying it 
to purposes of deception. He forged vari- 
ous works, which he pretended to be the 
compositions of Berosus, Fabius Pictor, 
and many other ancient writers. These he 
publisliea with a commentary, and it was 
some time before the cheat was discovered. ^ 

ANQUETIL, Louis Pxter, a French 
historian, bom at Paris, b 1728, was edu- 
cated for the church, and obtained much 
celebrity as a theologian. Under the reign 
of Napoleon, he was a member of the^ ^- 
stitute, and was employed fay the minister 
of the foreign department. Anquetil was 
an inde&tigable student; ten hours of each 
day were (fevoted to study. He was mora 
than eighty when he began his History of 
France, which extends to fourteen volumes. 
He died i^ 1808. ^ Of his works, the prin- 
cipal are, the Spirit of the Lrague ; the 
History of France; and a Summary ot 
Universal History. 

HAM Htacinth, the brother of Louis 
Peter, was bora at Paris, in 1781, and 
was intended for the church, but devoted 
himself almost solely to the study of the 
oriental languages Such was his fondnlsa 
for those langua^, that, a Zend MS. hav* 
ing fallen into his hands, he actually enlist- 
ed as a common soldier, in an expedition 
to India, in order to have an opportunity 
of learning the Zend, Pehlevi, and San* 
scrit. He remained in Indb, encountering 
many hardships, till 1762, when he return- 
ed to Europe, with one hundred and eight) 
MSS. A pension and the situation of 
oriental interpreter in the hinge's librm 
were given to him. He died in 180a 
His productions consist of, a TranshitiM 
oftheZendavesta; and of a Persian work^ 

14 ANS 

cmitled Secreta'not to be rereafed; Ori- 
tBtel LegisWtion; Historicml and Geo- 
fniphical Rewarcbes in India; India as 
eoonected witli Europe; and aTreatite on 
tbe Dixnity of Conunerce. 

ANSELM, a native of Aoete, in Pied- 
■ont, waa born in 1033. He was arch- 
oisbop of Canterbury in the reigns of Wil- 
liam RuAis and Richard I. He was a 
strenuous supporter of Papal supremacy, 
and was the first who enforced clerical 
celibacy in England. Anselm was a learn- 
ed man, according to the learning of the 
ace in which be lived, and his works dis- 
plav acoteness of intellect. He was canon- 
lira in the reign of Henry VII. 

ANSON, George, liord, was bom, in 
1697, at his father *s seat in Suflfordshire, 
and manifested early an inclination to the 
•ea. He first obuined a command in 1722, 
but did not acquire celebrity till he was 
placed at the hc«d of an expedition to the 
South Sea, in 1740. After losing all his 
diips but one, and encountering many 
difficukies, but not without having severely 
harassed the Spanish settlements, he was 
ao fortunate as to capture a rich galleon, 
on her passage fitMU Acapulco to Manilla, 
and to reach England in safety, after an 
absence of nearly ibur years. He was 
suooeisively made rear-admiral of the blue, 
a lord of the admiralt)r, rear-admiral of 
the white, and vice-admiral of the blue. In 
1747, be deieated a French squadron, and 
captured six men of war, and four EUut 
Indiaroen. He was rewarded with a 
barony, and rose through all the inter- 
mediate ranks of the navy till he became 
admiral, and commander in chief of the 
British fleet. Lord Anson died in 1702. 
Ho was a brave and skilful seaman, but 
had little knowledge of the world, and his 
love of play made him the dupe of sharp- 

ANSPACH, the Blargravine of. Lady 
Elisabeth Berkeley, the youngest daughter 
of the Earl of Berkeley, was bom in 1 750, 
and at the age of seventeen was married 
to the Hon. Hr. Craven, afterwards Lord 
Craven. After a anion of thirteen years, 
the in conduct of her husband compelled 
her to separate from him. She travelled 
on the continent, and an attachment took 
plaoe between her and the Marsrave of 
Anspaoh, who married her. in 1791, and 
came to reside with her in JBnffland. The 
Br*tiflh court, however, refused to receive 
her, and she^iras disowned by her daugh- 
ters. She died in 1827. The Margravine 
posiesBed considerable talents. Among her 
Klerary productions are her own Bfemoirs ; 
her Tiuvels; and some dramatic nieces and 

ANSTEY, Christopher, a poet, 
bom ia 1711, was educated at Bury St. 
Kdvwd's. Etoa, and King's College, Cam- 


-br jjge. At college he obtained a l 
ship, which he resigned in 1704, on hli 
succeeding to his patrimonial property. 
For some time he mended the occupationa 
of a country sentleman with literary pur- 
suits; but, afterwards, resided princinslly 
at Bath. In 1706 appeared his New Bath 
Guide, which obtained rapid and deserved 
popularity. It has been often imitated* 
but its wit, humoimb and playfulness, have 
not yet been equalled. Anstey produced 
several other ^oems, all of consideraUe 
merit, but inferior to the New Bath Guide. 
He died in 1805. 

ANSTIS, JoHK, an antiquary, was 
bora at St. Neots, in Cornwall, u 1669, 
and was educated at Exeter College, Ox- 
ford, whence he removed to the Middle 
Temple. In 1702, he was elected M. P 
for St. Germain's, and in 1713 was ap- 
pointed garter king at arms. He died 
in 1744. Of his works, all of which are 
heraldic, the principal is the Register of 
the Order of the Garter, in two folio vol* 

ANTHEMIUS, a native of Tralles, in 
Lydia, was at once an architect,^ sculptor, 
and able mathematician. Justinian em- 
ployed him to rebuild the church of Saint 
Sophia, at Constantinc^le, which still re- 
mains a magnificent monument of hie 
talents, though he did not live to finish it. 
From certain fiicts, which history has pre- 
served respecting Anthemins, it appeara 
that he had no sk^nder portion of chemical 
knowledge, and that he must have invented 
a composition closelv resembling, if not the 
same with, gunpowder. He died in 584. 

ANTHING, Frederic, known by 
his biography of the famous field-marshal 
Suwanrof, wliose companion in arms he had 
been. He was bora in Gotha, travelled 
tiirough Europe, and went to St. Peters- 
burgh, where he supported himself 1^ cut- 
ting profiles on paper, and died in lo05. 

ANTHONY, St., the fbundo- of mo- 
nastic institutions, was an E&rptian, bora 
near Heradea, in the year 251. Taking 
literally the scriptural injunction to gi\-e 
all to tne poor, he distributed to them the 
whole produce arising from the sale of his 
property, and then retired into the desert, 
whither his reputation fbr sanctity drew 
crowds of disciples. He died at the ad» 
vanced age of one hundred and five. 

ANTIGONUS, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, was the son of 
Philip, a Macedonian nobleman. On the 
partition of Alexander's empire, Pamphy- 
lia,Lycia,and Phrygia Major were assign- 
ed to Antiffoous, to which Lycaonia wat 
subsequently aaded. After having de- 
stroyed Eumenes, he reduced Asia Minor 
and S^ia, and assumed the title of kiiw 
of Asia. Several leasues were farmaa 
against bim,over which he triumphed; Ml 


W was ^ ength defeated and uhdit, at 
A« battle 'j( Ipsoi, which he foo^t with 
BeleaciM, Canander, and Lysimachufl, 
Ml jear» b. c. Aittigomis was a roan of 
vreat talents, and amiable in domestic 

ived in the time of the high priest Elea- 
«ar, about 800 years B. c, was a disciple 
•if Simeoo the Just, and, in contradiction 
u> the Pharisees, held that men ought to 
serve God solely for the love of him, with- 
oat the hope of temporal reward; a doc- 
trine whicn his tbUowers Sadoc and 
Baithoeus pushed so far, as to teach that 
no fiitnre recompense oo^t to be expected, 
and, eonsequentiv, that there wxMild be no 
resurrection. If^nce arose the sect of the 

ANTISTHENES, founder of the sect 
oT Cynics, was bom at Athens, b. c. 423, 
and was first instructed by the sophist 
Gorgtas, and afterwards by Socrates. 
The lessons of the latter he nobly repaid 
by avenging him, it being he who procured 
the deaui of Melitus, and the banishment 
of Anytiis, the two accusers of Socrates. 
His vrorks are lost, with the exception of 
a few apophthegms ; for iwo declamations 
and some letters, which are attributed to 
him, are believed to be spurious. From 
his book on physics Cicero quotes a re- 
markable sentence— *' The sods of the 
people are manff, but the God of nature is 
one." . Pioge ncs w as his disciple. 

ANTOINETTE, Maria, archnluch. 
ess of Austria, daughter of the emperor 
Francis I. and of Maria Theresa, was 
bom at Vienna in 17S5. On the 16th of 
May, 1770, she married the dauphin of 
Fruice, afterwards Louis XVI., and her 
arrival in France was celebrated with 
erery demonstration of public joy. The 
fisrocious events of the revolution brought 
on the memorable sixth of October, when 
ibe saiigninary mob of Paris appeared at 
VersailiiBS, threatening aloud that they 
would tear her to pieces. Forced to ac- 
company the kiiiff to Paris in a journey 
of SIX hours, while the heads of two of 
her murdered body-guards were raised on 
pikes by the side of her carriage, and 
while insults, threats and blasphemies 
ever^ moment rent the air, she preserved 
a singular and noble s^^'tnitv. On the 
twentieth of June, and the tenth of Au- 
gust, 1792, those days of horror and an- 
ardiy, she again saw herself insohed, and 
•aved with difficulty from the hands of as- 
nssins; and in the assembly phe heard 
■Binoved, the decrees which robbed die 
Monarch of hu throne. She was executed 
in 1798, by order of the revolutionary tri- 
bnnaL She was then near thirty-eight, 
bat H is remarkable that her misfi>rtuites 
lad changed the colonr of her hair to a sll- 

ANT m 

vtscj white. The mind o( Antoinette wii 
naturally powerful, and had been carefhBy 

ANTONIDES, Johk, sumamed Van- 
der Goes, from his native town of Goes, 
in Zealand, was bom in 1647. He dis- 
played an early talent fi>r poetry, and soon 
rose to a hirh rank among the poets of his 
country. 2le is the author of several 
works, the most celebrated of which is a 
Descriptive Poem, in four cantos, on the 
River Y. He died at the age of thirty 

vs FuLTi(js,a Roman emperor, was bom 
at Lanuvium, A. D. 86, misled to the consul - 
■hip in 120, and in 193 succeeded Adrian, 
b^ whom he had been adopted.^ Hb reiga, 
which lasted twenty-three years, was a 
happy period for the* Roman people. Cle- 
ment, equitable, modest, and virtuous, he 
was a model for sovereigns, and hisd^th, 
which took place A. d. 161, was justly re- 
garded as a public calamity. 

ANTONINUS, Marcus Avnius Ac- 
RELIU8, sumamed the Philosopher, was 
bom A. D. 121, and adopted by Antoninus 
Pius, who gave him his daughter Faustina 
to wife. At a very early age he was de^ 
\j imbued with the stoical philosophy. On 
his accession, he associated Lucius Verus 
with himself in the govemment of the em- 

Sire. Afier the death of Verus, in 169, 
[arcus Aurelius carried on the Pannoniap 
war in person, during five campaigns, Ift 
which ne endured tlw toils of a militaij 
life, and the rigour of the climate, withom 
a murmur. From this war he was calhi 
away by the revolt of Avidins Cassiua, 
which, however, was soon ended by Avidi^ 
falling a victim to a conspiracy of his ow^ 
officers. After an absence of eight yeari^ 
Marcus returned to Rome, where he re- 
mained but a short time, and then departii 
to take the field against the Marconiaant. 
On this expedition ne died, of a pcHsti lentil 
disorder, at Vindobonum, now Vienna, A. 
D 180. The whole Roman empimmonmeil 
his death, and his name was enrolled amoM 
its tutelary deities. The sorrow whici 
his loss excited was but a just tribute to 
his public and private virtues. His Medi* 
tations, which do honour to his heart, have 
descended to us, and have been translated 
into many languages. 

ANTONIO, of Palermo, vvas born iv 
1894, and died at Naples, in 1471. If^ 
was in the service of Alphonso of Arrago0b 
He composed various pieces in prose nnd 
verse; and is said to luive sold one cf his 
3states, to procure money for the purehase 
of a manuscript Livy, copied by roggio. 

ANTONIUS, Marcos, oommviTy c4- 
led Mark Anthoht, was grandson of 
tite celebrated orator of the same nama* 
I Anthony was left an orphan yr^ young. 


tmA In ■ptidfly wited kis wImIo fbrtoe 
in rioCoof exceMei. After hsvinff served 
m Syria and Ecypt, he joined Cesar in 
Ganly by whom be was supplied witb the 
means of returning to Rome, and obtaining 
the questorship, and subsequently the tri- 
bunesbip. He ably seconded Caesar in bis 
•trnggle for supreme power, and was made 
joint consul with him. It was he who, at 
the festival of the Lupercalii, thrice offered 
C«sar the imperial diadem. Me hoped, 
on the death of the dictator, to obtain the 
sovereign power, and he succeeded in prO' 
curing the expulsion of Brutus and Cassius 
Arom Rome. They, however, formed a 
union with C)ctavius,and a contest enraed, 
which ended in Octavius joining him, and^ 
jvith Lepidus, forming the second triumvi- 
rate. A bloody proscription followed, of 
which Cicero was one of the victims.— 
The defeat of Brutus and Casoius, at Phil- 
ippi, vhich was chiefly occasioned by the 
talent and valour of Anthony, left the tri- 
umvirs uncontrolled masters of the world. 
In the east, which was his portion of the 
spoil, he reigned with exceeding splendour, 
rhere he became enamoured of Cleopatra, 
queen of Egypt, and his passion led him 
to divorce Octavia, the sister of Octavius, 
whom he had married after the death of 
Fulvia. A war was the consequence, in 
which he was defeated at the battle of Ac- 
tium, and, being eventually almost wholly 
deserted bv his troops, he fell upon his 
sword, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, b. 
€ SO. 

.4.NVARI, a celebrated Persian poet, a 
native of Khorasan, was patronised by 
Sultan Sangiar ; but, being a dabbler in 
astrology, he had the folly to predict that 
a destructive tempest would liappen on a 
certain day, which day, however, proved 
to be unusually calm. This unlucky prog- 
nostication, which had spread universal 
terror among the peoule, lost him the fa- 
vour of the sultan, ana he retired to Balk, 
where he died in tlie year 1200. 

ANVILX.E, JoH5 Baptist Boitr- 
oui050if D*, one of the most eminent of 
monem geographers, was born at Paris, 
in 1697, and bis attention was first attract- 
ed to geographical studies by a map coming 
into bis hands when he was only twelve 
years old. From that time, all tl)e leisure 
moments of his youth were employed in 
tracing out on charts the march of armies, 
and the boundaries of empires. As he 
grew up, he devoted himself to the sci- 
ence of geography, and the numerous and 
valuable maps and works which lie pub- 
lished left him without a rival. For fifty 
vears he is said to have laboured fifteen 
Bours a day. He died in 1782. 

APGUON, Cl. Mark Ant. d', a na- 
tiva of UontbrisoB, in France, was brought 
^ t0 the military profesnoa, which, how- 


ever, be quitted fi>r the church. Bm nm 
to be bishop of Dijon, and archbishop of 
Auch, and was a bright example of virtue 
and charity. In a violent conflagration, 
he intrepidly risked his own life to snat^V 
ta-o children from the flames. This excel- 
lent prelate died at Paris, in 178S, in lur 

APELLES, the mcMt celebrated of at 
cient painters, is said by Pliny to Imv 
been born at Cos, but others assign Ephe 
sns as his birthpbce. He was contempo 
rary with Alexander the Great, who bek 
his talents in such estimation, that ht 
would permit no other artist to' paint hb 
picture ; and even gave up to him the beau- 
tiful Campaspe, his mistress, with whom 
the painter had fiillen in love. Exquisite 
ffrace was the principal characteristic of 
his style. The time and place of bis death 
are unknown. , 

APER, Marcus, a Latin orator, was a 
Gaul by birth, and distinguished himself 
as an advocate at thelu>man bar. He 
also took a part in politics, and was suc- 
cessively senator, questor, tribune, and 
pretor. The celebrated Dialosue of Ora- 
tors, which has been attributca to Tacitua 
and Quintilian, is now generally believed 
to be of his composition. He died abont 
A. D. 51. 

APIAN, Pkttr, a mathematician and 
astronomer of eminence, was bom in Mis- 
nia, in 1495, and beoEune professor of ma- 
thematics at Ingolstadt. Charles V. es- 
teemed his talents so highly that he knight- 
ed him, and made him a present of three 
thousand pieces of gold, lie died in 1562, 
and his son, Philip, succeeded him as ma- 
thematical professor. Alpian was the 
first to make known that the tails of com- 
ets are always projected in an opposite di- 
rection from tne sun, and to propose the 
discovery of the longitude by uinar obser- 

APICIUS,a name which seems to hav« 
been consecrated to gluttony. There were 
three Romans who lx>re it; the first under 
Sylla, the second under Au^stus and Ti- 
berius, the third under Trajan. The sec- 
ond is the most notorious ; he is commem 
orated by Seneca, Pliny, JuvenkI, and 
Martial. The treatise De Re Culinaria 
is attributed to him. He poisoned him- 
self, on discoveVing that his fortune was • 
too much diminished to allow of his indulg- 
ing in the luxury of the table to the same 
extent that lie had done. The third Api* 
cius is more advantageouslv known as tnc 
inventor of a mode of pickling oysters. 

APION, an Egyptian grammarian, of 
considerable talents, but full of boastfej 
vanitv (for which latter Quality Tiberiua 
called him the drum of tne world), waa 
born in Egypt, during the first centurr of 
our era, and was a bitter enemy or th» 


He not only ridieoled ikun m hb 

itian, but is ako said to have stimula- 
ted Cuiguki to persecute them. His mis- 
repreaentatioiis were refute^ by Josepbus. 

APOLLODORUS, an Athenian paint- 
er, flourished about 408 years B. c. He 
WM the first who Uended and hannonized 
the colours, and made a proper distribu- 
tioo of the diadows. He considered him- 
lelf as the prince of painters; but, in his 
latter dajs, hu glory was eclipsed by that 
of ZwxxtB. 

APOLLODORUS, a native of Damas- 
a», was celebrated as an architect, in the 
retgns of Trajan and Adrian. He con- 
structed Trajan*s forum, the gigantic 
brid^ orer the Danube, and many other 
admirable structF'^es. His plain speaking 
cost him his life. A temple of Venus hav- 
iuF been erected, from a &ulty design fay 
Adrian, Apollodorus criticised it, and ex- 
claimed, that if the goddess should wi^ to 
^ out, die could not do it without break- 
uig her head against the door frame. To 
avei^e him^tf for this sarcasm, the des- 
pot pot him to death, about the year ISO. 

APOLLONIUS, an Athenian sculptor, 
said to have lived soon after Alexander the 
Great, produced the statue, believed to be 
a reposing Hercules, of which the body, 
an that remains, is known b^ the name of 
the Belvedere Torso. Mutilated as this 
staUMB is, it is one of the finest remains of 
art that has descended to us firom ancient 

APOLLONIUS, of Rliodes, an emi- 
nent statuary, who sculptured, in conjunc- 
tion with Tauriscns, the fine group which 
is called the Famese Bull, the remains of 
which «iere found in the baths of C^aracal- 
la. He is supposed to have lived some 
years subsequently to Alexander the Great. 

APOLLONIUS, a native of Perga, in 
P^mphvlia, is one of the four authors who 
bare a title to be considered as the fathers 
of the science of mathematics. EUiclid, 
Arvhimedes, and Diophantns are the ether 
three. He flourished at Alexandria, under 
the reign of Ptolemy Philopator, 200 years 
B. c. The only part of his works wliich 
ha» survived is a Treatise on Conic Sec- 
tions, in eight books, of which onlv the 
fir»t four are extant in the original lan- 
guage; three have been translated from 
the Aral>ic, and the fourth was restored by 
H.-4lley, from other sources. 

APOLLONIUS, snmamed Rhooius, 
a Greek poet, was a native of Alexandria, 
er, as some say, of Naucrates, and was 
born abncit 194 yean B. c. Gallimachus 
was his tutor, and, conceiving himself to 
have been treated ungrateful^, he took 
hw revenge by satirising his pupil. Apol- 
lonitts taught' metoric at Rhodes, and was 
iobseqiieatiy made librarian at Alexandria. 
His poem oo the Argonaut ic expeiition 

Apu n 

has nany beautiea, s<mie of which VirgiL 
did not disdain to copy. 

APOLLONIUS, Ttaheus, a native 
of Tyana, in Cappadocia, a follower of the 
doctrine of Pythagoras, was bom about 
the commencement of the Christian era. 
His history is so interwoven with &bles, 
that it is difiicult, if not impossible, to 
separate the true from the fiilse. That he 
must be called an impostor is certain, for 
he pretended to divine attributes: but his 
doctrines and his morals were, nevertb<»- 
less,pure. Several of the Roman emperors 
honoured him, temples were erected to 
him, and his memory was revered till the 
downfidi of paganism. He is said to have 
travelled into Asia Minor, Persia, India, 
and Egypt* mid to have settled at Ephosus, 
where ne is supposed to have died, at the 
age of ninety-seven, during the reign o( 
Nerva. The miracles whiok he was pre* 
tended to have performed were opposea hf 
the pagans to those of Jesus Christ. Of 
the works of Apollonius nothing remains 
but his Apology to Domitian.. ami eighty- 
four epistles. 

APOLLONIUS, sumamed Dtscolvs, 
firom his moroseness, was a native of Alex* 
andria, flourished about A. D. 136, and is 
the author of th» first extant Treatise on 
Syntax. He was the fiither of Herodian, 
a famous grammarian. 

APPIAN, a Greek historian, bom at 
Alexandria, lived under the emperors Tra- 
jan, Adrian, and Antoninus, and was a 
pleader at Rome. He is the author of a 
Roman Hist<Hy, originally consisting of 
twenty-four books, a work of great merit, 
but of which, unfortunately, only a part 
has escaped the ravages of tune. 

APPIANI, Andrew, a celebrated 
Italian painter, was bora in the Upper 
Milanese, in 1764. He died in 1818, 
while executing an immense work in the 
palace of Milui. Appiani often proved 
himself no unworthy rival of Corregio, and 

Sirticularly excelled in fi'esco paintings, 
e was a member of the Italian Institute, 
and was patronised by Napoleon, who g^ve 
him the cross of the legion of honour and 
nominated him his paintei . 

JoHir Baptist Nicholas Devis d\ 
a French hydrographer, was bora at Haviie, 
in 1707, and brouglit up to the naval ser- 
vice. He died in 1780. To him the naval 
profession is indebted for the Oriental 
Neptune, an excellent collection of charts • 
of the eastera seas, the first edition of 
which appeared in 1748. A supplement 
was published after his death. He de 
rived much valuable assistatace Crma the 
friendship of Dalrymple. 

APULEIUS, Lucius, a philosopher of 
the Platonic school, was bora at Madanra* 
in Africa, in the second century. Hit 

m ARA 

diirit of knowledge led him to trsTel nmdiy 
and this, and his liberality to his teachers, 
haring exhausted his fortune, he settled at 
Rome, and practised at the bar. Thence 
he returned to Carthase, where he married 
a rich widow named riidentilla. Enraeed 
at being tlius shut out fi-om sharing in ner 
property, her relations accused him, before 
the proconsul, of having won her by ma- 
gical arts He, howerer, refuted them in 
mn eloquent defence, wbidi is still extant. 
The time of his death is unknown. Of 
that part of his works which has been pre- 
■erred, The Golden Ass, in eleven books, 
is the BKMt celebrated. 

AQUINAS, St. Thomas, a celebrated 
theologian, to whom the hyperbolical ad- 
miration of the dark ages gave the sound- 
ing titles of the An2elicariX>ctor, the Fifth 
Doctor of the Churdi, the Eagle of Divines, 
and the Angel of the Schools. He was 
descended vom the counts of Aquino, in 
Calabria, bom in 1224, and educated at 
tne university of Naples. At the age of* 
seventeen he entered into the Dominican 
order, contrary to the wishes of his mother ; 
and wlien onty twenty-four he taught dia- 
lectics, (Ailosophy, and theology, in the 
university of raris, with great applause. 
After having lectured on divinity in several 
universities, be settled at Naples, the arch- 
bishmiric of which city he refused. He 
died m 1274, and was omonixed in 1828. 
The'Roman Catholic Cliurch considers his 
writing as of high authority; and thev 

Sve rise to a sect which bore the name oi* 
i Thomists. They form seventeen vol- 
umes ; the most celebrated of them is the 
Sumnia Theologisp. One anecdote is re- 
corded of his rradiness of repartee. Show- 1 
ing him in his closet a heap of wealth, the 
pope said, ** You see the time is gone by 
when the chturh could say * silver and gold 
have I none.* "-^« True, holy fether,'* 
replied Aquinas; '*and so is tiie time 
when she could say to the palsied, * take up 
lV bed and walk.'** 

ARAGON, TuLLiA d*, a descendant 
of an illegitimate branch of the regal house 
of Arafon, was celebrated in Italy, towards 
the middle of the sixteenth century, for her 
beauty, wit, learning, and varied accom- 
plishments. Her merits were the favourite 
theme of tlie most eminent men of the age. 
She is the author of Poems, a Dialogue of 
Love, and II Meschino, a poem in thirty- 

k ARAM, Euo Elf K, a native ofYorkshire, 
^''{'Uid son of a gardener, was bom in 1704. 
^{^9 lenins displayed itself while he follow- 
tisbed i4ie humble occupation of his futlier. 
years be x;,]}^ acquired a knowledge of ma- 
A DJiS&r •** ^**** ** "*** unwearied 
•^*^5S^ .' ^ *e L»*>n of Lilly's grammar, 
life of l|oiilbriso.Qaau]^»g Greek, till this 
^ to the military p. 'iKlvanoed gradually bat 


sorely to a comprehension of the most dUfi 
cult authors in the Greek and Latin literm 
tures. He also studied and made himeelT 
perfect in Hebrew, and with these areat 
acquirements he ffained his livelihood, hw 
engaging in several schools in the soudi of 
England. In 1767, he came to the free 
school at Lynn, a perfect master of the 
most abstruse studies, aaa acquainted with 
heraldry and botany. He had begun to 
make collections ^ radical' comparisons 
between tne modem and aacieot lancuages* 
and afaready more than three thousand words 
were selected to establish this surprisii^ 
affinity in a comparative lexicon, when hie 
bbours were arrested by the hand of jus- 
tice. He was taken up at Lvnn in 1758, 
for the murder of Daniel ClarK, ashoeaaa- 
ker of Knaresborough, who had disappeared 
thirteen years before, tnd afler a trial in 
which he defended himself with singular 
coolness and ability, he was found guil^ 
of the crime, and after attempting to coin« 
mit suicide, he was executed at York in 
1759. He acknowledged the justice of 
the sentence, and alleg^ his suspicion of 
an unlawful intercourse between Clark and 
his wife, as his motive for the commissioo 
of the murder. 

Cjesar, a celebrated anatomist, a pupil 
of Vesalius and of Matins, was bora, in 
1630, at Bologna, in which city he became 
professor of surgery and anatomy. He held 
the jirofessioiuu chair for thirty-two yeara, 
and greativ distinffuished himself. Aranai 
threw lient on the muscular system, the 
theory of the circulation, and the structure 
of the foetus and its appendages. He died 
in 1689. 

ARATUS, a Greek poet, bom at Soles. 
in Cilicia, is the'autlior of a Greek astro- 
nomical poem, intitled Phenomena, which 
was translated into Latin by Cicero, and 
quoted bj' St. Paul. His other works are 
lost. He was patronised by Ptolemy Phi- 

ARATUS, of Sicyon, one^ of the great 
men of the declining age of^ Greece, was 
born B. c. 278. At the age of only twenty, 
he delivered Sicyon, his native place, from 
the tyranny of "Nicocles, but would not 
albw a drop of blood to be shed. Beine 
entrasted witli the government, he joined 
the Achean league, and was advance<l to 
be general of the confederacy. In this 
capacity, he, by an admirable stratagem, 
recovered the citadel of Corinth firom the 
Macedonians. Circumstances, however^ 
subsequently rondered it necessary for him 
to unite with Macedon, and he, accord- 
ingly, became the ally of AntigoHus, and, 
next, of Philip. The latter monarch M 
suspected to have caused his death by slow 
poison He died B. c. 216, sinoerely 
lamented bj his fellow citiaens. His Com 


frwn actKHH and tiiiiei» are, unfortniMrtely* 


ARBUTHNOT, Johv, Dr.» wu the 
«m oC a Scotdi episcopal clergyinan, and 
was bom at ArtMthnot, near Montrote, 
•oon after the Restoration. Having com- 
pleted kis stndi^, and taken kis medical 
degree, at Aberdeen, he jMroceeded to Lon- 
don, where, for some time, he si^iported 
hsmaelf hj teaching the mathematics. In 
1704, the merits ornis paper. On the Re- 
fokuritjr of the Births of die two Sexes. 
u t u c ui ed his admission into the Royal 
Society. He rose in bis profession to be 
dw qoieeo's physician in ordinary, and a 
felbw of the CoUege of Physicians; but 
his practice does not appear to hare been 
cxtensire. Ac(|uainted with Pope, Smift, 
aad the other wits of the age, be took a 
share in their literary enterorises, and 
onntribated kirgely to the Memoirs of 
Martlnna Scriblems. The History of John 
Ball, A Treatise on the Scolding of the 
Ancients, and The Art of Politieu Lying, 
with many other pieces of wit and humoor, 
were the offiipriog of his pen. After long 
Imserinf anoer asthma and dropsy, which 
he bore with exempUry patience, he died 
in Febmary, 1736. Swift gave his cha- 
racter in few words — '* He has,*' said he, 
** more wit than all our race, and his ho- 
■anitjr is eooal to his wit.'* Nor is there 
any diiag of the exaggeration of friendship 
ii this prabe. Anmiff his so'ioas works, 
part of which are medical, may be named 
hb Tables of Ancient Coins, Weights, and 

ARCHIAS, AuLUs Licimus, a Greek 
poet, a native af Antioch, the contemporary 
aad friend or Cicero and LucuIIqi, the 
former of whom pronounced on his behalf 
the dbquent oration Pro Archia.Poeti 
Archias wrote a verse History of the Cim- 
hric war, and other works; but only a few 
epigrasBs «f his are extant. 

ZrCHILOCHUS, a G eek poet and 
■asician, bom about the ysar 700 a. c, 
«»0 the son of Telesicles if Paros, a man 
«r high raak He is celebrated for bis 

ralepdid talenls, dM bktaroaisor hb Mtftra* 
the iaveatioQ of iambie rttfm^ and hb eow*« 
ardice. In battle bt threw away bb sbJeM, 
to fly more expeditiously ; as action which 
he defended by sayings thst " it was easiei 
to get a new buckler than a new exist- 
ence." Such was the deadly virulence of 
hb invective, that Lycambes' hanged htm* 
self in consequence of having been exposed 
to it; a vbitation, however, which he 
brought on hb ovm head, by marrying hii> 
daughter to a rich suitor, after he had 
promised her to Archilochus. The poet 
was at last killed, by Corax of Naxos. 

ARCHIMEDES, one of the most cele- 
brated geometricians and mechaaiciona of 
antiqui^, was bora at Syracuse, about the 
vear 287 b. c, and was related to King 
Hiero. He, however, took no uart in 
state aAiirs, but devoted himaen to tha 
cultivation of the sciences. As a mathe- 
matician he had few rivab ; as a mechaai- 
clan he had none. The combination of pul- 
leys for rabing vast weights, the endlesi 
screw, and the screw whidi bears hb 
name, were invented by him. He b abo 
said to have constructed a machine, which 
represented the motions of the heavenly bod- 
ies. But it was in defence of Syraense, 
when that city was besieged by Marcellus, 
that hb inventive genius was the most 
splendidly dbplayed. By hb nechanieal 
inventions the besieging force was long 
held at bay. Among these waa a burning 
glass, composed of reflecting mirrors, l^ 
which he fired the hostib fleet. l*he ci^ 
was at last taken by storm, and Archi- 
medes fell by the hand of a aoklier, B. o% 
212, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. 
Several of hb works are extant. 

ARCHYTAS, a Fythamean phibso- 
pher, bom at Tarentum, about 408^ years 
B. c, was at once a mathematician, a 
^neral, and a statesman, and was eminent 
in each of these pursuits. He was seven 
times at the head of die government, and 
ofken commanded the army, without ever 
being vanquished. As a mechanician, lie 
invented the screw, the crane, and various 
hydraulic mechanics. To the philosophy 
of Archytas, Aristotb was inaebted fur 
many ideas. He was shipwrecked on the 
coast of Apulia. Hb only extant prodnc • 
tion IS a meuphysical work On the Uni- 

ARCON, LtMicKAUD D', a Freneh 
general and e ngineer, waa bom at Pontar- 
lier, in 178S, and died in 1800. He was 
intended for the church; but, from an early 
age, the time that he should have dedieateo 
to languages and theology, he ffient is 
drawing plans of fortifications. Hb pictnrv 
having been painted as an abb^, he oMit^ 
rated the clerical dress, and repbeed It by 
tlmt of an engineer; and thb silent hiat 
induced hb parent to oomply vith hh 

wtdMs. D'Arfon digtingaiBhed hiafii^, 
dving the Bevenyean war, in the defence 
of Canel. In 1780, he invented the float- 
ing batteries, which, were intended to re- 
duce Gibraltar. Tbev failed ; not, howev- 
er, by his fault ; and became an object of 
ridicule with those who measure merit by 
success: they, nevertheless, did honour to 
the genius of tlie projector. D'Ar^on is 
the author of several works on his iHrofes- 
sion, which, tliough faulty in style, abplay 
talent and skill. 

ARDERN, John, an English surgeon, 
sertlsd at Newark, in 1S49, and removed 
to Lonion, in 1870, in conseauence of his 
extensive reputation. The title of reviver 
of surgery m England in the fourteenth 
century has been given to him. He was 
particularly successful in the core of fistula, 
the mode of operating for which he much 

ARETAPHILA, a female of Cyrene, 
Vkho lived about the time of the wars be- 
tween Mithridates and the Romans, deliv 
ered her country from the tyranny of Nico- 
crates, and of his brother i^ysander, the 
former of whom had murdered her hus- 
band. Afler having given wise laws and 
institutions to the Cyreneans, she refused 
to accept the sovereign authority, and re- 
tired to a private station. 

ARETINO,Gi7iDo, or Guiuo d'A rez- 
so, bom at Areuo, in Tuscany, about the 
vear 995, was a Benedictine monk. To 
him music is indebted for the invention of 
the gamut, and other discoveries. His 
merit excited such envy among his confra- 
temi^, that he was obliged to quit his 
siMivent ; but for this he was amply indem- 
nified by thepraise and the patrona^ of 
the pope. The time of his death is not 

ARETINO, Leokabd, so called from 
Arezzo, where he was bom in 1369, but 
arbose real name vras Brani, was an Italian 
historian, of considerable merit, and es- 
teemed for his virtues. He vras secretary 
to tevtrvL. popes, and chancellor to thie 
Florentine republic. He die*' > f lorence, 
in 1444. His principal works are, a His- 
tory of his own Times ; a History of Flo- 
r€«ice; and his Letters, which contain 
miich infonuati -n respecting the literature 
of tliat age 

ARETlNO, Peter, acelebrated satir- 
ist, or rather *ibeller, was a native of Arez- 
zo, in TiMcany, and was born in 1492. He 
acquired the title of the Scourge of Prin- 
ees, and was so ^-ain of his power, that be 
eaused a medal to be struck, on which he 
styled himself the divine Aretino, and re- 
presented himself seated on a throne re- 
ceiving the envoys of sovereigns. By some 
BMoarehs, among whom was Charles V. 
and Francis I. he was bribed to silence; 
^ ot hers insured his forbearance, or pon- 


ished his aggression, by the more proper 
means of corporeal chastisement. Such was 
his propensity to ran a muck, that he was 
said to have spared the Deity in his satire 
only because he did not know him. Some 
of his compositions are of the grossest ob- 
scenity. Y<ft he wrote hymns, devotional 
pieces, and lives of sainu! He died at 
Venice, in 1656. 

ARGENS, John Baptist de Bot- 
SR, Marquis d', born at Aix, in Provence, 
in 1704, was the son of the solicitor general 
to the parliament, and was intended for the 
law, but entered the army against the wish 
of his father, and, afler many cm-ioos ad- 
ventures, was rfisbherited. A fa!' from 
bis horse having incapacitated him for mil- 
itary service, m settled in Holland, took 
up the pen fur his livelihood, ami produced 
his Jewish, Chinese, and Cabalistic Let- 
ters. Frederic the Great invited him to 
Potsdam, made him his chamberlain, and 
ffave him his friendship and a pension. He 
died at Aix, in 1771, while on a visit to 
his family. His numerous works, once 
popular, are fallen into greater neglect 
tlian they deserve, considering the talent 
and erudition which they display. 

Do d', a Spanidi historian and poet, bom 
at Balbastro, in Aragon, about 1565, was 
secretary of war and state at Naples, un- 
der the viceroy count de Lemos. He died, 
in 1618, in the Neapolitan capital He is 
the author of poems, and of three tragedies. 
Isabella, Phiup, and Alexander. 

ARGENSOLA, Bartholomew, bro- 
ther of Lupercio, bom in 1566, vras canon 
of Saragossa and chaplain of the Empress 
Maria of Austria, accompanied his brother 
to Naplei, was appointea, after his return, 
historiographer of Aragon, and died at Sa- 
ragossa, in 1631. He is the atitlior of a 
History of the Conquest of the Moluccas, 
and a Continuation of Zurita*s History of 
Aragon. It was said of the two brothers, 
that the perfect resemblance of their tal- 
ents made their countrymen believe them 
to be twins of Apollo and a Muse. 

ARGOLI, John, the ?on of a celebrated 
matliematician, was born in 1609, at Tag- 
liacozzo, in the Neapolitan territory, end 
died about the year 1660. Severaf philo- 
logical and arcmeological works proceeded 
firom his pen, but he is best known as a 
poet. When only fifteen, be wrote his 
Idyl on the silkworm, and t^o years sub- 
sec^uently his Endymion, in twelve cantos, 
which he completed in seven months, durinc 
which period he shut himself up, and su£ 
fered no one to enter his room, except to 
bring bis fexxl. 

ARGONNE, Noel, called Dom Boua- 
yenture d', burn at Paris, in 1684, died 
in 1704. He viras originally a barrister, 
but at the age of twenty-eight entered tiM 

I order. He u the aathor of a 

TVeadse on the Reading of the Fathers, 
9pd of ftDoChcr intitled fUlucation, Max- 
Ima and Reflections of M. de Moncada, 
he. ; but b« is best known by his Histori- 
cal and Literary Miecelhinies, published 
nader the name of Vigneuil Mamlle. 

ARGUIPO, Do5 Juan d% a SpaDieh 
poet, and the Maecenas of his literary con- 
temporaries, was bom at Seville, in the 
aereoteenth century. Lopez de Vega ded- 
kaied to him many of his wotIls. So lib- 
eral was Arguipo, to men of talent, that 
his fortune, tnoosh large, was insufficient 
to keep pace wiu his excess of generosity. 

ARIAS MONTANUS, Bemedict, a 
Spanish orientalist, born in Estremadura, 
in 1527, died in 1698. In addition to his 
thoroagfa knowledge of the oriental and 
classical languages, he spoke fluently the 
German, Flemi^, Frencli, and Portuguese. 
Philip II. of Sniin confided to him the 
editing of the Polyglot Bible, which is 
known as the Antwerp or Royal Bible. 
Arias was as remarkable for his modesty 
and disinterestedness as for his learning; 
a bishopric was ofiered to him, bat he pre- 
ferred the retirement of his hermitage, and 
his only bed was a cloak spread upon the' 
bare MMirds. Among his most esteemed 
works is his Treaties on Jewish Antiqui- 


AR10ST0, Lewis, a poet, one of tlie 
U>asts of Italian literature, was of a 6imily 
allied to the dukes of Ferrara, and was 
Imm at Rpg^io, in Lombardy, in 1474. 
His father wishing him to follow the pro- 
l%!«'ion of tlie civil law, be studied five 
yeaftf at Padoa; but v^'as at length allowed 
t« follow the bent of his own inclinations. 
The duke of Ferrara invited him to his 
cOort, where he became a favourite of car- 
dinal Hippolito of Este, who retained him 
fifleen vears in his service. While thus 
enga^d, be began hi^ Orlando Furioso. 
Csu^inai Bembo had advised him to com- 
pose only in Latin; but, luckily, Ariosto 
declined to follow his advice. It was in 
1615 that the Orlando was given to the 
Uprld. The duke of Ferrara employed 

Arioelo in Tarions < 
natc^ him to the sovemment of Grafi^nana. 
While holding ue latter ofKce, he is said 
to have follen in with a party of banditti, 
who infested the Apennines, but who, on 
hearing his name, conducted hinoL to his 
castle with the utmost respect. Re died 
at Ferrara, in 1533. Besides his great 
work, he is the author of satires, dramas, 
and misceUaneous poems. It is, however, 
on the Orlando that his fame principally 
rests; and, while the most splendid fancy, 
and the most exquisite powers of descrip- 
tion, continue to charm mankind, that fame 
can never ilie; 

ARISTiENETUS, a Greek writer of 
the fourth century, the friend of the rheto- 
rician Libanins, was born at Nicaea, and 
perished at Nicomedia, in the earthouake 
of A. D. 858. He is the author or two 
books of Love Epistles, part of which 
were translated by Tom Brown, and, more 
recently, by Halhedand Sheridan. 

ARISTARCHUS, a native of Samoe, 
supposed to have flourished about 280 
years B. c. was the first who asserted the 
double motion of the earth, round its axis 
and round the sun. He also invented a 
particular kind of sun dial. A treatise of 
his is extant, on the dimensions and dis- 
tance of the sun and moon. 

ARISTARCHUS, the grammarian and 
critic, was a native of Samothrace, oom 
160 years B.C., resided at Alexandria, and 
was tutor to the children of Ptolemy Phi- 
lometer, by which monarch he was much 
esteemed. He revised Homer*s poems, 
and scrutinized each verse with such critical 
rigour, that his name has ever since been 
applied to all very rigid censors. Finding 
himself attacked by a cureless dropsy, be 
starved himself to death, in the isle of 
Cyprus, at the age of seventy-two. 

ARISTIDES, an Athenian,whoee equity 
and integrity gained for him the glorious 
appellation of the Just, was the son of 
Lvsimachus. Being an admirer of the laws 
of Lycurgus, he preferred an oligarchy to 
a democracy, and was, consequently, the 
great opiwnent of Themistocles, the head 
of the democratical party. The dissensions 
between these two eminent men were so 
prejudicial to die common weal that Aris- 
tides himself once exclaimed that " the 
Athenians would never prosper till he and 
Tliemistocles were consigned to the dungeon 
for condemned criminals." The selfdenial 
and patriotism of Aristides were strongly 
manifested by his giving up his share of 
the command to Miftiades, before the battle 
of Marathon; and his conduct after the 
battle, when entrusted to divide the spoils, 
was equally praiseworthy. In the yeai 
491 B. r. lie was archon, or chief mo^is- 
trate ; an office which he filled with high 
repuution. Thcmistocles, howc%*er, suo 

Digitized by 


41 AU- 

tseded in having bSm ■enteneed to bunb- 
ment by ostracism. On ibis occasion, a 
voter who could not write, and did not 
know him, met bim, and asked him to in- 
scribe the name of Aristides on the shell 
for bim. " Did Aristides ever injure youl *' 
said the patriot. ** No," replied the man, 
'* but I am weary of bearing bim called 
tbe Just.** Aristides wrote his own name, 
and returned the shell. Being recalled 
from banishment, when Xerxes was lure- 
paring to invade Greece, he bid all private 
differences aside, and acted in perfect con- 
cert with Themistocles. Af the battle of 
Platan he commanded the Athenian forces, 
and fouffht bravely, and, subsequent to the 
battle, bis wisdom put an end to a danger- 
ous quarrel which arose between tbe con- 
federates. He died of old age abont 467 
years B. c, and did not leave sufficient 
property to defrav the expense of bis 
funeral. He was Duried at tne public cost, 
a pension and an estate were given to bis 
son, and suitable portions to nis daugh- 

ARISTIDES, of Miletus, a Greek wri- 
ter, who flouridied in the second century 
before the Christian era, is the author of 
various historical works blended with feble ; 
but is better known as the author of The 
Milesiacs, a collection of obscene tales. 
Plutarch tells us, that Surena, after his 
victory over Crassus, found these Ules in 
tbe baggage of Rustius, and sent them to 
tbe senate of Seleucia, as a proof of tbe 
dissolute manners of the Romans. 

ARISTIDES, iELius, an orator and 
tepbiat, was born at Adriani, in Mvsia, 
A. D. 129, travelled four times through the 
whole of Egypt, penetrated into Ethiopia, 
and at last ^settled at Sm3rma, where his 
eloquence ^ined bim high reputation. 
Snmna having been destroyed by an earth- 
quake, A. D. 178, be so pathetically de- 
scribe * tbe calami^ to Antoninus, that tb^ 
emperor instantly ordered the city to be 
rebuilt. For this Service tbe grateful in- 
habitants erected a statue to Aristides, in 
the temple of Esculapios. His works were 
published at Oxford, by Jebb, in two 
quarto volumes. 

ARISTIPPUS, a native of Cvrene, 
whence tbe sect which be founded was 
called the Cyrenaic, flourished about 400 
years b. c. He <^uitted his native place 
to become the disciple of Socrates ; but he 
soon found the doctrines of his master too 
ri^id, and deviated widely from them. 
His extravagance having injured his for- 
tune, he opened a school of rhetoric, and 
was tlie first of the Socratists who taught 
for gain. After several adventures at 
iEgih^, Corinth, and Rhodes, he visited 
dM ooart of Dionysius at Syracuse, and 
aDpaars to have resided there fur a con- 
aiderable tine. He, honrover, returned to 


Athena. The time orbisdeodiiaiHikiiawa« 
but must have been subsequent to B.C. 886. 
Aristippus was a man of wit and elegant 
manners, but is charged with having been 
too much addicted to pleasure. 

ARISTOGITON, an Athenian, who, in 
conjunction with his friend Harmodius, 
formed a conspiracy against the tyrants 
Hipparchus ana Hippies, B. c. 616. Hip. 
parcbus was slain, but Hippias escaped, 
and caused them to be put to death. The 
Athenians, afterwards, u«ia almost divine ' 
honours to their memory. 

ARISTOMENES,a Greek warrior and 
patriot, was the son of Nicomedvs,a ie- 
scendant of t)Je ancient Nesseniun kin^- 
Indignant at the subjection in which his 
countrymen were held b}- the Spartans, 
he raised tbe banner of freedom, k. c 686, 
and, by acts of almost romantut vak>ur, 
long made head against the opiiressors. 
He died at Rhodes, while on a visit to bis 
son-in-law. A colony of Messenians, under 
his son, founded Messina, in Sicilv, b. c. 

ARISTOPHANES, an Athenian comic 
dramatist, lived about the middle of the 
fifth century B. c. and was contemporary 
with Euripides, Pkito, and Socrates. Tbe 
hitter philosopher be attacked in his com- 
edy of The Clouds, and is thereby supposed 
to have contributed to the unjust death of 
the object of hw satire This po)]ular idea, 
however, appears manifestly abwrd, when 
we consider that twenty years eUpsed bo* 
tween the representation of The Clouda 
and the death of Socrates. AriBtophanes 
was the author of fifty-four comedies, of 
which only eleven have descended to oa. 
His^ style has always been admired for Ha 
Attic elegance; his wit for its poignancy 
and bis (Mlineation of manners for its per* 
feet fidelity. 

ARISTOTLE,often called tbe Staginte,. 
a Grecian pbilosopher, was the son of 
f^icomachns, physician to Amyntas, king 
of Macedon, and was bom at Stagyra, ia 
Thrace, B. c. 884. He k>st his parenti 
while in his childhood, and at the ago of 
seventeen became tbe discipM of PiMib 

Digitized by 



«W valoed kirn kigMy, aad with hImnd 
b« renuuced for twenty ytm. During 
Ch» period he was unwearied in his atten- 
tion to stadj, aud bis acquirements were 
commeus ur ate with his diligence. Such 
m* hi* fiune lor learning tMt, B. c. 341, 
he was choeen \ij Philip of Macedon to 
educate Alexander, who was then fourteen 
years of age, and in this occupation he 
n>e«K eirht years. After the defuurture of 
AlexaiMwr oo his Asiatic expedition, Aris- 
totle '^etnmed to Athens, where be opened 
his school, in a building called the Lyceum, 
and founded the sect of Peripatetics, so 
called from hu bavin? walked about while 
1m lectured. When he had pursued this 
course for thirteen years, he was com- 
p^led to quit Athens, in. consequence of a 
fHroloiis and calumnious charge of impiety 
being brought arainst him. He withdrew 
to Clialcis, in Enbsa, where he died in 
the sixty-third year of his age. Aristotle 
was wenod in every science then known ; 
and he illustrated them, in bis Mrritings, 
with all the resources of a "nighty mind. 
Though his works have lost much of the 
authority which they once possessed, yet 
has nasM will ever be venerated as that of 
Tu^ of the greatest philosophers of ancient 

ARIUS, a presbyter of the church of 
Alexandria, the founder of the Arian sect, 
'in the beginning of the fourth 
whether he was a native of Alex- 
andria', or of Libya, is not ascertained 
His disputes with bishop Alexander, re»- 
pectin^ the second person in the Trinity, 
^▼e nse to a schism in the church, and to 
wfinite pemcution. He owned Christ to 
be God; but denied him to be coequal 
and coetemal with the Father. This opinion 
was pronounced heretical bv the Nicene 
coaacil, and Arhu was banished. He was, 
ho wever, uhimately recalled; but there 
seems to be every reason to believe that 
his opponents cut short his triumph by 
poisoaifur him, A. D. 886. 

ARKWRIGHT, Sim Eichard, 
Ea^lish manufocturer, to whom his country 
is higUy indebted for improvements in cot- 

ton spinning, was Cora at Preston, in Lan- 
cashire, in 1782, and was originally in the 
humble situation of a country barber. He 
afterwards became a travelling hair mer- 
chant. Having a talent fof mechanics, he 
I his attentionr to the inventing a ma- 

> mventin|^ 
I for spinning cotton; or, as his oppo- 
nents contended, availed himself ol the ideas 
of others; and, after many trials and foil- 
■res, succeeded in accomplishing his pur- 
pose. His patent was, indeed, ultimately 
set aside; but not before he had amassed a 
nrincely fortune, as the proprietor of im- 
veose cotton wonts, at Cromford, in Der- 
Mihiro. He died in 1792. 
ARLOTTO-M AIN ARDO, a Fforentme, 

born in 1886 died m 1488, was a parUi 
minister in the bidiopric of Fiesole. His 
£Bune, which was extensive, was not ac* 
Quiredby any thing connected with his pro* 
femion, but by his jests and fiu^lious 
speeches, vHiich were in every body's 
OMHith, and gained him large presents from 
several princes. Arlotto, however, was 
not a mere joker ; he m'ngled good sense 
with his wit, and performed Be n ev o lent 
Actions. ^ A collection of his witty sayings 
was published after his death. 

ARMINIUS, or HERMANN, the de- 
liverer of Germany, was the son of Higl* 
mer, a chief of the Cherusci. Sent to 
Rome as a hosta^, he was educated there, 
served with distinction in the Roman ar- 
. and was made a citixen and kniclit 
by Augustus. He was not, however, to M 
seduced by benefits received from the op- 
pressors of his country. Having incited 
the Germans to revolt, he defeated and 
slew Varuff, and nearly exterminated the 
Roman armv, in the oefiles of Teutberg, 
A. D» 9; Mn ^ subsequently baffled uU the 
efforts of GeniMinicus to subdue him. He 
was assassinated in the thirty-ninth yeai 
of his age, A. D. 20. 

ARMINIUS, James, whose real name 
was Harmensen, a celebrated divine, 
was bom in the year 1560, at Oudewater, 
in Holland. He lost his father in infancy; 
and hiiii mother, sister, and brother were 
put to tlie sword by the Spaniards, while 
ne was at the university of Marpurg. In 
1588, he became a preacher at Amsterdam, 
and, afterwards, was appointed professor 
of divinity at Leyden. Being engaged to 
refiite a work affainst Bexa's doetrme of 
predestination, he was converted by the 
writer *8 arguments; and his teaching the 
new doctrines that he had espo us ed save 
such deadly offence to the bij^oted Calvin- 
ists, that they spared no pains to embitter 
his existence. He died in 1609, worn out 
by continued persecution. Arroiniuswas 
learhed, eloquent, amiable, tolerant, and 
virtuous. His motto was *' a good con- 
science is paradise.*' Hb followers bear 
the name of Arminians; and in Holland 
that of Remonstrants; the latter appella* 
tion they derive firom a remonstrance ad- 
dressed to the sUtes of Holland, in 1610. 

ARMSTRONG, JoHir, a poet and phv* 
sician, wasbom at Castleton, in Roxburgh* • 
shire, about 1709, was educated and took 
his degree at Edinburgh, and settled in 
London. lu 1760, he was appointed pinp- 
sician to the army in Germany, whence he 
returned in 1768. He made the tour of 
Italy, with Fnseli, the painter, in ITTi, 
and died in 1779. His practice was liraited, 
but he contrived to save a cdnstdovable 
sum of money. He is the authoi of sev- 
eral poems and prose compositions, some 
of the hitter of which are on ■wdioal mJ^ 

• ARIf 

The workto whidi be owei hit per- 

nt reputatioD is The Art of preterv- 

iDg Heakn/a poem, which ia superior to 
any other didatic production in verse. 

ARN ALL, William, a political writer, 
ander the aidministration of Sir Robert 
Walpole, of which minister he was one of 
the hired defenders, was bred an attorney; 
but turned to literature, and succeeded 
€k>ncanen in the British Journal. But his 
principal engine in the premier's behalf 
was The True Briton. Though he is said 
«o have received from the treasury eleven 
JiousamI pounds in four years, he fell into 
want, and put an end to his existence in 
1741, when only twenty-six years of age. 

ARNAUD, DlNiXL, a troubadour of 
the twelfth century, was bom of noble pa- 
rents in the province of Perisord. Dante 
praises his prose as well as bis verse pro- 
ductions, and Petrarch styles him '*tbe 
grand master of love." He was a musi- 
cian alsOf and the inventor of a species of 
composition named tettine. 

AkNAUD, de Ville Neuvx, so called 
from the place of his birth, believed to be 
near Montpelier, was a highly talented 
physician and philosopher, bom about the 
middle of the tnirteenth century. In pur- 
suit of knowledm he travelled into Italy 
and Spain, in ^ich latter country he aic- 
miired, from the Arabian doctors, profound 
skill in medicine. Being suspectea of her- 
esy, he vras compelled to quit France, and 
retire into Sicily. He perished by ship- 
wreck in 1810. 

ARNAUD, Francis Baculard d', 
a dramatist and poet, bom at Paris in 
1718, died in that city in 1806. He was 
of a noble Provencal family, and was early 
countenanced by Voltaire, who gave him 
both money and advice. Before he was 
seventeen be wrote three tragedies. After 
havin|[ resided for some time at Berlin, as 
the friend of the great Frederic, he re- 
turned to Paris, where he applied himself 
wholly to literature, and at length became 
indigent. Of his tragedies only the Count 
de Gonmiinges was a^ed. His poems and 
romances are numerous. 

ARNAULD, Heitrt, a French eccle- 
sioslic, the ion of an eminent advocate, 
was bom in 1597, and, after having been 
tntruBted with important missions to Rome, 
and other Italian courts, was made bishop 
3f Angers, in 1649, and thenceforth de- 
voted himself strictly to the performance of 
tiis episcopal duties. His piety and char- 
ity were exemplary, and the only time, 
durin|f nearly half a century, that he (quit- 
ted his diocew, was to reconcile the prince 
of Tarento with his father. Angers having 
revolted, the qu^en mother threatened that 
citv with severe vengeance, and was long 
laflexible. Amauld at length saved it, by 
oying, when he adminisimd to her the 


Receive, nadamy your C3o«^ 
who pardoned his enemies, even when ht 
was dying on the cross.*' To a firjend, 
who told him that he ought to take one day 
in the week for recreation, he retried, " I 
will readily do so, if you will point out anv 
day on which I am not a bisaop.*' Thfs 
worthy prelate died in 1692, deeply la- 
mented by his ilock, who oonsiderra him 
as a saint, and ea^ly sought to obtain 
even the merest trifles that bad once be« 
longed to him. His Negotiations in Italy 
were published, in 1748, in five volumes. 

ARNAULD, Amthont, brother of 
Henry, was bora at Paris, in 1612, studied 
in the colleges of Calvi and the Sorbonne, 
and took his doctor's degree in 1641. The 
publishing, in 1648, of his work on Fre- 
quent Communion, vyhich viras viralently 
attacked by the Jesuits, was his first ap- 
pearance on the arena of controversy, 
where, during the remainder of his life, he 
made so conspicuous a figure. He next 
espoused the cause of Jansenius, for which 
he was expelled fix>m^e Sorbonne. The 
result of this vras, that he was compelled 
to live in retirement till the year 1668, and, 
while thus secbded, he produced many 
treatises. The Calvinists were the next 
objects of bis attack; after which he had a 
contest with MalelMnuiche. The intrigues 
of his enemies having rendered it necessary 
for him to quit France, he withdrew to tfaa 
Netherlands, where hie continued hostili- 
ties against the Jesuits and Protestants. 
He died at Brussels, in 1694. ArnauM 
was a man of extensive eradition, and an 
indefatigable and excellent writer on a Y*a- 
riety of subjects, literary and philosophical, 
as well as theokwical. His works extend 
to no less than fortv-five quarto volumes. 
Tbou^ b social life nis manners were mild 
and simple, he was of an impetuous dispo- 
sition. N icole, his fellow labourer in some 
of his controversies, having declared to him 
that he was tired of ceased warfare, and 
wished to rest, ** Rest !" exclaimed Ar- 
nauld, '* will you not have all eternity to 
rest in 1" 

ARNE, Thomas AiToustcs, the u-m 
of an upholsterer, was bora in 1710, eob- 
cated at Eton, and broojjht up to the law; 
but, during his clerkship, he, 1^ stealthy 
made for greater progress in the principles 
of harmony 'ban in the legal dradgnry to 
which he was condemned. Finding it in 
vain to contend against nature, his father 
allowed him to pursue the study of music. , 
Arne first came before th« public, as a 
composer, in Addison's opera ot Rosamond, 
which was acted in 1788 His next great 
effort was the setting of Milton's Co^ioa. 
in 1788. From that peiiod bis popularity 
continued to increase; and in songs lie 
was confessedly without a rival. In 1759, 
the university of Oxford^ conferred on hini 

Digitized by VjOG 

It tens of 


Ar*e rowpoTd mt KmC thirty 
piecet Ibr th« stage, among which, besides 
OKwe already mentioned, may be noticed 
the opera of Artaxerxet, and the masque 
of Amed. In the latter, i»-afl first given 
to the world the spirit stirring song of 
Rale Britannia. 

ARNOBIUS, (denominated the Elder, 
to diMinciiiah him from a bishop of Gaol) 
tangfat rhetoric at Sicca, in Africa, a^d 
was originany a sealons idolater. Daring 
the p er s e cl ioo imder Diocletian, however, 
be was eoaverted to the Christian &ith, in 
ddence of which he wrote an animated 
treatise, in seven books, which is still ex- 
tant. The time of his death is miknown. 
Lactaatios was hu disciple. 

ARNOLD, of Brescia, an Italian monk, 
«f the twelfth centnrv, was a disciple of 
Abefaurd. He was charged with heresy; 
hot it is probable his r«U crime was his 
having taoght that the chorch ooght to be 
divested (rt iu worldly possessions, and 
redaced to its primitive simplicity. Being 
eoodeauied by the council of Lateran, be 
iedtoSwitaerland; but, some years after, 
he went to Rome, hoisted there the stand- 
ard of eivil and clerical reform, accom- 
plished his purpose, and for ten years pos- 
sessed the chief power. Adrian IV. suc- 
eeeded in expelling him, and he retired 
to Tascanr; there, however, he was 
seised, and was taken back to Rome, 
where he died by the hands of the execu- 
tioner, A. D. 1156. Arnold^ was a man 
of rnM eloquence and erudition, and of 
an irreproachable character. 

ARNOLD, Benedict, known for his 
distinguished services, and daring treach- 
ery in the American Revolution, was bom 
m Connecticut of an obscure^ parentar 
and received an education suitable to his 
huaible condition. Eager for renown, and 
greedy of money, he embraced the cause 
of hb countrymen at an early period, and 
took the eoounand of a company of volun- 
teers at New Haven. He soon won a hifh 
milttary reputatioa, and was employed by 
Washington in expeditions that required 
the higlmst skill and courage, and placed 
in the command of posts of tne highot im- 
When the Enrlish evacuated 
lia, Arnold was directed to take 
si«>n of that city wiOi some troops 
of the Pennsylvania fine. Here he was 
gviltv of the most profligate extravagance 
and me meanest peoilation. Charges were 
preferred against him, he was triM before 
a coort martial, and condemned to be re- 
■rimanded by the commander in chief. 
He iamwdiatd^ qotfted the army, and 
thenceforth nourished an implacable hatred 
against die caoee which he had so bril- 
llaatly defcaded. Havinr subsequently 
' * ' ' a corrtsoundeiice with Su 

Hettj CltatoB, and a dlreet eommonle* 
tion with the English general baving beat 
established, it was agreed between them 
that Arnold should dissemble his real foel 
ings and make every eflfort to obtain a 
command fi^om general Washington. He 
was but too successfol, and the fortress of 
West Point, a military station of very 
great importance was confidently intrusted 
to him. Tnis fortress he bargained with 
guwial Clinton to deliver into his bands; 
and the price of his treachery was the 
promise of 80,000 pounds sterling, and thi 
rank of brigadier general in th& Britisl 
army. The treason was discovered b*^ the 
accidental arrest of Andre, the agent o4 
the British general in effecting the nero* 
elation. Arnold escaped wiu difiicutt} 
on board a Britbh ship of war, and on tUc 
conclusion of the m-ar was rewarded by nit 
employers with a pension. He died in 
London in 1801. 

ARNOLD, Dr. Samuel, an emineft 
musical composer, was bom at London, 
in 1789, and received his scientific instruiv 
tion from Mr. Gates and Dr. Nares. Abool 
the year 1760, he became composer te 
Covent Garden theatre, and in 1776 was 
engaged to conduct the musical department 
at the Haymarket theatre. In 1767, ht 
brought out the oratorio of the Cure of 
Saul, which was succeeded by several 
others. His Prodigal Son was porformod 
at the instalment of Lord North as chan- 
cellor of Oxford. In 1771 he purchased 
Marylebone Gardens, for which be com- 
posed several excellent bmrlettas. Till the 
close of life, he continued to increase in 
fortune and reputation. He died in 1802. 
Besides his Oratorios, Operas, and other 
compositions, the public Is indebted te 
him for a splendid and uniform edition of 
Handel, and four >^volumes of cathedral 
music, in eontinoation of Dr. Boyce*i 

ARNOLFO DI LAPO, an Italian ar- 
cfaitect, bora in 1282, died in 1800. He 
fortified Florence, and erected many pala* 
ces and other buildings in that city; but 
his masterpiece is the celebrated cathedral 
of Santa Maria del Fiorei^ a majestic edi- 
fice, which, however, he did not live to 
finish, the cupola being the work of Bra- 

ARRIA, a Roman ladjr, the wife of 
C»cina P»tus, whose fortitude and cpii* 
jugal aflection have immortalised her 
name. Several acts of noble firmness were 
crowned by that which terminated her 
existence. Her h us b and, having rebelled 
against Claudios, was ordered to destroy 
himself. Seeinff him hesitate, Arria 
plunged the poniard into her own breast» 
and then presented it to him, sayin|, at 
I the same time, ** P«tos, it b not painftill'* 
I ARRIAN, PtATius, aOroek historian. 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

bora m dtt leeoad eemacjt at W twuJi i , 
waf the diKiple of Epictetiu, aiid bore 
•nas imder Adrian, wno made him go- 
%enior of Ca|)padocia. That province tie 
defended against the Alans, and was re- 
warded with the consular dignity, the title 
of senator, and the high priesthood of 
Ceres and Proserpine. Several of his 
works are lost ; among those which remain 
are The Expedition of Alexander, and the 
Manual of Epictetus. 

ARROWSMITH, Aaroit, an eminent 
constructor of maps and cbarta, and hydro- 
grapher to his majesty, was a native of 
the metropolis, and died, at the age of 
seventy-four, in May, 1823. Many of his 
maps are on a larie scale, and finely en- 
mved. Among them may be mentiened 
his India, Alpine Countries, Southern 
ItJy, Environs of Constantinople, kc. kc. 

ARSACES I. the (bunder of the Par 
thian monarchy, and of the dvnasty of the 
Arsacides, floonsbed about 250 years b. c. 
Irritated bv an unnatural insult which the 
governor of the province had offered to 
nis young brother, he raised the standard 
of revoH in Parthia a^inst Seleucus, suc- 
ceeded in emancipating his countrvmeni^ 
and was rewarded by them with the 
diadem. He conquered Hyromia, and 
reignedprosperously for thirty-ei^t years. 

ARTeDI, Pkter, a Swedish jsbysi- 
cian and naturalist, bora in 1705, vras 
drowned at Amsterdam in his thirtieth 
He was the fellow student and 
friend of Linimus, who, in honour 
of him, gave the name of Artedia to one 
class of nmbelliieroos plants. His only 
work is the fchthyologia, or History of* 
Fishes, which was pubtisbed by Linmraa, 
after the author*s death. 

ARTEMON, a native of CUxomene, 
was a contemporary of Pericles, whom he 
accompanied to tlie siege of Samos. He 
is said to have invented the battering ram 
and the testodo. 

ARTEVELLE, James, a brewer of 
Ghent, in the fourteenth centurv, acquired 
by his eloquence, talents, and riches, a 
mure powerail influence over the Flemincs 
than their sovereigns had ever pos s e s s e d. 
He even suoceedea in eompelling the count 
of Flanders to take refuge in France; 
after which he formed an alliance with 
Edward HI. and strove to transfer the 
Flemish sovereignty to the Black Prince. 
He was slain in a tumult at Ghent, in 1845. 

ARTEVEIXE, Philip^ the son of 
James, was chosen by the Flemings as 
their leader, when thev revolted against 
their Count, in 1882. His first act was to 
avenge the murder of his father. He de- 
feated the Count, and made himself master 
)f Bruges; but the French having sent a 
Mmerous «rmy to the assistance of the 
dethronarf priaoa, Artavallt was dtleatad 


, at the battla «f i 
Novessber, 1882. 

ARTHUR, a British prince, said im 
have been the son of Uther, whom he suc- 
ceeded in the year 516. His history is ib 
blended with the wildest fiction, that it ia 
difficult to collect the truth. It appears, 
however, that he carried on wr sacee— 
fully against the Saxons, Scots, and Picis, 
and that he was mortallv wounded, a. o. 
542, ia a ;>^te«t with Motdred, his pa* 
volted nephew. 

ARTIGAS, Don John, was born at 
Monte Video, in 1700, and was ortrinal^ 
in the Spanish service, but ooltted it to 
fight for the independence of nis ooantrr. 
Juker having fveatlv contributed to estao- 
lish the republic of Booios Ayres, he b^ 
came an object of suspicion to the goveni- 
ment of that stajtet was declared a traitor, 
and compelled to take up arms. For some 
years he kept poss e ssion of the territory 
called the Baada Oriental. At leaffth, 
however, he was defeated, and ooaBpellea 
to seek refuge in Pammay, where he died 
in 1826. 

ARUNDEL, Thomas, second son of 
the earl of Arundel, was bom in 1858, 
became bishop of Ely at the an of twen^ 
two, and vras successively lord cfaaaceUor, 
archbishop of York, and archbishop of 
Caaterbunr, to which latter see he was 
raised in 1886. He vras banished fer his 
resistance to Richard II., but was restored 
to the primacv oa the aocessioo of Heary 
IV. Arundel was a rigorous p er s ec u tor 
of tha Lolhurds or Wickliditflp, and ferbad 
the translation of the Scriptures into the 
vulgar ton^. He died, m 1418, of aa 
-infiaammtioa of the throat, and as his dis- 
ease happened shortly after he had ezoom* 
municated Sir John Oldcastle, the Lollards 
attributed it to divine vengeance. 

ARUNDEL, Thomas Howard, earl 
of, a nobleman of taste, learninff, and a 
munificent spirit, in the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I. He sent Petty ialo the 
Levant, ia search of aatiqni ti cs, who ob- 
tained for him, among other thin^, the 
celebrated Arundelian marbles, which the 
earl's graadsoa afterwards presented to the 
university of Chiford. Arundel left Eng- 
land whim the dvil vrar commeaoed, and 
died at Padua, in 1646. 

ARUNDEL, Blapchx, hidy, a daugh- 
ter of the earl of Worcester, and wife of 
Lord Arundel of Wardour, meriti to be 
enrolled among heroines for her noble de- 
fence of Wardour Castle. With oafar 
twenty-five men, she held out a siese or 
ten days against Sir Edward Hungerford's 
force of tnirteen hundred men, and at 
length obtained honourable terms. 8hm 
died in 1668, aged sixty-six. 

ASCHAM, Roger, a learaad writer, 
bom, ia 1615, at Khrfay Wiska, ia Todu 

Digitized by 


Air»» wtedfiitdt St. Jdu't CMkgs, 
Cgaabrid^ where he took hb degrees, 
•nd obtained a fiellowshtp, and the places 
of Gredi professor and oniTersity orator. 
In 1544» be pahlished bis Toxophihu, 
which Henry VIII. rewarded with a pen- 
•ioo of ten pounds In IMS, he becsune 
cbmical tntor to the Princess Elisabeth, 
which office he threw ap after baling held 
it two years, and aoooapanied the English 
■inbewi'ndor to Germany, as his secretary. 
lie was Latin secretary to Mary, and to 
his former i^vpil Elixabeth. Beinff of 
careless habits, and iond of cockfignting 
and earning, he died poor, in 1668. As a 
nehomr ami a writer he stands high in 
wtimation. Of his works those most fire- 

ASDRUBAL, son-in-hiw of Amikar, 
the fiuher of Annibal, was elected as general 
by the armr in Spain, after the death of 
Amilcar, Vbom he had aeoompanied thither. 
Annifaal served under him during three 
campaigns. - Asdrabal extended the Cw- 
thaginian coaqne st s in that coontry, and 
baift New Garthage, now Carthagena, to 
secure them. After having govenied for 
mght years, he was assassinated (b. c. 
2w) 1^ a Gaulish slave, whose 
had put to death. 
' ASDRUBAL BARCA, brother of An- 
nibal, was left to command in Spain by 
Aanibal, and obtained many successes in 
dmt counti^. His brother standing in 
need of assistance, Asdrubal crossed the 
Alps, and was advancing along the coast 
of the Adriatic, when he was met by the 
Romans, near the Metaums (b. c. 207), 
was deflnued, and, with iftyniix thousand 
of his troops, was slain. His head was 
cat off, and thrown into Annibal's camp, 
who, at sight, of it, is said to have confess- 
ed that his hopes, and those of Carthage, 
were annihilated. 

A8ELLI,Caspar, a native of Cremona, 
/hmrished early in the seventeenth century, 
and was proinisor of anatomy at Pavia. 
Anatomical science is indebted to him for 
the uBDortant discovery of the hu;teal ves* 
sels, uniich he first observed while dissect- 
ing a d^. He died, in 1626, at Milan. 

ASGILL, JoHir, an Endish barrister, 
hern about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, a man of great talents and humour, 
was expelled firoa the Irish parliament, 
and then from the English, for writing a 
book in whici he'mamtained that man 
might be translated to heaven without 
passing through death. For thb, though 
iw strenuously asserted his belief in the 
Scriptures, he was persecuted as a.Uasphe- 
aer and an infid^ Fhe last thirty years 
of his life were spent in the King's Bench, 
where he eootioned to pteeerve his spiriu 

mibrofcen. m^ at length died, m 1728, el 
a very advanced age. 

ASHMOLE, Eli AS, an antiquary, bom 
at Litchfield, in 1617, settled at London in 
1688, as a chancery solicitor, but became 
a student of Brazennse College at the 
breaking out of the civil war. He, how- 
ever, did not confine himself to collegiate 
pursuits, for he served the king in the ord- 
nance department, both at Oxford and 
Worcester. On the down&I of the roval 
cause, he went to London, and wasted his 
time b studying the occult sciences, on 
which he publishod several works. After 
the Restoration be received the reward of 
his loyalty, being appointed Windsor her 
aid, and a commissioner of excise. The 
former oftce he resigned in 1675. He 
died in 1692. His great production is the 
Histonr of the Or^r of the Garter. In 
1688, ne gave his cabinet of curiosities to 
the university of Oxford, to which he af- 
terwards added his library and hu MSS. 
This was the commencensent of the Mu- 
seum Ashmoleanum. 

ASFASIA, a celebrated Grecian eour^ 
tesan, was a native of Miletus, in Ionia, 
who settled at Athens, where she acquired 

Ci influence b^r her beauty and talents, 
skill in politics, philosophy, and rheto- 
ric was extensive, and her eloquence was 
of a superior order. Socrates was her 
friend, or, as some say, her lover; and 
Pericled was so fondly attached to her, 
that, in order to marry her, he divorced 
his wife. After the death of Pericles, she 
was united to Lysicles, an obscure man, 
whom she raised to importance in the 
state. C)rro9 ^ve the name of Aspasia to 
his favourite mistress Milto, in ooniplimeat 
to her charms. 

ASPINWALL, William, was bom ni 
Brookline, Massachusetts, in 174S, and 
was graduated at Harvard University in 
1764. Immediately afterwards he began 
the study of medicine, and completed his 
course at the hon>iul of Philadelphia, in 
the university or which city he received 
his medical degree about tne year 1768. 
He acquired great skill and celebrity in 
inoculating for the small-piox, and erected 
hospitals for the purpose in Brookline, 
where large numbers resorted. As a phy- 
sician, Dr. A. obtained gre^t distinction, 
and devoted himself with unremitting seal 
for forty-five years to the duties of a very 
extensive practice. For some years befom 
his death ne was afflicted witn blindness* 
a misfortune which he bore with tranquIUitf 
and resignation. He died in 1828. 

ASPREMONT, F R a b cis, Visconnt d\ 
was governor of Bayonne, in the reign of 
the monster Charles IX., and is imn 
tallied by his heroic ansvrer to that i 
~ I, who had co mm a nd ed him toBMt 

Digitized by 


m AST 

ere the Oehiiiiiti. ««Sire," replied he, 
*' amoag the citiseM and soldiers, I have 
feand men deroted to your majesty, but 
not a single executioner. They and I, 
therefore, entreat vou to make use of our 
anns and our Hves^ only in things which 
are possible, howerer dangerous they may 
. be.»*^ 

ASSAS, Nicholas, Chevalier d*, cap- 
tain of the French reeiment of Auvergne, 
acquired imperishabfe fame by devoting 
himself, in the campaign of 1760, on the 
Rhine, for the safetv of the army to which 
Ae belonged. While on a reconnoitring 
party, he was seized by a hostile column, 
whidi was advancing to surprise the 
French. Though threatened with death 
if he uttered a word, he unhesitatingly 
gave the alarm, and instantly fell, pierced 
with numerous wounds. Louis XVI. grant- 
ed a perpetual pension of one thousand 
firancs to the eldest descendant of the Ass- 
as* &mily. 

ASSER. a celebrated Jewish doctor, 
bom at Babylon, in 858, was the principal 
Wnpiler of the Babylonian Talmud. At 
the age of fourteen he was made president 
of the academy at Sora, and attained the 
highest repute as a teacher. His scholars 
were two thousand four hundred in num- 
ber He died in 427.. 

ASSER, or ASSERIUS, Menetek- 
si8, a learned ecclesiastic, supposed to 
have been a native of Wales, was educated 
at Saint David's, of which city he subse- 

ritly was archbishop. Beinff invited to 
court of Alfred the Great, lie became 
the friend, chaplain, and instructor of that 
monareh, who rewarded him with the two 
*ich monasteries of Ambrosebury and 
Barnwell, and, afterwards* with the bish- 
opric of Exeter, and, lastly, that of Sher- 
oome. He died about 909. His prin- 
cipal ascertained work is a Life of his 
patron Alfred. 

ASTELL, Mart, the daughter of a 
merchant at Newcastle, was born in 1668, 
and learnt Latin and French, mathematics 
and philosophy, from her uncle, a clergy- 
man. About her twentieth year she set- 
tled at Chelsea, and continued to reside in 
the neiffbbourhood of London during the 
remain<wr of her life. A cancer termina- 
ted her existence in 1781. Her works 
chiefly relate to religious controversy, and 
advocate high church principles. Locke 
and Tillotson were among the objects of 
her attacks. 

ASTLE, Thomas, an archaeologist, son 
of the keeper of Needwood Forest, was 
bom at Yoxall, in Staffordshire, and was 
educated for an attorney. Very early, he 
displayed a love of antiquities, and a tal- 
•ot for decT|4iering ancient records. In 
1703 he orained the patronage of Blr 


Granville, then prime minister, and wis 
employed in a conomission to superintfliul 
the regulating the records at Westminster 
Bv the death of his fatner-in-latw, Mr 
Morant, in 1770, he obtained an estate. 
After havini 6lled several minor offices, 
he became keeper of the records in tho 
Tower, in which situation he died in 1803. 
His principal work b the Origin and Pro- 
gress of Writing. 

ASTRUC, John, a celebrated Frenc}i 
physician, was born at Sauve, in 1684* 
and studied medicine at Montpelier, where 
be subsequently became professor. ^ In 
1743, he was appointed king's physician, 
and professor of the roval college o? Paris. 
For a while be resided at Warsaw, as first 
physician to the Polish monarch; but he 
returned to Paris, where be died in 1766. 
His medical works are numerous, and 
have considerable merit ; but he is said to 
<* have contributed nothing to the fortnnatA 
revolution by which medicine was brought 
back to the safe and good priaciplee of 

ATAIDE, DoM Louts d', a Portu- 
guese noble, distinguished himself early 
under Stephen de (/ama, and, for his ser- 
vices, was made a knight at the age of 
twenty-two. On h^ return to Europe, be 
accompanied Charges V. to the battle of 
Muhlfacrg, and was rewarded by him for 
hu valour and good counsel. In 1569, he 
was appointed viceroy of India, at a pe- 
riod wnen all the native powers were com- 
bined to expel the Portuguese. He baffled 
all their efiorts, restored order in the ad- 
ministration, and returned to Lisbon ia 
1675. Beinc a second time sent out, aa 
viceroy, he <ned at Goa, in 1580. 

ATH A, a celebrated impostor of the 
eighth century, was a native of Meron, 
and ori^nally a fiiUer. He entered as a 
soldier in the army of Abu Moslem, the 
leader of a sect, the head of which he 
became on the death of Abo. He inre- 
tended that the divine spirit, after having 
inspired Adam, Noah, the ^eat prophets, 
and Abu, bad been transmitted to him. 
Being besieged in the castle of Kech, by 
the army of the caliph, he set fire to the 
place, and destroyed himself, his^ wives 
and aJl his followers willingly ^ring his 
fate ; some say they all took poison. Hav- 
ing lost an eye in liattle, he wore a rolden 
veil, whence' he had the name of Mokanna. 
He is the hero of Moore's Veiled Prophet 
in the poem of Lalla Roohk. 

ATHANASIUS, St., one of the fr. 
ther's of fhe church, was bora at Alexan- 
dria, of hMthen parents, about a. d. 206| 
and was instructed by the patriareh of 
that city, who made him his secretarj 
On the death of the patriarch. At* 
was elected to saooeed bin. Fi 

Digitized by 



i|£m Ar» and At Arkat, whombeiE. 
Wnd« aad wm murkfid oy an aheraatioB 
rf JBJnnU aad tnamfkm ; be being buriafaed, 
er raeaBed, according ae tbe bead of tbe 
getefMneat was favovable to tbe Ariaas 
or tbeir aat^onieta. On tbe acceseioa of 
ieviaa tbe Tictory of AtbaaasiiM was cora- 
. fAeteyaad be reauuaed iapoMenion of hie 
•ee tin bie death* ia 8T1. Hie works 
ceapoee three foUo veuaaes. For tbe 
encd frlsely caOed the Athaaesiaa be u 
not reepeasfble; it i« snpp oee d to be tbe 
weik of ViriliiM, aa Afrwaa bishop of tbe 

ATHENAIS, Eaiprese of tbe West» 
was tbe daagbter of an Athenian sophist, 
who caittvaiBd her natoral talents by a 
c i s e fal edneatioB. Charmed by the nai- 
dsa's learaiag, grace, and modesty, Polche- 
ria, sister of Theodosins tbe Younser, 
rernenssfaded her to him for a wife. Attie- 
■ais fenooneed Paganism, and took tbe 
name of Eadoaia. The emperor, how- 
> jealous of her, and she 
to Jemsalem, where she 
died, IB 4t0, after an exila of more than 
twaaly yesirs. She prodaced several 
woffka, amoog which was aa hexameter 
fwae traaelatloa of part of tbe Old Tes- 

ATHENiEUS, a native of Nancratis, 
ia "Emt^ was a celebrated graanmriaa 
ef tbe Ourd eeatary. AH that remains of 
Us writiags m the Deipnosophists, or Ta- 
ble Talk 0f tbe Learaed, in fifteen books, 
whieb is aearly perfect, aad is a treasure 
ef enHlitioB. The exteosire reading and 
leatteieas meiniMrj of Atbeusus have made 
hmi be deaomimtted tbe Varro, t r Pliny, 

ATHENION, a Cilieian slave, in con- 
^■Ktioa at first with Salvias, and after- 
vrar^ ae sapreaM chief, b e a d ed the slaves 
ef Sicily, dBrni| their straggles with the 
Beaiaae to obtam their hb^rtj. He more 
ibaa once defimted tbe Ronmn armies, and 
bekflfilthe field for foar campaigns, but 
wae aft kagtb sfaua by the consul Aquilins, 
161 years a. o. 

ATKYNS, Sift Robert, an English 
jadga, bora in Gkmceslersbire, in ie21, 
WM adaeated at Oxford, stndaed the law at 
LuMtfla'a Ina, was amde a knight oi the 
Balb aft tbe Restoratioa, and b 1072 was 
» of tbe judges of tbe court of 
I pkas. DisgoBted, however, vrith 
tbe a r bitt ary prooedings of tbe govern* 
WMm/tf be resigned the judgeship ia 1619, 
•ad falired iato tbe covatrv. While in his 
■aiiaal, be amnifosted bis love of liberty on 
At tbe Revolution be 
I lord chief baroa oi tbe exebe* 
, aad, tbe year after, speaker of tbe 
r of lords. lalfiMbekld dowabis 
, aad afaiawilbdraw into tbe eoan* 

iry.vlMnbadlediallit. Aik^m mm 

a sonnd kvryer, a firm firiead of tbe eeaati 
tution, aad an honest aad virtaoas maa. 
His Legal Traets, oae vobnae eoiavo, aia 
RHich valued. — ^His sob. Sift Roa^ftT^ 
who was bom in 164i, and died ia ini« 
sustained with boooar tbe character of a 
country gentleman, aad is the aatbor of a 
Histonrof Gbucestersbire. , 

ATTERBURY, FftAircis, aa Eaglisb 
mnekte, was bora ia IMS, at Miltaa 
Kej^oes, in Backinghamshisfe, of which 
parish his fother was rector. He was ed- 
ucated at Westmiaster aad Oxford, aad 
while at college is supposed to have bsrae 
an anonymous part in the contest b e tw een 
Beatley and Boyle. Having takea ocdera, 
he came to Loa!don, in tttC AsMmg bis 
first prefenaeats was the oiice of chaplaia 
in ordinary to' William aad Mary, aad 
thenceforward he continued to advaaee ia 
his profession. In 1700, he heoaaw arch 
deacon of Totness; in 1704 deaa of Can. 
isle; and in 1712 deaa of Christ Gbarcb 
During this tiam he was mach adasired as 
a preacher, aad was sMire than onee ea- 
aged in controvo^, as a chimpisn ef 
i^ charch principles. In 171S, be ob- 
tained tbe bishopric of Roebester, aad 
deanery of Westminster, aad is yid to 
have looked forward to the prisMcy; Imi 
all his prospects were blighted by tbe death 
of Queen Anne. There seems little reasea 
to ifoubt that, on her demise, he miged tlm 
proclaim iiiff of the pretender, aad was ia- 
dignant at bis friends for their timadi^ m 
declining to act on bis suggestiea. Saeb 
a person was not like^ to be a toed sub- 
ject to tbe newly iatroduoed bouse ef 
Bruaswick. Aecordinglv, oo every oeoa* 
sion, be inanifesied his hatred of it. At 
length, in 1723, he was apprebeaded ea 
suspicion of treason, and eoaimitted to tbe 
Tower, and a bill of pains and penalties 
was brouriit iato parliaaieBt acaiast hiai. 
He defended hismelf with spirit aad ele- 
qyf nee, but was condeamed to deprivatieft 
of his oftces aad to exile. He died at 
Paris, ia 1781. As a preacher aad 
writer, Atterbttry is entitled to mac 
praise; as a minister of tbe gospel, and 
a politieiaa, he deaerves at leak an equal 
port ion o f censure. 

ATTICUS, TiTOf PoMPONios, a Ro- 
maa kaight, who aequired bis surname 
from bis attacbsaent to Athens, where ha 
long rssided, and his fiuailiarity with its 
ners aad langaase. He never took 
part ia public a&irs, but his virtues 
aoH talents won for him the esteem of mea 
of opposite parties. Cicero was oae ef 
his particular friends. He composed sev* 
works, which are lost He died, aged 
seventy-seven, ft. c. 82. 

his partii 
seventy-seven, ft. c. 8Z. 

ATTILA, king of tbe ^aas, whose va- 
vagee gained bba te appelaftioa ef Urn 

Digitized by 


0eo«rm «f (M, begu hb eareor 

raTaffTog tke empire of 
Bakinff tributary tbe yona 
after vmidi he traversed w 

«or by 

tbe East, and 

iyooBfer Theodoeius, 

eed western Germany, 

and entered Oaul, a. d. 460, at tbe head 
of fire hundred thoasand men. Beinir 
repalsed from belbre Orleans, be retired 
to the aeighbourhood of Chalons, where 
be firariit a sangniaarf battle with Aetios 
and TlModoric, in which be lost more than 
one fimrtb of bis army. In 452 he deso- 
lated Italy, and destroyed Aquilea and 
several other cities. He retomed to Pan- 1 
Booia, and died, m 458, br tbe breaking > 
of a blood vessel. 

ATWOOD, Gsomos, a mathemati- 
eiaa, bom in London, in 1745, was edu- 
cated at Westminster and Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and early manifested 
eminent mathematical talenU. In 1784, 
be published the Lectures on Experimental 
PbOosophy, which he had delivered before 
tbe whole university, and also a Treatise 
OB tbe Rectilinear Motion and Rotation 
of Bodies. Mr. Pitt, who was hb friend 
at college, gave him a sinecure office, that 
be might devote the major pan of bis 
time to inancial calculations; in which 
be proved exceedingly useful to the minis- 
ter, ^twood died, unmarried, in 1807. 
Besides tbe works already mentioned, Jie 
published Treatises on the Construction of 
Ardies, and on the Stability of Ships. 

AUBERT, John Louis, Abb^, profes- 
for of literature in tbe roval coHegls, was 
bom at Parb, in 1781, anA died in 1814. 
His poetry, in general, is characterised by 
ease and elegance; but be particularly 
axceUed in tbe apologue. For some of his 
afforu in tbe latter species of composition 
im was warmly appboded by Voltaire, and 
bb coantnrmea considered him as no un< 
worthy follower of La Fontaine. 

AUBIGNAC, Fraitcis HxDBiiir, Ab- 
b4 d', bom at Paris in 1604, died in 1676. 
Tim bar was bb original profession, but 
Ss quitted it lor tbe church, and was pat- 
nwised by RiebeKeu, who entrusted nim 
with the edueatioa of bb nephew, the duke 
de FroBsac. He was intuaate with all 
tba literanr men of the age, and obuined 
eoBsideraUe reputatioB ; nut his tragedies 
and roBMuces are now forgotten. His 
tragedy of Zanobia being hissed, be in- 
dignantly ideaded that it was written in 
atrict conformity with tbe rules of Aris- 
totb. "I give you credit,*' replied tbe 
great Cond^ to bun, ** for having so cara- 
fhtty followed tn^rules of Arbtotb; but I 
cannot Ibrgire Arbtotb's rules for having 
made you produce such a wretched pby." 

AUB1GNE,Tbkodork Aobippad', 
was bora in 1560, at St. Maury, in Sain- 
toBg«*, and died at Geaeva, ia 1680. He 
•was <if a BoUe ftMsfly. At eight yuan <M, 
■" ^ ■ 1 Plate into Frsoob. D'A«- 


blgB^ was a Pmcestaat, and, oa »e i 
of bb fbtber, he entered into the army of 
the prince of Cood^. Henry IV., vrheh 
only king of Navarre, took him into his 
service, lived for many years^ in habits o€ 
tbe closest friendship with him, and em- 
ployed him, with equal advantage to the 
royal caaM, in the council and in the fielfi. 
His franknem, hovrever, at length, bstbim 
the favour of the monarch, and he with- 
drew to Geneva, vrhere he spent the rest 
of bis days in literary pursuits. Besides 
a Univenal History, from 1560 to 1561, 
be wrote several woriu in verse and prose 

AUBREY, JoHK, an English antiqua. 
ry, born, in 1625 or 1626, at Easton Pier* 
cy, in Wiltshire, was educated at Oxford 
and the Inner Tempb. By JbwMiits ha 
vnis unfortunately reduced to indigence, 
but he bore hb iU fiite urith a fortitucb that 
does honor to hb character. \^Ay Long, 
of Drayoot, in Wilts, supported him m 
hb btter years. He died in 1700. Au- 
brey was one of the firet membm'S of the 
Royal Socbty; wrote several antiquarian 
works, and contributed to the Monasticon 
Anglicanum; and po s sess e d considerable 
abilities, but was exceedingly creduloBs 
and superstitious. 

AUBUSSON, Peter d', who obtain- 
ed the titk of the BucUer of the Church, 
was at first in the service of the Emperor 
Sigismnnd of Luxemburgh, and fought un- 
der him against the Tmks, in Hungary. 
Having entered tbe order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, he became grand master, and, 
in 1480, after a gaflant defence of two 
months, compelled Mahomet II. to raise 
tbe siege or Rhodes. D'Aubusson has 
been accused, but it appean wrongfully, 
of treachery, in giving up Prince Znim to 
the Pop6. He died, in 1508, of mehm- 
choly, occasioned by this chai^, and fay 
the failure of a poject for a new crusada 
against the infideb. 

AUCKLAND, William Edbk, Lord, 
a British statesman and diplomatbt, tiie 
third son of Sir Robert Eden, of W«at 
Aackknd, Durham, was educated at Eton 
and Christ Church CoUege,Oxfbrd, aad waa 
called to the bar in 1760. Inl772, be waa 
appointed under secretary of state; inlTW, 
be accompanied the commissioners sent to 
negotiate with the AaMrieans; in 1780, ha 
went to Ireland with the viceroy, Liot<d 
Carlisb, as chief secretary ; in 1186 a«d 
1787, he negotiated the commercbl treaty 
with France; in 1788, he was ambassader 
to Spain; and ia the following year be «^ 
tained an Irish peerage, and was aeat as 
ambassador to HoUand. For bb exertiatts 
in tbe latter capacity, be was rewarded 
wi^ a British peerage ia 1708, aad ba 
then retired from diplomatk Ufa. In par* 

aetivaparu HadbdlalSM. HbdAir 

Digitized by V^OO- 


wmka are, die Prise iples of Penl Law; 
Five Letters to the Earl of Carlisle; Re- 
varks OD the appcyrent Circonifltaiices of 
the War ; and speeches. 

AUDEB£RT» Johh Baptist, was 
bom at Rochefcrt, in France, in 1769, and 
died in 1800, an excellent anl siercc .gable 
artist. Originally a miniature painter, he 
quitted that precession to become a nato- 
lalist and engraver of natural history. His 
coloured en^raTings of birds, in which he 
eaiployed oil colmirs ami cold, are the 
most perfect of their kina. Hu great 
worlui, each forming a folio volume, are 
the History of Monkeys, and the History 
of Hwoming Birds. 

AUDOUIN, Pbter, a French engra- 
ver, was bom in 1768, and died at Paris, 
ia 1822.^ He was a prolific artist, his bu- 
ria having prodaeed nearly a hundred 
plalies, bathe ranks only in the second class 
of his profession. Among his best works 
mre reckoned, Christ in the tomb; the 
handsoose femalegardener, from Raphael ; 
mod a figare of Charity. 

AUDRAN, Chj^rlbs, a French engra- 
ver, ancle of the celebrated Gerard Audran, 
iras bom at Paris, in 1594, and died in 
1874. It was in Itabr that he perfected 
hisBseif in the art of engraving, and his 
works are chieily from Italian masters. 
The moat esteemed of them is an Annun- 
ciatioii, from Aanibal Caraoci, and an 
Asswnmtioa, from Domeoichino. 

AUDRAN, Gerard, one of the moat 
eslehrated historical engravers, was bora 
at I^wH, in 1640. Alter having studied 
at Room for three years, he was called 
kame» at the siij^gestion of Colbert, and 
eUaiaed a pension, and the appointment 
af royal engraver, from Loois XlV. For 
that BMnarch he eagraved Le Brun's Bat- 
iks of Alexander, mod this masterpiece put 
the seal to his repatation. The Academy 
af Paiodag aomiaated him one of its coan- 



■poB a varie^ if 

I works are nomerous, and all 
hiMr esteemed. He died in 1708. Seve- 
ral of his relatioBs exc el led in the same 

AUGER, Athan At xus, a French eecle- 
•iastie, aras bora at Paris in 1784, and 
died there in 1792. He translated Demos- 
aad other Greek orators, but his 
though correct, are deficient in 
His best work is the Goastitation 
fiir the Romaas ander the Kings, aad dor- 
iag the Period of the Republic, on which 
ha was occapiad mora than thirty years. 

AUGER, Louis Smov, a meinber of 
tke French Academy, was bom at Paris, 
im 1772, aad pot aa ead to his existence 
•a 1829. He was a nmn of much erudition 
mmd talaat. He ooadncted several Jonr- 
oals; was one of dm prtnnpal authors of 
dm. Uaisstil BJogaapay; wrote Eulogies 

AUGEREAU, Peter Francis 
Charles, marshal of France, duke of 
Castiglione, was born at Parirf, in 1757, 
entered the army early, served in the 
French and Neapolitan ranks, became a 
fencing master at Naples, returned to 
France in 1792, distinguished himself, as 
brigadier general, against the Spaniards, 
was sent into Italy, as general of division, 
and acquired high reputation under Bona- 
parte, especially at Castiglione and Ar- 
cole. Alter having, between 1797 and 
1804, filled^ seversu high commands, he 
was raised, in the latter year, to the rank' 
of marshal. In the campaigns of 1806, 
1806, 1807, 1809, 1812, and 1818, he bora 
an active ^rt, and enhanced his reputa- 
tion; but his conduct in 1814, when he 
was entrusted with the defence of the de- 
partments between the Rhone and the 
Alps, was severely criticised. He was 
even suspected of having betrayed his 
trust; and this suspicion was not weaken- 
ed by his being one of the first to submit 
to thie Bourbons, and even to abuse his late 
sovereign, for which he was amply re- 
warded by Louis XVIII. When Napoleoa 
returned, Augereau would have rejoined 
his standard, but his services were rejected. 
He died in 1816, little regretted bv any 
party, his want of principle having thrown 
a shade over the lustre of his military 

AUGUSTINE, St., a celebrated fiuhar 
of Ihe^ church, was bora, in 854, at Tag- 
aste, in Africa, and his early youth was 
idle, dissipated, and incontinent. When 
he was nineteen he became a Manicheaa, 
and remained so for ten years. During 
that period he taught rhetoric and gram* 
mar at Tagaste, Cartlkure, and Roma. 
FroBi the latter city, in 3§3, he removed 
to MMan, where he was appointed profea- 
sor of rhetoric. There, by the sermons ol 
Ambrose, and the argumenu of two oioas 
man, he was converted to the catholie 
fiiith. In 886, he reliaqaUhod his profes- 
sioB forthastudyof theoU>gy; inm,ha 
I ordained presbyter; and, in 898» ka 

Digitized by V 

11 AUG 

/vw «|il|Mialed idiot biilibp of Rip^ 
The reflMinder oi hb life wm vpetit in tiM 
duties of his office, Siid in perpetual con- 
troTersy with heretics, towards whom he 
maniievted an intolerance which, especially 
considering his own past errors, was little 
to his credit. He died in 490. His works 
form eleren folio Tokunes. 

monly denominated the Apostle of the 
English, flourished about the^ close of the 
sixth century, and was originally a monk 
at Rome. Pope Gre^ry I. sent him, with 
forty of his fraternity, to convert the 
Aagfo Saxons. Their exertions were sue- 
eesdiil, luid Augustine became the first 
archbishop of Canterfaunr* In his exer- 
tions to bi inff the Welsh bishops under the 
papal joke be foiled, and he covered him- 
self with infomy by the sanguinaij means 
which he adoptea to revenge his disap- 
poiMBent. This haughty prelate died 
early in the seventh century. 

AUGUSTULU8, Romulus, the li 
emperor of the West, was proclaimed at 
Ravenna, in 475, by bis fother, the patri- 
eian Orestes, who, however, retained the 
power in his own hands. AugustnloB did 
not long hold even his nominal sovereignty ; 
for, in 476, he was eonqueped ana oe- 
throned by Odoacer, king of the Herdi. 
His life was spared, and a pension was al- 
lowed him. 

AUGUSTUS, Caius Julius Casak 
OcTATiAKUS, a Roman emperor, known 
oefore hb accession by the name of OcU- 
▼ios, was the nq^w and adopted son of 
JoliosCbsar. Hewasbomat Rome, B.C. 
C8. When he was only four years of age 
he k>st his fother; afoer vrhich event be* 
was brooght ap by Oesar. At the time 
when his uncle was assassinated, Octavius 
was in Epims, whence he immediately re- 
tmed to secure his inheritanoe. He was 
then only eighteen, and was derided fay his 
* Mas a bey; but his talents soon aio- 
for him extensive inflnenoe. At 

■rst, b 

■rst, he joined the party whieh was hoe- 
tfla to AntoBy^ bat was soea reeonciled to 
Um» md. hi oonimwtloii widi that Umim 
ani *iw Ww, fonted the ioww wmmd 

ng nis Tsierans ine estates or lae 
ked. Lepidus was now coBi^p«iled 
I his Dortion of the tyraaav, smd 
ire 01 the world was divided be- 

tihinnlii. ra nrfs paitilias bC |ptw 
the west foil to his shan, and in Ae &m&^ 
cise of his authority }ie deeply sCaiiiMl km 
character by a merciless p roecrip ti on» vt 
which Cicero was one of the vietime A^ 
ter having home a part in the batde dif 
Philippi, he returned to Rome, and divi* 
ded among his Teterans the estetes of dto 
to resign 
the empire 

tween Octavius and Antony, 
spesdily arose, but a tempore ^ 
iatioa was efiectod by the anrrnige of As- 
tony to the sister of CKotaviiis. Ea 
however, of Cleopatra, Antoi^ 
Octavia, and her brother took up 
avenge her. Tlie contest be t we e n the ri- 
vals was terminated by the complete di feat 
of Antony, at the battle of Actiam, and Ua 
sabseqoeat death. Allsr this victory, Co* 
tevius added Egypt to the Roman empjr«. 
He then revisited Rome, celebrated thraa 
triumphs, dosed the teasple of Jaavs, r»- 
ceived from the senate the titles of Iaqa»- 
rator and Angustas, and remained ia fidi 
possession of absohite sway. In this ol- 
aked rank he was no less remsrhable for 
moderation and elemency, thaa he had ha- 
fore been for qualities dmmetricaA 
site. Literature floaridmd aader 1 
pices; he enacted sBaar salaCarT lavi; 
and so embellished the Roaaan capital, that 
he was declared <« to have found it of faridkf 
andleftitofmaible.'* He is said to hava 
twice resolved to retire into private fifo, 
but to have beea dissuaded 1^ IJBWai. 
AgustuB died of a dys e n ter y » at Nala,'fai 
the seven^ixth year of his age. 

AULISIO, Dominic, an ItaliaB» of 
oonsununate erudition, was bom «t Waplai, 
b 1689. At niaeteea he was eapabla of 
giving lectures in poetry to the Neueliimi 
nobles. He was professor of civil law 9$. 
the age of tvrenty-ive* There were fow 
sciences of vrhich he was not master, and 
his knowledge of all the oriental aad Vb- 
rcnean languages was profooad. He pdh- 
lined several works on law and antimiS- 
ties, and left others in mamiscript. He 
died, at Naples, in 1717. 


in, is the author of a work, ia twenty 
Btitled Attio Nigfate, beoaam k 
nposed at Atheas, dmnof w in ter 
evenings. It was originally wnttoi for 
the hMtmctioB of his efaikbrea, and is yi^ 
■eqasn c e of ite co wte i a iagaisay 
BMaia from writers whose ooamesitMas 
loat. Aulas GeUhm was m Jadfi «< 
», and died m the beginiBg ef the 
reign of ■. A. ABtoainni. 


ard of Bury, bora at St. Ftoaadihtey, im 
lin, aad^adaoatad at Oxford^ w as telw 


•ri>Hlnni, ki^ duuMeOor, and tr«amrer 
ti Si^lkuid. Awfenrine merited his ore- 
fanBeola; be was vnnificent, chariuole, 
aod learaedy m patron of learaiog , and 
■oweancl more books tban all the otber 
bsbofia of EMiaad aaited. He formed a 
librsHrv at Oxford, for tbe use of studeots. 
His AHMblo^ in twenty cbapters, does 


DB &▲ Toum D*, a French re|. n rt i cMi> di» 

dqgnbhed by his leamiof aad bii heroM 

AURELIAN» Lucius Dohitiub Au- 
ks LUkVUSy a Roman emperor, was bom in 
Pannonia, abont tbe year 220, earlv dis- 
ungvished himself at tbe battle of Mogun- 
liacnm, commaoded, in 269, the armies of 
lUyria and Tlurace, and was raised to tbe 
empire in 210. He drove back tbe Goths, 
Vnadak, Sammtians, and Marcomanni, 
vnnqnisJmd and took prisoner Zenobia, and 
dafratfd Firmios in Egypt, and Tetricus 
in Gaul. On tbe retnm of peace, he em- 
bellishfd Rosae, reformed the laws, and 
4iminished the taxes. He was assamina- 
ted, in 275, by hit soldiers, whom Unesth- 
mm hwi esetted to mntiny. 

AURENGZEBE, the Great Mogul, or 
Emperor of Hindostan, was bom in 1^9, 
and was the third son of Shah Jehan. In 
hk yooth be assumed a hypocritical ap- 
penranoe of sanctity, bat at length threw 
off tbe mask, dethroned his fiuher, in leeO, 
and murdered his brothers. It roust be 
owned, however, that he nmde some good 
laws, administered jnrtice impartially, and 
eitrndfwi freatW the limits or his empire, 
both northward and southward. During 
the m^r part of the last fifteen vears of 
has life he was oonstandy in the field. 
Embassies were sent to him, not only from 
the neighbouring states, but also from the 
European powers. He died in 1707, and 
with bis oeath began the decline of tbe 

"*KsoR*IUS, Dxcius, or DECIMUS 
MAGNUS, a Latin poet of the fourth cen- 
tury, was bora at Bordeaux, and became 
p ro fess or of grammar and rhetoric in his 
native ci^; in which office he acquired 
aaeh reputaJon, that the Emperor Valen- 
finian appointed him preceptor to his son 
Gratian. When tbe latter inherited the 
throne, he rewarded him by nominating 
I prefect of Gaul, and, aAer- 
L The period of Ausonius's 
have been subsequent to 892. 
It is doubtful whether he was a Christian. 
His poems manifest talent, but are stained 
by noneenity. 

AUTRE AU, Jamks, a French painter 
and dramatistt died in 1745, at tbe age of 
mghrf-nine. He was sixty before he began 
to write for the stage. His works compose 
femr vokunes. Though many of them were 
■meesafel, he closed bis exbtenee in pov- 

AUYERaNE, TBJtorBiLui Malo 

qualities, was descended from an ille^* 
mate branch of the boose of Boui1lc«R, and 
was bora in 1743, at Carhaix, in Lower 
Britanny. He served with honour in the 
army during the American war, and was 

living in retirement, on his half pay, i 
the revolution called him again into the 
field. Though be refos#id any higher rank 
than that of captain, he was entrusted with 
the command of a corps of eight thousand 
I grenadiers, at the bead of which he signal- 
ixed himself on the Spanish frontier. The 
peace with Spain, in 1795, allowed him to 

retnm to his studies; but be 
quitted them, in 1799, for tbe benevolent 
purpose of tsiking the place of a friend's 
only son, who bad been drawn for the con- 
scription. In tbe following year. Bona* 
parte conferred on him the honourable title 
of First Grenadier of France. He fell, 
universally lamented, at the battle of Neu- 
1 1800. La Tour d'Auvergne was 
I, singularly disinterested, knew all 
tlie European lan^uagen, and was thorourii- 
ly versed in ancient history. He is tne 
author of a Franco-Celtic Dictionary, « 
GlossaiT of Forty-five Languages; and 
other pnilological works. 

AUzOUT, Adriak, a celebrated 
French mathematician, and member of the 
Academy of Sciences, was bora at Rouen, 
and died in 1691. He is said to have in- 
vented the micrometer with moveable 
threads, and, with Picard, to have been 
the first who applied tbe telescope to the 
astronomical quadrant; thouglithis honour 
is claimed for Mr. Gascoigne, an English- 
man. Tbe truth appears to be, llmt both 
parties are entitled to the merit of origin- 
ality, the French astronomers having teen 
ignorant of Gascoigne's discovery. 

AVAIX)S, Firdikand Francis d\ 
marquis of Pescara, a Neapolitan, of an 
illustrious femily, entered the military ser- 
vice in 1512, at tbe age of twenty-one, and 
was made prisoner at the battle or Ravenna. 
While a captive, be amused himself with 
writing a Dialogue on Love, which he 
dedicated to his wife, tbe^ aceosspUshed 

Digitized by VjOC 


Victoria Cbbma, hendf a poet. Hit 
uboration took place in the fbllowiag year, 
aod he distingaiflhed hioMelf greMly oo 
▼arioef occasioiip» particolarly at the battles 
of Vioeina, Bicocca, and Pavia. He 
died»at Milan, in 1625. 

AVALOS, Alphomo d% Marqoit del 
Vaito, and nephew of Ferdinand, waiborn 
at Naples, in IS02, and fint senred under 
his uncle. The brilliant valour which be 
displayed at the siege of Pavia gained him 
the command of the imperial army, on the 
death of Pescara. He subsequently acquir- 
ed high reputation, and was made captun- 
general or the duchy of Milan. Avahis 
was defeated at the battle of Cerisoles. but 
he prerented the conqueror firom making 
advantase of his victory. He died in 
1546. The French writers, who admit 
his bravery and military ulents, accuse 
him of harshness, vanity, and perfidy. 

AVANZI, Nicholas, a native of Ve- 
rona, and an engraver of cameos and prec- 
ious stones, gained much praise by a Nativ- 
ity of Jesus Christ, enrraven on a small 
piece of lapis Usuli, which ia considered 
as a masterpiece in this branch of art. 

AVAUX, Claudk db Mesmks, Count 
d*, an able French statesman and diploma- 
tic, rendered eminent services to bis coun- 
try, as ambassador to Venice, Rome, Turin, 
Germaii^, Denmark, Poland, and Sweden. 
He also filled with honour several consid- 
erable offices under the government. D*- 
Avaux was well versed in languages, lite- 
rature, and history, was at once preposs es 
sfng and dignified in his manners, and 
wrote and spoke with facility and elegance. 
He died, in 16S0, at the age of fiAy-five. 

AVAUX, JoHK Anthont, dount d*, 
followed the same career as Claude, his 
great uncle, and with equal ability and 
success. He concluded the treaty ot Nim- 
eguen, and was afterwards ambassador at 
Amsterdam, London, and Stockholm. He 
died in 1709, aged sixty-nine. His Nego- 
tiations in Holland were published, in six 
vokimes, by the Abb^ Mallet. 

AVELX.ANEDA, Alphonso FsiiDr 
HAND D*, a Span ish author of the sixteenth 
century, was a native of Tordesillas. He 
continued Don Quixote, to the ^reat dis- 
pleasure of Cervantes, who, in his second 
Cirt, does not spare the interloper. A?el- 
neda*s work, though &r inferior to the 
OnOiant original, is not without merit. It 
jas been translated into English. 

AVERANl, Bkkedict, a native of 
Florence, bom in 1645, was so fond of 
learning that, even in childhood, he prefer- 
red readmg to boyish amdbements, and 
made an extraormnary progress in his 
studies. Arithmetic, astronomy, mathe- 
matics, and Greek, he acquired without 
the aid of a master; the latter so perfect- 
If in the short space of six months, as to 


»e able to tMdi it. Hisi 

digious, and he could pour forth poetry'^ex* 

temporaneouslv in the Latin and lulbn 

lan^[uages. He died, in 1707, at Pisa, of 

which university he was one of the pn>- 


Arabian philosopher and physician of tha 
twaHUi century, was the son of the chief 
magistrate of Cordoba, whom he succeeded 
in his ofike. He was invited to Morocco, 
to superintend the administration of justice 
in that city; but this honour brought oq 
him many enemies, and much per s e cuti on, 
by which his life was endangered. Juris- 
prudence, mathematics, and medicine- 
were among his studies; but he was rather 
a theoretical than a practical phvsician, as 
is proved by his work intitied Collyirat, 
in seven books. Averroes was the first 
translator of Aristotle, and was also a 
voluminous commentator on that philoso- 
pher's works. He died, at Morocco, ia 
the year 1198. 

celebrated physician and philoaopher, waa 
bom in the neigfabourhooa of Bukhara, ia 
the year 980, and before he was ten years 
old knew the Koran by heart, and was 
acquainted with the principles of law and 
literature ; after which he acquired every 
science then known, bat maoe medicine 
the particuUur object of bis study. Though 
bis fame was widely spread, and though 
he was visier and physician to sevend 
princes, ha lived an lu^tated life, and died 
at htft, in 1087, at Hamadan, a victim^ to 
his owa- excesses, and to poison, which 
was given him by a slave. Avicenna was 
a voluminous author, on a variety of sub- 
jects, and his Medical Canons were Um^ 
exclusively followed in the European medi« 
cal schools; but his works are now ea- 
tirely neelected. 

aVIENUS, Rupus Fkitus, a Latin 
poet, who lived at the beffinniitg of the fifth 
century, translated into bis own lap^uage 
the Phenomena of Aratns, the Description 
of the Earth by Dionyeius, and forty-two 
of iEsop*s Fables. I^ also wrote a poem 
in iambic verse, Ora Marit'ma, which is 
supposed to have been borrowed from Car- 
thaginian writers: only one book of it is 
extant. The version of the fables has, by 
some critics, been attributed to Flavins 
Avienus, who lived two hundred and forty 
years before Rnfus. 

AVILA Y ZUNIGA, Louts d% bom 
at Plac^ntia, in Spain, distinguished hifli- 
self as a diplomatist, warrior, lukd historian, 
under Charles V. He acted as ambassa- 
dor from his sovereign to the council of 
Trent, commanded the cavalry at the sicca 
of MeU, and recorded the events of dw 
period in which he flourished. He is tha 
author of Commentaries oo the War ear* 


fwA urn ra fliiny» by Cfaurfes, ia UMS 
•M11547; ttd Him on the war wliicli dat 
wafed ia Africa. The last of 
rks was never priated, and it now 
loM. CiMrleaV.ionMeliadaiiedd'ATila'* 
writings, that he deemed himself bmnv for- 
taaate thaa Alexander, in bavin; saeh an 

AVILA, JoHir D', a Snanish priest, 
was bom in New CJastle, aLout the year 
inO. At the age of thirty, he began to 
Jovmey through the Andalusian mountains 
and forests, oifarcing the doctrines of the 
goepel, both by precept and example. This 
191'sc of cooouct ne punned for forty 
years, till he died, in 1569, and it gained him 
l!he appellatioa of the Apostle of Andalusia. 
He was also the author of several theolo- 
gieal works. 

AVISON, Charlvs, a musical com- 
peeer, is believed to have been bom at or 
near Newcastle, in which town he was 
erganist, first to St. John's church, and 
afterwards to St. Nidiobs*s. In his youth 
be travelled into Italy, and received in- 
structions from Oemmiani. He died at 
Newcastle, ia 1779. He is the author of 
aa Essay on Musical Expression, in which, 
not nMM» to the credit m his judgment, he 
endeavmm to depreciate Handel. 

AVOGADRO, Lucia, an Italian poetess, 
iourisbed -about the ]fear 1660, displa^ 
cmly poetical talents, and won the praise 
of even Taiao. Of her compositioas only 
a few lyric pieces are extant; but tbey 
JMtify the applause which was bestowed 
upoa her. She died in 166B. 

AVOGRADO, Jerome, who nourished 
at Breacia, in 1486, was the son of a civi- 
lian, of a noble fiunily* He cukivated 
literature, and was the if ecsnas of men of 
letters. He is said to have been the first 
editor of the odUected works of Vitravios. 

AVRIGNT, Hyacinth Robillard 
D*, a Jesuit and historian, was bora at 
Cben ia 1676, and died in 1719. During 
his life time be lived in obscurity, but he 
adiieved posthumous fiune by two exoel- 
lont historical works which lie left behhid 
him. These are Memoirs relating to 
General and to Ecclesiastical History, from 
HQO to 1716, each work consisting of four 
volumes. D'Avigny is said to have died 
of chflk^in, occasioned by the extensive 
altcratKNis which were made in his manu- 
ampts by Father LAlleraant, to whose 
vevisicMi the superiors of^ the Jesuits had 


bora in Nurcia, in 1882, and served under 
four Gastiliaa monarchs, both in the coun- 
cil and the field, and with equal applause 
m both. Fond of learning, lie iK-as at once 
iIm OMSt brave, eloquent, and erudite man 
fai Spain. He translaied Livy, and other 


caflMelled him to submit them. 

AY ALA, Peter Lopez d', a Spam 
historian, and general, a 

aochon, aarl wrote a Ckrauale of Aa 
Kings of Ctatile. He died in 1407. 

AYESHA, the second and most befoved 
of all Mahonwt's wives, was the daughter 
of Abttbeker. She aceompanied her hus- 
band in all his expeditions. After his 
death she made an costinate opposition to 
All, but was at length defeated by him ia 
a pitched battle. She died at Mecca, in 
the year 677. Her memory is veneratod 
by the Mussulmans, who ffive her the title 
of Prophetess, and consider her as one of 
the four incomparable women who have 
^ipeared on earth. 

AYLMER, JoHif, an Endish preUte, 
bora at Ayhaer Hall, in Norfolk, ia 1621, 
was educated at Cambridce. Lady Jane 
Qny was subseauently under his taitioa. 
Having renderea himself obnoxious by his 
protestant seal, he retired to Zurich, on 
the accession of Mary. On Elisabeth 
ascending the throne he returned, and, la 
1676, was made bishop of London. The 
rigour writh which he persecuted the Puri- 
tans was little in accordance with the spirit 
of Christianity. He was, in trath, oif aa 
arrogant and arbitrary diwposition. He 
died exceedingly rich, in 1604, though| at 
the age of forty, he had dec lai med agaiasC 
the superfluous wealth of churchmen. Ayl- 
mer is the author of an answer to Knox's 
attack upon female sovereigns. • 

AYLOFFE, Sir Joseph, of Fra«- 
field, Sussex, aa antiquary, was born about 
1706, and educated at Winchester and Ox- 
ford. He was keeper of the state papers, 
in the Paper Oflice, and a fellow or the 
Royal and Antiquarian Societies. Leland's 
Collectanea, the Liber Niger, and other 
works of the kind, were edited by him; 
he contributed to the Arohaologia; attd 
be published the Universal Librariaa, and 
Calendars of the ancient Charters, kc ia 
the Tower. He died in 1788. 

AYOLAS, John de, a Spaniard^ 
governor of Buenos Ayres, ia 1686, ob» 
tained great advantages over the Indiaas* 
and founded the city of Assumption; init* 
in an attempt to open a coouaunicatioo by 
land with Pern, he and his troops wert 
destroyed by the savages. 

AYRENHOFF, C. VoM, aa ofiicer of 
high rank in the imperial sendee. He 
produced, with great success, a consider- 
able number of tragedies and comedies, 
of the former, his Aurelius, ABtiope^ aim 
Cleopatra, and ot the latter, the Noble 
Passions, are considered as the best. Ua 
died towards the latter end of the eighfasath 

AYSCOUGH, Sahuel, the son of r 
tradesman in Nottingham, was, in early 
life, in consequence of his fether's bank- 
ruptcy, compelled to fill several aMsial 
situations. On coming to town, ha nh> 
tained a place of the saasa kind ■■ iha 


I M m—i , tHMTO ht dbokjad to 
dUS g eaoe, wid detive or gmiBnig 
knowledge, U»t Im wm rmiMd Co be Mfiot- 
tmn libiviMi. He afterwards took orden, 
aod kad ratpecCable onarck preferaeot. 
A Tariaty of laborioot indexet and cata- 
fegaei were compikwi bj bim, of wkick tbe 
BMwt UMoitant are an Index toSbakipeare, 
and a Oatakfue of tbe Britiab Muneoir 
lie died in loM, at tbe age pf fifty-nine. 

AYS€X>UGH, GvoKOB Edward, a 
miKtary officer^ was tbe son of tbe dean of 
Bristol, and nepbew of Lord Lyttleton. 
He is tbe aatbor of Semiramis, a tragedy, 
^ wbicb Sberidan wrote a prologue, and 
of Letters fimn an Officer in tbe Guards, 
firing an aoooant of France and Italy. 
lyacSagb dM»d, in 1779, of a consamp- 

AY8CUE, Sim Gboboe, an admiral, 
was a descendant of a good Linoolnihire 
Inssily, entered tbe naval service in bis 
yoHtb, and was koigbted by CSiarles I« In 
tbe etrucgle between tbe parliament and 
tbe kinff Tbowever, be adbered to tbe former, 
rednoea Sicily, Barbadoes, and Virginia 
to obedience, and acted witb spirit in tbe 
war against HoUand. In 1606, wkile en- 
gaged witk tbe Dntcb, bis sbip struck on 
' a sand bank, and, b spite of all bis efibrts, 
be was obliged to surrender. His snbse- 
q nent life was spent in retirement. 

AZARA, Dov JosxPB Nicholas d', 
ft ntifa of Arragoft, was boni b 17S1» 


fmM ^m^f^yf^ fftl nawrffa, ' ii krir i ht ] 
' ' nshedbiaseir. HemanMesie 

fer tbe fine arts, and ooftCrMtadj 
bip witb Nengs, tbe painter. 
1766 be entered on tbe diplomatic eai 
and was sent to Rome, as afnit for eecl»* 
siastical alfotrs. On tbe deatb of tbs 
a mb as s a do r tbere, Asara was appointMl m 
succeed bim. He continued at Rome tifl 
be was driven firom tbenoe by tbe Frenck 
invasion. Subsec^nently, be was named 
ambasmdor to Pans. Asara died b ISIM. ^ 
He wrote a Life of Mengs, and a FuMral 
EokMrinm on Cbarles III., and transbtad 
MidoMton's Life of Cicero, and varknm 
otber works. 

AZNAR, Count of Gasoonr, was seat, 
in 824, by Pepin, kiw of Aqnitaine, tp 
pat down a revolt of tne Navarrese Gas- 
cons, a task wbicb be accomplisbed. Pepin, 
bowever, baving subsequently siven hbi 
canse fer discontent, Asnar put hiawelf at 
tbe bead of tbe same Gascons, passed tke 
Pyrenees, b 881, seised on a part of Na- 
varre, and became tbe founder of tbe kbg- 
domoftbatname. HedMdb886. 

AZUNI, DoMiHic Albekt, an ItaW 
ian civilian, was bom b Sardbb b 1761^ 
and died b tbat island b 18S7. Amois| 
bis works, aM of wbicb are mncb esteemea, 
are a History of Sardiab; a Dictionary 
of Mercantile Jurispmdsocr? and a Sys- 
tem of tbe PrincipHsof tbe llaritiaMLaw 
of Europe. 

Tarkisb sectary* who made 
bli first appe ar an c e in tbe city of Amasb, 
btbeyear 1249, pretended to be sent by 
God, and s u cceeded b raisbg a numerous 
army, witk wbicb be ravaged Anatolw. 
It reouired tbe united forces of tbe Franks 
and tke Mussuknans to vanquisb tbb im- 

BABEK, Kbokxmi, or Hahkami, a 
eslebraled Peri'an impostor, denominated 
tbe Libertine, and tbe lanpiotts, appeared as 
tbe apostle of a new religion b tbe early 
part of tbe nbtk century. His doctrines 
are said to bave been a compound of tbe 
enurs of various sects. For twenty years 
be fittled afl tbe caliph's generak, and 
stiwek terror even into Bupdad; but be 
was at Isngtk taken, a. d. 887, and put to 
a bartnrow deatb. 

BABRIUS, or BABRIAS,a Greek po- 
ft, the period of whose existence is un- 
it appears certab, bowever, tbat 
ved prior to PfaBdrm. Tyrwbitt 
ithatlmfioarishedaUttlebefoce tbe 
KiiiB of Aagasms, and Corny 

and Moschus. He nmde an ele gan t 
sion of iEsop's Fables, b Greek b 
verse, which, witb tbe exception of 

ABUR, or BABR, Mohammbd, tbe 
mat grandwn of Tamerlane, was born b 
1488, and in 1484 was proclaimed sovereign 
of the Mogul empire b western Tartary 
and KboraiMan. Some years were spent 
b stmnlas for the throne witb various ri- 
vak; wer which be subdued Candabar and 
Cabulistaa. In 1626 be bvaded Hindos- 
tan, defeated tbe Indians at the battle of 
Panniputy and made himself master of the 
oountiT. He died in 1680. His poeterity 
rftigned over Indb for two eentwriei and 
a Imlf. Babur wrote a history of hie own 

Marquis of San Felipe, a Spaaisb fiMral 
and statesman, under Charles u. and 
Philip v., was a native of Sardinb, bora 
about 1660, and dbd in 1726. Heittbe 
author of a History ef the Hebrew Mea- 
avchy, and of Memoirs of the UiMeiy if 
Philip V. finm 1680 1^ 171ft., 





^ ^friC PQItf 

VmAoiw of Siaoaidet, a oatiTe oTCo^ 
m uie rivml of Pindar, and flooriihed 
out 450 j«an B. c. Hieropreferrod him 
Qij^ w Piadar, and Horace iiaitaced him. Only 
I iri* ^^ firafiaenu of kit works an extant. 
^ BACCfCI. TIm real aaine of the art- 
^ }m thm called was JoBir Baptist Oaul- 
^ LI. He was a native of Genoa» bom in 
^ ; 1619, and died in 1709. In portraits and 
' historical paiatittjgs he acquired Kreat rep- 
^^^atatioa; hie particnlarly excelled in Ibre- 
'p Aorteninr his ^xwres^ and f iTin^ Ibree and 
relief to chem. To nve animation to his 
^^ portraits, he sude those who sat to him 
"" t$Jk and gesticulate; he did not, he said, 
want to paint statues. Gaulli was of a Ti- 
which caused him the loss of 

his 9on, who drowned himself, in conse- 
ouenoe d having reoeired a blow from his 
nther before a large company. 

known ondertfaenaaeof FkaBaktolo- 
M xo Di Saw Makco, an emioent paint- 
er, was bora, in 1409, at Saviffnano, in 
Taseaay. For a while be abandoned the 
pencil, to become a Dominican monk, but 
lie reramed it, and was more successful 
than ever. Mamr of his productions are 
excellent; bat his St. Mark, St. Sebastian, 
and Hafriue of 8t. Catharine, are mas- 
terpieces oTarti He was the first who 
painted drt^xnr in a teished style, and 
■obde use of the jointed lay figure. He 
died in 1517. 

BACfiLLAR, AvTHOiTT Bakbosa, a 
jdebratad P o r tug u ese ctrilian, historian, 
andlvric poet, was bom at Lisbon, in 1610. 
Hhdefiwiceof the right of the house of Bra- 
gaasa to the throne, gained him the fiivonr 
of the eoart, and opmed his way to koa- 
ows and fortune; out it diverted his at- 
tention from poetry, in which he hnd early 
nc m iir Bd repntatioo. He is the author of 
ma kietorical woik on the War of Bmxil, 
and of another on the CasuMign of 1659 
in PortnsaL He died ui 166S. 

BACH, JoRB SxBASTiAir, one of the 
nMMt eminent of German musicians, was 
bom at Eiannach, in 1685, and died at 
Lemsie, In 1794. He was an inimitable 
pel an m er on the organ, and left many com- 
poaitions of high scientific merit. Bach 
and eleven sons, aO mnsicians, fonr of whom 
attniafd edebrity; namely, William 
F&B»BRio; Chakles Philif Emab- 
UKVi JoHB CHBisTOPHBm Fbbdxbio ; 
aad JosB Cheistiab: of these the see- 
cad aad thefiwrth urere the most fiunoos. 
Hayda is supposed I^Dr. Bumeyto have, 
la aoaw degrae, taken Charles rhUip at 

BA<^AUMOIfT, FmABCfs lb Coio- 

9M9X as, a native of the Fren^ metro- 

pphi, beta ia 1624, was the son of a pres- 

Hhlrfim pari i aia e at of Paris. Hntook 


BAG m 

a part in the proceedings of the fiwlioa of 
dte Fronde, and it was to him that the he 
tion owed iu aame. In coiunoction with 
his friend Qiapelle, he wrote the celebra- 
ted Journey to Montpellier, in ahemate 
proee and verse, which is considered as a 
masterpiece of the kind. He died ia 
1702. (See CHArxLLX.) 

BACHELIER, J. J., a French painter, 
bore in 1724, who died in 1805, was di- 
rector of the royal manufactory of S^res. 
The lost process of encaustic painting, and 
the composition which the ancients used te 
preserve marble from bein^ injured by the 
air, were rediscovered by him. He gener- 
ously devoted sixty thousand francs (two 
thonuand five hundred pounds) to the estab* 
lishment of a school for ^tuitously teach- 
iag to artisans the principles of drawing, 

BACLER D'ALBE, Baron Aubcrt 
Lot7i8, a French painter and geo^phical 
engineer, was bora at St. Pol, in 1761, 
and died at Paris, in 1824. He was con- 
stantly employed by Napoleon, was in 
ffreat favour with him, and was director of 
his topographical cabinet.^ His map of 
the theatre of war in Italy is on an exten- 
sive scale, and of beaatiful execution. He 
also publisbed several picturesque workt. 

BACON, RooKK, an English monk, 
bora at Ilchester, in Somersetshire, in 1214, 
was educated at Oxford and at Paris, en- 
tered the Franciscan order in his twentj^- 
fifth year, and returned to Oxford, ifis 
lectures and experiments, in which he die- 
played talent and knowledge far transcen* 
din|^ u^iat was pos sesse d bv his contempo- 
raries, soon excited wonoer aad envy. 
His admirers gave him the deserved title of 
" the wondeHul doctor ;'* hb stupid and ma- 
lignant enemies accused him of magie, 
Tiie htter prevailed. His lactures wer. 
interdicted, and he vras confined to hie 
ceU. His sechision lasted ten years, dur- 
iag which he composed maay excellent 
works. He himsetf collected several of his 
writings, nnd gave to the collection the title 
of Opus MuusX After having obtained hb 
libei^, he died in 1292. Gunpowder, the 
eauMra obscure, the boraing glass, and the 
telescopic properties of convex and concave 
glasees, seem to have been known to him; 
and his acquirements ia every science were 
tnHy surprising. He wrote about eighty 

BACON, Sib Nicholas, foiher of the 
eelehrated Lord Veralam, was bom atChie- 
elhnrst, in Kent, in 1510, and studied ai 
Cambridge aad Qray*s Inn. Henry VIII. 

Eive him various manors in SnifiNk, ba> 
nging to the dissolved moanstery of Sc 
Edaranddburv: aad ElixnbeCh, with who« 

also he was a favourite, nwde him a 
counseUor and keeper of the grea 
The latter oOfeehe retained for 
tiU his death, w^MkJfmk p 

Digitized byvnOC 


m^ BAG 

1979. He wai a good ipeaker, a pradent 
■talesman, and an eonitable jpdge. Sev- 
erml of hit MSS on kw, politici, and the- 
oiogy are extant 

BACON, AiiNZ, eecond wife of Sir 
Nkbolas, and mother of Lord Verulam, 
waa the daughter of Sir Anthony Cook, tu- 
tor of Edward VI., the was bom about 
1528, and died about 1600. Lady Bacon 
waa a woman of talent and acquirements. 
She understood the ancient and modem 
languages ; and translated from the Italian 
the Sermons of Achinus, and from the 
Latin, Bishop Jewel's Apology for the 
Churdi of Enghuid. 

BACON, Sir Natbaiiizl, the son of 
Sir Nicholas, by his first wife, was a naint- 
er of no mean merit. He travellea and 
■todied in Italy, but belongs to the Flem- 
ish school. Several of his pictures are, or 
recently were, extant. He aied about 1615. 

BACON» Nathariel, a leader of in 
■argents in Virginia while under the rtmil 
goTemmeot, was an Englishman of fine 
talents, commanding person, and singular 
eloQuence. He was educated to the pro- 
fiassion of the law, and came to Virginia 
■boat the year 1675 witli a high reputation 
for ability and legal knowledge, which soon 
rendered him conspicuous, and obtained 
him a seat in the provincial Council. Va- 
rious obnoxious measures of the British 
govermnenl had at that time exasperated 
tae people of the colony, and induced them 
to tak« up arms. Bacon was elected their 
leader, and after keeping the colony in a 
state <^ anarchy and continual alarm for 
■■veral months, he died suddenly in the 
year 1677, and tranquillity was soon re- 
stored. Thb t^ebellion r^ist the colony oiie 
hwadred thousand pounda. 

BACON, Sir Framcis, Viscount of 
St. Albans, whom Pope, in one emphatic 
line, has tnily characterized as *< the wisest, 
fari«htest, meanest of mankind," was 
the eon of Sir NichobM Bacon, and was 
born January 22, 1561. The promise of 
his fiKare talents was so early dispkyed, 
Elisabeth was accustomed 

40 call him her " young lord keeper." 
Tiiatty Cobsge* Canbric^, had the bon- 


onr of his ednesAion; and, while ihaN^ 
before he was sixteen, he b^an to diesMl 
from the Aristotelian philosophy. On his 
return to En^and, after having aooompa- 
Inied Sir Amius Paulet to Franee, he en* 
jtered of Gray's Inn, and, at the age of 
I eight and twenty, became one of the craeen's 
counsellors. Being the friend of Essex, 
to whom Cecil was hostile. Bacon was 
shut out fix>m preferment. For this, how- 
ever, Essex ffeneroosly compensated him, 
by the gift of a considerable estate. Tke 
reward which Elssex received wau, that 
Bacon pleaded against him on his trial, 
and, afterwards, wrote a iNunphlet to blast 
the memory of his benefactor. Having, 
previously to the accession of James J., 
contrived to obtain the good graces of the 
Scottish party, that monarch, as soon at 
he ascenoed the throne, knighted him, and 

gave him pensions to the amount of one 
undred pounds per annum. But it was 
not till 1607 that he obuined the long 
coveted post of solicitor general. In 1611, 
he was appointed a judge of the marshal*a 
court; and in 1618, attorney general. As 
a crown law}-er, he was slavishly obse- 
quious to the sovereign, and a dangerous 
enemy of freedom. At length he attained 
the summit of his ambition. In 1617, he 
was made lord keeper ; in 1619, lord high 
chancellor, with the title of Baron Vera- 
lam; and, in 1620, he was created Vis- 
count St. Albans. 

Fortunately for posterity, the mind of 
Bacon was not wnoUv engrossed by am- 
bition ; philosophy and science held a large 
place in it. His great labour, the Novum 
Organon, was given to tlie world in 1620. 
He had already published his Essays; the 
Advancement of Learning ; the treatise oa 
the Wisdom of the Ancients; and some 
other works. 

But, at tlie very moment when the tri- 
umph of his genius was completed, hie 
political dowmal was near at hand. In 
1621, he was accused in parliament <^ gross 
bril)ery and corraption. He pleaded cnihy, 
and was senteoceid to pay a fine of forty 
thousand pounds ; to be imprisoned during 
the roval pleasure ; and to lie rendered in- 
capable ox filling any <^ce, sitting amon| 
the peers, and coming within the verge of 
the court. The fine and imprisonment, 
however, were soon remitted, and a pension 
was even granted to him. The remainder 
of his life was spent in retirement, and in 
the ardent pursuit of literature and sci- 
ence ; often embittered hy the embarmsa- 
meats which arose from his habits of lavish 
expenditure. He died at Highgate, on the 
9th of April, 1626. Aa a courtier and • 
politician, he merita no small severity of 
censure ; as a man of genius and a philoao- 
pher, no language can be too kity for hii 

P™^ Digitized by Google 


&LO01f , Josir, 
Mm !■ e uKliwrk , ia }T4B, watoruiMOy 
a pBinter of poreebin, and a modeller of 
ehna tmanm. Haviac, howefer, a geaioi 
hr oea^itare, he a|i|^ied kinwelf Co the 
ilad]|r of tlw art widi wmh dili{{ence as to 
aoqane great proieJeacT in k. It 
about tlw year 176S tint Iw began to 
ia awrble; aad, tran that period he yearly 
ja n r eeee d ia ikill and reoatatioB. Hit 
■Catae of Man firvtbroaffht nim into public 
Botiee. He died ia 17M, re8|>ected a« an 
artiet and a nan Aiaoog hie priactpel 
worke bmij be reckoned the tutnee of 
JadfB Bk^atoae, Johnson, and Howard; 
a bMC of George nit; and the monoaients 
of Lord Chathasi, Mrs. Draper, and Gay, 
the fenader of the hospital. 

BADCOOK, SAifUKt.,an Enalish divine 
and writer, was bom, in 1747, at South 
MoaltDB, in Devonshire, and was, for some 

Ob his reCam to 8paiB» ke espoused 
the cause of Joseph Bonaparte, aaci, after 
the battle of Victoria, he took refiige ia 
France. He died in 1814. His Trareb 
ia Africa and Asia were published in tana 
q u art o Tohwacs 

BAFFIN, William, en able Ei^lisb 
navigator, was bom in 1664, aad acted as 
pilot to several of the vo yagers to the arctic 
regions. Geographers have given hbname 
to the vast bay which he explored, and 
which coBuaences at Davis's straits. Its 
been doabted, but has re- 
cently been verified. Bafio propoeed to 
attempt a passage round Northern aad 
Eastern Asia, bcrt could not obtain sup- 
port. He was killed at the siege of Or- 
is, in 1622. 

BAGE, RoBXRT, a novel ^ter, was 
bora, in 1728, at Dark^, ia Derbyshire, 

years, a dissenting minister, but at leagth was nearly^ self-educated, and for many 
co n fermed to the church, and became as- 1 years carried on the business of a paper 
aisCant preacher at the Octagon Chapal, maker, at Tamworch, where he died * 
Bath. He died in London, in 1788. As ~ " 
a pulpit orator, he was much admired; 
aad as a literary man, he displayed talents 
htr above mediocrity. He was one of the 
best writers in the Monthly Reriew; was 
a cut resp ondent of several macaxines ; and 
contributed lamly to Dr. White's Bamp- 
ton Lectures: but puUisbed notking sepa- 
rately, except a Sermon, and a pamphlet 
oa Dr. Priestley. 

BADEN, J ABBS, a Daae, bora in 178ff, 
M considered as one of the founders of 
Daaisk literatore. In 1760, on his return 
from his travels, be cave, at Copenhagen, 
the first course of lectures on the belles 
lectree that had ever been delivered in tbe 
I of die cminUy. He was profee- 
■or of doouenoe and Latin in the university 
of Copepiiagett, and hekl other oflicescon- 
aeelBa with pobb: instruction. His Critical 
Joaraal, from 1768 to 1779, eontribnted 
■mdi to improve the Danish taste. He 
translated Tacitus, and other classics, and 
published a Latin and Danish Dictionary, 
and several srammars. 

BADGER, Lovis, a native of Lyons, 
has imaiortaliied his meauyry by an heroic 
iBstanoe of fraternal aiection. To savehis 
brother, who had assisted ia defending 
Lyons against the republicans, and who 
was conseqoentlv exposed to dm penalty 
of death after tae surrender, he assumed 
kis naaw, and c htei i u lly suffwred for him. 

BADIA T LEBLICH, Domivoo, a 
Spaniard, was bora in 1786, and educated 
at Valencia. Being well skilled in Arabic, 
he resolved to travel in the East; and, ac- 

cordnglv, after aavinr been personally 
oualifiea to pass as a Makomecan, be as- 

' the na^e of All Bey. Under kis 
9 he visited Tripoli, Ecypt, Mecca, 

Syria aadiseoeered, aad an 

1801. As a writer, lie is amch above 
mediocrity. His first publication, which 
appeared in 1781, was Mount Kenneth. 
It was succeeded by Barfaam Dowas, the 
Fair S vrian, James Wallace, Hermsprong, 
and otner productions of the sasse spe- 

BAGLTVI, GxoKOV, aa eminent phy- 
sician. Was bora at Ragusa, in 1668, and 
was educated at Naples and Padua. Cle- 
ment XIV., on the ground of his great 
merit appointed him, while yet jroaag, 
professor of surgery aad anatosay in this 
colleffe of Sapiensa, at Rome. M^livi is 
entitfed to tbe praise of having contributed 
to brinff back medical science to proper 
principles. He died in 1706. Hisarorks 
nave been collected into a quarto vokaae. 

BAGOLINO, SxBASTiAir, a native of 
Alc«aK>, in Sicily, bora in 1660, was re- 
markable for the variety of his talents; 
be being at once poet, painter, and mnu- 
ciaa, ami speaking with e(|oal focility and 

.1 ^ |g Lntin, Spanish, and Italian 

a fertile vrriter, but only 


__^ a few of 
tie died b 

his works were pdblisbed. 

BAGRATION, Priace, a Russiaa ( 
ral, senator,aadoounseIlor of theempnor, 
sianalised himself in the Polish campaigns 
of 1798 aad 1794, and the lulian cam- 
paign of 1799; in the latter of which Sa- 
varoff gave him the title of " his right 
arm.'* In 1805, 1806, aad 1807, ke ea- 
haaced his repolation in tbe field. The 
command of tke second Russiaa army was 
to him in 1812; and, though 
closely pressed by a simerior force, he id- 
fected his juactk»a with the other armies. 
He was BMNTtatty wouaded at the battle of 
Borodino. . 

BAIF, JoHV Abthoht OB,the sob «C 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

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* hk firthMT WM MteMMkr. in IMt. 
At SB Mrhr Bfe he beeuM tbe nricad of 
BoMMT d, md lyMMyd a wiiw w of po ma, 
FtosCiy wsvy ilnoooKNrtky his ocrapntkNiy 
••d BO iaportut e?6Bt CookphMewitfaoat 
hk eMbridtkg h; b«c he wm ■outiW re- 
waHe4 md coMpkined beavilf or ia* 
gradtadt mad HI fbrtune. He died poor, 
htlfm, HewaitheintwhofoaMfodia 
Firanoe an acide aij of poetnr and naeie, 
bat the inetitntion was Mort nved. 

BAILET, Nathar, nfraauaariaa and 
lexicovranher, died ia 174t, at St ep n ey , 
wherene kept a echool. He edited eever- 
al iebool books, and eoa^piled a Hoasehoid 
Dictioaary, and Antiqaities of London and 
Weetainsier; bat his best known utork 
M an fiagBsli Btymolofieal Dictionnry, 
which, wioi saooessiTe eai 
eed throMu yany editioas< 

BAIIXeT, Adkiah, a kborions 
barned Freneh writer, nias bom, of 
■" - — I 1 

and was afterwards ande librariaa to N. 
LiflioigBoa. He wrote yarioastheolofical, 

tiaMs, been sappased la ba a new die 
Mwears to have beea ebsefred bv 
Hjs worlu form Ibar ▼oh»es in OBBm 

{■reafts, aft If earille, in Picardy, ia lm49. 
He took orders, obtaiaed a 

historMal, and other works; asnona whwh 
are Lites of dM Sainis, t vols. Mio; the 
Life of I>eecartes, 2 Tob. 4to. ; a History 
of HoBand, 4 vob. llaio.; and lives of 
celebrated Chikken, 1 vok. ISmo. The 
won, howerer, by which he k best known, 
k hk Jaaeaiens des Savans, 9 vok. Iftao. 
Ha died in 17M. 

BAHXIE, William, an Eaflidi 
tiar artist, was bora aboat 17M, and was 
orMnaUy acaptahiof eavahy; bat qait- 
ted the anay, in order to deroto himself 
la engr a f in g. He displayed aioch taknt, 
and prodaced abont a haadred pmtes, sav- 
aral of which are from Rembrandt. He 
dkd at the begfamiag of die 

BAlLLIE, If ATTVCW, die soa of a di* 
v MMty prtmssor at Gkscow, was bora ia 
IIW, aad was odaeatod at hk nntive city 
aad at Oxferd, at which latter plaea he 
took hisdegree of M. D. Beiag a aep- 
hew of W. William Hoater, he was so 
fectnanto as to receive dw vahiable iaetrae- 
tions of dmt oekbreied man. Aided l^ 
dik advantoge, and hk own greet taleats, 
he soon obtoined an extensive mediea 
practice ia the metropelk, and e ccnaw da t^ 
•d a krge Ibrtmw. Dr. Balllk died ia 
MM. HekdmaadMrofdmNorbidAa. 
roftheHanmn Body: a work of sa- 

BAHXOU, WiLLiAW DB, a phmiiian, 
eaBed the French Sydeaham, was nom at 
Park, ia 1688, aiA dkd m ia«. He 
was oaa of ihose who eent iib n te d to eme n 
» the medical art ia France from the 
af the AnMaa ssheel, and to 

BAILLY, JoHM SiLTAta, a Freaeh 
tronoaier aad literary chavnatsr of eeu* 
laioe, was bora at Park, in 178$, aad at 
an earlv period manifcstad an indefiuiga- 
ble ardour ia the parsok of scieace aad 
. . The repotatioB which he ao* 
qaired was oommeasarato with his axer- 
tioas. Politics, however, at kst fi^aUy 
in te rfered with hk scientiAe occapatloas* 
After the breakiag oat of the revohaioa, 
IS an active SMmber of the aationel 
tbiy, and vras aext eho s sn mayor of 
Paris. In the ktter capacity, he excited 
the inextin^sishabfe hatiad of the >eo- 
*-'— faj asmg military feroe to di spe r se 
of their iasurreotioaary moHmgi". 
They avoided diemselves whea they had 
seised the reias ofgovwnmeat; and, on the 
lldi of November, 1198,BaUly was seat 
to the scaflbid with circasMtanoes of tha 
most disgusting barbarity. Of his worksj 
the most celebrated are, hk Histories of 
Ancient, of Modem, and of Orientol As* 
tronomy; Lettert on Pkto's Atkatk; 
and Letters on the Origin of the Sciencee. 
BAINBRU>OE, JoHa, a physician aad 
astronomer, was bom, in 10o2, at Ashbjr 
de k Zoach, and wes educated at Eiaan- 
oel Ck>lleae, Cambridge. So hiah a repn* 
tation dia Im acqaim fer seientilic knowl- 
adgo, dmt Sir Henry Savik chose him to 
be his fint astronomical professor at On* 
ford. He dkd in dmt ei^, in 1643. Ha 
pnbKshed i Bas er i pti oa ot the kto Coamts 
Oeaionkria; and aa edition of Prochis on 
the S p here; and kft mnny manascript <4k 

BAKER, Sis Richakd, was bora at 
Sissinifanrst, in Kmrt, in 1568, was kniglit- 
ed by James I., aad ia 1880 was high sher* 
iff of Oxferdshire. An aaANtuaato mar- 
riage raiaed him, aad he was incarcerate 
ed la the Fleet, whtre he wrote hk Chro- 
nicles of tbe Kings of England, and othm 
works. He died, a prisoner, m 1845. 

BAKER, Thomas, nn eminent matha- 
maticiaa, was bom at llton, in Somerset- 
shire, hi 1885, vras edncated at OxAMrd, 
aad became minister^f Bishop's Nymmet, 
He died in 1690. " 

He k 

the author oftheOeoawtrical Key, or the 
Gate of E^aatioas Unlocked. 

BAKER, Thomas, nn antiqnary, bom 
at La nch est s r, Durham, ia 1658, becama 

afeOowof St. Joha*s CoUego, Cuabridge* 

Iff of Leag "' 
'11m iiviag be resigaed, beraase 
not take Uie oaths to William HI. 

and obtained the Uvii 
The livin 

_ Newton, 
because he would 



to W 
the fellowship he was expeJkd for refesii^ 
to take them to Ooome 1. He died i« 
1V48, with the character of aa ammhk^ 

Digitized by 



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Hk MMMcnnt ooOeetkMM M the 
MMkfutics of CmmtnagB fcni tkirlj-iiuM 

bsMs of a hiftary ■UBikr to tkatof Aatho- 
nr Wood* • 

BAKER, HBirftT, 
bom at L oiido a, in IM, and ande a eoa- 
■adorable Ibrtaae bgr iaftraeting tko deaf 
aaddMdi. HawaianaadieroCdieRoval 
aad Aariqa a r iao Soeiotiee, aad of Ike So- 
GMlyof Arte; aad left to dieinC oftkeee 
aa aaoatty of a boadrod poaade, for a 
jearlj oratioa oa oxperiaieotal fhtkaaofk^. 

He poUMbod tbe Mi- 
f, the UaiTene, a po-> 
Spectator; aad other 

I hietoryi 
croaoope made ei 
eai; tie Uaivenal' Spectator 
wark e. 

BAKER, Sir Gbosob, Bart., wae 
born ia Devoadiira, ia 1722, edncal e d at 
Etoa aad CSeadridge. roee to high practice 
'■a ai Loadon, aad wae ap- 
ciaa to the kuig and qoeeo. 
preeideat of the CoUece of 
PhysicJaae, and a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety. He died ia 1819. He mbUehed 
I Medif I tract*, which he afterwardi 
ctod oader tbe title of Opofcobt, aad 
I a e aa tributo r to the P h itoeop h ieal and 

BAKEWEUL, Rob est, a gnoler, wai 
horn in 1790, at Diibley, ia Leicester* 
ibire, on die estato of hie fether, and ob- 
tiiaed oelebrtty by hie itreaooai efibrte to 
iaprove the brand of cattle, la (iirtber- 
aaee of thie object, he traveled over Eag- 
lend, Irebnd, aad HoUnnd. His eiibrts 
were eeunently sooceMfol. HbraBewere 
letat eaonnoae pricee; a liable ram har- 
iag broaght eignt handred gaineae in one 
S0MOO. 0»e died ia 1795. 

BILBINUS, DBOiMue CaLtvs, wae 
dieted Roman ee^ieror, in conjnaction 
with MaKimoe, after the <leath of tke Gor- 
diaae, ▲. D. 287. After a little more than 
a year, he, ai well ae hie colleague, wae 
■M u r der e d by the Pnetorian guard*. 

BALBOA, Vasco Nonex de. was 
bom in Spain, aboat 1475, and, naTinff 
dieeipnted hi* property, eoaght to aaena 
mrtaae by hie expk»ite in the New 

World. After having difftinguiabed him- 
eflf greatly oa the coast of Dvien, he pen- 
etrated into the uterior, discovered the 
Pnciie Ocenn, and obtaiaed infonnation 
respe ct iay the empire of Pera. Jealous 
of hie talents and saoeesi, his enemies at 
length accu sed him of treaeoa, and he was 
beheaded ia 1517. 

BALDI, Bebhakdiit, an Italian, of 
almoet aaiversal genius, was bom at Ur* 
hiao, in I55S, and was made abbot of 
" i» by the sovereiaa of that state, 
aft aaee a tfaeokigma, mathemati- 

poct; aadersto 

amst aUthe Earopeaa; hal a nrodigioai 

* jadgmeat, aad iadefiui* 

Bahiiis the aathMre^ 

ml poeme aad scietiftci works. Ha 


Floreaea, bom in 1C24, 


a BBtiva of 

I a paialsr, 


ed talents ia the irst tjro of tbeee parsnite* 
he owae his permanent fiuae to hie litorary 
fadMMMre. He ie the aadior of Livee of the 
Painters, from 126D to 1970 2 aad tha 
Lives of eeleb r a tod E ay r a v ms . Totheirst 
of theee works tbe fonehioghaad was pat 
by his son. He died ia IML 

BALDWIN, Abraham, eauaent ae « 
Btatesmaa, and president of the natvereitf 
of Georgia, wae gradaated at Yale CeOefa 
in 177£ He vras a mamber of the Ccm> 
veation which fbrawd tha toastitatioa of 
the United Statee m 1787, aad heU a seal 
soocemively in both boaoM of Ceagiaai. 
He died at Waahii^toa ia 1807. 

BALE, JoHB, aa Eagliah diviae, wae. 
bora, ia 1405, at Cove, ia Safidk, was 
educated at Norwich aad CSaeriiridfe, aad 
became a leakms eoavert from popery -la 
UaiSr Edward loTbe wae 
made bishop of O rne ry , aad eawiled the 
hatred of the Irieh eatholios by his rafonA* 
ingieaU Whea Mary aseeaded the threaaw 
he Oed to Basil, bat retanmd oa the a eca s 
sion of EUaabeth, and was appoimed a 
prabend of Caatocbaiy. Ha died ia 1500. 
Hie works are nmaerriiis; batchieOy ooa* 
troversial; and his writing of thie elam* 
some of which wen published under tha 
naaie of Harrisoa, are ahoadaatly aeri- 
aioaioue. He appears to have beea tha 
last writer of those relisioas draame called 
Hystnies. The work by^ which priaeipal- 
ly he is reawmbered ie his Latia 4 nr naal 
of the Livee of eminent Britieh Authors. 

BALEN, Hbhkt Vab, an emiaeai 
Flemish painter, was bora at Antwerp, 
studied in Italy, and roee to high repata* 
tion. His death took jdaoe ia 1002* 
VandvlLe received his arst instraetioae 
fiom him. 

BALES, Peteb, a great master of pea* 
mansbip, was bom in 1547, and died, in 
indigence, about the year 1010. Soaw of 
his performancee wtfa astoaishiag for their 
minoteneM aad perfect legibility. Bales 
taught hb art at Oxford aad Loadoa, aad 
was en^>loyed by Walsiadwm, u 
" * ' *B«»» for the ] 


feitiog head writings, mrme purpoea 
detecting treaeoaable eorrespondeiieai 
is the author of the Writiag School* 

BALGUY, JoHB, aa eaunont diviaa, 
was bom at Sheffield, ia 1080, I ' 


Digitized by 




ttr* Im nevMT Ind mit otiMr prafensest 
thu the Tieftnife of North AUerton, and 
a prebend in |hfi ehnrch of Salubory. In 
the Bnagorkn eont r oyerej be drew the 
pen on the tide of Btibop Hondley; and, 
m reply to Lord Shafteeb u ry, he publiahed 
Two Lettera to a deip^; and the Founda- 
tienofBfeml Virtne. Of hia other worlu, 
the priaeipal ia two vohunee of Sermone. 
He died in 1740. — Hia ton, Thom a s, who 
waa bom in 1716, and died in 1796, waa 
n r ch d encion of Wincheater, and printed hit 
Sera wna and Chargee, and aome other the- 
ological piecea. 

BALLARD, Gecko k, bom at Camp- 
dan, in GhnweiterBhire, wai originally a 
atay and habil maker; bat deroted his 
I hoora to atody, and made himself 
'of the Saxon langnace. Asobscrip- 
tien was mised to educate nim at Oxford, 
and be nltimatehr became beadle of the 
unirenity, whic6 post he held till his 
death, in 1756. In 1761, he pnblisbed his 
MeaMira of Britidi Ladies. Maov of his 
nTAnaacript ooUectioas are in the Bodleian 

SALE, HuoH DB, who, in 1847, was cho- 
aan bishop of Ely, is beliered to have been 
a naiJTe of Balsham, in Gambridgeahiie. 
He died in 1286, and was buried in Ely 
Cathedral. St. Peter's Colleffe, Oun- 
bridce, was founded by him in 1280. 

BALUE, JoHV LA, a French prebte 
nnd statesman, was a nattre of Foitou, of 
an obscure family, and was bora in 1^1. 
At his outset in life, he si(|naliaed himself 
by firandnlently ap propriaUny propert y , of 
which he was left the executor. Having 
obtained the confidence of Louis XI., he 
was loaded with p r eferm e nt s by that mo- 
narch, and was his prime minister in all 
but the name. He, nowever, betrayed his 
royal patron, and was punished by dcTcn 
years incarceration in an iron cage, only 
eight feet souare. While in the height of 
power, he had been created a cardinal j 
and papal influence at length obtained his 
r e l ease finom imprisonment. He settled in 
Itahr, and died, m 1401 , bishop of Preneste. 

BALZAC, John Louis Guez DB,who 
Is considered as one of the restore rs of the 
French language, was bom at Angouldme, 
in 18M. He was in the senrice of the 
dake of Epemon; and', afterwar d s, in that 
of cardinal la Valette, whom he accom- 
panied to Rome. On his return, he retired 
to his estate. Richelieo gave him a pension , 
nnd appointed him a counsellor at state, 
and historiographer of France. He died 
in 1666. AoBOfig his principal works may 
be nwntioned his Letters; the Prince; thie 
Christina Socrates; and Aristippos. It 
was he who first gave precision, ekganoe, 
and enrrisnium to Frsneh prose. 

prelate, was bora at Farneworth, in Ln^ 
cashire, in 1644, nnd wns edneated at 
Christ CoUete, CambHdge. In 1584, he 
obtained the living of St. Andrew's, Hol- 
bora, and thencewrward continued rising 
in-his pr ofes si on, tiU, in 1667, he «4>taued 
the bishopric of London, nnd in 1664, the 
nrchbishopricof Oanteibory. Bnncroftwac 
a violent a ese rt or of the privileges of his 
order, and nn intolerant assailant of those 
who dissented from the dnirch. His lite- 
rary exertioBs seem to have been confined 
to a sermon and two tracts agaiost the 
Puritans, nnd an unpuUisbed letter on 
pluralities. He died in 16t0. 

BANDELLO, Matthew, an Italian 
dominican, was bora at Castelnuovo di 
Scrivia, in 1480. Though beton^in|^ to a 
religious order, the greater part c ois life 
was spent in secular pursuits. He was 
preceptor to the celebrated Lucretia €roo- 
saga, was employed in negotiations by 
Itdian princes, and resided with various 
noUe personages. In 1660, be was made 
bishop of Agen, in France. His death 
' subwouently to 1661. Hb great 
IS his Tales, which is reckoned 
among the damical productions of modem 

BANDINELLI, Baccio, a oekbrated 
sculptor, the son of a gotdsmitfa, was bom 
at Fbrence, in 1487. He gave the firrt 
indication of nis talent in boyhood, by 

making a gigantic fignra out of snow. In 

manhood, ne realii 

earlv years, and 

mum admired* Among nis best works aie. 

nie promise • 

a copy of the Laooodn; nn Orpheus; nnd 
a Hercules binding Cacus. Painting, abo, 
be a ttemp ted, but did not succeed. Bnn- 
dineUi was vain, prond, and envious. He 
died in 1660. 

BANIER, or BANNER, Janir Qv- 
TAFFSOH, a celebrated Swedish field mar- 
shal, was bora at Diorshohn, in Upfamd, 
in 1606. He began hb career in Livonia* 
in 1626, served with distinction in the 
Polish campaigns of Gustavus Adolpbus, 
and obtained- the rank of general. At (he 
battle of I^psic, in 1680, that heroic mo* 
narch confessed that, '* next to God, he 
owed the victory to Banier.'* But it wa^ 
after the death of Gustavus that the ffeni.« 
of Banier shone forth with full lustre. 
After the k»ss of the battle of Nordlingen, 
be imheld the unking fortunes of the 
Swedes, lafiled all the efforts of the ene- 
my, and gained several victories, and wni 
known by die glorious titb of the Second 
Crustnvus. He died in 1641. 

BANIER, Arthont, a native of A«- 
vergne, bora in 1678, was edumted in the 
Jesuit college of Clermont, took orders, 
became an abb6, and was employed faj 
president Dnmeta as pr e c e pto r to hia aoM 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


01 06 AsMa&tBj bi 
iMcripUoM and BeUei Lettr«, to tbe 
TnuMadioiw of whidi body he contriboted 
brgely. His priiici|»l work, which u a 
valnaDle one, is MythologT and Fable ex- 
plained hj History. He died in 1741. 

BANKS, John, a dramatiet, was orig< 
iaaUy a lawyer, bat relioqaished hie pro- 
feaeion to write for the fltase. Between 
187T and 1696, he prodnoed seten trage- 
diei, of wUch tbe best knotihi ia The 
Unkanpy Favoarite. The time of bia birth 
and or hia death ia eqoaUy onaaeertain 
He waa boried ia St. Jamea'a Chorcb, 
Wcatmiaater. Hb atyle and veniflcation 
mm bad, hot he haa oonaiderable pathoa. 

BANKS, Thon AS, an eminent aculptc 
waa bom, in 1735, in GlonoeaterBhire, and 
waa bronght op under JCent, the architect. 
Hia ^enina, however, led him to acolptore. 
Having gained prixea from the Royal 
Academy, he waa aent by that body to atodv 
in Italy. After having ooaipletea hia atu^ 
tea, he reaided two Tear* la Roaaia, and 
the emp r caa pnrchaaea hia atatue of Qipid. 
On hia retnm home, he attained high repa« 
tation, and waa qBoch employed till hii 
death, in 1805. 

BANKS, SiK JosvPH, waa bom, in 
174S,at Reveaby Abbey, in Leiceaterahire, 
and educated at Eton and Oxford. Hia 
W>ve of travelling, and of natural hieto- 
ry, prompted him to explore foreim conn> 
triea; and, accordingly, in 1768, ne made 
a ▼(^[M^ ^ Labrador and Newfoundland ; 
in 176o, accompanied the great navigator 
Cook; and, in 1772, visited Iceland and 
tbe Weatem Isles of Scotland. While 
with Captain Cook, he nearly kMt his life 
bv the mtenseoold, at Terra del Fuego. 
On his return, the university of Oxford 
eonferred on him tlie degree of doctor of 
laws. In 1778, he obuined the order of 
Ihe Bath, and the presidency of the Royal 
Society ; but, after having neld the latter 
thovH five years, his conduct so deeply 
oflimded many acientific members, that a 
achiam was on the point of taking place. 
The differences were, however, arranged, 
■ad he Md hia aeat till he died, on the 
Ml of Mart W. He wrote some papen 

in the FldhMophieal TSr ana actiem, aad • 
tracton the Rnst in Wheat. Hia eollee- 
tion of hooka on natural hiatoty waa the 
moat complete in Europe. 

BANNAKER, Benjamiit, a negm of 
Maryhmd, who died in 1807. By dint id 
talenta, without any other aaaiatanoe thaa 
Fergnaon'a worka aiMi Mayer's TaUea, ha 
acquired, in hia leiaure hours, a oomplelt 
knowledge of mathematica, and for many 
veara cafeulated and publiahed the Mary- 
land Ephemeridea. 

Spaniah phyaician and poet, a native of 
LuMria, in Andalwia, continued, under 
the title of the Teara of Angelica, the ro- 
mance of Arioato, and executed hia taak 
in anch a manner aa to gain the applauat 
of Cervantea. He is abo the author of 
some eclojraes, stansas, and sonnets. 

BARATIER, John,ayointhof 
uncommonly premature talents, waa bom 
in 1721, at Schwabach, in the margmviale 
ofAnapaeh. At four years of age, be spoke 
in Latin, German, and French; at six, 
he mastered the Greek; and at eiffht, ha 
became a proficient in Hebrew. Mat 

matics and astronomy he learned in three 
months. The htw of nations, aneiettt and 
modem literature, architecture, medals and 
inscriptions, Greek, Roman, and oriental 
antiquities, and tbe deciphering of hiero> 
glyphics were all objects of hit atadies 
He died at tbe ase of nineteen. He traar 
bted, ftxNn thelfebrew, Benjamin of Ta 
deb*s Travels, and publiahed Anti-Art' 
moniua, and other worka. 

BARBAULD, Anita Lvtitu^ wm 
born at Kibworth, in Leicestershire, in 
1748, and received an excellent educauon 
from bcr father, the Rev. Dr. Aikin. In 
1772, sbe published a volume of poems, 
which ffave her a hi^ place among her 
poetical contemporaries ; and, in the fol- . 
lowing year, she Joined her brother in 
giving to the press a volume of Miscella- 
nies. Her marriage took place ia 1774. 
For the last forty yean of her life, she 
resided in the vicinity of the metropolis; 
first at Hempstead, and next 1 1 Stoka 
Newington, at which latter pboa aha died. 

fl BAM 

motfL proauMBt of Uhm auiy be BaiDad, 
fiuiy LtMoiM aod H»M» in proM; a 

Ifar literary 
Abooi Um 



poetwia Epietb to 

tifliteae Hmdrad and Gleveo, m jmmks 
MM Biograpkical and Critical fWye, 
■reixfld to a tekctMNi from tlw Tatler, 
Spectator, aad Gaardiaa, to Richardeon't 
Curreipoiideaoe, aad to aa editioa of the 
beet Eacliili ooTob. 

BARBAZAN, Akhold Williim, a 
faliaiit and noble minded French general, 
who Kved aader the reifoe of Charlee VI. 
and VII. Hie strict probity, and eminent 
«enricee to the crown, cained for him the 
glortooe appeDatiom of ** the Irreproacha- 
ale Kaight," and *< the Restorer of the 
Kiaadom.'* After a Tictorione career, he 
died, ia 14tt. of the wounds which he re- 
oeived at the battle of Bullegneville. He 
was interred in the roval cemetery of St. 
Deaais, and with reasl honours. 

BARBAROSSA, Akuoh, a Turkish 
pirate, who mur dered the prince of Algiers, 
whom he had been invited to succour, and 
asarned his t hr oa c . He afterwards sub- 
dM Team aad Tremecen ; but was ulti- 
mately skia, ia 1618, ia aa eagagement 
with ttm SMniards. 

BARBAROSSA, Hjctkaddiv, or 
Kkaiii^doiV{ the brother of Aruch, 
saoeeaded to him in the sovereignty of 
Algiera, aad mat his kingdom under the 
or the Porto. Solimaa II. 
the cwmmend of the Turkish 
e, aad he subjugated Tunis, but was 

dnven from it by the Spaniards, 
Charks V. He afterwardi rawed Italy, 
redaeed Yemen to the Turkish dominion, 
and perfonaed various naval exploits. He 

BARBEYRAC, Jobv, a native of Be- 
ikm, ia France, was bora in 1674, and 
eoBntnr with his parents, on 
bn of the edict of Nants. He 
lively professor of belles lettres, 
kw, aad history, at Berlin, Laasaane, aad 
Oroaiagea; aad <fied in 11V. Barbeyrac 
traaakted, amoaff other works, the writ- 
iags of Paiendorf, Grotlus, aad Cumber- 
kad, on the kw of nations, aad published 
a History of Aaoieot Treatises; aTreatise 
OB Gaming; and aTreatise on the Mo- 
r of the Fathers. 

ratty of 

a gaograpber, the onfy popd of d'AnviUe, 
and not aawordiy of hk master, was bora 

al Park, ia 17W, became ^ 
a&irs to Napokoi 


>n, aad wai 

of the Institute, aad of other sci- 
eirtiie bodks. He dkd in 1825. Hk 
produetioBs are numerous and vahmbk. 
Aamag them are the maps to the Voyage 
ef Aaaeharsk; a fiae map of the Morea; 
and the maps aad various geographical 

Jefnmey in Greece* 

BArBIER, Ahthokt AlxiamobRj 
bom in 1766, at Coloamiiers, in Fraaoa» 
was educatedforthe church, but quitted tt» 
aad. was successively librariaa to the Di« 
rectory, to Napoleon, aad to Lows XVIIf • 
From the service of Leub, however, ba 
was dismissed in 1822, aad thk circuoH 
staace preyed upon hk spirits, aad prdb»> 

' ' aggravated the disease, an aacarisa^ 
w^ he died in 1826. Of hk biblio* 
graphical works, all of which are cete em 
ed, the priacipal k a Dictionarv of Aooar* 
moas and Pseudonymous Wons, 4 vok 

French literarv character, was bora at Laa* 
gres, about 1641, and qualified hibiself to ad 
as counsel ; but havink, in hk first s pee ch , 
been unabk to proceed fiirther than a few 
sentences, he thenceforth confined himself 
to chamber practice. He lived and died 
in poverty. Hk death tock pkoe ia 1604. 
Ofhk works, chkiy critkal, the Senti* 
mento of Cleanthes, which k aa exoeUeat 
examiaatioo of Bouhour's Coavenationa 
of Aristus aad Eugeuius, k the only oaa 
tlut k new read. 

BARBOUR, JoRH, a Scotch poet, bora 
about 1816, and died ia 18B6, was chap- 
kin to David Brace, who employed hua 
in several embassies He k the author of 
a verse history of the Life and Actioas ol 
Robert Bruce. 

DBB, a writer of the sixteenth oeataiy, 
but whether a aative of England or of 
Scotkad k aot known, was educated mi 
Oriel College, Oxford; s u bseq u ently trav- 
elled into Uermaay, Italy, aikl Fraacec 
aad died, k 1662, miokter of AUhalkws, 
Londmrd Street. Of hk various works, 
the priacipal k the Shyp of Folk, partly 
traaskted firom Braadt, aad priated by 
Pynson in 1609. 

BARCLAY, William, bom in Aber- 
deenshire, in 1641, emimted to Fraace, 
and becaaie counsellor c? state to the duke 
of Lorraiae, and afterwards professor of 
civil kw at Angers, where he died k 
1606. Barcky was one of the most emi- 
nent civilians of hk time. Of hk works, 
the priacipal are, a Treatise against Re- 
publican Doctrines, and another against 
the Power assumed < "^ ' 


Princes bjf the 

ARCLAY, Jobv, son of dm prseedii^ 
was bom, in 1682, at Pont k Moassoa^ 
and, after the death of hk fether, visHed 
F > ngk nd, where he vras patronised hf 
James I., aad resided for tea years m 
thee removed to Rome, where aa died k 
1621. He wrote several works, of whiek 
the best kaowa are, Eupliorauoa,asatire{ 
and Aryeakp a rmnaaee; both k I^tia 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 


T, BoBBi^T, the eelabrled 
of the QBifcfffiy WM bon, m 
MSf at OwrdoMtowB, ia Soodnd, and 
mH the M* of a coloael. Bf Uf JmK 
titt prinenalef the Seotdi eelfeveatrferis, 
wboMhe wae 

I ■■tiMieil at «a farljr a^, 
he was brought op a catholic; bat,haanaf 
of thia, hto lather took him boM, i»d 
havhiff hiawnlf h eccie a qaaker, he pre- 
vailed OB hie SOB to Mknr his exaniple. 
At the Bfe of two and tweaty the ooarert 
bqiaa to distiagwh hi mic lf as a defender 
of the Socaely of Friends, by the. pabliih- 
iag of a tract iatitied Truth cleared of 
CaWaDies; which was feUowed by other 
works of a similar kiad. His jcreat 
wotk, however, which appeared in ltf76, 
is his justly celebrated Apology Ibr the 
Quakers, the Eaglish traaBla|ion of which 
ha dedicaAed to Charles II. Barchty vis- 
ited a eoBsideraMe part of Eagland, Hol- 
laod^ aad Genaai^, io eonpany with Wil- 
Baai Pean ; and died oa his estate of Urie, 
is Scodaod, ia UM. 

ield BMushal, aad igin i s fr of war, distta- 
gaished himself ia the Genaaa and Polish 
eampaigas of 1806 and 1807, and succeed- 
ed Kmsow as eosunaader in chieC At 
the battle of Leipsic, he headed- the Ros- 
naa troops. Ia 1814 he commanded them 
iaCTmsspam, and in the Mlowin^ year 
he again led them into France, with the 
title of prtaoe. He died in 1818. 

BAS, or BARCOGHAB, a Jewiih deht- 
der, who, ia the reign of Adriaa, dedarad 
he Bessiab. 

hismelf to be the 
aame, a very apprvwnato 
have been Bar Cosiba 

His ori|;inal 

one, is said to 

(the son of ly- 

'^ which he chaaged into Baroochebas 

" * , by andaci^ 

eated audti- 

of the^ Jews into a bdisf c»f his 

(ttm aoB of a star). Hav 

diviaity, they revolted Mainst the 
After the warimd lasted for two years, Ju- 
lias SeveiBB be s ie g e d diem in Bedier, took 
the citv by assank, aad the pseudo messiah 
aad finy thoosand of his foBowers were 
shuB. TlwBgh, ia a rdigioos point of 
view, Baroodhebas was an impostor, it 
BMst be allowed that be possessed patriot^ 
ism, c o af a g e and talents. 

BARDraANES, a heretic of the see- 
oad ceatwy, bom in S^rria, was a man of 
great genius and learning, aad had trav- 
efled iato India to acquire knowledge. He 
•dopted the doctrine of two principles, 
and taaght Aat Christ dssoended from 
h e a vea aot with a real bat an aerial body, 
la recover mankind fixMi the cormption 
mto which they had heea pbmged by the 
priBc e of dy knem. 

BARETTl, jBtBFH, a native of Ta- 


pm'ty f he aetod as a 
aad aeqaited the ir 
SOB, who nlttmately i 
to the teftily of Mr. 

revisiled Itafy> and esmmwicsit a neper, 

the Literary Scoargs, which aid aeC 

'to Eaghmd, aad 

to the 

by gov*. 

Baretti wasB 


was ap a oia te d : 
Royal Academy^ 
eracBt* He died ia 1' 
maaof inlsgrity, and of ooasiderable pfyw* 
ers. Besides an ItaUaa Pietbimry, aad 
various school books, aad auaor works» 
he published Travels through Fraaoe, 
Spain, Poftsgal, aad Italy, ia kmr octave 

BARKER, ROBERT, iBventer of the 
panorama, vrae bora at KeUs, in IrelaBd, 
about 1740; aad, having fiulediabusiaeH, 
became a miniature mm portrait painter. 
He settled at Edioborgh. m that capacity; 
and, while viewing the landseape frees the 
Caltoa Hill, was irst strack wMi the idea 
of representing sisuhur sceass-ia a eurealar 
picture. EnwitoBt artists tr e at e d the project 
as chimerical; but he penisled, aad aki* 
raately succeeded ia aceenapiishiar what 
may be considered as the trioBBh of pieto* 
rial Uhision. It was in 1787that hm fcet 
was exhibited; and his exhibitieB 
came so popular that he taiaed a 
considerable fortune. He died, m Saiai 
George's Fiekls, in 1808. 

BARLAAM, a Greek monk, who, m 
1880, was sent into the west, by the yemi^t jr 
Aadroaicus, the Greek es ape ror, to sobett 
amistanoe i^jainst the Turks, aad to aege 
tiateaa unioB betweea the La ti a aad Greek 
chnrch. On his retam, he was eeasured, 
as heterodox, by a oouBcil; upon which he 
weat back to Ita^, and obtamed the biah* 
oprie of Hieracium, in Cahibria. He 
died about 1848. Bariaam introduced the 
study of Greciaa literature into Italy; aad 
Petrarch aad Bocoaeio were his disci p le s . 

BARLOW ,Troh AS,aa Enrtish prelate, 
was bora, in 1607, at LaaghiU, ia West- 
moreland, and educated at OsliBfd. He 
was raised to the bishopric of Luwob, ia 
1676, aad held it tiM bb death, fai 160L 
His' principles were anything but iniexi- 
ble. He wrote against popery during the 
reign of Charles II. ; vindieatod the resal 

Kwer of dispensing with the laws, under 
mes U. ; and, fiimlly gave his allegiaaeB 
toWiUiamlll. Nor did he properiy ftd. 
fill his episcopal duties. He was, howevsr, 
a learned and a tolerant man. His weiks 
consist of some tracu; a CoUectioa of 
Cases of Conscienoe Resolved; aad Geaa* 
ine Remains. 

BARLOW , J ox L, an Anwrioan pest aad 
diplomatist, was born at Reedia|, in Csb- 
naotiottt, about the year ITfi. Hlsfethsr 

Digitized by V^OO-; 

Jied wUle te WM 7«t a U aft hIiooI, aad 
lift him little laore thui gafioiMtto d«fray 
die expetieee of a liberal edoeatioa. Hie 
wae firat placed at DarOnoath College, 
New-Hamprfiire, then in in infiuicy* wod 
after a very short reeideaoe there renH>ved 
to Yale College, New-Haven. From thu 
iariitation he received a degree in 1778, 
when he firit came before the poblie in his 
peetiod charaeter, by recitiac an original 
poem which was soon after poblished. On 
leaving College be was soocessively a chap- 
lain in the revolutionary army, an editor, a 
bookseller, a lawyer, and a merchant. He 
next visited England, and published in 
London the first part of Advice to the priv- 
ileged Orders; and in the socoeeding^^ear 
a poem called The Conspiracy of Kings. 
In the btter part of 1792, he was appoint- 
ed one of the deputies firom the London 
Constitutional Society to present an address 
to the National Convention of France. 
Inforomtion of the notice which the Brit- 
ish i^vemment had taken of this mimion, 
le|^ him to think that it would be unsafe to 
return to England, and he continued to re- 
side in Paris for about three years. It was 
about this time that Ue composed his most 
popular poem, entitled Hastv Pudding. 
He was siibseqaently appointed Consul for 
the United States at Algiers, with powers 
to negotiate a peace with the Dey, and to 
redenn all American citisens held in slavery 
on the Coast of Barbery. After discharg- 
ing these duties be returned to Paris, and 
again engaging in trade, amassed a consid- 
rablefor^ne. In 1806 he returned to his na- 
tive country and fixed his residence atWash- 
ingtoB, where he displayed a liberal hos- 
pitality, and lived on terms of intimacy 
with inost of our distiiu^uhed statesmen. 
He now devoted himself to the piMication 
of the Columbiad, which was based upon 
a poem written while he was in the army, 
aad published soon after the close of the 
war, under the title of The Vision of 
Columbus. This was issued in a style of 
elemnce which few works, either American 
or European, have ever equalled. In 1811 , 
he wae appointed Minister to France, and 
in October of the foUowinc year was in- 
vited to a conference with the^ emperor 
Napoleon at Wilna. He immediately set 
ofi* on this mission, travelling day and 
night; but -sinking under the raligtie, and 
want of food and sleep to which he was 
obliged to submit, be foil into a state of 
d^Uity aad torpor from whidi he never 
recovered. He died in December, 1812, 
at Zamawica, a village in Poland near 

BARLOWE, WiLLiAM,son of William 
Barlowe, bishop of Cliichester, was bom 
•a Pembrokeshire, educated at Oxford, 
mse to be archdeacon of Salisbury, and 
''M m less. Barlowe was the first wlio 

kiio'ViMiga IX oH 
properties of the loadstooe; taaght tl» 
projier mode of making compasses, touch* 
ing magnetic needles, mm! cementing load- 
stooes; aad discovered the difiereace ba> 
tween iron and steel for magnetic purposes. 
He is the author of the Navigator's Sup- 
ply; Nagnetical Advertisement; and aa 
Answer to Dr. Ridley. 

BARNARD, SiK John, bom at Read- 
ing, in Berk^ire, in 1686, was brought 
up a fjuaker, but conformed to the church 
when he vras nineteen. He was a wine 
merchant by trade ; and, in his thirty>sixth 
year, havng distinguished himself by ably 
pleading at the bar of the lords the* cause 
of the wine merchants, he was electad one 
of the city members, atnd sat in parliament 
for fort^ years. Ue also filled the offices 
of sheriif and lord mayor. Barnard was so 
universally respected for sound sense and 
integrity, that, long before his death, 
which took place in 1764, his fellow citi- 
zens erected his statue in the Royal Ex- 

a native of Grenoble, was bora in 1761, 
practiced in his native city as a barrister, 
was elected a member of the states general 
in 1789, and had a seat in the two succeed- 
ing legislative bodies. Possessed of splen- 
did treats, and extraordinary eloquence, 
he became very popular. His popularity, 
however, declined on his adopting moderate 
principlei. He retired firom public life, 
out his political enemies did not foraet him, 
and he was condemned to the guiltotine iu 
October, 1798. 

BARNES, Joshua, an eminent Greek 
scholar, bora at London, in 1654, was 
educated at Christ's Hospital and Cam- 
bridge, at which latter seminary he beca»e 
professor of Greek, in 1696. In 1700, he 
married a widow of great fortune, and 
died in 1712. Barnes was said fay his 
enemies to have a good memory and a de- 
fective judgment; and, accordingly, they 
proposed as his epitaph, " Joshua Barnes, 
Felicis Memorie, Judicium Expectant ** 
Besides editions of Ekiripides, Anacreon, 
and Homer, he published a History of Ed- 
ward III. ; SacredPoems ; and other works. 

BARNEVELDT, John d'Olden, a 
celebrated Dutch statesman, was bum 
about 1649, and filled many high offices, 
with great integrity and patriotism ; among 
them was that of mnd pensionary of tlie 
states of Holland. Being, however, a 
strenuous opponent of the ambitious pm* 
jects of Prince Maurice, that prince suc- 
ceeded in procuring him to be condemnel 
to death, on the shamelessly foUe pretence 
of having betrayed his country to the Span- 
iards. The sentence was executed in 1019 

BARN1CY, Joshua, a distinguiidied 
naval commander in the service oC dM 

Digitized by 


vBilM Statflff WM bora at niltiiBOW> Ma- 
i7hrHl» in 1789. He wentto iea at a rery 
oark age, aad when the war cenimenced 
Detwsea Great Britain aad the colonies, 
r offered his nnrices to the latter, 
ained the litnatioa of naater't 
\ in the sloop of war Hornet. Daring 
the war he was several times taken pris- 
oner by die enemy, and displayed on no- 
■ero ns occaaioas great YsJour and enter- 
prise. In 1796 he receired the commission 
of Captain in the French service, but in 
1809 res i gned his command and retnmed 
to America. In 1812, when war was de- 
clared against Great Britain, he offered 
his services to the general government, and 
was appointed to Uie command of the flo- 
tilla for the defence of the Chesapeake. 
While in this sitoation, during the summer 
of 1814, be kept up an active war&re with 
the enemy ; and in the latter part of July, 
he was severely wounded in a land nnga|^- 
meat near Bladensburg. In the followmg 
year he was sent on a mission to Eurqie. 
He died at Pittsburg in 1818, in the sixti- 
eth year of bis age. 

BAROCCIO, Fredkric, an Italian 
painter, was born at Urbino, in 1528. 
Kaphael and Correggio were his models in 
design and cokraring, and be was no un- 
worUiy follower of those groat masters. He 
died in 1912, after having suffered severely 
far the major part of his life, from the 
effects of poison given to him bv some 
of bis base rivals, who envied hu snc- 

BARON, Michael (whose real name 
was Botron), was bom at lasoodnn, in 
1968, and was the son of an actor, who 
bad been brought up to trade. He had a 
fine person, and displayed such admirable 
talents, that he was coasidernd as the Ros- 
ctns of France. Hia Taaity was at least 
equal to bis talents. Baron, however, 
was not without other claims to respect 
than those derived from his theatrical pow- 
ers. He is the author of seven comcKlies, 
which are above mediocrity. He died in 

BARONIUS, Cjesar, an ecclesiastical 
historian, was bom, in 1688, at Sora, in the 
Neapolitan Territory, entered the church, 
and, in 1598, rose to the dignity of cardi- 
nal But for the opposition of tlie Span- 
uh court he would have filled the papal 
chair. His death took place in 1907. He 
wrote several works; biit the production 
on which his feme rests is the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Annals, from the first to the twelfth 

BARRALIER, H. F. N. D., a youth 
ef precocious talents, was born at Mar- 
■eilles, in 1805, ac(|uired a knowledge of 
lanffuaaes with extraordinary feeility, and,! 
nelore ne was vxteen, wrote a Discourse 
SB the Inunortility of the Soul; a Trea- 


tite on Morality; and 
died in 1821. 

BARRAS,Paiil JoHir FRAircis,Count 
de, a prominent dmracter of the French 
revolution, was bora, in 1766, at Fox, in 
the department of the Var, and was of so 
ancient a femily that it was praverbiaUy 
said to be " as old as the rocks of Pro- 

After having served with anplam 
in India, he retnmed to Paris, where ha 
wasted hb patrimony in dissipation. When 
the revolution broke out he espoused its 
principles, and he rabseqnently assisted in 
dethroninff the monarch, and, as a member 
of the Convention, voted for his death. 
To the overthrow of the Girondist party 
he also contributed. The Jacobins, now- 
ever, regarded him with suspicion, and 
their fears were justified by hn lendiaff 
his strenuous aid to effect the downfeU of 
Robespierre. Wlien the directorial got* 
erament was established, Barras becMse 
one of the five directors, and he held this 
high office till 1799. While, in the ktter 
year, he was secretly negotiating the resto- 
ration of the Bourbons, the directory was 
dissolved by Napoleon, and Barras retired 
to Brussels. After having been foiled in 
some political intrigues in 1818 and 1814, 
he lived in privacy till his decease, which 
took place on the 29th of January, 1829. 

BARREAUX, Jahxs Vallkc dks, 
born at Paris, in 1902, was famous as an 
epicurean, a roan of wit, and a writer of 
soiws and pleasant verses.^ He was a man 
of fortune, and his whole life was spent in 
tlie pursuit of pleasure. He died in 1978. 
Of his works nothing is extant, but a re- 
pentant Sonnet, compose<l dnrinff illness ; 
and even this is denied to him by Vohaire, 
who ascribes it to the abb^ de Lavau. 

BARRET, George, an eminent land- 
s«ine painter, vros born in Dublin, about 
1728; and, with little or no instruction, 
acc|uired reputation as an artist. He nined 
prises from the Dublin Society, and from 
the London Society of Arts. The estab- 
lishment of the Royal Academy was, in a 
gjeat depree, brought about by his eaer • 
tions. He died in 1784. 

BARRINGTON, Johw Shots, the 
first viscount Barrington, bora in 1978, 
was the son of a merchant, named Shute, but 
changed bis name on a fortune being left 
him. He was a member of parliament, 
held various offices under government, was 
created an Irish baron and viscount in 
1720, and died in 1784. He is the author 
of Miscellanea Sacra, 2 vob. 8vo., and 
other works.—His eldest son, William 
WiLDMAN, who was bora in 1717, and 
died in 1796, held several high offices, 
among which were those of secretary at 
war, and chancellor of the eachequer. 

BARRINGTON, Daimes, fourth so* 
of Viscount Barrinfton, was born m 1727 

MddMb mi. He wMedMMd U 
Oxftrd and Um Iner Tenapk, sad ro« to 
te Meond JMti ee of Gheitar. Hi* pria- 
dpal work* are Ofanrratioae oa ibe Sta* 
ttaee; the NataralieCi' Oideadar; Nieoel- 
laaiee; aad Tracts oa the PovibUity of 
readbiBf abe Nortb Pole. It wee at Ue 
■amifatinn thattlwaretietoyafeof Gaptaia 
Fluppt wae aadertakea. 

aiARINOTON.SAMUBL, fifth eoa of 
Lord Barriagtoa, wae bora ia 17V, eo- 
eariy uilo the aavy, dirtingauhed 

sir ia the wan that ended in 1748 

aad llVt, wai made rear-admiral in 1778, 
took St. Lucia, in the (ace of a mperior 
ibroe, wai weanded in the engagement of 
the Ut of Jaly, 1779, and died in 1800 

BARR06, JoHW DOS, one of the best 
of the Porfgneie historuuM, was bom at 
Tisea. ia 1^, held Tsrious hlA\f im- 
pertaat ottoes ia the colonies, and died in 
1170. Banros is the author, assong other 
1 Diab 
mar thi 
great work is a His- 

thaap, of a Romaace; Moral Dialog? 
and the first Portugaese Qraounar that 
pafalMhed. Bat his great work is a 1 

tory of P ortag u ese Aaia, ia fiwr decades, 
whieh is laoked npon as a classical pro- 

BARROW, Isaac, a divioe and matbe- 
amticiea, bora ia 1880, was the son of a 
Kaeadraper of London, and was educated 
at the Charteriiovse and at Gawbridge. 
After has educatioa was completed, be tra- 
veAsd in France, Italy, and the Levant, 
and mided for a year at Constantinople. 
Ia his voyage to Smyrna, the ship was 
a tt acked hy aa Algerine, and Barrow dis- 
lilayed aa undanntod courage which much 
ooatribated to the success of the eiinge> 
meat. In 1600, ha returned to England, 
socoessively filled sereral professorships, 
was made master of Trinity College in 
1872, vice chancellor in 1675, and died in 
1877. In wit, ia learning, in scientific 
knowledge, in versatile talmt, Barrow had 
few rivals. His numerous mathematical 
prodiictioos attest hu excellence as a geo- 
meter; and hb theological woiks, which 
m throe vohimes, are equally honourable 
to him as a divine. 

BARRUEL. Abbs AifoosTiir, 

¥n^A Jewk. bom hi 1741, 1 ^IBmiMii 
de Berg, was eoadoetor of the Erclisiai« 
tical Joanal, firom 1787 to 1798, bat waa 
obliged to fiy to Engkad after the deposi* 
tioB of I^mis XVI. Whea the oonsolata 
was established, be returned to France* 
His best known work is, Meomirs fer a 
History of Jacobinism, 6 vols. 8to.; m 
production which bleads some fects.with 
much fiction, aad proves either the credo* 
lity or the bad fiitith of the author. , 

BARRY, GiBALD, usually knowa by 
die appeUatioB ofGiKALDUS Cambbbh* 
SIS, was bora in 1148, in Pembrokeshire, 
and descended of a ndble fiunihr, allied to 
the princes of the country. He received 
an exoeUent educatioa, obtained several 
preferments in the church, aad was ap- 
pointed chaplain to Henry II., but though 
more than once chosea bishop of St. Im- 
vid's, be oottkl never obtain the iwpal coof 
firmation of his dignity. He died ia re- 
tirement about 1220. ^ He was a man of 
varied talents, and his writincs are vo- 
biminous. His principal works are his 
Irish Topography, and his Itinerary of 

BARRY, Sfbak OBR, aa eminent actor, 
was bora at Dublin, in 1719, on the stage 
of which city he first appesired, in 1744, 
with great suooesT. In 1748, he cama 
forward ia London, and was long con- 
sidered as no uaworthy rival of Garrick 
He died in 1774 

BARRY, Jambs, a painter, bom at 
Cork, in 1741, displayed an early tasto for 
drawing, and before he was twenty'two 
produced a picture which gained him the 
patrona^ of Edmund Burke, who fer- 
nished him with the means of studying ia 
luly. Barry returned to Engbnd in 1771, 
and in 1777 began his series of pictures at 
the house of the Society of Arts. He be- 
came a royal academician, aad ia 178tt 
was chosen professor of painting ; but from 
both these situations be wns expelled in 
1799, in consef^nce of his political opin- 
ions having riven oflenoe. His death 
took place m 1806. Barry was a man of 
genius, but eccentric, misanthropic, and 
negligent of the decorums of life. Ilia 
literary works have been published in two 
volumes Quarto. 

BARRY, J OH if« a distinguislied naval 
officer in the service of tlie United Stmi«9a, 
was bom iu Ireland in 1746. He arrived 
in America when only 14 or 16 years old. 
and obtained employment from some of 
the most respectable merchants of the day^ 
until the coaimenccmeut of Inistilities be- 
tween the colonies and the mother country. 
Embracing the cause «>r the ctJonies, bm 
reputation for skill and experience pro* 
cured for him one of the first luiva. conn- 
missions 6rom congress During the war« 
he served with great benefit to his t 

Digitized by VjOC 

3S rf 


WM appoiaied to 
the mudiai of ttw fri 
tea in Philadelplm, which 
4esafiied lor bio coaoMnd. Ue was highW 


of me frigate 

bia, Whic* 

He was 

in private life, aad died 

and Doooared in 180S. 

BARTAS, Willi AM bkSallust do, 

a Fraack poet, ararrior, aad itatesaaa, 

was bora at Mojtlbrt, ia 1544. Durtor 

tlw reifa of Heai^ IV. he displaced ecraiU 

"-' — ^ as a Bccottator and a soldier, lie 

ated with sacosM ia Eagbad, Soot* 

t; aad he feoght gal- 

hadr oa rarioas occasioas, particalariT at 
ike battle of Ivry. He died ia 1880. He 
was a Yohnaiaoai writer, bat his works. 

tkoagfa oAea poetical, are ia soch a barba- 

they •n now entirely 

•aglacied. His Weeks, and several other 
of kie poenu, were traaslatad iato English 

BAKThI'Jobit, a eelebrated Frea<^ 
naval ofioer, was bora at Dankirk, in 
li61,and wasdieeoaofaidwnnan. By 
kM extraordiaary bravery aad success lie 
aeqaired a distiagaished repatation. Des* 
parate coarage, however, not ooan 

I to have been his chief qaalitv; 
and, tkoagk ke rose to high rank in bis 
proftssioa, ke retained tke maaners of kis 
ariginnl station. He died in 1702. 

Vnmtk dranatlst, was bora at Marseilles, 
b 17S4, aad, when very yovng, went to 
Pnris, where he died b 1986. He is the 
a^horof the SeMsk Maa; tke Jealons 
Motker; and etker draaias; and of vari- 
oos poeiM aad figitive pieces. When 
Golnrdena, the poet, was oa hu deathbed, 
Barthe persistea in readiag to hiai the 
whole of the Selfish Man. As soon as the 
natkor knd oondaded, Colardean said to 
kis, *« Ton have forgottea one essential 
trait in yoar leadiag character; tkat of a 
■an wko comes to md a live act ooomdy 
to a dying friend.*' 

BAR'niELEMT, Josv Jamxs, 
kom in 1710, at Gassis, ia Provence, edn* 
cntad at tke Jeeait*s College at Marseilles, 
aad, witk some kaowfedce of matkenutics 
aad n st i 'one my , noqnirea a proficiency in 
tke ancient and orienul laagiiages, and in 
■ntiqaitios la 1708 ke was nude beeper 
of tke royal cabinet of madab, and in 1706 
ke visited Iinly, nnd explored the treasures 
of Hmiiliaiiani. On his retom, he was 
pntranieed by die dake de Choisenl, who 
gavahini a peasion and two valuable offices. 
IB ¥788, appeared his Travels of Ana- 
skMsii, on iiniich he kad been thirty vean 
employed, aad which has stfimped his fiune. 
Ha diedm 1796. Besidm the Traveb of 
Anacharsb, he b the antkor of the romance 
nrOnrim and Pdydore; Traveb ia Italy; 
wmi vaikw erndlts works. He vras a 

of tke Fraack Academy, and if 
dM most celebmted Ibreign societies. 

BARTHES. Paul JosxrH, a cebbra- 
ted Freack medical practitioner aad writer, 
was bom at MontpeHier, io 1734, and died 
in 1800. He was one of tke physicians of 
Napoleon. Though it has oeen mid of 
him, that be desibroyed more old errora 
than be discovered new troths, the French 
consider kim as the regenerator of pkysa- 
ology aad medical pkibsopby. AnuMi| hb 

E'incipal works may be mentioned. New 
lements of tke Science of Maa; and 
New Medmnism of the Motions of Man 
and Animab. 

BARTHOUNE, G Asr AK, a oebbratad 
physician, was born at Malmoe, in Scania* 
in 1586, and vras long prolessor of medi* 
cine in the university oT Copenlmgen ; but, 
late in life, relinquished nedicioe for tba> 
ilogv, and became theological professor. 
He died m 1029. Hb principal work b» 
lastitutioaes Anatomies, wkick Whs ea« 
^ by hb son. 

iARTHOLINE, Thomas, second son 
of Gaspar, was born at Copenhagen, In 
1010, studied at Leyden, Padua, and Ba- 
sil, and acquired extensive erudition -aad 
knowledge of languages. For fourteen 
years ke was profemor of anatomy in kb 
native city. Hb works are numeroai, and 
of great merit; and to him b attributed 
the discovery of die lymphatic vesseb. Ha 
had two sons— Gaspak, bom at Copen- • 
hagen, in 1000, an eminent anatomist aad 
physician, author of several excellent trea* 

— ;— and Thomas, pro fe sso r of history 

civil bw, and keeper of die rpvu 

archives, in the Danish metropolis, wko» 

among other things, published Antiquitataa 

Daaicv; and De Cbusb Mortb a Daab 

urckbishop of Braga. Eight vears 
hb death, which took place ia 1600, 
igned hb see. Bartnolomew was 

gentilibos contemptw. 

TYRS, a Portuguese prebte, so called from 
the church, at Lisbon, In which he was 
baptised, was bom, in 1614. In spite of 
hb own opposition, hb virtuw raised him 
to be archbishop of Braga. Eight ^ 
before hb^ 

lb to the pride and bxunr of church- 
I, and distmgnished himmnTby hb seal 
and charity, during a femine and pbffue 
which desolated tfie city of Braga. Ha 
wrote some relbiooa works. 

BARTLETT, Josiab, governor of 
Ne W'Hampshlre, was bora in Massacho* 
setu in 1729. Without the advantages of a 
preparatory liberal education, he began the 
study of medicine at a v< 
commenced tke practice 

rerv early age, and 
Kingston N . H. in the year 1700. He soon 
obtained very considerahb reputation, and 
was elected a member of the b^isbtuiv 
Whea the troubles ooip* 

of hb province, 



Digitized by 

y, Dr, Bartktt Bipiuiid A> py I 

afaur came, •xUi in 1776 wm deetod to ue 
continental Congresa. He was re-elected 
in tlie ensuing year, and had the honour of 
beine the first to vote for, and the first af- 
ter the president, to sign the declaration cf 
inde|jendence. In 1779 Dr. Bartlett was 
appointed chief-justice of the court of 
common pleas, and in 1788 he was ad- 
vanced to the head of the bench. In 1798 
be was elected first governor of the State, 
and filled the office with his accustomed 
fidelity until the infirm sUte of his health 
obliged him to retire wholly from public 
bt«-->iiiess. He died in 17Si6, nmch res- 
Mcted for his ability and intarrity. 

BARTOLI, or BARTOLUS, one of the 
most celebrated civilians of the middle age, 
was bum at Sasso Ferrato, in Italy, about 
iie vear 1318, and died at Perugia, in 
ISS6* He was^ law professor in several of 
Jie Italian universities, and contributed 
more than any other person to aggrandize 
and elucidate the science of jurisprudence. 
Accordingly, he was demmiinated the Cori- 
pheus of law expounders, the lanthem of 
eouity, the star of lawyers, and the master 
of truth. His commentaries on the Roman 
Law, and his Treatises, were printed at 
Venice, in lft90. 

BARTOLI, Daiiibl, a learned Jesuit, 
esteemed one of the purert and most per- 
m>icuoua of the Italian writers, was bom 
mt Ferrara, in 1608, and died at Rome, in 
1686. His principal work, in six volumes 
folio, is a history of the societ;^ to which 
he belonged. His other vrritings have 
beea collected in three quarto volumes. 

BARTOLOZZI, Frakois, an engraver 
of great merit, was bora at Fbrence, in 
ITS, and was taught painting by Hugford, 
after which he applied to engraving. In 
1764 he came to England, ami five years 
subsequent to his arrival was admitted a 
maaJbet of the Royal Academy. The pro- 
ductions of his graver were numerous and 
hiffblv esteemed. Poverty, however, com- 
peUed him, in 1802, to accept aa invitation 
from the p 'oce regent of Portugal, who 
cave him a pension, and he died at Lisbon 
ui 1816. 

BARTON, ELfX4BBTH, a religions 
impostor, known, ia the^reign of Henry 
VIIT., by the denomination of the Holy 
Maid of Kent, was originally a servant at 
AUington; but was taught by the priests to 
throw her iace and limbs into contortioas, 
to pretend to prophetical powers, and to 
denounce divine vengeance upon heretics, 
yenturing, hovrever, to aim her predictions 
agaiast the king, she and her associates 
were executed at Tyburn, for high treason, 

BARTON, BBirjAiiiir S., profes 
dm miverai^ of Pennsylvania, was bon at 
r, Paniiiyhaiiia, in 1766. His 


WW Ite lirtBr of tiM ealaliiiMli^ 
In 1786 he went to Great Brit* 
ain and pursued his medical studies at 
Eidinburgn and London. He afterwards 
visited Gottingen, and diere obtained the 
degree of Doctor in Medicine. * On his 
return firom Europe in 1789, he established 
himself as a physician in Philadelphia, and 
soon obtained an exteasi e practice. In 
the same year he vras appaintedprofessot 
of natural history and botany in the ooUege 
of Philadelphia. On the resignation of 
Dr. Griffiths he was appointed professor 
of materia medica; and succeeded Dr. Rusk 
in the deparunent of the thc^ory and prac- 
tice of medicine. He died in 1816. His 
chief publication is EleaMnts of Zoology 
and Botany. 

BARTRAM, John, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of American botaniMs, was bom 
in Pennsylvania, in 1701. He was a simple 
fiinner, self tau^t in the science of botany, 
and in the rudiments of the learned lan- 
guages, medicine, and surgery.^ So great 
was his progreas in his fevourite pursuit,' 
that Linnaeus prononoced him the *< great- 
est natural botanist in the world." Ha 
contributed much to the gardens of Europe, 
and received honuiirs fima several foreign 
societies and academies. At the time of 
his death, which happened in 1777, he 
held the office of American botanist to 
George III. of Enriand. 

BARTRAM, William, a celebrated 
naturalist, son of the preceding, was bom 
in Pennsylvania, in 1789. In early life ha 
was occupied with mercantile pursuits, but 
an attachment to natural science induced 
him to relinquish them, and in 1778 he 
embarked for Charleston, with the inten- 
tion to visit the Floridas and the western 
parts of Georgia and Carolina, to examine 
their natural productions. In this employ- 
he was engaged nearly five years; 
and iu 1790 he published an account of 
his travels and aiscovenes in one vofame 
octavo. After his retum firom his travels, 
he devoted himself to science, and vras 
elected a member of several learned socie- 
ties both at home and ia Europe. His 
contributions to the natural history of ear 
country have been highly valaabie. He 
died suddenly, in 1828. 

BARUFFALDI, JxmoMK, an Italian 
poet and literary character, was bora aft 
Ferrara, in 1676, and died in 1768. Hie 
works, in his native language and in Latin, 
amdunt to more than an hundred, among 
which are five dramatic pieces. His poem 
intitled II Canapaja, the snb^ of virhicli 
is the cultnra of hemp, is considered as hie 
best production, and ranks among the most 
esteemed specimens of Italian didactic 

BASEDOW, JoBH Baptist, a Ger* 
man theologian and writar, wm bon fli 

Digitized by 


inrfa* m 1100. Hm works are wuier- 
•at; and WNne of his theological produc- 
tions drew on him vehemeat persecution 
for their alleged heterodoxy. One of the 
great objects of Basedow's life was to in- 
irodoce a reform into the svstem of educa- 
tion, aod he pursued it with inde&tigable 
seaL In- manners he was unpolished ; and 
he was too fond of wine; but he was a 
sum of talent, learning, and good inten- 

BASn., St., sumamed the Great, a 
ceJebrated fiither of the Greek church, was 
born, in 326, at GBsarea, in Cappadocia, 
and, after luiving studied at Athens, he 
for a while taught rhetoric and practised 
at the bar. These occupations, however, 
he reiinonished for a monastic life, and 
became tne founder of a convent in Pontus. 
In S70, he *Tas chosen bishop of Couarea ; 
filled the episcopal seat with much pie^ 
and courage; and died in 879. His 
works compose three folio volumes. 
' BASINGE. John ue, or BASING- 
STOCHIUS, so called from Basingstoke, 
the place of his birth, was educated at 
Oxibrd and Paris; travelled to Athens, 
and became an excellent Greek scholar; 
and,- on his return, obtained the arch dea- 
conries df London and Ijeicester. He 
died in 1252. Basinse brought maav 
MSB. firom Greece, ana contributed much 
to spread in his own country a knowledge 
of toe Greek langimge. 

BASKERVnxE, John, one of the 
saost celeb r ated English printers and type 
fimnders, was bom, in 1706, at Wolveriey, 
ia Worcestershire, and was originally a 
writing ouster, and next a japanner. In 
1790,^ he tnmed his attention to letter- 
fimnding, and at kogth produced types 
which were lonff unrivalled. To the busi- 
ness of a letter-founder he added that of a 
printer, and editions of many classic and 
standard authors issued from his press. 
He died in 1775. Baskerville was not 
withe *it a portion of that singularity which 
I to be a concomitant of talent. 

BA^NAGE, BsHJAMiN, a French pro- 
testant minbter, was bom, in 1580, at 
Carentan, in Normaodr, and died in 1652. 
His Treatise on the Church was once held 

1 estimation. 
ao eminent protestant divine, was bora at 
Rouen, in 1658, and edocated at Saumur 
and Geneva. When the edict of NanU 
was revoked, he retired to Rotterdam, and, 
in .1709, was chosen one of the Walloon 
pastors at the Hague. Bein^ in favour 
with the grand pensionary Heuisins, and 
ttiU preserving his a t tachm e nt to France, 
he rendered sm:h services to his country, 
IB (kciilitating the treaty of alliance with 
BoBand, that ho was rawavM with his 

Ml too resfesratiea oi aio prapar^* 
Be died ia 1728. Basnage was a man of 
erudition, sincerity, and virtue: and of 
such enlarged political views aniii talents, 
that Voltaire declared htm to be more fit 
for a minister of state than of a parish. 
Among his principal works are, a Hbtory 
of the Church; a History of the Jews ; a 
History of the Religion of the Refonaed 
Church; and Annals of the United Pro* 

brother of Jaaies, was bom, ia 1656, at 
Rouen, became an advocate in 1679, and 
in 1689 retired to Holbind, where he died 
in 1710. He succeeded Bayle in writing 
the History of the Works of the Learned; 
and he performed his task in a manner 
which did honour to his candour and taJ- 

BASSI, Laura Maria CATHsaiifB 
(by marriage Vkratti,) a learned Italiaa 
lady, was bora at Bokwna, ia 1711, aad 
her talenU were carerally cultivated by 
education. At die age of twenty-one m& 
publicly sustained a philosophical thesis, 
and received a doctor's degree. The sea- 
ate of her 'native place eonforred on her 
the professorial emir of philosophy, and 
she continued to teach till aer deoease, in 
1778. She was well versed in Gruek, 
metaphvsics, geometry, algebra, and aatn- 
ral philosophy ; is said to have written ao 
epic poem on the Italian wars; and waa 
an nnafiected, amiable, aad virtuous woiaaa. 

BASSOMPIERRE, Frahcis i>r, a 
French marshal, of a noble &mily, waa 
born, in 1579, in Lorraine; served against 
the duke of Savoy and the Turks, in 1602 
and 1608; and was patronised by Henry 
rV. Louis XIII. Blade him a marshal, 
and employed him, as a general aad as an 
ambassador. Havinjj, however, given of- 
fence to the despotic Richelieu, he waa 
thrown into the Biastile, where he was de- 
tained for twelve years. He died in 1646. 
Bassompierre was an aocooiplished aad 
handsome mah; and was so much the fa- 
vourite of the court ladies, that he is said 
to have destroyed more than six thooMoid 
tender letters from the most eminent of 
them, when he heard that he was to ba 
imprisoned. He is the author of his owa 
Memoirs; of an Account of his Embassies; 
and of Remarks on Dupleix's Lives of 
Henry IV. and Loais XTII. 

BA8TWICK, JoHH, a physiciaa, bora 
at Writtle, in Essex, in 1598, vras educat- 
ed at Cambridge, and took his degree at 
Padua. Having ofieoded the heads of the 
church by his poblicatioos, he was twiea 
prosecuted by tne tyrannical high commis- 
sion court. The first time« he was heavily 
fined and imprisoned; the secorii, he was 
sentenced to pay five thousand poua(b» to 
lose his ears in the piUory, and ta - ■« ■ ■ ■> 

Digitized by 



•ftr, tiM hoM of eooHKNM rdawed wid 
ificleiwiifiod him. Ha died, k m wpp oi ed , 

BATE, QKORfli, WM born, in 1606, 
ttt Maid't Morton, ia Buekinghamthire, 
and WM edoentod at Oxibrd. Saeh wa« 
hm huppj ilexibilitr of prineipio, that be 
WM flooceMively plijreician to CSiarlee I., 
Olivar CromweU, and €harie8 II. He 
WM one of the first memberi of the Royal 
Socie^. Bate died ia 1MB. Hie chief 
work M a narrative, in Latin, of the civil 
war, which bean the title of Elenchus 
Motnom, kc. The Royal Apology ii alio 
attributed to him. 

BATH, William PULTENET, Earl 
of, a deeeendant of an ancient fiunily, wm 
born in liSS, and educated at Wettmin- 
■ter, and Ghriat Church, Oxford. On 
hie return from hie trarelf , he wm elected 
to the houM of oommoM, and became one 
«f the moit celebrated of the whig party. 
At firat he WM the friend of Walpoie, but 
at kagth wm ooarerted into one of hie 
meet determined and formidable oppo- 
■entf. both In Parliament and in the paper 
called the Orafttman. In revenge, he wm 
ilmck out of the liflt of privy couneellors 
and the commiarioo of the pnoe. When, 
howev^, hie party cmne Into power, in 
1741, he WM ereeted Earl of Bath. In 
Ihie Inetaaoe, m it hM been in many 
othera, the title wm an extintniAer of 
popnlnrity. He died on the 8m of June, 

BATHUR8T, Ralph, bom in 1620, 
■tHbwthorpe, in Northaamtonahire, wai 
educated at Coventry achool and Oxford, 
and studied for the dmreh, but, during the 
civil wars, acted m a physician. He re- 
sumed his derical character on the resto- 
ration, and became dean of Wells and vioe 
chancellor of Oxford. He died in 1704. 
Bathurst wm one of the founders of the 
Royal Society. As a Latin orator and 
poet he it ands deservedly high. 

BATOURST, Allkk , Earl, the son of 
a baronet, wm bom in 1684, educated at 
Oxford, and, in 1705, wm chosen member 
for Ci r ett ce s t er. His Tory principles 
were rewarded by biff becoming one or the 
t^relve peera whom Queen Anne so nncon- 
sthutionally created in 1711. Walpole's 
adMiistraition he warmly opposed, and, 
on its downfinfl, he wm made a privy 
eounsdkNT. On the aceession of George 
HI. Batharst obtained a pcMion, and, in 
177t, an enrldom. He died in 1775. 
With Pope, BoUngbroke, and, indeed, all 
the celebrated aien of the age, he wm on 
of Int i m ate fr-iendibipi he wm 

Man of parts, wit, nad taste; and he pra- 
MTved Ui >|Nrits unbroken, and hb teinper 
MBOurad, ffll hisdeoeusa k his nuiety-first 


BAxHtinST, HiirmT, Earit te MB 
of the above, wm bora in 1714, bro ught 
up to the hw, and rose rapidly in his pro- 
fessiott. In 1754, he became chief justice 
of the common pleM; and in 1771 wm 
created baron Apeley, and made lord chan- 
cellor. In 1778 he resigned the seals, and 
died in 1794. He is author of the Theory 
of Evidence; and a pamphlet called tlie 
Case of Miss Swordfeger. 

BATHYLLUS, one of the most cele- 
brated pantoflsimists of antianity, wm born 
at Alexandria, and wm a slave of Mtece- 
UM, who, however, enfranchised him. He 
WM the rival of Pylades, and the Roman 
(People took a warm part in the jealoudies 
an«i dinmtes of these stage heroes. The 
time Of his death is uncertain. 

BATONI, PoMPBT, an Italian pointer, 
WM bora at Lucca, in 1708, and early 
manifested a high dwee of talent and a 
passionate fondness for his art. Nature, 
the antique, and the works of Rafiaelle, 
wera the objects of his studv; and his 
suocem WM such as miffht oe expected 
trom his choice of models. He is ^con- 
sidered m the restorer of the modern 
Rom an scho ol. He died at Rome, in 1787. 

BATTEUX, Charles, a member of 
the French Academy, and of the Academy 
of Inscriptions, wm bora in 1718, and 
WM a professor of rhetoric at the age of 
twenty. He died in 1786. Hw principal 
works, betides traulations from the clas- 
sics, are a Coarse of Bdles Lettres, in 
5 vols.; Elementary Course for the use 
of the Military School, in 45 vols. ; and 
Memoirs on the History, Sciences, he. of 
the C hines e, in 15 vols, quarto. 

BATTISHILL, Jovathait, an emi- - 
nent musician, wm born in London, if 
17S8, and died at Islington, in 1861. 
His anthems and hvmns, wid his catcbra 
and fflees, are highly esteemed. The most 
popular of his songs is Kate a( Aberdeen. 

BAUDELOQUJB, Joan Louis, aa 
eminent French snrgeon and man midwife, 
WM bora in Picard^, in 1746, and died in 
1816. Such WM his reputation that Nap<^ 
Icon appointed him principal midwife to 
the Empress Maria Louisa. He had th(» 
merit of simplifying his art, and discard* 
in^ the onnecessarf ute of iostrumentit 
His Principles of nidwiferv, and Art of 
Midwifery, are considered m standard 
vrorks. The first wm reprinted at the. ex- 
pense of the government, fiir the instruc- 
tion of country female practitioners. 

BAUHIN, JoHH^ a celebrated botaa- 
ist, WM bora at BmiI, in 1641, and made 
such progress in botany, that, before he 
WM eighteen, he corresponded widi, and 
WM higblv valued by Conrad Gesner. Urn 
whole of his life wm devoted to botanical 
pursuits. In 1570, he wm m ipo in ted ph^ 
sieiaB to Iha dak« of W&rttnhcrg, b 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


he died, St MoBllMlliwd, in 
MS. His principaJ work is a General 
History of Plants, which was not publish- 
ed tJD nearly forty yean after his death. 

BAUHIN, Gaspar, bom at Basil, in 
VBeO, was the brother of John, and, like 
him, an excellent boUnist. In 1596, be 
was diosen one of the phyvicians of the 
dnke of Wirtemberg; and, in 1614, first 
medical professor at Basil. He died in 
1624. His anatomical works are numer- 
ous. Of his botanical works, the princi- 
pal are Phytopiaax; and Pinax. His 
SOD, John Gaspar, who was also a man 
of talent and a botanist, published the first 
TokuDe of tbeTheatnim Botanicum which 
his fiither left in manuscript. 

BAUME, Nicholas Augustus de 
LA, Marquis of Montrevel, and a marshal 
of France, was bom in 1686, and distin- 

E'shed himself firom his earliest youth by 
daring ndour. Yet, after having re- 
peatedly braved death in the fiekl of bat- 
tle, he died, in 1716, of fright, occasioned 
by the most ridiculous superstition. The 
contents of a saltcellar having been acci- 
dentally thrown on bim, he turned pale, 
exdaimed that he was a dead man, and 
aipired in fomr days. 

BAUME, ANTBOifT, a French apothe- 
cary, who acquired considerable reputation 
as a chemist, was bora at Senlis, in 1728, 
and died in die vicinity of Paris, in 1804. 
His whole \ih and fiirtune were devoted 
to the improvement of chemistry. Amon^ 
other wonu, he is the author of Ezperi- 
msntal and Analytical Chenaistry; Manual 
of Chemisa7; and ElemeaU of Phar- 

BAUSSET, Cardbal Louis Fravcis 
DB, an eminent French prekte, born at 
Pondicberry, in 1748, was educated in 
France, and was made bishop of Akiis 
belbre the ravolotion. That bishopric he 
resigned in 1802. Napoleon patronised 
him; and Louis XYIII. made him a peer, 
and obtained for kim the cardinars hat. 
He died in 1824. He is the author of a 
HtsCory of Fendon, 4 vols.; and of a 
Histon^ of Bossoet, 4 vols. ; both works 
of merit, but of which the first is fiir su- 
perior to the second. 

BAUTRU, William, Coimt de Seran, 
a French academician, was bora, in 1668, 
at Angers, and filled several important 
diploaiatic missions. Bautra had tne rep- 
ntation of a man of wit and repartee, and 
fiir this reason was a favourite at court; 
bnt many of his jokes were abortions, and 
his character was not unstained. He died 
in 1666. Among his best things may be 
reckoned the foUowinsf. Having ibood an 
•BBDeediagW ignoruot librarian at the Escu- 
rial, he advivod the Spanish monarch to 
amko hi'jL his minister of finance; and 
ffima Vi^d n^, harapUed, *' because he 


BAXTER, Richard, an eminent non- 
conformist divine, was bora at Rowtoo, 
in Shropshire, in 1615, and for many years 
was a school-master, first at Wroxeter, and 
then at Dudley; but, in 1640, he became 
minister of Kidderminster. Though he 
acted as chaphiin in the parliamentary 
armies, he was hostile to Cromwell's usur- 
pation, and even defended monarchy in 
nis presence. At tlie restoration he was 
made one of the kinjj's chEu>lains, and was 
offered the bishopric of Hereford, which 
he declined. He was, however, soon in- 
volved in, and suflerad much by, the gene- 
ral persecution of the non-conformists ; 
and m 1685 he was tried before the bratal 
Jefleries, grossly insulted by him, and sen- 
tenced to fine and imprisonment ; but the 
punishment was shortly after remitted by 
the king. Baxter died in 1601. No less 
than a hundred and forty-five treatises 
were produced by bis iien ; aome of which 
were extremely popular. In his theofo- 
rfical doctrines he held a coarse between 
Calvinism and Arminianism,aiid gave rise 
to a lect bearing the name of Baxter ians. 

BAXTER, William, a nephew of 
Ricliard, was born, in 1650, at Lanlugan, 
in Shropshire, and died in 1728. Though 
at the age of eighteen he was unable to 
read, lie subsequently attained a high de- 
gree of leaning. Among his works are, 
editions of Anacreon and Horace ; a Latin 
Grammar; and a Dictionary of British 

BAXTER, Andrew, an eminent meta- 
physician, was born, in 1686 or 1687, at 
Aberdeen, and educated at Kin|*s College, 
in that city ; after which he gained a sub- 
sistence by teaching private pupils. He 
died at Whiuinffton, in East Lothian, in 
1760. His worKs are, an Inqiury into the 
Nature of the Human Soul, a production 
which Warburton highly praised ; and 
Matho, sive Cosmotlteoria Poerilis, which 
the author afterwards translated and- en- 
larged. In bis Inquiry, he maintains the 
doctrine that dreanu are .caused by the 
agency of separate immaterial bemgs. 

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BAYARD, Peteh du Terrail dk, 
a French military commander, bom of a 
■obk frmily, in the Talley of Greaivaudan, 
in Daui:^iny, in 1476, whose vabar, virtue, 
generosity, and courtesy, rained him the 
fflorious appdiation of ** tne fearless and 
irreproachable knij^t.** Such was the 
reverence felt for his character, that Fran- 
cis f . chose to receive the order of knight- 
hood from his hand. In numerous battles 
and sieges, particularly at the bridge of 
Garigliaao, at Agnadel, Ravenna, Mari^- 
nano, and Mexieres, be display^ admi- 
rable bravery and talents. He was mor- 
tally wounded, in 1624, at Romagnano, in 
the Milanese, while covering the retreat 
of the French army. Finding that his 
end was approaching, he refused to be 
carried away. " I will not, on the point 
of death," said he, " turn my back to the 
enemy for die first time. Place me so tliat 
I may face them." The constable of 
Bourbon Inving expressed his sorrow for 
him, he replied, *' It is not I who am to 
be pitied, but you, who are fighting against 
your king and your country." As his 
corse passed through the states of the duke 
of Savoy, in its way to Grenoble, that 
prince paid to it the same fiineral honours 
as were destined to the remains of princes 
of his own fiunily. * 

BAYER, JoHH, a native of Augsburg, 
bom about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was a minister of the j^ospel, but 
owes his fiune to his astronomical talents, 
which also caused him to be ennobled by 
the emperor. In 1008, he published his 
Uranometria, containing (olio charts of ail 
the constellations, vi^ith a nomenclature; 
(he stars being denoted, leccordine to their 
magnitude, by Greek letters. This work 
ne subsequently enlarged and improved. 
Tbe time of his death is unknown. 

BAYER, Thbophilvs Siopried, 
■opposed to be a grandson of the astrono- 
mer, was bom, in 1094, at Kotnigsberg, 
and died in 17S8. Of the oriental lan- 
guages, especially the Chinese, he had an 
extraordinary knowled^. His produc- 
tions, on chronology, history, and philo- 
logy, are namerons. Among the principal 
are, the Museum Sinicum ; and the His- 
toria Asrhoena. 

BAYLE, Pbtkr, one of the most emi' 
nent of modem philosophers and critics, 
was tbe son of a protestant minister, and 
was bora in 1647, at Carkt, in France. 
In his youth he manifested uncommon 
talents, and studied so intensely as to do 
pennaoent injury to his health. For a 
while he was seduced to the catholic reli- 
gion, but he soon abandoned it. In 1675, 
after having for some time subsisted by 
private tuition, he became professor of 
philosophy at Sedan ; and when, six years 
the college of Sedan* was 


suppressed, he obtained the same professor* 
ship at Rotterdam. The latter, however, 
he was deprived of, in 1696, by the calum- 
nies and exertions of his quondam friend 
Jurieu, who never ceased to persecute him. 
Bayle died at Rotterdam, in 1706, of a 
disease in the chest. His works are nu- 
merous ; they compose ei^t folio volumes, 
of which four are occupied by his justly 
celebrated Critical Dictionary. Among 
tb* principal of his minor productions maj 
be mentioned his Thoughts on Comets; 
Reply to the Questions of a Provincial; 
ana Intelligence of the Republic of Lettera. 
The latter, which is an excellent review, 
was commenced in 1684, and continued 
for three years. 

BAYARD, James A., an eminent 
American lawyer and politician, was bom 
in Philadelphia, in 1767, and educated at 
Princeton college. In the year 1784 he 
engaged in tbe study of the law, and oo 
admission to the bar settled in the state of 
Delaware, where he soon acquired prac- 
tice and consideration. He was elected 
to a seat in conj^ess towards the close of 
the administration of Mr. Adams, and firat 
particularly distinniished himself in coo- 
ducting the impeachment of senator Blount. 
In 1804 he was elected to the senate of 
tbe United States by the legislature of 
Delaware, and remained for several yeara 
a conspicuous member of that assembly. 
In 1813 he was appointed by Prraident 
Madison one of the ministers to conclude 
a treaty of peace with Great Britain, and 
assisted in the successful negociationt at 
Ghent, in the following year. He then 
received the appointment of minister to 
the court of St. Petersburgh, but an alarm- 
ing illness induced him to return immedi- 
ately to the United States. He died soon 
after his arrival home, in July 1816. 
^ BAYLEY, Richard, an eminent phy- 
sician, was bora at Fairfield, Connecticut, 
in the year 1745. Having completed his 
medical studies, and atteiMMd the lectures 
and hospitals in London for more than a 
year, he commenced practi^ in New York 
in 1772. In the autumn of 1775, he re- 
visited London, and in the following eprhns 
returned to New-York, in.the capacitv of 
surgeon in the English army under Lord 
Howe. Thb post he resigned in 1777, 
and during the rest of his life continued 
the practice of his profession in the same 
city. In 1792 he was appointed professor 
of anatomy in Columbia college, and at 
1793 became professor of surgery, which 
was his favounte subject. He published a 
treatise on the Croup, and a work on the 
Yellow Fever. He died in 1801. 

BAYI^Y, Lewis, a native of Caennar- 
then, was educated at Oxford, and, in 
1616, was consecrated bishop of Bangor. 
He died in 1684. The Practice of Pifty« 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

_ I uxtj Eoglkli editioos,besi(lec seve- 
ral hT Webby was written by this prelate. 

BEATON, or BETHUNE, C&dinal 
Datid, primate of Scotland, was born in 
1494, filled several high offices, was made 
cardinal in 1588, and the ^|ext year soc- 
eeeded hb ancle as archrashop of Saint 
Andrew's. An attempt which ne made to 
share in the regency, after the death of 
Jamesy at Solway lioas, occasioned hb 
impriao nn ient; bet he was liberated by 
the earl of Arran, and appointed high 
chanceUor. The reformers ne peraeeuted 
fiercely, and b said to have witnessed the 
bornin^ of George Wishart. He was as- 
sassinated in May, 1546. 

BEATTIE, J AHBs, LL. D., was bom, 
in 1785, at Lanrencekirk, in JKincardine- 
shire, and ednca t ed avMarischal College, 
Aberdeen. After having for some time 
acted as a eonntry parochial schoolmaster, 
he was, in 1761, cboeen professor of moral 
philosophy at Blarischal College. lathe 
same year he made hb first poolic a|>pear- 

1 a poet, in a volume of original 

and Translations. With Uiese 

I he was afterwards dissatisfied, and 

to suppress them. His 

Essav en Troth, published in 1770, became 
highfy popular, nnd procured him the de* 
nee of LL. D., finom the aniversity of Ox< 
nrd, and a private interview and a pension 
irom. Qeatfe lU. Solicitations were also 
made to bun to enter the church of Eng< 
'—' - but he decHned^ in the fear that his 
\ miriit be misrepresented. In the 
I year, ne gave to the world the first 
book of the Minstrel; and the second book 
in 1774. Hue work sealed his feme as a 
poet. He subseqoei^y produced Disserta- 
^one; Evidences of the Qiristian Religion; 
Mots of Moral Science; and an Ac- 
i of the Life and Writings of hb eldest 
Bob. After having laaguisfaed ibr some 
time in a melanclK>ly state, and suffered 
two paralytic strokes, he expired at Aber- 
deen, i n Augu st, 1808. 

BEATTIE, J4MB8 Hat, the eldest son 
of the above, was bom in 1768, assisted 
hb fether in the pr ofessorship at the age 
of nineteen, and died in 1790. Hb poems 
and miscellaneous pieces were published 
by hb fiuhor. 

BEAUCHAMP, JossPB, was bom, in 
17S8, at Vesonl, in Franee, and blended 
hb theological studies with the astronomi- 
ca. les s o n s of Lalande. Being employed 
in the Levant, first as vicar general, by 
hb uncle, a bishop; next, as consul, l^ 
the government; he made numerous astro- 
nomical observations, constructed a map 
ef the Tigrb and Euphrates, and surveyed 
the Black Sea. BoiuuMirte invited him to 
Egypt; but he was taken on hb passage, 
ami imprisoAd fer three years as a spy. 

BEA n 

Ite was rdeased in 1801, bat hb health 

was ruined, and be died in the same year 
BEAUCHATEAU, Frahcis Mat- 
thias Chatelkt dk, a precocious 
genius, born at Farb, in 1645, was the son 
of an actor. At seven }'ears of age he 
spoke several languages, and wrote verges 
almost extempore upon a siven subject, 
and at twelve he published a volume of 
poems, under the tide of tne k oung Apol- 
lo*s Lyre, for which pensions were given 
to him by cardinal Richelieu and chancellor 
Seguier. After having visited England, 
he went to Persia, in 1661, and hb subse- 
quent fete b unknown. 

BEAUFORT, Margarst, Countess 
of Richmond and Derby, daughter of the 
duke of Somerset, was bom, in 1441, at 
Bletsoe, io Bedfordshire, and died in 1509. 
She was thrice married-^to the earl of 
Riclimond, to Sir Henry Stefibid, and to 
Lord Stanley. Her son by her first hus- 
band was afterwards Henry VII. Christ's 
and St. John's Colteges, Cambridge, and 
the divini^ professorship, were founded 
hf her. She wrote the Mirroure of Golde 
for a sinftil Soul; and translated the first 
book of Thomas & Kempb. 

the Empress Josephine, W,^^^ ^^ Imw- 
band, was bora in 1780. When hb mother 
married Bonaparte, Eugene eniared the 
army, acd was hb fether in few's aid-de- 
camp in Italy and Egypt. In 1804, he 
was created a French prince, and vice- 
cbanoeUor of state. In 1805 he vras ap- 
pointed viceroy of Italy, which office he 
held till 1814. He govemwi with mild- 
ness and equity. In the campaigns of 
1809, 1812, 1818, and 1814, he accniired 
distinguished reputation; particularly at 
Raab, Wagram, Borodino, and Viazma, 
and in defending Italy against a fer supe- 
rior force. On the downfell of hb patron, 
he retired into the states of the Bavarian 
monarch, whose daughter he had married, 
and who now made him duke of Leochten- 
berg. He died Februaiy 21, 1824. 

Tiir Caroh DE, an eminent French dra- . 
matio writer, born at Paris, in 1782, was 
the son of a watchmaker, and, when younj^, 
invented a new kind of escapement. H^ 
talents, however, and his proficiency in mu- 
sic, soon raised him above the spnere- of 
hb profession. Having made some im- 
provements on the harp, he was introduced 
to the daughters of Loub XV. They en- 
gaged him to teach them the harp and gui- 
tar, and admitted him on the tooting of 
fi'iendship to their private concerts and 
parties. Here he became acquainted with 
the rich fe&ancier, Parb Duveraey, aided 
by whom he engaged in Bpeculations frofls 
which he derived an ample fortune. Whili 
thus occupied he did not neglect literature. 

1« BSA 

!■ 1T87, he prsdoeod the drana of EogMim, 
and ia IHO, that of the Two Fmnds. Bat 
it WBM to a lawMiit that he was firat in- 
debted for hit astomflhins popularity aa an 
author. The memoriato and pleadings 
which he drew up were at once so foil of 
•ound reasoning, and of exquisite wit, 
satire, and comic spirit, that all France 
admired them. He sustained his reputation 
by the Barber of Seville, in 1776, and the 
Marriage of Figaro, in 1784. Subsequently 
he broi^t out the opera of Tarare, and 
the drama of the Guilty Mother, which 
were inforior to his former pieces. His 
latter days were not fortunate. He nearly 
•shansted his property by unlucky specu- 
lations, among which ¥ras an expensive 
edition of Voltaire, and he was imprisoned 
during the reign of terror. He died of 
apoplexy, in 1799. His collected works 
fiirm seven volumes octavo. 

BEAUMELLE, Laurbvcs Aholi- 
TiBL DB LA, a French critic and vrriter, 
was bom at Vallaragues, in Languedoc, in 
1727, and was for some time professor of 
belles lettres in Denmark, in which colin- 
try his health, however, did not permit him 
to remain. At Berlin he met and quarrelled 
with Voltaire, and the quarrel was contin- 
ued through life. Voltaire, nevertheless, 
eould not deny that his antagonist was a 
man of wit. In France La Beaumelle was 
twice imprisoned in the Bastile, for speak- 
in|[ truth too boldly. He died in 1778. His 
chief works are, a Defence of the Spirit 
of Laws; My Thoughts; Letters to Vol 
taire; and a Commentary on the Hen- 

BEAUMONT, Sir Johw, son of a 
judge, ah elder brother of the dramatist, 
was born, in 1582, at Grace Dieu, in Lei- 
cester, was made a baronet in 1626, and 
died in 1628. He is the author of Bos- 
worth Field, a poem; and of other poems 
and translations ; which have considerable 

BEAUMONT, Francis, a dramatic 
writer, eminent in an age which was fer- 
tile in such characters, was bom at Grace 
Dieu, in 1686. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, and became a student of the Inner 
Temple. In 1612 his Mask of the Inner 
Temple and Gray's Inn was acted and 
pubhshed. He had already formed a dra- 
matic connection with Fletcher; for their 
first joint play was produced in 1607. 
That connection continued till the death of 
Beaumont, in 1616. So close, indeed, 
was their friendship, that they lived toge- 
ther, and seemed almost to be animated by 
one mind. Besides his plays and mask, 
Beaumont wrote some poems which entitle 
him to an honourable place among British 

BEAUMONT, Josbpb, an ecclesiastic 
md poet, bora in 1616, at Hadlaigh, 


Soflblk, waa educated at Oaaifaridge. ■• 
m e3cpelled froaa his feUowship darmg 
the civil wars; but, after the restoration, 
was made master of Jesus College, and 
afterwards of Feter-house, and divinity 
professor. He died in 1699. He is the 
author of Fiprche, a poem; Poems in 
English and Latin, with Remarks on At 
Paul's Epistle to the Colossians. 

BE AUSOBRE, Is A AC, a protostaat thr* 
ologian, bora in 1669, at Niort, in Poitou, 
was compelled to cpiit France l^ the revo- 
cation or the edict of Nantz, and took ref- 
u^ in Holland, and snbeeqiiently in Proa- 
sia. In the latter country be beoame king'a 
chaplain, and held various ecclesiastieal 
ofltees. Jle died in 1788. His prineipnl 
works are, a Critical History of Bianiche* 
ism;, a History of the Reformation, fr«Mn 
1617 to 1680; and Sermons. Hb tvro 
sons, Charles Louis, and Louis, were 
men of talent andaothors. The latter vraa 
educated at the expense of Frederic the 
Great, who continnml his patronage to him 
throughont his life. 

BEAUZEE, Nicholas, an eminent 
French grammarian, was born at Verdun, 
in 1714, and died at Paris, in 1789. On 
the death of Dumarsais, Beaune was en- 
gaged to write the grammatical articles in 
me Encyclopedia. He produced, besides 
other works,- exceUent translations of Sal 
lust and Quintus Curtius ; an enlarsed edi- 
tion of Girard's Syoonymes; an amdged 
Exposition of the Historical Proofo ef 

Religion; and a General 

Anafytical Exposition of the Elements of 


BECCARIA, JoHH Baptist, an ecdc. 
siastic, and a i^iloaopher of great merit, 
was born, in 1716, at Mondovi, in Pied- 
mont, filled professorships at Palermo and 
Rome, and was recalled to Turin, to be- 
come professor of experimental pbiloeophy, 
and tutor to the inriacess of Savoy. All 
his hours were devoted to scientific pur- 
suits. His knowledge extended to all 
branches of philosophv ; but he is princi- 
pally celebrated for his revearches into the 
nature of the electrical fiuid ; on which 
subject he published Letters on Electricity ; 
and other works. He died at Turin, 'in 

BECCARIA, Marquis Cmbawl Bon it 
8AHA, an eminent Italian, was born at 
Milan, in 1786. About 1768 he formed a 
literary society in that citv, the members 
of which produced a periodical work inta- 
lled the Coflbe House. Beocaria oon* 
^ibutnd largely. In 1764, appeared hia 
Treatise on Crimes and Puuishmeats» 
which was trandated into several hu^Ri^ 
ges, and universally admired. In 1768 the 
Austrian government estiUiabed a profta- 
sorship ofpolitical ncenomT at Mibia, and 
app o i nted Bnconrin the pro d haor. Hedaid 


H lltS. Hk Lectures were pebHalied ie 


esiH, a celelirated German chemist, was 
bom, in 1646, at Spire. At various periods 
be beld the offices of medical professor at 
Menu, ealic connselkir at \ienoa, and 
|irincip«d ph^ician to the elector of Bava- 
ria. Bot his life was a wandering and 
troubled one, and he often quarrelled with 
his patrons. Becher had great mechanical 
knowledge, bat was still more eminent as 
a chemist ; he was, indeed, one of the first 
who studied chemistry on philosophical 
principles. He died at London, in 1685. 
Hb principal work is intitled Pbysica 

BECKET, Thomas ^, a celebrated En- 
glish prelate, tlie son of a merchant, was 
bom at London, in 1119,studiedat Oxford, 
l^ris, and Bologna, aad, on his return 
home, entered the church. Henry IL made 
him high chancellor and preceptor to prince 
Henry, in 1158, admitted him to the closest 
iBtifloacy and confidence, and, in 1162, 
raised him to the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury. Beeket now entirely ^ve up his 
eoortier habits, assumed a rigid austerity 
of manners, and became a stubborn cham- 
pion of the exorbitant privileges of- the 
elergy. * A violent contest ensuM between 
the sovereign and the prelate, and the lat- 
ter was at length obliged to fly from the 
kingdom. In 1170, however, he was re- 
stored, aad he instantly recommenced his 
resistance to the monarch. Irritated by 
thu iiresh disobedience, Henry uttered a 
hasty speech, which three of his knights, 
not unnaturally, construed into a command 
to rid him of the pertinacious archbishop. 
They accordingly nasteoed to England, and 
mordered Beck^ in Canterbury Cathedral, 
on the 22d of December, 1170. He was 
canonized two years afterwards. 

BECRMANN, Johh Amthohy, a na- 
tive of Hoya, in Hanover, was bora in 1739, 
travelled in Russia and Sweden, and, in 
1766, was chosen professor at Gottingen, 
where, for nearly aalf a century, he lec- 
tared, with great apphiuse, on subjects 
connected with rural an^ political econo- 
my and technology. He died in 1811. 
His works are numerous. Among the 
principal are a History of Discoveries and 
Inventions; History uf the earliest Voya- 
ges made in Modem Times; and Elements 
of Rural Economy. 

QECLARD, Peter Augustus, one of 
the most eminent of modem anatomists, 
was bora at Angers, in 1785. At a very 
-early penod he obtained the first anatomi- 
cal, fmysiological, philosophical, and cbe- 
■lical prues; and from 1818 to 1825, in 
which latter vear he died, he was cele- 
brated as a lecturer on physiology and 
He is the author of Anatomical 



Memohns; and be published an aditioB of 
Bichat's Treatise of General Anatomy, 
with additions. 

BEDA, or BEDE, usually denominaieii 
the Vekerable Bede, one of the most 
eminent eqcleijtiastics and writers of the 
time in which he lived, was born, in 672 
or 673, in the vicinity of Wearmouth, in 
the county of Durham. His fiime was so 
great, that Pope Sergius invited him to 
Rome, but he never quitted his native 
country. His greatest work is bis Englush 
Ecclesiastical History ; but he wrote on a 
variety of subjects, and with high talent. 
His last labour was the translation of Saint 
John's Gospel into Saxon. A few minutes 
after he had dictated the concluding sen- 
tence of it he expired, in May, 735. 

BEDDOES, Thomas, a physician, 
bora at Shifnal, in Sbropsiiire, in 1760, 
was educated at Oxford and Edinburgh. 
He obtained tlie chemical professorship at 
Oxford, but lost it by his political princi- 
ples. He afterwards settled at Clifton, 
near Bristol, where he died in 1808. His 
chemical, scientific, and other works, are 
numerous, and display considerable talent. 

BEDELL, William, a divine, emi- 
nent for piety, learning, and benevolence, 
was bora at Black Notley, in Essex, edu- 
cated at Cambridge, and travelled into 
Italy, where he became the friend of the 
celebrated Father Paul. After his return 
he obtained church preferment, and, in 
1629, was made bisoop of Kilmore, in 
Ireland. He held that see till the breaking 
out of tlie rebellion, when be was eiected, 
but was not injured, his virtues having 
acquired universal esteem. He died Ih 
1641. The rebels fired a volley over his 
grave, in honour of him, and exclaimed, 

May the last of the English rest in 
peace !*' 

BEDFORD, Johh, Duke of, third son 
of Henry IV., distinguished himxelf ia 
early youth at the battle of Shrewsbury, 
was appointed regent of France, by the 
will of Henry V., in 1422, and sustained 
the glory ol the English arms till his 
death, in 1435. He died at Rouen. It is 
to be regretted, that tlie memory of this 

Digitized by 


1i BCL 

htvn and dble miuB, wbo abo loved tiM 
arts, ii iitained br the death of Joan of Arc. 

BEETHOVEN, LoDwio Vow, a cele- 
l)rated compoiier, the too of a tenor singer 
in the elector of Cologne*! chaijel, waa 
bom, in 1770, at Bonn. His early genius 
induced the elector to send him to Vienna, 
to ftady onder Haydn, and be settled in 
the Austrian capital. His compositions, 
wfaica are numerous, rank him very hi(|[h 
among nmsical composers. He died m 

BEHAIM, or BEHEM, Martin, a 
coeroographer and navigator, was bom, of 
a noble family, at Nuremberg, about 14S0, 
and died at Lisbon in 1006. Behaim was 
employed by the Portuguese monarch, and 
either discovered Fayal, or settled a cclony 
of Flemings there. The discovery of Bra- 
zil, and the stmits of Magellan, in 1484, 
are even claimed for him, which would 
make him the first discoverer of the west- 
ern world ; and it must be owned tliat the 
evidence in his &vour is not without 

BEHN, Aphra, known by the poet 
ical name of Astrea, a dramatist and mis- 
cellaneous writer, viras bora in the reign 
of Charles I., and went, when young, with 
her family to Surinam, vrhere she became 
acquainted with the African prince Oroo- 
nooko, on whose story she founded a novel, 
which Southeme dramatiied. On her 
coming back to England, she married 
Mr. I&hn. Charles 11. employed her to 
gain intelligence on the continent, for 
which purpose she resided at Antwerp; 
and is said to have furnished, as to me 
intended Dutch attack on Chatham, infor- 
mation which was unfortunately disre- 
garded. After her return to her native 
country, the rest of her life was spent in 
literary labour, and in the company of 
wits and men of talent. She died m l689. 
Her works consist of novels, poems, and 
seventeen plays. Pope, in language which 
mfght safely have been stronger, alhides 
to the gross licentionsness whioi disgraces 
- her dramas. 

BEKKER, Balthaxar, a Dutch di- 
vine and writer, was bora, in 1084, at 
Warthuisen, in the province of €hroningeo, 
and was, in 1600, appointed minister- of 
Freneker, in the same province, which 
situation, however, he was compelled to 
quit, on account of his being persecuted on 
a charge of heterodoxy. In 1679, he set- 
tled at Amsterdam* where, in 1691, he 
published his Work! Bewitched, a work 
which denies the possibility of demoniacal 
influence- and which raised against hiui a 
furious clamour, and caused his deposition 
horn the pastoral office. He died in 1698. 
His Researches conceraing Comets is one 
of his best productions. 



native of OatakiBia, bom iii lOIT* dfe* 

played such an early proficiency in tiM 
mathematical sciences, that, whmi quite 
young, he vras appointed royal professor 
at the artillery school of La Fere. Other 
situations of the same kind were after- 
wards Goafbrred on him, and he was in- 
spector of artillery when he died, in 1761, 
at Paris. Of his vrorks, the most celebra- 
ted are his Treatise on Fortifications; 
Science of Ei^neers ; Hydraulic Archi- 
tecture; and French Bombardier. 

BELISARIUS, a Roman general, one 
of the most oelebrat^i of his age, first ser 
ved with distinction in the guards of Jus- 
tinian, and subsequently rose ^o military 
eminence under that emperor. He defeat- 
ed Cabades, and subseonently Cosroes, 
king of Persia, dethroneo Geliiner, king 
of the Vandals, routed the Goths in Sicily 
and Italy, and performed other glorious 
actions. Justinian, however, confiscated 
his estates, but at length restored them, 
and took him again into favour. He died 
A. D. 565. The story of hb blindness 
and being reduced to b^ is a fiction. 

BELKNAP, Jkrkht, an American 
historian and divine, was bora a( Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1744, and was graduated 
at Harvard Colle^ in 1762. He was first 
settled in the Christian ministry at Dover, 
New Hampdiire, and afterwards in his na- 
tive town. He was one of the foundera 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and devoted much of his time to the pro- 
motion of its objects and interests. His 
Kiblished works are the History of New 
ampshire, American Biografmy, and a 
number of political, literary and religious 
tracts. His writings are characterixM by 
great research, clear arrangement, and per* 
spicuity of style. He died at Boston in 

Bbll, JoBir, an eminent surgeon of 
Edinburgh, and a man of very considera- 
ble literary talents, died at Rome, in 1820. 
He is the author of the Anatomy of the 
Human Body; Principla of Surgery 
and other anatomical and surgical worlui; 
and of excellent Observations on Italy. 

BELLA, STxrAKO della, an emi- 
nent Florentine engraver, bore in 1610, 
was for a consideraJMe time employed by 
Cardinal Richelieu, to euffrave the con- 
quests of Louis XIII. ; and, after his re- 
tura home, was liberally patronised by the 
house of Medici. His death took place iiT 
1684. The number of his plates is said to 
amount to one thousand four hundred. 

BEIXARMIN, Cardinal Robert, the 
great champion of the Roman catboUe 
church, was bom, in 1542, at Monte-Pul- 
ciano, in Tuscany, and entered the Jesuits* 
college at the n^e of ei^teen. Such an 
idea was entertained of his learaing, diat he 
was lenc into the Low Countries to check 

Digitized by 


i of tbe Re fin ' m er i , and he red* 
ded'lhere aome yean. Ib 1599, he was 
created cardinal, and in 1602, archbiahop 
of Capua. He died in 1621. Hia great 
work if intitled a Body of Controrersv, 
and ia the araenal from which the cathonc 
theoloeiaas noerally tnpply themaeWea 
with their polemical weapKms. 

BELLA Y,CardinalJ OHM du, a French 
prelate and stateanuui, was bom in 1492. 
Francis I. employed him in several nego- 
tiations, raised liim to the archbishopric 
of Bordeaux, and entrusted him with the 
defence of Paris, when Charles V. invaded 
France. Yet, thoush in all these offices 
he displayed high taJents, he was slighted 
after we death of Francis ; and he accord- 
ingW retired to Rome, where, in 1560, he 
died bishop of Ostia. He obtained the 
cardinal's hat in 1585. Bellay was a 
scholar and a lover of learning. He in- 
duced die king to found the Ro^l Collm 
at Paris; he patrmiised Rabelais ; and he 
wrote prose and verse, in Latin and 
French, with mat elegance. 

BELLAY, Joachim du, who was call- 
ed the French Ovid and Catullus, was 
bom at Lir^, in Anjou, about 1524, and 
died in 1660. He was a nephew of the 
cardinal, but lost his faTonr, in consequence 
of being charged with immorality and 
irreligion. Among the poets of tkit day 
he was considered as holding the next 
place to Ronsard. 

BELLE A U, RxMi, a French poet, so 
celebrated in his day as to be one of the 
seven poets who were called the Pleiads, 
was bora at Nogent le Rotrou, in 1528, 
served under the Marquis of Elbeuf, in 
luly, and was appointed tutor to his son. 
He died in 1577. His most curious pro- 
dnctioB is a macaronic poem on the war 
against the Huguenots. 

BELLEISLE, Charles Louis Au- 
«USTU8 Fou^UKT, Count de, a French 
marshal, was bora in 1684, entered early 
into the army, and distinguished himself 
on various occasions. In 1742, he com- 
manded in Bohemia, and acquired high 
reputation by his masterly retreat from 
Prague. In 1757, he was appointed war 
minister, and till his decease, which hap- 
pened in 1761, he possessed great influence 
m the «vM]ttcil. 

William, a Scottish writer, bom in the 
btter end of the sixteenth centivy, was 
educated at Parb, and was profensor of 
belles lettres there, in 1602. The time of 
his death is unknown. He is the author 
of three Latin tracts, elegantly mritten, 
which he collected into a volume in 1616, 
and published under the title of Bellen- 
deaus de Sutu. To this work Dr. Mid- 
dieton is supposed to be considerably in* 
It was republished, in 1787, with 


a Latin prefiioe by Dr. Parr, which at* 
cited mucn attention, from its reference t* 
the political characters of that period. 

BELLOY, Peter Laurehce Bur- 
ette DE, a French dramatic writer, and 
member of the Acadamy, was bora at Sc 
Flour, in 1727. Being destined by hif 
uncle to the profession of the law, which 
he detested, he eloped, and for some years 
was an actor in the theatres of the north 
of Europe. This step made his uncle a 
determined enemy. After the death of 
that relative, he jeturaed to France, and 
acqahned reputation as a writer of tr^edy. 
He produced the Siege of Cakis, which 
was extremely popular; Titus; Zelmira; 
Gaston and Bayard ; Gabrielle de Vergy ; 
and Peter the Cruel. The laikwe of the 

latter play is said to have bro«wht on an 
illness, of which he died in 1775. 

BELOE, William, a divine and critic, 
was bom at Norwich, in 1756 and educa- 
ted at Cambridge. After having been as- 
sistant to Dr. Parr, who was uien head 
master of Nom-ich school, he took orders, 
and obtained church preferment. He was, 
finally, rector of Allhalbws, a prebendary 
of St. PauPs, and librarian of the British 
Museum. The latter situation, however, 
he lost, in consequence of a visitor to the 
Museum having purloined some valuable 
prints. In coniunction with Dr. Nares, 
ne established the British Critic. He is 
the antlior of Anecdotes of Literature and 
Scarce Books; the Sexagenarian; and 
other works; and the translator of Hero- 
dotus and Auliis Gellius. Hetlied in 1817. 

BELON, Pkter, an eminent French 
naturalist and physician of the sixteenth 
century, was bom in Maine, about 1518, 
travelled into Palestine, Greece, Arabia, 
and En|^land; published, in 1553, a very 
interesting account of his travels ; and was 
assassinated in 1564. He is the author of 
several valuable works on natural history, 
particularly on fislies. Belon is considered 
as the inventor of comparative anatomy, 
and one of tlie founders of natural history. 

BELSHAM, William, an historical, 
political, and miscellaneoos writer, was 
Dora in 1752, and died in 1827. He is 
the author of many productions, of which 
the principal are Essays, Philosophical, 
Historical,and Literary, published in 1785 ; 
and a history of Great Britain, from the 
Revolution to the Peace of Amiens.^ Little 
can be said in favour of him as an historian. 

He5rt Francis XAyiER de, a virtu- 
ous and humane French prelate, was bom 
in 1671, at the castle of La Force, in Per- 
ifford. In 1709, he was made bi8ho|> of 
Marseillei!, and when tlutt city was visited 
by tlie plague, in 1720, instead of desert- 
inff his riock, he hourly hazarded his life to 
afUM-d them succour and consoUCion. As 

Digitized by 


•• BEN 

m rawwd, be wai ofiered thericliUilioDrie 
of Laon, which conferred the title of duke ; 
oat he replied, that ** he woald not croit a 
chnrch to which he had devoted his life." 
A colle^ was founded by him in his epia- 
copal city. This exemplary pastor, who 
died in 1756, wrote a History of the Bish- 
ops of his Diocese ; Pastoral Instmctions ; 
and the Life of Mademoiselle -de Foix. 


BELZONI, JoHir BA^ftsT, one of the 
flsost eminent travellers in £g}'pt, was 
born at Padua, in Italy, came to England 
in 1808, and resided in this country^ for 
nine years. Being invoh'ed in pecuniary 
difficulties, he for a while obtained a sub- 
sistence by displaying feats of strength and 
activity at Astlev's Amphitheatre; for 
which his colossal stature and muscular 
powers particularly qualified him. From 
1816 to 1819 he was incesf>antly occupieJ 
in exploring and bringing to light the an- 
ti<)uities of Effynt. The talent which he 
displayed, anatne success which he met 
witn, in this pursuit, are extraordinary. 
Few men, indeed, could have accomplinhed 
as much as Behoni. In 1820, be published 
a Narrative of his Operations, quarto, with 
forty-four illustrative plates; and, in the 
following year, he exhibited a model of a 
m>lendid tomb whrch he had discovered 
Bear ThebcM. In 1828, he sailed to the 
coast of Gkiinea, with the intention of pene- 
trating to Houssa and Timbuctoo ; but, on 
the third of December, his career was, un- 
fortunately, arrested by the hand of death. 
He died, of the dysentery, at Benin. 

BEMBO, Pktkr, a cardinal and noble 
Venetian, one of the restorers of literature, 
was bom at Venice in 1470, studied under 
Urticio and Lascaris, and completed his 
education at Padua. In his twenty-eifhth 
year he published his poem of'AzaJini, 
which gaincfi much popularity. After liav- 
ing \\\A six years at the court of Urbino, 
he went to Rome in 1612. Leo X. made 
him his secretary; and Paid HI. created 
him a cardinsl and bishop of Gubbio. He 
died in 1547. His works form four folio 
volumes; tlie principal of them is his His- 
loryof Venice 

BENBOW, John, a gaUaut English 


admiral, was bom at Shrewabory, 
1650, began his career in the mei^aaCa* 
service, and was promoted to a sloop of 
war, hy James 11., for his conduct in ac 
action with an Algerine rover. Dunng 
the reign of William III. he was actively 
employed, and raised to the rank of vice 
admiral. In 1702, he brought the Freoeh 
admiral Docasse to action in the West 
Indies, displaved admirable bravery and 
skill, and would have obtained a complete 
victory, but for the cowardice or disafiiK- 
tion of some of his captains. One of hit 
legs was shot away in toe engagement ; but 
he would probably have reoovmd, had not 
his wounded feelings aggrav^teciais bodily 
suflerinn. He dieid at Jamaica. 

BENEDICT, St., one of the origina- 
tors of monastic institutions in the west, 
was bom at Nursia, in Italy, in 480. Early 
in life, he retired into a desert, and spent 
three years in a cavern. Being discovered, 
his sanctity drew to him such numbers of 
people, that he founded tvrelve convents 
In 529, he went to Monte Cassino, built a 
monastery on the site of the temple of 
Apollo, eave rise to the Benedictine order, 
and died in 548 or 547. 

BENEDICT Xin., Pope, a son of the 
duke of Gravina, a Neapolitan noblrmnn, 
was bom in 1649, and was raised to the 
papal chair in 1724. He was pious, vir- 
tuous, and liberal; but, unfortunately, 
pkiced too much confidence in Cardinal 
Coscia, his minister, who shamelully op- 
pressed the people. A firnitless attempt 
which he made to reconcile the Romisn, 
Greek, Lutheran, and Cahinist churches, 
bears honourable testimony to his tolerant 
spirit. His theological works form three 
folio volumes. He died in 1780. 

BENEDICT XIV., Pope, whose name 
was Prosper Lambertivi, was of an 
illustrious femily at Bologna, in which city 
he was bora, in 1675. After having been 
bishop of Ancona, and archbishop of Bo- 
logna, he was ^elected pope in 1740. He 
protected the arts and sciences, endeavour- 
ed to heal the dissentions and reform the 
discipline of the church; and displa}*ed such 
a liberal spirit, that he was sometimes call- 
ed the Protestant Pope. In private life 
he was extremely amiable. He died in 
1758. His works fill sixteen volumes in 

BENEZET, St., or Little Benedict, so 
called on account of his shortness, was m 
native ofVivarais, bora in the twelfth cen- 
tury, and is said to have been originally a 
shepherd. Many accidents occurring at 
the passaee of the Rhone, at Aviffnon, he 
meditated on them till be imagined himself 
inspired by Heaven to procure the erection 
of a bridge there ; and lie succeeded in ac- 
coroplislungliis project. The bridge waa 
begun in 1177, and hie miperinteaded the «i^ 

Digitized by VjOC- 

«i*M«rittiBkMda^ nll84; Ibrwlndi 
good work he woo aaiated. 

BENEZET, AnTHOJiT, • pUbuithro- 
piat, woo born in 1718, at Sc Qventio, in 
Picardj, of proteotaot porenU, who fint 
oettled in London, and afterwards at Phil- 
adelphia. He wa« intended for a mer- 
ohant, hot appreoiieed hinuelf to a cooper, 
and sufaoecfyeotly became a ochoohnftrter, 
aada nember of the society of Friends. 
His whole life was spent in acts of benevo- 
. lea ce, and he was one of the earliest oppo- 
■eats of the atrocions slave trade. A rew 
hoars before his death, he rose from his 
bed, to ^ive, finoss his bureau, six dollars 
to a poor widow. His foneral was attend- 
ad by thousands; and at the grave, an 
American officer exdaimed, "I would 
lather be Aothony Benexet in that coffin, 
than George Washington with all hij fiune.'* 
Beneset died at Philadelphia in 1784. He 
is the aathor of a Caution to Great Bntain 
aad her colonies; and an Historical Ao- 
oouni of Guinea. - 

BENGER, Elizabeth Ooiltt, was 
bom at Welles, in 1778, and bad to otrug- 
ffle with many difficulties in early life. So 
few hooks could she procure, that she used 
Co read the opcoi pages of the new publica- 
tions in the window of tbe only oooksel- 
ler*s shop in the little town which she in- 
habited, in Wiltafaire, and return, day 
after- day, in the hope of finding another 
pa^ turOSd over. She, nevertheless, ac- 
oujred a respectable portion of learning. 
On her removal to London, she obtain^ 
reputable literary friends and patronage, 
and was generaUv esteemed for her virtues, 
amaners, and talents. She die<l January 
the 9th, 1827. Besides a drama, two 
novels, and poems, she wrote Memoirs of 
lfrs.Hamilton,Tobin, andRlopstock; and 
Lives of Anae Boleyn, Mary Queen of 
Soots, the Queen of Bohemia, and Heiuv 
KV. of France. 

vbbi, was bora about the middle of the 
welftb centurv, at Tudela, in Navarre. 
Little more is known of his life than that 
he traveled with the design of visiting all 
the European synagogues. His Itinerary, 
written in Hebrew, did not see the light 
till 1543, when it appeared at Constanti- 
m>plc. Baratier translated it into French, 
and wrote a dissertation to prove that it is 
a compilation, aad not the narrative of a 
coal journey. 

Bfe«NNITSKI, Alkxanokr Pktro- 
TiTscH, a Russian poet, who died in 1808, 
at the age of twen^-eight, is tbe author of 
a variety of tales, mbla, and other pieces ; 
among which may be mentioned Ibrahim, 
or the Generous Man, a ule; Komala, a 
poem; and a tran«latiou of Omiau. 

BENSERADE, Isaac, a French wit 

■■d poety a member of the French Acad- 


in No 

VEH m 

. was bom in 1612, at Lyons le Por^t^ 

in Normandy. He was patronised first faf 
Richelieu, and afterwards by Masarine and 
Lonis XIV., and was a xreat fevoorite at 
court, in consequence of his conversational 
powera, his readinem of repartee, and tho 
nicility with which he composed verses for 
the court ballets. In his later years his 
popularity declined. He died in 1601. Hit 
works consist of poems, theatrical pieAs, 
and Ovid's Metamorphoses put into Ron- 
deaux. His femous Sonnet on Job, and 
that of Voiture on Urania, divided the 
courtiers into two partial, under the titla 
of Jobelins and Uranians. 

BENTHAM, Jamks, an antiquary, was 
bom at Ely, in 1706, was educated at 
Cambridge, and obtained several church 
preferments ; the last of which were a pre- 
Dend of Ely and the rectory of Bow-Brick- 
hill. In 1771, he published the Historv 
and Antiquities of Ely Cathedral, a work 
which displays great knoa'ledge of ancient 
architecture. He died in 17SM1. 

BENTIVOGLIO, Hercules, bom at 
Bobgna, in 1506, was patronised by the 
duke of Ferrara, and was eminent as a ne- 
gotiator and a poet. He died ih 1688. His 
works consist of poems aad two ccMae«lies. 

BENTIVOGLlO, Cardinal Guy, was 
bom at Ferrara, in 1$79, was successively 
legate in Flanders and in France, obtained 
the cardinal's hat m 1621, and would pro- 
bably have been pope, in 1644, had he not 
died while the conclave was sitting. He 
is the author of several works of merit; 
the principal of which is a History of the 
War in Flanders. 

Ferrara, in the latter end of the sixteenth 
century, was a man of varied accomplish- 
menlb, and eminent as a dramatic and 
lyric poet. Amonff his dramas mav be 
mentioned, Annibafat Capua, and AcnillA 
at Scyros. His son Cornelius, who 
was born in 1668, and died in 1789, was 
also a poet, and attained the dignity of 
cardinal. He translated Statins. 

BENTLEY, RirHAiit», one of the mo* 
eminent of KiigUnh ciilics and sebolars, 
was horn, in 1W2, at Oidton, near Waka- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

m BBif 

Md, in Toriuhire, and wm edveated at 
St. John's Gone^,Cambridge. H0 took his 
degree of M. A. at that university in I684j 
and at Oxford in 1699. Stillinfffleet, bishop 
of Worcester, to whose son he had been 
tQtor, made him his chaplain, and, in 1692, 
gave him a prebend in his cathedral. In 
1698, he was appointed keeper of the royal 
Uhmrv at St. James's, and in 1694, he 
paDiisned his Discourses against Atheism, 
which he had delivered as preacher of the 
lectures institnted by Bovle. Having de- 
nied the gennineness of^ the Epistles of 
Phalaris, he was engaged in a warm con- 
troversy with all the leading wits of the 
age. His antagonists claimed a triumph, 
but posterity has decreed in his &vour. 
fn 1700, he was ap|K>inted master of Trin- 
ity College, Caraoridge; but this prefer- 
ment was not a bed of roses: it involved 
him in disputes with the vice-master and 
some of the fellows, which ended in a law- 
suit of twenty vcars' duration. In 1717, 
a demand vrhich he made of fees, brought 
on him another litigation, and he was even 
degraded from his ofiices in the university. 
After a stru^le of eleven years, however, 
the court ofking's bench decreed in his 
fiivour. Thenceforth, he enjoyed his col- 
le^ honours and emoluments in quiet, tiU 
11a death, in 1742. His editions of Horace, 
Terence, and Phaedrus; his Annotations 
on Aristophanes; his Notes on Menander ; 
and his Dissertation on the Epbtles of 
Phalaris, establish his character as a pro- 
found scholar. His edition of Paradise 
Lost, with conjectural emendations, is, on 
the contrary, a decided failure. 

BEin^LEY, Richard, the only son of 
Dr. Bentley, was educated at Trinity CuU 
lege, by his father. He was a man of ele- 
gant talents, but imprudent, and conse- 
t^uently often embarraiiBsed. At length, he 
obtained a small place and a pension, which 
^te comfort to nis latter days. He died 
m 1782. Bentley is the author of three 
plays, Philodamus, the Prophet, and the 
Wishes; and of Patriotism, a satirical 

BENYOWSKY, Maitrick Auoi^s- 
Tus, Count de, a native of Hungary, bom 
in 1741, was a nobleman of that kingdom 
and of Poland. Having joined the Polish 
confederacy against the infamous ambition 
of Russia, be was takenprisoner, and ban- 
ished to Kamtschatka. Tne governor there 
employed him as tutor to nis daughters, 
and Bienyovrsky gained the affection of one 
of them. By means of a conspiracy among 
the exiles, oe overpowered the military, 
and made his escape in a vessel with his 
ocmipanioBS and his mistress. After many 
romantic adventures, he was at last slain 
by the French, in 1786, while he was en- 
dieavouring to establish an independent 
•overeignty in the iilaiid of Madagascar. 

BmAUl>, Lavrsvcb, • Mtivvof liV 
ons, bom in 1708, belonged to the aocie^ 
of Jesuits, and was eminent as an astrono* 
mer, neteorologisl, and natural philoeo- 
pher. Lalaode, M ontoda, and other oele* 
orated men, were his pupils. He died ia 

archdeacon of Angers, was bom at Toorsy 
at tlie beginning of the eleventh c en t iay, 
and was a disciple of Folbert of Chartrea. 
He died in 1088. His disbelief of the doo* 
trine of transuhatamiatioo drew down upon 
him much persecution; he was excomma- 
nicated, and deprived of his beoefioea; 
but he at length oonfonned to the teaets of 
the church 

BERENGER, James, a physidaa aad 
anatomist of the sixteenth century, was 
bom at Carpi, in Italy, and is often called 
by the name of his oirthphice. He was 
one of the first who practised dissection to 
a considerable extent, and he naide several 
important anatomical discoveries. Berea* 
ger was aknost among the earliest of tfaoae 
who employed mercnrr in cases of kns. 
He died, in 16S0, at FWara. 

BERENICE. The name of several fe- 
nmles, most of them Egyptian princesses. 
The most celebrated or them was the 
daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, whs 
married her brother Euergetes. Being 
passionately attac^ied to him, she made |i 
vow to consecrate her beautifiil locks to 
Venus, in case of hb safe return from a 
dangerous expedition. He came home an> 
hurt, and she performed her vow. Conoa, 
the astronomer, published that they had 
been placed among the stars, and he pave 
to a constellation the name of Beromce's 
hair, which it stiH retains. She vras pat 
to death, by her own son, B. c. 221. 

BERENICIUS, a strange character, 
whose name and country are unknown. 
He appeared in Holland in 1670, and gain- 
ed a In-elihood by sweeping chimneys and 
grinding knives. But, aotwithstanding the 
K>wness of his occupation, he was a lima 
of genius and extensive learning. He ooold 
turn a Flemish conversation into extenipors 
Latin verse, and a newspaper into Latin or 
Greek. He was at last smothered in a 
bop while drunk. The Georgarchoaioaa- 
chia is attributed to him. 

BERGERAC, SATiiiiAir Ctraho 
DK, was bora about 1620, at the castle of 
Bergerac, in Perigord, received but an ia- 
different edncation, and obtained a eoM- 
mission in the army. He was equally 
brave and qnarrelsonie ; being perpetualfy 
engaged in duels, either as principal or 
second. His nose was exceedingly defona* 
ed, and whoever looked at it was sore to 
be called into the field. Having received 
two severa wounds in war, he retired fitam 
the wrmy, and mmmtd hiaMsIf wMi P 

Digitized by v 

«n. Hb ia tke mfaer of Igr^flBi, a 
tnwedy; the Fedut Triekad, a ooned^; 
a Joaraej latbeMoon; and a Comic Hit* 
tofy of the States and Empires of the Son. 
MoUere, Fonteselle, Swift, and Voltaire, 
are soppoeed to have borrowed Mme ideM 
from hin. He died in 1665. 
Las, one of the most celebrated Flemish 
aadsape paintars, WM bom at Haarlem, 
•q ie24, and died in 1688. It hai justly 
keen obierred of him, that he painted 
««cry part of hit tobieett to extreoiel^ well, 
M to render it difficult to determiae m 
whkh he ezceUed. Of so cheerfhl a tem- 
per was he that he alwajft tan^ when he 
worked ; and be was an indefiitigable art- 
itt. Bergfaem aho execnted tome etchings. 

BERGMANN, Sir Torbbrii, a na- 
tive of Sweden, was bom in West Goth- 
luid, in 1785, and died in 1784. He wat 
p ro fet t o r of chemifltrY at Uptal, and a 
member of neariy all the learned tocietiet 
m Europe. Kis knowled^ was extensive 
ia maihematict, aatoral history, and vari- 
oat branchet of science; bat it it to hit 
chemical labomv that he it indebted for hit 
lame. The lawt of elective attraction, or 
ch em ica l aflmity, formed a nrominent ob- 
ject of hit tnccessful researcnes; ia analy- 
tit he particularly excelled; and tome of 
the mineral aeidt were discovered by him. 

Vrrus, a Danish navigator, who, in 1704, 
entered into the service of Russia, tmder 
Peter the Great, and distinguished himself 
sAintt the Swedet. In 1728, 1729, and 
1741, he wat employed in voyacet of dit- 
ctomxj on the coast of Atia ana America, 
and m his latt vojrage wat tfaipwrecked, 
and died on an itland which hat been 
named from him. The name of Bering 
wat given by Captain Cook to the ttrait 
whidi divtdet Atia from America. 

BERKELEY, Gkoroz, an eminent 
prelate and metaphysical philotopher, to 
I Pope, with liule of poetical exagger- 
hat attributed " every virtue under 
wat bora at Kiterin, near Tbom- 
at Town, in Ireland, in 1684. He wat 
edraffd at Kilkenny tchool and at Trinity 
€2oUe|e, Dublin. In England, he became 
aeqnaiated with, and beloved by, Pope, 
Swift, Additon, and all the other wits and 
great men of the a^. The duke of Graf- 
ton, on being apfwinted lord lieutenant uf 
Irefaad, auide him one of his chaplains, 
aad in 1724 Berkelev obtained the deanery 
of Derry. In 1728 ae sailed to America, 
Cor the p wrpote of establivbing a missiona- 
rv ooUqge, for the conversion of the In- 
mm; mtt, after he had resided two years 
there, the scheme was frustrated, by Sir 
Robert Walpole withholding the funds 
which were necessary. In 1788, Berkeley 
.was promoted to the biidiopric of Cloyne, 

■BOMm ha wat snieeQapwy oflNac a 
oee of twice the vahie, he reftited to giva 
up his flock. He died suddenly, in Jaim- 
ary, 1753. His works have bean collected 
in three quarto volumes. It is in the Prin- 
ciples of Human Knowledse, aad the Dia- 
logues between Hylas and Philoaoot, that 
he devdopet hit curioot theory of the noa- 
exittenee of matter. 

BERKLEY, Sir Wiluaii, a aattva 
of London, educated at Mertnw CoUege. 
Oxford, and for many yeart governor of 
the province of Virginia. He made a e<4- 
lection of the lawt of the provinoet ; pob- 
litfaed an account of the eountry, in folio; 
and wat alto the author of a tragi-comedy 
called The Lost Lady. He returaed to 
Eiwland and died in 1677. 

BERKENHOUT, JoHir, a phvaiciaa 
and literary character, born at Leedt, wat 
the ton of a Dutch merchant, and, after 
having terved in the Pruttian and Eaglith 
military tervice, ttudied phytic at Edin- 
burgh, 9nA took hit degree at Leyden. Ha 
went to America with the Britith commit- 
tionert in 1778, and on hit return received 
a pention. He died, aged about tixty, ia 
1791. He it the author of variout woikt, 
among which may be mentioned Biographia 
Literaria; a continuation of CampoBll*t 
Livet of the Admirab; and ontliaet of the 
Natural Hittory of Great Britaia and Ire- 

deacon of Aotta, wat bora in 928, near 
Annecy, in Savoy, and wat celebrated 
amon^ hit oontemporariet for hit learaio| 
and piety; but hit claimt to the notice of 
later aget rett on hit having been the be- 
nevolent founder of die two admirable ia* 
ttitutiont on tho Great and Little Saint 
Bernard, bv meant of which the livet of to 
many travellera have been aaved. He died 
in 1008. 

natical hermit of the tenth century, who 
threw ahnott all Europe into eootteraatioay 
by preaching that the end of the world wat 
at Itand. Blultitndet relinquithed their 90- 
cupationt, and became pilgrimt; and oth- 
ers were to ftigbtened at an eclipse of the 
tun, which then occurred, that they hid 
tbemtelves in caverns and holes in the 
rocks. The terror spread by this man wat 
not wholly removed till towards the end 
of the eleventh century. 

BERNARD, St., the 6rtt abbot of 
Clairvaux, wat bora at Fonteine, in Bm> 
gundy, in 1091, of noble porentt. AD 
eccleaiattical dignitiet he constantly refot- 
ed ; but his virtues and talents gained him 
a higher influence in the christian werU 
tlmn was possessed even by the pope him- 
self, and the disputes of the church were 
often referred to bis arbitration. Hit elo- 
quence was powerful^ displayed ia Iha 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

onlliliidM dmt he induced to tMOie tin 
ehanicten of crundera. He died in 1168. 
There are editioiw of bis works in six toI- 
wnes, and in two Tokimes, folio. 

BERNARD, Cla vdk» a nativi of Di- 
jon, born in 1688, who assomed the title 
of <* the poor priest," is worthy of com- 
memoration for his ardent and perserering 
charity. His whole life was devoted to 
assisting the poor, attending the sick in 
the hospitals, and preparing criminals for 
death. For these porposes he not only soli- 
cited benefactions from the rich, bat sold his 
own inheritance, which was worth nearly 
twenty thoosand pounds. He died in 1641. 

BERNARD, Edward, a divine and 
mathematician, was bom, in 1688, at Paul- 
er's Perry, in Northamptonshire, and was 
educated at Merchant Tailors School and 
at Oxford. In 1678, he succeeded Sir 
Christopher Wren, as Savilian professor 
of astronomy. He died in 1696. Among 
his works are, some astronomical papers in 
the Philosophical Transactions; a Treat- 
ise of the Ancient Weights and Measures ; 
Private^ Devotions; and Etymologicum 

BERNARD, Jahss, was bom at Ny- 
otts, in Danphine, and educated at Geneva. 
He afterwards settled in Holland. He con- 
tinued Le Clerc*8 Universal Library, and 
Bayle's Intelliffence of the Republic of 
Letters, and published several works, one 
>f which was a Supplement to Moreri. He 
died at Leyden, in I718,at tite age of sixty. 

BERNARD, John Frederic, a book- 
seller of Amsterdam, at. the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, was a man of talent 
and limine, and the author and editor of 
several works, among which may be men- 
tioned a Collection of Voyages to the 
North; Memoirs of Count de Brienne; 
Relipous Ceremonies and Customs of all 
Nations, ia nine folio voliunes; and An- 
cient and Modem Superstitions, in two vol- 
ones folio. He died about 1761. 

BERNARD, Peter Joseph, a French 
Met, the son of a sculptor, was bom, in 
1710, at Grenoble, was taken into Italy, 
by the marquis de Pezay, in 1734, and 
fought at the battles of Parma and Guas- 
talUL, and was subsequently patronised by 
the marshal de Coigny, on the express con- 
dition of his not makinir verses. On the 
death ot the marshal, Bernard devoted 
himself to society and to the Muses. His 
conversation being deliglttllil, his company 
was eagerly sought. In the latter part of 
his life, he sunk into a state of mental im- 
|Hecility. His poems are elegant but vo- 
"P*^*2?"*' Among bis principal works are 
ineArto.f Lo^. phrosine and Melidor; 

ttjres^fcd him ..^ g^^il Benmrd,and the 
Jlthetr^nains attached to his naie. He 

B^NARD, Sir Thomas, a plrfln* 
ihropist and sdiolar, was bora at LinoolD« 
in 1759. He received his education at 
Harvard Colleffe in New-England, and on 
his retnm to his native country became a 
student of Lincoln's Inn. He was the pro- 
jector of the Society for bettering the Con- 
dition of the Poor, and an active promoter 
of many other charities. He died at Lea- 
mington Spa, in 1818. Besides variooa 
pamphletB, he is the author of Spurina, or 
the Comforts of Old Age. 

BERNARDEZ, Disoo, a poet, bom 
in the province of Entra Hinho e Dooro, 
who died in 1606, is dencsninated the Por- 
tuguese Theocritus by his countrymen. 
His pastoral poems, under the title of the 
Lyma (the name of a river), appeared at 
Lisbon on the year of his decease, and 
have passed throng mimerous editions. 
He succeeded also in other kinds of poe- 
try. Beraardex was a warrior as well as 
a poet ; and, after having fou^t with chiv- 
alric bravery, was taken prisoner b^r the 
Moors at the fatal battle of Alcazarquivir. 

James Hevrt, vras bom at Havre, in 
1787, and is said to have been a descendunt 
of the celebrated Eustace de St. Pierre, 
the patriotic mayor of Calais. At the age 
of twenty be entered into the enffineer ser- 
vice ; and he successivelv served at Malta, 
in Russia, and in Poland. On his revisit- 
ing his native coundry, he obtained a cap- 
tain's commission in the engineer corps, 
and was sent to the Isle of France, fixim 
whence, howe^'er, after a residence «>f three 
years, lie returned, with no other fortune 
tlian a collection of shelb and insects, and 
a narrative of his voyage. The latter, 
which was liis first literary effort, was 
published in 1773; and he, thenceforth, 
devoted hiinslf to literature. His Studies 
of Nature appeared in 1784, and passed 
rapidly through several editions. Paul 
and Yirj^inia was published in 1788, and 
this delightful tale ac(|uired an impreee* 
dented popukrity, and set the seal on his 
reputation. " During the reign of terror, he 
narrowly escaped tlie scaflfold. Frem Nr- 
poleon and his brother Joseph he received 

which gme confcrt to his latter 
He died in 1814. His Haraoniee 
of 'Nenirs was giYen to the press after his 
defUh. The hot edition or his works is 
in twelve octaTo Tofaunes. The philosophy 
oC St. Pierre is occasionally eccentric; 
hot the pvity of his morality, and the 
bfanty or his style, deserve the highest 

BERNERS, or BARNES, Juliama, 
a sister of Lord Bemers, is supposed to 
have been bom aboat the year 1888, and 
was a native of Essex. Sbe was prioress 
of Sopewell Nunnery, and wrote the Boke 
of Hawkyng and Hnntyng, which was one 
of the first works that issued from the 
Eitflish press. 

.BERNI, Framcis, one of the most 
eminent Italian poets of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was bom at LampormHshio, in Tus- 
cany, and died of poison, in 1636. He 
remodelled Bojardo's Orlando Innamorato. 
His Rime Borlesche, and his Latin poems, 
are to be firand in various collections. 
- , BERNI, Count Francis, a civilian, 
orator, and poet^ was bora at Ferrara, in 
1610, and died in 1678. He was greatly 
in £ivonr with Popc Innocent X., Alex- 
ander VII., and Clement IX., and with 
two successive dukes of Mantua. He ex- 

celled in dramatic pieces, of which he 
wrote eleven. A voiuine of his miscella- 
nies was published with the title of Aca- 

BERNIER, Francis, a physician and 
traveller, was bom at Angers. . In 1665, 
after having passed through Syria and 
Egypt, he visited India, wl^re he resided 
for some yenrs, as physician to Aorang- 
sebe. On his retum to France he pub- 
lished his Travels, a work of great intereft 
and authenticity. He died at Paris, in 
1668. Beraier was universally admired 
far the graces of his mind and person. 
His principal work, besides his Travels, is 
an Abridgment of Gassendi's Philosophy, 
in «|ght volumes. 

BkRNINI, John LAURKNcv,who was 
at once a painter, a sculptor, and an archi- 
tect,^ and whom his contemporaries de- 
nominated the modem Michael Angelo, 
was bora at Naples, in 1608. At the 
carlpr ace of eight years, he manifested his 
^lus bv sculpturing the head of a child 
m marble. Some of his fiueiit works were 
produced before he was twenty. He was 
patr«sised by popes Urban YIII., Alex- 
ander Vn., and Innocent X., and was 
invited to France by Louis XIV. His 
finest productions are' at Rome. He died 
in that city in 1680. Bernmi had a fine 
genius; but he is accused of mannerism, 
and of having often violated the principles 
of true tasto. 

DERNIS, Cardinal Francis Joachim 
DB PiXRRBS DE. a French poet and 

statesman, was bora at St. Mareel dt 
PArdeche, in 1715. In early life, he pub* 
lishod some light npetry, which gained him 
the patronage of Madame de ranpadour, 
through whMe influence he was pensioned, 
and received into the Academy; he was 
subsequently employed to negotiato in Italy, 
Spain, and Austria, pr«Hnoted to be minis* 
ter for foreign a&irs, and gratified with 
the dignity of cardinal. In 1764, he was 
made arcm>ishop of Alby, and in 1760 was 
sent amhassador to Rome. The revolution 
deprived him of his revenues; but he oh* 
tamed a pension from Spain. He died at 
Rome in 1794. He left bdiind him a 
poem, with the title of Religion Averted. 

BERNOUILLI, Jamks, an eminent 
mathematician, was bora at Basil, in 16M, 
and died in 1706. He was originally in- 
tended for the church, but studied geoifte- 
try and astronomy in secret, contrarv to 
the wishes of his wther, which made him 
take for his device Phaeton conducting the 
car of the sun, with the motto Invito patre 
sidera verso. He was professor of mathe- 
matics at Basil, and a member of many 
learned societies. His works were pub- 
lished complete in 1744. 

BERNOUILLI, JoBn, brother of tlie 
preceding, was bom at Basil, in 1667, 
became professor of mathematics at Oro- 
ningen, and succeeded his brother at Basil. 
He died in 1748. His works form four 
quarto volumes; and his correspondence 
with Leibniu occupies two more. He 
was the masto* of Euler. His eldest son, 
Nicholas, was also a mathematician of 
talent. He died in 1726, at Petersburj^n, 
where he was professor of mathematics. 
He was, however, fiur exceeded by his 

BERNOUILLI, Danikl, was bom 
at Groningen, in 1700, and died in 1783. 
He was one of the most eminent of an 
eminent femily, and his manners were as 
modest as his science was extensive. He 
is the author of the first published treatifts 
on Hydrodinamics ; ana of many otlier 
valuable works. — Several other members 
of this fiimily excelled in the abstract sci- 

BERNOUILLI, John, grandson of iht 
abovementioned John, was bom at Basil, 
in 1744, and died, in 1807, at Berlin, 
where he was director of mathematics in 
the Royal Academy. He was also a vo- 
luminous writer.^ Among his principal 
works are, Travob in Germany, Switxer- 
land, kc. 8 vols. ; and in Prussia, Russia* 
and Poland, 6 vols.; a Collection of Voy- 
ases and Travels, 16 vols. ; and Archives 
of History and Geography, 8 vols. 

BERNSTORF, John Hartwio Er- 
NKST, Count de, a native of Hanover, 
bom in 1712, settkd in Denmark, wim 
he became prime minister, and dr'' 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

M ^ HER 

gVMlMd hhnMlf by his jacoeptful iidiiiini0- 
tratioD, and bis encouragement of manu- 
fiMturea, commerce, arts and sciences. He 
enfranckiseJ bis peasants, and they ex- 
pressed their gratittide l>v erecting an obe- 
bak in booour of him. In 1770 he was 
removed from his office, and he died at 
Hamburffh, in 1772. 

BERN8TORF, Andrew Peter, 
Connt de, the ne|)hew of John, was, like 
bis imcle, a native of Hanorer, where he 
was bom in 1785. Like him, he filled the 
offce of Danish prime minister ; and like 
bim, too, be goTcmed with wisdom, and 
introduced Dumeroos reforms of the utmost 
importance. He procured the enfranchise- 
ment of the peasants, improved the crimi- 
nal code, abolished monopoly, and estab- 
lished a new system of finances. This 
able statesman died in 1797. 

BEROSUS, a priest of Belus, at Baby- 
lon, in the time of Alexander, wrote a 
History of Clmldea, which is now lost; 
and is said to have opened a school of 
astronomy at Cob, and invented a new nin 
dial. Some, however, believe the historian 
and tbe astronomer to have been difierent 

BERQUEN.or BERREN, Lewis de, 
a native of Bruges, was the first who in- 
vented, in 1456, the art of cutting and 
polishing diamonds, by means of a wheel 
and diamond powder. His grandson, 
Robert, published the Wonders of the 
East Indies, or a Treatise on hrecious 

BERCIUIN, Arnold, an elegant and 
amiable writer, who devoted his pen to 
the instruction of youth, was bom at Bor- 
deaux, in 1749, and died at Paris, in 1791. 
His works, consisting of Idylls; the 
Children's Friend; the Youth's Friend; 
the Little Grandison; the Family Book; 
aiid several similar productions, form 
twenty volumes. The Children's Friend 
is, in part, imitated from tbe German of 

BERRUYER, Joseph Isaac, a Jesuit, 
was born at Rouen, in 1682, and died at 
Paris, in 1758. He acquired^ sinister 
kind of celebrity by his History of the 
People of God, in eleven quarto volumes; 
a work founded on the Bible, and written 
with some degree of elesance; but the 
eventi in which are tricked out in all the 
nereCrieious ornaments of romance, and 
are sometimes even indecently deecribed. 
Tbe reading of it was prohibited by seve- 
ral French prelates; twopopea conoemned 
it; and (ae parliament of Paris summoned 
the author before them; all which, of 
eourae, only procured for it an accession 
of readera. 

BERTAUT , JOHN, a Franch poet, was 
bora at Oaen, in 1552, and died in 1611. 
lit «M biibop of Beea, ana aimoiiei U> 


Mary de Medicis. Thoogb oocnkM 
deformed by the defeeti of tbe age, 
poems have a considerable degree of feal> 
ing, sweetness, and e l egance. His Stan- 
zas, beginning " Felicite pass^," ara «tU 
BERTHIER, Alexander, a distra- 

fuishcMd officer, was bora at Versailles, in 
758, served in America during the war of 
independence, and attained the rank of 
major-general in 1792. After having 
fought gallantly in Vend^, he was made 
general of division, and was placed at dM 
head of Bonaparte's staff in Italy. He 
afterwards acted in tbe same capacity 
with him in Egypt. In both countries m 
signalixed his talents and bravery. On 
tM establishment of the consulate, he be- 
came minister of the war department. He 
was subsequently raised to be a marshal, 
vice constable of the empire, and priaet 
of Neufchatel and Wagram. Unlimited 
confidence vras r e posed in bim liy Napo- 
leon. On the fint restoration of Louis 
XVIII. Bertliier immediately recognised 
his authority, and was created a peer; but 
when Napoleon returned, his old com- 
panion and confidant withdrew to Bam- 
oerg, where, in a fit of frenzy or remorses 
be Uirew himself from a win<K»w, and died» 
on tbe 1st of June, 1815. 

BERTHOLLET, Claude Louts, m 
eminent chemist, was bora at Talloire, in 
Savoy, in 1748, and studied medicine at 
Turin. Having been appointed physiciao 
to the duke of Orleans, he settled at Paris, 
and became a member of theAcademy of 
Sciences. His chemical researches vrera 
extensive, and the results highly important. 
In 1799 be accompanied Bonaparte to 
Egypt; and, under the empire, he vrai 
made a senator and an officer of tbe Iwioa 
of honour. He was, however, one of tha 
first to desert Napoleon, and wits rewarded 
with the title of count. He died in ISO. 
Among his principal works are. Elements 
of the Art of Dyemg; Essay on Chemical 
Statics ; and Inquiry icto the Laws of Af- 

OMMi emSoent mechaniei mud iraken of 

flVQMOflKvBPt) iN^9 bom Sf 
Wed Lhatel , io 1727, mmI wttled «t Vwru, 
IB llie»eighboarhood of which city he died, 
in 1907. He ie die anther of a History of 
Che Meaatiriiig of Time by means of Clocks, 
two vfihmies qnarto ; and of several other 
▼afaable worka relative to his art. His 
■ephew, Louis, inherited his talents. 

BERTIi>^ Ahthont, one of the most 
elegant of the French amatory poets, was 
boni in 1752, in the isle of Bourbon, and 
edocated in France. He died at St. Do- 
miQfo, in 1790. His elegies, in fbor 
books, pobtifliied in 1782, under the title of 
Che Loves, are his principal productions, 
and do honour to his poetical talents. 

BERTINAZZI, Charles Ajvthont, 
better known under the name of Carlini, 
was bom at Turin, in 1718, and was at 
irst an easij^, but exchanged a military 
fer a theatrical life. For more than forty 
yean he was one of the most distinguished 
eomic actors at Paris. He was also cele- 
faraaed for bis gaiety and wit. He died iu 

BERTRANDI, Johh Ambrosr Ma 
KiA, an eminent lulian anatomist and sur- 
peon, wus bom at Turin, in 1728, and died 
m 1765. He was professor of surgery and 
dfeemistry in his native city, and kmd sur- 
geon to the king. His works form tliir 
teen vols. 8vo. The principal of them it 
a Treatise on Surgical Operations, 

of, a natural son of James II., uras born, 
in 1071, at Moulins, in France, and served 
with distinction in Hnngar}', Ireland, and 
Flanders. In 17M, he commanded in 
chief, the French troops in Spain ; in the 
following year, he was opposed to the Lan- 
nedocian insurgents; and in 1706, being 
then a 6eld marshal, was again at the head 
of the army in Spain, and gained the battle 
of Almanxa. In four subsequent cam- 
pai^, he successfully defended IHuphine 
against tiK* attempts of the duke <tf Savoy. 
His last service in the succession war was 
the reduction of Barcelona. In 1784, he 
was placed at the head of the French ar- 
BBv on the Rhine, and was killed on the 
Izth of June, at the siege of Philipsborg. 
He is the author of his own Memoirs. By 
Lord Bolittgbroke he is considered as the 
best great man that ever lived. 

BkSSARION, Cardinal John, a native 
of Ti"«biBoiid, bom in 1895, was made 
bishop «l Nioea, by John Paleok^us, and 
sent by him into Italy, to negotiate the 
anion of the Greek and Roman churches. 
Pope Eugene IV. gave him a cardinaPs 
bat. Bcssarion's efforts, however, gave 
SQch ofleaee to those of his own commun- 
*on, that he tlioii|^t it prudeut to remain 
at Rome; and Pius II. gave him the title 
of patriarch of Constantinople. He was 
inery Bear being elected pope on the death of 

Hw aaath toak pIsM at B^ 
. in 1472. Bessarioo was a maa of 
taleat, and a pr emois r of Uteratare. TIm 
work by which he is best knowa is hia 
Defence of Plato. 

BESSIERES, Johm Baptist, Daka 
of Istria, a French marshal, was boni ia 
Poitoo, in 1709, and entered the army ia 
1792. He distinguished himself ia Itah 
and in Egypt, and at Austerlita, Jena, and 
Eyiau; eononaaded aeorps in Spaia; aad 
tlm cavalry of the imperial guard in 1812 
and 1818. He vraskilled m the ooaihat 
that preceded the battle of Latzea; and 
his loss was greatly regretted by Nmolaoa. 
Bessieres was a geaeral of tataaty^ad aa 
honourable amn. 

BETHENCOURT, Johii de, a eela. 
bntted adventurer, of a noble feauly, bora 
in Normandy, in the feorteenth eentaify* 
was chamberlain to Charles VI. Wishmg 
to avoid bearing a part in the disseasions 
by which France was desolated, he reselvad 
to nadertake the conquest of the Ckaarias 
This purpose he aecompKahed at the head 
of a band of resoluto men, and reeeivad 
the investiture of the islands, as s ofere iga , 
from Henry III. of Aragon. He died, ia 
1426, on his estate in Normandy. 

BETHLEM-^ABOR, the son of a peer 
Trans^^lvanian cahrinist gentleasaa, was 
patronised by Gabriel Attori, thea de- 
throned him, and, ia 1618, proolahaad 
himself prince of Transylvaaia. Ia 1818, 
he reduced Huitfary, assumed the title of 
king, and invaifed Austria aad Mofavia; 
whence, however, he was expeUed by Til- 
ly. A treaty ensued, and be relinquiabed 
his Hungarian coo q a est s; but remainad 
sovereign of Transylvaaia till his death, ia 

BETTERTON, Thomas, a celebrated 
actor, was bom, in 1685, at Westaiinster, 
and began life as an apprentice to a book- 
binder. At the age of twenty, however, 
he want upon the stage, and ultimately ae> 
quired a nigh degree of reputation as a 
tragic actor; especially in soma of Shak- 
speare's principal characters. In 1895, he 
Mned a new theatre in Liacoln*s Inn 

ields ; but this speculation was unsuccesa* 
ful. He died in 1710. Several pieces 
were altered by him for the stage. 

BETTINELLI, XAyiER, an elegant 
Italian writer, was bom at Mantua, in 
1718, and became a member of the society 
of Jesuits. For some years he had the d^ 
rection of the college of nobles at Paraia« 
and afterwards was professor of eloqueaea 
at Mudena. He continued his literary ca- 
reer till his death, which took place at 
Venice, in 1808. His works occupy M 
vols. 12mo., of which two are occupiod by 
tragedies, aud three by poems. Of bis 
prose works, one of the most eelebiatad is 
Lattars of Virgil. Betti^em vras aa ela* 

Digitized by V^OOQIC -::- 

UDiable, tad m pioM 

BEUCKEL8, William, a 
ft-native of Dotch Flaaden, u one of those 
■MO who have a claim to be cootidered aa 
bea efac tow of their ooantry. About the 
beginnioff of the fifteenth century, he dis- 
coTcred the art of corii^ and barrelling 
.lerrings; a diaooTenr which proved in the 
hiffhett degree beneiicial to hie native land. 
Hm ooontrymen erected a itatne^ to his 
Memory, and his tomb was visited by 
Charles V. Beockeb died in 1440. 

Coont de Benmonville, a French marshal, 
«vas bo^ in Burgundy, in 1752, served iu 
the East Indies, and under Dnmonrier, and 
was mtde minister of war in 1798. He 
was one of the republican commissioners 
whom Dumottrier gltve up to the Anstrians, 
and was imprisoned, at OlmuU, till 1795. 
On his return to France, he was appointed 
to the command of the armies of toe Sam- 
bra and the Ifeose, and of Holland. During 
the coaaulate he was ambassador at Berlin 
and Madrid ; and, under the empire, was 
grand oflfeer of the legion of honour, sena- 
tor and count. He voted ibr the deposi- 
tion of Napoleon, followed Louis to Ghent, 
was rewarded with the title of marshal, 
and died in April, 1821. 

BEVERIDGE, William, an English 
prelate, and an eminent orientalist and 
theologian, was bom at Barrow, in Leices- 
tershire, in 1686, and educated at St. 
John's College, Cambrid^. Before he w^ 
twent]r> he acquired a critical knowledsTof 
the oriental languages. He was offered 
the see of Bath and Wells in 1691, but 
declined it, on conscientious motives. In 
1704, however, he was made bishop of St. 
AMph. He died in 1707. Of his volu- 
minous works, part posthumous, his Ser^ 
mons, above one hundred and fifty ift num- 
ber, and his Private Thoughu on Religion, 
are, perhaps, the best known. 

BEWICK, John and Thomas, reviv- 
ers of the art of wood engraving, which, 
till their time, was sunk to the lowest state, 
resided at Newcastle upon Tyne, where, in 
1790, they published a History of Quadru- 
peds, which was succeeded, in 1797, b;jr a 
History of British Birds. John Bewick 
died in 1795, and his brother Thomas in 

BEZA, or BEZE, Theodore, one of 
the saost eminent of the reformers, was bom 
at Teielai, in the Nivernois, in 1519, and 
was originally a catholic, and intended for 
the law. At the age of twenty, he gained 
an unenviable repuution, by the composi- 
tion of Latin poetry which was at once ele- 
gant and licentious, and which, some years 
afterwards, he published under the title of 
Juvemle Poems. Thoqgh not in orders, he 
I benefices of considerable value. 

These, htm^fmr, ha ab aMdoaad la IMI^ 
and rsCtrad to Geneva, where ha pabli4r 

abjured popery. To this he was to 
by bis having meditated, during illness, 
upon the doctrines which he hai heard 
fixMu his protestant tutor, Melchior Wol- 
mar; and, perhaps, also, in some measure, 
by his nttacbment to a lady, whom h« 
carried with him to Geneva, and married. 
He now accepted the Greek professorship 
at Lausanne, which he held /or ten veara 
It was while he was thus occupied that 
he produced his tragedy of Aoraham'a 
Sacrifice, his version of the New Testa- 
ment, and his hateful defence of the right 
of the magistrate to punish heritics. In 
1559 he removed to Geneva, and became 
the colleague of Calvin, through whom 
he was appointed rector of the academy, 
and theolof ical professor. Two yeara 
after this, be took a prominent part in the 
conference at Poissy, and was present at 
the battle of Drenx. He returned to Ge- 
neva, in 1568, succeeded Calvin in hia 
offices and influence, and was thenoe* 
forward considered as the head of the cal- 
yinistic church. After an exceedingly ac- 
tive life, be died on the 18th of (>Btober» 
1605. His theological works are nomer- 
OQS, but are now nearly forgotten. 

BEZOUT, Stephen, a celebrated 
mathematician, and mathematical exam- 
iner of the na\'al and artillery schools, was 
bom at Nemours, in 1780, and died in the 
Gatinois, in 1783. He is the author of 
a General Theory of Algebraic Ec^uatiooe ; 
and two Courses of Mathematics, the 
one in four volumes, the other in six, for 
the use of the royal marine and artillery 
schools. One anecdote proves the kiml- 
ness and courage of Bezout. Though he 
had never had tne small pox, he ventured 
to the bedside of two youths of the naval 
academy, who were mbooring under it^ 
and who would have been throvm back a 
year in their promotion, had he not ex. 
amined tbem. 

BIANCHI, JoHif Bavtist, a cele* 
brated Italian naturalist, was born at Ta^ 
rin, in 1681, took his doctor's degree at 
the early age of seventeen^ and was pc#» 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 


fanr- •» IWin tiB bk death, m 1711. 
Hit uAtoBkal works are mnerout; 
aaoag tbem may be meationed Doctns 
Lacrymalu Noti; De Lacteomm Vaso- 
nua; LeUaranU'insenaibiliU; and HisCo- 
ria Hepatica. 

BIANCUI* JoHR an ItaKaa namralist, 
better known nnder the Latin naoM of 
Jakos Ft-AUCVB, was bom at Rimini, in 
169S, and died there in 1775. He was 
emiaent as a nataralist, physician, and an- 
atomist ; collected in his travels a fine cabi- 
net of natural history; and was the reviver 
of the Academy of the Leincei. 

BIANCHIfil, FuAiicis^ an eminent 
Italian mathematician and antiquary, was 
bom at Verona, in 1662, and died in 1729. 
He was patronised by three popes, enno- 
bled by the Roman eenate, corresponded 
with the most celebrated men of bis time, 
and dkpla;^ed the most peraevering activity 
and talent in mathematical and antic|narian 
pursuits. His works are numerous, and 
distiiwnished' by erudition; among them 
are llerooirs on the Comets of lw4 and 
1702; the first part of a Universal His- 
tory; and Miscellaneoiss t'ieces. — ^His 
nephew Joseph was also a man of leam- 
tiw and an author. 

BIAS, one of the seven sages of Greece, 
who flouriafaed about B. c. M5, was a na- 
tire of Priene, one of the principal cities 
cf Ionia. He was equally remarkable for 
his virtues and his knowledge. When 
the canse of his friends was jmt, he would 

tsd for them before the tribunals; but 
woold never lend his talents to injus- 
tice; whence the phrase, *< a cause of the 
Prienian orator," was used to signify a 
good cause. He died at an advamxd age. 

BIBBIENA, Cardinal Bernard, 
whose name was Dotizze, was bom at 
Bibbiena, in 1479, rose to the dicnity of 
cardinal in 1518, and died suddenly in 
1520, supposed to have been poisoned. 
Bibbiena ranks among the restorers of the 
Italian theatre; his comedy, iutitled La 
Calandria, being the first that was written 
according to the rules of the ancients. 

BICHAT, Marie Francis Xavier, 
a Frenchph^-siGian and physiologist, was 
bora at Tnoisette, in Bresse, in 1771, and 
was a pupil of Petit aifd of Dussault. He 
sncceeoed Dusaault as medical professor 
at tbe Hotel Dieu, and retained tiie sitiia- 
tioo tin his decease, in 1802. His talents 
were of a high order, and his countrymen 
look upon him as the man who raised 
pathok^ical anatomy to the dignhv of a 
science. He is tlie author of a Treatise 
•n the Membranes; Phy^ioloffical Re- 
searches on Life and Death; ana Anatomy 
io general, as applied to Physiology and 
Medicine. This last work, which is in 
§oar Tolnines, is regarded as his master- 


BIDDLE, Nioaoi.A8, «a 

naval ofllcer, was bora in Phibdelphia, Hi 
1750. He entered the British fleet in 
1770, having previously served several 
s a seaman on board uiorchant 
ships. On the commencement of hostili- 
ties between the colonies and the mother 
country, he returned to Philadelphia, and 
received from Congress the captaincy of 
the Andrew Doria, a brig of^ 14 ffuns, 
'fd in the expedition against New< 

Providence. Towards tbe close of 1776, 
he received command of the Randolph, a 
new frigate of 82 guns, with which he 
soon captured a Jamaica fleet of four sail 
richly laden. This prise he carried^ into 
Charleston, and was soon after finmished 
by the government of that town with four 
additional vessels, to attack several Brit- 
ish cruisers, at that time harassing die 
commerce of the vicinity. He fell in with 
tbe royal line of battle ship Yarmduth, of 
64 guns, on the 7th of March, 1778, and 
af\er an action of twenty minutes, perish- 
ed with all his crew except four, by the 
blowing up of the thip. 

BIDdLE, John, an eminent Socinian 
writer and preacher, was bora at Wootton 
under Edge, in 1615, was educated at Ox- 
ford, and, in 1641, became master of 
Gloucester Free School. From this office, 
however, lie was expelled, in consequence 
of his having oppugned the doctrine of the 
Trinity. For the same canse he was 
twice imprisoned, was in peril of his life, 
and was banished to Sicily. Cromwell 
liberated him in 1658, and he became pas- 
tor of an independent congreffation. In 
1662, he was again apprehended, fined a 
hundred pounds, and committed to prison, 
where he died of the gaol fever, in Sep- 
tember. Biddle was a virtuous and be- 
nevolent man. He is regarded as the &- 
ther of the modem unitarians. 
" BIDLAKE, John, bom at Plymouth, 
in 1755, was a divine, who attained some 
reputation as a poet. He took his degree 
at Christ Ctmreh, Oxford, and was ap- 
pointed roaster of Plymouth school. In 
1811, while delivering a Bampton lecture, 
he was seized with an epileptic fit, which 
brought on total blindness. He died in 
1814. He published tliree volumes of 
^rmons and lectures; Eugenio, a tale; 
Virginia, a tragedy; the poems of the 
Sea, tbe Country Parson, the Summer's 
Eve, and Youth; and a volume of minor 

BIDLOO, Godfrey, an eminent ana- 
tomist, born in 1649, at Amsterdam, was 
successively anatomical professor at the 
Hague and at Leyden. He quitted his 
situation at the latter place to he physician 
to King William, but resumed it on U»e 
raonarcli's death. He is the autl^r of va- 
rious works all meritoriow but his aroe 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

•• BIL 

reits cUafly m the Aatfomj oftJbft H«bmui 
Body, in Latin, whkh m Unutrated by one 
hundred and foorteen p. ilea. He died in 

BIELFELD, James Frederic, Bar- 
on de, was born at Hambnrgh, in 1716, 
and was tutor to the king of Prussians 
brother^ and afterwards curator of the 
universities, and a privj counsellor. He 
died in 1770. Two of his best works, 
Political Institutions, and Elements of 
Universal Erudition, have been translated 
into English. 

BIEvRE, Marechal, Marquis de, a 
son of the king's head sur^n, was bom 
at Paris, in 1747, and aoouired a reputa- 
tion by bis repartees, ana, especially, by 
his pertinailous spirit of punning; no 
word or expression escaped nim on which 
he could make a pun. He was, however, 
capable of better things; for, among other 
^orks, he produced two comedies, the 
Seducer, and the Reputations, the first of 
which has xonsideraole merit. He died 
in 1739. Even on the brink of the grave 
he persisted to pun. His decease took 
place at Spa, and just before it he said to 
a friend, '* Je pars de Spa (de ce pas).'* 
His jests have been collected into a vol- 
ume, called Bievriana. 

BILFINGER, George Bernard, a 
man of almost universal learning, was bom' 
at Canstadt, in Wurtemberg, in 1693. In 
1725, being then professor of lofic and 
metaphysics at Petersburgh, his Disserta- 
tion, on the cause of the weight of bodies, 
S lined the prise offered by the Prussian 
cademy of Sciences. His reputation 
caused him to be recalled to Wurtemberg, 
where the duke appointed him a priv^ 
counsellor, and placed unbounded confi- 
dence in him. Bilfinger did much for the 
advancement of education, agriculture, 
and commerce, in his native country. He 
died in 1750. Among his works may be 
mentioned Dilucidationes Philosophicse ; 
and De Harmonia Anima et Ckuporis Hu- 

BILLINGTON, Elizabeth, the most 
eelelnrated English singer of her day, was 
born in England in 1770, being the aaugh- 
ter of Mr. Weicbsell, a German. At the 
age of fourteen she made her first appear- 
. ance as a singer, at Oxford, and two years 
afterwards married Mr. Billington, whom 
■he accompanied to Dublin. Here she 
made her aebtU in the opera of Orpheus 
and Kuridioe. On returning to London, 
die speared at Covent Garden with 
great success, and rapidly acquired a high 
reputation. She atterwards visited tne 
continent to avail herself of the instruc< 
tions of the masters of the art in Paris and 
Italy. In 1796 she appeared at Venice 
and at Rome, receiving every where tlie 
loadett expressions of applause. In 1801 



■Im retoned to the Loadoii fliife»,aBd a^ 

tonished the whole world by her Mandane, 
a performance tluK has never since beev 
equalled in Enslish opera. In 1817 eke 
ittitted England for ever, and died aftr r a 
short illness at an estate she had pur- 
chased in the Venetian territories. 

BILSON, Thomas, a prelate, born at 
Winchester, in 1636, where, and at Ox- 
ford, he was educated. The Per^ietvoi 
Government of Christ's Church, which ne 
published in 1598, led to his obtaining the 
see of Worcester, whence he was transla- 
ted to that of Winchester. In the Hamp- 
ton Court conference he bore a prominent 
murt; and, in conjunction with Bishop 
Smith, had the revision of the new trans* 
lation of the Bible. He died in 1616. He 
produced various controversial works and 

BINGHAM, Joseph, an eminent di' 
vine, was bom at Wakefield, in Yorkshire, 
in 1668, and educate at Oxford, where 
he obtained a feUowship, which he resign- 
ed, in consequence of being cenmired for 
heterodox opinions concerning the Trinity. 
He then retired to his living of Head- 
bourne Worthy, in Hampshire. In 1712, 
he obtained tne rectory of Havant; in 
1720, he vras nearly ruined by the South 
Sea bubble; and he died in 1723. His 
Origines Ecclesiasticse is a valuable work. 

BlON, a Greek pastoral poet, a native 
of Smyrna, was a contemporary of Theo- 
critus, and the friend of Bioscbus; and is 
said to have died by poison, about b. c. 
300. Some, however, maintai , that he 
lived a century later than Theocritus. His 
Idyllia are remarkable for elegance and 
pastoral sweetness. 

BION, a Greek philosopher, of Borys- 
thenes, in Scylhia, died about b. c. 240. 
He was first a cyihic, then a disciple of 
Theodoras, the atheist, and lastly of Theo- 
phrastus. Bion vras skilled in music and 
poetry, and had a talent for repartee. 

BIRAGUE, Clkmbht, an engraver ot 
precious stones, was a native of Milan, 
and flourished in Spain, about the middle 
of the sixteenth century. He was the in- 
ventor of engraving on the diamond, and 
his first work of that kind was a portrait 
of the unfortunate Don Carlos. 

BIRCH, Thomas, a miscellaneous uti- 
ter, of more research than elcg;iuc«, whs 
born in ClerkenweU, in 1705, and was orig. 
inally a quaker. He took orders, obta iiie I 
various church preferments, and was niude 
D. D. and one of the secretaries of the 
Royal Society. He was kiUed by a fall from 
his horse, in 1766. Among his numerous 
works are a History of the Royal Society ; 
Lives to Houbraken and Vertiie*s heacls; 
Memoirs of Queen Elisabeth; Lives ol 
Boyle, Tillotson, Greaves, Ward, Raleigk« 
and Henry Prince of^ales. 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

BIRD, WnuAH, aa 

who floorahed ui Q«eeo EKsabeth'sreiffn, 
4ied in IttBS, at the uge oi eighty. He 
eonuMieed « great onndMr of pieces of ta- 
cred mosic; and '* Non nobis, Domine," 
is generaUV attribated to him. 

BIRD, EDWARD, R. A. a painter of 
coMideraMe merit, especially in comic sub- 
jects. He was patronised by the marc|uis 
of Staibrd, and was appointed historical 
painter to the Princess Charlotte of Wales. 
He died at Bristol, in 1819. 

BIREN, JoHK Enif KST dk, Duke of 
Cooriand aad Semttallia, was bom in 
16S7, and is said to have been the son of a 
Coorlaml peasant. He, however, was well 
educated, and had a handsome person; 
and by these weans he obtained an nn- 
honaded ininenoe over Anne, dochess of 
Coorfauid, die daughter of Peter I. When 
she asc ended the throne of Russia, she 
coonnitted the reins of gorernment to Biren, 
who ruled tyrannically, but with taleq^ In 
1387 she made him duke of Courland, and 
on her death, in 1740, left him the regency 
of Russia. A revolution banished him to 
Siberia; but he was afterwards allowed to 
reside at Yaraalof. He was recalled by 
Peter III., and his dnchy was restored to 
him by Catherine. After having reigned 
six years with ^reat mildness, be reigned 
die throne to his son, and died in 1772, at 

BIRKENHEAD, Sik JoHir, an active 
political writer, was bom in 1615, and was 
die son of a saddler at Northwich, in 
Cheshire. He was educated at Oxford, 
and became amanuensis to Land, who wo- 
cnred him a feUowdiip at All Souls. Du- 
rinc the civil wars he conducted the Mer- 
onrins Anlicns, and wrote many pieces on 
the king's side, for which he was often 
imprisoned. At the restoration, he 
rewarded by knighthood, and by various 
offices, and was chosen a member of par- 
Bament. He died in 1679. 

BIRON, Arhand de Oontavt, Ba- 
ron' de, a celebrated French marshal, was 
bora about 1624, in Perigord, began his 
militarv career in Piedmont, and continued 
it in France, during the civil vrars. He 
Iboght at Dreux, St. Denis, and Montcon- 
tour. In 1660, he concluded the peace 
be t wee n the p ro t est a nts and catholics. Bi- 
ron was one of the first who recosnised the 
titk of Henry IV., and was highly valued 
bv him. He was killed at tlw siege of 
^pemay, in 1692. 

BIRON, Charlvi dk Gontaut, 
Doke of, son of Ammnd, was bom in 1661. 
He acquired great glory at the battles of 
Arqnee and Ivry, the combat of Aumale, 
and the sieges of Paris and Rouen. Hen- 
ry IV. lowKd him with honours, consider- 
ed turn as one of his bosom friends, and 
•ppemted him has ambassador to England, 

Aa NetheHmMb, and Switaariaad Ha 
even exposed himself to save his life, at 
the skirmish efFoataine-Fmncaise. Biron, 
nevertheless, conspired with Spain and 
Savoy against his sovereign, and was con- 
seauendhr beheaded in 16(a. 

BISHOP, Samuel, a divine, bora at 
London, in 1781, was educated at Merchant 
Tailors' and at Oxford, and became mas- 
ter of Merchant Tailors* school, and rector 
of St. Martin Outwich, and Ditton, in 
Kent. He died in 1799. His poems, 
many of which have considerable merit, 
form two qpvto volnmes. 

BISSET, BoBBRT, a native of Soot- 
land, was bred at Edinburgfa, for the church, 
but took the degree of D. C. L*., and be- 
came a schoolmaster, at Chelsea, in which 
profession, however, he foiled. He then 
devoted himself to literature. He died in 
1806, at the age of 46 years. Among 
other things, he is the author of a History 
of the Reign of Georgn III. ; a Life of 
Burke; a Sketch of Des ocracy ; Dou^bs, 
a novel; and Lives appended to an edition 
of the Spectator. 

BITAUBE, Paul Jeremiah, a na- 
tive of Konigsberg, in Prussia, the son of 
French refugee parents, was born in 1782, 
educated as a protestant dirine^ and became 
a member of the Royal Academy of Berlin. 
He settled at Paris, was incarcerated dur- 
ing the re\uiution, and was subseonently 
amnitted into the Institute, and made one 
of the first members of the legion of hon- 
our. He died in 1808. His works have 
been collected in nine vuhimes octavo. The 
principal of them are, Joseph, a poem; 
the Batavians, a poem; and a translatioa 
of Homer. 

BIVAR, Don Rodrioo Diaz de, a 
Spanish hero, known 'n history and ro- 
mance under the name of the *Cid, was 
born at Burgos, about 1040. In numerous 
encounters with the Moors he displayed 
astonishing valour; and though he was 
twice unjustly banished, be still fought in 
behalf of his country. He died, in 1099, 
at Valencia, which city he had oonouered 
at the h^ of a few knights who followed 
his fortunes. 

BLACK, Joseph, an emUient modem 
chemist, was bom at Bordeaux, in 1728, 
of British parents, was educated at Bel- 
fast, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, and studied 
chemistry under Dr. Cullen. He took his 
doctor's deffree in 1764, and in 1766 ob- 
tained the chemical professorship at Edin- 
His death took place December 6, 
17^. His various discoveries, oarticularly 
with respect to fixed air and latent heat, 
have immortalised his name in the records 

f pliilosophy. His Lectures on Chemistry 

reVe published in 1808, by Profos«>r Rob- 


inson. ^ 


Digitized by 

Frarcis, a theoU- 



^mtpwm bom at 'RkAmaod^ in Yoriuhire, 
tt itMS, and was edncated at Cambridge. 
In 1760, lie was made archdeacon of 
Cleveland. He was a friend to relirioiu 
liberty, and hostile to oonfienione of uith. 
On this subject he was deeply involved in 
oontrorersy. The most oeiebrated of his 
performances on it is the Confessional, 
which appeared in 1776. His works have 
been collected in -six volnmes octavo. He 
died in 1787. 
BLACKIX)CK, Thomas, a divine and 
It, was bom at Annan, in Dumfries, in 
721, and lost his si^ht by the small pox, 
when he was only six months old. To 
aa^nse and instruct him, his father and 
friend used to read to him, and by this 
means be acquired a fond of information, 
and even some knowledge of Latin. At 
the age of twelve he began to versify, and 
his devotion to the Muses was continued 
through life. Considering his circumstan- 
oes, his poems have great merit. He studi- 
ed at the university of Edinburgh for ten 
years, and his progress in the sciences was 
very considerable. He was ordained min- 
ister of Kircudbright, but, being opposed 
by the parishioners, be retired on an annu- 
ity, ana received students at Edinburgh as 
boarders, and assisted them in their studies. 
Besides bis poems, he is the author of some 
theological works, and an article on the 
educaUon of the blind: the latter was 

Einted in the Eocvclopiedia Britannica. 
e died in July, 1791, regretted by all hu 

BLACKMORE, Sir Richard, a poet 
and physician, was. bcMm in Wiltshire, ed- 
ucated at Oxford, took his de^piee at Padua, 
and was kniirhted by William III. who 
also appointed him his physician. He was 
afterwards* physician to Queen Anne. In 
1696, he published his first poem. Prince 
Arthur, which was rapidly succeeded by 
other works; nor was he deterred from 
pursuing his career by the ridicule which 
was Jieaped upon him by Dryden, Pope, 
and nearW all the wits of the age, whose 
dislike of him was sharpened by his whig 
principJbs. He is the author of nearly 
thirty works, in verse and prose; of the 
latter many are on medical subjects. His 
best poem is intitled Creation. Blackmore 
was an indifferent poet, but he was un- 
doubtedly possessed of considerable talent, 
and was a pious and worthy man. He 
died in 1729. 

BLACKSTONE, Sir Willi AM, an em- 
inent lawyer, was tlie third son of a silk 
mercer, and was born in London, in 1723. 
After having been for several years at tlie 
Charter House, he completed his education 
at Pembroke College, Oxford, and at botli 
seasinaries displayed superior talent. W hen 
he was only twenty, he composed, for his 
•VM Mtt A Treatise od the Elements of 

cfaoMB tha 

ArdiitieetBrt. Having cboMB tha pr^ 
fesaioB of the .law, and entered ^ Middla 

Temple, in 1741, be wrote his elegant val- 
edictory poem, the Lawyer's Farewell to 
his Muse. In 1743, he was elected a fellow 
of All Souls, and in 1746, he. was called to 
the bar, and went the circuit, but obtained 
little practice. He remained in compara- 
tive obscurity till 1753, when he began to 
deliver, at Oxford, his lectures f^n the En- 

frlishlaws; which, in 1765 and the four fol- 
owing years, he published, with the title of 
Commentaries on the Laws of England. 
In consequence of these lectures, Ik was 
elected Vinerian professor of law in the 
university, and obtained a great accession 
of business. In 1761, he sat in parliament 
as member for Hindon, and was made 
king's counsel, and solicitor-general to the 
queen. ^ In 1770, he was oflered the place 
of solicitor-general, but declined it, and 
was made a judge of tlie king's bench, 
whence be was soon after trai^ferred to 
the common pleas. He died in 1780. 
His Law Tracts were published in 1762, 
and his Reports, two xolumes folio, after his 
death. Blackstone was the first who wrote 
on the dry and repulsive subject of En- 

Slish law in such a manner as not to excite 
isgust in a reader of taste Like almost 
all lawyers, he leans to the side of prero- 
ffative ; nor is there much more of en- 
largement in his principles of religions 
liberty. For this reason he was expoi ed 
to attack from Priestley, Bentham, :;nd 

BLACKWELL, Elizabeth, a wo- 
man of considerable talent, who, to provide 
subsistence for her husband, who was in 
prison for debt, published, in two volumes 
folio, 1737 and 1739, a Herbal, containina 
five hundred plates, drawn, engraved, and 
coloured by herself. Her husband, Alex- 
ander, WAS bom^ at Aberdeen, brought 
up as a pliysician, and went to Sweden, 
alM>ut 1740, where he was bdieaded on a 
charge of being concerned in Count Taa- 
sin's plot. 

BLACKW^ELL, Thomas, brother of 
Alexander, was bom at Aberdeen, in 1701, 
and at the age of twenty-one becanp Or«ek 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


r at Marifldial College, of wyeh, 

1 1748, be WHS appointed prineipal. He 
died in 17S7. He is the eothor of an 
laqiniry into the Life and Writinn of 
Homer; Letters concerning Mythology; 
and Memoirs of the Court oi Augostus. 
The bad taste which marked the style of 
the latter work, drew down upon its ao- 
thor the canstic criticbm of Johnson. 

BLAEU, William, a printer and geo- 
mpher of Amsterdam^ Uie scholar and 
frieflid of Tycho Brahe, was bom at Am- 
sterdam^ in 1671, and died in 1638. His 
great work is his Theatmm Mundi, three 
Tohmes folio, which was repnbliabed in 
Ibarleen TohnoDes, by his sons John and 
CoRHKLius; the former of wh<Nn pro- 
doced Tahiable eeo^phicalwori&s on Bei- 
giom, Italy, and Piedmont. 

BLAIR!, Robkkt, a divine and poet, 
was bom at Edinboi^h, in 1609, and edu- 
cated at that university. He was minister 
of Athebtanelbrd, in Cas* *^thian, where 
he died in 1747. His poem of the Grave is 
popular, and deservedfy so, and has obtain- 
ed him a place among our standard poets. 

BLAIR, John, a chronologist, was a 
native cf Edinburgh, and a near relation 
of Dr. Hugh Blair, who materially assisted 
him in the composition of bis principal 
work, the Chronology and History of the 
World, which was published in 1754, and 
to which he afterwards added maps of 
ancient and modem geography. This 
work procured him consideiuble church 
nt. He died in 1782. 

BLAIR, Dr. Hugh, was bora at Edin- 
burgh, in 1718, and was the son of a mer- 
chant. He was educated at the university 
of bis native citv, and was licensed to 
preach in 1741, when he became minister 
of Colessie, in Fife. In 1743 be was ap- 
pointed minister of the Canongate, Edin- 
Dorgh ; in 1754 he was removed to Lady 
Tester's ; and in 1759 to the High Cliurch, 
where he continued during the remainder 
of his life. A professor&ip of rhetoric 
and belles lettres bavins been founded by 
kia majesty, in 1762, Dr.-Bhiir was ap- 
.ofaited professor; and here orisinated hit 
. — . 1 ^ Composition, which he pub- 

BLA •• 

lished hi 1789. The first vohnM of hit 
Sermons was published in 1777, and ac- 
quired such a rapid popularly, that he 
not cmly obtained a large sum of money fer 
the succeeding volumes, but was rewarded 
with a pension of two hundred pounds per 
annum. Dr. Blair died at Edinhurgh, in 
1800. In his Sermons his style u elegant, 
and he enforces the moral duties with 
great felicity of langimge and arfniment. 
His lectures stiU remain a standard work. 

BLAKE, Robert, one of the mo»t 
celebrated of British admirals, was bora 
at Bridgewater, in 1599, and educated at 
Wadham College, Oxford. Bv the interest 
of the puritans, Jie was elected member for 
Bridgewater, in 1640. In the struggle 
between Charles I. and his people, he 
espoused the cause of liberty, and distin- 
guished himself by his eallant defence of 
Taunton, and other exploiti. In 1649 be 
was put in command of the fleet. His first 
achievement was the destruction of Prince 
Rupert's squadron, at Malaga. In 1652 
and 1653 he fought four desperate engage- 
ments with the Dutch fleet, under Van 
Tromp, in two of which the enemy were 
defeated with great loss. The next theatre 
of Blake's glory was the Mediterranean, 
to which he sailed in 1654, and where he 
destroyed the Tunisian castles of Goletta 
and Porto Ferino, and intercepted the 
Spanish plate fleet. Having received in- 
telliffence that another plate fleet was lying 
at Santa Craz, in Teoerifie, he aailed 
thither, forced his way into the harbour, 
burned the ships, and came out without 
having suflered any loss. His health was 
now entirely broken, and he bent his conn« 
homeward, but expired Auj^ vit 27, 1657, 
while the fleet was entering Plymouth 
Sound. His body was interr^l by a pub- 
lic funeral, in Henry the Seventh *s Chapel ; 
but on the restoration of Charles II. it 
was torn from its resting place, and buried 
in a pit in St. Margaret's churchyard ; a 
base act, well worthy of a monarch who 
became a traitor to his country and a pen- 
sioner of France. Blake was not merely 
a man of courase and talent ; he vtruB pious, 
just, and sinffularly disinterested. 

BLAKE, Joachim, a Spanish general, 
was born at Velex Mala^, and served, 
first as captain, and next as major, in the 
war, from 1793 to 1795, between France 
and Spain. When Napoleon seized the 
crown of Spain, Blake espoused the cause 
of his country ; but with more valour and 
zeal than success. Though defeated at 
Rio Seco and Espinoea, be still sustained 
his military character. In 1810 he was 
appointed one of the regency, from whico 
rank he was tranpfenred to that of caotain 
general. Having been defeatea at Mur- 
viedro, he shut himself up with his armv 
in Valencia, but was at length oompalM 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

la laM, oa dM 

■MDt of dw coMtitutwMh he WM admittad 
into Ui« coiBicU of state; and Jii* attach- 
BMiU to that oonstiuitiofi mibeeuuentlv ex- 
poead him to danger. *He «liad at VaUa- 
dolid, io 1827. 

BLAKELY, Johrstom, a captain in 
the United States' navy during the kte 
war, was born ia Irekad in 1781 
jeart after,, hu ftthar eaifrated 

United States aad settled in North Caro. 
line. Young BkkeW was placed, ia 1796, 
at the vaiTersity of North Gdrolina, but 
circuoMtaaees having deprived him of the 
■le an s of adequate soppert, he left college, 
«ad in 1800 obcaroed a ■udshipnan's war- 
rant; In 1818 he was appointed to the 
eommand of the Wasp, aad in this vessel 
ook his Britaanic Majesty^s ship Reindeer, 
after an aetion of nineteen minutes. The 


BL£TTERIE, John FniLir Rxirt 
DX LA, was bom at Rennes, in 1096, an4 
di&l in 1772. He was professor of elo- 
quence at the Royal CoUege, and^ loera- 
ber of the Academy of Bella Lettres. He 
wn>te Lives of Julian and Jovian; and 
transited part of Tacitus. Gibbon highly 
praises the Lives, and his countrymen 
Tno consider them as models of impartiality, 
to the precision, elwance, and iudement. 

reported that they had sunk the Wasp knr 
the first broadside, but she was afterwards 
Moken by a vessel off the Western Isles. 
After this we bear of her no more. Cap- 
tain Blakely was considered a maa of un- 
eoouuc-n courace and intellect. 

BLANCHARD, Jambs, an eminent 
paiater, who bears the hoaourable denomi- 
■atioB of tKe French Titian, was bom in 
1600, aad died in 1688. He was an inde- 
fati«;able artist, and left numy pictures. 
His finest work is the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, which is considered as one of the 
best productioos of the French school. 

BLANCHET, Francis, the son of pa- 
rents in humble life, was bora in 1707, at 
Aagerville, and educated at the college of 
Louis Xiy. ^ He was first a professor in 
two provincial colle^, next employed 
himself in private tuition, and, lastly, ob- 
tained an office in the king's library and 
cabiaet. He died in 1784, after a paiaftil 
illness of many years. Blanchet was one 
of the most amiable of men, and the most 
allectionalely paternal of tutors. As an 
author he has great merit. His Apologues 
and Tales are told with spirit and grace. 

BLAYNEY, BEii/Aifi!f, a divine and 
biblical ciitic, was educated at Oxford, 
where he became M. A. in 1758, and D. D. 
In 1787. He was professor of Hebrew at 
dmt universitr, canon of Christ Church, 
and rector of Polshot, Wihs. He died in 
1801. He translated Jeremiah, the La- 
neotations, and Sl^echariah; edited the 
Oxford Bible in 1769; and wrote a Dis- 
MTtatioB oa Daaiel'b Beveoty Weeks. 

M ICHAIL Hyacinth, was born at Paris, 
in 1788. At the very outset of his career 
he lost all his fortune, but his literary 
talents procured him friends, and he suc- 
cessive^ filled several honourable oflic^ 
connected with literature, the last of which 
was that of conservator of the library of 
the arsenal. He died in 1807. He is the 
Lauthur of Orpheus, a tragedy, and of many 
Wasp afterwards put iato L*Onent ; fl'om ( herujc epistles and fugitive poems of no 
whioi port she sailed Atwoit 27. On the common merit. 

eveniqg of the first of &Bptember, 1814, BIX)CH, Mark Elkazar, a Jewish 
she feu in with four sail, at considerable physician and ichthyologist, was bora, in 
■ firom each other. One of these 17x8, st Anspach, in Franconia, of parenta 
was the brig-of-war Avon, which struck so poor that they could give him no edu- 
after a severe actioa; but captain R. was cation; and, accordingly, at the m of 
prevented fitMB taking possession by the nineteen, he was ignorant even of Ger- 
approach of another veesel. The enemy man. By dint of application, however, 

he acquired Latin, and a knowledge of 
anatomy and sur^y, and obtained a doc- 
tor's degree. His great work is a Natural 
History of Fishes, in twelve quarto vol- 
umes, with four hundred and thirty-two 
plates. He died in 1799. 

BLOCK, Joanna Koertkn, an artist 
of a singular kind, was bora at Amster- 
dam, in 1650, and died in 1715. She ex- 
celled in cutting landscapes, sea pieces, 
flowers, and eVen portraits, out of paper, 
with the roost periect resemblance to na- 
ture. Her productions sold at enormoua 
prices, and she was patronised by several 

BLONDEL, DAViD,a protestant writer 
and minister, was born, in 1591, at Cbalone 
sur Marne. In 1650 he was invited to 
Amsterdam, to succeed Vasorius, as pro- 
fessor of history, and he died there in 1655, 
after having lost his sight in consequence 
of the humidity of the climate. Blondel 
was a man of learning, had a minute ac- 
quaintance with history, and was a fluent 
speaker. Amon^ his works, one of the 
most curious is his refiitation of the silly 
stor^ of Pope Joan. He has the merit of 
having written in fiivour of liberty of con- 

BLONDEL, Francis, an eminent 
French architect and diplomatist, waa 
bora, in 1617, at Ribemont, in Picardy. 
After having been sent as envoy to Con* ' 
stantinople, he was appointed counselor of 
state, one of the daupnin's precci tors, pro* 
lessor of the roral college, and meniber of 
the Academy or Sciences. The noble tri- 


I mick of St. DeBis wi 
Mm. He wrote TaruKU worlu, oniimt^ry, 
architectural and military Bobjecti. Hjs 
deAtfa took place in 1686. 

BLONDEL, James Francis, was 
born at Rooen, in 170^, and, like his un- 
cle, was an architect of great talent. The 
merit of a course of architectural lectures, 
wtiich he delivered at Paris, obtained him 
the appointment of professor at the acade- 
mj. In his final illness, be had himself 
removed to bis school at the Louvre, that 
he might yield up bis last breath where be 
had taugbt his art. He died in 1T75. J. 
F. BloiMlel is the author of French Archi- 
tecture, four volumes folio; a Course of 
Civil Architecture, nine voluoaes octavo; 
and other works of a similar kind. 

BLOOD, Thomas, a sin^lar despera- 
do, was originally an officer m Cromweirs 
army. His first remarkable enterprise 
was an attempt to surprise the castle of 
Dublin, which was frustrated by the duke 
of Ormond. He subsequently seised the 
duke in the streeto of London, with the 
intention of hanging him at Tyburn, and 
was very near accomplishing bis purpose. 
His last exploit was an attempt to carry 
away the crown and regalia from the 
Tower. For some inexplicable reason, 
Charles II. not only pardoned him, but 
gave him an «tate of nve hundred pounds 
per ainuun. He died in 1680. 

BLOOMFIELD, Robert, a poet, bom 
at Homiis[ton, in Su^lk, in 1766, was 
the son of a tailor, and was early left fi&th- 
erless. He was taught to read by his 
■other, who kept a viUaee school, and this 
was, in feet, his only eoocation. At the 
age of eleven he was employed in such 
hosbaBdry labour as he could perform; 
but, his constitution being delicate, he was 
subsequently apprenticed to the trade of 
shoemaking, at which he worked as a 
j om ne ym an for many years. His leisure 
hoars were spent in reading and in the 
eoo^MMition of verses. His poem of the 
Farnner's Boy was at length brought be- 
fore the public, 1^ the benevolent exertions 
of Capel Loft, and it procured the author 
both fome ^uid profit. He subsequently 

Cblished other poems, among which may 
mentioned Wild Ffowers, and the Banks 
of the Wye. HI health and misfortune 
clodded the latter years of this modest and 
meritorious writer, and be died in 182S, 
whe.1 be was almost on the verge of insanity. 
BLOUNT, Sir Henry, Was bom at 
Tittenhangher, in Hertfordshire, in 1602; 
travelled in the East in 1684, 1686, and 
1€S6 ; fought under the banner of Charles 
at EdgehilT; was, nevertheless, empbyed 
bf CroaweH; and died in 1682. He is 
IM anthor of a Voyage to the Levant; 
Ae £xcfaaDge Wa]k» a aatfre; and other 


BLOUIOM^ Thomas Pope, eM^ 
son of Sir nn^, was bora in 1649 and 
died in 1687. He produced Cenifura Cele- 
brioram Auctorum ; DeRePoeiica; Es- 
says on several subjects ; and Natural His- 

BLOUNT, Charles, the youngest son 
of Sir Henry, was bora in 1654, huJ made 
himself conspicuous by his deistical opin* 
ions, and b^ considerable talent. His An- 
ima Mundi was suppressed, and publicly 
burnt. This work be followed up oy three 
of the same kind. The Life of ApoUonias 
Tyaneus; Great is Diana of the Ephes- 
ians ; and Religio Laici. Of the Revofa> 
tions of 1688 1^ was a warm friend ; but 
he acted little in consonance with its prin- 
ciples, when be published his King Will- 

iam and Queen Mary Conquerors, to i 
their right to the crown by conouest. The 
commons ordered this tract to oe burnt by 
the hangman. He shot himself, in 1698, 
in consequence of the sister of bis deceased 
wife having refused to marry him. 

BLOUNT, Thomas, was bora at Bar- 
desley, in Worcestershire, in 1618, and 
died m 1679. He published Glossograph- 
ia; a Law Dictioaar3^; and various otJier 
works ; the most curious and valuable of 
which is, Fragmenta Antiquitatis, or An- 
cient Tenures of Land, and Jocular Cus- 
toms of Manors. 

BLOW, John, a miMician, was bon, 
in 1648, at North CaUingham, in Notting- 
hamshire, received a doctor's degree finioi 
Archbishop dhncroft; and, on the death 
of Purcell, became organist of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. He died in 1706. His seen- 
Ur compositions, were collected, in 1709, 
under the title of Amphion Anglicas. His 
church music receives qualifiea praise firon 
Dr. Bnmey. 

Von, a celebrated general, was bora at 
Rostock, in 1742, entered the Swedish 
service at the age of fourteen, and wae 
made prisoner by the Prussians. He join- 
ed the banners of Frederic the Grea^ 
served during the seven X^^"-™^!!^ 
rose to the rank of <»P<?»n »_."*» _5SJ? 
real or imafiDed illgPrt* 

Digitized by 


•• BLU 

Iw daauided bit diimission in rach a 
hanchty maimer, that Frederic granted it 
in the following pithy terms — ^< Captain 
Blocher has permiaaion to quit the senrice, 
and to go to the devil, if he pleaaes.*' For 
many years Blucher lived in retirement, 
enraged in ^ricultural pnrsuits; but, in 
1786, be was recalled to the army, with the 
rank of major. In the campaigns of 1792, 
1798, and 1794, he bore an active part, 
and rose to be major-general. It was not 
till 1806 that he heul an opportunity of again 
displaying his military talents. In that 
year be commanded the advanced niard at 
Anerstadt, and also distinniished liimself 
by his obstinate defence of Lubeck, where 
he was taken prisoner. He was, however, 
speedily exchanged for the duke of Belluno. 
In 181S, he was once more called into the 
field, and displayed astonishing ardour and 
activity. He signalised himself at Lutzen, 
utterly defeated Macdonald on the KaU- 
bach, and contributed greatly to the victory 
of Leipsic. His unintermitting exertions 
ffained him the rank of field marshal, and, 
from the allied troops, the appellation of 
" Marshal Forward." In tne campaign 
of 1814, he was alternately victorious and 
defeated; he sustained heavy losses at 
CSuunp Aubert, Montmirail, and Vaux- 
ehamps, but triumphed at Dienville and 
Laon, and in the attack upon Paris. At 
the conclusion of the contest he visited 
England, and was received with enthusi- 
asm. When the war again^ broke out, he 
was once more entmsted with the com- 
mand of the Prussian troops. On the six- 
teenth of June, 1815, be was defeated at 
Ligny, by Napoleon, and narrowly escaped 
with bis life, be being thrown from his 
borse, and charged over dv both tlie French 
and Prussian cavalry. He, nevertheless, 
brought up his army m time to render the 
battle of Waterloo decisive. His subse- 
quent conduct at Paris was not that of a 
generous onemy. For his service he re- 
ceived the title of Prince of Wahlstadt. 
He died at Kribwitx, September 12, 1819. 
Blucher #as intrepid, indefatigable, prompt 
in his movements, and undismayed by re- 
verses; but be did not belong to the higher 
class of military leaders ; he is believed to 
have been but an indiflferent strategist, and 
to have been indebted to general Gniesenau 
for his most successful plans of operation. 

BLUM, Joachim CHRisTiAif, a Ger- 
man poet and literary character, was bom 
at Rathenau, in Brandeburg, in 17S9. His 
works consist of lyric poems, idvlls, epi- 
|[rams, a drama. My Walks, and a Dic- 
tionary of German Proverbs. Blum, who 
was much esteemed, died in 1790. 

BLUMAUER, Alots, an Austrian, was 
bom at Steyer, in 1755, and in his youth 
belonged to tlie society of Jesuits. He 
fetfund nptttatiom aa a tatirusal and bur- 


lesqne poet. Of bis prodoetlons, whieh 
extend to eight volumes, the Printinff 
House ; the Eulogium of the Ass ; an a£ 
dress to the Devil; and the Eneid Tra- 
vestied, are tlie most popular. He died in 

DUG A, a British heroine, the widow of 
Prasutagus, and queen of the Iceni. Har- 
inff been basely treated by the Romans, she 
raised the Britons in arms against them, 
and obtained several advantages ; but was 
at length utterly defeated by Suetonius 
Paulinus, a. d. 61, and died of grief, or 
by poison. 

Russian poet, who died, in 1810, at Saint 
Petersburgh, enjoyed considerable repnta 
tion. His best poem is said to be the 
Chersonide, or a Summer's Day in the 
Crimea. His lyrical works have oeen col- 
lected in four volumes. 

BOCCACCIO, John, one of the classic 
writers of modem Italy, was the son of a 
Florentine merdiant, and was bom at 
Paris, in 1318. He early devoted himself 
to poetry, but he was discouraged by the 
superior merit of his friend Petrarch, and 
committed to the flames many of bis own 
l}Tical and amatory verses. As a prose 
writer, however, he deservedly acquired 
fame. His principal work is thie Decame- 
ron, a collection of tales, many of which, 
unfortunately, are deformed by licentious 
ness. The Valdarfer edition of the Deca- 
meron, publislied in 1471, was sold at the 
Roxburgh sale for the enormous snm of 
two thousand two hundred and sixty pounds. 
Boccaccio first introduced the works of 
Homer and other Greek writers into Tus- 
cany. He died in 1875, at-Certaldo. 

BOCCAGE, Mart Anne lb Page 
DU, a French poetess of considerable merit, 
and iMMnessea of great accomplishments 
and Denevolence, was bora at Kouen, in 
1710, and died in 1802. Her principal 
works are, an imitation of Paradise Lost; 
the Colombiad, an epic poem; and the 
Amazons, a trajredy. 

BOCCALINI, Trajan, an Italian sat- 
irist, the son of an architect, was bom, in 
1556, at Loretto. He successively held 
various governments in the pope's domin- 
ions; but his satirical writings having ren- 
dered him obnoxious, and complaints hav- 
ing also been made of his administration, 
he retired to Venice, where he died in 1618. 
It has been asserted that he was beaten to 
death with sand bags, by ibnr hired 
ruffians, but this story is a fiction. His 
chief work is untitled News firom Punas* 


BOCH, John, a Flemish poet, denoiAI« 
nated the Belgic Virgil, was bora at Brat* 
sels, in 1555. He accompanied Ckutttnid 
Radxivil to Rome,, studied theologf tel« 

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r BeDarmiii, wad afterwards traTelled 
into Poland, Livonia, and Rossia. Tlie 
dake of Parma appointed him secretary to 
die town house of Antwerp. He died in 
lfi09, and his poems were collected by his 
0OU Ascanius, who was himself a poet. 

BOCHART, Samuel, an eminent di- 
vine and oriental scholar, the son of a 
protestant clergyman, was born at Rouen, 
ra 1599, educated at Paris, Oxford, and 
Leyden, and became minister at Caen. He 
died of apoplexy, in 1667. His principal 
works are Phaleg and Canaan, seu Geo- 
graphia Sacra ; and Hieroxoicon. 

BOCK, Jerome, a German botanist, 
"^tter known under his Latin name of 
Tragus, was bom at Heidesbach, in 1498, 
vas a schoolmaster, and tlien.a physician, 
md died at Hombach, in I5o4. Bock 
nay be considered as one of the founders 
of modem botany; he was the first who 
eadeavonred to form a natural botanical 
arrangement. He is the author of a Her- 
bal of German Plants. 

BODE, Christopher Augustus, a 
learned German orientalist, \ns bora at 
Weraigerode, in 1723, and acquired, ^ 
ais own exertions, the Arabic, Svriac, 
Chaldee, Samaritan, Ethiopian, rabbinical 
Hebrew, Armenian, Turkish, and Coptic 
hngoages. He was professor of philosophy 
b the oniversity of Helmstadt. He died 
ia 1796. His principal works consist of 
translations of ue Scriptures from the ori- 

BODIN, JoHir, a French lawyer and 
fiterary character, was bora at Angers, 
aboot 1530, and was brought up to tlie 
bar, but retired firom it for want ot success. 
For awhile be enjoyed the ftivour of Henry 
ni., which, however, he lost by his patri- 
otic conduct. He died, in 1596, at Laon, 
vkere he vras chief magistrate. Among 
his works, the most remarkable are, a 
treatise on government, intitled De la 
Bepobliqiie, and another, called Demon- 
omania, m which he asserts the existence 
of witchcraft. 

BODLEY, Sir Thomas, a native of 
Eseler, bora in 1544, was educated at 
Geneva and Oxfi>rd, and was employed by 
Qoeon Eliiabeth in various embassies. In 
1597 he retired firom public business. His 
Boble ibandation of the Bodleian library at 
Oxford, tor which he spared no expense to 
procure books and manuscripts, and to 
which be bequeathed nearly all his property, 
has immortalized his name. He was 
kniffhted at the accession of James I., and 
died January the 18th, 1612. 

BODMEK, John Jacob, a Swiss poet, 
was bora at Griefi^nberg, near Zuricn, in 
, 166>8» and, after having declined the church, 
and made a brief trial of a mercantile situ- 
adon, ha obtained a college tutorship at 
2Sviefa« and devoted himself to literature. 

BOE 91 

He wrote an epic poem cajed Noalu 
translated the Iliad, the Paradise Lost, and 
other works, and, in conjunction with his 
friend Breitinger, published a paper on the 
model of the ^lectator. He diea in 1783. 

BODONI, John Baptist, a celebrated 
Italian printer, was born in 1740, at Sa- 
hizzo, in Piedmont. He had at first the 
direction of tlie ducal press at Parma, at 
which many of hi^bcst works were prinued, 
a d afterwards established a printing office 
of his own, which soon became tamous 
throughout Europe for its splendid produc- 
tions. Napoleon gave him a pension of 
three thousand francs, and a present of 
eighteen thousand. Bodoni is the author 
of a Letter on Printing ; and a Typograph- 
ical Mannal: the latter was a posthumous 
publication. He died in 1813. 

BOECE, or BOETHIUS, Hector, a 
Scottish historian, was bora at Dundee, 
about 1470, and educated at Perth and 
Paris. He was the first person appointed 
principal of King's College, Anerdeen. 
He wrote in Latin, a Life of Elphinstone, 
the founder of the college ; and silso a ilis- 
tory of Scotland, elcjgant in style, bat filled 
witn fictions. He died about 'l55# 

Jacob, a German fanatic, was Dora, m 
1575, in a small village, near Goerlitz, io 
Lusatia, and was by trade a shoemaker. 
Insanely believing, or artfnilv affecting to 
believe, that he was favoured with revela- 
ti<His aod inspirations firom the Deity, he 
published numerous works, and ffained 
many followers. Mosbeim juslly charac- 
terizes his productions as *' a strange mix- 
ture of chemical terms, mystical jaivon, 
and absurd visions." They also at feast 
verge on spinosism and manicheism. Yet' 
the pious Law became the English editor 
of them. Boehm died in 1624. 

BOERHAATErHERHAir, one of the 

most eminent of modera physicians, was 
bora, in 1668, at Voorhout, near Linden. 
His fiither, the minister of Voorhout, edu« 
cated him for his own profession, and^ he 
made an honourable progress in his studies. 
But, on the death of his parent, who left 
him slenderly provided for, he obtained 

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§8 BOG 

a tnlMiftence by natbematicftl lecCurw, 
And at lenfj^th devoUxl himself to the medi- 
cal profe«non. For that profeflstoii he had 
imbibed an early liking, by the circum- 
stance of his having cured nimi>elf of an 
ulcer in the thigh, which had fuiled the 
faculty for six years. He took the dc^ee 
of M. D. at the university of Harderwick, 
iu 1693. At first his success was limited , 
hut at length he became professor of ph^'si- 
cal botany at Leaden, and his lectures at 
once enhanced the fame of the uniTersity 
and established his own. In 1714 he be- 
came rector of the university. Patients 
tlironged to him from all quarters, wealth 
consequently Aowed in upon him, and he 
confessedly stood at the head of modem 
physicians. From his multifarious knowl- 
edge, Boerbaave has been called the Vol- 
taire of science. He died September the 
28d, 1788. His works are numerous; 
among the principal may be mentioned, 
Institutiones Hedicse; Aphorismi de Cog- 
ousceadis et Curandis Morbis; Index 
Plantamm ; and Elementa Chimiie. 

quATUS Sktkrirus, a Latin statesman, 
philosopher, and writer, was of a noble 
Runian family, and was bom in 455. He 
WIS thrice consul, and was for many years 
a faTourite of Theodoric, king of the Goths. 
His seal for orthodoxy, however, at length 
excited the anger of rheodoric, who was 
an Arian. Boethius was unjustly charged 
with treason, his property was confiscated, 
and he was thrown into prison, where he 
was beheaded in 526. While a captive, 
be wroca hii famous Consolations or Phi- 
losophy ; a work which has been transla- 
ted by two of the moat illustrious of the 
Britian soverei^, Alfred and Elizabeth. 
The whole of his compositions occupy two 
folio volumes. 

BOETTCHER. Johh Frederic, a 
native of Brandenberff , was bora about the 
end of the seventeenth century ; he lived 
with an apothecary at Berlin, where he 
studied alchem;^, and was obliged to fly 
from that city, m consequence of a report 
that he had discovered the philosopher's 
stone. On Boettcher's taking refuge in 
Saxony, the electors shut him up in Ko- 
nigstein, and insisted on his prosecuting 
his search for the long fought stoiM. The 
alchemist failed of course, but he was in- 
demnified by the discovery of the mode of 
makinff that besmtiful species of porce- 
lain which is now known as the Saxon or 
Dresden. For this he wns ennobled by 
the elector. He died in 1719. 

Theodorovitsch. one of the most dis- 
tinguished Russian literary characters of 
the reign of Catherine, was bora in Little 
Russia, in 1748, was employed as a diplo- 
<ia tin, and in other oflicMl f itnations, and 


died ui 1808. He is the anthor of i 
works; among wnich may be mentioned 
Douscbenka, a romantic poem; Ruasiaa 
Proverbs; tlie Slavi, a arama; and an 
.Historical Picture of Russia. He ako 
edited two jouraals, intitled Innocent 
'Amusement, and the St. Petersburgli 

BOHEMOND, Mark, a Norman ad- 
venturer, son of the celebrated Robert 
Guiscanl, was distinguished in his youth, 
by deeds of arms, in Italy and the eastern 
empire, which he sur pas sed in Palestine 
during the first crusade. He made himself 
master of Antioch, in 1097, and founded 
a principality which existed for nearly 
two centuries. He was taken prisoner in 
Mesopotamia, but succeeded in detaining 
his lioerty af^ a captivi^ of two years. 
While taking measures to renew his at- 
tempts a^inst the Greek empire, he died, 
in 1111, m Apulia. 

BOIARDO, Mattxo Maria, Count 
of Scandiano, an Italian poet, was bom, 
about 1434, at Scandiano, in the duchy of 
Moilena, was educated at Ferrara, and 
held several honourable offices, ansong 
which was that of p^ovemor of RMgio. 
He died at Reggio, m 1494. Boiardo is 
the author of several productions of merit, 
but his fame rests on nis poem of Orlando 
'innamorato, which was the first example 
of epic romance, and led the way to the 
Orlando of Arioeto. 

BOILEAU, James, an elder brother 
of the celebrated poet, bora at Parb, in 
1635, was a doctor of the Sorbonne, a 
canon, and <fean and ffrand vicar of Sms* 
He died in 1716. He is the author of 
several theological and other works in the 
Latin language, the most celebrated of 
which is the Historia FlageUantiiun. 
James Boileau, like bis brother, was canatic 
and witty. Being asked why he alwavs 
wrote in Latin, be replied, ** for fear the 
bishops should read roe, in which case I 
should be persecuted." The Jesuite he 
designated as men "vdio lengthened the 
creed, and abridged die decalogue.'* 

las, one of the most eminent of French 
satirists and poets, %vas bora, in 1686, at 
Crune, near Paris. In his youth he labour- 
ed under ill health, was considered as sood 
to have been 

natured but dull, and i 
slighted by his ralatives. He was educated 
for the bar, and received as an advocate; 
but soon deserted the profession, to tka 
great annoyance of his kindred, partioo- 
Jarlv of his brother in law, Dongois, who 
dechtred that Nicholas would be nothins 
but a fool all his life. In the study of 
divinity he was not mora successfiiL At 
length he devoted himeelf to litarature; 
and, at the age of thirty, astonislied hia 
friMids, and dalightad Fraaoa, I9 kk imt 

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Hifl fime wm at once 
The reputation which he had 
thus acqaired, he supfiorted by the publi- 
tatioo of additional Satires, the Art of 
Poetry, Epistles, in the manner of Horace, 
and the mock heroic poem of the Lutrin. 
The latter appeared in 1674. Hia talents 
gained him the favour of Louis XI V^., who 

Save him a pension, and made him ro\al 
istoricvrapher, in conjunction with Ra- 
cine. £i 1684 he became a member of 
the French Academy. Till the close of 
his dajrs Boileaa continued in habits of 
close friendship with the most eminent of 
bis cootemporaries; and though, during 
his life, and since his decease, manv 
attadcs have been made on him, he stifl 
retains his lofly station on the French 
Pamassua. Boileau is to France that 
which Pope is to England. He died, on 
the 18th of March, 1711, of a dropsy in 
the chest. 

BOIS ROBERT, Framcis Metel de, 
a French wit and comic writer, was born 
at Caen, about 1592, and was a favourite 
of Cardinal Richelieu, who, among other 
beoe6ces, gave him the abbey of Chatilbn 
sor Seine. Boisrobert, however, was more 
attentive to gaming, good living, and the- 
atrical amusements, than to clerical duties. 
He died in 1662. His poems and other 
works, including eighteen plays, are now 
Ibrj^teo. It was on the suggestion of 
Boisrobert that Richelieu founded the 
French Academy. 

BOISSY, Louis dz, a native of Vic, in 
Aavenrne, was bom in 1694, and com- 
■Hoo^ his literary career as a satirist 
hat soon relinquished satire, and became 
a writer of comedies. Though many of 
his pieces, which are forty in number, 
were eminently successful, he sank into 
snch poverty, that he and his wife shut 
themaelves up, and resolved to nerish of 
Imager; and they were saved only by the 
chance entrance of a firiend. Hearing of 
this cureumstance. Madam de Pompadour 
patronised the unfortunate author, and ob- 
tained for him the editorship of the Gaxette 
de France and of the Mercure. Boiesy 
died in 1758. His comedies form nine 

THOiiT, Count de, an eminent French 
legislajtor and literary character, was bom 
IB the vicinity of Anoonay, in 1766, and 
originally held a considerable situation in 
tbe boosdiold of Monsieur, brother of 
Louis XTI. He sat in the national assem- 
bly and in the convention, and uniformly 
displayed a pure and enlightened love of 
liberty. Few Men passed through the 
revohition with a character so unstained 
m» Boissy d'Anglas. IVhen, in 1795, an 
iBfinriated Jacobin mob broke into the hall 
•f tke oottvention, while he was sitting a« 

president, and a hundred muskefa were' 
pointed at him, and the bleeding head of 
one of his colleagues was raifsed to his 
face, he preserved an immovable courage 
and dignity. In 1797, he was elected a 
member of the council of five hundred ; 
and, in September, he was sentenced to 
banishment, but succeede<l in escaping. 
Napoleon made him a senator and com- 
mander of the legion of honour. Louis 
XVIII. created him a peer, in 1814; but 
Boissy having subsequently recognised the 
authority of Napoleon, he was deprived of 
his title. It was, however, soon restored. 
He died at Paris, in 1826. He was the 
author of various tracts and published 
speeches ; an Essay on the Life of Males- 
herbes; and the Literary and Poetical 
Studies of an Old Man, or Miscellany oi 
Verse and Prose, 6 vols. l2mo. 

BOLCN, or BOLEYN, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Bolen, was bora in 1607, 
attended, when only seven years old, the 
Princess Mary to France, returned thence 
in 1527, and was appointed maid of honour 
to Catherine of Arragon. The lustful 
tyrant Henry VIII. became enamoured of 
her, and, after having obtained a divorce, 
married Anne in 1683. In September she 
gave birth to a princess, afterwards Queen 
Elizabeth. Having transfbrred his afiiBC- 
tions to Jane Seymour, Henry accused the 
unfortunate Anne of violating the marriagt 
vow, and, on this pretext, she was m- 
headed. May the 19th, 15S6. 

BOLINGBROKE, Henry St. Johf, 
Lord Viscount, son of Sir Henry St. Johr , 
was bora at Battersea, in 1672, and ediH 
cated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. 
He obtained a seat in parliament in I'M. 
and in 1704 was appointed secretary of 
war and the marines, but resigned the 
secretaryship in 1707. In 1710, he agaia 
formed a part of the ministry, as secretary 
of state, and had a principal share in the 
peace of Utrecht. In 1712 he was created 
Viscount Bolingbroke; but, dissatisfied 
with not having obtained an oarldom, and 
with other circumstances, he became the 
of his ooUoaaoe Harley, of whom he 
eatheviend. Ont^ 




of G«orge I. an impeachment of BoIIng- 
broke being meditated, he fled to France, 
and, at length, accepted the ollice of secre- 
tary to the pretender. He was st»on, how- 
ever, irisniisse<i from this new service, and, 
in the meanwhile, had \xn:t\ inipcaclied 
and attainted in England. After a resi- 
dence in France till 1723, he was par- 
doned, and his estates were restored, bnt 
he was not all.iwed to sit in the hon^ of 
peers. More indignant at tliis exclusion 
than gratitied by hi a pardon, he became 
one of the chief opponents of Sir R. Wal- 
pole, and by the power of his pen contri- 
Duted greatly to the overthrow of that 
minister. In 1735, he again withdrew to 
Franca, and remained there till the death 
of his father, after which event he settled 
at Battcrsea, where he resided till 1751, 
when he died of a cancer in tlie face. 
Bolingbroke was intimate with and be- 
loved by Pope, Swift, and the most emi- 
nent men of his age ; his talents were of 
the first order; he possessed ^reat elo- 
quence; and, in point of style, his writings 
rank amon^ tlie oett in tlie Enghsh lan- 

guase. His compositions were published 
y Mallet in five quarto volumes. 
BOLIVAR, Simon, the ^eat captain 
ot South America, was born m the city of 
Caracas in 1783. After acquiring the 
first elements of a liberal education at home, 
he repaired to Europe to complete his stu- 
dies at Madrid. From Spain he passed 
into France, and resided for a considerable 
period at Paris, where he was a witness 
of some of tlie later events of the revolu- 
tion. He returned to Madrid in 1802, 
where he married the daughter of Don B. 
Toro, and embarked with her for America 
in 1809. He lived for a while in a retired 
manner on his estates at Caracas, but 
tlie premature death of his wife induced 
him again to visit Europe as a relief to his 
sorrow for heC loss. 0n his return, be 
was one of the chief promoters of the revo- 
lutionary movements in Caracas in 1810, 
and received a colonel's commission from 
the new patriotic government. He gradu- 
ally rose by the weight of his talents and 
services to higher offices, and in 1814, 
a convention of the principal civil and 
military officers at Caracas confirmed 
the dictatorial powers that circumstances 
bad already thrown upon him. After va- 
rious reverses of fortune in the patriotic 
cause, Bolivar, in 1816, vras recognized as 
supreme chief, and before the close of the 
ensuing year bad fixed his head-quarters 
at Angosttira. The campaign of 1819 was 
distinguished by several splendid victories, 
and Bolivar was wiiversally hailed as the 
liberator and fiither of his country. Taking 
•dvantase of the fiiToarable moment, he 
obtained the passage of a law, bj which 
tM rapublioi of New Qreoada and Vena* 


suek were united in a single slate < 

the title of the Republic of Cokmibia. Tha 
present constitution was adopted in 1821, 
and Bolivar was chosien the first president 
III 1825 he was declared perpetual pro- 
tector of the republic of Bolivia, a state 
wiiich had detached itself fi^m the govern- 
ineut of Buenos Ayres, and been named in 
him;>iir of the liberator. For this republie 
he was requested to prepare a constitution; 
which he accordingly completed, and pre- 
sented to the congress of Bolivia in May, 

1826. This famous code was accompanied 
by an address, expressive of his sentiments 
in respect to tlie form of government ne- 
cessary for the new republics of the South. 
Some of the provisions of this code were 
considered anti-republican, and excited 
the liveliest apprehensions among the 
friends of liberty. A rebellion now de- 
manded his immediate return to Colombia, 
where all signs of insurrection vanished at 
his approach. Bolivar had been re-elected 
to the office of president, and dionld have 
been qualified anew as such in January 

1827. But in February he addressed m 
letter to the president of the senate, i«- 
nouncin? the presidency of the republic, 
and declaring his intention to repel the 
accusations that had been made against 
him, by a voluntary retirement. Notwith- 
standing the distrust of Bolivar entertained 
by the friends of the republic, he was re- 
appointed to the presidency, and again 
accepted it, taking the oaths preacrlbed by 
the constitution, in the September foUow- 
in|, at Bogota. In ^828 ne assumed the 
chief power in Colombia, b^ a decree* 
dated Bogota, Aug. 27, which invested 
him with almost unlimited authority, bnC 
provided that he was to be assisted in the 
exercise of executive powers by the coon* 
cil of ministers. In January, 1880, Boli- 
var issued a proclamation resigning hia 
military and political offices; and in May 
the constituent congress of Colonbia 
elected Joaquin Mos^uera president. In 
the September folbwing, having been re- 
appointed, Bolivar accepted the presidency, 
and on the seventeenth of December died 
at San Pedro Alejandrino, a country seat 
about a league from Santa Martha. Hia 
body was embalmed and laid in sute fuf 
three days; the people fiockin^^ in crowoe 
to look upon the remains of their liberator 
Four days previous to bis death, he issued 
a decree to the citizens of Colombia, which 
concluded in the following words: *<Co 
lombians — ^I leave too — bat mj last prayera 
are oflfered up for tne trancjuiUity of CoioBa- 
bia — and if my death will contriboCe to 
this desirable end, by a disooadnaanoe of 
par^ feeling, ana consolidate the union, I 
shall descend with feelings of contentmeat 
into the tomb whi^ will foon \m prepanA 
for ma." ^ t 

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BOLLANDUS, Johv, a Jctnlt, born 
01 the Netherlands, in 1596, 'wob chosen 
by hU fraternity to carry into effect Rou- 
ireide's plan of tlie Acta Sanctorum, or 
Lives of the Saint*. He completed five 
fi>lio voluaie«, the firrt part of which he 
published in 1643. Since his decease, in 
1668, the work has been continued, by 
llenschenius and others, to the extent of 
fiAvthree volumes, and is still incomplete. 

t)OLTON, Edward, an English anti- 
qaarv, the time of whose birth and death 
is nnitnown. He was a catholic, and a 
retainer of the first duke of Buckingham. 
Of his productions, the principal is Nero 
Ca'sar, or Monarchy Depraved; a curious 
work, which y^tts published in 1624, and 
dedicated to his patron. 

BOMBELLI, Raphael, one of die 
Bost celebrated Italian algebraists of the 
sixteenth centunr. He was the first who 
invented a uniform method of resolving 
equations. His Treatise of Algebra was 
printed at Bologna, in 1572 and 1579. 

BONA, or BONNA, a shepherdess of 
the Valteline, was first the mistress, and 
■ubaequently the wife, of Peter Brunoro, 
an Italian warrior. She eave numerous 
proofs of heroic courage. In the wars of 
the Venetians she fpreatXy distinguished 
herself, particularly in taking by assault 
the castle of Pavona. Site assisted lier 
hMsband in defending Negivopont, and, afler 
his death, expelled the Turks from tlie 
bland. She died in 1466. 

BONAPARTE. See Napoleon. 

QvY Ubaldo, an Italian diplonmtist and 
literary character, was born at Urbino, in 
1563, was employed in many important 
negotiations by the dukes of Modena and 
Ferrara, and died in 1608. His pastoral 
of Phillis of Scyros, which is considered 
as standing next in merit to the Aminta 
and the Faithful Shepherd, is his princi- 
pal work. 

Prosper, brother of Guy Ubaldo, died at 
Ancona, in 1659. He is the author of 
Soliman, a tragedy, nine musical dramas, 
and tarious cometfies, letters, and miscel- 
laneous poems. 

BONCHAMP, Arthur de, a cele- 
brated general of the Vendean royalists, 
was bom in Anjou, in 1759, and served 
with distinction in the army, during the 
American war. In 1793, he was chosen 
one of the princi|ral Vendean leaders, and 
be distinguished himself by his talents and 
valour in numerous combats. On the 17(h 
of October, 1793, he was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Cliollct. Bonchamp was a 
man of abilities and humanity. The last 
act of his life was the saving uf five thou- 
sand prisoners, whom the exasperated 
royalists were about to masaucre. 



BOND, John, a critic and grammarian, 
was bom in Somersetshire, in 1550, was 
educated at Winchester and Oxford, be- 
came master of Taunton grammar school, 
and afterwards a physician, and died in 
1612. He wrote Annotations on Horace 
and Persius. 

BONER, a German fabulist, who lived 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth century, 
of whose life no particulars are recorded. 
His Fables, partly borrowed from the Latin, 
form a valuable portion of what has been 
handed down to us of the poems of the 
Minnesinger. Tlie first edition of them 
appeared in 1461, and is one of the earliest 
printed books. 

BONIFACE, St., whose real name was 
Wilfrid, was bom at Crediton, in De- 
vonsliire, about A. D. 680; travelled, 
about 716, through many parts of Germany 
(of which he is called the apostle), to con- 
vert the heathens; was consecrated a 
bisliop, at Rome, Ii^ Grecory II. in 723; 
returned to Germany, and reclaimed the 
Bavarians from paganism ; and was, finally, 
massacred in Friesland, in 755. 

BONINGTON, Richard Parkes, a 
painter, who died, in 1802, at the early 
age of twenty-six, was bora in London, 
was first a pupil of Gros, at Paris, and 
afterwards studied in Italy. Boningtoa 
was a man of genius, and nis prematura 
death was a heavy loss to the pictorial art. 
He excelled in various departments of 
painting. Among his finest pictures is a 
view on the great canal of Venice. 

John, a Latin erotic poet, was bora, in 
1554, at Clermont, in Auvergne; studied 
civil law, under Cujas; practised as a 
barrister ; was made lieutenant-general of 
the bailiwick of Bar-sur-Seine ; and died 
in 1614. His collection of amatory poems 
under the title of Pancharis, ranks him 
among the best nhodera writers in the Ro- 
man language. 

BONNER, EDMI7ND, a prelate, " damn- 
ed to everlasting fame,'* under the appel- 
lation of "blotKiy" bishop Bonner,*' was 
the son of a peasant, at Hanley, in Wor- 
cestershire, and was educated at Pembroke 
Collc<^, Oxford. Henry VIII. made him 
his chaplain, bishop of Hereford, and then 
of London, and employed him on embas- 
sies to France, Germany, and the })ope. 
He was imprisoned and deprived of his 
bishopric, in the reign of Edward VI. ; 
but was restored by Mary, and signalised 
himself by his vindictive and persecuting 
spirit. Queen Elizabeth imprisoned him in 
the Marshabea, and he died there, in 1569, 
after ten years' confinement. Bonner was 
a man of learning and talent; but so san- 
guinary, that, in allusion to his excessive 
corpulence, he was said to have abundanca 
of guts, but no bov «»ls. r^^^^i^ 

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BONNET, or BONET, Thkoprilvs, 
« physicinn, was born at GenoTa, id 1020, 
wnere be died in 1689. Hia fame princi- 
pal! j rests on bis barinff been tbe first 
pathological, anatomist. The work which 
gires him tfai« claim is named S«Nilcbre- 
turn, seu Anatomia Practica. He also 
wrote Pharos Medicorom, aod compiled 
Tarions medical treatises. 

BONNET, Charles, a celebrated na- 
loraUst, was bom at Oeoera, in 1720, and 
was desigiied for the law, bat was inspired 
with an irr epr e s sible love of natural his- 
tory, by chancinr to pemse a book On that 
science. His fniole sobeeqoent life was 
devoted to natural history and physioloffv. 
and his discoveries were namerous. lie 
died of a dropsy in the chest, May the 
20th, 1798. His works form nine vol- 
umes in quarto, and many of them have 
been translated into various languages. 
l*he Contemplation of Nature, two volumes 
octavo, is one of his most popular produc- 

BONNEVAL, Claudk Alexander, 
Count de, bom in 1676, of a noble Limou- 
■in femily, signalized his valour under 
Tourville, Catinat, andVendume; Quitted 
his oountr^r in oonsequeiice of a oispute 
with the minister ChamiUard; entered the 
Austrian service; andborea distio^isbed 
part in many achievements, particularly 
in forcing the lines before Turin, and de- 
feating me Turks at Peterwaradin. In 
1720, his haughtj and intractable dispo- 
sition involved him in a quarrel with the 
court of Vienna, and he was compelled to 
§y. He took refuge in Turkey, where he 
became a Mahometan, under the name of 
Achmet Pacha, and was made roaster of 
the ordnance. He died in 1747, at the 
moment when he was said to be intending 
te escape from the Turkish dominions.^ 

BONNIVET, William GourriER 
DE, admiral of France, distinsuished him- 
self at the siese of Genoa, in 1507, and at 
the battle of Spurs, in 1518. Francis I. 
also emoloyed him as a ne^iator in Eng- 
land and Germany. Bonnivet afterwards 
commanded in Spain and the Milanese, 
opposed peace, committed many military 
feults, and fell, at last, at the battle of Pa- 
via, in 1525, which was fought by his ad- 
vice. It was mainly by his intrigues that 
the constable of Bourbon was driven into 

BONNYCASTLE, JoHir, was a native 
of Wiittcburch, in Bucks, and, after hav- 
ing been tutor to the sons of the earl of Pom- 
fret, was appointed one of the mathemati- 
cal masters at Woolwich. He resided 
there for forty }'ears, and became professor 
of mathematics to the Royal Military 
Academy. He died in 1821. As a man 
•f science he enioys a deserved reputation. 
Anong his various works may be men- 

»«ge of 


tiooed his Treatises on Geoneliy, Tri||D- 
nometry, Al|[ebra, and Astronomy; ami 
his contributions to Rees*s Cyclopedia. 

BONOMI, Joseph, an architect, was 
a native of Italy, but spent a* great part 
of bis life in England, and was one of^the 
associates of the Rc^ Academv. His 
architectural talents were of a high c 
He died in March, 1806, at the a| 

BOONE, Dahiel, one of the earliest 
settlers in Kentucky, was bora in Virginia, 
and was from infoncy addicted to bunting 
in the woods. He set ont on an expedi- 
tion to explore the region of Kentucky, 
in May, 1769, with five companions. Af- 
ter meeting with a variety of adventures, 
Boone was left with his brother, the only 
white men in the wilderness. They passed 
the winter in a cabin, and in the summer 
of 1770 traversed the country to the Cum- 
berland river. In September, 1778, Boone 
commenced his removal to Kentucky with 
his own and five other families. He was 
joined by forty men, who put themselves 
umfer his direction ; but being attacked by 
the Indians, the whole fmrty returned to . 
the settlements on Clinch river. Boone 
was afterwards employed by a company of 
North Carolina, to buy, from the Indians, 
lands on the south side of the Kentucky river. 
In April, 1775, he built a fort at salt* 
spring, where Boonesborough is now situ- 
ated. Here he sustained several siej^ 
from the Indians, and was once taken pris- 
oner by them while hunting with a number 
of his men. In 1782 the depredations of 
the savaees increased to an alarming ex- 
tent, and Boone, with other militia otfioers, 
collected 176 men, and went in pursuit of 
a large body, v^o had marched beyond the 
Blue Licks, fort^ miles from Lexington. 
From that time till 1798, he resided alter- 
nately in Kentucky and Xirginia. In that 
year, bavins received a g[rant of 2000 
acres of land finom the Spanish authorities, 
he removed to Upper Louisiaaa, with his 
children and followers, who were presented 
with 800 acres each. He settled with 
them at Qiar^te, on the Missouri river^ 
where he folk) wed his usual course of life, 
— bunting and trapping bears, — till Sep- 
tember, 1822, when he died in the eigi*4«- 
fifth ^ear of his age. He expired while 
on his knees, taking aim at some object, 
and was. found in that position, with his 
gun resting on the trank of a tree. 

BOOTH, Bartoh, a celebrated actor 
in the reigns of Anne and George I., was 
bora, in 1681, in Lancashire, and was edu- 
cated at Westminster school, under l>r 
Busby. At the age of seventeen, how- 
ever, he ^ined a strollmg company of 
players; hb talents, at length, gained him 
a footing on the r^lar tb^Ore; his popn* 
larity continually increased; and his par 

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of Cato, in 1712, set the *m1 
qwo his histrionic reputation. la 1716, 
Be became one of the joint patentees and 
managers of Dmry Lane theatre. He di- 
ed in 1788. Booth was the author of a 
orask called Dido and Eneas, and of some 
aongs and minor pieces. 

BORDA, JoHH Charles, a celebra- 
ted mathematician and astronomer, was 
bom at Dax, in Gascony, in 1733; served 
as an engineer in the French army in 1757; 
dien became a naval officer ; accompanied 
Pingrc, in 1771, on a voyage to the South 
Sea, to make experiments on timekeepers ; 
was captain of toe Solitaire, in 1781, and 
displayed sreat gallantry in an action with 
tne English; wtis employed with Delam- 
bre and Mechain ia roeasoring an arc of 
the meridian; and died in March, 1799. 
He invented the reflecting circle, and a 
mensuration rod, and made many improve- 
■wnts in hydraulics, and experiments to 
determine the lei^th of the pendulum. 

BORDE, or BOORDE, Andrew, a 
pfaysiciaft, bom at Pevensey, about 1600, 
was educated at Oxford, and travelled all 
over (^risCendom, and a part of Africa. 
He settled at Winchester, and afterwards 
at Lond<Hi, at which latter city he died in 
the Fleet, in 1549. He is the author of 
▼ariooB works, among which are a Book 
of the Introduction of Knowledge; the 
Breriary of Health ; and Merrye Tales of 
the Madmen of Gotham. 

BORDELON, Laurshge, a volumin- 
o«s writer of novels, dramas, and miscel- 
hneoos works, was bom at Bonrges, in 
1658, and died at Paris, in 1730. Of his 
works the best known are, Curious Varie- 
ties; the Extravagant Fancies of M. 
Onffie; and Dialogues of the Living. In 
conpany one day, Bordelon said, «my 
worKS are my deadly sins;'* to which a 
bystander replied, « the public does pen- 
ance for them." 

BORELLI, John Alfhonso, a phi- 
iMopber and mathematician, was bora in 
HOo, studied at Rome, and became pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy and mathe- 
matics at Pisa and Florence. From the 
latter city he vrent to Messina, where be 
had once held a professorship; but, in 
3674, he was banished from it tor political 
reasons. He settled at Rome, and died 
there in 1679. He was the first who ap- 
plied mathematical calculation and me- 
chanical principles to explain muscubir 
action. Among his numerous produc- 
tions, his posttnmous work, De Blotu Ani- 
naliom, is tiK only one which is remem- 

BORGHE3E, Marie Pauline, prin- 
cess, originallv Bonaparte, sister of Na- 
Kleon, was Wn in 1780, at Ajaccio. 
BT first husband was f^jeral Leclerc, 
tfiU after his death in 1802, she married 

BOR lit 

the prraee Camillo Borghese. With Na- 
poleon, who loved her tenderly she had 
many disputes, and as many recouciiia- 
tions ; for if he was cafiricious, she was 
also proud. Before the battle of Water- 
loo she placed all her diamonds, which 
were of great value, at his disposal ; and 
they were in his carriage, which was ta- 
ken in that battle, and exhibited in Loo- 
don. She lived, afterwards, separated 
from her husband, at Rome; where her 
house was the centre of refined and fash- 
ionable society. She died «t Florence, in 
June, 1825. 

BORGIA, Cjesar, the wicked oflspring 
of a wicked pareb was the natural son of 
Pope Alexander \ I. His lather made 
him an archbishop and cardinal; but be 
was afterwards secuUirised, and the French 
kin^ created him duke of ValentiuDis. 
He IS said to have caused his brother, and 
several other persons, to be assassinated. 
After having perforaied aMmv splendid 
military actions, and sustained many re- 
verses of fortune, lie was slain, in 1607, at 
the siege of Viana. 

BORJA, or BORGIA, Francis Dx,a 
Spanish poet and statesman, a descendant 
fix>m Pope Alexander VI., was appointed 
viceroy of Pern, in 1614, and ^vemed 
that province in a manner whidi waa 
honourable to him. tit returned to Spain 
in 1621, and cultivated literature till bis 
decease, which ocairred in 1638. As a 
poet, he is most esteemed for bis lyrical 

BORLACE, Edmund, the son of one of 
the lords justices of Ireland, was educated 
at Dublin, and settled as a phvsician at 
Chester, where he die<l in 1682. His 
principal work is a History of the Irish 

BORLASE, William,, an antiquary 
and topographer, was born, in 1695, at 
Pendeen, in Cornvrall, was educated at 
Oxford, and, till the end of his days, was 
rector of Ludgvan and vicar of St. Just, 
in his native country. The first of these 
preferments he obtained in 1722. In 1749 
lie was made F. R. S. and, in 1766, LL. D. 
He died in 1772. His chief works are, 
the Antiquities of Cornwall ; OlMervat inns 
on the Scilly Islands; and a Natural His- 
torv of Cornwall. 

BORN, Ignatius, Baron, a mineralo- 
gist and miscellaneous writer, was born, 
in 1742, at Calrsburg, in Transylvania, 
and, in 1772, obtained an appointment in 
the department of the mines at Prague. 
His mineralogical talents induced the Em- 
press Maria Theresa, to fix him at Vienna, 
and he was in high favour with her suc- 
cessor Joseph II. He died in Auaust, 
1791. Bom was a zealous member of tha 
lUuminatJ, and poignant)^ ridiculed ilia 
monks in his Honachologia. Um worki 

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celebrated Spanish poet, was born at Bar* 
celona, in 1494, served in the army when 
yoanff, and was admitted to the court of 
Charles V., who valued him much. H^ 
Mras also entrusted with the education ol 
the duke of Alba. The use of hendeca- 
Bvllabic verse was introduced by him into 
tne Spanish language, or. at 'least, was 
rendered popular. His poems wei'e print- 
ed in conjunction with tnoee of bis nriend 

BOSCAWEN, Edward, a brave and 
skilful admiral, second son of Viscount 
Falmouth, was born, in 1711, in Corn- 
wall, entered the navy early, and in 1740 
obtained the conunand of the Shoreham, 
whence, in 1744, he was removed to the 
Dreadnought. ' He distinguished himself 
at Porto-Bello and Cartfiagena, and, und«r 
Anson, m tne battle off Cape Finisterre. 
Beinff made rear-admiral, and sent with a 
squadron to the Blast Indies, he failed in 
an attempt on Pondicherry, but took Ma- 
dras. On his return, he' was appointed 
one of the admiralty board: In 1755, ho 
captured two sail of the line ; in 1758, as- 
sisted in reducing Louisbourg; and in 1759, 
completely defeated a French fleet off 
Cape Lagos. A pension, the thanks of 
parliament, and the rank of general of the 
marines, were tlie rewards of these servi- 

8. He died m January, 1761. 

BOSCAWEN, Willi AM, a nephew of 
the admiral, was born in 1752, and edu- 
cated at Eton, Oxford, and the Middle 
Temple ; became a commissioner of bank- 
rupts and of the victualling board; and 
died in 1811. He published a Translation 
of Horace ; the Progress of Satire ; and a • 
Treatise of Convictions on Penal Statutes. 

BOSCOVICH, Roger Joseph, a na- 
tive of Ragusa, born in 1711, was educa- 
ted by the Jesuits, at Rome, entered their 
order, and displayed such early talents, 
that, even before be had completed his 
studies, he was appointed professor of 
mathematics and philosophy at the Roman 
College. He was employed by Pius VI. 
on various public undertakings; among 
others, the draining of the Pontine marslies ; 
and was afterwards patronised by the grand 
duke of Tuscany, and the king of France, 
the latter of whom gave him the place of 
director of optics for the navy. Bosco 
vich died at Milan, in 1787. His colk^ctive 
philosophical works ibrm five quarto vol- 
umes. Among them is a very elegant Latir. 
poem on eclipses. , 

BOSSU, KEffE LE, a French critic, 
bora at Paris, in 1631, died in 1680, sub- 
prior of the abbey of St. John of Chartres. 
His principal work is a Treatise on Epie 

^ , , Poetry, which was once popular, but if 

fcc.; two Dictionaries of Agriculture : and i now almost forgotten. 

• New Dictionary of Natural History. I BOSSt'ET, jAMEa3xHioKV8,ooeuf 

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priocipaQy relate to mioeralorf and min- 
ing, and ara much valued. The process of 
amalgamation was greatly improved by him. 

BORROMEO, Charles, a cardinal, 
histly celebrated for his virtues, Mras of an 
illustrious Lombard family, and was bora, 
in 1588, at the castle of Arona, in the Mi- 
lanese^ He was created « cardinal and 
archbishop of MiUn, by his uncle Pope 
Pius IV. He was a model of piety and of 
charity, and a munificent patron of learn- 
ing. Hie efibrts to raform the monastic 
ordera draw on him the vengeance of a 
fanatical monk, who attempted, but, hap- 
pily, without success, to assassinate him. 
Borroineo died in 1584 ; in 1610, he was 
canonised ; and in 1697 a colossal bronze 
statue of him, sixty-six feet high, was 
er^ted at Arona. His theological works 
occupy five folio volumes. 

BORROMEO, Frederic, cousin 
german of Cardinal Charles, was also a 
cardinal, created in 1587, and archbishop 
of Milan in 1595. He died in 1631, at 
the age of sixty-eiffht. He founded the 
fan&ous Ambrosian Horary, and two Acad- 
emies, at Mikui; is the author of various 
theological works ; and emulated his cousin 
in piety and virtue. 

BORROMINI, Francis, an Italian 
architect, was bora at Bissona, in the 
Milanese, in 1599, was a pupil of Maderno, 
and succeeded him as architect at St. 
Peter's at Rome. His public works are 
Dumerous; but, though lie was of undoubt- 
•d talent, his taste was faulty. Jealousy 
of his rival Beraini's success is said to 
have randered him insane, and, in a fit of 
frensy, he put an end to his own existence, 
in 1^7. 

BOS, Lambert, an eminent philologer 
and scholar, was born, in 1670, at Wor- 
cmn, in Friesland; became a Greek pro- 
fessor at Franeker, in 1704; and died, of 
consumption, in 1717. His most popular 
producUon is an excellent work on Greek 
ellipses.^ He published an edition of the 
Septuagint, with a prolegomena and vari- 
ous readinn. 

BOSC, Louis Aitoustus William, 
a Franch naturalist andngricultural writer, 
was bora, in 1759, at Paris, and died 
thera in 1828. In 1784 he was appointed 
•e^retary of the post office, and was sub- 
■eqnently promoted to a still higher sta- 
tion in Uiat office. In 1793 he was driven 
irom his place by the jacobins, and he took 
up his residence in the forest of Montmo- 
renci, wbera he lived for three years in 
solitude, and devoted himself to the study 
of natural historjr, to which he had always 
been partial. His latter years were whoUy 
devoted to science. Among his numerous 
works ara a History of Shells, Worms, 


te immC eloquent of French preachen, and 
■cote oT controrersialuts, was born, in 
1627, at Dijon, and after having studied 
at thecolk»e of Navarre, he became canon 
of MeU. From Metz his reputation spread 
to the capital, and he was invited to raris, 
to preach before the queen mother and the 
king. There his fame soon eclipsed that 
of all his predecessors and contemporaries. 
In 1669 he was made bishop of Condom ; 
in 1670 preceptor to tlie dauphin; and, in 
16S1 , bishop of Meaux. He died in 1704. 
His FuneraJ Orations arc masterpieces of 
eloquence;* and in his controversy with the 
protestants he displays admirable learning 
and skill. Of his works, which form 
twenty quarto volumes, the principal are 
his Sermons; Discourse on Universal His- 
tory ; Exposition of the Catholic Fa th ; 
and Hifitory of the Variations of the Pro- 
testant Churches. 

BOSSUT, Chj^rles, an eminent ma- 
thematician, was bom in the Lyonese, in 
1780, studied in the Jesuiu' college at Ly- 
ona, %vaa taught mathematics by d'Aleni- 
bert, and at the a^e of twenty-two was 
professor of the engineers' school at Metz. 
He died in 1814, univerpally regretted, 
both as an individual and as a man of sci- 
ence. His chief works are, a History of 
Mathematics; and, a Course of Mathema- 
tics ; the last of which is highly popular. 

BOSTON, Thomas, a Scotch divine, 
was bom at Dunse, in 1676, and died min- 
ister of Ettrick, in 1782. He is chiefly 
remembered by his Human Nature in its 
Foarfold State; a work which has gone 



BOBWELL, James, the biographer of 
Dr. Johnson, was the son of a Scotch 
iodse, and was bom at Edinburgh, in 1740. 
In 1768 be began his travels, in the course 
of which he visited Corsica. Of that 
island he afterwards eave an account, with 
Memoirs of General Paoli. Having been 
admitted an advocate of the Scottish courts, 
be took a prominent part in the celebrated 
Dowhs caose, and also wrote a pamphlet 
OB tbe sobject. In 1778 he attended John- 
son to tM Hebrides; an excursion of 
I ke puUished a joornal «n 1785. He 

was called to the English bar, bnt had 
little practice, and never obtained any 
other legal preferment tlian the recorder- 
ship of Carlisle. Of Johnson ue was for 
more than twenty yearn tlie intimate friend, 
and his Life of that eminent character, 
which appeared in 1790, deservedly ranks 
him among the most amusinf^ and interest- 
ing of biographers. Boswell likewise pro- 
duced the Hypochondriac, a series of pa- 
pers in the London Magazine, and some 
fugitive pieces. He died May the 19ih, 

BOTELLO, Don Nunc Alvarez de, 
one of the mob '■elebrated Portuguese vice- 
roys of India. He sailed from Lisbon in 
1624, and gained several victories over 
the Dutch. In 1628, he assumed the gov- 
ernment of the Portuguese possessions in 
Hindostan, succoured Malacca, and de- 
stroyed the besieging Aclienese army and 
fleet; for which he received the title of 
father of the country. After having ob- 
tained other successes, he was unfortuu itely 
killed, in 1629, by being crushed between 
his own and an enemy*s vessel. 

BOTH, JoHK and Andp.ew, Dutcl 
painters, natives of Utrecht, and pupils of 
Rlomaert, were as remarkable for their 
fraternal aflection as for their talents. 
They studied, lived, and painted together, 
and f^ccmcd to liave but one mind. John 
excelled in landscapes, Andrew in figures. • 
Andiew was drowned at Venice, in 1650, 
and his brother pined with grief for his 
loss, and died at Utrecht, in 1656. 

BOTT, John DE, an engineer, born at 
Florence, in 1670, of French parents, served 
successively the prince of Orange (William 
III.), the elector of Brandenberg, and the 
elector of Saxony. He fortifiM Wesel, 
and erected the arsenal at Berlin, and sev- 
eral fine edifices at Dresden. He died in 

Italian prelate, was bora at Florence, in 
1689, and died at Rome, in 1775. The 
Crufica Academy intrusted to him the su- 
perintendence of the new edition of iu Dic- 
tionary ; the grand dnke of Tuscany placed 
him at tlie head of his printing establish- 
ment ; and Pope Benedict XI\ . made him 
librarian of the Vatican, his almoner, and 
a canon. Bottari is the antlior of various 
works, relative to literature and the arts. 

BOTZARIS, Mark, one of the galhint 
defenders of liberty in modera Greece, was 
bora in Albania, in 1780, and is said to 
have been, at an early period of his life, in 
the French service. When the Greeks 
rose to throw off the Ottoman yoke, he ar- 
dently espoused the cause of bis country, 
and was chosen stratarch of Western 
Greece. The Turks having invaded Eto- 
Iia with a large army, he, at the bead of 
two hundred and fiffy volonteers, SMMle a 

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woctamk attack on the enemy's camp, and 
put great Dumbera oftbem to the sword; 
bat, towards the close of the contest, he 
received a mortal wound. -His compan- 
ions in arms, by a desperate effort, sac* 
oeeded in bearing him worn the field, and 
ne expired at Missolonfhi on the following 
day, August 28, 1828. 

BOUCHARDON, Edmk, a celebrated 
French sculptor, was bom, in 1698, at 
Cbaumont in Bassigni, and died in 1762. 
Among bis principal works are, a part of the 
figures of tne fountain of Neptune at Ver- 
sailles; the monument of the duchess of 
Lauraguais ; and the fountain of Grenelle 
Street. He desicned also, particularly in 
red chalk, with admirable spirit and taste. 
BOUD1NOT, Elias, a descendant of 
one of the Huffiienots, was bom in Phila- 
delphia, in 1740. He received a libera] 
education, and entered into the practice of 
the law in New-Jersey, where he soon rose 
to considerable eminence. In 1777 he was 
chosen a member of Conmss, and in 1782 
mas elected president of that body. On 
the return of peace he resumed his profes- 
sion, but in 1789, was elected to a seat in 
the hoase of representatives of the United 
States, whidi he continued to occupv for 
six years. He was then appointed by 
Wasiiington Director of the National Mint, 
in which ofiioe he remained for about 
twelve years. Resigning this office he re- 
tired to private life, and resided from that 
time in Burlington, New-Jersey. Here he 
passed his time in literary pursuits, lib* 
eral hospitality, and in discharging all the 
duties of an expansive and ever active be- 
nevolence. Being po ssesse d of an ample 
fortune, he made munificent donations u> 
various charitable and theological institu- 
tions, and was one of the earliest and most 
efficient friends of the American Bible So- 
ciety. Of this institution be was the first 

« president, and it was particularly the ob- 
ject of bis princely bounty. He died in 

. October, 1821. 

BOUCICAUT, Jo"ii LK Maihgrx 
D E , a marshal of France, one of the bravest 
and best of his countirmen, was bora at 
Tours, in 1864 ; served at the a^ of twelve 
years under Dugticsclin ; acquired distin- 
Kuished honour at the battle of Nicopolis, 
in 1896, where, however, he was taken 
prisoner; governed the city of Genoa for 
nine years with humanity and integrity; 
was made captive at tlie battle of Asincour, 
wfai<^ was fought against his advice; and 
died in England, in 1421, ailer a captivity 
af six years. 

BOuFFLERS,Loi7i8 Francis, Duke 
of, an eminent French marshal, was born 
in 1644; served with distinction under 
C>equi, and Turenne; immortalized him- 
self by h'ls defence of Lisle, in 1708, and 
his retreat after the battle of Malplaquet; 


and died in 1711. He was aolesi !•» 
markable for generosity, probity, and nod* 
es^, than for military talent. • 

BOUFFLERS, Stahislavs, Marquie 
of, a descendant of the duke, was bom at 
Luneville, in 1787, and was ceM>rated for 
wit, talents, accomplishments, and elegance 
of manners. He early embraced a military 
life, and became a kniriit of Malta, and 
governor of Senegal. During the revolu* 
tion he emigrated to Berlin, and was chosen 
a member of die Academy of that city. 
He died at Paris, in 1815. Hu poems 
are polished and playfol, but some of^ them 
are licentious; his prose works also hava 
considerable merit. 

BOUGAINVILLE, Louis Aitthont 
Dx (brother of JoHir Peter, who trans- 
lated the Anti-Lucretius, and wrote a 
Parallel between the Expeditions of Alex* 
ander and Kouli Khan), was bora at Paria 
in 1729. In Canada he acted as aid-de* 
camp to Montcalm, and displayed sudl 
bravery in nuiny actions, that ne obtained 
the rank of colonel, and a gift of two can- 
non. He next made a voyase round the 
world, which was completed in 1769. 
The narrative of it was published in 1772. 
He rose to high military and naval rank ; 
but retired from the service in 1790. Un- 
der the empire he was made a senator, and 
a member of the Institute. The Royal So- 
ciety also chose him one of its members. 
He died in 1811. Besides his Voyage, ha 
gave to the press a Treatise on the Inte- 
gral Calculus, 2 vols. 4to. 

BOUGEANT, Williav Htagiitth, 
a Jesuit, bora at Quimper, in 1690, who 
died at Paris, in 1748, is the author of 
various works of merit; among the most 
prominent of which are a History of the 
Treaty of Westphalia, and a volume oh 
the Language of Beastr. The latter pro- 
duction, in which he maintains that beasts 
are animated by demons, was merely meant 
as a pleasantry ; but some stupid animals 
about the court having taken him seriously, 
they procured his temporary exile, tiis 
end IS said to have been hastened by the 
virulence of bis literary assailants. 

BOUGUER, .Petkr, eminent as a 
mathematician and hydro^rafJier, was bora 
at Croisic, in Lower Britanny, in 1698, 
and at thirteen po s sessed such mathenmtieal 
knowledge that he publicly foiled a pro- 
fessor. He was sent with Condamine and 
others to measure a deffree in South Amer- 
ica; a task on which wey were ten years 
employed. Bouruer invented the belio- 
meter, and made numerous observations 
on the pendulum, the atmosphere, the ex- 

Binsion of metals, and other subjects, 
e died in 1758. Among his works aio 
Treatises on the Construction of Shipai 
on Navigation and Pilotage ; and on Light. 
BOUHOUR8, DoHiif ic» a critic, na^ 

Digitized by 



■r leften, and member of Aib Society of 
J69II8, was born at Pans, in 1628, and was 
tntor to the sons of the duke of Loiwue- 
▼ille and the son of Colbert. He died in 
the French capital, in Vm2. His princi- 
pal works are, Conrersatioos of Aristns 
and Eugenins; Remarks and Doubts on 
the "French Language; and the Art of 
forming a correct Judgment on Literary 

BOUILLE,FRAirci8 Claude Amour, 
Marquis de, a natiye of Auvercne, was 
bom about 1788, and commanded with 
mat success in the West Indies during 
the American war. When the French 
rerohition began, he warmly espoused the 
royal cause, and was compelled to emi- 
grate. Afier havinr Tainlv endeavoured 
to rouse Russia and Sweden to a war 
against France, he settled at London, where 
he died, November 14, 1800. His Memoirs 
sf tlie French Revolution is a valuable 

de, a native of Normandy, was bom at 
St. Saire, in that province, in 1658, and 
died in 1762. As an historian he is depre- 
ciated by Henault, but Montesquieu and 
Voltaire speak of him with considerable 
respect. He was an idolater of the feudal 
times, which he considered as the golden 
aee of the monarchv! He is the author 
uf a History of the Ancient (Government of 
Prance; die State of France; the Life 
of Mahomet; aHistoryof the Arabs; and 
various other works. 

BOULANGER, Nicholas Avthoht, 
a native of Paris, was bom in 1722, and 
lied in 1769. He was brought up as an 
engineer, and appointed supermtendant of 
toads and bridges. In his principles he 
was deist ical. He contributed some arti- 
cles to the Encyclopedia, and wrote Anti- 
Quity Unmasked; and an Inquiry into the 
Griffin of Eastern Despotism. Damila- 
vfitle^s obnoxious work, intitled Christianity 
Unmasked, has erroneously been attributed 
to Boubmser. 

BOULTER, Hugh, an eminent prelate, 
was bora in London, or its vicinity, in 
1671, and v^as educated at Merchant 
Tailors' school, and Christ Church, Oxford. 
After having eojoved the minor prefer- 
ments of minister of St. Obve, Sonthwark, 
archdeacon of Surrey, chaplain to the king, 
de^n of Christ Church, and bishop of Bris- 
tol, he was, in 1724, nominated archbishop 
of Armagh, and primate of all Irelana, 
which dignities he held till his death, in 
1742. He wa^' 'Jso thirteen times one of 
the lords justices of Ireland. Boulter was 
an able and benevolent man, and did much 
to relieve the wants of the country in which 
he was placed; but his policy was narrow, 
as it teiMMi to keep the Irish in a state of 
pw p e tUR iepression, and consequently of 



hostility against those whon tMj eoMid* 
ered as their oppressors. 

BOULTON, Matter w, an emiooit 
engineer, was bora at Birmingham, ia 
17z8, and established there a manoftctorf 
of hardware, in which he brought works 
in polished steel to the highest perfoctton. 
In 1762, he built his imotense manuftictoryy 
at Soho, two miles from Birmingham, and 
in 1769 he entered into partnenhip with 
the celebrated James Watt. From that 
time their establishment became &mous 
throughout Europe for its steam .engines, 
and numerous other oroductions. Boulton, 
who was a fellow ot the London and Ed in* 
burgh Royal Societies, and an associate of 
other scientific institutions, died, at Soho, 
August 17, 1809. 

BOURBON, Charles, Duke of, son 
of the count of Montpensier, viras bora in 
1489, and received tne constable's staff, 
from Francis I., at the age of Mirenty-six. 
He displayed consummate valojr at the 
battle of Marienan, and was nmde viceroy 
of Milan. Unfortunately, however, IM 
persecution inveterately carried on against 
nim by Louisa, the king's mother, whose 
love he had rejected, at length drove him 
into rebellion. He gave his services to the 
emperor, and contributed to the victory of • 
Pavia. He was sbin in an assault upon . 
Rome, on the 6th of May, 1627. 

BOURCET, Peter Joseph de, a 
French officer and topographer, vras bora 
in 1700, at Usseaox^ in the valley of Pra- 
gelas, served with distinction in the cam- 
paigns of 1733, 1741, and 1756, and died a 
lieutenant-ceneral, in 1780. He is the au- 
thor of a nne map of Upper Dauphin^ ; 
Military Memoirs on the Frontiers of 
France and Piedmont; and Historical Me- 
moirs of the War in Germany, from 1757 
to 1762. 

BOURCHIER, Thomas, son of the 
earl of Eu, was educated^ at Oxford, be- 
came chancellor of that university, and was 
successively bishop of Worcester and of '^ 
Ely, and, in 1464, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. He was subsequently made a cardi- 
nal and lord chancellor ; and died in 1486. 
Three English sovereigns wera crowned by 
him. He is said to have introduced print- 
ing into England, in 1464; but this is 

BOURCHIER, John, Lord Berners, 
was born about 1469, and was educated 
at Oxford. In 1495 he took an active 
part in suppressing the Cornish rebellion, 
and he distinguished himself at the sio^ 
of Terouenne. Henry VIII. made him 
chancellor of the excl^uer, and after- 
wards governor of Calais. Lord Berners 
died at Calais, in 1632. His love of lite- 
rature wa^ as remarkable as his valour. 
He wrote various pieces, and translated 
Isome French romances; but his i * 


work it hii traaslatioB of Froiamrt's Chro- 

BOURDALOUE, Lovi8» a Jerait, and 
a French preacher of oonsummate elo- 
quence, wai bom at Boorgee, in 1682. 
The reputation which he acouired by 
preaching in the country induced hia tupe- 
riort to aend him to Farii, where he imme- 
diately acquired popularity, and became 
the &vonrite preacher of Louis XIV., who 
•ent him into Langoedoc, to convert the 
proteatantfl. The latter part of bis life waa 
speai in risiting the tick and the prisona, 
aind in other %rorka of charity. He died, 
»niv<Ttall^ regretted, in 1704. Hiasermona 
occupy aixteen vohimea, and ha?e often 
been reprinted. 

BOURDON, Skbastiah, a painter of 
merit in varioua atylea, but particularly 
in landacape, waa bom at Montpelier, in 
1616, and atudied at Rome, where he waa 
the friend of CHaude Lorraine. In 1662, 
wiahing to avoid the civil wnn which 
threatmed France, he viaited Sweden, and 
waa potroniaed'by Christina. She made 
him a present of aome picturea which 
GtDMtavna had brought from Dreadeo ; but, 
on examining them. Bourdon diaintereat- 
edly told her that she ou^ht not to part 
. witn ao valuable a collection. Christina 
afterwarda took them to Rome, and they 
at length formed k part of the famooa 
Orleana gallery. Bourdon died at Paria, 
in 1671. He waa an engraver aa well aa a 

BOURGEOIS, Sir Frahcis, whose 
parents were Swiaa, waa born in London, 
in 1766, and waa deaigned for the army, 
but diai^yed such an attachment to paint- 
ing that he waa placed under Louther- 
bourg. After having travelle<l for improve- 
ment, he became a royal academician. In 
1791 he waa appointed painter to the king 
of Poland; and, in 1794, landscape painter 
to Oeorce III. He died in 1811. The 
mlendia collection of picturea which Mr. 
Deaenfona had bequeathnd to him. Sir 
Francia left to Dulwich College, with ten 
thooaand pounds to build a gallery for them. 

BOURGOING, JoHK Francis, Baron 
de, waa bora at Nevers, in 1748, served 
early in the army, and sooceasively acted 
as secretary of lection, and laatly as 
ambaaaador at various courts. He died, 
anvo}' at Dresden, in 1811. Of h<s writ- 
ings the principal are, the Picture of Mod- 
era Spain, 8 vols.; and Historical and 
Philosophical Memoirs of Piua VI. 

BOURIGNON, AifToiiiETTA,a fonat- 
le, bora at Lisle, in 1616. So frightful 
was her appearance at her birth, that her 
parems hesitated whether thev ought not 
to destroy her as a monster. As she grew 
up, however, her appearance improved, 
Mid aha gave aigna ot oonaiderable talent. 
HsHng an aversifHi to matrimony, aha 


twice eloped firom home to avoid it. TIm 
reading of mystical worka inflamed oer 
imagination, and abe believed that she had 
visious and ecstatic trances, in which she 
was commanded to restore the true evao* 
gelical spirit in the world. She wandered 
about incessantly, and was expelled from 
many countries; but she made numerous 
proselytes, among whom were men of abil- 
ities. The virtue of charity she certainly 
did not possess ; for she never gave alms. 
She dieil at Franeker, in UoUand, in 1680. 

Her reveries fill twenty-two vok 

BOURLIE, Akthokt dk Goiscard, 
Abb6 de la, who is known in English 
history as the oiarquis de Guiscard, was 
born in Qiiercy, in 1668, and eiitertd the 
church. For some crime, however, he was 
compelled to fly- Failing in an attempt 
to spread the revolt of the Cevenncs, be 
took refuge in England, where he received 
a pension from Queen Anne^s ministers; 
but, having betra}*ed them to his own gov- 
eroroent, be was summoned before the 

Eivv council. There he stabbed Mr. 
ariey, and, in returo, was so danger- 
ously wounded by some of the counsellors, 
that he died in Newgate, in 1711. 

BOURNE, Vincent, one of the most 
elegant of modem Latin poets, was educat- 
ed at Westminster and Triniw College, 
Cambridge, took his degree of M. A. in 
1721, and died undermaster of Westmin- 
ster school in 1747. Cowper describes him 
as havinff been the neatest of all men in 
bu vers'r nation, the most slovenlv in his 
person; and, as a poet, he thinks liim not 
at all inferior to Ovid. 

BOURRIT, Mark Throdork, a na- 
tive of Gf»ieva, born in 1739, and died in 
1819, vras a chanter in the cathedral of his 
native city. He is known to the public 
by bis various joumevs to the Alps, and 
particularly to the glaciers and Mont Blanc ; 
of which he published narratives in 177^ 
and 1786. The last of these works was 
reprinted in 1789, with a Description of 
the Glaciers of the Pennine and Rhetian 

BOURSAULT, Edmund, a Frendi 
writer, was bom at Muci l*Ev^<]iie, in Bur^ 
gundy, in 1688, and though hife fiither, a 
dissipated officer, to prevent him from 
knowing more than himself, wo jld gi\e 
him no education, he acquired a consum- 
mate knowledge of the French language 
He wrote several comedies, particularly 
Esop in Town, and Esop at Uonrt, three 
romances, and other works of considerable 
merit, among which mny be mentioned Let- 
ters to Babet Boursault was a man of a 
modest mind and a forgiring spirit. He 
died in 1701 

BOUSMARD, M. DK, a military engi- 
neer, after having been in the French saiw 
vioe, passed, in 1792, in|o that of I 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 


ndrsMtodie rank of major igeiwimL He 
WM killed, by a bomb, at the siege of 
Daotdck, May 22, 1807. He is the author 
•f a vahiable Essay od Fortification, in 
foar quarto vokimes, with a vohsme of 
plates ; and of a Defence of Vauban, who 
oad been attacked by Laclos. 

BOWDLER, Thomas, the son of a 
phjorieian at Bath, was born in 1764, and 
died in 1826. He wrote Refcurm and Ra- 
in ; Letters written in Holland ; and edited 
tne Family Shakspeare; and an expurgat- 
ed edition of Gibbon's History. His two 
sifters, Jane and Hannah, ana his brother 
John, all poMesred literary talents. 

BOWDICH, Thomas Edwart), a na- 
tive of Bristol, where he was born in 1793, 
received a good education, and engaged in 
trade at his native place, but relinquished 
it to become a writer in the service, of the 
African Company. In 1816, he was sent 
on a mission, from Cape Coast Castle, to 
the king of Ashantee. Of this embassy he 
sabseqoentlv published a valuable narra- 
tive. By mis exposures and representa- 
tions government was induced to dissolve 
the company. Eager to pursue his discov- 
eries in Amca, he again visited that coun- 
try ; but, unfortunately for geogrB|)hy and 
science, disease, brought on oy anxiety and 
toil, closed his career, on the 10th of Jan- 
uary, 1824, shortly after he reached the 
river Gambia. 

BOWDOIN, James, a governor of 
Massachusetts, was bom at Boston in the 
year 1727, and was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1746. He took an early stand 
against the encroachments of the British 
l^cmment upon the provincial rights, and 
m 1774 was elected a delegate to the first 
Congress. The state of his health prevent- 
ed his attendance, and his place was after- 
wards filled by Mr. Hancock. In 1778 he 
was chosen president of the convention 
which formed the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, and in 1785 was appointed gov- 
erT4>r of that State. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts convention UK.^emhled 
to dclihcmte on the adoption of the Con- 
rtitution of the United States, and exerted 
I i .\FPtt' in its favour. He was the first 
or-'. t'Ic'U ty( llie Academy of Arts and Sci- 
e'»«"<»5 «3ctid.liphed at Boston in 1780, and 
Ma« »dniitte<l a member of several foreign 
fWicieficK of distinction. Ho died at Boston 
in 1790. 

BOWER, Archibald, a native of 
Dupdee, born in 1686, was educated at 
St. Omer, entered the order of the Jesuits, 
and became a counsellor of the inquisition, 
at Maoerata, in the papal stales. He, 
however, fled to England, in 1726, embrac- 
ed the protestant &ith, and was patronised 
by p e w o o a of eminence^ But his sincerity 
was much doubted, and his conduct was 
~ ~ by many, particularly by Dr. 


Doo^, the detector of LaadMr. Ha 
died in 1766. Bower conducted the His- 
toria Literaria; wrote a very indiflerent 
History of the Popes; and contributed 
largely to the Universal History. 

BOWYER, William, an emioeat 
scholar and typographer, was bom in Lon- 
don, in 1699, and, after having been for 
some time at St. John's CoU^, Cam- 
bridge, became a partner- with his fiither 
in tM printing business. He was printer 
to various learned bodies, and to the housa 
of lords. He published several philolo|^i« 
cal tracts, and added notes to many erudite 
works fit>m his press; but his principal 
production is an edition of the New Testa- 
ment in Greek, with conjectural eaienda- 
tions. He died in 1777. 

BOYCE, William, was bom in Lon- 
don, in 1710, and studied music under 
Greene, the organist of St. PauPs. Not- 
withstiuiding that he unfortunately became 
deaf in his youth, he attained to high emi- 
nence in his profession. He became Mus 
D., master of the kind's band, and ornn 
ist and composer to his majesty. Both in 
sacred and secular compoeitiona he clis- 
played irreat talent. He died in 1779. 

BOYD, Mark Alxxahder, a Scotch 
poet, who was considered as a second 
" admirable Crichton," was bom in Gallo- 
way, in 1662, studied at Ghisgow and Par- 
is, wandered over the continent for fouiv 
teen years, and died at his fiither's seat, 
at Pmkhill, in 1601. Some of his Latin 
poems are in the Deliciie Poetannn Scot- 
onim ; and many of his manuscripts are 
said still to exist. 

BOYD, Hi70H M ACAtJLAT, whose ori- 
ginal nanie was Macaul y, was born in 
Ireland, in 1746, and educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin. For some time he was 
A political writer in tU>ndon ; after which 
lie accompanied Ix>rd Macartney to Ma- 
dras, >%-liere he dieil in 1791. The Letters 
of Junius have abfiardly lecn attHbuted to 
I his pen. Hi* inconij e>jnce to produce 
those Letters is, liowever, amply proted 
by his own works, which ha\e bi-en col- 
lected in two vr.lunies. Talent he hari, l.-iit 
far indeed inferior to the talent of Juntu«. 

BOY DELL, John, was bom in Staf- 
fordshire, in 1719, and was originally 
an engraver. Toms was his preceptor ia 
the art. Having gained some money by 
his talents and industry, he commenced 
business as a printseller, and sooa became 
one of the most eminent in Europe Ea* 
terprising and liberal, he was a great en- 
conrager of painters and engravers. The 
most celebrated artists were employed by 
him to paint pictures for the Sbakspeara 
Gallery, of which, in consequence of bis 
trade being injured by the continental war, 
he at length disposed by lottery. After 
ing been sheriiT, akUrman, aad hmd 


Digitized by 




BWTor of LoBdoB, he died Deoenber the 
12th, 1804. 

BOYCR, Abel, a French hnsnenot, 
born at Gastried, in 1664, quitted France 
on the revocation of the eaict of Nantz, 
and Mttled in London. He died in 1729. 
He published various useful works, partly 
compilations, among which are his Politi- 
cal State of Europe; History of King 
William; and Annate of Queen Anne: 
bat be is best known by his French and 
JSqgUih Dictionary and Grammar. 

BOTLE, Robert, a philosopher, who 
ranks with Bacon and with Newton, was 
the serenth son of the celebrated earl of 
Cork, and was born at Ltsmore, in Ire- 
land, January the 26th, 1626; tlie ye;ir 
that Bacon died. Eaton has the honour 
Whis early education, which was perfect- 
ed by private tutors, and lastly at Geneva. 
After having travelled over various parts 
of the continent, he settled in England, 
and devoted himself to science, especially 
to natural philosophy and to chemistry; 
and till the close of hM existence, be unre- 
mittingly persevered in bis scientific pur- 
•uiu. Of the Royal Society he was one 
of the first members, but he declined tlie 
office of president, as he did also tliat of 
provost of Eton College. Philosophy, 
however, did not wholly engross his time ; 
much of his leisure was ^iven to tlieological 
studies, to the composition of moral and 
religiooe works, and to the advancement 
of religion, for which latter object he ex- 
pended very considerable sums. Among 
nis pi(HM acU was tlie founding of a lecture 
for the defence of nauiral and revealed re- 
ligion. As an experimental philosoplier, 
he displayed indefatigable ardour, and un- 
common penetration and skill, and he, 
nndoubtecUy, opened the way to many mo- 
dem discoveries. As a man, his character 
was of the most estimable kind; his man- 
ners wer> sinjnil&rly mild and courteous, 
and be possessed piety without bigotry, 
lenming without arrogance, and charity 
without oslenution. Boyle was never 
married. He died on the 90th of Decem- 
•er. 1691, a week after his favourite sister, 
■-Mv JUaelaoh* to whom he was affection- 


ately attached, and xrlHi whom he had 1if«i 
for the most part of Bearly half a century. 
His numerous works have been collected 
in five volumes folio, and also in six vo- 
lumes quarto. 


BOYLSTON, Zaudisl, was born at 
Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1684. lie 
studied medicine at Boston, and entered 
into the practice of bis profession in that 
place. In 1721, when the small-nox broke 
out in Boston and spread alarm through 
the whole country, the practice of inocu- 
lation was introduced oy Dr. Boylston, ' 
notwithstanding it was discouraged by the 
rest of the faculty, and a public ord>nance 
was passed to prohibit it. He persevered 
in his practice m spite of the most yjtlent 
opposition, and had tlie satisfiiction of 
seeing inoculation in general use in New 
England, for some time before it became 
common in Great Britain. In 1725 ho 
visited England, where he vras received 
with much attention, and was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. Upon his re- 
turn, he continued at tlie liead of his pro- 
fession for many years, and accumulated a 
large fortune. Elesides communications to 
the royal society, he published two trea- 
tises on the Small Pox. He died in 1766. 

BOYSE, S A MU EL, tlie son of a disaent- 
ing minister, was bom at Dublin, in 1708. 
He embraced literature as a profession, 
and was employed in various compilations, 
and in the Gentleman's Macaxine. His 
poetical powers obtained tor him the 
patronage of the duchess of Gordon, and 
otlier persons of rank and fortune, but 
patronage was bestowed in vain on Boyse, 
who was negligent and fond of low dissi- 
pation. After having, for several years, 
experienced every variety of wretchedness, 
he expired, in 1749, at a miserable lodginjg 
in Shoe Lane. Some of his poems have 
been admitted into tlie collected works of 
the British poets. Of his productions, tb% 
principal is The Deity, a religious poem, 
which, in spite of many faults, is honour- 
able to his talents. 

BRACCIOLINI, Frarcis, an Italian 
poet, was bom at Pistoia, in 1666, and 
died in 1645. He was secretary to car- 
dinal Barbarini, and bavinc celebrated 
that prelate's elevation to the popedom 
(Urban VIII.), bu patron gave him the 
surname of deU'Api, in allusion to the baes, 
which are the arms of tlie Barbarini family. 
Bracciolini was a fertile and not con- 
temptible poet, in various styles. His 
principal works are, an heroic poem, called 
tlie Cross Reconquered ; and a mock heroic 
poem, Le Schemo degli Dei, 'n ridicule 
of the heathen deities. 

BRACTON, Herrt de, a native of 
Devonshire, and educated at Oxford, ww 


MMS <NM oi tM radces ituMmt or Hour? 
UI. in 1244. The dme of his death n 
vtknown. He owes his &me to his Tahi- 
feble work on the Laws and Cnstoms of 
England, which was first published in 1569. 

BRADBURY, ThomjiS, a dissenting 
ninister, born at Wakefield, in 1677, be* 
name the successor of Daniel Burgess, and 
an imitator of that preacher's style of 
polpit eloquence* He died in 1759. His 
Sennons possess considerable merit, and 
his character was much esteemed. 

BRADDOCK, Ed w A R D, major-general 
of the British army, and c<Nnmander of 
the detachment engaged in the expedition 
against the French on the river Ohio, in 
1755, arrived in Virginia in February of 
that year, and in the spring marched 
against fort Du Qoesne. On his march 
thither he fell into an ambuscade of the In- 
dians, by which he lost nearly one half of his 
troops, and received himself a mortal wound. 

BRADFORD, William, the second 
governor of Plvmouth colony, was born in 
Enffland in 1588. In 1608 hie removed to 
Holland, that he might enjoy the benefits 
of religious freedom, and m 1620 he em- 
barked fur America with the church of Mr. 
Robinson. A fter tlieir arrival at Plymouth , 
he distinguished himself by his talents and 
activity, and in 1621 was chosen chief 
magistrate ; he was continued in this oflice, 
wiui the exception of a few years, till 1657, 
mhen he di^. He was much loved and 
revered for his public spirit, wisdom, and 

BRADFORD, William, an eminent 
lawyer, was born in Philadelphia in 1755. 
After graduating at Princeton College, be 
pursued the study of the law, and in 1779 
was admitted to the bar of tlie supreme 
court of Pennsylvania. In 1780 he was 
appointed attorney-general, and in 1791 
he was made a judge of the supreme court 
of his native state. In 1794 lie was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the United 
States, and held this office till his death. 
In 1793, he published an In(|uiry how far 
the Punishment of Death is necessary in 
Pennsylvania. He died in 1795. He was 
a man of intesnritv, industry^ and talent. 

BRADLEY, Dr. James, an emineot 
astronomer and mathematician, was bom, 
in 1902, at Shireborn, in Gloucestershire, 
educated at Baliol College, Oxford, and 
took orders, but resigned two livings, in 
order to rive himself u|i wholly to astro- 
Dony. He was successively Savilian pro- 
fessor at Oxford, lecturer on astronomy 
and experimental (^lilosopi.y, and astrono- 
mer royal. The latter onice he held, witli 
high reputation, from 1741 till his death 
in 1672 In 1751, George II. offered him 
tlie rich living of Greenwich, but Bradley 
declined it as incompatible with his other 
■tuclMs: a pension of two hondred and 



IiAt pomds wai, in 
on mm. Bradley ii 

iromortaliied his name* 
and extended^ the bounds of astronomical 
science, by his discoveries of the abcrra* 
tion of the fixed stars, and the nutation £i 
the earth's axis. A part of bis volnminoog 
and valuable observations, made at the 
royal observatory, was published in 1796. 

BRADLEY, Richard, a once popular 
writer on gardening and husbandry, was a 
member of the Royal Society, and profes- 
sor of botany at Cambridge. The date of 
his birth is unknown; he died in 17^. 
The original idea of the kaleidoscope has 
been erroneously attributed to him. Among 
other works, he wrote a History of Succu- 
lent Plants; the Gentleman's and Garden- 
er's Kalendar; a General Dictionary of 
Husbandry and Grardening; and a Botani- 
cal Dictionary. 

BRADSHAW, John, celebrated as 

f resident of the tribunal by which Charles 
. was tried, is said by some to have been 
bom in Derbyshire, and by others in 
Cheshire, in 1586. He studied the hw in 
Gray's Inn. In the contest between Charles 
and the people, Bradshaw espoused the 
cause of uie latter. The parliament made 
him chief justice of Chester, and he was 
also chosen to preside in the high coort of 
justice which sat upon the king. Crom^ 
well, to whose usurpation he was hostile, 
deprived him of the chief justiceship. 
Bradshaw died in 1659; and, at the resto- 
ration, his remains were disinterred, and 
hanged at Tyburn. 

BRADWARDINE, Thomas, denomi- 
nated the profound doctor, was born at 
Hortfield, m Cheshire, late in the thir- 
teenth century, and educated at Mertoa 
College, Oxford. He was the confessor of 
Edward III., and attended him to France. 
In 1849, he was made archbishop of Can- 
terbury, but died six weeks subeei^uently. 
Bradwardine was scarcely \eM eminent as 
a mathematician than as a theologian. 
Among his works are, De Causa Dei ; and 
Geometria Speculativa. 

BRADY, ROBKRT, a physician and his- 
torian, a native of Norfolk, was educated 
at Caius College, Cambridge; of which 
college he became master. He wis also 
keeper of the records in the Tower, regiui 
professor of physic at Cambridge, physi- 
cian to James I J., and one of the represen- 
tatives for Cambridge. He died in 1700. 
His principal works are, an Introduction 
to tlie old English History; a Complet* 
History of SngUnd; and a Treatise oa 
Burghs. Gilbert Stuart justly observes of 
Brady, that ** he prostituted an excellent 
understanding, and admirable quickaess» 
to vindicate tyranny, and to destroy the 
riglits of his nation." 

BRADY, Nicholas, a divma and 
poet, bom in 1659, at Bandon, in Ifelana, 



wai educated mt Weetmintter, Ozlbrd, and 
Dublin;' obtained varions pceferments in 
England, among which was that of chap- 
lain to William III.; and died in 1726. 
He translated the Eneid, and wrote a tra- 
gedy, and three Tolames of sermons ; bnt is 
now remembered only by his version of the 
Psalms, executed in coniunction with Tate. 

BRA HE, Ttcho, who has been called 
the restorer of astronomy, was born at 
Kniidstorp, in Scania, in 1546, of a noble 
faniily. His love of astronomy was early 
manifested, and his discovery, in 1672, of 
a new star in the constellation Cassiopeia 
made him known to the scientific world. 
Afler many travels and adventures, he was 
patronised by his sovereign, Frederic II., 
who g^ve him a pension, and the island of 
Hwen, in the Sound, on which Brahe built 
a splendid observatory, named Uraniburgh. 
Tliere he resided nearly twenty years, as- 
siduously labouring in his astronomical pur- 
suits. Soon after the deatli of Frederic, 
however, Brahe lost his pensions, became 
an object of persecution, and was compel- 
led to quit his country. The Emperor 
Rodolph invited him to Prague, and tlie 
expatriated astronomer settled there, in 
1698; but he did not long survive this re- 
moval, for be died in tlie Bohemian capi- 
tal, in 1601. Brahe discovered two new 
inequalities in the motion of the moon, 
maae other valuable observations *on that 
satellite, was, perhaps, the first who had 
correct ideas of the nature of comets, and, 
with less happiness, invented a new plane- 
tary system, which was vainly intended to 
supersede that of Copernicus. He is the 
author of a Treatise on tlie New Phenom- 
ena of the Heavens ; and other astronomi- 
cal works. 

BRAIDWOOD, Thomas, a native of 
Edinburgh, the first person in Great-Brit- 
ain, who to any extent, undertook to 
afford instruction to the deaf and dumb. 
In 1763 he began to practice his valuable 
art; and, in 1783, he removed his estab- 
lishment from Edinburgh to Hackney. He 
died in 1806. His daughter, who died in 
1819, also conducted a seminary of the 
samf; kind. 

BRAINARD, J. G. C, a poet and man 
of .etters, was bom in Connecticut, and 
was graduatec at Yale College in 1815. 
He studied the fnrofcssion of Uie law and 
entered into practice at Middletown,Conn. ; 
bat not find ins the degree of success that 
he expected, he returned in a short time 
to his native town, whence he removed to 
Hartford, to undertake the edttorial charge 
of the Connecticut Mirror. His poems 
were chiefly short pieces, composed tor the 
oolum'*8 of this paper, and afterwards col- 
lected in a volume. Th^ display much 
pataos, boldness, and originality. Brain- 
ard died of consumption in 1828. 


BRAINERD, Dayid, tKe cakbraiaJ 

missionary, was born at Haddam, Con- 
necticut, in 1718. Y'rom an early period 
he was emarkable for a religious tarn of 
mind, and in 1739 became a member oi 
Yale College, wliere he was distinguiebed 
for application and general correctness of 
conduct. He was expelled from this in- 
stitution in 1742, in consequence of havins 
said, in the warmth of his religious zealy 
that one of the tutors was as devoid of 
grace as a chair. In the spring of 1742 
be began the study of divinity, and at the 
end of July was licensed to preach. Having 
received from the society, for propagating 
Christian knowledge, an appointment as 
missionary to tlie Indians, he commenced 
his labours at Kaunameek, a village of 
Maseadiusetts, situated l)etween Stock- 
bridge and Albany. He remained there 
about twelve inonUis, and on tlie removal 
of the Kaunamecks to Stockbridge, he 
turned his attention towards the Delaware 
Indians. In 1744 he was ordained at 
Newark, New Jersey, and fixed his resi- 
dence near the forks of the Delaware in 
Pennsylvania, where he remained about a 
year. From this pbce, lie removed to 
Crosweeksung, in New Jersey, where his 
efforts among the Indians were crowned 
witli great success. In 1747, he went to 
Nortliampton, Maseacluisetts, where he 
passed tne remainder uf his life in tlie 
family of the celebrated Jonatlian Edw-ards. 
He flied afler great sufierings in 1717. 
His publications are a narrative of his 
labours at Kaunameek, and his journal of 
a remarkable work of grace among a num- 
ber of Indians in New Jersey and Peun* 
9}'lvania, 1746. 

BRAM AH, Joseph, an eminent mecha- 
nician and engineer, born in 1749, at 
Stainsborough, in Yorkshire, was appren- 
ticed to a carpenter ; but very early evinced 
his genius fur mechanics. Removing to 
London, he commenced Inisiness, and laid 
the foundation of his fortune by an im- 
provement on water-closetB. He became, 
however, still better known by hip inge 
nious locks, which cannot be picked, and 
for which he obtained a patent. Many 
other inventions followed; among Mhirh 
one of the most useful is the hvdraiilic 
press, on the principle of the hydrostatic 
paradox: the power of this press may Im 
said to be unlimited, and is of extensive 
application. Bramah died in 1815. 

Lazarus, an Italian architect, bom at 
Castel Durante, in 1444, was much es* 
teemed and employed by Pope Julius H 
He executed manv great works, at Romi 
and other cities ; but his &me principally 
rests upon his having planned and b^ua 
Saint Peter's Church ; which, however, he 
did not live to finish, as he died in 1514- 

Digitized by 


faToiiii i 


fay Dim in ardiitectnre. Bramante wa« 
an amiable man, and was skilled in poetrV) 
painting, engraving, and masic. He u 
•aid to have inTented a mode of construct- 
ing arches, hv casting a sort of artificial 
stone in moulds. 

BRAMHA^Lt Johh, an eminent pre- 
late, was bom at Pontefract, in 1593, and 
educated at Sidney College, Cambridge. 
After having obtained several pfeferments 
in England, and been one of the king's 
high commissiono's, . he went to Irelana, 
where lie roee to be bishop of Londonder- 
ry, and took an active part in church af- 
fains. In 1641, however, articles of trea- 
son were exhibited against him, but the 
proceedings were subsequently dropped. 
During the civil wars he was nighiy ser- 
viceaUe to the ro>-al cause; and when the 
parliament triumphed be w ithdrew to Brus- 
sels. After the retitoration he was made 
archbishop of Armagh. He died in 1663. 
Like Laud, Brarohatl was a high church 
and I rerogatite champion, but imd more 
ieroner and moderation. His works form 
a f <lio volume. 

of, a French nublenian, eqiraliy remaikaMe 
for his generosity, wit, and love of eccience, 
was bom in 1735, and died in 1824.. He 
had a share in discovering the basis of the 
diamond, improved the manufacture of 
porcelain, and contributed greatly to spread 
inoculiition throughout Fruuce. He is the 
author of several literary, scientific, and 
political works ; among which are the 
tragedies of Clytemnestra and Jocasta. 

BRAND, JoHK, a native of Newcastle 
on Tyne, bora in 1743, was originally a 
shoeniakcr, but fortunately obtained die 
means of being educated at Oxford. He 
died, in 1806, rector of St. Mary Hill, 
London, and secretary of the Antiquarian 
Society. His principal v^orks are, a His- 
tory of Newcastle, two volumes quarto; 
and Observations on Popular Antiquities. 

BRAND, John, a divine, and political 
writer, took his master's degree at Caius 
College, Canibridge, in 1769, and obtained 
the livings of St. George, Southwark, and 
Wickliam Skeigh, in Sufiblk, which he re- 
tained till his decease, in 1808. His chief 
nrtiduciions are, a Defenee of Mr. Reeves ; 
HiHtniical EsFay on Political Asuociations; 
and a Vindication of Marquis Wellesley, 
on tlie Oude cliarge. 

BRANDES, JoHR Christiait, an ac- 
tor and dramatist, was bom at Stettin, in 
17S5, and died at Berlin, in 1799, after a 
life of singular vicissitude. He was an 
iDdiffcrent actor; but as an author he had 
merit, and has been called the Goldoni of 
Clennany. His works form eiglit octa\o 
rolamei*. He also wrote his own MemoirH. 
BRANDT, SKBA8T1A5, was bom a*. 

BRA in 

Straafaorgh, in 1454, and wat mc ce a w vely 
professor of law at Basle and Strasburgh. 
of which latter city he became syndic and 
chancellor. He died in 1520. He is the 
author, amon^ other works, of a satire 
called the Ship of Fools, which has been 
translated into several languages. 

BBANDT, Gerard, a poet and divine, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1626, and died 
there in 1685. He was pastor of a con- 
gregation of Remonstrants. His most im- 
portant works are, a Hbtory of the Re 
formation in the Low Countries, four vol 
umes quarto; a Life of De Ruyter; and 
Latin Poems. 

BRANDT, a noted half-blooded Indian 
Chief of the Mohawk tribe, was educated 
by Dr. Wheelock, of Dartmouth College, 
and made very considerable attainments in 
knowledge. In the revolutionary war he 
attached himself to tlie British, and headed- 
the party which destroyed the beautiful 
village of Wyoming. He resided in Canada 
aAer the war, and died there in 1807. 

BRANTOME, so called from an abbey 
which he possessed, but whose name was 
Pkter dk BOURDEILLES, was born in 
Perigord, in 1527, served in the army with 
reputation, was gentleman of the bed- 
chamber to Charles IX. and Henry III. of 
France, and died in 1614, at his castle of 
Richeraont. His Memoirs of his Contem- 
poraries, whicii have been repeatedly print- 
ed, together with the supplement, form 
fifteen volumes. It is truly observed of 
Brantome, by M. de Barante, that he it 
one of the most attractive and useful of 
modern historians, his narratives being a 
living and aninmted picture of the whole 
age m which he lived. 

BRATHWAYTE, Richard, a poet, 
was bom at Warcop, in Westmoreland, in 
1588, educated at Oxford and Cambridge, 
became a captain, justice, and deputy lieu- 
tenant for vVestnioreland, and died in 
1673. His works are numerous: among 
tliem are the Golden Fleece; the Poet's 
Willow; the Prod igaPs Tears; and Spirit- 
ual Spicery. The best known of them is 
Itinerarium Baraabii, or Drunken Bama- 
by's Journal. 

architect, the eecond son of Sir Richard 
Bray, was a favourite of Henry VII., who 
conferred on him many honours and im- 
portant ofiices. He died in 1503, with 
the chai-acter of a virtuous, charitable, and 
able man. His architectural skill is prov- 
ed by Henry tlio Seventh's Chapel, in 
Westminster Abbey, and St. George's 
Chapel at Windsor, the former of which 
was built, and tlie latter completed, under 
his direction. 

BRAY, Thomas, D. D., was bora at 
Marlon, in Shropshire, in 1656, and diad 
in 1730, rector of St. Botolph's Aldfal* 

Digitized by 



His wiiole IHq wai ipeot in efforts to pro- 
mote roliffion and works of utility and 
charity. He was the originator of paro- 
chial libraries for the cler^, and mainly 
contributed to the eotabliahment of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

BREBEUF, William DE,apoet,bom 
\t Thorigny, in Normandy, in 1618, was 
disappointed of the promised patronage of 
Gftrdinal Masarin, and retired to Venoix, 
near Caen, where he died in 1661, after 
baring for mose than twenty years been 
the victim of continual fever. Brebeuf was 
a pious, gentle, and modest man, of no 
mean talents His principal works are a 
translation of Lucan's Pharsalia; a Sati- 
rical Travesty on the first book of Lucan ; 
and Miscellaneous Poems. 

BREGUET, Abraham Loi7i8,one of 
the most eminent watch and chronometer 
makers in Europe, was bom in Switzer- 
land, ja 1747, and settled at Paris, after 
having served his apprenticeship at Ver- 
sailles. At his outset in life he had severe 
pecuniary difficulties to contend with, but 
M surmounted them by perseverance and 
talent, and established the most celebrated 
manufttctory on the continent. His im- 
prox-ements in watches and time pieces 
were numerous and highly important. He 
died in 1823. His business and his talents 
are inherited by his son. 

BREITKOPF, JoHK Gottlieb Em- 
■AKUCL, one of the most eminent of Ger- 
man printers and letter-founders, was born 
at Leipsic, in 1719, and died there in 1794. 
The whole of his life was spent in improv- 
ing typography and the art of casting 
types. He gave elegance to the German 
letter, rendered types twice as durable at 
nsual, and invented musical types and 
moveable characters for printing Chinese. 
Breitkopf is the author of an Essay on the 
Invention of Printing ; and an Essay on tlie 
Origin of Playing Cards. 

BRENNUS, a general of the Gauls, 
who jnvaded Italy, about 891 years b. g., 
defeated the Romans at the baule of Allia, 
and captured and ransomed Rome, but was 
at length expelled from Italy by Camil- 
his. — Another Brenkus invaded Greece, 
at the head of one hundred and seventy- 
five thousand jQauls, about 125 years b. c. 
After having committed great ravages, he 
was completely defeated, and, in conse- 
quence, put an end to his own existence by 

BREREWOOD, Edward, a mathe- 
matician, was bom at Chester, in 1565, 
studied at Oxford, was appointed, in 1596, 
the first astronomical professor at Greshani 
College, and died in 1618. He is the au- 
thor of De Ponderibus et Pretiis Veterum 
Nranmorum ; Inquiries touching the Diver- 
sity of Languages and Religions; and va- 
Hoiib other works. 


BRETON, Nicholas, a poet w);j «• 
joyed considerable reputation, in the rei|n* 
of Elisabeth, as a writer of rastorals uod 
madrigals, was a native of Staffordshire. 
His fattllad of Phillis and Corydon, in 
Percy's collection, is a pleasing specimen 
of his talents. 

BREUGHEL. There were four eminent 
painters of this name. Pete R, commonly 
Known as Old Breughel, firom his being the 
fkther of Peter the younger, and theDroll^ 
from his choice of subjects, was bom near 
Breda, in 1510, excelwd in landscape and 
ludicrous pictures, and died in 1570. John, 
his son, called, from his dress ,^ Velvet 
Breughel, was born at Brassels, in 1560, 
attained high reputation, and died in 1625. 
He sometimes painted in conjunction with 
Rubens. PeTer, the youngtr, another 
son of the elder, denominated Hellisll 
Breughel, from his love of the horrible, 
died in 1642. Abraham, a native of 
Antwerp, surnamed the Neapolitan, was 
bom in 1672, excelled in frait and flowers, 
and died at Naples. 

BREWER, Ahthont, a dramatic wri- 
ter, of the reign of James I. Though he 
enjoyed great reputation, nothing is known 
of his lite. Six of his pieces are extant. 
By acting at Cambridge in one of these, 
named Lingua, or the Five Senses, the 
dormant ambition of Cromwell is said to 
have been first awakened. This story » 
however, is exceedingly apocryphal. 

BRIDAINE, James, a French ecclesi- 
astic, born near Uzes, in 1701, was cele- 
brated for his eloquence, and for his inde- 
fatigable zeal in travelling to almost every 
part of France to preach. In the course 
of his life he undertook two hundred and 
fifty-six journeys through the kingdom, and 
there was scarcely a village where he did 
not display his powers. His Spiritual 
Songs have gone through forty-seven edi- 
tions. He died in 1767. 

BRIDEL, Samuel de, a poet and bo- 
tanist, vras bom, in 1761, at Grassier, in 
the Pays de Vaud, became tutor to the 
princes of Saxe Gotha, was subsequently 
employed in negotiations j^the duke of 
Saxe Gotha, and died in 1828. He is the 
author of Poetical Recreations; a collec- 
tion of Miscellaneous Poems ; Muscologia 
Recentiorum, six volumes quarto; Bryo- 
loffia Univ., two volumes octavo; and 
other works. — ^His brother JoHif Louis, 
bom in 1759, and died in 1821, was also 
a man of talent. 

BRIDGEMAN, Sir Orlando, the son 
of the bishop of Chester, was, afler the 
restoration of Charles 11., successively 
made chief baron of tne exchequer, chief 

I'ustice of the common P^bas, and lord 
.eeper. Of the latter office he was de 
prived in 1672. The period of his deaA 
IS uncertain. He is the author of Cn«-^ 

Digitized by 


tmttt; Wing Select Precedentf of deeds 
fud ifwtrninentB. 

BRIDGEW4TER, Fbahcis Eokr- 
TOK, Doke of, irho deserves to be com- 
nemorated as the individoal who first de- 
monstrated to his couDtry the benefits of 
canal navigation, was bora in 1786, and 
succeeded to the title in 1748. Seconded 
by the genius of Brindlsy, he expended 
large smns in forming canals, and was at 
lei^th amply repaid. His first canal, from 
Worsley to Manchester, was opeMd in 
1760. He died in 1803. 

BRIDPORT, Alexander Hood, Ad- 
miral Lord, the youngest brother of Vis- 
count Hood, like his relative, entered the 
nary early, and, like him, distinguished 
himself on many occasions, as an able and 
(pliant seaman. He bore a part in the ac- 
tion of the first of June, 1794, and, in 
June, 1795, defeated a French squadron, 
and captured three sail of the line. He 
was created an Irish peer in 1794, an 
English peer in 1796, and died in 1814. 

BRIGGS, Henrt, a mathematician, 
bom near Halifax, in 1536, was educated 
at St. John's, Cambridge, and was first 
professor of geometry at Gresham College, 
and afterwards at Chcford. He resided at 
Oxford till his decease, in 1680. Brign 
was a friend of Lord Napier, and mainly 
contributed to improve and diffuse the 
valuable invention of logarithras. To him 
also, in feet, belongs the discovery of the 
binomial theorem, the differential method, 
and other things, which have been attri- 
buted to a later period. Among his works 
are, Arithmetica Logarithmica ; Triffono- 
metria Britannica (completed by Gelll 
brand) ; and Tables for the Improvement 
of Navigation. 

was bom at Belley, on tlte Savoy firontier 
of France, in 1755, and at the time of his 
death, in 1826, filled a place in one of the 
higher French tribunals. He produced 
various works; but is best known by his 
Physioloffy of Taste, or Meditations of 
transcendental Gastronomy, which has 
passed through several editions. 

BRINDLEY, James, born in 1716, at 
Tunsted, in Derbyshire, received but a 
slender education, and was originally a 
millwright. His mechanical genius, how- 
ever, soon manifested itself, and he com- 
menced business as an engineer, in which 
be acquired considerable practice and repu- 
tation. But the circumstance which first 
raised him into eminence was his being 
empkiyetl by the duke of Bridsewater, in 
17^, to form the canal from Worsley to 
Manchester. When Brindley first pro- 
posed to carry this canal over the naviga- 
ble river Irwell, by means of an aqueduct, 
an emirient engineer sneerinffly remarked, 
tkat '* be had before heard of castles in 



the air, but had never till then been shown 
where one was to be built.** The bold 
projector, however, was completely suo- 
cessful. Thenceforth he vras fully occo- 
pi«i in canals and other hydraulic works. 
Amoiv these canals may be mentioned the 
Grand Trunk, Birmingham, Droitwich, 
and Chesterfield. Brindley died in 1772. 
So impressed was he with the superiority 
of canab over rivers, that he is said to 
have told a committee of the house of com- 
mons, that the latter were created only for 
the purpose of feeding the former. 

Marchioness de, a woman whose crimes 
have gained her a niche in the temple of 
infamy, was the wife of the marquis da 
BrinviIIiers, whom she married in 1651 
Having, entered into an illicit connexioa 
with St. Croix, a young Gascon officer, 
who liad been taught the art of compound- 
ing the most subtle poisons by the cele- 
brated Italian Exili, she became a deter- 
mined poisoner, and her father, sister, 
two brothers, and many other persons, 
fell victims to her diabolical skill. She 
was at length detected, put to the torture, 
beheaded, and burned, in 1676. At her 
execution she displayed extraordinary cour- 
age, and the stupid mob afterwards sought 
for her bones, in the belief that she vras a 
saint ! 

BRIOT, Nicholas, a French engra- 
ver of the mint, under the reign of Louis 
XIII., for whom his countrym^ claim the 
invention of the balance press, which su- 
perseded the hammer in coining. That 
machine, however, appears to luive been 
invented, long before, uy Bruchet, and to 
have been used, both in England and 
France ; though it had, undoubtedly, &llen 
into disuse, tlU reintroduced by Briot, first 
in England, and next in his own country. 

BRISSON, Mathuriw James, a 
French nataralist, was bom at Fontenav 
le Compte, in 1723, and died in 1806. 
Among nis numerous works, which possess 
considerable merit, are his Ornitholoj^; 
Specific Gravity of Bodies ; and Physico- 
Cnemical Elements or Principles. 

BRISSOT, John Peter, one of the 
most active of the French re^lutionisU, 
and from whom a fiiction was denomina- 
ted, was born near Chartres, in 1757, and 
was originally brouffht up to the law. He, 
however, abandoned that piu-suit, and be- 
came a literary character, and editor of 
the Courier de TEurope. His first works 
of any importance were a Theory of 
Criminal Law, and a Philosophical Librair 
of Criminal Law. Afler having visited 
England, he returned to Paris, was patron- 
ised by the duke of Orleans, and was sent 
to the Bastile for an alleged lil)el. A sec 
ond time lie was on the point of beini 
I imprisoned, but he made his escape, li 

Digitized by v 


1788 Im went to Aaeriea; but be did not 
long remmio there. He eame back to 
France in 1789, publiBhed hit Travels, and 
bscame an active political writer, par- 
ticularly b the journal called the French 
Patriot. To royalty he was decidedly 
hostile. In 179l'he was elected a member 
of the legislative assembly, and he bore a 
prominent part in it, as well as in its 
soecessor, the convention. The war be- 
tween France and Austria and Great 
Britain was brought about chieflv by his 
exertions and intrigues. After the death 
of Louis XVI. the jacobin faction gained 
the ascendanCY, and Brissot was at length 
sent to the scattbld, on the 81st of October, 

BRITTON, Thomas, a native of Hig- 
ham Ferrers, was born in 1654, and, from 
his trade and his musical taste, was known 
as ** the musical small coal man." Though 
he cried hic small coal about the streets, 
he gave concerts at his humble dwelling, 
at which some of the most eminent pro- 
fessors and persons of fashion attended. 
He was also a proficient in chemistry, and 
a collector of books and curiosities. Brit- 
ton was at last frightened to death, in 
1714, by a brutal ventriloc^uist, who pre- 
. dieted to him his approachmg end. The 
terrified votary of music took to his bed, 
and died in a tew days. 

BROCKLESBY, Richard, a physi- 
cian, Mras born at Minehead, in 1722, took 
his degree at Leydcn, in 1745, and, after 
having been physician to the army in Ger- 
many, seUlea in London, where he became 
popular. He died in 1797. Brocklesby 
was a liberal minded man, and was in 
habits of firiendship with the most eminent 
of his contemi)oraries. Some medical 
tracts, and a Dissertation on the Music of 
the Ancients, are his onlyproductions. I 

BROG LIE, Victor Framcis, Duke' 
de, a French general, was born in 1718, 
and bore, with considerable reputation, a 
part in the wars carried on by nis country 
during the last century, between 1784, and 
1761 . From 1759 to 1761 , he commanded 
m chief in Germany. In 1789 he emigra- 
ted, and in 1792 he was at the head of a 
corps of emigrants in Champaigne* He 
died, in 1804, at Munster, 

BROME, Richard, a dramatist, who 
died in 1652, was originally a servant of 
Ben Joiison, but nothing further is known 
of his life. His plays, which are fifteen 
in number, possess considerable merit 
The Jovial Crew was revived with ap* 
plause at Covent Garden, in the middle 
of the last century. 

BROME, Alexander, who was bom 
m 1620, and died in 1666, was a spirited 
and fertile writer of satires, songs, and 
epigrams against the parliament party, 
during tlie struggle between the people and 


the crown. He also wrote dw CnBBiii| 
Lovers, a comedy; translated part of 
Horace; and pubfished an edition of ten 
of Richard Brome's plays. His own com- 
positions form an octavo volume. 
• BROMFIELD, William, an eminent 
surgeon, the pupil of Ranby, was bom at 
London, in 1712. In conjunction with the 
Rev. M. Madan, he founded the Lock 
Hospital, of which he became first surgeon. 
He viras also surgeon to the St. George's 
Hospital, and to the queen's household ^ 
He died in 1792. His principal work is 
Chirurgical Cases and Observations, 2 
vob. octavo. 

BRONGNIART, Augustus Locii, 
apotliecary to Louis XVI., was one of tlioss 
who Earliest and most sedulously contri- 
buted, by his lectures, to difiiise a know- 
ledge of physics and chemistry in France. 
He died at Paris, in 1804. Besides many 
scientific essays, he is the author of an An- 
alytical Description of the Combinations 
and Decompositions of various Substances. 

BROOKE, Henrt, a writer of consid- 
erable merit, was bom in 1706, at Ranta- 
van, in Irelsmd, and was bred to the bar. 
lu his youth he was the friend of Swift and 
Pope, the latter of whom is said to have 
assisted him in his poem called Universal 
Beauty, which appeared in 1782. Dar- 
win appears to have made the versifica- 
tion of this poem the model of his own. 
Brooke's next production was the tragedy 
of Gustavus Vasa, which, in consequence 
of its supposed political tendency, the li- 
censer would not allow to be acted. The 
autlior, however, published it by subscrip- 
tion, and gained a thousand pounds. Rie- 
turaing to Ireland, he obtained the post of 
barrack master, and resided in his native 
land till his decease, in 1783. In his lat- 
ter days, his intellectual faculties were 
much weakened. One of the most popu- 
lar of his works is the Fool of Quality, in 
five volumes. His dramatic and miscella- 
neous works form four volumes octavo. 

BROOKE, Frakces, whose maiden 
name viras Moore, was the daughter 6f a 
clergyman. The time of her birth is un- 
known ; she died in 1789. Her first liter- 
ary production was a periodical work, cal- 
led tne Old Maid, which came out in 1756 
and 1766. She wrote the tragedies of 
Virginia and the Siege of Sinope; the 
musical dramas of R^ina and Marian; 
tlie novels of Lady Julia Mandeville, Emi- 
ly Montague, the Excursion, and the Me- 
moirs of the Marquis de St. Forlaix; and 
translated Lady Catesby's Letters, and 
Miilot*s History of England. 
. BROOKS, John, the son of a respect- 
able farmer, was born in Medford, Massa- 
chusetts, in the year 1752. Af\er receive 
ing a common school education, he was 
placed with Dr. Tufts to study the profai 

Digitized by 



^kmUmbSkiat. Oneonpktiitfhk itad- 
in, he eomnenccd |«ract|ce in the neif h- 
boaring town of Rradiof , a short time be- 
fore the commeDcemeDt of the revolulion. 
When this event occurred, be was appoint- 
ed to command a company of minute men, 
and was soon after raised to the rank of 
major in the continental service. He was 
distinguished for his knowledge of military 
tmctics, and acquired the confidence of 
Washington. In 1777, he was appointed 
lieotenant-colonel, and took a conspicuous 
part in the capture of Borgoyne at Sara- 
toga. On the disbanding of the army. 
Colonel Brooks resumed the practice of 
medicine in Medford and the vicinity, and 
was soon after elected a member of the 
Maasachnsetts Medical Society. He was 
for many years major-general of the mili- 
tia of his county, and his division render- 
ed efficient service to the government in the 
insurrection of 1786. General Brooks also 
r e p r e se nted his town in the general court, 
and was a delegate to the State convention 
for the adoption of the federal constitution. 
In the late war with England, he was the 
adjutant-general of governor Strong, whom, 
on his retirement from office, be was chos- 
en to succeed. He discharged the duties 
of chief-magistrate with much ability for 
seven successive years, when he retired to 
private life. His remaining years were 
passed in the town of Medford, where he 
died in 1825. 

BROOME, William, vras the son of 
hoBble parents in Cheshire, and received 
his education at Eton and Cambridge. 
Pope employed him in making notes from 
Eontathius, for the Iliad, ana, afterwards, 
made him one of his associates in trans- 
lating the Odyssey. Broome complained 
of hv scanty remuneration, and Pope, in 
revenge, ^ve him a place in the Dunciad. 
He died vicar of Eye, in Suffolk, in 1746. 
Besides his share in the Odyssey, be pro- 
duced a volume < * poems, and translated 
part of Anacreon. 

BROSSES, Cbarles dk, bom in 
1709, died in 1779, was first president of 
the parliamen: of Burgundy ; but devoted 
his leisure boors to literature. He was the 
scboolfolbw, and, through life, the attach- 
ed friend of Bufibo. Of his works the 
Eincipal are Letters on Herculanenm; 
istory of Vorages to the Southern Re- 
ffions; and a History of Rome, partl;^ from 
Sallust. He was also a liberal contributor 
to the Encyclopedia. 

BROTIER, Gabriel, a French Jesuit, 
bom at Tannav, in 1728, was libianan to 
the college of Lewis the Great ; and, after 
his order was suppressed ^e spent the last 
twenty-fix years of his life with a friend. 
He died at Paris, in 1789. Brotier was 
•B exeellent classical scholar, and publish- 



ed editioBi of Tarions daanci, aamaf 
which his Tacitus stands preeminent 

BROTIER, Andrew Charles, a 
nephew of Gabriel, was bom at Tannay, 
in 1751, and became professor of natbe* 
matics at the Paris military school In 
1797, be was deeply implicated in a royal- 
ist conspiracy, for which he was transport- 
ed to Guiana, where be died in 1798. He 
published some posthumous works of his 
uncle, and translated Aristophanes and 

BROUGHTON, Thomas, a divine and 
literary character, was bom in London, in 
1704, studied at Eton and Cambridge, and 
died, vicar of Bedminster, St. Mary Red- 
cliflfe, Bristol, and a prebendary of Salis- 
bury, in 1774. He was one of the princi- 
pal contributors to the Biographia Brit- 
annica; and also wrote several worlts, 
among which is a Dictionary of all Reli- 
gions, two volumes folio. 

BROUSSONET, Peter Augustus 
Maria, a French naturalist, was born at 
Montpelier, in 1761, became a member of 
the Academy of Sciences and of the Royal 
Society, consul at Tenerifie, and, lastly, 
professor of botany at his native place, 
where he died in 1807. Among his prin- 
cipal works are his Ichthyoloeia ; and a 
kind of Farmer *s Journal, which extended 
to eight volumes miarto. Broussonct was 
the first who introduced merino sheep and 
Angora ffoats into France. During the 
last months of his life, in consequence of a 
fell, he entirely lost the power of remem- 
bering proper names and nouns ; while, on 
the contrary, French and Latin adjectives 
crowded into his memory, and be used 
them to designate those objects of which 
he wished to speak. 

BROWN, ROBERT, the fonnder of the 
sect of Brownists, was bora at Northamp- 
ton, and was related to Lord Burleigh. 
He pursued his studies at Cambridge. 
About 1580, be began to attack the gov- 
ernment and liturgy of the church, bad 
many followers, ana was soon imprisoned 
by the ecclesiastical commissions, out was 
liberated by the interest of Lord Burleish. 
He then settled at Hiddleburgh, in Hol- 
land, collected a consregatioo, and wrote 
a book, intitled a Treatise of Reforma- 
tion without tarrying for any Man. In 
1585, however, be returned to England, 
became engaged in contests with the bish- 
ops, was disowned by bis fether, and was, 
at length, excommunicated. Conviction, 
or, nerbaps, |>olicy, now induced him to 
conform, and, in 1590, he obtained a living 
in Northamptonshire. His end was in 
unison with his life. At the age of more 
than eighty, he vras committed to gaol, 
for striking a constable and ahosinc a ma- 
gistrate, and he died, in 1680, sborUy aft«r 

Digitized by 


118 BSO ^ 

bit oommidal. He awd to boMt, *< tlMt 
be had {{pen inceroerated in thirty-two 

eruons, in wme of which he could not see 
ifl hand aX noonday." His sect long 
survived him. In the civil wars it bore 
the name of the Independents. 

BROWN, Thomas, a writer of talent 
and of considerable though coarse wit, was 
tlie son of a fanner at Shifnal, and was 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, but 
quitted college on account of his irregular- 
ities. For ^ while he was a school-master 
at Kingston, in Surrey. Quitting this sit- 
uation, however, he settled in London, as 
an author by profession, and gained noto- 
riety hy bis lampoons, his humour, and his 
conversational powers. He died in 1704. 
His works form 4 vols. 12 mo. 

BROWN, Ultssbs Maximiltah, an 
Austrian field-marshal, the son of an expa- 
triated Irish officer, was born at Basil, in 
1705; served with distinction against the 
Turks, and at the battles of Parma and 
Guastalla; was made field-marshal in 
1739 ; signalized his talents in Italy, from 
1744 to 1746, particularlv at the battle of 
Placentia ; and died in tne Bohemian cap- 
^1 in 1757, of the wounds which he receiv- 
ed at the battle of Prague. 

BROWN, John, D. D., a man of mul- 
tifarious talents, some of whose works 
once enjoyed great popularity, was bom at 
Rothbury, in Northumberland, in 1715, 
and was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge. He took orders, but in Uie 
year 1745, he acted with much spirit as a 
volunteer against the rebels. In the church 
be obtained considerable preferment, and 
te was indefalij^ble as a writer. He put 
m end to his existence, in a fit of insanity, 
.n 1766. His poems and trendies have 
nerit. But the work by which he most 
attracted' public notice was his Estimate 
<^ the Manners and Principles of the 
Times, published in 1757, in which his 
countrymen are represented as being sunk 
into a state of utter degeneracy. It ran 
through seven editions in one year. Splen- 
did British victories soon, however, proved 
the falsehood of its assertions. Of his oth- 
er productions, one of the best is, Essays 
on Lord Shaft^bury's Characteristics. 

BROWN, Lancelot, a landscape gar- 
dener (commoiiy known by the designation 
of Capability Brown, from his frequent use 
of the phrase « this spot has great capabil- 
ities**), was bom at Kirharle, in Northum- 
berland, in 1715; attained high reputation 
in laying out ff rounds; made a large for- 
Inne, and was ni^ sheriff for tfuntingdon- 
tbire ; and died in 1782. 

BROWN, John, i self educated Scotch 
divine, was bora, in 1722, at Kerpoo, in 
Perthshire, became a minister and school- 
■Mter, and died in 1787. Hit principal 


works are, il« Self Interprattog Ba>«» S 
vols. 4to. ; and a Dictioaajy of the BiUe, 
2 Tols. Svo. 

BROWN, John, celebrated as the pa . 
rent of the Bmnonian system of medicine, 
was born, in 1735, at Buncle, in Berwick- 
shire, and originally studied with a view 
to the church, but afterwards commenced 
the study of (diyiic. For a while he wae 
patronised b^ Dr. Cullen. He, however, 
quarrelled with that gentleman, and be 
came his active opponent. After many 
struggles and vicissitudes be settled in Loo* 
don, in 1786, and died there in October, 
1788, leaving a numerous family in want. 
His misfortunes principally arose firom hie 
habits of intemperance. His medical sys- 
tem is developed in his Elementa MedU 
cinae, and has, at least, the merit of simpli- 
city, as it classes all diseases under »wo 
heads — those of deficient and those of ie« 
dundant excitement. 

BROWN, John, an eminent landscape 
engraver, vras a fellow pupil of WooUet, 
and for some time worked in conjunction 
with him. Their teacher's name was Tin- 
ney. Brown acquired considerable repu- 
tation for the taste and spirit of his burin, 
and became an associate of the Royal 
Academy. He died, at the age of sixty, 
in October, 1801. 

BROWN, William, a celebrated gem 
engraver, was born, in 1748. At the com- 
mencement of his career he was patronised 
by Catherine of Russia, and subsequently 
by Louis XVI. The French revolutioo 
drove him firom Paris, and he settled io 
London, where he proiduoed many excel- 
lent works. He died in 1825. 

BROWN, John, a painter, was bom 
at Edinburgh, in 1752, resided ten vears 
in Italy, aM acquired there a knowledge 
of all the elegant arts. On his retum, be 
settled at E^nburgh, in which city^ be 
died in 1787. He was the intimate friend 
of Lord Monboddo, to whom be addressed 
his Letters on the Poetry and Music of the 
Italian Opera. They were published by 
the learnM judffe in 1780. 

BROWN, Charles Brockdkn, an 
American novelist and man of leltws, was 
bora in Philadelphia in January 1771. 
Afler a good school education, be com- 
menoed the study of the law in the office 
of an eminent member of the bar. Dur- 
ing the preparatory term, his mind was 
much engaged in literary pursuits, and 
when the time approached for bis admis- 
sion into the courts, he resolved to aban- 
don the profession altogether. His passion 
for letters, and the weakness of his physi- 
cal constitution, disqualified him for the 
bustle of business. His firat publication 
was Alcuin, a Diabgue on the Rights of 
Women, written ia Uie antiimn aiMf wniltf 

Digitized by 



if 1197. TIm fint of bii north, i«aed 
fa 1198, was Wielaod, a poweHbl and 
flrigiDal romance, which 1000 acquired rep- 
■tation. After this, followed Ormond, 
Arthur Menryn, Edgar Huotlev and Clara 
Howard, in rapid succession, the last being 
pablvhed in ISOl. The hist of his noveU, 
Jane Talbot, was originally published in 
London, in 1804, and is much inferior to 
its predecessors. In 1799, Brown publish- 
01A the first number of tlie Monthly Ma^- 
sine and American Review ; a work which 
he continued for about a year and a half 
with much industry and ability. In 1805 
he ccHnmenceJ another journal with the 
title of the Literary Magazine and Amer- 
ican Register ; and in this undertaking he 
peraererad for fire years. During the 
aanw iatenral he found time to write three 
Wee political pamphlets, on the Cession 
of Looisiana. on the British Treaty, and 
on Commercial Restrictions. In 1£N)6, he 
oonunenced a semi-annual American Regis- 
ter, five volumes of which be lived to com- 
plete and publish, and which must long be 
eoneohed as a valuable bo<ly of annals. 
Besides these works, and many miscella- 
neous pieces published in different periodi- 
cals, be left in manuscript an unfinished 
system of geography, which has been rep- 
resented to possess uncommon merit. He 
died of consumption in 1810. 

BROWN, Joif H, was born, in 1786, in 
Proridenoe, Rhode Island, and was a lea- 
der of the party which, in 1772, destroyed 
the British Sloop of War Gasper in Nar- 
raflanset Bay. He became an enterprising 
aaa wealthy merchant, and was the first in 
his native state who traded with the East 
ladies and China. He was chosen a mem- 
ber of Congress, and was a generous 
patron of literature, and a great projector 
. of works of public utility. He died in 

BROWN, Dr. Thomas, a man eminent 
m a metaphysician, moral philosopher, and 
poet, was b om at Kirkmabreck, in Scot- 
Imd^ in 1777, and dispkiyed an earl^ 
acuteness and thirst for Knowledge. His 
first education was received in the vicinity 
of London, and was completed^ at the 
oniversitv of Edinburgh. At the age of 
twcuty, he wrote a masterly answer to 
Darwia*s Zoonomia. In 1810, he suc- 
ceeded Mr. Stewart, at Edinburgh, as 
professor of moral philosophy, and soon 
gained universal admiration fm a lecturer. 
By his eloquence and talents, and afiection 
h^ his kindness to the students. His bril- 
liant career was unfortunately cut short, 
by consumption, on the 2d of April, 1820. 
As a philosopher, his reputation is estab- 
lished by his Inquiry into the Relition of 
Cause and Efiect; Lectures on the Philos- 
•phy of the Human Mind : and Physiology 
tTdM Mind: m a poet, by his -- 



; Agnes; the Wajiderer of 
Norway ; and the Paradise of Coquettes 

BROWN, William, a poet, bom ia 
1590, was a native of Tavistock, and was 
educated at Oxford. In 1624, he became 
tutor to the earl of Caernarvon,' who fell 
at the battle of Newbury, and he suose- 
quently resided in the family of the earl 
of Pembroke. His death is supposed to 
have taken plare about 1645. His Bri- 
tannia's Pastorals, which were published 
in his twenty-third year,-and his Snepherd's 
Pipe, have ^reat merit. Discursiveness 
and an occasional ouaintness are the fiiuhs 
of his poetry, but Uiey are redeemed b^ a 
lively fancy, much power of description, 
and flowing numbers. 

BROWNE, Sir Thomas, a physician 
and eminent writer, vras born iir London, 
in 1605, and educated at Winchester and 
Oxford. He took his degree at Leyden, 
and settled at Norwich, where he ^iRM 
extensive practice. His Relirio Medici 
having been surreptitiously pimlislied, he 
gave to the workl a correct edition in 1642, 
which was soon translated into several 
languages, and repeatedly reprinted. It 
was attacked by many writers, some of 
whom, with equal absurdity and injustice, 
accused the author of being an infidel, 
and even an atheist. This work was fol- 
lowed by his celebrated Treatise on Vul^r 
Errors ; and Hvdriotaphia, or a Treatise 
on Urn Burial, published together with 
the Ganlen of Cyrus. He died in 1682. 
Browne was a man of fpreat benevolence, 
and of extensive erudition. His style is 
singular and pedantic, but has generally 
strength, and often felicity of expression. 
— His son Edward, who was bom about 
1642, and died in 1708, was president of 
the College of Physicians, and is the author 
of an Account, in 2 vols. 4to., of his own 
Travels In Austria, Hungary, Thesialy-, ai^ 

BROWNE, SiMOir, was born at Shep- 
ton Mallet, in 1680, and became a dissent- 
ing minister, first at Portsmouth, and next 
in the Old Jewry, in which latter situation 
he remained till 1728, vrfaen his reason 
was shaken by thn kiss of his wile and hii 

Digitized by 


ody Mn. "nie monoiiiama which aflKeted 
him wan of tn extraordinary kind. Thoufffa 
retaining the power of reafoninff acately, 
be believed (bat God ** had annihilated in 
him the thinking inbstance,*' and that 
though he neemed to ipeak rationally, he 
had *' no mon notion of what lie said than 
a parrot." Imagining himself no longer 
a moral agent, be refiirod to bear a part in 
any act of wor^ip. While in this state, 
however, be continued to write forcibly, 
and, among other things, produced a De- 
fence of the Reli^on of Nature, and the 
Christian Rerelation, against Christianity 
as old as the Creation. To this he prefixed 
a dedication to Queen Caroline, in which 
he afiectingly expatiated on his soulless 
state. His nriends suppressed this melan- 
choly proof of his singular insanity ; but 
it is preserved in the Adventurer. He 
died in 1782. He is the author of hvmns, 
■ermons, and various controversial and 
theological pieces. 

BROWNE, SirWilliam, a physician, 
an eccentric but amiable character, was 
bom in 1692, studied at Cambridge, and 
settled at Lynn, whence he removed to 
London, where he died in 1774. In dress, 
style, and manners, he was a complete 
oddity; a circumstance which exposed 
him to the shafts of satire. He had, how- 
ever, the good sense and dignity of mind 
to smile at such attacks. At Lynn, lie 
nailed to his house door a pamphlet which 
was written a^inst him ; and when Foote 
caricatured him, in the Devil on Two 
Sticks, Browne sent him a note, praising 
the accuracy of the mimic's personation, 
and sending him his own muff, to complete 
the picture. Browne left three |^old medals 
lo be yearly given to Cambridge under^ 
graduates, for Greek and Latin compo- 
sitions; and founded a scholarship at 
Peterhouse, where he was educated. He 
translated Gregory's Elements of Diop- 
trics ; and colIe<^ed, under the title of 
Opuscula, his own light pieces. 

BROWNE, George, Count de, an 
Irish catholic, bom in 1698, entered into the 
Russian service. He saved the Empress 
Anna Ivanovna from the conspiracy of the 

Cards, and served with distinction under 
«cy, Munich, and Keith. On the banks 
of the Volga he stopped with only three 
thousand men the wliole Turkish army. 
He was, however, taken prisoner by the 
Turks and sold as a slave, but escaped. 
In the seven years war, he distinguished 
himself at the battles of Prague, KoUin, 
Jaegendorf, and Zomdorff. His services 
were rewarded with the g[ovemment of 
Livonia. After having held it thirty years, 
he wished to retire, but Catherine II. 
replied, « death abne shall part us." He 
died in 1792. 
BROWNE, Mof If , m diviM and poet. 

was born In 1708, and was orifinally ■ 
pencntter; but, through the interest of 
Harvey, he obtained orders, and the livhiff 
of Olney, in Buckinghamshire. He died 
in 1787, at Morden College, of which he 
was chaplain. He is the author of several 
works, tue principal of which are Piscatory 
Elclogues ; and Simday Thoughts. Browne 
was a ^reat lover of angling, and published 
an edition of Walton's Angler. 

BROWNE, Isaac Hawkins, a native 
of Burton upon Trent, was bom in 1709, 
studied at Westminster, Cambridge, and 
Lincoln's Inn ; was called to the bar ; and 
became M. P. for Wenloek. Though a 
man of infinite wit, he was mute in par* 
liament. He is the author of an excellent 
Latin poem, on the Immortality of the 
Soul, which has been more than once 
translated; and also of Poems. Of hia 
minor poems, the Pipe of Tobacco, in 
which he admirably imitates six poets of 
that period, is tlie oest known, ana is de- 
servedly pcpubr. He died in 1766. 

BROWNE, Patrick, a botanist and 
physician, was bora at Crossboyne, in 
Ireland, in 1720, and studied physic at 
Paris and Leyden. He then went to the 
West Indies, which he had visited in hi« 

Jouth, and finally took up his abode at 
amaica. Returning at length to Ireland, 
he died in 1720, at Rusbrook, in the county 
of Mayo. His chief work u the Civil and 
Natural History of Jamaica. 

BROWNE, William Georok, ao 
English traveller, a man of fortune, who 
penetrated into the interior of Africa, and 
was the first who gave an account of the 
African kingdoms of Dariur and Bomou. 
His Travels m Africa, Egypt, and Awyria, 
from 1792 to 1798, were published in 1799. 
About the year 1814 he was murdered, in 
Persia, while on his way to explore the re- 
gions south of the Caspian. 

BRU€E, Robert, the deliverer of 
Scotland from the English yoke, wtia a de- 
scendant, by the female Bide, from David, 
brother of William I. Like his father, 
who was a competitor for the crown with 
Baliol, he at first fought under the English 
banners. He, however, at length, asserted 
his right to the sovereignty, and was 
crowned at Scone, in ISOo. After many 
reverses, he totally defeated Edward 11., 
in 1314, at Bannockburn, and thus estab- 
lished himself firmly on the throne. He 
died in 1S29. Tradition says that, after 
one of the defeats which he sustained at 
the outset of his career, when Bruce was 
hiding ft'om his enemies, and almost dis- 
posed to relinquish his enterprise in des- 
pair, be was animated to perseverance by 
the example of a spider, which he saw 
foiled in nine attempti to reach a certain 
point, but which persisted, and i 
lathtttnth. ^ , 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


BftUCC, JjtMS, a cebbranid tnifdkr, 
WBi bom in 1789, at Kimmird Home, in 
Sdrlinipibin. He was edaeated at Hwrow 
aad Eo ia bo r ^ After haTinc beta, for a 
ikatt time, la the wioe trade, he relia- 
(|aiibed it, and, in 1768, was appointed 
coasol at Algiers. While holdiog this of- 
iee, he explored a part of Northern Afri- 
ea, prooce^ed to Cypnis, Syria, and Asia 
Minor, and made drawim of Palmyra and 
Balbeck. In 1768, he began his fiunoos 
expedition to Ab^inia, to diseorer the 

^ soiiroas of the Nile, and he reached the 
Abyssinian capital in Febraary, 1770, 
arhere he soon acquired considersible infln- 
ence at court, by his manners, courage, 
wnhifinrioas knowledge, and personal ap- 
pearance. That he reached what some 
have considered as the source of the Nile is 
certain ; but it is at least donbtfol whether 
the springs which he visited form the real 
head of tte Nile. He did not return to his 
native country till 1778, and the narrative 

^ of his Travels did not appear till 1790, 
when it came forth in four ooarto volumes. 
That narrative excited infinite criticism 
and cavil, and has, in foci, been tiFcated 
with dtsgracefol illibendity. Bruce vras 
killed by a foil down stairs, in April, 1794. 
BRUCE, Michael, a poet, bom at 

' Kinneswood, in Scotknd, in 17^, was a 
village sdMolmaster, and died at the early 

. age of twenty-one, after having long con- 
tended with poverty and sicbness. His 
poems have much merit. One of them, on 
Idi approaching end, is truly pathetic. 
BRUCKER, John James, a learned 

, liOtheran clergyman,^ vras bom at Au^- 
jure, in 1696, and died minister of Saint 
Uhic's, in his native city, in 1770. Of his 
works, the most valuable and the best 
known is the History of Philosophy, in 6 
vols. 4to., of which Dr. Enfield publislied 
an English abridgment. Bmcker vnis 
nearly fifty years employed on it; and it 

^ dispbys a ae^ree of erudition, jndgment, 
ana impartiality, which is high^ honour- 
able to its author. 

BRUEYS, David AuGumif, a 
French dramatic writer, was bora at Aix, 
in 1640, and died at Montpelier, in 172S. 
The comedies of Brueys, two of which 
were written in conjunction with Palaprat, 
are fiill of comic spirit. He also wrote 
three tragedies. At his outset in life he 

^ was a protestant, but was converted by 
Bossuet, and obtained ecclesiastical pre- 
ferments. Like most apostates, he be- 
came violently hostile to the church wliich 
he had deserteo. 

BRUEYS, Francis Paul, a French 
naval officer, born about 1700, became an 
admiral during the revolution, and was 
entrusted with the command of the squa- 
dron which conveyed the amry of Bona- 
parte to Egypt. He was killed at the bat- 

BEU n 

tie of the Nile, in ¥796. When Bortallir 
wounded, he refosed to go bek>w. *< A 
French Admiial," said he, ** ought to die 
on his quarter deck." 

BRUGNATELLI, Louis, a chemist 
and physician, was born at Pavia, in 
1761, was medical and chemical professor 
in that university, and died in 1818. Sci- 
ence is indebted to him for r««ierous ex- 
periments, and also for discoveries with 
respect to the gastrie kuoe and to combus- 
tion. He is the author of Elements of 
CSiemistry; and was the editor of several 
scientific journals. 

BRUHOY, Peter, a Jesuit and au- 
thor, was born at Ronen, in 1686; dis- 
tinguished himself as a tlieologian, critic, 
and teacher 6f mathematics; and died m 
1742. He continued the History of the 
Galilean Church, and produced other 
works; but his repatatioa chiefly rests en 
his Greek Theatre, in 8 vob. 4to. His 
Latin Poems, especiallv those on the Pas- 
sions and on Glass Making, are much 
above mediocrity. 

BRUNCK,RicHARD Francis Fred- 
ERICS, an eminent critic, was bom at 
Strasburg, in 1729, and died there in 1808. 
The learned world is iadebted to him for 
the Greek AnthoSogy, and for excellent 
editions of Apollonius Rhodias, Aristopha- 
nes, Sophocles, Virgil, Plantus, and Te- 
rence. His latter days were clouded with 
pecuniary difficulties, which compelled him 
to sell a considerable part of his library. 

BRUNE, William Mart Ahr, a 
French marshal, was bom at Brive la 
Gaillarde, in 1768; espoused vramdy (he 
cause of the revolution ; and, after having 
been a printer and an editor of * P^P^* be 
entered the army in 1798. In 17v6 and- 
1797 he served under Bonaparte, aiid his 
distinguished merit gained hus rapid pro- 
motion. In 1799, be aras commander in 
chief of the united French and Dutch forc- 
es, and disphived high military t a lents in 
the defence of North Holhmd against the 
didie of York, whom he reduced to a mor- 
tifying capitulation. Under the consular 
government, he had a prominent share in 
Uie pacification of the royalist provinces. 
From 1808 to 1805, he was ambassad<fr to 
Constantinople; and, during his absence, 
was made a n-nrshal. Having, in 1807, 
been appointed |fovemor of the Hanseatio 
cities, ne gave dussatisfaction to Napoleoa, 
who, during the remainder of his first reign, 
did not employ him. Brune submitted to 
the Bourbons; but, being slighted by them, 
he joined Napoleon on his return from 
Elba, who gave him a coihmand in the 
south of France. After the second abdica- 
tion of the emperor, Brune was asMssmated 
at Avignon, August 2, 1815, by a b^ad of 
royalist murderers, who weee allow^ ta 
remain unpunished. 

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BRUNELLESOn, Phi&ip, the ton of 
a notary, was born at Florence, in 1877, 
and was originally apprentice to a sold- 
■inith ; but a iourney to Rome inspired him 
with a love of architecture. He sedulously 
studied the principles of the art, and be- 
came the classical restorer of it in Italy. 
He erected many ffrand structures ; partic- 
nlarly the admirabiB dome of the cathedral, 
the churches of the Holy Ghost and of St. 
Lorenxo, and the Pitti Palace, at Fbrence, 
and the monastery of Fiesoie. Brunelleschi 
was also a sculptor, an engineer, and a poet. 
He died in 1444. 

BRUNO, St., the founder of the Car- 
thusian order, was bom at Cologne, in 
1080; established the first house of hia 
order, in 1084, at the Chartreuse, in Dau- 
phin^; was inrited into Italy, by Pope 
Urban II.; refosed the archbinhopric of 
Reggio; founded a second monasteiy in 
the mountains of Cakbria; died in 1101; 
and was canonised in 1514. . 

BRUNO, JoRDANO, was bom at Nola, 
m the kingdom of Naples, about the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century, and wa» orig- 
inally a Dominican, but qmtted bin convent, 
fled to Genev%aBd embraced the protestant 
religion. Besa and Calvin, however, ex- 
pelled him from that city. After having 
visited France, Enrland, and Germany, he 
settled at Padua. There he was arrested, 
and vras sent to Rome, where, after two 
jears imprisonment, he was burnt, in 1600. 
Of his n u m e rous philosophical works the 
most celebrated is the Demolition of the 


imnnhant 1 
lieh nas unj 

;, a satire on superstition, 
ijustly been charged with athe- 

istical principles 

BRUNSWICK, Fkrdii* AND, Duke of, 
was bora in 1721, and, after his return 
from his travels, entered into tlie Prussian 
service, and distinsuished himself in the 
Silesian war. In the seven years' war, he 
was placed at the head of the combing 
British and Hanoverian forces, manifested 
taleau of the first order, and defeated the 
French on many occasions, especially at 
Creveklt and Minden. The peace of 1768 
terminated his military career ; and he died 
at Brunswick, July 8, 1792. 

Charles William Fkrdihand, Duke 
of, nephew of Ferdinand, was bom in 1785, 
studied the art of war under his uncle and 
Fredericof Prussia, and gained great repu- 
tation in the seven years' war, and in the 
war of 1778 with Austria. In 1780, he 
succeeded to the duchy, and proved himself 
Jhe friend of internal improvement and of 
literature. He resumed bis militarv career 
in 1787, when, at the head of the Prussian 
army, he restored the authority of the stadt- 
holdv in Holland. In his next enterprise 
ka was ansDOceasfhl. Havinj^ invaded 
Fk— oa,atth>h<adof apoweriS Austrian 


and PruBsiaii fiiroe, mid priilished a linht 
and impolitic manifosto, he was oonpriDod 
to retreat, by an inferior army under Du* 
mourier. In 1794 he resigneid the com- 
mand.- Till 1806, he was occupied with 
the peaceful labours of ^verament; but in 
that year he was appointed leader of tha 
Prussian army, and was mortally wounded 
at tlie fiital battle of Anerstadt. He ex- 
pired at Altona, on the 10th of December. 
OELS, Frkdkric Augustus, Prince 
of, a young«jr brother of the preceding, 
was bora in 1740, and gained applause as 
a general . fficer *n the Prussian service ; 
but his highest fome is derived from his 
literary talents. He is the author of several 
works, among which are. Critical Remarks 
on the Character of Alexander the Great ; 
and a MilitajT Life of Prince Frederic 
Augustus of Brunswick Lunenburg. He 
died at Weimar, in 1805. 

Maximilian Julius Lcopold, Prince 
of, a brother of the preceding, was born in 
1751, and commanded a regiment in garri- 
son at Frankfort on the Oder, where he 
was universally beloved for his benevo- 
lence, and his charity to the poor. In 
1785, a terrible inundation of the Oder 
spread destruction in the neighbourhood of 
trankfort. To save the life of a family 
surrounded by the waters, the prince hero- 
ically put off in a boat, but be was swept 
away by the torrent, and perished, to the 
deep regret of every friend of humanity. 

BRUNTON, Mary, the daughter of 
Colonel Balfour, was bom in Barra island, 
one of the Orkneys, in 1776, married a 
minister of the Scotch church in 1796, and 
died in 1818, eaually admired for her tal- 
ents and belovea for her disposition and 
virtues. She is the author of Discipline, 
and of Self Control, two excellent novels ; 
and she left an unfinished tale called Em- 
meline, and some minor pieces, which her 
husband published. 

BRUTUS^Lucius Juicius, the founder 
of the republican government in Rome, 
was a grandson of Tarquin the Elder, by 
Tanquinia. His father and elder brother 
having been murdered by Tarquin the 
Proud, Bmtus, for several years, simula- 
ted insanity to save his own life ; but, on 
the violation of Lucretia, b^ Tarquin, he 
threw off the mask, and animated the Ro- 
mans to become free. His sons havin| 
conspired acainst the republic, he himself 
sentenced them to death. He was slain 
B. c. 505, in a single combat with Aron% 
who also fell at the same moment, 

BRUTUS, Marcus Junius, a de- 
scendant of Lucius Junius, and nephew of 
Cato, espoused the cause of Pompey;*bttt, 
after the battle of Pbarsalia, he was ra> 
oaivtd into fevoor by the cowfanror, a» 

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I wilk die goreraneat of CiMlpiM 
Gaul, And made pnetor of Rome. He, 
nererthelessr-ioined in the conspiracy of 
Camim and others, and assisted in putting 
Cesar to death. Being Anally vanqaished, 
at the battle of Philippi, b. c. 42, he ter- 
minated his own existence, in the forty- 
third year of bis age. Of all the conspi- 
rators, Brutus alone is believed to have 
been actuated by purely patriotic motives. 

BRUYERE, JoHH de la, a celebrated 
French writer, was bom, in 1644, at 
Donrdaa, in the Isle of France; was ap- 
pointed hbtorical tutor to the duke of 
BorffumlY, who subseNquently pensioned and 
retained him about his person ; was admit- 
ted into the French Academy* in 1693; 
and died, of apoplexy, in 1697. His ad- 
miraUe Characters appeared in 1687. 
Delille justlv observes, that ** he who 
would dMcribe La Bruyere ought to pos- 
sess his genius, and that inimitable tal- 
ent which comprises so much sense in a 
phrase, so many ideas in a word, and ex- 
presses in so novel a manner that which 
nas beibre been said, and in so pointed a 
manner that which has never been said 
' before.*' La Bnlyere also translated the 
Characters of TluBophrastas; and wrote 
Dialoffues on Quietism. 

BRUYN, Cornelius lc, a native of 
the Hasue, where he was born in 1652, 
acquired reputation both as a painter and 
a traveller ; but particularly in the latter 
capacity. Ik two voyages, which lasted 
several yeai^, he visited Italy, Asia Mi- 
nor, Egrpt^ the Archipelago, Russia, Per- 
sia, and the Indian continent and isles. 
He returned to^ his native country in 1708. 
The time of his death is unknown. . His 
Toyaires ibrm 2 vols, folio. 

BRUYN, Nicholas, a Dutch poet, 
who was born at Amsterdam, in 1671, is 
the author of seven tragedies, and of many 
poems, which have been collected in eleven 
▼olumes. His tragedies still keep pos- 
session of the stage. Among his best po- 
CMS are three descriptive pieces, illustra- 
tive of the beauties of North aiid South 
HeJhind, and of the river Vecht. 

BRUYS, PsTER DE, a native of Dau- 
phin^, who was burnt, as a heretic, at St. 
Gilles, in Languedoc, in 1190, was the 
fbonder of a sect called Petrobrussians. 
He opposed transubstantiation, infent bap- 
tinn, and the use of churches, crucifixes, 
and prayers for the dead. 

BRYAN, Michael, an eminent con* 
noiaseor in the fine a^ts, who was at one 
period a picture dealer, was bom in 1757, 
and died in 1821. He is the author of a 
valuable Biographical and Critical Dic- 
tionary of Painters and Engravers, 2 vols. 

BRTABiT, Jacob, a philologist and 
■■tiqaaiT, was horo at Plymooth, w 1716, 


and reeeived his education at Eton and 
Kinff*s College, Cambridge. The duke of 
Marlborough, to whom he had been tutor, 
gave him a pbce in the ordnance depart- 
ment. He settled at Cypenham, in Berk- 
shire, and died November 14, 1804, of a 
mortification in the leg, occasioned by 
bruising the skin asainst a chair. Bryant 
was an indefatigable and a learned writer, 
but fond of paradox. He wrote one work 
to maintain the authenticity of the pseudo 
Rowl^'s poems, and another to prove 
that Troy never existed. His principal 
production is a New System or Analysis 
of Ancient Mythobffy, in three volumes 
quarto, which was published in 1774 and 
1776. It is ingenious and eradite; but 
often fanciful and erroneous. Among his 
other compositions are. Observations rela- 
tive to Ancient History; a Treatise on 
the authenticity of the Scriptures ; Obser- 
vations on the Plaffues of EgvPt ; and Dis- 
sertations on the Prophecy ot lialaam, &c. 

BRYDONE, Patrick, a native of 
Scotland, was born in 1741, and travelled 
in Italy, as companion to Mr. Beckfiard 
and otlicr gentlemen. He was appointed 
comptroller of the stamp office, which situ- 
ation ho held till his decease, in 1819. 
The publication *of his Travels in Sicily 
and Malta, gained him admission to the 
Royal Society, to tlie Transactions of 
which body he contributed several napers. 
The narrative of his travels is well writ- 
ten ; but much dissatisfaction was excited 
by some of his statements, which militate 
against the Mosaic account of the creation. 

BUACHE, PuiLiP, a Reonrapher, the 
pupil and son in law of Wilnam Del isle, 
was bom at Paris, in 1700, and died in 
1778. Buache published many charts and 
maps, and some geographioal works. He 
maintained the existence of a southern 
continent, and framed a system of physi- 
cal and natural geography, which has been 
overturned by subsequent discoveries. 

BUAT NANCAY, Louis Gabriel, 
Count du, a learned French writer, was 
bora at Livarot, in Normandy, in 17S2, 
was a pupil of Folard, became envoy at 
Dresden and Ratisbon, and died in 1787. 
His principal works are, the Ancient His- 
tory of the European nations ; the Origins, 
or the Ancient Government of France, 
Germany, fcc. ; and the Maxims of Mo- 
narchical Goverament. 

BUC, Geor«e, an historian and anti- 
qmrv, a native of Lincolnshire, was one 
of the gentlemen of the bedchamber to 
James I., who made him master of tho 
reveU, and knighted him. He wrote the 
Art of Revels; the Third Universitie of 
EngUnd; and a Life of Richard III. The 
^atter, in whidi he vindicates the character 
of that monarch, is the best known of kia 
works Malene attribntca it to Sir 

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George's son, but Ritson maintains the 
claim of the father. 

BUCER, Martin, one of the fathers 
of the Reformation, was born, in 1491, 
at Schleatadt, in Alsnce. He was a Domi- 
nican, but was converted to protestantism 
by Luther. The new doctrines were in- 
troduced by him at Strasburgh, where he 
was minister and professor of theology for 
twenty years. Bucer laboured, but in 
vain, to reconcile tlie disputes of Lutlier 
and Zuingle. ^ In 1548 he went to Augs- 
burgh to sign \he Interim ; after which he 
was invited to England by Cranmer. He 
died, in 1551, at Cambridge, where he was 
theological professor. During the reign 
of the persecuting Mary, his bones were 
disinterred and committed to the flames 
His works are numerous. 

BUCHVVN, William, a Scotch physi 
cian, was born at Ancram, in 1729, educa- 
ted at Edinburgh, and became physician 
to the Foundling Hospital at Ackworth, 
ID Yorkshire. He afterwards practised in 
London with tolerable success. Buchan, 
however, was too fond of society to attend 
diligently to his profession. He was first 
brought into repute by his Domestic Medi- 
cine, which was published in 1770, and 
acquired extensive popularity. His book, 
though it is creditable to the author's tal- 
ent and knowledge, has done no small mis- 
chief, by its effect on the hypocondriacal, 
and by its inducing many ignorant persons 
to tamper with their maladies. Buchan 
died in 1805. Besides his Domestic Medi- 
cine, be wrote a Treatise on Lues; and 
Advice to Mothers. 

BUCHAN, Elizabkth, a Scotch 
fanatic, the wife of a maker of delfl at 
Glasgow, be^n, about 1779, to prophecy 
the approaching end of the world, and to 
exhort her hearers to abandon worldly 
connections and pursuits, in order to he 
ready to receive Christ. This insane wo- 
man gained a considerable number of fol- 
lowers, who were called Buchanists. She 
died in 1791; and on her deathbed is said 
to have declared herself to be the Virgin 
Mary, and promised to return to life. 

BUCHANAN, George, one of the 
boasts of Scottish literature, was born, in 
1506, at Killaim, in Dumbartonshire, and, 
af\er having pursued his studies at Paris 
and St. Andrew's, and served for a while 
in the a^my, he was appointed tutor to the 
earl of Carailis, with whom he remained 
in France during five years. Returning 
from Paris witli the earl, he was made 
tutor to the natural son of James V. Two 
satires which he wrote on the monks soon 
drew down their vengeance upon him, 
and he was imprisoned, but was fortunate 
enough to esoipe. Onoe more visiting the 
eontinent, he succetsivelv taught at Paris, 
M Bordnuix, and at Coimbra, at which 


latter city the fireedom of his opiii 
again caused his imprisonment. He next 

spent four years at Paris, aJi tutor to Um 
marshal de Brissac's son. During th^ 
continental residence, he composed his Ba|>- 
tistes and Jepthes, translated the Medea 
and Alcestes of Euripides, and began his 
Latin version of the Psalms. In 1560 
he returned to his native land, and em- 
braced protestantism. Yet he had the 
favour of the court, obtained a pension 
from Mary, was made principal of St. Leo- 
nard's College, at St. Andrew's, and was 
chosen as preceptor to James VI. When 
subsequenfly reproached with having made 
his royal pupil a pedant, Buchanan is said 
to have replied, that "It was the oest he 
could make of him.'* After having accom- 
panied Murray to England, to prefer char^ 
f[es against the unfortunate Mary, he pub- 
ished, in 1571, his virulent Detectio 
MarisB Regni. The prevailing faction 
made him one of the lords of the cooncil, 
and lord privy seal, and Elizabeth gave 
him an annual pension of one hundred 
pounds. In 1579, however, he forfeited aU 
royal favour, by his bold and masterly 
work, De Jure Regni, which asserts the 
rights of the people. The closing years 
of his life were spent in tlie composition 
of his History of Scotland ; a work of 
which the style, but not the matter, is 
worthy of praise. ^ Buchanan died poor, 
in 15^. As a Latin poet, he ranks among 
the highest of the modems ; as an historian 
he is elegant and vigorous, but partial and 
deficient in judgment; as a man be was 
unamiable; and as a politician, he was 
unscrupulous and vidlent. 

BUCHANAN, Claudius, D. D., a di- 
vine, was bom, in 1766, at Cambuslang, 
near Glasgow, and, after having been a 
tutor, and an attorney's clerk in London, 
was patronised by Mr. Thornton, who 
enabled him to complete his education at 
Cambridge. He vras appointed one of 
the East Indian company's chaplains in 
Bengal ; and was the nrst vice-provost and 
classical professor of the college at Fort 
William. Dnrinf his vice-provoitdiip. hs 
gave prixeii to tot Obuforu, OMnhriagtb 

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■vd G la i fo w omTorsitM*, for sennons and 
0MmyB, on the propagation of religion in 
the ea«t. He returned to England in 1806, 
and died in 1815, while superintending an 

' edition of the SjTiac Testament, for the 
use of eastern christians. He is the author 
of Christian Researches in Asia ; and of 
various works connected with the same 

BUCHOZ, P. Jos EPH, a naturalist and 
botanist, one of the most industrious and 
multifarious of compilers, was born at 
Metz, in 1737, and died at Paris, in 1807. 
His labours form more than three hundred 
voliuneF, of which ninety -five are folios; 
and, as may well be expected, they are 
crude, and disfigured by many errors. 
Among them are, a History of the Plants 
of Lorraine, in 13 vols. ; a Natural History 
of France, in 14 vols.; and a Universal 
History of tlie Veeetable Kingdom, with 
more than one ^ousand two hundred 

known as John of Leyden, from the place 
of his birth, was a fanatic of the sixteenth 
centnr^. Headed by Buckhold, and by 
Matthias, a baker, the anabaptists made 
themseWes masters of Munster ; in which 
city, howerer, they were soon besieged 
by the bishop. Matthias being killed in 
a mII^ Buckhold succeeded him, assumed 
the titles of king and prophet, married 
feorteen wives, and committed numerous 
enormities. After the surrender of the 
city, in 1586, he wras pat to death by the 
BosC horrible torments, in the twenty-sixth 
year of his age. 

BUCKlNuK, Arnold, a German, the 
places and dates of whose birth and death 
are nnknown, was the first person who 

^engraved maps upon copper; and he at 
once brooffbt the art to considerable per- 
fection. The only work which he appears 
to have illustrlited is an edition of Ptolemy, 
poblished at Rome, in 1478. 

lERS, Duke of, the unworthv favourite of 
James I. and Cluirles I., was bom, in 1692, 
at Brookesfay, in Leicestershire, and was 
the son of Sir George Villiers. Having 
attracted the notice of James I. in 1615, 
that monarch appointed him his cupbearer, 
became his tutor, and rapidly and mcces- 
si\ely raised him to be gentleman of the 
bedchamber, lord admiral of England, war- 
den of the cinque ports, master of the horse, 
baron, earl, marquis, and duke. More a 
sovereign than the sovereign himself^ the 
dispensation of all graces and fevours was 
ia nis hand, and his insolence and tyranny 
excited general disgust in the nation. His 
Mrange expedition to Madrid, and his con* 
duet there, is said to have weakened the 
infiMoation of James I. for him, and had 
that nooarch lived, Villiers might, per- 



haps, have lost his power. But the acces- 
sion of Charles I., in 1625, rendered the 
favourite still more potent. In vain the 
parliament attacked him ; it was dissolved, 
and he enjoyed a complete triumph. He 
next plunged tlie nation into a war with 
France ; and being entrusted with the 
command of an army, he lost the flower 
of it in an ill conducted attack on the isle 
of Rhr. He returned to England to refit 
his shattered armament, and was aeuin 
about to sail when he was assassinated at 
Portsmoutli, on the 23d of Aueiist, 1628, 
by a lieutenant by die name of Felton. 

lERS, Dtike of, son of the preceding 
duke, was born in 1627, studied at Cam- 
bridge, served the king zealously in tlie 
civil wars, and was present at the battle of 
Worcester. By marrying a daughter <»f 
Lord Fairfax, he recovered a con«ideral)*c 
part of bis forfeited estates; and, at the 
Restoration, lie was made a lord of the bed- 
chamber, master of the horse, and ItH-d 
lieutenant of Yorkshire. These honours, 
however, he lost in 1666, for being engaged 
in a conspiracy against the king; but lu 
recovered the royal favour, was once more 
** the life of pleasure and the soul of whim*' 
at court, ana was employed as ambassadoi 
to France. Villiers was one of the raos 
versatile, projecting, and profligate of 
mankind. Dryden has drawn his charac- 
ter admirably, under the name of Zimri 
This witty and unprincipled nobleman 
died, at Kirby Moorside, in Yorkshire, 
April 16, 1688, of a fever caught in fox- 
hunting. Of his works, the most celebra- 
ted is the comedy of the Rehearsal, which, 
undoubtedly, affords a decisive proof that 
his talents were of a superior order. 

FIELD, Duke of, the son of the earl of 
Mulgrave, was bom in 1649; served under 
Turenne; relieved Tangier; took a part 
in the revolution of 1688; was created 
marquis of Normandy and duke of Buck- 
inghamshire ; and died in 1720. Bucking- 
ham House was erected by him. His 
poetical and prose works form two vol- 

a celebrated pulpit orator, was born in Ports- 
mouth, New-Hampshire, in 1784. His 
male ancestors, on both sides, for several 
generations, were clergymen, and some of 
Stem of considerable eminence. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1800, 
with much distinction ; and spent the ensu- 
ing four years in the study of theology and 
general literature He was ordained uiin- 
ister over the church ia Brattle-street, 
Boston, in January, 1805. In the ensuing 
year he embarked for Europe with the 
hopes of repairing his constitution, which 
had suffered much from attacks of epilepsy 

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He retanied in the aatnmn of 1807, and 
resumed the exercise of hie profeMion; hit 
sermons placing him in the first rank of 
popular preachers. In 1810 he superinten- 
ded an American edition of Griesbach's 
Greek Testament, and wrote much in vindi- 
cation of tliis author's erudition, fidelity and 
accuracy. In 1811, he was appointed the 
first lecturer on Biblical Criticism at the 
university of Cambridge, on the foundation 
established by Samuel Dexter. He imme-' 
d lately began a course of laborious and 
extensive preparation for the duties of this 
office, but was interrupted bv a violent 
attack of his old disease, which prostrated 
his intellect, and gave a shock to his frame 
which he surviv^ but a few days. He 
died in 1812, at tlie completion of his 
twenty-eighth year. Two volumes of his 
sermons have lieen collected and published 
since his decease ; one in 1814, the other 
in 1829. The first was prefaced with a 
well-written biographical sketch. 


DR LoNOU£VAL, Count de, an eminent 
^eueral, was born in 1551, entered early 
into the Spanish service, and signalized his 
valour in the Low Countries. In 1620, in 
coniunction witli the Duke of Bavaria, he 
entirely defeated the protestant armv near 
Prague ; but he stained his laurels \)y his 
8ub^(|uent cruelties. Ader having reduc- 
ed Moravia, he was killed, in 1621, at the 
siege of . Neuhausel. 

BUDE, or BUDiKUS, Willi AM,bom 
at Paris, in 1467, where he died in 1540, 
spent a youth of dissipation, but at length 
applied himself so closely to studv, tliat 
his classical acquirements gained tor him 
the title of tl»e Prodigy of France. He 
was employed on embassies by Louis XII. 
and Francis I., to tlie latter of whom he 
was secretary and librarian. Bude trans- 
lated some treatises from Plutarch, and 
wrote several works, tlie chief of which 
are, his Tractatus de Asse; and Commen- 
tarii Lineine Greece. 

BUDGELL, Eu STACK, was born at 
St. Thomas, near Exeter, about 1685, and 
e<lucatcd at Christ Church, Oxford. Addi- 
son, who was related to him, took him to 
Ireland, as one of his clerks, and in tliat 
country Budgell rose to oOices of great 
trust and profit, -and to lie a member of 
tlie Irish parliament. While filling tliose 
offices with diligence and honour, he con- 
tributed to the Spectator and Guardian, 
translated tlie Characters of Theophrastus, 
and wrote various pieces in verse. Tlie 
tide of fortune, however, at length turned 
against him. 'He was dismissed from his 
omce of accomptant and comptroller gene- 
ral in Ireland, for satirixiiig[ tlie lord lieu- 
tenan., who liad treated him ill; lie lost 
twenty thousand pMnds in the Soutli Sea 


more in Tain attempts to obtain a Mat ii 
the house of commons ; and at last he !)•• 
came involved in bwsuits and embarrass* 
ments. The finishing stroke was put t* 
his fate, by the setting aside the will of 
Dr. Matthew Tindall, in which appeared 
a beouest of two thousand pounds to 
Budgell. His difficulties, and the digrace 
of having a forgery attributed to him, stunf 
him to the heart, and he ended his exist- 
ence by throwine himself into the Thames, 
May 4, 1737. Besides tlie works already 
mentioned, he established a periodical 
called the Bee ; assisted in the Craftsman ; 
and wrote the History of Cleomenes ; and 
Memoirs of the Family of tlie Boyles. 

BUFFIER, Claude, a Jesuit, was born 
in Pokind, of Frencli parents, in 1661, and 
studied at tlie college of Rouen, wher« ha 
afterwards lield the situation of theokigical 
professor. He died in 1737. Buffier was 
employed in the Memoires de Trevoux, 
ana likewise pcoduced a great number of 
theological, metapliysical, biographical, 
and geograpliical works. Several of them 
were collected in a folio volume, with the 
title of a Course of Sciences on new and 
simple Princijiles. Though sometimes so- 
perncial, hc^ is, on the whole, an elegant 
and instructive writer. 

BUFFON,Gkorg£ Louis LB Clbrc» 
Count de,' tlie. Pliny of France, was the 
son of a counsellor of the parliament of 
Dijon, and was bom September 7, 1707, 
at Montbard, in Burgundy. He studied 
the law at Dijon, but never practised it; 
his inclinations leading him to mathemati* 
cal and ph}'sical science, and Euclid being 
his constant pocket companion. After 
having travelled into Italy and England, 
he succeeded to his pateniaJ estate at Mont- 
bard, between whicn and Paris hb time 
was spent. In 1739 he vras appwinted 
keeper of the royal garden and cabinet at 
Paris, tlie treasures of which he greatly 
increased. His patent of nobility be ob- 
tained in 1771. He was also a monber 
of tlie French Acadf^my, and of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences. Bufibn died April tht 
I6th, 1788. As a man, be was fomi of 
he spent five thousand pounds I dress and dispkiy, lax in bis morals, aar* 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


— iiiemurrtHy rain. Newton, Baeon, Leib- 
nitz» Montesquieu, and himself, were the 
only persons whom he would allow to be 
great geniuses! His first literair works 
1ft ere, Translations of Hales's Vegetable 
Statics, and Newton's Fluxions. But for 
his f:ime he is indebted to his Natural 
History, in thirty-six volumes, which has 
been naturalized in almost every European 
language. Though always immethodical, 
tbotigh' often inaccurate, and tliough full of 
tl^ wildest theories, it is undoubtedly an 
astonishing work, whether we consider the 
extent of its information, the spirit of its 
descriptions, or tlie eloquence of its style. 

BULL, John, a doctpr of music, was 
born in Somersetshire, about 1563, and 
died at Lubeck, in 1622. He was orcpinist 
to Queen Elizabeth, the first musical pro- 
fessor at Gresliam College, and chamber 
musician to James I. More tlian two 
hundred pieces, diiefly for the organ and 
Tirginaltf, were composed by him ; and it 
teems to be now fully established, that we 
are indebted to him for the national an- 
them of God save the King. 

BULL, George, an eminent prelate 
and theologian, born at the city of Wells, 
in 1634, was educated at Tiverton and 
Oxford, and was ordainefl at the a^e of 
twenty-one. Having passed through the 
minor dignities of the church, he was made 
bishop of St. David's in 1705, and die<l in 
1709. Hifl Harmon iaApostolica was pub- 
lished in 1669, to tlie great annoyance of 
tlie Calvinists; his mam work, Dcfensio 
Fidei Nicen?e, appeared in 1685; and his 
Judicium Ecclesiie Catliolicum, in 1694. 
For the latter production he received the 
thanks of Bossuet and A'arioiis French di- 
vines. He likewise produced other pieces 
of less note, and many sermons. 

BULL, William, M.D. was the fink: 
white person bom in South Carolina, and 
W Bupposeil to be the first American who 
obtamed a degree in me<licine. He was a 
pupil of tlie great Boerhuave, and accpiired 
some literary and professional distinction. 
In 1734 he defended and {Miblished at the 
univcrfity of Leydcn, his inaugural thesis 
Do ISoIica Pictoniini. After returning from 
Euro))e to his native state, lie wtut suc- 
cessively a memlicr of the Council, siieaker 
of tlie House of Representatives, and Lieu- 
tenant Governor. When tlie British troo|>8 
removed from South Carolina in 1782, he 
ficcompanicd them to England, and died in 
London, in 1791, in the eighty-second year 
of his afe. 

BULLET, Peter, an eminent Frendi 
architect, the pupil of F. Blondel, ^^iis 
bom about llie middle of the seventeenth 
century, and constructed several magnifi- 
oent edifices, particularly tlu; gate of St. 
and the churcn of St. Thomas 



ttte on Pfttctieal Archiceetnr*; a Treatita 

on Levelling; and other works. Tbed^ia 

of his death is not recorded. 

BULLET, JoHH Baptist, bom in 

, at Besan^on, was professor of tbeo* 


If at Paris. He also wrote a Trea- 

lo^ in the university of that city, and died 
in 1775. He is the author of several theo- 
logical works, among which is a History 
of the Establishment of Christianity; but 
his principal production is Memoirs on 
the Celtic Lam^nage, in 8 vols, folio. 

BULLIARD, Peter, a native o iia 
Barrois, in France, where he was bom 
about 1742, combined the talent of an artist 
with that of an eminent botanist. Ha 
himself designed and engraved the plates 
which embellish his woms. He died in 
1708. He is the author of a Parisian 
Flora; a Histoi^ of the PoisonrMis. Plants 
of France; a History of French Champig- 
nons ; and other productions. 

BULUNGER, He5rt, one of the 
early reformers, was bom in the canton of 
Zurich, at Baumgarten, in 1604. The 
works of Melancthon converted him to 
protestantism, and he became closely con- 
nected witli Zuinffle, to whom he suc- 
ceeded as pastor of Zurich. He was one 
of the authors of the Helvetic Confession, 
and assisted Calvin in drawing up the 
Formulary of 1649. Bullinger was a mod- 
erate and conscientious man; and it is 
much to his honour that, on the ipround of 
it being inconsistent with Christianity for 
any one to hire himself mit to siaughte* 
those who had never injured him, he suc- 
cessfully opposed a treat^r for supplying 
France with a body of Swiss mercenai^es. . 
He died in 1675. His printed works form 
ten folio volumes. 

BULOW, Henry William, a native 
of Prussia, bom at Falkenberg, adopted 
the military profession, and bore a part in 
tlie ephemeral insurrection of tlie Nether- 
kuula against the Emperor Joseph; ufler 
which he visited America on an abortive 
commercial speculation ; and next became 
a S\a'edenl)orgian preaclier in tliat countr}*. 
On his return to Euroi)e, he resorted to 
hisjpen for stibeistence, and wrote variooi 
military works. Of tliese, die most cele- 
brated is. Principles of Mgdem War, in 
which he proiioses a new stratagetical sys- 
tem, that has excited much controvenv. 
His History of the Campaign of 1806 
having given offence to Russia, lie was in 
carcerated, and he died in prison, at Riga, 
in July, 1807. 

BUNYAN, John, the author of the 
Pilgrim's Progress, an admirable allegory, 
which enjoys an unexnmiiled but deserved 
l>o]mlarity, was of humble birth, being the 
son of a travelling tinker, and was Kora, 
in 1628, at Elstow, in Bedfordshire. For 
some time lie followed his father's occupa 
tion, and led a wandering dissipated hk^ 

Digitized by 



laMrwUdi ho w&md in die pariiaoMot 
■nif « «m1 wm at the siege of Leicester. 

Religion having now made an impression 
on bis mina, be joined the anabaptists, and, 
about 46ft5, be^me a teacher among them 
at Bedford . Sobseouent to the restoration , 
bis preaching broognt him within the gripe 
of tiie Uw, and he was for nearly thirteen 
years imnmred in Bedford gaol, where he 
sapponed himself and his family by tagging 
laoes. His leisare hours were spent in 
writing the Pilgrim*s Promress, and other 
works, similar in kind, out inferior in 
merit. He was at last released, through 
the interposition of Bishop Barlow of Lin- 
oob, and he resumed his ministry at Bed- 
ford. His death took place at Loudon, 
in 1688. His works form two folio Vo- 
lomes. Bunyan had a talent for repartee. 
A Quaker visited him in Bedford ffao],and 
declared that, by order of the Lord, he had 
aouffht for him in half the prisons of Eng- 
bad. « If the Lord had sent yon," re- 
plied Banyan, ** you need not have taken 
so much trouble to find me out ; for the 
Lord knows that I have been a prisoner in 
Bedford gaol for the last twelve years.'* 

BUONAMICI, Castruccio, a native 
of Loeea, bom in 1710, at which city he 
died in 1761, after having been in the 
military service of the king of Naples, is 
considered as one of the most elegant of 
modem Latin writers. His principal work 
is, his Commentaries on the War in Italv: 
it gained him the title of count from the 
duke of Parma, and a present from the 
Genoese republic; and was transited into 
English and French. 

BUONAROTTI, Michakl Anoklo, 
more generally known under the name of 
Michael Angelo, was at once preeminent 
as painter, sculptor, and architect, and 
wns no mean poet. Hewas6oraat Arezzo, 
in 1474, of a noble but poor family, and 
his love of tlie arts is supposed to have 
beea first inspired by his being nursed in 
a vilbige which contained many carvers 
and sculptors in stone. Ghirlandaio was 
his tutor in painting; and while under 
that master, he amused himself with mo- 
MUng figures in clay, trom the antiques 


in the sardens of Lorenzo de Medicw* 
One of these productions obtained him the 
patronaffe of Lorenzo, who received him 
into hisfamily. Here, amons other works, 
be executed an admirable basso relievo, 
the Battle of the Pentaurs. After the 
death of his patron, Buonarotti pursued his 
career at £k>logna, and then again at Flo- 
rence. In the latter city he sculptured his 
David and Goliath, and painted a battle 
piece for the ducal palace. His repmauon 
now caused him to be invited to Konie by 
the pope, and that reputation was en- 
hanced by the works he performed tliere, 
both in sculpture and painting; among 
them was the statue of Moses, the pic- 
ture of the Holy Family, and the car- 
toon of the War of Pisa. Haying taken 
umbrase at the manner in which he was 
treated by Julius II. he suddenly departed 
from Rome; but the pontiiT, not without 
difficulty, induced him to return, and then 
empbyed him in casting his statue in 
bronze, and in painting the dome of the 
Sistine chapel. The latter task he accom- 

Elished in twenty months. It was not, 
owever, till several years later, that he ex- 
ecuted his noble composition of the Last 
Judgment, in the same chapel. Under the 
ponuficate of Leo X. the talents of Michael 
Angelo were wasted in opening marble 
(marries and constructing roads. Under 
tnat of Adrian VI. be was chiefly occupied 
on the monument of Julius II. In the 
years 1529 and 1580, he was enga^ in 
toils which have nothing iA common with the 
fine arts. He was chosen engineer and 
superintendent of their fortifications by the 
Florentines, during their brief stniggle for 
their liberty, and in this new capacity he 
acquitted himself with honour. After the 
restoration of peace, Clement VII. recal- 
led him to Rome, and confided to him, on 
the death of San Gallo, the glorious labour 
of carrying on the building of St. Peter's. 
For seventeen years, till the time of his 
death, February 17, 1568, Michael An- 
gelo continued his exertions to make tliat 
magnificent stracture one of the wonders of 
the world; nor would he accept of any re- 
muneration whatever. The otlier works 
which he executed during bis last resi- 
dence at Rome are too numerous to be de- 
scribed within our narrow limits. ** Suh- 
limitv of conception, erandeur of form, and 
breadth of manner,'' says Fuseli, " are 
the elements of Michael Ancelo's style; 
and by these principles he selected or re- 
jected the objects of imitation. As painter, 
sculptor, or architect, he attempted, and 
beyond any other man succeeded, to unite 
magnificence of plan, and endless variety 
of subordinate parts, with the utmost sim- 
plicity and breadth." The poetry of this 
great man is stam|)ed with the same fea- 
tures as the creations of his hand. Bti 

Digitized by 



MnoMd cbancter m well dancribed by 
I faia treincre de Qaiacy : " la his youth, he 
knew no other want than that uf occupying 
his mind, no other pleasure than that of 
cultivating the arts. When at a more ad- 
vanced age he became rich, he despised 
loxury, and was careletw of even the con- 
Teniences of life. To sleep in his clothes, 
to live often upon bread and water alone, 
and to pass the nights in toil, or in solitary 
rambles, are among the least of the traits 
which may characterize his habits of liv- 
bg. Had he lived among the Greeks, he 
wonld have been admired as a philosopher 
before he had been praised as an artist ; 
but, indisputably, he would have been of 
the aect of Zeno. Economy, frugality, dis- 
interestedness, austerity of morals, inflex- 
ibility of purpose, contempt of fortune, and 
even of glory; such were the stoical virtues 
which be always professed. Michael An- 
gelo was beloved and sought after by the 
great; but he shunned them.*' Yet with 
these severe virtues he was kind hearted, 
and was sometimes singularly indulgent to 
the weakness or vanity of otliers. 

BUONAROTTI, Michael Angelo, 
the Younger, a nephew of the great Mi- 
chael Anffelo, was bom at Fk^nce, in 
1558, and died in 1646. He was a patron 
of literature and the arts; a member of the 
Florentine and Crusca Academies; wrote 
(wo comedies, la Tancia, and la Fiera, and 
two mythological scenic representations; 
and published an edition of nis uncle's po- 
ems. His comedy, as it is called, of la 
Fiera, is, in fact, a series of fite comedies 
on the saiAe subject. 

BURCH, Edward, one of the most 
eminent of modern ^em engravers, whose 
productions almost rival those of antiquity, 
was bom about 1740; was chosen librarian 
of the Royal Academy on the death of 
Wilson; and held that situation till his 
death in 1814. 

BURCHIELLO, an Italian poet, whose 
real name was Domihico, was bom at 
Florence, in 1880, and died at Rome, in 
1448. Burchiello was a barber, and his 
shop was the resort of all the wits of the 
city. Such celebrity did this humble abode 
obuin, that the representation of it was 
pointed in the Medicis ^lery. With 
much wit and elegance, his poems are in 
style the most eccentric, and often unintel- 
ligible, that can be imagined. , 

BURCKHARDT, John Charles, 
was bora at Leipsic, in 1778, and began to 
study mathematics even in his i^ildhood. 
Reading Lalande's works decidcMl him to 
become an astronomer, and he learned al- 
most all modern languages, to read astro- 
■omical books. His ardour for calculation 
was indefatisable. Baron Zach, with 
WMNB bs resided for two years, reconunen- 
M Ua to Lalaade, who treated him like 



a soa. Burckhardt was naturalized m 
France, in 1799 ; succeeded Lalande at the 
'observatory of the Military School; and 
died in June, ldl5. He wrote various sci- 
entific works, and translated Laplace's 
Celestial Mechanism into German. 

BURCKHARDT, John Lewis, the 
son of a Swiss colonel, was born at Lau- 
siinne, in 1784, and studied at Leipsic and 
Gottingen. Being of an enterprising dis- 
position, he offer^ his services to the Af- 
rican Association, to explore Africa. They 
were accepted ; and, after he had acquired 
Arabic and a knowledge of physic and sur- 
gery at Cambridge, he sailed in 1809. In 
Syria he remain^ two years and a half, in 
tlie character of a mussulman, and learned 
the spoken Arabic dialects. His first jour- 
ney included Nubia, the eastern coast of 
the Red Sea, Mecca, and Medina. He 
reached Cairo in 1815, and was preparing 
to penetrate to Timbuctoo, when be died 
of a dysentery. 

BURDON, W7LLIAM, born at New- 
castle upon Tyne, in 1764, was educated at 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, and died in 
London, in Mav, 1818. He is the author 
of various works, the principal of which 
are, Materials for Thinking; a Life of Bon- 
aparte ; and Thoughts on Politics, Moral- 
ity, and Literature. 

BURETTE, Peter John, a native of 
Paris, born in 1665, was the son of a sur- 
geon who cultivated music. His delicate 
health prevented him from being sent to 
school, and he studied only music ; which 
he acQuired so perfectly that, in his eighth 
vear, ne played before Louis XIV. W lien 
be was eighteen, however, he resolved to 
become a physician; and, accordingly, ha 
dedicated himself to learning, and rapidly 
obtained all the college degrees. In the 
oriental languages his knowledge was pro- 
found. After havinff been medical and surgi- 
cal professor, royal censor, and a member 
of several academies, he died in 1747. For 
thirty-seven years he was one of the editors 
of the Journal des Savans, and he wrote 
numerous erudite papers in the Transactions 
of the Academy of Inscriptions. 

BURGER, GoDFRED Adoustds, a 
poet, was bom at Wolmerswende, in the 
principality of Halberstadt, in 1748, and 
displayed an early fondness for poetry, 
thoug^ he made but slow process in hu 
learning. He was originally intended/or 
the church, but he never entered it. Bur- 
ger was, indeed, for several years, too idle 
and dissipated to apply seriously to any 
regular occupation. In poetry, however, 
he acquired a splendid rqratation, partic- 
ularly in the ballacl style. His Leonora, 
his Wild Huntsman, and some of his other 
compositions, have oeen translated into 
English, and become hishlypopuhw ,Bar- 
ger was thrice married; ois first wile km 




nuMle mih^my; hi« diird wile made him 
■o, and be oUained a divorce; his second, 
the sister of his first, to whom he was 
oiadly attached, he lost soon after their 
union. In 1779, Burger obtained the editor- 
ship of the Almanack of the Muses; and in 
1797 he was appointed proferaor of belles 
lettres at Gottingen He died in June, 
1794, haTing fur a considerable time pre- 
viously languished in indigence, sickness, 
and sorrow. His works form four octavo 

BUROESS, Daniel, an able but ec- 
oentrie dissenting divine, was bom, in 
1645, at Staines, m Middlesex; was edu- 
cated at Westminster and Oxford ; resided 
in Ireland, from 1667 to 1674, as chaplain 
and schoolmaster ; was imprisoned, under 
the act of uniformity, after his return to 
England; became an exceedingly popular 
minister, Amt many years, in London ; and 
died in 1718. H is piety and learning were 
alloyed by too much of humour and droIN 
ery. In one sermon, he declared, that the 
reason why the descendants of Jacob were 
named Israelites was, that God would not 
have his chueen people called Jacofnte$. 
In another, be exclaimed, ** if you vrant a 
cheap suit, you will go to Monmouth street ; 
if a suit for life, you will go to the court of 
chancery ; but for an eternally durable suit, 
you must go the Lord Jesus, and put on his 
robe of righteousness.** 

BURGH, James, the author of the 
Dignity of Human Nature ; Political Dis- 
quisitions ; and other works of merit ; was 
bom, in 1714, at Madderty, in Perthshire, 
and was educated at St. Andrew*s. After 
having been a linen draper, an assistant at 
a grammar sdiool, and a corrector in Bow- 
ycr*s printinff office, he opened an acade- 
my at Stoke Newington, which he conduc- 
ted for nineteen years. He died in 1775. 
BURGOYNE, Lieut. Gen. John, wai 
a natural son of Lord BingW; entered 
early into the army; and in l7Cl2 displayed 
much talent and enterprise, in command 
of a party of the British troops in Portugal. 
In tne American war, he led the army 
which was to penetrate from Canada into 
the revolted provinces. At first, he was 
successful ; but, insuperable obstacles thick- 
ening round hiro, he was ultimately com- 
pell^ to surrender at Sarato^. Disgusted 
Dy the conduct of the ministry after his 
return, he resigned all his employments. 
He died in August, 1792. Burcoyne wrote 
the dramas of the Heiress, the Maid of the 
Oaks, the Lord of the Manor, and Richard 
Oceur de Lion ; some pamphlets in his own 
defimce; and a Prolmtionary Ode. 

BURIDAN, John, a native of Bethune, 
in Flanders, bom in the fourteenth century, 
m m>minalist philosopher, was rector of the 
vu^rersity of Paris; and has, but errone- 
MM^t MM deemed the founder of the uui- 


versity of Vienna. He is believed to hmm 
died about 1858. His memory has been 
perpetuated by his dilemma of the ass be- 
tween two bundles of hay, which he used to 
illustrate the doctrine of free will, and which 
has ffrown into a proyerb. 

B URIGNY, John Lev ES^UE, a French 
writer, member of the Academy of Inscrip- 
tions, was bom at Rheims, in 1691, and 
died at Paris, in 1785. He wrote Histo- 
ries of Pagan Philosophy; Sicily; and the 
Constantinopolitan empire; Lives of Gro- 
tins, Erasmus, Bossuet, and Cardinal d« 
Perron ; a Treatise on the Papal Authori- 
ty; and numerous other productions. 

BURKE, Edmund, whose name fills m 
large a space in our jpNiJitical and literary 
annals, was the sou of an eminent attorn^, 
and was born at Dublin, January 1, 1790. 
After having received his early education 
from Abraham Shackleton, a quaker school- 
master of Ballytore, he went to Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1746, where he re- 
mained three years, and pursued an exten- 
sive course of study, on a plan of his own. 
In 1753, he entered as a law student at 
tlie Temple, but applied himself almost 
wholly to literature; his unremitting atten- 
tion to which at length injured his nealth. 
During. his illness he became an inmate in 
the house of Dr. Nugent, a physician, to 
whose dauffhter he was afterwards united. 
This union be always described as the chief 
blessing of his life. His first acknowledged 
work, which was of course p|ublished anony- 
mously, was his Vindication of Natural 
Society; an admirable imitation of Lord 
Bolingbroke*s st^le and mi\|^ner of reason- 
ing, which deceived even some of the best 
judges. This was followed, in the ensuinff 
year, by h'u Essay on the Sublime and 
Beautiful. It completely established his 
reputation as a man of genius and a fine 
writer, and brought him acquainted witk 
some of the most eminent personages of tbt 
age. His political career did not com- 
mence till 1761, when be accompanied tht 
Irish secretary, William Gerard Hamikoo, 
to Ireland. Nor can he be said to hav* 
entered folly on that career till 1765» when 
he became the privau Mcrataiy aad irkai 


if tht ayurqiik of Rockingluai, then tlie fnC 
loid of the treasory, who broogfat him into 
parliament, as member for Wendorer. 
Thenceforth he took a prominent part in 
the debatee of the hoose of commons. In 
1774, without any solicitation on his part, 
be was elected fi>r Bristol ; but this seat be 
hMt at the next election, in ooasequenoe of 
his having displayed too much liberality of 
principle, witn respect to the catholics and 
to Ireland. He subsequently sat for Mai- 
ton. In the mean while he gave to the 
public his Observations on Grenville^s State 
of the Nation ; a Short Account of a late 
short Administration; Thoughts on the 
Causes of the present Discontents ; and hu 
speeches on American Aflkirs. To the 
impolitic contest with America he made a 
strenuooB and eloquent resistance as a sen- 
ator. On the downfiUl of Lord North's 
ministry, Borfce obtained the office of pay- 
master-general, and a seat in the council; 
and he availed himself of this opportunity 
to carry his celebrated reform Dili, which 
he had previously b r ought forward in vain. 
The expulsion of the Malition ministryof 
coarse deprived him of his office. The 
p rose cuti on of Mr. Hastings, and the op- 
position to Mr. Pitt's regency bill, were 
among his next and greatest parliamentary 
eflbrts. Though the former of these has 
irawn down upon him much censure, and 
even cafammy, there can be no doubt that 
ae undertook it as a sacred and imperative 
doty. This is irrefragably proved by his 
recently published letters to Dr. LAwrence. 
When the French revolution took place, be 
early foresaw the result, and, in 1790, he 
proonced his celebrated Reflections on that 
went. A breach between him and Mr. 
Pox was also occasioned by their diiierence 
of opinion on this important subject. In 
1794, he retired from parliament, and a 
pe ns ion of one thousand two bnndred 
pounds a year was bestowed on him by the 
go vw mm ent. From the time when his Re- 
flections were piiblished, till his decease, 
his literary hostility to the doctrines of 
revolutionary Franee was continued with 
unabated vigour. The last work which be 

Eve to the press was Two Letters on a 
igicide Peace: the concluding two were 
posthumous. He died on the 8tb of July, 
1797. His compositions have been collected 
in sixteen volumes octavo. In private life 
Burke was amiable and benevolent; in 
public, indefatigable, ardent, and abhorrent 
of meanness mid injustice. It was this 
latter quality which rendered him a perse^- 
vering advocate of the Irish catholics. As 
an orator he ranks amon^ the first of mod- 
- — "- — is; and as a writer, whedier we 
the splendour of his diction, the 
I and variety of his imagery, or the 
hniiness stores oif knowledge which he 
Aqpkji, it most be acknowledged that 


BURKITT, William, a divine, boni 
in 1660, at Hitcham, in Snflblk, was edo- 
cated at Pembroke Hall, Caadbridge, and 
became vicar of Dedham, in Essex, in 
1692, wher« he died in 1708. His Prac 
tical Exposition of the New Testament has 
gone through many editions, and stiU con- 
tinues to be popular. 

BURLAMAQUI, JoHir James, bora 
at Geneva, in 1694, and who died there in 
1748, was at first professor of Jaw ji his 
native city; resided for some years at 
Hesse Cassel, with the prince, who had 
been his pupil ; and .then returned to Oe> 
neva, whcine he became a member of tha 
sovereign council. His great works are, 
the Principles of Natural Law ; the Prin- 
ciples of Political Law ; and the Princi- 
ples of the Law of Nature and Nations. 

BURLEIGH, William CECIL, Lord, 
whom one of his early biografdiers charac- 
terises as " the oldest, the ^vest, and tha 
matest statesman in Christendom," was 
bom, in 1620, at Boome, in Lincolnshire, 
was educated at St: John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and studied the law at Gray*s Inn. 
In the reign' of EkKrard VI. be was 
patronised by the protector Somerset, was 
knighted, and became a privy counsellor, 
master of requests, and secretary. With 
Elisabeth he was in still higher &vour 
which, indeed, he earned l^ his political 
sagacity and his devotion to her. Leicester 
endeavoured, but in vain, to overthrow him, 
and is even said to have aimed aminst his 
life. In ld71,hewascreated Lord Burleigh, 
and, in the ibUowing year, he was appointed 
lord high treasurer, and received tne order 
of the Garter. To Burleigh most, in a 
great measure, be attributed the soiferingt 
and death of the unfortnnate Mary, qu ee n 
of Scou. He died in 1696. Burleigh, 
though not a man of genius, was a man of 
^reat parts and prudence, whose state pol- 
ic]^ was not always reconcilable with tha 
principles of morality. Of literary merit 
ne was, to say the least, no patron ; and, 
accordingly, he Is alluded to with mucii 
bitterness by many of his contemporary 

ard BOYLE, Earl of, was bom in 1696, 
was made a knight of the garter, in 1790, 
and died in 1758, when the title of Bur- 
lington became extinct. Lord Burlington 
was a man of a liberal mind, and po ssesse d 
an admirable taste in architecture. He was 
the first patron of bishop Berkeley, and 
Pope dedicated to him his fourth epistle. 
His residence at Chiswick, the dormitory 
at Westmiaster school, and other buildiags. 
were designed by him, and he imprmad 
the mansion Ujiilt, in Piccadilly, by km 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

M aw 

BURMAN, PSTSR, HI aouBaiit crkk^ 
1VQ8 born at Utrecht, in l<i68, and wm 
■rofesMMT of history, eloqiwiice,and Greek, 
firat at Utrecht, and afterwards at Levden. 
He sohieqiientlT became professor ot his- 
tory and chief librarian to the United 
ProTinoes. He died in 1741. Besides 
poUisbinf valuable editions of many of 
the Latin claesies, and an edition of Bu- 
chanan's works, he wrote Latin poems, 
and varions critical and philological disser- 
tations, discourses, and epistles. 

BURM4/V, John, a phy«ici«n and bot- 
anist, the Dupil of Boerhaave, and nephew 
of the celebrated critic, was bom in 1707, 
and died in 1780. He was profeesor of bot- 
any at Amsterdam. Burman, among other 
things, poblished a Catalogue of Ceylonian 
Plants, in which Linnseus assisted him; 
and Descriptions of rare African and 
American Plants ; and transhkted into Latin 
Rmnphins's Herbal of Amboyna. 

BURMAN, Peter, brother of the bot- 
anist, was born at Amsterdam, in 1714, 
and was bronsht up by his uncle, whom 
he assisted in nis critical labours, and of 
whom he was no unworthy rival in eru- 
dition. He was professor of eloouence at 
Franeker, and afterwards, professor of 
poetry, librarian, and keeper of the gym- 
nastum, at Amsterdam, where he died of 
an apoplexy in 1778. He wrote a volume 
of Latin poems, and edited Aristophanes, 
Claudius, Propertins, and other classical 
writers. Like his uncle, he was irascible, 
and was frequently engaged in violent 
literary nuarrels. 

BUR^l, Richard, a native of Kirkby 
Stephen, in Westmoreland, was educated 
at Oxford, and became vicar of Orton, in 
his native county, a magistrate, and chan- 
cellor of Carlisle. He died in 1789. He 
is the author of the useful book known as 
Bom's Justice; a similar work on Eccle- 
siastical Law ; a History of the Poor Laws ; 
and, in conjunction with Nicholson, a His- 
tory of Westmoreland and Cumberland. 

BURNET, Gilbert, the son of a 

Bcotch lawyer, was bora at Edinburgh, in 

164S, and was educated at Aberdeen. After 

^ ^rmvelled in Holland, and visited 


London, where be was made a MSow «f 
the Royal Society, he took orders, and 
waa presented to the living of Saltoon, 
While he held this living, liis honest 'zeal, 
in drawing up a memorial against the 
abuses committed by the Scottiw bishops, 
excited the indignation of Archbishop 
Sbarpe, who would fain have punished 
his boldness by depriving and excommu- 
nicating him. Between 1605 and 1673, 
Burnet was made professor of divinity at 
Glasgow, and chaplain in ordinary to the 
king ; twice declined a Scottish bishopric ; 
and wrote, among other productions. Me- 
moirs of the Duke of Hamilton, ind a 
work, of which, no doubt, he soon repen- 
ted, in defence of the r^i^l prerogatives 
of the crown of Scotland The court 
favour which he had thus gained, iie, how 
ever, soon lost, by his opposition to popery, 
and he was struck out of the list of chap- 
lains. Settling in London, he was appoin- 
ted preacher at tlie Rolls Chapel, and lectn- 
rer of St. Clement's, and tteoame popular. 
His literary kibours were indelattgably 
continued. The most important of these 
was the History of the Reformation, the . 
first volume of which came forth in 1679. 
For tliis he received tlie thanks of both 
houses of parliament. His known hostility 
to tlie designs of the court, his having 
attended Lord Russel on the scaffold, and 
having preached, on Uie 5th of November, 
an obnoxious sermon^ at length occasioned 
him to be deprived of his lectureship and 
the office of preacher at the Rolls. On 
the death of Charles, Burnet travelled < 
through France, Italy, and Switzerland, 
and, m 1687, settled at the Ha^e, where 
he was high in the confidence of the Prince 
of Orange, and assisted in forming the 
plans for the liberation of his country. 
A prosecution for treason was set on foot 
against him at home, and James required 
the States to deliver him up. But Burnet 
had now married a Dutch lady of fortune, 
and the States refused to give up one who 
was thus become a naturalised subject. 
In 1688 he attended the Prince of Oi-angc 
to England as chaplain ; and, in the follow- 
ing year, was made bi^op of Salisbury. 
A Pastoral Letter, which be addressed to 
the clerffv of his diocese, asserting the 
right of William and Mary to the crown 
by conquest, excited the anger of parlia- 
ment, and was burnt by the common 
executioner. In 1698 he was appointed 
preceptor to the duke of 'Gloucester; in 
1704 he had the satisfaction of seeing 
carried^ into eflfect his scheme for the au^ 
mentation of small livings ; and in Mar^, 
1714-15, he died, in his seventy-second 
year. He left a H istory of his own Times, 
which was published by his son ThonuM 
Burnet. Burnet's character has been Hm 
theme of invective and ridicoln to toriMf 


tet ke fras tn honest, beoeroleot, %nd pious 
■an, and a sincere (riend to the liberties 
of hiscountry. 

BlTkNET, Thomas, a philosopher and 
divine, bom at Croft, in Yorkshire, about 
16S5, was educated at Cambridge; was 
travelling tutor to the sons of several 
noblemen; was appointed master of the 
Charterhouse, in 1685; became chaplain 
and clerk of the closet to King William; 
and died in 1715. As master of the Char- 
terhouse, he distinguished himself by boldly 
resisting the attempts of James II. to make 
a Roman catholic a pensioner of the estab- 
lishment. As a literary character, he ac- 
quired reputation by various works of merit, 
bat particularly by his Telluris sacra 
Theoria, which he subeequentW translated 
into English, with the title ol the Sacred 
Theory of the E^arth, and which, though 
its philosophy is radically defective, will 
always be admired, for the sublimity of 
its imagery and the eloquence of its style. 

BURNET, William, thf son of Bishop 
Burnet, was born at the Hague in 1688. 
After having held the office of comptroller 
of the customs in England, he was m 1720 
appointedj^overnor of New- York and New- 
Jersey. In 1728 he was appointed to tlie 
Kvemment of Massachusetts and New- 
unpshire; where bis administration was 
rendered unpleasant by a controversy with 
the assembly. He died at Boston in 1729. 
He was a man of learning, and published 
several works on theological and philosoph- 
ical snbjects. 
' BURNET, Jamks. See Mohboddo. 

BURNEY, Charles,* a doctor of mu- 
sic, and literary character, was bom at 
Shrewsbury, in 1726, and studied music 
imder Dr Ame. In 1749, he produced, at 
Drury Lane, the musical pieces of Alfred, 
Rofadn Hood, and Queen Mab. He then 
settled at Lynn, where he resided nine 
years, daring which period he was employ- 
ed on his General History of Music, the 
first volume of which^ however, he did not 
give to the press till -1776. In 1760 he 
returned to the capiul, and in 1766 brought 
oat, at Drury Lane, an English version 
of the Devin du Vilhtge. In 1770 and 
1772, he travelled through France and 
Italy, and Germany and the Netherlands; 
of which tours he published interesting 
narratives. He became a member of the 
Royal Society aAer his second return, and 
eontributed to their Transactions an Ac- 
count of yoang Crotob. He died in 1814, 
at Oielsea Hospital, of which he was 
organist. Besides the productions already 
■aeutioned, and many musical compositions, 
he produonl several works, one of the 
chief of which b, a Life of Metastasio, in 
three volumes. 

BURNEY, Ohasles, second son of the 
r, was bom at Lynn» in 



1757, and educated at the Charter Housst 
Caius College, Cambridge, and Aberdeen. 
After having been an assistant to an acade 
my at Hig^^ate, and, afterwards, to Dr. 
Rose, of Cniswick, whose daughter he 
married, he established a school at Ham- 
mersmith, which at a subsequent period lie 
removed to Greenwich. He obtained the 
livings of Deptford and of Cliflfe, and a 
prebend at Lincoln, and was appointed one 
of the king's chaplains. He died Decem- 
ber 28, 1817. Dr. Burney was one of the 
most consummate Greek scholars in Europe. 
His classical acauircments were first dis- 
played in his criticisms in the Monthly 
Review. He mblished an Appendix to 
Scaf)u]a; an coition of the Choral Odes 
of iEschylus; and other erudite works. 
His valuable library was purchased foi the 
British Museum. 

BURNEY, Rear Admiral James, a son 
of the historian of music, was born in 
1789; accompanied Captain Cook in two 
of bis voyages ; was much beloved by 
Johnson ; and displayed a respectable por- 
tion of the literary talent of his family, in 
a History of Voyages of Discovery, 6 vols. 
4to; an Account of the Russian Eastern 
Voyages; and some philosophical tracts. 
He died of apoplexy in 1820. 

BURNS, Robert, a poet of whom 
Scotland has reason to be proud, though 
her scanty patronage of him ought to make 
her blush, was the son of a small farmer 
and gardener, and was bom near Ayr, it 
1759. Some education he received, ana 
he acquired the French language and prac- 
tical mathematics. Reading was his delight, 
and every leisure moment was devoted to 
it. The perusal of some of the best English 
poets gave him a taste for poetry, and love 
ins,'ired him to pour forth his feelings in 
verso. At his outset in life. Bums was 
engaged in the labours of agriculture. Ha 
then became a flax dresser, at Irvine; 
but his premises were destroyed by fire 
In conjunction with his younger brother, 
he next took a small farm, and in thie 
aUio he was unsuccessful. Fortune now 
seemed rewWed to thwart all his wishes; 
for a female whom heaved, and wl» 

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WM pregnaot bj him, wm refiiaed lo him 
by her parents, and he waa at once in 
dansm* 6rom the kirk and the magistrate. 
In this situation, he resolved to print his 
poems, for the purpose of raising some 
money, and then to seek his fortune in the 
West Indies, as an assistant overseer. 
His passage was actually engaged when 
a letter from Dr. Blacklock, recommend- 
ing a visit to Edinburgh, put an end to 
his scheme of emigration, in the Scottish 
capital his poems had excited universal 
vlmiration. Brighter prospects thus open- 
id upon him. For more than twelve 
Bonus he remained in Edinburgh, invited, 
lasted, praised, and caressed, by the fiiir 
•md the great : at length, with the sum 
v4 five hundred pounds, the produce of his 
poems, he withdrew to the country, mar- 
ried the object of his affection, took a 
form, and also obtained the office of an 
exciseman. Of all the offices which could 
have been given to him, this was the most 
unpoetical and the most unsuitable. It is 
marvellous that none of his professing and 
powerful friends saw the disgrace and 
ridicule of sufl^ring their favourite bard to 
be thus degraded. Among the numerous 
places, either sincciyes or of little labour, 
which are so Uvishly distributed, one 
might surelv have beMi conferred on him 
whom the Bcoich delighted to honour ! 
No efibrt, iMwever, appears to have been 
made in his behalf. For three years and 
a half he strove to derive a subsistence 
firom his farm. But his confirmed Iwbits 
of intemperate conviviality, and other cir- 
eamstaooes, forbad success; and he was 
at length compelled to give up his lease, 
remove to Duinfries, and depeod upon his 
profession of an exciseman. Waile he 
was occupied in watching stiUs and hunt- 
ing smugglers, and, at the same time, 
labouring under disease and deiectioo, he 
wrote his admirable songs, for Thompson's 
Collection. Worn out with vexation, and 
the consequences of his love of inebriating 
Uqoors, 1m died on the 26th of July, 1796, 
leaving his wife and femily in an unpro- 
vided state. A subscription made by his 
friends, and the profits arising from an 
edition of his works, raised his femily 
above want; and a splendid monument 
has, within these few years, been erected 
to his memory. Humour, pathos, vivid 

^Imagery, energy, and no small share of 
elegan c e, distingnidi the poems of Bums. 
His prose, though sometimes overstrained, 
it flowing and foil of spirit. In convei • 
Mtion, too, which is not always the cuse 
with men of genius, he folly sustained the 
character which he had acquired by his 

> vBIJRRILL, James, an eminent lawyer 
mm! statesman, vnu bom in Providence, 
Islaad, ia 1T72, and received hb 

BUR y 

education at Brown university, where m 
graduated in 1788. He studied the pro 
fession of law, and soon acquired hisb 
reputation in its practice. In 1797 am 
was appointed attorney-general of tlie state, 
and continued to discharge the duties of 
this office for over sixteen years, with un« 
common ability. In 1813 the decline of 
his health induced him to retire from the 
bar. He was immediately elected to a 
seat in the state legislature, and in the 
following year was chosen speaker of the 
house of npresenutives. In 1816 he 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court, and in the next vear was elected to 
a seat in the Senate of the United States. 
Of this body he continued a conspicuous 
and hiffhly esteemed member till his death 

BURROUGHS, Geoiige. who suffered 
death for the alleged crime of witchcraft, 
during the mournful delusion on that sub- 
ject, was a graduate of Harvard college, 
and settled ia the ministry at Salem in 
1681. In 1692 he was arraigned at Salem 
for bavins, by the arts of witchcraft, ** tor- 
tured, afflicted, pined, consumed, wasted, 
and tormented*' one Mary W<Jcott, and 
also for havin? performed several feats 
which required wonderful stren^h. He 
was convicted upon these accusations, and 
executed on the nineteenth of August. 

BURROW, Sir James, a law^, mas- 
ter of the crown office, was appointed pro 
tempore, president of the Royal Society, ' 
in 1772, on the death of Mr. West. He 
died in 1782. His works consist of four 
volumes of Reports; a vohime of King's 
Bench Decisions; an Essay on Punctua- 
tion ; and Anecdotes of Cromwell and hie 

BURROW, Reubeit^ a mathema.- 
cian, born at Hoberly, in Yorkshire, was 
originally a clerk to a merchant, thea an 
usher, and next a schoolmaster. He waa 
employed by Dr. Maskelyne in the obser- 
vations on Schehallien, and was mad« 
drawing master at the Tower ; after wuiek 
he went to Bengal, whem he died, ia 
1791, while engaged in a trigonometrioal 
survey. He was a member of the Asiatic 
Society. While in England, he edited the 
Gendeman's and Lady's Diaries. His 
chief virork is a Restitution of Apollonins 
on Inclinations. 

BURTON, Robert, an ori^nal and 
learned writer, was bora at Lmdler, in 
Leicestershire, in 1676, and receivea bit 
education at Braxenose and CSurist Chorch 
Colleges, Oxford ; after which he obtained 
the hving of St. Thomas, Oxford, and, 
subsequently, that of Segrave, ip Leiees- 
tershire. He died in J6MM0. Burtun 
vnw subject to (Its Of hypochondria, and b 
said to have writtea his celebrated Anatoaj 
of Melancholy with the Tiew of difwtaif 


III Hrind from kis besetting malady. Hk 
work bat great and diveraified inent; and 
later writers, especially Sterne, have been 
indebtsd to it for mncn that bais been ad- 
mired in t '.eir Tohtmes. 

BURTON, Heii RT, bom at BirdsaN, 
In Yorkshire, about 1619, vras edncated at 
Oxford ; was clerk of the cloeet to Prince 
Henry , and, afterwards, rector of Saint 
Matthew's, Friday Street. Two sermons, 
in a coarse and puritanical style, reflecting 
on the bishops, which, in 1636, he preached 
to his parishioners, drew on him the ven- 
geance of the detestable star chamber. 
Every principle of justice was violated in 
the course or tlie proceedings agminst him; 
and he was conoemned to pay a fine of 
five thousand pounds, to be degraded from 
the ministry and from his degrees, to have 
his ears cut off* in the pillory, and to be 
perpetually imprisoned, without the use 
of4)en, ink, and paper, and without seeing 
any one but his keeper. The mutilation 
of bis ears, which was executed with ex- 
traordinary cruelty, he bore with the ut- 
most fortimde. In 1640 he was liberated 
bj the parliament, and he died in 16^. 
He wrote many theological tracts, which 
have sunk into oblivion. 

eiKR Ghislen, a natural son of the lord 
of Busbecq, was bom at Commines, in 
Flanders, in 1522 ; received letters of legit- 
imation on account of his eenius; and 
was employed on various embassies, par- 
ticularly on a mission to the Emperor 
Soliman II., during which he remainea sev- 
eral years at Constantinople. Maximilian 
II. entrusted to him the education of his 
pons. Bosbecq died in France, in 1592. 
Amongother works, he wrote an Account 
of his^ravels in the East. 

BUSBY, Dr. Richard, was bora 
at button, in Leicestershire, in 1606, and 
educated at Westminster and Oirist 
Church, Oxford. In 1640, he Mras ap- 
pointed master of Westminster school; 
which situation he retained more than 
fifty-five years, till his decease in 1695. 
He alto lield various church pi^fements. 
Boaby was an excellent classical teacher, 
but a severe disciplinarian. None of bis 

pils were spoilea by a sparing use of the 




BUSCH, John Gborge, a native of 
Lnneburg, who was bora in 1728, and died 
in 1800, was director of the Commercial 
Academy at Hamburgh, and is the author 
of several standard works on commerce 
aad political eoonomv. Among them may 
be mentioned, the Theory of Commerce ; 
fissays on Commerce ; on Banks ; and on 
the Circulation of Money. Busche under- 
■Cood all the European languages; was 
ffie d in the mathematics; and was a 
Wdf patdocic eitizea. His Encyclopmdia 

of Mathematics proves his acientifie kaowl • 

BUSCHING, AifTHoifT Frederic. 
one of the creators of statistics and mod* 
kphy, was bora, in 1724, at 

m ReograpJ 
Stadthagen, i 

Stadthagen, in WeMpbalia, and studied at 
Halle. After having been tutor to the ^n 
of Count Lynar, he settled for a while at 
Copenha^n, where he commenced his 
geographical labours. In 1754, he was 
chosen extraordinary on^essor of philoso- 
phy at Gottiogen; ana, in 1761, he was 
invited to Petersburgh, to be pastor of the 
German Lutheran church. At Petersburgh 
be established a public school, which soon 
became one of the most flourishing in the 
north ; but the persecution which be expe- 
rienced from Marshal Munich, to whom he 
wrould not implicitly submit, compelled 
him to quit Russia. lie finally settled at 
Berlin, where he vras patronised and highly 
esteemed by the kin^ and the royal fiunily, 
and where he died in 1798. His works, 
ophical and ffeoffrajAical, extend to 
more tnan a hundred volumes. Two of 
the principal are, a System of Geography, 
6 vols. 4to. ; and an Historical and Geo- 
graphical Magazine of modera Times, 28 
vols. 4to. 

BUSSY-RABUTIN, Rogbr, Count 
de, a French writer and courtier, was 
bora in 1618, and served with reputation 
in the army for some years. He shone as a 
courtier till his scandalons chronicle, called 
the Amorous History of the Gauls, and his 

ipoons on the king's connection with 


Mademoiselle de la Valiere, occasioned him 
to be imprisoned in the Bastile for twelva 
months, and banished from court for fifteen 
years. By dint of mean solicitations he 
was recalled ; but was so coldly treated by 
the monarch, that he again withdrew to 
his estate, wkere he died in 1698. He 
had wit, courage, and personal accom- 
plishments ; but was inordinately vain, 
splenetic, and malignant. Besides the 
work already mentioned, he is the author 
of Letters; Memoirs; and an Abrid|Eed 
History of Louis the Chrent 

BUTE, JoHif STUART, Eari of, of. 
an ancient Scotch ftimily, was born early 
in the ei|[hteenth century, and, in 17S8, 
was appointed one of the lords of the bed- 
chamber to Frederic jprinoe of Wales, the 
&ther of George HIT He possessed the 
entire confidence of the princess of Wales, 
and is said to have exercised a prejudicial 
influence in the political education of tha 
foture sovereign, of whom, however, he 
became a fovourite. On his accession, 
George III. made him groom of the stole, 
and one of the privy council, and, in 1761. 
appointed him one of the secretaries of 
slate, in the room of Lord Holderness 
In the following y^r Bute became first 
k>rd of the treasury. Under to aospieaa. 



a treaty^ whidi dirappointed the hopes of 
the nation, was concluded with France 
and Spain. He, eoon after, apparently 
retired from public business; but he is 
believed to have lonff influenced the meas- 
ares of the monarch. JHLe died in 1792. 
In his private life, Bute was an amiable 
and worthy man, and a lover of science. 
To botany he was particularly partial, and 
had an extensive knowledge of it. 

BUTLER, Charles, an English di- 
vine, born in 1559, at High Wycombe, 
Bucks, was educated at Oxford, and, about 
1600, became vicar of Lawrence Wotton, 
Hants, where he died in 1647. Qf his 
works, the chief are, the Feminine Mon- 
archy, or a Treatise on Bees, a curious 
and clever production ; and the Principles 
of Muiiic, which has been highly praised 
oy Or. Burney, a judge whose competeifte 
to decide on such a subject admits of no 

BUTLER, Samuel, the wittiest of 
English poets, was born in 1612, and was 
the son of a farmer at Strensham, in Wor- 
cestershire. The first part of his educa- 
tion he obtained at Worcester school ; but 
whether he completed it at Oxford or 
Cambridge is a point in dispute, though 
the weight of evidence and opinion is m 
favour of the latter university. After he 
left college, he was successively clerk to 
a justice of peace named Jeffreys, and an 
inmate in the families of the countess of 
Kent, and of Sir Samuel Luke, a Bed- 
fordshire gentleman, who was a commander 
under Cromwell. While he was in this 
last situation he is believed to have written 
his Hudibras, the hero of which is Sir 
Samuel Luke himself. The first part of 
Hudibras was published in 1663, and im- 
mediately became pojxdar. Lord Dorset 
called thie attention ot the court to it, but 
the author benefited little by this circum- 
stance. A gratuity of three hundred pounds 
is said to l»ve been the only reward which 
was bestowed on him by the worthless 
iovereign. By the earl of Carbery he was 
appoii^ted steward of Ludbw Castle ; and 
ha married Mrs. Herbert, a woman of 
MMBa fortnoe; whieh fortuna, however, is 


aifinned to have been lost* by being pal 
out upon bad security. The second and 
third Darts of Hudibras appeared in 1664 
and lo78. The remainder of his works 
was not given to the world till long after 
his decease. The poet died, in compara- 
tive obscurity, in 1680, and was buried in 
the churchyard of St. PauPs, Covent Gar- 
den. In originality, wit, and felicity of 
illustration and allusion, Hudibras remains 
without a rival, an J seems likely to remain 
so. Even the change of customs and habits, 
which time has produced, has not destroved 
its attractions ; and no poem in our lan- 
guage, perhaps, affords so fertile or so 
uroquent a source of ludicrous quotation. 

BUTLER, Joseph, an eminent pre- 
late and theological writer, was born, in 
1692, at Wantage, in Berkshire, and was 
originally a dissenter, but conformed to 
the church, and studied at Oriel College, 
Oxford. He was successively preacher at 
the Rolls College, rector of Houghton and 
of Stanhope, a jn-ebend of Rochester, aud 
clerk of the closet to Queen Caroline. Id 
1736 he published his celebrated Analogy 
of Religion; in 1738 he was made bishop 
of Bristol ; and in 1750 bishop of Durham 
He died in 1752. Besides the Analogy, 
he printed a volume of Sermons, and a 
Charge to his Clergy, on the subject of 
external religion. 

BUTLER, Alba IT, a catholic divine, 
of great learning, was bom at Appletree, 
in Nortliamptonshire, in 1710; was edu- 
cated at Douay; became tutor to the duke 
of Norfolk's nephew; and died, in 1773, 
president of the English College at St. 
Omers. Of his works, the principal is, 
the Lives of the Saints, in 5 vols. 4to. 

BUTLER. See Ormond. 

BUTTNER, Christian William, a 
German naturalist and philologist, bom at 
Wolfenbnttle, in 1716, was originally an 
apothecary, but relinquished that profession 
to study Uie primitive history of nations, 
and the filiation of their languag^. In 
pursuit of this object, and of natural history* 
ne restricted himself to what was barely 
necessary to support life, making only one 
fra^l meal a day, and expending his 
savings upon books. For a quarter of a 
century be was professor at Gottingen, 
and contributed s[reatly to spread a love of 
philological stuoies. He died in 1801. 
His published works are, unfortunately, 
few in number: among them is. Compara- 
tive Tables of the Alphabets of Ancient 
and Modem Nations. He left in MS. a 
Prodromus Linguarum. 

BUTTON, Sir Thomas, a naviptor, 
who was in the service of Prince Henry, 
sou of James I. In 1612, he sailed with 
two vessels, to follow up the diseoveriof 
of Henry Hndson. He wintered in Nal- 
sod's river, which was daseoTered by hla; 

• Digitized by V 


■ad returned to England in tfaewitimiii of 
I$1S. Button was the first who, on the 
western side of Hudson's Bay, reached the 
eaitem <»iast 9f America. In this expedi- 
lioQ he displayed much ability and sound 

BUXBAUM, John Christian, a 
German botanist, bom at Merseburg, in 

^ 1694, was one of the foreigners whom the 
Czar Peter invited into Russia. He formed 
the botanic garden at^Petersburgh ; was 
professor of the imperial college in that 
city; and was sent to travel, for botanical 
purposes, in Turkey, in Siberia, and on 
the Persian frontier. His chief work is 
<Hie on the plants of Turkey. Linnseus 
gave the name of Buxbaumia to one division 
of the family of the mosses. 

BUXTON, Jkdadiah, an extraordi- 
nary calculator, was bom at Elmton, in 
Derbyshire, about 1704; and, though the 
son of a schoolmaster, be received no edu- 
cation whatever He possessed, however, 
oacommon powers of cafeulation and ab- 
straction — for, in the tnidst of a crowd, he 
coold solve the most difficult arithmetical 
questions. But he had no ideas beyond the 
mental use of figures. In 1764, he walked 

^ to London, and was presented to the Royal 
Society. While he was in the metropolis, 
be was taken to the theatre, where he em- 
ployed himself solely in counting the steps 
of the dancers, and the words which Gar- 

^ rick uttered. He died at the age of about 

BUXTORF, John, the first of a fiunily, 
the members of which, during two centu- 
riesy. w&e &mou8 for a profouiul knowledge 
of Hebrew and C%aldee, was bom at Ca- 
men, in Westphalia, in 1564, and became 
profeseor at Basil, where he died in 1629. 
Among his works are, a Chakiaic, Talmu- 
dic, and Rabbinic Lexicon; a Hebrew 
and Cbaldaic Dictionary; and a Hebrew 
Bible, with the Rabbinical and Chaldaic 

BuXTORF, John, a son of the pre- 
ceding, was bora at Basil, Jn 1599; suc- 
ceeded his father, as professor, in 1630; 
and died in 1664. He compiled a Chaldaic 
and S^iac Lexicon; translated Maimo- 
nides into Latin; and produced several 
philological and other works. At the early 
age of four years, he is said to have been 
able to read Cierman, Latin, and Hebrew. 

, -—John, his son, and John, his nephew, 
were also consummate Hebraists. 

BYLE6, Mather, a congregational 
minister, was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1706. He was educated at Har- 
vard university, and after completing his 

* theological studies, was ordained the first 
jmstor of the church in Hol}<« street, Bos- 
ton* in 1782. Byles contrflnited many 
mtsacyu to the New Ensland Weekly Jour- 
mmL mad wrote several occasional poems. 

BYR 1«| 

whicfa wen aAerwards collected in a vol> 
ome. He obtained considerable literary 
reputation, and cprres|)onded with Pope» 
Laosdowne, and Watts. Though in his 
day a popubr preacher, and a poet of some 
merit, he is now chiefly remembered by his 
r^Mitation for a ready and powerfiil wit« 
In 1776 his connection with his congrega* 
tion was dissolved on account of his tory- 
ism, and in the following year he was de- 
nounced publicly as an enemy to his country, 
and afterwards tried before a special court. 
He passed the last twelve years of hb lid 
in retirement, and died in 1788. 

BYNG, the Hon. John, fourth son of 
Viscount Torrington, was bora in 1704; 
and, having manifested an early inclina- 
tion to the sea service, he, at the age of 
thirteen, accompanied his &ther. Durina 
the war which ended in 1748, he acouired 
the reputation of a good officer, ana rose 
to be vice-admiral of the red. In 1756, 
he was sent, with an inadequate force, to 
relieve Minorca, in which he failed. His 
indecisive engagement with the French 
excited public clamour, and a despicable 
ministry resolved to save themselves by 
makinff him the victim. He was sentenced 
to be shot, a sentence which, in utter con- 
tempt of justice, was executed on the 14th 
of March, 1757. He met death with a 
firmness which amply refuted the calum- 
nies of his persecutors. 

BYNG. See Torrington. 

BYNKERSHOEK, Cornelius Van, 
a celebrated publicist, was bora at Middle- 
burgh, in Zealand, in 1678, and died, at 
the Hague, in 1743, at which period he 
was president of the council in Holland. 
In 1699 he established the Hagoe New 
Mercury, which was soon suppressed as 
being too satirical. His observations on 
the Roman Laws, and other works of the 
same kind, are of high authority. 

BYRNE, William, was bgra at Lon- 
don, in 1742, and was originally an en- 
^ver of ciphers and arms; but, display, 
log superior talents, he vras sent to Paris, 
to study the higher branches of the &rt, 
under Aliamet and Wille. On his return 
to England he soon acquired reputation. 
Among his principal works are, the Anti- 
quities of Britain, and Smith's Italian 
Scenery. He died in 1805. 

BYROM, John, a poet, and the in- 
ventor of an excellent system of stenog- 
raphy, was born, in 1691, at Kersall, near 
Manchester, and educated at Merchant 
Tailors' School and Cambridge. His pas- 
toral of Colin and Phcebe, and Essays on 
Dreaming, printed in the Spectator, gained 
him the patronage tf Dr. Bentley, throu|[h 
whose interest he obtained a fellowship 
This, of course, he forffeited by his mar 
riage; and he then taught short hand for 
a subsistonce, till he came into poMeaiioa 

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of tin frmily 0itate by the deoeaiQ of hu 
elder brother. Byrom wes a member of 
the Royal Society. He died in 1768. His 
metrical compotitioos have been admitted 
into the British Poets. 

BYRON, the Hon. John, grandfather 
of the celebrated peer, was born at New- 
stead Abbey, in 1728; entered the navy at 
an early age; and was wrecked, on a 
desert island near Chiloe, in the Waser, 
one of the squadron which Anson lea to 
the Soath Seas. After suffering in the 
most dreadful manner by famine, tlie re* 
mains of the crew surrendered to the Span- 
iards, and were captives during five years. 
Of these calamitous adventures Byron after- 
wanls publbhed a good Narrative. From 
1764 to 1766, he was employed, with the 
rank of captain, in a circumnaviffatory 
voyage of discovery. He rose to be an 
amniral, and commanded in the West In- 
dies, ilnring the American war. His de^ 
cease took place in 1786. 

BYRON, George Gordon, Lord 
BjTon, the son of Capuin Byron, who was 
notorious for his dissipated conduct, and 
of Miss Gordon, was born at Dover, Janu- 
ary the 23d, 1788. Deserted by her hus- 
tmnd, who had squandered hei fortune, 
and who died not long after bis desertion 
of her, Mrs. Byron retired with her son 
to Aberdeen, where, possessed of a very 
confined income, she lived in perfect 
seclusion. The youthful Byron was of 
delicate health, in consequence of-whicli 
his studies were often interrupted, and he 
was treated with an indulgence that, per^ 
haps, went beyond the bounds of pnideuce. 
By the death of his great uncle, in 1798, 
ne succeeded to the family title and estates, 
and becanie a ward of nis relative, the 
earl of Carlisle, by whom he was placed at 
Harrow School. At the age of sixteen he 
was removed to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. At neither of these seminaries did 
he particularly distin^ish himself; and bis 
contempt of academic rules often exposed 
him to animadversion. It was at this pe- 
riod of his life that he contracted an ar- 
dent attachment to Mii>s Cha worth, and a 
luting wound was inflicted on his heart by 


her ultimate preference of an older rahor. 
In bis nineteenth year he quitted the uni- 
versity, and took up his residence at the 
family seat of Newstead. It vras during 
his residence at Newstead that he publish- 
ed his first work, with the title of Hours 
of Idleness. This volume gave undoubted 
indications of talent; but the Edinbur^ 
Reviewers pounced upon it with a rabid 
violence that was thoroughly dis^sting. 
They soon found, However, to their cost, 
that they had made a wrong selection of 
their victim. His lordship retorted upon 
them in English Bards and Scottish Re- 
viewers, one of the most pungent satires of 
modem times, and thus rendered them ob- 
jects of pubPic laughter. In consequence 
of his having become the friend of several 
of the individuals satirised, he suppressed 
this satire after it had reached a fourth 
edition. On his coming of age, Byron 
took his seat in the house of peers; bit ia 
tliat house he never delivered more than 
three speeches. He was now en^a^ped in 
a career of dissipatioh which was miurioua 
alike to his fortune and to his health. 
Breaking, however, through the Circean 
snares that beset him, he proceeded on his 
travels, with his friend Mr. Hobhouse, and 
visited Spain, Portugal, and (Sreece; in 
which latter country, the land of his idiohk- 
try, he continued for a considerable time. 
In 1811 he returned to England, and, a few 
months afterwards, he gave to the world 
the first two cantos of Childe Harokl's Pil- 
trrimage, which at once placed h'lr^^ n the 
foremost rank of British poets. This work 
Mras rapidly succeeded by the Giaour; toe 
Bride of Abydos: the Corsair; Lara; and 
an Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte; all of 
which, with the exception of the hktter, ac- 
quired unbounded popularity. Byron was, 
in foct, the poetical idol of the day. On 
the 2d of January, 1815, he married Hiss 
Milbanke. This ill starred union termin- 
ated in a final separation, after tli^ birth 
of a daughter. After having riven to the 
public his Hebrew Melodies; Uie Siese of 
Corinth; and Parasina; he quitted Eng- 
land, to which country he was destincHtl 
never to return. For a while he lived on 
the borders of the Lake of Geneva, whenco 
he removed to Italy, where he fixed him- 
self, first at Venice, and subsequently at 
Pisa. During thb period his mind wa* 
incessantly active; and, in rapid succes- 
sion, he produced the last two cantos of 
Cliilde Harold ; the dramas of Manfred, Ma- 
rino Falieri, Sardanapalus, the Two^ Fos« 
cari, and Cain; the poems of the Prisoner 
of Chillon, Monodv on Sheridan, the La^ 
roent of Tasso, the Prophecy of Dante, 
Mazeppa, Beppo, and Don Juan; a ooo- 
troversy with itfr. Bowles, respecting thm 
merits of Pope ; and a large portion of a 
publication which bore the titw of the Lib> 

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•ral. Greece warn now stmggliiiff for ber 
firpedcfm, ar.d her ftnig|^les cuala not be 
riewea by Bvron wi(\i mdiffenmce. Re- 
lioquishinff the tranquillity of private life, 
be resolved to devote to her caose his for- 
tone, bis pen, and his sword. According- 
Iv, in the autnmn of 1823, he joined the 
6redc8, and had already made himself ven- 
erated by his personal exertions and his 
generous pecuniary aid, wlien he was at- 
tacked by a fever, which terminated fatal- 
ly on the 20th of April, 1824. He expired 
at Missoloni^hi, at the early age of thirty- 
seven, leaving behind him a name that will 
be as imperisnable as lan&fuage itself. His 
lom was mourned by tlie Grc«ks as that of 
a pablic benefactor, and almost regal hon- 
onrt were ordered by the provbional gov- 
ernment, to be paid to his memory and his 
Of the poetry of Byron little 



need be nid: ft is of the bigliett order. 
Few have ever called fironi the lyre, with 
equal skill, such varied and seemingly in- 
compatible tones. He is by turns eublime, 
pathetic, tender, satirical, and sporti\e; 
and in each of these dissimilar styles, he 
displays an equal degree of excellence. 

B20VIUS, or BZOVSKI, Abraham, 
a Polish dominican, was bcMH at Prosc- 
zovie, in 1667, and settled at Rome, where 
he died in 1687. HS wrote various works, 
of which the principal is, a Contimmtion, 
in nine vohmies, of the Annals of Baronin?. 
Bxovins having, in this production, spoken 
unfiivourably c^the Emperor Louis IV. of 
Bavaria, several Bavarian writers drew 
their pens against him, and the elector in- 
stituted a suit, the reealt of which was, 
that Bsovius was compelled to recraet hii 

CABANIS, Peter John George, a 
y French pinvician and literary character, 
the son or an agricuhnrist of talent, was 
bom at Conac, in 1757, and in early life 
visited Poland, where the political ser- 
vility and coiniption, which he witnewed 
^ on a great occasion, inspired him, as lie 
telb us, with a precocious contempt of man- 
kind, and a disposition to melancholy. 
Thb, however, did not prevent him from 
manifesting infinite kindness and benevo- 
lence in his subsequent career. On his re- 
turn to his native country, he chose the 
medical profession, and attained high rep- 
^ utation. In politics he also bore a part. 
He was the bosom firiend of Mirabeau, and 
mt in die council of five hundred, and in 
the sepate of Napoleon. He died in 1807. 
His collected medical and other works 
have been published in seven octavo vol- 

WtLMAM, a Provencal troubadour of tlie 
thirteenth century, is celebrated for his tal- 

^' «nt8 and misfortunes. A lady, of whom 
he was Clamoured, rendered him insane by 
a love pot'on ; and after he recovered his 
senses a severer fiite awaited him. Ca- 
be^tan having entered into the service of 

t the wife of Raymond de Seillans, Ray- 
sDond became iealoos of him, put him to 
death, about 1213« and served up the heart 
of the poet, dressed, to his wife, wlio died 
of grief on hearing what slie had eaten, or, 

. as some say, threw herself from a window. 
Some of Cabestan*s poems are still in ex- 

CABOT, S e B A8TI A If , a celebrated nav< 
gator (the son of John Cabot a Venetian, 
fvho was abo eminent for nautical knowl- 

edge), was born at Bristol, in 1477. I« 
1497, tlie Cabot family being then in the 
service of Henry VH., he bore a part in 
tlie voyages in wnich his father discovered 
Newfoundland and the American continent. 
In 1517 Selmfttian made a fruitless attempt 
to rencii the East Indies by a new track. 
He soon after entered into the Spanish ser- 
vice, in which he remained for some years, 
and explored the Rio de la Plata and part 
of the coast of South America. Under the 
reign of Edward VI. however, he retnmed 
to this country, and was pensioned, made 
grand pilot of England, and consulted on 
all maritime and commercial affairs. He 
died in 1557. Sebastian Cabot was the 
first who npticed the variation of the com- 
pass. ^ He miblished an account of his Voy- 
ages in the Northern Regions. 

CABOT, George, was bom in Salem, 
Massachusetts, in the year 1752, and spent 
the early part of his life in the employment 
of a shipmaster. He possessed a vigorous 
and inquisitive mind, and took advantage 
of every opportunity of improvement and 
acquisition, even amid the restlessness and 
danger of a sea&ring life. Before he was 
twenty-six years of ag^, he was elected a 
member of the provincial Congress of Mas- 
sachusetts, which met with the visionary 
project of establishinga maximum in thie 
prices of provision. There he displayed 
that sound sense, and that acquaintance 
with the true principles of political econo* 
my, for which he afterwards became so 
much distinguished. Mr. Cabot viras a 
member of the State Convention assem- 
bled to deliberate on the adoption of the 
federal constitution, and in 1790 was elect- 
ed to a seat in the senate of the Unit»d 

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BtatM. Of tbts body be beoune oae of 
tbe most dittingaitbed meniber8».and en- 
•o^ed tbe anlimitad conBdence and friend- 
ship of Hamilton and Washin^n. In 
1808 be became a member of Ums council 
of BlaMachiuetts, and in 1814 was ap- 
pointed a delegate to tbe convention wbicb 
met at Hartford, and was cboaen to pre- 
side over its deliberations. He died at 
Boston in 1823, at tbe age of 72 years. 
He possessed a mind of great energy and 
penetration, and in private life was mucb 
loved and esteemed. As a public man he 
w»i« |Nire and disinterested, eo bii^ sagaci- 
ty an<i |)er8uasive el(>quence. His favour- 
ite studies were political economy and the 
science of government. 

CABRAL, Pedro Alvarez, a Por- 
tuguese, commanded a fleet wbicb, in 1500, 
was fitted out for the East Indies, by 
Emanuel of Portugal. To avoid the calms 
of the African coast, Cabral steered so far 
westward that he reached the American 
shore, where he discovered Brazil: so that 
the new world would have been revealed 
even had Columbus not succeeded in bis 
attempt. Cabral afWwards sailed to tbe 
East; reduced tne Zamorin of Calicut to 
soe for peace; and, in 1501, returned home 
richly laden. He died in Portugal. His 
Account of his Voyage was translated and 
published at Venice. 

CACAULT, Francis, a French diplo- 
matist and literary character, was born at 
NanU, in 1742, and became mathematical 
professor of the military school ; after which 
ne travelled in Italy for six years, whence 
he returned in 1775. In 1785, he was ap- 
pointed secretary of embassy at Naples, 
and lie subsequently was ambassador at 
Rome and GrcQoa* He signed tbe treaty of 
Tolentino, and opened the n^tiation for 
tbe Concordat. In France, be was thrice 
one of the represenutives of the people. 
He died a senator in 1805. Cacault trans- 
lated tbe Lyric Fofaks of Raroler, and the 
Draroatuivia of Lessing. 

CADALSO, Jose, one of the late wri- 
ters of Spain, was bom of a noble fiimily, 
at Cadiz, in 1741. He was educated in 
Paris, where he obtained an acquaintance 
with the principal languages of modem 
Europe, and afterwards travelled through 
England, France, Portugal, Germany and 
Italy. At the age of 20 he returned home 
and joined the army, where he remained 
tfll his death, attentive to his military du- 
ties, though devoted to literature. He was 
killed at the siege of Gibraitar in 1782. 
He is tbe author of Cartas Marruecas, a 
series of letters possessing much merit; a 
satire called Eruditos a ut Violeta; a tra- 
gedy ; and several poetical pieces under the 
title of Ocius de mi Juventud. 

CADAMOSTA, Louis da, a Venetian 
Mvigator, who, in 1454, was taken into 


tbe senrioe of Pnnce Henry of Portng»l; 

and, in tbe following year, explored the 
African coast as far as the Gambia. In 
1456, be discovered tbe Cape Verd islands. 
Cadamosta returned to Venice on the death 
of Prince Henry, and drew up an excellent 
Narrative of his Voyages, wnich was pub- 
lished at Vicenza, in 1507. 

CADET DE VAUX, Akthohy Alex- 
is, the son of a chemist and apothecary 
of considerable talent, was bom, in 1743, 
at Paris, and died in 1828. He was a 
member of various learned societies; es- 
tablished the Journal de Paris ; edited and 
contributed to some other journals; and 
wrote various works of irierit, chiefly on 
agriculture, among which are Treatises on 
the Cultivation of Potatoes and Tobacco, 
and the Manu&cture of Wine. 

Louis, (brother of Cadet de Vaux), ^ 
was born at Paris, in 1769, and, B&er tbe 
death of bis father in 1799, quitted die bar 
to devote himself to chemistry and philoso- 
phy. He died in 1821. His works, in 
various departments, are numerous and 
meritorious. Among them may be men- 
tioned his Dictionary of Chemistry, in 4 
vols.; Travels in Austria, Moravia, and 
Bavaria; Letters on London and the Eng- 
lish Nation; Travels in Normandy, and 
tbe Supper of Moliere. He likewise was 
a liberal contributor to all the scientific 

CADOGAN, William, first earl of 
Cadogan, was the son of a counsellor, and 
entered the army early in life. In 1703 
he was made a brigadier-general, and next 
year he distinguished himself at the battle 
of Blenheim. He was the friend of Marl- 
borough, and the companion of that groat 
general in all his victories; and wras also 
employed as plenipotentiary in the Low 
Countries and at tbe Hague. In 1716, be 
was created a baron, and in 1718 an ourl, 
and he succeeded Marlborough as com- 
mander in chief and master general of tbe 
ordnance. He died in 1727. 

CADWALADER, John, was bom in 
Philadelphia, and rose to the rank of brig- 
adier-general in the American army durins 
tbe revolutionary war. He was a ma u of 
inflexible courage, and possessed in a high 
degree the esteem and confidence of Wash- 
ington. In 1778, he was appointed by 
Congress general of cavalry, an appoint- 
ment which he declined on the score of 
being more useful in the situation he then I 
occupied. After the war he was a niembcM' * 
of the assembly of Maryland, and died in 
1786, in the 44th year of his age. 

CiECILIUS STATIUS, a natire of 
Milan, who died at Rome, b. c. 168, was I 
originally a slave, but was emancipated in ' 
consequence of his talent as a onunatie i 
writer He wrote for^ comedies, of wlikk I 

Digitized by V. I 


uif a few firag[menta remain GBBcilim 
has the raae merit of having been generoos 
to a riTal. When Terence waa young, and 
u yet nnknown, his first piece was liberally 
' praised^ and recommended to public notice, 
by. Cecil iua. 

plrjraician, the founder, or at least the first 
writer, of the medical sect of the Metho- 
dists, is said by some to have been bom at 
Aria in Asia, and by others, at Sicca in 
Nnmidia. Some fix his existence in the 
fifth century; while others make him a 
contemporary of Galen. Two of his 
works, on acute and chronic disorders, are 
still extant, and possess considerable merit. 
The system of the Methodists seems to have 
given rise to that of Brown. 

CyE^ALPINUS, Andrew, an Italian 
physician and botanist, was bom at Arezzo, 
m 1519; became chief physician to Pope 
Clement VIII. ; and died at Rome in 1G03. 
Caesalpinus appears to have had an idea of 
the circulation of the blood, and was the 
first who invented a regular system of 

C* ints. He is the author of an excellent 
tin Treatise on Plants, and of various 
medical and philosophical works. 


CiESAR, Caius Julius, the first Ro- 
■an emperor, the son of Lucius Caesar and 
Aurelia, the daughter of Cotta, was born 
at Rome, B.C. 100, and lost his father at 
the age of sixteen. Being connected, by 
bis own marriage and that of his aunt, 
with the faction of Marius, his destraction 
was resolved upon by Sylla. By the inter- 
cession of firiends, however, the dictator was 
ijiduced to spare him ; but be at the same^ 
time told the intercessors that they would 
repent of their interference, for that m the 
vouth who was the object of their solicitude 
oe foresaw many Mariuees. After having 
made a campaign in Asia Minor, and at- 
tended the lectures of Apollonius Molo at 
Rhodes, Cesar returned to Rome, and let 
•Up no of^rtunitv of winning the affection 
of the people. He filled tlie offices of ch ief 
pontin and prsstor, and then obtained the 
government of Spain, in which be acquired 
noney sufficient to pay his debts, though 
they amounted to the enormous sum of one 

cjBa u 

milKoR six hundred thoosand pOLnds. It 
was while he was passing through a poor 
village in the Alps; on his way to Spain, 
that he uttered tlie speech which is so 
characteristic of his towermg ambition: 
" I had rather be the Jirgt man in this 
place, than the tecond at Rome." On his 
return to the Roman capital, he formed the 
first triumvirate, with Pompev and Crassus, 
and became consul, b. c. w. When his 
consulship was expired, be received the 
coinmana in Gaul, for five ^ears, with four 
legions; and his commission was subse- 
quently extended to another five years. 
While be was in Gaul, he reduced that 
country to complete subjection, defeated 
the German tribes, and twice svaded 
Britain. In the course of his Gallic wars, 
there fell a million of men ; eiffht hundred 
cities and towns were taken by him, and 
three hundred ti'ibes subdued. A wider 
sphere of action, however, and more un- 
controlled power, now awaited him. Jeal- 
ous of Cesar's influence, or envious of his 
renown, Pompey was become his enemy, 
and he induced the senate to strip him of 
his command ; while he himself was allow- 
ed to retain his own. Cesar refused to 
obey, passed the sacred boundary of the 
Rubicon with his army, put Pompey to 
flight, and in sixty days was master of It- 
aly. Thence he hastened into Spain, and 
overthrew the partisans of Pompey. Re- 
visiting Rome, he was declared dictator, 
and tl^n consul; after which be led his 
forces into Greece, and gave Pompey a 
decisive defeat at Pharsalia, B. c. 48. Ha 
foUowcfd the defeated leader into Egypt; 
but though, before his arrival, Pompey was 
no more, Cesar had a perilous struggle 
with the Egyptians. They were, however, 
vanquished. Pharaaces, king of Pontus 
was next rapidly subdued. ** Veni, vidi, 
vici, — I came, I saw, 4 conquered," was 
the language of Cesar to a friend, with re- 
spect to tlie war in Pontus. AfVer a brief 
stay at Rome, he proceeded to Africa, 
where he overcame tne partisans 4>f Pom- 
pey, who were headed by Scipio and Cato. 
For these achievements he was honoured 
with four several triumphs. The sons of 
Pompey, meanwhile, had gathered a for- 
midable army in Spain.' Cesar pursued 
them, and put an end to the hopes of the 
Pompeian faction by the battle of Muuda; 
in which, however, his fortune seemed for 
a moment on the point of deserting him. 
The world was now bis own. He was 
created perpetual dictator, and was ofier- 
ed, but declined to accept, the title of king. 
The power which he had gained by so ma- 
ny straggles he did not long enjoy. A con- 
spiracy was formed against himny Brutus, 
Cassius, and others, and he fell a victim 
to it, in the -senate house, being pieread 
with twenty-three wounds, on the iMi of 

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Ifardi, B. o. 44. TnuMeeodent m w«re 
bU military talenu, Caesar was aot eminent 
for military talents al«ne. He was a con- 
summate orator, and an admirable writer. 
Unfortunately, of his compositions, only his 
Commentaries are extant. Science is also 
indebted to him for the reformation of the 
calendar. His placability and clemency, 
rare virtues as they are in an ambitious 
man and a conqueror, are entitled to no 
scanty share of praise.^ To subvert the 
liberties of our country is, indispuuUy, a 
crime of the deepest dye, and of this Caesar 
is accused ; but it may, periiaps, admit of a 
doubt, whether, at die penoa in which he 
lived, libert;^, in the true sense of the word, 
had any existence at Rome, and whether 
die interests of the human race would have 
been benefited by the triumph of Pompey 
over his illustrious antagonist. 

C^£8IUS BASSUS, a Roman lyric 
poet and grammarian, of the reign of Nero, 
was buri^ in his country house by an erup- 
tion of Vesuvius, a. d. 79. Quintilian and 
Pliny praise his lyric poetry, and Persius 
addressed one of bis satires to him ; but, 
with the exception of a few fragments, his 
works have perished. 

celebrated painter, generally known by the 
name of Paul Veronbse, was born at 
Verona, in 15S2, and was instructed in 
painting by his uncle Badile. Having ac- 
companied an embassy to Rome, be profit- 
ed from studying the works of Michael 
Angelo and Raphael. His pictures are 
numerous, and in high estimation. The 
Marriage of Cana is the finest of them, 
Cagliari excels in colouring and' composi- 
tion ; but is defective in drawing and cos- 
tume. He died at Venice, in 1588. Hi 
sons, CAftLETTO and Gabriel, and his 
brother Benedict, were all painters 

an adventurer, whose real name is said to 
havebeen Joseph B A LSAMO, was bom at 
Palermo, in 1748. Under various names, 
and ostensibly in the character of a chemist 
and physician, but, as some aflirm, really in 
that of a swindler, he wandered through 
Greece, Eg3rpt, Arabia, Persia, and other 
countries. In 1780, be visited France, 
where he Ijved in a style of great splen- 
dour» and was much admired for his medi- 
cal skilU and his liberality. He was, 
however, inrolved with the cardinal de 
Rohan, in the mysterious aflair of the 
diamond necklace, and confined in the 
Bastile; but was finally pronounced ini 
•eot. He was tried at Rome, in 1789, 
being guilty of freemasonry, and he died, 
' I ITra, a priw 


i prisoner in the castle of Saint 

ULLE, Nicholas Louis db la, a 
French mathematician^and . astronomer, 
m bQ^^ in 1713, at Rmnigny, andbagmn 



by itudying theokigy; but aooo detoled 
himself to astronomy. Cassini obtained 
for him a place in the observatory ; and 
he assisted the younger Cassini in verify- 
ing the meridian throushoul France. Being 
appointed professor of mathematics at the 
Mazarine coUege, he delivered there a 
series of highly valuable lectures. In 1760 
be went to the Cape, to examine the stars 
of the southern hemisphere; and, during 
his residence there of two years, be ascer- 
tained the position of nine thousand eif^bt 
hundred. Astronomy also owes to him 
many other important services. He died 
in 1762. Besides hu Elementary Lessons, 
the substance of his lectures, lie published 
Elements of Optics, and various other 

CAILLET, William, a French peas- 
ant, bom at Mello, in the Beanvaisis, was 
the leader of the &iiioos insurrection <^led 
the Jacquerie, which broke out in the north 
of France, in 1S68, extended its ravages 
to several provinces, and ciused the 
slaughter of many noUemen and gentle- 
men, and the boniinff of more tfaim two 
hundred castles. The insurgents vrere at 
length subdued, and Caillet was beheaded 
in 1859. 

CAILLY, James db, a French poet, 
better ^^lown under the name of d'AceiUy, 
was bom at Orleans, in 1604; and died 
in 1673, one of the king's household. He 
is the author of a ^reat number of epi- 
grams, many of which are pointed and 

CAIUS, or KATE, JoHir, a physician, 
was bom in 1610, at Norwich; was edu- 
cated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge; took 
hit degree at Bologna ; and be^une suc- 
cessively physician to EUlward VI., Mary, 
and Elizalieth. He eadovred GonviUe 
Hall with several estates, and converted 
it into a coUe^, by the name of Cains 
College, of which he was the first master, 
and where he died in 1678. His epitaph 
is truly laconic . " Fui Cains.'* He wrote 
various works on medicine and natural 
philosophy ; and a History of Cambridge. 

CAJETAN, Cardinal, so denominated 
from Cajeta, or Gaeta, where he was bora 
in 1469, but whose real name was Thomas 
DE Vio, was sent by Leo X. into Ger- 
many, to incite the emperor against the 
Turks, and to stop the pro^press of Luther's 
doctrines. By his haughtiness to the re- 
former, however, in the conferences which 
he hdd with him, he only augmented the 
evil. He died in 1534. Thimgh all his 
life he was actively engaged in public 
affairs, he never &iled to devote 
hours daily to study. He 

works, of which the chief Are, 

taries on the Bible; and aTreatise on tfan 
Papal Authority. 

CALABER, QuiirTVt» or QvUTVf 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 


SUTRNiEnS, a Gf«ek poet, U buppoMd 
to \mxe been a native of Smyrna, m tlie 
Jiird oentnrr* He wrote a supplement to 
the Iliad, wiiich, in the fifteentn century, 
was discovered in a Calabrian monastery, 
by Cardinal Bessarion. This supplement 
fk in fourteen books, and possesses much 
poetical merit. The best edition is that 
of Tvchsen, published in 1807. 

CALAMy, Edmond, a celebrated non- 
eonibrmist divine, m*as bom at London, in 
1600, and studied at Cambridge. Having 
embraced preiAiyterianism, be took an ac- 
tive part in tlie relirious disputes of the 
age, and was one of the authors of the 
treatise which bore the title of Smectym- 
BUS, and was directed against episcopacy. 
He was a member of the assembly of ai- 
rines at Westminster; but he strenuously 
oppoaed the trial of the king, and the 
nsarpation of Cromwell, and had a sliare 
hi eflecting the restoration of Charles the 
Seeond. The restored monarch offered 
him the bishopric of Litchfield, but he re- 
fwed it, and be was subsequently expelled 
from his living by the act of aniformity. 
Such was bis grief in consequence of the 
fire of London, that be is said to have 
died of it, in 1606. He produced many 
■emions and controversial writings. 

CALAMY, Edmukd, grandwn of the 
preeeding, was bom in 1671, succeeded 
Mr. Abop, in ^Westminster, as presbyte^ 
rian proacher, and died in 1782. He 
abridged Baxter's Life and Times ; pub- 
lisbeffsome tracts and sermons; and wrote 
Ab Historical Account of mv own Life, 
with some reflections on the Times I have 
lived in, which has recently been printed. 

CALANUS, an Indian philosopher, of 
thJB sect of nrmnosophists, accompanied 
Alexander in bis Indian expedition. He 
was then in bis eighty-third year; and 
being taken sick, be voluntarily burned 
hiniMlf to death on • jul«> B. c. 825, in 
pr eae n cc of the whole Greek army. 

CALAS, John, an unfortunate merchant 
of Tonlouse, of the protestant religion, 
Wbea his son. Marc Antoine, who bad 
•mbraced the tenets of the catholics, had 
stranffled himself in a fit of melancholy, 
the &her was seized by the suspicious 
governme nt , as guilty of the nrarder. No 
pFioof eould he oflfered against him, and 
self-evident as it was that a weak oM man 
eoald not execute such a deed of violence 
on a yoaU fall of strength, in a bouse 
w l w i e the fiunily was thai resident, even 
if die feelings of a parent were put out of 
the qoeatioB, jet be was condemned and 
broken vpon the wheel m 1762, in the 
■ixty-fifUi year of his age. The femily of 
the onhappy man retired to Geneva, and 
Toltaifa ■nbeeqwwtly imdertook to defend 
He foactedad in drawing 
i towaraa om ornvBitMioat 


of the case, and a revision of the tria. was 
granted. Fifty judge^nce more examined 
tne fects, and declared Calas altogethei 

CALASIO, Marius, a Franciscan fri- 
ar, was born at Calasio, near Aquila, in 
the Neapolitan territory, about 1550. He 
died in 1620, just as be was on the point 
of nublishing his Concordance of^ ihe 
Bible, in four folio volumes; an excellent 
work, which forms a complete Hebrew 
Lexicon, and on which he had spent forty 
years of incessant labour. Heorew was 
as familiar to Calasio as his native lan- 
guage. Hb Concordance appeared in 1621, 
and was republished by Romaine, in 1747. 

CALDARA, PoLiooRjL, a celebrated 
painter, called also Cakavaooio, from 
nis native place, in the Milanese, was bora 
in 1495, and went to Rome as a common 
labourer. From observing Giovanni da 
Udina and other paintaM, while they were 
employed on their productions, he accfuired, 
however, such a knowledge of painting, 
that Raphael gave him losons, and en- 
trusted him to paint the firienes for his 
works in the Vatican. Caldar.i resided 
for many years in Naples and in Sicily, 
where his works were much esteemed. 
Most of his compositions wtn in fresco ; 
and, unfortunately, many of them have 
perished. He was murdered in his bed, 
by his servant, in 1548. 

Pedro, one of the most femous of the 
Spanish dramatists, was born in 1600, and 
produced his first piece at the age of four- 
teen. Like Cervantes, he became a sol- 
dier, and he served several campaigns in 
Italy and the Netheriands. Philip IV., 
however, who was fond of the theatre, in* 
vited him to fiadrid, kniehted, and patron- 
ised him. In 1652 Cakferon took orders, 
and became a canon of Toledo. He died 
in 1687. His printed plays form ten 
quarto volumes; but be is said to have 
produced the astonishing number of more 
than fifteen hundred pieces. It may easihr 
be imagined that, tnough displavintf bri^ 
liant tafenty.his dramas are often disnigvred 
by absurdity and extravagance. 

CALDCRWOOD, Datid, a Scotch 
presl^terian divine, was bora in 1575, 
and strenuoushr oppbsed the plan of JaoMt 
VI. to 'establish conformity between the 
English and Scotch churches; for which 
opposition be was banished. Retiring to 
Holhnd, he published, in 1626, hn work 
entitled Altare Damasoennm; a sever* 
attack on episcopacy. He retimed to 
Scotkind ; contributed greatly to the Mtab 
lishment of presbyterianism; and died in 
1651. CaldTerwood left a vohimiooas Hia- 
tory of the Church of Scotland, of which 
onW a portion has been prinled. 



Digitized by* 



BttosEy an Augustine friar, vt%$ bora at 
Calepio, near £^|amo, in Italy, in 1485, 
and died blind in 1511. He is the compi- 
ler of a Lexicon in eleven languages, 
which has been repeatedly enlarged and 

CALIDASA, an Indian dramatic poet, 
18 supposed by Sir William Jones to have 
flourished a centuir b. c; but Bentley 
fixes the period of bis existence as late as 
the tenth century. He is considered to be 
the principal of the nine poets who bear 
the title of {he Nine Peat'ls. His drama 
of Sacontala has been translated by Si 
William Jones. Other works of his are 

CALIGULA, Caius Cjesar, so called 
from bis wearing the caliga, was a Roman 
emperor, the son of Germanicus and Agrip- 
pina; succeeded Tiberius, a. d. 37; and 
iar some montl^ reigned worthily. He 
■oon, however, gave way to all kinds of 
debaucliery, cruelty, and tyranny; acted 
on many occasions as if insane; and was 
at last assassinated, after a reign of three 
years and ten months. 

CALIPPUS, a Greek astronomer and 
mathematician, a native of Cyzicus, who 
flourished about 830 years b. c, is the in- 
ventor of a new cycle of seventy-six years, 
called the Calippic period, formed to rem- 
edy the incorrectness of the cycle invented 
oy Meton. 

CALIXTUS, George, a Lutheran 
theologian, was bom, in 1586, at Mc^el- 
bui, in Holstein; became professor of 
divinity at Helmstadt; and bore a promi- 
nent part in the conference at Thorn, which 
was conv(^ed in 1645. Calixtus strove, 
with all his eloquence and zeal, to brin? 
about a union between the Lutherans ana 
the other protestant sects; but his well 
intended enorts were repaid only by re- 
proach and calumnv from all parties. The 
lew who espoused nis opinions were called 
l^yncretists and Calixtins; and, as well as 
tkeir leader, were considered as little if at 
all better than heretics. Bossuet, how- 
ever, denominates him *'the most able 
Lutheran of our times, and the one who 
has written the most leamedlv against ns." 
Calixtoi died in 1656. His theobgical 
works are nmnerous. 

CALLCOTT, John Wall, Doctor of 
Mosic, was bom at Kensington, in 1766. 
He was intended for the medical profes- 
tion; bat, having been disgusted l^ wit- 
Qeasin^ an operation, he turned his atteation 
to mn«c At the same time he acquirod 
a ooBfliderable knowledge of claMical and 
oriental literature. He assisted Dr. Arnold 
in formiiiff tlie G!ee Club; in which club, 
and in the Nobleman's Catch Club, of 
which he was an honorary member, he > 
fbtained muneroos priaet. He died in < 
"^t after haTingkiiff been io a meUus ' x 


s:ate ot mtellect. He is the anthor of a 
Musical Grammar. The most celebrated 
of his admirable catches, glees, and canoni 
have been published, in two volumes, by 
his son in law Mr. Horslcy. 

CALLICRATES, a Greek architect, 
who lived at Athens in the eighty-fourth 
Olympiad, was, in conjunction with Icti- ' 
nus, tne artist who constructed the famous 
Parthenon, of which the sculptures and 
decorations were the work of Phidias. 

CALLIMACHUS, a native of Corinth, 
flourished about the year b. c. 540, ^and 
was celebrated as an architect, scniptor, 
and painter. To him is ascribed the in- 
vention of the Corinthian order; the idea 
of which is said to have been suggested to 
him by seeing the foliage *of an acanthus 
encircling a Basket, oa the top of which 
was a tile. 

CALLIMACHUS, a Greek poet, a na- 
tive of Cyrene, flourished at Alexandria, 
in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He 
wrote many works, but only his Hvmns, 
which have twice been translated into 
English, are extant. ApoUonius Rhod.ius 
was his pupil, and having acted ungrate- 
fully towards him, Callimachus avenged 
himself bv a satirical poem, which was 
entitled Ibis. 

CALLINICUS, an architect, was bora 
at Heliopolis, in Egypt, in the seventh 
cen'uiy, and discovered the Greek fire, 
which was so long one of the roost eflective 
defences of the eastern empire. With this 
powerful means of attack, he destro\'ed 
the whole of the Saracen fleet oflf by- 

poet and orator, a native of Epheeos, 
flourished in the eighth century b. c. The 
invention of elegiac poetry is attributed to 
him. A few fragments, preserved in 
Branck's Analecta, are all that time bae 
spared of his works. 

CALLISTHENES, a Gredt philoMK 

Eher and historian, who, recommended fay 
is friend and master Aristotle, accoam- 
nied Alexander on bis expedition. Too 
honest to flatter, he refused to pay divine 
honours to the monarch. For this, he was 
accused of cooqpiracy, mutilated, and sui- 
pended in an iroa ca^e, till Lysimachtis, 
in pity, gave him poison to end his tor* 
ments, a. c. 828w None of hia works are 

CALLOT, jAliKty an amiaent e 
born at Nancy, in Lorraine, in 15 
taught drawing at Rotoe by Parigi, aad 
engraving by Thomassin. On the artiat'a 
return to LorraiDe, the dnke became fata 
patron, and gave him a pension. In thia 
nappy situation, Callot worked with i 
fatigable ardour, and executed no h 
one tbonsttad six hmdred platei. 

Xin. oonqoei^ Lonrame, faawkM 


t the artMt aoblr replied, ** I will 



off my thumb tMn do any thing derog- 
atory to the hoooiir of my prince and my 
eooitry." He died in 1635. The en- 
grarings of Callot are remarkable for ipint, 
and his drawings ore even more so. 

CALMET, AoousTivx, an emdite 
diTioe and critic, and a monk of the Bene- 
dictine order, waa bom near Commercy, 
m Lorraine, in 1672; became abbot of 
St. Leopold near Nancy, and, afterwardi, 
of Senoaea; and died in 1757. Calmet is 
a ▼ohugainoos author, and bis worki aboimd 
in infiMrmatioa, but they are exceedingly 
nroKx, and written in an inigraceful ityle. 
The moat popular of his numeroos pro- 

^ dnctions if, a Commentary on the Bible, 
in twenty-eix volnmee quarto, which, in a 
eorapreaaed form, has been naturalised in 
the English and other languages. 

CALOGERA, Angzlo, a learned na- 
tive of Padua, and a Camaldulian monk, 
was bom in 1&9, and commenced, in 1729, 
an Italian scientific and philological peri- 
odical, which he continued to the extent 
of nearly sixty volumes. He also published 

f eiffhteen volumes of a kind of review; con- 
CnDut^ to the Minerva; and translated 
Telemachus into Italian. He died in 1768. 
CALONNE, Charles Alkxahder 
DX, a French minister of state, was born 
at DouaVf in 1784; was brought up to the 
bar, and, after having filled several im- 
portant ofiices, was raised, in 1783, to be 
umipCroller general of the finances. The 
fioaiices, however, were in such a shattered 

> state, that it was impossible to restore 
them« In order to obtain the means of 
filling up the deficiency', Calonne advised 

? the king to convoke tlie notables ; and to 
that body he proposed measures which 
would have obfig^ the privileged orders 
to bear a part of the public burtliens. 
Hksc orders were immediately in arms 
againat him, and, in 1787, they succeeded 
in having him exiled to Lorraine. He 
emigrated in 1791 ; and for four years his 
ibrtnne and all his faculties were devoted 
to the supporting of the royal cause. In 

T- 1796, however, be retired firom public life, 
and he resided in England till 1802, when 
be returned to France, where be died, in 
the October of the same year. 'Calonne 
was an elegant and animated writer, and 
produced severaj works, the most remark- 
able of which is an octavo volume, on the 
Present and Future State of France. His 
taste in the fine arts was also conspicuous. 
CALPRENEDE, Gadtier dx COS- 

« TES, Sieur de b, one of die gentlemen of 
the king of France's bedchamber, was bora 
ttt Tottkon, in Perigord, in 1612, and ob- 
Caloedfcigh fitvoor at court for his plea* 
«Btnr and talent. He was kilkd, in 1668, 
hf •BUfiromahont. Ca^^rentda wrota 

thoogh pranx beyond 

I, the latter of which, 
measure, and full of 
bad ^taste, were' in that age universally 
read and admired. His Cleopatra occu- 
pies twenty-three octavo volumes, and his 
Cassandm ten. The whole of his works 
are now completely forgotten. 

Titus Julius, a pastoral poet, a native 
of Sicily, is supposed to have been born in 
the reign of Diocletian. He was a con- 
temporary of Nemesianus, to whom he 
dedicated his eleven Edognes, seven of 
which are extant. 

C ALVERT, Ge OR G X , descended fixKU a 
noble fiunily, was bora at Kipling, in York- 
shire, 1585. He was educated at Oxford, 
and after his return from the tour of Eu- 
rope, he became secretary to Robert Cecil. 
In 1605 he attended James I. on his visit 
to the university of Oxford, and was there 
made M. A., and afterwards he was made 
clerk to the privy council, was knighted 
by the king in 1617, in 1619 made secre- 
tary of state, and the next year honoured 
with a pension of jC. 1,000 out of the cus- 
toms. He was created Lord Baltimom 
in 1625. He twice visited Newfoundbmd». 
where the king had granted him a large 
tract of land, but abandoned his property 
in this part for the neislibourhood of Vir- 
ginia, when Charles I. granted him a 
patent for Maryland. He died at London 
in 1682. His son, who inherited his en- 
terprising spirit, planted in Maryland a 
colony of about two hundred iamilies, 
which bore the name of Baltimore. 

CALVERT, Frederic, Biut>n of 
Baltimore, and proprietor of Maryland, 
succeeded Charles, lord Baltimore, in 1761. 
lie corresponded with Li|MMeus, was a man 
of learning and talent, and a fellow of the 
Royal SocieW. He published a Tour in 
the East, and a volume of prose and poet- 
ical works, entitled Gaudia Poetica, Ijk- 
tina, Anglica, et Gallica lingua Compotita 
He died at Naples in 1771. 

CALVIN, JoHw^jOftg^f^ .p,,rtha et 
the reformation^QSia the founder of iht 
sect of the OaV?^ists, was bom at Noyo% 
in Picardyv^n 1509. His tenUy muiMl 

.m CAM 

wa Cairrio, which he htinised into Cal- 
vhiat. He was nrtt iDtended for the church, 
and, aabtequentl^, for the profetsion of 
civil Ihw; Having embraced the princi- 
ples of protestantism, he was nnoer the 
necessiihr of quitting France; and he settled 
at Bosil^where he published his celebrated 
Institutions of the Christian Religion. After 
having visited Italy, he was returning by 
the way of Geneva, in 1686, when Farel 
and otfaier reformers induced him to take 
up his abode in that city. He was chosen 
one of the ministers of the gospel, and |Mro- 
fr«sor of divinity. A dispute with the 
city authorities soon compelled him to 
leave Geneva, and he witharew to Stras- 
burg; whence he was recalled in 1541. 
From the time of his recall, he possessed 
almost absolute power at Geneva; and be 
exerted himself vigorousW in establishing 
the iM'esbvterian form of church govern- 
ment. He died in 1664. The most re- 
markable of his tenets is, that of predes- 
tination to eternal haroiness or misery by 
th« absohite decree of Uod! Calvin was a 
learned and pious man, of eminent talents, 
but of an arrogant and persecuting spirit; 
and his conduct to Servetus, wliom he 
brought to the stake, has fixed an indelible 
stain upon his character. The theological 
and cantroTersial works of Calvin form 
nine volumes folio. 

CALVO, JoHir Sauteur ob, known 
by the name of the brave C^hro, was bom 
at Barcelona, in 1626; entered the service 
of Louis XIV. ; and was made ffovemor 
of Mastrecht, which he successfully de- 
fended asainst the prince of Oran^. When 
pressed by his engineers to capitulate, on 
the ffroond of the place being no longer 
tenaUe, he replied, <* (xentlemen, I know 
nothing of the regular mode of defending a 
Ibrtress; all I 1um>w is, that I will not sur- 
render.** He was made a lieutenant 
general; distinguished himself in Catalo- 
nia in 1688 and 1689; and died in 1690. 
CAHBA CERES, John Jam Es Regis, 
one of those individuals whom the French 
revolution raised to high station, was born 
at Montpellier, in 1758, and brought up to 
the law; and, in 1791, was appointed 
oresident of the criminal tribunal of the 
department of 'the Herault. As a member 
of the convention, he gave a modified vote 
for the death of the king; bore a promi- 
nent part in all judicial questions in the 
committees; and, after the down&U of 
Robespierre, had for awhile the manage- 
ment of foreign aflbirs. He vras also a 
menber of the council of five hundred. 
^Sub^eiiuently he was minister of justice; 
imysgas^ next ch osen by Bonaparte to be 
m Napoleon became 
tmiperoTf he createcNI^ arch-chancellor, 
gnmd officer of the I^ftfiQ^ ^^ honour, a 
^aee, ud duka of Farm, .^ confidMl 


to him the orpmixation of the imJirMJ 
system. He joined Napoleon after hia 
return from Elba ; was banished by Lotus, 
but soon recalled; and died in 18^. 

CAMBIASO, Lucas, sometimes incor 
rectly called Cangiangi, an eminent painter^ 
was born at Grenoa, in 1627; was em- 
ployed by Pope Gregory XHI. and by 
Philip II. of Spain; and died in 1685. 
He painted with great rapidity, and equal- 
ly well with both hands. 

CAMBRIDGE, Richard Owen, the 
son of an opulent Turkey merchant was bom 
at London, in 1717, and was educated at 
Eton and St. John's College, Oxford. He 
studied the law at Lincoln's Inn; but his 
fortune placed him above the necessity of 
practising it. He died in 1802. Cambridge 
IS the auUior of the Scribleriad, a poem of 
great merit; a History of the War on the 
Goromandel Coast ; and twenty-one papers 
in the World. " You look very serious, 
my dear," said his wife to him one day. 
"Well I may," replied he, "fori am 
thinkin? upon the next u>orld,** 

CAMDEN, Willi AM, an eminent anti- 
quanr and historian, was bom in London, 
in 1661, and educated at Christ's Hospi- 
tal, St. Pa^'s School, and Oxford. In 
1576, he was appointed second master of 
Westminster School ; in 1693, head mas- 
ter; and, in 1607, CUrencieux king at 
arms. The first ^ition of his Britannia, 
an octavo volume, appeared in 1686* It 
was subsequently enlarged to a (juartoy 
fit)m information which be had obtained by 
travelling in Wales and the west of Eng- 
land. He died, November the 9th, 1628. 
Among his other works, the most celebra- 
ted b, the Annals of Queen Elisabeth. 
Camden founded a professorship of history 
at Oxford. 

CAMDEN. See Pratt. 

physician and botanist, was bom at Tu- 
oincen, in Germany, in 1666,^ and became 
professor of botany and medicine in his na- 
tive place, where he died in 1721. He 
was one of the earliest assertors of the ex- 
istence of sexes in plants. — ^His son, Al- 
exander, who was born in 1696, and 
died in I78is, was also an eminent boUnist. 

CAMILLUS, Marcos Furius, a dis- 
tinguished Roman, of the Furii ftunily, 
who fiourished in the fourth century of 
Rome. He was five times dictator, and 
enjoyed four triumphs. He overcame the 
Hernici, Volsci, Latini, Etruscans, and 
other tribes, and eompelled Veil to surren- 
der. His ungrateful countrymen, however, 
banished him, on an accusation of having 
embezzled some of the spoils of Veii ; but 
they were compelled to recall him to make 
head against Breonus. He died, aged 
eigh^, B. c. 366. 

CAMOENS, Louis, the most ctUMi4 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


poets, a nmn who mmj 
. _ _ at once " the glory ana 
the sfaaiiM" of Portugal, was of a noble 
fans Uy , and was bom at Lisbon. B^ some, 
the ttme of hb birth is fixed in 1517; by 
others, about 1524. His education he re- 
ceived at Coimbra. By bis poetical tal- 
ent and his gallantries be soon made bim- 
aeU* conffpicuous at court; and the latter 
occnsiooed his exile to Santarem. Weary 
of inactiTity, he served as a Tolunteer in 
Ae fleet which was sent to soccour Ceata, 
and in this service he lost an eye bv a mus- 
ket shot. On his return to court, ne found 
that neither his courage nor his genius 
coald procure his advancement; and, in 
dieyist, he left his country, in 1553, and 
■aiM to India. In the East, his life was 
chequered by numerous adventures. He 
bore a part in an expedition to Cochin ; 
iMade a voyage to the Red Sea; and was 
haniahed mm Qoa to Macao, in conse- 
oneoce of his having vrritten a aatire on 
iJftevieerov'sBiahdaunistration. At Macao 
hte resided for five years, and there he fin- 
iohed the Losiad'. At length, he was re- 
called to 6oa; bat, on hb way thither, he 
^vas ehmwrecked oif the mouth of the Me- 
coa. The Losiad alone he saved, by hold- 
ing it above the waves as he swam ashore. 
New perseentions assailed him at Goa. 
He was charged with malversation at Ma- 
cao, and whM cleared of that charge, was 
arrested lor debt. As soon as he was lib- 
•raosd, he accompanied Pedro de Barreto 
as a vohnteer to co&la. But he now be- 
faa to languish for hb native land; and, 
■eeorcHngly, in 1569, he returned to Lis- 
bon. The Losiad came forth in 1572, and 
was universally applauded. The laurel of 
CaaM)ens was, however, a barren one. 
King Sebastian accepted the dedication, 
bat rewarded the poet with soch a contemp- 
tible pension that it was utterly inadequate 
to Imish him with the means of subsist- 
ence. Even thb despicable pittance was 
withdrawn by the inglorious Henry, who 
sa cce c d e d Sdiastian; and Camoens was 
reduced to exist on the alms which were 
nightly begged for him in the streets, by a 
fiiitfalhl slave whom he had brought fit>m 
India. Worn out by povert]r ana sorrow, 
he expired in an alinshouse, in 1579; for- 
, at least, in not livingto seethesub^ 



of hb oonntrv, which so speedily 
1 hb death. A splendid monument 
was erected to him fifteen years after hb 
decease. The mmor poems of Camoens are 
a^matod and harmonious. It b, however, 
on the Losiad that hb fome principally rests. 
In spite of some incongruities, this epic will 
ahrays delight the lover of true poetry. 
The trodi imd spirit of its descriptions, 
Ihe grandeur of some of its personifications, 
■ad the mefedyof iu verse, most command 
•iaimioa. . With respe ct to hb JSng lish 

translators, the fote of Camoens b soaw> 
what curious. The version bv Fanshaa 
hardly reaches mediocrity. Mickle has 
given a paraphras e b eantifiil, indeed, but 
still a paraphrase — of the Lusiad ; and sev- 
eral ot the smaller poems of the Portuguese 
bard have undergone a similar traiuforma- 
tion under the hands of Lord Strangford. 

CAMPANELLA, Thomas, a Domini- 
can monk, bom at 8tiIlo, in Calabria, in 
1568, b celebrated for his talents and mis- 
fortunes. Having, in his Philosophia Sen- 
sibus demonstrata, publbbed at Napln in 
1591, attacked the philosophy of Aristotle, 
he became an obiect of inveterate hatred to 
all the Aristotelians. An old profestor, 
whom he had overcome in a dispute, ac- 
cused him of magic, and he was compelled 
to fly. Returning, however, to his native 
country, he was arrested on the charge of in- 
tending to make himself king of Calabria. 
He was atikn times put to the torture, and 
was imprisoned for twenty-seven years. 
Pope Urban VIII. at length obtained hb re- 
lease, and he retired into France, where he 
was pensioned by Louis XIII. He died at 
Parb, in 1689. Hb works are numerous. 
Campaneila b said to have possessed the 
extraordinary power of abstracting his at- 
sention ft'om bodily suffering, and that Co 
soch a degree, as to be able to endure the 
rack without feeling much pain. 

CAMPBELL, CoLiH, an eminent ar- 
chitect, who flourished early in the last cen- 
tury, boilt various edifices, among which 
was Wanstead House, which was pulled 
down a fow years since. He also publish- 
ed, in three folio volumes, in 1715, 1717, 
and 1725, Vitruvius Britannicus, a collec« 
tion of architectural designs, which has 
since been completed by Grandon and 

CAMPBELL, the Hon. Archibald, 
of theArgyle (amily, a nonjuror, was elec- 
ted bishop of Aberdeen, in 1721 ; resigned 
that oflice three years afterward? ; and died 
in 1744. He b the author of a learned and 
curious work, called the Doctrine of the 
Middle State between Death and the Res- 

CAMPBlPLL, Georob, a learned 
Scotch divine, was born at Aberdeen in 
1709; he studied at Marischal College; and 
was articled to an attorney, but relinquish- 
ed law for divinity. He became one of the 
ministers of his native city. In 1759, he 

s appointed principal ot Marischal Col- 
lege; and, in 1771, professor of divinity. 
Tne professorship, nowever, he resigned 
80in6 years before his death, and leceived 4 
pension from the king. He dic< in 1796. 
His Dissertation on ifiracles; Piiikwophy 
of Rhetoric; Translation of the Gospek; 
and other works, are deservedly held m 
high estimation. _ , ,^ 

CAMPBELL, JoHii, p. P., aimUtiAb- 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



rioiM writer, was a native of Edinburgh, 
bom in 1709, and came to England at the 
age of five years. He was brought up to 
the law, but relinquished it for literature. 
His first work was the Military Historv of 
Trince Eugene and the Duke of Marlbor- 
ough, in two folio volumes; and it was so 
successful, that he was thenceforth con- 
stantly employed. by the booksellers. Among 
his numerous works are, a consideraHle 
part of the Universal Hjstory; four vol- 
umes of the first edition of the Biograpbia 
Britannica; the Lives of the AcmiiraLi; 
Hermippus Redivivus; and a Political Sur- 
vey of Great Britain. A pamphlet which 
he wrote, in defence of the peace of Paris, 
was rewarded by Lord Bute with the agen- 
cy of the cok)ny of Creorgia. Cam^)eU 
was .a worthy and amiable character ; he 
was industrious, extensively informed, and 
possessed of respectable talent; but his 
nidgment is sometimes questionable, and 
nis style is never elegant. 

CAMPER, Peter, an eminent natur- 
alist and physician, born at Leyden, in 
1722, was a pupil of Boerhaave, and suc- 
cessively filled professorships of the medi- 
cal sciences at Franeker, Amsterdam, 
and Groningen. Being appointed a mem- 
ber of the council of state, he removed to 
the Hague, where he died in 1789. His 
principal works are, Demonstrationum An- 
atomico-pathologicanim, two volumes fo- 
lio; a Treatise on the Difl^erenceof Human 
Features ; and a Dissertation on the Vari- 
eties of the Human Race. His writings 
have been collected in eight octavo vol- 

CAMPISTRON, John Gualbert 
DE, a French dramatist, and member of 
the Academy, was bom at Toulouse, in 
1656, of a ^ood family, and was so fortu- 
nate as to enjoy the friendship and dramatic 
instruction of Racine, who also introduced 
him to the duke of Vendume. Vendume 
made him his secretary, obtained for him an 
Italian marouisate, and was accompanied 
by him in all his campaigns. Campistron 
was indolent, and especiidly detested letter 
writing. '* He is answering his correspon- 
dents," said th^ duke, who, ^e day, saw 
him Uirow into the fire several unopened 

Sistles. He died, of apoplexy, in 1728. 
is dramas, principally tragic, form three 
volumes. Tlie most popular of his traeediea 
were, Virginia, Andronicus, Alcibiades, 
and TiridAtes. 

CAMPOMANES, Pedro Rodri- 
nt7EZ, Count de, a learned and enlightened 
Spanish statesman, was bora in tM Astu- 
rias, in 1710; entered the council of Castile 
in 1765 ; and, in 1788, became minister of 
state. His administration was bendScial 
to his country, but it vras short; for he was 
deprived of all his offices when Florida 
BbMabMMMpruMinmiitw. H«nciMd, 


without repfaiing, into privata M, and dM 
early in the nineteenth century. Hb works 
on political economy, history, aBtioiiitiefl, 
and other subjects are numerous. He abo 
wrote a Complete History of the Spaniali 
Marine, which remains unpublished. 

CAMUS, JoHif Peter, a French pre- 
late, was bom at Paris, in 1662, and was 
made bishop of Belley by Henry IV. After 
having hekl his see for twenty years, he 
resigneid it to live in retirement; but his 
virtues and piety soon occasioi^ed him to be 
drawn from hb retreat. He was appointed 
vicar-general to the archbishop of Rouen ; 
and, subsequently, bishop of Arras. He 
died in his seventieth year, whra on the 
point of going to hb new diocese. Hb 
works, which are said to amount to mora 
than two hundred volumes, hkve fidlea. into 
oblivion. Of the mendicant monks he was 
a determined and persevering enemy, mod 
be incessantly attacked them witb tlie 
keenest raillenr and satire. 

CAMUS, Cardinal Stefbeit le, bom 
at Paris, in 1682, was in.hb yodth one aC 
the most dissipated personages of the Court ; 
but, at length, be gave up the pursuit of 
pleasure, and, in 1671, was appointed 
bishop of Grenoble. In hb new ctaraeter 
he distinguished himself by his unaflected 
piety, charity, and self dcmbl. He wa«, 
m truth, the fiither of hb ik>ck, and km 
memory is still venerated in the diocese. 
He died, at Grenoble, in 1707; bequeath* 
ing his property to the poor. He is tha 
author of some theological works. 

CAMUS, ArmjlND Gaston, bom ad 
Pans, in, 1740, was brought op to the law. 
He was one of the deputies from Parb lx> 
the States General in 1789; bore a piTouH* 
nent part in the labours of the constituent - 
assembly ; and vras elected a member of the 
convention, in which capacity he voted for 
the death of the king. Camus was one of 
the conventional commissioners, whom Du- 

council of five hundred, and he opposed the 
establishment of the consular government. 
He was, nevertheless, confirmed by Bona- 
parte, in hb office of archivist, which he had 
held for some years. He died in 18<M. Oa 
inus produced many works. Among^tbem 
are, the Matrirooniftl Code; Travels m the 
recently united Departments; and transla- 
tions of Aristotle's Animab aad the Manual 
of Epictetus. 

NALI, AiiTHOHT, a Venetian painter, was 
bora at Venice, in 1697. Hb lather was a 
scene painter, and brought him up to that 
branch of the aru. After having studied at 
Rome, however, Caaaletto dedicated bua* 
self to landscape, in which he attaioad a 
high dagfM or aiQalkaeai Hb nmm It 


Wmkm m atfnifsble worlw. In 1746, he 
Ttiil0d EiiglaiMl» and, during a resideooe 
of two yean, produced maoy fioe pictares. 
Canaletto was the first who made the ca- 
inera obecora useful in painting. He died 
in 1768. 

CANANl, or CANNANI, John Bap 
TiST, an Italian anatomist, of the sixteenth 
oentnry, was bom at Ferrara, in the uni- 
inersity of which city be became professor 
of medicine and anatomy. He died in 
1578. The discorery of me Talves in the 
veins is attributed to him. He is the 
author of a scarce book, with pUtes, the 
Description of the Muscles. 

CANDIAC, John Louis dk Mont- 
c A L H » a child of wonderfully precocious tal- 
maiB, was a brother of the Marquis de Mont- 
cabn, who wat Itilled at the tattle of Que- 
Jbec. He was born in 1719, and died of 
bydrooephahis, in 1726; but in the brief 
fipace of seven years he learned French, 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, arithmetic, herald- 
ry, geography, and much of fabulous, and 
nacred and profime history. At three years 
old he read French and I^in fluently. His 
extraordinary acquirements were s tBeme 
of panegyric to many literary characters of 
the age. 

Sieor Du, a justly celebrated glossarist and 
iiistorian, was bom at Amiens, in 1610. 
Alter having been at the bar for some years, 
be retired from it, to devote himself to his 
historical studies. He died in 1688. Du 
Cange was one of the most indefatigable 
of writers. Rocquefort observes, that in 
the productions of Du Cange are combined 
the qualities of a consummate historian, an 
accvate geompher, a profound civilian, 
an enlighteoM genealogist, and a learned 
antiquary, thoroughlj^ versed in the knowl- 
edge of niedals and inscriptions. Among 
his ma^ works may be noticed, a History 
of the Empire of C^nstantmople, folio ; a 
Glossal^ of lower Latinity, 8 vols, folio; 
and a Glossary of the Greek Language of 
the Middle Age, 2 vols, folio. He also left 
■any valuable manuscripu. 


I the 

CAN 14$ 

son of an Irish barrister, who was a man 
of talent and a poet, but who died in such 
embarrassed circumstances that he left his 
&mily wholly unprovided for. The future 
prime minister was placed at Eton by his 
father's reUtioos, at which seminary be 
distinguished himself as a classical scholar, 
and one of the principal authors of the Mi- 
crocosm. From Eton he removed to Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he gained several 
prises; after which, he entered himself a 
member of Lincoln's Inn, intending to make 
the law his profession. The exhortations 
of his friend Sheridan, however, induced 
him to relinquish that intention, and to en- 
ter on the career of politics. In 1798, there- 
fore, he obtained a seat in the house of 
conmions, as member for Newport, in the 
Isle of Wight, and in 1796 he was appoint- 
ed under secretary of state, and returned 
for the treasurv borough of Wendover. In 
1798 he contriDuted some brilliant satirical 
pieces, among which are New Morality, 
and parodies on Darwin and Sonthey, lo 
the Anti-Jacobin weekly paper. In 1799, 
he married Miss Scott, the sister of the 
duchess of Portland, and this marriage put 
him in possession of an ample fortune. 
He resigned with Mr. Pitt; proved a 
severe scoui^e to the Addington adminis- 
tration ; returned again to office with M: . 
Pitt, as treasurer of the navy; and held 
tliat situation till tlie death of the premier. 
After havioi^ been once more in opposition 
for a short time, he again formed a part of 
the ministry-) as secretary of state for foreign 
affairs. Btkt, in 1809, die Wakheren ex- 
pedition produced a quarrel between him 
and Lord Castlereagh. The result was a 
duel, in which he was severely wounded in 
the thigh, and his resignation of the secre- 
taryship. In 1812, he was elected one of 
the members for Liverpool, and was subse- 
quently thrice returned, though never with- 
out ~a strenuous contest. In 1816, he was 
sent ambassador to Lisbon, and on his re- 
turn, in 1818, he became president of the 
board of controul ; but he relinquished that 
place, and went abroad, in order to avoid 
taking part in the proceedings against tlie 
queen. He was appointed governor gen- 
eral of Indlh, in 18Z2, and was on the point 
of embarking, when the death of Lord Lon- 
donderry opened to him the post of secre- 
tary for forei^ affairs. This he held ti 
the sudden illness of the earl of Liverpoo< 
broke up the cabinet, when he was raised 
to the dignity of prime minister. He did 
not, however, long retain this splendid 
prize of his talents and exertions; for, 
worn out by mental and bodily toil, lie 
died on tlie 8th of Au^t, 1827, to the 
deep reeret of the majority of his country- 
men, who had hailed with gratitude and 
delight the energy and liberal spirit whick 
he displayed in his system of government 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



Am an orator, CBnning hat serer been ez< 
oelled for finished elegance, clanical U«te 
and allusions, and the powers of wit, sar- 
casm, and satire. His writing are char- 
acterised by the same Qualities. As a 
statesman, especially in tlie bitter period 
of his existence, he ranks among the 
distinguished which his country has pro- 

CANO, James, a Portuguese navigator^ 
was dispatched to the East Indies, in 1484, 
bf King John of Portugal; discovered, on 
his passage, the kingdom of Conffe; and 
returned to give an account of nis dis- 
covery. He was sent back, on an embassy 
to the chiefii of the newly found country, 
and he explored the coast for two hundred 
leagues beyond the Zaire. He died about 
the close of the fifteenth century. 

CANO, John Sebastian del, a na- 
tive of Biscay, born at Guetaria, late in 
the fifteenth century, is commeoiorated 
as the first circumnavimtor of the globe. 
He sailed with Masellan, and, after the 
death of that officer, ne conducted the ex- 
pedition to a successftil end. His ship, 
the Victory, Was long preserved with care 
by the Spaniards. He died in 1526, while 
on a voyage to the South Sea. 

CANO, Alonzo, a painter, considered 
as the Michael Anj^elo of Spain, firom 
his excelling in painting, sculpture, and 
architecture, was born at Grenada, in 
1600. Architecture he leahicd firom his 
father, painting from Pacheco and Juan 
del Castillo, and sculpture he acquired 
without a master. Removing to Madrid, 
he was patronised by the duke of Olivarez, 
and appointed king's painter and archi- 
tect. His good fortune was, however, soon 
clouded. 3einff suspected of having mur- 
dered his wife, ne was put to the torture; 
his right arm being exempted, in consider- 
ation of his talent. As no confession could 
be extorted from him, he obtained his re- 
lease. He now entered into orders, and 
was admitted one of the chapter of Gre- 
nada ; but he stiU continued in the sedulous 
practice of his a(^. He died in 1676. 
Many of his pictures are in the churches 
of Grenada and Malaga'; and one of the 
finen of them, a weeping Magdalen, adorns 
^ church at Madrid. 

CANOVA, Antonio, one of the great- 
est of modem sculptors, was bom, in 1757, 
at Passagno, a villa^ in the Venetian 
states. The first indication of hie talent 
he Is said to have given when he was 
twelve years old, by modelling a lion in 
butter, to be sent np to the table of Falieri, 
the seig^neur of the village. Struck with 
the genius that was thus displayed, Falieri 
took him under his protection, and com- 
mitted him to the tuition of Torretti. At 
the age of seventeen, he produced his 
of Eurvdice. On the death of 


Torretti, Guofa coiweaerf iBii1|iiir «■ 

his own aoooont at Venice. In 17I9« kt 

was invited to Rome, by the Veneciaa 
ambassador to the pope, and there Sir 
William Hamilton introduced him to aH 
his friends. The pontifi* and the nobility 
also vied in finding occupation lor hisa. 
Pius VII. knighted him, and appointed 
him inspector general of the fiae arts. In 
1802, at the desire of the first consul, he 
vTsfled Paris, was received widi respeety 
and chosen a foreign associate of the In- 
stitute. When, however, he next went lo 
Paris, in 1815, his presence excited only 
feelings of anger and hatred. He then 
appeared as ambassador from the pooe, to 
superintend the sending back to Italy its 
plundered works of art. Sarcasms and 
witticisms were lavished on him ; and it 
was said that he ought to be called the 
ope*s packer instead of his arobaasador 
'or this, however, he was amply indemni- 
fied by hi; reception in England, where he 
was treated as a brother 1^ all lovers of 
art, and was presented with a brilliant 
snufi* box by tne prince regent. On hb 
return to Rome, the Academy of St. Luke 
went in a body to meet him ; and the pope 
gave him a pension of three thooMuid 
crowns, created him Marcmis of Ischi*, 
and inscribed his name in tne Book of the 
Capitol. The pension Canova dedicated 
entirely to the oenefit of the arts and art- 
ists. Nor was he a scanty dispenser of 
his private finrtune. He established prizes, 
endowed academies, and relieved the m^od 
and unfortunate. He died at Venioe» 
October 22, 1822. Exquisite grace is one 
of the most distinguishing characteristics of 
Canova*s sculpture. Among hh principal 
works are, several sepulchral nkonuanents; 
and statues and groups of Psyche, Cupid 
and Pysche, Venus and Adonis, a repent- - 
ant Maffdalen, Perseus, Hebe, the Gracee, 
several Venuses, and a crowned Religioo 
of colossal sixe. The last of these statoee 
is erected in a church built by Canora a* 
his birthplace. 

CANTACUZENUS, John, an en»pe. 
ror of the east in the fourteenth oentury 
He originally held one of the hifheit off 


■f the eoOTt, aad dittingnitbed hinself «8 
a statesman aod a warrior. Aodronicus 
m. left him regent, doriDg the minority of 
John Paleologus; but be was persecuted 
by the empress qoeen and lier party, and 
was ultimately compelled, by the nobles 
and the army, to assume the purple in self 
delence. ne reigned eight years in con- 
joDCtion with John Paleologns; and then, 
to prevent a civil war, voluntarily abdica- 
ted, and retired into a monastery, where 
he died in 1410, at the age of more than 
a hundred. In his retreat, he wrote vmi- 
oos worics, among which are a Byzantine 
History, from 1320 to 1857; Four Apolo- 
aies fin* the Christian Religion ; and Four 
Discourses against Mabometanism. Can- 
tacaceotts was one of tlie most eminent 
characters that lived during the decline of 
the eastern empire. 

CANTEMIR, Dem ETRxus,-son of the 
Taiwode of Moldavia, was bom at Jassy, 
in 1^78; and, after having in the first in- 
stance been* disappointed by a rival, was 
raised to the government of the princi- 
balftv. With the hope of transmitting 
Moldavia in sovereignty to his deseend- 
ants, he revolted to the cxar Peter, in 
1710; and was consequently obliged to 
take refuge in Russia, where he was crea- 
ted a prince. He died in 1723. Canterair 
was a man of learning, understood eleven 
langi^ges, and wrote several works. His 
princi|Md production is, a History of the 
Growth and Decay of the Ottomaa Em- 

trius (or, according to some biographers, 
Akttocbus), tbeyoungeint son of Deroe- 
triue, was bora at Constantinople, in 1707; 
was Russian ambassador at the courts of 
England and France; and died at Paris, 
in 1744. Like his fiither, he was highly 
informed and accomplished, and attached 
#0 literary pursuits. He produced the 
Petreid, a po^m, Satires, Odes, Fables, 
and other poems, in Russian ; and trans- 
lations from Anacroon, Horace, Montes- 
qoien, Fontenelle, and Algarotti. 

CANTON, John, a native of Stroud, 
in Oloocestershire, bom in 1718, was the 
son of a cloth weaver ; devoted his leisure 
moments to mathematics ; and first mani- 
fested hitf talent, and obtained patrona^Ct 
fay cutting out a sundial upon stone with 
a common knife. He was sent to London, 
and articled to the master of an academy 
in Spital Smtarc, of whom he became the 
partner, ana ultimately the successor. His 
eiperiments on the Leyden phial made 
' bim a member of the Royal Society, and 
obtamed for him their gald medal. His 
communications to the Transactions were 
miny and important. Among them is a 
vahnble paper on the making of artificial 
He died in 1772. 



CAPEL, Artbur, Lord, the son of 
Sir Heni7 Capel, was elected knight of 
the shire for Hertford, in 1640, and at first 
voted with the reforming party ; but, find* 
ing that they were going fiu-ther than he 
deemed proper, be espoused the cause of 
the king, and was created Lord Capel. 
During the civil war, he fought for Charles ; 
and, in 1649, conjointlv with Lucas and 
Lisle, he ^llantly defended Colchester 
against Fairfax. He was beheaded the 
same year. He is the author of Daily 
Observations, or Meditations ; and of some 
beautiful verses, written while he was hi 
the Tower. 

CAPELL, Edward, a dramatic critic, 
was born in 1713, at Troston, near Bnry, 
in Suflfolk ; obtained the oflke of deputy 
licenser of plavs; and died in 1781. He 
published an edition of Shakspeare, in ten 
volumes; the notes and various reading 
to which, were given to the world afier bis 
decease. He also edited a volume of an- 
cient poetry, under the title of Prohisions; 
and adapted Antony aod Cleopatra to the 

CAPELLO, BiA If c A, a Venetian lady, 
who, after marrj'ing a person of inferior 
rank, retired to Florence, where she be- 
came the mistress of Francis, son of tb« 
mnd duke Cosmo. After the death of Her 
husband, she artfully prevailed upon her 
lover to marry her, and she was formally 
recognized, m consequence of an embassy 
to the Venetian states, as a true daughter 
of Venice. Though possessed of a pow- 
erful mind, and much energy of character, 
she showed herself odious and tynuinical 
at Fk>rence, so that her memory is still 
held there in abhorrence. The sudden 
death of her husband and of herself, within 
a few days of each other, in October, 
1587, was attributed to poison administer^ 
ed, it is said, by cardinal Ferdinand, their 

CAPMANY, Don Antonio, a cele- 
brated Spanish writer, was born in Cata- 
lonia, in 1754, and died in Andahisia, in 
1810. He is the author of several esteemed 
works, among which are, the Philosophy 
of Eloquence, 8vo. ; History of the Ma- 
rine, Commerce, and Arts of Barcelona^ 
4 vols. 4to. ; and Historical and Critical 
Theatre of Spanish Eloquence, 5 vols. 4to. 

CAPO D»IBTRIA, John, Count of, 
president of Greece, the son of a physician 
of Corfu, was bora in 1780, and studied 
medicine at Venic^ He entered mto the 
service of the Russian government, and 
was sent as ambassador to Vienna. In 
1812 he conducted the diplomatic afiairs 
of the army of the Danube, and subse- 
quently of the whole Russian army, under 
the immediate direction of the emperor 
who admiUed him to his entire confidence. 
Soofl afterwards, he was engaged in publie 

Digitized by 




dw higkevt importeEce, 

iMfoektioM of „ . . 

wu appoiated secretary of state for tne 
department of foreign affiiirs, and received 
several orders of nobility. In 1813, lie 
was Russian ambassador to Switzerland, 
and in the ensuing y^ he was present 
as Russian plenipotentiary at the congress 
of Vienna. The downfall of Napoleon 
recalled him to the head-quarters of 
the allies at Paris, where he subscribed 
the treaty of November 20, 1815, and 
returned with his monarch to St. Peiers- 
lyir^. Here he for some years took an 
active part in the afiairs of the council of 
state; and in 1819 visited his native isl- 
and and formed a connection with the He- 
taria. In 181^, when the Russian minister 
returned from Constantinople, Count D'Is- 
tria left the Russian service and retired as 
a private man to Germany and Switzer- 
land, where he resided till 1827, when he 
was appointed to the presidency of the 
Greek republic. In this station, he re- 
"tnained till hu assassination in October, 

CAPRARA, Albert, a Count of the 
Roman empire, and nephew of the cele- 
brated Piccolomini, was bom at Bologna, 
in 1681, and died in 1707. He served 
with distiac^on in forty-four campaigns; 
was one of the negociators at the congress 
of Nimeguen; and was twice Austrian 
ambassador to the Porte. Even amidst 
the din of arms, he found time for literary 
pursuits. He translated various works 
horn the Latin, Spanish, and French; and 
wrote some miscellaneous pieces. 

CARACALLA, Marcos Aurzltus 
Ahtoiiimus, a Roman emperor, the son 
of Septimus Severus, was born at Lyons, 
A. D. 188; and, in conjunction with his 
brother Creta, socMeded his father in the 
year 211. He was a monster of cruelty — 
stabbed his brother in their mother's arms ; 
slauffhtered thousands of the Alexandrians 
for havinff offended him by a jest; and 
committed various other enormities; but 
was at leiwth assassinated, a. d. 217. 

CARACCI, Louis, the founder of the 
school of the Caracci, was bom at Bologna, 
in 1555, and was a pupil of Fontana and 
Tintoretto. On his first initiation into the 
art of (minting, he made so little progress 
that his Teachers despaired of him, and his 
fellow students nicknamed him the Ox. 
He soon, however, displayed talents of tlie 
first order, and though envy and ignorance 
carped at his novel style, his productions 
were widely sou|^t for and admired. He 
died, at his natife place, in 1619. Louis 
Caracci was no less amiable as a man than 
eminent as an artist, and was entirely free 
from 4jiat jealous spirit with which the 
•haracter of men of genius has too often 
baen blemished. 

CARACCI, AuouiTur, a cootia of 


LouM, was bom at Bologna, in 1668,. and 
was intended to be a goldsmith, but becaoM 
a pupil of Louis and of Fontana, and speed- 
ily proved himself an admirable painter. 
He also excelled in engraving, his principal 
master in which, was Cornelius Cort. Aa- 

gMtin assisted Annibal in the Fameee 
allery, but the jealousy which the lattor 
felt of his brother's talents soon produced 
a separation. He died in 1602. 

CARACCI, Annibal, a brother of Au* 
gnstin, was bora at Bologna, in 1560. In 
early life be worked.wiUi bis father, who 
was a tailor ; but he was taken as a pupil 
by his cousin Louis, and made a rapid 
progress. His reputation induced Cardinal 
Famese to invite him to Rome to paint the 
gallery of the Famese palace. This admi- 
rable work cost Annibal the labour of eiffht 
years, and his mean employer rewarded 
him with the beggarly sum of five hundred 
golden crowns. Vexation at being thus 
treated, threw him into a desponding state, 
which, aided by an irregular course of life, 
broueht him to the grave, in 1609. He 
was buried by the side of Raphael. Of all 
the Ctairacci, Annibal was the most laraely 
endowed with genius. In his private char- 
acter be was the least an^ianle of them. 
His pupil Anthont, a natural son of Au- 
ffustin, bom at Venice, in 1583, was strong- 
\y sAtached to his master, and was a painter 
of high talent. One of his most celeBrated 
productions is a picture of the Deluge. He 
died at Rome, in 1618. 

CARACCIOLI, Louis Anthont, a 
native of Paris, was bom in 1721, and 
died Jn the French capital, in 1803. Of 
his many works, the best known is. Let- 
ters of Clement XIV., which were k>ng 
believed to be really the composition of that 

CARACTACUS, vdiose real name was 
Caradoq, was a British prince of the 
Silures, who for a while resisted the Roman- 
power, but was at len^ defeated by Os- 
torius, A. D. 75. Cartismundua, queen of 
the Brigantes, with whom he had sought an 
asylum, treacherously gave him up, and be 
was sent a prisoner to Rome. His firm anc 
dignified oehaviour, however, produced 
such an effect on Clandiiv, that he set him 
at liberty. Mason has made Caractacus 
the subject of a drama. 

John, a Spanish theologian, was bora at 
Madrid, in 1606, and studied at Salamanca 
and Akala. He was successively abbot of 

Melrose and of Disembnrg, and bishop of 
Missy, Koningsgratx, Campana, and Vige- 
vano. The sword, however, feems to hive 
had in his eyes at least eqiial claims widi 
the crosier ; fcMr he fought in the Netbar« 
■lands, and assisted in defending Pnm 
affainst the Swedes. He died in na 
CSuramuel wrote 

Digitized by 




voifti on A ymrktj of idgaets. It mm 
nid of bim, chat ho bad eight parti of 
genius, Htc of eloquence, and only two of 

jARAUSIUS, Marcus Aurelius 
Valerius, a native of Belgic Gaul, born 
in the third century, was entrusted by 
Maximian with a fleet. for the defence of 
the Amiorican and British coasts. The 
tmperor, however, became jealous of his 
wealth, and meditated bis death; upon 
which Carausius landed in Britain, and, 
in A. D. 287, as!«umed the imperial title. 
The Romans were obliffed to acknowledge 
hb independence, and he reigned till a. d. 
293, when he was ansassinatMl by Allectus, 
one of bis domestics. 

CARAVAGGIO, Michael Ahgelo 
Amerigi de, a native of Caravaggio, in 
tbe Milanese, the son of a mason, was born 
in ISGd; acquired the art of painting wilh> 
out a master ; and rose to high excellence. 
He died in 1609. In bis private character 
Caravaggio deserved little praise. He was 
quarrelrome, envious, and unjust. His 
paintings are true to nature, and striking 
m effect, but are de6cieot in grace, and 

T^AHDAN, Jeron, a philosopher, 
mathematician, and physician, born at Pa- 
via, in 1501, was the illesitimate son of a 
physician aud civilian of Milan, and his 
mother endeavoured to destroy him before 
hiji entrance into the world. He was care- 
folly educated by his father at Mibn, and 
completed his studies at Pa via. H is medical 
skill was in such high repute, that he was 
ravited to Scotland, to restore to health 
the archbishop of St. Andrew's. He visited 
London, on his way homeward, and was 
introduced to Edward VI. Cardan pre- 
dicted length of days to the youns soye- 
reign, who, however, died in the following 
year. This was not the only occasion on 
wh icii the predictions of Cardan were fiilsi- 
iied ; yet he obstinately persisted in main- 
taining the truth of astrology. He died, in 
1576, at Rome, where he was a member of 
the college of physicians, and bad a pension 
from the pope. It is said by some, that he 
starved himself, in order that be might not 
belie bis astrological calculation relative to 
the period of his own deato. Cardan vras 
unfortunate in his oflSspring; both of his 
sons hatii^ proved thoroughly worthless, 
and one of tiiem being a murderer. He 
was himself, even from his ovrn showing, 
m his autobiography, an nnamiable and 
mpriocipled cluiracter. He has absurdly 
been accused of atheism, but he was, in 
crutk, weakly superstitious. His talents 
and erudition were of a high order. In 
algebra he made some discoveries, which 
Wve indissolubly ooanected his name with 
His works form ten folio 


GAR m 

CARBON, AvTHOiTT, an engraver, 
was bom at Brusseb, in 1772; «auie over 
to England, in 1792; and died, in London, 
in 1813. Cardon was an artist of muck 
taste and talent. His Woman taken in 
Adultery, after Rubens, and bis Marriage 
of Catherine of France with Henry V. are 
amonff his mostprominent works. 

CiJlDONNEf, Dehnis Dominic, an 
eminent orientalist, was born at Paris, in 
1720, and at nine years of aj^ went to 
Constantinople, where he remained twenty 
years, aiKl acquired a thorough knowledge 
of oriental languages, customs, and man- 
ners. After his return home, he became 
interpreting secretary to the king, royal 
censor and librarian, and professor of the 
Persian and Turkish languages at the Royal 
College. He died in 1783. Cardonne 
published, a History of Africa and Spain 
under the Arabian dominion; and Miscel- 
lanies of Oriental Literature ; and contin- 
ued the translation, which Galland began, 
of Ancient Tales and Fables, from Bidpay. 

CAREW, Richard, an antiquary, was 
bom at Anthony, in Cornwall, in 1655, 
and educated at Oxford and the Temple. 
After having travelled, he settled in Cora- 
wall, and was high sheriff in 1596. He 
died in 1620. He translated Tasso's Jera- 
salem and Huarte's Examination of Men's 
Wits; but is principally known by his 
Survey of Cornwall. 

CAREW, Thomas, a poet, supposed 
to have been bom in 1589, was educated 
at Corpus Christi College, Oxford; and, 
after returning fi^m his travels, was ap- 
pointed a jg;entleman of the bedchamber, 
and seww in ordinary to Charles I. Hia 
early lifo was dissipated ; but he became 
thoroughly reformed before his death in 
l$S9. Ab a poet, be has all the elegance 
of Waller, wtthiMS aflectation, and pow- 
ers of a highetn Jider. His Mas<|ue, inti- 
tled Coehim liritanniciun, contains many 
fine passa^; and his epitaph on Lady 
Mary Villiers, has a degree of simplicity 
and pathos which is almost unrivalled in 
English Epitaphs. 

CAREY. Hekrt, Earl of Monmouth, 
wks bora in 1596; educated at Exeter 
College, Oxford; and died in 1661. In 
the number of his translations he rivalled 
the untirable Philemon Holland. He trana- 
lated Bentivoglio's United Provinces ; Boo* 
calini*s Parnassus; Parata's Venice; Bi* 
ondi*s Civil Wars of England ; and several 
other works ; and died while engaged upoB 
a version of Priorato*s History of France. 

CAREY, Henry, a oompMer and poet« 
the period of whose birth i^ unknown, 
was an illegitimate son of the marquis of 
Halifox. His poems were printed hm 
1787, and his dramatis 

subscription in 

works in 1748. In the btter year he pal 
his own existence. Of bin dim 



mma, Chro loidiotoiithologof. tlie Contrinui- 
ees^Thoneas and Sally, and the Dragon of 
Wabtley, are best known. Of his musical 
compoBitions, Sallv in our Alley, the words 
of which are also hb own, deservedly con- 
tinues popular. Carey was an amiable 
man, and is said'to have been the projector 
of the Musical Fund. — His son, George 
Sattle, gained a lirelihood by his lec- 
tures on heads, and similar entertainments; 
wrote some forces ; and died in 1807. 

CAREY, Felix, son of Dr. William 
Carey, the missionary, was bom in 1786; 
assistCNJ his father in his pious labours in 
Bengal; and died at Serampore, in 1822. 
Among his works are, a urammar and 
Dictionary of the Bnrman Lan^age; a 
Fall Grammar; and other philological 

CARINUS, Marcus Aurelius, a 
Roman emperor, succeeded his father Ca- 
ms, A. D. 288, conjointly with Numerian, 
his brother. Efleminate, cruel, and coarse 
minded» before his accession, he displayed 
his vices still more prominently on the 
throne While engaged in a contest for 
empire with Diocletian, he was assassinated 
A D. 285, by a tribune, whose wife he had 

CARISSIMI, James, a celebrated 
Italian composer, considered as the re- 
fonner of music in Italy, was born at 
Venice, in 1600. He was chapel master 
to the pope, and to the German college at 
Rome ; and was living in 1672, but the 
year of his death is unknown. His Motets 
and Cantatas are much esteemed; par- 
ticularly the cantatas of Jeptha*s Sacrifice, 
and the Judgment of Solomon. 

CARLETON, Sir Gut, Earl of Dor- 
Chester, was bom, in 1724, at Strabane, 
in Ireland; distinguish^ himself at the 
sieges of Quebec and the Havannah ; was 
made governor of Quebe^^:tJ1772 ; success- 
fully defended Canada against the Ameri- 
cans; succeeded Clinton, in 1781, as com- 
mander in chief; was, in 1786, created a 
peer, and appointed governor of Nora Sco- 
tia, New omnswicK, and Canada; 
died in 1808. 

C4RLI, John Riraldo, Count de, an 
Italian writer on political economy and 
antiquities, was born at Capo d*Istria, in 
1720; became president of the council of 
commerce and finance at Milan; and died 
in 1795. His excellent Treatise on Italian 
Coina^ and money extends to six volumes 
and his American Letters, in which he 
refutes Pauw, form three volumes. His 
Italian Antiquities are in five volumes 
ouarto, and are highly esteemed. 

CARLVLE, Joseph Dacre, a divine 
and poet, was bom at Carlisle, in 1759, 
and Mucated at Cambridge, at which uni- 
versity he became Arabic professor in 1794. 
He aeooMpaoied Lord Elgin on his embassy 


to Coostantioople; visited maaypvti «f 
the Levant; and, at his return, obtained 
the rectory of Newcastle upon lyne. He 
died in ld04. His productions are, Spei^ 
cimeiM of Arabian Poetn^; Poems eog* 
gested by scenes in Asia Minor, &c. ; and 
a Latin translation of Jemaleddin's Egyo 
tian Annals. 

CARMATH, Hamdan, was, in the 
ninth century, the founder of an Arabian 
sect, which was hostile to Mahometanitm ; 
and, indeed, to the existence of society 
itself. He taught a community of property 
and of women; rejected revelation, prayer, 
fiisting, and alms ; and allowed free scope 
to the exercise of the worst passions. The 
time and mode of his death are unknown * 
but the former is supposed to have bc4ie 
about A. D. 900. 

CARMONTELLE, M.,.a Frendi wri- 
ter, bora at Paris, in 1717, where he died 
in 1806, is the author of various works^ 
but is celebrated for his Dramatic Proverbs^ 
short pieces, which have great comic merit. 
Carmontelle also painted with the same 
facility that he wrote ; and had a particQ- 
lar talent finr drawing transparencies, which 
contained a series of scenes, and were 
from one hundred to one hundred and sixty 
feet in length. 

CARNEADES, a celebrated Greek 
philosopher, a native of Cyrene,, supposed 
to have been bora about B. c. 218, was 
the founder of the third or new Academy. 
His doctrine was a mitigated pynhonism. 
Tlie Athenians sent him to Rome, with 
Diogenes and Critolaus, to obtain the re- 
mission of a fine ; during which embassy 
Carneades displayed such eloquence b 
maintaining both sides of a question, that 
he captivated the people, and Cato the 
censor induced the senate to send back die 
philosophers, to prevent the morals of the 
Roman vouth firom being injured.^ He 
died at tne age of ninety ; yet had inc 
santly complained of the brevity of life. 

CARNOT, LAZARUS Nicholas, one 
of tlie most prominent actors in the French 
revolution, was born in Burgundy, in 1758j 
entered the engineer corps at the age of 
euhteen; and Decame to diatinfuirfnd ftt 


HM6 HMUy falTltM Din, DQt 

in f«in» mto the Prosewn Mnrioe. In 
1791, the department of the Pas de Cakia 
dKtse him one of ita represeDtatires to the 
legiakuive aasembly; by which aswmbly 
be was nominated a member of the military 
committee. In both capacities he waa 
active, and hia principles were decidedly 
repoblican. He waa reelected to the.con- 
vention, and voted (or the death of Louia 
XVI. Of the too celebrated committee of 
public safety he was a member. The mili- 
tarv operations of the French armies were 
onder his soperinteadence, and, though 
Napoleon depreciates his abilities, thm 
can be little doubt Uyt the pUns of Camot 
cootribnt^ largely to the triimiph of 
France. When the directorial govern- 
ment was establisbed, he was chosen one 
of the five directors; but, in September, 
1797, he was proscribed with his colleague 
Biuthelemy, and nearly seventy memMrs 
of the councils, as a royalist, and be took 
refuge in Germany, to avoid transporta- 
tion. When Bonaparte became first con- 
sbI, he recalled him, and made him war 
minister ; an ofiice, however, which Camot 
re^&ined only for a fiiw months. Thorooghly 
republican in his feelings, he saw with in- 
finite displ&isure the strides which Bona- 
parte was making towards the throne; 
and, as a member of the tribunate, he 
entered his protest against the establish- 
ment of the imperiiu government. He 
lived in retirement, and in somewhat nar- 
row circumstances, for several years after 
the accession of Napoleon, but at length a 
pension was given to him. In 1818, when 
the star of tlm French emperor was on the 
wane, Camot came fomnurd to offer his 
services ; he was entrusted with the defence 
of Antwerp; and he amply justified the 
confidence which was re|^c>sed in him. 
Dismted with the impolitic conduct of 
the Bourbons, he drew up, early in 1816, 
• a Memorial to the King, which became 
public, and produced an extraordinary 
effect. When Napoleon returned from 
Elba, he appoints him minister of the 
home department, and gave him the title 
of count; and, after tlie downfeU of the 
emperor, Camot was chosen one of the 
temporary government. In which character 
he hibouracT strenuously to prevent a sove- 
• reign from being forced upon his countrv 
by the allies. He was exiled in 1816, 
and died at Magdebnrgh in August, 1823. 
Notwithstanding he had held so many high 
offices, he lived and died poor; fur he was 
rigidly disinterested and incorrupt. He is 
Jm vrthor of various mathematical and 
military works, among which are the Geo 
metry of Position ; and a volume on the 
Defence of Fortresses. 

CARO, AUNIBAL, a distinguished lite- 
«7 Italiaa, was bora, in 1M7, at Citt* 


Nova, in ,the March of Anooam. AAot 
having been secretary to Prince Pico Louia 
Famese, and to cardinals Ranuccio and 
Alexandier Famese, by whom he was liber* 
ally rewarded, he died in 1066. Of his 
works, several of which are translatioos, 
the principal are a version of the Eneid, 
in blank verse; a vohmie of Poems; and a 

CARPI, Hi70H Df, a designer and en- 
graver on wood, bora at Rome, about 1486, 
was one of the first who introduced into 
Italy the use of three plates to produce one 
print; one for the outline, another for the 
naif-tints, and the third for the shadows 
The invention itself is of German origin. 

CARPOCRATES, a heresiarch of the 
second century, was a native of Alexan- 
dria, and lived under the reign of Adrian 
He believed Jesus Christ to have been 
merely tlie son of Joseph and Mary, but 
more richly endowed by the Creator than 
other men. He is alao accused of having 
denied the resurrection, and of having 
taught various doctrines subversive of 
morality. ^ 

CARR, John, was bora at Muggles- 
wick, in the counW of Durham, in 1732; 
vras educated at St. Paul's School; be- 
came usher and subsequently master of ' 
Hertford School ; received the degree of 
doctor of laws from Harischal C^Ile^; 
and died in 1807. He translated Lvcian, 
in 5 vols. 8vo. ; and wrote some poems. 

CARR, Sir John, a native of Devon 
shire, was bmiight up to the law; but 
seems lo have abandoned his profession, to 
beconre a tourist. His first work was the 
Stranger in France, published in 180S. 
It was succeeded by a Tour round the 
Baltic ; and that was followed by others 
in Holland, Ireland, Scotland, and Spain. 
His Stranger In Ireland procured for him 
the honour of knighthood, and drew down 
upon him the ridicule of an unmerciful 
satirist, for whose attack the knight ab- 
surdly and vainly sought redress in a court 
of justice. He oied lOiout 1822. Sir John 
Carr is a lively but superficial writer. 
Besides his tours, he produced some very 
indifferent f poems. 

CARRE, Louis, a French geometri- 
cian, and member of the Academy of Sci- 
ences, was the son of a husbandman in the 
province of Brie. He was bom in 1668, 
and died in 1711. From Mallebrancbe, 
to whom he was an amanuensis, he learned 
mathematics. He wrote a Treatise on 
Music ; another, on the Application of the 
Int^ral Calculus ; and various pafiers in 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, 
and in the Journal des Savants. 

CARRIER, John Baptist, one off the 
roost infamous of the French revolutionists, 
was born near Aarillac, in 1766, and was 
an obscure lawyer ^hen^ d^_ revoiatioa 

igitized by VJiC 

Digitized by ^ 




B«Hif clectad a nMnber of 

the coDTsntion, be wm one of the fbremott 
in all sangainaiT meamres. He declared 
that one third of the inhabitants of France 
OQght to be got rid of. He waf sent on 
a nuMion into Vendee ; and, acting np to 
hit infernal ivfteni, he thcrre committed 
the moat fiorrible crueltiep. Thoutanda of 
Tictimfl, amonc whom were great numben 
of women and children, were drowned, 
shot, or beheaded. After the foil of Ro- 
betpierre, justice overtook Carrier, and he 
perished on the scafibld in 1795. 

CARRION, Emaicuel Ramirez de, 
a learned Spaniard, who lived towards the 
latter end of the sixteenth century, was 
one of the first persons who undettook to 
teach the deaf and dumb. He had sreat 
success. Among his pupils were the Mar- 

|uis de Priego and Don Louis de Velasco. 

le is the author of a work called the 
Wonders of Nature. 

CARROLL, JoHV, first Catholic bishop 
of the United States, was bom in Mary- 
land, in the ^'oar 1784. He was sent at 
the age of thirteen to the College of St. 
Omers, in Flanders, where he remained 
lor six fears, when he was transferred to 
the colleges of Liege and Bruges. In 
1769 he was ordained a priest; and soon 
after became a Jesuit. He returned to 
America in 1775, and when the Roman 
Catholic clergy in the United States re- 
quested ft'om the pope the establishment of 
a hierarchy, Mr. Carroll was appointed 
vicar-general, and fixed his residence at 
Baltimore. In 1789 be was named bishop, 
and in the eosuinff year was conslcrated 
in England. In the same year he returned 
to his native country, and, from the seat of 
his episcopal see, assuroied the tiile of 
Bishop of Baltimore. A few years before 
his death he was raised to the dignity of 
arch-bishop. He died in 1815, much es- 
teemed and regretted. 

' CARSTARES, William, a native of 
Scotland, eminent as a divine and a politi- 
cian, was bom, in 1^19, at Cathcart, near 
Glasgow, and completed his studies at the 
universities of London and Utrecht. While 
in Holland, he was introduced to the prince 
of Omnge, who honoured him with his 
confidence. After his return to England, 
he became connected with the party which 
strove to exclude James firom the throne, 
and, on suspicion of being one of the Rye- 
house conspirators, he was pot to the tor- 
ture, which he bore wiui unshr inking 

On his liberation, he went back 
to HoUaod, and became one of the prince 
of Orange *s chaplains. He accompanied 
William to England in 1688 ; was appoint- 
•d king's chapUih for Scotkod ; and, till the 
death of the monarch, was consulted with 
go all Scotch affairs. Queen Anne made 
mm principal of the nnivertl^ of Edin- 


borah. In hfmir of the wilon, aid ef A» 
establisluBent of the honsB of Haaowr, ha 
took an active part. He died fo 1716 
Carstares was an honeet, enlighiened, and 
patriotic man, and of sneh benevolettt 
feelings, that he delighted in eocoooring 
even those who p rofe es ed prineaplee dia- 
metrically opposite to hie own. Nor was 
his chanty toe child of oeteotation; for 
much of the good which he did vrae don* 
by stealth. 

CARSTENS, AsMUS Jacob, a Danish 
painter, was bora at Schleewick, in 1754« 
and was the son of a miller. At the age 
of nine years, he maaifosted a love of 
dnwtng, and was taught the nidiments by 
In 1788, he made a vain at- 

dnwuiKt ai 
his mother. 

tempt to reach the papal capital, in order 
to study, but poverty obliffed bin ' * 
after having proceeoed to Milan. 

him to desist 
111 1792, 
however, fiis took op his residence mt 
Rome, and he died there in 1798. Among 
his b^ vrorks are his Fall of the Angels ; 
Megaponturo; CEklipus; and Visit of the 
Argonauts to Chiron. 

CARTE, Thomas, an historian, was 
bora at Dunsffioor, in Warwickshire, in 
1686, and educated at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge; and, after making the tour of 
Europe as a tutor, he took orders; but ha 
subsequently asenroed the lay habit, in con- 
sequence of his Jacobite principles not 
allowing him to swear allegiance to the 
house of Hanover. He was secretary to 
Bishop Atterburv, and being more than 
once suspected of taking part in the plots 
against the government, he was compelled 
to fly to France, where he resided foit sev* 
eral years. On his return to his natita 
coontnr» he engaged in literary pursuits. 
His Hfistory of England was, at tlie outset, 
extensively patronised ; but, on the publi- 
cation of the first volume, many of the 
subscribers, particularly the corporation of 
London, withdrew their support; he hav- 
ing disffusted them by inserting a silH 
story of a man being cured of the king^ 
evil by the touch of the pretender. I>e- 
fective in style and many historical qnali* 
ties, and disfigured by tory prejudices, hb 
wofit is, nevertheless, vahmble for the 
industrious research which it displays. 
He died fai 1754. Besides his History, 
which comes down to 1654, he wrote a 
Life of James Duke of Ona<md, and othei 

CARTER, Elizaskth, a female of 
extensive learning, was the dausliter of a 
aI, inK 

clergyman, and was bora at Dealj 
December 16, 1717. She was educated 
by her lather, and acouiied the Hebrew* 
Arabic, Greek, Latin, Italian, Portugnesa» 
Spanish, French, and Geraian languaaas' 
Before she was seventeen, many of naff 
poetical attempts appeared 
BMn's Magaiana,and wars 

Digitized by V 



Jtmd Cf«nw*i MMiM-ki Ja the Emmt on 
BliM, ftad Alg»roai*0 Explanation of lVew> 
loa't PkUoaopby for the Ladief. Her 
trlilrtioa of EpictetiiB ap|>aared in 1766; 
and a Tohnae of her poenw in 1762. Mrs. 
CWtcr waa in habitt of friendabip with 
JoIhmo«» Dr. backer, the earl of Bath, 
Mra. Moatagae, and nearly all the eminent 
literary eharacters of the aie; and had 
interviews with the (|ueen and other meoh 
ben of the royal &Bily. 8he died Febm- 
ary 19, 180ft. As an emdite female the 
hM seldom beea ermalled; as a poetess she 
takes no lofty lights, bat is pleasing and 

CARTER, Nathanikl H., 
bora in Concord, New Hampshire, and 
fradaated at Dartmouth college in 1811. 
n 1816 he was chosen professor of Ian 
guages at the college ahore he was educa- 
tad, and was sabaeqoently editor of the 
New York Statesman. He b the antkor 
of a few occasioaal poems, and of Travels 
in Europe, in two volf. 8to. He died in 
Marseilles, where he had gone on account 
of his healdi, in Januaos 1880. 

CARTER, John, an architect, anti 
cpnry, and draughtsman, was bom in Pic 
tadiny, in 1747, and waA brought up as a 
baiider. The Seesions House, on Clerk- 
enwell Green, was designed by him. He 
diad, September 8, 1817. Carter was an 
eachusiastic admirer of Gothic architec- 
tare,, and tras thoroughly versed in all its 
4leiajJs. Any modem artists who deviated 
firoas its trae priaciples were sore to e'n- 
ooaaier his s e v e rest censure. He is the 
a«tkor of Speeimens of Ancient Scnipiure 
and Paiating in England, 2 vob. folio; 
Aaeient Architectare of England, folio; 
Tiewa in EaglaBd, 7 vols, 12mo.; and 
LeMers, ia the Gentleman's Magaxine, 
aader the svnature of an Architect. 

CARTERET. See Graktille. 

OARTIER, JAMBS, a French navi^- 
tor of the sixteenth century, was a native 
of St. Haloes. His ofler to explore the 
coastof Borthem America was accepted 
by Francis I., who entmsted him with the 
noaimnnd of two small vessels, each of 
about sixW tons burtheo. With these 
Gartier sailed in April, 1684. In his first 
voyage he coasted a psirt of Labrador, and 
dinemred the mouth of the St. Laurence; 
second, in 1S86, he penetrated up 
I Nontrei' 



for as where Montreal now 
Ha was dispatched to Canada a 
third tifltt, in 1640 The date of his death 

CARTWRIGHT, Thomas, an emi- 
MBt divioe, waa bom in Hertfordshire, 
iiboMt 168ft» and was edncated at St. John*i 
Mid Triiiily College) Cambridge Hew 
fWiij wknlisd as m praacker; but, beiag 

by Wkitgift,Grnidall, and Ayt* 
mer, was more than once imprisoned, ttmd 
was compelled to reside abroad for two 
years. He died in 1608. Besides con- 
troversial tractfl, he wrote a I^tin Harmony 
of the Gospels; a Commentary on the 
Proverbs ; a Confotation of the Rhemisk 
Testament ; and other works. 

CARTWRIGHT, William, a divine 
and poet, was born, in 1611, near Tewka- 
bury, in Gloucestershire, and educated at 
Westmiaster and Christ Church, Oxford. 
As a preacher he was hiffhiy popular ; and 
as a man of talents and a poet, he vroa 
the lavish praise of many of his emin- 
ent contemporaries. Posteritv, however, 
though no*t denyiiw consideraole merit to 
him, has not ratified the lofty panegyrics 
bestowed on him by his friends. He died 
at Oxford, in 1648, and Charles I., who 
was then at that city, wore black on the 
day of his foneral. He b the author of 
poems; four dramas; and a sermon. 

CARTWRIGHT, Major Johh, a na- 
tive of Nottinghamshire, distinguished as 
a steady |Mtrtisan of parliamentary reform, 
was born in 1710, served in the army and 
navy in early life, and was present at the 
taking of Cherbourg, and the battle be- 
tween Hawke and Conflans. He left the 
sea service previously to 1774, and became 
a warm advocate for the American colo- 
nisU. About this time he obuined \ina- 
ior's commission in the Notts militia, and 
be held it for seventeen years till he was 
superseded. In 1780 he joined with Dr. 
Jebb and Granville Sharpe in establishinf 
tlie Society for Constitutional Information. 
For nearfy half a centurv he in c essa n tly , 
continued his exertions, noth personal^ 
and with his pen, to efiect a reform in tlw 
house of commons. In 1821, he was tried 
with others, for a conspiracy, in conse- 
quence of bis having attended a public 
meeting at Birmingham, on the subject of 
the Manchester massacre. He whs sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of one hundred pounds. 
He died September tlie 28d, 1824. His 
integrity and patriotic intentions were 
acknowledged by all parties. He is the 
author of the il^is of Ikitaiu; the Com- 
monwealth in Danoer ; and various other 
works; the style of which is not such as 
can be honestly praised hv a reader of tasta. 

CARTWRIGHT, Ei>waiid, a younger 
brother of Major Cartwrif^t, was educated 
for the church, and obtained preferment 
His reputation, however, is derived flroa 
kis poetical and mechanical talent. As a 
poet, he IS honourably known by kie 
Armyne and Elvira, and other poems; ka 
a mechanician, by hu weaving machine, 
by his methods of combing wool, Itnd ma- 
king ropes, and by varkias ngriculyrai 
improvements. He also eontribntad •- 
tke MoBtbly Revie«r. HedtodtoT 

Digitized by v 


GARU8, Mahous Aorclivs, a Ro- 

tamm eaperor, tbe ■aeoeaaor of Proboi, 
wu born at Narbonne, about A. o. 280. 
After having ilefeatod the Sarmatiant, he 
■nrehed asainflt the Peraiane, and had 
made himaelf matter of the citiee of Seleu- 
cia aad Cteeiphon, when he wag killed by 
Ufhtning, in tbe latter city, a. d. 288. 

CARVER, Jonathan, a North Amer- 
ican, bom in Connecticut, in 1782, was a 
nrandaon of the goTemor of that province. 
He waa edncat^ for the medical profes- 
uon, but embraced a military life, and 
aenred with repuution till tlie peace of 
1768. The years 1766, 1767, and 1768, 
he spent in CMiloriag the interior of North 
America, and be added considerably to 
our knowledge of that country. He visited 
England, in 1769, hoping for tbe patronage 
of government, but he was disslppointed. 
In 1778, he published bis Travels, while in 
the situation of clerk of a lottery, in 
Boston *t^ and, subsequently, a Treatise on 
the Cultivation of Tobacco. After having 
long contended with poverty, he died, in 
17W, of disease wbicn is believed to have 
been produced by want. 

CARVER, John, the first governor of 
the colony of Plymouth, New-England, 
was a native of England, and belonged to 
the church of Mr. Robinson, which emigra- 
ted to Leyden. Having obtained a patent 
froq) the Virginia Company, he sailed 
from Plymouth, in 1620, with one hundred 
emigrants, and striking the coast of Amer- 
ica m the vicinity of Cape Cod, he landed 
and commenced the settlement of New- 
England. The place selected for this pur- 
pose was called Plymouth, and Mr. C^irver 
was chosen first ^vemor of the new col- 
ony. He died in the April of the next 

CARY. See Falkland. 

CARYL, JosErH, a nonconformist 
divine, bom at London, in 1602, and educa- 
lad at Oxford, was an active minister, and 
bore some part in political afiairs, under 
the commonwealth. Being ejected from 
hit living in 1662, be collected a congrega- 
tion, to which he preached till his dMease, 
in 1678. He wrote a Commentary on Job, 
which forms' twelve ouarto orUwo large 
Iblio volumes. The suoject and the enor- 
noos vnagaitude of it have afforded to the 
wits an abundant source of ludicrous 

CARYSFORT, John Joshua PRO- 
3Y, Earl of, the son of the first baron 
Carysfort, was bora in August, 1751 ; was 
edocatad at Eton, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge; obtained an Irish earldom in 
1788, mi^ an English peerage ii^ 1801 ; 
bald various state empbyments, amons 
which waraohnse of envoy to Berlin, and 
r to Su PetersbuM; and died 
1,1818, m 


I lordship 


was a nan of taste, talent, and laanri^i 
great amenity of manners ; and a trmy 
benevolent heart. His Poems and Dramas^ 
2 vob. 8vo., oontam nrany fine passam 
He was also the author of two polifloa 

CASA, John dxlla, an eminent era* 
tor, poet, and prebte, was bora at Mugeilo, 
near Florrace, in 1608, and is believed to 
have studied at Bologna and Padua. Being 
patronised by the Cardinals Faraeae, one 
of whom became Pope Paul III., be fiUed 
various impoi^ant offices, and was made 
archbishop of Benevento. He died in 
1566. His best works are, his Gakteo, 
or Art of Living in the World ; and his 
Lyrical Poems. 

'CASAS, Bartholohbw dk lai, a 
Spanish prelate, of a noble ftunily, was 
born at Seville, in 1474, and, at the ace of 
nineteen, visited the new world with his 
father. On his return to Spain he em* 
braced the ecclesiastical proifession, that 
he might act as a missionary in the western 
hemisphere. Having settled in St. Domin- 
go, ** he spent his days there in preacbmg 
the gospel to the Indians, and humanity 
to their oppressors.** In truth, his whow 
exis'tence, for half a century, was devoted 
to struggling with the Spanish tyranU,and 
consoling the persecuted natives. Twelve 
times he crossed tbe ocean, to plead at the 
foot of the Spanish throne the cause of the 
wretched Inaians. Las Casas was bishop 
of Chiapa, but he resigned his see in 
1551, and returaed to his native coaDtrr, 
where he died, at Madrid, in 1566. It 
has been asserted that he gave rise to the 
horrible traffic in African slaves, in order 
to save the American Indians finom slavery; 
but this calumny is refiited hj Oregoire, 
and by passages in his osra writings. Of 
his works, which form five quarto parts, 
the most celebrated is his Short Narratlae 
of the D^etruction of the Indies. 

CASAUBON, Isaac, aoelebratedcritSe 
and calvinist theologian, was bore at Ge- 
neva, in 1560, and niade an early aad 
extraordinary progress in his daasioal 
studies. After having held the chair of 
Greek professor at Geneva lor fimriaeB 
years, «e removed to Montpellier, and 
thence to Paris, where Henry iV. mointad 
him royal librarian. On tbe dMth ef 
Henry, Casaubon settled in England, where 
James I. made him a prebend of West- 
minster and Canterburv* and gave him m 
pension. He died in 1614, and was boried 
in. Westminster Abbey. His liberality of 
feeling induced many to accuse him wi my 
fiilly of leaning towards popery. Ha in£> 
lished editions of Strabo, rolysNius, Aria* 
totle, Theophrastus, Polyhins, and severml 
other ancient authors ; and produced soom 
original works, among which are iioaii| 
one thousand two han£ad latien* 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


UACAUBON, Msmio, die Mm of Ismc, 
wu bora mt Oowva, in 1509; be ftedied 
tt Sedan, and Chriit Cbvrch, Oxfi>rd; 
obtained a prebend of Ganteibary, and 
two lirinfv, from which he was ejected 
dnrina toe'ciTiI war ; refined a liberal gift, 
o ft r e d by Cromwell ; was restored to his 
Irrin^ on the retom of Charles II.; and 
diad M 1671. Meric was a man of piety 
and emditioB. He jSrodoced several works, 
the best of which is, a Treatise on En- 

CASLON, William, a celebrated type 
fo n ndc r , was bom, in 1692, at Hales Owen, 
in Shri^Mhire, and served his apprentice- 
diip to an engraver of ornaments on gun 
bairels. He also made tools for book- 
binders; and Bowyer, the printer, was so 
nMich pleased with the elegance of his tools 
for fettering, that he, and two other prin- 
ters, encouraged him to attempt type iban- 
ditig. Caslon succeeded so admirably in 
this art, that his ^pes became famous all 
over Europe, and be acc|uired a handsome 
fortnoe. He died in 1766. The business 
IB stiil carried on by hirdescendants. 

CASSAS, Louis Francis, a French 
paijitev and architect, born in 17^, at 
Asay fe Feron, a pupil of Vien and the 
yew^er Lagrenee, was inspector general 
and professor of drawing at the Gobelin 
mamifiHtory. He expkhvd Istrhi, Dal- 
matia, Syria, and Palestine ; and published 
tbe result of his observations in two splen- 
did works, ibiio, with numeitNM plates, 
■ader the titles of Picturescine Travels in 
Istria and Dalmatia, and Picturesque Tra- 
vels in Phenicia and Palestine. He died 

an eminent anatomist, was bom, in 1545, i 
of bumbfe parenta, at Plaoentia, in Italy. 
From being servant to Fabricius, be be- 
came bis pnpil end assistant, .and eventu- 
ally, in 1609, his coadjutor. He died in 
16)6. Casserio made the most generous 
escertione to advance the science of anat- 
eoiy. Almost all that he gained l^ 
tcftcfaing, he expended in purchasing sul^ 
jects for dissection, and in paying artists 
aad engraverB to make ana engrave de- 
signs. He is tbe author of Ue Vocis 
Aaditdsqoe Organis; and of other valnabfe 

CASSINI, JoHH DoMiiric,anativeof 
Nice, was born in 1625. His attention 
waa first tamed to tbe study of the heavenly 
bodies by the chance perusal of a work on 
astrology, and be soon became so eonsam- 
mate an astronooner that, at the age of 
twenty-five, be was chosen to fill the astro- 
aoBiieal chair in the imiversity of Bologna. 
Bo held this ofiice for many years, and, 
wbife at Bologna, traced a new meridian 
liiia^ in tbe ehurch of St. Petronius. Tbe 


CAB vm 

Ae fiirtiications of fi>rt Uibioo, and Ike 
senate of Bologna placed under his super* 
intendance the navication of the Po. la 
161^ Colbert invited him to France, where 
he intended to remain only six years, bat 
he was ultimately prevailed upon to take 
up his permanent residence there. lie died 
in 1712, having been blind for some years. 
Cassini stands high as an astronomer. 
Ainon§[ other thinss, he solved a problem 
by which Kepferhad been foiled; ascer- 
tained the true nature of comets; continued 
the French meridian line; made valuabfe 
observations on the sun. Mars, Venus, and 
Jupiter; and discovered the xodia^al li|^t 
and four of the satellites of Saturn. 

CASSINI, James, bom at Paris, in 
1667, succeeded his father as royal astron- 
omer, and proved himself tbe worthy heir 
of his parent's situation and abilities. He 
made various important discoveries, and 
proceeded with the meridian line which his 
father had continued. He died in 1756. 
In his work On tbe Magnitude and Fimire 
of the Earth, he erroneously maintained, in 
opposition to Newton, that the form of the 
globe is an oblate spheroid. This gave 
rise to the scientific expeditions for mea- 
stiring a degree in ihe polar circle and at 
tlie e(|uator. Among hi5 other productions 
is, Elements of Astrononn. 

CASSINI DE TH URY, Cjesar Fr ah- 
cis, a son of James, was born, in 1714, at 
Paris , and died , of small pox , in 1 784. He 
was director of the French Observatory, 
and a member of various scientific societies. 
In talent he proved himself no degenerate 
scion of his race. Even when be was only 
ten years old, he possessed extensi%e astro- 
nomical knowledge. His great labour is 
his Map of France, in 182 sheets, which 
has served as a model for all subeeqnent 
works of the same kind. He is also the 
author of various productions on astronom* 
ical subjects, or connected with them. 

ITS, a statesman and histonin of the fifUi 
and sixth centuries, was bora at Sqnilhice, 
in Italy, about A. D. 470, was minister to 
Theodoric, king of the Goths, and preto- 
rian prefiBct under three subsequent sove- 
rei^. Some years before his death, he 
retired to a monastery, where he died 
about A. D. 616. SevemI of the most 
valuabfe of his works are lost, amons 
which is a history of the Goths. Such of 
his theological and other works as have 
escaped the ravages of time fiMrm two folio 

of the murderers of Ciesar, originally dis- 
tinguished himself m the Parthian war, 
when he was qoestor to Crassus. In the 
■truggfe between Ctosar and Pompey, he 
espoused the cause of tbe fetter; but sub* 
IBitied to Cwar after tbe battfe of Fbmr- 

.M GA8 

nlim, and wm kindly received. He, how- 
erer, wm the prime mover of the conspi- 
racy in which Oesar periihed. He siew 
himself at Phllippi, B. c. 42, in consequence 
of believing the batUe to be Irrecoverably 

CASTALION, Sebastiah, wliose 
fitmily name was Cliateillon, was born in 
Dauphin^, in 1515. In 1560 he went to 
Geneva, where, through the friendship of 
Calvin, he obtained the professorship of 
languages in the college. Castalion, how- 
ever, was of a tolerant spirit, and, besides, 
demnrred to some of the doctrines of his 
friend. The ire of Calvin was roused by 
this, and he not only procured his expul- 
sion from the city, but, in conjunction with 
Beta, heaped upon him the most calumni- 
ous accusations. Castalion retired to Basil, 
where he died poor, in 1563. He is best 
known by his translations of tlie Bible. 
The Latin version is not always accurate, 
and violates the dignified simplicity of the 
original by an afllectation of fastidious 
elegance. The French version, on the 
contrary, has the opposite defect of coarse- 
ness; so that Henry Stephens described it 
as being_compoBed in the jargon of beggars. 
CASTANHEDA, Ferhando Lopez, 
a Portuguese historian, was born early in 
the sixteenth century ; went, when young, 
to India with his father, who was a judge; 
and, on his return to Portugal, devoted 
the remainder of his life to composing a 
History of the Discovery and Conquest of 
•India bw the Portuguese. Though prolix 
and faulty in style, his work is valuable 
lor his faithful adherence to fiu:t. 

CASTEL, Louis BERTRARD,a Jesuit, 
eminent as a mathematician and philoso- 
oher, was born at Montpellier, in 1668, 
and settled at Paris,, in 1720, where he 
published several scientific works. Of 
mese the principal are, A Treatise on 
Universal Gravity; and another on Uni- 
versal Mathematics. Castel was the in- 
ventor of an instrument called the Ocular 
Harpsichord; intended to afiect the eye 
by colours in the same manner that the ear 
is affected by sounds. He died in 1757. 

CASTEIX, Edmund, a divine and 
lexicographer, was bom at Hatley, in 
Cambridgeshire, in 1606, and was edu- 
cated at Emanuel and St. John's Colleges. 
While at the university, he compiled his 
Dictionary of Seven Languages, on which 
he be^wed the labour of seventeen years. 
Hie publication of it ruined him. He was, 
however, rescned from poverty, by being 
appointed king's chaplain and Arabic pro- 
fessor at Camuridge, to which was after- 
wards added a prraend of Canterbury and 
I livings. He died in 1085, rector of 


Hifham Gobion, in Bedfordshire. Dr. 
Wahoa WM asustdl by him in the PolygWt 

CAST!, John Ba PT18T, an Italiai* pr«» 
bom in 1721, at Montefiaioone, ko dw 
Papal territory. After having been Pfo*^ 
fessor of Greek and Latin at his %ati\« 
place, he obtained a canonry in the cathi^ 
dral of Montefiascone. Bein^ fond ol trav- 
elling, he visited several foreign countries. 
At the death of Hetastasio, C^sti was ap- 
pointed in)|)erial poet laureat; but he re- 
signed this office on the decease of Joseph 
n. In 1798 he settled at Paris, and be 
died tliere in Febmary, 1803. To the 
latest period of life he retained all the viva 
city or youth. He is the author of numeroot 
Talcs and minor poems ; a Satire upon the 
Russian Court ; and three burlesque opera« { 
but his great work is. The Speaking Ant 
mals, a satirical poem in 26 cantos; a parr 
of which has been imitated by Mr. Stewan 
Rose. Though not always decorous hia 
poetry is full of wit, gaiety, and elegance. 

CASTIGLTONE, Baltbasar, ac 
Italian statesman and writer, was bpra of 
a noble family, in 1468, at Casatico, r«>ai 
Mantua. In early youth he servei. the 
duke of Milan, and subsequently was em- 
ployed on important embassies liy the dnki 
of urbino, Leo X., and Clement VII. 
Charles V. nominated him bishop of Avih^ 
but he did not long enjoy this dignity He 
died at Toledo in 1529. Of his worke. 
The Courtier, which the Italians call <* ths 
golden book," is the principal; it has 
been often reprinted, as have also his 

CASTILLO, Bernal Diaz del, a 
native of Medina del Campo, bora towards 
the close of the sixteenth century, was one 
of the adventurers who accompanied Cor- 
tes to Mexico. Afler the conquest, ht 
settled in that country, where he died 
about 1560. His History of the Expedi- 
tion of Cortes is written m an unpolished 
style, but is hi^ly interesting, from the 
minute and vivid pictures wnich it pre- 
sents of the difficulties and the daring 
spirit of the Spanish invaders. It has 
been translated into English by Keating. 

NT, an eminent Spanish painter, -the aoa 
of a painter, was born at Cordova, in 1608; 
in the cathedral and chivchea of which an 
many of his best pieces. He studied undat 
his father and Zurbaran. The cause of hit 
death is singular. In 1666>he returned tc 
Seville, wMre he had been educated. 
Some pictures by Murillo were there shown 
him. It was the first time he had beheld 
the works of that great painter. He looked 
at them with astonishment: at length, ha 
exclaimed, with a sigh, ** Castillo is no 
more!" He died of grief in less than a 
year. It was not envy that thus consumed 
nim — for he was a liberal and amiabia 
man — but an overpowering feelinc of ha- 
imiliaiioa at his iBferiorityt and oi i 

■ Digitized by V^OOQIC 


ttiC,at Ins Sfe, he could not hope to tttain 
Iwrfcc tSon in his art. 

jCASTRO, John dk, a celebrated Por- 
tngnese gencnral, was bora at Lisbon, in 
IwO, and was of an ancient &mily. After 
hariag attended diaries Y. in the expedi- 
tion against Tunis, and served in the Red 
Sea, he was appointed governor of India 
in 1646, and was subsequently named vice- 
roy. He died at Qoa, in 1648; having, 
in the eourse of his three vears* adminis- 
tration, gained immortal honour by his 
numerous victories. Castro was intrepid, 
disinferested, affable, and well versea in 
languages and mathematics. Such was his 
contempt of riches, that, afto* his death, 
only three rials were found in his coffers! 


CASTRO, GuiLHEV DE, a Spanish 
poet, a contemporary of Lopex de Vega, 
by whom he is highty praised. His Dra- 
matic Works form two volumes 4to. Amons 
them is a tragi-comedy on the subject of 
the Cid ; from which, and from Diamante's 
pby on the same dieme, Corneille borrowed 
many ideas. 

tive of Lucca, born in 1281, early embraced 
a military life ; served in England, France, 
and various parts of Italy; and, after 
many vicissitudes, became duke of Lucca. 
He held his digni^ for fifteen years, de- 
feated the Florentines and Pisans in many 
enrai^ements, and displayed ^reat military 
abilities. He died m 1328. Castrucci 
was one of the most conspicuous leaders of 
the Ghibelline party. 

CATESBY, M ARK, an English natural- 
nt, was born in 1680: went to Virginia in 
1712; and remained there for seven years. 
On his return, he was encouraged, by Sir 
Haas Sloane and others, to revisit Ameri- 
ca, ibr the purpose of describing and de- 
lineating the natural productions of that 
eoontry. The result was. The Natural 
Histonr of Carolina, Florida, and the Ba- 
iMoia Islands, 2 volumes folio, the numerous 
p^tes of which were etched by himself. 
The Royal Society elected him a fellow. 
He died in 1749. 

CATHELINEAU, James, a French 
royaTist chief, almost the first who roused 
tlie Vendeans to insurrection, was born in 
1756, and was a weaver at Pin-en-Mauge, 
in the department of the Maine and Loire. 
In 1798, he incited the young men of the 
canton of St. Florent to resist by force the 
oonscription ; gained several victories over 
the republicans; was made generalissimo 
of the ro^lists ; but was at last mortally 
wounded m attacking Nantz, and died on 
the 10th of July. Cathelineau was brave 
and disinterested, and had such a reputa- 
tion for piety that he was called the Saint 
•f Anjon. 


CATHERINE 11. enpreM ti 1 
born in 1729, was a daughter of tht PriaM 

of A nhalt 2^bst, and was onginally i 
Sophia Aug|usta, but changed her name in 
1745, on bein^ married to Peter, the mnd 
duke of Russia. After her husband^s ac- 
cession to the throne, in 1761, he is said 
to have intended to divorce her. To pre- 
vent him from carrying his intentions into 
effect, he was first dethroned, and then 
murdered. Catherine was crowned at 
Moscow in 1762. In 1768 she engaged in 
a war with Turkey, which terminate sue- 
ceasfnlly in '1774. While this vras pro- . 
ceedinff, she concluded, in 1772, with the 
king of Prussia and the emperor of Gei^ 
many, the infamous partition treaty, by 
which the first bbw was given to the exist- 
ence of Poland. Still pursuing her scheme 
of expelling the Turks firom Europe, and 
reigning at Constantinople, she, in 1788, 
seized on the Crimea, and a part of the 
Kuban, and annexed them to her empire. 
In 1787, the Porte declared war against 
her, and hostilities were continued till 1792, 
when the dread of a coalition against her 
compelled her to consent to a peace. For 
her disappointment on the side of Turkey, 
however, she indemnified herself by dis- 
membering Poland, in the years 17vS and 
1795, in which latter year that unfortunate 
kingdom was annihilated. She was on the 
point of turning her arms against republi- 
can France, when she died, of apoplexy, 
on the 9th of November, 1796. In some 
respects the character of Catherine is open 
to severe censure; in others it is worthy 
o( admiration. Her animal passions she 
indulged in a manner which may be called 
shameless ; and her ^p'asping ambition was 
restrained by no feehngs of justice or com- 
punction. But, on the other hand, she was 
a mild and beneficent ruler of her subjects. 
She herself drew up a code of laws ; ame- 
liorated the various branches of the admin- 
istration; introduced many valuable im- 
firovements among the people ; patronised 
iteratore, arts, and sciences; and encour- 
aged education and the difiusion of knowl- 
edge. She corresponded with learned men 
in all countries ; and enrolled herself in the 


Uit oT waAkOn, by prodoeiiig seTeral Dra- 
matic Pieces, Tales, and other works. 

CATILINE, Lucius Seroius, aRo- 
man noble, descended from one of the first 

SRtrician families, was of the party of 
ylla, and through his influence obtained 
some high offices. Endowed with eminent 
ulents, ne waa also eminentlj^ vicious and 
profligate. In conjunction with others of 
nis own stamp, he formed a conspiracy to 
dcKtroy the consuls and senators, and as- 
sume the g[OTemment ; but it was frustrated 
by the vigilance of Cicero. Catiline then 
broke out into open rebellion, and was. at 
length slain, fighting with desperate bra- 
very, in a battle in Tuscany, B. c. 62. 

CATINAT, Nicholas, one of tlie most 
celebrated of the French generals, was born 
at Paris, in 1687. He was brought up to 
the bar, but relinquiflhed the gown, in con- 
sec^uenoe of his losing a just cause. En- 
tering the army, be distinguished himself 
on innumerable occasions, and was raised 
to the rank of lieutenant general in 1688. 
The victories of Stafiarda and Harsafflia 
over the duke of Savov gained for him 
the dignity of marshal; and that well 
earned dignity excited the envy and hatred 
of many of his unworthy rivals. In 1701, 
from causes over which he had no control, 
be was unsuccessful against Prince Eugene 
in Italy. He died in 1712. Catinat was 
as reromriiable for his virtues as for his 
military talents. He was disinterested, 
modest, sincere, and pious. 

CATO, Marcus Fortius, called the 
Cbosor, was a native of Tusculum, born 
B. c. 282. At the age of seventeen be 
served in the army, and displayed great 
vabur. Through the influence of Vafenus 
Flaccus, he was made a military tribune In 
Sicily, and he successively filled the stations 
of ousestor under Scipio, aedile, and pretor 
in Sardinia. He viras elected one of the 
consuls B. c. 195; and ten years subse- 
quently he was chosen censor. ^ The latter 
ofllce ne exercised with unsparing eereritv. 
He died b. c. 147. Carthace was the od- 
ject of his bitter hatred, andall his speech- 
es were closed with ** Carthage must be 
destroyed." Scipio was scarcely less an 
object of his hatred. Cato has been praised 
at least as much as he deserves. He had, 
undoubtedly, |^at qualities 'uid talentt; 
but he was vainglorious, by no means free 
from absurd prejudices, sometimes incon- 
sistent, and not quite so immaculate in his 
own conduct as a man ought to have been 
who was so ri|fid a iudge of the conduct of 
others. Of his wonis, only a Treatise on 
Husbandry is extant. 

C^O, Marcus Portius, known as 
OAto of Utica, was the great-crandson of 
the Censor, and was bom B. c. 95. At the 
early age of fourteen, he manifested his 
hati^ of tyrants, by desiring his tutor to 


give him a sword, that Iw mitht sl^. 
Sylla, and deliver his country from op- 
pression. From Antipater of Tyre he, im- 
bibed the stoical philosophy. He served 
with distinction a^piinst Spartacus; was 
tribune in Macedonia; fiUea the oflSce of 
quaestor with general applause; and was 
afterwards tribune and pnetor. He vigor- 
ously seconded Cicero, in defeating the 
conspiracy of Catiline. In the civil war, 
he gave his support to Pompey ; and, after 
the death of tnat aeneral, be fortified hi.m- 
self in Utica. Hopeless, however, of re- 
sistance, he stabbed himself on the approach 
of Caesar, B. c. 46. Before he struck the 
Gntal blow, which deprived liberty of one 
of its most ardent friends, he is said to 
have twice read Plato's Treatise on fh« 
Immortality of the Soul. 

CATROU, Francis, a Jesuit, cnJc, 
and historian, was bom at Paris, in 1659, 
and died in 1787. He contributed largely 
to the Trevoux Journal; transhited Virgil; 
and wrote a History of the Mof^l Empire, 
and a History of the Fanaticism or the 
Protestant Religions. But his groat work, 
which was translated into English by 
Bundy, is a History of Rome, 20 volumes 
quarto, with annotations by Ronill^.. 

CATS, James, a Dutch poet and states- 
man of a distinguished (amily, was bom, 
in 1577, at Brouwershaven, in Zealand. 
After having acouired great reputation as 
an advocate, he held various eminent offi- 
ces. He was twice sent ambassador to 
England, and, for fifteen years, filled the 
hij^h station of Pensionary of Holland. 
His last years were spent in the retirement 
which he k>ved. He died in 1660. CaU 
holds a considerable rank amonff die poets 
of his country, and has been cafled the La 
Fontaine of Holland. . 

CATULLUS, Caius Valerius, a 
Latin poet, was bora at Verona, or, accord- 
in|^ to others, at Sirmium, B. c. 86; was 
Ota family distin^isbed for rank and for- 
tune; and was intimate with the^ most 
eminent of his contemporaries. He is said 
to have died at the early age of thirty ; 
though some affirm that he lived ten or fif- 
teen years longer. His verses breathe the 
very seul of poetry ; and would be nearly 
fiuiltless, were they not often stained bj 
gross indecency. 

CAULAINCOURT, Arnand Auod«- 
Tiif Louis de, duke of Vicenxa, was of 
an ancient (amilv, and was bora at Caulain- 
court, in PicarcfV, in 1778. At the age of 
fifteen he entered the army, and served for 
several campaigns. He was aid-de-camp 
to the first consul, who, when he blecaine 
emperor, made him srand equerry, a supe- 
rior officer of the region of honour, and 
duke of Vicenza. Caukinoourt followed 
Napoleon in nearly all hu campaigns; biit 
was, nevertheles8,better known as a diplo> 

Digitized by v 


natfac^ titan m m warrior. After baTing 
beeo imnnted with minor miMtont, he 
resided for four years as ambassador at 
St. PetersUirgh. He was subsequently 
eropk>yed as a negotiator at Pleswitz, 
Prague, Frankfort, aind Chatillon, and in 
die treaty which led to the abdication of 
the emperor ; and he was minister for the 
home department during NapolM>n*8 second 
reign. The accusation that he participa- 
ted in the seizure of the duke of Engfaein 
appears to be groundless. He died at Paris,- 
in 1828. 

CAUSSIN, Nicholas, a Jesuit, bom 
at Troves, in 1568, was for a while conA»- 
sor to Louis XIII.; but was displaced in 
consMjuence of haviiM[ intrigued against 
Cardinal Richelieu. He diea at Paris in 
1651 . A number of devotional woriu were 
written by him, of which the principal is 
The Holy Court. It has been translated 
into several languages. Its popuhrity in- 
duced the wits to say, that C^ussin had 
managed matters better at The Holy Court 
than at the French court. 

CAVALCANTI, Gut, a Florentine 
poet and philosopher, the friend of Dante, 
WAS an active GnibcUine, and was, in con- 
sequence, banished by the GueUs ; but was 
permitted to return to Florence, Vhere he 
died in 1800. dvalcanti was one of the 
first Italian poets who paid attention to 
elegance of style. His Canzone on the 
nature of love is one of the best of his 

CAVALIER, JoHir, the son of a French 
peasant, and himself originally only a jour- 
neyman baker, was bom in a village of the 
CVvennes, .in 1679, and acquired histing 
fome as the leader of the Camisards, or 
protestants of Languedoc, when an attempt 
was made to exterminate them by Louis 
XIV. By his courage and talents, Cava- 
lier foiled all the efforts of Marshal Mon- 
trevel; and the successor of Montrevel, 
Marshal Villars, deemed it more eli^ble 
lo oonclode a treaty with the Cahrmist 
chief than to continue the contest. Cava- 
tier entered into the English service ; 
commanded a French refugee corps, at the 
battle' of Almanza; was appointed gover- 
nor of Jersey ; and died, at Chelsea, in 

ian ft iar, eminent as a mathematician, was 
bora at Milan, in 1506; was a pupil of 
Galileo; mid became professor of mathe- 
matics at Bologza; wlm« he died in 1647. 
He was die inventor of the Geometnr of 
Indivisibles, which approaches nearly to 
the Infinitesimal Calculus. He wrote a 
work on this subject, and others on Conic 
Sections and Trigonometry. 

CAVALLO, Tiberius, a native of Na- 
ples, the son of a physician, was bora in 
l740» and came over to Engkndj in 1771, 

CAV • M 

to be raitiated ra co mm er ce. Science, 
however, had more charms for \«im ; and 
to that he wholly and successiully devoted 
himself. The Royal Society admitted him 
one of its members, and be contributed 
largely to its Transactions. He is the 
author of various Treatises on Electricity, 
Magnetism, Gases, and Aerostation. 

CAVANILLE8, Amtbomt JosEFH,a 
Spanish botanist, was bora, at Valencia, 
in 1748; took orders; and was appointed 
preceptor to the duke of Iniantado's chil- . 
dren, whom he accompanied into France. 
He resided at Paris twelve years, and was , 
an intimate friend of Bernard de Jussien. * 
He died, in 1801, at Madrid, where he was 
director of the royal nrden. Of his works 
the principal are, a Description of Native 
and Foreign Plants, six volumes folio, with 
601 plates, designed and engraved by him 
self; and Observations on me Natural His 
tory. Agriculture, kc, of Valencia, two 
volumes folio. 

CAVE, Vif^iLLiJLH, a divine and ecclesi- 
astical historian, the son of a clerayman, 
was bora at Pickwell, in Leicestershire, in 
1687; was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge; and died in 1718, canon of 
Windsor, and vicar of Isleworth. His prin- 
cipal works are, Scriptorum Ecclesiastico- 
rum, two volumes folio ; Primitive Cliristi- 
anity; Anti(|uitatesApo«tolici; Apostolici; 
and Ecclesi&tftici. Dr. Cave paid such a 
blind deference to the authority of the early 
Christian fotbers and writers, that Jortia 
denominates bim ** the whitewasher of the 

CAVE, Edward, a native of War- 
wickshire, was born at Newton, in 1691, 
and educated at Rugby School. After luiv- 
ing been a clerk to a collector of the excise, 
he learned the trade of a printer, and oc- 
casionally wrote for the newspapers. He 
obtained the situation of clerk of the franks 
to the post office, but was dismissed in con-* 
sequence of his having too rigidly performed 
his du^. In 1781, he establisKed the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, the parent of modera 
periodicals, and had the nappiness to suc- 
ceed to the fullest extent of bb wishes. He 
died in 1764. 

CAVEDONE, jAMK8,an Italian paint- 
er, was bora at Sassuolo, near Modena, in 
1577, and died in 1660. The Caracci and 
Guido were his masters. In fresco lie par- 
ticularly excelled. In his latter days, a 
fidl from a scaffold, rrief for the loss of a 
beloved and taleatea son, and other cir- 
cumstances, almost extinguished his intel- 
lectual and pictorial powers: the umortu- 
aate artist became a begsar, and at length 
breathed -his last in a stable. 

CAVENDISH, Sir William, a native 
of Sufiblk, was bora about 1505, and be- 
came usher to Cardinal Wolsey, to whom, 
unlike some dependenu, he remained atf> 

■i OAX 

ladled aftarkiifcll. Henry Vm. knighted 
him» made him a P"^ coanaeUor, and 
€onjferred Tarioas omcee upon him. He 
was also in favotir with Edward VI. and 
Marj. He died in 1557. CaTendish wrote 
a Lite of Gardinal Wolaey. One of hb sc m 
van the firtt earl of DeTonshire. 

CAVENDISH, Thohjls, an English 
narigator, in the reign of Elimbeth, was 
a native crif Sofiblk, and inherited an estate 
at Trimley St. Martin, which he injured by 
livinc at court. To retrieve his fortune, he 
fitted out three ships, in July, 1586, with 
which he laid under contribution the west- 
em coast of America, and took a rich 
Spanish vessel. In September, 1568, he 
returned to England, naving effected a 
shorter circumnavigation of the globe than 
any previotis adventurer. In a second voy- 
age he was unsuccessful: he was baffled by 
tempests, sickness, and other circumrtan- 
oes, and died, in 1591, on the coast of 

CAVENDISH, Hknbt, the third son 
of Lord Oiarles Cavendish, was bom at 
Nice, October 10, 1731, and educated at 
Cambridge, where he entered deephr into 
the study of chemistry and natural philoso- 
phy. His whole life, after he quitted col- 
leips, was devoted to scientific inquiries, 
and his success was commensurate to his 
assiduity. In his tamper he was more than 
commonly reserved, and he took no part 
whatever in public affairs. He died Feb. 
14, 1810; leaving the immense fortune of 
£1,200,000. Cavendish, among other 
thin^, explained the theory of animal elec- 
tricity ; ascertained the levity of hydrogen 
gas ; discovered the composition ot water, 
and of nitrous acid ; improved the eudiom- 
eter; and invented an apparatus for deter- 
mining the densiw of the earth. 

CAVENDISH. See Deyonshire 
and Newcastle. 

CAWTHORN, James, a poet, was 
bom at Sheffield, in 1719; was educated 
at Cambridge; took orders; and became 
master of Tunbridge School. He died, by 
a b,\\ from his horse, in 1761., His Po- 
ems, which have been admitted into the 
collection of British Poe*^,*are above me- 
diocrity. \ 

CAaTON, William, a man worthy to 
be held in immortal memory, as the first 
who ffave to England the means for the 
difihsion of knowledge, was bom in the 
weald of Kent, about 1410. Having been 
bron(riit up a mercer, he was employed by 
the Mercers' Company as their agent in thte 
Netherlands; a situation which he filled 
durinc twenty-three years. He also nej^o- 
tiated a commercial treaty betin^en Ed- 
ward IV. and the duke of Burgundy, and 
was subsequently in the service of Lady 
Margaret, the duke's wife. He had learned 
«ha a.'t of printing, and, at the' request of 


die dodiev, be traashoed The Reeovel off 
the Historyes of Trove, fh>m the Frenek. 
and printed H, in 1471, at Cologne. This 
is the earliest typographical prmiuction ia 
English, and is now so scarce that, at the 
Roxburgh aale, a copy of it sold for jClOCM^. 
He retmned to England, but in what year 
is uncertain. It must, however, have been ' 
previous to 1474, as he then had a press in 
Westminster Abbey. The first book exe> 
cuted in this country, was the Game and 
Playe of the Chesse. Caxton continued 
his labours for nearly twenty years, and ia 
supposed to have died about 1492. 

CAYLUS, Anne Claude Philip, 
Count de, was bom at Paris in 1720, and 
served with distinction in Catalonia and 
Germany, after which he travelled throu^ 
Turkey, Greece, and Asia Minoi. and, 
lastly, in Germany, Holland, and En^4and 
The remainder of his life was spent in the 
study of antiquities, and in the cultivation 
of literature and the arts. His talenta 
gained admission for him into numerous 
kamed bodies. He died, at Paris, in 
1765. He rediscovered the ancient art of 
encaustic painting, and published srverac 
works, of which the principal are, A Col- 
lection of E^-ptiaa, Greek, Roman, and 
Gaulish Antiouities, seven 'Glumes 4to; 
and twelve volumes of hb Romances and 
miscellaneous pieces. 

CAZALES, James Anthony Maria 
DE, one of the most eloc^uent of modem 
French orators, was bom, in 1752, at Gre* 
nade sur la Garonne ; and served for some 
time as a captain of cavalry. In the States 
Geteral, ana in the National Assembly, ho 
was one of the most active and most highly 
gifted of the defenders of the monarchy. 
The talent of extempore speaking he pos- 
sessed in an extraorainary degree ; and in 
eloquence he was the rival of MiraJbeau. 
After having twice emigrated, and fought 
in the campaign of 17S^, he returned to 
France in 1801, and died in 1805. In 
private life he was one of the most hon- 
ourable and amiable of men. By Burke 
he was held in high estimation. 

CAZOTTE, James, a French literary 
character, was bom, in 1720, at Dijon; 
was * appointed a naval commissioner in 
1747; and retired in 1700. The hours of 
his lebure were devoted to literature and 
society, and he was mudi admired for his 
wit, gaiety, and conversational powers. 
During the horrible massacres of Septem* 
ber, 1792, at tlie abbey prison, be was 
saved by the heroism of bis daughter ; but 
he was guillotined soon after. He b the 
author of Olivier, a poem in twelve cantos, 
and of several volumes of tales and miscel- 
laneous pieces, of considerable merit. 

CEBES, a philosopher of the foarth 
century, B. c, was a native of 'H^ebes, and 
a disciple of Socrates, at whon V|ft mo» 

mmB0» hB w— pw w tn . OfkuworiUyonlT 
tfnt kaown by tlie hum of the Picture of 
UoBMii Life has deecended to potterity. 
It 18 a prodttction which doee honour to its 
author. Some have doubted the claiin of 
Cebes to it; but their doobta appear to be 

CECIL, William. See Salisbury. 

CKLLARIU8, Christopher, an eru- 
dite writer, bom, in 1688, at Smalcakle,iB 
Fraaconia, was choeen, in 1068, professor 
of ethics and oriental lancuagee at Weis- 
■eofek; and died, in 1707, professor of 
riietoric and history at Halle. He publish- 
ed editions of several classics; and Tlurioos 
works on history, and the Latin, Hebrew, 
and Syriac lan^uafes. ^ The production, 
however, by which he is remembered, is 
an Ancient Geography, in two ouarto vol- 
nnes, with mops, wnich has oeen more 
than once reprinted. 

CELLINI, Bf NTKNUTO, a celebrated 
scalptor, enfrava*, and goldsmith, was bom 
at Florence in 1500, and was apprenticed 
to a goldsmith. He was employea by Pope 
Clement VII., the grand duke of Florence, 
and Francis I. the French monarch; and 
executed many admirable works. He died 
in 1570, in his native city. Cellini was a 
man of high talent and acquirements; but 
vain, singular in manner, irascible, and 

rtrrelsome. He wrote two Treatises on 
arts in which he excelled. His most 
valuable literary ^production, however, is a 
Biomphy of himself. If Cellini ipay be 
credited, he fired the shot by which the 
constable de Bourbon was slain. 

CELSIUS, Ola us, a Swedish orien- 
talist and. natsralist, was bom in 1670, and 
died in 1756. He was the founder of natu- 
ral history in Sweden, and has the merit 
of having extended the most liberal {Mitron- 
a2e to Linnaras, when that distinguished 
character was young 'and poor. Celsius 
twice refused the archbishopric of Upsal. 
Besides Tarious theolo^cal and antiquarian 
dissertations, he published, with the title 
of Uiarobotanioon, a learned work on the 
plants mentioned in the Bible. 

CELSUS, AuRELius Cornelius, a 
celebrated Roman physician of the Corneli- 
an femily, who lived under the reigns of Au- 
gustus, Tiberius, and Caligula, was born 
eil^r at Rome or Verona. He wrote va- 
riooB works, but his Treatise on Medicine, 
in ei^ books, of which the styl^ is ex- 
tremdly elegant, is his chief production. 
Celsos has been denominated the Roman 
Hi ppo cmtes. 

i^LSUS, an Epicurean philosopher of 
the second century, is femoos for having 
been one of the most inveterate and acute 
Msailnnti of the Christian religion. His 
woik» called A True Discourse, is lost; 
ae fragmenls which remain bear 
I to tha takat H dispkyad. It v 


aaswared by Orim. Celsos was a HeM 
of Locian, who dedicated to him his Psra 
domantis. " 

CENSORINUS, a critic and gramma* 
rian, who lived in the third century, is the 
author of a work, written about A. D. 288, 
to which he gave the name of De Die 
Natalio, in consequence of his having com- 
posed it on occasion of the birthday of a 
nriend. It treats on the natural history of 
man, religious rites, music, astronomy, and 
various o€ber matters; and has bm of 
great use in enaUing chronologers to fix 
the date cf remarkable events. 

CENTLIVRE, Susahna, a dramatic 
writer, was bora about 1667, in "relaad, 
where her fether, Mr. Freeman, a LincoliH 
shire gentleman, and a partisan of the 
Commonwealth, had deemed it prudent to 
settle, on the restoration of Charles II. 
At the ace of twelve years, she was left an 
orphan, by the death of ber mother. Un- 
kind treatment firom those who had the 
care of her induced her to^Adopt the wild 
resohition of proceeding to London. While 
travelling hither on loot, she is said to 
have met with Anthony Hammond, fether 
to thh author of the Love Elegies, who 
gained lier affection, and induced her to 
accomj^ny him to Cambridjj^, and Hve 
with him for some months, disguised as a 
boy. When onlv sixteen, she married a 
nephew of Sir Stephen Fox. He died in 
little more than twelve months, and she 
became the wife of an officer named Car^ 
rol, who^ at the end of eighteen months, 
was killed in a duel. Distress drove her 
to virrite for the stage, and, in 1700, she 
produced a tragedy, called the Perjured 
Husband. This pky she followed up by 
several comedies, many of which were 
successful. Hor dramatic pieces are nine 
teen in number. Some of them, among 
which are. The Busy Body, The Wonder, 
and A Boki Stroke for a Wife, still keep 
possession of the sta^e. For a while she 
was an actress, and, m this capacity, she 
captivated her last husband, Mr. Centlivre, 
yeoman of the mouth to Queen Anne. She 
died in 1728. As a dramatist, she excels 
in plot, incideni, and character; her dia- 
logue, though by no means contemptible, is 
otan inferior order, and it partakes of the 
licentiousness which stainea the theatrical 
productions of that period. 

Jesuit, dramatist, and poet, was bom at 
Paris, in 1676, and was accidentally shot, 
in 1780, by the prince of Conti, to whom 
he was tutor. He produced a volume of 
Latin poems, and another of French; se- 
veral comedies, one of the best of which 
is the Inconveniences of Greatness; and 
various prose works. _, 

CERDA, Donna BerrardaFrrrri. 
RA DS LA, a Fo fftagn es e lady of motm^ 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

Mi dSR 

■Km taknto, wm boni at Oporto, in tlie 
beginning of the eeventeentb century, nod 
di^ about 1650. She produced several 
poenu and comedies of great merit ; was 
the best musician of the age ; played upon 
all kinds of instmments; spoke several 
languages; and was Tersed in rhetoric, 
maUiematics, and philosophy. Philip III. 
of Spain invited her to his court, to initi- 
ate his sons, Charles and Ferdinand, into 
Latin literature. 

CERINI, JosEFH, an Italian poet, bom 
in 1788, at Solferino, in the duchy of Man- 
tna, was brought np to the bar. Having 
■larried' a portionless female, his (wrenu 
discontinued a small pension, on which he 
had subsisted. He removed to Milan, and, 
after suffering much misery, he died in 
.1T79, at a period when fortune viras begin- 
ning to smile upon him. He is author of 
the successful comedies of Clary, and the 
Bad Mother- in-Law; and of a rolume of 
elennt Anacreontic poems. 

CERINTHUS, an heresiarch of the first 
century, was born at Antioch, of a Jewish 
family, and studied at Alexandria. He is 
fa id to have been a disciple of Simon 
Magus. He taught yarions neterodox doc- 
trines, among which was, that Jesus was 
a mere man, on whom Christ, the Son of 
God, descended at the period of baptism, 
and tliat, at the crucifixion, Jesus alone 
suffered, Christ quitting his body, and re- 
turning to his Father in heaTen. 

CERRETTI, Louis, a native of Mo- 
dena, bom in 1788, filled the offices of 
secretary, and ailerwards of professor of 
hbtory and eloquence, at the university of 
Padua. Having been employed under tlie 
Cisalpine repabiic, he was compelled to 

Sin 1799. In 1801, however, he retura- 
. He died in 1808. His Lyric Poems 

•oe of the most distinguished literary cha- 
racters of Spain, was bora at Alcala de 
Henares, in 1547, of a good bat not rich 
fiMBily, and was well educated. At an 
early age be bagan to sacrifica to the Mo- 
ans. In 1609 he visited Italy, and became 
pi§» to Oardiaal Aqoaviva. The hope of 


glory, kowefer, and perhapa of . 
fed him to serve as a volunteer under Mafll 
Anthony Colonna, duke of Paliano^ wbo 
commanded the pope*s galleys. He fought 
bravely at the battfe of Lepanto, and re- 
ceived a wound in his left arm, which 
crippled him for life. NotwfthBtanding 
his lameness he continued in the service 
till 1575, when, as he was retnming to 
Spain, he was tidten (Nrisoper by an .^Jffe- 
rine corsair. At Algiers he oontinoca a 
captiveVor six years, during which period 
he distinsnished himself by his indomitable 
courage, nis daring plans to briag about 
an insurrection, and his magnanimity ia 
taking on himself the whofe responsibility 
when nis schemes were discovered. Bet- 
ing at fength ransomed, he ivtumed to 
Spain in 1661. In 1584, he published his 
Galatea, and married Donna Catalina Sa- 
lazar. Of the snbeeqoent life of Cervaales 
the memorials are but scanty. We know 
little more than that he seems to have reli- 
ed upon his pen for subsistence; that ha 
obtained the patronage, such as it waa, 
of the Count de Lemos; that he suffered 
much from poverty, adversity, and the ha- 
tred of rivaJs; and that he was even in- 
prisoned for debt. Yet it would appear 
that he was once in good circumstances ; 
for, in the Journey to Panmssus, ApoUo 
upbraids him with naving ruined his for- 
tune by want of economy. Cervantes died 
at Madrid, on the 2Sd of April, 1617. 
Among hie works are aboot thiiihr dramaa ; 
twelve Tafes; a poem, in eight cantoe, 
called A Journey to Parnassus; and the 
romance of Persiles and Sigismnnda, which 
was his last production, and poUislied 

Eithumously. But these are all eclipsed 
that masterpiece of Spanish literature, 
n Quixote. The first part of this waa 
given* to the world in 1605. The coocln- 
sion was delayed for ten years. In the 
mean wliife a writer, undc^ the name of 
Avellenada, not only published 

Avellenada, not only published a second 
part, but also heaped abuse upon the orig- 
inal autlior. Of this surreptitious tequM, 
though it is ^t utterly contemptibfe, we 
may say what* critic once said of a simi- 
lar attempt to carry on the Sentiasental 
Journ^, that ** it is much such a continua- 
tion of^the genuine work as the dead wall 
in Pimlico is of Buckingham House." 
Don Quixote, as a bioarapher of Cer- 
vantes has justly remarked, had no model, 
and still remains without a rival; and 
though manners have changed, and other 
follies have succeeded to those which the 
writer wished to destroy, the hero of La 
Mancha still interests men of all cooatriiMy 
of all ranks, and of all ages. 

CESAROTTI, Mblchior, a vohnaia. 
ons and eminent Italian author, was bom 
at Padua in 1780; was iNrofesaor of rhelo* 
ric thare» U the ago^ wMtatOt mad mh» 

Digitized by V3OC 


admirra and pensioned by Napoleon , and 
died, at bis native plaee, in 1808. His 
woAb, including translations, amount to 
fortv-two Yolomer ; he prodac»Bd versions 
of Homer, Dcdoaoetbenes, Juvenal, and Oe- 
man ; a Course of Greek Literature ; and 
various original compositions, both in verse 
and prose. 

CESSART, Louis Alexander de, 
a civil engineer, was bom at Paris, in 
1719; and was originally an officer ifl the 
arny. Ill health, Mwever, obliged him to 
quit thd military service, and he then studi- 
ed civil engineering, and at length became 
ingpeetor-general of roads and bridges. 
Among his works are the bridge at 8au- 
mar, and the quay at Rouen. But the in- 
▼enftiea of the cones to form the harbour of 
Cherbourg is considered as his greatest 
effort of talent. He died in 1806. 

CEZELLI, CoNSTJLKCE, a heroine of 
the sixteenth century, was a native of 
if OBtpellier. In 1600, her husband, Barri 
de 8t. Annex, who was governor of Leu- 
eate, for Henry IV., fell into the hands of 
the Spaniards. They threatened Constance 
that they would put him to death, if she 
did not surrender the fortress. She re- 
Ibsed, but ofiered all her property to ran- 
eo« him. After Imving been foiled in two 
aasaolts, the Spaniards raised the siege, 
but barbarously murdered their prisoner. 
CoDstanee magnanimously prevented her 
garrison from retaliating upon a Spanish 
officer of rank. As a reward for her pa- 
triotism, Henry IV. allowed her to retain 
the government of Leucate till her son came 

CHALBfERS, Oeoroe, a native of 
Scotland, was born in 1744; vras educated 
at Aberdeen; and settled in America as a 
barrister; but returned to England wlien 
the eolonies assumed independence. He 
. was for many years Chief Clerk of the 
Boafd of Trade; and died in January, 
1826. His productions, in antiquities, 
critieisffi, biography, and political econo- 
my, are very numerous. Among them is 
Csfedonia, or a Topographical History of 
North Britain, 8 vols. 4to. ; an Estimate 
of the Comparative Strength of Great 
Britain ; ana an Apology for the Believers 
in the Shakspeare Papers. His works 
dtspby considerable resrarch ; but his style 
is heavy and monotonous. 

CHALONER, Sir Thomas, a states- 
nan, soldier, and writer, was born in Lon- 
don, about 1515; was in the expedition 
of Charles V. to Algiers, and narrowly 
escaped drowning; fought at the battle of 
Musselburgh, and was luiighted; was sub- 
sequently ambassador to Germany and 
Spain; and died in 1565. His principal 
worit is, Ob the ri^torderhig of the Eng- 



CHALONER, Sir Thomas, a sob of 
the above, was bom in 1550; received an 
excellent education ; and improved himvelf 
by travelling in foreign countries. In 1501 
he was knignted. He discovered, on his 
estate near Gisborough.the first aium mine 
that was worked in Great Britian. Under 
pretence, however, that it was a mine 
royal, he was deprived of it by the crown ; 
but the Long ParliamenHrestored it to his 
sons. He died in 160S. H^ is the author 
of a tract on the Virtue of Nitre. 

CHAMBERLAYNE, Edward, was 
born at Odington, in Gloucestershire, in 
1616 ; educated at Oxford ; became a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society, and tdlor to the 
duke of Grafton and Prince George of 
Denmark ; and died in 1703. He wrote 
and transited various works, now all for- 

fotten, of which The Present State of 
England was the ntost popular. Yet, such 
an overweening opinion had he of his own 
literary merits, that he directed some of 
his puolications to be covered with wax, 
and buried with him to benefit posterity! 

CHAMBERLEN, Hugh, a physician 
and man-midwife, was bom in 1664; edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge; and 
died in 1728. He transited Mauriceau's 
Treatise on Midwifery ; and invented an 
improved kind of forceps for assisting 

-CHAMBERS, Ephbaim, the compiler 
of a well known dictionary of arts and 
sciences, was born at MiUon, in Wert- 
morekind; educated at Kendal School; 
and afterwards apprenticed to Senex, the 
mathematical iattrument and globe maker. 
While he was in the service of Senex, 
Chambers projected his Dictionary, and 
some of the articles were written behind 
the counter. It came forth in 1728, in 
two folio volumes, and the next year he 
was chosen a member of the Royal Society 
Five editions of hisVork appeared in the 
course of eifffateen years. He translated 
the Jesuit's Perspective from the French ; 
and joined with Martyn in translating and 
abridging the Memoirs of the Royal Acade- 
my at Paris. He died in 1740. It is not, 
as some have supposed, to Chambers that 
we are indebted for the first Cyclopedia; 
but to Dr. John Harris, who publisned his 
Lexicon Technictnn in 1708. 

CHAMBERS, Sir William, an archi- 
tect, bom at Stockholm, but descended 
fivm a Scotch fomily, vras brought to 
England when two years old, and was edu- 
cated at Rippon. After having visited 
China, as supercacro of a Swedish vessel, 
he settled in London, as a draughtsman ; 
became, through the ii.Cerest of Lord Bute, 
architectural drawing master to George 
III. ; and was subsequeaJy appointed royal 
architect and surveyor several of the board 
of works. Lord BeirtKMeagii's villa at 

Digitize'd by V^OOglC 



I WM hif first watk of inport- 
mnce. lo laying out the roj'al wardens at 
Kew, his introcniction of the Chinese style 
exposed him to the panzent ridicule of Uie 
author of the celebrated Heroic Epistle to 
Sir William Chambers. In 1775, the 
building of Somerset House w-as intrusted 
to him; and, with all its faults, the struc* 
tore does honour to his talents. He died 
in 1796. Sir William, who was a Swedish 
kni^t, and m member of the Royal and 
Antiquarian Societies, is the author of 
Tarious professional works, the piocipal 
of which is A Treatise on Civil Archi- 

CaiAMFORT, Skbastian Roche 
Nicholas, a French writer, the natural 
fob of an unknown father, was bom in 
1741, near Clermont, in Auvergne. He 
was educated at Grassin's College, at Paris, 
where he gained several prizes. He ap- 
plied to literature for his subsistence, and 
soon acquired considerable reputation. In 
1781 Chamfort was admitted a member of 
the French Academy, on the death of St. 
Palaye. His principal titles to this honour 
were hit Eulosy on La Fontaine, comedy 
of the Young fodian, and tragedy of Mus- 
tapha and Zeangir. The latter also ob- 
tained for him the place of secretary to the 
Prince of Cond^. Chamfort espoused the 
cause of the revohition, and fell a victim 
to it. After having been once imprisoned 
and released, he put an end to his exist- 
ence, in April, 1794, on being a second 
Millie arrested. His works have been col- 
lected in four volumes 8vo. 

CHAMPAGNE, Philip de, a painter 
of the Flemish school, was bom at Bras- 
sels, in 1602, and, after having acquired 
the rudiments <^ his art, completed his 
studies at Paris, under Poussin. He died 
in 1674. Champagne was indefatij 
active; had a woncfesful readiness of exe- 
cution; and possessed talents of a hii 
order. Among his best mctilres are, Tl 
Nuns; the Vow of Louis AlII. ; a Lord's 
Supper; and a Magdalen at the Feet of 

CHAMPE, John, a soldier in the 
American revolution, was bora in Loudon 
county, Virginia. In the year 1776 he 
was appointed a sergeant-major in Lee's 
r«g:iment of cavalry, and after the discovery 
ef^ Amo1d*s treason was employed by 
Washin^on in a service of much danger 
and diflKulty ; this was, to visit the British 
army as a deserter, in order to ascertain 
if anv other American officers were eo- 
|aged in that conspifecy, and to secure 
if possible the oerson of Arnold. Tn the 
kttter object of his enterprise he unibrtu- 
■lately fiuled, but he effected his own es- 
cape in safety, and returned to his com- 
paaioDs. Washington treated him mnnifi- 
^ ■MM lj f r Midprmi H e d him with hii diichargt 


I firom further service, lest, in the ridnttMhi 
of vrar, he should fall into the hands of tb« 
enemy, and perish upon a gibbet. He died 
in Kentucky about flie year 1797. 

CHAMPLAIN, Samuel, a Fiench 
naval officer, was bom in the sixteenth 
'century, at Brouage, in the province of 
Saintonge. He pursued, in 1608, the dis- 
coveries of Cartier in Canada, and was 
governor of the province firom 1608 to 168d, 
in yhich latter year he died. To his ex- 
ertions France was indebted for the estab- 
lishment of the colony. Quebec was 
founded by him, and one of the American 
lakes stHl bears his name. 

CHANCELLOR, Richard, an Eng- 
lish navigator, accompanied Sir Huni 
WiUoughbjr, in 1553, in one of the vessels 
which was fitted out to seek a north-east 
passage to the East Indies. Chancellor 
was separated from Willoughbv by tem- 
pests, and discovered the White Sea 
Hearing of his arrival, the Russian grand 
duke invited him to Moscow, and there 
Chancellor succeeded in laying the founda- 
tion of the commercial intercourse between 
England and Russia. AfWr having nmdo 
two subsequent voya^ to Archangel, ha 
was unfortunately shipwrecked in a third, 
towards the end of the year 1556. 

CHANDLER, Edward, a native of 
Dublin, was educated at Cambridge; be- 
came bishop of Litchfield in 1717, and of 
Durham in 1730; and died in 1750. Her 
is the author of A Defence of Christianity, 
in answer to Collms; A Vindication of 
the Defence; Ei^ht Sermons; and some 
productions of mmor consequence. 

CHANDLER, Samuel, a dissenter, of 
great talents, was bora at Malmesburv in 
1693, and completed his studies at Leyoen. 
After having been minister to a congrega- 
tion at Peckham, during which period he 
was also a bookseller, he was chosen lec* 
turer at the Old Jewiy, and, about 1726, 
pastor at the latter place: this last office 
ne held during fort^ years. In 1748, the 
universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow 
ffave him the degree of D. D. He died in 
1766. Dr. Chandler is the author of nu 
merous works ; amonff which are. Sermons 
in 4 volumes; A Review of Annettes His* 
tory of David; A Critical History of 
David; and a Vindication of the Christian 
Religion. Dr. Chandler possessed exten* 
sive influence amone the dissenters, and 
was highly respected by the clergy of the 
established church. 

CHANDLER, BichaUd a divine and 
antiquary, was bom in 1788 received his 
education and doctor's degree ai Oxford; 
travelled, in 176< dirougti Asia Minor 
and Greece, at the expense of die Dille> 
tanti Society, and died, in 1810, at hia 
living of Tildiurst, in Berkshire. He m 
the andior, ainong otfmr wgrki » of lUr> 

Vkatelrlnibiilflaor; TkmT«ltiii(jr«eMS 
Mid tl» HblOTy of Qiutt. 

CHANDOS^ Ji«a«, so Engttrii warrior, 
of the fiNUteenlh century, duUn^itbed 
hintelf grMtly, on mmmo«B oecasioiui, in 
France; narticnltrly at tbe battlo of A»* 
ray, in lw4, in wlucb lie took priaoner 
Ae cdebfated Bectmnd da Onetdin. In 
1866, bo gained eqoal JMMMr at tha batde 
of Najara, aaainit Henry of TransCniMwe. 
He WM killed, in iai», at dn bridge of 
Ircanwr, near Poitiers. Cbandoe waa ad^ 
wired and esteemed, eran by the Freacfa, 
ftr bis generosity and moderation^ and as 
n general be was seeood in &nie only lo 
«M Black Prince. 

CHAPELAIN, JoBir, n Frendi poet, 
was bom at Paris, in 1695. After having 
been tntor to tbe children of a nobleman, 
aaid afterwards his steward, he obtained 
patronage of Cardinal Richdieu. Hb 
oobted leaning, the influence which be 

I, andsoBM minor poems, 
lum fi»r a wbib **the oracle of all writers, 
and eapecinUy of all poets." He was, in^' 
d^ed, oottsidered as at the head of French 
Hterature. The publication of hb Puoelle, 
a poem on the sabject of the Kaid of 
Oneans, the composition of which had 
oeoopied thirty years of hb life, at once 
deso^ryed hb reputation. It was covered 
with ridicuie by Boilean, and the other 
aatirical wits of the age. Chapefaun died 
in 1674. Though avaricious in the high- 
est degree, he was a kind, disintorested. 

CHAPELLE, Clauds Emanukl Lu- 
UXiXB, was born in 1626, at La CfaapeUe, 
near Parb, and nnndwred Crassendi among 
hb preoqitors. He was btimate with aU 
the eminent literary eharacters of the 
period, and was madi admired for his 
eonvirial qualities, hb wit, and hb verses. 
He died- in 1666. Besides hb poems, he 
wrote, in oonjnnction with Bachaumont, 
tbe sprightly Journey to Hdntpelter, which 
Tohaire jatly docribes as a masterpieee 
of its kind. 

CHAPMAN, GxoROE, one of the ear- 
liest poetical timnsbtors, was bom in Kent, 
in IW; was edacated at Trinity College, 
Oxferd; and died in 1634. He was ioti- 
male witb Shakspeste, Ben Joneon, Marat 
Ion, Spoicer, ana otbm of his cebbrated 
cooieaaporanes. He b the author of several 
dramatic pieces. The first seven books of 
hb version of the Iliad appeared in 1606; 
the renminder was completed four or five 
years afterwards; and the Odyssey was 
poblished in 1614. He abo translated the 
Battfe of the Frogs and Mice; and tbe 
woiks of Hesiod tatd Mosseus. 

OHAPONC, Hbstbr, was the daugh- 
tHT of a Mr. Mnlao, of TwyweO, in Nortkr 
" I and waa bom at thai pboa* 

ianflT. Whmi oalgr aiaa jwm oM, nht 
b said to have wrtttea a roanaee. Har 
mother, however* who seams to hams been 
aetaated by )eaJea^ of her daagfater's 
talents, emleavoured to obstruct her stad* 
ies. Hester Mubo, nevertheless, succeeded 
in floaking herself mbtrem of Italian and 
French. The story of Fidelia, in the 
Advantnrer, an Ode to Peace, and some 
verses prefixed to her friend Miw Carlsr?s 
Eipictetns, vrere among ber earliest printed 
eabrts. In 1760sbe married Mr. Chapone, 
but be was saatched from htr bv death in 
bsB than ten sMdtbs. In ITNksbe accom- 
panied Mrs. Montague oa a tour in Soot* 
bnd; in 1T78 she published her Letters 
on the Improvement of tbe Mind; and 
in 1775, her Miscellanies in Psoso aad 
Verse. After having ^livcd haapily for 
many vears in the society of <tliose wba 
loved her, her latter days were heavify 
overclouded by tbe loss of friends and relai* 
tions, by impaired intelbct, and by bodilf 
debility. Sbe died at Hadby, near Bar* 
net, December 25, 180L Her verses are 
ebgant, and ber prose writinga are puns 
in styb and fraognt with good nenso' aad 
sound morality. 

French asdronomer and^ n ' 
was bom at«Maoriac„ in 

>ly, and ws 
up to the church. Mathesuitios, 
nomy, and designing, wera earb. and sue^ 

id objects of his M«dy*» Jji 1766 he 
succeeded Lalande as asnataatastronoaser* 
aiid in the following year the Royal Acad- * 
emy, of which be was a meadbelv sent hint 
to Tobolsk, in Siberia,- to observe tba 
transit of Venus over the sun's disk* Oa 
his return, he published hb . Traveb ift 
Siberia, in two vob* 4to. Hb account of 
the Russians was so imfevowabb, that the 
Empress Catherine was pmi^oked «d writ^ 
a refutation nd it* Chappe d'Aaterocbe 
died in CalefiMmia, in 1761, which eeantr^ 
be had visitad to oboerve another transit 
of Venus* Hb Veyaga was published 
after his death. 

CHAPPE, Claddb, a nephew of tba 
astrooomsr, bom in 1768, at Brakm, ia 
Maine,, was the persoa who first brouabt 
the telegraph to perfection in Fcanoe. Ha 
drowned bims9lt»,in 1805, in: A. fit of in- 
sanitT, brouj^t on by the perpetual attempts 
which ab nvab were making to depr^bla 
hb- merit as an inventor. 

CHARDIN, Sir John, a cebbrated 
tmveller, was the ison of a Jewelbr, aad 
was bom at Parb, in 1648. He journeyed 
twice into Persb and the East Indbs, and 
each time spent several years there* la 
1681 be settled in Eugbnd, where he was 
knighted, married, and published his Trav« 
eb. He died at Chbwbk, in 1718. Hm 
Travab, the bast edition of whkb b thai 

Digitized by V^OOglC 


liy Lnglai, m ttn Tob. 8to. ara of Jupk 
▼Mne. QnrdiD abo wroCa an Aoooant of 
th0 CoTOMtkHvof SoliBaa II. of Penia; 
ObMrnUioM on Puaaget of the Scripture 
explained by Eaetern Customs (the MS. 
of which was lost for many years) ; and 
contribated to the Philosophical Transac- 

CHARES, a Greek statoary, bom at 
Lindas, was a popil of Lysippns, and 
floorisbed ebont the I21st Olympiad. He 
is said to have made the fiunous Colossus 
of Rhodes. Pliny abo ascribes to him a 
fine colossal head, which was pkoed in the 
Cbpitol by the consul P. Lentuhis. 

Fravcis Athahasius, one of the most 
celebrated of the French royalist chiefs, 
was bom in 1768, near Anoeois, in Bri- 
taan^, and was brought op to the naral 
senrice. In March, 1798, the insurgent 
peasants of Lower Britanny chose him as 
their leader, and he justified their choice 
by his ffalhntnr in numberless combats 
Mainat the republicans. In 1796, be con- 
cnided a treaty ; which, howcTer, he broke 
before the close of the year. He was 
taken prisoner, and shot, in March, 1796. 
Charette was brave, enterprising, active, 
and p ossessed of considerable talents; but 
he was sanguinary, and his inordinate am- 
bition was exceedingly prejudicial to the 
royal cause by inducing nim to intrigue for 
the supreiae command, and to refose to co- 
operate with the other Vendean chie& on 
many important occasions. 
taiperor of the west, and kinff of France, 
was bom, in 742, at the casUe of Saltz- 
burir, in Upper Bavaria, and was the son 
of Pepin toe Short, and the j^randson of 
Charles Martel. In conjunction with his 
brother Carloman, he succeeded to the 
crown in 768, and became sole monarch, 
by the death of his brother, in 771. He 
was crowned emperor in 800. He over 
threw the kingdom of the Lombards; re- 
daeed the Saxons to obedienca, after a 
galluit strug^ on their part; and made 
an irruption in^ Spain, which was at first 
soocesstttl, but at the close of which his 
rear-coard was rontM by the Gascons, at 
the faoioas battle of Roncesvalles. He 
died at Aix la Chapelle, his capital, in 
^ 614. Charlemagne was brave; endowed 
* with grsat talents for war and for govera- 
nent; encowaged commerce; and patron- 
ised litflratnre and the arts; but his virtues 
wera deepW shaded by foults, especially by 
the shaa»elnl barbari^ which he exercised 
upon the vaoqoisfaed Saxons. His Capitu- 
laries, or Laws, ware chiefly issued in 
886aiid 806; and ware collect, in 828, 
byAnsegise, abbot of St WaadriUe, and 

., deaeo n of Meats. 



FIELD, earl of, was bora la DiMa, m 
1728. After having travelled, for sosM 
vears, in France, Italy, Chreeoe, and Asia 
Minor, be returned to his native country, 
and, in 1768, was created earl of Cbarle- 
Hiont. From that period till his decease 
he took an active sjid enlightened part ia 
politics, and was acquaint^ with, and es- 
teemed by, Burke, Flood, and manv other 
eminent characters. He commanded the 
Irish volunteers; and this delicate tadt he 
performed with^ no common share of pra- 
dence and dignity. Lord Chariemoat was 
fond of and socoessftdly cnhivated htera* 
ture ; and to him Ireland is mainly indebt- 
ed for the establishment of the Royal Irish 
Academy. Of that^ institution he was 
annually chosen president. He died ia 

CHARLES MARTEL, a natural soo 
of Pepb d'Heristal, succeeded in obtain- 
ing the dukedom of Aostrasia, after the 
death of his father. IJnder the title of 
mayor of the palace, he was, in foot, sove- 
reign of France for more than twenty4iva 
vears, during the nominal reigns of the 
last of the fiterovingians. He repeatedly 
vanquished the Suevians, Frisons, All^ 
mans, and Saxons. But his most splendid 
exploit was his overthrow of the Saracens 
at the terrible battle of Poitiers, by whi^ 
he probablv saved Europe from the infidel 
yoke. The surname of Martel, or the 
Hammer, he acquired by this victory. Ha 
died in 741, at Quercy sur Oise*. 

CHARLES Xlf . king of Sweden, waa 
born at. Stockholm, June 26, 1682, aad 
succeeded his father in 1697. In his earli* 
est years he ^ve indications of that iado 
mitable spirit whidi became the terror of 
his foes. Availing themselves of the oppor ■ 
tunity which they supposed to be aftbrdaa 
by bis youth, the czar, and the kiii|^ of 
Denmark and Sweden, formed an alliance 
against him. . Charles, however, attackec 
I^nmark with the rapidity of lightning^- 
and coinpelled her sovereign to sue for 
peace. Russia next folt the force of his 
arms. He landed in Livonia, and (Nov. 90, 
1700), with about eight thousand Swedes, 
Mtter^ routed eighty thousand Rueaiam 
who arere intrenched under the walls of 
Narva. In the two following campaigns 
he expelled Augustus king of Poland, and 
raised Stanislaiis to the tarone. The de* 
posed monarch he pursued into Saxonj^ 
and forced to sign a treaty. He now ra* 
solved to achieve the conquest of Rueeia 
and for that puroose directed bis nurah 
upoa Moscow. But, after havinff obtainad 
Miecesses, he was entirely oefeatad at 
tttle of Pultowa, on the 27th of Ju y, 
1709. Charles sought refuge in Torkaw, 
when be was at first honourably racaivad. 
Peace betm'een Turkey and Russia^ homr* 
avtr» randerad his prannoe < 

Digitized by 


^peated to bate fkiua. As ha rcfia e d to 
CQo^ilyf ordon were nven to expel him by 
force. Charier defei^edhuMelf' with des- 
perate braTeiy, In hia booie at Bender, till 
the boiUiiiff was set on fire. He then sallied 
forth, fen lato the hands of the assailants, 
and was h^ prisoner for some time. At 
length he dnparted, and after eacomitering 
■SUIT dificatties and dangors reached Stral- 
mma, which was soon bMieged by his eae- 
Dvinc the siege he dispbiTed his 
ned talent and 'vahmr, bat he was 

fondly compelled to abandon the city, and 
swU to Sweden. His death took platce on 
the Mtk of November, 1718, firom a shot, 
while he was beiieging Fredericshall, in 
Norway; and there seems reason to sospect 
that he fell by the hand of a Swedish assas- 
aam, and noC iiy that of an honourable ene- 
py. Charles had many virtues, hot they 
were partly neotraliied by his fonlts ; his 
fcamftss too often degenerated into obsti- 
■acy, and bis coorage into rashness. • Yet 
there are circomstances which anthorise a 
belief that, had he lived, he would have 
reformed his errors, and, perhaps, nlti- 
BMtely have contriboted as moch to the 
happiness of Sweden, as be had already to 

CHARLEVAL, Charlks Fai7C0ii ds 
RIS, lord of, was born in Normandy, in 
1^2 or 1618, and though oriffinally sup- 
posed to be too weakly to live, be reached 
the age of eighty fay dint of rMnmen. Scar- 
loa said of him, that <* the Moses fed him 
oo aothing but chicken broth and blanc- 
■ttofe." He died in 1608. Ghaflevalwas 
an oegant writer both in prose and verse, 
and was a liberal friend to literary men 
who were in narrow circumstances. 

Xatisb ds, a Jesuit, bora at St. Qoaa- 
thi, in 1682, was sent on a mission to 
North America in 1728, and remained 
there for two years; conducted the Tre- 
voux Journal for twen^r years after his 
letun ; and died in 1761. He is the au- 
thor of various works, of which the prin- 
cipal are, A History and Description of 
Japan, two vols. 4to. ; A General History 
of New France, three vols. 4to. ; and A 
General Hbtory of Paraguay, six vols. 

CHARNOCR, John, wm bora in 1766 ; 
was educated at Winchester, and Merton 
College, Oxford; served as a volunteer in 
the navy; subsequently became an author ; 
and at len^h died in the Kinff's Bench, in 
1S07. His chief works are, A History of 
Naval Architecture, three vols. 4to. ; Bio- 
graphia Navalu, six vols. 8vo. ; and The 
lifeof Nelson, 8vo. 

CHARONDAS, a Greek legislator and 
philoeo|riier, was borii at Catania, in Sicily, 
m4 ii iu p pMwd to hava flomrisbed aboat 

CBA m 

dNmiddb ertheMheMCoryB.c. Ha 
cave laws to the Cataaiaas and other En- 
bcBan colonies. To one of those laws he is 
said to have foUea an honourable victim- 
He had enacted that no ooe should eater 
the public assemblies armed, under pain of 
death. On hb retura from an expedition, 
he inadvertently harried to a meeting of the 
people without taking off his sword. ** Yoa 
break the law," exdaiaied a spectator. 
** No," replied he, instantly plunring the 
weapoB into his own body, *< oo ue ooa* 
trary, I oonfom it." 

C^ARRON, Pbtkr, a French moral- 
ist and divine, was bora at Paris, in 1541, 
and died there, suddenly, in 1608. As a 
preacher he enjoyed great ceMirity. Ha 
was the friend of Mootagne, who adeemed 
him so Buich that he MK|oeathed to him 

»rmission to assume his femily arms. 

is fovt work, which bora the title of the 
Three Troths, was published in 1684; his 
Christina Discourses, in 1600; and his 
Treatise oo Wisdom, in 1601. The last of 
these was violently attacked by Chanet, 
Garasse, and others, as the dangerous pro- 
duction of one who was an enemy to relig- 
ion. The Treatise on Wisdom survives; 
the attacks upon it have sunk into oblivion. 

CHARTIER, Alan, a French poet and 
writer, of great reputation in the fifteenth 
century, was bora at Bayeux, in Nonnan 
dy, in 1886, and is supposed to have died 
about 1467 or 1468. His works are now 
into oblivion. Yet, in such esteev 

was he hekl, that Pas^uier teUs us, the wife 
of the Dauphin once kissed the lipeof Char- 
tier when soe found him asleep ; and,on8er 
attendairts seeming astonished, she declared 
that it was not the man she kissed, but the 
mouth whence so moch eloquence had flow- 

CHARTIER, Rkiijltiis, a native of 
Vendome, bora in 1672, was eminent as a 
ffoysician, and publisfaed ten folio volumes 
of an edition ot the works of Hippocrates 
and Galen; the remaining three wera print- 
ed after his death. By this work he ben^ 
fited medical sciboce, but raiaed his for- 
tune. He also wrote some Latin tragedies 
and poams. Ha died in 1684. 

CHASE, Sahukl, one of the signers of 
the declaration of independence, was bora 
in Somerset county, Maryland, in 1741. 
He was educated by his wtber, a learned 
clergyman; and after studying for two 
years the profession of law, he was admit- 
ted to the bar, at Annapolis, at the age of 
twenty. In 1774, he was sent to the con- 
gress of Philadelphia as a delegate from 
liarylaod, and he continued an active, bold, 
eloquent, and eflBicient member of this body 
throughout the war, when he returned to 
the practioe of hb profession. In 1791, 
he accepted the appointment of chief jus- 
ticeofthafsasral court of Maryhmd; nad 

Digitized by 





in ITM pi'OBiddit w uuId jtOB mMte'inB 
an RBSocSafe jodge of the sopreme com^ of 
the United States. He remahted npott the 
bench for fifteen years, and appeared: with 
ibUity and dt^tty. ' It wa«hi8 illforturte; 
however, to have nw latter days embittered 
by an impeachment by the house of reprfr* 
tfentatives at Washington. This impeach" 
ment originated in nolitical animosities, 
from the offence whidi his conidact in the 
circuit court had given to the democratic 
party. The trial of the jndge beftnne the 
senate is memorable on account of the ex- 
citement whidi it occasioned, the abHity 
of the defence, and the nature of the ae- 
(juittal. Judffe Chase oontinoed to exercise 
his iodicial ranctions till 1811, when his 
heauh foiled him, and be expired on the 
nineteenth of June, in that year. He was 
a sincere patriot, and a man of high intel- 
lect and undaunted courage* * 

diioness of, one of the most learned and 
accomj^lished of modem females, was bom 
at Paru, in 1706, and died at Luneville, in 
1749. She war a proficient in Latin, Ital- 
ian, and Enriish ; and possessed considera- 
ble knowlec^ of geometry, astronomy, and 
natural pliilosophy. She published- Insti- 
tutes of Physics, with an Analysis of Leib- 
niu*s Philosophy, and translated Newton's 
Principia. liiough Madame du Chastelet 
was married, chastity does not appear to 
have been one of Her virtues. Among her 
ardent admirers was Voltaire. 

CaiATHAM, William PITT, earl 
of, one of the most able and snoeessfol min- 
isters that Eitf land ever poesessed, was bom 
November 15, 1706, and was the son of 
Robert Pitt, Esq. of Boconnock, in Corn- 
wall. Hb education he received at Eton, 
and at Trinity College, Oxford. His en- 
trance into public life was as a comM of 
horse ; and \a 1786, tlironsh the influence 
of the duchess dowager of Marlborough, he 
was rq^med to parliament as member for 
Old Sarum. He subsMuently sat for Sea- 
Ibrd, Aldboroogh, and Bath. As a senator 
ha soon rendered himself so obooxioos to 
Walpole, that tha niaifCffr, with aqnal In* 

e6miiiliirf6n;' Tfcis qacoai rtiun t o ial XT^HP. 
ly enhanced Ms popalai^ty ilhd Omxptmbit 
hii ' reeentment. - After havift^ been^ tMl 
years in opposicionj be wsta, ean^ In ITW,* 
appointed joint inee-treatfuver in Irriaa^ 
ana j in the same i 


baitticesVf nonciy wMeh MioessaHly i^ 
maihed ia hit hanOi. Ia'17S6^ he was dii^ 
missed ; in 17B6, lie ^kftak^ a hrfief twk»i 
statement in power as ' secrttai^ nr atateif 
and was acaio dianiased; bat> n-lTST, de- 
feat and dugrace having<fWlea oa the^oaili' 
try, the unaauboas ifoiae 6t the aMple eosa- 
polled the sovdreisn to place him it tha 
fiead'of the admmiMratian. "-Deader bia 
aaspiees Britab wai, daring ftor j^mtw,- 
triumphant in «very qaarter 4it tlte iglota? 
Thwarted in his measnreA^' after the ^eoe^ 
BUm of Oeorge Iil.« he rssigaad,- ia 0*ta» 
her, 1761, an ofiee Which ii^ ctoald «# 
k>nger hold with iRNiear >t»~ biaiiMf » 
advantage to the nation. • A^ieoiion waa 
grantad to hibt) and his' wife WasNoreated 
a baroness. On tha dewatfall cf the Rede- 
ingham adBiiaistnitioa» Pitt waa m^pt^MA 
loni privy seal, and was raised to tae petfr- 
afe with the title of earVtuf Gliathaai. He 
acquired no glory at bne-af the*aew and 
ill assorted minisiry, -and -lie withdirew 
ftom it in November, IIW. Thbagh aai:! 
fering severelf finom gout, he tBoattntied ^ 
speak in parliament npoa-afllnportiuil 
qnestiowK The Amerioaa war,1n parties^ 
lar, he opposed widf all his wonted tIgbaP 
and talent. On die 8ih of April, 1778, 
while rising to speak in theHaoii oflto»dlL 
he fell into a emnrolsive lit, and be^asqpbrad 
the 11th of the following May^ He 

a interred, and • a aMnameat nJied to 
him, in WestmSaster Abbey, at die publBe 
expense ; and a pemtual^anaity af >0.4OOO 
vras granted to nis: hain. SoOmI dMrl 

»ms, aad a. tokuai at laiMN to Ma 

.>hew, have appeared ia print. TbS 
eharaeier of LordChaiham is:#iue Mf 
sonmed up by Graittaai— «< TStere was la 
this man something that ooald eijsate, sub- 

i, or relbnaf an aaderstaading, a spirit^ 
aad aa alo^|lieaca» la aamaioa aaankiod to 
society, or to break the bonds of slavery 
asunder, and to rule the wilderness of firea 
minds with nnbonnded authority; aonae- 
thin^ that could establish or overwhelm • 
empire, and strike a blow in the ararld 
that should resound through the aniviersa.*' 

CHATTERTON, Thomas the oMwt 
remarkable instance that peraaps ever 
appeared of pracocioas talent, was tha 
posthumous son of the master of tha Frea 
School ia Pyle Street, Bristol, aad waa 
bora Novambsr 20, 1782. Tha radii 
oTadneatioaka laeaifadat OalUM'al 

Digitized by 




las Htoh ye*r^ ^ acquired a taste for 
RadBg. In hit general disposition he was 
mve and pensive, thotwh at times exceed- 
ugly ebeenoL In 1767, he was bound 
ipfMrrarirr to an attorney, with whom he 
resaained nearly three years. It was dur- 
ing this period that he seems to have pro- 
dnced many of his acknowledged works, 
a«d also those which he attributed to Row- 
ley. He sought the patronage of Horace 
Walpole, bat was treated with neglect. 
EocKMiriged by promises finm bpoksetlen, 
he visited London ia April, 1770, and for 
a while was a frequent writer in tbeTown 
aad CoMrtry .MagaKine, and several other 
IpaUicatMOB. Distress, however,, soon 
overtook him, and od the 24th,of Aucusti 
mo, dte unhappy yo«th tenpioatea his 
* ' Be by swiulowiiig .arsenic. The 
and TarietT of nis compositions 
are astoaishing; tha genius which they 
disp^r is MtU more so. Imagiaation, 
pathos, canstio jatire^ vivid description, 
aad saoUme imagery, are all to ba found 
ia . the produdions. of this ^ghly gifted 
stripling. Ths poems ascribed to Rawley 
gave rise. 4o a. vehement controversy among 
pati^oaries, but they are now generally 
aJnutted to. belong to Chatterton. 

CHAUCER^GiOTFaBT^ wao has been 
ealled the day-star aad the father of English 
poetry, is believed to Ipive been bora in 
London, in 1828," to Imve,. been educated 
both at Oxford aad Cambridge, and to have 
studied law in . the Temple. He was pat- 
ronised by John of Oaujit, the sister of 
whose mistress he married He was ap- 
pointed to rarioQs lucrative offices, and 
more dmn once was sent opon missions to 
foraign countries. Having, however, im- 
hihtd the doctrines of Wickliffe, he was 
CQOB^bd to fly to Zealand, wimqce want 
of resources soon, obliged him to retura. 
ImfM'isonofMf t awaited . him at home, and 
Ibe regained hia liberty only by disclosures 
which drew doivn noon him the indigna- 
.tion of hif party. At length, he recovered 
the pensions of which he had been deprived, 
and the remainder of his life was spent in 
» teit 9t Woodstock, and next 

at Dnanii^ton Outle. He died, in 14P0. 
in London, to which cit^ he had journeyed 
upon business.^. Coosidfred merely with 
reference to his own merits, Chaucer ranks 
high among poets; compared with his pre- 
decessors, his contemporaries, and manv 
of his successors, he is absolutely unrivalled. 
His great work. The Canterbury Tales, 
was not begun tiU he was for advanced in 
yean, but it displays all the freshness, 
vigour, and variety of youth. 

CHAUDET, Anthort Dehitis, sa 
eminent French sculptor, was born at 
Paris, in 176ai, and was a pupil of StonC 
At the age of nineteen he gained the high- 
est prise of the Jicademy, for a basra 
relievo of Joseph sold by his Brethren. He 
died in 1810, professor of the schools of 
sculpture and painting. His statues and 

Soups are aamerous, and he excelled with 
snencil no less than with the chisel. 
. CHAUDON« Louis Matxul, an au- 
thor, was bora, in 1787, at Valensoles, ia 
Provence, and died in 1617. He was a 
Beaedictiae monk of the order of Chipy. 
Of his numerous original works and com^ 

K'lations, the best Known is The New 
istorical Dictionary, which vras first 
published in only four volumes, in 1766. 
It was enlarsed, in successive editions, till 
it reached uirty volumes ; but ^ eighth 
edition, in thirteen volumes, was the last 
which Chaudon superintended. 

CHAUFFEPIE, JahesGeorgs dk, 
the author of several works, among which 
is a continuation of Bayte, in four folio 
volumes, was bora at Leu warden, in Fries- 
land, in 1702, and was the son of a French 
protestant refugee. Like his father, he 
was an ecclesiastic, and was successively 
pastor at Flushing, Delft, and Rotterdam, 
at which btter city he died in 1786. His 
supplement to Bayle, more than one half 
of which is translated from the English, is 
fer inferior to the learned and acute pro- 
duction of his great predecessor. 

a French poet, was bora, in 1639, at Fon- 
tenai, and died in 1720. Being a man of 
considerable fortune, fond of good cheer, 
and devoid of ambition, his whole life was 
spent in enioying the pleasures of society. 
He resided at the Temple in Paris, of 
which he was called the Anacreon. His 
poems, though often incorrect, are distm- 
guished by gaiety, voluptuousness, and un- 
studied elegance. They have gone through 
man\' editions, and are still popular. 

CHAUNCY, Charles, second presi- 
dent of Harvard College, was bora in 
England in 1589. He received his gram- 
mar education at Westminster, and took 
the desree of M. D. at the universihr of 
Cambridge. He emigrated to New Eng* 
Isind in 1688, and after serving for a mnu- 
ber of years in the ministry at ScituaUk 

Digitized by 


174 CHE 

wai appointed in 1664, | ) r e iM 6 Bt of har- 
vard Colle^. In this office he remained 
till his death in 1671, performing all itn 
duties with industrious fidelity. He was 
eminent as a physician, and was of opinion 
that there ought to be no distinction be- 
V tween physic and divinity. 

CHAUNCEY, Sir Hkh&T, was bom 
in Hertfordshire, in 1682; studied at Caius 
College, Cambridge, and the Middle Tem- 
i^; was knighted in 1681, and made a 
Welsh judge in 1688; and died in 1700. 
He is the author of Historical Antiquities 
of Hertfordshire, in folio; a work of con- 
riderable merit. 

CHAUSSARD, Pkter, a poet and 
miscelUneous author, was bom at Paris^ 
in 1766. He wbs one of the partisans of 
the French rerolntion, and filled some sub- 
ordinate offices during the early part of it. 
He died in 1828. Of his nomerons works 
the diief are, a Translation of Arrian; 
The Festivals and Coartisans of Greece; 
Heliogabalus ; and some Poems. 

CHAUSSEE, Peter Claude NI- 
TELLE DE LA, a dramatist, the fittber of 
sentimental comedy in France, was bora 
at Paris, in 1692, and died in 1764. He 
Was past the age of fortv when he bevan to 
write for the stace. Tne species of drama 
which he introanced has been severehr 
criticised, and as enthusiastically praised. 
Fashionabk Prejudice, Melanide, The 
School for Mothers, Love lor Love, and 
the Governess are among hie most popular 
pieces. His works (brm five vohuMS. 

CHAUSSIER, Francis, a French 
physician, was bora at DiJon, in 1746, 
and died at Paris, in 1828. He was 
equally oeksbrated as a practitioner and a 
lecturer ; was looked up to as the head of 
hb profession in the capital ; and contri- 
buted much to the progrrees of physiological 
science. He b the auDior of various inedi- 
cal tracts and dissertations. 

CHAZELLES, John Matthew, a 
French astronomer and hydrographer, was 
bora at Lyons in 1667, and was a impil of 
Ousini, whom he assisted in forming hb 
areat planisphere at the Obeervatory, and 
drawinff the meridian line. He was ap- 
pointed hydrographical pro faw or at Mar- 
seilles, m 1686. Chaselles vbited Greece, 
Turkey, and Egypt, in the latter of which 
^countries he measured the pyramids. 
'During the last nine jears of his life, he 
was employed in collecting materials for a 
descripUon of the Mediterranean coasts. 
He died In 1710. Severa. of hb charts 
are b the French Neptnae. 

CHEKE, Sir John, a statesman and 
dassieal sdiiolar, was bora at Cansbridge, 
in 1614, and edncated at St. John's Ool- 
lege. After having travelled on the oon* 
tineot, be was made jregius professor of 
Qreekat Caodbridge. In thb capacity ha 


mtrbdoeed tone changes intliei^ 

tjon of the lanraige, which produced dli* 
putes with the chancellor, Bisnop Gardiner. 
In 1644, he was appointed tutor to the 
young place, afterwards Edward VI., 
who, on oncoming king, loaded him widi 
fiivonrs, among which were the honour of 
knighthood, and the posts of secretary of 
state and privy counsellor. Having es- 
poused the cause of Lady Jane Grey, Cbeke 
was imprisoned by Queen Mary, but waa 
liberated in a few months, and allowed to 
travel. While he was abeent hb property 
was confiscated, and he was at length sent 
home a ca^ive. To save hb life, thoush 
with infinite reluctance, he abjured m 
protestant iaith ; in consequence of which 
ne is said to have died of grief, in 1667 
He is the author of various works, some of 
which have been printed. Among these 
are. The Hurt of Sedition; and a tiansla- 
tion of six of St. Chrysostom's Homilies. 

CHEMNITZER, Ivan Ivanovitch, 
a Russian fabulist, of a German fiunily, waa 
bora at Petersburg, in 1744; commenced 
his career in the army; and was subse- 
quently consul general at Smyrna, where 
he died in 1784. Chemnitxer is considered 
as the Russian La Fontaine; and in his 
character, as well as in hb writings, he 
resembled the French writer. Like Le 
Fontaine he was subject to fits of absenoey 
which sometimes produced hidicroiis scenes. 

CHENIER, Mart Andrew de, e 
French poet, bora, in 1762, at Constanti- 
nople, where hb feither was consul general, 
distinguished himself early by hb love oC 
learning and hb poetical talents. He ea- 
poosed the principles of the revolution; 
out, being a firiend of ■ x>derate measnrea, 
he was arrested in 1796, and was brooglit 
to the scafibld in July, 1794. Hb poenoa, 
which are few in nomber, possess consider- 
able merit. 

CHENIER, Mart Josefh, a French 
poet and dramatbt, vras bora at Constan- 
tmople in 1764, studied at Paris, and en- 
tered the army in 171^1, but quitted it ie 
1788, to devote himself to literature. In 
1786, he (NToduced, unsuccess^ly, his tra- 
l^edy of Axemire. In 1789, however, part^f 
m conseouence of its political teodencTy 
hb Charles IX. was more fortunate. It 
was succeeded by Henry VIII., John Ga- 
las, Cains Gracchus, Fenelon, and TioM- 
leon. Besides hb dramas, he wrote manj 
works of merit in verse and prose. Hu 
collected works, to which ara added hb 
brother's, form nine volumes. He was a 
member of all the legislative bodies be- 
tween 1792 and 1802; voted fi>r the death 
of Loub XVI. ; and, fttNn hb nnmeroei 
patriotic hymns and songs, may be consid- 
ered as the poet lanreat of republSnnif . 
Chenier died in 1811 


Digitized by V3OC 


he M thus Tariouilv denominated bjr diftf' 
ent writers,) was born at Gnossus, in the 
island of Crete. It was be who, aboat684 
I B. c, drew tbe plan and commenced the 

boilding of the nimous temple of Diana at 
Ephonis. In concert with Meta^enes, his 
■oQy who continued the construction of the 
temple, he ahK> determined the proportions 
of tJie Ionic order. 

CHESELDEN, William, an eminent 
anatomist and surgeon, was bom, in 1688, 
at Burrow on the Hill, in Leicestershire. 
Anatomy he studied under Cowper, and 
surgeiy at St. Thomas's Hospital. In 1713 
appeared his first work. The Anatomy of 
die Human Body. He subsequently pub- 
liahed a Treatise on the high operation for 
the stone; Osteography; a translation of 
l«e Dran's Salary; and various papers in 
the Philosophic Transactions. Of these 
the first two involved him in a controversy 
with Dr. Douglas. He was surgeon to St. 
Thomas's, St. Greorge's, and Chelsea Hos- 

Sitab, and to the Westminster Infirmary. 
[e died in 1752. Cheselden had coasid- 
erable architectural knowiedge: Surgeon's 
Ball, in the Old Bailey, was designed by 


CHESTERFIELD, Philip Dormer 
STANHOPE, earl of, was bom in London, 
in 1694, and was educated at Cambridge. 
Before he was of age, he sat in parliament 
as member for Lostwithiel, and spoke with 
so much violence as to provoke from his 
antaffoniets a hint, that his minority might 
possibly be taken advantage of to move 
tor his exclusion. In 1726, be succeeded 
to the earldom of C^esterfieM. The ac- 
cession of Georxe II. opened to Stanhope 
the road to political nonours. He was 
sworn a privy counsellor; was appointed, 
in 1728, ambassador extraordinaryto Hol- 
land; received the Garter in 1780; and 
was nominated steward of the hoosc^ld. 
The latter office he resigned in 1783; and 
for many years he continued in strenuous 
opposition to the measures of Sir Robert 
Walpok. Among the anti-mfaiisterial peers 
he stood conspicuoos for activity ana elo- 
At the mae tine his pen was 


freqitenttr employed, with powvKU efiect, 
in the Craftsman and other papers. It 
was not till January, 1745, that the ffovenn 
ment once more availed itself of nis tal* 
ents. In that month he was seat to Hol- 
land, as ambassador extmordinary ; and on 
his return, in May, he went over to Ireland 
as lord lieutenant. The viceregal power 
he held rather Jess than twelve months, 
but the equity and beneficence of his sway 
is still remembered with gratitude. la 
October, 1746, he was nominated secretary 
of state, and this office he held till the 
beginning of 1748, when the state of hie 
health induced him to resign it. In the 
senate he continued to apeak till increasing 
deeifiness incapacitated aim for oratoricu 
exertions. But his pen did not remain 
idfe. He contributed largely to The World; 
among his contribations were the two pa- 
pers which drew forth the celebrated letter 
addressed to him by Dr. Johnson. He 
died March 24, 1778. Chesterfield was a 
man of highly polished manners, extensive , 
acquirements, and versatile talents. He 
hekl no mean place among dipkNuatists, 
stetesmen, wits, writers, and orators; in 
the hitter capacity he has been called the 
British Cicero. His works consist of hie 
Letters to his Son, in four vohuaes, and 
Miscellaneous Pieces, in four volumes. He 
has been severely and justly censured foi 
the lax moralitv of several passages in hie 
Letters to his Son. 

CHEYNE, Gborgb, an eminent phy* 
sictan and mathematician, bora in 1671, 
was a native of Scotland, and was origi- 
nally intended for the church, but subse- 
quently studied medicine under Pitcairue, 
and settled in London. He died at Baili, 
in 1743. Having rendered himself oonM- 
lent and exceedingly asthmatic by H'ee 
living, he recovered his health and activity 
by a milk and vejjfetable diet. He is the 
author of a Treatise on the Gout; an Es- 
say on Health; a New Theory of Fevers; 
The English Malady; The Natural Method 
of curing Diseases ; Philosophical Princi- 
ples of Religion ; and Fhixionum Bfetho- 
dus Inverse. 

CHIABRERA, Gabriel, who bean 
the k>fty title of the Italian Pindar, was 
born at Savona, in 1662, and did not 
snanifest his poetical talent till be was of 
a mature age. As soon, however, as hb 
productions became known, bis fiune spread 
widely and rapidly. It is not alone m the 
style of the Tbeban bard that he excels; 
for he often proves himself the worthy rival 
of Anacreon and Horace. Besides his 
Odes, he is the author of several dramu, 
and of four epic poems. He died in 

CHIARI, Petsr, an Italian dramatiel 
and novelist of the eighteenth eentunr, 
was bora at Brescik, where he also diidt 

Digitized by 


!■ 1987 «r 1988, nt an ftifaM«4 aft. H* 


of nort tlum abity cotmdleB^ lo Fcance. 

Ibor tragedies, and ■everalronuuiow. Chi- 
ari was tiie riral of GoVdooi, and had 
eOM|derable theatrical success; but be is 
infenor to the writer wboot be strove to 

eorinent for learning and OMuuiioenoe, was 
bom at Higbam Ferrers, in Nortbampton- 
shire, in Ifm^ and was educated at Oxford. 
Aiker baTing held various high ecclesiasti- 
cal dignitiest be rose, in 1414, to the anb- 
bishopric of Canterbury, which elevated 
itatioB he filled with becontag digni^r for 
Bsarhr thirty years. He died u 1448. 
He founded and endowed All Souls Col- 
1^, Oxfoud, and a college and bospital,at 
Ips. native place; built tlM west tower of 
Ckuterbury cathedral ; and improved fjae 
anchi epiieopal palace at LaoibeUi. 

vine and controversial tbeologiaMvas bom 
at Oxford, in 1622, aod^du^d^rat Trin- 
ity Cottege» of which he became* a follow 
in 1828; was for a-while a c<Hii|rer( to the 
tathoiie church, but returned |to protestaqt- 
ism; obtained die qhMX^lorsbip of Salis- 
bury^-the prebend of BrixwortA, and the 
mastership of Wigston's Hospital; espous- 
ed the royal cause, and actea as engineer 
at the aiefe of Gloocesler; was taken 
prisoner at Arundel; and died, a captive, 
u 1844. His principal production is. The 
Religion of Protestants a safo Way to 
Salvation. His works, including bis Ser- 
mons, form a folio volume. 
' C9in«0, ona of tlie Seven wise men of 
Cbreeee, was an epbonis of Sparta, about 
888 B. 0. One of his most celebrated 
maxima is. Know thyself. He died of joy, 
», c. 087, while embracing his son^ who 
bad been a victor in the Olympic games. 
Oiilo vras remarkable for his upright con- 
du ctas amagislnte. 

CmSHULL, Edhvho, a divine and 
antiquary, was bora at Eyworth, in Bed- 
fordshire, and edneated at Corpus Christ! 
-College, Oxford* After having been chap- 
lain at Smyrna, he obtained the livings of 
Walthametow and Sooth Chnrch» in Essex, 
«ad was mada ehaphiin to the queen. He 
died in 1788. His principal works are, 
Traveb in Tnikey; and Antiq«itates Asi- 
atiom Christianam mram anteoedentes. 

CaiOISEUL,STBPBXif Francis de, 
liuke of Choiseul and Amboise, was bora 
fn 1714, and, after having been ambassa- 
•der at Romaand Vienna^ was raised to be, 
4m foct, prfane miaisler 9$ France, through 
Ihn iaAuanoa of Madam d» f osuiadottr. 
in 1770, he vras dismissed from omoe, and 
•xiled to one of bis estates. He died in 
4766. Ghoiseal brought about the Family 
At, made many laforms in the army, 
1 thaammlfoi«e»«oBtcibufted to the 

dotmiUl of tha Jesuits, and addM 

BT Gabriel Augustus Laorbnce, a 
membwof the French Academy, was bom 
in 1752, and visited Greece in 1776. Sub- 
sequently to his return, he published, in 
1779, dbe first volume of his Journey in 
Greece. ^ He was appointed ambassador to 
Constantinople, whicn station he held till 
a republic was established in Fmnce, when 
he settled in Russia. Tn 1802 he revisited 
bis native 4;ountry; and he died, at Aiz 
kk Chapelle, in 1817. Besides his splendid 
Journey in Greece, in three volumes folio, 
ha is the, author of several learned disser- 
tations in the Transactions of the Frendi 

CHRISTIAN, Charles, whose real 
name was Charl^ Christian Riesen, was 
the son of a Dane, and was bora in tb« 
British metropolis towards the close of the 
seventeenth century. He is one of the 
most celebrated modern gem engravers. 
One of his best works is a portrait of 
Charles XII. of Sweden. lie died, io 
London, in 1725. 

CHRISTIAN, Edward, chief justice 
of the Isle of Ely, and law professor of 
DoMTiiiog Collie, Cambridge, was educa- 
ted at St. John's College, Cambridge. He 
died, at Downing College, in 1828. He ia 
the author of various works, among which 
are. Treatises on the Bankrupt Laws, and 
on the Game Laws. He also edited an 
editi<m of Blackstone^ to which he added 
numerous notes. To him belongs the de- 
merit of having been the originator of the 
iniquitous law which extorts from everr 
author eleven copies of any work that hi 
may pul^ish. 

plished female of the fourteenth century, 
was bora at Venice, in 1868, and was 
taken to France at the age of five veart 
by her father, whom Charles V. had ap- 
pointed his astronomer, or rather astrolo- 
ger. Sbe became celebrated for her beauty 
and talents, and was pensioned by Charles 
VI. The period of her death is unknown. 
Her poems and. prose works are numerous; 
many of them are still ia manuscript. 

CHRISTINA, queen of Sweden, the 
only child of the great Gustavus Adolpbus» 
was hon in 1626, succeeded to the throne 
at the ue of five years, and assumed the 
reins of goverament at eiabteen. She 
seems to have been naturals of a mas- 
culine character, and. that character was 
strengthened by the manner in which she 
.was educated. For some years shejovern- 
ed in a manner which did honour .to her. 
She likewise invited eminent men to her 
court, and corresponded with others in va- 
rious parts of Europe. During the latter 
portion of her reign there wasachanfiii 

Digitized by 



At len^ b 1654, she ab- 
dicated the crown in fiivoiir ot Prince 
Charlea Gustavtw, and quitted Sweden. 

: Her next step waa to adopt the Catholic 

\ religion. For a while she resided in 

France,* where she drew on herself the 
Wred of raankiod by her murder of Mo- 

I oaldeechi, her ina6ter of the horse. She 

died at Rome, in 16^. Christina no 
doobt poes^aed talents, and some of the 

*■ elennents of greatness, but they were de- 

^ graded by meanness, caprice, and vindic- 

♦ tire passions. 

*'■ CHRISTOPHE, Henrt, king of 
Hayti, was a bladi slaTC, bom iu 1767, 
in Urenada. He served during the war in 
America, and was subseqaently taken to 
St. Domii^o. His activity against the 
whites gained for him, from Toussaint 
Loovertare, the rank of brigadier-general, 

^ aad his suljNMqtieot conduct raised him, on 

the death of Dessalines, to the dignity of 
president and generaliraimo of Hayti. In 
1811 he was crowned king. of Hayti, and 
lie reigned till October, 1820, when, in 
eonsequeoee of a general insurrection 
against him, be put an end to his own 
ex istence . 

CHKYSIPPUS, an eminent Stoic phi- 
loeopber, was bom at Solis, in Cibcia, 
about 280 or 290 B. c. and died 207 b. c. 
He was a subtle logician, but fond of deal- 
ing in paradoxes. Of several hnndred 
treatises which he wrote, only a few frag- 
moits remain. 

CHRTSOSTOM, St. Johv, was bora 
at Antioch, about A. D. 844. He was of a 
noble femifv, and his fiither, whose name 
waa Secnndus, was a general of cavalry. 
l%e name of Chrysostom, which signifies 
golden month, lie acquired by his elo- 
qoenoe. He has also been called the 
Homer of orators, and compared to the 
ami. Successfiil at the bar, for which be 
was educated, he quitted it, to become, 
^r six years, an ascetic. When he 
emerged li^om hb retirement, he became 
a preacher, and gained snch high repu- 
tation for his |>ietv and oratorical talents, 
that he was raised to be patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, A. D. 898. At length he in- 
curred tke hatred of the Empress Eudoxia, 
and was sent into exile, in which he died, 
A. D. 407. There are three editions of his 
works in eight, ten, and thirteen iblio 



' CHUBB, Thomas, a controversial de- 
ist, was born, in 1679, at East Haraham, 
ajpar Salisbury, was successively a glover, 
a taBow-chandler, and a sort of humble 
enmoanion or dependent in the &mily of 
Bir Joseph JekyU. He died ra 1747. His 
first work^which appeared in 1715, was 
fntitied. The Supremacy of the Father 
fsseilea, and this was followed by several 
•0Mn. BUs posthonoos nieoes were pub- 
8{ "^ • 

lished in two volumes in 1748. However 
erroneous his opinions may be, Chubb was 
a well meaning and modest man, with a 
respecttible share of talent and information. 

CHURCH, Benjamin, a physician of 
some eminence, and an able writer, was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1754, and, 
after goiii^ through the preparatory stud- 
ies, established himself in the practice of 
medicine in Boston. For several years 
before the Revolutioi^ he %vas a leading 
character among the whigs and patriots; 
and on the commencement of the war he 
was appointed physician general to the 
army. While in the performance of the 
duties assigned him in this capacity, he 
was suspected of a treacherous correspond- 
ence with the enemy, and immediaterjr ar- 
rested and imprisoned. After remain^ 
some time in prison, he obtained permission 
to depart for the West Indies. The veuel 
in which he sailed was never heard from 
afterwards. He is the author of a number 
of ocoasional poems, serious, pathetic, and 
satirical, which possess considerable merit ; 
and an oration, delivered on the fifth of 
March, 1778. 

CHURCHH.L,Sir Winston, was bora 
in 1620, at Wootton Glanville, in Dorset- 
shire, and educated at St. John's College, 
Oxford ; fought in the cause of Charles I. 
and was consequently deprived of his 
estate ; was restored to his property and 
knighted by Charles II.; publisbed, in 
1675, under the title of Divi Britannici, 
Remarks on the Lives of the British Mon- 
archs; and died in 1688. The great duke 
of Marlborough was his son. 

CHURCHILL. See Marlboroi7GB. 

CHURCHILL, Cbarlbs, who has 
sometimes been called the Britidi Juvenal, 
was bom in Westminster, in 1781, and 
educated at Westmmster School, where he 
neglected his studies so much that, on the 
ground of his insufficiency, he was refiised 
admission at Oxford. In 1766 he entered 
into orders, and became a curate, but he 
Bo^ ceased to consider the clerical pro- 
fession as his sphere of action. He be 
gan his poetical career, in 1761, by The 
Rofciad, which at once brought him into 
public notice. It was rapidfy succeeded 
by The Apology, Night, The Ghost, The 
rrophecy of Famine, and many other po- 
ems, most of them political, ana all, thoojgh 
often careless, abounding with keen satire 
and splendid passages. Of Wilkes he 
was the bosom firiend and ardent partisan. 
While he was thus acquiring popubrity aa 
a writer, he was injuring his nealtfa and 
his character by dissipation. His fi-iends, 
however, coula not out love him for hif 
generous feelings, and the warmth of hia 
attachment to them. He died November 
4, 1764. Though time has rendered the 
productions of Churchill less interestuif 

Digitized by 




thaa tba^ cyrif imlly were, diej ere too 
thoTOQghhr isibiied with the true ipirit of 
poetry to oe ever coMigned to oblkrion. 

GIBBER, Caius Gabriel, « Kulptor, 
was a Dative of Hoktein, born at Flens- 
burg, and settled in London a short time 
before the restoration of the Stewarts. He 
died in England, b 1700. The two figures, 
representing melancholy and raving mad- 
ness, which were ftrmerly over the gate of 
Bediim in Moorfields, and are now pre- 
served in the new hospital, bear testimony 
to his tidento. The basso relievo on the 
pedestal of the Monument is also his work. 

GIBBER, GoLLBr, a son of the pre- 
ceding, was bom in London, in 1671. He 
was Mucated at Grantham wckool, and was 
for a short time in the army, which, how- 
ever, he quitted for the Drury Lane stage 
before be was eighteen. For some years 
he acted subordinate parts, till, at lenrth, 
his personation of the character of Fondle- 
wife brought him forward, and his reputa- 
tion as a comic actor continued thenceforth 
to increase. In tra^e<hr also he had con- 
siderable merit. His first dramatic efibrt, 
Love's Last Shift, appeared in 1G95, and 
it was followed by Woman's Wit, The 
^ Gareless Husband, The Nonjuror, and 
other comedies and tragedies, to the num- 
ber of twenty-five, some of which remain 
stock pieces. In 1711 he became one of 
the joint patentees of Drury Lane; in 
1730 he was appointed Poet Laureat, an 
office which he rendered ridiculous, for he 
was not a ppet; and in 1757 he died. 
Besides his rlays, five volumes, he is the 
author of a most amusing Apology for my 
own Life; and an Essay on the Conduct 
and Gharacter of Cicero. Havinr given 
some oflfi^noe to t'ope, the irritable poet 
■ilbstiuued him, in toe place of Theobakl. 
as the hero of The Dunciad; an act ot 
vengeance by which the poem was injured, 
without the desired effect being produced 
of inflictinff injury on Gibber. 

GIBBER, SusAKiTA Maria, one of 
die most celebrated of our tragic actresses, 
was a sister of Dr. Ame, and was bom 
about 1716. Beibre she was twenty slie 
was so unfortunate as to be married to 
the dissipated Theophilus Gibber, the son 
of Gollev Gibber. He was accessary to 
her adulterous intercourse with a gentle- 
man, and then sued him for heavy damages, 
but was defeated. After her separation 
firom him her conduct was decorous. She 
died in 1766. St. Foix*s drama of The 
Oracle was transited by her. 

GIGGI, Maria Louisa, an accomplish- 
ed Italian buiy, was bom at Pisa, in 1760. 
Woen she was leveo years old her father 
placed Iter in a convent, ordered her to be 
instructed merely in domestic duties, and 
forbade her * • ^ 

*•'» hewev«f| 

even to be taught to write. By 
ever, she read some of the best 


poeCif aoiniired nie radineBls m wntMf « 
and aopplied the want of pea and ink uf 
grape jmoe and bits of wood. With tkeat 
rade materials her fhrst verses vrere writlea 
in her tenth year. At a more iMiture mgb^ 
she made heraelf mistress cf natural pbiloB- 
ophy, and of the English and Freacii lao- 
ffuages, and studied the works of Locke mod 
Newton. Her Anacreontic verses were 
distinguished by their mceful ease mod 
their spirit. In private afe she was virtn- 
ous and amiaUe. She died in 17M. 

GIGERO, Marcus Tullius, one of 
the greatest orators of antiquity, was of ao 
ancient &mily, and vras born at Arpinmo, 
B. c. 106. His talents wera manifested at 
an early age, and they were cultivated by 
the most eminent masters. His first ap- 
pearance at the bar as an advocate was w 
nis twenty-sixth year, and his sacce w 
against a freed man of Sylla rendered it 

Eradent for him to quit Rome for a while, 
[e, therefore, retired to Athens, and par- 
sued his studies. On his retnm to Room 
he rapidly rose to distinction as a pleader. 
After having served the offices ot quvetor 
in Sicily, and of ledile and pnstor in the 
Roman capiul, he attained toe dignity «f 
consul. While he held this hidi station 
he gained the glorious title of father of hie 
country, and second founder of the republic, 
by firustrating the oonspiracr of Gatiliaa. 
It was not lonff, however, oefbre he wae 
driven into exue by the intrigues of bb 
enem^ Glodius, and ne took raft^fe at Thes- 
salonica. But he was soon unanimously 
recalled "by the senate and people, in a maa* 
ner which was highly honourable to him. 
In his fifty-sixth vear he was proconsul in 
Gilicia, and made a successful campaign 
against the Parthians. He espoused tha 
cause of. Pompey against G»sar, but was 
reconciled to the btter after the battle of 
Pharsalia. He at length fell a victim to 
the resentment of Antony, to whom he was 
ungratefiilly sacrificed by Octmvius, and hit 
head and hands were pteced upon the roe- 
trum of Rome, B. c. 48. As an orator^ 
Gicero has but one rival; as a writer km 
possesses transcendent merits, la privala 
life;withjont km ampcionsy moh m dft* 

Digitized by v 


to prmise; mi he ww deficient in 
p ol k ie el coorace; ead eree hii wondrow 
Mrers era i n e dM| e »B to effi>rd m peJUetion 
for hie inordineie vaiitty. 

C9MABUE, JoBii, wiio beurs the Ikw- 
•vaUe tkfe oftiie Fatl^r of Modera Peiot- 
•n, ma born et Florence, in 1840; die- 
plnted on early ibndneH for drnwinc; and, 
widi no oiImt naetera tiMn aooie iomflerent 
Ofcek artnCi, soon became the fiivt painter 
of his age. Hie works were regarded with 
enthosiasni by his fellow citisens, and sot- 
•reigns Tisitad him in his painting room. 
He died in 1800. 

CIMAROSA, DoMimc, was bom at 
Naples, in 1764, and studied under Aprile 
and Fenaroli. He soon acquired fiune as 
• dramatic composer, and was invited to 
Petersburgfa by the Empress Catherine. 
He was' sobseqnently conductor of^ the 
Italian opera at Vienna; after which he 
rataroed to his natiTe country. Being a 
partisan of relbrm in Italy, be very nar- 
rowlv escaped from being punished with 
death, on the expnbioo of the French 
from Naples in 1790. He died at Vienna, 
•a 1801. More than a hundred excellent 
efierae were composed by him, of which 
one of the most popular is 11 Matrimonio 
(Segrelo. His modesty was equal to his 

I dis- 
) virtuous 
riper years. At the battle 
€»f Salamis lie xreatly distinguished him- 
•elf; and, as acmiiral of the Grecian fleet, 
he sa b se q aently obtained many splendid 
'Vieteries oyer the Persians. Among his 
flsplaits was the reoovery of the Chersooe- 
AM. He was, however, b a ni shed through 
the iniaeaee of his enemies; but was soon 
raealled, and began a new career of glorv. 
He died b. o. 449, aged fifty-one, while 
besieging Citinm, in Cyprus. 

CIN^ON,TbeCoontessoC Tbislady, 
tha wifii of the vieeroy of Peru, was the 
firstperson who brought the Peruvian bark 
In Europe, aad omde known its virtues. 
Tkis cpok place in 16S8. In honour of 
her, Lionmus g&^o the name of Cinchona 
lo the fenns ofplanto by which the bark ' 

CIMON, an Athenian general, was < 
Mrted in his youth ; but became virtu 
he attainea riper years. At the ba 

GINCINNATUS, Lucius Quiiictius, 
•oe of the most ittnstrioiis of the Romans, 
Aourished in the fifth century a. c. The 
p^meat of a heavy fine for his son reduced 
JiiiB to cultivate a small fiurm with hb own 
iHmds. Froai this situation, however, he 
waa thriea caUed by his countrymen, once 
m CQBoa l, aad twice as dictator, when they 
wore m circumstances of danger, and lie 
• wrcnm a the Volscii, E(|uii, and Prenes- 
iiaas. ^He lived to the age of between 
«UM| aad ninety. 

XO^MyLocius CoKisLius,a Roman 

OLA m 

gwwal , ef ^ Osrndiaa fcm JIj , wt mm e{ 

tae most nctive I 

Marios. By hii 

ed to power. Cinna was fimr t 

He was, at length, sbin in a mattaji by a 

centurion, A. u. c. 668. 

CINO DA PISTOIA, an Italiaa civO- 
ian and poet, was bom at Pisioia, ia 1870; 
was eoccessively professor of law at Trevi 
so, Pernria, and Florence; and died ia 
ISn, Hu Commentary on the Code was 
highly esteemed, and his poesu are, per- 
ha|M, amonff the best of the age in which 
be lived. Dante was his firiend. 

CIPRIANI, JoBH Baptist, a paintar, 
was bom at Pistoia, in Tusoaay, in 1787 j 
came to Ei^land ia 1756, with 8ir W. 
Chambers and Mr. Wilton; was one of 
the original members of the Royal Acade- 
my ; and died, at Chelsea, in 1785, leaving 
behind him a high character lor probity, 
simplicity, and benevolence. His draw- 
ings, many of which were engraved by 
Bartolossi, were admired for grace, cor- 
rectness, and fertility of invention. 

CIRILLO, DoMiHic, an eminent bo 
tanist and physician, was bom, in 1784, at 
Grunio, in the kingdom of Naples, aad 
displayed an early fondneas for the study 
of botany and medicine. During his trav- 
els, he attended the lectares ot William 
Hunter, and was chosen a member of the 
Royal Society. On his retora to his own 
oonatry, he became deservedly popubr fer 
his talents and benevolence. He was put 
to death in 1799, for having taken a part 
in the establishment of the NeapoUtaa re-, 
public. Among his productions are. The' 
Philosophy of Botan^; a Flora of rara 
Neapolitan Plants; a work on Prisons and 
Hospitals; and another on Neapo lit a n En- 

CLAIRAUT, Alsxis Clauds, aa 
eminent geometrician, was bora at Paris, 
in 1718, and aequired such an early profi- 
ciency in geometry, that when little more 
than twelve years old he presented to the 
Academy of Sciences a scientific paper on 
four remarkable kinds of curves. At 
eighteen he became a member of the Acad- 
emy. He was one of the mothematicians 
to Lapland, to measure a degree of the 
meridian. He died in 1765. Among his 
works, an of which are valuable, are, Cle- 
ments of Geometry; Elements of Algebra; 
a Theory of the Moon; and a ThM»ry of 
the Nature of Comets. 

CLAIRON, Clara, Joskpba db la 
TuDE, one of the most celebrated act r esses 
of Fra«ice, was bora, in 1728, near Conde, 
and went upon the stage when only twelve 
old. Phedra was the character in 
which she i 

after which nhe was for many years 
of the margrave of An spa r h. t 

1. rneora was oie cnaracier in 

le first dispbyed all her theatrical 

In 1765 she quitted the slafm, 

tich iihe was for many years the 

died m Mt^ dtirai wa* 

•rroftnt, and her prhste life was Hoea- 

dow. She wrote her own Memoirs. 

CLAPPERTON,3vaB, was bora at 
Annan, ia Bootland, in 1788, and was 
apprenticed to the sea se r vice. Havingi 
inadTertently violated the ekcise laws, by 
conveying ashore a -few pomids of rock salt, 
he was sent on board of a sMn of war, 
where he was speedily jiromoted to the 
rank of midshipman. His seal and activ- 
i^, his nse fa l and amosbg talents, made 
hMi a ffencvnl fevomrite; and, in 1814, he 
was raised to the rank of lieutenant, and 
appointed to tiie command <^ the Confiance 
schooner, on Lake Erie. In 1817, he re- 
turned to l^gland, and reHwined on half- 
pny till 18n, when he was chosen to 
accompany Dr. Oudne^ and Lieotenant 
Deaham, on an expedition to penetrate 
into the heart of Africa. In this expedi- 
tion Oadney died, bat CUpperton and his 
eosBpanion greatly extended our knowledge 
ef African geography. After haying been 
less than sia 

six months, he vras a 
second tiase dispatched to Africa, in No- 
^ewher, 18Sft« He s u cceeded in agnin 
reaching Sackatoo, but there his career 
was cl ose d by d is ea s e, April 18, 1827. 

CLARENDON, Edward HYDE, earl 
of, was bora, in 1608, at Dinton, in Wilt- 
shire; studied at Magdalen Hall» Oxford, 
and the Middle Temple; and was called 
to the bar His first appearance in the 
CoaMUons was in 1(U0, as member for 
Wootlon Bassett, and he sat for Saltash in 
the Long Parliament. At the outtet he 
was desirous to see a redress of grievances, 
* but he soon lieeHme conrinced that the pre- 
vailing party designed to overthrow the 
kingly and eeelssiastieal establishment. 

and he conseonently threw his weight is 
the seafe of tbeking. He Joined Charles 
I. at York, who lunghied him, and ap- 
potnled him chancellor of the exchequer, 
and a privy eouaseilor. In 1644 he was 
one of the royal commissioners at Ux- 
bridge. When the kinff*s reuse was ru- 
ined, Hyde retired to Jersey, where he 
resiM fer nearly three jears, and wrote 
a considerable part of his History of the 
Rebellion. From 1648 tiU the Restora- 
tion le was empfeyed by Charles IL on the 
ooncinent) at Pans, Antwerp, filadrid,aad 
other places, nbd-sufiered severely from in- 
digenee. W'fti the Restoration, brishter 
prospects dawned on him. He had, in 
I6i7, obtained the then barren honour of 
befaig made lord chancellor; he was now 
elected chancellor sf the University of Ox- 
ford, created Lord Hyde, and soon after, 
earl of Ohurendon, and receired some grants 
from the crown. In his judicial capacity 
his eonduct vras iiTepreochable; but some 
eT his poUtieal nwasnres it b impossible 
It was not feng bsfere 


his master began to eooL At last, hi An- 
gust, 1667, he was raoRwed from aU hii 
employments. Not satisfied with this, the 
Commons proceeded to i mpench him, and 
Cbrendon found it pniident to go into vol* 
nntary exile. After haTing resided seven 
years in France, whence he more than 
once vainly solicited to be recalled, be 
died at Rouen, December 7, 1674. Be* 
sides his History of the Civil War, which, 
in spite of some defects in the stvie, and 
some erroneous principles, is an admirable 
work, he is the author of an Account of 
his own Life; and of a folio vohiSBe of 
Miscellaneous Pieces. His daughter, Anne, 
married James, dnke of York, afterwards 
James II. 

CLARENDON, HfiimT, earl of, the 
SOB of the chancellor, was born in 16S8; 
opposed the Exchision bill with jf^reat -ve- 
homeooe; was appointed lord lieutenant 
of Ireland by James II., but soon reeaHed ; 
was for a while imprisoned in the Tower 
at the revolution ; and died in retiremmt, 
in 1769. He wrote a History o( the Irish 
Rebellion ; and his Diaryand State Let- 
ters were pnbKriied in 1768. 

CLARKE, Abraham, a signer ef the 
declaration of independence, was horn in 
New Jerserin 1726* He was » delegate 
to the continental congrem, a member of 
the general convention whieh framed the 
constitution, and a representative ia the 
second Congress of the United States. Hn 
died in 1 794. He was a man of exempla- 
ry piety and unsullied integrity. 

CLARKE, GsosGi Rooehs, colond 
in the service of Vir|[iiila against the In- 
dians in the revohitienary war, distfai- 
gnished himself greatly in that post, and 
rendered efficient service to the innabitaate 
of the frontiers. In 1776 he descended 
the Ohio and built fort Jefferson on the 
eastern bank of the Mississippi; in 1781 
he received a general's commission. He 
died in 1817 at his seat near LouisriUe, 

CLARKE, Samuel, a native of Brack- 
ley, in Northamptonshire, was bom in 
1628. educated at Merton College, Oxford, 
«nd died, in 1668, superior beiuile of law 
and architypographos to the university. 
He is the author of Septiamm Blbliormr. 
PoWgbttam, Varim Ledionesj and Scl 
entia-Metrica et l^rthmica; and he gaw 
assistance to Walton's Polyglott. 

CLARKE, D«. Sahuxl, eminent m 
a theologian and a philosopher, was tha 
son of an alderman or Norwich, at which 
city he was born, in 1676. At Gains Col- 
lege, Cambridge, be was conspicuous A« 
telent, published a new travshition lit B^ 
hmilt, and oontributed -grc%tly to Stkm 
the philoeophica! princ^ptM of NnwtMi. 
Clarke haTmg toke^i wrftn^ MMra, Vii^ 

Digitized by 


CLk CLA in 

»i GELCEywafbora, ia 
we of Tout. Hie pareotf 
le wai apprenCioed to • 
»piog from this impoeU- 
e obtained some instnie- 
, and made his way to 
earned the nidimenta of 
mi. By the time that be 

acM^uired a high repota** 
M>ntmiied to spread more 
oease, which took phce 
.< Nature was the cdii- 

ftudy, 1^ tJie .n»ult of 
1^ transfi^rred IP U>e ca^ 

ed ^licitTr 

an, a celebrated Freqeh 

, was bom ^t Sauvetat, 

a Montauban, and was 

He was considered as 

eloquent protesCapt the- 
i, and distinguished as a 
eohlroversy against Bos- 
Arnauld, all ot them for- . 
Its. Tlie rerocatiofi of 
I ecspeUed him from his 

died a^ the Hague, in 
ical and other works are 

3, CLiiUDiys, was a na- 
, in ^BjY^, and Nourish- 
», of Theodosius,. Arca- 
iis. ^e was patronised 
iSkfif tlie ia)l Of h'w pro- 
pent the re^t of his life 
be time of bis death is 
ng the secondary Roman 
Jed to a distinguished 

TiBKRius Drusus« tm* 
uncle of Caligula, was 
yooB, ciod was originally 
I After, having pnssea 
cal and moral weakness, 

the throqe on the death 
6rq( he performed some 
I, but he soon became 

was finally poisoned by 
I, A. D. 54. 


ed GoTHicus, emperor 
iative.of,IUyria, bom A* 
d with distioction uodor 
Bii4 Gallieptts. On this 
be latter, Qlaudivs wtt 
-one; |U)d,))Qr his yirtiMs 
lie proT^ himself worthy . 
defeated Aureeius, who 
purple, pod he thea 
the Goths* At Naissa, 
rria), he overthrew theai 
»attfe; 1^ he ibUowed 
h such vigour that he ex- 
ading army of more than 
e died shortly after» » 
F«Ai(Gis JUyici|» ft 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

Mllv* << ▼«• Om, ia Ifnieo.boni whom 
VM, WM m fmukt md rended is tfaftt 
oonntry Ibr tkirty-«ix yew*. On the ex- 
pnlnon of hie order from America, he 
eettled at CeeeMt, in Italy, and employed 
hit \twan in writinf a History of Mexieo, 
which was pnbliehed, ia im and 1781, 
ia four Yohniee, 8vo. ; and which, though 
defectiire in eome pointe, contaiat moch 

CLAYTON, RoBsmr, a ton of the dean 
of KiUala, was bom at DnUin, in 1005; 
was educated at Westminster School and 

Triaity College, DnUin; and rose i 
§Mlf to the bishoprics of KiUab, Cork, 
aad Clogher. Hafiag r endered his ortho- 
doxy doobtfii], he was on the ere of beinc 
depri?ed of his bishopric, when he died, 
of a nenroos disorder, in 1758. Among 
his works are. An Introduction to the 
History of the Jews; A Dissertation on 
Prophecy; An Essay on Spirit; and A 
Vindication. of the Old and New Testa- 

CLEANTHES, a stoic philosopher, 
bom at Assns, in Lydia, was originally a 
wrestler, bat went to Athens, and studied 
philoso^y, first under Crates, and lastly 
under Zeao; maintaining himself, mean- 
while, by performing the most hdmrions 
- . VbenZei " ' - 

i Zeno died, Cleanthes was 
worthy of supphring hu place. 
He sianred himself to death at a very 
advanced age. Cleanthes flourished about 
960 ir. G. 

CLEAVER, William, a critic and di- 
Tiao} was bora at Twyfbrd, Berks, in 1742 ; 
was educated at Oxford; became principal 
of Braaenose College, in 1785; snooessiv«ly 
filM the bishoprics of Chester, Bangor, 
and St. Asaph; and died in 1815. He 
wrote Sermons; Obsenrations on Herbert 
Manfh's Dissertation; and Directions to 
the Clergy on the Qkoice of Books; and 
•dkwl the GreuTille Homer. 

CLEGHORN, Gborob, a physician, 
was bora near Ediobarsh, in 1716; was 
edncated in that city; became a pupil of 
Dr. Alex. Munro; and was one or the 
fenndert of the Royal Medical Society of 
the Scectish Metropolis. After havbg re- 
sided fW ikH^Uk fmn «l QlJUaorca, as 
army MrMn,fhe settled at Dublin; where 
he aonriradViirell merited reputation.^He 
died in 1710. His Treatise on the DIP 
eases of Mnorca is honourable to his skil 
mmI talMrtI deghorn is considered as on. 
of the firft who employed vegetable acids 
M PJtrid^and intermittent fevers. 

Cl£MEN8, TiTVS Flativs, known 
as CleidtaB Alexandrimy, or Clement of 
AbxadMa, one of the fathers of the church, 
^>w diatingttished for leaning and elo- 
~~ was bora about a. d. 217; 
to christiaaitv; and suoeee 


Akxandrfa. The time and pbea ot U$ 
death are unknown. The beM^editioB of 
his theok»gical works is that by Potter» in 
two foKo volumes. 

CLEMENT XIV. Pope, whose mom 
was Laurbhcb Garoavxlli, was bora 
at St. Arcangelo, near Rimiai, ia 1700; 
obtained the cardinal's hat in 1750; was 
raised to the pontificate in 1764; and died 
in 1775. The Jesuits were suppressed by 
in 1778. Clement was one of thie 
enlightened, benevolent, and disin- 
terested men that ever wora the tiara. He 
founded the Museum which is now called 
the Pio-Clementine. The Letters attribvU 
ed to him are spurious. 

CLEMENT, JoHK Ma«t Bsrkard, 
a critic, to whom Voltaire nn the name 
of Inclement, was bora at Dijon, in 174^ 
and died at J^aris, in 1812. He is the 
anthor of Medea, a trasedy; Satires* 
translations firom Achilles Tatius, Cicero, 
and Tasso ; and various severe criticiaias 
on Voltaire, Laharpe, and other emMent 

CLEOBULUS, one of the seven wme 
men of Greece, was the son of Evagoras, 
of Lindus, in the isle of Rhodes; mouBh 
some declare him to have been bom in 
Caria. He died, B. o. 564, at the age of 
seventy. His daughter, Cleobulina, was 
oelebratod for her talents. 

CLEOMENES, an Athenian sculptor, 
is said to have lived about 180, B. c. To 
him is attributed the inimit a Me statue of 
the Medicean Venus. He also, as Pliny 
teUs us, produced an admirable group, 
representing The Muses, which was called 
The Thespiades. 

CLEOPATRA, queen of Egypt, was 
the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. She 
was suecemively the mistress of Jolins 
Cbsar and of Anthony, by the former of 
whom she had a soa. She put an end to 
her existence by means of an asp, b. c. lO* 
to avoid beinc exhibited in the triumph of 
Rome. With her ended l3tm 

Augustus at 1 

kiiMNiom of Egypt. 

Chablbs Josbph db CROIX, Count 
de, an able offioer, was bora, in 178S, at 
Binch, in Hainaidt, and served with so 
mndi distinction in the seven years* war, 
that he was one of the first who received 
the cross of Maria Theresa. From the 
conchision of that war till 1788 derftyt 
lived in the bosom of bis fiunily, cuhivat- 
Hg his estate, and gaining universal as- 
teSfu. During diat year and the fblk>wing 
lie |Pok an active nut in the coatest with 
the Tjvks. In 1702, he commanded the 
AuKrll« oorp in Oiampam; and in the 
campailP* <>> 1^^ "^ '^^ ^ sustained 
his repuM(toi'>« though in the ktter he wis 
overbo^^-^iiy * Mperior force. In 1705 he 
wu made fieU-mar^ial^ and i 

Digitized by ^ 



>«ad 1m thea oloted 

arterby oompletaly IbiUof tho 

npJb^om^ He dMatYiMMM, » 1796» 

tkat city erected m spfeodid 

JoHir, theaoaofaclergynaa, was bom at 
Loogfaberoogfa, in Leieeeterriiire, in 161S, 
and wan nducated at Chritt's College, Oui- 
bridgn. Prerioatly to and daring the war 
bedrnpi Cl»rles I. and hit parliament, be 
was an nodve latiriet of the repablicaM, 
and kin prodnctions ei^ioyedmat popular- 
ityaoMHtf bisown par^. 1^ Rebel Scot 
was lutt vet entire. He was taken prison- 
er nt Newark, but Cromwell relensed bim. 
He died in 1660. His poelns went tbroogh 
mnBT editions, bat are now seldom read. 

CLIFTON, William, was the son of 

a wenkby qoaker in Pbiladelpbia, and was 
ban in 1772. He is said to bave mani< 

edfromwjiiiemMilby tbei 

of bis fellow eitiaens; and was a i 

of tbe oonreation for tbe adoption of tbt 

present Constitntion of tbe United Slates. 

He died in 1812. 

CaJNTON, GBomas, vice presidel 
of tbe United States, was bom in tbe 
oonnty of Ulster, New York, in 17tO, and 
was edncated to tbe profession of tbe law. 
In 1768 he wns cboeen to a seat in tbe 
colonial assesibly, and was elected a dele- 
Rate to tbe Continental Conmss in 1776. 
In 1776, be was a pp o in ted Drindier gen* 
eral of tbe militia of Ulster Gmntj, and 
some time after a brigadier in the army of 
tbe United States, sind oontinaed doring 
the progres s of the war to render impor- 
tant'^ices to the military demuZ^ 
Bted botn gorem- 

r lore of Hteratore at a very 
early age, ami as his health was Tcry feeble, 
he wan not educated with a view to any 
particiilar profession. His earliest per- 
tbraaiftces wera varioos satirical efiosions 
in prose and verse npoo the moetprominent 
potitical topics of the day. The best of 
hie prodnctiotts is the Epistle to Mr. Gif- 
fora, puUisbed enoimnously in the first 
American edition <^ Mr. GiSbrd's poems. 
He died in December 1799. 

Ca^IFPORD. See Cumbbrlaitd. 

CLINTON, Sir Hehrt, an English 
gemiiiii, served in the Hanoverian war, and 
t to America m 1775, with the rank 

of major-general. He distioffoished him- 
adf at tbe battle of Banker hul, evacnated 
PhiUdelpbia in 1778, and took Charleston 
in 1790 ; for this last service he was thank- 
ed by tbe boose of commons. He returned 
to England in 17SB, and soon after published 
an aoeoont of tbe cainpaign in 1781—^, 
which lord Comwallis answered, and to 
which sir Henry made a reply. He was 
governor of Gibraltar in ITS^, and also 
tomaber for Newark, and died soon after. 
He was the author of Observations on 
Stedmaa's History <^ the American War. 
CLINTON, Jambs, was bora, in 1736, 
B& tbe residence of his fetber in Ulster 
county. New York. He displayed an early 
incKnittion for a military lile, and held suc- 
cessively several offices in the militia and 
provincial troops. Daring tbe Franch war 
be exhibited many proofe of coura^, and 
received the appointment of captain-com- 
nmndant of the four regiments levied for 
the protection of the western fit>ntiers of 
the coanties Ulster and Orange. In 1775 
be was appointed colonel of tSe third regi- 
I o( New York forces, and in the 

year ma rc hed with Montgomery to Quebec. 
Dorinff the war he rendm^ eminent wrvi- 
OSS to his eountry, and on the conclusion of 
k mhred le enjoy repose on his ample 

In April 1777, he wns electe 
or, and Uentenant governor of NeWYork, 
and was continued in tbe former offioe for 
eighteen jears. He was uaanimoosly cho- 
sen president of the convention which 
assembled at Poughkeepsie, in 1788, to de- 
liberate on the new federal constitution. 
In 1801 he again accepted the office of 
governor, and after continning in thnt 
capacitv for three years, he was elevated 
to the vice-presidency of the United States; 
a dijrnity which be retained till his death 
at Washington in 1812. In private he 
was kind and amiable, and as a public man 
be is entitled to respectfol remembmnce. 

CLINTON, Db Witt, was bom in 
1769, at Little Britain, in Orange county. 
New York. He was educated at Colum- 
bia collese, eommenced the stndv of the 
law, and was admitted to the oar, but 
was never much enpfaced in professional 
practice. He early imbibed a predilection 
for political life, and was appointed the 
private secretary of his uncle, Georee 
Clinton, then gtrreraor of the state. In 
1797, he was sent to the legislature firom 
tbe city of New York; and two years 
after was chosen a member of the State 
Senate. In 1801 he was appointed a 
senator of the United Sutes, and contin- 
ued in that capacity for two sessions. He 
retired fit>m the Senate in 1808, in conse* 
qoeoce of his election to tbe mayoralty oi 
New York; an office to which he wns 
annually reelected with the intermission 
of bat two years, till 1815, when he was 
obliged to retire by the violence of party 
politics. In 1817, he was elected, almost 
unanimously, governor of the state, was 
again chosen in 1820, but in 1822 declined 
being a candidate for reelection. In 1810, 
Mr. Clinton had been appointed, by the 
senate of his state, one or tbe board oi 
canal commissioners, but the displeasure of 
his political opponents, having been uicit« 
ed, he was removed fi'om this offioe ia 1828, 
hy a vote of both braaehss of the fegishi- 

Digitized by V3OO 

in popafatf feeliog, 9ifid Mr. Quiton 
inoMoiately Doninated for governor, and 
aie cte d hj an mpreoedentod majority. In 
ISM ba wa9 agam elected, bat be died 
before the completion of his term. He 
«aq>ired rery snddealy, whibt sitting in his 
library after dinner, Feb. 11, 1828. Mr. 
Clinton was not onW eminent as a states- 
man, bat be oooopied a conspicnooi rank 
at a ama of leamiiw. He was a member 
ja£ a large part of tfis benevolent, literary 
aad soiennfic. tocialies of the United 
Statai» and an honorary member of several 
foreign societies. His productions ,are 
anomroDS, consisting of his speeches and 
j aass ag e s to the state legislature ; his dis- 
^onrses before various institutions; his 
i ye och es in the aenate of ^ Union ; his 
addreesea to the army darin|^ the late war ; 
^irtiommunications concerning the cansj; 
his jndicifd opipions ; m J various' fugitive 
pieces. His national services wece of the 
kighest id^Klrtance; and the IBrie Canal, 
especially, though the honour of projecting 
it may. belong. to aether, will remain a 
perpetoal monament of the patriotism and 
perseverance of Clinton. 

CLIVE* Robert, lord, 'was' bom at 
Styche, in Shropshire, of a good family, 
in 1726, and in his nineteenth year was 
sent as a writer to Madras. In 1747, how- 
ever, he passed from the civil to the 
military serrioe, and soon dispfaiyed those 
talents which induced Lord Chatham to 
call him ** a heaven-bom general." The 
irst occasion on whkh he distin^iihed 
himself was at the storming of Devicottah. 
la 1751 he put the seal to his reputation 

aeeoBnlisii his purposes wera Am^ h 
accordance with strict morality. 

CLQUET, M. a French chemist and 
mathematician, was bom near Metieres^ 
in 1751. France is indebted to him for 
having perfected the manufoctore of cast 
steel, and for an imitation of the I>a««s« 
cus scymitar blades. He died at Cayenne, 
in 1801. Cloiiet was no less remarkirt>le for 
eccentricit]^ than for talent. He slept tot 
little, and upon straw, made his own 
clothes, and' cooked his own victuals, 
which were of ihe coarsest kind. 
CLYMER.Geoiige, one of the sigll^ 
rs of the declaration of independence, 
ras bom in Philadelphia in 1789. He 
was left an orphan at the a^e of seireii 
years, and after the completion of lib 
studies.' he entered the cc nting hdme of 
his uncle. When the difficulties t 

1^ his capture and subsequent defence of 
Aroot. Havinff visited England, in 1758, 
be was graterally received by the East 
India Company, and he returned to India 
with the radk of lieutenant-colonel, and 
the governorship of Fort St. David's. 
After having reduced the pirate Angrla, 
he sailed to Bengal, where he recovered 
Calcutta, defeated Surajah Doulah, at the 
battle of Flassey, dethroned him, and es- 
tablished Meer Jaifier in his place. He 
also destroyed a considerable Dutch force. 
By these exploits he gained the title of an 
omrs^i of the Mogul empire, an Irish peer- 
age, and enormous wodth. In 1784 he 
was mada governor of Bengal, whence, in 
1787, he ually returned to England. A 
severe attack was imide upon him, in 1773, 
ia the House of Commons, respecting his 
political ooadnct in India; but the motion 
was rejected, and a vote was passed de- 
claratory of his services. His death took 
plaee, by his owa hand, in the November 
ef the following year. Clive must be con- 
eidered as the founder of the British empire 
ia Hindoetaa; bat it is more than doubtftil 
" tkemm 

ced between Great Britain and the cohv 
nies, Mr. Clyiper vras among the first to 
raise bis voice in opposition to tUe arbitrary 
acts of Ihe mother countr^^, and Was chosen 
a member of the council of safety. Ta 
1775 he was appointed one of the first 
continental treasurers, but resigned this 
office soon after his first election to Con- 
gress in the ensuing year In 1780 he wai 
again elected to congress, alid stronaly 
advocated there the establishment of a 
national bank. In 1796, he was appointed 
toaether with Colonel Hawkins and Cob* 
XM Pickins to negociate a treaty with the 
Cherokee and Creek Indians, in Geoiria, 
He was subsequently president of the PM* 
ladelphia bank, and the Academy of Ftidi 
Arts. He died in 1818. 

a geographer, was bom at Dantxic, la 
1580, and %iras originally intended for the 
legal profession. After having served for 
two years in the imperial army, and tra- 
velled into England, France, Germany, 
and Spain, he died at Leyden, in l6n. 
Cluvier spoke fluently the Greek and Latin, 
and seven modem ungoages. He is the 
author of De Tribus Rheni; Germattla 
Antique ; Sicilia Antique ; Italia Antloaa ; 
and an Introduction to Ancient and Mod- 
em Geography. 

COBB, James, a dramatic writer, wav 
bom in 1756, and became secretary to tba 
East India Company, which office he held 
till his death, in 1818. He is the author 
of The Haunted Tower; The Siege of 
Belgrade; Love in the East; and. severa 
other comic operas. 

COBOURG, Frederic Joiiah, 
Prince of SAX£, an Austrian geaeralt 
commanded in 1789" the imperial armr eM 
ith var* • 

the Danube^ and fought with varied s 
against the Turks. In 1798 he gaiaedtha 
battle of Nerwinde, expelled 'the French 
fi^m the Netherlands, and invaded FranMt 
which he adopted to I bat ilithe foUowing year he wm. dUfhaMd^ 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 

r^ t toabwidoa tW LmrXIWi- 
he theo rsfigped his GonuMad. 
U9 died ID 1815. 

COCC£IUS, JoHir. • oAtive of Bre- 
91611. bora in 1003, wm appointed tfaeolo- 
ffical profeMor at Leydeo. in 1648, and 
Md tW office till bis death, in X(BG9, 
His biblical oonmentariea and writings on 
divinity fill no leM than twelye folio 
Tokunet. He was a belierer in the Mil- 
lenima, and also h^d.that thcT words and 
pfaraaes of icriptnre ooght to be nndentood 
in erery sense of which they ^wfi^ s||foe|i> 
tihfe; that, ii^^t, th^y did mean aUwt 
I was po^Ue for them to mean. ^ He gave 
rise to a sect denominated Coco^ians. 

COCKEURN, Cathbeikx, whose 
naiden name was Trotter, wag born in 
London, in 1079, and diod in mj4B* She 
was a woman of learning ^ talent* At 
ijie age o^seventaenc she wrote her tragedy 
a£ Ajpia d^ OBftrq» and she snbseqaently 
prodooed woe other tragedies and t| com- 
f4y- In her twenty-second year she 
M-mted a Defehce of Locke's EsMty on the 
Sbnnan iTadentanding, and, at a mnch 
laler period, she twice resoijaed the pen on 
t^ saiBe^rabj«(. Her last work was Re- 
marks Of Ih*»JUtherfordV iWy on Virtue. 
Ber r UisGeUanies w<)re collected in two 
Y^hnnes, 3vo, 

,. CpP&lJN€fTON, CHBipoPSSR, a 
satire of B^rbadaes, born in 1608, was 
edacated at Oxford^ entered the army, and 
pacyme captain-«fmeral (^ the Leeward 
Islands. Hedied in 17110« A few of his 
Latin and English verses are extant. He 
M jC.10,000 and his books to AU Soul's 
G^Uam*^ and. .his West Indian estates to 
(he Dpcie^ Am: the Propagation of the 

am; «< .^ af* of ^ 
matly distiqgpishing himself in i 
battles and sieges, rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-general and chief engineer. He 
died in 1704. Bergen op Zoom is his maa- 
terpiece in fortification. He is the antbor 
of A New Method of fortifying Pboes. 


COKE, Sir Edward, a celebrated 

3£l4LO,AX'Oiizp,SANCBBZ, anative 
9C jPortngal, to whom Philip II. gave the 
■amp oi the Portugoese; Titian, was born 
in 1615, and died in 1690. He was a pupil 
of Moro. Coello was in high fovoui; ^ith 
geverpU of his coatemporary soverei^s. 
Ilanv^of his works are in tbeEseivial; 
but his best piece, a St. Sebastian, is in 
the cborch of San Qeronimo at Madrid^ 

OOGAN, TiioHAS, a ph^ician, was 
bom, in ITSfi^at. Ribworthf in JLeicester- 
«hire> and was educated under Dr. Aikin. 
In eoigiiBetipa with Dr. Hawes he founded 
Jthe Homaiie Society. A eonsiderable part 
af his lifo was spent in Holkna. He died 
in 1818. He translated the works of 
Camper, and published, pome original 
WOHs; amf^qg which are. The Rhine, or 
A Joara^ from Utrecht to Frankfort; A. 
Pbiloeophi<SEtl Treatise, on the Passions; 
Ethvpal QMOMions; and Theological Dis- 

, QOHORN,Ba^nMxviro,whoiBcal]ed 
ika Piitidi Yanbaa, was bora near Leeo- 
a«.iii.^riffsbnd, is 1641* entered iHb 

jadge, was bora at Miisham, in Norfolk, 
in 1649. His studies were pursued at 
Trininr Cottage, Cambridge, and the Inner 
Temple. In 1678 be pleaded his firrt 
cause, and was appointed leader of I 'ons 
Inn, where be acquired great repotatua 
by his lectures. The fortune which be 
gained by an extensive practiaahe increased 
by two advantageous marriages, the last of 
which being with the sister of Bnrleifl^ 
gave him also political infiuence. In 1699 
and 1698 he vras made solicitor and attor- 
ney general, and in the latter office dis- 
graced himself by the manner in which he 
conducted the prosecution of the earl of 
Essex. This foult he repeated in his 

Eosecotion of Raleigh. In 160ft he was 
lighted ; in 1606 appointed chief justice 
of ue Common Pleas; and in 1616 was 
raised to be chief justice of the Kind's 
Bench, and a privy couoflellor. As a juoie 
his conduct was. honourable to him. In 
1616, however, falling into disfavour with 
James I. he was dismissed firom his high 
office, and from the council, in a manner 
which was more disgraceful to the monarch 
than to the judge. It is to be regretted 
that Coke endeavoured, though vainly, to 
recover his places by mean concession to 
the minion Buckingham. To the council 
he was, indeed, at length restored, but was 
soon expelled again, and committed to the 
Tower for his spirited and patriotic beha- 
viour in parliament. The hatred which 
he had thus excited he conthioed to merit 
during the remainder of his senatorial 
career, .from 1623 to 1628, and be had a 
pvincipal share in firaming the cdebrated 
Petition of Ri^t. He died at Stoke 
Posies, in Buckinghamshire, in 1684. Pra 
eminent in legal knowledge, acute, and of 
a solid judgment. Coke bad none of those 
fine intellectual qualities which sled a 

Digitized by 



poaMMOr. It if Mljr as 
a jadge and ai a wnainr that he can be re- 
cardM with satisfaction. His works may 
oe considered as law classics. Among thie 
most celebrated of them are his Reports; 
Book of Entries; and Institutes of the 
Laws <^ Ettffland. 

COKE, Dr. Thomas, an active mis- 
sionary, was bom at Brecon, in South 
Wales, in 1747; wu educated at Oxford ; 
and, about 1775, became acquainted with 
Weslev, whose opinions he raibibed. In 
1784, ne sailed on a mission to America, 
to which country he made eight subsequent 
voyages, and bis efforts were crowned with 
He died in 1814. Dr. 

Coke is the author of A Commentary on 
the Bible; A History of the West Indies; 
and other works. 

COLARDEAU, Cbakles Peter, a 
French poet, was bom at Janville, in 
Beauce, in 1782, and commenced his lite- 
rary oascer by a spirited imitation of Pope's 
Eloisa. He subsequently produced the 
trasedies of Astarbe and Calista, a comed;^, 
ana several poems. These procured his 
election to tne French Academy', but. he 
died, in 1776, the day before he was to 
take his seat. The great charm of bis 
works is the beautv of the versification. 
Colardcau was modest, friendly, and ab- 
horred th^jdea of giving pain. 

COLBERT, JoHff Baptist, a French 
minister of sUte, was bora at Reims, in 
1619, and is said to have been the son of 
a woollen and wine merchant of that city. 
He himself, however, claimed descent finom 
a noble Scotch family, a younrer branch 
of which settled in France aoout 1281. 
But, if not^ illustrious by birth, he was in< 
disputably illustrious b^ talent. Mazarin, 
whom he had served with equal ability and 
seal, as his confidential agent, recom- 
mended him to Louis XIV. as worthy of 
being implicitly trusted; and, after the 
(air of Fouquet, the sole managem^it of 
tM finances was committed to Colbert, 
with the title of controller-general. This 
ofiice he held till 1688^ when he died, worn 
out with incessant toil, and the in cessa nt 
anxiety and vexation arising from the in- 
trigues of his enemies. Durins his ad- 
ministration France made a n^^id progress 
in power, internal prosperity, and the cul- 
tivation of manulactures, literature, the 
sciences, and the arts. It has been justly 
remarked, that if Louis XIV, gained the 
name of The Great, it is to Colbert that be 
is indebted for that gk>rious appellation. 

COLBERT, Jobh Baptist, Marquis 
de Torey, a nephew of the minister, was 
bom in 1666 at Paris, and, after having 
been employed as a negotiator in Portugal, 
Denmark, and England, filled suooessively 
the posts of secretary and high treasurer 
ef stjMe, ttfaiistmr fi>r foreign aflkirs, and 


supenntendeBt general of poats* It wit 
he who, in the privy council, led the way 
in advising that the will of the king of 
Spain should be accepted ; and he contri- 
buted, by his negotiations, to put an -end to 
the vrar which was caused by that accept- 
anoe. Torcy vras deprived of his offices 
by the regent, duke of Orleans. He died 
in 1746. His Diplomatic Memoirs have 
been published in three volumes. 

COLDEN, Cadwallai>er, was bora 
in Dunse, Scotland, in 1688. After stndv- 
ing at the university of Edinburgh, he 
turned his attention to medicine and mathe- 
matical science until tite year 1708, when 
he emigrated to Pennsymmia, and prac- 
tised (myaic with much reputation till 1716. 
He then returned to England, and attracted 
some attention by a paper en Animal Se- 
cretion, which was read by Dr. HaHey 
before the Royal Society. Acain repair* 
ing to America, he settled, in 1718, in the 
city of New York, and relinquishing the 
practice of physic, turned his attention to 
public affikirs, and became suceessiveiy 
surveyor genera] of the province, master is 
chancery, member of the council, and Ucn- 
tenant-governor. His politieal character 
was rendered very conspieaoiA by the firso 
nets of hb conduct during the Tioleat com* 
motions which preceded the revolutioa. 
In 1776 he retired to a seat on Long Island, 
where he died in September of the ioHow- 
ing year, a few hours before near^ one 
fourth part of the city of New York 
looed to 


ashes. Hfis prodnctia 

consisting of botanical and 
medical essays. Amonff them vrere Hreft- 
tises on the Cure of cStncer, and on the 
Virtues of the Oreat Water Dock. Hia 
descriptions of between three and fo«r 
hundred American plants were printed m 
the Acta Upsaliensia. He also publisberil 
the History of the Five Indian Nattooa^ 
and a work on the Cause of Gravitatioa* 
afterwards repnblbhed by Dodsley imdar 
the title of The Principles of ActioD m 
Matter. H e left many valuable maanscriplB 
on a variety of subjects. 

COLET, Dr. John, was bora in 
don, in 1466; vras educated atOxIbrd; 
travelled on the continent -fiMr seven' year»{ 

and obtained church preferment when very 

SMiiw. In 1602, he Was made dean ot 
t. rani's; in which capacity bis 

voura to restore discipline brought on bin . 
though happily withcnt eflfect, a charge of 
heresy. In 1612, he founded and endowad 
the noble institntkm of St. Paul's 8oliool» 
forl68schohLra. He died in 1619. 

COLIGNI, Gaspar db, admiral of 
France, son of marriial de Cola^» was 
bora at Chatillon sur Loins, in 1517. 
Entering in eariv vouth on uie career of 

arms, he distinguisbed himself at Ceriaolsi, 
Carignan, Renti, St. QoBBtin, andafe — j 


Digitized by* 


Pheed at the head of 
dw protaataat party, be fboglit gallaatly at 
Dreiix, Jarnac, and Montcontoury and mic- 
c e e d cd in obtaininff an adfantaffeons peace. 
After havinfi so often braved death in the 
field, be'perislied by the daggers of assas- 
siaa, in the horrible massacre of St. Bar- 
thokMsew, Ancpst 24, 1572. 

OOLLE, Charlks, secretary and 
reader in the doke of Orleans, was oom at 
Pane, in 1709, and died there, in 1788. 
His comic pieces are lively and wifty. The 
Hwiting Party of Henry IV. is one of the 
flsoet popular of them. As a sons writer 
he was in sach high repote as to be called 
the Anacveoa of the age. He b also the 
aathor of an Historical Joomal, poblishec 
twenty years after his death, which con< 
taiaa auich bitter criticism on many an* 
thon his contemporaries. 

GOLLTER; Jkrbmt, an eminent non- 
jaring divine, was bom, in 1680, at Stow 
Qni, in Cambridgeshire. He took his 
dmee at Caina Uollege, Cambridge, in 
IflTV, and obtained a living, which he 
resigned lor the lectureship of Qray's Ion. 
At the Rerolntion, he not only refused 
the oaths, but was active in behalf of the 
dethroned monarch. For nearljr ten years 
he continued invelerately hostile to the 
n»vemnient, during which oeriod he pub- 
Hshed sevend bitter pamphlets, was twice 
imprisoned, and at length ootlawed. His 
amst indecorous act was, in concert with 
two others, his Attending Friend and Per- 
kins on the scaffold, and giving them 
public absolution. At last he turaed his 
laienis to better ends, and made war on 
the lieentiousnesB of the theatre. His first 
work on this subject was A Short View of 
the Immorality^ and Profimeness of the 
Stage. The wits in vain opposed him, for 
virtae was on his side; and, after a ten 
years stmnle, be accomplished his object. 
The rest m his life was spent in various 
lilemry Inboura, among which were Essa^ ; 
a transkuion of Moreri ; an Ecclesiastical 
History of EncUnd ; and Discourses on 
Practical Sublets. He died in 1726. 
Oillier was a man of talents; and, how- 
ever we may be inclined to ceosiire his 
political principles, it would be unjust to 
deny him the praise of having been an 
honest and disinterested man. 

COLLIN, Hbh&t de, a German poet, 
one of the anlie counsellors belongins to 
dw financial department, was bom, about 
1772, at Vienna, where he died in 1811. 
Among the German tragic dramatists he 
holds a distinguished place. His'^ar 
Songs are ftill of animatioa* Collin left 
nofinished an epic, called The Rodolphiad. 

FmAVCifl, a French dnunatist and poet, 
B, in 1-T56, at Maintenon, in the 
mt of the Eore and Loire, and 

COL Iff 

fHnd at Pkris hi 1806. The f aeonfiaat, 
a comedy, acted in 1786, was his first 
piece, and it was followed by the Optimist, 
Castles in the Air, and twelve or thirteen 
others, some of which retain poss es sion of 
the stage. His works have been coUaeind 
in four vokmes 8vo. 

COLLINGWOOD, Cf thbert, lord, 
wns bora at Newcastle in 1748, and en- 
tered the naval service in his thirteenth 
year. In the action of the 1st of June, 
1794, he commanded the Prince, admiral 
Bowyer's fia^-ship ; and in the action off 
Cape St. Vincent, in 1797, he gallantly 
seooned his friend Nelson, as captain of 
the Excellent. In 1799, 1801, and 1804, 
he rose to be rear-admiral of the white, 
of the red, and of the blue; and he bore 
a part in the fatiguing blockade of Brest. 
At the battle of Tratalgar be was second 
in command, aiid he carried his ship into 
action in such a manner as to call forth 
firom Nelson an exclaination of delight. 
His services were rewarded with a peer- 
age, the rank of vice-admiral, ana the 
command of the Mediterranean fieet. He 
died, off Minorca, March 7, 1810. Com- 
bining bravery with prudence, indefotiga- 
ble in his duty, foil of resources, strictly 
preserving discipline, yet winning the love 
of his men by justice and kindnsss, Col- 
liogwood may DC safely held up as a model 
to every officer who aspires to he honour- 
ably remembered in the annals of his 
country. Ilis Corres|)ondence, which has 
been published since his death, phices in a 
striking liffht his virtues and his talents. 

COLLINS, Antboitt, a controversial 
deist, of no mean talents, was born at 
Heston, near Hounslow, in 1676; was 
educated at Eton, and King's College, 
Cambridge; and, being a man of property, 
spent his life in literary pursiiiu, and u 
performing the duties or a magristrate. 
He died in 1729. His religious pnnciplea 
brouffht him into vjolent collision with 
Bentiey, Chandler, and many others. 
Among his works may be mentioned. 
Priestcraft in Perfection ; A Discourse on 
Freethinking ; A Philoaophical Inmiir) 
eonoeraing Human Liberty; and A Dia* 

mmm oa Ikm Oramia tad Bmmm of tl» 
Christian Rdigios.' 

Collins, Arthuii, a fenealogitt, 
was bora at Exeter in 1682, and died at 
Battertaa in 1760. His principal work* 
ara, aTeera^ in four volumes; a Baron- 
etage, in five vohunes; and Lives of Lord 
^arleigh and Edward the Black Prince. 

COLLINS, William, the son of a hat- 
ter at Chichester, was born in 1720 or 1721, 
and received his education at Windiester, 
and at Maffdalea flSMm, Oidord. While 
at Oxford, he puMished bis Oriental 
Eclogues. In 17i4 he onitted the uni- 
versity, and ^k up his ' abode in London 
as an aotbor. . ^is projects were numer- 
ous, but wai^ of pi^troni^ge or want of 
diligence, or bot^, prevented them firom 
beiuff executed. He published, however, 
his Odes, which, to the disgrace d the 
tge, were utterly neglected. From the 
pecuniary distress which he suftred, he 
was at length %^lieved by a legacy of 
£2000, but fortune came too Ute; he 
sank into a sute of nervous imbecility, 
and died at Piichester, in 1766. His Odes, 
those pearls which he cast before swine, 
have given him a place among thegreatest 
lyriciJ writers of his country. They re- 
main unsurpassed in vivid imagination, and 
high poeU<»l leeliiM and diction. 

COLLlNSON, PxTEB, F. R. S. vras 
bora near Kendal, in Westmoreknd, in 
1604, and died in 1768. Many valuable 
trees and shrubs in our sardens were in- 
^^uced by Collinson, who carried on a 
porrespondoice in every part of the world. 
Linnasus, with whom he was intimate, gave 
the name of CoUinsonia to a genus of iJants. 
He was tlie first filso to wopin Franklin 
communicatedhis discoveries in electricity. 

one of the most sanguinary characters of 
the French revolution, was born at Main- 
tenon, near Chartres. Originally he was 
1^ provincial actor, and a draouUist; and, 
thouffh he gained little pcaise in those ca- 
pacities, he was esteemed ibr the correct- 
ness of his conducts In that conduct, how- 
ever, a woeful change took phice, partly 
produced, it wouki seem, by fidling into 
habits of drunkenness. He became one 
of the most violently Jacobinical members 
of the Convention, and being sent on a 
mission to Lyons, after tlie surrender of 
that city, Ift committed the most horrible 
atrocities. He, however, contributed to 
pie fall of Robespierre. In 1795 he was 
tsansported to Cayenne, and he died there 
in 1706. 

COLLYER, Joseph, t:ie son of parents 
both of whom displayed ^ti-rary talento, 
was bom in London, in 174&, and died 
there in 1827. He was irstrucl^d in en- 
graving by Anthony and W Jiam Walker, 
'^uaiaad to amiofoce, and wos -*--'-' 


AMOCisto iBiignnRr oi ne Bfl jHM AcuiBiPf * 
Among his best works are. The Fkmisli 
Wake of Teniers, The Venus of Sir Josfaoa 
Reynolds, and portraits of George IV.* 
Queen Charkitte, and Sir William xooBg. 
COLMAN, GxoRGE, born at Florence, 
in 1788, was a son of the British resident 
to the Tuscan court, and of a sister of the 
coantess of Bath. His education be re- 
ceived at Westminster School, and at 
Cbrist Church, Qxford; and, while h« 
was at ooDege, he published The Connci^ 
seur^ oonjcMiitly .with Bonnel TlioniUNi. 
Law he .-stuidied at Lincotn^s Inn, but 
never practised. In 1760 be made bis 
first attempt as a dramatist, by bringing 

Sit at Drui^ Lane his lively fiurce of roUy 
oneycombe, which met with great suc- 
cess. The JefJous Wife, In the ibUowing 
year, establisM bis. character as a comic 
writer. In the who]e, he produced thir^- 
five pieces, a few' of which continue to ue 
acted. His fortune being increased by 
legacies ;£rom Lord Ba|h and ^.General 
Pulteney Jhe purchased a sbatre in Coveot 
Garden Theatre; bat uldmately sold it» 
and be<»ine the proprietor ol* the Hay- 
market Theatre. In i780, a derangement 
of his intellects took place, which gradually 
increased, and he dledj in 1784, in a huw- 
tic asylum. Cdman wrote The Genius, 
and many other pieces, in the St. James's 
Chronicle, whicn was his property; and 
translated Terence and Horace's Art of 
Poetrv, to the latter of which be added a 
valuable commentary. 

COLOMA. Don Caklos, marquis of 
Espina, was bom at Alicant, in Spain» in 
1678; served with distincdon in uie Low 
Countries: was governor at Cambray and 
in the Milanese, and ambassador in Ger- 
many and Enghuid; held some of the 
highest offices at court; and died in 16S7. 
He wrote the Wars of the Netherlands; 
and transUted Tacitus. 

COLONNA, Victoria, wife of Doa 
Ferdinand Francis d'Avalos, marquis of 
Pescara, was born in 1400. She was one 
of the most accomplished females of Italy; 
equally remarkable for virtue and talents. 
AAer the death of her husband, she refiised 
the hand of several princes. She died in 
1547. Her poems rank among the moat * 
happy imitations of Petrarch. 

COLQUHOUN, Patrick, a native of 
Dumbarton, in Scotland, born in 1746, 
was brought up to commerce, and, afker 
a rcfii^enoe.of fiye.jrears in America, net- 
tled as a merchant at Glassow. In 1780, 
he took up his abode in Londcm, and in 
1702 was appointed a police magistrate. 
He resignea in 1818, and died in 1880. 
His best known works are treatises On 
the Police of the Metropolis, and Oti tfan 
Police of the River Thames. He b alM 
the aothor of ratiftiis tracts, and if • 

Digitized byLjOOglC 

^ ^oTElMfttioiiftrA^lW^ ft 

IVMUrt oolodligeiice; «inI « TfMHSse m 
ifr FoitQkliaB, Icc.. of the Britkh Empire. 
COI -STON , Ed w A RD, a munifioeDt aod 
shilantbropic inerciMuit, was born at Bria- 
:ol in 1^^, and acanired a splendid fortane 
in the Spaniai trade. He died in 1721. 
rbe whole life of Cokton rt e mi to have 
been deYoted to doin^'^jroo^* In private 
and pabUc chiMrkiet, iiHiile h6 lived, be is 
npiioaed to have spent more ihan £160,000. 
He fi»w»ded am^t «ndofred 81. Aomtine's 
School, for a Imndred hoji, at Brittol; 
' • ahMboiMii tfiid beaevoleBt 
ia other pbuies. 

CX>LUMBU8, CBBirropHEK, the dii- 
eoverer of (he new world, whose real niune 
ma Ghlodttbo, waa born in' the Genoe*e 
temtofy m 1441, but whether at Genoa, 
Savaaa. Nervi, or Cbgoreo, wai long a 
wafer in iiMpaU, That it was at Genoa 
is no loafer a matfler of donbt. It hm 
heea nakiteid that his origin waa humble. 
This ia of the leaat possible eonseqnenee, 
or ir wonid lot be diffiedk to p«odnce 
evideaca that he was well descended. He 
stadied a while at Pavhi, bat qaitted the nni- 
venitT at aa early peHod to tbllow a mari- 
tiae Ufo. Between thirty and forty years 
fpere speai by him hi voyam to varioos 
pvti of the worhi, dnring which geometry, 
tiwimw y, aad eosmomphy, occupied 
■aehefhiBatteatioa. At length be settled 
ai IjiriKia, where he mahried the orphan 
Aoghmr of Paleiti^lo, an Italian navig^* 
tor. Hii gaographital iovestfgptions, sop- 
ferted fay the evidence pf pieces of carved 
wted, tnnks of trees, Aid caiiiei, drifted 
icrosa the Allaaiisv-tediv^tr hiiii «a^<ffie«^ 
ittt, by stretching across the ocean in a 
peslerW direction, the shores of Eastern 
fkam miaht be reached, and he resolved to 
detain from some sovereign the niMns of 
taking the aUMnpt. Years of solicitation 
■are spent in vain; hisproposab were not 
iMened to at Genoa, Lisbon, or London. 
tt length they were tardily accepted by 
■■duiaad and Isabella of Spain. On the 
Pd of Aamt, 1402, Colambas with three 
pan taHMs sailed OB-hie dariag adventore 
PMimporteCrelot. Ha striped at the 

COM- m 

^whence he deptited en the Oih 
of September, and cofitinned his onward 
course for thirty-ilve days, seeing nothing 
around him but the billows and the sky. 
Already daunted by the terrors of unknown 
seas, the variation of the compass, which 
was now first observed, overpowered the 
courage of the sailors, and they were more 
than once on the point of breaking into 
|opeir iiAitiny, and steering back to Spain. 
The long sought land at last appeared, on 
the nikht o( me 11th of October, 1492. It 
was duanahani. one of the Bahamas, to 
which he gave the name of San Salvador. 
Afiet having boilt a fort, and left in it 
thirty-eirht men, he returned to Europe, 
and ancliored at Palos on the 15tb of 
March, I40S. The people received him 
with enthusiasm, the court heaped honours 
upon him Colombus made three more 
voyages to the Western world; one in the 
antumn of 1498, another in 1498, and tlie 
last in 1004; aitd considerably enlarged 
the sphere of his discoveries. His latter 
years were imbittered by insult and injury. 
Complaints of his conduct at Hispanibla, 
in 1499, having been made to the court, 
Bovadilla was dispatched to the island to 
investigate the charges, and that brutal 
commissioner sent Colnmbus to Europe ia 
irons. For this shameful indignity he re- 
ceived but an imperfoet reparation. He 
died May 20, 1600. 

COLUMELLA, Lucius Joirius Moi>- 
KRATUs, a Latin writer, one of the best 
agri^lturists of antiqu%, was a native of 
(Hdes, in Spain, and resided at Rome in 
thererni of Ckmdius. He is the author 
of a Treatise on Agricuhnre, in twelva 
books, which is still extant. 

COLUTHU8,a Greek poet, who flour- 
ished in the reign of Anastasiiis about 
A. D. 491, was a native of Lvcopolis, in 
Egypt. He wrote the Calyaonics, and 
therersics; bat' they are lost. His only 
extant poem is the Rape of Helen, the 
manuscript of which was found, by Cardi- 
nal Bessarion, in the monastery or Casoli, 
near Otranto. * 

COMINES» Philip dx, lord of Argen- 
ton, was born, in 1445, at Comines, in 
Flanders. Hie early part of his lifo was 
passed at the Court of Charles the Bold, 
duke of Bdrguildjr, fiW whose service he 
passed into that of Louis XI. of Frai^e, 
who employed him in varioos negotiations. 
Comines, having taken a part in the in- 
trigues of the dwe of Orleans, was impris- 
oned for some months in 1486, but was at 
length pardoned, and again trusted as a 
neg^iator. He died In 1609. His Me- 
moirs, which are written in a pleasing 
style, abound with valuable infonnatioa 
and judicious reflections. 

COMMCUN. Joaa. a botaaisi, araa 
bora at Aaisisr^ inim.^SrSU te 

m OM 

1691. HalttdtliedireetioBortlieboteMe 
garden of Iim natire city, and be spared 
oeither labour nor expense to improve it. 
He piibliibed The Hesperides of the Low 
CountrieB, and other works. His nephew, 
G48PAR, is the author of Flora Malaba- 
rica, and Tarioos botanical productions. 

COMMERSON, Philibkrt, a Frendi 
physician and botanist, was bom, in 1727, 
at Chatillon les Dombes, and died, in 1778, 
at the Isle of France, whither he had ac- 
eompanied Boosainville, in his voyage 
round the worki. Before he set out on 
hb voyage, he composed a Martyrobgy 
of Botany, which is a historv of botanists 
who hftve fallen victims to tneir botanical 
hbours. The name of Commersonia was 
gi\«i by Forster to a genus of Polynesian 

COMMODUS, Lucius Aurxlius 
Artoitihus, emperor of Rome, the son of 
Marcos Aarelins, was bom a. d. 161, and 
succeeded his fiither a. d. 180. Cruel 
and licentious in the extreme, without a 
single virtue, he disgraced the throne and 
aoourged the people tor twelve years. He 
was at lenrai poisoned by^ his concubine 
Martia, ana, the poison acting too slowW, 
bis death was completed by strangulation. 
CONDAHINE, Charles Mart la, 
a mathematician and philosopher, who 
ioined ardour and perseverance with an 
iBMtiable thirst of know 

knowledge, and who 
so a man of wit ancT a writer of 
was bora at Paris in 1701, and 
died in 1774. He travelled much in his 
youth, and, in 1786, was one of thoae 
who were sent to Pern to measure a de- 
gree of the meridian. Coodamine was 
remarkable for boundless curiosity, some 
ludicrous instances of which are recorded. 
His principal works am, A Journal of a 
Voyage to tne Equator ; and Observations in 
a Voyage / on the River Amazons. 

CONuE, Louis II. of Bourbon, 
prince of, surnamed the Great, was bora 
at Paris in 1621. When only twenty-two, 
he was intrusted with the command of an 
army against the Spaniards, and he utterly 
deftated them at Rocroi. In 1646, 1646, 
and 1648, he gained the victories of Fri- 
bourff, Nordlinffen, and Lens, and reduced 
Dunkirk; but be was foiled in the sic«e 
of Lerida. Durins toe war of the Fronde, 
he at first ioioed the court, but afterwards 
broke with it, and was punished T 
imprisonment of thirteen months, j 
ing with a thirst for revenge, he took up 
arms against the government ; had a des- 
perate engagement with the roval troops 
in the sulnirb of St. Antoine ; and at len^ 
fled from France, and entered the service 
of Spain, in which he fought with alternate 
good and bad fortune. In 1660 he was 
■permitted to return to his country. His 
Im ailltey acts wtre» the coBi|iMit of 


n IfiOrUm ftiiifi «r 

the Rhine, in 1672; and the battle of Be* 
neff, in 1674. He died, in 1686, at Fon- 
tainebleau. Cond^ was active, daring, 
foil of resources, and inflexibly persever- 
ing in spite of obstacles; but it is impos- 
sible ta deny that he was cuIpabW lavish 
of the bk>od of his soldiers; a fault which 
some have vainly attempted to palliate bj 
urging that be was equally lavish of his own. 
CONDILLAC,Strphiii BoimoTDR, 
a brother of the Abb6 de Mablv» was bora» 
in 1716, at Grenoble, and died» on his 
esUte near Beaugenci, in 1780. For the 
of Prince Ferdinand of ^arma, ts 
whom he was tutor, he drew up %. Coarse 
of Study, in thirteen volumes. The whole 
of his works form twenty-three volmDes in 
8vo. Amouff them are, An Essajf on Hu- 
man Knowledge (his first productum) ; and 
a Treatise on Sensations. As a metaj^hy- 
sician Contillac has a high repotatioa, 
though some have endeavoured to tarnish 
it, by accusing him of borrowing from 
Locke, and of advancing principles which 
tend to materialism. 

Nicholas Caritat, maronis of, was 
bora at Ribemont, in Picardv, in 1768. 
Mathematics and natural phikMophy* for 
which he displayed an early fondneaa» he 
studied at the college of Navarre, and ac- 
quired such a mastery of them that, at ^ 
age of twen^r-two, lie puUished bis wc 
Chi Integral Calculus; which, in theceui 
of three years, was followed by bis Sohi- 
tion of the Pr6blem of the Three Bodies, 
and the first part of the E^ssay on Aim|ysis. 

He was secretary of the French AcmKBj, 
and of the Aeaoemy of Sciences; and m 
this capacity composed his cdebrated Eu- 
logies of tBe deceased members. In 1786 
and 1787 be gave to the world Lives of 
Turcot and of Voltaire. Condoroet was 
closely connected with Vohaire, I>*Alem- 
bert, and the rest of his contemperary 
philosophers, and he lent the aid of hie pea 
and his voice to forward the French revo- 
lution. He was a member of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly aod of the Convention. la 
the latter body he was one of the Oirondist 
par^, and tnis oircumstance sealed his 
doom. ProsctribedbyRobespieive,hekis« 
remained in concealment, but was at lemrtt 
taken, upon which he put an end toaif 
existence by poison m March, 1794. 

dorcet was a man of multiforioiis talents, 
and possessed many good qualities; but he 
was a confirmed sceptic, smd utterly unfit 
for a politician. He left some posthMnous 
works, among which is a Sketch for an 
Historical Picture of the Progress ^ the 
Human Mind. It was vrrittsn wliile ha 
was hiding firom hb enemies, and asnain 
his frivonrlte doctrine of the infiaits mv* 
fiNtibiUlir of the hnBM iMi. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CUiieae phUtMopher, wa« born 606 nl c. 
in tbe kmfdom of Ln» which ii now the 
prorioce m" ShaagUuw, and died in hi« 
■eTeoty-third year. He was tbe moat 
kamed and Tirtuoos man of hii age, uid 
laboored strenooosly in relbrmnig the man- 
ners of hia countrymen. Hit memory and 
the moral worlu which he wrote are held 
in tbe bigbeti veneration by tbe Chi< 

CONGREVE, William, one of tbe 
wittiest of Britiih dramatistf , waa bom at 
Bardaaj Grange, near Leeds, in ,1670; 
was educated at Trinity Collm, Dublin; 
and studied at the Middle Temple. At 
■ereoleen, be wrote the romance o( Incoe- 
ikita, at Love and Duty reconciled. His 
comedy of Tbe Old Bachelor was acted 
in 16ro, and raised him at once to fiune 
and affluence. Three lucrative oflices were 
ffiven to him by Lord Halifiuc. Between 
1694 and 1697 be produced, and with suc- 
oesB, Love for Love, Tbe Double Dealer, 
and The Bfouming Bride. Collier cen- 
■ored his indecency and profiuieness, and 
tbe dramatist replied, but was unable to 
refiite the charge. In 1700, his Way of 
tbe World was so coldly received that, in 
disgust, be resolved to write no more for 
the sta^. He, however, continued to 
Ivrite vers e s ; but they have long ceased to 
flad readers. On the acoession of George 
I. die gift of another sinecure office in- 
cri.astid the income of Congrete to jC1200 
per annum. His latter days were, never- 
theless, beavilv overclouded. He was 
^ffieted by total blindness and by the gout; 
and at bsngth the latter, and an internal 
ii^nry ftwn being overturned, terminated 
his existoooe on the 19th of January, 

CONGREVE, Sir William, F.R.S. 
tbe so* of a lieutenant-general, entered the 
military service early, and rose to the rank 
of Heateaant-oolond. He sat in parliament 
lor Gallon, and afterwards for Plymouth. 
Having unfortunately taken a ceiwurable 
part in one of tbe Ixibble speculations of 
1686, he quitted his country; and he died 
at TonkMise in 1828. For raventive talenu 
be has seldom been surpassed. Among his 
n n meio t w inventions may be mentioned his 
foirmidable rockets, a hvdro-pneumatic ca- 
^ mode of m 

nal lock, and a new 
CONON, an 

i of manufocturing 

lenian general, tbe son 
ef Timotheos, was defeated by Lysander, 
at tbe naval battle of JSgospotamos, and 
for a while withdrew into vohmtary bau- 
« ishment. Having obtained aid from Ar- 
taxerxes, he returned, and routed and 
kOled the Spartan atlmiral, Pisander, near 
CBidoa. CowM then restored the fortifica- 
tions of Athena. Artaxerxes is said to 
■ive put Ua to dMith M ft folia aocasatioB ; 

OCIf Mi 

bit wemm eoMend that be died ia Cyptm 
B. c. 860. 

CONSTANS I., Flatius Julius. 
bom A. D. 820, succeeded, on the death of 
his fotber Constantino the Great, to the 
sovereignty of Africa, Italy, and western 
niyricum. His iMrother Uoostantine en- 
deavoured to wrest it from him, but was 
defeated and slain ; and his dominions fell 
into tbe power of Constans. The victor, 
however, governed so disgraoefolly, that 
popular diaooatent encouraged Magaentiue 
to hoist the standard of revok, and Con- 
stans was put to death while trying to 
escape, A. D. 860. 

CONSTANTINE, Caius Flatius 
Valkrius Aurxlius Claudius, sur* 
named thet Great, emperor of Rome, the 
son of Constantius Chloms and Helena, is 
believed to have bera bom at Naissus, in 
Miesia, about a. d. 274. After tbe death 
of his fotber, he had a severe struggle for 
empire with Maxentius, whe was at length 

ited, and drowned in the Tiber, near 
the Mivian bridge. It was before this ac- 
tion that Constantino is nretended to have 
seen a blaxing cross in tne heavens, with 
inscription importing, ** By this thou 
shah conquer.*' His next contest waa 
with Licinius, whom also be vanquished 
He subsequently chastised the Goths. Bat 
the two great evenu of his reign were bit 
embracing the Christian religion and ren* 
dering it the dominant foith,and his remo- 
ving the seat of empire from Rome to 
Bysantium, which was thenceforth called 
Constantinople. He died at Nicomedia, 
A. D. 887. That Constantino had a lam 
share of talent, and some virtues, is umto- 
niable, but when we consider nis many 
foulu, among which was a cruelty that did 
not spare even bis own children, bis claim 
to the title of great becomes somewhat 
more than dubious. 

CONSTANTINE II., Claudius Fla- 
tius Julius, the eldest son of Constan- 
tino the Great, was bora in 816, and, on 
the death of bis fotber became sovereign 
of Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Coveting 
tbe dominions of bis brother Constans, he 
a t tacked bim, but was slain in an ambosb» 
A. D. 840. 

oxHiTus, a Greek emperor, was bom at 
Constantinople in 905, and died In 936. 
He was an accomplished and well meaning 
but weak prince. His virtues^ however, 
caused him to be regretted by^ bis subjects. 
Constantine wrota a Description of the 
Province of the Empire; a Life of the 
Eropcior Basil, the Macedonian; a Tree* 
tise on the Government of tbe Empire; 
and another on the Ceremonies of the By 
xantine Court. 

CONSTANTINE, Dracosbs or Pa. 
.jROLOoui, tl# last of the Gieak anp*- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Mi coo 

fCri^. #iitNini Ib 14M, and iiicMdft^lin 
brodier, John Palnologw, in 1449. Threirt- 
•ned 1^ the Sultan Mahonuned 11., he 
▼ainly endeavoured to obtain aid 'from 
Christian Europe. In 145S, Mahomet be- 
sieged Constantinopto with 900,000 men. 
A gallant defence was made for fifty-three 
days, but the city was taken by storm on 
the 29th of May, and Constantine fell, 
mfWr hating displayed a degree of heroic 
▼alour whioi demands admiration. 

0ON8TANTIUS, Flavios Juliiis, 
who from his paleness was called Chlo- 
mut, was the son of Eutropius; was bom 
•bout A. D. 250; and wasaopoinied goT- 
emorof Pafanatia, A. D. 28z. Ten years 
afterwards, he was made Cesar, and asso- 
ciated with Diocletian and Maximian, 
having under him Giiul, Spain, and Brit- 
ain, m last of which prbvinces he recovered 
from Allectus. He oecame sole emperor 
in 809; fifteen months subsequently to 
which event be di^ at York. 

CON9TANTIUS II., Flatios Ju- 
lius, second fon of Constantine the Great, 
was bom a. d. 817, and was declared 
*C»sar at an early aee. On the death of 
his iitther, be is said, in violation of a sol- 
emn oath, to have murdered nine of his 
relatives. After a long and doubtful contest 
with Magn^ntius, he became sole master 
of the einpire> a. d. 868. His subsequent 
•way was marked by weakness and vio- 
lence. He died A. D. 881, while march- 
ing against Julian, who had assumed the 

CONWAY, HvHRT Sktmour, sec- 
ond son of Lord Conway, was bora in 
1720; ahd, after having served with ap- 
plause in the seven vears' war, was a 
member of the Engliso and Irish House 
of Commons, and, from 1766 to 1768, 
' ' ■ ' &te. In 1782, he 

ander-in-chief, and 
ing then the senior 
He wrote some po- 
ts, and the comedy 

RH, a native of I>e- 

ihoe, in 1892, was 

>>l]ege, Oxford, of 

ecame the head. In 

>efence of Revealed 

Christianity Sb old 

which he was made 

I. In 1760 he was 

f Bristol, in which 

Two volumes of his 

»d after his death. 

eminent circumnavi- 

^tor, was bonk at' Marton, in Yorkshire, 

u 1728, of humble parents, and received 

only the coamotMst rudiments of edqcation. 

Ate having served for some years in the 

■M r c a ntH e BkartDe,he entered into the navy 

■I VM9 and displayed fo mnch ooadnet 


mud capacity tfaafWwai appc^BMll mmIs 
While tfaui employed, he ande a cfaiit of 

the St. Lawrence, and surveys of the har> 
hour of Flaoentia, and of the islands of St. 
Pierre and Miquelon. He wa« now pro- 
moted to be marine surveyor, in which ca- 
pacity he twice reaided tor a considerable 
period at Newfonndland. It was while 
resident there that he communicated to 
the Royal Society an observation on a 
solar eclipse ; which, with his well knoWB 
nautical skill, induted the government to 
give him the command of the Endeavoui-, 
with tlie rank of lieutenant. That ship 
was intended to convey to Otaheite the 
astronomers who were to observe the tramh 
of Veno^over the sun's disk. Cook sailed 
in 1768, and returned in 1771 ; havtngpar- 
ticularly explored the coasts of New 2Sea- 
land and New Holland. He was made 
master and commander, and, in 1772, be 
again sailed, in company with Captain 
F^raeaux, to solve the problem of the ex- 
istence of a southern circumpolar continent. 
They were stopped by the ice, in the latitude 
of seventy-one. In Uiis voyaire, which was 
not terminated till 1776, CapUin Cook 
took such excellent precautioas, that onh 
one man died of scurvy on board of hb 
ship. For this he was ciioeen F. R. S. and 
received the Copleyan gold medal; and 
was appointed a post-captain, -and captafai 
of Greenwich Hospital. In 1776 he de- 
parted, with two ships, the Resolution and 
the Discovery, to search for an arctic pas- 
sage between the Pacific and the Atlantie. 
In this voyage he perished. On the 14th 
of February ne was slain b^ the natives of 
Owhyhee, one of the Sandwich Islands. 
Foreign countries no less than England 
lamented his loss, and vied with each othar 
in doing honour to his memory. 

COOKE, TB09IA9, a miscellaneotii 
writer, was bora in 17u2, at Braintree, in 
Essex, and died in 1756. He wrote some 
fomtten poems and dramas; poblisheil 
editions ofMarvell's works, and of Viffil; 
and translated Terence»Hesiod*and C^oero 
de Natura Deorum. His Hesiod* feag ibm 
only English version, is now so peffiadad bj 
the more poetical work of Bltm Poptb 

Digitized by VjOC 


I Iw bud attacked in the B^de of tbt 
'oelB, gave hhn a niche in the Dnnciaa. 

COOKE, William, a poet and bior- 
rapher, was born at Ck>rk, in Ireland He 
came to England about 1700, and applied 
himeelf at Int to the law; but, after a 
brief trial of it, be porcha«ed ihares in two 
newspaper!, am) gave himself np wholly to 
literatora. He dwd April 8, 1^. He is 
the aathor of The Art of Livmg in London, 
a poem; Conversation, a dic&ctic poem; 
biographies of Macklin and Foote; The 
Elements of Draaiatie Criticism; and a 
pamphlet cm parliamentary reform. 

COOKE, GcoROK Frkdiric, an em- 
inent actor, was bom in Wertminster, in 
1796. Frintiar and the navy, both of which 
he tried ia early life, he aModooed for the 
itage, on whicD he at length acquired so 
BMch reputation, that he appeared at Co- 
vent Garden, in 1800, as Richard III. 
Thenceforth be stood high among perform- 
ers. Sir Giles Overreach, Sbylock, Sir 
Pertinax M*Syoophant, and many other 
characters, he personated with consummate 
skill. But habits of intemperance often 
drew on him the public ancer, and eventu- 
ally ahortened his days. He died in Ame- 
rio), in 1812. 

COOKE, Elisha, a physician of Boston, 
If assachosetts, was gradwued at Harvard 
College, in 16iE^7. He distinguished him- 
self. 1^ bb vigorous efibrts in advocating 
popular ritfhts, during the contentions be- 
tween the legislature of the colony and the 
royal governors. In 1669 he went to Eng- 
land as agent of Massachusetts, to procure 
the restoration of the charter. He was 
bold and patriotic, and possessed much 
streajgth of intellect. After holding vari- 
ens unportant offices in the province, he 
died in 1715, Elisha, son of the preced- 
ing, and also distinguished in the early 
pcMitical contentions of the province, was 
paduated at Harvard College in 1697, 
ield several public offices, imd died in 

COOBfBE, William, a writer, of ver- 
satile talent, is said to have been the son of 
a London tradesman, who left him a good 
fortme, which, however, be dissipated in 
the circles of iashion. He was educatnd 
at Eton and Oxford. Driven to literature 
for a subsistence, his first production was 
a satire, called The Diaboliad, which had 
an extensive but transient popularity. H>s 
novel of The Devil on Two Sticks ii| Eng- 
land had the same iate. His numerous 
politieal pampUeU are forgotten. Late in 
nie, however, he gained a large share of 
giblic attention l^ his amusing Tours of 
br. Syntax, and other poems m a similar 
kind. AnKHo^ his kst works, is a History 
nf Westminster Abbey. He died In 1828. 

COOPER, SlMVBL, a painter, who so 
■Mk «toiB*d fai ndaiatore that he was 

enfled the Vandyke of that branoh of kb 
art, was bom in London in 1689, and 
was a pupil of Hoskias, his uncle. Hie 
eminence, however, was attained by study* 
ing the works of Vandyke. He died m 
1676. His brother, Alsxavdzh, was n 
portrait painter. 

COOPER, Samuel, a 
minister, was bom in Boston, ' 
setts, in 1726. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1748, and, devotii^ 
himself to the cwirch, acquired great repu- 
tation as a preacher, at a very cmrly sge. 
After an usefol and popular ministry of 
thirty-seren years, he died in 1788. He 
was a sincere and liberal christian, and in 
his profession perhaps the most distinguish* 
ed man of his day, in the United rates. 
He was an ardent friend of the cause of 
liberty, and did much to promote it. With 
the exception of political essays in the jour* 
nals of tne day, his productions were eaclu- 
sivelv sermons. 

COOPER, John Gilbert, a miscel* 
laneons writer, a native of Nottingham- 
shire, received his education at Westmin- 
ster School, and Trinity CoUep, Cam* 
bridge. Literature was only his amuse- 
ment, for he was a man of property. He 
died in 1769. His poems, oonuming a 
translation of Ver Vert, Epistles from Aris- 
tippus, and other pieces, nave been admit- 
ted into the collected works of the British 
Poets, l^ey are lively and elegant. He 
also wrote a Life of Socrates; and Letters 
on Taste; and contributed to The Worid. 


COOTE, Sir Etre, a native of Ireland, 
was bom in 1726. In 1746, be fought 
against the Scotch rebeb. In 1754, he 
went to the EUist, where he distinguiriied 
himself at the siege of Pondichem; in 

1769, he was for a while commander-in- 
chief of the Company's forces; and in 

1770, he revisited England, whence, in 
1780, he was again dispatched to India, 
with his former rank. Hvder was then 
ravaging the CBumatic with are and sword. 
Coote arTOBted his progress, and, with an 
army not equal to one-tenth of his antago- 
nists, he defeated him in several encoun- 
ters. He died at Madras^ in 1788. 

COPERNICUS, Nicholas, a native 
of Prussia, was bora, in 1473, at Thorn, 
ftfedicine and philosophy were the first'ob- 
jects of bis study; but be quitted them for 
mathematics and astronomy. Travelling 
into Italy, he became acquainted with Re* 
giomontanus, and was made mathematical 
professor at Rome. On his return home, 
ne was made canon of Frawenberg, ana 
archdeacon of St. John's Church in Thora. 
As early as 1507 he had begun to meditate 
a reform of the Ptolemaic sjelem, but it 
was not till 1580 that he comoleted hie ' 
laboura; and such was his dread of < 


ntiM fhpt Iw did not imtan to poUi^ 
t|pwi till lf4S. His death took pbc« oo 

the 28d of May in that year, and the 
printed oopgr of hi« book was pot into his 
band aUnosK at the moment when his eyes 
were abont tp ck>se for erer. 

tinguished painter, was bom in Boston, 
M a senchus e t^s, in 1788. He began to 
paint without ^y instruction at a very 
early age, and executed pieces unsurpassed 
by his nter prpductions. He visitea Italy 
in 1774, and in 1776 went to England, 
where be detfrmined to remain, in conse- 
quence of the convulsed state of his native 
country. He therefore devoted himself to 
portrait paintins in London, and was cho- 
sen a member of the royal academy. His 
oeMNrated picture, styfed The Death of 
Lord Chatham, at once esubliibed his 
fiune, and he was enabled to pursue his 
profMsioa with success and unabated ar- 
dour, tiil^ his sodden death in 1815. 
Amonff his most celebrated productions 
are, majw Pierson's Death on the Island 
of Jersey; Clwurles I. in tlie house of com- 
mons, demanding of the Speaker Lenthall, 
the five impeached members; the Surren- 
der of Admiral De Winter to Lord Dun- 
can; Samuel and Eli; and a numbca* of 
Dortraits of several members of the royal 

OdfRAM,Ti(OMA8, a man distinguished 
for lus philanthropy, is believed to have 
been born about loo8, and was brought up 
to the sea, in the mercantile service. The 
greatest part of tis life was spent in endea- 
▼onrs to oenefit mankind. Among hb be- 
nevolent plans was the establifihment of the 
Foundling Hoipiul, for which institution, 
after seventeen yean' exertion, and great 
sacrifices, he obtained a charter. His char- 
ity having injured his fortune, a subscrip- 
tion was raised for him in his old age. Ue 
died in 1761. 

CORBET, Richard, a divine and poet, 
bom. in 1582, at Ewell in Surrey, vras edu- 
catnd ai Westminster, and Christ Church, 
Oxford. James I., who admired his wit, 
■Mule him one of his chaphuns. and at 
^^tfth gave hia the bishopric of Oxfocd« 


wlMwe he WM tr^asktad t» Au «f M9 
wich. He died in 1685 His |weas, §Uk 
published in 1647, were republished by Mr. 
Gilchrist, in 1807. They possess consider- 
able merit. Corbet was ** a feUow of iai- 
nite jest," and sometimes for^t his epiaoo- 
pal dignity in his fove of joculari^ and 

CORELLI, Arcavoklo, an Italiaa 
musician, was bora at Fusignaao in I6689 
studied under Simonelli and Giovanni Baa- 
sani, and acquired i^reat c e leb rity as a 
composer and violinist. His 9ows are 
amon^ the most admired of his works. He 
died in 1718. Geminiani, his pupil, oowi- 
ders a nice ear and a highly delicate taete 
to have been among the principal merita o# 

CORINNA, a poetessp to whom the 
Greeks gave the app e llation of the Lyri<^ 
Muse, was a native MTanagra, ia Besotia. 
She flourished in the fifth century b. c, 
and was a contemporary of Pinaur, from 
whom she five times won the prise in 
poetical contests. Her fellow citisens boa- 
oured her memory by erecting a tomb to 
her in the most frec|iiented part of their 
city. Only a few fragments, of her workip 
are extant. 

CORIOLANUS, Cmi^ Marcws, bo 
called (rom his valour h^ing mainly con- 
tributed to the capture of Corioli, was of 
the patrician fomily of the Marcii. In the 
contests between the patricians and plebi- 
ans, be took an active part, and treated 
the Utter with the most insolent conteaspt. 
Being in consequence banished, he joined 
the Volscians, and made war upon the Ro- 
mans, whom he reduced to great distress. 
Yiekiing at last to the entreaties .of hia 
mother and wife, be withdrew his foresee ; 
in revenge for which he was murdered by 
the Volscians, B. c. 488. The marder, 
however, is denied by some historians. 

earl of, was born in 1707; and, after hav- 
ing been under the tuition of Fenton tho 
poet, completed his education at West- 
minster School, and Christ Church, Ox- 
ford. In parliament he was an opponent 
of Walpole. Literature, however, had 
more charms for him than politics. Be- 
sides giving to the press the Plays and 
Slate Letters of his great rrandiather, and 
the Memoirs of the £arl cl Monmouth, he 
transkted Pliny's Letters; and wrote Re- 
marks on the Life and Writings of Swift; 
Letters from Italy ; and some papers ia The 
World and the CqiMioisseur. tie died ia 

CORMONTAIGNE, M. a Freneb eo- 
gineer, whom some consider as ranking 
next to Vanban, was born toweids th« 
ckwe of the seventeenth caniary^ snteie^ 
the engineer oorps in 1718; s^rad ia al- 
•a Iha siege*, buhiem itm paMt* 


■ml Vt4Bt Mid disd & wmoi joMiiil t» 
1151. Btt vorks have twen publuhed, 
nnce bis doath, in three volamce 8vo. 
ComoaUifDe was the constructor of the 
additional fortificatioas of Metz and Thi- 

CORNARO, Lewis, a Venetian noble, 
bom in 1467, is remarkable only for his 
«-dl known book on Temperate Livinir, 
wbich first appeared at Padua in 1568, 
aad has beea translated into many Ian- 
guasas. Having in youth injured bis health 
by dissipation, be restored it, aad liTed to 
the age of niaet^-eight, fay means of a 
•triet regimea m diet. Cornaro also 
wrote a treatise, which he valued higfal]^, 
oo the best saods of preserving in a navi- 
gable state the lagunes that sorroand Ven- 

CQRN£ILLE, Pktxe, one of the most 
celabralad French dramatic writers, was 
hon at Boueo, in 1686» and £br some time 
practised as a banister in bis aative city. 
The suc c s M of his first piece, a comedy 
ntitled MeUte, iadnoed him to persevere 
in arritioff Cbr tho stace. His mme was 
atam^ ay the tragedy of The Cid, and 
he simhiined it nobly by producing The 
Horatii, Cinna, Pofyeoctes, and numerous 
other pt eses » of which the French theatre 
is JHstrf proud* and which have earned for 
him the epithet of the Great. In 1647, he 
was chosen a member of the French Acad- 
emy. ComeUle died October 1, 1684. 

CORNEUXE, Thomas, the brother 
of Peter, was bora at Rouen, in 1625, and 
died it Andely, in 1709. Like his great 
relative he was a iertile and soec^sful 
dramatist; aad, at that period, was second 
only to him in merit. He is the author of 
fbff^two pieces. He likewise produced a 
Dictiosary of Arts and Sctsaces, two vol- 
■nsBa Iblio; a Universal Geographical and 
Historical Dictionary; aad ciber works. 

DK&lc, bom at Amsterdam, in 1522, was 
origiaally an eiaii^nt engraver, but relin- 
oaMhed Me boria £ar literature and poli- 
tlcl^ To Comhert was intrusted the com- 
posing of the first manifesto issaed by Wil- 
taam of Nassau against Spain; and that, 
and the active part which ne subsequently 
took in behalf of Dutch liberty, rendered 
him aa otuect of incessant persecution to 
the Spanmrds. He died at Gouda, in 
1590. His misodhineous works have beea 
eettected in three Iblio. vokunss. 

CX)RNWALUS, Cbarlbs, marouis, 
mm of the first Earl Cosnwallis, was bom 
m ITffi, aad ealered the armv, after hav- 
ing received his education at Westminster, 
attd St. John's College, Cambddgs. In 
11ttl« ha sttPCftedfid to the title. During 
ihe.Amflvican war ha acted a. conspicuous 
paxt., He siMMliffad himself at the battle 
eT Jkamdmm»m,mA thesiMaeC Gfaedea. 


ISB. and ebtained advaatagw' al Gamdee 
and Gaildibrd; but, having invaded Vr:- 

ginia, he was surrounded at York Town, 
and compelled to capitulate. From 1786 
to 1792, he was ^vemor-general and com- 
mander-in-chief in India; and during that 
period he^ vanquished Tippoo Sultaan, and 
obliged him to accept a humiliating peace. 
For this service he was created a marquis, 
aad appoiated master-general of the ord* 
aaltce. In 1798 be was sent over^ to Ire- 
land as lord-Keuteaant, and remained till 
1801 ; and, bjr a system of blended firm- 
ness and conciliation, he succeeded in re- 
storing peace to that distracted country. 
The treaty of Amiens, in 1802, was signed 
by him. In 1804 he was again made gov- 
erner-general of ladia, but ne died, in the 
October of the ensuing year, at Ghazepore, 
in the province of Benares. Sound prac* 
tical sense, not splendid talent, was the 
characteristic of Corawallis. 

CORONELLI, Mark ViifCEiiT, a na- 
tive of Venice, professor of geography, and 
eosmogn^her to the Venetian republic, 
died in 1718. A geozraphscal society was 
fiyunded by him at Venice. In the con- 
struction of globes he was particularly 
skilful. He published mofe than four hun- 
dred maps, and is the author of maay 
works, among which are, A History of 
Rhodes ; a Description of the Morea; and 
a History of Venice. 

Francis, a botanist, bom at Serra, in 
Portugal, in 1750, was the founder of the 
Academy of Sciences at Lisbon. The la^ 
qaisitioa twice compelled him to fiy from 
his country. From 1816 to 1819 he wae 
Portuguese envov to the United States; in 
the latter vear be was recalled, to be a 
member or the council of finance; and in 
1823 he died, shortly after having been 
elected to the Cortes. He is the author of 
many papers in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, and in other works of the same 

CORREGIO, Anthony, whose real 
was Allkgri, was bora jst Corre- 
the Modeneee, ia 1490 or 1494 
is net knswn. His 

Digitized by 





he » the foander of the Lombard Khool. 
** Hia colour and mode of finighiog,'* says 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, ** approach nearer to 
perfection than those of any other painter ; 
the gliding motion of his outline, and the 
sweetness with which it melts into the 
ground; the clearness adt transparency 
of his cokmrin^, which stops at that exact 
medium in ^ich the purity and perfection 
of taste Kcs, leaTcs nothing to oe wished 
for.*' Yet, notwithstanding his genius and 
industry, ** poorly, poor man, he lived; 
poorly, poor man, he died!*' His death 
took phioe in 1534. 

CORTEREAL, Caspar, a Portuguese 
navintor, was bom at Lisbon, of a noble 
fiunily. Eager to rival de Gama and Co- 
lumbus, he resolved to attempt a north- 
west passase to the East Indies. In 1500 
he explored the mouth of the St. Laurence 
and the coast of Labrador, as far as Cape 
Chidley. He made a second voyage, but 
his vessel never returned. His brother, 
MioiTKL, sailed in search of him, and 
shared the same fiue. A third brother, 
Va SCO,* was preparing to sail, in the hope 
of recovering his beloved relatives, when 
he was prohibited bv the king, who de- 
ckred tnat, having lost two of his most 
Aiitliful servants and valuable friends, he 
was resolved to preserve the third. — For 
their lather, Johh Vaz Costa Cortk- 
RKAL, the honour of having discovered 
Newfcandland is claimed by Portuguese 

CORTEZ, FiRDiNAirD, a descendant 
of a noble but poor &mlly, was bom at 
Medellin, in Estremadum, in 1486. The 
law, to wchich he was bred at Salamanca, 
he quitted for a military life. In 1504, he 
went to St. Domingo, and, in 1511, ac- 
companied Velasques to Cuba, and re- 
ceived from him a grant of land, as a re- 
ward for his services. The conquest of 
Mexico beiag resolved upon, Velasques 
intrusted him with the command of the 
•nterarise. The expedition, which con- 
■isted of ten small vessels, aind only seven 
huMlred men, sailed on the 10th of No- 
' r» 1518; widt am hii anml al Tft- 


bafloo, Cortei set fire to hii lUpf , tiMt Uf 
soldiers might have no other reeo ur ce thu 
their own valoor. The Tlascalans he 
conquered and converted into allies, and 
then advanced towards Mexico, wh^ he 
was amicably received. Jealous of his 

,. Velasquez now sent Narvaex to 
supersede him, but Cortex marched against 
the latter, took him prisoner, and gain- 
ed over the new come troops. The con- 
duct of Cortes to the natives soon pro- 
duced hostilities, and he was driven nom 
Mexico. By the decisive victoiy of 
Otumba, however, he resumed the ascen- 
dency, amd, after a loujg siege, in which 
perished 100,000 Mexicans, ha regained 
possession of the capital, and finally sub- 
jii^ted the whole of the kingdom. In 
1536, he commanded in person a fleet 
which discovered California. Charles V., 
while under the impulse of gratitude, cre- 
ated him govemor and captain general of 
Mexico, and marquis of Uuaxaca; but he 
subse^uentlv removed him from the gover- 
norship. In order to obtain justice. Cor- 
tex, in 1540, returned, for the second time, 
to Spain ; and he accompanied the em^ 
ror to Algiers, where ne highly distm*. 
gutshe4 himself. Yet he was unable to 
procure even an audience. "Who are 
voul*' exclaimed Charles, when Cortes 
had, on one occasion, forced his way to 
the step of the emperor's carriage*. *< I 
am one,'* replied the undaunted warrior, 
** who has given you more provinces than 
your ancestors left you towns." Cortes 
died at Seville, in comparative obscurity, 
on tlie 2d of December, 1554. Were not 
the character of Cortei stained b^ numer- 
ous acts of horrible barbarity, his valour, 
talents, and perseverance, would give him 
a legitimate claim to the epithet of great. 
CX)RTONA, PiKTRO DA, so called 
from being bora at Cortona, in Tuscany, 
was named Peter Berettini, was bora in 
1696, and was a pupil of Ciarpi. Thouffh 
his progress in painting was so slow at tne 
outset mat his fellow students nicknamed 
him ass's head, yet he ultimately rose to 

and many other edifices. His finest works 
are in fi-esco ; but many of his oil painting. 

among which is a Nativity of the Virgin, 
are much. admired. 

CORVINUS, Matthias, the son of 
John Humiades, was elected kinsr of Hun- 
nry, in 1458, at the age of fifteen, ami 
died in 1490. He was illustrioos as a 
warrior, a legislator, and a patron of learn- 
ing. Tliou|;ii perpetoally engaged in war 
to protect his countrv firom its surroandiag 
foes, ha enaetad gooa laws, gave the Hon* 
a charter, iBtrodooed pruitinify 
ft inimii^aBd Ubrair ai Bdh^ 

Digitized by V3OC 


Ma iwrhad kmtmd wmimhk denia. 


OORVISART, John Nicholas, a 
BkysicMa of high reputatioo, wu born in 
C ln i m p ii gne, in I7S5, nnd died at Paris, 
in 1811. The French attribnte to him, in 
great part, the piogies s which was nade 
in France, of late yean, in experimental 
mediciae and pathofo^ical anatomy. Na- 
poleon, whose physician be waa, created 
Dim a baron, and an oflioer of the legion 
of hoooor. He wrote an Essay on Dis- 
eases of the Heart; and translated some 
medical works. 

OORYATE, or CX>RIATE, Thomas, 
a traTeUer and writer, was the son of the 
rector of Odcombe, in Somersetshire, at 
which .place he was bom, in 1677. He 
died at Sorat, in 1617. Coryate's life was 
spent in pedestrian toors through Europe, 
Tqrkey, Persia, and the East Indies. Dur- 
ing one of them he is said to have lired on 
two poioe a day. He had received a good 
education at Westminster and Oxford, 
and possessed a great &cility of learning 
tannages. His first tour was published 
with the ludicrous title of Crudities hastily 

Sbbled up in Five Months' Tour, &c. 
B b the author of other eccentric works, 
and has the merit of having introduced the 
use of table forlu into Ennind. 

COSMASj somamed Indicopleustes, or 
the Voyager in India, was a merchant of 
AlexaiMria, living in the sixth century, 
who, after having visited Hindostan, quit 
ted commerce aira became a monk. He is 
the author of Christian Topomphy, which, 
though abounding with absurdities, contains 
aome valuable information. His other 
works, among which was a Universal Cos- 
OKigraphy, are lost. 

COSTANZO, AVGBLO Di, a Neapoli- 
tan noble, was bom at Naples, in 1507, 
and was a friend of Sannasaro, who pre- 
vailed on him to undertake the history of 
his native country. On this work Costanzp 
was forty years employed. It includes the 
period from 1250 to 1489. He was also 
one of the first poets of his age. He died 
about 1591. 

COSTER, John Laurence, a native 
of Haarlem, was bora about 1870. The 
Dutch claim for him the invention of print- 
ing. The claim seems, however, to be en- 
tirely without foundation. A sufiicieot 
proof, perhaps, that it is so, is the circum- 
atance of his grandsons and heirs having 
made no attempt to support it, in opposi- 
tion to Guttenberg. 

COSTER, Samuel, a Dutch dramat- 
ist, was bora towards the end of the six- 
teenth century, and is considered as the 
creator of the Dutch theatre. He bnih a 
l^yhouse at Amsterdam in 1617. The 
time of his death is unknown. He wrote 
ifa aontadies and six tragedies. 

OCT Iff 

006WAT, RiCBAitD, OM of the oldMl 
members of the Royal Acadeosy, died in 
1821, at more than nine^ yean of age. 
In miniature he was without a rival, and 
his oil paintings and drawings have great 
merit. In his private character he dis- 
plaved many hannless eccentricities. His 
wifoy Mahia, was also an artist of tal- 

COTES> RooER, a mathematician, 
bora, in 1682, at Burbace, in Leicesler- 
fhire, was educated at Leicester and St. 
Paul's Schools, and at Trinity College. 
Cambridge; and, in 1706, was appointed 
first Pkimian professor of astronomy and 
experimental philosophy. _ He died in 1716. 
Newton, of whose Principia Cotes gave a 
new edition, has, in one short sentence, 
borne decnive testimony to his talents. 
« Had Cotes lived," said he, ** we should 
have known something." The Harmonia 
Mensuraram of Cotes, and his Hydrosta- 
tical and Pneumatical Lecturss, were pub- 
lished after his death. 

COTTIN, Sophia, whose maiden name 
was Restaud, was bora at Toaneins, on 
the Garonne, in 1778; was married to a 
Parisian banker at seventeen; and became 
a widow at twenty, which she continued to 
be till her decease, in 1807. Her first 
work. Clan d'Albe, vras begun merely for 
amusement, and was sold to afford to a 
proscribed man the means of flying from 
the guillotine. Of all her writings the 
produce was devoted to benevolent pur- 
poses. Of her subsequent novels, Malvina, 
Amelia Mansfield, Matilda, and Elisabeth* 
the last is the most popular. 

COTTON, Sir Robert Bruce, an 
antiquary, was a native of Huntiocdon- 
shire, born at Denton, in 1670, and was 
educated at Westminster School, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. ^ He devoted 
his time and fortune to antiquarian pmr- 
suits, and collected numerous deeds, cnar- 
ters, kc, relative to the history of Britain. 
ThcHie form the Cottonian library, which 
is now in the British Museum. To Cam- 
den, Speed, and others, be' was a liberal 
firiend. He died in 1681. He wrote The 
Antiquity and Dignity of Parliaments; 
and other works. 

COTTON, Charles, a poet, bora at 
Beresford,.in Staffordshire, in 1680, was 
educated It Cambridge, travelled on the 
continent, and then settled on his paternal 
estate, which his father had so heavily en- 
cumbered, that Cotton, himself no econo- 
mist, encountered nuuiy pecuniary diffi- 
culties, and even iooprisonment for debt. 
He died in 1687. Cotton was no mean 
poet, especially on ludicrous subjects ; but 
be is, perhaps, best known as the friend of 
Tzaak Walton, to whose treatise on angling 
he added a supplement. He wrote a vol- 
of Poems; Scanronidca^ or Vugal 

Digitized by 




Travcide; md trawkted Mo n ta i gne * ! Eg* 

CX>TTON, John, a congregationa] mia- 
liter of MaMachnsetts, was horn in B^on, 
in 1688, and was sradnated at Harrard 
CoUege in 1657. He wat accorately ae< 
i]uainted with the lanpnge of the Indians 
of Martha*! Vinerara, and ■opertntended 
the printing of Elliot's Bible, in that hui- 
goage. He died in Charleston, Q. C, 
wbw-e he had formed a church, in 1^9. 

COTTON, Nath ARIEL, poet and phy- 
sician, bom in 1707, was a (Mipil of Boer- 
haave, and practised first at Dunstable, 
and next at St. Albans. At the latter 
place he kept an asylum lor lunatics, of 
which Cowper, who always retained an 
affection lor him, was at one time an in- 
mate. He died in 1788. His Visions in 
Verse, which are elegant, animated, and 
fraught with pure morality, are deserredly 

COULOMB, Charlks Auoustiii 
DK, an eminent French philosopher, lien- 
tenant-colonel of engineers, and a member 
of the Academy or Sciences and of the 
Institute, was bom at Angooldme, in 17S6, 
and died in 1806. He was merally versed 
in the sciences, but particularly cultivated 
those of electricity and magnetism, in which 
he made many valuable discoveries. ** He 
mi^ fiiirly,'* it is said, ** be ranked in the 
same class with Franklin, iEpinus, and 

COURAYER, Fetkr Fit avcis, a na- 
tive of Normandy, bora at Vernon in 16B1, 
was a canon and librarian of St. Gene- 
vieve, and a professor of theology and 
losophy. Havinff written a Ddence of the 
Validity of En^isb Ordinatioas, he v 
so persecuted that he took refuse ia Eng- 
land, in 1728, where he died in 1776. He 
translated into French Father Paul's His- 
tory of the Council of Trent, and Sleidan's 
Histonr of the Reformation; and wrote 
several tracts. 

COURIER, Paul Louis, one of the 
wittiest wfiten and most profound fael- 
lenists of France, was born near An- 
goul^me, in 1774. He was for several 
vears in the corps of artillery^ in which 
be roee to be a major; but ai length he 
resigned in disgust. Every moment of 
leisure while in the araw was devoted 
him to the study of Ureek authors, 
e was assassinated in 1825. Courier 

SiUished various translations from the 
reek ; but his chief fome is derived from 
his political pamphlets, which are remark- 
able for wit, irony, and pungency of style. 
a French antiquary and philosopher, one 
of the most learoea men of the eighteenth 


centuiT, was bora at Nimes in 1725, the 
■on or a calvinist minister, and died at 
Paris IB 1784. His great work is. The 

Prinkiw World w mlynai mmi /ml 

with the Modem World. It consisih ef 
nine 4to voKmies, and, tbo«gh flffnrid by 
soBM baseless sp eca b tions Md hjpinJwji, 
is richly frmocht with mdition. Amoi^ 
his other wortis ia A Historv of the Wat 
of the Cevennes, in thrae volanna. 

OOURTOI8, James, a painlsr» knows 
by the names of Cortaee and 11 Boi^gB^ 
none, vras bera at Si. HyppdKte, m 
Franche Comt«, in 1611. Ha was a papil 
of Gaido and Albaao, and, as sobm say, 
of Jerome. In battle piacas ha staaia 
almost unrivalled. Being aeoasud of hav- 
ing poisoned bis wife, ha antared lata the 
order of the Jesuits, and died in thnr aea* 
at RoflM, in 1676. His brallMr, 
William, kom 1618, died 1619, was • 
popil of Pietro da Cortoaai and was jm 
eminent historical painter. 

COUSIN, Louis, a naUva of Pmria, who 
was bora in 1627, uid died ia 1767, waa 
p res i dent of the mint, and a mwhtr of 
the Franch Aeademiy. Among hit wotIm 
are, a History of Osastaatinopla* aigitt 
vohmws ^o.; A History of the QnHch, 
four volumes 4to. ; and A Ruman Histny. 
vohunes Iftao.; which eoMsist ar 
translatioBs of the Bysaaciaa 
profone historiaaa. lie also coi 
Journal dea Savaats fitNa 1687 to llti* 
As a critic, a translator, aad a aaa^ Coasia 
is deserving of praise. 

sculptor, was bora at Lyons in 1666, and 
lied in 17SS. He vras a papil ' '^ 

of Goysa- 
tyleoB tito 

vox, his uncle, aad fonsed his style < 
works of Michael Aa^k> and Akardi. - 
Among hb best productions are, a Iiarc M » 

sroup of the Seine ; 

brodier, William, ako a pnpil of Com- 

voa, was bora at Lyons in 1(178, and diad 

in 1746. He was superior to Nichoiaa. 

Daphne aad Hi p poasenes, the Ooeaa. aad | 

the Mediterraaeaa, aad a ifwa of the i 

Rhone, ara among his nastarpieoes. Hia 

son William, nbo, bom in 1716» died in I 

1777, was a celebrated sculptor. i 

COVENTRY, Francis, a aativa af 
Cambridfeikira, adocated at Magdalen ' 

College, Cambridge, was parpetaal carata 
of Edgewara whea he died, u 1766. Ha \ 

wrote the novel of Pompey the Little; 

in The World, on the absurditj i 

a gardening; and soma poams, J 

■iii«.ii ** "^ — M priiitad m ^ 

I, Hbii»t, i 

a felk»W of Magdahm Ccrfkaa. wha diad I 

in 1762, oontribotad to the Atbeman Let* 

ters, and wrote The Letters eC liiisam 

to Hydaspes. 

COVERDALE, Miles, cm af thaaar- 
liest Engtidypefonaers, was bora ia TaiiL 
shire in 1487, vrasadaealad at 
aad went abroad on ' 

a paper 

of modem gardeni 

one of which, Piiiiharity 

I>odsley*s ooUection.-Uis 

Digitized by 


1I» AMiiM T^dAiie in kiiTemibii of ^ 
Bible, tad in 1596 poblisliied a complete 
tradtolation. tn 1351, after havinff been 
nlmoner to Clneen Catherine Parr, ne was 
pvtMHoted to tHe see of Exeter. In the 
r«]^ of Mary be retired to the continent, 
bat returned on the accession of Elisabeth. 
He died in 1568, or, according to some 
aoooQnts, in 1580. 

COYILHAM, PxDRO DB,a Portagnese 
l^eibtleniaB, who served widi distinction 
M the wars of Castile, and afterwards 
tfftded to Africa. He was sent, nione 
with Alphonso de Payra, in search of 

Pre^ter John, and also to inquire whether 
a passace to India could be acoonplished 
reaiad the Cape. On this mission, while 
Parva pftMSeeded to Abyssinia, Covilham 
▼i«ited India and So&la, obtained the first 
distinct account of Madagascar, and ascer- 
tained that the Toyajre round the Cape 
might be performed. He then, Payva hav- 
ing died, journeyed to Abyssinia, where 
tile monarch heaped uponJiim the highest 
honours of the state, and induced him to 
i/pend there the remainder of his days. 

COWELL, John, a lawyer and anti- 
quary, bom about 1554, at Erncsborough, 
in Yorkshire; was educated at Eton, and 
at King'aCollete, Cambridge ; and became 
master of Trinity Hall. He died in 1611. 
He is the author of Institutes of the Laws 
of England ; and of llie Interoreter, ot 
Explanation of Law Terms ; tne last of 
which works the Commons ordered to be 
burnt for its unconstitut^ional doctrines. 
With his wanted coarseness of wit. Coke, 
who hated him, used to call him Dr. Cow- 

COWLEY, Abraham, the posthumous 
ion of a grooef*, was born in London, in 
1618. From Westminster School he went 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, whence he 
was ejected, in 1643, by tM puritanical 
visiters, imon which he settled at St. John's 
Colle|^, Oxford, and avenged himself by 
a satire, called the Puritan and the Papist. 
He had already produced Poetical Bl.>s- 
soms, Love's Riddle, a pastoral comedy, 
and a Latin comedy, intitled Naofragium 
Joculare: the first two were written while 
he was at Westminster. He now entered 
into the king's service, and attended him 
in several journeys and expeditions. When 
the queen left England he accompanied 
her, obtained a setUement in the family of 
the ewl of St. Albans, and was employed 
on various missions relative to the royal 
cause. During bis absence appeared The 
Mistress, and the comedy of Ttie Guardian. 
In 1656 he returned to England, and, soon 
after his arrival, he was imprisoned, but 
was bailed Iw Dr. Scarborough. It was 
wt. this period that he|fave ^ Uie world a 
ietnnlote edition of bis potos. On the 
intk of Cromwell, Cowley revisited 


France; tod he was one of those who 
came back in the train of thf restored ' 
sovereign. The triumph of his party was 
for a while of no benefit to him. wt, at 
lenffth, he obtained a small indejwndence, 
and witlidrew into retirement. He died 
at the Porch House, Chertsey, in JuM, 
1667. Cowley, as Johnson observes, is 
** undoubtedly the best" of the metaphysi- 
cal poets; for, thoogh his ideu are often 
far-fetched, and sometimes absurd or ludi- 
crous, his fiiults are redeemed by great 
beauties. His prose merits almost unal- 
loyed praise; it is precnant with thought, 
and the style is natural ted elegant. 

COWLEY, Hanhah, a dtamatic wri- 
ter, whose maiden name was Parkhouse, 
was bom at Tiverton, in Devonshire, in 
1743, and died at that |4ace hi 1809. She 
is the author of nine comedies, among 
which are. The Runaway, The BdUe's 
Stratagem, and More Ways than One; 
the tragedies of Albina, and The Fate of 
Sparta; two ferces; and the poems of 
The Siege of Acre, The Maid of Arragon, 
and The Scottish Village. Her poems are 
of that description which Horace depre- 
cates ; but her comedies halfe c o u st def a hle 

COWPER, Willi AH, a poet, was bora 
at Berkhamstead, in Hertfordshire, Nov. 
26, 1731, and was the son of the rector of 
that place. His constitution was highly 
delicate, and his feelings nervously sus- 
ceptible. It is no wonder, therefore, that 
he endured so much from the tyranny of 
his seniors at Westminster School, as to 
inspire him with a disgust of all sndi 
public establishments; a dissust which he 
afterwards forcibly expressed in his poem 
of Tirocinium. He was articled for three 
years to an attorney, and sdbseqoently 
studied at the Temple, but seems to have 
acquired no great share of lesal knowledge. 
So extreme was his dread of being plaM 
in any conspicuous situation, that being 
unexpectedly called on to attend at the 
bar of the House of Lords, as clerk of the 
journals, his agitation of mind not only 
compelled him to resign his post, but ter» 
minated in insanity. That disorder was 

Digitized by 


wm oox 

kekoteiiad hf the gloongr idnmjm bid 
imbibed on tM mbject or religion, which 
led him to Mppow hinnelf eoodenmed to 
eternal reprobation. After haring been 
for a considerable time noder the care'of 
Dr. Cotton, he recovered, and took up his 
retidenoe, in 1766, ai an inmate with the 
Iter. Mr. Unwin of Huntingdon. That 
gentleman died in 1767, but Cowper con> 
tinned to reside with his widow, at Ofaiey 
in Bnckingfaamshire, and Weston in North- 
amptonshire, till her death, in 1796. From 
1778 to 1778, and from 1794 till his decease, 
which took phuM at Dereham in Norfolk, 
April 26, 1800, he snfiered again nnder the 
■oonrge of insanity. In the mean while, 
however^ he gained imperishable frune bj 
his writmgs. Hb firrt appearance as an 
anthor, excepting a few papers to the 
Connoisseur, and some hymns to the Obey 
collection, was in 1782, when he published 
the' first volume of his Poems. The second, 
oonuininff The Task, appeared in 1784. 
Of his subsequent works, the principal is, 
a blank verse Translation of Homer, which 
has not become popular. It is a curious 
fiiet, that his humorous ballad of John 
Gilpin was written while he was a prey 
to the deepest melancholy. His Letters, 
which are modeb of that kind of compo- 
sition, have been given to the world since 
hb deadi. Cowper is a noet of varied 
powers;* he b 1^ turns pia^rihl and pa« 
theticr tender sind sarcastic; in some 
instances, he rises to sublimity; and in 
pi ctur es q ue delineation he has no rival 
out TbomsoB, and be generally surpasses 
him in elegance. 

COXE, William, was bom in London 
in 1747, and educated at Eton, and King's 
GoOege, Cambridge. He took orders in 
1771 ; was for two years tutor to the mar- 
quis of Blandford ; and, in 1776, accom- 
Kied Lord Herbert, afterwards earl of 
nbroke, to the continent. He succes- 
sively obtained the livings of Kingston on 
Thames, Bemerton, Stourton,and Fovant; 
and was appointed a can