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Mny. TlMtj* ftiMMll; f Annul the Tcaorrs, Mil were 
autoj for t£a wild Im^uoiitj of tlieir «U*clc Tbe 
trboUbodymsiliv-ialiMl luti^fuiirkiiiiadroiLs.MM'hcnn- 
iuB>iD(<ieertJunuaiijWuf i>r(iuvtnKi]w). Eovh ort«, 
im CoMlfcBdDopl«v wu mippoMd to have 10(1 ineD; 
«lwvtMnsSOOoE900. Intimeofw&rthooouipl«meiit 
ma 500 men. Tli* regular tmopa of janitarieifttoDU 
tlniB MDountcd to CO.OdO, but lb«]r weni ■it«rw»rda 
rudaocd to 3^,00 0. TIm irre^uUr troops [Jamak-it 
BOiuiintiHl tu 30l],(inO or 40O,(li;i>. M the govcnuuent 
fumialieii oalv a luull uUnw^uce of j>roviiibuB mad 
c!otliiDjj for 12,000 luaju, the iirivatoe wvra soffBTBd 
W yorlt, oA their tradw. ^Vll tli« mca of oiw 
n^iineDt wore bokun, all iLntia of two others 
Imicbcra; oUicn, agkiu, w«ro all booluicii, iwucirm, 
Jbc, luad thfty vbto noiiiKi ooooirliDgly, Uliu 'LWidali 
trwtpt were reqidivil to find ilicir ovm anai^ but Iq 
tinuof war fin-Armavi'rcfuniiihad from the m««iuU 
M (^iiatoDtinopjo to anch aoldien oa hod boiUw A 
finlook, [)i*tob, nuwt^ and ax» were the anna oorried 
by the iiifiutti?; ood tbe ioolMrira prided tbeiuMlvea 
ia kaviiii; tKit only weu-taaperod, but abo riebly 
onuuncntdd nrnu. Buidea the etonttarde end boae- 
taJla placetl befura tli>iit«»t o[ tbe Af^a or commander- 
fn-cMef, wbo bad thv power of Ufu sud doath, and 
wbcM authority woa practically unlimited, eoeli oita 
hod Ha own |«.ttioubr ennKu. Tlie poUoa of tbo 
• capital and the Ui;g« town* was liitrtuted piiocipBlly 
to tbe Jmi i a r leg, Lampoons and wditioua lupc'is 
■fflxod to tbfl g»boi of tbe mosqueft, oad ooaflagrutious 
in vorioiM |Mrt«<>f the dtv. wlto the inwuw by v.-hii:b 
lht> r<inaiiUUa tKMiy mn^e iu dUplciuuru kiiowu tu 
tbewltui; but that diMHinUvnt xn» Mldum exdtMl 
'"by eaytbiog uxcept the power of mow oapopuhr 
■Inlater, or the revival of a moro rigid dadplitie. 
In vorioua iofllMieea tmlUiui were depoeed, ineultMl, 
and mtinlored br the inaurgmit janixarira, 'I'hiiii 
Um drpOKd BajBMt IL In 1512, lulled Aniuruth 
lILin ia9S, taofdeoBed and •brongled Otmon 11. In 
tbo Serea Towen^ datbniued Miutaplia io 1622, 
land killed Ilirabim in 1049. Tho refomui which 
I iitWiai{jUiI !u lLi« iwrpe luvt with thv j^khUM 
oppontion on the put ol tbu mouaben, anil prodaecd 
averol revolution*, it W4ut finally cntirrly broken 
up iu H'id. In &[ay, "ifi'IB, tho joniiarita bad 
' dedarod tbenuolvn wUIId;; to bav« a now militia 
I tanned, bat en the Htli Junu d that year ^uy 
'nbdied on thb oocoimt. Tlio aiiLton and aga 
BUMcin Poch^ at Uto Imnd tif tbu (jnind miigulur'a 
' tjwiJB, rcpnlicd tlio rnlmbi tlivir larmckii wcicv 
- (mrned, and 8u00 of tbein |>i.-riahod in tbu Ibunoi, 
Tim preeUtoation of Jun« ITth obaliahed the oorpa 
for orar, and laid a cnree upon the naioe. Ai many 
•• 15,000 were oxocubcd, and Cully 20,000 ware 
rfatafahed. At Its diuoIuUoa the cope csnaiated of 
ftiur divirioRX, rorming 23!> oitaB, of whidi aoventy 
aeica ucn: in Kiuriniiii jtt {'onat-uitiTionln. Tbo now 
tt\tijM am iliiici^liui^il iu the luiuuiisr ui the Chrltlutu 

.(AN-MAV£.N, on in), in the Arctic Ocofla, lSr> 

miles fraui Ibe oocMt iif Kut GrevoliUKl, (re(|UcDt«l 

by KO'fowl, b«nrv, niid fox 4. IS^erenb^r;;, a «ui>wy 

■Mpnntaia in tfaia blatid, CsTO fwt high, ia in laU 71' 

i' y.; Ion. r 36' W. There i« oLn) a Yoldnao. 150D 

foot hisl^ on cmpllun uf wiiic-h uc^-Aakiaally b^co 

e. It waa dixcovered in 1611 by tho Uutchnavi- 

' Jao May«n. 

JAXSEKIST& Sea Janbekihs. 

JANtiKNlU.S, ComBUOS (properly Coksklixz 

(Vjjiwam), prufeaaoraf tbeol^gT at Lonvoln, and ftaat 

tOM BMnd o( Vpnie la UioNotbortMidfl, was bom 

1 158S| niM owce kia fomn to tho contnrocay, during 

kvi $^6, ooncenina the notiiro and efficacy of dirino 

anKML UwinK onDcipHlly to tbo ill&aratit rujjruuii- 

fay^jMiM of thia doctrine by Aujnictitu^ who found it 

neceaiory toetpreM liiniMK dl(T«rcntly b. his dlipato 
with the ManiolioaM and in tliiit »-Jib tlic rnto^ons, 
thi* controvwny wu> rcvitcd at tJic tinitr uf tbu IJtiiir* 
malioB. Tbo vo;;ue nud wjdI radli-lt-TV exiKMi'.iiwis 
of the P^iol court on tbe subject wrvcd only t<' iu- 
croaae tits oootMition in the ( 'athiiltc Cburcli, u*b«ra 
the prideand JRolauay uf tb<^ riciauiik^iuu itiul Au^uj- 
Lluoa IM ouo aide, and the nrciHcfa i~>f tbe I'nuuritcitna 
and Jeaniti nn tbo f>thur, kvpt up tliiji biiiiry outttiu- 
vtny with incrtjuiiit;; waniitli, tlic fiinii«roont<n(llni; 
for lb» (tricl aiiU-t'ela^-iniL ].iriticifiliM of Ang'iiatini:, 
tho latter odojitin); u uiiMur iiitcrjmuiLiniL of them. 
Tbo latter obtiunod a triiuiijib uvtir their odrenoriea 
in I.'i6r. by the rap>al bull oundemninf; sevonty-aix 
|ir(>[aMitii)ii» tinkuu from LbonTitiuijaof tbi:cLanccIIiir 
and itiijuinitor at L(iiiviuii,Mii:bai!l BoiuB (died IS&it), 
a learned defender uf tbo Au^uMiue doctrino. But 
tile Sponidi JeaniC Louia Molina (died KOD) went 
too for 00 the other rido in hid mom than uml-PiJa- 
gjanoouiinentary outlwdn(,'ujaticBof lliumaa Aquioa*. 
Tbo TfoloDoe of the Molinirtio oontroToniira com- 
pelled tbo popo in 1GD8 to eatabllah the oonj^nvotiou 
de auxiiia at Rome, (br tho oxaminotian of oiiinioDa 
conoeniing groco; ar<l thia proving inelFactual to re- 
stor« harmony, ha wiaoly miuiica (In 1911) of the 
cnntonditij; |>u-tica aileucA on thia doctrine. 

Jiiiis<.'uiu9, u'bo waa on adTOCOto of the strict Au- 
[;u>>tirio iiyRU'ni, vrbich had alwaya nrctftilod at tbe 
Univcrnty of jUiuviuu. died of tbu pliitjuo Eu 103S,at 
Y]<nie,wilh an unblami^liod roputntiaa lor piety uid 
[lurity of iDonds. But hia Augnatinno, a botd; In 
wbiim he ntaintoinod the Augantmian duutrtuc of free 
Knwe, oud tvcvnuDtMidnl it oa tbe true orthodox Iw- 
lief, in oppoiition to tho aend'Felngianiim uf the 
Mt^iniata, rcldndlod the oontroroniy cm ita publl<«- 
tiuii in 1010. The liouk wm coudunined by Urbmi 
Vin. in 1A12. in the bull In Kininontii biit the 
{virtiwtiMof JwuuuiuitdetrUn.'O tbebuU bobuapiuioua, 
the Univernity of I,i'>uTAin prtitoated ogaiuat It, and 
evi:ii in Franco It was ineffectual to aapprcst thu 
apjiUnan with «liiu.h uuuiy duitinjcuiahed tfaJealogiaiiM 
nucivcid tbe Aujjuiitlnua. Tho abbut uf Sl C^tuii. 
a faiood of Jonsenliii^ known oa tbo diroctor of the 
nuns of I*ort Koyol, and a uolnua oppnaor oS the 
.loiuitii, OS wcllaa for bin niy»t[ciaui oou aacetlo piety, 
Jobu duVot^^r de lliuraDDo (died 1(549), bod ol- 
roMly propared tho tnlnda of the Frond tlieologiana 
for .lonncDuun. The soholan of the Port Ftoyal, 
NiL-ule:, Poiical (wbuao Pruvim-ial loittMa had exposed 
the old aina of the Joauitii), nod above nil, Antoiiio 
Amauld (bom 1613; ia ICll mode dovtor of the 
Sorhonne), mon dlstinjrulahed no Ion for religlouB 
^•riuciplM Mid unblemialiod virtue than for rare leam- 
Uigatid talents, undertook tbu defence of Jariaoniami 
and the Inill In which the pope (ItiSB) parUcularly 
ouudcmneid five propiwitionu from the Au^uatinua^ 
tni't wJLh a ttam^ iip^HixitiiFii. 

Tbeau Lin)|K)riliiiiui RTO pei'linpa cuutabied Su the 
book, of JoatieniuB, but hht parti&iua coutended that 
they were not thoru nrti-Uuri-, an tbu Jesuits RMorted, 
at luwt not iu Iha scnne iu).|iiitud to tbi-m by tbe bull. 
Hi-nca aruew tb« imi-iiiriAiit iiiitMitinn n'b>'TIlt^^ the 
pupSi wbgoe riffht to decide a point uf doc-trino hail 
never been diiiput«d, hod aulhority to dvtcmiino a 
Uatoricol fact. i\Joxand.i.-r VII. atiiuriied th^ to 
16fi6, in » Hiicdid bull, ilcciatin^ that Jiui>.oiiiii>> bad 
undentoud tbi; pr»]iusiliunN In tbe huuih! uiudcinned. 
Tbo Janscnlats wore thua oompellod eJtbcr to recant 
nr tu sen-do fn>ii) tbe Koman Cbuidi. Although 
tbtur proLeet atftuunt tiie airogonce of the Ramlah 
court, In pretending to know and to delvrudue what 
a daccosed author meant by expmniuia wUch admit 
of a double Inturpretatlon ooold turprue no impartial 
uenoD, it waa n'gonled aa on attack upon tho infitlli- 
uUlty of the pope, and drew down tbe dinnlcaauie of 



Lnk Xr7. UfOMtf. Thh prino* boffMi, Inltitl.lo 
IdUcIm* In tiw eonlroTvnv, aoA to pciMMmla tho 
JaaMrabta, wtw wv« alnMJjr out «( f«voar »t omirt 
tbr pnaalkbg np^RUan wd boUljr coDsuriuc (Jw 
vim ol iIh a^v. Bat It wu fomd ianoMlbla lo 
fono tbnm to u nncnndltlnitKl anbHripniMi of the 
bull «( Akauidar VU.; uid la IMS tb* i^r«e«aent 
with CUnittt XX., ht vUob * oowilhkMl wbacrip- 
bImi «m p«rmilbM tii«ii, oUaiiwd tbr tbem » Ma* 
fonrj rtfotiti. In I67t> AniAnlil, to eacAji^ [Mn«oa- 
Man.Tctlml Into tiw NotLorUB<ii,wbiir«lmoaulinuod 
till hit dMrth, In I4M, lbs tmirt M»lona ud MtoMned 
d«Crador t4 JftaMaiUn; but nmwUbiteinUng tbsM 
IniSM, Um put? rtood iti gnwikd nndiBr Um pntectioi) 
of IriiKMtnt XI. (dM ias«), who Unmitd than M 
iDW'li M Lniit* XlV. mm) tiw JomiU v yp aatA Ibani. 
Tfci> JkDMnbbi tniMlo tbinoMilvn irurtlij of tUa pi»- 
liMtkia, Mill of Ui« favour of the bvttcr put ot the 
•dnoRtod men Ib Kraacm. Br ondcNVDtiriiig to fno 
tb«olaK7 fiwt th* ohains of tU<r Monutliv, auJ u> 
ptOT u t* • kaowlaafau ol tli« Soiptuna auiDUg tfa« 
Mopki bj inanlolfiig k diwaiw, ««iii«l, kod b«<at> 
hit pwtkilpatloa la Uw axixalaM of davotloo, aad • 
■Idol purit} of llfa^ Umt ru a j er od »m*<Bi»]«1» aanJM 
to tb* WHIM of tn» raugka. 

iTHitmlnn. bomvartiiMirfllHtHidliif all iba oppo- 
rilloik tall Ok th* put or lk» «awl. atOl ce&tiNnod 
IB pm all Palhar QnaaiMl'a Uonl BcAectiDaa on 
tiw N«w T«atMMnt~tl)* taoat udvcnaR; ra^d book 
«f tbla parkid — nan It b«v nqmort. Th* Soctmuu^ 
In 170i, ilodjad tbo oalafantMl oMa at M■acfaM^ 
wbvttMir a jiriMl aaaMofad of jMacoUon oonld gnat 
klsiiIiiUiai, (n tba annnalira, Mid tb* ArckbUwci of 
l'*ri\ I'arliiud d» XoaiU«i^ mod bi* poww agaaurt 
IIh Janwwtata iw (artbw Ihu mi naoeauT for ths 
powa of tb« akank. CaewMit XL M fnt waoad 
tk> mmm otmaa^ but I« QwiaL aaafaaaar of Loon 
XIV, and fab anoMar th« Jsdt U TbUkr, utgvd 
morw tIoIoU HMMMroi, bi iMA tht Vag^ tm iriuaa 
cUaaajad fancy JaMrniam aad rabaOion wotvniMiBj-- 
HONi^ Hpporteil Umbi. t^uaanal, now aA tb« baad of 
tiw Juaauiaw, WM atiuofc b« Hm tt* of tbe fatben 
of ibe untorr, ud drivan falD oile. H« died ia 
ms ■« AiuAwdaiB. In 1708 Ma Now Taatamant 
waa t>(vUbltad; tba BooMtAj ol Put Bonl da 
il«BiB|i^ atUcli wa« I'lnMaiitaiail «a tbo otranpMld of 
Ja—Miiann. traa wi upi wai l ; and tiw wwk of penera- 
IfanlhuQrimwMd t^j tba bull UBlgnhaa \\ai 171S>, 
«U(fc «M beanl Eraaa Ito iwpa In Lo lUIkr. Tliu 
ban eoadaaaiiw] 101 pt ^y^tiuw a 6«ai QoanoTa ){«- 
, vUdh, aeeanUBC k> tbia daow, mri to b« 
od o^y !■ ft JiBMiiat bobm, >ltbo«cfa thay 
w^fclMl. —ally ■jjptaralaMaaaoai.lonaa torn 
Iko titasr. »* artklw af fattb laltao ban tba w^ 
btbm Tba bolt, Hm^M^ anl j 
aaritad WkaaiaB Md eaMOBpt, ad facfMnd tba 
HHfanal&aJMM^iL LeAiXZT.diodtein^ 
4v1m tiw ^wli tba« Mranada to oavyft bte 
^rtla Ttumm. mi laV^ ailiwiMii if lln ladg 
Cnwa if Iba fv^ 3(^t^ vfeb tiw wajority •! 
tW PnMft <Awff , iffl rt ftoM tbte dKZ«a of tbe 
ptawtoaa i i ril— Oi tl L 

"- il^Jili ili>w^«Wa«Mbrf 

mIm (Am Vmona): bM *7 an wk w«* i«» 

MM* tliifc IL tba I I I XM*^ Md FlaoT. 

■ totU^P^-J 


pwrtjwrffc l r i I V adlba 1 I tl 
rflbaJMVrwtkli^lyadft w^ wHb 


whe wars idud iritli tpanw and csta^aa at tbe 
tonbof Ibiawcudenwurlaagaaint — of tbofieowitou^ 
wbo araitnl UimiihiIvlii li exlemal UHfaaa to prodncn 
odnviilaioix*, aad bwl UmuimItm tofSMwlM with 
Idda, blow% and ataba — of tbe NatumUata and Fl([nr> 
l*lB, wbo aomeMmaa ■Inve ta npraeant tba balplaaa- 
new of bnioan naturo unaidod bjr gnca^ and aonw- 
timoa tho parity at tbe CbrWlaii ebnrab by Indcoaa* 
expoauna of tb« body— ol tlut Diaoomaata aad N^ 
lUD^Iitii wfaa divjdod os tbo onoatian irbotbor tba 
taptairea were prodaoeil bj Goa or tba devU — tbesc, 
aad other fanaUcal aecto of Janaanlata aad AfpelUuU, 
DOoaaaarilj mad« a tUni| of wblob tba world n-u 
aliaadjr tired oltarly ri&nlooa; and iba coamtio 
maaaafoaaf tba poliec^ tbe eoatfatnal bn^ff of JaB- 
acatbl booba, tbe {requent impriawtaiMiK Cnl, moat 
of aU, tba vary natunl nUaiag of aotbiaiaao^ at 
Laat pat aa aad to tiw pMW. rrom Ibli tfaoc Jaa- 
■cuiiun ceued to exwt io Franof as a fulilic aad 
jfrtifiwaetl iloolriitc. I la pura liKir>lity nnd atrict 
theology, boworsr, alwaja ^Dod for it friead«,«««a 
tak tbat aauutry; aad a part of tbe dar^ by tbatr 
viUbt^eaa lo take tbo ooaatitntioaal oath dariaf 
the remlatwn, ebowad tbat tfcoy would moaa readily 
Rnouuoa tba autbodty of Ibe pope tban ihtii own 
aj^akm. But tbongli tba old dlnahn of tba Jaaaaa- 
lata and Moliniata coatinnad up lo tbe lataat tiowa. 
fai tba appowtion batwaen tboae wbo took aad thuaa 
wbo rafaaad Uw oatb {prttru inwawraMa). yat wa 
Gad bat ona aaparala aodety uf tbe Janawibla pab- 
tidy adamt^adgcd aa aach, and tbat la tba Natbor- 
laxuU, wbldi, b aooordaiioe wilb tbo naolatiea et tba 
.limoTiiit provincial qmod at Utrwibt <li<IS), doM 
not aei«r»t« Inm tbe Catbulic Cbur«b, and oven lo- 
apaota tiw papa ai ha nMtnal bead, but daaiea bit 
iafdUbOi^, njada Uw Uu Uia«aaUa% aad ^paada 
EraoB il lo a nnafml tooBaL It miaitMD^ aJao^ tba 
doot rin ei cf Augnatiiw, nfduldt inonl ilikiw, tui 
regard* tba Inward acrvloe of God aa tiw grtalaal 
Mwfofpiaty. Tlii an raininiiita. iiliii i all llwinwtTfa, 
tiy pw rnnw o^ tbe diteiatta of 8l. Aagiutmt, have 
bad afawo 17U aa attbbUwp ol Ibab own at Utoacbt. 
aad liUcjH at Hawkn and Davasiac; Covntar • 
liargj vwh, bcinc aabject to tba dvil aothanly, 
wttboat ikb« or p*iwar, M a foiiaa Ita dntba m nadi 
tba nota Ulthfidly, and exantaaa a waU-««dar«d 
cbureb gwatameatiwhicb tbey owe to tba p wtacl iett 
el Pmeataati^wUle tbeyanatUIeHMl^Bedbytba 
p«pa M a«nalat«a and aduBBwIiak SliB, aacfc iia*Bp 
OB bia jfipofatewat aotttw Uaalaotka totba paM 
aad cvavaa wflnartfcw. TWaa»«oMplawaM iba 
boll Vrngt^Pat, bowavw. ^ omad idl Ibatr ^■ 
vaacea to be re)ac>od, and tba cbaaeea af a reaaaial' 
alicai bolwaen tbo boJy eae and tba Jaaaiabla W*« 
bawi matiy Jalulibiil t? Aa laiaai^prtlaa b^m 
Aa V^tbaa «l tk doAa of tba i^uaiiila caw- 
MfliM 4i tba blMBd Tlnta bfaiy, iMb allad 
Bartb a fraib prolcal. Iba CtraAt Jiiiiwiia aaaa. 
hm aboai JMMO, aad ai* «pread aear twvwty^w 
|wi^ la iba diacHM «d Utracbt and Haaikw. 
JANS8KX. OeaMtum, aaaaOy knoara aa Ae- 

J AyBBEKSk AaautAK a laaew Xbrti^ bbtatel 
pafciwi 11 ill H toteva banbaaa atAMwwpfa 
IMI. Hawaawry iiiifiiiliMimahb^wbM^aBd 
dbd m fum l j, ia wbat year ■• not kaowa. Bo waa 
Iba I i y awd thai €< Baba■l^ Iba^ IhF 
ba «ea«te bMfc hJB b WT a^bw^ 

■beawydiba iiiajfa bmfc y« b wy a^bw^ 
&•*. Bah At^ ii h aliii l tmUm aduw^ ■< 
anneyol^^a. Mawrf Ma aiaa ai aa aafc the 
naabbcbwbM; al tbaw tba BmrAm «l CkrU 
aadtball I i arfCbfldlalhaClawabrftbaC^ 
■aawaalAMwa—iiil! 1 tba bw«. OAaaa 






JA?fl7ARirS. St., WAop of BoMnoitn, vm 
b^eadod kt Puuuoli in tho bcsfandiiff of tlw fourth 
oaBturjr, » m&rtyr to Ui« Ctiri«uui faith, asd la hon- 
oond M tho pttroB B&int of tha Kin^om of N«plM. 
Hm bo^J 1m* burioil in the. rryjit of the cftthedral At 
Nimloi; bob hi* tuad, witli two phial* (nnuw^/tr) of 
bb Mood whlob a floxu matrpn cniight, na ua tradi* 
tioo la, ftt bu execution, i» pn»«rv«J Jii ft wpftnte 
ohipeL Of tlU« blnod the Xtapolitana »men Uuit iw 
woau aa it ia brought near Iba ba*d of tlu; lutint it 
baeina to UqiMfy, kntvavvr hnrd cnn|{Mi1e<l it M^na 
befUK. A trul te oiaiio ou three fettles «sah J««r, 
tha chlaf of which ia SejAember 19, the ansivcnary 
of tlMi Diutynlom, Mid alart when {mblic danger ea 
caUimtjr ciiirts or ia impending. It U buUerad that 
tbe patron t&bt Im partEcularly propiti^nia Lf tho 
blood ittovea lirLtkl/ iu the \^h^nU And iippnus of a 
clear icd, wlulu tlic oppoaito ia r^krUvd m> pRaa^[iiig 
aoma in to the eoontry. The nugtoua frnaj which 
pnvKOad at certain fostJvala of tb« lualheD baa n 
eomierpait in the cliunour far the liquebotlon of 
Uw blood of St Jantianua iu the c}u|h;1 tt tbla aaint 
if it it dtU;«d long after the coBiniaiiMniant of the 
«elat»Btiuo. Tlie tvproMbaa ayaiiiit tiio aabt are 
not a few. SometiiDai two or thna daya elafw 
Nrforc the blood bncumea liiiuitl; it Id in » botUo 
wbidi atwiib ufKin the alur, tmd lb lifted now and 
then bj a prieat to aliow to tho people wbethor it baa 
lw<.-oaM li<|uid or act: If It boa Utioefied aU throng to 
Che altar, aa^ JmMlins down, Uaa Ihe offered bottle. 
Mid ibon the prioit pmaea it agniuvt the bead of llie 
faitfalaL It la aakl that when the FVencb oocninwl 
I<lA|>la for tfao firrt tim the blood would not become 
Uquid. IIm FmBGfa gsnand, uptfthonaivB of a com- 
nwticfi, eeiit to the amWahop intloiatins that if the 
■ainl'a blood did not aoon ntn the Rrcbhiahnp'a mtj^ht. 
The aidat had oominaaiDn on h» aerra&t, and the 
ninMlo took daca ta dae aeaaoa. 

JAXUAKnTS, »r^ OBxaat op, an order of kiught- 
bood inatitntwl by Ch&rlee, Ung of SIdly (aftarwarda 
irbarloi UL of Soain), as the Stli of Jvly. 1738- 
Att« the nanob mVBBion of l^OtS It waa au^treaaad 
bf King Jnaepb Napoleon, but it wna rovircd in 
1835 by l-'erdiDADd IV^ who mode it the lint dia- 
tiaetioa of booour In Ui kingdom. Since tho dod- 
qwat and aoaasatian oi the Tvn SidUaa the decora- 
tion ia no bwfcer eanfenad, and the order ia doomed 
U> endual ealiuotioo. lie Uok waa grwid-iaaatAr 
«if UM order, and noaainated the kn^ta, «hoei«timc<il 
the d«r{oe /» Muvnnnr /odu/. Tht badge wna a 
gnld octaeonal whllo aivd red eaanielled crooa, with 
Bold ttmv lit iU ia tine appcr and aide angle*. On 
Aa ooveeee waa the imaga of the taint In tba opa- 
tBBW of a blabopk aad Um revons abowa two [ihiala 
ftgAf inied with blood, aiie erem waa attached to 
a flaBM-ooLoiired ribbon worn over the alioiildcnk 

JAKUARV, the lirat month of the yoar, waa by 
Ihtt B o m a n a biild iMTed to Jamu^ b«B whom the 
aame waa derived. The Boaun year crigiaaUy 
began with Uarch, and -™«'«t^ of only ten avnihr 
Nnsn added Jaauai^ and Febniarr ^ tbe oalaodar; 
bat altlio«i;li the Becnaiu at aarly aa S51 EA BCMptad 
Jmmry aa the int mootb of the year tho natiraa of 
Kavo|>B did Bot unJverHJly wlopt it aa endi till tlui 
■isbtDcntb aentnty. Ilio Uth of March waa tlie 
' J a< tb»aueteait Jvwith year, and that day. 
<■ Jaanary I, loop held a leral poaitbrn ta 
■i OKntrie* aa tha ofMning «C the year. 

JANUS jum JAXA, two ancient i:,atin divlnl- 
iim, whone aaoMB are only other funm of I>iaaaa 
aial Oiaan. Jamui i> pnfaabjy identical with Bol, as 
Jann fa andMbCcdly with Luia or Diana. Xnma 
MMnarf the fiiet raonth of the year Jannarina, aftrr 
Janaa, wbopredded oirer the bcylnnlBg of all thinita. 
Tba ftret boar of the day waa alw lacnd to Un, and 

ia all anlemn sacrMcca h« waa the flnt addraaaad. 
and had the title of father. The Roiaona tironouncM 
Ilia name even before tliat of Jnpitcr, and according 
to traditioa he waa In Italy Wfora any of the otfacr 
goiUbntliewasnotaiithiaacoaunt doomed enMiior 
to tbum. Hia principal featiTal waa NcwYeai'a 
Day, wium people gave each other pnaeote, omrieL- 
lag of ewoetmiMla nnd Wppar ootna havbig oB one 
idaa the doable head of Janin and oa the other n 
ahin, Jnnus was rqiKaented with a aeeptre tn the 
i^bt band and a Icoy ia the left eeated on a glitter^ 
ins tbroae; he waa ahro repreaented with two facva 
fan dd and a youthful one), of which one looked 
forward and tho other behind. Scane oonc«lfe thia 
to bo a ayinbol of wiadom, which eeea into the pa»t 
and ibo futuio; otbon a eyrabol at the changoa ot 
the jiMir, of the vidjnitndea of the aeaanna, or tit tho 
fuuT ignartem of the world, aa he was lomeUmea 
painted with foor fncea, and (if hta double office of 
opecinfT and abuttioj; the gate of beavea In ibv 
Reraaa mythology it ia related that Jantia, imt of 
the andeut kinn of the Latins, tansht hJM pntplo 
aerii^ilttiRv and introduced nacfol lawa and reti- 
siuim iiiBtituLtona Saturn, driven from Ida oountrr 
by bla ohildnn. fled to Latliun, where be waa well 
rocMvcd by Janua, and made joint ruler of t^e 
kint(dam. Under their reign wiu the gotilun n^ of 
Lntluni. AU aorte of paMagea were nuiier the care 
of Jiuitix. After bim a door wai oJIcd janaa, and 
erery *qwn arched p a a aage by which people eo oot 
of one aLrvet ur place Into another njaniu. Vxtr ihi 
aame reaaon he wna the god nf tbn dav and the year. 
BoBulua erected to him the celebiatca tea^k^ wUdi 
woe opened at tho beginning of every war, aooecdtT^ 
to the ordinance of Kuin&, aud remained it{icii aa l<^ng 
>« th« war Wtcd, and until peace wan nrtAhliihed in 
all ibc countriea mbjoiot to Romoi The tcntplo, bow- 
nrrr, vrti* shut only three timcB Ib the long ajmoe of 
700 jx-ar*— one* in the mgn of yiiuia, i^ain after 
the ftiet Punic war, and the third time nndw tbo 
rdga of Avgualua a.c.c. 741. Vuepaalan nlao doaed 
it in A.n. 71. 

JAPAN (natiTe name eignifying tho I^nd of the 
lUinng Snn), an ialand eni|iiro in the North PaciSc 
Ocean, ejf the Qoith-east eoatt of Aala, eunjutiag of 
an aKhipelago. compriring thioe lai:^ ntouDtataaua 
and Tolcanio idaaoi — Nipboa, Kinmi, SOtok — and 
an Ennncnae aiunher of tfnaller, forming togethev 
JajiaB Proper; alaa of the large Iibad of Teaeo or 
Ytaa, north of Nlphon, and aeparatad ftotn it b; 
the ^att of Sangar or Matamal, wllh the aonthera 
hnlf -4 the bland of Tatakai, Kiafto or Ebobidlen, 
au<l tho Itrg^ and ntan anuthem Kurile IidaodB, 
forming b depaMtency called the pruriuoe of Matanul: 
and taatly of the de|w«ideBcy of the r.oo-Choo lalanda. 
It thva extenda from laL 2t*ta iT «., ami lea 125* 
tolSl'K^behigabovtSC'of Ut.tuid'iS'of Ion. It 
hi bowtded north by the Sea of Okhotil^ «art and 
aonth by tha Paca&o Ooraa, west and north-veirt tnr 
tha Strait of C^wea, tho Sea of JatuuL at>d the Gaff 
of TartBry. The Japaaew Emph* ia made op o( 
abont StSO dlattnct lalaada. The area of Japan 
Pro])er ia Mtimatad at llf,l9flaq;au<onii]eB^of which 
the toain ndand occa{>iea 89,016, Knuio ]S,83I, 
Sikok 0V7O, and the minor lalanda tocether SffTS. 
Ycaao baa aa am of Sl,>Ki«, the two of tho Xorile 
lalanda that belnoig to Japan 3(Ift», the Loo-Cboo 
lalanda SB70. TliO total aiva cf the empire ia thmv 
tore 155,489 aqnara milea. In oonfonnity with oecn* 
mon wage we ahall aniJoy ia tUi arttola tbe tarn 
Kiphcn to denote the largeet iilaod U tha gnnp, 
thou^ it is only an older way of apeOing tbe vevd 
Jitpan, and n appUed by the aaUvea to the empira. 
To the Japaneae mind tiha mainUnd needa no dW> 
tiactlT* naau; TlHpo|x fae»ttuiatedat83.110,Ht. 



Pkgmirat /'mftins.— Tb* lorgot ulaiul, Nipban or 
Klpoo, b ni|>wmrda ft TOO mllw lone iiorUi-«ut uid 
■wth-wot, bratdtb \*tyme tntn dO to 100 nuha; 
Kiuiin, >e|wrKtis1 (mm Nipbon by Uie Kino LtutniMl, 
«r)iicfa in ou« part im narrowed to 2 milM widlb, u 
■bout 2C^ tniJiM laDe Dovtb to wath And ISO milM 
bnwl; Siiok, Uw uiird And niutUcM of tlw ihrm 
p>i(td|w] laUndi, la 140 tnilea knc bjr to mitt farud. 
It liM naC «l Kiouu, from wluob it u Mpanted bj 
tiw Btnil tit Boungo, udilch thnm^Kntt it* sxtoiit 
Is United by tli« vert eout of SUkok, and at iu bu- 
rowcrt put fa not mora tham 10 mila bnad. Tlia 
Mniti ta the north and eaat, whkb divide SUcolc from 
Ni|iboa^ M* BcaRolj bruorik'r, while they «t« n 
thickly Mt with unail uUniU thul tbe Tmm»g>i i« 
ti«i|B0iill7 not moR tluui 1 mile wiile. Yeaau in of 
a toughljr triAcjpUr lunn, liating Ua aidoa nspee* 
tivoljr 300 taibi^ 260 miU*. aiid ^0 ndlaa in langtli. 
It fe aa))UBt«d tma Kiplioa on tlw loutliMMat bv 
tha Stnlt el Tnicw, ^■"*— ■'. or Sugar, about 8 
rnOaa broad in tha oaitowMt pari. West of Ni^wn 
U« the inportaat Uand of Sado^ botncn Ca|ie 
Noto and Ruatian'a Cape; It fa MipuMnd to be abnut 
43 milaa loog and 21 to 21 niilaa broad. Tb« nar- 
roweatpartof the chaniMl aeparating it froniNiphon 
fa about to uilea widai llie eoarta ol the Ufger 
falandt arm mdiwnaly irragular, bdng daafily hulontvd 
vith sulfa, bim awt ialeta, wUdiTorm uaipiiEGeut 
barboun. Tu anrfaoa alao fa ggoanlly asaTaii, 
aod in maaj ioatanoca ritea into moujitaiaa at mat 
el«Taliaa. Thia ia eapedally the cnae in the Iiland 
of Nlpboa, which fa travcnra tbrou(^out ICa whole 
Im^th by a raffular chain of ■nmiiiUiiiR, thu biirhnt 
paak of vUdi, Fbai-jraiDa (Kkb Scholar Peak)— a 
tlorfiMBt Tolcnaov c«v«t«il with perpetual anow — u 
13,977 tevt bigb; fant Uio alamtioa of tbo range ia tn 
ipanentl ao low aa to adnft of cultivation up io tlta 
wBter«bed of Ifa itrainaL The JapuiGw iBUnda 
fona a part of tbo line of mJcanic actjun wbicA 
VOIUMOON, in tba nnrtb, wllb tb* Aloatian Inln, 
JMMCS through tbo PbiUp^nca, Sumbawa, aod Ja%a 
to Bmnatra, and iboa to n north-weat dbccdan to 
tha Bay of BcngU. Tha vtilcanio vaala, whicli 
imdlaate the directioo of the line, are numeroii* In 
Ywats K1phoat,and Khuda; oartbquakea, of ton cauia- 
ing great deTartation, aro of boqiwnt occ u rrcoc^ 
aiM it fa ealailalad that ttery aoTca yean a Ja|ianoao 
dly fa doalroycd by their agcaoy. In Ymm aotiM 
dnadful eroptiaDa haro oecuriM— one in 17S3 de- 
•troy«d tweuty-thne Tilliveai aod tba voloaim uf 
WvaiBiidakc^ one ot in actiro fat tha Ulaad «f 
Kinaia, fa the tenor of the Kuroandiiig inhabitanta 
—an anipllua of It la 1792 barbg dtaUoyad 5S,000 
paopla. Tlia pntvoJiinif fnmintioiu in thrao ialaiMla 
■ra tnwbyt« and Uuttdii pliuitic dav, luart, and fol- 
•par oecor tn various looalltlai; and tkeie on vfaafa 
■noontaina of porcelain earth. Hie metallic waahh 
vl the empire fa Imown to be ran great, ramprfaiDD 
gdlA, stiver, coppar. tin, lead, and Iron. The laUoa 
el 8ada fa paiticolarly nontianeid aa rich in gold. 
Ikith the tin and copper of Japan are CMiakfarad to 
be o( vsn auperfor quality. CMl fa fuund in various 
parte; KUpbarabonnds; twmaland tnioMal springs 
are of fNqiMiit occ w raaas; and anber^^rfa fa n«t 
with oa aotne of the ebotta. Btraaue are nnmeram 
fa> Ji|Mn, but ha*t v«y abatt c uw aa^ and are tar 
tbs most part rathor tonsnta than livan. Tboui^ 
valuelcas aa obaaDsIs (or tha dsreioMnGnt of cotn- 
mcTca thay are of great ralaa (or the poqMae* of 
irrigatioa. There aro a nmnb« of lakes seattoad 
thtvugbout th» falaadt, Um largest being Biwanu- 
Ooni, b) tha aontluini part d XIplua, aboat JO 
mitea long. 

Climmte. — The rliniat« of Jspaa, llioagh extranely 
vaffaas— balni; intensely oold in the Doru, and abont 

a* wanu mt One loutli of Frsoos ia the south— i«^ i 
the wbolo, much milder than ite latilade wvNtld lad-C 
cats; cpwiag, cUcfly, to the induenco of the aormnid* 
ing ooean. A remarkable diSaremoa of climate exfata 
also betwean the «*«t and west abat«*; the oold being 
mora iatauso na Llie IntbEC than the fitfiocr, oaii^ to 
tiM prosbnlly of the Aslatto oontinant; while the 
oast coasu are protaotad fron tha eoU ecallna m al 
wiwU by the lofty oentral ridge of nomtafiia *)>■*_ 
traveiaea the ialanifa, nortii t<^ aoath. From HardHH 
to tha ssQoad half of May a splendid spring preiaiMl 
inaa Jane to Saptonbersammer axt«ufa, tatrodaosd 
by heavy rains fottowed by intansa heaft; fraa Se|H 
tembsr to the end of Xomnbsr tbsf« fa a brilUant 
autumn; and throa mnntha of winter socDead, itodand 
not impleaaaat by tlta oontlnued sereoHy at the aky. 
In Kiiuiu, autl la Uie soalhparis of Xiphon, the 
tlirrmmueiU'r ranges between Slraiid lO^'Fahrcnhiat, 
&0' beuu; the avaia|[e in the niicldfa c4 aunrnMr, and 
35* la the ooldeat months of winter. In lat. S£* ». 
ice fa formod of aenfal lines in tbickneas; in kt M" 
the lakes axe oovtoad with a sheet of ioe^ and in 38* 
to 40* tli*^ Ice beoonMa *a thidc that the riran may 
be croaacd upon it; whilo iu Vcmo. near Capo Ssfca, 
lat 45" SI' X, winter fa so eevere aa to driva tna 
hardy Alnoe to ibe proteotiaa of ca« oms. Kain fa 
varyfrotinaDt; huiricaneaand waler-«po<tt*al»»<KVBr 
oflwi, aiia tyidioooa and ecnUnootlal galea freqvsnll/ 
avraep llie seaa about the aoaaga of toa nn wiiMa. 

V«jraaiim. — Ilia vagetaUon of the Jmanaaa ManJa 
is excrodinglv vaiioua, the products of the tnpies 
beiDg iutvnuWted with thoaa of the tenparate and 
fridd loncB. Tha palm, banana, bambvo^ b^jnoida, 
and myrtle; ttoarisb in the aouth, whila la tha north, 
more eapeciaUy in Y«Mo and Sa^UaUcB,«aka and amos 
abound. The forests ot Yeasn cover ah area perhapa 
neariy mnsl to that of Inland, and fona a suaree of 
weal^ Uiat b aa yet oeBDMratlvely negleetad. Tl* 
ftneal of the Japaneae Indlgenoiia trees are tha avt^ 
^reoD oak and the auplo. Swert (iTangoa, poma- 
gnuiatct, pears, apricots, peaches, and above 500 uf tha 
prinotpal oniamoDtal ana useful planu^ ar« of fondga 
orieiB. having nobahly been tntrodacsd from 0am 
and China, 'llui camnbor and Tandah bus H* 
Indlgeaoua. The £wu<, or paper-tree, a m edea 
of Bttlbany, grows natnnlly in the fields, and (nr* 
niibea textile libn», from srtiich paper fa produaad, 
a spsdmen uf wldcli wss exhiUted at th* thtal 
Kihibition of I'aifa in IM'. The saQ of Japan 
u iiaturally indifferent; but the i^ttient indnatry oC 
the agrioultnriatt, favoured by the f:enfal dtnutte, 
haa oovcsad with segetation ever}- »i>i>t mjnlilc of 
bearing anything, in the anitth the ragBi-oane fa 
cultivated with ncoeaa; and rice yields tsro harveeb^ 
and oonatitntca the chief article of food. V^bsat 
aad barley are grows to a Itnitcd eatnC, and budc- 
whaat, soy, potatoes meloni^pMBpldns, and cooum- 
bars, in grMt abunidaaoa. Ofaigar, peppfir, oottei^ 
and tvUkTOo at* Cultivated fat oonddanibM q«aMltleK 
aod there are cxtMsivs planlatlDU «f tha laa pliat 
— yialding, bowovar, a prodooo Infolor to that of 
Cliina. Toe flora Bradi rossmbka that of North 

Zoologf. — Bidfftloca aad aebua ara eMUacn: but 
thev are used only lor canying buidaas aad foe 
S|[rtaaltairal potjwsea. Hosaes ^ varieu breeds — 
Mid, though nnaLU, said to bv vary axoeDal — am 
nnmamia. Tbsriarcncitharama»miitei,alephnBli^ 
nur owtels, and •heeti and pica are few. In ooawr 
qoenca of the gMaralcuhivitttonof tha aofl tha wOd 
animala an aeocanuily frw in nnmbsr, bat baanv 
hyma% deer, haraa, faxai^ aad wild bean are stfll 
Inad In the north of Nlphon. Dogs ara ooiwiinn, 
and are h^ aaciwd; but thoagh cats exfat in thoB'* 
saads, the oooutty Is said to be otorun with rata 


nidmies. ITiwtUa^riAtTftriatyofUrdi^IiiclDdlag 
hlcou^ wbteh UQ much cnosmed: pbeunnti, of 
wbldi than: are two kioik, dncka, gewe, tcnl, atorka, 
mgMM^ T>Tm>, la'ka, p>«licMia, cranea, h«rons, fto. 
owjsware not unfrv |U«cit ; ono ipccics, tho Mmthami, 
atteiu m •nennma dta. Then w oIm tortobw, 
tterd^ MOTfioat, knd eenUpodea ; kud of llie loMct 
tribM there tttv wtiitc<ftnt«, tringvd gnuaLliopiicn, 
Mkd Mwral bmutirtil vsHetiw ol uiatlu, Tlii! •«•■ 
ftbound in fi&l^ wMdi nn lakni in gnit qiuuititlea, 
aikI ftluu^ with rioe form tbs chief »iilMi*U)UMi i>f the 

P*opU, Ptiigion, ai'tl ZnnjWKipf.— The JivpftniMe 
may be regarded as bolon^ng to tho gnut Mon^t- 
'I'artar familj. thovi^li clhtiAliigUt« Ilbvc rcfcrr«<l tboin 
lailiBvmit Ly]i«* ciluianUo'l Thi-y mUiiLbjintihei], 
liks ail tho otlivr brancliM of tlUa utook. by brnntl 
akuUi and hi^'h chcck-boneii ; vniatl blaex cye», 
ebliqQflly wt; long: black hair, and a vellivw at lijlit- 
oliTc ctimplcicicn; Kona aro guod-lutjldug, and uisuy 
M« woU-raade, active, and ninihle. Thay taa clivifinil 
•oHally inu two cltuie* — lullitary aud uou-nuli- 
tiuy; iba lowost ot the fonncr or twa-eword«d cliias 
ranktit)f ahovi^ thn 'wcxUliiunt civili.ui. 'I'lie i^Uwieii 
an* Lc[jt difltini-'t, whli all tlic RtrictiicK* of tiuto. 
HmjLt priudpa) ntoral charaotcridtlcs ura Bkill. pcnie- 
reraiuM, oonra^, and fnuikii«M; niLh much good 
buinuur, natural pnlitaacMi, and courteny ot tnanocr, 
»)n.-«f>t In til* uilUtaij', feudal, nud i>II!dal carto. 
Tbv latter ([ualiUM are particularly ohwrvablo 
■OMiiftt the a^ricultaraJ pi^uiatinn : who i\ro, bn- 
iiie$, indlutrioui, tuminrrate, and liiH[>itnlitc. Tlic 
Japanaai draa criosUt* of Iixiw iprtiieuU uf aUk or 
cctUn oatfaarKl in at th« vaifb and faatonod by a 
^rdli^ lae meii of the higher onicn vuaring a kind 
is prUicDat-lroiiR^ni, and Ihuae of the kijjlieat rank 
»»n) ■word*. 'rh» cimUxn of wearing tw» ewonla U 
tuiw, hmrevor, falling gut of fMbloo, and in Yoddo 
« Ja{i«aiHe Trith two an-ordB la rarely seen. They 
•Ktnr no liata except in rainy woatbrr; and afaavc tii« 
wbald fnmt and cmwn nf tlm hciul, fiirming tlt« rc*t 
Into a lufl iMi the bald KkoLl. The 'woinun, aKain. 
Wear their hair very li>n^, with niunennia MsUy 
omaincnta of tort>4««-«bi.-It, but orino of any other 
nateriaL llidr dnsi very nmcii riMoniblu tlinl of 
the HMD. Tb«y dueiroy ibeir uaturat c^iupk-xiuiu 
with paint, colour their li[« piirpk-, and, when 
narrifcil, blacken their tfi^ih nml jilnck out thi-tr 
^*<;l>tiDiirB. Poljjfatuy i« not |ir«t*tiji«d, idtliDi]i;b tbe 
nuiml nub of the JapiuiL«o is nut otberwisii, by any 
neaia, pmicularly ri^-id; variiiu Inxitica Ivia^ in- 
dulged in vttbout Bcandal. All are tilavea to cnatom 
mad lijiculuu*, often ojipreaHvo, ciiquttte. In YeaK^ 
Sagbalivo, and the Kuriloa the population largely 
OoialitJ ef Ainre. (Heo AJlcoa.) 'Jha e*tahl»bcd or 
state religi'Un (■ Ibat of Buddba, wbiL-li u, hrrwevur, 
•snti^ and coinpamtliply modent. although Anotb«r 
and older form alto cutU, called Sioto or Sin-Sya 
^f^tb la zikIs, or way to godni. The nrieeta of thin 
aecl atv allowed Lo marry. Tliti uiikaiju, two eculesi- 
aatlcttl jndvee, the monks and Uie prietta^ coiwtitute 
the hieraray of KD*3yubai, There are no fewer 
than ei^rht lecta of Bnadhleta, The langti^e ia net 
iBDiioeyUahk) but agglutinate, and lia« an alpLabot 
of forty-aereo [ettara, which am written in two 
ililfurviil formii, unu reiid<-red cuinidox hy the addition 
of vatiatiou^ knoira aa the Hirajaita form of char- 
scter; Bitd the otbvr, (lii: KaUvjiina i-'banvctv-i-. cnticvly 
liWlOitt Tariatinnff, and cmuiRtiiiRiilIy mni:b ciinplur, 
Tbo libemturc vf Ja]iaii a <:oidoud, aiid iududt^ 
work* in ^ departmenta, historical, sctontlHc, and 
JntAiri'^^^^i gvierally baaind on C'bincac clniciiia. 

J/aHf/iKtuif au'l Tradf. — In luauufacturiii^ iu- 

\fMry and ingenuity thu Jaiwneee arv, at luMt, ecgnal 

' fo the Chiocer. '1 lidr works in capper, iron, and 

eted bsar a falgb ohanicter. Tdncopoi, tbarmcuiw 
term, watchca, and oloofa^ of good qMUfrf- '^ mads 
at Xo^raankl, mm of the fiv« imperial cities oa Ihe 
wmt eoaat of thn I*Und of Kiuuii. Ulaaa ii nindn, 
but not very (iioccuftilly, Stlk and cotton vlotba 
arc manufartured; and porcelain, ntd to bo aiipcrlor 
to that of China. The pradaction of tnlk baa boon 
greatly extended and iniprovcil of lute yi^ar*, but tliu 
pruduoe le a> yet inferiur iu i|uAtiiy L41 that of Cblua. 
I'hr art of japanning^ as k la called with n^ or mar* 
pnipirly Iii-'jticnnif, iapnctited with great anoccM; 
ujid ■[leuimBnit are produced far anrpaaabi^ in brQ- 
liancy and vplenduur, any that an ever Been Ja Europe, 
Lit bochromc -printing haa been long practised, and 
thoiiKb tbi^ law* of pcnpNtive are nob well nnder- 
st«i.-d, thu otitlinn u{ auuiiala and other fijjunsa are 
itriimi nitli inueH truth and STiirlt. tJood paper ia 
made from tlie baric of ibc mnlbarry and utbi.-r trcca, 
and cordage from ib^fibrci; hut neither ah ip-buil ding 
niirhouec-building anrwull utideratood. Ilic boiiau* 
arc almoit unironally r.niwtructed of timber, plna- 
tervd oa tbu uulaide; and voiuinl of two titorivs, 
dividodlntoroomshy^lghtnaperpnTtilianB. Fi>reign 
r<inimi^r<v waa long rigidly limited to the Dntcb and 
I'ldiiLwi; but \>y trvativ* into wbicb the Japaoeae 
govcnuuent was reluctantly Indtioed lombvlii 1854 
and mbscquvutly, five porta ba^e been opened to 
foreignem, and an rxtnimivn 'Conim.oroe eawdiabod. 
From ibe jyirt of Yokohama nlone very ulotw upon 
12.yOO.OCK) 11* ol tea of the Beason 1672-73 wore 
cxprtrtcd. Tea and nlli aro the atarle export*, and 
the iniporta from l^umpe romt in deiunnd are tlio 
vaHou* ttritilu fabric* and wiiidow-glaM. Tbe total 
value of the iiii[)orts of the direct trad* betwom 
Japan and other cotintriM in 1S72 was £6,6&2,'IO0; 
eKjwrtM, £fi,4S<I,'iliil. B'vxcr )S7U tho Jairaucae- have 
hwl a new cdnaga inailt in thi> country, thn former 
coins bavisg bow made out of the oountry. The 
new oeinaffs ooikaiflte of 1 0, fi, and 2^ dollar pisMa in 
gold, the dollar being the Mexican f =;la. to 4«. M,), 
atid of dollar ptociv, SO, 3fl, and 5 cent niecea ht, 
silver, besides copper cent, half cent, and mil pleooL 
Inhere is alaa a paper currency. Tho priadpal weighta 
ara the piciil = 1 83 Ibe. aFoirdupoia, and the kinn ^ 1 ^ 
lb. Measures of length: the abakurrrlU ■un = ]1J 
inches, tbo ri - SO ubo = 21 milca. 

ffot-emrafat. — The government of Japan ia a her- 
f'litary atvanliitc moaitrchy, voatrd in the mikailoL 
Tbin wMi UiB mnriont fonn, but iu 1563 tbo euiporor's 
cnrnmandur-lu-chiuf usurpvd the governing pr>^i'r, 
and fur nearly tlirco eontiiriee rcifnced thv uiikadu 
lo a ae«ndar}> iiokition. The latter reaidwl In tbe 
royal and aacred cily cf Miaoo (or Kioto), wiicre ho 
wna kicpt secluded, under tha gtUK of a uyaterioua 
annctity: wbilothosbogtin,UTiegat Yeddo,exercd>sd 
imiiLrri.-Ll ButliorlLy, and was regarded, by fotdgncn 
at i«<iut, 04 H a»i:«inil and soprenne aoi-ervisn. In I86S, 
hofTcvcr, a rovolation D\~er throw the power and oOka 
of the flhoTnn — he had been usnalty, but oTroneousIyi 
called by a Cbioert title, fy«»« — and the mikaflu 
wa« restored to liia luiciant unpn^nuury. Tht mikadti 
iirdigiouslyregardedby the [ie<->plt!iuthe»>>nr(vof all 
power and ptopsrty, and th«ni la do linglu thing uslct* 
kng In tho laud which ia not regarded as rtdlly the 
emperor'a I'ndcr tbo intlucRcc of lliia prinnpte a 
marvellous national uiovvmeat ha* taken plare; the 
<lainuos, or tcrrltorud prini-ce, who, imdcr the slioguns. 
C'lercised ^ilmi^talw'iliitciiwiiy wthinihetrterrltorica, 
bave siirronilcre^l thi'ir Ifitidi :iiid title* Iu the inlkndu, 
fnim ivboiii they aru to bold tbi>ir[>™'»««»i<'n»hotn:rforth 
in dfpenrloncy, and arc to be styled ne lonifcr dalmloa, 
but Himply kazokn (uoblen). Tbe mikado is abaohtte 
ruler lulNitk U^mporal and apiritua! afFnirs, HeaetB 
tlirou^'h an exortitive minvntry, c^ouBiitini; of eight 
departments, such as Ihuae of foreign aJTain, war, navy, 



juttloo, kc At the uJo of the mmbtry strvotts the 
■Min or (cnat* of tliirty mcmtion, lutd the shuui ur 
fiminoil of Kiate. vt an (uuliuitn'il oumlwr of membera, 
both bodice bein^; nomiDAtod by tho mikado and 
COMultcd hy him a-t hi* |ilcunrG. Yor administni- 
tive pnrpoaea the cniioTO la dividcM] iutu »evriity-twi> 
Iwn or nml dlatnoU, uid thi«e foti or 
dutrirta: Yoddo, Osika. ud Kioto, llis uUnd uf 
Yeatofi garemed u* kind ot oolonUl poBModan, 
^He tibitd taant of rair«uu« ivrbicL amoiiitta to about 
£10,000^000] b dffrind from thu liuid-tac 1'ho 
public debt U nboot £27,l>0l>,000. The B^luido'a 
rule ii ono of prognaa, «ad be baa tbrown aS mn«h 
oF the Tonoer mjrabcrious aocIuHvcncw. In ISII9 ha 
received in KraOit tljUa thti Duke of £diiibtir);]i ut 
Yeddo, the Srat knovu )iiBt«aoe ol tlio rocvixlun of 
» ferd^ priaov (except Cbinuo). AltoL'^lOBT, tha 
tisT r^tue lookx toore cnligl'itAiiod and progreuiTe 
thiui that of till; l-ii-IuhIva ilii^fuii; uid Uie ratont- 
tioD at n ftlratig ai\d uniftam govsnuntaital mdmic* 
btrUlon may tei;«iLQmt« tbU iutorwtlog country. 
Sy tb» Uw d< SSUi SeosinWr, IST:!, miliUry wirnoa 
b oUipkiATy on aX[, but mbAtitulion i« bllowvd. 'ilic 
parioa of ■enl'iM la tbroo jrean. Tlie uavsl force !■ 

aiMorg. — Marco Fola b th« flnt Eiin>p«3n tra- 
relbr who •pekka of JapMi, called hj bim (.'ijiaii^ 
or Kiptn2»D. Id 1S<2 it waa rsMlwd by Mmdaa 
Fiato, and ahortly aftcnrarda th* PertagnMa obteluod 
tMfnibBkti) to kettle M XagfUMU, and MtkbUahed a 
ntghlj lacrativo trailc. lu 1649 the Jeauit luiawonaty 
Fraoeia Xarier jurivctl, and by liiii meoiui anil thftt 
of hia f<itlov«n nuiiy of llie uAtivus were ounvected 
to tb« Cbimih of Bom«. Bot ib« goTonuurat be- 
onmiog joalons of the I'ortupicM, and imt*t«d ivt 
the iuteifeaienea of the muaionKries wtt1i the rcliKiuiiB 
pn>f<Haio& ef tba pcopio. In 1685 expelU-d thu t^xfer*. 
■od eonpoUed tbe nativa oanreita to ntum to their 
former faith. Sovcr«l aAvere pcnecutioiui of tho 
Chri>tUn convcrU enmcd, aai) iu une day 37,000 ant 
■aid lo have bvta biawmtoI But th«ao p«noc(itbu 
partook nmch mon of the policiad than of the nUip- 
ou> cbar»cter; and tt was the nndoe interlMvaoe of 
the I'artUin>r*o with the uativee, and tba nut un- 
founded dread of tliBir cs.tAblUlunK a pormaatnt 
(bubtian in tho country, that Incited the JapaoMe 
MttfaarltiiH to tha popetntioii of th«a enonnitiaa. 
Umim the PoitugueM were finally expelled; anil in 
1610 the mmnbui of an omlw^, aeat from the 
govarameat of Macao to tba Ka^oor of Japan, 
v«T« baibaiouily murdei«d hj o«der of tlw latter, 
with tho «xoaptiaa of twolTo penona naomd to 
cany back the intriligmice aa a menac* to th«lr 
Boperion. TheFo(tu|;ae(aa«T«raft«rwanl»raeov«rod 
ft footing In tbo oountry. PrcvloiMty to thta the 
I>iiScli kid. in 1600, aaeoMdod in eatahliihing com- 
inercnal fdatJona with Japan, wluch bjr their prwlont 
nuKueaOMot tbey oontiunod to maintain, notwith- 
itaodjnf tlu raonl proKf^don ot all ChriatiaD 
powon, sad Ul iwrauy wer« tho only Kiuopoan 
naUon that poaaeaaed any interoDnne with the 
eoantrr. In the rcJn <rf EUubeth, Indeod. tha 
EaoliiB obtainvd n fooliag In Japan, but lost it 
vaam timt ol h« anoooaor, Jamm t. Till r«coitl7' 
J^Mtt waa ahoort a tirm* imovmita. The firat 
attempt in modem timcn la r»op»n n eemmsraal 
lateroauiw waa made by the United Staka, who. 
March 31, IMl, aaooeodod, Hirougb tho a^^oy of 
OuiKnodoro Pmtj, in ooDcluding a treaty by which 
the iwrla of SEraoda in the irdand at Niphoa, and 
KaVodata, in YeeM\ wvra to be opened to Ammlcaa 
tbifa, bat only (or itfectin; rqutln Mid obtaining 
•nmia o< pravkfama and Creih water. In October 
of lOBBUiw roar Admiral Sir Jamaa Stlrilag oooohtded 
«■ bakkU ol Omt Britain a aiadlar tiMl^ by whlob 

tho hnrhonni nt Nacnnki mid IlakodAto wore to bo 
ujicucd to Britlifa iilii^ tur Uic eaiiMi pnrpnK. Thtt 
Hiiwian admiral D«gotiatj>d » treaty, Udober, 1857, 
luid ibo I>Qlcb accuml furtbw pri»iIegoa. A much 
Liun: important trwaty, howevur, was uffcctcd by 
Lord Elj-iiL with the Jn|>ftnc«(i govunimcnl on iho 
^iith Auguit, ISiQ, by whidi ttm hiro ixirtd ui Hako- 
dnto, Kuiaeawn, NaguakI, Xil^nU, snd llinjp, 
wore oponea to Gtm wannarog with Grcit Htittun. 
under paymont of oertain fixed dutka. 'llui Ameri- 
can govenuneot, through their ooubuI, Mr. Harna, 
had a ahoirt ttni« i^roviciiiHty concludml a aimilar 
treaty, upon which that of Lard El|:in ia biued. The 
niiiurian nf I/ord FU^-iu Ui JAp-vi, ^t«r hla micccaaful 
t«niiinaUun uf the t'liuji'^o war by tho Ttvaty ot 
'llen-ima, coiitiiliiLtcil mvtch to iofunn. tw a« to the 
wiiilitiun of the Japunvve, of whom our kuowladge 
hod bitbcTto been tixlremety aconty, and aincc tut 
time thcTC hu l>cc(i agrcat iucrcMO in our knowlnl^ 
both uf onintry sod peupte^ Though tbe rule U 
Mill In foroo that no fwrej^uun ixeept mintaton and 
their luitoe aio allowed to tnml in Japan beyond 
thc! treaty limibi, yet almoat arety prorlnee of the 
unif ira biu bcuu liiiti^d by forel|rn«n. Much uf our 
information haa bnx'a coiitributM by foreigners tn 
tho employment of tho JonaBtM ffavanunaac, who 
are >>xcmptul from the aDove i^e. No iUiaUc 
people have ahawn tbemaelvea more ready to n>l'>i>t 
moogra ideoa than the Japonoaa hnve donv nuKv the 
mbakin of Lord K!£in. Japnneae einbaaaf<« Ixave 
voutli havo been tant to l!utnjw for nducation Mid 
Iliiitrtii.'tiou in Itie lurcbjuiicid aria. An fiiduUri-O 
exlubi;io[i wiu opcu«d at Kiuto, lOUt April Is'-i; 
anil ontho6chaf l>ocombcra4 tbruuneyou' Kngliah 
waa piopoeed aa the national Um-^v. In the i^uao 
v«i)ir alio a law waa pnaaed uliith jiroililc-d fur tlw 
ulabliihmont of £^,000 BchoolJ^ or onu for every SOO 
nf thti eatimated ponulatian, atiil ito pmviiioiu hare 
been largely complied with. In IHH there weta 
about 450,000 Japaneea chOdron rooel«lng lostmotioa 
on the KnnqieaB ^yatcn. They are tnngbt to ait on 
chain, to write at benohei^ to noderrtand EngUab 
thoruiighly, and instructed in Ihu variotta branchca 
that f»rm the uhioI iKntne of instrutrtion in tha 
■obool* of Uio WetL Mfuiy EogUah and Aneiioaiia 
an io tba amploynMiit of tin JapUMO goventmoBt, 
being ennced bi aurvejiag and engfawaieg *''*^'t 
or aa teachera and profeeean. A Une ol ralTwaT, 18 
mllea in length, waa opeood fnnn Yeddo to ^ oko- 
luuu^ ia Kovenber, 1872, and anotluT of tho aama 
loBgth fnm Hlofo to Osaka waa to be iKieaed about 
tho middle of 1571. 6ioc» the beginning of 1&7S 
thtm haa beam t«Uigi«phic oTrnmaniaition not only 
bctweoD aavanl ot the porta, liut alio with Eurojie 
and A>i& 


JAPAMyiNG- ia tlw art uf varatiliing in «vluunb 
All rabalancH that an dry and rigid, or nut too 
flexibliv aa wooda, meUda^ iMthec, anil paper pr^ 
pared, admit of bcin^ )a|MUined. Wmtl atiil iiwtala 
tW|uire uu dther pnijiaratiuu iban to Itave their aui^ 
facca iwrfocily e^eu imd cloani bot leather abould 
bo a^mirtilv xtr^tched either on frames or on bunr^ 
■N it* Uatdiuif woald crack and force off tho varaUi. 
r^Mr abaald be treated la tbe aame manBcr, mat 
Lave a preTiona rtnag ooat of sbo; but it la nuely 
japannM tiU eonverted into /<'i/^Vr wJ'-Af, or wrutii^t 
tutu audi a form that Ita flrulnlily ii ImiL Tb« 
article to be }a;iaaDpd ia firct linnhol over with two 
or time wat« of aevd-la*! vomi^ W titrai Mu> jiriM- 
111,7. It ia then eoversd with vamiiLb, [ovtiinialy 
ini\c<l with a pagnmnt nf tbe ItntdMired. TM* b 
callod the prtmrnd eaUmr; and if tba aub^eet ia la 
■Abibit a dsaign, tbe objeota are paioled nimn it In 


TOkMtn mixed Kith vrtrnUIt, and «»fJ in th« Mine 
mwuior M f urn il- pointing. Tl>«< whole in than pororei] 
w-hb luhUUoiul cDou M tmiNpuvnt vaniiab, Niil 
«U that fgnulBJ to ba done ii ta diy and poUah iC 
Ja|<«a&itig requirM to bo cxecDt«d in vaim apatt- 
rneul*. and th-e ar1i<r.ks My; wnnnod befiire thu vor- 
iiiah i< sjiplimi to th^iu. Uiio not of vanilafa al*i 
ua«t bo tlry tiefoni atmUirr ia laid on. Ovotu arc 
eni{>]Djed to lutatca tha drrin;; of the yratk. 'i'ha 
•lime |ij)i^ictitti uhii'li an ein|ilDy«d in oil tir walcr 
annwRr aUo in vnn^Uh. For paltttliig figuraa «hwU- 
lao voniLiIi Li (wiuuJvni] beat and corienC to vrork; 
it ia tiienton emptoverl in most umb where iU 
coIonJT pennita. Fur tbc ligkC«it ooloun tnaitio t-ar- 
niab in inii[)Ioyo(l, union Uis finenen of thn work 
adultly or ita liural^ty rdjulro, tlw vat of oopal 
dianlvbd in oloolial. Our jii[juined works an chiofly 
of irtid and tia, aacb lut isrul-hoxr*. tin rnniatcr*, Jto,, 
whtcfa are bot^ rendciwd ontanKmUl and protact«d 
from mat. Mucb caro ia n«o«war]' t^ woan a hlfi^ 
and i-qiuJ jMlisb. For a dMcriptioa of the JapancK 
proecM BM L-icxn-'entso. 

JArilKni, tliG D&iue of tbe MCXMid am of Ni^ 
and aat tho tliini, «■ U conunooly but Grromroiisly 
n|ipOiaed. Of thid vn nn InTonnod in (icn. ix. 21. 
Hm d*MC«nit)Uit«, KCLtir<IU>j{ bo Uon. a. 2, perilled the 
uilBa at tbe (rcntiira Thia ia agppoaed to mean tb* 
MNut-Uuik uf tlie Moditcrnuwin Sm in EuroiN) nad 
Alto Minor, whoii'Cti tliey aprvad Dorthwarda over 
tke irbule of l->iim[ic, mid thus JBiibetb ia eon«iderad 
tlie anooitor of matt Eumjican race*, Mid in lielicved 
to bava ba«i tbe aamo wbu la cuU«d l>y tlie l't««lca 
JaptlM. Tw duri rati 'ins ut Japhstb ba,vo been 
Kvpoaed: lat, from the rtwit pathah. tn extend, and 
MSoa tbo tnciuiLiu; U liiipiMcwd to be 'widely dii- 
poved,' in ttdtTtrnvts in llio >rid« dla[Mnign of bla 
daacsNdaata oviT lh« nortbum and woatvrn >«(pan« 
ol tb« aoitb; uid 2d, trom yaphak, 'to be fair,' an 
alliulon to tlic fiui' Goinjilciiuii of tlie JMfwtic raooa. 

JAPURA, or ('ai^i i:rA,a Iftrga river, South AiiUf 
rics, an afilueui of tbe Aniafun. It baa ita aoutves 
ia tbe Anda of Ecuador, about &0 miloa nortb-ea«t 
flf Paabi; IaL X' VO' K.; Inn. Til" -W W., and falls into 
tb« Anu:ci^D at lat 'A' %,; Ion. &h' w.; batiuK boen 
for Dpw:tnU nf 350 milui of tl)« iMtw pan <if Ita 
oottne wbuUy a Bnutiliin river. Ita vfaefo knsth i> 
opvartlauf iUOO tnilua. It bu numeroiu aflluettta 
fmm both the nortb aud aoutb, tlie jirincip*! uf wbicb 
an tl>a Fragna, Ooj^ian, C'aninari, Apaj>nriii, tauX 
Turwn. llie Bavigatiuu oi tbe Japum in iiitOTTUptvd 
by a gr«at cataract, which ocoure in lat. 1* 10' H.; 
luB. 72' ^*U' W. 

JAB, LETorsf. See lx\vzv-jf.t.. 

JABLi a vord of Scandinavian extraction, al^l- 
tfitx Miblci and applied in ti» sarly history ol tbe 
tMfftncm Buitipeon kinploma to tha lieutcnanta ae 
coretnnav sppainl«d by tlio bEngp uvereiu-'h pruvince. 
Al a later period oaty cno jarl was appdlntcil in sadi 
kiagdtNn, and tlie title of i^uX-r given hini, n« vrw* the 
Caaa in Swrjen, for iiisLuK.e, in lli53. In Nonray, 
afler \30S, during Uik reign of Harm) VII., tlua 
•Hjnily waa conferred only nti tlie Karl* vt Orkiwy 
and die prtnoea of tbe blood. ■ See wVi.DEatiAJi. 

JAIiOKLAU, a town, Aoatria, Ualiciat drele 
Preemiyl, left bank of the San, an afMncnt of the 
Virtala, 02 ntUea w, of Lembni;. It U eltaatod 
[in a baatitiful district, coiitaloa a omUo, a baiidaonie 
tatliednl cburcli (Uomkirrlic), and a nomud arbool; 
i^itt baa niaiiufacturea uf woollen and linen cloth, 

rtx. nwy^Sin, and rvl^ned wax; a canaldemliltf trade 
lbe«B artlcUw, and in bonoy, wilt, nnd i.hip timber; 
»d a y»Briy market, still nf imjiortftiice, though 
peaily CtUaD off, popL ll,Iil«. 

JAEOSIuW. a govomnimt nf Huiaii*, bnundwil 
VTlhejarcnimanUef Vduitdu, ICoflmma, Vkdiiuir, 

Tver, and "So-rgomL It haa an area of 13,000 aquai* 
miU« ajid a papulation of 9!i9,3S3. Tho aurCaco ia 
genondly flat, and to aoveial pUisea vary naraby. Itk 
watered by the Voljn, tba SulAga, tba Shskaoa. and 
their tribntarica With the exception rtf tho grotud 
occu|tted hy wood* and marahea, tlio whole gartm- 
iDeot may be oonalderod arable; but as tlHaail ia by 
no tmeaoi fintOt^ tba gnia producod falb diort <■( the 
hnme WDMunption. I'be live-atoclc is comparatively 
anudi Tlie mauufactniw coiudst ebiefly of woollen. 
Udco, and cotton gooeU Thq sovommetit ia di^-ideIl 
Into ten drelca, of whidb Janalav is tbe eapiuU. 

JAitOsr^W, a town la RosbL^ capital of tho 
govcmniL-iit uf same name, on tbe ngbt bank of the 
N'olgo, 182 milet nrirtb*«nct of Moocaw, with whicli 
it Is connected by roQway. Ita rite !■ aoniiwhat 
«l«vat«dt and it is aurrDundcd by a paliaadcv and 
defended by a fori Tbe houses an mostly of wood, 
and the atreeta an very bnvular and narrow. Jar- 
oalav la tb« ae« of an arobblithop, the rr-aidonea of a 
gS>t'cmor, and the icat of hnportaiit courts. It om- 
tains dsty-tiK churches, sevend o( than haadaoiwa; 
a (hoidogical aeminary, and a coUmj* MMONod of b 
library and a mutcum. and attanmd dt about fiOO 
(tndentft. 'I'hs muitifaciaraB conalat ol llneD, cotton 
and talk ftuudu, leather, aoap, ittinwajre, &e.: and tho 
trade is of con^darafale imnnrtaaco. i'op. 37,275. 

JAKROW, a t«wn of EnBlanO, in the wunly of 
Durham, on tho Tync, 6 Dtlea below Cateabead. It 
has riven rftpiiily from a saudl colliery rillAge to 
a conaiiloniMn t^in-n, tU nrdd urowtb b«ing chiefly 
duo to tliecqtfihliahtneiitoi iron ablp-bnilding, marina 
on^o works, blast funiao«*.niUine-mills, and staithoa 
(or loading ships wldl coal Other woriu an the 
JiuTDw chemical wurki, two other works of tbe aaraa 
descriptliin, nap«r-milla,andalarg«ludtnatinfac1oiry; 
new iWka nave also boen eonstrnotcd. Thu tuvm 
oootalna a mechanics' Inttituto, a narkcl-eiiuaM 
with a capadoni ball, pnUic hatha, and nn inlirniary. 
Thare nru two dnicchei, St. Panl'a and Chrjat'a, tho 
former, rcovntly natored and exUmded, being tbe 
church nf tho Vanarahlo B«da, who waa bom in the 
pArith and burini in ihir chnrcb, and whoae eliafr, 
and the Bluiie on wliith bo lat, aro atUI preaerved; 
besides a number of otber plaow at wonihip. Acceaa 
to Jarrow it hod by tho river and by a brandt uf the 
Nortli-Eaatem Railway. 'I'be population, whlclt In 
1801 wa.1 indy 49«$, vn» U,l7t in 1871. 

.lASHlilt, BttOK or (Hehrcw, Hrphtr hayathar, 
' the Book of the Upriofat,' u ^\\Wi in tbe man^iii 
of the autboriiod vtmion; but Stj^her luahtr in tbo 
rcabsto Syriac, ' IWiJc of I'nuac* or ^lycins'), a loaC 
Hebrew w<>rk, tv-i«> ineutiuutMl in the Bible (Joeb. 
X. 13 and X Sam. i. lt»>, and abnut wUdi 'nirliniB 
CKDJectuTM luavo haen made llio Jowith rabbis 
identilicd it Tarioualy with (>eneai<t 'the Book of 
tbe l'[jn;|1iC,' rram tla cotitolutng the htstorlea of 
Abrahaiu. Isaac, and Jacob; with Doatoranomy; 
with ilitd^n; and with the book of the twelve minor 
poctn — adivtiiiiLy of opiuioii im|)OuibtQ on tliu Biip- 
pOMtioo of auy exisuiig book that could lay daini to 
the titiu. Seaw autfaoritiea auppoao that it wm a 
aeries uf annali; oihara that it waa « oolleclton cd 
hymns from which tho PsaIt<T waa oompilod: and 
othera that it was a Hebrew minstrehrr celebrating 
tbe enpltriU fA the iiatioual hemes. V^lat^ver It* 
contenla may havo bcon. it svcma from tho apedueiu 
prcwrvod to Imvc bi^-n metrical in form. I'rom the 
ni(>ntinn of tJie bonk in .liwbun and S Samoel it has 
liBeu iuft-rted tLiit the book of Joahua could nt* 
have liocn written before the time otf Unvid'a lamen. 
Uktinti. lint thin iuwuro<« thM the book of Jasber 
w:w all written at tiui'«, an assomptiun whicli in oar 
ignorance rc^rdinR it wo «n> not at liberty to make; 
fur the liixik of Jueliur may, Accnrdins to one of the 



hTnatboK* tnentianMl nlinnr, lisve tnnlalDi^ a mHm 
of liisuwie ovniw, aail hs^o Iwon writlwo at dlirvnnit 
tine). Tlie tliwry of Dr. Lftin»lij9a|i u to iu Kofti 
wmI ci>nteiiti, ill ccintomilty with whiab he proceedod 
Ui rraHMtmct it fram t^ fra^«Bt« vrhJcb bw tbimgbt 
lie oinlil tnoe t^mngltaat Uw aerBral twoks of tlie 
i>l>l TMtwniint, kM met with IItt]» favour 9ltli«r 
frcoa Kni[luh(wemtinvnt«l>chalnra. 8m bii prvfan 
to Fnpnent* Archetvpa Canninum Hfib- 
raiooniiB in Klaaorathioo Vclma TMlaiu«nti toxtn 
paaaiiD twMllktn. 


lyrk |KMt, Imth at SimVriKk in ISo&, entered the 
^inias ImMala of 8t. PetvrabiiT^g in bia olovrnth 
jraar, asd Ihon joinad a nnii» of aoftneen. Btill 
atnmgljr attaohod to liUnry puraulta, h* owefully 
iMcl tlia wcrka of the ftnin l^ra<>n«««(Mr and D«r- 
ahawin, wbcae inHuouw on the (unn:ition of bU taate 
U TWT apparait. After a y«ar h^ Ufc tbe »iig1n««ni, 
add livMl retired for alxmit dghuwti inontli«i during 
wbich he iiava proof* oi Ua poetfotl talent He 
fint made hi* a[if>earaac« aa an autlioriii tha ioamal 
SuTcvnovnteli. li'min tll33 ba liwd Mrrarai ytt»r» 
ill Itiir]int, Hiierv ku uiiwId tli« rM>]iiiuiitaiii:e uf Sliii- 
kovaki nud I'luhkia. In lii'J bo n^novod to Mutt- 
onw, and olitaincd lui Ap[ioJt(tin«nt imiliT gnvrmmr^nt. 
Ill 1833 liu [lubliBlini a voluiof »f |K-«iiiii Khorttv 
aftsr hb bcalth Ik^sd Ui ^ra war. H« ntiunml 
to diuibink to try tin- i-ffcct of his antirc air, Init 
reoeiviiifr no beuutlt went abmwl, and apcDt live At lliknati. Niri:. niwl the[o of Ciitno. Hi* 
tliBc«H utill ciitiliuued tu make pni^nu, and hn died 
in ISJfi. Id tlie early juirt of 1^ canvr he waa 
rcffudcd Da tbo vooKvlor of lov« and w-ino, and ro- 
«emd the aama of the Rtuniaii Anacnon, but after 
lib iUiMH he bcgaii to write In « tnon aober and 
oamaat atjrlo. H« ia mnarkal>lo for tlia fiowar which 
Iw poiBw u i over liia native t<>n){iw. A complcU; 
edition of hia poent in Vvo lulumM waa publuhed 
lit MimMim in IS&S. 

JAHMIN. .)An|un,cr Jaqvoo J*xaiiix,tlt« mnrt 
oniaeBl palofa poet of Fraaecv and the laal who 
irtiwitad tho Ungiiage aa wall aa the apirit of the 
troabaaloata, waa born Otb Slarrh, 1798, at Agen, 
deparlment of Loi-et^aranne. In bi> Moua Soubenia 
(]ty BocoUaetbou) ba b^tot a buniofwia daacriptl'in 
of tbi- bomilitv of bb uriein and of tlw povotj' of 
hit kiiMlnuL Hia graniifatbir iu bta later days vaa 
an innate nf the i^ior-hooat^ bia fathor wna a tailor, 
and be bfinaelf was set to tonm tbo trada of m bair- 
drewor, to whkh c«IUo2 be rvn^ned trae In ifAe 
of hia mcotas and fiune aa a {net. All hii pouna 
Mid Bonrs an written in the p»tiiLt «f tlie peanaUy 
on tlm Iniikj uf Uie Qatuune. « liidi it mippoaed in 
iu pumt aUt* to be idtntkal wttli the old Proven- 
Oil, th0 huvMC* of tke troabwloim. Hli peett? 
oMnnd MM nocpdrvd nore thnn n load oalatwl^, 
and waa wunlf wcloomed not onhr in BoallMni 
Fiano^ bat thronffaoal the wbcle M Europe. He 
waa darted * Biei^w of the aenJetnleaot Agen and 
Bunbmus: the city nf Toiilouao awanlMl him a gold 
laniel; and in IS4S he wa* cmtod n Xni^ht nf 
tbe LeiEioB of Honour. On Ua death at Agwn, Sth 
October, 1 Sii, hia ranalM r acalTaJ » pagBpoaa fune- 
ral, 'rhofoelryof JaaminfBArtingMiMieitlnrbeanty 
whI jwirLT, >u>l tbuu;^ Ua geoiiM ladinea him to 
gaii-t* ruber tluui to pathoi, yet perba|« hia nio*t 

__t, __ • idoQ^uJ^f P«MM 

atrikmff and tnocmmbu pamwea are tMea in wliic-b 

ba III ill I himaeil tolhe faellMn. Hb principal 

mdia an Loa Chalibari (Tbe Oiarivarit. ]82fi, a 
mock-beroia poem; I/Abuglo da <'aatel-Cui11ri (^^ 
Vlbd Girl of Cwiel CutHH, lS34w bia nuutcr-pieae 
ID i4K'tr>-. which baa boas ttwAtid by Laagfallow; 
l.aa I'ajiilloiM do Jaantn fflw Cori-miet* of Jaa- 
nin>, of wbkh the flnt part appeared to l&3o, and 

llie teouuil In 1643; and Loos tlotu Traya^MBOlB 
iTlie Two Twln-nroth«f»1, 1847- Mi« Oostdla'a 
B^arn and the Pyreiioca c<j«itallis an Intenattiw 
accuuut of JftaciLn, and his own autobteenpUeM 
skelrlin have been reprinted aer<^ tltnee naee bit 


JASMINE, a bcsutlftd ztam of plants of tbe 
natnral order Jaoniaaccn; fruit a two-N«ded b e n y. 
Many apmrn are known, alt of wtdch ara ibmbi^ 
often with long twining Imndna beuina uauaDj 
onmpnnnd le>vaa and fr^^ront flowon; nntlvai pdn* 
eipally of Iiidin. The oil <4 jaunine is omllned 
{roTa JatiHinum tifleinafc and /. firfiadijforiim. Two 
ojiedea arc natives of the wnitfa of t^wiopo. 

JASON, Bcm of Xmm, Uag of lolcoa in 1% naily, 
and of Polymedi^, a bent of ancient Greece, caw- 
brated for bis share in the Armnaatk eirMilitlon, 
before which he hnd diatiegouined hiniadt fn Um 
CUydootsa bant. He beloncwl to tbe family nf 
tba jEolidiB at lolcofi, and hw inrtructor waa tbe 
centaur Chdron, who educated niMt of tbe benca 
of that time (For hia adventures in tbe Atfi»- 
oatilii^ ci(]icditioii nee aitida AnooxALTa.) On bia 
retiiru t» lulcne with Metleia aa bb wife bis aveoffed 
the murder of his pannts and his brother by patnac 
Pcliaa to dftoth. lint he was unable to retain pca- 
Maciuii uf till! thronu. mild was obliged la reaign it 
to Ariuitiiii. turn of I', and Hee iriUi bb wife 
to CWinlb. Ilure tlmv piuscd ten bajfiy yean, 
till Jason, wearied of Mk-dda, fell is fore witb 
of CreoD, king of Curintb, laanied her, and out 
away Medcia and her children. MeMa banns 
nrrenBvd benelf on hot hated riral, flod bvn tb* 
wrath of .Ta«on in her oar drawn by winced dngeu^ 
thi* (,')rt nf Helios, to vEgeiu^ kins of Alfcnw, after 
mhc hnd |niL to dtiath Mcnneraa and Pfcam^ ber eona 
bv Jowiii. Aeoonlitifc to lonia, JatDD UIM hlniadf 
from grief; but otheta relate that, after paadnf a 
niisoDible wandering life, he cmd* bo tie dealb by 
tbe following nocMEnt;— A* ho was aleapina tmim 
day, oreioome by wearineea, on Uw eea-rhute. In lbs 
diada of the t wI wbidi bad borne bim to CohU^ 
a Iwam foil iijion him and crushed him. Otlieiaen 
Ui&t he wiu aflo-uBrJa rwuuciled to Medcia, atM 
rvtiinioi) v-ith hnr ia ValckU, wImt*, after ttim rlialh 
of hb (atburin-lnw, be nitud many ycsun la pcaea^ 
In aeveral paris of the s&dent world JaacB waa 
wonbipprd iw a hero. 

JASPEIt. Thb name b unallv mtricted bo a 
Tariety of tbe mineral quarts, wlUi a deep biown. 
vallew, or red eolour, and radnmis lustre. Tbe 
brown -coloureil Jasper Is temwd Kgj-^ittan from its 
abundance ia tbnt cvunlry. Wbcfi atn|K« of {^reen, 
yellow, and red occur m the enine mineral It b 
termed striped Jasper. Jasper agate b rvdAab- 
white. Bed jasfier b not inhaqintf fn SoMlauL 
'I'hb variety appears to derive its eeloar fraai tbe 
p res ea ce of iron. 

JASSY, or Yakht. tbe cs))ltal of Moldavia, one 
of the prorincea of Itonmsnia. aa the Baglui, 1(>2 
miles w.K.w. (tiUaaik. It ■■ built on two hilU, one 
risins gradually, the other so prechilloudy aa to be 
dvtadiM from tbe test of the town. Arery wytapnca 
b eoveied by the town, Ibe bonaei being gctMnlly 
provided with Kanlena, The streets ate nuMtly nar- 
row and winding, toil several <|uarten cf the hows 
have a very mean appearaaoeL But a mat Gra fa 
na havfaig dMttoyed nearly fiOOO hoasea, uw 
hnildings bare ifnn( npt generally of a fc— ■'—wt 
appearauee. Some straela ai« lo^g and ap a ci o M a 
Thb b par^-alaily troe of tbe prinoipd stnvt, wbldi 
b the great pLsoe of coBoo m ae and Dwdsaok aad b 
liaed en each side by a long raw of diMMh geMiaUjr 
kept by Jewa The ecdoaisatical buildmGB ate vtrj 






MtnWTOU. Amonf; thnn nutv Im nmrti'mcrl tlie 
notroncJiion clmn-h nf St. Xiooloa, tliu tburchM or 
SokiOtM, TK'liett.-l[tje, Mill lialnta; the archli'pi*rr>pxl 
pnlfto*, Ih* cnnvi-iit of TrJau-i-letcb, in whii-h ibw 
iirdibtilio|4 an: tiurie^; tb« Bonuui CntbaUc uiJ tU« 
Lutheran chnrch, Ac Jfliwy hw. b<Brid<!«, a Urge, I'uUic ^llthB, & muiKuui with atinhliclilinwy, 
a tbcatnv nnd flvp li<>ij4UiIi^ i>ni> of tb>>m liftviti'^' & 
fw»«ni.B of iii.-H.rl)- fJii.OOt). llicro «iv fcarwty any 
DSBniActnrea, hut the trAiIi-' m r>r hjido iraportancc, 
ftnd It EWat uf biiBiii>.-*i i* done »t tko fiilrs. 
BaooHiire canfliigrntioiia, tlio lAnt in IS13, bav« dn- 
'rtmywl nearly all tlie wooden houxc*. Xlio fl^nx 
rafffrred tiwo in the niieso-TurkJah war of ISAI-riC. 
But It hw revived (fnail! v nincc the Mtnbliihmcnt if 
tbr Iti'Uiuaiiiaii {irLticIjiAlitr, and ita popuUtiati in 
ectimatod at flO.ftOO— 55,i)0L' liciiit,' Jew*. 

•lASZ-BEREyV, a market town of Hungary, 
enpitkl cf tllA di»lrirt n( .la/ygin, as milrs F,X r. r.f 
I'Mtb. It i* pnttily littmUNl ••ii liulli lidm of tlio 
Zaj^Vira, wbicli fnrtiiB two iilnii'li near tli« c«iitr« ('f 
town, Tli«iiu ha^'c bi-vii [ilatited luid laid out as 
.». In tliti |inl>!!c equaro. timtIt ftp[«>iiite. am tlio 
TBinaitL* of nil oil! fiirtrnu, ivithiii wbicli Atlila, kinjf 
of tti«Huin,isM:d tirharuKicDburiedA.M. 158. Tbff 
buildinga moA liwiTvinK of notice an a W^ and 
baadMiiMi Ki^min Catliolio obnrc}], » Pnuidsciui 
IDQCMaGery, witb dinrch attacbod ; a I'rvtwtant 
cbnrri), town-li'iu*!-, willi rc!,'lBt«r^fRi»; piard-biniic, 
aiNl rr>;al gjoiDittium. Tbo dlitHct Bround is ot 
ouDiiderablcifertllity, prAilndngmnchoamand vnw, 
ftad rearing nuuijr cattle, •keei\ and faaracii. Ilicro 
■Tvtbnw iniiNirtant aniiiial faii-a, ro]^. S0,?33. 

JATTVA (or Xjitiva), 8as Filii-u ok. a city of 
SpMin, province at and :!6 milcH K.f^.w. ValRnda, t>n 
tbr •lo{)«' tit a bill CTuwneil by un aiii-ii-ut and alr.'nx^ 
caitle, with tbirty tiirrvt) .iiid a dmililn fniue; TnKir 
tba cmSuenw of tbv OnardMiiinr and AUiayda. Tbv 
lunaM an In eoncr^I well built, the atreets i;«ienill; 
wMe, cicnn, and fsTcd. Tbe ]inDcJ|ial and cnllogiaU' 
dtlncli, in t!ie form of » I^itin crcwui, i> a tiiiu utmc- 
ton, owtaiulnjr uuuij ouriuua and iutwrc-tlin;; uiunu- 
tDrnta, an^ having a bandtfomo dome. In tbo cnrj- 
mna are a tnill-riitE, ami tvro pnblic walka drncrntt-d 
Mtb treoa and ^unUim. Manufarturca : — linen 
and voollon fnbrjca, hata, fioB]\ oartbeiLWarc^ cnndlm, 
Ukd nilvrr veaieU. Pop. IS.liSS, 

JArER. A tfjMcn tit PmsBia, province at SilLtda, 
government i>f and 10 niilca n.s.i:. Liegnitt, i>n \lx 
ilgbt bank nf tha NeUnp. It ii utirrmindiMj by a, 
doable wall, wftli fuur auii*; Iim twu »iiburl<«, vuvcraJ 
CMirta and office* fnr tlio drcitt, two churcbcn. aorcrul 
arJxKilt, A Kivingn-hitiik, huuiKi «f comcctinii; inanii- 
farturea of liurii, kI"^*% liwderf , rjlitioua, rtarob, and 
tobtkoco; « wontcii and MvasototfieriulUa, tile- vfiirlta, 
and a troilc in cnttle. Tbe wMpority of Jonur was 
Ducb rrdiirt>d by tbc Thirty Ycnre' war. PclI^ SDlU. 

JAUNUICE U a di«(>a«« of wbk'b tbL< diatiii^isb- 

ing {wcuUarily U, tbnt lli« who]* akin bocomm ycl- 

lov. It pcticccilj frnin nrme diaeMO about the liver, 

or Ita oominiu)icatt<jn with Uie bowels. Tbc intumal 

^nptuna an thmo i>f all diaordnv «f tka dig«ativ» 

tvipDw, cxvept that tbi: waUr It dark and loaded 

with Ulc, while the bowela appear to be deprived of 

IL Hie yollov colour U lirst pemiiitiblo in the 

whit«rpart>of the body, aa tbn M'bitv nf the eye, tcc, 

ud f)va overvfiread* ibu whidw Ujdy. T1ii-re l» 

tttico on extrtmHi itclitng and pri^ktin^ over the 

whole akin. After tbc disi-jwn hiwi cimtiuiicd tr^i^ 

1^ eoinuf of tbe iluu becutKs ;,'nu]iiilly d>e<r]H-r and 

darker, tflJ tbo diwaie b«x>mo» at bml what h vul- 

puiy (^llf^d the h'art jaundice. TbU appearance 

Hriw* fmui tb« bile bcinj; rctAined, frciiu vaHoub 

MUmWi fa the liv<.T and i^aU-bbidJcr. and tbim l>ciii^- 

Bhwrbcd and cLrciiUted wjtb tl>a blcHKl. It may lie 

produced 1>y obetncle* to the pAHon of the lifls of 
variuua kind*, and Is ijfU.^ii sudduufy ind;i<-od by m 
violent fit nt fianiioti, or tuntv iilnwiy by binj con- 
liuuiiufp of uiL-liiiiclu'ly :iiid ]iniiiftd (uuotJoua. It is 
a scrj' wvmmou fit'^'o <jf apeeiii to say that '» 
persnn \ii;wB a thing or a pcntim witli jatindiooii 
eyea;' bttt this ia fiiuiideil in a nmtalte* fur it is not 
true tbat jaiiudlcw (UuiutunicAti^a oiicb a <^ilnur <o 
tbe transparent [lart of tiio vyo m to iifToiA the 
cnloiir of obj-ects. Tbe nlwve pbra^ ia Uierefore 

JAVA Inatlv?, ftilijam?, land nf Java), an idand 
in thu Inlian Archipolai^o, and thu principal sc«t of 
the l^utili power in ili« K^ist. having: ao its capital Ba- 
tav-ia. N«ikt toSunintrannd llomco it is the largest 
in the Bimila ^>iip, and is bimiided north by tbe 
Java Sua, and suuLli liy the Indian Ooean, e«pamted 
n-Mt by ths Str.ui of Snnda fn>ni Sumntn, And eut 
by that cf liali frniii IWi ; Int. n~ .'iS' lo 8* 61' «. ; 
and lou. 105' 15' Ui 111' 35' E. lu shape it aoaio- 
what n>u>niblM a gmtallidngraTn, tlio cnuUvr aib of 
whidi lies east and west, with a sli;k^it inotiiutins 
niTth at the vrtM end. It te R30 uiUea li-nt;, by 
tJi ] 29 mUrn broad; area, 19,730 Mftiaro milva. Jav* 
nud th« ■malln' adjannt ialand of Madura, situatvd 
on the north near the out ond, ate ilirided iof) 
iwL-uty-twu pmvinci-a, called raldmeen, oS which 
tiic roiniL-iliiin tn 1^72 amountM) to 17,538,200. 

J'/ii/t'tal Frtttnrtt.—Tlin Indian Ocean, which beata 
witli^*rc«t force alnnj^thcaDutboooBt, baa preren ted the 
fDrmatioii, on that s-de, of such alluvial plains u ex- 
tend uliitiit the nni-tli pnrti. From the snuie caniH< 
tbo stnilb cuacl in ]{eiirr.illy utitAfo fur slilppSni*, 'n Idle 
tbo north olfordi cicollcnt aucbomcs at almost all 
timca and place*. The noiith prcatnta a continiioiui 
front of rrn^ aiid mck-i, binning the ouUir edjcc of 
ail fiitrt'iJii>ly tni>iiiitiiini'in'< tviuntry; tli« iinrtn ia 
flat nnd low, and cut etwl in many pliKts ivitb man- 
{prove awani)>a. The cli1«f baibouta on thu north 
arc tbc*« of Uatit^ia and Suuruhaya: on tbo sruth 
thnt (if CnJi Viij.-mg, fomird by Iht: small inland Ni^ia 
Kmubniiijan. The Island b iraverecl !u Its wbcile 
length by two chains of tnountaina. nbich sometimts 
uniu-, anil at otlii-r timcn depart from each otlior, 
foruiiug raiiii1i<:atirii» slupin); gdntly down to tbe 
thoru. Tb>> two chains, fr»io 10,000 to above 12,000 
ftK.t high, arc thickly set vriUi volconocw, acUvo and 
eKiincc' from COW Ui »ooo feet in liright ; aomo c( 
tbcti), riniii),' ti) 1 '2,000 ftKt, are sot-n stt sea from m 
great distance, and form lautbnsrkii tu the navi> 
UUUt. Tbeftu inountaiuw ore [Dti^i««H?t«J by targa 
and boantiCul vnllcya. watorod by rivim and tor- 
rnitn. mid rovored 'Mith tlii'k (nrcstit. (Tuva hiui no 
uic-taltio veuisfit fvrlH:uiui«Ti.>i>',;lil; llie Ibuitaiii uual- 
nalnn yield only lisnltc; na|.<hUia and asphalt sbouad 
in various locaJitie*; ami the s:ktincs of Knovroe, 
•outh-caat of Raniaroiig, yield a Uileraldy liir(j'« sup- 
ply of i^lt, Warm lusdidual tvators ain very jiliumti- 
fuL llien on at pruavnt thtttveu sotito volcauiios, 
which arc remorkableturthe quantity of sulphur and 
sulphureous vapoura tboydlscbafgc Tbo cr^r uf an 
oKtinct vntcnnoitoar Itntar, callod C!iiDT()XJpaa,ortiii> 
Vale of Poiwm, about j irile rvund, Ss held In bcrrtir 
by the tutttvoB. Every living orr^ture that enters it 
drops down dead, and the aoil !■ cnvcrcd with the 
carcasses of deer, birds, and e^cn the boucs of men, 
killed by tbo cnrlionic aoid gat wbidi lies in tbs bot- 
tom of the rolloy. ' In another crater in this huid 
(if woridefs,' says Sir Cliarlos I.yell, ■ tlic sulphureooi 
eKliaiaiiiius bavo killoil tij.frs, birds, ami ttuiuinurablo 
insv^ctx ; iu;d tba soft tmrbt of then animals, sucli aa 
ibe tibriu, uiusdts, hulr, &c., ar« lery weQ ptvserved, 
Willie the bonefl aro ourrwkil and entirely dMtroycd.' 
NiiliK-niiis rivers fliiw fnim the north And south aide* 
of tilt) iiiimnlains, carrying fcrtibty itith tbotn, and 



itConGn; «n^t[es to inmiTnemble arUfidal n-atcr* 
councaiMed id irrigatioD. Tbvw ntrewns ore t^-nvr- 
alljT I'oj'id, abnllaw, luid w •ncuinbmwd with luuiil- 
tnnlLS M Co bo uiuMvignblo: *o tiuit only two rivi;r*, 
tfaa Solo and th« river of Sonnhftys, ara i>a,vi^bli} 
for Utso boats; ibe othera are ooJy niitable for pixxw 
or ckooet of tbo lightcit ^Iraoght, or for floaUng ibtvn 
tiBibor faom tho Runintaiu. 

(Hinatf. — Javanud to boerteemed veryuahealthy ; 
but it i> noTT fouml tliat, with oxG«[>tkin nf a few 
Bunbj dirtticU on the north o(ia*t, luitl aaiun \untM 
on the aouth, the cUmntv Is » Hilubrtoui u that of 
mij other Intcrtropioal couDtiy; and tliA jnon oIb- 
Vkted Kgiona are even n^mewrkftlily luukltby. In iite 
ptabw llwi t«nip4ntuiv iltiHiig the tb; U tmui Sy 
to $4* Fah., Mul during Lhn ni^ht frina 73* tp 80'. 
At an «Lovatiaai c>f flOuO fevt Uw tbanauinvtcr de- 
naends to 60*, while ths tups of lJi« loftf peaks an 
utUia covL-rod with iiti. 

IV[7e(a^)on. — Witi] u aliove 
Indictttod, trocu H' to tb« frviiiln];-]X)int, iv volcnulc 
■oil ploitMnaly watorad tutunlly ami arti&ciall.r, it 
ia not rar|trMing that Java alinulit be of MAoninhing 
fertility ; tbo raaso of Itc vegetaluMi naturally (<•!• 
lon-B Uiat of iu tonifnnitUR, from the palms of tbo 
trofiiot to tho jjiohm* of the t<TOperfit« tone The 
MMUt id fr>it;icd with i»cx<*-nut trci^ii ; behind tbrm 
th«gnni)iil Hum ;;<-iitlv t<> ihi' fimtaf tho mountaiu 
cbi^aml U i-otnpbtcty cuItiinl'^L Va«t fiolds of 
rioe, anilioiAlly mati^tvd, diditribiitisl aiii|d)itheaere- 
wbe on the Biuikfl of the hill\ yiuld uftoii three h^r- 
Tcata annnally, tliaiij^U the iiuc oiF motonra n[i[i)i:tr<i 
ncit vtt to liaio Ivuu iutrrxluuvd. Uiulivr a]i than 
the rIco-fi«lda the baKu of t^o monutaJaa arv cuvvrud 
with Toat foraala of the fig-troo tribe of different 
^Miica, mnarltablo for their great hdght and vigor* 
Otis growth. Tbeae oro foUowod atUl hlgbtr up by 
tbo pbuit-likf Itquidiunban. vitb tbdr Mvct atoms 
covcrol with panuiio)^ abo ratana and Rabtaoenv tbo 
lattor uf titinicruua njieciu, Mitoe of them Exhiding 
ft VOTT fwlid o(iimr. Aliin^,' tho «pj«r limits of lh« 
Bquidatcbani, nlvnit tooo fc«t abovo the ton, lofty 
troea ore atill nlttitUul; Im-nnnajbeaeeni^acContruu^ 
etiprttmt, witb ita tuft^r alTniij'ht ntt'ni. a tree allltiil (<■ 
tbajrvw, and foniiahiiffi tho InC tinttier in Jam; tho 
Doinnar plne^ rliodiM^droua. kurvU of umui.-ioua 
apocka, caa«BBt% ooki^ and aavond ethat^ na^no- 
mt, layrtlea, BBmerauaarchiaM, Ac. About 7000 fool 
lligh iW TOffBtatioD dun{^ ila aapn-t, and tiiua>ai 
a|ipaar, whloi, with bcatlu, are tlio iiriix-ipal pUuit* 
fanod on tho luftler ulevadona. Bvion iMvinii thu 
natural ra^ttation tho laniod polson-trae, thoobettfk 
<ir urn* (Aatiarit fawuiiiint, may be tiainad aa a 
notat Javanoo i>)a&L. 'Jlui vaat ftimta lilivwiM] 
claim notice: they are 'SI In number, and carer a 
Tonr astoBaira mitf»e» in tlurtOL-n of tin imriocee, 
ana coaiiat mainly of l«nk. To prorent tho waato 
irliioli w« Buing 01) fior«nuiMn( bu pUced tben 
mdarraperaUaikawcg ud dnwa trem (Imb a krg« 
•noHBt 01 rwsuuAi 

CiIliintiiM Mcf Rtiral £Mm amy. —Rice fonna tho 
atapk food of tbo nativea, and is rakwl in aatonkh- 
lag ami Janwhig (losntitka, wliicti. after pmridinii 
tot tba ken* ooimaptkM, loav* a laree rirplua fr<r 
•xpertktlen. Ooffoo railed from Moeha a«od i> ox- 
lenalvcly cultivated, and, with aujrar, foniM ooo of 
tbo atoptoa of tho bland. Cotton m two kinds, Sam- 
i»u ptilaailrvm and 0«MfpntM Xtrineeum, li (frown, 
and eonaiderabte quantWen eifmrted : and Uw oiiti- 
vaLioa id indigo, ntitiuflga, dorv, cinnamon, oocbi- 
noal, pofifMr, idmenta, tubs«e(^ toa, and cocoft-Buta b 
orriad on mor* or loai viipmusly, nad with gmrter 
«r Ima wew aa. Ila popalttfoB b alnaat wbollr 
■(tfadtBra) : beyond a fuw larya towaa^ it ia distri» 
kitod cnrer tho iiland In vUlacaiv Badi i;or«nied by a 

nntire c^ief of its own clcotbn. Kach fiunily luu ita 
own purtiou o( land, varying from ^ acre to 8 aLi^x. 
About » third of the coltivnt^d ffrtiunri u aiippniwd 
to be thus oooupUxl. Thu I>ulch have cfTectcd arieb 
a cummutotloB of the Imposts formerly \avied by tbs 
nntivo eoversiEOS sa enables them to draw from tbo 
■oil a lareo amount of valuable tronicnl jnniduco for 
trAiiooiwim to Europe. 1!1ii* la oalled 'Tbo ayateai 
of cralturaa,' and was introduced in 1S3S. A certain 
pro{)ortinti nf tlio land ia now act aiiort for wiiat- 
ovifT crops, mainly ooSoe and au^ar, tlie govenuueitt 
may dlreet, it taking on Itself tbo riid; cf failure. 
This fomii one port of tbo oommutatioa : tho other 
is taken in laliDur applieil ba the goremmcnt 
griiiiiiil, Ku Ud tliab vuv part of tho vlllagcri succcoda 
another iiritil tha rmn is raapod. But tho ayatem 
baa latterly been «trun);ly cxiodcmned In the iegjit- 
lativs oaeenibly of the X^thorlandB aa a eyUom of 
fnrtvd labour, nnjunt to the nsiivni, and contrary 
to tmo principlija uf jnliLical oooii«my. However 
tbo popiualfuu Ja oonteumd aod rapidly iDoreasIng. 

Zool<ygy. — Includins domoatic and marine animal*, 
Ititi kind* of mammalia inhabit .lavL In the weet 
ppjt the one- homed rhlnoi'oroe ia not unoonuiton; and 
in tho higher dbtrlota Hm royal tigsc pantlwr, and 
tiger-cat he<p tho inbAhitante in constant alarm by 
their tk'ptTMlntioiia. Tho babyroiiua and two kinibt 
of wild hog form the ]ary» gnmo of the ialand. 
Ihvn ara only two epccit'^ of tbo apo Idnd, but they 
Mnple the foix^ta in conntlea nnnibera Two klndsOt 
ioiiiun inapire the Solukbitanta with aup«r«litioos fear 
by ti^elr mystcn'oiis nocturnal babita ; and this island 
may be erteenwd UtiS native seal cf ike larjieet bsts, 
some uf whlob measBre A feet acTDBS the wlnga: Tliey 
may be wen euapeiided from the braiiehcs in bnndreda 
during tho day, and at ni^ht they devartnte the or- 
cbatds and k"'^^''''- I-'wo Hvets am common, and 
supply a perfume cif wbicli tho JavoncMi are jMsdoai- 
atfly fon'I: the wild <ix at>oiini1* in tho woodit; and 
lb« buffnia ia the only animal uaej iu agricuttural 
luliour. llie borws are small, btit rlgoroas, 'llio 
ornithology of Java is nob and varied, both in geaem 
aiv\ in anedee; afanRoC ill the knows gmeHc gieU|M 
i)f rupttcioua hir'la at* found bere in otvat niimbon, 
and gallinojiooiii fiiwln .in: plcntifuL Both tho rivam 
and the siirrtMindiii}; neaa supiily a groat variety of 
Hsh. Insecta cover the pono<U and pluota in count- 
Icamonibcrai hut frwaredielingoubiiil f^ir brilliancy 
ur variety uf ixiFour, or an wmarkwble in form. 

MnnntTt, i'luiniii*, Z^WJ^Mm, 4tv, — The Javanose are 
snudt in aitc, ol a yellow hue; sober, patiDnt, emtw 
ing, and easily \rA when oonrinoed UiBt ths ordetB 
given are Dot ountrary to the andant laws and one* 
tomi of the oountry, which are Mil in religions rever- 
ence. 'I'hcy arc very »iii>cej>lihle of affronti^ whldt 
tbey aro not slow to ttvengt with the krK which ia 
invariably worn, and tliey are frequently likou-iae 
armed with the sabre or pike. Is nlldon tbey ore 
Mohoiunedan, a faith Introdoend In m fmnteesth 
eestwy by the Arabians, and wUch has siboe almost 
entirely duqJaced both Hinduinn and Bwldbisn, of 
berth of which nuuuirun* imposing relln at* to bo 
iDot with In various parts nf iha iiiand. The mas* 
of the Jarnneae take only one wife, bnt people of 
tmalily and mcalth take advantage of tho tatitiMle 
altowed by tbp Knnui, and nmctiv polygamy. Al^ 
wilbout dlstittctivn, are passionately fcad of gaming, 
more espscbliy of oodc-Bghting. Tba Javaanae are 
mod tanoen^ and bare raiMO annge progrcM in rDotal> 
hunT,lncarT<Btiy,audcabinet-niaiIng. Tbey weave 
aaii dye well; make paper from the midbeiry; attd 
many are cuft^ed with poisoned artws in obtaining 
flafa, which, bdag ahed and dried, eomdtBta a gnu. 
dainty. llK great uiu«a, however, e[ the pec^k ate 
devoted to agncullurv. 







Tradtarui Comnrtfr. — Th«gt«a( boUcof thoforeign 
trwle u carried on throaj^b tlic pcirU nf ]L»tairiii, 
[9ftjnan.nj;, ftnd .Sourabkyo, uitj U Hii^ily iu the biwiU 
of tbo Duteb and OhtD««o. Tho ivrincipul osporta uv 
rice, ooSec, Kti-iir. nutmegs, inuii, clove*, tin, indiga, 
cioniuniiu, Aiohiui-nl, pe)^r, tok (the jiroduolicin uf 
whiri) i* coiiatanUy iitrreMSg), tohkccn, bidM, and 
indUrabber. Iu 1871 tborc onlcred Uie thne purta 
o( BftUvio, Sunbnin;, and fionmbftva 19GS forvlgn 
T«n«bi carryiDg 877.449 U-nx, nad ihcrv clvarod nut 
ISM Tflwela, with a CrciKhtnt^a of StlK,l U) t»ni. Iti 
1S71 llw value of tli« txpurU wiut A:tl,O17,7S0, Aud 
of tho ImrKirM, £3,84£.0S3; ia 18T-J ths ospovti 
■iaaunt«l in value to i:14,6T(,91it, luid the im)ioiia 
ta i^35J,.1!lX Tliua wliot wbh tmce a liurdL-iuMuiB 
wtoay hiu bo>]>D turovU jnto ono «f tlio pr>nH|>Al 
nuroea of ebti wcoltli of HoUukL Railway* lutvo 
been Intiwlucftd into Java, otid the t«le{taphio com- 
DiunicatMEi ia exIeiuiTe, uid it de>iilo;nii^' rajjicllv. 

Uorrrnmrnt aiui Serraiit. — A govemnr-^D'anu or 
rl«n>y b lupreoiu niler, witlt oomtuand ImUi of titv 
vtay acid n»vj ia aU tho Datch provlnoaa in tba 
lodjaii Ar<-hipi-lag(i. He in mwU^ by tho coonoQ 
of tba Indiiw, cotupnited of a vicc-praidcat aad four 
aumben named by the ldii([ : and J* In CMTGapondencs 
irith tbo p>vftrnors of the diffurcnt dnpcndmciM of 
Jk¥% luuneljr, Anibnvii^ noniHi, (Kleins, Siimatri, 
all of wbom art* iiuil«r lili unlen. A Li^li cuurt uf 
appeal BiU in BatAvio, oud coiiiia taldng cognizance 
of avU and criniioAl cn-tc* among Knropcaiu nit in 
oil Ibe priiici|.'al Luniu. Tht nkLivi-n are under uattvi; 
tribvnUM, iiqwriiit'mdoil, in rarUin iD«tanc««v bv 
Kim>i>can>. tiov«riicnvtit liu wtabliskvd ccbooU tor 
lidmarT inotnictluo at BoUvta and lh« othor urfn- 
eipal UHTEU, and bos solarioil voccinntun aod UKdlcal 
im ct iti nocra in all ibt; rcndcndci to attenil to the 
WtaU of th« natlvM; In 1S73 iba gvv«cam«M vx- 
pmtiiXan aaiauot«d to £7,iili,lii, wbUo tba nvGnu* 
WM only £0,184.448, thna ohowing a dolidb. But 
tiib b an nnitraal occiirrcnoe, for rach is Llua natnral 
waalth of tbe iBl«a<l, and niidi tba aklD and «nt«r- 
priac apidiod to ita dsvclopoiDiit, that for forty yaon 
than bava been latwe mirpluMM, and Lh« I>utch colo- 
aiei Of* uobnidaned bv dobt 

Uiatars. — Anoient JavuMM fiictory b written In 
die otill exi>tiuc uia(fui£otiBt nuudiut of tcin|jl«« and 
Other pabUo building vbldi m nlentltully scattered 
oT«r the iaUixL Theaa attcat that tbc TorsLip dl 
Brahma ani^ Buddha onoa piwraOed ia ths bland 
ondAt tbo tfplondld Hindu eonplra of Modjottultit; 
ths dianembannentof which waa constunmatcd oy Cho 
Aral)*, A.n. 1 478, by th« dwLmction of a vnat capital 
of tiuX name. iBlomiaui bod pnvloiwly aupplanted 
tba find worebipa, and had driven tluir lut odhu- 
mtta iDto tbo acigrhhnnring i^lMid ^f VaM. 'ilio 
bland then fell nnd<T Ibo dumintoin of nunii-Tnua petty 
afabf<^an>l wa» fonndin tbat nl.tto bv tii«i I'licttiyuvie, 
tW fint Eimpcaa wttlen '<>n the UUck.1, who orrivGd 
in ISll. I'bey were f uUov-ud, In 16V.5,bythe Dnt«h, 
who eoon ecUpaed them. Thmtg'h thc'lr vil'U'ii witu 
at fint <iirrct«cl wfanlly to CDijuiierc<\ tlie Dutch iD«r- 
cbnlSiUkeour tnruEaitt India Cumpouy.auon founil it 
iMianacy to OHoma tba position of a goveniiog povtif, 
and trMlc] accorditigly with the native princcn, with 
vbom they ncrc frdiurnlly at war. In 11>II Jara 
tna takeo fnim the Uulcli by the Driii«h, whu, hon'- 
erv, KBtorwl it oflvr thn Pwcc of ISIG, linra vhich 
HtM ft haa rrmain^d in their houils. Up till IKSd 
VWiMH portioui uf the inland ivore aUII umli^r naUve 
prnom wbo paid trlbiit« to IIolLinil; hut in that 
vcar a revolt took place, wldch rv*ult«d in thu wliolv 
Uand foiling nniler the lliit^^b aviay; alth(iiij;li two 
imrfncca IliiTv been left, but twAy ttoojiniLlly. uiiilor 
the ^rentiDent of JavaacM- prino™ — HmitaltarLi, 
tmdar ita Sooaoahooiuti; and I;jucj«liartti, uudt; It« 

miltan. BMh prinees have a cenrt, nobler minbtcn, 
&.C., but arc the inere inatnuumite of the I'ut^h gov- 
enunant, by whom th«y tm nllnwod bondM^mo iim* 
aioeu. Sinoa tba doac of thb wnr Ui« inland haa Men 
rapidly increoaiof in populatlou and proeporlt^. Oa 
&cpt«Ribar 20, 1859, tho IJutch Ic^nturo totally 
ahnliNhnd ulairerj in .lava. 

JAVELIX, a »l!ort ami li^ht spear thrown from 
the bond, and in onci-mt -nAffaro usad by botli bono 
and foot •aMii.-r*. I'hi; }-i!tira at tho IwniAnN waa a 
weapon of thin dumcriptiun. nud was uied either to 
throw or to ihnut with. Tha hattaii and the prin- 
eipa, who fonaod tba fint and aoDoad Unea ia 
tho ibiman tegion, were, loa^ before the timet of 
I'olybiuii, iinued like the fnaWi, utherwiae called 
tbft fiiJtini, wlio formod the third lino, with tba 
piluia. Tho «haft wu 4^ feet Iudk, and the barlied 
imn bcAd waa af equal length, biit aa It extended 
kolf-wayupthe abaft, the whole lonrthof tben'capun 
was nvarly 7 teet. Ilia uliaft, ninde uf louxi tucuh 
wood, Dft«n oomtl, vrns an indi In diameter. The 
IIM of the javotin was not conlined to the Roman 
Icgionarin, Sit many l>A^'^^^oun tribes, nnd especially 
the Gotba, emplnycd tiib weapon in their military' 


.lAV (/iiirr-uiu*). llie jar* form a genna of bud*, 
iuuIudL-d iu the ConSruitnldlrbloaof the Inauasurea 
Iwhicb Beo) or Perchcn. Tho pUco aadgnod to tbo 
jn.y« by riniithnTi^'iHt'^ in that of a nub-family nf tho 
cnni-H (C'-oriiil*). Hic Bub-faiuily af joyn, ia ooooid- 
ingly icuiiwn na tho 6''irrii-'>'iiir, uri,! thoy are dlstln- 
gui*liod by tho upper cuuiiUhlu or bill boinj; nvtcbed 
or indented near ita ti]\ and by the navicotnr or boat- 
liko abapc of th<! lowirr mandible. The bdll is, on tbe 
whole, ■nort^'r than that of thn crow, nnil in nrarly 
f traijiht. The licnd feath«n anu ervL'tile, and van bv 
elcvatod nt will, to form a kind ut crext. Tha wing- 
fcathcr* do not extend tn the tip of the tkil, and tbo 
ptuma^ u of a brilliant dcu:ription. lie moat fa- 
mfliar meiDber of the jay famO^ la th« ramioon or 
Buropoaa jay ^darrulut fftandaniu), which rcannblca 
an nrdinory pigeon in »ir.e. The colour ia a light 
bruvm inobaing to red, wbil>b the laqpir or |>rtnuuy 
wing-fsalbera form a pratty onntnwt to tho body 
colour, in bcin^ of a brilliaut blnti, inarkcd uul by 
banda of black. The bltte colour reAohea Ita bi^fbeat 
brilliauey iu the North American blue jay (0«rrW<ia 
(Ojl«nitm») rnaditiu^ which otherwiMi oloaely Imitatoa 
Ito European repreHentatii-e both In kIjw and hahita, 
Tbo forehead ocwt of the common jay is eompoaed 
if white foatbcN with block •T^t*, ntiil there ore 
black patcheabdow tbeeyea,whiUt the tiuill-fceitberv 
la the wing aad tall are deo oolourcd jot black. 
Tlicao bird* an readily domcaticat«d, but preicrve in 
th« Kune atalc moat of their natand dwracteiiatiea, 
nrid ana genenJIy raitleas and tlnild wbeo caged. 
Tbsy poasna a hanh gntting note, hut an npait 
mimics, and appear to imitate the voic«a nf tbrir 
ft^tlit.-m(l ucigfabiiur:), cti-u iu Ihu vrtlil etale. In 
i-:i]itivity these imitative powara b«oom« highly ilo- 
vcl:o]H:d, on t^jiteciid liking appearing to cxiat for 
ituitating aountia of a bai^ gnting ehanoter. ThDH 
tho round of a oarpcntef's aaw Lm been exactly r«- 
jirodurcilby jaya; onrltliebarkinf of doga, the varinua 
L-r!e» tif tbe |iuuItTy-yarO, the ne^:b uf thu hune, and 
oven tlio mewing of tba cati have h^m kn<>wn to be 
fAtthdiIly imitated by thcao binla. They ^jicar to 
tuiitf- totc^thcr in a n.ttuial atote fn endeavaiiring to 
eirpel from the n-ood» any bird of prey wtdeh may 
Approach: .and by their harah aotcit, nidod by more- 
menta of odfence, the ia^ fr«qnently auccced'in tlicir 
endeavour. The unl, in particular, Ia iubJM;t<.i.l ti"! 
I»niaouti[in from tlio jay; althinigh m|>ort haa also 
crtidilMl the jny with making rafala upon the notU of 



noklW aiiO moru oiinlilxniriy Innli !or the jnirj-oso 
of fmuting iiiKin the eggn. Tho blu« or (^liictuui 

i'liy hmt c«{icotiLlly been tuAvA un tbb Iftttor Hcciiuit. 
D Briula tb« JaYftppcara to InhaUt tbe»outh«m 
disUricte of ScotlMid chiclly. but i> oommoii thrnngh- 
oot the KurIUL cotjntitu ft fot-tU prindji.illji njwa 
lUMwt^ wanua, Al'., Iiut nlsu nulwists uti r(|w frulu 
mid n^otitli!»j at rarintu kiada. Tho eg^ niUDber 
five nritix, anil MC OniKiait«(l in n nc«t gnnenJI v liiult 
on low irnni ur «liralM, ami wiUiiii a tJiurt iluUuioa 

of tllU KTOIITl'l. 

JAV, JoiiK, on omineii t Aincricul itiritt mnil >tAt»- 
man. wm kmra Iti tliu city i*f New Vurk, Dwoiuber 
I'i, 1745. Hvlccting tbe Iaw a* his ]irufcMiuii, in 
1T68 be wtM «ulinitt«l to t}i« bar, and in 1771 wda 
«i)<NWii & M^ipVU) to tiiu fiTVt Anwriv&n Cauj;rvw, 
which mvt at rbilnd<il}<hia. In iTi6 ho wiuf cbocen 
jveaUUnt of (^mijnsui. In 1777 be wan a nicmlicr (tf 
tlw cuDvciiLiuu niilcli frautoil tliu cuinmtittitEun vf NvM* 
York, and the Unit Antt of that ut*tiTiuicnt [iracvwUd 
Irau kU pen. The fullowuiir year, when the govern* 
iBsnt <■[ \ow York wu Ai(;uli«d, ho VM appotnCeJ 
«hM[-ju»tJc« of thai autc. In 1770 be waa Appoiateil 
nlntttvr-pleiuimtciitiar)' to Spain. Th« vbjocb of 
Lii miarion vera to olitAin fmui Spain an ackoovr- 
]«dG;ii:iciit of tho Iii(I(.-[m.-uiJ<>iico of the Uttilcd SCaU.'a, 
to farm a traaty nf alli;uicr, niul t« piDcurc pcmniaty 
alil. In 1763 he wan appolatvd ouu i>f Lbi? ootiiTiiiii- 
•ionen to MgotiaM a poaeo with lirituiu, at tli« bsiuu 
tinM that Im wa« anthoriwd to cotitiniic the ncj^tia- 
tioD with t^poiii. In aonjniMitiuii vritb Mr. Ailoiiui 
ai»d Dr. FraiiUin he nmUwtl to diwHey tbe iuatruc- 
tkrai df Cvtisma U> follow iii nil tbinK* t^* a*l*i«o 
otf the FroK^ mtolKcr, who waa <nu)iamuBliig the 
negotiatiiiW with Britain, iii «»irr to bom^ftt Franco 
at ibe i;x]iciiic of tlio I'nitcil Ktatcs. Aci;nriliii[,-ly 
they douod a tnotjr wjtli the UrUiah mhiUti'r, witb- 
out hbuiowliocl^ Thadofinltive tnacy kavjn; bocn 
iigiMil in ScpteinVMir, 17S3, lie focrn MterwaixLa re- 
■daned hU coaiuiinJon a« minister la Spain, and in 
au;, 17dl. onibiu-kcd for Ibe Uiiiwd Hiat«. H? 
wmt thsa placed at the hcMl of the (lepaitnent for 
forelfn alulra, tu vUck offiM he oontlntwd until the 
adoptjoti of till) prcMnt ooDatituUtu). whon be «»• 
Mtfoiiitcd cliicf.jiutioa of tlie United SUUa lu 
ITPJ bg wa* tent aa envoy extraordinarr Vt (jrent 
Britain, aod coDcludoJ too troMty which boa been 
caltcd after his nacna. Beforo kia roCttfE In I'Ufi h« 
had been dcolcd goraroor iif hia native atato— ft kmC 
which be occupied until ISOl, when the Peikral 
paKjr waa deCaated. In that year h« docUiMid n- 
4ilcctioD, as well as a reappoiniaMat to the (Ace of 
chief -fuatioe at tho Unilvd StalMv and retired ta iiri> 
Tat« hfo. The rvmaindor of lua day* waa paMatd In 
dototran to atudj, particularly thvuloiticd, and tu 
practical banevolemM. He dted at Beiiorfl, Kcw 

«u tNirii at Tlalmry, U'llUliijv, uu 6lli May, ]7>'9. 
Having; altnutc^l, wheti a mom youth, ihi; att«iiti<« 
ut the kvv. 4 'uraeliiM Winter by hU taluita fur prrai-h - 
la^;, be wiMrrnirod 1>t that dt:r);'iinuu into Uio Mnrl- 
iMOMgh Acodeoiy, a trainii^ inatitulinn in ooanertiaa 
with tbe CMupvgallwual lUnUtrr, vt which ha was 

Inwblrat. All«r officiating for a Uiae aa iftlidpt«r of 
^ly MaxwvU's Cbaiwl, at tbo Hot Well*, Clifton. 
be waaonlaiavJ in January, 1741, laMtoruf Arsylv 
Cbapd, Salfa, a cbarvo wjiiuli hn hold till a uurt 
tbna pivviom tn bb ilenlh, cxtumtin); over a period 
at ■bty-tw» yean. Aa a jiivafber he aequmd n 
meat attandM Kfiataliua, im4 oaily iu hi* own de- 
muhtatton.httt tbruoKh all Mctlmuf)! tbocomninntty. 
8lBi|>Udty ami Lloorone wcm LU prfatclpal giMnic- 
IwlMiaa. ouuiUneii wltli a prulandity of inaeonuDont 
ud kauvkdft of the buraao bUimI which enabled 

hini in liii diaraiinios to atrilce home to tlie hearts of 
bin hotLrers, Ho wna a (nluminoiin n-ritiT, and a 
oiJlfctvl edition uf hii uork*, rv%'ls«<d by liiineelf, iu 
twelvo volumoB ivo, wu published at London iu 
1MI-17. He rrtiriMl frvra hii> partoml charj^r in 
January, i^ZS, and dttd on 'JTth lleocmber of «nmo 
year, nt tht! n((t< i>[ uih'lit) -fiiikr. 

JKPUL'KUH. n parlinnKiiUry nnil royal burgh 
and nuu'knt tiiu'n nf i^ootUnd, in Itnxliurghabtro, 
t'J inilna B.E. I'jiliubur^fa. beniiti fully dituubMl in tbu 
viUli'y of the •luil. bi>re i^rn>ui»l hy tliruo Imdg'itii. It 
i» vulbMonicd uinua^ venerable orchanlN, and bm 
bvoad dean ntr^t^u &tii1 well-built houi>««. Ilie 
principid t^iiifim »rc tin- minaiiifl of tho Milolirntcil 
aUwy, a inagiiiliocrit ■tni'L-tiiiH at tho twdlUi csntiiry. 
buUt by Datid L; the aadunt caa;la, now c»nv«>i-t^ 
into a tiri»cn and bridewell; Queen Mary'a hoiuc, 
whereshe livo<l fora month in IS.'i6; iind tii« cininty 
and town. hall*. It liaa public and (irtvatv iH-boifb. 
a cavinca- lianki <:orn*eieIian)!n, diapeniuay. End 
■creral friendly and ebarjtttblu iuvtitutivne. Blauk- 
eta, flaniuili, Iweeda, and other wocJIan fafarln, are 
cxtenaivcly manufacturcl. Sir David flrevrrtcr wa* 
born in Jedljuri^b, atiil the aittliur uf the 'SvuHUia* 
received part of bij education here. Jtxlbiirgh 
unitoa nith HMlrlinglon, Pnnlmr. Ni-rtli K^rwjolc, 
and TiSudcr in rtlDmina one nicniber to the llottae 
(it C'lfliiindiw. r«i[i. sail. 

JEDDAH. Si>o Juii.Ail, 

.IVAtlA). S™ YKrimi. 

JEKFEHSUK, Thomas, the Uunl pr«.id«.ntof the 
Unit^l Ktat«i i>f Amnriwi, w.-ui U.m April 2, 1743, 
at SbadwvU, in Albriuai'Ie county, Viruinia. He 
studied for two yean at the cidleee i^f WQliam and 
^lary.WillinmHbur?. and then commenced lh« etudy 
(if luvr under tht; ii^iidanco of tlic octebrat4-<d Cimrj^o 
Wytbi-. In t7(31i hr waa e1oL-t»d a ni(iuilH-r of tliu 
prariuchil legialnture from the cniiity vboni ho 
ren'iicd, and cnaiio a fniitlou cBirtt in thnt )>r<dy for 
tin einanctpatiiui of the elavtia Dy Lliis tJine n 
i|drit of cnpoeltlon bad been excitod in tiM coloniea 
to lh« ailuirsry neaatint of the Brftiib gownuseut, 
lunl J«fl«nnn co-opoiatad uoknialy with th« mtdIr- 
Ui^nary pattr. In 3773 he aaeocshtcd hhnaclf with 
•wvond vt tlie Ivldcat and moat a-iiiTe uf Lin c«tn- 
panions in the bouM, with the abject of excitiuc 
throaghi-ut the ouloniea a deeirv for a {^oneral con- 
grcaa In Virginia n eonrentlut waa AMornMcd fur 
the purpoac of dioosing delegalca. JefTi-itu'ii «»« 
cleoted a roember, and a dtaoaht of iiutnir-tiimn 
whloh he bad prepared wm laU on the t«Ma fur 
peruaL Though the paper was not nd<>ptL<l, the 
eonvenUcm catuod it to bo printed, and it jinvnirHal 
for ib> autlMr conaklerable reputation. .Iiine SI, 
177}. ho took hia eMt tof the first time iu Con^reae, 
nnd he waa appointed a member of tbo cnmmittM 
whoee report haa Uulwd thft name of itM authorr with 
the hiitorv of American indvpendeDco. June 7, 
1770, llie deletfativ from Virginia moved lliat Coa- 
f^vi idHiald JucIaiv the United ColMtloi fm Mid 
indi-jiciulent ctatoi. and a oonimiUee waa aiipefaibMl 
to pn-jMLro a declaration of iudepetidanoe. Jafferaon 
WM niquOTtml to draw up the paper, vldvlt he did; 
and it waa reportetl to the boair, after receiving 
a few altcralioDB from Dr. Franklin and John 
Adami. It WM aftcrwnrdH ali(;h(ly modifted by IIm 
)ioiu«, and after a three dnva' diacuadaii, d]pwd by 
all the weinher* prvaont Gut one. Se|itewb«ir S. 
1*70, JeffenKia retired from hia aoat in Cui|[rew, and 
on the 7tb ol October toolc hia plaoe In the l«BblatBi* 
of Vin.nuia, of wbich be had bean eketed n mttaber 
fivoi h4aM>uuty. Un June 1, 1779, he Waa eppolntMl 
govemixr of tke *tMl«. but realjpBe d at the end of two 
yean. In I'al bo wm appointed aiinlater-|dcini|>olen. 
tlaty. in ccejtuictluu with others to negotUte n ] 




of tli» Kmprwa of Rujria, but b« decllsetl tho ntllcc 
In Noramher, 1 7£2, Congrpu micwcd the otTt-r which 
thajr h«il atnale the prcvinun your, ttiid this tiniv it 
■m» acempUd; but tli»> |^ir«li[uSnary artiuIcB Wma 
agreed upon bcforv lio left the coMntr}', he Totunioil 
to Afontlmllci^ and van chc*tn fJiinc d, ITS;?) n 
moniberaf C«ngm*. In May, 1784, Const** huTlnji 
reaalvvd to iippoinl uiothor minister in tuldition to 
AdMiiB Slid Fnnklin, for ncgoUnUng tnaiiem of coia- 
■wreo with fordgn natfeitu^ Mlected JtRtnoa, who 
ktrivoil in Pari* Air^wl 6. Ilii-ir ulfort*^ howavor, 
worn txit. rer}' mooisBfril. In Jtily KranVlin ratanml 
t« ABtorivit, and JtdTenou was utunod lui lucoMcKir 
M PmHa Aj qmptoniB of a batter Aiapodtion 
tavarda Anuriok wen bcginDJiiK to ni>pe»r in Ihc 
Britiih raUiiet, li« left Fan* in March, 1786, mid on 
hi* arriTnl in London, endearaurad, ill cdnjuiiotivu 
with AdiLOM, to ofbiblUli friendly nduioiu botwooii 
the two ifiTVeninwut^; bt)C aiut a few va^e and In- 
effectual nnnfurvDcva^ he rwturued to Parin. Tntvacda 
iIm mill uf Septembor dl that yttar ho li-ft I'nri* and 
Mubarkoil fur the United Slate*, On liia atriv li tbet« 
jNiiotmeDt of KFcrtLtry of »tati<, unilor tb« Daw cooatl- 
liitioa wrki(>h wiw juatoonuncnciny itaoporation. Ar* 
rived in N«w York, wfave CoarTvui waa in aealoii, he 
faumeiUatBty entered npon the dutice of hia pMt. Be 
cuntinuod to fill tiie accrctaryihip of irtate until the 
Slit of Dacembe^ 1793, wtivu he r»«i|,-ii«l. rruui 
ib»l period until Fobrunry, 171'7, be lived in rctiro- 
ntnt. In Ihia year he vraa dectcxl vion-pn-jiidAnt of 
th« Unitvd Stntc^it, nnil in Isol hub t^hoBen jirMiideab 
by a innjnnty of otid v<it« over Id* coniprtiUir, iFofiii 
Adaia^ Al tlie trupjnitUm of (U)(ht yoara ho aunin 
mirad to private lUe at Monllodlo, from whioh he 
Barer aftcrwArdf emerged. He died on tlto 4tJi of 
Joly, Ih'iS, the fiftieth annivenorv of the dcolara< 
tSon i)f {advpcndenoe, and vritldn tlis buur in wliich 
be bail ri^ed it. Jofforson was Om aokiiowledgod 
bead of tho Kpublican pnrty fmin tho [-crind of iU 
Mvaniiatlon down to that of his retircniont frtitii 
pnblio lifn, and bia namo in one of the brit'btost Ja 
the revDlatfonary galaxy. He waa a naloua cnlti- 
Tatar of Uteraturo and acjence. A^MU-lyaa 1781 he 
waa favoarably known Ma an aiilb»r liy dm Note* ou 
Vligiain. Ho nubllidiod, aUo, raridiM rmayii on 
■ntitloa] and pUloaophlcul vubjvda, and a MauiuU of 
rarijampntiuy Pnuijc(>, for tho rho of tbo SanaCs of 
the Uniti-d SUtu. In th<- vi-nr 1S0O the Kmnch 
Natiiittal luiLituto rhoaa Uiui oni- uf their foreign 
nmnltms. An edition r>f hie worlcH Id nino voli. Stu, 
waambliabed at New York in IHW. 

JEFFREY, FBAJIcia, a ju-lyr: nr !<ir.l of the Court 
of Sentoa bv Soutbuid, and out.- of tb« tiiiwt eluquonC 
|da«dcsa aa irvU &■ ono of the ablest critics of modem 
tfanu^waa horn at Kdinburtcb on the 'J3tt of October, 
1773; and after lui tduaitiuu bei^ii at tho hljib- 
•chool of hb native dtr, oontinoiH) ai the Univeniity 
of Otaa|[oiv, and completed in (Jucon'a College, Ox- 
ford, pSMed advoaate in 179-t. Sereral yean clafisod 
befiore he cotdd obtain an adt^aate m^nteDanco by 
bia pTofcMoo, and tui he had no private fortune be 
aniployed biatnli^iiljiiii lit«ranrlabonni. Accordingly 
vbao tlie EiUiiburBh Rori«w wh projected in ItX'J!, 
be entered int') it with gnmt apirit, in cDDimon witli 
Ibe Ger. Kydnty SmiUi, Lord Bniiiuliniu, iinii otlicre, 
■ad after two uumbi-rt bad hm^n iiwii^I, wn« inxtalliHl 
aa iti editor, a poahion be buld fur twenty nix years. 
In tbaa cafMcity ho omitritmtcd a ni:mb4r of artlfk-s, 
■bout WO bt all, vrhiiJi »t OKit^ olnbli^hi-iL hi* own 
fane a* a critie, and mnv Iw loid to have tutrndui'-sd 
a new e» in ptriodJrail Utew-ture. The «evt<tiiy of 
bb eriticixmi hniught upon liim a ohaltcngv from 
Moan wbUo on a vtait to Landnn, and the two op> 

liDoenU intt at Hmlk Vi\no iind optiwd Al)B VpaO 
«a<:b other with piatola, from which tliuir Mnw aid 
flonsiHcrrntrJy removed thn tinIlotn,an. incident alluded 
to in Eyrun'm Enniliih D«da and Scattli RcviewtTs. 
Meanwhile hti pTofeaalon wn* not tac^ttvn, an<l Uin 
■I>ilJtii.-N M a plwlar btgan to be apprecint'.-'il, tliou^-h 
his ado|>Unn of Whig opiniona exdoded Liu fn<in nil 
i)i>]ie of olbolal promotion. A chaii^T, hnwutrr, tn 
which bo and hia madinton in tho Keviow in tin 
•uiall degree concributed, had taken plooe, and «.iita 
the reform bill had made it inpouible to treat Scut- 
land any longer «■ if it were nutliing better than a 
rotten burgb, Jeffrey bepn at Inat to reap the n:wiitd 
of bia previouB labouni. Even as early u 1S21 the 
cetimatlon in wliich ha wiut held w-aa proTed by hia 
eii.'ction to tli« hiinoraty oKiou cif Ijonl'rertor of tho 
Uuivunity of GlaaL-uw; and in IS'29 bia fellow iu\\o- 
catoM bad conferred upon hitn the bighrct honour in 
tlieir gift, l>y ajiiKiiuliui; huu dean of fairulty. Hie 
eloqnflBOQ and riueucv sa a ])ubilc speaker made the 
political party I'll wiiii-li be WlNiif^tid anxioii" to ito- 
oure n »eat for lum in the Hoikp oI < 'onnnonn. 'ITii* 
object thuy attaint^ by jitooiuiiit; hin ruturu fur For- 
far in 1S3(I, and tben, on hi» bi-in^' uiu«at«d on {ictl- 
tioR, fnr M-alton.oneof Lonl iMtxwiltimn'ii nominiition 
burghs, but they bad nut luucb reaaon toonnicntiiliito 
themaelvos on tho reeolEt. Hia ontory, brilllouC 
though it WM, did not tdte^ and after be bod aat in 
the houae for aercral yeaia and managed the Scutch 
ImalDeaB of govarnnaent, aa lord-advooate under Lord 
Grey'a mlmvtry, he ct>n*iilt«t1 butb fur hia caso and 
hia fame by acL-cpttng tho a;>;>ointn]cnt of a lord of 
^^enaioti, bl 1S3J. Hero he fourid liiii true vixatiuu, 
Mul bn continiiud during a, pnrloil of »iKt<>«Ii ypun to 

be caie of tlw wuet taleuted, umit ciiii*c'ienlicinii, and 
moat popular judgee of lbs aDpieme cou rt In SoutlauiL 
Hedied at kiaTVMencevOra^croi>Ic,nr-«r Kdinburgb, 
on thn ^ath at January, 135(1. 


JKFFREYS,Ox<j)U)l!,lanl baron Wcm, commeidy 
known by the nanie of Juilfft J'fi'rrirt, was lorn at 
Alton, Drtiljitthnlant, tu IC-IS. Llo vttm i-iitcrvd nt 
thn Miitilln 'rcmplc*, and by attending on luuriza 
during' the (ilague^ when few narristen could be njvt 
wltli, he yn* lUIowi^ to plead, although unt fommlly 
admitted, and mntinncd to prnctine iiiirvalmincd 
until he attained Che highat ein|ilcjynii;ntii in tlto biw. 
Soon afwr oommeaclug Ida profeatiocial catwr, he 
waa cboficn rccordor of London ; and to tbU ad>'anca- 
metit and the inilurm-n it pniRiirvd him mivy be 
utlrtbutod his bjLni duct ion at ccurt, :Uid :ippuiutu)<nit 
an, MlLr'itnr to thu Duke of York in lfi77. A willing 
Inxtnimcnt of all nortu of mcaMirrJi, hia fnitlicr pro- 
molinn, at such a period, was rapid, aiut he nna 
appointed, Biiwewively, a Wel«h jiidgo and diinf- 
jurtice qI Chester, and cnnted a liuronut in lOSO, 
When parliament began to jjroaecute Hba ahhnmrt 
(or ehumi and eonrt party, so oaUmI fixiin their sd- 
flrciu to thn king, l^h.irlBi ]I.,{txprew<ing thcdr alilmr- 
rtnrr of thiwe who eiKlnnvounO tu «ncn>EM;b ou the 
royal prerogalivo) he realgnod tho njcorderahip, and 
waa Appnintad chief -justice of the King's Itencfa. On 
the aeowicM of Juiita [I. ho was onoof Ulc Hdviscn 
and promoters of :i!l th^ nppreariv* and arhttrtuy 
meaaurca of bis teigii; ami for bis aanguinary and 
inhuman prooeedlnga oitainst the odherenta of Mon- 
monlb on tbo 'bloody wc^tcm circuit,' was mwarded 
with ttio pc»t of lonl hiifh-phnncplldr (l^-T'l- Hi" 
dvgiortuiL-iiC ou tho btmdi wan dlKreditalili.' at all 
timoa in (be highest degree, and bo indiilgi}d in scur- 
rility and aliimo of tbi' moHt iLi'^TAdinc disi-riiitinn. 
Aa a dvQ judge he was by uu meaiu witliuut liigli 
■lualitoatlcou^ and 111 the abesncn of luiy mutive to 
do WTOBg be waa williiig to do ri^^t, and wbon sol«r 
he was iiortlcuUrly K<iod u n niai priut judge. On 



titt nniral uf the Frium «i Orsngv, tlie oliaiiniUor, 
who bad dbguiMil liimMlf u % Haouui, to order to 
Qot on board » eblp unknown, wu dtteetod la a low 
uuliLic-houso iu \^ i^>pin({. bjr kh tkttoniejr whom bs 
dmI uuoltad til open oonrt. IIip latter making hi* 
tUMOVM^ Imowu, J«ITrey« viat immvduitoly RciiuJ l>y 
tto populMSt and would hxn beea torn to pioosa, 
h*d Iu Dot iMca TCKued bjr tli* Mittioritie% uid car- 
ried before the lard*imjor,wbo Mat him to the lord* 
In cotuidl,b7whoiD he wuo<immitced to tbo Tovrar, 
wben> be dkd Afnil 18, ]CS9. 

JKHOVAil yMeh. YtSma: more enTTteilf YaJu^ 
YaMitA, or }*aA^i4i, g«Qer«1lv rcmlered 'by Um 
S«r mtj F Kvriot, mad bjr tbf Vulgat« Vominm), the 
swful wkI Imftdila hmdo of tfa« Gixl of Iktw;!, which 
WM nrcaled to Moms. The proautmUtlaa of thU 
colehratcd tdngTiUDmalou (the uam* of 'four lot- 
teni'], which mein, JJe kJui it, nru, aad w»U he, or 
|A# >IQ(em«f, I'nfSanffttMr, the FaiO/id -(Exod. UL li; 
ri. 3), ii not kDown, nor ii 'Um taitin dsnifiottioD, 
thoagh It wevia to coDtaic all tho Umatxi of the Ife- 
brow word (« St; and to Implv, na nlxivi- viplniiinl, 
Htnml amt wnuarjr triw- It ramioda ui of tlM 
InaonptiaD on tb* tcatplo of lite ia Egypt — 'I am 
wluUever ia, waa^ wiil vnH he, and no mortal haa L-rer 
raiaed Kjr vr^' W» know that the tiebrewi chOT- 
iahcd tbo mntt profoimd awe (or thii Lnoouuaaiu cable 
aad B^MailoBi Banu^ and that tUa aeatiiDetit Iwl 
tiMin to aroid proaouncing it, aDd to subatiLulc for 
t^ in Che aaiom test, tba woril Adtmai, which lipii- 
fiea tM* lord. TbCa nutom tUU pravnil* unuaa the 
Jcwik wlu> attribute to tlw pnoaaciation. of tba 
name of the Almigbtjr tho power of workiii^ miiadafl, 
aiul LbuB explain thoae of ChriaL The oonoeptiaa 
of th« Jaho'nh of the larMUtaa diffan tttxa all uther 
thtobntlcal «giic«ptioin of that ag*. No imo^ of 
Un WM allowed. Ha «m the inTMbte ptotootor 
and Udff of laraeL wonliipp«d bj obodicnoe to bia 
ooalmaltdalaBtl^aad aa obMrvaaoa of (be OOTMBoiika 
foaiitotcd throofb Moati. Tbo tocm JtAoraAswACj^ 
aaya Dr. Haromdc, the mtnJlAf ESokitu, the Mani* 
feat, Oaly, Pmaonal, and Holy Etuhitn: Um Utter !■ 
the Ci«^or, JikotvX the S«dae»*r. Klohtm U tho 
ahitraot expnaajoa for abaolute D«tty. a|)art ttvm 
tba apeeU BMiDm ol mtty, boIitMMa, aahrtaBoe^ ft«. 
Tberftfore JtJtoMk ia not <j tbe aasko orinn aa tba 
faeathea Jort, but of a atrictl; peculiar aod Hebrew 
oHjjin; and throngfaoat the ^ntategdi, Moeaa iw*«r 
•aea that aame analncUjr for £Mi« (thoogfa both 
nntlniialljr recor), but ia throajhoitt oomJateat ia 
lbl^ applicatian of the re^iectm tenua. 

JKIla. tbe foondBT of tba fifth dyaaat; of tho 
IHn|rtnM of lataeL Ha wm a acBMnaader In tbt 
anav of Jehonuo, when £Uah» aoai one of tbe 
'dntdran of tbe prordkata' to ooanciato him Kins fi 
laiaalat Bamath-Gll«ad(a.c. SlUht ImaiediaMjr on 
tti'MUiacraHup ha waaadeaowloit^od by tbe eaptaina 
of tlw anaf , and act oal at oom to attack Jehoram, 
whft Uj iu of wooada nonvad in battle ^aiaat 
Haintl. kfaw of Sjprt^ Jabonua, la aoapaay with 
Ua Kwat Ahadth, king ol Jodah, w«at ool to Beet 
tba rehab, bat waa oowed br tbe danaaeiatiooa of tho 
impetnoaa Jeh^ and tamed and Bed; an arniw frooi 
Jeou'a bow, however, put aa cod to hb Ufa, and h« 
wia can iato th* fiald of Ifaboth. WbOa part a< bia 
loQowen want la wtrMbcf Ahada^ who «■■ laor- 
lallTwmtiHled b I& flkfct, Jehn ^Jmt^ haeleaed <n 
to Jearaal, wbcra tba tBEinoaa Josebel. tbe qnaao- 
nothar, rtahlad. J«nb«l waa caai from aa nppar 
wtodmr byimaof kerawaaoaadiaoa tbaeoanuad 
of Mm, and bar bodj waa farther wangled b; Um 
Awfc^'whaa l i of her anmr, and BnaQy deroored bjr 
doflL Jaba thao eotarrd mm a work of aKteradaa* 
Uaa vUB then napanJUad b Iba blaiMy ef Jewlah 
meaarchy. Bena^ ef Ahab*a children were bo- 

faead«Ml, ami fortj-two brothpm nf Ahaiiah, king of 
Judoh. He aim phumod a fearful niajracre of tbe 
prieaUof Baal, but thongh Ub seal waa iideot it waa 
acanxly oonsiatont, for he adhered to the calf -wonhip 
of Jeroboam. In the latter jcnn uf hia reign the 
provtnoea Ivyond tbe Jonlanwere wroatcd from hini 
by tba Syriona. He died aftor a nign of twenty 
eight >-car». Ilia same oeeun Bum than ooee on 
IIm DiLiiuiDwnU diacnvorecl by Layard at Nioweh, 
where It la fftvea oe IVAhh, the aoti ^that i>, of tbe 
bmlly or bouae} of Oinri. 

JKIU»K. See Ieimx. 

JEJEEBBOY, StB Javsetjek, a iihllanthroptc 
Farwe morchant, waa bom of \njar pnmta in Bnmhay, 
on ISth July, 17S3. By hi* energy and biuiBe« 
talentB he auooeeded in achicring for himaalf the 
puaition uf the first aatito tncrchant in lnilia,and 
(valiaing a fortune of noBtrly a millicm Htrrlto];. llie 
munlfiwnce di«}jlAy«d by liioi toward* all beoei'oleBt 
and public objocta, witliout rcenrd to dam or o«ed, 
waa of the moat princeljr kind, hia domat kni a fron 
firat to last bebg aatlmatcd at about £8tl0.U0l). 
Among dta benevolent InttltatJiMM ibasded by him 
maT M mentioned tho great hoafital at llombay 
wlu^ bcara h>a namc^ the cataUiilnneDt in the eamo 
dty for the educaUon of poor Paieee children, aad 
tho cUurunuaZbu, or pliMoa of rvfuge for tra*ellara 
In \-arioaii ports at the eonntr^-. He alaa ceutmeted 
the cuiBcvray uuitiii^ tbe islands of Bomhay and 8<^- 
•e^taithawaterworkaat Poonab, tba bridmat liarla, 
Farta, and Bartha, and other pnbUo worM He waa 
kiiigfatwl by Queea Vktoria In 18i% and fai 1857 
waa advaaMd to the rank of bannol. □• HbA oa 
the 14th April, 1SS9. A atatue waa Hilaerpicntif 
erected b honc^ir of hiui In th« town-hall, Bombay. 

JEJIOTirai tLatin, jyunur, ompty'l, tho aenoid 
portion of tho aoull intcetine^ anocecdlag the dm- 
clMoa*, and ao named from Ua genaratly boBg Comtd 
entp^ after death. The dnodonum oxbmda to aboat 
IS iBcbea in lon^h, and the jcjunniu forma twa- 
liftba of the remainini; fmrtir-m <A Ike unall Inteetfaci 
The i-nLiiT length uf the BQuJl inbcatiitG variea from 
10 ti> 24 or 2fl fnct For further infoimatinn regard* 
in;; the rtructure and (nuctioa of the Jejunum, tbe 
rvAder ia referred to the artl^ Irrmvn. 

.IKLAI<ABAD, a towTt, A^haniatan, near tbe 
right bank of the rircr, and 75 Uillea e.H.E. uf tba 
town of Cahul. It Uee between two parrdlol rangaa 
of taovrj monntaina, but b a wretded Sltby placeu 
lla flUef daim la aoliM la derived from hartag beaa 
tbe acaoe of a aaoneafd leutaac* to an anay of 
Afdwaa by a baodfal of Britiah iraupt nader Sir 
Rohm Sale, In tba winter of U» -42. TbaSritlih 
OB eraeuattng It dea ti oyed ita tarttfloatkna. 

JKLKTZ. S«e Iklsii. 

JSLLACHICH DE Bl'ZIM, Johtm, Coevr, 
an Aartriaa gtnetal and hvx of Croatia, waa bom at 
Petenrardeln,lCth October, IM>1. He waa «dDcat«d 
at tbe lluiraaian Uililaiy Acedomy ia Vienna, aitd 
entered tbe Aoatrlaa anay aa eab-Ue«lenaat biS19. 
He aarwd with aeoe dlatlnotkn on tbe TurfcUt 
frontier and in Italy bnt it wea not until tbe <rat- 
Ivcak of boBtititiaB between Hnagnry and Anatija 
U I84S thai bb name becnaw famoua. U« had 
aacuiad the mnfidwcn el tba Craatiaaa to audi a 
ddfiae that thw nqftatad tbu be ahenld ba nadn 
tb«r baa or mOHaiy oanuaander-in-chief, a reqpoet 
whld> tba Awtfiaa emparar gladly eonoiDed wHI^ 
bopbg to obtain kb aaAitBHoe to qaell tta &&wvar 
relieUlaa. la thia be waa net dfaaimalnie^ iar Jat- 
lacbich mappbeil an anny of tAJMO wa P a qul pyed 
Den Into tba rwrolted ten^tefy. He waa, hMMvar, 
Untea at Ofen on Ibe 39lh SpptetB W, and eoKtieltod 
toaaefarathfaodaya'anaiitica. UeaowhOa VbDnn 
ilaelf bad beeome icroJuUMUKd, and tbe fata ef tba 





boQM of Hi^Mbor; vu tromblintr in the b«l«ioc 
ViuUr Umo ^rconuLuKm J cllocJiic:!) Louk. tbo bold 
Kt«puf uaroUni: un tLe i-apIUL It wm iadMci a 
Ktroln of goolus, aud was oxccuted with tuccvn. 
Tboogfa th« Ugnipkriud were prcMin|[ cImm u[>(m 
kia nw, tuiil the rovoluttuDUt4 uusMrod slruiig 
viUiln Um indU, h* RUccowlvd ia Bimuring .a apirit 
aatagdnutic tv Chobf, aad tn&y be Mid ultiniatcl.v to 
hkvft beatai them wlUi tboJr own ww|wdi. Hu 
dMttli took pUca 13 Mftjr, ISC9. IIo not cmly dU- 
plajad <"**"*■■ for (^Temmerit and military coui- 
taand, but also for |«eirv. A colleL-Uoa «t lib 
{MtDu n-M pulilif>liod in ItM at ^''ioimsk 

JKL1>Y iucluiii^ evur^ trAiuiW'«nt juioe aa far 
thlckeoed aa tocoMpilate wbeu culd into n treultUii); 
naa*; as th« juicus pf acid or mtic^iLaginiiiia fruit, 
cvmuti^ &C whicb, by tb« addition uf uutt pan 
mgar to two paru at Juioo, loid. I7 boiling, ha<ra 
nbCaiiicd n pmpcr couuslcDce. Jolly uuijr be dtber 
Dt uiuiiid iir vi^otabls origin. 

i, Animai JtUy, — Tbe soft i>arts, suoh sa the 
mmwltw. Bldn, cardlnge or iutv^monEs of atumob, 
irfaon boiled in water, yield a boImUod nhJdi on 
Twlf-g ■nlidMsa to a lr«inuluui jeUy. Tli* su1>- 
■tMov iBi^ alao bv prapand ina, ootum by subjwct- 
ilf tlMB, after cnttning, to tho united action of lu^- 
|jRnw« ateam and water. 7o lbs. »( honta, ivben 
tnatad with 1 lb. of water la tlio form of Htcam, at 
a pr mu w o( 4 Ibf. to tbo luitian iurb, and ainiul- 
tiinnitj dlMsbed In 5 (pdloni ol wattr. will yield 
about 20 gaUona of a ttrang jrlly. Animal jolly is 
a coluurloH, daatic, traiis[iMciit mibstancc, without 
taste or suelL which I* alniost fuaoluble In cold tnit 
nfjr ablllbk n hot vaUir. Aft«r boQing for eome 
tiiD6 ia mter a solntinn of animal jelly Icnms the 
power of geUtiohiitj: iii>»u cooUnj;; aioubid, bowerer, 
stin throws down a prrdpiUte ba\-in^ tbo ooninwi- 
tiui o{ thv ordinal snbstanve. ViljeQ inratt jeUy 
t> exposed to ue olr It putrefies, at firet becamln(f 
acid, but afterwards oYolving animonia. 

Aninu] j«Uv sceina to be Deorlv identical in com- 
poHtioa with tae listqea which yl«id It, eo that we an 
OMble to traoo any chemical dumgo, ncoept, pcrhapst 
the aanittllatlan of water during the prooeaa of ito 
■Minfnlnrt Then ia prubabl; a namoganetit of 
A* ktoras aeccanpaaying tUa asnndlaticnt of waUr, 
but the nbjM* UMi not y«t been snff dently ttwUedL 
The fnUcfwiiig nwlfioa show ths wrecage pereenta^ 
ot carlMi^ hydrogen, and nitrogen in aniinal jolly : — 




VariooB obwimn have also detected sulplinr among 
iU eoaatitnatts. 

S- VtfftlaUe JJIy. — Wbeii tlic juice of fniita !■ 
heated with ai^w, the Ltiiiid fomu a KtifT J(-'lly iia 
SooUlg. It appears from tbc rvscarcha of Yritaj 
and olben that nnripe fmits cnntnin a coniponnd of 
cacioD, bydnii,-eii, and oijgvn, c^\iiA ptfUmc ; an Lb'.- 
Iniit ripms this siilnEtniicR ia tniiiifomiixl into ptttin^ 
tiff cLangg beioK brouitht aUiut cUiufly by tLu inflit- 
«iioB of a pecutiar (erminit callud pttiatf, which Li 
axttaisMl in the fruits. As pectin is folublo in 
watar, tlia osprciucd juiue oi n|ic fmiCa containji a 
Itt]^ quantity of tl>!« subslaiiccs widdi un 1i«ating to 
a liipeit nre tt about i(f Q. is eonvottod into one 
■r mefv aibstaiiiecs whii:h have not oa yet been eam- 
pletaly stodic^ but wblcb Iihmj thopntperty of gela- 
tini^if CB cuolint;. Thoprindnalof thnosubiituicini 
«n patMMMtMl mttapectia ndua. Thiji Litter arid, 
wbca boiled sltuig with another strong acid, wbe^or 
wlnsmlurnrciTiir b dnxnupoaod. one of tbc nroducba 
brfag pootis aognr, a tubvtaacw wudi is doeely aBlcd 
to^xom (eec SvoMUi), so that In all probability 

then is produtvd in the very proocm of mannf antniing 
jellio inoro nr Icm of tbia •ti^'ar, wbicb ccrtuiidy is not 
caufr-sngar, and wblirb ud^bt thovfore bo by auntD i«- 
gnnled as an adii]t<intti-.>Q. The pr oc ciu i wbkh. in 
the Living plant, rerndt in the tnuMfnrniatiaa ot pec- 
toee into jicctiii may b« imitated on the small scale 
by heating tlio uiicoof iinrip<r fmit with Ibepulp, 
whieh contains tbo ferment iwctaiu.', or witb a uilule 
add which Induces tbo sasie dtango m this (ul'atnncc. 
Atltalica also produce a slnuUr eifcct 'Jbe exact 
coiapoaitian of thotM variiiua pectous sutdonoes jret 
rotnalns a matter of doubt 

JELLY-FISHES, the popniar niuco of tbo Mo< 
diisidm; oftt^n aUi> fnn-iiliiu-Iy n>l]i»1 8Ra-bliibbcn 
and St-a-ui-ttlet. Arbitutle terruud tbcin Acalofihie, 
in alliiniiin tn the stln^ilng propi.-rtte« w-bli^b most of 
thiMW fonus pueaes^ and from which prupcTtiett their 
popular naaw of Ma-nettlea has alto bMB dsrired. 
TlicT an found fraquanllr cast uu upon out* shoies 
in Ine summer soaaon, anu when in the water they 
piesaiit a slnffularly beautiful appaarance; each 
medusa resembling a dear crystalline bell, which 
swims eracofull^ through the water by alternately 
OKiMUtdbiL' and ouiitractinK its body. Witldu Uii< 
bcIl-Ulii) body a system of canalB opeidn? from and 
eominunicatiiig with tbo central mmith is to be ob- 
■trvod. Very many of tbo jtlly-fislie* have now 
b««n asrartalnwi to ho meivly tbtr free, floating, 
n'lmKluctivo bodies of fixed tuid rootod Zocpliytc* 
{//jninMoa), In this view tho zoologloal potdtlon ot 
tho jelly-fiBhes ha.<t been of luto \t\ni ivldely (ittcr«-d. 
anil only a few of thw jrlly -liiihi» b.->va ho n rttiinid 
In the ordnr IkfodusMw iw «|>cci(i>.-ally dinlluct and 
separate Ifidlviduol funos. See MeufBiDjE. 

JKMAJ'l'iCS, « villdjti of the Nethcrlanili^ in 
Baanault, near Mutm, on the Sclieldt, cdclTatcil as 
the place of tbe Gnrt gi«at battle In tbo Fr«iicb 
roTOlulicDxry war, fousl^^ N'orcml'or <f, 1792, in 
CMnmeraoration of whldi, while iindor the 1-Vcneh 
domiuioa, tlie whole deparlnivnt was mllod Je> 
m^ipfiOK. Tho l<in«f thin battlnby tbo Aiuttrinnshad 
a snmt inOuunos on the public Beutimeut uf Europe, 
and gavo the Idghttt iinpnlse to ths enthanacm of 
the t'lvncb. Tho consequence of this defeat— tbi* 
loss ot the NrLliMlaii(U .-113d «f Odge hy tlie allies— 
wonld hai-e been Htdl i^Tcutor if the Fraicfa had not 
stopped their punuic of tho flying Analrian army at 
Uif! Ilocr, in»d£ad r>f drinng thcjn ncmui the Ithino. 
I'fae Prumbuubad already retired to the RIdue after 
tbnir nnKnccoSiful nnpaisn in 1702, wbra IJnmoii- 
rici! sudduoly ti^ upon Ue Ketburlandit, planiiuiy 
the morooento of bu snny with eo much eldU, and 
orcating than with so much rapidity and deciaton^ 
that tho allies soon porarived tliM thvra vfm no want 
of able genends among the Frencli, llio French 
army wiut more numerous than tbo Austrian, which 
was rnmmiuidrd by Albert, diiko (if Kaxo-'rcrchcn, 
but the lattvr bad the advautiwe of a iJOMlEun coti- 
aldercd almost hnpregnablc The cntliaaiasn md 
martial spirit of tho French, wbkh here ditf1ayc<l 
tlicmMdvea in all their intensity, bore down all ob- 
HCacles, and redoitbt iiftcr redoubt waa stormed and 
takwi to thu chant of tlio Msrsrillalse Hymn. Do* 
monriei, who had Bppointfd tho jimtig Ibike ot 
Cbarti«% aftcrwarti* Luui« FEiilipfK.-, king of Fnncc, 
hla lieiit«CLMi.t, conim.tndrd the centre, llamjiiemi 
and BiinnioD«iUe tbu rij;bt, niid Ferrund tlw left 
wing. Tlie loss of ibo Austriana viia estimated at 
£0(}l> men. Kiybt days iJtcr Uuinuiiricc entered 

JCXA, a town, SAXc-'W^ctniar, ]<rinct])al!ty o^ond 
12 tnilM cost oj Wcimsr, in a inllfv Eurrauudcd 
b^ naked lull*, on tbo left Innk nf tbc Kaal^ ben 
orcesad by a bondmnne itonc bridge. It consists of 
tl)0 town inoper and of four KiibuTba, and is a dull 



■ati'iiMted -^MM. It ia Ae mt of eoTeral courta 
of Iaw, mm oif Umio k auporior nppoAl conn for tht; 
SMXon (lucliin ncid tlie piiDci[ialilii!a o( Itcun, iui<l 
ountiiitiK » ItiQuitu CuihiiHc uid >eveml l'n>t«Rt»iit 
ehurdiM, a caM]« in whirii odu of tbo coUaU-rU 
bnmolic* of tlw ^Veimnr fninily Inn^ nwidect, aini 
Borenkl boapitab. Uut it is Ut its iiiiiveniUy, ami to 
Uw ltattl« foii^bt bt>T» IT) 1^04, Jena in ini1oliU»l 
for uy colubnt/ wliicli it poMiaK*. lli« riniveraity 
woa alined in iiif, Mul ntuiuiMl iU bijhcet |iroi- 
{tcrity towAiilii Uic vHil ftt tlin InnI nuturj, nlii^n it 
. nntnbvrvtl Schillur, HiimtitiJdt, t'kbt«i,Sclicltiiig,«iid 
1 Griualnch omciig itit t«a«.'Ucav, and nu alt«DiJ&d by 
ftbnTO lUOO Nliwcntf. In ISH tho number hiM 
■Iwindlcd tlown to 121, vhith i* nboat the firvvent 
averaga attaodiuice. It b a vury coni[)]L-Ci: i-aUab- 
Uifataent; baa alzty'fiv^ arottmon and. initnicttini, 
who tcuh Ui0 diffcrait unuichra of Uw, luudidnt:, 
|ihtlflM|>]]y, and theotc^; Mid pcaaauM an aaivtc>nii- 
cal tbealn, botanical gnnlcn, ouHTvatory, gooil pliy- 
irica] and chcmieat caUneU, atul a llhnuy dl 200,01)1) 
vuloniM. Popk ot town, 81D7. Th« battle of J«db 
vaa (ought Ifch October, ISOC, Iwtwcotk tha I'rus- 
niaiui under IVinr* I l<ihitiili>ii)' hixI Chn ]''nini:Ji UiTidcr 
Nuimlcun. Tbe |iriiicc) all'iwcd ibu I'V-iu'li to wCfii])y 
tb« at^vp emincaoM vblcb oommaud tlm voilluy ot 
that Ktulil, utd his army gav« wny im nil pinntu: lirxt 
tlu: vanguard under Taueotzim, tbcn tlta inaiu budy 
fed by UmMlf, and tutlv tbe riglit iring UDd«r 
Snchd. On th« Himv Jay Dawuit ^taiiicd tlio 
c(|iuwUyd»liiv« victory Al Aucntadt, and tbu duubtei 
<]f rcitL tikid Prumia at the feet ci tbe coii<iiicti>r. 

■IKNNKK, Kl>wjtHr>, an Kn^lUli phyaitiait, celc- 
bratnil fijr batlnj; iiitruduomi tlic |inu.'tic« uf viiocin- 
atiuii as A pnveatlve of lb* nuall'pDf. H« was tbo 
yoiiQgoat aoa Af Cbo vicar of BerkoW in GlMtOMtn- 
ahire, and wan bom there May IT, 174W. Beinj 
deadned for the iuedi<al pnitieMua, he was, after a 
common icbool aducadoD, plaocd as nn a|tprunttco 
vttli a •iirgvcin at ijoiltiarT, iri hu native rr.nnty. 
Bo auLaajiiuntly viaitod Luniluu tu fioiuli liiii uLiKiici 
l>yaM«ndiag tba Ivoturaacf the cel«bnit«d aiintuinlat 
Jwlin Huiit«r, in whoae family hn icaidnl for two 
ywus. Rctumine to ttis euuntry, b« Milled at Her- 
luUy, tf> iirMli** tlie variiiiw bniticbi.-* of lii* prnfrs- 
aluu. Ue bad idrcady ubtaiiiril the (Bputalivu of 
an lagantous prwrtitlitDer, and a man uf lali.'ot iitid 
•ckuea^ when ne made Itavvru tn tbo world the im- 
portantdlscovery wbidihaBtsii>ed)iiin toaBenviOilili: 
•ituallon amon^ th« benrfaelon of tbw human taa<. 
Hb invottigatiniM wnooniiiie the oMr-pcx voro 
ocmnfuoed about tb« year 17i6, «tlivn hi* attention 
waa exdled by tb«drcuu)4aji<w of fiiiilinF; tjiut >ome 
iadiviiliinl* to whom h* att«niptnl to cnmnumJcate 
tbv KDiDll-fxix bv favwulatJtni wcr« nut iii>ceptibl« of 
tbo diaaaaa; aH on inquiiy ha found tliat all auch 
ttUfoM^ thoagli tlwy uhI B*nc bad tba amaU-pox, 
bad vaatpgcam the CHual eow- po«. a di'aaaaa omanion 
Mflong tha (aniiPti and dairy -aarvaata In Oluuueater- 
■htn, who had aonio Idoa of ita preventiva effect 
tithtf medical in«n were awnre t4 the prevalracn of 
tliia opiiifun, but they treated it na a |i(ipiitar pn-ju- 
dioa; and Jonner mmiai to bav* b«ra th« IJrU who 
MMriaioed it* oometaov, and tmbftvonrad todsrivo 
fnMBhwiDopnwtiadadvaiita(«. HedlaN>*er»dthat 
llw rariola tiM'tViur. or eow-poi. as the wmplaint baa 
licenainoe tennni, having jn th« 6»t inabuioo bo«n 
produMd by acddwtkl or dorifiicd UMCuUtion el the 
nuutsr affordad by a pendiu* dianaao aflocting tbo 
■ddar of a eaw, eauld ha pw c iagalcd troia o&o huinnn 
nbjact to aaolfaor by inocuaunn. randariiv aD wira 
fnald tlinmgh it aavnpo tram tlw amall-nox. Ho 
and* kaown Ua dlwovery to kub* HMdicM frieudi, 
Mid la th* auMb of Joly, I'Sd, Mr. Cltae. ■urca'» 
la St Tbotoaa' UtopiUl, latitMltiMd vaccination Ibto 

ibo motrppolUi Tin practioo of \-iocinv iDocatation 
■Ku adoptfid in the amy and navy, and hotiuun aiKf 
ruwarda were confcmd on tbo author of the dia- 
cnvery. TIn diploma co9k»litiitin); liim Ihwlor «( 
Medi>niia wan preavnleil to JLiuier aa a tributo Vo Ida 
lolenta by tha Univ«Tslty o( Uxfuni He wag dioam 
a fi'llow of ilio Koynl Sonely and of otliar l»aiirtJ 
assudiitiun*, luu! in KSOti a parlinraentar* gvaat wna 
utodu to h'au uf tbe •uin uf 4:10,000, ana nve yoon 
later a ercoD^i t'^ant of i'JO.llOO. The oxtcnalon of 
titc Imnrlita of VAuiiintion to forei^ oountrica ■prvnil 
tbe f.-i[iie uf IbediatMikeRr, who received ■ereral con- 
^atiiUuiry »ildnw«e from oMitlneutal poteatataa. 
He diud of apoplexy, Januarv H, 19S3, and wu 
iutemd in the pjuiah ciiuroh ot D<^rkc1cy. Dr. 
JciiiK^r w.'iH tlie author of ou Intpury ititu tbo Cauaea 
and KtTecti of the L:o\i>--pox i_17itS, 4to), and Kaitfasr 
OLa»(>rvatIon« on tbo Vari^lLe Vaccinx) or Cow-pox, 
besides tanooa lottcra and papcn on the aatae anb- 
ject, ptibliahed in pcriodioil worlu. Soe Vacosa- 


JEN'i'NS, SoAMK, a witty and clc^aut wdi*r, 
waa llio unly aon of Sir Hogtr Jcnyiu, Knitj'ht. Ho 
wan bum in London inl704,nnil ivL-civod adatnixtic 
wliicatiKU until the BjfB uf ■t-veut«eu, wbvn be aaa 
cnldvd a fallow cDinmoner of St. Jobn'a CoUegv, 
TanibTid^, be miiiained tbroo yc&n. 1b hia 
yimtb Jvnyna nuiitained the clLaractco' of a beat^ and 
Ids 6ntt literary p^rfumtance was a poem oo tho 
Art of Dancing, publialiod In 1728. lu 1T41 ba waa 
loft, by tb« deatli of hia father, ratuiter of a larpi 
fortouo, iiQ wLii-b he entered iut>> jjublio Itfo aa 
rcprcTCUtativo of the oninty (if (.'iknibrid:^*. He 
bt^Mi Ilia oaruvr by tupuurtin^ t^ir livl^H^t Vr'alpvle, 
and OTcr after mmalneJ a faitMul adiiorant to the 
niiiiiati^r for the time hnin^r- In ]7f>7 ho pvIdMbed 
but Free IniiiiiTV intu tlie Nntnre and Orij^nof Kvil, 
the fkiBdnmeulal |ii(uci}jle ii( whldi {■ tlint Lh« ptv- 
dnctioo of good wttfaoat enl ii im[>of<siblci that evUa 
•]>rin}{ frnin mvccurity, anil cnidd iiot bo done away 
wiLiiout t!i« BiKTifice of ■hiih lupcriur Ruui], or the 
admisnon of groator ditortbir. In rMjwct to ujorol 
otU hia Uieory ia that it ii pcmiittcd in ordur to 
provide objoctla fur the just infliction of jihyaicKl 
t'viLi. In 1776 Mipearod his Vii^w uf tlie Intcnud 
Kvidenoe* af theCbriatLau Itdijpiin. The fonndation 
uf hb ruaaonln^ b that the Cbriatian ivli/ion in a 
HyatoRi of etbica k> auperior t<\ and unlike an>lhin( 
whirb hod pnvioualy entcrotl iiiU> the mind of man, 
that it must noooanujly be divinv. In I7S2 i4>peai«a 
hit PbqnirittoaB on Varioua Subjerta t^vo), wbioh 
art; morlioil with hu nanal chanKterwtioiof aiirichtly 
wit and abrewi! oltaervation, lint are vagno and ■)•• 
damatory. lie died En 17$7. 

JBPHTHAH, a natural son af GUead, whn, Mng 
drivM from home by hi« hrothora, lived in tbo land 
of Tol\ but wLl-h lite Aiumimllca waged «rsr aninat 
latn^ wa« Mint for to defend hb oaimtrrmen. Jepb* 
thob tried eonciliatury meaauniy but Waff uaauc- 
ceoiful in thli, ho put UmacLf at the hand of tha 
laroclitM^ and defratod the enemy. Hating raaUj 
made a vow that if he was viotorioiia bo would sao- 
riSoa to Ood na a biinit-uOvitii;: wliaterar abonld 
fint cant to most him from hi<i houae, ho WMiHt 
OB hb Rtam by hi* doughtvr, hla coiIy child, wbMta 
bo anetlioad, tn conMquBiie«L to the Lord (Jodf«s 
id. SB, 40). Tbo mode Is which the aaorifioe wn» 
|ierfvraicd has pvoo riae to mncb oontrovcny, bobm 
aotbure maliilAiniut that Jophthah put her lo di^tb 
tMior the altar; utber* that h« dcfutod h«r to per> 
{wttial vii|[{nity tn tbo trnplo; othsn^ and aoet 
comtneDUloM, lUnk that b« ootuolly ncrittred her 
as a burat-otfcrlaa; owl tbftt thou^ pruliibdted by 
the law of MuaM, Mman — crifipea inajr uevertLoleM 
have oCcxudoBally token place aaiong tbo J«w« at 




tliin penoil Jinfatluli nJed ux j-con t» u juifD 

will v-'-'httJ (J'ikuh^ xU.) 

JEllUuX Hn hrbMw, cvtutitDling tbc fftmily 
I^todldar, m fouad diliifly In ^VaIh mad Xorthiinv 
AfricA, litit ft few atHKMa occur in Biiiaut lUitl Nmlb 
Aatericn. ThcT an nuuninalii Iwloiiging to tbe 
cad»r KuilcntiA or OmnrBn^ saxd t^v iJiub prtiuftrDy 
dbtiuKHisbod, liko nU, mJcv, and Qtbvt aiUod fontu, 
bj tbe difael'like Mrnotnro of tbe front or Inckor 
Uftb. The avenf^ Irnjftli at the body ia nbuut 8 
tnelicx, tbe tnil offain lueaaurlng I^*! iucb^D. Tb* 
ewlour iii lljB ujjppr body b a pale (awn iuclining to 
jrclluw, tbo lowLT partfl boing wliite. A peouUu- and 
dkaracteriiitic fcfttiiro of tlic jerboM miwiU in the 
gnat (HipiuportiuD botweca thu Icngtti □( tbo Eotb 
•nd Und Ibnba; the latter Dienib«riW:biffoxtreiiie]y 
wSxiatftoi hy tho graak dsvclopmoDt of tbo motatar- 
aol bonei^ or tbou wbich oorrMpond to the iiLitc|i iti 
inaii. In coii*c<|iieaiw of Uiia voufui-uiKtinii u[ tlie 
bind icg* tbi! jortmu pnignoiil by l«>]>>i luiil ha\m, in 
a liiullar fiuliiLiu to ibo kui^jaruoa, tu vrbiub imiundj 
iiufood, u mM SiB to tbo cUnchiUaa, they bear a 
e\imt icsdnblnucc in mitwani form, altboiigb of oouno 
tlMyaretnucbiuiuiIIertbui tbeAurtraUamnaanButl*. 
Tbe hind levt are [trovlded witb three toaa eub, tHu 
ton limba being tomiiaatod with four to«a onnod 
iriUi iJiurl bub jiowerful nul> or clinri, of wrvicR 
to tb«wt »Dini»lii In encavotlut* tli^ burtows iu tvlilch 
thcT Itrs. Wcll-dwalopod wUar-bmus or ciaviulca 
szut Id the Jcrboai^ aod tbo other diaraetcn of the 
funily arc fouud in the powewion of a loag cyliiid- 
ilcjd toil, nliilit the noaa ie pnmdtd wiUi britUei*. 
Tim eyv luv Ut^, and the ean pranunoDt. The 
aiuiBU in l«a[»Dg diflvn from the kanj^arooa in that 
h nau npon tbo toce of tbo bind fiwt, whibt tho 
kjsntnoa rosL upon tbe lower surface of tbo nnldiai. 
iMourraire ar« ezcavatod Inuody ordayey groitnii, 
ami arc of ccnistdtsrablQ lcD|;:tb, (rxtcndins iu !i wind- 
bis: and ubllijue miuin<.r it'.m the opening of tha 
bat, wbich i» Mtuntvil abiiut lialf ii ynnl IvI-uw the 
Rnfaoe nt tbc griHiniL A ti^nii) jinKuiga tn thu 
snriaoe of thu itrvuiid, tluvui^di ibu uusLt ur pAxa^^iM 
of anghbouring jerboas, ia geaerally aade, and by 
Ullt bUtor ofMaing tboae fonna mnko a ipeody exit 
urbcD thtcal«ned with daogHr tbrouKh tbe chief en- 
inno«. Th« Ambi, In trntipins too }erboa«, th<j 
fltaah ol vrhich th«y nteum a delicacy, take caro to 
•top up tlio catnoeea or outlets of the dilToront naU 
of the oolimy wcoopt one, tkruugh wMcti tbi- cuui- 
munity at attacked, aai) it* moinbara >ocurod nlive. 
Aj tkua indicated, Um jvcbuaa aro icreiriirioua and 
In b cotoBioa, ibo bnirctvra of tho ditfordst familtaB 
ktlug with each other. Divy lux nootunud 
baUU, a>d hybemate thrvu)[huut tliu odder aea- 
I vl the jmr. Tha prosTMtlv* leaps of the jor- 
c»iTj Uca along qnic&ly and eSectiTdj, ami 
. Ifaiu moving tbey leap fruin onv Hide! tu the uCbcr 
I ligxag fiMhi'iii. The tj<.l] in leaping I* exti'iiilud 
^ftKraigbl linv behind tb(j body; l^iit iu nttios ur 
I at rat it ii ctineJ In tbi.- iiUai>e of thu' IgIUt 
, tho lower curve of tbi? Uul toucbiut,' tlio ^ruuiid. 
The food of th« jurboiui diit-Hy 'mnmit* of nvjtt. 
whicli ihwy dig by aid ut ibi'ir danii. Wbuu ttunvil 
— ■ i:«>.Kj<.i« V' M'hkh thoy Bubuilt witli ducjlity — 
tiicir fo<;>l niay be portly airoiviiroiii*, a^ when <ln- 
B>ertiralcd tlicy lune bc«ti fuuiid to vat taw inuit. 
Hm ivboa baji lioi'n ivpu^knl iig oorrocponding to 
Iks miipttiral cviry; but thi« in an entmcuua mippo- 
ifticiii, aa tho //yiYLr of Syria mora nearly ooTtcaponds 
lo the biblioal form. The muHt fauuU&r apocica of 
JeriaMS U tb« Koyptian forui [hipug .Hrji/ptint}, 
fnood In Xortli Afnra In arid |>1a(.-M. TLi: jiim|iiiih' 
ban <W South Afrioa iPetUtta Capctnii), and it« ally 
tbe jtuapiny Okmmo (wbicb mo) of Nurtb Aincru-a 
fyfrwwM Ai>asMUCTt*),Mro4llaeweU-kiiowu oxxiuijIvi 
* VouIV. 

of tbc fanuly. The Gerbilles (ffrriWn.) of Afri« 
ami In'lia ntv inrliiktcd by ni<iiit nutbim in the I>i|i»> 
didm; and the immliv't ■pc^ncs nf ihe fuuiily ii the 
Ifiptu nittnoCorvirj, the a^uraga Unfth of which ia 
about 3J inclir*. 

Jl!!UK^^IAH, thu acinnd of the Rrrat paxipbvta of 
tho Old TbttuinHUt. \* diEwrilieil ita thv khu of iLtt> 
kiah. of tbe prioatB thai wore in Aiiatbuth, n town 
abont 3 miles front Jenualem. He tlounahMl during 
tbe darkctt period of the Kliigduui of Judah, under 
Jodab, Jehoabiu, .Tchoi.tkini, Jot<<)iiiah, and '/mA«' 
kiah. Ho was called to Um prupbotie olfice to his 
youth, in the tldrteonth year of the rrisii of Jouah 
fa.r. (IS9), and rimtinned in it till tho cTcventh year 
of ZodiJiinli, when •Tenia.tlent vivt taken by ^ebu- 
chsdtiuuar tB.c, tiii). HU lifo vw ooe I(nig mkr- 
tyrdom; it waji hi* taslc tu deliver hi* ntomnfnl 
moMagea atiil «»ming> ^a u tburuu^'bJy fumititMl 
people aud to fuiuUill Ibu K|wr<K di.'atniL-tiLiuor Ilia 
itntii'ii. In Jiidoli tliorf vtBTv In bi* tim» tvn {ta]ittc,al 
parties— tbe oiio favouriu); nu Ek'.vpliuu nlliauoc, tbo 
other a Cbaliitan, .l«reniiali rtpuiiiat/jd bijtb at 
lint, liiit bv tlio oiiumo of uvcnloi niw <irivi;ii ovi-r to 
the laLUsr party, ivbioh wsa deiadedly tbo uii|>i>|nilar 
one. Ha {!haraat«rlaed Xebaehadncssar aa th» ser- 
vant of God, and propkuai«d the a|>proaobinj: bum* 
inK of tho teiii|tli;. A cry for bia life aravx txnrn 1h« 
pTit*t« and jwophetii, and li* MoajjtJ nilb diflipiilty. 
At last ths fatal aovcnth day of tho fdtb month 
came round* iirhini Jemnalcm witli it« tcnijile aiid 
paLaA- wa> oonramod vrltfa liru. Jvnmunh wiia (a- 
voiirably treated bv the Babylonian riinitiinmr, find 
offered a home at Babylon, but he iirvfotroil l« rtay 
amniii; the nretohod rumniuil of the iJ«oplc tcfl in 
Judalk. All influential soiiticm of tbi« lutrty thought 
they law in Egypt a nofi: pluoc: uf refuse from the 
pownr of NebuQhadneuar, and led tb*! I'vul of tba 
pooplo, Jorcmiah amoti); tho rest, (o a place called 
'rnhiumhts, where, aocnTdhn^ to ( 'bristlaii tnulitiun, 
tbo pixipbct wm ituucil to d^Tulli by hla (utiiitryuicu, 
who noru irritittei) liy his rubiikcji. AcRimting t<9 
tbc Eablnuiuid tradition, hovrevur. he tuid bid die- 
ciple &nd SKretary Itanich mado their cacapo on tbe 
cooquRIt of Kgypt by Nchiichtt(ln«ittr to liahylon or 
Judali, and dioil in pcooo. 

The prophedes of Jeremiah, wbich 'fvrt dldatod 
to Banich, hare bean arranged with little rvffnrcl to 
chronologiual order, and the tu\t la in a aonnewltat tfa- 
fused vtattr, nutwitlutiuidiii),' two reiiauint by tbc 
propbH biimrlf. tn tbc prtwont order wr hnro two 
trrunt divisiona: (l)C'ba|i.i. xlv., pn>pbvcit«di?ljvvred 
at vaiiouc times, diroctod cliioltv to Jud&li, or oon- 
ncctod with .lorcniiali'M {lorMitial hiiitm-y; i,'l) I'hap, 
xlvi,-li., propbuL-ioe ounnei;tvd with othvr iiatiuns. 
Chap. UL, taken largoly from i Xlu(,'a xxv., may b« 
meant as a mij'plcnieiit to tho prorhocitii or n* on in- 
troiJuobion to the I.aineDlattouii. Jcreiniah niuita tho 
dignity iind Hiilvndnur of 1t)fil»h, but pxbihit^ great 
tcndera^wandelegiacboautyofwutinioDt. Thebouk 
»f LamcntatiotiB b a pathetic poecn mode up of fivo 
(lintiiii't tlvgiea AcMirdirig Ui Ju^ephuH it wu ^vrittcn 
fax thu ilcuth of King .Ituiiili, but Utor authcinttes 
ri-gnnl it UB thu iitlerauw of thu iiropbel'a aormw 
u[>ua tbo capturo of Jurwudem ana tho d(»1 ruction 
of tbo tcmpif. iSovcnil of tho I'Milnw hare l>e«D 
attributed to Itim, eiiiH.-ci«lly by niudcrn critJca. 
HlUia Kts domk ^ilrty-four lu Whig tlm ronpoii- 
tlnii at Jaroniah. 

JEll-FAlXON. S« Falcok. 

JBlilCUO, a couaidcrabla tuwn of aodent Judea, 
«□ a plnin nortb-oBat of ilenualen, on tlio woi of 
Jordan, iiotCMl, especially In Solinnon'a tluv, for ila 
bnlBUn-gardcni and its tbiokots of pabn-treos and 
riMi^, and carrying on a floitrishitig trade in baliam 
and apices. It was the key of Fainting aod wta 



tlie Jordftn luidar Joahu to Muiiicr lliin country. 
On tfae aeventh ilay it wm tftksn in » luInicatnD* 
inuitwr, milI il««troy«(t, but wm inbuilt ikiiiu) time 
aftkT. lu nc« ia now occupied by the viUage of 
Bilu, Ths guileiu luid thiok«t« bxvn dJMfipMtred; 
lig-traM^ bkliiua- trues, maize, and cucumben maj be 
KM to camnruv aI! ttiM it uuw ru]tirai«d. 

JEKK£1> ££EF, boof cut into stri})« of about aa 
bieb tliick, »od drf«d is the <uii. Iliw inftkod at 
proMrrtnz meat hfta bwoi Inrgd; ftilupiol iu Chili, 
BueaM A^rca, Moobo Video, &&d Ikttcrlr in Am- 
tnlia. Ciit from th« »"'"■»'» when in i^od condl- 
tloa tbeae ilicebi oi Hu&i itj in tho nm bafora 
decani |»«itlaa oocumeDMa, loid viU keep for acjr 
leagith of time. It ia cuU«d by the CUSliaua thanjui 
(of vbicb tlw Ei^lUh tutmo ia a c«m)|>tios>, utd )> 
not in Iwgn nvMatitkt U) Cuba, wbun it i* cooked 
for tba aogn. Scmml thlptneati ]uv« been Im- 
pan»d iDto this eoonbr; b«m Aaitnlin. 

JLKOMJ^, St. i(EiaBiD» HiwosYMts Sopmbo- 
SID*), ona of th* moit iMnwd and iircilli^o auUion 
of tba •Arly Latin Cbnrob, wu bom loi&utmM) 
betwMm 331 ottd &t& iu Dalmatiii, of wradthj jmrcnta, 
edacaled with on in Iit«nu-y itudlet, and made 
tamittar with iha Ruinan and (inck vlani-c* under 
Um gnuiuuariaa Duaattu at Komi:. Bnt ho did not 
Moap* nuMAtaminatcd by ihv UmdUuikommi of thu 
ca^tal; and he hiouelf oanfoaoa tha ucmms of bi* 
towUl U« Man, how«T«r, becam* Indined tu that 
Cfaiirtlaa talth. llic cutacombs and tomba of the 
SlUtvn flnt exdt*d bl« deratitiD. Hi« travcln nn 
tlM BhiH and ia <Jaid icaJu Lim aojuaiutud with 
MV«nl niriiili«a pmtcheys, ^nd I>wfarw bia fortiwLb 
JMT ka waa hapllxod lu Ruuie, Aftw a Iodk reaid- 
oMM at Aquilua b« wmt in S73 lo Aotiochia SyrfA, 
wfaara Ua t adi n a rt oB to an aaoctio lif» becama mm 
daOMled. In S74 be retired to tho docrta of Chalcin, 
and than paMsd four yean aa a hiinuit in tbe 
BtvMtM nortlficfttaaoi aod labociciai itudiM. He 
left his ■oUtnile B(aio la be ordained fnAjltr at 
Aab'aefa. Ua did not liowavcr, ccnfioe himialf to 
tlia (tiautaiya of the autiaa of tbia oHion, but mooD. 
ftftor want lo CoDstautinopla tooijoy tho iuatnictioii 
uf Gregory of Nnmutao. In Bnna, whither ho 
Moompanied bin friuDd tlie Uubop IJuaaaua, h« made 
hi* appeariui(!G it a tcA«hirr, Hia axpoaiUciD of tbe 
Holy 8i.-ri|ituRB (onnd favoor with dia Roaun ladiaa; 
•ad althvtigb iio one raprebeuded inon than h* tin 
■uoum of the faithiwiablt veiU, aereml nutnu of 
dlttlnctioti, wiUi thcdr daagbtM^ oompUed with fala 
eibortaUun^ and became nuna. St, Maroall* and 
SL. Faiila are celebrated I<n tho lunmed and inganiona 
Vuuiogffcal wfiaim ba mot* than, and f « thdr tare 
uoaastic pie^, Fmk aceuafuitd Un to Palcatino 
In 366, vhira he founded n convent at Bvthlebem 
vtth bar fund* and In ber aocivly: in tbia he 
iMBifaied ttU hia dentil in 4S0. Hia vritlnga aho« 
Ua Bctivo patUiipatlnn In llw «oatrav«nice cenetn- 
ing Iha doctnaoa a( Orifon, Ualetui^ and Pklagiun; 
be alwnja detendud witb nnl and ability the ortbo- 
dm iotmam e( ttie ohtmb, tbougfa bia <iwii writings 
■n Mt faw famn tha nitlgai of tbe rtem and 
ofUoaa of tbcM dHlamit MitkN. Uia pivfonnd 
knowlndge o< Ihe BlUi^ whi<£ be lead in the angina] 
hngnagaa^ fmuently lad him lo raaulta cm whldi be 
■obM^WQlbr Md nonUovmtSm with the cfatmb; 
nnd hu DMlbod c< liilaniiallim the Setipbirea butden 
eleacly oa tha allaconcnl intaipratatimia ef Urinn, 
vImhu be napedMl, atndled, and attacked. Uia 
BlbUoal Uboum ai« highly vahinUe; hia tttin Ytw 
dm of the OU TartMnani tarn the orisinal lan- 
moMtt li the faiindnlion nf the Vnlfil^ and Ua oem- 
manlarir gave a new Impnlae to tbe etudy of the 
Soly Scripiitrea. In tha ootttfuvcny with Jo«inian 

and Mgilanlins^ the opponcnti of the vxMnUfftrff 
ti)H isimodcd-ate ual fnr tbi; mtmutic Ufo^ lAkn eon* 
trilmtiid niueh iowanU tbe promolit-n of chb now 
imtStiiliou, led him to eipHMmmiB wUich monifcA 
more Btrangtb nnd firu of feelinti ^^"^ matority of 
judgment. On the whole, with a eluwini; imsginn* 
tiou, wbidi made his ityle lively tutd attractirn, and 
with an ostennro kniJi<rlL-<J;;>e uf liuifpingrA he pM- 
aeaieid a leae philoixiphii'id g^'uiiia thiui tui uiura celc- 
bratad ronlompflrary Aiiguatdiw. 

JKUOMK UF PILMJIIE, of tho family of Fttul- 
fudi, bum Home Uuiu abuut 1860-70, educated at 
th« unlv«nities of I'mpie, Paris, Oxford, Cologne^ 
and Heidclbetv; in fnith and luirerioea the oom- 
pRiiinn of tbe funoDs John Huh; whom be ox- 
ixUtvl ill learning and eloqiiCDM, and to whom ia 
the bold attempt at rofoniiBlioo of the fifteenth 
century bo waa lufcrlor only in moderation and 
prudcnco. Ub reputation for leiimlng waa ao great 
that bo waa employed by Lailiblaus II. of Poland to 
orgaiiiie the Itnirertity uf Criui.w, and SiglamUld 
nf Huiignry couioi.'! Jtnimu to itrvkcli before him in 
Buda. The duotriuee of Wycliffo which be intro- 
duced into bia prcacbju^ subjpct«d him to a aliort 
icnpriKiiDinattt by tlio (.imvcniilv of Vionna; but be 
vt» rvlcBKid va llie rwouimeiiJatlon of the people of 
Pn^o. Ho now t<xik a zealous part at rragve En 
tha O'Rt'^ (if bin fri«nd lIuM agniut tbe nbneea of 
the liieraii:liy and tho diaaolnteocaa of the ^'OiCf, 
ftiid ijut tiiifr«<|ucntly pro c e e ded to violrnoe. He 
altackud ihu M'^nhip of nlica with ardour, uruupled 
them under foot, and oansed the monks who opposed 
bim to be arroAted, and oven had one tlirown into 
the Motdau. Ho nnblicly Iiumod in 1(3! the bull 
of Ifau craiNule agauiat LadiaUna of Naple^ and tlw 
Fafial indnlgvnoo. When Huaa waa inipnacaDd ia 
Comitanca be oould not remain inaetivt^ and haatooed 
to bin dcfoiiue. But a public letter in which bo 
requt«U<d a a*f(f conduct fnim the t'oundt of l'ebcr> 
linjfca waa not catisfuctorily anawc-reil, nitd ua bit 
alt^imptiug to ratnm to Prague the l>uke of Solt- 
bach cauacd him lo be arrcst«d in liinKliMi and 
oarried in chaina to Conatance. He here received hi 
priaon information of the teniblo fate of hia Mmd, 
and after acvural hearings, in which no one ma abla 
to oiipuee him, on imjiriaonment of half a year had 
*o wuru biui down that ho consented on tbe 11th. 
Heptcmbor, 141&, to recant tbo heroriaa with wbicb 
he and Bute were cluuved. But thia apoetasy tEd 
not deliver him, and afti» lanntiahing a yew, wlthoat 
bdng able to aco or rend tn the darknom of tlw dun- 
geon, he diaplayed bia funiier coungu on an audienc* 
on the S<tb May, llltl. Ho aoUanly ratmotMl hb 
recanta t Joa, avowed that iwne of hii aiaa tormented 
him man lUm Ida avoatAay, and vindicated the prin- 
cipIcK of Hnaa and wyclilTo with a boldusss, aoervy^ 
Aiid tl'»|uonG« that extorted tho adinimti<ni of ua 
adrorwlea, bvl, naTcrthelcae, prcdpltatcd Ua dt- 
stractioa. May 80 he was bnnted at the commaad 
of the eouaoU. He procevdol to the pile, eananlcd 
by ^Dging Ute upomot' cread and ardritaal hyuuM^ 
and gn^v up his spirit !n jmyer. Hia aahos van 
throva into tbe uUna la oruar to »»mii»tuiT hif 

JEKKOIJ), DooMjU^ a distingnisbed drnmatfat 
and popular wrltt>r, was bom on 8d Jannary 180^ 
and was tho sun of tlw iD*n^[«r nf tho TTiiiwiim 
ihoatra, la which town he afaM Ua boyhood, aiid 
beeame eariy faatdliar both «nth the stage and aen- 
larinfl Batten. At acbeol bo waa ralberieprded M 
ft dnU boy, and havim^ in oppoaUUn to tbe raraot. 
mandndona of his fataor, cImm the oo* aa hia pn- 
faarinw, antond oa mldibipmMi en board H.M.S. 
yomir. Peace, however, waa eoaeludcd ahortty 
after, and Jenobl, quitting tha serviue, waa buuui] 





! to A printer in Lorn! on, Lu&nn Blanchxrd 
then in tine aune esU-bluhnienb in a similar 
cApra^. BeLwecB the two fouog men & duse 

woilc froiD monuor to nigbt, Junvlil Mtt biciMLf to 
Uh Utik of BeU-HiiaUioa, &nd by riaiiig Mrly and 
aittinf lal«iiud«lutDMU muter of LntiDAHi) Ihtliiu). 
baridM Mqnirinc on exU-nai-.-c knowlutci! »( gcntml 
lltvntan. Uv ulwwiw b^yan to eiurvue IuiumU iu 
ori^iaftl compMition. on« of hU fint uicooadul at- 
teai|)tab^^*crittituei>ii t^opcTkof Derl'mMdiiltt. 
which he ilMippod inU> th« editor's box of the jounial 
oa which bo w«a aogng^d u printer, wid tb« fnlJow- 
|iq> morniss wm acreoably •tortled bj hi« own niAoa- 
aeript beiae plMed bt bia bund to u set up for iht 
pTMi. UsTing made tbe aci)iikinUocc of the editor, 
be aoon obtained litvrary vmploiniimt. 7b« bont of 
Ui gmliuh bowerar. Iny mainly in tb« dinetion of 
dmnttk writing. I^ambcrlcai pieeiB were jnroduoMl 
bjp btm befn« be waa twentr, but the fint wbJcb 

won dacidad pupolu-ity U'lu llio play at Black>ry«l 

Riucui, mcMonted for 300 anccmMlve n{(,'hu at tb« 
fSuiray iMatn, under tfa« manapjininit of EUiiton. 
Bit ntrisnd Ute factunei of tbe manaccr, wba, hi)w> 
nivn*, pack«t«d tb« Uob'b iLaiw a{ th« profit*, thir 

Uitbor neeirin^f c>iilr about £70. Jorrold's rabae- 

rit dnunaa wera tbo Itent-d&T; >'eU GvrrnnA: 
lIo«aak«epar; tbe Ptiaonerot War; Bubblcaof 
ft Daj, and Tima Workii Wcmdara, tb« fonner one ot 
Um mttjaat and tbw latMr one of lJi« t^oct m in^caaf ul 
mawdiaa vd tin Ea^llBli stafo; Bt. f'upii:!, n pir^ 
Cittpffwlaeed at Windaor CaatU; tbo Cdit^paw; Lbu 
l^eari of Gold, and wirenU othffriL Hn Ilk^wiw 
'matributad extenaively to pedudlca] titMuttiiv, found- 
{nK aad ooodnctiug niQOMaiv«)y tba PJiunhmted 
Mapudne luid Doo^m J«mld'i ShilUn^ Magaaine, 
— d alu actbig aa a moat Important neinber of tho 
rafcaS of Ihutcth. To tbe laat-aaowd paper bo 
bb Inuoitablo Mra. (jandla'a Curtain 
, Pnaeh's Letten tu hb Bon, tbe Story of a 
r. At!. In tbe laUer jean uf his lifL> h« b«caro« 
Shorot Ltoyd'* Wc«kly Ntrmpapin-, which b9 both 
In diancter lutd in circulutinn. He expired 
> n fnr daya' tUneaa from discaM of the heart, at 
IwaJdmo, Gpcvillo naer, KilUini Priory, tear 
' B, OS filb June, ISSi. Though a piwcrful 
> of aattn, bo newr aUowed tb<j abuf u of bi« 
, vAather oa ao author or in pri%-atd life, to he 
cMpolKnod with malevolence. In tbe domedic 
circ[«, and in oU friendly aiid aocia] relationa, bin 
■tvriing qoalitlci Tvi]tIori>d him aUkn t-eloved tuid 
^Mpcelcd. A iK-uncn of illOu jivr aunum ^vu 
graaCed by n>v<>rTiuicnl afUr lii* duAtli to hia wiilow. 
JKltSKY, one of the OjimneL Ttlanda, belonfrbijr 
tu Great Britain, the lorg^Mt and moat raluablo of 
^^s ETonp, aboQt 15 miles off tbe nortb-weat cow>t of 
"^ aoe:R«ateel length, east and wnt,aboul]2niU«i; 
t fareadtb, 7 nilca; ana, acoordinff to the nd- 
■nant of tbaOrdnanco Survej-, 26,717 acnmor 
<*S7K)iian nilaa. It<eDut,paiticd&rIyaiitbeiiurth, 
pla cxtromely mgig^ed and predpitnuii, and is fonncd by 
[tbe wavn into the moat fantaatin and nietarcaqna 
ipaa. Iti*(iv«plyindeiit«<IallroDDd,anabaaanuni- 
r of good bnyiiBiid harboDra, tbe chwf of wbicbare 
ISloQiay, Sl Catherine, GraSTllle. St. Helier, and 8t. 
1 BrcUdc ; tbivt uf St. Onon on tbe treat, belngf opeo to 
~'m atrmig infiui nt tha Atlantic (Icvao, forma lunafe 
lehorinr ground. Grauitio rocka, In aome localitio 
'imrerlaid oy aebidta, are tho principal fonuatlon; and 
in the centre uf the north coaat ayrnite, of a flesh 
oihiar,abovnda, wlild) iaanaoeptibleDf a high poliah. 
Tbe interior of tli« if land !a fertile^ and lnt«nect«d 
by deep bcftutJfnl vallft-a. It is abundantly wooded, 
■ad h". altc^ether, a rin^iilarly rich and pietnreaqtic 
MBpe»t»noe. Tiio cLimata i« peculiarly mild and 

nunKabltt, Uh mean annual tenipemture bciiix SS' 
l^ih. A^cnleure boa in recent yeua greatly td- 
vauced. Land briDga a high rent, and holdinga do 
tint, on an anrragc, exceed 15 to SO aCKa; rtiaidting 
fraui the opecatiou ct ibo {^eui-h law rtspevtlng tba 
equal divMoa cf pnurty. Wheat it the (iritictpol 
enn-JiX raiaed: baiiaM which a Uttle barley fa 
inxiwn. Piilatoea and pontii]*) are exK^sivtly mid- 
Vinlei^ ponictilarly the fonner; and various kind* of 
fruitantCun tho utinoat|iBrfeetioa bore, iaeluilijij; the 
(.Itnumontcl pear, melon*, strawberrieB^ peachm, and 
afineDU. C^dur, uf which about 2000 kcinhnda ara 
oxportod Mnntialir, !■ one of {ho prinoipal prodneta; 
a conaidurable portion of tbe bun] bdng laid out In 
fireji.wda. Cowa of the Aldemcry bnad an reared 
and rxjort^i! in great nnmhcin. btit iihani am wim- 
poratividy ceK'actod, owin^ to ihu limiteil irxt^-iil of 
pMiturugi;. Ibc bonea are amall, hut well qualified 
for the wcrk nqnired li thcnt, and tbe bnod baa 
lattorly heca ranch impmved. Tho trado of Jcraey 
ia rery ninniderable aiid lacreaalap, owing tu tha 
parliuuLir privllogea its inhnbitnnta enjoy, oupncially 
^eir almort total cxcm]rtiun firm taiiation, they 
bang allowed to export their own prodnoe to Eng* 
land, aubject only to the minv diitfee itnpoaed on tbe 
prodncv of Gnat Britain, and U> the bmdhoo ot im- 
port dntiu. The expf-rtti to England eoudat chiefly 
of granite, cattle, liutlt't, frtiit, putatoe«, auil u^Kt^ra; 
of the last of which coniiilrmhly upwiLrrlii nf 20'l.0()0 
bnsbcls have hewn thippotl yrarly. T!w itc]«>rt« 
constat ohtedy of woollen fabrics, bardwarai, and 
cutlery; vlaaa^ aoop) caribcnwam. &c. A coimlJer- 
nliln immber of vcNUtla arc annaally built in ■Imnny. 
Tbwre are but few mamifat-turee, amt tLe«i are prin- 
dpally for the supply ot to«il rcquiretnDnts, Jtrsey 
has its own legislature; the 'Ktntnt,' rAniRi>ting uf the 
govemoT and the bailie of thi* Rrijal Courts both 
appointed by tlio cmwn; tijn twi'lvc judg«a of the 
Koyal Court, elected for life; and tlie rectn« of the 
twelve pariBhM, and twelve conetaMes, elected every 
tbroe years by the ratepayer. Apficalit lie to tlw 
qnoon in cnnntril. 'Ilia lowvr rlimm aprak a sort of 
old Komiiui FWuch dialect, wbQe the upper elnvscs 
Rpo^lc Pnnch, which is also the lanpiago of tbe law 
Cdurta, nRboush Kngliah •niton* raay addrcM the 
C4iiirt iir pxaiiiiuc witunace in EitL'Uih. Tbe iilnnd 
ia dl« ided Into twelve parkbca, and fa Attached Ui tbe 
djoceao of U'inchester. Principal town, 8t. Helier, 
■itTiat4^d on the south-west titlt of tho laJanii. Pop. 

^1k< Channel lalnnds won hold in the thtnl and 
f"urtli cnnturicH by tbe Roman*, .Tomcy being nnmud 
by thian Cvnarea. The inlanda ivcro captuixd by 
the Northmen under Rollo, and thus be«ame an 
appanago ef Nortnandy, and were united to tba 
crown of England by bb desoendanb William the 
Cuntiueror. The inhaliitaiitu 'if Jersey prufi'ired to 
<-aat tn tbair lot with the Kngliab on the conqneal of 
Nonnandy by Philip Augurtua, and while relaininff 
tbe lawi, ouatoms, and in a groat tneaaunj the laa- 
guago of thdr cfntinoiitAl aiij:c*tiirs, haro always 
remained (irtn intlifrir n11(^j(ia[lCl■ to England. Almcat 
ev«ry war with I^Vanoe bna lieen rhoracteiiied by an 
attack upuB Jeraey, tbo moat fonnidablo being tbow 
nndcr I>n Gncadln in i:iT'l, and in 17^1 under the 
Baruu de Bultecour. It has Wg been a favourite 
hanut of Pmnoh rpfn,,'>Ta, thu moirt famnus boing 
CbatoBubrinud and Tictor Hugo, who baa made iU 
SMOcry fandliar to tba n^ora of tbo |irosent i^enei^ 

.IKItaiTV", Nrw. See New Jr.xttET. 

JERSEY CITT, a town In the trnllfld SUUw. 
capital of Hudfon county. New Jenwy, right bank vf 
tlio Hudaon, o]<|UHEec New York, from which It ia 
about a mile diatant and with which it ia oonuoctcd 


bv • ttMB-boftt furrj, %t tiie UtnatoatloD of the 
Horri* CuaI, ootukecting Uir JVIawjuw with tha 
Undaoti, 5S adim nccth-eaA at Treuluii. Tt i> rvK"- 
Urlv Uid out wHb broad, atrwls at ri^bt auglvs to 
«>(!■ uth«r. lb ipMloaB sqnam aiuI private nm- 
deoon us bc4 ■aipM»*d evoa ia tlu.- boat {lu-U of 
Nvw York; but, mth one or two oi(v|itioiw, tho 
jiuhlio baitdiiiga %m mmgre. The uiniiiirui-tiiriii;; 
«st«l>IuIiiwDts MiDpriss Mtt txUtaAn futtury, SUib- 
{lui f»ot"rv. ui4 MvenI iran-fouixlrieii: a ro|>e-«ork, 
and n atarcti factory. Br rm»-ay Jenvy city la 
diractl/ ounuMted wltli kll tba ninrliugrn, Mittliem, 
and wMt«ni nQway lyatsnu ot iht tTaited Suua. 
It hu ■ oooMikntua floot of adiooturra tn^kgad in 
bay and oyster &hiiic and in the anuth OMntitij tradu. 
Stcaiacn oaa alwaja toara the |iort fur Eiiru[>o with- 
out being otatfuctml by iea, wliicli tlioy cannot lin 
from Now YariL Pop. (1670^, 6i,U^ 

JERUSALEM (Arabic HlKudt, "Tha Haly'>, 
OM of tbft iDOSt aiurifml aod intercatttig citic* in tfac 
world, •ituftUtl in Ati.itiL* Tuit:ey, in Pakallas, ia 
tba paahalic (pf I >uniu>rttik, and 1 24 IdUm S.K.W. ol ttint 
city, at Ike beiiiht uf 2MXI f«ci alAre Ma^lcvd. Tbit 
dutrict is vliia Jt ataada ba* a rugg«d aad aomewbat 
•tcrile ucManaoa, bau^ coupiiMd of a awioa of 
rtd^ o( UBMalMM. tntenectcil bv narrow and pr«- 
dpitoin ra^rinw. Ik aany pLwva tba rock ii shb 
uimtag tha aorfaoa in blocl» and patcbca. afancvt 
danM cl aay corerbK of aoil; and t&uug^ Um diro 
aridaotly Ihrivaa trail, and uiMib ffround i* ttndar 
ngnlar mkanv ventatiaa iiv oa t»e wbolc^ by no 
auaM litnjiaiit. Tba liU of ^ chy ilaeU ia wall 
daftaad. A braadnrellof ground.almoil ab thoUrto 
at water-abed bctwvea Um McdttarraDmn and tbe 
Dead Sua, daacwndi «rjtb conud«rabla npidity to tba 
Mat, and tbeti temiinat« oo tba rndfiitoua od^ of 
atavmacaUadtbeTallcyof JduAa))hat. AalaUar 
t*TiiM^ oaUod the VaUayaf Hiiuum, oomBModng ia 
Iba weiA, fniM find ktbu and than caat till it uiutaa 
trith Uw fanner. JeranJuin occuploa tbe matar 
l>«ct of tha apaos iactudcd vithbk the fork of tkdaa 
two rarloaa. llie i^aoe. bowom, ia Dot eoatiniMnL 
A TaDay, l«« Breciinlaiia tban tlw two aliaaitly awa- 
IkMted, and o^ted tba Tfrofinwa or Valt«y of tba 
Cbrouaaafcaia, trnvrwa li naariy from nunb to amith. 
aad divid«a it into two oeariy aqaal portiona; wbila 
than parUoM am a^ln •ubdlnded by two miaor 
tiamniM TaUars; tlim fonniag in all Four diatiuct 
tidfaa or Ulla— ^oa on tba Knitfa-waat, Aoa on tba 
nucth-wMt, Uoriali m tba amitb>aaat, and Baaatha 
«■ tba aortb-oMt. Tha bottoai vt tbe VaUvy »( 
J<lwAt|ibat f Maa tiw b«d «< Ibe Inok Kwitrm. 
whictltoaaomlyia ttatmiiiy iiaanii;andoatha<yp«^ 
atla >Ma of tt. oa tbe ««wt, rfaM Um Itouut vt OUvaa, 
oTatbukfaf ut dty, aod connaadliig tba flnat viaw 
of IL Ta tba aoutb of tbe Uonat ol OUrai, a»d 
t««i>«iy a ooatlnuatioa uf h, ia a UIl cnUad Ibe 
Maanl o( OSaon. Ob tba aottth ti tba VaOay of 
IliaaoaihaMtbermlM IbaHEUof E*U CoumI; 
•ail vtmMmMy to Iba aottb. boyimtt a wort awaap 
Jm Vallar or J«br«b»|Jut, a aartoa of lofty 

altlM Vallay 

aaeai at« owwytowni; aad lhu% on all aitha esoif* 
tba WBt, Jarnaalaw nav ba truly aaM bu l<a oBOoaB- 
IMiil by amntalM. la anotaat ttiaoa, wbaa Iba 
cil* waa Ht lli y i ii u rt itnry, not oaly wan Iba tdor 
Ulk at Xtak Aen, Monalw ami Ihaitb^ but alao a 
COmMarabla a|MM batb to tha wMtb and wwt nt tbnB, 
fartadad within lu imUt. TIm actaal walk are of 
man UabaO attvot, aad batv oaly a drault ef SI) 
uitm. Thaj wm« buU by tlta IXirLa abont thna 
oaMarita •«% Hatbr m iba aita aad fur Iba uart 
mrt with Iba iaalariabn< tbf aadant watla; aad M- 
|nrif« tbataaqnallUaa u< tba pwu»4, bava a balgbt 
nntar Don W faal to M> foal. Tbav aia rDM|<MRd 
bI teWB alBBav hmb W wUob, |Miticularly la tht 

luWBT parts whero Iho original walla appear to liara 
licsn left iiiit(>ui^h(!(l, ai« uf enormoua magnitude; 
KunuijuijUHl hy a lull Innipc toil imJ loop-holed Ijreoat- 
wiirk. Aod fluik<?<l at tnt*r\nl« by inaaaive turworm. 
Tbe east wall atntchea, noatly n a atn^bt line, 
fnun aonth to north, alonj the edge of tbe Valley of 
Jebuabapbat, and baa, nearly in ita centre, a gaW — 
culled by the t'nuika «t SUiJ.wxh, <uid by tba 
MobanmcdauiBAb-ea-Sabat {'Gateof the Tribca'^— 
loading down to tbs brook Kedron, and acroaa it to 
the Mount of Olivea and to Bethany. Tix north 
wall runa at lint nearly cliie wcet, and then curvaa 
^ndnally round in a w.n.w. directhu tiU it rvadnoi a 
wonid rate— called by the navlvm ItHh'cl-Aniud 
CGata of the PHtor'), and by tho Frunka the Oata 
fit 1>binaacua, bocanae it ia in Che Una of tba gnat 
ixuul leadbig to that dty and b> tho other liDpartaBi 
towns in the north. ITip wort wall b very irr«ffBlar. 
Commcodnk' at tke {rata tiow menUoaod, it nmoeadi 
fiiet In a a.nw. directioa, then winda raund a pro- 
niiiirnoc whirli jnta ont canuderably toihewaatvaiK] 
then ruiia IrrB([tilttr!y in a B.M. dirortiun alnng the 
west aide ei Mount Xloo. In this W4J1, imtDedlataly 
eoatb of the nKUninoDee, ia a third fafie, oallad tbo 
Jaffa, BetUeneiD, or Hebron Uato: bacanae, oa 
iiaaiDig from It, two roada branch off, one weal to dv 
fiiat, and aaolbcr nuth to ike laat two ef thaae 
dtiaa. Tbe wert wall cvifinally was «>attntiodaouth 
to tbe abropt tcrminatioti «f .Mount /ion. alxtve the 
Valley of Hinnom. At prcacnt it abipe abort eoiui- 
derably to tha north of Ita andeBt tamianBtian, ami 
ii eueceoded by the aoath wall; wbtch. after rvnninu 
a abort way due caat along Uotint Zloo, la oontiDiMn 
ia an e.K.e. directico aeroM the Valley of l^rtDpOMik, 
and thence upward by Mmint (}pbcl, fcmniag tbe 
aouth part ef Meuut Moriafa, Ic ita junctiou with 
the aonthHiaat comer of tbe aaat wall A eowddar' 
aUapaitof Monnt Zinn, wliidi waa wholly fDdndad 
within the andral,ia tbuavxduded tmnuaBaodeni 
city ; aad brine BMatly under rvgnlar mltitra, peaaoBli 
a tvmarkable fnlfibuent of the prediction that SBoai 
•bonld bacone * ploogbed field. In thia eoutb wall 
Ibeio ta a fourth gata^ called tbe Uatc of Zion: but 
It Bvenly laada enl fa> the adjacent port* of th< 
mount, and la not Ib tbe Hne of any IhtsoogbteaL 
Beaklea theae fbar eatoa atill open, ara other foni 
«rtiich ban ba^ boln up; and on tbe west ai>lr, neai 
UMhleheot Gala, adranl^^eoualy dluated on Um 
higbaat part of Monnt SQoa, i« a dtadd, called alas 
Davld'a C^atla and the Tower cf tCppiaui^ aor 
loundeil by attM); walli, flanked wttk toweta. Thi> 
fortraa% the maadre atnMtnn ef tba walla, and the 
pcacipitaBs lavfaMa akoa wUeli th«y are partly bnilt, 
uiuat ba*aBadBjaraiaiaiB(BpaUeof otfariBsavn} 
powoful f Irtinei whan altackad by a^y of lb< 
aaoleot nodaa of «hCh«: but a baaiwiiar amy; 
wtlh tagdar artiOefy, by ooraprliME tha hllb wUd 
oonnMnd h, aioae aafMaaUT the Moaat of CHhra^ 
could eaaily fana it to aaladL 

The Interior of tbe dly ia ik>I attracUre. X \Krgt 
pott uf it i» oecu{4ed W imaiiurs churcbaa; and oo» 
venia; and tbo niunlwr uf iahabitrJ boaaea Intaf; b 
ooaaesueMi^ecwtwratinlyRiaaU, than tea fPaalWBBi 
ef a n f rnwH w h to a ttuula . TIm haoac% loov tlmwt 
with lal roa6^ (rean whidt na ai erea ia TiH iHia 
riaa^ praaeBt la moat caoaa no windewa to tha atraata 
whlA awiwlbniy g an wa Py naimw, HI i»r«d. nn.' 
alopiBg ta tba aantra— an nawdy lu^ lan^ «tU 
dead walla <• tmA aidatjf then. Oaaof tba bael 
known of the 17V ainata b tbe Vh Dtaloraoi. at 
aaaad baoaoaa our 8a*1nr b aaU to hna banw U 
emeaapUwhasabontlabaendSed. Itraaalkw 
Wart to eaat aenaa tha Utt ef Acf% and Ihoa, bAbi 
a ebofl Inra to tha noriK b agafai "^-^t'^ l 1*t^ aatt b» 



twMi) the hil]«(if Ilc7elhA&niI ^furi&b to St. St«i)ti«n'a 

(>Atu. Atuitiicr t>ri]ii:i[ul ■tn'i't pmr«uijs in a illrvc- 

tiiM QKuly uvraUlvl tu t)iu former, fmm thv .Tatlii ur 

BfftUatMHD GaXo a»t, botwMu tlic liilLi of Acra ami 

Zkm, to Um buAor; Mtd tticii, after a*bort turn »»iiLti, 

b^nin KuA (u 11h hill of Mariob. Nunrljr Mt riglit 

FuglM to tb««e tnoativAtelaaiiM) wkldi pnxMdsfmni 

J Iho Onto of DiunaMU nuth, iti tlip line vt tbc bwuuu-, 

'■■d ■ImoBt thcou^ thp centre of the dty, and U Mily 

tcrmiiutlcrl st tliu Mvutli w^, tauA vf thu Uubo uf 

Ziiui. 7'1itN utrvvt, and more eajiiMially tbo part (if 

,k oenipLod by Uie buur, tliu tboj^coepon in wlkU 

mostly Chriatiaa, U tbo gT'oMeat ihomnghfArc. 

^■ad tlie only one in trhich a «pirit of activity U nccti. 

tha pabllc buildingi are Diinuiroui^ anil, «ttlier by 

hsoiHJVOT or tboJr incloaurea, oocapy tha far ixrgor 

to(tbes|jae«wilhmthawalln. Ttielareeituf iUimc 

I is that ol Miiriivlt, nam c^Kii t>y ti\a Mo- 

danaEI-KamiutLJi-SLLTif i'Tha Nntilo Siuic- 

/'). It in in tbo fiimi of a ri^^olar parnUclii^riuti, 

irrauadnl go all ■itltai liy ■ lu^ty wall. I'liiii wall 

ttn tb« cast, and for nearly iwo-ttiirds of its Icn^'th 

[r«n Ibe wanth, u Uio asnic m that uf the nity; aiul tlic 

, wliola inelovoiv is tleeimi] w wcrcd, tbat Tow but 

l<dikiiuBeduu wn pmnltted to enter tk CUrUtiaiu 

I'tttine rardy Mlmittod. IM arcft is ciimpiitol At (inc. 

MilgfaUi of tnatflf Llia whnlD dty, uiii, wbcrn out built 

l^jwD, is laid out a* a lM*uti/ul l&uii, jilantwl •{>.'vr- 

fiti^ly with olive. cyiircsB, and otlior Uvea. Tbo mont 

eonspicuouii bail'ling is the McuKiuo td Omar, called 

also Kublict-wSuk brail ^'Iloulo uf the Hock'), a 

•iplcndii] atrDcturc of on octa^'onal form, aitiiated 

jBMr tiw coDtre ol tlw area, uu ui clet al«U tvrtacv, 

pprouhtd by four portiedva, one of then with ui 

Dt tQAiUo colonaodo, ligbtod by forty-eight 

I of staincfl ({bui^ and aiinDonnted by » ma^ 

Beant douii*. Tltb mcaqua ooou;|it« tbe site, and 

< UDdentoMl to contain enmo remnina, of tho Jvwiali 

l)c:B>fl£. Another [ii<i*<]u<i, called Kl Akxt, aWi a 

aificvnt ilmcttirL*, and luppoMRl to havo tivm 

■Uy n Cbrisiiiii) diurch, covers a lam apaos iu 

I ioutaeru |iarl of tbe ineUvore. On Ute opiwafte 

lido of Ibe city, on the nbrtticru brow of Acra. and 

I liltio auutli of tbo Via ll<>loMi<ka, ia tbc Oliiiri'-h of 

h!in Holy tiupul-cbn^ wi cnllcd beoiuaa atlesvd to 

utaln undftr Its ivof tbu v«ry grave Id which our 

liBatiour lay. The aceuracy of tbc alk'^atton nnfor- 

Ttatiately is niorc tlinn dinilitlul; aiid the hallowed 

js which tbe very idt;i ui ntniuiiBg on aucb a 

; is Gttod to producu, are mdnly diitiirlicd hy the 

R&a inpMturea wbicli oru cuiiluiually 

1 &C It. llio church, built in tbo Ityiantiii^i 

yU, WW sTMted l>y Hvluna, the nKithc-r nf C-<)n*t.iii- 

Kne ibo 'Gnat; onO, though not poneaacd ot luiicb 

|#rcbltectiiTal merit, ia nmarknble for the riolineu of 

' Um decoraticins, an<l the number of pilgrims by whom 

it i* riailcd. 'Hie nihtr building* oil greatest note 

within the city artr tint (iuiiv«ut«^ InilDVilj.itely vrait 

of tbe Churdi of tb« Holy Sepulchre, and only sapur- 

atcd froBk it by a street, arc tbe timnk and l'o].tio 

Tbe Latin convent, BituAied furtbtr to 

al, and pou'Uy inclo««iiI by tli« n-cxtfrn wull, U 

\ larg* and manivc atractura^ «filh extcnaJTu courta 

id tar6eai», and la tbs place vhnre Eniopeui vii^ltun 

llyl»Iceup their abodm Tbs AnDenlaaeoDvtriil. 

lailt on A xtill nii^re cxtimaivo aralo, and capable cf 

UO0(DIIiotlatin([ lUOO pilKrilnt, is fmuly altuatml un 

Mount i^jnn, in tho angle formed bv the jnnction at 

thu n-ortem with th« southern wnli. Immciliati-ly 

|o the cwit <i( it !■ a cbapel, said to mark tiiu Biti: of 

lh« bouae of Annis. Constdcralily ti> the -r-titti-wMi, 

and imnmliatrly wit^ide of the iDUlhcm wall, oppo- 

sita l0 ttte GnVuf Zmk another buitdine. with a» 

Annmtna convent adjoiuiiiK, Is pointed out aa tlio 

hooie oif t^Jf'bai Siill farUior aoMth on the mount, 

and forming on« of the moat cnniipicnons i^Tijocta 
M'bidi Jcru>«)i.-ui ptcaciitA wbcnamirnochHl from tlio 
•oiitii, id a luily RicMiiiie, xftld to i-e erecled ovE-r the 
Uvtnli of Dnvid. 1'bc tnulitiona tvhich tix tlic«« lucol- 
ICace are of very daulilful Aitthority; liut ibu ricinity 
proMtita rarioiiH <ilh<:r lucablJL-s, 1x'tti.T iiutlii'iilicsttrj, 
and pnsKiwuig at leant *[)iii«l iiitnn'uL Aiiionij tbem 
may be muiitu'UL-al At»liiaina, or ttu i'it-lil of IMiimj'), 
purchased asRstraiii.'ers'btirying-tTouiid by tli-emoney 
wliicli Judos hod received for his treuoliory. and sli- 
UAt«dou tfaesaotherued|Eeof tbe V'alloy of Hinnom; 
tht> Pool »( ^c«u, situntwd iirnr chv junction of the 
three valleys of ffinnotn, 'I'yropiion, and Jchodia- 
[ihat; tbe I'onl of Itcthcod^i, cltve to the uwt'^'rn wall, 
utAi St. St(!]ihtrn'a liste; and tbe Gatdcoi c( Gctliso- 
Riona, situatfHl at the foot of tbe Mnnntof OUvee, 
va the easteru aide ol tbe brook Kudron, and still 
contrLining; venerable oUrc-tT«6s, evidently of auoh 
ancient grontb, that tlirir cxi»tolK'a ut the time of 
cjurSaviour'sof^y is, tiixay thu liuut, not iiugi-Dwiblci. 
Within the Ia«t twenty y<Mn ur so u uuiuidurablu 
iciprovoment hoe taken place in the appearanea and 
l>r<Hi|HTity of tliu dty, llntcia in wliii^ alt tnodom 
[xiiikvuiviiciiiti and comfort* may Iw mjoyod havo 
been orecu.'d for the hosts of ptlisniias and travttllerfl 
who annually visit tho jAxe^, Ibo surroundinj 
Linmtry, too, naa been grratly improved; anil within 
tlieaa feir j-eors fatwik, uLiineroiiM iMteatrbes havs been 
made under tie uusi^icea of the I'nloattnc Exploration 
Fund which prtbmise to lie of p-cat bistorieal import- 

Jerusalem, if i«Unt!caI, a* many have auppas»d, 
with Salom, wltero Mvlcbitedec reigned, must hava 
axisted about SOW yean before t& Chittfan em ; 
but it ia not montioood by it« own name till about 
D.C. 130D, when it wim in the lutnrU <if Ibc .Icbiixib<a^ 
aud thelowt-r iiortnf tbe citv whs weviU^I finiii Ibetii 
by the prtjwciia of Jotibuii. Tho upper piui, however, 
CiiUliniii^ in tb<?lr pmaciwion till tho time of Ilaviil, 
ik'bo, hsviiii* Mui^iLWiIed iji finiUy dii>lud)-i[ii[ them, 
took cip hix Tmiddiioo in tbe ■tmngbuld of Zion, and 
uiiulc Jbni!iali.-m the capiud "f hu idngiloni. t'ndcr 
him it roso rApidly in importance, and received uumc- 
miia cmbcllUhinvut*; but tlicac were all edipacil by 
tbo mare m;4:iiilicDnt structuroa oif Bottaion, whose 
crowning work was Ibe erection of a temple aion 
gOjgMua than any which tb^ world ba<lnrcvioiialy wit- 
III ■mil, and inliniiirly diilin^iitahi-d nbovr tbcm all 
by ila poBsessLu of a viniblo lymbul u( the dlvtue 
pnMnca. Tha tub proceedings of bis succroasor, 
b«li«boam, and the caD*e(|uimt revolt of ten tribes, 
mutt haro shoni Jontsalemof much of its ctnry; bnt 
it stilt oontinued for eeveral centiLriiss to laka |ire- 
cedcnoe OS one of tbe moat distiDgoished diics of tha 
EosL At length, baring; awakened the jealousy or 
excited tho avancc of nelghboDring pot«ntAt<!e, it was 
3lt3ct:Rd in iniccRivion liv the l^gy['^i"'"^ Aasyrians, 
and ItHhylouUtua. The lost were lieaded by Nehri' 
chaducszar.wbo.ibc.fiSS. having tnadebimBclfmaaler 
of the city, dartro^ed it. hnmcd down the t<'.mplc, 
lifter rifliii;; it of ita trcoaiiruN, and corriad off thoee 
of the iuh:diit4uits whom tlj« sword had spared as 
cnplLvea to Babylon. Aft^r aovgiity yoare of cnptir* 
ity, Cyrus permitted the Jcii-k to return; and tha 
bcmplc^ though un a soiilo nf much Uas ina^iiiriceuce 
than licforc, was rebuilt, n.t'. fil.'i, •Ti-ruaiiti-m now 
enjoyed s period of ivpnac, and hot! n-ualncd n con- 
sidHrablo dcgroo of proapority, when, on tho diasoln- 
tiiiii (if till* M.'bwdonian cuijiire, which Alexander bod 
eaUiblinbeil, it wss »Klied sud icickt'd by Ptolemy 
Soter, who cnrrlod oif a urvat uuniLier of tha Inhabi- 
tants to Alcumdna. By tbo victorions achict^e* 
iDcnta of tbo Maeeaheee, the Mac«iioiiian yoke was 
tbcowu ull, and Jerusalem, in common niLb .liiilco, 
became onoo mnro Independent, 1(15 U.C. It uci.t 



becMiw tifboteij bo Bone; but, oostbains ^ 1» 
|[onnad by JH own townign, bad noi MMod to 
«xiit M th* ouHkt of ft ]dB(do» vhen Ike SftTloor 
afftani. 'Auoot forty jt»a after hU deolh IIm 
tjniiny of tlw Romaaa ilnn-p a MCtion of tb* Jvwa 
iBbi reWtt wul in a.d. (K Jeraulein wh takta by 
iht iantfwrtt. Tltai^ tbe nn of the ■Bip«nr T<Np«- 
rifto. rn^HMd it ia tbe ytttr 70, ftftcrmu of tbo nMMt 
iMtnUA davM iMoonlM in lUctory; the tani^ ma 
lwni«>l, &BU the dty naed to tbo |j;rouBd IB 131 
Uadfun onlarad tiw c% to b« nbnih. T)m Jsm, 
Mvehendmg tbit P*Kan >')'^ would bu aet tip in 
tba holy cJaoeB, bvofcu lolo nbelliiciet, and touk Jen- 
fklno, whkh tb« Booimm raci>{«iu«d only altar a 
piotnietcd md Matrabu'y eonlcat Tbey tben Gb- 
labod tbe bidkUii); of Ibe city, wd nlUng lE X6t 
Capilulisa, mad* it • Boman ouluoiy, and forbade the 
Jen to apfcoaeh it OB pain of dAth. It cootinned 
tbBidept wa ad tQl tbe Vr-fi^ng ef ibe fourtfa centoiy, 
vlwD, Room baviiif baeone Chriniaa. Jania&lam 
alund in tlw benefit, and aawuDed tbe mearaaeaof 
k dMttngniabed Chiiattaii city, nnder tbe feataring 
can o( flalawt, notbar of CooataittlBe tbt (hmb 
mt period of p roqieril r , pnlonead by t, pncoBarian 
uf Chriatiaa eBi|Mrori^ ma aad&nly lannin«(ed in 
080, by tbe nmqnaat at the HofaavnMdana, nivler 
tba Anbiu Oalipb Omar, wboaa dynasty waa aifte^ 
varda neoaeded by tba« ol tbe Turka. The isdig- 
ttiUta and oneltiea heaped upon the Ckrisiiaiia, and 
tbe niter daecfktiou of Iheir meet hnly plaen^ romeJ 
the indlgnaUoB of Europe, aoid Iwl tu iLe Craaadaa. 
In 1099 tbe Cmtaden took Jonuali in by itonn, and 
made h tbe capital of a Chrwtian mnDiuYhy, which 
with dilfieulty budotmiwd Hm eiintuuo: Ull 11U7, wheo 
it waa finaUj overtbtmni bv tbe celebsated Sukao 
Saladin. Staoo tboi Jcraaawn haa centiaood to be 
tnddea oadar loot of tba Gantllfn, and now baa no 
hbfber bonoor than thaA of gMag in nana to a aao- 
jak in a 'I\irkiab jieebalic. 1¥e popolation of tbe 
city in Wi haa booa latimated at IS.OOO, of vrbom 
about &M>u an UohaamMdaMv SiMra Jmra, aad the 
t«Bt UliriatiatM of rariona deBoininatiotM. The pop- 
nlatioa of tbe aadent dty at Ifaa tfane cf it< gieateet 
pr o q x rit T baa been varjoaily ootlBnted, Tbe aawr* 
tloaa of Joeepbna that 3,000,000 would be coUected 
fa it at ibo p^wvtf. aad tbat 1,000,000 {Mriihad 
darinj tbe alwo of Titus, are Btaoifeatly ahanrd. Tbe 
eoBBpatattoa ol Tadliu la eO0,O0A, a figun wbl«^ (a 
alao far bnyond tbe limita of prababdity. TkUag 
tbe ana of tbe «ity at 3,:tS0,000 yatda, and aUowbg 
$0 to aaeb iahabilaat, tba neall )a «8,0V0, MB aztmie 
eat fa aa te for a dty conbdtUnf palaoae and inblk 
IniUdiaea; 90,000 aiay be aeC doint oa the .Uknliert 


JEBV18, 8iB JoHS. See VotCBR (EaRL or). ■ 

JESU. UeeYiaaot 


JESSPLMEKR, or JAaAuna, a ataCe of India, 
the raoet veatent in Uajputan^ actuated between 
lai, SC* 8' aad Z8* 29' X.; bm. 70' 8' and 72' &1' a., 
and benaded M. bf libawalpar, x.k. lUkanir, a.*, and 
a. Jedbpvr, and w. Stnd; ani^ \3,t62 aqoara mflta. 
It fmrna a larsa eipanaa of aaitdy daaerti Rat upon 
Ibe whole, but railad, aaHicnlarly in tbe ainll^ by 
tldpa ef BoOa, inaalatcd rae^i^ and occaeinnJ oeaea. 
vmihIbc partwe In aulSeieut abaadaace to feed 
laiga bam of cattle. Tliaiii aiiiiiiiiiaiiiinlalaHiaiiia 
Pve diiafcing water Uee ao far beknr the mface 
that tbe weUa baTo la 1m aunk in aoaae plana 900 
feet. Fcff axtat dneneBtio piinioeei taaka, lortanj 
when the aaQ b Irae frau mUbo ImraAaalik and idled 
iktriBf tba nk», aBlSM; but wbn Ibaac faU, aa tbay 
aMoaliaice di^ aonbeia both «f bamaa beinfa aad 
of oOtle peiUi frora thint. Tbe climaLe b extreoru^ 

and the tans* «f the Ibennometer ta (Vrj 
nryinit in toe nortb. in tbe eoane of oae 
fmm 3S* to IM'. Tba natvnl nealatiea< 
of a lew bfoomy ahnihe. wbiebaniwiMBMa am , 
the gronnd «» a> to fonn a luo'l of jaag|U, aad 
eome stanted tnea. Tbe principU damofac aab 
an droBwdariei^ benoa, coin, atid riwep, Tbe i 
Bannfaetafta of a»r frnponasoe an eoaae aad 
wocUena. The trade la dnaAy tranait between T 
war and Wert Hindnatan oa the one dde, and 
and AfgbaniataB ea tbe other. Zat lmat ed po^l 

JESSrLMEEB, or Jasalmti, capital of Iba 
alvve atat*, atanda at tbebaeeof Iboaoatbrxlnaoit 
of a ndcy rUflie, aad ia autnonded by nnpsita i 
aaowBentod atoae^ flaokad bj baatioaa afanllatly < 
atncted, bat of greater height 1b tbe aoBlli 
of the town ia tbe citadel, aealed on an bolatod cBua*'* 
00109, Boaiped aD roond. asd fortdabad with lauparta; 
bat tboi^ formidable in ^>peaiBBc^ h 1* of Uuk 
Btraaath, aa an adjoJalng ridge coa^leta^ eon^ 
■tani it Within tbe oitadd Ibe fmcte) b "* 
iBgaanthapalaae,aTaat pileennnoiurted oyal 
WBtanlia. which ia aaM to indioate the ndo'a 
B^pat deaunt; and ais leuqdca, three Brahi 
aadlhne Jaioa. Tbe tatter an andeniabwai 
tnica^ daboiBtaly carved' and aunnooDbed by fed 
ffiH qdnn Uaay of the boiMa an aoUdly bnOi i 
atooo, and two stutiM high. Fo^ 85,000. 

JESTER, or Oouar^vooL. Fran reiy 
Uiaea tbere baa uiUted a daaa of peraoua wlaoaa* 
patfoo h waa w whUa away tbe tinM cd tbe 
and wealthy, partioilarly at tabt^ by aU aorta 

CiU aud taerry ooiioeita. JUeitabder the Urea^ ' 
inayaiiM of SYracnae^ AoKoatn" and hia anocaaor^ 
naintwacd aucb jcatcn. In tbe niddla agea every 
DouT^ aeoular or ecdealaattcal, had ita fool, aa anaeai 
aaiy appendage; and tbars an aome inataoeea itt, 
court-JHtBTi in tbe eisbleentb cenfairy. Uoaei^ fai 
hia nioslralionit of Sbumwar^v baa a dhaei tathiB oa 
the foola and elowoa. Ha atatea tbat UnAla Jobs 
waa the laat pcraon who ngularly bald tbe office of 
oourt-jeeter In England, Ua pnedsoenaor, Areby Ann- 
abraoff, baviag boMi aentaaeed to have hia eoat puUed 
onr aia bead, and to be JiiaiiaiBd tba Unj^a aar v fce , 
for a Mreaau on land (1S37). Staoa Aa tfaae of 
the Oommonwealth Uie poet of kin^a Cool baa been 
diaeoatinned, tboi^h aaeae private peneaa had foola 
lato In the laat ceutory. Swift wrote an eptlBBli «a 
DidiyPearoa, the Cart of SuSolk-a fool <I78S). llr. 
ItoBoa atatea that the ooatuiae of the doauetio fool, 
in tbe time of Shakapean^ waa of two aorta. Tbe 
one waa a nwtley or parti-Rdound ooat, attabbad to 
tbo body by a girdle, and often baring bella on Ibo 
akirta aud elhowa. The brevcbea and boae were in 
one, aad aometfrna tbe laga wen of diflerenl tolaon. 
A bood raaemhlii^ a Bioak'a oowl oorered Hm baad 
cempMely, and tlw bcoaat aad abottUera partly. It 
anmetimea hon aaaaa' ear^ aMneliuia the neck and 
head of a oock, and a oa ne tia iM only tbe oonU* of that 
biitl (wbanoe eanwaft, ae a tara of eeatempl)^ Hw 
bauble (awraMr) waa a abort alMt. tamlnaled wteb 
a fool'a bead, or whh tbat of a doll or ptippot. Tu 
thta waa ftv^neally apnended a bkrwn liLulder, eotae- 
Umea fiUed with aaad or peaa, and eaiploynl aa a 
weutnD of Ki^iriire offence; -"fiti ai i ■ a ^In or 
UadJer only, and aometinaaa a dnb Inalead of a ban* 
Ua, and acoaaleaally both togvtber. 1^ oUier ckwa^ 
adricb aeoOB to liaTe been nwat enmnoii in the tinn 
of Shakapean, waa a kaie pettiooat, of TariovB eolour^ 
Eiiued with yaUow. Then wwe, bovarcr, ■tany 
raiMkna fiMB tbia dnaa; bella aappUed the plaoe of 
the oaak'R-aDnb; tbe bead waa abavaa like a ■nook'a 
orowB 1 fox<taiia or aiubiri-taHa wen f«at«lted «i 
the cLotlM^ A«. 



JESTTITS, ea Socirrr 6? .Tears, a rcli^nuus onior, 
wliicli txiMi in inlliiuiii:* and poww far uIhito all thn 
■tber onlun, und nliid), iii tliv art of nillnjj, uxuvlM 
"ha goTWumwita of ihe world no lc« Uun tta eodo- 
■ticMl rirftls. No oUier roli^ioua ordnt ftflmrls * 
paialkl to Uiii; for, while tlioaewbagive themaelrcn 
onlv to devotion muI iv%Ioiu tronURDitliitiuu |ir«t«ut 
bw diititiguuhiag truX »Q<i for tbo nost put differ 
from on« utnther onlT in ttidr iuiJiie% Ln tlut fubion 
tad ooUwir of tlirir ilrcaM, tlio h'''^^*^ '^^ t"*" •Lrict- 
BOH o( tiiair nilpt, the numWr uf thdr pnuuioM and 
derotkuul exercuet; nnd wliili: tbow at the more 
aclin elaas, who opents abtuftd hy tLojr Influi^RM 
ftt coartB a&d ia falaili'n^ uod b/ vnga^-iii;^ iu olQoc;* 
of inatmctlcin, paataral earo cir ctituity, nra nlmnat 
aidv«tmUy but monk^ tbe Sudetv vf Jusus early 
niaed itMB bo a d^reo of hiitorical ImpoTtaiicfi nn- 
panlleled tn f ta kind. Itnt annAll jicu-tcif lUUipcat- 
Bflaa it la b« Mcribnl tv thvir f ipu»d« r, IjpaUu* Lojula, 
wke tmm kla fanw toon to tb« abrmi-d policy and 
dwr|[]r «f liii moeewora thiu to tbe merit of the 
•rffilul BcluimiB uf the otdtr. At tlie liDivcnity of 
Pan* lAVola tmtcnd into an aj^reeuictit vitli bddic 
of hi* 6)lww-ttiidei)t> to undertake tbo coavenioi) of 
unbslieTMS, and a pilp4n)a{« to Jcnualem. I'itm 
Le Fhm (a Sato/anl.i, iWa^ciiA Xavtr {a naUve <i 
K*varre), Jompo Lainaz and NiooLan Itoluulilla (two 
BfMBiarda of ardent and powerful miiidi). and Boilri- 
gmn (• Poituspuieo noUemaii) wcro the firat cmn- 
pauEoua of iMyobL A worwith the 'Hirka pTevcntoil 
their jouracjr to JeniMdciD. Tkcr thodorc went to 
diflvreot nulvenltiea In Upp«r luly, to nin new 
Mniiiiliii ; Loyola Umsolf wont witJi Le iVvn and 
IiSicwa to RAtnck wbRrc be acoompliiibcd, in ISSi^, 
hi* plan of fouTidiug > ul-w and peculiarly urganiied 
order. He calloil it tlio Sorirly of Juut, in ooune- 
qacnae of a vi*iun, uud Intuiil tbo monibera, in ad'.li- 
tioD to the nskial vnwa ot poverty, ebtmtity, aod im- 
plicit obedience to tbeir »upvrior>, to a fourth, viz. to 
g(\ nnhadtatingly, wbitbcnioaver tbo pnro iihotild 
nad them, m ulMlonade* fur Uie cvuvvnuon of iufi- 
cUa wad boradei. or f<>r the 11:77100 of tb« church in 
■njr other WB7, and t^ dcvutc nil their powrn an^! 
Bieana to the aoconipliibuiiuit of tlia w-ork. The no- 
vtaa, bvaldea ■piiitiial oxvraiK*, were to b« pruved 
hf perfonDtn^ the luoit uuaial office* for lb« rick, 
Xavler hAving: girun the example by niekin{( tht 
loaliuotae aora of the aick iit tbe hinpitala. A 
ipeoal bull of Paul III^ in I5tO, ntablbhod tldi 
Micitty, whuee olijuot appvimd to fitvuurabic to the 
iBtcnata of the ?apal powor ; and in the fDllowlD; 
Tear tbe mcmbcni, awnnililed in ICome, cboaa their 
founder for their finit tfcmond. I£o ahowed hinuvLT. 
lunrsvw, unequal to the manacuiuiit aS ertaA affain. 
A< gWMiral, he was ever piumung enxiDoary objwto, 
wliile Ida learned and mnre mgaidoDB friendly espe- 
cially Lalnw, who was hU oonat&ct eoBtpaaioi^ eon- 
trim to iaprovo and wry out bis nule plana for 
tbtt Mtranocuent of the societ)*. The Pojx^ I'auI 
III, and -TuliuH UL seeing what a >u|f)Hirt tbi-y would 
have Id tbo J««\iiU against tbe ttefonnation, wblcb 
mm r»pidly icninint: unnind. ncrantcd to Ibum prin- 
legfs aueh ai no bt^y of men, in churi^h nr atate. bad 
ryvx lidan obt^nod. They vn-re pirniittcil tu-t imlv 
to enjoy all the righta of the Rkttndii^'uit ami wiziiLir 
ericn, nu'l tu be vxeiupt fmui aU e|)!MiH)pa1 and (.-it 11 
jm-JKlfccion and taxes, so that they Hckuowlvdjjed no 
autburity but that of the poiiv am) tlic iiijicri'tra of 
their otii^r, and went uenutttml to cierL-iio erory 
ffiBtly fanclSoo, mnMubl rigbta notwJUiAandiutf, 
■iHg|vaUclMU«oliiWD,«vea daring an iDtcrdict,— 
^oB a«0 (what ia not even permitted to tbe oreh- 
bUum oacoaditionally) tbuy could nbaolve (roai all 
tint jukI eiccleaiaatical pcnaltioB, obangv the objnct* 
vt tbe rami of tbe laity, acquire cburcbM and eatat«t 

H «^ tbe vavr. 

nnthout furtlior Papal MJieUoa, oroot hooaoa for the 
order, and mi^ht, aoconling to eircuinatanceis dia* 

tieuM theiuHilvea bom the obaarvanoe of cnnuuical 
iwin of faita and prohibition of mMM, and otou 
from the DM of the brerfair. Boiidea thia, their 
^-neral was inveated with nnUmited power over tho 
rooRibera; oogld acnd thou on tniMUuia of «««ry 
kiuij. evenBBKingvtexoumaiunieitted IwietiQt; eould 
ftppoiiit tbeo proteaaon of tfaeologj at hta dlKretlon, 
wlteroTer ho ouoae, and coufor academical dignJtice, 
whfcJi were to be rsokunod equal to tboiB giren by 
univenitJiH. Tbeae privllei^eA wUeli «M>ui«d to 
tbo JeeniU a spiritual power almost oqnal to that of 
tbe pnpo htmiiilf, together with a eroater immunity, 
in [xiiut of ndigiou* ob ae rvance, than Uie laity poa- 
fMwd, wore jiraaCed thsia to aid tbolr misclonary 
Laboun. so thai they mLeht acommodate thcmielvei 
Ut any pnifoMon or mode of Ufit, amon; befetica anil 
iufideU, aiid he able, wherever thc_v fotiud aihiiiMioa, 
to oT]gaiiUQ Catholio churchaa wit):(iiit a further 
authodty. But the latitude in wliiJi tbuy uiider- 
■tond their ri^bta and Immunltiea ^ve oocaskm 
tn fear nu nuLiiiiited cxtoutiuii and citTcise of tbem, 
ilauKereiia to all oxiatiog nuthcirity, civil and eocle- 
Biaaiical, m tho eonatitiitlou of the order, and ila 
crDctiun into an independent monardty ta tbe boaom 
nf otlicr govi^rninoitti. aMumad amore flxed daarttcber. 
A senorol dinieraion of the memben thnmjj^at 
lodety, with Um most tntii* union and nboralna- 
tJon, fonned the ba^ia of their constitution. Tho 
Bucicty of Jcaus waa aecofdingly dividul into aeveral 
raoka or daMea. The ne^Ma — who were e^uaen 
fpatn tho lunet laloated and well educated youths 
and men, witlinut regard to birth and oxtcrnal cir- 
comstauccf^ tuid were tried for two yuan in nepacate 
nnTidate-houiei, fai all intaginabla eservitea of eslf- 
d«uial and otxnlience, to oetenniae whether they 
would ha useful la the pujpoeea of the order — were 
Dot ranked atnooj; the actual moinbcri. the lowest 
uf whcim ore tho trtular madjutar*^ who tako nn 
monattio towi^ and may theruforo \m dlcmlaed. 
They aervo the order portly as subtdtoms, partly as 
n>nf oiler at^ji, and may be iczanlud an the people of 
th<: Jesuit utati!. Diiitin^iahed laymen, public offi- 
cer, and rAher InBumttlal ponoRagee (for example. 
Louis XrV. in his old agel, were aonietimcs hoQourvd 
vritb adniiA^n into thUcltua, to promiite the intcresLi 
of the onlar. Hi(;bor in. caidc staud tho icAu'iin and 
ipiriiaal coatijfaorM, who aro inotnLcted in the bighw 
bnucbea of learning, tJikc upon them aoleraa moo* 
latic vow«t and are bound to derote thsmaotna 
particularly to tbo education of youth. Tbeac aiw 
empioyed a* profesKn In academic*, as preadxn in 
citiea and at courta, oa rectotn and profeascn ia 
ooUcsee. aa tutors and spiritual ^uidoa in fatniUes 
which they wiih to gain or to watch, and as aaitat- 
anta In the inltdona. Finally, the nobility, or 
faigboat oUaa, ia mada up of the pnfeutd, aauuiggt 
whom arc admitted only tha moat OKpcrtcnced man- 
bcia, ivhoao nddraa, eaerny, and fidtdity to tbe order 
have been emjneutly tried and provi^d. 1'hey make 
profeaalon, that is, take tho vown of their order, by 
binding tbemxelve*, in addition to tbe common man- 
a»tio VonN l><r n fuuitli vdw, Co Ibv umU-rtuking of 
miuinna; and ivK<^ they am not llvicg together In 
pluua ease in tlii/ir profcMcd bou*e*, they serve a« 
misaloaariaa among beuthciu and hcretloa, aa gover- 
nnra of cnloriict in reroute parts of the world, aa 
fatlicir-cunfeBuini uf princes, and aa nsudflnta uf tho 
onlor in places wiiere it has no oolleKe. They are 
eattrely exempt, ea the other hand, from the ear« 
of tha education of youth. None bub the professed 
have a »oii,« in the election of a geiioral, who must 
liiiDNolf be of their mimbur, and who ha* tbe right 
wf choo^nir fruui them the assEatanta, pravludali^ 



mperlora, an4 netart. Tht ganenl liolil* his oflloe 
for life, Mid ba* lua rwiilciicn in Rome, viUcra ljt> ii 
attnideil bv B monitJn' an<l liri> niu(Ut.-(nU or cntm- 
•ellurs. He U Uie ceuln: of tliu unvcniiiiciil «f tlj« 
whole order, and reodvea numtbly n;i>i>rtd frcini tlio 
pTwvindftL*, And ono orttj ciiuulcr ft»ni Ihf: tmnoriors 
■vf Uie profoved-liouic*, From thu r<ri:t<it-m o{ the ol- 
l?lje4 {wUoli am tl]« uionaaterint of tint onlt^r, but 
vrich noUking very monastic sbout tlicni), imtl from 
tfaa tnMtera of the nnviLi&h^*. 'i'hciic reports ilcUil 
all rtmuirkitble uccurreiiceB, pulibiud erenta, anil the 
ohnract^Tv, «tpacitle«, ium) wrrloofl of 
rnvmben, uid tbercupon tlie gcnentl dirccti wh&t ui 
to be done, and bav tit r)a1c« lue of tHe<l ami approved 
Diembtn, All uru l:»viii<] to obey biui iiuiitiriUy, 
and them u nci nppiuil from hiH nnlnra. Ho mny 
«vea alter )>arti(;uliu rule* of ibu aociuiy, vxpnl niuoi- 
born withaat trial, or ozila them, and inltict or roBiit 
pnnMlkmeilU at hi* ptcAmirc!, [griAtiiii* I.oynIa, who 
UWl July 81, I55t3, nt Rome, left to tho orJur the 
ak«t«h of thi> ooTiRtHutioD, aiid a mnUcal tFe*tIiiQ 
oallod Exerdtia Spiritual in (Sfintual Exflrcbea), the 
lUB of which was funnally Introiiuced taaoag the 
JeoviU, and oconplea tlio urat four we«Li ot every 
nmico. This cnthuiiut obtained & lasting ftuno, 
and iba honour of caiioniEntiati (IflSS), by tho rapid 
inapa a a o of U» order, wlach, aa early aa 1&&0, ntim- 
berad 1000 memfaorii in tiralvn provinciea. Th« linit 
vaa IN)rtvgal, where Xavier aud Rodriguez, nt tliu 
invitation «4 Kiii{[ John III., bad fousdod coUcgca. 
11)0 liMKue of the .IcMiitit was no Iom rapid in ttto 
Italiao atatea, vbero tlii^y wan miiportoJ by tho 
uiBooDCo of tho pope; in Sp aln, wher« they wera at 
firat oppcacd by Uie Uahopn, bot eoon provu]ed 
tbrougn tbo exanpla of the nobilitr, Mpedally of 
ODD ci titt moat poworfol OTaodoea, Franda Borgia, 
duka of Cnndia; and in Catholic Uonnany, vrhoro 
Auatrift and UavaHa j^mtted tbtoinivEleBC* and 
(oDBdatioiu. At tha unlvwtillM ofTWna, Piagne, 
and Incotrtadb thoy obtained an ascendency which 
tfaey bcud for two'* oeaturie*. In their mtrict hicr- 
artUsal princdpha, ta their r«*tle«i, miiIouk nctlvUy. 
And h Iwdr BinceH in malda; DODvirte, tho Catholic 
pctnOM. aa irell aa the pope bitnaelf, found the irnot 
eSootiial hamer nyiuiiit tbu gniwittg power of I'rri- 
leataotUui. H)«a to the oomuKiti peoplo thoy aoon 
r«c»mnMBd«d tlt«nwdvM a* the oflspring of too new 
■piril of the tinea, and wcre^ tbereforv, mdily 
(avoured by poiaou who wera lll-dlipoaed to the 
oooaka. y«r inatitutioM wliidi would not adqit tba 
teudoDc} of the ago towarda praotioal linprovctnant 
and a mora ohanful ton* of oonduot could oo longKr 
■oooMd, after the reatotation of loaruincf aod louud 
ryMTniLiiK; the excited world pnfcirBd LuaiDaai tn 
coutemiiUtiuD, and tho mendloaat monka, who had 
ovorywlien putbed thunaolToa into node*, had paMc^l 
their Bert qilandld epoch. Three who diiilikeil tlin 
Ftandacana aa too eoar«o and nilgar, and tlio Jia- 
■ndniam* aa too ri|iid and doomy, woro pleaead wltb 
the ooUabed, cheerfn), and mdal Jtaoita Kobody 
ooula Boooa* them of idle bnodbic fai prayer and 
paalm-ilacfDS: n-en in tho bonaaa of the prafcaaod, 
tlw oinonkal boun wm not obaemd; they nowben 
remained long at Uwnr oseroiMa of d«v««OB, even 
aa the ipiritwd guMea of the Uty; Ibey canfally 
•Toidvl all amearaiiM of niribud pirid^ and dra— d 
Uka tho aeouar deq^, and ni^t even ehange Ihto 
drna for the ordimu-y gatb ol Uio country, in iiiaoca 
wberv they thought to ipiln oa*ier entranoe witliuut 
any aiwh niark of dkiinetioa. Beaidaa Utk, thoy 
wm direoted to oae a ([«atl* deweanonr while 
«ll(i4{ed in their relicloua or politind opcrationa; to 
win HMD by ooiupaaBOO laitb Ihsir i-eouliarititia; 
•ever to coniand opmly, otod agalnM ueolanKl ane- 
ideai and nevtr to betr«y any poaaioa; but to keep 

thoir vioH-fl uii meawrw aacrvt, anJ, under a ihnw 
nf coldncM and reeerve, topraaomh! the morv ardently 
and cotiitantly m xccrel what might have SKCiteil 
opi)o»itii:>n If mado piililic Thui ipirit of worldly 
jmlicy and acconraodatiDn to drciiniHancm «» 
prindpallv derired from the piindploa of their MKwnd 
|[«u«ral, LaincE, who had the addreaa le iof ten what 
waa auatere and nmnjutic in tho re(pilattoM of tho 
founder, and tu ailupt ttieiu, oooordlog to the carcom- 
Rtancea of tho tim*a, to tho object ol the aocirty, 
Thia was orijinally nothinr Hue Init the pruervulon 
Mvl estafaliabiiietit of tht- Pafial liowtr a^>ai&at all the 
atiaclu of Proteilaiitism, of kin^ and nntioanl 
hiehfrps. To thia end tho Jwrniu ay BteniatI rally 
Inliourcd, tuxb-r tlie jirtli^xt iif promoting- the greatCT 
glory of God (Ad mnjartjii Dci •j-'wmM, a* tho irutcrip- 
ti(>n In on tb«ir arjixl; and a* nothing appeared iooim 
cDnducive to their purpcsa than the anblectioa ol 
tho mijul and of public opiDlon. they gained doniiniou 
ovi-T tbu yiFiiiij; (ly tin" CiUibliiihtiinnt nf achoola, and 
nrox tho winit by cunfoiiiiun, preocUine, and Ifae 
CKuiiuuu iut^rnuiiniu of aodety. When Lainez died 
in IMJ6 this iYitem, and the active, CDemtto H^t 
bnliinging to it, hail alrc.-uly bcmmc deciaedly fixed 
in iho iiilenial chanictur of the order, eo tliat tho en- 
ample of monaello derotlou held up by his eamawci, 
Fr.tDcia Boivia, who wan nftrrnardit ouioaEaad, Mkd 
the cfTorU nf I*opoi.Paul IV. and I'iua V. lo reelore 
Uie ubaervntfon of the oaDonleal boitn, provad inef* 
fcctiial. Ilie aucoeoding popce and genecala alloared 
tho order perFoct freedom from aII laonaatic cooatndnt. 
uud tho uiwlotii of Ita ayati^m toon appcabTod evident 
in tlie important •iinctnw* and nonircn which it 
nocompliahed, Tlicir forri;;!! nttieJoii*, li^ifuti by 
Francu Xaricr in the rurtugiieec £a«t Xndioe in 
ISJ], Wfro attended with vwt and unprecedented 
aucccwi, if their otm an^oiuiti may be tnutcil. He 
orjuratted, with the aid uf Ida fellow mlaaionarie* 
who wore tent to nasiiit him, aomo hundred thotiaanda 
to (')iri;<tiiuiity in (ioa, 'i'mvoncote, I'ochin, Malacca, 
Cvyluu, aud even in Japtui, and dim) tlS5'i) on hte 
way w Chtiiii, with the faui» ot a tnio martyr for 
ruUeion, vhich gained for hiui Uiu unae of the 
ApotUi of India, uid tbu honour of oaaooicatioa. 
Uis Iritmjpha over he»thi<uinui were aooonded by the 
crueltioi of the Ini|iiiutinnivt(>(Nt, while other Jeauila 
went to South Aiuvrico, and lalioured sucoeerfully 
in tho civilization and mibjugntion of tho nativee in 
Unuil, andintheneighbouriiwconntcyof Panguny. 
Africa alone nrfated th^ ^orla; on the wtatent 
eoaaCa tiMy aevor gatbed a aettloDtonl. and from the 
east ibey wcro driven by tho CopU; while the Abya- 
sinlaoa, whom tlicy bwl )(ovemcd for a loojt tfiue 
with tlio aid nf I'(irtii|{Hl, nee a^^aintC tbrm, and pint 
them to dcalL But in Eiiropo tbelr iiiflneiKO 
rapidly IncreaMd. Tlieir eRorta wvre chiefly in- 
Rtnimentat in tomonw the iupreaijoDa^ ao dainc«r- 
ouB to the i'atholie Oburcb, which tho Itofnrtna* 
tjon bad left even In Catholie (<otiiitrie«. ITey 
carried oot upon a grand loalot and for the hlffl>er 
claasee, the impmvementa in tfae mConi of iaatmeUon 
whirh had bv(.-o already begmi by the Bamabito^ 
the fatheni of iho Chriatlan dootrux^ thoae of Son* 
naquii and of the oratory, and, finally, by tke FiorUlih 
for tho hombler elaasei of the eomtnunt^. Okadhu 
Aqnax-ira, nf tho family of tlie dukca of Atri, ipenoal 
of tho Juuila fnim ITiSl to ISIS, waa tl>a anther of 
ttieir ayaMn ol eduontloD, and his worV. Ratio et 
Inirtitutio Studiorum Socictatit Joau, la Uio ptatfonn 
of the far-famed aehoob of the Jeaiiita. Tbcie were 
partly boardfat^-aclumla for bora of all rlweiw, and 
imrtly anniraarMa for thoae youtha who were Inteuded 
lor tha onler, la which they auyed ttU thoir entranea 
upon Ihanr novitiate. The Mhoilan (mi caU>d) and 




i hj tatlhoSa w«ll aiiited ta the wanta of tho ytraitg, 
[ iiccion>pAni««l will) •iiq>ri*ing »xcvm, ao ns to hs 
' M worthy of iaiitnltmi i-rcu in llio eiylii- 
eenth oentnry. A free, affable, ao<i lOleclionAta 
laviner ti>'«'ai>li iha [nijiilt. tiiiii(.-<l iviLh unccaung 
MgiLiiiw >D<1 a win wilidtiido for the pnHemdion 
of tbeir uinac«o<.i> ui<l tirlii», ilisliii][u[alied thete 
kbpve all mbw ntuiuuitlc scUoola. To «xdtc «aiiila- 
tioD, aad Co ooimntv imlimtry, thej biul public cixcr- 
daes in speakuig, anil diKUibiiUxI prinn auil lillea of 
dbdactlra. Ti> •treagtbeo nii'l dt^<.i>I<i|i tlie boily 
gymnnff sxordan won introduced, oail ovon tbe 
nvtwanl demeaacinr ami mchitta* were jKilJdlied by 
tiwcUrical rvpniMniUliuti*. The w.-uit of de«|t i-riticnl 
Icwnlng, and tbo nrbitmry iiiiiiiUt.ion nf tbn nld 
daada for the iiae of tlic ;duii2, cx|'u«ci1 thu JMuit 
teaoheratatbeceiinir«crf thophtluki^ta. Noverthe- 
Uas, tiM achoob had &d biicooidwui •uoccm, a« the Wai 
of that tiiiw, A unglD oollcgo fraquontly lutd aeveral 
bundnd ■cfaolus; tho yvtuu; noUltty went nhnnat 
«tclniiraly muC to thanii ana erea from ProtcslAot 
GOtuArica, t) tliiit tlic l'nitr«tant-i found it rnxxasturj 
t0 aataMiah lyoencus udiI ocadtruiiiai fur tlie (^eiitry, of 
a duracter suited to tho higlwr demands of tbo Ago. 
'Ilie Jcsuitadrrived tliogroatMtadviuit^pi&Miitheao 
ioatitutioaa, bjr Ining enabled to cbnoae the Iirigbtot 
gunlui at an early n,;tr, ami inuulil tli^in Co tlieir 
ptupcaMi Thlaexiilaliiabow thuSf-ciotyof Jvauit was 
able to trader iniportAntNcrvic<« to the coBMi of litera- 
ture and acicnoc. Such JMuita aa Serrariua, Peta- 
«iua,SimioQd,Tur*ellin'tii,llcn.irrDin,IlaldB, Mariana, 
and nvcUtr greatly ndvrin^^d tlia adoncca of liiaUiry 
and scoftkph^ the atudy «f latifuace and rhetoric 
W<!4wiiw and Boacovii;^ wtfa ominent in toAtiicnia- 
liea and attroavaay. No men undentooil bcttiT than 
the Jotoita the art of ilioKinK nil u> the beat adviui- 
taga tbair really valuable i»erviE>at; tbo worid could 
bel but acknuwltyigtt them tn >>« improvora and 
bonefacton of their n^. AccnnlinKly tboir houaea 
sad pMMations vialbly tncreaiwd, their dturdiea and 
emtwrionalB wen aot conpty; thoy contrirod. too, 
with much addrca*. ta obtain Icgodea anil preaenb*, 
and Ui aciM upon every advnntntie wbich plusa ora- 
dallly and Ibe «xtont «f their oonnoctiona proiontcd 
tbam. rfaey wiuh) not allew their intenuil cuiiati- 
tutiiiii im he in<(iiired Ifttfl or imitated; and when in 
1*^23 a ncriilKT <•{ ctit^rprutng fciiiidi.'* in Italy .ind 
uD the l.<iwcr Ulilnn fiirni»d n nlsD of uniting; into 
as order nnik-r the uuuv of tliu JvauiliueH, tu be 
modelled after the Sodct/bf Josiia, tlicy ronulfied all 
tbe adrancca of their wrmlii-be mUUts, nnil in LH^l 
p(v«nrvd a Papal decree for the aliolilivn of the oevr 
erder. But in En^laud lud iba Prateatant states uf 
tbe north thoy were not to succoatfuL, their ropcntod 
Btt«nn|>ta to eatabUah themnclvni tlirrc proving fnilt- 
Um. In 1419, however, the Dumber u[ momben 
■aooDtAd to 13,112 in ihirtv-two f rovinccs, withuut 
l&eludiBe Cbwo in France, tho Ubf^niih prnrini-c*, 
and tho NethrrUnils, Paljuid,and LilUiianiiv^lianiilt 
Anteck'n, tint l'hili^>iiinpi>, and Cliinn, I'lnt^il with 
tUa «DCCC«| they vcklmted in KIJv, under Ouucnil 
ViMlIoacbi, tho cenbennliU aanivenury i)( tlieir (inkr 
vitb grvat poinix 1'Lctc wcro tome c[rcunj»tiuiL'L'«, 
bowe*iW,todalllp thxir Exnltjitinn; for notnnthnLvid- 
lu the grrat favour whiuh tliey eriji>ye<t itl ecnirt 
nd Kbtoag the poojile^ tbe oon-JoiuIt clergy and tbe 
kamcd tnen of the a^e aoon began to dreMl tlio 
pvraful iollomco wlnrh the widcLy triu rapiiny 
•Mairiiiff tbrun^hout Cbristendniu. Tbi? uulvvrui- 
tM^ bbhopa, and clergymen found their intoroat 
I'jiff nt to that of tiir Jeaiiita, whooo privilc^i'ii, 
vbtia the7 were carrinl into effect, would bo uifen- 
tirifr injiinDua anil oppreealTC to the body of twi.jhcra 
ud iiw dercy- I'ho anctoat mdota of monka. tvliuac 
huNd the/ bad exdted by (heir cncroachnienU on 

thuir province aa mnch aa by their mmd fortnne, 
fniinil MibjPTt (ini>iii(b for ciini|ilnint ana Liitbor uccii- 
witluiu id thp (lii]>UL'it\' find viorliUinm of the eon- 
duct nf snino of their n)einbi:r«. Tlicy loado no acruple 
of inviuling vi\tAt bad been regarded aa tho ai^ro- 
priate pmrinov at other orders, and wero on the best 
terms with the Carthuatau^ who, on nooouiit of thvir 
vuur of rilanoo, wen tho only Mclniaatica out nf 
their own body to trhom the Jamttn were pormitLed 
to make confenioo. I'heir busy Inlrlgulnt; ■[>ii-ib 
mada th«m the objt«t« of aiispioion and jralxTuy lo 
atJiteamen and jniutik en aoceunt of their iutvrf v n.'uoe 
in ])o]ttical AlfaltB, the miaebii^viiiis etfootd nf which 
WAre alfcedy tnauifcat in Portugal iimlcr tliu rri^na 
of John III. and Snbaatiaij, tbi-ir pifiilx, anil niter 
the death vf tbe latter were a ['Tincipivl cause of the 
surrender of this kingdom to the Spanidi crewn. 
l-'nr thi« rc«son the parliament and higber oleivjr 
of France for inrnty year* reaolutdy realated the 
attemptti of tlie J^auiW to (pdu a fmAIng In tbab 
criuntry. Tho University of Paris also dechuvd the 
whnle order to lie nstrliwi, and ita cxistenoi? incontpa- 
tiblo with tbu rigbta i>f the Gnllitsui Gburcb. It waa 
owing chisHy to tbe fuvaur uf tbe Uuiscs that they 
at last, is 1562, wore admitted into fritnt-e iindnr 
the name of Falhert of tKe CiJUj/i of CUrmnni, with 
a humilinttn}! r«nutic{atiun of tlieir must important 
privilvsvs. Kotwitbiiaudin? this i1eprcw;d cmdi* 
tion they soon contrivod to Mta.btii<h thenuwlves bk 
Paris and the soulhirm and wealem prtninct^ and 
diiHii^ tho civil cfiiiimoCiuna to deprire the French 
PpLiU-itiuiM (if tijoir rik'ht*, gndtialty to mnliliab 
their jirivilc^Da, niid to ntiUntaiu their footing hi 
S[4lo of tbu NUHpiL'ious eiitrrtaiLicil of Ibeir having 
Iku! a Kbnm In thn miinlin- of llnnry III. 'ihey 
were buiiialied, iodeed, in 1501, ym ■ici-.iiint uf tbe 
attviDpt ui>on Henry's life by their pupil Chati,-!; 
yet they still remnliied undiatiii'bod in Tnnkm and 
Bordeaux, and at the intcrcesilon of the [xipt n-ure 
a(,'atn reoelTed by Henry IV. In 1603. Uhey wnjn, 
in their offioo of court- oanfcsBora, caniod on tho 
same intrigues as before. I'heir partid]iatti>n in 
thecnmeol R&ndllav cotild not be pruveJ a^^nnC 
them: thoy tbnwelvea juiDod in coniiomning the 
buofc in which tbe Spuiish Jesuit Mariana ilefcndj 
tbe hing'a nasaaiiDattan, and, by eiinnin^ uifl obso- 
ifnioiimciui t'lwarda the cuui-t, |.n.->H.-i v<;il tht-iiuelvts 
undistiirlhRi!. They mailo tbrnmelvcs xtill more tn^ 
purtnut tv thu Oermau Empire when ihuy beuuna 
tbo Gonfiiliiiiilal advisers of ['erdinaiid II. and 111. 
I'bcy diK-iivcTfil renmrkable political talent in tbe 
I'iiitty Veura' war; tbe Icttgue nf the CatbolicH oinlil 
do niiCliiij; uitboiii them. Gnt whQe they were thua 
tiiocc-Mfiil at stutcsinen iu thU psrt of Euro|'« 1thi)iii,'li 
tlmy failrd in pr*v«<nting tlin triiiniph -nf tiili-ration 
at tbe Pence of Wtstphnlia). a new iitonu biir*t 
upun them in Franco and the Xcthcrlands from the 
•lAiiscniKt onntmvcisy, Tho ancient hostility nf tho 
Uaiveraity «if Pu.ri», which had alwaya been atrotiyly 
•veme to tlie sdiiiliwiuii of the Jwulte ns tvA«hen^ 
nwD up, in tniiou with the rij,'Ed morality of the Jan- 
*pai»tiL, npvinnt the noturiniis srnii-I' of 
Molina nud lua brotbtr .Itiuits, The character of 
tho •Iraiiits rwwlved a f;ilal wutmil from the pen at 
PiuKud, wh'J^c famous Provinciul Ivcltoni expoxed tbo 
miscliievona doctrines and practice of the Jetmltii 
vrith admirable wit luid nr-^umemt, tti wUdi Ibej 
uplKnieil little but abuso aikI violence. Tbi'so li'ttars, 
which have been i>nhlidied iu numemtis ccliliotw 
sineo liSSB, were road through all Euiijpi>, And thtb 
tc«timony quoted in the acntcnoc of rondeoinaticm 
pniniiimced by Innocent IX. in 1079 axaitial allty- 
tive olTcnslre prnpusi'lloiia, ni'wtiv »f J*«uit cnauiirts. 
It aToiled them Httlo that royal decrees snd Papal 
bulls, procnred by tlic Jesuit confvuura of Louie 



XIV. ([^ CliAiH atnl Lo Tellior), wptb IbvpIIimI 
^^Moot Jwiaeiiiiut, uiul iUi niiu cunijileU-d br tie 
WflU-knowD bull Unli{«iltui. In the luiDils uf ru- 
floctiag'andwdl'dispoMd person* thoy »tiU romaincd 
aaxpccteil of ml AttacLnncnt to ika tirind]ilL-« ai 
Lh«ir moat viDbunt casukw, attacked by 1'moaI 
— I>ritictp1«« whici] idTordod tixt meet startEiiK eolu- 
tioa of Lb«ir crafty nad nmbiirTKiua conduct. A 
Ikx niurAUtj, M:cuiiimi.>dat«d to Iba int^tlDaltuiin lA a. 
lioontioDa agt, vhlrh inocio int<;ra*t nnd vxlvmal Hr- 
cuuutonM* iIm tuIq of oituduut, uid couwctntGd Uiv 
WotM meuia for * food eMd; tbeir i>T<ibftbUlfln— a 
ajrstem of prindplM and mJoi of lifo wltic^ lolcrAtod 
everrtliing that emiid Iw ilcfimded ai pmb*h!y ad- 
■oluiiblo; th«Ir exnivii fur iwrjurj iiiid urimn <i[ uU 
kj&df, t oBu H mm \iy uLitrajjr porvunltm of laosii&se. 
komrUiiiCB by Ainlagaoni oupicninit* uid pcridorin^ 
iiilvTprotatianii; aaIlI»tun«^ too, hy muiUu rawrvA- 
tion*, wxordliif; to wbkb « nisn ud vnly to tblok 
diSctvntly frcnn wtut he Mid and did to be jtutificd 
In his oira dgbt froni tbe grcAtest nriiues, — ^thuo 
and otbnr tmu of » like nature may bu iuutv fully 
nd aonmtvly k«ni«d from tho lotun of Tucal or 
the writb^ of ths Je«nit« Sancfau; lUany, KMobor, 
Suiroi.aitilUuMwIauiii. Tbnirownd^fcucesagniiwl 
th«M ciiargM only oonflnned tiia aiupidon exdttnl 
■giUiut their ■y>t*ta of nwnvlf, trhilo cLvy palliah^ 
nnd coaovded a T«rl whon th« whbU vm oiil]ntile. 
iHhrr acciiwitiixiii won Dow bniu^lit against tijcm 
nliicli tlicy wura BtiU ]m nbia tn rapcl. TliiHr m- 
perftctol ntoik ol iiii.iru(.-tiiiiL and lb« tlicvtrical dis* 
(irdon 4)1 tbdr Bcfaoola Lad b«-un already nundsBuiod 
by Maiiana, a leaned M[iMiiati JmuU; tho groM nl- 
ftibiiim of Ibo order had bocn pnbltdy ei|n«ed in 
Scii'tti'n MnoarddaSoUfiariniiu: UMiiidJOerancMwIlJi 
which tlwy ponaitted ibob hcatlion cvnTort* tt con- 
tinue ihti^ old wanhip of idoU, on cooditua of their 
nicntalW aduring at the aanw tlma CtirUC and tb« 
Vlf^gin &Luy; and thotrwant of aera«iD«nt nitb th« 
Qtb« mjjwloaatkt In CUaa, Iwd nam wacmly but 
iaoOootnaU/ oansured by aereral I'apsl Imlln. Tlitir 
OCAdact, toe^ waa now and tlvaa di*vovei«d tu Iiiu-- 
monW too well with thdr Indvlgrait cnda iif etldc*. 
and it wu for tbla rwunn tLat tba Iiwiuuk who bad 
been eonTettad by tfeam axpnmly MnilMBd lu a 
treaty At peace (1653) for the rcnoral of tbeae liorn- 
lioui btcthnin, who did etvrj' thing that Jeiua did 
not do. It vrur iiair booamjng every <]ay uinni evi- 
dent to the wwld that the Jeaoito were ai>t aiming 
l» praaol* vinue and nUdon, but their awa tnter- 
eatiL TUa waa oonfinnod by th« oomplainta uf iner- 
ohanU at th» aataudra traffic ot the Socioty ol Juu* 
in iha pivdocta of their fotvl^ mlnEonary atation*. 
It oennot ba dauiad that the roimUIo (d mtiveiis 
UtnaeA by then under tlie antbority of S[iala, in 
Fu«s<iKT <uul UniTuiy, iu wLIcb tiny mled witli 
■baolMa povor, and ahich in I'iU oantabod nearly 
100/100 anbioots waa eokducMd by ttusm with coif 
— mnate poltoy and akiU, and waa perlu^1• the boat 
noana for ctvUhdng thuae aaTagca; but tliat tfaey 
natb it nbo a tnlBcLinc calcditiihtBBUt for the 
emoIuBMnt of the order waa ihaiin on oocaalon of a 
treaty of Minun«n»,by irludi Sj^am in I'SO j^re up 
aa«an. dktrkta of thL* muntry t>i I'nrti^al. Tlxi r«- 
aittanm wUcli tine naiivee nade tv llw Portufpuao, 
with an army «f I'l,Oi>0 umb ooamnnded by J««uti^ 
finally oblicod the oonlmotinit powem to oiiuul tlM 
ti«aty. The Pnrtuffuow Jomiiu^ tbougfa Uwy db- 
datnad all vonxm u ihla aSair.tuidcrweat a )!faac 
mtjoti. whidi waa not tannlnatad wIma an attanpt 
n|wn the life of tbo Kiitf of IVMrtiunl bMt«nad tMr 
downUL 1^0 Binlatcr Pondial maila oat their 
VMqr to tUi attanpt to aooM (W|[T«e of |irobatiAity. 
nd IhuUyeucoeedad ia UM in axpeUing tfaam tram 
Tofti^pd, aiiU ao mi icatiin; thrir puaarMioua by an 

odict in vrhirh Ibn 'Ang declared then ^Qty of high 
ttMUuti. Before tliia fitwt blow Iba onler nwaMted 
Mt -it prufened-bMiaaa, 6«$ ooUe9«^ I'd aemlnarl**, 
Gl novidate-hounttd, 835 nridentsea. and ST3 mia- 
■ioiiD in bcuLbcu and Pmtt'HiAiit ooutitrlta, and SS.fiSB 
lo^mbtre of sll ranks, linlf of wiioni vcw ordaitioJ 
priwt*. In rranw, when Cboi»wiil and Pompadour 
^rtr^c iinfftv-oiinihly diapneed towardi thmi, tbeir 
nii:i wai i>t*'.'asi(ined by the tjmdo icbvcb titey coo- 
timiKl to carrv on in tpite of all tbe popv'e onlera 
tu tbo contrary. In ITJS ihey lnul «aUblUkad a 
tradins-boiLte at Slartiniiino by their deputy Father 
La Vxlcltv, under jirttcncD of a uiiiaiaD, which 
■unn monnpoliind nearly the Trtmla tra^ of that 
awl tbv iM'iifhlxjuring iuauda, and had oammercial 
cniinoctiona with the principal mercbanta of Fmncv. 
It happrncd tliat tw» ahiiia, vith a cart^ valood 
at :>,UU<I,(HHI franca, wul axe: by La Valetta to 
pay U>e houw of Uodvv at Marwdllei^ Ml Into 
the handi of the LritUlL The Jeeulta ntxainf 
to make any iiHliffnoilicatlan for the loaa, tlta 
aim^'v-mi^iitiiiuol b<.>ut0 brought an iutUoii agaiMit 
them, nhich terminated io tbe a«ntciicinf( of tbu 
former to make full rcinttmnumont, and waa tba 
UieaUB aim uf briii;.,'Ing to lif;bt olbcr abuace of tiM 
ord<T. Jjorenifi Itioci. ttuir g^cral. rcfusinc Io 
ninlni nny uhaiiue in tfaiar conititutiiin by liie declara- 
tion * Siitt ul (ir»f, u III iK^n tint ' (Let them be na tbey 
aro, or not l>c), ttio king i>uii»d a docrcc in 17SI ftv 
abuludiiitf the onlur iu all the Freuuh atatea m a 
tuero poUti(-Al ftoili-ty, daat^erone to religion, wfaoao 
objvet waa Klf-a^j^nui'liimnonL la vaiu md CleneoC 
XUL in a bull iM>nL>d at tbe ajune time reoommend 
tile Jernitu as the UiusL pioua and lucfiil tDonbeiS of 
the oburch. Thoy trvra alao driven nut of Hpain in 
1707. and aoon after fmn Xaple^ Panna, and Malta 
by ^« offorta of Choitenl and tba ^pimiiih tuiuiator 
Annda. Tbe voice of ]iiitiLiL' i'|itii<in at length 
<Hintpvlliid Pope Clement X I \'. to pnbliali bin fanoua 
bdl, l>«ninua ne Redomptor noiicr, of Jnly il, 1773, 
by which the Sodcty aI J«biu waa totally aboUahatI 
ill all tba atatea of CbriitcnilDm. Thcae neaaora 
were o'erywbera «secu(»d with a quick and atnmg 
hand, bennao a fonoat procena wonld hav"* i^voo 
timo for a fcFTtnidabla rnpoaitiaB. Yet tlisir nm 
inijiortant trcaaiirM and docuuieati wen already 
takiMi out of the vrny, on it k suppiMud, and tbeir 
an-biviM and cnlTan did not aatiiify oxpoctatkin. 
Kicd, who oiight bava averted tbu bt« by makij^ 
aotns eeawoariooa towarda a obangv in tbdr cautita- 
tiuu, pratcal«d the innucance of their order, whidi 
waa bonnd Io regard averytblng wldeb casae front 
him aa aeecaanrfly ri{^t and ohlifatery; fanl^ in fact^ 
tlio sreal infriusriuciita cm tbe natural rigbia of 
otbefa. incomiiatiblo with every weH-orderad cburch 
ef atate, wliicii wero in a oiRun«r Irgalirod by tbeir 
privilogoa, rvndered the eaiatenoe of aiich a body la 
a alata a political aolduMO. Ufl<|iie«tii>naUy th« 
world hod nmch reaaon to rcjojm at tlietr fall, 
aItbo4t|[h a gnat part ot the uicuilivn wetv entirely 
innooenc; and thrir funaar aervjceawiU always m 
gntcfnlly reaibmbewd. The es-Jeauita, hAwavrr, 
*u6l«r«d no further penalty thou bcintr oUij^ Io 
i|uit llwlr hoiima, lay aaide tlie garb uf tba onler, 
renounce ail interoourM with «ie auotlNr. and aitlHr 
enter aomo of tbe other orden or ml tbomlvcs 
under the aa]ierint«iideiiM al Iba uibcaa. Tbey 
rooalnd anuaiiia from tli« remiuo* of tbeir eeafi^ 
eated caUtea oxee>]it In Portugal. In tUa Idncaloa 
and ta Spain tba ex-JeaBila were alaa i-jcabiUlad fmn 
redding tn the onuntry, «bil« in tlio Staica el the 
t'burcb, in Uppar It>ly, and in Ireimany, wbcra 
they were treated with tbe muet farbentanca, in 
Hongaiy, Poland, and anreo In Vttaat they wvre 
euBered Ut raiaaln aa private penois. >1rederick IL 




JESUITS— jEsra* 





Ittol jf& EntlienDera] axpnlnonof the 

rvedw to gnttfy bb CaUutlo tnbj««ta In 
bo ntaia » Kb':>«l-u*Ubliffainoiit wbiob cott 
him nuthiuff, tad to kc^ a pro^ucUvc lottTC* o( 
nrvMmos NotwUmIih the Jmiitj in tJi« Pnsaiu) 
■tatas w«i<B obliged to giro nji thn g)u-li nf tkoir unlor 
and to niwuoM UMEr(<on>t)iut ion. Uuilor Uie nmmt 
«( llw pnVif* of the roval t hool-inttititte Owj vont 
faraccfrntlicantinod totbcoflircof iitftnictingimtitb; 
aad even this iiuUlatioa wm abolUliod bj Preilcrick 
'WHBscD IL BiMstft WM now Uiu uuly cvuiiUy that 
itaaioad to tltcm. Putor tha tira&t bad expelled 
than fratn hi* ein|iire im early an 1719: liut in 177:1 
aercm] boinca <>( tlioir in>l«r fell, with the ewdt'ra 
part nf I'oluTut, iindnr t!i« (I>iiniiiii.>u ni Itiiula, 
CMhariue aiartHl thcai, vvou after tha aboUlion of 
tba onUr, ant of nipird to har OilUoUo mibjoct^ 
aatl en aocount of the iiwfuliicM of tlivir acljui)l*, 
ne patmaapi of CieraitchuS and I'atinnkiii eiuJiled 
tbetn to ubtatD pvnuiwioii to «rvct a covitUte-bouw 
in ITiD, and in ll&'i tc ckooM a vicar-^vncral. 
^leanwhila arcnnutainwa hnd tAL-cn a favnnnible 
ttini fo«- tbeiu hs K<un«. Ctenwat XFV'. diud L77i, 
and hia nweaMT aoca ibowed biaualf a f riaod of tbt 
noeictj, which waa jet ycry far from being exUnct 
Tbt ei-JcMiit*, 'wba irent acprived at once of their 
eAoM by tb« decnwt trf aboJiEioa, Laving been cm- 
dofnncd ttahvanl, ttill retaaincd txtspoctabl* clergy- 
men, who had |>ow«rfiil (rlcnila in all dauoa, and 
wora ialruatcd ititli iinportaiit felaliuua in lliacjsumb 
and ofilorai of iiwtnictiim. In thn yr:Lr I7SG Lhoro 
*«« ftOOO of them out of Italy u-lio wore thou^cbt 
to tnuataiii a conatoat nnloii under private direotora 
er euMrion: thry w«n> alM thought to bava poe- 
Haaea thciUBuivEa of ths accnrta iif the Roetcmcuui* 
sail to 1»*« taken a )iart iu the Mliauiea of tliu 
nnniaalL Thvy worv charge^!, morvover. vritb a 
plot to dMtioy l^hatantism. l'ndatiiit«d by these 
ae^uilta of an often onjtist )ir«jui}icc, tha ex-JnuiLs, 
finnly nnitad to «aoh otbor, \niro hnplng in lUo 
meanwhile for tba rHtonttioa of tlinr unlor. on 
which, aoooidtDg to tbtii belief, the irolfara ol aum- 
tdnd depaadai An attempt in I7S7 to ruvivi: their 
tadcr under tlw name of 1' icrnlimtt wn* luwnoccaifiiL 
The Patirn ef tAr Paitk, ou ecvlttdattit'al onJvr 
fiilind»d by Pacc&nari, a T>-rolQM cnttiaUMt, and 
fcnncrly a auldirr of tlio po|>c. tinder tlio patmn^HTi! 
of the Arcbducbee* Miurma, vm cdui]kihbU lunrtly 
a< Je«uit«^ and put (n operatlou at Uonte, l>y lb« aid 
of the eaiily pcnnaded pope, ae a new form of the 
Sociaty ef Joraa, under altered ragnlationa; lint they 
wm uarer r«oo^'nizad by (Ue aocrct ■'.TpcHura uf tlic 
ancimt Jeeoita oa their Wcthn:]], The plana of tho 
Jwdta vnere aidud ly Pins VIT. He eotahlioberl 
that order in ^^liile Hubsia uiil Xj^btiauin, where it 
eoatiaoMi in oporatton, bnt cnnlinod to ojHum i)f 
Ma Hi jug and pnertly dutica under thv vicar-nenvral, 
Ilaalet Uruber, and BOtntly rwMred them In ISOJ In 
the laland of Sidlv, which «ru ontirdy soiKtratud 
inm Europe by the fato of the ('ontincnt. IIcqoo 
Itexdlad uoKirprUa auiong obMrvin^ lumi tbiit thin 
pvpe^ who \a 1S<K> had canoQUod a Joeuit, Hhould 
make uaa of the tint opportiiiuty to reviva the 
wdcr. The bull bauol to lbi> etTccb (Bolidtuda 
omnlua Kcclnamm, Angviat 7, 1S14\ iip«al» of 
arptnl entnmtiw and a genoral deiirc oE tbo Chri«- 
tltfi i»iDae« and lilnhnpn fir ^iv reitoration of the 
•octcly, wLii-b mt*<iatiuii ii ealK'l a rtjirittiaatum, 
tbviw'jy ictiniattn^' that it wiiuld again appear in 
pTB Lilly the nnie form in which it bad fallen. 
Aaaonlufly ths Dovltiato at Rams iras solenmly 
ofMneiJ^ November 11, 181-1, and numeniu member*, 
(AoR eniiiieiit far rink and aUainnMSita^ bav* jjnco 
baes adimtte<L In 1821 tbey ivi^ood powoMlou of 
the CeUtsfitai SoMantm In that city. In 181& a 

college \r^ ^iren them al ^foilena, ft:id tlic-y did not 
delTiy Li< ac^npt the uivitattonn of tUo King* (if Sar- 
dinia, Naplee, and S|Miii. Fotdiiiand VII. (May £S, 
l^ltt) r^luataUid tbcu in the pMaoaaioii of all the 
privile^n and ]>ni|wrty which had beat talton from 
tbuni in 1767. He anbeequcntly appointed St. Igna* 
tbta cajitaln-goneral of toe Sfiacinb anny, and eon- 
terred on him the errand tnan of the odrr of Charlet 
III. The HeLvstiF canton of Fribotn^ alao (Sci>- 
tembor 15, IS19I rwlorod the old Jeitiit collate for- 
merly wtabliabed there for the butnictian of youth, 
but they vera finally ospdled tnm the Swic* torri* 
tory m IS47. The SpaiUah revolution of Maitli, 
\&'iS\ viaa fiillowod by thmr baniahment fmia the 
kingdom; but tbay vimra ratorwl njxin the i*>estal>- 
Uahiaeat of abeoluu power iu 1S33, iboucb only to 
be again dxpsUtd In 1836. Hisy bava anooaediM] In 
one* mive ganung a eoimderablo footing in that 
oountry. Portu)^ atona ataadfantly adhered to iU 
ordinaaoa of September S, 1750, whleh bauijjied the 
Jesuits ont of the ktacdom. After their booiahBent 
from lluiBia waao at tliem weru allowed to toke 
roftige in Austria, but were ooinniaDded !□ 1S25, on 
pain of exile, to acknowlaOge th« archbishop of thu 
province n« theirmprcino bead. In 1 87^ the order 
ivaa BUppreiaed la the North (Jerman atatc*. Iu 
France tha Ultra- Royaltita encceeiled in cauaErit' 
tlioir proesnco to be connived at, and tfaey had con- 
gn^ttoni and KminaiJee at Montmng^ Ht, AchenI, 
4e. previous to the ibtoIwUimi of ISSu. In Ituaaia, 
where tliej- had been expHlItMl hy IVtor the (treat, 
and rendiiiittod by CatUarine Ii,, Et njnwuvd that 
they vsro naln; their endeavoun to win over tbo 
•AiYft and daiigbtcre of dfetlnfuiabed faniOies to the 
C'abholio Ohureh, and thoy were beuiiihed in oon»^- 
quenoii by an oloiae of January 1, 1S17, frwin >1m*- 
eow and St. Pstenhnrg. But attll carrying on thdr 

iiroafljlinf Achamea, and makini,' thrniMclvoit oIukiX' 
one to the jfuvernincnt by Intrigitca uf all aorta, aii 
imnrrrial iikoMi of MaTfli 25, 1930, abotldied their 
orL-r for over in BumIa and Poland, and proHdoil 
that the whole body nf iba memben rfurald bo trana- 
jKirtciI bryond the Imtindarics of tbees two oountrlsa 
nl the «i]Kniic of ttie j^vvramont, barioff raoard to 
tbo age and bodily conditiun of ludividnaJi; UiaC the 
valuablo cttntoe of the onlcr should be confiieatod, 
luiil tbo academy at Pulntzk JiboU*bcd. In England 
tlia tak-nitiui{ Bjiirit of the Britiah ooDBtitiition bna 
]«rmJtted cbeai to open edncatlonal oetabllehmenta, 
the principal of whiob are the colle^ at StonybniBt, 
near PKston, in I.nnoadhlrsi Mount Rt. Mary'a C'ol- 
Icffu, near CfassteiDeM, Dorbyahiro; and SL B*nno'«, 
at St Anipfa,iD North Wnlm, In Ireland they have 
abo (oTp-erftl impnrtant in#titiitiniw, and, within a re- 
oeut jK^riixl, in Scollnnd, 'J'tt-y linvc aUo cuUcjc* in 
IHcdmont, in Kcvrara, and in the irult'.'d HtntM. lit 

yiite of the widespread lesetiou a^inal tbem tbo 
eauits are at present all-poirerful at the Papal court. 
It vM under tlidi inflnence and at tUeir inntJijatiun 
tlut thcil'k-atnmicat l.'oundlnf lljiZH waa bold, whon 
tbo d'^ma of the Itfnllibility of llio Pope was dc- 
dar«d an artlclo of f^Uth, and the Iincjaculate Con- 
ception tiniUly placed nn a Hhu fnnting. In 1673 
the Jouita were eipcllvd from (.tiislcinalo, Nicar> 
oguOi, and San Salvailor. The «ocMy iit the prmcot 
timo iKestimstod as Slaving 900i)mvmbon,ovor 3000 
of vhom are located in Fnuic«, a like number in Italy, 
»□•! mora thim IliUI) in Britain. 

JKSlI?l, "in nf Siraeh, the antbor of the apocry- 
pbnl book called EcelesiaaticuH, or in the Si:iitiin<^t; 
The Wiadcim of Juua the flon at .Sirafb. The Mn-Mi 
when he flouriahod is not kiiouti. Tbe liouk it-na 
originally writben in Ar^imou^ hut in now oxtnnt 
only Id the Gt«ok tranilatlun made by bis irrandjion, 
Ths trjulatioa ia snpFoenl to have been tuode In 



Uw Mcoiul tmlnry hetan ChrifL TIio ))c4t rdilioa 
b llulur llnlMliBeliler |R«seiu1'Uiv, 1»C<J}, la Crc-ck 
■nil Lnlin. wllh notr*. Tlia Ixxik in fuumltnl i>ii tho 
(JI'I Tuiuiiwnl, mrtii-ulnrly tbo l*mverlni, but con- 

Ihi UpaU. IIio KooikB Oolbolid Cburch hiu h*.'M 
lb» laHik "( Eocleaiastious •• caauiiivnl liuco llw 
<'ijiinril fif ('«rthiiti*. 

JK8UH C'llBlST (/f*o<u. Ihe Gnwk f«nn nf 
Jnllin or Jaifaiia, rootnctoil fium JchMhtiB, nioaii- 
liiifi hclpAf J«lii>vkh, or Mikinur: VA.ritl'u, luiointtil). 
ills Hi>[i (if OmI, tho Baviuur u( uibil, uliowi Liitli. 
llf«, an'l ilonth woro piwliotnl by jimphcU, luvl 
Bll*iuk<l wbb mliAculotu wAnlfwiaUwiw uf dlvftio 
powar. WM turn) of th« Vlhjiia Mary, of tba tribv 
of Jwlab, wlfi MM IxitnHliwir to Juaeph, b; occup»- 
Una ft oMvcnUr, tba doMtndfttil uid k^r of tho 
Imiiim uI UftvlJ. Two ^uficaloiftM nf .Tciacpli are 

, gtven — ODB )i_v XlnltLew. <-tift|<. L; tliu oUivr by l>iik«, 
Vtwp^ i*. 'n>" fornirr 1* i>iifi]Hi«i>t] to iMntitiii the liiL 
fl# Mra of Um bpiUNT ul JWi<l, wliPlli«r ty ilinjcl nr 
ludlfqct tltnwit', tlM oUmt tiu] ilbvct aDcvvtora at 
Jowpb. TbiM Juol>(M«U. J. I'J) biul no mid, t>iil 
« (UucMKr, Mftrjr; whvlv hU liratbvr Hvli liiul a auu, 
Jf»f\m, wb'> l)i« <.-tlu^lll Marj-, tli<9 lii-lnii* uf 
lib uiicjg JKT>b Biitl tba motlm of Jnus. It wu 
fontoM tliAt ChHit »hniit<l bo <•( the •cod of Abra- 
huB Htd Um Mw of OavliL Tlw pt&o) uf hb Urth 
WM BalUtbviti; tho titno, ocvanlliig to lb« rwetvod 
(juvnotain, «w In Iba y*tu of Konie 75(. Scfaobuv 
ftro nov UBUNt uuniiDouatjr Aj^reed th«t thb date U 
ton laU, *ad h b g«ii«r4lly pliw»(l ttwiit four ycAn 
Mitkr, hit Um oxaci |irriod w uniuourL-vm-jiL Our 
InfnniMlhxi eonnniiai* bbu i* dErivnl >liumt «i- 
tlnlf tnm tlw kiwoihiU uf hb U/o nrittoD by tho 
liwr ■TMfftlim ftlulUicw, Mftfk, Lnkc, Mid John, 
■nd tBckloBbd notices la utber |i«rtB t^ tbv Nl-w 
ThUumuI. Tbt uomlng of m foreruuter .to tho 
SkvImit, John Um Dutiat, Id Um ■plrie and power 
el I'Itu, vr«a forvlolil by nn Mig«l (Lnko L t7>. 'llic 

I nikjfvl Itabriol onnouniW to Mary thnl tbo power 
•f lb* Hlitbeit ahoold owrabadow her, and that ah* 
■bmiU Imr ft mb «lia ibaiiM ntlo onr ^ bmue 
nt Jacob to ovor; mmI on tbo nMit of bb birth aa 
anipl aupraml to ■oniu ■Lcplwrdi^ and aBnoiuoad 
IhaoonlnitofKHailiiiir. Un ibu ristitb iby ho waa 
•irauMbM aMonUnc to tbv law of >lnae«, and on 
A* hrtblh *aa )»wnt«d In tho uaiiilo, wbcna tbo 
B0«d SfBMtt imMnnoid Um to bn tha ligbt of 
natlana ami Um gk*T of laraal. TIm oonlng ol tba 
4l*toa Infant waa alao halted hf *!>• Mkntba o( tha 
lla|1 or wbs BHn of tha Kaal, who wan BlnwiiUaaalj 
dlivotoJ to tba hooaa wboiv tha jrotti^ child miL 
Hvrad. alamMl by thwa IndbaUoa^ difrmtoad In 
d«rtn>y »U tba naW ohOdim «( Patiibhiw and ita 
vUaby «( tha ag* of loM than Mo ynai^lor iha 
pnTOMtfaffMltaglhadaathofJHua. ButJcMfih, 
Miff BttracBbiuly wanmd of Iha dani^, flad t» 
&gr^wllh Iha vimn and hardkllJ,aa>l ou hb rvtum, 
■& Iha ihath «( Uvtod. want tn rwhb u NaaareUi 
Ik OalOa^ vbMM Jwaa b nUiad a Namea«. Wa 
hn*» no faithw acmanla of tha MrtW y«ai« uf Jcma 
«w^ tha rmatkaUa ansa h iha taii^ whoa ha 
«na l««li« 3Mn aU, and Iha rmunX abamvtioa 
aC ImkB, thai ha lanniMd tn XmnA wtth Ua 
mnnta Mai aav««4 thaaa. At tfaawaolahonlthhrty 
iti^ «. S> ha waa Wtkad by Mn )■ tha ri*ar 
JwU^ tba 8«Wt W M daica^dbw npM hia Kk» 
■ ihwra. ■■< ■ rUm fni haatan prunatnito^. 'Than 
art M^ hatowd Sm: In Ihaa 1 ask wdl bImmbI' 
■•NTlowly. bowvar. »a onlafl^ nfon hb ^Ina of 
MfhwIaacharWradnltDftaaHlarr tAm whm 
W laaad M? ^ •■ *■*» ■iftliif. and 
M^ yiaijaiM 1> Iha liaiilifli aawa «f Iha 
llliilliai iba w ft*! hy tb* mnjalbaa— 3latth««. 

diatkir.; >Iark 111^-13: LnLe, chap. iv. Ha «h 
afterwords trauabfnin^d In tb« ima^toe eS thira ol 
hb dbcjpli-*, wlicii M<oe« and Elba afipoanol to hitn 
fnnii hcntim. juilI bb nutueat bocmno white and 
ehliilng:. and hb face «lwn« aa the aim. Ob tUa 
Dccaaion ng&ln ft voico came from baarun. aajrin^, 
'I'hia i» tny liclovnd Syoa; hear ya him' (Mattbav, 
cJiup. x« ii.; Mark, i-'hap. ii.; l-iulca, chap, ix.^ *en^ 
SS-^rt). Ub inbaiiii is fvni.'vaUy eonohlarad la ha** 
csKiipied Uinc yoarw, apcnt in acta of inncy (chbfly 
miraoulotiHt, tn itii-uloitiujf a pur«r ayrtora of BMnb, 
DKirv eia]t«d nritiooa of Uod. atiJ mcro ola«atia( 
vion-Kof iiuui and bia dratioy than had jrat boMi ntv* 
•eut«J to the world. A Kroat part bf fab uacUac 
waa ja pamblaa, wbkb be freqiunUr ex|ilnlBad lo 
hb dbcti>l«a. It haa hcen obaarved by aon* eritka 
that be liad adontcd thu pftrahulio fonn of imCnwIfea 
altar the J«wa D<id abown a decided diasaatc far Ua 
toacblng. Hit dorlrinc b ooibodiod diitfly in the 
aermnii on tho niniiDt (Matt, dtapt T.-vii, and Lube, 
tiliii|>. v\.), auDlniuIuu the fotm of prayer bo taqffha 
to his tliadplai^ nmtDonly colled the Lord'a Pntyar; 
in hb dboounoe In Uut Jews ill John, diafu v.-eii. 
luid X.; to hU dticiplci, chap. lir.-xvi, ; and in bb 
iiitercowury prayer, vbap. xnl Hb diHno aii^iai 
b e^idanoM not oalv by hb tnlrades and the anpo^ 
natanl bieadth and power of hb toaddag. but by 
the purity of hb life, bia devotion to the inll of ba 
hvfivrnlj KftthcT, and hja iinwran«i] Laboan and Ottf- 
fiTiii;:^ for the i;<^ of jomu Uv waa a^nally bb- 
■pariac In bb donuDclalton uf ain, and frM (n dhrinff 
foTgitoaMa to ropentant einnen. He cboae twaJra 
ajxHtloi to be tho crnnpaninaa of bb mlobtry, tba 
witnmes of lib ufrades and ibe deuoattoriea gf hb 
doctrine; and be vaa baliayod into the powar of hb 
eneniioa by one of tbeae with tha DtodMfy of » 
fibndtj aalnlatian. Betrayed by ono, datuad by 
amiUwr. aDd abuidDBed by all, he wu earned hnfia* 
tha Jewlab ptiasia, fovad guilty, and by thtm da- 
livencd orcr to tbe Iloaan magiitntcs, adn alaae 
had the power of life and death. C^oadannoJ to 
death as a dbtorinr of tbe pahUa paace^ ha wna 
naUad to tha craas on Monnt Calruy, and It vna In 
the agonba of thb hatter dcaUt that he {aayol for 
tha fur^veuwauf Ida cxeL-utiDi»en,and with a tano^ 
big act of fiUal love contBioaded hb atothar to Ua 
favourite dbctpkt, Tba emngsUrta itlata that tnm 
the baar of boob tbe inn waa dafkenad, and throo 
houn after Jconi^ ^*^ "***' "^ * I' ^ finbhed ? ' 
gave up the gboct Tba vaU of tha teMpla^ thay 
add, wu torn aaundsr, tba aailb aboelt nicfca mra 
mit, and tha tomba apanad The etiniion wbt 
waa proaentdiradin^ tbe*aaartioaesdaiined,'Tfvly 
thb waa Ihe Son of God!' Tbe body of J wo* waw 
lalnn down by Jeaepb of Arimathea, and plaeed in 
a loBBb^ abont which tha Jawbh priaa ti ^ nanamhg' 
tat ^ V^'f^*^ *^^ ^ shonld iwoB Iha Udnl 
ihiy, eat a gnar^ wwTmg vp tha Amk. Kotwftb- 
etMHiUag thaae pcwnntfaoa bb p«apba<7 wna MUM 
by hb nannaetk* nn tba ink iaj of tha nak 
(Son^y). and be apMRd repaatedly to bb dbriploa 
to tnao m ft, eooaola^ and tavtnKt ihaB. On tha 
foatiath day after Us nawTNtb^ wUk trtth thM 
<m Iha Uonu of OUn^ aflv ha hU gfian ihM 

^■4 iWUnBd ■■ _ 

tharUd eeen Um f« %ea~Aa< 
the fag ffaiigiilbln. aad Aeta i 1-14. 
JVAVS l^iLLKGi; t^MfarUffat 
hy Akodt, bbhap of Elr. in 1 tM. h Im 
Ib^nbHiH fiBuw^i^ cpea vbhetf raCrint^ tn 




nil hor m%jetiiy'» «ulijr«U. I^va wvra of tlta cw^inal 
fowulMioa, ftwl tfae otbon hftv« bv«u added by hiU 
mmamt biwfwton. Six of th« foUovt am required 
to be in order*. I'ki; in»lci*l>i]> mkI niio fellowship 
»n tn Um) stnolulo apiwinluiriit of lliv Uulidpuf Eljr. 
To tlic >ithrr (»11<iue1)[|i« ^Kl a vaisaticy tlin miwlir 
nad fcUum nominut': lu-o cAuili-.latoi, uue at wbnon 
b e1ect«<l by tbo liUli<iji. Tiitn) an nomortnu 

JEaLTS t;01,LK<U:. Oxford, mw fimnJod by 
Q«na GUWa-Ui Id 1S71 on thu iwtltioii of I>r. 
Hu^-b Price, tnjwuTvr <i( SI. iJftTid>, who left luad* 
for the nutinbinnDco at n |>riiii.'ip.-J. ci^bt f^llavi^ 
iiDil ri^bt M.'Iiiibin. It wa.« iuCTViuol hy iliffvrL'tit 
bmrfAc^om until it t»m« to crnisiot irf ft principnl, 
iiintrt<«D fc'Ucrwa. nn<l cightt^Mi ■diolftrii: but by tbe 
erniiuaiiiw of tin.- uuivcnily ojinitiiioiunew tbu felloir- 
>bi)M liai* tven Tr^litoeil to UiirWeii, a lis-lf «f which 
am pear m nisy tjo an to be filk'd iit> by untivc* of 
WkI«^ tba DtB«r to Iw vtuier no RflUictiou by roMna 
of hirih. A follombi[< f»iitid'.ii by Cbarlijii I. for 
iialivi'B of Uaenuwy uiil •Ivnvy hiu been canvert«d 
lata twu iiL-h> Jamil !]■• tor native* nf lliOM Inbuidi ■« 
BVTWiea olucatw) at Klix&bilth Culbrgv, tlticniMy, or 
Vktiiria rnllc%rR, Jcnmy. Vnt nf Uin iinpjiT««c(1 
feUi)«ihi|a ia »]>]>Ued tu the ]mr|>(ineB tif the iimfcs- 
anriaU; thiincb«rit to rahw the iniiiil"*r nf fi>Il'iw»hiiiii 
rtban tbuMvf tli«ari|{ioal follI■(Utipllt»lwl;llty- 
al wUeb tura are oftn. and twenty nro flUud by 
bom ta Viaiea or Mniiiitoulbsbiro. or «iln- 
at orftain Kiicciiinl itriKmU ihcri?. 'Ilicrc nm 
abmil tUrty exhJUtiu» of £ 10 ■•iiai. 'I'hi* um tli« 
flnt coUata Couadad on Pro^Mtaut piiuoploB. It 
hta thft jw««A>uUim to ikhout twontv living*. 
JESUS SI BACH. Seo Sirac-ii. 
JKT, nayii Ih. Young. 'n[>[>oara to b* wood in a 
U^KtaWof bitumiiuiiitiiTi].' And <-i:rtaiiily j«l uflcn 
a|i{i«ani witk tracta of tlgiK'nii* »lnii'tiirr; at the 
■aOM titne Hnsnt are ipeciuieua of 1»QeH tvliidi iieeni- 
iacly ba«« batn BraduaOy ImprBgiintcd wiiJi, ntul 
al llul wboUy replaced by, tld« miUuiioB. jViduui; 
tb(! j-rt-mok Ibere u founil a I^uld hydrocarbon, Aome- 
vrhnt rawiublb^ peUobmm oLi, wbicb occun in the 
nvitlM ni amnMnitaB, Ac, and i* alao «oni«tiniea 
Emad la nodtilea, tbo prMuuco of wUIch b senarally 
■nmaaad ta poiat to a rich viria of jot. 

Vran thoaaad other obK-rvutunuiin'ottbt ujipcor 
Ibal jot «Uit«l ■■ a U^uid »abBtiujci>, iuid that tliL* 
■ibatatwe gTBdvally |M?tin«atod b«ttnwn tbo lamina- 
tiamoi tlieiba]0v&ei,oovCTb>sarerw]n«oaM)catM 
entirdf rapUciag any woody nutter wbloh It met 

Jat ueeura ta «om|j<act laiNuu m banl and aolid 
M to b* MuocptlUe m belnir tamed on a latlie and 
autiafaelni«d into mnamaatal artkloh It haa boon 
wnrkEit tiir c';i)tiirieii ia Whitby, ^'orfcibirc. It ia 
timntl bi tliiu lumisati'iiii, which Bul.««i|uviit-ly tfiickcu 
OVt to S «r 3 India* in thn Tii>|)or li.i* itrata In that 
MUtbmirbovd; a bwer bvU. fruui wbii.-h tba beat 
qnaUly b obtalaed, bai h Ikiduum of '20 feet, and 
■ luaawa a« int n>cV- Jut ta uniipomnl tn hai'« tM«n 
W B f Wl in hntEland aa fu- bwk wi the tiuie uf the 
Tlmaana J«t rcaarba aad ctomm weni conuaon in 
tte Abb^of Wbitby wbea it wnn a reaort of pil- 
fsiiaik Tbc jet Biauafacturc* of Whitby fell airay 
ahnU tlw tiaM ot (Jn*«a EUnbath, aud wera ret ivnl 
JETHAlL SeeFi.oia»«. 

JErX KLOlUVrX <lk.ral guoea), a f«Ur»l 
■anaally nlp.beatcd in Tcftiloww. A> rwly oa tba 
dMaa el tbs tnttbadiMin TmilotiK hnil a lilvrary 
litiluliiM.callad llw CoU^^ du gai SaToir. It wna 
I nartwl b 13X3 by mycb trmibadoun, who aMtcm- 
blej, ttMoHiag to a uaafS probably already lAd, in 
ai pudea b tba Faaboofg do* AagwtiiMa, Toolouaa, 

to daviao wetry. To 1323 tbey sent a letter in 
v«n» b> all tho |io<t« of tb« Languo d'Oc, invittiiir 
tbeio on tlis 3d of May, 13*24, i« a poello foatirai, 
viuart tbo compowr of the Iteat poatn wna to K«vi>« 
nriolet trf riiir|>i))d. AmniiM Viilalof ITaitdiiaudary 
won Um priie liy n pusoi in bunour of the Virgin. 
Th« ra]Ai',*i'4 (;jii>:4i(ilraU«)or the rity. who had !&»■ 
■wlao boon invited to caicuurat^ n fc«iirn1 ao muoh to 
th« honniir (if 'I'll nil) iu«', nllerNi in fotura to fiiniish 
Ibti t'oldrii t iulet. To iiii-n-awt tb« apl«Bdatir <>f tli'i 
Kiinual cvb'butlnn two iithur pmu were addcil tt> 
tlio viuK't- ail ci^limtiiKi and a pauny, botb of aUrer, 
The aodoly 'Ui'iutiiHioil ia jira^por, ani in 13&fr lawa 
wcro di-awn up i^ti-d the /yu.V ti'aituntr: new prixea 
wera ituittttit«l; Jens, Huracenii, blnupbeiuei-a, anil 
vicnintnuDicaUil peiwniawore ascltiJi."-! fruni coiniw- 
tilikin. lie who tor>V nn- prizo rcixiviii the title of 
Uacbelor; hr who tonli thrcu of Doctor of tba Gay 
9clenoa. In IS&O, when tba aabitrba of TouIoumi 
vera destroyed u> pnp<uv furaaloga 'by tlto KufclUli, 
tbo aodeiy waa r«n)o«iNl to tho town. Riinitor InatU 
tutiiRui aflerwardii amw at BnivclonB in th« reign 
of King Jolui, and at Tortoiu in tbo Tfi^ of Kin^ 
MartiiL. Tba ori^ual tnvUtutiun nt T<^Io<ue de- 
clinvd <ltirlne' Uie troubled peHod of the Aft«ciith 
Lviitury, nud nail betutnu iicany extinct, wlirn it woa 
ivvivMiI fliiring tlie npiicti i>f tho rciuuiniajicc by (Tc- 
ii)«nc« Imun. She tuivle n euitwIeraUe lieiitieat to 
tbu uolety. In cnlltudu for which she nwoivcd tho 
iiamocif fouiidnM (which hna misled wnn* in^nii<en), 
anil the HiHiiDty now took tiw luune of OolKge det 
Jeiix Flumu);; tho litlai of doctor aud bacbslor w«ra 
HUportodcd by that of matfrf » jcitr jtoraar. The 
Kicicty. hnwcvo', aoon bHanie comii't^ witb rtchea. 
FewU aud juukettJnj^s took the pWv of tb<.> original 
ohjoct, witicb wn» foigntW'li. It W(« rcformni in 
Iflfll by Jyouin XI v. on the prliliun of the (n'ule- 
liiicinn lAiNiidrrr-, T^ir IiuniluT of iiuiinlaiitrrf WAd 
nuitsl inaa nvren to thictr-idx ^idtrrivsrJs i:K'n.'Mi»il 
by l^ml* XV*, t" titrtj); ti-n noCTi.-lr wa» mcAlInl to 
ibi <>ii^»al object^ and crect«d into an nouleiuy 
under the pniteotlon of tbo ChnnoeUor of l'>aD<'«:. 
It waa diapomed at tba rerolution, and rcritcil in 
1804, Its anniud /itr ii itlll criolirabal, and axoept 
duriok,' tie |K:ri'-'d ut lu tiujivnaloD it biM ainoo IflvS 
piihUnbed an antmal Tolume of corapetitioo pJeeoL 
A* ntt^ht be oxneotcd, ita inBucnco on Utorature u 
itii>ii;nilt(.'*iit. and it« annual coanpcliLiuna reniaifcabla 
iuT tbi-ir aicrlllty. In 1$<7 there wera C70 pieeca 
eont in fnr csmpcUtioD, Tbo btt prize waa awarded 
to a i<orm oalled IjC Midi do la Pranoe, which de- 
iicnlii--a the diatrict by aucb iodbputable gsograpblcal 
trutbaoa — 

* L* Tarn tombe et *e chance tn aa tomnt qui £r(«il<^ 
L* Caroune Mt on las xnu la aoto ■!< Dirotid^' 

and cdebratea its prodiitTtlveaQaa Iq tlie barmoakaB 

'Lu tuAU tore Llaii qn* la t)a di U China, 
Imiu |aiiia j craiitl racaaa,* 

In I&74 lb* ^iTea of vene aent In were ratber 
fewi!r, Biunely, ti'i. 

.I1{W, Tkk WAXDcnrXfi, a |ioet[cal fenaaa-go of 
jHifiiilar tradiUonii, who oweu hn cxistenoe bo a stoey 
utirin(n.4nl witb tbo well-knowti aoeno tn tba blatory 
of Cbrwt'a pnaaion. Aa tbe Savioorwv* on tbi way 
t» the place of Bxecntion, oTercoane witb the vai^t 
of the cfuaa^ ho wbhed to nst on a ateeie bcfen tbc 
bouae of a Jew, wbcim llio rtnty calls AbaaBana, 
who droie falin away witb (.■utwea. Jeaoi calatly 
mpUod, 'Tbou ahnlt waador o& the earth Ull I re- 
torn.' Tho aatetiiabed .Tew did not comit to binuwif 
till the crowd bad MwauJ and tbe Btrecta were empty. 
Driven by faor aaa raaara^ ba baa linae wandend. 



Mcording to Hm coroiD-ind oE tlw I>»J. froni fiaoa 
Co p]mx. Mid kv aetvr yet bevu kblo to fiiwl & grrnvv. 
Tblt panUmnrt of ooMHef mmI fasnlBOM of iainn 
—ft ootMknutioa to wubr tur mn on th« •artlt, 
ftod to be the oonttfrapomuj ol all cenhiria— hai 
nfTuHciI io*t«iuU furthw puBtaMid noir«lwu. Blid- 
Icy, Lawia, CnJy, ui>) XIi*. Nort»m in Kngluid, 
Schubart »ad Sufaleuul in C.vraMiy, aiil ijtu) in 
FrsBco, likTO taniad tlus Ic^nd t.> A..-{»iuit. (iiM^e 
li» Uio thinl rolumr at liia otrn Lifv) Iim tkotdicd 
AltuaBTiia iriUi jiTeat npint ftnd htunour mi & philo- 
ao^ihk mbblvr M Jerunlooi nho opp>«« the Saviour 
witti ft cold it'oridly lo^ which will not look Jtbov* 
tho thln^a of t»m, ual i* thei<fofa oondrnubcd tv 
rvnutD u tin wurKl ^wliidi Is ^ to liitn) ontQ ft 
doMi* for higlwr thiiiss «hould ftwftkni in bim. 

JKWEl.U Joiix, Itbhopof SalJiibDrf, nn crotnrat 
Eag'Uh prcUlc, Imra at iScrrjr X«ri>cr. Ucvuiwltirc, 
in 153'i, »rc«r raooiriag bla fint edtK^tlon In Li* iin- 
tivu ouuntr, WH otlcrnl at Morion CoUc^t-, Oxfoid, 
ftnd Kioa aijthpibked Ulmaelf by hia ftpnlicntiaQ to 
Miidy. Il« ooJlT enbrftced the priaupW fif tlie 
Keiomutiaii, ftnd u ft c»U«g« tiitcir [dcuIoUmI tb«ra 
ftjuoog Ida jnipIU, tboiiwli nvt without oosuderaUs 
cftutiao, iM Bftorj VIIL tnw Btill alive, uid hla per- 
wcntinf eiUota wen atOl in foroo. On th« ctrcnrtinu 
«>f Bdwiwd VL Jewell publicly (lulariid lit* fiull), 
becftua IntUnfttely eooiMoCed with F«t«r Martyr, ftiiU 
both bj lut wrartiooi in tb» uuvvnity. luul by bli 
■ennone tad mitiii^ eouributcd greatly to the [an- 
gnm of ProtMtAutiflin. On the ocoeMion uf Mkiy, 
wImc Pofiotf onco more pdmw) the MOMubnt, b« nt 
fir*t tetDpoMMdl, ftnd even ondeftvomod to tcrera 
hluiHlt ma »vcre necultlei bj ■nfaMilbiaic tlw 
popiilkdocttiatewludiliobadrtnwiiiood. Evaatbij^ 
■mraver, did not ftvul him, ftnd h«ne^ wliile on tlie 
MM bftftd bft wu uphrfttded by Ida oonwieiii-iiv hi- wn>, 
flo the otlier, attacked hy liie enemies, who allei.'ed, 
ftual no doubt truly, thftt bu aahocriptiuu was iiuuiioatv. 
Hftnsff with difficulty «M»pad from the rmiiaaric* 
of Biwp Bonner in ISSi, bo ivftch«d Fr&nUort, 
when 1m auulo tho only repandon In hii power, b^ 
wldtig ft public ftcknowleddjincnl of ■uerow far hu 
ncftutfttiou. On tho aooe«tan of EUubetfa In lUS 
Vo totnmed to Knglftod, wu vue of Um elxteen Fto- 
kNent dinnea ftrooiot*^ by thaqoeta todiacnaa tho 
Itwdlnf pofftUof alnuto in Wcatainater Abbey with 
the aamo Bunbar of Bomaa Cftlbolka, held ft pUce 
tn iko mmmfarirn wliidi vi«iU»I tho difTonnt dioocaaa 
In tbeaoath-waal of £it][lftDd fur the purpoMof twA- 
Iw ml PopffTi Ukti oftrly In IMU wm oooMcratod 
B&bbp of SouriMuy. Ho lUaeharged hia ■piaoMMl 
(Inlla^ and al tbo aamo tioio mooeonbed Ua utodica 
with u (inig«nco xudor «Udi u£a oooadtolkm aooo 
gtvv way; and while mgUfftA on ft proftdung tour 
bo waa taken Ul, and diMi at Monkton Pftrleigfa, in 
Wiltihiro, in 1A7I, in Dio bftJi-tli yev uf hb a^. 
Hia wovb^ ehwdv on tho pninta of Un PopU) coo- 
Uovony, an Mill hdd In mgh eaMcn; ara ooo of 
of EoKland. Apologia Kcdaaba An^kaM (158-^), 
not only reovifod awMacnreulatJDnoo Um Cootiaeiit, 
IiMD bafaks pubUabad in I^tla, fast haa hnm traat- 
laiad Into Bitiat Banman buuama. TbaeatintaUuo 
in which it waa heid in EngUno may bo aajiiiialail 
by tbu fact that thfoe aoToreliiia, Elbabcth, Janwa 
I^ and Chftrlea L, and fmir auocoasin aicbbUMpi^ 
onlered ft copy of it to bo nhained un for penual in 
all pariiih churL-hiM. In I5ll7 be pablvtbed a Defenoe 
uf tha AjiologT- 

JEWELl^BY Ea a term appliwl geofidly to tha 
MtUnx of goBMor pcodona atoaea aad tlM manoffto* 
tara of ponoaal and olbtr otnuMiUba bi pM oad 
■Hirar, and alao bt thaaitiolMi aiftBnfftettnwL It ia a 
branch of the art and trade <4 Che coldindlh. /ricd* 

Uitff i* the t«Tin i^rplied to tlio aettinf tM <aBMlA M 
other hard ktone* in framo-pUtea for pmpaaaaof ait. 
iwrtloularly aa aupporta for tbo piroto of wsbcbao to 
wotIc in. 

.1 KWS, tlte nodera aane of the ilaaMnJaiita e( 
Alir,thaDi,whoweRfinL<:^Uod //c^w, Kkmi Uobtr. 
which M Donnidcrod by wuae anthurittoi aa a patn^ 
nynic, by others aa a pentib Barney ladkating tho 
coimtry oait of A» ^apiirvut, ftm vbicb thay ori- 
ginally canio; afterwanU Iwaelite^ Ctmn laraJ, the 
name given bo Jaoobftfler Ida wreatUng with tho ango] : 
and flwdly Jwwti, beoauae alMr tbo Babvlwikh capti- 
vity tha mnionty of thooe who rctmiMd l« tha land 
of Danftdtt Belonged to tho tribe of Judah. Tho Ua- 
tury of the Joira pr aa en ta tlM peonHnrity <tf hafng 
largt^ mixed np witb diriae iBtorpoattiaa. '\^'Uw 
God nifforcd all nationa to walk in their own way. he 
diaieAbraliam,tbeir aace>t«r,ftt the father of acbmat 
rao* who wi-n- to ho envenwxl by hia tawa, and to mftlot 
hia will known to all Uie world. TIm mtia ftnthnri- 
tie* for the earlier peeioil of tho hlatoty of thlapaopH 
aa tha Habrowsor laraeUto^ down to tha Bahykaaah 
OLptivi^, are the eaaoraeal booka of 8cii ptui «v P**^ 
ticularly tfae Gvo buolc* of Momea, the beolu of Joahoa, 
Bath, Jadgw, Saaind, Kinga, CbrvnidaK and aooM 
of the pro;<hc<ic wnb'n^ particn l a ri y IiaJafc and 
Jureituaa. One of the noet foroidaUe diScnltiea 
of Uebrew hUuuy. aa of all oarly Uatonr, fo ita fiu»> 
nology; for ftltbiNuli a diatfaot dmoofogy b gi*aB 
in tho diffetvnt ho^ of Scripttare, Its liitai]»Btatlo» 
and hanuonitJitioD, as wt^ll t» ita ayadiroBittlha 
with that vi mirraanding hiitnjy, is a uattor of ax- 
tnmo dilBculty. A* our apaoe trul not ]«nnit of onr 
dlaouMinj Ibaae diflcultiai, or giving tho viem of 
the variona nnthoritioa, wo oan only sivo dale* a* an 
a[^wt>xinution in the caae of ["**■""'■' evebta with- 
out ft<auiuin£ any cooipleto aystOB or netbod U 

WLeu tbotnrlh had been repcofdod aft«r tha Bond 
by the daacendanta cif Noah the aicrod hiaterian ro- 
cutda (Gen. si) thftl the earth waa all of an« bacttaTe. 
aad that having in tba oooim of nlsraitoa frusi tho 
coat reached tho plain of ShiBar,tiMy iMoaoaBd build> 
ing a city witb a tower wboaa top anoiitd loaA to 
bwven, teat tbey abould be aoattoreil abroad B[ia« tho 
faeoof tfaoaarth. Thia aaibiCioaB pbn van foaatralod 
by dirine interf«eenoe. By eonfoundhtg iho paaeh 
of the builden, ao that they could nut oadenAnd 
«ftdi otfaor, God caoaod tben to Uftva off thoir work 
and diaporae over tbo fitce of tbo earth. The baBaa 
achemo of tinl^ beiny tbua dofeated, aaoilMr mhta* 
waa oommcBced bj uiod faiBMclf in the caD of Ataar 
ham, ft dwendaat of ShesL llkia patrianAw wfcoiM 
orifiiBal name wo^ AbnBi,waadwelitD£ ia Urof tba 
Chaldoe8.appiarcatlyin wfaidi tbagnaUr 
pftrt of the worid had auak. when Coil called ran t* 
go fisih fron U» klmlred an-l the placo of hJa b^ 
^vity tinto ft land which bo aboadd abow Ub, pn»- 
tEdaiiir to VUm hita H&d to make him a bloNfaf; mi 
that m hlu (Gen. xlL 41. or io hia feed (Gml bJL 
IS), all tbo funiUaa of the earth ahonM bo Lleaand 
Aa a acal of thit oovenaiit bo gavo hia tbo af^pi of 
droumciaioik eoamaadlac that every maB-^Uht of 
hia race abonld be clreamdaod a tbe i^ of lacht 
daya. Abraham waa called to mtiaam to tlw bad of 
Cftoaaa, which waa to be givvii to Uw aecd^ who wen 
to ho aa tbo atnnof hoavan for multitBdo. Abrahaaa 
ao}onml^d in thin land with hie BOjiibew Lot, the aim 
of Harao. Both of them were exoeedin|[ly nA in 
cattle, H that I>ot at length renoaid to tba (Ml ol 
tbe Jonlan to find room for hb floAa; bat AhnhiB 
had ao tonltorial tMaaoariou^ havf b( to pmhaN • 
hNrriMf>-pta«o far Ua wtfe Saiftb froca Ifaa (UAaa 
nf Holn, which waa traaafcmd to hbn witbooaiMMh 
ftblo legal formality (G«a.xxiL 17, IS). nMUaariae 


mbs m 



IvMwi^.Alat^vM TTwrfiiTil to Imm;Ui 
«■ h9 aHife,ib *^te»a< Kk tmOs Huu. 
TWttMrf fe^ b*k W the OBUMod fran God Id 

UiM^ hb M W Bwk; ad •!» otbcr ■» br 
ifcwfc K Mt i fc.M»— tf— J,th« fonwr wtM 
w^Bkr iClfci.UMMaeik Ob bttcrcf eooukr- 
aMk ^MoB €ndiB» sr a«t*<ML Hm date of tha 
oB irf lliilwi ii pmi ij VvlMr » i^ IKl. 
Ihm ■■!! T Uswab B«fe>ca, b; wbom h« had 
•vte an% EiM tha ddi^ *a oMMkar U tktt Edom- 
ki^ Md JmA Oa yimu, ol tka pttaansd aoMl 
J aw* had Mm vsm^ Ad a< Ua own Idadrad, ud 
*** » ■ I I . tho hwffMiIli ol hb vi*ih h; 
wboa ha had tadn aan^ caaaaalr oDad Iha 
t«td«« latriairlin. «to vtaa tiw aw»ton <]< tha 
tvaha taft» if iKaiL Tha aaiaaa «l Um pattiac^ 
««■ W i l iB , f iai 111. Lni, JaUi, IndMr. and 
KalMa, adOB «f LMk; Ja ri i md BasiamiiL Mm 
^ BaAif; IlM md yijyil^MM rf fiilhab': and 

• Gfti«^^afe^aMafa^Mh. Tba Urtory «( tUi 
JasaC had la ■» Eraa kb btlnt'a booaa la aa>». 
y a< h— fct diPi ii ed Mi falhtr aad ha brothet 
BBB. Ba VM ■*■!« totated In faia tmck I^aUd, 
h« ■ ■ rt«« hfc 1 ill I Id paw rich hi hk ler- 
riae. BasMid««dlhaBaMl*ratlwb«hav>TatM 
MmaMMI; vflh aa n^d |n«iaaa ta ittonnig to 
aaM hii tr aA w Xh^ TUi aai^ Uw deritatwD 
a( wUck b — aihal dadAfid, bat «hkh u «»• 
mn^ lakn ta ana a*f«ia» with God,' wai adopted 
aa a cida ()< h«ov tij ba daccadaoU TlionHaf 
^■c ifr-ad lh tha «n«plfa« el Joae^k aod pohafia of 
Bi^Hl^ if vha* utla if kaova. Wen DDt, in carij 
Hi* ad Im*^ 4h«iBCalihcd bj the pMr af tbtir aiKaa- 
■aa^ Hilira, Iha rliiiit.l»j wjtb Biaab. bk falhar^a 
BBBw ti lia. S^— and Lwi traac b awJy itew tha 
M^da «f SbiiiB. ft dnr al iba Mlriiaa, fa nt«Ma 
Iw thavitdalaa af thnr taktr Ditub br Shaman 
tiC Jadafa nrioo* dberedilaUo ataoina 
r M«Mda^ ad Ihe brochaca eoUoetirely aoU JoMfh 
• bad «f lihiMilhii tohBautiMlaaaalanl0 




Mgnt, Ihnogh wUch mmboaUj wm loMDed 
pnfLtej (aa« t0 jUnham that baa aaad riwold 
■■jaoni is that land «<M yaan^ a pedad wfakfa 
la aMMlIr cih a l alad tnm tha tina of Abrabara. 
Tha hialacj of Jtmg^ tha meat *»*— *!»g ctaaode 
■d thaa fsia^ aa wm i fa aNit af eha|ak. uxviL aad 
zxata.-!. cd iha faeafc af Goxda. Ha waa Miaad by 
■ ■■ f «f Ida ratu* and thfoagfa tha pnnrUcnaa «f 
G«d 10 be tmlcr vimIct Ffaanoh tna Iha had «f 
B0f«. vhaa, » faodaa ailiiac ta Caaaai^ bubtbcr 
aaa ld> *hda Umtily wot Sowa to biai aad wan 
by nanoh tha land «C Ooaban oaaiaat* 
Jaeab cat Ua daath-bad bartawad prwhctk 
•a Ui aaaa. Bcubc^ SmeGB, aad Lavi 
iwi^iar thaaJaaaaa alraady n wMi aifld, pa wed orar, 
aad tha ynadn of the iieiiah, maw aada lanra ax- 
plbdsly.^m ta JBdah,wbnM tiduimaluu la Jcaa|ih 
ia Catowcf UabivtbivBaaiaiala bad ^vaa««1dmca 
•d a letlitr dundcr thin hii aariy imcdaritica 
lavfldaadL Jaaictdi ncvived thai part of the buthri|;ht 
vhkh ecaatilad ia a doafcla poaiiDn, his two Mnk 
Maoaaab aad E|>fa>aiai.beia|{ adapted by Jaoobaod 
II f- tha baadi of tribaa, Iha nuabar biia? f«faa»- 
unaally reduced la twalra by tha aattiaf apaat of tha 
ttOa of Lavi to tbo {rieatlj oOob Alier thia— but 
bsw iat^ aft«r w« an oat hdi^a aew kipg anaa 
whahaawnal Jcanih. Tha I w a a B toawa n t^ipraaa u i 
■ad banagfat fabo Modag^ aad tha a n othma vpna 
Hnm tiuwDe piaaoa^ atUtn/y. aad BataaMwabla. 
Whaa thOThadbecBr«Jiic«dtetfaaI<nr«ataoaditioe 
God I afaiiil np a tirijnaar Cor Ihcaa m the pmton of 
Meaaa. Tte acriptwal twouvd doa* aot girn any «■ 
pifrtt >■* — ■»*T r d thnr m to tboaaiaa cf tha par* 

tkahr Kla; <^ K|7F* aader wbota the laaatiUa 
wan farooibt hrto Inaihvi^ or of tha Idag ia wbnaa 
KicB llttM flSacMd thar Uirenaca. Ewa tha 
o^lal fai wfaadi tha» amvcha hdd away ii a 
nattir ol oca jaetan. Acenadtag to aaaa anthofltiea 
tha nrnwfa »ha b«e*a te appaa tfao IimlHaa 
WW Bhaasas IL. ^ Batkaal hvo of Oa ■;CFptiaa^ 
aailthctrddiraraniMtaDkplaoaBBdBrhiaaDa. laEx. 
L II b. a aaid that tbo lantfitca baOt for Phataah 
trewondtfaa.l'ithaaiaBd Baaana, TVoailheex* 
pfriaa *aov ibna hom a aaw IdaK o«ar SgT|« 
wfaidb kaew aot Joanh,' » ehnfe at djuaiy haa 
baa iafntnl. bat wbotber thk ta eawMaat with tha 
naWNiliiC id ibii Vtna aa mnnrbnl fa Ft f 9,lOtaMj 
wy inU be tknhtal nalaB«a«a of Pbaraoh to 
hta pBopla to^ ladaad ba aoniMat with a ponly 
dyaaatk chaw^ but b certafaily tial thai af a odd- 
qaawr addr winng aaoaqoawd pa«pl>. T^daaaolquy 
«l IhaMiediaDdof w tifo n yaBa n a Esyptiaahii- 
twy fa^ Iwwamr, to naatrtM^k that ana aHOBiaff a 
«Aawa flf (haarty, aolhoritlta hava aot baea alila to 
dackta to what partkalu- djnaaky tboaa tr ana aetfaaa 
an to ba aaagaad. The catin maibar of JaeoVk 
family wbca ba veat lato Egy|A waa wvaaty psacn^ 
and when ihey wart braaghl into boada(B ihay an 
ivpnaaatad by tha jaalona kn^ aaiaora aad ai%hlbr 
tteB tba EiTptiBaa. TWy anat thanfon for a eoa- 
•idaraUa put ol tha p«iod of thek toioBa ht Egypt 
bave nj^rad Inadocn. AoooHIag to tha taonvad 
dmrndt^ (Tidier) the Ivaditea kit Egypt ta 
■.c1t»l,CKaafatgtbaBadScaaa11tfa3fay. Haaca 
waa tha amt graadaia vf Levi by a kag-llvad aa- 
c«aby. Tim dupr^oa of tha LnMEtca had begaa 
•MM time faefcaa Ua bhrth, bat owtng t» a ■Beanriaa 
of nnuric>bla " "—»■«»"— |aee lioSB) ha waa 
■doptad by Pbaraoh'a danf^tar aad hraqdtt op at 
coart. IKi^aa ha wia forty ycaia of ago aa tad ta 
Ut^an aAor kOliag i> KiyinaB who had oppratoad 
one of bk batbRB, and aRer other fior^ ycaza paawd 
hare God apmand to bba ia a baiaiag boA aad 
WW""*"' bin to Ko to tha dcUtaaaaaa «l IcncL 
n* dtlafla <d Ida alMhifi ara hnewa to awry raadrr 
«f BOdalMlafy. Tba eUblrea <f Ivael pitoad fbr^r 
yir a ia i ha daw rt brfuaa proceeaag U> the ocmjocft 
«f Caaaaa pmaitod to tfacir anonrtonL Ben Uod, 
bythitiiiintftTtttfTinf KIT''' ^* *t >* nddia tbeKew 
T«staaieat (Aeto tL S8, fiS; Hob. tL SV sa*o tha 
the law of tba tea cmaiaaiidBKBta oa Mooat Sina^ 
and tnaacfiiaof oomninnioatfonateMoaealbawbolo 
pility by which they Kan to be goroniKl •• a paopl* 
vaa mealed. A oenmoBial of »cri£ca aaa tnnl- 
toto^ aad Aaron, the elder bmther ol Haiaa aad hk 
aooa taaaaeraled aa a iKroditary pricaibood. The 
aalko waa artaUkbed aa a noxKiucr. Il waa to 
ba sorened by Jadgai appofatad and IiHjJnd by 
God, aad to uito bd ag. Za the deaert it waa 
aurehalled is fanr dlvideaa or graapa of three tribca, 
each of wfaick acpaiatdy had ila ataadard, it* i>itK» 
or leader, and iU proper qnarter aadgned to iL 
Timf waro fad with auoaa or 'bread ma boatao,' 
Mid aa a viatblaiaaidCeatatiaaaf God'a prfaiiace their 
jomeyiagB w<ra ngahled byapQlaref dood aUda 
wvnt befnra tboai by day, aad wbidt waa ohai^ed 
into a pillar of fir« by tLSght. Two cwaewaae gf lfa» 
intB c«)abte of bcarin; anaa Itvaaty jmn old and 
upwardi) amoag tba lanelitea waa tokos, one at tbo 
bapnaiag tha otiier at tha cloae ol their forty yeora' 
arandeefaiga. Tbo totd «f tha flrat otnimcnUian 
waa fiOa,Ua. of tU aeoond M1.730. The Levitea, 
whowenaol lackoned aarana tha wanrior^aro eivaa 
ia tha ant onras at £3,000, In the aeoDud at iSfiVK 
la both eea ia aea Jndah k the aiiMt poimkM trfba. 

Joahtu, vbaanoceoded Mooaa, led tha laaditM to 
?*F-T'""?^l*i!f^, Thlaw.a«ff«««dini 
talTMb«r.<bKwe<»imaiid Ut5n.a Tbelaadwu 



tticD iliviJol tiy lu: utmia tb» t««tf* Mb**, llw 
iniMt ixmtberu imrtiDU full to SUnHn. Jndih cauio 
tio\t, tnit tlio ooARi nriM h«Itl by tlie Phllbtlnei, wito 
lud Dot Ixen niLiluvd. To Llie trurth of Jadlh from 
Jimu^ikm fAiii0 II«njainiTi nn tb« oaxt nnti Dnnon 
tbo wcct. The )>i>rli"n vt Hplinuiu otrvlclml froDu 
tfavcout bo Uio Jotxliui ubovtt Dan and Beiijaaiiii; 
tlie half trib« of MoiumoIi, Iw&clinr. and Z^bultm 
ooctlpiad (uacoMivD lacUniu to the uoitli ol I{|)liraiiu ; 
A^het ■tralckud aloutc th» cout uoitli of tboM tribe* 
Ut Phctnida: NapbuU ocenpio<1 (ho interior ilon^ 
tbo JordiLO from tbe pnrtinn cf IiuM'LAr ti) Mount 
IicliaiLua. Un the other dde of the JuxLin I'tuubon, 
UmI, and tlj* Nuuolng half of Mnawvoh itrotchvil 
iron loiidL Co nonh nlonf the land* of GHwuI sud 
SMhoa. After the dofttb of Joakuo, according to 
the ouimuon clinmuln^y about 14*27 Hc., a aucccuinn 
of jud^'tn mini fur ■ [kHihI voriounl/ Mlininted nt 
Inn S3l> to t$0 yean, autboiritiM differiu;; uiiwt tui tu 
Iho time of its BommoncemiOt, tX\e tilMe of tha period 
hcing rarinualj aLabud at Imm It.C. I I'll la 1077. 
Tio dilftcultioa J ilio tlinjimlcijy of lUrai; fwiiinln 
•4001 Ui b« iii8il|)«Tabl«. Tlie luldilinunf tti» Mjuiratfl 
^riod* iiiBiitioiiod in tho book of Ju<l^o« given 41 
Jean, but the ncriod axrigiicd to the book ia %he 
OQtnrooo vhrouolog; b S^u, many of ilie •ciiniato 
«\-«llti bdng eoMutorad m ooiitcai]ior»j>. 1 KJ. vi. 1 
gins ISO ycATB a* the |>criod fram the «xo>{un ta 
t)>c fuuiiduliun uf Solomon'a temple, wliilo AlU xiii. 
20 Eis'-* 45U iw th« pariod of tha J<i'lgn> fnnn tlin 
diibiiiii of the loud lo Soninul, Tlio |,'^iiuliii-ijr«i uf 
the tcil la KiugH ii diHpuuxl by aome auClioritioa, 
and il aeon* iiupo«ibl« lo rcconcU* it with Act* 
or ni(!i JilO^. sin. SQ, and anotber «leRieat of diffi- 
tiiilly !■ iatrudooed b; Jawbh iranealogka, which 
/avour Ura tbortwt period. \niil« tht raoiircd 
ohninolnnr ia probably wroac. nn other aMou yet to 
liav« eateUidted a hcltCT cUiiu to accuraiv. TUo 
pnrkxi of tlie jndum vm as a wbolo vno of great na* 
tjonal calamity, and finally of fljaoraaniatioa. Tbo 
«iirr<jtutduie uatiutui, tho Moabit«a, Otnaanitri, Midi- 
ouitos, I'hQiatinea, Aaunuuitav and oven mom lUataat 
aationa, invadad Iho land of Uio larnvlitoa^ bfOUglit 
them Into aub|MlioD. and oiiproai«<:l th«m. Tmm 
conqnoHta, mora or Ina partial or complete, wlildi ore 
oxpreaLy atatod to liavo faooa iiermittwl on accuiint 
ct tbo aiM *]{ th« people, were alt«ru»tad by peHodn 
d rapoM, whan Umt wore gorcmoil by jwIgM <li- 
viuly taiaed up lo lUUvvr ttwn from their eauraici. 
Amons tbo mora reiDaricablo of theae Jndsw vcm 
Othaiel, Barak. I>oboa«b tbo prr>phatMa, Oidcnri, 
Japhthab, and Samaon, vrbaae RU)icmntiind Btranutti, 
Mgular oonflicta with the Pblliaunee^ captnn.', blind- 
neea, and death, form a atoiy in vhicb tli'i: luarieltuiw, 
til* borou^ and thn uathetio olcmania cnaibiiio in a 
lively aumaaioD oS dramitie Inctdent*. Sonta t}»- 
•oilaa of tblt period ani tuuntod in tbu book of 
JiM^ptai whidiahowhcnrooinpletattaa thodiaorgauj- 
aation, and bow frigbtftd the dcuinmlixidinn i>r 
•ookty, ai^MiaUy towarda JU latur piut. The i-bltrf 
vf thoee CMMdaa an tbo •uvaoe and rvwngefiil wan 
of A bl ml ech , tbo oou ef Gldacn, with the men of 
fihoeham, oonaeciuent on hi> ailcotpt to found a 
moBarBby (abap is.); the atory uf Stirnha iuwipL 
faldioattnff the artthiK op ol idoUtry tit tbo trib« nf 
l>ia (clui^ xvUi): oimI tbu revolUujf iiiory of the 
LetiUa ooncabinak with ite extraordinary concluikiD 
In Iho all but compWlv oitir|iatian of tha trib* of 
Banjamfii, In tbo tntw cknlni; eiiaptcra. The la«t 
Mill prvaiat ul the jodtfea vaa Hamnel, wba waa 
IwHtfht up ill tha temple at ISliilnb. lie judged 
lafBU for Lwi [itt-onayean, aeoordinn to tbe ouaunon 
«braai>ln8y lllii-lOlU, fivm Ike death of EU Ip lb* 
MoeaMlou of SauL Be did Mot, lOta noal of the etker 
Judgi^ lew] tbe paople in Laltfe; bo* by the fofw of 

hi* character, the vcci^Taltoll lOqtlrad 'fa^ltto pMv. 
and the iuflupnw «f hiii ^irayan^ M cnwutoed tUm 
to thrgw off the yoke of the Philiatincs. He riianl 
tlko tone of aocicty, which Muma already to lutii's 
Boaewliitt tin |imv Lil under Kl i, anil iutnxiuc^ Ifreater 
resitlnricy into tlio adniinintmtinti of iiuttce. He 
RKRis to bare continued lo act na a judj^, aa he 
ci-rtainly waa conralted aa a profihet, aft«r Saul waa 
r&iaL<d t<j the tliruno. Toward* the doar of tbe period 
of i}ainnvl'a Mipiimte lulmtniitrBtiati be uiiilnl hia 
aona with him iji the judiicshlp. but th<.*y walked nut 
in hla waya, but took brihta and porvcrtod judrancRt. 
Tha peoplo tbcmi)HiTi drmnndwl a king, aii3 God 
ootnuuuided Sumiiei tu comply with their wlah and 
anoint Saul, a man of the tribe of Ht'KJiunin, ubu 
waa highar than any of the peoplo, from hii vluiuldcia 
and utiwuda. Tbe rci^ of Kant ooustitut«a the 
inuet (Irumatlo period in Jewish hiatury. Tha king 
Liiuaelf, who ia at Ant tha moat jironiiacnt fltpirr, 
WM a remarkable choractcrt conocn1iu|; under an 
iil>}i(.-Amiicu of exccanive modeety, on amUtioni and 
jiL-xuiiarly olatiniOo and tcnadona ctiaTacter. Id the 
1>,ink-)^iiiid atiuirla the venerahlo figure of Samuel, 
which dcAth ittiulf doo nnt remore from the acen^ 
An tiiuu luifulda tb(> drania niiuLhcr AOtor IipCMBM 
jmjiuiiiout in the aoou«^ airmiuiig Lho ji^uiiay of 
Haul, whom lie ia deatuieu to ccUiwe, nnil tbe nD«i|UB] 
*tru^le between the dcaputic luouarcb and the 
waiiUbiui^ and p«rt(»cutcd shcphOTil buy anointMl lo 
hn hia auoccaanr, and dritx-n fmm ni-ccsuty tabeoome 
the leulor uf a diNi;ier>te bantl, he-uina. Tht noUe 
character of JunathaD. Saul'a md, hla patrieiUnii and 
hia dutintcrMted love for Dainil, nuppfiM an eplaode 
of hardly infuriur inlcreat, while tlic Philiatinea ant) 
other eiivtidt* i>f Iri-»»] (urulnh the aoene with aa 
abounding Vftrioty of incidents. Tbe account of 
Satii'a nigo, ii'io Hnmc of the narrationa in the book 
uf Judgtii^ ia alli-udnl wjUi cuiiaiderabk- diSieuHiea. 
It ia In partkuliT vtiiy difflcnU to unilvnCand tlie 
rclationa eubaiating between the Israelitca and tha 
I'tiilktinei^ wkidi aeem to be very eompUoaled and 
Huctuatijig. l>uring the time of Samuel (I Sam. vii. 
11-14) wo riKul of u KTvat vict'iry gaitieil ovor tbo 
Pliilwttne* ai Mij;]ich. which ui<li:(l in ihetr enlijiuni- 
tioa and the rocov«ry of tlic dtica tliey had Ukea 
from the laraclitca, fmm P^knin even to Calh. At 
Ilia tery odiuiJieuiijinuut of SkiiI's r(iif;u we Hud him 
leading an army uf :ii.>0.<«iO axD of larael, and SD.OOO 
of Juii.tli. hviug a lo>7 in ninsa of th'C people, ^;^nal 
Naiianh l!iR Aniiiionilc, who wiu Wnicj/inff •labmb* 
(lile^d. After a iltdai^e victory 0*«r Naliaab tiaiil 
diKoiiMwil thw paoplo, retaining a etamting army of 
SOi-(t. Inthefollowingyoarag^etieTalalAmi utafrrcad 
tbruiwhout the isnmtty becauM Jouathau hwl dared 
to nnita a puriaon of Uie fhillatlnw, Tbe bmelit** 
an aummotied once man to bis ilaudanl, but audi 
ia the nraUffO of tlie PMIIitUncii that many of th«u, 
iiiatcad of oheylnK tbe aiuniucin*. join nith their ena* 
niira, who oonie op with nliarlutt and horanDta) and 
an army toprwented m the aand on theMa-ahoc* for 
uiultitade. Tbe people who obey ftaul'a ettmmoiui, 
on tbo other hand, follow him tntnbKng and thuly 
diminiah tn number. What ia yet more moaricabia^ 
it la atalad that tb*r* «'a» ii-< Miilih found thicwjlKntt 
all the land of lanel, the Pbiliititiix liaviOK takuk 
then away teat the Hebrew* abooM ninko ihewtaelvea 
BWonU, mt that all the tvaoUtea liml t» t;a down to 
tfco llilliitiBc* tn *liart<vn their agrjiruluira] lttipl»- 
aeDta.aud thuiui tboilayof batllc tbctr wna neither 
■word nor ^lear found in l)i« tiaml of oiiy of the 
peobb that wm« with t>.itd imd Jonathan, except 
ana aa the Una litnMlf and bin aoa liad been ahla 
lo aupply. In tWe adferaa circumataooee th* valour 
of Joaathan. aided by mlnMuhaia dreamiUDcea, 
Mhiovcd a great victory over the Philiatinea, their 




belr M 



Hokvw aUiM turaad «gi^iwt UiaDW and thtf v/vn 
panned irlth *Iuiglit«r U> their own border*. On 
Uwifng from thu viotarjr Saul waa met l>.v t^uuuel, 
wbo ouuleatBvd bitn to loiw LU Iringdtim fur biiviii<j 
in faif inipsticncv umrinil tlie ri)clit of Hn«Hlio«. 
TUa KBtvoM m« ooufinncd whcA Saul, aent by 
fiunud to «vt«rminAtc tha .VmAlckitea^ iip&inl Agftg 
l^Cir ldii;( in viol.ition (>C thr liivinn ccuiniani], a^nd 
David w;u iui'>iii(«d to mii'cui.'U hiui. Saul, luiwevia', 
wai no! immiKUtttaly flupcraeded. lie cuutiaaoil to 
orgaaise the forcm of Uraol, aind to iiglil with vary- 
im raccoN Bi^ainst tbeir enemiea on ercry uilv, 
UomIjv Amnicii. Lili^nt, th* kbffi c< Zobab, and the 
PhilUUnw. Dkvid, Uw ton of Jono, a SochkbctDiio 
ol th« trtlw of Judftb, 'tfao nuko after Ool'a own 
heart,' whoWfMnppoUitud toaueocecl SftuI, wnaUatiiirLl 
Ui Iw the ancestor of « Un* at l>iD^ Mid tho pro- 
Ifviiilor vf UiD (ircuplAed MoMtkb. The tHary o£ bi« 
UMStry u tolil in the book at Ituth, a Mwt of appen- 
dix ti> that Af Judgn. After hu wua anouitrd by 
Sanwirf be diatiuguudioil hinuelf hv ilnying (toGatJi 
tl Gath, tba champiuo uf lUe FblliaiiiiM, aud wm 
ntp^tod Saul'i aimoar-boMvr. Tbo jcaloiuy of 
tae king wim rotiacd by hi-aring tbo woumih aing, 
'Sanl bath alaln hia tlioiuuuii]* aud DDtjil Uu ten 
thwiMiMli ' Ma also ]oanied ttiat David had beu 
■f)|)oiiitad his mioooaMU' anil bccnme bis iuv«Unte 
{Wnaeubr. At len^tb Saul wm called out to battle 
i^jaiaat Um Philistinra, aiid in );i«iit dlatrcn hv weal 
ta a wft«b at Eadiir. whv at bia rvquost calM up 
*"■""'. and tb« [iru)th«t prcdiotad hia rteatti and thnt 
of hia MOB, wrhicb took iilaco aocordinKty at the battle 
oa JjIouDt Uilboa, on tho following <1a,v. Tbe time 
■wlgned to the niipt <^ Sanl U K.C. 10^5- SQ. On Uw 
dmb of 3aal David inecMded him at onoe aa Idng 
at Jadafa. bat Iiihboabeth waa crowned king of I«*at 
W Abncr, the cajttaia of Sanl'a heat. Dnrinff a war 
of aa*en yeaiw David eontbtued Bo males bead HKiujiat 
SaoTa (mUo mooeaaor. Aboor deaortod to him, but 
waa trp»obemia1y kiUi;d by Jiuli, tho crafty and oni- 
bitMua leader uf David'a beat, to nhoin Abnar'a mili- 
tary rvpntatiuiii gav«i umhra|;i}, aud tbo alaiiEhter uf 
U» bvuUier ia battle a inutit-e of nvoag^ lalibofheth 
vras anoa after osaaaalnatod by hia own aervaut*, and 
David bectino kine over tho whole land. By the 
« w 'c u » which atteaded bi* arm* and tboae of Joab, 
hi* cutaiuauder- in -chief, b« exl«iLd«d his diniiuiuiut 
thivugfaout tlie whota of Palestine; anbdiied the 
fhUirtiii^a, Moabitca, Hyrians of Dainaama, Kdomito*. 
Anaotnitea^ and Atnalvkitt*, rendwing many uf Uio 
anrvowHHn^ nations tributary, Ooe of llje ni'wt 
■DtabU intideuta of hisT«i([n waa ttic r<:t)«lli»n nf hia 
aoD AhaUriin, who was foltuwod at fint by tho wliol« 
of taraal, bnt not by the trained wnrriun uf Durid. 
AbaaluQ) wm dcfuotvd in tbs wood of Ephraim, aud 
riaia by Joab ia cantsmpt of David's ininnLtJun to 
apare bia lif& Towards the clotie vt ha reij^ he 
tBcnmil the wnlb of Jnhovkh br taking a c«ncus 
of the people, cuutnu-y to llici dtviiii.' ui'tninaud, and 
bcwj^t a pasiilunco on I^timiI. On thia occasion 
things are so ciiri'm«]y nrvcnod that Joab appears 
aa the advucxtc uf piety imd modcrattmi, and ohrya 
the Ictsg'a ooniDMud with evident relucliuice, Au 
avonim to unnc w a nr y crimoa Koms to havv beon 
a point in the chamoter of this aHtntc indivt>lna[. 
It Is also carious that David, whosu cAufuocd winUi- 
tmm it was to jrietd to J«nb wfa«n be was in tlie 
wn»g, anooeeded oa thta occwIvd in randeriag him 
ttbmiait. Th* noatben of tliia forbidden otnsaa are 
rinu*Iy trivcn in 2 Sam. xxiv. !> aad I Chr. xxi. 5. 

bn fiiruer passage there am 800,000 vnliiuit toeu 

Israel and 500,000 men c( Judah; In tbw laiUr 

then an of Isrsat I.IuOlOOO, and of Judnh 47(J,uOO 

tluA diww aword, and it is adilcxl tbat 'Ijevi and 

Saiijainin cuunt«d be not among ibeui ; for tbo kuig'a 

TuL IV, 

word was abominable to Joab.* David's reij^i in 
(lel-rnncxtenitcdfrcm b.c. I05S 4S, aadlnJenualem 
frutii B.C. KUS-lii. He ooauuilled one gniat criuio 
in Ilia ailiilterv witb Jtathaheba, and tho munW af 
her bnslnuid Unidi; for which be found a ready 
lOHtriuneut in Joab^ wbo aeenied to regard it aa a 
sort of justification of his own dali[»|«icndea But 
thia was an exceptiftn to bis j(cnoTal cbaiacter, auid 
was tbu ocoasluu of deep humlUattan and repcntaooe, 
as inili<ut«d in liia Paslma. Id gvnoral bit piety 
wiia OS ilistliigiiiidioil as hia valonr, and hii rci^ wim 

tlia rri;;ii uf jitntii.'B aild i:l«aitin*.-y to bis DWii aubjeots. 

iILt wiira. It is tru<», w«re (ximlticto't with an exter- 
minating rigour, for which there orvtwojustifieatioas. 
1 1 U enemiM were the fineulca of the Dord, anme of 
iLliu wcroduvcilod Codevtmctiunby diviueooimnanHJ, 
and be doeniod it » roli^oua <luty to break ttie power 
uf all by vyiny nvMilablo mcaua CleiDeney to the 
fliiTTAiuialtig nationa waa olemenoy to thosa who had 
•n often seduced his people from tlirir allegiance to 
■Irlkorah. Moreover, In bia day, the laws of wai' 
wtire very dUtarent from what (bay are in modwn 
tiinoo, and the circunutnacea of tbo Israolitcs nay 
ha\e mail« it ainiiwt a nvcfwity to toko advantage 
of tbpir full rijjoMr. David'a m!\ erity to his enemies 
is ci^rtainly considL'ntd as no reproach by tbo hiBU-riaos 
of Scripture. Towarda tho eloan of his rci^n then 
wasaruvolt hcatlcKlbyJoab, to place hia si>ii Aduuijah 
oil the tliriDe, bnt It was easily suppressed, i^il'unnrj, 
bis ap|:-oiQtcd luccEMsor, woa poaoonblv cfin-ucd, ntul 
Adoniiali and Joab paid the penalty of their rc)>ellii)u 
uitb thtiir lives. Tbo reign of Solomon (ac. lOlC- 
975) waa entirely p«'a'fful. In it, owing to tbn 
victories of David, the prosiwrity of Israel bad 
reached ita Llgbc&t piitnt. Hta dominion extended 
fnwn the border of Tyro to tho border of Kgypt, or 
the Gulf tit Akahoh on tiic ftnl Scia. SurrowidiTJg 
uatioii* paid biu bouiugie, aud dtstaut kings brought 
bim ^fts. Tbo Kloabitos, l^otnilca, AuuDonites, 
and cvon thn Syrinn.i to the Kuphtates were tribti- 
lary. His uUiaiues wilb Tyro aud Egypk enabled 
bim to carry «n an oxMativo and liicnutivD oonunercv. 
His riches aud wisdom ware cvlebrsted «»vr aU, tbo 
EosL Thfl latter, wliich brAUtrbi tb» i^iiocu of Shcba 
frum the south of Arabia to bear it, was a divini'Iy 
coumuaicated gift Ki. iii.) He built tbe ipluudid 
tutii|>le of the Lord lu Jururiidoiu, for which David 
bad made preparation. Its fouudation waa 1^ in 
the fourth ycM- of liis rdgn, it was tinidbed tn the 
tlovi-nth, and dudiLnitcd iu tbo folIuwluK y»ar with 
grioat pT'inp. Sulottion married the daugbber of 
Vbonuih, but bo fullnwed theooatera cnatoin of poly- 
gntay. Hia harem was the largest on record, and 
bill altiauLv luuiit, havi* bevn wlilely onurted, aa hn 
had 700 wives that were princunm, bvaiduc 300 <<uncu- 
hisca. When he was (dd it is recorded that his wivos 
turned Bvray bis heart after other i-mh. Ho built 
liigh-plaoea in •lerussJen) fcirtlinidnUof tlm Muabitn, 
ibu Aiuiiiouitea, the Sidouiaiui, and tbe Cauaiuiit««. 
For this otfcDoe It waa prudivtcd by tbe prophet 
Abijob that the hmgdoni should be rant and ten 
tribcx given to Jcrcibiiam, tho servant of Solomon. 
Thii caiue to pass ou hia death. TIw splendour of 
Salomon's reli^ had vntldlod Iwavy ozacUuns upoa 
bin pooide. When itehoboam, bia aon, succeeded 
tbeiii, tkcy uuue vrLtb Jeroboam at tbeir head and 
dentau'led that be ahouM mako their yoke lighter. 
Rnboboara answered scornfully, whereupon the ten 
tribes revolted and set up .Jeroboam on the throne. 
From thia time tbo Kingdtims of Iiirael and JiidtJ), 
to the latter uf wliieb tlia triW uf Uciijamiu adhered, 
arv dislluct Idnodoxiu. llua dji'lsjou uiitailud Ch« 
spcedr loss of tho acqiiJEitions made in tfae ralgaa of 
David and t^lomon. The diviidon waa Icsa uneqnal 
tbau lulybt be supposed from the reapcctite numbera 




of tbo tnLat. Jui]ah, »lw»yt ibe noit hiudctous 
tfitic. bftd become, im the BUtutia ukcn in ibe time 
tJ I>kinl kbiw, rebitively very |iowcrful. Ihrnjkiuu 
tnui weak in tiuinb«ni, but lu twritorr na tlia bucdet* 
of tlie liKi khiffloiM vai of sTMt vnliw wut cbaUsiI 
Jad»h «lw to TMorer that of Dw, rbJch, m mil u 
Um tArriloty of ffimaon, Uy wHhiB ita own bonlEn 
ftml «a» finally uiiMxed tn it. Iliv tiiba of Loi 
aiw ftillNrad to Judali, uiil Ui* policy «dopU4 by tbo 
Hiyt of Imd 'ww * grttt K-irroo oi •ttvuirth to it 
ua of TTnihirM to ii> neighbour. .iVhIjftb bid 
immiMd Jwrobuun Uutl if be walked as Xtend did, 
IB th* atabttw ol tba God of lanal, hia kingilom 
wwtid be ert>l)lUied; but JetoboAn fnlemd to 
trust to varidlT policy, and ^ tba «otUM b* teok, 
wbicb wa« oaiformlr followed by bii mieeiman, bo 
luM Muuind tlie eptlMt ia Scriptont of tliv naa 'who 
m»4» Imol to ■tn!' He naaentA, aot anwemcfattJy, 
that if the people were aUowMl to go tip to JcmMtlcci 
to wonliip ecconling to tbs law, their be«ita would 
tunitotlHluiuee«II>K*tduiil tlut be would beelain 
WMiimiptr. Tootniatatkiadanger, tlieTiTidieaUty 
at wUoli made tks promiM oominnnicMed by the 
peepbet aeicn » -my leefaJe seppart, Jeroboam took 
the daring conna of * cemplite terolt horn the wor- 
ahlp of Jehovah. He mane two calvea ol |p>ld and 
•et ttmi ttb tlw cne at Dao llie otbsr at B«llul, at 
tba extramlice ol kia ldn«don, and eaitL 'ThoM are 
^7 t^ ot> laneL whk£ branglit thee a|> out of 
tlia land of EgTpL llib fvooeMing not only cmd- 
pletad the alinatica ol Ibe Leriteik but intivducod 
a oratao of diaafleetiMi amoiw Ue owa anbfeoc^ 
probably more |»ver{ul than nak wbiid) be mng^ 
to nxDovA It la tnM that from thia tinw tbc atlacfa- 
aieat ol tbe lanelllis to their old rdlglcn Imbb to 
dadin^ bat it vaa neTw wboUy txtiad, and It was 
nvl?ea >C|iiii and a^aio by tba propbeta wbo fron 
tlda time umo to i^'pcar in a cnmtjuit auoceaaioD 
bi boll dlvUliia ol the loDirdoiu. TliaC ll*e wufahlu 
of the God of their fatberehad at fint a deap anoagb 
hold on the people to make Joroboam'a poiicy ex- 
tnuatj kaxardooa h ericlont fram the fact mxnded, 
(hat be mad* pcieaU of the lowert of the pende, 
ervUenlly becanao the better rliMira. Uuragb they 
tadtly oabmlttcd, would not bear the o^um ia oiioiily 
eupp«ietui|; biiQ. Tbu inure phma portitm of tho 
modIc of iHrnel tiim came to ntenm tko king* cif 
Jqdah aa tbdr natural Lead, aaJ tliuM wliu ntut 
Op to Jeramloa to wanhi|v fron the nnciMity vt 
nriMliic a Imatiiaal edict «*me to eibiUt tLonauiea 
in Che Ugia of dimffetted ealnecta, and tfae daiiKer 
which Jenjiboam gtJyaaapMtoa becMDe apenuuMot 
reality fur Ua hingooin. Thb eauae of dimflcctaoo 
WM » aoisree of uootinual anxtety to tba kinfp of 
LvmI. In tiinca of peace tho iBtoroouraa between 
tbe two kh^ploma natimUr turned to the advajitaee 
of the Uog* el Jodab. Thua we find Baaalia, tbu 
bead of tbe next dymuty, baiidiBg Kraiah that none 
nlfbt fa est or uiiuo in Ui A>a, kiajf of Judali. 
Iwn tCU time till tlw fiaal conquwt of tlra kiut.'doiii 
b^ ahatoaaaagr. king of AjayrU. tbe blAwy <if tba 
Khigdeia of iWael Mcaeam o&Iy a uniform and 
taonntoBoni w riee of Jynaatiea mooecdioa each oiber 
byaaaaaahmtko. OfeacbaepantoUMtaUraeonled 
4hat'badid«rftlatbaa%li(e( tlvLu^' aad tbo 
Ui <4 eacb ijtBAj k giaenDy pt«dict«d openly 
•ad to the (aM of Ibe k^aIiib moaanib by the jvu- 
pheU. ntnaitc. P7S to7ai.tfaedatooCtlMoa|>tuiv 
e< Samaria hj Hbniminfanr. then wvreafaw aepanto 
dyiwrtiaa: m, Jonboaa, Nafaad; Sd. Baaaba, Elab; 
M, Zfanri; 4tb, Onri (after eoBteat wHh Tibai), 
Aitb, Ithariab. Jdionm (brother}; fith, Jahn, Jcbo- 
aka>,JoBab, JMoboam, Zacfaariafa; fltfaSlnUun: 7tJ>, 
ItaMben aad Pckabiah; 8th. Vdaif, Mb, Ho^iea. 
Ita oolj name in thia list aa wbkb wt twvd pauae 

ia that ol Abab^ tba aoit of Orntl In Ua nlpiMat 
tboao of Ua aooa appeared tbe great prapfaala EBjab 
aad Eliaha, aad the m^'n i^ Abab waa liJatiBgyWiail 
by a new dereln^iineiit uf Uwi pulicy of tbe kxage of 
LnacL Tbe advww effect of tbe ntisioaa poHcr 
isitiBted by Jeroboam to tbo Kiagdetu ol brael, 
espMJaliy when ruled by piooi klnp^ hat bean tuUd 
al>uv«, but by the time of Ahab Ihe pe^^de of land 
Iiiul lo lar docuxtotiied tlHunaclvca to tbsir aeparato bt- 
H'llulioBMitiat Ah*h, (Jiou;;h a OOofinDed Idolatar, n- 
MrctlintA olUucfl with J ohmhaphafc coa ei tba maat 
mooB kings nf Judah. nnil not only enMainad ma 
damage from the aUianoe^ but made voectlve vae i4 tt 
in bis wart. From this tlaie th«T* anMa • •paeial 
danger to tho Kingdom of Jvdab is Ibe alUanc ol 
loul, whi^ aerviid M a ocinntarpoise to the taWwrace 
ol tbe temple>^>ondiJp oti the Kinirdom of laraeL 
Inael beaBua, lo abon, like tbe hcalbea natiraa 
around it, on evil influence, tcmptiii^ Judah freaa tbe 
worabip of Jclwivah in ■nhitli ila true atttnj^ lay. 
HoaiMo, the laat ijt Uia klaa of Israel, ae em e to 
have been among tbe boat « tban. Ue ae^w to 
bare attempted, thooj^ too kt^ aana rotatmi la 
the national institutioas, and to bavo been patri- 
otic if not frioiu. lie ia tbe mlyono in reffanl tu 
wliuui ibt-ni b any i^iiaUGratluo of tbe alataaiaat 
tiiat he 'did evil in the ai^t of the Lord.' Tlar 
hiatoiy cf Jodah proaenla a more chadtend apwlada. 
Many of the Unj p deoUned into Idolaliy. bol olban 
became scalona rafonoan, natem^ and p nrifis te of 
tbe lutioiud wordup. Tbe Kiagdem of Jodah, aa 
emi the relatloaa eabalatiny between it and land 
would lead us to oxpeeL dwaye dMliimd under tba 
former nnil nae and noartihed under tbo laUnK. 
Tlie (irueperity of Jodah, bowevcr, waa sot ittlnHr* 
nipted ofaa lo Ha b«t tlmaii Th* Aa»yifaai aid 
other powerful na^bbomte began to tonda aad 
apgn»A it, and finally XebiK-iiadneaat Uag el Baby- 
bin auUlued the Ltiufdoni, took Jomaalain, dartrayad 
tile tampte, and carried all but the poorw daaem el 
tbe pwiple capUt-o to Ilaliylnn. Tbc temple, whieb 
In tirotB of pitMperity all the kings of Jodab etrore 
^ to adfim with ncbce, waa freqtiently a to ppad of ih 
^d or silver for ^^fts cr bibnta to tba Idaca ol 
Amjrria to- Kgypt to buy oO innako, or torn It 
agaUMt the KinsOutn of lantd. Keboheam iulxvluoed 
thin pnurtjoir, and Aia, tbo Itrat piotw kii^ after 
SoknutiD, foUdwud it. It waa after t«ii yean ol 
peaoe and proeperi^ nnder thii ktne that BaaaKa 
foimd it Bcceaaaiy to cut off mlcreoitrae butneuit bk 
kingdom and Jndah. The mueler-roll el Jum abowa 
a remarkable etjoaJity in muoeilcd foeoe batweaa 
the tribm of Bcojamin and Jndab, tbo latter far- 
niobin; 300,000 epcarmea, the former SSO.OOO ba«^ 
men. Tbi> oijuaUaation uf fcvoe waa doabllem dna 
to tbe frontier poaitian of Heajamjn, and if, a* la 
pnibaUf^ tt waa smfaiUlned to any extent by nondt- 
nunt among the deaertsn from laiaal. fiaadm'a pro- 
cociiing in aiifflncnlly cijJaiiKd. Jndab waa ionded 
iluiinjj Aw)'* Rifpi by Zerah the EUiieiikBa, with an 
aimy of 1.000,000. Under Jebodnptiat. tba mo- 
ccefor of AJmi. tbo Kingdom of Jmlab attaiped a Mfll 
higher mpe p eritar, and ita warlike array roae to an 
extraordlaary bd^ 780^000 lor Ju<Ub, and SSO.OOU 
for Benjomhi, are tbo numben girco in tbe anwor' 
ized text, ' beiidea thoae in foKod dtioi,' who pmhakdy 
oonatitutod the standing amy. Tbere waa another 
groat inrniuion of .lodab iit >ii* f'lgu by the MeaUtO^ 
AmiDoiiito, aitd Edumitce, who n«rv iiiliariiliiadj 
deatroyed. Tbe grtM mDster-roQ ol Jodab aamna 
on andi oceadoni to have prodocad oml* a paper 
anny. After tbta tbe Kia^rican of Jad^ de d inad 
akuuet to vxtlnctlon, when AthaUah, Iba ■*"i»»-*** t£ 
Ahab, leiivd tbe kinEidom and slew tba ■aad-toyaL 
Uodor tbe nlgna of Cnlah {811-7S8), Jotbaa 










(7M-712). AhM <7J2-720), md H*»W»h (727-889), 
|MutkuUrl/ of tJio Uttnr two, Itniab daliwwl his 
aaUin>«iMtopb«d»«. H«MklAhwuon««itliesnfttat 
nfonnns losgB: hia lofinanoo cuended vrlirajr oror 
tlic Kin^ntn of Ivwtl, now m ciitretii« decline. Ho 
waa ntinculoualy i!«'livercd front mi invuMon of 
SvDiwchvib, king of Attytig^ hnr Uw dMtruction of 
tlw Aatjiita ftrmj. Hi* £gr^ti«]i haw uii>tbi-r 
TenrioB ol tko iWlnK^kin of !>eniMcherib'a &miy, 
ntubaUy borrowod fmni tli^ Jim, uliiub in Uiiil by 
llarodottia; Jcndoh ^441-41A) irtw tbo la»t of th« 
fdow Idu^** uf •Tuilitli. He neenui far n limu to bnve 
onniBeti an undUimUKl uidioritj^ mat the idn tiibM, 
tMtl aJiiKwt to bavv rotorcd Ibc original Icingdoiii of 
I>a^ Ho iru kUlad in battlo agaitue Ne^ kinc 
of Egypt Afwr him tha« ww mi uniulwrnpted 
■tt c ocMJcB at wMk uid iiia{»bl« aonordu till under 
Zedddtit (599-fi88) tho ca^iture of .loruMtlcni hy 
XcbadudaeaaViaccordinci toUui ruovi vod chioiLolDgjr 
a.0. £88, put am rad to tlio loMuuvby, Th» pmpbot 
Jcmaiaii flouHahed from tho nagn of JotUh to the 

Tlic buuka of EaekMl, O&aiel, and other of the 
pR)fpb«d«l writvn pvo aomtt acconnt of th« ecndi* 
tioD ol the Jirwi daring tho BahgdoDLah eaifOrity, 
auA Een and KehemUi racord thtur rwtnration 
ntulcr Cmui and tharobtuJding of the walbof <](tn>> 
■aleiB asd ol tlM li.fup]«, Tht Oecreo of C'yrua ior 
Mrtarinir tiw Jews wu Iwued In b.o. G36, ud the 
CMNO of Scriptnnt, which unsiaM after the robuild- 
hig at IIm tdDplo aliDoat exdunvdy uf prophen, k 
mpfiowid to cluM about B.C. 400. Th9 hiatoiy of tbo 
J«vi after tho totomtioa u thoroforo dcrivoa dnafly 
fnn aeoular hiBtorian* or from tho booln OolUd 
Apoeryplia — * ohws uf bouka writttm in imitAlloD uf 
tbft »tpo ci tho mith^ntio Jewiwh Hrripture, bat 
whJch am not «(lEiutt<.<d itttv tho rewived cauoik 

Af t«r tite Bahytcnlah captivity tlie new kingdom 
IB Jad«« waa dupcndunt on randa, but under tho 
ill II m alii diractioci of bigh-priusts and lui exoculivc 
irmtiBilrim ol aeveiity-tu u lucubom, t;o venuii([ avourd- 
isf to tho Irloaaic oonatitudon. Tha beDaAdal oflecta 
uf the oastnity atn thna briefly summartted in T>t. 
Snlth'a Stndmta' Old Te>t«n>i>nt Hirtory: — 'The 
poi;^!* again preaeotvd, a* Id the w-ilduroin^ tbo out- 
ward aapeO it tho church of thu living Cod. Owing 
thalr ntived poUticai existeaee to the will of I'eraia 
tbcjr conld not at first eataliliah a now inunairchy; 
nor waa tbo attaopt cvor made dU tlio uiiur|4Ltion of 
an aliea, Hvrod, the Iduuui-an, m.-vUi«1 to challciiKv 
thatr troa King, tho Chriat, to aaacrt >lls righta. 
The MOfia accai to bar« loarnod to wait fur Hia 
UDgduD; and thoir poUtioal dcpoMknec j^vu froor 
000^ to tfadr religioDa organtiilloD. KdlctoD had 
ahwed tho erila <d tho kingdom. Our n^iratioa 
iar Solomoa'a temple ia not tinuunglwl with n miii* 
i^Tiw[ td aODM leaa uf bj>!i itiinlitj ; and Eta iJmtru;:- 
tua bnifca tkraogh a tradilion which luanod toworda 
aD mdaa relianoo upon ccremnDica. The aecond 
toBptc^ so Slnkinijly iiJcrior in outward nilvndour, 
nay, waating area tho vUlblo rign of Jehovah'a 
}««veooe in th« Sbekiaah, becamo the oeatn cf a 
more qMtoal wonhlp. \VhilB the grt&t feetiraU, 
like the olber Uotbic inatitutiona, weiu for the Gnt 
taino pnnctaaUy obacrved, the eiperienc* oi the cap- 
tiiity and the oxamplea of audi men oa Daidel bvl 
tan; Dt the peopla that God nti^t be wondilppod 
not at Jcraaalcm only; and tlteir local nuotings in 
the aynwogoes, which aumo auppoae to have heKtm 
dariBtf taa eapUviiy, became a regular inatitiitiou. 
The Sariptorea, coUooted into a 'canon' iooq ofior 
Um TetttCD, aiipancded the prnphctia oific^c: tlicir 
SHttlar Im£xis in the a^uiujOf^'iiFS {irevcuted (hut 
(gBOmu* wlllai liad boon *o fitnl lULiinr thr moo- 
arc^; w*^ Uh aoriboa, who duvotvd tbeiuatdviM to 

Ifaeir cxpoaitioD, ahared tha Tcapcct paid to the 
priesta and Lerttea. Prayer, priviLUT aa well aa 
public, regained that aapiwneplac* in Ood'a worahip 
wliich had boon uaorped by ribea and oeremonlaa. 
The Sabbath, which tho propbeti aerer ceiaa to 
n.-prrBeiit fts the keyvtone both of religion and of the 
ciuwitiae of aocial lifo, waa tirmlr eatabliabed, after 
ft ilHip «oiite«t wiUi worldly aei&dioeaB. Idolatry 
waa benorfoith ankcown, and the attempt of the 
i^i-riaii king* to impOM it* practice adorned the 
Jeuiah ('hnrch with a elond cf martyn, whooa con- 
Hiancy eonfinoa tbo many other pronfa that tho 
pooplo had attained to a more apiritiu] fnitb. The 
nhadot of thia fair pif^nre were aa ret in the back- 
gromid; and the cunviil uf biatoty bring* Uieni into 
|in>tniueDce aoon enough. They are the Ticca wlitcji 
our coTTvpt nature diatlla from thae very vinuee, 
■pirittial pride pervertiDg the naefl el God'a worablp^ 
up;inM*ioii and inimerality oxciiaud by tho privileges 
of (loil'a people^' 

Zerabtiabcl, the hdr of the voya] line of Darid, 
was tho firat govoTntu of Jada* appointad hy Cyrui^ 
nnd he oontmcnccd tho rebuilding of the temple. 
Ha brod^ back with him about tSO,OO0 Jcwa to 
their own oooatiy. A few aftcnrarda returned with 
Him nnA Noheminb, but th« great nmiority «1 those 
who hod been carried cajitive rcmainnL acnttcrt'd 
tbr> iii;{hou L tht! Aasyrian and Pervlan Enpiree, whero 
tboy coniinuod to (om iaoUted commoiiltlaa and to 
keep up their own religion, a* npnrani in tho remark- 
able nnrrativB of tbc bixik uf KBtbcr. Nefaemiah 
waa twice aiipoinUid governor under Artaxentoa 
Lcaaimanas, about ilc, 454 and 442, aooonlini^ to 
Uaahcr. From the time of Neheniab to the fall of 
the ferdan. Empire the Jcy,t cotitiuuiMl to lire 
peaceably imdor thair own iwititnticitta :ui » province 
of that em]4re. In tbo oourwi of thia [.vriod the 
whcde domeetic power of the atate becsmo mted In 
tbo high-prieato. VTbeh AJcxandor tbo Omt ovcr- 
Ihrew the IVtniiui Empire the Jew*, aocuatfiined to 
a forvI;,'u political yoke, readHy mibmltted on b«jng 
proniwd the free osereiao of their rcU^n (n.c. 35'i), 
The atorv totd by Jcwiah hiatoriana about thr inmt' 
iiiK of AJeiaadiW with Jaddna the high-i'riiait ia nut 
ooofinned by tbe hittorlana of Alexander, but the 
fact of a stipulation at to their rcli^oa havlnff bees 
made may probablv be received on thHr toatunony, 
aa it ia confirmed Try the conduct of Alex&njer. who 
not only tolerated th«an but employed them aa aol- 
dtf ra. lind KanoTod n colcoy «f tbem to aauct in 
(wopling the dty of AlexaaMa tit E^ypt The free 
cxaroiMt of thor own law* is aoid to havo boon 

Sauted to the Jews not only in Foloelinu but in 
odia and Babylonia. The contact witli C^reck 
drltiaatim t«nde<l togirea widfirrange totlie infln- 
EDce of Jndaian^ eepccially in the projiauatJcm of its 
gnat central docttrtne of l£» unity of God, while the 
influence of Greek pUkeiniby tended to promote 
tliat dh-iKJnn intosccu wbldbiJistiugaishH Uic Jews 
in the tiiiiu of our Saviour. On the dirinum uf the 
Gmplrs of Alexander P»li.'*tln0 became a bootier 
state between tho rival Emfirte of Syria and Egypt 
—a position in which it necefaorily loet tbo repMc it 
had enjoyed uude:r the Ptntau Enij^. It waa nt 
Grst SM^fned to Syria, and in the wars whioh fol< 
hnred flnetnatcd betweon the two cnijnres tDI the 
pettoe which fnUowed the baCtle of Ipsna transferred 
it to PUdemy. Under tbe Bgyptiaa king* Judie* 
B.)[ain enjoyed, a longtbened mr^od nf tranquillity. 
It was nnder the patronsee of Ptolemy (IL> PbQa- 
dotphoB (nigned &c. 21IS-S47), according to tradition, 
that the Septoapnt or lircok vcnrion of the f>M 
Teatament Scripturea was made. Tbia IrjiiinUtiun, 
which was made about the heginnlnc rd I'loUmy'a 
rvign, marks the proj^BS of Uie Orock lousuajpi 



thrwgfao u t tlw Eiwt, m it wm probablv tvodmd 
D»eMTy by tko Dnmber of AeUatistd Jew* (Jem 
oriBj; the Gndc Uaeuigr) in Eg^pt and eUevrker«. 
OniM IL, the luali*|)ncat, iat«rraptnl Urn irnod nnilcr- 
■lauding with Kgjfi at tlie btj,-!!!])]!!!; of tlie niS" "^ 
Ptolemy III. hj aog\ixHing througti aTuri^ to imy tha 
naniutl tribute el SO tulentii; l>nt hi* ncphnw .InMcph 
IMreated K nplura bj fmnuiug Ibe rvvmui- ami 
nAahtishing * cMI govvrunwiit iDil«p«iidt<at of lh« 
14Kl>-prie*t- AnliodiiK III. (the GrGAt) BUide WKT on 
Ptolemy [V. to reoOTtr Pftltttine, with other vta- 
vineca of tbe Syriiui Empire. Pl«Iciny dcfnitMl falm 
■t Raphi», near Ghw, kc 217. Aftor hid victonr 
Ptolemy wentto Jeruiidem and prof&ued iLe tempb 
by mterisg the holy of haliaiL Oa Ui roturn be per- 
aecnted tbe Jem of AlexuMlrii^ tbn> elieiuting tiie 
wbol* race. After the deelfa of Ptolemy PhUofutor 
Aatioc h oe tbe Gr«»t beokine maater ef Peleetitio 
(a.C. IftS). Tbe eoDquend pnvjnoee were bveton-cJ 
H » dowry on Cleointrt. the dftufbter of Antlocbua, 
wbo merned Ptolemy £pa|ibanca, but Andocbiw 
never gave up ixMnMJan, and In B.C. IftS fonnally 
nmned tfaeu Id ble tmty with the Rotnuit. A^ 
Egyptfu ami ft SyriMi party now anee among the 
JleWi^ and gave eoeanm to ciril diaaeDMoML The 
latter party began to heUenlie the cmUane of the 
imt, and the lugh-prieethood iteeU, already an 
vbieoC of »t«htri«ii beeaaie om of intri^o aod 
Isibery. Jaeoo, iriu> became Ugh-pnrat iii thb 
way (ac 175-173), teni|itad hv the ijuiaqtwnoua 
Bamei^ not offuriu);! to tlie IVtmb H e te nka . appar- 
ently lb* int i&itoiico diiee u* captivity o( nmDogv 
ollered by tbe Jews to idolatry. [teTnlting erfanee 
followed tliia declenelon ttom the [latiDual futlu 
Aatiocfaua [V., a£ter « ■ucoe w rfiil w>r wich Kfr^pt, 
led by tbe rivil cositeatioaa of the Jvwt U' belivvv 
tbey bad nvolte< Invaded Jvihea B.C. 170, took 
Jeraaalem by etenii, ilaaghteriiv the inhabitanee 
without (lietinelion of age or aex, [irofanod tbe 
tcai[>le by tiprisklinc nHne'e broth of«r the nno- 
tnary. and carriod off tbe aaerad Mtetle. Two 
yean aflerwanla a frightful alauxhtcr of tti« Jen*H 
took place muter hu dc]iitty Apollotiiue. AutEuchun 
Bpipnnn^ thMi fuued an ecHct *4 tuiifamilty of reli- 
guv, and Gonuaeueed an extendnatlB([ pefeeoutlou 
■fiiiat the Jews. Tbe Samarttana ealouEted with- 
out liattinno. and tbdr t«in|ile on .Uonnt (leri^tn 
waa dedi cat e d to Ken* Xvoina; tbe temtde at Jcrti- 
nlem wae poDut«d by the worafaip of Zen* Olym- 
plna. Ilwae who adhered to their own rellgfan were 
OMDptUed to cat ewiue'a ttnA, and sahiecteil to tha 
most borilble lorturea and dcAth on reftieaL TMs 
wae the martyr age of the Jewiab Cbnrob, and 
naDy, belfa etd and yoang, ondured all safterings for 
tboir nligion with banlui. Whm the persentieD 
nnder Antfecfana Epiphaaaa Ikad aerred the mudi- 
niwdeil pn rp u ae ol recalling the nation from ila 
Ibreateaed apwtaay It called forth a reabtaooe wbkb 
took tom nnditr the leadership of tbe Uaccabees. 
This fiuaily. prarbnaly called Aamoiwan (rem a 
fomer aooeater, derived their new tiili! from a aor- 
unne baebowed on Jnda^ Ifadr mort renowned baad, 
dsiiTed, ae b geneaally sappoeed^ tnm J/aeraAoA, a 
hiOBtr. Uattatblah a sriast probably ef tbe booBS 
tt IDumr, the Mm cir AMWt. bad fire saae; John, 
ataoa. Jojei^ Kleiaar, and Jonathan. When called 
iqioa Vy tbe Un^a offlene at Modin, where ba 
raUe^ to obey tbe ivyal edict. h« Indjcnaatly 
rrfiwd en behalf of binuelf and family. Tm coob- 
fdiHKie d other Jews eo nuaed faia religMUi seal 
that be alew one of the MMMtateav tog<4her wiLfa 
the king's oamnWoDar, benew the ahar, ami raM> 
ing tbe ftMdaid ef rabelUon, retired wltb hie tone 
to the BoantaiM. Mattathits died b.c. 147, after 
ffiwirttfty Jadas (aee Jctua MaccaACCs) who had 

already abown bit eapacily fctr oomnaand, a* bia roc- 
ceaaor. Jndoa, afUr repeatedly defeating the lien- 
tenanU of Aniioehaa JEpfphanee, Antiocboa Eupater, 
atiil Dctmstrina Soter, tutd virtually eatabliahin)( tbe 
{iiiI«peadenoe of th* Jewa, peiiohed in battle in ti.v. 
161. Hie brother Jonatbaa ancceeded him aa Ivsi1<j 
of tbe patrlatie party, tn the diaput* betwem 
AlcxauJi^r Bales and Demrtrim fm-ttM Syrian crown 
bv va« courted by both. Alexander beatcMred tbe 
hitrb-iideethood on liini, whidi be aMinoed &.a 153. 
Ihi the death of JonAlban, B.C. Hi, who waa seiicd 
B.C. 144, nni) pit Ui Hriith in the follawinr year t>y 
IWiibon, liouteaaiit uf Aati<icliiiB VI,, Siioon auo- 
oeeded w loailer. He oainpl«t*d tbe cwn<}aaat of 
Judu by redudag the tower <i Jerunlem. B.<\ 143. 
He wae treaeherously killed, together with bit aon 
Judaa, B.0, 135. John Hyrcanua, bbeon, cunnlctcd 
the iD()*rpen<IeiioD of Judwa, eonnuered Bamaru and 
IdunwTA, on J cxtimded his domiuion over the ancient 
limits of tho Holy Land. Durio^ bis rvi^ tbe rival 
ee«b> of tiic I'hnritccs and Sadduoccti became cetab- 
Uebed, and luuanb ita cloae be joined tbu latter. 

AriAtobaJas I., tbe son of IIjtcbiiui^ aseumed tbe 
titlo of InTig, which rraa hrlii by hi^ vtioccasore. 
I^'rorn the death uf Hyrouits to the lime of Utrroil 
(H-r. 37} wns a period of declen^on and dieorder, d!s- 
tinguiabed by dynastic qDoireli^ mnrderv, and nuw 
aacKA. These iflsscndoM led the way to the inter- 
vcntuin of tbeBoiuaiia4n.r. fit). Pom pcy look Jirra- 
■alctD (li.c flS), entered tbe temple, and penetrated 
to the holy uf holleiL Ue eaUbUelied Hynaana ss 
(fo^-cnwr GB Judsia Proper. Gabinins deprived Un 
of tbe surireme power, and eataUiahi^ (ivR «aiihc- 
drfma, wtaicb guveraed tn dUTercut dialrirts, till 
JnliiM C^iatttf nstored Ilyrcanna, a.r. 47. Ill* coti- 
fidiuit, Antijntvr, an Idugtucan, was lunde procQ- 
enter of Ja<te^ Borod, the son of Anllpater, vrho 
entirely tluvw oR .Icwiili mannen and cultivated 
the favmir of the KomanK, waa declared King of 
Judw* by tlie Ktunan aoiiiit«. He besleffvd and took 
Jensalcm B.C. 37, and baring married Marlamne, 
the grand-dangfalAr o( Hyrcanim, and rA,iiaoil tbr taab 
t.if the Annonnana to bo put lu ditilh, rwnaSned in 
undiluted poaeeeaion of tne kingdom. Uerod was 
a Dan uf iK-undless ambition, sad eednltmslT caltl- 
Tsled bi* Koman mastera. He waa the friond of 
Mark Antony, and afterwarda of Octariua. He 
una maguifinut in his undertakings. Ho rvhrniU 
tli« tumple at Jemsaleni fai a (Jiwoo-Romau style. 
He nl*u reboOt the Sanuuitan temple oa >Ioaat 
Gcrishn, which had been destrayed by John llvr- 
oanno. He also built tbe dty of Cieaarea, wliu-Ii'be 
meant for bta capital, mud fa> which he made provi- 
rioo for heathen wonhip. El* crueltite were etpial 
to his ambition. The rorolts of the p«tj|dL'. wbidi 
wsrs often cm-itril by kia Gentito timduiirlni, wltv 

Eat down witli a rr:lontl«ee bnud. Hla domectM 
trtory wsa a frisbtfu] aunnaion of the diktat 
btiigues. He put to death Us favoatrta wife Mart- 
amne and her aons, and just beforo hia own death he 
cauacd Ua eldeat aon Autipatcr, whom ho bad Intmdod 
OS bia ncooBior, to be put to death. It was Ifrvrarda 
tbe cloee of hie reign that that event oocunvd which, 
littls nttioed by the secular MatoriaDs nf Ux? | «Tiua, 
waa destined to be the tundng-poiat uf biabe-y. 
Jtaua Chrfcl waa bom in Bethlefam. 11m arrival 
of tbe mngi in Jemaaleia araused the jealaajy of 
Herod, already at the pnat ef death. IIm- AMMnm 
^ At immoernU took luace abotlly befi«v tbe death 
of Us own son, and Herod expired kc. 4. Herod 
left a nanMroas famfly, wboaa namea are frequently 
mentkawd fat the New TMtameoi. The eons ef bu 
HiBt two wives, Dorii and Maiiiunne, niunely, Antl- 
nater, Arietobuliw. uid AUzaiMlcr. wer« esecntod 
In tbdr fathcr'a uraimc. Ariatobulos lelt Hetwt 



_ .(wbo WW Bflwirard* Ebg of JuHnn, and 
' «UM>«n w«r« H«roi| Aflrippft IX, Burvaivu, 
and DrniiLUAi uii} Herodtaa. THm Ha of Hnvd'a 
tlitrd wife, llriYiil f'bilip, muilod hw nJeoe Horo- 
diMi^ nnii Uvrd ju a firi«*lc peraon. Hemd AnCi- 
pui, telr&rvli of UaIiIim^ wm aon of tin* fourth 
wifti, MohhMQ, »a4 married HvrodiM afUir ihu 
1)m1 dirtirced Herod Pbili]x l^ervid lltiUp, tatruch 
of Niiribcru Pei^n, itim tliu wjii uf iterxxl'i Mlh 
vrifo, I'leopaUu, anil marrinl Salr-mc^ tho dnaslitar 
of Fhilifi ftad HcrvdlAM. He wan •uoocudeu b; 
Herod Antlpu naA jVicUcIaus in tbe govomneiitB 
above qboimI. ArchvUiif wiu nunmnnwL to Home, 
■ad boDHbRd tn Vienna (Vi«nno> in Umil for niin- 
irarvnUBont, a.D. '. HeruJ AuUi'mi vaa b&iiiiih^-d 
«n tho socnutiuii of bu nopbctv A^Tiptw to 
dutnm IB Ukiil A.n. 3^. Ilctoclia* nhnixil bid l-Mutish- 
menL Ou lb« banUlimeut uf Aruhelauii Jiirlirft, 
indndini; Kainaria, bcciuno n KomAn pnivinnt iiiuirr 
k imc'untt4fr, who lud biji vtal Kt CuaukrvA, tuid wiiti 
mbordiu&M to tb« prefect of Syritt. I'ontiua I'llAte. 
under nbom our Lord'a public miniatry Nid criiL't- 
fisioo oocumd, wm aud* procorator a.u. ^0. Tbe 
tynnay of hit govwaatal, irbkh espowd blm on 
tiiis occmUiii to th« we«3ciw«a cd yielding to tlip 
clHbonr oS th« Jevr> lest they should prefer an aocu- 
■aUca aniiMt him. at Ieiii;t1> |irouuml h!a Luuiiab- 
(MiBt to Vkou ta A.I). 37. Tiic Jcwa sutfend uodor 
CftUfuU foom th« capridoYM htimmir of tho cuperor, 
who p roposed dcdicattuK tbtir U-iD]ila to himaeU ■• 
Jupttw, ftod utill more fnini tlio tvruuiy of Valariua 
fuocoa. Chi tb« nctvnicti of C'UutliiK lurud AgrippB 
VM uudc hfns of all Ju<]ka a.ii. 11. Ilo penucuted 
the Chrwtiaiis and put tliu u{>uHt]B Jauica to dvath, 
llie niiicr wall of JaraaaUia wu partlj Imilt by iiiin. 
He died A.D. H. Hi* aon BeriHl Ai^Ttpia did nut 
■luweed bttu in tbs Klnt^dota of JuiLuw but afier- 
Wftrds beeamc King <\f ChnLciii, And *idM4»iiicntly of 
AU]«n«^ IVacfaoniiia, A<i. Ho bad tlin ■(•[loint.mBiit 
«f Uw bl^priwt«, luid uxercistHl ooiisiJvniblK iiiilu- 
tBM en Jncbca. It was by him St. I'anl wiu triud. 
Numfniuii );Dvcnii>rB luoceeded eaeh otber in Jii<la-ft 
ttooi thin timu. auil between lawleaaueaa anrl fiumtU 
«im) tho oiiiiiitry u-u redwml to a frightful oondi- 
IIdcl Xiuumt.-ti'Jiu and aamaunatiou incenaatly 
aaeeeedod eacb other, whllo tba Roman procurators 
CfiiciSod the f»alot« and robbers by whom tho country 
wu inf^ed in hundred*. Aauiaa the uuMt oelo- 
bratMi] of tbeee proourMam wiw FcUx. a.d. £3-(!0, of 
wbMn Tadtna aaya that 'by avary form O'f craelty 
and lurt \to tvicldcil tlic prnrcr of a long in the ipirit 
tit s alave.' luul I'urciiia Fcstaa, Sl-6'i. Tlie irjti- 
COvenuDvot of Uitaaiiu I-lunia, A.Jk iH, at lun^th led 
la the epcn rerolt t>f a party UDong the Jew> from 
the RiMnaiL yiikr. This nvoLt entailed a civil war, 
In which tlio Lneurgeiit party ware auucaaefuL Titu.* 
flavjua V«ap«»iaoiuwMdepulc«lby!««n>tora])pn'aa 
tho isaurrectlon. The InaonecSioii, apreod ov«r tbe 
wllale cDiuitry, U&liloe and Samaria luakini; onmmun 
caaae with ■IuiLe:^ Uofore tho war wui linixhed 
VvpMiau wn* t»U«] to Um empire, and left hi* aon 
Tltoa tu conoludo h. At leofith the alege of Jaru- 
aalau. A.ti. 7u, it^ capture and domolitioii, doprivod 
tW Janta t4 the centre oE unity to which their natiunal 
life had hitberto cluu-;. The blatury of tbu .Jvw 
from tUa lime ia that of a pooplo dispcnod ovor tbe 
earth, retaining their pcciiliftr cnxtomsand tr.vlitiniu 
bdapeadently of any unity tir couc/ert kihoiik them* 
■al'aa b^ tho vole atreui^tfa of their IwUvf In tlie |ioa- 
anal iu of a divine miauoa. In the mipn of Hwlrian, 
iadutd, fifty year* after Uie dntmctiun of Jeni&alFni, 
an atteni't wan made, uuder the leadurehifi (if ttor- 
(AxihlMi, to occupy Ita lamaini and rvl^iiild the 
temple. ITie euppnaiioa ol thia iojurreotion nxtt 
IboKouanaa war of Uiree yean, ia:!-135. Uodriui 

now raxnl the rcniMina left l>y Titiia to the gTCUld, 
and «niel«<i iu tbeir pln<'« a (.Inutile city, with the 
titb ^EUa CapitoIinD. and a tvinple to tliv Cupitoline 
Jnpjter on the xtto of tli« Je\riflb temple. Jews 
wrrc ftirbidden to eotei the city on p«iii of dooth. 
In tht^ foiiKb aentury thn .lirna iveru alUiwi-d to 
rotiun and weep vu itn rvtuaiiut, btit vwri tbe name 
of •Tcrusalem waa not revived all the time of C'un- 

llie remnanu of tho natinn, auUtflred u«or nil tin- 
eartfa, itill poaKacL-d iuivantii),-«« whieli oould IxrUm^' 
to no other people In aiDiUar unhappy circumKlatieai. 
Tboir natural igigenuitv and imlnatry, the Htntn^th nf 
their retigiDaa dmI, tbe literary treaaurea uf thoir huly 
u-ri tinga, aenind to them eraryvhrn* admlttanoe and 
an ccoHB, and prammd tbolr nalioQa) duuacrhir, Tbey 
found prtMclytce an<l old bi^lievera in all oountrioi 
»f tlie BciuBn Kmjnn), and in lliu E^t a* f ar aa the 
Gangeat wbwo tbneo whn hml uLtlcd durinft the 
Babyloniab captivity had grvally uiultiplieiL I^gypt 
and tho iiiirtlicin CLiwit of Africa vtn Ailed with 
,)crwiib L-vldiiii.'s. and in tho riti<-K rif Asia Minor, of 
Ureccuand Italy, were tbooaaiida etijuj-uix the rights 
of ciiiicnu. Thus, by their mutual- couoections and 
by their holy bocju, they ljc«amo tbe involnntanr 
Itiatriimenta of the propecation oi Cbriatiaiuty, whiili 
but tvw of tbuir own number enibnoed. They wvre 
not re(iul»d to reoelre It hf tba Eomui vmpurora. 
Under tli« Smparor Julian tbejr Tcntiirod to make 
preparatinna fnr a new temple in Jeruaalem. Al- 
thon|{h thia attempt failed, they derived gnat nd- 
vantagea from their wmhadrim, rwived at Tiberhu, 
and their patriaKhntea ipreaidendei of t)i« aanh»d- 
rim), which ncre tstixbLiabi^d— uno at Dlberlaa for 
the Wsateni Jews (4-i»)-, the other for the Jewa 
beyond the Eupbmtea, firirt at Mahalia. nfterH-ards 
at Bitgdod. 'I'he former was heredltaiy, tbe lattor 
elirctive l>y the HiiulK-drlm at Bi^nd. 'I'he inaim- 
b<<iit of ttip latter, which aulaUccl till 103S, waa 
called airitmaiotanX (prinoeef theoapUvlty). Tbwe 
two ])atriArchatea Im^o pointa of union, and their 
Bouruhing academies in the Knet ncrvnl aa aemi- 
nariea for their learned cabbinii. (!>iie of tltu worha 
of UMseaolioIiirBwas thorollectlnnof tbe traditionary 
aipoalticiosof tho old Tctbunent, and additiom to 
it, which was onnipU^tcd A.n. Sill), and reoeivod, under 
Um name of tbe Taluiuil, aa a rule nl faith by Ibr 
soattarwl iminuiiinitiiii of .Inwa. It raijuiru th.-it 
whatever twelve adulli randv together in one plaiw, 
tb«y shall tawtt a syvasoi^; and stood the deatrac- 
tiuu of tbe temple had put nn end tn aarriPirca, tb«y 
nru U) inrve the God o( thwr f.ilhm by a iimltitude 
of jirmycrt and little fciruiaUtiua ainidnt tbs dally 
oocupationa of life. This booh of law allowa uinry, 
treats ncricnltiire and grazitig with ctJntvinpt, re- 
((uirM the >trii;t^t tejuiratiua from otb^r |M)»ple, 
eominlta tho govcminent to the rabbins na tho teach- 
ers and nobica, and incnlcabea a corrupt mamJ ajrs- 
t«m which haa degraded the charaoler of the great 
mae* of thla unfortanata people, rendered thorn dan- 
gWMUB to tbetw among whom they live, and ob«tni(.tcd 
their natumlisAiou even where they enjoy the 
gniateat piirilegvs. This appliia to tho Rabbiuitea 
(that i*. the followen i>f tlir 'J'ajtnnd), to which sect 
ni-arly all the Kunijiean Jewa belouj;. The »ect of 
tlie Karait^vi, who rejsdt the Talmud and hold to the 
kw of yionv* only, itro lea* nnmcmtix, and are fi^und 
chiefly in tbe Kaat in Turkey awl Haateru Riwua. 
Durius the Jeelinu of ^riviUiattou la Eiirvpe, where tho 
JowB baA aottled as colonista,oiiin under the Rcmonit 
and had penetrated aa far a« Uaul and (^iermany, ther 
preserved a L'«<rtaia de^TPU of clvilitation by ni4-tiiiH of 
thiiir ■eli'HiU, « bieji, durinj; thn coufnaicin ooiwer|UHi)t 
on thv dciitnictlon uf the old and the femiatiun cif new 
BtatoB by the Irmptlon of the barhariana, cot only 



prMcrvocl tbeir «)xtBt«DC<>, bnt oiiUlDMl them intlu- 
enoa aact ftuUiaritf. 1'hcy made tbcmtulvcii mttitora 
of Um owQnwfoe of the M world. And, m inonsj- 
Isnden and brokan, won aft«n of gnnt iinportBaoo 
l« prfncM toA noblcjt; and during tiio dn»wlfnl per- 
Neentiona which thejr uiulcTwi;iit fnin tlic cnieltjr of 
iba C'hiiitluu •■•& altar lh« auvMilb cnttury, dujr 
■tiU Douluiuud smpntHia in tfaow caaDtrios C'^b 
iluring tbe penoda In which thej mffeMd nuat. 
Their ini'u luiuj and ttbs n|)*dtjr of tho Ctirutiaiut, 
nUbor thnn ral^mia batfml, wmv tho truo cmuii^ at 
tbeaa pcmiiicutiuus. The uiuat drendful eriiucs aud 
^ pnblic aJaJnitlaa ^rvn ftttnbutwl to Ihotn bjr tba 
CkrUiKoa, a« a jvretoxt for ridding tbcnuelrca at 
troubleBi>m« crvditan^ vr for abtalnins poamaiiou uf 
tbslr traaanraa (lUinr by thdr azammau or btudah- 
UMUt; bat their vrculth and «droitiiBM ha«l lUKleriHl 
theu ao JioportAiLt thnt thvy wen alvn-n ahlc. 
etcalually, tu aevurc tbc jprotucUon of aiiiritual ami 
tcnpontl nikn. Thajr Itved mora baf<|iil)- mmotm 
tho Mohanuuwlaa*, aliLuugh thejr mre duUiitr^hvd 
by diabouoorabla bod^ and apprOMOd by boavy 
tAxaa; atu) during the Mocriah aa]ir«inacy in Spain 
thetr praaparity waa [iwrtNuio)! and their leMTuiig 

In tho cHiea of t'ranoo, Geraumy, uid Italy, aftor 
the eleTcnlh nnliiry, particular atrccta and indoKd 
[ilaoaa wara aaalgnad to them, lu cuiiMUueniW u( 
whjoh, ia tba peraecntiou dotiiig tho CruMde^ 
tkouaandi oftaa fall victiina at ones to the paptUar 
fury. Dacraaa of mnndb and Uie urdiuan«ea of 
aectJar mien repeatedly dectat»d thaJswn iacanabla 
ot cnjoyfaig th« oItU rigbit of Chiirtiana anil ef buld- 
lag publie offiijan Thay could nowlierv bo dumlcUl- 
atM, nor attached to Atiy gnild or corporaliuu: but. 
In ouiuliier^iuu uf Hiv ik-iviueiit lA co-tiun ■iiiiin of 
monay, thay «aioy«d itm imcuediat*) {iruU-i'tiuu of Ui« 
aovareign, who m Ua financial unbomaaiiiau t4 obi i^vl 
them to inake repeated matrlbatiami. In <icr>aaiiy 
they paid a couMdorablo ttu, in return for which 
th^ w«n pttit«otail aa the monwy aficiila (A'ciiaawr- 
Jhwciic) of tha H«ly Boman uip&tt, u they are 
(launtoatad in an imperial latter of protection. 
^iMdrnaLVornoii to CThriatianity eoHld not be efi««ied 
by aucb trvatoMat. In Spain and PortugaJ, indc^ 
1^ th» rod of the fiftoentti oontnry they yielded to 
forw, and auSercd thenacdvaa lo be baptisad nt 
■MMc bnt aa aoon aa tho alonB waa over tli«y were 
■nn Agalo in the aynogogiua Tho aupantilioo of 
the fineenth oenUuy, whwa M-onhip ot aaiuta and 
nAlea moat haw aj^pearad to tliMD Idolatry, ui'ttht 
««U pet t liade them that their ova para nanotbeum 
waa meee ratiimai and acripttuaL Vrota thin cir- 
cwaataiMie, and from tholr pride [n th« aiiti<(uity gf 
tboir oaliou and oonatiiutitni, wo may iofar bow 
■aaay of thoaa who publicly profcated to be converts 
to Chriatiaaity, and wen called tu Portugal ana 
C'irtriuiMi^ and who nil|(ht attain to a noUa nolc 
and even to high church djgatUei^ wen atiU in 
priTMo Jawa, cootiaaiog acrupukwaly to obaarve the 
Vloaaic cgTwnanlea llie I'oilugucaa Jewa, on ac- 
ooant of Iheir wwiirectiu*! wilb tboae aocret adhNcnta 
to Jwiatam, ha«« baau jmitloalarly napaeUbK ttd 
an in poanaaioBof laife landed eatatw. TiiaDoldi 
Jowi^ flUtDy tugStivm from Fortiml, wen mlm 
dirtiiigiUBlMd (or Ihdr inuoeaae wvalta. In all pbcea 
the Jewa hare a pqeoliar chanctar. Their mrflna 
■twt to emphqrmtoti wUtb doMod |«indpaUy od 
fafHui^ Md cnmlag, hw Iim ■ tlahaahnj atfccc 
on tha great body of ikem. Id aodem time^ how- 
•nr, dbtbyilaliod aduhn, nhBoaophat^ artlala, phy* 
•UaiB^ aiMawrchanta bara Wn found aiaonc then, 
M SpiBBo^ MoeM Mendclwwlin. Ueiuriuh Ueina^ 

TIm (hikMphkal ap&i^ of the ta>i half of tbe 

eighteenth oentury firtt begui to adoiowladga ^a 
riKbta [•( Uio Jewra. Plana for th* impnnwna&t of 
their pnliticiU and tnond cendiLion were dlaOUMedf 
and afterward*, by Uio bvuvvvleuoe of aome goram* 
menta, eaiTlad ii^ execution, but with liiUe and 
often with no auoocaa. Tlio only ci(inK.<qBcnoo of ^o 
great atuibodrim, lo which the Eanpenur Napolecn 
eoBiiDDticd 1>M» rioh Jews (l^'^)) "'^i* *" imperial 
daeieo booh after deehuiag theae Jvwa only to be 
fVctich dliaMti whu wen ooeupled In aome naofol 
employment; hut they were atill drawn aa couacripla. 
Tho Gannan prinoea wont man, deairoua to give the 
righta of dttseulup to the Jewi. The dliabUltlea 
to nhioh Lh«y had hitboKo been aub}«ct vwe n* 
inuvvil, civil ]>rivilegBa wen granted to tbeni, the 
liraelitinh oouniitary waa wtalifiehed in Oaaael under 
the WuaL(ihaljau uvvemmKut f^ir tho iuiiwoTeiaant 
of their wnrahip and their ecboola. S/tiU mun inpoe' 
tant arc the imprf>vciiioiita in tho Jewiah achoola ta 
Auitria, whcTPB Uiete ant lU-iidHiuiaa fur rabbina at 
Prague and I>iiribarg: in IJavnHa, where thmwiaa 
nmUar imitutiui) at yunh; and ia tbe Pruaaian 
atak^ where thoy aa^uireil all dvil rights in 1811. 
Then la no diettnction u-batavi-r between J«wa and 
Chriatiaiis by tho coutitntion of tho United Statea, 
but in Dome of the aCatea certain cffioera; aa the gov- 
ernor, counacUura, tvprawutativci^ are wquired lo 
profeaa tradai- oath thair belief in the (.'hriitian rc« 
ligioD. After repeated unaucceWiil attvupte to prv- 
onn thffr adinlaaion Into the T^ritiih I'arUamesti tho 
object waa at laat effected by an act paaaad ib IMS, 
whii^ pcnnits Jewa to take the oath* to govemineDt 
without the adiliUun of the wutln, ' on thr lru« failh 
of a Cbriatton,' a declaration hithorto required from 
an Diemhcni of Parlisini-nC prcTiduii to toJcin^ tlieir 
■t.ibi in thu home. Ill Fnkiin! tlic Cliiuubrr vl iJc- 
|)iiti<.a v(it*<d in 1S3U thai the .lewuih mioialera uf 
wonhip *hould bo paid fram the publio cheat, like 
the (..'hriatiau. In Uermany a numner of Jews hare 
abanduned tlic ayvtcm of uie rahbini^ and perfunu 
divine worabin >□ the (Tonuan language in a aiannar 
wtprowUng tliat vf the Ctirutuuin. In >renenl tbe 
Jm% ainoa the oaantion of p«raocvdoTi. have abown 
mere diapodtion, while retaining Ihcir religion, to 
aonfenn themaelveB to the maanen and Intnreat 
thMsadne in the Institutfona of the peppks among 
vbam they liv-e. For tbe national biignaga and 
literature of th« Jcwa, acn Hebsxw.^. 

JE\V''8-HAKr (etrmology unkituvnl ia a Iny 
mnaieal iiutniment held be t waa ii thii t^x'th, vtliiiTb 
given a aouad by the mettoa of a tooguo of ateel, 
which, heing atrack by the hand, plays agalnat tM 

JK^TUB, or Jtut*. a principality, HiDdiMtwt. 
Ajwlr, ouu bt the <>aat«ra Ralput atatea, tiibMGMrv 
to the firitiab, bctwtoD laL 36 and 2»* V.; capllaf, 
Joypur; area, IS^SJI aqiiaiie milaa. Ibo aoil ia la 
gencaai aandy and atniigly impregutled with aall, 
large uuantittaa <t whlcib ar* ■MMnfaatand Cor ■*• 
poirtabnn. Certain paru cf tbo sttt* pndnee whealv 
ootloo, aud tobacco. 8hMp an reared in aome to- 
oalitiu for tbrir wool, and in mnot parta there an 
good eattle; berda of deer alao roaco over Ur^'e 
HutL Ib waua of iIm lawns cloUt, awonU. mwI 
tiatefalaeki an tnannfadund. Moat til tho liliago 
an lerilfied wilb walla and dttchaiL It OMtlatna 
soane of Iba rtrstigwt fortraaaea in UinilHitaiL Pcm. 


JKVi'UR, a town, llindwtan, Ajmir, coidtal itf 
the priiKiialiLy uf auixi uuih^ in a Tallay ISO uBOB 
MJLW. of IMLL It ia Kurrouaded by a lobatiAtial 
atone wall, aud defended by a dtedel and OQtworka; 
and is rasArkabLy well boUt, ooaialaUiMf of atteeta 
and a^uarea liacd with IwuaM, generally huge and 
baodKiow, and aduraed with mafble povtiocea and 



OCM h/fadm. Tha pHndnal bnildlogi art » mn^- 
Soent pdiico «id wvenJ bcaQtUul t«nip](«. Pin>. 

rabont eo.iwo. 

JBANSI, a town vtd fort, Hiadiwt«t. Bwidal' 
[Unad, cftpttal of a amaU prtndiuUty, 6S miUa aoittli- 
tt of tiwalior. It bu coondenble muiufActunn 
baw& un>w>, Kpettn^ imtl carpctn, and ia a great 
I HxirangtifAn) betwaea thv l>ccan and the upper pio- 
rYini:«i ot Bco^ It u ploauotly aitDatad amid 
[iknka and j^rnvin of lin« timber tr6ca; i* uirroiintbd 
Ilnp a fortilicd and nuHaiva wall from 6 to 12 (e«t 
[liidc, and fmm 19 to 30 f««t high, witb ttomaroui 
Nbakiiie boatlou, nwnnted ai batt«ric« willi ordiiBiice, 
limd vrith toopbolM fiir mrnketrj. Within Ibe town, 
ivhich baa acirctut of about 4) milta, and surruunded 
r<llj tt OO all Met «xoa]it Lha vad and part of thn 
'h,<Uadi tbe fort on an elevated roclc, eomplutely 
I tha tDWS and the Burroiinclin^ country, 
I natnial atrecietb Iim been ti» mucli innrraiied t>y 
lart aa to multe ita aiitum vyem. hy regular riiigc 
M laak of no nnaU difficulty. During tb« matiDy 
t Aaaal aequiivd an infunoui notoriety. Tho Euro- 
Imui mldoDta, who hn/l dcfnided tbcmMlvM in tha 
lifcrt aftsr tha mutiny of the S«]j<>ya, were lorl.inrvualy 
iTWirrrd in violation d a capitulaUon In Jvjk, 
llU7. Sir Hxigh HfiM (Afitiired tho fnrt on Sd 
^Jaanarr, 1 l-Cf. wbcn ritWU of tht re^bda were ilain. 

JlilLAM, Jn.nw, Juri.iiM, .tAii.vw, iir BKHur (»n- 

l-d*nl]y llyptatptt), llio mrat wi-rtwly (rf tho five pivat 

frivcn that interaecl the ?an;ab, cart from the Indus. 

' It ricca in Caiihi»«rc thpntakin^' atliarftbeud it fluwn 

' tknrly KJUth. farming; the lioiindnry hctwmtn ('luh- 

n and the P»rij«b, tliini Boiiili-wfwt thruujih Hk 

Djab, aiKl finally falU tiiti> the Cliecab, at lat. 31' 

Itr s.; IciD. 72" 9' r..\ 75 inilca X.X.B. MoolUui. llio 

ola course of the JLilom Uirm^'h the vallev of 

'Cajduaarp, hafnira it finds an outlet through tlis Vmh 

ot Banunulo, js, iacluding wiadingt, nltout 1:20 milra, 

for 70 of which ft i» naid^ablc^ It te nangnhlc alio 

frotD ita junction with tho Oienab up nearly tu ita 

emeracucD from tho tnnaataJn*. It n^andH in fl«h. 

nd k ial»tv(l by aUiEaton. Entire counc, abuut 


JIB, a lar-^ trian^ilu' **il »el on a »tiiy forwnnl. 

Il «Xl«nda fmin thaoutHTondof tlia jib-bnam tntrnnU 

rtfca foTP-Cop-nuut htvd; lu otttteni aiiil nluopit it i> on 

Tltbe boavprit, and ciMnda tovarda the towoAt xn^t- 

d. Tlio jib<hiaini in n rontiTumtion of tho bow- 

J^trit forward, beioj; a npiir ran out from thn ei- 

[^"faiaiiity inaKtmiUr ninnn*r Wia to[i-iniL«t i>ii a lowiT 

, and Mcrrinj; to extend the foot of the jib mad 

I Btay of the faTe-tDi)-]pdlant-mMt, tlie back of tho 

I haiog laali«d to It. 

Jn?DAH, I>Jil>nAii. or JuuUAU, a town and ac'U- 
port, ORB of the chief tradirii; norta of Arabia, in tho 

Earinca of Hcja^ on tbc Kt^ Hko, C(l m3n uvst cif 
ecca, ct which it in th^ fTt; on a low, lumily, ind 
"^ Mnaivv [4a]ii, baillj oupjitiod witli »-atvr, in front 
ft nnCt flf billa 10 tnUea tronathc ua. It1« of a 
loan form, about 15(^1) pacM In loDgtb, and half aa 
lany in wiilth, and u inrlmrd b}' a wall, with nmaH 
^iowitTv at iiitvrvats, and bai inK twu fort* wiih iibout 
I vtDbnBorva eacli, at the anglua towards tlie sea: 
; then are few pm* moiintoil. A long well-built 
nf taro-aboned boiuKii, lined with ■ho[u, and* 
DOCafailiV tevnal gnod khaoa, rana parallel to the 
Tht port, wmcb ii ^-ory indiffunnt, haa two 
f ^Bkya, ailaptcd for tavail vetneta only; tho 
rbeing obh'h'pd to anchor in ibt^ roiulitcaU, abont 
nOci fnm th« ihan, whora there ia «xc«nout 
hwagCL Is baa % Ttsy niicd and atiirine activo 
DpnlaltoD, carrying on a oontldenble trade with 
, Ecypti Africa, and Arabia; many of ita mtir- 
larv mywcAltby. JidiUh waa bombarded by 
ilriliah io laif, in retriliutioD of a muaacre uf 

tbe Britbh oonanl and otlun hj tli« InbaUtuta. 
Tbe |«)ptilatIon b ealinated ait trtm 12,000 to ^000; 
tw, including tha subnrbi^ wbioh are aqualid in tfa* 
•xuenic, *om« make tb« total 40,000. 

JTTOMIK, ot Zttomib, » town ot Kuaria, caj^tal 
of the eovemnient of VolhyDia, on tlie left huik of 
the Tctcrow, A70 mitca 9.a.W. SL Petenborg. It i» 
tho «ee both of aGr*«k and a Itoman Catholic haabon^ 
has mannfacturca of toathcr and bata, aa active tnw* 
in woollen, linen, and silk gnoila, wax, honey, Htm- 
garlaa wiuea, salt, and tallow ; also four important 
annual fair*. Pop. 37,440. 

JOAB waa tho wn nf /eniiah, tbe abtcr of DavU), 
and the captain of Davldx hu8t or oommandcr-iu- 
ehicf of hiaamij dnnit^hiii wEiulo reign. Iloajipeara 
to have bo«> a folli.wiir nf I)nvift during tlie r«(fn of 
Saul, but la G»t nH!ntioi;«d as tbo loader of Davfd'a 
men in an eipeditjan againat Abncr, tho captain of 
IslilnHlieth. That ho wan nlrcndy wcJl known la, 
biiwBVpr, ovidoul from Abucr'« reluctanoe to alay hia 
brothor Aaahel. who waa punning him, Almer'a 
rcraonftnaoc^ ' bow then diould I huM up my tnKM 
to thy brother JoabV evidently indiuttea the reMMCt 
Implrvd by aa Inlloztbla character. Wh^n Jf>ab 
tfoacherously notdcted Abner In nwagv for tbe 
death of AmJwI, DariH, who nbhcrrrcd, dand not 
punish the doed, and hia eiclainaticm, ' theac sona of 
/.Kjniah are too rtrfiny for nn",' iihowod Uio a^cwnd- 
eucy which Joab had acqnirod over hia royal maater. 
Afl^ I>avUI had liocn eatatili^bed Idn^ Jn JeruBaleia, 
Joab conducted all hia wars with uniform anooeM. 
Ho renuuned faithful to him during thi.- rebellion of 
Alwalom. Wben he bad ulaiti that ungmu-ful aon 
eontnuy to tbe couunand of David, David mndg a 
weak filtcmpt to aujienrda him io fevour of Aninw), 
tlia fjesitmi of Ahmlom. Joabi erer miacruiiulaiis 
whpn hi* aiubltlou waa wwoarned, alew Amaoa and 
rvaumiid bu poat, a pnceedin^ in which tho kinjc, 
whose consent waa not aaked, tacitly acquiesced. Tn 
c^xoiK-uHatLun for hfa own crfaneH he committed one 
for ilavid by awliting In tbe murdirr of UHtdi the 
Hittite. Towsrda iho doao of David's rdpi he 
joined to the rebellion nf Adonljah, for which 
Solomon, hy tho advim of Daviii. ptiC him to death. 
He pOKBwnl the character not only of on aide mili- 
tary leader but of an axtute >t«tvnmui, and wlicu 
hia penonal ambidon did not Interfere gavo many 
remarkahlr: Tinwifn of *tciu1f.'uitDcNi and moilrrati'iii. 

JOACJIIMSTHAI^ ■> town of Bohemia, circle 
Elubogwn, on the Woseritf, In a Vidlev between lofty 
monntjuna of tho ErzgobirgD, noar the fronticra of 
Saxony, 70 milea W.V.W. Pnpie. It Is the aeat of 
a mfulDK directory, contains a deanery aud teveral 
otbor ehurehoa, and dopcnda cbiolly on tbo valuable 
lend and rilver minea which are worked in tlin vld* 
uity. Ttutlcr piecua were finrt coined hero. Pop. 


JOAN, the ]>i»p«*, accordinif to a rtoiy long 
bulicved, tmt now aclcnnn-Iodged to be a fiction, ^'aa 
a native of MnJn/, of tho name of GUbettw or 
A^nei^ wfa(\ falling m 1ot« witli an KngliilitnAn at 
Fulda^ w»nt to travel with hiui, studicN] at Atbens, 
aod vuit«d Rome. CoDtinuIn; to conceal lier sex, 
aho took the name JobancM Angclicua, and rose, by 
hw iiltiibi, from thw vtaLtDn of n nofciry to ttie Papal 
chair, mulfr the Uiuur- of VIII (95! to S5it, 
botwoon Leo IV, and Bcnmlict III. J Sho ^vmiod 
well, brtt having become pircnant ny a riorvant. or, 
acooniiiiH to ■omc, by a canfmal, aho wii delivered 
in a colomn prociiiwiiitt, and died on tbe nrnt, nenr 
the Colisoum, wbieh place the poftca art aaia to bav* 
avokled 8Tcr after In their proceaaiona The story 
aeema to have arisen about the cud of tbe twrlfth 
century, and was much diiciUHRl at (ho pcclixl of the 
Beformation. Ita blstorioal gnnm<ll««at«a waa d«- 




nantnM by Bbndell, » ProtccUnt dtvine— Edkir- 
dancitt' de U tfatt^en m una fMnioa » iH ta^am 
•V aUga pftr*! de Kotof enm I^cdd 4 ex Bcuotit 3, 
pw Mv. Bkntdd, Anulvrdun, 161'. 

JtUNNlNA. SmJivixa. 

JOAN OF ABC (/«M)M (T jK^-pn^j Dor^, 
Um Mm) oi OriMM. Tb« beU«f. preriJant Is tbe 
tMSintgm, that pnticBUr in^viotuJa.nn gifted 
irilk ■KperaaSonl pow«s» «■ iaatnnMntt «( ■ Ugtur 
wilt, cxpUim Uie eitraonlinArj chAnricr uul eua- 
dnct el tfae Maid ol OrlouoL Aftor ibm dcstk of 
Chtrlw VI^ kiQc of Fniioa, in 1 122, Hvnn VL of 
England, then * child of tame montha oid. irai pro- 
c l» iM >*d Kiai; af h'rtmim, aocordmg to tbe IVottv of 
t^D}«i04'^); )uBaMHl^I>akea<Bc>d(nn).scUNl 
M n^wt FnuDoe bad bMP dktr*ct«d f«r fonr-tvo 
TMn hf dvil dlMt prill B> On one aide wtra v*mi* 
li>b*ll% the Dnln otf BnrsnndT', and BngUiid; on 
th« otbar th« DaupUn Chark^ irbo bad betn abui- 
docMd bjt hk owa motlMr, aad wat mpported bj tbe 
Oriena ftty. Thia dJvUe^ aod tha lalaDto of tba 
BadMh fnmia, tba Eaito of Sonwnl, Wanrich; 
Sabbury, SuSolk, Anindal, lUbot, and PaiteUe; 
had ndaeed nearij all Fnoea to Um donUnkta of 
ItiUlaiid Tba dwiphia, a ymth «( ftbatean, waa 
ADwaed at Poietfen aa King Chariaa VIL Ha 
rwaiini hmki; ^ualitic« {irufwr ttw iMmu/JBrn Ua 
cooaitrjaiMt la hm favour, and na wantiaa ooljr in 
(liaiaiwa and iwohtba. StUI ba iMiwt«i.»5 binirif 
1m FwKw for (ba apaoe ol aaran 7«an. At laastb 
Boargw, aod tbe torritocy brlcot^ijig to it, wcM 
aaarij all that nnDaioed to binL nuia and the 
MQTtfa at >'ny»oa, aa far m tba Loira, w«r» in |inwii 
baa of tba Enj^M. SaBaborj had baan bcaiegintr 
OrlMH iiua October 12, 1I2&. Hm dtv vaa 
hmtOr daCmdad in Gaacoar. Ita faU woaM hara 
mtoad tbe cMaa of Cbariea. In tfae iMey* of tbe 
T«ig«k «« Ifaa old frootltn af LocnlM. ia tb* 
^Otigt ti Ztoawtar la PncaUa, «■ tbe baaka of tba 
Xaua, lived a p aaa w t pri, Jeaane I>ai«, wboaa 
pa tan la were oaiuDoa ccniatry jw«f<le uf tapalaUa 
■fcaiaitai.aiiil in pwd tnaunataiicw Cor tbatntatko. 
8be waa bnra, Bccacdias Id neeot aathoritiea, at 
IXanrtev. Baaa Lomiaab la 140», of Jaoqaaa Daie 
M^ iMfaaUa Bm^o. la llu mUtf of uald ^A 
•apantitlova paraoaa, who «aro m wtttaaal InaUa 
aad alariB at tba uiafiuftanaa of thah uuualij, Joan 
«aa qaaetljr aeoap4ed la deme^lB <dni1ujia>i<i^ awl 
iiiliwiBdririag|U«althto|iiilaia. Shame 
at » dtbMle frana, aad aiifmiaia iilTiilllj of 
taqmiMrt. Hot aalfcnwiM, aad her hahiU of 
wMtary BHiStatiMi, andala tba aagalhi voieea aad 
fhkm of tha laaU. WhOe bar Baafertoae vara 
MrtiBf baaialh tha Faliiaa' tM.tba baaalifal May 
(L Imm Mm M r^rirt dm fiu^, sol &r froes tba 
la«alaiaid DovHwr— • ttaa wUA waa <mtm wiad 
•a the SraUi, aKl fanaua ia MiOr » (heellv lala~ 
Jeaa wm rfj^te aad daa^ fay hebeiit ^km 

11 111 iiii.aidtiadi^gat^Afanhabelyrirtiii. 
hi the BUa cWd <d ■ oar ladjr of BaDeMoal^- wliidi 
aba wmB? <rWied am aalvdar. OiiMwaailiit aa 
ahe aHMted. ^ a vid« of ovr bdy ef Brikaao* to 
i^tha«Ma<f OrtMwawll»€BadaekChMl«« 
niaiai toba (Mma< ^a |iiiibiIiI hanaM la 
Fabraafjr. Itn, to tha fonamm of Yaatneiiiifa, 
Bolwt of BawMaaan, who at fin« thaa^ her poa- 
aaaad. aad iwiea dianiaaod her; hit woaahw i a liu 

fee tbrtw weeka b^ many intoUigeat mob. MOBaelkn 
of pariiaraoni and divinok Sbe waa then eoemtljr 
iaapactod l>y tho ilAupUna motbor-in-Uw and bar 
voon ladiaa, who dociaivd bar to be a iroo vitjin 
iqv'<IU Jiait in eittii^ ft rraU pv^tiU). At laa(t^ 
leing aalu£ed of the Iratb of b«r cUima, D'Anloa, 
tba moat Tirtnoaa man at omrt, waa appotnted bo be 
bar oooBlBBt Bttamhuil aad bmber in araa, and aha 
TMeiTed peciaiBelaB to haolea vith IXtaaSt l» tha 
dolivaraiMoof Oriaaa^ FVontiiii period aha MfMan 
tlto llmal ebaneCer in tlie biatorj a the middle agae 
of Fiaaoe. In a male draai^ ajDad oap A fU. Aa 
bora tbo Bword aad tba Moad faaaasr, aa tha aigaal 
of victocj at the bead of tbe amy. Still do uafeaol- 
nine crwdtj «*er aUiaad her conduct. She waa 
WYaiadad aavatal titnao boaolf, but aovor killad aaj 
one, or abed anj bluod with her own baud. It ii 
flbown alatw bj tbo dixunenia of ha trial, aad of tha 
•afaaoquait tT«i«ua of it, that ahe bad aot Idllod aa; 
of Ifaeenemj' wlthbeco>wnhand,freaia tendania«af 
oaoadaDoa, nod waa eroa mtmm aaxiooa aboot tha 
aoab thifl Ao betfiae at the ^■gH**' who arva rfaia. 
ireTenbeteaa, tt wonld aeeat tiuX i^ did not ahrayi 
carry ih* Inuum', and actuaQv madeoaaof thaooaa^ 
enrtcd iiwofd in caaa of iw i oMJl j. lUi awwd ma 
takaa by her dinctloaa bum tba dtorch of SL 
Oalhariite at FterbMt, where, aomadias to the atorj, 
nohodj bad bofoao fcaown of ita oriataaoa. AAar 

aa aaet Aa avoidad the tamfmnj at mm, Baeead btr 

f^najw aa 

aagte with mawa, aad hept all koae 
■WMi ai iwadMo^ awn from the camn. Tbe gesteral 
btMef of her eleValed Buaaon, of wfakh >bo baaaaB 
waa piooaljT panoadad, prodocad tho bmmI extna- 
ordinary ^eeta. RoaohiM. chivalrooik |iliiiia. aad 
hnrt, hioldap to oaa eiagla aiia, Ae waa aldlfidl; 
oaifhmd b; tha reaarala to aaiSMbe the aray, while 
the7<fidnotiiBplicitl;foUowlMro<xiiMk. Tba fcat 
cntaepriaa waa awotaJoL With 10,000 aMO, aadar 
the wwniBaad of St. Savrm, Dmwaa, aad La Hiiv, 
Aa aarcbed bom BUa, and aa tbe 3Mb Afril. I U9, 
atarad Orleana with aupplina. Bjr Udd nlitc*. w 
addtb ahe aafanat-d the bariagad, tha Si^iah WOT 
forced beta thA' fartnadoaeata, aad SaMk ahi*- 
doBedtbeBef>a(Ua]rMtS8'}. Joaa BBXt <^ttiiad 
■avwal placea ia tfae encnk^'i iiaaaaiiai. aad ilrfialad 
thc^ in a iattla noar PatsT, wbiaa lUbot waa 
lahaa, aad tha valiant FaMoifo hlnaiW waa fofcad 
loflaa. Cbariee eaterad Bheiaia ia ttaoBBb. At tbe 
aaefailac aad rawattoa of tha Uaf, JuLf IT. J«Ma 
•mod U hk dda. hlna«no(ir,aadb^^ tha 
bMner, aha loelc tba o«aa of k a«tabU^ aaThaM 
Iba award orcr tba Ida^ Har riaaa^iiai bariaK 
baa thaa hUOed. aha wsbrd to relara «. bar bon^ 
bat waa mrailad open to itar. All FVnaoa aow 
acl(aoi«ieV<l Cbarlaa aa kia^'. and Sadfvd ooaU 
tady m aJ Bt aia bJ aaa tf fay »ahwr aad jradaaafc Ha 
mlMd, la SapteoriHi; tha aanah afna Pkria. 
Beta Joaa «at woaaded. Md Charlea rotb^ to 
Boar^ca. A title of tooUlity was now cuaf«R«d m 
the heroine and bar fataity. Sbe waa firat t^lad 
iWit, thaa IhMM. aad faaOr />« £y«. bar <Mat of 
■naaaoMAwd two gohha lllka and a avucd noiat- 
. „y„„^ ,^ haariar a owwa. MaaawUo 

ihaaaat harto 


Im a IbM 

oT aiunaiill n BacalU 

>»haii I IbytbaBIAaprf 
Uatik SbababaMUtoteaataaadhrtabMWad 
eat tha fclBe. vhaa At had M«w aaa^ aMwha had 
mrMalvMiiad aaaaf hie onanian, aad la hara 
III ail I lohJBiaBr^yarwhfahhab^iBadafcUhe 
Vb«JM Ma*?. It m iwlala 1^1 ite wm aaaadaad 

BriHaqy alO bAwwU^ tbe y«n«U«Bw« 
VI, wba had baaa >w^ at ^dhT Tl» ak^ 

thaaai tba b«UA acala paehad aa a»t b^d^ 
CaflqiipM^ Ibe BMd Ibaw bandf into ibaloin. 
aa ah* bad doM at UtlMBi^ bat ha a MJly, Mar UL 

fi bw aa hv tha BamadlaM. 

■ »■■ ! to ItfaaaA Ab fea«ad «f Vm 

8ba «M at fa* BMiaad at Cm«. b-l af^ 

al BiiBHrdr. 

A. Dpea haat^ 1^1 pfa. »w 
ddirarad to Iba EHbA aha attana-l to ... 

•d to tba EacbA aha attaapaad to aatSM by 
tea a wiadaar^d tha aaetle; aad waaaarJooalT 



faijared. Id lUts MOflltloBAaauBB Into tbc po\v«r 
of the EngliKb. At Uio iuH^itUon of hot- owu 
GouDtrjincD l*iem Cmuliaii, hubup of Houtnia, 
iastitutoi] * procMB amluA her, uid iho Unlranitj 
of Piuia dvmiuidod Acr vxacutipn. Slio wu coo- 
denruud bjr the church am a MiMiemu uid heretic, 
After four mouLtu' impniuuniDrit Lin.' inuopent en- 
tbooiiut, who bad rcaolululv iln{>m(3<»l ]irn>»lf, luid at 
the exuuinotiuu haJ luunDd Si. Miubft:)! u the ui^cl 

twboH Mim tht bod beard in hor father*! garden. In 
her fifteenth yew, and u her ctautaot guardian aud 
attendant, waa aentenced, bjr the inqviuUin at 
Roneo to be burned for tDtvery and lateroourso 

tiritti nlemal spirits. Sho was carried, Ma)' £1, 1431, 
lo the etake, when her eaariigi: niiprariHl to Im 
(tauntmL She ■uliuiitU'd to tlin L'hiiiv-!^ anil il«- 
cUi*d her roTnl-iLioiui Ui bn tti« trnrk of S.iUn. Il«r 
[wuiafameut wiw Uien ccmiuutcJ to )>or]i«tuaI im- 
priaoniDenL but pretexla were smti funml to tm^t 
biTMnnlapud crnauial,asdn«mioh>hr wiu tiuiTioiI 
hx a alow fire at Rouen, May 30, and hur vihai wvra 
thrown Into the S«tne. She died with undnuiited 
fditilnd& When thojr *•>* pnttine the Inii|uiiition 
1^ on her bead, bcfnra gfiin^ to thu pilo, aho Raid to 
Iwir altMulant, 'Maltre, jku- la smoe de Dieu, J« Kni 
BQ tmt OD pondii.' Tliani ia a tradition that wfara 
abe dxjjircit a whito dov« «m aacn to riae fmn the 

(pile, la 11^1) and II£>1 tncnanrea were taken toe 
tuntbtg the prrwixm. In Hfi5 the rvlations of Joan 
BiipSad for a ntvinidn. PopoC»UiitiiiiIII. con»Ditt«d 
las aflair to tha Arahbbhop of Khdnii^ the Binhnpa 
of Pan* and Coatanee^ and an imjiiiaitor. Tiiin court 
ftvtUMtaemd, in 145R, tlvdr dccuinn, tlint tlio tnnlre 
article* alhgwi aj^aiml Iii.t ut-n^ fuluc, aud dL-g:liu-ed 
kar €littr«ly innownt. Her mi'mory ivna preserved 
bymonuinantx. In lh« inukctplaMat Kniion tbcn; 
b a atatae of bcr, on wlucli, uudcc lirr cuat of nnua. 
la tha inaoription : — 

*Rf U rirgfcMdafaiiilliiir aMaoomna; 
Lilla liTlliMD tuta toll »ami iiltVDI.' 
* Tlw naUlen'i *i«inl prntoou (be nijkl croirii; 
Tlw lili« tilcom wralv l>«nMlli tbe uaidMi'i ■wonL' 

Aeoertfin^ Ia the nortndt of the niftld wblch A\t\. 
Ijonoir d^covered Id Iho town-hiniM^ at Orlvjiiw, sho 
■MUt bav* been eioewdlngly I)r.aiitiful, Her fcatura 
bava A auft aod euthnitiajrtiu espreuiou: tlicy have 
what iha Frendi call tialirA du oaLnu. Sba baa a 
cap with feat1i«r* on hor baad, and U boliling in bvr 
bMiib ■ ■liu'Id and the oumaanrateil nronL A numu- 
Mient with her bunt In mari^le wat ereci«U to b«r iu 
Bonnteir, SofMaaibar, 1 ilSO, which luu been replaced 
id 18M br * bronco atalnei. Tbe Maid cJ Orl^iiuu 
bw fonnod a favootite eubjeot with poeta, altbuu>>U 
la* often with IndlfleMU moc«a. few vS them having 
rwen to the dignitf of birtory. SbakMpeare in Henry- 
TI, part i, sivea ■ VKraiaii of heir ituiT' which t* 
familf' t» £Dglbb readori, and Soiitbaj haa made 
ber th« herotae of hla iomewhat boar* poem Joan 
of Arc. tSefaiUer boa fclealiied her ohanoter la a 
Ann dfwnn. AmonK ber own cciimtririDen ChapoIaJn 
bM BMda bimaelf If not bk anbrect Hdiciiloua in bis 
ia H mada M* pvem of l<a PuoeUe; VulUlrv boa un- 
fMAriolitalljr aaaileil h«r ohametor in % borissqns 
pnsi, in which be fallowed Sbakeapeare; Soumet. 
De L*vI(iM, tbraneaiiT and otbcn have oclebratcil 
b«r wjtb mora vr kaa euooeaa; bnl nona of them can 
Tvt be aaiiJ to have raiaod ft woith; BiMiiiBient to 
ber fanr. Of hi>tvT-ii-»] rcaeardi there baa alao been 
■» ample alorv. W* may cite Procte ib condantua- 
tiw <c de n-bahilitwrtiHi de Joanno Dan par M. J. 
Qwberal, la th<; ealbetkxi of tbc StxaM de I'hU- 
toare de Kranc* (']t<4i>-^], fire vola. Sto); And Jeanne 
Dire par Henri Martin Ui^~)> * woric which cun- 
tatM the malta of tb* i^ttM UiTaatigatiuin. 

JOI!, tlw hen of an &ndunt HcItow poem, wUdi 
ha« Ikuii pivndved uj ul in tbo cmioii of tlie Obi 
TcKtainDiit. It hu bnMi much di>]intod whelber Jab 
I> a n>al «r Gi-titkm> i«r«uuaK«; whether tli* poatn 
in vpia, <!LdncC4c, or dnunatic; who is the autber; 
what WA.1 but iic<;AUii coimtry; and when and wbara 
tbo acc'iin IB laid. Tbe work boa becu Attribute 
to Job himinlf, Moef«, Klihii, Solrimtin, and ntlieia. 
'llut Rcouo tit the poem (tbu land >jf Ui) i* auppoatxl 
to be in Arabin; but the dine it by aone placed tik 
tb* aye uf the putnarcba, and by otben after tho 
Babj-loniah captivity. 'Vh» dtmipt of ttic work ■eema 
to be a jualidvatiou of ditiiie l'r>iviilt'iiLv, and tba 
tncnlcatilis a HabtnlaeioTi tn the dirino di«)-«ciMti<iaa. 
'I'he accne ia partly in heaven and part!/ on oarth; 
the aotora are Hiitaii, Jul), and Ilia fnur friciLila Eli* 
pbas, Btldad, jtopliAr, and Elibii, Job, aii upright 
min. with a family of aevon eou and tbroo dnuirbtvra. 
with lar^ Lonli and iiuin«n>na mrttMUi, U anddenly, 
with tliH pL'nuiwoii uf Jubovah and by the agency 
of .Salon, deprived of hi* pauoodonaaiid hiiicbiTdrea, 
yet «ubiuit« pnlicntly tt> ibu divine wIU. Uv I> then 
further trie<l liy tbo Infliction of a botd diieaM, ywt 
is ailent. I'brM friend* comn t" conanio biin; but 
Rlngck witli bis domlate oondition, they bunt into 
lunurLtnliiiiia, and ait tlawn with Unt seven days in 
•ildice. 'for they eeo that bts ^ef la Tory front.* 
At tbi' end af this period Ui« Kiief of Job finally 
brenlta out tulu bitter coiDplaiutA The rwnalnder 
of tbo poem ia oucupiod with the spawhea of fab 
friends, who attribute bL« mi*rnrt>iTini to wickednuM 
nnd bypocriiy. ntid bii replJra Ui tbrm until tbe 
cluee, wljon(Ti.iil hiniwlf i* intriHliicvid uiwivirring Jub 
out of a wbirlwiod. In ibu wqiicl Job in d«lii*cml 
from hill calamities ll*u« 141) yean, beeciiutie richer 
than be IiaJ been licbire, and bq[«ta seraa aeui and 
thrun (laughter*. Tbe whole poem ia characteriied 
by freehnoM and truth t>( culuiirini;, adnpliclly and 
dignity of ■Manor, and loftiness and purity of senli- 
jncnt. Intennity of naMion is oiml^twd in a Btrikinj; 
maiuier with Ut-wi viewa of tbe natuie of man mid 
th* provid«nc« td Uo<L The bort criiica at tlm prv* 
Mat day bold that the bouk of Job reats mainly on 
facta, chongh In lla futm and general fc^turea, Ita 
reasuoitii;* aitd rrpnvwntations i>f character^ it ia a 
work of civativo g«iiiua. With n;|;ard to the porinil 
at which it was written, we may look u]H>n It aa a 
Mttled point that the book belongs to a period long 
antvrior to thenaptinty, and indeed thero is notbiuK 
to prove that it wiu later tlixn Ibu P«ntaleu<^ 
It l>ears tbe stamp "J antiqiiitT thrvugbout Id tb* 
patriarchal nmplidty «f nmnen it describes. Mid It 
diic* nut t\ta allude to the Meanie htw. That the 
auUiui u-Bi> B il«br«w there is littlo diMibt. 

JOCASTA {abo EpieatUf). dnugbtorvf MoaoMmi, 
sister of Crenn and wife of the Tbsban king Lalua, 
by wham she had tK<li|iii.i. Aft«r baring unoost- 
•cioLisly slain ht* on-n ftthcr l^iii*. <Kdipns solved 
th« riddle of the Sphinx, and rvi.«itcd s« Ida rewanl 
tb« hand of Joouto, hii own routhor (uf which dr- 
cumsLance he wm ignorftnt). Afltr tbe error wm 
diwxiverad Jaca«ta Mnged neraclf in doapair. fiee 

JOIJELLE, EntKjiE. boni at Pari^ 1632. wroto 
the first regular tragcHic* and oonwdiea for Uie 
French staitc. Anunig the fonner are CUopUfV 
captive and DIdnn se sacrifiant. Ilia comedy Kiigloi* 
wu pntised by Bansard. Thongb Jodelle enjoyed 
tlio faviinr of Uharlee IX. and uf Henr? IL he died 
in great poverty in 1673. lis waa a mrailicr of tbe 
Plcuul of Cbarbs IX. 

JOI>HPUIt, JouDFOHB. or &tABWjut. a town in 

the norlb-vosC of HiDdustan, capital of the prioci- 

mdity of same name, which forms the Isrf^t of tbO 

, haj[)'ut states SSS miles E.V.K. of Baidarabsid (on 



th» IiMlna), It ataadi «n aa sffliMfit of (k* Lwtl. 
la ■ bulknr t n d wd b; rtdiy vBuxunoo^ oa wfakfa 
an Uow («tit lad !■ s bift pteoa •unait>ded bj 
mlbL On* of tb« fbrta MMaiM tlw pftUee of ibM 
i^ah, irin^ b « rtvy cxtianiva ■dUo* of aolicl 
tlmagh ■fanp)* aroUtoutuR^ toA faun let ooamuul- 
kg- pontiom fcnai « nrf oofMplcaoa* obJK« u > 
pntdfaCuoA. fte. abovt 60,000.— Tbepcbc^Ality. 
vUdi « abont S«0 nflc« kmf mmI to wMt, and 
vmAj tiw MOW tai btwAb— MM, iSfiJt wepmM 
Ha»-b wen wMcnd bj tba Loiii ud Ito tMa- 
MM; md tho«{fc arid fa maaj p>t*4 nisca la otben 
■Odd cap* of whMt, bulej, naUvt; ftc IrngatHn 
tt wtU ■—■*—■■— I aad f mimllj pawtMad. Baodea 
gnlH, w id waii li quMldea cf tabrior opCom ud 
wi faba w iawnhad. TbaniMiBpMUotnfaanl 
fndoet k Mk. Tie pawnl. Bad oipMuDjr the 
taMit teiim, M TOTV bnportant, »ad ka« iU isenlnl 
l«»&hr >t PaUs^ whk&«ti«)diiaMBt 40 biUm Mootti. 
M««« Ibiflftpiul, bmI ii tbaeotnp&t bAwven tbc 
wait CMM Md Umr Xadh. Tba priadpal «tk)e 
Is ofHm, of wbki 3000 cuMl4awk an baqMaUv 
w wrtad. Xaxt bi tnportaoca to it an wkoit aao 
am. llWGaBalaoftbaeoaiitn-alManMlifanBid, 
•ad an ia giMC damnd ia tM nnnaadiaf Mni- 

JoApn b imlmwwl I7 tbva. OwW to tba 
abnan «£ un^ Ow* an f«w amoriNlda Fm. 

JOBU «ae of tiu twdne atLaar mpbeta. Tbc 
tia^aad i4ac« of bi* biitb and tba dat* «< hu uo- 
■hicy an valaon. Ha b feacnJIjr w n nwa wl t« 
«a «Mliap«aMaa vMh Hww> and Aam. Tb« 
laaadMa OMariOB «C Us prcfbecy WH a pratnoted 
fcia^ aad avUhilbeaf lowla and olber dMfano 
g»ai< — b i,b^tta« p MJtiaaa^ar Mybnb- 
UBilf IDCo piauhuonB ai falun pnMpsritTWDca tbc 
dlrlaa J ad^Mnla Aoold ban pncffied tM •— "-m 
J*mi b ^notod bv at FM«; Aeb fi. Ift-SI. 

JOHANXISBERO.aTttlyMof rrooU.t'nnriRn 
«d XaaMtt, oa a ririns gramathon tbo ri^t bask 
«l tha Rhtau^ afaoai li aOas «a« b7 MoUi of UifaB. 
It iWMlaiaa a pariA ebarefa. aad a bif« CMlb, aaw 
faakiBgiw to Fkiva UBUsak^ and ataadf^ cw 
niat a a jy amatt tba riMwdi vMeb pndan tb« 
Tibiiirit HI, ibe fat of tba Wiwibb wiaaa Tb« 
■oaba an nid la ban plaatad tb* tnt vian «i 
JihiailrtMg. AoeMdte to ■writat c&raaielea 
Ihilliil. anUMofi oTh^ Im»M ta 100«, 
iVaalhaUI^OTitlMcaidaataaiKa prtej, «»• 
vOTtao iwml^ ^BMii snv niltt ft HfiMiMivyf wd 
■■■ImIwiI ia 1M7. •(•« teTti« bna bomad fa 
1«SS. tba oartU araa bom ial 733 hrtba Abbot of 
fhtK who npbatod Iha Tfaayd. Tbabattcnpw 
an Iboaa aaxt tbi ortK c^lad ScbhwJobwab- 
hMf. TW «toa b dtlivanri wttb (he aial of Prian 
MoMtmb^ aad aalb ai a vat^ b%b ptba-a w a 
safaM. a hoMla. 

J|>HN, eatM Ibo Av«Mt, Iba lam^av «< 
IVbl, vn bna dx aMatW bafara Jana ftbair 
lantban mn nbtfatM) of a Lavitii'al laadlr fa 
tUdk%«ba^ L) »bkh MrtMl fatal ow «• oaa 
bf Oa* to |1ti I ihdWw ffi— , Ba 

tfa aaaMnoDBneor bh lallai to a 

to Gad, aad b:r bb oMlr abaplMbr fa had aad dn^ 
hf Ida aOitoTy awditolli— <■ aaj da» kaawbi^ 
4a*nMl<d iba IMy gMtaiw aTi l li b i I ibat 
«ba abkot of aalnnal adnlnAbn «bn ba MrMrad 
tolh»« fcMaelir af a||ii|bi> Hbliiibligiato a 

farlbR kfac4<« v' bto«w, «UA W aaaoaand to 

Ualhaad. Hh|iiiiMM>M <ilfatba<h- 

|«ta, «•• avnra atad fowHnL Bt 

Mlf tbebutiinnrof a greater wbaibaoIdeeawaRar 
bim, aad fnlfiUed bb ntaifan to fmpan Cor bfai tbn 
my wi& a nal aqaallad oalj b; bb acU-dcnU and 
bumli^. Ha fantiatd ntmj ooBtwto to Ua dae- 
triDc, and ofctataed lopeot amaff aU da«M bjr tba 
o«ntnat of bb aenna vtrtiw wila tba oui iap ti oo cd 
tba tioMa. VTbca tba Upbor lafaalan of Jaaoa waa 
made knMrn at dM Una of bfa bifitMOi ia tba Jor- 
daa, Jofaa poiatod bb dixiplM to thb aew MaMs, 
aad nw vWwnt aavr bU ova wccdi foUUa^ ' H« 
nort tacnaa^ but I ntut dnraaaa.* H« oovatod 
ae tMn«^ aad wtebad no buAar neoaK Hadodnd 
onl; to ■**■»*"■ tboricht ef ■p ea kla r tba tnttfc. aod 
faU a victim to bb bntowa. To snltij a vindictivii 
wcoM Hand Aatlpa% tattarch of GaElea, caaacd 
bin to bo bahoadod B priaoB. AamabvofUadb- 
<teka UBtJaoed fahbfal to Un till daalh, and an 
aatd to ban cat^GAed tbe atill csiaCiiW aeec of 
Snt rinfiF or 8L Jobn CbriaUam fa Ptoaa^ «fr^fa- 
S«Wwd t-Jt ibcir TCoentioD of Jobn tb* B^itbL 

JOHN,c«e of lb* aBoalb^eoinBOBtjkBffmaa ' tbe 
dtadpto wboia Jaaw bwd,' and tba noMad antb«r 
of tbe (njrtb Goipol, thn* cpbllas and tba Rrnda- 
ttea, fa oM of tba BOrt favafaant Aanstiea fa K«v 
Taataneat tagtaij. Jdn «aa ifaa aoa of Zdtadea 
and Ibe bralber of Jaawa. He b aaaallT' snp)>sa«d 
to bai« bMH Toongir tban bb ti ntbw, aad to hava 
baaa bora a to* ^aan fafcn tba umu a wn a Mm t of 
tbaCbriMfanen. Hb tastbar'a aana Ii aaajaefand 
from Matlbow nvU. U and Haric xr. 10 to bata 
baaaSakna. Pnnooa to bb <all hj J«mm bo ww 
a fidbcnaaa on tfa* 8*a of Qalflaa, togetbar wttfa Ma 
faibcr. hia brctba', nd Stoaa FMar aod Awhaw. 
irtka were hit paitsan. ¥nat At aaMtaa et bfna 
aemato akMg wMb bb lalber, aad «f baala aaal nato 
wfcfch aaaa pnlwbl/ tbob- owa rnamtf. tba fiaiiaj 
•oa to faava banw«IU»do fa tMrobM. Jobo 
via {aabablf a dbcUa of Join Ab Bantt^ aad waa 
iBOik likolv (na of tU two towBanod a Jobs L SSy 
tb* other Doiag bb eoBnankie Andi«w. Tlw^ an 
two tanfoM ^<«a of bb call— Uatibnr [r. 1^-39, 
lAk* V. \~li. Front tbh tfako be batana a «oii- 
ttaat attondutt <iB oar l>ard tbrm^oat taaadniaHy. 
Ha WM tailed to ba on* •:< tbe twain apoatka, ani 
tqcalbar witb FMv aad bb baatbar Jamn wn 
a&dkad to a mm naiMuuU J ilaiL a aii tbaa tba 

V tiblhnni af TbnlmaMlgiiiiliin In 

tbe lanlcB of ttitbtMaiwa, aadoB aaaay otbar aoaa- 
ibnawhaa tb^a tbratwam^^fad ont froB tbair 
aaandaa. He «na mhrywA a ivedal jbtiattfan 
aBMWc tbb aaallar band, aad b aaadknad at ibe 
hm a uf fa i aa l> n hg «■ Jtanrf ^ ea at latbaliT- 
iaf aeanaa faan tba taatlftafaa to tba l a aainrti oQ 
bb fiMitr to hb Load mA Iba ^qdldcr of bb 
falibtoeitnB^BaaWiilil HababanpcMMtod. 
boa ia the Go^ab aad to AcA(to,naB Unmtd 
Moalbr iBiiBnMgr aod friaa^hip vltb tbe apostle 
PWar. IDs Oo^ was wiitfen lakw tfaa 017 of 
tbo Mban— aeeerdfaf toaoBeattba to trfoto par- 
tfcabr > i i iIb, bat fa aB pro)toU»r witb a n»d> 
Ban gaaeral aiB. [t nnt^e naob fnlbv dataUa 
of Dor Lard's uaiMntba aad dbaaann than tbe 
ton linlifaal md —ah 
Ibe tbraaapbOai baaa 

le laraaMi 

lhe O ia |Hi i^iiiia » y 

. bcdab^ b»^ wUah 


Tba RenndB^ tttm a aHfaa af ~ 

to tbe aam tbaRbas fa Aiaa. 


nMihalad hfafL _ _ 

H il '^H i.paatfadartylfaadH.a^ a paMMar duM* 

«4icT of <b5a. wMch k aln liMd fa thai paMfaat. 

fatan aawB we Hadkta to tba cad «d Iba JwU. 

It b » » V « •• ^ *^o^ UA <d tbc New Ynto- 

apa aeriaattf 
ad tbe Beat 





JOHN'<or BmiuxD). 




nscnt, the aataa <tl which, AaMrdinff to tmHilion, 
waa iDMle nn Iw St. John bimMU. It ri^mv with a 
-lawUcticni of ^krirt'a fvcoiul anaing, niitl it ntlitDD 
nulodiction tfpdiitl htm who tolcM from or (u)il« la 
th« wonln (if the bouka. Of itie tiinluiry uf John 
>lt4!r the oirtnitB recorriol in Uin (.iiwjM'U nnd Um 
Acte ovBuiwmlrrvl; lillls u knuwn, Ho wtw bwi- 
Uh«d. priKMhlr by DoiuUImi, to tb« iaUod of Pat- 
uw% wba« 1m anw Uio rMiiiiiiii Kcordol in the liuro- 
ladoo. After Uiia it in generally ttuilentood Ui»t he 
took Up faia aboda Id Epbwus, auJ tJi»t he Uvtd till 
Om nign of Trojan, but tbo time of bu dc&di ia not 
IcuewB. 'L'be atori«« tnM nf liiiu b/ traijiti'aii arc 
miuvetu, Bod it giv«a kim varioua dJKtplM^ aa 
Foljcarp, Igmtiiu, fto., bot not nuicb of tiiia ««) ho 
'dafMSMd OB, Mtd moat of ihow apoci7|iba) ttciriiw 
andiMiagalahed bjraMiitineiLtality orextmracanco 
verj much ofpoacd to Hio truo character of tbc 
ajiolle, w^hidi waa emiaentljr aimpLe, and wlUi all 
Ua tondccmw sot without aaoleuant of atonuieB*, 
wldch earned for htin, along with hia brUber, the 
epithet <d Boanciyoi i*oa» of Uiiuclcr). 

JOUX, ilieoaaioof lw(tit7-tluw«pi)ii>«a,thelMt uf 
vbom di«l in HIA. TbaX no BabBoqacnt pope baa 
eaUed himaoLf John ia pn>b«bl7 owinp to the pollnted 
cliantcter el aeverai « the name, tutd partit^uUrlj 
the public eoadenmaCiaii of the last fxir attocioiu 
erunee. Amony tboae pontiffs we the followiiig: — 

Jaax I. \Si. /oAn), aneceeded Honabdae tn 523^ 
.and wa* a frioiul of BocUuiul who dedicated to Um 
aerand of hia worka. Vheadario sent bim to Con* 
iitaatimp|ile, to fakduoo tlie Etupeivr Jnvltn to adopt 
auidar OMMBtma to«-anla the Axiana Tbongb John 
wa* reoBtved with imcoinTnoM pomp, hIa Bundon wna 
AallleaiV end on hi* ntum Tbeuilurtc threw bim and 
hia eonpeaEniM into pn*<in, vb»ra be died in 52C. 
Hb «kr b May 27. 

Jons VIII., a Konuui, waa pope fnini 87'2 to H5. 
The Sanofna during bti jxjiititicate (nithud their 
raraco to the eatoa of ICome, anil he wui mmpellei) 
ia &j 7 to pay them tribate. H« rruwued three «in- 
penx% CturloB the Bald, h'iS: Lonis the Muuumerer, 
US; and Charlee the bat, I4.S1. Hbi-ing to fin; finni 
Baaut, be held the C'oiuiLil oT Trciyea iu UTii. He wiu 
VKyHbenl in«xcoai]nuidv*tiona,aud liuuiolied»ev«nil 
■jpiinil rabbon by whom, in hia joaraeyt, fas had 
been <Uef»iled. Me enffcred ft violent death. 

Juiix Xf., Bun of Uanoiu and the t<upu Srn^iua 
III., •nm born in 906, Uo waa elected pope whihi 
under age in iiSl, oud Kovemud ebrouch the Lnfluenw 
fli Ua inotlwr. Uia brother Alberio Terolted and 
tBpcitaiied the pope and liin motbcr in the cMtlo of 
8t. Angelo, where Jobs Uled in VW. 

Jomi XII. (OftacMN), 100 of Alberio and mad- 
BOB of HaroiiA, ^iigh en ecdoaturtic, Miooecded Co 
the «BputT cd hxa father, » patrician of Kdihc, and 
!■ 9SA, allei the death of A[pii]wLiie LI., pumsaed 
WwtltW dI the tiatn, thoui^h only eighteen yuan old. 
Ila ma tiie llttt pope who changifl hi* nanm on hin 
■uwiuM bo Um Pafial dignity. Uv u|>|ibtd tu tlw 
nD|wrar Oth» I. for mudaUnoa a(.--aiiMt ilvrengiH-iiie 
Uq enrwnod the enipvrvr, t'G'i. cud >wute alkijieuce 
t» Uu. bat BOOB after revolted flgabet Otho, who 
CMiaed hito to be depoaed by a ooundl, in QiS. and 
iiao VIII. tu bo elected. Un Utho- ilcatb, in SiM, 
Jofaa nrtomed aod excioiiimimi<^;it«d his ri*al. Hh 
died ia tbe smdo ymr. Ho polluted the Papal mo 
by the moat tevultiRg liecortieuBiieaL 

Jons XIII.,* Bomnn, made pope in 9S5 bjr the 
lalliiMi II af the emperori for which the nnlilo* of 
Uefne luted end expaUcd bim. Otko II. rettored 
Ub to Borne, and waa emwoed by him. Ue diitiu- 
fiiMied Ua reetoratiiw by hurriblo cmclUca. I'hc 
fbb and HoDgariaiie were cunvettod during Ida 
fllflTMtn He died in 373. 

Joan XXIL {Jat>)uei CRutt^^niltnti Cohan, 
chuioallor if Itobtrt, t^a of (Tharle* IT. <4 KaplM, 
waa ArobbiBliop of Avi|{Don, and wn« ek-ctcd popo At 
Lyona In 1316. after the doatli of Cluiaeot V. He 
reaided at AvigaoiL bnt had many adhercnte in Italy. 
He ia important m Qennan hwtonr on aonunt of 
the actUe pttt be took in the dlapolea of the eiuper- 
or« LauiH of I'-avnria unci Frodericli of AuatHa. He 
ilioil in 1^31, after hiivin^ been nuoc (k|HHcd by 
Louii, who c3Liiikk1 Nit'ulu V. t<> be alei.-l«l in lua 
■tt-.'uL I'hiliri of Vnlola chreatiiiied to biim hlni lUive 
na a hen-tic for muntnimn; that the lilaiaad do not 
enjoy the viuun ai (iod tUI the reavrreelioi^ and be 
waa compelled to rvtntct. ilo puUiiJiod in 1317 the 
Conatitntiona of < lerannt V., a numutU of i-nnon Is.w, 
since latown by tbo title Cloniontiuee. Ue vraa tUao 
the author of tho docrotAla called Uxtiavagantefl. 
Sccl'AKriK IjAW. 

John XXIIJ. (fla/linaar foMu), bom {u Nnplea, 
(viw a jijntto in liia youth, afturwarda bccarrio au 
ueeloiaetic ttndicd at Bologna, wu made a doefar 
jurii, and wftk elected pope in 141C, bj the Cnoneil 
of Piaa, after the death of Alexander V„ on vundition 
that, if Qngocy XII. and Benedict XI IT. would 
tcaign, he wonid kLm retire tn end tJie Ksiiiam. Ho 
Huuiiuoned the Cuuiiinl o( Cuumtance, deiuacdeJ by 
tbe Emperor Si^Muiinil, in ]4l.'i, where be appearwl 
in penoa, and oonlinDol tut rceiunatiou, March S; 
butt Manh 20, be fled locretly from Couatanm to 
Schaffhauaen, and revoked hia reaignatJou. Me was 
Cited before the couni-tl. iiiit not Appearing, bo waa 
■napended, and ftnuHy di»pu>eil. May 29, for Mxrvnty 
Crimea (maliioe, tyranny, incest, licentiaitanoEB of nU 
kd&da, itueroeiiiiiK) with bia brother'a wife and with 
SUU nana, Btmooy, murder, Ac), nttceted by thirty 
Beveo witnenae. He wna confined in tbo caatle uf 
Qottleben, near Conatance. Tlie oleotor of the Pa- 
htlnale was then obarj^ed with hia aafe-keepin^, antl 
ho remiuned at Slancdiein) and Heidelberg under 
cnatody. Kuur yaara after ba waa rcIeunL on the 
payment of 30,(>uQ tpAA i^uUdent, weut to Italy, and 
threw himself at the f<.-at of Popo M.irtin V., ia 
i''lcirencr, wlio pnnlonri:! itim and n^adc liim cArdinid, 
DiabojjoF Tuaculi.anil duuof the cuUege of cardinala. 
Uo died 2-2d N.ivfmUr, Ul». 

JOHN', King Kf Kn^lnnd, bora ia 116<, waa tlie 

Joucgcnt son of Monry 11., by Klcannrof fiiiiennf. 
rolaiiil being iut«.-Mdoil fur Iiih p,\i[itiimff!. be woe uiit 
over in 1195 to complete the oonqueet; but aucb waa 
the imprudence auil inaotenoe of blmaelf and bia 
courtlcn^ that it waa fonmd neoHaary to ncaU bim. 
Althoiieh bia fathor'a favourite^ be joined hie brother 
Kieluifil in hia bk«t nnnatoral lebdUon, and ahared 
with bim the ounw pronnmecd by tbe Idag on bia 
doatb-brd. Uo waa Wt wllbnnt any particalar pra- 
tisirin, ubich pmcurod fmr hini tlia name of Jstiu 
Ttrt-r or Iju.-klaiiil; but ICL-liuiil, on Ida aooeaeiaii, 
confenvd on liim the earldom of Mortai^nH, In Nor- 
mandy, and fiuiona large pnwioMdona in MnE-Innri, 
lUul married liim to the ricb heireaa of the Karl of 
(ilniiceeter. Tbia kiadueet did not prevent bim from 
fumunff intrigue* agaicat hia brother, in conjunctioa 
witbPbaipal l>anee,duriii2hlBabBeaceiaPalflitiae: 
hut Richard nacnanimouRTy pardonod bim on hia 
returu, and left nim bia kingdom iu preference to 
Aithiir iif Brittany, the bob of Ua elder .brather 
ijcotfry. So impurfoetly waa the nla of primogani- 
tnrc tkiea eatabliabed in tbia country, that nodjalorb- 
Mice whatever euaned, altbuujjh the FreuL-h prui'inoe* 
tit Anjoii, Toniuino, and Maine deehu«d for Arthur, 
who w-a* taken under tho pratoction of the Kinfr of 
Knuice. A war eLnaoed, in wblcb John recovered bia 
revwllcd proYittc«*, luid received homage from Artbiv 
for tibo duchy of Brittnny inlierited frum hia motlier. 
In 1200 be manied iMbolht of AngmiUme, after 



OvoBfaf bii fim wife la IfiOl «■ 

inks not is Knsot^ v^Ubtr h» Ui Mlhir 
>: and tfae yonn JLslknr, fawria^ joiDn) Um 
■ti, «M dutand ud cooflMd fa th* cMtl« 
td Vhik^ wbnn W wm ibw ytM^ ly laosvad to 
Boon, aad Daw biard of iBore, TIm tnaaatf of hia 
daatfa ia ae« ewlaf&l; laown; Imt li wm gaMnlli- 
faeticTcd that Join ■*»*'*'^ bna witb Iw oam kaaJ^ 
•ad iba Uac aow beam tbe ot^ecl if mivanal 
d*mitin». na MaCea ol Brttlaay ""»'— ^ Ua 
to Mwaw Iba e^fga of toanlar bafotw kk baga lanl 
Ifhill FUSp; and opm hk wrfawl to appen-, tha 
lattor aaoiMad tba nHOadoo td tba wnltoBe «< for- 
UUan af iMa. aad ia ttua awMr tfaa whala «< 
tei lfi i tf ■farl fcf WKWi UDl M . JokataUOafadt 
al Ua iBagia^a npoa Ui Bn^Mi noble*, wbon bt 
kansei bf taea ad ooaintioM: fcot alter m«w 
faiOKlaal aM^M^ he VH «bUged to leqBiMM fa 
a tnea in IML Iba papa at tbk laaa wm A« 

hlttilj aal ililii liii il m. ih .In iimiiii i 

«f % nmtmtti alaecka lor Aa aaa «f OMtabay, 
MBbMad ft cnatvael Uiew^OHdtaal gltpbto 
I^Bfli^ John, b^falr laaagad, actod witb Ua OHal 
fcaato aAl CdH*. ud t&iAa^ » aoeb amttaapt tor 
Aa Pafd anifaBriljr Oat laiwcant bid ttw mhtit 
kfafdoH mdar am ttltmdSet. TKia qaan«I laitod 
aoBa Jmt% aad Iki luac, b^ Ua tjmany, deprinM 
lHaair«f tbaaspparttf bia aeblai^waa parplasad 
a« « —«j dAa. Xb cnkr to gi*« aona laatt* to Ua 
dU iaJ a J Mhilaliinlliai ba gad trt oofc arodMaaa 
Into Bcadaa^Walai, and irriaad. ia wWd ba ma 
■■nmAd, and, ta paftimlar, ooelkd all irrtm i il if 
tohiaa t bacftriatba htftwwtfr. Ia thm ■■■■tiiae 
■ba conrt «d RiBa aiCBtoaiitaiMtod tba Uaf pwnn- 
MBft aad h^rna^ itenlrcd bk anbjaeto fmt ^dr 
aWaiiiMWL I%S^td¥natmmmi^i^Tt^t»fU 
tha aMtaae* «a»at Joka iato asMvtiaa. and m- 
natal as CTpaaiina in tfaa porta of Pkanljr, wbicb, 
Wrcnf; Iba boar via cMUad to omMB. Soaaicib 
AtaOaeCMM. WTCiaalM, pcanOtd. U»t Paada:^ 
tta pafi^a knl^ iaJacad bw not obIjt to lacatva 
L«^taa w AiAfcUi^ of Ckatoibu?. Uil abiacdr 
to i^«B hv ktafAana «( E^tfand aad IiaUtoi to «ba 
hoir an, la aider to reeaie ibato agaia aa ft« «aaM^ 
Witt aJhaJaiiott. Tlua ^noniaiaaa raB[«ct mwa 
anaatol at Dw*«- fai liar. 1S13; and tba pipi^ iHMr 

**-' hglaii I n bu vwa. and Ualooa of tba 

itoaKaf PfaJUphiaqpiradUwlaltortodMbi 
■aM hirtmto^plaataanubvaBdar tba ftetae- 
ttasef IbaaaaaTB*^ P^p rmbad kb& Bhw- 
dato vitb ffiaat ^^^■tf"**t«^* ^"ott tn oonaaocMauo of a 
ttw— y war Ua flaat, vaa padaally braofbt to raar- 
•aau Ftaabad wtt lUa aocaMa Jaba naolTed to 

te B^U bMM daettaod tba ma^^tm. In tba 
aatt jwi; bam**; bf canM ovw BB sw w FM- 
to«; bai aaar aaaa pttlal wbcimm^ «aa a nH f iri . to 
ntom {a A^™^ J^^ bad by tb» tta* laadcavd 
fcJBMU Iba otnMi of neb vaivataal ouahati^ aad 
ktnd. Ibat U oaUai, wba had Im« t<dt »(ria*«d 
hf tba HBiiMliM at tbdr aovanicw, udW tha 
njrilag iiai ia paiticahr. ililwwiiail toatiaaapca 
«■ GaxMiaUa aa opMtaahr to enatral Ua pna wa 
MdaatoUfablba&pririli«« Laaa«<« pndaead to 
Ara a oat? of ^ chaitH- of n^hto matod br 
aem L, aad al a pa oral torartaf la L«adHi la 
Jaaa^. ISIi. Ih0 Ud Ibair iliaiiili bdMw the 
fcii^»Wb ha Uliinitoit toaJada^drfw. In tba 
MMtiw ho aanght «a bwaaiBto UnoU wtib the 
dnr aad tha pBv% vUnrboa ha UM IB ^poal 
MM tba u amak my a w aiflati nf lb« baiwaa. 
Aa vrfMo paalik, mh» iMud it bti ialM«al to aa|>- 
t aaM » aia ^ a»U»hadao br Uoafabd lilai iW. 

of ihilr i wid ai l; h«fc 

littk BMv^ by tba dtobiatim. tfaa latter aaoMBUad 
Ea anaa at OiCenL vbaaa tba ooort tbca wa^aad 
■J—^-'y a gaaoa), tim a odiit Uly [itocrodad to wartike 
oparaihaa. Tbav watw Mcriied viiboat oty^ t ha* 
m Londoa, shkb ao (ntindatod tba klaft tlwt bo 
toBitatod Widgaiacbanklcaol a ft taw u i al aa they 
tkocki <t to Aatato. Saefa vcaa tba atopa wbkb 
nrad M oa J tfaa ftlagna Clart^ which waa ^EMd bjr 
Joba a* Bnaiqrtoade, «e tba haaka of tfca TbaoM^ 
JaBol5,lll5. Tba paadra auaaar fa vbMi Jate 
jrkldHi to tbaaa nsatnetiaBa of Ma pe«w iadkatod 
a aacnt iDtmlioa of haMas hawolf faaei baaaUte- 
tkma la ardar to laD tba bMoaa iato aeeanly. be 
diitoiaad Ua f and^ Unea, bai. is tba Bnaaatoik 
waa aactati* aopkqred la aMag bmA uaacmaaim, 
aad fa aealdas tba waaanaaca af Ow pop^ wbu 
MBoad a boU aaalhilartag tha cfaartar aa oxtonDl 
faon hb *iMBt oontraty to U» fatonato of tba bol; 
■aai Ho atiB ktbada Jaba to fay any ngard to ito 
oaadilioa^M»dpraaiiaiiHit A*eMaeae»td-»vmumtiti- 
•aHaatBaUwhaabaaUaltoaipttoMifeRsatL Ibaa 
lanUed arilb apliitaal aad tonpval ann^tba Unc 
fart Ua ratnal aad oatriad arar aad deraatatfaiB 
Ikimgh the LinfdciBi. HU bayca».tafceB by a w p riae, 
ooaM laaka no offoctaal la atrtaar ai , aad, dopairing 
U many fen Johi^ aaat a dapatoltoa to Ftbimoi, fa 
•arUA (bay aftaad tba ctmra et Ea^aod to the 
daapUaLoafa Fbttp ghdly aaMptod tta prepeaaL 
aad liMi^ with a Bm* of 8S0 Tcaaafa, faaded at 
8aad«k^ Mtfa May. Mlf^ aad pmaadad to Loadaa. 
vbera bo via ne d ni. Sd Jaiw, aa fawftd wairrigB. 
Jeba waa iiiiiaiilialilj daaortoi by aU bia fcx^ 
tranpa aad moat at hs f-g""*" adboEDU: but I^ma 
kat nadb tfata fa tba atefa of l>oiw. aad kk tna£< 
■Maft of tba EaolHh aoUaa bcfaa to alMato bia ad- 

k «bBatbefcfaa'Baflabi«onb«BfaBdwto 

aaaoaaa a bettor MfiadlM h^l tba Mbtetaaa^ fa a 
Btarcb Erom Lras vm^ tba aaiiib iato Unodaabi/o, 
to laaa^ by the foddea flow of iba tUo, aU U* oar- 
riafaaaad baaago. Aiter tfaa aMenaaa b« j««- 
caaded to Ibe C^tafdu AUk; of Oailiiabii l.wfbcw 
be paaMd the aight. A glalt laaM toyaat of aaam 
or poaAta and atn* Mar, at wUA ba paitoak ooni, 
bBMight ea a favor, aad bo Aad at Nomrit, Oetohar. 
If IC, fa Iba farty-nfalh year cf Ua an aad aeToa- 
laanlbof bia tatgm. No priaca fa ^gfiib Uatory 
baa boaai baadad dowa to ptatotit* fa htoEkoaooloani 
ikan Jabn. to wboto fagraiiMidf; JNolUy. aad crvohy 
wwahafatettL AppaiaiHtfaaiaaf tisBaraadaaiHj 
~ bat Ibaj ahner* 

pvowd MWV npHBO^B <■ 

waa alafaad arflh «Kto 

ta^ <■ aaaa, t 

wd I imiiiTTi. 


Uk pHteu Ue 

part of kb osadaek aaaials-aaa tbeattanlfaa be 
|odd to Mwmaea aad aarftlBo B«afa& IConafaar- 

IM> of hnwigha and fanorpanlfaaa wot ■amtolua 
panabadato fraai Urn tbai froto an- atbar of lb« 
aari? k^^ Md the popafar outoMlaliiia of ibe eit* 
of Ltadoa aaa haa gifL H« bft. by bit M«i<nd nflv. 
a laadlT al tao anaa aad ibna daatbtpn, aad bad 
■my iuagitfaMM cUUniL 

JOHK L v/a**V. Kfa« of Pwt^aL aanaaMd the 
Gnat, f a^daa of Iba dv^aly el Avfa Ho waatb* 
aatanl aoa of Padw Aa aaoara, kft^ of r.rtocal. 
aad at aann yaaaa of «• *•• t r iato d ft*ad-na«t>:r 
oflbaofdarofAvfa Fatdfaaad. tba lagitfaiato omi 
of riadra, hktfaf died fa ia&3 wUhnrt auU bob*. 
the aama^an waa c^toad bv ruUW fa tba iMt 
of Babaa or Daoirioat, vifo of Jub 1. Wktla Ikb 
m mm am «ad» f faiiMi a tiliMira. wtdaw of 
rwdfaw X wm datfawd I ttohaniilafa of 
4bat. Iba OMdaot a< tba qaoM. 
bar aoaadakiM h»« far a fawjoabak . 
bariin l iidi n rttbtbo P ia lat aaaa John. 
ac«d t9 tba papabr dalika, aardarad l&b favuarito 







Is tba paUce, 6lh I>«o«inber. 13.S3. On th« ]r>th ■>! 
&B maun montli bs <r»c 1>v {.h>!>iiIiu- fu-i'l^ui Jeclitrml 
d«lMukir Mill euvvmor of tiic kiui.nloiu, wliidi wm 
•qoivilent W « tU'lamtimi of wnr with Si>hin. M« 
•lid not intnudiAtclv claim thr Eruwo, but act up ru 
B imlendcr Ihm Judo, Ui« win t<{ I'edn) t>y Iim <!•• 
CAirtm. I>»rioK tba w^r with Cutilfi ibia pretvncv 
WM tcl Hidu, u<l on tich. April, 13!'£. he oamtmed 
0»6 aof»nap>ty. Tbo vtrune plkrcm uf tho kJiiKviom 
went >UU in ilia pfnu—ian of Uia noble* who adHorod 
ui (Jumii Uuntrloe, but tlwy wan endukll; reduwd. 
ftiid Juan, kisK of Cutilo. whn be^g»d LUxm with 
k lvg« fATce. induitine the dismRocted PortugneM, 
KM dcfcMUd t4Lb Aufput, 188^ >t AljukuvlU. 
]|ii>in); bdon T«U«vttd from hb vow of cliiMUty he 
iiiiuTi«i Pbilippa, d«Bgbler of Jaha of Gnuut. -iA 
¥cbnarf. 13.Si,&n>) In tbeMin«y«u-h«i»nclii(li;>) a 
tea ycttn tnic« with CaiOils, tad which led to « Ju- 
linitJve |i«»L-e In \'.id9. In 141& ha miwlo aii cipoiti- 
tiou to Africa, luid Lt)u<)ui-rwl Ccutn. Uo vaiuvil LLo 
lawi of Portaekl Co ba drftwn up in the rulgnr ton^o, 
KOdllWMby hitfirdiiiAnonthstin U^2 ILr Ohriatinn 
rn waa tubatitutvd fur th« m of L'muu. It wu 
aU) ia hia iri^ mm] aad«r the pUronacre of his rat 
«»ee HiciiiT TUB NAriOiTonl thM Portufnl began 
that career of iliwrorFrr which carrieil bicr iiuirituno 
aii<I cx>iiiui«n-i«l |>uwer to tti high a [Hiiut. 

JOHN VI^ King of Portugal, wa« l<onint Liibon 
13th Uaj, 1767 <or IT'i'J). Ho he<»ine <lirtti:!tAr nf 
the govcnimcot [u Partii);a] in liDS, in ounMMitMmti! 
of lb« metitaJ doriuigtnn^nt of hi* rui'ther. II« had 
bMn tmught up chicAy by mtinka, and omtlJiuud 
tanob uodir the govemuenl of hla ecnteMon, whom 
b« tnaamily duuisod. In IJW he aammed the 
tiUc OS nqgnnt. From the fnrmation of the fint 
eetdlttoa aBalDBt FnkBue tu IjPS he nmaiuiNl tLi* 
eeaalMlt ally of England Kninit that ptivter. ualtM 
*ben floln|vllciI )iy thn nr<:|-r>nr(nMncc nl Ihi^ French 
infloence in the Pc-niuHuU ti> niaLks peaua or pun-luua 
neutrality, yapoleun havbs at lent^ detenolned 
OB th« ouaiucat of the Poninralft ontend oa tho 
•hort-Uved I'reatyof KontiilnclJoati for the ptvrtitinn 
of pOTtUgal between Spain and >'ra>ux< (t.'7tL IJ)ct. 
1M7)> 'iW king, who nt thin timi> displaymi miinri 
•rmptoma of hi* mother'* innlnily, cinbarkuJ with 
tu* fnnulir tor BruU on 'i'th Nov^mlic-r, and thre« 
(iaya aftcrwar^U Junut ontTi;<l Lixb»n, From hb 
new Mnt of Kuremment be uiitercd iota n r-luwr at- 
Unee with Kn^tand {lifih yelirunry. it<l(3), iui<l the 
HMWU ew of Foftu:^ wsn placed at the diipojal of 
that poiwer during the Penimtnlar war, whir.h finoUv 
netiiml him tu hia Kuruptaii kint^duui. <Ju Mtb 
DMimbar, Isllt, he nUMd BruU to tho rank ot » 
Uofdms t a<id on the dnath of hi* mother he wm 
iVMBiMd tlCth Mitrch, llsltik ua Kiiiffof Portugal. 
In Salj, Jiil, he returned to Portiijjal, nud En Ibi'i 
nrcn to obeerve the ronEtitalion fmmcd by iho 
oectee in the prerlotia year. A coiintor'revtrlutiiiu 
«ne nUenipled by the royaliAt*, LoudLid by hia m<a 
Don Miguel, and dlirinic a *iicruuinn nt intiig^ii'v iui|l 
Kvolte the kitt\i utiifuraily virled with the Mtruugeet 
iiartj'. On Sth NovumUir, isti.'i, he recofmi^d the 
iwlepeiidcnca of Until, which ha hiuX at fit>t nt- 
iduptvd to miiL He died At Linbun lUth March, 

JOHN II., iiuiutnwd tho Oovd, Kiiu; of Fntoosk 
a raenarvh diatJngUMheil alikfi frir hi* innapacilT and 
Ui miafofftuma. He MiL-ccnlcd hia falber, Plmip uf 
Valoi^ ia ISiO. Although tii» country wm nt wtir 
With Knifland ho bcsiui hia reign b; dWpatiaf hia 
liinitjuM to supply tiiA extraTaganoa of hl« eouitieta. 
-He Ibau had reocntree to dobuiDg tho coiimKLv and 
ahA IUb CaOnd oatled the *tat»-senend in 13&I. 
Wbea Brlward III. invaded France in 13S5 he wu 
■pin ebligKl to bav« rMourao to the etatca-^ncral 

for mipplid ; but nn this ncoujcm the utaUn, which 
midd not (real biiu, eiitablixheil it oiiiitrwl over tha 
trvitaury nlth a HtriniJiaiiuy which saronn of mudem 
time*. 'Ilio ImpnetA impniwd by the Ntalc* were mitda 
miiiiui>ti to the tiUreu unleni, which waa ubuaxioui to 
tlii> iinliUJtv, wi-mn t4 tvlioiii rvai«tad. 1'hr kinj; now 
wMcd vinlunco to utiprDvtdciin!. He eeiied the Count 
d'Harcourt, a oinpanioQ uf hlit m>d, at a feut to 
wluch the tlniijibin hwl Invited biu, and oauanl hin 
to bn nimniarily oxncuteiL Jubn waa defcnted and 
uimIi! prittiner at the battle uf Polttera, 19th Sept. 
13,Mj, and releaaed at a heavy oxpenjo to hia country 
at tlic Peace of Bji'tigny in \M0. (In hia nctum lio 
unpoaed new taxe* c>n the hnpovertahed couutry, 
wbbb be accompanied with proinliM of refonn m 
which no cmo tnuAed. He founded the aecond honan 
nf IIiirKundy bj beetAw1n|{ ^at provtnoe OD Ua eon, 
i'lulJp the Haidy, and thna prepared the way for ib 
lon|{ auooeaaion of niiifnrtiiTiM to l-V.incc WhOin 
eniraged on an «xpva»ive proicrvut thruuflh th-i kiim- 
doDi J<ihn, all whoee good (jualitiee Momud tu belnns 
tti tbc rhivi^c ctaea, leaminl that tlii; Diiki- of An* 
iuu, hia too, who had been Uf t aa a hoetniiv iu En;;- 
und, had affected hta caoape. To radeeoi hia pnrola 
he returned to London, a rare tnatanco of fidelity ia 
nonarcha, althnngh it haa beun sna{iectcil thiiL thit 
euibarmaavd atate uf hia afToini in Franc!« Lad tunie 
infliienco on hie reniluUon. He poescd tha wiutor 
in L<md«D. according In Froikuirt. in ijrent n-joidnga 
and recrealionB, in dinners, luppcra, and other aorta 
(if fetuthij;. lliotie ounvlvlalitiM jirovc^d t^n much 
Utr btui, and lie divd in London, Sth April, 1301. 

JOHN III. [St^iaJa), King of Pohuid, ana of 
Mark S(ibi«aki, a Puliah ca[»taiu, waa bom at Uleako, 
in Ualida, in 1024. ili; net out an trnvul a,t an 
early age uloiii; ivitU Lis brother Murk, atiiyeO aurua 
time in Fiance, and entered tho muduit«era (rcraiNf). 
('•Hidi'. f'lr whom ha bad a warm Hlndration, received 
iiim into hia favour, and matntained n correepundeoxM 
with him till die e\ow of bia life. 'Hio two brotlwn 
aftorwarda viaitad Turkey ; but hearinjr uf tho inva- 
ninn of Pntiuid by the (Joeaackft thej hastily retunaJ 
I liiB), and touk part at the head of their vaiaala in 
nuroerniu wi]<^unti;ni with the enemy- Uark wna 
takes pHanncr at thu batilu uf Bau>v, :2d June. 
1I5A2, and put to dc&th. wli^^n John became tho liaad 
of hi* hoiisc. John (.'aaaiinir appointed blm atandard- 
bearer to thu crown, and he diatinguJahed hlniaelf in 
tlie war Btfulo^C ll>o KumEubb and Swedes, which 
terminatfld with tho Pcaca of Oliva in 16S0. In 
16^ he ilcfcAti^d the ('(HKiaok* and the Miiaeovites 
in the battiv uf StulxidjikuL Hv itiarriL-d thiH jesur 
the widuw <jf Prinue Zamoyaki Iu I'i^l ho dcfoalcd 
with a email force an isvaaion of allied Cneaacka and 
Tartar* after aeventBcn daya' fightinff. In 166!) 
Mkb*el Kutibut was ohoeen king on the r«*i?naUan 
of J ohn Coaaimir agoiaat a party who pr«f ctnS Sobi* 
eakL l>virini: the tnmblu oouequuit on thin olfctian 
Pulajid waa iuvu]('dbyaanlIierOQaai'iiiy>>f Turks ajid 
Tartan. Althonch n price hail he«n, put mi hia hr-Ml, 
Subieekl did not tu^itAto to (aIco the Ivod iu defoaoo 
of hta CMUutry, and defeated tho coimy in a seriM of 
brilliant i^xiKitiona in 1S7I--73. Michael condudad 
n treaty in 1(t7'2; but tlie war waa moa n>n«wcd,and 
waa a^i^ auoeeMfidly ci>iuluL't#il by Sobletkl, who 
took<%oal]D loth NovuniUr, lil73. On tbo doatb 
of Michael hawnachiKirn king, ^l*t ^lar, 1<174. A 
new WW with tbeUWirkii was ivinduiled afUir var}'iu([ 
■uDoeai by a posoe, 2Tth O'^toW', 1 iJ'G. The nnarchy 
hiwhivb PultindwiweanstaiitlykeptbTthelurbnlenoa 
of iu ari«tiicraoy waa aggravated Aatmg the reign of 
Sotneeki by the intn'guea of hla wife, aiid hi* own 
talent for adadniatratian wo* net equal to Iti* c-^ipiu-ity 
aa a KeneoraL Beiddee Uitemal iroublw, Eurupeao 
politics at this lime occupied the attention of Bobioaki, 


JOHN (KinouTS op St.). 

wkoMBUisnoeiTMialicitnl both by Ijouia XW.Mul 
Ui« «m]wrar, H« nl leii|,'th wmcludeil <Sl«t MarvU, 
34S3) (in iiUJftBCs with tli« latter afninsl tbo Turks, 
wlio bnd Alll«d theauMtvu with the nialcontcTifai in 
Kaagtrj mid tbtvatuEii-vt a ucnt furtui'iluliln iiivaaion 
of thn iMnjiiri!. HobiaiLi wm at thU tiiiin no itniit 
that tlw Fnsiiuli iiuiliM>adur wnrt« to I>oui« XIV'. 
tbat ku would daw taka tlw fidd; but wben th« 
Turlu buncgcd VienoK with au armr lo nuincrmia 
tlut th« uumbar oS tbadr Lenta u aoid to Dara exoaodcd 
lOOiOOO, Iw Mt Cnwow with 2£v000 men, ud unlC- 
i&g with th« Aualcun foraw (Soptambvr 9), at tho 
hcftd of & oambintt] (orw of St^OOO men inllii:t«d u 
ileoiaiv« Adtal on tho Turk% uid eontMlled (hem tu 
niMthadlfVQf Viaa[ia,13tb»tpt«iDlwr.l«83. II* 
tambMcd iks cannU^ with tne cnptura of Gran 
(ZTtfa OotobcB'), vtauh had been tn th« poaBCHkn oi 
tba Turiia for neatly a onnCtiry and a half. In ISSft 
ho ov«nan Moldavia and Walnchia, bat failed to 
vntkn ft pemmcnt oraiqtuM. Hie Wt yean wen 
dutorbad by tha iatrigun of hit own f Amily and th« 
Miarcby of th« aiuntry, wfaidi he wa« unablb tit onn- 
trtil, and iu which he (vctsmw ila apiwoachimr down- 
faU. Ha aM irtfa Jtue, lO&lS. SobiwU wm ft nan 
of libend cdoeatioa. M« ipoko acTcnU Ungtugcft, 
lUid waa a lovor of ociunoe. 

JOllN, l>i'XK or l.AXCjunnt, UBUallj cillad JtAn 
cf Ovmnl, ft wRTUDtian of (VAnif, where hu wu bom 
fai ISSV.waaCouith tionuf Kdward IL iLcd bii quwii 
Pbilim*. dftn|M«r of the Karl of llMnaot. lie was 
cnatod Duka of LancMter lath Korembor, 1362. 
After aafclng mom Bgan tu the French wan ha 
bocftuift, oa m dvputun of hia brutbvr Kdwwd, 
PriftCft of Wijca, goMtnor d GuSenna: sad hftrlstf 
uuUTic^ (IS70) thedftu^itvrof Tflro IV.,annMunea 
tha l*niei, ofliiimad in h«T right tho tiiJo of ICiog of 
OwtUoL On hb ntucn to EnitUnd iu 1371, the ae* 
ti bto fiobarftad tbe Utai Olnaaof the BUek Prinou, 
lua 1)n(h«r, oaftbled him lo mooi^Uw all the nutbo- 
rity ol goTBfiunent. Hia cormpt and tjiannlcal 
fvoooodioci Buule hlni both ubmuiioiM to the PaHift- 
aat «ad nDpopolftr with tha eDnotry, tJiough be 
niftod aofoe credit with a fcapccUble mtnorujr by 
Ma poWtmage ol Wkkliflo aao hia CoUowen. On 
tho aecMaloa of hia n^thaw, Bldiord IL, John ol 
Gftotit WW fttronety auaMotad of » d«d^ to ocinp 
Ua plftoo; but oitlur Decftiaa tb» ampidoft wm 
mlMBded, or his MinwiytaritT left Ua no hope ol 
MMOoai, ho roataincd oatanaiUy a frutiifftl anbjoc^ 
and tn ISr^inaanniandof tho M" j*fc* fleab gamed 
BBaii wi aa «( tho ImportMit town aod harooor of 
Bral. At ft Ut«r periud. wliaa ww had been 
dedared witli S[Mun, he took tho cmatiaakr ol 
|iiWMln|L hladaifB to the thpone of C^iU; and bar* 
Ing Unded with n foeoe at CoruOft <13S<),aiid«0ccet4 
a JHiHtim whh tha King ol Povtofftl, wlw kftd 
UMnied hfa oUeat dMifhtor, gaiftad MTwftL i4ctc«i««, 
and MeoMdim tha oToof aacompliAhm Ifae ob)octol 
bla aanblticai, wbao Ua amy waa alnoet deatroyod 
by dbaaaa aad atomtioft, aiid ho waa gUd to cone 
prcnb* Ua alaiat I7 matrirtiig Ua daii^itar Cathftrfoe 
to Piiaee Haaty, tbo hair td the rejgnfng Kiag of 
Oftitib (13SS), and. aeo^Aing a almnp anm for hia 
«Xp«aai^ t<«oik» wUk an naooity ef 40,000 florfaw. 
OahJanrtum fronSpftlaJoliBolGftaBl waacrMbeJ 
Doke of A<|tiitai&e for Ufa, By aoma anddoa f aactloa 
tiot umUjt csulaiaL-d ho bociaBM OktiMDetj popaUr, 
aatd tnadn audi gnod uaa cl tba dtang* that ha pavea 
tbe way for thu ftilnra uaotpalion of Ua oMw< ao«, 
the ctbI^ BeUagbnka, undartbo tiOa irf Bwry XT. 
He diod Sd FeSnwrr. ISW. AfM Ua dMIh Ua 
«bMm won wbMl b* Rhi^ard IL 

JOllK, Kniotrn or »r. Tbe Kajgbtaof SLJohn, 
or Hmfbmhn of dl. John. aftavwaRb eaUed JTn^ti 
V Mitits, aad fiMlly K^dffkU 0/ i/alhi, war* a celo> 

bmled military re)tgiau« order, ealablinhed at the 
oominm(.«Rieiit of th» Cni'tadc* to tbo Holy Lund. 
Ah early as lOU gome mvrdMnta froin Ainidfi, Iu 
Naplo. o'tAhliitbi.'d a rliiiKh at Jenuftlem, and buDc 
B tnoiiiuiteTy, wLticli tli«,v (InlScAled to Ji^hn tho 
Itnptiit. It WM tbn duty of thn mnnlut, who were 
cdltnl lirvthen of St. Joh%, or ffotjiUtdrT*. to take 
care of the ]Mor attd alck. and tn gnini to aaaiat fil- 
griiuB. Tlua order, which grft^iallv obtnineil fm- 
portant pom ew dona, waa nvularly inititutmi a> a 
ndUtary order tn. 111$ by die principal, lUrmutid 
da Puy. ntftining all their fonacr laws. BeaMea the 
porfonnftnec of their vowa of chaatily, obedience, and 
povdity, it waa their duly to aid in dofeudin^ thr 
chanih agaittut infidola. iCaymund a)*a diviclod the 
order into throe dftaMt—kiiifrhU <ulu< shuuld bear 
anns), chftplalna (reenhu- ecdadwtloa), and aanriton 
(arrrvrifi ttartni), whoeo duty it waa to t«k« core of 
the Mclc nnd aeoompany piftfrima. Thia uvtier liio^ 
m^tklniMl itaalf a^nat the ann^ uf the Turk* and 
Haraoeos by timoo and courage; but in 12VI it waa 
driven frona PalegtUne. Upon tlda tbe knlghta COD- 
auered Cypnu, but won loat It ag^, and eataUiebed 
tbanadra in ISOO oai the Uwd d Bhodaa. where 
they remained i:pwarda of SOO ycftni. l"bfa laland 
waa vJi^umualr defended >(;uliat Mnhainmed U. by 
Piorre d'Auh'iiinijn (gran >!■ mailer, lAo died 1Aa.1>. 
Driven theooe by the Saltan SoUoiaa IL (1522), the 
ksl^ta went to Oaadia, then to Vvnloe, Boine, and 
VitetiM, and wpodaUy to Nino, TQla Franuv aad 
STranuc, till iWlea V. 0&aO> giwted Oem tbe 
tuMida of Malta, O«axo, and Comlntv (^ condithn 
ol perpetual war againat the infldela and pirftlaa, 
and the reetoratian of thcae iaUada to Xaplaa If tho 
ardar ahould auoceed In reoororing Ithodea. Pmu 
thia period they wore commonly called KnigkU «f 
Mam. In 1C65, muter tbe eannand oi Lftvalettv 
(who dt«] I9B8), dwy npdlad « vlokat attftdc boot 
Siiliitian II. with great lam. After tUa thoy oon- 
tiuuod tbeiruaval bftltka with tlw^lNitlu till iBodeni 
tinivo, and eaved thetaeetvea fava rdn la vwloua 
wan with the Porte only by tbeir myialdinf ocmgtt. 
In 17tiO, h.>weTeir, they woold daabttaaa uto been 
OTorpowcred but for tbe inlerpoaition of tba Fkcnch. 
Afta that thalr nsTal oKpediUona wwo aeldocn any* 
thloc man than awN ihow. Tbe oUef ol tbia onlor. 

ly y«4tu drut. Ho waa eboam by vote, and liven) 
At Valeua, In tbo Uaad of Malta. Ho waa od- 
dnwcd by foretga powon with the titlo el aUaai 
etniMrmtiuima, and reodred annnally 6000 cnnvna 
from til* traaaury of tho onla^ together with all 
ibe revcRiMM frum tbo throe m«iiI, f^ eocnlar 
power waa pcfaM%ally In Ua luada, hat oven boro 
ba waa Undtad by tfai* ^Mwwora 0/ tAe ntriout Im. 
ffitafa, BO called, wbo gvn ], fixed taxoa, Ac 
Tba ajdritaal power (that i«, tho famaodhto affidra of 
tbo Older) waa ntordaed by tba ebaptar, wUcb wo' 
■blod d alglit iaOM mumliM, aad In wUah Iba 
grand-naaUir pnaUad. Tlia principal oOom in tbo 
oader were beU h* the pUlM« {pi&n) of tbe «kkt 
lamngw Into irideh Oo kUgbta wan dividad m^ 
oordlflg to their nHpoetiv* aaaoaa. Tba lat^uMM 
w«« UHH ol PtovDnn^ Anrafnat Fnaea, TuIt. 
Anagoo, GnnMunr, CaotOo, and GnglaDd. Rratn 
Ibaoe langaagaa the balliri mnirWoofi above-tnon- 
ttowd ware ebooni, ami ibufr kudu wen di\idi^J 
iue pftoilHV Ibns Uto MUnvu^ and thaw again Idio 
tammmdwim. <M tba priarta tba OeawM had tho 
prefereMa^ and waa called tbo pewodprmy; It wm 
tilled hy tho gnnd (iricr of Gecmany, or tbo marlar 
ol tho knighu of Sl John tbrengbout Geraaay, wha 
wne a prhioe ol Iba aoptn^ and iwidad at Hoilcn. 




beim. ■ ts-iy uid owUe lu Breugnu. do\t in tk« circle 
at TrviuBi, in DadMi. llw mMt«r uf tbo KnishU of 
Si. Jolui \r<w Mibjeot to tlio }{nuiil-]ii»t«r at MkIUl 
Ha luuudf l»d Uu juriAdlnioa aver Bnadcnburg; 
Uiangary, tad BottuniA. AnttriA, Ikthemia, uij 
Moravia formed, beddcN, n •epnimte grand>|)riaiy nf 
Um Owman bncitage. Of Um «ij|tit lMqpug»ab«iT«- 
wratkiMtl ib« Bii^iib bwanw eacttnct in tin nx- 
teCDth centurj; the three Froiich lutgiMeadi peiuhed 
dttting Hie rtivulution; Uiuia uf CiulUti And At- 
ragDti iron? Mfiwat*!! from lilaJtA lU llie F«aoB 
uf Ainiens, ikcd Ui« luliiia and GenuD luguara 
luro Btnoo Ikwd aboiUbeJ. Thua tbo order <d i^t. 
John ia to b« regvdcU ■■ izliiict. Tli« Pruauan 
otder of Kni^tta of St. Joho, foimdMl bjr Frad«ricik 
WiUkin UC CAD be ootuidiand only u & dlhihu- 
lul of am onkr venonblv fitr its uitiqiiUy uid ita 
Mrrifioa. Tbo Kiughta of St Jubn ati««rTc<l the 
niloa «f tin (inler d[ SL AoKUKtitiL-. IIib Protoat- 
aoti^ iMnrvwr, wore not bonud to o«lIba«y. £very 
WMmhar mw reqaired to be of sood family, llio 
kalgbti who eould hring iudubitaUe OTidcBM i^f ni^blo 
MtoMtrf werr called tttiatirri di •/iiuffNO fkuitjLls by 
rigbt). Hloic, on tbo cuiiti»ry, wbo could not proTo 
tli«tr BoUlity, but wen) ncvciilicIcKii rocois'sd on ac- 
eoRBt of th<<it lueriU, wei« uaUed cattUieri di ffn%*M 
4k]ii)[liU ti_v fuvoiiii. Tbo duty of aach kidgbt — to 
take tbo fidd at Icaat tfano timee againat tlie uifiikU 
ortbi iMrmtei of Barliuy — wasmrely porf onnod la nt- 
oeat titnea, umI by tho Poaoo of A""*n« all hoatiUtica 
^ainat the Tnrlu won fortuildcfu In paaco tbcar^ 
loisbta woto » toDjt bJaok nuMitle; a gold eruas I'f 
vigbt pouto, «nuiiul(id wbito: iu war th«y wora a 
nd Jacket m tabud, tk§X^ with a full wbito cram. 
Oa^ Ib w^AUal coBConia was Uie ordi^ subject to 
tba pop*; ua all tampond oaaa tlwy anioyod unlimitcO 
ntvmrutj. Their und faroo, in 1770, consiated of 
four c>>Uey"> tbroo foUIot^ four thipa of idsty, &nd 
two f rigatM of thiity-aix gum, with uiitnuroiiK lualier 
icaMdcL Whvn Malta wm tmexpoctoclly attacluid by 
BoB«|iwt«, Jiuw 8, I7&3, Uio ttkud ca|>iLukted witb- 
DBt maiabuioc. In 1 BOO tha Britiah roduced ft by 
famine, and it boa liccn KTti «DCi> ill our liwidtt. 
At tho Peace of Aiaktu OWl) it wm i>ti|>uUted 
ihat tlw bland sbonld be reetoivd to the luughbt, 
Wldsr tlM gumnuiteo of s noutnJ power ; but m our 
MMfuneat eoutiauAd to catertoiu ajiprehnuirigu 
kal the Fraocli would rTi;tki> Malta, tuid thua «le- 
rtwy our aupiriurity in Lha IhlediUmuievi, wu can- 
tionM la pMoaiiri(jn of it. Deccmbor 10, IT^S, tbo 
Older had choMm for their ^raod-iaaAter tlw Buibl&n 
Mnparor, 1'mU I.. wh» dcclanHl tho Ohpitulation of 
17M an act of trvtHJjery, und took tlw ^dgbti uf St. 
John mdor hia prctotlioiL Thk choloo nut ifith 
Duch o|ifKMitioi). c^'eo bam the pope bimaelf. After 
tfa* dMth of Paul I. (FoLniiuT- U. 1505} tho pope 
appointed an luliiui (Tomiuiuik i;ruii]-iiuut«r, aod ou 
Ua dMsaav tho gnnd chaf »t«r chuao CarKdolu. Tbo 
iUaf Beat of tbo order haJ been, bithcrto, ('ntonia in 
Sieily. Id lb26 the pope peruiitt«d tlie ubaptcr aod 
the {uveminont to nioov* tlivlr «eat tu Vorrani. 
Boforo tlio Fnwcb rvruImJon tbc niunW of knighta 
<f this order waa catUnaled tJt SOOU. 

JOHN, &r., a city and suaport, IXuniiuoa of 
Oaaad*, n^itid of tbo pntvincoof Kvw Ilmuairick, 
vu a locky pcuinnula pioJecUu];; Into tbo liarUmr, at 
Ihcntontliof ttierivcrSt. Jolm. It atanda od rugged 
aid tinirvcu ;pt>uc>il ; but Ujc atrcota an rogularEy ikid 
out and w«Il I'lult, tboiij(h wnno of thum at* incim- 
TMloBtly BtoBp. Tbo buildiui.'M are pt{nci]ially of 
brick, ajvl tnany of tbo jmblic titructnroB haro a re- 
^■ctahlo and ovcli clefpuit njiiic&raiice. It ban n 
grwuBiir-HdiooI, » Madna or Lauoaaitvtwi acliijul, 
_ aad two public Ubrario*: savend relii^uusaQdctuLrlt- 
■ aUe auciettw, a iiroviucial aud uvlupi-kuik, aud a 




chamber of ooBunaroe; Civrltnn. a towa on tbs waM 
aide of the harbonr, u inciuded in the moDlcipali^. 
Tbo h&rbour ta oonutiodii.>uii, wifo, ainl Dover oh* 
atni«t«l 1^ ioo. At it« mnuth ia Paitridiie Island, 
baling a battery, liaht-houaa, and an hospital for 
aide omifraiiU ou fXxSa arrival Id the oonntry. Tbo 
flabary within tlie harbour ia valuable, engagiDs 
aunuuly SOO to 900 men, and yteldloi; luge quiiina- 
ti«t of herrings, ulmoo, ahad, &«. Ttlo camnMiea is 
cuiuiJonkblc. Id 1872 lAOli rcsf^U (ISO.iiaO tout 
arriv«d, and M'i' {\tt\Ml\ cli-wd. Total value of 
uupurta,£l,fi04,S20: vxpoiia, £730,000. Tbo prln- 
dpal linporti coofflst of Brituh maaofactanai and 
oolunial produce; while tbo oxporti an: timber, fial^ 
furs, and lima. Sldp-tn]lldin|{ id cxi-HcnI uu to a gnat 
extent. The city la the oeotra of tbo ndlway «y«tMB 
of Xqw Bnin«wick. Sl John waa founded by 
AtncridU) luyaliila in the latter part of last eentuiy; 
and thoufth it baa {nM(ueiitly aulferod from auvcro 
ooaflagrationa, it baa Htoadily cnntiuuod to itnpravB 
and prorpcr. St Jdm reCuraa thivo in«i&beni to the 
CaiwIUn Houae of Comuome^ and ait to tlio Pro- 
tinciid Lr£ialalui-o. llio population in ISiI woa 

JOM.V, Rt., a river which rliaa bi tfao United 
States near the aource of the Connocticut, and after 
flowing norUi-i(.-ut thmngb Lower Canada for about 
300 nuloa, «nt«ra Now Bmuawiek, near the parallel 
of 47" s., wtun ft takee a south-eaat direction, and 
aftor a total oouiaa of about 400 siiloB fall* into the 
Bay of Fundy by an eatnory & milca wide, at the 
city (if St. John. It» aavlgatiou la obatnictcd by 
fovond folia and rapldj; one of wUdi. vallod tho 
Kutrged Narrovn, occurs about • ntU abnvc tho dty 
uf Bt John; ft can be nuacd, bowover, bysloopaand 
»chr<JnoiB ai certain tiniaa c^ tbo ticb. llie mat 
folia ara formed afaortly nfter tho river entcn New 
Braaawic^ and ext«Dd over half a mile. In which 
distance it fall* 75 foct. Tbo river ia navigable for 
tUt-biitLomrd Ixiiita of SO tons burden up to the foot 
uf tlimk- falLu 

JUHX BinJU a uune 6ret need by Daaa Sirtft 
aod rioco popuUrixol aa a typical name miiajialiiy a 
liuntoroiM or burlaM|ui) reofftaentalion of the BngUidi 
charaolcr, dmtlar to Padaflvi an IrbhmaiLj&tmey 
fur a Soot, and yondtAaa tat on American. Tlw idea 
ooDVoycd by m puri-ly an imn^native ^^mati'tm ia 
very i^A, tu varj-, but with the Knglttli tlManaelna 
blnntntws, faoneflC^, liberality, and good biiuiour, whb 
a ttll^ht UaUltty to be impoeed on, bat no dltpoeitioo 
to be teHoualy trifled with, an: the leading chanotar- 
Utica. Tbe furaign nuUoi;* uf •[■fliu Bull vary inach 
iDom than tho nali^'o una, and arc often wry vlda of 
tha mark. They do not UKually ooatain ao much n( 
tbe element of aimpUdty, and frequently mpjily ita 
[ilaca with ounning, ootubativanoes, or inaulw- rudo- 
utmt and vulgarity. 

JOHN CKBYS08TOM. &eo Cubtsobtou. 

JOHN DOEY. See Koby. 


JOHN 06' NBPOMUK. See Nepoukk. 

JOHK O* GBOATS HOUSE tiwoperly JiAnnt 
Gfoal's I/ouK). a bonac formerly aituAted abont 1 j 
mile Woit uf Diincanaby Hood, and funning about 
tbe moat oortbom extremity of the audiuaDd of 
Great Britain. John Groat or Gtoot waa a r«al par- 
■ona^'e. Acoonllng to traditinm three bnAheraof thia 
luuuc ■oUW in C)U.lbuiaa and avquirvd auaoe liuiila 
&bnut Ouncanaby in tbe roi^'n of Jaoie* IV. When 
tbvy Imd iaoreoaud Ui eiffbt *'"'''^" a diapube anwe 
na to pieoedence at an annual fcatlraL John Oroal 
xcttiod tiio eontrovcny by buUdiue on octagonal 
Uuu«e with a dour nt each aide ana an d^tt-alded 
ttiUe, «o that each could enter 1>y hia own doer and 
■it at tbc head of the tabic Iho facdly of Gruol 



Hintituioil in priMcawitin of land* in Iliini-An«hy till 
alioiiL tliL- miilille uf loat century. I'hc buiuia lias now 
vDtireljr dlMpp«ar«d, tta ■!(• Iwiag nurkad bjr k 
rimplo moatia of earth, 

JOHN'S, KvK or Saint. ApoptiUrce]«hnlJcmaf 
remoto anliiiuitv ii coim«t'UHl with tli« foatirel of 
S&vnt Jnlin tlin iteptiftt, :Jllh Jimia, and takm plom 
im llii; irgil ur eio prvi'c'tiiii; the fmtJvftl, being 
MiJiuiumereTe. 'ItiULiikbrathin Ugenendljagrwd 
to 1m nn iiialanoc of tbo niaUim of tlii- prriputuulbU 
of tbd KoRian CnthiiUc reli^im a! aJupting kaathen 
rittti U) iiui vrvnlilp of tli<^r cliurclj, but »iiHiiu>trIaJii 
dilf«r H ta tba jiorticulitr touroo of ths ceT«in'>niM 
t4 tfai* c«lc1iAtiiin, aomo civin^ it a I'nmor. otlicin, 
|M»tM|« witb mori! |rro1iabilit,v. « Uruidin-ul oriL;tii. 
Tb« diadnffaiablng cliMwtoriiaic i>r llii* ccblimtion 
in the UKbtiiis of bon-4irc9 i/ux ih juit), h it rtill 
]i«lit Ib Dm li'knUtie, in lC<iumanJ.a, in Spain, and 
jMciicuIarly in Ikiltunv. I'oitou, anil Alaace. Tbo 
timauf the cnlebratinii difTora iti ditferent placot. In 
Itcaauntft it i> held iu tlic varly days of Bl'riuc, 
in tlu L'knitui tn thft bc;rinnini; cf Judo. Ftrcs uro 
lighted ftt Kbort diatancca in aiiLiUry |i)iu:c>, ao aa nnt 
to aet fire to tbe villairea, Mid the youDS meci ftail 
womea <buic« nmnd tbein iJl nigtit. Ila wHno 
Giutom pnn^la in tYancr. In Kngl»ni) the jicnjilo 
Went into tbe urtmh and broke dnwn Unuicbn (rum 
the tM*ii, whlcb th«7 planted av«r their doura tvlth 
graet rejoidRin- In Fmnce tb« fntivitl ii now only 
celehmtcd in viltfttfM and in pArticiilar pnyvinctia. 
Foniierlj ft viaa uuivcnuJ, utid una ttbaiTved even in 
tbe larg«at tnwtis. In I'aTia it wna only pvit n ati>[i 
U> at llie Tvvolntitin, 'I1>u fira of !4t. JoUn waa 
llffht*^ by the niuuidpiality in the PLuie de Grftro 
wilb ft grvftt pile of wood, llii: goTemnr of PAiia, 
tbn provost of merL-faanta, and all the jiubiic otHiciala 
undo tb« tour of tbe pkvo three ttmea, eaoerted by 
the fturtb uf th« town. At tha tliird tun tbe pro- 
voat fired tbe pile^ boiactimca Uic kiiig boi)our«d 
the ibto with hia pwun ce, anil act fire to tlie pilo in 
iiotvun. Tbe |ieoi>l« danced nuiid the fiiw Id a very 
ludviooa miftnor. I^iKhu^os of artillm- pRoadad 
■ad aecompaniud the lightinij of U)e tin-. Ktiil live cnta 
aevra in aacka vr«nt thrown into it. UaIIh wm bald 
in the Hot«l do Vill« for tlic ulitn of thn tikwnapeople. 
Iu Irdftod thja fvitital i» aaeuciaU'd vrilb a hlKidy 
poMlcftl fancy or anporstition, It la believed that 
tbeaonlaof all |iciu]>l« dnriti;; thia nifht lc*ve their 
budiea and wau'k-r to Ibe utol wbrn: ilvati Is to over- 
take ttMin. An»lb*r fomi tA i\iin aiippradtloa ant^-r- 
Ininad in Ei^buid wm tiiat if any one wtX up fa«ein^ 
oil iiMife tn the chareb porcb he would aee the s{tiriu 
of «U wbo were to die in* the parUi during the 
wmJBg twdv* Bootba mow and kneck nt the church 
doAT tn tbe «rd«r la wbleb tbey were lo di«. 

JOnS'Si, Br, ft tmra <rf Brllith North AiueHca, 
capital •>( t)i« iaUnd and ealmy of Newrfnnndland, 
aiiar tbe cxtmnity of tbe moat ewtern uf lb« 
nmnenoi pcntMtilu which project freoi the eaaUrn 
portion of Ihe iaiaud. llw hoaace kt* either of atone, 
lirick, or wood, and the town hai been niiicb im- 
|i(uv«d nUve tb« lira tA 1644, both aa i«|:anl> the 
■tyle of bnilding and the width and tenlahty of 
ue abeeta. The |aU>lic bnildinga are the gomm- 
nenl bona^ ■ large plain atruotiira; honae ef b*> 
■an^T. a hnndapine buUdtawof jpanlte; a Bwnan 
CallKdw and a Cbwcfa of fiigland catfaadnl: a 
lonalle aajrlua, boapltal, and tbe market and ni*- 
tom'heaaaiV the opmr etoty ef the funuer uanl 
M a aoniVraoaL Vimn mn aevaral a o d etfas '*"- 
^ooa and banevolent. a meehanki^ batUuu^ with 
liHUBinw. bbranr. aod leadinc-rKin attached. Tha 
kaie ef St. Joad'* conataH diielly in aopplviDg tba 
Itrfrrr™-". moat of wbon ace Reanan CbMnuw, with 
nMM-gi proriakju^ and ftahlng ami buntliig gear. 

The bariKiur of St. Jobn'e U exoallanl, altibofi^ 
narrow M tbe entrance; tbe cbannel, fmu potat to 
point, being- only 3i'>0 fntbnma uiJe. Tbe namwa 
ii-mllnjt to the JiarlHiiir are protected by hatteriea 
nad fortlficatioDs. Duriuj; the apring aenaua tbo har- 
hrrnr la tbrongol with nmrchanC Te«ela f ran Bnro- 
iioaa ftud Aincriuui porta with aii|:filiM for the Habery. 
TberiOue r>f imjKirbt In 1 873 waa abcnit £t,84.\2l£; 
Mipni>U.(>hit)Ay&h and aval oil. £1,141,4001 BeoMce 
its fiahL-Ku, St. .Icihn* ia exttaudrotf anga^ed In nal< 
ing. llierc are fuundrio^ brewmiea^ lauDerie^ bta- 
tTuit.f^rtoriea, and aeveml oil rcArjDnri. tit. JiJin'a 
waa nearly duatinyed by firo in iBlii, Pof^ i3.5W. 

.JOHN'S, Br., Antigua. V*e Aktiuia. 

JOHN ttt'OTL'S. S«i EliirtlUfA. 

JOHNSO.V, l)K. Hamiki., cinoof tbe uioat distlB- 
l^ubhed i:n;;luh vrrit«r« of the eigbteentb ovntorr. 
He waa bom at Liuhfleid. in Btatfordabirc, on t£o 
18th September. 17l>n, in wlu'rli city bb fathoT waa 
a buoluwUer. Ho inbnrited from hi* father a nihu»l 
Wdy and actlro mind, to^'ether with a aenirulima 
taint, which impaired hia aitfht and bearing, and a 
atroQg diapoaiCiini to tnoibld nielanehdy. Bo alacr 
derived from thi' aaiiii* M>t:Tv« a marked attadonant 
to high choKb principle.*, and a deaded prediteeb'on 
for the family of Stnart. Ho mrcived hia cariy edn- 
catiori partly tit Ibr frcw tchiioUif Lichfield, and partly 
at Stourtnidge, in Woroeaterahlre; and. on returning 
from Bchool, m mnaiDad two yean at brau. Hai Uii; 
acqttind reptitatinn from Ua exerdaea,' paitloulariy 
of the iMctical ilaM, a aejj^bourlng geatteman of 
tbe name of (Vitliet oETHretl to maintain btm at Oa- 
Turd aa ocnnpiuiiun to hi* ■on. Me waa aoeordlBgly 
entered of Pembroke College In 1720, bciiig than fai 
bin ninot«enth year; but he enkiliitod no marked 
atteritian to hia atadiea in the first invtanoe, and the 
atate of indlf^nee Into which be fpU by the ncgiaeC 
of the protniaod amiatonce on the part of tbo family 
by whoae adrioe he waa *ent t<> Hnford, loxiduceil a 
degree of n>ental anxiety which be ia aaid to ha>e 
attomptod to eoaoefU by affected frolic and turbul- 
ence. Sl4U he acr]nireii credit by occoaional poetieal 
compoaitiona in thu l.ntin language; but, after all, 
left Oxford, after a nMidwuce ai (brae year*, wHbrmt 
taUng a degree. About tbU time, aecordii^ to hie 
own Bcwouut, be received a atrong religfonalmpRi- 
iiion from the peruaal of l^w'a Seriona Call to a 
llovniit and Hi>ly Life. Sunn after hi* rrtant to 
1 Jchfidd hia fatlitir died inaolvcoit, and he waa con- 
utralriwl to atwvpt the aituatloB of luhi^ at the 
^raumiar-ichoot of Market Boawortfa. Thia aBua- 
tinn hia ini]wti<-nre under the haughty beaUnent 
of the prliiL-ipal aoun tuduced him to qiiH; aad be 
{>HMd Mtne tUue ai a gncat wiOi a medical acbool- 
fcllow.atttlodat Hirmingham. Here he wrote eeaave 
f'lr uiK> of the jiiurtiali, and tmiiilateil (nun tne 
Frrncli FatU»r IjoWa TrarvU in AI'viMinia. Ketnrn- 
tn|| to ML'hfield, he pnblialwd propoeak for the npaV 
Ucation of the pcwma of FoUCian. with a life, and a 
biatory of modem Laliu iioetty, which prwpectua w^ 
biit little attonded In IKaappotnCoil in this whein* 
be offered Ida aervioea to CaVe, aa a iviitriliutiw to 
tba OcBtlcman'a Magaidne, which, however, waa Iwt 
a alight atep lowarda a mainbnamei and in 173S 
he aoujebt t<i impnire hia mndition by a marriage with 
Uie. rort-r, thv w iduw of a meroer. Her Mrtmn 
of £600 waa a tlowry of aomo moanaDt la n wAot fal 
tbe iltuatlDii of .Tolumnn; and the fact of her beiay 
twiou hia own age, and pt a awed ef no paraonal al> 
tractlanoriefiaMiMntt rtodov bit cubaaqnant deaoff^ 
tioQ ef Ihh anlm aa • 'le>n aiateb en both akUa' ibo 
nor* aztmordinaij. He now took a largo bonaa at 
Bdfal, near Ucbfield. with • view to take pupila aad 
beardai^ bat tbe idan did not auceeed; and alW n 
year'a trial be naolved to oeek hb fcrtuna bi Loadoa, 







fa tamfeiaj with oneof ln> (rw pujitK tiia wlul^ratcd 
DftTid Gairicb. In Mtucb, ITDT, tlic twnadvcnLurvra 
•awnlin^lir' ikrriv«d ia the iQi»tiri[>c<|k, JohnMa with 
hb unfiuiitied tngody of Imm iu hb iKWlMt, and 
wiUi liUla to dejMend tipon but hia ■Icadto' Mieii^ 
mcmt villi C&vr. At thu tinit- he iKcune acqaunted 
willi tiw rocklt^n aod nnfortnnato Sftvaffe, Bad In 
aonw rM]>M.iM \m iiemnaJ oouduct wm muknninibljr 
affMt«d b^ tha intinaey; bnt fttnn irrcKnlftrity nf 
thia Obturo ho wm aoon ncwremd by bia ilcMipI,>- 
cnnuuloii religloiH and monU priociplM. Hi* tireC 
tit«my |>rudi]cl{un wbicli attmctoil noticu ia tlio 
Bietrapolis waa hu Loodun, a Poam, bi imiUkUon of 
tba tUrd aatire nf Jiivc-naL Ho *o<iti afttrr nimlc tai 
•tiMbpt to obtain n Dublin dvgrvB of M. A., tbr(]ii>;h 
n nounniRnilation tu Swift, iu order to pbtain tlw 
Buatendiip of a froo pnunmar- school In LalOMter- 
•bin, but could niVl succeed. Ilw nigagemeiit hi the 
GmtlcBian'M Magaiiiia !«[ Ut a new cxurdw? of hi* 
pow«n in the camyitmition of parli)U)\ontAry dcbntva, 
wUgIi. belD£ th«n dccioud u brench of |ir!vtkt:a, 
won publiahed nndur tlie Heiiaa or Debatiui in the 
Senate t>t liilUput. TLu ciHnonliiiary etuquimcw 
dlaplayed in tlivao prodqctloiia was almoet sxcltudvolj' 
th» pnidact of hia own Envontinn; but it is probabto 
that he Mlkoix-d more faitbfully to tb« tvnor of the 
■))|uiiMida of tbn rval Rpxaknn tlian to their lan^uags. 
He, however, wnfeMoa bimaelf, that h« ' Cook catv 
tiw Whi); iioga ehottld not ban the boat of it' Ilia 
•tCaohtncnt to tho Jambitm was alao fartlier loaiii- 
t ea tt J bjr tbe (x>m]Kiiiiti<in id » hiimoroiu paambl*^ 
In 1739. «iitltled UieMiiniiorNarfiilcioiiai^COnurthiif 
at « aappuMxl nnchtal prophecy, tn LB>tIii mtniktu 
thjrmaL For midq yean longer tbo Oentlemaa'a 
HftgwiM RCeivMl the duL-f <jf fcu nttcntion. Far 
Una miaoallanT bo ci>n)p>MHl i^vtrnl bxlvUvuI bio- 
(T^ilncBl artictn, and in 17-11 published hiacfilobnttcd 
Lfia of Aavima Bepantclf, In 17(7, afti;r .aTitimtH-r 
of abottive projecta, be unit uut bin ptans tar uu Knt;- 
Hah lUi-tiLniary, in nn sdiiilrablT cvmpowd paxopblvt, 
addren«<d ii> the Earl of Cheaberficld, who, however, 
Bonwmed hinuelf voty liltlo in t1t<? nucMaa of tlie 
mdertAhing. The tliiie Hint lie i.-i'uld kjuuo from thia 
(XMnpalatknt, which hac boon jiutly accounted a won- 
docfitl «n)rtIon of lii'lutlry, waa allottttd t9 varioua 
btnwy avocatioDK In tbo uvme joar bo fomUied 
GanricK with hit admiraMc pn:'l«guc on the nyioniiig 
id Drurr I«iie Tbaatn ; oud in 1 7<l » publUhud ouothur 
aA&Ired imitataon of Juvenal, which he eotltted tho 
VaaitT of Uninao ^naboa. In tho aaraa rear hia 
ttandyof Itenewaapradnc«da£ IlniiyrjanoThcatrcv 
WDoet the aa*]^Ma of GarHck. Il wm pKrfunned 
llnrtwn fd^ta with tnit moderotA applwiae, and 
Jolnaon, aUMIed that he waa not farmed to oxcci in 
Ibe dtMDa, wiaeljr gave up tbi.- uidravnur. Iu March, 
l7S(k af^Marad the fiivt paper of Uie IE»iiibI(fr, the 
fimvit; of tbo toDV of wlui^. nottriUutanding iM 
awHea^ of ofaaorvatioii, riofanew of Uluatration, and 
iiglilty of rxprceaioD, prevented it from obtaJido^' a 
wida ciicnlation »■ a pAriodicalpapsr, although, vrhnn 
«oUeBted into <.-o!uine«, th« oulhcjr bimaelf IiTvd tv 
•M It nMb a touth odlUon. A abort thna beforit 
the »pf)«*ntnec of tho Itaniblor. half dcludod by hia 
political diaUlce of SJdlnn, hv hutiljr adoptod the 
lOipuatuiv of T>an(ler, Iu bis aUtfUipl t*t Itx the oliar^ 
i4 jdtiflariain on that gnat poet. Whcm niubH»ivi.d, 
bowvi'M-, be in>iat«d u[nm jjnndcr'* ajgnins a fnrmnl 
ncantalion, «nd, powibly ab anma atonmneol, wri>ta 
a proluifno to CoiDus, when act«d for the boneflt of 
ltliJl4ia'a |fT*nd-«laiigbUr. In tlic your 1755 wm pult- 
l»lied Ilia lon^Mpected Dictionary, to wbich liU 
HBie ajrpfiuvtt witb the de^roe of it[,A ubUtoed 
tnaa Ilw I'nivervltyof Oxford, by the good offioMof 
Mr. Wxrl^n. The approaching publiuntion of chia 
«or^ L«mi Cbeat«rficld lutd faronrably announced, 

\0L. IV. 

ROTBO montlia btforo, in two pnpom of the WorkI; 
but Johivoa, coiMciotia of liaviog rrc^ivad qu lort of 
support OT aneeunmengent from thai notil><iuui dur- 
ing ita pagreai, addraMed to Ucn a woU-ktiown tot* 
tcr, roplete with pointod nrcaam and manly diadAin. 
The Diolioaiary waa receivoil bjr the public with \ery 
gmeral appbuae; and although ita noglent «f the 
Bortiioni otynalngjoai and Iho dufocta ranaorod appar- 
ent by mor* noent ranarcb, hare aomowhat leasonod 
it* uri^iiixl reputation, it Htill rvniMtia the liaais of 
wnrlu of tliR kind in tbn ]{ii|;liah InnciiB^e. In itii 
pruj^reiit, honrv't'vr, tbiii (.Tvat work had done nutbin); 
boyond tnaraly BujJi>i>riiiij; blni; and it »ppL-iin», from 
an artvat for a vory trilling- «uni, Iu tbi.^ yrar Kubac- 
(|uent to ita publication, that hit nacnuitici continued 
ondiminlahed. An editiuu of Shalnijena. the Idler, 
vritfa occaMonal eontritmtioni for a Utentv masaatino, 
fnmed tbo domltory occtipAtjnn of Mveral auocecding 
ye«rt. In 175B bo wrote bin onlnhrated ronunoa of 
|{A>4diw, PrliJCL> of Abyislnla, which fino perfnnuance 
ho oompoMd in tho owninga of ont week, in ovdor 
to dt^y the fnneni expenaa* of hia a^d motbsr. 
At leq^^, in 1702, the Bute sdniinlBtr«tion KTU)t«d 
him a peuaion of £300 p«r anniLui. which hu acuqitcd, 
aft«r a abort Mtrogglo aeainRt the n^oeptinn »f a 
fikvijiir from tbt- Lome of Hwiovcr. Hia own iuu<«a> 
tic ilofi nitloD of ihtf word yrntiittu r, in the Dictionary, 
WAV uiitundly varnigh quoted upon tluaoocoaion; but 
tbo alcTlJDir fttxl acknowledged merita of ^o man 
formed a aatisfodor; i^wlogy. Hia advanced rerun- 
latiDo and uncnHod drounutanoaa now oon^onJily 
eninnred hbi iM.v|uniiilaaoa^ and be bocaine member 
of a wvekly club In Gemrd 8tn«t. Sobo, oompoaed 
of the moat eminent ntea of talcnta of the da.y — 
CloldsniilJi, Ilurkc, ISnrrick, Hir JimIiua ItryiioicCi^ 
&c. Ill tiip f<jlIowui'„' year tldth May^,, in tjiito 
uf his wt'll-known Invetorato firojudit,« agsiuet the 
Sout<:.h, thi^ timt interview with hix now M|nAlly 

faiUniiii bio^^rxpber, Jniiiea iUonwell, wan t:S«cLp(l ill 

tho liook parlour <>( Tom I>n''l«B, actvr and book' 
•dIIut. TLh BoquaJutnnea thon coranMmccd was 
BOdulouity onltlvated by BuaweU, ttaA for mora 
tlmn twenty ycnn the worship of Ida great friend 
waa tfaa grand, ideal, volnntary 1>uiiinnci of hia life. 
In 1765 DCinmeneed that iiiturouunw with tho TbraJe 
family which DTodtiead Johnaon BO much social enjoy- 
mrntjond intneaatnoyeiu-appcjuoclhiiiliins-inTiiniaod 
ei.Iitiuu uf SludupCTB, wluch wiu uxhcteir in by nn 
admlrabls profaoe; but the work ibwlf did not atlo- 
gctbcr uifvrar public expoctatton, owin^ principally 
la tho nqierficiJiJ aconaiTitiuico of thn iMiiinKmtAtor 
with the writioHB of tbe ii^< iu wbiub Sbakupore 
flotuiabod. In 1770. alihoujjb hU pon^iQii vm given 
without oimditinna, hta attachment to the mooArdiical 
aide iu i^iinal iiulitiai led him biouoipoacapamplilet, 
vntitled the f alao Alarm, in favour cf the reecdu- 
Ivm of the Uouao of Commona iu Uie nCairof WiUcM 
—that expolsion lauilied incapacity of rc-deetionL 
Thia production waa fulluw»d by Thongfata on the Late 
Tmnajctionain Fnlklnnd'a Island, agunattlMOondiict 
of Spain in regard to lliat unproutalje poM aaaj on; 
the Patriot, writtm on tbo eraot the ggnml election. 
In 1 774 : and Taxation no Tyranny, a more conaider- 
ablo effort, which muide itsnppearancetii 177.^, nKniniit 
the arguni^nU nf the A(neri(>aii cmlulUats ralattve to 
thu i>owcr claimed by tbo mother ommtry to Ctx them 
at pletuitirc!. In I77!I hi: mnde a tnnr to thit Hebrides, 
iu «>ni|iaiiy wiUi bin friuud BcuwcII, at which ho 
givon a highly imtructivtt uvcouul ld bis Jouniey to 
the Wott«m laloa of Scotland. In tliia production 
ho pronuunoed deddediv a|;ajn«t thr nutltcnticity of 
Oasiaii, wliidt aentenoe involved hbn in a bruil m-ith 
Mocphnntan. Id 1770 ho noelvo<l tho diploma of 
D.O.L. from tbo Unlvunlty of OxfurJ. nnd >oon 
after vbited Fnuice, in company witb the llmlas 




■ad Barcttl. Hb Ust UUtKuy nndcrtoldng vru hii 
Uvw of tho I'octe, whlcb wm compktcd to 17S1: 
tlwy W«r« written to iin^fix to ftti eilitinn of tliu 
WQ«s uf tba prtucipal Lui,-luli jn^ta, and. In » a^fiir- 
ata taea. coDptba four voluuei, Svo. AVitli ui 
OWMfcmw nUUtion of pnlitirol bion nad Btrong 

Vf Xb» Bfa of MutoQ, tliay fona » valunbU wlliition 
to Bngiiib Uon^>l>7 sail oriticiim. Ttiu ouacludiui; 
iwiilati ai ttao life u( this vtiiineiit man vae Haddeniid 
by tbo low of many uld friends, oott bj declining 
twith. In nS3 ha wa« grutly alaimod br ■ pum- 
Irtlo Btioke, uid hJa ht»lUi uuver wholly raooverwl 
tb* iluck. alttaonc^ h» lived to tiw IStb Dwuabvr. 
178-L For msm daya prsriouilv ha nUia«d kU his 
homr ol dJaacdutioa ; Dot be anally diad with da- 
TotloBal oompoaurt. Thl* sv«nt took plwa in bia 
MTtB^-fifth y«v, and hia nmalna wwa iittvRwl In 
WeatalMler Abbey, with grcotaoLenuLitj. HbatAtuo 
haa b«aii plftood in St. Pald'A. 

KoiB tba DuinBroua aad oi^doua Ungrapbtml 
tributea Co the oMBuwy ct Dr. Juhnaoo, utd wpedAlIy 
that of Boavall, ftm penotu hftve baea nads bo wvU 
ktunm to thfl public, aitb«r ■• autbon or nMD. In 
tlte fomwr oapscity bo ia morv to ba admlivd fur 
rlgoor Mid itiongth than for oonlty of oonoeption. 
Xo writar doUvcn i&oral m^vini* and diotaOorinl 
aectenoan with mora force, or l»ya down dBfimtioiui 
with more grarv pncUoo. Hv lUwoioela In giuiuK 
point to Barcum, and magnifioiun to Imagaiy ana 
abaftaction. Hia ctltioal """"". aattlitf Mlde per- 
Maal and political prejadkei^ waa UlcMrlM very 
mat; tnit bo ia utterly avona to tii« «aaT and 
fauiiUar, both in lu> ityto and aanitiiDoal, tlw lormor 
of which ts«de an en in En^lah oompoiltJoiL HJa 
■tjrlo ia inarkod by an exubcranc« of worda of Latin 
■tjnMiagy, and thoa^ iU •oaoroua rotxuulity of 
paraae baa btimyed aoim alilc wiiteta Into injudl- 
dona iaotetlaB, tba «dmb»llon la which it wm for- 
Dierly held ha« ii«w long niiliaidfid. 

Am » nun Dr. Jabmtou tnM, in miiul a« la ponton, 

Ewirrful aad raggwl, but be wag capable of aota of 
ncTuloaoo and of mbatnntial ganaraity which do 
honour to luonnn natun. His sbmig prajudloea 
havp Ik«o alrcftdr owntiaaMd. and It ia to ba rvgrrtted 
tbat bia **^—TiT|]^|y i^rfnTtfTnatinnal uid aramnotitativo 
pQwvn war* aulliad by dJctaWrUl arroganm and the 
muat uffcnaiv« inpatianoa of cotitradicttm — qnaUliai 
that w«a nnh^>|>Uy bc%'liliMiol by tha axtiaino 
dafeninea and Urab admiialiiiu with which Iw was 
treatad on arriving at the uUDmit of faia rapitntiofi. 
Tba «ffeci waa nora injatioua to hlmadf than lifai 
haann^ m H avldently foalerod the ie«ds of hu^ptcy 
and inlolosnc* with wlucb ha aat oiit in ItfoL I'pon 
tba wbolt^ howover, both tbo monl and iutolluctual 
cbwactw ti Dr. Jobm ataada vny high, and ha 
■i^ bo reguded vfthont haaJIntloM aa on* «< tfa* 
auil —*■«>* o( the dlatingniriisd writers of tba 
■jghtlWlth OMttaiy. Hie worka wan pnbUabMl ool- 
MOtif^ ta cliTCn n>liL,wrth ■ Ufo of tba aothor, by 
Sir John Hawklna (ITST), and in twdve vob. by 
Murphy in I7V2. 8«e Ua Uf« by Boawell, Hawkiua, 
Unrphy, Jfcc. 

JOI&ISTOy, ALimmKfc Kann, one uf tbe nwvt 
oKhMOt modMm fMgrq)hcn, waa bom at KlrkbUl. 
aaarKdinbiird^S>lhl>oMmbcr.|$rit, and WMi-dn- 
<a«ad a* the h^^ tebOfA uf that city. He wna in- 
tended for tha nn&ttl fn l mdon, b«t aftor a Umo 
ga*« «p bb rtadSaa In tfanl Jimctfc«,and laanwd tbo 
tt% tji agraving. Us aama to hnm bean mdj dla- 
aatiaSod with the InwcwMaaa and isparCeclloaa vt 
thn Man tiabUihad la thla censlry, and ibalniVB <rf 
ttviDbg tb* mdaiHiout ot tba beat oontimntat oir- 
tognphm. Ilia tnt famrtant work, iha KaHnul 
JlStM, waa (MbUabMl In liO, alter fir* yearn' hkoca- 

anat labgtir. >[oiit «f the ntapa wer« prcij«ct«(l and 
drawn by hlwMftit, and nmrly all tliu tuunw uritt«n 
wiUi Ilia ovm bimd. This work went thniagfa BMOy 
■■flitioiiA, and iimrurol for its aulliuT tbe l^pOiBtmaat 
i>r ;:c4!j;niplit!r f^id fur tMXitland. Hta next greak 
■wDtk v-im the AUu of Fhyvioal Gw^irapby. pab- 
liobcd itLl548. I twna At lint Intended to bo founded 
un tbo excellent atlas by Bergbaua, but na it pio- 
CMdod tbis futontion waa ahaadoDed. and tin* Pbv* 
aical Alloa bacaina laaantially aa orIi3&'>I work. Uo 
rec«ivcil greet "*'*"—" and enoouraganunt trooi 
KnrI RiUsr, Huuibuldt, Berghaua, and tin Royal 
UvtJl^Apbical Si>ci«ty. On Uie appeanooo of the 
Atlu, wludi ia chanwteriud In tbe BuQeUn of the 
GMgraphkal Society at Paria aa one of the smM 
lu^oiDcaut mouumonfii j^t raiaed to the adtttJiic 
coiiiua uf nor century, he waa elected a f^rilow of the 
UadinK K^MJgraiiliicM wdetiea of Koropa. Ameriea, 
and India. In IMS the UnivuBtjr a Edlnbiu^ 
conferred upon h'aa tbo bonorair dogr60 ef LL>D. 
He died at Ben RbyJdin^ in \ urkahin, >tb July, 
1871. Aiwwg bii minor jiulilicatjona are an Atlna 
of ths Ilirtorical Geogmpbyof Europe; a Divtlonaij 
of itnoK^pbiT (li-tu^r known aa Johnaton'a Gaaettear) ; 
an AtJu <if AiiUifCioiuy, lo conjonotiim with Uz. 
Hind: a Gcoloipcal Map of EuropB, with Sb R J. 
MTirt-ibisnn and rnifeenor Nleol aa ooadjatota; on- 
mturunji cdiLcatiuuid wurka on phjaicikl, rlaairli'al. and 
^iifral (;«<>;>'i'ii|>h_r, all iif wiiich li.tru eeeu aOTCnl 
odidooa. i)r. JoliUftvn alw oiiulrui^ed the Snfc 
pb}idi!a] gblM ever drawn, wblcb was ubiUted ia 
tbo Interoatiunal Exliibitiou of 1651, and tor wUi^ 
he received tho medal. 

JOUKSTOX, Javeh F. W^ a. diadnyiJAed 
chemiat, wu a natlvo of Foi^ay. and kvn ihare ia 
li'j6. Ilia c^lucatii-in wait in Agroat neMnn do* to 
hill tKwii cxcrtiuoa, and fur a whue he gained Ua Ure- 
lihuud by giving privat« inatnictlvo to at ode t a 
attending GU^ov CoUcgo. In l&2fi he o^med a 
H-iior>l at Durham, and five ytu% iubaeiiDeatly beU 
tend h» furtuaiw au ooiiaidiM-ably by marriwa thai 
he reeolved to devote hiniaelf to tbe itudy of chew 
iatcy. He acoonlingly prveeaded to StoakWni, 
atl^uled there the Inatnutlona of BemUiUt and in 
a ahott time made hiniwili >o praioMit a chemiit 
that, am the cvtobliidiiiioat tit tbe Dniveceity tit Dar- 
luuD, bi; was apiwinled reader fai ohemlatry and 
miBcialogy. Ua more oapadaUy directed hta attvsr 
tion to the reUtiona betweea ehesnisUy aad agfkvl- 
tare: aad Ua OatoiAina aad Leciurea on Agrteul- 
taru Ckwniiti; aad Geology attained great anoeeM, 
tbe fbmar wane going thnraf^ upwanla uf thirty 
edilMna In Ua Ufellnie. Aiwthcr celebrated. Mid 
f«rhape the ouwt pofmlar of all tua worka, ia Ua 
Clieiaicliy of Cuimuou L4fo| a aorica of patMn bb 
food *"*^ drink »"*^ "^^Ji** mUaoC^ ckci^naUy oeo* 
(ribnted to Blaokwood'a M agaiiM^ and afterwaida 
pnbtialied tefa ia te l y. Tbe aemida— of aime of tho 
otatanenta made by hiin um be wuMticttable^ bat 
the attraetivo manner In which the aubiaeta an 
treated rendered the acriea extienMly popaUr, aad 
there c«o be no duubt of thdr i— titaintar a voet 
atsmiDt oi laanful infarmadoa. Fiofaaeor Johaami 
ie also the aatbur uf Note* on North AnHrioh an 
aocuHut of a toar la the Xew World. WUla travel* 
liivg oa the Coaliaant in the aumaMr «f IBSS he waa 
cuddealy aaucd with a letting «1 Uoot^ t^iainaling 
b a r»U deoUae, wUch carried Urn off oa ISch 

JOUXSTONi:, a thriving town bi BMftewahir*^ 
in the ea«Hi tacm uariih uf Johnateaie, which waa 
dhi>aiaad ftum tbe Abbey pariab of P^aley tn IbSA. 
Piaviota to 1761 the town, which lice ahoot * mOaa 
wwt fnm Pnuloy, ooaataed only of one «r twu oe^ 
tagea bailt near the bridge met the Black Cait 





Kivi!f. It b now * conn<lM^le nod flounslilng 
town, -with n pO[iuUUnli In \i'] of 7S3II, It nnxa 
it« TuU •trioiea tu tbo {nttwluctioii of cut tun -"('in - 
tdag, Iti iieuktion bdng h^hlj favourable fur that 
nMuinfactiu^ irti«tb«r m n-g[ftrds tke lupply of wfttcr 
or of eemL In Johnatnnr *n<l tii« iiirighlxinrhnnd 
than *n now a Urc^ nui]]1>i.T nf ivltim-mi)]!!, mime 
prapeDtd W waUr, uthen by gUaun. There &ro allso 
■vreral BUkwina inaaufiMrlori<». t>rnM uiil iron faun- 
AAm. The Anlruann CsnaL <Mt aktled) Unnia»t«a 
•t tbo vast end of the towiL It la kIso a vUition on 
tlu Gtvs"W lui'l South -W«rtani Kailw&j. 

JOtl.\.STl>\K, Mna., uiAutlioTieM of aoRiie merit, 
jnB»tmXi*9«t Um pnriah of DoUat ill (TbMrknumiaB- 
aluc*. but oS bsr nrly Ufo little is IcnQwn, H«r 
nnucl«n auno wm Chrisdui Tod, juul «be wuchUfly 
indebted to her own exatiaa* for the enltfretion of 
hm mind tad the KtioiiitiaB of inforiQAtioR. Slio 
nuurioil 5(r. .lobiwtatin, ft getitltnnan (if cDnrndnrablB 
lit«rmry attuiiiiucnU, who (.-uuiIucU-J fur maay yvxn 
with gnat nicccM a acboal in I>nnfertnli&e. One of 
h«r (in* afforte wm Clu-Aibjn, » NatioDoI Tal«. 
whkk obtained condtlerable mpularitj nt the time. 
Otiwr worki of ilctlen hj her inn EUnbeth de 
Bmee, NighU of the Ronnd Tabl^ and tAln innn- 
nMimhli^ contributod manv of them to Tait'* Magki- 
dn& Of thia laat pvriudical ahe txlvd oa nlltnM 
lor nmiy jrean. and conducted olsci for wntifl tine 
tke iPTBmcei Coitrirr. Another hifhly-mcocsaful 
wntfc ttf bera waa Mvg Duda' Coukcrv Ituuk, a ntuat 
l^odoOM oonbtnation {if huiai>rt>ii!i iWnriiitlon anil 
gMtroDonic adoniWL PeriuiM ono c4 her mcimt 
nnidncttoBs, faowercr, la her Mn. Mark I.nkp, or 
Weal Conolrr EidiuivTS, a pun^iib aatirt? ou th» 
aaotmliM ef social caale aa exem^lttlKl In Glwignw 
aiboiit foftv jreen aga Mn. Joknatijatt wua n Uily 
ei k meet amhhle and banefioent diipoBitlou, und 
putlsiiUriT deliglited iu the aocaetT ot ciiildnn. 8bo 
died in Eiuabtugb at an adraaoea a^ on 2Sth Aug. 


JOINT-STOCK COM I'ANlES.a-pedMafpart- 
naf»bt|i in wlilcfa a niimber nf [Kimmi txintribnte 
fsod* or «torJ: hr the pur}K«e uf <:iu-rviiiK on a tnu^v 
or Ollwr proStftble object. In an ordinary p.irtncr- 
ahip tbo Rkembtta bring mnre or leu nf thKJr g-irr- 
•anal tnanaKeiaent into the afters of the oompauj', 
and altboogh In peculiar drvonutanec* a puincr 
n» ahitMii from any interfenmco, mich a pcnos, 
«allMl Iu tradlos buifnage a tietpin^ partntr, ia 
Inated bj the law- in all reapeeta aa LT he [lartioi- 
(■tad in tha nsponiibilitiea and privilogM of hia 
WttckiMg^ bnthren. The diatjaotire pccntEaritjr of 
the jobit-etadc ccmpiany b, that the mrmhora throw 
Ihair etock into tbo vonturv without directly |>ajrtl- 
«^atiiii; la the nuiuwnuunt, wliich may be In ttio 
luMida m the ibarebdaaa or In thoM of pcraana -who 
do BOt eootrlbote at aO to tba undertaking. Tbo 
Oifntal ia generally divided into amtal diarm, Ku-.h 
nonber bddiu); one ur more, and ui (wotxution tn 
tha mniber partidpatca in the [iroflta. After the 
■lode of a eoiupanjr of thia urt ha« fcc«n fully aiib- 
aeribcd no one can enter it without preTioualy pur- 
ebaainjt one or more aharea fnrm some of tlie ex!«liui{ 
No nanber can demand payment of bin 
beta the oonpany. bnt he may, withint con- 
eC faia feOow-memlMn, tranafer hia ahano la 
ll'lVr porsorL If the mm^iaiiy i« bellevwi to be in 
a pnepeftHiB oonditiflD tlie abarn may bo aold for a 
taweii ur^er aiini than the ownor atanilH cr^ilitM for 
in the Mi>ck of tha oompany. OH)^iially juiut-itUKk 
flMRMBlea wore fbnned by an inatnjment enllod a 
ittd^ itU/ttMat, by which tbo tM»ititution of tbo 
««BI»ny and the conduct of Ita atfaln were rsffulated. 
Thaamata of Iaw nod oijuity conaderad <»inpaiii« 

BO fDRUcd aa onlinnry partneralllpl^ and the tfaht* 
nnri liabititini of liit> mcmhitn among themael-reo 
wvrv dflvrmincil uptiu the pHiieiiJea i^livoble tp 
on ordinary partntinihlp. But thia led to inooavad- 
cnc«. It waa impoanble for ono partner to maJnlAia 
an action ofpunat a ODp«rtner, an tlmt the dirrctois 
nriilil nut alio the Bhareholdera fur call^ and the 
wfaulo affain of tho company hod to be Cfan>«m into 
chancery Iwfiirc a call could he reooicrcrl. Itnaidea, 
courta at ecjuity deoUned tn entertain auite for aet- 
tUng diapuhw between menbers unleea the eonmany 
oonaentod to adiaohiticn, and thia waa rendered hn' 
pnuitleable by the neceadtj of making ail the membeo 
patties to lb Again, uo acUua lay affalnat a debtor 
of the oompairr tn>1"M allth n «hateholdH« were phiif 
tiAt, TariouaittnedieafiirtbeecevilawoTeattcmpteJ 
from time to time, aa for inBtanoe by act 1 Vict ca)>. 
Ixxiii., by which the cj^iieon waa t<mnower«d to grant, 
by lettur* potenl^ (o perw^n* amxnatod fnr trading 
ondolberpurpoeeamaiiyuf the privUvsva of a charter 
of incorponidon, by limiting the liahiKty of tiia 
patcnh^ca, and Muiljing th<'ir sriTttiTy or nthi-r oRippr 
to uroeecnte ordefimd in tlie nanw uf th« awodatiMi, 
and eren sue one at t&eir own membon. In tha 
prooent rrign numerona othor statutes wen paased 
to r^ulato the conntitTition ami tho pTr>cmxlingB of 
nii^ oompai^etv wbkh wure in I$Al all n?p<»led, 
and repUocd by one coDsoUdated atatnte called tho 
Conpai^o*' Act. ?S And iS Vict c^ Ixxxi k , wbJrh. 
talcen along witli tho common law, oonatitutca the 
code of folnt-Ktuc-k companlea now applicable tw the 
Cciited Kin^inn. Under thia alatato innitnace and 
all other cnmponifta am indndMt. Pctitiona to wind 
up -(unipanim inuat bo prawutcd tii tho C-aurl of 
(.fhATinvi^ and may be by that oonrt ivfsrred to th* 
Court of Baakruptoy. Seven or more penom aaae- 
riated for any lawful pnrpnao may, by aaHeriMng 
tlicir names to a mMOmandnm of aaaocSation, form 
nil inmqiirated eompany, with or withmit limited 
Uability. Thu dii«tiDctiou bctvt'v^n limitud and un- 
limited liability companiea ia, that if ao unlimited 
company ciintnwt any debtn, no matter how large, 
every member in liable, if hi* fettowmmihew torn 
out im&ble to bear their proportluoa, tu pay ifaendiole 
of tboae debts to the extent of hia fortune, a reanit 
wtiidi has Eraqnently been niinniw U* the ridicr mem- 
bent; wlivnua if the criinpauy in Uuiiteii, each member 
can io no event he cnllod upon to pay mon." than he 
expreealy gnarantccd. A coinp>iiay may be Tt^pJtered 
In one of thr«e fnrma: I, aa a company limited by 
■liajvi^ wfacrre tho liatiility of e:Ec1i mi-iubiT hi limited 
to tbo amnnnt unpaid on tho sharw. ?. an a oonipnny 
limited by gnArantce, wh<To thfl lifiHlity of oarfi 
member la United U> ancb nmouiit aa he nndertakoa 
in the memnraiidiim of amociatlun to contribute to 
the anwts of the company if it nhniild b« wotnid Up; 
and S, aa unlimitt^d con)|Hmy, ivhers them ia no 
limit to the liability of the mBcaberi. In the first 
two raaro the word 'Ihnifeed' mmt tm adHpd to thp 
naiiR* Alt the eompany, and the amount of capital, 
object, plaoe of hndnem, and dcvlaration of the limit 
or the tunmrnt of guarantee must be enterol in the 
utcmorandnm of aniciation, which tnnat bo nccom* 
poulvi by aitlelea of aascietatiou pruvidlni; for tho 
intumal mailBgnntait of the compHiny. An luinual 
lint of mauben niuit be forwarded to thi- rccii^ror 
of joint-ab>ck coinipnDi««, an offlcial aj^iuLed hy the 
board ot trarlo; and there muat be at least one ofBcu 
for ncisbatioD in cnch of tbo threo kingdoms. Thia 
anniuu liat ia t» lie open tn innpcction. A general 
nuMittui; «( the coDi|i]uiy luust be held at leaat once 
a year. No company ia to carry va buslnem when 
the number of incmben ia leas than seven. Sltiuv 
compauieiV ""^ "* inKunuioe, llmitod bankjng, do- 
poait, prorideut, or benefit lodeUia, mnat cac.h year 



malcA trul uii (iup«n<I in their oDiooi a ntAtement td 
Ui«Lr tldlita anil aueU. For a falxHiL'aliua of buokfl 
or aoo»onti ui imnTuonmiiat nf two 7«»n with hftH 
Ulivur b ifTOTiilod. Tbo court hw poww to mmm 
dunagw agidxut deUnquent dlrectore kod othor uffl- 
onn tor ut brcuh of tniHt or tniMppUutiuu of the 
fundi; utd not with«tMii ling tho offenon h one lor 
vhlok the offcBdw b crindiudlj Uftble^ h« any b« 
wJarad to p*y a raid towanU tk« ■nrwihi of tlu com- 
pMiy by «ny of mmpcntatinn fc^r bu mitoandDct. 
A VMa|Mui5 IDA/ ba woiuial up wlienovtf it | ihm 
ft »P*om1 mglouon to that affM*: aim wh«n«T«r it 
don not ewaiieiioo bwiiMa withht m ivnimaotttb 
■ftM liMiiqMTktiia, or It It uuipenda tts busineM lor 
ftwboto j«ftr; ftUo whsnenr ita nmnbaramrodueod 
la ioM tun aevHi; wbaaavvr it i« untthle In pay (U 
dtbto; ftid iMtly, wheiHiTcr tlw cuurt thluLa it juirt 
■od Mjuitftblu tut it abonid be woutid up. 

JoiBI-atock oooipMiiiai uc rf conipMvtively iiinilfTn 
OC^io, «ad Uhj OM Mclat with a diMioe ot auoxm 
env )> onawawwltt w of gpod basiiM« nntkiin Mid 
tuutm, wbm tbon k an iatelUguot apirit of «ol«f~ 
fifae, ftnd tkat degna of nntiial coofidtnos whkh 
cwa nv« liability to tba uoikrtaklnii;. We find 
aDQUfdlagly ttwl thia oouatry haa taken tlM Inad in 
aaofllfttteiia of fht» aaturv, vblch bavo now, how- 
tTi^ attai&ed a rootidtnHe develoiment ob a con- 
mbmmv jdaa in tba NvUMriMidi and tb» Unitad 
BMm n iIimH bt alwftja bonw ta mind by tba 
pabHs Am i0iiinkiai can b aacMaaty In aaUtv 
iBVMteaKH in fuM-«wdi abaiaa, a* it too fK<)iMoUy 
hafipatalkallnMriiMkiof «*aain tfas imoev nukricet 
aahwahat awoimban daviaa projatrta of tiila Und, 
mi, by boMtag ml spadooi vitwi of imnDnag pn>- 
fttoL tednaa mmiy napliiHnt to tate ikana; iIm 
iMnlt b a oaUavaa ol IIm ttmfmMiy, and ka to all 
otiBOD(B«^witbt^«nwf4Maaf tb«i«Di«(*anL Tbas* 
ai«. tu>\ otber riok* iacUontal to andertaldntpi ot 
tbia daia^ An i&diridiial vbo BkaaacM bia ovn 
boainaaa raapa aU tbaadrantaf^damaUa btmakiU, 
fndmtry, and wnmrmy; bat tba aMili^ and «t«u 
dbwMTC of j ok tM timk wnabi^ labour in nMt 
iHM fUnalty lar lb* tilMiiH of otban, and bava 
aol thra MflM p ttwaaf ii l aM4t*« to act witb •mid', 
•aoaaay, aad wiUbn. II a]ao not a aliwMM^ 
•gronttiat Iba ocaifwy anflvi fraw tba bad bm 
w w«U aa (ba «himmh and utonvacaiiM «f tialr 


■b— aMnann ba 


» a ntnrbr HBtfofto 

> aa <b«k, fBi^ <anMii nfta^, banking and 

■apia^aad tnaaawnoaa bWBMidaaa 
Mnf mhMad to n nnlar pkn,aad 
MMl W laft to tba cAcmka «f Iba 


■bwu Bwb m 

atol of tba ogMpany. AH painly tniAu 

avudatlvM an id lUa kttor dM^ and not «ntf 

abb to MMpato wHb Iba «tobtt^ 
toMla a< pdTato a rfTa n itaia, Tbay oawaiit aal^faal 
ibrirwMtoBl bd^or almri toM^AKtoid i»- 
lbil*>ai altaa nal 

ba« aa *■; ftariM 

MlbiiHgtj ftrMiaKfc* 
MM vftU iM^ai tta 


MMMUik «r Mbar |*Mftj. w cwAl a 
^ iM (Ml, ««baU (MM^ Tb«a« 
■Ma In iim toMMagr Anadi .« tta 

mJ caaavt aitoi b)r xrt af bw. 
gi«aa to • fteaMy tt fmamt w U fcal aiiang a^ 
na*iMt*« aMimlH^ wMflanataj iili.lbfc mfcii 
tbatola ■iHf HrtbMntolnfc>^tfcabi>*^ 
n Ibwa ba twa >ilfel toaaai^ Md ««• nbaan Ika 
aibaa, lUa fam a IM a*bMl Iba vwd iM«. 
jwtol laaanla im^ awba |artM(& l%a en* fmtty 

may oonpal tha otbw to mako parlitioo, which nwat 
b« by dMkd: that b to »r, aU tbe (MWtlaa mnit by 
d«d actnaJly convey and aMun to oaob ottaa tba 
•ereral ealatM which thav ars to take and enjoy 
Kvorally and a«|>anitely. Jcdnt t«nanb inual juintly 
impliwl Mid be jointly ImpltadMl wMi other*. If 
tme joint t<!iiant ref uae to join in an action be nay 
he «unimon«<1 luid Hvoivd; bnb if the petMO aavcnd 
liio the writ abates in nol actleoi; hot oot io per< 
■anal and mixed actiuiu. In a joant-tooancy tbe laat 
■urnvor take* tba wbolo. m if tb« Mtaio liad bean 
given to him only, unlea any of hb cunjAuiana have 
conveyed awa,y tketr ibane by dcvd. 

JOINTITKE, in Engliah lav, a provbkn for tfai 
wife to take effect in ]>Tafil er pnoeeaatoa on tbe 
htinband'B death. If a jointure be made to a wonwo 
afc«r mairbga aba may aftwr the buabaiKr* death 
dtbcr aoecpt ft or daim bur duvrer at ououDtn law, 
a* nbe was not capable of CHMMiUng to it dnring 
wvcrtnre. A itdutiiia b not forfeited by the adul- 
tory of tbo wife aa dowar b. If H be cRatod twt 
of tho Htato before mairiai:*) the btwband cannot 
aeU tbe eitnte to defeat tba joiatnia. Tba Jointure 
UHut ooutiana for tbe wif«'s lif« >t leaal, and mnal 
be oven to tbe wife herself, nut metvly to trustoM 
fa- tier: and It ntuat ba ezpreseed to ba mad« b 
MtiiCactkn of bar whole doircr. In Scotch law tbe 
word jojoton b^ao aaed todgnify a proTinoD made 
to a widow, ODwitdng; eltbtr of aa annolly, or of 
a life-rsat aarigHnti— of centi^ or of a bfvient c< 

JOIKVILLG, Jus, Sitm di, one c4 Iba first 
important hbtoriana af the FVanch, was bora ahmtt 
123S, of ana of tba oldaat faoilis ot CiMuapagne, 
and aatly cntond tba aofloe of TfafhuA, Uaf of 
Navatn^ who waa aba Mnnt of Chan^agn^ and 
bald a i ^^ w ' f*^ placo ^mcmff Uia umtheni Riencb 
poeto of tba ihinwsub oestory. He aftenrank 
naolTtd to nOBUnpnny Loou IX. on fab onaada; 
and nftrr pledgi^f hb aitatii to meet tbe «xf«a«a 
<if tbe expedition imbed n tvoop of nino knUila and 
740 ained s«Ui«vw' ^ik Mpck^ wl^ Ikt 
Banafcb nl ManaiBto (iU6% AAw airi*ia« nfc 
tbalaleef Cyrm^fiadiiy be had not the nteana «f 
M^ Us Inxp^ ha offend Umnlf and H to tba 
UiA aad vaa anei|Kad. Ha roae bi^ In tatwr 
«tt Leak ikand bb aaptfrity, istniinji with biu 
to Fnnca In ISU, and i^at nnck of 1^ tine at 
ooajl He waa^ bosmrcr, very arena to nndartak* 
a seeond mnda; and wb^ Xonb nndortoA It in 
IMbeaicMd UnMtf bsBataendincbtaantbB 
croandibntbabadbaaBrttfaMd bythaltsL Hi^ 
t lh to b a de 8L U<m, eAtcb b em id tbe n»l rala- 
able Htomry pradaolbna ttf the middk avca. haa bees 
aftoaiiiainlri. Ba dbd ^bool lUS. 

J0IOT8.hBiibaiHniiLare«bapbetoaf tfartar 
tba fadln af a c«mi« «w 

anbelk 1lHT««Udl 

haaaaMwiilll a ia l iiin. na«li« arlik «m Ibv 

rf MM* b m»rf MMr^eraw.- aibn two Ibaa are 


JOI.nU. SeeKl 

JOLLY ro AT. SaaSnar. 

jnWKI 1 I. Xsoeat^v a mmdai [■■riiii, Inn 

mi M Andba ar Aw^te KMlaa. Sa fcak 

^rfv Vb«^ aal sMfwvda ^rfw 


aeMt«< an^ iLn a* KMla 


mil la la 1 ia 11^ 
IbaanAvtf haifaT; 



ar> ■< t mmti ibiaa ' lar tba i 
waa cMWMd wbhpeat ml ain^ bj vbM ba' 




rocoitn^l to oontlntie hw compwitionfi. In 1733 
lie wrgt« Ins Odoordo, (or Ibc tlientrc nF rirmnnc, 
with BlUL |p»tor moun, wlildi iutlu«.'cl him iti 
1740 to (^ to lUtne. He now wmto, fmm 1740 t> 
1748, ftmtmtn optmt fur Ruiiie, ol wliiuli tlw Ailin- 
wnuv USgenla. luid C«o Mario wm ivirticulwly 
w<«tb7 o' msntloD. in thai Uttdr of whicli thii Icau- 
tffnl Rfr SpaMt iu tadu » ui<<nr ww roci-irird nitfa 
Ili0 hlobeKt wlndnaiun. D«BiiiiM ibvae b<j vumpMinl 
wnnl ppenw fiv Venica ud otlwr dtiu. Ho now 
Rcsived tba pUee of chftiwl-mutor in St. I'ctur'*, 
tttd MnpMei^ beaidM wvnnl ui(it«tt(«, Uie twaliii 
B«B«£c4ua Oaminiw llmiN I>rn«l, th« wiudc i^f which 
b ■ noator-plMe. The Dnlto of Wttitoroberg than 
engaged him in hij Jervleo, Hid JomolU went to 
Stuttgart, when be nowdited from 1748 to IT€S, 
cnJoTtng tlitr hi^'keit clutinction, ud •xerdnag i^raftt 
Icilueticis no Iformnn moalD, Wheo he nturaed to 
]t»ly Ji;^ T., kine of Pomi^l, invitod hiia to his 
cotut. Althou^ h6 de«li»cil thU invilAtioii ho erm- 
poud ft coiuidcnblo DuiutiM- iif ujiana for lti« Ung, 
Mud Mot him oopiea of nil liii mlmKincint work*. 
H« ftftorwftrdB oonigx««d \.\m wvtm in Roid«^ Mb 
(if vfaich wen UBsuCuLtmrul. H« thno niina*«d to 
KB]>le(^ wlierc kit mot with no bvttor micc«m; and 
At^^iMt 2Sj ]774, bo tlicd «t tijinpliny, prodtiopd. u 
b mppoaBd, by chagrin st ihit ill rt-wpeEoti of hU 
own opetwL llijt Iha^uictu and Miaofert are piutlca- 
Lwh- celebrated 

dOMINI, Dkxbt, Darox, a diatinBrnudiod (oldler 
and tuilitu-y faistoriau, was bom at Pavernc. canton 
tff Vau»l, fjwltwrland, March, U7!t. Ho firrt «aned 
fn the troojM of lii« own uiiintr>', Imb m tHe *nbJDg»> 
liuu of Swittnrlniirl t>v ^I<^)innl and Bnme he went 
to I^aria, and afti-r hnvin^- uivcu a fow ynn b) coid- 
noraal punoiu jolnol the French army with the 
nak cl toajor in ]&'i4. and wua toxin iimuiuLed tu a 
nlooelcj'. Hi! aocoiniKiniud Mn.r>lin1 Nvy t'l Gtfr- 
nsny in 18t>S 7 aiiJ to S|Ji>ui iu Ibi'S in ^a 
MMdtj fint of aide-do-oatnp, then of chief «ta(f- 
cAoir. Mcanwhilo he employed hia pen in aeroral 
pothkalaod militarj«iaaiya: aaoarlvu ISuShs Iiml 
| waa m tod to Ni^aon the 6nt I'dltluu of on« of hit 
'*~*if woffca; Tnuttf dec gnuvlM opdrationa mUitaJrw, 
I }b wMch ths wan of 1-VtMlmck the Great arc 
ribcd and ooanjuuvd Hrith tboM of the mTolntion. 
BamB nurundontaniling having ktImii batweeo blm 
aad Ida coounaudet' Iw wm dinnuMd frooi hia pfMt. 
He wiahod to «Dt«r tbo Rasalaa Mrrlee, but NapoJoon 
would not allow him bo throw off hb allogiance. Ha 
wwivfletvd tlie alternattvai of inifirianntnnnt nt th^n 
nok <4 gmxTtd. ami nocvpU^l ri^lucUuitly thi.- latUir. 
la IftlS ho wn« np["<iiiU'd guv-i-ruur uf WUtio, ajid 
■itwniiMnUjr uf Kmcilcnak, and wan of gnat >«irvii.-u 
totho Fr«iiith amij iu tbi' Utt«r part if it* diniutruu* 
rvtrvat from Mokxiw. Afuir the battlsof Lutsca in 
1^13 ha rcmmitHl hiii dntii-a aa chM ataS-olBoer of 
2ivy, aod Bu dutinj^uiaheil biouiclF at tlm battle of 
Baulian that hi* mnuniuidcr luki-d fur lutu the grade 
t4|r<aenilofdi*i»iva ^ot only wuj this rcoommomla- 
tioo orerlookcd by Berthlcr. tvhn wan unfriendly t" 
hiiH, but hia nam« waa atnck uMt <if iIil- {rniawt'nin 
Ibt, and ho WBK antutMl oa wunn tritUl I'ltATgw. 
Thia be deeply mcnted- aud after the nnjiivtico of 
Fllawlla ha repaired to tbo bead-qnarten of tbc 
Bf^t*r waperor, who at or(« j^pointed blm his 
aHa tin oimp Ho <leclin«l taking any active pvt 
in Iko opentiona of the aUl(4 aj^atnai Fnuicc In 
ICIS be Bocorapanicd the emperor to Paria, and tried, 
bal in vain, to aavr Ncy'ii hfr^ He atrved iu tbu 
WW agaiuat "Vurkcj (l^'iS), and iu lG3i) i>rf;anixad 
ibo rraialiii militar; acadeniy. Ue tbon rviLrtsl to 
Fiiiwiil^ but haatoMd to St. Pctenlrarp on tba 
onl li tMk cl thai Crimean war. He titok no active 
jmn in tba tUngS^ *"*' *^°''' ^^'"^"'1 ^ BtobkU. 

Ho died at Famy in 1809. Stane of bb moat 
Imponant works are Prindpea de La Strat^gio CthiM 
v.>l<i tir-\ Pari*, 1S18): Vie poUttqaatt mUitalre d« 
Xapolrnn ^(*.ur vol«. Hvo, Pnri^ 18271; Prfcb de 
Tail de ('.uerre (filth edition, Paria, l&S'S); Ac. 

JON^Vli (Hebrew. aL^ifj-tna dvn), one ol tbo 
minor pniph^tii, (on of Amitta^ and aooordLni; la 
2 KinK> xiv. '25 a ountemporary of Jeroboam n,, 
noA bom at Ciatb-Hepher, in (talMm). In the book 
wldeh bean hb name it ia rtlaiL-O thut hu received 
a oommand from (iM to g^ and projiboay af^lnat 
Xiiicveb; Init ho fled to Jop^A, and tjinharkcii fur 
I'arxhinh, dthnr Tarte«BUii in ^paiu, or uxire pmbulily 
raivuii in (I'ilicia. The vmbbI hvluis toased by a 
■torm it waa conoludod to dmw lota in order to detor- 
mino vrho wna tile caoac of tlie te rop eaL Itto lot 
fait u]Kiu .Innah, who wia thrown orerboard by hb 
own roi;iii>ei Iwcanae ha bad been dbobodbnt to 
God, biit waa awallowed by a largv 6ih (aooordiog la 
the ancient commentators a whale, aieonrdbf ta 
DLuderua a tbatk). After be had nrmaiaod three 
daya and oiahta hi the belly of the tiah the Lord 
apalco unto tnu ftah, and It Tomilcd out iTonak on dej 
land. Ha now went Iu NineveJi, out! ^ro^ihiaiiNl ita 
dntniction; bnttha kmeandpeopUihAving rv[i»Dt«d 
Xinewli waa vpaced. Ji;«iah, anury at iLin, went 
out of the city, and Rod ttud« a sourcl |{">w np over 
him, which was a shade to hiin. He then aoot a 
wfirm, whirJi Kmnto the griiinl ki that it dicil in nno 
ntyhi. JuutUi wa» aut^ry at this also; bat God 
drawad him the tooliaknoa of baing angry at th« 
doatmction of a goord nad ^et dcnuuidlng tho do- 
•tmctiun of a dly in which were l^U.OOD innucmt 
chitdrpn. J<inah'a giaw b abowu at MomiI, the 
anctcnit Kin^vch, and also at Gath, Sftao critic* 
maintain thnt the book waa not written by •lonah 
hiuiHelf, bull ia a collection of trsditionn uiuile tJler 
Ika di>rtxurtiiin iif Ninnvoh. Sunm ratiriiiitliata con- 
nder it merely a« an al]ciri>ri<:al j-iotiui. Thu itory of 
.ronah Ifl also Known to the M utuuninedana, according 
to wjioin heembariood aftrr hia prujihivy at Xiucveh 
aiid teiuaiuod forty dafri in the Iwlly of the iiih. 
Th« prn>ur mf the propbut in tbia siiuaiJon b ron- 
sidcrpd one of tbo moat officiu-ioiu in tho Koran. 

JON.'VS, Jl'KTCH, aac of the luont active pro- 
muton of the Reformattoo, woa luni bi I4ii:i at 
Xordbaoacn, in Thuringia, becnma in 1931 prvfeattur 
of thaolo^ and pruvoat at Wtltcmberg, and diattn* 
piiSflhed himaolf by hb exertioiwi in the removal of 
a))ij»t«. Ua acGompaniod Luther to the diet at 
WorniK, Riulstod hitn in traiuibting the Old 1Vj;t.t> 
uii-ut, tuuk tiMi iu the Murburg Coufereiiee at wvU 
aa in dcawtujt ii|t tliL- no-caUpil articlea of Tot^'au, 
wid waa |ireis»iit nt tho lliet of Angnlmrg, Ha liJuii- 
wiav did (TOvl wrvicu by bi* own writiug«, aud the 
traaalatiaa of thoae of uth«n, moru eapedally by 
bubliiking Mraral of Luther* prixhictJcinB and Me- 
lancbtban'i Apolog)- for Uio Aug»buff{ C'lmFirMinti. in 
Gemiuii. Hi- wn* Aftvmiuib auperinteuik-ut, lirxi, iu 
HaU« sod nfttnianlH in CobmV' The latter situa- 
iirm h» hrld till hi* death at Ki*fcld in )55Ii, 

Jt)NATHL.\-N. ur BEcrrHEit JojtATiiAV, the nick. 
name j,'lven to th^ Am«rlnuui if the United KtuWa 
collccdvoly by the Briti*li, irawbnbly on jit-count 
of the fnictnency of ihb name aninui; the cariy 

JUNES, iKifld, thn revivor of rlanriral archikc- 
turu in EciiiLuid in tho betriuung of the auventeontb 
ceiiitiir>'. Ho was a native of London, wborn bb 
father W(w a clotli- worker, aud was bum abuut I [173. 
lJ«stined fcir a iiieplianieaJ eniployRiunt, hin txicuta 
attnu.<tt<d the noiico of tlie £afi of Aruudvl aud of 
William, c.irl 'd I'cmbrok% tha latter of whom aup- 
plied him with tkc meana of viaitinji; Italy for the 
pui^iow of (Ludying lajidacapu-paiutin);. Ue went 




U> Vmdm, 

• lot 

* tU woilw of Fabdb iwlMd hte 

iWtrf ■iiHiiBMi.fawMAht 
fBW W gna> aafaiBeK HIi n^nUlfan ■w uw d 
Uu Ik MM of ftnt MritHcA to Chriit— IT, 
IdiW td limmamk, wbc^ «Ut(i« bb Uotitmf'n-ivm, 
itmm U b 1«IML Uwicbt Jmm witb I^> W Ebk- 
ImU. U* WM bnoaMl la nnil^ and wu oinafaiied 
a wMl aet t» th* obmb, uJ MlMMuatlj b* Kcanr, 
(«faM ol WaUh A/t«r Um <lnt£ of & pfiaM ba 
ftpb vWt«d IUl>, «m1 rmaimA Uht* wnm r«n. 
Xmriac tbk Inisrtu Iw «t«id«l Ui ktwwMgs and 
tn()>n.»«Nl hklMta fn«n Uir eaMniiMUuitt«f Uw nwdtli 
iV uidaut Mul mwlwn krt. Tlw UaiujiMtiiiy IwoiB 
Bt W LIuImII (intawM an mi a<llinc« to a mi g nl fl e irt 
Mlam) b a ■oBOBmi ctf Ida mil and ■ rtaB co . A> 
WloAbMUr Cattiwlral, a iU^Me boikEbig. be eracted 
• aurvan !■ Uw alyla of claadf aittiiiuii}'. Like UW 
aBMBMor Wnm Ii0 asMM itnt t> I hftTo dal;- aiinrecUUiO 
tba panllar dianater aad diiilciLtira Uauuea of tbc 
pviuMil atyU of faaiklliic of nhkli ao nany ftae 
aiwdWBiii Mmaln 1a Um «ocladMtlcal atractUTM <£ 
UM inliUlo agf* In BrUoIii, nnnoi^ and Oafrma/. 
U« bdilt tlw fnxrt rrf Waton HmuH!, In Wlltiiklra, 
for ]'lJh|t, •«rl of rciiil'niko. uriil hm nmcli <>iii]>l0jcd 
\iy tli« outirt anil tijr iiiKiiy uf Uli! luilidity nnil gKHtrr, 
■0 tli»t bo raaUiwd a faawlwitnu firtuiw. Hi* lalents 
wan oflm put in minUiJuD for IU« Fiur|>oM of 
iuimAau Iha •cwwry ami doctrntiiwa for miuk«— & 
iftam irf dratuallti Knt«1*ttiiDiml fa>btuii*Ui! in tlic 
•adf (MTt uf iIm MvaiibMDUl iwnCurj. In tliMe 
pUoia III* dialoguoi and aonRi wvra vompoaed hy 
Dot ivaoBO, wlio quamllad with Jouoa, and abnwd 
btni lit K|il|craiiM and Mttlnea. 'Hiu emniitv of tLo 
{■Ml waa ntit Uii> nnly niiifrirtiiiio to wliicli the luxihi- 
totft MM «x|]i>w>l. HuliiK a Roman Catljvllo, anil 
■ panianm id myall^. lu auflamd In tho civil n-ar, 
■M In lOiB vaa fon^uil tn r*y a ftno of X64£ aa a 
maUiinaal or mvaller. Tbo ridu uf tbu rujral cauatt 
■ad the dtalli of tlio kliig dliirmwl blm snatlyi 
and al bufitb, worn dmvti by mmw and mffaring, 
Iw diad, Juna 31, It&'L Aa an authar lio b known 
by * woiii relative la tl>at ourtuu> tn(>iitiiiii.-ul; of 
lunnw aguB, 8bon*li«iiM on Bittklnirjr I'lnin, inili- 
Iblwd aflw Ula <ImUi by Uaant-tiilaw, Mr. \V«bli. 
Tb« oUJwt of ihb iMMlao, cooiimmmI by tto «nu- 
Buuid (A Kins Janv I^ ta to (vova that Btonahon^ 
Waa sraeiad by Uw Honau, aiid waa a by|Kellin] 
tant^ dadkalad to tfa* g«Ni Cirliu. A ooUectlon of 
Uia ardtltoctnnd (Mgu vd Inloo JooMa wm pabUah«d 
by Kent In 172r wd iriiudothmBMnraeMtOy 
by Wan and by \mA. 

JMNK8, JaHX Vkvu a commukdar to Um Anwri- 
nn naral aanriw, waa buni nt AiUgland, Klrfccud* 
liriybt. U Bntiaod. July ^ 1T47. lOa (albar.whaao 
MOM WW Juha I'avl. waa gaidewf lo tba Karl of 
■alldllk Al Um aga of twalv* ba waa bound apfavn- 
Hoa to a nwdwnt <4 WUUafaavoiL In Uw A»ariMn 
iHMk lUaAnt TDyar>wB»to^Mlnto,«baraUa 
Nte brclkr waa lanWahid aa » ^ablar. Bo *m 
ikw ■■Mfad for waa Uim 1b Um aUvo-tndi^ but 
mlUad n tn divali <kMl ntura^ to ScotlMd In 
ITtt JoB^ waa aftawwarda ta oautnMnd ef tba 

vffladlaa. ««"H fat aaMMnU pMwte and 

Mm^ wbU k b «U ba mlbad a kMkd- 

n*. In ini ba waa nalAnc In Vbglnla, 

Uw afWra of bb W4bar. wlw bml ^ 

■ a»l gfattJlMh and nbwM tUa tlnw loA tba 

Jown. OntbatanaMBMMMafUtfMniaiB 



tbna atx' 

iatawB ttanatounaM nottar (eoury baoBNad 
Ik avftow to Iba t>naMi,and wm aanlnlad tot 
li I I to lU Jth< axl «« altortolbaaw 

tolhi J«M. 
I •! iba AiiaMioi % »uMBUM Iwalv* Ibwpov- 
4b%«Mi a aawliMMl «f nvniy mm, fa wMd^ 
an^lte baillMlbBtonihB to Iba Owl of Cnnw^ ba 

In li^y, 1777, ba wtaX to rnaw^wberc the Anwr*- 
HM aaBMfaafaMt^ Franklin, Deaae, aad Lm, ap> 
iiillBa bio to tfae fwiwiand cf tba toKftr, witt 
^n«tioo to mbo wbn bo Tl iiii i Wttb ibll 
aliKla ddp be M( nD lOtb ApriU^TS. and k«p» lU 
wbob «DHI ef ScollMid, and paK of Uwc c< England 
at WUUiann, when be aBjNweiL aad took two 
iorti^ with thirty pfacaa (d eaaiwa, and ael fin to Uw 
al^ping. la thia ntSadc tbe bonao of tba Kari <d 
SdOciri waa plondarad, and the family plate cankd 
M, tmt waa afteiwanla laatortd by Joiws. He ant 
mt frwn St. Ooix nn a aHtmd crube with a aunad* 
ran of aercn hO. Tfae prinoipal wc c u non M a of lUi 
entbe waa tbe captot* of iba Britkh ddp of war 
fk mpU. af In- a I-l-^xly and doqMnU flomanMlt off 
^iMDUmnixh Haul, Soptcnbar S3; 17701 Tba acn- 
■Mioa pndueed by tfab viotory <ra* noFxainplod, and 
bu rccopdm aC Pam, whhber be wont on tbe tan- 
talioit of rkwaklin, waa of ttw tnoat tfattarin^ Und. 
Tbo kiuK praaentnl faiin with a gold awonl, and Cn- 
vaoted bui with tbe military ofdar of ncriL On him 
KtuTD to Anurica in I7M I'-oaj^icaa li%Uyooin|ti- 
monlod bin for hw ual, prudence, laA iaOnfi^tj, 
and voted blm a gold modal. Mo i>ii)iae(|tM)nUy went 
on bmtfd tba Fraidi fleet, wliero bu tvniained wntil 
the oondnrion of peooe. He then wvnt to Paria na 

Xnt for [irize-ULDii^y, And lirLilo titnc joined In a 
a to ottabiiftli > for trwln between tbe DOrlh-WWi 
ooaat of Aueriim imil CliliUK In ooDJnactfon wilb 
John La^onL He afwrwwda waa invited into tba 
Buadan MrviM. iintli the rank of rcar-adminU, but 
owing to a quarrel with tho admiral (Uie Frli>ce of 
NaaKan) and Intriffue* at L'ourt,aoaD rftirwl fmcn tbo 
urvioo, bctnt; prombod a ponidon, whiob v,ti* uevir 
paid. Ho roturoed to nrb, whov bo gradually 
■tink into uixrer^, Msbiet, and ill henlth, untO Ua 
death. July 19, 17»2. 

JOXES, ywKK, n JisliiuruIdTied artirt and ludiHeot, 
waa bora In W'alei in liiUU, antt showing an cariy 
inclinjUioti for art. waa artiolod to Lowi* VuUiamy, a 
wolUknown arddtoct aikd omainanticL After having 
itudled for some time under tbla artlit Janet aet out 
npeuatourvdiieblaated naarlyfeur ywi^aad wbkh 
waa extended to I'urkey and K^vpt. In 1834 w« 
6iid liim al Oisnad^ iu oiinijiiuij wiLit Jolea Goury, 
an abU Knmch atuctant in LJM o»-n Uiw, Tbtty com- 
menoed oolluctUift tho nalorial for tbe worti on the 
Alhambsa, which boadnoe become unircTaally faniena. 
tioory having died, the publication waa uudtwtakoo 
by Jonaii wtw davotod lihiigilf aotiidy to tba ta>^ 
Dui only of drawing Um datafla, kc., bat of prfatfag* 
fa ootoun and giM the plaloa wLcv they wefv m- 
|a»tL ^lio wijrk, nndar tbo title of I'lajui, SeoOMW 
and Dotaila of tbe AUuunbfa, appeared In pwta, Ut* 
ban* of which began fa 1S34I, nd wm oanipl«tod la 
leU, and Indodad a bbtarloal aotto* In I'BBenal da 
tiayaaaaa, aa awwinilahed aAefar and antiooarr. 
In I8« Joaea poUiAed bn Daifann far Noaafe and 
IWelalad P»»*iMBti^Bndfa 1640 tba Falydmoiatfa 
Urnanunt cf Italy. nwHrrii^ «x«nnlaa of tnaeoaa 
and dMaraUv* vorfca of tfa* dstaaatb oealwrv. Ho 
had pprrioualyyffa p apBdnptonlaf the JacOTtion of 
tbe paveOMttto of lb* Howm rf raritanant, wUefa 
allraatod meh atteotba M lb* tbnai Bawmnn- 
petetod « wipiTlntMdMrt «f iha wwlca for Um QimI 
KaMhWiM <4 lUl, and took aa artl*« part fa tba 
dMKnlfan and arrangMnoiil at tU baOdlns. Tbn 
frtir^l ii «f <boaraUi« darfn in till ill wflh hfa 
naaa wwo lirt oNRMlMtote^ Mt fcwtit ta bb eMv. 
Aa AttBMpl to Mnn Um rrinefalM wbM IhwalBto 
tba t ii l ij j iiirt rf Oafa>r fa liwonrth, JaJ^ mU 
ill II l flj fal*«<am**waad bAn tba p^dfa 
atndoMldwMiL lBlU3ba«MaffidBtoddKMi« 


. __.,., , t'caeuiplMnf nndwit 

dwomtitm wfalc4i ed*t m tlw Ocmtinoat in i>n]«r tu 
collect tl>v sarin of ca<U and other works of art noiv 
MddUlcd fn tiukt ]»Uoo. Ho deaienod llw docont- 
titag Cor the Egyjrtna, Greek ond Hoaun, uid Al- 
hambr* Coartu, and mi|i»rintoTided tJie dooonttan of 
tbe whole IjuiJtljii;^. In 1S30 hii Gmnniu' of Oim- 
DDnt waa iiublifhed, tmd it stiU Kmain* k t«xt-book 
«f cuini|ile», if not of irlndflm. In l6iU appoved 
1001 Itittikl Latton, Md tM BatDO year 70< Mono- 
gnuu. Hb liM IiiiiKHtMit work wu liii Enaplci 
M ChincM Onumcne (1667V. BealdM the» pubum- 
tiou be i&ide a conadrrable number of oraunental 
h ibiigtil lor Dwny new v-nrks puhlinhiul 1>y Ijungmanii 
^ «ad Co., Mid Otbani. HvdiudiuLuidun,19tLAiirU, 

JOXE.S, Stn WiLUAV, Mk otninent lAwycr and 
•ccoiB|>ll«bed ■cl]oUr,w»a bora in Iiondon, Soptembo' 
bflO. I'M. Ho loM bis fiith«r wben only tlireo ye*n 
r «l Bg<^ md tbe can of hia odacatjon foil on hii 
' SBotlMr, a lady of tinccitnBion cndowmcntn. At tbo 
' doae of bit wrenth yw- be waa plaoed at Harrmr, 
and in 1761 ho ontared nnlr«nity Collate, Oxford. 
Bo accepted, £n 176A, the oEGoc of tutor to Lord AI- 
tbctp, afterwards !Earl Sjomcer; am! unme tunn after, 
be ubtained a fi>11iiwslil{> .Mno, This lutonhlp lie 
^ bald until 1770, «'lii::a bu untt.'ro^ liimKlf an a law- 
; Mad«Bt la the TeinpJo. I'renmiiOy tn thin timn 
i 1m luul mado two tount (m tlie ('uDtuLiiit. aud had 
'tniialat«d into Kmnch a r«iniiivn lifr of Nadir iiha.h. 
Ob tbe a|>(>eantioe of tUe lifu uud workii vt Zfirv- 
'Hter, by Amjuettl du Peiron. he vindlcafaid the 
tTaivendey of Uxfnrd, vrliich had baoi ntt*ck«d by 
^Cbj4 writer, in an ablu pMnnblet in tho Krsnph 
Dfio, which he wrote witi irn-al ek-iiaiiw. In 
M pttblishod an oiccllont graminar of tbo 
r^mlan lan^ui^ a ninth edition of wliich, ravie«ti 
bpr FrofeMor Lee, appmrad in lli'Mi. He ^m pub* 
bbed, in 1772, a •mall ooIloctloD of pomnt, oblofly 
Cromtbe poeti of Ana, and waa tbe saau year oloctad 
ik follow of ttie Boral Society. In 1774 appeared 
Cba vorfc Pouaeos jiaiaticu CummenUriorua^ Lfbii 
ocmtaining otntmentarioi on Aidatio pootrr in 
ral. with metrical Kpecinitjuti in Latin and Engliah. 
wna aoon alto- caJled to tho t>ar, and in l7Hi 
i BtadeaeomiiusnoDcrof bankriipts. Id 1778 appeared 
I Ua tcanalation of the Orattom of I^nm, with a nnr- 
tbtor]rdiK«un«^notee,aiid<xnnine[it«ry. Ho rapidly 
^adnaoed in profewkmal rrputation, altbong'b his 
I eoodannfttian of the war witli America *tood in the 
vaj of hi* ptiKpma til le^ Uunount. The tunmlU 
at 1780 isdno«l him t<> wriu a pamphlet on the 
_1j6f*l Modcof tuppivMn'n^ lliotJt: and in tho fnliiw- 
^ing wiuto' he CDUiplcti-d a branilaUikn fmni thn 
^AnUo of MTSD poems, known aa tlia Muallilkiit, nr 
[' *w »ti «»dod,' from bving hung np in tha tomplo at 
HmciM, Tluae pnrvuibi did not pnsvont hi* writing 
an GeoAy on tlio Law of BailiuuiU. lo 17!i2 Iro 
draw up a Uialr^c hntwe^na KarrneTand a Country 
vmiuiou tbe Prindplcecif GovomajiKit; for tho 
Jon oi which tbe Dean of KL Aiu>]>h. nitct- 
bia brothor- in-law, luul a bLU uf iudictuiunt 
rad afiainaC bim for imliti<~>n. Up^io this cv^nt 
at a mt«r to I^jtU Kccyon, tliKu chief Juitico 
tt Cheater, owning liiinseU the anl^or, and defending 
Ifc poHliiNia. On ths aoeeaaion of the Shclhnmo 
I idailiiliiti iitiiiii throttDb the iiifJiiRnco of Lnrd jVah- 
[toMO, he obtained the a]Ji»Iutaiuut of jud;,-v iu the 
stnurt of judicature Bengal, to «4iich ho was 
Mf in March, 1783, and knighted tJr.imvr.! 
iCalenCta in IVpteiober, 17SS. HereheataLliBbed 
I Jto^al AAattc St«i>'ty, fur imjulrlng into the hb- 
r and antJqiiiue^ the art«, BdDnc«,and literatore 
ISjotftUid be waa tho ttmt prcudont al the oodety. 


He then applied bimaelf with ardonr to the Ktn^y of 
tbo Kjuiakrit, and bin hiialth »omi miScrin^F fmm tho 
diutnto he took a jouruey tbrou)^ tho Ulitrict of 
B«nar«a, during wfaicb ocesation of public d^tioa he 
oompoaod a tale in Temoailed th« Kaohaatcd Fhiit, 
or tbe Hindu WiF«, and a IVentbe an the Geda of 
Greece, Italj-.ati'i Indl^ In 1785 a periodical work, 
cntiUtjij the Asiatic Miauellany, wna bcKun at Cal- 
cutta, to which ho CMnnuniented xvatl poetical 
oompocitiDna of the minor kind; ainuuff which were 
nine byuna, mUxtmod to m many Hindu deitiea. 
He next cnplcTod bin nutivo Diind in plaanhiif the 
eompUatlon of k oomplete digest of tbo Hindu and 
Mohammedan lawa, with a viirw to tlto bettor ad* 
ininiBtratianof jnnticn ainmig thenatiren. "mdiwiirk 
ko did not live to fiulih, but Ite mibaeqne&t acoom- 
pliahnant «m enttrBly owmg to hia reoommendntion 
and primary labonra. Hi* object in this instuice 
waa to aeoun n dm attentioii to tiie ri^ts of tho 
notlTes; and be dwwed biiOBeU equally jealoa of 
tboae oF the British inhabitasta, by oppodnir an 
attempt to HUperaecle the trial by jury. The ynhli- 
caUon of the Asiatic BoMarcbce, ur memgir* iif tho 
Bodcty to which Iw had ginn birth, alau mgroaMd 
muoh of hie attention; and bo enriched Chen bSaaelf 
with a number of curious and inteieatJng tJtq>en. In 
17&9 be gave to the world the traniiancin of tbe 
niicicDllDdiau drama by KAUdAW) entitled S'lknntnSa. 
His tmntlatiDn of tbo Ordinancaa of Uann, the fa- 
iijiiua Indiau legialator, appeared oariy in niu, ami 
in vory intorMtina to tbe atudont of andnnt nnuinen 
and opinictMi He was •eixod, in Aiirit, 1791, ut 
-Calcutta, with an inHammaUon cf the Uver, whicb 
tenainatcd his Ufe on the Si'tb of tho Bame month, 
ill tho forty-dfbth year nf hin age. Few men ha<-o 
ilii^d uiurv T^^lwcted aiid i«vri-tled than thla MuLililu 
man and onunout scholar, who. as a liDguiat. was 
Amring the mriet cminont of hia tine. Tho dir«ctoni 
of the Esut India Compwiy voti-d bim a moituiauut 
in St. Paul's Cacbedral, and a statue In Bengal, A 
jipleodid oditicn of bis works, in six voK 4U\ 1706, 
aan ptiblti^ed hy Lady Jones, who also placed a fine 
luarbLa >talu(^ of liini, L'xecutod 1)y Flaxman, In the 
luiti-ohambpr (if Univrrwty College, Oxford. 

jiiNKul'IJJG, a fciwn of Sweden, capital oi the 
Jan of same nune^at the •rmCbcm oxtrcuiity of Lake 
Wotter, on a tonguo nf laud iittnrpowd Wlween that 
lal» and Lakte Itodc and Munlc, S3 mliird ckj:. of 
Uott«nbnr^. It lies so low that part Df it ia pro- 
toctcil l^y cmhnnknicnts from iimiidatinn. it i» in 
^oeral well buQt, baring safaatantlal-laaking hooaea 
andtrideatieeta; and wmtninia handsome oburcb, go- 
vomoT'arMidoncfetowii-b'niih?, thoatrr^and gramiuar- 
achooL It aliNi liaa maniifiurtnrc* of ca-nU luid tn- 
baoou; and n havMi In the Muitk Lake, at whiiJi tlw 
trade, formerly imiiortaot, bos bom greatly inczwaed 
by tbo oompCction of the libta CanaL In the ridnitv 
aro tliB miuecal suringv ut Lludol and MaredaL 
Pop. fi2ii2. 

JONCJVIL (Trench, jnnqu^fJf), a bulboiu plant rf 
the genus iVarrcJHiu I.Y. Joniptiltti), allied to the daf- 
fudil It ban luiig iny*liko leave*, and apikea of 
jnllow nr n-hito frngrant flowon. It i* a native of 
lh<: luuLh oi liuropv, and one of the must eonunon 
bulbous plants fai our flower borders. Tbo sweet- 
Minted jonquil. likowUoanatiro of southern Europe, 
in aim geDomlly iniltivatcd. Perfumed watci» ara 
uhtaiuccffrom Jon<(uU lluwers. 

JUNSUX, Bkn, or Hi:xjAMiK. a c«Ic:brat«t Bng- 
liiih [lOCt, tbo contBni|iorary anil frirnd (if l^linkuporc. 
He woa, according bo Sniinninnil of Hau-tburuJiui. 
thdpwtllumouseonof aclcri-ymiui.uhobail tufTeraa 
oonsiderabla privationa U*c Ian relitriou* npiuiom^ and 
was bom June 11, 1574, at Wtuitmlniiter, thougfa 




uothcT MitboritT givts WftTwiokahirc. ]Ic wu 
pUcod at tbe Vi cattiiui«t«r ifnunmiu'-sGlioo), iwiler 
Cuiitli*!!, *.t au Mtrt^ a;;e; lill his iiiotber marrying 
o^&Ia to ft jfirvm wbu kvld tlio humblo occupation h 
K lirii^ktajcr, jmnifE Hen. mi he wwi funilforly utllcd, 
wM bikoD liomi- itruptly liv Lin father- iu-litw, uad 
giii|i]oj«d by him sa ui awtatunt iu hla tr>ili>, ']'1ir 
rMoarcfaM n F, Cunningham Bud J, Farnc C<.>Uier 
Ihfow, bomrer, eondtlerable doubt on hlii roothcr'a 
■0000(1 nurritt^e, and on ilctalLi of bia ami «u-lj bio- 
graphy. Tbo ftrdnnt «|iirit of thi> fiitoro jxwt. it ia 
wiu, nroltad ignjiut hii cvodilloD; 1» fled fnitn. 
bcaiM, And «nt«red ths kna^ as a private ■otdJar, In. 
vrldeh capadtjr ha utrvtA wi^ much commradAti'ini 
front his oESoom on tho •onrn of pcnonnl ooanma 
during a cunpttiffu Id Bollaud. RcLurufuj; tu Eul'- 
Uud, ho qnittod the nrvice, aad although hia 
■trait«ned circumatancca threw in his my nb«tack» 
of iio <.-oininan iiMgiiitudo, b« detarmliied tu ap])!? 
himwlf to Btenty pwvoitB. With tills vtsw ho coq- 
trivod %o entor himaalf of St. Joha'a CoUm^ Cam- 
liHdffi>; but Ilia EaiUng Ttaotaett prohniited him frrjiti 
ooutiuuiug lun(( al tho nuivemty. H« weut l« Luu- 
dun and commoucvd at once author and actor hy 
profciMnn — two collinga Ihon fmiiicnlly cnnbincd. 
nit pngTtm as a peilanncr waa not nfjil, and Iw- 
forabaoouldmako any great Impreadmi iu bi* (avnur, 
bo had tfa« mlsfortUDO to Id!l a brvlhcr nctor in a 
dual, tat which ho waa imfiriiMTird, and niurovrly 
••capod IvitJi lifa. DiiriO]; lua (XfuCiuuiiu-'iit lie i% 
rtipartetl to haia I>«x>nn', through the inU>:rv»uliuti 
of a lU)iuaD Cathulio priot, a cgnvurt tv that com- 
ntuuUm, aad to hara rematiied vo during a apace of 
twdvo y<i»n, when he muncd hia fonnar oplnloiiB. 
Hb fint atboBipb at dramatic cotnpmttton wa* in 
IMS, «^en hia Every Man in bU Huincitr, atiU cnn- 
ridand a itaadatd pteoe, waa priutod: and from ^a 
period he aaenia to have produced a play annually 
lor ■ereial yeoia, boddoa writing, cdzaMnnnlly, niRski 
and intoTiadea (or the antertaiuinuiit u| tlwi court. 
Tho favour ho had eojoyfld Ihoro waa not, however, 
Buffident bo prnteet htm ftniu bbo couanguonw* of a 
■avora oud iiupnulBnt aatira on tho Souttiili nntian, 
In a dramntio |iiec«, wldch bo wrvto Iu coiijumrtiuu 
with Maniuu aud Chaiiman, cutitlod Koatward Uo! 
TIm an{^ of the fsvouritu nf Jain«e T. waa at once 
drawn upon hia bead by thla unfurtmiato aally; he 
waa a avooiul time oanunitted In priimn, nnd only n 
tintaly aiiblBiaaicitt savod hi* UMe and cant, wbldi be 
waa oDndamaod to low in tho pUlory aa a libeller 
Bjr Ua addre*^ howon-r, he aacm eontrivn) to n>iu> 
■lalo UBanlf in the favour of a munarch to wbnw 
idtww tfaa affwimaof Uimnac had bocomo neoea- 
•arv; and fartbonmaliiderof that ratgn boeootlnnod 
In lii|{i favour aa a kind nf rnp-rintaawlanl of th* 
ooart rovab, Aftar a tour through F^anoe, In 1613, 
In tht t«H [iwa of whieh, with Ua nsaal rwtldanneaa. 
b« affroBtod OardiiuJ I)uPcrRm,b«rrturD«dtaKnh-- 
land, aod aflorwardi obtained tbc honnmry dcgroa 
of A.M. triaa tka Unherdty uf Oxford. On the 
dtalh of tbo pMt IniirMta Jonaaa waa apiwlntod hia 
■i i BBwaa r . ua the aalaiy of 100 narka, ftttachcl to 
Ibai pool, waa. cat Ua petitioai, raianl tu the mm nf 
£100 b7 Chariai I. But imMmt Uii* a-MIUnn to hU 
Incama, nor a mhaeipiont gratuity fntn tho aua* 
royal aourc^ eould mto him fmn tiM oonaeciuanota 
of pacnidary InprovklaBoe. Much of bia tinie and 
nooay waa anont at tli* Atnllo and tl>« Monnald 
Tavcim, feaattai; and bainir mated by tli« ifay litor- 
Bfj dnlsiif tfaa due; drtaildng dampotatlou and «i- 
Mring n nai^ wH conbata with Shakapne, wbooi 
ErSUaDi and deBoala wit waa too nrooh (or tin heavy 
MtiifiT" bniDour «< Jooaun. Au attack of paby at 
liM^(aRMUnofl.Atv 0.1037. Hawaaburi«d 
la WMtaunaler Abbey, where a mociniptfat wm 

«^ocu^d to hia TMXDATj teutaf A»kmdplim *0 

raru Bra JuiiiMjn.' JoUMh bail AaOIH MM Hi Al- 
obymiat, Epicoene, luid Vol]KnM,wh>eh,bandea bolng 
a'.unirable aa to plot and dL-vulapawnt, exhibit traita 
of pungent humour, atrong oonraption. and powtaful 
diKrimlniatian. Tbo nmalndar of hia dranaa are 
inferior, llu tmj^io of Scjnnux and Catiline ate 
tuu Itfoniod aiid d<H.'lauiLitury dtUer for iLe cloaat or 
the atoga, aod a great portion of hia comedy ia low, 
forcnd, and unnaturaL Contrary to .Sliolnjcre, he 
deal* mtber in jnaiing mannimt und i.-cOB[itrtdtiea 
than In general mature, but euppllw a guod ontion of 
tho follios of hia tim«a. Hia poetry ii oecaodooally 
illnminntcd by n^roua and pleoring paaaagea, aad a 
few of hu abort ptcKna, poeuiB, and. mpeoally the 
Hymn from Cyutbia'o Itevela, hia eplt^ih on the 
CountcM of Pumbrokc, and aome <jf bu «oD|f« and 
Undi^rwonilH are cxcellEnL Ue^dea hia dnunatic and 
p- i<.-I.LL'id pnixluctiuun, be waa tho authur of a variety 

(jf irii^rajllaii i* trorka, amfMig which aro an Kn](lHh 

iimiuiiiu', [>iiK-ov erica, Ac Several vditiona id hia 
wurk-i bAr<! Ix^tn ptibtLKbeJ, the most ocitn],>l«t« of 
ivbiL-li is timt Iiv Mr (jiiTunl, m nine vols. 8vo: a later 
t-dilion, o-iii^i\ by Barry Coruwall, waa >nibli«hed b; 
Mnnon in inc vol. roytJ S\a Md edit. 1)1^3}. 

JOuDPLiKK. Sit JoTiHPtii. 

.lOl'l'A. .S.!- .)\rr\. 

JUKDAIiNS, Jaki'K, au eminent lii(tf>Hcnl and 
portnvit painl«r, ivita bnm nt Aiit'n'cr|) io Ifil't. Ha 
BtiidiiN] iiuilcr hL^ (nlher-iu-lavr, Vnii Ourt, aiid tben 
iiniW ItnlMcin- IIU jiictiirtw, whii^h i^tv nnmamaa^ 
atid to be found in iixwl b'upijiean mUvcliiicu^ Ktw 
exvontod with convctneM and Wiliioticv, !ntt want 
t^te and dcgnni-e 'if dusi^in). lln <iicA iii 1C78, 

JOKDAX (Hebniw. //«;/. Ynrrlrn, Arnlrtc, SAtriat* 

ti-Ktbiri, a river uf Turki'V-iii-.-Vjiift. iu llic |i(ulialia 
itf r>ninnaciw, and fn>m the fn;(|ucDcy with whioh it 
in niMitioiiMd in Sacred Scripture aa the »am* of 
niimcniUH remarkiilibi orenta in tlis biitory of the 
Jt\v«, ouu (•( the atMt celebrated rivun En tliu world. 
It TbM» tTitm MVeralaonrcoH on the Huchvm declivity 
of Mount l.ibaniiH and on Mount Ili-ntioii, uiiiliiij{ 
iu Biiir ■uMlflleh, or the wntent nf Meroai. Kruan 
thin poiut it flowD at l!m with a r«pM cvrr#Bt In a 
D/irrow boil, abottt 60 feet b<>aad and 4 foot der|v but 
BulMiiinmtly it becomes more altigpah; about Si 
iiiilen btiluw El-HAlrb it ia i-tobaliI Uy ft lirld^f. Called 
vi Samcenio conilraction, built after the Onwadea, 

Kxiliahly Iu oanneellon with tbe caravan ronle from 
^pt to Damaacua. Afteraanulherlvcouneof aboul 
Ifl milm it nitKinda into l.ak(> l^horiaK. tihoitly 
aftfr IcAving the aonth erd <if thia laLe it reoaivaa 
the Yantiak on tbo (eft, and enten a bniad valley or 
I7&»r, rs>l!>Hl in the Uibia ' the ul^;' and onntlBufaw 
aaoutherlybutaiiigulariycrDDliedooarsa of about 70 
ndl M dbaot dlatanee, or SCO isoludlnff winding (alia 
into the north end of the Dead Sea, bavlait rwelvcd 
thi> j^rka, alui im tho Icfc, and niimertnia anallar 
allliienla. The UMnr |<art«f tbr valley of the Jordas 
ia hilly, arid, aiid barren, but it eoon becoraca aiara 
level aod fnrttl?: Mid aa it apiimachea tite Zerin it 
bemmee well cultivaled anil ttcautifiil. Kiceptiag; 
in l1i« upper jiart It ia piipuloua The ri> rt i* mnddj 
and full of nnnll flah. In the dry aaaaoa it lit abalbw, 
ntimercnui placna ooonrrlng where il may be rro— uJ 
□n the Bti>iiea without Iba feet bdng wet; but la 
aome plaeea it ia much deeper, with oanka 20 feet 
high. At ib> month it b abonl 1 84 yarda broHl and 
about 8 feet deep. It ia aabjeet to great innndiOwia 
during Ibe vrinler aeoaaa. Il ia ur c i a tJ by tHtneroai 
w«tra,wUobdivarttba water brtfaapnnKNaa of irrig** 
fiftn- anillta TTTwrnt h iii t i rq iri m i d imh wnjlafcin rt^ 
and enouDbwwl by twanly-aeTMi thrMlenlng. iMiJdaa 
many loeaer rapMi. Il la a darlt-^alouml, rapid 


Blreitn (rarj-in^ trum 2 to 6 nUoi hi bour). The 
•titll^y of tiM Jcinlaji furuu oat of the idhmI rpnuuk- 
•U« <l«|inM*ioii> in tlw worM, boinjr wholly twlow 
lbs levftl o< th« *M, Tbe l^k« of Tilicrijut, ftt ib 
north Mill, b 8i& foot, auiI tbc Demi Soo, al itd oUiur 
•ml, ■* 131S f#et ImUiw Hui-!«>rel. Hi* Jonlan «» 
ciuMtil over aifaiiut Joriiiho by llto IcTAoIiln unJn 
Joehna, h tb« fint tbep U the oooup&doD of tho pro- 
miacd Iftnd, wbeo tba WAten w«t« rtayod in their 
CMUW^ ftnd tha tribe* [>wnrd ovar dry-alioil. Near 
iU> place Jolui the Bftptwt eciiiuii«ck(.-(i«l liiu luiuuti-a- 
tiuBs; &nd It ia aappoMd that H iru at a ford somo 
vajr above Uw junction of Uio Zcrlut tbst our (yinl 
ivsa ba|itil«]. 

JOJINANDES (pruperly Mdinrt), by Urlb wi 
AIjui, m* botb of j\J»n And tiothio duecal. Lived 
uadtt tho l-IiupRrnr .liLitinian, wm at firM a notUY, 
Iwt afterwiu^Li tuuk tliu umuiuLia rtnn, mad Ja mu<1 
to liava bMU »i^iat«d bitbnp of boido Italian oiij, 
pnbMs Bav«BDA or Croton. Hu l>e GL-tiLnim 
Ofifine «t Hebua Cutia, And bin ohriantol« Do Utg- 
somm at Tcmiximm Succcmodg, arc uf uucli vaiu», 
tliMigli written in barbarotu Ijatin, and ofton inaccti* 
mte as to datu^ plnocK, and jieraanti. l*be firrt work 
ia A Ahort «i]n[>cu<tiiim of 11il> uiual tuijiurtaut evcuta 
in hiitiirr f mm thiirraHlinndowii Lntlii- }'ear .152 A.D., 
C(>|>w)d partly fruiti Llic KiiiU'Uiccf tliiru*; tli«MC«ud 
is a rauoh tuunt liii|)ortuit work, fa coiifowedly au 
abrid^ent of CaH>iodanu<. Tliny are ctntain^ lu 
Mnrmtari** Scrip L Heniin Itniicai-um. 

JOin*lN, JoHX, D.I>., an i-fnineiil Mlivlar wiil 
divinv, waa hom of Frciacb ProusAant parvnta lu 
lnwdon. in K^ft, and wm ciiiicatdd at Cambridge 
UcTV, under tbe instruction oE I>r. Thirlby, Be 
■oquiretl ao liigli a ohantotar for learning uid B«ute- 
B«M. tliat ha waa rreanuMadod by bia tutor to Po^w, 
to eztntet iba notai from Eurtathlns, to print with 
Itia tfaoalatiou of tbe lliud. He look unjttm iu 17'i4, 
Slid hu avrrcd n chnjn-l of «juie to thu pariith nf St 
Gika in Xlm Fidda, Id ITAl, in oonjuuctioa with 
•CMw loamod ooadjuti^ra. he gave to tbi; world 

s MiaorilanaouA OiMctvntimiR u[>aii Aulborv, Anci^tit 
A Modem ttwn v«lum<-> ^Vf)' and ia 1751 ap* 

t|wnil tbe &nt vvhmm vi liio K«iuarkii upon Evclo- 

i aaatical Uirto<ry, of which fonr volumes moro w«ro 
paUUbod in 1752 and 1751, ond tW4i mnre after hi* 
death ii] 1'73. In 1TS5 bo piiMi*)i«l Six UUacrtu- 
tioM npoa Variiiiu Subjecta. In 1T3S hi pnbliahed 

I Ualifeuf Enuimiu(4lo|;tn 17i!0ani>th<:rltov;)luuics 
CBtlllad R«inarkB u[>»n tho Wurku ii( KrwiiiiFiifl. la 
1762 bo rrccivL-d tliu litjii^-uf K^usiui^iii, tliu diitiia 
at which be porfi>rni(Hl far tho rtiniaindnr if hi* lifo, 
III I'f'il ho waa meulx! Archdraonn nf Tendon, and 
died Auinut '2d, 1771). Beiidis tbu wurka already 
nwDlti.'CD'd, Dr. Jiirtin wa« th« atitbcir of Iteinnrka 

■ vpoa Spoiww (1734, Svo); Komorkfl on Suucca; 

I Ijetten oa the Miuic of the Andeutit; liiiniu I'Qotici, 
imlume of Latin jmomi; Audi>thcrmi>wllau(Miiiapro- 
daotiono, imlilishol in two Vdlnmcn, Srvpr voliimni 
of bin Scruioiw auJ (.lionm won alao publiahed after 
Ut aotlh. ia 1771 and il'i. 

JOKL'LLO, Xoni'UA or JosnTO. a vnli^iio <if 
Moxicio^ in the (k-partmi^iit nf Mlchoiiciui, 1K0 miW 
KWtb-Wea( of MfxIcu; )*<• uiile* dUtaiit fniiu tb« 
PacUcL Tbougfa tho rcvki of tbe ragioa luiiHt hnvf 
been produced br i^eoiia actiaii, thu dintricl. hitd 
«Mtliaaod undisLurMii /ivm Uie diacovfry of tlie 
2itw World, and iLv plain td Malpaia, from wb.irb 
Jmdlo riae4 was covered by fortilo field*, and 
ntenl by the Cuitiuitia and San i'Lilro. Thiit 
«t4lc uf IranqiuUity uiu ■iiddctily 'tlintiirbri] iji Juuf, 
liU), by hollow AnuniU, KUccocdr-ii by onrthqunko*. 

[ TkMe bad cttDtiaucd (or two tannthn. wlioo, iu the 
■i{be ot Sopteiubcr 'JSth to 'i»th. ttauiaa burat ttnih 
fr^M tbo ground, and fragnicnta of buraing rocka 

w«re thrown uii to pmdi)(ian* bet;,'hta. On tho Una 
of A cbnrtni whioli bacl bwu iiiaHc nx volranlr ronM^ 
ooniieting of Kcorin and Invn, wvre fomicl; tbo 
loftiest, to which tlio nnnicof JfH-nllo bna Iwvti sivcn, 
was lOOO feet above the levtl of the plain. It riVL- 
tinuiHl to a«nd forth graat streim* of hamdtic Uva, 
cantaiDinK fni|[monta of Hmnitc, till Februar>-, I'CO^ 
Tbe ground, to the dlataace of acailj 2 teagws 
round the volcano, was thrown up so aa to form a 
Ktcvp prvdiiice rmind iti mnrj^ of 30 to 3S feel in 
hHlKlit. The tulnl bvi);ht ni lb& volcano above the 
sea is al>out -ItAD frot, Thcrv ara bnc few mgm ttt 
lu^tivity about Ibr irnnntjkin nuw; TCgc*Ati>tH haa 
made itrout pra^^rva on the lidfa of the new hills; 
and the surrounding country, which had been dMerted 
as oaiahabi table, is again cavcrrHt with luxuriant 
atma of Hiigar-cane aiid indi^ 

JOSBPH, one (if thu two loiu of JacoVi favonrfta 
wife Rncbol. Uiii fnlber's prcfnrf«n»ip for him trmpted 
hiiD to aamiDQ towards his elder brolhtri the part 
of a censor and infttrmcr, hardly a mojMt nr pru- 
dent part to tif ULvn by u youth of sovr-iitc-cn. 
BtutiK with envy niul with tlie arrogance whirli tbay 
thonglil i^OH ilinpUvcd In his dreams, his lirothurs 
sold him t<> Bouic iNhmikvlituili sUve-dcalL-n, by 
whcMn be was wild to I'oUphar, a distin^iialitKl 
olBi-er iu £j;yi>t. Tbe prudcooe and fidelity which 
be displayed tn the servlou of bis loasMr amoU- 
orated his condition; but his refwial to ooin[i1y with 
tbe ttnla«ftil desire* of I'otiphar's wifo cnuacil bim 
to be Ihi^wu into pruun, at bor butljiatlon. Yet, 
even horo, Joseph was able to gain tbo eonfldoneo 
of tbe Iceepa; and the interprctatioo which ho 
gave to a dnam of th« king's butler, who wo* Itko- 
wiae in primn, opened for him tbe way t^ a K-tter 
fortune ; for, after tbe bnllnr had ^Mvtl rcnton-d to 
fa^-our. Pliarauli and his vrbole eoiirt were troubled 
by two drcaJDs, which uon« uf the scrtbca tjnr wise 
mun of M^*Tit i;niild iutmrpnrt. Tho butlvr rvin^mi- 
berod tLi- Hubrcw irny who lind |^rbu so happy 
an int«rY<r«iatirjii to hU ovm lircani when In prison. 
•I(iac]ib wanbri^u^'ht to court, and eaplained tli<i king's 
dreainaof iHveii fat and »evKn Isan Idne, and the two 
stalks of wheat. Seven years uf abundance, extra- 
ordinary ovexi for fruitful I^^ypt, won W bo followed 
liy Seven yearn of stiii mutv cxtraordiiuury dearth. 
Jud-ph Bii(;^-[mU-d wise measures for jweierviti;; tho 
people froRJ lamiiio during the nsfvadiictivo yvara 
which be had predicted, and Pharaoh cocmaitted lo 
bim tbe diarge of canring them into eiwentimi, and 
raised him to the positloa of vicegerent over l^sypty 
giving' him tliti myal ai^ct itmdf, n collar of g»ic^ 
and caunin^' him to rid« in tho sncond royal ohariot. 
He teceivi-i] the luilne of Znpluinlb rjunifah (revesler 
of H-creta), anil marrivd A*i<iiat!i. an Iv^yyiiinn nolile- 
inan's daughter, by wlwta h>; bad two nou* Ixirti 'lur- 
ing tba saYon yean of pkuty. Iu tliR* ytars of 
fi^dna his brotbaiv canie lo buy c'i>m front the 
sLrma which be luul collectAcl in t^gyiit. Without 
inaldnit himself ki]o<.vu to thorn he etiiiravuurpd, by 
some karah treatment, to dbcover their thuughts. 
And to make thwn rtpcntof the wrong thfv had done 
hini. t>n tlidr scoind visit, when, aocoraing to bis 
iurt ructions, lhi>y bad bn^ught his yuanger omther 
Bnijuniu, bis focUngs i>von.'iun« bim, and be diaiJoaed 
himself to his bretbrcn, and prorfded tbem aiul hia 
fAtbor with lands in Ef{.vpt. He was now 
Ix'nofacUjr, and thomfore Jacob, in hi" Inal biniking, 
pive lo his two sons cjual rights vrlth the olb«r 
limtlic-ra, and tbt two trilica of MacaBseh and 
l'i|ibratui prt'MTVod tliu niriiiury of Joseph iiu)'.4ig iho 
HctiTinva. Ho died at tho agr of 110 ycitit, nsx 
citibalwed and placed ia a sarvuphaf.'Mb, lo In.' fiuA^ly 
bnried aocarding to his wish at IShechem, when the 
laraclites were Led out o£ l^yiit. 




•tOSKl*!! II., 0<ninan Enq)OTDr,toti of rmnclfl T. 
BDil MaKn Tb«rwM, wo* ban March 13, 1711. Htn 
■mIumUxu wm Miirfully MiiMdiitciulMl bj Priucc 
lUtthvuil Aiul lUrbeaatoIn, tho wcntw; of iUto. 
On tlic wilkre^ of tbo Satvn Yean' vu- liu wlabcd 
lo uk« n MmMul iliftn la ttu itranlo, hub Marin 
llicnMwtthlMUlhcriwnniMliaik. In 17(J0li«inuTii-'l 
BUubeUt of Pamift, who dM oa bar aocond conRtie- 
UMik Ha w3m ImI hk Mooail wifu, a Bafuiiw. 
ariflcan. Ua wu e]f«ti!4 Kln^ of the Bomuu tn 
17ftl, kdil un lb» ^oalfa «f lu» f*tbor, 1706, Uenuan 
BmiKTiir. Ilia motberJeoUraiJ him o»-PBg*iit in tha 
bvrv'liUry iIaUi of Uw IwoM of AmUlK, aiul c»v« 
Uu lbs imrniKitd nf tho •nay; but tho rud »therilj 
wmhwl la bor bMiU. U the cvlier [nut of hia 
nigs h> tiBiilinrod hia tbn« tu tn\'dUuj{ ud booon- 
Ing MqqibiM with hU atataa^ Olt ooo of tb«a« 
JooranriL uadv tb» titlo of C«uBt Falkcaatoia, bo 
TUlwd Fndorkk iba Gnat to bb amp at Kalii^ 
AufiMttMTO^. iBtbafoUmriasrovlboMnpaMr, 
In Ua cmiaa, rooatvad m tUI (kid Vndortok. In 
1777 Jvmfk B)*d« » }o«nwjr to Pari*, when bw 

ymxdx waaba. At tba aad of this j«w tba elaetor 
Bairatiadlail.aMi Ibawaroftba Bavariaa Soeow 
rfou Uivka uvt balms Fnuna and Aoatiia, to 
vbloh Uarih Tbaraaa put an and, coa ti iy to tho 
wMms o< hm BOB. vbo waa dtanom of neaaorliis 
Umatf hi tbo Md with bia gnat i^vmwit. In 
ITW JcotcboaniofatPtba ftw ai w itoBrf fanJoml iifcn i 
WW kk iarwdilujr MatML. Ha aDennd ■ graaMr 
ftwdonof ^ ptanipat an and U tho coiiDaott M i 
boi w aiit Baaoakd tba nUgtoaa etdna, dlailaMMd 
tho iiaaaakiB^ pbwad tbo Jowa rm a bottar footiag. 
abw l fabid liMifaga. owMwod all muuMma, and 
M—y ■n—Mario^ fittcaladr tbnaa fawbkbtbon 
«■• na aobool^ or tho akk wtn not lakon tano^ 
oriha BMBha dU not nrcMcb. in tfaanvtegof IT89 
rbV« FtM VL udo » Tbit to ViaiM. Joa«|di 
•Hamrit wtwrnail bia rUt at Rmmw iHn eoBttaa- 
taC to wp p taai M Binail i aSa^ a» that m oigbtvaan 
ibo naninT << ponona boionging to tha dlMant 
tfc«H«9«Wei»tr^ AB 


«l tbo gmmMM, r«tdle adoaUhNk «ba poUa^ Iba 
naUnllbi nl w f j, aail Ibti | iiaM illrj. nnrnrrf i m ai t 
Br k aow onb t4 law* oaailal MniAMMli won 
rfnHabiil U irMbalMd«dH«k»«MiHalhMd 
■WFWiIng tka Ire* BMbHthai at tb* SoImUl awl 
tfci ■ ^ill wo lit tfca wAaagi <l rtw SKbAiJa 
hr Itemta, Mofaat «Ucli the aMfadiiMy ol *o 
Cliii ■ HtMBB «w iMMod. ta inaL In INT 

JtBiVh aiado « 1— — y 
(iMfciilai M«« MM a woM 
CWoK Afl«bfaM«anba 
M >ii > II ba- 

fc t a tsa OraMi^ 





bnwa^ii. VhlnanI 


Lv» f»Hl mill 9\ USm tka OM.T «M il%il 
la mOtmO, oal M*aoJ i ln adMy *« ii—io w ii af 
Ite b«nt •»! Iba ill Mb id iba iiibj. 
J— fbbbwaMi ifa l «fcbfc»\1waifcW Dtaaiabor . 
U tka MkMb« tw iw«MM « a. o M o d Ibo A< 

UthaMlwabc} ^' ' ■<!■ fc ia M o d ttoAw^JMa 

fltfVH^ ftMl BbHTIM^ iW^PV4OTVil !«• VMkflBU 4HVM 

<d dbi dMraMa vbkb J«M«4 wrt ted la wiMMOT 
«M Ika laa b«, bAwkwal te X<w. ITA TWnn- 

lbfc <aa;i* pi^»oa ;tw>fcot^i I IT i . 
1^> cCrtbanaMw ■vnaiM tb^BMino wa^oadM^ 
I f«<«i iNaa al tbofn^n^ 

Tw a _ 

ImI boon <^ 

A* II I Mill ad 
ad di»wiy»Jao«t^b> lllBil^in^ 

tlw txte of hli pji^omiaont In tliat country lovobod, 
*ven to tho edict of tolenCJoa (Juoo 23, 1781)- 
TjTol allowed tigDs of diuatiKf action, and JoMpa 
linsttincil to ])iit ov«aything on its fomMT foMiUf. 
Hill bcaltb aunlc undor tbeao aooomulatod niortifica- 
tixna, and on tbs :20th Febnuiy, 1790, ho died of 
o>Tixun][Aioi\. Joaoph van a itiaa of ooaddaraUo 
.ttiilitv, .inil hjui tha pcnnaaent welfare cd bia iwnple 
tU'if'ii];!!!)* ut beart. niiatarw hIa own idleotiou 
or hia Imoirledce of otbor conntritM aboved to bo 
nMiTuI, ho wiabod to iiitrodtice. Dot b« did not mffi- 
cioDtly ooMiAar that b« bad to do with <Ahcr tn«n 
who would not aee thlnsoii) tbe aamo ligbt aa hinaelf ; 
that long habit nndaad it difflcult lo aSiamgo, at 
nnoo, naagot aanetified bv tima; nad that otbar taca 
did not ponaM Ua ImowMgo and axpcfienec. 

JOSErniNK (Ro»t-Ta,fhtr dt In Pagcrit), Bm- 
nma of Uh FroDcb, wiu bom in MarUniqiM Juno 
34,1703. At the age of fifteeii she aonoipuied her 
fatbatr %c- Fraoe^ and wao marriel ISIh DaaembiT. 
1T7EI, lo Viooarto Alonndra BaanhanafaL by wboBi 
■ho had two ohOdm, BiybD^ aftanrarda duka of 
LnubtanbarjE, and Herteaao, aftorwwA queaa of 
HoUand Mid mother of Najnlcan III. Ihxna^ tbv 
Boign of Tomr lirr bualumd waa tbrawn into ptiana, 
aad exoonUd. Site waa abo Ittdodad in ttw llaC of 

Cviptioo ; but tb« daalb of her b naha n d icdnenl 
to ancb a atnto that die ooold not be roBMVed, 
and to thia cbcomataiKO oho owed boroaeqie (rots 
exBcotloa. Kobantnre at length poWwd, and tbe 
T i tcoaatoai waa liMnted tbraugb At InSiKMa oC 
TklHeB. Joa^pUne waa indebted to Barraa lor the 
nalmalluii of a paot of Ibo [ampofty of bcr boaband, 
and at hii boon, after tho I9th Vendtalaint abo 
met GoBanl BoBapail& It waa a hnnrita peojeoc 
W Bamw to pcMDoM a nanlaaa bctwoM Ur nad the 
fotaro onuMnw, aa arant wbiA took plnee In ITMt 
ao WM jia Hrt n l b« bnahoBd bi Ua ItaUan obi* 
palen. and bar wbele Bf boeano inlnaldy eeueeted 
wiu Ibnt of Nap^aoB. at wbn« aide abo Mood Uka 
n good gonfaa. Sbo waa al«»ja b c M OT u ioBl, and a» 
OmUo to aiiy wbo BOBcbtMMootioB or naavy bvm 
"SwrnHmm ihiiMb hv. Bw il nBi o teUa m that 
•MBo ^aarfW tnhmBbB reBdared Oenanl Bana- 
^^ i — *'*».'7y*' i" ^y ^ bet thai aaon aft ar bia 
ratokn owytaong waa adjwto^ Joai||iiino naed 
b« UhMBao h U mm cf wmnj — fciBBb^ ■bcbbt- 
afadamaad lBdHBT,aBd t>alactif tbab— Mat 
dto eond wort^. TtaligBBe and Hvftn 
ttw to bv. Hot eanrt waa b» leaa Bd- 
taTkaMalfcaBibabooaaarwwMmd. Bb* 


WbH XnobM 

| l .| lll l .UtdM _ 

f i j a n ajtbopi nafch n. J«*iUBe waa oownaij at 
l'BibaMlat\t4n. Vrb»r iiT ■ baa^dw^ 
■Mof w—gyj^aniaiiaa lywh^bo^bl teew 
bana. I i b V l. ■ ba>b« »a <Utai liylSn, ah* 
Mi ttdnilly, vat ihifad I »e^ tooas* 

aoB* to wfcat fa lb ^1 b^ fcr Ttmim aad 1m 
Sharatbed to bv I iiM I mt^wt Mal. 

■ amacth.! 

Mwr A mt 
mrsc Puna. «o ; 


torn Mt Mbat, JlaMii^ ba kbaakal *e Boto^ 
^i».««dhoia^l to^fc*«dlhol ■ijher 



ea amM . At tli* ago nf fimrtMoi be had inaidi! >uch 
ji ipgie M fat la«riiBj[ tluit L» wm fre(]iiouUy >x>tuiilte<l 
oooooraing dlfloull potnts of tli« l&w. Two ;c*ra 
bter b« tcmlvcd to Mady th« dncCrini» of tbo three 
ninctiwl Jcwinh accta, lUi: SilJiIiiclisi, Pbiuiceea, mkI 
VawiiiiMi llaiiiig lieuil that a c«<l«l>rHt*Kl mombcr of 
tb» Uuor wet, Duaod Banua, lived oa aacvtia llfo in 
tfaa diMtrt, JaM[dins ioin&d him, uid paaed three 
jean in Ua aodatij. Ho then ratumod to Junualom, 
and beoUM * I'bariMN: When ho vn* twimty-ux 
VCM* old he nude n jountoy to Rome to ohtaia the 
liberation of tame priuak mo had been aeut then bjr 
PeUx tt> bo tried on aome bivial diuM He wu 
^iljnneeked in the AdiinUc, bnt \nu [nckuii u|i hj 
m TCM«1 vt Cynne nnd lu^ded et PuU-uli. Hen.' hu 
IweMlM acqnaiiited witii ut ftctor, throngh whoso 
mniBS he wm intcwluci^i] Ui tiio nifo nl Ticro, who 
procured the llbcralimi of t\m priwUi. On hti reLum 
SO JeniMleai faq found his oooatrt-meu pr«pivlii(r for 
var with Boine. Reoosniang tbe hopeUuDeM of 
aooh a aCni$gle, he tried to dbaiuwle tho Jewa Irotn 
entering into itt but in. t niu. \^'Ltiii all liepe of |teacB 
VM loft be joiiwd tbo wur yaity, nail waa deputed 
to defend the preriaoo of (;Alil<«. On the nppTMu^h 
el Vvpauaa'atmay im reirvMtd toJ<)ULi>.itPsnr>)Ui- 
fled town, which he held egidnat the wiiole liiiniiui 
mmv for fortjr-eeten d»y9. Thu town wm botrtvjcd 
lo tlie enemy. Joaepbua wns <Uiiuovore(l in e c«ve, 
iriwre be hM eancejilecl lutue«U, and was giveu up 
to the Itmum gnncml, who ivmi about to Mind him 
toXeru, «h<!ii, itail is ivlatvn!, he predioted that Vc«> 
pataian would one day enjoy the Imperlnl dignity, 
and ibereopon hul the cnod furtuuo tv obtain both 
fmxlam and fmrnur. Tim iniluocd him, when hv 
went with Titiw to JeruBaJcm, to advtse hia oountry- 
men to eubmiMion. ASU:t tbo oonqueM of JeruBakm 
be went with TiCne to llome, nnd wrote the llintory 
tt the Jewish Wnr, In seven baulc)>, Ixuli in tho Ilif 
bntw end Greek Ungusg«s — a work ohk-b rvMinblee 
the writing of I.iuy novo then nuy other biitnr>-. 
His Jewish Antiqulliee (In twoiCj hooka) is likiTwiic 
an cxci-UcRt work. It coiitaiuo tbe huUiry of the 
Jpwa from thu viu-tinit liiiitm till noar thu vad of ttie 
nigu of ^«ro; but h hi oiauunid a» ipviiig na inoor- 
iwt nccoont of tho miracolous erentB wbloh hnre 
oeoorred in JcM-i»h hintory. mid ■• eupproMiiig or 
■llerlng everjlluiic wbkb mij^ht have givon offctice 
to tbo beothru. Iliit tnu hv>k» ou tli<r Antiquity rrt 
A* Jewish People cuntain i-ul\iikblD extiucti from oM 
hlitnrlann, and are ainiuil at Apion, nn AlcKimilrinn 
etsnunarian, and aa ujieii ailt i-rBary of tho Jewa. Thi.' 
dnte of hi* ilnnth 1% xinooriain ; id) Unit h knoM^ U 
th*t he simnved j^nir^a II.. who died in &7 a.u. 
Tbe oomiouiuist Eiij^Utib vcniuu ia that by U'liintun. 
JUSUl'A, thp twoocMor of Mimm hi tW cumuiuxid 
of the Israelitci^ was tbe son of Xun, of the tribv of 
Splmlni. His name was at tint Itnthta (hilp), hut 
Wse chxnpMl by Mimcs intoyiuAun (,Jdiav»b'B lutlii), 
at which JctiiM in tbe Umek form. lie gained the 
liver the jVinalokitee nt Repbidwi, ftcooia- 
, HoBoa part of tbe way lu his &s«at<i Mount 
, WM dopnted with eleven athera to es)iloie the 
butd of Canaan, and woe tfao only ono, with tbo cx> 
OQptlon of Caleb, who brought bavk nu cutviurojiius 
r^oct. Is oonrcqaenQo of this he ivcdved special 
Bsvksof dirine favour, nai wm nonunated by Uosce 
to ancceed hlu In the oumnuuid of the amy of Urael. 
He led the Isn^itee over the Joniui, and lu the 
eanne of sereB ycftra conquered the gnator part of 
Pnisstfnn, nod divided the country nmnng the tribm. 
AoDOpfng to Joeephuahegorerueil 1mj«1 (or tweuLy- 
fin yean. Ho dted at the »m of 1 10. Ilie histor)- 
ia eoatajued in tbe c anoni cs f book which beam liu 
imxat, nod of which be baa been usoaUy regarded os 
ibeantbor, both hy thu Jcwiah writvra and thu Chria- 

tiaa fnthen. Many inodcni niUc*, howorcr, snr^ose 
It to have been wriltmt by S^muol, Klcsiu-, or Plune- 
has ; and some pLuv iU date of comiMwittou ta hite 
oa the Babylonish cnptlvlty. Tlie entire book, in tU 
preaeot fonn, niuld nut bave been written by .loahua, 
for tberv are many refnrcnona in it to cvinita which 
took place after hb death; but there ean be little 
donbb that tbo great part of the material was sap* 
pUod by Joshua^ or an oyo-wiloeM of the ni'enta 
tbonin dcecribad, Tbe boiik may be jv„-»'il<id as 
eoubttng of three parts; 1, tbe oouqneet of Canaua, 
ehftpa. J.-xU.; % the partltton of the eountry, chaps. 
xiiJ.-xxiL; S, Jcebna's convocations d the F^pK ^^ 
ftddr ee a ei, and death, eln^. xxlQ. xuv. There is a 
Sanuuttao book of Joehua (publishod Id Antbic and 
Latin, by Tnyaboll, Leyden. 181&},whtcliboobrait- 
iole of ercDta from tho (L-titb (if Moaee to the tlna 
of Alexander Sc^vrua. Jt i> HtppoaMl lo have been 
written aboot 1300 A-u. 

JOSIAH, Kin^ of Judab, sneeeoikd Hs fnther 
Ainoii at tlie age of e^ht yean (639 B.C.) After a 
uiiuorily of oij^ht yciuv, iluriug whkh he was educated 
aad tbo admudatratioa of state aSaiie curled on by 
the hieh-priost, be bi^aoto free tbo land of iilolatrics^ 
tbonsh the: graves and altani consocmti^d tu impure 
worthip u ete favoured by mm of ruik nnd inHneiice 
in tbu kingdom. Supported by the fricndihtp of tho 
Kinff of Aaayria be even extended bis refonna into 
the Kingdom of Israel In thcoit'htt-cnthn'ar of his 
rHi^i ho tfanmanoed tha rentaratian i4 the temple, 
anil during' ita pragress Hilkinh diacovend the book 
of tbu law. On hearing tbo predletions against tbe 
|>copIe (or their idolatry be r«nt hi» oluthea, and sent 
tho high-pTiGitt to CDnnTiIt Huldoli the propltetcas, 
\rho voufinned the |iredli'tiou, but addwl a measue 
of comfort to the king. As he bod shown a tondar 
hc*rt raid bamhied hinwolf before 'iod. he would not 
wen tbo culnmitii* tliat wen: to bcfnll tbe iialin-n. He 
coutiiiuM his rcfonna vigorously, and cvlebratwl the 
grcitlcst pusover since the time of Mosca. Soon 
uftcr Neobo, king of Kg^-pt, who had in\'aded Aa- 
ayria, oiltanced ti> attack CsrchtDuiMb, which coiu- 
nuuiiied a cliinf fort of the Eophrat™. I'mmptpil 
probobly by loyalty to Babylon Jotloh uiarcbed ayt 
against him, althim^h Necba bod sent bim a friendly 
warning, llip two nnoies Diet at Mei^idiii.^ wbitru 
Jona.h vroM iliLtn in the thirty-fumt yoar of hw reij^ 

jOSIKA, MiKLiJi^, Babuk, a EuB^puiou non:ljat, 
Wfls bom at Tordo, In IVansvlvama. in 17tf(!. At 
the nge of rixtrtrR ho entered tho Attstrion army, 
which \\a loft in ItllS with the mnk of cuptwu 
tia^ill^' married a wealthy belreet, he lived oltor- 
naloly on his estates In TMnsjlvania and In Peatii, 
chiefly cngn^il in h'torary pumutu, Init alao taking 
on anivo jiart bi tlm pulitiool Btru(,')>1iii iif thu tiuie. 
After the rcuniou of Trausylvania v>ith Hungary in 
the aprinp of IS 18 he h»ci>mc a mfmbcr of thn njip"^ 
bmiir of the Uuugariiu) diet, wim s irr.kiui »ii[>]iorler 
of KnwiMth, and on the reeignntii.iii nf t1i<^ Itntt-byiful 
ministry was appointed n membvr df tho ccjnmittee 
of natlMial defence. He foUowcil tlie m%-olultanary 
gDYcamneot to Qebrecziu and Arod. oud after Its 
overthrew effeoted his eso^ie to Bntsaals in tSSO. 
Ho was oondemnad to death in his absence, and was 
hanged In clflgy with Kevutb and others at Psetb 
in Snptomber, ISfil. Ue resided in the BelgiMi 
cftfiitM, oacufHod with literary work, unlit bin death, 
27th Fobroary, 186S. He woa a very prolilk writer, 
and has boon called tba IFiiffrr Smtt i3i Hungary. 
Uis chief mmonH^ca aro Aboli, hia first sod U-nt; Ax 
utcilaoBtti1ri(TheLMlBab!ri>; Zrviii aK'iillolZrviu, 
the Toet) ; Jdalka Istvto (Ste^ibon JiJsika) ; A' Ca^ek 
Magyarorn^ban (Tbe Bobamaas ia Biuvsty] ; Ert 
Mag^yar Ckalad a' Forradahnn alatt lA Bnngarian 
l-'aiuily during the Rcvulutiun), ftc 11ioy hara )«en 




tna«t«te<l into f!cmiiui piiTtly lir Kkin adO portly 
br Ilia woxriil wif», 1b« IIiuuhhh I'lhLuimiIciji', one of 
ttc mnsi K>[t«d Lulim of Huagarr. 

JUSfiUIN UK I'KKX. ArtBUS {.ToflQlJlKL'B or 
JonoccB DK Pkato), one of the gre«Ust mant^ 
]na«t«T« of the NvthvrUnii*, wbo r«ic«iTfli] thn mr- 
nuno i'n(9 from his n»i*Iono« Uuriiiv ■ov-«ra] yeiLra 
■t Prato ia Tiwianjr. He b ■n[i;>o»t"l t*) li^ve ti«D 
Ixim botwovn 1460 uirl 1455. Aflnr Imviii^ sttidinl 
witb Oeknnlicini, the fouiuior of tho ncoond FIomi»h 
•diuol of luusic, JMijuin Hi-nt to Italy, Kc«lv«>j on 
Bppouitmont In 147A In tlie Papal clu^, ud ac- 
^uiroct w iDDoh rqiiibttion hv hi* mattUr*, lUMdca, 
MiclaUiorchuicbci)m|>r»ttl'mii thnt bu viam inviti'J to 
Cunbny, made cliat>i.-l-iiift/iU'r to LnulH XII, luid 
Fmncift I., and then to tho ticnmui Empetor MilxI- 
miliiui I. lie ilinil »t lirnaBiiln. where nU tAinb ti 
■liowii in the cburcU u( St. (JaiJiil*. He waa jiiatly 
adRiiri<iI M « nHiiraiiiinliht n biioiltvd yMkn nforo 
Ptklcatnnu uid t'rluuUi lU Lmw, 'Juaqnin,' said 
IjUltuir, bSUt hAvlng beard one ot hb nuUMS, 'la 
liu«t«r of the notea: the; mnat do ■■ be choMcs: 
otbcT cvo))"»«n nitMt do na the notei «booee.' 

Jirl'ltKlir, Bakth^lbut rATKEaiSK, necneral 
of tilt! Frvncb Kt>[>ubii<\ born iii 1769 at Poiil de 
Vaux, in tliB <lepkrtm*nt of Ain, wnterod on urtiDcn.' 
Kf^inimt in Ini fiftMrnUi year, but nt the iviRmt of 
bk folber obbUned hla dlichoj^ rad bad nauoKqne 
progriM in the stnily of law at tho ontbnAlc of the Itc- 
volatioo. In 1791, dill lotainlBg bia inclinatiou fur 
n aoUItar; ttfa, b« joined a volunteer Iwltalloa, and 
dfatlngoMwd hinnU on eovoral qccmioiu. AfMr 
finminir thmti?h the iliffrmnt gndatioiui iif nuik he 
H'oa a|i|Hji»tci! Kcui'nLl after the InvtUt uf Ii<imiu. In 
thbotpacitj b« toolt an imTxjrttint fiort undwr Jlonn* 
|NUtu u the caropaiini of 179<i, and nmo Iw i>o a (coii- 
enl of illviaion. Althflu^ «ilf«rinf much (mm 
wouumIi^ h« Oipened th* canpaiffn uf 1797 by uiipcN- 
Ing the yngnm of (remrral Alviumt;, who w-aH ad- 
voiicini: fr««n the TyroL A keenly -coiitetted itniKKlu 
waa follftwcd. two daTB after, by tlie bloody battle 
Ml Uie i'LaU^i) t*f lUvoti, where, owing cxpocialty to 
•loubert'v cxortiiiiiii, victory dnclnrrd fur tue Frvncb. 
Sbwtl/ aftar he dr«ve bocV tli« aaemy, and italnad 
psnMrfen of TKot BtiU puming lib ■dvantoge, 
M fdroad hb my inio the Interior of Ihe Tyrol, ma- 
ctMfnlljr encouiitrrHl all ttie foma oi>poaMl to hhn, 
orercanw all the diKiciiltJn nf tha poMMige fram the 
vnlWy of tite Adlfc bttu tliai uf the Drava, and at Uwt, 
naar Ibe Maroa at that river, inined the mnd army 
nndsr Puaaimile, bringing witli bfm 7000 priaoncm, 
aooM ooloiirt, and cannon. Sbottly aflar, baring ytv 
cvediid with the oobim to Pari* ha wu «mpIoyc<l 
in Holland, and in I7il!( Miooei'ded IJrune in the 
ODBinuuiit uf tbc' army uf Italy. On the raoomnioDiit- 
OMnt ol the war with Aiwtria, aa tlie Sardbiiao court 
bad jj[iT«D NyinutoDt of a bnAtle dbiieaitlvti, be bunt 
■uddenly into PiedoHuit, took I'uriu and tha other 
fortified plaoea, and wiUi the aid of tha ropabllean 
party forced tlio lunv to abdioata; Ha wa* punning 
a «ininar coutm In Tuaeany and other part* "f Italy 
whan be incurred tfaa db^enura of iha Directory. 
Ibramhic to Pari^ he allo«-«d himaelf to he eninod 
over by BUyfea* party, xbo were Muleavounnt,' tn 
orerthraw Ibe Diractojy ami tbe aoaftHatiuR. To 
(tunbb him whb Uw menu of exicmUBs Ida f Bino thb 
ULrty itun>a(«d lo eapphurt Moraa mm give Jonbert 
Db eomnand in Uppor Italy. H* aeoarakigly ba*t- 
•netl froin Parb at the eanuneneeautii ei 1 7H, with 
tbe detanninntinn U> fight an lin|>irC«nt battle or 
pcffab hi tba attsnii'i. tht cqiportuaitT occnrred 
aatnat tban be aipactod, and ha anddmly iooml bin* 
adt In front of Iha oonUied Amtrian ami Rtyaiaa 
amba nndar Snieamnr. WUla b« waa brntotii^ 
wheCber to accr|it tbo battle or relnat into tbe Apco- 

ninM the «iiinny cuniuion^vd tbr attack, and Jonbtrt 
fell alinost at tho ftnt nniitit, utmcl: [imm by a can- 
non-liUI. BcmnpBrt« nft^rwuiln cnuHMl lib uocea to 
be interred In Port U IktalffiLc, fn Toulon. 

.lUUDPtntK. Sre .tonHITB. 

JOllKKltnY, TiiCoiMiai; flmos, a French jurirt 
itiid iildlcjKi.>|)lii.'r, N>nj at P<iiii«b, In tbe Jura, Tth 
July, li'96, cnU<ntd ibo l^wlo Nonnale uf Pane in 
]K]4, ami wtiiilii-i) )ihiIoivipby under l^uin witli an 
much diHtini-'tiim thnt iu IS17 he wae appuiiitMl 
Maltio d« CoufvreuoM tn that lobool, and asaistaat 
prof<UMorof philofopbvat th«C\}tli'p) Uonrbon, after- 
wnnU kTinwn na the^e IkmajiartA. llail hcialth 
ubli(;nl bim in l»2l to n-oigii tbe former Htnaticat; 
luid Ibn nomial adinol baving boon nipprteaad the 
year after, be conunonocd a ctrniae of private )«c- 
turcJi. v■hll^b were numerotialy alttoded. In IS'i* 
bo [iiiiiii{i:ij, in concorl with LHiliois and Poniirfio, 
the nAmi|)jipnr callcil the CElotw, whii^h aftonranla 
coulributed i>ou-«rfully Kj (lie pn>urcu of Uburalbm. 
Id Ih-i'J he d^nuno affii^tanC to Mlton as proroaur of 
philiiHriphy t" tho Kiuriilti- ilr^ Ixittim, and nrtainod 
the ntuatkin til) tbe rvviilution <•( July, when b« 
becama the oollsagne of Royer C-olUnl to lecturiap 
on tbe history of modem phUo«n[<liy. At tho aatne 
timr be ohtAinrd ui npjinintmont >■ tranliorof philo- 
iK>|.iliv iu the Eiuniml ■cbuol. Iu 1833 be Kuoceeded 
Thurot at the College of Fmace, and in US3 wa« 
ikilnkitf:d a member nt the AcadoiDy in the depart- 
mout ul mural and political acienee^ When C'-onafai 
became ntlubter of nbiealliku be niuned JuulTroy a 
momboror tliv onnncil of tbo umv^rsity. la 1881 
ho obtftfncd a neat in the chamhRr rif dcputjea, n-hero 
bi> jiiinvd tb« [>arty kn-nwii by tbu uniii«^ of Iloi-trin- 
airr*, and atta<:'h<ad liinuwif gwrtirrilarlr tn (tiiLtot. 
Hi* [>1iili«'>]iby i* very uiiicu allied Id tbat "t the 
Sc-ttiab twlioot and with tbe vlcv of fimheHn^ ft 
bo Iwcame translator both of tic Gutlinre of Moral 
Pbilaaonhy, by Dngald Btewort, and of tho wnrka of 
Held. Hb own principal workii are H^laafrea FbilO' 
sophiqaM (18:13}, moiditing otf bb meet fanportanl 
contiiV>i]tiona U' thi^ Itlohrand Cntimdo Droit Natn- 
ret, cou>[Hwcd of Iu* lei^Dnm. Ub died In 1842. 

J0UG5, Juuoa, or Joocb, a term obrlooaly con- 
neeted wilji tiio Latin jvfptm, anil in Scotland ap- 
plied to an iron eollor attachn] by a iilinrt cliain U> 
a pillar orwall tn Kome |nib1i(i plaoe, and intended 
tn inclc^ tho noclc of a <nil|irit oniivieiod ri enow 
dpQ ttt eocledaaticoL offence, lltu tniimment of 
puniibment was not peculiar to tkoiland. for It was 
■i*ed at leant in lioUand. llie collar oonablod of 
two •eiuidrrlea of imn nnitod behind by a hlnge^ 
and aeeurvd In front by a rtaple. Ibey have kvr 
camhI to br ii«ei:l, liut mi maltcTH of C'uriuaily and 
iuiti<|nanaii btinmt thoy aro Rtill allowod to hang 
at a few (itiuiilry vliurcuve and rural conrt-booMi 
and prisona Uno may be seen at the cbureb-yard 
gal* of HuddingWon. a haniM in tbo nri^hboiirbood 
of Ediiibur^li. mill aiujtbcr Dttacli(.-d to tbe wall of 
tbe anrtpiit murt-lmiue of the tjUa^-e of Kilntmin 
in Ayrvbire, 

OF HI{AT,ane^prv«aioiiooniiectin(faeataadiBac&' 
Aoical a-orlc, d<-taniiiiuHl imtwieiin 1843 and IRIft by 
Mr. Joule uf Maiit'lieeter, by meani of eipcrlnMOla 
which fault amongat tbe tnoat lucmorabb that bava 
erer horn nuule. Davy proved that tlte beat of • 
tvdy ii rt«]ly t)s« mntioit iif Itn partlckn^ that b, that 
boat !• B fonii of eoeryy, aitd that thereftve tbe lam 
of ouBunttnieatioB of heat are predaoty the aane m 
tbe lam of eomnuttteatlon or tnechanical energy. 
IbnjoniD 'iluBpeon, oouut of Rnnford (1799), 
expednanlfaig on 1^ boat prodnor^l In the burfng 
td oannen, datenained tbe inecbaidnl mttgy wUcn 
b e«iuiTal«ot to a certain quantity of boat; bb ra- 



b1« fxpOTunenta vrtn InconipI»t<^, hut ther 
I in » ^irctty dvM »)rprDXUDfttioii tv Joulv's «'|iu- 
vilvBL In 1921 Cunot publUhed ftn uiutn wbioh 
to «f grcftt imporUnoo in llixinnoiIjnwuiM. If a body 
kfler bkvinc exuorionced n certain numtior iif tnma* 
fomuitioud b« turvniiUt {>leiit)c«]ly U> its iirinillivo 
^phyaical atata u to doiuity, tompanlw^ aad lool*- 
f'oour oonMitntii'ia, it miMrt c<i>nbun the Mine qnanCity 
of heat an tlut whkh it iDtLi»lly pcM«««iiod. SA{uin 

tbejr Maomcil tiiAC tho mttchuiicol work doDO by a 

^Itodjr In pndudng * dilatation at iUelf, or daiw bj 

I Agantii lu iinHlucin;; » eniujirainiiun, it equivu- 

totho httkt lost cir g^od hr thn txidy. Tliny 

l.had DO riifbt to m&ko rach nii oMumptioii, which (tui 


ftrnB In tbeoMo of ur aud the vthiir incouiJoiuftblo 

yak £Ugain «spertinonted oii iliUtitiK ■t«un, Imt 

Hayvr was fuvtunste euouitb to ctEijiluy tti« cunipnM- 

aioa of air, uul be hw in comcqiionco obuinod an 

loeeuBiilerAU! lunnunt af cretttt Mnyc-T'a >li;tcrintna- 

j-tiollof the'oqiiiviLlciit' w-iuIuuccuraiUt, u)ia«iupl()yi.-il 

I an iiMCvurat« apcciHi; heat for air. 

Joule b«ffan hi* cipcrimcnta in 184.1; hrroco^ibMl 

r Ounot' a tuiom, <ui(L cmjiloyal tmly ■ciuiitific muLhodii. 

' In 1M3 bi* itiixLaurad tin work iIoijh En drivinff « 

' M» gn cto-4i]nctrio maebiiw. uid tho boat gmunMaain 

tlu raaehfau) aad !t« conHnctin; wire, lie a,lan loovott 

» IgiaUM futiDCd uf capLllju-y tabes ill a uyliuJer oon- 

teioing wat«r; th* work dunw in nuiviiig tlw piaton, 

^•nd IM boat vrudaoed by friction in the tuba, won 

[iBMsaRd wilB pMt aoouncy. In ISIl he exparl- 

Intotcd on air by S'^^iii am! Mayet'tt iiiL-'tb-i<tB: tia 

I pntved by uKporimnnt timt th<:an mctboilB aro lagiti- 

[nateia the onat* uf air. la ISJS uad IS 17 b« <lot«r- 

I mined tbo hcoC produced by tbo friction of wat«r, oU. 

iHulaMivniy. In 1349 bia ox|<cdonoc had cnahUd 

fUm to riinimatw aoorvei of oror, and to perfect hia 

Fspfinratua; bis roaulta from the friction of wat«r, ot], 

iBbBcnry, and catt-ln»i vroro noarly identical. A 

I paddJfr-wh«el of Imuui (ir iron, with ri^'ht or nix vranui, 

Vaa cwawd to nvwlve btitwwu iaurmi\ai>t Blaliuiiary 

I Taaas, In * vaud of water or nil or mcrciiry; or twn 

iCnrt-iroo beml-wbeelji mbbml on each utuor iu a 

> veaael of mwrary. In ev«rj case motian was pruduoed 

'Inr the falling of a oortun weight througli a curtain 

I diitancit. Graat aatv wim taknn in cnlculatitig tbo 

' heat produced 1>y friolicoi, and ibe wik. d«iui by 

the falling treight. Id tlic condunon uf bis [>apor 

(1849) he makn* lUlnivancR fxr loa* uf cni^rgy in vilira- 

tkifi and autuwl, aud cBAaLllBbeii tbat:-~th« (junntity 

; tS beat capable of loCToasing tba tmnperatar* of I lb, 

4< water ^wdghod in vjicao at a temperature of be- 

brecB 56' F. and 6(|- F.) by one ilc^teo l-'abreuhciti 

nqulraa forita avalutioii tlieexj-Hti'iidltnreut njochaiil- 

bflM «Bargy nipr«Knt«<d by the fall of 773 Ibe. through 

^ibanMa at noe fiHit. If one ilenvo Ccntij^nwla ia 

I tht cue of tcupeiatare, JuuIub niecTinnJcal equivalent 

I ii 1380^ fbei^aanda. 

' ISa.— Man or naulu with ]Da«B«l»4lMtrl« ma«biii« Kt 
,UO.—ttMnlirping friction of water in nunwnibair-. Tit 

ISM.— Hau of raulu uf aipMltDsnn with drr air 7M 

]M^.— „ ,, ftouMoUunof UauJil*. SIT 

]«r-- ., .. .. TSl» 

IIW^— Miaii ftirtii 40 ax peri HUD u oa Iha frlMtun 

olKilor. ni'lM 

Ucon r(D<n to cz|MalinMita<n the frtetion 

<if oiaicury, iT4'0ft3 

Ifaan fiem 10 Kt(HrliMaiison tba frtetlon 

eraut-itun, "l-9<>7 

JOtTBDAN, Jkam BAtnan, Corxr, tnankol and 

poer of France, bom at UnMugn 2ftth April, \76% 

whcti very young entored as infantry nviraent 

wUiA waa'daaputchcrf to America to aid the L'nitol 

[ Btatea tu tlwfr etrugille for iutleiNiudeince. The liberal 

idtfiu tbnnt imblheil niiuli< hitn on hia miiim a taninuM 
ndbttrent of tbo nvdutionary party. In 1790 be 
beoame oaptun of the national piard of hia natlre 
town, and the followinff year ho pronytilod to the 
army nf the north nt tile QDad of u viiluntK-r liattal< 
Urn. Hia akin and (.-oum^fc uiaje bis aiicAiiopmeiit 
vitry rapid, and a* wrly aa 17»j ha was placed at 
tbo bond of 87,000 men, to Teinf<«6o the army of tbo 
Menae and Sainhre. Shortly after ho defealod the 
(Hi*niy at I'leiimu, took Mmis, Briiii*'!*, I.i^. Cond^, 
and Valcnci'Ciium, luid on the Koor i^Miiod a rietoiy 
which obli|{iMi thu Aiistrintui to rviira brbind the 
lUiine. But 3d Stfpteiiibvr, I7S)3, be wiia dcfeaLtil 
at WUnboig by tb« Anatriiina nndMr the Arrhduke 
Charles, In oonecquence uf whiuh he laiil duwu hi* 
command, and retumfai^ u> Paris bocame a member 
uf th« couoral of five hnadnrd. In 1799, Iho I>irc«> 
tnry having sivcn him the oonnnand of the army 
on the Danube, be crueeed tlie Rhine ut BaAcl. auJ 
prcffiod forward bctweou tho baniilyi nud iho La%a 
of Ouiataneo, hut wna cnroimtcrod by tlm Arrlidtiko 
Charles, who fitut Kave him a c(it*k nt Oalrach. aiid 
tbon completely defeated lilm at Shtckach. Altbain{;b 
ho hftd opptiscd tho eouptCitat of l&lh Itmmain;, 
tb« Eint Cdtutil ititnutul him in ISdV witli th« rcnr- 
IpuikatJon and ailmiubt ration of PIeilni<:>Dt. While 
(bna amplpTod he ia said to have ^vtm proof of great 
disinteroctcdnrm. In 1803 he beoame a member of 
tlM scpatu, aiid in 1&D4, on the eatabUahmcDt of the 
#n)pin>, obtained lh« mnk uf niitnihal imd a inftt in 
tbv oottncU of atnU;. NnjHiK-tin did uijt vt-utfirv to 
Intnut Lim with an ludupeudeot commiutd. but ^ave 
bim an ajij^ciiiitiuMit ns tnajor-griirral liceidir King 
.Ifloojih, in whiao iwrvim ho Uxik an lu^tivo part bota 
in hapten aud Spain, thminfh in the latter iMrtalnly 
not audi to tbo advantage of bis muter. Aft«r 
Jiftpoleon'n r>rt:iim from Elba he r«malncd -nitlwnt 
«ni].i]»yiiii.nt, mid in 1)>15, when njipuiiitMl president 
of ibu vourl-uinrti,'\l whiirb wae to try Nej', Inoomd 
tho diaplramro of the Bonrbone by dcdariiur the 
court incianricleiit. In 1816 be WM appointed com- 
mander uf Llia rwveuth military diruion, and in IS19 
wiu iHEwnL m thn iwuragn. He entanvd with Kpirit 
into tlie July rvvulutiun, for euuiu days aot«d aa 
forei^ minister, aud vaa afturwards made gonnar 
cif the HAt«l dc« luvalidrs. Tbnngh li« had many 
nppurtiinitifa of Buriebiui; hinutelf, lie waa alwaja 
jwur. He ditfd 23d November, l&JS. 

JUVELLAN'US, Umpau Mbixiiiou dk, was boni 
in Gij^m in tho Anturiiui, January 5, 17*1. of .an 
Micieut and nubia family, and aLudivd at Ovii-du, 
AvUa, and Almla <lo Kenaroa. As anxi-n no lie left 
colli:ge he WM mado a member nf the criminal brAncb 
of the audirnciM in AcTilte. Hl- ndranpcd rapidly 
in Ids jinifesaluual caiver, and was finally appolntwl 
a mombor of tho councQ of tlie tiuUtary otrlent at 
Madrid, Hem ho became n member of the Iteal 
Sotiedad coinuuiita llaLritenxe de Amigoe del Paii, 
au JiiHtitiil.tiin iTiiandftd fnr the promotinn, of agricul< 
ture, uumufacturea, and tradv; and it was by tho 
oodninand of this body that he wrute his oukoratwl 
lofonne eobre un Froyccki do Ley Agmriik, to which 
be mainly owes bia fame. Intri|fuo led to Id* dla- 
fnae at oourt, and ha was baniabed to lils ualiTe 
place, where hvrt'Uiiduod rroial71''0 to 17fi7, entirety 
doTOted til his variou!) fitiidi4« and iwrful projects, 
including aiootig uther Lbiuga the ■»iirkiii[f uf ccal- 
uiluea. He also foondod tbv royal Aatnriaii inotttn- 
tion^hia darling project up to tbo lb«t UDincnu cf 
his life. JMcAnwhiiu i)nn Manual llodoy, af Lerwarda 
PrinL-e <j[ PeaL-e, had biMxiuie prime minister, and 
Jovellanfin wim nfpdn invited to ciflico^ wfafoh be 
acGoplud (vitli trrcat ruluclanoe. He was mndo 
minister and a ajUoa.^c of Franoeaco da Saavedn. 
Tbey woro butli sensible of tliu miicrnble oharacber 



of tba govenuDent of Goduy, umI {mwiUhI on the 
kbg to faaiM bin. 8uv«dn vra* AppoiaUd in hb 
^*c« BiniMn- of fondgn aStia, Bui tUi fedminH* 
baliiNi wM aooa dbnlred, And Wli biat their pl*ce». 
Tlw Tvreng* of tba rriiuM «( P«aoe wu ilvw but 
dMp. Miu<{ufi CabaOoro vu chcwa to {xnHcato 
Um. A £t|»BUL tnaaluloa of Rovummi's Cantnt 
Social, ia oa« of lh« note* of wbkh JoTclUnua him 
avutknod farounhly, gi/rw Um ptotujct U« wm 
BireMod, aLrni:il frun ooo pUca to ■BOthw, atid at 
laH put In a CartluuiBa noBMlecy in t^ Inland 
uf MajotciL Viliaa Cluulea IV. vaa coiDi>«Unl to 
abdicate fat fitrMU' of kn mm FcfdiiiatuI, with wliom 
CabaUno hwl sided. JoreUanot ww noaUed hy tbe 
MBis pacMo who bad abaiiMftdly penocotod hfan. 
Ho dfWanrixt a trial; but Ki^loon'* atrako at Bav' 
moo chai^Ml tfao face of Spanlab aflaln. Jooejib, 
bb brotfaM't oif«i«d JoToUanaa tb« portfolio of tba 
faitotior; Init bo ambnoed tbo noM of tlio iatni- 
MOt^ and W fMi w n manbcc of thti contnd Jiinta, 
wbai« it waa chiefly owiu^ Ui hini that tbo twunci] 
WDM HTivvd. No aoaiKir hiul dia eooadl met iiion 
It uppMed tbo oentnl junta, wludk «M finally (lia< 
■olvM, and Joreliatioa waa diamefnlhr tnated. To 
expam tba coondl and daf«»d Uatmtii and tba jnnfat 
waa tba lait of hi* Uhonra aa a writor. Ho died 
Xoranbflr '£7, ISII, aixty-Hrea y«an old. The 
SoanUi pMaa of JoveDanoa k eoiwUeiiMl tho fiiuat 
01 tnodem limea. It ia mainlj aa a politicBl eoono- 
mlrt and a writar on law that M ttanda in the (toot 
nok aa a Sfaniib writar; bat bia Elogioa pua n i w 
pvat beauty of bngnago nd daptb of thoo^t. Ho 
•lao vroto aa Eai^r upon Diamatic ExhiUtipm and 
PnbUc DironioM^aoaB* po«ma,a tngady (El Folayo), 
and a *—"'■"-" << tbo fint book of Milton. Col- 
ketad editkna of Ua worin ban been pnUtaihed in 
aann toU. at Madrid (I830-3S), and at Baroekin* 


J0VIAXC3, Flavtcs Cuimiua, Roman om- 
poror,wasaoa of C'ooue VaVTaniannB,adtatlngalab«d 
aaldicr, and obtoinol an appadntakent m Um houaa- 
boM of the Eniioror Joliwi, of wIhmm Bfe^aanb lis 
wu raptsin. Itaviag aooompauled Um In tbe dis- 
aatriMut campaign agaiaat tba Paniaaa, in which 
JnUan bM Ua Ufa [!.[>. 363), bo waa pnwUitited 
anpcrnr t>r tbo troona, and imiuediately dedarad 
UidmU a CkrUIan. Hu fint gnat dilBciilty «w to 
affact tba ntnat of tho anuy, and h« waa uoly ablo 
to aemnplbli it by niyiliatin^ wHb Sapoi; tbo tIo- 
tocioo Pwrfan nawuto, and fonaUy ooding to Um 
fire pcorineea bmad tbo Ttgria. Hia nig», wbidi 
bad not laalad «4^ moiitbs, was anddcnly tmninatod 
at IlndartauwniBall town in Galada, whan ba la 
aopMaod to ban baon acddentaDy toffucatod in Ua 
bMbylbefamcaof dMnoal on tho Ifltb of Kofemary, 
Sti. Tbam li ao «*tdMMe for tbe auppoaitiua that 
baa baan haavdad of Ua bBTfam died a Tiolant daatb. 
Ua only iBaa ara of tmpwtaiwa waa tba iaaoiiw of 
■■ adk* >y which be aocwad Ibo CbriatJana tma 
paeae cu liaB by pUdog Chriatianitj on a l«nl baaii^ 
DBt at tbe aama Uac procUintad a Uod oc gonaral 

JOVIUS, Paclc^ or Paolo Giorm, a ealabtated 
Italian Uatecian, wm bora a dxaoi, IStb Ani|, 
lUSt atadiad raadidna at Pa*la, bat tonic ordar^ 
and waa Blabop of ?IoG«n at tba lina of bia deaths 
11th Daagnbt^ 1&S3. In bia jontb ho read tbo 
daarfoB under tbe dirodian of hia bratber at Ronn^ 
and waa laapind wllfa the do^o of bacondng Umi 
UrtMbw «( Ua tteo. Ble fint attompt waa i«ad 
by Pom Lm X^ wbo bocama Ua patroa, to an 
aaaambly d cndbak Mid tba poailta wiolaiaied 
Ibat^ 'nflar TItoa Llvy, lb«t» ia nn wiiior num 
•lamnt and ahK|U«tL' Aa Jo«iua Uvod at tba atari 
of tbf pnfM^ than atltl to a oartabi d«cn« tbe apitat 

of CbriiteailuRi, 1i« bccam* pcavoaally aMjiuintod 
iritb many jndiridoala of tbo fint tinportauco ia 
bialory, or other oye-witneaMa, from wban bo gatb> 
cRd inf otmotion. At tbe eonferance between Cbarloa 
V. and CUmaot VII. at IWoi^tia in 1630 Ui« em- 
peror fonuabed him witb a rirvnmiUuilial aocoont 
of hiaeiMdllionUTnnlB for inaertioo m the Uitoey 
be waa tttan writing. Uia etyle is not uafraqaanily 
Un> Sorid orr diffnaa, and Ua aUtauoDta may perliapa 
ba oolvurvd by Lie patttalltieo. Hia Xjiitui ia vaaj 
eueUeoi, but the doep viava of a MadnaTalU an 
wantuig. Uia worka are — Hiatorim an! Tetnnoria 
(1J94-1547), lih. xW. [two toV, Fbnaw^ USO- 
62, folio); Eiodia. VIronun anHtltocwn (VWraoa^ 
1&49, folio): Eloipa Viraum bellica Ytitnto Dhm* 
trium IFloranoev 1651, folio); Commentaiil delle enm 
de* TurcU (Vin^ia^ IS-UiilDcaoiptia Briuuintir, 
Sootfask aUMcnii^ et Oreadnm fVeoctia, 1511, 4b>). 
JL comiJoto editbm of bb works In two vols, folio 
WW nuhtlahed at B*m1, 1&7&. 

JOYKDSE lOTTB^ls tbo name nnn to the 
impnrtant privitegn of tho oatabea of Ibabant and 
]Jmbur)[, with Autweipt wUah tbe dukn wen 
obliged to awear to mautain btforo they hyto al- 
lowed to antar tba dncal ta ai dan ca . frnm wbich cir- 
ouuatanoo tbv namo waa taken. Thr< muat uiii<ur- 
taut of tbeae pilvii^pee waa ibal tbo people wero 
roloaaod fram an allM^aaoo wheoorarttiedaka aboold 
attempt to violate Ibstr i^ibiL So imp o rt a nt wen 
tbeae nivHagea oooaldered that raaay woBan went 
toBnlMiit toboooBflited tb«r«,tli«t tMrcUUm 
toiritt enjoy the ri^rta ef a eitisMi of Brabant. 

JUAN (pronounced Awaa, with a vety aapiialed li). 
Jian is tba Spanlah name for Jc^n, and a oharacter 
named Horn /nan b found in tbo lilomture t4 moat 
of tba modeni nations of Europe. He is tike em- 
bodinent of godlem aenaoallly. A« far aa wo know, 
tUadiaraeterfiMtappaanintha Boriadorda 9owfll» 
y ConTidado da Plana, a ooawdy by Gabriel T«1I^ 
ooncMoly callod Thta dt HMna. It Is well knowB 
that tbo early t'rrach drnakatic pootaT wm mndl 
iaflgopfcd W tba B|iaaUi, and uia Conridado da 
Pieira was rt-pnRluora by UoUin aa Don Jua^ on 
I<o Poetin de Piorre (1M9K a ooaody in firs acti^ 
after tbo Spanish piece had obvady aMt with Boat 
■luxeaa in an Itaiuao dnaa in Italy. Sbadwall 
bmught it on the EngliNh staGo (1919^ Dnder tbe 
title of The Libertines TUi name baa dsrtvad fla 
giaateat ttaae, bnrarer, from the open <i Uoaatt, 
cnBad Den Jnao, one of fab nMat briUlant eoia|>aat- 
tioaa. Tba Taciaty of aentimaats wbldi O* ^and 
ocaipaaar «raa able toaxpreaa In tbbopetn gnn to 
hie -nM guuna aa ORMetanity to ttcal, almoal in tlw 
aaina beoatfa, tbe moat htdicraoa and tbe moat sab- 
lima enbiaeta. I>oa Joan h Juatly oaa of th« noafe 
pepolar oompnitloaa ot tbe Geman open. In all 
tboea wo^ Don Jnan ia a trareUiBg lue who |nno- 
tiaaaaraerwlMreUiaaetaef aednctwn. Uafaaqaalty 
e npHwafnl in lbs Ughar and tbo hnrer nnla^ aua 
bavbiKbTttod thacDaiUoftaitaaof aoonmanderto 
sop with hia, la bonified by aeefog tba rtatne actually 
dtaeeud fron hia naible steed to acospl tba oSac: 
Ho li finally rowiwtrf b^ flamea fiovi tba InfufMil 
n^oiM. ViDoenaa RieUid fiitt put tbe bgoDd Into 
aa opeiatfe Eonn fat 177T, and the toxl ei Monrt'n 
Dan Gionmal waa writ t en tea y«nra later. TImDmi 
Jam of Lord Byron baata ao roUtl(« to Iba old 
atutr but in name and in ibo Itbcrtine cbaractor of 
tbe Wo. 

JVXS TEBXAStVSZ, ao called froto tbe name 
of Its diacDwiar, alao awnethim Maa-a-Tlam. an 
ialaail in Ibu Suutb PadficOeeaa, about 400 boIm off 
tbeouaaii.rciiiU.towblcbbbaloni IllalSnaw 
long and nJlea bnmd at tba taiUilial por^ and baa 
uQ Its north-eaat aida tbe oxoallaat barbouF of Onn- 







bcriuid Bkj. It Li tn>nct!7 forrneil of a Mrio* of 
BnowiUina, the bkhcat rmug to Uic hci^'lit of UUUU 
feet, ai niKgsd ftnd ftrid Mp««t. Baaalt, grMihcs wid 
Ui^ KTo tlie firindpol racks. A conudcnbla portion 
o( the bliiud la well wooded, whUs in iHimo porbi 
tlMix am grttssy plMoa aLuiulautly luppliod vntii ii 
wpcdat ot oat tluit gmm very Iniiiiiitntlr. 1'ha 
iiidgIib(Mtrlioc(tolC'au]l-vHui]ilI)a3' uovcrkTuwu vJUi 
AwrbMiy bUiiti, wild »di3h«^ mint, and hftlm, 
IwMw PMU^ ft{<plaL^Mt7, and fig tn<«^ wEuch gruw 
wild. Wild goatB m« plentiful in tho 
nor* LD«ooeMdbleputa,n'briluir ib^y uava bven driven 
^ tbe dam tbU nw tnld. lUts am aumotO'iu. 
BxBftMMit fisU u« taken hen, nnd Urg» crawfi>h 
Abound. Tb» iaUnd b occoiiiod by KiBie bundnedt 
fil nttbn, wIkm «bisf oocupftdon Is th« fnrabblsg 
of ftaib vtfretiUeii wster, ud wood to tbo vhslin^ 
or other venela that oall bere. I>« Foe la nJd to 
hSiTo founded Lis Bobiiutoit Criuoo on tJje hiitonr of 
tbw tolitarj rcMidenca butiD fur oTor four ymri (1T<)1- 
1709) of s Soutdk gailor, ^Uvutidtir SvlUrk. Hvar 
Juan Fanwndas am tho omall Uload^ o( Mu-a-Puera 
andSaaU Clara or tioat lalaud. 

JUBA. L,a king of KumJdia and Maoritaola, wu 
iIm Mtt of HJgiapaa], wfao had beeii re-cMabllJilicd 
oa iba Ibraao by Pomp^'f. ConitM|vi<-ntl;, dd tlio 
braaking mil t^f the dvil WBr,<liiliB RutiirKllj- farnnml 
tb« catiM ot Putii|^«v Eitiuiiiil Julitu Cwnr, and alt«r 
tbu hMilc ot Pkin^Llia jiLned hlB forCM to thoaa of 
Scipio. He wai connucrcd in a hattlo at Tbwinu, 
and totally abandcuod bv hu BulijoL-ta. Tbo iuLibi' 
tanta of tba itroDg dtj nf Ziunn, whnw h« bwl di>- 
poaitod Ilia wivn^ duldnow tnainnif and military 
ilateu, havlDf thnt the gatea agatnat him, bo aban- 
doood all boDM of loffljr aod uew hitnaeU with hia 
own hand, alter tia\-iDg killod Pairaiaih who had 
riMrad hb gwd [urtuno and bla advendty, B.o. 46. 
Hia fctngdoni became a Bocnan jirovinoe, of whkh 
SaQoat waa tho firat gortmur. 

JtJBA II., a Kin of Julia I., wan led among tha 
cafitlrea to Bomu to oduru tlw triuj»)jh vf C'icmt. 
In Ua a^vdntjr ha appUad himsalf to alady, with audi 
tfiligcnee that be turned oat one of tb« first acholan 
ot Sm day. He ({ainad the heaita cf tbe Bomana by 
th» ooorteonRiaa* of hIa ouumera, and Au^natna ro- 
irardad hia fidelity by giving him in mairuige Clao- 
ftfra, tha daughter id Antony, conferring ubon lum 
tbe Ittla of kiog, and making hlia nioater of all Uie 
tMntorioi which hia fatlicr omoe {nmmwct), ii.c'. 30. 
T^ exact perioU of bis dualb iji not known, but ho 
|nbaUjrs07vi^-odtiUl8orlilA.u. The Uauiitaniana 
rwMtdad Ua benorolcnco hr making him one of tbMr 
gtit, PwuBiiiaa mentiooa uiat Uiv Atboniana eroded 
aMatoe In hia honour, and the /Cthloptana are aid 
Iw bavo wonhfpped him aa a ddty. Juba wroto a 
Uatoayo' Rome in Gmek, which i» tiftaa iniiitixi anil 
raunended by tho anduuU, «<|H.t-L>Ily liy Pliny. 
Oilr a faw CngoMitB of it reniBio. He aUo wrot« 
«a UM Urtery of Anbia, and tbo antinuitius of A»- 
l^ria^ (dueflr cuUeat«d frani Beroinia. Besides tlicac 
ba oowpoacd aome treatiaea upon tha drama, Boiu&ii 
aittiq;aittsB,the naturt) uf animaLi, eoognpliy, painting, 
gnamor, to., now lost. The Abbu tiorin fumiaheil 
ic clabarata aoooiint uf hia lift- aod writings to thv 
laorlh VoL of thd .ViimoirearlolAcaili'imodealnKrip* 

JUBn^ATE, the third Sonddv after Eaetor. In 
the primiLiv^- church ilivint nt-i-^ite was begun with 
th«wordaofl*K>hiitxv).]~-'JuljtIatcDc(i,<iti]nas tenia' 
tSingto tbe Lord, all ye Lmdit). 

JUBOjHK. one of tho oxtraorHfaaiy fostiTala of 
tbe Jaw^ wfa^ii wae held every fiftii-th ynr. Thin 
Jntiral waa proctaimed by the auucd of tnimi-etn 
Afoai^ tha wDofe oountry, on tho e i «u!ug i,<f tbo day 
■f a^iftwtT"*, about tho a&tumuul o'luiaox. It waa 

diatingniahed by mrwiv CTni u ei l n t rfljMtfc AUdHNS 
ur capUrca wore to be ccleaaod. AU eeMet lrtut& 
had boen aold re^arted to their mriglnal iiraprietois 
or their daeoeiKhuita, and a chvsk waa tfatia put to 
tho arcuuivitatlon ol inordinate wealth in the Itanila 
of a fow. It proTe&tod the growth nl a tcrnt4irial 
olignruLty, and fumiabod An t^lportanity for tha re- 
aUMaUun of (amillM who Iind, tniough fault or nda- 
fortune, been rednoed to porerty. Houaea In walled 
towDjy however, were oxamptea from this proviaion. 
llui aMortioD of Joaapbua that d^ta were mntU«il 
In tbb y«iur bas no coufinnalion fnni tbe Old Tuata- 
mont, or from any Jewiah anthority. On tbo cob- 
tnuy MaimoiMdea nayn that the reiniaikiti of debta 
waa a poJni) ol diatincLiuu between tbo aabbatical 
y«ar and the jubllae. Durinj^' this ^eai the grauod 
waa not eultiTated, Tbo poUbol object of it waa bo 
prercat great oppnaaian of the poor, aa well &a tiieir 
liability to fwrpptuftl slavery. The diatinctdoo of 
tribcH^ ton. wna tbtw pnaHHTved, In roapoct both to 
their faniiliea and tboir poaae wl ona; tor tbe law rao- 
dered h neoMMoy for uwm to ksep gaiMalogiM of 
tbcir fiuniUea, in order that ^ey nugnt be enabled 
U) ].<n\>} their right to the inheritance of thdr ancoa- 
Uin. The jubilee, too, probably aanlated in tbe com* 
pkilaUun of time, like tho Greek Olympindfl, tbo 
iloinan liixtrn, and tbo t'liriatbui cantiirtcs. It iiaa 
been duubted whether tbe laur ot Jubilee ev«r i-auM 
Into actual opemtioD, and in labor Jewiah bietury no 
evidence of ita obacrvanoe is found. 

In imitatiunof tbe Jerwiahjubiiee (or aaaome later 
wiiten have endeavooced to prove, of the aeoular 
gamoa of the Bomnna), the Bomon CathoUo Churdi 
biatit&ted a year of jnbi!««, during which tho popea 
grant ^leaary indulK<^t-Ya to aU wliu, bnvia^ cuu- 
frnavil ivnd partaLtn "i tho lioril'* mippw, Hhall visit 
certiuii uburcUtA. Th<.< fir*t pruJiLmAliutt fur n jubUco 
was iasmxl In 1299, b^ Banifaoe VIII. The |.n>tlt 
wbirb the liomtdi ^lair drew from it, and tbi^ •n'aii 
that mure Chriatiatui mufht bave lui oppcirtiinLty of 
|ianakiii){ In It. iuduoud Cluuiunt VI. hx 13u<> k> 
declare evory Bitioth year, then Urban VL in laaa 
evmy thirty-third year, in r<Tr.renon to the niunbi-r 
at tiio yeaia of the Ufe of uur Saviour, and Paul LI. 
in K70 ev^ry twen^-ftfth vear a year of jubilw. 
The quantity of money wldea tbe jubilee bruucht to 
Roma Induced Paul to deaignate Bortaln ahoicfeca in 
the dlAeieut oouutri«a of duiatcodoo], vritere votMba 
who contd not oome to Some might obtain the advaa- 
tu;:ea of Oxo jubilee baton eondubo that tbe lai^ott 

Cof the pnfita of theae prorlnolal jubileea ebould 
into tlie trcaaurr of the holy aee. Tba money 
colloctod by meona of these general indulgvnoee waa 
BomotimGa apcint in wnrs i%'7dnjt the Tmhi, and aome- 
Umos used lu advnncu Lbc building of tbe church of 
St. I'etvr'n, which, ervr sld-co tho nixtotnth ccnCiiry, 
bod bwu the ntuidiuu {irvtvxt under 'xLicL Ihcy wuro 
lasuad. Tlu Reformation, to which tho sale of In- 
dalgmoOB gave the first inmoUe, scnaibly dimioiahed 
theea prufita, and the iabilec which Benedict XIV. 
proclaimed lii 17^0 hiul but little ioccms, aa alau that 
of 1825, prcKdaimod by Leo XI}., and that of 1S50 
by Plus IX Ko jubiliM waa held b 180O, esring to 
the vacancy of tliti boly mm uid Ibu tniuUee of the 
times. Eveiy quarter of a c«ntiiry, on CbrictniBa 
Evv, tbe papo opraa with fmrnp tbu iirunt dixir of 
St. Pctor'1% which, exotipt on that uccoalon, In kept 
rigidly cloeed. An cxlraotxliuary jubiloe ia codeied 
by tha pope on hia ftccmuon, or when a critical jtme- 
lure in tb« fortuiiiiii uC tht' church tun;^m« apecInUy to 
call for the oliurin^'^ and prayers of tho fatthfnl 

JTJD.'EA. Set PALianHm 

JUUAH. the Lrib« and kingdcm See Jrm. 

JUDASv miniamtJ Ifariot, an epHbot which baa 
Tooeired many inturprvtationa inure or Uw coujoc- 



tutaL ftdil Mmatlam eaileii 'aon of Simon,' ona of 
the t<««lve DpmrtlM of JoMnii, whom hm botmyficl into 
the liiMiiIs uf tli« JawUb pn<^ arulvr tlie MinbUnm 
of ft frimidjy aaliitAtion. Hia tti\'liu MwMr addrenod 
tohiia thsinildrcprMf — Doittltonbotnjr UieSonoC 
mMi wilb a IdMl HcinMvc fnr bw criniD k-d hun ta 
nildiJiL Tbs Cktn<tM, Crrintbiaiu, ami wjiuei o(li«r 
Iwntiai bald Lim in ureat vttoantJQa. AUolutely 
aMhin;; u known nf hu lifu inwioiiii b> Uio Api>ear- 
aiKW uf hill uitmB in Iha Uata of Uie ajicBLlca. 

Ji;t)&«, brother of Jiunea, according w I.ak« one 
«l tfau twclTo i]iid|>l«a. Mattbcw and Murk call 
hliu Thidttttut tHttiaoifd l^libiTiit. liy iiMtijt ti6 is 
coondved tho auUior of tho nuatlo wiiiub nat tmiu- 
latun call Um VfMm of Ht Jndc^ tlmtigh tIio ii4un« 
In eb« Gnsk b Uio auue In. butb l"'W""i Bctt 
IiriiK (D-iH-rrK orX 

JUIlAS .MAi:CAM.«UH. the third tan of Mat- 
faithh«, a iirieat of th» coiii«e uf Joarib, and f«nii(lrr 
ol th* MaccabtenD dynasly, rawovdud liia fntber 
<«.& 14)4} ai ths Icadw of the Jew* in thu wv uf 
tndapendcnee agahut the Svriatui under Antidchiid 
KpiphmtML llioanlMaricaofUieSyriAukin^haTinf; 
MMluind Uu Jam to offar iilokiroua aaciiSca*, their 
ATertnrca wann}act«d by MtOtathiu, vho fled irltb 
faia M)[ia to tbe inouDtaluB, and waa fulluwed by uumer- 
oiia InuKla of fuf(icii(«. lie d«atroy«<! tlm iili>UtT»iu 
alton, and nNt««d ibe ahaorvaiiee <>f tho law. Uybi); 
Hon altar hla son Judaa wnuiwd tha conmiabd, Mu 
by hia skill aud intivpiditj h« gradually led on hi« 
ooimtrymcD froin nig^t attaoka aud Kudom mrpriiKia 
to mora open and iiniKirUut operatlona; aiul at len|:th 
dafaatod ApoUEVUtu and Saron, wlio h«>d mardncTto 
the attack with matly ■operiAr fonea, at Bcth- 
faoron, tha aoene of ane of the nioat gluriooa v{ckiri<^« 
in Jewiah noitala, Lynui, the liawt«tiaiit n( Antin- 
clraa, boadod an anxKlitiau uaintt the patriuta, but 
■ludaa enonuBt^red aim, and defeated him wilb ^gual 
loaa. Judaa now uccupiod JcnuaLetn, purified the 
t«nii>U tl'in'o ynan ofurr its pmfanatlon, and rein- 
atijiuratcd thu boly nc-rvtw. Detpile hfa euccaaaaa 
the poaltlcn at Jodas n-u anything bat aecnre, and 
In 1A3 B.O. IjvaiM tnok llcUuiiirA, lUid laid aicge ta 
Jetuaalmn. Ma had ^uitrsjilctid tu the Jewa the 
Ubartjr of thair nligion; biit lit vram pnt te death by 
DamaUiua^ a d«w clainiant uf Um crown, who Mut 
Kkanor agaiut Jndax. The Jewish leader dcreAt«<l 
Um fint In a battUn at l'i4alianudama. and theu with 
total ruin at AdaM, which ptaclacalljr dediUd the 
nuaitinn of Jawiah IndepandMice. ^^^tling the diflK* 
eolty (if onnUnuiiiK the oontcat Mfalnat th* whola 
power i>f the 8yiian Empfa^ ha aoticitcd an alUooca 
with the Ilocaa4Di. But a Bjrian army a^ain inraded 
Palawbia, betora aid eouhl rearb him from hi* new 
•lliH. To 23:000 Syrian trmpa, lod hv BocchJde*. 
jDdiM eonld onioaa only aWD. Thoa^ thaaa had 
grBiliially dimiMiibftd ta 600 ha reaalvad to attack' 
thu tavadon^ and after a <kaper«te atnimie !■* f"!! 
flghtlug with uiulew valour, b.c. Itll. llla brutfaen 
ne^)*«rail hla body, and Iraried hiai in the Mpulchni 
of hi« fathera at Modin. 

JU^ILVSTKKEi6'rrrw^%li'fwij(run\ natural order 
tiagitauiit— , ia a natiTo of tho Jjoraat, Knain, Hjiulh 
af Fnaoa^ Italy, Ac It (tmw«lutlM)bet][tttv(abnut 
lOhvL TbaliatkbdariL brown, tha laavaa an pala 
«MB on the upjwr mtlMam, and (tayiah oo tha andBr 
Sdft. The Bfjwvia aia paniUMiaceow, ol » Mght 
tlfid. 'Ilia Ibio-iir* are auo- 
iwdn, niouininii earh ova row of 
lliia tiaa U cultiratod in ahrabbartia and 
plMMira fanUci& C. Viumttttuit, or T*d-bad, ia a 
■mall araaaiaBtat tree gr u iri M ia Canada and the 
Uttllad ritalaa. It ia raaiarkalib) lor tbo bqauty at 
lla iwa^oloinad flowan^ wbleb ■|<|>ar la prufuatun 
before tha laaTea. 

p«n4a^ and vavv boautlf 
eeeood by bnc ut ; 

JTTDE, EPiffTi.B or. one of tho so-cidlcd JLidiUytf 
nnui (doubtful writing*). Itn oanonifitf waa tyiuA- 
tioncd by the jiriiuitivr church, tbotich tta ganaiaa- 
neaa wu mil doulitcd acnonf; tbottc by whmn it waa 
knoa^ The ^Vsiatic charehes did not make ine nf 
it till the fourth cantnry, nor waa it known in tho 
WtwL till tiiuarda the doae of tbe •«>ronil. ICa un- 
impcirtancc forbida thu aupixMiitJan vf ita U-in^ n 
foivi^ry, a.nA it wax at Inngth allowML 10 t&kc Its pUoe 
witiLdispLileaaa purtiun of thea-icmdcanoit. Clrmant 
of AleKaudria, Origen, KUMbitii, and J«ronia laoos- 
nixed ita aportolic urigia, but prejudice waa early 
miaad afaJnot it by ibi Ba|ip«Ad (jUDtatJnn of apocry- 
[ihul Ixjuka. I>i)uMa aa (u ita caaoaical anthnrity 
wnru mvivod at tho lUfonnatlon, and tlieae have 
been riurcd in by tatAan commentatom 71m idan* 
tity of Ita cAQtenta with 2 Fot ii. helped to aweU th« 
prcJD'lice against it* gonoineneafc 

JUI>UE,one inveateil with uuthurily, by lottcn 
patent, to detanninaoansMoritirctinnR in tlw higher 
euurta of Bomnon lav. Am an epithet tha word ia 
not n|>pUed in Great Britain, u It la In Anwrica. to 
lIhi l%boat claaa of jnd^^; bat Ur. Justitt^ lord 
chief-jnslioar cUvf baim>, or lord ohancallor, accord- 
ing to the court In whteh they preaida. In Scotland 
Ilia M-natora or jud^pa «■( tfae CoUen of JnttlCC are 
iiidividnally caltwl lonl, prafixod aitbar t" tliuir mir* 
Dorue or tu Kome other title aaBiuned bv tlieiu, (gener- 
ally territorial. By 12 and 13 Wm.'lll. csp. ii. it 
traa CDAOtod that the judgM of Uio cnperioo' coarta 
■lioulil bold their nftioea during good bebarionr, and 
ttiAt tliciy might not ba lawfuUy removed, except oo 
tho aililrms of both HouHa of Pariioment; awl by 
Kion. III. en[i.x3EiiLtheJndgeaareeoatliiuedfaithav 
a|i)HiiiiLuiPtit« D'jtwiihatwiding any dandae of U>e 
thrown, Thdr fiill aatarioa are abaolntdjr aacnred to 
thcni Uuriui; tlie oontinuanoa of thc^ oonuniadona. 
It ia a highly peuftl oSaaea la aoaolt ta tluaatan a 
judge, llie jitd^ at ooniBKm law dcddea pointa of 
law, auil anaUca the jury rightly to decide queatiuun 
of fact, vhilo in equity ho daoidea both claaaoe of 
i]iiaatiaai. Tho common law jndgea are bound to at- 
tend and adriae the Honaa of Ltmb whenever oallad 
uD. A juilge cannot bo proaecutad for Ibe eoaat 
queuoea of hu decbinoa, excwpt in the caao where ha 
utay have aot«d without juriadiotiou, nor can ha oQ- 
ciMe in a caae whan ha hai a panonaJ intonat. The 
(.'ciHTt of J nalicinwf, the aapreoia criminal juriatUctiiin 
in tiaaClaBd, oonaMa uf the Wd juatfea-genand, the 
lord jiHtioa*derl^ and fiva of the JMOW 5l tha Conri 
of Setakn, tannad oomnlaatoDen af Jiiitleiaiy. Tha 
BUpretna dvit court oonaUa of the Lord Prvddent of 
tho Court of Soaaion and twelve ordhwry jodgea, uf 
wbinti the lonl ju*tive-clerk ii one. The tvciB is 
ap|)Ued In Scotland to all j udgea, tiupecior and Inferior, 
wlioaa iuriadtction ia fixed and detannlnatc. U> dlttln- 
gaiihttwptroaneommiaaioaeti^whoao judicial mitbo* 
rity i« only oocaatonal and tcoqianuy. With tlm 
exoaption of borgb magbtratgi and juitiow of tha 
paaoe judgaa laoelTa Mated utd regnlar adwioa. 

ajiputulcd by lettert patent under the giaat aeal lo 
prndilo at tiie procwUnp of oonHa-martlaL undwr 
the Mutiny Act and Aitklai at Vfwt, «ul alau to 
adviae tb» oommaadar-fai-cldaf and aecretary rd atate 
f>w war in l<^ mattara. The proceeiliui^a -if all 
cinirU- martial at boma and abmad aia trtutKniitiol 
to tb" judge advooata-geseral by the offidating jodga 
advocate, and are Uid bofon the arown, with a atala^ 
meat of any c^rcnraManoca which may affert tha 
legally 1-4 the docinan. The ilutica uf the offlcfatlnc 
judga advocata in a oourt'iaartial in tha navy an 
nearly the aaina aa ibcae of tha pMridfng Jodga Ln a 
milituy ooort-aiartiaL Tho jadga adroeata-gMkenl, 
who auat bo a ni«nbM' of tbo Uouao of Cntunooa 


Wnvn ef Yinw dniwDds on 1h« eantinuiinc- ia potror 
nf thic nuliiickl liiuly h« Inlongs to, be i> [imvidcil 
with « i)«puty u'1jiMeolII('« Is |)(<miaiiviit. AikI am*a 
failiuutto Kuuaiutttaco wjtb tlio fivannl taw of ibo 
laad, M w«ll M with ttin principles oiid detailii of 
RuUtM'7 Idw, an menUal tu Uic iirapcr ilitioliiirKi; of 
the dutMa nf tha judge ai)<i[M.tU'-)^n<riul, lii« ■1r|ii)ty 
IfalwsjvabiuTuter of oninencc. 'l\it:<lf},utgjiuiif<- 
adtneale, who acIa m pnhlic itnauoiitor in < ^erv coiirt- 
BkrtMl, rolfUa for » particular cotirl tL'U fuiiclioua 
which (li« jaiJae advocaii^-gennrAl duct* fiir thn tvhnin 
Winy. H« Kiuuinhten tbo untlu to lliu uicuilxm uf 
«(nirt and to the wttUMW^ minniMi tbe prAcuacUn^ 
adi iara the iiiiirt on poiota of Inw, cii»toni, ran\ furm, 
ftikl avulji the pruonor by elidlttig a full ■tntoment 
at tb> jb ct* iDAtMiii] to tii« ilvfenw. 
JuyCi 1^ in Hobrow histoiy. Soo <rE\<n^ 
JTTUGK8, BfloK nF, & cuirmicftl hr^^k of the OM 
TmUumuiI, »o callwi be<.-aiue tlim tfreAtfr part of tliu 
namtltr* im ixjciipiml with the bi»tKry nf ibie juiigtv 
*Ao WBP9 nwed up lo deliver their cutrntrymcti from 
the OppfOBioiis of Ctii^ir R<:l}:;hlH>iir«. 'I'liu t>ii>I< nf 
JBnth fonnoil ( a piti I of ihe lii<uk ii( Jdduvi, 
wUeb Ub nittiiratly into two pditioiis — tbo lintt, 
cbop. L-xvf. incliiiivc, bcin^r lUmi'Ht entirely a 1ii*ti)rv 
of the wm of JtHvcmiM^. Llie varly purtiun uf wbict 
foniH » coutiniiation of Jm(i. xU.; and tlia ««ci>iiil, 
cbap. xvii.-xxi., wliioh has do fonnal connuition with 
tL« pKCvdin^, and ha» been wmetimM called an 
apfraidix. The ^envral Mope of th« work I» ateted 
in dmp. iL lC-19; but an the p«npte wnm not wrMT* 
«tera under pndMily lb« aaoie uirvuuutanoe*., tfiv 
ilBtaila of thntr ntUrctivo biilory &a«im« rsryiitfc 
■aptcte Wo hare, therefore, onlv i» fni^aacnlAry 
Idalory of the tintta, und an nii^ht Iw c-xpui-U-d tiicra 
it oocBUaiaUhr Knn« qbwiirity finni want of full iufur- 
lUliDci. WliDflTtT Gompmwd or ndactcd tho bcv-ik 
niBft bam h«d arnilftble niaterinlii at hand in a <1f- 
findt* ihafir, aa Lbs Kuig i-f UotHimtj (cIj. v.k, anil 
JaUiaiii*»ii«ral>lB<ctu[i. ix. 7-SO); Imt to vhitt vnf-'Ut 
the reat ul hi» materiolit wurv ulrva^ly writti:n in un- 
ocrtalD. It was probably not orlgiiuJly an in.k|n-ii- 
deat txiok. lui.l tlir mqiuinitiHit) uf Cu«tr1 that tlw 
hooka fmin Jiul^i to 'J. Kin)^ frrrci nnnuiirk u now 
CvfKnilly acL'vpt^d. Thid uwuuau (or Uw cxcliuion 
from the l>ook, in its MparM« BtU«, of th« hlstAriM 
i>f iili ODil tWnnel, from lh«tr intimate cnitncclinii 
with Um riw of tho niiuiArcliy. Mndi diacuttdiin linn 
bc«n htid m to the dnt* u'b«n the book waiuucd ita 
pTBRitt thape, but th« t«ktlcni«nt of the qncstioii ia 
«1 Etlie pfActical valui.'. The rlininoloffv luu lioii, 
and fwobably nill alwav* ctmlinue to be, u voKod 
fOntion, M ndec(U»t« materials for iU ntUnouit do 
Dot «itf<^ ftt leant in a form that will sernro an agrve- 
mcni in the Jnterpri-'taliuii tif ciimmcntatow. For 
Ibringh tbo iNmk uttun whnt apjivfut to Iw a vi^nwi^u- 
liiwivnwafuitnibc'cv, doubt* ha Evbcvnnuaod whether 
tbn Bumben an: properly couMRitivc, and thcro tttun 
to bo UnportanC gaps at th« bvftinnlng and mil. The 
additifliuu data that Han bctit cadod in to aid tbn 
lulnlion of the diffivulty inoeeut tbomaclvc* nulijcct 
offurllm-dlfputatkiD. The book la admbubly atniple 
and ortgTOAL 

,IiriKi.Ml-:NT. in Engltxh Caw, U appHnl to tho 
jwlinol (ii^lcriij illation auJ ilMiiviuTi ft n ouvirt lu ttn 
octiiiti, and is ei^er intcrlooutory or flni^, In llio 
firmer caw.- it dm'« not nniiily dctcnniTiK nr p(.iiijj|i-t« 
tiw adittn; in tlia Utter it doea, by sii nn-aid of 
mlm* to ono patty, or di«c'h(Uir0 of tlii> olb>>r. The 
•ewral iipecie* at JuiI^ddu that most wtuntlv ocnur 
fai pnoticw arc □unuitoiii, nnd of tbe^e tha juilt.i^'^'it 
in trimiiMl Owoa, uiilv« mntter In: vIlL-rvd in iirri-at, 
fbflowa upon cunviction, u !t h tho pmnonnrini; of 
tW mtniihrncnt which ia exprcjwly cir<l4Liaed by liiw. 

In the «niru of «qnity a jadgmont b gmwHy tonnod 
(k docave or order, and in trrfminal and admiralty 
omirta a wntonoeL 11 the iud;-ii]i!iil be nut UjjKudvd 
against within a oertain fixoil tiniti it cannul bs r»- 
v■v^vud, Olid bcoomoa tnnduia ud both parties. In 
an action for debt, whoro the debtor r«f naca jMyraoBt. 
to make tha jiidtpnent effootual the crwlilur muab 
have remiinu) ti) x further pmceai callrti i.'xcmitioa. 
In Seollond tho jodgmonCaof the different courta. 
Gxtwpt where It la ntbecwlatt pntrlded by atatutcv ara 
niihjoct to thoreviMon of a BUperior judicature, 'lltii. 
hotrevor, (torn not npiity to Lbo jud^^iinle pronuunccd 
by the Court of Junticlary. Thu Court uf S««Kioa 
may review the jud^cnu of tho iafoHor oaurta, and 
it* (■wn iiidguiKiita are aiibjcct to tho roviow of the 
llouaa of LordiL lu HL-utliuid thn term judgment ia 
MfldomuaedjCfKinMbelnijiMiiulIyxuiploy^ toespreca 
tho dociaiea uf a court, and a iIc^toq in abaeace ia 
M|Uiva1«nt to judgmc'Dt by default. 

JUDICA, the tifth Suudiiy after Lent; lo coUad 
bocauoo the priniitivo oliur<;h hugnn tlio »orinc(i on 
Uiat day witli tbc words JuJica mf, J/amine ^Pa, 
jtUii. 1|. 

JLIiHCIAL SEPARATION i» applied in Eng- 
lish Ian- to that proceeding in tho Divorce Court 
wbieb hiw tnkrn tho ploco of a divorce a inentA et 
thura, (ti«- lIlTOitcT-) 'JliiBkubatitutiun wax etloclod 
by a II, 7 of tho L>i<ruroe Act, 20 and ^I Vict cop. 
Uxxv. A judidal svporaUon tfusy bo obtained, either 
by the huiband or tho wife, on the ground of adul- 
tery, crudiy, or dHtntion without cause for two 
roam and upward*. Marrind paimona tnov li>'e apart 
if they t'hooao, anil uiny draw uji a dooJ of Hpiits- 
tion to that effect, whiuli la eiinlty la to aome extent 
rceognitod na valiil; but tho law nUU regrords Ihom 
iM tnorricd pcnona, and thuy con only sua and be 
auoi) an (Ui-li. A judii-iiil iii'paratii>ri, buwvver, liiw a 
very different effect. With rcopoct tn property the 
wife ia plocod by it in the pmitioti iif aj'<ae tnU 
fi-um the dote uf tha a«ntuii(-(!,dnriui(thc eontinviance 
of aeparation, oni! if ahf dio Intuatato her pro- 
puTty ia dealt with a* if her huaband wore dewL She 
id olMt conaidered as a ffme tde (or tba purpaae« of 
ei.iutrftct«, wrvMiva, and iujurics, ami aiiii%- Hud beiu^' 
■ued in nny civil prociwdiiig. (hi tho otl'or hiuid hor 
himbond la in uo way liallo for her contrneta or 
torts: but if he hiM bc'on ordured by tho court to pay 
lier oliiniinv, \w will I* liablr-fornecvuKiriea »t)|<plieil 
Ut her if be luve foiled to pay her nlimnny. Of 
oon»*. aiiice tbv [mriii'* nre nut dlvoroed, neither of 
ihcm can marry ajnin durin): the life of the other. 
'I'hef'onjugol Itii^dita Ai-t. t\ and 'ITi Vict.cop. Ixixri., 
hoB douo mueli to aaaiiiiilatv the Scotch and Eu({li»h 
law iit tti«aa ncpaota; (or when the wife La Scotland 
hna obtained a cIoctm' of acpiention «i ro^nid <t thnro, 
all the paviperty which hIh; infcy ncnuiro iir inherit ia 
at bcr own bIihoIuIp di^jxjRaL a* uiueh aa If her bua- 
band were dead. She can also ontor into cnutroota, 
and ine and ho aueil in her own name: but biY hna- 
band ia freed trum all reapunaibility oa tu Itfr debt* 
and nec«8eviea,ae lenzaa oa paya the aliment oecured 
tu tier by tho decree a nporaCian. 

JUDITH, widow of ^lanoaaaK, a Jcwiah heroine 
of great beauty, Tirlui^. counu;i-, luiil piuty, whuee 
hiilory ia giiren in tlin tio<>k whidi Ih-juk hfirname; 
the author and uuv uf M-luch lire unknown. The Cn> 
tholio Church admits it into Itti <.-aiio]). but It hoa 
liecn Rencrally eNiiaidm-i! afBNTjpliiil by I'luUitnnta. 
Judith, it ia well known, i» topr*«cnt«d oi going out 
Uf the tout of Uol^feruea, on Aaayrion CLUeroI who 
and taking itiilva]:ita;<i? of the oatmiiuinn tn bin tiMit, 
thua nifurrlud bttr, Incut ull Lia lit-ad with hi* oiwu 
■word while ho ilupt. Some writcn bnvo giv>im an 
olle^-urical interpcvtatiuu ti> thla lii«t^<rv. Juroinu 




wiitTill Co hw «xpl(iit Ibo ims^ of tho Tictwjr >^ tliu 
clmranTerths power at f.\i\. 

JUGOKENAUTH (/«;rtin«rfnt/io, 'lord of At 
\rorU1,' nno of thr nxnmnf VUtinu), cnllod hythcnk- 
tlvea Purl, a towg wid oeUUnUcd bimiitv of Hindu- 
bUii, in tho pnaldsmcj of Bengal, pcDvinc* of Oiini, on 
tlto Bar of Bcneal. 48 ruIm loubh of Kattack. 'Ilio 
toirn (IcrivBt nil iU tuiiiortaiice from the tcmjilc. 
TUi, tli« most nlubrated nbrine In Hindustan, wtw 
COt]ipIi>tml in tlio tirclftli century, nt an ODonnDiu 
CXp«nne. Tbi: mnin *trivt,nt th<^ vxtri^mttT <>( whioii 
the t«uipla itMuli, coiuisU entiraly ul rali^inui atnic- 
tur» built of tttjna, witlt plaatattoDx at trww intvr- 
opened, and hM nc imponngaBd picturMuue appear- 
aacs; but It j> bltlty in tha extran^ aad swannlns 
villi iwliglou* nLuuiUcanta. TbagankaiberaprcKlacc 
tho finoat fntlt In Uift jmnliiM. Frnm bha uunbiitj- 
gf lia cUmaCe Jujocertuutli baa bc«ti called by Eioo- 
paua tha 'MontjieUier of the East' The tAtn^le 
■laaih near tltc than, in a vrutc, aandy tracit, anil 
^pean like a iibapcl« man nf kIoilh. Thu idol is 
a carrvd block of wood, with a 1iI<1m>ii« faoe. polntad 
black, and a diatondod blood-rod mouib, ami ia wag- 
Bt&xntlj draacd. On foatival days tlic throne of 
ths InaM ia placed ciu a tower 60 f««t lii|;b, movlag 
on wbms. &x long ropw are attached to tb« unrmt, 
hj irhich the peoplo dratr It alnng. The pri«sti tad 
tuolr altmilauU lUnil rcnitul tbc thmne, and it itneil 
fonn«>rly to be th«i cul^.rln for entbiuiMtic dwoU'i^ 
to caM tlMnHvlvTa hvadiong in frout of thii «ar to bv 
artuibed ha death amid the ahotita of the anltttade, 
butAf lata vean thia barbarous jtrattlce bim becu 
fhcckcil, ana mich •nlf-immnlatiuii* uv noir raro. 
Every year, partii'ulorlv at t«-v ureal fntlvaLt, in 
Mafch and July, the pUsrisu flock in crowds to the 
templf. Many old |irnan(i tmdcrUko tho pilgnmagie 
that Ihej may die Mt IIki bolvgmnnd. Ttic ixintrit>ii> 
tiona of tlie ^iliitiiuit, ^rlilch iuu>>uutv<l to a Li.<nBid«r< 
•U« nrcaoo (abont j;i^.oi:tUx>arftiu)inii},aton<; tUn!) 
toil to the gavL-mincnt, after dednotiog the eipcnae* 
at the temple. The Eii;;ludi took pomnndon tif tlie 
pToHnoe to 1803, and forboro to exact tb* oontrlbu- 
tim of tho irilgrbna dnrin; the Marqnia of Wellca- 
loj'a adminktattan; but an hia tlepartim fmm 
Ibdia tha Bengal govonaent pawed an onltaauci* 
far tha ntan^Bnumt ol Ifaa pagnda and the taxtn{{ of 
the pllirrime^ TUa atato of luatteea vontinurd tU 
1&39, wfacs, nsdar the adrntnUtrndoB of ly>rd Avick- 
ImiiI, the tax loi |til^ii» n u ahnlUimt, otid a yc-kriy 
■iiEu ajipitiuto) tci Iw pAid by ^urFmiiieut to the cuih 
todiur* ol til" templa for ita maiDtonanoe^ Mora re- 
OBDtly tho Indian gwenininit baa withdrawn itnU 
fnm all oonnactioa with tfao wunhip of Jnggsmaath, 
1>J OMDWuting th* yeariy grant for a direct ocanpoi- 
sotton in noaey aao Ivwa. Popi. HMS. 

JUGGLERS, nnarfao pofona, in pubUc, tricka 
of legcHotnain. In the middle afea the name ot 
JMiylaara waa givaa to th« iavttwnant-playan wbo 
•eean^nniod m livnfandanm Afterwardi ibeto 
perfaiaen emplojad thanaelvaa In tricka and gamoiw 
whldi, if Dueaage'e derivation of ^nycur tKxnjorm- 
iarit «r jottdatar la oomd, nni«t have \»in th*4T 
original oooupatton. Tkay aeoompaulml with drama- 
tic nclioo tile ion« wUch they helped to rias; the; 
WW* bnffoona, and nniled In bands, whieh bad many 
privikaea. They farmed in Pam a aocicty, tha mctn* 
im* oTwhieli iirf3i tosethar In lb* Bue daa Jonjf- 
^mam, aftnrwinta at Jnllan dn lAiaMan. Tb<M 
vhcon we now call juo^trt, man ol wondorfnl activi^ 
oad skUfal oquiUbrisia, w«re tiMa ■fe«t~ff"tA*«* hj 
tlw nnaH of hAUttwn or Antolarca, Jngsiing tiieki 
■Dam to hnn bMO jnellad ia thn East ten tlw 
aariiaat tlma^ Kalasd to an art t? thA HtndiMv 
11mm trfeka becatna a polaadnn, which b atHI «xav 
«iaad in Ita Ugb«4 p«rfic«iM in Cluna, on lb* coMto 

uf Confmando], and in both |>eniQaBlaa on this dtio 
and beyond the LiangcK In aadent timon thera w«ni 
wcmdcrful exhibitions of this kind. ^^waIlowiIl£ the 
aworrl, and catobinir aevcral knivL-a lliiuw-n i|uicily 
Into the air, vittn> oflvii p^fomicil bL-iocv th« ancirnta. 
The general appellation luiinni; the Ituiniuu of tUwe 
oonjanmi or ^raniler-warkcTa waa fnettigiaiarta. 
Tbiua who threw tli« knivea won called MMibldMI. 
and tboee who throw bells atid rings in a perpetnaj 
circle arc mentioned by Quiutiliau under the omul* 
of fntarii. Ibe two arte, which ar«> still nnitad in 
India, tluit of divinatiuu and of cxbibiUi4t« of btidily 
addrau and agility, vroro bnth practiwd by tbuae 
aadent artifta, hence cbey nttractod the att«ntlon o( 
the early Christian fathen, whoec acotninta of Umbi 
are still read with intorest. Ueny penal lawa wea« 
enacted by tlio Sootoh Parlinroents af^ninst jugglen, 
wbo were uoluded smcoi^ (sgabonda and >:gyptiatM 
and oth4>r ilcacriptinna of idle and diaorderiy peiwons. 
.rUiiUHTlIA, tlM aon of ManMMbal, a aon of 
Marin I"* L by a coiicuhine. MicJiwa, his fatba^a 
tvothor. and kin i; of Kiiniiilta silir Mncininua (•.€. 
]49>, adnptod him, and bron^ht him ii|i witli his own 
Kon*^ Adno-bal and Hiein)wai. He waa of a fine 
pemon, andowiml l^ nutura witli aupcrinr talenbi, and 
M Mrly fonccd himself for a soldif^r. Midpaa, wlto 
bapa to fear him. «ont him with an army to asaiat 
the Romans i^ainst Niunaatia ; but oa he won the 
friendship ol Scipio, Mlcinaa aoiigiit to mnciliato htm 
by favoun. He adoptad abi^ aad dochired kini joint 
hdr to the crown with Ua two aona, whom, on \ia 
death -bed, he mmmended to his earn. JtijUrttia, w1>h 
Ii»d rasnlvwd to bncMnc mle tat*tarat Niimidin, >omi 
afler tho death of IklicipKa cati»Ml Hiemtaal to be 
murdered, and drove Adhorbol from the country. 
Baaring that Adherbol had, gone t<i Komc, he also 
siCTit anihaiMwiiiTS tlierc, to cotiiiLctact by bribca tbe 
vfFovt of hEo rv|irvs<ntoti<»>s. Thi.* gioater port of tbe 
Bcnato dodatvd In hia favi,\ir, and ton oenunisMioBai 
wero naniod to ditiilu Nuniidia lictwc«n AiUicrfaol 
and Jugurtlia, wtto alliitled to Juifurtlia the richHt 
provlnoea. To draw Adherbal lain a war he made 
on attack npon hia territory, and ol liifcd him to take 
up arms In Mlf>deFenc«. Adherbal waa defeated, 
aiLd lii« anuy deatnyad. He fled to Uio atrong (art- 
mu nf <'irta, whore h« was inunadiatoly bMls|{wl. 
He found an opportnafty, boworer, to make known 
hin luibi^y situation at Roum; bnt Jugurtha'* 
fricntls pravtoitad anything being dtmo cxnipt Ibc 
aenilin^ of eomnujaaoiMni, wlwao miwion wna of no 
avail In the meanwbOe tbo afcgc of C^rta wa« 
pressed with rigour. Adbat«l WM forced to «nr- 
roader, and Jngmtha causnl him and all hia fol- 
towcn to W pni lo dcatL TliU atrocity waa fuUowvd 
by a deelamtion rf war on tho part of Itoma^ and 
Um dief oommand waa giroa to tbe CosHal Lwiaa 
Oalnimina Reatia, who at finct eairied on Iba wv 
wilfa seal, and c'iiLijuL-n>d wi i-ral dtiw; but he ooon 
aflar oalarvd into a nei^otbntinn with Jogtmba, and 
aa he bad not licnn Hparing of hia money, gnuitod him 
voy faviiumblu civiiditiona. Ikluch diacualeut waa 
■bown at Riuue, aiid Juniriha waa ab!i|;;«d to ataad 
bafors iho tribunal of tdio Ronaa poopto; but the 
aaaeraUy dl^ionod without deciding anytUu- Ju- 
inmh* nanr eaoaed tbn amaaalnaHon of Uaarira. 
an illogitbnabe eon of GnltMa, brother of Mioipin. 
to wbon tbe Becnnn peajde wviv indlncd to airard 
tbe down of Numidli^ tart u a s-tfe-condnet had 
been promiaad him ha merely rctrirvd nnl«ri to 
<pi)l tb» dtr immFdiatdy. War waa andn dadaivil 
agaJiut him. und curried on by the Conaiu Poathumlna 
Albinoa; bw on tbe d^artnre of tbe oonanl to bold 
tbe comitia at Bomo he defeated hia bmlhcr, Auliia 
PMlbnniui^ and made hia army pass nnder the ynkei 
TiMMoatoMatMetenuswNuiiudla. U*oDoc|ttn«t 




JojEwtiiB in ft great luttle, tmd romftined £nii ngfttnat 
all ni* biritn*. Xat'vm hnd cniMwl tU* ncnll at &[•• 
toSni^ Bad hii uwn njijioiDtini^ut in hi* iilocu; but 
bofon ba loft Boma Jui;tutba haJ uurowiy wcaped 
Mlin^ into cbo hand* i>f the ItomaiM hy tSut tnukdiuTy 
of uuv ol buiicrvAnU, Bauiiilruir. A^aia beal«n l^ 
H«t«Uiu, ba naolved to aak for tbe awtrtano of tbe 
GtftulUuia, Had uf Boeclma, king of MwultH^ Uo 
«b(aio«l It, and at the tiratl nf a iui«r anny aUeini)t«d 
to nioaiu[uer liim kiuKiluiD. Ill tbc meaiivrlitlH Miriin 
)kadamT«din Arri»ioaup«N«da MuwUutiiuitla/tiM- 
VMioiia viisMtado of futuno he >ut«uodod Ui totally 
wtmttaf tfaa oombliMd annied, aniountiiig ta nearly 
tl^OOO men, tbuu){h Ju^rtlia hiiEuelf fi>u(>ht witli 
aatlMMilinary bravory. Tho King «f Matnitania 
av voBcluiIod a jK-noe with the Bojnaat, aikd aban- 
dofMd his ally, SiiUa, tba amBStor of MariUB, pcr- 
■nailad him to drav .loguitha into his power anil 
deUver lum to the Kuiniuiii. Under prvtviioi! of 
nadlatin^' btitwe«n tho ooiiCt.-U(UDi; partlM Booohua 
•atk«d hm to hi» otrart, vhcni ka was aaiaed and 
detlvand tA Sulla, wbo «.^l him in «haiiti to Uailua 
«t Oirta (a.c. lOtit. Tliuii Uiv wtt vaa ended, and 
Kmuidla UcaBM a Itonian pToTtne*. Mariua aawnwd 
iOt triumph vith hin priaoner Jornrth* tad Ua two 
■oiu (B.C. 104). After he had aufferod maay iiuults 
£man thufiaoplehe waatbroim luto a duugaon, wb«r«> 
h» warn alar««d to duMli. Hb two khh i«nuuiie<l 
csfidv* at V<Kiiiil& SoUtut ha> written an account 
4f thii var in a tnaXwly ityle. 

JUJ I'ltK iJiiii/phut), natural order Rhamn.icoip, n 
tftay and >JM.-iduutu alirab or amaH tree, a oAtitu nf 
Synss wh«Dos it waa Introdaoed into Euro|te. TLe 
CniJt fa falcod-icd or •affna-oolourMi, having a vw^c; 
gniialjtf Jiulp. The tn» 'u ctUtivalcd for i ta fmit ia 
naajr puta of Europ«^ when It ta oalltid the jnjulw. 
Tba a|weioa an ttnaurtnB, and of HV«ral the fruit w 
■Imliaiiniii and pluaant to cat, a« in the «uc of Uie 
Z. witlff*ru and jujuba^ the Z. tEnojiia, auJ ^. JtKi- 
aifw, whmn drape* are need In BraxU a« injubit*. 
Tbe Imit uf tlw uomiuon jnhibo ia dried, and fonnK 
an Mtkla of oomnuroe; and in Italy aiid tS[ialn \a 
^Kd •! tnblo in deiMrts, durjjii; tho wiiiUir ■«a»uu, 
aa a ilij •rwveUncat. It in oqually in nT;into In i'on- 
"Ir— tf~T'-. and baa Iudj; Ixwu iiupurU'd from IVikoy 
■to tbn WMt of Euratw. Tba jnjubo llowon in Au- 
rnC and HepteralMr, and grow* to a h>:iKbt uf 211 
bd. JT. irjiat, wbicii nave iti name to tlm aadaut 
LtHopbagl. » ibntb 3 or 3 fe«c hik'h. i« a native of 
Pmia aail th« nmtb of ^\irica. Its beiriea, which 
SB afatmB aa large m a .iloe, are to Ihia day c^Urted 
far faod t>y tho uf Barbary. TUey an Dude 
hto cakca iwembltiis t.'i&earhrwd, and » Idod of 
■laa ia aooMthne* tnaiLi frnm them. X. Spina VKriMi, 
w Cbru*'* Thorn, is n^iid tn Iiavd fumiabed the 
hnbdiea nf wliidi our HavitMir'a cruwu uf thuins was 
■•da. The iiaiue umov, for a ainiilar roa>oik i> ^wa 
to PaUwus amUiUiu, Mhlch is ranunon in tho hedgM 

JUUA, the only child of Augugtit% wm his 
^HI^hCeT by hi* •Muiid wife^ Sfiribottia, and wm bum 
UlML SbepoMOBsodpleaainenuumeii^extnuirdiaary 
hiaty, and a cnltiTntod Btiad. She was fint lu&rried 
nc S&) to her couMD, the yoittu; Marotilni, tlia anu 
■tfUetovIa by her fir»t htubuid. Ha<iim koou he- 
naa n widow abu married, in ho- oi{;bt«nktb yaw, 
Ujvom VipMUiiua A^].pJH to whom ahu bore tbrM 
^oi aad Iwu lUu^hten. Aitcr the death of Agrippa 
tajc. 13> he g^vo her in nmrriuge to Ttbeciua, aainly 
M iha tBttaaea«tf hi« motlwr Lina, Julia'a itvprnathor, 
Aal abe might ieoura tho hucoouu'^m at hor mm to tho 
tlnocL The naarrii^ta^ huwerur, wan not a bappy 
■^ ^d Tlbcrfil% afwr the death of ibolr infant ion 
■ l^ailih. Mrtlj, ncoording to Suetoniaa, in diig^t 
M the 'fmrttriMTTt— of his wife^ went into volunuo* 

axUs. Meanwhile Au~<i«Cii* had lometrhnl taidQT 
diacavered the ntiaconduct uf bis dau>,-htcc, vriiicb 
\ra« u matter known and talfcoil at by the |iopiil>oe 
of Boai«, and in tho nwjft violent ank'er lie deter- 
niincd at fint to bare her execrtitwl, liut afterwarda 
cocwnled la b.-uii»h her to I'andatoria, a dcaoUto 
iitland tin tlio oosut of I'ampaiiia, wbi.T« bur mother, 
Scribomn, accompAnied her. Her lu-i.-uliuujiiivn baa 
been only too elMrly eatabUahod, but that she «n- 
gagod in a conaj^racy agniaat bur father* lifi: ha« 
not b«ea Kati«fattorily proved. Augnntnn may hnva 
UvUevod It, for hv wuuld never fOTtcTve her, notwlth- 
RtAndJng tho eanteat mpplicadoo at tho pcopln. At 
Iiwt. howcTcr, he wm prerailntd upon to [icinnit her 
to leave the iaiand tor the city nt Rlirrf^'tuiii, on tho 
CuntlniODt. She neitr dared to return to Rome. 
Af tor tho death of the oimMinr ahe au5w«d ftill more;. 
Aa long aa Auenatua bad Itred I'iberioB had alway.i 
pTofeaaed itnim tcudemeu fur her, and had oitvn 
bomfod him to pardon her; but now ho ttaatod her 
wiu the greotort cntelty. Beforo aba oould not 
le&ve the dry of Rh^nm; Tlberlua now oanfoiMl 
bar to her hoiitp. He even took from ber the Uttlu 
MsdoD which AiiL'ustus had allowed bar; and ehe 
died in Uic tiftor.ntb year of her erile^ in pm-orty nail 
diatrvM. Her ma Agrlppo bod been put to deoth 
by TibsriiM nhnrtly b«fore, 

J Ul.IAN, FutTiTft Cu.cnu'8 JcLLurca, a Bemn 
empuniT, whom eodeelwdcftl writen ban aonuned 
tho Apaitalt, aou of JuUua CoDatana {brotber <4 Coo- 
nbuttioe th* (incat), wan bnm at ConatantiBnTile 17tfa 
Noi-eniber, 331, ^Vhen hardly lix yean old hit father 
and BenmJ meabera of bia fomUy were mtirdered by 
the koldiera of bia «nimn tho Emperor CoQxUaifl tl. 
lie and his yoongcr brother (iallim bnvtti^' Tinrrowlv 
eacaped death w««o bronght up in the CbrisU^ui red- 
gion, which woe yet a new one at the court t>f tbo 
dnpcmr. JuliAn hiul f«lt drvply the poraocntion nf 
Ilia ftiiuily, and tlui ciinsLmiiit mid fe«r in which bo 
wita (ibllgMd to plus bin yutith, He tbeinfore eongbt 
cxKMolation in the atudy of philoeophy and bellta- 
Leltrei^ and al the age af tw«ntyfour ho went to 
Atbem^ wiioi* ha waa induced to reject the reliKii:>D 
uf thnac who had maoBcrad hie family and to embnoe 
Pat,-aai)Liu. Countani, wbo feared an attack of tho 
Gennana upon the DTOvln«a of the Bonuin Eatptre, 
waa prevailed on by his wife Euaetna to glre to 
Julian the oonutuuid of lui amiT a^niit thvtn. He 
waapnclalnwdCtGoarntMiltuituSSS, and pe<i>oMded 
with a imAU body of trooiw to Ci&cl, n-liich waa laid 
waato by the (JermiUKi. Aftor bo had uaaaed the 
winter bi pre] kuntiuun for the enaoing War bo ntanbad 
ftfjainat the Civnuanii, toolc aereral dtlea, eoDqaand 
thorn in vuioua BBgagaoeDtM, and in a ^'reat battle 
near ArgentoT«tiun, now Stnuiburg, comidotaly de- 
feated aevea of their prtii««», and eutirvly delivoren] 
Oaul. Uo puriued the Ccnn^uiB boyond the Rhine, 
and coacincred thcu in thmr own country. A» a 

Siovemor al»a be <&playe4 extraon^nanr lalenta. 
le f^vm to Uaul a new conatltntlon. He eettted 
tho linancce, dinunnbcd tho toxaa, and put aa end 
to the abuKO which had orept Into the oonita of 
justice. The jeolouay of tho auapicioua «:3npemr 
conld not fail to bo excdtod by tbo brilliant rareer of 
Ilia young Idnamau in tiauf, wbo waa oocoaed of 
atmlng at Indcpoadeace, Ha oven etimd up oecretly 
tho Gaola ag^iwt him, and recalled bia beet tioopa 
under prdeaoB that ho wanted to employ thcoi 
agminet the Fordana, Thla orto OMued a nbeUJon 
amon^ tho aaldiem. who proohdmed thdr louler 
•lulinit emperor in Mibrfh, 'AM, in >pito of his own 
r««iMtanco. The empenjr now sent iin nrniy againrt 
•fulian, who tnada propnratluu* In hit ditfcnce. Ho 
left tianl, wha» he had pnaecd hi-e yon, took 
Sinniiuu, the capital of lllyria, and besl^d AquI- 




Wa. Hero he hcanl nf tho doath of tie Empi^nir 
Constani. H« now p.-uMe<l rajjidly LtirifUgh I'brare, 
and EVMlicd CiOiMtftntiiiapk DcoinBtwr 11, SOU wboro 
he WM ImmedUtolj proclaimed emperor. He ^itgAJi 
by letting: A ttop to maRV Mbuan, and llniitiii!; tho 
■plcniEmir of bU ootLrt, and vriw thiu a,hla to remit tn 
t.M ]hio[j1« the fiftli (."trt vt ull llieir tail-". Hi- nwujllll 
to natora Uio licatlioa wunhip ia ail iu B;>l(:u<iiiur, 
Uld on that account np|viiu;rl l.'briitLiuiily n* iiiiicli ■« 
wai In liu power, witliuut, buirerer, ptmrcutiaa the 
ChflstiaJM tbeiuMlvt^ Ho Cook (rwm tbe Climttan 
dinivhea their richea, uid dit-i^od thotn unoti^ hu 
nokUets. He Bought likewUc t>i intliioc thr t hristiAiw 
bjr flattery or fawotjr Ui ombracfl Pa^uiiuii, mul fuU- 
iit; in tiw mttompt ho Ubonrod to make ibtlr ccm^li- 
tioa dlMic^^ablv. In tb* mcaowbilc be wutcd \o 
tad tbo war with tho PeraUna. Hk tint mnpntgn 
agaiaat them wim siiccrMful. Ha touk Mreral citi«a, 
aud advaooed oaforiui Ctsiptiati. Want nf mciuiR of 
■nbaiftMtoe obUe'oii liiiu Ui rvtcvnl. Juue 24, 363, be 
waa mortally wnnadcd, and died tbe follawing night, 
in tbe thirty'tecand yutr i>f Iiih h^'r. 'J'hnncb much 
■livenitv oE opiuiwn baa, ait ua« lu Im expcctetl, oxijitod 
kboBt uo clutMl«r of JuUu, ao nuprejndloed tu- 
<|Birer caa bcritat* to acccid to him the crvdiC of 
ueiuf- not oiUj A X***^ monaTcb liiit n cri^t inui. 
Hi« apontnaj can oo aooounled tot by Uia cirouuf 
alanccs of liia education, and the truth ia that b« vtaa 
store a pkUoaopber than a theologiar. KoBio of hi* 
trariiM mv« come down to ua. Several N|ic«dm, 
Icttora, and lotiraa, atDimg wliich the «.ttir«« tin thi? 
Ccaan and tbat on tbe pooplo of Antiocb, voltpd 
MiaopogMi, are dlttlnpuialked for wit and bunour. 
Julian pMMeenl lalout, wit, vicacity.caao in writbjf, 
and fociility ; tml ho conFormod U>o much to tho 
taatA of his Age, in uliivb mere decliunatiuu Unik (be 
plac* of vloqiMiQco, ancltbeala thy |tbiic« of ibcui^hi, 
and pliij An wnrda the place of wit. lie vrr^jlu «l*o 
a work agalnat Hut Obrutian religion, of which ne 
bave y«t tome txlrwU. 

JULIAN CiVLKNDAIt. &oe Cauc(daii and 

JCLICH (French, ytJwr»; aneicntly Jiiliaina»\, 
a town, llhoniah I'dikIii. In tbo government, and 17 
mllea Dorth-Mvt of Alx-k-Cbapule, capital of circle 
of saoio MB)«v *t the oonfiueaoe of the Ellbacta and 
HQr, in a fertile plnin. nirrouiidiH] by RWampa and 
■laipHUit dltoboa, Khldt nuiko it vny unbeolbby. J( 
ia ttrnngly furtlAod; haa a vourt uf law and aereral 
public otHcce; ntaatifacttiTM of leather, aoap^ cotton 
yam, kc Coal ia worked tn tlie ii«lKhhonrhood. 
jmU) ia of Roman ori^, and baa buru auppiiaed, 
tboagh fandfoUy, to take jta namo from Juliua 
('tt-^ar. It wiui iunc tiw capital of an imlrpcndcnt 
tlucbv, part uf whicti waa au fertile in cum tbnt it 
recolTod tlm naoie of tbe Komfcammer or tiraiiury. 

JUUEK, StAHtaLAS-AluVAR, the leadlnK ChioeM 
■ehotu of hia day, waa bora at Orleau* '2Iat Septem- 
ber, 1799, Biantf^tad at an early »gv a tnoat Kxtnor- 
dlnuT Ibiguleltc family, and tautfut IiUumU Urwk, 
Kn^mb, Italian, Spaoiah, Portugucee, and German. 
In ISltS ha CMnucnoed tbe Rtiidy of Chineae uadM- 
Abel lUmnaat, and nude audi prorriaa in ft that 
at tbe end ot twelve nwutha he publfiliad a Latin 
trMwIWhw ef tha pbiloeopbw Maadun It waa 
httia^t oat at tba eipenae of the Aktalic Hodrty 
of PnHa, aail la a uiaaLcfi-jilem) of ila Lind. Heucv- 
fortli h«(lovot«tl hia labwiini nuunly to tli* lan^iagea 
and Uterntan of tba br Eaat jlucient ami ■tuxlora 
I'bineae.MaBtGfao.tbe&biafoUantancnca.hud Litvirly 
fi ■naif Hi. wcra the nibjecti of exact and ]>n>fiiind 
•twlj, 1\e ittlatiana whloh Boddbimm fau iutr<u> 
dttoed belwwta CUaa and India atade an aciiuaint- 
■nca with aanakiit indJapoaaahla for tho accnnta 

rt-ndwin^ into Frenoh of tho trnrcln of Eliniien< 
'IljKiag, the Iludiihiat pilgrim, 'ibc numcmiui Aau- 
akrit tenoj) clothed in a Cbineee dren oontiuiiwi in 
lereral of hU traniktioiu opeaod up an iat«rwting 
6i-ld of inouiry to cmnparativr philolo^'iaU, na Julloi 
aw3.-rtaincil tlie law by which tbc*o ex|jrrwii<iiui vtero 
traiufpTiwl fniiii Saiij^rit to C'biiiNa Ho jmbllahed 
Lho nwilt of hia rv-HiuvLvti in a Tolume cutitlnl 
Mr.Abmlo iKiiir drfiliifTiiir et tmnacrire lea Mota &&&- 
Kcrita qui HI tnmveut d.-uia Iva Livnr* Ohiuuia fl&UI, 
8to), Tliis n iirk, ifbiib Is a nifwlcl of critic*! acnmon 
and ctoanieM, pbc«<l its autbor in tbe wry lint 
rank <i( adeutifio ^^nuiimarianii. No dei^artrnDnt of 
Ckiiicot.' titvrutiira ia uiirvi<n.-M.-iiU.-d in lii* ailmirKlilo 
tmnalntiona^the dramn in tlot-t-lnn-ki; au t*Hia- 
hiircdu Cvrcleda Cniie (London, 1&3l\ 6vok tahs 
In Yn-klao-li; ou lee Deux Couainea (JS63, two voIjl 
&VD}; and technical trcatiaca in lEcaunx: drat I'rind- 

Rux IVudUa Chinuia aur la Culture daa Mfirivn ot 
Wooation doa Vew h Sole ilS3", 8vo). Uia prin- 
dpal merit, hon-cvcr, ii tliat hie Inbo'an have enabled 
na to iin'trniLiiitl tlm nrli^on aii:d thi-- philoaophy of 
tbo CbitiaatL la. 1^2 he auocoi'ded Biruiuaat aa pro- 
feaiur of Cblneee at the CoU^ <la FRuim: Ubranan 
fit tbe HibliothbqiM Natiaoals, I6S9: praident of 
tho Cdllt]^, 185S; connnaniler oS lho Legion of 
llunuur, lam. He died in IS'3, In hia aavmty- 
fonnh year. 


JULIUS, thf name of three ixjpM, of whom wo 
Rliail only mt'ntiitii tbe two laxt 

.TfUL'H II. (Giuliniio delta Kovcrej, a native of 
Albisxola, near Katonx. orii^-innlly a fi*hi!finan, waa 
elevatod by bU ttnck' Sixtua IV. to i\w tank of a 
biiihnp Mill conliiixl, Haa *p[>ijintad I'ua] legato to 
Fmiuv, and in 1303 wi>h elovUtl |ii.qie. uninediiitaly 
on bij elevation to tbu poatUicalv be reenmed pow n a- 
sinn of tbe duchy of tbo Koma^na, whit^b bad been 
btstowed on Ca«ar Bor^ by Aloxaudor VL, and 
althoufli, while uanlinal, the friend of the FnnA, 
ho now baenme thuir enemy. Ilo planned the tarn- 
plete r«>cstabtUiinont (•( the 1'Apal advi-rcifnity in iU 
aucieut torritory, and the extiuvtii'n uf furtrt^n domI> 
nation and JnRu«nae in Itnly. He exoninjnunioatwl 
tbe Luke of Femra, i^«e Kararre to Spain, beddged 
Mirandola, commandLtl bii amy In peracoi, fanned 
the League uf Onicitiray agajiiat Veiiicr, and waa 
nltntfetboi* wnrljko in hia meuurea. 'Viui Kioff uf 
France and the eujiervr uouvenvd a eonndl ai Pla^ 
before whom ho was anrnmoned to appear and oxp)atft 
hia conduct: Init he did not obey tb« siimmnnii, and 
called anutber nnindl In tha Laterau, vbirb i^rai* 
pleUly fnutntt«d the dadgna of Loula. Jn l£ll, 
October II, he foraivd the *HoIv Lea^oe;' tn whivh 
Spain, England, and Kwitu-rliuia w«re partis In 
1S12 he made u[ien war atfiiuKt Loula XII. The 
French defeated the Fapal army near BaTBnna, bub 
were aoon after dHvea out of Itajy. JnlJua died Slat 
Felmiary, I&1S. He lacooddend onaof Ibe inoat 
immoral of the popaa^ and bla oondurt oartidnly waa 
little bcfittiojt tho bend (f the CliriMiau Cbunh. 
but be waa a far-el^ied and patriotio aovArcign, 
and a liberal and judidona patron of ait and Utera- 
lare^ To |in«ure meana for hailding SU IVbir*o b* 
ordered tb« aale of foduljtauMM, wUt^h waa oaa o/ 
the imatsdiato cinam of iha B«f amidoa. Coai n qfd 
vtth the pbui nf rcbuildiiig 8t. PMai'a by Dramanlo 
waa tbat uf embeltiahing tbo Vatioaa; and on Bra* 
mante'a reonmnieniialkia JvUna IL invited Ilapliaet 
to Ronw in 130$, wbar* be painted a raperb atdta <d 
apartncnti called la Styntitum. In the dni;al gal* 
Icry at florenco there ia a fine peelntit of Julius II. 
by Raphael. See BajUTAitn: and RaniAKt. 

JiucB in. ((llovaaul Maria Oioccbil. a Roman 
of low biitb, called bimaalf M ii*nu bacauae bia 


bunily oriip Dated fmm Montu Sivino, JiPJvr Areuo, 
In tb» Flurvuluio Utrtitory. He was ua.di canUnkl 
b; I'*itl III. in 1336, took ui Active i>iirt in the 
CanncU of IVi^nt a« Pnpal legKt^ Mid yina the c^tittj 
CMtB» tliftt It wkM cmniferred u Boln^k ntplutt tha 
will ufCLarlcs V. Julius WMoloetod popo in 15(0, 
Ud ia tliD fnllowinv jr«Ar roipcneJ tlU Coundl of 
Trent, wUch had In.-i<ii sti« perilled fiv iipw.ird* of two 
nun. Ui> roc«iv«iJ tko fu^tiTO Ni^tmiaiC] patruLnJi 
SolucK, Mid eniWavaurnd to effect h H»iun n-UIi llio 
Neatorliuia. He commliHionsd l'ar<liiuLl Pole to 
arguato, Lu onnjunctiun with Kturv, the reunion nf 
Sn)^d with Koine. Ha died March 2.1, 1555, hu 
^flCqal ewer havinf; be«ii ooinpftnLtlv<>l<r uDeveutTu], 
prirxut ehuttctw is lullivd wilb tlw touiU of 
m and ncpotiam, 
CifiSAB. 8«« CjaiAR. 
[<V, tJio Mvanth uontli in our cnlmrlftr, which 
In the Rumnn year I)of« tho dmud of QaintiHe, om the 
fifth in tlic computfitlon at Ramt1lu^ «ven A(ti>r 
Nuno h.-ul [ircri>t.-i! Jauiiiuy nnd FtUruury. Hiirk 
Antony elTaiitral n nhanj^ tn it* tLnma in Imnoiir of 
I. Jiilitu C'lL-Aiu-, who wutt Uini on till.- litli tif tliuuiiwlli, 
lAItd UicucrfDtwnTi] bv u dticrM! of thi- »«iiut« it wan 
odlcd Jidtat. It originally ran tain nd thirtj-iiixdajM. 
It ia uid that ItuiaiiLu* rviluwd them to thirtjfune 
sad Nunia to thirty. Jutliu Crbm- fixed the nnmbcr 
^ kt thirty -nnc, ithich ii Btill retained. Tho Dog-dAyi 
re inip|«Mc^l tu CDnuneniw on tho 3d ftf thi* raonth. 
JUUlLltA. a bown, Spain, In th« proiinoa of ami 
~ nitw II.S.W. of Marcia, at tha foot «f a hill callai 
iSinndelCaatello. Ibi h<nuM an gnneratlir weU 
ElMiOlt and arronffcd in Btneta, which, though iiut apa- 
fioon, an ^v«d and deui. It haa twn handiKdce 
cIiiikImmi, one oi tb«u oduj-titd wUli (inv fiwKces and 
palntiat^ amno of them »!^\<X to l>e by Ilulxioi, and 
ftbtotbcr with paintiiigshr the tint Kjianitih miwttm; 
tan old boapital, the chapel of which ia nun- uhhI ax a 
'MOitbiuuM: and variuaN muLDufucturei. Jumllla b 
a biabop'a wo. Fop^ 73U:f, 

ji.:mn.\. SmJauha. 

JUMNOL'TKl. Soo .Tamhotiii. 
JrSiriXi; hare </'«(«« t'u;>rf<«'»l, a spedes 
, •! 3«xUui fuuiid in iilouthcrn Africn, and so niunr.d 
IfrmD itn g«ii«raj K^inblimi.'e to n harr?, wiiiUt it* 
[jamiiui}; uiinlc vf prngRsaicin, tiLi.-vi<BitaU:d by Cho 
['■lonc>'*>l luttum cif tho bind tn^, huva prcMrurwl f'>r 
lit It« ipucific MjJ piipulor ditfliiiution. Sue JBiii]t?X 
I JUMI'INU MOLTSK iMertonn !lua*aiil,u»\ ia 
ifDimd In l^lirador and Ncrth Alnrri'.agriierHily, but 
LSncBpccliiJlyaa iii)ialjit.-Luluf the fur terrikirlca. lake 
|<h« jOBipii^ luuv, it io iorltided in the famUy Dipu- 
< 4ide «r JcrbuM, and ia oilo of lh« miaUal of tbeac- 
fanna. Sec JKKBOjt. 

JlISfE.'E, or Juscicz.!; the Ruah f^imll;, an 
LafaKUM natunil onlor if tQdogcnuua plants, with 
fftarimtnlfd or Kbrniiia roota: boNow. grooved, or flat 
|le««e^ with p«ndlel veiiu. 'i'ticy arc hcrboconiM, 
IjMm] nativv* chiuAyof theamldt^r recionsuf tho tilube. 
iJhAwithabuidulK tbo difTorvnco uf M)HH:t, in moit 
the^ raamblo LiliAceie, dUTcriof chlorty in 
flovera bdnif gJumaccuiu, that i«, thin, diy, 
Mther brown or fpnea in mlnur. Thn liritti-ims nf 
*, mata, &v., arv (I'liivtilnvs iniutuuf winic of the 
I vf tliQ gonna Junem, md tho wicks tti ru.ih- 
hta oro fom«cl fraia tho otntnl ocllid^r ti-vijo. 
arv fourteen luiown gtnmra, and tlin aiioiTliia 
nbur nioro ttian S0O. Ouv of llic rualiM, the hairy 
iKid-ninh {ttiiuJa pSata), ia Sgurod on PI, UCXXI.- 

LX.VXII. SeeUllAAaEa. 

Jl'N'l*. tlie BittJi luucilh In our calendar. I'bo 
rmolo^v u uuctfttain. Vncdusffiveathrwvtyniolo- 
iti{ tiir iiiuno — ono f rnta jitno: anatharfromjtiafro 
"no jmii)i rvfLTriti;^ to tlio iiiiion botween the Itoiniuu 
■ad SslfUMa under JiumuluA and Titua Tatiua; a 

third from juniitru (the ytmnff tnwil, Rtimidut having 
bom aoid to havo asalsnod the month at Uay to 
tho dduri, and tluvt nf •liino in the ynimg' men, vlua 
ho divided till? |>cu|>lc Lnla thMo tivu ;,-n;nt 'Ai—Ci^ 
the fi>rnn'r t«i aorf« in oininael, tho letter in war. The 
haiiic Lab alou Lccn tmccd Ui .luidiu BnitD*, th« fir«t 
flontul. It coa-ilated od^ally of Cw«nty-tix days, 
to whidi it iff Mid RoQjuiua luldod four, and Nunia 
took awiiy ntir. .luliimdmar again IcnKthmcil it to 
thiny diiy>, utid It huB ever ainoe reiuuunnl uiudtvrDd. 

.1L'Nll,duH.\\'N H irtx 11 1 cu. commonly called Jimj 
iUiUiap, wfta Idim ISlh Scfttemlier, 17*0, oF poor 
parruta at Ini(inirid in Noason, and died 'Id April, 
1617, at Carhitvhu. lu hia youth h« wu luwrentloo 
to a tailar. Tho deaira of kiiiTwl«dj;« which always 
oocupibd him made him afterward* attempt to Im- 
vomi* a achuiiIuiHstiir. He waa nuauocLiuiful, anil 
returned to thn lailor'a buungaa, frton which, bow- 
over, he woa colled aervral tlmw to b«9m« a tutor. 
At lut he aucMeded In prDourlDc the ueuia of 
atndying medicine in Straaburg, whoro be lived in 
istinmoy with (toethe^ and wni aftarwnrda a phy* 
■iHan In Bllicrfelil. He has dutwritwd Iuiumu tha 
i;Ti-iit<:r piirt uf hia life; aud tha uulfbratcd work 
llcinncb fftilling'n Ji);e«Tid, Jlingllngnjahra nod 
Vi'atidcraohiifl (Berlin, 177", Ihnro voK), in n new 
form, undtir the title I,«b«nalittS4]lirdbim(.' (Biu-Uo, 
1809, five Villa.), In inMrnparalilu. Ho reUtca with 
modeaty and aimplidty tlia way in which hia life 
WB* paaaed ainoiiit the ulaMca of pivple lita favuunnl 
by axtniat gifts of fortuns, ud hU pious and pun 
hoartdiaelaaesitaelf MvunoSMtoilly ana iavohinlarily, 
and thu style i> at the ■wne time so excellent, that 
tho work ia atill a popular German cla«lc. It hmi 
m ohann of a very pvi uUnr kind, and many readers 
will aympathito nith the author cvun in thoM paa- 
ao^^ of my»lical dovotiou whioli du nut UL-Mrd with 
tha ton* of chair own minds. Hia wurks of d-omut 
myetlolsQi uru very nuuieromt. Those bent known 
ATO hja TboobsJd oder dio Schwarmer, Du Heimweh, 
iJcr Volkalchrer, tic. bfiif^h npy^io&itiort wna vxcitoil 
by hia itranKe work 'I'h«LTrio der fJeiiLerkundo 
(Nnr^mberg, ISOS), au.d the A)i'>lugy ft>r tli« auue 
(ISOS), which is connoctod ^vith h» Ejconon aus dvta 
ticistoiToiche (PraiUtfurt, LhUai. Jttag niadir liim- 
aulf known bIho by his iiuuiuruua works on uiedical 
snbjocta, tho veterinary art, pnlidcal iwonomy. he. 
He wax, morcovurt one of the moat aacceiaful opera- 
Uin tttr tho cure of cataract. Already haa be,' aaya 
Matthiaon in hia Letters (Zurich, ]7!'G|, 'rentored 
killht to more Ihiin '10(i(i pour hlind people, not only 
i;r,iti«, but in itiauy uuea i^ilh the uuditlun of [>evii- 
iiiiiry SBsidtLuico.' Gucthe, in hU Ana Muinom Lcben, 
^vesa fine <:hjirnjHi^rof liun^. iliing'a ciilWtrd worka 
m foiirtei-n vidn, wt-ru publiaWl ut rftiit4;iirt in 1838. 

JUSGFRAU CMaiduaJ. a toovmlaln of Swlt- 
aerliMid, in Uin llemiiM or llrlvctio Aljwi. on tho 
frontien brtwcfii tho czaiiton* of Htm nnO Valais, 
mllM s.s.E. L:iiiti^i'bniiiii(<n. It i« one of the ino«t 
msgniflcoutmouutouw ill Switzerland nud Iheloftiuvt 
naloarcoua mountatn in Kuropu; hdcLt, 14,174 feet. 
It waa rmCaMWndcd by thu btotbi-r* Mcyutof Aarau 
in 1804; K^ain by the aame pcrwmi in ISVI; by six 
peuAnta from tirimleliviiJd in 1S28; aud by M. 
Apuuix of Ncuf chntat and ProJeeaor Forbes of Edin- 
burgh in 1841. The height of the Jungfrnu entitles 
it to rank ai Ibe righth Kun)|ieiui tnotintain. It 
rvoeivud its nauie either from tb« iiiunlllMi purity of 
the snow with which it is clad, or fnim thu fact that 
when it rcoeiv«il ita name no fnot had AVer trod Its 

JUN'-il.K Is a tsnii wliirli hna liccn Intnxhicoil 
into our lunKini^e fmiii Itidii>,atid in used tn dcniif- 
nat« a Ihlcki^t >^ buBJiua (u>d Ked« such as frM.]uentLy 
occurs in the Eaal Indies, and more cafiecially at th« 



fool of Uh Uiituilftra, in Ibe Iraid belt of the Tonvi 
<irTanijiiiu,axtcDi]itigwwitwmnIi fram Aaaun to Uw 
bmka a tfae Jsoui*. Thk Mrrieorr Iwma a Ww 
nanH, oovoml wiib itnpswttsbla tbJckaM oC bnuh- 
wood and tredt. Ml gwa. bambo«*, oMpen. and 
dimbers, Jlc; tb« meal of fevu- and ago^ and Xhe 
bobitatioti of byviuu, lyuxea, tigan. lto[>aiila, »la- 
l^uulB, niQDkcy«, oiticUrpM^ Iwrai id do«r, inaliiM^ 
Ac. llie long £>*&« U ael on Ibe dottng tho dry 
tmaaou to iliivv ont Uiu wiM auiuial^ anil Cattk am 
Bont in io puUiini on tho new VBgatntion which 
qukldy qniujft up. Tho jiukIu flan mud. fauBit l»ve 
noa; pacnliaritlas, the hut and mobtim girin^ 
bcitii to plaato and anunol* a tropin] cbanujtcr, nnd 
tbiu in a maniMtr nxtoadina tba region of tlie tn>['itB 
D«iarly to tli« foot of tbe UlmiUay** *>kl far within 
tbc tcmpctato ictio. 

Jir.NUhK-RiWU Sm Fowl. 

JUXIPER (natural tiiJar ConUerce), a f^nui ii{ 
plants bnvtng a •u<:cii]cDt mine, witidi in fainiLiiirly 
odlad ft bvrry. ^e fruii of JimtperuM tommvnit, 
tlM ooouuMi jnn^er. Tidda on oU wtalah powMMa 
ft diiiMicprojittrty, and i* uaol in the preparation 
of gin. Ttic vnlfttUc oil pnmui:*! from tliv timoclm 
aad leava of J. Sal,uM (Saxin) \a nn iMtive eminen- 
a^^oguo. Tbi> nooii cmijlored in luaking cudar priicUa 
■• obtained fmin J. Ibrmudiajui, anil jl low valii* 
■bis net ftnu J. Viiymtatm (Uie tvd otidar). Tbe 
«B|>7imnatto oQ o( /. oxjfektnu U iwod in aUn dla- 
mtmvnivttiunKattof tuaUtttnutf. 'ilio to-cftUed 
gum iuuipcr m tbe mwluce of a oomfemua tree 
naoMd ValtUrit quudn^vi*, of Baibary. Tho guui 
b oaed in makioK «>niia}w«, and wiu fi^nncrly muvli 
Mnployod In ■■^If'^g paunn for writiiii.', a mibttonco 
whldk baa long been snpencdMi Iiy tbe inTcnticin of 
blobtiiw-papM-. Tha Vir^iau ml oadair b fraquant 
tbRmgnout tb« TTnitod Slate* of Amerioa from ivwr 
iM- 41" to the point of Horlda, luul westward aa far 
aa tbe Itocky Moimtaina. It doea not atl^n larg« 
**'■■"■■■■"—. otdinaiilj not oxaooding 30 foct in 
balgbt, bat b hlj[hly «t«eiued fur thu durability and 
l^toflH ot tha wwtd, which ia omplaf sd in tbe 
upper part of Uia frainea nf vokIii, fur poata, &c., 
and ia alau an artjide uf cx|urt to Britoilt. The red 
oedar in nuuijT' place* apfioata iw tb« ploiwar of ll)« 
Anundoaa f jr««t, fixlui; upon diy and esiioavd aitiL- 
atioD*. and foatttin; Iwnaatb its abado young; treM 
of Tarions apedea, till it b fiaaUjr overtopped by 
tliam, and in ita tuni dliappoan. 

JUNII'S. Tbn Uttwsof Juniu* first npp««rcd 
b WoodfalTa Public Adveniaer, from which tboy 
wan ooptad into noal fif tha other Jonmab of th« 
tiiaoi. Tha aaribat tindar tbb aignatura b«ai« date 
J«uu>y 21, 1749; tba butt, January 21, 177^ Aflar 
tbajr wm eoopfated they were collected (the Mtlea- 
tiam beioding aba thoae rignad PhHo-Jtmii», with 
tho lettcn of Bir William Drmar Mid tboeo of HoTM 
to JwdDa), aadmbliibwl by WoDdfaH, with a dcdt- 
oaUeu to tho Sbgliih naUon and « pnfara by ttto 
author. Bedda tha lettm dpuA Ju»tvM, other* 
hj Uh> aaiiM aolhor wan paulaked is the Mtno 
Mpar nadcr tha 4gnatnna et PnUioaUit Attinu, 
X«rfw, A*tfH«^ Jftmait, VtUrtm, bu. nLrting la 
dilmal nbj«m b«t «U airitsd with tho nma 
baldwwi^ MwHy. and rawion wUeh chaiacterfaM 
tho fomier. Thcae appearad between April 28, I7S7( 
and May 18, 1773, and at« civon in the younovr 
WoodWa wBlfan m Ibe MiNwllanooua Lirtt«n. 
Thk adMoe wa« pnbUAwt in 1812 in thnw \cU. 
and toohidad JmJim' prirate latter* t^> Mr. H. a. 
Woodtdl. awl a (mUmtiMry MMty by I>r. .1. ^Iiwoai 
GoocL An nlnmd aad InpKwed odlliiw waa inib- 
liihad b Boba'a atn^id Ufanry, wdlled hy Jotn 
Wade, with an «Bny by iha odltor fa favmir at tb* 
oUina of Bir I'hUJp Frnnda to tha authondiip. 

Although fully n cantnry line cbpavd dnev tho 
publication ot Uoao extraetiUnaiy papt!i% we bavo 
s« yet no poutivw looofa to decide the qna e tlon who 
«'*> tha Mitbor, 1 Lo nio«t pryinc ourtoalty aad tho 
moat bdufltr&Kis inffaouity haw bcra at work to 
coUeot circmniBtantial evidance nn tbi* point, and 
volinna have been written about it; but nutwith- 
atandiuK idl tbi; iri'Iustry that h»» T»«n «levi>l«i t» 
the aubiflct, nnd all that hu been WTJttcn on it, th« 
aulhonfaip of the Icttcra of .1 uniua aecma aa far from 
\Kaag aettled aa erer. Tbe luuuea of Ummo with 
whom hu Uu been tdontiiliNi are leglnn. Tbe fol< 
lowing ia a pretty oomploto lUt: — Scrveant Jaoiea 
Arlnir. I'^l Iiiaac Bann^, Hii£h MacanUy Boyd, 
l^iiiimt lliitltp, Biibop John Biitk-r, Lord CbRubn, 
L<ird C'liatbiun, Lord L'ba«t«fi«'ld, J. Ij. de Ijoiiao, 
.lohn I>unnine (Lord Aabburton^ Swuotl Dyer, 
Henry Flood, Ur. Philip FranciN Sir Philip Frands, 
>:duiatl Uibboii. Bicbard (ilovcr. Henry (tr«tlaa, 
Willbni (Ircntnikai, Uc-irgo (•ronville, J:unn Gnfn< 
villci, Williiim Geiuid Hannllton, Jan>«a Hollie, i$ir 
^YlliiAnl Joni^ John Kent, Gonoral Charloi Lee, 
(.'IimIi-h Lli>yd, Tliootaa Ixnl Lyttietoo^ l.achlan 
MacU-ury, tliu Dtike of Pntb&d, Qweraor Tbmnaa 
Pniiiiiii.11. Sir Robert Rich, John Bobort^ tha Rav. 
Philip R<«et)bi«(;:i.-r, I^rd George Gematoe <Viaeowie 
^'ackrillr^, ]iia\ SLnlbumc, RnrlTancJe, J«^-Honi« 
Tuuko, HurMO U'uliwti', John Will**, Abandar 
Wedderbum (Lord l.oa^hbrjrought, t>r. Jomoa WO- 
mot, and I>aiuel Wri^y, Uf oonme it con be eaaOy 
khuwn that many of IhetB nercr coukl bare been tbo 
ntilhor; Aud though auuia of tlieonelidnied the hoaoar 
fwaahould pothap* mthor eny the diabomnir), tiMir 

Cjtendona wen nerer supported by proofi. Par- 
pa the eanbroTwqr may never be aectled, bat 
lownrda tiila end it would be v««y intareatinfr to 
Icnow what baa bevome of the eo|^ of hla letters 
which JuntuA ortlcred of hla publidier on Denaiber 
17, 1771, in tin; following tcmui: — '^\'hcn tbe bonk 
ii liiiiabcd let mi: have a aett bound b vdlum, gQt, 
mill Icittinxl Juuiua I. 11., aa handaoniely as ywi v«b 
— the cdgve gilt. I miul ako havo two Mtte b blue 
pnjicr ttnom.' 

A wrilor in tlie Ediobuiif'b Review Kayi: — 'A 
■iinplo te*t atfoertaln* tfa* polltloul contNctbns «C 
JiuJui: he aupported ttw cause of natbority agnbnt 
Amerlcn with Mr. Grsnville, and nablained tha 
bi^bost popular priociplaa on Lho Middlcaax oleetjon 
with tha nma ttatanunn. No other pajty bat tho 
Grem-UIeu eomUned theae two flplnlena Junbi^ 
we nay add, was alee b favour of tiinitilal pnrib- 
nenla, acd oi>[i(r!icil to a)>"1iti-in cil tho rotten bor> 
oof^tm. It b Itkvwiie evidc-at tntm his lufnt'mn 
that h» was n man of ruk and fartune; tbb appean 
not only from hia tone and manner, but fnun Ua 
espteaa awertiuna: ' My ranh and fortune tilaca nM 
above a oommou bribv;' and tn uiio of ^^oedfaffa 
letters ooooerning the piv>tits aiiilng from the sale off 
the tsttMi^ he i|n>U<s, * I am far ahnrr all perutiia^ 
vioWK.' Lord lEldon dM-larad iu Parliantent Utnt, if 
not ft bwypr, he muit bam -writtan b ooWKVt uitfa 
the abUat Uwyerv; but llw gntt Ed^M lawyer 
Butlsr asserts Uiat J univs oommile g»M bweimdM 
fo Us Iccnl phiBMi. Sovcnl bcidcnbd expreMEann. 
as wvU ae hb ^uaeenl' tone, hb btJOMte knawled||[e 
of ]iar«nna and charaetanv ahow hfaft fe hnn lienD 
a uuin beyond middle Hb. Ha waa eridently mo- 
(juaintad sot only with the court but wilb the city 
iwhicb waa Ie« nmal in tbrae ilaya); with Uut liia- 
^■7* fwiiwto btiitpMiv and aocret rhara<.tvn of Iho 
StMt; wltb the nawqemoBt of thu pubUc nHWea, 
with the proceodinga of Paribtneat (iMi then, ■■ 
dnoa, mibUo); and abo with tho ofBdal wnderlinta^ 
through whom >« aDawtimaa eaadeWMwls M 1Mb 
tlwir aiiperion. Viltb tbb exionnva inftaauttim bn 



ttnhwl a boldncM, velieiueDce. iukI mncnur wtiicli, 
wUle bs i^»nd bo odc. rtapped at Dotbiti^, aud 
naderad bun mi <ili^ect oS terror to thovo wbom ha 
■ttaekoL Tu im» \d» own Ikngniwe, ' lie g^thon like 
ft MSDpMt, tatA »U tb« fury of ilic vIemenU bunt 
opon Umiu m% ones.' ' In raccour Mid vmotn,' said 
Bote hi tbfi HoiMC of CVnunon*, 'the Nortk UrihiD 
b u much inferior to him aa iit vtrengtb, wit, and 
jodgnent. King, lord*, mid cainiDoiw axv bnt tho 
^Mrt of b!i fury.* Graftcn, Bedford, Sladcstonc^ 
ud UmuAaIiI mob to be ohj«c1* ot puraoiuJ re- 
MStment. Chalhaiu siirl OaiuiIi^ii aits fiercely at- 
!"*•*'* hi MOM of Ilia cailiar IntUiii, thoiiiih liii tmio 
In topeot to Uieni vm vluuiicvd in tliu Utter purt 
of Ub oami^wildeiieA iUa style (a mvere, mncUe, 
emmninuUi^ asd polished; 1^ rriwuning iiowtnful, 
Ini uiT«ctlva unspving kcd lerriUo. 

Public wwploioii ftt the tJEDo wm fixed ino«t 
■troagly nn Btirke Mid Sackvillo; though M a mora 
ment pniod the (rplnion thnt Kir 1'IiUip Fnin^ 
WM tbvMillior giuueil thti tnati, iiuinerDan adhctmtii. 
Borica was ■tmnclf aiup90t«d in hU day, but bv 
■fMOtaaeoiuly d^ed it; miiI apart from iatmuU 
oMMJderalioDa druwn Iran hiii temper, Kljrlr, onil 
twit o< thinkiag, it ia mffideat to ubMrAw that on 
■«*«nU fMnnta Btirkc and .liudtu wen in tUrect oppv- 
■ CMih ut!t6r. Thu fcnner vraa a friiaul of 
Rockingham, tho lnU«r of Gmirille; du llie Atiiit- 
rican policjt and triciim3.i |i.-irHaftii!iitti lli'iiy w«rei At 
rartaaoa; and Burke knuw tiuthiii;; of city pctiticn. 
witb vrhid) .Tauina waa bo familiar. Thu anthurvbip 
lu« boweTer b«m c]aitDr<l for him im rct^intly aa 
l&SO (Sjrnioni, WtUiotD Burkv the aulbor of Juniiui, 
Landim, 1S&&). 

Tbo opinion that Sir Philip Francia (died ISIS) 
«■• Jnnnu, biM found many juvrtiiuui, And wm in- 
gtaioualy auppfated in Tii* lor » work— Thu Idi^titjr 
of Jantux with » Calibrated Livlog Cbaracter ettab- 
lltbed. The anruutvabi an drawn principally from 
extenuJ ocndderations: bla ahwncc on a lonmey to 
the ContinoDt coinctdaa with an iiitemiptiuu in the 
latten; bin ilaiiartnm fnr Itidlii witb a high appoint- 
Saa^wltlitbeiTL'VMBtii.'u; Im rvcvtving tbat app(nnt> 
MHO^ vitiiont any apparent cauee, Jnat iSter IfiavEnjr 
Uw war o6icc: bin ntntion in tbv vnt oflEic*, with aU 
Am drtafli of which Juuitu in lui familiar; bia know- 
Mccof •fieechea not nported; oobeEdeuueoof tho\i;;bt 
ana oxpr««iuin hctwovn pann^ of the lett«ra and 
of ipMcboa of I.ord Chntham, rir[iort4 of wbicb hod 
Lmo) funuahe'l by Prani:La,aiid wit); hianwnapeechoi, 
mad* aftor hia return from India; peculiar modcg of 
■p^in^, and of K<rT«ctinx the yKm: retcmblancs of 
handwriting' — are also bmu^'ht fiimnrd to eatabliah 
tiw idcatity. Cut tlio IntomAl uii^u iiiunt b agaluat 
tbn nippontion : Frond* iviw but tnouty-OTvgn when 
tba fint letters wete written, and he nerer dwpla}'ed 
Ixfon or after any proofa nf a calmly or knowledge 
equal to the coRi|»Mtionii nf Jimina, Notwithatand- 
big tbia, bowerer, tlie pr(."-'aloiit oiutiioii— ifUpportod 
by Macaulny — now iii, that Sir Philip Knuicdii wan 
the author of tbcw; lottcra. Of Maxjaulny'N lire 
l^mumln, huwcTEr, for aimliing tbo anthormhip to Utr 
PfaDi|> ^TMicij^ two of thHmarvkuowutobrerrouvuuM 

Aaother caadidAte vrhoae clainM hnve aintidcrablc 

weigbt ia VUoount Sackvllle (at one tiiiiL- Tj<ird 

G«c^B 0«Riuun*>. Lord f^kvil)« w.ia atri^niily 

, —p e t ted at the time. Sir William Dratrar dindod 

hm aaapidona belween hfan and Itnrke, bub linAlly 

find (oxn on tlie fonuer. His nuiL, fintuiif, tempor, 

and talvntM wnoir to rtndnr it riiibriblc; the frbnds 

OBi) cneuifes of Sat^^ille luid Jriniui aro tlm wune, 

and th'tr political prindplca cointide. S.-ickrlllo'ti 

t VniBtriUf^ diajifraca i» well known; liin hnntilitv to 

I tike king atay bare ariaen from having been furbiddioi 

tbi! court; >faairfield wM a mnrn-olScer el the Llnto 
of hib trial; Bedford was a ooiuiectioa and on had 
terms with him: Grafton was a witncM A^MMt bim; 
Graol^ waa accond in cotnmaud at Miuilcn, and con- 
curred In efleeting fab diarraoc; Itarrlo^m waa tfaa 
or^oa of hifl dinwBloa. lUscpinioa has been nuitn- 
t^ied tnCorontTT'i CtWeal Inquiry (I^ndm. 1S25>, 
and with adilitional praafa in Jui:^u!i I'nniiMkcd 
(IV«lon, America, ISSS); but although ntitny Ktriking 
oomcithnieea have bcoo pcrfntcd out, tbo proof ia by 
no means oompleEe in favour of thia hTfidrtheab. In 
the Pioetltiiuicma Workaof Junius (Xvw York, 1829), 
with an Innniryrfnx/rting tho autbiir, thn iHtcnan 
aaoribed toHomcTouktL jVuulbbrwritvrhaaatarted 
the hypothaaia tbat Lord Cliatham vha .lunnu (Bn^r 
on .luniua and bia Lettrra, by II. Wntexlinnae, 8ro, 
Boalon, 1931); and tbia theory waN «L» maintained 
in Juctliu Lcrd Cbathacn, a work puiliahed at New 
YnrlcinUJ', by Wn.Dowe. An iupnious attempt 
boo been Riivbt Ut nbow that I.ord Temple, limthcrof 
Crearj^e Grenville, wjmi the aiitbar of Uicm- ciOcbmLed 
Utten. The fact that Ctrent illo wax thr fnimirito of 
Juniui liaa often been mvntiunvd, and it boa al«u been 
■ii«[iected, far varinua rca«cina, that Lord Temple waa 
In Mima WAV counettivd with Juniue, Duller ^mithont 
Hiispectint; temple I iu(.-ntion« that the l«ttfn t^poarod 
h> be Tnrittcn in a tn<Iy'ii band, and tbat ^^'lllcM once 
Revived a ciinl from old L;u!y Ttonple, In bar own 
hand, wbic^h thoy agripm! in tbinkfng naembted the 
baudwriticitf vt the lettura. 'Wv liave alrvndy iMxA 
a icniackaDle paoeaga from the Edinburgh Bevlew 
mi the Ribjoet of Jonina* political cunnwtions, and 
the itatcRient from the (ilolie ii^cnia to pnint ont hia 
family, GcoHit? Grenville ha* biiu*elf bpeu (iiiK|)«Gtei| 
Ui be Junius; but it ia aufilcient to obacrTo that bo 
died in 1'7(<, wbct) but a mnitll part of the letter* had 
appeatrxl. The ntlunipt atiom ryftrrt-d to to father 
tci^ autborablp rm Lord Teniplff, bmodc in a work by 
Mr. N<xwhall of Salem, in Maaaochuaottx (Letlcn OD 
JiiniDii, IHuAlon, iRSl), on the ground <iJ the wett-catab- 
IItiIjdiI faotji, tbat biH political aud {Mirauoal (nnncotiunx 
worr tbti wuitii; thnt tljuopiitiona of Janiua in regard 
tu Cliathain aud vuniu other pennaa differed at dif- 
fiTont tlmea; that thla difFerenoe agrMa with the 
change:) in Lord 'I'uuifile's frelitigD townada tbino in* 
dtviiinala; and that tlie political priDcipleii of the two 
ot^nclde. He abo ecdeairuura to show that Ti-mple'a 
talenti, a^o. onnumtanon, etyLc cf writbig and think- 
ing, nf which he givcaapedmcna, render hi* hypiUbe^i^ 
probable; andwe would add, that, if ilk nut (lie Inie 
one, it ia e«rtalnly embairaaaed with fewer difHmttIm 
than any wbicb bascomo to onr knowledge; but Nun 
nattram taniiu eom.pontre littt. Among the moat 
recent worka on the autbonbfp of .fuuEn* U The 
HaudwritingofJauinspnifewionally investigated by 
Mr. fharlcn <~hal>nt, Kxpc.rt; irith preface and ool- 
latcral -oidmce ly thu Hun. Kdwani TwirdVtoa 
(London, 1S7I). It aupporta the claima of l<'rauaLi, 
butita rauoning and proefs are not at all oondualvv, 

JUNKR, large flat-bottomod voneb. fr«m tOO to 
1!>0 ton* burdeu, uacit by the Cbiiiino. They have 
three m»id«,and a abort Ixtwijirit placed on thn iitar* 
1>oard bow. The niaata are aupported by two ur 
three tliroudi, which, at tlmea, tan alt candoil on the 
windward dde. Va tho foru and n;ain ma/^t is a eort 
ul luK-Kul, of c*ne or Uunboo, Similar to tliiaR 
junk* are the Jananeee iiu-ka, whiob on SO dt DO 
feet long on ono deck, Irat haTQ only one maat, that 
carrifa ii Mpiaresail, nod foruaril one or twt> jil*, 
uiiulc of cuttuu. The Japuine jnnk U mudi auperior 
to tho Chljieec, 

JUXO, the niiecn of heaven, the female Jupiter. 
Tho li(iinan:3 irlcntilicd this guddfuw with the Kroak 
Ucrti. A* ijucen of br«vcn iho hmv ttio •ui-name of 
HtffiiM, and the Romaua dedicated a temple tu ber 




on th« Avcnlliw. Sha wm ngsnM aa tlw Bpacfal 
fn^m^nmnt tpkBtvt«rwHeooBact«lwith«i«Tiv"< 
MmI fcDAlM (rum Idnl) to rtuth hnd bn-M a tnteUfT 
ll«ahi*. Both «• rirsuu Mod tnalium dbe wm tbeir 
pfotactw, and banc* Am was namatl I'ifwia'u and 
Jim i rvma, Hh* vaa aiao auniamod Ifatalu, and *"■>• 
BiM Ml thdr biftlt-dftf cdlerad bar aaoUetK Her 
gml fartival. bowcrrw, <raa tiie J/HAnnMlM, which 
oeanrad on tkolit of Match. Sha bul iho powrrnj 
ooof Brring fDeoDtUty. 8h« Im4 a ten|4e od m Ca[4- 
tolina, niurtlMiiufMaf JfratM, whence ■u'ltl.wfaer* 
mooejr vaa cdinctl. Aa •tuDO prc^iled ■»« naniaga 
abe waa callml /u;,ni ur Juffolu (coaneotad wUh y«a< 
irrr«, ta juin). Nawly tBairied peo^ Inrolwd bar 
uoikr Buch MiDM aa i>m JAt«a (iJia who hMiik bomel . 
Pn»*ba {fiho who pnahlM over tnamag«), Ac. She 
|imuM uul uuly u> ur marriage, Ixit over iU aaoctitj, 
and ipj a law of Niima no prmtitnU' waa allowad to 
imuih bor altar. Aa /una Laeiiw ihu waa iavoked 
bj WDCMO in cUldbed tA mbIiI tbem. and twnce aho 
baa iMwn oonfoiinded wiUi tho Unwk ArUnua or 
KJIaltkyU. A> aba waa ■omanuMl Cwrv^ia or fopti' 
hmM, h nay be iDfrmd lliat publio m wall aa private 
Affldn Wero iiol bajronil her iiMvinoc. Id thrir rvpre- 
aanlatinoaal Juno tho Knman artintn havn cnnjtnunljr 
adoptad tba typa of ihi^ titwk H<mL. la KirurU, at 
Falaril, LkDnvuim, Arida> Tibur, and ProksUi, hn 
wofahin «w popular. 

JU>OT, Amdoc-iik, Duke of AhmnUa, l»om at 
Bnaqr-lnt'lt'orgMkin tho rlapartmrnt of CAM d'Ur, in 
177 1, wai intotiOMl fcir tba bar, Vtit on th« outhraak 
ol iho rorolutlon )o(nacl a Tnliink-er hattallim, and 
aoon »ltract«d oatic<K Id* Hory viilnur Dbtajnotl fur 

Un tho aoubriqucrt nf 7Vir 'fnitprtl {la TrmfJWS 

Iran tia ooninwtw. Al ilio aieue nf Tuul'in, id 17^3, 
ha baauM aecratary to NaiMtsoo, who kftarwuda 
took liiin with liiu into Italy nod Kgypt in tho capo^ 
oity iif aiiln-<li>-aunp, In Kicypt ho vra> advnoood to 
tliv rauk of t^vfu^ral of Liris&da). lo 1800 he waa iiuwlv 
aonuDBBdiut of farii^ and ahortly aftor. on jotDing 
Ibo ^pnnA anny at Kotiloffno, obt«1»ed tha oorainniul 
of onautf ila diviaiana. Be partlcnlarly dIalinenuUcd 
hlmaalf bjr hU bntvery at tho baltlo of Aiirtorliu 
(Deoambw t, ISO^i). In 1S07 ho wai anil with an 
■ran Into Portug*], &nd by Um auplBaneaa of tho 
Ponofnaaa nuulo hia mtry utthont np])o^ticin iiiUi 
IiUbuiL Illa MicmM wna rownnlcMi wiih th> titio iif 
Ihika «( Abnuitv*. Khurlly aflor, on the arrival <>f 
tile UritUb, bit military talonU want [int to tho tout. 
■nd be Man pnted that, bowavar great hia poraona] 
fluoraica ulgnt be, ha had none nf tlw iiiiallUea iwow 
nary tu furni a ci>iDinai>il«r. Nut only itiil b* rwiMi 
Um Indlgnalliin of tho InhaUtaiit* )>y hi* wholwalo 
apallatliiua, hut ha lint alloWvil liiiiii^lf tii 1>e drfuab.-*) 
al Vhnoira, and wm> llion iilili|;iil t" nilimit to the 
hMUillialiait mufvirtiiiii vf Cinuik On hia ivtura 
NaaalMNi raoelvld bin with the jfrmtwt coldneH^ 
■Du be ranMinad titnc In dUmce. I>urin|> tlm war 
«Mi Anatria In iHOti h* olitaimd tko onmrnaod of a 
•; eiid In ISU' «•• aant liit'i Sf«in, whars ho 
1 uwlar MatMnn, luul dU notliiiig to retrltn bb 
f«p«l*tlen. In IRIH be waa appetattad to tha eam- 
WMid of a tllvMiA ol Uh mod tony, and took |*rt 
tn tha Itoailan «un|i*lcii, auriag wbliib be eonpletad 
kb lUaipkoa by IndMWMi mmI wnal «( anerfy. H« 
waa 111 vanaatfuaaeo ralaptled to tba eorenMnbip nl 
tiiK ItlyrUu pTOirineoa, la ]ltl3 ha liecanie tnaMio, 

and l>at Ilia lifn III ivMiaiviiifliinR iif Ihjufitai iiiflirlail on 

UiiiwvK l>.v li'<i|>ii>it tn^ii a tt'iiiil"vr <1 hi' father'! 
iHWiaa at MuuIImmiI, wliare hn Ii ' ^ iiMvad. 

.IliNTA (HfiaalilK an Maen. Un. ftbi|h 

nmncitl uf atata. Tbvni warv i .. .1. I'ut t«v t4 
tba royal luala "i ii-nuneri'av tba mint aiid the mfiM^ 
Ud tb* oiMUil of iIm tohMen nuinainty. It Van 
ori^-liially a|>pllul ta an Im^Tutarijr auBun<*ed aaaMM- 

Uynf the sLitni, aa dErtin^niihcil Irani the OertM IV 
parfiamcfil nrsaUrl; csUlcd ti^eihar by the anthorit/ 
of tba king. Sonetinea tba tarw waa npptied, bow- 
enr. even to tbui Under the Bovriwn Idnei of 
Spain jnntaa were awmblie* eanvoked hf tbe kia^. 
hot rather (unaHlutiva than Iq^dattra in dwtr 
fuoetiona, bchi; limitod lo )nW>V adrioa oa refanua 
nf the ailmiMRtntioa. After the nbdioatloa of 
}<'erdinaiid NaiiolMa auauDuncd an anembly of Hx 
notablea of Spain to n>Mt at ItayunoB, and tlila al» 
WM called a junta. In IMS, afkir tlw fall of goeen 
i.aK«it», A nnmber of JoataB fonDMl tbemaolrM ta 
tba principal townt of tba kingdotn (BoTfiM^ Cordon, 
Baroelona, Madriil, Ac), and took on tfaemaelra tba 
■[onmBMnt, bnt they w«ra aooa dlaaolved after a 
oentnl (^Teniinent had boea cetabUafaod at Madrid 
to take the place of that wbicb bad been o*ei^ 

JTJPATI PALM l/taphia fmlhrM, a trae ia< 
habiting eidnaTely the tkht-floodad land* of tbe 
lower Amatoin and Pant rirei^ mnaifcahle for its 
Icxvea, pnibaUy the laiBoit tit the TCGOteUe kiag- 
d'KD. The trunk la only $ or 8 feet bi^ ami 
I liAit in diamrtor. Tbe Imvm ritt nearly vertically 
fmm the tntnk, ticndiug out on cvtry aidu in (Traucful 
oorvea, funninx a niiit[ninoeut jduiD^ TO feet in height 
and 40 In diantolrr. LoaToa bavo boon cut dvwn 
and meaaurod 48 aad 50 feet lone, nad even thaaa 
are not the larxeat. Tbe lenf-atolk b cAen IS or 
in itt4. long below the flrat an^oienta of tba leaf. 
and 4 or S inchvii In diiuiiutrr, perfectly atraight 
and cylindrical, nml when (tried ii^hx and itrong aa 
tho <|uill of a litrcL Tlje rudiann xplil it into lalha 
f'lir a varioty nf {iiirfiiiuit-^wiiiilnwahiittcni, tioxe^ 
1)iTd-(»u«*, parti liiitw, and evvn «utlrs lunuta being 
caoBtmeioA i>f it. with tba addition of a few eupporl- 
tn^ jKmtf At the aii:Elca. Tbe fruit, a largo ohloBj 
drttne, ht» a hitter oily flcah. 

J LTPITER, or Ji-fi-iTKB, tbe supn-me deity of tbe 
I^ttn tacca in anciont Italy. The iKKt part of ibo 
nonie ta ctynifllogiciilly the name na tljc (inrrk Zru*. 
and the Biuukrit dvam | which niMuw the i>Vy); tbo 
■ocond part !* of t.>iurie tho samo aa the I.Min I'ltf. 
father. I'be oblique cmc* (genitive Jmi/i, lUtivc 
Joi-i, if.) at the nnun are formed (mm tba fomer 
elunieul al»nc, and the pbraae tab Jarr i* (|iiiio daati- 
cjil for in ttio i>|vii air (lit. 'nnder tho xky'). AniriJii^ 
fonu of tbe oanie uf ihci nod in SH-fpUer, which baa 
predtely tho aame meaning as Ju]<iter, </>« b^iaj; 
dfrivol fnim the aamo root na Ju- or Ja- ^that ia />mi), 
and InTiiii- no doubt connected with deia (tbe Ijitin 
rivgo<))nud tt«(>rrvl(e<|iiivalcnt tAnv. "nie Ronana 
idiiDtitii*d Jupiter with the ijtvrk Zeua, and tfana 
tliD attributce of tbo two ddti>-> hnro hoMI oon- 
founded toi[vtlier in tuch a ■nanrier that th^ ar« 
often tieatml «i exactly identical, tbo roytha wUdi 
praparij belong to tbe Ureek Zcnt baeinir been 
MipUed to the Komnn Juuitcr. Foraome nooount nf 
theae inytba and of tha JiatiiiL-tii u allribuUa of the 
Qreek iind we retur to the artitlo Zai i^ ri'etrivtlit); 
oainelvea bars la the Italian laml mnre (mrttenlarly 
Koman) fdeaauf Jnpnier. llcfore laaiing Ibeaubjcot 
of tho nicM:iing of tho nauia Ju)iiler it may be 
mnMrknl that it coTmi|Hinda in aeiiee with Lneetlw 
and Lnoerive (d«riiad (tven Itir, li{ht). wh{<<b wera 
lAher iiaUMK gives in Jn|iiter In antne jwrtii of Italy, 
and tint former of wbicb ia nenlaard liy Mvrviiw ^ 
belnc laore eipedsll r Oaoan. 

Aa tbe Htprato oeitr Jupiter toeclred from tbe 
Itonuuu the title of eBTiaxi* wut^imut \htU gieataet^ 
and aa tlie daily prMidin^ u^cr tbe aky he wm eon- 
■idarvd aa tha uriginatiM- uf all the dtaii|[«a that took 
place In tbe aky. Fraa Uu aeeotAia^tf pneaadad 
rakt. haO. and ibo tfanmkvboJt, and he R wm Ibat 
i rertoMdiannllylo tbe aky after it bad been ubwored 


h;clonH>L H«iioc lhocjiilbeU»f Pliivin% Ful'-anit'ir, 
Tunitmalia, Tuaiuui, Fnltninntnr, Scroaator, Ac, 
wtf* afipHed to lUm. A* Mna ikt^ tutwiMy goi of 
Bonn bo bore th* «pith«ta of Cii|Ht<ilinue luid Tup«iiu 
tCrma th« C^qiitoliDO hill vid the 'I'MT^iAn r»cki. And 
•M (iirnialuDg uniitaiira to tlif noitiniiB in Lbcir war- 
like PAtcrprua ha woa rnrinittly stj^ln) Imponitor, 
Vfciwr. lovtotiu, StAtor, OpUuIuf, Ferctriui^ Prvdn- 
tor, Triumpbntiir, te., anil t««in]M wera erected M 
htm nnitcr bX\ iboe rpithot*. llic leiii|<li) uf •liipilcr 
BlaUir «t Lbo ^lucUii ^t<i khH of JuiiiUu- l-'nrctriiu 
wan among th« oldwt vrhivh ivun <l«du3>ted lu tiia 
dei^, aod u« Mid by Lh7 &Tid nthen to be u old 
■■ tH tiDM! of IliimiiliM. Tlir niii»t cvlubrotod of hi> 
tattpka uruM Lbat (Hi the C'a(iiUiSiiii> hill clvdicntad to 
faim tm Jupitm- OpcUuus >tuxluus, Jointly with Jiuio 
mmI Minerva, The CajiitoliM gwua uid tho Fcrin 
liKtioa vtTv btilA in tiu tioiunir, tiio fonncr cclchrot- 
ing him untlor Lhe title of Jupiter CapitolinuM, aiul 
tba UttttT under thnt nf JupftiT LatiiJiH. The flint- 
•loiw bctn){ resArlcd, bcciirdiiic to ft 'nidv-iprvad 
▼nlgar error pr«t'iU«i)t iii fuii'iunl [l^ily lui cUewhtre, 
■< • than (Icr holt {»-.■« ('clthI, wiui (•ni; of tlsi; ajriubo]* 
ol Jupiter M the 'd'himdi-rcr. Ho alao bunt nKaptni 
W ayinboliciil ni hin niprcmo nnthority. In concluii- 
in? trmvtijM both tUeie h^iiiIm-Is werv Lnkrn along 
vntJt soma gin** fmin htn Iwniptct, nuil the oath by 
wtiidi thv tix-atiM u'crv ratified wk»taid t4> bo t«kaa per 
yam tapiJem (\iy Jupiter Lapis — btpit being the 
Latin Fnr 'Aitti>nc'). After Iha RomaiM htwlcntne to 
iiVnilifv Jtipiter uitEi Zeua, they ndnptnl for their 
own deit* \h^ Gr**It n^imeiitationa of tbe loiter. 
Jupiter WM not only rt^nLrdsd aa tin higboat and 
most t)owerful nmon; tiie ead*, hat alao a« «apr«nie 
IB batnan affair*. Ue faraaw and directed the 
fntnre, and aaorificsa w*t« acctrrdJngly otf«r«d up bi 
turn at the bexfnniiifr c4 «T«ry audcrtaUin^ in ordor 
to pMpltiatd bU favour. Tbtu tbe ooiMRttii nifered np 
■■ciificaia to bim iu the capibot ou the day un wbict 
tlunr entend u|hir otHce. A rrun n-an alui muvi&ctit] 
to bbn by oiie of ittn tliuueu* oil the idea ot every 
iBMtli, and a iiLmllar racritlce vaa offered up In liini 
in the i<Mia nr andeiit pAlium of Nmnn I'onifiilinii in 
tbft Via oacni, on the Niiiidiiiarur tnarket-tl-in. Jupi- 
tarvaa altn m^nrih-d na th* guardian of law and ofd«r. 
He maintnined the Mnetity of sa oath, and of tho 
relntiaii balweea the atate and ita merobcra. Henu: 
perjiu«n> and traiton «rere pDnJiihad l>y being hiirli<d 
down frun tho I'sriieian rock, on whirh thoro wtu a 
temple wtwccrated W liiin. He wan lilcuwive believed 
to tw the pianlian at pKipcrly, whtither at the atate 
or ill inHivtifiiaii, and a» aiich briie tlio t4tln of 
Uerciu* (fiuin the old word htrrttim, Eitrnify ins pro- 
party} and Tennlnua (tbe gr^d of boundari«il. Rflnw 
and aU ita political mbdlvi^ioui, guutvn, curue, Ac, 
am well •■ tlie fnaiily, were bolinvoi to Im uiliIat the 
pvoiliar jirvtir^'Iiou of hlni aii'l liii cuiiMort -lunu, tlie 
iineen pf ]iL-av<'n. \Vbile, tba colour of tho li^^bt ot 
OM*. waa !iai:ri![l to him. iUnii- whiCn (inirnAU vere 
oflervd up to Liiii iu luicrtfin, bin pritnta ivotb wliite 
awa, hi* chai-lr>t viott iwprvwuUd aa drawu by fmir 
w&it« bvnea, and tho iwiuraU ware dmwtl in whita 
en the otMtulati of the iunugnral uicrilice already 
referred to. With rrferenoo to the iduutiE.(.iLliciti uf 
Jnpilcr with Uw> Libyan Aininnn, wa Alllln>. 

JUFITER. in antrononiy, tlie innorrooit of tlio 

aujor planeta travelling nutelde the sone of oaiemidii. 

He move* rtwud tbo sun in 4832*2843 uf our mean 

Wriar dsyii. at tbe avetaga diatanco of 47n,n!).1,0O0 

bQm^ bii gT««t<Kt and leaatdialai K-M bvio;; 1(^^60 J.I 100 

■od 4A2,TSS.0Ull milra; hia rirbit is inclined to tho 

[-•cfipCicat tlieangUt 1'18' 40''S: Ida dialoncc from tliu 

' Mnb vnriea from 6'Jl.rra9,O00 tn (nti,TOS),0()ii) uiiles; 

be rotaUB OD hi* niU In a few ininutea \m» than l«ri 

bom; tbe i&dination of his ada la rery email 

(3' I*). 80 that cbonse* to the acannna muat be klTDOSl 
niiknou-u: hu in the lar^^t of all Uie plaitefa^ Ida 
equatorial dintuetvr appealing to be SS,390 mUaa, 
and Lis polar diuuelw about ^Ot Ivea; hia volume la 
13IS7 tiincfl thnt of the earth, but bin mww In only 
8<JO*S(i7 times tJut of tbe cartJi, mj that Ilia menu 
Honaity i« tmly a litllo gniator than that of watar. 
He ia very bnght; aome aatroaomen any tliat in 
reality hiaaurfaoe k never leen, tluC instead of havlnt; 
a amall duuaity, he haa a dcnalty like that of tho 
oattli, and that he in a cam])am.titoly amidl licMly, with 
a Uuv« doudy aluiuit]]hae aucdi at may Iul^d aur- 
mimded the earth a Uid^ time ago. Ilia belts are 
diwky atrenka parailc^l tu hi* i.ijimtiir, and acum to Iw 
foTTned by his very rapid r»t:itiun (uu hia «c(uaUir 
obje<:ta are oarrted round at lie rat*nf 4(i* miloa p%r 
minute, inalead of L7 aa on the earth t, like uor trade- 
winda (in the earth; thi^y lie on either nids of a ^rliite 
txiuatorinJ belt, wliiirh loruutiuiea e&Litiita a n»y tint; 
outtlHie thoni, towardu tlic inliw, nro other more irrt- 
gnkr bolta more dimly aeea. The tlnu of tbe bolts 
ftre of acme interest; dark patches In the belu hnva 
enabled aatroDomers to dctanntne tho period of rota- 
tion of tbe planet en its axk. Juuiter baa four muoas, 
lo, EurMto, (ionymedev and CaUisto; they were die- 
oorered by Qalileu in lOIO; Ihey are at avera^ dia- 
taticea of 'from t^(i;,»»n to l,19'i,8S0 miloa fmm tbe 
ptaitet; lliev ii|i)Htiu-,likeourniaon,totuiiJ(H one revolu- 
tion on tbeirasia wLUe pBSBlagoDceTouudihti planet, 
tbe timcuf <me i-evolution being from 1 day IU hour* 
^7 minutca, ia 16 day* IQ houra 82 rmnatca. Eumpn, 
theenialleet, basadlame'ter of 2fltl9iuQ«w, Gai>]iii«l(.', 
tbolart,-«>>t, bua'tiamctcrof 3130 miles. Tho moon^ 
appear Croro thu enrtb to move in nearly atral;;ht linra 
frwra oni- Bidf of thu pliinct to the irthtr, au that tbe 
plan«<«"f thri)r<'rhita arenwuly thoiainna* tbew-liptlc 
and tboortntof Jupiter; they are eclipeed in the aluiduw 
of the pIuiL-t. and their own abadowd may be teen 
puaiiii^- over thu jilauol'a aurfitcc; their nppcantnccD 
in f^ntoat «In]i)^tiiui, kc, their edipiea iLud oi--«u]t> 
iiliuiu, tUvir tnutuiiln luid tbe tr»uaite<jf tbelr»badowa, 
allord au interesting attidy to amateur telaacopirte; 
tiin obaervation of tbcir irnniita and eoIipScM will 
aSoni a gaud meonn of dL-lermiuiufc termtml ]oa< 
gitude when hottar tnhlut of Jii| liAtu h*o pre- 
pared, ymm obaorvation of tlie evli|)«eM of Jupiter's 
Ratellitea llomer dbtoorered that tbe pr»)iu{;'><j'>n of 
lil^bt ia nut instantaneoua, and bo ctLluu luted iu velo- 
city. Seo Vxhk;itk or LiitHr. 

JUBA {Dtfrti, ri-'d deer), oue of thu inner Hebrides, 
Scotlnnd. in the county of Arc^yle, nrrrth-isoAt of l«iay, 
frvim whiflh it ia afi|«iriit<Ti by ft narrow Ktrnit, 
] j tnile wide, linviDi* tbe Oulf and Strait of Curry- 
vrecUcn at tta northem extremity, between (t and the 
island Scjurba. lt« length from M.W. to K.R. ia 31! 
milac, anil ito mc^an breadth 7 milee. The gvocral 
lutiiec-t of tlie jsliLiid la exQee<lint;ly wild and ru^i-ed, 
prriaoutiug, appnTLiitly, a outinuoui tniiuutain ridgv, 
uTiintomplttd by any vij.ilile plain or valley, and 
rising, nl tbrt-c ilillercut puinla, into Mly txiulcal 
potka, oallad tbiii I'aj<« uf Jura; tb« liighcat of which 
aCtiuni on elevnttun of 2700 feet, tbv other two aum- 
mita heln^ but a very tittle lower. On the ttaat aide 
an.' sirinu aiii|;iitar -cave^ nf anaeiuua dimeuaions, 
with dry and Inicl Houn^ and having lofty and 
UuttilifiiUy ar-ched rnof*. tjuarta, day-nlntf, intoo, 
chli'rite, and lAh alatoii, ore tbo iirindiml rodcL 
Trap veina, cunapicuou* for their aire and extent, aro 
aim oammoa. i'ho aoil of Jura ia Handy, ntid from 
the wetDoaa of tbe dlmote and want of reaily dnaln- 
0;^. much Bnctunbered with peat. It eontaiiiH but 
liitio loJtd reotly arable, and ia cidclly derntuii t^ tho 
rearing of lilaCK <;att]e, wbii^b am (ixportvd. j>l»ch, 
however, baa been done of Uto ycjira in the way 
tif turning waate and piuture landa to the bcetadvan* 



UcV- BUIxInuiunR i« cxtriiMvcly {aOatni onli Hid 
lo^ bacU. ruroiwl fumi«tly wlLh ilunbsd hMlfa, 
nrv uuir dcttici] with viirdun^ Tba uland Hbooudi 
ia gAOK, uul nni wbdtu it* Ktuaont rejniGftttan lor 
Itio iiiw of its nJ dccT. With tli« eUior Iiland* it 
ftMniu ttie united paruiiof Jiirn iind CuloiMftV. I'op. 

iu i&n. 7'n. 

JUBA.a department In tbe «Mt ot F^anni, boiudvd 
on tbe H. bjr llftut«-8aun«, from vrhich it u Mtiar- 
ftt«d I7 tba Oi|{non, k.K. lluiilw, K. hiwibterliuid, t>. 
iukI e.w. AId, tuid v. SuAuu-ul-Lutrc: luD^jth, k. to s., 
75 iLila; grmtoac bro&dtli, io tniks; area, IdSli 
KfUftriMniUa, HioaviKace U vitt mountninoiuh bein^ 
i-us«rv<] in tb« OMt Inr tbo prmEiipal duua oE tb« 
.lam, and la o4ber directions l>y lu nuaiilctttloM. 
TLe lufUoit >umiiut> vitbiu the (l«rp«rUBeiit b^vo bji 
ATcrngu beijfbc of BboTo 4000 fe«t Tb« wlialcnf th« 
nafnx boluii^ to tb« btudn of tbu KLunv, wUi(^ 
dimim it diiallf b}^ tbo Ain and tb« OigaiM. Ths 
bikM %n munerou*, but iiaa l l Tlie dituate to 
wfartor tai apiing U oolder tbftn unial Id tbe suae 
1«tttuile. *Miiit Mid rain «]w> arv rtrj prevalent. 
Tbe iituuiUt^ of arable loiiil in mors Iban one-tbinl 
of tb* wboic. Th« viae !■ aa !mt>ort4nt object of 
Ottttore, and ib tba aunuier fllMte pTixlucc,-! a wui« of 
good qnalilv. Tba piutura ara bntb «xt«iiriro an<l 
riah, mkI t£« cattle rwed un them, tuKiitber wiitt 
time iairy produm, form the t^ei trnmo of wmltb. 
SbMp am few in iiiimlicr. The mineralft include 
ttnai luct&Ii, biut Uie only one bd abnndtuit a» to 
be wnrlcfd to odTAntaf^ b iran, wbicb is the tUple 
maoufaelQn. UwlJo Riid alabtttter abound, Mid 
Uturs are salt Mn-m^ ia different qu«rter», fmm 
whieb a gooddsaliif Milt U m&du. Tbe diicf txixnt* 
lire wino, braudjr, UnijliTe obesM, timlMr, &e. Fi<r 
udminiiLnitivv ])t)r|nMi tks doputiBDDt i* divided 
liito four ammdlBnnuBti—XiaBa-la-Saulnlor, tbe 
ca()JtaI; Dule, Pollgay. tad St, Claude. Pop. In 
U72, 3&7,6U. 

JVKA, Tac (Geniiaii, Ltherlcrti), a chain of moim- 
taini In Europe, faeJengliig to iba iyetem of tbo AlyK 
TIm natiw ia Mnietifnea cooEoed ta Uw mij;i-a wbit^b 
orerbang the IaIu of tianewa, oa tha weet utd north* 
west, aiM pTooeedlDa thenoe in tbe Utter dirvcliMi 
tcrmiaalo at the Bhioa. Uoro pmporljr, bowoTcr, 
the elukin iacliidea all the raniilicatinD* tvhich lie 
narlh-wmi «f Ibe {irinoiiinl tbuii, and aleu all tbe 
heigbta between Sn-itzcrland, tbe IjaiM of G«nevs, 
Ibe Blwoe^ ib> Satot^ the Dovbe, aod tbe pUiiu of 
Al»o> AMd(diB{ In tiiia view thej may be sub- 
divided fnta nz matuit cbnirn itretduag iJLW. ta 
M.]r.K. Tbe graateet length cd the nngo U 2O0 to 
S30 nllMi, ima BaHey f n Fraaea, department of Ain, 
tn tho banlca of the Rhine; and tfie greatcat brawlUi 
aboat 03 mile*, betwer-n the l^okenE Geneva and the 
buAs of tbe DovAe. llie part of lb« Jnra nearcat 
tb» AlfN li the lofthrt; tfaa bai^l gndnally dimin- 
faUng ■■ ft (eeadea from them. From th[a drouiu- 
ataaon— Tiewed in conaeotlon with the otbor facta. 
Out Um ateeiMt dde ol tbe prlndMl cbabi b bi Ibe 
Mune dInMiMi, a»d that the xibarabialc diaiiu have 
a Biatfcad panlleUnn with that of Mont Ulanc and 
the adjaecttt moBnlaina the Jnrn mar be oenu* 
der«d M a toiraee tt the Swim Alpe, niUi which it 
waa |ie«bably imitod balon tbe exsavation ot tbe la- 
twvcaioc TaJIoy. Tbe principal geologloal flormatiaa 
ii Jun biueatiuue, with i;n:«i-«akd, bolabging to the 
lower ovtaoeeus eerie*. IftaUcti tBoavnarenumnrmia. 
Tba prindpal Ukei^ forauax a kind at rcMtrreirt of 
Iha waters of the Jure, ara tboaa of NenfebUel, 
Uocal, Jout. and St. Point I'ho nllajra am almoat 
all liagitaditial, Inllnwiag tbe x.v.n. dinctkn «f die 
principal lAuda Tbe two oUi< rircn wUob have 
thair ionrae ia ibc chain an baib FMneh — tha Ala 
aadtbeDimU— <u>dJ ce o cndl tigfTtaattaw—tenialo|>ee^ 

beldoy ta Iba baate of the Bbono. &«i fmai ihc 
loka of Oaoa*» On Jnra parveente x long trail •>( 
about 8000 feet Tbe Kno i« mmertJly uabiutwi, 
bnt occnaianal promfamnccii atart up and fom tb^ 
cnltDiuatiiig {lointH. Tb« bighoit of tbeee an tbe 
Itoculut, Jilntit 'J'l'iidrr, tbo IlAle; and tbe Gnmd 
ColoHibior; tlip bi-iybU tjf which «pe ieBpoe*I»«ly 
6C*1. iSir. 6'.H, and 6021 foct 

jritASSHJ KunMATION,or.Ii7BA Luiixmsr, 
n. nmuiB giveu liy Hitmboldt to tbe gTou|i» of rodtB 
wblob cxniititiite i)je diain o( the Junt, ideatfeal 
with the Kn4'li«h onlito. &00 tiEOLOor. 

.IUKlSPKirnE>i|-|t;,thc«ciciia--of Uw— UiAtia, 
tbo iciimce wliich iiTitfamot to eliow tbe priudplea on 
wblcb rights depend, and the best mmne fur reiuler- 
uig pco|^ ttocntK in tbe enjoyment oi thutr riffata. 
A oompliiSe SDheme nf jnrinpnidenos thna amhraGea 
ft tbeunr aa to thi; friuniUtiun uf u right, and a eya- 
torn of lawa or RUggeations of lawm intended ta pro* 
tect all people turn hnring their riebta Infringed by 
the aggnmiaiia of othere or by mistak*. Sometiiasa 
tbe word ie used ia a tann *]>c4--iiJ •cnic. ob when we 
■peak of Bocrteh, Englimh, or Itaouui jiuupnidmcev 
and in that case what i» meant is not monly an a«- 
(luaintanoe with Scotch, Knyliab, or Roman law, bub 
n, knoiwledge of thn prind[)W nr mppoiicil prindplea 
on wbicb theae hvhIcuib itrv rv(jin.tii>ely founited. 
It ia not onlrequcDUy applied, wlthuut ouy qualifica- 
tion, to signify tbe f>di.'ti-:<c »f itoninn lair. TIm rliief 
writen on ttteanrtiud juriapruilcnci! in tlm couulry 
ara Jeremy Bontlimii aixl ?>lr. AuxUu. 

JUBV and J UKV TRIALS. I'bc origin of trial 
bjjnryisvotynbicure. So»e have pretended tatncs 
tbe piactloe up to tbe Anglo^aaeoi^ aod believe 
tlikt Uie avrtem of oompnrgatloii, by wbirh a peiwin 
dcimd hunseli <if tbo guilt of a crinic t>v the oatha 
of twelve of Ua nalgbboais, called cximpuri^aton, who 
Rwore to bis innDConco of tbt; nlfcnce chu-gcd npoa 
him, in the find germ nf trial I>y jury. But thia ayi^ 
tcui of oumpuri^on ditFen from trial by Jury in 
tliiH, that the oatha of the eonpninlnn wem net 
fuuudod oD an inseetigation cf tbe charge caxried on 
by meam of the exananatwn of witneeae* and eifting 
VI drctunatoutlal evideuee, bnt on their knowlvdge 
of the character of the awnaed penoa and the 
cimunatonccn iu which he wa> pUoed. AU that 
{■ luiun-u ii tbAb from the eartleat Mmm tbe Angl^ 
Sftxon* and many other Germonio tribe* sbowad » 
marked prefurvnce fi^r the number twelre or aome 
multij'lc of It in fixing the uitmhor of JudgM or oon- 

Eur^toni : tlmt trinl by jury i» n very old ayetem. 
Ding enpreHly niBiiLiunL-d iu the CoiutitutiDiM of 
Clarendctn in 1164, and that it only gmdiiolly de- 
relupnl into Ita present form. Thu law wjtb rc|,-ard 
ti jiirica and jury triala ilifft^ni in Kni^Und and Scot- 
land. In Bngland jnriee ua vt three aDrts, via, 
ooroneis' Jntiss, grand-jutlea, and petty julae. C«- 
runen' joffice an summoned tc moke an taqoiMtiiasi 
into the draunalaacca of tbe death of any anu who 
baa been slain, or who baa died euddauly— that la. In 
•ome violent mid uuuattmlnuaiur,«r In priaoo. The 
inquiritiiw mtut bo made la pwaince of tbo body 
ituptr tuftn rorporuy, and at tlia place where the 
dMtli happened, tf the bodv b ttot totind, the va- 
rtxtcr canmd sit unltMi a spocaal ooamrinnaii be iameil 
for that pvpcaa. The Jury majeoadntofai^num* 
bet ahore eleven. The uaual namber ia twoily-llueeL 
If the remit iJ the Inqniaitinn in that tbe jory belier* 
tLat lootn pcnon ia accuuntable to tbe Uw for the 
death in qneetlaa tlwy bring in a rerdlA at murder 
or manalaaghlcr against eu« petaon, whcceopan the 
OEamer mnet ooounit that peraon fior tiiaL The 
cvnourreBce ot at leaat twelve of the jury bnsoMs ary 
faievwy ftadiag. 
llw oMoe of the grand-jury is to 1 



■oppoaod to be gaUty at ul t/Boacc Tbii jury nu? 
oonait oC uw immber mon thui eleren Mul Ictti 
Umo tvrao^-iour. A nuuilalo b ImomI tu Che tthcriS 
of *rwmrj cmuity to ntiim to mvttry Mmvin of tbe peace, 
Knd evvry eumniMrim of oi/rr mi lermi'itr, aii<i li 
gvamai jail dalivei?, twanty-fcnir ^moJ anil lawful 
xatat of hia oonnty tt> attcuil the court. in<]ntre intii 
tu»d prcMcnt all ofTancta mmmitteil wiUiin tli.c bottv 
uf tfaa cvuntjT. It la nid Am theto ^1'=^'^ jurors 
oogfae to bo fnC'holdon, but not to oaj tixcd aiuQunt. 
'Ilieir natnea ore nttimcd nn a piece of jiaruliuieiit 
or |Bipw by tlio nkdrlfl, which i« isUleJ u pon*/, aud 
ax inuij of Umat iw a|>p(iiir in onurt ar« •worn on 
thtmBdjury, not exc«ediit(r tweotjr -three, nor undur 
tWHTe. so tbat tw«lv« may OonaliDtte a majoritj'. 
lltcir oath ia, in ■ubatance, that they will dilkentl; 
iiuiniiv and tmo pTwwntmeiib make of all oaencva 
coBUDltt«d witUu the county; that the evvonunent'a 
eonnMtl, that of their follom, and their ovn they will 
koef> acarcti tliat tbny ivilL ptownt un man f<v Pttvy 
or iiialic4> ; nt^itlier will they leuvn auy cue uiirupiv- 
xanted fmm ffjir, favour, nnpctinn, or hopo <if reward', 
Intt tbaC they will prownt tlijiiin* tndy aa tbey 
oome to lliL-ir knuurWgc, >cmnUiig to their be*t 
nBdatvtandiiig. VsuAlly the )><n>«i<.Uji(j judge of the 
court inalructa tbem iir the inatten which an irithin 
thalr jorkdktioti, by delivering to them a dui^e 
ceataiuiDg a aunuuiiry of lite oSteacoa and othtv 
bunncM irbii^k may c«nu! before tlteon, llisy then 
raliro to their rooni, and ait In eecret, hearing evi- 
diDN Id favour of tha proeeonticiii only, a« tbe auia 
ipmOan before them is whether the par^ acouacd 
OUffal to be put upon bi> trial to answer toe acoUMtioii. 
Bot they are aluraya bound to act upon legal evt- 
Jcnee; and wo iutructwl that tlwy oa^ht not to find 
«B IndicCnuiDt unleea npan their uatba they are per- 
•nadod, BO far ns the evidGuiyi gnee, tbnt the accuRi- 
tjaa in tmo. U'ho modo of ttouUNiLti'in ie bv n wriltCR 
atatcment in aulema form, duacribin]; tliu uUuacv, 
witfa all the pit-per aecomjianiraenU of ttma and cir- 
canataaoca^ and certainty of act and ytnoa, which 
{9 csUed an indictment, or by a modA lev fuminl 
(wtiJcb b ueuolly the Hp«utiinvouH act of the ttHiud- 
jaij) called a prfJininuiU, Kad which is aftcn.-uvla 
fmt into enleinn form liy nome nrojitf olticcr. Nn 
■adictUMtit or jjtvw-ntuit'Ul can iw uuiiiu i>xi'i:pt by 
tba eontnirrcnce of nt letut twelve of tlio jurora. 
Tlw (rand-jury icay aceuic upon tlicir own know 
Mgtt; but It Li geutTuUy >lfino upon the teatiraony 
ol wiEntwte under c«tlj. aiii1 ■ithcr evidence produced 
Mod liCMfd Ixifiire thuiR. 'I'liu proceedings of thn 
graiid-jary art', in the llmt iiiiULm.-<.-, at Uki LusUjjn- 
ticn of lite guvL-nuucnl or utLii^r )i[u)M.-oittiir. and are 
ex fMirtc, uul ill nrrrnt d<'lil>enitir>n. 'i'hn nccmird 
liaa no knowloili^j nf, nor ritrht to iiilvrfcre wilii, tbuir 
]«K-«odiiig«. If thtiv find tlie aocusatiou truu (which 
ta ninally dravm up in fiirm by tlie publio preeccMtor) 
liiey wnte upon the indictiiirnt tJta wordn ' A truu 
1411.' wtilcb ia algaed t^ ilift furetunu er chief of the 
f^nutd-jory, and i« pneonu-d w the court publicly, 
(tad in the preaenco of all the jiimni. If tlio indict- 
meat ii uut proved Co the tAtWiujlioii til thu ^nuid- 
JTHT, ' NoC a tnie Irill,' or ' Not fi.iiuri," i» written on 
it by tlie p'luid-jury or by thutr furviniui, and it u 
then. In couuDoii parliuice, aald to bs iffnond (a tcnn 
(Icrjead from the faot (hat fomMtly tke word ijuor- 
muu, WMUUig *w« ara ignorant,' waa written on tho 
iadutmBOtioateadof oEtliervf thv phn we* mentioned), 
tmi ^aoouBAtiaii Li diamUsedoj unfounded. When ] 
tfiegruuJ>jury rctiimaniiidictEiii;iitnsAtriicbtlll^i*Ua ' 
tmi tlie iDdictmeat ■» aaii) (o be /aunJ, anil tbe , 
l^rty etaoib iii<lict«d, and may be reqvdred to be |ntt 
upm hia trial. ^Vmb tba indictmeot u sot found, 
(T ia ile«fArcd to b« not tme, the aoaiued, if ho L» in 
COitedy or 1>W been in any way retjuiiud to uppetu- 

at the conrt and anavvr to any acouaatton acalnat 
htm. in entitled bo be dtacbarvod w dlmiiaod froni 
any further inquiry or attendaaee Iwfbn tbo onurL 
Kvi!ry fiiiblic oilcnce nuky be Dcoperly the anbject of 
au iDdH.'tii)«>ut, and taken o(^uanc« of by tbe raMid- 
juryuf the connty within whidt it iflcomaiiHodi But 
there i« another roode of nroeeedine at the comtont 
law, nt thu eidt uf Uio king, called an in/anaaliom, 
which la atmilar to an Indictnent, oKcept that it la 
not found by the grand-jury, and ia Glud, ex artVii\ 
liY the proper officer of Uis Koreroment. An ififor- 
mation caiiuot l>e liled oicejit in iraiK-s of ucro iiiia- 
dvinotmoiii, or ofTunoi* not capital ; for, whenever 
any capftnl oflenoe la elinrsed aKnlust u party, he 
cannot be put upon hia trial unlcea the accusalian bo 
madobytbesnmd-jiiry by indicttncnt. It baa been 
already atated that tlio RTand>jury ia to intiuirv only 
into cHmea oommltted iu tbe county for wbiob tboy 
nt And this ia ref^uWIy true nt the comnion law, 
for no toon wna bound bo amwer (or any crime but 
twfont hia peeiB Is thu L'uuuty and neighbouihowl 
where it wh onioinltt«i. Itiit hj sundi^ statntaa, 
Iwith in England and Amerioa, Mme offeaen not 
oumnitLcd within a county have, to prevent a defect 
lit juBtioe, tieen made cwnitable thereia. Tu cau- 
mwato tbeat afleBDoa wouhl occupy too lot^^ a apooau 
There iro proper powon Tested in the eoum to 00m- 
pel the attenoanoe of {jnunl-jurora ; and if any are 
rotumed wbnaronot qiudifird, thny mny 1"' Rxt-Iiidod 
from tlio pand; and if an indiotuient be fDUud by 
psnona nnt quoUAed, the aocuicd may excvpt to & 
OA thii account. 

Petty or petit JTities conaiiit of twetro peraooa, 
and no mem, fur Uia trial of all n-iudnal ofTonoea^ 
aod of all i«>uoa of fact in civQ cases at tho oom- 
mun law. 1'be jury of attaint. ooniJKtin^ of twe.oty- 
four jurors, suniuiuucd tor tho {nirp'«D of inveeti- 
gating the jiiotice of a verdict returned by a jary of 
twelve men, wa* abeUihed by 4 Gou. tV. cap. L 
a GO, 61. A jury may t>« either oommon or epeciaL 
A qiodal jury may bo dcmaodedi hy the 7)laintiff 
in any action, and by oilhor ptaiotiff or dofendont 
ill an actiuiL of replavlti, on due uutlee belui; h-i^-en 
to the other party in tho action. Tho qnaliflca- 
ti linn of acTimtiinn jurnr are acttlcd liy It lim, IV, 
csp. 1. a. 1, oa amended by 33 and 34 VicL cap. 
luivLi., by which latter aet the quaUfioatlo&g of a 
■pedal juror are alio actUod By the fonnar act it 
ia enacted that every man, naltan eiempled on no- 
count nf hii rank or c^liii^, ihail be qualifinl for 
•crvice on n eniTiinou jury who, brfng' bntwoeo 
tu'euty-oriu and aixty yuar* of h'^, aUnll Lave wilhin 
tb« cuuuty iu which tie miiles, in hia own nonie or In 
tnMt for bim, HO [«r annum, above reprisea (that Is 
exvliutvf of bunlonc), iti laada or toncmcnts, or in 
rcuts itiEuin^ ont of such londa or tenementa; or 
who aball hA>i- within tbe aame county £20 per 
annum above reprinoa in lanih ttr bonanuinta beJd 
by IcMO for £1 yean or lan|;er, or for a term of yeora 
determinable on any lUe or Ufm; or who, belni; a 
houicholdrr, nh^ll berated or oMCMod to tbo poor-nte 
-nrlutbeinlui'bited-Uouaednly in MidillawxreiavahM 
of not le«a than £30, or in any other ei^iuity on n 
vsluatif not leaa thui .£20; or who alinll occupy a 
haaM contnbingr not leaa than littei.'n windows. In 
Walee pcnoua may aervL- uii juriis ivbu are qualified 
to the eKtunt of three-fifths uf luiy Gf the quaiiflea- 
tiouH which ore held aa lulfident in Enghuid. By 
thti eecoDd of the two acta above-mentioned olieoe 
diimidlcd ill tliia country for ben yean or more may 
, be iurora if athorwiao qualifloil. Convict* (unloM 
I pfuuuned) and outlaws ar«dlaqaaMed. ActSSondSi 
I Vict. cap. lixvii. alfo ptyn-ides that every man whow 
I name ahall be on the jurors^ book (a &st ot jaron 
' belonffiug: to a county which ia Itopb in the cmrtody 





of llie fhi^rlllF null incO f«r ono yenr, bt/innin^ with 
tha 111 oc Jnti<i:iryj fur Any county !ii Kn};liin>l or 
\Viilu», or (or the county uf tlut cily of LomJon, and 
vbo «liall be l<.-;,'slly untitlcil bo he railed an cujuire, 
cr ahall l« A ]H'r9iiii of liij-liL-r dt^nw, or slinll bi; n 
banker or tni.-n-h.-uit, or who Hhall octnjiy n [iritate 
ilutelliii^'liv'iiut rate<l or lugMMCiI Id ttie poor-rale or 
to the inLabited-lioiue Auty on ft viUkio ot not ItM 
tbKa £iW, ill A Uiivti cuiita tain g, itccan ling tii the 
nnmit next prec«iliri]{ tlir pre-iiaration iif tha jury 
liat. 30,n00 iiUutb^Minu and upwitrdt, ur on a value ot 
not htn than XSu oltcwhor-i, or who ihdl occopy 
pnmiMt other than » (bmi rati-:il or ilmcmcuI as afore- 
said ou a talue of not liwi tliaii I'lOU, or a farm uf 
not Ira ttian £300, KhiOl bo <)iinJifii>d aiul liahlo to 
■en'« w ft aiuMial jaror in ttia county in wkiab lie 
midM. Peers, jud^tM, mlnUt^n <if ftll Cbrlilun 
dcnoRuaatinna. as w^ a* cf tlie Jevriih pftnunuon, 
nol {inu.-tliing' any ■nciilnr caLling, cxnrpt tHat of 
■cliotJtuascer, pnctLsluji sdrjcauln. barrint^n, and 
other person* coaoecteii with tht lavr, npoth«cnric», 
otfificra in the army nr navy, Ac, itrn imtircly ei- 
vmpl Inna Kerfiny «n iurJM («oo tbe Mhedule to 33 
And 34 Vict ct^ IxsviL) Wben any cuu« la to bs 
tried by a jury a jiroMpt iatiiaa to tlH ftlioriff ol Uw 
pruper county, reanmng biin to loloct and auniinoin 
to tb« court at wlilcli tbo trial i> tu be bad a mitabls 
uninbor ot jurvn for tbo trial uf tbo vhum; luid bo 
noonrdin^ly niakM r«tum of the nomci of tbe inrots 
on ft pisoc of giflrobment or pnjier itlivum, im bufuro 
•totur), colleil a paiutf, wbo an OOmpsllftbU to nttcnd 
at Uie time nud |ilnc« a])|io[uto^ when It u ft dvil 
caM, if tlw shcrltf bave any interett in tho oiao, or 
tj not hnpattia], or is rolat«i} to the iMrtios, th« jvron 
■re aclunlcd by aome ntbcr |iit>per idficer, and luaally 
by tli« coronw of tbe eonnly. If any of tli« jiiron 
da not appvar when tbo cauM oomoa up fur trU1, tho 
court may inHirt *iich fins fti aooms fit. In the oam! 
of jHinKiiia ■uinuiniMKt to ■nrva on any of the inferiLir 
ouujts of rwoid Id Li^udon. or b any olb«r liberty, 
dty, borough, or town, Uio line In om of default is 
tM to be more tlMO 40i. or \*m thun '^(1<. The iunr 
H wtlM/livi from tbuss aiunniuiiDd by UiUoL U all 
tiui janm do not «ppaar, or any of tbom an juatly 
objected to aad mc wide, in virtoo of tbe riffbt <rf 
chaU«mga otemlMd by Uio pmlet to a suit (see 
CBALtJuiaR), Um ileficiancr may be i>ui>p1tr<] fnnu 
among tlw bymlAodmi having (raitablc iiuajilji-ationi, 
whkb ■■ cnUad (aUntt jnnm dt U^ibvt < tn-uuuloiui- 
(h», front wbieb eirranutanM tha permn* thus bc- 
kwtcd an dconmlnatAd UltMUfn. The jury heinff 
tliiM full and abovD obJMtiou are awom, ' unM and 
Itvlv to try lh« Ihh* bvtwvm tfae partiM, and a true 
VflMkt to giro aoconUng to lh« ortdance^' After 
tba inrora are ■■mm tbi^ mn not altowed to leave 
Omo boi, wiibmit tbo j«nLilBalon of the court, till th* 
orkkBM is K>v«u; and even wben mdi pem^Mton !■ 
glvvn any Juror Uarliig tba box DMat likre a ltee|ier 
<ritb fatal, nnJoaa tbo esae be » etjmiikal one in wbiob 
the nriaoncr is cbaji;w,l with a miodemouionr or with 
MtlemcDeaaoun, when, if the ease Is iitoloaced btfaad 
a iay, tho jury an aUomd to go home on aqpiflng 
sot to allow thdnMlros to be spokon V^ on any mit^ 
je«t roanecteJ with the tnal. V'hen tbe priwnier is 
«lMU]([«d with trasMHi or felony the Jury are usually 
allowet) to retb* only in custody of the sbetlll and 
Ua attoen, who are nrom to keep Uicm together, 
and not b> sfwak to them with reference to the triaL 
Tbo jury bvinK svora, tho cause la then tried b 
ofiwt oaurt. !lhii evidawe b oSwil, and iho wjt- 
a«BM pibHdy nrom ami anmined in tbe pnaeooe 
o( the jndgm^ the ooiiaad «a aadi Mm, Iho jnry, and 
all otbsr persona In ^toadanea. 1^ <|nestian wlw 
thw any eeidenoe ie oenpetMl to bo given to the 
jujr 1% if any objection b made, decided bj the 

aniri. If reiii-tcil, it is ncrnr hftanl by tbs ftfji U 
s'liiiitted. it in re.itt, or, if given liy it witaeii^ b* !• 
enainined bofoir the jiirj'- '-il"* pw*," *l>o calls a 
witneMt first emninoa bim, and be ix tbcu liable to 
be ui'iiM-exMtiin'nd hy thf^ nther side; and U any 
(iiieiitinn is iuiUimI ofUivb ritbi*r party ilocin* intpropi^r, 
the ojiiiiidu of tliu eimrt is taken no it l>cforn tile wil- 
noM is idlcin'cd to i:\vv bis answer. Sus shi>, it is in 
mpcct to any written evidence or docuntcni oScrud 
at tho trial Aiul if either party requests it, tbo 
judgo who presiitiis at tiie tiinl makoa a note, in 
^vrUt[lS, of tbo objctitiuD. no that llie party msy avnii 
biiniinK of it aftorwardB. upon a iDolion for a new 
trial, or by a writ of I'mir, in a suit-tble murmer. 
Bofure tbcuvidanLT inutT'cred tlir eiuujie) fur the |>arty 
who opens tbo cuusf uu each tilde nial-c* a short in* 
tTTKlDotion, Bt&ting the awe, the points in cotitrowrsy, 
and tho fact* which be eipects to pmve, bo tbat tbo 
jury may more cleiuly luidxtataiid tlie lieatiivf of the 
«^i(Eence aa it fa prviancod. After all the evidenoe 
ia gono through the oouusel e« each aide onfue tbo 
case to the jury, at Urge, oonunenticg upon ewry 
paH of it. and each inaiitina: upon a vi-nlicb in bis 
favour. If any cjuBslinns of law arise ion in ni<.ot 
iiMtancM tliey do| the judge la iwiucsted and is 
bound publicly tu staCe bis opinion ou all tJie ]iointa 
uf law spi'Iicalib' to it. 'I'lii* he urdiniuily don in sum- 
mLDg up the case aftT the urvuments "{ tbe couuaol 
aro over; hut he may do It beforo U he cheenea. 
When the aripinintts are finiabod the prtaiding judgo 
ftddrassee the jury, stating to bbem the oobstioiii^ !•• 
capituIatisK the ovideuoe, and oommenting on it in 
Bticli ft mivntier aa ha dovoi corrwC for th* pnip>:«a 
of eiJAMini; the jury to uodantand it well, and to 
apply thii luw properly to it. In tbtae aildrosaos he 
often ftrc-ly L-iprvcsM hia iwlnion a* to the weight of 
evideuou, tbe aulBdoncy of th* proofs, tbe force ot 
particular objectiiins, and tho onnunmtJi of the oonn* 
■ol. Itnt it being a jprinciple of law tiist tbe jury 
is to rvsjiuml as lo Di»lt«ra of fact, and llis judges as 
to maticra of law {atl ijuirttiamt /ani rrtfKm'lrM 
jicratoitt, ad quittli^nd Iryit rtjjioiultat judinej), it ia 
alwnvi unidc-rstciiHl that Ihew) (vniitieiile un luatlen 
of fact are not binding on the jnr^-, and that they 
ars given solely with a view of enaLlIog tho jury to 
exerdso their fnnctlons more perfectly, and that the 
jury are at liberty to diarcganl them if they pleaao. 
Itiit, generally speaking, they do pecoive n«at weight 
from the jury, who naCunJIy pliu-e cvofldenee In tlw 
judges; and xhorefon, unlcas the jadge obvioaalf 
««hibit« some {mpra|)rii!Cim <ir lirtrays snm* uojoati* 
liable foelbig, tlicy (.imiiidFr him a n friaod, wdlng 
and iMlsting tbum In tbuir duty; and hla aaiwuia 
being always in publlcv and open lo tho crlUdam 
of the public, aa well as of the pii:jeiarinn, it rarely 
occun tlial his omduct is derail eKOOpthmablei. 
Still the jury have a ri^'ht to riinn, and do (urn. an 
indnrpenilent jiidgment upon ntatters of fae*; and 
their judgment beeoroea cooclnaivo. After tlio jndgo 
haa nnbbod bia anmmtng-up the jkiry withdraw 
into a private loom. wh«n they ire kept togvtfitr 
for the purpoee of delibention, until they have all 
i^treed In a vi>nUct (rrm/wYuml upon the point in 
oontrovwrey. 't'hsy are not pormittod to have any 
intercoonw with any other persons, and ore aUowtd 
during their oontlDnanen in ■eeret aenion to have 
only such food and other neoeaaarlt* aa are Indiajien^ 
abln. Indeml. by the old law, they ware to b« kept 
without meat, driult, fire, or candle until tbey wm 
agreed, onleat by immitrton of the Mmrt, which aoon, 
however, becaaw almeal a malUT «f «Hirw>. When 
they are lyraeil they cenne Intn open otmrl, and their 
tttiHa being callod, they dellverin their verdict, whldi 
ia reeosded by tlw pn>per oWour, who then rtada it 
ftlond to the jury, and asks them if tbey agTwe to it 


U Iht JnryBMB an Nvenlly ukoi if 
' ikty a^n». which is called jMiltHf the jiiry. 8omc- 
tioM* wbcn tbe f*eU rtb rciy coinplickteil, nr innuLve 
i|tMwtJi>iw ul In«r of great riitBintltv, tli« jury, Inatoi] 
(if fimliu^ n (Evnvml vontict that tii« imuc of t»fC% i* 
bv the piaintiti iir for the tlcfcnilAtit, «t»t« nil Uie 
fade At Luvu ami &«k thu i-oiirt tu ilL-ciile ujiuii tlioM 
CMita, wbvtK'.'r tliti imiv ntigbt to Imt fiiiind fur tho 
pTaJBtiff OT for the dcfemUnt. Tbu w coUvd « ■f«ci»l 
Vflcdiot. It nrclT ucoun Id oriiuiiial cues, ud ia 
Bol "VT cnrnmou in dvit caaca. But tlie jury aro 
iMiTer tibti^al to find > upookl vmlict, and lOftjr in 
itll CMH ^*« a i;«D«rHl verdict if tbey chooae. If 
th» jarj, after being k«pt togsUur for « Miuid«t«blo 
time; cannot afrrbc, thoy arc lutiall^ braugbt into 
«Nift by ilia pni|i«rattic«r, and tbcconrt, if tWrdif- 
fioalty Is about any niatt«r cf law, often nwkn addl- 
booAl espUnationji. But if, after every reasonable 
SffWt, th« jury onntinuc la diattt^pex, Uicy ari: dit- 
cbargied by lIi« vuiirt, aiid tbi) (-luae Diuat Uioit be 
triad anew. In criminal cmhb*. seeing tbAt nn ti^w 
trial can Im Imd, atid i^jitdnlly in capital caaoa. it JX 
wllli |^>it rvluctAncr tbal the caart allowa the dia- 
^arg« of a jury itlc^r the cauae la ooce oonuiiittod 

Ia fieotland then ia tio coroner'a Jury, and t}ie 
mUj caM in which a grnnil-jury is suniiuoiiMl is tliat 
of tnamm, with regard to which thn Sootrh kw !>•• 
been aaabnilAted to that of KnitlauiL In all otlicr 
criminal triala in Soottand the jury cunAiflto of tifti-eii 
jaroHh and a majority ia mtficiert to convict. In 
dril cneea, for which that liy jury wtis intrudnrMl 
into Scotland by SS U«o, III. vagv xlii., the luiuibKr 
til jnrun i?, m Id EngLiDd, twelve^ tintl thoy must as 
n role Iw iinanimouii bcrnre they pre any verdict; 
but in caaes that aru trini liefure tbe Court of Hl-i- 
aioD ia Scotland tt in pniritM by 'JJ uud 23 Vi<.-t. 
cap. *ii. (aracudint' 17 tied 18 Vict. cap. llx.) th&t if, 
after bhn-e hours' dcJlbe ration, the jtiry ful to n);p%o 
Bpon a vnrdii^t, the o|)tniuu i>[ tiius of LUem ahall he 
aooetitod nM n iniHiriDnt vcrdirt, and that tlio jury 
•ball not be tUjichar'n'cd uulU after six huuni' dcHbcr- 
kMico. This provision ia apgiUcable to escht-i|iK-r 
A* in Kuaiand, jumn aia cither apcciid ur 
aomaon. Tlie <{iiMiRt*ltnnii of oamnuin jumn, and 
tho RMnner of vnrcillliti; tluefn and obueatuK them in 
eciBUiial Uiab in tkotlnnd, am rajrulaBed by act t> 
GaA iV. flap. xxii. l-'irat, ulth rR^-aril to the quali- 
ficaljons, it is (iruvided tltat pvirry ui.-in nut uxnuipUKl 
by kinraiikor r-.dlinu ist^iiatiiled toswvonaC'Jinuiiim 
jury, wh'i !■ Iiclwrr^n the agea of twonlT-oaaaiid nxty, 
and u ii>fi:ft ia hii nwn riKht nr in iLat at his wife, 
in barilafr^ fee, or lifr^recit Oi the yearly value of at 
loMt t5 in tba county nr city from which tlia jury is 
to ba drawn, m- baa movable pronerty ntf ttin value 
«f at leaat £2U0. A man >■ iiUAlifieil U> ecrro m a 

r[ial juror by paying csm upon 4)100 or upward* 
valued rent, or aaMwied tax** on a boww routed 
at £30 yearly or npwarda (5A Ceo. Iff. cap. xlti.l,or 
bjr being infi^ft in land* and bcrilnfros in any part uf 
SootJand yielding the mm of i)1(iO nr upwarda iif 
raal yearly n-ul, ur ijuaewiiiit I't^rw'ual ptMiwrly to 
^llwunountof at least £l.UOu (7 Geo. IV. cajh vtii.l 
TIm rank* and profcssians whoaa mombfrs are l-x- 
< ■mf'ted fromacrrinfi on juriea in Scotland nr» ni<3u-ly 
lbs •ome u ibow wo exempted In Eiifflnnd. Li*u 
both of oonimon juron and spoclal jiiroM fur ea<.-h 
enKiRtr are kept in the ahnrilTii office i-f that coituty, 
«nd Uto caiinticH of Editibun;ti nml l,aii:itk are ell- 
viflwl int» rlixtricw, fur oaob iif wblvb Riiuiliu' liijW 
arc mad« npt Wbore the attcndanca oi jurora ia 
niquin-d the aberiffa of the conatiof vrlthtn the cir- 
cuit mu^t rweiTo notice from tlio citric of the court 
of the number iwiuirwl, and tlio •bcriirii muHt then 

rslnni tliat number In oertain proparttoof bsD Itw 
ditEormt couutict^ In oil critDiuol triab Hn nwnliw 
<t junis returned la forty-five, unle« tka cohtnty 
be directed. lu civil oausm the uumber of jurom 
retmnod aiuit irat bn lew than thirty-iux nor mncs 
than fifty. Fur triab held in Ediubiirxh tJu: sLmlfw 
td HaddingtoD and Linlith|[ow am tcgiiirad to tend In 
liita of jurara to the sli«riff of Edinburgh, who aelecta 
in certMn pra[>ortinnii from them an well aa fttna the 
Edlubiirk'li list* llie nomet of the jiiruni ruiuind. 
WhoD furty-firo jurors are reqnintd twtuty-four ore 
taken (nini the city of l-^inbur^h, six frtxii tbc town 
of I^itb, nix fmui the rcuuinder uf the county of 
ifdinbuTsb, five frotn tli« county of Uaddinstou. awl 
four tnm that of Linlithgow. In crimtul triala 
one-third c4 th« whiilo forty-fire muit be Npecial 
juron. \Vli4.'u a anialler uuitibur ia rtxguired tbey 
are token in the saii]« proportion*. Jn ail retoraa 
tnodo by iherifls the saniai must be taken in rc^Ur 
order from the iM^inntnit ef the nils, ur intni the 
UADie next fiJlowIiu; the hut whiuh waa token at th« 
previcMW rntiLm. Any jiimr who U Mimnionail to 
atlwul in oourt, anil fnilH to a[)iiciir, U liable to a tine 
nut exceeding £& and not Irse tbim J.^J, uuk-n a 
mffidrat exouM be given. If a full jury f;iil» to 
a]i[K<ar,tbo wurt uwy direct the aheriff t« add to lL« 
liJit the aamet of any other ponona then in court 
who are entered in sunia other list uf jurors uf tba 
city or county; and any punon withdrawing from 
(■uitrt after hi* naoie luia bcvo so added it liahlu to 
be flut.'d to the aaiiM amount aa one who was origi- 
nally Btinu»on«d to appear and failad to do so. Tha 
namo fd thciac wlin arc to acrve un any particular 
jury are dulenulued by baljut. lu a ci-iuiiiial trial 
five jurors may ba pwemptorily duUeoged or ob- 
jected to by each party; the cballeojftt. if mnale at 
ail, uiunt bo made when the name uf the jutur cbal- 
Icn^^xl ia drawn ffoin the ballot-box. lu .i civil trial 
vnly four pereiaptory cholUnt^a are allowed to oadt 
party. Challougca on stated grounds iirc nut re- 
BtriiUtd to any uutulwr. In tnala before a siiecdal 
jury tlifi jury ia Milectod from the number of thua* 
rolunicd in tliu foiluwiag- way. Thirty-six jurwa 
miiAt l>o Tiitutned, and each jiarty Htrlke« otf one 
nnuio frodi tba tntHlbar alternately, the prosecutor 
hnvin^ tho jireoedenee, and thia {■ continued Diitii 
the uunibcr la reduced to twenty. Whim eitUur 
pEirty fails to attend on this occ-ulon his place Is 
taki~n in ttin perfomianoc of thi* ikity by tbo clei'k 
of the court. The twenty thiti left on the lint aro 
iiinimoned to attend in court ou tliu day lA trUd, and 
the lirvl twolvo of thorn who nppcir form the jur^'. 
llicrc in no &xrd rule in Siittlnnil a* thorv i* in I'J>g> 
land to <tet«miliiL- what cnw* wn*i lie tried by a 
jury. In each Individual ann it is left to the pro- 
socnt^r to detonnino whether tli« ctffcnw with whik'h 
tiie prinoncr is clutrt^^il in uf kdcIi n chnrnctcr m tu 
require ■ jury, 

TKal by jury was ioiioJuced intn Frunce In oon- 
•eqnencc of llie revohitiimof 17^^, Tbr lawn of £lrt 
Au^ntnt uud 'i\iii Su|iU.-mbiT, I'W, oud Iritb Kcptcui- 
bor, lifll, r^gulatrt tb^ < aiid the uhmIp uf 
openition of the ]-'rcncb jury, which fint cxcrcisod 
Its funr^tfbna in January, 37t«'2. The i;otuitituent 
AsM^uibly limitod tjjis application of ihe Bysl^ui of 
jury tri.-il to criminal caif.'n, anil VJitnliliiiihc^t a jury 
ii^f accusation and jury of jttJi.-n«;nt. juiswmng to 
the Kngllsh grand and jittty juriM. In IMOS the 
jury of sccusatiuu wu* ahoIiKbed, aiiil ila place token 
by a cIiiuhIm!]' cri^ntnd in uacli i-iMirt of apjieHl. ynoe 
then tbe luw rvfecrin^' to jimi.-N iti Fniuco hiu bvcu 
made tho subject of fr«4'ucRt nmdlflcati'iins, the bst 
of which wiu on the 21st NoTcinlicr, 1^7:J. Under 
the guvcruiueiit of July, ISJIO, th« jurocn who bad, 
provioiwly been nomiuatetl by the preft«l8 were 



duMra bf lot from Umm of Uw fcudienca ld tho 
ooDrt whaa« nnnim wore cnntainLtl in gMUOBl li«ti 
dnwa up by tlw sdntlnUtmtion. AAar tlic rvrolu- 
tion of 1848 tbo nutobar of junm w» muhknbly 
AUiniiiiBtecl, but it van ngnin diniininhei^ under the 
unjiin! hjf tli-i law ot June +, It.'i^. TIhs umpire 
ftWi witiulrvir nffmoM of tVio yrfm frma thm oon- 
•hlanrtloo of ^ric*. Aftvr thv foU of tb* initpirv the 
gOTenmuat m i»daruil detf«nee ngain pat inlo force 
Ihclawuf 1S48. S!uw tfani. b; a bpmUI law (A[>r{l, 
1$7I>, the national nnKOnlily hnarsatarvd tho juria- 
dinioa u( Juriw iu ofTancH uf tlie (ikm. Tbti lu'w 
of NDVcmb«r SI, IftTS, is dii« to a reaction apuaal 
democratic idm*, tbo inlhiencv of wliicji roactinn iit 
raaniferted principally in tlw oompiwltioii d( the 
oomininlona inatitated for the puipow of (mmin^ 
definitiTO jiiry-luts. Trial by jtiry tiu alao bcun 
intmduMd into other countri en. fUnca IS 18 it bmt 
Ii«VD intnxliKieil iutu uuuiy of tUo Cii-niian atatea. 
Id Ad2um, 1^71, it waa intrrKlnocl at Koni*. 

JV&Y-JSASiT, ft tetupan»7 or occmIoiuiI nast 
«rwt«d in a abip iu the place of one that hM 'been 
cairied away by tompest, buttlw, fti\ Jnr^-maita 
an aonwliiDM ortctod ia a now «hip to navigitto httr 
di>wn a rlrer or to a utMHnKirin^ ^n, wben her 
|l«>|Mr niMte Mt> nrcpurwlfur hur. 

JUSHII'.l', * FntiK^h fxmilr which hiM nnxlitcwl 
a niuaber of duiliiiLfui>h«d botoidito, of vrnuta t1i« 
foUowiag are the pjiDdpnl:— 

AitmiKB ni JiiMizr (bom at I.y«ni IftSQ; dioil 
&l Piuiii i'ii'i) looiiu a IntaaicKl tour. Mid brnught 
frani S|>aiD » larvv ouUeL-UoB of planU. Aflor Uili 
bo wroto upon •ubjoota conOMtoa v^ith na'.unl bis- 
lecy and laedleiiic. Ileiatluaiitborof the njipciidix 
la the lutiluUouea rei RerbariK uf Toumcfort 
(LrncM, 1T19) and of a Uiicoinm aor lea progr>« de 

BssKABn |>E JiiMiKr, hnra At Lyoiu 16S9; dJeil 
ab Paria 1777. Wliilo utill very yinuvtf be aixoQ- 
nasiad hU bnrthar on lii* botauJool jmimeya Ittto 
Spain Bwl Portii^ Tji 172t»liorM«ivwl the dsgim) 
of M.D. at Monttxllier, (uul in 17'2'i ho waa ^t- 

¥aiiltxl i<i>b-daiiiaD>tntor at tbu ■rAnliu «Ia Boi at 
nri>L We ars indofatcxj t4^ him for a new wlition, 
Iu two rola. linto, ol Tonmefoft'e Hinory of Ploata 
in tho Nti^kbooriioocl of Paiia (Hiatolre doa Plaatea 
qui naiMOBt aux Knvirona de Pari*), pnblialinl in 
ItSfi. He aTlisrwanls pubUahed, on dllloreut |>l)uiU, 
a ainnbor of nwnugra^lu, diatillglriilml by gnai 
Mflndly and amtoHaa of obacrvatian; and ra^ 
bdora TmnUoy bo MtabUabod tbo ulnal nature of 
polype, whi^ wm than regarded aa vi^etaUta. Foe 
a long period beJon Uadeath ba wna emplinred epoa 
a ■yitonallc djiwititatton dl the regetablo kineiMa, 
baaed Uimo the uew primapleof tbo uaUiral alStdtles 
of planta. Daring tba taat ywan of hia life he was 
blind. Covior, In a biotrn^Th^ inoBKiir on Itiohard, 
valla Bernard de Jneidau ' the moat modatt and |wr- 
iMiia Um nmt pnioaad botaah* of tha alsbtMnth 
voBtorr, -mia, aUboo^ ha aoarodjr pabtiuled any 
tUng. >■ naverUwlea* Uio biapbing goiiu* d modani 

Aktoihr Ljicanr ni Jcmiku. nephew of the 
two praoodin^ membcn ol the family, bimt at I.yona 
In i;4S; dl«lat FaifeinlUH. Ua paaad aa doctor 
in 1770, and in tbeMBHynarwuappidntedaadfltatit 
to l.c-nM)iuiier, profoaor al the JanUn dn BoL For 
pitfua tjaiu h« hodtatnd betwean bobmr and o>cdicii>fc 
lDlT73.wban be waa admitted a moinber of the Aea- 
demy at SdanoM be pobUAed a Htimnir* enr la (a- 
miUo dee tynoBcalacfa^ an imponani worli, in wliiab 
Um prinoiplea of Um ualural iTalera of cbiialScatiaa 
ara arpaandail for the flnt lba% and vbldk daoidad 
tkMvwflMloaolibeaatbir. Wba Ut mde BannH 
I bUad ba Mweeoded blm In tbo maaafcment 

of the Jordin bolmii^ne. In 177^ he 0(immeRco<1 
thopoblicatiou of tbctvorli enlitl'>dC:«Di<mPlatitanim 
aeouiulum Ordiiiee NntiiraJea diapoeita, whtcb was 
conjiloted in 178i>. Thie ia the lint oomvdete sz* 
ixuitiou of the tutiinJ flVHtein of olaMlfriny plantot 
wliich ha» Bow btkon the place of Iho artificial 
Ijiuniran svabsiu. Undor Uh> canvctitiim hn waa 
appointed Jlnotor of tiit nuweuiu i>t nuLuTol lii*Uiry 
in the Jardin Aa FlanteN when be founded iho 
liliDLry novr «o rich in cmtnoctioR with that crtabUab- 
inmit. lie waa oUo tbpjioiiitixl {icoteuor of mial 
boUuy iu tbe same luuiieuin. ITuder the entpire 
.lumiou ^ns apjiointod profonor of matoria medlca 
to the Faculty of MedidOL- at 1'aria, and fonndJlor 
fur Ufeof the uni««nity, but l'»t Uime a())wiiilmwiiU 
aC the rontorKtlon. Like his undo Jiieniaid be 
Ikcaoio liliod toward* the clooc of hii carNr, and in 
18!>6 he rotiniod hia pMt of prafeeaorln theanMnm 
of natural lustciry in favour of his iir.ia Adrian. Be* 
■idn tbo worka menticioinl abovo he publiahod a 
noffibor of abort treoiUaue, and alap cenunwiatted 
about tittj Memoin to iho Annalee du Hnafain. 

AURIKK III Jpwtnu, eon ntf the precadinif, bem at 
7am in 17&7: died thnra IMS. Ho fint ntlivMod 
the attention of ncientlflo men by a tbesta on the 
[ fatmly of the EupborbiAtMrte, which he Roatainod in 
j tho tnoet brilliiuit manner aa ruut nf what wim ro- 
I quired of him fur tbe de]|i«« <i( iKivtor ijf Mvdicinv 
1 in 18-Jl. In ItKH he niocoedcd hia father in thu 
profeeeonhip of rural botany in tho muMiua, and in 
Una cafHMitj' oontinned tho botatiioal laaearabM by 
which hli predeoaafoia bad already rendered the 
vboir cclobntod. At the Bame tinio ho pnbUdkad • 
sncnbcrof rvorka which placed him in tha front nulk 
of botanisU— in IB2& a Honographie g&Mqoe dee 
mtaoJea; In 1830 a iUmolroenr le groopadaa nnfr 
Uacte: in 1S43 the MonoBr^ihie dca malpi^kota, 
a wvik of ifreal Talne, whkli bad oeeupied bim far 
fourteen yean. In 1S4D appeared the firat edition 
of a 'IVaittf Mmantaire de botnnii]nn, publiahad lor 
xuv In hi^bar-daH nboola, a work wlUob far exodled 
all ^rtniaoB -WDikfl of the kind In 1531 A. de 
■liuBWU bad boon lulmittril a incnibor of tho Acadeniy 
of SchsMoa, and in lSi45 waa Bleotod pfofwor of 
ri>Kcuble onrancq;rapfay at the Sorbame, which poet 
be bold till hia death. A. da Joadao, to addition 
to the work* mciitifmed, wu tbo author of a amall 
tnatiae uu tHitanicU elaouiicaUoo publiabod tn 1848^ 
•ad a la«g« oionber of noticM and rvporta oommml- 
catad to tba Annahn do Hnafon or tlM C am p lw 
rendns dc I'Ai^'^mie den Rdmoa 

J[78TE-MIL1KIT, & Fn-uc!i cxwe^oo, UMnlaK 
tbe 'exact tuill■I!^' hwt become fanuiar to uot* than 
MM ICnropcan luigta^gt, and denotce, thongh some- 
linee dccMvdy, tbe nUintaianas of a dao nedinm 
between oppoeite estnof^ mora eapecdally on po- 
litical matten. After tba FnmA July rsvolnuon 
of ISM tba term Jtme-mOum hconne a Icted of watob- 
verd In the poUtioal worial wfaeit Um argana vt Kinc 
Lonia rbilipp* b«gan bo tnaii* that the pabllo wad 
ef Fmnoc ouold lAtly bo >oetuod by sovenmflnb 
obsarviDg a iiuifstiiieu or naan between the oppoalte 
paitiM. The word came into ^rnenl tuo, sjm <lo- 
nignatod, aumctimo in a good and pomctiuiea tn a 
bad ■enae, lb« politfoal pnnaipla of tba July mon- 
areky. Tbb gavrnaamt andwronra^ atpadally 
bi the lint yean of niatawe, ta bind both ealrana 
parties by anmostiea aad ptaiudble ooaoeiiinu tii the 
■vw order of tUnga^ but waa aom (ancbl by experl- 
cn«f tha^ at leoal u hoDo politics, tuia yarfllating 
tystem daea not snooeed. r^uia i'htlqiM th<nfm 
becan to incUna awn and nun to tba otd iiiinwriiiii 
poliov, vbatanr nama hi* nihilaten ndi^ efaeoae to 
gbn k; and ll may be aald with tratb uat lb* Jolly 
thiona wna at lait orartaraed bacauae tba gofan* 


HKnt had «atln\j loat BSL'ht of tito principle of miln- 
tAinio^ k jMb-aiilira. Hy tlin nnnic 11111017 geiii:nill,v 

(tf polituM whicli M«tra to curry favmir witk «11 [uu> 
tin*, ftnd tlius I'wjMsoi coutamptiU* ami itMffideut. 
JCdTICE, Lord CmKr. See CaiErjomci up 

lt'STl<'E.eLKKK, Tii>si\ in Hoot!an<1, tha prc- 
iiW jiuk'« te tba Ccwt o< Jwitioiu?, is tie HbMDOe 
' tha I0H jtutioe-cawrnl. The petMb liofaliiig> Ibe 
I is klwan oua of tii« MRAtora of tha Oolla^ ai 
fu>tlc«, and LanJ-iimlitent of thc! »ecoii(l dlrutoR of 
Court at SvMou. Tb« ulGw uuw nniu m tbt 
._ ad higbnt jndidftl &ppiitotm«nt in Scotland. 
ftnaerlj the jnatine-dork appeont to hjtv« her^a a 
! dcrk aiid smoaur o( court, (B«U'« Dirt, ol llie 
jrSTICli-GE>i;KAL., in Scoll«i<l, th* 
D1 of tbe iViurt o( .liiati<uM-y,wb(u« iliitifatore 
porfcinndcl ivilliout uiliu-y hy CJui lAinl-tnTaiilvtit 
' tbn C'titirt of Hradnn. Knmerly tha loM justice- 
wna a Mii^Muntc offiwrot hi^ nnfa. but Oit ths 
oaotB to bo A ilnecuR, the duties coimcct^t 
it biSag alnKMt InvArL^lilv •JUtiArf.^Ml hj ili» 
I JtMtIea-«Ssrk, it wm JiboUshcd by 1 WiUum IV. 
«{», Ulx. a. IS, I'J, Mid ito (Intlea w<ra nude to de- 
Tblve upon (be offlimr wha now petComft them. 
.{Belr* iJtot. aF the l.nwof S<-<nt1ii.n<l> 

JUSTICE OF THE rtliVOE. Tliis wonl jfiaitVe 

, ttppUod to jndicial niAgiiitntw: w jiutka ^ luoh 

CMiit, anil, in Kngliah l»w», Juitirti of lA« forrft, 

mmdretl, 0/ On laliautrrt, kc; Mid hence tlie nppel- 

I jTiuCtr* o^ U« pnxer, that k, a jacUcU nUfCatrate 

vim tbg rauervaUon of tbo peun. In 

. the Jnatice of the p-jicf, Uiongh nnt hijh In 

, b Ma ofiict-r of ^Tt-at imimlanoe, na tbe first 

prwiiliag» Mw bMl h*f<n« him in rcgnrri to 

peiiO Bi aeaaaei of gimve offanoet; and hU 

extends to trial Mid Mljndlcntlan finr 

1 offokOM. In caAF of the nuiimini'iii of at criiDe 

ilMeaeh of thn pe«c« n nunplnirtt i« miidn to i>ne 

f these laniifitRitcs. U be is wrisftcd with the ori- 

I of a ooininUeion of tome ofTenccv the coj^nisance 

vAicii belongs to him, cither for the purpow of 

[ or for tiding the jmrtv noctwed, Im issuea n 

dlRct«(l to a oooNtabie, «r ether executive 

> doaignated hy tbe law for ibia pnrpoM^ order- 

_ iho prntfn complained <^ t» lio broaeht before 

bin, MM he thnrenpom tries the part/, if Uie offencv 

be within his jurismetion, and nwiuiU bim or award* 

acnt. If tha oflcneo charfcd bs ef a grnttr 

r, the adiudlcatioii upon which in sot wtthin 

I jiMttoe's jarWftctkHi. llt« >|iieHtf oii ihien Is, whether 

part; ocasp]ain«d of ia to be imiirijioncd, vr n- 

lo glre bonds tn Awnit his trial before the 

haTln^ jurisdiction, or is lo b.? diichbreed', 

1 oQ thaM (plMliniui the Justios dirciilm scmrdlag' 

I Us view m tbe law and tbi? facts. In Britain 

are sMse ottosTH, as the nuuiter of ihu rolls, 

BiobMiaI aatboritiM, &v., who uro justicos of 

p«ao» Inr psasc ri titiao, in rirtue of their nthsr 

bat; U |{<«wml, tlie npjmiuUuoTit Is by iwm- 

and m Britain, wnco a n«rw Maunlmlon 

I to jucAieee in a ccrUkin couMjTi this mpersod^) 

- cnaimiuiim* for the same enunty. In America 

cttfiO is bvld only by ifwiilal sfipolntmeut, and 

(cauni is difftiivnt in different sCntcs, tho office 

itHiug been buM, in nnc stiito at Ir.ut, liurin^ S""'^ 

twiisiluill , but tha cumtninion in uiuin tiBually fur 

serao ymAn, nr soone other specific Uinitcd pn^od. 

lanwxv ituticvflolthepetKw (jnga tU pair) an in 

Mar iMMCt« <iiifr-r«at crotn thoeio of Britiin and 

rtfnufii, tlfitagh the national conventioa hi tts famuas 

'nw t^V^cting the nifv orgnnixatioa of the jtictioL-d 

?t1 m(^ttf- 3-*. I "8***' which, in it« priadpil fwit- 

unis, stQl crista, orMDOtly oootempbitcd a closor 
imitation of tbe llrithh sratem. They ai« paid nu> 
jj^lratea who decide in n HununAry mnnnor un a 
rariatjr of cms* of miiinr itnjHirl.'tnnc, wbeAher in 
cvuncutlnn with pnijtorty »r with ti fla oee s agdbut 
the |Kilioe resutalioiui. Tlwy ptonoiinw Jvdcmnt 
without appeal on casea in which property tn the 
value of 100 franca is in dispute, aHoot in bringing 
alxnit oompmnisea between pnKta int«ndlD|r to 
apply to tba civil tribunals^ ftc Then is oao for 
eocb canton, and they hold at least two sittii^ » 

Jl'STICES, LoBDK, the name riven to the officOTs 
appointed to take cha^ of tho admiDistntion of the 
kin^ora in the abseeoe of the bovsmosil There is 
no L-oiistituUuaal uoccsrity for ddcgawig the royal 
autlmrity to any officers on soebooeasions, and dattag 
the abi«nccs of Qoeen Vietoria it has not been doae^ 
but from an «arly period In the Uatory of the coun- 
try it tuis been the ustinl ptactioc to do so. Siniv 
the Bemlatinn sur-h nppmntmenta have been mads 
by lettetS-paMnt umk-r the |freat seal, and on eomtt 
occasions have been «)Tillnn»l by FarUameot. The 

IKicrers ntnferred on Wdii-jiiKtinie have usually been 
iniited in tbe case of thi- chief pnuo^tives dI the 
CMwn. such as tb« t)iirdonlng or rt-prierin; of criod- 
mUs, the summoning or prorogation of I'arliaBieat, 
Ac. IxTrds-jnatLccs bnrc alio been Appointed on 
several: occwduns for the »i>Teniuieiil uf Iretand dotiDic 
Ibe abeence of tha lord-lie«it«nant, or duins' tho In- 
terval elspaing between the expiratioii of offloe of 
doe lorildieii tenant and the appointment of another. 
JIISTICKS* CLERK, au officer appobiied by 
jnsiioos of the p«Kw in Eogliuid to aa^ Ihinn in the 
disebaivo of their dutiu^ He f« uaiudly a solicitor, 
tbe advice of a lawyer beiiif; frei[ocntly twoircd to 
gnid« them in ih« sdmini^nttion of ceruin bninehcii 
of the law, bikI the interpnrtataon ol aots of Pariia- 

.RTSTICKS IX I':\'RE, also csJIod lTlJi«lt*JfT 
Jtuni'iQtBtid •luKTU-moi' AsTtuE, juatioeswho travel 
nboDt urer fixed circuits dlspeniditg jusUce. The 
term eyrt is a corruption of the LAtin itrr, agnlfy- 
ing a joomey. Justjcc* in Kyre wern first appainted 
bv the PsfUament of NorUutm[it(in in 1176. In the 
llagna Cbana of 121 S proviuon was made for each 
county bcin^ nnnonUy visited by thora. By the 
statute cnlloT \V<«tminst«r 1 1. (15 EilwanI I. oap. iii. 
126A), they were anthorized to trv civil cauMs, and 
by 1 Wmiam IV. cap. Ixx. July 23. IS30, ibetr 
. juiisdlctjoa WM extended to Wales and the county 
polatino of Chbfba. 

JUSTICIAHY COITIT, tbe aupreme crimlnil 
. vcnut in Snitlund, connistiug of tlu; lord jn«ticQ- 
I giuieral twbo is thr pttsarlcntl, tho Ion) jnstioc- 
I clerk, and five conimiBaioacTi) uf jiwtidary, who arc 
{ also lords of eearion. Id tliin court cauwu are tri*d 
by ^0 verdict of a jury. Tho judges go on circuit 
to the prindpal districts of the country, where tho/ 
hold courts twice in pw year. There sk three uf 
these circuits, south, west, and north. The first con- 
sist* of tho burvbs (jif JedbBighi Duufrii^ and Ayr: 
the second of Ghiayaw, Invemy, and Sttrling; and 
the third of Perth, Aberdoen, and Inveroeas. There 
u besddea a winter circnit i-oiirt hpid at frlsMow 
during tlie Christuuis rvrm* -4 tliu Court of Secdon. 
One lord can bold a dreuit conn, and the Jndtfraents 
of drciut courts an not liable to nnricw in tie jtt»- 
tlciary ooiirt. Upon these cirDoIts they piisstas a 
civil jtirisdicttiu, by vmy of appeal, In causes below 
£IS sterling; uid in these tkoy prooeed wittamt a 


jnSTIFIOATION, a thcolngicnl term empUwl 
to designate tho act liy trbidi pnitlun is oxtsndea to 
the aiuner the moiueut be U.-conies ntdicd to the 




8»'*knr.'l7)kUTtnf; fnitli. Tho Komitli Chuivh, bv 
VuUiig jntHtotffam tv lio not ah itc(. but « irorf, 
eonfodtia h with aUMtUuttlon; l>ut ibe refonnera 
wen tlirvf* caicful to dJalin^idab betwMR tho two, 
Sa much unpoTtAiieie did I^ntlicr attftcb tn thi* dU- 
Unotion, tint h* rwgvded tke iloctriBe of juctlfioatinn 
bv futh kIum to M one of (b« mint fluidanioDUl in 
tMCliiiMfaui<7itciD,aiiiL>leclAr«il it tn be. Dccarciini: 
to tka vfe V t«k«a of it, ' Articulum at-viUi ant aul«ut(s 

JUSTIN iJtutitiut), ronuuiwd th« Martyr, ao<I 
OCMriOilllly tbfl /'Ai'Ma^iAA', one ff the earliiMt aiid 
nwrt liWBcd wrihrra of tlia CLrJntiJin Cliun.-b. llu 
waa ibe ion cd PruL-un, a (Iroek, uid vrwi bom at 
3^*iA N«npoUi, Midently wiled ^ekena, a dty of 
SuBuia. in Palatmo, towards the do«o <rf th« fint 
Odhtury. H« \n* educated in thi: I'ngnn rciiginn, 
and after Btudjin^ iu Kxrpt became a Platunist, 
until, abuat tb* jroar 133, be was l«d by the iiutnio- 
tMKu (rf a eoaloiM and abb Chrutian to ciabnc« the 
rali^oa of the gotpcL Ho rnhMqacnUy went to 
Itonw in ttte beginning of tbo reii;D uf AutoniuuH 
FiiBH, and drew tip faia fint ainlo^ far tho Christijui*, 
then under a aercM penwutmn, in whicb b« sfaovii 
tlM cnnltv and Injnatioa of thu proceeding* agauul 
tbem. Ha *n* alao •i]iiall]r aeaknia In op|>o*uig 
al l o g c d benrtics, and r«rtjcii]arir Manion, afpuaiit 
whoa b« wrote, and publUb«d a faoolc He not louj; 
■fUr Tinted the Ka«t, mi'I at Ejifactua had a confer- 
ence with Trvpho, a Icnmwt Jew, to |iroTG tbat 
Jama waa tlw HsMiah. «a aooouDt of wliidi oonlvr- 
snoB b« pvoi ia Ui DJido^s with Trypfaa On hb 
r«tamtoRoaisbalu>d fr«quentili<^t««witkCreM)ci)>. 
a Cynio pluloMpher, in cauaoqniaioo uf whoae odiun- 
nias ba publudiaci bia aaoond A|Milugy, wluab tawua to 
have b««n prewiited to tha Emp«ror Harcua Ann- 
liiB tn 161. Craoena prefemd anlnal klm a fonnal 
cbargtt of impiety for ne^nctJng the Fagau riloa, and 
be waa eondemned to ba »en m ;ga d and tlmn twlioodcd, 
«bMinDtano>wMputintoexecutioDijil05; aeveral 
witheffjtia* pot ttue dato aotne jreus later. Joatln 
llartjrr n ntokeo o( in Ugb terata of praiaa by Ute 
anoimi Chriatian writot^ abd waa oartainly a tMlowa 
Mtd aUa ad*vcato o( ChifattaaJty, but miimd up too 
mndk of his onriy Plotonim with its doctrioos. 
Aauue tbo beM ei^tions of Ui vorica ia that of Olto 

JITSTIX {JiMimtu), a l^atiii hwtotian, wbo prr>' 
lioUy lived M Rone hi the aeoand or tbinl century, 
allwni^ MBM amifa im a lata- dato, Ha tnoda an 

aittoBMi of the HIaton of IVaJiu Pmnpeiiu, a native 
Ooul, wbo tired (a the t&M of AoBvatOB, and 
wboM vorka, in forty-four booing conUin n Urtory 
t/t tfc* wvrld from the cortieM ^ea to hia own time. 
Hia Hialory of Maoedoftia waa particniariy oatoplete. 
To jttdgo from tbe epltone (for the nrVinal Is knt) 
ibafv wore ouny emn in tbt work, WMcially b tbfl 
Jewldi kfatoty; bat tU« <i>ltooia, wUek eairwpMMb 
to tba origicLW in its UUe aud amngemcnt, baring 
e ump r w— ud into a briaf ■[■»:« ao Biudi of tlie tni{xirt> 
ant uiaUer «f ibe oM bUturfa^ haa obtoioed a eoa- 
aidenkbla rvputotloa. Tbe atyle i> on the whole 
aiefOBl and ag r eeable, but it ia doatttoto ot that 
ai^,1t, ^mplioilT and claoNcol ODtfreeCntta which dir 
tinipiiah ibawurk of a naater. 

JrSTLN (/vMiaw), the bmm of two «m|Mrcirt 
of the EmL— I. JcniK L (ban 4W A.D.K n peaiant 
lA IWi^ haiiiif^ brnximo a aoMior of tbemanU in 
Um reign of 1^^ 1., aniHirpd ■> nmcb diauMtiaai by 
Us earvtow that be siiHlnaUy roao to be their eom- 
■mulir. Ueldfaig uds baportant uoolntindnt at 
IkedeaUiof tbaSiniMrw AiuutMiaa in SIS hewn* 
procUinMd bla MiooEaaor, and Btouutod the iwpeiul 
IhnNM alwort vneppoeed. FwUng that, bvu his 
vnU of btfnln^ he w« Jncnpohle of ditectlBK the 

internal civil odminisUation, be leMgnOd fidk dnto 
t« tlie CailUrul (lUKKHir Pnicliia, trLo dieckaifvd In* 
functions to tbo sAtbf action of both the enpemr wad 
hill fubicct!!. In 523 lie rcngncd to I'faeodotic, Iday 
of Italy, the right of appointing conards In ItoOM^ 
acd In the same year bac^e involeed in a war with 
I'cmia. TwT> y«ir« later ocmirred n teciiblc earth- 
nitukc wkiub bid Kdcwa, Pc«ci>ci«poUB, Corintl), and 
l)yn&c1iiuni in niiii*, niid Aiitiodi was ootaiiletel^ 
drrtmvod hy tiro and water cnniliiiiPil. When Jwtin 
heard uf thcMo awful dijtiutera Lc jnit off Ida vrowa, 
wont into tnoumbis, and ordered a Fiipply of unney 
andneccBMricafartbeaaffcnnL He njicrit £2,000 .titii} 
■terling towarda tli« rebnildinic uf AjiLiiUch aluMk 
Ho dlw let Anguit, 527, shortly after having ooa- 
forred tbe ^gnlly of iMfoKaa npeu bis nephew and 

•ii«iMaor, the fatnoua .Tuatinion I. 2, JraftH 11., 

nuaed to the iupvnat Ihrune on tho death uf hia 
UDclo Juatinian 1. in 369, bad a very tnmbled vAgn- 
At iu very outaet he oune into bwule colUalon with 
NaneiL tbe unuiueror of the Gath(% who In order to 
alKDgUien himadf iiivitod tho Longobarda under 
Alboon to Inva^la Italy. Italy bejng thua oteliuu 
tn-aa entirely loat to tb« Byzantine E^friK, while In 
Uie Beat it waa in liki^ uiuuMir curtailed by tho 
luicnuchmsiita of the t'cnuanii. Internal dianurd 
alao prevailed; and JuaLin, oouvineed of Iiia inability 
to cope with tba difficulties which nirronndod Urn. 
abdicated in £71 in favour of I'lberiiis, cajitain of tho 
guards. Hia death tonic place in &iS. 

JITSTIKIAN I- {Fliuiut Aairi«» J»ttimiatnu\ 
flomatDod the Grtat, nopbew uf Jiutin L, etapg^r 
of tbo £aat. celebrated an a laW(,Hver, was bora in 
163 uf an obacuw fatnily. He abared tbu (ortunee 
of bb undo, wbot from a cosniaoo Thractsa peaaant, 
waa ralaed to the imperial throne. \l'hila oonnil 
(&S1) he exbtbfted viandid gamea to the people. 
He lihcwiee Hatbered tho seaato and aongbt their 
favoar, in oomeiiiutuce uf which that body ounfurml 
on hiui the title of .Vuftii'MaiiNw. Hia uneti^ infim 
frou age and unffsriag from a wonnd, odnttied him 
to a there oF bla i>nwer Yet it woe not till after hia 
death, Auguit ], 5:17, that Jarfjniaa waa prorlainml 
emperor. Ho now married Theodora, whom be 
roieed fran (be condition of on actma and a publie 
pnetituto to the throne uf tlw Cicean. Sbe noqaifvd 
an abaolute nioatorjr over lier huahand. Under liie 
nu)[n tlw portioc of tbo otrraa ooolendad with great 
aoiinoaity, and under the nones of Um Onms and 
tba Btva oecMkned mnay bleed]' mmmb b> flniMfin 
tjneple. Tbe violent awana whocb Jaatiniao need to 
qnell the tomnlt only aeErved to injiaau it, and a 
amfligration, which broke out in cooeeqnence, laid 
the gnatcat muI t>f Cunetaotiaople and hia own 
moat beantiful buildinn in aahea. Juaiioiaa'a own 
life wna In peril AAer tbe tarbalence of tbee* 
pnitlae ww wrtiagqiriwd by ittMiBi of Uood uul 
a nudtitiidB of excentfaNM Juatinian ftaiihed tbo wnr 
with the iKUiriann, and fai> general Bcliaariua in ftXB 
and £29 obtained three gluriuoa Tlctoriaa wver the 
Peniaua. Thia great general dietipyed in S3l the 
empire of tbe Vandok in A£iie% and carried Oeliauor 
their king a ]«iauner to CoaetoataaophL fipoin and 
Sicilf were i«oDtii|nefwd, and tbe Oetngoth^ wbo 
poewwad Italy, were vaD<|«labad. Ia 0W Delbnriua 
made hii entry into Beat^ nud the enntioh Xorwe. 
anotlteruf Juatinlan'sgeiMisK ^ S(3 pntaa cod to 
tbe doouinlou of the Ortiogutba in Italy. I'heae 
■ uLc a w e raetored to the Beinan Euipln a (vrt of its 
forator TOot rew— inno. Jnatiaiao new tanwd hie 
attention to tbo lawo. He namiaJerioned too IsnmeJ 
riviliana to form a new euda (recn hia mm law* and 
thiMi of hia |i>iii l e w ew , iii. To llii* cvdu Juatinian 
added tbe Pandeots, the Inetitutea, and >orela. 
Tbaee eoRftkliBaa ban ateoe been called ooUectinlj 



at U|N}ai building tmw oilies mail 'ijhiu furti- 
tying (>Uian, and wlnmiii)[ thnni with iu>i« aililioa; 
Mt BQ WM puticuLtrly (ieBlrau* of ulubliiLiiijr puooe 
in nliuioiu tDUtrm. Amont^t other diurdiiui ho tv- 
bttilt tbM of St. Sr'iibia Hi CosaUntinoplc, wbich bkd 
bacB burned in tlie qtiaiTel of th» Urcena uul Bluea. 
Towanla tW md «f his Uf n b« b«c«tn« tTwi«biiii — 
vUtMMil Umafi hi* low of aplnndour— mspictoiuv and 
BoeL Ho oppnsMd tha pAopUi with Uxat, xaA Imt 
• «iUiBg cv lo oivrj MccoMtioB. Hd aiiHenid lii> 
awm ■anantK to mniintt th* mcst ttiignnt criniei 
onpunlakcd. Ud died in S4\ lu tbu riybtv-tbtixl 
nir o( hi* ae*. ftfuir k r«in) of thiriy-«iu'bt yu&n. 
Zli« love of uia Binnk», nf luintn, linil nf tlicoliigicml 
yilluM did out pml«(.-t him from lljv <;«iuiuni of 
urn divine*, wbo ntwiDed him a iwraUe; Much 
tiut WW fMAt a&d clorioun WM Acoompliabod donn^ 
bis ndjn, but Im had Kltle iJutn; iu ib 

JUTlii, » t<aUIa fibn obuicei] from OMrJiom* 
Mnrafarw, « iiLnnt bvloaitLng en tbo natural order 
TUiaoMK Th« jutA plant is a nntiro of tha ironuur 
poftai of Indi.i, nhern Ita cultivation la carried lui, 
Wjmialljr in Itetigol, on an uxtcniiiFo acnli-. it i« nii 
•iwajj [lUnt, eruwinif tu » bQi);til of IS or 14 fcut. 
Xba dbm [onui tb« iuaor bark of lh« plant, and po«- 
■MMa fa as tmiBont d«grea tbo tcnacitv oomaion ttt 
An bark ot the planU of thij order. 'I'hu Howcra 
naMoUa tboM) nf ih* llmkn nr lim«-Cr«e; tlii* iiwd- 
VMMel b of a n«arly glubuw fi^iuv; thv Icavn org 
•boot -I ini^ica loimc. The fibn la tine, and him a 
l&min; aurfocn; it ia injorcd by oxpuaum t<i witU-r, 
■od hmee i* nob well wUptoil fur mnlji;>n lunl 
eaBVn^ bot la in exteurivo lui; i» lu'iin fur umUujc 
i_h|p^ ud in Britain mrnrn nianv other useful pur- 
I b«lD{ often miied with hemp Tor cor«toigv, and 
*Mi with Bilk iu Ike manufiK'tun! of (;bca|) ■utiiu, 
lib iu principal uae ia ia iJjo auBuuclun 4f 
r cloth for ba^i^Dg and in making tho fonnda- 
of Inlcrior oarpelai, icata, &c. In Bougitl jut« 
I baco L-ulUvBt«d and Its fibrea vravcn into rarlDua 
Iroat B. moot* period; but it i« oidjr aiooe 
at IfiSO that ita nann&cture haa ritan to import- 
Fin tlda oduntry. Iliebaad'ttiunenoftliiabranch 
\ti ibditrtry an at Dander, wUich juniiorted 'J],i:tO 
I id juLb iu 1672, the total iinpnrt into thtt kin;;- 
Ibai year baJng 203,OSD touu. Thu rioe, oottoii, 
«affco, pappar, ud otiuir articln of Kiut 
I ttOBmens araalmiMt wholly catriod in uuimy- 
r (as tbv jula bagM are call«dl, lar^ qnsnttti« nf 
Ji amt nuida hi and •ipoiV'd from BaDgal ilVGlf. 
[Hie fut« uuuiufactunM exportcl from Gnat Britain 
^la Kli wtiro 'i the raJuaof Xl,tb6,4l}<, heaidM vara 
I lo the «al>.f^ <.i t.--2fll.289. 

JUTKKIitHJK, a town of Crania, fn tbo province 

^«( B n adaobnTg, p>v«niuu<nt vt Potadam, orailnl ctf 

I «ireU of aaiM naaa, on th« Bohrbadi, 89 mllea 

flf Berlin. It fwaninta nf tho town nmper, 

by waUa wilb three ttatea, and nf tlirtw 

oontaiaa aevwml churchiM, in vaia of whlub 

r«d TetMl'a iAdul{:encc-l>aK. It haa mauu- 

of WOollm and linen cloth, a tradn in 

, cattl^ and wool, and four anutuil fain. Vup, 


Jim.A2CT> (Dambii, JglUiuT), a prorincc of Ten- 
■nnMUMlad uo tbr«o Hidea by the noa — the 
Fflfcagav Bade oa tba oorih-wmt and nurtli, tba 
[Ka H iga t OQ tbo ««Bt, and Uw North 3«4 or Ucimaa 
m tbo waat; on (he aouth by Schlenri;, 
rib tL* north H anddaoly narmwa to a nx-io tou^-un 
[ail Land, whicJi o«nlinnea to tatier gmdually till it 
I tetainata in a pnint; Ha baae in th» aouUi fa about 
In milaa, an<l iu widtli acRM tb« cantnt. nMwrad 
Ian • pntaUel uf latitude, about 106 mUee; ita snatcat 
^IcaglB, naaaurad in * alanling dimHlan bom ita 

anutli-weitt extremity, throd^ tb« tongna of land 
aliitaily luenliuncd, ia 1S2 milea; arcai, tinV? ai^nare 
miW Tho out ouaat hu ■ei'eral ({octd Itwbuiiri anil 
d««p opvoinj^ Iwdiug into navigable waUra; tli« 
w«at coaiC poaauaoa acareely a itniila hartxKir or 
narisabla arttk, and ia bordored lumott orer ita 
whob <jitent by n long Uuo of aniid-banlt* and iwefa, 
QaoloTi^ly tin' whi>lo province bolongn to the upper 
part of tlto rvouiidarj:' foruiaviou, and ia oompoaed of 
Iminenae beda cf ohjdk or limntona. The climato OB 
tbt.' wlmilo ia tctniicrat*, but rariahlc 1>ne of Uie 
tnut tantarlcnUe icaturca of Nortli Jutland i» a vaat 
ei paiia« of iulaod lal(ea, exbmdiDg a^tom It from thu 
very ad^ of the weat vnnet to iM oatlst on Mm oaat. 
It ia ooDiprdiended under tbo goicral deaignalion uf 
Liini'fiord; but it properly oonaiata of three pruici|>al 
difiaioDB. i'ach uf wLidi forma a dialinct laltc, and of 
a grcM minihcr nl minor branchoi, which mmify like 
network, and ullcu aaauum Llii< uiuHt (mitiuitic aiiapea. 
Ntimenitw *ni:i]l vtrvama m'tid thfir watoni into the 
fionl. Ita only v«tlrt i« war AallmTv, wln-rr it con- 
tracta to a nanviw ueck. wlilcli, thuu^-ti still retaining 
tlio nuuio of Liini-Gonl. in t<> all iiili'iit« a nwx, and 
the moat imiHirtAiit rii-cr nf the prciviiicu. 'Ilifi nihwr 
•treaniaarv not uf m»i.-hc(jiWM|U('tic<>. The principal 
wat«r^ed ia fomod by an elovatod tract, of cun- 
(dilerablo width, which extend* through the pmvinco 
tD aalanting direolion from north-eaat to atjuth-wot, 
ItD higheat point, tbo Himmelibfrg, In only SijO feet 
abovttlbvlcveloftiioaca. ItoxhiultaminuFtlhroughi'ut 
a dnsu>' eipanee of roocrlasd waatai The ^mimd 
(il<)]iL« ^nulually fmm oither aide rrf it to the u]>iKBita 
cii^t-i*. In tli>R wcAti^m directidn bnalh and aaiid 
CMUtinuL* to |irevail, aud the eoil iu pnieral b w 
barrwa that nothing' but the nimt laborimu and per- 
aovaring indiiatry cnnltlea the hunlvandmau to dnw 
fnnn it prulituble rvtuma. The only exception ia in 
Um) aouth, where the Kvoeral barraiuoH b eggnpen- 
aated by « aeriea of low alluvial tnurta, generally 
iiaod Mineadow«,and oavr:red with luxuriant vcrilure. 
Tiiwarda the north, on the contrary, tlio nntiind bar* 
reunev bimnwued: and the aand, oorriL-d about Id 
cluiida, ia continiudly making new dUToaohmcnte. 
Hut on th« egtat coaat nnmerona Itaota oociir, dkLin- 
f{uiahed ablte by tho calm beauty uf their landaewe* 
anil the fertility of the xiil. Tiie inhabHanta of thb 
province un.- coiuiOurvd lo be the nioat uvBuine aped- 
QianB of the old Uaniah rtock, and bava prnorved 
both the ianguaf^ and Uic mannora nn'l unil^ima uf 
uturty tuneaintheirgTeateat purity. ItauirUvr inha* 
bitanta, the 3nit*, took part in tho expt\liti(iu of tlw 
SaxanH to Endand Pop. 7^S,110. 

JUVBNaL (IXeciHia Jrinia .IrvETAUa), tho 
Latiu aatiritial poc4, waa bora probably about the 
year 42 A.n. in Atiiiinnin, a Voladan town. Iu the 
unreliablu biognphy prefixed t« lib wotka and am)- 
neonalf aaotUiad to Snotonhta b« to ttlA M hare been 
tlte eon or adopted child of a weatthv freodman. It 
is nJcn atateil br aome of hb Uofinphi^ra that he fnl- 
UiwtsL the prof ona low, of a pleads; thai Itu di^l ucKt 
ventun- Iu publish hu aatirvs till lato in life: that he 
wa* the fiirnd of .Martial, who addrcaaed to him thrcn 
of hta epi|[nuua. At au advanced ■£« lie b aiuil to 
bara bran aoot tu Kgypt ia sommiDd of n cuhvrt of 
infantry, and died tbwii from vmcatlni anH wtLarincaa 
of thb buocnirabie exile, which waa iidlictal up<ni 
Uiin aa a ponidinwnt for aatlriiln|i I'aria. thL> fa- 
vcnirita actor of tljo Emperor Dcnuluu. No tttut 
nan be placed In thb atoiy, however, and the only 
facto reeaiding bia on whidi we eou ivly an-, that 
he Homuhad towards the end of the fint n-ntnnr, 
and that AtTiihium waa a (avouritc pcaidriuw 'jf hia. 
It b also highly probable front bia «t> le that bo waa 
• pleader, and it i« bcliin'od lli4t he waa a friend of 
MartbL I'be extant worka uf Jutcnol oooaiat of 




BixUcD Mtins. Uie liwt a fnemant of tlouhtful 
^onuiiMiUMi, kU eompoacd io boroic bexMueters. 
'Koch atUn ta » 6iii»bed rbcUirical eat^y, ciiBJ(|ietic, 
gluwing, ud •oncinnia.' Tht«« !• UMtluni; fn thcsD 
ttwt reMlb Uio jileMuit BWckUE; buniour o£ Hontcc. 
Bor llui UEtcn mimithroiijr of I'crnui. In them 
w* hkv* A fcuful picture of tlie RouMn wicictv it 
thkt vni— oomipt (pnitori, n dapravvd tiobJlity, un- 
hithful matrub^ luiJ a degnded people^ dtuaornu* 
ooljr for bmftd And the punes af the clrciu. The 
udltlOB* of Ilia wurka &ra tagy mmtttMM, Uw beat 
bdng tfaoM of Hamtiniiut (l^fdcn, 1095, 4to), Ru> 
pMti (LalpKig. l»{il, twu vvU), and Mpedally Jabn 
(Berlin, lUl). Uilford'a tmulftbon, witli ft preface 
U>d Dotea^ ia very Yshuhlc. Ilrvtk^n ha« mulercnl 
tltA tini, Uunl, lutb. Icnth, aud kixtomtli lutUma iu 
laMnage full of poiu* and vpLriu Jobiwuni ui>i> 
latMm td die diira and tenlii naliiei are dc*i:rv«dly 

JUXHN, WitUAM, itom at Cliidiealer in IfiS^, 
«Bl«red SU Julm'a ('altcg^ Oxfonl, Nid bcmnnv > 
ktudvut of Gm/H lull, with the view vf quullfviatf 
for the lar, but afbrntarda toek otdcn and abtauod 

liviuu^, tiitl in 1G09 at Oxford, and ihoa in 1611 at 

bninri'tJ^ri. Ill lliUl bi) nucitociieil I^illd U [iKaiJBnt 
o( St, Julma Ctilic-Hc; ui 1627 t«»» »[ifHiliitod Tie*- 
riiAticvlW f>f till) UDivt^rsity, and alxiLit tlio euDa 
time chaplaiu ui orduwiy tv Charlv* 1., who gave 
liitn the Heaaery of WoroMtor. This protnotiaa be 
owt'd i-LJoil/ Ui ih» friendflhip of Laud, who not only 
]irocuivd fur liim thu wtc of ]xiiiiloti in ICS.t, bnt tUao 
jJtcvaUed on tLv kuiii tv ujipuiiil lUm lc>rd hii;U-trea- 
Burer in liZ&. Thia attuation handgnad in 1641, 
when, eontnu; to hia advice and eaniwt eiitn*tyf 
ibe ida^ save tbe royal aaenl to Stratford' » attainder. 
Uii kyiuty, however, retuabwd unihakcai; and dor- 
ing ibe IdDg^'a oonGntoDeiit in the Isle of Wi^t, and 
during hia triiU at Wcntminalcr, he remained ooa- 
■laiiUy iilth biui. H« liad a]M> the melancho^ 
{irivUogs of aooithing bi* lut mnmctita, and minhtirr- 
iuiT U> tara on thu auaffold. Hi* fidelity coat him 
Ilia bishopric, but at tJie RcMoratiuti ho was mad« 
Arvbbi»lii:>{i a( VMilvthucj. lie ruclivil Uii; nilvauoetl 
aue uf eitjbty, luiri died in lG41i. Uo 'wm of a muni- 
llccut di»put>ltiuu. and left jC'OOO to tncieaee tho 
fsLU)Wabifii of ilia coUugu. 


K,' the eleventh letter of the Kngliah alphabet. 
rfflttf filing a guttural articulfttiuu, priHtuced by 
pltMhn the root of Ihu tco^c Jigaimt the anpar part 
nf the mouth behind, with a <l«f}it«aMoii of Uio lowur 
jaw and openiaff of th« tavtti, and dilTera, la nuet 
andant and aoaam langaagoe, Srom g bard only by 
a atniii|(er psvMure of the tonuua, and a atroDgor 
oxpiration. <3«>0.> tlte ure«ke<adled;iiajD;pt, 
It luvbaltly uf later uriciu than (]>, oa iti nuwt anaaiic 
form on nuianniciita aeema to be a ooBtractium of 

emnw, tbat U, in ita lint atraigbt aiul iU M>coiid 
at fcnu (I C). Oa tbo aiHtcnt coin* of Ctvtooai, 
CoriutlH SyncuM, we &»! thia tl^n, ?, from which 
the Ronan Q orfgltiatcd. In LAtin ib wm little used, 
ita |daee babg auiipUud by r. I'bu Gmck K vu not 
adcntad by Um LatinB bvftirv th« time of Sallutt, 
HM ma only oaed in wonln <vhicli begau with ea, aa 
iojrui; katuMnin, kaiumiuator . henixi a K waa 
btawtcd on tlic forehead of caluiuRJatora. Aa au 
abbceviatmn, iu I.uliD, iLNgnifiw A'<uu 4ai]aiiui>,and 
MT«nI other wi.'rda, kvUiutir. tc The Greek K 
■tanda nneoina for Kaimr, Cicaur; KtaviOv*, Clan- 
diue; Kamfttnut, Caui^iaiuii, ki\ It oflm alao mgal- 
fiea Vnrtkagt. Aa an aiibraiUtiuD U ufteu acau^ 
fur l(ii' and bmrntrnt ccuunoai kaUnia, cvlooy, &c. 
Tb«UMehK' iJ|{nlAiatw9nty,and ,K = SO,U0'Ui K, 
in Latin, ia eijiukl M UO; with a burbontal da>b 
onr it, t. = 250,000. It annrcra ta hmpk or iwpA in 
Hebrew. The ItaUana, SfMuianhi, and Ptortu^uaae 
have hanwhrtd the lett^eaUnly troni their abhabvi. 
TIm Flench we U only In werda origintfly Uvmian, 
Braton. forrin imiHr oanMa, Ac At the begin- 
BtogfilaworderqrUableK ia not prooouurad when 
fnUowed by N: aa kni/t, hut, 1-now. K, Iwfara a 
vowel, la tmo of the eaaieet tvunda vhOdrau leatm; 
but it iadilGoilt if it preeedaa another oonaonaut. 

K AA llA, or Caaki. the nana ci the ijuailrangMlar 
lla^tuufG>l atnictnrein theaaand tennleat Maeca; k la 
ahnil M feat bi|ih and ST (aat hnJL JbweHing to 
SlnaMilinan tmditica, the fint Kaabn wm bnOt by , 

■ Vkni IW mmIw MM} fiOl la BaJ aiUsla BMlar X, b U I 

the angcb oa the loodcl of tbe pavtllon which aui^ 
niuudii tho thiiinc iu lioAVt-u; the ftecwod waa IndJL 
hy Adaiu, witli « hfni it wiu tnuii^fcrml to the aldea^ 
ubeie it iiill txitiU ill i> ritfkt Hue almvi: Lb« Kaabo 
ul MocCBi tbo tLin] wna built by Sv-tb, und p«iabed 
in the doliige; the fnnrth by Abraban and Itaac. 
Thia waa rtiUiTwl <iu iKvend oucaaiuoa, notably by 
Mohammed and l>v Suluui Munuipha in 1(130. Fart 
of tho original wul ia iiiU abiiwu, nad looked ii[»n 
with great reoeratiou. ou cue ■-•f tlio aidte of thie 
cubiwu orttUicy ia inwruugbt tbu fniuuus ural Mock 
■tone, in a ntUvr wtUn^, the Il»iliar-cI-ABWad or 
KebU, said tu bave be^ brou^t uum boi^'eo l^ 
Uabriitl to AlimJiani wlua ho waa aractiag tlw 
Kaali^ At lirBt of a Jataling whitcneaik it baa 
grieved and wept ao long over the idna of the world 
tbat it became gradually ofwjaa^ and Anally black. 
Tlio Koaha staadi la the wntra tl a eovcmd-fn 
court, is Rurrounded on all aldea by a black ailk 
cnitaio, and ia opened only three tinea a y«ar. tm* 
ineiiae cmwda of hailib or nlgiiau viait tbe pUce 
every year; they touch the huy atoiM eavcn timce, 
after vhldi they enter the Kaaoa and oOer iqt their 

S>ray«C8L In praying tlte Muaaulman alwigra Itinw 
lia fxM! tuw'iuda tba aai.-Ti.-d Raaba uX SleOCik 


KAfilTL. See Cabcl. 

KABYLE8. Bee BnuM. 

iUU)IAK. or Komax, the Urnt«( tlw Almttaa 
lalandi, 120 ntilca long l^ S4 tnlion bnad, la aepar- 
ated from the north-wcat ejttrami^ of AamAm hy 
a ctuknnol about -(Cl milee wide; bM a Enountalaoaa 
■ufface and ao irregular and deeply indented ooaat, 
with tome good bafODuri. Near liie ooaat iha mA 
ia f«rtil«^ and guwmlly ooveml with tfaidt |ihhl 
Strawbmriea and gooaebeniee are abaadaal, and 
ual^ barley, and ooimnon kiteban Iwrtw an riliiiil 
Tbe Ulterior la parttall; ooverod with fcraita of |dM^ 
Ureh, poplar, aod wiUow, Bean and fioicca are eou- 
aval, Imt otner onlmala yiddiag fur have booome 
ooa>{)arativ«lv rara. Tbe principal dopM for the 
fnra^ aU the Aimitiau lalaada i< on the Bay vt 
Liakhik, In tUa idawL ^ about 3(i0Di 




K.'EirPFKH. nsnELBRcmr, a (ucous traveller, 
bom at Lcm^ in 16^1, aiul axptllontly cducntcd hy 
Ida iaUMf, * titfj^mna, «ttid!c<l ranliouw at KiiuE^ 
X'ng. pcrfonowl a jounwy la 1US3, w Boorctvy to a 
S-nrtilbh enbuajr, hy Inmi throiieh KoMitt to I'enU; 
aftrr irhicli, iu ihe mimcHy oc nKral Knrxeon, be 
viutcd Ar.tbia, IliiidusUkii, Javft, Sunurfra, Siam, luid 
J«I)ttn, in wliicli laat emutry m iwdgd two ysan. 
Tn 161*2 beruturnnJ, w«« ApfxMiitMl priTal« phy tkuui 
td tbc Count uf Iiippt! In bin naLive dly, autl died in 
ITIAl <K bis writirgi, bio !lisVi>ry anil Dwcriptlim 
id J&|wn i< dMur%'ui4{ of luuitiva. Tbi* wort wlu 
tniulat«d inio EnglUh fn-nu tha manuwript in 17'i7, 
publudied at LimmIuo in twu folio volumta; moii Ju 
tlie G«n)»n lax^uNga it aptiMuvd firat nt LierasD in 
177'!, «4H«d by iMim. Tlt« {frmlor ))ut oi bis 
unaoMTtpt^ rid) ta importAnt obAcrvAtio&a, a» in 
tba Brituh ItluncviiQ, hjiting liccn [lurchiard fixun 
Ka-mpfor* licin lijr Sir Htuu Slo&nr, vihoma beooMt 
to tbx pnlilic forniiMl the nuclouit ot tiuit btttttnaan. 

KAFFX Sea FxoiMMiA. 

Kaffir, or KAvm. St^X'APniE. 

and CxmiMM, 

KAIRWASt, ft Utge town in the ngmer and SO 
mile* s.n.E. of Tunis, in a baiTen aaudy plaiu, and 
mitToniidcd by n wilIL 'Hie town Is w«ll built aiid 
ouDtains swcnj olnggait bnildin)^ It is badly sup- 
Iilwd wUh inter: tbe Inhabitants de[>eii(Ung i>n a 
ca{MK90iu fCMftrrair Bllod by tbc ndiu, aud a jxind, 
vnicfa benoDics naarlj dry in nimiu«r, vrhnn it vmitK 
Dozlons •xhalaliMU. NutwiltistAiidiuj: its lU-diusen 
ritoatiga it ranks Kcond only to Tunis in trado and 
piipuUtion. Kairwao was tko fiiat »cat of Saraccnk 
eiDBira in BarUuy, and ulili cxliibtts nuiny Ti^l- 
nlm of Its anL'ieut ^r9ui>i-?iir iu tUe fni^^m-fiitd uf 
bMtttiftil aEcUlocCuro wLiL-h abound ia it, bvsidw 
one of th« DM>I tnaffni tic-rut niiMf|rir:i in Ilarliary. 
It is oat) vt the ttu«« Duly ^lohamuiedai; tuvvim, aud 
tb* fuiatical Eplrtt of thw Inbabitaalu nindura acmes 
to it dilficuJt. Its population, which at otui time, 
ftcoDrdinjf to Arabian hktorians, was at IcmB GU,0(IO, 
doe* wt DOW ncesd 16.000. 

KAISAK1AH, ITT KAiH^tKiTiTM, a town in Ajou 
J^M^aacieDtlv rilltd Cittuna. Sue C^^aoeju 

KAQSEBSLAl TKHN, a town in the BaTanan 
Faiatinat^ an tbc I lauUm, bora croaetl by a brid^<>, 
and on tho FfiUxcr>Lu«Iwi|» Railiray, 43 iniliai b.h.w. 
of Mainz. It ts i^idled, has several public oSoet; 
a nocmal and other schools; and the remaiiu of an 
old caatla, built by FredoridE UarbartMoa, and now 
oannwtwl tutu a cvutral prison; niauafac:tun3 of 
wmHoo doth, wttoa goods, boaicity, stonewan:, and 
leatlMf; brcwcrieiv gtase-worka, a paper and nthor 
nulls; important imu- works, suDpUed fmm iirm 
adaee In Uw DekfaboutbixNl; and ua a eonsldsniblv 
ind* In froiU Thtco sucoomto oseagnnonts w«n 
ioof^ htrc in lTBS-91 between us Ftvncb and 
Oeranna, in wHcfa the latter were suocenduL Po^x 

KALAFAT, a town in Boumanio, capital uf a 
diatncc and oa a plain ot same naiue, on the li:(l haak 
Danubo, about I mtic east of Widilin, ou tbo 
lit* bank, aail 370 milca nDrtb-trcit of Uonatan- 

DOsliL It is sumiundcd with vitllK; cimjiHts uf 
■ibvnt SO(K) ho wso^ aad baa thrco cLunjlios, a town- 
'kall, enstMB-lUNiar, naamntini;, and cavalry bomckn. 
b 18£(-5i tba Ttirka tJircw up fc)raUd:ibI« reduubu 
odfllhar vodis partly on two bt|^ hlUs in it« plaiu, 
MQo awaitiac tba attack of the Rusuans. On two 
Bvrsnl occasions (IVtfa Januajy and IKth April, 
lUi) the Bondans were drivcu back fruiu tLu 


KAJjVHARI («■£i) DESERT, a rvtion 
tt Smith AlricM, citcadiug fttita the Orange Rlrer to 

Lake NgaJiii, an"! fwri l"n. 24* r, nearly to the wrrt 
coact. Ibiai^cd adcmrt aimply bvcaiuut it ooiitaius 
DO numing water, and v«ry titUe> wat»r in wells. It 
is by oo noass dcsttttito of vogotau'coi and ialudntaata 
Besides a covering of gross ud of croqiing; plaals in 
KTvab rnriuty tbure ore Urge patches of biishiMi and 
•voa tn«s: prodigious hsnls of aatalo|iw, which 
nrquin little or no water, roam over Its pfadns; and 
an the jame tka* bountifully provided, oa well as on 
tliu vegetable products, partieiil»rly wntcr-meloos 
.tnd largo tilbon of a vety reraarkabl'n dcacription, ■ 
jfTuat nuiab«r of human bciugn, BuiUmeu ana Baku* 
laliarl, subsist The surface of Kalaliari ifi rcmarlc- 
ably fiat, vid is iDt«isac)oi in dilTrrrtint part* br the 
beds of aneiont (ivois. The luil in la ipfucral a Ui;bt- 
coloured aoft aand, but iu the ancii^ot river-beds 
then is a ^ood dual of aUnritun, whi(di, when baluMl 
Imtd, becomes so retentive that in some oaaes pool* 
fuTtood by the Tain euutidn water for several month* 
in the Tear. 

£ALAMATA. or Oilauata (Greek Kalamati, 
a se^ort of (ireecc, in tlii; Moroa, capital of the 
anvmuuMil cif Meaooia, at tbe besd of tha Gulf of 
koroa. It stands about a niilo fivm the ecs on tba 
\tdt bank of the Nedon, a tnrriTnt whicJi nmttrgtis 
fruui a rocky Rnrjoa in MotidI Tayjirtua; and bna a 
■mall Milnirb on the otber sl'Ie of the ttiiTrnt, with 
mills and canloos supplied from it by au artificial 
cbanncL 1 1 Is llie seat of the blshoprio el Msvanla, 
of a court of lUat ruecrt, and has an activo trade. 
Its oiLfijrta consist of wool, oil. raw mlk, ani) fijcs of 
thu firat quality. It Is noted for a partiealar Idncl 
uf hAndkcnhliur, which, from the brilliancy of tba 
coloun and nioJoratu price, is io great denand 
throuxbont the Tjcvant. The Uiwn was bnmcd by 
Ibrahim Pasha b M^. Poji. [1411. 

KALAMAZ0O,a to\m of tbc United Sutofi. Michi - 

acapitsl of the ooiinty of K-iUmnxno, en thn left 
of the rivnr of lULUie naiur, mid uo the MicLii^n 
and Chia^ llnilway, 100 mllM mirth 'CiMt of Chicngi). 
It staudi m a beautiful and fertile country, and has 
A Tsry attractive appeoraaet^ being regularly built 
in spaciaus stroeta, which are shaded by fine oak- 
triHS. Its princ^ml buildings and iaatitutions an 
Msversl ehurehes, a eoillMn for both eeses. a fenalo 
Bominary, and the atabe M&atJo aaTlmn. The Indoa- 
trial cwlahlinhnicala are aoap and candle works, an 
iriKi'faimdry, a machino-shop, a tannery, flour and 
planing mlUs, and betodet la which plano-Cortes and 
a^cultunl implaoonta an saade. Fop. 9181. 
tCAI. HR, A town of PnniKta, fn the gr>v<;nimnat 

»lid 15 milee Boiitli iif MHt^lebiir.;, (.'A;:il,il of tba 

circle of tbe auav itame, on the loft bank uf the Saale. 
It ia ronouoded by walla with five ^tM. It baa 
manufactupBS of irooUens, paper, chiooiry, cal, sail 
beei-n>ut sugar. Top. 7932. 

ICALE. See Cabikaub. 

KALKtDOPHON, an omannent do^ed bjr 
Sir C Wlicatstuue to iHiutiate the Imnsverae vibt^ 
tion of elastic rotls and to show how vlbmtlans tn 
diSerent diractioss interfere with each other. The 
rate of transvaraa Ttbratiou of nn clastic rod dtmmda 
on its lungtli, breadth, and tbicknees. Each rod 
experimented upon is att.-iched at one end to a lmw> 
sive ■iippoct, and uanlea a silvered glass bcstd at the 
other. Whm a iqiUM rod b tnado to vibrate in two 
directions at tite same time^ the bead movea id straight 
oc elliptic paths At-'ounling to tlio ntlativn phasoe ot 
the two seta of vibrations. A screw fa mnda to 
touch one nde of the rod near the free end; ttda 
virtually shortena ^ic aldc^ the rod no longra- riliraten 
in the two directiuiu iu the aamn time, and iLo bead 
describos peonliar ciinnt wfalcfa vaiy ra{'tdly in form. 
Stmilar effects aiv uroducud when the rod ii Ihidcer 
in one direction tnan tha other. In aQ rainn tfaa 



cnrvM depend r.n th« r«luiTe rntM ft vibration of 
tke r«l in ivm aticediocu, »iid the ra>id clmoitrt 
obtwrvcd An ijiio tc change* at the aifTurtinii^ of 
pLaM iu ibe Lwn arte uf vibmlion*. Vi'hon thv rod 
vibnlM tvlioa M ra^rfdl; in wi« dlrootton u in (lie 
otlwr th* cum chAo^ froon th« f\giav Btotk [uua- 
bol* uid back j^mo. Tbesw raatioa» of tliK IirwI am 
cotuUiuUioiw uf j:nin* tiwruouic uii'iiuiui; llit^ir pro- 
partiM ara Eoviwiit,'atad in tnutises on kiuoniAttoL 

KAI.iliniJHi'UfE, an optical t«y invwilod by 
Sir David Brnwstvr; it treaUa an iiilinite variety of 
■ymuiQtriaU arnu)({viii«ciW ut colourod imaew. aud b 
of wn to dM£|[BeiM, When two mirron ant indinitd 
M an aufU whtoh la an diqaot part of 360' any 
objuc4 Lilacml bolwcwji (he uiiirMV give* nae to a 
■erio« of Kyatmntrically ainui^^ IroagM. Tb* kal- 
didMwpe usually coiuuut uf a tube rorttuning two 
glan pbt<H wbicb «iK?nd aliinf,' the whol« length of 
the tube and tnnkc an anyilrr of i.lO' wibb rin« anuthar. 
One eiul uf the tulw U (duatMl by ii ni-L-tnl nUts with 
ft mull bale uC lu centre, tu which tlie ey« !• 
applied; at thootlii»rcnd thcrearo two piatM, onaof 
ground the ochi^r tit di'jvr ifliwi (fhu liittrr hving 
D«xt tliti lyo), witli a uumbcr uf |>ti:i.t« uf outuuivu 
glaai IrioK lotMoIy between them. A lirUliant circle 
mtDM by tlia cAloureil glaivoa and th«ir im^os in 
tlM|[lMa iilnteit, which oirt aa mirnTn^ taaeanan look- 
ing through tlio tnstruiu'iut AVkaUvsr onlours niw 
viubic in th« ivctorof Clio circlo invlm^ botwron 
the mlrroia are alito found in the other tiro Ltjual 
Bocton of the oiro]«, ao lliat U<iw«\-ar imgular uiay 
bo the (liatribntioo «f coIdut fnnnod bjy tlia piecoa lU 
({laiu tliB iuA^va coaIeac« into fljiuna mdch an 
innthcnii.tticAUy Byininetriad and blgUy pleoalne ta 
tho e^r. \Vb«n tbA objocta are laado to change Ibnr 

Sittiiiii the comlnnatiuu ul im^ca take entirely 
ertmt but «quatly ■jnunetHoal ihapci, wnietiinee 
vaoJahiae •ontliitMi «ii»iviiig M llw eontt* of the 
drde aud ndea of the eectai*^ Tbo mirron may be 
ractaof^ar ur triuDKoIar in shape; they may uo of 
inebl ur of Mllv-tuv.) .>r iDitsilt-rtjd glaM; the Imagea 
may bo viowcd tluvu^U a nu^fuifyin^ eye-piaoa; the 
cib|ecU may be oolound heade or athee Ldght objecto, 
■nd when tbo ground gtaaa ia ramored may be viewed 
by Ut;ht refleotol from tiieir ntrfaoee; instead of 
hsriu^ biw of coloured gLuw tueloawl between rUm 
plahu an »biect-glaM nay Im lucd to create iiMgee 
of dlAtAnt oojeote; the eiffecte may be eiUUted to 
luvc andionoca by bmng Ihrown upon a Kreea. 
When the ratmin maka an angle other than db' the 
Doubw of eecton Into whicb the ^riUJaBt circle Ee 
dirlded la oqnal to 3«0* divided by the u^ Thni 
whan tbe angle ie 18* tiun a» twenty MCtorm; 
when tbe angle U 45* there are ej^t eeotote. 

Wbra n tUrd plat* <d gLua to totiodoeed Into the 
tube eo that the ctom teetioa of the three b a triaa^'le 
the arranMnent !• merely eqidvatenl to ^ree kaldd* 
oeoMiea of the fleet kind; when the aeotian la an 
cifuiiatcnil triangle we get a vny ptoaiiag mt of 
imagee; wboB tbe eectUiB li a triangle iriioee aaglee 
are 90', tS' and U* or W, CO' and 30", the effede 
aro cjice»Uii)(Iy bcautifuL 


K1LU>A3A, one of ^ gratert Indian twcta 
and dranatio errlten, llTed, acconling to treditioB, 
at tlM coort of King Vikmioiulilyii, at Ujjayinl, in 
the fint oantufY nc. lie waa <ino of tbe nLie poeta 
who were called the nine pnalii>iH gtnw of the eenrt. 
VftiMBldl^a (na of atnKtfa) !■ a title hotne by 
eereral Indian mo n a r thi, ana tnote anthoritiaa aMeit 
thai K&lidlM Bonriabed In Ibe aiith century, while 
nthen nenticm theateveoth. Hie beet production ie 
the draOM S'Uunula, which wna tnnalatcd into 
Engliah by Sir W. Joam (Calcutta, i;j«l»>. and at 
uBcc aroaii:d iu Karefw alLentiun tu Sanakht litet»- 

ture. It wu tnuslated tnto G«nnuL by G. Fomter 
(ITl'O) and Ii.-rdi)T [1803), and into French by 
<^h>(iy (p<ibt»h<-'.l »-iUi tbe 8anakrit original, 1831P). 
Aniitiicrdrniunuf bi«, VikrunorvaaUor the li«r<ianil 
the X\iupli, waa tmulatod into iUgliib by H. H, 
VViLinn t^'nloutta, iSia), and waa pubtiahed with a 
Irttin ttnJi»Utian by 1.CTK (Berlin. 1833). IIc«ii1f« 
Llic^ WLirk* lltudu tnulition ancrilir* to hU Author* 
ship tho followingC—M&tavikit and Aifuimitn^ a 
ixiniiidy of intri|;iie fedited byTullberg, itonn. 1>)I0}; 
two ejiii: iHieiiuk Kajrbuvansa and Kumira-Saui- 
bbAvU) botA pubUtbed in i^annkrit and Latin by 
Stcu]itr<Londofl,thefin>t in IHT2, und tl:e «<<v'-»)il in 
18.18); Megha-ddta, a lyric pt-era ipubliahud VF-ith a 
free BugtiaL trainlatiun by Wilaon, Oalciitto, 181^; 
and aevand other dramatic and lvri<u1 piticca. 

K ALISCH. ur Kalisz, a town in Knaelaa Poland, 
on Bn island in tho iToeoa, near the Pnunan troa' 
Ctcn, 132 uilca nf Wanaw. It ia ntrrounded 
by walls flanked with towere, conaista of autusioua 
■Ireeti^ occaelonalty lined with treoe, and welt-huUt 
hoiuKi. Tbe meet roaiarkahic edifice* are the pabee^ 
in which the grand-dukea of Poland long lued to 
rwidr; ihv catboiral, ibe church uf St. Nii-holna, and 
the Luihcnn church; a ^o library, with cxtoDHivD 
iwriciitilii^ rvillDCtionii: a Ronuui (.'athntic jrymnoMua], 
iiiilitiu^ ■diucil, tfanatre, and ihrui- hutpital'L It id 
tbe ctiutre of a conaiderablo trade. Kaliiwb won 
founded iu 0^5, and early beeame tlie scat of goram- 
mnnt: In 17US the Polee dirfeuted tbe Swadea In iti 
viiiuily. P..p, 18.0(12. 

KAJ-KIiJtKNNKIt, PmiiuHiCH Wii.iimj<. a dia- 
dngviibed uiano-furte player and couii'.scr, born at 
CoMet In 1788, acudied mueieal oom)-4»<itiun and the 
piano-forte in Parit under Catcl and Loda Adam, 
and in 180S gained thr duiifale price of the oeoaer> 
vatory of mna!c tfacrt^ llu waa afterward*, oB tbe 
roQonunnndatian of Haydn, who aclcd to bim like a 
father, inatructeil in cnuiilcrpnint by Anir«uhtabergcr. 
After trartiUIoK tliiuui^b iieniian y, iu 1S14 h» pni- 
oeedad to Lomlon, .iurl hy IiIa aMIitv, ItfUi as a player 
and teadtur, he acviuircd boUi fuiic and wealth. In 
Itl'JI he made Parii hla nutl^kore, and cetablUbcd, in 
concert with Pieyd, a niMiufactury uf piituua. which 
booame fanxiui. Uia miuical cmntnuticns are *erT 
niunervu*, but In geneml numrkably dilficvlt. lib 
Btadiai have long enjoyed a liizb repuutlon. Ua 
died of ehnlenk at En^ien, near Vario, in 1849. 

KALMAB. See Cauub. 

KALMIA, n Imntiful North American genm o( 
■hruba, having coriaceona, ever- men and cnp-ahaped 
flowers, of a fine roee or i>ur|ire oolonr, dts^MHl in 
larce coiTmhe. Tlie oorolla la provided with Ion 
little pita, promiDODt externally, and iu nliick tbe 
antbeie are ennflned. It beloti(e to t)it> natural order 
Erloaocm. The K. tatifotia, oonununly called Mewa* 
Uii» lamrH or faiUa biuA, ia a large ahrab growing 
meet abundantly on and abuut the AUe^rbany Mona- 
taini. but aciBiDtimm in the vicinity of the ocean, ia 
the middle and eMtem Rtatoa, a* for uorth « laL 43\ 
Tbe trunk ia auuii-tiion >1 iiuibi» in diameter, and the 
wood ia very hnn\, aunr-^itible of a fine polttli, and 
more nearly reeemblea box than any otur Nenk 
Anurieaa woo<L TUa ahrub in tn great ii^yicet in 
EnroMMi gardenia from the beauty rf its flower* 
and loliace^ TIm oUutr dilforcnt *)i<M]iM of kalmla 
we iauc4i mferiur In atature and the liie of the flowen^ 
Chough itill highly omamcnul 

KAl.MUCKSk or as thev style tbeuwelvo, tbe 
Dtrltn-ErH (tho Four Aliiee), the mc«( ranarkij^ 
brsndi i4 tbe MongiJ raoe. Tbey Utemselvei laaia- 
toia that their primitive rerfdenoe wm situated be* 
twoBB the Koko-Nor tthe Itlno Lake) ud Til«i. 
Loac befMV tbe time of Oenslda Khan a part uf tliie 
peo^ ie aald to have made an expedition to tba 



weat ■• far iw AaiK UTinnr, uiA to hav* loiit tbvtn- 
mIvm thare aiDon<^- tin.' Cftuciwuti Muuutoiiui; wtille 
11m fwrt, who had roinainttl In Otvat Turlary, t«- 
ostvwl from their l'nrt*r ncigliVnin" the nune ftf 
Kia'intU- [the Mpnmt«il). TJicy hove olili(|iicT niurow 
ejrea, black pyebonwn, iniall flat no«»*, high cherli- 
twQiw, laxjfo oftTf, and nrand hoMti; tboy ara ehort in 
BtMore, hftTc brood dimildi»a, and a ilonply nwarthy 
cmnplexion. Their ordmary fooj !■ Wley-flour 
BoMked in water, ami tb«ir favoiiritu drink tenmtitod 
nara'a milk, U> which thvj j^ivc the niuav of itovnm 
(am Kuuutiuil, and a «plnt didUIled from kimmias. 
I'bcy an: a nuTiiiulic,'jrr, and warlike ne*, 
auil though h<»|nt>b1e, aro miidh Qiri>n to [lirciHt anil 
tliJ«TtD2. They bav« tx-in diildvJ. at liuwt aiuco tlio 
duBiiaaMmieitt of the Mo;^) Kimpirc, into four 
priiiripol hniQchea, called Khn^hot, IJcrhct. »n>i 
Turvut. Th« greater uortioa of the Kbinlmt KaI- 
mncln have rraialnad la and around Tibet nad oil 
tL« Koko-Xoor, and ani uid to have Ivcn iindor thu 
noUetkm cf tht I'hinrwe rinoe the ilownfiJl uf the 
UBOOngar KalluiieV u. The ■mnUer [Kirli'iri uf Ibia 
tribe ha<] long brforo itlired to the Irtbb.aad finally 
fell uixUt tho (innninioii (if thn Dsoungar hordv, wiUi 
trhii.b it t(»k i>art in \hr war aft*'*^ L'hinik,aiiil wua 
diapenwl with them. Thu li'.-nle uf th^ Kl}»tlii.itii 
(warrion), which u (till tinitod under tho C*Lini»a 
■onrd^ty. ii rated at 120,000 •onila. The Khnshota 
nMiBtain the fint rank aiDotig the KaliDUck Irittea. 
A mrt of them, about 180(1 fatniliwi, avttlprl nn tho 
Volfa In 17fi6, aud voluntarily *nbi»itt«d to tho 
Bwwm Bmrorei^ty. At the dWaembonnent of 
tiu Honp^l KiTit>i[T tho Duiunt^nr KAltnucks consti- 
toEAd but on<-- tribe nitb thr llerl>etii, wbid) wna 
afl«rwanla iJUided betwoen twv brulhera uf thi;ir 
pfinecly family. In iho sw«iit«nith oeatury and 
tba beginning of tho d^htonnth thn 1]xrmn;^ar hnrdr 

anbjected a urual i-iart nt tbe oliicr KAluiiick trlben, 

W{MrcU]1y tho Khuthf^t, l^^iKt, luid Khr.>U, aud 
carried on btiiedy warm both with the Mr>nc<-''I* aiu] 
vltb the Cbiceae Empre, whidi tennxnaU-d in their 
cutirv aubjii^aliun and dlfpentioQ. They wans ra- 
gantcd lU tbo btarist, TJchat, and mimt ]iovr^fiiI 
sorde. Tho Derhvt Kaliuucks, tvhrwi: poLituro- if round* 
ven ori^Dally ■tloa.tal in the K^an of the Koko- 
Nor, dcparltxl tlwncc on ai'cdiiiit "f the .\l"iig>i| liiii- 
tnrlxuiL-is tuwariU tlip Irtlcli. n-tid n;piu;itcil inti) 
two jMrtiito. line 'it them bi-cftiue UJiltud with the 
Dxoancars, and vu finally dvitroyTHl with them. 
the otiier *^lt!»t on the L'ml, l)r>n, ami Vul^a, rui>l 
the majurity of Iheu joiued tbp Turgub^ but afUsr- 
wards evparated from them. Thu TurgoC (Volgido) 
Katmueka aoum tn liavc hocn fi>nn«d intn a distinct 
bocda later th^kii the uihiti Knlimic-k bru.ti<:bei. In 
Um <rtry hogimiing they aeirfLml^il fri.>iii (he rmtl«<M 
lltKNUinrt, and aottlod on tbo Volgn, aud oubmittod 
tft the HoasiaiiB In 1616. But the c.nfiiw.-iion of thu 
Ruaaiaii govern nient liavinf; t-xcitvd diiuatisfiu:tir>ii 
among tli^m, tlmy rrtiimoii t" Itwiiiiignna in 177(1, 
and put tbvimvlvai umlur tho C'hint»c prutcclitin. 
Hon; bowovar, ttiict mcastiros wvro at tint odoplcil 
•g»&«l tbMB. All th»V! dilTrrcDt tribm aro undi'r 
tiui rale nf th«ir own klinna, wlio ivre trilmtary tn 
tbo goveminent under iFhioh the hon:!^ liieii. Tricm 
la alao a colony ot baptistcd KalmiLckfi, to which tha 
RoHdaii ^TKninicnt luin gnintcd n fcrtJlo brritciry, 
«rith tbe citr Stjvrop'i], in tlm govomoaeut uf Btiii- 
Unk. lu tii« naai'y ilii-trict tlinv ia liltvwiae a Bmall 
Anion/ of Mobainmcdaii Knlunck*. Tliooa lulijcot 
Iff Rowian rule amuiint to n-huiit (iU.OOO. 

KAIXK^SA, a town cif Hungary, L-ouuty tif Peatfa, 
and 67 mOc* Kiuth nf tbo city nf that name, in n 
Ittinhy aod unbiattliy dictriut near the left bftult of 
l&e Danuim. It wa« onoc Btron^ly fortitiod. and was 
I iiLtce of gnat iinpuilianco tiU it woa aUiimt de- 

' Kaataflag 

t jpeno^ 

atrayod by the Tiirk*. It ia atitl tiie tee of as 
arohbiabap, baa a cathedral, aevvtal i<ther churvheo^ 
a UlBhop'B 7)alaco, ooolsaJaatical aaimn&rr. I'iartft col* ' 
Irgo, lycoiiiD. gymnacium, and hcAd national actux^l 
anrl Hi'Vend fwrn. I'.if). lU.HUi, J 

KALOXG BAT (,Plm>pii* nMU), nno of tWI 
Javao PttTfpiiiii. ¥(}%. linln or lii><ii»ett<i*, ao nainadf 
from tlio fox-liko nha-pa of the head. Ttioaa ball an>] 
cjiiefly (uiind in Ja*H anil the islniid:i of the 
Archlp«ll4p). Th^i Knliin^ bat ix thn lormt i 
of Fteropuin, and ainoui; tbe larsi-it uf bat* i 
ally; tht> "f'm^ in tonSe fonna mcuiirin^ from -1 to 
6 fce4 frau tip to tiji, whilst the t>wly ttjwlf may 
miuwuTe S foot in length. In baliita tboH hate ara^ 
(ibytophuf^iu, fveOin;; (jriucipally on fruits ; and al- 
though moat an nocturnal in habits, kioio few fiy 
abont daring tbo day. 1'hc I'tf ropidip r<r I'nx lUbi 
are dlatingnialwd by the tubcri^ulatv chuTacter of the 
mobir or grinding teeth — a etr^iutiir« nilnpttol to the 
wanta of vejietHbTa fecdtra; hy the nhortcuod or nidi- 
niRntATy toil; by tbe mm I irately -eliod eftta; by llie 
hir),>i- Hym, aeiiI by tbe abaeiice of uaaa] nppendwM 
or leaiy atructurvii situated nitliin tho noetnla. ^a 
thcitiib ia abort, and pmviilril v-ith a wi-ll -developed 
claw-Uka nail. The i'nx Baia oru entirely abeeal 
from the New WorM. 

KALUGA, an cxU'n«v*r govemtnent of Kuro|M)Bn 
ItniaJa, boundud by thoMo uf Moaoaw, Stnolonako, 
Tula, and Orel; lying butwet-u Si" -IS' and 37* 22' 
B. Ion., and ftl" wid .'>*■' 30' >. Ut. Ita t«ml«iri»l 
eixteut it iiliviit 10,000 Kqtiara miles; ;K>p, 9S4,3$S. 
About one-balf the aurfaoc ia covered with foraat, and 
tho gr«at«r pArt tjf the romolndor is ca^iabli) of culd- 
v»tian. Tho chief |>irtx]iuiM ai<c com, bomp, and flax. 
The ]>ruiL'i|<Hl rivcra iii'u Lb« Oka. which [a navigable, 
thu Upo, and thu SchiMdra. Thia province ooutaias 
iron-Tninni and chnlk-bcda. Tbo ciinuito ia one of 
thn mult teinfirrnte in Kuiana. 

KALUGA, a town of Ruaala, oa]>it«] of tbo above 

ETwnatent. atanda on as elevation on tbo right 
nk of the Oka, S8 uiilea niuth-we«t of Maacnw. 
It ia nearly 7 mili™ iu oirc-uiuferenoe, and i» aur- 
roiindod by a rnmpiu-t. u bich haa liwn formiad Into ft 
woUc The alrveta are nurow nn<l erookodt and the 
bouoM for tlie innat (lart of wood; hut aavcnt of the 
jvidilic truildiiii.'H, vvbich arc built ••( wtiinc, arr liand- 
■rme. It in the ii«i of n hi»h(ip, luid hn* (ivi-r csuncy 
chujx'hcji, a l'u1Iui;u' fur pniirta. a uunui^ry, a foundling 
hoepitnJ, A gytnnnsiiim, and a thoatra. ^'umerona 
man 11 far 111 rea, but (larticularly of aail-dotb Ui «u|iti|y 
the navy, make Kaluga a atirring placet, and cutttte 
k to be regarded saone of tbe moat unporlatit nianu- 
fnotiiring towns in the linssian domfauous. l'o|i. 

KAMA, the lat^ent tributary ut tti- Vdirn, rUea 
in n branch of the Ural Mountains, on tb« eoateni 
frontier* nf the ilUBiian govcmmrnt Viatka; flowv 
lint north, then nortb-cAit into tbo goremmeat of 
Tenn, ibeu cjrciiltoualv a-a.K. to tbe tovn of Penn, 
then Houth-w»t into u>a g-ivcnicivnt of Enmn, and 
about <0 milw l»c]o\v the town of thut name, after a 
cuiinteul abuitt lIHJU luitt-s, joiiin tloe left lionk of tbe 
Volipi, aJmiiiiE doiibbng ita vnliinin. It in nuvigaiile 
iduiiH.L tliniiitfhoiit tU whole <."-'nrti.', nml a canal 
wuneetiu^' itu tributary lujna Kdtina with tbe 
Siicnia Koltnin, a tributary uf the North l>wina, 
givoL an iiiterrupteil ooinniiinication between tbe 
Caspian Si-a and tbe Arctio Ocwiu. 

KAMKNETdi, or KAJiiKNtEC, a ton-n. Burata, 
capital of the government of IVidolnk, nn tiin 4Snirit- 
ritz. about 12 uiilwi above Ita junction with the 
UniestcT. It ia defended by n cattle, and though 
not re^bir la well built The mimt reuinrkabto 
edificoB an) tha Rijm&n Catholic cathedral and aemml 
other Jloman i'atlinllc aud tirouk cbureho^ the 




lifafmrr, kdiI the gfmnwihim. Kamcnirtz yra* lunj; 
fxxMMervd tUe key of FoUuil on Ui« aldo of Ttirkej. 
Fop. 22.4 SO. 

KAMblS, r^in. StM) Ho»c (HicintT). 

KAJIPTL-LICON. the luune pvBo to a reocnlly- 
i»T((nt«iJ Roi>r>E«ivtiriiig, Nnmrautu Hab«Umeas, two 
cr mors «ombiB«<3, uv uml in iU cmipantuRt: liuUit- 
mbbir, giMarfmbM, dried fflnu of luuced-oll, vaw- 
diuri^ eork, fibraa of oott^m, hmip^ tow, julo, uul 
vira. Tlin Iwat kind« kto nuo of moiU (|iuuititiM of 
CMUtchouv or fru»«-piin^ Uqodm by napbthn or 
otW «alv«Dt, mixed with coHe wfajoh hu beett srmtnd 
itrto R fine dast. l^u> dim*, whilo wunt And loft, ia 
paowd under cteam-bMted ojliiulen, bj wbieb it w 
nwU iaio riiMto 10 oc 12 Tsrds hag, vtryiag la 
width from 3 to 8 ^atiI*, and bi thieknen from J inch 
to I bicb. The alicfta ivra altowiML to lie Hat natil 
they Lanlen, miJ tkt.-Ti roUtxl up as fit (or use. Oc- 
nuiMintal dmigna ihkv bo jiiitntih! in tlio wuiio wkv 
M on ordituiry bcin)icu fiiMirHjIutb. UlicD odditioiuU 
mbBteace and Btnngtb are t«qviind (be a>in[>osition 
ii qiread on a h»^i™^E of nuvH or trooUeu buM. 
It u nuiiv MiKiuiTe Uuut oidiaiiiy flD(ir<clotb, but 
boa lbs advantaffea of being mora ^wtid to wwlk 
iipOD, man tioS»^tB», and bettor luUpted to keep out 


KAMTCHATKA, a l»x^e |miirwa1» on tli« Dortli- 
VMtam OiMUrt of Aaia. On tbo eut (t haa th« Nortb 
^mOc Ocean, and <m tlu> weat the Sca d Okhotsk. 
It extends (ron 51* to ei3' V. bO., xud trmn 115' W 
to 179* SO' E. Ion., and la reckoued upwardu uf 9O0 
Bd)oa in lout^ and 190 in avtn^ btwdtb; sqiukni 
odlai, 85,000. It la ronatlcaUe for It* oxtrems onlil, 
wUcb ia bek^tened by a naga nl very lufly luuua- 
taioa, oxtending tb* wboj* jsngtli «f tbe pvniiiBulik 
Sertiral of lb«a» mouutaina ara vt>Icani«, bat tliv 
moat Fwaarkable Is one ahnated near Nijnl Kani- 
tcbattlc, the Tolcano of wUeh la very aetlre, and two 
nan nUnn olapM wHlwut eotiM vlolant ernpUon. 
Tbe pilna^l rlv-cr it ilia KAnitcLatka, witli it> 
alBuMrt tba YcloTka, navigabla for ISO mllte, Tim 
nuMt fertile portion cS tbc peninniU lioa along the 
tallcy of lUa rirer. The Buaalan aottfeni ben nu*e 
aat*^ barley. rj^L potatooi^ and raoden veg«taUe«, 
but IIm rett 01^ tnc conntnr i* Utile adapted for cul- 
ttmk Kamtdiatka aemAj enjoji tbr«« inon tlm of 
an imnerfMt iiunmer. It ha* a gtv*l variLty of 
aaimaM wbicb pcoduoe the rich«et and laout vidnsblo 
tan, aueh as tn« eable. Otfaer eomniou auboala am 
the Antic foi, tita beavcrtthe ban^ the tnanDoi, and 
the ainli or wild thecp. Tht bear ia tkc nwat for- 
uddabla wild animal. The coaete and rinn awann 
to a suet BXtraordlnuy deene with flab, wblcb fonn 
the main article of food. There it also rnat abiin* 
dance of gaoic^ particulartT woodoock^ anlpa^ grotMo, 
wild geeae, ana duoln, u« en* of whlcb iMt are 
oeOeeted and pnaorTed in the fat of fish. The only 
tnm ■» ituntad Urcb and dwarf pinea and cedar. 
Shnba an soon plentifol, tu^ ai lae motmUun-uli, 
wildfone^ and raniberry. Tliere ia alao a variety 
(d becriM. O^vpcr aaa Iivn are vorked; i>tilpliiir 
abomd^ and many nfaiorala an foniui In the inuiin- 
taina. The only airport it furm The eapital it Petn- 
paaluvak, with 400 inhabitABta. Tbe KMntcbndabM, 
the predomlnaliin; mce (a bnutdi ol tbe Mongol 
faintly alUng th w naal i w Jtttma), wn In fMienl 
baJov the eemmat hdghl, have bread dionldera and 
laiga beaili. Tbe face, aud partioolaily thr nuae, ia 
loac and flat; tbo oyee auiU and nnk : tbe U\* tUn 
ud hanging, and thnr have Karody any beard. 
They are goad-natntwC hotaeat, and hoepltalile, but 
laiy, iateiaperata, and eetuual. They number abont 
4SU). The other priadMl tribe ia tbe Kortaku, who 
lire north ot lu. 5ft*. They nrv n waaderbw tribe, 
nnbdttinf on the pnduoe a dio roiadear, ana differ 

from tlic Kamtcljiulatus in lan^rfo nnil mnde of 
lire. InrlmtLng the 1509 to iiOm Ku»i«d »ctUer«, 
tlio iiopulatiQH of tha poninaula may be eet down at 
10,00(1. In ie»n the Ruaalaaa bad Bamo knowlcdoo 
iif Uiix country, but it vm not till 1706 that att 
K»niti:hKtkA wiu Biirvcycd bdiI iictiipipd by them. 
Kvury KamtcbaUale viUaue omalata of eaivnl aoin* 
Dier dwalUnf^ buUt on }alM Mag Borond foot from 
the ground. In winter Ae occapuitii of half a dozen 
ol ttiMM) collect Intn a winter dweJlinH L Ivul diTp^ 
covered by a cDue-tbaped roof, and wliii-b cannot be 
ontond except Inr goin^f dovm the clumney. Tlie 
clotbing nf tbo ICuntchadales Lt prepared from the 
aldiu of reindtwr or dug*, but mudi of the I{ua«tnn 
atyle of dreaa liat been introiliiMid. Tbe ducf food 
of tlie EamtdiadolBa conaieta of fiab lumaed with 
whal« and maI fat, and a kind of paMc prepared of 
tbu tetiilor bircb bairk. Thoir favmirite drink it the 
juion ei tlu) bircL 'llie chief dumotic auimlU la tbe 
do;;, wbidi uervc-a for dnuuht. Tliv KamtduxUlo 
does Dot tame tbo rtiindecr, althnii^b oil the neiffh> 
lunring peojilr fio, 'Ibc n-lifp"" "I tlic KammHa- 
dalee ww, and i« atill wuunji tlut f«vr wbo have not 
embmocd Christianity, i^iananitm. 2ot vnm tta 
Chriatian KAmtchadales have not relinqnitlied tlieir 
ao n. «PM» ortiamait*. 1'hcy beliinrc in aii abuiKbty 
God, creator of the worlJ, called A'lrfii, hut rlu not 
worahip lum, bocatuc their iununionible fttiA't aV 
lu^rb all thi-ir attention. Tbey beliere In the Imnier- 
talit>' uT tlie aoul, which tliey ako aecrlbe to tho 
meaneet bnitet They give to animals speech and 
reason. They rdato also that sf^et Hfo a mdvefstd 
deluec coverad the earth, out of whkli only oom pnb 
of liiinian )>«in«a were saved. 

l\A_NA<iA\VA. ■ ton-n and ■w.ipnrt of iTapan, in 
\.hv iilauil iif Nipliuii, un lliii iiiirlU »i<Ie of a l«y in 
Tedo harbour, 10 iull<» nouthw^^t of that dty. It 
is a long narrow tuwn, «trrb.-liin(j fur 2 iir 'A miles 
along tho bay, bsritig one main street nidy. Ilie 
houN « are bidlt (if wood : the tbope largv and %«I1 
snpplicd. The shoraa of tbe bay an vary be anti M, 
anrt cvivt-reil with viUagca, while tlie view inlaod ta 
Uiiiiadcd b^- tlie lasgnifioant cooe uf Fiui-Yania. The 
Amorioiui consul and the governor of Yc^ehnnw 
raeide at Kanagawn, while the oonsula and vioe-CHi- 
tuU of the Kiuopean powen reside at Yokohamn^ 
about 3 miles loiter down. In tbo Kl^n treaty witli 
Jansn KjuiasawA is named as ooo of tliu open jwtta, 
and thibber tlie Briti^ and other tlvaty powen went 
ia 1SS8-69 ; but tho anchon^ urn found to bo an 
shallow, and the place so inconventoit for residence 
and trade, that tlie UMtrchanti^ seooaded by the J^ 
panose, panuaded tbe oonHidB to remurv the port to 
Yokuhania. 8«e Yokohama. 

KAXDAHAR, or fASiunAR, one of tbe otdef 
dtiee ot AfghnniaUn, on a fertile and well-ouldraWd 
phuD. SiSi feet above tbe Ha, Donr tho left bank of 
the I'r^ndebL 300 mtlea eonth-west uf Cabal. It 
is ill Lhi! fiirm of an Iirvipdar quadrangle^ iudcBed hy 
a iiiiul wall, S7 feet hi){li, with a large towor at e*^ 
of tbc four wjraeni, fifty fdnrsemicyliudricalbnatioaa, 
and a bmad and deep ditch in frvmt, a^ble of be- 
ing GUed with water from tbe river. Thcra are alx 
gates, each pnHaoted by doaUe boMliousL The cjr- 
cuiiifetvDOu u( tbe city is nearly 4 niilea. It is regn* 
lorly built, tbo two principal streets nroariag eacli 
other at right angles, with a circniar s{iac«, lonnsd 
of ihope, and ahont 45 yaids in dianti-tar at tbe point 
uf luleieection. The hoosa^ eeldutn mote than twu 
•toriaa UgL arv b\iilt of mnd. and have a aenn np- 
peaMBM. t\ume ■■! tho n-eiUthkr dsasiss are incioaad 
with hlf^ walla, nad liam aeversl ouurts, with gardena 
aixl fonntiuns. Kandahar la ohiofly fupiwrted by 
the transit unde. It wits held by tha Uritlah from 
1&31I to 1612. Pop. 25,U0O to £0,UOU. 


K.\XDr. S«CATfnT. 

KAXF^ Ecism Kzsr, » recrnt Arctic Toydgar. 
Iwm M. PhaMLelybi*, Uu!M Suilmt, on tho Sd of 
of Y^AnroMiy. ISSO, (rndciiiod u M.D. iii Um) ITuivei^ 
■itj- o( I'enitfylvatiia in 1.S42, and iihoRly aftiTMsrda 
bccunv aur^toc to the AiucriiiLD luJMicii to Chinn. 
jUtar kaving China ke poawd thmvi^jli {uut ft IntlLa, 
vWt«d £^pt and Grc«ce, and (beii mklloi for th« 
•wan oomA oi Africa, wlien ftn attack of fov\T oblij^vd 
iam to *landaa ui bitondvd joDTDcy tA ttu: Kingilom j 
<■! DahouMj. Hkving mtnraed to America, he was I 
•nplajed in tfao gwvemmeut Buney cf ibcfJalf «( 
Mtateo in lSi>v, «bon be obtained tlic niipotnttncnt 
of aenioT miflickl oHiccr bi thu cxpnUtW of two I 
-v^bkK the Aditanrr and tlw Ifrtrur, which (nilcd 
frnro Now York iin the 2'2d uf M>y in tlut year in 
M&rcb of Sir John >'nuiklin. Ou ttw rvtum trf tho 1 
etfvdiLifiu I>r, KBiie]iul>liili<td anacoonnt of itwider 
tko titia tA The I'uilcJ St^ttM Qrincll Kkmliliun in 
S«Mrch of Sir JqIir Kranldin— n Purumal Narmtiro, 
On tlw Slat of May, 1S$3, the Adntncv aJMM, pW-rd 
tndor Dr. Kuia'a oonmLand, aaiUd agniii fnan New 
Y«rit tA rcaumn the >cArch, and proceeding up 
B^Hio'ii l)«y Mid Uirotiuh Smith'* Stmit, raachwl 7I> 
43' X. lat H«re the Adranee ronuiiiod frmcn up 
for tffvnty-oiM moatbt, ftnd wan tinally abaiuliiuvd 
becsuxe provudons wem becominK »curm oiiil aciirvy 
aad oUurr dbg mm had made their niipr-arnnrc. Tlio 
oliiMt new WM to reach tha fonioU Mfttli-uicutti in 
fimiiilanil. abent 1500 miloa diatanL Tbifi bug and 
psrilniv journey, [xutlr in boaUt and partly in alMlgM, 
tn» happily ncr»)inpliiih«I, nftor ten wtcki of termt 
privatiuii, with lL« liw* of fiutv «ua riiiin, miiI that hy 
■a ModdenL In 18S4 Dr. Kjuio publishcol an ac- 
count of hi* aecoiKl Airmditinn, under the title nf 
Arctitt Eiploraiiuiui (Phuadct|Jua, tno vuIjv Hvu), and 
waa avr»niad lb* gold oieda.! <n th« l^nyiU Uaographi- 
cat Socicly. Hia hvalUi hnving suflcrod aaranily, n 
voynfe to O'ubn «-Aa noomtnendcid, but iiMvsd inef- 
fettuat, and hu died at Haviuina un tba I6th of Fob- 
xmrf, 1S57. 

KANG^iVROO r.1/am>)^u*. Shaw). TLoie nnioULU, 
ahootutcly ocmrfflcd U> AuittnUia and the adjacent 
iilftnd)^ belong tu tho Buii-tupiiU onlcr of maniinftl*, 
and anf diatiugiuahed pniniariiy by the poaeeaaloii 
of a DMtrrajnum or ' pouch,' supiwrtod on two wpv- 
dally dovolo[>«d or tnarttiptal bottft^ in which tlie 
imiaktare yoiiti); arc tirntoctcd and iiaiiriihi:<L for n 
eertaio |)rriod .tft^^r uitth. IIil- kaii^-anxj foitiily 
(Uacfxi|Kidi>lif) in iDcliiili'd In ihc HVTtiini I'lwplin;:^ 
(GrM-catcn) of liua order abova nauicd, uud tlio 
ckaraetms of the family are very diatinct. 'I'luui Uid 
dfutillon la (HfToTant frMn the dtbvr (^ii*>rH., in thnl 
tLvy ptaaou ux indanr tocth in the iipp^^ jaw tuid 
but two in the lowur jnw, the Latter b«iii2 rou«t krgtly 
deretepad C'lmino ttwth, in thd aduLt at U-uaC, lae ea- 
lai^'nrKiting'.andA canatdcmbla gnp thorcf'-r« n-xinl* 
bftwwn tbe faiHior and uioiar tu«Lh, wLidi laltvr 
wuDbor ten in each jaw. The Umba are irr«ally din- 
MoportlAnMl, tho fi>ra leg* hdng ahort, whtlat the liiud 
baiu, together with tbe hind text, are grBatlv «]on* 
prted; tbaaa atdmala raatJng i\ pon theelaBcntaatamia 
eraakl*: Byu»«iwoftho^oni(atodhii]dumba,ddml 
hy the UD, lbs kanfuoot ilto snaliled to mnkn lung 
And poweKul Imps, and tl»u to pmgruai very niriflly. 
TliM taaping TnovKment, indgwd, ia th« r«gular mtnim 
of l i roy i tM ioo In these ureaturci. 'J'h« toil umivnra 
matcriaily to affibt in pteeervJng the lifdonnc iif the 
body, and may aImj Id aocn* degree aid in the fur- 
ward prvgnmion of the craataro. Tho foi* fmt nn 
nn-lv lirousbt to the srmuid, exMyt when fewlinz. 
Aiul in aittin;, in tbe eract poatUN, the aainial r«*ta 
apco ita tam^ the tail fomiing a central aupport to 
iJEa body. 'Ilie t*U ia thidtened at Eta iMwe, but 
i fmduoUy taptn townnla tho extremity. It ia geaer- 

■n J hairy ; Imt hi aune forma It taxf be naked, at 
>«ivend b^ maaU acalec Tho fme feet |k«scm lira 
toea, eoeb to* bains prnvidod with a itmn^ hookml 
claw. Tbe hinder £eet hB*e four loM mdy, the Cnner 
or fircat toe bcinj; rudinieutary, wbOst the c^nttv t<w) 
ia greatly dr^vrliipfjl. and pnaaeaaca an cliinj,'i>te<l nnil, 
wlucb rcacniUci a hnuf. The two iuDer tuts of tlu: 
hind Umba are iinit«d by a weli-Uke atmolure. The 
aj»ptt mm>a of tlio body appoan small, and ervn 
dicpfiipiiitionate, t«h«n oompOMid uith tlto l<>w«r por- 
tion. lliL- hr:ul i> of HDiaO aire, and provide] wltU 
pmniint^t rora. Tho ilppor lip ia rWft, a> in fauvs 
Ac The at^^miich appcara to be of a aomewbat 00n> 
potind DAture, and exhibits a divUoo Into chambers 
or compartmeala, which have been tiMiught to beoon- 
nscted with a kind of rumination, or prooea* ahnilnr 
tt> that of 'obcwlnjc the mid' In other anlmala. The 
pcoiod of natation, or thAt during which tha yonsg 
arc p«rrini in vient, «Xt«nd« tu Alxint tbirty-njne 
davi After birth llio bumatnre yimny are protvCtad 
iu the mannpjijn] fnr a oenaideTniile |«nod; Ibo nip- 

filea opcnliig into tbe pouch, and the milk bein;.' forcci 
nto tJie moutlii at the feeble jt^vng bj the oLtian nS 
■pK-iAluitiK-lmi. wliich enupraM thif niMU Diary glAnfli, - 
and urbi eh are nndur the control (if the mother. Tbero 
nre tivo nuunmary clanil^ oach poaaca^a^ two eloo- 
}.'nl(rd ni]>p]«s. T^ kangarooe feed upon Sr*ea; 
and although fraqnently aam oollaotad In nmnbora, 
they do not »p«inr to be notuaDy mgarious in thrir 
haUta. The tuupuooa an hnnted In rarlona ways, 
dlkflj by doga, upon wldch they frei^yently turn, 
nring their tiiU and htm)<f«et^ pntreifiil woapnna 
of defence. SonetCnm the Uok* are leiied by the 
fore-feet, and are then sabjected to aoven blows fran 
tha hinder cxtrenitiM. "The affcctid^n of tho femalas 
for their yonnj ia moat marked. At fatrtb tbe young 
animals do not exceed an Inch In lenetL ; and et<en 
when they have altalned a KuuidoraUo fixe they aro 
accustomed to ae«k rrfu|^ from danger in tho pouch 
cif t)ie parifiit. The lai^r apeciea ^ kangatooa an 
eat«n in Ai»tni1iii. Tbe floah ia MJd to be nutimona 
and tavDury, and to KMmUa mutton. The kontinuona 
indnde very many i^tdtt, which vary ^n^atly in 
size. The chief ancnca are tbe Miwrofivt rjiyanlrut, 
a largv fnrat, tho Itcd Kangaroo {M. rvfut'y, and the 
Buth Eauiforoo {M. frvtiwi), iio. Fran tlie akin of 
this Uttor spedee diiefly, bnt also from the ekliu of 
otbrr kind*. Icathcriatnaniifaotiired, and ia largely used 
for m^ikiug glove* and ahoea. Vbm IVee Kangnrooa 
iDciitln-r>l»') of New Guinea are arbcreal in thetr 
hftHta. aa implied by their fiuniliarn^c, and powtaa 
prelu7ii«le tails; and tb» llntk Kangaroo* ^Petrtyal<) 
of Nintheni Auatralia iidiaMt the monntaJnoua parte 
of that district. For further infonnAtion relative u> 
the iliiforeDt apedea ftf kftnganws the rtiwlcT may 
eiinmlt the Worli» of lioidd and Wfttcrboimp. 

KANGAItCO-I!AT (//v/*i>ry«i««»). Tlieaeant- 
Btals bol<j[% to the Martn)4aliA, and an amply di- 
minutive kan^aruod, resemMiHf; ordinary rtitn in aiae. 
They diffiT fruiQ the Iruu kaugaiuoa In iiuaaeaua){ 
well>deve1ripnd cuiini! tmth in tbn npjwr j.xw, iho 
true kmigaroua bcins uprovidixl Vila these teeth 
in either jaw. They inhabit Australia, a]>p«ar to be 
noeluntal in habits^ and tn feed ehleQy on the root^ 
of planta Tho toil !• iciUy. Thi?y arc inrluded in 
the kanspwoo faDiily, tliat rif tbe Mtit'n>|>uiilidie. 

KAXO, a town in Central Africa, In tbe west of 
Soudan, ertpitaJ of a prortnco of ^a^nc name ; lat. I'i' 
Sr. 1oii.8*J0'e, Itoccitpieaa very imhenltby Biteneor 
the bcnrt of a monwo, anil h "f an irresnJarly oval 
fenu. inim.undcd by n mnd wall 30 feet high, with a 
dry ditsli on cill«^r ^iik', tuid cnlfrpd by fifteen g%tt» 
iu:u1e<if woiid, ctivvr-ed uitb nhi-c-t-irKii. The houses, 
rnnniMl of ul.iy, and in the Moorinb fnahlon, are eeey 
oummodiuus. The manu/actiirea ani chiefly leather, 




lerthtm jan, and djed clotli, uul the trader «Uch 
■testibi nuuijr ArnlH ojni Mnan friiiii Jku'bary, ia 
T«rj ooDkiijefuble. Kuio w aupjioicd to occupy tb« 
•iu of Ctuui^ vUi.'li wu uuoe the chief taaX of 
AiwhUo powr in Africn. t'oiiL Mtinuitcd «t 3i>,0O0. 

KANUJE, or KfxKiVE, n toint of ^lioclniUn, in 
til* iMmvitio* of Agnt, an ■ jiUIa n«*t the rij;bt bank 
ol u« Qsons, witli which it ia conoooted by ■ cau&X 
and 70 mUea n.N.w. of Lurk&ow. It vm o[k» the 
cupnlal uf a ^rcat mufiire, but uirw cmwUti cluc^tty nl 
ruina which oxi«nd ovor acrvcral lailt*. Itlaay of tbu 
fti)d«Dt buUtUngs an ricblv carvodi aiul Cbongh the 
architcctura Is eeneraUj heavy, aonu Muoaulni/ui 
tomba are ia hMet UMa, and tove a tujiil aod airjt 
B|ipaaiBBc«. Tba modara town h-i* only «no Mot' 
■ale ftTMt, and nuuetvui bum bmnchitii; ufT (rum it, 

KANSAS, oaa of the VnixM SiMt*. lyittg be- 
t«-Ocn lat 37* and 40' X., aad Ion. Oi' 40' and lOll* 
&ii' w^ ii bnunded m the north by Nabraaka, on tho 
aaat by Ulwpori, on the toulli by the liidhta tvrri- 
torj, and oo tha watt by Colorado. With th« ex- 
oe|iUoaof thetimtb-eaatcanierof ibo tcrriliirr, wh<'ro 
the bonndarj tine follows the coune of tlio Miuiuippt 
KtT«r, it hai the ah^w of a panlielumm. hmgut, 
eaat to wert, 370 mile*; breadth, SliO miln; ana. 
6M1S eqaare milca; popiiUtion, .tlU.KDS The pHn- 
c^al livma are the KauKiu, wbirU i> furnw^ hy tin) 
ualoa of BofiabUcan and Smoky Hill Fwrka froai the 
'Bodky Mouulaina, and joiii* the .MtMouri naai Kan- 
aaa city: and tha AHtanMuv which riaca in the Rocky 
Mouotaini, anil after triwiiiig jiart of Kanaaa from 
acat tu eaac, tuma tuuLli'diat into the Indian teni- 
Itwy. Thu muUot ci Kaiuaa i* ckidlj undolating 
wiUi elevatima of no gireat height The aaalorn pot- 
tion [M<aeiita a anoooaioii, of rich ttrairio^ K'^**"' 
oa*«r*d lidgca^ aud fwtlia vaUeya, with tnuch wuud 
on tho bana of tht cttvaaa. The iiruTaUlng rock 
to tiiuatone, which crop* out from tho nirfatw, or Ika 
acattered owr th« ground tu the form uf bouldrrx 
Coal and lalt alao exiat In sreat abundanco. The 
■oil, partjcularlv ia tho oaat. ia rich aad dfwp, dob- 
aaliog ganetalW of a blade hjua, aoaaaluiMa nixed 
with aawL llie dtmale b mild and BfreeaUa^ 
though madsd by violent wiadaaiid euddao dtancea 
of l«inpacatuni In the apriag montha. The bnflaloi 
alk, daar, ]inltie-do{;, aatolMM^ rabbit and aquirreL 
arc anoov the i(iiii>Ini{ieda of Uw atata; and the fca- 
tbered trilm ani nsjireeented by the wHd tnrkoy and 
goeee , ptairie-han, partridgv, goldea orioltv blva-Jay, 
nd-Utd, «rov, ana a ^reat variety of nuular Una. 
Kaoaaa waa anesed to the trnitod StalM in 180^^ 
aa part ot tho lorritary boufiht from Vt^acv, under 
tb» gansral derignatiaa of Louiaiana. It waa fint 
org^laad aa a tenftoiT In Maj, 1854, previMia to 
which, bowcvar, Uig* ooupuuea of cniigranU from 
tbaStafaekadeettledinlt. At thia time the Itochy 
M o taUta * fanned ha Tcatera bpundarT. Foraovend 
jTvan aUer the dau laat mentionea KaoMa waa 
tha BOena of conalaat tnnnuUa, accompanlad with 
1^1*mjl*L^ and mfflaiMgn of ail kinda, occaaionad 
tiy the qaaatioa at tha eatabUahnivnc or noa-eat«l>- 
llatlBllI of •lanry. Altar many alteraatloua of 
auoe— tha aati-alarery man at leii|^ prerailed, 
and tty the terna of Ihe ooftatitntwa adopted by 
tha MopU la 1&S9 the InalUutlon of ekrary waa 
|«vhib{tal withui thotarTHoiy. In 1&61 haCQudl- 
tkia wai advaooed from that of befiy BHtnly a ter- 
rilurj tKi tlutt *•( an ce^pnisbd alata, ainl il found ad- 
miMDn into llw Union aaaueh. Tho vhiat towns am 
Laavanwortb, Lauranoc, Aldiiant, aa<i Topcluk The 
KlWia FkUo Railway to iWrar, Ao, paasoa 

KANSAS, or lUmaa Cm, a town of the United 
SbMea, ia Jaekaon couaty, Mlwoari, on Uw fn^ntivr 
uf K aiwM, and right Uuik uf the Miaavuri, aUxit a 

mile below iU junrtifjn by tho K&aaaa Kirer. It b 
14 mitea west (rum Iadc)i<--uil.eiio(T. and had a popnla- 
tUju it) ISCI of about .'i^iiu, which maa at the end of 
IS70 to S2.2C0. nio town ui buiU on Ugb (.Toand, 
and well Lkid nut wiih wide atreelB, and houaca ^defly 
of brick, ll has iiMi fwuidri*^ waggMi taetorla^ 
acveral titnixr-varda, and numniactnTea of laathor, 
brickji,aiLdat^k-ulluraHm|VlviiiHuta, ltt*tbew«atcni 
Wrroinua of tho M iaanuil Pacific Knilway, the caatvm 
tonuiuus 1.4 liie L'lUMi Poctiic Railway, attd tha 
■outhem torminu* of thu Ptstbe County liailway. 

KAXSOO, or ILt^suH, aa luUnd proTiaca in tha 
ncrth of China, bounded N. and 9I.B. by the deaori 
of (iobi and Mnogolia, K. by bkcnae, a. by SecfanaB, 
H.w. by Koko-nor and the deaert. It extenda bHweea 
lat. Sr 3V and id' v.; and between bn. WJt* W/ aad 
106° 26' E.; and compritaa a lam partof the ancient 
Kinplnm of I'anjpit; w«a, Sl^OOS aquare mileh 
The ocnmtry ia nwunlMnona, aomo of the pcaka 
lidng more than lO.MO faet abovo aea^leroL Hm 
Yollow River Oowa thiou|th the proTinoe in a DOfth- 
eaoterly direction, and laooivfla a f«w largo afflnenta 
■a ita oouraa. The climate of Kaiiaoo ia rather coh^ 
and the inhabitanM make om of ikina and fur« in 
their clothing. The aoU ia In mieral atcrlle, bat tb« 
country ooat of the yetlow Rlrvr ia fertU«. and pr»- 
duoea wbaat, barley, millat, Ac Wild nninudii abound, 
and large flocfca and borda are maintainml by tbe Tar- 
tan linng within the provinee. In thu mou&tatna 
capper, jade, gold, and aUvu-arsmict with, llie trade 
of Kanam M very conaiilcmblc, aitd haa Dreally in- 
crwaaed of lata ycan. Lun-diuo-foo ia the capitaL 

Pop. ai.8;«i.ivo. 

KANT, luHa!<i'EL,bnraiii K^wgaherr, in I'rniaia 
Pmpcr, April Ti, 1724, waa the man of John Ucor^ 
Csiit, whuM (atlier had emigrated hom Soothiod to 
I'ruaaia about tho cud of the nwatountll oantttry, 
Kaot'i fatho' waa a mas fi atrkt tnte^rity, and 
puaauned a eonalderihle ahar« of tntelllReiioo. Ho 
found a fit partner in Anm Begiaa lUotar, who 
poaacaeed a ahul far ahova bcr atatno, and rvUfiova 
eenatUUtlea of Che kaenoat aatnn. Tbong^ far ftara 
bMBg in eaay cncutatanoei^ hia parunta reeolred to 
baatow npoo thA eon Immannej tbe adnuitago of 
a liberal education. He waa unit, in 1733; to tha 
Collogium Fivdarldaauni, at the sa^eatien of Dr. 
Scfanlta, a fimfeaanr of theolo(p>- at K»Dtg«borg ITni- 
veraity, a diiitin;;uiahed divine in bn ihy, whcae etrid 
rdigioua \)ewa bad been adopted by Kaat'a parenla. 
At thb acfaool ho centnebed an intitnate frlcndahlp 
with Bubnken, af Icnrarda an oelebrated aa a nbili>- 
lagial It ia remarkable that at tUe period Kaat 
devoted hb attantjaa prindpaUy to pfaUokftcnl 
•udieik whila hb friend Rahnken aeamed tn havo 
more fuodnoM for philoeephy. In 1740 Kant repahad 
bo tbe aniranity of hb native dly, and at fiiat atwIM 
tbeukvy, inODnan]vanoa «f the neoo^^ of dejieudlnK 
entirely on bb profearioa for fntare maiatenaaca. 
But at BO period did be neglect pbiloaophy aad 
matheuatia. IJanlly had he ani*«d at the tig9 
of maahoud when ho leirt both hb paraita, who, 
iodaad, had navar been ahle to afford him much 
pacnniary aaaiatanca; but ha waa fortwiale eaoQ;^ 
to meet toaM rrlatimm wtwa* aid, together with hia 
own iathiMry and eeorBomy. ooaUed Um to conttnna 
hb •tadieo, Hb appUcatfon waa BncoBiuatlj cnat, 
aa b prored by bb boM and stMoaarfnl atlaata oo 
the dacArinaa of LeIbaitB mkd Wolf, and hb akilful 
uae of Um weapma of diabMica ^puaat the antbority 
(rf tht neat OMiieat mataphyridana of tha day, whcA 
hawMbnttwaaty-twoyaanof B««. Attar affaaUaMw 
of aboal three yeara al Ihe nnlvenity W art«>l in the 
ca|>adty of a nrirato tutor In aevtval fauiiliea, and 
lived abovt mae yean with Couat HuUcmix, at 
AraaJad Kanl read mtxih la thb rctlKenxnE. and 


imotd tbs (nilUoM of MvCT-nl ot iiiimo pli!1u(Dph[i.iil 
trsatiMi wlkiclt wi-ra won aftcrwaivU j.ublieli*d iu 
npld <u«ceMioii. In liAa lie n-tumol u> Koni^- 
heeg. took tbe doorce of M.A^ Bail |ir>»li:cL-<l <m tiiiii 
ooCMoa, in tha tunii of kii iiiuu(;ij|-al iliviwrCilliin, 
lik tnAtiw, oatitloU Frindpionuu pruu'inuii L'ngnt- 
tknla ia«U[ihy«icw novii l/iluciilAtio. In tht luimi! 
y«kr he (luLluilied liia ci^lrbrnlcil wurk un tlin Uui- 
vea»>t NatiinU HitWry Miil Tlivtiry of ihe Hc-avwi, 
or BB Easay on the CaiiatttuUon &111I MgcIuuucbI 
Saiwtnn of thtj whole i;ii>lic, otMriinliii^ to tli* 
Ncwtuuiiva Hyntvin. In Ihu (rvuliBc be auticifiaUrd 
■erara) at I ho KalitHn]u«nt iliionvnriDa of tSir W. 
fiencbel, Kiuit beiriui tn k'ljtuiv, ua ductur ducenf, 
oa lofpc, matAi>hvviw, mAtlii^uinticA, tLticI iiiktunO phi- 
loaopny, to vliich, iwt Milwviiurut jmrioiU, he ulilc^il 
U«tunu Iftw, moral [ibilcnnpliy. nuLurnl tbtiilu-^', luii) 
pbjilcal BWgiupliy. Ho kwii b«ciuuu [K-|>uUr witli 
Iha itiMlBEits; bill it viw Ic^ng before h'O oljlnlnvil a 
prcfdMorabip. Tliiii ili>) not hnjigicii till ITi i), wlii^n liu 
WM ftfc len^Ui siiviuioei] tu tlie ciriliiiikrv pnifoMunlii]) 
of logic ftiiil nieWphjdiisi in tho univumitj- Upon thU 
oocMun b>; prxliLCLsi lit* rttlf-lirnU-'l tnmiipinO illn- 
•eftation. Do Mumli urtuiliiliii mt<jue iutvUi^fibilia 
Forma et Priiid;iil«. In ]'&7 Kajit wm niiule n 
aMnbve of tbu Boynl Acadoiny of Si-ioiicvi Bt 
llocUa. Il&vinj once MtAiiied tnilcpeuileime, liis 
wiih bo tmiTTore his wurlitly cauccriis wwrns to bnve 
■■piiwd aoblgber. U» ilocliiml v»riiiii* Mlriuita^muH 
linnwMil* to tnuufvr his Ulcnt* to utltiT univsnltk^, 
uidatleBctb dlod b}- n nwlual tlu^ay, Fobruiuy I'i, 
1SI>4. KMt la daoribea m bciiig » loan, little miui, 
not milcb miiro than Uvh foot bJuh, whix n bnaxt 
ftloiMt uuucavi;, auO u ilvfarmed rlulit dhuulikv. A 
high KTSDO foriihi.'ail, a fine ncso, oiid clear, briglit 
bin* »f«», dl*lin£^iisho>I bin fiu« ad i-anta^.'iinuiil v. 
He iraa an excallcut table oompanioo, and bii <xjiu- 
pMijwMM'Ui'bt aftt^t bjtlwflnt famtUevvf Kuiii(,>». 
DCr^ Ho WM, is hu cxcorior, iIitati neat, and oven 
highly drcawxL Ho ponKWieii a lioundlcas uwnifiry. 
Aa tu Uiu jibiliiBupby ^^i thin iirufuucul tliiukur, a 
full aooiiuiil cannot it «ik|iuct»i in a witrlc of tbia 
aoTt; a glancv at it will be all which wc oui g^va. 
Thf! imiiiircr into Xiuit'* pliiliMopbj' ajiiiiilil bu care- 
ful not tu mjoTt iuLmediatrly wl1.1l hf ruiirtot Miinkr- 
■luui, aiul ought aiit tiieufxct to unilcnituiil, witliout 
d*op vtwly luid utrict laeutal duwi|jliiii'. lu fart, a 
man cui hknll? bope to acqiiiro a guotl idea of KAnt'a 
|iliUij*LJ|iiijwiU)i"iiitn;«diri(;liJn» in tbi; original. Whrii 
Kant >|]|]e.-ULHl, tno jtbiluwipliiDal ivilaua wcn> matt 
iu voffue -diat uf Loclitr Aud bin (olluwun, aod thM 
of Laibiuu, Woh'. Ice. Kaut nnu- tlial little aid was 
niaddrad to tb? c^iinu of tnith by a ilw^Tnatin philn- 
•0[*hy, i«li«tb«r fuiinilc<d on iK-tiiiiiuliiiui ur iili^nliiiiii. 
Be viihod fur certainty tu tlte fiuM of pbilimopUy. 
and put to hJnuolf tlto qiie»tJoQs— VVbAt out I 
kiurw I Wbat ia it thnb I luiovr ori^itiullyl 'I'ho 
■eut« aoefitidam of Hums kiwi its iriHiipiive ujxiu 
hint. Hanui piovod very satidoctorily tbut our 
idcM of cansft and etfuct ore mit <ir.rivcd fmin ex- 
nerivnoe; but liu nuhW coiiclti(l«J, «a Koiit iibnorwai, 
that ibey are tfa^ n^mHoiiii (lAiiiinng nf ilm iQijigioa- 
tioD, improniatvd by duiIoio/ Kaut dincokwvd that 
Jliune udliean led to thin hivfty lufcrouM In eouie- 
i^aenoe of baring tnkcu too liuiit^d a vivw of tbc 
gn»i problom vrluch he iiml tlKii purtiallv attom[)t»l 
la mItc. U« jtcrc-eircd that Ihu idi-u ui t'litiau oiid 
offset is by no incan.4 tha only one which tho mind 
BMk«s oa* of wilt) thu coiudoiMiicss nf its ncc«t»ity, 
yet M'llhput having derived it ftrnn lUjieritncv. Tbin 
Lt) foand in hia eudeaf uu» Ui lucertaiu what wt' kau 
knov, which Led him to the fundainontAl laws of iho 
P^lii fl Hatiii^' (irrivi-d at thin o-niiliwi"!!, Iu- strove 
to ucvrtaiu tlio cxai.-t tii.iitil>a of tbune cirL^-inal or 
truucendrincivl idc-aji, or imiKTaUvo fonus; tbat U, 

neh Ideas ■> we do not dvrirc from cvj^ei^Hice, but 
by which, aa tho oontrary, we aoqulm DSpcrivnco. 
In the lirst rank of thoie are ip(ut and liMf. Kant 
kbow* that all our pcrcuptioo* are «ibiaiitl<?d lu lJt»c 
two /••rnu, briii^ be oaRcliidiM that tli»y are within 
US uid nut iii the objocti; th«y are n«-rNarjr aiul 
uui« inttiitiont of tlie internal kc^iimc. Tnitfan ac<]Ulrcd 
by e\|i(.Tiuuvu uc*cr c.-krry witU ihem that abcoluta 
eertainty: for iiistani.'o, experindno tnnrhr'S tis tbat 
the >un rises rvery day; that all muti ivru uiiirtal; 
yet we may lu v^ne a day when tha mn (l'V« net 
rlsr, and a tnou who dvot not die; bitt iiiii>;.'iiiatian 
itself conuot ■iijijioMt anytbin^f uncontiecteil with 
spac« and time. Thin priiuitive iiituilicu luust 
have, as ita buis, tho primary laws of the imiler- 
stAnilii\g. without which we can Cf.mprthind notliinc. 
Ai for us the transcend mtal ideas, ur, ns ICuit mik 
tlieni, caCryoritt, exteuil, so farexlviidii ibo knowledge 
of tho anderFtanding a priori. Kant v-as ct great 
pnins in Riiilcaviiiiring to ascertain tin; number nf 
tliene catcHunes, and he found tbuiu to Iw all oiiupre- 
hciidi.<d uiidpr the four clntoios of <juaiiiity, <|unllty, 
I^;lnli^n, and mrMinlity. I1ic enlegorics Uietuselva 
oru twt'lvv iu numliDr. I'tid^T tbu first bend are 
ouui^irisud viiUi/, inultltudr, luiulili/; iiui.Ier the second, 
rtttiily, ntyation, limitalwn; undi^'tbe tliird, tuteAinn 
anil arrid^ity rauir and effedt afti->a and nattion; under 
tho fciurlh, jmtiiliililg, ci'mlcnce, nrt^uitij. Tbrao 
OMtettcnes are uvoemaay and indispeoiiahli.' for onr 
uiidurstandinii, as the forms of space and tiuie wcro 
for onr pnr» {itinnn; wn i-iuinol fipire to tmnulTts 
auytbiofa' without Ibi^ relatiuiis of miiae and dTec^ 
of poesibility, ijuontitT, fce, whiflh, «ilh otltcr vmnja, 
u, wc cannot iierceive nnythiiiK ei^vupl by tbcse 
eri^.'iual, iieceasary, unchsai,'attble foru* of iliniit;bl. 
Hcnco th« ileniuiifltrativo ourtainty of nintbtiiiatii:*, 
Ibe objects of wbich — siuico, tunt^ ijHantity, Ai^— 
lie in the uaeenitv uf ihu foruis of thought,, and not 
in the rnng'i3 of error to which oxpcrienDo is Eubiect. 
To pntdin-i- rc»id:s the catogorice arc awiliod 10 
exteriur objects, objects of exiMnieiKM, in which 
apiillcutton lh«y are subject to error. 'Hia thteo 
eri|rinal facilities, through the medium of which we 
SQjiiiri? ItTniwItnl^c, arc si^iisi", uaitrittcimllnij, mutM, 
Ssiisc. a |iiLi!iiva uid rccujiUi't' faculty, b-ia, a» baa 
liecu iilrcudy stated, for its funus or ocnditi'.iDH ty^aet 
and limt. Uiiderstondini; is an active or spontaneous 
faculty, and ouuflista in tlie power of fiuiuin^ con- 
CL-jitiijiis uci:oiTli]it; lu Iho categories already given, 
which catogcirim are applied xa objects of Dxporioneo 
Ihrouxb tho mediuu of the two foRns of purcci^tion, 
(pdM and (imr. Keaeon la the third or ]ii;>b.>t ilvf;Too 
of mental spontaneity, and cemdsta in dn' ]i>.»->'r nf 
fnnutnu idcB«, As it i« the province m' 1 '■ ui l.'r- 
atanding to form the intuitions of aeoisi' :iii. ' lonitp- 
tiiiUB, so it is tbobnaincaaof reason to form cunecptioua 
into ideas. The work in which Knut endcavonrcd tn 
luecruin theaecategorii^s, Olid Lbe province vf oertalu 
human knowledgi^ ia hi>t Kriiik der rtdnen Temuafl 
— (.Iriiiiiucof Pure Itcoson [first edition, Iti^ 17«l), 
For from rejecliiifc cxpicriecicc, Kant cuii?<idi-ni tlie 
worl( of all (lut life but the action of our innate 
faculties on the coucuptioQs which come to u* from 
without. Kant proceccU in a ntnilor wny with 
mortility; the idoa uf )(ood and bad ia a iiccetaajy 
i^nnilittrin, sit nrigiiial luuiis of morals, ubii'h is aiip- 
pescd in every van of our moral rcftcctluus, atid not 
obtAiaed by erpertent*. He tr^ata this part of hia 
|ibtli«<ijiby iJi bis Kritik dur prakliscbcu Vrmiinft 
— Oritiipic of rrocticol Iti'BMin (I7t^8). Ksjit plsfea 
muvst^vedly on two |iamllet lines oil tliu ur-^'unients 
for and againiit huTiiau liberty, tho imninrttUity lA 
the S011I, tlirt tmuHittiry or rtcmal dnmtinn of ths 
world; Btid rewirts tu the frrBlLiijjn tuiuskD tbc iMlattce 
incline, because the metaphysical ]>roQfsoiiUieoj)|iiwite 




■Un an vfjnally gnat TImm op]xiiribe arynraente 
Ml ^reat qtwaeloai an «>ned. In ttie worka of Koot, 
tmltMotaif*. lo (MtliL'Uca. alto, he imniHC* * timi'v 
courw^ u)4 troata it in Ma ItmhuJitanffoii libcr (taa 
GvfUhl dM Svliuuen and £r1iab«neii flCl^-A, 1T7I)— 
ObKtrattoiu oa th» FmIId; of the BoantUuL and 
SuUione. Another inporUint irork of hi« b tbe 
Kritil: iter l'rth';iLdcrft{l — Critique of Une Power of 
Judtnneiit (Berlin, 17l>0>. Wo must a1n> mmttioii 
]V1i;b]>hyiriitcha Anfangs^ndo dor lUchtslehro — 
AlrtAjjIiyucal Ktcnionh of i^/ifi Science (lf!)7}i 
Hciitphj-inl i;i«m«nta ut KiSic* (ITfrT); McU- 
^;«Kal E1«m«nU of Nnmnd Si^unc* {17M); n 
PraigiiMtical TreiktiM on ADtkropuluj^ (Hdg); Of 
Pcj-p«tiul Pmca (ITKS); KvHgion cinuidered vHUn 
tii« Limit* of Renton (1793); tLo Ouljr Fowibla Kvi- 
donco for <l«inuiiiitratiiig tlir Kiictiinro nf tbc DJetjr 
(17CU). Mo«t Ot Kuit'S MDOltcT tKiHtilMS, filll of 

MBt« tenMTka, «r* conuincd in tils Klcinvrc Sduiftvn 
— Smnllcr Works (K<<iiipl>cr^ nnil l^ciyit.i^, It£i7, 
thrtw val>.t, and in tLe aulocUun. edited l>jr Tiuftruuk 
<KnI!e^, 17^'^, ihra« v«lii,) Uur«Jaud, tlw phTiioi«n. 
nobluhcd Kimt'a work, Of tba Powgr of thn Mind, 
bjmani Itcaatubion, lu contral ili SJorbid F<KUn([^ 
wIthDotc*. K«ut,uf couni(vu».-tuithnianir«]^)pon«Rt«, 
ibv mewl proniiuoDt anivn); whom wcra MmaeliKobn, 
Hunniin, Kcdcr. Itorvc, i'lAtiier, Flatly J MobJ, Her- 
d«r, iuidparticul«Tlf (.i.e. S-HiultiCL'. EtiI hia adhere u Id 
vrwn thvmorvnatiiMnut [■aitj, am! hU |>hiIiiaophy to* 
been tao^t'it In aU tbe Gknunti uutv<:r>iiii.-», (;xt.v]Aiiig 
■oi]i« Cftlhullc oncti. 

KAOLIN', or I'ofiCELUX Clat. The Celspnr raolM 
Ttcld cIa^* bjr thdr (iocntnpoaitiun. (8m C'lAT.) 
Ka^n la tb« pureat fnnu vf olny ; k is found In 
pnioiUv* nokn in tba tmm of intvrpoeod atrnta, 
nmidat fnuilta Uaeka. le tmetat to reaolt frcoi 
OTthodaM hf the ahairtnetion of tbc poloab and {lort 
of tbe ntfca, and addUiwi of water, as ia Bbovm by 
Uw fuDowing (onniUa; : — 

Ortkf IIM. 

Al,0. SSIOl + 38,0. 

Tbe bImi-o funtula fur kaolin mjalmi 47 |kt wnt. 
of tfUio. 44 per cant, "f idiiniin&. und 13 per vent, of 
water; in aotne apccimcna "S i'hirii.-*e knolin, lioir- 
evrr, the pctcuntagv of aiticn ia nearly twice aa jimat 
aa lliia. rorcolaia clay U white ; th»t fruu Saaon? 
baa a yellow or oamatiun tint, whicfa, bow«%xr, di»> 
■nMAta oa bumine; It It fhabli^ tmctoous to th« 
touch, and when pure fonna m paste witlj viator. It 
•cwtvely adbercB to the toognaL His day i* iufuwblo 
In a parcolahi fqrnara. Tbe aTtrage aptcUe gnti'ity 
Is i-%. Kflolin, as dog out of the enrth, somewhat 
Tisiml lea mortar. Tbe oude material b firat ■nrtvti, 
sars being taken to lenore admixed qoautitwe ■>( 
quarts short, Jtc, a« far M pomlble : the day la then 
rtlrvcd. white a •iroam ef vater flows npon the mitas 
and cnrrice tho liizhter bertioo al^wH r a ehaaDel into 
»pil. Ill tbe paasa^ along tids channel of tba semi- 
ftuld BUMS a eonaUoraUo amotmt of httvy puticlae 
la Jswalted, and a further qoantity settiM down in 
Iha Ant piL From Uiia the wati-r contain icf- the 
Uffhler particlM <4 the clay io kiiajeiNinD iatlrawn 
oB, and again allowed Uj dc|<u«it in • aeceod pit. 
Tram the jiita thi> water, whlt:b ikjw nntahu only 
tha lias clay in miaprnaioii. ixwoMra to a Urger pit or 
fcmd, where H dcjKadla tbc whole of ita auaptndMl 
matter, and when 4]iiilo oleac U dnwn off by means 
of opudngs in the aidaa ef the pond. When, l^ aue- 
OMaWii dsfwa^ the poad la nearly filled with day, 
the acnu-Mid maaa ia allowed lo remain until it ran 
be omveniently iwraared to the dryingfaM^ fnm 
wUA again it is paswd W tha dryiag-uwl^ whera, 
aflar amml uantho' expomv to enirenu of atr, il 
is cHl into Modca and aent inio \bt market Vor 

a deacriptioo of the nianirfacturo of pca<ce!ain aec 

KAKAU'RS. n -Tcwiah sect, which sprang up ia 
BnfayloTi uLuut the middlii t<i tlie cighBh (entvir; 
they tliamiwlvm date thrir ori^n, hnwciicr, tram the 
captivity of tlio ten trilMa Ijy AluJiDnnexer. Iliv 
founder of the sect wns Anan Ben Dand, who is 
Buppoei-d to hftvo iudd n high ajiiritiial i^tfice nt 
Ilagdnd, 75i-77r> a.1i. The canto iHebrew Kamim, 
ncr{i>tuiitu] ijidioatea generally the cUanotor of the 
sect: tlifrj refusa to afioepC u divine or atitbevitative 
the trwhtiona nnd doctrinea of the I'almid, or in thv 
nblnnicad nritiiitta, and adhere ctoaely to the test 
and letter of the Old TeeUntent. They have Ijrokan 
off all Dommnnian with the orthodox Jcwa, who 
accuse them of being little clae than Kadihicees, and 
of rejuctluff all the books of tlie Old Teatament 
exoefit the Pontatoucli, and of giving only a ■oeniing 
acceptance of the doctrinea ni tbu imniortality of the 
Buiil and <if a fiitiins at&ti; of hli.« uid mieerv. in 
onlcr not lo he |-'it umK-r tbu lian of all other 
religioiia pnrtica. 'Ilio Bert aoon foimd numcnina 
repn-iMaitativea in Palertiuc, Epypt, iSrvw*, 8{<«dii, 
llarbory, Syria, Bytsutiutu, *c. They lire Iioia' 
oonliiu>d to Poland, (.ialiria, Aloxanilria, L'onKtan* 
tinople, and are f"i;ind in oonsiderwble numben is 
the Crimea. They have an exteaMv* Hetovw litam- 
tiire ci their own, embracing works on tbcolo^. 
jihil<i>u>]ihy, airtmnoniy, mathcniatica, a licb ouUectioii 
of u)(ii.'li ia found iu the Imperial Idbrary at St 

IvAKAMAN (andrntly ^rwi^«>. « town of 
Asiatic 'rWfcey, m the pnstuilic nf Kammanin, ia 
on eitenslve valley in the north »f Bedleriii-tag. a 
lofty mountain iu the chain of the Taiirxia. In the 
town are a bu^ge ami bnndsocoe Armenian dniivh 
and aevcnd ndned tmaxiuci^ of gr&ccful Saneeide 
sty1«^ lliere t» a Tiirkinh caatlt er ioi t re aa i Most 
of the houaea arc in a ruined and dOapidslcd atatcy 
and ibe basaon nre very iniUfferenily aappUed. 
There art eonsiderable uuiniifai.-tuiT** of blue cotton 
and other dotha, anci oji active tnulo is cairiad on 
with SmyruH, Koiaariuh, and Taieu^ in eottoa goods, 
hldee, and nut galls. KanunAS was foraeriy the 
rraidrnce of the paalin^ hut bn i>ow tvtndoa at 
IconionL The |>opuIation ia otiutated at about 

KARAUANLA, orCAfiAU.\»u,Bnd from ita capi- 
tal also Knin*, or Konmeil, a paahalic of Aaiade 
Ttirkey, Aaia Minor, having the jNuJtaUo* of IbihO ta 
Adana on Che »., Anatolia and Slvaa on the w. and K.. 
and Mnnuh uu the 8.; Ut 37' lo 39' 40' v.; Ion. W5l>' 
to 36* ho' t. A large portion otf it is maunUdnona, 
tba Tamils range traventng Its entire Isogth east 
tv west Mtparating it iu part fron the naalmbtf Itshil, 
and fonnmg the greater portico) of Ha npnthim 
boundary. It* prindpid riten are the KteU-Inadc 
and iLe Byhoon. lo the amilh.wmrtem pcvtioa am 
nuDMions small lakeik Tbe aiouutaina are covered 
\ff forms of oaka, and some spedn of pint* tWh^ 
IftO feet in bright The tine and fig treev the 
Uurul, myrtto, and dcmati^ together with inannar* 
able odarifOToas shrubs, flonriah in profoaloa: MkI 
abundant faarrgrta «r« napcd frotn - ha ikh, devp 
soil; while the ciinale la ao genial that ib« InhaU' 
tanta can pMo three 'fourths uf tbe ytnr udDr Um 
ahaile of the trceik Tho scenorr in tbe nwaiitidiwai 
diatricu la singularly &»«. Tobacco, sLlh, cotteo, 
ioaame^ and excellent (raila ore miaed, but the 
pnudpad ocnpMiun b leariMf lire-alaok. Xoia- 
manla indndas aocitnit Lycanoia, and a pe rtlw of 
Phryftn U«jar, Oidatia, and Caiipadeda: and H 
formerly iwd«dad tba mariblaia paahalle U IlaUl cw 
Adnna, wkk)^ hi in tar*, ia Cdmpeaod of 
Cilida, laaorfa, aixi PompfayUa. 


BwAUU Uttofiofnphvr, bora In • riUag« at KaMam 
Bwrf» in 1703, odnoitMl st Moacow in tba hotun nf 
Pmffor SohaucB, entered Um inIUtai7 Mrtiet^ wbli^ 
b* quittnd b two yoara, and IravvDod. bam 1789 till 
I7t I, throQcfa ((•muiiy, f'ntoMi.^ain, lUly.Switzcr- 
IuhI, and Eagliutd. On bis rAtun to Mmcmr be de> 
voted UnwU wltb grmt ami to Itterature; be eillled 
IB raeendoa the Mcaeoir Jounul, tha A^laia, » 
Awtiasl AlmaiiK^ a Pantheon nl Foreign Utcraturc^ 
* PMrtbecn uf Kuiaian LJteralnn^ mod becauoe an 
activa caQtribatoT to tlie £uro]iMUi MeaMocvr. 
Amoojr hif writing ct that jwriod w«ra pocma, 
Ijms akMofaa of vnriaoa UncU, translatiMia fniin 
Ocmoa, n«MA, and Eiiglisti. and, mora especJuUjr, 
bin l^ntten of n Hobomi InmtW, which wnro 
aaifaahatlMUy received. la 180$ he waa appointed 
b^ the Emperor Alonndor itDperiAl hbtoriu^pber, 
wjtb * |K:nirian of nlxiuL £"^0. and fivin Uiat tima 1)0 
l*lnural biceiiKuitJy at bia Hiatanr of Ruwia (twoivo 
vnla. 3c Feterabunf, ISIti 31), for tb* preparation 
ot which sH th« Bft^tukl arcLivos won throvm opsa 
to Udl Tbe enraeror coiifi-Trpil on him thn ontor 
at St. Amacy ana save blui ^SOuO fur Ibe tmUi- 
eattoo ft liis s^eat work. A fn.-4 n'BiJ^aico waa aba 
allftircil him in a pleiwiira rAi>ttR of tbo Kmprcas 
CaUianne II. Tho thinl rilitiuu of Kanunniu'a 
WDtlRi appeared iu 191S, in nine ^'olaniea. Of hi* 
biitnr? ilie tccotid odition appeared in 1813. AMmo 
oa tbe pdat <rf '"'^"c a Janmcj to Italy to ro^mft 
hia ahattercd hMllh be cued June 3, IS'^d. Ju»t 
bdora bia death the Empomr Nicola* b-id sruit^d 
Un ft penalon of jCIOOO, which Ww cuctiuned lo hla 
widow ud cUldrcD. Sir Joha Bowring tnuwUtcd 
acme of hia ptcms. 

KAJtA>SU-UjV/.AIt, a town of Smithem Riinia, 
in the gorecmnanC of Taurida, In Ihv Criuiea, i t uilea 
«Ht-iiortli-«ut of fflnferopul. tt ie mmounded 
bjr ganleM^ nnd CnaUiim over twoutv moaquai, and 
naa alao Greelc and Roonan Cathnb'c ehurobea and n 
Jowiaheyiiagojrae. It la tbe ffn«t mart of tbe Crimea. 
■ail hat a weekly DutrlMit itnd nuntud fair. Tha 
maaufActurca coin jmMc morocco lffttlicr,*oap,canilIi=i, 
pottvrr. aa<l lili™. Pop. ll.S'JZ, 

KAII.XTiJI!-:!'', a town in I'.umSn, Kipiul of the 
drele of thv *uua niuuv, iu the euT«nmioBt of, and 
47 bBm w.s.w. of Orel, built of wood The Snhn- 
bttaala ar« nnaintahied rhjefty by agn>niltiiru, the 
ordinarj lumitienfta, uul vhupkoeping. Itupo aini 
twine are niadi; to »uniu extent for expoitatioii. It 
has eevcral fAJra. Pop. l<i,U-J3. 

K.MtlK.VI'. m small I'rtincL aettUmcnt in tbe 
Caniatle, Hiitdurtaji, on the Caroniniidel cowt, with 
a eapilal of the asaie aaae, altnated Ut 10* 5S' it.. 
loB.bO'lO'K., Mar the mouth of one ef thebranehM 
af the Camry. Tbe tntct, ahoiit ^3 equaro mile* of 
extent, and cuiitaioliii- ulwul Ul.OOO Enbabttanta, wh 
ceded to llw Ftvocb by the Rajah of Tsnjon In 
1739, waa tafcoii from them by the lilriti*h ia 1803, 
and teaCMed by the IVeaty of Fari> in 1^14. The 
eipoita from tbo territory, eooriiiting diiffly at rioc, 
on coaeidcntdn 7op. M town. 1S,000. 

tx. See t'ABt.tiUD. fte. 

ILVRMATIIIA^'S, > Mob&mmedan nest which 
arate Eu Ink tlurmj; the sJath oentury (if the 
f /hristian era. Ilund&n Karmat, thi-> fnrnidcr of 
the etd, adopted the dixirinc* «l thu I«iu.iiliH. iirnl 
waa apiiointod a miiwiouarr of th*t iccrt by Ilmein 
AhwBxi, aa taimtgy of Ataiud, ohlef of the teet. 
lie Mon aaoceoded in (fatlieilns mind him a ntuaei^ 
OB flock, and ia making tiMta Itlimi klarca to tue 
W0L He latrodnoed onmmnniem <4 property, and 
evn of H-|*ei^ amoos them. Boiind h(a o^i-n liKitaa 
at K ii£a a i^iddal colony of nicct caavertj wo* f onnod 

where all tbe tnMouriee wen ttaln(>d, and all the 
•chomM of tbu growins wd wen ori^iaatad. One 
of tha meet ncFtad nuadoaariaa^ Aba SakI, waa aent 
to Bahreta, la tbe Ferrfaa Oulf. and in lee* than two 
yean lud fiatnad onr tha gnat put of the popula- 
tion. Alanaed at the Ipnad of the now doetriae, 
the caliph (wftom tbe Kartnathiiuis were tatig'bt to 
look upon aa a fMatper) aant on army of 1 fl,<lO0 men 
aif^aat Abn Said. Tbii army waa nt^noUy dofested, 
and the cio)M]ueror rainoJ poMcvion of tiw whole 
niuntry, and trann&md the ca)iital from Hajar, 
whloh be deatroyecl, to Labea, bin aim retiitonoo. 
Ho waa a ai wd n atcd br one of hia own euDuobs bete 
if D14. H{s von Abu Tahir, wbo Buooeeded him 
four yean later, iriiad tbe town of Bamora in tlSSl, 
ptilagvd thu annual cnmvon tif the ptlgrima nn it* 
^vay to Mnecni and ■ocki.'d Kufa in 021. In 930 Lo 
captured the holy dty Itaell, put tta JnhabitanU to 
the eword (tha mamaof laabn^ acconling bo anne 
from elercn to aevontoen day«), and deBeoral«d tbe 
•acr>^ Kaaba, carrylDtf off the Ke1>la llaelf. At his 
death, in 03S, ho waa maet«r of almoet all Arabia, 
Syria, and Irak. ITaHor tlio rrign of lifii two 
biothei*. who raceeeded him, tlic |ivwer of the eeoi 
be^au Tspidly to deoline. In VS^ tbey wet* d«fttated 
in a battle before Kufa, and in comieqiienee Imit their 
bold on Syria and Irak. Throe jeara later aiioUicr 
dlaaatrani battle ovmpletely Invlce (he power of the 
once fonaldaUe band. Aeoording toeomo travellera 
(Polgrara, De Saioy, ke.) Kmnnnta cf the mtot alill 
cxhA el Huh, tJie modem name uf Labsa, tb<:ir 
foamer tarital. 

KARJiUL, or Eitiwool, a town iu Tndin, in cbe 
proddenpy of hradiaa, and 190 milee fi.s.vr. cf tbe 
dty of ^ladrM. L-.')[iital uf lUe dietnii nf tli« MDie 
name, ntiialed in tli'» fork furmnl by tlio juni-'ti'iiti. of 
the Uuudri with ihc 'i'lutiibhadra. It oonsiiita uf a 
p«rttab or nativ(> towiv and a fort, tbe lattor mr- 
ronnded by a n.ill "f limmtonc and aanrUtoao 17 feet 
bigh and 9 Uvi tliii^ti;, oitd (binitcrl with drcnlar baa- 
(Icos. On Uic uortli Mid enat, wLvrv it b waabed by 
tlio Tiin^bhadro, no other defcaea hat been dcemaa 
noxiMirv. The rlimate of Karnul ha« a bad aame. 
PcHv 23,000. 

KABROOS, the Hottentot name, now adnptml 
by phyrical goosnphor*, for the tabje-tanda nr ax- 
tenidvc ploina between the mountain rangea at Cane 
Culuiiy. lliey are exiibemntiy fertile during Ine 
miny Mason. tiMt, aa tM> porioi) in rt Jinrt duration, 
the re[ui,ir of cattle to snm ou them forma a con of 
boitday with the DuUh farmere and their asrruitt, 
aa giving variety to their uvually moootonoue enrt- 
enee; and the mnndoa of a 'Karroo Kfe' baa 
come to be conjri(!«rcd in tlie colony aynenymcnaB 
with a life of frolic and merry -making, and relieved 
from wonted toetrietiona. During the dry aeaeon 
tbey booomo iwrebed arid doaerta. The ttoo/, a tort 
of oompanUia aame to the karroo, it tbe name of the 
longitudinal volleys extending between the raagaa cf 
thi! dccliritin* montionnd; nome of thnn are of great 
eitt-nt, the Laiine Kliiof. nr Loug Valley, bebig np- 
warda of 100 mUcfl in length. 

KAlUS, a town of Tiirldnti Annrnia, capital of the 
eyalot of ■ouie name, picUimii]iiF!y ntuiUcd on tlie 
kare, in an anipbltlieatre of black bacaltic hilla, 
incloein^ aa elevated platoan, fO milea nortb'Caat of 
Erzcroom. It amnntA of two parte on ojifMiiilc Mea 
lA the rii er, and cvminuTiicating by a InidM; and, 
from tbo drvk cokmr of the baitdt of which it la 
boilt, and thu abccoec of trr«v baa a ^-erT diimal 
appeannoe. It ia defendi.'d by rampArt* and a ditch, 
aad haa a ttroiig cittdvl. During thu Rusaiaa war 
it waa dcfandrd by a I'arkiih i^arriHiti, under the 
and for upwards of two tnontlia maintaiuvd lUCCUM 




ftlUy a cnlloiit d«rouc« a^iMoM Ikt B—Imii vndw 
Munvielf. Il «'u bt loKt ccoqMllMl b/ {unlna to 
Mirt«iitlL>r, on Navcmlicr Sltii, ]ti56. 

KAHAN, or Kakax, nn exten«lve provlnm or 
gvv«mniriit of Eur";ic«n Kii (■!(», lying Iwtwccn 4(1' 
to' and il' i<y uimt iMntritwUi, tad fir uad 57' norLb 
laUtiiil^, ftuil •urriMindcd iv Uie gDvuriiniciita of 
Vintka, Omjiiiiry. Ninwi-novgomri, muI Kimliinik. 
lU turriwHsl extent u ante 25,000 ■■iiiim; itiikit: lU 
populntioA l.fliO.sar, piLTlly KuidiiLiid Olid putly 
Tnrtnni, thoiigb r>f nry miiwl urijpii. Tiic ri^i-ni 
aro tbe Volga, ibo Kama, th« Sun, tLo Viatica, ajiil 
tb« Kawmlci, beddes enuUar ■treaon, and a pvat 
number of lakoiL Tho climato on tho whole is mild; 
th« winter in Id.-eii. Uit nut |iroLr(WtL-i1. Agriculture 
ia «xt«iiJti>«l]r L'arri«<! un, bill tiiit In a ^nty peifvui 
fiTm. lldnip in j^Tuwn to a gr«at extant, but Bak in 
dciicLunt la ()iiantit}' awI niulity. Tlw roaring t>S 
fifttUe lonni a |»nWit«ble emiilojinvnt in the iD«»duWB 
Mid paatiiNfl of the licb fluta whiivh border the 
numBratia •tnuun*. l'i>hiti|j In the tnkea and riven 
«ui|i1uya n creat auiibar of haudi. The noveraBivnl, 
taoraavDr, pnaaciMM mimaroiu niaDiif.v;tar«8, and baa 
aa cxtnn>iT« tnwl?, Ivitli «xt«mal anil tiitiTiiAl, u-liii:h 
th« W|{* navifpitilo rit«rm irnaUy feu-nlitntw. Tkv 
dIaCiict WM ori^'fiudljr popuIUod by Finn*, wlio won 
driven oat by tht 'I'artarsL In 1^^*J Iran V'M«ilic- 
vitch II. ilatmvcd the Turtir j«iw*r, and ODHcxud 
K-iunii Ui Hiitiiii. 

KASAN. a fortlflod city of Busrin, capital of tbc 

fiv«ntlDOiit of the umc name, on the Kaunka, iilH-iiit 
tniloa above its iuiiL-ticin with the Vulpi, i(iO milci 
4MUt nf Muarow. It ct>v«n a Bjjaca of noai'ly i^ mi W in 
ctreiiil, aiid properly forms tkrvo ta«'n>~lhc krvinthi 
or citadel, th« miildle town, and the luu-er town. 
Many Mohamnj-nlui Tarbin nliU n'AJilo Li'ti% t'liga^ad 
in buainaM. It la » lii«lici|>> we, and tin; neat of a 
•maUuninnity, fvuudodin 18D3. Ic ba* al*u acveral 
Oilur achnols. llvre are larfe aoab-vrorka and taa- 
IMiriea, alao manufacturei of woollen, rott»ii. lac?, 
■nd «artbiit)wara. It cartin on an RxLennve triMla. 
TIm c&ravuw to Bokhara and Chhiu poaa thrrjusb 
Kjwan. At a littl« diatonM from Kaian ia an adairmlty 
MtaUithiaent, with a navigation acfaoni, magadnM, 
and a duck-y^nl, whore vcwwla are conatnictod, utd 
a«atdowiith» Volga totlHiCMpIanS«a. Top.TMt'^. 

KASCHAU, Of KoniKB, a town of Hurjpiry, 
otpttal oi the county of AUaujvax, bnauliluliy 
•■tiiat«d IB a vaUoy incloaod by ilopiui; \ itievitrUi, 
at tha coDftnanoo of tbe Cbennel with tlie lUnxod, 
124mUMnanb-«fl«tnf PiMtb. Th« Csermel iulvrNvcta 
tlie town, and id croMod by aorcral brid^wi. I-'t>r ita 
mv» it i* ntui oi llin 1>n>t huilt titnnn in Hungary. 
TboprinripgJ vdificvsaiv aii audentt><ithiccathL*dnit. 
with a lofty cop|>«r-corer«d tower, and bne gUdinpi. 
carvings, and sculpture* i another (loUiic church, an 
old Jcauit cburch, with two lownw; a nHirb-houae^ 
town-hous^ cptsDvpal pnlaec^ VnmUne oonventt b- 
finBav]r,tbMtr«,g]riiiiiMluim noaaal andotbarstlMola. 
Tbo UMiiafactaNs (ondat ot leather, woollen dolU 
bala, atoaomire, ftc; and tbe trade la partly Id tboM^ 
bat chlaAy tn win*. Pop. Sl,74'2. 

KASllAN, a town ul Penin, jinivineo of Irak- 
Ajemi, tn a fertile plain VO miles Mtith from IxjAhaa. 
ll was (oundMl by Zolieid^ thi< fnvuurite wife of 
Hamn al Ka«:hi<l, and i> cino nf tlie Bin»t rc^lnrlv 
built towM in Pvisia. It !■ nuruuiided by an earth 
vmil nfaroed for «ight ^aUs. It b almtii S inllea in 
Isagta fiMH eMt to west, by utiwanb of l^ mil* in 
bniadth, and eoatains a niya! (sdiye, many fine 
BHWIuea. bwaan^ ami csnrwsonljk C'oIo«r«d and 
flowmd sUb of great beauty an nuuiufoctund hoN^ 
Akieg witit i^'V*^ f^d oottMi eloth, eopMr atsii«il% 
■iMl)(aMaBd sOwcrartidcs, whidt aw gv— Uy sslssiu c<L 
Ptop, (taoladlqr nbnrtMii dbtriot] lOO/Kitf. 

KASHOAll. S:» Ca«H<Jab. 

KASS1.MU1-', a ti.wn. Uiuwia, capital of tbe circle 
of aniue nanic, in Iho i^ii-nunmt of and 70 miks 
X.X.K. ol ICtlinLn. It maniU nn a bi-igfat fnrnxHl by 
the li'fl bonk iit the (Ika, nnd ■• surrouutW by a 
wall Tiiu itrcela nrv narrow and ctnokud, and 
tfai'iigh thuTD M excellent huildins-stono in the ndgh- 
IxiurhcHid, the homva nrc of n*cKial. Its mannfacturc* 
are ruiMn, vltriul, k'atbur, aiiU pfirticidarly earthen* 
waro. Many of tho iubabitnnts are Tarlius, who 
CArry cm a cnnaiil-i'mMn tnuir nILh tho Kant by waj 
[if Dnkhara, in fun ajid iiitk aud (.iittuD |,-nj<l<L Pupk. 

KASTAMUXI, or Cakiashtiu a town of Aslalio 
Tiirker, in tlic ])AAh>iIi<: i4 Anatolia. cAjiit.-U tit the 
cynlet bf ita own name, lUK uiiln V.S.T. of Augnra, 
The hniuoa sro of two stprirs, in general ill-bnilt of 
wood; the slnets are narrow and diny. It bos 
numemiu tnosquea and baths, a CirHk chnrch. and 
harraclfa. The chief msaufaetum nrc pTintcit cot- 
ttrtiB and comwr-warwi; thorv aro al»o uvcr twenty 
dye-works. JTiu [iriuuipiU trade b In wtwl. Pop. 
ulimat^d at 4^.1)1^). 

KATCIC, Mi:Mnv, an Kciglijdi writer nn phrmoK 
was biim at Driitul in 1*77. In I'^t bu ubLidiieil a 
commiAluti in the I'l^th re^liDent of fool, then sta- 
ticiied in India: and haTing already made ^ny&t pn>- 
grom in mathemntiai Mid pliynits, be was wuu en- 
li'sj^nl (lu tlu- ),''^.it. tri^niniiUKrlriFtd Murvey df Inilia, 
a work to wbivb Lc rendered important vervie^ By 
his residcnoo in India, however, his health wns (wr- 
ninnently injured. In 3bli he reltrwl on hulf-pay. 
and heiiocfurth 0Ccii|Jiod faimsetf exolncivoly with 
sdratific studioiL Us was «np)o>'^l by Urn Knipovr 
of Rnuda to cnnstmet itaBdaras for tb« weights and 
ueasurMi of tlinl cnuntry, and was presentini with a 
diMOnnd snntr-lrai, and made a knight of the unler 
of St. Anne. He died iu Londm (rum an niTectinn 
of the lungs. SUth April, 163&. Uo dcterminnl thn 
lim^Lh of the ■••ciindit |imiliiliim, inv(ali)iat<d tha 
diminiiUDn nf terrcilrial grtivity f mm tbe polo to tlrn 
equator, invented tbe 'Uoatii^ Collimator,' an la- 
etrmncnt of grsot use to Irifconomcten, and ta eoa- 
innctirai with I>r. I.anlneir wrote the l>eaUee on 
Ueohanlo in the Cabjin'l C^ vlu^imlia. 

KATHION. KathwL'K. Wben a current of clcw 
tridty iiBMCs thnngb a oompotuul Uquid (electrolyte) 
which u a conductor, the liquid It generally decon- 
IMMod into two components, lo 'tihidt Faraday gave 
tlto mms tons. The in^t'en B^es lo the sorfaoe 
when tbe current of positive electriolty l««v«s tb« 
tit|uid: this surface b oUlsd the toAode. Th« anivH 
goes to ths toiTfnm whsr* the current enters tha 
liqnld; thb surface Is odletl tba wwrfe. Whea 
watt-r is docemposed hydro^sn ta tbe kalkion, oxygua 
is the anion. Kathfous have alio been leniMl ala^ 
trapoidtive ekaneorta. 

KATIWAR, a prm^nce of Hlndnstan. faiciwlfa« 
the wliule of Uio ponlnsulaof Oujr^t. It Um be* 
tween lat SO* 42' and VS' 10' v.: loa. 6»* 5' and 
72' I i' t, »ad la bunndcd north sjid notth-wesl by 
the Kan and ths (lulf of Kadi (twitch). Mutb-wwt 
and BiKilb by the Arabian Sea, ud e«st by tb* Onlf 
of Cambay and district of Ahnedftbod; area. Sl.OOO 
■luare mUes, It i» divided intn a greeit tnany petty 
territoriMi, held by chti^fs »» tributaiioe either of the 
Britiili guvenuuent or of the Oitl«>war. Their 
aggTemteieranuelsfletliiuttcdat £l£io,17S.o( wUdi 
£104,790 is paiyahle aa tribute. Thv surfaoe is gmw- 
rally wndnlatlng, hut rises ooesslonally iDt4i a number 
ol ridgei, wblch alt^ their graateet heidit aaar tlie 
oentn, whan most of tbe streams ha^-c toair umnm. 
In tin WUlifa there is a wild tract ftdl of CMrflfW^ 
ravlnea, and etiter fBetnesses. and wllli a deadly 
cUmat«L Tbn grains most cultivated are mllle^ 


And irbiniL CoUeo b tbe priiiu!|iiil coiiiiiwr- 
«U1 cro|\ I'be mQ Ms? i^cimaiUj eandy, caJinol 
b« nuiaDvined in a rtAk ot fortilit}- without couUiit 
fnigAtinn. Tho jiriuciiial (Idtinnlic limiua]* we 
bnrew, oawa, 1>ii3u1ob», and ouimU. Among tho 
wild sninuilx an tiiw^ Icorardo, obvtw or himtui'^ 
iMfwds, wolv-M, jaclutii, mid swine, rmtdupua, anJ 
porcapliiMi. Nom nf thcM, luwover, are su dt^tric- 
tivB H m KpeciM of migratory mb*, nWit tvrico tliB 
UM of the conunnn nl, tvkicb uitUie thiir ap|H>amiu« 
M tatorvftU, sad move ocntsa Lb« coiintiy, raragin^ 
it to eucb an extent tli»t in 181 1 ibe; MtuoUjr pro* 
duocid afaniiiur. Pop. l,i7'}fiSi. 

KATKINI-; r^rtii. a Inka, Sootlwwl, county of 
F«ih, & imle* tut of Lnch Lomood, luid 8 mUn 
WMSt of C&Uanddr. ll ia <if Mrpentine form, 10 mtlca 
loo^ iu Hnrii; |>liM«* 3 inilea Lnud, uiid remarkalily 
dMp, wilb aa kland naor it* ca«t end, commcinly 
cttlkd 'KU«ii'8 lalu.' It u «nctKlnI by lofty maun' 
tMiu and rvclty ntinos d^thtJ »itb tK-ca, and re- 
ceive* nuuicroiM nounntAiii •troatna. At iU vnut en-l 
» Um G«!i.4)T»ted pua »l the Tmouidlui, rciicLnml 
iuwMU by Soutt'ii Lady t:f thu Lake. Tbiuu)[b Uiw 
pMB ft Mraom flcwB, can-yiiii,- the nupha wikt«n of 
(be lake to Loch Achrny. 'i'lxi wkt«r>iai>p1y to the 
citT o( ftlA»^i>w it ilrHwii Luuli Kulnuc. 

KATYDll) iP/almihfrliuM. ri/neai-am), a Bpeden 
at tnutwipntr ni a pole 'rronn ivi1i>iir, body nboiit an 
law 1M)C, IoiiuJ it) aumcT parlt tif S'cirth Americ-Jt, 
aad K> named front tbi^ mxtud of its iii>t«. Tbe K>uud 
b prntuvvO by tbu fritrlion of tlH toboiMa in tlie 
triaaguUr ovcrlapfihif ]>urti<)a of oach wing-oorer 
affmuMt the oilier, aiiJ is stn-ugUieni.'d by the cw»pe 
« air tmto the aaci of thn Ixxly, no m to be beaid on 
a ((tiict ui);lit ut a quaitvr of a niUc (UstauoQ. Hw 
fanaln btii ooiMtleaa. 

KATZHAI'II. a amnll rirr^r iu fiDtala, jiasBiog 
ar Uet,iuti, fainoiii fnr thi' virtiiry whidi the 
7ntd*B» und^ Btucbvr puiicd, A'lguat £'3, 1813, 
snr Uie French andor Hacduuald. It mintxl fmm 
Aunat 21th to tlic Stlth. riiv-ani» cnidd not be 
wwd. Mil tin- battle wa» f<nn(Ut himd tu lu:»l. Tho 
Krmch were bntliuii, and were driven htiwe and mau 
Intu Uw: raffiiiit XeiMKC and Katibacb. Gront niim- 
bara pariabcd to the awoIIooi Mreanu. The ronlt nf 
tho battle wa« muro Bur]iriaiug', aa a great part uf 
Ibe Pniiuian tToa)i« were ran- militia. It ia one uf 
BlUohwr'a iftvatvei vkturiue. I>iirli)g tba battle and 
tfaa fiillowiii,^ days 1V3 French cannon wen: Ukcn, 
two eagka, a!l the liag^a«c, and IS.OOO priouL-ni. 
Gtleaia vraa drlivercd, EUid tlic coiiscciueiiL'Es were 
tsoet impnrtAnC, |iu-tioular!y fur Buliciuia. 

KAt'FMANN, KLklitE Axgelcca, a distinj^uished 
paintftr. wim bom at i.'nire, in tli« (.irisntia, in 1741, 
and rM.-«ived lj«r first Utrtnii-ticn Lii drawing; and 
pouitinii; fn>ui her father, if lio at tbij time i>f ha 
birth WM jMuntur to the hinbop. LIcr luluiiratiau uf 
tli« beautiful irae early Oavulcipcl. Hhc lovcil tnujdc, 
anil mad« great progrM* in pcinitiu;,' uiidvr tho k*^* 
anoe of bcr father, wlw«o taluiit« were but modn&te, 
and «b<Kn aba toon axcelled. On tier hnt journey 
to Italy, where ah« nridcd fnun her tbii-lwiitla year 
till ]7<}('. in Atibui, l-'Iorenre, liiiiii'^. aiid Naptes, 
*be aMfnirvl ^rvat ■kill; and her »ii)w>^|uunt v'mt to 
Lowlon, wfaero abe paintud tho wbulu ruyal family, 
incnaaed her reputation and imiiiuV'CiL iier circuiu- 
rtaiin". Heta aha woa elcictnd a munitior of tbc 
Koyal Aeademy, and here alto xlio coutraclud ati 
nnfortnuabe inarrfage with a Swedbib ndveiitunu- 
wbo gave kiuiaclf out to Im Count Uurn. An^lica 
obtaload a diiorvo, but vriui ubli^-ad to aattia an 
annuity on h«f hmtbaud. He, buwuvur, »oua died. 
I After ncT return U> Kama in 1782 aho wiu married 

^^H a awnnil time, uion; hapiiiU', U\ a Win'tian pEurtiT, 
^^H Zwdli, but iiM Dever LtaU atiy diildrvn. Zucchi 

Ukonli* ilii.ll long lief'ir* Iwf. An;;i-Hta tbca dji- 
vutod b«nwlf to ptuntini; til) Inrdcalh bt 1S07. Hvr 
buit was placed in l»tM In the Paatbcon, 3ba 

[ialut«il many portraito and hi«tnncal [lictiiree, tbo 
att»f eiiiofly after anti<|Ucii. She prcft--rrBd Ideal 
fvmale litiurai. lli-r wuriu are rBin»rl(ablt> for grnc*. 
though the critic may di*.-oi cr in tbcm inwnvcluoM 
of itylA and MuncncMi c4 jilan and cxl^cutioin. 

KArfjlJAt'll, WiLiiMLU vux. Olio uf tliu h'n-^t«t 
mural painter* of niiidi^ru tiiDWi, wa« bom at Ai<oWn 
in Waldock, l.'-th Uct<d»r, UUi. In 1S22 be vttut 
Mint to tlie Academy at IXiuuliliuf, whore ho Bo<-4i 
bocame oub uf ('urneliiui' iiuiil ]irc]]iiL>iiii^ piipila. At 
the rvrjuMt of hU inaiitar hn wiui tnvjtml in 1 S25 to 
aarirt in paintinj^agrvatacricaoJ fn;ut:<x«at Munich, 
where he jJuintiNl su synbolLcal b^niru ^i thean-ado 
tif tbt> Uof^-artirn, aeveial deai^it on the a^ilin^' of 
thn Odooii and no the wbIIn of tbs my|>tolli<-k, and 
iiubKHiu<.iitly n Mriw cf freacou iu lUiig Ludwlg'a 
now ])alacc, drawn from the itory of Cupid and 
I'nyfhe, toRcthiT with illuntratinna (if Ktoiialock, 
13<ielbe, unci Wirliinil in tmi'iiirtic and tn freeuo. In 

bll Ll^at ui) ]'r:i::-1"''. •!:" !"i>-libaUS (Uw MadllOIWt, 

18:^^1, he lii--i I -m tho sarar* raolEsiu 

of ('-(imrlin*. , j ' Ln^l the fammts worlc 

ill Mrjiin the Hii'irn ii' Idiivlit t,ltultle of the Ifunii). 
Ill nldch spirit- -i Uf: waniora whcao wirpsw liu 
under t!i ■ l.uin.- nro reprMmt»-d aa coKtinu- 

itid thi . i. li]-. 1(1 Ifili K-iiulbacb com- 

p|i'(' ) I ' < , - 'i <>il-jiiiintiiih'. the Kali nf Jivrviaa* 
I'll. 10 '1 )'iif ''L'thcAof Muni<:b. lliesubjcct ia 
r<i<i ' i>i''< ly Tail* plnrtng the Romtin «agle on 
tJie altar oi the temple, while about blm ai« Jewish 
prierte •laying themselvea, and women lainonting tho 
downfall of Uiu pvoplv; nngchi m aeen leadlni; Uu 
Chriatiaiiji niit at tbu city, tluiB Miggeatin; the tri- 
unipb uf Cliri!<tianity. In 1&17 ho waa invitod to 
ftorlin t" dcoor.-ito with fn^cntM tho cntranoe-hnll uf 
tlui new muttcuiu. The fimt irulijeot ooupleted was 
tho Tower of Ba^xil, which was foLlowod by tho 
rrinit: of Urnt-cc, the rniiuulrai, iu»l Iho Kcfumifttion. 
Tbet Hummer inuatha of letoral yeaini wnra niient on 
thne worbt; tbu udnlor moDtlw be paaaod In Miuiich, 
wburo he oxccutad a scrim of woll-puutiuga in the 
I'tnacotlidc repreaentinz the history of art Blnc« the 
Itvujiinaiiev. He alao limud time bo executo a gnat 
many j>urtrnit», dorigna, and illii«trntiiinn to divera 
hadiM, indudiuE Gol-ttie'a Belnvko Fncba, a folio 
dilltion frf the lioepda, and Shakspere's Playa He 
tont Ui the Paris Exhibition of 18II7 a rt;ni[>i-kable 
])ictuni, the E|>ij(!b of the Refiirmation, for which bu 
wua uwarJed a medal of honour. Aiuoii^ UIb latvut 
j^iiuturt* w«r« Put«r ArbueiL tb* SiJiuiiab Iui|iii«!lor, 
anil the Ajvbaticxl Mii-hael — the lattor cuinplet«d a 
A few wnrku bcfora bw death, and rmc uf bis most 
clumKt<.'ri«tia workx. He wait carried oil by cholera 
at Munieh. itb April 1871. 

KAUKL i'lJVE. KocDamae. 

KAZAN. 3«e Kjl_ia.h. 

KEAN, CuAHum Jomr, son of ths celebrated 
EdmiiTid Kean, WAS bomat Wal«ifurd in 1611. He 
waa eiliieal£il at EtuD until thn age of lixtccn, when 
he was withdrawn iu i»ust<i|iieii<M.- of bis fatUer rv- 
fusing to inaLntAin blm longur at Hcboul— aquarrvl 
havioi; arisen between the fathi^r on the otic band, 
and the mother and itugi ou tbe othur. In order 
bi xiijiport himsetf and his motbor, CluHrlue adopted 
the vla^M US a profoBion, and on the Ist Octo- 
ber, l^-j.7, made bis dtbtU at Urury I^uic as Young 
Norvnl. Iu 1830 he vJsiMd Araerioi, wbure he 
mtrt with a cordial reception, and roturoed to Eng- 
land with an Lstabliahcd rcpntatiun. Ho played 
with ^oat aeoeptadon In titu pn>vinc««, but it waa 
not until 1$39 that he came to the fmnt as a leading; 
Bctur ou t]i« LoQdau boards. In lbl2 be married 




tlu) iiDociiDD!itl]«d utttM dUa Tree, aaul £d 1$I£ bo 
revUi^ ibo Uuit««l St»t(», perlunnuiy vriUi Lis wife 
to tho chief citiak for utrwuda of two yean. In 1^51 
he b«c»DM mIm I mn B ot tbo Fmic«M'Tlwatrc, wLcro 
ba addod gnntly to hii bmo by tbo goTTOona rovlval 
oE Ksae of ShakqierD'a pU;)'«, and cl Band's Sat- 
duufnltu, an » >ca1a of ilcLul, iplctulaiir, uuL aocn> 
iMi; iMTcr befom alhunpUiL He raii;;Ded. tbe le»- 
nwip in IStiO, uid ia liiS, socoQipuded by Ua 
vife^ h« viiiitMl Au^tnlia, Cidiforiii*, JanuuM, the 
UnibeJ Sbil«H, CmimI*. Ic, having doMwd £11,000 
br tb^ oxcuraioa. U« (xmtliiuetl on hbt rvturn to 
pay ia LondoD and lb* piovuiors tmtiL « iliort Cimv 
ufon bi« cloUli, wblch paired S3d Jwii&rjr, IttdS. 
Kcan wiLt « cimfu] utd omnct actor, having notiiiui; 
nf his fatbai'a gutiw, but dcpondad tnucb npou 
Mencrjr wul othor aoooMarica. JLi a ^wluponiui 
utor hB did not noilc bl^; h« attained hia mMcat 
aiUNMMca in aucl) piny* aa Loub XJ^ tha Conican 
Srothen^ &c. Hia kcowleil^ nf Btnjce offncta gninnd 
bhn Um a(i|)oiiitmoiit of d&wtur of tli<a thuacHoal 
mrfonnaoccii at \^'iudlnr C'ai tlo, a poet whtcli ho bold 
Idr •ATRial yoAn. 

KEA^, £duuki\ thu inoit brilliant ani] cff<.-«ti\^ 
tra^c actor of Ida i^^ wwi tb« ion of a yiita Cany 
(a ikMoodam of Henry Carey, the jioot and muoi- 
cianJi iitnjUiiuf aotT<eai and itinGTant vanxlcr of pv* 
fuBiw, »od an Edtnund Koao, a MN!ue-oarpcat«r. 
II« waa bom in LoodoD on tba 17th Manh, 1TS7, 
or aeoordiog to other ataterocntis 17.*iD. Ilia 6kthor 
jmnrad a aituntiuu for liitn u a fi^^nuit iu Uit; 
pantoininMa at Dniry Lano Hieatr^ wIikii b« wm 
otily two yeora old. At mwu y«an hia mothur acnt 
him to aohool; but oidcr and obedianoo wara not in 
bia dtaractcr. and he «i>ffa^od himself aa cubtn-boy 
in a TUBcl gtiiag U> Uaaoira. llil> litiuUimi, hnn* 
«vcr, oqually di^eanDi] blni, and, Vi ileltiur bim>el( 
In Madeirat b« fci^cd di;af auaa. and play«d hia part 
■u mU that the cujilAiii anJit bim home. In London 
bs could not Snd out bU mother; but a woiuaa who 
bad had him under bar caro roooouuHiuIed bim to 
Min HdnraU, aa actroaa at I>rury Lano Thtatn, 
who ^ve him much aasiatancc. At luu: in-iiiid after 
hia ratuni to Luulun l« eKhilnt«Ml ua a cluwii la a 
booth. AftOT thb ho wu placed in iino of tb« minor 
tbeattca, and waa luuvh a[^]jluuded in KoUa*a aildroM 
tft tbt Poraviaoa. From ihla period bo oommcaood 
reading dmmatie prododiotia. IIU ]>nitc«tn:«a iv- 
eommcaitcd hfan to a oompauy of giU^x-n iu York* 
abirs, wbvra bo apfiaarod undar tb« namo of Cany. 
Although not man than thirteen yoan old, ho ptas 
foraooJ tha parU of fiamlct. Lt«d Haotinga, an>l 
Addiaoa'a Cato wadl enough t« plaaao a pntvindal 
aodissioa. In Wiadaor bia talent waa appuudad by 
the royal family in Satam'a addrcm to tbe am^ from 
I'aradiae hoat, and the first aoliloqny in Shak^ra'a 
Ricbatd III. In 1S08 ha married Miu ( 'hambviv, 
as aoti«aa tu tha anna owipany in ubivh lio had 
oUalnad aa ongagvmDDt at Gloncealar. Fur aavaral 
joan after thla arcat ho expcrienood tOMny Tidaal- 
fiaha at tortuai^ being fmiumitly reduced irith hia 
vifa and two chil'ltcu to ilt* rarga of atarriUlou. 
AJboat tha year I$19 b« waa fortunate eDongh lo 
attticl tha ■ttaatlc ot Dr. l>niry, who neaaaatniai 
him to the dbacthif oonnutteo oS Drurr Lane aa 
fitted to ravire thla dedfnb^f bheatre. He waa in 
eaaaaqasnoa ancafiad for tboaa yaan at OU Dnitj. 
Kaan apfMamo w the Snt Ium on the Laadon 
hMwdLJaaBary 26, 1B14, In the dhantotcr of Shy- 
Im^ 1WfinAeTaniuewaadccWTo:butbiaBldMid 
ULnadaUmtbaidurafthaLcndonsn. laUthello, 
klao, and 8Lr Qilaa Overraaeh, h« mtm uammaUed 
by any oaataapnaiy. Ua had baon aangaa aft a 
auanr of 43 a dght for the 6nt year, Ml oo hia 
thlnl repnaantatiuB of Shylocli H waa talaed to £20. 

^ot Ian; liter be Kcelfcd from ifao cnmmittoc of Um 
ihcAtru a iiTMcut of £itiO, hen'ulet many valuabla 
gift* from private peraona. In 18S0 be v{ait<d th« 
Unttml Slatvn, and petfonned In New York, I'hlla- 
tUlphia, Baltunore, ud Boatmi, eu the whole with 
grc«t auscoai, Hia bold on ]wUi« favour waa nnln- 
terrupted until hia cunnecliao with thu wifo of Al- 
damian Cox, aud the mnsaijiiviit action -it Uti', .tan. 
Sff, whoa a wrdict of £&O0 liamagea waa jiruuuuiiueJ 
■gainat hiin. }ie waa hiaaed from the Btage In Lon- 
ibu and IJdinbur^lt. A aecoiKl viait Lo ^lerica in 
the aane year iih attendnl with little cralit or 
adv-antage. After hia reiuru tu Eiik'Laud iu li!'24, 
hia health and apiiita, undcruiincd by hia dbnoluU) 
Uuliita, ga*o way rufidly: ti« coulJ ii» luitgvr atndy 
uty new parti^ luid it wiu unly by the uae of atimn- 
Uuta that hu vvulO ntill ool bia old onua. In Febru- 
ary, 1633, he wan &uQi>unccd lo appear in OthoUo 
witJi Itiii fctJU C'!iiU-l[=s with whom, uUt an catran^- 
tavat ii( ncvcnil yrriira, tJiu tc«ult uf liis iniscomiuct, 
bu Uad btiuu recuiiciLMl, On the uigUt of the pcrfor- 
numwt ho Htni^'2i«d tbrcnigfa the hnt two acta, bat 
in the thinl act he fell ex hauated into hia aon'a anna, 
nu<l Miu carried fruui the itaija. Tlila waa hia laat 
u.pp«anu>co in public H!a death took plaoa at Bish- 
mond on tho l&fch of Slay, 1633. 

KEATS, JOHX, an Englith pact uf fine aemubilily 
and great luxuHane« of Lkn^uag*, was tivm of humtile 
nrigin iu Moorficldr, London, on the 2EKh OdiAber, 
17U9. no waa aent to eohocl at I-Infield, where he 
Tvnuuned till tlw ago of fif tooi, and waa then bound 
ap{ircntii:« to a mirgiMin ; but hi« incliiuitiuii to poctrv 
having been cultivated by hia tcachen at adioot, 
be gare way to tho ambition of iMooBdng a poet. 
Keata' 6nt volume of pocma, many of wUeh wvro 
writteD in hix tci-iin, hukIo iti appearance in Ibl?,. 
wheal bo watt iu hia iwtmtv-fint year. TbSa waa ful- 
lowwl by Endyiatdu, a Poetic Bumanoo, la 1S18; 
uid iu the year 11;'2I) he putiliiilit^l hia U«t ^nJnuw, 
oontaiolng Lamb, laahell^ I'be Eve at QL Agne^ 
Hyperion, and other poema. Bdog In feeble b«alth 
ba WM prevaile<l nnon to try the climate d Italy, 
when he lurivnl in Xuvemlwr, ISH>, aiui died m 
Boiae on tLo 27th of Oeoeniber fiJlowing. Hia 
death baa bc«n attribot^til to tho Bttocloi of critica; 
and Byron in hia lionJuantUtb canto), and Sbclky 
in bia Adooaia, Jiare apread and oonfinaod thla notion: 
but it waa in fact owing to a conaumptiv* oomplaint 
(if Iu]i{; itanding. Ho wna intenvd In the Kngllah 
L>ur>iut,--i^uud udar the monument uf Oaina Oawua, 
and aoi far from tho [<laoe whore wme eoou after 
tlepdsitcil Lbe aahce r>f hia poetical nuiiimcr Sliellcy. 
Keata waa Kili^ with a rich iuiaginatiou, keen >«u- 
eUdUty, aad a perfect oar for harmony. Ufa poetry 
ouMiBto ohlolly in a raUlinn tit hucnriona nanaatJnni 
cf idght, beannc, ameJI. tnal^ and fretiffh. 'Rw poema 
&i« crowded wivn gor^geooa linacoib beanlllul thoni^Oi, 
and wild abaurditiea, Ela luar wocfca ii« int at 
many of the fanlta of tlte earlier prodsctteiia, anil 
pUoe him in the frout rank of the pacta of bio age. 

KEBI^. Hee ifLuu and Ko«a>. 

KEBLE, JoHS, an En^iah dhrina and poet, waa 
bus t» 17^9. He rcoairtd hia fint aOuoatioB (nan 
Ua faUur, waa oenc to Corpua ChriaU OoUoMy Ox- 
ford, and took hia bachekr'a dcgno in IftlO. Oeing 
tt> Uriel aa a fellirw, and oceup) iu^ biniwdf aa a tutor, 
be made audt pRigrem 3n tho uulvonity aa to be ap- 
palatad, fint, pubUn uxamiiwr, and thui pmfeMor ef 
lioetiT. He waa pref emxl tu the vicai^e el Hnialey, 
near Wfaicheatar, hi 163i}, a poaitfan wUoh ba beU 
unlit hia deMb. SSd March, ISM. Hw ««ik bj 
which h» ia boat kaovs la the volame at hnmtu «>• 
titled the Ohriitian Year. He w»a abu author << 
the Lym Innocantiuni, and in oonjaBOtlun wMi 
l)r. Newuao, Sm. Sir. Fnuik^ ud nthm, U tba 



IjrinApctbUta. He vm a sBtlatu Hl^h dnucb- 
nMn* *aa ms MuciAbid irith Dn. Xcwbmb and 
pDtej in gettmE up the ltr»t i>crio> of tlie fkmou* 
Tracu for th« 'HmMi (1^33). Bu |juliluil«l aUa the 
"pMliosof D«vtJ in Lngluli vnw, SCTtnoos onPrimi- 
|fci(i«Tnclitirii. ADoliUcaiof Kidisnl f Ioo>;er'« wnri:*, 
witb lAle \lk>jiif, 3ic. H« •picuilidly mtttrol ln« 
chnn^ nt IIanl«y eatirvty out of Urn profita it tfaa 
Christitui Yw, a work toat bu ucb nuiro oditioiu 
tban that of alDiaat any other oaiit£nii>arkn- poet. 

KECSKJiMET. or Kr»iaEJCtT, ft mArkct town, 
Bnagar), SUmiteoQKitU-wutnf I'mtii. TtuoiMioftba 
taigmt, it sot iht Uivi'Bt, of llie nuikut tawax ol the 
[U[^dom; and u pootljr built, oonftUtlni; of taage» cf 
^ ■arrow aCrtet* of ]aw hotuem. It haa aa ax- 
iva tnMla in kimea and cattlo, aad five much- 
ntvJ amiuftl but*. Tbe Jlsttiut aruuwl, xvLIcli 
I the aantc of the Kccaktniet h^ftth, ia port of a 
•a&dy tract or atqiiK-, stn tohini^ fur aiuiit 200 
ithrvugb Umi cuuiilu>a of I'tatb nnd LiUle Cu- 
siaoiai batwMD tbo l^aoiibo odiI ;Lt' TIicIm. One 
nay tida baU a da; in many parU i<f it u-ithuut Me- 
inca bonae cr a tr«e. Pop. iU,iiUII. 
I KEOGK, ur Kedcir, a Kinall ojiohor uaad to keep 
labip M«aily and clear from b«r bgwo' anchor, whik 
Mat In a harbour nr river, partiotilarly at the 
of Um tide, 'wbcu. >lio might olbemi^a ilrivc 
bvr principal anchor, ami FiitAogla the atoclc or 
< wiih b«r ilack cnVlu, ra aa to loonu it from 
grouiM]. The kedtrc-aiichiini are alio uaed to 
>a My, or rtmuvu lier frbtu una part of a 
to aoothcT, hc'iau carriix] nut fluin her in 
the l<iii]*-lioat, aud lui yv l>y nieUia (if rotw* ffjitcued 
to thaw andkon. They are bLm guttcraUy furnished 
Titli an ima rtocic, whldi ia canly displaced for tbo 
c-u)>i:u>c[ioc of atawiag. Bee AxCKcia. 

KKKL, Che principa] pjw* of timber in a woolen 

, and usually the Iitei loiil on tUa blucha in biuld- 

By coBiparing tlic cucm* of a *htp to the 

> of m huiJuui body, tha keel appean na the 

a, and the linibert ma thg Hoe. Tite keel 

I and naitca the whole fabric^ ainoc the stem 

m |WBla, vhleh are tlcvated on its end*, arc 

I nacMurc A rontinuatiuu uf the keel, and serve 

loeauMct and tncliwi: tbn sKtmiiiitieaof the sides by 

, aa Ihe Itecl fonsit and unite* the bottom 

' dnban. The keel b generally compoaed of sere- 

[ ttack piceea placed knigth«a,v*, wMch, after being 

logathar, are bolted and dinchod upon the 

■ aldai Irm i-eeaels often want the keel. 

' Ktttf m MroBs; tkidc pjaoe ni timber, bolted 

tbe bottom of the ked, which it verr nacful in 

— r*in£ it! luwer ■Ido. The fnleo keel la proviiloU 

, tba thick plHea which ((am the real k«cl can- 

!)• pnmrM largo enough to ^\c a mfEdcut 

_^ I theteUx tn \irge abipe tt war the foJic koel 

> compcaed of two pieoe^ caUed the aj^itr and fvnvr 


SXXL'BAUI.TSVt, a pnntAhiDcnt fnmicrly ii]< 

for variona offriifes, cKju.-dnlly ii: the IJutoh 

A*J. It is prrfiinn«'I l>y «u«|«DdIiit; thu (.-idprlt by 

inp9 troai une yardonn, wich a weight of tvad or 

I apdO hia legi, and having another i«p« fastened 

I him, leading under the ibi]''H bottKiu. and Ihrougb 

k block at ite oppodto yard-iuTD. H« i* th«n lud- 

' let tall from tha one yard-ami into tbe sea, 

, pMoag under the ihip's bottom, he is hoisted 

up Ml the oppoutd xidc of tho tomlI tu tha utlier. 

'Inia BBaiahaunit woa not aUiJ}[ctliiu' tmkuowa In 

,Jlriti»h ahlpa. 

KHfvI^ON, or Eeucht, a piece of timber fonuinj; 
iatorinr or counterpart of tho ke«l, Iklu^ laJd 
tlta mtd'lli' oE Uie flour tinibcn imm^sdintc! y 
r tba keel, and aen-ini; to bind and unite the f ur- 
Bter to tbe latter, by tnoatu of long boltj dnvon from 

wJtbont, and ellnched «■ the upper eiik e( tha ImL- 
aen. ThekaaUoi^ Ukethelc<el,ia«)ntpoeedaftaveMt 
pieoea vcarfcd tofpelber; and bi older to &l with mora 
wnirftT span the floor tinibeta and crotchet*, it ie 
Dotciicd abuut an inch tuid a ball deepv opp^iclte to 
laoch nf thnxe picfcft. tliertiby BcoroA dawn npoa them 
bu that depUi, wlwrt- it U Hcured by «piko-naila. 
I'h* piaecaof w-iilch it i* furmRil axv Only half th« 
brauth and tbicJ:nc«* »f thoie of thu keeL 

KHEP, in ancient military history, a kindof Mnu; 
Umrr, which waa built in the ouatrc of a <*eUe or 
fort, tn wJiii-'h till! Imioged nitreated and made their 
last efforts of defence. It It ahw called thu Jja^w, 
or du»gt<m. 

KEKPER OF MAnNET. A piece of eoft tntt 
plaoad in ctmtoct with two c<iatd and op|Kwile taag- 
netlo polea bocomea num^eilc, and tend* to praeervv 
cha nugnetiaD of the )iatca with which it k in eon* 
tact A bnne-aboo mignet hMi f^enerally a idiort 
atralght keeper, which niay be pruiided willi a Louk 
to napecd weights fri'Di. IVo aqiud bar mncnoM 
are protected Irom Iu>a at rtreniftb by beinj; phu-cd 
par^lel ta itnc annthtr, their like polea prdnlini; in 
oppoaite dlrectioiw, a aoft iron bwper nninecting 
oacb pair of opposite poloi. 

ItccaUM the Boi'en.-lt^'» gnat eeal la ddiveied into 
hia cnatody. Se« Cn.xxcuuiit. 

land, ia a lard by virtue of lua office, thniU(:b whoM 
hands i^aaa all cbwteta ligatii by tbe king, befora 
tbey cnme to tbe great acal. 

KEHli, a Uiwn of Baden, at tlw oonfluvncv of the 
KJnzIg and Schullar uilh the rkbt bank of tha 
Jthioe. bet« caroaaed by a bridga of uwta, and uu the 
railway ttem Saden to Btraabon, oopoeitc to the 
latter town, from wldch it waa bvmbanled by tho 
Ftencb ^attbon ia Augnat, l&'O. It «u coca aa 
important frontier fortreaa and fignrea much in the 
waca between Franoe and G«nnany; bat ita furtifi- 
catlona have been dismantled It eontidna two 
achoob, and baa manuficlurcs of earpeta, wira-dutb, 
and tobacco; ac-tne trannit trad,;, and a trade in wuud. 
Pop. 240e. 

KEKJIILEV, or KEiTHiBr, a market town of 
Enf^Isnd, ia the county uf York (W. Riding). It i> 
SSmllGB weetby aoutb uf Yorif, and pdetureetiuely situ- 
ated in adeep vaUcy.attbeeunfluencaof two rivuleta, 
which here furm a ctioiiidnrabU stream, and flow into 
thu Aire abuut ] mile beluw, The pariah church ia 
aepadcu»atnu:tTue,wlthan4K(tacc>nal tower. Tber« 
iinfreogr*nuiuir»choo], and other achoob, a mcdiaa- 
ics' institution, and wvvral cliaritica The wvratcd 
monufactuie b carriud on veryextunsivdy.and tbera 
uro two paper and mveral aim inilla. '["he loaciiiu- 
cry saed in tbe fwtan'ea is also for the mokt part 
uianufactured in iho town, where aiv abe manufac- 
tured in CToat qnantiUes wuhing TttK/'Kini-H Hewinc 
machinn, aud mechanical tools. Fop. 10,7i u. 

KEITH, a market tnwn of GeoUond, {lartly in 
BauR, partly In EtgiusUire, on both 1>aiik« of tin 
Isla, 16 noies Bouth-coat ot Eli^n. It coualsia of 
three vilbgca, Okl Keith, New Koith, and I'lfo- 
Kcitb, the first old and irtc^nlarly built, Ihv latter 
two sent ntul cle:\ii. I-'ifi-'Kuith b oiii the Itft bank 
of the tirvT. and cDitncctud by t^vo bind^-es mih Uld 
Kdtb. with which Now Keith is cnmtiniioiis, I'herc 
b Iiere a fat^ry for oardina and spiurdnit wool and 
tho wearing uf tweeds, IdIUs for tnaklcfi cattle food, 
and Urge dour-Diilb. llicro an a fariab church 
and varioua other cbiirdic*, and a public halt. Kcitli 
is tbe juuL-ttun station of the Great Kotth and High- 
land lUilwDyi. Pop. 3603: 

KEITH, Jamh, a bra\-e and experienced warrior, 
aa well as an able and succtasful politiciau, fiald- 





Bunbal of rmdi, md l!u wnSdaBtlal Mend of iU 
^ovttrei^ Hb wm dOM«nd«d of k noble bniuNi in 
atloiid. I<cin([ ih« ytiiin^-Kt kiii of Willimn Ki^itli, 
'I- inn Ml .'il </i th»t kiii^duii), ii-ii'l v-ae Imm lUh 
IGV'.i. Thv broAkiii^ out of tiif rcK-Hi'iu, in 
1715, J«vclo[>ci] hi* tnilitATT fn^eodtim, and )fn,va 
ih» coloar lo bifc fate, Jiin inoUior, uurailv ii.ttiM.-hMl 
to tim tiouso of ijtusrt, uMnl ti«r pcrnniuiUtn* bti the 
dicUlMof tu•o^^lincluultic>II.UlJatthc■itevf biiiv 
t«en h« joined tbe Preteiulftr'a nunlinL I'lui »Bit« 
uf tho haltle of Hheriffmiur, mt uiifortiinat« to th« 
oaino ke baci mgbraoiH), ilmvn him intn mile, beiiiB 
outlawed, mid hl» ytviKity forfQituil : Lw eacaped 
fnm tlu) rontUct wounJEd i,iid wicli ditSculty, and 
ciTcr.tciI A ri:tn-ikt U* I'Vaiiw. IFcTn h'* ft[<)i1icl liim- 
(clf Willi creat ililigcticw to the ■tudy uf maLlie- 
maLtca and uillttarv utctica, ba^iuj; pravlontlv nijulu 
cuaaideraMi; iirogrcw ia claadcal and f^cncnl tiUir- 
aUire under t.b« auapiou of the otilebnLtM) liiiddt- 
nao. In 1717 ha ijuittwl Pari* for Italy, whciu-e ho 
iwacAvdail t« Spftin, in tho oa[iita! nf which Htiirilciiii 
uv U'u furtiiiwle uhoukL to ulitnin thv frieiidstiip ul 
th« iJulta (it liria, who priicuKd hint a cr-minJUid in 
Unnniid'ii [rinh l>riga^«t. lie Rubaaqtiently accom- 
Muiicd bb iKitnjit, ubcn niipolntod ambaaaador U> 
Ramia, who*, Ifaruug-h Hit duke'a iMammsBdaUoii, 
b* obtalDcd tfae rank of liMttcnani-gnaaral from the 
■""""», wtio tklao confened on him th« order nf the 
black aaiila. In Ibw Ruarfaji mtviov k« ciiiitiiiiiu<i 
aomal yvu*. diitiogulAiajr hinietilT m vnU ia tb« 
field an in th<! CAi>iii<it> during tho wnni with 'I'lirlcRy 
awl Sweden. Hl» lailttarjt ca;«filj was proved be- 
yand iJtamito agalnit both <KHiutri«a. In tha reralu- 
b'oa wbiob vndod bjr lh« dvmlion of ibo Cnriun 
Eltutwth to tfae tlirone, ha also took a pirominent 
part; but at length hu becania tlrod of tlie RuMian 
Mirvioc and left it. t)n lecLvins Kuima ha want to 
BcrUn, nli«r« Pruderiok tbu (Ircnt nf Prunia. tu 
wfaoa bis nbUhka wen n-cll known, reooinid falm 
with ooan amta, and raiaed Itim in I?I7 tu the rank 
of field -niaraha] of tita forcea, and in 1749 aptnintiMl 
Idm p>TOroor of BmUo. B« made biiu almi Ida wa- 
lidaatial oMnpanion, aalaetitl{r Uia as bia aaaociau 
in a lour which be made invopiitik tbmiigh i^rt uF 
tbo north "if Hiiiupe. In the aubaniunnt wai» id 
tfaat niKTtLil mi>iLU-iOi,Ki«M-mar«lud Kvith omttiniiD^I 
to diK|>la>' lhetnvatt;Htiiitlitar>-taIuat*aaw^ HS«ai 
in bu MtrTico, oontribulio'; to tho vlctorlM of lUm- 
bach and licochiit. nnd dimming the riiweof OlnUtl 
in 17M, in wbich \Hvr hla career waa iSnall/ cla«d 
by « cuLDou-thut in the uuforiuBat« battle of Hocti- 
Ureh, October 1 4, 175?. — His aldcut brotbur Uroiu^e 
(bom in ISVS;, th<: tenth and Ual barl-nurlichal, had 
nlw) tu IvNvir Ll> nritJve ixiuntty fur U* cunuectlnn 
with the roWUinn of ma, and after living with tha 
I'rntrnder at Kume for a eoniildefable time, in Sr>*in 
luid elaewbnc, finalljr went V> HiMlin to ld> bnithcr. 
11* atao aequirad tlw faiour nf Krrderick, wna s^nt 
aa ambaaaador to IVria in I7A1, and wna luada 
goTonwt of NeufchUcI la I'SL He waa antMe- 
4tnwtttjr abla u> ualw hia poaoe with the Itriliah 
govammant, waa rsinatat«d in hia titlca and aIm* ob- 
tained aonia eataUa. After a ebcvt viiit to Soutliuid 
be nftoiBud to rrwaia in 1765, and died at bia oeat 
beikr I'nteHam in 1778. 

KKLAT. IvAi-AT, or KaCL.»T, o;iitid nf Boloochi* 
atan, occiifiiM the aiile of a hill tiduu fwt above Die 
mk: bt. S»' 8' H,\ loD. 09" 46 JL It la in tha f«n 
t( an Imfular oUcms, aamonded by a mnd wall 
Baidnd with bMtEona. Hm atroaU ata ftlthy In tha 
MrtrMDM, tha bo>u t wrvfauhad mud boveb with 
woodm tnaam, ud tha wboto jdace bM ■ vary 
M t h urrt U apMttnnoa. On tha waat ride, aklnlaic 
Ifat aumil «f the tidgtt, U tb« Uiri, or Kliaa'a I'ai- 
aea, an amient nml kngular |dle at mwl buildtni^ 

with fiat torraccd noU. Tho mMHifaeltirw eonvut 
chiotl^ of miiAketa and nwurd cutlery; hnt. tliere ia a 
ouiiudcrab]i! LrniiBit triuli- with Bind, Ikimbay, and 
Ciindahar, KkIm wa* nUimiRd by tho llritiah in 
1S3^, re«N|itured hy imutu*^^ froui a wvak i^rrEWU 
nf fiepoTS, and agnin taken by t^ BriUah. Fop. 
about lifiOO. 

KKI.MiKMANN, Fbasi,-.h!» CnumTopHB, Duke 
uf Valuiy. maralml and peer ul I'Vauoe, Ixjtu at Straff- 
buTf, 'JSCh May, 17^5. entered tho f^'onflana Lesion 
aa n hiuMor in 175'JL and [ivrfomied in it the timt 
cnuiiHUfpiof the Seven ^'tars' war. He wniil Uiri!ii(,-h 
all the degreca of tervice. u\t Vi the rank of miHel'al 
dt ramp. At tho breiikin; out of tho rci-vlniion bu 
Ki duitingHiiJicd hiniMtIf by |iatnt>tiiin atid jiidirniL-nt, 
that the clthuuu uf Landau, in the garrisuii uf iwliich 
h* WM »u>lIoRi>d, prwenwitl bim with a d»ic crown. 
At the coniiniinceaient of tbu war hu received tbu 
cc.ttuu.tnd (if iha amiy of the Mfwellt, forrued a jiine- 
liun ill Sc|>tcnit>cr with the main urmy undnr Ifa- 
mnuricx, und aiuLiined, Hepteinher '^\ I79'i, the 
oelvbratiid attack of lbs I>uke of Bruuiiwk-k. Tbh 
cDJUionada of Valmy, aa it ia callad, caueed tbo aUtM 
to retmnt, and pairhapa decldod, not marcly the whoha 
cainpaljcii, but aUo tliv fate of Europe^ and Uie au- 
^ircmocy of France, till lbl3, In. the following vara 
<if I'VaiUM Kotlertnann nveivcd varicMia genaral com- 
inanda. Xatiolonn loaded Iiim with honnuia, and 
)>iite blm JubanidabN){. After the rvaloratlon uf the 
Ikiiirbona he was appoinlod a tnombor of ibc chamber 
of necn, where he eKpoimed the liberal ride. Ho 
tliod 8r.-|jt<.-nilji:r 1;?, IS'iLI, einhty-fivc years nf i%ge. 
In hia ta*t will h* orderwd tjbat Ida hMrt ahould be 
buried on the field of Vabny, wbich waa done. 

KKLI.R(Dri{;ijudlyA'MfMl', on Inoorpomtad market 
lowii, Lrt'lftiiil oiinty 7k[<>Ath. pictureiqnely altuated 
nil a umall hill ni^.-ir the Block wa tor, 311 mtlaa north- 
west of Dublin. It hoi >lrai),'bt, lulerably well-ke^it 
ttreutB, a fina andt-nt chnnh, w itb an elegant apiTC. 
and A bandaomo Koman Catiiolic chapel; near tlM 
cbnruh ant Die remain* of an ancient round ta«wr, in 
g'lud preanratlon; and in tbe DMrket-plaoe n beautl- 
fuL atone oroaa of the eighth oaatur]'. Other pabllc 
buibtin^ are the eoiirthouae, the fct'cr luiapital and 
dlnin'iiBary, and thu bridewoll or huu*e uf currMtion 
fnr thuooiinty. lti> priiicifial tmdvia retalL lo ^0 
a oiouutery waa founded bent by 8i. Columb, In 
11A6 the town, with Its macnlneent eedeatoattcal 
c<lili<mi. wiw dcatroyed by fire. Having boon ratntvd 
it cunlinned to rank aa one nf tho piiiidpal townt tn 
Miath, till tbe divaoluUou uf it« rvlii;iuui eaiabliab- 
mciita. Its ancient charter datoa troni the llth and 
1-JUt nf lUchanl II. i'op. S93-J. 

KELI', in ootnuion:*^ tbe crude olkaUne eubelaace 
obtiiint-i by burtiiD^ aea-weeda. Fuau anre/M, F. 
ruictilMui, P.nadMm, LamiiiariAbaUtOa^ L.dtff>t)>lit, 
Uio epecieo cktellj need in tba manufact>u« M thfe 
article, grow altadied to rooka between binb and low 
water mark. Tba ea*>wiiod ie out doM to tha Rwka 
dnrinfT tha summer eeaaon, and afterwarda ifWMkd 
out upiiiik the abore tu dry, care beinf[ taken la turn 
it oocuinnally tn prevnnt fermentation. It I* llteii 
■daoked fur a few weoka and ofaelterad from tbe nin, 
till H baootnea eorered with a white aaUDO eflkwa 
oenee^ and la now ready for bumingr. TUe la uaaaUy 
aooompKihed in a runnd pit, liiimt with hrfck tyt 
atoDo; but the niorv atl^vted fonn for a kiln b 
oblong, about S f«ct wide, 5 to IS Ion;, ami fmrn 
3 to 4 deep: the )ntt>im of thia ia tutorwl with 
bcnah, upon wliich a bltlu driud aen-weed ia aeat< 
tared, and lira b applied at one extremity; tbe aoa- 
weeil b now thrown m pradnatly aa faat aa the 
OOBiblHtlon icaidMa the eurfaoc, and eboukl ibera 
be mudk wind it b necwaary to protect it by oovei^ 
ing the aidea with aetb; after tbe whole b burned 




-wbMiKafauulillwalciwlVitirrediip wiUiahoKUiltron 
l»r. uid faia>n>omt«<] tiU it aoquiir* u ■rmi-fliiiJ i-»ii- 
aiatMUB. This part oi the pnotM reqiiimi cciiuidvr- 
«lil« dsxteritv, ftoJ if iho iiuum oontiuun diy a littl>; 
cmuaaii oklt ahould bo tltratm on, wliioli acta ha m 
flax. WbMi oold It b Iwolieu Mp, adiI la now ratuly 
for aaJe. 

Tlic grcftUr |Mtrt of the Kida naiMt in todp-mnliin^ 
fcc, tnu fomgerly abbdnnl froin keljt and barilln, 
■ad diuiiiji tfae Napvluoulc w«r*, uud afwi-wajil*, 
wtMD baiilla and salt (tb« Inttor of which ii now (lio 
moat impartAiit aoarcc of aoita) were highly laicil, 
Velp WW larii'olj' manufu.-tureil in Irvlaxiil ati(3 Seui- 
Isad. but Bwra imrticnlfu-ly in the IlebridH, wbarn it 
waaRaoitnoof lupporl t^Duuijof tbo t>oor«r iubnU- 
taata. In ScotLud aail (ti ialu alone tlie tuul iiuon- 
tttj aiuiuall,v iDivite auiuuiittvl to about SO.UOif Uiim, 
tb« prion of which rn-iigwl frnni £" to £10 |i«jr ton 
Bat when Uie dutie* oa likriUn and Milt wvn; r«ducvd 
kaht-uakinf tMelved a eomplcto cfaeok, and Bhoraa 
tltu EoriDCiljr ]rield«d Lb« |>ro]jn«t<'r« n n-nt nf from 
£200 to £fiOO omacdi to bo wurtb cinyttiinit. It 
was mora particnlar^ tha repeal nf tliu aiklt iliity 
that t^opp^ the kelp-uialcitig, ns autLt c^i be {iru' 
pand no Riucli riKirr nwilly fmm unit thnxi fmln 
keJ]). Iodine (wbicli kv) i* lui iiuportnut product of 
kelp. A ton of kelp yield!) about 9 ll« of lodino. 
Th* ridicat knitim aource of iodino i» tho Ha<w«n] 
nE Gncmaej, .ind tho ulilisation of thin for tUe jire- 
|»ratwu of liL<diQe msy yot cretnn an cxtriiKivu In- 
iloEtiy in tb« Uland. ChloridD of polaiatiLm majr 
alao ba obtained in large <)iiantitiM from kelp. I'bc 
lotol quantity cf kdp now made annually in Ibc 
Britiib ULaiuU i» Btatod to amoutit to sbottt 10,000 
t«au. Soo Bariliji. 

KELSO, a Scntti*h tnarktt tovrn and hiir^h of 
boron/ in KuTLurglmltire, bruutUullv niluntvd at ttic 
ooaflumco of tbo Totiot mad Twtwd, on iho i«ft or 
Boitk buk of tlio latter, wUeh U CTMted about 200 
jarda lower down by an dcgant atvue bridge of Are 
ardiM^ 38 milea a.i. uf Edtiiburgh. It mcaiittit cUirfly 
at Bv« atniata dedjincd by Itennio, and ann\eraiag 
towanli a apaoioua w|iuu«, tued a» a aarket-pSwo; 
the honaoB are naetly of (reefltone, and in giMienl 
haodaome. It liM a rva^ctalilu town-lioiiM in tha 
(iieciaii >tylo; infill or aiaa diurcbei, aaae of tltcm 
■emarkablti; a uuniber of ifood actooln, u luediiudcs' 
iDttitnte. a lanevnin, a public park, to. Bolog aitii- 
*tBd in tbe miitnt of a iinpuloitii nnd wealthy a^nil- 
tora] district iU rcLiil tmJa ia lardo; pork-fniriuif 
and ooacb'bulldiui; am carri(.-d on to a aniiiidurable 
extent In tbi ont^kirto of tbo ttiwn ara tho niiieni- 
fioent miaa of Kl-Lio Ablity, rcmiidcti and endowed by 
I>avid I. lu 112S for 'I'j miieiiHiiLU monka. It la (n 
the fonn of a Latin cro^ nnd is a fino BpedmiD at 
the early Nomon rtylc of arckiCi^ctorR. tt wwt twice 
burned during the contest between Bruor: and Bnlinl ; 
OTiffcnd a«Ti<rcily at tlio bandaof tht> English In !Jj'23 
•nd ISIJ. and what ramainod of ita fumitun and 
decoratir'nn wai entlnly deatroyed dtirintf a popular 
ttunnlt ill 1560. Tlte mins w«ni tboroiivtly rvpstrrd 
1:7 *'** f*"ke of lUixhurBlio in 1^(1(1, nniT in 1S74 tlia 
mnB solilvtuan gTViiitly inipt\ivi>d their lurrouiidiu^ 
t^ Opddn^ up tbo view of the irimt front, and arect- 
lag an iron ruling. In tbo imiiicdiatd vicinity of 
tlie town aI(o In Floofa Caatlc, tbo smt nf tho liui^l 
(amUy of Roxbnr^Q. Kelto wan ori^duully a kiud 
of auburb to the andent bargh of Roxburgb, do- 
•(r«y«d bjr •Tamea If. in 1400 which atood on tbr 
ooponta bMik of tho Tiv'c«l. It onrva ita rite to the 
fiwudotinn of tho abtjoy. Pop. in 1571, iDOl. 

KBMUIjK, VHxat.m, acelobmtod actor, wm tlio 
e1«nmth child of Roger Kcnil.le, luiil ytaiu^cT hr«tlirir 
(/ tlir gT«a£ tn^edian, Julin Pldlip Kcnuble. [Hev 
Vou IV. 

KEKntK, Jons PiilLrr.l H« wa* bom In Bracon, 
South Wsten. on ^.'tb Novninlipr, irTS.nnd edncat*'! 
j«t tlie Kiittlinh Unaiau CuLlirdit' tVlli'i;'' at |l<niay, in 
Franc*. In the d-ipiutmeut of Xord. Un returning 
to Enjflnnd in 1792. tbrnn^-li th>^ influmoe of bia 
btotbcr favobtajnedaiitiintion in tb■^ [■ut-ntficir ; but 
the beradltary ijrupeiwity fur the kta^t; wa< f.<o it-rontf 
to bo overwnio. and ia 17d4 he made hli fint appear- 
ance at Urviry Ijuii: a« Mn!-^ilm to hi» bitither"* 
Maclirth, For a OHimlderBiblo tuni- be fontinued to 
pjay sooondary ciiiaract«n, but gridcjidly iiuproved la 
hi) profcmiofl. In 1!^04J bo produK-'l at tbo Hay- 
market 'J^hrAtrc hL< italkpt-ititin ot MiTdcru l)i«rrteiir, 
luiilcr tltd title of Tb« I'oiutof Uuiiout. which kcliievEd 
ccnHiiierablo suw'^iw. In 1507 hi» plaj-of Tho Wan- 
derer, an adaptation from Kotuibuc, and tbe follow 
in^ yutr hi« farce of Plot and <-'«vinter|iliit were both 
sui^ciaafiilly brousbt un tbo »tMgt> — the fonuvr at 
CoV(!Ot Uardon, tbn bttt<n' at tbo llnvmiu-kot. Ag 
an actor hia repntatiou oimtinuvd to iuncaM!, and ku 
gained apodal oelehrity by thn porfonnaace of suck 
character* aa FsJccinbridgo, Edgar, Itomco, (liaik-s 
Sjurface, Casaio, Don Fotix, and Benedick. H'u ioi- 
pomo nation* were moreover preatLy hd^htencd by 
the pliyaioa] advauUgea which he pmamiied of a line 
voio*. hnnd««mB faatiUiM, and a iikll .ithlptii; tignre. 
Abiiiit ISJO bf wiwappointcd to theolRcBof pxaiiuner 
of playa^and nbortly aiterwarde made hk laot appear- 
aaoo on the aUi-t. IIo aubMquently gave oc43uioii- 
ally publio mMliiim from Shakapera. Mr. Kensblo 
married, 2d July, 1800. iS3m Marie llnrt-te iW Csmp, 
then a favourite actrem In falgb comedy, and wu the 
father of John Jlitchrll KctiiMiv tho "nhjei-t of tbo 
followinz article; Fftntiy Kcmhte, aa well kniwn biith 
for ber lilntriiinlo Abllitlt-s ».nd laatrtmonlal luiNfur- 
tUOQi; and Adulaide Kembkr, tbo colebmted opera 
stncdf. Hcdie<l on 12th Norember, 1054. 

kI':MBLl^.IoK<d MlTCHKLL,MUl of tiie fore^dutc, 
aui.l uue of our niost otnlnent Anglo-Saxon iicliolanij 
waa bora in 1S07. Hvwna oduoated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated, and ha^in^cearty 
dircctt-d his altcutiiiia tu thu »iibiect of tbe Anglo- 
Saxon langua^ and biitory, took np hia abode at 
Cambridico for a oonaldemUe time, employing hlm- 
idf In pcnuHng asd comMring tho ancdent MB6. 
depmJtcd in the librarifs of the iinivcnrity, The first- 
fruit* of bin rvaenrclie* iL;j|iaared in ]H:t\ in thci ptib> 
licHtiuu of tbe Ank'lu-Saxou pooai of BcuHulf, tbe 
TyaveUer'e tirmq. and tho Battle of F^nnesburgh, and 
tho following Ti-Ar he iuiieii a pamplilcrt on the Hi*- 
tory d( tbe kuKliab I^angua^ Vint or Anglo-Sanon 
puriml. Ilu Hubaoiiuently engaged In an edition of 
tbo Gospi-It in Aiii^lo-Saxon, which, howorcr. waa 

novrl- ■oilnplctei!, iuii3 lietB-tim IBIll' »ni! IS4W editoil 
in •uvan uctaKu voluuiL-H, for tbe Eii^Ush HiiUirifal 
Society, a coUvL'tloa of all the known cbortcre of t]ic 
Anglo-Saxon period, nailer tlw- title ot (^dcx Diplo- 
mnticus /Cvi Kiviuiiici. In ISi^ apgioared hia mint 
valiia'Ido and h^t known work. The Saxona In Eu^;- 
liinil, in tw^ volunicH. Vnrii^ua other arcluwiogiail 
work* wrrc edited by blm. .Mr. Kembte waa for 
luiULy yuaTv uilitur of tbt? Itritiili luii] Foreign Rerlew, 
and held aUo l.iltnrtv the nifii?!.! of mnuir of playv. 
Htjbad been appointed to lunuiL'o the BritJ*h, Itoninn, 
anil Anglo-Saxon antiquities for tbe Mancbeotftr Art 
EibibitJoD of 1SS7, and waa engaged at Dublin col- 
iocting tnonumuot* nf CiilHc art, when bo van miH- 
dcnly eiit 'mET by inHiuuniatiou of tki; cbvMt, uii '2iltli 
March at that year. Hi) waa a fcllnw of v.itioiiii 
kamol wicietiiai, lutiong '.itlji-ni ot t)ie Ap-ideuiitri of 
.'Science* ot Berlin nnd Mtmich, and tlio HUtorical 
3iM-!utitM of Stovkhului and CupenbiiK«u, 

KHM IILE. JuHK ftitur-, one of the tnort eminent 
trAceilianit erf tbi; Bi-itialt otogi?. wai thtt clrleEit ton of 
Roger Kemble, nmnager uf a company uf wtoediana 






ftb Pnacnt, tn IjanckiJiinr, in irbidi countj he wKi 
bom, I«t Fiibruftnr, 17K7. H« reivlTcH the ru>li- 
invDto of mlucatiiHi at the Rotiiiui Catholic svoiiDAry 
of Sedjpiloj Pvk, SuSonliihirn. With the riew <A 
qunltfjiiig him fur uae ol the IcameO pntfowiaai^ be 
«-» A(i<irw»Tda [iLm«<I by bi« f»tber at tha ooU^e <& 
IXituMF, wbon 1j» oarijr diitiii^nu*hu<] biinneU \rs hi« 
anfloflnej in elocattra. On bin riitum to £ss)ui<l, 
OAviiw coinpUlod hia academical puivuit*, iin etitrreil 
inuMOiaUly apon tlta profaa ri tt R of ui actor, for 
vUcb be bu lon( exhiuted « ikddcJ imditectkiu. 
At lUs pn4od be produced a trendy on tlw atoTy of 
BeliMriui^ which wm acted at Li r«r|K^l. Mid priutod 
a ralume of Fugitive Pieoea in venw, with whSch be 
wai, howerer, ao diMatitCud, tlmt uu tba day afber 
tUr pnblicatlen be deetroycd ovcrr c'i{>y !1» could 
raoover. Mr. Kcniltln «ipcjirMl for the fiiat time io 
Loadon ob. tlie I>rurv La-iie bo&riLi. Soptember 30, 
1783. in the p.iit "t liamk't, and wm reocjvad with 
gnal aM>lauf«. It wu not, ha<werer, tiU the mtov- 
tuent Af Smitb from the eta^^ in 1TSK that be took 
a dociiled XvmiX va tncedjf- Ho af t«rvrarda obtaioml 
the managnmiit of &IU7 l«M Tboatn, irbicb be 
enj'ijedartUi only a abort interruption tai 1801. In 
1 7^4 be broagbt ont a mnaical entertttininent of hik 
own, autltlad Lodnlaka, irlilch had m gr«at ruiL In 
1802 be Tinted Uio Contiiicnt, and bavii^ paawd 
taralve mnntha at Pa^i* nad Madrid reCunwMl trt 
Ti^^idoft, when be [iiirdiased a aixLh share ia Use 
CoreBt Ganliiti llwiatm from Mr. I^ewia for £24,000, 
auJ became manager of that eaUblttbinent. Herabe 
continued Us oareeriFttL great racoaaa, till the doe tn a- 
tien of the tlieabro by Ciio in 1809. In the autumn 
of theiaiae year the now cdifioe which luul been onn* 
Mnictei] ofiMMd with an increaee of prioea, which, 
togvtlior with certain obnoaoua anangauunu in n- 
^wd to the private boxet. creatad foraaorieeof ui^ti 
the diatorliMiaM Iroown by Uie name of the OPnOU. 
Mr. Kanble took bh bmrell of the etage July -23. 
1817, on which oocosinn he woe complimented vith 
a pnUie dinner at the FrtemMciniT Tavern, l»ni 
Holland occuiiTiiit; the clialr, uid other hoaoUTaUe 
token* of .ettoirni; uni ■Utrrtlv oftvr retiivd to tbe 
Centiaent, wb«r« be filed at Lauaanna, in SwitMr- 
land, VAnttrj U, 1821, of a paralytie aRaclE after 
afowhoupi' iflseai. A* an actor Kimble vaadietiu- 
Kolabed fur ilifptly, prvctaioo, aud itmHoas prmionf 
tlon. Ilia merit* w«re dUTerently amedatet^ but 
by all be waa ngarded ae a U([bly ginod actor, and 
Ihe Impreaiion which 1m made in ahanotera mare 
imaMdiataly adt^led to Lie etyle of escrlleaoe, euch 
■■ Oato^ rarinlanae, Hamlet, John, .tatjaee, Peorad- 
dBol^ waaverr ^nat. 

KEUPIS, TnoNAR A. Bee TnoMAS k Kehfib. 

ntN, Thoxah, n leunad and ]ioiia digaitary of 
tba EBsUab Cburdi. wa> bem at BcribaBubMd; 
Ham, kl»37, and eduoaled a Oxford. Abantl<l7» 
Ita weU to Uolland h> effidato a* ch^laia to tbe 
PrinccH of Otaafe, and aftenmrdi to Tangier, aa 
ebafO^atotfaeKarlof DMtmonth. la erary station 
whtdi be beld he eabibitcd a cooeckatioua propriety 
of coDdoct and UB\'liiUiag moeality, which procurrd 

Una the nvpoct of the Uoeatinua omirt "f Ohacha II 
anil, atrangv m it uiay imiear, oonciliaUxl ttw favunr 
uf tliat i<n>Hint« I'rinue. Dr. Ken becama a du^Jain 
til Charlte IL,(n whoau relj^ be wae made Mibep of 
BaUi ami Welle. He wm one of tba earai bMt»ta 
aeat to lb* Tower fur rmiitiiig the dbpaaefaiy novar 
cUiuedby ICintf Jame^awl f-r iTritfrmhc tw HiiliaTf 
of their own as'l the paonle'e iij[hu. After tbe 
BanlnUan BUiop Ken refoeed lo tab* tbe oath 
of aUwianoe to Klog WiUiam, In ooMeqaena* of 
wUoh be wa* deprived ol bie nprfeenwot. Ha «M^ 
b*w>er«r, hlelily r«peeted by tboee ef onNeit* eeatl- 
noati^ Mkd wnoan Anna bmiowud oa bin a peailon. 

HitilicaatI«ni8leate,inbMaRft,17n. Iliavork^ 
cimaisUng r>f eecmeoa, poeeni^ &c., were imbliahed 
in four voU. 8vu, 1721, vrilh an aocouut of hie life^ 

KENDAIi, or Kirkbi-Kexdal, a parliunmitary 
borcrugh and inarkL-t ton-n uf Mngland. county Wert- 
tDOTvUnd. It i* itgrennhly nilitatcd in u viUley, IS 
luHee iM.'t. Appleby, un tbe ri^bt buik cf the Kant, 
here crveeed by one tmn and throe stoDo bridjpoa, and 
on the Laucaiter and Oarlialc IljulwAy. Tt i-onelela 
of thriN! principal iitreetK, tme of wbidi ii upwanla of 
1 milt: loo^, and levenLl eubordiuato ttrefiu or tiuiea. 
It hae an elc^iput town-b&U and uwanbly-njoiua: an 
ancient but largo p*ri*h cbiLrch, divided Into flveaialea 
by four rowa di pillani eupportinf (ha roof; Tarieae 
other pboee of wonfali:^ a me gnoamar ioA otbar 
acbooK » widows' hoepital, newa-roomi^ nwcbanW 
inetitutico anil library, mvlural biatecy aodety, vltb 
a valuable muMiuni, Sic. Liniwye, aorge^ kcneye, 
carpets, rallw^ ruge and wntppon, tzouserinn 
knitted woolleo jaokeU and caps, an eiten«draj 
moQufaciured; and there are also tn ttie town and ila 
immtfdiate neigbbouriiood manofactorice of tortoiee* 
shell and other combe, mper, trunpowdor, and wool 
cardo, x\ni com-milU. Konilal i« alao famed im Ite 
fiah-boDka. Tliu taarbl« oUniiwd in the neigbboor- 
bood la eeleemed excallaai, and tba working and 
polishing of it fonn an Important part uf tbv tnde of 
the plaoc; Kendal vraa erbfranchUod by tbe Bafam 
Act uf 1932, and retunie a member to the Uoaaaof ■ 
Oommona. It ia one if tho ijdoit manufactiiring 
towns in the hiogdom, fome Kluiuiah weaven having 
settled hen fat the time of Edwaid UL Hnp. 

KKNn^WORTII, a market town of Bntbud, in 
Warwiokabire, 5 mJlee north of Wanriok. It con- 
slats chiefly of one street, extondini; along the turn- 
pike road for mora than I Tnitc It has an aiident 
and venerable ciiurcb, witli n Mjcare towor, sur- 
mounted by a lufcy apUv. Uuni oomba, Praaaian 
blue, UUnbor'B-sall, and KC-anunoniac are msmihe- 
tared here to annie cKtciit. Kcniiworth L'aatle, now 
a magntfioent ivy-ouvereil ruin, wa* [oiinded in tba 
reign (rf HeiUY I., and in 1230 waa tbo auetie tt 
a giand i^vauie meeting, at wUcb, it is alleiied, 
aUks were •mtaa for the fint time in BnjfUnd. Tba 
Bvrgeoua enlorialnmont given here in 1S75 to (Juoca 
KUubeth by tbo Karl of LHonrtor i* familiar to all 
from Scott's nunanoe of Kenllwortb. Durinff tbe 
dvil -wan the oaatle «u ariaed by CromweU and 
given to scene of his effioen, by whom it waa reduced 
to Itapreeent ndnons state. Popt 333S. 

KENNEDY, Obaoe, an anthoeeee of consUerabk 
repotatkiaaaawriterof »IigiouBnaT«ls,wM a native 
of Ayiahira, and bom in 1782. Htirjirindral wocloi 
are Uei^cet, Fatliar Geuient, Anna R«*a, l>unaIUn, 
along wltb kibui otban, all of Trfaleb cnjoysd grunt 
poptdatity in their dav, and are atOl read. Tbey 
ware not achnawle^geu aa her produdionB lID nfhw 
h*r dKatfa. They baw been trandated Into nvuli 
and other foreign bngnaffaa. Ulsa Eauwdy MHsad 
the greater part of her Ufo in Bdlnb u rgl^ aaa died 
on the 23th Fokruary, lt>2K. A ocUeeUve edMoti <M 
hat mrlinr works waapubliabed In eli vols. ISino. 

KENMCOTT, Da., and pnfcasor o( tbeok^^ 
at Oxfoed. hem in 171S at Totneai tn DarvoaaUra, 
wban bis btbor was a luir Hboeniaker and SAxlon, 
baa became Icnoam by his extensive and valuable 
MUaotlaii of readinfi Iran about fiSO maauKripta, 
■ad twalvo printed aditleas of the Habtmv Btblev 
vUeb be annaxed to his ediliaa of tbo Hebrew text. 
In this kborions and expoMive undertaking Kennl- 
naU eras osristed by asnboeriptioa cf asveral Ihmaaad 

Cds, and than aaaUod to sand aevaml adkolan to 
1, Italy, Oermaay, ftc, to eollato nHNmacvipta 
and edittuoa The work ha* many ^rp«V*9Uail 



nCB. ^0 uittiorB pLin, too, waa di^fcctitv, miiI 

b* WM Bot iiiffidADlly MMjuaiiittni willi tLo (!»«C«ni 

L togBBgw and the irao priiunplw <if critidanii but be 

InMsnd pcAt service to tiic auao oF Mdenoo nnd 

rdteioo bjr opeoing tlie my in ttii» Unjurlnieiit of 

, Iw hi i cn l cnticuon. At Uia Unto of 111* dwth bff waa 

. employed tn ivciiurtaif Rmnariu on 8«I«ct Paaugoi 

'3a lb« Old r«stament, vrUch u-ere «ubaMueDtly 

publiaheit, aoconjcMiiied by oigbt itoimanm. Kmnt- 

' cott'a work u thn mcvt nilsodld adition of tbe 

Ibbrew Scriptuted over pafalbhed. 

KENSCt'Gl'ON. OQM » Ttiloye S bUIm WMt from 

Lcmtao^ BOW » aiiburb of thkt UMtrojxilia. It U 

well known tor itm rov&I pniao* anil gwdvoe. lo 

fanner ^moa Kt)Uiiini;tua Palww w«a » Uvourite 

rml renileBoa; and King WLllUm III-. Quoan 

luiy, Queen Aniin, aod Goargo II. dJrd hum. 

KeMngtoii G»ciieiui, attached to tho palace, ant 

nadi fnK|nented an a faabionablv innmeiiMe In min- 

I BMi^ aud fona a ^ixat crrnamotLt to tbd iBKtepoUa. 

L*na8B fardflu iMnUiifted ori^nalLy 26 acrca, and 20 

I tarn wani added by Quwm Anna. They now cdtct 

about 350 aona. Tbe Kcnsal Gn«u Cftinetery ben 

oontMiui £>i aerM. I'op. ]20.'JS4. 

KEXT, A nuriUmc ominty nf Kn^buid, hoiindHl x, 
by tbin lluunc* and Gvrmau Cvctui, R. and n.K. tnr 
tb« latter and tbq Strait of Dover, 8. by tba "Kngllffn 
Cbattael aad Suiaex, and w. t^ Sumy; sad havinr, 
«a it* E. and a coaata, thu Xurtb aod Sootb KorcJandii 
«nd Uimgeoww. Area, 1,004,984 aorva, o( vrhl<Ai 
^40,a00Bnanbl>,inMulow,aadpwtui«. Ontbatpart 
cf t]w ooast boBBdin^ tbe ectBan- of the 'JIhudm 
tboa lire numoroua exuuplee both at the fpua and 
Jam of Luid by tlin ■«&, The olilTit itn tbia l^le <jf 
Sbcppey, wbii:h ti aituated here, and which nro from 
60 to iO feet high, decay rapidly, 50 acns hAVin; bean 
lust bt twenty yeara, bctwevn 1611) ftod )fi:iU: und 
' Ibe cfaBitih ak alinatcr, now near tho coast, is ludd 
' to hftvo bcoL la tbe middle of the iaUnd in i7£0. 
\ BiadUt tsvacM are ^Ut; on at othur porta of the 
coMt. Dff tho east ilMrr lie tbc wfll-kiioKn Good- 
erfn Seada (which aec), betM-eeti wbicli and tlia tnain- 
Jaad la tbv wiiially wuU-lutoivu runditt«ad cnllcd thu 
DamwM. KoBt may be deaigaatcd a hilly Muntry, 
being tliiided by two nearly parallel cItAiii* Kf dialk 
bllU, wbicli travene tbe oonuty wiut to cut, tsniii* 
Dating tu lof^ chalk <JliIe at I>aver, FoUtealtoia, aud 
Hythe. Many of these Ulla rise from 400 to S50 feet 
•hova BGA-Ievel. Tba dintrid hctm^n the chalk 
laage and the eatoary of the Tbauus in muatly occw 
pled by the^aatie clay which immediatoLy o^i^rliM 
tha cbaUc Tbe auaoe, o^faiD, eoutli from tba nuig^. 
or he t wewn it and Bneacx, ia colled tlio Wald, njul 
WM aadeoUy au immeoae fonat. Tbia potUuu uf 
Ibt ONUttycompriaea BosiBeySlaiah. which occupies 
ito aontb-eaat ooraer, and oonniata of about 84,000 
Mxee. The cliioate of Kcut la in Kuieral mild and 
i;«UaL I'hasoilmaybediTidedlnbotbetfravelicbalk, 
•■d clay, wUcb prodooe, wberv thuy mix in due pro- 
porHoa, an extremely fertile loam. Ilia allvrial 
aeila along tbe Tbaiu«a and Medway, and In RomtKy 
llanfeunrodiicviRonutot thRridMctputureaiathe king- 
doL OenerallT Kiwnkini;, thenuilof tbeonetdiTiaon 
- ia balloTcd to be *up<>rior to tbat of tbe west. A|p4- 
edtara^ partfL-nliu-ly in tho former is in a Arery ad- 
laimiil alnfii Kent u tbe princtpalhopooantyinKng- 
bod; oimJ wheat, barley, peaae, and bean ar« miaud in 
hajp! ijaantftieaL Canary, radiah, and ipinoab aced, 
#ri, are Terf extenaively reltiratcd: and frtiita and 
(inbn ve|I«tabl«a are abtuulant Thn Wenld cnn- 
Irioa b pait deal of natural (.TaiMi-IaLid, prodnciuu a 
VMt qoaottty of exoellatt hay. Tho pastaroa tn the 
^miltm Bi* of cuiutidoable extent, imd am appm- 
LariM«I ttl tbe fnttening of cattle and abeep, tho 
iCllv mdndiiig a pwndiarly iiue brood, knowu aa tha 

Romney Marah ibn;;!, wbieb fatlcna eixrlr, and pro* 
diiM* Irini; <iO)nblii<> woul. IViidtiy of every aort ia 
lartt'e nod line; and gome, i&cludlBg bares, pueaaanti^ 
and [>*rtriili:c^ niimerona : tbe ijioaaanta being 
eateoined the larrmt aud rumt'flnvuuml in tbe 
IdngdoDL The prmiripFd town* !n Keni are Canter* 
boiy, Bodicoter, Chatham, (rreonwioh, Deptford. 
Woolwlcli,GnTaBeBd, DoTer, Uaidatone, Folkeatone^ 
Uytlio, ftc., all of wbit-b an oonnected with each 
otberandwicbi Ix^ndon byr^W8,y. I'apcrnf oUkintli) 
ia naoufaoturcd in tbe eountj, bnt thu vmtinjf -papen 
an noM cqwdolly noted for their <ioaUty; coUoa 
manafaetBCOa^ to a limited extLtit, oM likewiaa e«nied 
on ; and there are aolt, cnpparui, and calioo-printing 
witfki^ bleacJifialde, and ifuniMwdtr-uiilla. Jnliua 
CBsar'a flm landing in (iroat BritAin waa In Kent. 
Ki^iit ri:tiinis twi-ntv-one ninnilwnt tn I'arliumcTit, of 
which MiK nra for tl»o ouunty, wbicb in fumiBd into 
three parliamoDtory d!«laJoa& Pop.tu ISdl, 733,ft87; 
in 1871. SIS,2U. 

ICENT, Wn-i.txH, an ingeninua artiat, wta bom in 
VorkaUira tn 1<)6S. He ii-ita appn^iitirud to a ouach* 
pointer, but, consdoiu of superior taJeut, repaired to 
London, whr^ro ho waa onnblod by acme gentlemen 
to reside in Itomi^ and study paintiU]^ andor Cavalier 
LutL In thill art, bowever, lie never ubtidcied ce]^ 
brity: hia taJmt lay cbietly in omamental arcbHso- 
tnnt aosw a|iednuoa of wUota at U'dkham, Stowiv 
and other plaoea, are nmofa admired. He i* regardod 
by Horaoo Walpide aa tho founder of i-Lb niodeni 
ccbuol of laDdacapo-ntdeUDg, which ht; rvnderod 
more natural, graoefid, and pleoaine. Ho leaped the 
aimk iaaao, oaya the laat- mentioned writer, and saw 
that all nature waa * carden. He broke iifi lii» i>Id 
tmifi'miity of rtnuRbt Hnes and (Mrrcaponditii; pu-U. 
and throw wood, watery aad groiitid into the bv^ntiful 
abopei preaantod by nature. Tbe taato of Pope ia 
■oppMBd to have aided that of the artiat He died 
at Burluiitton Hoiud in 1716, ayed aisty'three, and 
waa buried at Chidnick. He exeonted the Shakapere 
Rinnninent in Wrstniinatcr AbbeT. 

KKNTKiKUN, Hr. Hee Mi sun fSr.J 
KKNT'S HOLE, a cavtra u*,'ar Toniuuy, Devon- 
abirc. in which hari! Ihmu fonnd many bonaa. aimllar 
to tkiniH dcacribcd in Dr. Iturkland'a BcUi^oiK' 

KENTUCKY, one of tho Unltoil StoU-a, bowndod 
N. by Uhio and Indiana. S.V. by Illinois w. by Mia- 
sTruri, a. by 'J'i--nnf»«^c, and F. by Virginia and Went 
Virginia; h-realtut lenijtli, EX.e. to W.h.w., sbciit 4O0 
milaa; brvadtb, 170 milea; area, 4O,SO0 aquar« nillt*. 
Tbe surfnoo. thoogh somewhat motintalnous in the 
■oulh-eaat, boa in general bttte eloratlon, and may 
be oooridered oa an InoUnod ^ane, alopinj; ^Taduolly 
tQwarda tbe Ohio on the north, utd tb« Misaiadppi 
on tho west The grsatcr port of tho stAtc i« gently 
undulating, and pnaanwee an exodleitt anil, either 
covered wHh foTMt, ta wUoh tbe black walnut, bl ark 
cherry, baekaye^ Bugarnujilt, nidbniT, ebn, ash, 
ootton-vnod, and wUCe thorn are nretailin^ trem; 
or ond«t regular cultivation, producing eiccllcnt 
crops of wheat, tobacco, and hemp, whioh aw the 
staple proOnctiona, and also abondaaoe of Indiau- 
oora, rye, oats, barley, Imekwheai^ flax, and jMrtatssL 
Tbe most common fruita are apples, poors, peaAeai 
and pluma ; and tino poaturM Tear vast nmntMa of 
bora««, homed cattle, aheep, and swine. Tbe vJos 
grows wild, and is partially cclttvatMl: the eoMta 
plant aim thrirw well, and a large qaontityof snmr 
ia pTodncBd. Few ntat™ ajv l>ett«r provided vrith 
wator oommiuiication. Thu Ohio f ortna tbe boondary 
on tho north and north-west for 637 mil<«, and 
reecirca from within the ntate nuniL-rtiDa trilmtariea, 
of.wliiidi the niciet important ore llie Cuiiibcrlaiid, 
Kentucky, and TamwasiS ; tho Misalsuppi, after 






KC«iv!ag: tbe Ohio, foma tbo boaadory <m tlio 'n-Oft. 
1'he etat« b aIko provided with an ettdaoi arfUai of 
railirAyB. Tbo ttiovt vgJuAbl* mincnl pri>ducto ai* 
iron, cnol, utJt, anil Ihno. Ite ItnA u fonnil in alnicwt 
vftry put vf tbe atato, ftt tho depth of »U>ut S feet 
b^ow tho mrfMO^ and fonu tli* pndominaut gca- 
togicki fonution. oFtca maoDtbic atupcodon* pn- 
dploaa almg IIm banla of the iiNn, luid eoataitUng; 
ommrow ramarluble oavocns, unong tben Uw celw 
brai«d HaauBDlh CXva. Tha nuunfacliim of thia 
•tate are Rot rei7lugel74lcv«k>poil. HcaidM dmiaitJc 
mauufarturea, llvey uniauit cLielly of wtollen and 
ootUiD gondH, irou JUid iroawjirv, gunpowdor, leather, 
•oapt awl apiriu : and Uio moat iwporiaiit artiolM of 
xnm an min. lobaooo, honp, sjUt, sugar, ItTS-rtock, 
Laeoo, tiia Urd. KeDtook/ uruinally funned [Ntrt 
of Virj^iuU, but vam ncparutol Irnm it iu 176^, and 
4Mlnuu«d into thft ITuitm in 17d2. llw eeat of 
goronuneot w Frankfort, but tbe oldeel and fioaat 
towB ia liesiiigtoni and Uio Urgc*t anil ma«t eotn- 
uanial, LoniavUlc. Pup. in lS7(i, 1.3:il,«0l. 

SJBOKUK, a town, Uuit«a Suite«, lo^ra. at tbo 
•oath-caat oomvr of the ttatc, at tho foot of tho 
luw«r mpifl* of the MiMUaippi, 2 niilca aljovv the 
MuflucDOfuf the U«» Muinw, 2C5 uiiIm above 9t 
Lohm. It ia built ]»rtly at the fout and yartif on 
tka aomtnit of a tinHStonci bluff about 1 50 feet hijb. 
fend haa brmd regalar atreata with nianjr hautlsuuie 
hooaaa. It haa a puhUo acfaool oeau|i]dnff a vcr^ 
handwma edi6e«, a aodkal collog«k * numm midi- 
taar7, and a number of academica. The Indnrtrfal 
caUhliahmeata nusiber about fifty, and tbe trade, 
chiefly in flour and lumber. Is vanr activa. tjtoMucn 
ply daUy to SL Louia. Fop. 12,709. 

KEFLEB, JoHX, a (raat mathenatician aad 
MtMoomer, to Htwm aetroncmy ia indebtad for much 
of ita preactit nnrfnlioii, «a« hum iteccialier 21, 
1571, at Weil m Wunviuberi:, and waa deaeeoded 
fr^icn a noblu famiW. Pnvcrty anil tlio vkMtndaa 
of hia father'* furtitnr, who waa redtircd to tbe nccc** 
aity of Iwini; uti inuktrrjisr, wei« the catuiea uf tbe 
neglect of hie eduoKloD and of the uohapptneM of 
hIa ywUhfal daya. Bnt in tua e^htaoath yoar, aftor 
tlH deMhof hlafatharihaleftthamonuatioachool a( 
Unnlbrmn, and piMoeodod Id entering tbe Uuivt-rsity 
vt Tubingen. Hera he aUidied the coune Ctea vrv 
BCfibad — 6nt phQoaophy and matbenuidca^ and uen 
tbecJofor. He alao iaan%«d hia indination for aatro- 
aomj', and daroted hlraaalf eipadally to the invaati- 
galiim of the fliyMaal caoaea of tha motkoi ef the 
ci;Ieatia) bodlea. From Tlibtugen be waa iuritod in 
1503 to becoDW profeeaorof matheniatiai and monJb 
at Grata in Stiria, where he punued hia aatronoiaUtal 
•ludieaL For the aaka of fieedoai ef oonariepea be 
fled to Hoogary, but re turn ed aome time aftor. 
Ka-plar in tho intarim knd fiootnwtod an wtbapnr 
uairlafe, wfaleh mUMarad atiU mtan a Htm wlucA 
bad never wanted Ha nmnrtton of aonowaL Uenn- 
iihile tha MtronompT TycW d* Itraho had cume to 
Geruiao)', Ua ao>|uaiutaBoa with whom had an im< 
partaM iiflMaca on Kaplar'a Uf^ He roaolTad to 
rtHnqiMt Ua iHaalfea, ud to prepar* at Fracu& 
witli Tycho, ths laBMXiB Bodolphine UblaL callad 
afinr ttua ratg^Dtf Kapanr RoJolph, whhn wet« 
Ant printed «t Ubn In IW; ami wUch Lalnd* 
<An.i pL 474) ealU an 'Onvnc* eaaaotial, at qaf (at 
la taodNMUt da to«a lea calenla da rMlnaaaAM p«B- 
dantttntdtela:.* At Tyeho'a raoonuuendalian ha waa 
artabBihwd In that piaee; hot la hia ofltoe and adenea 
dU not aftad Mm > wtihtuin ■., be atudiad nadtdna 
lit «nkr to t*ta » UnUboad by the pmotioa of it. 
Tbe emperar bttd aadgnad him a aalanr, but In the 
period ol tnmbla wbid) piaeadad the I^Uty Yeara' 
war it waa tuA paiiL Coatfnvacdaa «llb tbu der^, 
nnd tha ^attatUd alat* of tbe Auatrian dununiaai, 

made his dtuatiun very uitcuiiifortJV>ile. ITe Irft 
lints, repaired to Ratiabon, declined an tnvitatiun 
to England, and waa conlimMd by tbe succeeding 
einpctiir, ycrdinatiil, in the o4£oe of iiuperial matbo* 
inMician, and afteiwarda went to Vim ia order to 
print hia Bodolphin* tablm In 1427 he returned to 
Pnguf., and ren-ived from theenperor fiOOOgoildara. 
He finally liocame a prafeeaor at Roelodt on tbe 
tWMmmaiidation of Albert, duke oE Wallenateiu, at 
that time I>uke id KecUcnbiirK, but did not receiva 
the promiaed companaatlon. He tbereforo w»Dt to 
Itatiaboo, where he dii-d 15tU Ncivrmbcr, IttSO. 
' K«plnr,' mya I.Aliuid(i, ' U ui funoua in astrocMniy, 
for the aajni-iitiia afipUoaltun tvhlub lie made of 
Tydio'a minumia ebMrrMiona (ho was cot hinwell 
a.n cibaaritaa), aa tho Ilaniah aatmnnmer for tlie eti- 
lection of ani^ vast matedala.' Tbe Iniri of Uie 
eouraaa of the planetai deduoed by K«pl«r from thoM 
obaarmtiona, are known in aatronony under the 
naxoe of the lArte lait* af Kefltr, and on tbem w«r« 
founded Newton's kuUw|iio&t diaoovariea, aa well aa 
the whole luodora theory of the planelai (See Rar- 
UK's Laws.) Keploc's Berrioea in tbe eauae tA 
fwtronomy have {ilafwl bim high ameau; tbe nuMt 
diatlng^ui^ed mea uf acieoco on reowd. Ill Batlabon 
a Rivaummt waa oroctod to hia memory in 1908 by 
Cbariea IliecKlora von Dalbcrt!. It conalata of n 
Duric teiDple, bi wUitb is plaotnl the bust of Kapler. 
'I'ho looat importiiiin iif bin worka ia bis Aatronomia 
nova, aeii Phyalca Cwlcalia tradita CommuntarUs <1« 
Utitlbua SbdJa Uartia (Prague, 1608, foUo>, a wodi 
which aeoiTM ititmartalJty to the author, and ia 
still rcKantoil aa clnaiiral bv aatraonnien. 

KEPLER'3 LAWS, lLiw« laws diirovored by 
Kepler (aoe Sketch of tha Frogreaa of Phyriciu 
ScioDCo, and also KErLBii):^!. Bvarjr planet d«- 
Rcribca an cUijwe, tbe wn oocnpjing Its foona. S. Tha 
radius vector (Un« joluiiis the eentre of the aun with 
tbo centra <rf ib«' planet) of each planet awoepa out 
equal area* in cnual timca. S. 'rbe etiuarea «f tho 
pcHudic times (Uk penuiia uf complete it-itolnUon 
round tbe son) of two pbuets ara pnportioual to tbe 
enbea of their mean dutauooa from ttw mn. Theoo 
\kw* warn dla«OTercd from ealonlallnna oai Tyebo 
Braho'aobeervaCiiiDa; they enabled Newton todrter- 
mine the Uwa nf tbo nttraotinn of grarttatloo. 

KEPPEL. Aiacanis, a British adioinl, buen 3d 
April, 1725, waa tho aecoud aon of WiUiam, earl of 
Albctnark-.enteKd tbe aaaaeiriceat an early afra.aiid 
ac«uuil<anl«d Admiral Ansoai round the wond |1TW- 
ti). .<Uter bebMiafuA engaged hi the servfoe of Ua 
oauatry, botfa aa a diplomatist and In tha mere eapedal 
I duties of bis profeMon, and after having sitten In 
Pariiamant aa nkamber tor Chkheetar, be roee mildly 
thrunsh tbo a utu aM i re gndea of bia pTDfoaaiee, aiKl 
In 177S waa appofatad to tha ooninand nf tbe Chan- 
nel Seel July 27 In Ibat year he fell in with the 
fVaadi iWet utvdar Cnonl XrOrrOUem, off Uabaot, 
wlioD a abort but wanu cngngemeat ananod, A abort 
delay becondng newaaatr to repair damage^ vben 
that labour waa aooomplUied the adatlral niade atjcnal 
fur bia ran and naar divinoaia to aaaunMi tboir pcopa*' 
■tatioua. 8ir Hugh PaUiaer, '■■n^Mil'lI'lg the rear, 
took no notice of toe rigail, aid l af aiid to Jobi bla 
oomnander, until nIglH priTeated k tenawal of the 
battle. Tbe ouaiduct of the tear-admbnl bauw 
fieroely attached, and Keppal retuaing a diaaeewia 
of the ebarsea brooght agaiaal him, Falliaer Imaia- 
diately exhibited artklaa of aeeoMtioa ^[ainat him. 
Keppel waa bonourahly aequitted, and received tba 
tbaoka of both beuaea of ParUament foa- hie psr<ion. 
PalUser wae aeit trted, and reprintaaded: bol tha 
puhlie iKBgnatloa waa so gnat that be waa obliged 
to reaign «• a«M la the Uooaeof OmnMiaia, aM ta 
noate aeveral olhcaa whidi he held wtder govern* 




■toiL ta 17SS AHmtntl KAppcl wna nlM^ to ti 
Mengv under the title of VUixiunt Kepfvl, Baron 
3£Uk>il, And van nt tu'o dlffennC p«^ixta >fipointcrl 
ftirt loH of tbu ndinirslty. H« Jiwl in UcU'bvr, 
1764, uarojuried. He wju m^ftnttiil m Tory Mq 
in Ilia profutlott, and » man uf grvAt iuUigjitj And 

KKRATHt (from dr. Icrag, » barn), » ■uUUbw 
obUilMd from ol&\ra, fAftthen. balr, horn, luilB, wool, 
■od Other cinikmiftl ftppcmli^ca. Wbctbrr or not 
then la » anigle flclinite aubatuics obtMoatilo fmiu 
tbow aooTCM U iloubtful, fut altbuusli ike miduo 
which ia got kftcr cihauxtion with wtktor. Alcohol. 
ether, and other ainlv<:nt«, U prrlty unifnrm in eina- 
poaitioQ, then 3zv ■oiua dii)i:rr|iuici:f*. Huweirvr, the 
■ipproxim>t* ollimAto ccmpoaition is rarbnn, 0O-G3; 
fcyJrogea, 6-7; niirogun, 1B-2-I77; osygou, 21-25; 
•O^nr, 0*7-5. Tlu* baMly, whether it 'l« du&iuta at 
m mixtmw, iaconiwctod witU nlbunicii, b<>Ui in goarr&l 
oosipoMition and a]*n in the wtiy it 'lecoinposca when 
oitder tba aciiou of iliffeniBt rutigouts. Thus ulkulitat 
diasolva And dcoompoaa it, dilute iiiulj>biinc acid can- 
v«rta it into Uutin and. lyn>»in, uitno aiid cblciiim it 
rclluw. Tlii* tii«uo or aubalAnca ia diftinsuiFboJ 
from gfil&tiiioiu ti«aue by bcooraine aof t when acted on, 
by WAbtr for aoroo tiin^, but tio gTu« ia produced. It 
ia inanlable in Alonhol luul in ntbnr. 

KKRATOSA, the niun* uiven hy Dr. Dnvrcrlmnk 
ia hia claniScation of tho 8|iou^rM to tbo order or 
gnnp cf ilomy SporiE:«a — of which thu fnaiiliiu- 

rifieof ooni.mii?iv:<.' tn ^ i^acd Finmpli. — in which ttio 
etm ia ooliiifuxml of thu huruy ishrvH uf a lulataum 
InvwD Ag ktrvUfdt. This kariktodu ia aniklo);oua iii 
casipaaitio& and nAtni« to hom : nnd in thrac aprmpRn 
the iltvletan of keiaUxla iji ^uerally mora or Icna 
•tia(igth«Ti«<d *nd tiu[>|iort«-ri by littla «}iicul«a or 
nceiilc-Ukii Indi^at pf flint or limo. 

KKKlilJEI.KN'S lJ\NI).orI)Eani.ATTrtK Isi^NO, 
in the ludiaa OoiMkOi Ut. |w4ut }Hiiut) t'X i' a.; hu. 
Hi' IS' v.; iMigth, 100 milaa; Kraatvat brwidth about 
04 nilcA. It hna a ranarkAbTy bAmn And deai^ttt 
jMHOrAnoot csoTuiAlin^ at lofty nutMca of bault tatd 
olMr volcanic rockn^ wluch riae to tha height of 2500 
fact, pwauntiiig niitaorcitu bold hoadlnnds Mid ranges 
of pradpilou* ulIlT^ Auil powoaainu u very iciuity 
T^vUtion. ScA-fowl an iiucn«roiu. tmC oo tAUd 
Animala an known to wluA on it. Ita iniieatAtioQA 
fumJih aoTeTAl bay* and inleta alfardinu flood bar- 
hoars. Of il)««9 the mntt rviDUkAbla k Cbiistnuw 
HArfvwr, at ita north axtramity. 

KliflMAN, KiuMaW, nr .Sinr.AV, a town in rcrain, 
Ci|iilal uf A jiiDviuiw of tbc name niunt-. At the ncdt- 
am vxtcvmity of lui cxtuosive plain; hx. ili' H' ^.; 
loo. M' 'i5' X. It i« ninoanded by a mud waI) and 
defctided by n ciladt^l cantAinini^ tho palivoe of the 
baglcrbqgi and hna nuiii«rriiiis nioaqueii, liiLiha, cara- 
Tf— r**t. And A wvll-furiiLiibi^d bazaar. Its nionu- 
fMCnrea cnniiiU of cnmcii'-hair xhAwls, ovqiuti^ And 
untltoU^ luid ita tradt) is tdiixiJurAble, tbou^h fiir 
toaa than it waa Wfum tti» Ji.'v.iy of the jiurt of 
OoiDbrora And the riaa uf cbnt of Rnchirv. I'np. 
tatliAAted at SO.UOO. The pru'.iiioo of Kennaa, lu 
the aouth-enat of I'ersii^ liaa au arvAof I>0,UUIJ aqiiAro 
mihn and a populAtioii of 6QU,U1I0. tn the north 
And Durth-cAat '■ tba desert iiI Kenunli, In whlcL. 
vhole Anaios are aajd to luv« jiuriiibed. In the etwt 
and aouth Iha soil ia very frrltlc. Tiir« and tho 
grapa grow to parfeotion in piu-tB, itad luDiidenibla 
aUention Is paid lo tha sllkwuna. 

KKK.MAXSHAH, or KinMji.<iiH]iAri, a tdwn in 
PenMik, pmiiooe of Imk-.Ajcmi, nrnr the right l>ank 
of tho Khonb, '2SO milm w.a.w. of THhetiuu It 
ooeupK* two or three miAll hflla At the WMtem 
axtremlty of a broAd pbiia. And is surrnunJcd by 
* amd WaU with five gAto, Init is in general very 

poorly builL Tha only bnildinj;;* dcMi-vin^^of notice 
nn* tho (•rindpftl uio«>|ue And tbu Iiacaat. The uuuiu- 
fnctiirea oansint ehintly of narpota and lonakwta, and 
tbe tnule, chiefly tnuudt by tbo routes from Basdad, 
Shiiater, And lapahao, by WAy of Hamad An, whieb 
all o«Btr* in it, ia OHwidMsbk. Fop. about 35,0(10. 

KliUMES, in jMioloitT. ft™ ('(Kvra. 

Kl':i'.:tlES IhLINKHAL. 'lliu umue \% fpven to 
Ainorphoiu antimony trisnlphidc. lS«e Amiu^jXT.) 
The natire Antiinimy triitiljiltiiU; oi:ctii'* iu w>;l1-dv 
veloued trimelrie priiuu. >Vhan iha amiynynTid ia 
fuaed for aome time, and suddouly Uirouu into cold 
WAtcr, its cryrtAllino (tructoni ia entirely doftroyccL 
The mortt gtaiarAl mctbrnl of preparing kc-mirs n-nn- 
siata in dissolvinjj pulverized untive antimony sulphide 
in caustic potimh solntinn. And preoipitatiTij; the 
amorphous sulpbiJufruni ihissolutl'^ by ih'' mMition 
of AD add. ilila Amorphoiu Btilphi>i6 Li tbui dix- 
Bolv<^d in sodium cArboDAte aolutiou, from irhicb 
llrjuid kermaa predpitaUa on cooling. As thns |ir«- 
(larvd ihia snbstnuce wutoina vurying amouttta of 
nntimony 0]cid«, AD d sometiaua also potaasium mtlph- 
antimonaU^ nux«d with aatimony trisnlphidc. 

Ktirmas is a bnTwn-rad powdw, bev<;iuini; hlncklab- 
gny when wxabed with boilinjf watur. By (usinn it 
may be obtAincd .i« a snlid mass, hut it Ia totnlly 
dcroid of loryslAtlino structure. 

KERRY, a nkarltluie ounnty of Irvlomt, on the 
south- WMt coast, in the ptovinHof Munater, boiinded 
north by tho cstuiry of the Shannon, ciat by Limn- 
rick And (.Wk, aouth by L'ork and Kenraari! -raitunry, 
anil west by the Abliuitie; (greatest luud'tli, 00 miles, 
north to south; broAdth, £3 miles; Area, l,lSi!,i;i4 
BcreJi, of which 411,614 ato amble. On the west And 
HtMitb it is ru^^cd, rucky, luid mountoiaous, with 
deep VAllcys iDterv<>ning ; but the north and eiast APS 
rvmnrkAbEa for riohnesa and furtility, Somv of tho 
mottntaliu rite tooansiderAbtcelevAtiims; Curn'ruAl, 
the Lighast in IrelAud, AttAinins a Lvi^dib of iiMi 
foot sJiova saiulevAl, whijo sovacAT utbcrs n-nfb SOOO 
and SOOO feet. Tliete mountAins are chiefly oom- 
pM«d of i»d or grAy oonslamemce and aandstene, 
supportioa Haiika of Hiicioua flags, and oiTrlaid in 
tho low oktrlcta by fields oi Inmeatono. In>n-on> 
nbouuda In aorae of the uiountAias, nud cupper luul 
load Also Dsijt in the county. I'ha Bubaoi] la aUt« and 
red snnd.ilone, with linmtone in the low districta, 
tiUte uf A ■ti^KU'itvr kiud and lls^ittuuo are obtained 
in gn>ut qiuMitttius in the Island of ValentiAy uu the 
soutb-wciit coAsC. The coasts of Kerry arc rcmarkahly 
And duuply inik-nted with liays And inlctx, the prin- 
cijiid ihf ivliich iiru the Bays of Tralce, Bnuidou, 
Din);lo, BnlLyiiaskollii;, and the eslUAry CAU&d Ken- 
mAro lUvcr. Thcr« ure scvcrAl considenible riven ia 
of KillATAcry, indoaed on all ddee by nioiiutalus, sjid 
though small, stngularly picturMquo, The climato 
la mild and moist; the Arfaiitna tionriabei in the open 
Air, AUd vefetAtlU) g«neThUy is extrc'Dn-ly hixuriiiut- 
in Ihn centr;d pnrts, where tbci soil alio ia lemarknlily 
fi,Ttili.',pri"lin.-iui; liLr;,-B tnipsof Brain. and eontojnui^ 
Home Qxocllunt pasture laud. Oals aud jKitAtoes Are 
thd princi|>al cnvt, thcmgh barley, beiv, lye, whoAt^ 
tnrtupi,jtc.,AreAlHt grown; but agriculture gonorally 
is in a wrvluhNl state. 'Iliu Irish lAiiKUiice is alluoatt 
univDTwilly spoken in this couuly, aud Ancient cna- 
torns and siipoirstitioiM pnnterTo thi.-ir A»ceiidi'ncy in 
n reiiisrlcDiblB de^jree. The cliief Imde cnmists in 
exports ui a^lcidlura] produce, mostly oats and 
butter. J.incn and eoar»a woollens aro manufacturod 
tn some extent, tha latter cijielly for home cnnaump- 
tiim. Kerry returns three mcuibeni to PurliAUioni 
— two for tlia county, iiud ono for th» Iximmjh of 
Trulue. Principid towns, Tnileo luid KiUamey. 
Fop. iu ISll, aiia,SSll; in 1671, lUHfiU-i. 






KKP.TCH. or Kmcn (uidmt Pttnturaptufm), & 
town of Utisau, in Uic Crimea, on » bnipja of tiui'd 
funi^Dg » pMiinauU. of the nne aaua, ud tlie Straiit 
oi Youkalch connoctias the 84» of Azof w'tth tbo 
Bkck Sea. It k repilftriy Mid beautifully tmitt, 
cbiefly of Btcne obtained inaa the fine quurrias of 
tb« noigbbcniriiQod, Mid potMMM givat utiiml ml- 
TMlteM for cvinnum*. Hw gimlw (Mtrt at tho 
iBhamuita uv eEaplo^ed in oommetoa. It expoirta 
hBildiw-rtoae Mid largo quuitilaeB of ult, obtAiiidi 
bomnaigkbonriiig^IalceK, umI ibilutringBiidiitnrgatin 
fldurtoi u« iwy proJuvtlo;. Iti *ite ia tbut of the 
tnriwrt ftiitici>|WMHOn, tfau naidaue aocl bmuJ- 
plMe of WthrkUtoB. The madcrn to«rn it of very 
Tfioeut vxiatoM^ Mid ban Hnmi up am if bj ma^c; 
Mid bv lla IncTMae bM imjudJdaliy affected aom* of 
tbtt oucr portB. it was t^cn by tiie Anglo-Fraach 
foreea on M*y S£, t<SG6, ouil lU ectoieoath* wcro 
jJunilerfHl of B vmluaUa oaUection of vorly Greek 
■stiiiaitiiH. Fop. I»,0t6. 

Kb&5EI.S, MATTUua, oae of tbe beet vt modom 
•Httiuulea, boni at ItlaeMricht, SUth May, 1761 ; 
learned Brat lo be a gvldainith, tbea became a modo)- 
l«r. and atndied ia Faiia, Hambuiy, St. P«Unbufg, 
and Roma, vhera, fu tho atndio of 'nMncaldacn, and 
after his tuinleU, b« eiMnilcil two beautiful relief* 
of l>»y and NigbL Ho alao exwutcd nuineroua 
worica el hie own, bvgiimiii^ with a St. Sot>aatiiui, 
vUdi nlasd Um tha pilae inatitatcd by ('miova. 
ASKm^tia other more remaricable works e^re a LUpiil 
abafjvning hb Anow, a bust of Ailminl IVi-iiDp, 
■ad aboi'e all. a o oiomtl mxao ttvm tbe Dvluj^e, 
wUoh ia tb« niMt oalobrated. Hia ityla la para, 
TfgotMMv and entirely froc from nuuuterian. Ho 
died at Rome, winther he had TctarBad in 1818, 9d 
Han^ 1831. in die fUD T^wur of his Ufei 

KESTREL. Sm Taicos. 

KKHWICK. ft nuurkct town, England, ia tbo 
county ot Cumberland, '2'2 milea aouth-w^ of Cu- 
Uale, moat nmaotloally altuated on tbu Gr«ta, la a 
valley aarnmnded by Ulla. It haa many neat and 
MOUBiodbiu dwellinga, a marlcet-hoiUK-, am] a hand- 
■onw ah<uvb in tho c^ly English itjle. Coano 
wooUau are manufaoturMl Ut aomo axtnot, aa ara 
lOnnviM UadtJaad poodla, but tha black-lead minca 
ot tba Mt^bmirtiood ara imw pmctfcoUy eiliauat«d. 
llto inhnbitukta. howuvor, ilqi^nd cLieny ti|Min the 
viajlm to the Lake of iJcrwcntwator and tho ro- 
maado aceocfy In the neisbbourtiootL At Greta 
Hall, in tbo immcdiata Ticiaity, Robert Eouthey 
a|»ent the latto' yean of his life, and (lied in Mnrch, 
la43. Pou 2777. 

K£TCH.aveaaelof tbe eatliot khuLe^inippod with 
two maata, uuBdy, the matn-aokt and the mlzeeo- 
maal, aod neuatly from 100 to 2Si} ton* burden. 
Kel^aa w«a« priaciiially nwd aa yoohia for convey- 
fny prinoH of ue Uoo^ ainbMWKMa, or other itreat 
MiMUfaa fram MM plana ta aaobbar, Ketcheawara 
like viae oted am bonlf-vaanl^ and wave therefore for* 
ttlahad with all the apfantva atmiary tor avigoaoiia 

KUIVHUP, or CAiBvr, Mr. Todd defiaea a« 'a 
kind ot IiMlian pi<J(lea Imitalod by pickled muib- 
tonna.' Tbe naina ia aaid to bo nf oaateni oristo, 
and to oonw tpom ta^jx, the Jnpan«M for a amu- 
kr omlimaat. Dr. Khdwar, In fata Aplchia Kedl- 
rlna^ denitei ten pagaa to different varlctlva of 
tacaipla for tLk kium. There we may bocomo ac. 
ip»lnt«d «ith tho ount|<neidon and vbtnwuf namer- 
o«a eatav]*, whrih^ they he walnut, muahrootn, 
tprfailawwioe of ainahrMKB, <]UiDtca*mu« of oyatora, 
oockla, iBoaeia, toBkato^ white cucumber, or pudding. 
* UwhroMa pmrj,' aaya tbe doctor, 'aoproMliea the 
lUvuw eC naat gnvy laara than any other vogotabia 
JuJM, and la ton boat eubMltuto lor it in nwogrc 

antipa and extemjiion ^ntTiea.' Afllli, 'What la 
niiDmimly calk-d raltup ia geoently an iajodkioiu 
(v-iDpoait'on of ao many diflafwit taatei^ that the 
Savunri'f themtuhrooiuia oToipowervd byalarra«o 
nf irarlto, aliallot, anchory, muatatd, linaa-ndMi, 
lfuiouj>e>ol, l«er, wine, and epioea, Baady-oada 
(Mit*np in littln VttiTT than a dcooctian c( i^ice and 
Milt and •KK.'UiT with tho fli ' oaam part of tba muah- 
rooma b«aten up Into a pt^' FVom tba ^reat eoai- 
[■ctitiiPD in thu luanufactura of kctchiip, there ia a 
wuit of cam in the aelecticm of the fuJiKi; and >a 
many of tho apedea are pobonoua, tho uw of thia 
condiment la aomotimea attandod widi danger. 

KETl'EKINCi, a matfcot town, Bn^and, in tho 
coiiatyuf X(irtluunpt(in,l3inileeBcvth-eaataf Xorth- 
Bjopfm, (uid a atation oo tbe Midland main lina It 
hai aa elegant church in tho Pcr7cndi(.<u]ar *t,vle. 
n-ith a liifty lower and siiire; plaoM of worship for 
vorioua EHiiaentinji bodiE*; a grammar and other 
■choola. Tanning and curryicig, boot and aboo mak- 
ing and hrick-oiakiBA are tlw ddef Indnabtial pio- 
oeaaaa. The ahaa-mMdng trade antdmra batwaan 
3000 and 80(J0 handa. There ie a handiwnno town- 
hall, a com cxchangn;, and a tempcr«iK« baU. Ket- 
tering ia the orntro nf the imnatone diatrict of tbo 
oouDty, and daily aenda thoiisauila of tone of oto 
into Walea, Dflrlnablra, and Vorksbirc, boddea bar- 
iu)t Kcvcrat luicltujg-faniMoe* in the uei^jkbouriuKid. 
I'op. 7181. 

KE1TLH-DR03!. Bee Dnr*. 

KKW, a imaU vilUe» in the munty cf Butrcy. ia 
(ituated on the riubt bank of tbo lliauin, <i|i;K>fite 
Brmtford, with whicji it ia conooctod by a btidgv, 
e mllee weal from Uydu Park Coracr, and \\ tnilo 
from Ricfanvond. lite royal botanic garaona aitd the 
oeoBocted pleaenro-srounda <belon jcliv ^ ^^ natbm^ 
tho Immw covcrtos ahont ?9 acn^ th* latter Sfi<\ 
am thn rhirf attraction of viiiitora tn Kew. Thdr 
■itiutioD !■ iiw, and ootnmnJuU no jimpects; but 
they oontahi the fineat ot^lection e( plaota In tba 
wend, and ara deoontad with mioua onaaieatal 
hiiitdtngi, including a Chin*™* pagoda 1 S3 foot hif h. 
Hip Lataoicol cona tmot lnna hero aio really magai&- 
oent, and hav« b««B maohaagmentod In noant yaara 
bymea&aof liberal graala of the public JDooey: they 
Indado a great oonaetratory for palmi^ trae-feraa, 
and other tiMpicol (ilonta, 8$3 feet lono; altogethor, 
the contra portion Uiins 1S7 foot 4 inouoa lony, 100 
feet wido, and 49 fc«t\^ the fringe 60 lent wide 
and 83 fast high; a tunee for eneeauot planti^ nefa 
aa caetuaca, eophorbiaa, Ao., 200 fc*t long aitd SO 
wide; a gmit 'taonpaiate hoiue* for treea ami ahruba 
of teraperata dlniaMe that ratpiire prt>toctloB during 
the winter; a largo orangery, hothouaea, gnanhouae^ 
Ac, of graat aise. Tho gardona are cpea te tha 
public on Suudaya aa nttU aa week daya. It la ofdy 
ainoe IBIS, when ther were placed tmdar tha nper 
intamleaoa of Sir William Jaekaoa Hookar, that 
they have attained tbcir iirwMnk magnifioeno*. The 
annual munber of vUlora, wUcb In 1841 waa only 
9174. now unuunta to £00,001^ and aaaMlteui aa 
many aa IJ.ODO vidt the ^irdnM in » aingla day. 
Connected wElk the gaidena i> a muHnim and a hw- 
harium, Inehiding aoma apleodid ooll««iuiia of {ira- 
eervod nUnta. 

KK^, or Kt, a groan of ialaada In the Indian 
Arrl^neiago. about M Gailei went of HwAttu lilanJa. 
Mid about 70 milaa tna the aontk-wrat coaat ot 
Xew Otdnea; lal. 0* KT a.; Ion. 13S* i. 1^ tun- 
aiit of the Htvat and Little K«yi^ Keyvatela, V«f> 
dooL Ketruibor. and a few other coral iUeta, They 
hare rather an elevated anrfaeo^ and afw coiratwl 
with ric4i Mid lutnriant rcgetatiaa. Tht Gtaat and 
Little Koys ara annnally risiee'l by ooaatlng yemula 
frnta tbo UohKcaa, Maeaaaar, Boni, and the Timor 



Bivapi for tbo purviiMa of tre<p(ui(^ tortoiao^cll, 
pirdr-iMaU, JU-. 

K£V, or Kii-SOTZ, is modp, tlw prinHpal or 
[ntiilauieBtal tkote or t«n«. to which tb« vihoto of ft 
taovcmenl haa a ocrlain mlation or be«riiig, tio which 
all Hi iDodalktioiM mn nfemrt and ic«nni]ttodkt«i], 
*»d jg which it both b«ghu and rads. &m Mi^siv. 

KKTfi are cettkin minltcn nir.Iu Ijing near Ibe 
Mif^ca of the Wkter, inutu-ul&r); Hatig tbe aliunt 
of Hoadtmu. (Vntral Amorioa. iuid lh« Wmt lodi* 
bLuida, fruni tbe Spanudi eago <U) ialct, rock). 

KEV-STONK, iba mlddld vouMolr of an uoh or 
TMilt, that [>Uom1 ftt tlie top or vertox uf ui anli to 
bind tile two iwvcpM togetlier. Tbui, in tbo Ttucao 
and I>aric oiden, U only a pLun none nojecti&g a 
Ijttk: in the Ionia it is out and Wftved aomowbU 
)ikeflOit*ote«; and in the i'-nnnlhinn luid VAimfoute 
ordwB it U ft cooMile euricbn] wUli Ktilptiire. Tba 
haat whitactn toako the IcDtjth of tlie key'StoDO ^ 
nr t'« of the spftn of tbc arch. 

KEY WK8T, a *nudl wliui.l lwl«tifr>ng tn the 
Uoilnl Stfttr*, and fumiiii;; [lurt ui KluriilK, fruin Llin 
•ootbom point nf which, Cnp« Snblo, it >>■ ^(1 ntll*:* 
lUflaDt to the aouth-west. It in I niilnti long, and I 
broad, and U nut mum than 'JU feet nbovo tiie IcvfIoE 
Iheaek. It isof oontl formAtioii. with litili^MaiUbls 
•otL OnthiaifbodisrituatcdKov^Vctt Cit)-. apuTt 
of CDti7, mltitorj ■tadon of the tlnitcd Slatoa, and 
c^UU pf Movrou uuuutji', (K-ciipjIii^ aa Intportjnb 
pCHtian aa thv kcv to the I'lnriila I'mw and ib« Golf 
of Mwdoo. Tba harbuur in ihTv, and cauly acc«>> 
wBAt. Itt cntnoce la dcfendoc) I7 a fort. The chi<if 
caaaptlGaaM at th« iahabitauta ar« the sidvagc of vrs- 
adlL Mlt-maktiu^ and apoit^-IUhiiig. I'np. 501 (i. 

KUAN, the TurkUli iiauu) for (-amvumary. Th« 
oanvMuarin in towns arc of two kinda, IhoH for 
ttsTeUers and ^Airnms, where a li^dgiiig is fnmiMhcd 
gratia; asd thine lot tnutvn, wbicb ure uBoiklly hand* 
BDOMr ood moru convenient, uid hnvfj doora to tho 
awtmenta, which ars w«U Mcurcd, bat a Email 
ehar^ la mftds for cnch cliambcr, lunally not ninro 
than a h.-tlfj^rony or a pv<Qiiy p«r t^y. Tlierv ia nimt 
a droit o[ cntr^-, ulilcli ia more eooMiilcirablv, and a 
•hity OB whai«vcr U «>ld in the caravaiuary. Then 
•atuliahmenta belong either to government ar to 
priralo indiridnala, and o«ch ia appropriatod to some 
Mrticnlar country, or to tfan doalon in tunae paxticu^ 
Iv kind of noivhaiidiae. 

JTAan >■ idio the titlo of an officer in Penia, an- 
tWCfiag to goftmof in Kiiropu, an<l uidol after bia 
aama. Iliera aiv Iclixna of outintrica, province*, and 
citi«>, who harw diJTnrvnt addilidoa to dbtiaguUi 
then. In the north of Aaia thia titlo expnnea the 
fall rcfi-al diffnttj. 

KlIAKKOV, Cbahkot, or Slobddisch UnKArar, 
• ttonmnMnt of tho south of Kubbb, bounded north 
h; Kofrii; woat and nonth-weat, PoltAva; uiith, 
£kateriaoaUT ; coat, Yonmej ; arc*, attont 17,450 
■qnatv mile*. I'hd ocnintry ia fur tkv luiwt port ojiFti, 
t» wwdiand covering only a few spots ; auil dry, 
portly of A itroag and Inamy, pnrtlj- nt a light ami 
mndy bnturev hnt usually fertile The cTimate ia 
TCIJ tnBd, though Uio winter is rather asverar than 
U tiaaal tn the aamo lalitudc, ia oonamagnoo of tluro 
bdag so dsllcr from the north wind. Snmmer Ia 
oftaa very hot Arrindturo ia carried on lo a con- 
ridenhte axt«nt; and, with the iwarin^ of b««8, cattl^ 
aoj horaea^ fomu the chief employment of the ia- 
h n Wt nn i a. PrincfpAl towna, Khuk^v (capital), Akh- 
tUn, B^Mdoukhof, &c. Vr>]\ l,m\iii'l. 

KHARKOV, or C'uakkui, a U<wr of Knui:!, c.tpi- 
lal of the ahore goveninieul, loO itiilua a.M.w. >I<i«. 
cow, at the eoiiAu«noo of tho Kharkov nnd I.opan. 
It ia not well budt, the atrecta huinu narrow, onHikrtl, 
nod witboot pavnuwut; and tlu) liuuuaa moatly of 

wood, which, however, from being whitewuhed, have 
a pay, cleanly tii>pctuiincv. It contalna a catlvodrad, 
and nine other c&urcbm; tvro convent«, » univendty, 
with a tibrarr of 21. OW volotncs: u miiaenni, and 
botanical i;nnlcn. 'L'hR inhalntanta carry en » con* 
BEd«r»bl« tnule iu ftunii, ouidlea, and lealber. Pup, 

KllAHTOOSf. or Kabtoom, a town of Xnbia» on 
the Biklir-el-Airek, within 2 milua of itn junction 
uith lbi» Bahr-«l-At^ad, the two lualn bnuii:lwt «i 
the Nile. It ho* Kpningr rapidly uprinco 1830, wh 
to becomo tite capital oE ISenaor, and tho largest town 
in Beat Soudan. It la n aLn^ling pUcs, with very 
irrecnUr atrveta, and houaoa oonatniotad of alUeC 
atalbt ao aa to look Wu snaU nm atacki. Tlw 
principal buftdlnes an a inoa^ne, buQt of banwd 
bricks, a military uoRj>itAl, lujd * liMuiar. The centnl 
aitnation uf Kbutocitn, at thn jimntitm of two Urge 
ricen. aJiU on tbv hiubway from AbyNunia, SeoMU*, 
and Kordof;iD to Kg7]:-t, makoa it the emporfasi of a 
\cry r--\U-ti'i\t- tnirle. I'op. about 25,11(111. 

KHATM.\M)tr, a t-m-n ia North Ilin.hwtan, 
napilal iif tL« Kingdom cf NejidJ. on the k-tt bunk of 
the Uoifiiiutti, on an elevated plati-oiu, tfiO mUe* 
north by wont nf I'ntiis. It bxcomm conanicDona 
at n distance by niunoroua |ililtcri»ti t«ni]4ca and 
towtn, ji muTDunded by a wall, and entered by & 
tDimirt gnteway, and conaiMa of tolerably apacioua, 
paved, and dean atroeta^ lined with wdUbuilt h'OnaM, 
which are (tanaraJly adorned with mndi wood oarv- 
ing, and have aingular projoctnig balconiM with open 
froMo, uacd fur abopa. The moat atriking [«rt of tho 
town b tite gm»t aquare cuntnuiin^ tlio durliar or 
royal }iaUc«^ an iinn]«nae irrv^giiliu' pUt-, atid Mvenl 
CluDcw) pagodai^ m> puntod and tcildod na to prWNit 
oonfiued maaiea of green, pold-Ieaf, and vormilioB. 
I'he bnatio in the atrveta and gcu<*ml Activity aeem 
to indicate that a ectofidorablo businevB U earned on. 
Pop about 2D,U0O, 

KHEDnTJ (A'Ai'rftr), a Penrian word atg^nifyinv 
lord, tbe pcrniliar title of tbo Paaha of Bgypt, |,-r:Lutrd 
liiin by n finnan fiom the aultati in 1§fl(l. in Persia it 
waa HtdUTt-'rvut erea adoptt-il by provincial i^vumon 
who wcTo innicpondont of tho ali^i. I'he tltK which 
bnd (nllf^n. into diaiiite, both among PcrBtau and 
Turkisli Huvomor*, wiia rcvivpi! in wiior to give addi- 
tionn.1 Ikidout w Itouul Paabai, liia ptw\'iwi* title being 
only Y'lii or viceroy, whercaa that of Kfti<i1v-(l-Atiar 
ia Mnlvalent to 'King rif E^pt.' 'Ilie idta, of inde- 
penaeuoe waa iudeid itrit^tly attaehwl to it both in 
Pantian and Ttuluah history, aa the khedlvea reoog- 
tdxed is the aultana and the aliaha only a nligiooa 
anpremacy, and treated vrith thorn otherwiae on the 
torma of an ertunl Kovoreijjuty. 

KHERSON, or CiicujioN,:^ maritime go venunent 
of Rntttda, hounilcd north by Poltftva and Kiov. 
nottb-wcvt pLiluluk, tteat Benorabi*, nouth IVtirida 
and tba Black S«a, and east Jilkataiiooelavj lat. M° 
IC to ii" ».; Ion. 2fi" 2V to 34= IC l.; urn, 87,480 
aqoani uflva. Almoet the whole nirfkw is tnc nn* 
tntcrrnpted atoppo, deatituto of treca, but covered 
with luajf graaa. Between the ling and tb« Uniepar, 
and along tbe ahur^ vt the Blault Sea, a dry, bama 
nod piwailB. In many puts the mQ la stren^j 
impregnated with Mltpctm. Tho chief riveni of ue 
guveruiiieut mrc thL' iJaieper, which w.ituni both ita 
north and ita auuth fruutlera; the Duicatcr, whioL 
aepanitee it from Boflearabia; and the Bug^ whldi 
tvmeraea it a little tn the wrat of ita centre. Amons 
the hilla of the north good timber gnrm, and ia ex- 
tan«ivelv aaed by tbe navy of like Hack Sea. Agri- 
culture Lt in a dufectivo state, but ixmaldemblo atton- 
tion ia paiil to gardening, and cherries, mdoiu^ and 
all liadH uf wgettdilea are plentifitUy raised. Paa- 
ture being both good and extensive, the raaoing of 





cM\a tmy be ngat^lt^ M th« aUpIc tnniilojrmcrnl. 
Tha eruy coniiii«niuitliin hy llio ItUok Sm rnAlilM 
Kh«nuu to oan-y on « good tnuirit trwle, |Muttculwly 
by iUi port of OdcMu; but ita owti exporu atc only 
wool, tohAMO, tallair, butWr, cli^vw, caviare, BU'I 
Mttlo. The inlinliitnnbi xni rhinllv at Kijuiiui Hc> 
cofnil, looltidint; <.'iWBM.-k\ but ciiurv in n fmnilenible 
iRUluru of otliur rncca, oaCsrmacis, UoMavl&ua, W«l- 
U o h it n ii, TArU'iri, Amieniuw^ <lrcuk«, Jvwa, ftc 
Pop. l,4a7.Vl<5. 

KMER30X, « Cheesox. cnpltal of ttie above 
Kuvcnuiuit. on th« H^hl buik of tho Dniapcr, about 
IS mllM aliova ita nattiArir. [t i* a (ilncc of (TKat 
axlent. Mid kkuIwIv biiilt; but b in u very diUpi- 
datad iitMi*, miM hu lost abnoit all iU former imporC- 
auce in oooiMqvenGe of the rim of Odcam. It is di- 
vided Into foor parte— the dtadel, the admiralty, the 
Greek, and the militarj eubiirba. l^e {lort, ouinj; 
to BejlHi, ba« bevnniii Hiffimilt of ncMwi, nni] itit 
trade, with excc[)tiun of that ui tlmtivr, wLii:h u irtill 
exteiMirD, ii chiefly tniuslc to OdMaa. The chief 
bnuichca of tndc are rD|w>ni*1cing, tallow •melting, 
9Uid the vrvdiing' awl cleaning of won]. One at the 
latter eetabUehinente employe fiOfl peraon*. Howard, 
tbo philanthropiat died of fever bnv (J»d. 20, 1790). 
Uver hi> ffravev abmit S milo* nnrtli of tbo town, ia 
an obelii^ erected by tL>; Kidiktot Alexander. 
Khenon was foundtO in t7> 3 tiy Prince Potenkla. 
I*ci[.. 4S.B26, 

KHIVA, or CniTA, nn indnieiidDnb or Mmi-iniW 
ntndoot kbanate of CeritreJ Asia, funuluy |iart of 
Turkestan. It fuTtDorly occupied a large extent of 
surface on both aiden nf thi^ Anm-TJnria or Clxiix, bnt 
since the ooMion to It>:wiii, Li ls73, of ita tarriiury 
cm the eaet of the Amu, ih n»u- cviii^ijei! hi the virtt 
■ide of this river. Ii t* of a iriiuimilar shape, c»cb 
of Its thns sliles— of which Uie Amu foma* noe - 
bdng about SOD inQee in longth. One at its aitfilee 
revU on the Hoa of Aral. A great put of tha mir- 
fnoo ooiuial* of dueeets, thinly tuhaliiCcd or uoinhabit- 
ftble; but alon; the Anm the land ia of a very differ- 
ent chamctcr, coneuting of rich allnml loam of the 
Ijreateet natund fertility. Owing tn the great dry* 
neas of the atmoepbere, however, it lOon buromes eo 
BtJtT and knrd tut it cannot bapenetmtod by any 
(inlinary impii^incnt. For tliU the ulivinus rcinnly 
ii Irrigation : and Bcc;<ir\lin),-ly, fnviu tlie ratlitmt 
period^ a mode of ctiltnrc Toai^iMing t.1i!it nf I'^'yiit 
naa been pnwltaed. Larp: cacida fiMu llic river, 
wlUi natnar<>tta minor bnuichee, inbtreocl every part 
of llic aiiif.Mi^, Nitjiplyiog ni»i«t«iro wliere it ia vrauU^, 
ta remoTiiiif it where it ia in eicvni. ildiI Hcurin^ Uie 
moat loxuriant cropa of wheat, tuaiae, rice, buley, 
and lo^unm. Cottnn and madder arc al«> genmlly 
eolUvaCeiL Hh vine tlirivo wtU, bnt requires to 
be 4efeD(LefI agalBit the wLiter cold hy a ooverlnj; uf 
rtraw and earih : alt ttwi ordinary trutU^ including 
i^iplce^ plunia, cb-erriee, apsloote, figK. and pomegra- 
natoi, are oommon; mdona are eo abundant •• to 
oooetitnt* tlu princinal eiimnsr food of the poorer 
elawni. The ground ia aeldom occupied as pasture, 
nod *siT lltll* nttentien ii p«M to the rearing of oattle. 
The dinul* is renaricaUs for the brightness at Its 
•ky, which, with exooption of January and Iteoem- 
bar, when ndete nreraJl, la generally without « doud. 
lias mnleal cold h te IHcenbrr, when the Ansa 
and the Sen of And are nsually oMsrcd with a thin 
oaattag of lee. Nigfal freste ate ftequant in Uarch. 
and oAsu extend into April ; but towards the end of 
llw latlsr month vegvtatloD becomes veey tmpid, and 
llw hsnl inaeaeM so mncb as to beooma alinoet In- 
soHMrtable in June and Jidy. In Angiut the beat 
gmdaally decUtMW, and In Urtobrr ni^-hl fnwta begin 
■nbl to occur. Manufarliinm am vnry aniQifiortaut. 
T)i0 only articles id any ounse g u t iuce are eaitluiawaru 

nudbricki; agluxeddiMeriplioBof the latter, remark- 
able fur beauty of colour and fincncn, ia in gmtt de- 
mand for covtrring the interior of mo«qun; aomecottoa 
and mixed goods ars woven, but they ore said bo 1>e 
Mnone the ■wont widoh c»m« from tiie Rut. Trade 
ia far icsa extvtiaive than ntigUl lie ox|>«ct<d from tbe 
favdiiralile poaitlonot thekhannte. It ia almoet con. 
fitted to the immediate wants of Its iubnbitaiiti, and 
those of the aorroimding notnade*. It it csrrltd on 
chiofly wiib Knuia. 'llie priucipal exporle are mw 
aodepnne(ittos,in return fornliich are rcosivedvarl* 
ous aiticlss of Europffui uonufacture, as mctsls and 
irtmwaro, woolbn, (»tton. and rilk sooda, ftcL Frcm 
Itukham alao are obtained cutlon and iDk goods, green 
too, taw tobacco, Chlneso poreoLun, fte. 'fTitm are 
Kanetixnee paid for in money, but more fre^ueutly In 
RuMion woresi The covemmetit of Khirn it an un- 
miti),'ntcd dcepntiam. Tbegrtfttcr partiif the inlkabl- 
tantaamTajitcianil U>bok*, in nearly o((ual numbers. 
AJier theiv ux Pvniiins, Earalisuiaks, Jamahld*, 
and I'uicooi.-ina. I'he total population ia under 
.ino.Odo. 'I'he Hi-oigDii of ItiiiMin nii Khiva long 
ciLii»Bd <UitntvietudH in IMtain, which bm uluaya been 
jealous of Russian advnncce in Aiiia, mainly from n 
dread of interference with her Indian Kmpire. Ac- 
cordingly Count SchouvaloU wna ilnjiatctied to Ku^> 
land m Januotr, ISTS^ to give v:q>laiiaUoii» reauet-t- 
log an Inteodea exp^don to Khiva. lu object 
van rcproacnted a* itrnply the (lupproscdoD of hrigmnd- 
age, the rocovcry iit a ftw Rua»ian pritoticn, and li» 
teach the khan to dealet from art* of vinlimco in the 
future. Tbe suipcmr, It w>« mU'I, hiul j[it en p(»Iti>'e 
loatmctlon* that Khlvn should not be taken poasos- 
Htfiii r>f. In »[iit*> of thvsL- [>TO(«elAtioilS^ howtTBT, 
KhivA wxa tAkm yHMwruion o-f on Uie 10th of June; 
and Utvr iii tlio ycv, thuuifb i\n> iiciuiiiial Iiidepead* 
Giico of thu Uhui wu stipulated fnr. It was decided 
to annoK In tbe ftu^xiao dtiuiinimiD the Khlran terri- 
tory on the rijjltt Uiiik <il the Amu. Tbe kban atai> 
rvuounwd all tii;ht of uiiddu^- ware or treatise with- 
out nnadsn sanctioa. 

KHIVA, I'liiVA, or KinwA, ca^itil of the above 
khauate, un an alluvial flat at the junvtloa of the 
Khan'* and the Heurwp Canali, 50 odlss west of 
tho left bnnk of the Amn. It is indossd hy a drj 
ditob and an earthen wall about SO fee* In height and 
tliickneai; and ii entered by lu-clrc gat«e, tn-c ma- 
aoniy of wbinb in of brick. I'liti uhoTa upaoiT thu* in- 
closed fonna on irri'indar circuit of about 4 miles. A 
conddcnble p&it of it is occupied by alleys, gardens, 
anil cuttivatel licldt ; and within it, near its centra, 
ia a Teolangular epaoe (HO yards long bv 400 yard* 
brund, liKiKised by nootlwr snrtben wSti nuout SS f«et 
high by 30 feet thick, entered by three nIeS) nad 
cuDtaining tita prindiial govomment and owar bnild< 
logs. Among the prmcipal buildinjiB an two pajnees 
of tbo khan, differing Uttls from the other honsen, 
except in being snrroimded by higher wolK <ukI bav. 
ing a wider duor; acvcntecn utnaqnea^ generally aniall 
and unaightly: over tweaty acbuols, several castlee, 
belonging to the principal offieete of tlie Mate; n 
nsrcAuit-houss, esraransary, and baxoar. The in- 
habitants AT« moellr TbJDib, holding a oomuderable 
number of IVndan ■lavea. Pop. about 13,000, 

KIIOJI^ND, a lourn nf Centnl Asia, DOW In Kni* 
sion Turkesun, but fonnsriiy in the Klianate of 
Kbokand, on tbit l«ft hank of the Syr Paria, urar 
th« coDflueuoe of tile Kbojenit. I><^ iidli* west ol Kbo- 
kand. ltstaudaonelevatwlgrv)uud,iuiditsurrauid«il 
by a decayed wall and ditches, (-'omtm outton goods 
are manufai-tUTcd here, and a oonaderable trade ear- 
ned on in tlieae and Ituacian merchandiae. It b tbe 
atatlon at which Uitl U pal>.l for all roenliMidBM! enter- 
ing tbe khanate from BokbanL Puk. wtlauted at 


KHOILA^I). or KoKAXn, a khanate of CeutnO. 
Awi^fatmtUwi oti th« aoath l>y K!i<b},-»r, un tli«i olhM' 
■idM k>5 RumUh TnrkMUa. Ita proMiat uvft m 
Xtf.tfiu atiuuv mUei, but It ma farmerly nnob mnre 
cxbmrire. Tbomrfiuwie ^-nerftUj'niuuiituiioiHi. It 
■• tntvcnKil trttm rut tn w«*t lir thn S}rT IIsHa, 
which racefvM tU it* dnunaso. vh« climatK '» n- 
tDBrltublt for in txooMive Bummer hMl, whldi in. 
il*y beoamoi almoat iiMiigipurUblo, lli* irint«r cold 
la eoaaitlenUi), tint littlo nin (mlliL Ilia grater 
jwrt of tli« kbanate la more piutond tLna at:tieni]- 
tnnl, the cattl« oonatitutln^ tho ckicf Muros of 
wealth; but bekvy em\* nf griuti kw nucit ; utd 
Iriiit of a gnat variety of mtrtt, and of exqui>ft« 
qiia}ity, is vwy abundant. The maoufaotuTv* cou- 
nt cU«fiv of aUk and ontton pood* ; and trade lo a 
cawiderable uxtont la carried on, hy mcana of cam- 
vaoa, with tlw Hmaauiu finiitier tuwiiauf Setuijiala- 
tinak and Petropa* lovdk, ami vrich (.'hiiK^w 1'Sirkva- 
taa, Bokhara, aud Bodakshaii, Tfao KDvcninieut, 
tboitgh dopotie, ia ml]i)er tliaii that af tha nolsh- 
bouring Utanato, and rxtnrlioa aiid ntblirry of lev 
&«(jnemt QccutTvnov. Piindpol tvwa, Khoknad. Pop. 
almrt 800,000. 

ICIlQKANDiCApital of the shore khanate, on both 
Mdea of the Sjr. It iljuiila opon, nnil biui no fortili- 
catkn, exoefit a wall trhich lurruund* thu }>alaoo of 
tho khaa. Tha priimiial buiMint^a are the pala4» 
already mcnti'^noi : Rtiy tniApir^ two of whicfa ara 
ci brick and have a baudaome appBamncR; thme 
lazaar« «jtaat«d naar tb« eeam of the towu, uuJ 
built nf •totw. Th« maniifiicttine are cbiufly ailk 
and cotton tianit^ The tnwlc in cnlClo anrl *Hk w 
Oonaidetable ; and tba weekly markets an wid) lup- 

eted and fre<)UMit«d. IWiib wiUiiii the town and in 
I vi^tt; tnuncTQua aDciimt mouuraetitB are Mid to 
«xkt; nad the eovinxut are covered with lumiiant 
gvdeiM. Pofti about 50,000. 

KHORASAN, aa extennire province, oocnpylm; 
tb« whole ot the north-vut of Pcnia, and boumied 
«e tba north by Turkutan, on lite wat by Lrak- 
Ajnni, eo tha vxith by Fandxtau and Kenuau, and 
«m the «a«t by AfghauULin. The mrface, miK^h di- 
Widfled by DKrantaina and jihuna, ia to a crcut ox- 
Unl Bninhabitabliv owuutiiig of arid, rndt, mid dandy 
At ai'irti, whore the general deaolatinn la L^uly oix'naloD- 
ally relieved by omieB. The meet fertile dtrtricte are 
ibw Dorth<wtwt and nortfa-«aat. The valley of Huabed 
in the latter direction u psxticnlarly c«lcbratod. Tbo 
auwt TaluaJ'It? mineral ia the tnrnuoUe, vtliii^h liaa 
b«cn wotked fr<>[[i time iumeutorial in the miaea 
of NtAluiMir. I'.-<ck-tut!t U alao worked axMlMlvily 
In the nine vicinity. In many |iarta cotton, hemp, 
■md tohaooo grow freely, and aramntic ]>latiU luid 
dniga ar* eo numerona aa to fumUli the maUii'iala vt 
m CdMHlonble trade. Tlie priiiii.-t|)iil mannfacturue 
mM% aUk aad woollen Btatt*, caqicUt, nnuiketa. nnd 
«nrd-bl*dcaL AImuC tnolhinii of tbe iakabitanU 
■■■ KnMaaa proper: thu rpiiialnder are Turooniaiu^ 
Kurd*, aiut other trilwa, who lead a oonwdlc lifo 
Mad indulge la predatory habits. Pofh eetimaled at 

KHOSRir L AXn IL Roe (^tioKRoiot I. am» II. 

Klll'/^LSTAN, a ]>ruvince of Fcnja, bounded on 
tbe Berth by Lanatan, on the cast lay Fanlatan, ua 
th* euith by the rcnenn (iidf, and en the weat hy 
JUftlac Turkey; grealeet len^^, nortb-waat to aoutb- 
oaal, about 2P0 milea; greateet breadth, abunt 110 
■■laa. Tba xrath aUing tha gaU ooneiBta of a fiat 
■oltl dcaoct; Inland luiteiunvo niaioa ncmr, anmc nf 
timta aninlialiHaMo wsataa, othera fertila and well 
fitted for cwlti*>-atii>n. Of thl> la*l dceoiiptiuu is tho 
nain of BttUxihan. Among die uount-iins in tbe 
Bortl) iwe Bwny beautifnl and ferttln vallcyi. 'I'lic 
principal rivera are the EupUratos aud Tigxia, which 

form two-thirda of the wtatcin boundary. Tho in* 
hnl-ilauU are cliiefly wandering Araba. Thdr num- 
ber U nut known. 

DOTtii-eaat conaer of Afghan Utan, connect the niOat 
■Dutliern and loweat rango nf the Hiiutti Kuah wtbti 
tbe Suffeid Kofa, Salt liange, and guliinan .Munn- 
taina. Tbe bratdtli of th« Khyber nuige ia aL<oLit 
20 milea, and iU height alkive aea-lereJ not more 
than 5100 feeL It i> inloraected by four ibtTurcnt 
paaee*, ot which tbe only on* praoUralile (or cannon 
ia pecnUarly called the Khybor Pant. lu huiicLt 
above tbe aea h HSIS feet, ami above tbe l*i«hawcr 
23(10 feet It ia about LU miles luoi;, and forma tho 
nonbem key to Afjtboniatan from Hinduitan. It ia 
inclaasd on eoeh ^lo by iJiedpirai nauaUy QOO ur 
700, and aametimM lUOU or ISUU (cot high. It wm 
the acune of ohatinate conflict* during the lliitish 
WOT In Arcbmiintan. 

KHYEKPITR, or Kuthptb, a town of Shidh, 
capital uf the district of eama namo, ISO niloa north 
(if HaiiJarabiul. U t»a*i«U chiufly of a bkrpi aa- 
lembLage of mud bovela, but ia the chief nxidenco 
of the lUnceni of North Sindh, and hu a gaudy 
mow|iie and acveral bafaam. The only man iifaotnrea 
ar* coarse cottona, plain and dyod. Pop. oalimated 
at 19,000. 

KIAC'HTA, a town of Silxriiw in the province of 
Traoabaikalia. ou the rivar Kiachta, vihiich forma tiio 
IxnitiHary between China and Itnuio, nituatcd in a 
burrLti coiintrv, tintiliiteuf water and wood. Klacbta 
ami the CUiuutL> town of Mainiatcbin, aituated oppo- 
«ito. oil the other bank (jf the river, naed to \>t tbe 
muilium of the UuBaiBU ovtrlond tnulu with China, 
aa aetUnl by tbe Treaty of 17:^7. The duty on the 
trado yioldod an annuid incline of XI, 000,040 to 
Knaaia. I'he whole amount of importa and azporta 
waa eetimated at about J:i,iiU*K"M) Annually. Bnt 
now that trado la open along all the Kiuaian-Chineaa 
frontier, and tea and ottur Cblniwu (dvduna are 
hrout'hb by aea to the Balllb porta, tho Kiachta trade 
lua greutlr folirn oR. Tc* ii atill the great aitide 
of inii]KiT( Emm I 'hiua. Pop. 42.Sti. 

KIBITKA (from a root alkritlfylng UrO, taiUt), the 
name ^van vi a carriAjia witbout aphoci uwd in 
Itnaaia, and diolingnuilii^l fiuin the bbjM, which ia 
aim much uaod therv, bv havinj- v-u ita Uluder part a 
kind of roof uf matting, whitb tilTurdt acimn protection 
from tho weather, wLile tbe talsga u aimply an open 
deal wnggon. ICvcn the bigheat penNmagee in Rnaala 
make their onlimuy juumeya lu one or other of theao 
light cnrrlagee, wbio), wkaa >-oked with throe hutaca, 
take the name of (roUo. The kibitita ia often naed 
by the 1'aitaia aa a inorablc hahilatimi. 

KIDD, WiLUAM, a celabmtetl [iirat«, generally 
kmm'u as Captain Kiild, was l>orn about the middle 
of the AovGittccntti century, and woa ori^nolly a 
ahiftn pater uJ New York, wliere be waa noiud fur hia 
daring aud aiircvoiifiil luiam.tniihtp. In lii&C hu ro* 
reirod a Cf>mmiaaioa iruu 'William III. to take 
command of an anned TOMcl for tliu auppretelon of 
piratei. and a<.-conlingIy, in April uf Ihnt year, aailnl 
from i'lymouth aa captain of the aliip A^iwrn/Hrv 
Oallei/, uif thirty gtina. lie urvaaed over to Amurioo, 
where be collected a coaaidarablo number u( recruita, 
folly IDO men, and then aailad for the EmI rmliL-H 
and tho east coact of Africa. On hia way thUlmr 
hu turned pirate, uiid lufing found hia orvw rcwly to 
join him. committed osteuaivo depreilatiirua in the 
Indian Ocean, and returrii?! i^ith hia ill-cutUtn gaiua 
tn New York in 169S. The report of hiii pinuna, 
buwitver, bad occaskmed groat aouidal, and he waa 
f.-Tthwitb airaaiwd and aont to England for trial It 
woA found difficult toptnve thecliargcof pimey, and 
be waa acfordiniily orrai^uc^ for killJna ouo of hia 



ovw irilb « bucket during * (loruYcl, .-knil titter n triAl 
In whiali tbe nilM and fvrtua of juilii-e wvre ktmUj' 
ilurvKAn]«l, vu MJitenoed ud hwufwi at £x«catiaa 
Dock. CA[/t .in Kirid> Axploita form Ui« mibj«ot of & 
bnQad cuiaaieiiciiig — ' iSy tuaofO u Cxpttun KuM, ■• 1 
nllodt •• I MiM.' ThabcUaf aflibluiviu^ l>uripil un 
■ inuDMivu trwwtm oo U» ibom of Long iBbnd Sound, 
or thtt banln of tlie Huilwti Hirer, bu cnntistu^ from 
bii own linio to the iinaieiit dnj, mud xuijiliva ore 
■till DcawiaoiiJIy mitdo in tliOMi IocuUiIm la tb« fai^ 
of dUcovcrins bii wmIiIl Thii popultf notioa fonn 
tbe nibjMt of cn« 6t Edgar Allan Vaa'ti laim. 

KIDDERMINSTER, a pLrliamruUry Ixiniiiflb 
and market town nf Loglarid, in tbe iMnuty ajul 13 
luUee uurth from Wontator. on tbo left b«iik of tbo 
SUmr, aixmt :i miles Abara iti* conAnenoo Willi the 
Severn, ll ium not mucb to buAkl of an-liitvcturiiily, 
bub tbon an M^raral atroAta with citopn and niftDU' 
factorios pnui^M* of gvod apiwonuice. It it paved, 
and oxtmai V* worln for tbe dninage and irat«r Mppl J 
have roocDtljT Lmb cottitntctad. It haa a town-haU 
and > pruun, k com utcbanga tvith a public hnll uid 
a Utirarj-, Bix oburcbM, duo anuudit, ibu utli<:r Gvo 
haadlOlllO modem cdilioea; Aud niuufmua D)iiseittiiii( 
placca of wcimbip, a UiiitMi*n, two Uranxn Catholic 
ah apa U , a frm gnuanuir acd otbcr aubauk, batb% 
abM-booni, two narluti, Ac. KiddenatniUr li 
fanod for tbo roAnufaclurv of BrtuaoU carpets aod 
lapertrjr, wbicb fonni tbn kta[.|« induitrjr of thopbco. 
Variooa otber iruuUcn fubrioi, bowew, uo alao 
mad*; and in the towa and ndgbbcrDifaood an 
•ttvcral oxt«iuiTo wonted aiinitbi^-miUa and dj-a- 
wutka. Damaak ritk goodx, fur ii[ih[]Itt<ian, art aJ«c 
mwla; and lauUng, curryiuK, mid Lroudac an oarricd 
OD. It Um on th« Stafford^biri) and WorcHtanbin 
Caiud, and on tbo Oxford, Wonwitcr, and Wotvor- 
hauiiiUii] Itajltray. Kiilderminitcr rvturaa on* 
BiMnbwr to tlia Kouw of Cuumoni, Fop. Id 1S61, 
10^309; in IsTl. 20,8U. 

KIDNAri'JNlr ia tho foraibia and wronefnl 
aticin^ upim any fienon with intant to cnrry aim 
away out of th4 ooiiatxy ui jiirbdkllon wliliia wbloli 
he u Mixed, or to canflno him, or Mill bim into 
■lATory. Thii b a heinoua offence, and wa« piiniabL'^l 
by finie. impriaouiuv-Dt, and |itUurv by tbo couuiiun 
hw. Tho atatnto of 11 and ]-j'W[l]i«iD III. cap. 
rlL imvidea a piuualuiwnt by iiupri*ooinvnt for (brco 
BMOtba ta caw tho caiptaiu of a luurfltiut yami'I 
aludl, whilo abroad, forto any potaon ou aburc, and 
wOitUlv Ivare liim Inbind, or who abail rnfiino to 
bring bomo any whom be may hava earried out, 
wban tho panoa duUl be abl« and dorirma to ntum. 
24 and 25 Viot. cap. o. s. fifl, mafcat kddDai>ping any 
oUU undar fonrteen yoan felooiy, awl cipOM* tbe 
peijMtrator to l» kept in penal aerrltude far any 
tann not axcneding Mtrcn yoan, and not Iom tbitn 
threa, or lo be impriioniH] fur any tcmi not «irccil> 
iag two ynn, wllh or wiUmut Imrd liiWir, providnl 
tbe penoa In not tbe mother or onawbohiia cbujued 
to be the fattier of an Illcffitunal* diUd. 

KltiNKV IICANB. See Fustcn Buin. 

KIDSKYS, lu-o of th« abdwnbal vinera. exlat* 
ing in Um form of two kUiwIi. the (unotba of wbiefa 
b to Mcret* tbo urfii* nom toe blood. One of tho 
kldneva liaa on tbe right aide of tbe abdominal cavUj, 
Ae oUmt n^ciipylntr the left aid*. Kntca tfa«y ar« 
molMBofaa ttori^tnnd left kiiUioyi. Tfaoyooinipy 
Um hinUiar rv^nn or ropona of tbe loiai^ and are 
^taated niarly u[ijioilte tbe twrn lower bade or donal 
•vrtebne and tbe two upper Iwnbar vertefane. Tbe 
iMt» Udney Uaa al a dt^lly lowvr level tbao the 
ML Tbey lie (mbedded amoofr fatty oeUubw li»ue 
(= aiict>, uu>ii tbo twu woatJaa known ae tbe mM»- 
O/Muf JMHiAurHn and tbe ptoM. Tbe right kido^ 
la In ctatact, at lu upper portkn, «dtb tbe Uver. km 

laterally witb the diindcnnoi M finft portion nf tbe 
Kniall iiitoitiiiVH, nud witb ttw MOOBding jxirtinn of 
tbo colon. ITie left kidoey touchaa tbo (pleeR, tho 
pancnaa or awcatbrvad, and tbe dtaocndtaif pcirtlea 
of tbe colon. Tbe kidneyt are external to tbe p«>l- 
tvnaiiui or lining membrane of tbe abdominal cavity, 
lying botiind tbie mombrano. The wpraTntaf tap- 
»\ilft am two fmoll liodl^fl liluated at the apper por- 
lioti of the kidney. Tboy are aomewhat almond- 
■bap«d, hav>;' no aSsrent dact or onilHit, and tboir 
prKMC function ii nnlcaowii; attbou):b the diacoae 
Known M Addittn'i dittate, wblcb U nuutUeated by 
a peculiar l>n)iulne of tbo akin, ia bcUored to be ■•• 
■ocjatod wicb, and by wime pathologiata to take oi* 
^n from, diaeaae of tbac cnpaulea. Tbe beon-Uke 
OkBifb and farm of tfaa kidney ia so welt known that 
tbt) jJuuao ' kidney •tbaned' haa paaacd into commoD 
u«o in ordinary luo. Tb« arehed or convex aide of 
encli kidney ia turned outu'anla, ibe concsiVe or de- 
prened atdo being turned biwaida and tovarda tbo 
epina. Tbo notch or dcprcaion on the inner nde ia 
tcrtnod tho hiivM, and from thii notch tbo excretory 
d ucl or vreter priMeoda, whibt tbe blood-veeaela of tbe 
kidney [rciiai artmj and rci'n) eiilcr and leave tbe 
gland at tbia point. l-^itnrniLily tho kidnityii are nf 
u rediliah-browu eulour. The weight of Muii lu^e 
kidney ia about S oaa., tboee ei aa fotnale v^A 
each sotnewhat Icn ; wbilat in boUi eexea tbe ri|^ 
kidney ia tho nnallcr, and vreij^ Icaa than tha left. 
Each gland ia covered by a Ibin biTeaUng abeatb or 
oapaule of flbroua tkne^ which hia no mtcaaion into 
tho aubatance of tlia organ. 'J'ho gi-ncral atructura 
of tbe kidney ia bat aem by making a longituiUnal 
•»^on tbrough tbe organ, when the diHden of Ita 
internal aubatjuco intxi aa outer deopor^Mlonnd or 
eortiivi portion, and on inn«r 1)ght«r-cclonred or 
nK</<i^'ariypartiDn,'n'iUlc>ran. Tbu L'oriica) ntbitaooD 
is butter npptied witb blHX>d-vew«la than the iii«diil- 
Innr portion, and in llua part of the gland tbo asatm- 
tJAi or tubular etrocture may be traced. Tbe ooatical 
Kututonoe ounalala of tndated tubea {lubati tirini/en), 
and of lheao-«aIIed Malpiyhv'a fvrfutfttt, Tbe term 
Malpighian corpuedea waa dcrircd fnnn the name ol 
Malpigbi, an Italian anatrtmiat of the aei-enteAnth 
Lvntury. Tbeae Malpigblanoorpuacleaarvraob about 
Y^gtb of an inch in dJametor, and «Bob conaistc of s 
ntpxubinciadoKitloapMloetworkolblood-vemela. At 
tbaaBBunltafexAc^Mmlaainlnatetwlgrf tbe renal 
ait^-ry cotera, and forma the looped nelworlc or loft 
of blood-vcsiula vrbic.b ia lutgwn aa tbo fflomrrmltu. 
Tbd blood of Ihia minute artery ia returned by a auall 
vein, wblcb loavea the caprinln doeo by tbo eatnuue- 
point of tbo little artory. Tbia offorant vein at 6rBl 
unitee to forma plexui or network of voeeele aBrroond- 
Ing tbe nrlnlfaroua tnbca, and ultimately tbroofb tbn 

Elexua opena into tfao renid vein or one cl Ita maiba 
ranchoL OtitiuBed fnitn tbe baao of ea^ llal- 
1 liubian ourpuaele ur body, we fiml a uriniferoua tnbvdak 
Eouh Molpigblan body la In fact generally regarded 
oa tbe maro dilatatiou of the tubtua, whfefa laMw !■ 
lined l^ cfntfaolial eella, oltbongh it ia doubtful if tUa 
cell-Uiuiig ia oontlnued Into tM Malpifiblan body or 
inveetitbagloowniliia. If praant in (be flapaale^ tha 
oaQ-UiluBnetbaeicoecdinglydolicatai TnrniDgB0» 
to txmSuBt the central, biDar, or meduUary poa li no cf 
tbe kidney, we find ilhm bQtw or noteh oi tbe glaml 
Co expand In tbe longUvifiuQ aactiouv Into • fumel- 
■bajied cavity, kaown aa the jittru of tbe kidney, 
wblcb appeate lo be formed by tba wide expandoa 
of tbe antor Wore it ]««*«• ibe organ- Into the 
pelvia at the Udnoy a number of oonical bndlaa pra- 
]eot, tbeee latter being known aa the fyroau^.- 
and beaee Ibe mednlbu-y jxut of tbe kidney b ao^ 
eionally termed tbe pymuiJof portbm. Tbeae pyr^ 
aide are aimply coUeciioaa or buniUaa at nrinifen»ii 



tKbm, OMitlsQed from ibmc we haw slrmdr WNia to 
Mn ac%la b tlia Malpigliion bodim of the onler 
portioa oE Ibe gland ; omd on tiic mirainit*, apion, nr 
fapiBa, vt Ui« pymoida, th« nuufruim tipmingi of 
tbo tubes may b« Men ovvn by tbo Mil ot ftn ordiJnry 
ItinA 'IIm t«lvia of the kidii«j?, Klrcodv deaertbul u 
fwmed by the diUuUon of tbe upper md uf thi< oroter, 
dividaa at fiivt into two nTifriHy nr mitin chtuiDBlii, 
■ad tlicM pcimuy dMuinoa bnuu^ out xaW ei|[ht or 
tvilfB ci^UIm portioou knows as etUyea. tub) 
tlieaa calrcM cv aubdiviaJaEn of tfas pdria lh» pjTft- 
miiUof ready ilEscrilicd, npaa. The ortni- 
fcrvtu tubuTai, wb«n iu Uiv )>yramiila, an amused 
ia Mrsjf^t, paraUnI rows, bnt aa thajr uoend and 
|i«M MitwaraJ fn>in th*> nioiliilivj aobataoce to the 
oavtiod portion of Uw Itidney tiiey radiate and dtrtin^ ; 
■Old io toe oortissl nbMaaM the tuboa Snally bewmi? 
aoefa atcriaesd and eouTolatitd, ottering mto th« 
nelatloM with tho blood-rmaels and dilating to tarm 
<haUalpjghiaulxHliai,a}taadyDoticBd. Tbo urlblfer- 
«a> tabM avwngo rlvth of an inch la diamctar, Uurir 
Witoat rfianmor beiop ia tbnr terminal {Mrtlmu, 
joM btCore they open in th« pjmmlda. The looped 
Mi0 of Unit are a aerfea of amaller tnbut«B wldoh 
iut«*uie betwoen iho ordinary straight ttibnlM of 
the medullary and the cnoiToluttHl tubes of the oorti- 
nl purtiob. TLie bluud-v^ncls uf tils Icidiiey coiuist 
of th« Ttnal arttrji, deriT*d frmn thti wirta, and rriuit 
**f«, Tbe braiicbea or mbdivwioni of ttio artery 
cBtir Uw gland at the bilua, and pau Into the aub- 
■taan of Uw eland hetweon tbe {lapilldn. I'liially 
the Imnchea m the renal artory reach tlm cortical 
pofUos, and therein •iit>ditidpiiit>:i iL«iiiliiiili> vnada, 
vfciA fovm the pf^nxruli of the Midpi^hion bodieo. 
The renal rcina IravA th* Iridnftv al"" At th« hJItw, 
and puur their wmlcaU mlo Ihr prcat niivia vciu of 
(be lower part* of the body (leui fara in/en'ar). 11i«> 
atrrona mpply of the kidnsy ia derived frvnn tha 
nB*l plexni^ the nervea of which nrinA in tiim frrim 
Ike ■™«^tw aplanchnic naivea, aiiJ fruin LUa w.ilar 
tfacOB or lafge eympathctic iums of ttie abdomon. 
bana^f thi» i^aiaod an idea of tho atntctiue ef the 
UAwy, we naj next look at ita fanaiant. Theae 
■n^ in chief, theaopaiatioafruiu tbubluciluf thocua- 
atitaeata of the ariiw; Thii funt-tian in arcviinpIUhi'd 
by the eerpuadea of thu Itldauy, and by the uriiiifur- 
ooa tnbultf, tha aabatanoea sopanted by the kidney 
fmen the blood beiDj( chiefly wotrr. urea, and n little 
*»»*«'™t" add. The ure«, nrio odd, He, uixy limiily 
b* «xemied from tbe blood wittinut it«ova^UHCiiig uuy 
f^'Trr*"1 aetioB on the part of the irluid : bat the 
other cheaaieal a^ta (faresiunpli-, iiiil|^hiil.>:nand r>hoa- 
phnlca) wUeh do not esiat in tlie bliJuJ in tliat ferai, 
nqidro Sivt to be aecrelod or elaborated by the kld- 
aaj, and thereafter excreted. In this view the gland 
■naiy be canndcrcil iu inTolviu;; botli lecretiaii and 
exentioa, in Ita work. Thfi &tal[)Jt;blitn aorpiuelea 
■traia off . aa H woro; the watory parte of tho blood, 
wWlaC tha tabttka rematt the more aolid parU and 
maUetx eomtaiwed in the urine. The yatmige uf the 
blood tfaraogh the kidnor in rendared free by tho 
pMUat and relaxed eoniutiun of tfie watla n the 
nlaute blood-Tat la ; and^fmn the blood brought 
la and passing' throngh tbe dand the ch&racterialic 
ai« niiiiii of the kidncya i> ctalioiratArl. 'i'lie vimciin 
Hood wbiuh l««vc> ibe fciduvji by the mrnd vuiuk 
la lllB pureat blood in tho bctdy, «nd ccutnina even 
laaa for«%a or vaato mattera tluui titc pur*-. nrtc-i-in1 
Uoadwfaieb tha loftudaof tbe Ueorb urml* nut tu tlie 
body. Giadoally, the aecreted urine y^t^* thrvueh 
the totnles frota tho eoKical to tho modull&i^ par> 
tion, and tbnjug!) the papiI)n^ of the pynuniila ie 
«scrf4«(| into the jwlvii uf the kidney. Thence it 
paHaa into the ureten. which in turn open into the 
Oladdcr beliind ita orifice or neck. The RCration 

of urine ia vtTy rapid in healtfa, tlic fiwd rnHtcg into 
the bladder In two or three dri^pe erctr minute urhcn 
faating, but ibe llow lit mure ntpid eft'-r a luml or 
oEerciao. (.'crlain mtwtniiPHi taken iaUt the iitDiiiach 
may be very quickly iilmorbed, and may be detected 
In tbe urine in a remarkably abort apac« of time. 
llie procen «f absorptioB and aeeretion ef inch aob- 
atnaoca ia ahraya alower during the netire opcratioa 
of the difiieallTe proocaa. 

Intlattniatiaa of tha UdaeT* li kiunm u n rjArilit: 
latd varioua fonaa of eraTe diieaee arc connected 
with atmctiml or functluunl dtaordar* uf tbe organ 
and of ita BMrrctlona. OocaalonaUy ooncretiona of ' 
mtnenU itibvtuicea acctunnlalo in the kidney, and 
cMiac, in their ]i«uttag;e from the gland atid Ihroiigh 
the UTet«r, luudt exL-mciatiti^ ]miii. 

TTiff Iddneyn, whilut dHiiihifully praeent is Inrert*- 
bratef, yet apjieor to be functionally rei>Tvaeated la 
many of tbe lower forms in which stnicEuras ap])ar- 
ently excretory in iiuture and purpoae are found. 
In nil vcetebratea, tritb tbn idnj{le eicnption of tha 
lanix-Iet, Iddneya are presenL In all TurivbRitM alio, 
ure In the lancetet, the Itidnen of tbe embr^A are 
repreeented by tha primanUal tcidnf>ii or llVjKnn 
btxlict, Thceo bodies an tubular in ^tni'Miirv like tho 
Iddneya; and In Aihca and aniphibiaaa the Widffian 
bodlee booome tlie kidneys of luMure bte; wliUat in 
liirdi, rr[>tiliMi, itrtd tnatiimidi, Uie primordial kiihieya 
are rv|diLi^ed by tli4 true nnd nubmiiui-iitty developed 
glanda, tbe Wolffian bodita becoming abeoibed aa lbs 
true kidney* are darelopad. Tbe kidnen are fonatd 
behind the Wolfium bndie*, and tho dnota nf thcae 
bodlea and of tbt» tnia kidney* exist ludeiieudently 
of oadi Other so long aa tbe pr^ordi&l kldneya are 
fonctioBolly aetire. Tbe cme Iddneya of m^n before 
birtb vxhlbiL a lubulsted appearance; but &■ derelop- 
nif'st n'lwtcH, the lobulee beeome obliterated^ and 
tho surface iif the organ ia thna made nneoth. Seo 
ai^o liitiNE and WoLrriAii Bodcbil 

KIEF. 8re Kiev. 

KIEIi, a town i>f I'runita, in Iliilstein, IxnotlfaUy 
iiitiiated on a dei-p buy of the Baltic, ^tliieh pnaeata 
all the appefiranco of a lako, and ha.* butly-wooded 
bdnke, di mile* north by eaat from tlnmliun;, with 
whiL'h it ii connected by railway. It ww furniDrly 
ihu ploeu of meedng for the Schlc-nM-iv and Hulrtein 
8tat«»,and the Mat«f a airperlrr appeal wiurt fnrthe 
ciucbice. It poaaeMea a iinivcnnty, fmtn'trd in IdSS, 
with an attendanoe of about SOU Ktudpiili; n. lihmry 
ci 140,000 volnma^ a ntueum of nulural hisiury, ikn 
anatomical theatre, an obaerratory, and a botanle 
ganlen. At the eaab end of the tnwn ia a coatlOL 
rebuilt idnoe 1S3S, and (be rendence of tbe Duke et 
Hobtela-GlBokaburg. Kiel poweaaoa also on orpbaa 
hoapita] and iafirmnry-, and in admintbly iiittiatecl 
for trade, tbe wboEu bay on wbicb it utamla fnmnns 
aaafe laadatwad, and thi^ town being prutidcil with 
Bpociuui qunys. Tbe Uolatciu C»n«l juiiii tb-: Baltla 
■J mil'M nurlli of tho town. More ctfrifcllT (inn 
till! ocini].>1(.'Lion of tbe railway (.'onnvL-tiug it with 
lUnihiir;, it hoa entered Into formidable competition 
with I.ii U-'ck, and aa a brtiRed naval port of Germany, 
andtbeatatlon of the mater part of the Imperial lltiet, 
■a ropidly riHJng in ttD]mtfaoctf. BtHidr.'s aliipping, 
Kiel hiH nigar, anan, machine, and seTenUi wooUm 
fiMtvrin, trun - f uuiidrie*, oQ-tailla, tan-work*, and 
tobacco and vin^pir works, alii p-huil ding yard*, 4o. 
l'u|>. (Ifi7lt. 31.717. 

KIEN-LUNU, Empemr of Cbln», dirtlnguiBhed 
by hie love of Htemlure^ una boni in 1710, and 
moeeedad hia father, Yung-Chlng, in ITas. Ha 
favoured the Chriatina religion in privalo. but in 
175S inberdlct«l ita exenuM by n fortiial nnler; and 
he had preTigualy even pereeouted Oioae who pjinnly 
profeMod it. The rr* '—'""■""* were^ in conKKiucDca, 



oUijied tn luOMcd ti-ith grcAt cftution, nlthon^h 
Mernvl ol Hi«m were iii ILo nnperur'a iwrrvicw, utid 
trut«d with gTMtt rasfvel m men of nncaion anil 
loftnuux. On tbtsapprowioiiof tb« JmaU,iu 1771, 
Chlnft wtB len vJutud hy wdentifie jienuiu tbAU 
famwtly, wbicb induood Kicn-l.ung to icni) to 
Cuiton Aud inrite urtista and tenmod meu ot all 
tkv £urop««a nAtiotw, utd inrtlcuIkrljF iutroDomn« 
H» CHtMd on Mrenl yrnxB, «nd in l'?.*! nduMd 
MmoUa 11iu •awrcini poweiie-d. on bw own nart, 
» but* for poetry anir nktnral blitory. l-toMtfiijif; 
to Inunovialutt tho retiivtiibnuice of tii« vtctoiiea by 
tha t^ver, he enjfiw^od Krcncli mliits to copy M>m« 
CItltUM pftintuin ID wtiioh tbejr werd rcpracntcd; 
but Lauu XV. bad then «Dgn*ed for liim »t ht* 
own «xpanM. Tlio larf^ CbiaaM oollection mi ngri- 
tnilture cuutatiu »everaJ poem* of tbi* mounn-'Ii on 
raral oocupntloiu And incidenbK; anil be MUblulieil 
m libnu-jr uf COO.OOO volume*, omitfiining oopic* uf *U 
tJie utnat inl«Tmt)iig worlci in China. Into tUit 
collecliou li« odiiiittvd three buotca wriKeu hf ih« 
Jt«uiui on th« CbTuti&n religion. A description of 
tito l.'hineu ]-lmpiro which appcftrcd in Buiiohiii^ii 
Mftgulne waa aba compi]od by Ua ndsr. In i'ilS 
b»»<«!vvdLanl Macftrtney'aEnji^htinbMay. Two 
;«*r* lAtor h* ftbdicatod in favour of liii Kon. iwi<1 dic-d 
*t Pckin iu iiU!>, afber ■ reign ol mnre tlikn nxty 

KIEV, KiEw, Kief, or Kiow, a fo'"^"""™' "^^ 
Rnaalk, bonmlnd N. by Minsk, w. by VnthynJn nnd 
PudoLtlc, 8. by Pwlolnk and Kbcnum, E. by Ttbur- 
nigov Mill ['ulLat's, fruin wblcb Innt two gi»v(<rfliiieiiM 
It la a»|»nitvd by th« Dniopur. Lonj^b, 210 milos; 
»nn|^ bmidtb, about 1 70 inilut; area, 'iCi.ODO Kiuara 
inilei. TIm aurfivM U in (.'■meraJ. Hat mid mundtiiuoii*, 
bnt intdalattng; int«rs*ct«d oocanioniilly hy ncTlivitiKu 
owl liUl* of modcnle vlovativn alotm taa ouuno f>t 
tbo I>iti4ifH!r and other stTwni. 1'ha I>n{epeE k the 
only RAnsable atntam, lliero at« no lakea cif any 
«it«ot. Tlis cHmatQ is r<tiiiiir1cn.bly tnilil and dry. 
Tlw liven freete la Ducemlxir, oud im ouuiu u|icil 
in Fmbniaxy. In toinmar the bMC la eo pent, and 
tlia quantity of nin to mdoII, that tlm chniniHii i>r 
many ■treomii become dry. Lartre cropa of all ktndii 
of (miu ore hUmiI, and muoh ntt«ntiuii la paid both 
to tbe Raring uf atUe aod tbe dairy. Then ia a 
Uiya oiport of groin, oottlc, hun«y, wav, and totiacni^ 
Ttko forcMbi ore not vary nctennv«, but Ute tuubcr ia 
<rf excellent quality. Pep. l,<Jli,09ri. 

KIEV, Kliw, Kief, or Kiow, a tonn of Riuaia, 
cftpit^ of M» aboro pavwruncnt, CliO mitca aontb 
fmm St. PelAnfaut^. It atattda {Hcturaaqiiely on the 
right bnnlc of tbo Dnieper, bon croswd by it motf- 
nlficoat nupnialflii-bridife, and properly ooiwbta of 
dtre« towiiB, aAch of whioh hae i(« aajiorabc fortifi- 
caticioa and auburbi. 'Ilin (imt i* I'ntchermk, or thn 
New Kurt, which ercivu a nidged >U'up lu the loulli. 
•nd ia n pUoo of great itrvntrtL Beoktw the bomoki^ 
tnapik/ine*. and ntficiol reaidmmB ooDneotMl irith tlw 
ganiniii, it coiitoina auvcral ohnrdiaa, of which tho 
moet n>Diarkable b dial uf ^t. NimIm Thauiu»tiir;ni«, 
built of wdcnI In tho aam« ncighbomhood atanja 
tlu funnu* monaatcrv of Pctocbcnkoi, surroandcd 
by a waJI 1 lOO yards long. The pocnnd town b Kiev 
proper, which ocwuplea a height luvrorda tba nurth 
lower than that on which Patcbenk etande, nnd 1(^11 
nguUriy fortiKM). ItcnntainathercnenblecAthciIrul 
of 3L ttojibia, foiiiiihid tn 10!t7 by the Gruid-duke 
JofTMdav Vladimirovitch to oomrnvmonite n victory. 
Heat of tbe honaM la Kiev proper bolooff to thi« 
church and tho ODDWnt c< St. MloboeL "nie third, 
town, calleil Podo^ oompjaa IIm lowor ground, and 
ii intuliilnl chiefly by the middle and Iow«r ekuM. 
Kiev lua gtraeta generally brood, and It eontoioa na 
■nliU^p'a polaee, prison, town and mUitoiy hospi- 

tal: A unWenlty, founded In IS33, attendt>dl>yabout 
ItiilV students;' an ovadcmy, a gymnoMinm. and a 
prinCiny-prou, for tbo Kcriptnrr-a and ritual books u( 
the timJc Cbun'li. ]U trailn bss Ivoonie sxtcmnrf), 
particularly sinco Ode«a was built; and it has a 
Urge anmiitl fair in January, ^bich lonU for tlireu 
weeks. Kior poBCBca cuxisidarublc historical iatcmt 
as lbs spot on whivh ChristiKnlty was fimt pluit»l 
among tha barbarous hordes of tbu Ktcpi«s uf Kusaia. 
oiiil ON barine bocn for a long titnu tbe reoognlwd 
cijritnl of nil Ittmsiii. Po}v 7U,5SH. 

KII>DR](_'KKNITK, n varioty nf gooeronito 
(wliioh ncc), fr»m Kilbricken, Clare county, Iivlaad. 
It U a Hulpbiil^ nf antimony and lead, has a bluish- 
gray L-'.iliiur, uud occurs iu amoipfacHU mMMs. Its 
■iwriliiT [[TTivilv i* a little li>vror than geocmnite. It 
dimolves hIowIv in Lot hydrocblorio oold, with evolu- 
tion of Bulpburocttd hydrogen, and gives tho ordinary 
retkclinn* for load anil Mitimraiy. 

KILDA, St., a imuU and limvly iilond in the 
Atl&ntb Oaniux, b^lon^iai; to Scotknd, US tnilss 
west from tho Butt or northani extmnity of tbo 
inlatid <jf licn-i*. It is o-hoiit B milea ]nnz by 2 brood, 
ot uii irreituiar form, linvini; a wisly and d«-]i indvntn- 
tion at its nortb-cnstem end csUed East or VilUpi 
Bny, and a stnalkr at its south- wcstrm extremity 
called WmiI Bay. The whole apM:anuic« of this 
rix'ky inlc Is sutEieiuritly wild ana imprtMdve; a 
great jwrtion of its !««• front bain; oompoood of 
pctponciiculAr preclpiciM, wbiirh in MMne pftits rlw 
to n bui^'ht of rniuiy huiidrnl fn-i. Tho surface 
riiioii in the ]»nlc callt^l (.'onocbnn to the haj^ht 
of 1390 feet. la the interior a vcrdnnt ttirf coven 
most of the kUacl. ^vinj; way. on the hi^ior el«va- 
tiotu^ to tnoosh The suU is good, and on impruve>l 
oultivntioR boa of lnt« xvum found ita way even to 
this remoto and aoUtory tale. 'Ilie oralde land is 
chiefly laid out in nnal) rigs of barley, of which, in 
ordinary yoors, a sulliciont iiuontity is nusod for tho 
conmiiitjjtion of tho inhabitanta,wlio,h<iwaTer,aniinint 
only tOBOvouty-onepetaona. At tbe bvod of Koiit Bay 
is the only vitlag* on the island, on on olaraciun 
•loping gtiiitly towards tbe son, the whole rnrnnf soir I 
by » sbiiie feuoe. Hie number of dw«Uiaff>bauaea in 
the \1Si*ge oiuoijiiu to about twenty; tli«y no «t 
rather curimu oonetmction. tvsnubuiiK at a little 
diataii<» a Kottciitot krool, ivitbonl its renbuity, 
but lisviu({ a *<)iumvlist aioiilor kind of ■Mniilmillai 
mof, I'ho inhsliitaats have ail Highland nmm, and 
speak the Gaelic lonffna^. They are of low itatlirv, 
but stout, activ<f , and intelli^nt, stmpts-intiMled, and 
kind'heartcd. Tbcir |iTtnd]iai] occvnatlLin la eolching 
wild-fowl, iiL tho taking of which tho most appaUini; 
feats of daring are f^ormod; tbe fowler beinj 
Bus{«ndcd over purjjcndicular clills of many buiidrvd 
fovt in hoiKbt by a sintjio rcijw, held bv a single 
person on tbe uiaririn of tho ]<recipice. Tliere wore, 
a few yean dnook about fifty oo^-s on the Ulond, «f 
mull i&H, bnt yielding a delicious miUc, and abiml 
SOOO dieep. Tbo pMpIo pay tbeir rent, abont £(HI, 
clili-fly hy means of feotliwn, for which tbry are 
alluwed at the tato of As. per stona. Tlwrv la a 
clergyman on thn Uload, and a small plsoe of worship 
ailtuininii the manic. 

KIL1>A[CK, an inland ouiiiily of Ireland, in tha 
provinco of Leinfitflr; boumlod h. by )I«atli, B. by 
Diiliiin and Wicklow, s. by farlow. w. by King's, 
Quoen's, and Weetmeath counties; length, M miioi; 
breodtU, 37 tallei; area, 416,-115 acres, of wUeli 
350,787 acne are arable, llie surfaoe is generally 
fla^ or gently undulating, swelling bore and there 
into low billi^ and covered with tlM mnl doUgfalftd 
verduiOk Tb* soil b mostly a H(A> Inam, neUw oa 
Umcatone or alay lUt*. Neariy ia tbe eoaln or iba 
county is tlio well-known C^rrsgh of Ktldar^ a vast. 


mbnkM, bluk pbin, cnoulsttD? of 4SC8 acres, tbc 
Mvyeity ot tine rrown — tha uIjocBiit prnpriiitnin 
UVtog tha privUi'-^e, iiliJ«r cntaiii rwLrictioiiR, vt 
gnaay vtwop on it. Tli«re are bure a guverunient 
dkaip aad barrack*. ClaM. poUtota, whaat, Mid tnr- 
kl|M mn th« |iriii>in].iaJ crona. Oxen are in gniera] 
OM hntb for ilraualit aiiU tiw plough. Tlie ouly 
nanaEaelurv* are cf cottoiu and wmSloiU. but to a 
ver^ liiDiUd «xl<9iC: there are alio aome pa)xr (nc- 
tiVMa, but tba ckJef i>m;u[ialioiiB an •^icultuml. 
Priiunpal riven — lUrrow, LifTey, and Bnyos. Cbisf 
towDB— Nau and Mhy. KUd>r« U dirided into 
{outtMS haronlea and IIK parblu*, and rttuni.i two. 
n:i«mbr.n to I'wIiiUDPRt, bobh for th« cuimiy. Pup. 
in !&41, 1K4SS; m 1871. HS.aU. IJoU-mr lit Ma;, 
1S51, and 8]it DumuW. 1872, 31,414 puntoua, or 
SS'fiS per cent, of the populaticm of iabl, enUgrated. 

KILDAKK, a market towii nf Irrlfuid. iii tlie 
count/ <i( Kitdare, ma an nuiDenoo 3a uiil» a.w. 
frnm Oiihlin, on tb* Groat Scnith-Weatt'ru Uuilway. 
It baa an air «f rofpactability and iaiportaQoo, poa- 
aeaaea a mined cathedral, tbo chuir nf whirli ia aatd 
as a cburch. and coutMiuB tbn Tmriid vault oi ihs 
Mria «f Kildan; a Bomau CathoUo «bapel, a Car- 
malite Mary, and a oanvent. with a cliap«l aHachi^d 
fa> t*ch; Xtttitmti and olber aclimU; an iniirumry 
and a riupMiaanr. Near h ia the extADiIve ^■miiiini 
known aa th« ' Curnnzti of Kildaro,' on wbich a pcr- 
maBaataOltar^ camp baa b«en fanned. Kildan^vM 
Uw inferior litlea of «arl and miu^uia to llie IJuVe 
tit Ijcintrter. I'op. \t&^. 

K-ILiA,B tuwuul Turkey in Europe, in Mi^Idnvia, 
OB an arm uf the r>iuiabe of tliu Mime name, 2\ mll«ii 
K.K. from Ixmiu]. It io a |<1(kcc <>E alroiigtli. aad has 
■ VkliwUe Cisber^ (at wbidi fc grvat dral nf ctviam 
la prfpareil), and a trade in eatUi?, bid<~i, wm, miil 
bonej. It ia cue of tliv pUooa ceded by Ruaua in 
ie£6. Pop.eino. 

KILIMA-XUJARO <Lbe Qreat Mnimtain), cnp- 
poaed to b* one of tbo njuunlalua tu wldcb the natoe 
* Jfonntaiaa of Uk Moon' vm at one time vaf^olf 
■nlied, in laL »' W n.; l<m. .tfl' x., ia SO.OUO fi:ct 
aIiov« tbo acjt-letul, ILu kLi-lieit wuuiitaiu iii Africa, 
and alwaVR mnw-nlad. It in sUuntod on tb(» w««t4>m 
border of Zamitiar. It wu dUcovcrcd in 1847. anil 
baa two ntmndts 10 or I'J milu &{iArt. 

KILKKl;^ a bathing ptaiie <fii LLe weat cuaal of 
Irdand, omnty Clnre, aituntoil on > creek of tbo 
Atlantic. It u w;iidclrcular in form, with a fiue 
beach of eand in front, and 'hut a nnmber of {;mh1 
riilM and lodging -bnniKf, and two liotela. Tbore are 
4^1jrbe»te epriajpi near by, and an ancaent Dsniah 
iBrt. Pop. 185d. 

KILKENNV, nn {nlan>I e>auDtjf of Ireland, in tbu 
proriitRc of Luinstor; bonndnd n. by Qneen'a Cmintv, 
E. by Cartuw »ad Wexford, H. by ^Vntwfoid, and v. 
by Tipperary: grcateat tcngtb, ii mike; breadtb. 
21 milee-. anai 701 aquare milei^ of £09,833 ncr«a. nf 
wbich 47(^10S are amble. 'I^ie mirface ia gi^ncrally 
level, wjtb eums nountalne, chiefly •Ituah-d bctwrifu 
tbg Noro and BArTow.oonaistingof a nucleus of clay' 
■bkte ■urrounded by aandrtimii. 'I'hi; aiibaoil it clii'^y 
Uuvntoue, with clay-elate and ■:uiilitiiiii(! in tlii; Iiiubt^r 
paote. Ths general oojoiir uf tlie IiiiL>'>LLi)»:< ix ii blniih 
enf, which near the town of Kilkunny pasBcx iiito a 
fine blaiik marble, maeeptible of a bleb pnliMh, utd 
centalblnx a gr«at Tariety ef alitjly iniprcviuui. 
llieee bade are eiteodvely qoarried, and tiio bluck« 
drewed on ibe apot. The cool formation* are nearly 
oo-extaulva with the billy dietrioU, btit tbo <ii>a\ \» 
of very bad quality, and oon«oi|ueDtly littlii iiittd. 
The jtnndpa) riven are tlio Itiirrow, Nori?, and Siiir, 
lliu enil ie foe the meet part lii;lit and dry, •arau val* 
leva Wing cxtnmelf fertile. Tbo chief erupa are 
woeat, oate, barley, bera, rye, peaae, bcana, ]K>tat£iea, 

tamlpa, mangold -wnrael, oarrota, and naren^; Boraa 
nbliap!, and a little Uiix. Kuuu.' of Uie boat wbeat 
and meadow landa in Ireland are aituated in ibe 
level traut alouK the Suir. I>airy buabondry abo to 
extenidvely praetiaed. Parma ara ganenUly cnuJl, 
them being' coffipamlively fow abore 30 acrce. IIm 
county oontains ten banonioa and 143 pariabea,'aiul 
reUinia two membera to I^Uajnent; aud Kilkenny 
dty. tht> coital. rvAunu one. Pop. in ISll. -202,42')); 
in 1871. 109,379. Tbouumbcrof eiiii);nuiU fmm the 
eounty between let May, 1»51, nud HIol Diw. 1S72, 
waa 4S,146, or 30^3 pur c«ul, of the papulntioa of 

KlLKl'XNY, a city, rArlinnirntaiT bomajfh, and 
oounly of itHlt, Inltuid, lucally in KiUteUDy county, 
of which it in tbe capital, 61 milee e.w. from Dublin, 
dolic^tfully situated oa both iddot of the Xont, here 
aroHed by two handaome atone h>id|{ee. llie city 
oontaJpi eeeend Inlncvitiii}! aiiL-ieut ediBcee, wbiciB 
t«Dd toglve it avenemble and {licciinwnua anpeonnce. 
Thoau atr u c tur ea eoiudxt of tbu catbMtaat, the oaatla^ 
new BMdcndied, and aeraral abbeya. llie pl&Ma ol 
wonhlp compriee the calhodml, already mentioned; 
two ^nuobis bolmgliig to thu Epiaropo] Cbnrch, 
one I'rabjrteriaa and one Mcthoditt chapel, and 
■even or dfihb Boman CatboUc ch^ieLi. The other 
iiiiiHli^ni public buildini^ are the dty and county 
jnil, a cuurt-bouw, Infiniuiry, fever b4je|ntal, union 
poAr-hnuMv hnu»e nf correction, fto. lliB schools 
uicludii Ki])ivtinyColIege,agranimar-(icbuol,iiiwhich 
Hnift, Congrere, 7»n|ubM', liiabop llerkuley, and 
olhur diitingui»bed dinractoni, reoelvvd Lbe enrly 
part of tbeir edncation ; the CoUi-ve of St. Kyrau, 
a Ituman Catliolie seminary for tbo cduMtion of 
ynunt'' men intcnrled fnr tlkC pricatbood, Jtc. KUkuniiy 
wan ^'ntii-Tly the »<Mt uf extendvs unnufactunM; 
mcet of wbicU, buwii^vcr, baTo ajtbor entirely dianp* 
pc-iirr'l, rrr have groAtly fallen otF. 'I'he manufao- 
tuTu cii cuania woollecji b«i recently brguii to revive; 
and soma little biuiueaa is done in taoning, browbg, 
ackd the wwldnf; of KUkenny black aud foreign 
marhicM inf) cbimney-nieee^ nMnumentB, tabte^ and 
other articlM. A coiuuderable trade ia done in salt, 
Hoitr, ale, porter, and baoon, for whicdi tli« town (till 
miuDtaina a h%h reputatioiu KJlkeuny tllves the 
title of earl to the funily of Itutlcr.ond nlAiTus oao 
niendwr to ParlisLaieut. Pup. iu 1671. 12,710, 

KILLAItNEY, a mnrkeT, town of Ireland, in ttio 
county of Kerry, in the midat of the moat beauUiul 
aof^iiery, nithin a mile of the oelobratcd lakes to 
whiub it nvcH ita nAnic, 44| miles W. by v. from 
4.'ork, cin the Umat tioiithem and Weiti^ru Railway. 
Tbo principal *tT«cUnmstraIg'ht and well |iaved,and 
tbe bouiH^ in )(Fnend nibatanUaJly built of ntotie. Ii 
baa a biiii.(1«riin):> parish cfaurdi, n tnngiii^ci-nt ILomaB 
Cntliolie vathcdral in tha Gk>tluo ctvle, a ceinvcat, a 
mcnojitcry, oourt-bonse and bridswdl, lunstleaByhim, 
atid a tine liat«l. In eumraor Killnrnny ia thronged 
n-itli riiitnra t<i tlm lakes luidtliDdcligbtfut Kvncrrin 
tbe m^iublxiurLooil, J'lmi-'y artiulve uf wood, paiticu* 
larly (A orbutua, which attaJaa to groAt perfection In 
the c-nviriMM, are made tii a wmwdcrablc oM^ait, diid 
nre in i^rv^t roiiLuit by tuiiriitU. Flonr ia alao oianu* 

fiiLiun^iifxIt-iifdvely, Pojv Sl^.'. The lakes, Ihrea 

iu iLumbcr, are all connected with each other, Tho 
InwRC IaIeo in nhont 4^ niilea long by *i miltw broad; 
tbi: ntiddlt^ 1^ uhIl- long by \ mtle lircNul; the upper, 
3 mile* buy. They ivcel»e several streams, are ia- 
tcn].K:rsod with numerous islands, which, an woU aa 
tlw flipping and toflv aides uf the laken; are riebly 
KuiHlpd, ]!n.-e(!iitin(- tte iovtibeat soouerT ahnoat any* 
wbure lo He met with. 

KlLMARfillCK. a parliiunentnry and municipal 
iinrgb ami market t^nvn of Scotland, in the county 
of Ayr. The town is 19 miles b.W. front Glasgow, 



on Ui« (^Utp7w and 8oatb-^Vcst«m Rulvmy. near 
the oosriiiuUM of the Kilmunool: wntor with tbd 
IrviiM. Tile princijikl stcvet U upwards itf I taSHo 
iong, and mntuna nwQv bnndaomo liuildiugii; houna 
gmorally of freestone, obUioud from quarri«« in tbo 
Baifhbonrfaood: ibt atnets geatrtJlj an md« &nJ 
»bj, Abd tba tAvn is wall ■u^tlied with «^t«r. Jicar 
it* (vnin:!, od « bridge kcrtMi tho KUtaaniiick, u the 
towu-hoiMe; uui ul tlie croia la k liiLo nukrbla aUtuu 
af Sir Juaee Sh^w, Bart, a nnUvc crf the vtdnltjr. 
irli» bnd boon lnrvl'iiiayor of Lood"n. It h»» four 
luiidMMiis Eit»blJ«be(l clmrdioK, tliree 'F190, timo 
Unltvd Fnabj'terlau, (me (•( ynhxnh haa ft fine spin; 
■nd scronl etfaor Z>uteutiii; churchM: nummos 
ocbooU, iscludiag en MMlwny. nn eleg&nt tiiiilding: 
wi eicbonge, ft mecLaniai' insUtuUiMi, ■ pliUoujpbual 
iaatHutioB, a pablio lihnry, two rcftdiiig-roonu, a 
diqiennr;, ftad MrenU ratOTolent todtitiea. Kil- 
Buunodc biu Ion; been famed for the excell«au at tu 
WDollua maiiufftcturBa, fonurlj oonaiatjng chiefly of 
tamd ftntl otkar bonneU, aad etn'pwd mtrlii, biit now 
of Oftqwla, which hftvo boooine iLe ataple. Printed 
vented abftwla tiaed to b« niftde to ft gnM oxtont, 
lint thU branch of indurtry bftB mnch dwclJiMd. There 
ai« ftlao niHitifa«tori«i of nuKluaerj, ta\Meoa, eftsdlw, 
hsta, and hoaterj, booidaft aarcEal cztftiiaiTft tftnnartei^ 
and imlwfty engiaeain; worki; ftod • owmtdftrftble 
bnaineai iti damn in th* moldn^cf booti und iihMa for 
Mcportftliuo. Kikuoniooh unite* with Dnmburtun, 
Fon-OIftigoir, Reofrow, ftod RutberiflcD la »tumlii|; 
MM sumlMr to tho llmue of Commoiu. Pop. in 
isn, a3,70B. 

KIIXjaRAMitETRE. ft unit *ni]Joye<l in tlje 
ntoaatmnnaitt of mechftnlcal wurk; it ia the mo- 
diftnioftl tmrk oxpeaded ia ninnz ft iMdy vihatc 
welglit k 1 kiloontnine (S'SOM Iba.) tlnmigli the 
■nrtiad height J 1 metiv (3-3606 feet). Tlic Kii^- 
UiL cngiiicvr's unit of work ia 1 foot-poimd, n 
kUognuDtaetre ia equal to 7*233 foot-poundt. 1 
/ortr dt rhnat ({4 "f nn BngUah )ior«e-|Nnfer) n 
eqiiftl to 7'- kilogrunmetrw par emund. 

K.lI.RUSH,ftniftrk«ttowiiftiidftettp(ntof Iralftnd, 
in the CAuiity of Clftre. It fa agMeahly eititateH on 
the north ihure uf tlie ctituftrjr 6l the Shauuuu, 3Q 
■illeft w. by N. fmm IJtuorick, U aaatlj built, and 
oooilftft tt ft nuu-ket-eiiuftre, luteiveuted B. to w. by ft 
ipftdoos w<^-pfttvd, ftttd fttggod etreet, with aeverftl 
amftller thoroiwhfftns dtirerging from it. It has * 
ooauBodlunaftudbandaoiDe ■uarket-lMniae.oonrt-boua^ 
ft Bemt nwtoni-bnua*, » brid«rw«U, mid » |ioUc« Imc- 
mek; Proleauuit, Bpiacopol. Romfta Ctthollc, knd 
WMleym HMhedltt oh nrchee : free ftiij other achoob; 
• dlapaaaaiy, nnd fever haB)jiial. The Duuuifaduiu 
eif wvoUen aiid Unen. doth u cairiod on to tone ex- 
Mat, asd the nradnee of the finhory ia oooinderaUe. 
Steamen reottfariy ply betweco thiH jnrt and I jiocr- 
Uk. Thft oUef trade U In tt^oultunil produu* of 
»Si Idftda. nw luwn ia onich nwurted to for we- 
batlilnf. Pea4SW. 

JUUYTU, ft town of Seotiand, In Stiriiiigahtrv, 
ISaUae K.b. from Ulaagow, ftitT^BUnf, Irrefnilariy 
Mil nlftce. It hM ft paiiih, ft Frw. a United Fraa- 
byteciaiL aad other dwrchea; aereral tcbooU, ft lib- 
nry, uaA biendly aodety. The mhahibuita generally 
an finpleretl ia wwavliiff for the Ulaagow raainifao- 
tmwft The pariah ia unndftntly atoeked w^ oeal 
Mkd iron an, aail ia Ibe entra of ft ia a ranarkablo 
Iwaaliic hill. l',T^ of krwu in 1871, 1595. 

It ia pleftMAtly nlwiiod on a mntla eltratlon. on tho 
ri^ bank of tbo OaraedE, SI miles a.w. iihiat^ow, 
on tiw raOway thaoco to Ayr. It eenaate prinapally 
td am namw atieot abont 1 mile loqg, aad aantaina 
» parhh cfamvli aad other plaoes of wmhlv. e^eoli^ 
ka. tkt iuhafaita&te are chiefly employed aa baad- 

loum wesson, it in the mines and auarriee In the 
&<i^hl)fvurboc»l. A consldenhle miniDer of fumalea 
are engaged iii nc«^l«-wi>rk. With the crc-tion of 
tht.' abbey of Kilwrnninj^, finmdcd, it ia bclk'i-c(L, in 
1140, aciw a fine ruin, la oaaodated tliu [iilxuJiiciluu 
of free-mnetmry Uito Soetlaad. Fop, in 1671, S^ifS. 

KIMCUI, David, ooe of the moat fftmona Jewiah 
rabbia of the middle agea, nEqwars to bare been bom 
probfttdy about 1190, at Narlwoae, where be after- 
H-ftrda i!]Hnt the ^oater part of his lifo. Ho died in 
1210. lie vnritu oomineiitarice Mi almflet ftU the 
boukn of U10 OM TmLameut, luiJ nlsu miidereJ 
neemiUMl scrvlco to Unbresr literature by the oiunpo- 
ritioDof his Grammar, untitlud Iilidilul (1516), or 
PetfeodoD, which Ilu oft^u been rnirinted, aad hla 
Seuber Sdutraadiiiu, ur UiHiunaiyof Ui^rew Itaota. 
Subaoqiient llvbrow ncfadlori have been under groat 
obl^^tioo* to him. tLuu(;h thuy have scmetimes fftOed 
to ^knowledee them. His father Joseph and Ua 
bnitbor Moaua alia dladngiuahcd bbcauMlroa in the 
aame walk ol literature. In 12Ji2 ha wai appolated 
arbiter between Frenob aad Spanish rabbis In the 
oslobrated Maimonldia ooatrDvnray. 

KIN. Se« »w«rST. 

KI>'CAKDIN1':3HIRE, or The Mkarn!>. a tna- 
riljme county oa the east ooaat of SocAlaail. bftving 
AberdQenabire north and west, Foifar enuth luiit 
WBit, and tbe North Bea eaat; gmateat length, 8S 
mOes: hieadtli. U mUea: ai«L U8,2S1 aetea, of 
whidi I2$0 acres at* water. Aboat half tho eoaaty 
consiit* of niUivnti^d luiil, wtind'land, improvalile 
moor, &c. The Gnunptiut MouuLiiua, by wliich it 
la traveraad north-eaat to aouth-weat, occupy a large 
portiou of its mnface^ but tlieir htchett summit witun 
the cotui^ is Battoek, only S6I 1 feet alurs sea-IeveL 
Tho uuee eleveted t^eoa of tfae ixninty urt aterile; 
but there is ft oonaiderable pmnortianof cooiparativoly 
low, fertile, ftod geacralhr well-ciiltivBtetl laatL The 
geoiogidftl fenn^loBa of the eonn^ compcfae large 
proportiona of red aandatone^ gneiaa, and prfttiit<?, with 
aa>T«w paralM bands of mica and chlorite aiatea 
nmaiog noitli-eaat aad soutb-wett. On sotiM pana 
u( the ooMt the oUfla^ eonrisUnt of aHerarte badi of 
&UU aandstano and eongloDierata^ with oocaaloBal 
reina and ntaawia of trap, riainz to hcj|^ta varying 
from ISO U SOU feet, are nearly, if not allogether, 
laaoceHible. In thaw roeka many corioas carea and 
natural arches occnr, one of the latter bang I &0 yanla 
long. The princiiKil rivers are the Dee^ rforth EU^ 
Bervie^ aad I>ye. The arable land oonalBtB ofaieAy 
of ft tract called the How of the Mearns. It eoDladac. 
about 50,000 acrea of oompatativeJy low, fertile^ aad 
generally well •cultivated Und, with about T004 acna 
of tbriving plantationa. On the vast tbo Kow la 
theltered by a range of low hilb, which separate it 
frara the <mab dintriL'L The latter oontaina about 
09,000 acres, of which abtiul 3-^,000 aorea are In a 
high state ef rulture. The otbor arabla disUiat om- 
aiits of tiie namiw glen or TaUmr lying along the 
Dee. The }iriaci^ial crops me whea^ bailey, oafa^ 
beaaa, pease, tumipe^ poUtaas, and flax, 'llw total 
ana oadv erops, ban fallow, and grass in 1S73 was 
119,760 aorei^ of whioh t£,I)OS actaa wen oeeupiod 
by com cropa, aad S2,674 by green crnpa. Cattle 
and riteep are reared to a ooostderahle axteaL There 
were 37,M7 cattle b 1S7S, aad Slfltt aboep. TIm 
mftBofaettinM are conJined to aomevooUea au Uaen 
weaving. Kincardiueahlre oontaina niucl*<en par^ 
isbsi^ and ooe royal burgb — UerTio or la^wrbervte^ 
and sends oe awoiber to Parliameat. Stgnehavea 
is the eoonty tovra. Pop. St,fiau. 

KINEMATICS, a branch of uiaUtoakatios whiA 
tieata oi tW tiintiona of bodlea independently e/ tbe 
Uinm whioh ]iroduoe Iboee motions: it U madly 
treated of in the introductory parta oi worka on 


Idaelia <p(i|wlatljr tanned clruaue*). Sm TLommD 
and Tait'a N*tunl PliilmDpDf. 

KINETICS (pvpulmrl; tannod ilTDAtoics^. that 
ImiDcli uf tliti Kdenon of dnumun which tnAts uf 
iatcf* cuiHiiig uiotiiiu in txidiea. Bee MBOtAinca. 

KlXli (Anjjio-tiaxiin, /-^ijiup, ^nig, eyog; Gn> 
nua, t^nnjr; Ifaiudi, hmpt; ijwedi»b, IwiMn?, kuug; 
Dutdi, famiiv). Tbe penon invested with Bitpreme 
jmwer in ■ abta. Tbc joituiiry mum in eliicf or he*d 
of tLe taov. The Sanakrit jaaaia, btlior, f ram the 
root jMA, to beB«l> •emu to be b Mgiiate word. | 
Dovn to the union of Biibun &&d Ircluid the Idnca 
at llrilAUi Inrc tlio title of kinc* r<f <Jrcat !Irit«ij), | 
I^aooe^ and Itvland. Wberv Ud tjaUc law of ano- 
^tmHaa doM aot jnvraD, a queen-Rgnaiit poaMMea 
■11 tba ri^bta of a kuxr- l''or informatioa rMpacthig 
the prerogntivM and Umitation* of the kingn of f imai 
BtitaiD, Mm BntTAIX, di\iii(iii UriLiah (JuuatiLutiun. 

KLVt^trilAB {Limnl,u»). That* pecnlinr crab* 
an ui4:ludcd in the order Xipboiura (sward -tailed), 
of the cJaM Crustacea. Ttiejr an found on the 
ooaata of ni>rthcni nui] tropical America aud tin 
/intiii»^ Bod abo iiJubit the Khore* of thn AsUtia 
ttlAineBt, chld^ in the ICoJitem ArohipeUfio aad 
Ji^an. Th« MoIuocm form a verj weH Known 
ombv of Hiitribuiioo of thave cratN, and benoe th^y 
an aoDirtiuiBi knpwn an Uotucea-rrabi. Tlio Mala)-* 
«u not only their flosh bat thftlr ectpi aUta, and 
the long ■pinona tiiila with whiuh tbov are {jroTidiMJ 
an adtptAc! Iiy tlm inbnbitiuitii of the iilnndi in 
the Easlam AroliijiiOii4;D to form Bi".>ivr rir lauo— 
haidl. I'ba front purtiou of the body ooniibu of a 
bn»d bone-alioo iluuMd, or cremittntic nhJuld, ttpno 
the convex unner lurtaoe of which, two pain of cjrca 
an found. 1im tint ]i)dr r«prM«nt the «yes of tb« 
linwl or Bwly stogv <^f the cnUun, and an umplo 
in afetnre; but the anvind pair of eyce arc lugger, 
toaa Ike tnie visual orijiuu of the anbnsl, and arc 
oompoand, each being «impc«Kl of nnmoTDTii Uttic 
fKcH^ IV aimple eye*, aegngat«d to fonn a ringlo 
■ad cocnpMind organ. 'Vm mouth opena on the lower 
and ODOcave ■lufitce bf thu fruut ■bielil, iLnil a tiiusL 
otumctaristic fwitiirn of Uiwe itaI« i* fnund irt tbv 
p wo ac u aroosid tbo luoutU of firv piurv i4 liinbs, 
linUMd wttii ektite, or idnaer-liko ol&wi^ and a single 
pair cf mmitmtur, or fcolDr*, whicb aleo tormiuatc in 
rMiT. The lioajd or attachod iointa of tlieee nx pairs 
vt Ibabs are provided with spinoua proueMcs, so that 
foad KisMl by ibo terminal ptnoon fa al^o muticatMl 
by tbo iptnu which n^ont imncdiatdy surround the 
aperttuB of tbe mouth. Atlacited to tlM Ikinder 
margb of the fronv sblekl— which rspraaesla ibe 
ttoiled hsad and chest of tho crab— a SM«nd shield 
or piece, sovawhat hoKacnnnl in ahapp., and rtiriK* 
xentiug the alidonieii, U fuuniL The fmut jiortiotiK 
of tUli abilomitial pleco arc iui:1a«»d within the grvat 
front NhirM. but Uto hinder mdos arc free, and two 
of these free sidES bear niavablu spiiioi, whilrt the 
tldrd or toiddle part glvte orlgiu to thw luiw spinous 
tail, or Ulton, as it is ndlod, which ii oapablo of free 
tDdTcmcnt in crery direction. Itcnaath the nbdani- 
inal ur hiiidvr ijiield thu ff.Ua, or branchirr, are fouiid, 
borne aitoii five paint of appendages wliirb rrpre««a)t 
tin abdominal fret of the emlx The first two of 
tbew abdominal feet farm * pnteoUro eorer for the 
olben. Tbe i^roduclire ergaiu an abo aituati'd 
on the andar sarfaoo of the aliclominai sogmonbi, and 
Ma liinilarly piotecled by au opcrcHtuni or plate-lihe 
■traetnre deriiiid from the front ahinkl of tbo body. 
T^ lelsoo, er spiuuns tail, merely repneonts odu of 
tbv Bppondagce of the abdonion grmtly olon^tod. 
In the younjc, or lamd state, the spinous taD b wnot- 
ing. and the binder foot bouing the gills ore limited 
In number when c«niparwd iritb tluse afterwarcis 
devaloped in the adult. The eggs apfiear to be ilr- 

Kiteil in a Mhalluw lioln Khich the frmale excavates 
we*n high will luw tiile inai-Ls. Thn avenge 
Ittii^ is about i fcHit fnirn tbo front portlnn of tlio 
bodr to the tip of the tail, the riaIoi b^n; feDetmlly 
souiller than the feroalca. In old iuilividiiaU the 
spines beconie blunted, sod n.iv even fall olf or Im- 
eome obeolrte^ a tubervk being luft to mark the fur- 
■UBi pnaltloB ti eoob spine. 'IIiom oabi an dotilitute 
of swimmiog powers, and amxsar Uj move bv crswl- 
itig idinvlv ovsr tbe boCtom of the sol If placed on 
tbvir backs ibey nppear. like tnrtle, nuable to r«oo%'cT 
tbcir oatunl poattfon, n fs^C said to be taken advan- 
ta^ of by the bogs which feed upon them, in render- 
ing their captaie an trnnf matter. The tall ia capable 
of nbij[ moved abonl^ erected ur deprassed, but does 
not oppsar to be otharwiss used asamsansof offence 
□r dcfenct^. 'Ilii; ccimmnnnit spedfti is tlic I.inxulu* 
p'JiriJicm\ia, fmiiid vhieliy iin the North Ameticau 
on-ijiu, aud knoivD by p:«H«id[ig seem ifdaes en tbe 
upper port of the front shield, and three on tiu upjjer 
aurfaoe of the binder shield. 'I'be upper aurfmia uf 
tlie tail, a* in other vpedn, beats numerous sponie. 
"Sbo J/inulut JHotKecanvr, of the Motaocas, possesses 
a Stnagly tcmtod Uil. Thia latter spocieii !• eaten 
in Luite quantttii* by the inbabJtanU of JaTa. 

KINUFISUI^R (.ItociJov Lbuwos). I'M* genus 
of KissiroHtriU birds t I mwsso r wi ), formiaff the type of 
tbe family Alcediiiidn-^ is dUtinpuisbeil by the elon- 
gated, stoutly [untied, tetra^nal bill, broad at the 
luue, aaii t<]iiiiini:itiiig In a Unnly acnte point, with its 
i-dgi's cTfn ntc I V- fimbriate. The tarri are *hort, feot 
Hiniu^*, iLnil tbe toes somewhat elongated. The arnuu;e- 
lAimt of Ok Uma in thlj family rarios grcetly. 1'he 
aiiturior or front tnct — vrhicJi in the majority of In- 
st sa o t ee number three — may \te two or three In 
number; the ordmary third front too belas in some 
esses dircrtod liAckwardu with the posterior or hind 
too. The fiunt tucB arp gniiiTiilly wwbed In a slioht 
d^ne. Id colour tlic cdiumon Idngflslicr of thLs 
ooantiT(Jloaifs itpida) hwt tbe upper part of the bvad, 
the tiitt of the necJc, anri tbe coverts d tbe vnagt 
getaD, spotted with bloe. Tho buck, is ilark green in 
4H)lour, the low or back and rump being rif a briifbtbtuii. 
The throat is whiter and the uudur surf ».•<.• of the body 
a psle brown ouloor. The habita of the kJiig6Bhar ars 
oxoeedin{;ly cbancteristux It frequents the hanks 
of riven, and is almcst always f mud ■olttary, perchiHl 
on the bouiib of n tree. In tlUi position it may 
romsln motioalecs far hours watching for flsh. When 
th« pwy i» pcrocivo.l it divca inti tho water. iifonrtiB 
tbe hah with its feet, came* it t» luiid, wbert? It killa 
the prey and swaUows It entire, tbo>* NIhl; nti.rr- 
waidi rejected^ along wi lb the other Indigi^li hlc parbL 
iu the fnmi of roniul lialla nr maMo. The DtAx: of 
tbc kiii);fistj«r i> nbrill aud pien-Ing, aud when flying 
It fraquently scuds forth itscry, Tbencel is);encr^ly 
fnnnd in tho banks of riven, or in other ritualii'tis 
near ibo water's edge. The Icingfiaher was lung sup- 
po««d to ensooBoe raelf In tbe liolee or InLrrowii nf 
otiMT aniniitii^ and that in this ^r*y t^c i*^^ ""■> 
formed. It is oertaia that these blrdu disgorge tho 
Indigestible portiomi of their food lu hulee in Uls bonks 
of atreama, and upon the boiDw, Ai\, of iiah thus 
ejected the eggs an deposited, and tbe female aleo 
Inmbatoi there. Whlut, thenfore, the kingflsber 
may select a disnsod hole or burrow, it aI*o in some 
dirgTHfi prepam Ibo nest aftrr it* own fashion, and 
aUapttJ tbo ruady-mode dwellini^-i^JiLou to Its own and 
peculJAT taste. The Americau kingfisher {Aletda 
airffon) cicavatefl for itoflf a hiirron- or pit in wllicb 
tbe neat is built, and from analugy, <nxi ovrii npuri'M 
may be rvgaidod as rwembling In o^its Its Aoioriran 
ndghbonr. 1'he lattvr speeias, oommoD in tbe United 
Btat«&, la (^ a bluish slate oalour, wltj) an frou-co^loured 
band uu tbe breast, wbllat the head bean a crcat of 




f«ntb«n. Tbo vsgt of the kb^fiiher u« oolani«d 
daUwMlr pink. Mid VArr tmn Ji*« bn six or Mven 
in niUDber. This birxl h^ been greatlv cvlcbtatiM] 
in Micicnt poetic itml logfindAry tore. The tuiciienU 
•up|ioMKl tMl it built lt« inmt llp^■n tli? vcinn, am] 
tbKt it potHwed tlu power of luUiiit- thu lumpcitd 
tbnt ottienriK ironid bftve iImIia/viI iU bark iluriiii,- 
Itie period of incubntion. Hmon thn Lnmiguil d.ij-a 
iivar tha aulitiw were knuwn m 'Halcyoii du)*.' 
OviJ remarbi tiiic Iwlial in tbo line: — 

'iDiiiiliat WcxuciB ]wuJi-iilitiiu vqiinre iiMia.' 

1 he chnrm by m liicb th« Idnfffisbor wu Wiernl U> 
": tb« bsu){K«t, -WM MiippOBoa tQ bo thftt of a (wsct 

'OuBixHut lul(7iriHs oaatii, nldcaftu lutuato* 
ImuLUU naUt, auinlia SuoUbu uiida.* 


Olhur Ripentttloiu idou mvs to tfaia bird the pmra- 
<if witlierinj ajtj brftDch vbenMti it parched ; ita bodj 
wlieii dried prMerved olotfae* fraan motka; it imun- 
toimd whanvOT it wm kept tlie p«aw ot funlllw; It 
wa> R rafagoArd BgainM ^nndor; tod wm svod b«- 
licrcd to piwiMMi the power nf aiignintiting hiilalim 
tTMiura. Aocordlnt; to Gmdiu Ita f«ittburB uks «ui> 
pk);*d hy tbo TutAra and Ovlialta for maaj nipvr- 
■titiom pitrpnncfl, titiu thowing tbiit tbo dMfie*] 
UftlioM wer« nnt Blune in tlietr idcna uf uoribing 
u-i.nderfui ptntnn lo th» b!r>1. Tii« Tftrt«ra bcli«ve 
tbftl B k!ii^«h«i'i fmtbur which float* aftvr Iwing 
CMt Into tlM wnter, will act lu & potent bve-chum. 
in tliat when & wum&D Is hsuctied by iuiJi a fc«tLor, 
■ho miut fall in Inrn witb ita poNwnmir, Tbo ilkin oi 
the kiu)^h«r la pniwrriMl by tho Ottlitks h a pre- 
wrvatira agalnat erll of arery tloacrlptioi). And orac 
Atnong cirlllzcd and int«lli|«nt iicnon*, » manatic 
iniluenc* tiaa been aacribnl to ua bird, ao l£al if 
aaapCDded liy a ttuwl the btvnat vcDl luvariabl; 
tarn to the north; and mnnnors, who, In particular, 
have valiinrl thn kingHaitcr. bcti«vn that the beak nf 
a bnl^Qcnd bini will abuw tlie (lin>L-tian of the wiud, 
•T«D wben fcopt in a Iiolw, uu) tliat the poneasiuu 
nf itt hsad fomin a wirnK ;:tinrantcw for fair weather, 
for ancoBM in Ui\it, luid fta many otber denlrablo 
luariu lit guotl foiiuun. 

KINU UK (or at) AltM», in h»raldry, an i^fficer 
wboM bualneM la to direct the herald*, prvoide at 
tbcir chaplen^ luid ban th« JHriadiction i:<f annoury. 
The orif^ of the titln In doitbtrul. There are three 
klnga of anna In Enijland — Qurter, Cbuvadeux, 
Norroy; the finrt ia willed priutipal timg o/ am*, 
tbo Moand and third proriafMi Inna*- Than ia alao 
an ollicer rtyled UoLb Kin;! fJ Arms, attached lo 
the uriler of lliv Ifnth. w-hn takn pr*«e<!viiM> ueit to 
tbo Garteti but ia nnt a mombsr of the Herald's Col- 
lage. ITIarencictix ia aiud to he tlcrived fnim CUr- 
anoe, brotlMrr of Hcrnry V., fint kinjc at amia fur tbo 
amith of Kivl»*l- Xorroy (Nonuan French, nvrlA- 
cm Hag} it iaim of mhu for tb« nertb of Knoland. 
Then an alio Don Kin; at Amu for Scotland, ud 
lilater Kiti|t of Amu for Inland. 

KlMr OK THK Ii£KUlNG8, the popular 
naaw ({iveu to tlie i.'Uvt<rra rnvnttn/mi, or NurtKom 
or ArcUo Cbfancrik a tUh alio known in curtain 
loeaUiioa b; tba naiiiu of 'Sea-caL' Tbc forwer 
nasM WM ^iplied ti> it partly in alloaioB lo a c»wn- 
lOu plat* bonw on the apiiet' aapeet ol tbo faaad. and 
nartly tram Ita hafcAt of foUowlag eboala of htrrinifB. 
lb feeds upon theao ftdiea and o«bor smallar kind*; 
Imt alao appaaie bo aubKiat on craatacoaoa and other 
loirvr foTBLa t4 marbw life. It b Included in tlie 
order BUanobntufcU. and b tlitw « naar ally af tba 
ahoriia and T*y& It fama Uw tra» of saab-oidar — 
Iloloovphali— -of Iha KlaamcliiinAU, tba ineinbata of 
which are diitinipilabed prinurily by the mouth oiMft* 

ini; in front of the heod.anrl not an Ita under surface^ 
and by tliv hiiikIc i;ill*u{ierturu oovLtod by a gill-ci>vcr 
(iropcnnilum, Thi!iviuthiTai.'biat»!Tn{t.'alJwJignehiu 
AtutiitlU) in alao iucludtnl in till* ffniup, and this 
Initcr fomi is distinguiahod by having a cuHona hoo- 
llkc iLppcndage attached to the anont A aMdea nf 
thi- Hauic (,-ttnua (C. Ptroniii a hh'ivii on PL XOIII.- 
AtllV, fig, 8. Tli« King nt the 11.11x11.5)1, or N"rth- 

urti Chtniirra, iulialiits tbo ncirtlicm »c3ii ^utrally, 
and occurti tHvaalonally on the British coitata. It 
iiu-iiM fniui 3 tu 4 feet in ImgtJi, poNCMce a blunt, 
cniiicij-ahajioil mont, and has an alongalod, tapering 
tail, with uuetiual lub«NL In tbo auiv*. at the base 
of tlie ventral iina, bony appendocM oro found. The 
fLrst tin-ray of tbo dornil tin cxinta in th« fonn <•( a 
strung' ahaqt apina. The NurUtom (.liiciinra 'm ul a. 
grayiah or «ilvery colour, int^ni^KTacil with broH-iiiiih 
fpuU, Liaiucua called thuac liahM 'cLiuuunu' from 
their Bomawbat singular and fuaoiful appaoraitcc. 
The Norrrcfpanii ar« uid to cuipluy the oil of th* 
liver of thii !)ab, aa a remedy fur cErtain rUaeaiais 
«f Clio The «(teB are Jncloaod, Uk« tliow of lb« 
•hark*, &c., in botny eapnlca 

KINCiS, IhHiX^ or 1 xsi> 2. Thnu two Imnka 
fuTai oiju iu the Hebrew ciiftoii. lu lb« i?i'ptiuii,'iut 
veraiuu tbvr« aro rarluujj ouiistdoDs, addttioiM, trans- 
poaitit'nii, and gloMra, which do not in gcaeni appear 
hi f«»t an any autbeutii: uiithnriLy, and eometune* 
bear ovidant tiaoaa of UUt invention. DoaJdna tbalr 
intumaluiity the books vf Kioir'aroclwcilyoonnoi.-ted 
with thoaa which praofide them in bha cajicm. 1 ami 2 
Sainiwl, and even Judco* and Itutb. au tlxtt Huald 
Bunpoeea the whnli: of tlxwa bcioka to )io a aiiiglc com- 
pilation, au opiuiMi vLiub ba» ifidiLad |;ruuiid wu- 
^eimbly. Taking tba books of Kings aloaa thora 
ia intanul aridnioo thToaghoiit that tfaair wanpilation 
waa anljaequonl bo the tlealmcitian of the Jewiah 
munarahy, and in the lalor chapters louob to cor- 
roborata tbo Jewish tjadition that Jeremiah, witli 
whneo bonk of pronbedaa thoj maent many puinbt 
of aHreDDteoit, waalfaaccanpiler. Bj wivimsoevcrthey 
wore oonpllod tbeea book*, aa well a> Judges, Ruth, 
and Samuel, are oviilaiitly taken from a acriea uf oou- 
tMnporary authoriUes^ being, «a ahowa by citation, 
Uio ufbciiil annals aa well aa the pmphetdud vrilccs 
of the Bucccaalve period*. These authorititai are often 
followed so Utemlly that when a cucoiuuDt {* lulru- 
duc«d il is uncertain whotlior it is that cf the ort^nal 
writer or the comi^er; thus the wq u wion which 
frequently occun in refareoco to momcriab of oocur- 
roMMa that tlivy roioalu to tUa day eniMtlmee implloe 
the oiistaoca oil tlie monardir, the temple, or touo- 
thing eke kaoini not to exnA in tbe time uf tbo 
Liimpllcr. Tbebookaut KlngBtbiis oontalnauthentio 
accoauta of coQiotnpomry histoid during the wbula 
IwH'xl i.f tbo Jtfnii^ monarchy. They begin with 
the i-Iom- of tbi! nunii of King iJaTtd. atid Lbe liiatiiry 
i> •.wrtieJ down ooiiaecuUi uly to n puriiil sofaeeijacttt 
to tba oapturo oi Jeruukn and thu (loatruutioa of 
the tMii|iu^ ambracing, aooordlng to the raoalvtd 
chronology, a period cd upwanla of 400 nan (ILO, 
10|5-Q«ti), and including tbe hiatoty of both iha 
Idngdemt uf Judab and laraeL Tbe facta roraailed 
in regard to the fondgn relations td thoaa Uaodeaa 
frtNo tbe conquest of Koboboam bv SUahak, king of 
Kgypt, to Llin captivity In JLabylon, have bvcii re- 
markably ountLrmed by modern dlsoovariea. llio 
outline 1^ wrmM reoordad in Kings i* also fraquently 
sujmlonMnled by mii^ hillet ilvtailj in lite |Hr»hiecki 
Ixiotc*, parlioiilarlf laaiob and Jeraniab. The teat 
of tbe booha ol kiogs i* not oowUoiwd by eritks U» 
ba nry pure. The cbruauloay la io eo nflaatiafaHory 
aatato,aadiJltotdt to i«oondl* with other anthoritifa, 
and in aa many |««aagee inoonHsleat with itadf. that 
HBO eritfc* have been drirco to tbo extrame by]n* 



I dut lU iIm qnulurania pUBftfa, thitsc, ncunely, 
I tyjMbmaa* tb* ttf»tit» ctirvnulug-icst >>f thu 
'Mi^tas of th« kiiipi of Judali miiI lursL-l, ttMgctlict 
vrilli Um inportant doU In I Kiiiun ti. 1, vrlikli 
MffTDi toOMiiigct Uia beKUming and iba und of Jew- 
lA faiKtory, an inbcrpolAti<inii nf A kriitKinAtic cliro> 
nalu!Eii>b itrwixumilabli' «ilh tlio b^xt. Tliia Itvpa- 
Umou awaraaa not only tlie luMrpolatinu tit ruuimxium 
|i M i 1 { M , but thtt tmupuntuni of varivua M>oiJoiu «f 
the but, TIm booka nf Kiiiifn ilUf>-r fmin Ltie 
CluMu«lo* ill cconpriaing tliu liisturv ut thu wlmlo 
cif tbe Kjngdom ot Imd during it* tliuiUnl state, 
that b, ot tbo aeparatv kincduiii* uf lantol aiul 
Jodah. wbUo tb« CbroaldM &n; M)cu[<lL-d almodt 
euliuivcly with that of Jwlab. It u mLw to be 
uLaerved tliat Um Kinp oantniii iniicb fuller notice* 
of Um OMitviupurary prcpphvU, while tli« ChmuEdw 
*n aere full in dcacijbmg the tvmplu vontiip and 
ika ceramaKiiala ot Uio ttfr*iti<»] law, 'I'liw mav, 
jicrlia]*, W niKardud a> co-tilinaiiijt tile bvpuUi^UJ 
wfaicb aacrilMM tbe aut]ii>nbi|) t>f Om former n Jur«* 
miali tbc pividict, wbilu tlio n^tulvd autbur of tb« 
Ckmoidea mw >Uni thu nricaL 

KINO'S ADVUCATE. Seo AiirocAiE of ihjs 

KING'S BKNCH. Son Qrr.Kxa Bk.vcii. 

KINO'S CltLI.lvGE, (:wiil«iJ«»\ wa« founded 
hf King U«nrj VI. In 1411. Undi^r Ibe D«vr iU- 
ttitit*, which rvcrived tb« agipraval of tbo '(iiw>ii in 
council, 16tb Afiril, KSil!, tho collfipatd bndy mnaicta 
ol a {iiwTdsL, nut ffWL-r tbau forty-ois fclluwa, aud 
not fewer than Fi>rty-«i}^ht achnlafs. The f«>llntv*hi[« 
W« MMn to all luciubon uf the collvgu uf Rufiloiait 
■tauinf. Tw8Dty-faur aidwlimihips of £hQ eacb of 
■oiuibI Talao an apiiFopriated to tllo acholara oi Kton 
C^le^ alao fouudod by Hannr, VI. Of tho nniiaiu> 
log twcutty-fuur uf ■bniliir vabi«, twulve ait) cipou to 
■irnBdergradiutea of lb« cuUcp!. and twalYv to all 
Britiah Mibjccto under twenty VLnm uf age. All tbo 
■oholandupa are tenable till tlic hol^Iw ia of MA. 
Mandinc. or bvcomw a ti-Uuw of a i.-vlb^-'^. Si'Mjnd 
•dubitioiH w<ra founded from old b«ncifactton« in 
1ft71. Th«ra anabo various Tinxm, The niiTinben 
of this i»U(V« are eneuigit witbui the i.'ultei,-^ frutu thu 
antburity of tbo ptocrfin and nnlvuniiy uCQcvrv, tbo 
|Kovo«t bavine alwilute authority. 

b RpToiMiutary imtituliuu v«at«d tu a body of sbaro- 
hcMtn. It wu inonrporatcd iu I93S. Tb* btiil<l- 
iii9> Uam the ouat wing of Somonet Houw. It wu 
MlablJihed for tlm j^urpoae of providing «duc*tinn in 
•entilauce with the principle nf tho EstaUialiMl 
CSianib. la tbo higher diviaiui thmc ore four dnptrt' 
mwito- theology, veneral liter&tiirv, ajipliiML •dcncaa. 
and medicine. InUte achoo) dtviicon hoys aiv nduiitUiii 
Oft tbo prvoKiitation of nropriBtnr* Iwtweeii the h^ 
ai Bine and n^teen. Cnutvb sen iw furms a rnqpiJar 
part of tbo roitttne. Tbero 1« a library and b ntueuin, 
ihe lattor containing liabbn^'t.-'* rjilculidiii^ miKliJno, 
and a collection of mcchnnit'td iiicjiIi:]i ami iihilrsn- 
pJiioLl inatruioeiita WMJiiinu l/j George 111., jire- 
Mfttod by Queen Viirtori.-k. 

KINU'S CdirNSKL. S«« Qi'itrrt'a CouifSSL. 

KING'S COtlNTV, an inUiui ouunly. Ireland, 
MurlMie if l.«iiii>it«r, l>uundt<d s. by Wextmeath, IL 
bjr Eil'Lirv, k. by Qumm'a County nnd Tipiwrury, 
ir. Iiy Ti|i|ier»ry, Galway, and Itoaconmnn; area, 
493,Vq5 attrea, of whidi S37,25« acrei ju-b arntile. 
Thv ^)tal aorvagoonder crop« of all kimlK in l4i3 
was l::U,27t, of wbi«b t9,i/3i van uudur )fnus auU 
doror, ':24,C:i4 undero&Id. Tlie total uumberof cAltls 
IiilS'S waaOU.72^: abeop^ 143,652; |»){«. 1S,^3^. A 
lane portion of the x. and x.c. (art »f tliiscotrntyia 
corand with tlte Box of Alloti, and uf the s. with the 
BUere Blotoer Mountaiiu; the aitent of country 
Vol- IV. 

occnpicd by both being Mdn*t«d at IiS,6M »m 
'ilic tcrtntir, liko all Ihn otbar \Mg» here, re p o w tm ' 
liuiu*tono yravnl; tbe latter ocBiaial* of ft nndeua ol 
clny-alale, auiiiMwtlng flanka of aandatoae; they do 
Dot riae to may i^nmt bolgbt, thrir loftieal rammit 
being only ] f.i9 fctt high. They extend north-eaM ia 
ftouth-weBt, throu;{h u diatance of about IS miloa. 
Granular Umeetoue n^curs in tiie x.w. of the county, 
awl haa boon qnarricd. Tbe siril is in mtmv pUcee 
very rfdi, but tn otbLia U in %bt and graTeliy; al 
an ai-L-raf^, it uiay hv rcrltoiicul of a iiieuinni dc^roft 
of fartility. A hill, called I!ro;[1iati Hill, wliicb oora* 
■iata of a ikTutrutled uiaaa uf trap c<au{{luiiier»te, 1* 
aloMt all nnder eultiv«tiaa, and yiolda tbo most 
abiimlant wbitv and green cn>m v.-ithout any manure 
wtiatvrcr. I'ho priucluaJ ))rouu«8 is osta, wheal, and 
jwtMuee. The tiUatfofanua an g«n«»Uv small, bnt 
tbm m soBM ntoaairc ftanag awt. Tbe occnpa- 
tiofw ore MAarly altcgetbor agrieulturaJ, naDnfaotnrde 
beinic only for buiue mjuunjption. Tho latter in- 
vtudJe sinue Uiitin, frioioa, ami aorgca. King"* C'oun^ 
if diiidod into twelve baronioa and tifty-uue |)ari>het; 
and rcfnnia two niAinhera to Parliament, IkiUi fur the 
cuuiitv. Tbu |iriiii:ipjd town ia llirr nr J'araon'i 
Town. Fd]*.. which in ISIl troa ld€.s;s, wna lo 
1571. 7fi,7Sl. 

KfNG'S EVn.. Bee SCBorfUL 

KINO'S LYNX. See Ltjis. 

KtNUSTON, n QiU of Ontnrit^ Dominion of Ca- 
nada, on Navy Bay, the nortb-uut comer of Ijvlto 
Ocitariu, 1911 tuila B.w. MoutrcAl. The Btnwta mo 
rrgtiiarly Uid out nt right angles to lucb other; and 
tbu bouww, atthouich ia ({nnoml havbif no I'Tvtvnaiotia 
to tJeganoe, ore, for the moet part, Bubdtuitially built 
of fltunc. The tnarket-hoiuo ie a apadoua atruoLure, 
containins news and rmdins motns, anilrarionx public 
oHiota. Theoducatioual iuxUtutiuus arv thtr <Ju«en'a 
Uaivonity and CoUegi?, a coUogialo tnatitution bo- 
longing' U- tlic I'nrabytcriAnii, a meohanica' inctittitc, 
on h(H>]iitnl, nod oilier charitable vstabliabmnntii. 
Tli« triidu "f tbo port la Tory oanaidorablp, and lltu 
harbour, wbicb ia commodioua and well aheltcred, ia 
ncccMsihlu to ahips nf lar][e aiiu. Ita entrance ia 
defended by twubalteriea. Thera ara wime valuable 
mlnetal t]njngi In the town nnd neigh Ixnirbood. 
Kingston vw founded in 17^ on the invnnd for- 
merly oocupfed by Fort Pmnteaac: and It waa incor- 
[jorau-din ISSa. pop. il^7-i). ]-i4i:i7. 

KINGSTON, tbs oajntal of tbo inlaud of Jamaloo, 
on the •oulb oajrt, on a gentle alottu. Tbe Ntre«ta 
are long and otraitfbt, and laid out with grc&l regu- 
larity. Thu hotiaca ar« generally built of brick, and 
an two Etone* high, having tbe front* abatled by a 
)aazxa below, and a oovcrod gallery above; tlie latter, 
frum 12 to 14 fit^L vrido, guiiy patiit^ with green 
Hid whitw, aiul funiLHd by the niofi projecting be- 
yinid the biic-k walls or nheUn c>£ the boiun. In tbe 
upper i«art of tbe town every houae Blanda detadud 
from ib) ii':i^>hboiir in ita little garden, fillod with 
vincw, fruit-tretB, luid statnly palnti, with a court of 
uegru luninee and oltioee behind. Tbo prinetpal publio 
bufldUigs are tbe ZngUab and Scotch cbunibce; tho 
fonner, which atanda in a eotntoandin^ poaition. is a 
largo luid «lfgaut atructure, with four uLiIm and a 
bandsoine tow-or and apire; nn bo»iiital, and varionii 
other chftTi table iustitutioiu, courtbouae, free acbool, 
theatre, workbouke, ncir penbeotiary, commercial aub- 
Kcripti{io-i-<iiiii]ii,biirTa/:kK.andjai]. iliebarlanir, which 
is ft inilia liiny by 2 miles wide, is csniplctvly land- 
locked, bclu;; •c|iiirat«d frwu the eon by a uairow 
allp of low land, along which there la excflUent 
ancboraei: for vcmcIh of any «iM. Ilio rntrwice to 
the bac-lxnir, and the hacbuur Uael^ ia defended by 
■ereral formidabji; forts. I'ho tnoUned pli^n oa 
which Kinntou rtanda ia inolowd on the tiorth by tbA 



lotd«e ridca ot tha BltM Moustaia chain, and the 
itttenoodulo inaee agMoahl; divcniEvd with country 
reddenoo, nad, near tho motinttiiiu, tiith Bigj^nr c*- 
t«t««. A rallirny 1vtu«eii Klugrion aud S|<iuibll 
Town, 10 milca wc&t, v-ui>p«nsdui lalti. Fo'p. iiBti- 


KLNOSTON-rrON-TUAMES. » town of Ens- 
buid, ill tlao oouiity of Snrny, on tlio riglit bank 
«i the 'i'luuiiM, bcre crntacd bv two elcguit sbino 
iHTtdgM, and ou the Suutb- Wottem RaiJwajr, IS 
nubafniuil^dcrailLConiir. It«antlqiiItyUprov«d 
by auBMTOtu fiooma nrn^aa fouud ia its ridnJtj, 
oad th» Skxon klnfa irere crawncd htn tuttn Edirord 
tbo Kldcr to EtbelrL-d II. In recL-iit tiuim, ia cun- 
•equmoe at Uii|iortaiit ftltcrntiotui, it li-'w .luiiiiMd « 
very improved appearauac, aud a new wwu liu 
sprang up near tut nilmjr station. Ita ptiDdp»l 
iMutdinn an ao audsiit cruoifomi church, Mvctal 
JMaMating dukpo^ a (too gTMUucuu' And lAhar Mohoob, 
• town-baU, nutrkot-Lcnne, military banadu, tc. 
Tboia an hen a lar^ bnmay and a distiUary. and 
Hveral Hour sod oil mill*. lU tnuUi ig obiefly in 
iiibII. KiiiK>toii hariuj boen mado a inUitar; ocDtrc, 
ibo jiul hu boaa ODBTCTtvd Into a barrooka. Pop. in 

KIXliSTOWX, a ■cuiH.rt, Ireland, on the nnvitli 
sbura of Dublin U&y, 1} uiUes ikBL ot IHibliu, with 
which aud with DaUwy it ia conneotad by nilway. 
It floniiata of regnUr MivcU, and aotM fine tcmces 
attd otberranAoi of haodaume buildings. Ibnuxiin- 
iMfwtiDgobjlvt la its magnlflcan L royal harbour, ocnn- 
MMttPsd In ISH by dinxtiolu i}t tbv lords of t^ ad- 
ialra]t5, and fialahed la 18S» at a Mst tf £825,04)0. 
Tb«i» an two pienv an cast jAvt 8500 f«e( lonfr, and 
a WMt piar 4B50 faot lon^ indonng an ami of 250 
acni^ with • dtpth vaiyiaf; troiD 15 tv 27 fwot. 
Klnsiteii baa nralar ■tcmi. <'''inimini<'artifiii Willi 
Dalibn, Krtom h ead, nnd Holyhaad, and is riatted 
anipaaUjfbj]OOI>tolSOO waU <oicla»iTaofniall««d 
liMningw Aeaaien}, curyfoif upirsrd* tif 300,000 
l«na. lUngitinni is » favoufUa reson of tfaa Doblin 
citiscM, and u much frMiuout«d for aui- bathing;. 
Pol*, of towtiihip in 1871, 16,ST8. 

KINO'S VKLLOU', a jil^inetit, the basis of 
nliidi is ort>itn<:nt or t«nulpbida of aiMoIft 

KINKAJUU tCereoUptes). Tbcw canuTorons 
miiminals aro bdaaUtanta of SoaUi Amerloa, and in 
tbo main ar* adaptsd for an arb«ml lif«; Ttwy on 
SMSt BMurlr nUted to tbo (amaly of tho Ursidn or 
bMMi^wbkhfanDatheiyckioolyreoamblo in their dental 
arraBgomcnt. Thoy ar* phuticmdo Uko ihu boimi, 
that &i apply tbo wbgle aolvoftufooi to tho ground 
in walldng. Tbo (cot aro prm^kd o»^ villi An 
loot, vbidi *i« not uii)l<xl together aa la tlw taoro 
typical plantlgnuUa. 'Vbn csnino tooth aro ot snail 
Jm, ud tho molar tootb, bciog tuborcolotv^ wmJd 
■earn fitted for an iaaeotlviuoas or vm^etable dietary, 
itaiiu babiutbey«m«ar«iiiAinitotMsaiu] food upon 
tbcir ■m.-dlcr nanimubai aoiabbours^ upon birds and 
tbsic oggi, upom h u oet^ btuts, tooM^ fte. In out- 
wud ^pucanoa tbev boar a reaomblanoe to tho 
knnn or lower aMnko^ Tbor aro all of small 
aiza. Tlis IcffM arc abort, tlio ftir is class anil woolly, 
and tho tail u luug and jo^houdle, and is used bj th«o« 
igoBs as aa aid to pfogrwdoB snoag tbo troos of tfa« 
fe«Mts In which tacy liv« The; qipoar to diot* 
ahctwd sfaio^ during tbo nighL In capttrity tbor 
bMoano nry taaie aad dooQo. Tboy havo an wpedu 
UhfBf Cor bonaj, and ant aald to auko tomys on tbo 
nssts of bees for tbo sako at tho sweet sCoti; of theao 
Inasoti^ Thoy an gsaenlty inducled to form tbo 
family Ono1s|)Uda*,Bad tbo Crn«iefta eoudiro^rofiu 
is tbo moat *^™<t«i- fnnn. 

KINO, «< OCH Kao, ao astrfncsnt wbatanoe 

used in medidne^ a prndDOt of nntal difionnt tnoo. 
It is similar in use to catocbn, by which ft is now 
KcQcndly atipcraedod. African kmo, derived tram 
tbo PUi-vmrfnit trtnofeut, wLlob !■ Ibe best quality, 
is now aoldotu fi»uad in tbo sbopa; that moot com- 
monly nocd is the Kut In'lia Idno of tho PUnearpma 
nuirju/ziiim, fuund on Lbe Cumniaodel OOSOt. 

KINBUSS, a town, Scotland, oonnty of KinroH, 
is pleuautly situated at tbo vrtstoud of Ix>cl) Levou, 
20 mlUa K. by w. Ililinbur^h; fiirracrly a mean-looking 
place; but, u( ]*tu ycm, j;i*iitly iniproved. Cotbou- 
woavlng, and tho manufactura of tnitsn sbawLt, 
I'liuilit, and other articles, ore Ibv principal bronchos 
uf Inilustry. Pop. of town In 1671, IV2G. 

KIXHUSS-SIIIRK, a xmAl! uilsnd cwinty, Scot- 
land, wcKt of Fifir, imd DOtircly surr^gnndud by tbal 
uoiiuty and Pertluilure; area, 4I',S12 ocrot, of wbicb 
44HUare wator,caBBlstJngaf Loch Lo von, with asmteoo 
«f 3300 sens, aud some smolLitr IoLitk, miMtnf whkb 
abound in fish. The bordun are billy, but tbs In' 
tedor Is eenerally Isvd or sUybtly varied by gontlo 
elevaticai. Tho gonoralgeological formation of thu 
district in red (reestono, but the bit^ber bilk are 
whbstone or basiUt. There are (ivuurieo uf Hiue- 
stono and frecoCoao, and cxud is found in \hi> south. 
Tho sul in the low ground is olnyey, sandy, and 
tolerably fertile^ The total acrcaj^e noder crops of 
oU tiaia in 1$73 wns 34,730, at nlilcli £S,2SS were 
under wita and other rotation crops, (H&6 under per- 
manent pMtnre. 'IIm number of rattle in 1 E73 was 
2",lI«r;aheep,B2,il:."J; !iKrii:iilturidh.>ra«i,4315. The 
prlucij;aistreamiiar« tbi> t.l.'iniv, the .South and North 
Qudcb, all ot whidi fiUl iiit« Loch Lavea. Kinross, 
the oounty town, and Milnathort, aio the only towns in 
the county. Kinroes- shire oonlalns aoron parisbca. 
and imitot with C^kmuinanatiint and certain par- 
Isheo in tho suuth*west psrL of I^urtluhlra In rotnni- 
las a member to tbo House of CommoaiL Poit. iu 
1871. 719S. 

KlN^AI.R,a>c»part tiiwnaC Ireland, In tlu-cotti^ty 
and 12 milui iiuutb uf Cork, ut,-revably sitoated near 
Uio month of the Bandon. which hero forms a ina^- 
I niticcDt biu-Umr, acctesible to Uio lArgcst Nhi|is. It 
occujdeo a steep ucclivitr, and has many of it* bouaea 
oxcavatod out of tbo solid rock, nblleotbers, potcbed 
on crags, pr sscn t a very lingalar appearaaoo. ' Tha 
prineipsJ buildlnj;* aro an anclDnt pmsh oburoh, with 
a tower tonoinaling in a aplr*; a spodouo Bomaii 
Catbolio chapel, with ridi intsnal deooratloas; a 
Cown-hoU ana jul; a fort commanding tbo barboar, 
infantry barracks, capable togotberof reoetvlag *JOUU 
men; sototsJ acboola, a monastoiT and oacvenl, a 
titvw boopilal. union wofkhousa, Ao. Many of tbe 
inhabttaoti an em]>loycd in tiiddng. The exporta 
eooidsi obiefly ot sffrirullund product^ and tb« in>- 
porta of timbor, coal, iron, and salt Kinsals i* » 
veryaocioat place, and bos boon tT|>Datedly bcoief^ed. 
Tt sends one mcmbar to ParUamenl. Pup. in lBi71, 

KrNTYKK. fj«i CjJtnn. 

KIOSK, an oriental pavilion, with a teot^bapod 
roof, open on all aldea, and faolatod. It U oapfMrtad 
by pillars Icoromonly placod in a sqnan), roaiid tho 
foot of wbidi ia a balustraale. It ia built ol wood, 
straw, ur sUullar matvrUls, aud Is obloAy eioet»d h» 
afford a frw proopoot In tho abada, but it also Htrrw 
toeml«llish a ntm or gardon Tkw. lltcv-unl IVost 
ia TurkiBb. Tliia kSud uf pavUloa baa been Intnv 
duu'«d truui thu Turks and PetslaM lato tbo English, 
Jt'icnch, and German gotdcasi 

KIBBY, lUT. WiLUAX, a dlsHnnldMd ulaiBo> 
loglat, waa the oott of a aoUdlv, aad MOB al Witacs- 
hom Hall, SoOblk, on 19th Smtombor, UW. Ue 
was educalMl at the gnuauarwMwl of Inrwteb. and 
af tecwaraa Modled for the church at Ottui CoUego^ 




CuBbcliIs«v ^Im» 1i« took luadefreeof B.A, in 17S1. 
Sbotlly utorfrwda Iw mu uppoJ&ted to ttta curacy 
ol Bu-hun, in Soffotk, of wtiicb, in 17BS, bo bcouiw 
rector. Hi« love of nmtuiml hiirlary eaily (levelopeil 
ib>d4 sod h« now, «■ tbe olBrgymuk of * country 
p«i«h, found aiaplo mojw for prowcudajf his studiin 
u that dopartmcBE of adeaee. I'he inibjcct which 
fint mual; Migagvd hk •tlentlaa niu boUiiy, but ho 
wu inilacecl by an iu!ci<lBntal drcnnutwic* to abui- 
tluD it fur tatoaguAosj, to which b« xwu beeoiiM »»• 
thiuUiUoIly derot«d. On the fatftbUahment of the 
I jii U u ran Sowcty, iiil7S8. licTVM»rn)otit«BratiiiMn- 
ben.'kiK] in 17S3 he ooiitt-ilmt«] hi* lirat pOipar to 
Its TVnaucduu*, eotitluJ A DuoriptloQ vt TLne 
Kcv Smcics cf Uiru'do. Ktuncroiu othor pjtpen 
foUowea from Ifmc to timft. In 1S03 npfH-iin-H liia 
work on Eujjluih Bnra, mitilleil Monofjriiphm Apiun 
Aa^isD (two voU. Epcwich), which wtablishod for him 
n Eorepeui rqratfttioii, and broui^t him intocorrca- 
pflBtfaBOB wlBh FftbrioiuM, LatreitlA. &nd othar foreisn 
Batoiatirta. A few yean Aftcruanlit he funned h 
Iflemy oopMtimy with Hr. Spcnon. fcir thn ptupoao 
of conatnic^Dtf » jkijjuIht work ou uitoiuok^, uud 
Uh nnll «-u iho iiubllcation, in laiS, of tho flrat 
volnSDA of Kirliy anJ SpamMi'ii Introduction to Kntn- 
aMkgy, of which the Mcond vgluuu) uiitivKml in 
IS17, snd the third and fvurtb lo 18241. Thix Li oue 
Af Um b«it popular trojUtSM in caniwction with iirt- 
tnral huitonr that ha« ever »i>pcwcd, nnd it achicvnl n 
trmt Mid dewrved rvpuUlfun, wliivU, its it U alui'jvt 
cshnnutivv cf tlw ful^'act oil which ic trvftta. it n-Ul 
probably ever MtoitL It givo in the fonn of lottsr* 
ft fudliar dncripttuu of insvcti in all their iduuMM 
tagordi Rpwdci^ food, hitUtit, imd ijUftUtlM, benefldtd 
or (loibtictiv*. la 1S30 &Ir. ICirhy wu appoLDted 
tA wrhe ate ot ibe Bridgwater IVei^'jin (which hc«), 
ud ho accordingly nroduoed his Hubita nnd InaUncU 
of Amnutl* with r«Mr«ic« to Nntural 'ThmtAogy. H» 
wrote a dcecriptiuii of the Arctio uwwU for Captain 
Piny's Teyage for the DlMOTery of a Nortb-wnt 
FlMRSa, Olid itlso for Sir John Itichordaun'a Fmida 
Bijrcall-AnMrtcana. Mr. Eirbywaa hunnrwy nr«*l- 
dcBt of the EBtomological Society of London, mlow 
ti tba Bpyal, LianaiaB, Zoological, and Oeolc^gtoal 
toditieSj and honoronr nicmlxr of icTcntl iK>dotic« 
abroad. He di«d at the odronoed aye of uincty, qu 
iib -Inly. 1S50. U« wu cirlco married, but bid do 
tanjily by dther wife, 

KIBCHEK, ATBAVAStim, a leoraed G«rKian 
■Tesiiit, bora at FiiIiIa m 1402. Ht> waa profoMor 
■4' matheniAtioi, philni>(>phy, nnd tlio urlimtal lu)- 
SaoffCt) at WttRburi;, when llie iltuu uf the Swedes 
dlatarbed his repoee, and he i«[>Aire<l to Avigatia, 
where he oontiuuorl wrcral yce-n. He wished tu 
utiuii to GvrmaDy; but the vo|>e colled him to Bcme, 
vbwB he at flnt taught mathematJca ia lh« CoUeginm 
Boautaton. and af Lcrwmrda occupied himaeH In tile 
■tndy of thn Kgy|tti.-in hirmglrphicT. He was imh- 
acqucntly piufuwor uf II«lriiDW and umlhumalicn at 
Rcae. when be died in 1030. Fothar Kiroher was 
ft good orienfatlie^ an well oi an oxcoUcnt mattocma- 
tieian; bnt the unciful nature of Hiinc of lii> uttidini 
boa eauaed n>o«t cf hi* productJona to }•!• cuuHideri'd 
rather curious than tuduL In his attompts to un- 
fkvel the hieroglyphlcK tui occiudnnoLly fell itttn «nmn 
•ingDhr abaonlitJiw. Hia iinluslry aa » writer was 
naweorivd, the whiilo ot liln wdrlm ixviipjiii^ rin 
fevitr th&n tn'cuty rvtunicn in f^jli'i, cloven in qu»no. 
Bod thnto in octnvn. Aitumg tboie ore hia <Kili|iuii 
JSpptia<*l" (four vols., 1802-66), ProdromiiK Coptiu 
(Bdmek 16S6\ Ltngtt* Xgyptiaat, rortituta (Komo, 
1«H <W, Mundn« Sabtcmuitma (two vuLt) In hid 
JftMorta b^ biy s claim to the Invention of the .Cclian 
hup oiul ID I^ Phonotgia Nova to that nf the spoak- 
[ feff^nuDpct. Sia wriHnga embrace the dBportmcnta 

of pbiloeophy, mathemaliei^ pb^vits, mechanics, eo«' 
motiraphy, natural history, pbUoIojy, batory, and 
nntiiuiu. They exhibit fT«at leamqg;, but are dis- 
Bjpired by mxiy cxtravaganeea. 

IvIUOHl!^, KiKSHtH, or Kinniiiz-KAKAKN (('m- 
tacks of tbc StomMs], a widely • Mpread nomadic 
people nf Asia, of TnrklBh -Tartar race, who Inhabit 
the stqipus that eitend fiom tho lower Vcilmi and the 
t'juipian 8o.i in the wort to tba Altai and Tbian>Sluui 
MouuUltj* ill tiiv east, and from the Sea cf Aral and 
the Syr OatIa in the aouth to the Tobol and Irtish 
on the north. The t«rai Kirghiz, though applinl by 
EurojieaiiH to t.'io wholn of tbeee poopl'O*, tirviirrly 
hihuise only to thti Kam-Kirt,'bli (JlUcI: Kirghiz, 
callud also Bnmts or Prats). Those to whom Enropoaiu 
give the luuno KirghizATo colled by tho Ariatlos Ka- 
iLika. The Kirghlz-Koutka apeak Uie Turkish dialect 
of the Uibeki. Ia tfaoir phjincal tjpe tbov belong to 
the MoDfoUaa race. They profeH too Mobammeoan 
faith, though they do not prA£it« polygamy; hut the 
mass of thnu stilt adhere to tho p^an supttstitiona 
inhntiled frnm Lhrir fon^Athcn, and are sank in 
iLiioranoe. They ore below the eecond aierago of 
Knropeon st&turu, and are remarkably healthy and 
vigoroiis, Tboir fuod is cliiaEly miittJin and hoiw 
flush, with iwmiu or fenuented tnoiv's milk, fiesn 
wbidith«y extract an Intoxicating spirit Tbeyarain- 
dolrnl, iiuniUauiniouii, volatile, very araridnu^ and 
frigbtfuOy vimlictive. Altnost all the loboni^ out- 
door and lu-dunr, fall upun the women. AgriooUure 
scaroily ndsta aniun^' tbtxo, but they po«<N* nuiy 
sheep, horaaa, and catq cIs. Cottlo and gauU on not 
•o munerous. 'I'huir dwellings ooamtt u( n yiirf or 
hemispherical t<-tit, llii- frikme of which is cif bonghs, 
the cowriug of felt. Their manofactura ore eicln- 
sively domextic, nnd cnnnLit of woollen dotha, felt, 
cai^wla, hair-ropee, lenllicr, mttol omatnents fur 
hnrwlr^plnss, knivts, &c. lliry carry on a trade 
by barter wila tho Chinese and Busabms, exchai^ng 
sheep, herBcs, oameli^ oaltls, wool, atdn^ fte., for 
tea, cuUcry, s^ks, and utbor manufactured goods. A 
constdsmble portion of tho Kirghiz dwell in Ohlnesa 
terzjtoiy or in Independent Turkestan, but the greater 
niiinher ol thnn ore nDminnUv under Russian domi- 
nioiL Uf thotc Eumpono Ausnia oont^ns alinut 
1.^0,000. Tho Kirghiz steppes of Ajdalic IlinsiA, 
wldcli now form tbo four proTfnoea of Vnd, 'I\irgai, 
AkmoUnsli, and SemipalattBsk, bavo a popuLtdou of 
1.4S(I,000; and theire were eatfanated to be about 
70(l;000Kir]ibIz in Rnssiaa Turkestan. TbcKir^'lJi- 
Knzoks ore dlrlded Into Uirnn Ixxlion^LIin littln 
Horde (orda, a tenter cncampmuut), dwelling in the 
rvglou estendiug frotu tlie rlmr Urn! to the Se* of 
And and the Syr, aiul mure nunicmus than the others 
togethsr; tho Middle Horde, uorth-tuut from the 
preoedlne: tbc Orcnt Hordi^ extending from about 
Lake Bulcnah to the Cbiuoec territories; tho Bun^t« 
or Kara<K!rgbix, extend o*«r tho Alntau, Sduxtoti, 
and utber iriountoiju about Khokan, Knehgar, and 
Torkand. The Klrj^ steppes u« ootlccU^'ely an 
unduIoUng counby, nowbcra ridng bo any great 
hrijjbt. Being «E vast extent it dillerx coneiderably 
Sri dilTi-ri-ut iiuarteni, liut it' |{«[iL-ra,l r'haract«T Isuid- 
f-urm and monotoaous- A grvs\t portiun uf the ttni- 
tory is nrid and sterile, it is mostly oomred with 
Toak herbage, and selduin traversod by rit«ra. Salt 
Inkee luv exceedingly numsious In some ports. Tb« 
oliouvtv is clumct4riiei.l by great extroinvs of heat 
am\ ciild and excesnive dryntae. Treinaidoua hoTri- 

I'luii^s Mc (xiiuiiiun. 

KIKKt'AI-DY, aioyol and parliamentary biifjrh 
nnd HtaiHirt, Scotland, coun^of Fife, en a spadoHs 
hay on tlio tiorth «hof« of the Firth of Fortli, 10 miles 
ui>rth uf Ediiibiir,^h. It oonuste priiicipnUy ff otm 
long Irrcgulnr "tree t^ which, !neltMlIngBnburl>ti,exlcuds 



for ulirnit 3 ndJes wwt to ensL The wcrt pNrt of ttiU 
groat Uiorangbfsra itrouhw along th« slioni, whieli 
it K low mhiIv level: hut toward* tb« CMt the m.iin 
alRcl, M w«ll «H aouic of tiie Inuei dircrvints' from il, 
la built OD ma soclirlty. It lin« » haniWxn* tnn-n> 
luU, vith an dv^aiit Rpiiv; a uuuilwr of cburcfaaa, a 
Inujili adural, PhUp'i Ituitltution, for Adiicatlng and 
clothing tho chiliirvn of tlie poorer c]aaa«« boloDi^ui^' 
to Kirkcaldy and vaav nf the noigbbouring tovnu ; n 
pvople's-olub on J in>titutL'. n lit«rM7 and » Mientllio 
aasodallnn, &c. la KlrkcalilyandtbadlMrMaround 
it tlier« am ninDor«ti* tlax-ainniitDg luillii, also blenoti- 
lielHa, uul jute and Hnsn, tutd floor-dcitb maniifNC- 
tiire* (tho Aoor-eloth nMunfavturc U of recent iulro- 
duetiiMi, but already at gniit rxt«nt), iron and ahit)- 
bnltdlnj[ vtork*, tlmir-initl«, brewttrim, a vilrinl-wnrk, 
diitillory, iDUcliina-facUiriaa, liHck and tile work^ 
inttortca, anil oiUivrka. ])»d-tictiiiig, csnvna, ttjiil 
uUi«r linen fsbrici^ ar« tho itaplo iiuvanfEurtnn of tUo 
placa. The barbDur has been of late jeora i^ontty 
liD{irwvcd, and atthongh it i» <70ii)(ik'loiy dr^ at Ivw 
wstor it ia capablB at full tidfi of ndinittiiig voaaeli 
of v«r7 ooQsLdvrablv burdvn. Tbi; troda uf tlj« (>ort 
i» tutvttnvti, and iiidiid«a te|,iiW at«atu eotunmnica- 
tinn tvith Ijiindon, HiiH, Xoivcnatle, Glaiignw. Lvitli, 
wad Uransemuutli. Tbo imports ooosiit of flax, tim- 
bsTi vliiling, chwntCTil^ ooni, and other artioloe; tbo 
txporti art Unan, jut*t y^, cur«d hearringit And 
ooaL Kirlccaldjr, togetbor with RiimtialAiid, Dvaart, 
■nd Elnghium, ainatEtat«a llw RlrVcaldjr dlatrtut of 
buiv'lif, whicli Bcnda one tnembor to Parliament. 
Adntn Smith, autliornf tfao Wcftltb of Natinna, wna 
biira liero, P«p. ol porlininrutArjr boroiiuli iti 1671, 
774-'l: (if untir* towu, with mibiirtw of UalUtomi, 
Patbhead, and :jindairt<)wn, IS.fiil. 

KIRKCin^imiUHT. »TBWAnTnT of, a nari- 
tinio county, Scotlaad, and. vrlth cxi-viition of Wi^- 
tonahiTc, tliB Ji>o»t ■outbcm ; boimtW ncrtb by connty 
Ayr, weat by Wijjlon, m>rt)i and ea«l bv Diainfrivw, 
aoA Bontb by tho Salway PItUi and ^Vlgtom Bay; 
arcot f)10,Si3 aci«^ of wlticli abovo ouLvfourth i« 
nckuncd to bo amhla. Tba lotaL Mmmsa undvr cmp* 
of all Idnda In 1873 waa !«!>,»«&, of which 90,485 waa 
BBdcr «orB or othar rotatioo tmff, luid 73,rj3 under 
[>ennan«nt paature. 1'bo nnmlirr of Mttlo in 1873 
waa 4I.8S5; of ahMi^, S93,5£U; ul MrriL-uItund hono^ 
5017. Tba ooaat'Une, gnmndly bold and preoipitonM^ 
Htanda from the bcM of Wvtoa Bar to the Nitb, 
ft dbunoo, axclnatve of baya and tnlela, lA thoot 
45 mile*. Th« WR«t«m part of thia lino ia ooawdnr- 
nbly indmtea^ tbe Iai)[«T o|ieaungN being Fbwt Ray, 
IXngtoo, Md AwAmimIiii Bnya and Trr Wat«r. 
Th» inrfMn in tb* InUclor la gvoerally blUy, and in 
axteiuiro duitricta mountMnmia; the chir^ rlovation* 
in Di« Inlt«r reacbbtg tho lieij|lit of 2000 to 3(K}l> f6et. 
GraniM ii awt with in aev«nU localises, tba moat 
MBipidaoH being Cmignair, Oraotown, and Cnff*L 
KviciciMlhriffaUiiracontBiirunuioanuB metallic vona. 
Yelaa of mm and oopj^xtr orv havu b««ii fuiind, adA 
■bo hsnnth* itvn om The principal nv«n of 
the ominty are tho Vm and tbi (Jrr. I^krn arc 
nnnxTroiu, but i^ncrally biiibII, with oxcv-ptian of 
Loch Ken. a bMuitlftU. tli^^t of water of gi«al 
Ivngth. but ««ry narrow. Although the nmmf aur- 
(ue ri the OMintfj nay be cbaiMterlnd ni rngnod 
aad barren, there ar« yel neiiy bMuMfnl Mid nv^ 
tile, tboiiDh Moall raUara. nloog tba wurw e of tba 
Uir and Doe^ Anbk btuban^ ha* been greMly 
Inprorad of late yoftn; but the prindp«l aMentlan 
b paid b) tbo ■'"n^ of cattle, which are mostly 
•Hit lo England. The breed of honen pncnliar to 
tU* and tbe iwljobilng county of WIgtaa, known ae 
Gftllewtya, ia aaw ahncMt ostiuct; lU place being 
•a|Mlied by boiwa of a larger «tMv and more eidtAblo 
tordranghl. TbnabeepouUNnMonaadlilBbgTtniiidi 

are niiwtlv block .rnoeil. In the lovrcr Huincia Cbo- 
viote, SoHth Downs and LciounU-ni jin-vnU. Onte 
conntiltite the princiriol crc>p; iMitntoee are also WCea- 
mvely culLi>al«<l, and tumipe nre oreivwber« growti. 
Til" unlnKin liiiii^riM of the. IJcb ana Urr ans very 
valiKiWp, CT])e<:i«Hy Uic furuiur. The county retumii 
ont) uiunibvr to P)irli:LiiK.'at. It coutainatwctity-vigbt 
iiuiBhco, and fomi* «rilb WigWimhirr tlic liintrict 
KDov-n by tlie muirn nf Usllciway. Tba inui<.-i]«l 
tijwnti WW Kirkcudbright (,lLo county town), IJal- 
Iwatlie, and Ooftlo-DouglaA. A atuwartry viu ori- 
ginnlly a di*trii't of cr»n'u lanil* iindir tlic chotgie of 
a «tmifariL By wt 1 Vict cup. xxut., the word 
county oronrring In any act of Pnrlininont, nnlcm 
othcrwitie provided, k to ooroprchiind any Htewaitry 
in ^kuUlU1lj. Pop. (IS71), ilfihU. 

KIKKCUDBRIUHT. a royal biiryb luid port. 
S<;<it!nn(1. <!npita1 cif tho ituntartry nf natiiR n«nic, on 
iLv l>j(t bank of the Dm;, 2S uiilue wtuih-urBt of 
UuRifricB. It ii4 a clcin, well'built placL', vrith an 
clcf^nnt Kitfthlii'Iinil and aeiaral otlicf cliiird'c*, a 
county ball uiil jail, au anademy, &c. The tnule 
oombts In «xpart« of agricultural [voduc«,and import* 
of coal and lime. It ha» rogular ttoain caiiitnunica- 
tion wth Liiverpool. It ia oaa of the Diinifrica dis- 
trict of burKb*, wbltdi vends one uiiiuiber to Farlia- 
motit. Voyf. tn ]^"l, '2Vii. 

KlRKl><'TiLLUt'll. a mjukct town and police 
buf)^ Stnllaud, county of rhtmliartoii, " wiIm nurtli 
byoaat of Ulaai,-uft', uiiibi! ralluay tbviioe t^<(-**nipa!e. 
It comicts of tbrcv principal and iwvora! auborJiiiikU- 
rtrccbk and haii tl)tve tlntabliKhed cburcbe^ b«Ai(li.'A 
other plarn of vruribip: tk jai], mid court -lioiiac, Ac. 
WwaTing lappet* vTfui till rci'riitly th» chief cccupn- 
ti'ni; liut iron foundnee, cotton fiKtoriee, and djvtni- 
cal v,tyr)a of oonaiderabla ejctent Iutb now boon 
c«tabli«b«d. PoUoe cominiarionora under the Act of 
}WJ wcro adopted in 1S71 for Kirkiiitillncli and 
Lviizie. A Kbeine fur wntvr aupply tra» adopted iu 
1ST*. Pop. in ls7l.CiaO. 

KIKK- SESSION, a aubor-linatc eccloauutical 
court in ScntJaad oonnecrtol with evorv pariili, and 
ounciating of ibu^ iJiirisb mblftor or mlnleieT^ and of 
M many oldon. I'be kirk-ataiion oaed to hare the 
nanogemcnt of tbn pan>chial poor, but thi« in niiw 
intrusted (o a ]wn>cliuil b(j«rd. The cliief iRuicuB 
ofcbx kirk-teiMion Is toeapvrictond tbeuioraJjof Ibe 
l<iuvtiioucra, and adnunJatur tbe dicci^ne of the 
ehnreh a>»Mrding to eettbtUied lawe. For thia pur- 
pose it has tho power to inaliluln prooemea^ to die 
partial and iritaonmi, to examine witttasen on ondt, 
and to pronounce aenteneee and inflict cotunrui ac- 
cortUng to t^ evidence ndduced. A record of iU 
pTDce^ing* is carefully kept Ita pmoeedtnn and 
sontenMsars nibjoct to the roviowo) the pr wb yteT y 
of tbe diatrict 

KIRKWALL, a town aud sn-port, Sootlftnd, 
eautal of the cniintr of Drknoy, on a bay on the eeat 
■hie of the laliuid of Pouiona or Mainland. It oaa> 
•bla prindpally i>t a nvruw street, with hoosee of 
anli<|uc ap]«arMic«, and another iuod(>m street ptural- 
lei to the fonncr, and containing many aubatAntial 
hnuaea and haadscme altops. Tlie prindml cdlficee 
am the mngnifioMit old tMthedml of St Magnui, the 
«bolr of wludi hna UMg been need oe the parish cb ordt : 
the old caatle ri the earb of Orkney, the niins of 
tbe bisbo^ palace, in wUcb King Ilaco died; the 
Fl«e and United Pmbytcrien ebun-bre, a town-ball, 
an ciidowed grainraar and ctbcr HL-hn«U. tec Tbe 
principal maatufactunM are Itoon and straw pfa^t. 
ThelurboartaaseureandcnanBodioui,and tbotnvte^ 
both foreign and eoaallng, i* oonaVlenhle: Steunen 
ply regdbrly to Abatileen,Ldtb, Lerwick, Ac Kirk- 
wall unites with Wick, Ac, in acndtng a manber to 
ParilamenL Pop. 3130. 



KIRSCHWASSER, » Uciooar JUlOlwl in Ott- 
Df awl Stritierliuiil fmm linniu^l clirrrica. Wticn 
' mads It immi lilea novuu; )nit tbc iliatillstiuii u( 
•tcoMS, which cvoUin pnutic add. soiuvdm^s 
give* it » ntviLvoaa wac. and oven nuke* it poiwiaoiu. 
KI&C-HINKV, ur KisHBXAV.ft tawD, Ruaia,mpi- 
tU of lb* govsroDioet of D«MiirabU, uu tha Buik, a 
tntintwy of Um Dniratcr. Foruicrly oiily a eiuitll 
toiwnble lAim, il U now luhrnoil with uiimcroiu 
iMadamus building*, buili publio and ]irivKt«, makins 
it Mw of Um biui<Uoaiwt in JIhmIa. It haa fourtmn 
ehitrDfaca,»i!:]rmi)a^ni,aad IcDothcractiooIaialibrary, 
ftod «stcairivo suniifMtnni of wnollen cloth, and as 
npnrtiutt cntn[n«n:« with thr' Enat. Puj>. 103,3S8. 
K-ISFAI-UDV, AucxAKOKR, ■ IfimgAri.-tn |>"!t, 
LvW baa exttrUiU a jiovcrful iutlvieuco vu tliu kii- 

_ lilmtiin. Mid general ailvaacL-mciit of his 

< eouBti^, w*4 Uirn at Siiuie^h, rounty SulIiuL, in 

1772. atid rvi'civcd ilia adnoaaon at Raab and Pm* 

burg. In iLii Tnitor bf iMOiluenoeil the *tuOy of law, 

but aooti abanduDuil it, and iu 171^3 aatorad the Atu- 

triaa army as a ca/let, IIv made the cani[iiu|fas o( 

MBanaany aad Italy, and iaaiia|£ed amid tlie dia of 

to tualut coDniJntnblii pmgrGM in toniga laa- 

aad Iit«ratiitw. Dnrlnga lonmrreddcaGe is 

flemoi^ >B a mcailvr of tUe iwyut Him)^riaa bod;- 

Ignard, he d«Tot«i) himwtf guLrUodurly to tfaa bambig 

fit Si>anUb, and tu ttio tiwwiatuig of Tmso iato liun- 

In I sol he l<:ft the army, and bclo^ hap|til^ 

.._ riad omplovci hituMlf almijat «XL-Iu8iv«ly in ii^n- 

jtnnamlm Iit<!nu-<r p-nmiibi. Hi* princi^ial lyrical 

Knwlt. Ui« ftnt i.'ait uf wliidi woa publubwl aiiutiy- 

|bo«m; in 1S40. ludor the tltte i>i Kvtur^ Siardvin 

"Ittbuipjr Lore), aad tbo sciMnrl in 18117, UDder tho 

title of Bohkif tixcrulom (IJ^^pjr Lnvc), met irith 

Biiivanal ao«)»pta)ic«, and ^av^ lilin a firvt pUve 

^WWDg bh natiro povta, H« afterwards att«mpt«d 

' dramat in which lie nudi) Schiller his modfl, and 

k aqually (uccnsfiil. Tho mast OoaervSng ut natice 

itha hittiiriiAl dr.iniM Jtitin I[uDolad«aaod Ladla- 

I the Cuuuuiiaa. Hin yamily Piatnrsa, A Paidai 

; and A Iivlkos Ma^^'nr Ltanv. niDlc atnonfr th« 

[li'cca of thv iltiof^ariaii Rta^;^. He ditnl in 

1E44. nin Imither CIiuIm, vrho almniit eqiinllril 

him tn th<: kuu<j wallia ut lilcTaUiru, [iKdeuouti-d hiiui 

a 1630. 

KIS^. llic nrntnal tnudiing of the b'ps U one of 
tba miBt n^ituml expntBitciiu of nScctiun aniDog men. 
|Tti>*<iblM flxpniwes Ita loi-'« by a kl«i, aud mi'Q Ju all 
I of rvfiutrmont do the xainc. 'liie vnml kUiiitj 
I oaiial ex]ircaHitiTi fiL Hdiriiw t" xiiznify n-lnm- 
aad adiitatio litrnilly ineauH tomhiit'j vrilh Iht 
jtk, With lomu tmlioiia, as the Gormani and 
Id'Vcuch. it in ^t•^lInary for lai-n to kino r-utU othir 
ft«r A l(iU|{ aisriiLv, i.[^ KiMiini; thu Ii»diI of ttit.- 
rardgn now fomta iiart of Lli# corenjatitiil of all 
Eompvaii vwirtc Kuwio^ tho font U a cutunion 
ttal ttiga vf rwpcct. Tha Later Ikoman em]ieron^ 
f:wLoae oouit ccr«iuuiiial was uiixi^d with »•> niuiy 
i]« ru*l»inii, fint introdticnrl lh'i« prai'ti^ tiitti 
bv Vr«it. TiiH popea liavu imiuirvd it aa a pIj^ of 
(jwpect from the KeuUr pon-cr sicice the dK^th 
I'opc CoMtatttiiia 1. firrX. hatl his fuol 
by the Iun]>««uc ■fiiitiuian Tl. «□ btix entry 
{nto Coi'itaattnoplB ia 710. Weutiue I., about 
i'£i, miiiired «*af7 ouv Ut kia bis foot; and fii>m 
ittiat tiBw this niArk of rvvcroncc appran to h&vc 
•xpectad by sll [lopBi. Allien thU cmniony 
kaa place tbe porw wcar« a illpper with a oroM, 
itliich ia LisMd. In mutv rcesnt timea PmtMtant* 
have tiut been nblii^-ed to kias the pope'e foot, but 
Bervlr to bend tbu knco lUghlly. Even Catliulii; 
nilKC* MilDaCillM" jicirfiiriii osly tlt« grniiitlnxino. 
"ben ttiB V^^l"^ i' *''*-'*^ti.-d ho in plui.'&d uu thv ullar, 
nd th« cntiliuiila, AnX of all, jidrfurm th« a^loralloc. 

Each approaches the newly- eloetaS pHtnd Uasei 
liii foot, then bii linee, and ii then enDfiaetd by tbo 
pupe, anil iKihitpd i>n tiiK ciitn-k. 

KISSING K>r, a u^turiii^-i>kc« <A Bararia, Lower 
Vranonnia, pliraMwily tttnateii on the Itft bank of tho 
SaaJc!, Iicru crimcij by a bandiioine bridk'c, ilO milM 
north of Wnnbiir|r. ]t ia ■mninndiK! by nalla 
flonkod with tvwen, and lias a magnificeut butlilug 
MtabUshmenL 'fhe aprins*. Atq In number, and all 
saline, oontuiu a largw nuautity of ca^rbouic acid gaa, 
are nami both intanially and aa baths, anil arc uou- 
■idumd efficudout \a sout and afleviloDB of the 
stdmnoh and ch«it, Bcbidea SOOO vUlfnra atmnBlly 
attnctod by the batba. about 600,000 bottiea of 
waber are annually etport«d. A littla north of tho 
town tbo brtne obtained from a ttatlne atratHin of 
viut d«pth. by a peculiar artenou pruccm, annually 
fiimiahva about ]£O0 toua of the puront while aalt. 
Pop. ■Itli. 

Klt^TNA Ailack or dark b1u«; an innaniMtion of 
Viabnut, a riTur of India, wbidi tepantw the Duccan 
from Suuthcm India. It riaee araoniE the W«slem 
OhAla; in the «ovinee of Bijapqr, not abuvt* 42 
milM from tho Malabar oowt, wn firat aoiitUvn't, 
and tbco goncrallr e*at, pa*ae« throuirh the xoutb 
part of HaTdantbwfl, where it niMivM tht- Blji-uja on 
ita left, and tbe Ihuigabadra nn itJi rigbt tiaiik. both 
flowinir, liko it, from tho Woetcm Gbits. Pn-vicua 
U) the Junction It U onmntonly calliid the Krishna, * 
name whidi is frc<|^iieut[y gircu tu tbu whole river. 
Thd unitmL rivftr ttii whirh tbn nxmc Kiattia ia 
iwuietiUuw re>trivU-d) R-'wa i)i it iiorth-iitstorly dirvc- 
llon along tbe frouticir of U&iiiarab&d and tho Madraa 
L'rMideDcy, and. turning aouth-ciu4. en-aK* tho 
Liutitur diitricl of tbe pnaddeucy, and (alia into the 
I3ay of It«ni;a1 in lat. IS' SiV x., 30(t biiIm iiiTth of 
Madias, Its wurve, indiidini; wiii<.liDu«, is mtitnntwl 
at 700 mill*. Flowing for tlic miut |>iirt tlini-ugh & 
mountainous ouuntry. Its diuiiiiirl ia uiu>.-b bruLon by 
mpida; and, varying mncb in da|itb in difformit 
aeuona, is not well adapted for inland naiication, 
though after entering the (inntur Clrcora It ia leTrled 
by largo boat*, llio Ki«tua i>^ [>crhapB, richer in 
ennii than anv ulber river of India. In the dry 
Kcaauu iliiLiuouila,'ii-eyeis unyx«s, and cludcedontea 
are said to tw found, as wvtl as a tntnnte porUon of 

KIT, the naire Kivfn in the Britiah amiy tn tho 
uiiuvF arUulM u «<jldii.^r*ti otittit, abiru, bo«e, boou, 
brusfaos, &C. 81000 1B55 the rccrnit receives his kit 
free, and i.t re->ii]'jplicd at a low pride with the ortidcs 
ho way flubdc'iiii.'utlv iwguire. 

KIT-CAT CLtria. Xbe name ci a dub formed 
about IUSS, originally for convitlal purixmc*, but 
M'hit'li aoun assum»! a political cltaronicr, havitig iu 
the roign iif Qiin-n Anne twoome tba rvaort of 
Marlboriiugli, Walpok, AdtUson, Stcck. and other 
leading Whipi. The original placo of meeting waa 
Sbiro Liui<r, Euid the rutuie uf the club was dtrivrd 
from thatof tlio p>!ru)n{C'brii>li>pli*r C'nU whninipplirct 
it with inutti'ii iiitii. I'hD piiitniita of tile mciiibcni 
were painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, on a scale 
i>dApl«d to llio height of tho wiJls of tbo elub-room. 
giving A (Hiitroit of almut three •miartcr* length; 
beuL-o purtc-iuta thus iwduoed have been called kU' 
caf. The dub was dissolved nboot 1740. 

KJTrHENKK, Da. WiMJAV. bom in 177!, waa 
the son uf a Middleaex juBtice, wlin «■■ for many 
ye^rt a coal mcrchntit in the Strauil, and acijuired a 
nandsomo forttine, which b« baqmathed to hii son. 
Ilr KiLoheiier waa otucat^l at Kton, after wliioh he 
settled ill Lotiduii a« a phyiLL-Ean. Early iu Uf« he 
rnarriixl, but a luipATnticin from hia wifn anon after 
touk place by mutual eeuaent, and he was Mt at 
liberty to employ biaamplo fortune in experimental 



oockarj. n« tn«Ud eating Mtd drinldng b« the 
only MtJow biuln«M of life; luid lisving caucfat tlw «t- 
twtian of tli« pnbUo by the dnsulAiltr of Ua ooniiiict, 
iu pr<>owl&d to promulnbe^ un<kr tho title of Cook'* 
Oridc, the Iii<n of £e culinAir art, pnifnMdljr 
riuiitl«i] on liii i>wii piMtian. He w«a aocnutatncd 
toMKmbl* hij fricadi M^ronTcnattone ni hiti bonao 
od ll^daj er«B[D2*> and for Iho rcj^ulAtioD of theao 
aMtiiiBa placed * plaiard aret bU cliimnuy- piece, 
cnWoiaf Umm w^rda, 'At eonv ccotw, »t oievna 

S.' Ha wna » prat ftiuklvr for Tmnotnaljty, aad 
pt a il&te In hU hall, on wlilcli tik bbtiro (or 
rcceirijig viniton iroro indicaUd. Ill* nppoatanc'c, 
a* dcMH, Ilia uin««i, kui pontin, wuru all i^ijAiut. 
Bnldea Ldv Cook'e Oracle, Dr. Xiulivuvr urotv Fnc- 
tieal ObavrvaticiH on TdMoopes (ISIS, nphalod (or 
tiia foDTtb time to 1825, imder tbe title of Eoanamy 
of the Kyt»)', AnJdtui ledlrivna (I3ir>; Um Art cpf 
IiiTl^rstiiie and IVoloneine Life (1823); also tlw 
TVaveller'i Oracle, published juM after hit deatli, in 
1827, to. In bU|>nvata character Vr. Kltcbmer ia 
rapraaented aa havmg been an amiable man, reepccted 
for iib iategnty, ooticiUatory maaiicn, aud locial 

KITCHEN-GAB DEN*. Ben Hobticcltubb. 

KITK {Milr«,). -nw Idtw are claidSwl In tbo 
ordvr of niifirUl I'ird*, and form of Uiemaalree the 
fanUy MUvlda, The biU Is tltM blida fa abort, 
■tnmg; the sidce oonvcx: and the cdgM •inaate nr 
warj", the upper mandible being atronKljr arcboil. 
The tand or anklea are ebort and GniUy Mt, th« 
wia^ bvfaiK povrerfnl ud pohiled, Mia the tail 
(oriced. Tbe dunilr poe w w* r^tnaentatiTca in 
ercry qtuuter u( Uie ^OK^tlte template anil wanner 
^M»>.^,^ being more bvoorite liau&ts tban tho colder 
anas. Tlie eumniDn kite <Jtf«(rut ngalit) nnd tbe 
Uack ldt« (if. niftr) are the two epedeB ecanuMlf 
ft>iml in BarnM. The avene« aiae of tbe cotniDoa 
kite k abont So inebee fn leogui, tbe eringe ctfoenr* 
bqt abont feet fnua Up to up. "Dk Hack kite Is 
foBDd on the Enrapeaa oontfaKmt, but eblefly to tta 
•ootbcn portionM. The American kite (.Vaitebnu 
fmrciitmi), fouad In the warm and temperate arew of 
Un Xew World, and tbe Mlsrinlpiij kite {/<-f>iiM 
Mniiuippnnt), are the two chief Amsricau spociea. 
ne fonnor j]»weai8i a vetr long and dc«ril/- forked 
tail llin food of Iboao hirdi cuuMata cbieEly of Hnall 
nommnabL InaecCa, and cairioix. llieT a/v aid ooca* 
■baaUj to catch &*b. In AAl, and partJouUrlj in 
Indii^ the carrioD-foodia; bahita o( the kito are soon 
toperfeotim. The Goriada kibe <tf. tfiMUMfa) acta 
ttuiB H n tnnagtr In d ew fag the itreeta of IndUs 
toww of oflal and nvfaaffA- The sert of tho Utn Is 
built of itick^ aaais built in treei at mom distaaen 
Cram Ute mond. Hm csn nmnber two or three at 
DKwt, ana M« ef a whltua oolow, apanelj motUed 
with t'TtFwa. 

Krnr>. Jomr, n.n^ a ralnahle eontribator to 
bilitind literature, tiuA one el tho nwet mcceeaiul 
•xamplM of the piinult d knowledge under dilQ- 
oahiai, was the ton of a jobUna anion at Flymeittb, 
wlwn bo WIS bora Id ISOt. After obtnbfatg a reij 
•oanty edncatioa he besan to axiiat hie faUer, and 
■Ml with a fall whidi ovpriviMl him ot the eonae of 
kwililjt Now becomu aburrleri tu bla iNUvnts, whu 
ooidd not or w««ld not eupport him, be was tout to 
the workhonae, and aflerwaixU anmatticed to a tbiie- 
Bikar, who titad Um ao cncUj that the maciitmtce 
enoealM hla imfantdrea. The werkhonae h«1ii 
hiraain hb rtliua; nul there, notwIthctawllBg hh 
nhyiioal defuti ha tanud bia lalonta and tfairrt f»r 
lltanente lo Mach ff>°^ acanwt, that (n 1818 he 
MbiUehwd a tuiall voltuae of enajv. which proooNd 
Un palnn^ and added oonsidembly to hie meui td 
nbabtBODe. Shortly aflennnU he wgmtahmadfn the 

unite of Sir John \eill, the Britkb envoy at the PerKinii 
oouR, and fmu 182fl-33 acqulnd that tainiliar 
acquaiatuioe with the Euit whloh be aflerwartLi em- 
ployed so hMipily in illtutratbig the Saovd Volume. 
Among his leaoing woHia are I'be Pictorial Uilile 
(]ft36-S8« three veu. Svo, new nrlition in 18S0, four 
Tola, imporial 8to); IMctvrial HUu>ry •)( ri>le«ti(i« 
(two %-ou. royj 8ro, 1S41); Gallery oi Scripture 
Eng»»ing> (1841-13, tlin;e ro!». 4to, 1840-47); 
Cyuopmlia of Itiblirjil I.itemturu (by varioiu coii- 
tiAinCora, editcJ by ICittv. lUi- IS, two toU. hn). 
Aa nbridgmcnt of the l*ycli>pjrdiA •km tiTEcrwarda 
Itublidiod. <«lki1 thu I'i-.rp|<rii l-lilitiim; Tho Loat 
Ueaaea: Deafnew and Bluitnen (tno voln. Svu, ISiE); 
FhyBioal Gecvraphy »t the Holy Lwd ttwo voU. 
ISmOk 164S1; Pnily Diblo IlJtutiulionii: Horuini; 
Beadin^'a (lS4Li-f.l, four vols, l&no); Evening 
Reudiuijs (fuur vuIm. ISino) ; with numerous nthnr 
Korka of a eimilar eharactor. In hin Utter ysm, 
when exoeaMtre labour and ina<leL{naht nauuncratlon 
for It had tariooaty impaired hit htialtb, ho onjoyed a 
pamioD of £100 a year from the crnwn. Kever wsa 
pgnrion bettw mvrited. Hit dc&tb. which he met 
witli Christiaa oahoncMji uirl fortlt\iilL-. took {iIimo iu 
Germany, at Connatadl, a RiiViurb of Stuttgart) the 
ojLpitn! "f Wllrt.?mb«ry, im 'JSth NoTcmbor, 1854, 

ICJTZINGKN, a Uiwii of Davatia, Lower Fran- 
oonia, 10 ralliia utui-suutli-eait inna WUrxbui^. It 
eonaisls of the tuwn pro]>rr, on tho right, and & 
■ubnrl;^ on the left bank of the Main, which cuoi- 
municate by a handfome brtdge, and are both aur- 
roundodbywalti^flankvdwithtowen; iaon the whole 
well buClt, contidns three public Mnarca,atown-honi«e. 
l.itin ■chool, and faoapital; and nae manutacturea of 
cotton -printi^ baaket-work, gunnowdvr, t-inagar, aitil 
dye-(tuff«; aome ahippintr, a fianory, a Ur^« irvnenl 
and tronidt tmile, and mirotrotui millK. Pop. biiil. 

KIWI-KIWI, tliir iintiic iiutiitof tbe Afd€iyic, ut 
wloglev bird of Mow Znabuul, nf uhti^ asrenl 
■pedea bare boot deecribeil. Thctw i^culiac Urdjt, 
Induded among tho Cnreorlal. ar mnninj; bltda, aru 
wholly conSucd to tho Now Zoaland iaJandi. Tbo 
nativea bunt tbem for the aake of the akina and 
feotheat fa<om which they maitufaotnie dnaee* nud 
anielae of dweradoa 8m Aitutx <in Supploacnt) 
and OainmoLOGT. 

KIZlL-KtnitLan extend veaandyd««ert in Asia, lo 
theaoutb-oaat of Lake Ai^ oocnpyingagrMt partof 
tbe apaoD bvCwcdo Ae Amu Duuu or Oxoa oad the 
Sir Daria, In what la now Runlan territory, between 
lat 41* and 44* X., and Ion. 01' and «7' K. 

EJ^GENFUItT, a town of Aurtris, Cinnthls, 
la the goveramont aitd 10 miles north -north-«B«k of 
LnibaA, en the GUiifurt aud GUn. It conifah of 
the bMm pniiMff and f(i<:r anhnrba, and baa ae««t«] 
haodaome aqoane and apocdow ativetit AmoBS it" 
pnbUo e^fioas are tho cathednl, with a good aitar- 
piece; the tonm church, with a barllBan aiMl towor . 
SSO feet hioh; the I^ndacfaaflfaaua, where tb* aCatn 
of OarintUa need to meet; the bfaliop's palaee. with 
Iu flat park; the town-boai^ lyoeuD, with llbnuy 
of 30,000 volumes; ajmudma, nonul and othor 
•choitt^ oereral hovpiUla, and n genoinil inflrmanr. 
The maaufacturaa oonaU of fine waoHen^ allk gooct^ 
■nuiUn. and whIte-Undi and tbe trader chi<dr tniAait, 
li Gondderabla. Pop. 1&,SW. 

KLAPROTH, Jcuva HnxucB, an wientaUat 
and traveller, bora 'at Berlin ia 178S, when vary 
jaaag engnfed with roueh aeal in ibo atvdy of the 
AiOatk taoffMi^ Dartfcolarly tho Chineee. After he 
hati made hinuMf known by the ueMicaliijai of the 
Asiatic Magaaina^ ocoamenoed at Waiinar ia IWi, 
he beeame oa aaeooUte cf tbe Acadtny for Asbuk 
Tongaoi, at Bt FMenbnrif. Ia 1805 be aooonpuiied 
) Cooal Golewldit, who was iqipaatad amlaaaadur lu 



Pelrfn, but vu obllgad to Twturn on reAching the 
ffontMn, in ra»oi)ucooo of tim nfanl of thv Couat 
to flobnh la 101110 poiati of Chincie etiqnett& On 
1^ ntun h« was oomniaaiooed by tfao Aeiuteiay of 
St. Petmbnf;^, thrangli Uia influanco of t.'oiiiit .lohn 
Fotodd, wbo bad uvly |(Btrcaibpi3 bini, to i>Mic<ml 
to tl» badii of tb.u Cauciuui. And niako Ne^atcLc* 
ax to the on)nfiiO DAtircfl of AniiL Unc fr^it of bia 
timreb, in adilittun to tlis jHu-taculur accuunt giren 
«f thsm In Iba work entitle B«Im Id d«ii K^iUMua 
«BdG«cn:Sieatad«n J., 1807, ISOSiWuthoMtublufa- 
neiit of Iba Archiv (iir die Aaiatiiche JJter»tur, 
flawTiiohta uaA tigirachkimdi!. lu 1S12, bavbi; 
qoittvtl tb« KuMian *«rvicc far iv-inorii whiVb h«v« 
sot been (uD^ explouied, ho procccduU vo Itnly Sa 
I SI I, uul tiAving taken np hu pennonrat naldcnce 
in Fui* in 1S19, ma «ppatDt«d pnteaaar of Aniatic 
lanffnogaa, and refadned thb aitnalian till hU denth, 
blftSJ. AjuonyMinumercitu<NTltiii{t^V''tduhulua}> 
^tf^j gnat lewving, bnl am mach narrad by th« 
bmiiam tttawlca b« ia oonatantly ■nolditi' ft^«iiii>t 
Atfaer leHDod men, mnj be menttaned ki» Hntorivo- 
Gwfnphiail Deaoriptlon of tbe Eoatan (.'anoosua 
(lUiteftn bwtoriaue^ gttc^fT^Jtiquo. cttmogrnphiqu^ 
ct politiaae du Ckac&ae, Ac., ISZ?}, Ueaoripuaa t>f 
tba BnnMi Pnvlitoes between t^ OMptftn uid tbe 
EMk 89m, Caulogw of tbe Chlnew tad Maatcha 
Boolca and MS3. in the lUiyal Uil'nuy i>f Ucrtin, 
A«ikPuly];;Iutta,CuIlcctiotmn( Kt^|itinu Aaliquiliea, 
uul Qcnnral View nf ThnMi Kiiigdomi^ Tbe lut, 
iwadatwl from the oritriiiAl OnpnnUlunae, ia nry 
inpoTtant for the Uatot^ erf Japiui. 

KLATTAU, a towa^ Bohemia, cAplta] of circle »f 
uame name, on a atccit height in Uiu bi-aiitifnl still 
into* Tallej of thu KiiMml'Ml:, 7 -t uiikii a.w. FrAjnu'. 
It ii Hirouidml by douUo walU asd dltcbw, bu 
Hue* mbnrba, U wcU aod regularly built, and wall 
|Nired; cuntoiDB a handaocne daanei-y ohurcb, ik J-eamit 
•dUiKe, now ooaverUd Into bftrrsokB; & town-houac, 
vjtb a lofty tmnr, and a very large and finD-tonod 
hell; a Damlniou monasUry, tbe building! of which 
are oaad na a gymuuium; aevenl other ac]ioi>Li, aud 
tiro facBpitnlc; and bn* maaafacfane «< wwilLen and 
linen cloth, and hodory. It ia an snH.dut plocck nif- 
(crod much dnrlng the Thirty Yean* war, anil baa 
aix tiaw* Im-n almoat burned di>wu. Pop. 8090. 

KLAUSENBUIEa [Huninmnn AWoniir], nn 
Anatrba town, tbe unplUl of Tnuinylvuiua, titaalvd 
oa the Little Szaraos, and consiatin^ nf aa old and 
a new town, and lino uibiirh*. Tin: town 'vt aur- 
monded with old «-aUir Itu a larvo nuu-kst^plricn, 
jmnl flio itroetH, a aoUa cathedral Lq tbe aiiclfiit 
Geman Ayle, built in 1114 by King Bigkamuud; u 
towit<boiMe, Hnneariiui thcsttre, and M>vaml palacrit 
of tbe nobility. Tberp arc Imv lilKber chua jrymnaala 
JprFrotaatnata and Catbolin. a ooUago forUoitariana, 
wHb a gymuaaium; n achocil af inir«rry, ftc. The 
town ranrica txa an actiie trade, and )iu nomi: manu- 
facture*, inare eapecially of purcvtatn. There ata 
■alt nvrka in tlto nngblMniriioixl. Ktaiutiul >ur<^ is 
Ae ClandlopoUa of tl^ Renuum, and many Jli^Tnan 
«ete^ brMUM, &&, have bMti fuund. TUt tidmbi- 
lanta are ranetiy ^la^an, mixed with Wulncbiaiia 
«im1 Gemisiu. Poji. 29^i. 

KLAiraTHAL, a Uiwn. Hanover, on the Zclkr- 
bocb, opTwnto to Zellorfeld. trbicb «x>iuiniinieatt4 
with it by a brid^^ and may be t^nrded na iU 
eubarb. i& milee e.s.e. of Hanover. It vccupiea the 
top and md<« of a hill in a bloak diaoict, and nnuistj 
Sbe the nuwt pari if wooden boiuoa cnvenxl »itb 
Maffi». lU princip^il eiiilloea are a churirh. caurt- 
hnuae^ mint, gyniDMium, forMt and lulnlitg Rcboul, 
with a good mltcction «f modeU. It i'< the prindpAl 
adning^ faiwn of the Ifarts, and hiu in iU vicinity 
ndaae which pnxltice gold, lilter, aiid k-aiL iLud huva 

hnen n-oricoil fVir more tban two centuriee. One at 
ihu minr* in S'.'OO fcct below the level of tbo ISaltlc. 
Pop, yi::a, 

KI<^:ilKn, Ju:f B-irran, one of tlu ntost die- 
tinijpiuiied gcnflnda nf tbo French leK^utioB, wae 
bom at Stmabuiv in 1774. lie waa tbe eon of a 
mnaoD, and was broii^bt up by a vilbge car6 hia nda- 
tinn. Ilcrttidic-I twoyean at Poria witli a riewbi 
Lbe profi-Hioa vt an architect, and return*^ to hit 
nadve town at the nee of eigbteeo. T^ Oenuw ' 
noblca.wbon defence ho had taken withmit knowing 
Ihem, pent bim to a militarj school at Muti!<-b. Ha 
' anterixl au Auatriau rc^'iment with the gmdt: of aub- 
I lieiitonnnt in 1T7Q; hiit tcing ilisappcantod in bit 
I bopM of promotion, be abni]>tly quitted the Auatrian^ ' 
anny in 1783, and, returning to fitrsaburg, resaned 
bis profcaaian oa an architect. The revolution re- 
Dpeiusd l/i bim thn career of aimii, and in 1792 be 
euU-rud tbu fuurtli IjattaUon of tbo Uftut-SbLn, an^ 
obuuned the appoiDODenC of adjntjmt-maiar. Aft<T 
tbe defence of Maim, in wbkb he aerval with dia- 
li action, he wawKdntnaDrigadler-generalbil^Vend^. 
Hen, together with Maroeau, ae defeated the Yen* 
deaaa in tbo decisive batllc of Sati-vnay. 37tfa Dec 
1794. After a brief interval ho vw icnt to tho »raty 
of tb'.i buitb ae a general of dit'I^i^>^. He dbtin-' 
giuahcd himself at Flsurus, asd followed up the mc- 
coa* of tho f 'rencb omu th^ by tbe capture of Mont, 
Ixruvmin, and Mnertricbt (Xov. 179i). He aflor- 
waida cmnmanded tbe left wing of tbe anny of Jonr* 
dan, and directed both llis pMeagi of tbe Rhine at 
DUMoldntf and the anbeeqtient retreat. In tba cam- 
paiffucf 17C& be defeated the Prince of WUrtemberg, 
nnil nftem-ardu I'rlnoe CharlM, nt tbe bead of a aupe- 
riur forve; and the chief command having temporarily 
devolved on bim.bewaaabanttoeaterF^&kfort when 
ho was rocaUod (1797). •Tealcuay of Uie appoJntmenb 
of Uoehe to tbo eomiiianci of the array of the Satnhro 
and MeuaecauMil him to redie, till BotULpaitoaelectMl 
him for a coumand in the «xpedition to Egypt. Ha 
was wonndcd in the aaeanlt on Alexandria.' In tba 
expediltluin to Syria he commanded t)io rcnr-^arri, 
took tiaia and JaSf^tad gained the battle of Mount 
Tabor [1776-70). He nlao took part in the siege of 
Acre and' tbo battlo of Aboukir ('JStli July, 1799). 
When Botiaparlo Itit Evypt be tutmatrd the cnm- 
mmiil of thu amy w Klifber (22d Angtutt, I't-t*). 
Tbe army i^'iu reduced ia numben t^diacaao, as wall 
aa by battle, and cut oil from eapplies and reiufovcc- 
nicntsliy tbe drttriK'tit'Uof IbeFnoohfleetat Abou< 
kir; onrf KI^Imt ilooming reeJetanoo aaeloei concluded, 
through the Inten-cntbncifCoBaDodatcSydnov Smith, 
tbu cuuvention of £1 AMti (24tli January, I'siJOt, by 
u-hi>-li tbe Prendi were to benmveyed borne wltb 
anus and baiaiagft This K>nvcntion was diKtwncil 
by the EnriUi eovemmont, and the nnoonditional 
sorrcnder d^thc (Vcncb demanded by Adtiiind Ki.-i(Ii. 
Klcber annonnccH this demnnd to nis iinldiiin, vi-iili 
Uk difterniLiiatiou to resiiit tu the Uiil, With SCO") 
men bu defeated an anuy of ^),000 under tho grand* 
riiicr. 2f»th SfftTch, ISO", Re Kti[^>pr«eeod a revolt in 
CiurD^ and was actively engaged in or;i;»niz)ng meana 
for the neabjugatlon of die oonnlry, when be waa 
asMMiDBted oj a MdMsunedaa fanatic, HOx Stau, 

KLEPHTES, properly ralhert, ia tba name given 
tn tbnae (ineke who kept thnnaelvea free from the 
Turkiib yok« In the uountaiai, and carried on a 
|dcrpetual war againat tlia oppreaann of their tviuntry, 
cnnMdcrin^ cvorytbiDO belonffing to a Turk a l.i^L-ful 
prizQ, often, IU may be eoidHr inuiftinnd, exnrvifing 
Ibtlr profcaidon on Greeks, I^nriuk' the war of Luiie- 
pQudcnce thcoo KIctihtoa fumiBhcd tbo tlrvclu with 
iuitiieof Ibetr heat aoldiers and leaden. Whnic trib<'«, 
as the SulioLca and Chimariota in ^ijrua, and the 




Sphokioti in Crete, km to he niitnhorcil unotig thorn. 
See AtKATOUe ami ("iprt-vsia. 
^ KLKri-flMASIA (tin.™-fc UfjM, I »t«a]). Undxa- 
cjw to liuiinl Aiiil Ui M]i|iri'^rUt« articlu* im*)w«ttTe 
of thvir Talus an fr^iiuntlj obwrveil ai Kjmpboiat 
nf JDMiiiity. Wli«ii iho Uum- tendency Imim the 
fafm of »]i]jriu|irMtin^ u-ticle* Mmi^g to ntbem it 
it pfo^nly ealled ttri-l'niiitn!n, *iiJ U frv(|ui'iiily, aiid 
nawt4ia« wmiifnlly. pIcAdcd in law cnuru u ."ui 
MonM fur tltclt. It u wLirl tbtA Udio in wimn 
feaww of pregiLuicy w *|MKia]ly lUlile to Hub 
nuuil^ Tberq arv maoy iiutAnceM of a niorhiil ten- 
dency to Kppropnate wllhont xiloqaato mcdirc; tui>l 
when lURh a teadeiuy la ]iiov«(l the appIliAtinn of the 
if the jinblto ttiffin iroRi tlio toniliincy mmimi other 
■tep tnaj rvuoDahly be taken fur ita prutoclioa. But 
in nJmiltin^ Che pica of Utptomania great cwillon ia 
needed. If themmiMwitionof theaocttaediaallmred 
to irakh iu the ileciafon the Uw beconwa anmnal, 
Mid what la theft In one b kleptonianU In xneuier. 
UereoTvr tbif fwrtialityii kpt teeneminge undoubted 
theft In the cUm in whoae Eavcmr ft ia ex«:n»c<t It 
i* DotorloiM tliat amount Udiea in fpx>d toeUI potitiuB 
■ddiotvd to ahopping. not % tew bataaoM hiv* been 
(<Hiail tn which « habit of pfttty pilfering haa licen 
ao()air<nL The arlick-a taken aeuai Irwiuenlly to 
offiird noaicloiiiiatvtvinptatian, but in other [nttaaoM 
•eriuu* tliefta have In Uk« circutnetonoea been per- 
petrated. U in the firat claoa of eaaei ehe plea of 
UtfiMMttia U too free]; aduitled, and the naindat 
impoaed by fear of du^craen removed, an «DconrKg»- 
ment la gl\«ti Ut the de>elapiiivnt of feiniuiue i(reed, 
tnxa whidi mora lorioiu oonaequeui.'ea may oatunUly 
bo exMcteil. The mere poaitioa of the ^iproprialer 
tber<:funB, nr llio Talue of the article appmprialod, 
alKxild have no weight tn dHennlnlac ou a plea at 
Ueutonania. The cirainutonoea at moat Iwpartaan 
to Iw oonaiderMl are: () ) wbcther the article appn»< 
priatad ia or U nut of prabable utility to the appio* 
priabor; i,2) whetber an and oonceabnent arv uaed Id 
•jMrofriutins It; (3) if n aoriea of apfiropriatioaa be 
raarnd to Is proof of mania, wltethcr ttte acnea doea 
or doea not indicate an adequate utiUtanon motive 
In the appropriiitian. One Mergyman, for' oxampUs 
bad a mania for ittealin;; conn tluM umbreUaa^ another 
bkkcd np Biblea by the hundred from the boolc-MAU& 
Nutnerooa other atoriM of tliia bind arr told, alkowiDg- 
that Uiete an nai, and [>»Tliii|ia fre<|Beat Inalancee <rf 
a haUt of appraprintinn, n liicb, whether arlclnaiiiif; 
In aeovetona dlapodtion or in anooBecloamen of tb« 
nattuv of the ink, oan no longer be regarded aa do* 
liberate and reepooalble a<Ttlona. 

Kl'EVB, (:< for Clewa. 8m Clk^'Cs. 

KLIPFSPItlN'tlKltS (Otvetrv^iM). T1m> kli>)»- 
KMiBMri (literally 'clilI-»phik]{vn'l,ao named hrf the 
iJutcb ooIoniRtB of Southom Afrira, (onn a genna of 
antelopai Inhahllim; the reeky and laa aMtaaiUe parta 
of Dourtalui In t£at region, and an dlatingnuhcd 
bj tl>«lr H^itr In dinUng over the predpleiM and 
radca of their abode. likn thn Kuropeaa chaaioia 
iJIitpimpra tntjpu), to wkEdi thi'v bear aome renvrn* 
Uanoo, the Uippeprint,'en are of moderate lise, llie 
Ticial^ t4 the Cape of Good linpe a|>pc«r» to bo the 
ana uist frvqucnted h\ thtptc fumia. 

K\A»y\"/.. AMACHABaiM. See Ctoon. 

KL' »PSTOCK, FmuiucR CkrntLUL dm of tha 
moet (<elehtat«d of the (jerataii poeti^ WW bom July 3, 
irSl.atQoatliDlMrK. lliafatber.a Moatorof Quod- 
Hnburg. and nn t<ci.fntri<! man, margd after Ua 
birtb to Frioifbunr, near Wvttin, on the Saale, whore 
the yotnm; KlopatMJc spent hk dtUflhood, and van 
ih eeqw ua tlY placed at the ffynina«unt of l{nodUi)- 
buff . At the afp of aixlieeB be WHtt to Sahnlnforto, 
Dear NaiinhurE- Here be maAo hluMlf pertect lu 

tJkO nndcnt lAngnai^ea, acquired a dtKido-l prcdllce- 
tloii fur the claasiL-al writi-ra, and fiimi<^l the reaolu- 
tinn nf nritiRif a grnti opii; poem, thou|ib lie was not 
detrntiiucJ what »itbj«:t to cbome; auii the rvi^ of 
Henrv the Fuwlur at that tiiaa attracted hiin tnoat. 
In 17 Ifi ho otuiti^d Ihcciln^T at Jttniv, and comnenoed 
in Kcilituda tlic tint cauta at Ilia Meuiah. In LoiptElg;^ 
wlK'rp be went the next year, he farmed an aoqiaint- 
anco with Cramer, j^dilegel, Kabeoer, Zacbaria, and 
otlkcra. wbn then piihliahod the Bromiache Bellntfo, 
iu itltii::]) the thive lint onntoB of the Mcaai^ au* 
IMtaiX'd ill 1743, anal cjicitnl tintTpnul atti-titirm. Ilo 
uoderw-oitt lomo ecverc criticitm, ou ocixiunt of the 
novelty and ori).Hiwlity of the form and epirit of hla 
JiornL Tbo wotk iiiinie tlio il'cq>'T>t iiii|irir»ti>it in 
Sn-iticrlnnii. In the Himjiicr of 17M Im went tn 
Zurich, vjh<eT« much eturtiou waa miulp to iuiliice bltn 
to roniain. In Ihmmark the three tint c.intoa uf hia 
MiTMJ.ih miH witl.i a vnry fu^oiimlib mn-jitinn, and 
KIcipiLiick \^ai invttRl by thi:' iiiiiiiilur llcrtinturS lo 
L'^peahagen, with a Hnall peiwioii, to finlah tbo poem, 
fiedowtcd in 1 7&l.and travelled thivtigh Bninmck 
and HamlKirg, where ha beoamo ao)|nalntod with a 
youDS lady, who waa a great aduUi«r of bla poeuu, 
MargnntM or Ueta MMlar, the daughter of & nn'- 
chant thrre. In CofmnhMtm ho waa reoeivcd with 
every murk »f kindnsM naMTcaleen). IiilTr>:!tic n^n 
viuted Ilambuig; and In the enmmer of 1 794 he ro- 
turned tbitbei; and waa married to lieta. Their 
courtahip la deeoribed in the lettem of bia wife to 
liMOuol Itiobardsijn, aftvrwarda iniLliitlidl in that 
wrilor'a corrmponilenrc. Hut bo Mton loat htr. i^ho 
died in ebOdbed iu 1753. From 17:<9 to 17M ho 
rciidvd alt«niM«lr at Bmnawkk, tjuodlbbufc, and 
BUnkoibnTg, and aftowanla In Coponhai*).'!!. la 
1764 he wioto kta Uennaiin'B Scblacht (Itnttlo of 
Anninhiji\ and aeitt It to thu Euij-uiror Jiwrph, but 
not Vfith tlie »uc(x« wliich. in hia patriotic eiitliual- 
aam, ho bad jmiRiiaol hitniclf. After Uria he entered 
upon hk Inveetigationa of the Gennan huigiumta. In 
1771, after Benutorff had noelved fata dto^aive, he 
1<A Cimcnhaeen for Hanburir, nn(l<ir the charactor 
of Dimtdi aecfetary of ItKatfon and cciitiabllor of tbo 
marjj'raviate of Uailvn. In Hitiubtiry he finished Itia 
Memish. In 1793 bo nuurioil a mcorid time, lie 
died March 14, 1S03. Parity and noble fueliii); vrcro 
the cbaraouriatjea ol bia mind. Aa a lyrical wtitor 
bo ie perliapa among the moet aucceaaf ul of any i^o^ 
He may well be calTetl the Pindar of modoia [lovtry; 
but holaaaperiortoUm In rirhnri nnri iliwp inrfinj. 
a« the i[idritual werld which lui painta excel* in in- 
trlnjic magnlticeni^i: tbu ■object* ceJebraled by the 
Grecian povt. Hia pntriotivn ia etrana and ardenit 
and hia Inter odea, called (oith by the French revolu- 
tinn, io which at tnt ho look ^o «ami<»1 interaat, 
and thoae in which he apeaka of the ttennan lansitage 
and poetry, are diatln)pti*lied by bidd and onKiiwl 
turn* of oxprvtrfofL Owing to Uieae. and to bla fr«- 
qncnt allnaiana to the northern mythology, he la 
often obacure to many readen; but tb« inorf illiterato 
oonot fail olraily to uDdnvtMKl, and (^trfuUy to 
venerate Kloistock aa a ^rrilcr of ncrad poetry. 
He gained, however, the brighteat and qnickest fame 
by Ida ejiripce, the biat c&ntoa ot wbi<.'h, by tlteir 
prophetic itnuideur and the ma^ltioanea*^ tlielr d*> 
Binearity ti love utd domtion, auumnred him a rital 
t4 Milbw. Kliii]>*laclc created for tlie Uenuaca a 
new, etrong, free, and geonina pootio tanifu^e, and 
«M«BtlaUy induaooed the form, by introdnoius tlw 
ancioit UBirie meaauMa, and MpedaUy the hetn- 
m«tar; but he waa uadnly prejvidioed ^ainat rbyoM. 
lie anpiired mudi rapatBlian by faia granunaticnl 
worka. Klopatoek'a worka were pabllsmd at Leip* 
■if. 17»&-l(il7, twelve ToU. 4ta. 



KXAFSACK (« the cue b wlilcfa « KiMkr cwrin 
Ui kit o*«r Km back. la tli« DritMli *nnj it U mwla 
of euvaj painted bUck. llic Torai of tw kiwp»»ck. 
ud tk« 8tnp« by whidi it la SmcI, turn neenilT 
bwn impTOToil to ibdapt it to tiic fonn fi the bodj. 
Kn«i«wk« of rariou* lomu and nuttsrukln u« oom- 

£KAIt£SbOROi:OU. ■ [«rtiuD«fiUry txmusk 
■ml mArk«i towa, En^iuid, county of York {West 
IUAm), bMudfillr aitaudwl on Uw left Unk ot tbo 
Kidd, 1 7 mllM wwt bjr Boctb of York, wMi vhkb It ta 
«MUiMt«d l)j nulws}-. It flontaini ■ spuaom nurkti- 
plMe^ fntn wUch WT«rfd Btrceti dlnrge; hmMM is 
ISattni Be*t and Mitatantial, aod |>nuL-ip«Il7 of itoue. 
Tbla town waji foniwrljr tha scat of oxtBtwii^ Umm 
sad cotton inaoofactuKa, bat tbwo fcrvochea of is- 
dutfxr bars bow alauM entfavlv dti^ipearwl. Tha 
«iivinnM nf the town mrr moMiuhU bMutiful, and 
abound wiUi ol)j«cta of iiitenat, inoiitiing th* nuiw 
of tk9 «Htle, fcnuuiod ia 1170, vhMiaffDHod theltcr 
to tfae launlcrvn t>f Tlioau»k-B«ckat, and foiTMd a 
KnifMfiu^ pHtfin for lUohard I.; the dropping well, 
pnaovadof powsrf ul petnf ying iiTvpertie* ; aiid ■« t enl 
nmooa oxcavatlDtiB, including Sc Kobcrt'a cbftpel anil 
OBv^ tbo former bewn in a MothJc lorm in the unlid 
Mdc: and tlie ]atter the apot where Eiiftetie Aiam, a 
•chcMilma«tcr in KnarMboroDgh, Gaiiiniltt«i:l tbe ni<ir- 
der fiw which he itw «xn;itt«d ftnirtovn yuan after- 
vardg^ Knarfakomn^-h rvtiims one member to the 
UoTWO of Common*. I'up. iji 1871, G2uS. 

KKKK, a ctnoluil puxw nf tinilwr having two 
bnuwJto* or anua, auJ guniindly uaed to c»nncv< tlio 
btaiDB of a ^p with her riam or tlmbon. 11i« 
bnaebesof tbe kiM«i fena an angls of grvator or 
nnaller extent, accardtng to the mntaal ritiiittion of 
tbe piece* which tJiey are dealirned tu unite. Oiie 
bnuMh ie neuraly bolted to anr of the t^ouk b«anu. 
and tiio other Jn the iamc innniirr utrnii^^l/ nttAi-li'"<l 
to a oon<M]MDdii>}( tUubur in the ahip'R >itJt>, Hy 
MQOeotiag t4ie beitiCns and timber InU> nn? ciimp[>i:i 
fraBM. ioey eoatribnto trreatly to Ihe utren^ith ui-l 
■olldtty of the *hip, &nd cntvble her to rc«««t the 
■Secteof a turl>u]«nt wa. In lixina tljeae piece* !t 1> 
oocaaiiinalljr neoeeuu*}- to ^vo an (iKliqiio direction to 
the Tertiual or aide braiiuti, in onici to avuld ihe 
caaga of an adfaoent gnn-purt, or becaiue the knee 
m*j be ao ahapc^I a* to nniuin) tbia diapeeition. I'hn 
■^■oUyol these piecmfretiueutlyobUgeaahtpwriglit* 
to form tivAr kneea of Iron. 

KXKK, or KvKS-JOiNT, that joint in the lover 
limb* of man which ooiresponda to the oTbi-ivr in the 
tipper, and ia fmracd by the artlciilatJon i:>f the Teniur 
or tbiirh'boiio wHh tbe tiMa, or lui:^ bono of the !«£. 
llie lower end nt tbe f«a»ir terminatca in two oblong 
rounded moam, called tbei*on(^y/Mof the femur, which 
rcet hi two cantiea in the iiTipur part uf thw libln; 
Intsrpeeed bvtwecn the two bong* nrv tfao innilurmr 
fartilnjtt, which diminish the prearaie of the femur 
oa Ihu tibia, aud jirGvtnt the diajJoi-viiiei'it of tliu 
foniMir by iiirri'juiing thn mirfitra luiil drrptli of thii 
artictdor utvfty. ]ji fniut nf the kiice-jomt i* the 
paUfla or kntt-pan, wlilch aiiapta llacif by two arti- 
cular facata to theee prceented by the condyle* of the 
femur, and give* atbicbmcut by iu ti|i|iDr liorclcr to 
the leudon of the ext«n*«r miiiolee of the V^, wliiln 
to Ita loTer border la attached a etnxig ligament 
finaly uniiitif; it with thi; tiloa. The knee-pan irrvr* 
aa • pnlley Vit tiia pit(>iiiHir miiaclca. Tim boiii-ii nto 
also tirmly connoctod by ligaments, tbe who1« form- 
tag a joist capable of Bexion and »C«aaion, and of a 
verr alight TMAVtrf tnonment. 

^NkLLKK Sin GoDfkKT, an eminent portrait- 
pMntcr, biitn nt l.ttbock alxmt ltf4^ won iladgned 
tor a military life, and acne to Leydun to rtudy 
Biatbemac^cs and fortification, but, tLuwing a dfdhJad 

bent for palntb" waa placed under Biil ftiul Rem* 
hrandt at Amatenlani. He fiailad lUktr in 147^ < 
•rhiire he became a diacipte of Carlo Slaralli anO:] 
BeminL and palated aemal UMorica] piece* and 
portraits both at Keine and Veafoe. On hia return 
ne waa indnoed to vtait EngfauM^ '» 1671; and bar- 
ing painted a mui-li-admired famQr ]drttiTt>, wbfeh. 
waa spu by the Doka of York, tbe taUvr inti\>dnoe4'1 
the painter In ChBrlea II., bv whom he was nmcm 
patmnlied. \le waa otjually favotind by Jamaa I^j 
and William III., for the Utter el wbetn be painteu 
the beantiM at Hami>t4>n Court, and aeveral of tlw^ 
portiaitB in the U&iiitry of Aduiral&. He alao i 
the portrait nf the Ciar'Peter for the aame Kirerngn^] 
whn in 1 flf^ ktiightail htm, and made him gentJeuutfM 
of tbe privy ohauber. Queen Aiine coiilinved Unkj 
is tlia aame fittoa, and Geoii^ [. made him a banmct. j 
He cnntinnod to praetiae hia art to an advaneeil Age^l 
and had r«i«bnl hii MtTcnty-iiftli yc-ir nl bin death, 
in 1723. Hia Interment look p!a<* lu Wwimiiwtor 
Abb«y, tinder a splendid muMnmwat enwtcd by Kya* 
hrach. on which appean in eidliqib by p{ij<R. 'I'he 
air« nf hi* heada am ){nuvfiil, and Ma colimriug U ^ 
lively, true, aud hnniinnioiu; hia dmwing cvcreel, |^ 
and Ui« ditipocition judidriu]^ He diiplave a aingnllFJ 
want (if iniaf^imLiou iti hia picturea, tl)C aLtit(id<& f 
action, and drojiery being inalpii^ unvarying,, ana' 

kN1i:HT,Sn mnilcm aaa^, annn-herMtitAry title 
of IiuU(i\irlR-BUi«cilby tbueuverei^'nor (irvat Itritain. 
U cntilJii the U'ttrer to he addrctned by tlie tnnn 
•SiV, which ia ptclixod to his ChriKtinu iinnie. Not 
being territorial or hereditary, lliit title ia mtich leae 
esteemed than thai of boronot. It is fmiuently 
ounfcrrcd oti pruvincial digiiitariea nn the oc<«aianeif 
{.^ramial attendance on aame tueinber of the lojral 
fiimily, or ts edebrUlon of >omo event cf lond im- 

KXIUKT, Cbarueb, a celebrated Ent^liah editor 
and puMixher, wasbom ISthUareh, 17lll,at Wind- 
Mir, where hia father carried on the trade of a book- 
eullerand publisher. His ^^dncatlfin waA ccdnplete)!, 
\b*i%-i>, at the clawirul itcliuol nf Dr. Nlrliulna of 
F.rding, when he bucnmo an nnprenti"? to hia father. 
On uowpletiuu bis apprnnlicesliip bu went t(i London 
to acquini a prootlcnl Icnnwiedge of joumoliun, and 
on 1*1 Avigimt, 1)412, bo itartdL in conjunction with 
bin father, tbe Wimlinr nnd }^Uin Expreiu, which he 
continued to edit till 1S20. During thl* period be 
extended Ida aoqualntanoo ^th literature, fttrden- 
larly nf its earlier perimls, commence! to write r««l»y, 
and com[>oaed, amonji alher piece*, a lra(.t:dy, Aruu* 
nlufl, wblcb was printed. He alic, In ISiIO, «om- 
mcnocd tho puMiontti^n of twf> cbeAp pcrimlieals, 
tbe Plain Kti^ltsliin.-vn, nnd thr ICttmiaii, edited liy 
Prned. tn IS'JO lie reinuved to LkiiiJuh and pur- 
cbnwd tbo Gnnrdian no^npapor, which ho eotd in 
)S2!! in order to oommmee hurinexa im a pnbliidier 
iu Pali MnlL Kliih'lil'" l^inrterly Mn;piriru triui hia 
fimt impnrtiint venture, but altbmij'b nimihenng 
Maraulay nml Piuvd among iteeontnbiitnr^ it ouly 
reached ibi sixth number. He now projected tbe 
achcmo nf anatJenal library. conHiptlng of ntyindeiued 
■cries nf bonks of vnrimi inforniati'in ; but a period ef 
diasater to the publbibiaii trade uiXTurrini,', liia busluece 
wu bntkeo vp, and be u&dertoiik in lilT the mperin- 
t>>ndeiicc of the publications of tbe UWuI Knowing 
Sucicly. Tills c[iuiin.-tiiin conttaoed for nr^nrly twenty 
years, nnd wna tbe leading foatiin In bii carter. Ian 
net (inly akctcbcd the general schomes of Ibe iv>ciuty's 
publleatiuna but nlfonlcd valuable aiig^iitifrfia to 
et>ntrtbut«n as ta dvtalla of plan and wmrceii of Jn* 
fonnation. In ]6S8heprojecte<[ tbe KritUh Almnnao 
and the C'«iDpaiLlon to the Almanau, anil clilvil I ulli 
for forty )-eara. Until IBj)3 almanaea wore subjeett 




to a lUinip-JQtr, vii-ib ^yy liU excrtluna h« fpA viM- 
Iihcd. la liiV ha ratotnwl hidavas u a publulivr 
OD hii ovm acconnt, miiI tntninencod tU Library of 
EBbertAinin; Kigowlcilge, wblcia bo MliUd aud pub> 
Ilibod tbrougboiit. II* himiwlf n-MtotlitvolanHBoti 
ManaggrfH niul The Elvvhmt. In ISSO uid 1S31 
he wrote the Kcaulta of JkuchlneiT, uad the lUghu 
of Indiutrv, m* Capital and haiixnit, iat a MT'm* ea- 
titloi) tb* Working M&b'i ComjiMiioa. Both tiau ■■ 
vn7 Ucire cin.'alatioiL In i&33 be begaa thePean}- 
Uagafino. wUcb bf tfia end of the year naebed a 
twla nf 200,000. Ue continued UiMtMitacriltor till 
1845, when it w» dimwntiniuxL In l)i33 h« oom- 
meoced the f enxiy CycIojwdU, orieioaUy iuUaidixl 
u K EDodemte-nscd aupf lomeBt to the Migmliw. but 
whdoh «xpniuled into & vrotic of ttrtn^-eeven rnlnmee, 
fonntDg i'lie uf thu luorf oomplcts worka in tht Un- 
KU>g«> It w» nublidwd under the uitptcM of the 
Vwvftil Knowledge Socloty, but Kt TAr. KiiIi;Ul'e 
own riak, and It entailed on htm it heavy loss. The 
Mcietf 'e tiaUenr of rortreiu wm publubcd h; bim 
»t tbe ■ame timcL A Bcrlea of QhuArated waHca, 
amprUns tbe fietorial BMt, the Frajer-book. tiie 
TbiwiMid ead One Tfigbia, Shakepero, and many 
athcn, waa oooniiMinaBil In IgSS^. Ths Sbakapcre 
WM edited bj Mr. Kn|^t hhoMU, and han^ both for 
iu taxt and oobae, takni a high plac* auoog the 
iniinvmaii ediciflnaof tbe great drnmati'L Hia |«jiu- 
lor Hiatorj of Eagloud, an uriginal work, txx^iijikil 
Um wveu )-««n, 1SS4-«1. la \»6i be |>uUuih(Hl 
■notbcr DngiDal wdi^ Sliadtnr* of the Old Euuk- 
■dbn; ia I&67, Bcgnd at Court, a romance of the 
oonuBonweallbparioX HeaIeapublu^d,i&lft<4-i!lS, 
an Mttobjoffrapwcal work brought down to tbe tiaus 
«f pubUcaucn, entitled Paaaage* «S > Wurklu^ Ufe 
diiniigHaUa(^titiiiT.tbnwvau.Svo. Charl«Knit;ht 
died nb hfarcb, MTi. Few incn have done on noolt 
ior tbe diffuaian of aonnil litemtiira and vl adeDtifle 
lauwled|[e aoMoi; tbe pvnple. Hb own coatribotlana 
to Utcffttnie, particularly bla edition cl Shoknien, 
•how DO neon tMrt«, rai^acitv, and jiidjpDaeut Even 
coUalera] arte, each aa vood tmgntviatt. were grmtly 
tnvinijbed hjr hli «xt«Diiive undertakiDg* aa a pnb- 
IbbKr, and It la not loo inuob to h^ thai tbo Society 
for tbe Uiffiudon of Uaefo] KBi»iide4s« atrcd ita dia- 
tinctiou ehiefly to bia •upanulcadanae. 

KNIGHT, Ku'KAKD Wine, a intnjii of laamlBK 
and the fine aiti, to tlw atudy and eacooreceiueDt of 
which he deTotcd a great portioa of hii tinw awl 
aaiile fortaaa. Hla father, fmm a dreonl Icat bia 
ann a amalitution ibould be LnqMred bjr Uiv diadplbio 
of a puMJc acfaool, kept him at bovne till fab four* 
tecach year; bnt on bb deoeoae youig Knight wae 
placed at a Urjra acmliiHy, wbcn be eaon dbttn- 
ffoiahod faiiDMlf brhianrogroMlacIaaiical htantura, 
Uf favourite atw». Ub aplcadid «olle«tCou of oa- 
dent bnozo^ nwiali^ {Aoturn, and drawings In hk 
nnaeiMn at Ui bouee in Sniio SqiuiiVf eara equal 
nvofa of bu taale and libmLlitT. fhb ouLlMiiiH) Im 
lMqu«athodatU>deathtatbeBHtbbUu«0iun. Hie 
priodpal writlnge an, Benolus of tbe WonUp of 
IViapum lately eidatlag in ^ianlee, and it* ConnectMiti 
with the MyeticTfacukigy of the ABcienU(*K 1766); 
xa Aualytlcal Kaaay on tbw Oreek JUphabai <llev 
4Bvev ItOA): and PrauMawnaia HomeniB, nptintad 
in the ChadcalJourad. HowaaaleDauthorofeeoM 
poaim. Hedi«<liii WH. 


KNIGHT SEnVICE.theoriglnalandia«th«i- 
ourable »ii(«ic« 'i feudal land tenure, llie «xl«nt i>f 
land ocoMlituliqg a knigltt'a foe waa twelra plough- 
UimK equal, aecnrding lo emna authogltlee^ bo hoU, 
acmvdii^ to etbin, ttO acna Tha tenun waa 
grouted aa a pun donatioi, the wntrda aicd being 

tt«c£> et rtmffni; tb» ivm ttt m mm « ptABa ddEnin- 
of tbe load ittolf ij tb* lord to the vMeaL tar wUca 

lioma^ waa done ui the praence of the olber tmi iJ i, 
and foolty swoni by Ibo vaaaol to tbe Inrd. Tha 
holdernf Und l>y knight aervicQ waa btiuud to nltend 
hb lord to tbo field un biiimti.-wk, annvd as a knicht, 
fcr forty day> ia every year if toqairod. The Wder 
of half a luught's foe attended twenty day^ and the 
bolden of atuJler froctJona in prdputtion. Knigbt 
■arvica wa« aboUihed by IS CfaArlee IL cap. xxir^ 
freehold toloD^ ita plaoe* 

or St.) 

KNUillTS OF TFI£ SlilKK.aMiDbenof Par. 
liotueut reiirciwuting countjce or diirca, in oontiadb* 
liDction to citixiMiit at bnrcesefl rep waei iU n g bor- 
ou'^'hs. Farmcrly iLe frc(^ol'J«re in caeih county 
were rvquirad to rdam tno lciii|;lita or gentlemen of 
wwth >a thrir renraKuuiIvM in ParliaiDrat, whoeo 
expenaea during tlMdr aittio^ in PnrliaiDeot th^ weiv 
r»iuii«d by Henry VIII. cap. xi to boar. By fi Anne, 
o.i]). v., thu re|>r«a«iitativ« wcro nijuired to hava 
a property qualifieatloji to tbo extent of £400 par 
onnuDi of frtebold cabUc. liy tbe I{«fonD Acta of 
15:1s, 1 667, ftt^, variotu chaii{tc> have been bade in 
the nprMeutatUiB : the proparty qnoIlBcatioti of tnem- 
hvn baa been aboUahed, the ccnititucnoce have been 
cnlarj^d, and the rejireMntatian haa bMQ redlatri- 
butfJ. Sic BiuijUS— B. the I'arliiuneut ; Uaixot, 
l^i.wnorf, *c, 


KXIPP£RDOLLIXG, Rfiuh^rii, See Asa- 

KNIITING, an indmtnal and onumcnta] art 
allied to vmvbjK, but of mooh later orisin. It dim 
nat a^ipGOr ti> b« tnon than ibm or Jour eentiiHeii 
old, and iK^mi to have been fint uaed in tbe manu- 
facture of ntuclcinga. It eonaUa in fanning a aerioa 
of luoj« with a lingle thiaad, through which another 
row of loDM it pMod, and ao on oonaeentivoly. In 
hond-knUting at««l wires are uaed to form tha loojs 
on. Fur nuuiufacturtnit nurpoeea baud- knitting haa 
been eoitiixly impmeoded by macliinprj, whioh b 
oontantly ntcdvug new nat»ov«meabi. Hand- 
knitting, howarer, as h raqulree little aOentino, atlU 
forma an agKaaUo doouatie occupatioo for lading and 
bdra mattj female* in bumble life b* eka out a pr«- 
cariouB aubeietenc*. 

KKOLLl'S, nr Ksowun, Kloiuui, hbtorian, 
waa entered at tbe UniT«niity of Oxford about \M0, 
and became a fellow of lincolu Collage, wliicb he left 
tobo maater of th« frov tcbool of SoMwieh, In Kent 
He died in I6I0. Ha wrfAo a Gonenl Ubionr of 
the Tlirki (imbliahed in 1SU3 and 16101, the atyle of 
which U lugaly onrnmaDded by Jobnaon, HoUau, a&d 
otbercritIci>. An>niFVDTeded!tioti,witb<wHlliiiiatiacr, 
hj Sir Paul Itycaut and Roger Monler.waapitbliafacil 
hi thno Tola, f^, 1 fiE7-l'uu : Li nsa and ConauMb c f 
tbe Ottoman Hinge and fimperote, acatiituea to and 
priDtod in 1621. 

KNOT, In nailiratlon, a larcv knob formed on 
the citntmity of a rujio. couvrally l>y uuLwiMing ita 
ondi^ and int«rwi«viag Uietn roRularly amnog each 
other; of Uuee there are WTenu aucto, dlilonng in 
focn, rfuL and aan*, at dbnond-kaoC, knop-kna^ 
«veriuad-NSo^ r*«f-kiu^ ■hnnd-kaot, atepper-knol, 
alngla-wall knot, donbJM'Wall knot Tin «h*«pdiank> 
iaat eervH to obortoa a tope without cqlting it, and 
nay be pnaently looeeaod. Tlio wall-knot b ao mode 
wlut the layaof a nme that ft cannot alqi,aadeBr*aa 
for aliMta, tacka, aiul atopjion. Knot* are gcnendly 
uaed to act aa a button in preroatll^f tha end of a 
rape (na itipidRg tbrooh'b the bole of a dBad>«tya. or 
Ihrao^ the tarna of a hudard, by wbid tbey on 
BUfnetMaea made taet to other ropea. 



lAtf Irtfwid H a wwtM tynonpn for a 
pNCn^kd mile. The log-Un* b dlTided by knob 
into aocUona nf ^^Ui of » gvomphiod milo, banco 
Uie number of •ccti'Miii ran ont la lialf & nunute fatJi- 
cUc> thd number of hu>t* or gvogimtililcal ihUm por 
boDT ftt whidi th« abip i* gm'ng. 

KKOUT, im iiuitniini.-nt of [nuiudicnciit in Itowft, 
h&Sag A nliip foniiiNl of thongs of ildn vtlffoiklly 
luviwnd, ftiul [K^Utd with iron. !t tu fnrmcrly 
ta MB I& Ou ftnny, but & f«w vtrolcei only met nnw 
in fl kted, M a dinfmu^ in oim trf diamlDaL It ia 
•mi mneUmM mm] for oritnlnali. One huii>Ir«<! 
■ttokm at the knout w«t« muUilcred eiiuividuat to a 
■«a«tC6 of death, tbs Tlotim nnlv anrrivltiff the 
ktioii. If he>nrTived.thapuiii*limcait wm com- 
1 hy bauilihmcnt to Sibcrim. 7'he thnna* of tb« 
we grooved b(;fur« ticbs huilunedl which 
OKues it to cut thn skin. After inflicting tho blow, 
the exiMUtlcniu- dMwm It alonj boriuat&U/, whinh 
ttan tlie woutiil. It ia said an expert oxecutiuner 
cMn kill with tho third Ijinw. Th« noblw wen ox- 
e>iptMl from thu knout, but the -exctnptiaB WU not 
•Iwftje obsen-ed. 

KNOWLFS^ JAvra Sufxihas, dmmntUt, tthm 
bora 12th ilny, I7S4, at Curk, wbne bis fnthor, 
JeiiMl Enowles (the ivathor of & reriMd e<litJaD of 
Wftlkot't Uictionarv}, wu a t«»clier of docntioa In 
1702 Jftmea Knovrlci rcmored witb hia fxtaiXy to 
London. Sberidui received hit educstmn Croui hi* 
bther. He hvgui to write plkjv very etiiy, havlnff 
sude MTeral At tram twelve to fourteen yeua of age, 
'riilob hkco nut been proerveil. Hia Kteniry butca 
brooght lilm mrlj into xioatAot with IliuIUt, Ccule- 
tiige, luod Lamb, into wbose fntoruit; hu waa ad- 
Biltted. About I7ira bo removed to DubllDj wbMe 
he made ui attempt to come cat aa oii ncbv at the 
Crow Ktm-t'ltoitrB, Imt wnn nittf-iv-mraMy rrcnired. 
He afterHiU'iti bcviiuu lui ivct<jr and »iit;:i;r in a the- 
atrical company at Wattrfnid. He wtote a play for 
tlua cotnpaoy caili-d Tioo, or the tiiiMy, n-Lioh bsa 
not been jircacrvec], but in ii-liich ICdmund Kcau, 
tlKn a menibvr r>f the coiQpBuy, {luvod the priut-ipal 
part, in 1849, He abo published by BubecHption a 
ralnme of fugitive pofauN. He afterwnrda bocamo a 
taadier of clocuLlon In Belfaat, where be began to 
writo ragiilarly for the ■tase. Hia tragedy of Caioa 
Gracvbua vnu perfuimed m 1815 with aucocM, and 
from this time be had a pnMperoue career aa auUior, 
actor, and lecturer. About 1S45 bn retired bttm the 
ataf[e, becowB afterwArda a BnptiAt preuoher, and 
pubUihed seTwal theolofioal woriu. In 1S{9 he 
ncdrod a peodoa of jC20O « year from nwaRunont. 
Be died at Torquay, lut tt»c 16S2. The foUowing- 
are amou^ UIk iirinoipal «-orka: Catua Graedtua 
(bron^t out at Belfast), ISIS; VLi^liilM (Gl«gDw), 
IMO; WUliam Tell (Drury Lane), U2&\ The 
HuDchUck (Covent Gardun), nS'2; The Wife of 
Mantua ((Movent Garden), 1833; llie Lore-chaao 
(Haymarket), 1S37; Lovo (Covent Garden), 1&39. 
Id 1B17 be pubUahed FoTteteue and George I.orel, 
two tbn.-4-rbliuno novels of no ^TL-at tiiorit A col- 
lectives vdition of hia dram.itic wnrka waapuhliahod 
In 18-13, and n n•vt*(^d edition in 1350. Tbu Rock 
of Komc, OF the Arch-horesy, appeared in 18111; The 
Ido] Deinoiisbed by ita own I'riaat, in ISfil. He 
wa> alio an uocaaional cuntribntor U> iicriodicalx 
Uis Virgiuiua has bom prooouneed the uett acUng 
tngedy on the modotn atn^; and Allan Cunning 
ham aaya that hie dramas ara full of impreamve 
imnpings, and that hia Vii^'iniuii, lUa Bvggar'a 
Dav^ter, end hia Wifo of Mantuoi all contain 
weeea gl perfect truth and reality, fucb ai are sur- 
|«Md by BO modem dnunati«t Of the Lectnrea on 
i>rainatic Art which he dclivond, Wilaon aays in 
the ICoct^i AnibruaLutir, 'They arc adrniralilo, full 

of matter, el^aatiy written, sad eloquently) 

KNOX, JoRy, the dnef pramatcr of the rcfor- 
mation in Scotland, waa deeoended from an xncleut 
(amQy. and bom at Giffoid, in Kact Lothian, in 
IfiOS. Hi* ancestcn, by hia own account, wen 
retainer* of the earU of BothwnlL He began Ma eda- 
cation at the iframmar-nchoul of IladdingtoD. Ab 
bii mhecquent caner there hmou to be eonal^ 
dubiety. Them is one sbatcaneiit tiiat ho sot 
theUidveniLy of Ola«ffaw, or of St Andrews, in 1 GSl^'J 
and nnntber that lie npgan bii unifftraiiy career ' 
thu luttor university in 162i. He ia tald to Lave hajj 
Major for hia tbeologjeal toaohcr. Majorappoani 
havi! been connected with iwith utuvcnritica: Glaeco' 
till 1522, SL Andrew* at a mibwuueut date una 
lained. He became a prieet before the legal _ _^ 
twenty-five j'con, conioqncBtly befon ISSO. Alvnit' 
thia time he beoan to teach In St Andrewa While 
here be gTadually adopted the prlcoijjca of the R«- 
formeil fnttb, of which lin liecatno nn avowed adva 
abuut U42. Of the history of th!* traiuitioo. 
opjniDO Utile is known, altbocfrh many . obv 
cauaM in thi> drcomiitannea of thn tim^u n.m : 
for it. He was degraded tmia the j^nUnjod, 
cxanpelled to flue from 8t Andrewa. He now cnt 
the family of Dou);Im, iif LfiDgniddnci, aa tntor 
bia eona and tlinan nf the laird of OrmUton. ITndtr 
their |>n.>t<."cti*iu lia [inaac-Iiod in tbu ue!i>lil*urhoijd. 
Hb also U'came a foUon'er of Wiahart upon whom 
ho v(>it<-d nbcn hepreacbcal In Lothian, with a two- 
banded auonL He waa pEcsecutvd by (.'.vdlnal 
Beaton and bia suooeaaor, Hamilton, and at length 
cxnapelled to flee from place to plaoe Ull he thnujjiii 
of retiring to Germany, but woa penuaded by the 
fathers of Lis pupils to take refujjcwitb fhii ■wimlTiii 
of Beaton in tlin Castle of St Andrew*. Here ho 
preach(.-d tho principles of the Hufc^ruiatlou with 
ovtraordinary bolducaa until the caatlo of tit An- 
drews aurTcndored to the FVcoicb in 1547, when ho 
waa carried with the garriaon Into Fraii>i.-e, and 
remained a iirlnon^r on board the galloyo <int^ the 
latter end of lfi49. Bdng ;hen rot at liberty, bo 
paMcd over to Kngland, and, arriving In London, 
waa Uoenaed ritLer by Cramoer or tho Protector 
Somoreeit, and .tppointud prrachwr, (intt at Iterwick, 
and aflcrwarda at Newca>tle- In Pec. ISGl he 
waa appointeil chaplain to Edward VI., and preached 
bcfi>ru tiic king at WMtmiDster, who rocommondcii 
Oanmur to give bim tbn living of AlUudlowa, in 
London, v/\dA Knox declined, not duxwljig to cou- 
form to the English liturgy. It Is odd that hu 
refuaod a liiahopric, regarding all pntlacy a* aavour- 
Ing of the kingdom uf anUcbrfat. He, however, 
oontinnod his practioo as an itinerant preacher until 
tho accetrion of Mary, in \&ht, when bo quitted 
England, and Mought refuge at Geneva, wliere he 
bad not long redded befon he waa invited by the 
Engliih oongragalion of rcfugcei at FVankfwi-an- 
the-Mdn. to become their minister. He nawUUn^y 
acceptod thia invitation, at the rcqucal of John 
Calvin, and continued hia ■uniem until amhroiileil 
iiL a dliputv with Vr. Cox, afteruarda liiabop of 
Ely, who stronuoualy uontunded for tho liturgy of 
Iving Edward. Knox, in liia iiHnal rtylo of bold 
vituticmtiuti, having in a trcatiaa piibliabed in Bng- 
l&ua called tho Emperor of G uruiiuiy as greet an 
enemy to Clirist as Koro, hia opponents accoaod hfan 
to the s«nato of trcoaon, both, ngiunat the emrcror 
and Queen Mary; on which be received pnvate 
notice of his danger, ,ind again retired to 4^}enarva, 
whence, after a raidence of a few moutlu, be ven- 
tured, in August l'-.''^, to pay a visit to bis native 
ooitntry. Finding the profcaaors of the I'roteatnnt 
religion greatly increaard in number, and foruied jiitu 




K tocitty xinAeT the iasjtcctian of rr-^iilju- teachers, he 
linikll/ jiiincil thrm. uiil tircKluccd (Qgrrat mi effect 
Uv hiaflx«rCion«,bi<th lii EdlnbaighMulotbcr pliM*, 
tUKt Ui« {{quijui Catliolic clcT^r, itlunud M hia pro- 
gnm, MUtUDiaied bim t^ iipp«nr hcforo thctn in the 
cfaorch of tho lM«okfrI&n. in thnt mctrupotijt. Mny 
15, 1554l lliin minimonpi l>» ptirvoMil to oWjr, mrt- 
ittg vn Uie ■uptNirt of k fonnlilaulo pMty of noble* 
out] gn>tT7, which m ftl&rmed fai> bi>pcin6nta that 
tbejr arO|iped the proaocutian. Tbaa Kucournml, ho 
«OBll&iu>d praaobing with *dditioiuU marg^ anu bold- 
iwh; Mid was even luduced tu write tu the nu««n 
ngmt, Sf«Y of Lnrrains, a. lettur in irhiidi bo 
MntMllf txbintctl her to linttn Ui tb« ProtortAnt 
dDdriMtk While tliuB oc-L-ut,j«l, b« warn Ktnmgly 
mpd to p*}r ft TiaJt to the Ln^liili ooiVTVK*tJ<m At 
Gvii«va; anil he aiooanlhigljr deputod for ihiA pluco 
Id July, 1556. He waa no aococr jrone than the 
liiahop* nimiuonail hlu to appeftr hefun Ihem; ftnd, 
■■ tbkt WM imptMribld, thoy pa«wd Mntenoe of death 
«g*iiut him H ft heretic, and burned him in effliry M 
tM aom ftt Edlobiir^h. At^alnnt this acDleom be 
drew 0|\ an cnergrtic nppral, which ^>H prinkid mX 
Oeoeva in 15SS, (irc-vkiuiily to wfaldi hg waa invited 
to Muni to SootUnd, and hftd ftctnfttlr reached 
Dieppe on his way, when be received other IrrCtrn 
reconunendin^ deUjr; which tKuatlM houian-pmi! by 
mirii itmng remonetraiiw* afpuiut tfauidity aud \mcV- 
alidtng, thftt tlioee to wkom be addrwBcd ttiem en- 
tered lnb> ft Mkinn bond ur coTenant, dated L>ec. S, 
IL&7. 'that tbejr would fullaw fnrth their piu^ww, 
and cammit thetiiaelv««, and wluttevi-r Giid hail given 
them. Into hie luuida, rather than tiiflcr idointry to 
nlflit ftW) the Bubjeote to be (kfnturled <if thu onW 
food of Ih^Ir aoula.' Kim>k. in titc tm-anliine. faail 
retumeil tn (iriiDvn, whrn* hri |iiil>li*!i<>il tiii trvntjio 
entitled the Fuel Itlaet vf the 'iVutntwC agaioiit the 
HoMtrau Bee^nicn of Wonwii, ehienr ftlmed at the 
eniel gorenumnl of (jueeu Maty of Bnglftfld, anil at 
Ibe attempt tif th« queen n^rnt of SmcUnd to mle 
whhout • PftrliAnieiil. A Svtvud BhuiL waa to have 
folIowMd: but the Mcevian of tjucen Klliabeth to the 
thmne of En^and, wlm waa vvpnrtcd to tie fricnilly 
to tlm Protnrtnnl caiwe, prevenlod It. In May, IHV, 
ho ratiini«.l to 8i>iii1aBd. He tnteoded to vMt Kn^-- 
land on bia way, but owin^ to the nwentment of 
EUuliath at hia tata treatiH be was refiued a pea- 
•age. The queen TegeDt bail tuminoiMd the tefurtnrd 
preaohen to Stirling lo anawvr for their CDndni-t 
Knox and othen ftcoompanied tbem to Penh, l>ut 
the quean, ftUmud by the munber of theu- inpi>ort- 
efft, pmralaed tn atop the trial If they nmilil proi'ccl 
no (ottber. When they ccwplied with lirr roiucet, 
■nd many of then bad returned home, the queen 
cuiMd tliem to be cited at titirlin^ . nnd untlawed for 
itun-iippeanuimt. Ihe day thia intcUi^nee anired 
III I'Mih Kdok preaohed w public and InftauMd the 
ueinilu by ft vehatnm^bMUlgiieagaiiut idolatry. The 
indaieradra of a priert, wnoy ijiin)cdiat«ly en the 
toadarien of Una diaomra^ wm pTr|mriiiK to celc- 
he«l» BUM, pradf^tatod hia beann Into a (fenvrnl 
•ttaok on (be dmrchet of the city, hi which tlio altan 
wmra overtoraed, the pi'^^'i'^ deatroyed, the ImagM 
hroltcB, and the iDou^tcrii-n abiuiet teveUod to the 
gminrl. Ihew prooeedlaifi ef the mob wo* cen* 
•ured by the rvfomwd ixwKban^ and by the leaden 
of the party. Fidoi tnta tUne Knox wmUwiwI to 
|inmol« tho Itefonnatiom by ovory moana In hia 
power, and by hie ciitieiptmenc* with the aeerv- 
tary Oeeit waa cUody tnainunefital hi eataUtablDt; 
tho BifetiftHoB he ft wean the t'on^rtf;«tian and tbo 
Kn|[liih, which temiMted in the maK^i of an Kiw* 
Udi arn* brio BeoUand. BrinK juined by abnoai id) 
Uw ebWinen of the oountry, tb«<a* foroea aoon obl^^vd 
the French trvope^ who bail boon the prindjMd tup- 

port of tho regent, to q'lit the kinptam; and the 
I'arliuncDt wm rcst<irc<] to ita fDntier iniJ(.-|iciMl'--noe. 
Of that body, the majority had emhraciKl I'nifwtant 
nplniaiu, and do opportunity wm omittod of muni ling 
tne audeat TaUfion, antll at lenj^ the PrrHbyterina 
plan nodtumended by Knox and hia brethren waa 
finally aanctinniH], the old occleaiaatical courta beinu 
Bbo1i^d,au(l theexcFcIae of re1i|:iou( viorUiip.av<«ird- 
Jne to the rttea of the Rotnicb Church, nrobibitod. 
In Augwft, 1561, the unfortunato Marr, thcJi widow 
nf ynuieia IL, LhiK of France, arrived m SoutUud to 
loilCii in her own richU She liunetltately bogtui the 
repiUr ealebrfttion c2 nuai in tho royal chapol, which, 
banf much frequented, cxiHtod the aeal of Knuv, whu 
waa equally iulukralit with the leadeni uf tlie 0on< 
quered party; ukI in the face of an order uF thnpriry. 
council, idlnw'inif the private uiiuu^ he njieulydcctarrd 
from the jnilpit, ' tlurt one uibm waa more Iri jktfid to 
liini than 10,00i|) ortiiod L-nrnuea landed inauy part c^ 
tho realm,' Thin friwdum gave creat ulfence, and 
the <|ULt:n hod luni; and anniy conferencoa with hlni 
on that and other occiuions, in which ha nercr paid 
Ihc »lightc*t hnmogo citlier b> mi or rank. Ku 
preiMhed with uqual oponneaa oAfdnit the nuuriage 
(•( Mary; and Daraley, aftor hli luUoih being St- 
diKjetl to hear him. he oheerred, In tlie conrae ot hia 
■eminti, thnt ' liod act over them, f«r their odTence* 
and ii)|;rsUtude, boya anil women.' In tli* year 
1507 he jnmobed a ■ormoa at the oonmatiaa of 
.lonm Vt.. when ftfary bad been dathraned, and 
MurTuy apptiiutoil rc;,tiit. lu li>T2 h« naaereatly 
offended with a (Mtnvuition of nilniateni at I^viLh, for 
permittinii; the titlw of archbhhpji and Iriah'-p to 
remain during the kinj^'a minority, alth'^ui.'h he ap- 
pmred of the r^pilatloiu adopted in icfeninoo to 
thrir electintuL At thia time hia conatitntinn waa 
<|uile broken, and he received an additional ahoek by 
the newn of the mamaen of St. Bortholgnnw. Ha 
had, howct-or, a(i«ngth onoueb to preach ^aioit It, 
trhich hn dciired tho French ambaundor iniyht be 
Mitu'^^'i^i^ Willi, but eouit after t^iuk to Uo bed, and 
died, Xor. 34, 1 S73. Me wae intemd at (Idinhtu^, 
acveral lorili attRnilinj*, and portiintlarly the Ear) of 
Mortiin, that dny i-kieeii rpp-nt, who, when ho waa 
lidd In Ills grnvf, exrlnim««l, 'There Uae he who nentr 
feared the face ui nuui, who hath l»ao of^u tbrea* 
tilled viLh dai; and dagger, but yet hath ended hia 
day* in pcaca aud hunoiir; for tie had Ood'a prori- 
doiice wntehtnf[ over liim in an eapectal manner 
when hia life waa evushi.' Itoberteon, in hia Bia- 
tory of Scotland, coumantiDjr upon tbo aevertty of 
hia deportment, impetuoiity of temper, and Bcaloua 
intolerance; obacrrei^ that the uualitle* whidi now 
nmder hlro Ism amiablo, Bttod niin to advance tho 
ItcfomiAUoo among a fierce ptoplc, and enabloj 
him to enonttnter danger*, and anrmount ii]>rad> 
titiu, U\ whtch a Diure iteotle aplrit n^tild have 
yittlded. J'lhn Knox waa a man of exalted priud- 
ptce, grrAt intellectnjil rnojy, nndannted InCropi- 
dity, and eicnipUry pifrty and mundity. He waa 
twice mazrled, and bod two ao&a by hia Siat wife, 
and threo dMiybtcn by hia aeeond, one of than inar> 
ried to the Bor. John Weleh. Hia woriu eonipriw 
liturgjcftl manuala, dsvatiaaal treotiaeak and ooHtoo- 
venul tnda. Anioag them ia • Hiatorie of the Re- 
formatluncf Beligtoon withUi theltealm,ii> fiveKnJw, 
flntt edltioa, whh hk Life, by David Sutibanan ( Edln- 
batgh, 1584). A more eonvcl edition of tbo HbUey, 
loaether with the mlaoallaneoua wnrfca of Knox, waa 
eiUted hy David Lainc; tho HlKory, hi two vola., 
11440-481 the MlMellaneou* \Vork8, in two vela., 
)8&4-A£] Tho JJtnm of tho Ukureh ul Soetlaad, 
or John Knox's Book of Ooonnun Order, edited by 
Rev. John Cnmaoibir, wae pttbUibed In 1810. Soa 
M'Cile'a Life of Knux. 



KXOX, Viccfltxrs, D.r>., on eminent dlrlns, 

■oUmt of A vurtcty of w<>rk» iHitli Ui tbtolojsy md 

pulilo liUrrslure. lie km horn IWvmlwr S, 1753, 

and «>ditc«t«>t at Oxfun). Ou the ilvatli of bla ftiUittr 

fcg «u chomm Ilia vuiwenor ia the b«ad-tniutenlup 

■f Tnabriilj^e ^amiiikr-BclinoI, orer which ho pr«- 

mAed Ihirty-Uiree jrcaui^ till, retiring in ISIS, be wu 

tiimielf in torn sncoMiIed b; hla kid. His wwrio, 

, Sun; oi wUdb luiT« ItecD tnniUled into variotts 

>Xar^»eft& btwnagei, ftr«— Uaurn, Mnml mi<1 Lite- 

''Vhj (tliKo TOUL 8vo >o(l I^iud); Liberal BJucaliuu 

^ttpo vaU. 8vo Mul I2nin)i Wiiitflr Kvvning* (thr** 

v^ 8vo mud IStuo); PcnuiiiJ Nubilitr, or Lcttvn 

to 1 Yomg Xobleman cont> vol, 1-imol: Cliriitian 

VbiloKiiiby (CwavoU 12in'<); ContiiclfTrution* on tho 

KatiUD and Efficacy of tliu r^ard'a Sanpor (oiia vdi. 

4n>); Ml J a MfopblH on the Naliouftl ImiwrtanDe td 

flawifal EonofttioB, vich & v&riuty of unnDtifl on 

I dUfetenl occdoImu; «spurggLte<l oditanni of Uoram 

iMtd Jurenal; and » •rriai of aelecUviui from tho 

I wovb of tbn bast Ktigliuli Kittbom, gtnemllv blown 

[ wElaisaat ExtracUsnd ElvL'ant Kiiislli;*. Dr. Knox 

vmU tha Latin lwgUAg« vith KreJtt |iurity tod tin- 

ga.n(v, U>th in ]rrM« and vena. Ua dioa Savt. <, 1831. 

K>'0\VILL£,At<rwii,Uait«l 9tftt«,T«»HH«h 

, Mfdtal of Knoi county, on a height aboro tho right 

I'faaU of tll« Hi>ljt<i[i, at ibu juiicLiun of th^ EaJit 

TenncMNM and (inorgiA nnd tb« Eaat l'«nn«aiwo and 

Vfa)^[a R«Uw»ya, 140 nitlca csle. NoahvUle. It in 

lb* diief flomnsrdal pUcs of Eaat ToimeHMc, and bt 

i^idly incTUkdng ia a1x« aad impertaAoa. haviiiK 

%iliim l«n yean more Uiml dnnliled ibi population. 

It onnt^na a iinlvanlty, a^irnii aCMilcuikti, lliiv stat« 

Mylaim for Uio d«af and dumb, gliuj-wor'<^ uid a 

tai y cm- f actory. Top. ^00:^. 

KNCTSFOBD, > loarka town, Engliuii!. rouuty 

a(ClMat«r, -ZUmiletnorth-eut byauCuf Cfaisalar. It 

lua generally n mean Kppoaruicai liut it haa a neat 

IBTU chatcb and several Ditwentiii^ chapeitt, a free 

gramuiar and Wvct^ otlier acboulB. The thjcad 

tnanufactun which (onafily flmiriahsd bere hot 

been nmdn&tvd by caton and rilk band-looni tfoav- 

iag. wbJdi La carrier) on to a auall extent Pm. SS97. 

KOATuX {Piuitmlarrta* nnrreu*). Tha Koala, a 

■upiid nuunmiil, allied to tha Icnngarooa, ftc, U 

confined to ttiQ AuttruUan pruvlnoe, when it b 

: kBOWB lu the JuUivo 'alotb,' nativo 'boar,' or native 

'monkey.' Ani>Lhar sprdc* ImriilDi thi; /'. cinerrut 

la kaowD, but tliB kuilu in tliu tiiily uiin rr^-onltug 

' vlildi «w have any di^fiititu ItiFuruuittuii. Ic U 

kdncdy fumnd in New South WaLcsi, and in adapted 

Inran arbwtAl esiat«nc«. 'Jtc body in alnnit 'J fml 

I IduSi ^" '>^^ twin;; of a ■latv-sray cubur, and tbo 

I tnflod with long hairs. The tidl la quite ahor- 

' tfvoy Imt the want of tbLi nfpmdjigc — ao UMful when 

imt {vchenaile kind to arlxircal aaimal* — i> com pen* 

'■Mad fnr by th* po aiwi ion of tLrtjii}- curvNt clawa, 

'vMdi awiat the koaln in ita climbing movaiuGUts. 

I VIm feet an further fitted for gntaptng- object*, and 

'ttM dIaptMitiaii of tho toe* or di^ta aaaiiita m mider- 

Lfag Otm fcvt admirably aitaptnd fur rlinibing. 'I'hiiK 

I <fae gr«at toea of the Uiiid fwl, «« in luiut monkcya, 

«U IM opposed to the other ii;^la. to that objc«tii 

nay lie Mixed lietWMtn thnm; and in the fnro-Jimb 

ths thumb or poUex and fare iir index tinker call 

^40BltfaT be oppoaad to the other flu(,-«r>. Tbe ko:iU 

'flHiaa thelMvceandanftpartaof Irvca, bin appaara 

'MUdly tA burrow in Hoarcb of niobt. 'tlin young. 

Bke Iboae of niual manupiali, are rarried in the 

ehnncttrirtic pnudi, but when cuffioiontly grown 

they are carried upvii tho *houlder of tlio mother. 

] Ae kud* ta intJuded in the f^arpopkafmu or f niit- 

['■illlH aadinn of the K far* it pi alia, and ia regarded na 

bluing ■tntetarallyintemcdiale be twaan the kan^arooR 

a*d pbalangen. 

KOBOI.D, a apcdeji of elf in tbm BDadv ^V" 
atition of Cicnnauy. It «jrru»pdn& to IIm KnpUfl 

gnbtin. The knbijld ia nnnncctcil with a bouM or a 
faiuilv. Mid a]tpean iu bodily aliape. Tliungb lui-llunl 
to miacbleTDiu teadng, tlivy d« on th« nbnle inoiv 
good than nvil to inco, a««pt vhen irritatoiL In 
tiio mine* they are thought to appear, nuuivLiiuw iii 
tlie ^lape of a Uue flamo, aomouniM in thiit of a 
dwarfiin ebUd, and to indicate rich veina lliey do 
the miners miacbicf when diatnrliul )iy thetn. 

KOCK, CBA»LTJ»-P*i;t BE, iiuvcIiHt, waa born at 
Foaay 21it May, 1794. He w.-m thr> iKin of a I>uld> 
Wnker who liad evtaliUahud hiiiuulf at Paitay duriui; 
the remilutlon, and who died on tlte acallotd with the 
HAiertiala. IIo waa boni aoine montba after the 
•xecntion of bii father, and wa* alwajia, in tho 
phnantlugy of tlw Fn.iich republican^ a rMftiou- 
ruxire rttragt, although hia wriLinga oanlain little of 
jxtlittok At the u^ of bftciiii be waa placed by bu 
inother In the banking* buuao of Schcrer and Fbi- 
iperlln. Here lui conipoaed bis 6nt novel, L'Knfant 
d« ma femme, the tHlc of which to ehocked hti mn* 
ployen that they bc^j:^ hitn to offer h!a aerrlooa 
eliewfaen. He went itutisad to aeek a ptibllilier, bi 
wUtd) berna mooenful, and bia reputation waa aoou 
eatabtiaboi) bv anch worlu a« Ueor^t« (l'^-')): Uua- 
ta>-e, ou le >Jauvais 8ujet (ISSl); Uun Volidii Ray- 
mond (1S22V The la«t la r«garded an tho tynli-al 
romanco i^ its kind. Indeed it ia raid that in all lii* 
novela I'anl do Kock introdneea the aamc cliainctTm 
and iuL-ideiitfl, varying otdy the ptut aud accmtiury 
<letail», so tbnt a Krvncb critic (Jnuvin} askx, 'Ungbt 
we to any tbc ii}uianw or the roniaaoof of Paul de 
Koekl' To render tiiuiti uniform typea nod inddenta 
alwiqr* freth and amuaiBg ia the merit that baa bc«u 
ctidmad for Paul da Koclc, Hia accne ia caat in the 
lower nuka ef mtddle-olaaa lite. Uia narrative \n 
A oautant saoeaaaicin of atirring iucidanta without 
catoatrocibe. The incidcnU ore alwaya gay and 
lively, frviiuently •uioewlut Krou, but acucely Ui 
the extent of indwceuor, At li^a^t it is ^ilod tbat if 
hit narrative ii loinewbat aowdly clad m montlity, 
h!adAaouementiaalwayifRenrMuiliAU& Someofhia 
romaiKTia alno, aa Andr^ le Savoyard and 0«OT;yiett(i 
Hanii Cravnttii, bavn a iiinipla and toiichiniij; intermit 
without Ix-Idk indebted towmauttonal iuddeuta. Tliv 
worst feature of Paul dd Kook'a worka la bia atyk, 
which ia barely prr*cntab]r, a fault evidently due ttj 
ddideuoy of odut^tiDU. I'bia accuiinLi fnr hi^ popu- 
larity beluK SKtMt abn>ud tlian at Luuc, as the 
defect! of style disappear in tranalatioa. In Italy 
and .Sjiain even tbc n»vc1a i-( other writcra an,- attri- 
buted to Paul de Kock in order to make them m-II. 
Paul de Kock Urwl In Paria in tlie Boulerard Saint 
Hartin during the Laat forty roars of hi* ]lfo, and 
oontinued to write to the laxt. lie died llStli Aufcuat, 
ISTl. Beaidi'i bia uoveta, wUi^-'k aj-e t<Mi uuixirruua 
to mention, be vrroto some dramas, chiefly taken 
from th«m. A oollectimi of hii wnrlm wAa publiiihod 
in lis voU. 4tu^ ilhutrated, iu lh4U~6'J. 

KOH-I-NtKlll, See DiAUosn. 

EOHIfEABI (fruarini o'cnacnt octWo-mjM) ia a 
cultivated variety of the cabhoje, distlnfuiabed by It 
swelling al the nock of tho root, wlildi i» eaten, and 
whtn gutherMl liifforo it w cinito fipo has an nicvllent 
flavour. It ia uied for foeuing cuwi^ for which it la 
eU]wrior to turaiE), aa It dou not {tve m pronounced 
a navmir to the millt. Itectdli^aliun \* nut much 
atteiidnl to in Kngland axcupt in thn aoiith. 

KOI>A, a town of BiSKiia, in the government of 
Aichangel, on the Kola, near itA mmith in the Bay 
of Kola, d^rca it* dili-f impnrtaii<T< fruiii being tb« 
btBl nitd iuijted tile only safe harhiitir on a lung 
)Ltr(>t<!h of the Ijnphind coiut, tvndering It the usual 
reaort tif the HuHinn veaaela engaged in the nonbem 




fublng tmdo, in ooniMctioB with vrUdi tho inbaU- 
unti fad thdr chief ttapiayiaaA. Pop. SM. 

KOTuV NXTa Bee CoidL 

KOLAP[7R, A natin >tAt«^ Iiuli*, t>ctwccn Ut 
15- 5S' auct ir^ 17' W.; Ion, 73' 47' wul 7*' 48' t.; 
ana. SUfi ibQm. It dopes (torn Ui« eolmiiutmi,' 
ridgv of tba WMtmn OkiiU, forming iU w«»t bnnn - 
[larjr luwuida ihe etutcm plainm, wbidi luvo ilill on 
l!a east bvaUer u ehivaUou uf ISOO M 1300 fmt. 
In tlw wat aomo atuninifii ctf tlw Ghta within its 
litnllA riju fram moO to 4000 fMb The rlrtkinA^c fa 
lij tW KisttA diroctljr, and through ita tnlmtiu-j 
Wuroa and DamortMn mountian bunvatc. 1'hc ioti, 
ootnpoaed for tibe auM port of di«iiit<.'),(Tated tnp 
tocka and Ut«rite, la T«r7 fertile. The rul«n of 
Kulafiur trwe tbcir doKcnt from Siiajvi;, tbo otla- 
lirated fuuiukr uf tho Mahralta Kmpin. Pop. 

EOLXITf fpropwly jVni-AVin}. iv town, Bohamla, 
3G niilcs caat liv •••iitli "f l'»pi>', jiictiiTOMpielf ntn- 
at«d OD an clovatwl ludc oit tliv I«ft bmic of tJi« 
£lbo, awl uroMad by tbo rvUway from Pntgoe to 
ViouiL It ia aarrotuuled by a wall, and i> vrcU 
bultt; IiMi a town-hall and iDT«nkl djurcbe^ and a 
boiaalo sardaiL It baa mauufaoturaa of ovttun avul 
bI poteu. aod ft tnido io gann, pattimlarly coracli- 
aw^ aanotit and UoMb^ iriiien an Eomd in tho 
ttdgbbonrlLood. Freuericdc the Great waa defeah.'d 
boT« 1;iy Marahal Ihkun, ISth Joaa, 1757. Pop. 

ROLOMI^, a taira, Austria, GaUck, 106 diUm 
ii.a.1:. Ijonibcrj, I'a^iital ot tlie cErclii, on the tight 
bank of th49 L'niLh, witli » Itaman Catholic chnrch, 
a hlub •cliuul, auiJ a tndu iu vati]«. Pup. 11,839. 

KOLOMNA, a bowii, Biuuda, lu tho gorenunenb 
of and SO milai aouth-saat of Moanyir, on tho Ko1i>- 
muoka, a aiiuiU affluont of th« Moakwa, on a haight. 
It U ionooDiled by brick walls of ^reat hei^t and 
ihjcltnaaa, and Banked with tuwcra; ia div{£d into 
two parts by tbo livar, and toUmbly well built, 
thou^i BMK o( tho kouM arv otJy vt wuod. It U 
tba aae of a blahop, and tbo aeot of lovcual pablic 
aJBcai^ atd hM a oathnlnd, a inonaBtory, a nuntu^ry, 
a dioMan aemlnaiY, a aiiperior acbool, inanafaotun« 
of woollen, cotton, lin«n, ftc^ aad as Iniportant trado 
in caCtla, aalt proviafawa, fiafa, hemp^ hemp-oil, and 
MdM. I'np. l»,Ii9I). 

KOLYMA, a river, Siberia, in tho goremmcat of 
Irkatnk, which riatm in lat 01* StT ir.; Ion. 14«' k., 
in Um inountaiua ot Stauuvol-Krobet. After a «pune 
walnty n.sJL It falla into the Polar 8m in lat 69° 
W H. The firat 300 ultea it ia verj rapid, but aiih- 
ao(|uently, a« lb wLdena, H beoain«a more tnuiqulL 
Tlie right lauk conaiata gaoanUy of ataep hloU loofca 
t)f elate. Tlio Uil: bank ia mora flat, tha whole conn- 
tiy loworing gradually lewanla the aea tm h beooniea 
««M eaonnouB tawlrs or lawl laaaa, Tba ehlaf tri- 
liiilariw ara tLa Gnolsr aiul Ltaaer AniuJ ami the 
Omalm, which Join the left bank not far from the 
sea. Aftecwarda tlw rivor dividea into two, and 
aabeeqaently into thive baancbo^ fonning tlui cm- 
bvut^iuib wUeb ia about 40 sdlaa acnw. The 
Kolyma baa aiflelMl depth for any t«miI, bat the 
nav^ktioa, MpidaBy at tha antntDM^ ia readarad 
daoMroua by ahiftbif aaad-haahs. 

KUMttKK, the capital of tba county of Komorn, 
In Hungary, at tba oonflnnwa ot tba Danube and 
Woaf, vtth aoma mawifaettma aad a oooddenhln 
tndA Tbora b bare a fortnea witkfa ia mdeted 
alauet fanpreraiaUa by natnio and art. Komoan wae 
fortified by Uatthlaa C^rrinni in 1 17^ and again by 
Fetdlitand L in 1M3. It vat i*|>Mtedly baabwMl 
in tlio aarlier European wan. It waa unBiicoa«fully 
attMaptvil by XhiniIrni in 18W. Vmiag tha Hun- 
CwUn faunmotiun it lUS-49 H waa beiiegad by 

tb« Aus'.rinoa !n October, IHS. and anmndend to 
tboiu 2^Ui ScptembiT, 1646. Pop. 12,^59. 

KONIA, or Kn^tKii (ancient IcMttm.), a town, 
Anatic Turkcv, pculialic oF KaraiBanUt in tho ecoire 
•if au axteuidvo plain. With ita Saiaocoic waDi^ 
flaaked witti towsn 30 foot hi){h, and from 3 to 3 mllea 
in divoit, ita amNianuce at a dtitanoo ic vary in- 
jfxMtug, but its interior la a aoeno cS deaoladoo and 
raia TbeoolyishAbited portion lathecentK^ where 
tho baxaua an litualoa Tb« muat ranarkabla 
buildings ara tba andent tiMia()iie Injond Minardi 
Ujiiini, iidomed with oxqniaito traoory, fretwork^ 
*a<\ moiildingi; eareral handaana modem moaquei^ 
ooi-<.-ml with ghised tOea and briolca of various bttaa, 
chiefly red and blua; and the old TorkUt piiaan. 
with ruined towers, battlemcnta, and keei^ tcaom- 
blina n Gotliic oaatle. The InbaUtanta ara chiefly 
eniiuoyod In making aupat«^and in prepariiv leather, 
cotton, wool, and hidoL Pop. above lO.OOO. 

K<lXHJGRSTZ,atowti, b<ih«iua,capiUl of circle 
of aaiuu name, uu the li:ft biialc of tho tibc, at the 
confluQDCo of tha Adler, G4 milea I.S.X. of Prague. 
Ii cinuJKUof the toon pmjicr and three anborba, and 
ia a pluoe o< great itreu^tb, Iwidk not only ivgularly 
fonlQe^ but poeaoaacd of mcona of laybg tno anr- 
rounding oountry under water. It is dio aae of a 
IrinLnf^ and the loat of sotenU important ooiatt and 
publio otHoes; ountaiiu an andont cathodnd, an enia> 
flopat palaoa, town-boTi>«k diocann seminary, with a 
library; a gymBastnm, theatre^ iaHrmaiy, hoapHab, 
and barrack); and baa manufacturea of wooOaiU. atM 
aaveral mill*. Th» battle of Sadowa waa fongbt in 
the vicinil}- on July 3, 1353. Pop SfilS. 

KONK'lNHnr. a town, Bohemia, circle and 1 1 
miloa M.S.w. Ill Kiiui£|,'ratz, on tbo t^lte: with a 
chanh. manofaoturea of wouUen and linen duth, and 
a tauoecy. Fopu i}222. 

KOXldSBERO, aaeaport town of Frusaia, capital 
of the pruvLum i)f Pruaua ondof tho gDvcnmentof the 
wtkone numc, on tho Pr^v^ about 4 niilai above where 
it •.-utvrs the uorth-enet extremity of tha Kriicliee* 
HaS. It wu 0n<« tho Pruadan capital and the nd- 
duiiDo of Ihi: rU'ct'ini of Itrandenbutv, and still nutka 
aa tho thiitl city in the Priuuian danuniwiB, It ia 
■umtundiod by walls and ramparts and dotached forte. 
It eooaists of tho town prooer and of four suburin. 
The former ia divided into three parta—tha Almadl, 
or Old Tovm, lituated on tho west; Ijti^niekt on the 
east, and Kneiokof, aitiijitod an an Island fonaed bj 
tho Fregel, which, before entering the town from the 
eastv dividss into two anna: tbo housea hen baittg 
fonndod on tulet, as at Venico aad Amsterdam. The 
wall around the town and atibuiba is 9 milca in 
axtoat. Tba Altatadt and Lttbaakht at* wall sitn- 
atod on an alarated and raggad pieoa of gmuuL It 
Is irregularlj bolll, and In tbe old town tha low«r 
storiea of tha hoosas projact Ilka bsmcm, with Bi^ts 
of stops gnaidsd by bass rafUnga. Tbe nriau^ 
publio bmldlags are Uie catbedral, an sn Ti snt and 
intorDstlng GotUc strootnre, dtuatad on the Knelp- 
hof; Um Uahursar Kirdto, a Terjr ooaapknooB and 
handsome chnrui; tbe SoUoss, or pauofv a large 
0^ bonding, now ostnwtad lito a govenoBaa* 
hc/iaa, but hUboffeally fnUmsttng ■■ tu i wkkn oa 
etf th« risiiil iiiialaiB of the Tsutonle ordor; tta 
Schlassnroha^ ooonpyfug a wine of the palaoB^ and 
nmaikabla aa llw aoot wlwn n«deri(^ olvctor of 
Bnadsoborg, plsioea the <tdwb on hit own head 
when ha baodbe EIi^ dt PruMta; the %AA diadal of 
SWiaricksborg; iha unironi^, founded ta 15&I by 
the Mafcraiv Albert, and bmce nailed tha AlberCliM^ 
attoadad by aaarly 3D0 atndmit^ and baring eon- 
noctal with it a iibtary of 220^000 rata, a sauMpoal 
lotunmi, aad otb«c valnabia ooUoctioas; an amor- 
vatory wbkh the Ubonn of DomL bare raulered 

ndered ^ 



f*Boa,aBdabotaaieft] Eardv^kOBBuhiBitiui eccle- 
rijrtiwd jtmiinary, md varfanBotmrmpalarscboobi 
two tjovra-haaaai, « huidsanif) cxcliMigc^ m thcntre, n 
liinule Mjltim, an bfinnarv, und mtcral bMpiUb 
Mill b«mo*olom «]iilawiiiiiiiu. Tbt monufactuns arc 
various, aail iodnd* nachinfity, wooUoo, allk, and 
uued nllc Kooda, leathor, Mil-duUi^ copper, atoel, 
mod ironware, ne«dlM, wu-thMi nuid aton* wars, 
liqnean, and arliQdal mineral watera. Thun: ara alio 
M^ar and stlTer nfinerfea, bnwcricii and diMllleriea, 
nad dup-bnOdiar jiaix Owing U> a bar acrou tlio 
niODth of tho n^gd tbo Iwvar v«MaI> bound fnir 
K<>iiIgsl:«V land at Pillau, wlu«h b aeeordini;!; cuii- 
fiidcred lu port. The principal ftxjwrts an gcaliii&ut, 
Itcmp, oil<rakr, bonca, timbL-r, Ac; tho priodpal tm- 
pofta ana coloninl produce, iron, ocitU, ootton, onttcai'- 
twist, uiue, aplriu, and um-itGned aagjir. Kiiulgs- 
bitr^ Is tbc MULt of tnanjr important provindal coorts 
■ad pabUc oifiG«a. It v» totifAcii in 1255. In 1365 
it McaiDD ft SMonber of the Haimi Leajjue; wu tlia 
raddMiM of tb« gimod-Quutcr of tbc Teutonio Icniglits 
from 1457-1SS8; in 163S vraa aanaaniieA with 
valla; Id 16&7 ttNoeived a itrong MldittniiA] dcftinoc: 
in Hw dtad«l of fVpdwrieliabmy, tboii;;h tbo object 
of tba motgnvfi who baUt lb Is svd uot to bare bMU 
w nrncb to defend the town a« to ovcrnwc JM citi- 
ubOl It Bufltnal much dnriiig the Suvcn Ycuus' 
<mx by the oL-cupatfon of tiio Builana frum I75S Ui 
I7S1| and much laon avTon^ fnna tba IVuncb, whu 
entered it iu 1S07, aftar titc boHlo of IVIodland, and 
laid it umliir heavy cantriliu Lions. It <raii vLtjtod by 
cbolora in tho numnieTof 1871. Pop. U871), 112,1 2a 

KONIGSBEKG, a ton-n nf Prumia, pruviacu of 
Braodanburg; 41 nillca north of Fmtkfion on tbe 
Oder, at tho eonfluonco nf the Zerbat with the 
Roridce. It k walled, ha:t lovcral oaurtu imr) public 
ofloea, two choRliM, a coiuVbouie, j^ynuuuium, and 
boepitali manuCactana of wooQen and Unm cloth, 
hall, and bonery; a dutillor;, and a trade in cattle 
Potl nS71), ES.15. 

kONIGSUUTTE, a town of Fru«Is« piovhuw of 
Silesia, 19 milci mjul of Oppaln. Tho inhabitants 
aro chiefly omptoyod in micung, ooal and iron btung* 
Rdaed iu huge quanlltliM, andaiao xiiio. Thcro are 
a BumbOT of bhut, cupola, and paddling famac«, 
nUing mill^ ke., and Uia inalring of pis-iron, heavy 
caotingi^ railo, and bar-iicu ia esleiiaivdy carried on. 
Tin govununoat cool luiue of K&nigignibe employa 
ttboat 3000 workarpi. In 1864 KHnigabhtte vru only 
m TfUa£« with 1194 iuhttlitunts. Tha tou-u waa ooa- 
stitntod in 186S by tht ofldttiuu ai surmimdlng dla- 
trictaL Pop. in 1871. 19,fil<>, 

XOKltiSTEIN.aoelebtntcd fortrcsa un tho Elbo, 
ia tbs Kingdom nt Saxony, in tho circle of DnMiEcn, 
and 17 adlea aoutb-eaat of the tovm of DrMdeo, nut 
Car fnaa the frontier of Bihcnuii. It is aitiiAted on a 
aMnntain HfliiiK ivlhc- h<:igbtof nKiut ^00 feetnbovo 
the rirer, aud enjoys the rupQUtiiin ut being olmcdt 
tiM) only Knropoan f ortrcsa which b m never yet been 
t^cen. It b anrroundcd by n plateau cevMal acres 
In extent, on whtoh grain and forage can be rai»ed 
for tba mointonaBC* of a bedogad garmou. It ia 
also prorided with a weU of exooUent water, bavine 
a deplh^ according to ■cniu! aooonnta, of upwards i^ 
1000 feet At tlM close of the Austro-PnuaUn war 
of 1$64, Sosony, liaviup si<l«I with AtutriA, was 
oonpelled to allow this fortn:iu to bo occtipicd by a 
Ftvsalaa ganiaoa, but afUr thu Ptsux of 1871 tho 
Fnurian ^arrlMiQ war nitbdrawD, although th« oou- 
"^H" of tho forticsi, as of all other ^rtnasca fai 
the (rcnaon En^iire, Is sti