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Full text of "Popular garden flowers; anemones: asters: begonias: carnations: chrysanthemums: crocuses: daffodils: dahlias: geraniums: gladioli: hollyhocks: hyacinths: irises: lilies: pansies: phloxes: primulas: sweet peas: stocks: tulips: roses &c"

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F. E. Buck 



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A Practical Handbook to Gardening 

Operations for every Week in the 

Year and to the Culture of 

ALL Important Plants 

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Systems of gardening are not of much use unless 
supported by good plants, of which the best varieties 
are selected for thorough cultivation. 

Many amateurs grow too many kinds of plants. 
They crowd their beds, borders, and rockeries with a 
heterogeneous assembly of genera, many of which are 
of no special value. They would find gardening equally 
interesting, and far more effective, if they selected a few 
of the great flowers which have been developed by 
florists, studied the habit and requirements of the plants, 
and made themselves acquainted with the best varieties. 

By making good use of such great bulbous flowers as 
Daffodils, Tulips, and Hyacinths for spring ; Begonias, 
Roses, Sweet Peas, Zonal Geraniums, Asters, Carna- 
tions, Hollyhocks, Irises, Lilies, Paeonies, and Pansies 
for summer ; and Dahlias, Chrysanthemums, Phloxes, 
Michaelmas Daisies, Japanese Anemones, and Gladioli 
for late summer and autumn, it is possible to have a 
garden full of beauty and interest for the greater part of 
the year. 

In *^The Perfect Garden" I dealt with systems of 
gardening and plans of gardens. In a second work, 
*'The Garden Week by Week," I described the routine 
of garden operations throughout the year. In the pre- 
sent one, which completes the trilogy, I take all the 
most important plants and deal with them fully, showing 


a 2 



their history, the origin and pronunciation of their 
names, their position in Hterature and folklore, their 
value as modern garden plants, their culture, and the 
best varieties of them. 

Garden interests are kept clearly in view throughout, 
and the book is not the less practical because literary 
associations are referred to. Every important cultural 
item has received attention. I feel sure that garden- 
lovers will not grow their favourite flowers with less of 
either interest or thoroughness for knowing something 
of their place in history and literature. 

Although the various plants are dealt with primarily 
as garden flowers, I have thought it wise to refer briefly 
to the indoor as well as the outdoor culture of such as 
are used for both greenhouse and garden adornment, 
and even to offer hints for the guidance of exhibitors. 
This has been done for the sake of completeness. 

In the case of such particularly important plants as 
Carnations, Chrysanthemums, and Roses, which are 
specialised by thousands of people, I have supplemented 
the practical information with a summary in the form 
of a monthly calendar of cultural operations, which will 
guard the amateur from the ill effects of neglecting im- 
portant operations or performing them out of season. 

March^ 191 1. 



I. Anemones (Windflowers) i 

II. Asters, China and Perennial .... 13 

III. Begonias 24 

IV. Bell-flowers (Campanulas) and Canterbury 

Bells 32 

V. Shrubby Border and Bedding Calceolarias . 38 

VI. Canary Creeper and other Nasturtiums and 

Tropceolums 42 

VII. Candytufts and other Annuals ... 47 

VIII. Carnations, Picotees, and Pinks . . .51 

IX. Christmas and Lenten Roses (Hellebores) . n 

X. Chrysanthemums 84 

XI. Clematises iii 

XII. Columbines (Aquilegias) 119 

XIII. Crocuses 126 

XIV. Daffodils and Narcissi 134 

XV. Dahlias 150 

XVI. Feverfews (Pyrethrums) 163 

XVII. Forget-me-nots (Myosotis) 167 

XVIII. Foxgloves 171 

XIX. Geraniums 176 

XX. Gladioli . 186 

XXI. Hollyhocks 196 




XXII. Honeysuckle 202 

XXIII. Hyacinths 208 

XXIV. Irises 218 

XXV. Jasmine 232 

XXVI. Perennial Larkspurs (Delphiniums) . . 237 

XXVII. Lilies 243 

XXVIII. Pteonies 263 

XXIX. Pansies, Violas, and Sweet Violets . . . 270 

XXX. Phloxes 285 

XXXI. Primulas— Auriculas, Oxlips, Polyanthuses, 

and Primroses 294 

XXXII. Roses 303 

XXXIII. Snapdragons and Sweet Williams . . .339 

XXXIV. Sweet Peas 345 

XXXV. Stocks and Wallflowers 355 

XXXVI. Tulips 3^2 

INDEX 371 



Lilies and Roses Frontispiece 

Hollyhocks and Herbaceous Phloxes . . . Facing page i()6 

Perennial Larkspurs „ 236 

White Lilies .....*... „ 242 

Rose Borders , . „ 304 

Sweet Peas „ 346 


Hepaticas „ 8 

A bed of Japanese Anemones „ 10 

Annual Asters „ 20 

Double Begonias „ 26 

Canterbury Bells „ 32 

A bed of the Peach-leaved Campanula persicifolia . „ 36 

Carnations in a vase „ 62 

Double Pinks „ 64 

Double Indian Pinks ,, 68 

Single Chrysanthemums as cut flowers ... „ 84 

Prize Japanese Chrysanthemums .... „ 94 

Single Chrysanthemum A. Ferguson ... „ 96 



Decorative Chrysanthemums . 

Double white annual Chrysanthemums . 

Chrysanthemum (Pyrethrum) uliginosum 

Clematis Montana 


Crocuses in grass under trees . 

Narcissus Emperor 

Cactus Dahlias 

A bed of Dahlias 

Alpine Forget-me-not (Myosotis dissitiflora) 
Foxgloves in the wild garden . 


A well-bloomed Hollyhock 
Honeysuckle on an arch .... 
Beds of Irises at Kew .... 
Iris Sibirica massed for effect on the margin 

pond at Kew 

A border of Irises 

A bed of Delphinium (perennial Laikspur) 


Lilium auratum 

Lilium longiflorum 

Lilium speciosum 

Belladonna Lilies 

Tree Paeonies 

Violas or Tufted Pansies .... 

Perennial Phloxes 


Rose Felicit^-Perp^tue .... 

A bed of the beautiful Rose Eleclra 

A Rose Pergola in the Royal Gardens, Kew 

of a 


Facing page 


























































Pentstemons Facing page 340 




Sweet Peas 

Ten- week Stocks .... 
Tulips and Arabis (While Rock Cress) 
Beds of Tulips at Kew 
A border of Tulips with Lilac above 



To many lovers of flowers the Anemone is merely a 
charming denizen of the woodlands. When it is men- 
tioned, radiant pictures of the shady undergrowth of 
the forest rise into memory. The listener recalls bright 
spring mornings in the secluded forest dales, when the 
first note of the cuckoo was heard, and the startled 
rabbits scurried at the sound of his footsteps. The 
Windflowers spread in sheets at his feet, the white or 
tinted flowers rising a few inches from the pretty green 

But the Anemone is also a garden plant of outstand- 
ing beauty and value. There are many species of it, 
and these have their varieties, differing to some extent 
in form and colour. Many bear little resemblance to 
the Wood Anemone. They are of larger growth, the 
flowers are many times the size, and the colours are 
rich and varied. With culture, we can have some of 
them in flower every month of the year. It is these 
beautiful Anemones that I now propose to consider. 

Garden-lovers who trace the folk-lore and literary 
association of flowers, grow them with a deeper interest 
from the knowledge that they have become the subject 
of tradition or rite with the multitude, or have come 
under the special observation of great writers. Research 
is carried to excess if the flower-lover deteriorates as 



a gardener in proportion to his development as an 
antiquarian, but most people find no difficulty in main- 
taining their cultural standard, while learning all that 
there is to know about the plants which they grow. 

A beautiful flower is worth studying from two points 
of view — its value as a garden object, and the part that it 
has played in life and literature. In the former capacity 
it adds to the pleasure of the present, in the latter it 
links us with the past. 

The brilliant Anemone, the first of our list of popular 
garden flowers, is a typical example of a flower that 
has the double interest of garden beauty and legendary 
association. In its different species and varieties it is 
a garden plant of great value, owing to its hardiness, 
the long period over which it blooms, and its brilliant 
colours. The flower gardener loves it, because it gives 
beautiful flowers for practically every month of the 
year, and is particularly generous in winter and spring. 
The litterateur regards it with special interest as the 
flower referred to by Shakespeare in ** Venus and 
Adonis " : 

" By this, the boy that by her side lay killed 
Was melted like a vapour from her sight, 
And in his blood that on the ground lay spilled, 
A purple flower sprang up chequered with white." 

The gardener might object that the flower which 
Shakespeare had in view when he wrote these lines 
could not have been the Anemone, inasmuch as it was 
neither purple nor chequered. But it has to be re- 
membered that with the mediaeval writers ^' purple " 
had a much wider application than it has at the present 
time. In the Latin purpureus it was used to describe 
the Poppy. And with respect to chequering, it was 


applied as freely to spots of various shape as it was 
to square markings. A red flower with any kind of 
white markings might easily be '^ purple chequered with 
white " in Shakespeare's time. 

The Adonis Flower of his day was certainly the 
Anemone — note Ross's statement in 1647 that ^'Adonis 
was turned into a red flower called Anemone." 

The Anemone is the flower of the wind. The name 
comes from the Greek anemos — wind. What was the 
Greek idea ? Pliny says that the plant was so named 
because ^' the flower hath the propertie to open but 
when the wind doth blow " ; but as this does not con- 
form to the habit of the Anemone, it can only be supposed 
that he had some other flower in mind. Our Anemone 
became the Windflower because several species inhabited 
exposed, wind-swept places. 

That the early classical writers had another Anemone 
than ours is shown by Sir William Jones's lines : 

" Youth, like a thin Anemone, displays 
His silken leaf, and in a morn decays." 

The modern Anemone is not a fleeting (fugacious) flower, 
and this figure could not be used correctly in reference 
to it. 

We have anglicised the name by adopting an accen- 
tuation of our own. We ought to make it An-e-mo'-ne ; 
we make it A-nem'-o-ne. It is interesting to note that the 
scansion of the lines quoted above point to our method 
of pronunciation being held in the days of the old 
poet, but it is possible that he introduced an arbitrary 
pronunciation for the sake of his metre. 

The Windflower has its popular names. There is 
the ** Poppy " Anemone {coronaria)^ and there is the 
^* Star " Anemone (hortensis). These represent two 


great sections of early bloomers. The popular name of 
one of our native Anemones comes from its season of 
flowering : it is Pulsatilla — the Pasque or Passe Flower 
— the Easter Flower. Then there is the Japanese Ane- 
mone {A. Japonica) a later bloomer, and likewise a taller 
grower, than most other species. 

Several of the most important species have a bevy 
of beautiful daughters, but before considering these we 
might tabulate the most important kinds, and show their 
normal period of flowering outdoors : — 


Flowering Season 

When to Sow or Plant. 



Plant in autumn. 

Blanda .... 

Late winter and 
early spring 

Plant in autumn. 


April to June 

Sow seed the pre- 
vious spring, or 
plant tubers in 

Fulgens .... 


Sow seed previous 
spring, or plant 
tubers in autumn. 


February, March 

Plant previous March. 

Hortensis (stellata) 


Plant tubers in 


( August to \ 
\ October | 

Plant early in pre- 
vious spring. 

Narcissiflora . 


Plant previous spring. 



Plant previous au- 
, tumn. 


March, April 

Plant previous spring. 



Plant previous spring. 

The gardener extends the flowering season of some 
of these, as we shall see in our consideration of the 
different species. 

Anemone Apennina^ sometimes called the Italian 
Windllower, owing to its being a native of the Apen- 


nineS; is a pretty blue species with creeping, tuberous 
roots. It may grow on rockwork, or naturalised in 
the woodland. There is a double light blue form (flore- 
pleno), a white (alba), and a mauve (purpurea). All 
grow about six inches high. 

Blanda is a charming Windflower often in flower in 
January in sheltered places. It is blue, varying in shade, 
but also produces white and pink flowers. There are two 
exceptionally desirable varieties, namely, atrocaerulea, 
dark blue, and scythinica, white and blue. Like Apen- 
nina, the Blandas have creeping, semi-tuberous roots. 
They grow about four inches high, and are suitable for 
the rockery. 

Poppy Anemones, — Coronaria, the Crown, Poppy, or \ 
Garland Anemone, is the most valuable of all. The origi- ^ 
nal species, introduced from the Levant in 1596, had single 
striped flowers. It is not much grown, but its offspring, 
single, semi-double, and double, are cultivated in thousands 
of gardens. The flowers are large, brilliant, and varied. 
The foliage is attractively cut (laciniated). The Poppy 
Anemones make beautiful beds, and by judicious man- 
agement can be had in bloom over a long period. They 
are tuberous-rooted, and can be planted in autumn to 
flower the following spring ; but they are easily and \ 
quickly raised from seed, and a large stock of flowering 
plants can be raised in a year. 

The double Poppy Anemones are particularly prized, 
and the following are fine varieties or strains : — 

Alderborough, a mixed strain. 

Chapeau de Cardinal, cerise. 

Chrysanthemum-flowered, a mixed strain. 

King of Scarlets, beautiful form and brilliant colour, no seed. 

L'Ornement de la Nature, azure. 

Queen of Roses, rosy-carmine, no seed. 


Rose de Nice, rose. 

St. Brigid, a mixed strain. 

Salmon King, salmon. 

Sir Joseph Paxton, light violet. 

The singles are not so keenly sought after as the 
doubles, but they are beautiful. Scarlet, white, and blue 
varieties can be procured. 

All the Poppy Anemones grow about a foot high, 
and they thrive in most kinds of soil. If they are grown 
from tubers they should be planted in autumn for spring 
bloom, and in spring for summer flowering. If the 
tubers are examined, the incipient buds can be dis- 
tinguished, and these should be uppermost. The tubers 
should be set two inches deep and six inches apart. 
I Heavy clay soil is not supposed to suit the Anemones, 
but I have had excellent results from it when well 
drained, so that moisture had no chance of collecting 
and becoming stagnant. If I had undrained soil to deal 
with, I should either plant on a bed the level of which 
had been raised, or in spring. Given these provisions, 
clay soil is good, especially for summer blooming, as it 
supplies the moisture which these plants love so well. 
Poor soil should be well enriched with decayed manure. 
After the flowering the leaves will gradually die away, 
and when they have withered the roots of the spring- 
flowering plants may be lifted, dried, and stored in thin 
layers in a dry place. 

On a cool, fertile clay soil in a mild district in Kent 
I found seedling Poppy Anemones a source of great 
pleasure and interest. Some of the plants flowered the 
same year, others the following spring. As the seed 
is fluffy, and given to close adherence, thin sowing is 
not easy until the seed has been rubbed up in sand or 
fine soil. After this has been done it can be spread 


readily. It should be covered with about half an inch 
of fine moist soil. If the plants come up thickly they 
should be thinned, and they may be subsequently trans- 
planted if desired, but it is not indispensable. The seed 
bed should not be allowed to get quite dry. The seed 
may be sown in a frame or greenhouse if the grower has 

By making special provision it is easy to have Poppy 
Anemones in bloom for several months. By sowing 
seed in spring and planting in frames in autumn, flowers 
can be had in January and February. In March, out- 
door plants from tubers inserted in autumn will begin to 
bloom in sheltered places, and there should be bloom in 
April and May. Flowers can be had in June and July 
by planting tubers in February or March. Autumn and 
winter bloom should come from seed sown in spring. 
Thus it is possible to get Anemones from one class alone 
nearly every month in the year. 

The specialist will grow all the varieties of the Poppy 
Anemone which he can get, but others will be content 
with the St. Brigid mixture and King of Scarlets. These 
will give some of the finest forms. The St. Brigids 
embrace a great diversity of beautiful colours, and the 
/flowers are as large as breakfast-cups. Most of them S 
are semi-double. Considering their beauty and cheap- 
ness (the best strains only cost about five shillings per 
100 tubers) they should be grown by every flower- 

FulgenSj the next on our list of Anemones, is the 
well-known scarlet Windflower, and a most brilliant 
one it is. It grows about a foot high, and has several 
varieties, notably annulata, crimson with white base ; 
flore-pleno, double scarlet ; graeca, scarlet, with black 
boss ; oculata gigantea, scarlet, with pale yellow eye ; 


and The Queen, salmon pink. The flowers of oculata 
gigantea are of great size. 

The treatment of this class is very similar to that of 
the Poppy Anemone, and flowers can be had for several 
months by the same procedure. They like a sunny 
position. They are tuberous-rooted. In the ordinary 
way they will bloom in spring from seed sown the 
previous spring or tubers planted in autumn. If there 
is room to spare in a cold frame, it is always worth 
while to put in a few tubers of Anemone fulgens, as the 
brilliant scarlet flowers are very cheerful at mid-winter. 

Hepaticas. — Our next species is Hepatica, that little 
plant which has received the popular award of a generic 
standing, and is grown, not as Anemone Hepatica^ but 
as the Hepatica, in thousands of gardens. It is not a 
tuberous species, and this fact, coupled with its inclu- 
sion in the catalogues of most florists apart from the 
Anemones, deceives non-botanical flower-lovers, who do 
not look on it as an Anemone at all. 

The common Hepatica, with its three-lobed leaves 
(triloba) has single lilac flowers, and is a very pretty 
plant. There are several varieties, such as single red 
and white, and double red, blue, and white. The last 
is very rare, and is too expensive to plant in quantity. 
Angulosa, blue, with its white and rose varieties, is also 
a Hepatica. 

The Hepaticas have fibrous, not tuberous, roots, and 
grow about six inches high. With their low, dense 
growth, early period of blooming, and abundance of 
bright flowers, they would be valuable rockery plants 
but for the fact that they cannot endure a sunny 
position. They love a cool, moist soil and a shady 
I place, and thrive under__tjees. They should be planted 
in March, or as soon as the flowers have decayed and 


the young foliage shows. When estabHshed they should 
be left alone, as they do not relish frequent disturbance. 

Hortensis [stellata), — With the star Windflower we get 
back to the tuberous-rooted class. The botanists make 
hortensis embrace fulgens as well as stellata ; both, 
they tell us, are forms of the one species. Doubtless 
this is correct, but we have grown into a way of regard- 
ing hortensis and fulgens as distinct in gardens. 

The species produces scarlet, purple (or blue), and 
white flowers. It has several varieties, notably White 
Gem, an exquisite silvery flower with dark anthers. 
Jewel, violet, with white centre, is also charming. All 
grow nine inches to a foot high, and bloom in spring. 
The culture is similar to that of coronaria and fulgens — 
that is, they may be raised from seed sown in spring or 
tubers planted in autumn ; but they will not thrive so 
well as the Poppy Anemone in heavy soil. They like a 
light, warm, well-drained soil, in a sunny position, and 
are suitable for rockwork. 

The Japanese Anemone^ Japonica, which came from 
Japan in 1844, is a glorious herbaceous plant, producing 
its beautiful flowers on long, arching stems in August, 
September, and October. A fibrous-rooted species, it 
will grow almost anywhere. I have seen it really good 
in a London suburban garden. It loves a deep, cool, 1 
rich soil ; and in such a medium is a very different 
plant from the ones that are seen in thin, poor, sun- 
baked soil, often rising to four feet high. 

The type has red flowers, and is less popular than the 
white variety Honorine Joubert, which first appeared in 
the garden of a French horticulturist named Joubert (or 
Jobert) at Verdun-sur-Meuse. The latter produces its 
large, white flowers in great abundance, and as the stems . 
are long, the plant is valuable to cut from. 


Many fine varieties of the Japanese Anemone have 
been raised from seed, and the following may be named 
for the benefit of gardeners who want to specialise this 
beautiful plant : — 

Alba (Honorine Joubert), white. 

Beaute Parfaite, double white. 

Collarette, white, yellow anthers, semi-double. 

Coupe d' Argent, white, double. 

Couronne Virginale, white, tinted. 

Honorine Joubert, white. 

Lady Ardilaun, white, larger than the preceding. 

Mont Rose, rose, semi-double. 

Vase d'Argent, silvery, double. 

Whirlwind, white. 

The Japanese Anemone and its varieties are delightful 
for herbaceous borders. They may be planted in spring. 
Propagation can be effected by division, or by taking 
cuttings of the roots in spring, placing them in pots, and 
putting them in a heated greenhouse or warm frame. 

Narcissiflora is not a very important species, but it is 
a pretty one, with its umbels of white flowers in April 
and May. It grows about a foot high. It will thrive on 
the rockery if the position is partially shaded. It may be 
planted in spring, and divided, if propagation is neces- 
sary, at the same season. 

Wood Anemones. — In nemorosa we have the Wood 
Anemone, so much admired in the shady glades of the 
forest in spring. It abounds on the chalk hills of Kent, 
the colour varying from white to pale rose. It is not 
much grown in gardens, but the large, beautiful, lavender- 
coloured variety Robinsoniana is, and few more charming 
dwarf spring-blooming plants exist for the rockery or 
for naturalising. Other pretty varieties of nemorosa are 
alba flore-pleno, double white ; Alleni, blue ; bracteata, 

.^Ji, ■. v».,,1 





the flowers of which are surrounded by a green frill ; 
and grandiflora (major), large single white. 

All of the Wood Anemones are creeping-rooted, and 
flower in early spring if planted in autumn. 

Pulsatilla^ the Pasque Flower, is a popular mauve- 
flowered herbaceous species, loving chalky soil. It 
blooms in spring from seed sown the previous March. 
Plants may be put in when growth starts in spring. It 
grows about a foot high. There is a charming white 
variety named alba, which is rare and rather expensive. 
Limestone chips should be placed round this plant in 
order to prevent moisture collecting at the ground level 
and causing decay. 

Sylvestrisy the Snowdrop Windflower, is a fragrant 
and beautiful species that opens in April. Before expan- 
sion the flowers resemble Snowdrops. There is a larger 
variety called grandiflora, and a double called flore-pleno, 
both lovely. All grow about a foot high. They are 
herbaceous plants, and are charming for mixed borders. 
They enjoy a position that is somewhat shady, and light, 
well-drained soil. Early spring is a good time to plant. 

The foregoing are the principal Windflowers. Of 
the remaining species perhaps Alpina, which grows a 
foot high, produces white flowers in May, has fibrous 
roots, is best planted in early spring, has a pretty sulphur- 
coloured variety called sulphurea, and is useful either for 
borders or rockwork ; Baikalensis, one foot high, with 
drooping white flowers in June, a fibrous-rooted species 
useful for the border and the rockery ; palmata, which 
has yellow flowers in May, kidney-shaped leaves, and 
likes a damp site ; and ranunculoides, a dwarf sort with 
small yellow flowers in spring, are the most desirable. 

The list of species and varieties which I have given is 
much too long for owners of small gardens, but I have 



thought it well to describe all the principal sorts, in order 
that the reader may have the salient facts about the best 
Anemones before him. When it comes to a selection, 
there need be no difficulty in making a choice. The 
I Poppy and Japanese Anemones — the former for spring, 
" the latter for autumn — are the two most valuable classes. 
Both are easily grown. Both thrive in most soils. Both 
give large, brilliant flowers in abundance. As different 
from each other in bloom as in foliage, they are, never- 
theless, sisters, and a more charming pair could not be 



It comes as a shock to lovers of the China Aster, which 
has been a familiar object in every garden that they have 
known since childhood, to learn that it is an interloper 
in the Aster genus. The triumphant botanist will grant 
you that there is such a plant as an Aster, but he will 
produce irrefutable evidence that the "China" is not 
it. He will show you that the true Aster is a plant of 
respectable antiquity, with something of a history of its 
own, and, so to say, a family portrait gallery. And he 
will prove that the annual varieties are mere modern 
upstarts, practically without a history, and sadly lacking 
in family weight. 

Those uncompromising botanists who object to 
"popular" names for plants will follow up the advan- 
tage that they have gained in showing that the " China 
Aster" is not an Aster by proceeding to demonstrate 
that the plant which really is an Aster is called generally 
by some other name. " Perceive your folly," they will 
thunder ; " the name Aster is not simple enough for the 
plant which owns it, and so you must needs call it the 
Michaelmas Daisy or the Starwort ; but Aster is quite 
simple enough for another plant which has a name of 
its own." Truly, the botanist has us on the hip, and we 
can but hang our abashed heads in a becoming meekness. 

Shall we, however, mend our ways ? Shall we accept 



admonishment in a chastened spirit, and ^^ do better next 
time " ? That were too much to promise. It is one 
thing to acknowledge that the botanist has scored a 
point, but it is quite another to give him an under- 
taking to accept in future every name that he chooses 
to give us, and ^* use no other." We love our old garden 
names almost as much as we love the flowers them- 
selves. They come '^trippingly off the tongue." They 
revive old memories. Mignonette might smell as sweet if 
we had to grow it under the name of Reseda, but it would 
not seem the same to us. The Sweet Pea would sparkle 
as brightly in the sunshine with Lathyrus odoratus on the 
label as it does now, but we could not discuss it under 
that name as familiarly as we do at present. 

The botanist, let us remind him, has his weak spot as 
well as we. He is much given to growing dissatisfied 
with the names which he has given to the plants, and to 
changing them in consequence — or, to be more exact, to 
changing the names given by other botanists. If two 
botanists give different names to a plant, there is surely 
some excuse for ordinary folk giving it a third. By a 
remarkable coincidence, two botanical names have been 
given to the China Aster, one being Callistephus and the 
other Callistemma. Have we not now given the botanist 
a Roland for his Oliver ? We have, and, being quits, we 
will part in good humour. 

The Michaelmas Daisy is, then, the real Aster. Time 
was when it fell little short of weed-dom. It was a 
rampant grower, with a most aggressive root system, 
and its flowers were not so very striking. But the 
modern varieties are mostly compact growers, with 
large flowers of brilliant colours. So much improved 
has the plant been, indeed, that it is now extremely 
useful. Its intrinsic beauty is considerable, and is 


supported by late blooming. The Michaelmas Daisy 
now ranks with the Dahlia and the Chrysanthemum as 
an autumn flower of the first rank, and not a few 
gardeners prefer it to either. 

Without making comparisons which might be painful 
to the feelings of Dahlia and Chrysanthemum specialists, 
we may throw into relief two of the merits of the 
perennial Aster. 

In the first place, the genus is made up of a large 
number of species and varieties varying greatly in 
colour, height, and period of flowering. This means 
that it provides us with material for our beds and 
borders that we can utilise (a) for particular colour 
effects, (d) in different parts of the borders, (c) for 
blooming over a long period. Instead of planting a 
dozen of one particular sort, and so having a block of 
one colour at one place at one particular period, we 
can plant several sorts, thus getting bloom in different 
places and at different times. 

In the second place, they will grow in almost any soil 
and situation. 

Students of hardy plants are fully alive to the import- 
ance of the modern Michaelmas Daisy, and have set up 
such a demand for it as to make it worth while for clever 
cross-fertilisers to specialise it. This means that a con- 
stant stream of new and improved varieties is flowing 
into the nurseries, just as there is of new Roses, new 
Chrysanthemums, new Carnations, new Dahlias, and new 
Sweet Peas. The old school of flower gardeners have 
no adequate conception of the modern Michaelmas 
Daisy. They neither know what it is, nor what it is 
capable of doing. Before me as I write is a clump of 
the violet-coloured variety Framfieldi (a variety, I ought 
to say, for the sake of botanical accuracy, of the old 


species amellus, which grows about two feet high, has 
blue flowers with yellow disc, and came to England 
from Italy as far back as 1596.) It is mid-October, and 
the plant, which has been in flower several weeks, is 
still full of bloom. It is growing in thin, fibreless soil 
on a chalk bank, in spite of which it has spread to a 
yard across by two and a half feet high, and is bearing 
scores of flowers. (By the way, if the chalk bank does 
not conduce to vigour, it does, I think, to richness of 
colour ; and I may be pardoned a brief digression, the 
object of which is to allude to the effects of chalky soil 
on blue flowers. The blue annual Love-in-a-mist 
(Nigella) luxuriates in chalk, bears huge flowers, and 
colours brilliantly. Certain wild flowers that may be 
white or pink on black lands become blue on chalk. 
Veronicas form one example, and the blue Wood 
Anemone, Robinsoniana, is found wild on the limestone.) 
The beauty of my particular plant of Framfieldi is 
typical of many others. Some bloom in August, some 
in November. All are perfectly hardy. Many of the 
species come from North America, others from Siberia, 
and consequently no extremity of severe weather that 
we have in Britain injures the plants. What does some- 
times happen is the tarnishing of the flowers by frost, 
but even this is not always fatal to the beauty of the 
plants. If the assault is not a heavy one, and if the sun 
does not strike direct on to the flowers early in the 
morning, the flowers freshen up again. They justify 
the figure of Dante in the Divina Commedia : 

" As florets, by the frosty air of night 
Bent down and closed, when day has blanched their leaves, 
Rise all unfolded on their spiry stems ; 
So was my fainting vigour new restored, 
And to my heart such kindly courage ran, 
That I as one undaunted soon replied." 


The colours of some of the Michelmas Daisies are 
not to be matched by any other flowers of autumn. 
They are not vivid and dazzHng, but in most cases they 
are rich, warm, and harmonious. Some of the tones are 
exquisitely refined. Others have a tawny, subdued glow 
which is both arresting and appealing. Invariably the 
plants bloom abundantly. 

Flower-gardeners who like warm effects in their 
borders should draw largely on the perennial Asters. 
By selecting a few of the best varieties of each species, 
having in view differences in height, colour, and flower- 
ing season, beautiful effects can be had from mid-August 
to mid-November. The following table will give an idea 
of the material available. Except where otherwise stated, 
the height of the variety is approximately the same as 
that of the parent species : — 


in Feet. 






Nanus, lilac. 



June, July 

Purple species. 

Amellus . 



Bessarabicus, purplish- 



j> • • 


Sept. & Oct. 

Distinction, rosy- 



5) ff 

Framfieldi, violet. 




Elegans, lilac, 4. 




Ideal, lavender, 3J. 

Dififusus . 



White species. 

» • • 



Coombe Fishacre, 




Horizontalis, lilac-rose. 

Dumosus . 



Mauve species. 

Ericoides . 



Golden Spray, white, 
yellow disc, i^. 




Freedom, white, yellow 




CHo, white, i^. 





in Feet. 






Blue species. 




Hon. Vicary Gibbs, 

Novae-Angliae . 



Mrs. J. F. Rayner, 
rose, 4. 

Mrs. S. T. Wright, rosy- 

Lil Fardell, pink. 




Arcturus, blue. 
Captivation, pale pink, 3 
Robert Parker,lavender 
Top Sawyer, lilac. 
White Spray, white, 5. 




Lavender species. 




White species. 




Lilac species. 



Albus, white. 




Blue species. 

The foregoing is really a small selection, and as many 
varieties as are named in it could be found in one popular 
section, such as Novi-Belgii, alone. Alpinus is suitable 
for rockwork. Amellus and its varieties, diffusus hori- 
zontalis, and the ericoides varieties are suitable for posi- 
tions from the middle to the front of the border. The 
Novae-Angliae and Novi-Belgii varieties are suitable for 
sites from the middle to the back. In order to have each 
variety well represented in characteristic form, it is advis- 
able to put at least three plants in each clump about 
eighteen inches apart, wider or closer according as the 
soil is rich or poor. 

Soil. — With reference to this question, while the 
Michaelmas Daisies will grow in almost any ground, 
they give the best effects in deep, rich, moist ground, 
attaining to noble proportions and flowering in great 
profusion over a long period. If there is any marked 



difference in the soil, the tall, strong growers may be 
given the poorest, but it is a bad principle to provide 
poor soil in a herbaceous border, which the Asters, after 
all, only share with other plants. The most that should 
be done is to abstain from manuring the ground for the 
strong growers. 

Propagation, — They must be taken up every three 
years at the most, however, and the clumps split up, as 
the root system is very strong and impoverishes the soil 
rapidly. By this division a larger number of plants 
can be secured, but it is best to keep the outside por- 
tions for propagation, as they are stronger than the 

Young shoots taken off in spring and struck as cut- 
tings in sandy soil afford another means of propagation. 
The plants come readily from seed too. 

The suburban gardener must be careful not to over- 
look the Michaelmas Daisies, as they are good near-town 
plants ; and the fact that they will grow in borders under 
walls and fences where the soil is none too good is a 
great advantage from his point of view. We have seen 
that they are not at their best in such ground, but it is 
not clear that the suburbanist wants their best, if by this 
we understand the greatest vigour of grow^th. His 
circumstances are quite different from those of the 
country gardener who has plenty of room, and can 
afford to smile when his plants spread into broad masses. 
The suburbanist wants compactness ; he wants neat, 
comparatively restricted growth, with as much bloom 
to the square inch as can be had. For him, such small 
but free-blooming varieties as Amellus and its varieties, 
diffusus and its varieties (particularly horizontalis), and 
the dwarf varieties of ericoides, are the most suitable. 
With them in good form he can very well do without 


I the taller, looser sorts like the Novae-AngUae and Novi- 
Belgii varieties. 

China Asters. — Suburban and country gardeners alike 
will grow China Asters, which, being annuals, grow from 
seed in spring and die in autumn. Like the worker bees, 
they have a few months of bright, bustling life, and then 
depart into the shades. They are adorable little plants, 
and have a time-hallowed association with ten-week 
Stocks ; indeed, one might speak of the two in com- 
mercial language as " Messrs. Stocks and Asters, speci- 
alists in garden decoration, established over one hundred 

f The original China Aster came over in 1731. Bot- 

anists called it Callistephus chinensis. The first name 
means "beautiful crown," the second indicates the 
habitat. Whence the popular name of Aster ? It is 
probably derived from astevy a star, in allusion to the 
somewhat stellate form of the flowers. (Remember that 
the original was single, not double.) Be this so or not, 
the name Aster was given, and it stuck. It is as Asters 
that we know the Callistephuses to-day, and it is ^s 
Asters that our descendants will grow them a thousand 
years hence. 

The original Aster had mauve flowers, and the flower- 
lover who is sufficiently interested may get seed of it 
from a few of the larger seedsmen, under the name 

) of Callistephus sinensis. It is a really pretty thing, worth 
growing for its own sake, as well as for the interest 
which springs out of a comparison between the earliest 
and the latest forms. Such a comparison pays a re- 
markable tribute to the skill of the florist, who has not 
only developed fresh colours, but also new forms. The 
unversed amateur who opens a seedsman's catalogue 
with the view of finding the cost of a packet of Aster 

Annual Astp:rs. 



seed, is often astonished to find many different classes 
offered. He sees Quilled, Paeony-flowered, Ostrich 
Plume, and many others, and knows not the difference 
between them. The following table gives the principal 
types, with a brief description of them : — 




flowered . . 
Comet .... 

> Various •) 

Round, florets over- 
lapping evenly. 
Florets broad and flat. 

Crown or Cockade . 


Florets somewhat in- 

Dwarf Bouquet 


The feature of this 
type is the low, com- 

Ostrich Plume 
Quilled .... 


pact growth. 
Loose feathery flowers. 
Florets incurved. 
Florets rolled. 

Victoria .... 


Florets reflexed. 

Up till comparatively recent times the Chrysanthe- 
mum-flowered and Victoria were the two most popular 
annual Asters for the garden, and the Quilled for ex- 
hibition. They are still grown extensively, but the 
newer types, Comet and Ostrich Plume, have increased 
so rapidly in popularity as to dispute the position of 
the old favourites. The Ostrich Plume is particularly 
beautiful, as the flowers, although large and rich in 
colour, have a light and feathery appearance. It grows 
eighteen inches to two feet high, very little more than 
either Comet or Victoria, but the habit is a little looser. 
Unless space is very precious, I should recommend the i 
Ostrich Plume in preference to any other type. If a 
compact grower is wanted, the Dwarf Chrysanthemum- 
flowered had better be chosen. The Dwarf Bouquet 


is smaller still, but it is more suitable for edgings than 
anything else in the garden. 

The seedsmen offer the various types in separate 
colours as well as in mixture, so that gardeners can 
make special arrangements if they wish. As a large 
number of plants can be raised from a packet of seed, 
the cost of which need not exceed sixpence, and may 
be as little as a penny, the Aster is one of the cheapest 
of flowers to grow in quantity. Whole beds can be 
had for a few pence. 

Culture. — Little skill is required to grow the plants, 
the principal points being to keep them uncrowded 
and free from black-fly while in the seedling stage. A 
simple way of getting a stock of plants is to fill some 
shallow boxes with fine soil in March, draw drills half 
an inch deep and three inches apart, sprinkle the seeds 
thinly, and place the boxes in a frame or greenhouse. 
In the absence of both, stand the boxes on a layer of 
ashes in the garden in April, and cover with squares 
of glass. Immerse the boxes in a tub of water as deep 
as the level of the soil when the latter becomes dry. 
Seedlings raised in a greenhouse should be kept on a 
shelf close to the glass, in order to prevent their getting 
drawn or weak ; but Asters are best in an unheated 
frame. Abundance of air should be given in fine 

When the seedlings have developed sufficiently to 
begin crowding, they should be set three inches apart 
all ways in other boxes, or they will spoil each other. 
They can remain in the second boxes until the ground 
is ready for them in May or June. If they are attacked 
by black-fly (and a sharp lookout should always be 
kept for this injurious aphis), sprinkle them with water 
in which a handful of quassia chips, which chemists 


supply, has been soaked for several hours. Or dust 
some tobacco powder on them, and wash it off a few 
hours later. 

No small part of the value of China Asters lies in 
their adaptability for bedding. Those who fill their 
flower-beds with bulbs, Wallflowers, and Forget-me-nots 
in autumn, should always raise or buy a supply of Asters 
in spring, so that when the spring flowers are over they 
can be cleared off at once, and the beds, after being 
dug, replanted at once. The beds can either be filled 
with Asters alone, or with Asters associated with graceful 
Salpiglossis, Tobacco (Nicotiana), and Snapdragons, 
which can also be raised from seed in spring. 

The soil need not be manured heavily for any of the 
plants which I have named, and particularly for the 
Asters. If very poor, a light dressing of decayed manure 
can be worked in, otherwise it will suffice to dig in some 
burnt refuse, saved from the last garden fire. 

I need hardly say that the use of China Asters is not 
limited to bedding. Groups of them look charming in 
herbaceous borders, if the colour blends with those of 
the permanent plants. Wherever there is a gap in the 
garden, be it in bed or border. Asters may be pressed 
into service ; and the sensible flower - gardener will 
always have a box or two of sturdy seedlings by him 
in May, ready for strengthening any weak spot. 



The tuberous Begonia, as we grow it in our gardens 
to-day, is an entirely modern production. Begonias, and 
Begonias with tubers, were known a good many years 
ago, but flower gardeners took very little notice of them, 
because they were either straggly and ungainly in habit, 
or had drooping, ineffectual flowers. 

" Begonia " is derived from Begon, the name of a 
French floriculturist. 

There is little of the interest of folk-lore or literary 
association in the Begonia. When the reader who is 
interested in the beginnings of popular plants looks up a 
botanical dictionary, he finds the names of an enormous 
number of species, but nearly all were introduced in the 
nineteenth century. Nitida is one of the oldest, and 
that came from Jamaica in 1777 ; it has not played any 
part in the development of garden Begonias, and we can 
pass it over. Modern garden Begonias have come in 
the main from six species, the salient facts about which 
are set out in the following table: — 


Clarkei . 
Pearcei . 








Year of 




All of these came from South America, and their 
offspring are not hardy. The earliest to arrive came, 
we see, as recently as 1864, so that it is vain to ransack 
libraries in search of ancient rites and ceremonies, or 
old beliefs, or literary references, in connection with this 
now popular flower. It is as modern as torpedo-boats, 
and society newspapers, and electric tramcars. It can 
hardly be said to have a history at all. Florists have 
rushed it into being just as engineers have rushed iron- 
clads and type-setting machines. 

The history of the development of a popular flower 
is briefly as follows : — 

(i) The introduction of certain species. 

(2) The crossing of these species, resulting in the 

production of hybrids. 

(3) The intercrossing of hybrids, resulting in the pro- 

duction of varieties. 

(4) The intercrossing of varieties ad infinitum. 
Botanists generally keep records of the crossing of 

species, and often of the intercrossing of hybrids, but 
when florists take to crossing varieties the herbarium 
authorities give up in despair. In case the reader is 
interested in the derivation of garden Begonias, I may 
give a table showing a few of the early crosses : — 

A Cross between 


Boliviensis and an unnamed species . 
Boliviensis and Veitchi .... 
Boliviensis and Sedeni .... 

Sedeni and Veitchi 

Clarkei and Sedeni 






But this has no practical value, because none of the off- 
spring, or the offspring of the crosses which immediately 


followed these, are grown now, with the possible excep- 
tion of Vesuvius. We see that the hybrid Sedeni was 
produced by crossing two species, and that this hybrid 
was almost immediately used as a parent itself, resulting 
in the sub-hybrids Chelsoni and Vesuvius. Thence- 
forward the work of crossing was no longer botanical. 
Trade florists, both in this country and abroad, crossed 
and re-crossed ; and they kept the records of the various 
crosses to themselves. One of the first of the nursery- 
men to become famous as a raiser of Begonias was 
the late John Laing, and he was followed by Pope, 
Cannell, Lascelles, Blackmore, and Langdon. They all 
did good work, but none of them published details of 
his crosses, and it may be said truly that it is a wise 
J Begonia child which knows its own father. 

Laing did not begin till 1875 or 1876, but things 
moved so fast that by 1906 we had a magnificent array 
of varieties, including many shapes and colours. At the 
present time they could be classified by form if desired. 
Some are single and others double. The former could 
be classified as plain and frilled, the latter as Camellia- 
shape, Hollyhock-shape, Rose-shape, and Water-lily 
shape. All the doubles are beautiful, whatever their 
form, as long as they have only one centre, and that 

It is an interesting fact about single Begonias that 
the flowers are generally borne in clusters of three, the 
|l central one being a male, and the other two females. 
Double Begonias are sexless, as the organs of fertilisa- 
tion are transformed into petals. 

Single and double alike are now distinguished by 
good habit. The flowers do not hang nerveless on 
slender stems, but are borne erect on strong stems, and 
show up in handsome clusters above the leaves. This is 

Double Bkosaias. 


a great advantage when the plants are bedded out. The 
leaves are thick and handsome, borne on fat, reddish or 
brown stems. 

The florists have not given us a blue Begonia yet. 
This colour baffles them almost as effectually in Begonias 
as it does in Zonal Geraniums and Chrysanthemums. 
We should be glad to have it, if it was a real blue, and 
not a wishy-washy, lilac-cum-lavender-cum-purple, the 
exact shade of which could not be found even in the 
colour chart ; but we can do very well without it. 

The fact that the parentage of our best modern 
Begonias is unknown will not worry the majority of 
flower-gardeners ; it will be enough for them that we 
have the varieties. Here is a table of good bedding 
sorts : — 


Single or 




Major Hope . 

Marquis of Stafford 


Lafayette . 








Singles are generally labelled to colour, and sold as 
such for bedding without names. The best colours are 
white, crimson, rose, scarlet, pink, and salmon. 

If the grower buys varieties under name he will have 
to pay more for them than for unnamed sorts, and 
further, he will feel himself under the obligation of label- 
ling them, propagating them, and storing them separately. 
As a set-off to the extra work he will have the advantage 
of being able to arrange his colours exactly to his taste, 
and the interest of comparing his varieties with those of 



other growers. He will have to propagate by cuttings 
or dividing the tubers to keep them true. He could 
save seed of the singles perhaps, but it would not give 
the form and colour of the parent plant. 

Cheap Begonias. — Most gardeners do very well with 
unnamed Begonias. The florist can sell these cheaper 
than named sorts, because he has not the expense of 
growing them separately. I open the catalogue of a 
good florist, and I find the following : — " Begonias for 
bedding, singles, specially selected, free bloomers with 
erect flower stalks, colours mixed, large tubers, 2s. 6d. 
per dozen ; doubles, mixed, 4s. per dozen." This is 
quite a genuine offer, and a dozen other reliable dealers 
would make it in slightly different words. It is perfectly 
safe to buy these cheap mixtures so long as the florist is 
a man of repute. 

How to Start, — It is a good plan to buy the tubers 
in March, embed them six inches apart in soil in 
shallow boxes, and put them in a greenhouse or 
frame. The compost may consist of two parts loam, 
one leaf mould, and half part sand. When growth 
starts the boxes should be placed close to the glass, 
and water should be given when the soil becomes 
dry. The grower will first see a thick, reddish 
stem push up ; the leaves will form at the top of it. 
Growth will be slow in April, but fast in May, and by 
the end of the merry month the boxes will be full of 
foliage. By this time the spring flowers will be over, 
and the beds can be cleared of them. The ground 
should be dug deeply and dressed with decayed manure 
if poor ; but if it is in good condition, a couple of hand- 
fuls of superphosphate to the square yard will do. A 
hot, dry position should be avoided, as Begonias love 
\ partial shade and abundance of moisture. The plants 


should be put in a foot apart. If the soil is shallow it 
will be wise to spread on a coating of manure or cocoa- 
nut fibre refuse after planting. Soakings of water in dry 
weather, with a Hberal drenching of liquid manure once 
a week, will go a long way towards producing good 

Raising from Seed. — A stock can be secured by sow- 
ing seed; and this certainly gives a large quantity of 
plants cheaply. The habit of the plants and the quaHty 
of the flowers will be all that can be desired if the seed 
is bought from one of the large firms who specialise the 
principal florists' flowers. But full beds must not be 
relied on the first year. If the seed is sown early, if the 
treatment is good, if the soil is fertile, and if the season 
is a damp one — if, in a word, all the circumstances are 
favourable — there may be a nice bed the same year 
as the seed is sown. But the circumstances must be 

The seed, which is very fine and needs careful hand- 
ling, ought to be sown on the surface of very fine moist / 
soil in January, and merely settled down with a film of 
silver sand. The pan should be covered with glass 
shaded with paper until germination has taken place, 
when the seedlings should be inured to the light by 
degrees. When the soil gets dry it should be moistened 
by lowering the pan into a vessel of water. Pouring 
water on to the surface, even through a fine-rosed can, 
is dangerous, as it is liable to displace the seed or seed- 
lings. The pan should be put near the glass, and air 
given in fine weather. 

Planting, — The seedlings can be removed on the end 
of a label when they begin to crowd each other, and set 
three inches apart in a shallow box. As they have to 
form tubers, they must not be expected to move as fast 


as young Cinerarias or Primulas, which only have to 
form a few fibres ; Begonias develop very slowly. 
When they have grown sufficiently to crowd in the 
boxes each may be given a small pot, and on their 
progress after this shift, and the weather, turns their 
future for the current year. If they grow to six inches 
high and through by mid-July, and the weather is moist, 
they may be planted out, as, in the absence of early 
frost, they will have three months in which to develop, 
and that should be sufficient — given good soil and plenty 
of moisture — to bring them into beauty. 

Begonias are often at their very best in October, as 
they love the cool nights and heavy dews. And their best 
is something that no other " bedding plant " can equal. 
The colours are not more brilliant than those of Zonal 
Geraniums, but the flowers are finer, and the foliage is 
more handsome. Some of the shades are exquisite, 
notably the soft pinks, yellows, and blushes. The whites 
are as pure as snow. 

The tubers should be taken up when the plants 
wither or are blackened by frost, dried, and stored in 
a dry, frost-proof place to which mice cannot gain 

Fibrous Begonias. — Several varieties of a fibrous-rooted 
Begonia named semperflorens exist. The species, a 
Brazilian plant with pink flowers, is generally used for 
pot culture ; but the varieties are planted out in the 
garden. Being of neat, shrubby habit, and flowering 
profusely for many weeks, they are very attractive. In 
addition to pretty flowers some of them have tinted 
leaves. When cold weather comes on they may be 
lifted, put into pots, and placed in a warm greenhouse, 
where they will give winter bloom. The following are 
charming varieties : — 


Coral Pink. — Coral, large flowers. 

Crimson Gem. — Red flowers and bronzy red leaves (some- 
times grown under the name of Vernon). 

Crimson Bedder. — Crimson flowers and dark red foliage. 
Fairy Queen. — Pink (there is also a white variety). 

These pretty fibrous-rooted Begonias come readily 
from seed, which may be sown in a similar way to that 
of the tuberous varieties. As the seedlings have no 
tubers to form they grow faster than the latter, and soon 
make nice plants for the beds. They only grow eight to 
ten inches high, and should be put at the front of beds 
which contain large plants. 



There is better ground for the popular name of the 
Campanulas than there is for many of the English names 
which are given to plants. Here, the popular and the 
botanical names are associated. Campanula comes from 
campanay a bell, and is, indeed, one of those endearing 
diminutives which the Latin races love, meaning '' little 
bell." It flows softly from the tongue however it is 
accented, and lingers on the ear with a memory of the 
tinkle of sheep bells on Alpine slopes. The pronuncia- 
tion is Cam-pan'-u-la. Repeat it, lingeringly — Cam-pan- 
u-la-a-a-a. How sweetly it falls, suggesting song ! 

But the poets have not dealt kindly with the Cam- 
panulas. Shakespeare does not mention them. Does 
some alert and swift-moving reader bound to his shelves 
and, first shaking a protesting finger at me, then point it 
to Act iv. scene 2 of Cymbeline^ where Arviragus cries : 

" With fairest flowers 
While summer lasts and I live here,'Fidele, 
I'll sweeten thy sad grave ; thou shalt not lack 
The flower that's like thy face, pale Primrose, nor 
The azured Harebell, like thy veins, no, nor 
The leaf of Eglantine. ..." 

I reply that the Harebell of Shakespeare was not our 

Harebell, Campanula rotundifolia, but the Wild Hyacinth, 

Scilla nutans^ which is often called Bluebell. 


Canterbury Bells. 


*^ At least the Canterbury Bell has been immortalised," 
some one will say, ^^and it, too, is a Campanula." Oddly 
enough, the Canterbury Bell, popular flower though it 
is, seems to have received scant attention. You turn up 
reference book after reference book, and '^ See Cam- 
panula " meets the eye with exasperating iteration. And 
when you get to Campanula you merely find ^^ Medium, 
the Canterbury Bell." Writers seem to have troubled 
about it very little ; in fact, they have not even asked 
themselves how it got its popular name. If the South- 
Eastern Railway had existed when it was christened I 
might have suggested that some traveller had called it 
the Canterbury Bell because of its abundance on the 
sides of the chalk cuttings on the Elham Valley line near 
the old cathedral city. The Canterbury Bells are very 
happy there, and nowhere is their blue more sparkling 
than on chalk, though to be sure the plants do not grow 
with anything like the vigour that they display on the 
deep clay. These wildlings have doubtless strayed out 
of gardens, and we may assume that the Canterbury Bell 
has long been a popular flower in East Kent. 

It is one of the oldest Campanulas that we have, \ 
having been introduced from Germany in 1597, one 
year later than the Peach-leaved Campanula, persicifolia. 
Stevens and Leebault included Canterburie bels in the 
garden of the Maison Rustique, published in 1600. 
Those grand old botanists, Gerard and Parkinson, both 
gave illustrations of the Canterbury Bell, but the draw- 
ings are almost as quaint as the descriptions. Philip 
Miller referred to it in his Gardener s Dictionary^ telling 
us that it grew wild in Austrian and Italian woodlands, 
but was appreciated by English gardeners for the beauty 
of its flowers. His description is minute : — 

*' There are the following varieties : the blue, the 



purple, the white, the striped, and the double flowering* 
This hath oblong, rough, hairy leaves, which are serrated 
on their edges ; from the centre of these a stiff, hairy, 
furrowed stalk arises, about two feet long, sending out 
several lateral branches, which are garnished with long, 
narrow, hairy leaves, sawed on their edges ; from the 
setting on of these leaves come out the footstalks of the 
flowers, those which are on the lower part of the stalk 
and the branches being four or five inches long, diminish- 
ing gradually in their length upward, and thereby form 
a sort of pyramid." 

New forms and colours have been added to the 
Canterbury Bells since Miller's day. We have rose and 
mauve as well as blue and white, and we have the cup- 
and-saucer Canterbury Bell {Campanula medium caly- 
canthemd) in various colours. The calyx of this is 
coloured like the corolla. Many people prefer it to the 
plain type, but the latter is quite good enough for the 
majority of flower-gardeners when it is well grown. 

All the Canterbury Bells belong to the class known 
as hardy biennials, which are sown in late spring in 
the open ground, flower the following year, then seed 
and die. They often come up year after year in the 
same place, but it is not a case of fresh growths from 
the same rootstock ; the new plants are self-sown 

Having grown Canterbury Bells on heavy soil and 
on light, I have to confess a preference for the former. 
Given strong, moist ground, they branch freely. On 
thin, dry ground they make very little lateral growth. 
Plants with strong side shoots are much more hand- 
some than those with only one stem. Those who want 
to get the best out of these fine old flowers (and their 
best is really well worth having) should enrich the soil, 



if poor, with well-decayed manure, taking care to dig 

Sowing. — There is no dijEficulty in getting strong plants 
by autumn if seed is sown thinly at mid-May, and the 
plants are put out nine inches apart in a spare plot a 
month or so later. They will not grow very fast through 
the summer, as they move slowly while quite young, 
but they will have filled their allotted space nicely by 
October, when they can be planted out in their perma- 
nent positions if convenient, otherwise being left till 
spring. If the soil is good they should be put a yard 

The plants will bloom early in summer, and will last u^ {-^^ 
a long time in beauty, especially if the first flowers are 
picked off as soon as they fade. 

There are many biennial Bell-flowers beside the 
Canterbury Bell, but the majority are not of much 
value, and we have to look for the best of the other 
Campanulas among the perennial species, which (in 
the case of the hardy ones at least) come up from 
the samB rootstock in the border year after year. There 
are one or two good annual species, notably Loreyi, 
purplish-blue, and ma crostylf^, light violet with purple 
spots. The name of the latter- com es from the large, 
brown, spindle-shaped style (the " style " of a flower 
is that portion of the pistil between the ovary and the 
stigma). These annual kinds flower in summer from 
seed sown out of doors the same spring. 

The perennial Bell-flowers vary enormously in habit. 
One, Raineri, a charming little Hlac-flowered Italian 
species, only grows three or four inches high. On the 
other hand, we have the Chimney Campanula, pyrami- 
dalis, which grows six or seven feet high under good 
culture. The latter, by the way, is not considered to be 




hardy, but it is far from being tender, and often passes 
severe winters unharmed. 

The following is a representative table of perennial 
Bell-flowers : — 

Species or Variety. 


Height in 

Allionii . . ... 






„ alba 



„ pallida . 

Light blue 





Glomerata dahurica . 



Grandiflora (Platycodon) 



Latifolia . 



„ alba . 




Deep blue 





„ alba plena 

White (double) 


„ Moerheimii 



Portenschlagiana (muralis 







„ alba 






Rotundifolia (Harebell) 






„ alba plena 

White (double) 


Turbinata . 



„ alba . 



Seed of nearly all of these is procurable at a cheap rate, 
^ and if it is sown out of dpprs^ in early summer, and the 
plants thinned, they will bloom the following year, and 
propagation can be effected afterwards by division in 
spring. They are beautiful border plants, and the dwarf 
sorts are good for the rockery. 

It will be observed that in all cases the species is blue, 
J and if it be true that this is Nature's most difficult 
1 colour, which she has been longer elaborating than the 












rest, the Bell-flowers must have come late in the stages 
of evolution. 

If I had to pick out what I regarded as the most 
precious of the foregoing Campanulas, I should be dis- 
posed to take the double white form of the Peach-leaved 
(persicifolia alba plena). It is a graceful, lasting, and 
beautiful plant, which in my experience is not fastidious 
as to soil, and is well suited for a suburban garden. It 
is stocked by all the hardy plant dealers, and costs but 
a small sum. Grandiflora and glomerata dahurica are 
two valuable species. 

All the Campanula like cool conditions in the 
summer ; they enjoy a semi-shady position and a 
friable soil. Little summer attention is needed except 


The garden Slipperworts have lost some of the import- 
ance which they possessed in the days when ^' bedding- 
out" was popular. Inasmuch as flower-gardening has 
spread so much during these latter years it is probable 
that if a Calceolaria census were taken it would be found 
that the plants are grown in greater quantities than they 
ever were ; but florists pay little attention to them, and it 
is rare for a new variety to come out. If one did, very 
little notice would be taken of it. It would certainly not 
be surrounded by a thick crowd of admirers at a show 
like a new Rose or Sweet Pea. 

The Slipperworts were misused in days gone by. 
They were associated with red Zonal Geraniums and 
blue Lobelias in the famous ^'ribbon border," of which 
cultured people grew so weary that they could not see, 
read, or hear of it without an impatience that almost 
amounted to anger. And as if the ribbon border were 
not enough, it was common to fill the principal beds 
with Geraniums and border them with yellow Calceolarias 
and blue Lobelias. In fact, flower-lovers became so 
surfeited with this eternal red, yellow, and blue (and all 
on plants that required glass protection in winter), that 
they could hardly look on the triumvirate without 

There is nothing inherently repulsive in a Calceo- 



laria : on the contrary, it is a pretty and pleasing little 
plant; neat in its growth, very free blooming, and so 
bright in colour as to be as cheering as a sunny morn- 
ing. It is the gardeners who over-used it, and not the | ^ 
plant itself, that we ought to condemn. Now that it has 
settled down to the modest position to which its merits 
entitle it, we can well afford to regard it with favour. 

The shape of the flower gave it its name. The re- 
semblance to a slipper {calceolus) is not very close in 
modern flowers, which come nearer to the form of a 
tobacco-pouch than that of a slipper, but doubtless the 
flowers have become rounder with cultivation. Florists 
always try to take angles out of flowers, and make them 
smooth and round. 

Although Calceolaria is a botanical name the public 
has taken kindly to it — so kindly, in fact, that it is often 
affectionately reduced to the diminutive *^ Calcie," which 
might almost be the name of a favourite daughter. The 
pronunciation is Cal-se-o-lair'-i-a. The fancies of the 
people with respect to plant names are past comprehen- 
sion. Calceolaria would prove a troublesome mouthful, 
one might have thought, to the class of gardener that gives 
plants popular names ; but apparently it did not discom- 
mode them. To be sure, the bedding Calceolarias are 
comparatively modern plants, most of the species from 
which the bedding varieties have sprung having been 
introduced during the nineteenth century, so that the 
plant plays no part in folk-lore or tradition. Integrifolia 
{rugosa) came over in 1822, and we know that this was 
used as a parent by hybridists. Perhaps floribunda 
[petiolaris) and violacea were also used as parents. These 
were introduced in 1843 and 1853 respectively. All 
three species came from South America, and this being 
so, we should not expect them to be hardy. 


Good Varieties. — Very few people who grow Calceo- 
larias in the garden trouble about names ; nay, the nur- 
seryman who grows a particular variety by the thousand 
to sell in spring may not know its name. There are, 
nevertheless, several distinct varieties, and they can be 
had under name if desired. Gaines' Yellow is a famous 
variety, and it is probably used more largely than any 
other ; it grows about a foot high and blooms abun- 
dantly, so that it makes a good bedder. A newer variety 
called Golden Glory is larger both in growth and bloom 
than Gaines' Yellow ; it is a splendid sort, but more 
expensive than the older one. The red, orange, and 
purple varieties are not much used, but can be bought 
if wanted under the respective names of Bijou, Prince 
of Orange, and Sultan. All grow about a foot high. 
Propagation. — The bedding Calceolarias differ from 

I the greenhouse sorts, being evergreen shrubs. The^ 
greenhouse Calceolarias lose their stems after flowering, 
and are generally raised from seed annually, although 
occasionally cuttings are taken when young shoots push 
up from the rootstock. Propagation by cuttings is 
general with the bedders, and the shoots, which are 
taken off and inserted in sandy soil in a cold frame in 
autumn, retain their leaves all the winter. They are so 
nearly hardy that they do not require any protection in 
mild winters, but it is well to put a mat over the frame 
when severe frost threatens. If the cuttings are taken 
early — say with those of Zonal Geraniums in August — 
they start growing before autumn, and the new wood is 

i likely to be injured by frost. October is early enough. / 

The young plants begin to grow in March if the 

weather is mild, and by mid-April they are bushy little 

fellows. They ought to be planted then, as if they get 

well established before the hot weather comes on they 


will not be likely to fall a prey to the fungus which kills 
so many yellow Calceolarias every year. The soil should 
be deep and fertile, to encourage healthy growth. 

Well-grown ^' Calcies " are worth dropping into 
borders in clumps of six or sO; and they also make a 
cheerful border, but I must guard against saying any- 
thing that might arouse painful memories in the minds 
of my middle-aged and elderly readers. 

Suburbanists will find the yellow Slipperwort a useful 
plant, alike for their gardens and window-boxes, if they 
will avoid the error of planting it late in poor, shallow, 
sun-scorched soil ; and remember that it shares with 
most other plants the weakness of enjoying a few 
gallons of water (with an occasional dose of liquid 
manure) in dry weather. 



The Canary Creeper is one of the most familiar of 
summer ramblers^ and at the first glance there is little 
to connect it with the ^'Tom Thumbs" of our garden 
borders, which have round leaves and large, open- 
throated flowers. Its blossoms are small and crinkled, 
and its leaves are much cut on the edges (five-lobed). 
But it is closely related to the so-called *^ Nasturtiums " 
in spite of this, for all are Tropoeolums. 

The Canary Creeper probably got its popular name 
from the colour of its flowers, which resembles that of 
the feathered songsters so often to be found in the 
parlours of elderly maiden ladies. True, it is sometimes 
given the name of Canariense^ and this would indicate 
the Canary Islands as its home if it were accurate, but it 
is not. Canariense or Canariensis is a seedsman's name, 
and has no support from the botanists. The plant did 
not come to Britain from the Canaries, but from New 
Grenada, the year of its advent being 1810. By some 
odd happening ^^Canariensis" has become adopted as a 
popular name, and it is not at all uncommon to hear it 
used by amateurs in place of Canary Creeper. 

In case the reader is not content to leave the plant 

without a specific name, and demands that, since he is 

told that Canariense is not correct, he should be in- 



formed what is, I tell him that the botanists have made 
two attempts, the one being aduncum (reference to the 
basal hook) and the other peregrinuniy or wandering, i 
The former is now the accepted botanical name. 

The Canary Creeper is certainly a peregrinating plant. 
It loves to ramble, peering here and there. It enjoys 
sprawling along a rustic fence, climbing a trellis, and 
creeping up an old bole. The one thing that it does 
not like is tiresome restriction, and it looks least happy '/ 
when it is led on a piece of string, like a slum urchin's 
flea-bitten and doleful-looking dog. One may plant it 
at the front of window-boxes and large tubs, allowing it 
to droop over ; it is not so vigorous as usual when so 
treated, much preferring to climb, but it looks bright. 
A more humane way of using it in a window-box is to 
press the ends of a bamboo rod in the ends of the box, 
thus forming a bow or arch over it, and let the plant 
ramble over that. 

Sowing. — It is a charming plant for one of the pillars of 
a pergola, or the rustic work often employed in summer- 
houses. If the basal position is shaded part of the day, 
all the better, because it likes to have its roots in cool, 
moist soil. But so far as the shoots are concerned, the 
more sunshine that falls on the long gay streamers the 
more cheerful the plant looks. It is classed as a half 
hardy annual, and the plants in this section are generally 
raised under glass in March or April, and planted out 
in May or June. The angular, purplish seeds may be 
put three inches apart and an inch deep in a shallow 
box of soil, and placed in an unheated frame. Some 
twigs should be put among the plants if they cannot be 
planted out by the time they are four inches high, other- 
wise they may cling round each other and be difficult to 


I have known the Canary Creeper seed itself in a 
place that it liked, and come up year after year. One 
such colony, however, was invaded by a Dorothy 
Perkins Rose, and even the Canary Creeper had to 
knuckle under to that robustious plant. 

There are, of course, many beautiful Tropoeolums 
besides the Canary Creeper, albeit we call some of them 
Nasturtiums. This name has stuck so tightly, in spite 
of the fact that it is Latin, that we have never been able 
to get rid of it, and never shall. There actually is a 
genus Nasturtium^ so that the case presents a parallel 
to Geraniu7n and Pelargonium^ the Zonal Pelargonium 
being almost always called Geranium, in spite of the fact 

' that a totally different class of plants owns the name. 
Nasturtium and Tropoeolum are really further away 
from each other than Geranium and Pelargonium ; and 
it is curious to find the reason of the application of 
the name '^ Nasturtium " to the Tropoeolums. The true 
Nasturtiums are Cresses, N, officinale being the well- 
known Water Cress. ^^ Nasturtium " comes from nasus, 
nose, and tortus^ tormented, in allusion to the acrid 
smell of the Cress. The leaf of the Tropoeolum has 
much of the pungency of Cress, and was consequently 
called the Indian Cress. (Why Indian is not clear, as 

I the Tropoeolums are natives of South America.) From 
this stage it was easy to reach the next, and decide that 
if the Water Cress was a Nasturtium the Indian Cress 
must be one also. Country folk often corrupt Nastur- 
tium to *^ Sturshon," and when we hear this we realise 
how far the Tropoeolum has gone. The cottagers do 
more — they use the green seeds as a substitute for capers. 
Nasturtiums. — It is generally the hardy Tropoeolums 
which are called Nasturtiums, only the tender varieties 
being given their proper name. Readers arc familiar with 


both the dwarf (Tom Thumb) and tall hardy annual Nas- 
turtiums, which bloom so brightly in summer and far into 
the autumn, flowering when almost every other annual 
has gone. They certainly bloom more profusely on chalk ] ^ (jf\ 
than on rich, strong soil ; and the colours are excep- / '^ 
tionally brilliant. The explanation of the more abun- 
dant bloom is the less vigorous and succulent growth. 
Leaving out Sweet Peas, they are my best late annuals 
on chalk, only the Candytufts and Love-in-a-mist making 
a real effort to vie with them. The suburban gardener 
soon proves their worth on his often poor and baked 
soil. The Lilliput strain of dwarfs is almost better than 
the Tom Thumb, as the flowers are thrown up more 
boldly above the leaves. This habit is particularly 
valuable in rich soil. The strain can be had in separate 
colours, like the Tom Thumb, or in mixture. 

In the Queen of Tom Thumbs, in Variegated-leaved, 
and in Cloth of Gold, we get coloured foliage. These 
are attractive before any flowers appear. 

Colour of flower and marking of leaf are both re- 
peated in the tall (majus) section, the members of which 
are excellent for training over rough ground, as well 
as over trellises, arbours, and railings. There is an 
Ivy-leaved variety with yellow flowers that is very 

The reader who has never tried orange, salmon, and | 
yellow Nasturtiums for table decorations should do so. 
If cut with long trails of stem and bloom, they will give 
beautiful and uncommon effects. 

Two or three of the species of Tropoeolum are 
grown in the garden, notably polyphyllum^ a prostrate 
perennial with yellow flowers, thriving in dry, warm 
spots if left alone ; and speciosunty the Flame Nasturtium. 
The latter is a glorious rambler in Scotland, and one 


occasionally sees it succeeding in southern England, 
but only when the roots are in a cool, shady place. 
It likes association with some other plant, which gives 
it protection and partial shade. Tuberosum, which has 
red and yellow flowers, will pass the winter safely in 
sandy soil and a sheltered place, but it is not really 
hardy, and, as a rule, the tubers are taken up and stored 
for the winter. The Lobbianum section, such as Ball 
of Fire, are charming trailers, and although often grown 
under glass, are quite suitable for window-boxes and 
balconies in summer. 

Erasmus Darwin wrote of the Tropoeolum in ^^The 
Loves of the Plants " : 

" Ere the bright star which tends the morning sky 
Hangs o'er the flushing east his diamond eye, 
The chaste Tropeo leaves her secret bed ; 
A saintlike glory trembles round her head ; 
Eight watchful swains along the lawns of night 
With amorous steps pursue the virgin light." 

The *^ watchful swains " are doubtless the stamens 
of the flower. 

The poets, therefore, have not neglected this old 
garden flower. 



There are a few kinds of annuals which possess such 
outstanding qualities — whether of colour, perfume, or 
habit — that every flower-gardener feels that he must 
grow them. The most remarkable example is, of course, 
the Sweet Pea, which combines every merit, and is of 
such importance as to claim a chapter to itself. Falling 
below it in beauty and utility, yet still valuable, are a 
few particular kinds that stand out from the bulk of 
their class. Of such are Asters, Candytufts, Chrysanthe- 
mums, Clarkias, Godetias, Larkspurs, Mignonette, Pe- 
tunias, Phloxes, Poppies, Stocks, and Sunflowers, while 
Sweet Alyssum, Convolvuluses, Coreopsis, Cornflowers, 
Eschscholtzias, Lavateras, Leptosiphons, Linarias,Linum, 
Lupins, Love-in-a-mist, Marigolds, Nemophilas, Sapona- 
rias, Sweet Scabious, Silene, Salpiglossis, Sweet Sultans, 
Virginian Stocks, and Zinnias, follow them closely. 

It is only when the flower-lover sees a large collec- 
tion of annuals on the trial grounds of one of the great 
seed firms that he fully reahses the beauty of the class. 
He is astonished alike at the range of colours, the splen- 
did habit, and the duration. And when he realises that 
seed of all can be bought for a few pence a packet, he 
fully appreciates the strength of their claims. 

Town and suburban amateurs are great people for 
annuals. Many a small back-garden would go bare 



but for these beautiful flowers. The suburbanist's 
borders are comparatively narrow and restricted, as a 
rule, and he cannot get the pleasure and satisfaction 
out of hardy herbaceous perennials which people more 
fortunately situated can. For a modest half-crown he 
can buy a collection of several kinds of annuals, each 
packet containing enough seed to yield a considerable 
number of plants — sufficient in the aggregate, indeed, 
to fill his garden with beautiful and fragrant flowers 
through the summer and into mid-autumn. If the 
amateur supports a penny-packet firm, he could get a 
packet of each of the kinds which I have named for 
two shillings and eightpence. It is good indeed to 
think that so much beauty is available for so modest 
an outlay. 

Let me take the Candytuft (Asters have been dealt with 
in Chapter II) as typical of the annuals. On April 7 
I sowed a packet of Giant White Hyacinth-flowered 
(the seedsman said the spikes would be nearly as large 
as Hyacinths when at their best, and so they were) in 
front of a Rose-bed, and to-day (October 11) the clumps 
are still full of bloom after several weeks of incessant 
flowering. The packet cost threepence, and by dint 
of careful sowing, the seed being sprinkled very thinly 
over an area of half a square yard in each case, I was 
able to make it provide me with several clumps. This 
I Candytuft, with its great white spikes reminiscent of 
\ Hyacinths, has been as much a feature of the garden 
as any of the herbaceous plants. The spikes are very 
reluctant to part with their flowers. At their best they 
are, of course, all bloom ; as the seeding instinct asserts 
itself the lower flowers wither, leaving seed-pods ; and 
this process repeats itself, but very slowly if the plants 
are growing unrestricted, and many weeks elapse before 



the clumps show serious signs of decay. It is, however, 
only fair to say that culture has much to do with dura- 
tion of bloom. Plants with plenty of room, growing 
in fertile and moist soil, flower much longer than others \jM 
that are crowded together in poor dry soil. The latter 
go to seed prematurely in sheer self-defence, anxious 
to perpetuate their kind before they seek an early 

Other Candytufts besides the Giant White Hyacinth- 
flowered, and other annuals besides the Candytuft, re- 
spond with equal generosity to such little labour and 
care as are involved in digging soil deeply, manuring it 
if poor (but not heavily, especially for Nasturtiums), pre- 
paring a fine surface tilth, sowing thinly, thinning out, 
and watering in dry weather. The double pink Clarkia 
and the double pink Godetia will rival the Candytuft in 
length of blooming ; and both will come in admirably 
for vase decoration. The touch of orange at the base 
of some of the Godetias makes them associate very well 
with salmon-coloured Sweet Peas, like Henry Eckford, 
in wide bowls. Larkspurs are long lasters, but it is ;l>S-» 
important to get a dwarf strain, as the tall are very 
straggly, and apt to look gawky and untidy. Poppies 
are not, in the main, lasting flowers ; their value lies in 
the brilliant blaze of colour which they make at mid- 
summer ; but the doubles are not nearly so transient as 
the singles, and the flowers are nearly as large and rich 
as Paeonies. The Eschscholtzias, with their orange 
flowers and finely cut leaves, are long lasters. So are 
the Rose Mallows (Lavateras), and the blue Love-in-a- 
mist (Nigella). Not so durable, but free growers, free 
bloomers, and bright in colour, are the Coreopsis, 
Leptosiphons, Linarias, Linums, Lupins, Nemophilas, 
Silenes, and Virginian Stocks. 



The principal half-hardy kinds (which respond to 
the treatment indicated for annual Asters in Chapter II) 
also last well. Petunias, Phloxes, Salpiglossis, and 
Stocks blow well into the autumn if the plants are 
roomily grown and watered in dry weather. 

Mignonette, Night-scented Stock (Matthiola), Sweet 
Alyssum, Sweet Scabious, and Sweet Sultan give us per- 
fumed flowers. The two first are long lasters, especi- 
ally, I think, on limestone soils. Certainly Mignonette 
gives me far more bloom on chalk than on clay, although, 
oddly enough (yet perhaps not so odd, since the position 
is bleak) it is later to open on the former. 

While I am a strong believer in giving annuals good 
culture, on the lines indicated above, I find that it is 
well worth while to broadcast a few kinds on any rough 
bank or chalky slope, and leave them to Nature. Such 
scatterings of seed may appear to be useless, since the 
conditions afford no sort of hope of success ; and per- 
haps half the summer passes without any result being 
observed, then suddenly some evening a whiff of 
perfume reaches your nostrils, and search reveals a 
lusty colony of Mignonette that had been overlooked. 
Clarkias, Eschscholtzias, Godetias, Linarias, Love-in- 
a-mist, Mignonette, Night-scented Stock, and Poppies 
are all particularly Hkely to succeed on this rough-and- 
ready system. 



From the earliest times the Carnation has interested 
flower-lovers deeply, and it interests them deeply to-day. 
The old writers loved it, the people loved it. With the 
possible exception of the Rose, it has figured more pro- 
minently m literature than any other flower, and it has 
loomed large in the customs of the proletariat. Monarchs 
have chosen it as one of their favourite flowers. Florists 
have specialised it, and formed societies to guard its 

It is easy to find an explanation for the popular name 
Carnation ; it can be attributed to the colour — flesh 
colour. Note Shakespeare's — 

t( > 

A could never abide carnation ; 'twas a colour he never liked." 

— Henry V. 

Even so good a scholar as Dr. Johnson was satisfied 
with this. But the obvious is not always the correct, 
and this appears to be a case in point. In Lyte's Herbal 
the name is spelled Coronations, and now, when we read 
Spenser's ^'Shepherd's Calendar" — 

" Bring Coronations and Sops-in-wine 
Worn of paramours," 

and recall the old custom of wearing flower-crowns 

icoronce) by the Romans and Greeks, we arrive at the 

true derivation. The Carnation held a high place among 



these garland flowers. Our flower being a popular one 
for head wreaths, it was called the coronation flower, and 
coronation became Carnation. 

The old writers called several plants Gillyflowers (this 
name was sometimes spelled Gilliflower or Gilloflower), 
amongst them being the Stock and the Wallflower ; but 
when they wrote of the two latter as Gillyflowers it was 
with the prefixes '' Stock " and '' Wall." When they re- 
ferred to Gillyflowers without any such distinctions it 
may be assumed that they referred to Carnations. It is 
true that Shakespeare alluded to them in such a way as 
to lead to the supposition that they were different plants. 

" The fairest flowers o' the season 
Are our Carnations and streaked Gillyvors, 
Which some call Nature's bastards." 

— Winter's Tale. 

But it is probably safe to assume that the '< streaked 
Gillyvor" (Gillyflower) was merely another sort of 

We may carry the interest of derivations a little 
farther. The botanist's name for the Carnation is Dian- 
thus caryophyllus. Dianthus comes from dios^ divine, and 
anthoSf a flower — Jove's flower. Caryophyllus means nut- 
leaved (see CoryluSj the Nut ; Carya, the Hickory ; Gary- 
ocarj the Butter Nut, &c., all deriving from the Greek 
karyon, a nut). As the Carnation has grassy leaves, dif- 
fering entirely from those of the Nuts, the specific name 
caryophyllus seems at first inappropriate and difficult 
to explain, but it was first applied generically to the 
Indian Clove tree, Caryophyllus aromaticus, and the name 
became attached to the Carnation through the latter 
having a smell of Cloves. Having got so far, the rest is 
easy, because Gillyflower is certainly a corruption of 


caryophyllus. (Some authorities have suggested that 
Carnation itself is a corruption of caryophyllusy but this 
cannot be accepted). If the objection is raised that 
Gillyflower is very different from caryophyllus^ it may be 
replied that Gillyflower is a comparatively modern form 
of the word ; older forms are gillyvor and gilofre. 
Chaucer speaks of the '^clow gilofre" with 

" Notemuge to put in ale 
Whether it be moist or stale." 

Some writers think that he had the dried flower-buds 
(commercial cloves) of the Clove Tree in view here, 
since he speaks of nutmeg and other spices. Carnation 
flowers were, however, used to flavour wine and beer, 
and hence the name Sops-in-wine. In Blount's Antient 
Tenures ^^July-flower wine" is referred to, and writers 
are not wanting who declare that Gillyflower is simply a 
corruption of July flower. The correct explanation is 
probably as above. 

The name Picotee comes from the French picoUy 
*' pricked " or " marked," and was applied to flowers with 
colour marks on the edge. Our modern Picotees are 
really Carnations in which the colour runs round the 
edge of the flower, sometimes in a thin line, sometimes 
in a broad band. Picotees are classified by the depth of 
the edging. 

Pinks. — The origin of the name " Pink " would be 
sought naturally in the colour ; it would be assumed that 
the first flower which bore this name was pink in hue, 
and that the flower would be called, therefore, the Pink, 
i.e. the pink Gillyflower. The reverse is the case ; it is 
the colour that comes from the flower. 

According to that careful authority, Dr. Prior, Pink 
comes from Pentecost through the German word Pink- 


sten. It was the Whitsun-blooming Gillyflower. The 
Pink does, in fact, bloom much earlier than the Carna- 
tion and Picotee, and is generally at its best in June. 
^ The early forms were, of course, single. 

The flower was highly esteemed, as we may judge 
from the expression " the pink of courtesy." Note 
Romeo and Juliet^ Act ii. scene 4. — 

Mercutio. Nay, I am the very Pink of courtesy. 
Romeo. Pink for flower. 
Mercutio. Right. 

See also Spenser's — 

" Her lovely eyes like Pincks but newly spread." 

Pinks are of two classes, the Laced and the Garden 
or Feathered. The former are probably varieties of 
Dianthus caryophyllus like our Carnations, and the latter 
^ (Pheasants' Eyes) of the feathered Pink {Dianthus 
plumarius). The Laced Pink has a coloured centre, 
which distinguishes it from the Carnation and Picotee ; 
and also a coloured band near the edge of the petal, but 
not on the margin, as in the Picotee ; there is a band of 
white on the outside. Like the florists' Carnation and 
Picotee, it is a smooth-edged flower. The Garden Pinks 
have cut-edged or serrated petals. 

The multiplicity of names may be taken as evidence 
of the popularity of the Carnation. Cultured and 
illiterate people alike loved and grew it. 

The clove-scented Carnation is a very old plant — cer- 
tainly one of the oldest of which botanical historians 
have any record. The old Roman writer Pliny describes 
it, and tells us that it was discovered in Spain. Plant 
dictionaries make no attempt to fix the period of its 
introduction to Great Britain, and boldly class it as a 


native, which, in a sense, it is, inasmuch as it has grown 
as a wilding for centuries in some places. It is 
naturalised on some of the old castles of Norman 
construction, such as Dover and Rochester ; and this 
raises an interesting point : Was it introduced advisedly 
by the Norman builders, or accidentally with the stone 
which they quarried and shipped ? It was certainly a 
popular plant in Normandy, and it is probable that the 
barons brought it over to please their ladies, who doubt- 
less looked with scant favour on their new homes, and 
needed placating. 

It is not easy, either, to fix the period when flower- 
lovers in England began to specialise the Carnation. 
When we find so old a writer as Gerard (1545-1612) 
sa3ang that it would require a large volume to describe 
all the varieties of Carnations, Picotees, and Pinks, we 
may infer that it was a highly specialised flower as far 
back as 1597, when his Herball appeared. Shakespeare's 
reference to '^ streaked Gillyvors " in The Winter s Tale 
showed that Carnations differing from the old flesh- 
coloured Self (which he referred to in the same line) 
existed in 1601 ; and Gerard credits Lete with the intro- 
duction of yellow varieties in or about the year 1580. 
John Parkinson (1567-1650) appears to have had a large 
collection of different kinds, but not Picotees. 

These historical facts about Carnations increase our 
interest in the flower. They show us that it has long 
been rooted deeply in the national life. It is not an 
ephemeral plant, the interest of which passes within a 
few hours of its introduction, but a flower of abiding — 
one might almost say constitutional — interest. It is 
woven into the national fibre. As we move about 
among our collections to - day, propagating, potting, 
planting, so we may imagine Lete, Gerard, Stow, 


Parkinson, and other old florists doing in the spacious 
Elizabethan epoch. These men were as eminent in 
floriculture as their contemporaries Spenser, Marlowe, 
and Shakespeare were in literature. But what different 
lives they led — John Gerard pursuing the peaceful art of 
gardening at Burghley and compiling his Herball in 
placid seclusion (cribbing freely from Dodoens' Pemp- 
tadesy however, according to some unkind biographers), 
Kit Marlowe carousing in the taverns, and getting killed 
in a vulgar brawl ! 

The Carnation presently began to develop on certain 
well-defined Hnes. The ^'streaked Gillyvors" became 
the ^* Bizarres " and ^' Flakes " of modern florists. The 
different character of the markings led to the flowers 
being separated into classes. When we open a Carna- 
tion catalogue to-day we find such sections as Bizarres, 
Flakes, Selfs, Malmaisons, Trees (or Perpetuals), Ameri- 
cans, and Fancies ; and all of these are subdivided by 
colour. Among Picotees we have Yellow Grounds and 
White Grounds, with sub-divisions according to the 
breadth of the marking on the edge of the petals and 
the colour. 

When the old florists had secured their sections they 
kept them distinct and good by formulating rules and 
standards. They fixed on an ideal flower, and worked 
up to it with their new seedlings, retaining only those 
that conformed to the standard, and keeping them true 
to form and colour by propagating from layers and 
cuttings. They gave us a round, smooth-edged flower, 
full in the centre, and with the petals overlapping each 
other evenly. They did their work so well that we have 
not been able to make improvements in form during the 
past 150 years (some of the old school declare mourn- 
fully that we are receding, since we have admitted the 


cut-edged '^American" section to favour), but we have 
secured increased size and a larger range of colours. 

A brief description of the various sections may be of 

A Bizarre is a flower the clear ground colour of 
which is marked radially with two or three other 
colours. According to the predominant colour in the 
flaking, it is a Scarlet, Crimson, or Pink and Purple 

A Flake is a flower the clear ground colour of which 
is marked radially with one other colour ; the shade of 
the mark decides whether it is a Purple, Rose, or Scarlet 

A 5^^ is a flower with one colour only, 

A Malmaison is a large-flowered sub-section of the 
Tree or Perpetual Carnation, flowering in spring and 
early summer. The original variety was blush-coloured, 
and was raised in France. Its full name was Souvenir 
de la Malmaison. The reader hardly needs to be re- 
minded that La Malmaison was the chateau occupied 
by Napoleon and Josephine, and he may suppose, if he 
pleases, that the Malmaison Carnation was grown and 
admired by these remarkable beings, but its origin can- 
not be traced. Josephine certainly loved Carnations, 
and grew the best varieties of her day. The Malmaison 
Carnations are self-coloured, and distinguished by their 
powerful clove fragrance. The stems and leaves are 
more vigorous than those of other Carnations, and the 
plants can be distinguished readily, even when not in 

Tree or Perpetual Carnations have a tall, upright 
habit of growth. They are winter and spring bloomers, 
and self-coloured. 

American Carnations are large-flowered Perpetuals 


with cut-edged petals. They are winter and spring 
bloomers, self-coloured, long-stemmed, and very sweet. 
(What might be termed an Anglo-American class has 
been evolved, the members of which have the large 
flowers, long stems, rich colours and full perfume of 
the Americans, but smooth-edged instead of cut-edged 
petals. A cut-edged petal has always been an abomina- 
tion to British florists.) 

Fancies are flowers with irregular markings on 
coloured or white grounds. The Yellow Ground 
Fancies are a beautiful class, which has been greatly 
increased and improved in recent years. The body 
colour is marked with plum, pink, rose, or some other 
colour in stripes and flakes. 

Picotees may be first classified as Yellow or White 
Grounds ; secondly, as light, medium, or heavy-edged ; 
and thirdly, as red, rose, scarlet, or purple-edged. If 
the colour is a thin line on the very edge of the petal, 
the flower is a light-edge ; if it is a belt a sixteenth 
of an inch wide, or thereabouts, the flower is a medium- 
edge ; if it is a broader belt of something like an 
eighth of an inch, the variety is a heavy-edge. Thus 
a flower will be a ^^ White Ground, heavy rose-edge," 
if the body colour is white and the marginal colour a 
broad belt of rose. 

The Malmaison, Tree, American, and Anglo-Ameri- 
can Carnations are grown under glass most of the year, 
although it is not unusual to stand them out of doors 
on a bed of ashes in the summer. The Malmaisons 
are usually propagated by layering in a frame in spring, 
the method being the same as that which is to be de- 
scribed presently for garden Carnations ; but also by 
cuttings. They need great care in watering and venti- 
lating. They are not plants for the one-house amateur, 


and are principally used by wealthy flower-lovers, who 
grow them in a house to themselves. The Tree, Ameri- 
can, and Anglo-American Carnations are propagated 
by cuttings of young wood inserted in sandy soil in 
small pots in winter or spring. 

Pot culture. — Exhibitors of Carnations grow the Biz- 
arres, Flakes, Selfs, Picotees, and Fancies in pots. They 
generally put two plants in a 7-inch or 8-inch pot, using 
a compost of fibrous loam, with a fourth of leaf mould, 
dried cow manure, and mortar rubbish (or road grit) in 
equal parts. They grow the plants, while quite young, in 
frames, and later in light, airy houses. It is only 
when the plants are thus grown that the exhibitor can 
rely on flowers of the standard which judges look for. 

Flower gardeners need not regard so old a garden 
favourite as the Carnation as an indoor plant, however. 
It is delightful to see flowers in perfect form and texture, 
but the flower-gardener need not deny himself a Car- 
nation-bed in order to secure perfection of outline and 
colour in a limited number of flowers on a show-board. 
He will the more particularly refrain from making this 
mistake when he sees that the exhibitor is never satisfied 
with the native beauty of the flowers which he has pro- 
duced at so much cost, but embellishes them by " dress- 
ing " with tweezers, and staging in ^^ collars" of white 

Flower-gardeners will sympathise with the main 
work of the exhibitor, because they will recognise that 
it makes for quality of bloom. They will gladly take 
the beautiful varieties which his operations bring into 
being, but they will judge the sorts by a different 
standard — a standard of vigorous growth, free blooming, 
and clear, decided colours. 

The Selfs are undeniably the best garden Carnations. 


The Bizarres and Flakes, particularly the former, fail 
to strike a sufficiently bold and clear note. The Fancies 
are fairly good. The Picotees are pleasing at a close 
view, but ineffective at a distance ; they are, however, 
exquisite in pots. 

Every Carnation-lover who grows his favourite as 
a garden plant pure and simple should make a 
special study of the Selfs. He should note the bear- 
ing of the different varieties when he has opportunities 
of seeing them out of doors — in parks, in nurseries, 
in private gardens. He should look out for a good 
white, a good pink, a good rose, a good scarlet, a good 
yellow, and a good crimson. He should note which 
sorts grow strongly and which weakly, which bloom 
freely and which sparsely, which are decided in colour 
and which washy, which keep their shape, and which 
become deformed through the bursting of the calyx ; 
for all these points have a bearing on flower-garden 

The following are good Self garden Carnations in 
the various colours : — 


Banner. — A large bloom of rich colour. 
B arras. — Bright and strong. 

Hayes Scarlet. — A free bloomer, fine in form, habit, and 

''^Herbert J. Cutbush. — A splendid flower of brilliant colour. 

Crimson and Maroon. 

Agnes Sorrel. — Very dark crimson. 
''^ Gil Polo. — Magnificent flower, crimson. 
Lady Hifidlip. — Fine flower, a light rather than a rich 

* Uriah Pike. — An improved Old Clove, very sweet. 



* Daffodil. — A modern sort, with a much larger flower than 
Germania, and very rich in colour. 

Germania, — Avery old variety, a strong grower, and clear in hue. 
Miss Audrey Campbell. — A well-proved sort, primrose in 



Hildegarde. — Lovely flower, and a free bloomer. 
"^Mrs. Eric Hambro. — A strong grower, and with large, pure 

Trojan. — A large and beautiful flower. 
Vesta. — Good habit and a free bloomer. 

Blushj Pale Pink^ or Peach. 

Lady Nina Balfour. — Peach-colour, very strong grower, a 
great favourite in Scotland. 

Lady Ridley. — Cream, very vigorous, with long stalks. 
Mrs. Weguelin. — Blush, long stalk, very sweet. 
Seagull. — Blush, strong, a fine garden sort. 

Pink and Rose. 

Endymion. — Salmon-pink, splendid flower. 
*Exile. — Rose, very vigorous and free. 
Raby Castle. — The old salmon pink. 

Heliotrope and Lavender. 

Capuchin. — Large, handsome flower. 

"^Garville Gem. — A fine, strong, free border sort. 

Orange, Terra-cotta, and Apricot. 

Nabob. — Orange-buff, strong and free. 

*Sir R. Waldie Griffith. — Apricot, very vij^orous and flori- 
ferous, a great favourite in Scotland. 

Yellow Ground Fancy. 


Mrs. F. Wellesley. 



All the foregoing are varieties of proved merit, not 
untried novelties. They are inexpensive. They repre- 
sent the best type of garden Carnation, growing strongly 
and healthily, and giving abundance of bloom of good 
quality. Those marked with an asterisk (*) might be 
chosen for a smaller collection. While, however, the 
varieties are good for the garden, most of them are 
capable of being grown into exhibition form. 

The following are selections of the other sections : — 

Scarlet Bizarres. 
Admiral Curzon. 
Robert Houlgrave. 
Robert Lord. 

Purple Flakes, 
George Melville. 
Gordon Lewis. 
James Douglas. 

Crimson Bizarres. 
Harrison Weir. 
Master Fred. 

Pink and Purple Bizarres. 

Mrs. Barlow. 
Sarah Payne. 
Wm. Skirving. 

Scarlet Flakes. 




Rose Flakes, 

Rob Roy. 


Heavy Red-edged Picotees. 
J. B. Bryant. 
John Smith. 

Medium Red-edged, 
Charlotte Bronte. 

Light Red-edged. 
Mrs. Gorton. 
Thomas William. 
Violet Douglas. 

Heavy Rose or Scarlet-edged. 
Edith D'Ombrain. 
Mrs. Payne. 
Mrs. Sharpe. 

Mediwn Rose or Scarlet-edged. 



Duchess of York. 

Light Rose or Scarlet-edged. 




Carnations in a vase. 


Heavy Purple-edged. 
Mrs. Chancellor. 

Medium Purple-edged. 
Amy Robsart. 
Mrs. Kingston. 

Light Purple-edged. 

Ann Lord. 
Clara Penson. 

Yellow Ground Picotees. 
Hy. Falkland. 
Lucy Glitters. 

Blush (original type). 
Lord Welby, crimson. 
Mrs. Trelawny, salmon. 
Nell Gwynn, white. 
Pink (original type). 
Princess of Wales. 

Tree or Perpetual. 
Deutsche Brant, white. 
Lady Carlisle, pink. 
Lord Roberts, yellow. 
Mdlle. T. Franco, light pink. 
Uriah Pike, crimson. 
Wm. Robinson, scarlet. 


Alpine Glow, salmon-rose. 
Beacon, scarlet. 
Enchantress, light pink. 
Harlowarden, crimson. 
Helen Gould, rose. 
Jessica, white, pencilled scarlet. 
Lady C. Waring, yellow. 
Robert Craig, scarlet. 
Winsor, silvery-pink. 

A nglo- American. 
Britannia, scarlet. 
Carola, crimson. 
C. W. Cowan, claret. 
Lady Ridley, cream. 
St. Louis, scarlet. 
White Perfection, white. 

The laced Pinks are, as we have seen, as closely 
related to the Carnation as Picotees are. The principal 
difference is in the arrangement of the colour bands. 
These beautiful Pinks have not kept pace with the Carna- 
tion and Picotee. There was a time when they ranked 
almost as high with florists, but that is long past. The 
grower who wants a small collection might choose the 
following varieties : — 

Amy. Harry Hooper. 

Arthur Brown. Morna. 

Empress of India. Old Chelsea. 


The following are beautiful garden Pinks : — 

Anne Boleyn, purple. Ernest Ladhams, blush. 

Ascot, pink. Mrs. Lakin, white, pink centre. 

Brackleen, rose, white ground. Mrs. Sinkins, white. 

If we are to get beautiful Self Carnations in the 
garden, we must attend to a few important practical 
points. We aim at border clumps or beds in which the 
plants are strong, healthy, and bearing a number of 
large; brilliant, fragrant flowers. We cannot very well 
get such plants if the soil is bad or infested with wire- 
worms. We can get plants of a kind, but they will be 
small, weak, and incapable of producing flowers of the 
quality we desire. 

Sot'l. — There should be at least a foot in depth of soil, 
and if it is loam all the better, but clay will do if it is well 
drained and rendered friable by deep digging towards 
the end of winter. A light dressing of thoroughly 
decayed manure will improve it, and mortar rubbish, 
road grit, and wood ashes from a garden fire may be 
added with advantage. Light soil should be dressed 
with decayed turves that have stood in a heap for several 
months if possible, as this adds fibre, and Carnations like 
a soil with body in it. 

Wireworm and leather-jackets are not common, as a 
rule, in ground which has been cultivated for several 
years, but they are often abundant in new gardens, 
especially those that have been made out of meadow- 
land. Now, wireworms are particularly fond of Carna- 
tions, and will troop ravenously to them, feeding on the 
roots, and so worrying the plants that they have no chance 
of growing well. Small plants never '^get away," as 
gardeners say ; they remain stunted and sickly. If 
the Carnation-lover is going to plant on freshly-broken 




pasture, he had better dress the soil with vaporite or 
apterite, which seedsmen sell, a few weeks before plant- 
ing. These compounds are not expensive, and they 
certainly tend to reduce wireworm. Another plan is to 
work in kainit, a cheap chemical manure, at the rate of 
half a pound to the square yard, when the ground is 
being dug. It worries wireworm, and acts as a fertiliser 
to the soil at the same time. If the plants still refuse to 
grow, and, on one being taken up, hard yellow worms 
about an inch long are found at the roots, pieces of 
potato and carrot may be impaled on sticks and 
thrust in near the plants. It is better to keep taking up 
these than to take up the Carnations themselves ; and 
they form good baits. 

Planting, — When the grower is making a start with 
bought plants, he should buy in October or March. He 
can get nice young plants growing in small pots at a 
low rate, except in the case of novelties, which are dear. 
He should make the surface soil level and fine, and 
plant at once fifteen inches apart, making large holes for 
the plants with a trowel, sinking them to the lower 
leaves, and pressing the soil firmly round them. If 
making a bed, he should plant in diagonal lines thus — 


































After planting, the soil should be raked over and the bed 
left neat. 

If the plants are being grown in the borders, they 



should be set near the front, in clumps of not less than 
three, the soil being prepared and the plants put in 
fifteen inches apart as before. 

If there is wireworm about, it would be well to put as 
many of the plants as pots can be spared for into five-inch 
pots, and stand them in a sheltered place on a bed of 
ashes, in order to grow them stronger before putting 
them out. Carnations do quite well if planted in May, 
provided they are put out with good balls of earth round 
them in showery weather, and watered if dry. While 
they are making root, and generally strengthening in 
preparation for their fight with the wireworm, the latter 
is being harassed and reduced by the vaporite, kainit, 
and baits. 

Disease, — While they are in pots (and, for the matter 
of that, when they are planted out also) they should be 
looked over regularly to make sure that no fungoid disease 
is beginning to attack the leaves. If any blotches show, 
pick off the leaves which are affected, and then spray 
the plants over with water in which liver of sulphur 
(sulphide of potassium) has been dissolved at the rate of 
half an ounce per gallon. 

Directly Carnations begin to grow in the beds and 
borders they become attractive. The flowering season 
may be a long way off, but the glaucous grey foliage is 
pleasing in itself ; and herein lies one of the great advant- 
ages of the Carnation as a garden plant ; as long as it is 
healthy, it is always handsome, whether in or out of flower. 
Old plants, it is true, are apt to be unsightly, because 
they show a considerable amount of bare stem at the 
base ; but no one need keep plants until they become 
ugly, because new ones can be raised easily. 

A bed of Carnations in free, healthy growth is beauti- 
ful and interesting all the summer. The plants throw out 



tufts of grassy grey leaves, and presently push flower 
stems. They will not need much cultural treatment 
until the stems are long, but the bed may be hoed to 
keep weeds down, and water may be given in dry 
weather. When the flower stems begin to bend over, 
stakes should be put to them. The loops made in tying 
should be loose, in order to avoid checking extension. 
Carnation experts use special supports which florists 
sell. Porter's and Sydenham's are both very good. 

When flower-buds show, the number on each stem 
may be reduced to three, if very nice flowers are wanted. 
If no disbudding is practised, there will be a larger 
number of smaller flowers. Exhibitors permit only one 
flower stem, and disbud, but many flower gardeners 
do not, preferring to let the plants bloom naturally. 

For towns, — The plants will come into flower in July, 
and will probably be at their best towards the end of 
that month. If they are healthy, and the flower stems 
strong, the beds or clumps will be objects of great 
beauty. And they can be had in town or suburban as 
well as in country gardens, for the Carnation is one of 
the best of town flowers. Several of the most successful 
exhibitors grow their plants in or near large towns. It 
may be said that of all the great popular flowers Carna- 
tions and Chrysanthemums are the two best for town 
and suburban gardeners to specialise. 

The propagation of garden Carnations is conducted 
by means of seeds and layers. Seeds give large, healthy, 
free-blooming plants if the strain and culture are good ; 
from a poor strain the flowers are small and of no special 
quality. They look charming in the garden, however, 
and are good for cutting. Seed should be sown thinly 
in June, in well-pulverised soil, and covered half an inch 
deep. If the seedlings come through in a mass, they 


should be thinned. They can be planted out where 
they are to bloom in autumn or spring. Or seed may 
be sown under glass in March, to give bloom the same 

The propagation ot all varieties grown under names, 
and, indeed, of any sorts that the grower wishes to keep 
true to form and colour, is by layering. All the grassy 
side-shoots previously alluded to can be layered in 
August, and the process is simple. The grower slices 
the small leaflets from a short length of stem about three 
inches from the parent plant, cuts half-way through the 
shoot as though he were going to sever it, then changes 
the direction of the knife and runs the blade through 
the centre of the stem in the direction of the tip of the 
shoot to the length of an inch ; he then withdraws the 
knife. By this act he makes a slit in the shoot without 
separating it from the plant. A small pebble may be 
slipped in to keep it open. Each shoot is then depressed 
and the slit portion of the stem pegged down in a small 
mound of sandy soil put there for the purpose of receiv- 
ing it. Such is layering, and any amateur gardener may 
succeed in it with very little practice. 

Roots will form in and around the slit, and by mid- 
October they will be so numerous as to form a small 
mat of fibres. The shoots will no longer need support 
from the old plant, and may be cut away from it. 

The young plants procured by layering will be better 
than their parents a year later if all has gone well with 
them. Specialists often put them in small pots, and 
winter them in unheated frames on a bed of ashes. 
They then get larger plants, but a sharp watch must be 
kept for leaf spot. Amateurs would be well advised 
to plant them out, as the plants will probably remain 
cleaner than in frames, and there is not likely to be any 

Doublp: Indian Pinks. 


serious loss from frost if the soil is well drained. In wet 
soil some sharp road or other grit may be sprinkled 
round the plants to prevent damp affecting the collar. 
Dry cold will not kill the plants. 

Pinks do not produce tufted side-growths so freely as 
Carnations; and are often propagated by division, or by 
pulling young shoots out of their sockets early in summer 
and inserting them as cuttings in sandy soil. These |i 
shoots are called pipings. The strong-growing Pinks * 
which produce vigorous side-shoots may be layered like 
Carnations. They are often used as marginal plants for 
beds and borders. As they will grow in almost any soil 
if rabbits are wired out of the garden, and bloom most 
profusely, they are invaluable plants to the amateur. A 
line of Pinks makes a neat and pleasing margin to a bed 
or border, besides yielding a large quantity of sweet and 
pretty flowers. 

Maggot, — Sometimes a blistered spot, with a brownish 
track running from it, is seen on a leaf. If so, the leaf 
should be sliced down at once with the point of a knife 
and a pair of small maggots searched for with the aid of 
a lens. If the attack is not observed, the maggots, un- 
checked by the grower, will work their way down to 
the stems, and whole shoots may become sickly and 
drop out. 

There are several beautiful plants grown in gardens 
as Pinks of different kinds, such as the Indian Pink 
{Dianthus chinensis)^ the Japanese Pink {Dianthus Hed- ' 
dewigii), the Cheddar Pink {Dianthus ccBsius)^ the Maiden 
Pink {Dianthus deltoides), and the Mule Pink, of which 
there are several hybrids, Napoleon III. being one of the 

The Indian and Japanese Pinks are generally treated 
as annuals. With the seed sown in winter or spring 


i J^v* 


under glass similarly to that of China Asters (Chapter II), 
the plants flower in July, and remain in beauty a long 
time. They are dwarf, free-blooming plants, bright and 
varied in colour, but have not the perfumed charm of 
the old garden Pinks and Carnations. 

The other species are suitable for the rockery. They 
may be planted in spring or raised from seed in summer. 

The Carnation-Grower's Year — a Summary 

January and February. — Border Carnations will be 
almost, if not entirely, quiescent during these months. 
It is only in mild spells that outdoor plants will make 
any visible movement. There will be little to do among 
them. If the grower lives in the country he must keep 
a sharp lookout for hares and rabbits, especially in 
severe weather. In districts where rabbits abound, the 
best plan is to go to the expense (not very serious) of 
fastening two feet of wire netting, one and a half inch 
mesh, to all the fences. The lower portion should be 
embedded in the ground a few inches, to prevent the 
rabbits scratching away soil at the ground level and 
getting under. If any leaves become blotched with 
disease, they should be picked off and burned. Pot 
plants in frames should be ventilated regularly, except 
in very bad weather. Diseased leaves should be picked 
off. Very little water will be needed. It is only in 
periods of severe frost that any protective covering need 
be placed on the lights. Tree and American varieties 
will be in bloom in warm greenhouses, and will need 
attention in respect to staking and watering. Young 
shoots may be struck as cuttings in small pots of sandy 
soil. If possible, give bottom heat till rooted, then place 
on a shelf nei^r the glass, 


March. — Planting in beds and borders may be done 
in favourable weather. If any of the plants put out in 
autumn have done badly, they may be removed and 
fresh plants put in their places. Prepare the soil 
thoroughly. Young plants in frames should be planted 
out. Carnation seed may be sown in boxes and placed 
on a hotbed or shelf in a warm greenhouse. Continue 
the propagation of winter bloomers. If green-fly should 
appear on the cuttings, dip them in water at a tempera- 
ture of 100°. If the cuttings show a tendency to damp- 
ing off, put a tumbler or bellglass over them to check 
evaporation from the leaves till roots have formed. 
When the roots of struck cuttings have reached the 
bottom of the pots, repot them in a compost of three 
parts loam, one leaf mould, one decayed manure, and 
some coarse washed sand. 

April, — Plants in the garden will now be in active 
growth. The soil should be hoed regularly. Fresh 
plants may still be put in. Seedlings raised in March 
may be picked ofif three inches apart and put on a shelf 
in a greenhouse. Young winter bloomers may be re- 
potted as required, and kept in a light, airy greenhouse. 
From now onwards vaporising the house once a fort- 
night with a vaporising cone (which seedsmen supply) 
will keep down green-fly and other insects. Malmaisons 
will perhaps be in bloom. Meet their requirements for 
water judiciously, never letting the soil become parched, 
but at the same time guarding against keeping it 

May. — Bed and border plants which were planted in 
autumn or March will now be growing rapidly. By the 
middle of the month it is quite likely that the flower 
stem will begin to spindle up ; anyway, stakes should be 
procured and kept in readiness. Tying cannot be coqi- 


pleted in one operation^ but must be done at intervals 
as the stem extends. Continue hoeing. If the soil is 
shallow and dry, a mulching of cocoanut fibre refuse or 
short manure may be spread round the plants. Seed- 
lings may be planted out from the boxes about the end 
of the month. Winter bloomers should have free 
ventilation in fine weather, and freshly struck plants 
may be put into frames about the middle of the month 
if the weather is mild. Give full exposure to air except 
in bad weather. Old plants may be stood on a bed of 
ashes in a sunny, sheltered place outdoors, and will 
flower again in autumn. 

June, — Continue the hoeing and staking of outdoor 
plants. Green-fly, the cuckoo spittle, and earwigs may 
now become troublesome. Vigorous syringing once or 
twice a week will harry the two first, and prevent them 
from doing serious damage ; it will also benefit the 
plants. If earwigs do damage, place hay in some small 
flower-pots, invert them on sticks among the plants, and 
examine them daily. Tying the flower stems will need 
regular attention. If the grower intends to exhibit, he 
should restrict each plant to one stem, and the buds 
may be thinned to three at the most when they appear. 
Some varieties are thinned more severely than others, 
only two, or in some cases even one, bud being left ; 
experience of the peculiarities of each sort will guide 
him. He should guard against severe disbudding at 
first ; to restrict a plant to one bud might mean a coarse 
bloom. The exhibitor will also prepare his show boxes. 
A stand for six blooms may be 13I inches long (from 
back to front), 8J inches wide, 4J inches high at the 
back, and 2\ inches high at the front. It should be 
perforated with holes large enough to contain the metal 
tubes which hold the stems of the flowers, and should be 



painted green. The flowers will stand in two rows of 
three each from back to front. A stand of this size will 
accommodate the largest flowers. Two such stands may 
be placed side by side to show twelve flowers. If several 
stands are to be taken to a show, a case fitted with ledges 
ought to be made for them. Cases, stands, and tubes 
can all be bought ready made from Carnation specialists. 
Round pieces of Bristol cardboard, about four inches 
across (rather more for large fancy flowers) may be 
procured, and a circle cut in the centre large enough to 
envelop the calyx loosely (the calyx is the circle of green 
segments just beneath the flower). A slit can be cut 
from the circumference of the card to the central hole, 
and by depressing one edge of this the stem can be 
slipped through. The preparation of exhibiting neces- 
saries betimes prevents any confusion when show day 
arrives. Repot winter-blooming plants as required, and 
stand them on ashes in a sunny, sheltered place. Attend 
to watering and the suppression of insects. 

July, — This is the flowering month, but the plants 
will not be in full bloom until the latter part, in most 
seasons. Continue tying, disbudding, and watering, 
as needed. If some of the opening flowers threaten 
to burst the calyx, slip an indiarubber band over it. 
Note hints under June as to exhibiting stands and 
collars. Before show flowers are finally put in the 
stands, in readiness for the judges, exhibitors make a 
practice of looking over them, and remedying any de- 
fects with tweezers. Thus, narrow, curled, or deformed 
florets in the centre of the flower are removed with a 
pair of ivory tweezers, together with ^' run " petals — 
that is, petals in Bizarres or Flakes coloured all over 
instead of barred on white, and Picotees with the colour 
leaving the edge for the body of the petal. The flower 


is finally mounted and dressed in the following way : 
a small circular card — preferably of Bristol cardboard — 
is cut, with a star pattern in the centre, two-thirds the 
diameter of the pod, and the stem of the flower is then 
drawn through it. The points of the stars yield and 
bind round the pod. This small card serves as a ^^ plat- 
form," as it were, for the display card referred to under 
June. The small card does not, in clasping the calyx, 
interfere in any way with the movement of the petals, 
which must be quite free. The large card, with its 
central hole (which is large enough to allow the petals 
to move freely), is then fixed above the smaller one 
by drawing the stem through the slit edge. The top 
of the calyx is turned outward with a pair of steel 
tweezers, to allow the petals to move freely, and then 
the flower is dealt with. First the large outer petals 
(^' guard" petals) are drawn towards the edge of the 
large card and arranged in a ring, then the second row 
of petals is arranged over the edge of the first; other 
rows are treated likewise ; and, finally, the central 
petals are lightly curved over the centre. With prac- 
tice this can be done without giving the flower an 
unnatural and artificial appearance. If made to look 
very stiff, it would be regarded as ^' over-dressed." 
Seedlings in the beds should be examined as they come 
into bloom, and any very good ones marked for pre- 
servation and propagation by layering. Pot plants 
should be watered and syringed regularly. 

August. — Layer young shoots out of doors in 
mounds of soil in the manner previously described, 
beginning early in the month. Should the weather be 
very hot and dry, the layers ought to be watered daily 
to encourage rooting. Pot plants should be watered 
and syringed as in July. 


September. — The layers in the garden should be 
forming roots freely, and the process will be hastened 
by watering in dry weather. By the end of the month 
the layers made early in August ought to be well rooted, 
and, if so, they may be cut away and the young plants 
(for such they will now be) planted out where they 
are to bloom the following year. The soil should be 
prepared as previously advised, and pressed firmly 
round the plants. A few plants of special varieties 
may be potted and put on a layer of ashes in a frame 
as a reserve. Early pot plants will now be forming 
flower-buds, although the later-struck ones may not 
yet be doing so. All ought to be put in the green- 
house towards the end of the month. 

October. — Complete the planting-out of rooted layers 
and the potting of a few reserves. The latter, which 
may be potted firmly in three-inch pots, should be kept 
close for a few days after potting, but subsequently 
given abundance of air in fine weather. They will 
need very little water, and none should be sprinkled 
over the leaves, or mould may follow. Pot plants in 
the warm greenhouse will now be giving flowers, and 
if the batch is in different stages, some being from 
early and others from late cuttings, the display will 
be a prolonged one. A high temperature is not ne- 
cessary — 50° to 60° being ample. The house should 
be a light, well-ventilated one, and abundance of air 
admitted in tine weather. 

November and December. — If any plants out of doors 
are upheaved by frost, press them back again. Venti- 
late frame plants at every opportunity, and water very 
sparingly. Keep a sharp lookout for rabbits. Pick 
off any diseased leaves directly they are seen and burn 
theiiif Maintain a fresh, buoyant atmosphere in the 


greenhouse. Give water when the soil is actually dry, 
but be careful not to overwater, and avoid spilling 
water about, thereby creating a damp atmosphere. 
Ventilate regularly, except in foggy weather. This 
treatment, combined with the above temperature, will 
insure abundance of flowers for a long period. 



Great as is the skill of the modern flower-gardener, and 
vast as is the number of plants at his service, he has not 
yet arrived at the point of being able to fill his beds and 
borders with bloom at mid-wnnter. He has liowers in 
abundance in spring, summer, and autumn, but the 
hard weeks from the end of November to mid-February 
are practically bare, the few unimportant and compara- 
tively ineffective plants which give odd flowers in 
sheltered places during that period hardly counting 

There is, however, one flower which does count, and 
that is the Christmas Rose {Helleborus niger). It counts 
as the best summer flowers count — with amplitude of 
growth, abundance of bloom, and real beauty of flower. 
It is not one of those little plants that we speak of as 
merely "pretty" or "interesting," and which we fondle 
in some corner of the rockery. It is a strong grower, 
capable of forming a bold break of bloom. When we 
have learned to give it the best of treatment, and to 
utilise it in the best way, we shall appreciate it more and 

We always think of the Christmas Rose as a white 
flower, and yet the dictionaries tell us that the original 
species was pink. Naturally we resent this. We have 
grown used to employing such terms as "snow-white" 



and " pure as the driven snow " in relation to it, and we 
do not relish the idea of parting with our choicest 
figures of speech. The truth is that the Helleborus, 
which came to us from Austria in 1596, is pink exter- 
nally, but it is white within, and that is enough for us. 

It is a poisonous plant, yet not a dangerous one. 
The very name Helleborus points to poisonous qualities, 
as it comes from heleim^ to kill, and bora^ food. Both 
the leaves and roots are poisonous, and half a drachm 
of an infusion of the leaves has been known to kill an 
elderly man ; but no one is likely to prepare and 
drink an infusion, or to make a supper off the roots. 
There is no berry for children to pick and eat. The 
only circumstances in which the Christmas Rose is at 
all likely to do injury are when flower stems are put in 
the mouth, and when the plant is used as a drug by 
incompetent practitioners. Growers may be warned 
against the former, and, as to the latter, the plant has 
been discarded from the Pharmacopoeia. 

Some confusion arises at times owing to another 
poisonous plant, Veratum albunty being called the White 
Hellebore. The Hellebore powder used for destroying 
Gooseberry caterpillars is prepared from this plant. 

The case is an illustration of the muddle which may 
easily arise from a careless use of popular names. We 
hear of the White Hellebore, and we have a plant that 
we know to be a white Helleborus ; what more natural 
than that we should conclude them to be the same ? 
They are really quite different. 

The coiner of popular names who minted ''Christ- 
mas Rose " deserves more approbation than coiners 
in general. It is true that the flower is not in the least 
like most of the Roses which we grow in our beds — 
our Mrs. John Laings, our Frau Karl Druschkis, our 


Crimson Ramblers. It is single. But, after all, there 
are single Roses as well as doubles, and I have a single 
white Rose that is absurdly like the white Helleborus. 
The " coiner " had not that particular variety in his 
mind, because it is a modern variety, but he had another 
something like it. 

The word ^'Christmas" completes the charm. It 
wins our hearts and interest at once. The veriest 
Scrooge must admit its power when allied with a 
beautiful flower. There are two things inseparable 
from the popular conception of a cheerful Christmas — 
a roaring fire and a well-laid table. In the old days, 
according to every popular writer, the table " groaned " 
under its burden of turkey, roast beef, pudding, and 
other comestibles. Now, a groan is a sound of distress, 
and if a table of a normally cheerful disposition really 
did emit a note of agony (which I for one take leave to 
doubt), it was not because it had to bear an extra burden 
once a year — it would have done that cheerfully enough 
— but because it deplored the absence of delicate and 
refined touches. Anyway, no self-respecting Christmas 
table will be satisfied with a sprig or two of holly now- 
adays. There must be a plentiful supply of bowls and 
vases of flowers. Rather than leave these out, either the 
beef or the turkey must go. 

Situation. — The person who buys plants of Christmas 
Roses naturally does so with the object of having flowers 
at Christmas, but he does not always get them. The 
weather and the site have their say in the matter. If 
the plants are put in an exposed place, and the Clerk 
of the Weather should develop a cantankerous attitude, 
there will be no flowers on the poor Hellebores. They 
will be too pinched and miserable to think of blooming. 
The plant does not like being beaten and bullied by 


blusterous winds. It likes peace and quietude. Of 
course, it is hardy. It will not be killed by cold. But 
there is a difference between merely living and passing 
a happy, healthy, joyous existence. 

Lovers of the Christmas Rose who really want it as 
a Christmas flower should give it a sheltered position. 
There ought to be sheltered places in every border of 
any size, because the owner will have worked in a few 
evergreen shrubs or conifers. These divide the border 
into ''bays," and prevent the winter winds from sweep- 
ing in a savage, mad-dog rush from end to end, and 
tearing off every green leaf or blossom that ventures to 
show itself. 

Another plan of providing shelter is to leave the old 
stems of herbaceous plants on until spring ; but this is 
abhorrent to any mind with a sense of neatness and 

Christmas Roses will do perfectly well under trees if 
they have shelter of some kind, such as a windscreen in 
the form of a neighbouring belt of shrubs, or the fronds 
of hardy ferns around them. The latter have not the 
ugliness and disorder of decaying herbaceous plants 
when they are turning brown. Some pretty, dwarf, 
winter-flowering bulbs, such as Snowdrops, Scillas, and 
Glory of the Snow, may be dotted among the Christmas 
Roses. The last-named {Chiondoxa) is a beautiful little 
blue bulb that one can buy for about three shillings per 
hundred in autumn. 

With a reasonable allowance of mild weather in 
autumn, and shelter, there certainly ought to be flowers 
on the Christmas Roses at Yuletide ; in fact, if several 
different varieties are grown, there will be flowers before, 
at, and after Christmas. There are Christmas Roses 
that bloom early and Christmas Roses that bloom late. 


Sticklers would contend that a Hellebore which flowered 
in November could not be a Christmas Rose, but there 
are no sticklers in gardening. 

Planting, — The time to plant Christmas Roses is un- ; 
doubtedly September. During that pleasant month they 
begin to make roots, and it is desirable to shift them 
when the process is starting. To move them afterwards 
means the destruction of new roots, which is a slap in 
the face for Nature that she is quite likely to return with 

The character of the soil is not of great importance 
as long as it is drained. Heavy soil and light will alike 
grow the plants well. But there should be no damp, no . 
stodginess. Light soil may be improved by digging in 
a dressing of well-decayed manure, and the ground 
should be moved to a depth of at least a foot — prefer- 
ably eighteen inches. 

Some growers, unable to find the ideal sheltered spot 
for their Christmas Roses, yet very desirous of having 
early flowers, place the plants in groups and put frames 
around and over them. Or they cover small clumps 
with separate handlights. The French gardener's frames | 
and cloches would serve this purpose admirably. But 
it is not every amateur who has frames and handlights 
to spare. At a pinch artificial shelter could be provided, 
in the form of a few armfuls of fern fronds thrown 
among the plants. These also form a soil-covering 
which prevents particles of grit being splashed up by 
rain on to the flowers. Should the flowers be caught 
by frost, it is a good plan to sprinkle them with cold 
water before the sun rises. 

The Christmas Roses begin to grow (in the ordinary 
sense) in spring, for it is then that the new leaves 
appear. When they are furnished with fresh foliage 




the old leaves can be dressed off. The season for pro- 
pagation is autumn, when the clumps may be divided. 

The Lenten Rose is a Hellebore, but not the same 
species as the Christmas Rose ; it is //". Orientalis, or the 
Eastern Hellebore, its native country being Greece. It 
is a handsome plant, with deep rose flowers and abund- 
ance of leafage. Blooming later than the Christmas 
Rose, it gives successional flowers, and the colours of 
the varieties are richer. It and its hybrids are plants to 
study for late winter and early spring blooming. 

A description of the best varieties and hybrids may 
bring our chat about Christmas and Lenten Roses to a 

Varieties. — Of the Christmas Rose there are two large 
varieties, one called major and the other altifolius or maxi- 
mus. Both have flowers which are rose outside and white 
within. The latter is the earlier bloomer, often flower- 
ing in October and November. Madame Fourcade is 
a pure white form. Angustifolius (meaning narrow- 
leaved), St. Brigid's Christmas Rose, is a beautiful pure 
white variety. It is a strong grower, and altogether 
desirable. These are a few of the best varieties of 
Helleborus niger^ but the reader need not allow himself 
to become perplexed by the difficulty of choosing among 
them. The old Christmas Rose is good enough for any- 
body when it is well grown, and it is the cheapest. 

The following are pretty varieties and hybrids of 
Helleborus orientalis : the Lenten Rose ; Apotheker 
Bogren, purple, spotted; Frau Irene Heinemann, purple, 
spotted ; Gretchen Heinemann, purple, red streaks; and 
Persimmon, white, with red spots. 

There are several green Hellebores, notably abchasi- 
cus, viridis, and odorus, the last of which has sweet 
flowers. H, foetidus has greenish flowers also. But 


while they are not without charm and interest, they lack 
the beauty of the Christmas and Lenten Roses. These are 
the real indispensables. Would that I could conclude by 
saying that they are good plants for the suburban 
gardener, but the truth is that the average garden near 
towns, with its poor soil and hot aspect, is not suited to 
them. Hellebores are plants for shady spots, for ferny 
glades, for woodlands, for cool banks ; and it is the 
exception to find such sites in the suburbs. But if 
they exist, Christmas Roses may be grown. 



To mention the Chrysanthemum is to arouse the interest 
of every lover of flowers. The professional gardener in 
large places thinks of his conservatories and corridors, 
the amateur of his general greenhouse, that threatens to 
be so bare of bloom in autumn, the flower-gardener of 
his borders, the townsman of the feasts of bloom pro- 
vided in the public parks during the gloomy days of 
November, the suburbanist of the small number of high- 
class plants on which he can draw, the lady of the house 
of her bowls and vases. All fall under the spell of the 
flower, for all have had ample proof of its beauty and 

The Chrysanthemum is one of the most remarkable 
of plants, alike for its season of flowering, the number of 
forms in which it can be grown, its adaptability for 
different conditions of growth, its indifference to impure 
air, and the extraordinary size, diversity of shape, and 
colour of its flowers. There are almost as many types 
of Chrysanthemum as there are of breakfast foods, and 
all are distinguished by a wide range of bright and 
cheerful colours ; moreover, they can be grown in many 
ways and places. 

History, — Our interest in Chrysanthemums, and our 

knowledge of the degree to which they have been de- 


Single Chrysanthemums as cut flowers. 


veloped even in our own time, prompts us to speculate 
on their origin. We feel that the history of so great a 
flower must have much that is remarkable about it. But 
when we begin to probe into the heart of Chrysanthemum 
history we run against the stony obstacles of Oriental 
secrecy and passivity. The trail meanders away into 
the dust-tracks of past centuries — tracks sprinkled plenti- 
fully with boulders. We even read of references to the 
plant in the pages of Confucius, the immortal sage of 
China, whose memory still receives the homage of the 
Manchu emperors ; and Confucius was born as far back 
as 551 B.C. Who can follow the progress of a plant 
which was grown for hundreds of years before it reached 
Europe — grown, too, in the Far East ? The task is 
clearly impossible. We know that our modern Chrys- 
anthemums C' florists' " Chrysanthemums, not the com- 
paratively unimportant annual varieties of the summer 
garden) are the offspring of two species, indicum and 
sinense, both of which came from China, and had single 
flowers, the former yellow in colour, the latter variable. 
Those who are sufficiently interested to want to know 
what the early blooms were like may turn to the Botanical | ♦ 
Magazine^ that great picture gallery of plants, where 
tJ. 327, 2042, and 2556 portray the two parent species. 

It is common to indulge in playful badinage at the 
expense of the Celestial, but it would be somewhat 
dangerous in the case of the Chrysanthemums, for our 
own botanists seem to be undecided about the respec- 
tive parts played by Chrysanthemums indiacm and 
sinense in fathering modern varieties. One boldly attri- 
butes all of them to C, indicum. Another as roundly 
declares that C, sinense is the parent. In these circum- 
stances it behoves us to preserve a prudent silence, and 
reserve our gibes for a subject on which repartee would 


be less embarrassing. That C, indicum and C, sinense 
have been confounded is probable, for one authority is 
silent as to the period of introduction of the former, but 
gives the year for the latter as 1764. Now, other records 
state that the first specimen of Chinese Chrysanthemum 
that flowered in this country was a small yellow species 
which bloomed in the Botanic Garden, Chelsea, in 1764. 
Surely this was C. indicum. The name was given to it 
by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarunty first published 
eleven years before the plant bloomed at Chelsea. It 
had been described previously by Breynius in his Podro- 
mus in 1689, but was referred to by him under the name 
of Matricaria Japonica maxima^ or the large Japanese 

* Matricaria. (Matricaria is closely allied to Anthemis, 
and, as we shall see presently, the unfortunate Chrysan- 
themum was given yet another name by botanists — 

I Anthemis artemisicEfolia), Breynius stated that there were 
several varieties under cultivation in Holland in 1689, 
and it seems peculiar that the plant should not have 
flowered in England until seventy-five years later. This 
fact lends colour to the supposition that there was con- 
fusion between two different species. 

As 1764 seems to be the first year that we can fasten 
on safely with respect to the appearance of the Chrysan- 
themum, we will accept it, and see what happened after- 
wards. The plant which flowered at Chelsea aroused 
considerable interest, and a dried specimen was pre- 
sented to the Royal Society by the Chelsea gardener, 
the famous Philip Miller. It is now in the British 
Museum. The plant soon died, and we have no further 
definite record of Chrysanthemum culture until 1790, 
when a large-flowered double variety was grown at Kew. 
It was said to have been procured from a French mer- 
chant named Blanchard or Blancard, who imported 



it, with two other varieties, the previous year. It was 
called the Old Purple, and considered to be a double 
form of indicum. It forms the subject of Plate 327 of 
the Botanical Magazine. Six years later a collection of 
plants was grown in Colville's nursery at Chelsea, and 
these, well cultivated and flowering freely, first taught 
the general public that an important new plant had 

That greatest of horticultural writers, John Claudius 
Loudon, called the Chrysanthemum Anthemis arte- 
misicefolia, Anthemis nobilis is the common Camomile, 
and the characteristic odour of the Chrysanthemum can 
now be located by the amateur. 

Loudon wrote of the varieties in 1822 : '^The Chinese 
are supposed, on good authority, to have fifty varieties 
or upwards ; there are fourteen described by J. Sabine 
as having flowered in this country, and as many more of 
recent introduction, which have not yet flowered. . . . 
J. Sabine describes as having flowered in the garden of 
the Horticultural Society the following : — 

The Purple. Golden Yellow. 

Changeable White. Large Lilac. 

Quilled White. Rose or Pink. 

Superb White. Buff or Orange. 

Tasselled White. Spanish Brown. 

Quilled Yellow. Quilled Flamed Yellow. 

Sulphur Yellow. Quilled Pink. 

From 1822, therefore, British florists had at least 
fourteen varieties to work on, differing both in form and 
colour. We see that there were white, yellow, lilac, 
purple, orange, and brown sorts. The terms '' quilled " 
and *^ tasselled" are not used in reference to Chrysan- 
themums at the present day, although we have quilled 


Asters. A flower is spoken of as quilled when the petals 
or florets are rolled or tubular, like the stem of a quill 
pen. The petals of many of our modern incurved and 
Japanese Chrysanthemums are quilled. Loudon might 
have had the former in mind, although there is no record 
of it till 1836. The term " tasselled " would fit the early 
forms of what we now call Japanese flowers, but this 
section was not introduced till 1 860-1862. 

Whatever the shapes, British raisers made haste to 
cross them, and so get a large number of new and im- 
proved varieties. They perceived immense possibilities 
in a plant which grew strongly and bloomed freely in 
autumn, when flowers were scarce. It is quite likely, 
however, that even the most far-seeing of them never 
foresaw the marvellous results of their work. They did 
not see huge halls full of brilliant flowers, nor conserva- 
tories in the public parks through which thousands of 
people passed daily to admire the beautiful forms and 
glowing colours. They did not picture groups of Chry- 
santhemums in almost every garden, a great market 
industry in the flower, and scores of societies specially 
devoted to the plant. 

By 1826 the Horticultural Society had forty-eight 
varieties, and three years later (although, according to 
some writers, it was seventeen years later) the first show 
was held in that grand old city, Norwich, whose gardeners 
are to this day as active, enterprising, and skilful a body 
as their craft can show anywhere. London claims to 
have followed. A Chrysanthemum Society was founded 
in Stoke Newington, and a show was held in 1847, which 
was not only to become an annual fixture, but was fated 
to start a host of others ; for the Stoke Newington 
Chrysanthemum Society became, in course of time, the 
National Chrysanthemum Society, and the flower which 



it had taken under its wing became one of the great 
flowers of the country, second only to the Rose in the 
number of its admirers. But the claim of London can- 
not be admitted, as a Chrysanthemum show was held at 
Birmingham in 1836. 

Famous Growers. — Let us put on record a few of the 
names most closely identified with the development of 
Chrysanthemums in Great Britain. One of the earliest 
raisers of seedlings was Isaac Wheeler of Oxford, who 
exhibited a batch before the Horticultural Society in 
1832 ; and a Norfolk gardener, Freestone, followed him 
closely. In 1836 Chandler of Vauxhall exhibited im- 
proved varieties, and the incurved Chrysanthemum is 
said to have come into being about this time. Greater 
than any of these raisers, however, was John Salter, who, j 
although gardening at Versailles when he first seriously 
set himself the task of improving Chrysanthemums, was 
an Englishman, and, returning to England in 1848, I 
became a trade florist at Hammersmith. He began I 
about 1838, and made enormous improvements in the 

In 1846 the '^Chusan Daisy" was introduced by 
Robert Fortune from China, and it developed into the 
Pompon Chrysanthemum. In the course of a second 
visit to the Far East (i 860-1862) he sent to England 
the flrst Japanese varieties, which constitute the most 
important section of modern Chrysanthemums. 

Thomas Pethers, a Channel Islands grower; Samuel 
B;oome, gardener at the Inner Temple, London ; Adam 
Forsyth, of Stoke Newington ; J. Dale, gardener at the 
Middle Temple ; Edwin Molyneux of Bishops Waltham ; 
George Mileham of Leatherhead ; W. Wells of Earls- 
wood ; H. J. Jones of Lewisham ; and Norman Davis of 
Framfield, may be named among the eminent raisers and 


growers of Chrysanthemums who bring its development 
up to the present day. It would be impossible to give a 
complete chronology of the varieties, as the number pro- 
bably exceeds three thousand, and records of the parent- 
age of the great majority of these have never been 

The Blue Chrysanthemum, — The various raisers have 
given us a great range of colours in Chrysanthemums, 
but not a blue. It is interesting to hear that blue Chrys- 
anthemums appear on the splendid pottery of the 
Japanese ; and, in view of their usual fidelity, it is claimed 
that a blue Chrysanthemum must have existed at the 

The Japanese cultivated the Chrysanthemum with great 
ardour. They went, indeed, farther than the Chinese, 
exhibiting in this, as in so many other things, a more 
progressive and energetic spirit. They made it their 
national flower, and in 1876 the Mikado instituted the 
Order of the Chrysanthemum, consisting of a star in the 
form of a cross with thirty-two rays. A Chrysanthemum 
is placed in each of the angles formed by the prmcipal 
arms. The star is attached to a red ribbon by a gold 
Chrysanthemum, and this is entirely appropriate, for the 
Chrysanthemum is the Golden Flower, the name deriv- 
ing from chrysoSy gold ; and anthoSy a flower. The deco- 
ration is not for florists; it is an honour reserved for 
crowned heads and the highest dignitaries of states ; but 
the man who introduces a good blue Chrysanthemum 
will need no order to commend him to posterity. His 
name will be famous for all time. 

Classification. — We may begin our survey of present- 
day Chrysanthemums by a brief consideration of the 
various classes. To many growers a Chrysanthemum 
is a Chrysanthemum, neither more nor less; but to 


the cognoscenti it is either an Incurved, a Japanese, 
a Japanese Incurved, a Japanese Reflexed, a Reflexed, 
a Large Anemone, a Japanese Anemone, a Pompon, a 
Pompon Anemone, or a Single. A system of classifica- 
tion for a popular flower is apt to alarm and irritate 
the amateur at the outset, but the more he learns about 
the plant, the more clearly he sees that it is desirable. 
He goes farther if he becomes an exhibitor — he sees that 
it is absolutely necessary. Varieties of totally different 
types could not be shown against each other in one 
class with satisfactory results. Picture Japanese flowers 
as large as footballs competing with Singles of the size 
of border Pyrethrums ! 

While describing the different sections, I may indicate 
a good type of flower for the guidance of would-be 

An Incurved Chrysanthemum has quilled florets 
turned in towards the centre. A good flower is globu- 
lar, not flat, with a smooth, even outline ; the florets 
are broad, gracefully curved, and fill up the centre so 
thoroughly that no hollow is discernible. A flat flower, 
with thin, pointed florets, and showing an ^^eye" or 
hollow centre, is defective. 

A Japanese Chrysanthemum may have flat, quilled, 
fluted, or thread-like florets. The class is a large and 
varied one, and consequently it is difficult to describe 
it in a few words. In most varieties the florets droop, 
but in some they are erect, while others, again, have 
erect central and drooping outer florets. A good show 
Japanese Chrysanthemum is from six to ten inches 
across, according to the variety, and the same in depth, 
measuring from the crown to the tip of the drooping 
florets. The colours are fresh and clear. A lop-sided, 
thin, dull flower is defective. 


The Japanese Incurved Chrysanthemum has broad 
florets, but they are arched, so as to give the flower 
an incurved, globular form. Many societies do not 
make this a separate class, and when this is the case, 
exhibitors may exhibit them with ordinary Japanese. 

The Japanese Rejlexed Chrysanthemum has broad, 
flat florets, which are reflexed instead of being incurved 
or merely drooping. It is not kept separate from the 
ordinary Japanese by some societies. 

The Rejlexed Chrysanthemum is much smaller than 
the Japanese, and has broad, reflexed florets. A good 
flower is circular, with broad, overlapping florets. 

The Large Anemone Chrysanthemum has two sets 
of florets of different shapes, the one being quilled, 
and forming a raised disc or cushion in the centre ; 
the other flat, nearly or quite horizontal, and forming 
a ring round the disc ; the latter are called the ray 
florets. A good flower has a smooth, even disc, and 
broad ray florets evenly disposed. 

The Japanese Anemone Chrysanthemum has the cen- 
tral disc of the large Anemone, but the ray florets vary 
in shape and arrangement, being twisted, curled, or 

The Pompon Chrysanthemum is a small-flowered 
type, with globular double blooms, the florets of which 
may be flat, fluted, or quilled, in different varieties, but 
not differing in the same flower. The blooms do not 
exceed two inches across. 

The Pompon Anemone Chrysanthemum has a raised 
disc of quilled florets like the Large Anemone, and a 
ring of flat ray florets, but the flowers are a great deal 
smaller than those of the Large Anemone. 

The Single Chrysanthemum has a flat disc, and not 
more than two rows of ray florets. 


The foregoing ten sections contain types varied 
enough to please the greatest enthusiasts in Chrysan- 
themums. The Japanese is far the most important 
for indoor culture. The Incurved, though still prized 
for exhibitions, tends rather to recede than advance. 
Of the remainder, the Single and Pompon types are 
perhaps the most popular at the present day. The 
latter is even more useful than the Japanese for garden 
culture, owing to the dwarfer growth and neater habit. 
I may sum up by saying that the average amateur could 
get along very well with no other section than the 
Pompon for his garden. 

Varieties, — In view of the fact that the Chrysanthe- 
mum is still under development, varieties are superseded 
somewhat frequently, and selections tend to become 
out of date within a few years of being made. The fol- 
lowing sorts (page 94) have, however, sufficient merit to 
justify the belief that they will hold their places for a 
considerable time. 

The object of giving two selections of Japanese is 
to emphasise the fact that exhibition varieties are not 
necessarily, or even probably, good garden and green- 
house sorts. The amateur grower who goes to a show, 
and sees huge flowers of beautiful shape and colour, 
is apt to conclude that the condition in which he sees 
them is their normal one, and that it would be repeated 
if they were grown in his own little conservatory or 
back garden. The truth is that the condition is entirely 
abnormal, and is only brought about through treatment 
of a highly skilled and specialised character. Most of the 
show sorts do not shine under a simple system of cul- 
ture : the habit is not good, and the flowering is sparse. 
There are, however, varieties which grow naturally — 
or with very little training — into a suitable shape for 


Large Japanese for Show, 

Name of Variety. 


Bessie Godfrey 




Florence Penford 

Lemon, chrome reverse. 

F. W. Lever . 



F. W. Vallis . 


Henry Perkins 

Yellow, flaked chestnut. 

J. H. Silsbury 

Crimson, yellow reverse. 

Lady Conyers 

Pink, silvery reverse. 

Lady Hopetoun . 


Leigh Park Wonder . 

Dark crimson. 

Madame R. Cadbury 


Madame Paolo Radaell 


Blush or ivory. 

Madame G. Rivol 

Yellow, shaded rose. 

Magnificent . 


Marquise V. Venosta . 


Melchett Beauty . 

Yellow, flaked rose. 

Miss Elsie Fulton 


Mr. F. S. Vallis . 


Mrs. Barkley 

Rosy mauve. 

Mrs. A. H. Lee . 


Mrs. A. T. Miller 


Mrs. G. Mileham . 

Rose, silvery reverse. 

Norman Davis 

Brown, yellow veins. 

President Viger . 


Smaller Free- Flowering Japanese, 



Framfield Yellow . 
Heston White 
Madame F. Perrin 
Money Maker 
N. C. S. Jubilee . 
Niveus . 
Source d'Or . 
Vivand Morel 
Winter Cheer 
W. H. Lincoln . 






Late white. 




Late yellow. 

Prize [ai-anese Chrysantheml'ms. 



small houses and for garden use. The flowers are 
not nearly so large under any system of culture as 
those of the show sorts, yet they are beautiful. 

By making a prudent selection of varieties these 
free-flowering Chrysanthemums will give blossoms for 
many weeks, because some are naturally later bloomers 
than others. This is a great advantage, and the point 
has been borne in mind in making the selection. Fram- 
tield Yellow and Heston White will bloom in the ordi- 
nary way much earlier than W. H. Lincoln and Niveus, 
which are of similar colour. The two first are of par- 
ticularly good habit, and produce their flowers in 
abundance. They are beautiful sorts for growing in a 
small greenhouse or conservatory, for standing in 
porches, and for cut bloom. 

Large Incurved for 




A. H. Hall . 
Charles H. Curtis 
Godfrey's Reliance 
Lady Isabel . 
Mrs. G. Denyers 
Mrs. F. Judson 
Mrs. B. Hankey 
W. Biddle . 










I do not recommend this class for amateurs who 
want a profusion of bloom in the garden, or in a small 
house, because the selected Japanese already named will 
serve the purpose much better. The Incurved varieties 
have not the freedom and grace of the Japanese, they do 
not bloom so abundantly, and the habit of growth is 
less compact. The Incurved are really only quite at 


home on the show-board, where well-finished flowers 
have the attraction which perfect form, smoothness, and 
richness of colour can impart to a flower. Experts 
gloat over them as highly finished examples of horti- 
cultural skill ; and to experts they may be left. 


This class gives effective pot plants. The most 
popular variety is Dr. Sharpe, magenta. King of 
Crimsons is also grown a good deal. One of the Re- 
flexed varieties, Progne, has agreeably scented flowers. 

Large Anemone, 

Descartes, crimson ; Gluck, yellow ; and Lady 
Margaret, white, are three of the most popular varieties 
of this not very important class. 


Several of this class are included in the selection of 
garden varieties below. Of those grown in pots for 
greenhouse or show, Bob, brownish-red ; Mdlle. Marthe, 
white ; Mdlle. Elise Dordan, blush ; and Wm. Westlake, 
yellow, are the most popular. 


This class tends to grow in favour now that varieties 
of good habit, free bloom, and beautiful colours, some 
flowering early and some late, have been raised. They 
are charming for pots, and the early varieties are suit- 
able for the garden. The later sorts may be tried out of 
doors if desired, but there is always the risk of early 
frost injuring the flowers. 

Single Chrysanthemum A. Ferguson. 






Bronze Edith Pagram . 



Canary Bird . 



Crimson Queen 



Dolly Iniff . 



Distinction . 

Rosy cerise 


Emile . 



Florence Gillham . 



Felicity .... 



Gem of Merstham . 



Gaiety .... 



Mrs Gwynn Powell 



Pink Beauty . 



Double Garden Varieties. 

In August, September, and October the flower- 
garden may be gay with beautiful Chrysanthemums, 
which will give brightness to the beds and borders 
when most other flowers are fading. Those who are 
planting borders have one great point to bear in mind — 
that the material which they employ must be capable of 
giving successional bloom. In many cases the gardener 
chooses a certain number of things that he particularly 
likes, and plants them, overlooking the fact that they are 
all summer bloomers, and that both spring and autumn 
are left unprovided for. The proper course when plant- 
ing a large bed or a border is to begin by choosing a 
few particularly good things for the various seasons — 
Daffodils, Tulips, and Pyrethrums for spring ; Irises, 
Lupins, Rockets, Paeonies, Delphiniums, Carnations, 
and Columbines for early summer ; Pentstemons, 
Phloxes, Snapdragons, Ox-eye Daisies, and Chrysanthe- 
mums for late summer and autumn. This insures 
bloom from March to November. There is no need, 
of course, for the gardener to restrict himself to these 



kinds ; he may introduce such others as he Hkes ; but at 
the same time he may rest assured that if he made good 
selections of the kinds named, and grew them well (and 
both good selections and good culture are described in 
the present work), he would have a beautiful and interest- 
ing garden, whatever else he left out. 

Chrysanthemums are not the least important feature 
of the late-flowering section. Beginning in August, they 
go on to November. Given a mild autumn, there is 
bloom when schoolboys are celebrating Guy Fawkes' 
Day, and crowds are cheering the newly elected Lord 
Mayor through the streets of London. 
/[ In Town Ga^-dens. — They are nearly as happy in 

town gardens as the crowd itself. Who has not seen 
Chrysanthemums on which a rain of smuts from an 
adjoining factory or railway is falling most of the year 
blooming cheerfully ? Fumes which shrivel up Roses 
like a blast of flame, and make Sweet Peas uncom/ort- 
able, have very little effect on Chrysanthemums. 

They will thrive, too, in most kinds of soil ; but no 
one should take advantage of this and leave them to 
make the best of poor, hot, shallow ground, especially if 
the site is one that is much swept by strong, cold winds 
late in spring. The grower should help his plants with 
deep spade work and liberal manuring. 

When the amateur reflects that, in addition to making 
charming garden pictures, by choosing good Chrys- 
anthemums and growing them , well, he can also 
provide his wife with abundance of light and pretty 
sprays for decorating the house, his arm will be 

If his borders are so small that he can hardly find 
room for all the plants that he wants to grow in it, he 
can perhaps grow his collection of Chrysanthemums in 

Decorative Chrysanthemums. 



a spare bed somewhere, and, cutting back the early 
blooming plants when their beauty is past, plant the 
Chrysanthemums near the clumps. The Chrysanthe- 
mums will ''shift" quite safely in showery weather in 
August and September. 

Let us now make a selection of double garden 
Chrysanthemums, with their colours and usual month 
of flowering : — 




Bijou Rose 


September, October. 

Champ d'Or 


September, October. 

Firefly .... 


September, October. 


Dark red 

September, October. 



September, October. 

Goacher's Crimson 

Bronzy-red, yel- 
low reverse 

September, October. 

♦Horace Martin 



♦Le Cygne 



Le Pactole . 


September, October. 

Lillie .... 


September, October. 

♦Madame Desgranges . 



Market White 


September, October. 

Maxim .... 


September, October. 

Minnie Carpenter . 



♦Nina Blick . 


September, October. 

Rabbie Burns 


September, October. 

♦September Belle . 

Pink, shaded 


White Quintus 



The six marked with an asterisk would form a good 
half-dozen, giving, as they do, different colours and 
seasons of blooming. 

Truly, when one thinks of the beauty of Chrysanthe- 
mums, of their tough constitution, and of their obliging 
disposition, one's heart warms to them. They have 
nothing in common with plants which demand that 


everything shall be just right before they will consent to 
grow and bloom. They do not pule and whine because 
their bread is not buttered on both sides. The wisest of 
plants, they take the good things of life with whole- 
hearted enjoyment when they are available, and do 
without them when they are not. There is one sin that 
they never commit — they do not cold-shoulder any 
earnest grower. They befriend him constantly, faithful 
to the end. Whether he be townsman, suburbanist, or 
countryman, he can rely on their fidelity if he give the 
smallest proof that he deserves it. 

Large Daisies. — The florists' Chrysanthemum, in the 
various forms which we have just been considering, 
dominates the genus so strongly that other species and 
varieties hold but a small place. Yet the perennial Ox- 
^e, Shasta, and Pyrenean Daisies are Chrysanthemums, 
and very useful ones too, as they grow vigorously and 
bloom for a long period in summer and autumn. They 
are hardy perennials, will grow in almost any soil, 
and are easily propagated by division. The Ox-eye 
Daisy is Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, which blooms 
in early summer ; and the Pyrenean Daisy is Chrysan- 
themum maximum. There are now several fine varieties 
of the latter available, such as King Edward, the Mun- 
stead variety, and Wm. Robinson. Another good hardy 
perennial Chrysanthemum is the tall, white - flowered, 
late-flowering plant commonly grown under the name 
of Pyrethrum uliginosum. 

Golden Feather. — The reader may be surprised to 
hear that yet another popular plant in the yellow 
Feverfew, or Golden Feather, is a Chrysanthemum 
[Parthenium) according to modern botanical classifica- 
tion, although it used to be called a Pyrethrum. This 
plant was in great demand in bygone days, when carpet 

Double white annual Chrysanthemum. 


bedding was in vogue, but it is not much used now. It 
was raised from seed sown in heat in spring, and when 
planted out was kept low and compact by being cropped 
with finger and thumb every few days. 

The Marguerites of our flower-gardens and window- 
boxes are Chrysanthemums, and their free blooming, 
duration, and neat habit render them extremely service- 
able. They are propagated by cuttings in spring or 
autumn, and thrive in ordinary potting soil. 

The hardy annual Chrysanthemums, double and 
single, are desirable, as they flower in a few weeks 
from seed sown outdoors in spring, and are suitable 
for cutting. They have come from the two old species 
carinattim (tricolor) and coronariuniy the former of which 
had purple and white flowers, the latter yellow. Bur- 
ridgeanum. Lord Beaconsfield, Morning Star, and W. E. 
Gladstone are popular varieties of carinatum. Segetunty 
the Corn Marigold, is also a hardy annual, and improved 
forms are grown in gardens, notably grandiflorum. 

The genus Chrysanthemum is not a large one, but 
when we survey the florists' varieties, the summer 
annuals and perennials, and the Marguerites, we recognise 
that it is in every way a remarkable one. It would go 
ill with flower-lovers now if they had to do without it. 

Having considered the scope of the genus, and picked 
out some of the best of the good things which it gives 
us, we may deal with the culture of the florists' section. 

Hardiness, — From time to time questions are asked, 
and discussions arise^ as to the hardiness of Chrysan- 
themums. This is hardly worthy of argument except 
on an academic basis, because it is a simple matter to 
procure a few fresh cuttings, rooted or unrooted, every 
spring ; and when new plants can be bought for a penny 
or twopence each, it is hardly worth while to keep old 


ones. Personally, I have tried leaving Chrysanthemums 
in the open ground throughout the winter as the cottager 
does ; some have died, some have lived. But the type 
of plant that one gets by treating the Chrysanthemum as 
( a hardy herbaceous perennial is not pleasing to me, and 
I will not assume that it is any more gratifying to my 
readers. If the plants are cut back in autumn, the root- 
stock generally survives the winter and throws up fresh 
growth in spring if the soil is light and well drained. 
In damp soil the rootstocks often die in winter. 

Propagation. — A person who particularly wanted to 
propagate from his own stock, and had stiff soil, could, 
if he liked, lift a few roots in autumn, pack them in soil 
in boxes, and keep them in a sheltered place till spring. 
They would probably live, and if put in a frame or in 
a warm place in spring would throw up shoots, which 
could be taken off and struck as cuttings in a greenhouse 
or frame. New plants could be raised thus, and they 
would probably give better results than old ones which 
had passed the winter out of doors. 

Many florists make a speciality of collections of rooted 
cuttings in spring, and sell excellent varieties at prices 
averaging twopence a plant or thereabouts. By buying 
fifty or upwards the cuttings can be procured cheaper 

If the cuttings are not rooted when they arrive they 
should be put into small pots or shallow boxes filled 
with a compost containing a considerable proportion of 
leaf mould and sand. It is wise to cover them with a 
bellglass or small handlight if convenient, but as a rule 
they will root without provided they are not exposed to 
hot sun and dry air, but are sprinkled if they flag. The 
soil should be kept just moist, but not saturated. Home- 
made cuttings may be treated in the same way. 


When growth starts it may be assumed the roots have 
formed and a little more water may be given, but still care 
should be taken to avoid keeping the soil sodden. Air 
may be admitted to the plants, and they should be put 
close to the glass. The best place for them is an 
unheated frame. When they have filled the pots with 
roots they may be planted out. 

Soil, — The ordinary soil of most gardens suits Chrys- 
anthemums very well, as they are not fastidious plants ; 
but that is no reason why special provision should not 
be made to get them at their best. If the soil is very 
stiff it may be improved by the addition of leaf mould, 
road sweepings, or lime rubbish. These materials will 
lighten and enrich the ground simultaneously. In add- 
ing them, take the opportunity of digging deeply, breaking 
up the subsoil in the process. This will lead to increased 
vigour of plant and finer quality of bloom. If the soil is 
light, a liberal dressing of decayed manure will be the 
best addition to it. 

There is not a great difference in the height of the 
varieties of early garden Chrysanthemums. They grow 
from two to three feet high in most cases, and the habit 
is compact ; consequently they are plants for the front 
and middle of borders rather than the back. Groups 
of three can be set here and there in large borders, 
so placing them in association with earlier-blooming 
plants that they carry on the display of flowers, not 
putting them with late Phloxes, Michaelmas Daisies, and 
Sunflowers, and so having a part of the border full and 
a part bare. In small borders the plants can be put 

They will not call for a great deal of attention through 
the summer. If the soil is hoed regularly, and a pail 
of water is given occasionally in dry weather, they will 


grow steadily. Should any plants show a tendency to 
straggle, the tips of the shoots may be pinched off, in 
order to make them break from below and form a bush ; 
otherwise no stopping will be required. It is hardly 
likely that staking will be needed, but it should be done 
if the plants are badly blown about. If green-fly should 
attack the plants, they might be dusted with tobacco 
powder and syringed vigorously an hour afterwards. 
The course of treatment indicated ought to lead to great 
success with garden Chrysanthemums. 

As the present work is devoted to garden flowers, the 
cultivation of the Chrysanthemum as a pot plant for 
conservatories and exhibition hardly comes within its 
scope ; however, the principal items in pot culture may 
be included in the following calendar : — 

The Chrysanthemum-Grower's Year — A Summary. 

January, — Outdoor plants will be quite dormant. If 
there is much rain, mortar rubbish or dry litter may be 
put round the clumps. Keep an eye on any roots which 
are wintered in boxes, and moisten the soil only to 
prevent its getting dust dry ; do not let it get sodden. 
Strike cuttings of pot plants, choosing the suckers which 
spring up from the root when they are about three 
inches long. They root best in sandy soil under a hand- 
light. Put 3'oung plants from early cuttings on a shelf 
near the glass to keep them sturdy. They ought to be 
grown in a cool but frost-proof house to prevent their 
growing fast. Rapid growth is not desirable at this 

February, — If boxed stools of outdoor plants have 
begun to throw up shoots owing to mild weather, put 
them in a frame and give them a little water. Take the 







shoots off when three inches long, and put them in small 
pots containing sandy soil. Early struck plants for pot 
culture should be kept as cool as possible, and not be 
repotted until the roots show freely at the drainage hole. 
Directly they are repotted they call for nearly double 
the space which they required before, and that is a 
serious matter for amateurs with very little glass. The 
plants may be shifted from a three-inch to a five-inch 
pot. Use more loam and less leaf mould than for 
cuttings. Give plenty of air to young rooted plants in 
fine weather, and water only to prevent flagging. 

March. — Cuttings of outdoor plants may be struck in 
any desired quantity this month. If cuttings are being 
bought, they may be procured about the middle of the 
month. Young pot plants which have not been repotted 
are certain to need a shift. They may go on to a bed of 
ashes in a frame at the end of the month, but a mat 
should be kept handy to throw over the light in case of 
severe frost. Ventilate freely in fine weather. More 
water will be needed as growth becomes more active. 

April. — Complete the propagation of garden varieties. 
Prepare the beds and borders, and plant strong rooted 
plants from earlier cuttings out. If they have been 
grown in an unheated frame they will be hardy 
enough to withstand any frost which is likely to come 
now. If the position is exposed to cold winds, some 
temporary shelter can be devised in stormy spells. Pot 
plants in frames will be growing fast, and must have 
water when the soil is dry. Take the lights right off the 
frames in fine weather. Late-struck plants may be put 
into five-inch pots. The tips may be pinched off if bushy 
plants are wanted. 

May. — Complete the planting out. As the weather 
may be hot and dry, take care to give a good soaking of 


water if the plants flag. Pot plants will require regular 
daily attention. Many of them will have filled their five- 
inch pots with rootS; and directly the latter begin to 
creep out of the soil into the ashes on which the pots 
stand they should be shifted into seven-inch. As the 
available frame space may not suffice now, a sheltered 
place out of doors may be chosen, a coat of ashes 
spread on, and the plants stood out ; but a light frame- 
work of laths capable of supporting a cloth or mat 
should be kept handy, so that a protector can be speedily 
put over them if hard weather should come on. Some 
of the varieties form a flower-bud this month, with three 
incipient shoots below it. The bud should be picked off, 
and the three shoots grown on and tied to stakes in due 
course. To get flowers of exhibition quality, it is import- 
ant that the break of the shoots referred to should take 
place at the right time, and if it does not come naturally 
the tips should be pinched off. As the sorts vary a 
great deal, the beginner should send a list of those which 
he is growing to the trade expert from whom he buys 
his plants, or to a gardening paper, and ask for the 
varieties to be marked according as they break naturally 
or have to be stopped. Stem cuttings may be struck for 
yielding small plants in pots. 

June. — Outdoor plants ought to be in full growth 
now. Hoe the soil once a week, and give a soaking of 
water occasionally in dry weather. Pot plants grown 
for prize blooms ought to have their final shift, and if 
they are in seven-inch pots, they may go into nine-inch 
or ten-inch ; if in six-inch they may go into eight-inch or 
nine-inch. The pots should be drained with crocks 
surfaced with moss or leaf mould. The compost may 
consist of three parts fibrous loam, one part of leaf 
mould, one part of decayed manure, with half a peck of 


sand to each bushel. The whole of the components 
should be well mixed and used in a moist state. Ram 
the soil in quite hard, and leave two inches at the top 
for water. Only give just enough water to prevent the 
plants from flagging until they have started growing 
again, then water regularly. Stand the pots on a bed of 
ashes in a sunny but sheltered place in the garden. The 
labour of watering, which is considerable, may be 
reduced by partially or wholly embedding the pots in 
ashes ; but still, water is sure to be required at least once 
a day in dry weather. Remove side-shoots from the 
three stems. 

July. — Many of the garden varieties will form flower- 
buds this month, and a few of the earliest, such as 
Madame Desgranges, may come into bloom. Pot plants 
will need daily attention. They must be watered liberally, 
and should never be allowed to get so dry that the soil 
cracks away from the side of the pot. Should such a 
thing happen, prompt and drastic measures must be 
taken. A tub of water must be procured, and the pot 
sunk nearly to the brim in it. The water will rise 
through the soil, driving air before it, and causing a 
rush of bubbles to the surface. Only when these have 
ceased should the pot be raised. It may rest on the 
edge of the tub for a few seconds to permit the surplus 
water to escape, and then be replaced in its permanent 
position. If flower-buds should form at the tip of the 
three shoots, with incipient shoots just below them, they 
(the flower-buds) should be removed, together with two 
of the three incipient shoots on each stem, the third 
being left to grow on and form another bud in August. 
An exception to this rule should be made in case of any 
variety which an expert adviser says gives its best blooms 
from '* crown" buds that form at the end of July. The 


number of such cases will not be great, as most do best 
from later buds. Look out for green- and black-fly. If 
either should attack the plants, dust with tobacco powder 
and syringe vigorously an hour or two later. Should it 
be observed that any leaves are getting covered with 
white streaks, squeeze them to kill the maggots within. 
If small warts should appear on the leaves, touch them 
very carefully with methylated spirit, and then spray the 
plants with water in which half an ounce of sulphide of 
potassium per gallon has been dissolved. If the warts 
are allowed to develop, the plants may be destroyed by 
the fungoid disease called *' rust." 

August, — If any garden plants are being grown as a 
reserve in a spare bed they should be planted out after 
the first showery spell. Should the weather remain hot 
and dry, they may still be planted, but it would be wise 
to chop round the plants with a spade the day before 
they were shifted, to check root action, and then give a 
soaking with water. Moreover, they should be moved 
towards evening, and afterwards well syringed. Plants 
already established in beds and borders will be coming 
into bloom. A soaking of liquid manure will do them 
good. The majority of the varieties grown in pots for 
large blooms will show their crown buds the second or 
third week in August. The new growth shoots just 
below them should be pinched out at once, leaving the 
flower-bud standing alone. Continue the watering and 
treatment for insects advised under July. Bush plants 
in pots may be showing buds in clusters. Do not thin 
if plenty of small flowers are wanted, but disbud if a few 
larger flowers are required. 

Septembe7'. — Garden plants will be in full beauty this 
month. The flowers may be gathered freely, as with 
moisture and liquid manure fresh growth and flowers 


will be made. Pot plants ought to be put under glass 
towards the end of the month — earlier if the buds are 
showing colour. The heavy night dews of September 
are enjoyed by the plants, but they are not good for the 
flowers. Should mildew appear, dust with flowers of 
sulphur. Keep the plants on the dry side for a few days 
after the housing, but as soon as they freshen up resume 
full watering. The plants should be arranged in a group 
according to height and colour. Ventilate in fine 

October, — Outdoor plants ought to be yielding flowers 
still, but the earliest varieties will be over, and may be 
cut down when the growth begins to wither. Flowers 
will be developing rapidly under glass. Less water will 
be needed, but the soil should not be allowed to get 
quite dry. The hot-water apparatus ought to be started 
in damp, foggy weather to help dry the air, but the 
house must not be hot ; 55° should be the maximum 
temperature. Ventilate every fine day. As most of the 
shows are held towards the end of October and in the 
early part of November, the exhibitor should procure the 
necessary appliances early in October. Large stands 
are required for Japanese blooms, owing to the great size 
of the flowers. They should be painted green. A show- 
board for twelve Japanese should be twenty-eight inches 
long (left to right), twenty-one inches from back to front, 
seven inches high at the back, and four at the front. 
The holes for the tubes should be seven inches apart. 
For six blooms the stands should be fourteen inches long, 
and the other dimensions the same. For twelve Incurved 
the size should be twenty-four inches by eighteen, back 
six inches high, and front three inches, holes six inches 
apart; for six Incurved, twelve by eighteen. If several 
stands are to be taken about, a large travelling case fitted 


with side strips should be ordered for them. Zinc cups 
and tubes are required to fit into the show stands. 
They consist, as a rule, of three parts: (i) a socket an 
inch wide, provided with a perforated flange to screw 
on to the board ; (2) a cup four inches long, fitted with 
an external strip of brass which serves as a wedge, so 
that when the cup is put into the socket it can be raised 
or lowered, and fits firmly in any position ; (3) a cup four 
and a half inches long, fitted with a brass strip and a top 
flange two and a half inches wide, which supports the 
bloom, and can be slid up and down in the cup just as 
the cup can in the socket. The object of the whole 
arrangement is to facilitate fixing the various flowers at 
the heights which show them to the greatest advantage. 
Only No. 2 has a bottom ; it has to hold water. Steel 
tweezers in two or three sizes are required for dressing 
the blooms. Most large Chrysanthemum dealers supply 
stands, tubes, and tweezers ; and if they do not, they are 
always able to tell an inquirer of some one who does. 

November. — The last of the outdoor plants will now 
go out of bloom, and may be cut down. The roots of 
special varieties may be packed m boxes of soil, kept 
just moist, and wintered in a cool, dry, frost-proof place. 
Pot plants will be in full beauty. When they go out of 
bloom cut them right back and lift the pots to a position 
near the glass ; the root suckers will then become sturdy, 
and make good cuttings. Watering should be continued. 
Treat the cuttings as previously advised. 

December. — The remarks made under November apply 
to the closing month of the year. It is important to get 
good cuttings of pot plants and strike them early if prize 
flowers are wanted the following year. See remarks 
under January. 



Dear old ramblers, these. We love them when we 
see them tumbling about the hedgerows almost as 
much as when they are covering our own summer- 
houses and pergolas. 

It is curious to learn that the name comes from the 
word klema^ a vine growth, in reference to their habit. 
The purists complain that the popular pronunciation 
of Clematis is wrong ; but what is the popular pro- 
nunciation ? As many people say Klem'-a-tis as Klee- 
may'-tis, but perhaps no more. The former is the 
better of the two, and I do not think that any flower- 
lover need be diffident about using it. The purists 
themselves oscillate between Klee'-ma-tis and Klee- 
mat'-is, and we must leave them to enjoy playing 
pendulum. Klem'-a-tis is good enough for us, and 
Klem'-a-tis, therefore, it shall be. 

Lovers of old English folk-names may say : '' Why 
Clematis at all ? Why not Traveller's Joy ? Why 
not Virgin's Bower ? They are charming names, and 
simple." True, but they belong to certain old species, 
and do not fit the new hybrids with their great brilliant 
flowers. You could not very well call Cle7natis Jack- 
manii blue Traveller's Joy or blue Virgin's Bower, 
though it may be assumed that travellers and virgins 
alike have fits of the blues. We may continue to call 


our old plants by the old names ; but since the florists 
have given us such beautiful varieties we must, in 
ordinary courtesy, accept their names for these sorts. 

The wild Clematis, known as Traveller's Joy, Vir- 
gin's Bower, and Old Man's Beard, is the botanist's 
species vitalba. The French have one beautiful name 
for it, les cheveux de Jesus^ and also another that is not 
so pleasing. They sometimes call it Vherbe d gueux^ 
or Beggar's Weed, because unscrupulous mendicants 
blister their legs with a plaster of the leaves in order 
to assist their appeals for alms; or rub the juice into 
sores on their hands and arms. 

The reader may be surprised to hear of such uses 
of a plant that is not generally regarded as poisonous; 
but, in point of fact, the plant belongs to the Buttercup 
family (Ranunculaceae), and all parts of it are poisonous. 
If fresh leaves were chewed, ulcers would form in the 
mouth ; and if the juices were swallowed, they would 
probably produce severe dysentery. 

The name Traveller's Joy appears to have been 
first given to Clematis Vitalba by Gerard, tor we read 
in his *^ Herball " : *^ It is commonly called Viorna quasi 
vias ornans, of decking and adorning ways and hedges 
where people travel, and thereupon I haue named it 
the Trauveiler's loie." The specific name vitalba is in 
allusion to the white fluffy masses of achenes (an achene 
is a dry single carpel containing a seed, and it does not 
open when ripe) which give the plant its distinctive 
beauty in late summer. It grows luxuriantly in the 
tall thorn and hazel hedgerows on the chalk lands in 
East Kent, and also on the great blackthorn hedges 
which skirt the road from Hythe to Romney Marsh, 
covering both with a fleecy white mantle in August 
and September. Large hedges, with their tangle of 


Traveller's Joy, Brier, and Wayfaring Tree, are open 
to the criticism that they indicate slothful farming, 
and be sure that students at agricultural colleges have 
various instructive data tending to the discredit of the 
spreading masses ; but we cannot but rejoice in their 
free, untrammelled beauty. We remember, too, that 
it is to the English hedgerow that we owe our abund- 
ance of songbirds. Without the shelter and protec- 
tion of the hedges, feathered life must necessarily 

Pretty Species, — The Traveller's Joy is not much 
used as a garden plant nowadays, for there are many 
kinds far more suitable. The old species flammula^ 
which came from France as far back as 1596, is one ; 
the growth is much neater, and the flowers are fragrant. 
It is not entirely hardy, but in sheltered gardens it often 
lives for many years, gracing a gable or old roof with 
a foam of white blossom. But this good old plant has 
receded, in spite of its perfume, giving place to the 
earlier-blooming mountain Clematis (montana)y which 
has forged ahead in popular esteem with such rapidity 
that it is now grown in hundreds of thousands of 
gardens. Its popularity is easily explained. In the first 
place, it blooms as early as May, and there are few wall, 
arch, or porch plants that flower so early. In the second 
place, it is a very rapid grower and profuse bloomer. 
In the third place, it will thrive in almost any soil or 
position, not objecting to stiff land, or an eastern aspect, 
or a town atmosphere. The flowers are white, and 
of about the size of a half-crown. They are scented, 
although not so strongly as those of flammula. The 
perfume of C, montana led to its being also called C. 

The mountain Clematis is a native of the Himalaya, 



whence it was introduced in 1831. It may be planted 
to cover a house wall or a rustic summer-house. Have 
you an unsightly object in or near the garden ? Fix 
up a framework of rustic timber or wooden trellis-work, 
/ plant the mountain Clematis, and it is hidden speedily. 

In most cases it goes away freely when planted ; but 
I have known it *^hang fire" when planted on chalky 
I ground in a position where it catches drip from a 
roof. The soil gets splashed away, and nothing but 
chalk is left. In such circumstances some of the chalk 
should be dug out to form a pocket, and with this filled 
with fibrous loam the plant has a much better chance 
of getting established. Another source of failure is to 
put in a plant which has stood a good while in a 
nursery pot - bound, and has a long, tough, vine-like 
stem, and leave it unpruned. Such a plant ought to 
be cut back. It is better to begin with a young one, 
and prune it back to a good bud a few inches from 
the ground. There will be a strong growth from the 
bud, and in two or three years a large area will be 
covered with flowering shoots. It is not wise to prune 
established plants severely. The plant bears the finest 
flowers on the wood made the previous year, conse- 
quently the bloom would be cut away if severe spring 
pruning were practised. The wood which has bloomed 
may be pruned out in autumn if there are fresh shoots 
to take its place. 

The mountain Clematis may be propagated by 

There are not many hardy species grown in gardens 

now, as the hybrids and varieties are so much finer. 

Cirrhosa, a spring bloomer, with green and white 

.| flowers ; Erecta, a very old white species, blooming in 

July ; Fortunei, white, brought from Japan in 1863 ; 

Ci.KMATis Montana. 


Florida, a white species introduced from Japan, blos- 
soming in June ; Lanuginosa, a blue June bloomer from 
China ; Patens, white, a Japanese plant blooming in 
June ; and Viticella, purple, an August bloomer, are 
well-known hardy species ; but they are better repre- 
sented by their varieties than in themselves. The last 
four have all given their names to sections. 

Jackmanii has also done so, but it is a hybrid. This 
remarkable Clematis is certainly the most popular of 
all the large flowered, rich-coloured class, and is familiar 
to almost every lover of climbing plants. It is beautiful 
on porches, roofs, trellis-work, pillars, and verandahs, 
bearing its large violet-blue flowers in great abundance 
in July and August. It was raised in 1858 by a Woking 
florist, George Jackman, who obtained it by crossing 
the old blue Japanese species lanuginosa with a hybrid 
called Hende7'sont. The latter was raised in 1835 ^Y 
crossing the species integrifolia and viticella^ and bore 
purplish-blue flowers. A hybrid called rubro-violaceay 
with purplish-maroon flowers, came from the same 
cross ; but although it is a good Clematis, it was over- 
shadowed from the first by Jackmanii. 

Clematis J ackinanii is one of the most profuse-bloom- 
ing plants ever grown in a garden. It becomes a mass 
of bloom in late summer, quite hiding whatever object 
it may be grown upon. Such a plant, if also hardy and 
a fast grower — and Clematis Jackmanii is both — is bound 
to become a great favourite, because it meets the wants 
of innumerable gardeners. Suburban as well as country 
amateurs love Clematis Jackmanii^ and town gardeners 
might succeed with it nearly as well as their rural 
brethren if they would provide better soil than they 
generally do, and use the knife with a little more courage, 
it is very rarely that the natural soil of a suburban 


gardener is really fertile, and in nine cases out of ten it 
is advisable to take out some of it, and make a hole big 
enough to hold a bushel of fibrous loam and leaf mould, 
which the local florist will provide for a shilling. The 
plant is worth that. 

Pruning, — The use of the knife should begin directly 
the plant is put in, and that should be either in November 
or March. Many plant late in April or in May, on a hot 
site, with the result that the plant is scorched up before 
the roots have time to get to work and feed it. With 
autumn or early spring planting the plant has a chance 
to make new roots before the hot weather comes on, and 
as these fibres begin to send up food at once, the plant is 
strengthened and can endure the sun. But a gardener 
who has once summoned up enough courage to cut 
back a Clematis Jackmanii after planting it will always 
be ready to repeat the operation in future plantings. 

If shortened to a bud near the ground all the energies 
of the plant are concentrated on that bud, and it pushes 
a fine, vigorous shoot, which is soon several feet long, 
and produces flowers the same year. The second year 
it will do better still, and in the third the plant will be 
at its best, covering an immense area, and producing 
hundreds of flowers. 

It may sound strange to the non-professional reader, 
but Clematis Jackmanii produces the finest flowers when 
all the flowering shoots of the previous year are cut 
back in spring. The reason of this is that the plant 
blooms on new wood. We cannot lump all the Clema- 
tises together and say that they should be pruned in 
such-and-such a way. Jackmanii^ we see, differs from 
montana ; and others differ from both. The amateur 
may protest that his Clematis Jackmanii blooms without 
any pruning at all. So it does — kindly, generous-hearted 


plant that it is ; but it often gets into a terrible tangle, 
and is not far short of being positively unsightly when 
the leaves have fallen. Moreover, as the soil becomes 
exhausted, the flowering falls off. The pruned, trained 
plant is never ugly, leaves or no leaves ; and it produces 
the finest of flowers — large and full of glorious colour. 
About every third year, some of the old soil should be 
forked away from the roots and a fresh coat of loam, 
leaf mould, and manure put on. A few pailfuls of liquid 
manure will do good. 

The white variety of Jacknianii is worth making a 
note of, but it is not so valuable as the blue. Some 
Clematis lovers like to mix the latter and Jlammula^ for 
the sake of the perfume which the latter possesses, j 
There was a movement to grow them as dwarf bedding 
plants trained over hoops a few years ago, but it has 
nearly died out. More convincing is the idea of grow- 
ing them on groups of tall pillars in a large bed. The 
bigger the boles used the better. If they are moderate- 
sized tree trunks twelve feet out of the ground, no matter, 
the Clematis will reach the top in one season if the soil 
is rich, and in the second will be sprawling over them, 
and dangling flower-laden shoots over the top as a kind 
of flag of victory. 

Beautiful Varieties. — Some of the large varieties ot 
the other sections may be used to support Jackmanii for 
this purpose. Their flowers are even larger than those 
of the famous blue, and they give variety of colour. 
For instance, there are The Queen, a beautiful lavender 
variety, and Lord Londesborough, mauve, both of the 
patens type. These bloom in early summer, and need 
no pruning except when they get very crowded. There 
are Beauty of Worcester, violet, and Venus Victrix, 
lavender, double, of the Lanuginosa section, which also 


need no pruning beyond thinning. There is Lady Bovill, 
Hght blue, of the Viticella type, which does best when cut 
back hard every autumn. And there is Madame Edouard 
Andre, red, of the Jack^nanii class, which, as already 
mentioned, should be pruned back to the old wood in 

We see that there is great variety of habit and colour 
in the Clematises, and although this may, at the outset, 
tend to cause the amateur a little perturbation, he soon 
gets over it, and finds a deeper interest in the flowers 
from the demands that they make on his knowledge and 



As the sweetheart of Harlequin, Columbine was a primft 
favourite in the days when we were young enough to 
love the pantomime ; and in the form of a distinct and 
graceful flower we give her a high place among our 
garden favourites. 

Her charming name comes, of course, from the 
Latin columbaj a dove, but we are not quite sure 
whether it is Lady Wilkinson or Dr. Prior who may 
be accepted as the true guide to the derivation. The 
former tells us that it arises from the fact that if we 
pull off a. petal with its attached sepals we see a 
semblance of the figure of a dove with expanded 
wings ; the latter, that it is due to the nectaries re- 
sembling the heads of pigeons arranged in a ring round 
a dish. There is a third view — that the dove association 
arises merely from the colour, and its supporters quote 
Chaucer — 

" Come forth now with thin eyghen Columbine." 

— The Marchau7ides Tale, 
But this is a little strained. 

It is a coincidence that the botanical name, Aquilegiaj 

is also supposed by many to arise from a bird, but 

a very different one from the dove. The derivation 

ascribed is that of aquila^ the eagle, in reference to the 

form of the petals ; but this does not satisfy some 

scholars, who prefer to trace Aquilegia to aquilegusy a. 



water-collector, in allusion to the capacity of the flower 
for holding water. 

We see that in the case of both scientific and popular 
names there is fine scope for learned controversy, but it 
is probable that modern flower-lovers will be disposed 
to confine their discussions to the relative merits of the 

The poets have dealt richly with the Columbine. 
John Clare, the peasant rhymer, who was for a short 
period an under-gardener at Burghley, and who died in 
the Northampton lunatic asylum in 1864, included it iii 
some charming verse on old-fashioned flowers : 

" The Columbines, stone blue, or deep night brown, 
Their honeycomb-like blossoms hanging down ; 
Each cottage garden's fond adopted child, 
Though heaths still claim them, where they yet grow wild." 

Let us recall, too, John Skelton, the satirical poet, 
once Rector of Diss, in Norfolk, who was bold enough 
to make a fierce attack on the all-powerful Cardinal 
Wolsey in '*Why come ye not to Courte?" In 
'* Phyllyp Sparowe " he cries : 

" She is the Vyolet, 
The Daysy delectable, 
The Columbine commendable 
The lelofer amyable." 

Spenser uses the delightful comparison : 

" Her nekke lyke to a bounch of Cullambynes." 

Shakespeare refers to the Columbine in "Love's 
Labour's Lost " : 

Armado. Peace ! 
The armipotent Mars, of lances the almighty, 
Gave Hector a gift, the heir of Ilion ; 
A man so breathed that certain he would fight ; yea, 
From morn till night, out of his pavilion. 



I am that flower ; — 

Dumaine. That Mint 1 

Longaville. That Columbine. 

And again in " Hamlet" : 

Ophelia. There's Fennel for you and Columbine ; there's 
Rue for you ; and here's some for me ; we must call it herb 
grace o' Sundays. 

The Columbine clearly had the interest for great 
writers which all popular flowers must arouse ; and 
the repeated references to it by Shakespeare may be 
taken as a measure of its familiarity, for he was too 
astute a writer to weaken his appeal by drawing illus- 
trations from the garden that were likely to be strange 
to his readers. His observing eye took in and measured 
the influence of flowers as it did the power of human 

It is not every botanist who will admit that, popular 
as the Columbine has been from the earliest times of 
which we have any floricultural records, it is a true 
native plant ; but we need hardly labour the point, 
for it would be impossible to give its original habitat. 
The horticultural dictionaries state that the common 
Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris, is a native, while quoting 
the exotic origin of several species which are them- 
selves comparatively old plants. The Columbine was 
specialised in the days of Parkinson (1567-1650), for 
he wrote of it as being *' carefully nursed up in our 
gardens for the delight both of its form and colour." 
Yet we might suppose that it had not been developed 
very highly, since George Chapman, translator of Homer 
and playwright, referred to it disparagingly in his bright 
comedy, "All Fools," which was produced in or about 
1599, as follows : — 

" What's that — a Columbine ? 
No. That thankless flower grows not in my garden." 



The Columbine was used in heraldic devices, and 
John Guillim (or Gwillim) (1565-1621), scholar of Braze- 
nose, Oxford; official at the College of Arms, London, and 
author of '^ A Display of Heraldrie," quotes *' a chevron 
sable between three Columbines," and speaks approv- 
ingly of the flower itself, as ^' pleasing to the eye, as well 
in respect of the seemly (and not vulgar) shape as in 
regard of the azury colour.'' He gave it, too, a good 
character in another respect — it was '^very medicinable 
for throat troubles." 

Select Species and Hybrids. — Aquilegia (pronuncia- 
tion, Ak-wil-ee'-ji-a) vulgaris was variable in colour, 
giving red, white, and blue forms. It comprised both 
single and double flowers. Other species gave larger 
flowers and a greater range of colours. Alpina is a 
beautiful blue species from the Swiss Alps, growing 
about a foot high, and being suitable for the rockery. 
It is the same as grandiflora, Ccerulea, blue and white, 
introduced from the Rocky Mountains in 1864, is a 
charming Columbine. It has long, slender spurs tipped 
with green. The height is fifteen to eighteen inches. 
CcBrulea hybrida is the result of crossing ccBrulea with 
chrysantha and other species. The Columbines were 
first hybridised by a florist who was later to become 
famous as a Carnation grower, James Douglas. He 
made a large number of crosses, and secured strains 
with large, long-spurred flowers, embracing many 
colours. The seedsmen have a strain called Calif ornica 
hybrida, the petals of which are yellow, and the sepals 
and spurs orange. It grows about two feet high, and 
certainly has the blood of chrysantha in it. The latter 
is one of the noblest of the Columbines, growing three 
to four feet high ; it has yellow flowers. Some botanists 
do not accept it as a species, but consider it to be a 


variety of leptoceras. The latter is blue and white, and 
very close to, if not identified with, ccerulea. Columbine- 
lovers will find a plate of it in the Botanical Magaziney 
t. 4497, and also one of chrysantha under the name of 
leptoceras chrysanthay t. 6073. Aquilegia chrysantha came 
from California in 1873. In itself, and also as a parent 
of the many beautiful hybrids, it is very valuable. 

The blue and white species glandulosa is regarded 
as precious by all lovers of Columbines. The flowers 
are large and graceful, and the height is about a foot. 
It is a Siberian plant, and therefore hardy, nevertheless 
it is short-lived in most gardens, and requires frequent 
renewal from seed, but that is a simple and inexpensive 
matter, fucunda is a variety of it. 

There is a lovely little dwarf Columbine named 
Pyrenaica, introduced from the Pyrenees in 181 8. It 
rarely grows more than nine inches high, and may 
therefore be put on the rockery. The colour is blue. 
Sibirica, lilac, is another species suitable for the rock 
garden. Skinneriy red and green, a Guatemalan species, 
is a popular Columbine, and is illustrated in the Botanical 
Magazine, t. 3919. Stuartii is a hybrid htiv^Qtn glandu- 
losa and a variety of vulgaris, raised in 1888. It is a 
dwarf grower, with dark blue and white flowers. 

A Columbine-lover who wanted to have a thoroughly 
representative collection might add canadensis, formosay 
^nd /ragrans to the foregoing, as all are worth growing ; 
but one may not assume that every flower-lover can find 
space and time for cultivating a long list of species when 
there are so many other beautiful plants claiming a share. 
Nay, one is forced to assume that many gardeners will 
be driven to the extreme of cultivating Columbines as h^"^ 
Columbines, and nothing more. Even in this case they 
will not do badly if they procure a good strain of mixed 



hybrids, for they will have a beautiful display of flowers 
in late spring. 

Propagation. — The grower of Columbines learns from 
observation that they do not possess a spreading, fibrous 
root-stock, like, for example, Michaelmas Daisies and 
Sunflowers ; but form a hard, knotty stock. For this 
reason they do not lend themselves to propagation by 
division, although I have resorted to this method of 
increase on occasion, driving a sharp spade clean 
through the centre just as the growth started in spring. 
But the plant comes so readily from seed that division 
is uncalled for except in the case of double varieties. 
As a matter of fact, the Columbines sow themselves. 
The bees buzz around them busily in June, and a few 
weeks later one sees the peculiar pointed pods dis- 
charging their seeds. A word of warning as to this. 
The hybrid Columbines of the seedsmen are highly 
bred, and they soon deteriorate in quality when left to 
Nature ; if it is desired to keep the flowers up to the 
highest standard, the self-sown seedlings should be 
weeded out every few years, and a new stock of plants 
raised from fresh seed. 

The Columbines certainly have a good notion of 
making themselves comfortable in any quarters which 
they like. I have cleared an herbaceous border to make 
a shrubbery, been sure that every particle of growth 
has been removed, and had the soil deeply dug, but 
a Columbine has come up here and there among the 
shrubs the following season, and, enjoying the good 
fare and the partial shade, has grown into a sturdy 
specimen. Although they grow vigorously in strong 
loam and clay — as, indeed most plants do — they like 
chalk, and will make surprisingly tall growth and flower 
prokisely in comparatively poor soil overlying limestone. \ 


Those who raise Columbines from seed should sow 
thinly in a drill as soon as it is ripe, if they gather their 
own ; but if buying seed in spring, they had better sow 
in May. This seed will be of the previous year's sowing, 
and is often rather slow in germinating ; on this account 
it is worth while to go to the little extra trouble of sow- 
ing in a shallow box filled with moist fine loam, leaf 
mould, and sand. If kept dark, and the soil moist, in a 
frame, it will germinate in due course, and the plants 
must then have light and air. When they begin to get 
crowded they may be set six inches apart in a prepared 
bed in the garden, and transferred thence to their per- 
manent quarters in autumn. 

Lovers of this beautiful plant, who grow it mainly for 
garden effect, must still make themselves acquainted 
with the structure of its flowers, for they are of great 
interest. There are five coloured or petaloid sepals j 
(a sepal is not a petal — it is a segment of the calyx — 
while a petal is a segment of the corolla) and five tubular / 
petals ; each of the latter terminates in a horn-like 
"spur" or nectary, which resembles a bird's head. 
The abundant seeding of Columbines is perhaps due 
to the numerous series of stamens, which, fed by the 
nectaries, discharge a great deal of pollen. 

Interesting in its structure, a beautiful, hardy, and 
easily grown garden plant, endeared to us by long 
association, the Columbine is one of the greatest of 
our flower-garden favourites. 



That cheerful harbinger of spring, the yellow Crocus, 
which often flashes back a greeting to the pale rays of 
the February sun, is one of the oldest of our popular 
garden flowers. Thriving in almost any soil, calling for 
no skill in culture, cheap, it is truly one of the flowers 
of the people. 

The Crocus is so old a plant, and its derivation so 
remote, that it has been admitted to the British flora ; 
but the species that grow wild have probably become 

Old writers spoke of the ^^ Saffron Crocus" in general 
terms, but the Crocus that produces the saffron of com- 
merce is satzvuSy a lilac species which blooms in autumn. 
The saffron is made from the dried stigmas of the flower. 
It is a very old plant — too old for its history to be 
traceable. The word '^saffron" comes from the Arabic 
al zahafaran or zdfaran. It is easy to trace the old 
French safran, the Italian zafferano^ and the English 
saffron from this root. The origin of Crocus is hardly 
less clear. Theophrastus (372-286 B.C.), the Greek 
naturalist and writer on plants, referred to it. The 
Greek krokos is probably derived from the Arabic 

In these days the name saffron is rarely used in 
relation to the Crocus, but is applied to Colchicum 
autumnale, the Meadow Saffron ; and there are probably 



thousands of cultivators of Crocuses who have lost sight 
of the association of the flower with the saffron of com- 
merce. It is desirable to recall the fact, because it adds 
greatly to the interest of the plant, and brings us, 
through it, into touch with the old writers. How many 
people are aware that Saffron Walden, in Essex, takes 
its name from the introduction of the Crocus there ? It 
is the fact, however. Sir Thomas Smith (15 14-1577), 
Secretary of State to Edward VI., and author of De 
Republica Anglorum, was a native of that place; and 
he is credited with having introduced the plant with the 
object of founding a new industry for the poor. (The 
reader may safely ignore published statements that 
Smith introduced saffron into Essex during the reign 
of Edward III., as that was some two hundred years 
before his time.) 

Sir Thomas Smith may have been the first to start 
the cultivation of Crocuses for saffron - making in 
Essex, but it is hardly likely that he was the first to 
do so in Great Britain. The reader who is interested in 
the matter may read Hakluyt's references to saffron in 
the ''English Voiages," vol.ii., written only five years after 
Sir Thomas Smith's death. He says : •' Saffron groweth 
fifty miles from Tripoli, in Syria, on a high hyll, called 
in those parts gasian, so as there you may learn at that 
part of Tripoli the value of the ground and the good- 
nesse of it, and the places of the vent. But it is said 
that from that hyll there passeth yerely of that commodity 
fifteen moiles laden ... If a vent might be found, 
men would in Essex (about Saffron Walden) and in 
Cambridgeshire, revive the trade for the benefit of the 
setting of the poore on worke. So would they do in 
Herefordshire by Wales, where the best of all England 
is, in which the soile yields the wild Saffron commonly, 


which shovveth the natural incHnation of the same soile 
to the bearing of the right saffron, if the soile be manured 
and that way employed." And Hakluyt goes on to say: 
" It is reported at Saffron Walden that a pilgrim, pro- 
posing to do good to his country, stole a head of 
Saffron, and hid the same in his palmer's staffe, which 
he had made hollow before of purpose, and so he 
brought the root into this realme with venture of his 
life, for if he had been taken, by the law of the country 
from whence it came, he had died for the fact." If 
Hakluyt is accurate, saffron -growing was introduced 
into Essex long before Smith's time, for the latter was 
contemporary with him. 

Saffron Hill, in London, also derives its name, accord- 
ing to Cunningham, from the crops of saffron which it 
bore. That delectable quarter is now the home of the 
Italian colony of organ-grinders, whose efforts turn 
many a harassed London writer of as bilious a colour 
as that of the '* snipt - taffeta fellow " described by 
Shakespeare in <' All's Well that Ends Well," whose 
"villainous saffron would have made all the unbaked 
and doughy youth of a nation in his colour." Flying 
to the wilds of Cornwall for solitude, the literary man 
finds nothing worse to remind him of the terrors which 
he has escaped than the saffron cake, so beloved of the 
Cornish folk. 

The references to the saffron Crocus by Pliny show 
that it was cultivated in Cilicia, a region in the south-east 
of Asia Minor, in his time ; and later writers, probably 
taking their cue from the Roman, referred to it as a 
Cilician plant. Thus Spenser's 

" Saffron sought for on Cilician soyle." 

It may have been a native of Asia Minor, but it v/as 


grown in Persia and Cashmere in remote ages. Bird- 
wood speaks of saffron as a native of Cashmere, and 
states that "the Saffron Crocus and the Hemp plant 
followed the Aryan migrations together throughout the 
temperate zone of the globe." 

The writers of the Elizabethan epoch made many 
references to Saffron Crocuses, and did not limit the 
application to the lilac -flowered Crocus sativus. In 
*^The Tempest," Act iv. scene i, Ceres cries to Iris — 

" Hail, many-coloured messenger, that ne'er 
Dost disobey the wife of Jupiter ; 
Who with thy saffron wings upon my flowers 
Diffusest honey-drops, refreshing showers." 

And Shakespeare refers to saffron in several other of his 
plays. Gerard grew several species of Crocus, and was 
particularly enthusiastic about the yellow, which was 
perhaps introduced in his own day, as he writes : ^^ It 
hath flowers of a most perfect shining yellow colour, 
seeming afar off to be a hot glowing coal of fire. That 
pleasant plant was sent unto me from Rabinus, of Paris, 
that painful and most curious searcher of simples." 
Parkinson described thirty-one sorts of Crocus. Dean 
Herbert made a careful study of the genus, and published 
a monograph of the Crocuses in 1847, in which he de- 
scribed forty-one species, in addition to many varieties. 
Later, Mr. George Maw also published a monograph of 
the genus, in which he dealt with upwards of sixty 
species, besides varieties. 

These facts will show amateur gardeners who are 
tempted to hold the Crocus lightly because it is a some- 
what common flower, that it is really one of great 
importance. Insigniiicant as it may appear to some, 
it has its roots deep down in the world's history. It 



has been carried by wanderers all over the world, stolen 
by patriotic adventurers, and has maintained one of the 
oldest industries known to civilisation. 

Educated people will not grow the Crocus less 
frequently in their gardens for knowing the part that it 
has played ; on the contrary, they are likely to give 
greater attention to it than they have done hitherto. 
And, when they have begun to study it, they will find 
species of a beauty that they had never suspected. 
Probably seven out of ten of the growers of Crocuses 
know them only through the *^ Dutch " varieties — 
popular yellow, lilac, blue, white, and striped sorts, 
which are sent over from Holland in autumn in 
millions, to be sold by bulb dealers and auctioneers 
at a cheap rate, and to flower in February and March 
of the following year. The fact that they sell in such 
enormous quantities is a sufficient proof that they are 
appreciated, and their beauty is undeniable ; but, after 
all, they give only a very meagre idea of the variety and 
the beauty of the genus. They do not, for instance, 
touch the autumn bloomers at all, and they only 
represent the late winter or spring bloomers with 
moderate success. 

Crocuses for Rockwork and Pots, — In years gone by I 
grew a collection of Crocuses, which included some of 
the best species, in a London suburb. I learned thereby 
two things : that the Crocus is one of the best of town 
flowers, and that it includes plants the beauty of which 
far exceeds that of any of the Dutch varieties. I grew 
some of my Crocuses in the garden, and some in pots in 
the greenhouse. Their low growth suggests that the 
rockery rather than the open bed is the place for them 
outdoors. Given pockets to themselves in the rockery, 
and labelled, there is no risk of their getting overgrown 


by larger plants, or dug out in general gardening opera- 
tions. They are both safer and under more complete 
control in the rock garden than in the mixed border. 
At the same time the exquisite flowers show up to greater 
advantage. The species can hardly be compared with 
the Dutch varieties as garden plants, although equally 
hardy. It will be conceded that a clump of perhaps half 
a dozen plants is much more likely to escape observa- 
tion than a whole row. However, in the absence of a 
rockery, an amateur who is interested in Crocuses may 
grow a few specimens in the front of a bed or border, 
and with a little special care will succeed with them. 

In the hope that some gardener has sufficient interest 
in Crocuses to grow a few species, I give a brief descrip- 
tion of the best of those which I have grown myself, 
classifying them into two sections — autumn and spring, 
although some of the latter really flower in winter. 

Autumn-blooming Crocuses, — One of the prettiest of this 
class is Boryi, which has white flowers. Hadriaticus is 
another beautiful white species. Iridiflorus (Iris-flowered) 
is one of the most exquisitely lovely of bulbous flowers. 
When expanded it is nearly two inches across, and of a 
rich blue colour. I found this to be a gem for pot 
culture, and a charming ornament for the front of the 
greenhouse stage. There is a large variety of it called 
major. LongifloruSy purple and lilac, is not only very 
pretty, but is also sweet-scented ; there are several varie- 
ties of it. NudifloruSy purple, is also good. Ochroleucus, 
yellow and white, is well worthy of pot culture. Sativus, 
as we have seen, yields the saffron of commerce, which 
the old writers dowered with many virtues. Note 
Gerard : '* The moderate use of it is good for the head, 
and maketh sences more quicke and liuely, shaketh off 
heauie and drowsie sleepe and maketh a man merrie." 


Sativiis has purple or yellow flowers. Speciosus^ purplish 
lilac, is one of the best of the autumn Crocuses ; and 
zonattis, lilac and rose, is also lovely. 

Spring- flowering Crocuses. — Aureus is a good orange- 
yellow species, and has many varieties, including white, 
cream, primrose, and deep yellow. It has additional 
interest for us as the parent of the popular Dutch yellow. 
Biflorus has white flowers, and is not only pretty in 
itself, but has a family of charming daughters. Another 
fine species is chrysanthuSy orange, which also has a long 
list of varieties to its name. Fleischeri, white, with purple 
feathering, is worth growing ; and at least as much may 
be said of Imperati, a large, handsome and early-bloom- 
ing species, purple within, buff outside. There are 
several varieties of this splendid Crocus. Olivierij orange ; 
reticulatus, lilac and white ; Sieberi, lilac, a most charm- 
ing early bloomer ; Tommasinianus, lavender ; vernus, 
varying from white to purple ; and versicolor ^ striped, 
are other good Crocuses. Vernus is the parent of the 
Dutch white, striped, and purple. 

If the Crocus species are grown in pots, five corms (a 
corm differs from a true bulb in not having visible scales) 
may be placed equi-distant in a five-inch pot. The soil may 
consist of loam, with a quarter of leaf mould and some 
sand. The autumn bloomers should be potted or planted 
in summer, the spring bloomers in autumn. The pots 
should be covered with cocoa-nut fibre refuse until roots 
have pushed freely in the soil, when they may be put in 
the greenhouse and exposed to light. If planted on 
rockwork, pockets of loamy soil should be prepared for 
them, and they may be buried an inch deep. 

Cheap Dutch Crocuses. — The following are a few 
good varieties of Dutch Crocus : Maximilian, lavender ; 
Mont Blanc, white ; Purpurea grandiflora, blue ; and Sir 



Walter Scott, striped. These cost no more than 2s. 6d. 
to 3s. 6d. per hundred, and are therefore cheap enough 
for long lines, masses, or planting in grass. The Yellow 
is generally sold in three sizes, and the price ranges 
from 2s. 6d. per hundred. The colour is the same in 
each case, but the large corms produce more and larger 
flowers than the small. Unnamed Crocuses in white, 
blue, and striped can be bought for is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. per 

Crocuses in Grass. — Many flower-gardeners now plant 
Crocuses in quantity in grass. They take off the turf, 
stir the soil below, mix in bone flour at the rate of a 
handful per square yard, and replace the turf above the 
corms. It is a pretty idea to clothe a grassy mound 
with yellow Crocuses ; the effect is charming when the 
flowers are out in February. They will do under trees 
which are leafless when the plants are in bloom. The 
Crocuses may be put in six inches apart. 

Birds, — The amateur often finds his Crocus edgings 
spoiled by birds, which pull off the flowers. The sugges- 
tion that they do this ^'for mischief" is of doubtful 
accuracy. They probably find sweet moisture at the 
base of the flowers. The simplest plan of baffling them 
is to fix strings of black thread just above the blossoms. 

The amateur may plant his corms three inches deep 
in well-worked soil and leave them from year to year. 
When they have dwindled to very small proportions 
fresh corms can be bought. 

Crocuses do well in suburban gardens. 



We cannot think about Daffodils without a Hghtening 
of the heart. There is something irresistibly cheery 
about them. They are infectiously gay and enlivening. 

The Daffodils have been popular flowers for many 
hundreds of years. They are old, old favourites. Their 
early flowering has much to do with this, and it is 
interesting to know that some authorities trace the name 
Daffodil to the old English word affodyhy which means 
an early object. Another explanation is that it comes 
from Asphodel, and the Daffodil was certainly confused 
with that flower by Lyte and others. If the reader 
repeats the two names one after the other he will be 
able to appreciate the possibility of confusion arising 
through careless writing following faulty pronunciation. 
Asphodel is the popular form of the Greek Asphodelus. 
The plant is entirely different from the Daffodil, and 
no confusion ought to have arisen between them. The 
Asphodel belongs to the natural order LiliacecBj and the 
Daffodil to the AmaryllidacecB. Asphodelus comes from 
a, not, and sphallo, to supplant, the intention being to 
convey that the flowers are so beautiful that they cannot 
be surpassed. 

Whether Daffodil originated from Asphodel or 

affodyle, it appears to have come into possession of 

an initial letter which did not belong to it. It would 



probably be a futile task to endeavour to trace the cir- 
cumstances in which the '* d " became added. 

The Daffodil is not merely the Daffodil, however — it 
is also the Daffadowndilly ; so that at some time or other 
it not only acquired an extra letter in front, but several 
additional ones at the end. Dr. Prior thinks that Daffa- 
downdilly is a corruption of Saffron Lily, but it may 
have been manufactured by a poet to assist a metre. 
Constable (1562-1613) uses the word — 

" Diaphenia, like the Daffadowndilly- 
White as the sun, fair as the Lilly." 

And Milton speaks of ^' the Daffodillies " that 
" Fill their cups with tears." 

Our greatest poets have written of the Daffodil. 
Shakespeare refers to it repeatedly, and no lines relating 
to a flower are more familiar than those from ''The 
Winter's Tale," Act iv., scene 3, where Perdita cries — 

" Now, my fair'st friend, 
I would I had some flowers o' the spring that might 
Become your time of day ; and yours, and yours, 
That wear upon your virgin branches yet 
Your maidenheads growing : O Proserpina ! 
For the flowers now that frighted thou lett'st fall 
From Dis's waggon : Daffodils, 
That come before the swallow dares, and take 
The winds of March with beauty." 

And in the same play, so rich in allusions, which 
have now become classical, to flowers, scene 3 of the 
fourth act begins with Autolycus singing — 

" When Daffodils begin to peer, 
With heigh ! the doxy over the dale, 
Why, then comes in the sweet o' the year ; 
For the red blood reigns in the winter's pale." 

Herrick, Keats, and Shelley continued tfie Daffodil 


garland of song begun by Constable, Shakespeare, and 

other early poets. The first-named wrote the lines — 

" Fair Daffodils, we weep to see 
You haste away so soon, 
As yet the early rising sun 
Has not attained his noon." 

Keats's famous lines beginning, ^^A thing of beauty is 

a joy for ever/' proceed — 

"In spite of all 
Some shape of beauty moves away the pale 
From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon, 
Trees old and young, spreading a shady boon 
For simple sheep ; and such are Daffodils 
With the green world they live in." 

The name Narcissus is scarcely less familiar than 
that of Daffodil. It stands as the botanical name of 
the whole genus with the bulk of amateurs, but florists 
call only the Trumpet Narcissi Daffodils, and use 
Narcissus for the rest of the family. They speak, for 
instance, of the Poet's Narciss, not the Poet's Daffodil. 
This, however, was a Daffodil with the old writers. It 
is the ^'chequ'd and purple-ringed Daffodilly" of Ben 
Jonson. Narcissus was the name of a vain youth who 
is said to have been turned into this flower — 

" That was a faire boy certaine, but a foole 
To love himself; were there not maids enough?" 

— Two Noble Kinsmen. 

Shelley writes of the flower under the classical name — 

" Narcissus, the fairest among them all, 
Who gaze on their eyes in the stream's recess, 
Till they die of their own dear loveliness." 

We may assume that the Rose of Sharon, mentioned 

in the *^ Song of Solomon," was a Daffodil, although 

some writers believe that it was a Rock Cistus, and may 

quote the words of Mahomet : *' He that has two cakes 

of bread, let him sell one of them for some flower of 


the Narcissus ; for bread is the food of the body, but 
Narcissus is the food of the soul." 

The Jonquil is a Narcissus, and the word comes 
ivoinjunczfolius, which means rush-leaved. The Jonquil \ 
is therefore the Rush-leaved Daffodil. 

The old English Daffodil, the Daffodil of Shake- 
speare, is the Lent Lily, Narcissus pseudo-Narcissus 
of botanists. It is a native of this country. It is a 
cheap plant, and those >yho feel an interest in it may, 
if they like, plant it in quantity. But the modern 
Daffodils are so enormously superior that the Lent Lily 
does not receive so much attention as it used to do. 
It is, of course, thoroughly hardy, and it will grow 
almost anywhere. In heavy moist soil it multipUes 
almost too fast. 

Classification. — There are so many different types of 
Narcissus that a person used to the ways of florists will 
assume that they have been classified. They have. 
The old system was to group them according to the 
size of the central cup or crown. They were classified 
in three groups — Large-Crowns, Medium-Crowns, and 
Small-Crowns [Magni-Coronati, Medio- Cor onatiy Parvi- 
Coronaii). The true Daffodils, in which the crown was 
so large as to become a '' trumpet," were Magni- Coronaii ^ 
the Chalice-fiowered were Medio-Coronati, and the Poet's 
Narcissi were Parvi- Coronati. This system served until 
the florists had mixed up the sections by hybridising, 
when it broke down. Another was formulated, in which 
eleven groups were made, as follows: — 

1. Trumpets. 6. Cyclamineus hybrids. 

2. Incomparabilis. 7. Jonquilla hybrids. 

3. Barri (including Burbidgei). 8. Tazetta and Tazetta hybrids. 

4. Leedsi. 9. Poeticus varieties. 

5. Triandrus hybrids. 10. Doubles. 

II. Various. 



The trumpet Daffodils bloom early, and the Poet's 
Narciss late. Between them come the Chalice-flowered 
varieties. By making a selection from each of these 
three classes, the grower can have bloom from March to 
May inclusive. A table of select varieties will put the 
information which a beginner is likely to require before 
him clearly and succinctly : — 





of Flower- 



White and orange 


*Barri conspicuus 


Yellow and orange 






Capax plenus 

Double trumpet 







Duchess of West- 

minster . 


White, creamy cup 


Emperor . 




^Empress . 


Yellow and white 


Glory of Leyden 




■^Golden Spur 




Henry Irving 






Yellow and white 


Johnstoni Queen 

of Spain . 




M. Magdaline de 

Graatf . 


White, yellow cup 


Maximus . 




*Obvallaris (Tenby 





Orange Phoenix . 

Double chalice 

Orange and yellow 




White and orange 


*Pallidus praecox 




■^Poeticus plenus . 

Double Poet's 



*Sir Watkin 




Sulphur Phoenix 

Double chalice 

Pale yellow 


Telamonius ple- 

nus (Van Sion) 

Double trumpet 



White Pearl 




The foregoing comprise twenty-four of the most 
popular varieties of Narcissus grown at the present 
time. Those marked with an asterisk are very cheap, 


and, giving considerable diversity of colour and season 
of flowering, might be chosen for a small collection, or 
for planting in large quantities. They will not provide 
sufficient interest for the specialist however, and it may 
be well to add notes of a few varieties that are more 
likely to appeal to him : — 

Albatross. — White, with orange centre, a lovely variety of the 
Burbidgei class. 

Blackwell. — Yellow Chalice, cup shaded orange. 

Bullfinch. — A Barrii variety, with rich red cup. 

Cardinal. — Chalice-fiowered, red cup. 

Cassandra. — A lovely sweet Poet's. 

Cavalier. — White, with orange cup. A Burbidgei variety. 

Cernuus plenus. — Double cream trumpet. 

Elvira. — White and yellow Poetaz, very sweet. 

Firebrand. — A red-cupped Burbidgei. 

Glitter. — An orange-cupped Barrii. 

Gloria Mundi. — Red-cupped Chalice. 

Homespun. — Yellow-flowered Chalice of beautiful form, one 
of the most refined varieties we have. 

John Bain. — White, yellow cup, small crown. 

Katherine Spurrell. — White Chalice, with yellow cup. 

King Alfred. — Grand yellow trumpet. 

Lemondrop. — A Leedsii variety, with drooping, primrose 

Lucifer. — A white Chalice-flowered, with large rich orange cup. 

Lulworth. — Cream Chalice, with orange cup. 

Mrs. Langtry. — A Leedsii, white, with primrose cup. 

Nelsoni aurantius. — White, with orange cup. 

Sunset. — A yellow Poetaz. 

Victoria. — Yellow and white trumpet. 

Waterwitch. — White Leedsii, a lovely, drooping flower. Excel- 
lent for cutting. 

Weardale Perfection. — Yellow and white trumpet. 

White Lady. — A beautiful white Leedsii, with canary cup, 
one of the most charming of all. 


It must be remembered that the majority of these 
are much more expensive than the varieties in the first 

With respect to the classes mentioned, the Burbidgei 
and Poetaz both belong to the small-crown section, of 
which the Poet's Narciss is the most popular example. 
The Burbidgei varieties are really hybrid Poet's. The 
Poetaz sorts, of which Elvira is a charming example, are 
hybrids between the Poet's and the Polyanthus-flowered 
. group, the latter of which is botanically known as 
I Narcissus Tazetta. The Chalice-flowered or Star Narcissi, 
of the medium-crown section, are the Naixissus inconi- 
parabilis of botanists. The resemblance of the crown to 
the wine chalice at the Lord's Supper table led to the 
term chalice-flowered being applied to them. The Barrii 
and Leedsii varieties belong to the same section. The 
yellow and white trumpets are frequently spoken of by 
florists as Bicoloj's. 

Hardiness, — After this brief glance at the history and 
classification of the Daffodil, and list of some of the best 
varieties, we may usefully consider cultivation. The 
amateur may wonder whether the work of the florists in 
improving the flower has led to any loss of hardiness or 
vigour on the part of the plant. Happily it has not. 
With one or two unimportant exceptions, all the Narcissi 
are hardy. All do not, it is true, multiply as fast as the 
old Lent Lily, but for the most part they are strong, and 
quite suitable for cultivation in the open air. Only in 
the case of a very expensive variety need pot culture be 
regarded as obligatory, and this not because the plant 
lacks vigour, but because it can be kept more closely 
under the grower's control in a frame or greenhouse 
than in the garden, where a careless spade-thrust might 
destroy it. 


In Beds. — Where can we grow Daffodils ? How 
can we utilise them so as to get the most individual 
interest, as well as the finest collective effect from them ? 
Before we put one bulb into the ground, we have to 
remember that the plants bloom only at one parti- 
cular season. An amateur who developed an interest 
in Daffodils might rush a large collection of them 
into the ground in autumn, and after enjoying them to 
the full in spring, find himself embarrassed in May 
onwards by beds and borders full of nothing but decay- 
ing leaves. 

The Daffodils do not make the garden entirely — 
they only adorn it for a few weeks. From May to 
July, inclusive, they are worse than useless as decorative 
plants for the garden. The flower gardener should do 
one of two things: (i) Fill the beds with them in 
autumn, lift the bulbs in May, and lay them in a spare 
plot, then plant the bed with something else ; (2) plant 
them in groups among the other occupants of beds 
and borders, and sow annuals, or plant dwarf, free- 
blooming perennials near them in spring, to come 
on for summer bloom. 

In the public parks the first plan is adopted, and 
amateurs who do not mind the little trouble of lifting 
and replanting may follow it also. Let us suppose 
that an amateur has one flower bed which he wishes 
to be gay with Daffodils in spring, and with hardy 
plants — Asters, Petunias, Phloxes, Verbenas, Carna- 
tions, Begonias, Zonal Geraniums, or some other popular 
flower — in summer. He could plant his Daffodils in 
October, when the summer flowers were over. First, 
he should clear the bed ; then dig it deeply, and work 
in steamed bone-flour at the rate of four ounces per 
square yard. He should now plant the Daffodils. 


Assuming that he has a selection of different varieties, 
he will be well advised to arrange them in groups, the 
number of bulbs in each ranging from three to a dozen, 
according to the size of the bed and the number of the 
varieties available. Six bulbs make a very nice clump. 
They should be set about six inches apart, and there 
should be a space of at least nine inches between the 
I different clumps. The larger sorts, such as Emperor, 
' Maximus, and Sir Watkin, may go in the middle, and 
the bulbs may be covered with four inches of soil. Bear 
in mind in planting the poeticus varieties that they are 
May bloomers. Set a neat, unobtrusive label in front 
of each group, so that the name can be clearly seen 
w^hen the plants are in bloom. The bed may be finished 
off by planting a ring of Crocuses round it, or alternate 
tufts of mauve Aubrietia and white Arabis, or any other 
favourite edging plant. 

The bed will not require much attention throughout 
the winter. More than once in hard spells of weather, 
when the ground is frost-bound or deep in snow, the 
amateur will feel that he and his bulbs are parted for 
ever. But snow will melt, frost disappear, and warm 
sunshine come. Then the green shoots of the hardy 
Daffodils will appear, and soon the bed will be full. 
Early varieties, like Golden Spur, Henry Irving, and 
Obvallaris, will be out long before March is spent, most 
of the other trumpets will bloom in March and early 
April, and thence to the end of May there will be 

Primroses and Daffodils. — Those who love Primroses 
as well as Daffodils, may choose to plant the former 
as a groundwork, placing the groups of Daffodils farther 
apart to make room for them. Primroses, Polyanthuses, 
and hardy Auriculas are beautiful little flowers, and 


they can be transplanted in spring just the same as the 

After Floivering. — At mid-May, or a little later if 
there is still a good show of bloom, the bed may be 
cleared by the simple plan of lifting each group of 
Daffodils in turn with a fork or spade, taking care to 
get the implement well underneath, in order to avoid 
carving up the bulbs, and placing it in a box or 
wheelbarrow with its label. The clumps may be 
replanted, as close together as is compatible with 
distinguishing between them, in a reserve bed. The 
bulbs and the lower part of the foliage, which will 
be yellow from contact with soil in the bed, should 
be covered with earth. The green foliage will droop 
as a result of the shifting, and, if the weather is very 
dry, the bed may be given a soaking of water once 
a week ; but, in any case, the leaves will gradually die 
away as the summer wears on. The bulbs will ripen 
and be ready for replanting when the summer comes 

The bed will be thoroughly re-dug in spring when 

the Daffodils have been cleared away, manured, and 
replanted with the chosen occupants for summer. 

In Town Gardens, — A border under a fence or wall 
in a town or suburban garden could be treated in ex- 
actly the same way as a bed. There is no better spring- 
blooming plant than the Daffodil for such borders. 
It thrives in town gardens, and a collection is both 
beautiful and interesting. It gives the amateur gardener 
a good start for the gardening year. It cheers, heartens, 
and encourages him. He has, so to say, a ^^good 

If the suburbanist's garden is so small that he 
cannot provide a reserve bed, he must either grow cheap 


varieties and throw the bulbs away after blooming, or 
adopt Plan No. 2 of arranging in groups among other 
plants. Some of the finest Daffodils, such as Sir Wat- 
kins, Empress, Barrii conspicuus, Golden Spur, and 
Pallidus Praecox, are almost ridiculously cheap, and 
could be discarded after flowering without any sense 
of wastefulness. 

Inexperienced amateurs may consider that the plan 
of making two separate complete plantings of beds or 
borders in a year involves considerable time and labour. 
This is hardly so. A couple of hours will suffice to 
prepare and plant a bed, unless it is a very large one. 
The work is easy when once the ground has been 
broken up thoroughly and the soil brought into a 
friable state ; and the amateur must not measure the two 
annual diggings by the standard of the first one. When 
ground is first broken up for gardening it is generally 
stiff, and the work is rather laborious ; but if it is once 
well done and rendered friable by digging in road scrap- 
ings, ashes, and manure, it is ever afterwards easy to 
manage. The spade sinks in readily, and the whole task 
is enjoyable and healthful. 

Daffodils enjoy a good root run, and the ground 
cannot be broken too deeply for them. Eighteen inches 
should be the minimum. Light land should have a 
dressing of decayed yard manure if this is procurable. 
In heavy land bone-flour will suffice. They love mois- 
ture, and do not object to a shady place. 

Now for the second plan — that of treating Daffodils as 
permanent plants in beds and borders. There is no reason 
why they should not be used with good effect among 
perennials, provided that stations are allocated to them 
and clearly defined. There might be a fairly broad belt 
towards the front of every large border of herbaceous 


things, which should be reserved for comparatively 
dwarf plants. Daffodils and May-blooming Tulips 
could be made to play an important part among these. 
They should not be planted in continuous lines, because 
after they had gone out of bloom and the foliage had 
begun to turn yellow there would be an unsightly band. 
They should be put in clumps, interspersed with Pyre- 
thrums, Leopards' banes {Doronictims)^ Columbines, and 
other things of about the same height that would be in 
bloom soon after them and carry on the display. , 

There is, of course, one perfectly simple way of 
dealing with clumps of spring bulbs directly they have 
gone out of flower, and that is to cut them off level with 
the ground-leaves, flower-stems, and all. Experts 
do not like this plan, arguing that as the leaves serve as 
lungs for the plants, the bulbs must suffer if the foliage 
is removed before it decays naturally. A safer plan is 
to draw the foliage together and tie it in a neat bunch, 
then to plant something else near, such as Annual Asters 
or Snapdragons. A little trouble of this kind is well 
repaid, as the border always looks fresh and neat. 

Daffodils in Herbaceous Borders. — If unskilled labour 
is employed in the garden, it is wise to keep a sharp eye 
on a man digging an herbaceous border containing 
bulbs. He should be taught to observe the position of 
labels or marking-stakes, and neither to drive a sharp 
spade into the middle of the clumps nor to put a huge 
boot on to an upspringing treasure. While splitting 
bulbs into fragments cannot by any stretch of imagina- 
tion be made beneficial to them, it does no harm to take 
the clumps up bodily in early autumn ; in fact, it is rather 
a good thing, as the soil can be freshened up, and the 
small bulbs separated from the flowering ones. Some 
of the Daffodils make many new bulbs every year, 



especially if they are growing in rich moist soil ; and 
with the mass of roots produced the soil is impoverished 
rapidly. Lifting them, digging and manuring the soil, 
and replanting are beneficial. 

Under the conditions, and with the treatment advised, 
the use of Daffodils in herbaceous borders is all for good. 

The smaller Daffodils, such as Johnstoni Queen of 
Spaiuy CyclamineuSy Minimus ^ Najius, Bulbocodimn (Hoop 
Petticoat), and Triandrus (Angel's Tears), are suitable 
for the rock garden. 

Cheap Gardening, — People who have fairly large 
gardens, and little spare money to spend on plants and 
skilled men, are often at a loss to know what to do for 
the best. Grocers', bakers', and butchers' bills, income 
tax, rates — all these have to be paid periodically, and 
when they have all been cleared off, together with odd 
accounts for clothes, boots, coals, and laundry, there 
is not a great deal left with which to carry on an acre 
or two of ground as an up-to-date garden. One way 
of reducing the expenditure on a garden is to sow a 
good deal of it down with grass and establish colonies 
of bulbs in it. They are in bloom in spring before the 
grass has begun to grow, and so the flowers show up 
well, even quite small things like Snowdrops and 
Crocuses making a bold display. It is of the essence 
of the scheme that the grass should not be regularly 
mown with a machine and rolled from the time that 
it begins to grow in April, because that would involve 
weekly expenditure in labour. The amateur gardener 
learns from experience that, if grass is kept trim, like 
a lawn, by mowing, rolling, and edge clipping, it gives 
as much work as an equal area of cultivated garden. 
The grass must be left to grow. Not only would the 
regular cutting cause expense in labour, but it would 


remove the leaves of the bulbs while still green, and we 
have already seen that experts condemn this practice. 
Only a belt of grass beside the walks and sufficient for 
a tennis or croquet lawn need be kept mown. The grass 
may be cut with a scythe twice in the season, the first 
cutting being in June, by which time the foliage of the 
bulbs will be sufficiently ripened to bear removal, and 
the second in September. These cuttings give crops 
of hay. The grass loses its fine quality of course, but 
if at any time the owner becomes ^'better off" he can 
soon restore it to lawn condition again by dressing with 
manure and fine soil, and regular cutting and mowing ; 
or he may make a compromise, by having the grass 
scythed over once a month throughout the spring and 
summer. This will be less exhausting to it than taking 
a hay crop ; but if the Poet's Narciss is planted, its late- 
blooming and early-ripening throw the first cutting so 
late that the grass is getting near the flowering stage 
when the scythe comes into play. 

The Poet's Narciss Naturalised. — And the Poet's is 
one of the most beautiful of all the Narcissi for natura- 
lising. It looks lovely on a shady bank in May — so 
beautiful that there seems no rhapsody even in the 
description of Forbes Watson : '' In its general expres- 
sion the Poet's Narcissus seems a type of maiden purity 
and beauty, yet warmed by a love-breathing fragrance ; 
and yet what innocence in the large soft eye, which few 
can rival in the whole tribe of flowers. The narrow yet 
vivid fringe of red, so clearly seen amidst the whiteness, 
suggests again the idea of purity, gushing passion — purity 
with a heart which can kindle into fire." 

Daffodils in Grass, — Amateurs need not fear that 
Daffodils will be unable to force their way through if 
planted under turf. They pierce it with ease ; and 


providing that there is a good depth of strong, moist 
soil beneath them they seem to grow quite as strongly 
and to bloom as well on grass as on open soil. Where 
there is only a thin coat of soil over chalk under the 
grass the case is different, and the best results must not 
be expected unless the soil is prepared by taking out 
pieces of turf, stirring the soil, and adding fresh loam 
and bone-flour. Golden Spur, Henry Irving^ Obvallaris, 
PrincepSy Pallidus praecoxy the common Lent Lily, 
Emperor, Empress, Horsefieldi, Sir Wat kin, Barrii con- 
spiciiusy Telamonius plenus (double yellow), Orange 
PkosniXy John Bain, Johnstoni Queen of Spain, and 
Poeticus are all well suited for grass, and most of them 
are so cheap that they can be planted by the hundred, 
if desired, at no great cost. If planting is done in 
autumn after the turf has softened under the influence 
of rain the work is not laborious. The pieces of turf 
removed to admit the bulbs soon unite again if pressed 
down and rolled after rain. 

In Pots and Bowls, — Lovers of Daffodils may like to 
grow a few in pots or china bowls for their greenhouses 
and rooms. The bulbs do well in ordinary potting 
compost, such as loam with a fourth each of decayed 
manure and leaf mould, and a liberal admixture of sand ; 
and also in peat moss fibre mixed with broken shell 
and charcoal. Three bulbs may be placed in a five-inch, 
six-inch, or seven-inch pot according to their size. They 
should be plunged in ashes or cocoa-nut fibre refuse 
until they have rooted freely, and then placed in the 
full light. When grown in bowls of fibre they should 
not be plunged, but should be kept in a dark place for 
six or eight weeks. The fibre should be moistened 
thoroughly before it is used, and it must never be 
allowed to get dry. 

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Narcissus Emperor. 


Daffodils enliven the border at a season when the 
majority of the larger permanent occupants are only just 
beginning to bestir themselves. They dance and quiver 
in the spring breezes. They nod their golden heads 
joyously. They are on the best of terms with the world, 
and put the grower on the best of terms with himself. 
They gleam as brightly as the sun itself. When they are 
growing vigorously in well-prepared soil they will yield 
armfuls of flowers for the house and church at Easter- 
tide, and still make a brave show in the garden. 



The Dahlia occupies a somewhat peculiar position among 
garden flowers. It is undeniably in the front rank of 
outdoor plants, it is a recognised exhibition flower, it 
has a society devoted to its interests, it is grown by all 
classes ; and yet one can hardly speak of it as a flower 
that is loved by the people. Perhaps it inspires admira- 
tion rather than affection. It is likeable rather than 

Dahlia shows do not draw the public like exhibitions 
of Roses, Sweet Peas, Chrysanthemums, and Carnations. 
Truth to tell, the long rows of boxes, with their severely 
correct blooms — all of which might have been turned 
out of a mould — are not inspiriting. The big, double 
flowers of the ^^Show" and ^* Fancy " sections are as 
prim as middle-aged parlour-maids. There is more 
cheerfulness in the singles, which are exhibited in 
bunches ; and the Cactus section is also interesting. 
Another thing that tells against Dahlia shows is that 
they are held at the end of August and in the early part 
of September, when the holiday season is at its height. 
Even flower-lovers like to get away to the seaside some- 
times, and once comfortably established on the beach 
in flannels, they are apt to be more interested in the 
children's sand-castles than in exhibitions of Dahlias. 

Experts speak of a growing lack of interest in Dahlias 



even as garden plants. The demand for novelties tends 
to slacken rather than grow keener as the years pass, 
and that is an unfailing sign of waning interest on the 
part of the public. What is the reason of it ? Perhaps 
it may be explained partly by the increased interest in 
Sweet Peas and early Chrysanthemums, and partly by 
the development of late-blooming Roses. With the 
growth of Sweet Peas in public favour more attention 
has been given to their culture, and it has been found 
that it is quite easy to continue the display of these 
beautiful flowers into September. There are many more 
early-blooming Chrysanthemums than there were, and 
the range of colours has been extended. As to Roses, 
the great development of the Hybrid Tea Section has 
put at the service of the flower-gardener a large number 
of varieties which bloom well into September, and there 
is no difficulty nowadays in making a large and beautiful 
display of Roses in the latter month. 

Sweet Peas, Chrysanthemums, and Roses alike have 
one great advantage over Dahlias — they are more suitable 
for vases, and perhaps this goes a good way to explain 
the lukewarmness towards the old autumn favourite 
which causes florists so much disquietude. The latter, 
however, have been gravely at fault in one respect — 
they have developed the Dahlia as a show rather than as 
a garden flower. Sometimes the two elements run in 
conjunction. A good Sweet Pea is often, though not 
always, a good garden plant. In the case of Dahlias the 
flowers have been made too heavy for the stalks, with 
the result that the blooms hang down and are half or 
wholly hidden by the leaves ; with this condition a 
variety is defective as a garden plant. 

The remedy is in the hands of the florists. It is 
possible to breed varieties with strong stalks. At first 


the varieties with this feature may not have such beauti- 
ful flowers as the older sorts, but quality of bloom can 
be developed subsequently. So great is the skill of 
flower fertilisers that a few years of careful work with 
a definite object in view would alter the character of 
Dahlias entirely, and the change would be all for the 

The Dahlia gives the florist good ground on which to 
work. It is not a plant of feeble constitution and puny 
growth, but of abundant inherent vigour. Some plants 
deteriorate alarmingly under high cultivation. They 
develop fungoid diseases — a sure sign of weakened con- 
stitution. When new varieties are raised and propagated 
rapidly under artificial conditions, and by unnatural 
means, such as cuttings, the plants soon become en- 
feebled. Not so the Dahlia. It is too full of vitality. 
It has an inexhaustible reserve of strength. The natural 
method of increase — by seeds — has been practically dis- 
continued for many years except to raise new varieties ; 
and even propagation by division of the roots has given 
way to the quicker method of striking cuttings ; yet the 
Dahlia shows no signs of diminished strength. It is the 
same hearty, luxuriant, free-growing plant that it always 
was. This is encouraging. It tells the florist that he 
may cross, and cross, and cross again, improve the 
varieties to his heart's content, propagate his novelties 
rapidly, and still have a sturdy, healthy plant. 

While the Dahlia remains vigorous and responsive 
it is too early to despair of its future. There may be 
temporary set-backs, due to special causes (such as the 
development of flowers too heavy for their stems, as 
already mentioned), but when they have been removed 
the plant will get a new lease of life. Nor Sweet Peas, 
nor Carnations^ nor Roses will relegate Dahlias to the 


garden scrap-heap if raisers will frankly acknowledge 
their mistakes and rectify them promptly. 

There is something very flattering to amateur gar- 
deners in the way in which Dahlias respond to cultivation. 
The plants enter into a hearty comradeship with their 
growers, and bustle ahead in a breezy way that proves 
quite irresistible. This is why people keep on growing 
Dahlias, although fully aware of their defects for cutting. 
When an amateur once takes up Dahlias he is always 
strongly tempted to go on with them, although the 
flowers may not show up well on the plants, and are 
not in favour with the wielder of the flower-scissors. 
The fact is they pay him the compliment of growing 
well, and that goes a long way. Only in poor, thin, 
chalky soil do they '' hang fire." They certainly do not 
like such soil ; it is too dry for them. They have thick 
stems, large leaves, and huge bulk ; consequently they 
throw off a great deal of moisture by evaporation. In a 
dry soil the supply is not replenished. 

History, — As popular garden plants go the Dahlia is 
a comparative newcomer. It has only been grown in 
British gardens since 1789, when it was brought from 
Spain by Lord Bute. Compared with such plants as the 
Rose, the Carnation, and the Daffodil it is a mere boy. 
The name is a Latinised form of that of a Swedish 
botanist, one Dahl, after whom it was named ; and, as a 
result of the method of pronunciation which English 
gardeners insisted on adopting, confusion threatened, 
inasmuch as there happened to be an existing genus 
named Dalea. In vain purists expostulated and ex- 
plained. In vain they ostentatiously pronounced the 
ah in Dahlia as they would the exclamation ^* ah ! " 
The proletariat persisted in making it ay. But the 
Dahlia received another name. The German botanist 


Willdenow called it Georgina, in honour of Professor 
Georgi, a Russian botanist. 

The danger of confusing Dahlia and Dalea was found 
to be more apparent than real, inasmuch as the latter 
was an entirely insignificant genus. The name Dahlia 
was therefore kept in England. Ninety-nine persons out 
of a hundred pronounce it Dayliuy and the hundredth 
(who is really a pedant under the guise of a purist) calls 
it Dah-\\2^. 

We have to accept the Dahlia as an entirely modern 
flower. It gives us no excuse to hasten to our book- 
shelves and spend happy half-hours over the familiar 
but ever-delightful passages of our favourite writers. 
There is no Perdita to thrill us with exquisite lines. 
Poets have not sung of the Dahlia as they have of the 
Daffodil, the Lily, and the Rose. Its only literature is 
the literature of the florists, and that is frigidly exact — 
a brief statement of the '^points" of a perfect flower, 
and a bald description of the system of culture. The 
only illustration of imaginative treatment is in the trade 
catalogues, where the new varieties are described in 
tempting language. 

Without a history, without literary associations, 
without an artistic following, the Dahlia has to satisfy 
us with whatever it possesses of intrinsic excellence or 
promise as a garden and exhibition flower. When we 
have improved it sufficiently to satisfy ourselves, we 
must make our own literature about it, and so commend 
it doubly to posterity. 

There are very few species of Dahlias, and such as 
there are have only the interest of parentage. Of no 
garden value in themselves, we still keep up acquaintance 
with them out of respect for the good they have done 
in fathering and mothering modern varieties. The three 


species Variabilis , with purple or red flowers ; Coccinea, 
with scarlet flowers ; and Merckiiy with Hlac and yellow 
flowers, are the principal parents of the modern double 
Dahlias. The Cactus class came, however, mainl}^ from 
Juareziiy a scarlet species with rolled and pointed florets, 
which was introduced in 1872. Variabilis was first called 
Superflua by botanists, not because they wished to place 
a stigma upon it by conveying that it was superfluous, 
but to indicate its kinship with the Linnaean section of 
^'composite" flowers, in which the central and outer 
florets differ. " Variabilis " is in allusion to the variable 
colour of the flowers. 

The species are not often seen now, but any one 
interested in them may make some sort of acquaintance 
with them, either through a botanical garden or through 
illustrations. Coccinea is figured in the Botanical 
Magazine^ t. 762 ; and Merckii in the same work, t. 3878. 
Coloured plates such as these have an interest for those 
who like to compare the old forms of popular flowers 
with modern ones. Probably no plant has suffered 
more through the duplication of names than the Dahlia. 
As we have seen, two generic names were given, and 
there are many synonyms of the principal species. 
Variabilis has at least four, and Coccinea three. How- 
ever, as none is of any garden importance, we need 
not worry about that, but confine our study to the 
distinctiveness of the garden varieties. 

Dahlias as Hardy Plants. — The Dahlia is not hardy 
in Great Britain. When we learn that its native country 
is Mexico, we do not expect it to be able to withstand 
the winters in latitudes so much farther north. It is true 
that it is sometimes treated as a hardy herbaceous per- 
ennial — that is, planted out, left to die down in autumn, 
pass the winter in the open ground, and spring up again 


the following year. In rare cases it plays the r61e 
thus allotted to it admirably, but in the majority 
it breaks down, being unsuited for its part. Successes 
are most numerous in well-drained, light, warm soils in 
mild districts. In cold localities, and particularly in 
damp soil, the roots die. Those who prefer to winter 
their Dahlias out of doors should put a few inches of 
ashes or dry litter above the stools in autumn. 

Apart from want of hardiness, there is another good 
reason why the Dahlia should not be treated as a hardy 
herbaceous perennial except in particularly favourable 
circumstances, and that is that cuttings struck under 
glass in late winter and early spring make stronger 
plants and give finer flowers than old stools left in the 
border. The whole routine of modern culture turns 
upon this fact. It means the treatment of the Dahlia 
in an unnatural way, it is true, but there is no doubt 
about the superior results obtained. The inherent 
vigour of the plant preserves it from injury. It is 
under the " natural " system that the plant might be 
expected to suffer. It forms a large mass of tubers 
underground, and the roots from these feed so greedily 
as to impoverish the soil rapidly and make frequent 
renewal necessary if the plants are to be kept strong 
and healthy. 

After Flowering, — Assuming that the root-stocks are 
to be taken up in autumn, after the foliage and flowers 
have been disfigured by cold weather, the stems should 
be cut back to short stumps. When the roots are lifted 
it will be found that most of the soil can be brushed 
or shaken away readily if the soil is friable, leaving the 
roots quite clean. In this case they will only need to be 
dried in the sun for a few hours before storing. If, how- 
ever, the soil is clay, a good deal of it may stick to the 


tubers, in which case the roots should be washed and 
then turned upside down in the sun and left till dry. 
This is more important than might be supposed. Dahlia 
stools often go off wholesale in winter when it is quite 
certain that frost cannot have affected them, and the 
explanation is that they have rotted through damp. The 
winter store should be dry. If a grower finds that he 
persistently loses stools in winter, he may strike a few 
cuttings in August, made from young growing tips cut 
off just below a joint. These will root if inserted in 
small pots of sandy soil and kept close for a few days, 
and form small tubers before winter. They should be 
kept dry in winter ; drip would be likely to injure them 
as badly as frost. The young plants will form a reserve 
that may come in very useful if anything happens to the 

Propagation by Cuttirigs. — Sound tubers would begin 
to grow naturally in spring, but florists do not wait for 
the weather to grow warm enough to start the tubers if 
a great many cuttings are wanted. They pack the roots 
in soil in February and put them in a warm house or 
frame, so stimulating early growth. The shoots that 
push are taken off when about three inches long. If they 
are numerous, they may be broken off quite close, 
but if scarce they should be cut off so as to leave two 
buds. The)^ will strike just the same, and the buds left 
will push fresh growth. Several cuttings may be put 
round the edge of a six-inch pot, or one cutting in a 
three-inch. They strike root best when plunged in a mild 
hot bed, giving only just sufficient water to prevent the 
soil getting quite dry, and shaded from sunlight. They 
will be growing in twelve to eighteen days, and those 
in large pots should then be put singly into three-inch or 
four-inch pots and kept close till they start growing again. 


From this time they will be best in an unhealed frame, 
but protection should be kept handy in case of frost. 
Cuttings which are struck and treated in this way will 
give sturdy plants by the end of May. 

Raising from Seed. — There is no difficulty in raising 
Dahlias from seed, but flowers of the same quality as 
the named varieties of the principal florists must not be 
expected. The seeds should be sown in a pan of light, 
sandy soil in February or March, and put in a warm 
frame or greenhouse. The seedlings should be pricked 
out in boxes when they become crowded, or put singly 
in small pots. They should be hardened in an unheated 
frame and planted out in June. If the soil is good they 
will flower the same year. Sometimes a really good 
variety comes in a batch of seedlings, and it is propagated 
by cuttings of the tops in order to keep it true, and to 
make sure that it is not lost through the decay of the 
tuber in winter. Florists get their novelties by making 
selections from seedlings. An amateur who has what 
he considers to be a promising seedling can always get 
an idea of its value by showing it to an expert. 

Propagation by Division. — Growers of Dahlias who 
have not much convenience for raising young plants 
from seed or cuttings may divide the cluster of tubers 
which make the root-stock or ^' stool " at the point of 
attachment to the stem in spring, and put them a few 
inches apart in a box of soil containing a good deal of 
sand and leaf mould, in April, with a square of glass 
fixed just above them. If the soil is kept moist, and 
protection is put over them in cold weather, they will 
grow. Early in June they may be taken up and planted 
where they are to flower. If the tubers are sound, and 
not very much shrivelled, they make good plants when 
treated in this way. 


A still simpler plan is to replant all the stools that 
were lifted in autumn and remained sound through the 
winter in the garden towards the end of April. If the 
soil is good they will make strong clumps, but they are 
not likely to yield such fine flowers as fresh plants raised 
from cuttings. 

Soil and Manure. — Moisture is the first essential for 
grovv^ing Dahlias, and it is easier to provide it by break- 
ing up the soil deeply and hoeing regularly, than by 
taking a water-pot to the plants day after day. If the 
soil is loosened two spades deep in winter or spring, 
and the subsoil disintegrated thoroughly, the rooting 
area will retain moisture far better than if there is a 
hard pan a few inches from the surface ; moreover, the 
roots can spread farther. The regular hoeing will check 
the escape of moisture and keep weeds in subjection. 

The process of soil-deepening affords a golden 
opportunity for manuring, as the dung can be put in 
the right place — that is, between the top and bottom 
layers ("spits") of soil. From two to three barrow- 
loads of decayed yard manure may be used to each 
square rod of ground. 

If the subsoil is limestone, the only way of making 
the soil suitable for Dahlias is to break up the chalk. 
This is not always so serious a task as might be 
supposed. In some cases no pick is required, but the 
chalk can be broken up with a fork more easily than 
stiff soil can. 

It is desirable to avoid a wind-swept site for the 
Dahlia bed, because the plants get dashed about and 
badly injured in stormy weather, in spite of care in 
staking them. Even if the plants are not blown over, 
shoots carrying good flowers are sometimes broken off. 
Individual plants may be set in herbaceous borders if 


desired, but Dahlias are hardly suitable for association 
with hardy plants. Apart from the fact that their great 
mass of succulent shoots renders them somewhat incon- 
gruous, there is the fact that they are such gross feeders, 
and require so much room, that other occupants of the 
border fare badly. 

Staking. — It is a good plan to make the holes and 
drive the stakes in before the plants are ready. The 
stakes should be at least six feet long, so that they 
can be driven in eighteen inches deep, and still leave a 
good length above ground. They should be sound and 
strong, as the plants will need to be tied securely. The 
stakes may look a little unsightly for a short time, but 
the plants will soon hide them. Small pots stuffed with 
hay may be inverted on them later to serve as traps 
for earwigs, which often do great damage. 

Large double, Paeony-fiowered, single and Cactus 
Dahlias should all be planted in hollows five feet apart, 
but four feet will suffice for the Pompons. A ring of lime 
or soot should be put round them to keep slugs away. 

The plants should be tied to the stakes directly they 
begin to sway, and later on the side shoots should be 
tied also. It may be possible to secure the latter to 
the large stake ; if not, smaller ones must be driven 
dow^n in convenient positions. The tying is particularly 
important to exhibition growers, as it prevents crowding, 
exposes the shoots to the sun, and insures fine flowers. 
If the side shoots come very thickly, they should be 
thinned, some being cut out altogether. Half-a-dozen 
branches will be enough for each plant. 

For Exhibition. — The exhibitor will have to protect 
his flowers. Dealers in garden sundries supply muslin 
cones made to slide on stakes, and these can be fitted 
above the blooms. But growers can easily make their 


Cactus Dahlias. 


own protectors. In choosing flowers for exhibition, 
select those of symmetrical shape, the florets over- 
lapping evenly, and open right to the centre. A flower 
which displays a hard green centre, or a hollow one, 
is defective. A show-board for twelve Show or Fancy 
Dahlias should be two feet long (left to right), eighteen 
inches wide (back to front), nine inches high at the back, 
and three in front. It should be perforated with holes 
large enough to admit the zinc water tubes which hold 
the flowers, and they may be set equidistant in three 
rows. A stand for twelve Cactus should be a little 
larger — twenty-six inches long, and nineteen and a half 
wide. Cactus Dahlias are often shown in bunches of 
six blooms each, on a stand sixty inches long, twenty- 
seven inches wide, eighteen inches high at the back, and 
six inches in front ; also in vases. Single and Pompon 
Dahlias are usually shown in bunches of ten blooms 
each on a stand. Twelve varieties would require a 
stand forty-eight inches long by twenty-seven wide, and 
the same height as the stands for Cactus varieties. 

Garden Dahlias, — As garden plants the Paeony- 
flowered and Pompon Dahlias are superior to the 
large double and Cactus-flowered varieties. The former 
is a modern section, and lovers of the prim Show and 
Fancy varieties look askance at it, because the flowers 
are very large and irregular in form. The expert calls 
them coarse. However, the stems are strong enough to 
lift the flowers right above the leaves, and as the blooms 
are not only of considerable size and brilliant in colour, 
but are borne in clusters, the plants make a bold and 
telling display. At a short distance the imperfect shape 
of the flowers is not sufficiently noticeable to be re- 
marked even by a trained eye. The Paeony Dahlias are 
undoubtedly fine garden plants, and they will grow in 



suburban gardens ; but, as they are large plants, they 
are not suitable for small gardens. The garden Dahlia 
for the suburbanist, and also for owners of small gardens 
generally, is unquestionably the Pompon. The flowers 
are borne in clusters, are pretty in form and beautiful 
in colour, and are well displayed. There are many 
charming varieties in this section, and many of them 
only grow a yard high and through. The singles make 
handsome bushes, but they need as much room as the 
large sections. 

The following are twenty-five beautiful varieties : — 




Amos Perry 



Bacchus .... 



Baronne de Grancy , 



Beauty's Eye . . • 


Mauve, crimson 

Britannia .... 


Salmon pink 

Buttercup .... 



Columbine .... 


Rose, shaded 

Comedian .... 


Orange and 

Coronation .... 

Pompon Cactus 


Dr. Van Gorkum 



Floradora .... 


Wine crimson 

Florence Stredwick . 



Germania .... 



Glory of Baarn . 



Guiding Star 



John Walker 



Leslie Seale 



Mrs. Gladstone . 



Mrs. N. Halls . 


Scarlet and 

Mrs. Mawley 




Pompon Cactus 




Pink and white 

]'hoebe .... 



R. T. Rawlings . 



The Bride .... 






There is so vast a difference between the little Golden 
Feather of our garden beds and the huge Japanese 
Chrysanthemums which grace the boards at autumn 
exhibitions, that the average gardener lacks sufficient 
imagination to bridge the gap between. They stand 
on different planes. But we saw in our chapter on 
Chrysanthemums that the Chrysanthemums and Pyre- 
thrums are related. 

In the ** bedding out" days the Golden Feather was 
the most important of the Feverfews, but now that 
herbaceous plants reign, the single and double-flowered 
varieties of Pyrethrum roseum stand in front of it. The 
common name came from the supposed virtues of the 
plant as a febrifuge, and the botanical one (pronounced 
Pie-ree'-thrum) from/j/r, fire ; in allusion to the acridity 
of the roots. 

The great botanists Bentham and Hooker linked 

Pyrethrum with Chrysanthemum, and if their decision 

had been accepted by gardeners, the name Pyrethrum 

would have dropped out ; but it became naturalised as 

it were. It had taken out its papers, sworn the oath 

of allegiance, and been accepted as sound British stuff. 

Pyrethrum has become, with Begonia, Gardenia, Ste- 

phanotis, and others, as familiar as the Anglo-Saxon 

names, and it could not be uprooted. 





The carpet-bedder and the ribbon-border maker had 
definite uses for the Golden Feather, but the modern 
flower gardener has none ; indeed, he had better beware 
lest it become a weed with him. When used in carpet- 
bedding it was associated with tender plants, and it grew 
to be regarded as tender also, more especially as it was 
raised from seed in a warm house or frame every spring. 
But it is far from being tender, and will seed itself freely 
in the open border. This would not matter so much if 
it came naturally as dwarf, compact, and golden as we 
used to see it in the carpet-beds of long ago ; but it does 
not — it gets coarse, straggly, and green, and much more 
nearly approximates to a weed than a garden plant. 
The carpet-bedders kept it close by severe cropping or 

The modern varieties of the species roseuin are, 
however, wholly admirable. It is difficult to put them 
in the wrong place except by hiding them behind a 
spreading bush of some border monster such as a 
Michaelmas Daisy, Bocconia, or Sunflower. Wherever 
they are in view they are beautiful. They are so nearly 
evergreen in mild districts that they are only devoid of 
foliage for a few weeks, being slow to part with their 
leaves in autumn and eager to produce a fresh lot 
before any of their rivals in the border can get started. 
The leafage is gracefully cut, and has quite a ferny 
lightness. The flowers are throw^n up abundantly in 
spring, and if the first lot are cut off when they fade, 
more will follow, so that there will be a succession of 

The original species had single rose-coloured flowers, 
but natural variation, followed by florists' selections, 
has given us a wide range of colours. We have white, 
lemon, yellow, peach, pink, rose, crimson, cerise, scarlet, 


purple, lilac, cardinal, and violet. Better still, we have 
both single and double varieties. In some of the best 
doubles the flowers have real individual quality when 
the plants are well grown. 

Town and suburban amateurs who are interested in 
hardy herbaceous perennials, and want to have a *' mixed 
border " in order to be in the gardening fashion, should 
have a set of double and single Pyrethrums. The plants 
have every merit except fragrance. (They have a slight 
odour, but it is not one of the sweet flower smells which we 
love.) They will thrive in gardens near towns in almost 
any soil, and, growing compactly, will have ample room 
in a small border. 

The Pyrethrums should be set near the front of large 
borders, as they are close, neat, dwarf growers. At the 
same time, they should not be crowded, as the flowers 
have long stems and the heads spread out considerably. 
In fairly fertile, rather dry soil, they may be set 18 inches 
apart in triangular clumps of three ; in rich, deep, moist 
soil, 30 inches apart. They are so healthy and free 
growing that they suffer little from enemies, but slugs 
are apt to be troublesome in attacking the young growths 
in spring. Dustings of dry, freshly slaked lime at night 
will stop their proceedings and do no harm to the 

The flower gardener who would have these beautiful 
plants at their best should dig his ground deeply and 
manure it well, for they love good fare. He should cut 
off the decaying flowers. He should give them good 
soakings of water in June if the weather is dry, with an 
occasional pailful of liquid manure, and he should take 
them up bodily every other year, divide them, and 
replant them in fresh soil. I have succeeded with them 
on a thin chalky soil by keeping as close to this line of 


culture as possible, although the results scarcely equalled 
those which I had had previously on deep, moist, fertile 

Pyrethrum growers often abstain from supporting 
the plants, but if wet weather should come while they 
are in bloom, the want of a stake and a band of raffia 
or string is felt severely. The stems fall over and sprawl 
about on the ground in all directions. Three flower- 
sticks, with a band of raffia wound round them, will 
prevent this, and will not be unsightly. When the 
flowering is over, the stakes should be removed, as the 
foliage will not need them. 

The florists give us new Pyrethrums every year or 
two, just as they give us new Phloxes and Delphiniums. 
The amateur may keep a lookout for descriptions of 
these, and, in these days of hardy flower classes at 
gardening shows, he may often be able to jot down the 
names of good sorts at the exhibitions. In the mean- 
time, the following selections will keep him going, and 
he will find the varieties really good ones that he will be 
loth to part with : — 

Single. Double. 

Decoy, scarlet. Alfred, crimson. 

Feversham, white. Carl Vogt, white. 

General Buller, carmine. King Oscar, scarlet. 

Oliver Twist, cream. Ovid, rose. 

Roland, lilac. Pericles, yellow. 

Vesuve, blood red. Shotover, pink. 



The Forget-me-not plays so useful, if modest, a 
part in the flower garden, that we hardly need the 
romantic story of the way in which it won its popular 
name to commend it to us. And yet, having a tinge 
of sentiment left in us still, we are willing to be in- 
fluenced mildly by the pathetic recital of the accidental 
drowning of the lover, and his last despairing appeal 
to his lass to hold him in remembrance as he flung her 
a flower and was swept away by the water. We hope 
that she did not forget him, but named her second boy 
after him when she had married the other man, and 
taught him to associate Myosotises with his bulbs in the 
spring bedding. 

It is fitting that there should be water — and water 
other than the tribute of our tears — in the story of the 
christening of the Forget-me-not, for it is a plant of 
marshy places. Its specific name, palustrisy indicates 
this, for paludal or palustral objects are those of the 
marshes [paluSy a marsh). This contains a practical hint 
for us ; it suggests that we should grow our Forget-me- 
nots in cool, moist places. Assuredly they do well there, 
but, happily for us, there are Alpine kinds suitable for 
cultivation in spots that are normally dry in summer. 
We need not put them in their flowering positions till 
autumn ; and as they bloom in spring, they have all the 
rnoist seasop of the year in which to do their best for us. 



The name Myosotis (My-o-so'-tis) comes from mus^ a 
mouse, and otosy an ear, in allusion to the resemblance 
of the shape of the leaf to a mouse's ear. My lady 
readers have too great a horror of a mouse, probably, 
to collect a specimen of it for comparison, and they 
may be disposed to think that namers of plants must 
have been sadly lacking in imagination to be driven to 
such straits for names as this case indicates. Let me 
assure them, however, that it is a mild offence compared 
with some which botanists have committed. 

The cultivated Forget-me-nots are essentially flowers 
of spring. Having no liking for hot weather, they get 
the best of their blooming done in May, but it must 
be said in their favour that they do not scramble through 
as though in nervous terror of sunstroke ; on the con- 
trary, they grow and bloom deliberately for a good 
many weeks, and often last into June if allowed, pro- 
vided that the soil is fertile and moist. It is as spring 
flowers that we ought to grow them, because the growth 
is healthy and abundant, and the flowers deliciously 
bright and sparkling in spring ; moreover, they associate 
admirably with Tulips. Until they get the exuberance 
of manhood upon them they are compact growers, and 
by the time they break bounds and become straggly the 
bulbs are over, and the Forget-me-nots can be cleared 
off to make way for the summer occupants of the beds. 

There are few plants so charming for the side of 
shady banks and dells in cool places. Bits dotted in 
during October will spread into broad masses in April, 
and, like their companions, the Primroses and Arabises, 
they will bloom as they grow. These are the sort of 
plants that amateur gardeners want. Kinds that give 
up growing directly they begin to bloom suffer by 


The true native Forget-me-not, " the blue and bright- 
eyed floweret of the brook," has blue flowers with a 
yellow eye, and the same combination of colours dis- 
tinguishes that charming Swiss species dissitijloray which 
was introduced to Great Britain as recently as 1868. 
This comes near to being the best of all Forget-me- 
nots for the flower garden, owing to its neat, dense 
habit and profusion of bloom. The specific name means 
distant-flowered, and bears reference to the fact that 
the flowers are disposed more loosely on the stems 
than those of the older species. Directly flower 
gardeners saw the Swiss Distant-flowered Forget-me- 
not they fell in love with it, and it has been a prime 
favourite with them from the moment of its introduc- 
tion. They were not satisfied until they had raised 
improved varieties of it. Two of these are called 
grandiflora and sple7idenSy both blue ; then there are 
alba^ white ; and elegantissimay the leaves of which are 
edged with white, and Perfection. Dissitiflora is quite 
likely to begin blooming in February or March ; directly 
the winter relaxes it is in flower. 

Another useful species is the Wood Forget-me-not, 
sylvatica. It is of taller growth, and hardly so suitable 
therefore for carpeting bulb-beds as dissitiflora ; but it 
is a free grower and bloomer in moist soil. There are 
several varieties of this species, one, compacta aurea^ 
having yellow leaves. Distinction is a fine form also. 
Azorica, a species from the Azores, is a lovely Forget- 
me-not, having rich dark-blue flowers ; but unfortu- 
nately it is somewhat tender. It blooms as late as 
August. There is a good variety of it called Imp^ratrice 

The one Forget-me-not which will thrive in dry soil 
is the species Alpestris, which is also called rupicola 


(rock-loving). It is quite suitable for the rockery. I 
do not suggest, of course, that rock plants should be 
dry — indeed, the majority love to get their roots down 
into moist crevices — but the point is that this species 
/ will thrive far better than the others in a dry, sunny 
/ place. 

The Forget-me-nots succeed in pots. They may be 
potted up in autumn, and with gentle forcing — but it 
^ must be gentle — they can be had in bloom under glass 
in winter. It is hardly worth while to keep them in 
pots after flowering if a fresh stock of plants is being 
raised, but if they are retained, the pots should be stood 
in saucers of water during summer. 

Forget-me-nots are so easily propagated that no one 
need worry about old plants. If it suits his purpose 
to keep them he may do so, but if not he may divide 
them, or take cuttings from them, and insert them in 
sandy soil in a shady place. Most simple of all is to 
sow seeds with that of the Wallflowers, Canterbury 
Bells, Arabises, Aubrietias, and other things in May, as 
by this plan a large stock of plants can be raised at a 
very small cost. A hot, dry site should be avoided. 
The species and most of the varieties come true from 
seed. It is well to dig the soil deeply and reduce it 
to a fine state on the surface, moisten it thoroughly, 
and then sow thinly about half an inch deep. The 
seedlings can be thinned, and the rest pricked off six 
inches apart when they get crowded. With hoeing, and 
an occasional soaking of water in dry weather, they will 
make good plants by October. 

This is a very simple and inexpensive procedure 
with which to be able to provide abundance of so 
charming a flower, and it commends this de^^r little 
plant still further to us, 



Lovers of old English flowers who like to trace the 
origin of names have an interesting task in finding the 
reason why Digitalis purpurea came to be called the 
Foxglove. Even when they give free rein to fancy 
they fail to see a connection between the tall and grace- 
ful wilding with its spotted flowers and the stealthy 
nocturnal marauder which often plays sad havoc with 
the drowsy occupants of their fowl-houses. What has 
the fox to do with flowers, and what does he want with 
gloves ? Did he, cunning rogue that he is, suppose, once 
upon a time, that if he drew thumb-stalls over his paws 
he could spoil the scent for his pursuers ? And did he 
experiment with Foxglove flowers ? Was he found, 
when fleet Bay Archer dashed boldly into him and 
brought him down, with the Digitalis bells upon him ? 
And as he died, a victim of misplaced ingenuity, did he 
emit a parting howl of disappointment that his device 
had come to naught ? 

These speculations once beguiled me when, the very 
morning after the hunt had dashed through my garden, 
I saw the fox nonchalantly stroll along the bank on the 
outskirts of the lawn, and go leisurely to earth within 
fifty yards of the front-door. I had not seen him pre- 
viously ; the hunt had not seen him. But the hounds 
must have thought that they had winded him, for they 


had suddenly gathered and tumbled after each other 
pell-mell along the side of the ditch with one sharp yelp 
of excitement. A cramped corner, a double ditch, and 
a nasty hedge combined to check the hunt, so, as it 
could not follow the hounds, it cut across the garden 
(to its credit it kept to the drive) to meet the pack 
in the meadow on the other side. And then it swept 
away with its own peculiar din, and the pack yelped 
itself out of hearmg, and peace settled on the garden 
again. With a passing thought for the joy of the maiden 
who received the brush I resumed my book, and lo ! at 
daybreak there was the unruffled fox creeping along by 
the very spot where the hounds must have scented him, 
alive and well, which is more than can be said for a pair 
of the best chickens of a local grazier. The befooled 
pack had overshot the fox somehow, and I speculated 
about him while I walked in the wild garden, where in 
summer the Foxgloves lifted their spires. 

The learned will not acknowledge the connection of 
the fox with the Foxglove, of course. They state, with- 
out any beating about the bush, that Foxglove is neither 
more nor less than a corruption of Folksglove (folks' 
glove), and that the '^folk" are not the proletariat in 
this case (the Foxglove flower would be too small for its 
capacious paw), but the little folk or fairies. The Fox- 
glove, then, is the fairy's glove ; but we must go a little 
farther before we can get the name fully explained, 
because no one has ever been found who saw a fairy 
wearing a Digitalis flower, although plenty of people are 
prepared to sign affidavits, and do other mysterious legal 
things, to prove that they have seen fairies get into Fox- 
glove flowers and hide there. 

The flower of the Foxglove has been likened in shape 
to a finger-stall — that article which we carve out of an old 




glove in order to protect an injured digit — and it is a 
somewhat curious fact that the botanical n?im.Q Digitalis 
comes from the Latin digitabulumy which means a finger- 
protector. The connection between finger-stall and 
glove is obvious, and so we begin to see things. We see 
that the flower is either a glove or part of a glove (and it 
is all the same thing for the purposes of a flower name) ; 
we see that the fairies could legitimately claim the gloves 
as theirs, whether they put them on or hid in them ; and, 
after all, it is not for us to dictate what the fairies shall 
do. So the Foxglove is really the Fairy's glove beyond 
all doubt or question. 

As everybody knows, it is just when a fact has been 
established finally that somebody or other questions it. 
Accordingly, somebody questioned this. He was not 
satisfied that fairies ever got into Foxgloves, or had any 
other connection with them whatever. He dragged out 
the fact that there was an old musical instrument called 
2iglieWy which was composed of a number of bells sus- 
pended on a pole, and invited us to believe that the 
Foxglove got its name from the resemblance of the 
flowers on their arching stems to the gliew. I should be 
disposed to accept this more readily if I could see 
where the first part of the name came in. Is the ^' Fox " 
again a corruption of folks, and are we to understand 
that the fairies made bell-music out of the flower ? It 
is a rather pretty idea if it goes so far as this, but I do not 
know that it does. 

The Foxglove is a grand old plant, and, wilding or 
not, we are glad to grow it in our gardens. It generally 
bears its inflorescence at intervals on a long stem, the 
flowers opening from below upwards, the topmost occu- 
pant being a small bud. Occasionally, however, it bears 
a large expanded flower at the top. It loves cool, moist 


places, and I have never had it so luxuriant and happy 
as in a low, mild, sheltered garden on Kentish clay. But 
it does not object to an elevated site provided that it has 
moisture. This is shown by its vigour in the Derby 
dales. It does, however, dislike, and very strongly dis- 
like, a thin, hot, shallow soil in an exposed place. The 
winds worry it. The soil stints it of moisture. 

A London amateur whom I knew once had re- 
markable success with Foxgloves in a garden at Dulwich 
by the simple plan of preparing a piece of ground between 
a shrubbery and a Rose pergola and flinging the seed 
broadcast over it in June. He had the most glorious 
colony of Foxgloves that I ever saw in a private garden. 
The long tall spires rose high above the heads of visitors, 
and they produced a remarkable effect against the back- 
ground of shrubs, and, where they rose above the latter, 
against the sky. One looked through a forest of lofty 
spikes to the sky-line beyond, broken by the tall towers 
of the Crystal Palace. 

When the plants are established in a position that 
they like they seed freely, and become an institution 
which no one will find it in his heart to overturn. They 
may be grown in the herbaceous border, but under 
restriction, so that they may not over-ride smaller things. 
It is an easy matter to keep them within bounds by 
hoeing out any superfluous self-sown seedlings. 

Seedsmen have raised improved strains of Foxgloves, 
and whoever proposes to establish the old flower in his 
garden should make a point of getting a good strain of 
Giant Spotted in mixture. Separate colours, such as 
primrose, rose, and white, can also be had. Moreover, 
some of the larger seedsmen offer seed of the form which 
produces terminal flowers, and this is not only interesting 
but beautiful. 


Little skill is called for in raising Foxgloves from 
seed. It may be sown on a prepared seed-bed, the 
surface of which has been made quite fine, in May. The 
seedlings may be thinned when they become crowded, 
and if they again interfere with each other, may be set 
out a few inches apart in a spare plot. They may be 
transplanted to their flowering quarters in autumn. It 
is a good plan to treat them as biennials, like Wallflowers 
and Canterbury Bells, in spite of their nominally perennial 
character, because they are apt to die off after flowerin 
and the flowers of self-sown seedlings degenerate. 



In my remarks on the shrubby Calceolaria I referred to 
the abuse of the plant in years gone by, when it was used 
as one of the three items to form " ribbon borders," and 
also in bedding. It is scarcely necessary to remind 
readers of an older gardening generation than the pre- 
sent that one of the other components of the ^* ribbon 
border" was the scarlet Zonal Geranium, and that it was 
the most important of the triumvirate which nearly 
drove lovers of artistic gardening to distraction. 

In those days the true Geranium was a wholly 
unimportant plant. One or two of the native species 
were admired by lovers of wild flowers, notably the 
Herb Robert (Ge^'amum Robertianum)y with its hairy 
red stems and pretty pink flowers ; but the majority 
were hardly thought to be worthy of notice. Things 
have changed so much that the Geranium has now 
receded into the eminently respectable position of chief 
ornament of the villas of retired grocers, while the hardy 
species have been admitted to the borders of advanced 

The Geraniums and Pelargoniums both belong to the 
natural order GeraniacecBy and the confusion of names is 
not altogether surprising. The name Geranium (Crane's- 
bill) comes from geranos, a crane, in allusion to the beak- 
like projection on the seeds ; while that of Pelargonium 



(Stork's-bill) comes from pelaygos, a stork, in allusion to 
the beak-like form of the seed-pod. There is a similarity 
of derivation here which arrests attention at once, and 
suffices to show excuse for popular confusion. It is not 
until we study the structure of the flowers botanically 
that we get on to safe ground. The flowers of the 
Geranium are regular, spurless, and with ten stamens : 
those of the Pelargonium are irregular, spurred, with 
five stamens or less. Thus we concede a point to the 
botanist, and admit that, while he sometimes tries our 
patience, he keeps us right in the main. 

Hardy Geraniums. — Several of the true Geraniums 
are British plants. In addition to the Herb Robert, such 
species as pratensCy purple, the Meadow Crane's-bill ; 
sanguineunty crimson ; luciduifiy pink ; and lancastriensey 
striped, may be named as wildings. The Zonal 
Geranium, however, in common with most of the other 
Pelargoniums, came from South Africa, and is not hardy 
in Great Britain. 

Lovers of hardy plants will gladly admit some of the 
true Geraniums to their gardens, especially if they have 
to furnish borders that are partially shaded by trees. I 
have used these Crane's-bills somewhat largely on a cool, 
shady border of clay soil in a Kentish garden, and they 
have proved very useful, spreading into large but not 
unwieldy masses, and providing numbers of brilliant 
flowers. They proved easy to increase to any desired 
extent by means of division in spring. In addition to 
the natives named, I found armeminty a purple species 
from Nepal ; sylvaticunty having purple flowers with 
crimson veins ; cinereuniy red, from the Pyrenees ; and 
striatum^ striped, an Italian species, good ; the collection 
was strengthened by one or two garden forms of the 

natives, such as the double and white varieties oi pratense, 



The last-named luxuriated in the cool surroundings, as 
it does in the Yorkshire and Derbyshire dales, but on 
being removed to a hot, exposed hillside on limestone 
soon dropped out of existence. The Shining Crane's- 
bill (lucidum) and the Herb Robert will both thrive on 
dry sites. 

There is a handsome allied plant to the Crane's-bill 
in the Heron's-bill (Erodiuin Manescavi)^ which succeeds 
on a dry sandy or chalky soil, and is by way of being a 
favourite with lovers of hardy plants. 

The Zonal Geranium. — It would be affectation to 
attempt to exclude the Zonal Pelargonium from the 
ranks of the Geraniums, even though it be not a true 
Geranium botanically. We cannot take one of the 
people's flowers by the scruff of the neck and thrust it 
out of the G's into the P's without a word of explanation. 
We shall find, if we try this, that we shall have shoals of 
indignant letters demanding to know why we have left 
out a popular garden plant from our list ; and when we 
explain that we have not left it out, but have merely 
put it into its proper place, we shall have a fresh shoal 
of letters, couched in even more scornful terms than 
before, charging us with pedantry. 

As long as the prefix ** zonal " is used, there seems to 
be no harm in referring to the modern varieties of Pelar- 
gonium zonale as Geraniums. There are many species 
of Pelargonium, and they might be classed into two 
sections — those with wrinkled green leaves and those 
with flat leaves having a colour zone marked upon 
them. It is only the latter that can be acknowledged 
as Geraniums ; the others are, always have been, and 
always will be, Pelargoniums. 

The zone-leaved Geranium came from the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1710. It is a shrubby plant, retain- 


ing its stems throughout the year, whereas the true 
Geraniums are herbaceous, dying down to the root in 
autumn. The leaf had the distinguishing band, and the 
flowers were scarlet. But the form was very different 
from that which we see in the best modern varieties. If 
the reader examines the flowers of a Pelargonium species 
he sees that the petals vary in size and are narrow ; the 
upper petals are larger than the lower ones. Such were 
the flowers of the first scarlet Geranium. Compare the 
old type with the modern variety. All the petals in the 
latter are so nearly equal in size that it is impossible to 
see any difference between them ; they are rounded, they 
overlap each other. Thus, instead of a '* truss " (for 
such the flower head is called) showing gaps, it is an 
unbroken ring. The beauty of the plant is enhanced 
greatly by the change, which has been brought about 
entirely by the efforts of the florists. They have patiently 
selected good types and raised improved varieties by 
cross-fertilisation year after year, until they have given 
us an altogether superior plant. 

In due course the public began to take an interest in 
the improved Zonal Geraniums. Gardeners discovered 
that the plant had a great fund of vitality, which made 
it grow in almost any circumstances short of frosty 
weather, that it bloomed with remarkable persistence, 
and that the colours were very brilliant. So they began 
to fuss over it. At first, no doubt, they valued it as a 
greenhouse plant, and they would like it more and more 
when they discovered how well adapted it was for winter 
flowering. But presently they tried it as a summer 
bedding plant, and found it extremely useful in the open 
air, where, so long as the weather was warm, it grew and 
flowered for several months without a break. A craze 
for "bedding out" and ribbon borders followed, and 


the Zonal Geranium was the hero of it. Flower-gar- 
deners scrambled after novelties eagerly, and paid high 
prices for them. The introduction of a new variety 
became quite an event in the floral world. 

Flower-lovers of artistic tastes revolted at length. 
After all, what was there in a border of scarlet, yellow, 
and blue, the plants in regular lines ? And what was 
there in a bed of red Geraniums with a belt of blue 
Lobelia round it ? It had, and has, its public, like a 
murder mystery, but it was not a public of educated 
modern gardeners. Besides, the plants were tender, and 
had to be wintered under glass. 

In the end the bedding-out craze collapsed ; narrow 
ribbon borders disappeared, and broad herbaceous 
borders took their place. Beds were reduced in number 
to make room for larger borders in small places, and 
were enlarged and planted with Roses, Carnations, 
Chrysanthemums, and other good hardy plants. 

Winter Bloom, — The Geranium did not die out — it 
was far too valuable a plant for that — but it retained 
favour mainly as a winter plant for warm greenhouses 
and conservatories. It was, and is, admirably adapted 
to winter use. Large plants can be secured from cut- 
tings in six months, and with very little attention and 
no great amount of heat — 50° sufficing — they will bloom 
for the whole of the winter. The diversity and brilli- 
ance of the colours are unequalled by any other winter- 
blooming plant. A collection of well-grown Zonals is 
a most valuable asset in winter. It is as sparkling and 
enlivening as a display of fireworks — a little startling, 
perhaps, like the rockets, if there is a preponderance of 
the most vivid colours, such as scarlet, crimson, salmon, 
and vermilion ; but there is no reason why the charming 
whites and pinks, of which there are so many good 


representatives, should not be used to check any exuber- 
ance. Given this provision, the Zonals will restore the 
most depressed person to joviality. He has only to 
throw away the newspaper which contains such melan- 
choly news about his investments, and to stalk resolutely 
into his greenhouse to be restored to serenity. 

The Zonal Geranium is still, of course, a useful 
garden plant. If it had not been a good plant it would 
never have become sufficiently popular to be overdone. 
And the fact that it has been over-used should not, by 
the force of reaction, lead to its being under-used. It 
is a capital plant for the amateur to draw upon who 
begins his gardening year, perforce, late in spring. He 
can buy it cheaply in boxes, or out of small pots, in 
May or June. It is equally happy in a town and in a 
suburban garden. It does not object to poor soil. It 
will grow almost better than any plant of standing 
in a dry place. It will never stop flowering, when 
once it starts, until frost comes. It will throw its 
flowers well above the leaves, and so be really 
'* decorative." 

With all these qualities it is impossible that the 
Zonal Geranium can drop out of gardens. And those 
who may not feel that they can spare a place for it 
in their principal beds or borders, may often be glad 
to fall back upon it for a dry bank or other unfavourable 
spot, or to grow large plants in tubs or vases on 
terraces, near flights of steps, and in other selected 

Amateurs who have no glass should not attempt to 
raise their own Zonals, and it is hardly worth while 
to keep old plants through the winter. It is true that 
they will often live in a cellar or frost-proof store if 
pruned hard both at head and root in autumn ; but young 


plants are likely to do better the following year, and, 
cheap as they are nowadays, anybody can afford to 
buy a fresh stock each season. 

Propagatio7i. — Given a greenhouse from which frost 
is excluded in winter, four-inch flowerless shoots may 
be taken off the plants in August just below a joint, 
deprived of their lower leaves, and inserted firmly two 
inches deep in shallow boxes of sandy soil, or even in 
a prepared bed outdoors. In any case they should be 
exposed fully to sun and air. They will have rooted 
by the time they have to be put under glass in October, 
but will not have grown much, and it is not desirable 
that they should, because the more growth they make 
in winter the more room they will want, and space is 
generally at a discount. On this account the cooler 
they are kept the better, provided frost does not touch 
them. They may be put in unheated frames in April, 
and hardened — as far as they can be hardened — by full 
exposure in fine weather. 

Plants to flower in winter should be raised from 
cuttings inserted in small pots in a greenhouse in May, 
and not allowed to bloom until autumn, all the flowers 
being picked off as fast as they show. If they are kept 
thenceforward in a house with a temperature of 50° to 
55°, with 45° as a minimum, they will bloom con- 
tinuously until spring. Decaying flower trusses should 
be picked off regularly, as if the petals fall on to 
the leaves and stick, disease will develop in the 

The Ivy-leaved Geranium, like the Zonal, is really a 
Pelargonium. There are many flower - lovers to be 
found who consider it to be the most beautiful member 
of the genus, when represented by the modern varieties 
which the florists have raised. These sorts have come 


mainly, if not wholly, from Pelargonium lateripesy a 
species with light purple flowers, which was introduced 
in 1787. They form charming bedding plants, as the 
foliage is attractive, the plants ramble freely, and the 
flowers are brilliant. They may also be grown in stone 
vases and baskets. Few things look better in pedestal 
vases on steps or terraces. They are also admirable for 
pot culture. 

Zonal and Ivy-leaved Geraniums alike grow too 
strongly to bloom well in rich soil and shady situations. 
They should be grown in unmanured, or very lightly 
manured, soil, in order to keep down their inclination 
to rankness. As a chalk-soil gardener I cannot but 
consider them with gratitude, and would not be without 
them. Even in a narrow south border under a house 
wall I can have months of beautiful blossom by the 
simple expedient of taking out a foot of chalk, and 
substituting loam from decayed turves — loam none too 
good in quality, and by no means calculated to satisfy 
an aspirant to exhibition honours with Roses and 
Chrysanthemums, but fertile enough for the Geraniums. 
These accommodating plants will grow, indeed, almost 
anywhere, and it is a foolish gardener who refuses to 
admit them, for no other reason than that somebody 
else grew too many of them twenty years ago. 

From Seed. — Can Zonal Geraniums be grown from 
seed ? Assuredly, and flowered in four months to boot. 
All the larger seedsmen sell selected strains, which will 
give flowers of good form and colour. The seed could 
be sown in a pan or box of sandy soil in spring, and 
placed on the shelf of a warm greenhouse, or in a 
heated frame. When the plants were an inch high 
they could be set out, four inches apart, in a shallow 
box, and kept close to the glass. When they began 


to crowd, they could be put into small pots, or planted 
in the garden. The former would be the better, as it 
is always well to flower seedlings under glass in the 
first place, and pick from the batch those of which the 
habit and colour render them most suitable for the 

A collection of seedling Zonals forms a very interest- 
ing hobby for the amateur gardener. Very few plants 
that he could take up would reward him better, by 
cheerful growth and bloom, for the time he devoted 
to them. One word, however, to the amateur cross- 
fertiliser : do not start with a poor strain, the trusses 
of which are loose and gappy, and the ^^pips" (indi- 
vidual flowers) ragged. To do this means plodding for 
years along a path that earlier raisers have already 
trodden, and to creep lamely behind them for a whole 
lifetime. Begin with the best strain procurable — a 
strain with smooth, round flowers, and a large, circular 
truss — then there is a real prospect of getting valuable 
novelties. Before me, as I write on a dull November 
day, are several plants representing an experiment on 
the part of the wife of a well-known florist. This 
energetic lady gardener thought that it ought to be 
possible to get extra large pips, with flower-heads as big 
and handsome as those of the well-known Paul Crampel 
(many, by the way, will tell you that this is the best 
Geranium in cultivation, and they are not to be contra- 
dicted hastily), and so she set out to do some cross- 
fertilising on her own account, her husband surveying 
her operations with an affectionate tolerance. Here is 
the result : some of the pips are four inches across, and 
all are of huge size, splendid form, and perfect colour. 
They are a genuine advance, and show the advantage 
of starting at the top with a high ideal. 



The following are beautiful varieties of Zonal 
Geraniums : — 



Bedding or Pots. 

Beckwith's Pink 



Crystal Palace Gem • 

Scarlet, leaves 


Flower of Spring . • 

Silver leaves 


F. V. Raspail .... 

Double crimson 


Gertrude Pearson . 



Henry Jacoby 



Hermione .... 

Double white 


John Gibbons . . , . 



King of Denmark . 

Double salmon 


Mr. Hy. Cox .... 

Dark variegated 


Mrs. Pollock .... 

Light variegated 


Paul Crampel .... 



Pierre Loti .... 

Double rose 


Swanley Single White . 



Ville de Poictiers . 

Double scarlet 


The following ivy-leaved varieties are well adapted 
for garden culture, and may be propagated from cut- 

tings the same as the Zonals :- 

Galilee. — Double rose. 
Madame Crousse. — Double silvery pink. 
Eyecroft Surprise, — Double salmon pink. 
Souvefiir de Charles Turner. — Deep carmine pink. 



The Gladiolus has never made much progress with a 
popular name. Nominally it has one, like most other 
plants, but even those people who prefer '' English " to 
Latin names tacitly ignore it, and it is probable that the 
great majority would wonder what was meant if a writer 
referred to Corn Flags. The Corn Cockle they know, 
the Corn Marigold they have more than a nodding 
acquaintance with, but the Corn Flag puzzles them, and 
they are disposed to sum it up as " some kind of Iris." 
Well, the Corn Flag belongs to the natural order 
IridacecBj and, therefore, has a botanical kinship with 
the Irises, but it is really the Gladiolus, and that is a 
distinct genus. 

It is a little singular, perhaps, that the Gladiolus has 
not a popular name — a popular name, that is, which is 
really popular, instead of one which nobody knows any- 
thing about — because the botanical name is not an easy 
one for the multitude to cope with, and there are as 
many ways of pronouncing it as there are of writing 
a plant label. Of course the scholar has no difficulty 
in the matter. He points out that the name derives 
quite obviously from gladiusy a sword, in reference to 
the shape of the leaves ; and that, in consequence, the 
pronunciation must be Glad'-io-lus, the accent being 
on the first syllable, here accented, the two vowels in the 
second being run together sharply, and the third being 



disposed of with as quick a pressure of the tip of the 
tongue on the palate as the music-master insists on in 
his interminable exercise on lah^ lah, lah. When the 
student has touched the palate with his tongue in order 
to produce the labial sound, he has to get the organ 
down into the bottom of his mouth as quickly as he can 
in order to remove any obstacle to the passage of the 
vowel sound from his widely expanded throat — so sharply 
must he dispose of lus. 

But flower-lovers are not all word-students. They 
did not know that Gladiolus came from gladius, and 
even if they had known they would not have been any 
nearer knowing how to pronounce it, and so they went 
their own way. Some called it Gla-die'-o-lus, making 
four syllables, and accenting the second ; others Glad-e- 
o'-lus, again making four syllables, but accenting the 
third. Popular pronunciation hovers between these 
two, and perhaps to the latter. Both are wrong, but 
the offence committed is one of those that people who 
know must deal gently with, rebuking the offender by 
no more drastic method than taking the first opportunity 
of repeating the name with the accent in its proper place. 

However great our enthusiasm for the Gladiolus may 
be — and if we have once grown it successfully, that 
enthusiasm is likely to be warm — we have to acknow- 
ledge that it can hardly be classed as one of the great 
flowers of the people. It is hardy, it is grown easily, it is 
almost incomparably beautiful, but it just misses greatness. 
Except in the case of one or two kinds, it lacks perfume, 
and it is not quite capable of holding its own in the 
rough and tumble with Nature which garden plants 
have to undergo sometimes. Perhaps this is more 
marked in a liability to attack by wireworms than in 
susceptibility to cold. But a plant must be wireworm- 


proof, just as it must be cold-proof, to satisfy us entirely. 
What amateur florist, operating in a garden that he has 
made himself from pasture, but mourns the liabiHty 
of Carnations to be attacked by wireworm ? More often 
than not he is induced to enthrone Chrysanthemums or 
Sweet Peas or Roses as the queen of his floral loves for, 
at all events, the first few years of his work ; and only 
after he has worried his underground enemy out of the 
field can he take up Carnations with any confidence. 

Wireworm. — The Gladiolus is as susceptible as the 
Carnation to wireworm attack. The grubs fasten on the 
corms (a Gladiolus ^' bulb " is really a corm, and a corm, 
as we saw under Crocus, has no visible scales like a bulb) 
in myriads, and soon make short work of a large collec- 
tion. If it is planted in new land from pasture the turf 
should be taken away, not turned in, however deeply ; 
and in spring, before planting, Vaporite or Apterite 
should be dug in nine or ten inches below the surface. 

Grace of form and beauty of blossom distinguish the 
Gladiolus in a remarkable degree. The habit is some- 
what singular. At the ground level the growth is a thick 
purplish stem, a few inches above it becomes flattened,and 
there the leaves emerge, the lower part cohering in a flat, 
plate-like mass, the upper spreading out almost like an 
open fan. The flower stem rises from the heart of the 
leaves in July or August, and conical, pointed buds form 
on it. As it extends, the lower buds thicken, and fresh 
narrow ones appear on the upper part. Future develop- 
ment finds the same expression — stem-extension and 
bud-production — going on simultaneously. While buds 
on the lower part of the stem are bursting and colouring 
— becoming, in fact, flowers — fresh ones are forming 
higher up, and so there is a long succession. 

For Cutting,— ThQ lady flower-lover will not fail to 


take full advantage of this habit. She will cut the stems 
when the lower buds are bursting, and carry the spike 
triumphantly indoors to adorn a tall vase, where, for 
some three or four weeks, it will be engaged in the 
delightful task of unfolding a succession of the most 
beautiful flowers. At the outset she will arouse the 
unmeasured wrath of her lord, who will loudly bemoan 
the ruin of his bed ; but when he finds that the plants, 
deprived of their first spikes, straightway proceed to 
produce more, he will graciously permit himself to be 

It may be stated, for the special benefit of lady readers 
who like to cut flowers, and in particular Gladioli, 
that the number of spikes which a plant will produce 
depends mainly upon the thoroughness of the culture. 
If the soil is deep and fertile, the plants (always provided 
that the corms planted are good and remain uninjured 
by wireworms) will be strong, and will be quite capable 
of yielding a spike each for the house and still producing 
a reserve for the garden. It is obvious from this that if 
an amateur does not get a satisfactory result after his 
wife has had the first helping, it is his fault, and not 
hers. She will need no prompting to " rub in " this point 
if occasion arises. 

When it is said that good corms are desirable, large 
ones are not meant necessarily. Some varieties produce 
much smaller corms that others, and no cultivation will 
make them large. They will, however, produce enor- 
mous spikes. A normal corm is about two inches 
across, but in some sorts the corm is less than an inch 
across the base. It happens that some of the largest 
varieties have these small corms. If the amateur buys 
from growers of repute, he need not be alarmed at a 
small ** bulb." He may take it for granted that all is well. 


In the best modern varieties of Gladioli the individual 
flowers are nearly as large as Candidum Lilies, and they 
are arranged on the stem in a double row, facing one 
way, so that they are collectively, as well as individually, 
beautiful. Such sorts are much superior to those in 
which the flowers face different points of the compass. 
If the Gladiolus-grower is one who raises seedlings, he 
should only choose those which have this desirable trait 
for future propagation. 

The colours are brilliant and varied. We get blush, 
pink, rose, scarlet, crimson, lilac, salmon, ruby, cream, 
cherry, mauve, and yellow. Many varieties have a white 
or yellow throat with a different body colour. Others 
are flaked or spotted. It was many years before we got 
a pure white and a self yellow in the large-flowered type ; 
we have these treasures now. 

Beautiful Species, — The magnificent modern Gladioli 
have been developed by hybridising between different 
species. A few are still grown, and I may touch on the 
best of them, without, however, committing myself to the 
assurance that they are all really genuine species : I have 
grave doubts about several. Blandus, flesh-coloured, is 
one of the earliest to bloom, opening in June ; it may be 
planted in autumn. Blushing Bride, pale pinky white, 
blooms early. Brenchleyensis^ scarlet, flowers in July 
from corms planted in autumn. Colvillei, often classed 
as a species, is really a hybrid between cardinalis and 
tristis ; it is red marked with purple ; both it and its 
white variety, a/da (The Bride), but more particularly 
the latter, are valued for pot culture, being treated like 
pot Hyacinths and Tulips. Delicatissima^ pale pink, 
spotted, is an early bloomer. FloribunduSf citron- 
coloured, blooms in July. Gandavensis, crimson and 
yellow, is a hybrid, and one of the parents of our beauti- 



fill modern varieties. Ne Plus Ultra, spotted, an early 
bloomer, is doubtless a hybrid. PsittacinuSy red and 
yellow, blooms in July. Purpureo-auratuSy yellow and 
purple, has been much used as a parent. RamosuSy rose, 
is a July bloomer. Saundersii, scarlet and white, bloom- 
ing in August, has been used as a parent. Tristis, with 
brown and red flowers in July, is not showy, but is 

Classes, — Gandavensis, the most important of the 
foregoing, took its name from the fact that it was sent 
out by a Ghent (French Gand) florist, but it was raised I 
at Enghien, where it was secured by crossing psittacinus 
with either cardinalis or oppositiflorus. Variations ap- 
peared, and were intercrossed, so that we soon had a 
large number of varieties bearing the sectional name of 
Gandavensis. The best of them are distinguished by 
beautiful symmetry. But the value of the hybrid did 
not rest in this. It was crossed with the s^tciQS purpureo- 
auratuSy and gave an entirely distinct blotched section 
called Lemoinei, after the Nancy hybridist Lemoine. 
It was further crossed with seedlings of Saundersii, and 
gave us the Childsii section, which are distinguished by 
very large flowers, albeit set loosely on the spike. Cross- 
ing between varieties of the Lemoinei and Gandavensis 
groups gave the sub-section Nanceianus, \ 

One feels a little apologetic in referring to these 
various processes and their result, but it happens that 
some dealers classify the varieties in their catalogues, 
and without a few words of explanation the reader might 
be puzzled by the group headings. It really is not neces- 
sary to keep the classes separate to enjoy Gladioli as 
garden flowers. If a variety is beautiful we need not 
probe its parentage, although this is a proceeding which 
has its interest for a good many flower-lovers. The 


most that the amateur need do is to keep the early- 
flowering section, such as Blushing Bride, Brenchley- 
ensis, Colvillei, The Bride, DeHcatissima, Ne Plus Ultra, 
Psittacinus, and Ramosus separate from the later hybrids. 
Most of the former are very cheap, and may be planted 
in autumn ; they ought not to be put in later than 
February. Nearly all may be grown in pots, although 
Brenchleyensis is a little too robust to make a perfect 
pot plant. This, one of the noblest of Gladioli, with its 
massive spikes of brilliant scarlet flowers, is also one 
of the hardiest and cheapest. It flowers in July and 


Named Varieties. — The best named varieties of late- 
blooming hybrid Gladioli are somewhat dear, and many 
flower-lovers may be satisfied to buy mixtures. Dealers 
of standing put splendid varieties in their mixtures, and 
a well-grown bed of them will be a wonderful spectacle 
of floral beauty. The tall Childsii and the spotted 
Lemoinei varieties are upstanding plants, and are very 
hardy, so that the corms may be left out all the winter 
if it is not convenient to store them. The Gandavensis 
varieties should be lifted. The following are a few good 
varieties of this beautiful section : — 

Commandant Marchand^ ruby. 
Enchantresses rosy lilac. 
Formosa^ rose. 
Grand Rouge, crimson. 
Klondyke, yellow, flaked carmine. 
Llncendie, cherry. 

La Parisienne^ yellow, shaded mauve. 
Marie Therhe, cream. 
Markhal Vailla7it, scarlet. 
Pascal, rose, white centre. 
Pyramide, rosy orange. 
Sanspareil, orange, white throat. 


Preparing Soil. — Is the reader fired by the preceding 
eulogy of Gladioli to a resolution in favour of buying a 
collection and giving it the best possible chance ? Then 
let him prepare his ground as follows : In autumn 
remove the topsoil and break up the subsoil, turning in 
a dressing three inches thick of decayed manure. If the 
ground is very stiff, leaf mould and sand may be added. 
Leave the surface lumpy. In February spread on a 
coat of wood ashes, with an additional quantity of bone 
flour at the rate of three ounces per square yard, and 
fork it in. This operation will simultaneously reduce 
the lumps to small particles. The soil is now in fine 
condition for planting. 

The corms may be put in a foot apart about the end 
of March, and may be set in angles (see figure in Chapter 
VIII., where the same method is advised for planting 
Carnations). They may be covered with four inches of 
fine friable soil, and the bed rolled or trodden. By the 
time they come through weeds will have grown, and a 
hoeing will stimulate the plants and destroy the weeds. 
Care must be taken to avoid cutting off the young spikes, 
but should so sad an event take place, the grower need 
not become a prey to despair, even though (as is quite 
likely to be the case) the variety injured happens to be 
one of the most esteemed, because the plant is almost 
certain to throw up another shoot. The hoeing should 
be continued throughout the summer. 

If the soil is light and shallow, soakings of water will 
be helpful in dry weather, and when the flower spikes 
begin to push up, a drenching of liquid manure, repeated 
weekly to the end of the flowering season, will do great 
good. Given these attentions, light soil grows Gladioli 
well. In clay soil they will not need artificial watering. 
Heavy ground will give good results provided it is 



well drained and friable, for the Gladiolus is not really 
exacting, although it dislikes stodgy, cold land. Directly 
the buds form, stakes should be put to the plants and the 
spikes tied, or the first storm will break them, especially 
if the site be exposed ; a sheltered though sunny position 
should be found if possible. 

In cold districts it may be found advisable to start 
Gladiolus corms in pots or boxes in spring, as advised 
under tuberous Begonias, and to plant them out, well 
rooted, towards the end of May. 

Wintering. — The corms should be lifted in autumn, 
except when the Childsii and Lemoinei varieties are 
being grown in a light, warm soil ; and it is not wise to 
wait until the leaves have died away, for that may not be 
until the New Year, but proceed as soon as the foliage 
loses its freshness. The plants may be laid in a shed for 
a few days to dry, and then deprived of stems and roots, 
leaving only the corms. It will be found that, in many 
cases, the old corm has begun to decay, and that a new 
one is fixed on the top of it ; they should be broken 
apart forcibly, and only the new corms, with any young 
ones, preserved. These can be stored in dry sand in 
shallow, uncovered boxes till spring. The large ones 
will flower again the same year as they are planted, the 
small offsets not till the following year. 

From Seed. — To raise Gladioli from seed, sow in pans 
or boxes in spring, put in a warm frame or greenhouse 
until germination has taken place, harden the plants in 
an unheated frame, and stand the pans outside in May. 
It is hardly worth while to plant them out until the 
following year, as they will not grow strongly. They 
can be dried off in autumn like large corms and 
planted the following spring, to flower in that or the 
following year* 


I should be glad if I could conclude by saying that 
the beautiful Gladiolus is suitable for planting in any 
herbaceous border, but the truth is it does not 
appreciate the companionship of big, coarse-rooting 
things, and is best in a bed to itself. However, it will 
thrive in the border if it is planted in a little colony 
to itself and protected from the encroachment of greedy 



There is no finer border flower than the Hollyhock 
when it is healthy and well grown, and it is not 
surprising that gardeners still cling to it in spite of 
the disasters which sometimes accompany its cultivation. 
The fact is, sentiment becomes entangled with these old 
plants, and the nearer we get to our own disappearance 
from the world's garden, the more affectionately we 
think of the flowers of our youth. People whose 
memory is good can recall the halcyon days of the 
Hollyhock, even it their hair is only as yet half grey, 
and they are loth to part with the picture which it 
brings before them of stately groups, seven or eight 
feet high, clothed with green leaves and studded with 
large, brilliant flowers. 

It is rarely that we see perfectly healthy Hollyhocks 
in these degenerate days. Even if the plants get to the 
flowering stage, they still fall short of the Hollyhock 
beauty of former days, because the lower foliage is 
discoloured by their hereditary enemy, the fungus called 
Puccinia malvacearmn. The latter name, compounded as 
it is from Malva^ the botanical name of the Mallow, 
shows at once the " family " nature of the fungus (that 
is, its particular association with the Mallows) and the 
kinship of the Hollyhocks with the Mallows. 

The Hollyhock is, indeed, a relative of the common 


From a Water Colour Drawiiifi by Lilum Sttiiuuinl. 

Hollyhocks and Herbaceous Phloxes. 


Mallow, which is known to botanists as Malva sylvestris, 
grows by the roadsides and in waste places, and bears 
pale purple flowers in June. It is a closer relative still 
of the Marsh Mallow, which frequents the sea marshes, 
grows two to three feet high, and bears pink flowers in 
August. The Marsh Mallow is Althcea officinalis y and the 
Hollyhock is Althcea rosea. Another relative is the 
Hibiscus y several species of which are esteemed in 
gardens. Althcea frutex is the same as Hibiscus syriacus. 

The Hollyhock was introduced in 1573. Botanical 
works give China as the native country, but it was 
probably brought to Europe by way of Palestine. Any- 
way, in striving to find the origin of the popular name, 
we have a difficulty in escaping from the conviction that 
it is the *' holy mallow," the holi-hoc (Anglo-Saxon, 
y^^^= mallow) of the Middle Ages. 

Althaea comes quite obviously from altheoy to cure, in 
allusion to the medicinal virtues of the plant, which are 
well marked in the Marsh Mallow. 

The Hollyhock was not a familiar plant in mediaeval 
times. The reader will not find it alluded to by Shake- 
speare, for example ; but the common Mallow did not 
escape the eye of the bard, as witness — 

" He'll sow't with Nettle seed, 
Or Docks or Mallow." 

The Tempest^ Act ii. scene i. 

Hollyhocks were, however, grown in Elizabethan days, 
for Parkinson knew them, and actually illustrated a 
double variety under the name of Malva rosea multiplex. 
The flowers were improved steadily as the years passed, 
and in the early half of the last century had been 
developed so highly as to become among the most 
important of garden flowers. They were greatly im- 


proved by a trade florist named Chater, living at Saffron 
Walden, in Essex (see the chapter on Crocuses for a 
note of the derivation of the name of this old town), 
and for many years " Chater's strain of prize Holly- 
hocks " was a feature of the catalogues of the principal 
seedsmen. Special varieties were grown under name, 
just the same as Roses, Carnations, and Dahlias, and 
almost equalled these old favourites in popularity. There 
were classes for them at all the principal flower shows, 
and the exhibition blooms were truly remarkable, alike 
in size, form, and colour. 

It was as a garden plant that the Hollyhock was 
valuable to the great bulk of flower-lovers. They set 
it in groups at the back of large borders. They even 
made beds of it. The tall spikes were closely studded 
wMth flowers from within two feet of the ground to the 
tip, and, leaning gently forward, made a gracious 
semblance of bringing their beautiful blooms nearer 
to the admiring eyes of the grower. 

Cottagers grew the plant, and it did well in their 
modest gardens. Those who love to ramble in country 
places, examining the village plots as they pass reflectively 
along, cannot but heave a sigh of regret that the old-time 
pictures are seen no more, even though gay Sweet Peas 
and Dahlias enliven the gardens. The Hollyhock seemed 
to form an integral part of the cottage. The whitewashed 
walls of the dwelling formed a background for it, its crest 
touched the low, thatched roof. It stood in soldierly array 
at the back of the border wherein the Carnations, Pinks, 
Snapdragons, and Monthly Roses grew. 

The undoing of the Hollyhock came swiftly in 1873. 
A year or two, and its career as a great garden and 
exhibition flower was at an end. Its kinship with the 
Mallows proved fatal. A destructive fungus burst like 



a pestilence on the wild Mallows, and spread from them 
to the Hollyhocks. Contemporary writers blamed the 
railways, pointing out how the wild Mallow established 
itself and throve on the embankments, and from thence 
distributed its fungoid poison to the Hollyhocks in the 
neighbouring gardens. But the railways did not bring 
it across the seas. It was first observed in South 
America, whence it managed to get across the Pacific 
to Australia ; and presently it reached Europe. The 
Hollyhock grower will, as a precautionary measure, 
destroy any wild Mallows that he sees near his garden, 
thereby tacitly acknowledging the wisdom of one of 
old Thomas Tusser's ^'Five Hundred Points of Good 

The spores of the fungus are two-celled. Pustules 
form on the skin of the leaf, and they are the hyphae 
of the fungus bursting through to the surface from 
within. The pustules spread rapidly, and the affected 
leaf shrivels. The loss of most of its leaves throws the 
plant into ill-health, and the flowering is impaired. It 
is wise to pull up and burn any diseased plant in the 
early stage of the attack, and to spray the remaining 
plants immediately with Burgundy mixture, which may 
be made by dissolving three pounds of bluestone (sul- 
phate of copper) in water in a wooden bucket, three and 
three-quarter pounds of washing-soda in another vessel, 
adding the two together, and making the total quantity 
of water to twenty-five gallons. Smaller quantities of 
the mixture can be made, of course, by proportionate 
reductions of bluestone, soda, and water. It should be 
sprayed on in a fine, dew-like state, so that it adheres ; 
if put on through a coarse hose it will run off again 
at once. It is useless when the fungus has become 
well established on the plants. 


The more thoughtful of the florists were not dis- 
posed to put all the blame for the Hollyhock fungus 
on the bloated capitalists who perversely insisted on 
making railways ; they turned the searchlight on to 
their own methods of culture, and were honest enough 
to confess that they may have weakened the constitu- 
tion of the plant, and thereby predisposed it to disease, 
by propagating the plants from cuttings or grafts in 
a high temperature. There may have been something 
in this, although the fact that the disease attacks wild 
plants shows that cultivation is not at the root of it. 
However, the impulse to intensive propagation no longer 
exists, as there is no particular demand for named 
varieties, and consequently more subdued methods pre- 
vail, such as division or seed-sowing. 

Most Hollyhock growers trust to seed nowadays, 
and such of them as buy from seedsmen of standing 
get a satisfactory percentage of good varieties, even 
though all may not be doubles. Single Hollyhocks are 
much inferior to doubles as show flowers, but not so 
far behind in garden effect, so that a strain which 
includes a small percentage of them need not be con- 
demned. The seed can be sown outdoors in May or 
June just the same as that of Canterbury Bells; in fact, 
the plants may be treated as biennials, being raised from 
seed every year, bloomed the following year, and then 
cleared away. But if a particularly good variety should 
appear among the seedlings it should be preserved, and 
it may be kept true by taking cuttings or practising 
division. A simple plan of perpetuating a good sort 
is to take pieces of the stool in late summer, pot them, 
winter them in a frame, and plant them out in spring. 
Or young shoots, three or four inches long, may be 
taken from the stools when growth starts in spring, 


grafted on to thick pieces of root, tied round and 
potted, with soil over the union, and put in a close, 
warm frame. When they have rooted to the extent of 
filling three-inch pots with roots, they may be planted 

Seedling plants should be encouraged to make good 
growth by thinning and hoeing in summer, and in 
autumn some may be put into small pots and wintered 
in a cold frame, the rest being planted out to take their 
chance. It is generally acknowledged by Hollyhock 
growers that seedlings are stronger and less liable to 
disease than plants raised vegetatively, and if fresh 
stock is raised at frequent intervals, and put on new 
ground, the pleasure derived from Hollyhocks may still 
be considerable. 

The plants like a deep, fertile soil, but rank manure 
is not safe, and the ground had better be prepared in 
autumn. It may be dug deeply then, the subsoil being 
broken up, and a thick coat of manure laid on it. The 
top soil should be left rough and dressed with wood- 
ashes and bone flour or superphosphate in February, 
just as in the case of Gladioli. The manure will decay, 
the ground will become mellow, and the Hollyhocks 
will make healthy growth when put out in May. Strong 
stakes should be driven in at the time they are planted, 
as they will need tying. 

The yellow and white fig-leaved Hollyhocks {Althcea 
ficifolid) have a widening circle of admirers, and may 
be grown in addition to the old kinds. Seed is avail- 



The lover of popular names is in high feather with 
Lonicera periclymenuin^ for he has two English names 
for it, and both are charming. ^'Honeysuckle" and 
'^ Woodbine" are used indiscriminately alike by many 
old and modern writers, but Shakespeare perhaps re- 
garded the former as belonging to the flower and the 
latter to the plant. Note Titania*s injunction in Act iv. 
scene i of *' Midsummer Night's Dream " — 

" Sleep, then, and I will wind thee in my arms. 
So doth the Woodbine the Sweet Honeysuckle gently entwist. . . ." 

Some writers boggle at the difficulty of making Wood- 
bine and Honeysuckle mean the same plant here. Shake- 
speare clearly refers, they declare, to two ; and they 
conjecture that by Woodbine he must mean Convolvulus. 
They probably base the opinion on Ben Jonson's 

figure — 

" Behold 
How the blue bindwood doth itself enfold 
With Honeysuckle, and both these entwine 
Themselves with Briony and Jessamine." 

Would Shakespeare, however, have spoken of the Bind- 
weed as '' luscious " ? Note those other famous lines in 
** Midsummer Night's Dream" — 

" I know a bank where the wild Thyme blows, 
Where Oxlipsand the nodding Violet grows, 
Quite over canopied with luscious Woodbine.'' 


It is not impossible, inasmuch as the old form of the 
adjective was ^' lustious/' and is derived from lusty. But 
if Shakespeare used it in the sense of sweet he could hardly 
have alluded to the Convolvulus. In early times writers 
referred to several creeping plants as Woodbine. The 
name was certainly applied to the wild Clematis and the 
Ivy. On the other hand, note Beaumont and Fletcher's 

" Woodbines of sweet honey full." 

These writers were contemporaries of Shakespeare, and 
students of their work associate all three of these men of 
genius in ^^ The Two Noble Kinsmen," which appeared 
under the names of Beaumont and Fletcher. With the 
latter the Woodbine and Honeysuckle were the same, and 
it is not impossible that they were also identical in the 
mind of Shakespeare. He uses both names in *' Much 
Ado about Nothing," Act iii. scene i. In the first case 
Hero bids Margaret tell Beatrice — 

" Our whole discourse 
Is all of her ; say that thou overheard'st us, 
And bid her steal into the pleached bower, 
Where Honeysuckles, ripened by the sun, 
Forbid the sun to enter." 

In the second Ursula says — 

" The pleasant'st angling is to see the fish 
Cut with her golden oars the silver stream, 
And greedily devour the treacherous bait ; 
So angle we for Beatrice : who even now 
Is couched in the woodbine coverture." 

These two references are only a few lines apart. 

^^ Woodbine " derives from woedeii-binde, which 
later is wude-bindey and the name is in allusion to the 
habit of the plant. *^ Honeysuckle " certainly comes 
from the rich stores of nectar that are sucked from 


it. It may be noted that the perfume is strongest after 
sunset, and the flower is fertilised by night moths. Its 
sweetness was known to Mistress Quickly, who, in" King 
Henry IV.," Part 2, Act ii. scene i, thus apostrophises 
Sir John Falstaff: "Ah, thou honeysuckle villain ! Wilt 
thou kill God's officers and the king's ? Ah ! thou 
honeyseed rogue ! Thou art a honeyseed, a man- 
queller, and a woman-queller." 

In applying the adjective '* honeysuckle " to the fat 
knight Mistress Quickly had in mind, perhaps, the 
persuasiveness of his tongue when he was in a mood 
to cozen her, 

Milton had apparently distinct plants in view when 
he referred to Honeysuckle and Woodbine, whatever 
may have been the case with Shakespeare, because he 
spoke of the *' Flaunting Honeysuckle " and the '* well- 
attired Woodbine," thus using two adjectives of quite 
different meaning. BuUein, in "The Book of Simples," 
speaks of the " swete and pleasant Woodbine," and of 
its friendly embrace of " the bodies, armes, and branches 
of trees with his long winding stalkes and tender leaves, 
openyng or spreading forthe his swete Lillis." 

The embrace of the Woodbine may be " friendly " ; 
it is certainly very close. When the Honeysuckle gets 
hold it clings tightly, and growers have observed an 
association so intimate as to leave its mark on the stem 
of the supporting plant. Gardeners will not give it 
another plant to cling to, but will plant it to cover rustic 
fences, pergolas, arbours, and other erections. It is well 
worth planting in gardens, as the flowers are pretty as 
well as sweet, and they are followed by red fruit, which 
gives it attractiveness in autumn. Often, however, the 
winter quarter is near at hand before the plant ceases 
blooming. Nominally a summer bloomer, it may flower 

Honeysuckle on an arch. 


on into the autumn. I have a plant growing over a low 
rustic fence on thin soil overlying chalk, and as the 
position is much swept by cold winds spring growth 
and bloom are retarded. It is sometimes flowering 
freely in November, despite some very severe autumn 

Lovers of Honeysuckles should not plant in thin soil 
over chalk if they have the choice of a better. The plant 
thrives best in a deep fertile loam. In such a soil it 
becomes established quickly, whereas in poor dry ground 
it is a long time before it gets a good hold and really 
starts in earnest. If it must be planted in poor ground 
it would be worth while to make a " station " for it by 
removing a couple of bushels of soil, breaking up the 
bottom of the hole, laying on a coat of manure, and 
refilling with decayed turves. These would induce the 
plant to make good growth the first year. If the roots 
received a soaking of water or liquid manure now and 
then it would be further assisted. 

The fact that the Woodbine is a native of Great 
Britain is sufficient proof of its hardiness, but the 
sensible grower will not give it a cold site except under 

Although we speak of the Honeysuckle, there are 
many species in cultivation, and the best of them are as 
sweet as the old native and finer in bloom. They are 
known to botanists under the name of Lonicera (Lon-i- 
seer'-a), and this name derived from that of a German 
physician named Adam Lonicer, after whom they were 
named in compliment. He was a good writer on 

The best garden Honeysuckle is perhaps the plant 
known variously as Jlexuosa, brachypoda^ and Japonica 
chinensis. Most nurserymen list this splendid plant 


under the name of Lonicera flexuosa simply, and although 
that name would not satisfy a strict botanist, it may be 
accepted as sufficient for garden purposes. The point 
is that the gardener must not buy plants under the other 
names quoted also and expect them to be different. 
This Honeysuckle was introduced from China in 1869, 
and soon became a highly popular plant, owing to its 
free growth and the profusion, size, and fragrance of its 
flowers. It is quite hardy. In addition to its value for 
rustic work, it may be made suitable for a house wall 
by giving it a framework for support. The flowers are 
nominally red and yellow in colour, like those of the 
common Honeysuckle, but they are often yellow and 
white. Their perfume is delicious. 

Another splendid garden Woodbine is the Golden- 
netted aureo-recticulata. In some catalogues this is 
classed as a species, in others it is included as a variety 
of Japonica, which it is. Introduced from Japan in 1862, 
it was soon established as a prime favourite in gardens — 
a fact that will in no way surprise those who have seen it 
well grown. The leaf differs in shape at different stages of 
growth, sometimes being a plain ellipse with an unbroken 
outline, and at others lobed or cut into divisions. The 
colour deepens to red in autumn. One may sometimes 
see this Honeysuckle covering an outhouse or a frame 
of rustic poles in a small suburban garden, and it is 
indubitably a fine amateur's plant. The flowers are 
sweet. Like its relatives, it appreciates a substantial 
loamy soil. 
ii, Lonicera caprifolium is the pale yellow and white wild 
Honeysuckle of British hedgerows. It is larger than the 
other wilding, periclymemim. There is a red variety of 
it. Another yellow British species is Xylosteuvu None 
of the natives is much esteemed in gardens, however 


much they are loved in a state of nature, because it is 
recognised that the Eastern forms are finer. 

The evergreen and winter-blooming Honeysuckles 
are worth attention. The former, which bears scarlet 
and yellow flowers in spring, is called Lonicera semper- 
virens. It is a North American plant, and not quite 
hardy. It is the " trumpet Honeysuckle," and there 
are several varieties of it ; they may be tried outside 
in warm places. The latter bears white flowers towards 
the end of winter, and its perfume has earned it the 
attractive name of Fragrantissima. It is a Chinese plant, 
and is quite hardy, but it is more suitable for culture 
as a bush than as a climbing plant. 

The " Dutch Honeysuckle " sold by florists is a 
variety of periclymenuniy and so are the Belgian and 
Oak-leaved ; but the ^' French Honeysuckle " is not a 
Lonicera at all — it is a Hedysaruni. 

The Honeysuckles may be propagated by seeds, and 
also by cuttings inserted in sandy soil in a frame in 
autumn, but the question of propagation need not be 
dealt with fully, because it concerns nurserymen, and 
they know their business quite well. Honeysuckles are 
not plants which the amateur gardener wants to multiply 
extensively. His requirements in respect to any par- 
ticular kind are limited, as a rule, to two or three plants, 
and these he can buy at moderate prices. He will plant 
them here and there, in selected places, such as on a 
framework of rustic poles somewhere near the house, or 
skirting a favourite walk. Or perhaps he will employ 
them for that part of his pergola which is nearest to his 
favourite garden-seat or summer-house. There, in the 
evening, he will read with the perfume of the flowers in 
his nostrils. And so will the garden gain new charms. 



The Hyacinth is a truly domestic flower, for do we not 
grow it in glasses and bowls for the adornment of our 
rooms as well as in pots for our greenhouses ? The 
village widow loves it, and puts it in tall, slender glasses, 
which she stands on the narrow ledge of the window 
that she would not open, summer or winter, if she could, 
and could not if she would. The odour of Hyacinths 
conceals the mustiness of many a cottage parlour in 
spring, but for the remainder of the year the latter reigns 
supreme, a source of criticism in the drawing-rooms of 
the rectory and the hall, but not of vigorous protest to 
owners of cottage property, and to ignorant village folk 
who love ^'snugness" better than pure air. 

The home Hyacinth is an Eastern flower, and is not 
native, as those might suppose who think of the wild 
Hyacinths. The truth is, that the *' Bluebells," which 
grow wild in some districts, and are often called 
Hyacinths, are not members of the genus Hyacmthus 
at all, but are Scillas, The ^'azur'd Harebell," men- 
tioned by Shakespeare in " Cymbeline," is Scilla nutans^ 
and not Campanula rotundifolia^ the *^ Harebell " of plant 

The full name of the garden Hyacinth is Hyacinthus 
orientaiisy or the Eastern Hyacinth. It came from Syria 
in 1596, a year which the diligent plant student will lind 



to have been particularly rich in introductions. The 
generic name is mythological. It is that of a beautiful 
boy who was killed by Apollo, and from whose blood 
the flower sprang. Being of noble birth, he was doubt- 
less blue-blooded ; anyway, the Eastern Hyacinth was 
blue, although we have many red varieties at the present 

When we open an autumn bulb catalogue in these 
piping times, we find the names of many dozens of 
different varieties of Hyacinths. Some are single, 
others double. The colours include light and dark 
blue, blush, pink, rose, scarlet, crimson, yellow, lilac, 
lavender, mauve, white, and purple. We find, too, the 
*' white Roman " Hyacinth, and here is a neat little trap 
for the unwary. There is a species of Hyacinthus called 
romanus ; it has white flowers ; it came from Italy. What 
more natural than to conclude that it is our familiar 
'* white Roman " ? One can quite imagine an amateur 
growling, "Well, if it isn't, it ought to be, if names 
mean anything." In this case names do not go for 
much, because the " white Roman " is merely a variety 
of the Eastern Hyacinth called albuluSy and has no con- 
nection with romanus. The latter is not a very important 
plant, but those who are sufHciently interested to turn up 
iht Botanical Magazine vj\\\ find an illustration of it there, 
t, 939. They will also find a plate of the original Eastern 
Hyacinth, which is represented by t. 937. This is of 
real interest, as it enables the Hyacinth lover to compare 
the old plant with modern forms and note the progress 
which has been made. 

We have a splendid selection of Hyacinths to choose 
from to-day, and we owe most of them to the Dutch, 
who, finding their light, sandy soil particularly adapted 
to the propagation and culture of the plant, took it up 



as a commercial venture. They succeeded so well that 
bulb-growing became one of the national industries of 

In view of the splendid quality of the Hyacinths 
grown in this country, it is often suggested that the 
industry could be established here with equally good 
results. This is doubtful. The best plants grown by 
British cultivators are equal to the best of the Dutch, 
but it has to be remembered that they came from 
developed bulbs. To produce the bulbs is another 
matter. Of the great triumvirate of bulbous flowers. 
Tulips, Daffodils, and Hyacinths, the two first increase 
readily in this country, but Hyacinths do not. The 
reproductive systems of the three plants are the same, 
in the main — all form fresh bulbs annually ; but the 
offspring of Hyacinths is much smaller than that of 
Tulips and Daffodils, and much more time is required 
to grow them to a saleable size. The largest bulb of a 
set of Tulip progeny is nearly, or quite, as big as the 
parent. The largest of the Daffodil offsets are big 
enough to bloom the year following their formation. 
But the offsets of Hyacinths are very small, and several 
years are required to get them to a flowering size. The 
grower observes them springing from the base of the bulbs 
in autumn. Sometimes one will have become as big as a 
Scilla bulb, but concave on one side, where it nestles 
close to the parent, by November. The offsets should 
be picked off before the bulb is put into the soil. 

The Dutch growers can develop flowering bulbs more 
quickly than we can, and thus have a commercial advan- 
tage which enables them to undersell British growers, 
but it is not so with Daffodils and Tulips. Consequently, 
while we find that the Hyacinth trade remains almost 
entirely in the hands of the Dutch, that of Tulips 



and Daffodils is shared by the British. If Hyacinths 
could be grown on a commercial scale in this country, 
it would be in districts where the soil is light, and yet 
not far above water. The plants thrive in light soil 
provided that they have abundance of moisture, but 
not otherwise. 

Amateurs, as a whole, are not likely to trouble where 
bulbs are grown, provided they are large, sound, and ripe. 
Given these conditions, fine ^^ trusses" of bloom will be 
had. What is a " large " bulb ? Hyacinths are graded 
and sold at different prices. A bulb two and a half inches 
through at the thickest part is a ^* first size" bulb, and 
will be charged at the highest price for that particular 
variety, perhaps twopence, perhaps fourpence, perhaps 
sixpence. But a bulb may be less than two inches 
through and yet be a " first size." The varieties differ 
a good deal in this respect. The yellows are nearly all 
small-bulbed. With respect to soundness, an unfailing 
test is pressure of the thumb on the flat ring at the base ; 
if this is firm, the bulb is sound ; if soft, it is unsound. 
Ripeness may be assumed if the bulb is firm and the 
outer skin, in addition to being loose, is tinted with a 
silvery sheen. 

We grow Hyacinths (a) in pots of soil, (3) in glasses 
of water, (c) in bowls of peat moss fibre, (d) in the 
open garden ; and they do almost equally well in all 
if the treatment is correct. 

As Pot Pla?tts. — They are beautiful as pot plants, for 
the trusses are handsome, the colours are brilliant and 
varied, the habit is neat, and the perfume is delicious. 
One would hardly grow a block of Hyacinths in a 
greenhouse, because it would look flat ; but one would 
grow Hyacinths in association with other bulbs and 
spring blooming plants. To have them at their best 


we should pot them by the end of October, and use 
a fertile compost, such as fibrous loam three parts, 
decayed manure and leaf mould one part each, and 
sand in a quantity equal to about one-eighth of the 
whole. Sand should always be used very liberally for 
Dutch bulbs; they practically grow in it at home in 

Pots four and a half to five and a half inches across 
the top, or the size known as forty-eight's, are quite 
large enough, even for big bulbs. Large pots are un- 
suitable. They hold so much soil that the plants grow 
too strongly to flower well, for, singular though it may 
seem, it is possible to have leaf at the expense of bloom. 
The soil should be moist when used, and it should be 
pressed firmly on to the drainage crocks without being 
made downright hard. The pot need hardly be more than 
half-filled at first. Make a hollow in the centre of the 
soil, sprinkle in a little sand, place the bulb in position, 
and then fill in soil round it, making it as firm as the 
under soil. When the pot is finished the soil should 
be an inch below the brim of the pot, and the tip of 
the bulb should be exposed to the extent of about half 
an inch. 

The amateur sometimes complains of bulbs rising 
out of the soil, as though thrust upward by their own 
roots. That is what actually happens, and it is generally 
due to too hard a soil in conjunction with exposure. 
The grower must try to strike the happy mean between 
hardness and looseness, and he must plunge his pots in 
cocoa-nut fibre refuse for six or eight weeks after potting, 
heaping the material over them to a depth of four or 
five inches. This checks top growth, but not root 
action, and the foundation of success is laid in a healthy 
root system in advance of stem and leaves. Without 


the plunging the reverse holds good, and the plants 
do not thrive so well. There is one slight danger in 
plunging, and that is that the plants may be forgotten, 
but this presupposes a ^'slackness" on the part of the 
grower that he is hardly likely to be guilty of. It can 
be guarded against by making the entry " Examine 
bulbs" in the pocket diary on a date six weeks later 
than that of potting. If at the end of the six weeks 
top growth has pushed about half an inch, and the 
roots have got well down the pot (this can be ascer- 
tained without causing any injury by inverting the pot 
with the fingers spread across the soil, tapping the rim 
on a bench, and lifting the pot right off), the plants 
should be withdrawn, if not, they may have another 
week or two. 

The interval may be shorter in the case of White 
Roman Hyacinths, which grow quicker than the others. 
Bulbs of this variety can often be bought as early as 
July, and certainly in August. Many people like to pot 
them in batches from August to October inclusive, in 
order to get a succession of bloom. Three bulbs may 
go in a forty-eight pot. ^ 

When Hyacinths of whatever variety are withdrawn 
from the plunging material, the proper course is to 
put them in a heated but not very hot greenhouse, give 
free exposure to light, ventilate in fine weather, and 
water as often as the pots ring sharply under the 
knuckles. Later on the spike will want tying to a 
flower stake. From the time that the colour is seen 
in the truss, which will push up before the leaves have 
become very far advanced, liquid manure may be given 
twice a week. It may consist of any of the patent 
fertilisers sold in small tins by florists, or of home 
preparations. If the plants are flowering in spring and 


the weather is sunny, they will probably want water 
every day. Certainly it is much more easy to under- 
water than to overwater Hyacinths in bloom. With 
their abundance of thick, fleshy roots they develop a 
thirst that is almost as difficult to quench as a cement 
worker's, and he, poor fellow, has a very dry job of 
it indeed. 

In Water. — The success of Hyacinths in water is a 
proof of what this simple chemical compound means 
to them. They are able to dispense alike with soil and 
manure. Perhaps a good bulb does not give quite equal 
results in the amateur's glass to those that it yields in 
pots under the hands of a skilful gardener, but it pro- 
duces a very fine truss all the same. One cannot very 
well plunge glass-grown Hyacinths, but the same end 
may be gained by putting them in a dark cupboard 
until roots have reached the bottom of the receptacles. 
It does not seem to matter much whether the base of 
the bulb actually touches the water or not, roots push 
just the same. Some growers prefer to have the base 
just clear of the water, on the ground that there is less 
fear of the bulb rotting. The water should be quite 
clean, and a couple of small lumps of charcoal should 
be put in it. If the water remains clear it need never 
be changed, but if it becomes turbid or slimy it had 
better be poured away very carefully by tilting the 
glass, and a fresh supply put in. The plant should be 
kept steady during the operation. 

Glass culture is a little more expensive than pot 
culture, because there is not only the cost of the glasses, 
but also of supports for the spikes ; however, the whole 
amount is not very serious. The supports, like the 
glasses, can be bought of the bulb dealer. They are 
made for the purpose, with a basal ring to encircle the 


neck of the glass, and they render the task of '* staking" 
very simple. Support is really necessary ; without it 
the whole plant would topple over when the truss of 
bloom became heavy, and might be quite spoiled by 
the crash. 

In Bowls. — Hyacinths do very well in bowls of peat 
moss fibre, and may be treated as advised for Daffodils 
in Chapter XIV. 

In Flower Beds. — They have declined somewhat as 
garden plants, perhaps, since the rise of Daffodils, but 
their day is far from being done. The gardeners in 
the public parks still find them indispensable, and 
although private growers may not go to the lengths of 
the County Council horticulturists, and fill whole beds 
with Hyacinths alone, they will continue to use them 
in groups both in beds and borders. 

Hyacinths give quite different effects from either 
Daffodils or Tulips. Their growth is closer and dwarfer. 
This, combined with the massiveness of the flower- 
heads, renders them a little dumpy, and it is well to 
have them surrounded by cushions of white Arabis and 
mauve Aubrietia, which not only form a pretty carpet, 
but give the Hyacinths an effect of greater height. The 
Arabis and Aubrietia are perennials, but they are so 
easily and cheaply raised from seed out of doors in 
June, that the old plants can be thrown away when the 
Hyacinths are taken up. 

If many first-size Hyacinths were planted, the cost 
would be rather serious, but dealers supply a second 
size suitable for the garden. If the soil is fertile and 
moist, and the stems are removed directly the flowers 
fade, these bulbs will very likely develop and bloom 
well again the following year. But they will not do 
much good in poor, dry soil after the first year. 


Hyacinths are great lovers of water, and do best in 
a heavy but friable soil that holds moisture well. Con- 
trary to general belief, they thrive splendidly on clay, 
provided it is well drained and is reduced to a fine 
crumbly state. Some sand may be put around the 
bulbs when they are planted in autumn. They may be 
set nine inches apart, and covered with three inches 
of soil. If the soil is light, poor, and dry, it ought 
to be worked deeply, and dressed heavily with decayed 

A few clumps of Hyacinths go far to enliven a 
mixed border in spring. The bulbs may be set in 
clumps of three to twelve. The following colours go 
well together : (i) red, white, and blue ; (2) light blue 
and yellow ; (3) light blue and rose ; (4) pink, blue, and 
yellow; (5) mauve, red, and white. The same colours 
could be arranged in beds. 

Town and suburban gardeners will find the Hyacinth 
a good plant for them, and they may mix it in their 
beds, if they like, with the Chalice-flowered or Star 
Daffodils (see Chapter XIV.), which are generally in 
bloom at the same time. Country amateurs may space 
the Hyacinths out, and give the bed a groundwork of 
coloured Primroses and Polyanthuses (see Chapter 
XXXI.). The Hyacinths will go out of bloom before 
the Primroses, but they will not spoil the bed if the 
stems are broken off directly the flowers fade. Nothing 
is much uglier than a batch of Hyacinths with the 
flower trusses brown. Pale blue Hyacinths look charm- 
ing amid Primroses. 

The ** Grape Hyacinths" {Muscari) should not escape 
the attention of the bulb lover, as they are charming 
little plants, and thrive on banks or rockeries. The 
ordinary dark blue only costs is. 6d. to 2s. per 100. 



A clump might be established here and there near the 
front of the border, the bulbs being set four inches 
apart and an inch deep ; and if they take to the 
quarters — as they will if the soil is moist and cool — 
they will propagate themselves, and bloom brightly year 
after year in April. The flowers have an odour of 

Hyacinthus Candicans, — A plant of great beauty which 
is allied to the Hyacinths is Hyacinthus (sometimes 
called Galtonid) candicans. It has large expanded white 
flowers on a long, arching stem, and they appear in 
August. This splendid plant costs no more than about 
one shilling per dozen bulbs, and a clump of it in the 
border, preferably near some brilliant plant of corre- 
sponding habit, such as Gladiolus Brenchleyensis (see 
Chapter XX.), is very striking. It may be planted three 
inches deep in fertile friable soil in autumn. 

The following are beautiful Hyacinths : — 


Baroness van Tuyll 
Cardinal Wiseman 
Grand Maitre 
Isabella , 
Jacques . 
King of the Blues 
La Grandesse 
Ornament Rose 
Roi des Beiges 
Queen of the Blues 
Yellow Hammer . 



Medium blue 
Pale pink 
Dark blue 
Dark red 
Light blue 

Single or Double 















Few of the popular flowers of our gardens give us such 
diversity of growth and such richly painted flowers as 
the Iris. Fewer still include in their ranks species difl^ering 
so greatly in their habitat, tastes, and season of blooming. 
Its remarkable beauty makes the Iris one of the finest 
of garden plants, and its catholicity gives it exceptional 

Flower-lovers of all degrees should make the Iris one 
of their principal plants. Considered collectively, it has 
almost every merit which they could ask for in a garden 
plant. It is hardy (except in the case of one or two 
small sections, to which special reference shall be made), 
and so may pass the whole of its life in the open air. 

Soil. — It is not particular as to soil. Like most plants, 
it loves a deep, fertile loam, but it will thrive either in 
heavy or light land. This more particularly applies, as 
we shall see presently, to the magnificent^* Flag" Irises, 
which give such beauty and character to the border in 
May and June. But most of the Irises will succeed in 
the ordinary soil of gardens to which good garden 
culture (deep digging and manuring) has been given. 

A Good Town Plant. — It is almost as good in town as 
in country gardens when the soil is treated liberally. 
This naturally attracts suburban gardeners, who may be 
advised to make the Iris one of their principal plants. 



Propagation. — It is easily propagated by division or 
offsets. Irises have more than a mere set of fibres as 
a root-stock. They either have a rhizome (which is a 
thick, tough, root-Hke stem, just under or at the surface 
of the ground, pushing fibres from its under side and 
leaves from the upper) or a bulb. The rhizomatous 
Irises include the " Flags," the bulbs include the English 
and Spanish. It is hard to say which of the two great 
sections, the rhizomatous or the bulbous, is the more 
important. Most Iris lovers take care to have the best 
of each. The clusters of rhizomes may be separated 
when they get crowded, and individual ones may even 
be cut through if desired. This work is best done in 
early autumn. It is wise to practise it, in any case, 
every third year, as this gives an opportunity of simul- 
taneously increasing the number of plants and improving 
the soil. When rhizomes are planted, they should be 
just covered with soil. There will be leaves attached, 
for the ^' Flag " Irises are evergreens, but that will not 
matter. The bulbous Irises are increased by offsets, 
which grow round the parent bulb. It is not necessary 
to take them up every year, but they may be lifted in 
the early autumn of every third or fourth year, the 
clumps divided, and replanted in fresh soil. 

Cheapness. — The Iris is a cheap plant, if we limit it to 
the German (or other popular '* Flags "), the Spanish, 
and the English. The first may cost is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. 
per dozen in mixtures ; the second about 3s. per 100 ; 
the third about is. 6d. per 100. A dozen *^Flag" Irises, 
planted at intervals of a few feet, will be enough for 
many borders, and 100 bulbous Irises, planted in threes, 
will give thirty-three nice clumps, and leave an odd 
bulb for the children's garden. The question is whether 
the genus can be so limited and still remain well 


represented in gardens ? As to this, there are no finer 
Irises than the German, English, and Spanish. The first 
flower in May, the second and third in June or July, but 
the English are generally about a fortnight later than 
the Spanish. The bulbous Irises love a friable, well- 
drained soil. The bulbs may be planted in autumn and 
covered with two or three inches of soil. They may be 
set about nine inches apart in their clumps. 

^* Flag^' Irises. — In size of flower and beauty of 
colouring the Irises are excelled by very few. The 
** Flags " are particularly fine. Strong clumps produce 
a mass of slender, sword-shaped leaves, and throw up 
flower-stems a yard high, surmounted by magnificent 
flowers. In many of them the upright petals, which are 
called '* standards," differ in colour from the drooping 
ones, which are called '^ falls." Most have a yellow or 
orange beard, and many have a golden crest. Every 
amateur gardener, whether he practise in town or 
country, should have at least half-a-dozen good, tall 
'' Flag " Irises. The vigour of the plants will delight 
him, the beauty of the flowers will win his heart. From 
them he may, if he wish, proceed to make a collection of 
all the best sorts, many of which are fragrant. 

The Iris has a prominent place in literature. It is 
almost certain the Flower-de-luce of Shakespeare. 
True, in a passage from the *' Winter's Tale," Act iv. 
scene 4, which I have quoted under Dafl^odils, the bard 
makes Perdita, who speaks so much of flowers, refer to — 

" Lilies of all kinds, 
The Flower-de-luce being one." 

This might be thought to convey that the Flower-de-luce 
was a Lily and not an Iris, but it is not absolutely con- 
vincing, for old writers classed the Iris with the Lily 



order. Shakespeare made several references to the 
Flower-de-luce as the cognisance of France in *' King 
Henry V." and '* King Henry VI./' but that does not settle 
the question as between Iris and Lily, for authorities 
differ sharply as to which flower (if it was really meant 
for a flower at all) the Gallic arms bore. Was the 
Flower-de-luce the " Flower of St. Louis " ? or was it 
the " Fleur-de-delices " (it was spelled sometimes ^' Fleur- 
de-lys " and sometimes *^ Fleur-de-lis ") ? In either of 
these cases it might still have been either Iris or Lily. 
If Shakespeare's Flower-de-luce was the same flower as 
St. Francis de Sales wrote of, it was certainly the white 
Lily, for ^' the six leaves (petals) whiter than snow " 
and " the pretty little golden hammers (anthers) in the 
middle " do not belong to the Iris. 

We lean to the belief that the Flower-de-luce was a 
Lily when we read the foregoing words, and we are 
pushed further in the same direction by Chaucer's 
" Her necke was white as the Fleur-de-lis." 

But other writers of the Middle Ages, including literary 
men such as Bacon, Drayton, Jonson, and Spenser, 
and botanists like Gerard and Parkinson, all wrote of 
the Lily and the Flower-de-luce as distinct. Thus 

" Bring rich Carnations, Flower-de-luces, Lillies." 

And Bacon's 

" Flower-de-luces and Lilies of all Natures." 

Spenser, in the ^' Shepherd's Calendar," is not the least 
definite — 

" Strow mee the grounde with Daffadown-Dillies, 
And Cowslips, and Kingcups, and loved Lillies ; 
The pretty Pawnee 
And the Chevisaunce 
Shall match with the fayre Flowre Delice." 


While we cannot escape controversy if we decide 
that the Iris is the Flower-de-luce, we have considerable 
weight of evidence to support us. 

Iris, the mythological daughter of Thaumas and 
Electra, and messenger to Juno, travelled from heaven 
to earth along the rainbow, which is called Iris in Greek. 
The bow and the colours are seen in the iris of the 
human eye, and so the plant has derived its name from 
the diversity and beauty of its flowers. 

Native Irises, — The Iris is a very old plant in British 
gardens, and two species are natives. These are the 
Yellow Flag, Iris pseudacorus, and the Stinking 
Gladwyn or Gladdon, Iris fcetidissima. The Snake's- 
head Iris is naturalised in a few places. The Yellow 
Flag grows wild in shallow water almost all over 
England, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. It blooms 
late in May and early in June, and grows about three 
feet high. Shakespeare probably knew this fine old 
plant quite well, and had it in his mind when he put 
the following lines into the mouth of Caesar : — 

" It has been taught us from the primal state, 
That he which is was wish'd until he were ; 
And the ebb'd man, ne'er loved till ne'er worth love, 
Comes dear'd by being lack'd. This common body, 
Like to a vagabond flag upon the stream, 
Goes to and back, lackeying the varying tide 
To rob itself with motion." 

Iris pseudo-acorus (or pseudacoruSy as now com- 
pounded) was probably this '^ vagabond flag upon the 
stream," and our interest in the flower is strengthened 
by the splendid figure which these noble words form. 

The Gladwyn also grows wild almost all over Eng- 
land, and is naturalised in Scotland, Ireland, and the 
Channel Islands. It frequents copses, and blooms early 


in June. The flowers are bluish purple, a little over two 
inches across, and the stem rises from a foot to two feet 
high. It is not particularly attractive when in bloom, 
and the odour is so disagreeable that one's first impulse 
is to uproot it ; but the scarlet berries that follow the 
flowers are ornamental, and come in useful for Christmas 

The Snake s-head Iris y with its greenish and blue-black 
flowers, is not recognised as a native, and botanical 
records tell us that it was introduced from the Levant 
in 1597. This date makes it a tolerably old plant, and it 
has been found wild near Penzance and Cork. It blooms 
in March, and the flowers are about two inches across. 
The plant grows nine inches high, and has only one 
flower on a stem. It is illustrated in the Botanical 
Magazine^ t, 531. And here the numerous coloured 
plates of Irises in the great plant publication may be 
pointed to as evidence of the interest which has always 
been taken in the Iris genus by both botanists and 
gardeners. A large number of the best species are 
illustrated in the work. It is expensive, and I may not 
assume that it is in the possession of many amateurs ; 
nevertheless, I will give the references to the coloured 
plates in cases where the various species which I propose 
to name have been illustrated, as flower-lovers may like 
to refer to the Botanical Magazine in some of the large 
libraries to which they have access. 

The best Species of Iris, — There are many extremely 
beautiful species of Iris, and from some of them we have 
obtained our modern varieties of Flags, also of English 
and Spanish. I will pass the principal members of the 
genus in review, for the benefit of those readers who may 
like to form a collection. The winged Iris {alata) is a 
bulbous species, which produces blue flowers in June, 


and grows only about six inches high. It is cheap, 
pretty, easily grown, and has several varieties. Bakeriatia^ 
lilac, cream, and violet, a comparatively new species, 
having been introduced as recently as 1889 from Armenia, 
is a beautiful little plant, and may be grown on the 
rockery. It is illustrated in the Botanical Magazine ^ 
t. 7084. Amcena, with blue flowers in May, and aphylla of 
gardens (plicata)^ white and blue, have many varieties, 
and have given us some fine Flags (see end). Biflora^ 
growing about eighteen inches high, and bearing purple 
flowers in June, is worth growing in a representative 
collection of Irises, although it is not one of the most 
important species. 

A pretty modern '^ Cushion " species, introduced from 
Lebanon in 1892, is Bismarckiana, It grows about fifteen 
inches high, and has bluish grey veined flowers. Cristata^ 
on the other hand, is a very old species, having been 
known in British gardens since 1756. It only grows 
about six inches high, and produces blue flowers in June. 
A charming little species, /. cristatay is figured in the 
Botanical Magazine, t. 412. DanfordicB, also grown 
under the name of Bormnulleri^ is a dwarf, yellow, 
winter-blooming bulbous species, introduced in 1899. 
FlavescenSy pale yellow, sweet, blooms in early summer. 
The Florence Iris, florentina, introduced from Southern 
Europe in 1596, is a handsome plant, and is interesting 
as yielding the Orris root, or Orrice. This, with its 
odour of Violets, is used to scent powders ; and the 
French peasantry string pieces of dried root together, 
pour boiling water on them, and immerse their bed linen 
in the liquid in order to give it a pleasant odour. After 
use the roots are re-dried and stored for use on future 
occasions, care being taken that they are not eaten, 
as Irises are poisonous, Gatesii is a beautiful silvery 


'' Cushion " species dotted with grey, and was introduced 
from Armenia in 1889. It only grows about three inches 
high, and blooms in June. 

The German Iris. — Proceeding with the species in 
alphabetical order, we come to gerinanicuy the great 
German Iris, a blue-flowered species growing two to 
three feet high, flowering in May and June. This grand 
old plant, which was introduced as long ago as 1573, is 
illustrated in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 670. There are 
many varieties of it, differing in colour from the type. 
The German Iris will grow almost anywhere, and is one 

'/ of the finest of town plants. Smoke and impure air may 
check its luxuriance, but are rarely able to kill it. The 

1^ root is not a bulb but a rhizome, and the plant is much 
less severely affected by dry soil than most bulbous 
plants. See the names of some fine German Flag Irises 
on page 230. 

The Actor Iris {histrio), which grows about a foot 
high, is a modern bulbous species with lilac and yellow 
flowers, a pretty plant, and much in demand among 
Iris-lovers. Iberica^ lilac and brownish red, with purple 
blotches, is a cushion Iris, growing about eighteen inches 
high and flov/ering in May. 

Japanese Irises. — Kaempferi and laevigata are the now 
famous Japanese Irises which gardeners call Clematis- 
flowered and plant in moist places. They are magnificent 
plants, producing large, flattish flowers, painted in the 
richest manner with a large variety of colours. The 
type, laevigatay is blue, and came from the Far East in 
1836. It flowers in early summer. A coloured plate of 
it will be found in the Botanical Magazine, t. 6132. 
Kaempferi is perhaps synonymous with it, or possibly a 

Korolkowij growing a foot high, and bearing white or 



yellowish flowers veined with green in early summer, is 
a comparatively young species with us, and is one of the 
most esteemed of the Cushion section. It is one of the 
'* Regelia " Irises of the bulb catalogues, and was intro- 
duced from Turkestan, a region of Central Asia, in 1874. 
Another Regelia is vaga, purple, blue, and yellow, which 
also comes from Turkestan. These Regelia Irises have 
been crossed with large-flowered Cushion Irises (techni- 
cally classed as the Oncocylus section), and the hybrids 
are called the Onco-regelia section, the class names of the 
plants having been compounded. The flowers are netted 
on a blue, white, or rose ground. The hybrids are quite 
new, having been first exhibited in the early part of the 
present century. Several received awards from the 
Royal Horticultural Society in 1904. They are expensive 
as yet, and may be left to Iris specialists. They like a 
warm position, and light, well-drained soil. 

Another pretty member of the Cushion class is 
Lortetii^ which was introduced from Armenia in 1890. 
It has creamy flowers marked with rose. Another 
Cushion is the Wolf's Fur Iris, lupina, which has 
greenish flowers veined with red and bearded heavily. 
It w^as introduced from Kharput in 1887. Neglecta, two 
feet high, with pale blue or lilac flowers in May, /. 2435 
in the Botanical Magazine^ is a good rhizomatous Iris, 
and there are several charming varieties of it. Pallida 
is also a tall *' Flag " Iris, and has many varieties. 
Nigricans^ maroon and purple, is a very dark cushion 

We get back to the bulbous Irises again with 
orchioidcs, a dwarf grower, with yellow flowers, in April. 
It is a new species, as Irises go, having been introduced 
in 1880. See the Botanical Magazine^ t. 71 11. Persica 
and reticulata also belong to this section. The former, 






which grows barely six inches high, bears bhie and 
yellow flowers in early spring. It appears in the 
Botanical Magazine^ t, i. It is a very old plant, but is 
still esteemed by amateurs, and so are its varieties, of 
which Heldreichii, lavender, violet, and yellow, is one of 
the best. Reticulata is a lovely Iris, having violet 
flowers crested with yellow, and is scented with the 
odour of Violets. It grows about six inches high, and 
blooms in winter. It is best grown in pots in a cold 
frame. Krelagei is a variety of it which is much grown, 
although it is not so bright as reticulata and lacks 

Harking back a little, we find the pretty cushion 
Iris, paradoxay the white flowers of which are veined 
with blue and furnished with a crimson beard. It is a 
very old plant, and has many varieties. Rosenbachiana is 
a bulbous Iris, with blue and yellow flowers, which appear 
in March. 

The old blue Siberian Iris, sibirica^ is a good species, 
which I find one of the best of the genus on chalk, 
although it is reputedly a strong-soil plant. The flowers 
are not large, but they are borne in great abundance on 
a healthy clump, and rise nearly three feet above the 
ground. It is a rhizomatous species, and the root forms 
a thick mass when established. It is not wise to disturb 
it frequently. There are several varieties of it, notably 
a white. Sindjarensis is a bulbous Iris bearing lilac 
flowers in February or March. It is a very pretty 
plant, and a plate of it appears in the Botanical 
Magazine^ t. 7145. Sisyrinchium is also a bulb. It 
grows about nine inches high, and bears lilac flowers, 
spotted with yellow, in April. It is given in the 
Botanical Magazine^ tt. 1407, 1696. Squalens, an old 
rhizomatous species, introduced in 1768, grows from 



two to three feet high, and bears purplish flowers, 
bearded yellow, in early summer. It is elder-scented. 
See the Botanical Magazine^ t. 787. There are several 
fine varieties of it. 

One of the most remarkable of all Irises is the 
Cushion species, Susiana, which is called the Mourning 
Iris, in allusion to the swarthy hue of its flowers. 
Although a very old plant in British gardens, it is still 
grown with interest. The flowers are brownish black, 
dotted with lilac. See the Botanical MagaziitCy t, 91. 
Tubergeniana, a Cushion species, is a pretty modern 
Iris, with green and blue flowers. Unguicularis^ also 
grown under the name of stylosa^ is a winter bloomer, 
growing about two feet high, and bearing lilac flowers. 
It is an oldish plant, and has many varieties. Urmiensis 
is a Cushion, growing from six to twelve inches high, and 
with fragrant yellow flowers. Variegata is a very old 
species, growing about eighteen inches high, and having 
brownish flowers with a yellow beard. See the Botanical 
Magazine, t. 16. There are several varieties of it. 
Vartani is bulbous, and bears lilac, yellow-crested 
flowers in autumn or winter. It was introduced from 
Palestine in 1885. Versicolor^ an old claret-coloured 
species, growing about a foot high, flowers in May and 
June. See the Botanical Magazine^ t. 21. Virescens^ 
growing a foot high, bears greenish flowers in May. 

Two famous Irises are hidden away, so far as 
unversed amateurs are concerned, in the names 
Xiphioides and Xiphium, The former is the popular 
English Iris, and the latter the equally popular Spanish. 
Both are bulbous. Growing about two feet high, thriv- 
ing in most soils, very cheap, and having a great number 
of beautiful varieties, which bloom in early summer, 
they are invaluable plants. The English Iris is figured 


in t. 687 of the Botanical Magazine^ and the Spanish in 
/. 686. Both have been grown in British gardens for 
more than three hundred years. 

When the amateur has made himself acquainted with 
a few of the popular Irises, he will probably want to 
extend his knowledge of the genus, and may even go as 
far as to have an Iris garden. Arrived at this stage, he 
will no longer shrink with awe from such a list of species 
as I have given, but will study it eagerly, and even want 
detailed information about the various classes. 

F'irst, perhaps, he will study the Flag Irises, and he 
will find that these are divided into two sections, the 
bearded and the beardless. The former is much the 
more important, and is sub-divided into tall and dwarf. 
The following are the principal tall species : — 

Tall^ Bearded Flag 




Aphylla (Plicata). 







The tall, bearded Irises are very popular, and there 
are many varieties of all of them ^y.Qo^'^i flavescens and 
florentina. They bloom in May and June, and are dis- 
tinguished by having large, upright petals ('^ standards ") 
and long, drooping petals (*^ falls "). The former are 
often mottled, and the latter veined ; the beards are 
yellow or orange. The flowers are scented. Here are 
selections of good sorts : — 


Calypso, white, blue veins. 

Due de Nemours, purple and white. 



Bridesmaid, lilac and white. 
I Madame Chereau, white, frilled blue, exquisite. 

Alba, white. j Kharput, violet. 


Cordelia, " standards " lilac, " falls " crimson. 
Hannibal, lavender and purple. 

Dalmatica, lavender. 
Princess Beatrice, lavender. 


Harrison Weir, "standards" bronze, "falls" crimson. 
Mozart, bronze, white veins. 

b Gracchus, crimson, white veins. 

The foregoing are not expensive varieties. 

Tally Beardless ^'^ Flag'" Irises. 

The following are a few of the best tall, beardless 
Flag Irises : — 

Cristata, described previously. 

Japonica (fimbriata), lavender, yellow crest. 

Monnieri, yellow, very strong. 

Monspur, a hybrid between Monnieri and Spuria, violet, 

yellow spots. 
Orientalis (ochroleuca), previously described. 

„ Snowflake, a good white variety. 
Sibirica, previously described. 

„ alba grandiflora is a fine white variety. 

„ George Wallace, a good blue and white. 



Spuria Notha, violet, blue, and yellow. 

Unguicularis (stylosa), previously described. There is a 
white variety, also a good lilac. 

These winter-blooming Irises are charming for 
cutting. All of them are good for the border and 
thrive in ordinary soil. 

Dwarf Bearded Irises. 

The dwarf bearded or hybrid Crimean Irises are 
pretty at the front of borders and on the rockery. The 
following are a few of the best : — 

Balceng hybrids, several, of various colours. 
Biflora, previously described, and its varieties. 
Chamaeiris, violet, and its varieties. 
Lutescens, yellow, and its varieties. 
Pumila, previously described, and its varieties. 

The Cushion Irises are not so hardy as the Flags, 
and require a warm situation. They are best planted at 
midwinter and covered with heather till spring. After 
the leaves have withered they may be lifted and ripened 
in a dry, sunny place. 

This survey of the genus Iris may strike the beginner 
as voluminous, but in reality it is brief and condensed. 
The fact is, the flower is one on which it would be easier 
to write a whole book than it is to write a chapter ; and 
special works on the Iris actually exist. 

The Iris is a most varied, most fascinating flower. 
It wins all hearts with its wonderful beauty and the 
generous nature which adapts it to almost all circum- 
stances. It is everybody's flower, and will live for ever. 



With pretty flowerS; vigorous growth, and, in the 
case of most species, perfume to recommend them, 
the Jasmines are in the way for being prime garden 
favourites ; but all are not hardy — indeed the majority 
have to be grown under glass. It would almost seem 
as though some of the botanists wanted to make 
Jasmines greenhouse rather than garden flowers, because 
they are not satisfied with the known tender species, 
but even claim our old favourite the winter-flowering 
nudiflorum as an indoor plant. This cannot be per- 
mitted. It might be possible to point to cases of the 
plant being killed by frost (although I have never known 
one), but it is quite certain that scores of others could 
be quoted in which it has passed many years in the 
open air, and remained unscathed by severe frost. 

The popular and botanical names of the Jasmine 
are very similar. All we have to do is to remove the 
final '*e" of the garden name, and add "um" to be 
as frigidly accurate as any dictionary. The derivation 
of the name is not difficult to trace. Behind the English 
Jasmine we have the French Jasmin, behind the latter 
the Arabic Ysmyn and the Persian Yasmin or J^semin. 
The pronunciation is Jaz-my'-num. 

It is too old a plant to have been named after the 

illustrious ^'Jasmin," the barber poet of Provence, for 



Jacques B06 was born in 1798; and the Jasmine has 
been known in British gardens since 1548. '^Jasmin/' 
indeed, borrowed his nont de guerre from the plant, and 
sang his connection with the ''stem of Jesse." Our 
flower is often the '' Jessamine," and sometimes even the 

The Jasmine does not seem to have attracted the 
attention of Shakespeare, which is somewhat surprising, 
for it would be known in his day. Gerard refers to 
it as in general use for covering arbours, and Shake- 
speare knew plants well, as almost every play of his 
teaches us. But Spenser alluded to it, and later poets, 
such as Cowper and Moore, gladly wove it into their 
mellifluous verse. The former gave a striking portrait 
of the flower in the lines — 

" The Jasmine, throwing wide her elegant sweets, 
The deep dark green of whose unvarnished leaf 
Makes more conspicuous, and illumines more 
The bright profusion of her scattered stars." 

Moore, with lighter touch, deftly conveys a charming 
picture of childish innocence and rural beauty — 

" When, o'er the Vale of Balbec winging 
Slowly, she sees a child at play, 
Among the rosy wild flow'rs singing, 
As rosy and as wild as they : 
Chasing, with eager hands and eyes. 
The beautiful blue damsel-flies, 
That fluttered round the Jasmine stems, 
Like winged flow'rs or flying gems," 

The sweet white Jasmine is known to botanists as 
Jasminum officinale, and they tell us that it came from 
the East Indies. Further, they give us — and we are 
grateful to them for it — a coloured plate of the flower 
in the Botanical Magazine, t. 31. Neither in examining 


the illustration nor in looking at the plant in the garden 
should we describe it as a striking rambler. At its best 
it is a modest plant, with no size of bloom or brilliance 
of colour to recommend it. But when well managed 
it is pretty, and its perfume is all-convincing. We 
could almost tolerate ugliness in a flower so long as 
it possessed the delicious odour of the old white Jasmine. 
Because of this odour we put the plant on our summer- 
houses, or in other places where we walk or sit 
frequently, so that we may have it near us for at least 
a part of every day. 

In spite of its odour, the Jasmine has probably 
receded in public favour during recent years, having 
given place to the pushful Mountain Clematis. The 
latter is not scented, but it is a vigorous grower, takes 
care of itself when once started, flowers abundantly, 
and has a generally bright, happy, cheerful appearance. 
The Jasmine wants rather more attention, and attention 
is just what it does not get, as a rule. It is put into 
poor soil, never pruned, and rarely watered. The 
result is that it is often shabby and droopy. Those 
who set out to grow it should give it a fair chance 
of showing what is in it. They should give it a bushel 
of prepared soil, and plant it early in spring, before the 
hot weather has come on. If it is growing on a hot 
wall, they should give it a good soaking of water once 
a week or oftener, and a pailful of liquid manure now 
and then. A douche with a syringe on the evenings of 
hot days will freshen it. With respect to pruning, while 
no regular course of cutting back or spurring in is 
necessary, the plant should not be allowed to become 
a tangle of weak shoots. Where there is much crossing 
and crowding, the pruning knife should be brought into 
play, and a vigorous thinning resorted to. 


There are variegated-leaved forms of the white 
Jasmine, which may be grown instead of the green- 
leaved if desired. 

Town gardeners should not overlook this sweet 
flower, for it will thrive in their gardens quite as well 
as the Mountain Clematis if it is treated liberally. In 
dry seasons the flowers, which are generally borne in 
July, are often followed by a crop of round dark 
berries, about as large as Peas. 

Two hardy Jasmines which are not grown frequently 
2LVt fruticans and humile. Both are of shrubby habit, and 
grow about three feet high. They are not without 
interest, but I would not urge them on the attention 
of flower-lovers whose gardens are too small to accom- 
modate a large collection of plants — certainly not if 
their culture meant the exclusion of the yellow winter 
bloomer nudiflorum. This cheap, easily grown, and most 
useful plant was introduced from China in 1844. I^ 
was sent home by the celebrated plant collector, Robert 
Fortune, who travelled for the Royal Horticultural 
Society from 1843 to 1846. It is illustrated in the 
Botanical MagazinCy t, 4649. We can speak of it as the 
winter Jasmine correctly, for it always blooms in the 
winter. The amount of shelter which it receives affects 
the flowering to some extent, naturally, but the amateur 
need not, because of this, despair because he cannot find 
a snug corner or a warm aspect, for in mild spells it 
will flower almost anywhere. It will, indeed, bloom in 
bursts from week to week, and a hard spell of frost will 
be needed to keep it out of flower for long. 

The winter Jasmine is semi-shrubby, but although in 
no sense a ^'climber," a "creeper," or even a rambler, 
it does best against some kind of support. It may be 
grown against a pillar, an arch, or a wall. In good soil 


it will probably grow about five feet high. It is not an 
evergreen; consequently the flowers have no backing 
save those of the stems, but these are of a rich dark 
green. The leaves come in spring. The specific name 
derives from the fact that the plant blooms when devoid 
of leaves. 

The winter Jasmine is a good town plant, and will 
grow in ordinary soil ; but, like most other things, it 
appreciates fertile ground. Beyond tying or nailing it 
to its support it will require very little treatment, as 
much pruning is objectionable. It suffices to cut out 
some of the older wood when the plant gets crowded. 

Several other species of Jasmine are pretty and 
sweet, notably grandiflorumy which is larger than the 
white Jasmine ; odoratissimum, very fragrant ; gracil- 
limuniy white, illustrated in the Botanical Magazine^ 
t, 6559 ; revohitmUy yellow [Botanical Magazine ^ t, 1731) ; 
and Sambac, white flowers followed by black berries, 
the species from which oil of Jasmine is obtained : but 
these are greenhouse plants. The last three are ever- 

It is as a garden plant that the sweet Jessamine 
appeals to most of us, and we ought to grow it better 
than we often do, thereby insuring it the place in our 
gardens which it now seems doomed to lose. 





The name Larkspur is one of the oldest of popular 
garden terms, and it is a tribute to the power of the 
hardy plant movement that we flower-lovers are taking 
to the botanical name, Delphinium^ so readily. The 
rough-and-ready classification of the garden is that 
the annual form is the Larkspur and the perennial the 
Delphinium. As a matter of fact, all Larkspurs are 
Delphiniums, but the distinction w^ill serve. The exten- 
sion of borders for herbaceous plants has led to a 
demand for perennial Delphiniums on account of their 
tall growth and beautiful spikes of blue flowers, and 
people seem quite content to know them by their 
botanical name. 

Delphinium (pronunciation Del-fin'-i-um) is formed, 
according to the usually accurate Chambers, from the 
Greek Delphinion, Larkspur ; and Larkspur is ^'so called 
from the spur formation of calyx and petals." He 
takes us back to the Middle-English laverock^ the 
Anglo-Saxon lawerce, and the German lerche. But 
botanists trace Delphinium to delphitiy a dolphin, from 
a supposed likeness of the spur to a dolphin's head. 

Larkspur is not the popular form of the name, for 

the Delphinium has many garden names. Larks' heels, 

Larksclaw, and Larkstoes are others ; and the first of 

these was used by Shakespeare, if we may credit him 

with the introductory song to Beaumont and Fletcher's 



pla}^, *' The Two Noble Kinsmen," where the phrase 
" Larks' heels trim " appears. 

The annual Larkspur may be claimed fairly as a 
British plant, because it would seem to have derived 
from the two species ajacis and consolida. We are 
told that the former was introduced from Switzerland 
in 1573, but it is naturalised in Cambridgeshire, accord- 
ing to Mr. Thomas Fox. With respect to the other 
species, it is a true native. Both flower in a wild state 
in June. There are no wild perennial forms. 

The perennial herbaceous Larkspur which all classes 
agree to call Delphiniums have sprung from the three 
blue Siberian species, cheilanthum, elatum^ and grandi- 
fiorumy the blue Italian s^tcits per egrinum^ and the blue 
garden hybrid formosum. These have been crossed, 
and the progeny intercrossed, by Kelway and other well- 
known modern fiorists, to an extent that it would be 
difficult even to guess at. The varieties so produced 
have been given distinguishing names, and they have 
raised the plant to a position of high importance in 
modern gardening. Delphiniums play a part, indeed, 
that few other plants are fitted to fill. Their growth 
is so vigorous, their spikes so tall, that they make noble 
pictures in themselves ; and those amateurs who con- 
sider that the most striking form of flower gardening 
is to make a few bold groups of selected plants, seize 
on the Delphinium as peculiarly a plant for their 
purpose. The interest of the perennial Larkspur does 
not lie wholly in its flow^ers, for the leaves are distinct 
and handsome. Kelway likens them, not inaptly, 
to those of the Acanthus, or Bear's Breech, a plant 
whose foliage is said to have suggested the Corinthian 
style of architecture. The leaves are broad and deeply 
cut, and are set on strong, whitish flower-stems. 



Propagation. — The root-stock is thick and fleshy, the 
roots differing entirely from fibrous things Hke Michael- 
mas Daisies. They resemble the large, succulent roots 
of the " Bleeding Heart," Dielytra (or, with modern 
botanists, Dicentra) spectabilis. Somehow, the amateur 
shrinks from dividing root-stocks thus composed much 
more seriously than he does from dealing with stools 
that consist of a thick network of fine fibres ; but should 
he be standing with poised spade, hesitating and doubt- 
ful, he may be encouraged to strike home boldly, provided 
his clumps are strong, and are furnished with distinct 
*' crowns " or growing points. 

Soil. — As bought from the nursery, in the first place, 
the root-stocks are not, as a rule, ripe for division. They 
consist generally of single ^' crowns " with a few strong 
roots attached, and the amateur is not to split them up, 
but, on the contrary, so to treat them as to get them a 
good deal larger. With this object in view, he should 
plant them some time between November and April 
(both months inclusive) in soil that he has prepared 
for them. The extent of the preparation may depend, 
to some extent, on the character of the ground. Deep, 
moist, ^* holding " soil is eminently qualified to give fine 
Delphiniums, but the site ought not to be low and un- 
drained, as they do not care for stagnant ground in 
winter. Given drainage, and pulverisation to a depth of 
eighteen inches or two feet, heavy clay will grow Del- 
phiniums to perfection. The bottom soil ought to be 
broken up when the ground is fairly dry in winter. If 
the top soil breaks up in a very lumpy state, a coat of 
decayed stable manure may be spread on it and left for 
a few weeks. This, in conjunction with the spring rains, 
will soften the surface, and it will crumble down into a 
friable state by spring. I have had most encouraging 


results with Delphiniums on heavy land by following 
this course. 

A later experience with light, fibreless land overlying 
chalk taught me the full value of deep clay. At the 
same time, it taught me that the perennial Larkspurs 
can be made to thrive on poor, thin ground. The course 
to pursue is to break up the chalk and cover it with 
green refuse, then to dig the surface soil to the last 
fraction of an inch, and interlard it with rich decayed 
manure from a stable or farm-yard. It is a good plan 
to do this in autumn, and add a light dressing of manure 
in spring, in the form of a mulching over the soil when 
the plants have been put in. The owner of light, shallow 
ground is favoured, so far as his plants are concerned, if 
a wet summer follows the planting. If not, let him give 
good soakings of water and liquid manure now and 


The Delphinium is a poor, ineffective plant when 
badly grown ; in fact, it is almost unsightly, as the 
foliage becomes flabby and dingy, the spikes are small, 
and the flowers are soon over. In such a state it is not 
worth the space that it occupies. We must remember 
that the Delphinium is an early blooming plant, and we 
can only have it in flower all the summer by giving good 
treatment and cutting it back after blooming. 

At its best it has no rival, for there is no plant of the 
same character. It gives us the coveted colour blue, and 
gives it generously. It gives us blues as shining as Salvias, 
others as dense as Gentians, others as brilliant as Sweet 
Peas, others as clear of eye as Forget-me-nots. No 
hardy plant gives the splendid range of blues that we 
get in the perennial Larkspur. And the plant has lofty 
stature, massive spikes, to recommend it. The stems 
rise to six feet high or more in good soil. They are as 


tall and graceful as Hollyhocks, Foxgloves, or Eremuri. 
In their best condition they are truly noble ornaments 
of the herbaceous border. They may be set a yard 
apart, in groups, large or small, according to the space 
available, and may be blended with pillar Roses, Pasonies, 
Phloxes, and other good border plants. In the case of 
small borders, where grouping is impracticable, they may 
be set in a row at the back, as Hollyhocks were in their 
palmy days ; and they will worthily wear the mantle 
which the Hollyhock has been compelled to lay down 
owing to disease. The Delphinium has no specific 
enemy of any note, and — always given good culture — 
it is a perfectly healthy and happy plant. 

When the plants become dingy in the autumn, they 
may be cut to the ground. If the root-stocks are not 
to be divided the soil may be forked up around them, 
and some manure worked in or laid on the surface 
as a mulch. Should slugs attack the young growths 
seriously, some freshly slaked lime may be strewn 

Seedlings. — Blue is not the only colour which the 
Delphinium gives us. We have white, pale yellow, and 
rose. Again, some are semi-double, and some full double. 
There are, too, scarlet species in cardinale and nudicaule. 
Both are fine plants, but the latter is a dwarf grower. 
These are easily raised from seed, and strong plants 
can be secured by autumn if the seed is sown in a 
box in spring, and put in a cold frame. If the seedlings 
are kept thin, put out a few inches apart in summer, 
and watered in dry weather, they will be in good con- 
dition for planting in September or later. If the soil 
is heavy and undrained, they ought not to be planted 
before spring, but they must not overcrowd each other 
in the nursery bed. 



The modern hybrids and varieties may be raised 
from seed the same as the species, but they will not 
come true. Those who cannot afford to buy named 
varieties should procure seed from a good firm, and 
perpetuate a few of the best varieties which result by 
means of cuttings. This is an economical way of pro- 
curing a good stock. They should select varieties for 
increase which have large, wide flowers, well disposed 
on the spike. The colours should be rich and clear* 
Flowers with dark or light blue sepals and clear white 
or dark eye are the most desirable. These are really 
charming as individual flowers, and will well bear close 
inspection. As much can hardly be said of old varieties. 

The following are fine named varieties : — 

Autolycus. — Violet, black eye. 
Beauty of Langport. — White, black eye. 
Geneva. — Sky blue. 
Grand Duchess. — Sky blue, black eye. 
John Thorpe. — Dark blue, white eye. 
King of Delphiniums. — Gentian blue, white eye. 
True Blue. — Bright blue, dark eye. 
Persimmon. — Light blue, greyish centre. 
Blue Butterfly. — A dwarf variety, good as an annual. 

From a Water Colon r Drmciiig by Liliuii Sfanimrd. 

White Lilies. 



Whether we limit the term ^' Lily," as many gardeners 
do, to members of the genus Lilhim, or whether we 
allow it the wider scope which has been given to it 
by the popular voice, and, include Lilies of the Valley 
and all other plants grown as Lilies in gardens, it 
is still a great force. The Lilies appeal to us by large 
size and handsome form of flower, by purity, and by 
perfume. They are amongst the noblest of garden plants. 
Everybody can grow some of them, and the townsman 
can have his share. 

No lover of hardy plants can afford to ignore the 
Lilies. To do so would be to submit himself to the 
risk of a heavy blow in summer, when a visit to a 
friend's garden, a nursery, or a public garden, revealed 
a beautiful group which could not be matched at home. 
In gardening an involuntary burst of envy is common. 
We see something elsewhere that we had fully intended 
to have ourselves, and, not having it, we of course 
admire it and long for it all the more. We have to 
put up with the disappointment for the time being, 
but we register a vow that another year shall not 
pass without seeing the plant at home in our own 

With the best of intentions we cannot always grow 

Lilies as well as other people, for there are sometimes 



special local circumstances which affect the welfare of 
the plants, but we can certainly grow some species 
quite creditably without any special help from fortune. 

It is a rare old flower the Lily, and it has stimulated 
the great minds of all ages. They have seen in its 
grace and purity the symbols of lofty moral instincts, 
and have used it repeatedly as a figure of beauty and 

" I love the Lily as the first of flowers," 

wrote Montgomery. This mediaeval poet gave it, we 
see, pride of place in the garden. He preferred it 
even to the Rose. 

Later, Cowper pursued a more measured course. 
He could not choose between the two beautiful flowers, 
and so he gave them dual sovereignty — 

" Within the garden's peaceful scene 
Appeared two lovely foes, 
Aspiring to the rank of Queen — 
The Lily and the Rose. 

* Yours is,' she said, ' the nobler hue, 
And yours the statelier mien, 
And till a third surpasses you, 
Let each be deemed a Queen.' " 

Shakespeare dearly loved the Lily, and referred to 
it again and again. Recall the noble and familiar lines 
in " King John," Act iv. scene 2 — 

" To guard a title that was rich before, 
To gild refined gold, to paint the Lily, 
To throw a perfume on the Violet, 
To smooth the ice, or add another hue 
Unto the rainbow, or with taper light 
To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish, 
Is wasteful and ridiculous excess." 


He used it repeatedly to give an effect of stainless 
purity — 

" Most radiant Pyramus, most Lily-white of hue." 

— Midsu7nfner Night's Dream. 

" Now by my maiden honour, yet pure 
As the unsulhed Lily." 

— Lov^s Labour's Lost. 

" A most unspotted Lily shall she pass 
To the ground." 

—Henry VLIL 

" Full gently now she takes him by the hand, 
A Lily prison'd in a jail of snow." 

— Venus aftd Adonis. 

What was the Lily which Shakespeare had in his 
mind in making these exquisite parallels ? In his day, 
and later, the name Lily was used very loosely. We 
have his own 

" Lilies of all kinds, 
The Flower-de-luce being one," 

and we have decided already (see Chapter XXIV.) that 
the Flower-de-luce was the Iris. But the bard could 
hardly have had any other flower before him than the 
true old white Lily, Lilium candidum^ when he chose 
a white Lily as a type and symbol of purity. His 
career ranged from 1564 to 1616. The White Lily is 
said to have been introduced to Great Britain in that 
wonderful year for new plants, 1596. (No student can 
fail to be struck by the number and importance of the 
plants which botanical records tell us were introduced 
in 1596, and the more sceptically inclined among them 
will incline to the belief that the herbalists resolved to 
credit 1596 with any plant of whose exact year of 
introduction they were uncertain.) If that date were 


correct, Liliuvi candidimt could not possibly have become 
a popular garden plant until after Shakespeare's time, 
and he must have referred mainly to the Lily of the 
Valley, which is a British plant ; but it is probable that 
the white Lily came to us much earlier than the year 

The Madonna Lily. — The White, Garden, or Madonna 
Lily is a beautiful plant, tall in growth, yet not so tall 
as the massive Japanese Lily, auratum, graceful in habit, 
pure as snow, and powerfully perfumed. It has long 
been a much-loved flower in cottage gardens. A cheap 
as well as a beautiful plant, it has proved to be within 
the means of the humblest grower of plants. Entirely 
hardy, not particular as to soil, it has proved its readi- 
ness to thrive in the most modest of gardens. It is 
an early grower, and the principal trade in its bulbs is 
done at the end of the summer and in the early autumn. 
Those who propose to plant it might well order it with 
their Roman Hyacinths, and although it will not be 
ready quite so early, it will follow them in good 

The White Lily, however, is not proof against all the 
ills of plant flesh. It is often attacked by a fungus, and 
whole clumps die out quickly, the bulbs rotting. The 
disease is less common in light, sandy, well-drained soils 
than in heavy, damp ground. Lilies, it is true, love 
moisture, but they abhor stagnant soil. It is possible, 
too, for the ground to be made too rich for them. If it 
is heavy it can be made suitable by drainage, pulverisa- 
tion, and the addition of bone flour alone. The soil 
should be dug deeply, left lumpy on the surface, dressed 
with burnt refuse from the garden fire, and bone flour 
at the rate of four ounces per square yard. Light ground 
may have manure, but it should be well-decayed stuff, 


preferably such as has been used for a hotbed. Sand 
may be sprinkled round the bulbs, and they may be 
covered four inches deep. 

When Liliu7n candiduin is thus treated it generally 
grows strongly, and bears large clusters of beautiful 
flowers, well earning such panegyrics as that of Cannart 
d'Hamale in his monograph of the Lily : " C'est le Lis 
classique, par excellence, et en meme temps le plus 
beau du genre." ^^ It takes its place naturally," says 
d'Hamale, ^' at the head of this splendid group" (^'11 
se place tout naturellement a la tete de ce groupe splen- 
dide "). Many would tell us that it is the Lily of the 
arms of France, but to this I demur. It is above all 
the classical Lily, and at the same time the finest of the 

The White Lily makes a charming border companion 
to the blue perennial Larkspurs, and may therefore be 
grouped near these noble flowers. The two plants are 
generally in bloom together. 

The Scarlet Lily, — If we doubt the accuracy of 1596 
as the date of the introduction of the white Lily, what 
are we to say of 1796 as the year when the fine scarlet 
species Chalcedonicum was introduced to Britain ? It is 
surely much older. The Scarlet Lily is a brilliant plant, 
and has long been a great favourite in our gardens. It 
is illustrated in the Botanical Magazine, t. 30. 

The Golden-rayed Lily, auratum, is a modern plant 
compared with the species named and some others to 
which reference will be made, as it was introduced as 
recently as 1862. As most people know, it is a Japanese 
plant, and to this day the principal trade is in Japanese 
bulbs. Although not so tall as giganteum, it is certainly 
the finest of all the hardy Lilies, and enjoys widespread 
popularity with all classes of flower-lovers. When given 


special culture it will grow six to eight feet high, and 
twelve to twenty magnificent flowers may be produced 
from one bulb. 

The original species had white flowers, barred with 
yellow and dotted with red. It is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine^ t. 5338. But importations yielded 
varieties differing from the type, and these were given 
varietal names. There were, for instance, cmentu^n, 
which was more heavily marked with red than the 
species ; platyphylhi77iy with broader leaves and very 
large flowers ; riibro-vittatum and rubruvi, forms with a 
broad crimson band along the petal ; tricolor, heavily 
spotted ; virginaky white ; and IVittei, with yellow bars. 
Specialists soon singled these treasures out, and created 
a special demand for them. They are now sold separately, 
under names, at a somewhat higher cost than the species 

Lovers of Lilies have established Lilium auratum as 
one of their prime favourites. They have found that it 
is capable of giving beautiful effects when grouped in 
the border, especially when it has shelter from shrubs 
or other plants capable of breaking strong wind. Such 
shelter is particularly grateful in spring, when the plants 
are making their first growth ; but it is welcome at all 
seasons, especially in wind-swept districts. Clay is not 
quite the right soil for it, but it can be made to thrive on 
heavy land if the site is well dressed with lighter material, 
such as leaf mould. The thick, soft deposits of the woods 
have a mellowing effect on stiff land. They should not 
be expected to do everything, however. The ground 
should be drained, the subsoil broken up, and the surface 
layer reduced by exposure in a lumpy state. If peat is 
available it should be added to the leaf mould which is 
incorporated, and in any case road grit or coarse sand 



should be added in sufficient quantity to make the soil 
crumbly and friable. 

Given due preparation of the soil, the golden-rayed 
Lily will thrive in town gardens, and no finer plant 
will ever grace the suburbanist's border. Most town 
gardens have shelter, if only that of walls or fences, 
and that is no small point in the plant's favour. The 
town gardener will find that half a bushel of fibrous 
loam from the nearest florist's and another half-bushel 
of road scrapings will help him greatly in preparing 
a site for his clump of Lilies. He might form a group 
of from three to six, according to the space available, 
and set the bulbs a foot apart on a base of pure sand in 
spring. Reliable Japanese bulbs are not available before 

In large country gardens it may be possible to form 
a Lily border in a sheltered place, such as along the 
front of a shrubbery, or under a kitchen-garden wall. 
If there are large trees near the shrubbery their roots 
may be expected to make for the spot, in quest of the 
good things provided for the Lilies, and it may be 
necessary to keep a trench open at the back to check 
their advance. If possible, a site near trees should be 
avoided, because the shade, and still more the drip, from 
large trees is bad. In the case of a wall border there 
is no objection to planting creepers to cover the wall ; 
on the contrary, it is advisable, as a flower-covered wall 
makes a beautiful and appropriate background. Roses 
are eminently suitable, as, in spite of their vigorous 
growth, they are not plants which throw out coarse, 
rambling roots, but produce a mat of fibres immediately 
around the stem. Warm-coloured Roses, like Bardou 
Job, Cheshunt Hybrid, and Reine Marie Henriette, must 
be included in the collection. Clematises also look well 


on a wall at the back of a Lily border. The Passion 
Flower [Passijlora cceruled) may be grown on a warm 
wall if it is liked, and so may the beautiful Ceafiothuses, 
which produce lavender or blue cones. 

In such a Lily border as the foregoing auratum, and 
possibly some of its varieties, must have a place. On 
account of its tall growth it must be set towards the 
back. If the soil is loam it will need little more than 
deepening and manuring to render it suitable ; but even 
loam needs breaking up to a good depth to render it 
thoroughly friable, and leaf mould or road scrapings 
will facilitate the task. The best manure is decayed 
stuff from an old hotbed. Two barrowloads to the 
square rod of ground will be a sufficient quantity to 
apply, and it should be worked underneath the top spit, 
where it will not touch the bulbs, but where the roojs 
will find it. If the natural soil of the Lily border is 
light, that is, if it is thin soil over chalk, or merely 
sand, it ought to be stiffened up with loam. Such soils 
are good in one respect — they are well drained, but they 
have not substance enough for Lilies. If chalk comes 
near the surface it ought to be broken up and covered 
with garden refuse. Loam, leaf mould, and decayed 
manure will collectively impart depth and body to the 
surface layer. 

Other Species. — In anything like a representative 
collection of Lilies possibly Batemanii and Bolanderi, 
but certainly Browniiy will find places. The first grows 
about three feet high, and has apricot-coloured flowers ; 
the second about two feet, and has purplish red blooms, 
it thrives under the same conditions as auratum ; the 
third four feet, and has white flowers marked with 
brown or purple. Brownii is one of the finest Lilies, 
and there are some good varieties of it, notably Odor- 


aster. It does well under the conditions prescribed for 
auratum. Bulbiferum is not a very important species, 
and may be left out of a small collection without much 
hesitation. It grows about a yard high, and has red 
flowers. It is not a fastidious sort, and thrives in most 

The Hybrid Lily Burbankiiy which was raised by 
crossing the species pardalinuin and Washingtonianum 
(or Parryi) is interesting. It grows about four feet 
high, and produces apricot-coloured flowers. The 
auratum treatment suits it. Canadense, a North Ameri- 
can species, is worth growing. Three to four feet high, 
it has orange yellow flowers with red spots ; but bulb- 
dealers offer two varieties of it, one with lighter flowers 
called Jlavum, and the other deeper in colour, and 
named rubrum. The cost of all is about the same — 
7s. to 8s. per dozen. They love peat, and; if a group 
of them is to be established in the Lily border, a 
station well dressed with peat should be prepared. 
The species is illustrated in the Botanical Magazine^ 
t. 800. 

Reverting to candidum and chalcedonicum, both 
will thrive with auratum treatment, and garden varieties 
of both are offered by bulb-dealers. A popular form 
of the White Lily is striatunty but it costs about double 
as much as the species. Heldreichi is one of the most 
esteemed forms of Chalcedonicum. 

Three newer species, which are offered in some 
catalogues, are carntoltcum, carolimanum, and Catesbcei. 
The first has red, the second orange, and the third 
scarlet flowers. Like Canadense they are peat-lovers. 
Catesbaei grows about eighteen inches high, and the 
others from two to three feet. Colchicum {Szovitzianunt) 
has yellow flowers spotted with brown, and grows about 


two feet high. It is not in the front rank, nor are 
columbia7iumy the Oregon Lily, and co7tcolor. The former 
grows three feet high, and has orange-spotted flowers ; 
the latter grows two feet high, and has red flowers ; its 
variety, Coridio7iy which has canary-coloured flowers, is 
offered in the catalogues at a slightly higher price than 
the parent. The auratum treatment will suit them. 
Cordifoliunty growing four feet high, and bearing white 
flowers marked with purple, is not much grown. 

The old Orange Lily, croceum, is one of the cheapest, 
brightest, and most easily grown of Lilies. It was 
introduced as far back as 1596, according to the 
records, and has got itself so firmly established that it 
is likely to last for a good many hundreds of years 
yet. Growing about two feet high in poor soil, and 
anything from three to six in rich ground, it is a 
familiar plant, alike in town and country gardens. The 
colour is as bright as the oranges that Nell Gwynn sold 
in the pit of Drury Lane. A hybrid Lily has been 
raised by crossing croceum with elegans (Thunbergianum 
ov formosum)j and is offered in some lists. 

Dalmaticum^ the Black Martagon of the catalogues, 
is really a dark variety of Martagon, the well-known 
purple *' Turk's Cap " Lily, and Dalhansoni is a hybrid 
raised by crossing Dalmaticum and the species Hansoni. 
It will be seen that the name is compounded of the 
names of the parents, the first syllable of the one being 
added to the whole of the other. Dalhansoni is a rather 
dear Lily. It grows four to five feet high, has purple 
flowers, and responds to auratum treatment. Dauricmit 
(the same Lily as that sometimes grown under the names 
of davuricum and spectabile) has red flowers, and grows 
about a yard high. The auratum treatment suits it. 

Elegans is one of the most beautiful and useful of 


our Lilies. It is the same species as that offered in 
many catalogues under the name of Thunbergianum. 
The botanists, indeed, appear to be unanimous in giving 
the name elegans priority, and the dealers have as 
strong a leaning to the longer name. It is a Japanese 
species, and has scarlet flowers. The height ranges 
from a foot to two feet. It is not quite hardy, and 
although it will thrive in the border with auratum 
treatment, it, or one of its varieties, is often grown 
in pots. The varieties cost from two shillings to two 
pounds per dozen, according to their rarity. The 
following varieties are offered in many catalogues : 
Alice Wilson, yellow ; alutaceunty orange ; citrinumy pale 
yellow ; flore pleno, double ;' grandiflorum, blood red ; 
fnarmoratum aureunij yellow ; and Van Houtteiy scarlet, 
a fine variety. Although these varieties of elegans are 
low growers they have very large flowers, and are 
extremely handsome plants. 

The species excelsum, testaceum^ and Isahelinum are 
\ the same — a plant growing four or five feet high, with 
nankeen-yellow flowers. It succeeds wnth the auratum 
treatment. Fortunei bears orange yellow flowers, and 
grows two feet high ; it is not an important species. 

The tallest member of the whole genus is giganteumy 
a true son of Anak, often growing twelve feet high, and 
bearing pure white flowers. This magnificent Lily is a 
native of the Himalaya, whence it was introduced in 
1852. It is illustrated in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 4673. 
It is by no means the plant for an exposed place, as it is 
somewhat tender, and is soon spoiled by a cold wind. 
It thrives with the auratum treatment in a sheltered 
place, and also luxuriates in a deep, peaty soil among 
shrubs. There is nothing more gratifying to the flower- 
lover than to see Lilimn giganteum starting on its career 


in spring, for it pushes a huge growth through the soil, 
and appears as robust as a young Oak. It is a somewhat 
expensive Lily, and bulb-dealers often supply it in 
various sizes at different prices. Two shillings is the 
average price of a bulb four inches through. 

The species Grayiy orange, dotted with purple, is not 
very important ; but Hansoni is a good plant, and is not 
expensive. It growls about four feet high, and, having 
yellow flowers, is sometimes called the yellow " Turk's 
Cap." It will succeed with the auratum treatment. 

Harrisii is a highly important Lily. It is really a 
variety of the species longiflorum^ but is grown com- 
mercially as a species. It is the famous white Easter 
Lily so much used as a pot-plant for forcing. Growing 
from two to three feet high, and bearing its long, pure 
white flowers freely, it is a charming plant for green- 
house and conservatory decoration in spring, and is 
very useful for cutting. If it were not an abundant 
bloomer, the flowers would be rather too expensive to 
use in quantity for wreath-making and church decoration, 
as the bulbs cost from 8d. to is. 6d. each, unless bought 
in considerable numbers, in which case they are much 
cheaper. It thrives in a compost of loam, leaf mould, 
and sand. If grown out of doors, it should have a 
sheltered place and the auratum treatment. 

The species Henryi, which was introduced from 
China as recently as 1888, has become a popular Lily. 
It has orange flowers, and grows four to five feet high. 
The auratum treatment suits it. Huinboldtii is a very 
good Lily. It is a Californian species, growing about 
four feet high, deep yellow in colour, with purple or 
brown spots. Two varieties are offered in many 
catalogues, the first being mag^iificum, a very deeply 
coloured variety ; and the second ocellatunij yellow, 


with purple spots. They are not the best natured of 
LiHes, and need a good loamy soil. Japonicum is the 
same as Elizabethce and Krameri. It is a charming 
Japanese Lily, growing two to three feet high, and 
with pink flowers. There is a white variety called 
AlexandrcC. The auratum treatment suits these charm- 
ing Lilies. Kelloggii is a Californian species with pink 
flowers, and, being rare, is somewhat expensive. It 
grows three or four feet high. Kewense is a hybrid, 
raised at the Royal Gardens, Kew, from a cross between 
Henryi and Brownii Chloraster. The flowers are white 
and buff in colour. The auratum treatment suits it, but 
it is generally grown in pots. Lancifolium is the same as 
speczosum. Leichtlini is a Japanese species of no great 
importance. It is yellow, with purple spots, and grows 
about two feet high. The auratum treatment suits it. 

We have a charming pot Lily in longiflorum, which 
grows about three feet high, and has long, tubular, pure 
white flowers. Japanese bulbs of it are very cheap. It 
will thrive out of doors with the auratum treatment in 
a sheltered place, but, like its variety, Harrisii, it is grown 
generally in pots. There are several varieties of it besides 
the Easter Lily, including one with variegated leaves ; 
that called Eximium is the same as Harrisii. 

Lowiij white, with purple blotches, growing two to 
three feet high, is an Indian species, and requires pot- 
culture in a warm house. We find another interesting 
hybrid in Marhan, which resulted from a cross between 
the white " Turk's Cap," martagon alburn^ and Hansom. 
The name is compounded of the first syllable of the 
names of the parents. The flower is orange in coloui, 
with brown or purple spots. It is a tall plant, and may 
go near the back of the border, where it will thrive under 
the auratum treatment. Forms of it are offered in some 


of the catalogues, notably G. F. Wilson, yellow, with 
carmine tips; and Miss E. Willmott, orange, with purple 
spots, but they are dear. Maritiimim^ orange, with dark 
spots, is a Californian Lily, and loves peat. It grows 
about three feet high. 

The famous purple '^ Turk's Cap " Lily is the species 
known to botanists as Martagotiy and was reputedly in- 
troduced from Germany in 1596. It is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine, it. 893 and 1634. ^^ grows about three 
feet high, and will thrive almost anywhere. It is often 
seen in the cottager's border, where it practically looks 
after itself. With the auratum treatment it is luxuriant. 
The common ^^ Turk's Cap " is one of the cheapest of 
Lilies, but its best varieties are rather dear. Albmuy 
the white, is a beautiful plant, and dabnaticum, claret- 
coloured, is also fine. These varieties are not quite 
so accommodating as the type, and had better have 
good auratum treatment. 

The Japanese species, Maximowiczii, is a bright but 
not very important Lily. It is scarlet in colour, grows 
about three feet high, and thrives with auratum treat- 
ment. Nor is medeoloides of any great value. It has 
orange flowers, grows about eighteen inches high, and 
likes auratum culture. Monadelphmn is more valuable. 
This handsome yellow species grows about three feet 
high, and thrives with auratum treatment. Neilgherrense 
is a pretty sulphur-coloured Lily growing about three 
feet high, but, being an Indian species, is not hardy, and 
had better be reserved for pot-culture, if grown at all. 
Nepalense is also lacking in hardiness. It has white 
flowers, and grows about three feet high. It is not 
important. Nitidum, yellow, with reddish spots, is a 
Californian species, and grows about two feet high. It 
thrives under the auratum treatment. 


The Panther Lily, pardalinumy is a Californian 
species of some importance, having orange flowers 
marked with crimson. Several varieties of it are offered 
in the catalogues, such as BourgcBz, Californicum, Johnsoni^ 
and Red Giant, the last somewhat expensive. They 
grow four to five feet high, and are peat-lovers. Parryiy 
a yellow-flowered Californian species, growing three to 
four feet high, should have peat. Parvum has small 
yellow flowers spotted with red, and is the same as 
Alpinum, As a Californian species, it is a peat-lover. 
A yellow variety, called hiteum, is offered by bulb-dealers. 
Philadelphicum^ scarlet, two to three feet high, is a North- 
American species that should have peat. It is a cheap 
Lily/ Cheaper still is Philippinense^ which grows two 
feet high, and has long, white, trumpet-shaped flowers. 
It is not hardy, and should be grown in pots. Poly- 
pkylhim, white, with purple spots, grows about three feet 
high, and thrives under auratum treatment. Pomponiumy 
two to three feet high, with small red flowers, is a hardy 
and accommodating Siberian species which needs no 
special treatment. It is a cheap plant. Pulchelluniy 
scarlet, is a rather dear and not very important Lily. 
PyrenaicufUy which has deep yellow flow^ers, and grows 
about three feet high, is a pretty Lily that thrives under 
auratum treatment. A red variety, rubrunty is offered in 
the catalogues. Roezlii, orange, with purple spots, is a 
hardy but not important species. 

Rubelluniy with pink flowers on stems eighteen inches 
to two feet high, is a charming and not expensive Lily 
that blooms early, and is often grown in pots. Rubescens, 
a tall species with white flowers, is rather dear, and not 
very important. 

One of the most beautiful and valuable of Lilies is 
speciosuin (lancifoliu7ri)y a Japanese species, growing three 



to four feet high, with white flowers spotted with red. 
There are many charming varieties of it, among which 
albufu and album KrcBtzeri may be named as beautiful 
and cheap white forms, well adapted for pot-culture. 
Album novu-m is a lovely variety, but somewhat dear. 
Other good and cheap varieties are roseum, rubrimiy 
rubruvt ^nagnificum^ and Melpomene, Although Lilium 
speciosum and its varieties are not reputedly hardy, and 
are generally cultivated in pots, they may be grown 
out of doors in a sheltered place with the auratum 

Sulphureum (which is the same as Wallichianuvt 
superbum) is a fine but expensive Lily, and is not hardy. 
It grows five to eight feet high, and has pale yellow 
flowers with a brown exterior. Superbumy orange with 
red spots, growing six feet high or more, is an American 
species, and loves a damp, peaty soil. It is quite hardy 
and very cheap, Sutchuenensej orange with dark spots, 
growing about two feet high, is somewhat dear, and is of 
no importance. Tenuifolium, scarlet, a Siberian species, 
growing about two feet high, is cheap and hardy. We 
have seen that testaceum is synonymous with excelsum, 
and Thunbergianum with elegans, under which names 
they are described. 

The orange black-spotted Tiger Lily {tigrinum\ 
which grows four to six feet high, is one of the 
cheapest and most easily grown of Lilies, thriving 
under the auratum treatment. Several varieties are 
offered in the catalogues, such as flore pleno (double), 
Fortuneiy and splendens. They cost about the same as the 
type, except Fortunei, which is rather dearer, but still a 
cheap plant. UmbellaiujUy which has red flowers, grows 
two to three feet high, and thrives under the auratum 
treatment, is an excellent Lily, and there are several 


varieties of it in the bulb catalogues, such as Cloth of 
Gold, erectumy and Incomparable. They are very cheap. 
Wallichianum, an Indian species with white flowers, 
growing three to four feet high, is not hardy, and should 
be grown in pots if wanted. 

The last species to be named is Washingtomanum, a 
Californian Lily, growing three to five feet high, and 
having white flowers. It thrives with the auratum 
treatment. A dark variety called purpureum is offered 
in the catalogues. 

The list of species given is a long one, and few 
readers are likely to require the whole ; nevertheless, 
many will grow some, and the descriptions and hints on 
culture may be useful to them. 

As to soil and culture, we see that the great majority 
are suited by that suggested for auratum, but that a few 
species (and notably the Californians) enjoy peat. Few 
Lilies like wet ground, but superbum is one that does, 
and the magnificent giganteum loves a cool, sheltered 

Culture in Pots. — Such popular Lilies as longiflorum, 
its variety Harrisii, speciosum and its varieties, such as 
Kraetzeri, thrive in a compost of three parts loam, and 
one part each leaf mould and decayed manure with 
one-tenth sand. As they generally throw out roots 
from the stem, it is well to place the bulbs low down 
in deep, well-drained pots, and nearly to cover them, 
but not to fill up until the stem roots appear, when 
more soil should be placed on. The pots should be 
stood in a sheltered place, and covered with ashes or 
cocoanut-fibre refuse after potting, and they should not 
be withdrawn until roots have pushed freely. They will 
enjoy abundance of air and water when in growth, and 


may be syringed to keep them fresh and subdue insects. 
They may be potted in autumn, winter, or spring, accord- 
ing to the season when the bulbs are available. They 
may also be grown in peat-moss fibre. 

Propagatio7i. — Lilies may be increased by offsets, 
which form at the base ; by bulbils, which form on the 
stems of such species as have the habit of producing 
them ; and by scales, which should be inserted in a box 
in a compost of leaf mould and sand, with some cocoa- 
nut-fibre refuse added in spring, and planted out when 
they have formed bulbs. 

Among other plants grown under the name of Lilies 
are the following : — 

African Corn Lily, Ixia. 

American Wood Lily, Trillium grandiflorum. 

Belladonna Lily, Amaryllis Bellado7i?ia. 

Brisbane Lily, Eurycles Cunninghami. 

Day Lily, Hemerocallis. 

Guernsey Lily, Nerine sarniensis. 

Herb Lily, Alstromeria. 

Jacobean Lily, Sprekelia formosissima. 

Lent Lily, Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. 

Lily of the Nile, Richardia ( Calla), Africana {y£thiopica). 

Lily of the Valley, Co?wallaria majalis, 

Mariposa Lily, Calochortus. 

Peruvian Lily, Alstromeria. 

Plantain Lily, Funkia. 

St. Bernard's Lily, Anthericum Liliago. 

St. Bruno's Lily, A?ithericum Liliastrum. 

Scarborough Lily, Vallota purpurea. 

Snake's Head Lily, Fritillaria. 

Torch Lily, K?iiphofia (Tritoma). 

Water Lily, NymphcBa. 

Most of these plants do not quite come within the 
scope of the present work, and as they are nearly all 


dealt with, according to their merit, in the companion 
volume, The Garden Week by Weeky it is not necessary 
to devote space to them herein. 

The flower-lover will find the Lilies a most interesting 
as well as beautiful class of plants. He should grow at 
least one variety — auratum, and he should endeavour to 
provide it with such beautiful associates as candidum, 
chalcedonicum, speciosum, and umbellatum, with such 
of their varieties as come within his means and space. 
They will give stately growth, graceful foliage and habit, 
and beautiful flowers. Their beauty is of a type that no 
other hardy plant provides, and so we may say that they 
are indispensable in the garden. 

Home aitd Imported Bulbs. — Lest the references to 
imported bulbs in the foregoing notes should lead to 
the inference that I regard them as the ** stock article," 
I may say that I do not do so. Foreign bulbs and late 
planting do not make for the most successful results 
with Lilies. The bulbs of all Liliums are much more 
liable to lose their freshness than such things as 
Hyacinths and Tulips, and even these are best potted 
or planted early in autumn, before they start to grow. 
Lilies ought really to be planted in late summer or 
early autumn, when the bulbs are quite fresh. But the 
imported bulb undoubtedly meets a want. It suits the 
amateur who cannot very well aftord the price of home- 
grown bulbs, or do his planting before the spring. The 
Japanese bulbs are large and cheap, and as they are 
encased in moist earth they do not become dry speedily. 
If, when they reach the hands of the grower, they have 
shrivelled, and have loose scales, they had better be 
laid in cocoanut-fibre refuse for a fortnight before 
planting, as this will freshen them. A soft, yielding 
bulb, with loose scales, is hardly worth using. 


Lovers of Lilies will not shrink from the little trouble 
involved in carrying out the hints given herein ; on the 
contrary, they will adopt them gladly. They will give 
of their best to a flower whose beauty they admire so 
much, and whose associations they reverence so deeply. 
Its appeal to them is a special one. It is not merely 
the flower of their gardens, it is the flower of the 
Sermon on the Mount, and as such it stirs thoughts 
and emotions which can nowhere find better expression 
than in the endeavour to add more beauty to the world. 



The modern Paeony may on no account be omitted 
from a list of popular garden flowers, for during recent 
years it has advanced by leaps and bounds. Visitors to 
the great flower shows gaze in wonder at the magnificent 
flowers which represent the florists' latest achievements 
in Paeony development — flowers almost as large as huge 
show Chrysanthemums, brilliantly coloured, and in the 
case of many varieties, richly scented. 

A grand old plant this Paeony, whether we consider 
it as a shrub or a herb. We have sections of both 
types, and the herbaceous Paeony is the older, so far 
as British gardens are concerned. The modern leaf- 
losing Paeony has sprung from two species, the white 
albijiora and the red officinalis^ and botanists tell us 
that both were introduced in 1548; whereas Moutan, 
the shrubby Paeony, did not arrive until 1789. The 
latter is illustrated in the Botanical Magaziney t. 11 54. 

With some writers the typical Paeony is corallina, a 
red herbaceous species, stated to be a native of England. 
Fox records it as found on May 23rd at Steep Holmes, 
Severn, and states that it produces red, pink, or white 
flowers. It is probable that this was the Paeony of the 
poets — if we allow them to have named a Paeony at 
all. It is not every student who will admit that Shake- 
speare had the Paeony in mind when he puts into the 



mouth of Iris (''The Tempest/' Act iv. scene i) the 
words — 

" Ceres, most bounteous lady, thy rich leas 
Of wheat, rye, barley, vetches, oats, and pease, 
Thy turfy mountains, where live nibbling sheep, 
And flat meads thatched with stover, them to keep; 
Thy banks with pioned and twilled brims, 
Which spongy April at thy best betrims 
To make cold nymphs chaste crowns." 

And it must be confessed that there is some justification 
for their scepticism, since pioner or pyoner (forerunner 
of our modern word pioneer) was used to indicate 
digger in mediaeval times. Shakespeare himself used it 
in this sense in " Hamlet." But it is at least as probable 
that he alluded to the plant, for, after all. Nature's 
banks are not 'Migged," but left to look after them- 

The Paeony was esteemed by the botanical writers 
of Shakespeare's time. Parkinson, for example, had it, 
and what is more, said that the double Paeony produced 
seed with him, which, being sown, ''bringeth forth 
some single and some double flowers." The double 
Paeony does not often do that in these days. Gerard 
also knew the Paeony quite well, and records it as 
growing wild at Southfleet, near Gravesend, although 
there is an unkind suggestion that it was first deliber- 
ately planted, and then hailed as a wilding by the 
planter. Southfleet is a parish of fruit in these days, 
and its market-gardens spread for many miles. 

The modern Paeony is one of the greatest of all 
border plants. It is of vigorous growth and hardy 
constitution, soon establishing itself, and spreading into 
large bushes. When it has made itself at home it bears 
its great brilliant flowers in abundance, moreover, it 

ON Pi^ONIES 265 

throws them up on thick, strong stems, quite clear of 
the leaves. It is both an early grower and an early 
bloomer. The ruddy stems of the herbaceous varieties 
push up in March, and in a warm spring a bed is a 
rich mass of colour in April. These spring tints of the 
Paeony growth give it an undeniable value, for they 
brighten up the border at a dull period, and afford a 
pleasant foretaste of the good things in store. 

When a clump of Pseonies has spread to three or 
four feet across, and is bearing a broad mass of leaves 
and two or three dozen brilliant flowers in June, it is 
an object with which few plants can vie. 

A minor point in favour of Paeonies is their healthy 
nature and freedom from insects and diseases. Slugs 
may do damage to the young shoots in spring if left 
unchecked, but dustings of lime soon reduce them to 

SoiL — The Paeony, then, has several things to recom- 
mend it : a healthy, hardy nature, vigorous growth, 
handsome spring tints, beautiful flowers, fragrance. 
Can it now be added that the plant will thrive any- 
where ? Hardly that. It does not care for shallow, 
dry soils, nor situations swept by cold winds. It loves 
a deep, fertile, moist soil ; and if there is a fence, or 
a bank of shrubs between it and the east winds of 
spring, all the better. Given the deep soil there is no 
plant more easy to manage, for it practically needs no 
culture. I have succeeded with it on shallow, chalky 
ground by loosening the chalk, dressing the top soil 
liberally with decayed manure, and giving occasional 
soakings of water, plus a weekly drenching of liquid 
manure throughout the summer. If the soil of a 
suburban garden is made fertile to a depth of eighteen 
inches by digging up the under soil and manuring 


it, also the top soil, it will grow Paeonies success- 

Plantmg. — The best time to plant Paeonies is towards 
the end of winter — say February or March. But they 
may be planted any time between October and April. 
After a mild winter the planting had better not be 
deferred until late spring; it should be done as soon 
after growth starts as possible. It will be seen that 
Paeonies have not a spreading, fibrous root-stock, but 
form a few thick, fleshy roots, which have a tendency 
to strike down deeply. They may be planted in clumps 
if desired, but as the habit is spreading, the components 
of a clump ought not to be nearer than eighteen inches. 
Single plants will suffice for small borders, as, if the soil 
is good, one plant will spread to anything from two 
to five feet across. 

Propagation, — Owing to the strong, fangy root-stock 
of which I have spoken, Paeonies do not lend themselves 
to propagation by division, the popular method of in- 
creasing most herbaceous plants ; moreover, they do 
not exhaust the soil nearly as much as plants with 
spreading fibrous root-stocks. On both these counts 
frequent propagation by division should be avoided. But 
when the clumps have become established thoroughly, 
and have spread so much as to encroach on the pre- 
serves of other plants, they may be cut up while dormant 
with a sharp spade. Florists propagate the majority of 
their best Tree Paeonies by grafting small pieces on to 
the roots of common herbaceous kinds. The latter 
cannot very well be divided. They do not die down 
to the ground every autumn like the herbaceous Paeonies. 
They retain their stems, but not their leaves, like an 
Apple tree. In sheltered places and rich soil they grow 
into large shrubs, like Rhododendrons. Paeonies can 


be raised from seed, and the best plan is to sow in a 
box in September, and put it in a cold frame. The 
seedlings will probably appear in spring, and when they 
are strong they may be set out in rows a foot apart, and 
hoed between to keep down weeds. If the soil is good 
they will be strong plants by autumn. By using seed 
bought from a firm which specialises in Paeonies the 
grower may rely on getting good varieties, some single, 
others double. 

Species and Varieties. — The name Paeony is said to 
derive from one Paeon, a physician. Albiflora (white- 
flowered) was a Siberian plant, and we should therefore 
expect its offspring to be hardy, as, indeed, the Paeonies 
are. Officinalis cannot be located with certainty. It is 
described in the records as of '^ European origin," which 
is pleasantly vague. The old double red Paeony of 
cottage gardens is the officinalis rubra plena of the 
botanists. It is a fine, and at the same time a cheap, 
plant. The old double white and double rose are 
respectively officinalis alba plena and officinalis rosea 
plena. There is a handsome species called by 
botanists tenuifolia, which is illustrated in the Botanical 
Magazine, t. 226. This is often grown under the name 
of the Fennel-leaved Paeony. It has red flowers, and 
there is a double form of it. The Anemone-flowered 
Paeony [aneinonceflora) is a variety of officinalis. Witt- 
manniana is a notable though rather expensive species, 
with primrose-coloured flowers. It is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine, t. 6645. 

While the Paeony-lover likes to know of the species 
of his favourite flower, his interest lies mainly in the 
modern varieties, and to those we may turn, for the list 
of species is short and (considered from the garden stand- 
point) unimportant. 


When the amateur opens a hardy plant catalogue 
and turns to Paeony he may be dismayed to find that 
plants are quoted at as much as half a guinea each ; but 
if he reads closer he learns that the varieties offered 
at this price are the latest novelties, and he has only to 
turn over a page or two to find sorts offered at prices 
falling by stages to eighteenpence or a shilling each. If 
the price still seems rather high, he may be reminded 
that Paeonies are not plants which can be propagated 
rapidly, and can never, therefore, be sold as cheaply as 
some plants. Moreover, being large plants, he will not 
need to buy many of them. In case he is swayed by the 
fear that cheap varieties are necessarily poor ones, I may 
reassure him by saying that the standard of Paeonies has 
been a high one for so many years that a six or even a 
ten-year-old sort is still a good one. The following, for 
instance, are fine double Paeonies, although inexpen- 
sive : — 

Denis Helve, dwarf red, very sweet. 

Dr. Brettoneau, dark rose. 

Duchesse de Nemours, white, delicious Rose perfume. 

Festiva maxima, white, red tips. 

Francois Ortigal, purplish crimson. 

Humei carnea, peach, white centre. 

Louis van Houtte, crimson, yellow anthers. 

Lucrece, pink, white centre. 

Madame Vilmorin, blush, Rose scented. 

Magnifica, white, flushed yellow, fragrant. 

Ne Plus Ultra, light rose, very fine. 

Virginie, rose, white centre, Anemone-flowered. 

They may not be so fine as the best of the modern 
varieties which the amateur sees at a great show, the 
highest product at once of the skill of the hybridist and 
the experience of the professional grower ; but, when all 


is said and done, there is less difference between them 
than there is between half a guinea and a shilling to a 
person of moderate means. 

The principal reason why I describe double instead 
of single varieties is that they last longer. As the Paeony 
is naturally an early blooming plant we want to get as 
much out of it as possible before it passes for the season. 
Seedling Snapdragons or Pentstemons may be planted 
near it in May to give beauty when it is over ; or a group 
of Gladioli may be planted close by, to give beauty 
when the Paeonies have faded. Without some such 
provision there may be a dull patch in the border late 
in summer ; with it, the display of colour is maintained 
until the autumn frosts arrive. Single Paeonies are 
somewhat fleeting ; still, they are beautiful flowers, and 
amateurs who fancy them in preference to the doubles 
will find no difficulty in obtaining varieties at corre- 
sponding prices. 



Elsewhere in this work I have remarked that there 
are some flowers whose appeal is so intimate and 
irresistible that they do more than stimulate interest 
and admiration — they arouse our love. The Pansy is 
one of them. Its flowers may be excelled in beauty — 
as they certainly are in size — by those of many plants, 
but it is winning where they are no more than brilliant, 
and so it probes deeply into our hearts, and finds an 
abiding resting-place there. 

People sometimes speak of the popular names of the 
Pansy, as though the names of the books and catalogues 
were a scientific one. Pansy is itself a " popular " 
name, and it has become generic by mere right of long 
usage. It is a corruption oi penseey the French word for 
thought, but why the French gave this name to the little 
flower is not obvious. Was it supposed to stimulate 
reflection ? Were the thoughts pleasant or painful ? 
We should say that they were agreeable if we knew of 
one other common name only, ^' Heartease," but there 
is another, '' Love-in-idleness," and this really meant 
love in vain. 

Perhaps we should not be far wrong if we assumed 
that it was originally ^^ the flower of one's thoughts," 
for la dame de ses penseeSy or ** one's lady-love," is a 

phrase that might have been copied. As an abbre- 



viation of la fleiir de ses pens^es, the use of pensies as a 
name for the flower becomes intelligible. The Pansy 
has always been associated with tender thoughts, such 
as those of love. It is the ^'Cupid's flower" of Shake- 
speare in the " Midsummer Night's Dream " — 

" Dian's bud o'er Cupid's flower 
Hath such force and blessed power." 

Shakespeare knew, too, of the origin of Pansy, for in 
'• Hamlet," Act iv. scene 5, Ophelia exclaims : " There's 
Rosemary, that's for remembrance ; pray you, love, re- 
member ; and there is Pansies, that's for thoughts." 
To which Laertes responds: '^ A document in madness, 
thoughts and remembrance fitted." 

Shakespeare was familiar with the folk-name, Love- 
in-idleness, for in "The Midsummer Night's Dream," 
Act ii. scene i, we find — 

" Yet marked I where the bolt of Cupid fell : 
It fell upon a little western flower, 
Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound, 
And maidens call it Love-in-idleness. 
Fetch me that flower, the herb I showed thee once ; 
The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid 
Will make or man or woman madly dote 
Upon the next hve creature that it sees. 
Fetch me this herb." 

The Pansy, then, was a *^ western " flower, and it 
was a component of love potions. As regards its 
habitat, it is a British plant, found in Scotland, Ireland, 
the Channel Islands, and by many English waysides. It 
is purple and pale yellow in colour, so that the Bard was 
not far wrong in his description of it. The wild moun- 
tain Pansy, found on many moors and hills, is yellow. 

We have found already three folk-names for the 


Pansy, but that number is added to greatly by Dr. 
Prior in his '' Popular Names of Flowers." He gives 
the following : Herb Trinity ; Three-faces-under-a- 
hood ; Fancy-Flamy ; Kiss me-Cull me, or, Cuddle- 
me-to-you ; Tickle-my-fancy ; Kiss me 'ere I rise ; 
Jump up and kiss me ; Kiss me at the garden gate ; 
and Pink of my John. All, it is to be noted, are of an 
amatory nature. Prior thought that the quaint names 
given to the flower arose partly from its habit of 
^* coquettishly hanging its head and half hiding its 
face." Whatever the cause, the Pansy has many en- 
dearing cognomens, and their number, allied to their 
affectionate character, may be taken as some measure 
of its popularity. 

The wild Pansy is a five-petalled flower, about 
three-quarters of a inch across. The lower petal is 
the largest, and, as in other wild flowers of which 
the petals vary in size, it has what the florists would 
describe as a " ragged " appearance. Florists do not 
like flowers with petals that have gaps between them, 
and one of their first objects in improving a flower 
is to fill up the gaps. By steady selection they increase 
the size of the smaller petals until they get them as large 
as the biggest. They not only fill up the gap, but secure 
a margin, so that the petals overlap each other a little. 
If the outline of the petals is uneven, indented, or flat, 
they pursue their operations until they have got it 
slightly convex, and this, in conjunction with the closing- 
up of the petals, gives a well-rounded flower ; in other 
words, the upper outline of each petal unites to form a 
circle. It all sounds mysterious and surprising to the 
novice, but it is mere finger-and-thumb routine to the 
experienced florist. Working by cross-fertilising one 
variety with another, by selecting those of the offspring 


for parents in future crosses that come nearest to his 
ideal, and by taking advantage of any natural variation, 
he gets gradually nearer to the goal. 

It would be as difficult to say when the work of im- 
proving the Pansy began, as to trace the stages by which 
it advanced towards the form of the best type which we 
have at the present day ; but that the way has been a long 
one may be judged by comparing the wild Pansy with a 
modern Scotch prize flower. The blooms which the 
specialists stage are nearly three inches across, the out- 
line is perfect, the petals are thick and substantial, the 
colour markings are exquisite. Perhaps the amateur 
who only knows the Pansy as a garden flower is a little 
startled when he first sees a stand of prize flowers at a 
show. He may be *' doing Scotland," and, seeing an 
announcement of a big flower show in Edinburgh or 
elsewhere, and recalling the high reputation of Scotch 
gardeners, may decide to drop in and see what the 
Scotchmen can really do. Whatever the latter is or 
is not capable of in other directions, he can certainly 
grow Pansies. The flowers will be a revelation to the 
novice, who will hardly know them at the first glance. 
However, a closer inspection will convince him that the 
flowers really are Pansies, for though much larger, 
rounder, thicker, and more beautifully coloured than 
any Pansies that he has ever seen before, they will have 
the same bright, winning, affectionate faces. 

There may be two different types of flower at the 
show, one having much smaller flowers and more sedate 
colours than the other. These comparatively small 
flowers (which, however, will be larger than the ordinary 
garden Pansies) may have one colour only, or they may 
have a dark central blotch and an outer band of the 
same colour on a white or yellow ground. These are 


all termed Show Pansies. The section with much 
larger flowers, and with more brilliance and variety in 
the colours, are called Fancy Pansies, and they have 
become so popular that their smaller sisters have to 
play the part of Cinderella. Here is a description of 
a typical Fancy Pansy : '' Brownish purple blotches, 
laced with yellow and crimson ; upper petals lemon 
yellow, with dark blotches and broad band of purplish 
crimson." What a gay fellow have we here ! 

Propagation. — The prize Pansies are grown under 
names, and they are kept true to character by propa- 
gating them from cuttings. Any good garden Pansy 
which an amateur has raised from seed may be per- 
petuated in the same way. The process is very simple. 
Shoots are taken off in September, and young, solid 
stems are chosen which are not, and have not been, 
in bloom. Sometimes suitable shoots may be found 
springing quite from the base of the plant, and this 
is the more Hkely to be the case if the grower has 
placed some rich soil round the plants in July. The 
cuttings should be inserted, just clear of each other, in 
sandy soil in boxes, which may be put in a frame. Air 
should be given when the weather is fine throughout 
the winter, and if brown aphis attack the cuttings it 
should be brushed off. The cuttings will grow in 
spring, and may be planted out. Although prize 
Pansies are propagated by cuttings, a stock of plants 
has to be bought in the first place, and they will cost 
4d. to 2S. 6d. each, according to their variety. Very 
good varieties can be bought for 6d. a plant. If the 
grower does not wish for named varieties, he can 
buy a good strain for 8s. a hundred, or approximately 
id. each. London and other amateurs can often buy 
boxes of plants even cheaper than this, for some of 


the market gardeners grow them by the thousand for 
spring planting. The plants are sold through florists* 
shops and off costermongers' barrows. The cheapest 
plan of all is to raise plants from seed at home. Some 
dealers supply seed as cheap as id. a packet, and 
specialists offer it as low as 6d. The following strains 
of seed can be bought amongst others : (i) Exhibition 
Fancy ; (2) Bedding Fancy ; (3) Masterpiece ; (4) Pea- 
cock ; (5) Odier's Blotched or Spotted; (6) Bedding, 
in separate colours and in mixture ; (7) Show ; (8) 
Trimardeau ; (9) Bugnot's veined ; (10) Cassier's. Nos. 
5, 8; 9; 10 are Continental strains. Probably No. 2 
(Bedding Fancy) would suit the amateur as well as 
any, but No. 4 (Peacock) is a richly coloured strain. 
Masterpiece has curled flowers. Whichever is chosen 
the seed may be sown in boxes of sandy soil in March, 
and put in a frame or on a greenhouse shelf. Heat 
is not absolutely necessary, but it is an advantage if 
the garden soil is poor and dry, because stronger plants 
can be got by a given time. If the seed is sown in 
February, and the plants hardened in a cold frame, they 
will be ready to plant early in May. Another plan of 
securing early plants is to raise the seedlings without 
artificial heat in July, winter them in an unheated frame, 
and plant them in April. However, in most cases it 
suffices to sow without heat in March, and plants so 
raised will be in bloom in July if treated well. 

Soil. — The Pansy chooses cool places as a wilding, 
and possibly one reason why it does well in Scotland 
is that it enjoys the cool, moist climate. This affords 
a hint to the cultivator. He may grow it in the full 
sun, but he should not plant it in dry, sandy soil. If 
the soil of the garden is of that character he should 
add loam and decayed manure liberally, and he should 


further mulch the bed with cow manure. This, com- 
bined with water and Hquid manure in summer, and 
with systematic removal of fading flowers, will insure 
success almost anywhere. In fact, with this treatment 
Pansies may be grown successfully in town gardens. 
They like rather than dislike clay soil. If well w^orked, 
clay soil is both fertile and moist, so that it suits Pansies 
well. If fine, fresh flowers are wanted for exhibition, 
the plants had better be grown in a bed to themselves, 
where special attention can be given to them. The buds 
may be thinned to get increased size of bloom, and the 
bed may be shaded with tiffany (a thin canvas) when 
show day approaches. But in ordinary garden use 
Pansies may be used in a less formal way. Clumps of 
them may be set near the front of herbaceous or shrub 
borders, and they may be used as margins for beds. 

Violas or Tufted Pansies. — When bedding or border- 
ing for garden effect is in view, the amateur may well 
consider the Violas or Tufted Pansies, which are more 
popular than the Pansies proper in these days. They 
are of hybrid origin, and probably some varieties of the 
garden Pansy have been used as parents of them. At 
all events, while there is a wide distinction between an 
exhibition Fancy Pansy and a Viola, it is sometimes 
difficult to distinguish between garden Pansies and 
Violas. The latter are supposed to have a more bushy 
habit, to throw up more shoots, and to produce more 
flowers than the Pansy. The blossoms are nominally 
smaller, however. They may be raised from seed and 
cuttings in precisely the same way as Pansies. Named 
varieties must be kept true by propagation from cuttings, 
but good mixed strains, also self blue, white, and yellow, 
can be raised from seed. The great popularity of Violas 
or Tufted Pansies is not at all surprising, for they are 

Violas or Tufted Pansies. 


valuable plants in many ways. They grow freely, and 
flower abundantly for several months. 

It is mainly owing to its profusion of bloom and 
dense, tufty habit that the Viola has got ahead of the 
Pansy as a garden plant. It has not the rich colouring 
of the latter, and could not be shown individually on a 
board like the Pansy. When exhibited it is set up in 
bunches like single Dahlias, most of the flowers being 
arranged so as to face the spectator. A series of such 
bunches, set up on green boards, forms a beautiful 
exhibit, far more striking and attractive to most flower- 
lovers than a board of Pansies, the blooms of which lie 
singly and flat on the show-board, however appealing 
the latter may be to the specialists. Viola exhibits are 
made at many of the principal shows both in England 
and Scotland. If there are not classes for them they 
may still be found, because trade florists set up non- 
competitive stands in the hope of arresting the attention 
of visitors, and so gaining orders for plants or seeds. 

As Town Flowers. — Speaking broadly, the Viola 
thrives best with the same soil and general culture as 
the Pansy, and enjoys similar conditions. But owing 
to its greater vigour it can make a better fight against ad- 
verse conditions. Those w^ho see the beautiful bands and 
beds of Violas in the London parks will appreciate this 
advantage fully. These displays bring home to them the 
fact that in spite of the reputation which members of 
the Viola family enjoy of being bad town plants, they 
can be made to succeed in town gardens. If the soil is 
well prepared, if planting is done by mid-May, if water- 
ing is attended to in hot, dry weather throughout June, 
if the flowers are picked, and if the plants are given a 
mulching of fresh soil and decayed manure in July, they 
will succeed. Let the suburbanist bed them among his 


standard Roses, or band them along the front of his 
Sweet Pea border. Nor Roses, nor Violas, nor Sweet 
Peas are nominally the right plants for him, yet if he 
has the root of floriculture in him he may make a toler- 
able success of all of them. 

The Sweet Violet. — We cannot think of the Viola 
genus without thoughts of the sweet Violet, Viola 
odorata, coming into our minds. Who does not love 
this delicious denizen of the hedgerows ? Who does 
not long to have it naturalised in his garden, and likewise 
giving him winter flowers from a snug frame ? That 
time of the year 

" When Daisies pied and Violets blue, 
And Ladysmocks all silver white, 
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue 

Do paint the meadows with delight," 

is one of enjoyment to every Nature-lover. 

The Sweet Violet comes with the Dog Violet, Violet 
caninay in March. The latter, paler in hue and not 
scented, sometimes deceives the inexperienced eye, and 
surprise and disappointment blend after an eager spring 
forward to gather the flowers. Both have five petals of 
unequal size, of which the lowest has a spur. 

The Sweet Violet was one of the prime favourites of 
Shakespeare. Note how he refers to it again and again, 
and always in language that breathes freshness and 

" Who when he lived, his breath and beauty set 
Gloss on the Rose, smell to the Violet." 

— Venus aTid Adonis. 

" The forward Violet thus did I chide : 
' Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells 
If not from love's breath ? The purple pride 
Which on thy soft cheek lor complexion dwells 


In my love's veins thou hast too grossly died. 

The Lily I condemned for thy hand, 

And buds of Marjorqim had stol'n thy hair.' " 

— Sonnet xcix. 

" They are as gentle 
As zephyrs blowing below the Violet, 
Not wagging his sweet head." 

— Cymbeline. 

" If music be the food of love, play on ; 
Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, 
The appetite may sicken, and so die. 
That strain again ! it had a dying fall : 
O ! it came o'er my ear like the sweet sound 
That breathes upon a bank of Violets, 
Stealing and giving odour." 

— Twelfth Night. 

And it was not Shakespeare alone of the great writers 
who loved the Violet. Its appeal was equally powerful 
to all. It made the same impression on Chaucer as on 

One would expect so old a British flower to have a 
common name. That it has not may be attributed to 
the natural charm of the Latin name Viola, of which 
Violet and Violetta (the latter applied to a miniature 
strain of garden Violas) are affectionate diminutives. 
Cockneys sometimes perpetrate the atrocity Voylat in 
naming it, but for the most part it is pronounced cor- 
rectly. Speaking of pronunciation, it may be well to 
point out that Viola is frequently rendered incorrectly. 
It is pronounced Vi-o'-la ; it should be Vi'-o-la, the 
accent being on the first syllable. 

That grand old mediaeval gardener Gerard used brave 
words of the Violet : '^ There be made of them garlands 
for the head, nosegaies and poesies, which are delightful! 
to looke on and pleasant to smell to, speaking nothing 
of their appropriate vertues : yea, gardens themse-ives 


receive by these the greatest ornament of all chiefest 
beautie and most gallant grace, and the recreation of the 
minde which is taken thereby cannot but be very good 
and honest ; for they admonish and stir up a man to 
that which is comelie and honest, for fioweres through 
their beautie, variety of colour, and exquisite form, do 
bring to a liberall and gentlemanly minde the remem- 
brance of honestie, comelinesse, and all kindes of 

If this leaves us a little breathless, we nevertheless 
perceive the point of it all, and are impressed with a 
respectful sympathy. 

Propagation of Sweet Violets. — Violets for the garden 
may be raised from seed in the same way as Pansies 
and Violas. It may not be known to all that the Violet 
bears its seed on a sort of supernumerary flower, devoid 
of petals and perfume, which is produced in autumn. 
Plants with this habit are spoken of by botanists as 
cleistogamous. But the fine modern varieties of Violets 
are rarely grown from seed ; they are propagated by 
runners, cuttings, or division, according to their habit. 
Some varieties throw out offspring on " runners," like 
Strawberries, and these can be struck in the ground 
around the parent if a little good soil is put to them and 
they are pegged down. Others, more Pansy-like in their 
habit, produce basal shoots devoid of flowers, and these 
can be taken off and treated as cuttings. Plants which 
spread and form a thick rootstock with many fibres are 
best divided. Whichever method is chosen it is generally 
practised in spring, for the plants make most of their 
growth in that season. 

Culture for Winter Bloom, — It is to yield winter 
bloom that Violets are generally grown in gardens, 
and they play their part generously when well treated. 


They must have protection, of course, and this is 
generally provided in the form of a glass frame, set up 
on a mild hot bed of manure and leaves. The plants 
are taken from the ground in September or October, 
and planted in a bed of good soil, made up about 
nine inches deep on the top of the hot bed. The addi- 
tion of an equal quantity of leaves to the manure insures 
a mild, steady heat, which is what is wanted. With 
fermenting manure alone there would be a fierce heat 
at first and coldness soon afterwards. The plants are 
put about a foot apart. Any dead or diseased leaves, 
and any side shoots, are removed. The lights are kept 
open in fine weather. Watering is done when the soil 
becomes dry, and a little special manure is watered 
in once a week. With this treatment the plants grow 
and bloom throughout the winter and spring. They 
will not yield many flowers in very severe weather, but 
there will not be many days on which a few flowers 
cannot be picked ; while in mild spells there will be 
abundance of fragrant blossoms. Frame Violets are 
sometimes a failure through an attack of red spider, 
which may be suspected at once if the foliage becomes 
thin and rusty ; but this enemy rarely puts in an appear- 
ance when plenty of water is given and ventilation is 
sufficient. The plants remain healthy, the leaves are 
abundant, substantial, and dark in colour. The side 
shoots and suckers which form may be removed regu- 
larly until the end of March, so that the plants may 
concentrate their energies on flowering ; but after that 
time the plants may be allowed to grow naturally, in 
order that they may produce material for propagation. 

Species and Varieties. — It would probably be impos- 
sible to trace the exact parentage of modern Pansies, 
Violas, and Sweet Violets, although we know that most 


of the Pansies have sprung from Viola tricolor, and the 
Violets from Viola odorata. As we have ah-eady seen, 
the flowers of the former are purple and yellow, and 
those of the latter purple ; and both are British plants. 
There is a white variety of Viola odorata called alba, 
and this also is a Sweet Violet. Another variety, called 
pallida plenay or pale double, is the double lavender- 
coloured Violet that we grow under the name of 
Neapolitan, and which is loved so much for its large 
flowers and its perfume. It is valuable for forcing. 
There are several other charming varieties, and a selec- 
tion of them is given below. The Siberian Violet, Viola 
altaica, has purple flowers, and is illustrated in the 
Botanical MagazinCy t. 1776. A more important species 
is cornuta, which has blue flowers, and is illustrated in 
the Botanical Magazine, t. 791. This species, which 
came from the Pyrenees in 1776, is the parent of many 
of the strains of bright, free-blooming ^' bedding 
Pansies " sold by seedsmen ; moreover, it has probably 
been used as a parent in raising our bedding Violas. 
There is a white variety of it. Calcarata, blue, and its 
varieties ; cucullatUy violet ; lutea, yellow ; and pedata, 
blue, and its varieties, are other well-known Violas, and 
may have been used as parents in producing the fine 
varieties named and briefly described in the following 
lists : — 

Twelve Fancy Pansies. 

Alice Lister, violet, French white, and pale mauve. 

Carrie Nation, violet, white, purple. 

Constance Abercromby, claret, yellow, and purple. 

Hall Robertson, purple, brown, and yellow. 

James McNab, yellow, dark blotches. 

John Harle, cream and purple. 

Mrs. Ferguson, crimson, violet, and pale yellow. 


Mrs. J. Sellars, violet and yellow. 
Mrs. William Sinclair, violet and pale yellow. 
Neil M'Kay, yellow, crimson, and purple. 
Nellie Curson, yellow, brown, and mauve. 
Robert M'Caughie, violet, rose, and yellow. 

Twelve Violas or Tufted Tansies. 

Archie Grant, indigo blue. 

A. J. Rowberry, yellow, rayless. 

Countess of Hopetoun, white. 

Duchess of York, white. 

Helen Smellie, white, blue edge. 

Ithuriel, azure. 

Lark, cream, edged heliotrope. 

Mrs. C. McPhail, heliotrope. 

Mauve Queen, mauve. 

Royal Sovereign, deep yellow. 

True Blue, deep blue. 

William Neil, rosy lavender. 

Single Sweet Violets. 

Amiral Avellan, purple. 
Mdlle. O. Pages, pale rose. 
Princess of Wales, deep blue. 
The Czar, violet. 

Double Sweet Violets. 

Comte de Brazza, white. 
Marie Louise, lavender and white. 
Mrs. J. J. Astor, pink. 
Neapolitan, lavender, white eye. 

This brief glance at the Viola genus shows us that 
although its members are of lowly habit, they have 
great value and charm for the flower gardener. Small 
as the plants are, they have such qualities of abundant 


blooming and brilliant colour as to make them capable 
of producing bright effects in the garden, while their 
delicious perfume endears them to us at all stages of 
our lives. In their modern ennobled forms the Violets 
are as sweet as they were when they prompted the 
inspired muse of Shakespeare in the glades of Arden, 



Beautiful as a flower, and magnificent as a garden 
plant, the Phlox is fortunately in a position to arouse 
interest by its own merits. I say ''fortunately," because 
tracing its history unfolds no pageant of the past. It 
cannot appeal to patriotism as a native, or to sentiment 
as one of those sweet old favourites which have been 
linked with the lives of centuries of generations. It is 
a modern plant. True, some of the species have been 
grown for a hundred years or more, but they are of 
little historic interest or garden value, and only concern 
us as parents of the beautiful varieties which we grow 
in our gardens to-day. 

The name Phlox comes from flame, in allusion to 
the brilliance of the flowers. Short, simple, easy of 
pronunciation with the national custom of turning the 
first two letters into ^'F" brought into play, it soon 
became familiar, and no folk-name was required to 
facilitate popularity. No sooner had the florists given 
us good varieties than the plants spread from garden 
to garden, and in a few brief years Phloxes were grown 
everywhere. They are now so abundant and familiar 
that they are associated in the public mind with old 
favourites like Snapdragons, Columbines, Lilies, and 

Michaelmas Daisies, and it comes as a surprise to 



flower-lovers to know that they are as modern as 
florists' Chrysanthemums. 

The facts being thus, it is useless to send our 
thoughts rambling among the book-shelves in search 
of references to Phloxes by the old writers. When the 
giants of the Elizabethan epoch were sharpening their 
quills, the Phloxes grew only as weeds in the untrodden 
wilds of North America. We must think out our own 
poetry about them, as we survey them in our borders 
on fiery August days, and in the cooler hours of 
September. They stand in bold masses, the tall, strong, 
woody stems, clothed with short, narrow leaves, bear- 
ing huge clusters of brilliant flowers aloft. When good 
culture and good varieties are in union the flower-heads 
may be a foot long and eight or nine inches through, 
the individual flowers as large as florins. Here, surely, 
is the wherewithal to inspire poetry, if rather of the 
martial than the amorous stamp. 

The botanist does not speak of ^'clusters" and 
*' flower-heads" in connection with Phloxes. These are 
loose garden phrases, fit only for the man in the street. 
He calls them ^^ panicles." A panicle is an inflores- 
cence, the branches of which are divided irregularly, 
as in the Lilac. And we bow to the superior knowledge 
of the botanist, and we feel what fundamentally inferior 
creatures we are, when we turn up a plant dictionary 
and find that the parent (or one of the parents at least) 
of our late blooming Phloxes is Phlox paniculata, a North 
American plant, with purplish pink flowers, that was 
introduced in 1782. Another species which is credited 
with the parentage of the late Phloxes is maculata, 
introduced from North America in 1740, and having 
purple flowers. Phlox maculata has another name — 
deciissata — and this explains why it is that the reader 

Pf.renniai. Phi.oxfs. 


sometimes sees a set of Phloxes referred to as " belong- 
ing to the decussata section." Since decussata is a 
synonym, or at the most an almost identical form of, 
maculata ; and since maculata has only shared a part 
with paniculata in parenting the modern late-blooming 
Phloxes, the phrase '' decussata section " is unfortunate. 
However, there is no need to use it, as ^' late flowering" 
suffices. We need only teach ourselves what it amounts 
to, and then drop it for good. 

The use of ^Mate-flowering" as a sectional term 
suggests that there are at least two classes of perennial 
Phloxes. As a matter of fact there are three, but one 
of them is a distinctly spring-blooming group. There 
are two which flower in summer, and the earlier set has 
derived from a different species, as might be supposed. 
Phlox glaberrtma (from glabevy smooth, devoid of hairs ; 
glaberrima means very smooth), a red species intro- 
duced in 1725, had a form named suffmticosa (a suffru- 
ticose plant is one that loses its leaves every year, but 
retains its stems, and Phloxes growers will observe 
that Phloxes hold their stems much longer than their 
leaves), which bore pink flowers. This variety is figured 
in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 1555. The flower-lover 
now understands why it is that he sees a section 
described as the ^^suffruticosa group," and rightly 
assumes that they have derived from Phlox glaberrhna 
suffruticosa. Nominally the parent does not bloom 
earlier than the parents of the decussata group ; but 
the varieties are earlier, and the section is usually 
spoken of as the Early-flowering Phloxes. 

There are many beautiful varieties of both sections, 
and each ought to be represented in gardens. Most 
of the members of the early group grow two to two 
and a half feet high, and bloom in June and July. The 


colours are varied, and the flower-heads are of good 
size. The late bloomers are at their best from August 
to October, and are rather taller in the main than their 
early sisters, although some, notably the magnificent 
white, Tapis Blanc, are quite dwarf. They are very 
vigorous plants, with strong stems, and when established 
in suitable soil spread into glorious masses. They 
present a considerable range of colours, some of which 
are brilliant in the extreme. One of their most power- 
ful recommendations is the long period during which 
they remain in bloom. They are often beautiful until 

The spring-flowering varieties (as distinct from 
species) of Phloxes have come from the "Moss Pink," 
Phlox subulata (from subulate^ awl-shaped) species, grow- 
ing only about six inches high, and having purple 
flowers, introduced from North America in 1786. With 
its prostrate stems and dense mass of flowers this little 
Phlox is a real carpetter, and is suitable for the rockery. 
Frondosa and nivalis are forms of it. The former, with 
its rosy lilac flowers, is a great favourite. It grows 
rapidly, and so spreads into a broad mass. There are 
now many charming varieties of subulata^ giving much 
variety of colour, and they form pretty cushions in the 
border or on the rockery. 

There is yet another important section of Phloxes, 
namely, the annual forms grown under the name of 
Drumniondii. Phlox Druinmo7idii is a free flowering 
annual, growing about a foot high, with purple 
blossoms, which was introduced from Texas in 1835, 
and is illustrated in the Botanical MagazinCy t, 3441. 
It was soon seen to be a useful plant, although it was 
neither perennial nor hardy, and distinct forms of it 
were soon raised and offered by seedsmen under dif- 


ferent names, such as cuspidata (from cuspidate, pointed); 
fivibriata (fringed) ; flore pleno (double) ; grandiflora (large- 
flowered) ; and nana compacta [dvf?iri compact). We are 
not yet at the end of these novelties in Annual Phloxes. 
The modern selections are very beautiful, and have had 
much to do with the exclusion of Verbenas from 
gardens. They do nearly all that Verbenas can do 
except yield fragrance, and are easier to manage. The 
colours are varied and beautiful, and the wetter the 
season the more abundant and beautiful the flowers 

Mention of one or two good species of Phloxes 
may conclude my description of the genus, and I can 
proceed to culture and selections of varieties. Divaricata, 
a spring bloomer with lilac flowerS; growing about a 
foot high, is a very pretty Phlox, and has charming 
forms in canadensis^ blue ; and alba, white. It is illus- 
trated in the Botanical Magazine, t. 163. Ovata {trifiora) 
illustrated in the Botanical Magazine, t. 528, has red 
flowers, and grows a foot high or a little more. Reptans 
is a creeper with violet flowers. Verna has pink flowers, 
and grows about six inches high. There are several 
other species, but these are the only ones that are 
grown to any extent, and they are all fairly popular. 
They are spring bloomers, suitable for the front of 
herbaceous borders or rockwork. 

Propagation. — The Phloxes are easy plants to increase. 
The annuals are raised from seed in spring in the 
same way as Asters (see Chapter II.), but they may also 
be propagated by cuttings in autumn, the Phloxes being 
one of the few annuals which can be propagated in this 
way. The plan is only desirable when plants are w^anted 
for pot culture, to bloom in spring. When they are 
required for garden use propagation in autumn, which 



entails the care of the plants throughout the winter, 
compares unfavourably with raising from seed in spring. 
No heat is required for raising seedlings in April, as the 
plants come readily in a cold frame. They should be 
pricked off four inches apart when they begin to 
crowd in the seed-box, and lime should be sprinkled 
around them when they are planted out, as slugs are 
very fond of them. The plants may be put in a foot 
apart. Unless the summer is very dry they are likely to 
keep on blooming till October, as they last remarkably 
well. The perennial summer Phloxes, both early and 
late blooming, can be propagated by division, cuttings, 
or seed. They must not be expected to spread suffi- 
ciently at the root to be strong enough for division at 
the end of their first year ; but if the soil is good and 
the summer moist they will probably be ready for division 
the second year. The root-stocks may be divided into 
several pieces with a sharp spade in winter or spring. 
Cutting-propagation may be effected either with the 
young shoots that start in the spring, which should be 
inserted in boxes of sandy soil and put in a frame, or by 
cutting some of the old roots into small pieces and putting 
them in boxes of soil in spring just before growth starts. 
Any of these methods will keep named varieties true to 
character. Seeds afford a cheap and ready means of 
getting a stock of plants, and if saved from the best 
varieties will give a good type, but seedling plants will 
differ from their parents. The seed may be sown in 
boxes, and wintered on a greenhouse shelf or in a frame. 
The young plants will be ready for planting out in May, 
but except in very good soil and in a wet season they 
will do no more than just flower the first season ; they 
will not make really strong plants until the second year. 
The spring-flowering Phloxes are propagated by cuttings 


after flowering. The shoots should be inserted in boxes 
of hght sandy soil, and kept in a frame until they start 

Soil. — Phloxes will thrive in the ordinary soil of most 
gardens if it is not very stiff, but they do not like cold, 
adhesive, undrained clay. In growing them on heavy 
land I found it important to drain the ground with pipes 
so as to prevent moisture lying near the surface in wet 
winters, and to add sand and leaf mould to the stations 
when planting, in order to increase the friability of the 
soil. I am of opinion that they favour light soil, for 
pieces planted in light land a foot above chalk made 
magnificent clumps in eighteen months, far excelling 
those which I had previously had on clay. It is true that 
the second summer was wet, and therefore in their 
favour. Although they do not relish stagnant moisture 
in the soil while at rest in winter, they love water in 
summer, and grow the faster the more they have of it. 
One must get a good deal of growth in Phloxes to get 
much bloom, as the flowers are borne on the top of the 
stems, and one must have strong shoots before one can 
have large panicles. This, of course, points to the ad- 
visability of watering them in dry weather. Liquid 
manure is also beneficial. They will thrive in light, 
loamy soils. When the borders are dug in winter a 
dressing of decayed manure should be worked in around 
the plants. 

Phloxes for Beds and Borders. — Phloxes are among 
the finest of plants for both beds and borders. Owners 
of large gardens who like to plant a bed entirely with 
Phloxes have only to supply good soil and adequate 
moisture to see the bed become one of the greatest 
successes of the garden. Early and late varieties may 
be planted in the same bed if desired, and there will 


then be bloom from July to November. When planted 
in mixed borders the Phloxes should go at the middle or 
back if the soil is rich, as most of them will grow three 
to four feet high ; and they should be planted four feet 
apart, as they will spread considerably. If old stools are 
not divided some of the shoots may be thinned out in 
spring, as better flowers will result from the fewer 
number. Phloxes will thrive in suburban gardens if 
the soil is friable and abundance of moisture is given in 
summer, but most of them are hardly suitable for small 
town gardens, as they take up more room than can be 

The following are beautiful varieties : — 

Early Sum?ner Phloxes, 

Attraction, white, crimson eye. 
Fantasy, pink, suffused crimson. 
James Hunter, rose. 
Lady Napier, white, sweet. 
Shakespeare, magenta, white edge. 
The Shah, purplish rose. 

Late Summer Phloxes. 

Atala, rose, white centre, 3 ft. 

Coquelicot, orange, 3 ft. 

Crepuscule, white, dark centre, 3 ft. 

Eclaireur, carmine, primrose suffusion, 3 ft. 

Etna, scarlet, 3 J ft. 

Eugene Danzanvilliers, rosy lilac, white eye, 3J ft. 

G. A. Strohlein, orange, carmine eye. 

L'Aiglon, carmine rose, 3 ft. 

Mrs. W. P. Wright, rosy carmine, crimson eye, 4 ft. 

Pyramide, white, i\ ft. 

Rossignol, rosy mauve, white eye, 2 J ft. 

Sylphide, white, 3 ft. 

Tapis Blanc, white, 2 ft. 


Dwarf spring Phloxes. 

Atropurpurea, rosy purple. 
Frondosa, dark rose. 
Grandiflora, pink, crimson eye. 
Newry Seedling, white, rose eye. 
Vivid, brilliant rose. 



Natives and exotics alike, the different species of the 
Primula genus hold our affections in sure bonds. Does 
not the very name appeal to us — Primula, iv ova primus, 
the first, in allusion to the early flowering of the plants ? 
They are the harbingers of Nature's year, and in the 
meadow and woodland, as well as in the rockery and 
garden border, their pretty blossoms fill us with pleasure 
and hope. 

Auricula, Cowslip, Oxlip, Polyanthus, Primrose — 
all are Primulas. Botanically the Auricula is Priimda 
auricula, the Cowslip Primula officinalis (or veris), the 
Oxlip Primula elatior, and the Primrose Primula vulgaris 
(or acaulis). The Polyanthus is a hybrid between the 
Primrose and the Cowslip. All except the Auricula are 
natives, and that is an Alpine plant, although it has been 
grown in British gardens for more than three hundred 
years. The type is illustrated in the Botanical MagasinCy 
t. 6837. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that these popular 
Primroses are hardy. Not merely do they withstand the 
cold as cheerfully as an Oak, but they retain their leaves 
through the winter, and take every opportunity afforded 
by mild spells to grow and flower. They play a sort of 

cat-and-mouse game with Jack Frost, darting into growth 



if he relaxes his grip for a moment, discreetly retiring 
when he renews his pressure, and eke flinging out a flower 
or two in order to show how little impressed they are 
by all his efforts. 

The Cowslip is not a garden plant, but we give a 
grateful thought to it every time our eye falls affection- 
ately on the beautiful Polyanthuses of our spring beds. 
We see that these exquisite little flowers differ from the 
Primroses in bearing several flowers in a cluster at the 
top of the stem (j)oly-anthus^ many-flowered), and we 
understand that they acquired the habit from the Cow- 
slip. We love the latter as a meadow plant, and we 
rejoice that we have it in a glorified form — larger, richer 
in colour, more varied, and yet sweet, in the garden. 
As the Cowslip is not a garden flower, we need not 
thresh out the vexed question of its popular name, 
which still remains unexplained. There is a natural 
association between ''cows" and ''lips," since it grows 
in the pastures, and this derivation satisfies most people, 
although so great an authority as Dr. Prior will have 
none of it. W^e must leave it to the children and the 
fairies, for the flower belongs to them. 

" Where the bee sucks there lurk I, 
In a Cowslip's bell I lie." 

— The Te7npest. 

The true Oxlip has pale yellow flowers. It is accepted 
as a good species by botanists, but the Oxlips of our 
gardens are probably hybrids. Shakespeare refers to 
the Oxlip several times, and few lines about flowers are 
more familiar than those from "A Midsummer Night's 
Dream " — 

" I know a bank whereon the wild Thyme blows, 
Where Oxlips and the nodding Violet grows," 


The Primrose is equally interesting as a wild and 
as a garden flower. Etymologists trace its name from 
fior de prima vera (first flower of spring), through the 
abbreviation prima vera and the affectionate Italian 
extension primavcrola. Thus the latter became prime- 
verole {Fvench) ^nd pri77terole. From this stage the end 
is soon reached, as primeroles readily become Prim- 
roses. The name "rose" disappears, as it must in- 
evitably do, for it derives from rhodf red, and has no 
natural connection with primrose. 

Students of folk-names are often struck by some 
similarity, the meaning of which is not obvious. Thus, 
my attention was arrested by hearing the peasantry of 
East Kent speak of the hedge plant Privet {Ligustrum) 
as Prim. Singular to say, Primrose w^as an old name 
for Privet, and it has lasted in an abbreviated form 
to this day. Tusser, in his " Five Hundred Points of 
Good Husbandry," tells us that — 

" Now set ye may 
The Box and Bay, 
Hawthorn and Prim, 
For clothes trim." 

Privet is the accepted popular name of Ligiistrum 
vtilgare^ L. ovalifolium, and other species in these days, 
and Primrose is reserved for the beautiful little spring 
flower in which the great writers of the past delighted. 
Dozens of extracts trom the poets could be made to 
show their love of the flower. 

Beaumont and Fletcher wrote of the 

" Primrose, first-born child of Ver, 
Merry springtime's harbinger, 
With her bell's dim," 

in "The Two Noble Kinsmen." 


Shakespeare referred to it again and again — 

" In the wood where often you and I 
Upon faint Primrose beds were wont to lie." 

— Midsummer Nighfs Dream, 

" Pale Primroses 
That die unmarried ere they can behold 
Bright Phcebus in his strength." 

— Winter's Tale. 

" Thou shalt not lack 
The flower that's like thy face, pale Primrose." 

— Cymbeline. 

It is clear from these and other references that the 
pale colour of the flower had impressed itself on 
Shakespeare's mind as the distinguishing feature of the 
Primrose. Perhaps this gave a cue to Milton, for its 
pallor seems to have influenced him also. He speaks 
of the 

" Rathe Primrose that forsaken dies," 
and the 

" Soft silken Primrose fading timelesslie.' 

The light colour and the alliteration combined seem 
to have been too strong for both poets, and "pale 
primrose" crops up in their writings with a frequency 
that becomes a little wearisome. 

Withal the Primrose is a cheerful flower. Country 
children, and townsfolk of all ages, love to gather great 
bunches of it from the banks and woodland glades in 
spring. It enjoys coolness and shade, like the Violet, 
and this should be borne in mind by gardeners. It is 
essential that a warm, dry position should be chosen for 
the flowering, as that takes place in spring, but it is 
not advisable for the propagation which follows the 
blooming. Divided plants do better when planted in 


a cool, moist, shady place for the summer, than when 
planted in a hot position. 

Propagation. — I have mentioned division, but a start 
may be made with seeds. The larger seedsmen supply 
seeds of the following : Auriculas — Show, Alpine, Border, 
and Giant Yellow ; the first two classes are grown in 
pots, and named varieties are perpetuated by offsets ; 
the others are grown in the garden. Polyanthuses — Gold- 
laced, Mixed Border, White, Yellow, and Crimson, 
Munstead strain, Galligaskin or Jack-in-the-green (each 
floret in which is surrounded by a green leaflet), and 
Hose-in-hose (each flower of which has another set 
within it). All of these Polyanthuses are hardy garden 
flowers, although the Gold-laced is sometimes grown in 
pots. Primroses — Giant Mixed, White, Blue, and Com- 
mon Yellow. The number of kinds will not alarm the 
Primrose-lover, and he will be eager to try them all ; 
but if it tends to perturb the amateur, let him rest 
assured that he can reduce it to Mixed Border Auri- 
culas, Mixed Border Polyanthuses, and Mixed Border 
Primroses without losing one jot of garden beauty. 
He may keep them separate in his beds if he likes, 
or he may mix them. The seed may be sown as soon 
as it is ripe, and seed of the current season's saving 
can be bought in early summer. If sown in fine, moist 
soil in the shady part of the garden it will soon 
germinate, but it is safer to sow in boxes and put in 
a frame. In either case the seedlings must be kept 
uncrowded and planted out in autumn. The stock of 
plants can be increased in late spring when the flower- 
ing is over by dividing them with a trowel, and planting 
in rich, friable soil in a shady place, from which the 
plants can be transferred to the beds in autumn. If 
they are kept as permanent plants at the front of mixed 


beds and borders annual transplanting is not necessary, 
but they may be split up sometimes. 

Primroses for Beds. — These beautiful hardy Auriculas, 
Polyanthuses, and Primroses are charming for spring 
beds, and many use them in addition to Wallflowers, 
Daffodils, Tulips, and other spring flowers. Easily and 
cheaply raised in quantity from seed, they bear trans- 
planting with impunity, so that they can be put into beds 
in autumn when the summer flowers have faded, and 
moved out again in late spring when they pass out of 
flower to make room for summer and autumn-flowering 
plants. So delightful are they, with their masses of 
foliage and sheets of brilliant flowers, that few spring 
flowers can vie with them, and they are pleasantly, 
although not powerfully, scented. It is much to be 
regretted that they are not quite suitable for town 
gardens, but the truth is that they dislike the grime of 
a smoke-laden atmosphere. 

Auriculas. — The townsman who is enamoured of the 
Primula genus might do worse than grow a collection of 
Auriculas in pots, for they are refined and interesting 
flowers. But the culture is special, and the plants some- 
what expensive. It is customary for Auricula-lovers to 
devote a frame to their favourites, which they set to face 
the north in summer and the south in winter. The 
plants bloom in late spring, and are re-potted after 
flowering, when such offsets as have formed are taken off 
and potted separately. They are given abundance of 
air throughout the summer, and also in fine spells in 
winter, but are kept close in foggy weather. The 
varieties in the show section are classified according to 
the prevailing ring of colour, e.g. Green-edged, White- 
edged, Grey-edged. The Alpines are larger, and have ^ 
broad belt of purple, 


Named Border Friuiroses. — Several beautiful hardy 
border Primroses are grown under distinctive names, 
and included in the collections of amateurs who specialise 
these charming spring flowers. The following are a few 
of particular interest : Alba Plena, double white; Cloth 
of Gold, double yellow ; Old Double Crimson ; Crimson 
Velvet, double crimson ; Harbinger, large single white ; 
Lilacma Plena^ double lilac ; Miss Massey, crimson, 
yellow eye, single ; Purpurea Plena, double purple ; and 
Rosea Plena, double rose. Seed is not offered, and plants 
have to be bought. 

Beautiful Species of Primula. — The student of Prim- 
roses finds that there are many beautiful exotic species 
which are quite hardy, and are charming for rockeries 
and borders. One of these is cortusoides^ a Siberian plant 
with rose flowers in summer ; seeds are procurable. 
Denticulata, with lilac flowers in spring, comes from the 
Himalayas ; it grows about nine inches high, and bears 
its flowers on a rounded head, as the illustration in the 
Botanical Magazine^ t, 3959, shows ; it has several varieties, 
including albay white ; cashmeriafiay pale purple ; pur- 
purea^ purple ; and variegata^ white-edged leaves. Pari- 
nosa, purple with yellow eye, is pretty, faponica^ a 
Japanese plant with rose or crimson flowers, introduced 
in 1871, is a splendid species for a cool, moist spot, 
growing about eighteen inches high, and can be raised 
from seed ; it is illustrated in the Botanical Magazine, 
t. 5916. Maiginata is a tiny plant, only three or four 
inches high, v/ith violet flowers ; it is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine, t. 191. Rosea is a beautiful species, 
introduced from Cashmere in 1879, and illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazitie, t. 6437 ; the colour is rosy carmine ; 
the plant loves a cool, moist spot ; there are varieties of 
it, notably grandifora, very large. Seed of the type, if 


not of the varieties, is procurable. Sikktmensisy which 
grows about eighteen inches high, and blooms in sum- 
mer, has pale yellow flowers ; it is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine^ t, 4597. Viscosa [villosa), illustrated 
in i\i^ Botanical Magazine y t. 14, is an Alpine species with 
rosy-purple, white-eyed flowers, and grows only three 
or four inches high. Sieboldii, a splendid Japanese 
species with rose and white flowers, grows about a foot 
high, and blooms in April ; several varieties are sold 
under names, such as Alba magnificat large white-fringed 
flowers ; Beauty of Sale, white, edged with rose ; Dis- 
tinction, white, shaded rose ; Fascination, white, lavender 
exterior, fringed ; Grandifloray creamy white and rose ; 
Harry Leigh, lilac, with white eye ; Lilacina superba^ 
lilac ; Magenta Queen, magenta ; and Violacea, violet. 
Seed of the type is procurable. 

Greenhouse Primulas. — Sieboldii and its varieties are 
nominally hardy, but they are apt to die out in winter, 
and they are generally grown in pots for greenhouse 
decoration, like the Chinese Primula (varieties of sinensis) ; 
the Star Primula (stellaia) ; the lilac obconica, a free- 
growing, free-blooming plant admirably adapted for 
amateurs, but with the unpleasant peculiarity of causing 
a painful rash on the hands of many people who handle 
it ungloved ; and such minor but still beautiful sorts 
as fioribunda, yellow ; Forbesii, lilac, with yellow eye ; 
and kewensisy a yellow hybrid raised by crossing fioribufida 
and verticillata. The beautiful fringed Chinese Primulas 
are splendid plants for blooming in warm greenhouses 
in winter, and are of the easiest culture, coming readily 
from seed sown for succession in late spring and sum- 
mer. They are purchasable in mixture or in separate 
colours. Every seedsman of any standing specialises 


them, and supplies strains which produce large trusses 
of handsome flowers. 

Those who specialise hardy Primulas will get the 
newer species, such as Bulleyana, Cockburniana, and 
Littoniana, which have aroused much interest in recent 

While the foregoing notes do not exhaust the Prim- 
roses, they may serve to show how much interest and 
value lie in the lovely denizen of the woodland and its 
garden sisters. Early, sweet, gay, neat in growth, and 
profuse in flow^ering, they are full of delight for the lover 
of flowers. 



A-SPRAWL along the hedges where, earlier in the year, the 
tawny hazel catkins hung, and the white cymes of the 
Wayfaring Tree stood out against the tender green of 
the new May leafage ; sending a swaying tracery of 
slender shadows up and down the grass path of the 
pergola ; making a bold block of colour around the 
stained sun-dial within the Yew hedges ; throwing a 
flower-starred tangle over the stones and stumps of a 
rough bank ; peering and tapping at the windows of the 
house — everywhere the Roses charm us. 

It is a quality of the Rose that wherever it grows 
healthfully it seems a part of its surroundings. There 
could hardly be a greater contrast between the wild 
exuberance of a country copse and the trim order of an 
old garden in the Dutch style, with its straight, Box- 
lined walks and its tall, sombre hedges ; but in each the 
Rose picture seems perfect. The natural grace of the 
wilding is not more in keeping wdth its environm.ent 
than the cultured refinement of the garden plant. Each 
leaves an impression of propriety on the mind. The 
plants fit in with their circumstances and conditions in 
a way that creates a sense of natural suitability. 

There are many conscious reasons why people 

plant Roses in their gardens — for beauty of bloom, for 

fragrance, for the harvest of material which the plants 



yield for vases ; and there is this subconscious one — that 
Roses fall into soft, gentle, and beautiful harmonies 
without deliberate effort on the part of the grower, 
giving him, out of the rich stores of their natural beauty, 
a reward that he had hardly dared to hope for, much 
less actively aimed at. 

It is hard to put Roses in wrong places in gardens, 
provided they are such spots as the plants can grow 
vigorously and cleanly in. The plants make their own 
" circle." They create ^' atmosphere." They form at 
once a home for themselves and a peaceful, perfumed 
retreat for the garden owner. They may not form a 
"Rose garden" in the accepted sense, but where they 
are, in health and beauty, the garden is. 

Year by year we learn to love Roses more. Year 
by year the Rose nurseryman extends his acres, and 
gives us a larger and more varied selection. We delve 
for pillars, we erect arches, we build summer-houses 
less to sit in than to form supports for rambling Roses. 
We form beds for Roses, we even put them in our 
borders. For every Rose that is planted in good soil 
the garden grows in grace. The old blazing Geranium 
garden is gone, and in its place we have the garden 
of tender-hued foliage, ruddy stems, and flowers that 
we can gather for every purpose. Whether we have 
a Rose garden, or a garden with Roses, our sense of 
beauty and fitness is equally gratified. 

If there is one touch of pain in connection with Roses, 
it is that we have to forgo so many beautiful varieties 
from sheer want of room. The raiser multiplies sorts, 
and proves to us that his novelties are superior to exist- 
ing varieties ; but the older we grow, the harder it is 
to part with old favourites. They have grown into our 
lives, and cannot be turned out without laceration. 

Rose Felicite-Perpktue. 


Those moments of poignant pathos which come to 
every human being at times when the path of youth 
falls away into ever vaguer distance are rendered more 
acute by the memory of old flowers, parted with re- 
luctantly, and still loved. There comes a stage of life 
when it is easier to transfer admiration than affection. 
The old Roses may be superseded, but they cannot be 
forgotten. In the warmth and perfume of the summer 
garden the spell of their successors may be complete, 
but on those winter evenings when we turn the pages 
of diaries and sketch-books, or at moments when the 
pain of a great bereavement is upon us, the power 
of the old flowers comes back. And the worst thing 
that we can do in such circumstances is to re-grow 
them ! 

How beautiful some of those old Roses were — 
Dundee Rambler, with the long, slender streamers that 
it flung from pole to pole, encroaching on the space of 
its sisters ; F^licitd-Perpetue, a column of snow against 
its oaken pillar ; Aim6e Vibert, loose of bloom, but of 
a most royal prodigality ; Maiden's Blush, tinting a wall 
that knows it no more, for both wall and Rose, heart 
and hearth, have gone ; Celine Forestier, with its canary 
blossoms ; Gloire de Dijon, imperfect in form, but oh ! 
so free and gay and sweet ! It is the old Roses of 
pillar, arch, and wall that are so hard to part with. 
The bedding Roses do not cling so tightly. Perhaps 
it is that they do not come so near to the home. 

In dipping into the past the Rose-lover sometimes 
finds that the old Roses are even older than he 
thought — older, far older, than himself; and then he 
begins to realise how old a plant the Rose really is, 
and how closely it is entv/ined in the national life. 
The name, he is told, comes from the Celtic word 



rhod^ meaning red, and from this he assumes that red 
must have been the prevailing colour of the Rose. 

Shakespeare made numerous references to a flower 
that he clearly knew and loved well ; and some of them 
are of great beauty, as the following excerpts will 
show : — 

" Of Nature's gifts thou may'st with Lilies boast 
And with the half-blown Rose." 

— King John, 

" So sweet a kiss the morning sun gives not 
To those fresh morning drops upon the Rose." 

— Love's Labour's Lost. 

In the exquisite Sonnet LIV. Shakespeare makes beauti- 
ful use of the odour of the Rose, and of its distillation 
to form the famous attar of Roses, which has been 
manufactured for many centuries in Turkey and else- 
where. The fragrance of the Rose is indeed one of 
its greatest charms, and it lives in most of the newer 
varieties. It is true that a scentless sort wins favour 
now and then, owing to exceptional beauty of bloom — 
the varieties Her Majesty and Frau Karl Druschki are 
cases in point — but they are few. From the ^'tea" 
scent of the varieties of Rosa indica to the rich, full 
perfume of the Damask, Monthly and modern Hybrid 
Perpetual Roses all are deliciously sweet. 

Some Species of Roses. — It is a pleasurable but an 
involved task to trace the origin of modern Roses. We 
have a number of classes, the distinctive names of 
which convey a definite meaning to experts, but are 
none the less indefinite. Few amateur growers realise 
how numerous these classes are. With many Rose- 
lovers there are only Hybrid Perpetuals, Teas, and 
Hybrid Teas ; all the rest are " climbers." But even 
climbers must be classified. Let us glance at a few 


of the species, including wildings and modern varieties. 
The creamy-white trailing Rose, with flowers five- 
petalled, about two inches across, which rambles over 
the hedges in June, is Rosa arvensisj or repens^ and is 
illustrated in the Botanical Magazine, t. 2054. This is 
the Ayrshire Rose. A form (perhaps double) of arvensis 
is supposed to be none other than the White Rose of 
York, which Plantagenet gathered in the Temple Gardens 
with the following appeal — 

" Let him that is a true born gentleman, 
And stands upon the honour of his birth, 
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth, 
From off this brier pluck a white Rose with me." 

The Red Rose which Somerset plucked to point his 
reply — 

" Let him that is no coward and no flatterer, 
But dare maintain the party of the truth, 
Pluck a red Rose from off this thorn with me," 

could hardly be other than Rosa centifolia, the sweet I 
old pink Cabbage Rose. A variety of this called niuscosa ' 
is the original Moss Rose. 

The Ayrshire must not be confounded with the 
Scotch Rose. Tlie latter, Rosa spinosissimay sometimes 
called the Burnet-leaved Rose, blooms in May, and may 
be found wild on the heaths in Scotland, Ireland, and 
the Channel Islands. It has creamy flowers an inch 
and a quarter across, tinted with pink ; the buds are 
pink. The Dog Rose, Rosa canina, with its pink or 
other-coloured flowers (it is a variable plant, and there 
are many forms) is a familiar object in the hedges in 
June, as are its red fruits in the autumn. The downy- 
leaved Rose of the hedgerows, with pink flowers in 
June, is Rosa villosa, and it has scarlet fruits. The true 


Sweetbrier, with its foliage that has so delightful a 
pungency, especially in the evening after rain, is the 
Eglantine of Shakespeare — 

" Quite overcanopied with luscious Woodbine, 
With sweet Musk Roses and with Eglantine, 
There sleeps Titania . . ." 

This is the Rosa rubiginosa of the botanists, and there are 
many forms of it. It is fond of the heaths and of the 
chalk hills of southern England. The smaller-flowered 
Sweetbrier of Scotland, Ireland, and the Channel Islands 
is Rosa inia'antha. 

Beautiful Briers, — These wild Roses are not without 
garden interest, as improved forms have sprung from 
them. For instance, there are the beautiful hybrid 
briers of Lord Penzance, which have the leaf fragrance 
of the dear old Eglantine with larger and more brilliant 
flowers. They are splendid pillar plants, and alike in the 
beauty of their flowers, the brilliance of their large hips, 
and their perfume, they are remarkable. A few of the 
best of these fine singles, with their spicy leaves, are 
worth adding to any collection of pillar Roses. 

Da^nask and Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Old Roses 
other than wildings which the garden-lover feels a 
special interest in are the Damask, the Monthly (China), 
and the Bourbon. The first, the Rosa damascena of 
botanists, is reputed to have come from Syria in 1573, 
so that there is no reason why Shakespeare should not 
have known it and made use of it in the line — 

" Gloves as sweet as Damask Roses." 

It bears pink flowers in June, and was certainly one of 
the parents of the modern Hybrid Perpetual Rose, with 
its large, richly coloured, powerfully scented flowers. 
The Old China or Monthly, which is in bloom most of 


the summer, has red flowers, and this has also been used 
in raising hybrids. One of them is the Bourbon Rose 
{Borbonica). It would be useless to endeavour to trace 
the stages by which our modern Hybrid Perpetuals 
have been raised from these old Roses, as no records of 
the various crosses have been, or are ever likely to be, 
published ; but the fact that the old species named were 
the parents of them invests them with special interest in 
our eyes. 

Tea and Hybiid Tea Roses. — Greatly as modern Tea 
Roses differ from Hybrid Perpetuals, having for the 
most part smaller, more conical and lighter-coloured 
flowers, thinner stems, and deeper colour in the foliage, 
they are nevertheless supposed to have derived from a 
variety of the Monthly Rose called Rosa indica odorata. 
The Hybrid Teas are intermediate between the Hybrid 
/ Perpetuals and Teas, and have sprung from crosses 
between varieties of these two sections. It is interesting 
to note that the most remarkable additions to the Hybrid 
Tea section, which is now the most remarkable of all, 
have been made by Irish raisers. It is hardly too much 
to say that in the twenty years between 1890 and 1910 
they revolutionised Rose-growing. In spite of their 
name, the Hybrid Perpetual Roses are not, as a class, 
continuous bloomers, and they only held priority over 
the Teas owing to their larger flowers, richer colours, and 
reputedly superior hardiness. The Hybrid Teas bloom 
much more continuously than the Hybrid Perpetuals, 
and as they equal them in brilliancy of colour, they hold 
an advantage as garden plants. 

The Musk Rose is the Rosa moschata of the botanists, 
who tell us that it was brought from Bombay in 1596, 
and had white flow^ers. This may be correct, as it has 
been found in Nepaul, but Hakluyt {Voiages^ vol. ii.) 


says that it was brought out of Italy, and Redout6 de- 
clares it to be a native of North Africa. It is a loose 
grower, making large, straggling bushes, and bearing 
white flowers. It has no value as a garden plant, but its 
scent is highly agreeable. 

Shakespeare made several references to Musk Roses — 

" Come, sit thee down upon this flowery bed 
While I thy amiable cheeks do coy, 
And stick Musk Roses in thy sleek smooth head. 
And kiss thy fair large ears, my gentle joy." 

— A Midsummer Nighfs Dreayn. 

Literary flower-lovers may trip in deciding that the 
Provincial referred to in ** Hamlet " is the Provence 
Rose — ^* Would not this, sir, and a forest of feathers, if 
the rest of my fortunes turn Turk with me, with two 
provincial Roses on my razed shoes, get me a fellowship 
in a cry of players, sir ? " — as it probably referred to 
ribbons. The Provence Rose may be the same as the 
Cabbage Rose — the Rose of Lancaster. Certainly the 
Rosa provincialis of the old writer Philip Miller is the 
same as the Rosa centifolia of Linnaeus, and the '* hundred- 
leaved" Rose is also the Cabbage Rose. This richly 
coloured, strongly scented Rose came from Asia (the 
botanists say from Mount Caucasus), but it has long 
been grown in southern Europe. Chaucer probably 
had the Provence Rose in his mind when he wrote — 

" Of Roses there were grete wone, 
So fair were never in Rone " ; 

for ^' Rone " would mean the Rhone, at the mouth of 
which river Provence lies. 

The *' canker-Rose " of Shakespeare — 

" The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye 
As the perfumed tincture of the Roses," 


is, if a Rose at all, the wild Dog Rose, Rosa canina. But 
may he not have meant a flower attacked by cater- 
pillars ? Note in the ninety-fifth Sonnet — 

" How sweet and lovely dost thou make the shame 
Which, like a canker in the fragrant Rose, 
Doth spot the beauty of thy budding name." 

Rose-lovers will read with interest the suggestion of 
Pliny the Elder that the old name for England, Albion, 
originated in the abundance of white Roses that grew 
wild in it. The botanist has his Rosa alba^ but that is not 
a native. The white corn Rose, with its yellow stamens, 
Rosa aruensisy is. 

The Austrian Brier, — With a brief word of explanation 
as to some other of the old Roses whose names crop up 
from time to time, we must pass on to modern varieties 
and culture. The reader sometimes hears of the Austrian 
Brier. This is the Rosa lutea of botanists, has yellow 
flowers in June, and grows about three feet high. 

Va7'iegated Roses. — The variegated Rose, *^ Quatre 
Saisons " of the French, red and white, is the York and 
Lancaster Rose, a variety of Rosa damasceyta. Shake- 
speare may have known of this variety when he wrote in 
the '' Sonnets "— 

" I have seen Roses damask'd, red and white, 
But no such Roses see I in her cheeks." 

There is another variegated Rose, the Rosamundi 
or Gloria Mundi {Rosa Gallica versicolor). This was 
mentioned by Ray, but not by Parkinson or Gerard. 
The Macartney Rose is Rosa bracteatay a dwarf species, 
bearing white flowers in July. The Evergreen Rose is 
Rosa sempervirenSy a white rambler, a native of Southern 
Europe, and included in the London Catalogue 2iS a wilding 
in Great Britain. Rosa Wichuraiana is a Japanese species, 


with white flowers, of comparatively recent introduction, 
/ and important as the parent of our most valuable pillar, 
arch, and bank Roses, such as Dorothy Perkins, Lady 
Gay, and Alberic Barbier. The name should be 

The Banksian Rose is Rosa BanksicBy a white-flowered 
species introduced from China through Sir Joseph Banks 
in 1807, and illustrated in the Botanical Magazine y t, 1954 ; 
there is a yellow variety of it. These pretty Roses are 
grown on walls, but often spoiled by over-pruning. It 
is only the wood of more than two years old that should 
be removed. 

The Fairy Rose is a double form of the small Monthly 
Rose, Rosa indica minima. 

The Boursault and Seven Sisters Roses are both 
varieties of Rosa multiflora^ the '* many - flowered " 
Polyantha Rose — a section which includes no less im- 
portant a plant than the Crimson Rambler, as well 
as other popular Roses. The Boursault Rose {Rosa 
multifloi-a Boursaultii) enjoyed considerable favour as a 
wall Rose fifty years ago ; pink flowers were borne 

The Japanese Rose is Rosa rugosUy which has red 
flowers and large, rough leaves ; it was introduced from 
Japan in 1845. There are several good garden varieties 
of it. The Japanese Roses are well liked for forming 
bold, dense clumps in large gardens, as the single 
flowers are bright in colour, and are followed by very 
large brilliant fruits. 

The Cherokee Rose is Rosa laevigata (sinica), a white- 
flowered Chinese plant, introduced in 1759, and illus- 
trated in the Botanical Magazine^ t, 2847. ^^^ variety 
of this called Anemone, which has pale pink or white 
flowers, and holds its leaves so persistently as to be 


practically evergreen, is a valuable plant for covering a 
rustic fence. It blooms abundantly in June. 

The Noisette Rose {Rosa Noisettiana) is a hybrid 
between the China (indica) and the Musk (moschata). 
Several important cluster-flowered Roses belong to the 
Noisette group, notably Mar^chal Niel and William 
Allen Richardson. 

It is pleasant to make acquaintance with Roses, and 
to reflect on the part that they have played in national 
life. They have been known for many centuries in 
British gardens, and were used in heraldry at a very 
early period. The '* rose gules barbed vert and seeded 
or " of the heralds would be a flower with green sepals 
and golden stamens. There were Roses on the Great 
Seal as early as 1340. 

Employed as a badge, the Rose was also used by the 
herbalists. It was made into Rose water and pot-pourri — 

" Let one attend him with a silver basin 
Full of Rose-water and bestrewed with flowers." 

— Taming of the Shrew. 

It was doubtless the use of the dried petals which 
Shakespeare referred to in " Romeo and Juliet " : — 

" A beggarly account of empty boxes, 
Green earthern bladders and musty seeds, 
Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of Roses 
Were thinly scattered to make up a show." 

The phrase sub rasa, or under the Rose, reminds us 
that the Rose is the flower consecrated to Harpocrates, 
the God of Silence, by Cupid ; and that it was worn as 
a chaplet at gatherings where the conversation was to 
be regarded as confidential. Chaplets of white Roses, 
with kid gloves attached, were once carried before the 
funerals of virgins in England. 


It is fitting to conclude this brief excursion into the 
hterature and history of the Rose with Herrick's Hnes — 

" Gather ye Roses while ye may, 
Old time is still a-flying, 
And the same flower that smiles to-day 
To-morrow will be dying," 

for they remind us that we must not spend all our time 
over the pages of the past, however pleasantly scented 
they may be, but come to the present, realise that time is 
fleeting, and make haste to fill our garden with Roses. 

Rose Gardens. — Almost all country dwellers — alas ! 
that it cannot be said of townsmen — are Rose-growers, 
for even the cottager, whose garden is crowded with 
Potatoes, Onions, Beans, Cabbages, and other vegetables, 
contrives to get an arch for Roses in an angle of his 
house. One sees the pink Monthly Rose in hundreds 
of gardens, large and small. In many cases no one 
seems to know how it got there, for it has no local 
history. It looks after itself. It is never pruned, and 
the most that it receives is a spadeful of manure now 
and then. Villa gardeners grow Roses, generally with 
some pretence of skill ; anyway, the plants are labelled 
and pruned. And, needless to say, Roses are a feature 
of every Vicarage and Hall garden. In many places 
there is a special Rose garden extending to two or three 
acres, but a Rose garden may be much smaller than 
that ; indeed, one may be formed within a garden, the 
whole of which does not extend to an acre. A small 
Rose garden is before me as I write. A hedge has been 
utilised as one side of the enclosure, the others are 
formed of rustic Oak placed diagonally on Chestnut 
uprights, the base of which was barked, painted with 
tar and dusted w^ith sand. In one angle of the rustic 
fence a semi-circular rustic summer-house has been 


made. In another corner, to which a grass walk leads, 
is an Oak seat. Roses are grown on the fencing and 
summer-house. The main path is paved with irregular, 
open-jointed paving stones, in which dwarf plants grow. 
A small pool for Water Lilies has been made in the 
middle of the garden, and a Rose arbour constructed 
round it. The body of the garden is occupied with 
small beds of selected Roses, which include autumn as 
well as summer bloomers. Could not some such plan 
be adopted in many gardens which now know Roses 
only in a spasmodic way ? A Rose garden ! The very 
mention of it calls up memories of summer days, sun- 
shine, beautiful flowers, and sweet smells. 

Fragrant Roses. 

Wherever and however we grow Roses, we must 
include many varieties that are really sweet. I shall 
presently give some selections of Roses, but so im- 
portant do I think it is to have rich perfume that I 
am tempted to anticipate these lists and give a special 
table of fragrant Roses, putting the names in alpha- 
betical order. H.P. = Hybrid Perpetual ; H.T. = Hybrid 




Abel Carri^re .... 


Dark crimson. 

Alfred Colomb .... 


Light red. 

A. K. Williams .... 



Cabbage or Provence 



Camille Bernardin . . 


Light red. 

Captain Hayward . . . 



C. J. Grahame .... 



Charles Lefebvre . . . 



Commandant Felix Faure 



Conrad F. Meyer . . . 








Countess of Annesley. . 


Salmon pink. 

Danmark .... 



Dr. Andry . . . 

Dr. O'Donel Browne 



Carmine rose. 

Duke of Wellington 



Elizabeth Barnes . 


Salmon rose. 

Eugenie Lamesch . 

Dwarf Polyantha 


Frangois Michelon. 



Ge'neral Jacqueminot 



General MacArthur 



Gladys Harkness . 


Salmon rose. 

Gloire de Dijon . . 


Orange buff. 

Griiss an Teplitz . 



Gustave Grunerwald 


Carmine pink. 

Heinrich Schultheis 


Rosy pink. 

Hugh Dickson . . 



J. B. Clark . . . 

H T 

Sp^ rlf*t 

Jules Margottin . . 



La France 


Silvery pink. 

Lady Battersea . . 


Lady Helen Stewart 



Laurent Carle . . 



Liberty .... 


Cnm Qnn 

Louis van Houtte . , 



Lyon, The .... 

Hybrid Pernetiana 

Shrimp pink and 

Salmon pink. 

Madame Abel Chatenay 

Madame Alfred Carri^re 


White climber. 

Madame Jules Grolez 



Madame Ravary . . . 


Orange yellow. 

Madame Victor Verdier. 



Marechal Niel .... 


Yellow, glass. 

Marie Baumann . . 



Marquise Litta . . , 



Mrs. J. Laing . . . 



Mrs. Stewart Clark . 



Papa Lambert . . . 



Pierre Notting . . . 



Prince Arthur . . . 


Dark crimson. 

Senateur Vaisse . . 


Light red. 

Souvenir d'un Ami 



Souvenir de S. A. Prince 



Ulrich Brunner .... 



Viscountess Folkestone . 


Creamy pink. 



Good Hybrid Perpetual Roses. 

The reader may wonder whether the Roses named in 
the foregoing list of fragrant varieties are good in other 
respects — whether they are strong growers and have 
handsome flowers. They are excellent in every way. 
Such varieties as Hugh Dickson, Mrs. John Laing, and 
Charles Lefebvrc are splendidly vigorous, and, with 
Alfred Colomb, Prince Arthur, Duke of Wellington, 
A. K. Williams, Ulrich Brunner, and others, are quite 
good enough for exhibition. The following newer sorts 
may be added to them : — 

Bent Cant, rich red. 
Comtesse de Ludre, light red. 
David R. Williamson, rose. 
Duke of Edinburgh, scarlet. 
Earl of Dufferin, maroon. 
Frau Karl Druschki, white. 
Helen Keller, cerise. 
Lady Overtown, pink. 
M. H. Walsh, crimson. 
Madame G. Luizet, bright pink. 

Mrs. Cocker, pink. 

Mrs. R. G. Sharman Crawford, 

Rosslyn, pink. 
Susanna Marie Rodocanachi 

Ulster, salmon rose. 
Victor Hugo, crimson. 
Xavier Olibo, dark crimson, 

late bloomer. 

Good Hybrid Tea Roses. 

The same question and answer as that put in con- 
nection with the Hybrid Perpetual Roses might be 
applied to the Hybrid Teas. The following may be 
added to those in the list of specially fragrant sorts : — 

Augustine Guinoisseau, silvery 

Avoca, crimson. 
Bessie Brown, cream. 
Betty, coppery rose. 
Caroline Testout, pink. 

Dean Hole, carmine with sal- 
mon shading. 

Earl of Warwick, salmon pink. 

fecarlate, scarlet. 

Edu Meyer, coppery red, orange 


Elizabeth Barnes, salmon rose. 
Florence Pemberton, cream. 
Frau Lilla Rautenstrauch, silver. 
Grace Darling, cream, shaded 

Gustave Regis, nankeen yellow. 
Instituteur Sirdey, yellow. 
Killarney, pale pink. 
Lady Ashtown, pink. 
Lady Helen Vincent, pink, 

yellow base. 
La Tosca, silvery pink. 
Le Progres, nankeen. 

Madame Melanie Soupert, 

Madame J. W. Budde, carmine. 

Madame Ravary, orange. 

Marquise de Sinety, orange. 

Mildred Grant, ivory, exhibi- 
tion variety. 

Mrs. A. M. Kirker, cerise. 

Pharisaer, blush, salmon shade. 

Prince de Bulgarie, flesh. 

Richmond, scarlet. 

Warrior, scarlet. 

Wm. Shean, pink. 

Good Tea Roses. 

The following charming Tea Roses might be added 
to the list of sweet sorts : — 

Catherine Mermet, pink. 

Comtesse de Saxe, white. 

Corallina, coral red. 

G. Nabonnand, blush. 

Harry Kirk, sulphur. 

Hugo Roller, lemon. 

Jean Ducher, salmon. 

Lady Roberts, apricot. 

Mrs. Dudley Cross, chamois 

Mrs. E. Mawley, carmine, 

salmon shade. 
Mrs. B. R. Cant, rose. 
Mrs. Myles Kennedy, silver. 

Maman Cochet, flesh. 

Marie van Houtte, lemon and 

Niphetos, white, good in pots. 
Peace, white to lemon. 
Souvenir de Pierre Notting, 

Souvenir de Stella Gray, orange 

to yellow. 
Sulphurea, yellow. 
The Bride, white, pots. 
White Maman Cochet, white 

or lemon. 

A Selection of Fkee-blooming Roses for Beds. 

The Rose-lover who wants to fill large beds with 
Roses, whether mixed or of separate varieties, will be 


wise to choose strong, free-flowering sorts. Out of the 
following and foregoing lists we might select a few 
varieties particularly good for beds. Here are some — 

*Augustine Guinoisseau, silvery G. Nabonnand, blush Tea. 

H.T. Hugh Dickson, crimson H.P. 

Betty, coppery rose H.T. Irish Elegance, orange single. 

♦Caroline Testout, pink H.T. La France, pink H.T. 

♦Corallina, coral Tea. Laurette Messimy, china rose, 
fecarlate, scarlet H.T. (dwarf). yellow base. 

Edu Meyer, coppery H.T. *Madame Abel Chatenay, rose 
Eugenie Lamesch, orange dwarf H.T. 

Polyantha. Mrs. W. H. Cutbush, pink 
Frau Karl Druschki, white H.P. Polyantha. 

General MacArthur, carmine Mrs. John Laing, rose H.P. 

H.T. Peace, white Tea. 
*Gruss an Teplitz, crimson H.T* 

Those marked with an asterisk are exceptionally 
vigorous — in fact Griiss an Teplitz is sometimes used 
as a wall Rose. 

Good Wall Roses. 

Roses do no more delightful work than that of 
covering the walls of dwellings, and there is no home 
but looks brighter for their presence. Old Roses, like 
Gloire de Dijon, William Allen Richardson, Maiden's 
Blush, Celine Forestier, Cheshunt Hybrid, the Banksian, 
and the Boursault gained their popularity as much for the 
suitability of habit which made them good wall varieties 
as for the beauty and fragrance of their flowers. There 
were other rambling varieties as beautiful — nay, more 
so, but their growth was not suitable for walls. Thus 
the home use of certain Roses gave them a popularity 
somewhat beyond their merits as flowers. The Roses 


named have not lost any of their good qualities. They 
are as they have always been — vigorous, spreading, free- 
flowering. Possibly those who have cold aspects to 
cover, such as east or north, would still find Gloire de 
Dijon and William Allen Richardson as good as any for 
their purpose. But new climbing varieties assert their 
claims, and have to be considered for south and west 
aspects. Many, accepted at once as beautiful pillar and 
arch Roses, have to be rejected at once for walls. The 
mighty Crimson Rambler is one of the poorest of wall 
Roses, falling a ready prey to mildew. Carmine Pillar, 
most beautiful of early-blooming climbers for a pillar or 
summer-house, is too strong of cane and too devoid of 
spray to make an ideal wall Rose. Dorothy Perkins will 
thrive — it thrives almost anywhere — but it goes to the 
other extreme, and by producing an enormous mass of 
long, thin shoots and slender laterals, gives the Rose- 
lover a hard task in pruning and nailing before it can be 
made to cover the wall. We want for our houses Roses 
which, like Gloire de Dijon, branch freely, yet strongly, 
from a central stem, producing a moderate yet not 
excessive amount of laterals, and flowering freely on 
them. Let us glance at a few Roses that fulfll these 
conditions — 

Alister Stella Gray. — A charming Rose, small-flowered, yet 
invaluable owing to its neat but spreading habit and the remark- 
able continuity of flowering which keeps it going right into the 
autumn. The flowers are home in clusters, and the colour is 
pale yellow. 

Bardou Job. — A rich crimson Rose, not large in bloom, and 

Bouquet cTOr. — Strong and free, yellow flowers, tea-scented. 

Cheshunt Hybrid. — Bright red, a very profuse bloomer. 

Madame Alfred Carriere. — White or blush, a strong grower. 


Marichal Niel. — A glorious yellow Rose, but not hardy 
enough to grow out of doors, except in very warm, sheltered 

Reine Marie Henriette. — A splendid variety on rich soil on a 
warm aspect, long, deep flowers, rich rose in colour, powerfully 

Madame Berard. — Fawn, tea-scented. 

Reved'Or. — A strong grower, with brown canes, flowers yellow, 
holds its leaves well. 

This selection should suffice for most places, and 
the old stagers, such as Gloire de Dijon, William Allen 
Richardson, and Maiden's Blush, can be added or sub- 
stituted at discretion. 

It should be understood that the soil under the walls 
must be dug deeply and manured generously. If it is 
very poor it must be taken away altogether, and a bed 
of loam, leaf mould, and manure substituted. If the site 
is a hot one, it is advantageous to cut the Roses hard 
back after planting, and to water in dry weather. This 
insures good plants the second year. 

Good Roses for Pillars, Arches, Pergolas, 
Arbours, and Summer-houses. 

The course is much clearer in selecting climbing 
Roses for comparatively open situations. Whatever the 
supports may be, plenty of Roses can be found for them, 
provided there is a good depth of soil and a free circu- 
lation of air — conditions which do not prevail against 
a wall as a rule. Crimson Rambler and its sisters, the 
blush, the pink (Euphrosyne), the white (Thalia), the 
yellow (Aglaia), and the dark crimson (Philadelphia) 
become available at once. Dorothy Perkins, Lady Gay, 
Alberic Barbier, and the rest of the Wichuraianas come 
in, Carmine Pillar and its splendid later counterpart 



The Lion are at our service. Lovely singles, such as 
Leuchstern, Hiawatha, and the Penzance Briers await 
our pleasure. If these are not enough, we can draw 
upon the old evergreen Roses Felicit^-Perp^tue and 
Rampant, the Ayrshire Dundee Rambler, the vigorous 
Noisettes Aim(^e Vibert and L'Ideal, the Hybrid Tea 
Griiss an Teplitz, and also on Longworth Rambler and 
Reine Olga de Wiirtemberg. A selection from the pre- 
ceding might consist of the following : — 

Alberic Barbier, cream. Penzance Brier Meg Merrilees. 

Blush Rambler, blush. Philadelphia Rambler, dark 
Carmine Pillar, carmine, single. crimson. 

Dorothy Perkins, pink. The Lion, crimson single. 
Leuchstern, rose, white centre. 

Trailing Roses for Banks. 

The Wichuraiana Roses are charming for trailing 
over rough banks, and many an unsightly spot on the 
outskirts of gardens could be made beautiful by planting 
Wichuraiana itself, which is white with yellow stamens ; 
rubra, deep red ; Alberic Barbier, cream ; Dorothy 
Perkins, pink ; Gardenia, yellow ; and Ren^ Andr^, 
orange. They should be put several feet apart, as they 
ramble afar. The leaves are shining green, and hang so 
long that the plants are almost evergreen. 

Roses for Standards. 

The Wichuraiana Roses make beautiful standards, 
owing to their habit of producing a great amount of 
fine spray. Alberic Barbier, Dorothy Perkins, and 
rubra may be mentioned as particularly good. They 
far exceed the old Hybrid Perpetual Roses as standards, 
owing to their freer growth and bloom and greater 


grace. The single red and white pillar Rose Hiawatha 
makes a charming standard. Of the older Roses, Caro- 
line Testout, G^n^ral Jacqueminot, La France, Maman 
Cochet, Mrs. John Laing, Mrs. R. G. Sharman Crawford, 
Charles Lawson, and white Maman Cochet may be 
mentioned as making good standards. 

Roses for Indoor Culture. 

The owner of a conservatory often likes to grow 
Roses under glass for the sake of early bloom, and 
the following are good varieties (those marked [p) may 
be grown in pots, and tho5e marked {c) planted out 
for climbing) : — Anna OUivier (/), Bridesmaid (/), Captain 
Hayward (/), Caroline Testout (/), Climbing Niphetos 
[c), Climbing Perle des Jardins {c), La France (/>), 
Liberty (/), Madame Lambard (/), Marechal Niel (^), 
Mrs. John Laing (/), Mrs. Sharman Crawford (/), 
Niphetos (/), Souvenir de S. A. Prince (/), Souvenir 
d'un Ami (/), The Bride (/>), Ulrich Brunner (/), and 
White Maman Cochet (/). 

The most important items in Rose culture may be 
dealt with under the following heads : — 

Soils and Manures. 



Under Glass. 


Insects and Diseases. 


Calendar for the year. 

Material for arches, 


pergolas, &c. 

Soils and Manures. — If there is one fact about Roses 
more strongly established than another, it is that they 
love a substantial soil, such as heavy loam or clay, and 
that they luxuriate in rich manure — coarse fare for 


such refined flowers, it must be admitted, but very wel- 
come to the plants all the same. Flower-lovers who 
find their lot cast in clayey places are sometimes tempted 
to repine, but it cannot be other than cheering to them 
to know that it is just such soil as this which Roses love. 
Clay, clay, and again clay ! Dark greyish soil that 
works stiffly under the tools, and gets putty-like when 
wet, is clay. If such a soil were ploughed it would be 
seen that the surface of the ridges turned over by the 
ploughshare shone almost like steel. Farmers do not 
plough, and gardeners must not dig, such land when 
it is very wet. It is best broken up after frost, as then 
it crumbles. Dug two feet deep, and well manured, 
it makes grand Rose soil. But loam, which is a mixture 
of clay and sand, is also a good soil for Roses, and, 
fortunately for Rose-lovers; loams are common. Is 
your soil of a brownish or reddisli hue, reader ? Then 
it is probably loam. If it is a very pale brown, can 
be dug easily, and crumbles up readily when first 
shifted with the tool, it is probably a sandy loam, and 
will need deep working and a liberal dressing of de- 
cayed manure — not less than two heaped barrow-loads 
for every square rod — before it will grow Roses well, A 
sandy loam is not so good as a clayey loam, but it will 
produce satisfactory Roses if it is treated as suggested, 
and if manure is dug in every year afterwards. A light, 
shallow soil overlying chalk is nominally bad for Roses, 
but after some experience with it I am able to assure 
readers that it can be made to produce very fair results. 
The procedure is to remove the top soil in sections, 
break up the chalk to the depth of nine inches, lay 
on it a thick coat of decayed stable manure, replace 
the top soil, and lay another coat of manure on that 
after planting. If the top layer of manure is considered 


unsightly, it may be turned under the surface. Loosen- 
ing chalk may be regarded as very heavy work, but as 
a matter of fact it is generally easier than breaking up a 
subsoil of clay. Manure from covvyards may be used 
for heavy soil, but manure from horse stables is best for 
light soil. 

Planting. — There is one advantage which light soil 
has, and that is, it can be prepared and planted in 
almost any weather ; there is no weary waiting after 
rain as in the case of clay. The Rose-lover appreciates 
this in a wet autumn. It is generally understood that 
November is the best planting month, and the rosarian 
grows discontented if that month merges into December, 
and incessant rain keeps the soil too wet for culture. 
In any case, the plants should be ordered for delivery 
early in November, so that they can be laid in a row 
with soil over their roots, ready for planting out at the 
first opportunity. Even if the whole winter should 
pass they will be safe ; and spring planting should be 
preferred to autumn in stiff soil when the ground is 
puddly in November. While waiting, the labels should 
be prepared and written. They may be bought ready 
painted, or they can be made of builder's laths cut 
up into ten-inch lengths and pointed. The upper part 
should be planed w^ith a stroke or two of the knife, 
and then lightly brushed over with white paint, as this 
gives a good writing surface. I have the lower half of 
my labels painted with Stockholm tar, a pint of which, 
purchasable at a gasworks or builder's for a trifle, will 
suffice for hundreds. It acts as a preservative, and ob- 
viates the necessity for renewing labels frequently. With 
trees and labels all ready, planting is performed speedil3^ 
It is convenient for two to work together, one making 
capacious holes with a spade, deep enough to cover the 


roots and no more, while the other sets the plants in 
and treads the loose soil which the spadesman throws 
in until it is quite firm. The Rose-lover need not be 
half-hearted about the treading owing to fear of injuring 
the roots. Weak growers may be set two feet apart; and 
strong ones a yard. 

Pruning, — Pruning follows as naturally on planting 
as planting on soil preparation, because it is generally 
advantageous to let the first course of pruning accom- 
pany the planting. When Roses are received from the 
nurseries they contain far more wood than any prudent 
grower would care to leave, and at the end of March 
it is pruned back hard. Why not remove part of it 
in autumn, in order to reduce the area exposed to the 
wind, and so prevent excessive wind-sway, with its 
loosening influences ? There is no good reason. There 
is, I admit, an excellent reason why autumn pruning 
should only be a part, and not the whole — why it 
should be restricted to removing about a third of every 
long shoot, and not extend to cutting back to the 
ground buds, as will be done in spring. This reason 
is that mild weather at mid-winter often starts Roses 
into growth, and if there were only a few basal buds, 
and these started growing, the plants might be thrown 
back seriously owing to a severe late frost cutting the 
tender young growth. If a foot or more of growth is 
kept through the winter, it is the upper superfluous and 
not the lower necessary buds which start ; the latter 
remain dormant while their brethren run the risk. The 
spring pruning of newly planted Roses should be severe. 
Done at the end of March, it may be safely carried to 
the point of cutting to within four inches of the ground 
— weak shoots lower still. A Rose-bed looks rather 
subdued after this drastic treatment, but it gladdens the 


grower's heart to see how nobly the plants leap into 
life — what strong shoots they throw up, how beautiful 
the tints of the fresh young leaves are, especially of 
the Teas, and how quickly they speed into bloom. 
Strong-growing climbers, like Crimson Rambler and 
its sisters, Dorothy Perkins and her progeny, and Car- 
mine Pillar, need not be cut to the ground if the soil is 
substantial and rich, but they certainly should if it is 
poor, light, and shallow. Without cutting back, the 
roots have a double duty to perform : they have to feed 
the existing shoots and to throw up fresh ones, and the 
latter is the more important, for no pillar and arch 
Roses can be thoroughly satisfactory unless they throw 
up new shoots annually like Raspberries. With the 
original shoots cut away, the roots can concentrate on 
the task of forming new shoots, and they do it to 
such purpose that the pillars are soon covered. The 
annual pruning of established Roses is a task which will 
interest the grower, and prompt him to a study of the 
varieties. He will learn quickly what sorts are benefited 
by severe and which by light pruning — how the strong 
growers may be pruned much less hard than weak ones. 
The quality of the soil governs pruning much more 
than most people know. It governs it, because if it is 
heavy and fertile it prompts much stronger growth than 
if it is light and poor. 

The more natural growth there is in a Rose the more 
the grower may prune, as he is sure of a constant supply 
of good new wood, and good new wood gives the best 
flowers. The exhibition growers know this quite well. 
They plant in rich soil and prune severely. It is dan- 
gerous, however, to prune hard in a soil that does not 
prompt free growth, as the plants break feebly from the 
back buds to which they are cut. In such soil it is best 


to prune lightly, and when, after a few years, the bushes 
have become too straggly, to plant fresh ones. Roses 
are cheap enough in all conscience, and changes give 
opportunities of trying fresh sorts. All this comes with 
experience and observation, and while knowledge of the 
varieties is being acquired, the amateur may lean to severe 
pruning. The annual pruning and training of pillar and 
arch Roses is a matter that puts no small strain on the 
courage of the grower. He examines the plants in 
autumn, and he finds that each plant consists of several 
old and several new canes, the former grey or brown in 
colour, the latter brownish green. So far good. All that 
has to be done is to cut out the former at the base of 
the pillar, and tie up the latter (which in the case of very 
vigorous varieties are quite likely to have started off on 
a roving expedition among adjacent shrubs) in their 
places. Doubt creeps in when it is discovered that 
there are several young shoots on the upper part of the 
old ones, and that most of the pretty sprayey shoots that 
clothe the top of the pillars are dependent on them. 
What is to be done ? It is a choice between tangle and 
order. Personally I never hesitate. The old canes go 
if there are young ones to take their places, and although 
I grieve momentarily to see the top spray disappear in 
a mass, my feelings are assuaged directly it is out of 
sight and the young canes are tied in, for I can see 
clearly that as soon as growth begins there will be 
abundance of fresh flowering growth. When tying in 
the young canes the grower will find that it is best to 
have his first band about a foot above the ground. From 
this point he can begin to work the canes round the 
pillar, until, a foot or eighteen inches higher up, he has 
got some at the sides and the back as well as in the front, 
so that the whole pillar is clothed. No canes are to 


cross each other. It is hardly practicable to treat wall 
Roses on this plan, as there is rarely a sufficient supply 
of new wood to re-clothe the space, and to cut out the 
old canes at the base would be to leave the whole wall 
bare for a considerable time. Nearly all the summer 
growth will be from the upper branches, not from the 
root-stock, and this considerably modifies the annual 
pruning. If an area of wall near the ground is to be 
covered, the plant may be trained with three or four main 
shoots tied in two or three feet apart ; the side shoots 
which break from these will be the flowering shoots, and 
can be treated like the dwarf plants, being pruned back 
in spring, so that a fresh supply of young wood is secured 
every year. If the upper part of a house wall is to be 
covered, the plant may be trained up with one tall stem 
past the lower windows, and three or four main shoots 
taken from it. Strong-growing wall Roses, such as 
Gloire de Dijon and William Allen Richardson, will 
need a good deal of thinning annually if they are to be 
kept neat. I once had a *' William Allen " on an east 
wall in deep clay soil, and the growth it made every year 
was prodigious. Alister Stella Gray, Bardou Job, and 
other modern varieties are not so rampant. 

Propagation — {a) by budding; [b) by cutting. — When 
amateur Rose-growers hear that the beautiful new 
varieties which they see with gold medal cards attached 
at the shows are seedlings, they may wonder whether it 
is not equally open to them to raise good Roses from 
seed. I am afraid it is not. It is true that new varieties 
are raised from seed, but it is also true that they are 
raised from a special strain of seed, impossible to buy, 
and, even so, that they merely represent one or two 
selections from many hundreds of plants. We must 
look to purchase of plants as our first source of supply, 


and increase subsequently by propagation from buds or 
cuttings, (a) Budding. — This interesting operation may 
be practised by any amateur who will bring intelligent 
practice to bear on the necessary raw material at a 
suitable time. He can then turn Briers into Roses. If 
he wants dwarf plants he should insert cuttings of Briers, 
made of pieces of the current year's growth about eight 
inches long and deprived of all except the top buds, two 
inches apart, in September, burying them nearly to the 
top and treading the soil firmly against them. At the 
end of a year the plants so raised (which are termed 
"stocks ") can be planted eighteen inches apart. In the 
second summer afterwards they should have stems about 
a third of an inch thick, and buds can be put in them 
low down. It facilitates getting the buds in later on if 
the soil is drawn up to the stems in June, as it softens 
the bark. A quicker way of getting stocks is to take 
straight Briers about three feet long out of the hedges in 
November, prune them in root and branch, and plant 
them eighteen inches apart, but these will be standards, 
not dwarfs. They will push side shoots in early summer, 
and buds can be put in these low down, in fact, close to 
the base, where they spring from the main stem. In 
either case the time and method of budding is the same. 
Showery weather from mid-July to mid- August provides 
a favourable opportunity to bud, as the wet causes a 
vigorous flow of sap, and the buds are easily mani- 
pulated. A current year's shoot of the Rose to be 
multiplied should be cut off, the thin tip removed, and 
the leaves cropped in to short stumps. An average 
shoot will yield several buds, as a slice of wood suitable 
for the purpose can be cut out at each leaf-stalk. The 
bud nestles at the base of the stalk partly outside and 
partly inside the bark. The inner part must be exposed, 


as it has to be brought into close contact with the stem 
of the Brier ; and as the inner part is covered by the pith 
from the body of the shoot, it follows that this woody 
matter must be picked away with the finger and thumb, 
and that it must be removed without tearing the bud, to 
which it is attached, out with it. The operation is un- 
doubtedly a delicate one, and it becomes almost impos- 
sible when the wood is hard and sapless ; but with 
plenty of sap the pith is pliable and yielding, and very 
little practice enables the operator to prepare the buds 
properly. The slices may be cut out thinly, and about 
an inch and a half long. Not a moment must be lost 
when they are prepared, as they dry quickly ; they must 
be slipped into cuts made with a sharp knife-point in the 
stems of the stocks, the edges of the bark being carefully 
raised to admit them. They must be tied in with strong, 
soft material. The Briers must not be pruned until the 
buds start growing the following spring, when they may be 
cut back, {b) Bycuiti?igs. — An amateur who has a favourite 
Rose may try to increase it by cuttings. Many of the 
strong-growing sorts, including climbers like Dorothy 
Perkins and Crimson Rambler, strike readily, and make 
nice plants in tw^o years. The time and method recom- 
mended for striking cuttings of Briers may be practised 
with Roses. Shoots which have borne flowers are quite 

Making Pillars and Arches, — I hope that the Rose- 
loving reader has a special leaning towards rambling 
Roses. I hope that he or she is bent upon breaking 
up the stiffness of his garden by putting in plenty of 
pillars and arches. A series of straight, flat, unrelieved 
lines is all very well in a kitchen garden, but we can 
improve upon it in the flower garden. A few pillars 
and arches need not cost a great deal, and they will 


certainly doubly repay the outlay upon them. Those 
Rose-lovers who would like to have a complete Rose 
garden could form an enclosure with a rustic fence, 
planted with Roses, or a Sweetbrier hedge, or with 
pillars connected with chains or top pieces. Otherwise, 
a series of pillars, connected at the top either with 
chains or lighter poles, could be set alongside a walk 
leading to a summer-house. If there was no arbour, 
an arch at each end would be both beautiful and 
appropriate. Whatever timber is used should be well 
seasoned. Nominally oak lasts many years, but 
'^ green" oak may rot in two or three seasons. On 
the other hand, with seasoned wood even larch and 
chestnut, which are not potentially so durable as oak, 
may remain sound for eight or ten years. Nine-feet 
poles will be long enough, two and a half feet in the 
ground, and six and a half feet out. They may be 
anything from six to nine inches thick. The bark 
should be stripped off the part to be plunged, which 
may be painted with melted tar and dusted with sand 
to assist in preserving it. Four-inch poles will be 
large enough for the top (and also for the sides in the 
case of a pergola), but old chains are often used ; 
they are not drawn tight, but are allowed to sag in 
the middle. Strong Roses may be expected to cover 
them in two seasons if the soil is good. If suitable 
timber for arches is difficult to get, the ironmonger's 
wire arches need not be despised, as very little metal 
is exposed when the Roses have been established a 
year or two. Specially long nails or spikes should be 
used to connect top and side poles with the pillars, as 
it is necessary that they should be well secured. 

Exhibiting. — It often happens that after a year or 
two of Rose culture the charm and interest of the 


flower get so tight a hold of the amateur tliat he 
specialises it. He reads the Rose notes in his favourite 
gardening paper eagerly, and he visits shows. He sees 
prizes won by flowers that are not a bit better than 
his own, and he is encouraged to try his hand at show- 
ing. When he gets to this stage he is wise to join a 
local Rose society, or the National Rose Society, the 
rules and other publications of which, and the inter- 
course with special members, will give him much useful 
information. The small grower need not feel that he 
will be overweighted by the large one, as at most shows 
the classes are divided into sections according to the 
number of plants grown. An amateur who has less 
than a hundred plants will find himself protected from 
the attack of men who cultivate more than a thousand. 
But even with no more powerful competitors than those 
of his own class, he will have to grow his plants well 
to succeed, as competition among the smaller amateurs 
is as keen as it is among the ^' big men." Strong plants 
put into deep, well-manured soil and pruned hard will 
yield large, handsome flowers, especially if they are 
restricted to three or four shoots, and the buds on these 
thinned. If the plants are left to grow naturally, and 
not disbudded, they will produce a larger number of 
smaller flowers. The plants should be looked over the 
day before the show, and plump young flowers just on 
the point of full expansion chosen. A strip of raffia 
should be slipped round the heart and tied firmly, but 
not so tightly as to compress the flower severely. In 
the evening or very early morning the flowers should 
be cut, put in water, and kept in the shade. When they 
are set up for the judges the raffia should be cut, 
and the outer petals drawn away from the centre with 
tweezers and evenly disposed, one overlapping the other. 


This is called ** dressing," but care should be taken 
to avoid giving the flowers a very stiff appearance, or 
the judge will condemn them as '^ over-dressed." Boxes 
painted green of the following sizes are suitable for 
staging exhibition Roses in : — 

Number of Blooms. 

24 (or 8 trebles) 
18 (or 6 trebles) 
12 (or 4 trebles) 


Length in Inches. 

. 42 

• 33 

• 24 

. 18 


All the boxes must be 18 inches wide (back to front), 
and 4 inches high at the front. 

Roses under Glass. — In our selections we saw that 
some varieties of Roses are particularly adapted for 
culture in pots. Amateurs with a large greenhouse or 
conservatory have an advantage over their glassless 
brethren, as they can have Roses in spring. In a 
corner of the house they can plant out a favourite 
climber, such as Climbing Niphetos or Marechal Niel, 
and on the stage they can have a few pots of selected 
sorts. A cool house is better than a hot one. A winter 
temperature of 45° to 50° is ample. Those who have 
two houses, one warm and the other cool, may force 
a few pot plants if very early bloom is wanted. The 
plants may be stood outside on a bed of ashes after 
flowering, and pruned, re-potted, and replaced in the 
house in separate batches in autumn and winter. Three 
parts of fibrous loam, one of decayed manure, and 
some coarse sand form a suitable compost for Roses 
under glass. Both the dwarf and climbing forms of 
Niphetos are beautiful indoor Roses, producing abund- 


ance of long, pointed, pure white, delicately perfumed 
buds. Mardchal Niel is an enduring favourite. The 
most successful growers cut this glorious, fragrant 
yellow Rose hard back after flowering, and get entirely 
new canes for the next season's blooming. 

Insects and Diseases, — The Rose is often attacked by 
green-fly. This can be destroyed under glass by fumi- 
gating the house with a vaporising cone, and outdoors 
by syringing with water in which soft soap and quassia 
chips, at the rate of a pound and half a pound re- 
spectively per gallon, have been boiled. Grubs and 
small caterpillars may be picked off when seen, and 
their attack checked by dusting the bushes with flowers 
of sulphur while moist. Sulphur is also a good remedy 
for mildew and red rust — indeed, the Rose-grower 
should always keep a supply by him. Probably mildew 
will prove to be the most dangerous enemy. The 
shining-leaved Roses of the Wichuraiana class (Dorothy 
Perkins, &c.), are generally free from this pest, but 
Crimson Rambler and other beautiful pillar Roses are 
very subject to it. An attack mars their appearance 
by coating the leaves with a greyish powder, and im- 
pairs the flowering. To be thoroughly effectual, the 
sulphur should be used in a finely powdered state, and 
dredged on directly the attack begins. For pillar plants 
it is convenient to have a pair of Malbec bellows, which 
many seedsmen sell. 

The Rose-grower's Year — A Summary. 

January and February. — If the garden Roses were not 
planted in autumn owing to the soil not being ready, 
they should be kept prostrate with soil heaped over the 
roots. Take an opportunity of preparing and manuring 


the ground. Heavy soil often crumbles readily after frost 
in these months. Planting may be done when the soil 
is ready. Prune and pot a few selected plants, and place 
in the greenhouse. Delicate dwarf Teas in the open 
ground may be protected by drawing a few inches of 
soil up to them in January, and standards by placing 
some bracken in the branches. Tender varieties on walls 
may be protected by being covered with a mat. This 
protective work may be done in January or earlier, 
according to the weather. 

March. — Complete planting this month. If the winter 
has been mild, and the Roses have consequently broken 
into growth at the upper part, it will be well to shorten 
them about half-way to the point of ultimate pruning 
early in the month, and complete the pruning at the 
end. Cut newly planted Roses hard back at the end of 
the month. Look out for green-fly on indoor plants, 
and vaporise the house to prevent its spread. 

April. — All pruning may be completed early in this 
month. Teas and Hybrid Teas sometimes start later 
than Hybrid Perpetuals, but the pruning can be com- 
pleted by the middle of April. Look over wall Roses 
and cut out superfluous growths. Crowding should not 
be permitted. Fasten the main shoots to the walls with 
cast-iron nails and shreds or other approved means. 
Prune back the shoots of budded Briers when the Rose 
buds begin to grow. Attend to the watering of indoor 
plants, and give liquid manure once a week. Give 
abundance of air. 

May. — Plants will now be growing fast, and the first 
tints will be much admired. Keep a sharp lookout for 
grubs, and examine any curled leaves. Thin the shoots 
of plants which are wanted to give fme flowers. Put pot 
plants that have finished flowering in the open air on 


a bed of ashes. Maintain the supply of water in dry 
weather. Cut back Mar^chal Niel after flowering. 

June, — The plants will be in full growth this month, 
and the earlier varieties will form buds. Disbud plants 
which are to yield show flowers. A soaking of liquid 
manure once a week will do good. Continue to watch 
for grubs and green-fly. Mildew may appear, and should 
be promptly attacked with sulphur. Prepare boxes and 
tubes if intending to exhibit. Tie the growths of climbers 
to the pillars. 

July. — This will be the principal flowering month of 
the year. Most varieties will be in full beauty. Cut 
freely while the flowers are young, as it encourages the 
plants to continue blooming. Water and liquid manure 
will be beneficial in diy weather. Take the opportunity 
of wet weather to commence budding, which can often 
be done with advantage in the latter part of the month. 
Should frothy tufts appear on the plants, caused by the 
*' cuckoo spittle " insect, brush them off. 

August. — Most of the wall and Hybrid Perpetual 
Roses in the beds will be past their best now, but the 
Teas and Hybrid Teas will continue flowering. Complete 
budding ; if it has to be done in dry weather, give the 
plants a soaking of water the day before removing the 
pith. Tie the growths of climbers, which will now be 
strong, to the pillars. Continue to attack insects and 

September, — The Hybrid Perpetuals will give a few 
more flowers this month, after which most of them will 
finish blooming for the year. The Teas and Hybrid 
Teas will continue. Towards the end of the month 
insert cuttings of Briers or selected Roses. 

October, — Complete the insertion of cuttings. Start 
preparing soil for planting, and order the trees required 



for delivery when ready. Work the soil two spades 
deep and manure it liberally. Procure material for 
pillars and arches. Renew labels which are becoming 

November. — Endeavour to get all planting done this 
month, as it is the best of the year as a rule. If very wet, 
planting on clay soil may have to be deferred. While 
the plants are waiting to be put in they should be laid 
prostrate with soil banked over the roots. Go over 
climbing Roses, cut out as much old wood as can be 
spared, and tie the new canes to their supports. 

Dece7nber, — Complete soil preparation, planting, 
thinning old wood, and tying or nailing. Protect deli- 
cate varieties with soil, bracken, or mats (see January). 



Two prime favourites of our great-grandparents, as they 
are of ourselves. Their very names speak of past cen- 
turies. They lead us back into mediaeval gardens, which 
knew not of Begonias, Zonal Geraniums, and other fiery 
modern flowers. 

And whence came these names ? The Snapdragon 
is the Antirrhinu7n majus of botanists. It is a plant 
which grew wild on old walls in Great Britain long 
before Linnaeus was born. The name Antirrhinum 
came from antiy like ; and rhin, a snout, in allusion to 
the fact that the flowers resemble the snout of an 
animal in form. And we may very well suppose that 
the common name arose from the wide mouth and 
heavy lower jaws of the flower, which gave it a devour- 
ing air. 

The Sweet William is the Dianthus barbaiusy or 
bearded Jove's Flower, of the botanists. It is closely 
related to the Carnation — the Gillyflower of old 
gardeners. These good florists had to subdivide their 
Gillyflowers, and from that necessity we get our names 
of Stock and Wallflower. It was perhaps the same 
necessity for more minute distinction which induced 
them to give separate names to the fragrant bearded 
Pinks ; they called the narrow-leaved varieties Sweet 
Johns, and the broad-leaved ones Sweet Williams, 



The name Sweet John has not lived, but Sweet WiUiam 
survives, and may be expected to live for ever. 

Botanical authorities do not attempt to fix a date for 
the introduction of the Snapdragon to Great Britain, 
and they tell us that it is a native. That is open to 
doubt, but it has certainly been a wilding for a period 
which runs into centuries. Of the Sweet William they 
tell us that it came from Germany in 1573. A coloured 
plate of the plant appears in the Botanical Magazine^ 
t, 207. 

There was a time when the Sweet William was 
specialised by florists, who grew a strain called Auricula- 
eyed, and were disposed to make the plant almost as 
great a favourite as the Auricula itself. The movement 
subsided, and the Sweet William no longer enjoys status 
as a florist's flower. It is the turn of the Snapdragon 
to be exalted. The florists — and particularly Scottish 
florists — have devoted a great deal of attention to raising 
improved varieties, and have even given special names 
to them. 

Both plants have shared in the increased popularity 
of hardy flowers generally, and that is of much greater 
moment than a rise and fall in the favour of a limited 
number of florists. It means that as garden plants they 
enjoy the favour of thousands. 

Those flower-lovers who have to garden on chalk 
ground learn fully the value of Snapdragons. These are 
the plants which never fail, however poor and shallow 
the soil may be, and however dry the season. They 
are a boon and a blessing on chalk. They never tire, 
they never flag. They may be planted at almost any 
season, and they will remain in bloom when almost 
everything else in the garden has gone. Even if the 
flowers possessed no particular charm, these qualities 




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would render Snapdragons valuable, because they are 
so rare. But the fine modern types are very beautiful. 
There are both self and striped varieties. The latter 
flowers are of immense size, and most of them have 
broad flakes of rich velvety colour beside the narrow 
lines. It is this type that the doughty Scottish florists 
love, and with which they encounter each other in prize 

There are many selections of self-colours which come 
true from seed. Nearly all seedsmen offer two strains, 
the tall and the Tom Thumb, the former growing two 
to three feet high, the latter only eight or nine inches. 
But some offer a third called intermediate, the height of 
which is twelve to fifteen inches. The latter strain is 
better than the Tom Thumb, even for the front of 
borders, as the growth, while not excessive, is a little 
freer, and the flowers are larger. 

With respect to colours, nearly all seedsmen offer 
crimson, yellow, and white separately, most add carmine, 
some include coral, pink, apricot, orange, and rose. No 
varieties are more beautiful than those with a blending 
of two colours, such as rose and white, red with white 
margin, pink with yellow lip, scarlet with white throat, 
crimson and yellow, pink and gold, white tipped with 
yellow, and crimson with white throat. Few flower- 
lovers, even those with considerable experience of hardy 
plants, are familiar with these exquisite bi-coloured 
Snapdragons. The more closely a collection of seed- 
lings is examined the more exquisite the variations that 
are found. 

While those who are anxious to have particular 
colours will do well to procure separate packets of 
seed, it generally happens that a mixed packet from a 
good seedsman gives a considerable number of them. 


The gardener of limited means need not repine, there- 
fore. If unable conveniently to buy a separate collec- 
tion, let him trust his fortunes to a mixture. He may 
mark the varieties which he likes best, and increase 
them another year by seeds or cuttings. 

While the Snapdragons are true perennials, flourish- 
ing for years on old ruins and in the driest crevices 
of walls, it is both simple and adequate to treat them 
as annuals. No small advantage of growing them thus 
is that a supply of sturdy seedlings can be got ready 
for planting by mid-May, and thereby come in useful 
for planting near bulbs which are to be left in the 
ground, and the leaves of which are fading. It is 
unwise to cut off the bulb foliage, nor is it necessary, 
for if the leaves are tied in a neat cluster they do their 
work of feeding the bulbs below them, and they are 
not conspicuous when the Snapdragons get fairly into 

To have the Antirrhinums ready for planting in 
May they ought to be sown in a box of fine, moist 
soil in January or February, and put in a warm frame 
or greenhouse. With abundance of light and air after 
germination, and thinning and pricking out as required, 
they will make sturdy plants. They should be hardened 
in a cold frame before they are planted out. Plants 
may be raised without heat in March, and will flower 
the same year if all go well with them, although they 
will be later. Some growers sow seed out of doors in 
early summer, and plant the seedlings out in autumn, 
to bloom the following year. The distance apart should 
be from six to eighteen inches according to the type. 

It w^ould hardly be wise to trust to late spring 
planting for establishing Snapdragons on walls. It 
would be better to sow the seed in autumn, and put 


a little soil over it, in order to give the plants a chance 
of getting good roothold before the hot weather came 

Cuttings may also be struck in autumn, and may 
consist of the young shoots which healthy plants are 
continually forming. These may be struck in a box 
of sandy soil in a cold frame, or even outdoors. 

The Sweet William is generally treated as a biennial, 
like the Wallflower — that is, raised from seed in May, 
thinned, set nine inches apart in a nursery bed in 
summer, planted out in autumn, and cleared off after 
flowering in early summer. If, however, a particularly 
good variety results, it is often kept true by taking young 
basal shoots as cuttings and inserting them in moist 
soil in a shady place. But the Sweet William is not, 
like the Snapdragon, a chalk-lover, and in poor soil 
there is little enough growth suitable for cuttings. In 
this respect the gardener who practises on a rich loamy 
or moist clay soil is in a much better position than he 
who works on chalk. 

The Auricula-eyed Sweet William should have a 
large truss of flowers which possess the qualities of 
roundness, smooth edges, and clearly defined eye, sur- 
rounded by a dark band. The Pheasant's Eye, crimson 
with white eye, is also a beautiful selection. Self- 
colours, such as pink, scarlet, dark crimson, and white, 
are also available. Pink Beauty is an exceptionally 
charming variety. Bright salmon-pink in colour, grow- 
ing only twelve to eighteen inches high, of neat habit, 
free blooming, and lasting well, it is perhaps the most 
valuable of all the Sweet Williams as a garden plant. 
The various colours come true from seed, and so does 
the double white. 

As in the case of Snapdragons, mixed seed from a 


good firm will give a considerable diversity of colours, 
and any particularly good varieties may be perpetuated 
by means of cuttings. 

With their beauty, their ease of culture, their hardi- 
ness, and the charm of old association which they 
possess. Snapdragons and Sweet Williams must ever be 
favourites in the garden. 




The Pea is one of the oldest of garden plants, but the 
Sweet Pea has only been grown in British gardens for 
a little more than two hundred years. The first Sweet 
Pea of which any record exists was sent to Dr. Uvedale, 
a schoolmaster at Enfield, who took great interest in 
plants, by a Sicilian monk, named Franciscus Cupani, 
in 1699. It was received with interest rather than 
enthusiasm. The flower, though fragrant, was small 
and irregular, and the colour — purple — was not brilliant. 
It is probable that Uvedale's interest in the plant was 
that of the botanist rather than the gardener. It was 
a new plant, and he would experience a certain pride 
in the reflection that he, and not such mighty prede- 
cessors as Ray, Gerard, and Parkinson, had had the 
honour of being the first recipient. He would draw 
the attention of botanists to it complacently, dissect it, 
describe it in great detail, fuss over it generally, and 
never, probably, form the slightest conception of its 
great future. 

To-day the Sweet Pea is one of the most popular 
of garden flowers. It is grown by more people than 
any other plant. All classes cultivate it. Everybody 
loves it. It is charming in form, beautiful and varied 
in colour, deliciously sweet, and open to culture by 
everybody. The mos-t successful growers of Sweet Peas 

are found in the owners of small gardens, with only a 



few square rods of ground, and none too much of either 
money or leisure. 

If Sweet Pea lovers want to compare the modern 
with the original Sweet Pea, they can do it best by 
placing a photograph of a good spray of to-day beside 
one of the original Sweet Pea which they will find in 
the National Sweet Pea Society's Annual iov 1908. The 
latter was taken from a specimen in Plukenet's Herba- 
rium in the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, 
London, and portrays a weed-like plant with insignifi- 
cant flowers. But many people living at the present 
time can remember the old-fashioned Sweet Pea, with 
its small, irregular flowers borne in pairs, either white, 
purple, striped, white, carmine, or pink and white. The 
flow^ers of the present time, two inches across, the petals 
overlapping so that no gaps are shown, and exquisitely 
frilled, borne in fours and fives on the stem, with a 
range of colours that comprises almost everything 
except yellow, are a remarkable advance. They are 
not sweeter than the older ones, but in every other 
respect they are immensely superior. 

Flower-lovers who grow Sweet Peas have good 
grounds for their action. Well-grown plants yield a 
\ constant succession of bloom from June to November 
inclusive if the flowers are gathered regularly, and no 
blossoms are more delightful for house decoration. 
Moreover, the cultivation is inexpensive, so that all this 
floral charm can be gained without any great outlay. 
One may, it is true, spend a good deal of money on 
Sweet Peas by growing a large collection of the newest 
varieties and exhibiting them ; but that is not in the 
least essential to garden beauty. The great fact is that 
a splendid display of charming flowers can be had 
both in garden and house with very little outlay. 

I'voin a Water Colottr Drawing by Lilian Stanimni . 

Sweet Peas. 


Let us put into small compass a few facts about the 
Sweet Pea. It is known to science as Lathyrus odorahiSy 
the name given to it by Linncxus. It belongs to the 
order Leguminosae, or pod-bearers. It is a hardy 
annual — that is, a plant which may be sown out of 
doors to complete its life-history within a year. It 
differs from most annuals, however, in being amenable 
to propagation by cuttings. The flower consists of a 
large upright petal called the standard, two smaller side 
ones called the wings, and a bottom one folded in 
called the keel. The organs of sex are enclosed within 
the keel, and consist of ten stamens, each with its 
anthers or pollen case at the top, the pistil with ovary 
at the base, and stigma at the top. Nominally each 
Sweet Pea flower is self-fertilised, because the pollen 
is ripe and the stigma viscid to receive it before the 
flowers have opened sufficiently for wind or bees to 
come into play ; in this also it differs from most 
flowers. When the flowers fade the fused carpels are 
seen in the form of a boat-shaped body, which extends, 
and is presently seen to be the seed pod. Each pod 
contains from eight to twelve seeds. The pods are 
ready for gathering when they change colour and begin 
to open. 

Had the Sweet Pea been known in the days of 
Chaucer, Shakespeare, Spenser, and Ben Jonson, it 
would have prompted some beautiful images and 
delightful rhyme. John Keats fell in love with the 
flower, and wrote of — 

" Sweet Peas, on tiptoe for a flight, 
With wings of gentle flush o'er delicate white, 
And taper fingers catching at all things, 
To bind them all about with tiny rings." 

"Varieties. — The number of varieties of Sweet Peas is 


now enormous, but it has developed almost entirely 
within the past fifty years. The reason why Sweet Peas 
did not multiply naturally is that the habit of self-fertili- 
sation made for constancy. When florists had satisfied 
themselves that it was possible to improve Sweet Peas, 
and that there was a public waiting for new varieties, they 
pursued an active course of artificial cross-fertilisation, 
opening flowers while still in the bud, so as to antici- 
pate self-fertilisation, removing the anthers, and applying 
pollen from another flower to the stigma. These crosses 
resulted in the production of a large number of different 
varieties. The best were retained, and selected again 
and again until they kept true to character. The raiser 
has found that although the Sweet Pea was one of the 
most constant of flowers naturally, yet it is extremely 
^ variable when crossed, and is some time in settling down. 
The seed of every plant raised from a cross should be 
kept separate and sown by itself under its own label ; 
this renders the task of getting any particular novelty 
fixed much easier than when the seeds of different 
plants are mixed ; even when the latter appear to be 
absolutely identical they may throw dissimilar plants 
another year. The old varieties had a smooth-edged or 
plain standard with a notch in the centre, the modern 
ones have frilled standards ; as there are admirers for 
both, I will include them in the table of selected varieties 
on page 349. 

All those named are suitable for exhibition. They 
include representative sorts of the principal colours 
which we now possess, but the reader should recollect 
that new, and in some cases improved, varieties are 
being brought out annually, and he who specialises 
should inquire about novelties from his seedsman in 
order to be in a position to keep up to date. 

Sweet Peas. 




*A. J. Cook . 

Asta Ohn 

Aurora Spencer 
*Black Knight 

Cherry Ripe . 
*Clara Curtis . 
♦Constance OHver . 
♦Countess Spencer . 

Dora Breadmore . 
♦Dorothy Eckford . 

Douglas Unwin 
*Duke of Westminster 

Earl Spencer . 
♦Elsie Herbert 

Etta Dyke 
♦Flora Norton Spencer 
♦Frank Dolby. 

Gladys Burt . 
♦George Stark 
♦Helen Lewis . . 
♦Helen Pierce . 
♦James Grieve. 

John Ingman 
♦Lady Grisell Hamilton 
♦Lord Nelson . 
♦Marjorie Willis 

Masterpiece . 
♦Mrs. Andrew Ireland 
♦Mrs. C. W. Breadmore 

Mrs. Hugh Dickson 
♦Mrs. Walter Wright 
♦Nora Unwin . 

Nubian . 
■^Paradise Ivory 

Princess Victoria 
♦Queen Alexandra 

Stirling Stent 
♦Sunproof Crimson 

Tennant Spencer 

Zarina . 


Pale mauve 













White, pink edge 


Bright blue 


Cream, rose border 



Blue veined 


Orange carmine 


Dark blue 

Rosy magenta 


Rose and blush 

Cream, rose edge 

Cream pink 












Frilled a 
















Frilled a 


























These are particularly good garden varieties. 


Propagation. — The great majority of growers, for 
garden and exhibition alike, raise their plants from seed, 
and this is the method to be recommended. Cuttings 
made out of the tips of young plants may, however, be 
used if desired. They should be about three inches 
long, and inserted firmly in moist, sandy soil in a box 
that is covered with a square of glass and put in a shady 
part of the greenhouse. The removal of the tips does 
not hurt the plants, indeed some growers systematically 
stop their plants, not because they want cuttings, but in 
order to make them break from the base. Seed-buyers 
will find that the seed of all varieties is not alike. In the 
case of some it is plump, round, and smooth, in others 
small and wrinkled. Most of the blues have insignificant 
seed, but it gives equally as strong plants as large seeds. 
Outdoor sowing may be practised in autumn or spring, 
according to soil and requirements. If early flowers 
are wanted, the seed may be sown in September or 
October, provided the soil is well drained and friable. 
In heavy, stiff, stodgy soil autumn sowing does not 
answ^er. An ounce of seed may be sown for every seven 
or eight yards of row and covered an inch deep. Seed 
may be sown in March or April in the ordinary course. 
The exact time should depend upon the state of the soil. 
If it is in a friable state the first good shower may be 
taken advantage of. It is desirable that the soil be 
damp, but not sodden. It is the custom of growers to 
raise expensive novelties in boxes or pots under glass 
in order to be able to provide conditions which will 
insure every seed germinating. A compost of loam, leaf 
mould, and sand is prepared, and the seeds put in quite 
clear of each other half an inch deep. Where pots are 
used six seeds are often sown in a live-inch pot, but very 
careful growers sow singly in three-inch pots, because 


then there is no disturbance of the ball of soil and roots 
when planting time comes. The receptacles are put in a 
frame or on a greenhouse shelf. Some exhibitors sow 
in autumn, and keep the young plants almost dry through 
the winter. Certainly the raiser must be very careful 
not to keep the soil wet during the dull season. Others 
sow in January or February. Hard-skinned seeds often 
germinate slowly, and growers chip the shell with a 

Soil^ Manure^ and Planting. — The plants raised in the 
manner described are generally put into the open ground 
in April. The soil should be prepared previously by 
digging it two spades deep and incorporating a dressing 
of decayed horse manure equal to from two to three 
barrow-loads per square rod. Light soil should be pre- 
pared in autumn, and heavy ground after the first severe 
spell of frost. The surface should be left lumpy, and in 
February a dressing of dry wood ashes, with super- 
phosphate equal to seven pounds per square rod, may 
be spread on. The soil will crumble after the spring 
showers, and be ready for the seeds or plants in April. 
If seeds are to be sov^ai in rows, draw drills tw^o inches 
deep six feet apart ; if in clumps, draw circular drills 
four to five feet across at intervals of a few feet. Young 
and sturdy plants from pots or boxes may be set nine 
inches apart. Some dry lime may be sprinkled round 
them to keep slugs off. The grower should be careful 
to get his plants sturdy by keeping them uncrowded 
and near the glass, and he should plant them out as soon 
after they show tendrils as possible. 

Sticks, Water, Stopping, — The sticks should be put 
to the plants as soon as they start growing. They 
should be sharpened, and forced well down a few 
ipches from the plants, In their early stages the plants 


may be tied to the sticks, but when they get to be 
eighteen inches high they will form tendrils freely and 
get a tight hold, twining round every stem and twig. 
Should the weather be dry, a good soaking of water, 
in which nitrate of soda at the rate of half an ounce 
per gallon has been dissolved, may be given twice 
a week. This, with the good soil under the plants, will 
insure their making rapid progress. Exhibitors practise 
various plans to insure strong stems and continuity of 
flowering. One fancies stopping the plants when a 
foot high by pinching off the tips, in order to encourage 
side shoots from the base. Another believes in letting 
them grow naturally till the end of July, and, after 
winning a number of prizes, cutting the plants right 
back to the ground for a new break. A third stops half 
his plants at four feet high. The general grower need 
not trouble about any of these devices, but there is one 
thing that he must do if he wants to have a long succes- 
sion of flowers, and that is to gather regularly. Weekly 
drenchings of liquid manure will help the plants to 
continue growing and flowering until autumn : the food 
will also help to keep the stems long, and this is a 
great advantage to those who want flowers for room 

Exhibiting, — Sweet Pea competitions are general in 
these days, and as the flower is not an expensive one 
to exhibit, many amateurs try their luck in the show 
tent. Stands and tubes are not wanted, as they are 
in the case of Carnations, Chrysanthemums, Dahlias, 
and Roses ; Sweet Peas being shown in vases. At many 
exhibitions these are hired to exhibitors by the com- 
mittee at a small charge ; if not, any slender vase from 
eight inches to a foot high, with a mouth wide enough 
to hold about twenty stems without crowding, will do. 


With the aid of a little moss the stems can be fixed 
in the mouth of the vase in such a way that the flowers 
are displayed in a well-spread circle, each clear of its 
neighbours. Crowding should be avoided. Stems 
about fifteen inches long, carrying four large, fresh 
flowers each, give the exhibitor his greatest chance of 
success. Old, dingy flowers stand very little chance, 
however large they may be. Freshness is so important 
that the exhibitor must take pains in selecting and pack- 
ing his sprays. He should select sprays of which some 
flowers are only just opening, cut them the day before 
the show, and stand them in water in a cool, shady 
place till he is ready to pack them up. He should then 
wrap them quite dry in soft paper and pack them firmly 
in shallow boxes with nothing more than a little moist 
paper round the base of the stalks. They will pass 
several hours in the boxes quite safely, and open fresh 
and clean when placed in water. If the show is near 
they may be cut early on the same morning. The 
exhibitor should make himself acquainted with the 
rules by reading the regulations in the schedule, and 
conform to them. He should place neat cards clearly 
inscribed with the name of the variety in front of each 
vase. How charming a flower the Sweet Pea is for 
decoration, the vases and epergnes which the lady 
exhibitors arrange at the shows prove conclusively. 

Ene77ties. — Sweet Peas have no dangerous insect 
enemy peculiar to themselves, and when they are given 
suitable conditions they generally grow healthfully, but 
slugs, wireworm, caterpillars, and various fungi assail 
them at times. Freshly slaked dry lime, and lime 
water, check slugs. Wireworm may be reduced to 
impotence by dressing the ground with Vaporite, which, 
however, must be placed well below the roots in spring, 


previous to planting. Caterpillars should be picked off, 
or deterred by syringing the plants with soot-water. 
If the grower has a hose he may give the plants a 
drenching through the rose of this occasionally. It is 
weak plants that suffer most from fungi, and the best 
preventive is good soil and careful culture. Should 
disease attack the plants, spray the foliage with a solu- 
tion of liver of sulphur, at the rate of half an ounce i 
per gallon of water. 

Every flower-lover should grow Sweet Peas. If he 
does not care to specialise them under names, let him 
sow mixtures, preferably of the giant Waved or Spencer 
type. Let him grow these in rows, in clumps beside 
a favourite path, in his borders, or against fences and 
trellis-work. Their beautiful blossoms will enliven the 
garden and brighten and perfume the house. Flowers 
of exceptional charm and grace, fragrant, easily grown, 
they appeal to gardeners of all classes with overwhelm- 
ing force. 



Both of these perfumed flower-garden favourites shared 
with Carnations the common name of Gilliflower (or 
Gillyflower) in the Middle Ages. We have already seen 
(Chapter VIIL, Carnations) that Gilliflower is not, as 
is commonly believed, a corruption of July flower, but 
of caryophyllon or caiyophyllus, and that the latter, the 
generic name of the Indian Clove tree, is also the specific 
name of the Carnation, having been given because of 
the clove perfume of the flower. 

Although old-time gardeners called Carnations, 
Stocks, and Wallflowers by the common name Gilli- 
flowers, we can well imagine their finding it con- 
venient to devise subsidiary names, and looking for 
them in the habit of the plants. They would perceive 
a natural distinction between a grassy plant like the 
Carnation and a shrubby one like either of the others. 
So they would draw upon the good old word '^ stock," 
indicating a hard stem, for the Gilliflowers that were 
not grassy. This would make both Stocks and Wall- 
flowers Stock Gilliflowers, and a further sub-division 
being desirable, they would bring in the word "wall" 
to distinguish that member of the Stock Gilliflowers 
which commonly grew on walls. Gillyflower (Burrow), 
Gillowflower (Parkinson), Gillofre (Holland), Jereflouris 
(Douglas), and Gillyvor (Shakespeare, **The Winter's 
Tale "), are all variations of Gillyflower. 



The Wallflower is the Cheiranthus (kyer-an'-thus) 
cheh'i of botanists. The generic name comes from 
cheir, the hand, and anthoSy a flower, in allusion to 
the general use of the flowers as nosegays. 

There are flowers, as there are people, which, 
without possessing remarkable beauty, have a dis- 
tinctiveness and force that cause them to stand out 
from their fellows ; and the Wallflower is assuredly 
one of them. Without exceptional vigour of habit or 
brilliance of colour to recommend it, it nevertheless 
holds a sure place in the affections of flower-lovers. 
We may attribute its popularity partly to its being 
evergreen, partly to its habit of blooming freely in 
spring, and partly to its powerful perfume. Retaining 
its foliage throughout the winter, it gives life and 
colour to what would otherwise be bare soil ; blowing 
in spring, it gives brightness at a season when flowers 
are none too plentiful ; diffusing delicious fragrance, it 
adds an unfailing charm to the neighbourhood of a 

Belonging to the Cruciferae, or cross-shaped flowers, 
the Wallflower is a member of a large order, which 
comprises 172 genera and 1200 species, and consists 
of flowers with four sepals, the same number of petals, 
six stamens, four of which are long and two short, with 
glands at the base, and an ovary divided into two 
sections. The seeds are borne in a long pod [siliqua). 

The common W^allflower is a native of Southern 
Europe, but has become naturalised in Great Britain, 
where its orange-yellow flowers bedeck the crumbling 
w^alls of many an old fortress. Its success in shallow 
limestone crevices, and on chalky clifts, should warn 
the flower gardener that it does not require rich soil. 
Larger plants can be grown in such ground, but they 


are apt to be succulent, and to succumb to severe and 
prolonged frost. If bigger plants than the wall seed- 
lings are wanted there is no difficulty in getting them 
in combination with a tough, frost-resisting habit by 
sowing seed in some spare part of the kitchen or 
flower garden in May, and setting the plants out nine 
inches apart in rows a foot asunder after a shower 
in July. Nothing need be done to them save hoeing 
until October or November, when they may be planted 
a foot apart all ways in flower-beds from which summer- 
blooming plants have been cleared, in borders under 
the house windows, in window-boxes, and near the 
front of herbaceous borders. The soil should not be 
manured before planting, as it is desirable to maintain 
the hard, woody habit which has developed as a result 
of the thin culture. 

The Wallflower is a true perennial when growing 
as a wilding ; its stems are seen to be woody and its 
leaves few. In such a state it will live many years 
and flower fairly well ; but garden plants treated as 
biennials — that is, raised and planted as suggested, and 
thrown away after flowering — are much finer in their 
season, having much more foliage and therefore filling 
beds better, and producing larger flowers. The seed 
is cheap and the culture simple, consequently it is of 
no advantage to let the plants assume their natural 
character of perennials. 

Many seedsmen offer the following strains of Wall- 
flowers : — 

Annual, — Brown, may be sown under glass in spring to 
bloom the same year. 

Belvoir Castle. — Pale yellow, one of the best, being a free 
grower, an abundant bloomer, very bright, and highly perfumed. 

Blood Red. — Dark red or brown, very sweet. 


Cloth of Gold. — A good yellow. 

Eastern Queen. — Chamois, paling to salmon. 

German^ double. — Various colours, sweet, somewhat taller 
than most of the singles ; a good plant for pots as well as the 

Goldeft Tom Thumb. — Another useful yellow. 

Harbi7iger. — Brown, rather taller than Blood Red, early. 

Old Castle. — Orange yellow, a selection of the wilding, and 
one of the best for dry places. 

Ellen Willfnott.—^uhy. 

Belvoir Castle and Blood Red will meet the require- 
ments of most amateurs admirably. To establish plants 
on walls, sow^ seed in the chinks in spring and cover with 

Botanically the Stock, Mathiola (Math-e-o'-la) is very 
close to the Wallflower, but the flowers are purple in- 
stead of orange, the stigmas erect instead of spreading, 
and the seeds slightly winged instead of wingless. The 
plant was named after an Italian botanist, Mathioli. As 
we have seen, there has been an association centuries 
old between the two plants, although both have lost, 
by abridgment, the distinguishing name of Gilliflower. 
The Stock is a native of Western Europe and the 
Mediterranean littoral, but one species, incana, is a 
native of Great Britain, and is considered to be the 
parent of the Brompton Stock, which, with its hoary 
leaves and large flowers, ranks as one of the most 
popular of our hardy biennials. 

The Stock is equally as fragrant as the Wallflower, 
but blooms later, and has a much greater range of 
colours. All classes of it should be grown — the annual 
ten-week, Wallflower-leaved, Queen, and Brompton 
in the garden, the Intermediate and East Lothian in 
pots. The Ten-week Stocks came from the annual 

Tp:x-\veek Stocks. 


species annua, a various-coloured plant ; the Wall- 
flower-leaved (which has green instead of hoary leaves) 
from the white-flowered annual species grceca ; the 
Queen and Brompton both from the evergreen species 
incana. The hardy annual lilac-coloured species bicornis 
is the plant popularly known as the Night-scented Stock, 
from its peculiarity of emitting its sweet odour only at 
night. The flowers of this plant are not particularly 
attractive, even when they are fully open at night ; in 
the daytime they are commonplace, while the whole 
plant has a draggly look. 

Single Stocks have no charms for most flower-lovers. 
The blossoms are poor and the habit of the plant is 
straggly. But florists have attained such skill in select- 
ing the flowers from which to gather seed that, although 
the seed-yielding blossoms are themselves single, eighty 
to ninety per cent, of their progeny are double. If 
the grower buys from a seedsman of repute he may 
calculate on not having more than fifteen plants single 
in each hundred. It is a good plan to put the plants 
in clumps of five or six in the beds and borders, so 
that if a single plant appears it can be pulled out 
without leaving a serious gap. The plants may be 
raised and grow^n in the same way as China Asters. 
The one serious difficulty in raising Stocks from seed 
in spring is the liability of the plants to damp off, and 
they sometimes do this in thousands. The remedy is 
culture in a frame, abundance of air in favourable 
weather, and only enough water to prevent flagging. 
Should the trouble persist in spite of care, it would 
be well to sterilise the soil by heating it over a fire 
and letting it cool before sowing. 

The Dwarf German Ten-week, height about a foot, 
and the Giant Perfection Ten-week, height about 


eighteen inches, are two excellent strains of annual 
Stock for garden culture. They produce large spikes 
of fragrant flowers in a great variety of colours, which 
can be bought separately or in mixture. If green- 
leaved Stocks are preferred, the Wallflower-leaved may 
be grown instead. They grow about a foot high, and 
have several distinct colours. Princess May, primrose- 
coloured, is a charming variety of this class ; it may be 
grown as a Ten-week garden Stock, or in pots for 
the greenhouse. Mont Blanc is a splendid white 
garden Ten-week of robust habit, growing about 
eighteen inches high. 

A bed or broad band of Ten-week Stocks beside a 
walk or near a summer-house, or clumps in a part of 
the herbaceous border near the doors or windows of 
the house, should form a feature of every garden. The 
plants are handsome and the flowers persistent, as well 
as highly perfumed ; alike for garden and cutting they 
will prove delightful. But to have them in really fine 
condition they must be strong as seedlings, planted in 
soil that has been dug deeply and manured well, and 
given water or liquid manure in dry weather. 

The Brompton Stock, which grows about two feet 
high and branches freely, is generally treated as a 
hardy biennial, being sown outdoors in May or June, 
together with Wallflowers, Canterbury Bells, and Sweet 
Williams, thinned, and planted out in autumn or spring. 
As a rule it gets hard and woody enough to stand the 
winter when treated in this way, but it is often killed 
during severe winters in cold districts or on damp soil ; 
and if disappointment is experienced from this cause, 
it would be well to sow under glass in June, put 
the plants in small pots later on, and winter them 
in a frame, not planting them out until the spring. 


Several distinct colours of the Brcjinpton Stock are 

The Intermediate Stocks, of which the East Lothian 
is a form, are generally grown in pots and treated as 
biennials, being sown in a frame in August, potted, and 
put in a heated house in autumn to bloom in winter 
and spring. But they may be flowered in the garden 
in summer if desired by sowing in a warm house in 
February, hardening in a cold frame, and planting out 
in May. 

Riviera Market, Beauty of Nice, Christmas Pink, and 
other charming strains of Stocks offered by the large 
seedsmen are suitable for the same culture as the Inter- 
mediates. Three plants may be grown in an 8-inch pot. 

Wallflow^ers in spring. Stocks in summer, shall repre- 
sent in our gardens the Gilliflowers of the olden days. 
They will give us the same delicious odours as they 
gave to the flower-lovers of the Elizabethan period, 
and they will give us larger blooms, richer colours, 
and a greater proportion of doubles. In so far, 
then, we have the advantage of the amateurs for whom 
Parkinson, Ray, and Gerard wrote. 



There is no writer on Tulips who does not love to 
recall the great mania. It was the one outstanding 
event in the history of the flower. It lives not merely 
in gardening records, but in tables of the world's great 
events. In a paper read before the Royal Horticultural 
Society on March 9, 1909, by Mr. W. S. Murray, and 
published in the Society's \\i\^ Journal oi the same year, 
some highly interesting information about this extra- 
ordinary craze was given. The bulbs became so valuable 
that they were sold by weight like diamonds. The 
weight was calculated in azen, an azen being less than 
a grain. A large bulb would weigh between 500 and 
1000 azen, and sell for sums varying between 1500 and 
3500 florins. (A florin was is. 8d.) The highest price 
recorded is 5500 florins (^^458, 6s. 8d.) for a small bulb 
weighing only 200 azen (about ten grammes) of the 
variety Semper Augustus. But payment was sometimes 
in kind, and here is a table of goods, with their estimated 
value, paid for one bulb of the variety Viceroy — 


in Florins 

2 loads of wheat . 



4 loads of rye 



4 fat oxen 



8 fat pigs 



12 fat sheep . 


2 hogsheads of wine 









in Florins. 

4 barrels of beer . 


2 barrels of butter . 


1000 lbs. of cheese 


A complete bed 


A suit of clothes . 


A silver beaker 


Total value . : 


Was it some Tulip-loving farmer who made this 
remarkable bargain ? Country doctors tell us that the 
farmer of the present day has a way of offering to 
settle a bill with a sack of grain and a side of bacon ! 

The centre of the mania was Holland, but Mr. 
Murray quotes Munting as declaring that it originated 
in France, where the nobility, evidently moved by the 
spirit of reckless and selfish extravagance which led, 
later on, to the Terror, paid sums amounting to hundreds 
of pounds for a single bulb. Many of the Dutch 
bu^^ers were mere speculators, and bargains involving 
large sums of money were made without the Tulips 
ever leaving the ground. 

Tulips were grown in Holland as early as 1590, and 
the period of the mania is suggested as 1634-1637. 
The eagerness of the Dutch to get possession of 
bulbs was amusingly satirised by Alexandre Dumas 
in La Tulipe Noire^ but his description of the act of 
an unscrupulous amateur in endeavouring to steal the 
bulbs of a fellow grower was not imaginary. It was 
based on fact. Dr. Clusius, whose name is enshrined 
in the well-known species ClusmnUf took Tulips to 
Leyden when appointed Professor of Botany there, in 
1593, and as his prices for bulbs were high, his com- 
patriots prepared a deep-laid scheme and stole them. 


There are few popular flowers in which some of 
the old species are as highly esteemed as the most 
modern varieties, but the Tulip is certainly a case in 
point. Gesncriana and its yellow variety liitea both date 
back more than three hundred years as cultivated plants, 
and both are highly esteemed at the present day. The 
species must have been named in compliment to 
Conrad Gesner, who described some Tulips growing 
in Austria in 1561. Mr. Murray says that these origin- 
ated from seed carried from Turkey by Busbequius, 
an ambassador sent by the Emperor Ferdinand L to 
the Sultan, and who saw Tulips for the first time in 
Turkey in 1554. But he thinks that suaveokns, a dwarf 
fragrant red and yellow species flowering in April, which 
was introduced to Great Britain in 1603, and is illus- 
trated in the Botanical Magazine, t. 839, must have been 
seen among these seedling Turkish Tulips by Gesner 
in view of his description of the flowers, because their 
perfume is particularly mentioned, and there are few 
fragrant Tulips. Busbequius himself commented on the 
absence of perfume in the Tulips which he saw. 

The Tulip probably came from Persia ^ and it is 
somewhat curious that the name can be traced from 
the same Persian word, thoulyban, tulbend, or dubbend, as 
gave '^turban." The Persian used this word to describe 
the nettlecloth worn by the Turks as a fez, probably 
in allusion to the shape of the flower. The old name 
for Tulip was Tulipan, and the descent of this from 
thoulyban is easily followed. 

We see that the Tulip is an Oriental plant, and we 
perceive Eastern splendour in the brilliance of its 
flowers. The remarkably rich and glowing colours, 
the large size and massive substance of the great 
floral urns, the dusky sheen of some varieties, the 


metallic sparkle of others, have a truly Oriental 

Tulip Species. — The lover of Tulips who may be 
curious to know what the species are like may buy 
bulbs of many through the ordinary dealers, and may 
make acquaintance with some at one of the large 
libraries through the medium of the great works in 
which faithful coloured plates and accurate descriptions 
of the plants appear, such as the Botanical Magazine 
and the Botanical Register. Here are the names of some 
of the best : Australis or Celsiana^ yellow, flushed with 
red, appears in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 717. Batalini 
is pale yellow. Biflora^ yellowy introduced in 1806, is 
shown in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 6518, and also in 
the Botanical Register, t, 535. Clusiana, a white and 
purple species, said to have been introduced from Sicily 
in 1636, is shown in the Botafiical Magazine, t. 1390. 
The fine bright red species, Didieri, introduced from 
the Alps in 1882, is represented by t, 6639 of the 
Botanical Magazine ; the yellow variety of this called 
Billietiana is one of the most popular of late-blooming 
garden Tulips. Eichleri, crimson, black, and yellow, 
introduced from Georgia in 1874, is shown in /. 6191 
of the Botanical Magazine. Fosteriana is a magnificent 
vermilion species, exhibited in 1906. Gesneriana is 
shown in the Botanical Register, t. 46. The variety of 
Gesneriana called Dracontia, which is also known under 
the name of Turcica, gave us the Parrot Tulip, with its 
singularly cut and contorted petals. Another variety 
called spathidata, brilliant red, is one of the finest of 
garden Tulips. 

The dwarf scarlet species Greigii is much in demand 
as a garden Tulip. It has been grown in British gardens 
since 1873, and is shown in the Botanical Magazine, 


/. 6177. Hagerij scarlet, blue, and yellow, is shown 
in the Botanical Magazine, t. 6242. Kaufmanniana, red 
and yellow, introduced from Central Asia in 1877, and 
shown in the Botanical Magazine, t. 6887, is grown by 
many Tulip-lovers ; and the same may be said of the 
red and yellow Kolpakowskiana, introduced from Turkes- 
tan in 1878, and shown in the Botanical Magazine, 
t. 6710. Leichtlini, purple, white, and yellow, introduced 
from Cashmere in 1889, is a charming little species, 
and the same may be said of linifolia, scarlet and 
black, brought from Central Asia in 1886. Primulina, 
introduced from Algeria in 1882, a very dwarf grower 
with primrose- coloured flowers, is illustrated in the 
Botanical Magazine, t. 6785. Pulchella, Botanical Maga- 
zine, t. 6304, is a pretty, small species from Asia Minor, 
with rose and lilac flowers. Retroflexa, with yellow 
recurved flowers, is regarded as a hybrid. Stellata, 
white, a tall Himalayan species, somewhat rare, is 
shown in the Botanical Magazine, t. 2672. Sylvestris or 
fragrans is the sweet yellow English Tulip. Triphylla, 
lemon to orange, Botanical Magazine, t. 6459, is beauti- 
ful but expensive. Vitellina, pale yellow, is a hybrid. 

The foregoing are the principal Tulips, other than 
varieties, which are offered in the catalogues of bulb 
dealers. They are not grown by the majority of 
amateurs, but Tulip-lovers are a large body, and in 
their ranks are to be found a sufficient number of 
specialists to provide a considerable demand for most 
of the kinds named. 

Early and Florists Tulips. — The botanists formed 
three sections — early (pi'cecoces), medium (dubice), and late 
(serotince). The scarlet species /r(^r^;i: represents the first, 
and Gesneriana the last. The middle section was never 
taken very seriously, and dropped out. In modern 


flower-gardens Tulips are grown either as Early or 
Late. The former, both single and double, are the 
cheap and popular '^ Dutch " Tulips. They include 
the dwarf very early Due Van Thols, which are in 
great demand for forcing in pots, and originated from 
suaveolens. The late section includes the Darwins, the 
May-flowering or Cottage Tulips, and the old florists' 
show Tulips. The last, which are subdivided into 
Bizarres (yellow-ground flowers marked with purple \ 
or scarlet), Bybloemens (white-ground flowers marked i 
with violet or purple), Roses (white-ground flowers \ 
marked with rose, scarlet, or crimson), and Breeders 
(one-coloured or self flowers which after several years 
break into Bizarres, Bybloemens, or Roses, and are 
then called ^^ rectified"), are only grown by a few 
specialists. Those who want to study them might refer 
to i\iQ Journal oi the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. xv., 
1893, and vol. xxvii., 1902, where articles by experts 
appear. It was varieties of this section which formed 
the principal objects of the Tulip mania, but early 
varieties were also in demand. They might also refer 
to Robert Sweet's Florists Guide, published by James 
Ridgewa}^, of Piccadilly, in 1827-29, in two volumes, for 
this work contains a large number of beautiful coloured 
plates of Bizarres, Bybloemens, and Roses. Handsome 
flowers, of great substance, with rounded, exquisitely 
coloured petals, are shown in these splendid plates. 

Late Tulips. — Although the early Dutch Tulips are 
popular for pot culture, and are also used a good deal in 
spring bedding, the great body of amateurs have given 
most of their attention to the Darwins and cottage 
Tulips during recent years. These glorious plants are 
taller, larger, and finer in every way than the early 
Dutch. They form noble clumps in the borders. The 


flower stems rise to two feet high, or even more, the 
flowers have as much substance as the florists' varieties, 
and the colours are very rich. Flower-lovers plant 
these grand Tulips near the front of the mixed borders, 
and generally leave them in the ground the whole year, 
although some prefer to take them up and dry them 
after the foliage has ripened off, replanting in early 
autumn. When Tulips are thus taken up it will be 
found that in most cases the old bulb has decayed, but 
that a new one, nearly or quite as large, has formed 
within the scales. There may also be offsets, which 
will require two years' culture before they are large 
enough to flower. Flower-lovers need not feel under 
any cultural obligation to replant the Tulips every 
year, but they should take care that if the borders 
containing them are dug in autumn or winter, when 
the bulbs are dormant, a careful workman acts, and 
that he replants the clumps as he proceeds. 

Planting. — Early and late Tulips alike are best planted 
in October or November, in friable, deeply dug soil. A 
light dressing of well-decayed manure may be dug in 
ten or twelve inches deep, and supplemented with 
bone flour at the rate of a quarter of a pound per 
square yard ; this may also be dug well in. The plants 
are likely to do better in heavy soil than in light, 
provided it is made friable, as they will appreciate the 
moisture such ground holds. Leaf-mould, sand, road 
grit, and old hotbed manure may all be used to im- 
prove heavy land. Cow manure may be used freely 
in light ground. The bulbs should be planted in clumps 
of from three to twelve, according to means and space ; 
and the components of the various clumps should be 
about nine inches apart. The bulbs may be covered 
with three inches of soil. 




Growers of florists' Tulips generally put their 
plants in a special bed, the soil of which is prepared 
carefully, and over which an awning of light canvas is 
fixed during the flowering period for the purpose of 
shading the flowers from the sun. 

Pot Tulips are grown similarly to Hyacinths, being 
put into 5-inch or 6-inch pots in autumn, in a compost 
of loam, decayed manure, and sand, and plunged in 
cocoanut fibre refuse until they have made a good 
lot of roots, then brought out and put in the green- 
house. The only difference is that three bulbs are 
put in each pot instead of one. By putting some in a 
warm house and keeping others in a frame or cool 
house, a succession of bloom can be secured. All the 
early Dutch Tulips are suitable for pot culture, and 
the Due Van Thols are the earliest of them. 

The following are beautiful Tulips, and the table 
shows the class to which they belong, their colour, and 
the month of flowering. It will be noted that several 
fragrant varieties are included. 




Month of 

Annie Macgregor 


Rose and white 


Attraction . . . 


Rose and yellow 


Bessie .... 


Rose and yellow 


Billietiana . . . 


Yellow, splashed 


Bridesmaid . . . 


Rose and white 


Brunhilde . . . 

Early single 

Flamed buff 


Buenaventura . . 


Scarlet and yellow 


Chrysolora . . . 

Early single 



Clara Butt . . . 


Rosy salmon 


Cottage Maid . . 

Early single 

Rose and white 


Couronne des 

Early double 



Roses .... 

Crimson King . . 

Early single 



2 A 






Month of 

Dainty Maid . . 


Lilac and white 


Didieri alba . . 


White, sweet 


Dr. Dalton . . . 


Purple and yellow 


Dr. Hardy . . . 


Purple and yellow 


Donders .... 


Brownish red 


Farncombe Sanders 


Rosy carmine 


Gala Beauty . . 


Scarlet and yellow 


Gesneriana lutea . 




Heroine .... 


Rose and white 


Herschel . . . 




Imperator Rub- 

Early double 




Inglescombe Scar- 
Joost van Vondel 




Early single 

Crimson and white 


Kate Greenaway . 


Lilac and white 


Keizer's Kroon . 

Early single 

Scarlet and yellow 


La Candeur . . 




La Merveille . . 

Bronzy salmon 

Cottage, s\v££t 


Le Reve .... 

Early single 



Loveliness . . . 




Mabel .... 


Rose and white 


Macrospeila . . 


Cerise, sweet 


Maiden's Blush . 


Rosy pink 


Masterpiece . . 


Purple and yellow 


Modesty . . . 


Rose and white 


Nora Ware . . . 


Pale lilac 


Nulli Secundus . 


Rose and yellow 


Ophir d'Or . . . 

Early single 



Parisian Yellow . 




Picotee .... 


White, pink edge 


Pink Beauty . . 

Early single 

Pink and white 


Pride of Haarlem 


Rosy carmine 


Prince of Austria . 

Early single 

Orange, sweet 


Proserpine . . 

Early single 



Queen of Whites . 

Early single 



Salvator Rosa . . 

Early double 



Sir J. Paxton . . 


Purple and yellow 


Talisman . , . 


Rose and yellow 


Thomas Moore . 

Early single 



The Sultan . . . 




Tournesol , . . 

Early double 

Red and yellow 


Van Berghem . . 

Early single 

Rose, sweet 


Vermilion Brilliant 

Early single 



Can N AS. 



Anemones, origin of name, 3 ; prin- 
cipal species, 4 ; Blanda, 5 ; Poppy, 
5 ; fulgens, 7 ; Hepatica, 8 ; Hor- 
tensis, 9 ; Japanese, 9 ; narcissiflora, 
10 ; wood, 10; Pulsatilla, ii; 
sylvestris, 1 1 

Annuals, hardy, 47, 48, 49 ; half- 
hardy, 50 

Antirrhinums. See Chapter XXXIII. 

Aquilegias. See Columbines, Chap- 
ter XII. 

Asters, origin of name, 1 3 ; perennial, 
14; principal species, 17, 18; soil, 
18; propagation, 19 ; for suburban 
gardens, 19; China, 20; annual 
types, 21 ; culture of annual, 22 

Auriculas, 294, 299 


Begonias, early species, 24 ; early 
hybrids, 25 ; select varieties, 27 ; 
cheap, 28 ; how to start, 28 ; 
raising from seed, 29 ; planting, 
29 ; fibrous, 30 

Bell-flowers (Campanulas), origin of 
name, 32 ; Canterbury Bells, Z'h J 
perennial, 35 ; principal species, ^6 

Calceolarias, bedding, origin of 
name, 39 ; early species, 39 ; good 
varieties, 40 ; propagation, 40 

Campanulas. See Bell-flowers. 

Canary Creeper, origin of name, 42 ; 
sowing, 43 

Candytufts, 47 

Canterbury Bells, 32 

Carnations, Picotees, and Pinks, 
origin of names, 51,52, 53; Clove, 
54; various sections of, 57; pot 
culture, 59 ; select varieties, 60, 
61, 62, 63; soil, 64; wireworm, 
64 ; leather-jackets, 64 ; planting 
{ilhisirated), 65; diseases, 66; in 
beds, 66 ; for towns, 67 ; propaga- 
tion, (^j ; maggot, 69 ; Japanese 
and Indian Pinks, 69 ; a monthly 
calendar, 70-76 

Christmas and Lenten Roses, poison- 
ous, 78 ; popular name, 78 ; situa- 
tion for, 79 ; under trees, 80 ; 
planting, 81 ; varieties, 82 

Chrysanthemums, history, 84 ; early 
varieties, 87 ; famous growers, 89 ; 
blue, 90 ; classification, 90-92 ; 
varieties, 93-97 ; double garden, 
97-99 ; large Daisies, 100; Golden 
Feather, 100; Marguerites, lOi ; 
hardy annual, 10 1 ; hardiness, 10 1 ; 
propagation, 102 ; soil, 103 ; a 
monthly calendar, 104-110 

Clarkias, 49 

Clematises, origin of name, ii i ; uses 
of, 1 1 2 ; popular names, 112; pretty 
species, 113; mountain, 113; Jack- 
manii, 115; pruning, 116; beauti- 
ful varieties, 117 

Columbines (Aquilegias), origin of 




name, 119; and the poets, 120; 
species and hybrids, 122 ; propaga- 
tion, 124; structure of flower, 125 

Cowslips, 294, 295 

Crocuses, origin of name, 1 26 ; safif- 
ron, 126-129; Saffron Walden, 
127; Saffron Hill, 128; for rock- 
work and pots, 130; Autumn- 
blooming, 131; spring-flowering, 
132 ; cheap Dutch, 132 ; in grass, 
133; birds, 133 

Daffodils and Narcissi, origin of 
names, 134; and the poets, 135, 
136; classification, 137; select 
varieties, 138, 139, 140; hardiness, 
140; in beds, 141 ; and Primroses, 
142 ; after flowering, 143 ; in town 
gardens, 143-145 ; in herbaceous 
borders, 145 ; for cheap gardening, 
146; the Poet's naturalised, 147; 
in grass, 147; in pots and bowls, 

Dahlias, history, 153; as hardy 
plants, 155; after flowering, 156; 
propagation by cuttings, 157 ; from 
seed, 158; propagation by divi- 
sion, 158; soil and manure, 159; 
staking, 160; for exhibition, 160; 
garden, 161 ; good varieties, 162 

Delphiniums. See Chapter XXVI. 

Digitalis. See Foxgloves. 


Eschscholtzias, 49 

Feverfews (Pyrethrums), origin of 
name, 163 ; and Chrysanthemums, 

163; for town and suburban gar- 
dens, 165 ; culture of, 165 ; best 
varieties, 166 

Forget-me-nots (Myosotis), origin of 
name, 168; various species, 169; 
culture, 170 

Foxglove (Digitalis), origin of name, 
171 ; naturalised, 174; culture of, 

Geraniums and Pelargoniums, 176; 
origin of names, 176, 177; hardy, 
'^77 > good species, 177; Zonal, 
178; winter bloom, 180; propaga- 
tion, 182; Ivy-leaved, 182; from 
seed, 183; good varieties, 185 

Gladioli, origin of name, 186; wire- 
v^orm, 188; for cutting, 188; 
beautiful species, 190; classes, 191 ; 
good varieties, 192 ; preparing soil, 
193 ; wintering, 194 ; from seed, 

Godetias, 49 


Hellebores. See Chapter IX. 

Hepaticas, 8 

Hollyhocks, origin of name, 196, 197 ; 
disease, 198, 199; culture of, 200; 
Fig-leaved, 201 

Honeysuckle, popular names, 202 ; 
and the poets, 202, 203 ; culture 
of, 205, 207 ; good species and 
varieties, 205, 207 

Hyacinths, wild, 208 ; origin of name, 
208, 209 ; white Roman, 209 ; 
Dutch, 210; propagation, 210; as 
pot plants, 211 ; in water, 214; in 
bowls, 215; in flower beds, 215; 
in suburban gardens, 216; Grape, 
216; good varieties, 217; Hya- 
cinthus candicans, 217 



Irises, soil, 218; for towns, 218; 
propagation, 219; cheapness of, 
219; "Flag," 220; origin of 
name, 220; and the poets, 221; 
native, 222 ; pseudacorus, 222 ; 
Gladwyn, 222; snake's head, 223 ; 
best species, 223-228 ; German, 
225 ; Japanese, 225 ; select varie- 
ties, 229-231 

Jasmine, origin of name, 232 ; and 
the poets, 233; species of, 233- 

Jonquils, 137 

Larkspurs (Delphiniums), origin of 
name, 237 ; origin of annual, 238 ; 
perennial species, 238 ; propaga- 
tion, 239; soil, 239; cutting back, 
241 ; seedlings, 241 ; good varie- 
ties, 242 

Lent Lilies, 137 

Lenten Roses. See Chapter IX. 

Lilies (Liliums) and the poets, 244, 
245 ; the Madonna, 246 ; the 
scarlet, 247 ; auratum and its varie- 
ties, 247; the best species, 250- 
259; culture in pots, 259; propa- 
gation, 260; popular names, 260; 
home and imported bulbs, 261 

Lonicera. See Chapter XXIL 

Love-in-a-mist, 49 


Michaelmas Daisies, 14 

Mignonette, 50 

Myosotis. See Chapter XVH. 


Narcissi. See Chapter XIV. 
Nasturtiums, 44, 45 

Oxlip, 294, 29s 

PjEonies, early species, 263 ; origin 
of name, 264; soil, 265 ; planting, 
266 ; propagation, 266 ; species 
and varieties, 267 ; select varieties, 

Pansies, origin of name, 271 ; and 
the poets, 271 ; popular names, 
272 ; wild, 272 ; Scotch prize, 
273 ; propagation, 274 ; best types, 
275; soil, 275; tufted, 276; as 
town flowers, 277 ; Sweet Violets, 
278-281 ; species and varieties, 
281 ; select varieties, 282, 283 

Pelargoniums. See Chapter XIX. 

Phloxes, origin of name, 285 ; early 
species, 286 ; early and late, 287 ; 
annual, 288 ; propagation, 289 ; 
soil, 291 ; for beds and borders, 
291 ; good varieties, 292, 293 

Picotees. See Chapter VIII. 

Pinks. See Chapter VIII. 

Polyanthuses, 294, 295 

Poppies, 49 

Primroses (Primulas) and Daffodils, 
142; origin of name, 294-296; 
and the poets, 297 ; propagation, 
298 ; for beds, 299 ; named border, 
300 ; beautiful species, 300 ; green- 
house, 301 

Pyrethrums. See Chapter XVI. 

Rose Mallow, 49 
Rose of Sharon, 136 



Roses, old varieties, 305 ; and the 
poets, 306 ; origin of name, 306 ; 
some good species, 307 ; White 
Rose of York, 307 ; Red Rose of 
Lancaster, 307 ; Ayrshire, 307 ; 
Scotch, 307 ; Burnet-leaved, 307 ; 
Dog, 307 ; Sweetbrier, 308 ; hybrid 
Briers, 308; Damask, 308; Hybrid 
Perpetual, 308 ; Tea, 300 ; Hybrid 
Tea, 309 ; Musk, 309 ; Cabbage, 
310; Provence, 310; Austrian 
Brier, 311; variegated, 311; Bank- 
sian, 312; Fairy, 312; Boursault, 
312 ; Seven Sisters, 312 ; Japanese, 
312 ; Cherokee, 312 ; " Sub rosa," 
313; gardens of, 314; list of 
fragrant, 315 ; good Hybrid Per- 
petual, 317; good Hybrid Tea, 
317; good Tea, 3 1 S ; for beds, 
319; for walls, 319; for pillars, 
arches, pergolas, arbours, and 
summer-houses, 321 ; for banks, 
322; for standards, 322; for in- 
door culture, 323 ; soils and 
manures, 323 ; planting, 325 ; 
pruning, 326; propagation, 329; 
budding, 330 ; from cuttings, 331 ; 
making pillars and arches, 331 ; 
exhibiting, 332; sizes of show 
boards, 334 ; under glass, 334 ; 
insects and diseases, 335 ; a 
monthly calendar, 335-338 

Snapdragons, 339, 340 

Stocks, origin of name, 355 ; sec- 

tions, 35^ ; single and double, 
359 ; raising from seed, 359 ; good 
varieties, 359, 360, 361 ; in beds, 
360; Brompton, 360 

Sweet Peas, history of, 345 ; struc- 
ture of, 347 ; good varieties, 348, 
349 ; propagation, 350 ; soil, 
manure, and planting, 351 ; sticks, 
water, stopping, 351 ; exhibiting, 
352; enemies of, 353 

Sweet Williams, 339, 343 

Tropoeolums, 45 

Tulips, the mania, 362, 363 ; an ex- 
traordinary bargain, 362 ; history 
of, 364 ; origin of name, 364 ; 
species of, 365 ; early, 366 ; 
florists', 366 ; late, 367 ; planting, 
368 ; in pots, 369 ; good varieties, 
3691 370 

Violas. See Chapter XXIX. 
Violets. See Chapter XXIX. 


Wallflowers, origin of name, 355-356 ; 

structure of, 356 ; culture of, 357 ; 

good varieties, 357 
Windflowers, 3 

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson &> Co. 
Edinburgh &= London 



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University of British Columbia Library 

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