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npHE Musik-Fiihrer was published with the object of 
making" the music-loving" public better acquainted 
with the masterpieces of ancient and modern times by 
means of essays, intelligible to all, and illustrated by 
examples. This Popular Handbook will furnish the 
answers to the greater number of questions which 
present themselves to the thinking public when listening 
to the performance of musical works. 

With this end in view, this little work, written for 
the educated amateur, and particularly for the concert- 
goer, will contain an outline of the history of music, 
general information on the elements of music and form, 
and an essay on the most important instruments, their 
employment, etc. A catalogue of contents is combined 
with a glossary of musical terms, names of musicians 
and writers on music, etc., with explanations and 

It is self-evident that the separate articles can be 
in no sense exhaustive ; they can only present the most 
necessary information in the clearest possible manner. 
Nevertheless, in the following chapters many things must 
be mentioned which, if they are to be intelligible to the 
reader, render it necessary to go back to the beginning. 
The aim has been so to educate the amateur, that he 
may, in future, be in a position to comprehend, as a 
work of art, as a consciously felt whole, that which he 
has hitherto allowed to impress him unconsciously ; to 



feel its relationship to nature and to the history and 
development of music ; in a word, he will learn to listen 
consciously and intelligently. 

The reader will not only glean information from this 
little book, he will, above all, be spurred on to penetrate 
more deeply into musical science, and to become better 
acquainted with the glorious creations of the great 
masters. If it should appear to the reader that we 
have here and there gone too far into detail he must 
remember the words of Goethe : 

" If you would enjoy the whole, you must perceive 
the whole in the smallest part." 



TpHE Author in many cases devotes only a few words 
to subjects which cannot be made intelligible to 
the reader under such circumstances. It would perhaps 
have been better to avoid touching upon them at all, 
but it has been thought advisable not to alter anything 
in the course of the work. The translator has, therefore, 
in some cases supplied additional information, and in 
others has referred the reader to works in which he 
can study at greater length what has only been glanced 
at by the Author. All notes or interpolations by the 
translator are enclosed in brackets [ ]. 





A. ANCIENT PERIOD... ... ... ... ... i 

Music of the Egyptians ... ... ... ... 2 

,, ,, Chinese .. ... ... ... 2 

,, ,, Indians ... ... ... ... 3 

,, ,, Arabians ... ... ... ... 3 

B. MIDDLE AGES ... ... ... ... ... 5 

1. The Tone-System, Church Modes, &c. ... ... 5 

2. Notation ... ... ... ... ... 9 

3. Instruments and Instrumental Music ... ... 13 

4 Orig-in of Polyphony, The Troubadours, and 

Mastersingers ... ... ... 16, 17 

C. MODERN PERIOD ... ... ... ... 18 

1. Period of Transition .. ... ... ... 18 

2. Development of Dramatic Music in Italy ... ... 20 

3. The Violin and its Masters ... ... ... 22 

4. Development of Dramatic Music in France ... 24 

5. Dramatic Music in England and Russia ... ' ... 27 

6. Rise of Dramatic Music in Germany ... ... 28 

7. Leadership of Germany in Music (Bach to Schumann) 29 

8. Composers of German Opera, from Kreutzer to 

Wagner) ... ... ... ... ... 41 

9. Dramatic Music from Wagner to the Present Day... 44 
10. Composers of Instrumental and Vocal Music from 

Wagner to the Present Day ... ... "-45 

IT. Programme Music ... ... ... ... 48 



OF MUSIC ... ... ... ... ... 51 

CHAP. I. Theory of Music in General ... ... ... 51 

Pitch ... ... ... ... 51 

Tone-System ... ... ... ... 52 

Intervals ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Over- and Under-Tone Series as the basis of 

Major and Minor Scales ... ... ... 54 

Chords and Triads ... ... ... ... 56 

Melody ... ... ... ... ... 63 

Harmony ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Part-Writing ... ... ... 64 

CHAP. II. Time, &c. ... ... ... 66 

Tone System and Temperament ... ... 72 

B. FORM ... ... ... ... ... 75 

CHAP. I. Motive, Phrase, Section, &c. ... ... ... 75 

Cadences ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Binary and Ternary Forms ... ... ... 82 

CHAP. II. Description of the Various Forms ... ... 83 

CHAP. III. Counterpoint ... ... ... ... 100 

Canon ... ... ... ... ... 101 

Double Counterpoint... ... ... ... 102 

Fugue .. ... ... ... ... 103 



i. String Instruments ... ... ... ... 109 

2. Wind ... ... ... ... ... 114 

3. Instruments of Percussion ... ... ... 130 

CHAP. II. THE HUMAN VOICE ... ... ... ... 133 


CHAP. IV. FIGURED BASS ... ... ... ... 141 

CHAP. V. SCORE READING ... ... ... ... 143 


INDEX AND GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... ... 147 



THE History of Music may be divided into three 
periods, each distinguished by important 
developments in the theory and practice of 

A. The Ancient Period (to the gth or loth century 

after Christ), the period of " Homophony'' 
(unison). The ancients knew " Polyphony" 
only in the form of unison, or doubling" in 
the octave. 

B. The Middle Ages (to the end of the i6th century), 

the epoch of the development and perfec- 
tion of polyphonic vocal music, and the 
development of musical notation. 

C. The Modern Period (during the i6th century), 

development of instrumental music (about 
1600), accompanied melody, and harmony. 

The Ancient Period. 

Concerning the practice of music by the ancients we 
have a certain amount of detailed information, but of 
their compositions little remains. We are well in- 
formed, on the other hand, concerning their musical 
instruments and notation, also concerning the theory 
of music, owing to the minuteness of all the accounts 
of ancient times. 

The Egyptians. That music must have played a not 
unimportant part amongst the ancient Egyptians is 
proved by the pictorial representations on sarcophagi 
and tombs, as well as by the narratives of the Greek 
authors of a later period. 

Among the instruments of percussion are rattles, 
drums (either in the form of an egg, flattened at the 
ends, or of a small barrel, covered with the skins of 
animals, which are played with the hand or, with 
drumsticks, and are carried crosswise), large drums, 
cymbals, etc. They also possessed wind instruments : 
flutes with five holes, held straight from the mouth 
or transversely; double flutes, the two pipes of which 
separate from each other at the mouth of the player, at 
an acute angle ; their trumpets, whose tone Plutarch 
compares to the "bray of an ass," are mostly conical in 
form, the tube suddenly widening to a bell. The harp 
is the representative string instrument, together with 
instruments of the mandoline and lute kind. The 
development of the harp can be traced through all 
ages from the most primitive form to the most elaborate, 
with decorations and paintings. 

Of the tone-system of the ancient Egyptians next to 
nothing is known. They employed music in their 
religious services ; the burial of the dead, pageants, 
dances, weddings, were all rendered more impressive 
by the employment of music. According to the 
accounts of Greek authors, the music of the 
Egyptian people appears to have been of a cheerful 

The Chinese had, and still have, an enormous number 
of instruments of percussion of all kinds : bells, plates 
(of all kinds of materials) suspended on frames and 
tuned in a certain manner, drums small and large, and 
the well-known tam-tam. Here, also, we find flutes 
(Pan's Pipes) and other very remarkable wind instru- 
ments of strange appearance. Only two string instru- 
ments are to be met with, which, however, are held in 
high esteem (silk strings over flat resonance boxes, 
resembling the modern zither). 

Their music-system, like all music-systems in their 
early stage, is known to have been based on a diatonic 
scale, which originally consisted of only five sounds, 
and lacked the semitone step ; later, however, it was 
extended to a diatonic scale of seven degrees. 

The notation of the Chinese is borrowed from the 
characters of their written language, and for the un- 
initiated is not recognisable as music notation. 

The Indians also possessed in the most ancient times 
a diatonic scale of seven sounds, for which they used a 
notation apparently based on Sanscrit characters. By 
difference of arrangement the Indians formed with this 
tone-material thirty-six different scales. Probably at a 
later period they divided the octave into twenty-two 
parts, and made a distinction (only theoretically, how- 
ever) between large and small tones and semitones. 

The Indians had, besides various percussion and wind 
instruments, a very important instrument, the "Vina," 
the attribute of the God of Music (Nareda) ; it consisted 
of a cylindrical body with seven metal strings over 
nineteen frets or bridges. Another string instrument 
(played with a primitive bow) called " Serinda " or 
" Ravanastron " exists in India, and would, if absolute 
proof of the date of its invention could be produced, 
rank as the most ancient instrument of the violin 
kind ; it is, however, the general opinion that the latter 
instrument, together with one resembling the guitar 
(Majondi), originated with the Arabians or Persians. 

The Arabians possessed a tone-system of seventeen 
sounds (with third - tones), the intervals being of 
strikingly accurate intonation. The Arabic - Persian 
theory of music is so far worthy of note that in it 
the consonance of thirds and sixths was asserted, 
these intervals ranking as dissonances according to the 
theory of the West, at that time based on the Greek 
theory of intervals. The Arabic-Persian theory of music 
(theory of measurement) expresses the size of intervals 
by the numerical ratio existing between the length of 
the string producing the lower note and that of the 
string producing the higher note. Numbers were 

employed for the writing and naming ot sounds, but no 
system of notation by their means, serviceable for the 
practice of music, has come down to us. 

We are indebted to the Arabs for the kettle-drum and 
glockenspiel, but particularly for the lute, whose Arabic 
name, " Al'ud" (so strongly resembling "aloe wood,") 
points to the popularity of this instrument among the 
Arabs. We have descriptions of the lute from the 
loth century. The Arabs possessed several primitive 
string instruments (Rebec or Rubeb, Rebab, and 
Kemangeh), which have had no influence on the 
development of the string instruments of to-day. 

The Greeks looked upon music not only as an 
accessory to public worship, or as a pastime for the 
aristocracy, but as an independent art to be cultivated 
for its own sake ; and they made it a part of education. 
The ethical influence of music was more highly appre- 
ciated by them than is the case at the present time. 
The tone-system of the Greeks was closely connected 
with their poetry, the ancient metres regulating their 
vocal as well as their instrumental music. It must not 
be assumed (as some investigators attempt to prove) 
that the Greeks possessed polyphony in our modern 
sense ; we undoubtedly have many reasons for coming 
to the conclusion that their polyphony consisted, 
whether in choral singing, accompaniment, or solo 
songs, only of unison or doubling in the octave. Un- 
fortunately detailed reference to the music system of 
the Greeks, with its scales built on the basis of the 
tetrachord, is impossible within the compass, of this 
little work ; the subject will, however, be brought 
under the notice of the reader in the following chapter 
on the old church modes. Among the instruments of 
the Greeks are the Lyre, Kithara, Phorminx, Magadis 
andTrigonon (all string instruments more or less alike), 
the flute, the trumpet, [Salpinx] and other instruments 
of no artistic value. 

Ptolemy describes an important instrument, the 
Monochord, which was employed for the testing of 
intervals ; it consisted of a long sound box with a 

string stretched over a movable bridge (one of the fore- 
runners of our pianoforte). 

The Semeiographic notation fa notation of signs] was 
highly developed, and borrowed its signs from their 
alphabet. The notation of vocal and instrumental music 
was not the same, and to the uninitiated appears any- 
thing but simple. 

The Middle Ages. 


Church Modes. As we found it impossible in the 
preceding section to go further into the question of 
the tone-system of the Greeks, we at once introduce 
the reader to the " octave-system " of the Middle Ages, 
the so-called church-modes, which in those days played 
the part of our modern tone-system. The tone-system 
of the Greeks and that of the Middle Ages have this in 
common, that both are unlike our modern tone-system. 

Tetrachord. The Greeks built their tone-system 
(before it was complicated by the influence of the chro- 
matic and enharmonic elements of later days) on the basis 
of so-called Tetrachords. (Tetrachord was originally the 
name of the four-stringed lyre of the Greeks ; the 
four strings were tuned in four conjunct notes). A 
tetrachord is a succession of four sounds within the 
compass of a fourth. Two tetrachords of similar 
construction being placed one after the other resulted 
in a succession of eight sounds, which received their 
names from the grouped tetrachords ; e.g. , the series 
of notes ETFTGTA || BTCTDTE consists of the tetra- 
chord E~F G A and the tetrachord B~C D E. Both 
tetrachords are identical in construction, their sounds 
being arranged in theorderof one semitone and two tones. 
A Tetrachord thus constructed was called a Dorian 
Tetrachord (see p. 6), and a scale resulting from two such 
tetrachords in succession was called a Dorian Scale. A 
Phrygian tetrachord consisted of tone, semitone, tone. 
A Lydian tetrachord of tone, tone, semitone. New 
scales were added later, by re-modelling, to those already 
in existence, but they need not be considered here. 

In the earliest period the Dorian tetrachord was the 
standard, and thus became the basis of the whole 
Greek tone-system, which was compiled by grouping 
and blending Dorian tetrachords. Out of the system 
thus formed, it became possible to construct new scales 
by means of slight changes. 

Connected with these ancient scales, we find in the 
earliest ages of the Byzantine Church an " octave- 
system " or scale-series which, without claiming to be 
a "scale" in the modern sense, reaches from one note 
to its octave above. 

How these scales were in course of time modified, bor- 
rowed by Western Europe, and again much altered, we 
have not space here to describe. Enough that henceforth 
the Western Church possessed a similar octave-system, 
which has been traced back to Ambrose, Bishop of 
Milan (born atTreves, A.D. 333; died at Milan, A.g. 397). 

The oldest of these scales lack both key signatures 
and accidentals, and their individuality consists entirely 
in the position of the tones and semitones ; for instance, 
the first Church mode, called the " Dorian scale " or 
"Dorian mode," was represented by the scale-series 
from D to D : 

D E~F G A B~C D. 

and was distinguished from every other scale-series by 
the position of the semitones, which occurred between 
the 2nd and 3rd, and 6th and yth degrees of that scale ; 
every scale-series so constructed was a Dorian scale. 
In later times (the original scale material, which we 
will hereafter describe, not being found sufficient) these 
scales were transposed, i.e. , the scale-series belonging 
to one particular note was made to start from another 
note. In order to make the scale-series F F into a 
Dorian scale, it was only necessary to choose such a 
signature as would cause the semitones to fall in the 
right place, viz : F, GfAp, Bj?, C, D~E r>, F ; this is 
therefore a transposed Dorian scale. 

Thus, if we meet with an old chorale, which is 
throughout in no modern scale, we know we have to 
do with one of the church modes, or a transposed 

church mode; i.e. , the composer has from a chosen 
note constructed a certain church mode, and, in order 
to give the right succession of tones and semitones, 
has employed the necessary accidentals. 

A composition, which is written in a certain church 
mode, must begin and end with the note which, as 
we shall see, is the key-note or " final." Later, it was 
permitted, exceptionally, to begin on the 3rd or 5th 
from the key-note, also cadences in the middle of 
a composition might indicate modulations ; with few 
exceptions, however, the close of the whole com- 
position on the final remained the rule. 

The following is a list of the scales in use at that 
period ; the original scales are those marked i, 3, 5, 7. 
The slurs show the position of the semitones : 

Authentic Modes. Church Modes. 

_ A D~/- \ Authentic 

1. DEFGABCD Dorian (from the 

3. E"F G A B C D E Phrygian I Greek word 

5. F G A B~C D E~F Lydian I signifying 

7. G A B~C D E~F G Mixolydian J "ruler.") 
In order to have at disposal a larger number of scales 

(before transposition or change of signature was thought 
of), new scales were developed out of those already 
existing, in the following manner. 

Let us consider these scales as divided into two scale- 
series, one of five notes and another of four notes, e.g. , 
the scale from D to D as divided into one series, D to A, 
and another series, A to D (A being common to both) ; 
we place the series A-D under the series D-A, and the 
result is a new scale A to A. Re-arranging, in this 
way, the other " authentic " scales or modes, we obtain 
the " plagal " scales or modes, the invention of which 
is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great. 

Plagal Modes. Church Modes 

2. A B~C D E~F G A Hypo-dorian j 

4. B C D_E~F GAB Hypo-phrygian iGreekword 

6. CDEFGABC Hypo-lydian (signifying 

8. D E~F G A B~C D Hypo-mixolydian J "collateral") 

Later were added C to C (Ionian), and A to A (/Eolian), 
with their plagals G to G, and E to E. 

The key-note (final) of an authentic scale was the note 
on which the scale began, whilst the key-note (final) of 
the plagal scale was the initial note of the authentic 
scale out of which the plagal was formed (always the 
4th degree of the plagal scale). 

B quadratum, B rofundum. As we have already 
pointed out, the ancients used no accidentals. The 
first to be employed was a flat before the note B, 
introduced in order to avoid the melodic progression 
F-B, an augmented 4th. To obtain a perfect 4th 
instead of an augmented 4th, the b (B quadratum = 
square B, B jj, also called B durum = hard B) was 
lowered a semitone, changing B quadratum into B 
rotundum l\j] = round B, B >, also called B molle = soft B. 
[Hence the use, by the Germans, of the letter h or H, 
(h = square B), for the note B, and the use, by the 
French, of the word bemol = flat.] 

The transposition of the church modes, gradually 
becoming necessary, led to the use of several sharps 
and flats, but a long time elapsed before the permanent 
key-signatures were placed at the beginning of a move- 
ment as they are to-day. 

The old church modes were eventually superseded by 
the scales mentioned above as being added later, the 
Ionian authentic scale C to C, and the yEolian authentic 
scale A to A, i.e. , our C major and A minor scales. It 
was from these two scales and their plagals that our 
modern tone-system was developed, becoming the basis 
of harmony as we know it. The appearance of the 
Ionian and ^olian scales occurred in the middle of the 
i6th century, and the introduction of our modern keys 
in the i7th century. 

Ambrosian and Gregorian music. It may be 
mentioned that Bishop Ambrose introduced into Italy 
the "Hallelujah" and the " Antiphon" for two 
choirs, probably also the "Responses" (songs divided 
between priests and people), and that he himself 
composed hymns. Gregory (died A.D. 604) is said to have 

selected and reformed the materials of church music. 
Although the terms "Gregorian" and " Ambrosian " 
are applied to the church music of these respective 
periods, it is not possible to discover any radical 
difference between the two. In course of time the 
earlier rhythmic character of Gregorian song stiffened 
into a monotonous succession of notes of equal length 
(cantus planus = p\a'm song), although we must assume 
that, even in those days, the text, influencing by its 
natural accent the rhythm of the melody, never allowed 
the notes composing it to be absolutely of equal length. 
Hexachords and sol-fa syllables. Finally we must 
mention the sol-fa syllables as names for notes. They 
existed at the period of the church modes ; and their 
introduction is attributed to the monk Guido of Arezzo 
(born c. .4.0.995 1050) whousedtheminteachingsinging. 
He divided the entire tone-system into groups of six 
sounds, " hexachords. " The six notes of the hexachord 
he designated by the syllables Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La 
(about A.D. 1030). In Italy and France these note names 
are still in use, another syllable (Si) being added for 
the 7th sound : Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si. In Italy 
[and sometimes also in France] the syllable Do is used 
instead of Ut.* 


One of the most interesting subjects in the whole 
range of musical history is the development of musical 

*The syllables are the initial syllables of the lines of a hymn 
to St. John : Ut queant laxis 

jRtf-sonare fibris 

Mi'-ra gestorum 

Fa-muli tuorum 

Sol-ve polluti 

La-bii reatum 

Sancte Johannes. 

It must be mentioned that although in France and Italy these 
syllables are simply used as names for the notes C, D, E, etc., 
Guido used them for the different degrees of his hexachords, on 
whatever note they started, Ut i, Re 2, Mi 3, Fa 4, etc., and he 
must therefore be considered as the originator of the tonic sol-fa 


notation. In the following chapter we will take a 
cursory view of the most important facts concerning 
the origin and growth of our modern notation. 

The notation of the ancient civilized peoples 
consisted, as we know, mostly of letters of the alphabet 
used as signs for the noting down of musical sounds. 
The letters served the purpose theoretically, but when 
it became a question of singing a melody from this 
notation the lack of clearness resulting from rows of 
letters must have been obvious, and a notation like that 
of the Greeks, with over 100 signs, was quite out of 
the question. 

The neume system of notation, however, had a 
material advantage over the letter notation. Traces of 
it are first found in the 8th century. It consisted of 
a series of dots and little strokes, bent in an upward or 
downward direction, grouped together in lines, the 
upward and downward movement of which indicated 
the rise and fall of the melody. 

Two signs of our modern notation, the shake ("*) and 
the turn (^) are relics of these neumes. 

A certain amount of clearness was obtained by this 
notation, but it left some important questions un- 
answered. For instance, from neumes placed over the 
syllables of the text, how is it possible to know by how 
many degrees the melody rises or falls, the duration of 
each note, or the pitch of the initial note of the 
melody ? 

The last difficulty was met by so-called Tonaria, 
signs indicating the initial notes of the particular 
church modes in which the various songs were written. 
(It must not be forgotten that at that time music was 
used solely for the service of the church.) 

For indicating duration of sounds, however, the 
neumes were inadequate, and as their number 
increased, they became less trustworthy for this 
purpose. Singing music at sight from such a notation 
was out of the question, and it was scoffingly said by 
authors of that period that singers were eternally 
learning and never becoming perfect, no two ever 

being" of the same opinion, as each followed his own 
particular teacher. 

In the course of time many experiments were made 
with a view to rendering neume notation less 

Letters. The monk Hermannus Contractus (A.D. 1013- 
1054) had the happy idea of placing over the text 
Roman letters, thus indicating the distance between 
one sound and the foregoing one, or whether the 
sound on which the preceding syllable was sung had to 
be repeated. The pitch of the initial note was taken 
as known. For example, if the letter T stood over a 
syllable, it indicated that the melody rose a whole tone ; 
if a dot appeared next to the letter, then the melody 
fell the indicated interval. The other intervals were 
indicated in the same way; S = semitone, TS = tone and 
semitone (minor 3rd), etc. The idea was excellent, 
unless accidents occurred in copying ; the dot, for 
instance, might be missing, or appear in the wrong 
place, etc. Another experiment was the combination 
of neumes with Greek notation. Many of these ideas 
were unpractical ; one, however, was excellent. 

Lines. The monk Hucbald of St. Amand in 
Flanders (A.D. 840-932) placed the text syllables between 
lines and stated at the commencement where the 
semitones occurred. All this, however, remained far 
behind the achievements in this direction of the 
Benedictine monk Guido of Arezzo (A.D. 995-1050) who 
gave the neumes a fixed pitch by drawing through 
them a red line to which he gave the name of F-line 
[small f, i.e. , f on the 4th line of the bass staff] ; 
the neumes were also formed with thicker heads, in 
order that it might be clearly seen whether they were 
on this F-line, above, or below it. A second line, 
green or yellow, was afterwards added, which fixed the 
position of C [middle C]. 

Lines and letters. Later, in place of the coloured 
line, the letters F and C were used ; this was the origin 
of our F clef (bass clef) and C clef (alto, tenor, soprano, 
and mezzo-soprano clef). The letters F and C were 


borrowed from the Roman letter notation^ which sufficed 
for indicating the pitch of notes, but, as already shown, 
had not the clearness of neumes*. F and C were 
chosen in order to draw the attention of the singer 
to the semitone step lying- below F and C. The G clef 
(violin clef) was first employed when under the G an 
F $ was to be sung. 

Mensurable Music. The blending of the two elements 
[lines and letters] was an excellent idea, and the inno- 
vation soon met with approbation. The number of 
note-lines grew to ten, although later four or five were 
regularly used. The thicker heads of the neumes 
became at last square, and then began the period of 
the inauguration of mensurable music. After many 
experiments notes were formed and time-signatures 
were developed (commencement of the i2th century). 

in the 1 4th and i5th centuries the figure 3 was in 
favour ; normal time was triple time, and a note was 
worth three of the next smaller kind. Among other signs, 
triple time was indicated by a circle O at the com- 
mencement of the staff, and duple time by a half 
circle C, the origin of our C (J) time-signature. In the 
1 3th century, both these time-signatures appeared, and 

also the G clef S . 

An incredible complication of time-signatures, note- 
forms and note-values arose during the period between 
the 1 4th and the lyth centuries. Bars in the singer's 
parts first appear after 1600, and about 1800 the 

* The Roman letter notation dates from the loth century. A 
treatise ascribed to the monk Notker (Balhulus) mentions it as 
used for the organ, the Rotta (a string- instrument of the early 
Middle Ages) and the hurdy-gurdy. Notker is the first who 
mentions the notation, and as something apparently well-known. 
Examples of the oldest organs have the note names of the Roman 
letter notation inscribed on the keys. The sounds of the octave 
C C or (small c c') were then called A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, the 
A corresponding to the C of to-day. Since the time of Odo 
von Clugny (died A.'D. 942) the letters have had their present 


connecting lines grouping together quavers and semi- 
quavers, etc. ( ~ ' i J were first borrowed 
from the Organ and Lute tablatures. 


The Organ. An instrument which in the Middle 
Ages attained great importance was the organ, the 
origin of which (in principle) is traced back to Ktesibios 
of Alexandria (B.C. 170). A representation of the organ 
in the 4th century exhibits it as very small and ornate, 
and provided with bellows. Manuscripts of the loth 
and nth centuries exist, giving instructions for the 
manufacture of organs as school instruments with 
eight, fifteen, and, less often, twenty-two notes, tuned 
in C major. In the year A.D. 980 stood in Winchester 
Cathedral a large organ with two keyboards (for two 
players), each keyboard having twenty keys, and for 
each key ten pipes (consequently 400 pipes) and twenty- 
six bellows.* Later, when the mechanism of the organ 
became more complicated and the pressing down of the 
keys more difficult, the keys were made a foot broad 
and i \ ells long, the player being compelled to make 
use of fists and elbows. The pedal board (key-board 
for the feet) was introduced into Italy in the middle 
of the 1 5th century by Bernhard the German. It is 
said to have been invented by Ludwig v. Balbeke 
(about A.D. 1325). In the course of the isth and i6th 
centuries the construction of the organs rendered 
possible a more rapid mode of execution. At the close 
of the Middle Ages all the larger organs in Germany 
had several keyboards and a pedal board. (For further 
details, see p. 120). 

Among -wind instruments, those chiefly in use v/ere 
the families of fifes, shalms and cornets. From the 
family of shalms sprang the oboe and bassoon. 

[* Another description of this organ gives the figures 400 pipes, 
forty pipes under the control of each key, and thirteen pairs of 
bellows. Both descriptions appear to be taken from the same 
source, viz., that of the poem of the monk Wulstan.] 


The string instruments of the Middle Ages culminated 
in the family of lute instruments. From the lute sprang 
the viol, and from the latter the violin, which was 
made in Italy at the beginning of the i6th century. 
Caspar Duiffoprucgar (Tieffenbrucker, born 1511, died 
1571) is thought to have been one of the first makers. 

Hurdy-gurdy. A string instrument much in favour 
from the loth to the i3th century, was the Organistrum, 
Lyra, Drehleier or hurdy-gurdy, later also called beggar's 
or peasant's lyre. Over a body resembling that of our 
string instruments, many strings (or pairs of strings 
tuned in unison) were stretched, of which one (or a 
pair), by means of a keyboard, could be "stopped." 
They were set in vibration (and also those not connected 
with the keyboard) by a wheel, rubbed over with resin, 
which was turned by a handle projecting from the tail- 
end of the instrument. Consequently all the strings 
resounded continuously, those not connected with the 
keyboard being "drone" or "bourdon" strings, the 
others producing the melody notes by means of the 
keyboard. The instrument gave thus, like the bagpipe, 
a drone bass. From the loth to the i2th century it 
was the household instrument of the nobility ; later it 
obtained the name of beggar's or peasant's lyre. 

Clavichord. The earliest instrument, resembling in 
principle of construction our modern pianoforte, was 
called the clavichord. Its origin dates from the 
1 4th century.* 

The tone of the instrument (which was in the form of 
an oblong box, about seventy centimetres long) was 
produced thus : when a key was struck, a piece of 

[* The string- instruments generally held to have been the fore- 
fathers of our modern pianoforte are (i) the monochord of the 
Greeks already mentioned, the movable bridge of which developed 
into " tangents " (metal tongues) which at one and the same time 
divided the string and set it in vibration, the part of the string hot 
intended to sound being damped by the hand ; (2) a harp-like 
instrument, sometimes called psaltery, cembalo or dulcimer, in 
which several strings were made to sound in the manner just 
described. The names Clavier (German), clavichord, clavi- 
cembalo, etc., come from the Latin clavis a key.] 

metal called a " tangent " or " plectrum " set the string 
in vibration. Later, instead of these metal tangents, 
quills were fixed on the lever of the key, and these 
plucked the string. Leather plectra were also employed. 
(A clavecin of buffalo hide was invented by Pascal 
Tasquin, 1723-1795.) 

Spinet, Spinet or Virginals was the name given to 
the little instrument in the form of a table. The name 
comes either from " spina "= thorn (i.e., the quill which 
plucks the string), or from the name of the clavichord 
manufacturer, Johannes Spinetus. The larger instru- 
ment with quill or leather plectra was called clavicembalo. 

Hammer- Klamer. Bartolomeo Cristofori (born in 
Padua, 1655, died in Florence, 1731) is held to be the 
inventor of the pianoforte (Hammer-Klavier), in which 
little hammers covered with leather strike the strings. 
The invention was made known in 1711. 

The instrumental music of the Middle Ages developed 
gradually out of vocal music. Previous to the i6th 
century music was almost entirely vocal, the instruments 
merely doubling the voice parts, or, whilst one part 
of the score was sung, completing the other parts. 
It thus often happened that in performing a poly- 
phonic work, originally written for voices only, 
one part would be sung whilst the others would be 
played on instruments. Composers of the period took 
this custom into consideration ; thus, on the title-page 
of a " Ricercare," by Jacques de Buus (about 1550) we 

" Da cantare e sonare d'Organo e alteri Stromenti." 
(To be sung or played on the organ or other instruments). 

The Lute was already very generally employed as an 
accompanying instrument at the beginning of the i6th 
century. Entire vocal compositions were arranged for 
the lute, and finally music of a character suited to its 
capabilities was specially composed for it. In place of 
the sustained notes of the human voice, which could 
not be rendered on the lute, ornamentation was used in 
order to cover the resulting gaps, and a new element 
was thus introduced into composition. Simple little 


symphonies (preludes and postludes) were also intro- 
duced before and after vocal compositions which were 
accompanied by the lute. 

Later, in discussing the Oratorio (Form p. 96), we 
shall speak more fully of the "figured" instrumental 
part used to indicate the desired harmonies, called 
"figured bass" "thorough-bass' 1 '' or " continue " (i.e. 
a continuous bass part). This bass part was at first 
executed on the lute, which varied in size. The 
accompaniment gradually attained more independence, 
and a great impetus was thereby given to the develop- 
ment of instrumental technique and consequently of 
instrumental composition (Figured-bass, see p. 141). 
Later on the "continue" was performed on the organ 
and harpsichord instead of on the lute instruments. 

Composers of the ith and i6th Centuries. 

The earliest form of polyphony sprang from the "pedal- 
point" i.e., the execution of an independent melody over 
a sustained bass-note, an idea already made familiar by 
the bagpipe, hurdy-gurdy, and other instruments, in 
which a bass note sounds continuously whilst an inde- 
pendent melody is played. The first attempt at allowing 
two distinct parts to sound at the same time against 
each other was the so-called " Organum" described by 
Hucbald ; it consisted in the singing of a second part, 
in fourths or fifths, parallel to the first part, an effect 
anything but edifying to our modern ears. At cadences 
and^ entrances of the melody the parts were in unison. 
A variation of this was the " Organum Vagans " 
(wandering organum) which allowed seconds and thirds 
as passing notes. 

Descant (" discantus ") was a development of organum. 
Similar motion was the basis of organum, in descant 
contrary motion was introduced and strictly carried 
out. A book of rules, of the i2th century, directs that 
a second part in alternate octaves and fifths should be 
added to the notes of a "cantus firmus" (tenor or 

original melody) ; later, passing- notes and even freely 
introduced auxiliary notes crept in. 

Faux-bourdon was a system of three-part writing 1 in 
general use in the I3th century. To the tenor (from 
tenere = to hold, i.e., holder of the principal part, the 
cantus firmus) two simultaneous parts were added, 
which formed thirds and sixths with the principal part. 
Octaves, fourths, and fifths occurred only occasionally ; 
fifth, octave, and unison at beginning and end ; fourths 
between the accompanying parts. 

Descant and Faux-bourdon formed a new point of 
departure, and we trace in the i4th century the 
gradual development of counterpoint, which, in the 
hands of the great masters of the i5th and :6th 
centuries, attained such a high degree of perfection. 

We cannot end this section on the musical life and 
progress of the Middle Ages without glancing at the 
development of secular music, as shown in the songs 
of the troubadours, minnesingers and mastersingers, 
and in folk-songs. 

Troubadours and Minnesanger. The knightly poets 
and singers, the Troubadours (who from the nth to 
the 1 4th century brought to a hearing at the courts 
of kings and princes their fresh and tuneful songs, the 
melodies of which, less fettered by innumerable rules 
than church music, were written to words erotic, satirical, 
didactic, and even historical in character), were called 
in France, Trouveres ; in Italy, Trovatori ; in Spain, 
Trobadores ; and in Germany, Minnesanger (minne- 

One of the most important is Adam de la Halle 
(A.D. 1240 1287). Among others may be mentioned 
Guillaume Machault, Thibaud IV., King of Navarre, 
Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Wolfram von Eschenbach, 
and Walter von der Vogelweide. The Knights were 
often assisted by followers, who performed or accom- 
panied the songs, and were called minstrels (me'nestrels, 
me'ne'tiers, or jongleurs). These servants of the. Knights 
were musicians by profession, who, about 1400, formed 
n the towns a privileged Guild. They roved about, 


played at dances, and were always welcomed by the 
people ; nevertheless, the musicians (" the wandering 
people") were looked upon as "dishonourable people," 
and were outlaws. At the head of their guilds stood 
" fife kings," " music counts," and " violin kings " ; 
according to some accounts the musicians were obliged 
to submit to their decisions, and they defended the 
interests of the guild in every way, even against 
secular potentates. 

Meistersanger. From the Knights the cultivation of 
song and poetry passed to men of the people, called 
" meistersanger" (mastersingers), who formed entire 
schools ; and, although it cannot be said that the art 
made any substantial advance through the establish- 
ment of the mastersingers, who adhered too rigorously 
to form and rule, yet on the other hand a feeling for 
the ideal was roused in the people. Hence the folk- 
song did not fall into oblivion, and, in the I5th and i6th 
centuries dance tunes, street ballads and other songs, 
with their spontaneous melody and nai've character, 
exerted a great and cheerful influence on the develop- 
ment of the art of music. 

Among the most important mastersingers may be 
mentioned Hans Sachs, Heinrich Frauenlob, Michael 
Behaim, Hans Rosenbliith and Hans Folz. Master- 
singer schools flourished during the I4th century in 
Mainz, Strasburg, Frankfort, Wtirzburg, Zurich and 
Prague ; in the i5th and i6th centuries at Augsburg, 
Nuremberg, Colmar, Ratisbon, Ulm, Munich, etc. 
The schools of Nuremburg, Strasburg and Ulm 
existed even in the igth century ; in the year 1839 the 
last members of the Ulm school handed over their 
" insignia " to a choral society of that city. 

The Modern Period. 


The end of the Middle Ages beheld a series of 
important masters of counterpoint, amongst whom the 
composers of the Flemish school hold the principal 

place, although their achievements had also their 
doubtful side. Their chief aim being- to shine as 
masters of counterpoint, the art of counterpoint 
certainly attained an unexpected degree of perfection ; 
but in proportion as they became masters of form, so 
form became their one aim and end, and their music 
may be said to resemble an artistic, but empty, shrine. 

So early as the second half of the i6th century, men 
of artistic taste in Italy began to criticise unfavourably 
this over-elaborated art. In the year 1580, in Florence, 
a society of artists and art patrons, who were in the 
habit of meeting for social intercourse at the house of 
Count Bardi, came to the conclusion that the music of 
the day was a mistake, and that a change for the better 
could only be effected by a revival of the ancient art ; 
they took their stand on Plato's definition of music : 
" Music is a combination of word, harmony and rhythm, 
that is, the relation of a well-ordered series of long 
and short syllables in words and high and low notes in 
sounds. Music is nothing else than the art of giving 
to words their correct 'quantity.' ' Bardi's declaration 
of war against contrapuntists is comprised in a few 
words : 

" Music nowadays consists of two elements, one 
being what is called 'counterpoint,' the other the 'art 
of singing.' " 

Bardi (not an agitator only, but also an amateur 
composer), Cavalieri, Vincenzo Galilei (father of the 
famous astronomer), but chiefly Caccini, together with 
others influenced by them (amongst whom may be 
mentioned Jacopo Peri, Bonnetti, Brunelli, Durante, 
Aquilano, etc.) composed only "monody," i.e., vocal 
solos with instrumental accompaniment. The instru- 
mental accompaniment (see instrumental music of the 
Middle Ages), constructed according to the figured bass, 
was at first naturally rather primitive, but later became 
more complicated. This "new music" met with 
great approbation ; even Michael Praetorious, of 
Brunswick, the important author and composer, did 
not regard this new style of composition with distrust, 


but recommended it to his fellow-countrymen for 

Before this time, however, one of the greatest 
masters of any age, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 
(1514-1594, who, at the suggestion of the Council of 
Trent, 1545-1563, undertook the reformation of church 
music), without altogether rejecting polyphony, had 
employed it only as a means to an end, not, as in the 
case of the Flemish composers, as the end itself. 

The Italian composers mentioned above were followed 
at the beginning of the iyth century, by a number of 
highly-gifted musicians, amongst whom we will name, 
as the most important and influential, Claudia 
Monteverde (1567-1643) and Carissimi (c. 1604-1674), 
who became pioneers of the new order of things. 

The rise of the Oratorio (which see), but particularly 
of the Opera, or rather " music-drama," is closely 
connected with this development of Florentine art, in 
which music is employed to enhance the effect of 
the words. 


An influential and important composer of Italian 
opera was Alessandro Scarlatti (1659-1725). He was 
incredibly prolific, his operas numbering 100. He is 
called the founder of the Neapolitan school, which 
although originating in the Florentine school, cultivated 
the " bel canto." " Bel canto," as its name implies, 
is the exclusive predominance of melody, often at the 
cost of dramatic fitness, the accompaniment being 
comparatively unimportant. 

Such a treatment of the voice parts in opera, aiming 
at vocal effects, necessitated a corresponding develop- 
ment in singers. (One of the most important Italian 
singing masters was Nicola Porpora, 1686-1766.) 
Singers, for their parts, when they had acquired skill, 
wished to display it, and would only consent to sing a 
role when it offered them the opportunity of creating a 
sensation ; hence composers later often wrote the vocal 

numbers of their works specially for certain singers. 
The Italian method of voice training-, intended to 
develop technical dexterity and beauty of tone, was 
then, and remained, unique of its kind. 

Among- Scarlatti's most important successors are 
Durante (1684-1755), Porpora (1686-1766), L. Vinci 
(1690-1732), Pergolesi (1710-1736), Jomelli (1714-1774), 
Piccini (1728-1800), Paesiello (1741-1816), Cimarosa 
(1749-1801), Zingarelli(\ f ]^ > 2-\'&^]), Piccini was a very 
prolific opera composer, highly esteemed in his day. 
To him is ascribed, as an innovation, the introduction 
of more elaborate finales (reminiscent of the different 
scenes of the opera) with changes of time and key. In 
Italy his comic opera, " La buona figliuola," had a 
great triumph. Later, 1776, he went to Paris, and 
there became the centre of the party of " Piccinists " 
working against Gluck, without, however, himself taking 
an active part in the controversy. In Pergolesi we see 
the founder of "opera buffa," i.e., comic opera, in 
which he interpolated " Intermezzi " (amusing episodes). 
Pergolesi was succeeded in this particular line by 
Logroscino (born c. 1700 ; died 1763), Cimarosa, Paesiello 
and Galuppi, also the German, Johann Adolf Hasse 
(1699-1783), who studied in Italy. Under the influence 
of Mozart, Ferdinando Paer (1771-1839) created many 
excellent operatic works, chiefly after his removal to 
Vienna. G. Rossini (1792-1868), born in Pesaro and 
called the " Swan of Pesaro," was for a long period the 
most important Italian opera composer. He charmed 
Italy no less than Germany, France, and England, with 
the loveliness of his melodies. Besides " William 
Tell," "Tancredi," "Otello," "La gazza ladra," the 
" Stabat Mater," etc., he created in his "Barber of 
Seville" an immortal" comic opera." Rossini's succes- 
sors were Bellini ( 1801-1835), whose " Norma" is still 
found in the repertoires of to-day, and G. Donizetti 
(1797-1848) with his " Daughter of the Regiment," 
"Lucia di Lammermoor," " Lucrezia Borgia," etc. 
Verdi (1813-1901) was the most famous of the Italians ; 
among his operas, of very unequal merit, the most 

important are " II Trovatore," " La Traviata," " Rii, r o 
letto," "A'ida" and " Otello." Verdi was an Italian 
opera composer in the strongest sense of the word ; 
his earlier works are certainly melodious, yet often trivial, 
the situation and the music often at loggerheads or 
the latter superficial in character. 

In order not to forget "young Italy," we must 
mention Pietro Mascagni (born 1863), " Cavalleria 
Rusticana"; Leoncavallo (born 1858), " Pagliacci " ; 
[and Puccini (born 1858), "La Boheme," "Tosca," 
and "Madama Butterfly."] 


We have seen that dramatic music originated in 
Italy, that country also becoming subsequently the 
birthplace of the art of singing ; Italy is also the home 
of the violin, the first violin virtuosi, and the earliest 
composers for the instrument. Therefore, before we 
trace the further development of Italian dramatic music, 
we will give a short account of the violin and its 

We have already seen how instrumental music 
developed in consequence of the development of 
accompanied melody, and we must not overlook the 
fact that instrumental music, on its side, exercised 
great influence over the improvement in the construc- 
tion of musical instruments, this improvement again 
re-acting favourably on the inventive ability of the com- 
posers, who were eagerly bent on using the capabilities 
of the instrument for the benefit of the art. Hand in 
hand with development of instruments and instrumental 
composition naturally goes development of virtuosity ; 
the greater the difficulties to be overcome, the greater 
the demand for executive skill on the part of performers. 

Violin Makers. After the violin had attained its 
present shape (see pp. 14, 109), it soon reached, through 
the skill of violin makers who have hitherto never been 
surpassed, the highest degree of perfection. The founder 
of the school of violin makers at Cremona was Andrea 

2 3 

Amati (died 1611); the most important among- his 
successors was his grandson, Nicola Amati { 1596- 1684). 
The Amati violins were distinguished by a soft singing- 
tone, whilst the instruments made by Antonio Stradivari 
(1644-1736) and his two sons {Francesco and Omobono 
Stradivari] possess greater volume of tone. The 'cellos 
and violas, as well as the violins, of these masters are 
models of perfection ; g-ambas (viola da g-amba = knee 
viol, viola da braccio = viola = arm-viol), lutes and 
mandolins were also made by them. Andrea Guarneri 
(1626-1698) produced violins between the years 
1650-1695. His sons were Gitiseppe and Pielro ; his 
nephew Giuseppe, called "del Gesu " (1687-1745), 
Gasparo di Salo (1542-1609), G. P. Magini (1588-1640), 
the brothers S tinner (Sterner) in the Tyrol, particularly 
Jacob Stainer (1621-1683), anc ^ the Italians Rug fieri, 
Bergonsi, Guadagnini, etc. , produced excellent violins. 

Violin Virtuosi. The first violin virtuoso was 
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) ; he and Antonio Vivaldi 
(born c. 1680; died 1743) contributed substantially to 
the formation of violin technique by their compositions, 
violin solos, trios for two violins with organ or 
'cello, etc. Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770) was the 
most prominent violinist of that period (composer of 
the sonata called "II Trillo del Diavolo"). Nardini, 
Viotti, Locatelli and Torelli must also be mentioned. 
Among- the German masters the most prominent is 
Johann Georg Pisendel (1687-1755). 

The most important of all violinists was Niccolo 
Paganini (1782-1840), whose skill bordered on the 
miraculous ; indeed, if the half of what has been related 
concerning his performances is to be believed, they were 

Among the virtuosi, and, in some cases, excellent 
composers for the violin, in the i8th and igth centuries, 
may be mentioned Baillot, de Bdriot, Ole Bull, David, 
R. Kreutser, Mazas, Spohr, Strauss, Vieuxtemps, 
Wieniataski, Dancla, Lady Halle, Joachim, Ysaye, 
Sarasate, Sauret, Leonard, Wilhelmj, Brodsky, Herr- 
mann, Burmester, Gabrielle Wietroivets, Arma Senkrah, 


Teresina Tua, [fienry Blagrove (1811-1872^, John 
T. Carrodus (1836 1895), Henry Holmes (1839 1905)]. 

The influence of Italian dramatic music made itself 
felt also in other parts of Europe, for the Italian opera 
companies soon made their way into France, and the 
demand for important solo-singers in that country, as 
well as in Germany and England, was met, in the early 
days, almost exclusively by Italy, the home of the :irt 
of singing. 


The first operas heard in France were performed by 

an Italian opera company, invited to the French court 

by Cardinal Mazarin (1645). Operas by Peri and 

Cavalli were performed, and in 1671 Perrin and 

Cambert opened the first French opera-house, with a 

composition by Cambert. French opera, however, first 

attained importance through Lulli. Jean Baptiste de 

Lulli (1633-1687) was a Florentine by birth, but came 

to Paris as a boy of twelve. His operas (see overture; 

contrasted favourably with those of the Italians, in 

that he adopted the system of the old Florentine school, 

i.e., giving prominence to the recitative which was 

closely connected with the text. His airs are melodious, 

and he avoids, to the great gain of the music, undue 

repetition and distortion of words, and unnecessary 

ornamentation. Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) 

was not only a harpsichord virtuoso and excellent 

theorist, but began, when advanced in life (in his 5oth 

year) to compose operas, and carried further the 

principles of Lulli. If Lulli's operas are more 

dramatic, in those of Rameau the instrumental and 

vocal numbers, as well as the accompaniments, are 

richer and fuller. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) 

must be looked upon as the creator of " mtHodrame." 

In the meant ; me, the reform in opera effected by 

Chr. W. Gluck (see Gluck, p. 32) had taken place in 

Germany. Piccini was chosen as leader of a party 

in opposition to him, and this was not without lasting 

2 5 

influence on a musician like Cherubini (1760-1842). 
Cherubini, an Italian by birth, exhibits in his works 
originality and admirable skill ; they include, besides 
the operas " M^d6e," " Anacr^on," " Les deux 
Journees " (" The Water-carrier "), and the comic 
opera, " Le Calife de Bagdad," church compositions, 
symphonies and chamber music. Etienne Nicholas 
Mehul (1763-1817), a contemporary of Cherubini, is 
known by the operas " Euphrosine " and "Joseph in 
Egypt " ; a large number of other works of M^hul 
are no longer heard, except, perhaps, the overture to 
" Le Jeune Henri." Important works were produced 
by Gasparo Spontini (1774-1851), "the representative 
of the glory and pomp of the French Empire." With 
his " Vestale " he carried off the decennial prize 
instituted by Napoleon I., and followed this by a second 
masterpiece, " Ferdinand Cortez." His love for 
brilliant instrumentation and scenic display urged him 
to pay too much regard to externals. Duni (1709-1775), 
Philidor (1726-1795), Monsigny (1729-1817) and Gretry 
(1741-1813), are the most important representatives of 
"ope"racomique," the rise of which was the result of the 
performances in Paris of the works of Pergolesi and 
Logroscino (works which divided all Paris into two 
camps, that of the " buffonists," partisans of comic 
opera, and that of the " anti-buffonists," partisans of 
French national opera). These composers were fol- 
lowed by Boieldieu (1775-1834), whose "Calife de 
Bagdad," "Jean de Paris," " La Dame Blanche," and 
several other operas prove him to have been an impor- 
tant lyrical composer, and Auber (1782-1871), whose 
" Fra Diavolo," " Le Macon," " La Muette de 
Portici," " Le Do nino Noir," etc., belong to the genre 
of grand opera. The first named is a gem. 

With Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) the highest 
point of grand opera was reached. " Robert le 
Diable," "Les Huguenots," " Le Prophete " (not to 
mention others which cannot compare with these) are 
works the importance of which must not be underrated. 
But both in the instrumental and vocal music there is 


too much evidence of straining after effect. 
" L'Africaine" was performed for the first time after 
Meyerbeer's death. Harold (1791-1833), chief opera 
" Zampa," and Halevy (1799-1862), particularly in 
" La Juive," proved themselves important composers 
with high aims. A. C. Adam (1803-1856) achieved a 
brilliant success with his " Postilion de Lonjumeau." 

Interesting among composers of the "younger 
school " are Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), a clever 
musician and master of instrumentation (chief opera 
" Benvenuto Cellini"); Saint-Saens, born 1835, who, 
as regards instrumentation, follows in the path of 
Berlioz, although his treatment is more subjective ; 
his opera "Samson et Dalila " is a really fine work ; 
Ambroisc Thomas (1811-1896) is coquettish, charming, 
and melodious rather than profound ; his opera 
" Mignon " is included in the repertoire of every 
country; Charles Francois Gounod (1818-1893) whose 
opera "Faust" won for him universal and enduring 
fame; and Georges Bizet (1838-1875) whose opera 
" Carmen " obtained well-deserved success, the 
composer dying, however, shortly after its production. 
3/rtz7/flr/(i8i7-i87i), with " Les Dragons de Villars " 
(Glockchen des Eremiten,") and Leo Deltbes (1856-1891], 
composer of " Le Roi Pa dit," made valuable contribu- 
tions to comic opera. Delibes also composed very 
graceful and melodious ballets, e.g., " Sylvia," and 
particularly " CoppeMia. " French operetta finally found 
in Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880) a champion who 
[excepting in the case of his " Les Contes d'Hoffmann] 
unfortunately wasted his gifts on compositions of an 
insipid kind, " Orphe"e aux Enfers," " La belle HeMene," 
" Mariage aux Lanternes," etc. Charles Lecocq (born 
1832) followed the Offenbachian style of composition 
with " The"," " La Fille de Madame Angot," 
" Girofle'-Girofla " and several other operettas which, 
on the whole, reach a higher level than those of 
Offenbach, exhibiting better workmanship. [Of later 
composers may be named Massenet, Bruneau, 
Charpentier and Vincent d'Indy.] 

2 7 


Opera in England (that is, national English opera) 
only flourished for a comparatively short period. Its 
representative composer, towards the end of the iyth 
century, was Henry Purcell (1658-1695), who, besides a 
number of operas (of which " Dido and yEneas " and 
" King" Arthur" are the most important), wrote several 
church compositions, which cause him to be considered 
the forerunner of Handel. Thomas Augustine Arne 
(1710 1778), the composer of " Rule Britannia," wrote 
about thirty operas and incidental music to plays 
(Shakespearean and others) which are admired for their 
flow of melody. 

[Among British opera composers may be mentioned 
Michael William /te^e (1808-1870), ("The Bohemian 
Girl," etc.) ; John Barnett (1802-1890), ("The Mountain 
Sylph, "etc.); Frederick Corder(born 1852), ("Nordisa") ; 
Frederic H. Cowen (born 1852), ("Pauline," " Thor- 
grim," " Signa," "Harold"); Eugene a" Albert (born 
1864), ("Der Rubin," "Ghismonda") ; Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie (born 1847), (" Colomba," "The Trouba- 
dour"); Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (born 1852), 
(" The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan," "Savonarola," 
" The Canterbury Pilgrims ") ; Sir Arthur Sullivan 
(1842-1900), ( " Ivanhoe " and a number of comic 
operas); Arthur Goring Thomas (1851-1892), (" Es- 
meralda," " Nadeshda ") ; William Vincent Wallace 
(1814-1865), ("Maritana," " Lurline," etc.)] 

Russia, has in " Cephalos and Prokris " by Araja 
(1700 c, 1767), an Italian by birth, her first opera in 
the Russian language. Cavos (1776-1840) wrote 
fourteen Russian operas. Werstowsky (1799-1862) 
and Glinka (1804-1857) were the creators of a 
genuine Russian national opera. Both were important 
composers. Werstowsky's " Gromoboy," " Der offen- 
bare Traum," " Sehnsucht nach dem Vaterland," etc., 
and Glinka's " Russland und Ludmilla," and par- 
ticularly " Life for the Czar," have won for him 
enduring fame. Anton Rubinstein (1830-1894) wrote 


important Russian operas: "The Demon," 
nikoff" and " Gorjuschka " (see Rubinstein, p. 47). 
Peter Tschaikowsky 1 s (1840-1893) " Eugen One^in " 
(text by Puschkin), "Schmied Wakula," "Opritschnik," 
" Tscharodeika," and others, enjoy in Russia universal 
popularity. Tschaikowsky \vas undeniably one of the 
most original and gifted composers of late years. 


Opera and Operetta. 

Heinrich Schiits (1585-1672), the gifted composer ot 
" Passion Music" (see p. 97), gave Germany the first 
German opera, " Daphne," produced at Torgau in 
1627 ; the text exists, but the music has unfortunately 
been lost. 

The first permanent opera house was founded in 
Hamburg in 1678, and flourished until 1738, during 
which time a large number of well-known musicians 
made Hamburg the centre of musical life in Germany. 
The names of the most important opera composers of 
that period are : Joh. Theile (1646-1724), Nic. Strunck 
( 1 640- 1 700), /. S. Kusser (1657-1727), Reinhard Keiser 
(1674-1739), Joh. Mattheson (1681-1764), Telemann 
(1681-1767), and Handel (1685-17 59). Of these (setting 
aside the few works which Handel wrote for Hamburg), 
Keiser was the most important ; the number of his 
operas was no fewer than 120, some of them being 
really melodious works. Telemann was a skilful and 
prolific composer, much esteemed in his day. He wrote 
forty operas. Mattheson was more important as author 
than as opera-composer, although much that is excellent 
may be found in his eight operas. Handel, after he 
quitted Hamburg in 1707, composed in Italy and London 
(before devoting himself principally to oratorio) a large 
number of operas, including some which are very fine. 
(For Hamburg he wrote only "Almira," " Florinde," 
"Daphne" and "Nero," the last three of which are 
not in existence.) In Handel's time began the rise of 

comic opera in Germany. The founder of the operetta 
(musical play), which developed into the genuine comic 
opera, \sJohannAdam Hitler (1728-1804). " Der Dorf- 
barbier," " Liebe auf dem Lande," "Der Erntekranz," 
and "Die Jagd " are among his most popular works. 
In his operettas, music of a song-like character is 
assigned to ordinary people, whilst persons of quality 
perform arias. His music is inoffensive and melodious. 
His successors were Joh. Schenk (1753-1836), with 
" Der Dorfbarbier," and C. Ditters von Dittersdorf, 
(1739-1799) with his " Doktor und Apotheker," 
full of na'i've humour and fresh melody. 

The Period of Bach and Handel. 

The lead taken by Germany in the art oi music 
became undeniably apparent during the I7th and i8th 
centuries, and up to the present time it has remained 
undisputed. The two giants, Bach and Handel, are 
the landmarks. Bach and Handel, born in the same 
year, and from time to time residing at no great 
distance from each other, nevertheless differ widely 
in their art work, although possessing several things in 
common. They were never personally acquainted with 
each other. 

The works of the two composers were influenced by 
their lives. Those of Bach are mighty and lofty, and 
not altogether free from rigidity and harshness ; without 
looking to right or left, he goes the way his genius 
leads him, unconcerned as to whether the world at 
large understands him in his devout simplicity and 
meditative greatness. Handel is a man of the world; 
his compositions are engaging and brilliant rather than 
meditative ; notwithstanding the deep piety which 
distinguishes him, he makes more concessions to the 
world around him, and is consequently more intelligible 
to the amateur than Bach, yet, like him, Handel towers 
giant-like above his contemporaries. 


Johann Sebastian Bach (born 1685 in Eisenach, died 
1750 in Leipzig) is unsurpassed as a master of the 
church cantata (see p. 98). The "St. Matthew 
Passion," the "St. John Passion," and the " Mass in 
B minor" are colossal works, and he also wrote the 
"Ascension," "Easter," and "Christmas" oratorios. 
Bach cultivated the art of fugue as no one has done 
either before or after him ; his organ fugues are a 
treasure for organists, and " Das Wohltemperierte 
Klavier" is a master-work. Not less great, in their way, 
are the two*part and three-part Inventions, the "Art of 
Fugue." the Partitas, Suites, etc. We must also mention 
his speciality as a composer for the violin and 'cello ; 
for the former instrument he wrote six sonatas, and for 
the latter six suites, without any accompaniment, setting 
the performer a difficult task, as he wrote in a very 
polyphonic style for these instruments, a style hitherto 
unknown. His orchestral suites are, for the most 
part, extremely interesting and beautiful. The number 
of Bach's works is enormous, so we must content our- 
selves with this reference to the most important of them. 

Georg Friedrich Handel (born 1685 at Halle, died 
1759 in London) fias also bequeathed to us an immense 
number of works. His oratorios are the most 
important of his compositions, as we shall see when 
discussing the art-form of the oratorio. The "Messiah," 
which Handel wrote in 24 days, is the finest example of 
this class of composition, and must rank as the 
composer's masterpiece. He also wrote a considerable 
number of instrumental works ; organ concertos, 
sonatas, fantasias and fugues. The " Concert! Grossi" 
are worthy of mention ; the sixth still remains a special 
favourite with concert-goers. They are twelve in 
number, and may be described as a combination of 
suite and sonata ; they have, on an average, from four 
to six movements. The old dance forms are not unduly 
prominent, but are interspersed with slow movements 
and "allegri " in the fugal style. 

One of the most important composers of this period 
was a son of J. S. Bach : 


C. Ph. Emanuel Bach (1714-1788) was the father of 
modern pianoforte playing 1 , for he was the first who 
systematically fixed the position of hand and finger, 
and introduced method in fingering. Before his time 
the thumb and little finger were excluded from ordinary 
use, and the passing over of the fingers was to a 
certain extent arbitrary. His activity as a composer 
was considerable; 210 solo works, 52 concertos, 
18 symphonies (of which the four which were published 
are still heard with pleasure), 22 examples of "Passion" 
music, and many other works have come down to us. 
Most interesting is his "Essay on the true art of Piano- 
playing, "a book in which he gives a faithful description 
of the condition of piano-playing at that period, and at 
the same time gives expression to his ideas for its 

We must mention also a work by a contemporary of 
Bach and Handel, which until lately was performed 
annually in Germany, i.e. the Passion-Oratorio " Der 
Tod Jesu " by Graun (1701-1759). Other cantatas and 
motetts by the same composer have proved less long- 

Muzio dementi (born 1752 in Rome, died at Evesham 
1832), like Ph. E. Bach, rendered signal service to the 
technique of piano-playing. Besides his " Gradus ad 
Parnassum," which is still of importance as an 
indispensable educational work for pianists, Clementi 
wrote 106 sonatas (of which 46 are for violin, 'cello or 
flute) and the sonatinas' which are known to every 
pianoforte player. A large number of other works are 
less known and less important. 

Prominent composers of pianoforte studies are 
J. B. Cramer (1771-1858) and Ignaz Moscheles 
(1794-1870), both pupils of Clementi; their works are 
held in high esteem. 

Carl Czerny (born 1791 at Vienna, died 1857 at the 
same place), whose works exceed 1,000 in number, 
has secured an honourable place in piano educational 
literature with his "School of Velocity," "Forty Daily 
Exercises," "School of Virtuosi," etc. 


Ch. IV. Gluck. A phenomenal figure, whose 
chief works took the form of dramatic music, 
and who, in this line, effected radical changes 
and became an example for others after him, 
was Christian Willibald von Gluck (born 1714 at 
Weidenwang, in the Upper Palatinate, died 1787 at 
Vienna). The first works of this tone-poet were on 
the lines of Italian opera, but a knowledge of the 
music of Handel (with whom, when in London, he 
became acquainted), and also of that of Rameau, 
awakened in him ideas of reform, and gradually effected 
in his work the change which in "Orfeo," produced in 
1762, became clearly apparent. " Armide," "Alceste," 
" Iphig^nie en Aulide," and " Iphige"nie en Tauride " 
followed. In all these compositions Gluck advocated, 
in opposition to the then universal practice of the 
Italian school, the principle of closely connecting the 
music with the text and action, not permitting the 
latter to be interrupted by the development of a musical 
form (Air, etc.), holding that all stereotyped ideas must 
give way to dramatic meaning and living expression. 
Gluck (in this matter harking back to Caccini * and 
Claudio di Monteverde) found in Paris, where his operas 
were performed for the first time, zealous supporters 
among the partisans of Lulli and Rameau, in oppo- 
sition to whom, the so-called " Gluckists," stood the 
" Piccinists," the admirers of the Italian school, of 
which Piccini was the triumphant head. Gluck gained 
the day. 

Franz Joseph Haydn and his Contemporaries. 
Joseph Haydn (born 1732 at Rohrau, Austria, died 
1809 at Vienna). Father Haydn, as he is frequently 
called, is the father of our modern instrumental music. 
Building on the foundation laid by C. Ph. E. Bach, he 
not only developed the form of the sonata and 
symphony, but spiritualised it. Naivete", dainty 

* Caccini had summed up his " Maxims " in the sentence, 
"a noble scorn for music," i.e., subordination of pure music to 
the sense of the text. 


humour, and kindly depth, far removed from intricacy, 
pervaded all his works. In discussing the symphony 
(p. 92) we shall see that Haydn added to it the 
minuet ; and, which is far more important, he intro- 
duced new features in instrumentation, individualising 
each instrument, and employing it in its own peculiar 
manner. Haydn's Sonatas are well worthy of study, 
but his most important works are the Symphonies, 
Trios, Quartets, and his Oratorios, "The Creation" 
and "The Seasons." The art song and opera have 
gained little through Haydn. 

Among Haydn's contemporaries must be mentioned 
Ditlers v. Dittersdorf (see p. 29). He wrote string 
quartets and sonatas, which, unfortunately, are seldom 
heard, although their natural freshness and charm, 
coupled with a kindly naivete", reminiscent of Haydn, 
render these works well worth revival. 

The reappearance of the art-song took place about 
this time. During a long period, after the polyphonic 
songs of the i$th and i6th centuries, nothing of great 
importance was produced in this line. In the second 
half of the i8th century composers again appeared 
who, inspired by the poems of Goethe, set them to 
music. Friedrich Reichardt (1752-1814), Karl Friedrich 
Zelter (1758-1832, who founded in 1809 the first male 
voice choir), and Friedrich Heinrich Htmmel(i f j6$-i8i^) 
wrote songs which became "folk-songs." As a master 
of ballad composition (and, as such, a forerunner of 
Franz Schubert and others), Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg 
(1760-1802) was prominent in his day ; his ballads, 
romances, and songs may lay claim to more than 
merely historical interest. 

W. A. Mozart and his successors. Wolfgang 
Amadeus Mozart (born 1756 in Salzburg, died 1791 
in Vienna), may be considered as the most gifted 
of all masters, as well as the most versatile. What 
particularly affects us in Mozart's music, side by 
side with that childlike simplicity which pervades the 
smallest fragment of melody, is a purity of feeling, 
which, enhanced by beauty of tone in performance, 


holds the hearer irresistibly spell-bound. As a composer 
of instrumental music he has created symphonies, in 
which, as to " form," he did not perhaps go beyond 
Haydn, but the "matter" is more deeply significant. 
His piano sonatas, variations and fantasias are gems. 
Mozart's music is generally given to the young piano- 
forte player too early ; for the sonatas, although not 
difficult to comprehend (and this is the reason why they 
are taken in hand so soon), require, with few exceptions, 
extraordinarily well-developed technique and very subtle 
interpretation The same, in a still higher degree, 
holds good ot Mozart's pianoforte concertos ; our 
modern virtuosi fight shy of the fine filagree-work 
contained in them ; to them it is an easier matter to 
startle the audience by dazzling technique and multi- 
plicity of notes, than to devote themselves to works 
which in a single line exhibit more skill than is con- 
tained in a whole page of our modern virtuoso-literature. 
To song-literature Mozart has contributed little ; on the 
other hand he has raised an imperishable monument 
to himself in his divine " Requiem " (see p. 95). The 
violin sonatas are sufficiently well known, and on his 
string quartets it is not necessary to waste a word. 
If during his short life Mozart created immortal master- 
pieces in every branch of musical composition, this is 
particularly the case in opera. His contributions to 
"opera semi-seria " (serious opera with comic scenes) 
are works which can scarcely be excelled in their 
thoughtful depth, charming grace, and sincerity. Mozart 
proves himself in these works a master of "ensemble "; 
such " finales," with their polyphonic treatment of parts, 
etc., and beauty of form and tone-colour, had never 
been written before. Mozart's operatic masterpieces 
are " Le Nozze di Figaro" (1785), "Don Giovanni" 
(1787), and "Zauberflote" (1791). 

Important composers who followed in the footsteps 
of Mozart were Joseph Weigl (1766-1846), whose chief 
work, " Die Schweizerfamilie," shows the influence of 
Mozart) ; Peter von Winter (1754-1825), the composer 
of " Das unterbrochene Opferfest " ; and Zunisteeg 


(1760-1802), who accomplished most as a ballad com- 
poser. His operas, the most important of which was 
" Die Geisterinsel," are antiquated. 

L. van Beethoven. Ludwig van Beethoven (born 1770 
at Bonn, died 1827 at Vienna). We are justified in 
acknowledging in him, the latest of the three stars of the 
"classical constellation" Haydn Mozart Beethoven, 
the most important composer since J. S. Bach. What 
we admire in his great forerunners we find again in 
Beethoven, but still more deeply thought out and 
expressed in a more gigantic, emotional and forcible 
manner. The melodic features of Beethoven have, so 
to speak, bolder outlines than those of his predecessors 
and successors. The instrumentation of this master 
exhibits a variety and finish which remain unique in the 
history of music. Beethoven's chief importance lies 
in his symphonic creations ; his nine symphonies may 
be regarded as a reflection of the composer's life, with 
all its joys and sorrows. The discussion of the form 
of the symphony in the second part of this work will 
illustrate more clearly the influence of Beethoven on 
this art-form. Next to the symphonies, the pianoforte 
sonatas give us the deepest insight into the individuality 
of the composer, and they will remain the goal of 
artists and dilettanti who take their art seriously ; for 
the unfathomable profundity and beauty of thought and 
form ever newly presented to us in these works have 
hitherto remained unequalled. The same may be said 
of his pianoforte concertos, works of power and 
beauty, " symphonies for the piano." Beethoven has 
given violin literature a masterpiece in each individual 
sonata for violin and piano ; they may, moreover, be 
regarded as tests both for the violinist and the pianist. 
The " Beethoven Concerto," as it is called, the violin 
concerto in D (Op. 61), is decidedly the "paragon" 
concerto for beauty and difficulty ; Professor Joachim 
was regarded as the performer " par excellence " of 
this work. Beethoven's string quartets and piano 
trios, etc., are of special importance, and must be 
considered as the perfection of this style of composition. 


Beethoven has composed, besides incidental music 
and overtures to dramatic works, only one opera, 
"Fidelio," with its four overtures (the real "Fidelio" 
overture and three " Leonora" overtures, the third of 
which is commonly played as an entr'acte.) Its 
admirable dramatic and characteristic qualities and the 
richness of the orchestration render this one opera of 
Beethoven's "unique" in the whole of musical 
literature. Beethoven's influence on vocal music is 
comparatively small. Besides some beautiful song's, 
the " Choral Fantasia," and the last movement of the 
" Choral Symphony," only his " Missa Solemnis " 
(see p. 95) need be mentioned. With regard to 
Beethoven's vocal music, in spite of its undeniable 
beauty, it must be observed that the composer makes 
scarcely any allowance for the limitations of the human 
voice, a fact which renders the performance of his 
choral works very difficult. 

Finally we must draw attention to the difference 
manifest in the style of the works of Beethoven's later 
period and those of his earlier period. Certainly in all 
the works already alluded to, and particularly in his 
quartets (op. 127, 130, 131, 132, 135) it is the "intro- 
spective Beethoven," whose inner soul has lost touch, 
so to say, with the outer world, it is Beethoven the 
philosopher who speaks, and an unearthly charm per- 
vades these works of the great master struggling after 
spiritual light. 

F. P. Schubert and his contemporaries and successors 
in song composition. Franz Peter Schubert (born 1797 
in Vienna, died there 1828) is the creator of the 
modern song. Endowed with warm and fine feeling 
and inexhaustible inventive faculty, Schubert possesses 
a richness of harmony, a faculty of melodic flow, and 
a tenderness which is almost unequalled. Schubert has 
given us masterpieces in his song-cycles " Die schone 
Mullerin," " Die Winterreise," " Schwanengesang," and 
in such songs as " Erlkonig," etc., whose value rests, 
leaving out of the question the "singable" character 
and charm of the melody, in the grasp and truthful 


expression of the particular " mood." The accompani- 
ments of Schubert's songs, in comparison with those 
of his predecessors, are much more independent, more 
characteristic, and richer in harmony. Schubert is 
much more important as a composer of instrumental 
music than is generally supposed ; his sonatas (though 
these are less often played), " Moments musicals," 
" Impromptus," etc., (which, as regards the form, 
suggested to Mendelssohn and Schumann their piano 
miniatures), and his compositions for four hands, are 
in great favour. He is no less esteemed as a symphony 
composer ; among his symphonies the great C major 
symphony is the most important, whilst the "Unfinished 
B minor " is unequalled in beauty and pathos. Schubert 
is particularly important as a composer of string quar- 
tets, piano trios, etc. ; musical literature can produce 
nothing finer than, for example, the variations on " Der 
Tod und das Madchen." Although he wrote about 
twenty operas, he has attained no importance as an 
opera composer ; if his operettas, operas, and "melo- 
drames " contain much that is beautiful, they lack 
dramatic force. Selections from them are made for 
concert performance. 

Among Schubert's contemporaries, Karl Lowe (1796- 
1869) is prominent as a composer of ballads ; of their 
kind no more beautiful examples exist than " Der 
Nock," " Archibald Douglas," " Die Uhr," and 
" Heinrich der Vogler. " Robert Franz (Knautti) 
(1815-1892) may justly be considered a successor of 
Schubert ; his poetic, thoughtful songs are perfect 
works of art. 

If not, from an artistic point of view, reaching the 
highest level, the songs of Frans Abt (1819-1885) have 
become, to a certain extent, public property ; that they 
contain melody of a popular kind, and sincerity of 
feeling (sometimes somewhat too sentimental) cannot 
be denied. 

The songs of Adolf Jensen (1837-1879) enjoy great 
favour, and contain much that is admirable. He may 
be accounted, in song composition, a disciple of 


Schubert and Schumann. Jensen has, moreover, a 
good name as a piano composer ; he has proved him- 
self, in piano pieces of a small kind, a thoughtful 
and charming- lyrical writer. 

The name of Hugo Briicklcr (1845-1871) will be 
unknown to many of our readers, yet they may be 
earnestly recommended to form a more intimate 
acquaintance with the few works of this composer, 
who unfortunately died prematurely ; they are nobly 
conceived and finely worked out. Briickler's works 
are songs from Scheffel's "Trompeter von Sackingen " 
(Op. i and 2), " Seven (posthumous) Songs," published 
by Jensen, and a " Ballade," published by Becker. 

The Romantic School. The appearance of the 
" romantic " element in the art of poetry was not 
without its influence on the art of music, which also 
has its "romantic" period, originating in dramatic 
compositions based on romantic poems. The first 
and most important of the romantic composers is : 

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst Freiherr von Weber (born 
1786 at Eutin, died 1826 in London). With his unique 
opera, " Der Freischiitz " (1821), thoroughly German 
in character, he sang himself into the hearts of the 
German people ; skilful workmanship, depth of feeling 
and wealth of melody endow this work with eternal 
youth. "Euryanthe" (1823) and " Oberon " (1826) 
are, after " Der Freischiitz," his most important operas, 
and to these may be added the music to the play 
" Preciosa " (1820). " Silvana," "Peter Schmoll," and 
" Abu Hassan " are works of an earlier d;ite ; the opera 
" Die drei Pintos," which remained unfinished, was 
completed by Gustav Mahler. Weber's importance as 
a piano composer must not be overlooked ; his sonatas, 
concertos, rondos, variations, polonaises, the "Invitation 
to the Dance " (Die Aufforderung zum Tanz), and his 
pieces for foui hands, are valuable compositions, and, 
in some instances, require brilliant technique. Weber 
was himself an excellent pianist. For orchestra Weber 
wrote, among other less known works, the "Jubilee" 
Overture, and for his favourite instrument, the clarinet, 


concertos, duets and variations ; many other chamber 
works are seldom heard. Weber's vocal works (apart 
from some compositions of larger dimensions, but less 
importance) consist of songs, some very beautiful 
choruses for male voices (the text taken from Korner's 
" Leyer und Schwert"), quartets, duets, etc. 

Heinrich Marschner (1795-1861) comes next to Weber. 
His "Hans Heiling " is a very important work, and 
" Der Vampyr" and " Templer und Jiidin " are often 

A composer who, though influenced by the romantic 
school, shines chiefly as a lyrical writer, is Louis Spohr 
(1784-1859). Of his operas, which lack dramatic power, 
("Faust," "Jessonda," "Der Berggeist " and "Die 
Kreuzfahrer "), "Jessonda " alone has held its ground. 
His violin compositions are very fine, and retain the 
favour of the public by reason of their suave melodies. 
As Spohr was himself a prominent violinist he 
wrote also an excellent violin school these com- 
positions have the additional merit of being eminently 
suited to the instrument. Spohr wrote, besides numerous 
chamber works, several oratorios, nine symphonies, 
concert overtures, masses, hymns, cantatas, etc. 

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (born 1809 in Hamburg, 
died 1847 in Leipzig), was also under the influence of 
the romantic school. Mendelssohn was a highly gifted 
musician. From the year 1820 (in 1818 he played the 
piano in public for the first time) he composed con- 
tinually, and at seventeen years of age (1826) he wrote 
the overture to "A Midsummer-Night's Dream," never 
surpassed by him in riper years. He composed with 
extraordinary facility, and his work is characterized by 
warm feeling and a sweetness bordering on sentimen- 
tality. His oratorios, "St. Paul" and "Elijah" are 
decidedly the most important creations in this line since 
Haydn ; next to these come the symphonies and concert 
overtures. His violin concerto is one of the most 
beautiful ever written, and his piano concertos are 
favourites with the public. His most popular works, 
apart from the Caprices, Sonatas, etc., are the " Lieder 


ohne Worte," charming tone-pictures in small frames. 
Mendelssohn also wrote incidental music to " Anti- 
gone," " CEdipus," "Athalie," and " A Midsummer- 
Night's Dream" (15 years later than the overture). 
The " Walpurgisnacht," for soli and chorus, is 
frequently performed, and his songs contain much that 
is beautiful. To the opera he contributed only a frag- 
ment, "Lorelei" (to words by Geibel), which is very 
effective, and some operettas. 

Robert Schumann, One of the most important repre- 
sentatives of the romantic school is Robert Schumann 
(born 1810 at Zwickau, died 1856 near Bonn), whose 
activity in the field of song composition, to begin with, 
was very great. Tender feeling, coupled with fiery 
passion, characterise these songs, and the accom- 
paniments are brought into greater prominence than 
was hitherto the case. Schumann, although a 
" romantic," was also a lyrical writer. In his compo- 
sitions the fineness of structure is in the highest degree 
admirable. His numerous solo piano pieces are un- 
rivalled "cabinet pictures," which often display (as 
does his instrumental music generally, in comparison 
with music of the older style), an ostentatious "freedom 
of form," even lack of form. The symphonies of this 
master are often underrated ; in his symphony in B flat 
he has given us of his best, although the writer of 
these lines is of opinion that the D minor symphony 
is not far behind it, whilst those in C and E flat 
can safely be placed side by side. Schumann's 
" Paradise and the Peri," "The Pilgrimage of the Rose," 
his A minor Concerto for the piano, his chamber works, 
quartets, quintet, violin sonatas, etc., contain much 
that is indescribably beautiful. His opera " Genoveva" 
is a beautiful work, but ineffective for the stage ; the 
music to "Manfred" (by Lord Byron) and Scenes from 
"Faust" (by Goethe) are unfortunately heard almost 
exclusively in the concert-room. 

F. Chopin. Frederic Francois Chopin (born 1810 
at Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, died 1849 in Paris) is 
one of the most original and most important composers 

of pianoforte music, a branch of the art he cultivated 
almost exclusively. Individual in form and matter, 
the compositions of this master exhibit much sincere 
feeling", pure poetry, enchanting harmonies, noble heart- 
stirring melodies, dazzling technique, sublime vigour, 
and charming- grace. Chopin is a tone-poet in the 
truest sense of the word. Of the few song's written by 
him, some have become popular. 


Konradin Kreutzer (17801849) wrote an immense 
number of operas, among which his lyrical opera 
" Nachtlager in Granada" is likely to live ; those next 
in importance being- " Konradin von Schwaben " and 
" Der Verschwender." Kreutzer's compositions exhibit 
beautiful melodies, " singableness," and a certain 
element of popularity. 

Albert Lortzing (1801-1851) takes a prominent place 
among composers of comic opera. The cheerful humour 
and lively freshness of his principal works, " Zar and 
Zimmermann," " Die beiden Schiitzen," " Der Waffen- 
schmied," and " Der Wildschiitz " will keep his 
memory green. His fairy opera, " Undine," contains 
much that is beautiful. 

Otto Nicolai (1810-1849) was one of the few of 
Lortzing-'s imitators who met with success. "The 
Merry Wives of Windsor " has secured him an honour- 
able place among composers of comic opera. 

Friedrich von Flotow (1812-1883) has won the heart 
of the general public with his operas, " Stradella " and 
" Martha." The music is unambitious and graceful, 
though frivolous from an artistic point of view. 

Richard Wagner. Richard Wagner (born 1813 at 
Leipzig-, died 1883 at Venice), holds an exceptional place, 
for his life-work effected a revolution in opera. Apart 
from two works of the master's youth, his first opera was 
"Rienzi" (produced with great success in Dresden, 
1842), a work which, it must be admitted, shows little 


sign of emancipation from the customary form of grand 
opera " a la Meyerbeer." His second work for the 
stage, "The Flying Dutchman," must be regarded, 
however, from quite a different point of view. It is 
true that formal airs and choruses are not yet abolished, 
but already a large proportion of the work is devoted 
to recitative, and above all the " Leitmotiv" appears. 
By "leitmotiv" is meant a motive or phrase which 
(rhythmically or melodically) characterises a certain 
person or action (or course of action), and which is 
always heard if the particular person or action becomes 
important, either by being visibly present on the stage, 
or by being referred to in words. Thus leitmotives, 
by being grouped together and developed, contribute 
in no small degree to the finish and unity, both out- 
ward and inward, of the work. 

In " Tannhauser," both as regards form and matter, it 
is less the innovator than the inspired composer and great 
dramatic writer who speaks. It was produced, as were 
the foregoing works, at Dresden, in 1845, and met with 
no greater success than "The Flying Dutchman." 
The work was beyond the comprehension of the public, 
a fact partly to be attributed to Wagner's audacious 
harmonic progressions, the wealth of dissonances and 
frequent "interrupted cadences" (see p. 79), in which 
the close of one melody becomes the starting point of 
another. All this, in conjunction with the novel treat- 
ment of the orchestra, which, with its brilliant 
instrumentation, stood out more independently than 
it had hitherto done, bewildered the audience. 

In the year 1850, through the efforts of Liszt, 
" Lohengrin" was produced at Weimar. In this opera, 
although in a sense it is still more melodious than its 
predecessors, the "leitmotiv" becomes more important. 
During the political disturbances of the year 1848, 
Wagner was, with others, drawn into the vortex, 
and he was obliged, after he had taken part in the 
rebellion of May, 1849, to quit his fatherland. In Paris, 
his first place of refuge, he did not stay long. In 
Zurich he pitched his tent for a longer period (until 


1855)5 arr d here composed several important works. 
In Paris, to which city he had again betaken himself 
in 1860, in order, by command of Napoleon III., to 
rehearse " Tannhauser " (which, however, in conse- 
quence of violent protests, had to be withdrawn after 
the third performance), he wrote the pamphlet on the 
" Music of the Future." Wagner was pardoned in 
1860, and his music-drama in three acts, "Tristan und 
Isolde" (finished in 1859), was put upon the stage at 
Munich in 1865. This work marks the beginning of 
the third and most important period of the master's 
life-work. Ensemble movements are almost entirely 
avoided ; the recitative, without losing its close con- 
nection with the text, becomes an uninterrupted melody, 
and the task of presenting and developing the themes 
is transferred to the orchestra. Music, poetry, dramatic 
representation, and mise-en-scene are combined in this 
work of art. 

" Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg," finished in 1867, 
was produced at Munich in 1868. In the year 1864, the 
King of Bavaria, the artistic Ludwig II., had attracted 
Wagner to himself, and assisted him most generously, 
first in Munich and then in Triebschen, near Lucerne, 
where "Die Meistersinger" was finished. In 1869, 
the Prologue to the " Nibelungen " tetralogy, " Rhein- 
gold " (composed 1853-1854), and in 1870 " Die 
Walkiire " (finished 1856), the second part of the 
tetralogy, were produced at Munich. The third and 
fourth parts of this colossal work, " Der Ring des 
Nibelungen," were produced, together with the first 
and second parts, in August, 1876, in the theatre 
specially built at Bayreuth for the realisation of 
Wagner's art theories. " Siegfried " was finished in 
1869 and " Gotterdammerung " in 1874. "Parsifal," 
completed 1882, marked the culmination of the life- 
work of the aged composer, who in this work, without 
being untrue to his established principles, conceded 
more to pure music than he had done in his later music- 
dramas. It was performed for the first time in 1882, at 
Bayreuth, which has the monopoly of performance. 


Much has been said and written for and against 
Wagner in professional and unprofessional quarters, 
much more than we, in our short sketch, can possibly 
deal with, and the composer was compelled to do 
battle, with iron will, for his opinions and his works, 
before he prevailed. As to Wagner's importance and 
position as a composer, opinions are now unanimous ; 
as to the justification of this or that characteristic of 
his art-work, opinions may still be divided. The 
reader must, however, be warned against judging his 
works from the superficial impressions of a single 
performance, or merely a concert performance of 
extracts from his music-dramas ; nor must he measure 
them by the standard of other operas. Wagner 
created the music-drama, and this must be judged by 
the fundamental principles laid down by him, the 
substance of which we have given. Above all, the 
hearer should make a sympathetic study of what to 
him is novel, without prejudice. 

Wagner's work must be regarded as the culmination 
of a development in art gradually effected by Caccini, 
Claudio di Monteverde, Gluck, and Wagner himself. 


The music of this period, apart from the composers 
who are avowed opponents of Wagner, is more or less 
influenced by him. 

Among composers of less importance from the point 
of view of opera, their works being out of date 
(F. Hiller, Reinthaler, Reinecke (seep. 47), etc.), F. von 
Holstein (1826-1878), the composer of the opera " Der 
Haideschacht," is worthy of mention. Joachim Raff 
excelled in other branches of the art. Peter Cornelius 
produced, in his " Barbier von Bagdad," an extremely 
beautiful and interesting work. Karl Goldmark (born 
1830), who obtained great success with his " Konigin 
von Saba " and "Merlin," is decidedly under the 
influence of Wagner ; his instrumentation is brilliant, 


almost exuberant (see also p. 50). Eduard Lasscn 
(1830-1904) wrote valuable incidental music to "Faust." 
Hermann G"oY^ (1840-1876) was an extremely gifted 
composer. The single opera, " The Taming of the 
Shrew," (for " Francesca da Rimini " is only a frag- 
ment), by this unfortunately short-lived composer, is 
one of the best works produced of late years. Ignaz 
Brilll (18461907) obtained success with his operas 
"Das goldene Kreuz " and "Das steinerne Herz." 
Edmund Kretschmer (1830-1908) is known and 
esteemed as the composer of " Folkunger," " Heinrich 
der Lowe " and " Schon Rohtraut," of which the first 
is the best and the most popular. Victor Nessler (1841- 
1890) had an enormous success with the opera " Der 
Trompeter von Sakkingen " ; it is pleasing rather than 
musically important. 

Operetta. Operetta is well represented by Franz von 
Suppe (1820-1895), "Fatinitza," "Die schone Galathea," 
"Boccaccio," etc. ; Richard Genee (1823-1895), "Manon"; 
K. Millocker (1842-1899), " Der Bettel-student," " Arme 
Jonathan," " Gasparone " ; and particularly by Johann 
Strauss (1825-1899), " Fledermaus," "Der lustige 
Krieg," " Zigeunerbaron," etc. 

Engelbert Humperdinck (born 1854) won all hearts 
in 1893 with his charming fairy opera, " Hansel und 
Gretel." Unmistakably influenced by Wagner, Hum- 
perdinck shows himself, however, an original composer 
of fine feeling, who understands how to breathe life 
into his creations, and how to find suitable musical 
expression for the naive and lyrical, as well as for the 
dramatic, elements of his subject. 


We must first mention Niels W. Gade (1817-1890), 
whose style shows the influence of Mendelssohn. He com- 
posed orchestral and chamber music, songs, for mixed 
voices and male voices, a cantata, "Erlkonig'sTochter," 
a very beautiful work, etc. Gade represents the music 

4 6 

of the North. E. Hartmann (1836-1898) wrote sympho- 
nies and the concert-overture " Nordische Heerfahrt." 
Another Northerner was Edvard Hagerup Grieg 
(1843-1907), whose original and beautiful orchestral 
suite (for strings) " Aus Holberg's Zeit " and music 
to " Peer Gynt " are worthy of note. Full of poetry are 
several of Grieg's piano pieces, also his violin sonatas 
and 'cello sonata. He has also written choral works 
with orchestra, and especially songs. Grieg took up 
a position of hostility to the music of Mendelssohn and 
Gade, which he condemned as too effeminate ; in con- 
sequence, in many of his own works there are traces 
of a somewhat forced originality. 

Ferdinand Hitter (181 1-1885) composed operas, sym- 
phonies, vocal and orchestral works of various kinds, 
and became prominent as a writer on musical subjects. 

Max Bnich (born 1838) is a disciple of Ferdinand 
Hiller. His symphonies, violin concertos and piano 
compositions are worthy of notice. Nevertheless, Bruch's 
true sphere is choral composition ("Odysseus," "Die 
Glocke," " Schone Ellen," " Frithjof," "Das Feuer- 
kreuz," " Lorelei," etc.). Mendelssohn's influence on 
Bruch is unmistakable. 

Friedr. Robert Volkmann (1815-1883) shows in his 
works the influence of R. Schumann, without; how- 
ever, losing his own individuality ; his compositions 
exhibit excellent workmanship, and are characterised 
by a buoyant vigorous " swing." Besides numerous 
piano pieces, chamber music and vocal music, Volk- 
mann's two symphonies and his Serenades for Strings 
must be specially mentioned. 

Stephen Heller (1814-1888) in his piano works, 
mostly compositions of small dimensions (characteristic 
pieces, studies, nocturnes, etc.) proves himself a 
master of the smaller forms of composition. His 
works possess soundness and originality as well as 
grace and charm. They are " recital-works " in the 
best sense of the word. 

Adolf Henselt (1814-1889), like Heller, a distinguished 
pianist, wrote brilliant drawing-room pieces, concert 


paraphrases, etc., his best works being- his concert 

K. M. Reinthaler (1822-1896) is known through his 
oratorio ' ' Jephtha. " 

Carl Reinecke (born 1824) published operas (among- 
them " Der vierjahrig-e Posten " and " Konig Man- 
fred "), symphonies, a number of soundly written piano 
compositions, fairy poems for soli and chorus, with 
piano accompaniment, and larger vocal compositions 
and chamber music, all the work of a clever musician. 
He is also an excellent pianist and teacher. 

Theodor Kirchner (1823-1903), like Heller and 
Schumann, cultivated the "miniature" genre with 
excellent results. In these works, as in his transcrip- 
tions of song's by Jensen and Brahms, he proved 
himself an artist of fine and original feeling. 

Mori/s Moszkowski (born 1854) has obtained favour 
by his pleasing piano works, but particularly by an 
orchestral Suite in F (Op. 39) of sound workmanship. 

Franz Liszt (1811-1886), whose orchestral works we 
will consider when discussing programme music (p. 48), 
is the founder of modern virtuoso technique. He wrote, 
besides symphonic poems for orchestra, a large number 
of vocal works and piano compositions, among- which 
the transcriptions and paraphrases, studies, and par- 
ticularly the Hung-arian Rhapsodies, are often performed 
and are in great favour. 

Hans von Billow (1830-1894), who produced various 
songs, piano and orchestral works, was, as a pianist, 
certainly one of the most important interpreters of 
classical compositions, and an orchestral conductor of 
the first rank. 

Anton Rubinstein (1830-1894), as a pianist, followed 
in Liszt's footsteps, and was of hig-h importance as 
a virtuoso. As an opera composer he has already 
been mentioned, and he produced works of almost 
every kind. Among his symphonies the "Ocean" 
is the most important. Rubinstein's piano pieces, 
but particularly his song's, contain much that is 

Anton Dvorak (1841-1904) achieved success as a 
national Bohemian composer. 

Johannes Brahms (born 1833 in Altona, died 1897 
at Vienna), was one of the most important of modern 
masters. Brahms had entire command of form, and 
the whole gamut of emotions ; he was an earnest 
composer, of deep feeling, but by no means to be 
understood by all. His works must be studied 
sympathetically, and this, in consequence of the often 
complicated style of the master, is difficult for the 
amateur. The symphonies of Brahms are in every 
respect art works of the highest importance, and the 
same may be said of his "German Requiem," the 
"Schicksalslied," " Triumphlied," "Deutsche Fest 
und Gedenkspriiche," and the Rhapsodic for Contralto 
solo. Among other works by the same composer are 
songs, a magnificent violin concerto, and violin and 
pianoforte sonatas. 

ii. PROGRAMME Music. 

We will close this section with a glance at Pro- 
gramme Music, a branch of composition in which much 
has been, and is still being, accomplished. 

By Programme Music is understood music which is 
written by the composer with the intention of arousing 
the imagination of the hearer in a certain direction, so 
that he may, whilst listening to the tone-poem, see with 
his mind's eye the representation of an occurrence, 
material or psychical. In order to influence the hearer, 
the composer provides the music with a suitable " pro- 
gramme " (description), or seeks to counteract the 
ambiguity of the composition by appending a motto 
or a poetical preface in words (i.e., a "programme" 
of what the public has to expect). 

The principle of such a style of composition has been 
condemned, partly with and partly without good reason. 
One of the cleverest works written against Che capacity 
of music to represent a programme is Ed. Hanslick's 
" On Beauty in Music." 


Programme music is extremely old, for we find 
compositions by Clement Jannequin, a disciple of 
Josquin des Pres (in the middle of the i6th century), 
with the titles " La bataille," " La guerre," " Le 
caquet des femmes," " Le chant des oiseaux," " Le 
rossignol," etc., and by the Dutchman, M. Hermann 
(same period as Jannequin), a work called " Battaglia 
Taliana " (the battle of Pavia). 

Among the composers of programme music the 
following are the most important. Hector Berlioz 
(1803-1869), a gifted composer and master of instru- 
mentation, has illustrated by music the most fantastic 
subjects ; his symphonies " Harold in Italy," " Romeo 
and Juliet," his dramatic legend "The damnation of 
Faust," his biblical trilogy "The Childhood of Christ," 
and particularly the " Episode de la vie d'un Artiste" 
(consisting of " Sinfonie fantastique " and " Lelio, 
monodrame lyrique ") are highly original works, 
offering to artists and amateurs not perhaps unmixed 
enjoyment, but much that is interesting. Berlioz 
is also the author of an excellent treatise on 

Franz Liszt (1811-1886) is also a composer of pro- 
gramme music. His symphonic poems " Dante " 
(symphony), "Faust" (symphony), " Les Preludes," 
" Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne," "Tasso, lamento 
e trionfo," "Prometheus," etc., are compositions of 
noble conception and undeniable value. 

Joachim Raff (1822-1882) an important modern 
composer. His symphonies " Im Walde," "Leonore," 
" Fruhlingsklange," " In den Alpen," " Gelebt, ge- 
strebt ; gelitten, gestritten ; gestorben, umworben," 
etc., must decidedly rank as programme music. Raff 
also wrote several chamber works, solo compositions of 
very unequal merit, and a number of songs, male voice 
quartets, choruses, etc. The number of his works 
exceeds 200. 

Saint-Saens (born 1835), a ^ so a composer of pro- 
gramme music, has achieved success with his symphonic 
poems "Phaeton," " Le rouet d'Omphale," "La 

jeunesse d'Hercule," and particularly "Danse Macabre" 
(Dance of Death) ; they are highly original and 
characteristic. In the domain of oratorio also he has 
won an honourable place with his biblical poem, " Le 
De"luge " and a " Christmas Oratorio " (see also p. 26). 
He has also contributed concertos to violin, 'cello .and 
piano literature. 

The following composers have joined the ranks of 
writers of programme music: K. Goldmark (born 1830), 
symphony " Landliche Hochzeit " (see also p. 44). 
H. Hofmann (1842-1902), " Frithjof-Symphonie " and 
"Im Schlosshofe"; H. Huber (born 1852); and Richard 
Strauss (born 1864), " Aus Italien," "Don Juan," 
"Tod und Verklarung," " Heldenleben," " Sinfonia 
Domestica," etc. Strauss is a very gifted composer, 
rich in imagination, whose style of writing will prob- 
ably become less complicated ; he has also written a 
number of really beautiful songs, chamber works and 



A. The Theoretical and Practical 
Elements of Music. 


Sound Pitch Tone System Intervals Over- and 
Under-Tone-Series, as the basis of Major and 
Minor Scales Chords -Triads Melody Harmony 
Part Writing. 

If in space, filled with air, bodies [solid, liquid, or 
aeriform] are set in vibration, there result sensations 
of hearing, which are called sound. If the vibrations 
are irregular, the resulting sound is unmusical (noise) ; 
if the vibrations occur at regular definite intervals-, 
the sensation is called sound (musical sound). 

In music we have only to deal with the latter. 

Over- Tones. What is generally called a musical 
sound (i.e., one which is distinguishable from another 
by its pitch, unchanging and measurable) has been 
proved to be, almost invariably, the result of the 
simultaneous generation of several simple tones, the 
effect of the independent vibration of smaller sections 
of the sound generator (a string, or the air column 
in a wind instrument). The ear, however, does not 
receive these "partial tones'' 1 or "over-tones" (simple 
tones) of which the sound is composed, singly, but 
only the so-called "fundamental tone" the first in the 
series of simple tones composing the "clang," the 
one which stands out prominently from the others.* 

The Pitch of a sound depends on the number of 
vibrations which a sound generator performs in a given 

[*For additional information on this subject, see "Sound 
and Music," by Sedley Taylor, and " Sound," by Tyndall.] 


time; thus, small c ^ "~ gives 128 vibrations per 

second ; the 8ve below, great C ^"" 64 vibrations 

[continental pitch]. ^ 

Tone-system. The sounds used in practical music 
consist of the scale sounds [or twtes of the /one-system] 
C, D, E, F, G, A, B, and the derived notes, i.e., those 
which result from raising the pitch of the scale notes 
by means of sharp (j) or double sharp (x), or lowering 
it by means of flat ([>) or double flat (|>j>). In order to 
avoid confusion in this large number of sounds, whose 
names often recur, and to determine the actual pitch 
of sounds with the same name, the notes of the tone- 
system have been divided into separate octaves, i.e., 
into sections the extent of which includes the sounds 
from one note to the next of the same name above or 
below. Thus, every C in our tone-system receives a 
name which is a standard for all the other notes 
included between that and the next C. 


1 I 

3 I 

1 I 

9 O 


i 1 






O 1 


Four times 



= ~ 


O * 




8ra ~zy 
bas*a. & 









< o 





















Intervals. The distance between two sounds of our 
tone-system is called an Interval (intervallum). 

The following- are the names of the intervals 
reckoned from c 1 . 

d 1 

Perfect (* ) mid major intttvals when made a chro- 
matic (f) semitone larger are called augmented. 

Major intervals when made a chromatic semitone 
smaller are called minor. 

Perfect and minor intervals when made a chromatic 
semitone smaller are called diminished. 

Inversion of Intervals. A manipulation which can be 
effected with intervals must here be mentioned. One 
interval can be changed into another by means of what 

* The unison, 8ve, 5th and 4th have from the most ancient 
times (Pythagoras) borne the name of perfect consonances, 
because the slightest alteration (imperfection) in these intervals 
changes them to dissonances ; hence the name perfect intervals. 
Later the 3rd and 6th were recognised as consonant intervals ; 
these, however, remain consonant when made a little larger or 
smaller. Hence major (larger) and minor (lesser). The case is 
the same with dissonances, which remain dissonances, whether 
major or minor. 

t A difference exists between diatonic and chromatic semitone- 
steps. Each of the scale-sounds forms with its own sound 
raised or lowered simply by ty or $ (C C , C C?, A A ft, 
A A|?), or this simply raised or lowered' sound with the 
doubly raised or doubly lowered sound by x or PJ? (C 4 C x, 
C? C?i?, Ait A x, At> A?p), the interval of a chromatic 
semitone. On the other hand, a semitone-step, whose sounds 
are not altered from the normal scale sounds, forms a diatonic 
semitone (E F, B -C, A B ?, C D?, G AJ7, etc. 


is called inversion, i.e., placing the lower note an 8ve 
higher or the upper note an 8ve lower, thus : 

The unison becomes an 8ve 

2nd , 7th 

3rd , 6th 

4th , 5 th 

5th , 4 th 

6th , 3rd 

7th , 2nd 

8ve , unison 

5th. 4th. 3rd. 6th. 8rd. 6th. 

By inversion : 

Perfect intervals 
Minor ,, 

Major ,, 

Diminished ,, 
Augmented ,, 







Scale. Our modern music-system (see p. 72) is 
diatonic, i.e., it has a preference for whole-tones 
(major seconds or so-called diatonic tones). The 
modern system is embodied in the tone - ladder or 
scale, the diatonic major and minor scale. 

The most important note of a scale is that which 
begins and ends it, and gives it its name ; e.g., C, D, 
E, F, G, A, B, C, we call C major. 

The Harmonic Series. In order to demonstrate that 
the elements of a scale are not arbitrary, but are given 
by nature itself, we will consider more closely the pre- 
viously mentioned phenomenon of over-tones, also 
called the "natural harmonic scale series" [harmonic 

If a string of a certain length is set in vibration and 

produces the great C 

together with this note 


also sound, although not audible to an ordinary ear 
without extraneous aid,* the following- notes : 

IB 9 10 11 12 18 14 15 16 


Incidentally in discussing the wind instruments (horn, 
trumpet, etc.), which, without mechanism, can only 
produce this series of sounds, we shall return to the 
natural scale-series. We must remark that the series 
which has been taken arbitrarily from the fundamental 
note C can be taken from any other note. (According 
to the standard of interval relationship proper to this 
scale-series, the sounds are transposed by the same 
interval that any other fundamental tone chosen is 
distant from C.) The asterisk to certain notes indicates 
that our notation, which only contains twelve sounds in 
the 8ve, is not capable of giving with perfect accuracy 
the pitch of the 7th, nth, i3th and i4th over-tones. 
These notes are flatter than the notation indicates, but 
are still too sharp to be rendered by the note a semitone 
lower ; they do not exist in our system of notation. 

Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, are called primary over- 
tones, the others secondary over-tones (i.e. derivatives 
of the former). 

The relation of this over-tone series to its fundamental 
tone can be expressed mathematically and physically 
by the relation of numbers. In order to produce tone 
2, a sound generator must make twice as many vibra- 
tions as are necessary to produce tone i ; or, in the 
same time in which tone 2 makes twice as many 
vibrations as its fundamental, tone 3 makes three times 
as many, etc. Expressed in numbers : C of the great 
8ve is to C of the small 8ve in the ratio of 1:2. Or 
the 2nd example, small c is to small g as 2 : 3, etc. 

* If on the pianoforte the low C is struck and the pedal put 
down, when there is perfect silence, several of these overtones 
become audible one after another. 


Chord and Tonic. The simpler the ratio between 
two given quantities, the more quickly and directly will 
it be grasped, even if we are unconscious of the law. 
Therefore the ear rejects the yth, nth, i3th and i4th 
over-tones, as having no direct relation to the funda- 
mental tone, for it feels the need of a certain proportion 
of the other intermediate tones in order to establish a 
connection with the fundamental tone. 

Tones 8, 10, 12, 16 are complicated secondary tones, 
repetitions of primary tones in higher positions. There- 
fore the tones i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 arrest the attention and 
demand closer investigation. If we reject the double 
representatives (two C's and G) we thus retain the 
sounds C, E, G, which form a chord, i.e., the simul- 
taneous sounding of several notes ; this chord is called 
the C major triad, and is recognised as the most 
important chord in the C major scale. The C major 
triad consists of a prime [ground note], a major ^rd, 
and a perfect $th. It is from the prime that the other 
intervals are reckoned. This triad, when built on the 
ist sound or tonic of a scale, is called the tonic chord, or 
chord of the tonic. 

Proceeding in the same way as for the major triad 
(which takes its name from the major 3rd) we can evolve 
a minor triad, also given to us by nature, if we construct 
a series of under- tones [from a given fundamental.]* 

Putting this idea into practice, we can imagine a 
string which will give Tone I. as the highest note of 
the series. 

I * 6 ^b* = 78810, 
* 6 ~ 

f 13 14 U 

If we double the string in length, tone 2 will sound ; 
if we treble it, tone 3, etc. If we now select, under 
the same conditions as before, only the first six primary 

* [S<?.-, for further information, " Harmony Simplified," by 
Dr. H. Riemann (Introduction).] 


tones, omitting- the repetitions, viz., two C's and F, we 
get the sounds F, A?, C, a minor chord or triad. In 
this tone series 7, n, 13, 14 are sharper than the 
notation indicates, but too low in pitch to be indicated 
by the semitone higher. 

Triads generally take their names from their root 
(ground note or fundamental note), i.e. , from the lowest 
note, the principal note of that scale whose tonic chord 
the particular triad is. Thus the C major chord is the 
representative of the C major scale, the F minor chord 
of the F minor scale. According 1 to their construction 
they may be called respectively a C over-clang and a 
C under-clang* 

A. von Ottingen, building on the work of Moritz 
Hauptmann (1792-1868) and Helmholtz (1821-1894), 
combined the researches of both, and laid the founda- 
tion of a modern theory of harmony which has been 
used as a basis by many theorists, particularly Dr. 
Hugo Riemann (born 1849). 

* [Much that the author says in this place will certainly not be 
intelligible to anyone who is unacquainted with the theory in 
question. The reader is referred to Riemann's " Harmony 
Simplified." It must always be borne in mind that in this 
system every chord built on the basis of a major triad is 
reckoned upwards from its prime in the usual way ; on the other 
hand, every chord built on the basis of a minor triad is reckoned 
downwards, not from the bass 

note (root) of the triad, but Chord of chord of 

from its 5th, which in this Triad, the 7th. Triad, the 7th. 

system is considered as the 
prime. This must be borne 
in mind in following- the au- 
thor's explanations. Arabic 
numerals are used to indicate 
the intervals of major chords, 
and Roman numerals for 

minor chords. Thus, a note figured 5 takes the 5th above, 
a note figured V. takes the 5th below.] 


The most important points of this modern theory of 
harmony are the following : 

I. Major is the reflected image of minor, therefore the 

exact reverse of minor. 

II. There exist only three directly intelligible intervals, 

the 8ve, major %rd and perfect th. 

No. I. can easily be illustrated in the following way. 

The intervals of which a major scale consists are 
whole tones (i) or half-tones (). 

Major CTDTETFTGTATBTC. From once accented 
c 1 to twice accented c 2 the order will form an over-tone 
series reckoned from the bottom note upwards, i.e. , d 1 is 
over-second (2nd above), e 1 is over-third (3rd above), etc. 

Minor C^B ^A ^GiF^E ^ D[^C. The intervals 
of a minor scale are, from once accented c 1 to small 
c, in the order of an under-tone series reckoned 
downwards from the top-note, i.e., b|> is under-second 
(2nd below), a| is under-third (yd below), etc.* 

We must always bear in mind the fact, that out of an 
over-tone series from a certain C, the C major chord 
results, and out of an under-tone series from the same 
C an F minor chord results, C being in both cases the 
most important note, the prime, i.e., the sound from 
which the other intervals are reckoned. If we con- 
struct from C a scale, i.e. , fill up with melodic passing 
notes the skeleton of the representative triad, we obtain 
for major and for minor exactly the same relationship. 

* [The minor scale here referred to is obtained by reckoning 
downwards from the upper note (the 5th, in this system considered 
the root) of the minor triad, thus : A minor triad : 

minor scale obtained by reckoning downwards from the note E 

of which the above is a transposition.]) 


Laid out in reverse order, both triads consist of a 
prime, a major 3rd, and a perfect 5th, in the major 
reckoning upwards and in the minor reckoning 

Major Minor 

Scale and Key. If these two chords are important 
for their scales, they are equally so for the key. Scale 
and key are not absolutely identical. Every one who 
has occupied himself at all with music knows that a 
certain piece is in a certain key, i.e. , that the melody of 
the piece in its development embodies a certain key 
(C major, A minor, etc.) It starts in this key, which is 
also prominent in important moments of development, 
moves in its course into other keys related to it, and so 
forth, and with this key, as a rule, the whole composi- 
tion ends. This key cannot be personified by anything 
more precisely than by its scale ; but one must not 
forget that the sounds of one particular scale include 
some which are also of importance in other scales. 

With the sounds of the C major scale, for example, 
it is possible to construct also the A minor triad 
(A, C, E), the G major triad (G, B, D), the E minor triad 
(E, G, B), the F major triad (F, A, C), and the D minor 
triad (D, F, A) ; it is obvious, therefore, that one can 
use a single scale, and by means of it can modulate 
into various other scales. Within the scope of one key 
lie, in addition, a number of chords which contain other 
sounds than those of the scale of that key. 

In earlier times, when the boundaries within which 
a melody could modulate were narrower than to-day, 
and the ideas and knowledge of key relationship were 
essentially different, scale and key were considered to 
be identical. 

Consonance and Dissonance. The idea of consonance 
(sounding together, i.e. , sounding well together) and 
dissonance (not sounding well together) can, on the 
basis of what has already been said, be thus defined : 


i. As applied to intervals. All those intervals are 
consonant which can be constructed by means of the 
sounds of the major and minor chord. Consonant, 
therefore, are the unison (i.e., the same sound produced 
by two generators at the same time), the 8ve above and 
below (the double 8ve, triple 8ve, etc.), the 5th and 4th 
above and below, with their compound intervals, and 
major and minor 3rd, including their compounds. 

Dissonant intervals are those consisting of sounds 
which do not belong to the same chord (major or 
minor triad). 

Dissonant intervals are the 2nd and the 7th with their 
compounds, as well as all augmented and diminished 

2. As applied to chords. Only the major triad (over- 
clang) and the minor triad (under-clang) are consonant ; 
all dissonant chords are modifications of these. 

The classification of dissonant chords is much easier 
on this basis than on any other ; it consists in : 
*i. Adding a fourth note to the triad (a). 

2. In place of one of the notes of the triad putting 

a neighbouring note, so-called " feigning 
consonances " (b). 

3. The chromatic alteration of one of the notes of 

the triad, so-called "altered chords" (c). 

The physiological effect of dissonant chords consists 
(unlike the satisfactory effect of the triad) in a feeling 
of unrest, of incompleteness ; one or more notes of 
the dissonant chord require a further progression to 
other notes, the so-called resolution. Only after the 
final resolution does the ear find rest. 

Dominant and Sub-dominant. We will go one step 

[* (a) See Riemann's " Harmony Simplified," pp. 55, 56. 

( b ) . >> >, P- 7 1 - 

(c) .. M p. 112.] 


further, and consider the most important degrees 
contained in a scale. We already know the tonic as 
the ist degree and bearer of the most important triad. 
Next in importance comes the 5th degree of every 
scale (the perfect 5th from the tonic), which is called 
the upper- dominant, or simply dominant (dominant, 
from the Latin dominans= ruling, dominating), and the 
5th note below the tonic, which is called the under- 
dominant or sub-dominant. For example, if the tonic 
is C, the dominant is G, and the sub-dominant F. 

Each of these two degrees can become the bearer 
of a triad, and these triads on the dominant and 
sub-dominant are, next to that on the tonic, the most 
important, because in the simplest little song, as in 
the most powerful composition, besides the key, the 
signature of which the piece bears, the keys of the 
two dominants are the ruling ones, and their influence 
on the construction of a composition is no mean one. 

By modulation is understood the passing from one key 
to another, which for the moment becomes the principal 
key in place of the former one. It is possible to effect 
such a change of key in innumerable ways. The most 
usual means of modulation is the changing of a tonic 
chord into one of the dominant chords, or of one 
dominant chord into the other ; giving a new meaning 
to the chord, so to speak. 

Such a change of meaning can also be brought 
about by the addition of a dissonance to a triad, 
which dissonance stamps the triad as upper or under- 
dominant of the key into which one wishes to modulate. 
Such dissonances are called "characteristic" We will 
only explain two of them, as being the most important. 

As soon as the minor yth is added to a major triad 
it becomes an upper-dominant chord ; e.g. , as soon as 
Eft is added to the C major triad, the C major triad 
becomes dominant (upper-dominant) of F major, there- 
fore the F major triad must follow. 


A minor triad, with a minor yth added below, becomes 
the sub-dominant ; for example, the triad of A minor 
with minor yth below leads to the key of which A minor 
is the sub-dominant chord, i.e., E minor. 

ann's " Harmony I 
ified," p. 55. 

The 6th added to a major triad makes this into a 
sub-dominant : 

The under 6th added to a minor triad turns this into 
a dominant : 

Parallel Keys. Before we close this chapter with 
some remarks on melody and harmony we will glance 
shortly at the keys closely related to tonic, dominant 
and sub-dominant ; they are in major keys the "relative" 
minor keys, and in minor keys the "relative" major 
keys ; in one word, the so-called "'Parallel Keys," i.e., 
key-couples of different modes (major and minor) with 
the same key-signature (flats or sharps). f Without 
further explanation this can be seen, and the degree of 
relationship between "parallel-clangs" (i.e., the triads 
of parallel-keys) can be shown if Arabic figures are 
used for the intervals reckoned upwards, and Roman 
figures for the intervals reckoned downwards. T.p. 
signifies Tonic parallel (key or chord), D.p. Dominant 
parallel (key or chord), and S.p. Sub-dominant parallel 
(key or chord), provided the chord to which we wish 

*[Riemann and the other theorists who adopt this system regard 
discords built on the dominant triad of a minor key, with a minor 
instead of a major 3rd (/.('., without the leading 1 note), as dominant 
discords. Under ordinary circumstances this passage would not 
be in D minor.] 

t [See Riemann's " Harmony Simplified," p. 71. 


to find the parallel key, is [tonic], dominant, or sub- 
dominant of the key which must be considered as 
principal key (key of the tonic). 

To C maj. To D min. 

belongs A min. belongs F maj. 

51. I. 5 51. I. 5 

3 III. III. 3 3 III. III. 3 

IV. V. 1 IV. V. 1 

T. T.p. T. T.p. D. D.p. S. S.p. 

To A maj. To G min. If F maj. is tonic, If A rain, is tonic, 

belongs FJ min. belongs B|j maj. then C maj. is dom- then D min. is sub- 

inant, and A min. dominant, and F 

dominant parallel, maj. sub-dominant 

Of the two chords coupled together each is the 
parallel clang of the other ; by this method of illustra- 
tion the obvious association of the most important 
notes and their near relationship is made clear. 

What is Melody? What is Harmony? And what 
is the object of the Study of Harmony ? 

A Melody, according- to our modern ideas, is con- 
structed by changing the pitch of sounds, their duration 
and intensity, and has, as its nucleus, the most impor- 
tant notes of a temporarily principal key. The tone 
and semitone-steps are considered rather as melodic 
steps, and the larger intervals as harmonic steps. In 
considering melodic progression, one melodic step must 
be mentioned, which necessitates, in most cases, a 
fixed progression of the melody; i.e., the leading-tone 

The term leading-tone step* is generally given to the 
semitone-step from the 7th degree (leading note) of a 
scale to the 8ve ; nevertheless, every raising or lower- 
ing of a note of a triad can have the effect of making it 
a necessary condition that the raised note should rise a 
semitone, and the lowered note fall a semitone ; such a 
progression being in accordance with the leading-tone 
relationship. Hence the constant negativing of the 

*[Riemann speaks of semitone-steps in general as leading-tone 

6 4 

natural factors of melodic construction would be un- 

Harmony, in our modern sense, consists in several 
sounds being heard simultaneously, their relation to 
one another being- such that they can be recognised by 
the hearer as a chord. 

Harmony, as a theory, treats of the different kinds 
of chords, their origin, treatment, connection with one 
another, and their classification. The elementary ideas of 
Harmony are given by the Harmonic Series (see p. 54). 

A part or voice in a composition is the name given to 
a series of notes, more or less connected, which the 
composer intends to be performed by one singer or one 
instrument, either alone or in combination with another 
or other parts. The most important part in a com- 
position is called the principal part or obbligato part, 
the other parts being subordinate or filling up parts 
(ripieni). In a polyphonic composition the highest 
and lowest parts are called outer parts, those lying 
between these two, inner parts. If two parts proceed 
in one direction the motion of parts is called parallel 
(similar) (i) ; if both proceed in contrary directions, 
it is called contrary (2) ; if one part remains at the 
same pitch whilst the other rises or falls, it is called 
oblique (3). 

Similar motion. Contrary Oblique 

*"' v" * motion. motion. 

I 3 

The motion oj parts under one another is subject to 
fixed rules, the rules of part-writing ; but before one 
forms an opinion, with regard to a composition, as to 
whether, and to what extent, the laws of part-writing 
have been followed in its construction, one must ascer- 
tain whether one has to do with real parts or not. 
Real parts are principal parts of a composition which 
is described or recognisable as being in two, three, or 
more parts, or those which, standing out for a short 


time, scarcely less prominently than the former, can be 
distinguished as independent subordinate parts ; or, in 
other classes of composition, those which, at all events 
for several consecutive bars, form an independent 
whole ; in one word, real parts are those entitled to 
be considered as individually existent. To such parts 
the rules of part-writing apply more or less strictly, 
whilst those parts of a composition which have no pre- 
tension to independence are less affected by these 
rules ; indeed, are not affected at all by some of them. 
One must, however, separate the rules laid down for 
real parts from those applicable to ordinary com- 
position. The general rules for ordinary composition 
are directed against progressions and combinations 
which are unmelodious, or impracticable as regards 
their execution, whilst the rules for real parts, besides 
enforcing the ordinary rules in a stricter form, concern 
themselves with the distance of the parts from each 
other, or, according to the particular system of har- 
mony under discussion, with the forbidding or per- 
mitting of the doubling of certain notes, the possible 
progressions of a well written bass part, and so forth. 



Motive Accent Bar and Time The aesthetic effects 
of Dynamics and Agogics Phrasing Measurement 
of Volume of Tone and Pace Rhythm and Metre 
Tone-system and Temperament. 

The first chapter was devoted to the material with 
which we have to reckon in our art, a sound, its origin 
and its relations to others of its own kind. In the 
following chapter we shall consider the employment of 
this material in the construction of a melody. 

Motive. The elements, the smallest members, of a 
musical thought are called "motives,"* from the Latin 
word signifying elements of movement, and no word 
can better describe the smallest part of a continuous 
rhythmical whole. 

If we think of a single detached sound, it is endowed 
with no vigour, it possesses only the individuality ot 
its tone ; this is no longer the case if another is added 
in relation to it, and in such a manner that one can 
recognise the first as an assertion or question, and 
the second as a completion or answer. It is obvious, 
therefore, that the conclusion, as coping stone of the 
building, as answer to a question, should have the 
greater weight ; or, as the musician would say, the 
second note, in comparison with the first note, should 
be more strongly accented. (Accented or strong beat = 
down beat ; unaccented or weak beat = up beat.) 

The bar-line has now the important function ot 
marking the strong beat of the bar, and one must be 
careful not to regard the bar-line as a boundary post 
of the collective sounds, for it only indicates the note 
following it as that note towards which, as the culmi- 
nating point, force is gradually developed. 

The bar-line does not prevent us, therefore, from 
recognising relationship between notes as though it 

[Accent on the second syllable.] 

6 7 

were not there ; it gives us, on the contrary, the 
direction for a manifestation of force. 

Accent. In music, increase of force is indicated by 
the Italian word crescendo (growing-), or by a sign 
symbolising the swelling of the sound =dIZ. 

Time. What we have said up to this point can be 

expressed thus, i < , and we have before us the 

germ of duple time, which we will later more fully 
explain. If one admits the law of inertia on the one 
hand, and, on the other, the feeling which couples 
greater expenditure of force with greater expenditure 
of time, a lengthening of the second note can well be 
understood. If the point of rest is prolonged, only a 
little need be added in order to give the note double 

its value, JT^^ ; triple time is thus obtained, and 

I I i 

the sign signifying the reverse of crescendo (i.e., 
diminution of volume) is only natural after the attain- 
ment of the culminating point. The sign for decres- 
cendo is ^ ---- ^. 

A distinction is made between simple and compoimd 
times ; the latter is constructed naturally by grouping 
together bars of the former. All accents of the second 
order (i.e., compound) originate thus ; within a bar of 
compound time, an accented and an unaccented beat 
still exist, the chief accent, however, resting on the 
first note-value after the bar-line. 

c r? 

weak, strong, w. 

Arsis. By these examples one sees how, in 4 time, 

'[This, of course, is not the generally accepted meaning- of 
compound time.] 


the second crotchet always detaches itself from the 
first, and becomes the arsis (up-beat) of the next. We 
call "arsis" that incomplete bar which, setting- aside 
the bar line, is taken in connection with the strong beat 
(first beat) of the next bar. The same thing- occurs in 
the " bar. The long note, which we employed in the 
above illustration of a "motive" in triple time, is here 
divided into two quavers, of which one is the stronger 
and the other comparatively weaker ; the third quaver 
is thus again " arsis " to a new triple formation. If we 
here, in the inner part of the bar, speak of an arsis, it is 
to be understood in the sense that, although the strong 
accent of the second order, in the middle of the bar, is 
not indicated by a bar-line, the note preceding it stands 
in the same relation to it as an arsis to a thesis (an 
up-beat to a down-beat).* 

Naturally the performance of a musical piece with 
slavish accentuation of the rhythm would be intolerable ; 
the rhythm must rather subordinate itself to the 
"nuances" depending on higher considerations. It 
will perhaps not be new to many to find that this 
reciprocal relationship of accent and non-accent in- 
fluences, not only the smallest formation of the bar- 
motive, but all groups of bars and phrases. 

Symmetry. Thus, like accented and unaccented beats 
of a bar, accented or unaccented bars, or accented and 
unaccented groups of bars, are opposed to each other. 
The position of the accented bar is, for musical logic, 
just as important as the position of the accented beat of 
the bar is for " time." As soon as the strong beat in a 
bar is displaced, if, for instance, it is repeated, or 
omitted, or marked earlier or later than one expects it 
to be, the symmetry is disturbed. A change from 

* Bars beginning with an up-beat are much oftener met with in 
music than is generally supposed. A great part of the swing and 
energy, inherent in a melody, is due to this. A melody con- 
structed thus holds the interest of the hearer much longer than 
one constructed oil the contrary plan, a continual succession of 
complete bars. Complete bar rhythm is oftener found in folk- 
songs, dances and marches, as they do not call for complication 
in bar structure. 


strong" to weak, or vice -versa, is called "cross-accent" 
or " syncopation." 

In general, the means used for "disturbing the 
symmetry" of bar or theme formation are these; (i) 
expanding 1 the scheme of weak-strong" or strong-weak, 
etc., by interpolation and prolongation of note-values ; 
(2) changing" strong accents to weak (cross accent or 
syncopation) ; or (3) condensing" the scheme by 

Phrase. As soon as a motive, as an independent 
symmetrical figure, is opposed to another, it becomes a 
phrase,* the length of which can be a matter of taste. 
At the beginning of a piece, when it first develops itself 
from the existing- material, it is often only the length 
of a motive, whilst in the course of the composition it 
can grow into whole groups of bars and portions of 

Phrasing (not to overlook this subject, so much 
discussed at the present day) is, to quote its principal 
champion, Dr. Hugo Riemann, " Separation of phrases 
(i.e., the more or less self-contained members of the 
musical thought), in performance by means of expres- 
sion, and in notation by means of special signs." 

What means has music at its disposal to perform a 
melody expressively, and thereby to separate it into 
members, conformably to the musical idea ? 

Dynamics. First of all, the already described factors 
of crescendo and diminuendo, i.e., the dynamic element, 
the varying intensity of sound. A crescendo or 
diminuendo does not always require to be indicated ; 
it will often, unconsciously, be felt to be necessary. 
A musical figure which rises (except of course in the 
case when the composer, with a view to a particular 
effect, has directed the opposite) will generally be 
performed with crescendo, a descending figure with 

Agogics. Parallel with this, in most cases, crescendo 
is coupled with a slight increase of speed, and (vice 

* [Generally called a section or half-phrase.] 


versa) a decrease of tone is accompanied by slackening 
of speed. We only need to observe our speech a 
little, in order to perceive exactly similar effects in 
expressing the emotions. Often only minute changes 
of tempo are required, such as the accentuation of the 
strong beat, already described, or the imperceptible 
dwelling on the same. 

The direction for the accentuation of single notes, 
as also the long pause on a certain note, the composer 
is able to indicate by certain signs. 

^ The sign /r\ implies a 

1 H I I" 3 J*^"^ pause on the indicated 

J :EEcL*El i 40 - note. The length of 

such a pause, is left to 
individual taste, but due regard must be given to the 
character of the work and to the obtaining of 
particular effects in special cases. 

Exaggeration of light and shade, and change of pace 
(tempo rubato), in the rendering of a piece, is to be 
avoided. The good taste of the performer can alone 
decide such matters. 

Metronome. We possess no means of measuring the 
degrees of tone-volume. On the other hand, for 
measurement of pace we are provided with one, even 
if only relative, in ourselves, namely, our pulse, which 
in a normal person, under normal conditions, makes 
about 78 beats per minute ; this corresponds to a 
medium pace, and would in music, be expressed by the 
word "Andante" (Italian, going). Any movement 
more rapid than our pulse beat we feel to be quicker, or 
quick, and vice versA. If, however, a soloist or 
conductor were to be guided by this chronometer alone, 
"tempo" would be in a bad way. In order to assist 
the feeling' for tempo, which is inborn, although it may 
also be acquired by study, several appliances have been 
invented, which, visibly or audibly, as may be preferred, 
mark the divisions of the bar. The best known of these 
is Maelzefs Metronome which, by means of clock work, 
sets in motion a pendulum with a movable weight 
and regulated scale ; the beats (oscillations) of the 

pendulum are distinctly audible. If over a composition 
this direction appears, M.M. J = 78, the metronome 
is to be set in such a manner that the pendulum will 
make 78 oscillations per minute, (i.e. , place the weight 
at the figure 78 on the scale), and each oscillation 
will equal a crotchet in value. The machine is 
thus an unfailing guide for the tempo of an entire 

Metre and Rhythm, Whilst metre depends on the 
stress values of sounds, rhythm treats of their different 
length-values and the artistic effects resulting there- 
from ; it is difficult, however, to distinguish between 
the two. Some characteristic rhythms must be 
mentioned which occasion divisions of the bar, varying 
from the ordinary ones. 

Triplets, Quadruplets, etc. Triplets result if, in 
place of two notes, three are found, which are to be 
played or sung in the same time as the two. For 
example, if a crotchet is divided into three quavers 
instead of into two, these three quavers form a triplet 
of quavers. In the same way a triplet of crotchets results 
if a minim is divided into three instead of into two crot- 
chets, etc. A slur with the figure 3 indicates the triplet. 
Although not so frequently, a triplet is sometimes found 
which stands in place of four notes (not two). For 
instance, three crotchets may be made to fill up a bar of 
4 time. The difference in the aesthetic effect of the two 
is obvious : in the first case, the triplet has the effect of 
hastening, and, in the second, of slackening. In the same 
way, couplets, quadruplets, quintuplets, sextuplets, etc. 
result, if two notes instead of three in triple time, or 
four notes instead of three (sometimes instead of six), 
or five notes instead of four or six, etc., occur ; these 
formations, like the triplets, can have different effects, 
according as they are used in place of smaller or larger 
numbers of notes. A slur, with the necessary figure 
beneath, stamps them as irregularities. 

Syncopation is the tying of a note on the weak beat 
of the bar to the succeeding note on the strong beat of 
the next bar (for strong and weak see p. 66), contrary to 


the usual division of the bar, so that a change of 
rhythm results. 3 . ^-p^ te 

4U i i P l> i 

Here the second quaver of the first crotchet, length- 
ened to a crotchet, extends into the second crotchet, 
the second quaver of the first crotchet and the first 
quaver of the second crotchet being taken together as 
one crotchet. The same thing is repeated with the 
second quaver of the third crotchet of the bar, the last 
quaver of the first bar being part of the last crotchet, 
united by means of the tie, as though the bar line were 
absent, with the first quaver of the succeeding bar. 


The object of a tone-system is to systematize and 
explain theoretically the sound-relations used for the 
practical study of music. The tone-systems of all 
periods have points of contact, and these result from 
the important fact that they all are based on a diatonic 
tone system. 

Diatonic (from the Greek) is the name given to a 
succession of sounds proceeding by degrees which are 
chiefly whole tones. 

Chromatic is the name given to a tone-system in 
which the sounds move by degrees oi a semitone 
(see p. 53, footnote). 

Enharmonic is the name given to a system which 
refuses to identify as one and the same (as is done in 
practice), raised and lowered sounds, which, strictly 
speaking, represent different sounds. The meaning 
of this we will now explain. 

Our lone-system is based on a diatonic scale, the 
notes of which produce the intervals of five whole 
tones (i) and two semitones (). If one of these notes 
is provided with a 4, u, x or hn it is said to be chro- 
matically altered. 

In order to form scales beginning and ending on 
other notes than C, constructed in the same manner as 
the C major scale, some of the notes must be chro- 
matically altered (raised or lowered) ; for example : 


or EbTFTG?At>TB|M CTDTEj? etc. 

Complete list of scales which are possible in our tone- 
system, resulting from such chromatic changes of notes 
as are necessary to produce the interval-relationship 
proper to a major or minor scale. 

C major and A minor without sharps or flats. 






All employable musical sounds, as has already been 
explained, not only as to their absolute pitch, but also 
in their mutual relations as intervals, can be expressed 
by mathematical formulae (ratio numbers). The ear, 
however, does not make the same demands on pitch 
relationship as does exact science, which obtains its 
results by a different method of temperament (i.e. 
selection of sounds) from that of practice. 

Temperament. The learned of all ages have occupied 
themselves in bringing the practically acceptable pitch 
of sounds into a system by calling in the aid of physics 
and mathematics, in order that the demands both of 
practice and of science, for accuracy of pitch in the 
sounds of the tone-system might be approximately 
satisfied. In all instruments, however, whose notes, as 
they exist, cannot be raised or lowered by the player, 
(for instance the Pianoforte), the choice of sounds 
(temperament), which as they exist in nature are 


innumerable, is limited. It is, therefore, impossible in 
musical practice to make use of a keyed instrument 
which should have next to C a C$, a C k, a C x, and a 
C bb> necessitating 35 keys for the octave. After the 
various researches of earlier centuries, which fruitlessly 
strove to reconcile the positive discrepancy between the 
intonation of the notes in practical use and the theo- 
retical acoustical purity of a tone-system, there arose, 
towards the end of the iyth century the principle of 
so-called equal temperament (12 sounds to the 8ve), a 
tone-system which renounced all claim to the physically 
absolute purity of each single note, and distributed the 
inevitable inaccuracies equally in such a manner as to 
satisfy the ear. 

With the establishment of this now universally 
accepted tone-system (whose cause was espoused by 
J. S. Bach, who named one of his works " Das 
voohltemperierte Klavter ") arose the necessity of practi- 
cally identifying theoretically different sounds on the 
keyboard ; for instance, the key for F must also repre- 
sent E $ , that for F;J also G {>, etc. When one note 
is thus changed to another, that note is said to be 
enharmonically changed. 


B. Form. 


Art Form Types of Form Symmetry in Form 
Influence of Harmony on Form Cadences. 

As a musical art-work, like any other, presents itself 
in an outer shape, and this outer shape can assume 
different forms (a Dance, March, Symphony, etc.), there 
must exist in our art a theory of form, having- as its 
object the establishment of the different kinds of form, 
from the simplest to the most complex, as rational, 
and capable of development on fundamental principles. 
Already in considering' the development of bar motives, 
we felt the importance of symmetry, likewise of dis- 
turbed symmetry (which, indeed, implies symmetry), in 
producing a satisfactory effect. Symmetrical arrange- 
ment, notwithstanding the variety of individual parts, 
unity in plurality, must be the aim of every artistic 

We will now describe the smaller musical forms, and 
their development into larger forms by being grouped 

We must begin by considering the distinction, so 
important in form, between duplex [binary] and triplex 
[ternary]. We have already seen that the former was 
the germ of the latter, (see p. 67). 

An example will best illustrate the phases of 
development in the shaping of musical thoughts into 
movements, periods, etc. 

Half-Phrase, Granted that a composer has written 
a "motive" with germinating possibilities, rhythmi- 
cally interesting in construction ; the simplest develop- 
ment of this is an exact repetition of the motive, but 

7 6 

interest may be enhanced by contrasting the second 
with the first, either by repeating" the first on a higher 
degree of the scale, by enriching it with an up-beat, 
or by the interval relationships moving upwards instead 
of downwards (inversion of a motive). The first motive 
may correspond with the second in its metrical con- 
struction (with regard to the position of the strong 
accent), or it may be constructed differently. If this 
form-fragment (two motives), which is called a half- 
phrase [or sec f ton], were to be repeated over and 
over again with slight alterations, the effect would 
be uninteresting and wearisome. Nevertheless, a 
particular rhythm may sometimes characterise an entire 
movement without losing interest, as we see in the 
works of the great masters. (Beethoven's C minor 
symphony, especially the rhythm of the ist movement 


Phrase. In order to enlarge this half-phrase to a 
phrase it is necessary to add a second half-phrase. 
The simplest kind of answer to two corresponding 
bars is the addition of two bars, the bar-motives of 
which (as a rule not imitations of each other) blend 
together, forming a whole. 

It must be remarked that similarity between two 
bar-motives (they are called bar-motives if their strong 
accents coincide with those of a bar containing two 
or three beats) produces the effect of separation, 
forcing into parts, whilst dissimilarity blends them 
into a whole. Two dissimilar bars can be answered 
by two equally unlike, but in such a manner that 
bars one and three, and crosswise, bars two and four, 
are felt to correspond. 

It is by means of addition and omission of up-beats, 
rich melodic embellishment of the rhythmical melodic 
nucleus, rhythmical alterations, etc., that the separate 
parts are blended into various sentence-types. 

Sentence. In the same way that half-phrases were 
formed into phrases, 4-bar phrases can be made into 


8-bar sentences by contrasting- a fore-phrase with an 
after-phrase : 

CLEMENTI. Sonatina, Op. 36, No. 1. 

Fore Phrase. 

Half Phrase. 

FHalf Phrase. 

Motive. 1 

| Motive. 

Two blended Motives. 

-!- - 

-t= -^ 

After Phrase. 

Half Phrase^^ Half Phrase. 

Motive! | | Motive. | | Two blended Moth 

^ *- 

Harmonic Changes. Hitherto we have left harmonic 
progressions out of the question. With regard to that 
we must remark that all the strong accents of the 
smaller and larger formations (half-phrases, phrases, 
etc.) are the points at which a change of harmony is 
expected ; the stronger the accent is, the more probable 
is a change of harmony. If an up-beat exists, this 
generally belongs to the preceding harmony, and the 
strong beat brings the new harmony. (Of course, there 
are exceptions to this.) . ,'; " inS fJ r^^^*' f 

The frequency of harmonic changes will materially 
depend, moreover, on the character of the theme (pace, 
melodic form, etc.). 

We must now consider the aesthetic effect of the 
influence of the Dominant and Sub-Dominant of a 
key on the Tonic. 

In the major key it is usual, in modulating, to work 
from the tonic upwards, i.e., to the dominant ; in the 


minor key from the tonic downwards, i.e., to the sub- 
dominant minor ( S).* In the major key, on the other 
hand, the progression from tonic to sub-dominant has 
the effect of a forcing down below the level ; in the 
minor key, the progression from tonic to minor upper- 
dominant has the effect of screwing up. 

Here again is seen the origin of the development of 
major and minor ; movement is felt to be natural in 
that direction in which the sounds of the mode were 
generated, i.e., in major upwards (the upper-dominant 
side), and in minor downwards (the under-dominant 
side). In speaking of cadences we shall again return 
to this subject. 

Among the innumerable harmonic progressions those 
will appear the simplest which yield to the natural 
tendency of a mode. 

In placing side by side two bar-groups which are not 
in the same key (the employment of other keys is an aid 
to development and contrast), we must first quit the key 
for another naturally related to it, and the anti-thesis in 
the harmonic progression will be effected most naturally 
by harmonic inversion (in this sense working backwards), 
i.e., we return from the new key to the original key; we 
thus obtain, in addition to the contrast, symmetrical 
rounding off, for we end, as we began, in the tonic key. 

Close or Cadence. We obtain, by the systematic 
arrangement of chord progression in this way, what 
is called a close, but a great part of the cadential 

Close. ft. Close. 




effect of such a harmonic progression (e.g., C maj. 
G maj. G maj. C maj.) depends on the fact that 

[* See Riemann's "Harmony Simplified."] 


the chord with cadential power (i.e., the last chord) 
falls on a beat with cadential power (i.e., strong beat). 
If this is not the case the close is unsatisfactory, and 
not only fails to be a close, but forms, on the contrary, 
a new point of departure. 

No close, because the chord 
with cadential power occurs 
on an up-beat (the second 
crotchet of the bar), not a 
beat with cadential power. 

No close, because a chord, in 
this case not with cadential 
power, the sub-dominant of 
the key, falls on the beat with 
cadential power. 

A Half-close consists of the chord of the Dominant 
struck on a beat of cadential power. Every dominant 
chord, or its parallel chord (see p. 62), can bear a half- 
close. If the sub-dominant chord occurs on the strong 
beat, the closing effect is entirely done away with. 

The Deceptive close is really a close, but not carried 
out by all the parts, for, in the usual form of deceptive 
cadence, the bass rises one degree, instead of pro- 
ceeding from the root of the dominant chord to the 
root of the tonic chord. 

Perfect Cadence or Close. 

Deceptive (Interrupted) 
Cadence or Close. 

All closes become deceptive closes if the tonic chord 
does not appear in its true form, but as a feigned 


consonance*. (By "feigned consonance" is meant a 
dissonance in the garb of a consonance). The 
deceptive close, therefore, is not a true close, but forms, 
as it were, a new point of departure. 
5*The number of half-closes and deceptive closes is 
very large, and it is impossible to give them here. 
The most important will, after what has been said, be 
clearly understood. 

From the discussion of the close, we proceed to 
cadences', melodic and harmonic. 

Cadenaa. A melodic cadence, or cadenza, on a pause, 
occurs in concertos for solo instruments, shortly before 
the end of a movement, and consists of brilliant 
passages, with elaboration of the principal themes. 
Cadences of this kind are nowadays often of very 
considerable length ; earlier they consisted chiefly of 
ornamentation of the 2 chord preceding the close, and 
were not written down by the composer. It was left to 
the discretion of the player to extemporise a cadenza at 
the place indicated by a pause. 

A harmonic cadencef is a harmonic progression 
which, by its character, incontestably suggests a 
" close " to the mind. 

A form of cadence exists which must be regarded as 
typical : 

For major keys : tonic sub-dominantdominant 

Major Cadenc. 

Minor Cadences. 

Ton. U.-D. S.-D.Ton.Ton. S.-D. U.-D. Ton. 

iiiin. inin. min. inaj. 

Ton. S.-D. Dom. Ton. 

For minor keys: tonic-minor upper-dominant-minor 

*[The reader is referred to Riemann's " Harmony Simplified," 
p. 71, etc.] 

t[This distinction between cadence and close is not general.] 


sub-dominant-minor tonic. Or, tonic-minor sub- 
dominant-minor upper-dominant-major tonic. 

With regard to the two forms of minor cadence it 
must be remarked that the first of the two, in which 
throughout the minor mode is preserved, is the earlier, 
and in former times was exclusively used ; in modern 
music the second form is the more usual. 

The above types can be elaborated in various ways : 
they remain as the " nucleus," but around them can be 
grouped, parenthetically, parallel keys and ^feigning 
consonances of all kinds, and dissonant chords of all 
kinds can be used as connecting links. 

After this digression, which was necessary for the 
explanation of the terms close and cadence, we will now 
continue our examination of movement-formation, in 
which, owing to the necessity for continuation and 
contrast, phrases are combined into sentences ; in 
effecting this half-phrases, phrases, and closes of all 
kinds enter into innumerable relationships with one 

For the fashioning of larger forms, symmetry, in the 
sense in which we have hitherto regarded it, can of 
itself no longer be the only standard, for contrast 
or combination of forms ever increasing in length is 
finally no longer possible. If, as we have seen, the 
symmetry of small forms was occasionally disturbed, 
the departure from symmetry in larger forms becomes 
even more desirable. Take, for example, song com- 
positions, in which deviation from symmetrical rules is 
rendered necessary by the text. Moreover, the rigid 
adherence to symmetry, if continued, becomes un- 
interesting. Although the foregoing rules may be 
accepted as fundamental, it may safely be said that 
(with the exception of marches, dances, etc.) few works 
of larger proportions will be met with which are 
absolutely symmetrical counted out, so to speak, bar 
by bar. 

The employment of various forms of deceptive 
cadence, calling for a further continuation, the addition 
of an "introduction" or of a "coda" (i.e., postscript 


or tail-piece), all tend to produce variety loss of sym- 
metry ; hence the number of non-symmetrical forms 
becomes very considerable. 

Song-form. When the composition contains only one 
principal theme, song-form is the term universally used, 
whether the composition is intended for voices or 

Binary form. If, when a sentence or period is ended, 
the interest of its material is sufficient to allow of the 
addition of a second part, the whole is said to be in 
duplex or binary form. 

In this binary form it is not necessary that both parts 
should be of equal length ; as a rule the second part will 
be more developed ; the first of the two parts may be in 
sentence-form, the second in period-form (i.e., double 
the length). 

Triplex or Ternary form results when, with a desire 
to round off the movement, the composer returns to the 
first part and [after the second part is finished] repeats 
it. If the composition is in the major key, the middle 
[second] part will g-enerally be in the key of the 
dominant or dominant-parallel [i.e., relative minor of 
the dominant] ; if in the minor key, it will generally be 
in the tonic-parallel [i.e., relative major] or dominant 


March Dances Suite Song Overture Sonata 
Sonatina Rondo Air and Variations Symphony 
Scherzo Concerto Mass Oratorio Passion 
Music Cantata Motett and its Development. 

The March. One of the simplest and oldest art 
forms is that of the dance ; the March must be classified 
as'a dance, its aim being to regulate the movements of 
a large number of people. (The Polonaise of the 
present day is really a march and numbered among the 

The time of the March (not the Polonaise) is duple or 
quadruple (* Of ,J). In order to avoid monotony, 
figures with dotted quavers are employed, 

j I j Jl J j I JT3 Jl J J I 

which have the advantage of marking more precisely 
the strong beat of the bar. The form of the march is 
symmetrical and clear. There is no objection to the 
second part being longer than the first. 

A march generally consists of a first part (itselt 
binary or ternary in form), the principal part, containing 
the principal theme ; this is followed by the second part 
or "Trio," after which the first part is repeated, and is 
often followed by a Coda. 

The name " Trio" originated at the period when the 
first and last parts of dances and marches were written 
in two-part harmony, and the middle part in three-part 
harmony. The trio, although similar to the first part 
in time and pace, is nevertheless, from a melodic point 
of view, quieter and more song-like, and is also con- 
trasted by being in another key (parallel key [relative 
major or minor], key of the dominant, etc.) ; it can also 
introduce entirely new matter. The close of the trio 
leads back to the first part, in the principal key. 


The Polonaise is in triple time (2), the pace is 

moderate, and the following characteristic rhythm, 

I* P* * T T f appears either in the melody or the 

accompaniment. The Polonaise (Italian, Polacca) is of 
Polish origin. 

In addition to these two dances, we will consider a 
series of dances, now obsolete, to which we will return 
when discussing the grouping together of movements 
to form the "Suite." 

The Allemande is a dance of German origin, but it 
was taken in hand and developed by the French. It is 
in common time (generally *), and combines a certain 
dignity with graceful melody. (It begins generally 
with an " arsis," unaccented quaver or semi-quaver). 

A quick dance in 2 time, met with to-day in 
Switzerland and Swabia, is also called "Allemande." 

The Courante, or Corrente, is in triple time (2 or 2). 
An example of old date (1695) exhibits the foflowing 
rhythm : 

2 J73IJ. J73IJ3J. /IJJ. J1J. AT3IJJ. /IJ 

Later the Courante is characterised by a more uniform 
movement of quavers and semiquavers. "The ren- 
dering," says Turk, 1789, " must be serious in style, and 
staccato rather than legato. The pace is not very fast." 
Bach treats the Courante rather freely. 

The Saraband is a dance of Spanish origin, in triple 
time, slow in pace and grave in character, either melo- 
dically interesting, or embellished with many ornaments, 
but without rapid passages. The Saraband usually 
begins on the first beat of the bar, and favours such 
rhythms as the following : 

j J.JMJ j ii and r r nr&rii 

The Gigue is of a light and cheerful character and 

quick pace, with the following' characteristic rhythm : 
j. g j J. g J . The Gigue favours "imitation" (ree 

p. 100.) 

As a more rapid kind of Gigue, the Canarie must be 
mentioned. Both dances are in triple time, simple or 

Gavotte, The Gavotte is an old French dance-form in 
alla-breve time (i.e. , each beat is of the value of a minim, 
and two beats would be made in the bar ; the sign for this 
time is ^). The Gavotte always begins with a minim 
up beat, [third crotchet of the bar] and closes on 
a down beat. The character, according to Turk, is 
genial, rather lively, and well marked, the pace 
moderately quick. 

Musette. To the Gavotte is often added, as a Trio, a 
Mtisette, which is followed by a repetition of the 
Gavotte. Musette is the French name for the bag-pipe, 
which designation has been transferred to the move- 
ment of the same name on account of the characteristic 
"drone" bass, which, as in the bag-pipe, causes bass 
notes to continually sound simultaneously with the 

Passepied is an old French piece in triple time ($ or 
generally f). It resembles the Minuet, but is quicker 
and of a more lively character ; it generally begins 
with a quaver up-beat. Bach sometimes opposes a 
second Passepied to the first. 

Branle or Bransle [English, Brawl] is an old French 
round-dance, quick in pace, originally written for voices 
as well as instruments, with a refrain recurring after 
each strophe. 

The Minuet (Italian, Menuetto) receives its name from 
the French "menu " (small), i.e. , a dance with small steps. 

*[N.B. The author, in common with many others, does not 
use these terms in the ordinary sense : he includes under the head 
of compound time |, , , and T 8 2 , considering | as compound 
duple (i.e., two bars of duple time taken together), as compound 
triple, i.e., two bars of triple time taken together.] 

t See note above. 


It originated in Poitou, and was at first a quick, 
merry dance ; in later times it was performed in a 
slower and graver, yet graceful manner. The Minuet 
is in triple time (generally 2, less often 2). The second 
Minuet or " alternative " is the Trio, and is contrasted 
with the first part (Minuet I.) in key ; when the first 
Minuet is in the minor, the second is sometimes in the 
major, when it is called " maggiore " ; when the first is 
in the major, the second is sometimes in the minor 
("minore.") (For the Minuet as a component part of 
a symphony, see p. 92). 

Doubles was the name given in former times to 
variations, in which no change was made either in 
key or harmony, the theme being modified only by 
rhythmical figures, etc. 

Passacaglia (Passecaille, French) is an old Spanish 
or Italian dance in triple time, pace moderate, the 
melody of which is written over a ground bass. (In 
some old compositions of the kind, the ground bass 
is absent). 

Basso ostinato (ground bass, i.e., persistent bass) is 
the name given to a bass part, consisting of four or 
eight bars which are perpetually repeated. 

The Chaconne (or ciacona) is hardly distinguishable 
from the Passacaglia ; it is generally in \ time. 

Loure is also an old dance in triple time (2 or *), 
slow in pace, with the 
characteristic rhythm : T J I J . 

It begins with an up-beat (though Turk says on 
this point in his Piano School, 1789: "This is not 
always the case.") It is a rule in performance not to 
detach [or shorten] the dotted notes. 

Gaillarde (Gagliarda) is an old French dance-form 
in triple time, quick pace ; it has three repeats of four, 
eight or twelve bars. 

Rigaudon, an old Provencal dance-form in alla-breve 
time, lively in character. It usually consists of three 
eight-bar sentences, of which the third should be of con- 

* See note, p. 85. 


trasting character ; Mattheson directs that the latter 
should also be in a lower position, in order that the 
other themes may stand out with greater freshness in 
contrast with it. 

Bourree, an old French dance in \ or f time ; it begins 
with a crotchet up-beat, and there is frequently synco- 
pation between the third and fourth crotchets. The 
character is lively. 

Entree, as a dance, generally in | time, resembles 
a march. It is also the name of the old overture. 

The Suite is a so-called cyclical composition, i.e., a 
succession (suite) of several independent pieces, com- 
bined into a whole, the unity of which, in the oldest 
form of Suite, the Partita, lay in the similarity of 
key. Its component parts were Allemande, Courante, 
Saraband, and Gigue. Before the Allemande, however, 
often appeared a Prelude, Entr6e or Overture, with a 
slow first part and a more rapid second part ; also, 
between the Saraband and Grgue were often inserted 
one or several Intermezzi, a Bourree, Gavotte, Passepied, 
Minuet, Loure, or Air (a song-like composition), some- 
times with Variations. The Chaconne or the Passa- 
caglia, if introduced, appear as final movements, after 
the Gigue. 

Nowadays the keys of the different movements ot 
a suite vary ; moreover, the modern suite no longer 
confines itself to the old dance-forms, but consists 
generally of a series of pieces of more or less artistic 
workmanship, comparatively light in character. 

The Divertimento (French, Divertissement) resembles 
the suite as a cyclical work ; it has more than four move- 
ments (five, six, or more), which are less elaborate than 
those of the suite. 

The Serenade, in its older form, also belongs to this 
category. It contained several minuet-like movements, 
and one or two slow movements (Air with variations, 
Adagio, or Andante), and began and ended with an 
Allegro, a March, or a fugal movement. 

Among Songs, i.e., compositions for voice, distinction 
must be made between Art-Songs and Folk-Songs. A 


folk-song- is either one which, the writer and composer 
being no longer known, is considered to have originated 
among the people, or one which has become " popular," 
and is therefore simple in style and easily understood. 
An art-song has higher aims, both as to the voice part 
and the accompaniment. 

A song is either in the form of a "strophe-song" the 
several verses of which are sung to one melody 
(occasionally, however, one of the many verses may be 
set to a melody slightly different from the others), or of 
a continuous-song, in which the melody is closely allied 
to the text. 

The Overture has undergone many transformations. 
Its name implies that it is an opening, introductory 
piece. The oldest form of overture, appearing under 
this name, was composed by the Frenchman, Jean 
Baptiste Lulli (1633-1687). It consists of three parts; 
a slow movement, a "Grave " of brilliant character, is 
followed by a more rapid second part, and the first part 
is then repeated. Alessandro Scarlatti (1659-1725), the 
distinguished Italian composer, who perfected the Italian 
opera-overture (called sinfonia, symphony), began the 
overture with an allegro movement, followed with a 
slow movement, and generally closed with an allegro in 
fugal style. The word symphony, in his day, meant 
nothing more than a polyphonic movement. Handel 
(1685-1759) was the first to write overtures to dramatic 
works which were intimately related to the works them- 
selves ; the different parts of the overture, moreover, 
were connected in an intellectual sense. After him, to 
Gluck ( 1714-1787 . is due the merit of having given the 
overture increased importance as an independent piece, 
and at the same time a still closer connection with the 
opera itself. 

At the present day there exist three kinds of overture. 
(i ) The overture in sonata form with two Subjects, Free 
Fantasia and Recapitulation ; concert overtures follow 
more or less strictly this form (Beethoven's " Coriolan," 
Mendelssohn's (< Ruy Bias," etc). (2) The overture 
which, after the manner of a " pot-pourri," consists of a 

8 9 

selection of the most prominent melodies of an opera, 
loosely grouped together (Rossini's overtures, the 
modern operetta overtures of Suppe", Strauss, etc). 
(3) The overture which is constructed out of the 
thematic material of the opera, but in a logical manner, 
and is rounded off to a characteristic whole in keeping 
with the work which follows it (" Lohengrin," 
" Freischiitz," " Hansel und Gretel," etc.). 

The word Sonata was formerly used to designate an 
instrumental piece as opposed to a vocal piece (Cantata, 
from Cantare to sing). In earlier times the Sonata 
was principally for string and wind instruments, whilst 
the Toccata was for keyed instruments. The term 
sonata was first used by Andrea Gabrieli (about 1510 
1586) ; unfortunately his Sonatas for Five instruments 
(Sonate a 5 istromenti) no longer exist. Johann 
Kuhnau (1660 1722) was the first who employed the 
designation "Sonata" for a " Klavier " composition. 
The oldest sonatas must be regarded as introductions 
(Preludes) to sacred vocal compositions ; they bore a 
close resemblance to Symphonies and Overtures, as did 
the old Toccata and Fantasia, which were introductory 
pieces written for the Organ. About 1700, distinction 
was made between Sonata da Chiesa (Church-Sonata) 
and Sonata da Camera (Chamber Sonata) ; in the 
former the organ and instrumental tutti were used, in 
the latter no wind instruments were included. With the 
development of string instruments in the time of Corelli 
(16531713), who wrote sonatas for strings with ac- 
companiment for the cembalo (the piano of his day, 
see p. 15), Violin Sonatas also came into vogue. 

Chamber-Music, speaking generally, is that which is 
particularly fitted for performance in a small place, in 
contrast to Concert-Music, with orchestra or chorus. 
Nowadays by Chamber-Music is meant a performance 
of pieces by a few solo instruments, voices, string in- 
struments, wind instruments, piano, or any other solo 
instrument, with or without accompaniment. Since 
volume of tone and variety of instrumentation cannot be 
so rich in chamber-music as in orchestral-music, the 


interest of the composition must be maintained by other 
means ; hence one speaks of a composition as being 1 
written in "chamber-style." In the chamber-style the 
different instruments are treated more as solo instru- 
ments, prominent details of "nuance" and figuration 
being allotted to them individually. 

Corelli (1653 1713) gave some of his sonatas four 
movements : Adagio Allegro Adagio Allegro. 
Domenico Scarlatti (1685 1757) in Italy, and almost at 
the same time Kuhnau in Germany, perfected the 
sonata. Scarlatti introduced the characteristic form of 
the first movement, and after him Philipp Emanuel 
Bach (1714 1788), the most gifted of J. S. Bach's sons, 
Joseph Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, established for all 
time its form and matter. These masters wrote sonatas 
for all kinds of solo instruments, also duets, trios, 
quartets, etc., and the transfer of the sonata to the 
orchestra originated the first movement of the Sym- 
phony. The sonata, as a cyclical form, was evolved 
from the old suite and the three-part overture ; the 
suite gave it the group of different movements, and the 
principal (first) movement was a development of the 

Modern Sonatas have usually the following form : 
They consist of three or four movements : the first, 
the most important, being the Allegro ; the second an 
Adagio, Andante, Largo, Grave, or Air and Variations; 
the third a Minuet or Scherzo with Trio (Adagio 
and Minuet sometimes change places) ; the fourth 
(" Finale") is quick or very quick (Allegro or Presto), 
a Theme with variations, a Rondo, or even a Fugue. 
The last movement is often similar in construction to 
the first. 

The first movement of the sonata, the most impor- 
tant, contains a Principal Subject in the Tonic Key, 
followed by a Second Subject, which is connected with 
the first by a " Bridge- Passage," and the first part of 
the movement ends at the double-bar. The second 
part develops the themes, either in their entirety or in 
fragments, and is called the " Development "or " Free- 

Fantasia"; in course of development modulations are 
made into remote keys, the harmonic element often 
outweighing the melodic. This part of the movement 
leads back to the principal subject, followed by the 
second subject, both in the tonic key. The first ap- 
pearance of the second subject is generally in the 
dominant [if the movement is in a major key], or in 
the tonic parallel [i.e. relative major, if the movement 
is in a minor key]. A Coda closes the movement. 
The component parts may be enriched by the appear- 
ance of a third theme, independent episodes, or an 
introduction (this is generally the case in Beethoven's 

By Sonatina is meant a small sonata, easy to under- 
stand and easy to play, generally in two or three 

Two forms which were mentioned as component 
parts of a sonata, but which can be used equally well 
as independent compositions, are the " Rondo " and the 
" Air with Variations." 

The Rondo (French, Rondeau) might well have been 
discussed after the development of the Song-form 
earlier in this chapter, but it was necessary to mention 
individually the different dance forms, for in them lies 
the germ of more important forms. The Rondo was 
also originally a dance, combined with song. The 
name Rondo (German, Radel) signifies a song with 
refrain. The alternation of solo and chorus, the latter 
singing the refrain, contains the germ of the Rondo- 
form ; it consists in the persistence of a principal 
theme, interspersed with parentheses (episodes). 

Turk describes the Rondo in the following manner : 
" Rondo (Rondeau = circular piece), in singing, Round 
[or Roundelay], is a composition based on a short 
principal theme of a tender, cheerful, playful charac- 
ter. After each parenthetic section or couplet (episode) 
of which a rondo has often two, three, or more, the 
principal theme is repeated. The episodes do not 
usually appear in the principal key, but in various 
related keys, as E. Bach has shown in his rondos." 

The most important feature, therefore, in the rondo- 
form is the repetition of the principal theme, with which 
more than one secondary theme is associated. 

Air with Variations. To " vary " a theme is to alter it 
melodically, harmonically or rhythmically, yet in such 
a manner that it is always recognisable in one way or 
another. The old " Doubles," which we have already 
mentioned, varied the theme with little freedom, but 
Haydn, and after him Mozart and Beethoven, rendered 
the different variations of a theme much more individual 
in character, admitted change of key and time, and 
even subordinated the theme as secondary to another 
principal melody written against it, etc. 

Variations are of various kinds ; but the theme itself 
must not be too complicated, or it would not be easily 
recognisable under its altered conditions, and it must 
be sufficiently interesting to arrest the attention in spite 
of many elaborations. It generally forms a sentence of 
eight or sixteen bars, with repeats. 

An "Air with Variations" sometimes contains a 
Cadenza, and a Coda is often added ; it may be an 
independent movement, or one of the movements of a 
cyclical work. 

The word "Symphony" meant originally (beginning 
of the jyth century) a short instrumental introductory 
movement before an opera. Out of this "Overture" 
of the Italian opera, with its three movements (a slow 
movement between two Allegro movements) grew the 
symphony. Giovanni Batista Sammartini, living in 
Italy (born 1704, died 1774), in many respects a fore- 
runner of Haydn, and others composed their symphonies 
on this plan. To Haydn the symphony is indebted for 
the Minuet, which he invested with incomparable 
" naiveteV' archness and grace. He also introduced 
into the symphony the more elaborate thematic 
development found in his sonatas. Mozart and 
Beethoven endowed these forms with greater depth 
of inner meaning ; the latter evolved the Scherzo from 
the Minuet, and became a pioneer inasmuch as he 
ventured to introduce a vocal movement with soli, 


chorus and orchestra, into his immortal u Ninth 
Symphony." In the same manner Schubert, Schumann, 
Mendelssohn, Raff, and in later years Johannes Brahms, 
displayed in the old forms their own individuality, though 
they cannot be said to have further developed them. 

The Scherzo (just mentioned as the creation of 
Beethoven, and since his time part and parcel of the 
Symphony) is similar in character to the Minuet of 
Haydn and Mozart, of which it is a development ; it 
is, however, lighter and more humorous in character ; 
its themes are more " short-breathed " and energetic, 
but at the same time have more inner meaning ; more- 
over, the scherzo is not exclusively in triple time. As 
an independent composition, not forming part of a 
cyclical work, any movement of a humorous, burlesque, 
or cheerful character, without definite form, can be 
called a scherzo. 

The word Concerto (from the Latin concertare = to 
vie with one another) originated in the i6th century, 
at a time when instrumental music was separating 
itself from vocal music, and several voice parts began 
to be provided with accompaniment, or several instru- 
ments were treated as being of equal individual import- 
ance, and allowed to "vie with one another." Litdovico 
Viadana (really Ludovico Grossi, born at Viadana, 
(1564-1627), was the first to write Concert! da Chiesa 
(Church-concertos) for one, two, three, or four voices, 
with organ bass. Gmseppe Torelli (died 1708) wrote 
Concerti da Camera (Chamber-concertos) and Concerti 
Grossi, for two violins (solo violins) accompanied by two 
violins, viola, and continue (figured bass for instruments, 
see p. 16). The concerted instruments, the number of 
which afterwards grew to three or more, formed the 
" Concertino " (little concerto) in contradistinction to the 
accompanying instruments (the concerto), the number 
of which was gradually largely increased. 

Nowadays a Concerto is generally for one solo instru- 
ment (occasionally two), with orchestral accompaniment. 
(If for two instruments, two violins, two pianos, two 
oboes, etc.j the accompaniment is often absent). The 


form of the concerto is generally that of the sonata, 
the solo instruments being treated in virtuoso-like 
manner. The melodic Cadence (Cadenza on a pause, 
see p. 80) is generally highly developed. 

Under the designation " Concerted - Music " are 
included Concertos for instruments, Cantatas and 
Oratorios (works for voices and instruments, respec- 
tively secular and sacred in style), Quartets, Quin- 
tets, etc. 

The Mass (Mtssa). The name Mass, given to that 
part ot Roman Catholic worship during which the 
Communion is administered, comes from the words 
used by the priest performing the act of consecration, 
who calls upon those not taking part in the sacrament 
to leave the church, " Ite missa est," i.e., "go, it is 
dissolved " (which must be completed by the word 
" ecclesia" = the meeting or assembly). 

The Mass is an old art-form which flourished in the 
1 5th and i6th centuries ; Gregory the Great (Pope from 
590 to 604) had, however, already arranged the musical 
part of the sacramental ceremony. The parts of the 
mass set to music were, in the oldest times, sung in 
unison to the melodies collected by Gregory. (Gregory 
collected a part of these from traditional melodies 
and arranged them, but did not compose them.) As 
polyphonic music developed, it was chiefly to the mass 
that the masters of the i5th and i6th centuries devoted 
their energies. No important composer of that period 
failed to compose several masses, the form of compo- 
sition in which he had the best opportunity of displaying 
his skill. 

The principal movements of a mass are named in the 
following manner, after the initial words of the Latin 

* The oldest Dutch, French and German masses have as basis 
a folk-song' or "chorale" melody (or a fragment of such) on 
which the vocal web is woven, a means of obtaining' popularity 
and uniformity. Later on, canti fir mi from the Gregorian 
melodies were, with the sanction of the church, used for the 
same purpose. 


I. Kyrie Kyrie eleison, etc. 

II. Gloria Gloria in excelsis Deo, etc. 

III. Credo Credo in unum Deum, etc. 

, (Sanctus Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth, etc. 

'\Benedictus Benedictus qui venit, etc. 
V. Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, 


Distinction is made between the Mass (" Missa 
Solemnis," festival or high mass, which is performed 
on high festivals) and Low Mass (" Missa Brevis," 
consisting only of Kyrie and Gloria, and in this form 
commonly used in Protestant worship). A mass 
without organ or organ accompaniment is called 
" Missa a cappella." (A Missal is the book containing 
the liturgical service of the Catholic church). 

Missa pro Defunctis, or Requiem, is a mass in memory 
of the dead. Its divisions are as follow : 

I. Requiem Kyrie. 
II. Dies irae. 

III. Domine Jesu Chris ti. 

IV. Sanctus Benedictus. 

V. Agnus Dei Lux aeterna. 

Gloria and Credo are wanting in the Requiem Mass, 
and in place of them the Requiem (the prayer for rest for 
those "fallen asleep in the Lord") is inserted before 
the Kyrie. Then follow the " Dies irae," etc. 
(reference to the last judgment) and "Lux aeterna" 
(reference to eternal bliss). 

Prominent examples of beautiful masses, apart from 
those written before the time of Palestrina ( 1514-1594, 
in Italy), are the " Missa Papae Marcelli," by that 
master, Mozarfs "Requiem," BacJis "B minor Mass," 
Beethoven's " Missa Solemnis," and the " German 
Requiem " of Brahms. 

The Oratorio. Filippo Neri, appointed in 1551 priest 
at Rome, inaugurated meetings which were held in the 
oratory of the monastery of San Girolamo, and later in that 
of Santa Maria, and introduced music into the " Con- 
gregazione dell' oratorio" (the meeting in the oratory), 


in that Am'muccia, Palestrina, Nanini and others wrote 
music, at his desire, to biblical texts, called " Laudi," 
(Hymns of Praise), performed in combination with 
dramatic representations of subjects from biblical 
history, replaced later by personifications of abstract 
ideas. The " Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpore " 
(Representation of the Soul and Body), by Cavalieri 
(born about 1550, died 1602), is considered to be the first 
oratorio. It consists of choruses and solos, the latter in 
the recitative style, which was a novelty, over a figured 
bass indicating- the harmony. The bass thus figured 
was called thorough bass ot figured bass (see p. 141). The 
accompaniment was for string instruments, lutes, viols, 
etc., or cembalo (harpsichord), and the actors performed 
on a stage. This form was retained by the successors 
of Cavalieri. Carissimi (1604-1674) was the first to 
abandon the scenic representation, and introduce the 
narrator. Handel (1685-1759) built on the achieve- 
ments of his predecessors, and created immortal 
examples of the oratorio form. Bach, Haydn, 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, etc., also devoted their 
attention to this branch of composition, without, 
however, altering its form. 

[Among British composers of oratorio may be men- 
tioned William Stemdale Bennett (1816-1875, "The 
Woman of Samaria") ; Sir George A. Macfarren (1813- 
1887, "John the Baptist," "The Resurrection," 
"Joseph," " King David ") ; Sir Alexander Mackenzie 
(born 1847, "The Rose of Sharon") ; Sir Arthur Sullivan 
(1842-1900, "The Light of the World," " The Martyr 
of Antioch," "The Golden Legend"); Sir Charles 
Villiers Stanford (born 1852, "The Three Holy 
Children," "Eden"); Sir C. Hubert H. Parry (born 
1848, "Judith, "King Saul ") ; Sir Edward Elgar (born 
1857, "The Dream of Gerontius," "The Apostles," 
"The Kingdom," etc.).] 

A distinction is made between sacred and secular 
oratorio : in the former the subject matter allied to 
music is biblical or religious ; in the latter dignified, but 
secular in character. The modern oratorio has an 


overture and consists of airs, recitatives, solo ensemble 
movements and choruses, sometimes also a cappella 
movements (unaccompanied vocal movements). The 
dramatic element, since there is no scenic representa- 
tion, is contained entirely in the music. 

Passion Music, or Passion Play, was the name given 
to musico-dramatic representations of the history of the 
suffering's of Christ ; they sprang- up in the early Middle 
Ages, and were performed during Passion Week ; 
whether the music supported the action or interrupted 
it, it is no longer possible to ascertain. The Catholic 
church, however, possessed a kind of recitation of the 
history of the Passion (somewhat similar to the 
Gregorian songs, see p. 8), which was in part trans- 
ferred to the Evangelical Church. 

An example of this kind of work occurs in Keuchen- 
thal's Song-book, in which we find melodies, largely 
recitative-like in character, with an introduction and 
final chorus in four parts, four [independent] voice parts 
representing the people or the disciples. 

In the works of Bartolomeus Gesius (1555-1613) we 
see a further step forward, in so far as he puts into the 
mouth of the chorus contemplative reflections, " Lift up 
your hearts," "Thanks be to God," etc. The Evan- 
gelist is a Tenor-part, the words of Peter and Pilate are 
sung by a trio and the words of Christ by a quartet, etc. 

Heinrich Schiltz (1585-1672) has immortalized his 
name by introducing warm subjective feeling into his 
works, and rendering form and matter more expressive 
by employing choral movements as suitable for a 
number of people, whilst his Christ is interpreted by 
a baritone voice. The airs also are no longer recitative- 
like, as in the case of his predecessors, but more 
melodious and broader in style. Compared with the 
" Passion" of J. S. Bach, one misses, among other 
things, the chorales, \v\\\c\\Johann Sebastiani (born 1622, 
died 1683) introduced after the manner of an aria with 
violin accompaniment. The perfection of this kind of 
composition is to be seen in the "Passions" of J. S. 
Bach ; here we find the contemplative arias and choruses 


of an ideal community (the so-called " Community or 
Zion "). 

Cantata was in former times the name given to 
pieces which were sung- [in contradistinction to those 
which were played by instruments]. For extended vocal 
works, with solos and recitatives, the designation came 
into use after the year 1600, such works, however, not 
yet exhibiting any of the characteristics of our modern 
cantata. Since Carissimt (1604-1674), distinction is 
made between Cantata di Chiesa and Cantata di Camera. 
The cantatas which that master wrote for two and three 
voices and a few obbligati (independent) accompanying 
instruments, the recitatives of which he endowed with 
greater vigour, testifiy to a general advance in musical 
composition without approaching in any material degree 
nearer to the modern cantata. For the modern cantata, 
consisting of recitatives, airs, duets, trios, etc. and 
choruses, with orchestral accompaniment, the orchestra 
playing an important part, appearing occasionally inde- 
pendently in a sonata or symphony (overture), we are 
indebted to J. S. Bach, whose church cantatas are laid 
out sometimes in a grandiose style (occasionally with 
the designation church concertos) in two parts [sections], 
with orchestral introductions, sometimes on a smaller 
scale for a single voice. 

These cantatas, as to their contents, are without 
dramatic and epic elements (if it be possible entirely to 
exclude the dramatic element) : they are the expression 
of one frame of mind, concentrated in chorale and 
chorus, with a certain share allotted to the soloists. 

Molett. The word is defined by Walter Odington (died 
after 1330), about 1300, as " brevis motus cantilenae " 
(short movement in song). The old motett (motetus) 
is a vocal composition for several voices, of which the 
tenor (at that time the principal part) was based on 
a motive borrowed from the Gregorian chorale. Motetts 
were rarely written with accompaniment, and these only 
appear after 1600, the time of the rise of accompanied 
monody, when motetts were also written for one voice. 
The old motett was exclusively three-part. 


The text for motetls is biblical. The principal com- 
posers of motetts are Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594), 
Palestrina (1514-1594), andy. . Bach, who also incor- 
porated the chorale in the motett. 

Air (Aria) is the name given to a solo piece for 
voice, more important than a song", with orchestral 
accompaniment, from an opera, oratorio, mass, or 
cantata ; when a separate composition intended for 
concert performance, it is called Concert- Aria. The 
so-called Bravura-Aria or Coloratura- Aria is an air 
written with a view to the display of technical skill 
on the part of the soloist. The Grand Aria (or Da 
Capo-Aria) consists of two principal parts of which 
the first is a vehicle for display, the second being, 
by way of contrast, quieter in style. The second part 
is followed by a repetition of the first part, still more 
richly ornamented than before. 

An air of smaller proportions is called "Arietta" 
or Cavatina ; it is not distinguishable from a song 
and may have been originally written with pianoforte 

The fundamental character of an air is lyrical ; this, 
however, does not exclude the possibility of its being 
very dramatic. 

By Recitative (from the Latin recitare = to narrate) 
is understood a kind of song which is in close con- 
nection with the words, the chief characteristic being 
natural rise and fall of tone and natural accentuation, 
whilst the melodic element is only considered in so 
far as it is a means to an end. Recitative may be 
defined as "speech-song." A composition which is laid 
out on these lines is itself called, in a figurative sense, 
a Recitative. 

Melodrame is a composition without decided form, 
which is performed as accompanying music to a spoken 
text. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), so far as we 
know, was the first who cultivated this form of art. 
Georg Benda (1722-1795) composed the first melodrame 
in Germany. Melodramatic scenes appear in operas, 
and frequently in incidental music to dramatic works. 



Counterpoint Canon Fugue Fughetta. 

By counterpoint (Latin, punctus contra punctum, i.e., 
note against note) is meant a species of composition in 
which several melodies (parts) are so combined as to 
form a satisfactory whole, without detriment to the 
independence of the separate parts. Accompaniments 
(as in most dances, marches, folk songs, etc.) are, for 
the most part, not contrapuntal in construction, but 
only the non-independent harmonic filling-up. An 
apparently simple two-part piano composition can quite 
well be contrapuntal, whilst an apparently complicated 
orchestral work may not contain any contrapuntal 
writing. Moreover, a composition need not be carried 
out from the first bar to the last in contrapuntal style ; 
it may, perhaps, contain contrapuntal devices only here 
and there, or there may be two independent parts, 
and one or more filling-up parts which complete the 

Imitative counterpoint (Imitation), in which one part 
repeats the melody of a preceding part (more or less 
exactly), whilst the first part is continued in company 
with it, was already known in the i3th century, 
although the name "counterpoint" as the designation 
for polyphonic composition first came into use in the 
1 4th century. Polyphony dates, in its rudimentary 
state, from the gth century, and gradually (see p. 16) 
changed from a rigid scheme to greater freedom in the 
progression of the separate parts, which finally became 
completely independent, one part being as important as 

Philipp von Vitry (c. 1290-1361), an important 
theorist of the I3th and I4th centuries, was the first to 
give clear and strict rules for part progression. Simon 
Dunstede (c. 1351-1369) likewise wrote on the subject, 
and Gioseffo Zarlino (born 1517, died 1590), in his 
" Istituzione armoniche " (1558) gives the different 


kinds of counterpoint (double counterpoint, etc.) 
and canon. 

By Canon is meant a style of writing- in which 
different parts, not simultaneously, but one after the 
other, perform the same melody, the intervals being 
either strictly imitated or modified by the transposition 
of the melody into another key. If the second voice 
or part, in imitating- the melody, starts with the same 
sound (i.e., in unison) or a 2nd, or 4th, or 5th, etc., 
higher or lower than the first commencing voice, the 
canon is said to be in the unison, under 5th, 4th above, 
etc., as the case may be. In the i5th and i6th 
centuries the canon form was complicated in endless 
ways. The name " canon" comes from the Greek 
word signifying "law," "rule," because the old 
contrapuntists did not write out the composition for 
all the voices, but only for one voice, providing 
directions (the rule, the canon) for the development of 
the other parts from the one. [For instance : Canon 
in the 8ve, i.e., the second voice presents, at the dis- 
tance of an 8ve, the exact repetition of the melody sung 
by the first voice.] 

The many different kinds of canon are described in 
instruction books with great minuteness, but they have 
no great importance in themselves, as is the case with 
innumerable kinds of contrapuntal device. If a canon 


is so constructed that the end leads back to the begin- 
ning, thus enabling it to be continued for ever (ad 
infinituni), it is called an "infinite canon," "circular 
canon," or "perpetual canon." If not so constructed 
it is a " finite canon." A circular canon " per tonos " 
is one in which the repetition always starts on a given 
interval higher or lower, and therefore can be continued 

Double Co^^nlerpoint, the most useful of all, places 
a " cantus firmus " (i.e., a part which is considered 
as a principal part) against a second part, in such a 
manner that, without spoiling the effect or breaking the 
laws of counterpoint, the two parts can be inverted, 
i.e., the upper can become the lower and vice versa. 
This is of great value in the melodic development of a 

Counter- / -2^-,. 
point I. 

Counterpoint I. and Counterpoint II. are exactly the 
same melody only in different octaves. The same 
melody is possible either as upper part (Cantus Firmus 
and Counterpoint I. are to be played together) or as 
under part (Cantus Firmus and Counterpoint II. are to 
be taken together). 


Fugue (from the Latin fug-are = to chase, or fugere 
= to fly). In fugue, a theme enters which is taken up 
by the voices (or parts) in turn, and later is developed 
in an artistic manner. 

So early as the i5th century the name " fugue" was 
given to movements in the stricter contrapuntal imita- 
tive style, especially canon ; whilst compositions in free 
contrapuntal style were called Ricercare (from the Italian 
ricercare= "to go in quest of," i.e., the theme), or more 
generally Toccata,* Sonata, or Fantasia. Only later was 
the name Ricercare or Ricercata used to designate an 
artistically worked-out fugue. 

Fugues are distinguished by the interval formed by 
the entry of the second voice with that of the first voice ; 
thus fugues are said to be in the unison, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 
5th, etc. ; or one takes into consideration the kind of 
movement made by the second voice in comparison with 
that made by the first ; this may be either similar or 
contrary, hence one speaks of a fugue in similar or con- 
trary motion ; or, finally, the value of the notes becomes 
the standard for the name of the fugue ; i.e. , if the note 
values of the theme when taken up by the second voice 
are larger than those of the theme on its first appear- 
ance, the fugue is called a fuga per aitgmentationem 
(fugue by augmentation), and in the opposite case fuga 
per diminutionem (fugue by diminution). 

Our modern fugue is called " Quint fugue," because 
the re-entry of the subject follows regularly in the 5th 
or in the 4th (i.e., the under 5th, see inversion of 
intervals, p. 53). This class of fugue was developed 
to its present form in the tyth century, and/. S. Bach, 
in this style of composition, is absolutely unsurpassed. 
(For the vocal fugue Handel must be mentioned). 

The construction of such a fugue consists of the 
following materials : 

* The Toccata developed into a typical form ; it began 
generally with a few full chords, followed by passages in fugal 
style. The modern Toccata (of Bach and later composers) is 
somewhat polyphonic in style, and characterised by rapid notes 
of short value. 


(1) The Subject (Fiihrer, German ; Sujet, French ; 

Guida, Soggetto, or Proposta, Italian ; Dux, 
Latin), principal or fore-phrase ; it is that part 
of the composition which begins the fugue, 
and is the basis of the whole. 

(2) The Answer (Gefahrte, German ; Rdponse, 

French ; Risposta or Conseguenza, Italian ; 
Comes, Latin), after-phrase, the repetition of 
the subject in a second part. 

(3) The Counter-subject (contra subjectum), free- 

part written against the subject ; it is the 
melody added to the subject, generally at the 
entry of the answer, which melody, with the 
answer, forms a two-part phrase. 

(4) Episode, an intermediate passage, during the 

silence of the fugue phrases, which leads to 
new treatment of the subject. 

(5) Repercussio (Latin ; Widerschlag, German), is 

the order in which subject and answer enter 
in the course of the fugue. 

(6) Stretto (Engfiihrung, German) is the drawing 

together of subject and answer at closer and 
closer intervals of time, and in all possible 

Examples of the naming of a fugue according to the 
interval at which the second voice follows the first : 

Fugue in the 5th. 

The interval numbers in the name of a fugue are 
always reckoned upwards from the starting- voice, 
hence the first fugue is called a fugue in the 5th, not in 
the under 4th, and the second a fugue in the yth, not in 
the under gth [or 2nd]. In a canon, on the contrary, 
one would speak of a canon in the under gth [or 2nd]. 
In both cases, so far as the naming is concerned, it 
does not matter in which octave the imitating melody 

Example of a Fugue. J. S. Bach (Wohltemperiertes 
Klavier. Fugue II.) 


Entry of the 3rd voice. Subject. 

Example of a Stretto. J. S. Bach (Wohltemperiertes 
Klavier. Fugue I.) 

Theme (Subject). 



The successive entries of the theme in the stretto are 
indicated by T. 

In fugue all the contrapuntal devices already mentioned 
(change of melodic movement, note values, interval of 
succession, etc.) are possible. Fugues may be in two, 
three, four, five, etc., parts. A fugue in five parts 
allows of 120 different changes of subject and answer. 
However, the employment of even a small number of 
the possibilities contained in a single fugue may render 
it a work of art, as the composer, in spite of many 
limitations, may give his fancy free play. 

A Double Fugue is a fugue with two subjects, each 
being developed separately, and in a third development 
Theme I. becomes the counterpoint of Theme II. There 
are also triple fugues. 

A Fughetta is a small fugue. 

Fugato is the name given to a piece written in fugal 
style, without being a regular fugue ; a fugato is often 
found, not as an independent piece, in the development 
section of a movement of a cyclical composition. 



Instruments used in the Orchestra The 
Human Voice Instrumentation 
Figured Bass The Orchestral Score 
and Score Reading. 


Resonance -bodies. The essence of every musical 
instrument consists in this : that an elastic body (string, 
stretched membrane, or, as in wind instruments, a 
column of air) is set in vibration, and reacts on another 
body which is capable of being thrown into sympa- 
thetic vibration with it ; the latter is called the 
resonance-body (in string instruments the body of the 
instrument and the air enclosed in it ; in the piano 
the sounding board ; and in wind instruments the 
instrument itself). Without such a resonance-body the 
tone would be thin and of short duration. It is only 
when the resonance-body is brought into sympathetic 
vibration with the sound generator that the latter will 
communicate the generated sound waves in sufficient 
strength to the surrounding air and to the ear ; there- 
fore a sound only attains its full tone through the 

Tone-colour. If we think of a sound first as sung 
by a human voice, then as played on an oboe, finally 
as struck on the piano, and then let all three sound 
with equal force at the same time, we shall be able 
to distinguish between all three, although heard 
together. The individuality which characterises each 
of the sounds is called tone-colour. Tone-colour is the 
result of the compound character of a sound (clang), 
the presence or absence, the reinforcement or extinction 
of certain of the over-tones (see pp. 51, 54) which sound 
with the fundamental tone. This is also the cause 


of the different qualities of vocal tone-colour which 
can be produced by the human voice. 

Clangs. Research has led to the following results: 

(1) Simple sounds (sounds without over-tones), and 

such as have few or weak over-tones, are soft 
and pleasant in tone, without harshness, but 
not powerful, and in the lower register, 
hollow ; e.g., tuning-forks, stopped organ 
pipes, flutes, etc. 

(2) Clangs which produce, in moderate strength, a 

series of over-tones as far as the 6th, are 
sonorous, and have, in comparison with 
the above (No. i.) something noble in 
their quality; e.g., the piano, open organ 
pipes, etc. 

(3) Clangs, which produce over-tones higher than 

the 6th, are sharper, harsher in quality, (in 
wipd instruments, although weaker, they 
give greater power of expression) ; e.g., 
string instruments, reed pipes, the human 

(4) Clangs which produce only the " odd" over-tones, 

have something hollow in their quality ; if 
the fundamental tone is prominent they sound 
full ; if it is not prominent the tone is empty, 
and they become, if a larger number of such 
over-tones is present, of a nasal character ; 
e.g., piano strings struck in the middle, the 
clarinet, etc. 

The material of which an instrument is made comes 
into consideration only in the second place, but it 
has a decided influence on the quality of tone ; the 
modification of tone-colour is also possible by other 

Classes of Instruments. Instruments are divided into 
three classes : 

(1) String Instruments. 

(2) Wind Instruments. 

(3) Instruments of Percussion. 



String- instruments are thus classified : 

A. Instruments whose strings are grazed or 

stroked with a bow. 

B. Instruments whose strings are plucked. 
C. Instruments whose strings are struck. 

A. Bowed Instruments (Streich Instrumente). 

Bowed instruments are instruments of free intona- 
tion, i.e., the pitch of each single note can, so far as 
the compass of the instrument permits, always be 
regulated by the player. 

The Violin (Geige, Ger. ; Violon, Fr.} is the highest 
in pitch of the bowed instruments, i.e. , its com- 
pass is from ^ _^^***' 1 ~~ > m tne orchestra 

higher notes will rarely be required, although Wagner 
in his " Tannhauser " overture writes the E of the 
four-times accented 8ve. These and even higher notes 
can be confidently expected from soloists. Within the 
given compass, all chromatic notes (as in all bowed 
instruments) are easily obtained. The violin has 
four strings (strings of gut, of which the lowest 
is surrounded with silver wire). They are tuned 

in perfect 5ths ffi jrH^= _ . The highest 

string is also called the " Quint." 

If these strings are not shortened by the touch of 
the fingers of the left hand, their notes are called those 
of the ''open strings." These sound more powerful 
than those of the shortened strings, on which account, 
music in keys which allow of the use of the open 
strings sounds more brilliant on the violin and is easier 
of execution. The tone-quality of the violin (as also 
that of the viola, 'cello, and double-bass) can be 


modified by firmly fixing on the "bridge" of the 
instrument (i.e., that part over which the strings are 
stretched) a small piece of wood, ivory or metal, a 
mufe (sordino, It. ; sourdine, Fr.) by which the vibra- 
tion of the bridge is impeded, and the vibrations of the 
strings are not fully transmitted to the resonance box 
(the body of the violin, technically called "corpus"). 
This mute renders, therefore, the tone weak and veiled. 

The composer indicates the use of the mute generally 
by "con sordini" and its disuse by " senza sordini." 
" Pizzicato " (abbreviation pizz. ) is the mode of playing 
by which the sound is produced, not by the bow, but 
by plucking the strings with the finger ; if the use of 
the bow is to follow, the direction pizz. is replaced by 
" col arco" (with the bow). 

Harmonics. The so-called "flageolet-tones" (har- 
monics, harmonic-tones) producible in the higher 
register of the violin, have an individual tone-quality, 
transparent and delicate, somewhat like that of the 
flute (hence the name flageolet, the flageolet being a 
species of flute-a-bec). They are produced by the 
player shortening the string (or a part thereof) by 
placing his finger lightly thereon ; the string vibrates, 
in this way, in two, three, or four, etc., segments, 
according as the player partitions off the half, third, or 
fourth, etc., generating the particular over-tone of the 
series (see p. 55) determined by the division of the 

By a device seldom employed, the tone-quality of the 
violin can be altered, and the tone made weaker ; i.e. 
the bow is placed, not in the vicinity of the bridge, 
where the tone is most brilliant, but over the finger- 
board. The composer's direction for this is " sul tasto " 
(It.) "Sur la touche" (Fr.), " iiber dem Griffbrett" 
(Ger.). The reverse of this, playing "on the bridge" 
(really in its immediate vicinity^ is indicated by "sul 
ponticello" (It.), "sur le chevaiet " (Fr.\ "Am Steg " 
(Ger.), and in pianissimo has an ethereal effect. 

Still less often, and principally to produce a drastic 
effect (e.g. in the " Danse Macabre" of Saint-Saens), 


the string- is made to sound by striking it with the wood 
of the bow. The direction for this is "col legno " ( = 
with the wood). 

If the composer desires that the sound should be 
produced on a certain string, he indicates this to the 
player by the direction " sul G," i.e. to be played on the 
G string, etc. 

The Viola {Bralsche, Ger.}. This is distinguished from 
the violin by a larger body, and being tuned to a lower 
pitch ; i.e., the E string is wanting, whilst in the lower 
register it has a string for C, (the c of the small 
octave). The C string is thicker than the G string, and 
like it, is surrounded with wire. The viola is tuned 

It is necessary to mention that for the notes written 
for the viola the C clef on the third line is used ; i.e., on 
the third line lies the c 1 of the once accented 8ve (middle 
C), from which the other notes receive their names. On 
this account, the clef is called the viola clef [also alto 
clef.] The viola is held and played in the same manner 
as the violin. 

Although the viola can produce high notes (and 
Gluck makes use of them), its tone-region is generally 
that of the tenor, alto, and mezzo-soprano voices, 
especially if a solo part be allotted to it. All that has 
been said in other respects of the violin applies also 
to the viola. The tone-quality of the viola in its 
deeper register has a certain harshness ; in its middle 
register it is warm, but melancholy, and in the higher 
register very penetrating, not without shrillness. 

The Violoncello, Cello (It.}, Violoncell (Ger.), Violon- 

.}, is tuned thus : ~=^=\- : j j- * and is 

therefore an 8ve below the viola in pitch. It is much 


larger than the viola, and is held, in playing, between 
the knees. When the 'Cello is not taking a solo part, or 
a leading part, it generally remains within the compass 
of the bass and tenor voices ; but, even in the orchestra, 
the d" of the twice-accented 8ve can be obtained. Har- 
monics, which the size of the instrument materially 
increases in loudness, are often used. All that was 
said in regard to the viola holds good also for the 
'Cello. Apart from accompaniments, the tone-quality 
of the 'Cello, noble and sonorous, is particularly suitable 
for the "cantilena" (song-like) passages of a composition. 
For the 'Cello, the clefs most frequently used are the 
'cello [or tenor] clef (the C clef on the 4th line), the bass 
clef, and occasionally for the highest notes, the G clef. 

The Double- Bass, Contrabasso, formerly Violone (ft-); 
Kon trabass (Ger.) ; Con trebasse ( Fr. ) . 

There are two kinds of double-bass ; one with four 
strings, the other with three strings. The double-bass 
with four strings tuned in 4ths, is the most generally 
used : 

[Sounding an 8ve lower]. 

The instrument is played, standing, with a short bow, 
and has, for the orchestra, a compass of two octaves 
and a fourth. The notes for the double-bass are 
written an 8ve higher than they sound. The manner 
of playing is much the same as for the other bowed 
instruments, only the use of harmonics in the orchestra 
is more limited, although the length of the strings is 
favourable to them. The tone-quality of the instru- 
ment is powerful and of rumbling effect. 

B. Instruments whose Strings are Plucked. 

Of these instruments, our orchestra possesses the 
Harp, Guitar and Mandoline ; in the symphony orchestra 
only the harp is used ; the guitar and mandoline are 
mostly employed as accompanying instruments (for 
folk-songs, serenades, love-songs, etc.) The mandoline 
as a solo instrument holds a very unimportant place. 


The use of the guitar and mandoline as orchestral 
instruments is limited to the opera orchestra. 

The Harp, Arpa (If.}, Harpc (Fr.) Harfe (Ger.). 
The "pedal harp" of our modern orchestra is an 
invention of Sebastien Erard (Paris, 1752-1831). The 
harp is played with both hands, and the music, like 
that for the piano, is written on two staves with G and 
F clefs. The harp is strung- with from 46 to 47 strings, 
so that it has at command a compass of 6^ octaves, 
forming in its original tuning the scale of C^. 

In order to be able to play in other keys, and to 
obtain chromatic notes, the player employs pedals, of 
which the instrument (apart from the pedal the use of 
which resembles that of the pianoforte) possesses seven. 
Each pedal acts on a certain note of every octave in 
such a manner that the player with a pressure of the 
foot can raise the particular note a chromatic semitone, 
e.g., if the sound F[> is raised to F, then the scale of 
the harp no longer possesses an F[>, and is therefore 
now that of Gj^, with the signature of six flats. In the 
same way one note after another can be raised, until 
the instrument presents the scale of C. In order to 
obtain sharp keys, the mechanism of the pedal allows 
it to be pressed into a second position, whereby the 
note is again raised a chromatic semitone, so that the 
player, after all the pedals have been pushed into the 
second rest, can play in Cf. Since every chromatic 
change [or modulation] necessitates a movement of the 
pedal, chromatic passages are avoided as much as 
possible by composers. The instrument permits also 
the use of harmonics. The tone of the harp is unique 
in one respect, it bears the stamp of the " immaterial"; 
as Gevaert expresses it, "The sound of the harp 
delivers the soul from the weight of earthly passion, 

and raises it to brighter regions," etc. Full and soft 
as is the tone of the harp in the lower and middle 
region, in the upper register, in forte passages, it is dry 
and hard. 

C. Instruments whose Strings are Struck. 

We find these represented in the gypsy orchestra (i.e., 
in national Hungarian orchestras) by the Dulcimer 
[Cymbal or Hackbrett (Ger.) t Tympanon (/>.)> Cem- 
balo (//.)] The principle employed, as to mechanism, 
is illustrated by our pianoforte. 


Wind instruments are classified according to the 
manner of sound generation, not according to the 
material of which the sound tube is made, although one 
speaks of brass and wood-wind instruments (brass-wind, 
wood-wind). Although the material is not unimportant 
it must be remembered that it is not the tube which 
produces the sound, but the column of air within it. 

They are thus classified : 

A. Wind instruments without reeds. 

B. ,, ,, with reeds. 

C. ,, ,, with cup-shaped mouth- 


A. Wind instruments without Reeds. 

The {transverse} Flute. Flauto (traverso}, It. ; Flfite 
(tr avers ie re) y Fr. ; Flote (Qucrflote], Ger. 

Flute instruments generate sound thus : the current 
of air blown into the instrument strikes against the 
edge of the blow-hole (the aperture or opening of the 
instrument). Since the pitch of the sound depends on 
the length of the vibrating air column within the 
instrument, sound holes are made in the tube of the 
flute ; if all these holes are closed by the fingers of the 
player, they do not affect the tube (which in this case 
sounds the fundamental note of the instrument, i.e., 
the lowest in the natural series of the note to which 

the instrument is tuned), but the tube is shortened 
if one or more of them are opened. One end of the flute 
is open. If one wishes to obtain different notes 
from a given length of tube, one has at disposal 
the series of harmonic over-tones (see p. 55), 
as the air column within the instrument, by 
stronger blowing- of the player, divides itself, 
according to the degree of strength applied, 
into different numbers of parts, the vibrations 
of which can produce the natural harmonic 

Transverse Flute and Flute-a-bec. There are 
two kinds of flutes ; those which are blown into 
from the side through a circular hole, and are 
consequently held transversely in front of the 
mouth of the player (hence the name "trans- 
verse flute"), and those which are blown into 
through a slit in the upper end of the instrument, 
and are held straight outwards from the mouth, 
like the oboe and clarinet. The last mentioned 
is called the " flute-a-bec " (Fr.), Schnabel-Flote 
or Gerade-Flote (Ger.) In serious art the flute 
-a-bec is scarcely ever employed ; a few examples 
occur in earlier times. 

Our modern concert flute, materially improved 
by Theobald Bohm (1794-1881), possesses a 
mechanism of keys, by means of which the 
sound holes are opened and closed. The only 
flute in use nowadays, the large flute in C, has 

' and, like the 

a compass from 

bowed instruments, all the chromatic intervals. 
The tone quality of the flute is somewhat dreamy 
and tender ; it is best in the middle register. The 
low notes are rather penetrating and mournful, the 
high notes brilliant and clear ; the middle register 
possesses no great power. 


There are flutes in Dp and F*, but they are not 
employed now. When a Dp or F flute is used, it is 
treated as a so-called "transposing instrument," ie., the 
sounds of the over-tone series of its fundamental sound 
will be noted in C major. It is therefore necessary to 
know whether the key of the instrument (i.e. the key 
in which it is made or tuned) is higher or lower than C. 
In relation to the flute in C, the flute in D[> is a semitone 
higher than the normal instrument. 

Notation. Real sounds. 

the flute in Ft is a minor 3rd higher : 

Notation. Real sounds. 

Tfic Piccolo (Small Flute or Octave Flute}. Pickel-Flote 
(Ger.) ; FUmto piccolo or Ottavino (It.); Petite fliite 
octave (Fr.}. 

The compass of the piccolo corresponds to that of the 
large flute, but an 8ve higher in pitch. The tone 
quality of the piccolo, in its lower and middle register, 
is feeble ; the higher the note, the sharper and shriller 
the quality. 

B. Wind Instruments -with Reeds. 

Distinction is made between those with single and 
those with double reed. The reed is a little tongue of 
cane or metal, which vibrates by means of the current 
of air generated by the player ; it is either so fixed that 
it strikes against a part of the mouthpiece in vibrating, 
or it projects from the mouthpiece, detached, and 
vibrates between the lips of the player. 

[* The flute in E? is sometimes, as here, erroneously called the 
flute in F. Hence the apparent discrepancy in the notation.] 
t Flute in E {? (see note above). 

The Clarinet. Klarinette (Ger.} ; Clarinetto (It.}; 
Clarinette (Fr.}. 

The soprano clarinet possesses a cylindrical sound- 
tube with a single striking or beating reed, which closes 
the lower part of the beak-shaped mouthpiece. 
The compass of the instrument consists, for 
orchestral purposes, of about 3! octaves ; 
higher notes are possible, but are difficult to 
play and harsh in sound, and are therefore 
little used. The clarinet in C, the oldest, 
sounds as written. A peculiarity of the reed- 
blown cylindrical tubes is that, by "over- 
blowing" (i.e., obtaining over-tones by blowing 
with greater strength), only the " odd " over- 
tones of the over-tone series of its fundamental 
note (i.e., the note in which the instrument is 
said to be) can be produced. Thus from B of 
the once accented octave upwards, all the notes 
are produced only as over-tones ("odd " over- 
tones, 3rd, 5th, gth) of the already existing 
scale. Thus is explained the hardness of the 
highest notes, which can only be produced, as 
ninth over-tones, by considerable expenditure 
of air power. The tone-quality of the clarinet 
is tender and capable of modification ; the com- 
pass of the alto and soprano voice, whose 
orchestral representative the clarinet is, covers 
its best notes. The compass of the clarinet is 

The otherclarinetsmost frequently used are those 
in Bp and A. The Bj? clarinet sounds a whole 
tone, and the A clarinet a minor 3rd, lower than written. 
The Clarinet was constructed, about 1700, byj. C. 
Denner, out of the old shalm or shawm ; its name has 
been traced back to the Latin clarus = clear. 


The Basset Horn, or Alto Clarinet. Corno di Bassetto 
(It.} ; Cor de Basse tie (Fr.) 

The pitch of this instrument is a perfect 5th lower 
than that of the C Clarinet ; its compass is therefore 

sounding- & : ^ 

After the Basset-Horn comes the low E[? clarinet, 
standing yet a tone lower than the Basset-Horn. 
Sometimes (for instance in Wagner's works) 
the Bass Clarinet appears, an 8ve lower in 
pitch than the Soprano Clarinet in A. 

" Little Clarinets" are those whose pitch is 
higher than that of the C clarinet ; they exist, 
though only used exceptionally, in the high D, 
EJ7, F and A ; the last named is used in 
Austrian military bands. 

The Oboe or Hautboy. Oboe or Hoboe (Ger.) ; 
Oboe (It.} ; Hautbois (Fr.). 

This instrument has a tube which becomes 
gradually wider from top to bottom ; from the 
mouthpiece protrude little tongues of cane (the 
double reed). The oboe is non-transposing ; 
its compass is 

From D (twice accented d"), upwards, the 
scale which up to this note was produced by 
opening the sound holes, is continued by 
"over-blowing." In the oboe, as in the 
clarinet, the middle register, and the sounds 
immediately above and below it, are the best in 
quality. The tone quality of the oboe is not 

* [The Corno di Bassetto has four additional semitones lower 
than the clarinet.] 

absolutely devoid of tenderness and poetry, but it has 
a peculiarly squeezed, one might almost say squeaky, 

The English Horn. Englische Horn (Ger.)/ Corno 
Inglese (It.) ; Cor Anglais (Fr.}. 

This may be considered as a larger oboe, an alto oboe. 
It is a transposing instrument in F, and therefore its notes 
sound a perfect 5th lower than written. Its compass 

( } 
: sounds 

It has the form of the oboe, but its bell 
swells out rather more. The old French 
composers wrote for the instrument the 
real notes, using the Mezzo-Soprano clef, 
i.e., the C on the second line ; the Italians 
before Verdi wrote also the real notes, but 
in the bass clef, therefore an 8ve lower than 
the sounds. The tone-quality of the instru- 
ment is full and round, melancholy and 

The Bassoon . Fagott (Ger. ) ; Fagotto (It. )/ 
Basson (Fr.} is looked upon as the bass of 
the oboe ; it has a tone-quality which 
enables it, in its lower register, to produce 
absolutely weird effects, whilst the notes of 
its middle register can be so employed as 
to be irresistibly comic (see p. 137). Only 
in the higher register can the instrument 
sound poetic. The wind is introduced into 
this instrument through a so-called "swan- 
neck," an S-shaped metal tube, in order 
that the player may more easily manipulate 
it. The bassoon, the notes for which are 
written in the bass clef (sometimes the 
higher notes in the C clef on the fourth 
line), hs a compass of almost three octaves 


Some notes, less reliable for orchestral use, may be 
added to these. The over-tone series of the funda- 
mental note (i.e., those which can be produced without 
"over-blowing") reaches to small f. 

The Double-Bassoon. Kontrafagott ( Ger) ; Contrafagotto 
(//.) ; Contre-Basson (Fr.) is related to the bassoon as 
the double-bass is to the 'cello. The double-bassoon 
gives the compass of- the bassoon, but an octave 
lower in pitch, and its notes are written an octave 
higher than they sound : 

Notation. -. Real sounds. 

The given compass is that generally made use of; 
the clumsy tone-quality and great power of the instru- 
ment stamp it as the bass-instrument " par excellence." 
Therefore rapid passages are unsuited to it. 

The Organ. Orgel (Ger); Orgue (Fr.) The Organ 
possesses pipes of wood or tin (sometimes zinc) with 
and without reeds. The pipes stand over so- 
called "wind chests" (i.e., channels, by means of 
which the air is introduced into the pipes). The 
wind is generated in bellows by an organ-blower, or 
more recently by means of automatic mechanism. The 
wind chests are again divided into a number of narrower 
passages, "grooves." The closing of the pipes Against 
the wind chests is effected by two kinds of valves, acted 
upon by pressure on the key of the instrument ; in the 
one case one pipe is opened, in the other a number 
of similarly constructed pipes (pipes of one family, with 
the same tone-colour), a " pipe-register." The register- 
valves are acted upon by the register-stops, which are 
manipulated by the player by means of the draw-stop- 


handles, the label on each indicating" the tone-colour 
that particular register will produce. 

Open and Stopped Pipes. Distinction is made between 
flue-pipes (without reeds) and reed pipes or reed-work. 
The flue-pipes are "open" or "stopped" (i.e., tubes 
closed at the upper end). The open pipes have a clear, 
powerful tone, the stopped pipes a softer, duller tone. 
The open stops (series of pipes) are called principal,* 
since they are the most important and constantly used. 
Among- the "principal" stops the 8- feet are the most 
important; they are called " 8-feet " because a pipe of 
medium diapason, f the length and breadth of which 
are in correct proportion, of about eight feet long, 
produces the C of the great octave. This 8-feet C 
sounds if the key for great C is pressed down, i.e., 
the pipe produces the note as written. The idea of 
8-feet pitch is (really erroneously) transferred to every 
pipe which produces a note in the particular 8ve 
as written. Pipes producing the 8ve lower than the 
notation are called :6-feet ; those producing- the double 
8ve lower than the notation 32-feet. On the other hand 
a 4-feet pipe sounds an 8ve higher, a 2-feet pipe a 
double 8ve higher, and a i-foot pipe a triple 8ve higher, 
than written (indicated thus, e.g. , flute 4', flute 2', 
flute i', the stroke to the right of the figure showing 
this to be a foot-number). If all possible registers 
exist in the organ, its compass embraces 9^ 8ves. The 
labels Oboe, Flute, Trombone, Gedakt (stopped), etc., 
relate to the construction and tone-colour of the register. 
Either the composer indicates this or that tone-colour, 
or the player must " register " (i.e., combine the different 
tone-colours) according to his own judgment. Besides 
the registers already named, there are others which 
cause two or more of the intervals which belong to the 
over-tone series of the note whose key is pressed to 
sound together with this note. Such a register (called 

* [In France, Germany and Italy, not in England.] 

f [The word diapason is used either in the sense of pitch or 


"mixture") can only be employed in such a manner 
that the resulting intervals do not stand out disagree- 
ably ; it should only serve to reinforce the already 
existing over-tones, and thereby render the tone more 

The organ has generally two, three, four, or even 
five keyboards, called "manuals" (from the Latin 
manus = the hand) in contradistinction to another key- 
board, played with the feet and called the pedal-board 
(from the latin pes = the foot). The pedal board is 
arranged in the same manner as the manual, and has 
over and under keys [corresponding to the black and 
white keys] which are pressed down by the heel, the 
toe, or the ball of the foot. The pedals embrace about 
two octaves of the deepest notes of the organ. If the 
pedal part is at all independent, it is written on a 
separate staff, with the bass clef, under the two staves 
with the treble and bass clefs. Every large organ is 
also provided with contrivances, the purpose of which 
is to combine the tone-colours of several registers, or 
on pressing down a pedal, to cause the manual and 
its registers to sound in combination with the pedal 
note. Such contrivances are called "couplers." 
Finally the "swell" or crescendo pedal must be 

According to the size of the organ, it has more or 
fewer registers, pipes, couplers, etc. The gigantic 
organ in the convent at Ratisbon has 6666 pipes and 66 

C. Wind Instruments with cup-shaped mouthpiece. 

Mouthpieces. The mouthpiece consists of a small 
globular cup which is placed at the narrow upper end of 
the instrument. Against this mouthpiece the player 
presses his lips, the vibration of which, in combination 
with that of the air column within the instrument, 
produces the sound. The player regulates the rapidity 
of vibration of the lips by different degrees of exertion. 
The shape of the mouthpiece is an important factor in 
the tone-quality. 


A convex mouthpiece produces a ringing, clear tone ; 
the flatter the mouthpiece the more prominent this 
quality becomes. 

A funnel-shaped mouthpiece renders the tone feebler 
and more veiled. A type of the last named kind is that 
of the horn. 

The Natural Horn. Waldhorn (Ger.}; Corno (It.} ; 
Cor. (Fr.}. 

To the exclusive use of the natural harmonic series 
must be attributed, on the one hand, the inimitably 
beautiful, expres- 
sive tone-quality 
of the horn, on fe 
the other, how- 
ever, its limited 
compass and the 
lack of purity 
of intonation in 
some of its notes. 
We saw (/. 55) 
which notes of 
the natural har- 
monic series were 
not available in 
music, and in the 
case of the horn, 
it rests with the 
player to correct 
the impurity of 
pitch of these 
notes. The 
method employed 
is the "stopping" 
(closing) of the 
note in order to 
change the pitch. 
The " stopping " 
is effected by the player, whilst blowing, introducing 
his hand into the bell of the instrument (i.e. , the opening 
out of which the sound proceeds) ; the more the orifice 

I2 4 

is narrowed by the hand the lower becomes the pitch 
of the note (it can be lowered almost a tone), but at 
the same time, the more muffled becomes the tone. It 
is, of course, a drawback that the thus corrected note 
should differ from the others in tone-quality ; the art 
of the player consists, in this case, in mitigating this 
discrepancy by equalising as much as possible the weak 
and strong notes. By "stopping" the player can 
obtain some of those notes which are absent from the 
harmonic series, by flattening the existing notes a semi- 
tone ; it is not possible to flatten a note a whole tone 
by "stopping." The " forcing" of a note (i.e., slightly 
sharpening it, by means of stronger blowing and 
pressing together of the lips) is possible, but not to 
be recommended as a rule. In contradistinction to 
the "stopped" notes, the notes of the harmonic series 
are called " open " notes. 

Notation of the Horn part. With regard to the 
notation of the horn part, it must be pointed out that 
great C (the C of the great 8ve) is always taken as 
the first note of the over-tone series [N.B. Not the 
fundamental], in whatever key the horn may be. With 
the exception of certain notes written in the bass 
clef (an 8ve lower than the real sound)*, horn music 
is written in the G clef. To alter the pitch of a 
horn, i.e., to make it produce another note, which 
then becomes the first of a new series of over-tones, 
a piece of the sound tube is taken out and replaced 
by another, either longer or shorter. This movable 
section of tube is called a "crook" (Ger., Stimm- 
bogen). The high, medium and low tunings are 
written in very different ways. An example will 
explain this, and it must be pointed out that the first 
note, the fundamental note, is uncertain! ; the useful 
compass lies, therefore, between the 2nd and i6th 

The horn in high C (C alto) has thus the following 
open notes : 

* See footnote, p. 1 25. 

t [Therefore it does not appear in the example.] 


5 6 7 8 9 10 

The real sounds correspond to the notation [except 
No. 2].* 

The figures give the numbers of the over-tones of 
the harmonic series. 

Horn in high Bb (BlJ alto). . . Real sounds a tone lower. [ExceptNo.2] 

S 7 S r e 7 9 10 11 12 

Horn in low Bb (B5 basso). . Real sounds a inaj. Oth lower. [Except No.2.]_ 

Real sounds a 5th lower. [E xcept No.2 ] 

From these the reader can form an idea of the other 
tunings and the relationships between the notation and 
the real sound. 

After what has been said, it will be self-evident that, 
if the natural horn is to be used for melody, the pos- 
sibilities of the natural scale must be borne in mind in 
the selection of notes, nor must it be forgotten that 
rapid showy passages are not suited to the instrument. 
In horns, trumpets, trombones, etc., damping of the 
tone is possible thus : into the bell of the instrument 
are introduced perforated wooden cones, also metal 
dampers of various forms, which check the vibrations 
of the air in the tube ; the "timbre " is thereby much 
altered, the tone becomes rather nasal, diminished in 
volume, and sounds as if at a great distance. 

* [Except No. 2 which sounds an 8ve higher (see p. 124). Note 
also that in the case of the horn in C (C basso), the notes written 
in the treble clef sound an 8ve lower (see horn in Bj? basso), 
whilst the notes written in the bass clef sound as written.] 


The natural horns and trumpets are, in their con- 
struction, completely analogous to the valve horn and 
trumpet (see p. 127). 

The Natural Trumpet. Tromba or Clarino 
(//.)/ Trompete (Ger.) ; Trompette (Fr.}. 

Like the natural horn, the natural trumpet 
can only generate a series of over-tones, but 
on the natural trumpet this series forms 
exclusively the note material ; the stopped 
notes are too bad for use, and therefore 
the 7th, iith and i4th over-tones are not 
available. The pitch of the natural trumpet, 
like that of the horn, can be altered by 
" crooks." The natural trumpet is no 
longer used, being replaced by the valve 

The Slide Trombone (Trombone], Trombone 
(Fr. and It.} ; Posaune (Ger.'). 

The sound tube of the trombone is a 
double one ; a narrow tube is placed within 
a wider one, and can be pushed into and 
drawn out of it. By thus changing the 
length of the tube, a complete chromatic 
scale can be obtained from it ; we shall see 
how this is effected. The possible length- 
enings of the tube, by drawing out the 
"slide" are called "positions." The six 
positions * which are made use of produce a scale 
descending by semitones, and a natural harmonic series, 
can be obtained from the fundamental note produced by 
each new "position," as well as from the fundamental 
note of the instrument before drawing out the slide. 
All the notes thus obtained give for the Tenor Trombone 
a compass from E of the great 8ve to B [7 of the once- 
accented 8ve, with all the chromatic intermediate notes. 

[* There are seven positions, including the first, when the slide 
is undrawn.] 


The Tenor Trombone is the most important ; it possesses 
ii full, brilliant tone, noble both in its power and soft- 
ness, and equal, legato notes can be produced up the 
whole scale. The notes are written in the tenor clef 
(C clef 4th line). Similar to it are the Alto and Bass 
Trombones, the music for which is written in their 
corresponding- clefs (C clef 3rd line and bass clef). The 
Alto Trombone is a 4th higher in pitch than the Tenor, 
the Bass Trombone a 4th lower. All trombones are non- 
transposing instruments, i.e. , the notes sound as written. 
Wagner uses in the " Nibelungen-Ring " a Contra- 
Bass Trombone, a gigantic instrument, whose notes 
are an 8ve lower than those of the Tenor Trombone. 

Valve - Instalments. Valve (Eng.) ; Ventil (Ger.) ; 
Piston (Fr.}. 

Valve is the name given to the mechanism, of 
different kinds, applied to the instruments and set in 
action by pressure of the finger, by means of which 
the air column within the instrument is lengthened or 
shortened ; i.e. , a separate portion of tube is (by 
opening or shutting") added to or cut off from it. 

The principle is, in the main, the same as in the 
slide instruments, only simpler, for the lengthening of 
the tube by means of slides takes more time and is 
more clumsy, as well as more difficult, than the inser- 
tion of a tube length by pressure of the finger. The 
usual arrangement of three valves, each one of which 
makes the fundamental note of the instrument (and 
with it the series of over-tones produced by it) a semi- 
tone lower than the other (so that finally the player can 
produce the fundamental note flattened to the extent of 
three semitones), renders possible the formation of a 
long series of notes, but this series has gaps. In order 
to fill up these gaps the valves are used in combination, 
and the new tube-lengths thus obtained by the employ- 
ment of two or all three valves together, render the 
production of the missing notes possible. Unfortunately 
the quality of the notes obtained by combination of 
valves is not altogether satisfactory. 


Adolf Sax. The gifted instrument maker, Adolf Sax 
(1814-1894), appointed in 1857 professor at the Paris 
Conservatoire, remedied this disadvantage by con- 
structing instruments with single (not combinable) 
valves (Pistons independants). 

Sax employs, starting from the maximum length of 
the tube, six valves, each of which raises the harmonic 
series of over-tones (produced by the maximum length) 
a semi-tone, shortening the tube length by cutting off 
a portion of it. The notes so obtained meet all 
requirements, and the universal employment of wind 
instruments constructed in this manner is to be recom- 
mended. These instruments are called " Instruments 
with shortening pistons" the older instruments, on the 
other hand, " Instruments with " lengthening pistons." 

Although not generally employed in concert and 
opera orchestras, it is necessary to describe an instru- 
ment much admired by amateurs as a virtuoso 

The Cornet, Valve-Cornet. Ventil-Komet (Ger.) ; 
Cornet-a- Pis tons (Fr.}. 

The Cornet, a descendant of the old Post-horn, is 
generally constructed in the key of B\>. It is a very 
nimble instrument ; it "speaks" easily, and is there- 
fore fitted both for cantilena passages and for rapid 
successions of notes of all kinds. The tone-colour of 
the cornet, however, possesses little nobility ; its tone, 
as a result of its construction, is not of great volume, 
rather "squeezed" and, under certain circumstances, 
absolutely vulgar in character ; it blends excellently, 
however, with the other instruments of a military band. 

The Bugle-horn. Tromba (It.} ; Flugclhorn (Ger.}. 
The Ophicleide. Ophikleide (Ger.); Basse d* harmonic 
( Fr. ) . Saxhorns. 

The natural cornet, or post-horn, is the forefather of a 
large number of instruments, which are now obsolete, 
or have been improved and have taken a permanent 
place in wind bands, whilst, with the exception of the 


Bass-Tuba, they are never used in the concert 

Similar to the natural cornet, or post-horn, is the 
Bugle-horn or 
Signal-horn (Bugle), 
generally in B . 
This was made ca- 
pable of producing 
chromatic notes by 
means of sound holes 
which were closed 
with keys, and hence 
it obtained the name 
Key-Bugle or Bugle- 
horn, of which the 
bass instruments 
were called Ophi- 
cleides, the lowest of 
all being the Double- 
Bass - Ophicleide. 
These instruments 
were also trans- 
formed by Adolf Sax, 
by means of valve 
mechanism, into the 
family of Sax-horns, 
of which there are 
seven different kinds, 
viz. : Piccolo in Et>, 
Fliigelhorn in Bb, 
Althorn in E b f 
Tenor-horn in B[>, Bass-Tuba, Bombardon in Ej?, and 
Contra-Bass-Tuba or Helicon, which is generally bent 
into a circular shape. 

The Bass-Tuba, also called Euphonium, Baritone, or 
Tenor-Bass in B\). 

This instrument is non-transposing. The Bass-Tuba 
in F has the best tone ; its dimensions cause it to rank, 
so full and weighty is its tone, as the fundamental 


instrument of wind bands. Its four lowest notes are 
bad, all the others good. 


Distinction is made between percussion instruments 
of fixed pitch and those of indefinite pitch. 

A, Percussion Instruments of fixed pitch. 

Kettle- Drums. Pauken (Ger.) ; Timpani (It.); 
Timbales (Fr.). 

A kettle drum consists of a half-globular kettle, the 
upper opening of which is covered with membrane 
(vellum), which can be stretched, more or less tightly, 
by means of screws fixed on the edge of the kettle. 
The change of pitch thus obtained extends to about 
eight semitones. A kettle drum player manipulates 
generally two instruments, a larger and a smaller, the 
latter being a fourth higher in pitch than the former. 
(Drums can be tuned during a pause). The larger, 
deeper instrument is tuned to one of the following 
notes : 

the smaller to one of the following : 

Since Beethoven's time the music for the kettle-drum 
has been written as it sounds, but without signature at 
the beginning of the staff or accidentals before the 

* [The names of the notes to which the drums are tuned are 
given at the beginning- of the movement.] 

The drum is struck by means of sticks (drum-sticks), 
which are either without covering- (seldom) or covered 
with leather, felt or sponge. The sticks with sponge 
heads produce the softest tone, and are fitted, through 
their elasticity, for p. or pp. "rolls." Those covered 
with leather are harder, whilst the uncovered ones 
produce an unpleasant hard stroke. 

"Timpani coperti "or " timpani con sordini " (muffled 
drums) are muted drums used for special effects ; the 
drum is covered with a cloth in order to check the 

The Glockenspiel, or Cymbeln (Ger.), Jeu de Timbres, 
or Carillon (Fr.), consists of an arrangement of tuned 
bells [in modern days steel bars.] 

The Glass or Steel Harmonica and the Xylophone 
(Wood Harmonica) consist of a series of tuned bars, 
of glass, steel, or wood, which are struck with drum- 

The Steel Harmonica is now also constructed in the 
form of a small piano ; its tone-quality is very sym- 

B. Percussion Instruments without fixed pitch. 

Drums, large and small. 

The Bass Drum. Grosse Trommel (Ger.) ; Tamburo 
Grande, Gran Cassa (It.) ; Grosse Caisse (Fr.). 

Side Dru?n, Military Drum. Militar Trommel (Ger.) ; 
Tamburo Militare (It.) ; Tambour Militaire (Fr.). 

The Basque Driim (Tambourine) ; Baskische Trom- 
mel (Ger.) ; Pandero (Spanish), consists of a membrane 
stretched on a ring or hoop ; on the edge hang bells and 
pieces of metal. The instrument is either struck with 
the back of the hand, or shaken in the air in order to 
cause the bells to sound alone ; or the player grazes the 
membrane with the finger-tip, producing a " roll." In 
all three ways the bells are audible. 

The Tambourin (Fr. ) is longer and narrower than the 
ordinary drum and is struck with a drum-stick ; its 
name is generally, but erroneously, transferred to the 
Basque Drum. 

I 3 2 

The Tam-tam (Gong), originally a Chinese instrument, 
is a thin metal disc, with bent edges, and is struck with 
a drum-stick covered with felt, whereby a booming, 
reverberating, weird sound is produced, which can be 
effectively utilised for dramatic purposes both f and p 
(Meyerbeer, HaleVy, Spontini, Wagner, etc.) 

Cymbals. Becken (Ger.) ; Piatti or Cinelli (It.) ; 
Cymbales (Fr.). Metal discs with leather handles, which 
are struck together or grazed against each other. 
They are used in various ways ; in military bands they 
are played by the player of the bass-drum, in combina- 
tion with it. 

The Triangle. Triangel (Ger.) ; Triangolo (It.) ; 
Triangle (Fr.). A steel bar, bent into the form of a 
triangle, which is set in vibration by strokes from a 
little bar of the same metal. Rhythmical figures of all 
kinds can be easily executed on the instrument. 

Castagnettes. Castagnetten (Ger.) ; Castanuelos (Sp.). 
Flat cases, of hard wood, in the form of a shell or 
pear, specially employed in Spain ; the player holds a 
pair [hinged together with cord] in each hand, striking 
the two [forming the pair] against each other. The 
pairs are not of the same size ; one hand manipulates 
the pair of higher pitch, which marks the rhythmical 
divisions of the bar, the other hand the pair of lower 
pitch, with which only the fundamental rhythm is 
marked [i.e., the strong beat in each bar]. 

The rhythmical figures, which are to be played by 
percussion instruments of no fixed pitch, are, with 
reason, written on a single line, with the note values 
alone given : 



Human voices are classified according to age and 
sex, and within these classes of age and sex, according 
to individual peculiarities of the vocal cords (the 
organs which, by their vibrations, have the larger 
share in generating the sound), certain limits exist. 

The voices of women and children belong to one 
class, those of men to another. In a chorus the 
voices are thus arranged : 


ildren. J ... y 

I Alto - chEE 

I (Contralto.) vy 

These voices can be sub-divided into ist and 2nd 
Soprano, ist and and Alto, ist and 2nd Tenor, and 
ist and 2nd Bass, in which case the ist voices take 
the higher notes. 

If soprano, alto, tenor, and bass are combined in a 
choir, it is called a "mixed choir" (the voices of men 
and women mixed). 

By proper training the compass of each of these 
voices can be extended ; for instance, a solo soprano 
can sing as high as c'" or even g"'. The singer, 
Agujari (born 1743 in Italy), possessed even the note 
c"". A bass can extend his compass to contra B ; a 
tenor can reach c" or cf". 

Mezzo-Soprano is a female voice, which in compass 
varies between soprano and contralto, the best notes 
being in the middle register. 


Baritone is a male voice with the compass : 

It combines the power of the bass with the brilliancy 
of the tenor. 

The following is a list of names of some famous 
opera and concert singers of modern times : Madame 
Marchesi, Lamperti, Gotz, Stockhausen, Sieber, Hey 
(also important as teachers) ; Sopranos and Contraltos : 
Catalani, Schroder-Devrient, Sontag, Lind, Viardot- 
Garcia, Malibran, Artot, Patti, Lucca, Mallinger, 
Peschka-Leutner, Materna, Gerster, Sembrich, V. Vog- 
genhuber, Lehmann, Sachse-Hofmeister, Schumann- 
Henck ; Tenors : Schnorr v. Karolsfeld, Tichatchek, 
Vogl, Niemann, Wachtel, Gatze, Alvary ; Baritones : 
Marchesi, Kindermann, Mitterwurzer, Betz, Stock- 
hausen, Gura, Lissmann ; Basses : Staudigl, Levasseur, 
Skaria, Krolop. [Amongst British singers may be 
mentioned John Braham, 1774-1856 (tenor) ; A. J. 
Foley (Foli) 1835-1899 (biss) ; Janet Patey, 1842-1894 
(contralto) ; Edward Lloyd, born 1845 (tenor) ; John 
Sims Reeves, 1822-1900 (tenor) ; Sir Charles Santley, 
born 1834 (baritone); Helen Lemmens - Sherrington, 
1834-1906 (soprano) ]. Among the most important 
masters of harpsichord and pianoforte playing may be 
mentioned the following : D. Scarlatti, F. Couperin, 
J. S. Bach, K. P. E. Bach, Mozart, Clementi, Cramer, 
Kalkbrenner, Czerny, Field, Hummel, Mendelssohn, 
Moscheles, Thalberg, Liszt, Chopin, Henselt, Hiller, 
Reinecke, Tausig, Biilow, Rubinstein, d' Albert, Klara 
Schumann, Annette Essipoff - Leschetitzki, Sophie 
Menter-Popper, Teresa Carreno. 



Hector Berlioz, in his excellent book on instrumenta- 
tion, after enumerating- all the orchestral instruments, 
remarks : 

"The art of instrumentation consists in the proper 
use of these different elements of tone-colour, employing 
them either to give individual colour to melody, 
harmony and rhythm, or to produce effects ' sui 
generis ' (whether of set purpose or not), independent 
of all connection with the other three musical poten- 

Since the reader of this little work does not take it 
up in the expectation of finding- an exhaustive treatise 
on instrumentation, we will only look at the subject 
from a general point of view, comparing the instrumen- 
tation of earlier times with that of to-day, touching- on 
the question of the individuality of the different classes 
of instruments, and finally giving a few general aesthetic 

In the chapters on the "history of music" we traced 
the origin of instrumental music. The formation of 
the orchestra limited itself at first to the combination of 
instruments of the same family, but of different pitch ; 
for instance, a lute orchestra was composed of 
Quinternas (the smallest kind of lute), Theorbos (a 
lower-pitched lute) and Bass-Lutes ; contrast of tone- 
colour was therefore entirely absent. In the same 
manner the families of flutes, of shawms, and of viols 
were respectively grouped into ensembles. When, 
towards the end of the i6th and beginning of the iyth 
century, a demand arose for variety of tone-colour, 
wind instruments, particularly in Germany, began to 
play a distinctly important part. 

Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) whose famous 
" Syntagma musicum" provides a graphic picture of the 
musical doings of the period, gives instances in which the 
wind instruments far out-number the string instruments, 


and even monopolise the melody. Handel and Bach also 
are particularly partial to wind instruments. Handel 
has scored his " Fire-Music " for three Trumpets (three 
players to each part, nine in all), Kettledrums (three 
players), three horns (three players to each part, nine 
in all), three oboes (twelve, eight, and four players to 
the respective parts, twenty-four in all), and two 
bassoons (eight and four players to the respective parts, 
twelve in all). The symphonies of P.E. Bach are scored 
for strings, two flutes, two oboes, two horns, two 
bassoons, and harpsichord. He also divides his 
orchestra into Concerto and Concertino, the latter being 
the name for an ensemble of soloists (see p. 93), 
which generally consisted at that time of two oboes 
and a bassoon, called "wind trio." At the end of the 
1 7th and beginning of the i8th century the string 
orchestra also, when it was employed alone, was 
divided into Concerto Grosso and Concertino. The 
Concertino, in contradistinction to the massed body of 
strings (Concerto Grosso or Ripieno), consisted of first 
and second violins and first 'cello. The band for which 
Haydn wrote his first symphonies was also weak in 
strings ; the violas proceed without any independence, 
generally doubling the basses. Flutes, oboes, bassoons 
and horns are never absent, whilst, on the other hand, 
clarinets and trombones are never employed, and 
trumpets and drums only occasionally ; nevertheless, 
Haydn's instrumentation is a landmark for us. 

Later, when the strings had obtained the leading 
place, a more correct relationship existed between 
strings and wind, although the wind instruments were 
then too much subordinated. Bach, with his poly- 
phonic style, is in a certain sense an exception, whilst 
Handel himself who, when he employs solo wind 
instruments (obbligato trumpets, etc.), makes such 
demands on the executive skill of the players as to 
frighten even our modern virtuosi employs the wind 
orchestra, as a rule, to reinforce the strings. Haydn, 
who furthered the development of instrumentation by 
giving greater consideration to the characteristics of 


single instruments (among- other things he has been 
able to obtain charming effects from the bassoon, e.g. , 
Minuet and Finale of the C major Symphony, Peters' 
(Score) Edition, No. 5, and arrangement for four hands, 
Augener's Edition, No. 8554^, or Pianoforte Solo, 
Augener's Edition, No. 6183^), even he, and still more 
Mozart, treats the natural horn as little more than a 
means of filling up the harmony. Beethoven was the 
first to give individuality to the horn, and his example 
was followed by C. M. v. Weber and other masters. 
The trombones did not fare much better, their splendid 
tone effects being, for a long period, employed merely 
to support the double-bass, or to mark important 
rhythmical parts of the bar. The clarinet, which came 
into existence comparatively late, had less cause to 
complain of being kept in the background, yet C. M. v. 
Weber was the first to endow it with an immortal soul. 
Mozart also, particularly during the last years of his 
life, wrote incomparably beautiful clarinet parts in his 
soli and ensemble works. We notice the same thing in 
the string orchestra : the viola, which in Bach's works, 
for example, is on an equal footing with the other 
strings, became through the influence of the Italians 
(middle of the i8th century), only an accompanying 
instrument, or was used merely to double the 'celli and 
bassi in octaves. The 'celli met with a similar fate ; 
they were chained incessantly to the double-basses, and 
were seldom allowed a single line to themselves in the 
score (the combination of instruments co-operating in 
the performance of a piece) ; it was Beethoven, again, 
who freed them from this slavery, and made them 
" sing," as they are by nature fitted to do. 

Apart from the designations " string " and " wind " 
orchestras, applied to them either as component parts 
of a "full" orchestra (containing both groups of 
instruments), or as independent orchestras (strings 
alone or wind alone), distinction is made between the 
"small orchestra," the "full orchestra "as symphony 
orchestra, the " full orchestra " as opera orchestra, and 
the military band. 

The terms " small " and " full " orchestra are naturally 
modifiable, and have had, at different times, different 

Mozart wrote (e.g., his G minor Symphony (1788), 
a gem as regards tone-colour) for "small" orchestra, 
composed as follows : strings (violins, violas, 'celli and 
bassi), two horns, two bassoons, two oboes, one flute. 
Without overstepping the limits of the small orchestra, 
two clarinets, two kettle drums, and perhaps two 
trumpets, could be added. 

The addition of horns, trumpets and trombones would 
change the " small" into a "full" orchestra, identical 
with an ordinary symphony orchestra, to which might 
be added, at most, harps, characteristic instruments of 
percussion, and perhaps corno inglese. The orchestra 
of an opera can, however, be considerably enlarged. 
A colossal orchestra is employed by Berlioz in his 
"Requiem" (Tuba mirum), which on account of its 
peculiarity, may be given here : four flutes, two oboes, 
four clarinets in C, (the corno inglese is absent), eight 
bassoons, twelve horns, four cornets-a-pistons in BL, 
one double-bass ophicleide with pistons, eight trumpets, 
sixteen trombones, four ophicleides, sixteen drums, a 
bass roll-drum in Bt, one bass drum with two sticks, 
tam-tam, three pairs of cymbals, ist and 2nd violins, 
violas, 'celli, and bassi. 

More one can scarcely wish for, as even the 
drums are called upon to add to the harmony. This, 
however, is an exceptional orchestra ; the half of 
the instruments would form a fully adequate "full" 

The composition of an orchestra, as also its treat- 
ment, must naturally depend on the purpose for which 
it is brought together ; it would consist of quite 
different materials if it is to be used only for accompani- 
ment from those which would be selected if (as, for 
instance, in an opera) it would occasionally be required 
to illustrate dramatic situations. It must always be 
remembered that the human voice, when accompanied, 
must as a rule be the first consideration, the orchestra, 


at the moment of accompanying, never predominating-. 
It is a remarkable fact that Wagner's accompaniments 
are generally played too loudly, for even an indicated 
"forte" should always be only relatively a "forte," 
and Wagner does not require the orchestra to be 
obtrusive. "Forte" is not always "forte," f in a 
battle piece is different from f in a prayer. Written 
directions can only indicate approximately the degrees 
of loudness, or the preponderance of one instrument 
over another. 

This is the domain of the orchestral conductor. 
Hans v. Billow (1830-1894) was a master of the art of 
performing an orchestral work in a plastic manner, 
bringing out the characteristic lines of the thematic 
design, and the dynamic or agogic elements, combining 
the tone-colours of the instruments by the most delicate 
"nuances," or allowing the tone-colour of a single 
instrument to stand out from the mass, making this 
individual part, in an artistic manner, a foil to the 

To enable the listener to appreciate this art, and 
worthily criticise a performance, there is for artist and 
amateur one means only, i.e., the study of the "full 

The Full Score. Partihir (Ger.) ; Partitura (It.}; 
Partition (Fr.}. (Here it must be remarked that the 
French [and English] distinguish between partition 
de piano, pianoforte-score, ^nd partition d'orchestre, 
orchestral score.) 

In a modern orchestral score, with or without voice 
parts, the parts for the different instruments and voices 
taking part in the work are arranged on lines one above 
another in such a manner that what is to be heard at 
one and the same time can be seen at one and the same 
time. The order of the lines universally adopted is 
based on these two rules : 

i. The instruments are grouped in families.* 
[* Strings under the wind.] 


2. Each family is arranged in order of pitch. 

Wood wind 

Brass wind 
and Percussion 



Corno inglese 


Instruments of Percussion of fixed pitch 
,, ,, indefinite pitch 

ist Violins 
2nd Violins 

Voice parts are generally placed between the violas 
and the 'celli ; the soloists above, the chorus below. 
If the organ is employed its part is written at the 
bottom of the score. In old works the lowest part is 
the "continue" or figured bass. The instruments 
less often used are placed in various ways ; solo 
instruments stand either at the top of the score or over 
the strings. From the arrangement here given there 
are naturally exceptions, but they can hardly be 
recommended as regards clearness. 


Figuring-, the use of which has already been described 
(pp. 16, 96), consists of numbers which correspond to the 
size of the intervals ; 8 signifies 8ve, 5 = 5th, 6 = 6th, etc. 
The size of the intervals is, however, not always the 
same, but depends in every case on the key-signature 
(key) of the particular piece ; e.g, , if under the bass note 
A, figures occur indicating a chord with the 3rd from A, 
this note, if the composition is in C or G, will be C ; 
but it will be C $ if this is indicated [either by the 
signature or an accidental in front of the figure]. The 
figures most generally used are : 

f5\ 6 








~~JJ5 7 

W (3) 










The component parts of the required chord can, sub- 
ject to the rules of part-writing, be placed in various 
positions, i.e. , the sounds can be placed in different 
order one above another ; some of them can be doubled 
or omitted ; the chord can be divided between the treble 
and bass staves, or can be merged in the " figures " 
[passages] of the accompaniment, etc. We give here 
only the normal form [component parts] of the chords. 
The figures in parentheses are not always written, but 
are taken for granted ; therefore the triad is not figured 


at all, excepting when one of the notes is to be chro- 
matically altered by a $, [, , etc., then the number 
and the accidental are written. An accidental without 
figure always refers to the 3rd. If a figure has a stroke 
through it (6), the corresponding note is to be raised a 
semitone. N.B. Our examples are not to be looked 
upon as connected with each other, consequently no 
chord is provided with a ft to contradict what precedes ; 
each separate chord is to be considered by itself in the 
key of C major. Further information on the subject 
must be sought in treatises on Thorough Bass and 


Score Reading. Every amateur should at least 
practise reading at sight from an orchestral score. 
Score-reading is not so difficult but what it can be 
learned in a comparatively short time. A few instruc- 
tive hints may be given. 

An amateur's first attempt should be the reading of 
a song familiar to him, and he should take care in 
following the voice-part to read the instrumental parts 
at the same time. Here the reading will give no 
trouble, since the text makes it impossible to go astray. 
The reader, however, must not be content with hearing, 
he must try to analyse thematically what he has heard, 
i.e., he must try to recognise the principal theme, to 
follow its development, and above all to notice whether 
the theme, or a fragment of it, or a phrase growing out 
of it, appears in the accompaniment. This is important, 
because the reader accustoms himself in this way to 
distinguish principal from subordinate parts. Some- 
times an important fragment of the melody appears in 
an apparently comparatively subordinate middle part of 
the pianoforte accompaniment ; sometimes it forms the 
bass, etc. 

The next attempt can be made with a work for violin 
and piano. Here there is already more to think about ; 
in the first place both parts, that of the violinist and 
that of the pianist, are more complicated ; moreover, 
once the thread is lost it is not so easily recovered. It 
is therefore important to exert not only the ear but also 
the eye, and this not only in following the melody, but 
also in grasping the purely external lines of what is 
written, which will be in close relation with what is 
heard. It is necessary, for instance, to know the 
" contour " of the melody of the theme, in order that in 
the event of the reader being unable to follow, and 
finding himself wandering aimlessly with eye and ear 
about the staves of a page, it may be quickly recognized, 
and the connection found. The reader must listen with 


" all his ears " in order not to miss or misread obvious 
variations of the theme. 

The best object for his next attempt will be a trio for 
strings. This will be still more difficult, inasmuch as 
in such compositions there is greater independence of 
the individual parts, and moreover the tone-qualities of 
three string instruments are less distinct from one 
another than those of the tone-generators of the 
ensembles already mentioned. This tends to sharpen 
the hearing. Here, however, one can also bring the 
eye to the aid of the ear ; when one part of a movement 
is repeated, one will be able to follow the different 
parts more closely ; ascertain, for instance, whether it 
was the higher notes which were played by the 'cello, 
or the lower notes by the viola, etc. But the reader 
must not anxiously creep along the violin part as the 
most prominent ; he must endeavour to understand 
which part for the moment is the most important, or 
whether all are equally important, in which case the 
music is much more difficult to follow. 

Finally, the reading of a string quartet is to be 
recommended (or one which employs three string 
instruments and a piano), and also vocal "ensembles." 

If the student should then venture to read the score 
of a work written for " small " orchestra (Haydn's and 
Mozart's symphonies) [and should then hear them per- 
formed], he must not be dismayed if he does not hear 
much that he sees on paper, or, on the other hand, hears 
more than he thought possible on looking at the notes 
of the particular parts. That results from the fact that 
he did not take into consideration the composer's indi- 
cations for different degrees of force for the different 
parts ; or that in consequence of the doubling of a part, 
that part thus obtains greater fullness of tone ; or, in 
other cases, that an instrument is capable of producing, 
in places desired by the composer, either very little 
tone-volume or a great deal. Often, again, the composer 
will allow the rhythmical element to predominate over 
the melodic ; for example, whole passages of the flutes 
or the strings, etc., may be overpowered by the rhythm 

of the trumpet, or horn, or drum. In order to be able to 
judge of such matters in advance, one must have some 
practice. It is useful to read through the score once 
or twice at home ; then, before again trying to mentally 
realise the effect of the whole composition, compare, at 
a concert, the imagined effect with the actual effect, and 
correct accordingly. 

In conclusion we recommend the reader to form his 
musical taste only on the works of acknowledged good 
composers ; for just as taste and judgment may be 
educated, they may also be vitiated. We may here 
quote the words which Wagner puts into the mouth of 
Hans Sachs in the " Meistersinger," which may be 
taken to heart not only by the professional musician but 
also by every amateur of music who takes his art 
seriously : 

" Scorn not the masters, and honour their art !" 

Sve lower' 

Meis - ter 

:*=. 1 

-f : F 
nicht, und 

ehrt mil ih - re Kunstl 
1 r= n 

/ * 

^3 J =JE=^ 
PiU p 

g r.j 1 

t=J p I =1 

-d F r 



Abbandonatamente, con abbandono, with soul, abandonment. 

Abt, Franz (born 1819 at Eilenburg, died 1885 at Wiesbaden), 

P- 37- 
A Cappella, an unaccompanied vocal movement. 

Aeeef., aeeelepando, becoming quicker. 
Aeeiaeeatura, see Vorschiag. 

Accidental, sign for raising or lowering (see Transposition 


AeeompagnatO, accompanied. 
Aeeompagnement (Fr.) t accompaniment. 
ACGOPdion, see Zieh-Harmonica. 
AcCPCSCendO = crescendo, getting louder. 
AdagiettO, not so slow as Adagio. 

Adagio, slow. 

Adam, Adolphe Charles (born 1803 in Paris, died there 1856), />. 26. 

Adam de la Halle (12401287), />. 17. 

AddolOPatO, painfully, sorrowfully. 

Ad libitum = a piacere, at pleasure in time and style. 

JEolian, />. 8. 

Affabile, friendly, kindly. 
AffettUOSO, with emotion, feeling. 
AffpettandO, hastening. 

Aftep-phpase, />. 77. 

AgevOle, con agevolezza, light, graceful. 
Agllita, movement. 
Agitato, with excitement, agitation. 
Agnus Dei, see Mass, pp. 94, 95. 
Agogics, p. 69. 

AgPlCOla, Alexander, according to the latest researches a 

German, lived in Italy, Belgium and Spain, c. 1446 

1506, an important composer. 
AgPiCOla, Martin (born 1486 at Sorau, died 1556 at Magdeburg) ; 

his works, partly in German and partly in Latin, are 

of great value for musical history. 
AlP, pp. 92, 99. 
d'AlbCPt, Eugen (born 1864 at Glasgow, lives in Berlin, Weimar, 

Vienna, etc.), pianist and composer. 
AlbPCChtsbePgeP, Johann Georg (born 1736 at Kloster- 

Neuburg, near Vienna, died 1809 at Vienna), teacher of 

Beethoven and friend of Mozart ; distinguished theorist 

and author of several theoretical works. 
AlexandPe-OPgan, see American organ. 

Alia bpeve time, = I, p. 85. 


Alia Marcia, in the manner of a march. 

,, PolaCCa, in the manner of a polonaise. 

,, Sicilian.0, in the Sicilian manner. 

-, TllPCa, in the Turkish manner. 

,, Zingara, in the gypsy style, i.e., emotional. 
AllargandO, becoming- broader. 
Allegretto, cheerfully. 

AllegPi, Greg-orio (born 1584 at Rome, died there 1652). 
AllegPO, quick. 

Allemande, />. 84. 
All'ottava ( = 8va), an octave higher. 
Alphabet notation,/, n. 
Alternative, alternate, by turns. 

Althorn, p. 129. 
Alto clarinet,/. n8. 

AltO clef, the C clef on the 3rd line of the staff. 
AltO (i) contralto voice, (2) viola. 

Alto trombone,/'. 127. 

Amati, pp. 22, 23. 

Amati, Andrea, died 1611. 

Antonio, born 1555, died 1638 [son of Andrea]. 
Nicola, worked from 1568 86 [brother of Andrea]. 
GirolamO, born 1556, died 1638 [son of Andrea]. 
Nicola, 1596 1684 [son of Girolamo, and the most 

eminent of the Amati family]. 
GirolamO, 1649 1740 [son of Nicola]. 
Giuseppe, beginning of the i7th century. 
AmbrOS, August Wilhelm (born 1816 at Mauth, near Prague, 
died 1876 at Vienna), historian of music and aesthete, 
wrote an excellent history of music. He unfortunately 
died before the completion of his work. The 5th volume 
was compiled by Otto Kade, from materials left by 

Ambrosian Chants, pp. 68. 

AmbrOSillS, born 333, died 397, p. 6. 

American Organ, a kind of harmonium (q.v.), in which the 

reeds are made to sound by drawing in the air (instead 

of forcing it out). 
Analysis (of a musical work), examination of the structure 

and component matter. 
Andante, going, moderately slow. Also a movement in slow 

AndantinO, rather slower than Andante. [Andantino is generally 

understood to be rather quicker than Andante.] Also 

a composition of small dimensions in Andantino tempo. 
Anglaise, old English dance. 

Anima, soul, spirit. 

Animate, con anima, (i) quickly, (2) with soul, spirit. 
AnimilCCia, Giovanni (died about 1570), /. 96. 
Answer, see Fugue, pp. 103, 104. 


Anticipation (harmonic), the anticipation of an essential note 
of a chord by its appearance in a preceding chord of 
which it does not form a part ; the anticipating note is 
generally a discord. 

Antiphony, see Church music, p. 8. 

Appassionato, with passion, emotion. 

Appoggiatura, see Vorschlag. 

Arabian tone-system, instruments, notation, etc., p. 3. 

Araja, Francesco (1700-^. 1767), p. 27. 

ArCO, bow ; col arco, with the bow. 

Arietta, p. 99. 

ArioSO, a short melodic movement ; in the style of a song. 

Aristotle, 384322 B.C., disciple of Plato. The treatises on 
music contained in his writings are very valuable. 

AristOXCnoS (born about 354 B.C.), disciple of Aristotle, the 
most important of the writers from whom we obtain 
information concerning Greek music. Aristoxenos is an 
opponent of the views of Pythagoras, as he bases his 
system, not on numbers, but on harmony. 

Arne, Thomas Augustine (born 1710 in London, died there 1778), 
/>. 27. 

Arpeggio, chords broken, as on the harp. 

Art-song, p. 87. 

Assai, very. 

A tempo, return to the original tempo after a previous slacken- 
ing or acceleration. 

AttaCCa, begin at once ; this direction stands at the close of 
a section which is to be connected, without pause, with 
the following one. 

Attack, the manner in which a singer or player produces the 
first note of a musical phrase. 

Auber, Daniel Francois (born 1782 at Caen, died 1871 at Paris), 

A 25. 

Augmentation, p. 103. 
Authentic, />. 7. 

Auxiliary note, upper or under second, which follows the 
essential note and returns to it. When an auxiliary note 
is quitted by skip of some interval [a third] the name 
" changing note " is given to the auxiliary note and to 
the note thus reached by skip, which proceeds to a 
following note. [In the case of an "auxiliary" note 
thus quitted, the changing note is followed by the harmony 
note which precedes the auxiliary note. In the case of a 
"passing" note thus quitted, the changing note is fol- 
lowed by the note to which the passing note would 
have proceeded.] 

B durum 

B molle 

B quadratum 

B rotundum 

r A 8 - 

Bach, Johann Sebastian (born 1685 at Eisenach, died 1750 at 

Leipzig), p. 30. 
Karl Philipp Emanuel, called Hamburg or Berlin Bach 

(1714-1788), sou of J. S. Bach, p. 31. 
Bagatelle, the name of a piece of small dimensions, generally 

containing short musical ideas. 

Bag-pipe, pp. 16, 85. 

Balbeke, Ludwig von (about 1300) said to have invented organ 

[Balfe, Michael William, distinguished British composer 
(born at Dublin 1808, died 1870). He wrote several 
operas, of which the best known is "The Bohemian 

Ballad, originally a dance song, now a narrative poem for solo 
voice with accompaniment for orchestra or piano ; if on 
a larger scale, with chorus, soli, etc. The word is also 
used in another sense for a purely instrumental com- 

Ballet-music, dance music, sometimes accompanied by voices, 
often allied to pantomimic action. Ballet music is either 
inserted in an opera, operetta, or play (although entirely 
disconnected with the work), or is an independent work 
in itself. 

Banjo, a negro instrument, resembling the guitar, with a long 
neck, and a flat drum, open at the back, as a resonance- 
body. It has from 5 to 9 strings. 

Bar, />. 66. 
Bar-line, p. 66. 
Bar-motive, pp. 67, 68, 76. 

Barcarole, an Italian boat-song. 
Bardi, Count, at Florence (1580), p. 19. 
Baritone, p. 134. 

[Bamett, John; born at Bedford, 1802, died at Cheltenham, 1890, 
composer of several songs and operas (The Mountain 
Sylph, etc.)] 

Basque-drum, /. 131. 

Bass, p. 133- 

Bass-clarinet, />. n8. 

Bass-Clef, the F clef on the 4th line of the staff (see Clef 

signs, p. u). 
Basset-horn, alto clarinet in F (see Clarinet), p. 118. 

Bass-ophicleide, p. 129. 
Basso-ostinato, /. 86. 
Bass-trombone p. 127. 
Bass-tuba, />. 129. 
Bassoon, p. 119. 

Battuta, beat of the bar. "Ritmo de tre" or " qualtro battute" 
= rhythm of 3 or 4 bars taken together as forming one 
bar of larger dimensions. 

Beat of bar, p. 66. 

Beats, the regularly recurring- jerks or beats (reinforcements 
of tone), the result of sounding together two notes of 
slightly different pitch. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770 1827), pp. 35, 92. 

Bell, of a wind instrument, the lower opening of a tubular 
instrument, which takes a bell-like shape. 

Bell mouthpiece, /. 122. 

Bellermann, Gottfried Heinrich (born 1832 at Berlin, died 1903 
at Potsdam), writer on music, wrote a treatise on 
counterpoint and an important work on mensural 
notation and time-signatures of the i5th and i6th 

Bellini, Vincenzo (born 1801 at Catania, died 1835 at Puteaux, 
near Paris), /. 21. 

Be"mol (Fr.), flat, p. 

Benda, Georg (born 1722 at Altbenatky, died 1795 at Kostriz), 
p. 99. 

Benedietus, see Mass, p. 95. 

[Bennett, William Sterndale (born at Sheffield 1816, died in 
London 1875), composer of four pianoforte concertos, 
four overtures (Parisina, The Naiads, The Wood- 
Nymph, Paradise and the Peri), a symphony, The May 
Queen (Cantata), The Woman of Samaria (Oratorio), etc.] 

Berceuse, cradle-song. 

BerliOZ, Hector (born 1803 at Cote St. Andr, Isere, died 
1869 in Paris), pp. 26, 49. 

Binchois, Gilles (born about 1400 at Hennegau, died 1460 at 
Lille), one of the earliest Flemish masters. 

Bird, see Byrd. 

Bis, twice, again. 

[Bishop, Henry Rowley (born in London, 1786, died 1855), 
composer of 82 operas and vaudevilles, an oratorio 
(The Fallen Angel), a cantata (The Seventh Day), glees, 
part-songs, etc.] 

Bizet, Georges (born 1838 in Paris, died 1875 at Bougival), /. 26. 

[BlOW, John, 1648 1708, famous organist and composer of 
anthems, services, odes, songs and organ pieces.] 

BoCCherini, Luigi (born 1743 at Lucca, died 1805 at Madrid), 
important composer of chamber music, particularly 
string trios, quartets, etc. 

Boetius, Ancius Manlius Torquatus Severinus (about 475 526 
A.D. in Italy), philosopher and mathematician ; his 
five books " De Musica" are of priceless value for 
the study of the music of the Greeks and the opinions 
of the Middle Ages derived therefrom. 

Bohm, Theobald (17941881), p. 115. 

Boieldieu, Francois Adrien (born 1775 at Rouen, died 1834 at 
Jarcy), p. 25. 

Bolero, a Spanish national dance in time. 

Bombardon, p. 129. 


Bourr6e, p. 87. 

[Boyce, William (born in London 1710, died 1779), famous 
organist and composer of anthems, services, violin 
sonatas, symphonies, an oratorio (Noah), etc.] 

Brace, } binding- two or more staves together. 

[Braham, John (born in London 1774, died 1856), distinguished 
tenor singer.] 

Brahms, Johannes (born 1833 at Hamburg, died 1897 at 

Branle or Bransle, p. 85. 

Bravura-Aria, p. 99. 

Brendel, Karl Franz (born 1811 at Stolberg, died 1868 at 
Leipzig), wiiter on music, author of a history of music. 

Bridge, in string instruments, the piece of wood standing 
perpendicularly on the body of the instrument, over 
which the strings are stretched. 

BriOSO, brisk. 

Brueh, Max (born 1838 at Cologne), p. 46. 

Briiekler, Hugo (born 1845 at Dresden, died there 1871),^. 38. 

Brtill, Ignaz (born 1846 at Prossnitz, died 1907 at Vienna), /. 45. 

[Bull, John (born 1563 in Somersetshire, died 1628 at Antwerp), 
famous organist and composer). The composition of 
" God Save the King " is by some attributed to him.] 

Buffo, comic, e.g., opera buffa = comic opera ; basso-buffo part, 
a comic part for a bass singer. 

Bugle-horn (see signal horn), pp. 128, 129. 

BUloW, Hans v. (born 1830 at Dresden), died 1894 at Cairo). 

Burlesco, playful, comical. 

Burney. Charles (born 1726 at Shrewsbury, died 1814 at Chelsea 
College), important historian of music. 

BUUS, Jacques de (c. 1535), p. 15. 

Byrd (Bird), William (1543 1623, London), prolific and impor- 
tant English church composer. 

C Clef uSr if^" indicates the particular line on which it occurs 

to be c', middle C. If on the ist line of the staff it is 
called the soprano clef (or descant clef) ; on the 2nd line 
the mezzo-soprano clef ; on the 3rd line the alto or viola 
clef ; on the 4th line the tenor or 'cello clef. 

CaCCini, Giulio (born about 1550 at Rome 1618), p. 32. 

Cadence, harmonic and melodic, pp. 78, 79, 80. 

Calando, becoming quieter ; indicates slackening of time and 
decrease of tone. 

[CallCOtt, John Wall (born at Kensington 1766, died at Bristol 
1821), composer of glees, catches, anthems, odes, etc.] 

[ ,, , William Hutchins (born 1807, died 1882, London), 
son of the former, composer of songs, anthems, etc.] 

Canarie, p. 85. 


Canon, p. 101. 
Cantata, p. 98. 

Cantilena, a song-like melody. 

Cantus flrmus, /. 102. 

CantUS planUS (see church music), p. 9. 

Canzone, a polyphonic secular movement fi5th and i6th cen.] 

(chanson Fr.) 

Canzonetta, a little canzone. 

Cappella (a Cappella), unaccompanied vocal composition. 
CaprieciO, a piece, of undecided form, humorous and piquant 

in character, like the scherzo. 
[Carey, Henry (born 1690, died 1743, in London), composer of 

ballads, operettas, and ballad operas. The composition 

of " God Save the King " is by some attributed to him.] 
Carillon, a piece which imitates the sound of bells. 
CariSSimi, Giacomo (born 1604 at Marino, died 1674 at Rome), 

pp. 20, 96. 
[CarroduS, John T. (1836 1895), esteemed English violinist.] 

Castagnettes, p. 132. 

Cavalieri, Emilio de (about 1550 1602), /. 19. 

Cavatina, p. 99. 

CaVOS, Catterino (17761840). 

[Cellier, Alfred (born in London 1844, died 1891), English 

composer of French origin, wrote several operettas.] 
Cembalo, clavichord. 

Chaeonne, p. 86. 

Chain, of shakes, a succession of shakes, generally without 
closing notes at the end of each shake. 

Chamber-musie, p. 89. 
Chamber-sonata, p. 89. 
Chamber-style, p. 90. 

Changing-note, see Auxiliary-note. 

Chanson - canzone (q.v.) 

Cherubini, Maria Luigi (born 1760 at Florence, died 1842 in 

Paris), p. 25. 
Chest notes, in generating chest notes the vocal cords vibrate 

in their whole length and breadth. 

Chinese, tone-system, instruments, notation, etc., p. 2. 
[Chipp, Edmund Thomas (born in London 1823, died at Nice 

1886), organist and composer of an oratorio (Job), 

organ pieces, etc.] 
Chopin, Frederic Fran9ois (born 1810 at Zelazowa-Wola, died 

1849 in Paris), p. 40. 
Chorale, a congregational song, introduced into Christian 

church worship. 
Chord,/ 1 . 56; also used in the sense of "string"; i.e., a 

trichord piano is one which has three strings to 

every note tuned in unison. The deeper notes of the 

piano have only two strings, and the lowest of all 

only one. 

[ChOrley, Henry F. (born in Lancashire 1808, died 1872), 
musical critic, dramatic poet and author of libretti 
for English composers, Wallace, Bennett, Benedict, 
Sullivan, etc.] 

Chromatie, pp. 53 (footnote), 72. 

Chrysander, Friedrich (born 1826 at Liibtheen in Mecklenburg, 
died 1901, Bergedorf), a very important writer on music, 
wrote a biography of Handel and edited Handel's 
works published by the Handel Society, of which he 
was the founder. He wrote valuable articles and 
numerous historical essays. 

Church-modes, p. 6. 
Church-music, p. 6. 
Church sonata, p. 89. 

CiaCOna, see Chaconne. 

Cimarosa, Domenico, (1749-1801), ^.21. 

Cinelli, cymbals,-/*. 132. 

Clang, p. 51. 

Clarinet, p. 117- 

ClarinO, trumpet, formerly the name for the high solo 

Clavicembalo, p. 15. 
Clavichord, p. 14. 

[Clay, Frederic (born in Paris, of English parents, 1840, died 

1889), composer of operas and operettas (The Black 

Crook, Babil and Bijou, etc.] 
Clef Sign, the sign standing at the beginning of every line, 

which, by its shape and position on the staff, gives to 

a certain line a fixed pitch. 
Clemen ti, Muzio (born 1752 at Rome, died 1832 at Evesham), 

P- 3'- 

Close, pp. 7 8 . 79- 
Close-bearing beat, pp. 78, 79. 

Closing notes Of Shake are the notes added at the end, 
consisting of the lower auxiliary and the principal 

Coda, additional phrase or phrases at the end of a com- 

Col, instead of con il \ ... .. 

Colla, instead of con la / w 

Colla parte, an indication that in performance the marks of 
expression, changes of tempo, etc., of the accompani- 
ment must be regulated by those indicated for the 
principal part, or those introduced, of his own accord, 
by tho solo performer, singer or player. 

Coll', before vowels, instead of con la or con lo, with the. 

CoH'arco, p. 1 10. 
Col legno, p. in. 

CollO, instead of con lo, with the. 
Coloratura, florid passages, runs, trills, etc. 


ColOUP, colouring-, a term transferred from painting to music, 
to express the general effect of combination of tone- 
colours : e.g., one speaks of sombre or bright or brilliant 
colouring in instrumentation ; or the idea is trans- 
ferred to abstract qualities, and one speaks of genial 
colouring, etc. 

Combination-tones, sounds which result from the continuous 
simultaneous sounding 1 of two notes of different pitch. 
Helmholtz calls them also "differential tones." 

Comes = answer, see Fugue, /. 104. 

Commer, Franz (born 1813 at Cologne, died 1887 at Berlin), 
published voluminous collections of ancient compositions 
" Musica sacra" (26 volumes) and " Collectio operum 
musicorum Batavorum saeculi xvi." (12 volumes). 

Commodo, comfortably, easily ; a suo commodo = at pleasure. 

Compiaeevole pleasantly, agreeably. 

Compound time, p. 67. 
Con, with. 

Con brio, brisk, lively. 

Con fuOCO, with fire. 

Con mOtO, with motion. 

Con tutta la fOPZa, with all force. 

Concertino, pp. 93, 136. 
Concerto, p. 93. 
Concert overture, p. 88. 
Conseguenza, p. 104. 
Consonances, pp. 59, 60. 

ContinuO, basso continue, pp. 16, 96. 

Contra-basso, p. 112. 
Contra-bass trombone, p. 127. 
Contra- fagotto, p. 120. 
Contralto, f. 133. 

Corda < string. 

Corde \ strings : una corda, due corde, tre corde = one, two, 

^ three string's. 
[Corder, Frederick (born in London 1852), a gifted composer ; 

his best known works are The Bridal of Triermain 

(cantata) and Nordisa (opera)]. 
Corelli, Arcangelo (born 1653 at Fusignano, died 1713 at Rome), 

pp. 23, 90. 
Cornelius, Peter (18241874), p. 44. 

Cornet-a-pistons, p. 128. 
Corno = horn, p. 123. 
Como-inglese, English horn, p. 119. 

Corrente or Courante, p. 84. 
Counterpoint, p. 100. 

Counter-subject (see Fugue), p. 104. 
Couperin, Francois (1668 1733), p. 134. 
Coupler, see organ, p. 122. 
Couplet (of a Rondo), p. 91. 


CoilSSemaker, Charles Edmond Henri de (born 1805 at 
Bailleul), died 1876 at Bourbourg), rendered great 
service to music by researches into the music of the 
Middle Ages. 

[Cowen, Frederic Hymen (born in Jamaica 1852), composer 
of operas (Thorgrim, Harold, etc.), cantatas, sym- 
phonies, etc.] 

Cramer, Johann Baptist (1771 1858), p. 31. 

Credo, fee Mass, p. 95. 

Crescendo, growing louder, pp. 67, 69. 

CristOfori, Bartolomeo (born 1655 at Padua, died 1731 at 
Florence), /. 15. 

[Croft (or CroftS), William (born 1678, died 1727), organist 
and composer of anthems, violin sonatas, flute so- 
natas, etc.] 

Crook, see horn, p. 124. 

[Crotch, William (born 1775 at Norwich, died 1847 at Taunton), 
organist and composer of oratorios (Palestine, etc.), 
anthems, glees, organ concertos, etc.] 

[Curwen, John (born 1816, died 1880), founder of the Tonic 
Sol-fa Method.] 

Cyclical form, />. 87. 

Cymbals, /. 132. 

Czardas, a wild Hungarian dance, characterised by changes of 


Czemy, Karl (born 1791 at Vienna,- died there 1857), /. 31. 
Czibulka, Alfons (born 1.842 in Hungary, died 1894 at Vienna), 

composer of operettas and dance music. 
Da, from. 

Da Capo, from the beginning. 
[D' Albert, Eugen Francis Charles (born 1864 at Glasgow), 

distinguished pianist and composer] 

Dances, pp. 84-87. 

Dancla, Jean Baptiste Charles (born 1818, died 1709), composer 

of violin music. 
David, Ferdinand (1810 1873), highly important violin virtuoso, 

teacher (of Joachim and Wilhelmj), and composer for 

his instrument. 

Deceptive [or interrupted] Cadence, p. 79. 

Deceptive Modulation, sudden change to another key by an 
unexpected resolution of a dissonance ; often synonymous 
with deceptive cadence. 

DecreSCCndO, gradually decreasing the tone. 

Dehn, Siegfried Wilhelm (born 1799 at Altona, died 1858 at 
HIM -I'm), one of the most important theorists of his time, 
published treatises on harmony and counterpoint. 

Delibes, Leo (born 1836 at Saint-Germain, died 1891 at Paris), 
/. 26. 

Denner, Christof (1655 1707), /. 117. 

Derived tones, see Overtones, p. 55. 

Despres, Depres, Depres, de Pr6s or Des Pres, Josquin, the 

most famous of the Flemish contrapuntists of the second 
half of the i5th century. 
DestPa, right ; mano destra, rig-ht hand. 

Development^ /. 90. 

Diatonic, pp. 53 (footnote), 72. 

! Dibclill, Charles (born at Southampton 1745, died in London 

1814), opera singer and composer of operettas, etc.] 
Dies irae, see Requiem, p. 95. 
Differential tones, see Combination tones. 
Diminuendo, decreasing the tone. 
Diminution, p. 103 ; of intervals, p. 53. 
Diseant or descant = (i) soprano, (2) see p. 16. 
DlSCant ,, clef, soprano clef (C clef on the ist line). 

Dissonance, p. 59. 

Dissonances (characteristic), p. 61. 

Dissonant chords, /. 60. 

DittePS V. DittersdOPf, Karl (born 1739 at Vieana, died 1799 

near Neuhauf), p. 29. 
Divisi, divided, indicates for orchestral string instruments that 

they are not to play the several parts together by means 

of double stopping, but are to divide into ist and 2nd 


Do, serialisation syllable for the note C. 
Dolce, con dolcezza, softly, sweetly. 
DolendO, plaintively. 

Dominant, p. 60. 

Domine Jesu ChPiste, see Requiem, p. 95. 

DommeP, Arrey von (born 1828 at Dantzig), author of an 

excellent musical dictionary and a handbook of musical 


Doni, Giovanni Battista (1593 1647). 
Donizetti, Gaetano (born 1797 at Bergamo, died there 1848), 

/. 21. 

Dopian, pp. 5, 6. 

Double baP, indicates the end of a section of a composition). 

Double ChOPUS, a composition for two choirs, independent of 

each other, but performing at the same time. 

Double fugue, />. 106. 
Double-sharp, p. 52. 
Doubles, p. 86. 
Down beat, p. 66. 

DoxolOgy (Gr. praise), The Gloria. The great doxology : 
Gloria in excelsis Deo. The little doxology : Gloria 
patri et filio, etc. 

Drum, pp. 130, 131. 

Due = two. A due = for two, signifies in an orchestral score 
that two instruments, for which the notes are only 
written on one staff (two flutes, two oboes, etc.), are to 
play the particular part together. 


Due COPde = two strings, indicates the disuse of the soft pedal, 
the use of which has previously been indicated by 
" una corda." 

Dufay, Guillaume (1400 1474), important French composer. 

DuifFoprugeaP, Caspar (born 1511, died 1571), /. 14. 

Dulcimer, /. 14. 

Dunl, Egidio Romoaldo (17091775), /. 25. 

Dunstable, John (i5th century), important English contra- 

Dunstede, Simon (died 1369), wrote works on the theory of 
music, giving important information concerning the 
mensural music of the period. 

DUO, composition for two different instruments. 

DUP (Ger.) major. 

Durante, Francesco (born 1684 at Fratta Maggiore, died 1755 
at Naples), p. 21. 

Dussek, Johann Ladislaus (born 1761 at Tschaslau in Bohemia, 
died 1812 at St. Germain), an excellent pianist, one of 
the first to obtain a large full tone from the piano. 
Composed many works for piano and violin. 

Dux=subject, see Fugue, p. 104. 

Dvorak, Antonin (born 1841 at Miihlhausen in Bohemia, died 
1904, Prague), f>. 48. 

Dynamics, p. 69. 

ECQSSaise, contre danse in quick ; time, formerly a Scotch 

round dance in J or f time. 
English horn, p. 119. 
Enharmonic, pp. 72, 74. 
Enharmonic change, pp. 72, 74. 

Ensemble (i) The general effect of the performance of a 
work which requires the co-operation of several people. 
(2) The mass as distinguished from the individual (i.e., 
an orchestra or a choir as distinguished from the 
soloists). (3) Ensemble playing is the performance of 
ensemble compositions, i.e., those for instruments or 
voices for two or more performers. 

Entr'acte (Fr.) music between the acts of a play or opera. 

Episode, see Fugue, /. 104, Rondo, p. 91. 

Equal temperament, p. 74. 

Erard, Sebastien (1752 1831), famous piano manufacturer, 
inventor of the repetition action of the piano and the 
modern pedal harp. 

EPk, Ludwig (born 1807 at Wetzlar, died 1883 in Berlin), 
known through his collections of folk-songs (" Lieder- 
schatz," Edition Peters), the first of which contains the 
gems of the German folk-songs, with simple accom- 

EspreSSlOne, expression. 

EspreSSiVO, with expression. 

Euphonium, p. 129. 

Fa, solmisation syllable for the note F. 

Fagotto, bassoon, p. ng. 

Falsetto, head-voice. In the production of falsetto notes the 
glottis can be closed ; the glottis vocalis forms a 
fissure whilst the epiglottis is closed. The tone-produ- 
cing vibrations are formed on the sharp edge of the 
vocal cords, and chiefly by air vibration rather 
than by reed vibration. Hence the more flute-like 
quality of voice in this register. See Flute. 

Fantasia, a composition in no definite form. See also p. 103. 

FastUOSO, pompously. 

Faux-bourdon, p. 17. 
Feigning consonance, p. 60. 

Festivamente, festlVO, festOSO, solemnly, in a stately manner. 

F<tis, Francois Joseph (born 1784 at Mons in Belgium, died 1871 
at Brussels), theorist, historian and philosopher. His 
works are very valuable ; the principal arc : Histoire 
G^neVale de la Musique " (up to the i5th Century), and 
" Biographic Universelle des Musiciens, et Bibliographic 
GeneVale de la Musique." 

Field, John (born 1782 at Dublin, died 1837 at Moscow). 
[Distinguished pianist and composer of nocturnes, 
concertos, sonatas, etc.], p. 134. 

Fifth, pp. 53, 60. 

Figured bass, pp. 16, 96, 141. 

Finale, closing movement. 

Fine, end. 

Flageolet-tones (Harmonics), p. 1 10. 

Flat, b pp. 8, 52. 
Flauto = flute, p. 114. 
Flemish School, p. 18. 

FlotOW, Friedrich Freiherr von (born 1812 at the manor of 

Teutendorf in Mecklenburg, died 1883 at Darmstadt), 

p. 41. 
Flue-pipes, pipes in which tone-generation is effected by a 

stream of air being driven against the sharp edge of 

the slit-like opening. 

Flute, p. 114. 
Flute-a-bee, p. 115. 
Folk-song, p. 87. 

Foot (8 ft., etc.), see Organ, p. 121. 

Fore-phrase, p. 77. 

FOPkel, Johann Nicolaus (born 1749 at Meeder, near Coburg, 
died 1818 at Gottingen), important historian of music, 
and bibliographer. 

Fopm, pp. 75, 82. 

Forte/, loud. 

FOPtissimO ff, very loud. 
FOPZa, power. 
FOPZatO, sforzato (q.v.) 


Fourth, pp. 53, 60. 

Franco of Cologfne and Franco of Paris, probably the authors 
of important treatises on mensural music and the rise 
of polyphony with " Franco" as author's name. Fr.uu-o 
of Cologne (i2th I3th Centuries); Franco of Paris 
probably earlier. 

Franz, Robert (real name, von Knauth) (born 1815 at Halle, 
died there 1892), /. 37. 

FretS, the narrow strips of metal or wood which are placed 
crosswise on the fret-board (finger board) of some string- 
instruments (lute, mandolin, guitar, zither), in order to 
indicate the places where the string- is divided by the 
pressure of the fing-ers of the player's left hand on the 
frets, whilst the right hand plucks the string-. 

Frottole, Italian song-s of the i6th Century, resembling- 

Fugato, p. 1 06. 
Fug-hetta, />. 106. 
Fugue, j>. 103. 

Fundamental Chords, in fig-ured bass, triads, chords of the 

71 h and Qth. 
Fundamental note, of a harmonic series, of a triad, etc., pp. 51, 

57, 58. 

Funebre, funereal, mournful. 
FUOCO, fire ; con fuoco, with fire. 
FuriOSO, furious, wrathful. 
FUX, Johann Joseph (born 1660 at Hirtenfeld, died 1741 at 

Vienna), theorist and composer, published an 

important work on counterpoint, " Gradus ad Par- 

Gabriel!, Andrea (c. 15101586), p. 89. 

,, Giovanni (1557 1612). 
Gade, Niels Wilhelm (born 1817 at Copenhagen, died there 1890), 

/ 45- 

Gagliarda or gaillarde, />. 86. 

Galuppi, Baldassare (born 1706 at Burano, died 1785 at 

Venice), p. 21. 
Gamba, viola da gamba, knee viol, an instrument resembling 

the 'cello. 

Gavotte, p. 85. 

Gedakt ( = covered, stopped), stopped flue-pipe of the organ. 
Gen6e, Franz Friedrich Richard (born 1823, died 1895 at 

Vienna), p. 45. 
Gerber, Ernst Ludwig- (born 1746 at Sonderhausen, died there 

1819), author of a historic-biographical dictionary. 
Gerbert, Martin Fiirstabt v. St. Blasien (born 1720 at Horb on 

Neckar, died 1793 at St. Blasien), historian of music ; 

his " Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissi- 

mum " is a most valuable work for the study of musical 

history^of the Middle Ag-es. 

GesiuS, Bartolomeus (c. 15551613), p. 97. 

GevaePt, Francois Auguste (born 1828 at Huysse), prominent 
scholar and composer. His book on instrumentation 
(translated into German by Riemann) is the best after 
that by Berlioz. 

[Gibbons, Orlando (born 1583 at Cambridge, died 1625 at 
Canterbury), organist, and composer of madrigals, 
motets, anthems, hymns, services, pieces for the vir- 
ginal, etc.] 

Giga = Gigue, p. 84. 

GiOCOSO, playful, bright. 

GlareailUS, Heinrich Loris of Glarus (1488 1563), learned 
theorist ; his chief works " Isagoge in musicien " and 
" Dodecachordon." 

Glinka, Michael Ivanovitch (born 1804 at Nowospack, died 
1857 at Berlin), /. 27. 

GlissandO, gliding ; on the violin a gliding of the finger on the 
string ; sound following sound without accent and 
perfectly legato. On the piano the rapid execution of a 
scale (on white keys) by causing the finger nail to glide 
over the keys. 

Glockenspiel, /. 131. 

Gloria, see Mass, />. 95. 

Glottis, the voice fissure. 

Glottis VOCaliS, the fore part of the voice fissure, lying between 

the vocal cords. 
Glottisschlag 1 , attack in voice production, in which, before the 

utterance of the sound, the whole length of the glottis 

is closed. 
Gluek, Christoph Willibald, Ritter von (born 1714 at Weiden- 

wang), died 1787 at Vienna), pp. 24, 32. 
Godard, Benjamin (1849 1 ^95) composed operas, symphonies, 

and chamber music of a pleasing kind. 
[Goddard, Arabella (born 1838), distinguished English 

Goldmark, Karl (born 1830 at Keszethely in Hungary), 

pp. 44, 50. 

Gondoliera = Barcarolle. 
[GOSS, John (born 1800, died 1880), organist and composer of 

anthems, psalms, glees, songs, etc.] 
G6tZ, Hermann (1840 76), /. 45. 
Gounod, Charles Francois (born 1818 in Paris, died there 1893), 

/. 26. 

Grandezza, dignity. 

Graun, Karl Heinrich (born 1701 at Wahrenbriick, died 1759 at 

Berlin), /. 31. 
Grave, earnestly, gravely. 
Gravita, earnestness, dignity. 
Grazia, grace ; con grazia = gracefully. 
GraziOSO, gracefully. 


Greek theory, instruments, notation, etc., p. 4. 
Gregorian and Ambrosian song, pp. 6-8. 
Gregory the Great, Pope from 590-604. />/>. 8, 94. 

Grell, Eduard August (born 1800 at Berlin, died 1886 at Steglitz), 

excellent composer of vocal music. 
Gr6try, Andre 1 Ernest Modeste (1741 1813), /. 25. 
Grieg, Edward Hag-erup (born 1843 at Bergen in Norway, 

died there 1907), f. 46. 

Guarnerius (Guarneri), Andrea (16261698), worked from 

,, Giuseppe ( 1 666 -c. 1739), worked from 1690 1730 

[son of Andrea]. 
Giuseppe AntOniO (named del Gesu) (born 1687, 

died 1745) [nephew of Andrea]. 
,, PletrO (born 1655), worked from 1690-1725 [son 

of Andrea]. 
,, PietrO (born 1695), worked until c. 1740 [son of 

Giuseppe, and grandson of Andrea], p. 23. 
Guida = subject, sec fug-ue, />. 104. 
GuidO Of ArezZO (Aretinus), (c. 9951050), pf>. 9, 11. 

Guitar,/. 112. 

Hal6vy, Jacques Fromental (born 1799 in Paris, died 1862 at 
Nice), /. 26. 

Half-close, />. 79. 

Half-phrase = two motives, p. 75. 

Half-tone = semi-tone, pp. 53, 55, 58. 

Hallelujah (from the Hebrew) = " Praise the Lord." 

Hallelujah SOngS, song-s with long melodic phrases, to which 

later the syllables of the word Hallelujah were added. 

These additions to the Hallelujah were also called 

"sequences,"/. 8. 
Handel, George Friedrich (born 1685 at Halle, died 1759 in 

London), pp. 30, 96. 
Hansllck, Eduard (born 1825 at Prague, died 1904 at Vienna), 

critic, historian and aesthete, known by his work " Vom 

Musikalisch-Schonen " (on the " Aesthetics of Music "), 

p. 48. 

Harmonica, p. 131. 
Harmonics, pp. 51, no. 

Harmonium, an organ-like keyed instrument, in which 
free metal reeds are set in vibration by air 

Harmony, pp. 64, 77. 
Harp, p. 113. 

Hartmann, Emil (born 1836, died 1898), /. 46. 

Hasse, Johann Adolf (1699-1783), p. 21. 

Hauptmann, Moritz (born 1792 at Dresden, died 1868 at 

Leipzig), /. 57. 
Haydn, Joseph (born 1732 at Rohrau, died 1809 at 

Vienna), /. 32. 


Head-VOiee, includes the higher series of notes, those generated 
by the falsetto mechanism (see falsetto) ; it begins at the 
moment when the sound is generated by the vibration 
of the air-stream alone, without the vibration of the 
vocal cords ; hence the flute-like quality of this 

Hebenstreit, Pantaleon (1669-1750), inventor of the Pan talon or 
Pantaleon named after him (q.v.). 

Helicon, p. 129. 

Heller, Stephen (born 1814 at Pesth, died 1888 in Paris),/. 46. 

HelmholtZ, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand (born 1821 at Potsdam, 
died 1894 at Charlottenburg), by his work " Die Lehre 
von den Tonempfindungen" (Treatise on Tone-sensations) 
rendered immortal service to music. He was Professor 
of Physiology and Physics. 

Henselt, Adolf von (1814-1889), p. 46. 

Hermann, Matthias (middle of i6th century), /. 49 

HermannuS, called "Contractus" (the lame) (1013-1054), 
p. 1 1. 

Herold, Louis Joseph Ferdinand (born 1791 in Paris, died there 
1833), p. 26. 

Hexaehord, p. 9. 

Hiller, Ferdinand (born 1811 at Frankfort-on-Main, died 1885 

at Cologne), p. 46. 
,, , Johann Adam (born 1728 at Wendisch-Ossig, died 1804 

at Leipzig). 
Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich (1765-1814), /. 33. 

History of Music, p. i. 

Hofmann, Heinrich Karl (born 1842 at Berlin, died 1902, Gross- 
Tabarz), /. 50. 

Holstein, Franz von (1826-1878), p. 44. 

Homophony = really unison ; the word, however, is used in 
contrast to polyphony (q.v.) in the sense that in a com- 
position one part predominates. 

Horn,/-. 123. 

Huber, Hans (born 1852 at Schonwerth in Switzerland), /. 50. 
Hucbald, Monk of St. Amand in Flanders (c. 840-9307932), 

important theorist ; chief work " De Harmonica institu- 

tione," p. 11. 
[Hullah, John Pyke (born 1812, died 1884), composer of songs 

and author of a " History of Modern Music," etc.] 
Hummel, Joh. Nep. (born 1778 at Pressburg, died 1837 at 

Humperdinek, Engelbert (born 1854 at Siegburg), lives in 

Frankfort, p. 45. 
[Humphry (or Humphrys), Pelham (born 1647, died l6 74) 

composer of anthems, odes, songs, etc. ; he was the 

first to introduce into English church music the new 

style which he had learned from Lulli.] 

Hurdy-gurdy, p. 14. 


Hyper (Greek), over (Latin, super), e.g., hyperdiapente = upper 
5th.; hyperdiatessaron = upper 4th. In connection 
with the names of the Greek scales it signifies a 4th 
higher, e.g., hyper-aeolian, hyper-phrygian, etc. 

Hypo (Greek), under (Latin, sub), e.g., hypodiapente = under 
5th, etc. In connection with the names of the Greek 
scales it signifies a 4th lower ; hypo-a?olian, hypo- 
phrygian, etc., /". 7. 

II, (Italian) the. 

Imitation, p. 100. 

Indian, tone-system, instruments, notation, etc., p. 3. 
Inner-parts, p. 64. 
Instrumentation, p. 135. 

Interlude I Entr'acte, a movement performed between the 
J acts of a play or opera. By transference of 

IntermeZZO . meaning it has become the name of a short 
( independent instrumental movement. 

Intervals, />. 53. 

Intonation. In instruments a distinction is made between those 
with " free intonation " and those with "fixed intona- 
tion " ; in the former the pitch of every note can be 
altered at will by the player (e.g., string instruments and 
the human voice) ; in the latter the pitch of every note 
is fixed by previous tuning (piano, harp, etc.). In almost 
all wind instruments the intonation can be slightly 
altered. Their pitch, in the main, depends on their 
construction, but slight modification is possible by 
strength of blowing, pressure of lips, etc. 

Introduction, a term used especially for the short introductory 
sentence preceding the principal subject or theme of a 

Inversion (i) of intervals, p. 53. 

(2) of a theme. The alteration of a theme in such a 
manner that, more or less strictly, the intervals of the 
theme are reversed, i.e., rising instead of falling, and 
vice vend. 

Ionian, f. 8. 

JadaSSOnn, Salomon (born 1831 at Breslau, died 1902, Leipzig). 
Known through his books on harmony, counterpoint, 
instrumentation, etc. 

Janissary music. Music for a band consisting of wind and 
percussion instruments. 

J fink 6, Paul von (born 1856 at Totis in Hungary) inventor of 
the Jank6 keyboard, which consists of six keyboards 
arranged, in terrace form, one above another ; the two 
lower give a chromatic series of notes ; the four upper 
rows of keys, as they act on the same levers as the 
lower ones, are only repetitions of the same chromatic 
series. The advantage of the Jank6 keyboard is the 
small span for large intervals (the span for the octave 


being- only 4 of the usual span). This renders new 
effects possible. A glissando passage of successive 
chromatic notes and in all possible intervals can be 
performed on these keyboards. 
Jannequin, Clement (i6th century), /. 49. 

Jensen, Adolf (18371879), /. 37. 

Joachim, Joseph (born 1831 at Kittsee, near Pressburg, died 

1907 at Berlin), p. 23. 
Jomelli, Nicola (born 1714 at Aversa, near Naples, died there 

'774) P- 2I - 
KeiseP, Reinhard (1674-1739), p. 28. 

Key, pp. 59. 73- 
Key. On wind instruments, a contrivance to open and close 

sound holes. 

Key horn, Key trumpet, obsolete brass instruments with keys. 
Key-SlgnatUPe, the sharps or flats which are placed at the 

beginning- of a piece, or a portion of a piece, between 

the clef sign and the time-signature [nowadays repeated 

on every line]. 
Kiel, Friedrich (born 1821 at Puderbach, died 1885 at Berlin), 

important composer: oratorio " Christus," " Missa 

Solemnis," two Requiems, etc. 
Kiese Wetter, Raphael Georg (born 1773 at Holleschau, died 

1850 at Baden, near Vienna), wrote valuable essays on 

musico-historical subjects. 

Kirehner, Theodor ( 1823-1903), p. 47. 

Kirnberger, Johann Philipp (born 1721 at Saalfeld, died 1783 at 
Berlin), esteemed theorist. 

Klavier, /. 15. 

Koeehel, Ludwig (born 1800 at Stein on the Danube, died 1877 
at Vienna), particularly known by his chronologically 
arranged catalogue of the complete works of Mozart. 

KoSChat, Thomas (born 1845 at Viktring), known by his 
Carinthian folk-songs. 

Kostlin, Heinrich (born 1846), critic, author and aesthete. 
Karl (born 1819, died 1894), important aesthete. 

KretSChmer, Edmund (born 1830, died 1908), /. 45. 

KretZSChmar, Aug\ Ferd. Hermann (born 1848), writer on 
music ; known by his numerous critical, analytical, and 
historical essays. 

Kreutzer, Conradin (1780-1849), /. 41. 

KUcken, Friedrich Wilhelm (1810-1882), composer of a large 
number of favourite song's. 

Kuhlau, Friedrich (born 1786 at Uelzen, died 1832 at Copen- 
hagen), composed, besides various chamber works, 
sonatinas, rondos and variations which are educational. 

Kuhnau, Johann (born 1660 at Geising, died 1722 at Leipzig), 
p. 89. 

Kullak, Theodor (1818-1882). 

Kusser, Johann Siegfmund (1657-1727), /. 28. 


KilSter, Hermann (1817-1878), known through his work "Popular 
Discourses on the formation and cultivation of musical 

Kyrie, see Mass, p. 95. 

L' (It.)i the. The article before words which begin with a vowel, 
instead of la, lo, le (the latter the feminine plural article). 
La, solmisation syllable for A. 

Lachner, Franz (1803-1890). 

Ignaz (1807-1895). 
LarghettO, rather broad. 
LargO, broad, slow. 
Lassen, Eduard (born 1830, died 1904), composer of well-known 

and sterling" orchestral pieces and songs, /. 45. 
Lasso, Orlando di (born 1532 at Mons, died 1594 at Munich), 

/. 99. 

Laudi (Latin), Hymns ot Praise. 

[Lawes, William (died 1645, composer of Anthems, etc).] 
[ Henry (brother of the former, born 1595, died 1662 in 

London, composer of masques, psalms, etc.)]. 
Le (see 1') the. 

Leading note, pp. 62, 63. 
Leading note step, p 63. 

LecOCQ, Alexander Charles (born 1832 in Paris), /. 26. 
Legato, bound, smooth ; i.e., a manner of playing in which one 

note is closely followed by another, without break. 
Legend, a poem, the subject of which is epic or lyrical. The 

name is also used, in a transferred sense, for instrumental 

LeggierO, light. In piano playing, a quality of touch in which 

the finger touches the key loosely and without stress. 

Leitmotiv, p. 42. 

Lentando, see Slentando. 
Lento, slow. 

Leoncavallo, Ruggiero (born 1858 at Naples), p. 22. 

Libretto, text to vocal compositions, particularly those of larger 

dimensions, opera, oratorio, etc. 
Lied, song, pp. 82, 87. 
Lips, the sharp edges which border, above and below, the slit in 

an organ pipe. Hence the word " labial " applied to 


L'istesso tempo, the same time (as the preceding). 
LiSZt, Franz (born 1811 at Raiding, in Hungary, died 1886 at 

Bayreuth, pp. 47, 49. 
Lo (It.), the. The masculine article before words which begin 

with certain letters, e.g., sc. or st. 
Locatelli, Pietro (1693-1764), important violinist, one of the first 

who obtained polyphonic effects on the violin by means 

of double stopping, p. 23. 
LOCO = in place, contradicts a preceding sign for 8ve higher or 


LogPOSCino, Nicolo (born 170x1 at Naples, died there 1763), 

/. 21. 
LOPtzing, Gustav Albert (born 1801 at Berlin, died there 1851), 

P> 4'- 

Loupe, /. 86. 

L6we, Johann Karl Gottfried (born 179^ at Lobejiin near 

Kothen, died 1869 at Kiel), p. 37. 
LllgUbre, mournful. 
Lully (Lulli), Jean Baptiste (born 1633 at Florence, died 1687 in 

Paris), pp. 24, 88, 
LuslgnandO, coaxingly. 

Lute, p. 15- 

Lute tablatUPe (see Tablature). 

Luther, Martin (born 1483 at Eisleben, died there 1546), has 
obtained fame as a reformer of church music ; he himself 
wrote the texts of hymns, and is said to have composed 
the music of some of them. 

Lux aeterna, see Mass, p. 95. 
Lydian, p. 7. 
Lyre, pp. 4. H- 

M.D., main droite (Fr.), or mano destra (It.), right hand. 
M.G., main gauche (Fr.), left hand. 
M.M., Maelzel's metronome. 
M.S., mano sinistra (It.), left hand. 
M.V., mezza voce (<?..) 

Ma, but ; ma non, but not. 

[Maefarren, Sir George Alexander (born 1813, died 1887 in 
London), composer of several operas (" Robin Hood," 
etc.), oratorios ("John the Baptist," "The Resurrection," 
"Joseph," " King David"), cantatas, anthems, services, 
part-songs, overtures, string-quartets, etc.] 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (born 1847 at Edinburgh). [Composer 
of orchestral, chamber and choral works, cantatas 
("Story of Said," " Dream of Jubal," etc.), an oratorio 
("The Rose of Sharon"), operas ("Colomba," "The 
Troubadour"), pianoforte pieces, songs, etc.] 

MaestOSO, majestically. 

Maggiore, major, p. 86. 

Magini, Giovanni Paolo (1588-1640), p. 23. 

Maillart, Louis (born 1817 at Montpellier, died 1871 at Moulins), 
/. 26. 

MajCUP (Fr.), major. 

Man. or M., abbreviation for "manuals "; in organ playing, a 
direction for " without pedals." 

MancandO, dying away, decreasing in tone and slackening 
in speed. 

Mandoline, p. 112. 
Manual, /. 122. 

MaPCatiSSimo, very marked. 
MaPCatO, marked, accented. 

1 68 

marrh, p. 83. 
Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm (born 1718 at Seehauscn, died 1795 

at Berlin), wrote theoretical essays. 
MaPSChner, Heinrich August (born 1795 at Zittau, died 1861 at 

Hanover), p. 39. 
MartellatO. hammered ; a broad staccato, executed with great 

Martini, Giambattista (Padre Martini, born 1706 at Bologna, 

died there 1784), an eminent theorist and historian 

of music. His chief works are " Storia della musica " 

and " Exemplare ossia sagg'io fondamentale pratico di 

MaPX, Adolf Bernhard (born 1795 at Halle, died 1866 at Berlin), 

theorist and aesthete, biographer of Beethoven. 
Marziale, war-like. 

Maseagni, Pietro (born 1863 at Livorno), p. 22. 
MattheSOn, Johann (1681-1764, Hamburg) excellent litterateur, 

whose writings on musical history and theory are of the 

greatest interest, f. 28. 

Measurement of pace, p. 70. 

volume of tone, p. 70. 

Measurement theory, see Arabians, />. 3. 

Mediant, the third degree of a scale. 

M6hul, Etienne Nicolas (born 1763 at Givet, died 1817 in Pari.s), 

P:. 2 5- 
Meistersanger ( Masters! ngers) and their Schools, p. 18. 

Melodium-organ (see Alexandre organ). 
Melodrame, p. 99. 
Melody, p. 63. 

Mendel, Hermann (born 1834 at Halle, died 1876 at Berlin), 
author of a musical conversation dictionary (completed 
by Reissmann). 

MendelsSOhn-Bartholdy, Felix (born 1809 at Hamburg, died 
1847 at Leipzig), f. 39. 

Heno, less. 

Mensur (Ger) (i) The scale of organ pipes, i.e., the relation 
between their length and breadth ; (2) The finger- 
relationship (i.e., distance) between the sound-hoU-s in 
wind instruments ; (3) In string instruments the length of 
strings, distance between frets, etc. 

Mensural or Mensurable music, p. 12. 

Mersenne, Marie, Franciscan Monk (born 1588 at Oize, died 
1648 in Paris), famous as the author of " Harmonic 
universelle " and other similar works of research into the 
musical history of his time. 

Messa di VOCe, in singing, the soft attack of notes, swelling 
toff, and decreasing to pp. 

Messe (Fr.), Mass,/. 94. 

Messel (measurement theory), see Arabians, /. 3. 

MestO, sorrowfully. 


MethfeSSel, Albert Gottlieb (1785-1869), favourite composer of 
song's, particularly for chorus and male voices. 

Metre,/. 71. 
Metronome, p. 70. 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo (born 1791 at Berlin, died 1864 in Paris), 

P- 25- 

Mezza-VOCC (m.v .), with half-voice, also used in piano music. 
Mezzo = half, e.g., mezzo-piano, mezzo-forte, etc. 

Mezzo-soprano, />. 133. 

MezzO-SOprano Clef, the C clef on the 2nd line. 

Mi, solmisation syllable for the note E. 

Middle-parts, parts between upper and lower parts (outer 

parts) in music written in several parts. 
Mllloeker, Carl (born 1842, died 1899), p. 45. 
Mineur (Fr.), minor. 

Minnesingers, p. 17. 

Minore (It.), minor,/. 86. 

Minstrels, /. 17. 

Minuet, p. 85. 

Missa pro defunetis = Requiem, p. 95. 

Missa Solemnis, see Mass, />. 95. 

MisteriOSO, mysteriously. 

Mixed Choir, p. 133. 
Mixo-lydian, p. 7. 

Mixtures, see Organ, p. 122. 
ModeratO, moderate. 

Modulation, p. 61. 

Moll (Gen), minor. 
MoltO, very. 

Monoehord, p. 4. 

Monody, New Monody, accompanied vocal part (originated 
in Italy about 1600), in contrast to polyphonic vocal 

Monsigny, Pierre Alexandre (born 1729 at Fauquembergue, 
died 1817 in Paris), /. 25. 

Monteverde, Claudio di (15671643), /. 20. 

Mordent, sign vr -yfc r_^ execution fe^2f=^ The 

execution can be varied rhythmically. 
MorendO, dying away. 
[Morley, Thomas (born 1557), famous English contrapuntist of 

the i6th century, composer of madrigals, canzonets, 

airs, harpsichord pieces, etc.] 

Moseheles, ignaz, (17941870), /. 31. 

MOSSO, moved. 

MoszkOWSki, Moritz (born 1854), /. 47. 

Motett, /. 98. 

Motion, -similar, contrary, oblique, p. 64. 

Motive, />. 66. 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (born 1756 at Salzburg, died 1791 

at Vienna), /. 33. 
Muris, Johannes de (lived in the first half of the i4th century). 

important theorist. 
Murky-bass, bass accompaniment in broken octaves : 

Musette, p. 85. 
Music-drama, p. 20. 

Mysteries, the name given to scenic representations of biblical 
subjects, with music. They originated in the early 
Middle Ages. 

Nachschlag, one or more notes, printed in small type, which 
follow immediately after a longer note, to which they 
are generally bound by a legato slur (see also closing 
notes of shake). 

Nageli, Johann Georg (born 1773 at Zurich, died there 1836), 
edited the works of Bach and Handel, and founded 
one of the first male voice choral societies (see Zelter). 

Nanini, Giovanni Maria (born c. 1545 at Tivoli, died 1607 at 
Rome), /. 96. 

Nardini, Pietro (1722-1793). 

Natural horn, />. 123. 

Natural-Scale, series of over-tones, p. 54. 

Naumann, Emil (born 1827 at Berlin, died 1888 at Dresden), 
wrote various popular books, amongst which "Die 
Tonkunst in der Kulturgeschichte " (The aesthetics of 
musical history) and " Illustrated History of Music " 
enjoy universal favour. 

Nel (It.) instead of in il = in the. 

Nella (It.), instead of in la = in the. 

Nello (It.), instead of in lo = in the. 

Neri, Filippo (born 1515 at Florence, died 1595 at Rome), p. 95. 

NeSSler, Victor (born 1841 at Baldenheim, Alsace, died 1890 at 
Strasburg), p. 45. 

Netherland School, />. 18. 
Neumes, />. 10. 

Nieolai, Otto (1810-1849), A 4'- 
Ninth,/. 53- 

Nocturne, a composition of a dreamy kind without definite form. 
Nohl, Ludwig (born 1831 at Iserlohn, died 1885 at Heidelberg), 

prolific writer on music ; wrote biographies of Beethoven, 

Mozart, Wagner, etc. 

Noise, /. 51. 

Non, not. 

Nonet, a composition for nine instruments or voices. 

Normal pitch, chamber pitch [Paris chamber pitch, or low 
pitch,] the A of the once accented 8ve with 870 single 
(435 double) vibrations per second. It is the note to 
which, in chamber ensembles or orchestras, the instru- 
ments of free intonation are tuned. In the orchestra 
the instruments are generally tuned to the A of the 
oboe ; in ensembles with piano, the latter gives the note ; 
in unaccompanied vocal music the tuning fork is used. 

Notation, /. 9. 

Nottebohm, Martin Gustav (born 1817 at Liidenscheid, died 1882 
at Graz), a prominent writer on music, best known by 
his works dealing with Beethoven's life and art-work. 

Notturno (It.), see Nocturne. 

Novellette, a composition without definite form, containing a 
considerable number of new themes, hence the name. 

Obbligato, p. 64. 
Oblique motion, p. 64. 
Oboe, p. n8. 

Ocarina, a flute-like instrument, with bulging body and sound- 
holes ; the latter form the only outlet for the air. The 
tone resembles that of a stopped organ-pipe. 

Octave, pp. 53. 60- 
Octave-flute, />. 116. 

Octave Sign, Sva . . . This sign, when placed over notes, indi- 
cates that (as far as the row of dots or dashes extends) 
the notes are to be played an 8ve higher ; when placed 
under the notes they are to be played an 8ve lower. 

Octave-System of the Middle Ages, p. 5. 

Octet, a composition for eight instruments or voices. 

Ode, a lyrical poem, or the music to. which it is set. 

Odington, Walter (died after 1330), writer on mensural music, 
p. 98. 

Odo von Clugny (died 942), /. 12. 

Oettingen, Arthur Joachim von (born 1836 at Dorpat), p. 57. 
Offenbach, Jacques (born 1819 at Cologne, died 1880 in Paris), 

/. 26. 
OnslOW, George (1784-1852), important composer of chamber 

music, comic operas, symphonies, etc. 

Open string, p. 109. 
Opera, p. 20. 

Operetta, opera buffa, comic opera, /. 21. 

Ophicleide, p. 129. 

OpUS, Op., work; e.g., op. 18 = the i8th work of the particular 

Oratorio, /. 95. 
Orchestra, p. 135. 
Orchestral score, p. 139. 
Organ, pp. 13, 120. 

Organ Point, see Pedal Point. 
Organ Tablature, see Tablature. 


Organistrum, p. 14. 

Organum, a form of polyphonic writing', p. 16. 

Ornaments, shake, passing shake, mordent, turn, appoggiatura, 

acciaccatura, etc. (see respective articles). 
Ossia = or ; direction for an easier or more difficult reading of 

the notes of the text. 

OstinatO, persistent (see basso ostinato), p. 86. 
Ottava, 8ve sign. 

Outer-part, />. 64. 
ver- bio wing, /> 117. 
Over-tones, ^.51. 
Overture, p. 88. 
Pace, p. 70. 

Paehelbel, Johann (born 1653 at Nuremberg, died there 1706) 

important organist and prominent composer for his 

Paduana 1 1'adovana, Pa vane], an old Italian dance in common 

time, slow in pace. 

Paer, Ferdinando (born 1771 at Parma, died 1839 in Paris), p. 21. 
Paesiello, Giovanni (born 1741 at Taranto, died 1816 at Naples), 

p. 21. 
Paganini, Niccolo (born 1782 at Genoa, died 1840 at Nice), 

A 2 3- 

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (born 1514 at Palestrina, died 
1594 at Rome), p. 20. 

Palestrina-Style (a cappella style), polyphonic unaccompanied 
vocal music. 

Pantalon [or Pantaleon], a dulcimer of trapezium shape, 
improved by Pantaleon Hebenstreit, with double reso- 
nance board, and a separate set of strings over each 
resonance board, one set being of catgut, and the other 
of metal. It was played with wooden sticks. 

Parallel (similar) motion, see p. 64. 

Parallel chords, p. 62. 
Parallel keys, p. 62. 

Paraphrase, a piece in which the melody or subject is 
ornamented and varied. 

ParlandO, speaking, i.e., in the style of a recitative. 

[Parry, Sir Charles Hubert Hastings (born 1848, London), 
composer of oratorios (" Judith," " King Saul "), a 
pianoforte concerto, chamber music, symphonies, etc.] 

Part writing, p. 64. 

Partial-tones = over-tones, p. 51. 

Partita, suite. /. 87. 
Passacaglia, p. 86. 

Passage, a rapid figure after the manner of scales or broken 
chords (i.e., the notes of the chord are not struck at the 
same time, but one after the other.) 

Passecaille = Passacaglia, /. 86. 

Passepied, p. 85. 


Passing notes, notes inserted between the principal (i.e., har- 
mony) notes of chords. 

Passing Shake, see Pralltriller. 

Passione, emotion ; con passione, appassionato = emotionally. 

Pastorale, a composition of pastoral character ; either a scenic 
representation of a rural idyll with music, or an instru- 
mental piece which awakens the idea of a rustic scene, 
e.g. , dance of reapers, etc. 

Pauken, kettle drums, /. 130. 

Pause, / T V ; General Pause for all instruments or voices in a 

Pavane, see Paduana. 

Pedal, on harp, p. 113. 

,, on organ, pp. 13, 122. 

,, on piano ; the mechanism worked with the feet, used 
for lengthening and strengthening notes (right pedal, 
sustaining pedal), and for damping sounds (left pedal, 
soft pedal), Verschiebung (Ger.), q.v. 

Pedal-board, pp. 13, 122. 

Pedal point, p. 16. 

Percussion instruments, p. 130. 

PerdendOSi, becoming softer, dying away. 

Perfect consonances, pp. 53, 59. 

PergOlesi, Giovanni Battista (born 1710 at Naples, died 1736 at 

Pozzuoli), /. 21. 
Period, a portion of a composition, in itself complete, of no 

definite length, consisting of several phrases. 
Perpetuum mobile, a composition consisting almost entirely 

of notes of short and generally equal value. 
Pesante, weighty, and at the same time pathetic. 
PetruCCi, Ottaviano (born 1466 at Fossombrone, died 1539), 

inventor of note-types. 
Philidor, Fra^ois Andr6 (1726-1795), /. 25. 

Phrase, p. 69. 
Phrasing, p. 69. 
Phrygian, p. 7. 

Piacere, pleasure; a piacere, at pleasure or at will. 
PiaCCVOle, peacefully, pleasantly. 

Pianissimo, pp., very soft. 

Pianists (celebrated), p. 134. 

Piano, />., soft. 
Pianoforte, p. 15. 

Piano trio, quartet, quintet, etc., ensembles of two, three or 
four instruments with piano (see chamber music). 

PiCCilli, Nicola (born 1728 at Bari, died 1800 at Passy, near 
Paris), pp. 21, 32. 

Piccolo, (i) Saxhorn, p. 129; (2) See small flute, p. 116. 

Pieno, full ; organo pieno = full organ ff. 

Pisendel, Johann Georg (1687-1755), /. 23. 

Piston, p. 127. 


Pitch, /. 51- 

Piu, more. 

Pizzicato (pizz.), pinched or plucked (string' instruments). 

PlacidO, quiet. 

Plagal, p. 7- 

Plaidy, Louis (born 1810 at Hubertusburg, died 1874 at Grimma), 

important piano teacher, best known by his technical 

studies for the piano. 
PlatO, (429-347 B.C.), important Greek philosopher and 

POCO, little. 

POCO a pOCO, gradually. 
Pohl, Karl Ferdinand (born 1819 at Darmstadt, died 1887 at 

Vienna), published biographies of Liszt, Haydn and 

Poi, then. 

PolaCCa - Polonaise, /. 84. 

Polyphony, music written in several independent parts. 
PorpOPa, Antonio Nicola (born 1686 at Naples, died there 1766), 

/. 20. 

Posaune, trombone, />. 126. 
Possibile, possible. 
Postlude, an organ piece, intended to be played after divine 

Pot-pourri, a series of melodies more or less loosely strung 

together, without regard to their connection with one 


Pralltriller, passing shake, sign ^ fe=|Er execution 
The execution can be varied rhythmically. 

PratOPiOUS, Michael (1571-1621, Germany), important writer on 
music ; his principal work, "Syntagma musicum," is the 
chief source of information concerning the music of his 
day, particularly the instruments of the i6th and r7th 
centuries, pp. 19, 135. 

PrecipitandO = accelerando, quickening the pace. 

Prefix to a shake, (see Trill). 

Prestissimo, very quick. 
PrestO, quick. 

Prima Vista playing, playing at sight, without having 
previously studied the work. 

Prima volta, first time. 
Prime,//'. 58-59- 

Primo, the first player in 4-handed pianoforte playing, duets and 

trios, etc. 
Principal, see Organ, /. 121. 

Principal note, in ornaments, the note over which the ornament 
sign occurs. 

Principal part,/. 64. 

Principal theme or subject, pp. 82, 90, 91. 

Programme music,/'. 48. 

Proposta = dux, subject, see Fugue, p. 104. 

[PrOUt, Ebenezer, born 1835, composer and distinguished theorist. 
His educational works (Harmony, Counterpoint, Double 
Counterpoint, and Canon, Fugue, Form, Applied Forms, 
The Orchestra, etc.) are of great value.] 

Purcell, Henry (born 1658 in London, died there 1695), England's 
most important composer ; [wrote operas " Diocletian," 
"King Arthur," "The Fairy Queen," etc., incidental 
music to several plays, odes, anthems, services, hymns, 
psalms, chamber-music, catches, etc.], p. 27. 

Pythagoras, (born c. 582 B.C.) philosopher, the head of the 
Pythagorean school, which considered everything, 
including music, from the mathematical point of view. 
The ratio of numbers was the standard for consonance 
and dissonance ; the 3rd was held to be a dissonance. 

Quartet, a composition for four instruments or voices. A 
double quartet is a composition for eight voices, arranged 
in two sets of four voices each. 

QuartOle, quadruplet, p. 71. 

Quasi, as if, almost. 

QuatUOr = quartet. 

Quintet, a composition for five instruments or voices. 

Quint9le, quintuplet, p. 71. 

Quodlibet = pot-pourri. 

Raff, Joseph Joachim (born 1822 at Lachen, near Zurich, died 
1882 at Frankfort-on-Main, pp. 44, 49. 

Rallentando (rail.), getting slower. 

Rameau, Jean Philippe (born 1683 at Dijon, died 1764 in Paris). 
Apart from numerous compositions, operas, cantatas, 
motetts, piano and violin pieces, etc., his fame rests on 
the authorship of a treatise on harmony, on which the 
theorists who followed him based their works. The 
theory of the inversion of chords, and the tracing of the 
various chords to their roots, originated with him, p. 24. 

Rap.da m ente,} quickly . 
Ravanastron = Serinda, p. 3. 

Re, solmisation syllable for the note D. 

Real parts, p. 64. 
Recitative, />. 99. 
Reed, pp. n6, 121. 

Reed pipes, pipes in which the sound is produced by vibration 

of reeds, /. 1 16. 
Reed work, (also called "regal"), reed registers, see Organ, 

p. 121. 

i 7 6 

Refrain, the repetition (rendered necessary by the words 01 
the poem, or introduced by the wish of the composer) 
of closing words or closing- lines of the verse of a song. 

Regal, a small portable organ with reed pipes (obsolete). 

Register (l) see Organ, p. 120. 

(2) of the human voice, the compass of notes produced 
by the mechanism necessary for the formation of the 
particular register (chest, falsetto, etc.). 

Registration, or registering-, see Organ,/. 121. 

Rejehardt, Johann Friedrich (1752-1814), p. 33. 

Reinecke, Carl Heinrich (born 1824 at Altona, lives in Leipzig), 

A 47- 

Reinthaler, Carl Martin (1822-1896), /. 47. 
ReiSSmann, August (1825-1903), writer on music, wrote a large 

number of musical biographies, co-worker on Mendel's 

Dictionary of Music. 
Relative Chords are those which are composed of notes 

belonging to a particular key, /. 59. 
ReperCUSSio, repercussion (i) striking the key again; (2) see 

fugue, />. 104. 
Repetition action, an appliance in piano mechanism which 

renders it possible to strike the key many times in 

succession without quitting it absolutely each time (see 


Repetition signs, 

Replica, repetition, senza replica, without repetition. 

R6ponS6 (Fr.) = comes, answer, see Fugue, p. 104. 

Requiem, Mass for the dead (see Mass), p. 95. 

Resonance, body, board, box, p. 107. 

Rhapsody, an instrumental Fantasia, mostly consisting of 

national folk-songs, combined in a fragmentary manner. 

In its true [Greek] sense, a fragment of a larger epic 

poem with musical accompaniment. 
Rhythm, />. 71. 
Ricereare, p. 103. 

RichtCP, Ernst Friedrich Eduard (born 1808 at Grossschonau, 
died 1879 at Leipzig), important theorist, wrote treatises 
on harmony and counterpoint. 

Riemann, Dr. Hugo (born 1849 at Grossmehlra, near Sonders- 
hausen), gifted musician, scholar, theorist, aesthete, and 
teacher, whose " Harmony Simplified," together with 
other excellent works on time, phrasing, etc., are standard 
works on the modern theory of music. His critical essays 
on all branches of music, particularly history, together 
with numerous publications of music of earlier times, are 
valuable. Riemann has prepared " Phrasing editions " 
of the masterpieces of piano literature ; and is also the 


author ot an excellent musical dictionary. His funda- 
mental ideas are set forth in his work " Preludes and 
Studies," pp. 56, 57, 60, 62, 63, 69. 
Rigaudon, p. 86. 

RilasciandO, becoming: slower. 
RinfOPZando, reinforcing- the tone. 
RinfOPZatO, with reinforced tone. 

Ripieno, pp. 64, 136. 

RlsOllltO, resolutely, with powerful attack. 
RiSpOSta = comes, answer, see Fugue. 
RjSVegliatO, brisk, lively. 

RitOPnellO, instrumental prelude, interlude, or postlude in vocal 
compositions ; the word sometimes has the same meaning 
as " tutti " in concertos, etc. 

Rochlitz, Johann Friedrich- (born 1769 at Leipzig-, died there 
1842), published a work " For Amateurs of Music," as 
a continuation of a collection of song's of masters of 
earlier centuries. 

Romantic School, p. 38. 

Romanza, properly a poem in " Romance" (Provencal) dialect ; 
an epic or lyrical poem of the days of chivalry, or a love- 
song-. As instrumental music, a Romance is a tone- 
picture illustrating one of the ideas already mentioned. 
The name is, however, often used without any special 

Rondo (Rondeau), p. 91. 

Rossini, Giacomo Antonio (born 1792 at Pesaro, died 1868 at 
Passy, Paris), p. 21. 

Round or Roundelay, a refrain song, in which, after a single 
voice has executed a strophe, the chorus repeats the 
last line. 

RoUSSeau, Jean Jacques (born 1712 at Geneva, died 1778 at 
Ermenonville), wrote on musical subjects ; published a 
musical dictionary. His attempt to replace musical 
notation by number-notation met with little success, 
pp. 24, 99. 

RubatO, robbed ; tempo rubato, with free rendering ; with 
all liberty as regards dynamics (crescendo and 
diminuendo) and agogics (accelerando and ritenuto). 

Rubinstein, Anton (born 1830 at Wechwotynez, died 1894 at 
St. Petersburg, pp. 27, 47. 

Ruggiepi,/-. 23. 

Saint-Saens, Charles Camille (born 1835 in Paris), pp. 26, 49. 
Sammartini, Giovanni Battista (1704-1774), p. 92. 
SanetUS, see Mass, /. 95. 

Sapaband, p. 84. 

Sax, Charles Joseph (1791-1865), p. 128. 

Sax-horn, p. 129. 


Scale, from scala ( It.) = staircase, a tone-ladder, pp. 54, 59, 73. 
Scarlatti, Alessandro (born 1659 at Trapani, died 1725 at 

Naples), pp. 20, 88. 
Scarlatti, Domenico (born 1685 at Naples, died 1757 at Naples 

or Madrid), /. 90. 

Schenk, Johann (1753-1836), p. 29. 
Scherzando, playfully. 
Scherzo, pp. 92, 93. 

Schubert, Franz (born 1797 at Lichtenthal, died 1828 at Vienna), 

p. 36. 
Schumann, Robert (born 1810 at Zwickau, died 1856 ' at 

Endenich), /. 40. 
SchiitZ, Heinrich (born 1585 at Kostritz, died 1672 at Dresden), 

pp. 28, 97. 

Scioltamente, ScioltO, free in execution, unfettered. 
Scioltezza, freedom, agility. 

Score and score-reading, pp. 139, 143 

Sebastian!, Johann (bom 1622, died 1683), /. 97. 

Second, pp. 53, 60. 

Second subject, a theme, contrasted with the principal theme, 

and following' it, p. 90. 
SeCOnda VOlta, second time, i.e., in repeating a section, when 

the bar marked Prima volta (first time) is to be omitted. 
SeCOndO, the second player in four-handed piano playing, duets, 

trios, etc. 

Segno, s. sign 

SegUidilla, a quick Spanish dance, in triple time, resembling the 
Bolero, with bars of castagnette rhythm, as prelude and 

Semi-serio, half earnest ; opera semi seria, a serious opera, yet 
containing some comic scenes. 

Semitone, pp. 53, 5 8 > 7*- 

Sempllce, simple. 

Sempre, always. 

Sentence, consists of two phrases, p. 76. 

Senza, without. 

Septet, a composition for seven instruments or voices. 

Septuor= septet. 

Sequence, (i) the transposition, step by step, of a melodic (01 
harmonic) fragment complete in itself: 

(2) see Hallelujah songs. 

Serenade,/. 87. 
Serinda, p. 3. 


Serio, serious, earnest. 

Seventh, pp. 53, 60. 

Sextet, a composition for six instruments or voices. 

Sextole, sextuplet, p. 71. 

SfOPZatO, strong accent on a single note. 

Shake, see Trill. 
Sharp, #, p. 52. 

[Shield, William (born 1754, died 1829), composer of operas, 

pantomimes, songs, etc.] 
Si, solmisation syllable for B. 
Signal horn, see Bugle horn, pp. 128, 129 
Signature, see Key signature. 
Silcher, Friedrich (born 1789 at Schnaith, died 1860 at Tubingen), 

composer of various folk-songs. 
Simile (sim,), indication that the execution of the following bar 

or bars is to be the same as that specially indicated for 

the first bar. 

Sin'al, up to the. 
Sixth, pp. 53, 62. 

SlentandO, getting slower. 

Slide, p. 126. 

[Smart, Sir George Thomas (born 1776, died 1867, London), 
distinguished conductor, organist, and composer of 
anthems, glees, etc. 

,, Henry, nephew of the former (born 1813, died 1879, 
London), organist and composer of cantatas, songs, 
part-songs, organ pieces, etc.] 
Smetana, Friedrich (born 1824 at Leitomischl, died 1884 at 

SmorzandO, dying away, a decrease of tone and slackening 

of pace. 

Soave, soft, gentle. 
SOggettO, subject, f>. 104. 
Sol, solmisation syllable for the note G. 
Solfeggio, a singing exercise. 

Solmisation, the naming of the sounds ol a hexachord, 
P. 9. 

Solmisation syllables, p. 9. 

Solo, alone. 

Solo-part, a principal part, standing out from the others, with 
or without accompaniment. 

SolO-SOng, song for one single voice with or without accom- 

Sonata, pp. 89, 90, 91. 

Sonata da Camera, chamber sonata, p. 89. 

Sonata da Chiesa, Church sonata, p. 89. 
Sonatina, p. 91. 
Song form, pp. 82, 87. 
Soprano, p. 133. 

Soprano Clef, the C clet on the first line. 


Sordino, a mute, p. no. 

SostenutO, sustained. 

SottO-VOCe, half loud, with muffled voice. 

Sound, p. 51. 

Sound-holes, the S shaped openings in the resonance box 
of string instruments. In wind instruments the holes 
(closed and opened either with the fingers or by 
mechanism) which are bored in the tube in order to 
enable the player to alter the length of the vibrating 
air column (see Flute, p. 1 14). 

Space, the interval between two lines of the staff. 

SpianatO, plain, simple. 

Spinet, /. 15. 

SpiritO, soul, spirit ; con spirito, with spirit. 

Spitta, J- Aug. Philipp (born 1841 at Wechold in Hanover, died 
1894 at Berlin), one of the founders of the Bach Society, 
author of a biography of Bach, and numerous other 
works ; he took part in the publication of the " Quarterly 
Magazine for Musical Science." 

SpOhP, Ludwig (born 1784, died 1859 at Cassel), p. 39. 

Spontini, Gasparo (born 1774, died 1851 at Majolati), 
A 25. 

Staccato (stacc.), detached, i.e., a manner of playing in 
which each note follows the other, short and 

Stainer (Steiner), brothers, p. 23. 

[ ,, Sir John (born 1840, London, died 1901), distinguished 
English organist, composer of oratorios (" Gideon " and 
the " Crucifixion "), cantatas (" The Daughter of Jairus " 
and "St. Mary Magdalen"), services, anthems, etc., and 
author of theoretical works.] 

[Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers (born 1852, Dublin), distinguished 
conductor and composer of operas (" The Veiled Prophet 
of Khorassan,' J" Savonarola,") etc., oratorios ("The 
Three Holy Children," " Eden "), symphonies, chamber 
music, etc.] 

Stopped notes, p. 123. 
Stopped pipes, p. 121. 

Stops, see Organ, />. 120. 

Stradivari, Antonio (1644-1736)} 

Francesco (1671-1743) \ see p. 23. 

Omobono (1679-1742)] 

StrasCinandO, becoming slower. 

StraUSS, Johann (born 1825, died 1899), /. 45. 

Richard (born 1864), />. 50. 
Stretto, pp. 104, 105, 1 06. 

String duet, quartet, quintet, works to be performed by two, 
four or five string instruments. 

String instruments, p. 109. 

StringendO, becoming quicker, hurrying. 

StPOphe (Greek), the word in its proper sense has the same 
meaning- as the word verse (derived from the Latin). In 
the art of poetry, however, the two must be strictly 
distinguished ; every single line is a verse, several 
verses or lines form a strophe. In the vernacular 
one speaks of verse lines and verses of a chorale or 

StPUngk (Strunck), Nicolaus Adam (1640-1700), p. 28. 

Sub-contra, /. 52. 
Sub-dominant, p. 60. 
Subjeetum, subject. 
Suite, /. 87. 

Sul pOntieellO, on the bridge, /. no. 

Sul tasto, p. no. 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour (born 1842 in London, died 
there igoo) [distinguished English composer ; he wrote 
oratorios ("The Light of the World," "The Martyr 
of Antioch," "The Golden Legend," etc.), an opera 
(" Ivanhoe,") a number of comic operas, incidental music 
to " The Tempest," " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
" Henry VIII." and " Macbeth," a symphony, overtures, 
songs, etc.], /. 27. 

Sulzer, Johann Georg (born 1719 at Winterthur, died 1779 at 
Berlin), important aesthete. 

Stlppe, Franz von (born 1820 at Spalato in Dalmatia, died 1895, 
Vienna), p. 45. 

SUP la touehe, p. no. 
SUP le ehe valet, /. no. 

Suspension, a note, consonant in one chord, held on into the 
following chord, in which it becomes a dissonance ; it is 
subsequently resolved by step of a second. 

Swell, see organ, p. 122. 

Symmetry in form, pp. 68, 75. 
Symmetry interrupted, pp. 68, 69. 

Symphonic poem, see Programme music, /. 48. 

Symphony, p. 92. 
Syncopation, pp. 69, 71. 

TablatUPC (i) among the Mastersingers the rules of poetry 
and music used in the composition of songs. 

(2) a notation for the organ and lute, which employed 
letters and numbers in combination with rhythmical- 
value-signs. The period of tablature begins as early 
as the loth century and continues to the i8th century. 

Tacet, sign for silence ; i.e. , the orchestra or chorus, for the 
time being, is to take no part in the performance. 

[TalllS (or Tallys), Thomas (died 1585), famous organist and 
composer of church music.] 

Tambourine, p. 131. 

TambUPO, drum, p. 131. 

Tam-tam, pp. 2, 132. 

1 82 

Tarantelle (It.), a iNeapolitan, originally a Tarantinc, dance in 
I Or I time ; pace variable. 

TardandO. getting slower. 

Tartini, Giuseppe (born 1692 at Pirano, died 1770 at Padua) 
important as a theorist as well as violinist and 
composer ; he is the discoverer of combination-tones, 

A 23- 
TaStO SOlO, in piano or organ accompaniment with figured bass, 

indicates that the bass note alone is to be played (without 

accompanying harmony). 
TedfiSCO, German. 

Telemann, Georg Phiiipp ( 1681 -i 767), /. 28. 
Temperament, 1 , 

Tempered tone-system, / p ' 73 ' 

Tempo Primo, in the time indicated at the beginning [after a 

change in tempo.] 
Teneramente, con tenerezza, tenderly. 

Tenor, pp. 17, 33- 

Tenor Clef, the C clef on the 4th line. 

Tenor horn, p. 129. 
Tenor trombone, A 127. 
Tenuto, held. 

Terzett, a composition for three instruments or voices. 

Tetrachord, p. 5. 

Theile, Johann (1646-1724), />. 28. 

Theme, a musical thought or idea, with significant charac- 
teristics, which is the basis of a portion of a com- 

Theme or Air with variations, /. 92. 

Third, pp. 53. o- 

Thomas, Charles Louis Ambroise (born 1811 at Metz, died 1896 

in Paris), /. 26. 

Thorough bass = figured bass, pp. 16,96, 141. 
TieffenbrUCker, see Duiffoprugcar. 
TiePSCh, Otto (born 1838 at Kalbsbrieth, died 1892 at Berlin), 

clever theorist, who worked on the lines of Hauptmann 

and Helmholtz with a view to the reform of musical 

Timbre, generally used as synonymous with tone-quality ; 

really, however, timbre signifies only the individual 

tone-quality caused by the difference of resonant 

Time Signature, the direction written at the beginning of a 

composition [indicating the number and value of the 

beats in each bar.] 

Timpani, drums,/. 130. 

TinetOris, Johannes (1446-1511), Belgian musician, author and 
scholar, compiled the oldest musical dictionary in 

Tirade, a "run" or "passage" in singing. 

Toccata, (from the Italian toccare = to touch) a piece for keyed 
instruments, organ or piano, a kind of fantasia of 
indefinite form ; it generally has an introduction with 
florid passages, is fugally treated and often ends with a 
regular fugue. Notwithstanding possible contrasts of 
tempo, the usual characteristic is rapid movement with 
short note-values, p. 103. 

Tonality, /. 59. 
Tone, pp. 5, 53, 58, 72. 
Tone colour, A 107. 
Tone series, pp. 51, 54. 55- 
Ton e system, pp. 5, 52. 
Tonic, /. 50. 

Torelli, Giuseppe (died 1708 at Bologna), p. 23. 

Tranquillo, quiet. 

Transposing 1 instruments, pp. 116-119. 

Transposition, p. 6. 

Transposition signs, $, {?, %, x, ^, pp. 52, 72. 

Transverse Flute, A 115- 

Tre, three ; tre corde, three strings. 

Tremolo, (i) trembling, quivering ; in singing sometimes a 

desired effect, generally a defect. 

(2) rapid repetition of the same note, resulting in a 

quivering, trembling movement. 

Triad, pp. 56-59. 
Triangle, A 132. 

Trill, shake, an ornament which begins either with the principal 
note or the upper auxiliary note, and consists in the 
rapid, continuous alternation of the two notes. 


(see Closing notes). The prefix to a shake (i.e. notes 
which are to be played before the shake and to be con- 
nected with it) is indicated either by a sign (Cvw or 
or small notes written before the shake. 

Trio (i) a piece in three-part harmony, pp. 83, 86, 

Triole, triplet, f. ^\. 

Triple-time, three beats in a bar. \ and are only to be 
considered as triple-time in very slow movements, other- 
wise they must be considered as two bars of \ time, 
and two bars of time, in one, therefore, duple time, 
See footnote, p. 85. 

TrltOne, the interval of the augmented 4th. 


Tromba, trumpet, p. 126. 
Trombone, p 126. 

Trommel (Ger.), drum,/. 131. 
Troppo, too much. 

Trumpet, p. 126. 

TSCha'lkOWSky, Peter Iljitsch (born 1840 at Wotkinsk, died 
1893 at St. Petersburg-), /. 28. 

Tuba, /. 129. 

TurCO, Turkish ; alia Turca, in Turkish style. 

Turk, Daniel Gottlob (born 1750 at Claussnitz, died 1813 at 
Halle), eminent teacher and theorist, published a Piano- 
forte School and a Guide to playing from figured bass. 

Turn, Doppelschlag (Ger.), 
(sign) ^ 


If the turn is after the note (i.e., not exactly over, but 
to the right of the principal note), the execution of the 
ornament is different. The rhythm of the ornament is 
also modified according to circumstances. 

Tutta la forza, with all possible power. 

Tuttl = all ; i.e., all the instruments or all the voices (in 
opposition to solo). 

Tympani = Timpani. 

Tyrolienne, a country waltz in $ time, quiet pace. 

Un, one. 

Un POCO, a little. 

Una COrda, one string, i.e., with soft pedal (see Verschiebung), 
damped, muffled. 

Under-dominant, sub-dominant, p. 60. 
Under-tone series, p. 56. 

Ungarisch, in the Hungarian style, i.e., music with striking 
rhythm, free and varied, particularly rich in syncopation ; 

* * ' 
the motive j-J is characteristic. In Hungarian 

music ornaments are freely employed, and in order to 
obtain leading tone relationship the notes of the melody 
are frequently chromatically altered in a manner that 
appears strange to our ears. Polyphony is not in the 
nature of Hungarian music. 

Unlsono, Unison, i.e., strictly the same pitch. In orchestral 
playing also the simultaneous sounding of the same note 
but in different 8ves, //. 53, 60. 

Up-beat, pp. 66-68. 
Upper-dominant, dominant, /. 60. 

Upper-part, in polyphonic music, the top-part. 
Ut, solmisation syllable for the note C. 


Valve, see Ventil. 

Variations, p. 92. 

VarSOVienne (Fr.), a Polish dance in \ time, quiet pace. 

Veloee, quick, brisk. 

V6lOCit, rapidity. 

Ventil instruments, Piston instruments, Valve instruments, 

p. 127. 

Verdi, Giuseppe (born 1813 at Roncole, died 1901, Milan),/. 21. 
VerscMebung 1 (Ger.), is the name given to the damping 

apparatus set in action by the left pedal of the piano ; 

it consists in the fact that the hammer does not strike 

all the strings (tre corde), but only one (una corda). 
Viadana, Ludovico(born 1564 at Viadana, died 1627 at Gualtieri), 

P> 93- 

Vibrations, /. 51. 

VigOrOSO, powerful, brisk. 

Villanella, an Italian folk-song ot coarse comic tendency. 

Vina, p. 3- 

Vinci, Leonardo (born 1690 at Strongoli, died 1732 at Naples), 

p. 21. 

Viola, p. in. 

Viola da braeeio = viola. 

Viola da gamba = bass viol. 

Violente, violently. 

Violin, p. 109. 

Violin-Clef, distinguishes the line, round which the spiral 
part of the sign curves, as G-line, i.e., the position 
of g'. 

ViolOn (Fr.), violin. 

Violoncello, p. m. 

Viotti, Giovanni Battista (born 1753 at Fontanetto da Po, died 
1824 in London), the oldest master of modern violin- 
playing, and a prolific and important composer for his 
instrument, p. 23. 

Virdung, Sebastian, priest and organist at Amberg, the 
author of "Musica getutscht und ausgezogen durch 
S. Virdung," an invaluable work, dealing with the 
history of instruments, reprinted in 1511. 

Vitry, Philipp (Philippus de Vitriaco), (born c. 1290-1361), a 
prominent theorist, who effected many reforms, />. 100. 

Vivace, lively. 

Vivaeissimo, very lively. 

Vivaldi, Antonio (born c. 1680 ; died 1743), />. 23. 

ViVO, lively. 

Vocalises (Fr.), singing exercises for the study of correct voice 
production on the basis of vowel pronunciation. 

Vogler, Georg Joseph (Abbe), (born 1749 at Wiirzburg, died 
1814 at Darmstadt), known as the author of several 
works on the science of music. 

Voice, A 133- 


Volkmann, Friedrich Robert (born 1815 at Lomatzsch, died 
1883 at Pesth), />. 46. 

VOPSChlag (appoggiatura, acciaccatura), a note which orna- 
ments a principal note, by being played before it and 
in connection with it. It is recognisable by being 
smaller than the others ; it appears in the bar in the 
place of the ornamented note, and often has the principal 
accent. A Vorschlag is short [acciaccatura] when there 
is a stroke through the tail, or if its value is less than 
& of the value of the principal note. The long Vorschlag 
[appoggiatura] is played with the value indicated by 
its shape ; the short Vorschlag as rapidly as possible. 
When these ornaments consist of more than one note 
they must be performed more or less quickly in propor- 
tion to the pace and style of the piece. 

WagneP, Richard (born 1813 at Leipzig, died 1883 at Venice), 

/ 4i- 

[Wallace, William Vincent (born 1814 at Waterford in Ireland, 
died 1865), composer of operas " Maritana," " Lurline," 
" The Amber Witch," etc.] 

Walther, Johann Gottfried (1684-1748), author of the first 
biographical-bibliographical-technical-musical dictionary 
WebeP, Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von (born 1786 

at Eutin, died 1826 in London), p. 38. 

Gottfried, (born 1779 at Freinsheim, died 1839 at 

Kreuznach), made a name as a theorist by a 

new system of indicating chords by letters and 


Weelkes, Thomas, organist at Winchester about 1600, composer 

of Madrigals, etc. 
WeJgfl, Joseph (born 1766 at Eisenstadt, died 1846 at Vienna), 

/ 34- 

Weitzmann, Karl Friedrich (born 1808 at Berlin, died there 
1880), writer on music and excellent theorist ; his chief 
work was a " History of Piano Playing and the 

Werstowsky (1799-1862), p. 27. 
Whole tone, pp. 5. 53 s 8 - 

WleniaWSki, Henri (1835-1880), important violinist and com- 
poser of some pieces for his instrument, p. 23. 

Wlllaert, Adrian (c. 1480 or 1490-1562), founder of the old 
Venetian School, important composer of masses, motetts, 
madrigals, Psalms, etc. 

Wind Instruments, pp. 131 "4- 

Winter, Peter von (1754-1825). 

Winterfeld, Karl, G. A. V. von (born 1784 at Berlin, died 

there 1852), important biographer and historian of music ; 

his work on Evangelical church music is excellent. 

Xylophone, /. 131. 

1 87 

Zarlino, Gioseffo (born 1517 at Chioggia, died 1590 at 
Venice), distinguished theorist and composer ; his chief 
works, " Istituzioni armoniche " and " Dimostrazioni 
armoniche " are epoch-making- in that he therein 
distinguishes major and minor chords as being the 
reverse or opposite of one another (see pp. 57-59). He 
determines the 3rd as the ratio 4 : 5, and recognises 
the difference between the thirds of the major and the 
minor chords as being one of position only [not of size], 

Zelter, Karl Friedrich (1758-1832), founded the first male choral 
society in Germany. 

Zieh-Hamion'ka, a wind instrument with reeds, to which the 
wind, which is generated in folding bellows, has access 
by means of keys. The metal reeds vibrate partly, as in 
a Harmonium, by the pressing together of the bellows 
(pressing in the air), partly, as in an American Organ, 
by the drawing asunder of the bellows (sucking out 
the air). 

Zingara (alia), in the gypsy style, emotional. 

Zingarelli, Nicola Antonio (1752-1837) p. 21. 

Zumsteeg, Johann Rudolf (born 1760 at Sachsenflur, died 1802 
at Stuttgart), p. 33. 







s. d. 
9171 ALEXANDER, J. " Con Amore." Poetical Introduction 

to Musical Instruction ... - 3 - 

10123 ANTCLIFFE, H. The Successful Music Teacher. 

Second Impression 1 

10124 How to Pass Music Examinations. The Successful 

Candidate. Words of Advice Paper 1 6 

10125 The Amateur Singer. Woids of Advice 1 - 

BACH.J.S. Analysis of J. S. Bach's "48 Preludes and 

Fugues" (Wohltemperites Clavier). By Dr. H. Riemann. 
Fourth Impression : 

9205 Part I. 24 Preludes and Fugues Bound 3 - 

9206 Part II. 24 ,. Third Impression Bound 8 - 

to a Lady, by Dr. C. Reinecke, translated by 

E. M. Trevenen Dawson 8 9 
'10091 CARSE, ADAM. Summary of the Elements of Music, 

with Exercises & Instructions on " How to Write Music" 1 6 

10092 Key to the above 1 6 

10093 Practical Hints on Orchestration _, 1 6 

' CLARKE,!. A. Catechism of the Rudiments of Music. 

384th Edition Paper 1 6 

COCKING, F. The Composer's Vade Mecum. 

(English-Italian) - 9 

9215 CROKER, NORRIS. Handbook for Singers. Sixth 

Impression Bound 8 - 

9199 DANNREUTHER, E. Wagner and the Reform of the 

Opera Bound with Portrait 6 - 

10097 DAUGHTRY, O. Ear-Tests and How to prepare for 

Them. Fourth Impression 3 8 

EVETTS, EDGAR T. The Vocal Student's Practice 

Register with Vocabulary - 9 

Modulator for use of Students of the Numeral and 
Rhythmic Methods (Vocal) 1 6 

9179 GOODWIN, A. Practical Hints on the Technique and 
Touch of Pianoforte Playing. With Illustrations. 
Fourth Impression Bound 3 - 

HAMILTON. Dictionary of Musical Terms. Bound 2/3 1 6 

10112 HE ALE, H. A Short Treatise on the Rudiments of Music. 

16mo. - 9 

s. d. 
PRACTICE RECORD and Mark Register for Music 

Pupils. Arranged for three terms 1 6 

The same, arranged for one term - 9 

10116 POCHHAMMER, A. Popular Handbook of Musical 

Information. (H. Heale) Bound 4 - 


9182 Harmony : Its Theory and Practice. Thirty - ninth 

Impression Bound 7 6 

9182 Analytical Key to the Exercises in the same. Fifth 

Impression Bound 6 - 

9183 Counterpoint : Strict and Free. Twelfth Impression. 

Bound 7 6 

9183a Additional Exercises to " Counterpoint " with Melodies 
and Unfigured Basses for harmonizing. Eighth 

Impression Bound 3 6 

9184 Double Counterpoint and Canon. Fifth Impression. Bound 7 6 

9185 Fugue. Seventh Impression Bound 7 6 

9186 Fugal Analysis. Fourth Impression Bound 7 6 

9187 Musical Form. Tenth Impression Bound 7 6 

9188 Applied Forms. Eighth Impression Bound 7 6 

The Orchestra : 

9189 I. Technique of the Instruments. Seventh Impression. 

.<- Bound 7 6 

9190 II. Orchestral Combination. Seventh Impression. Bound 7 6 

9181 PROUT, LOUIS B. Harmonic Analysis. Second Edition 3 - 

10106 Sidelights on Harmony 3 - 

10107 Time, Rhythm and Expression. Second Impression ... - 9 

9210 REINECKE, C. The Beethoven Pianoforte Sonatas. 
Letters to a Lady. Translated by 

E. M. Trevenen Dawson 3 9 

9198 RIEMANN, Dr. H. Harmony Simplified ; or the Theory 
of the Tonal Functions of Chords. Trans, from the 

German. Second Impression Bound 6 - 

10115 L' Harmonic simplified, ou TheYirie des fonctions tonales 

des accords. Translated by Prof. Georges Humbert ... 4 6 

9201 Catechism of Musical Instruments (Guide to Instrumenta- 

tion). Third Impression Bound 3 - 

Catechism of Musical History : 

9202 Part I. History of Musical Instruments, and Hist ry of 

Tone Systems and Notations. Third Impression. Bound 3 - 

9203 Part II. History of Musical Form, with Biographical 

Notices. Third Impression Bound 3 - 

9204 Catechism of Pianoforte Playing. Third Impression. Bound 3 - 

9207 Catechism of Musical /Esthetics. Second Impression. 

Bound 3 - 
9209 Catechism of Orchestration Bound ii - 

9208 Introduction to playing from Score Bound 3 - 

RIEMANN, Dr. H. (Contd.) Net 

Analysis of J. S. Bach's ' 48 Preludes and Fugues." s d. 

9205 Part I. 24 Preludes and Fugues. Fourth Impression. 

Bound 8 - 

9206 Part II. 24 Preludes and Fugues. Third Impression. 

Bound 8 - 

ROCKSTRO, W. S. Practical Harmony ... Bound 3 - 

Key to " Practical Harmony " 2 8 

Rules of Counterpoint Bound 8 - 

A History of Music. Twenty-fifth Edition. Bound 3 - 

9193 RUBINSTEIN, A. Music and its Masters. A Conversa- 

tion. Third Impression Bound 8 - 

9312 SCHROEDER, C. Handbook of Violin & Viola Playing. 

Fourth Impression Bound 3 - 

9211 Handbook of Violoncello Playing. I-ourtn Impression. 

Bound 3 - 

9218 Handbook of Conducting. (J- Matthews.) Fifth Impres- 
sion Bound 3 - 

9194 SCHUMANN. Adyice to Young Musicians - 9 

10146 SHEDLOCK, I. S. Beethoven Pianoforte Sonatas. The 

Origin and Respective Values of Various Readings ... 1 6 

10148 SHINN, Dr. F. G. Elementary Ear-Training. 

I. Melodic 6 - 

II. Harmonic and Contrapuntal 6 - 

A Method of Teaching Harmony based upon Ear-Training : 

10150 I. Diatonic Harmony 6 - 

10151 II. Chromatic Harmony and Exceptional Progression ... 7 6 

10152 Musical Memory and its Cultivatioo ... .. 6 - 

10121 SIBLEY, C. The Voice and its Control 

1 6 

10131 SIMPSON, J. 300 Questions on the Grammar of Music. 
Based on the Syllabus of the Associated Board of the 

R.A.M. and R.C.M 1 6 

10182 Key to the above ... 1 6 

10133 400 Questions on the Rudiments of Music 2 6 

10134 Key to the above 3 6 

10185 A concise text book on the Rudiments of Music 2 6 

9196 STE1LER. J. The Great German Composers. Bio- 
graphical Notices, with some account of their Works. 

Illustrated. Bound 5 - 

SUTTON.R. Elements of the Theory of Music. Bound 3 - 

10109 WARREN, J. Catechism of the Harmonium - 9 

WEST, G. F. Hints to Young Teachers of the PianoJorte 1 8 
WHITTINGHAM, A. 200 Questions and Exercises on 

F. Davenport's " Elements of Music - 9 



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