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Full text of "Popular poetry of the Baloches"

Jfolh-f mat 



FOR COLLECTING AND PRINTING 



RELICS OF POPULAR ANTIQUITIES, &c. 



ESTABLISHED IN 

THE YEAR MDCCCLXXVIII. 




PUBLICATIONS 

OF 
THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY 

LIX. 

[1905] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. 

OF this work 1,000 copies are printed, 700 of which 
are issued with the title-page of the Folk-Lore Society, 
and 300 with the title-page of the Royal Asiatic Society 



POPULAR POETRY 

OF THE 

BALOCHES 



BY 

M. LONGWORTH DAMES, M.R.A.S. 

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE (RETIRED) 



VOL. I 



for the Jf,olk-fC.ar.e <S0mtg -bg 
DAVID NUTT, 57 59 LONG ACRE 
LONDON 
1906 









GLASGOW I PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. 



PREFACE 

IN bringing the Popular Poetry of the Baloches to a 
conclusion and laying before the Public the result of 
many years' labour in collecting, transcribing and trans- 
lating the ballads and verses here set forth, I have the 
greatest pleasure in acknowledging the action of the 
Folklore Society in issuing this book as the Annual 
Volume for 1905, and in thanking the Council and the 
Society for giving me the opportunity of publishing a 
work of this kind, which necessarily appeals to a limited 
public. 

My sincerest thanks are due also to the Royal Asiatic 
Society for its assistance and co-operation, without which 
it would have been impossible to include a complete 
collection of the original texts from which the English 
renderings are made. 

Without these texts the translations, the value of which 
depends mainly on the correctness of my interpretations, 
would have lost much of their value. 

To both Societies I now express my heartiest thanks 
for their kindness. 

M. L. D. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION. 

PACE 

I. Sources and Origins, - ... x iii 

II. Character of BalochI Poetry, xv 

III. Classification of Poems, ----- xxi 

1. Heroic or Epic Ballads. 

2. Later Tribal Poems, mainly War Ballads. 

3. Romantic Ballads. 

4. Love-Songs and Lyrics. 

5. Religious and Didactic Poems. 

6. Short Poems (Lullabys, Dastanaghs, and Riddles). 

IV. Forms of Verse, xxix 

V. Methods of Singing, xxxiv 

VI. Antiquity of Heroic Poems, xxxvi 

VII. System of Translation, xxxix 



TRANSLATIONS WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES 
PART I. 

HEROIC OR EPIC BALLADS. 

PART 

I. Ballad of Genealogies, i 

II. The Horse-race, i, 3 

III. The Horse-race, 2, 4 



viii Contents. 

PART PAGE 

IV. The Slaughter of Gohar's Camels and Chakur's 

Revenge, i, 5 

V. The Slaughter of Gohar's Camels and Chakur's 

Revenge, 2, 9 

VI. War of the Rinds and Lasharls, i, - - - - 12 

VII. War of the Rinds and Lasharls, 2, - - - - 13 

VIII. Origin of Baloches and Outbreak of the War, - - 15 

IX. Gohar, with the Episode of the Lizard, - - - 17 

X. The Bulmats and Kalmats, 19 

XI. Chakur and Gwaharam, la, 2O 

Chakur and Gwaharam, i, - - . - . 2I 

Chakur and Gwaharam, 2, 22 

Chakur and Gwaharam, 3, ..... 23 

Chakur and Gwaharam, 4, ----- 24 

Chakur and Gwaharam, 5, ----- 25 

XII. Chakur and Haibat, 26 

XIII. Chakur and Jaro, i, 27 

Chakur and Jaro, 2, - 2 g 

XIV. The Song of Nodhbandagh, - - . . . 29 
XV. The Song of Dilmalikh, - 3I 

XVI. Shahzad's Expedition to Dehli, ..... 32 

XVII. War of the Rinds and Dodals, 34 

Bijar's First Song, i, 

Babar's First Song, 2, 

Jongo's Song, 3, g 

Hairo's Song, 4j 

Bijar's Second Song, 5, g 

Hajl Khan's Song, 6, 

Bijar's Third Song, 7, - .... 
Babar's Second Song, 8, ..... 



XVIII. The War of Doda and Balach with the Buledjiis, 






Contents. ix 



PAGE 



XVIII. Story of Doda and Balach in Prose, 41 

1. The Death of Doda, 43 

2. Balach's First Song, 44 

3. Balach's Second Song, 45 

XIX. Rehan's Lament, - - 46 

XX. Blvaragh and the King of Kandahar's Daughter, - 48 
XXI. Fragments of Ballads 

1. The Servile Tribes, 52 

2. How Doda became a Rind, 52 

3. The Women Prisoners, 53 

4. Satirical Verses by the Dodals, - - - 53 
XXII. Murid and Ham- 
Introductory Note, 54 

Poem, 55 



PART II. 

LATER TRIBAL POEMS, MAINLY WAR BALLADS. 

XXIII. The Wedding of Mitha, - 58 

XXIV. The Mazaris and Jamall Brahols, ... 60 
XXV. The Battle of TibbI Lund, 63 

XXVI. The Gurchanls, Drlshaks and Mazaris, - - 67 

XXVII. The Mazaris and Gurchanls, .... 69 

XXVIII. The Jatois and Mazaris, 73 

XXIX. The Lay of Hamal, 76 

XXX. The Khosas, 77 

XXXI. The Marls and Musakhel, 79 

XXXII. The Drlshaks and Bugtis, i, .... 82 

The Drlshaks and Bugtis, 2, .... 86 



Contents. 



PART 



PAGE 



XXXIII. The Khosas and Legharis, 89 

Sobha's First Song, I, 91 

Gahl's First Song, 2, 93 

Sobha's Second Song, 3, ----- 95 

Gahl's Second Song, 4, 97 

XXXIV. Sandeman's Expedition, 100 
XXXV. Sandeman's Expedition, 2 (in Jatkl), - 102 

XXXVI. Elegy on Nawab Jamal Khan, - 105 



PART III. 

ROMANTIC BALLADS. 

XXXVII. Lela and Majna, - in 

XXXVIII. Bivaragh's Love Song, - 113 

XXXIX. Miran's Message, i, 115 

Mlran's Message, 2, - - - 116 

XL. Parat and Shiren,- - 117 

XLI. Dosten and Shiren, 118 

The Story (in Prose), - 118 

The Poem, 121 



PART IV. 
LOVE SONGS AND LYRICS. 

Note on Durrak's Love Songs, - - 124 

XLI I. Durrak's Love Songs, I, 124 

XLIII. Durrak's Love Songs, 2, 125 

XLIV. Durrak's Love Songs, 3, - - - 126 

XLV. Durrak's Love Songs, 4, - - - 127 



Contents. xi 

PART PAGE 

XLVI. Durrak's Love Songs, 5, 128 

XLVII. The Women Bathing, - - 128 

XLVIII. The Pans, - 129 

XLIX. A Leghari Love-Song, - 130 

L. i. Sohna's Song, - - - - 131 

2. Bashkali's Reply, 132 



PART F. 

RELIGIOUS AND DIDACTIC POEMS, AND LEGENDS 
OF SAINTS. 

LI. Shahzad's Poem, I, - - 135 

Translation of Persian MS., 2, 136 

Prose Legend of Shahzad's Birth, 3, - 138 

LII. Isa and Barl, - 139 

Note on Poems LI 1 1 to LV., - 141 

LII I. Brahim's Poem, 142 

LIV. Lashkaran's Poem, No. i, - - - 144 

LV. Lashkaran's Poem, No. 2, - - - - 146 

LVI. Tawakkuli's Poem, - 147 

LVII. Moses and Zumzum, Note, - ... I4 o, 

Moses and Zumzum, Poem, ----- 149 

Prose Stories of Moses, a, 152 

Prose Stories of Moses, , 153 

Prose Stories of Moses, r, 156 

LVII I. The Prophet's Mi'raj, - - 157 
LIX. Poems regarding Ali 

1. The Pigeon and the Hawk, - - - 161 

2. All's generosity, 162 

LX. Youth and Age, by Jlwa, 165 

LXI. Youth and Age, by Haidar, 167 



xii Contents. 

APPENDIX TO PART V. 

LEGENDS IN PROSE. 

PART PAGE 

The Story of Dris the Prophet, - - - 169 

The Shrine of Hazrat Ghaus (from Masson), - 174. 

The Story of Muhabbat Khan and Sumrl, - - 175 

The Legend of Plr Suhri, 178 

PART VI. 

SHORT POEMS, LULLABYS, DASTANAGHS, AND RIDDLES. 

LXII. Cradle Songs, etc., i, - 182 

Cradle Songs, etc., 2, - - - 182 

Cradle Songs, etc., 3, 183 

Playing Song, 4, - - 184 

LXII I. Dastanaghs, 184 

LXIV. Rhyming Riddles and Puzzles, 195 



ERRATA. 

Page line 

xxi. 29 Between lands and Sibi, insert 'of.' 

xxvi. 6,7 Omit 'with slight variations.' 

5 24 For Chaneser read Chanesar. 

10 Note 3 For lato read lalo. 

51 9 For Qurans read Quran. 

54 2, 3 After line 2 insert ' The Kirds carry burdens for our 

servants. ' 

76 Note 2 For XXII. read XXIV. 

83 Note i Add 'Here, however, Multan Mai may mean "the Cham- 

pion of Multan." ' 

84 20 For and a thousand read with a thousand combats. 
84 Note 4 Add 'See also p. 178.' 

8 8 il} For are read art ' 

96 28 After Kach insert 'The Hots in the van seized Chatr and 

PhulejI.' 

97 8 After two insert 'Alive and unhurt you lay down on the 

ground. ' 

105 Note For XXXI. read XXXIII. 
177 Note Fo> XVII. read XVIII. 



INTRODUCTION 



1. SOURCES AND ORIGINS. 

THE existence of BalochI poetry may be said to have 
been unknown until Leech published some specimens 
in his ' Sketch of the BalochI Language ' in the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, in 1840. Unfortunately, 
owing to misprints and misspellings, these poems have 
been found very hard to decipher, and contributed little 
to our knowledge of the subject. In the present col- 
lection I have ventured to give them in an amended 
text, reading them in the light derived from the study 
of similar verse. Nos. XXI. I (b\ XXIV. and XXXVIII. 
(2) are taken from Leech, and in Nos. XXII. and LI I. 
his versions have been used in collation with others. 

After Leech's death no attention seems to have 
been bestowed on the subject for many years. In 1877 
Sir R. Burton, in his Sindh Revisited, gave translations, 
without original texts, of three ballads, of which one 
(No. XXI. i (b) in this collection) was borrowed word 
for word from Leech without acknowledgment, and 
another was an extended version of 'fsa and Ban 
(No. LI I.), also given by Leech. The third ballad will 
be found in Burton's book (Sindh Revisited^ ii. 168). 
I do not reproduce it here, as it is doubtful whether 
Burton had any real acquaintance with BalochI. With 
this exception, I believe that after Leech's time no attempt 
was made to reduce to writing the poetry of the Baloches 
until I began to do so in 1875, and obtained many poems 



xiv Introduction. 

during the next few years at Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, 
Sibi (SevI), and in the hill country of the Legharis, 
Gurchanls, Marls, and Bugtis. Some of these were 
published with translations in iSSi. 1 Brahim Shambam, 
Khuda Bakhsh Marl Dom, and a Lasharl Gurcham 
contributed the greater portion of these, and some were 
repeated to me by the headman of the Ghulam Bolak 
Rinds at Sibi. Afterwards the greater number came 
from Ghulam Muhammad BalachanI, Baga Lasharl, 
and Baga Dom. Brahim Shambam, Panju Bangulani, 
and Jlwa Kird repeated to me their own poems which 
are given here. A few poems (without translations) were 
included in my Balochi Text-book (1891), and a few 
(with translations) were embodied in ' The Adventures 
of Mir Chakur' which I contributed to Sir R. Temple's 
Legends of the Panjdb. I continued collecting until 
I finally severed my connection with the land of the 
Baloches in 1896, but with the exceptions above 
mentioned none of the poems have been printed. I 
have now included all the poems, and have carefully 
revised the text and translations of those already pub- 
lished. Since I left the country another collector, the 
Rev. T. M. Mayer, has taken up the work, and has 
printed the result in pamphlet form. 2 Mr Mayer has 
kindly permitted me to make use of these materials, and 
I have given them in full where I had no other versions 
of the same poems. Where I had versions taken 
down by myself (or in two cases derived from Leech) 
I have collated them, and have often been able to 
frame in this way a more satisfactory text than could 
be derived from any one version. I have followed the 
same course when I have found among my own notes 

x ln my 'Sketch of the Northern Balochi Language' (Extra No. of the 
J.A.S.B. 1880). 

"Partly at his private press, Fort Munro, and partly at the Sikandra 
Orphanage Press, Agra; 1900 and 1901. 



Sources and Origins. xv 

more than one version of the same poem. For the 
translations I am myself responsible throughout, as I con- 
sidered Mr. Mayer's translations too literal to be useful 
except to students of the BalochI language, but I found 
them of great value in arriving at the correct meaning 
of the poems, often by no means an easy task. 

Besides my own collections and those of Lieut. Leech 
and Mr. Mayer, the only contribution is taken from R. B. 
Hetu Ram's Biluchi-nama} whence come the poem of 
Doda, No. XVIII. (i), and another used in collation 
in No. IX. The prose legend of Plr Suhrl is also derived 
from this source. 

In all poems, or prose narratives, taken down by 
myself, I have carefully recorded the actual words of 
the narrator. The source of each poem is indicated 
in the prefatory note which precedes it. 

It will be noticed that the whole body of poems 
given in this volume belongs to the Northern variety of 
the BalochI language. I have not been able to dis- 
cover any poems in Mekrani BalochI. They must 
exist among the tribes of Mekran and Persian Baloch- 
istan, and it may be hoped that some official or 
traveller who has access to those regions will take the 
trouble to record some of them before they are lost. 



11. CHARACTER OF BALOCHl POETRY. 

The poems thus collected form a considerable body of 
verse which circulates orally among the Baloch tribes 
occupying the country which extends from the Bolan 
Pass and the Plain of Kachhl (the Kachh Gandava of 
the maps) through the southern part of the Sulaiman 

1 In Urdu. Published at Lahore, 1881. The English translation by Mr. 
J. M'C. Douie (Calcutta, 1885) does not contain the poems, but has some 
additional prose stories, from which the story of Murid (see introduction 
to Murid and Hani, No. XXII.) is derived. 



xvi Introduction. 

Mountains to the plains along the right bank of the 
Indus in the South Punjab and North Sindh. The central 
part of this area is occupied by ridges of barren rock, and 
intervening valleys scarcely less barren. The Baloches 
who inhabit it are divided into many tribes and clans ; 
for a description of whom and an account of how they 
came to occupy the country where they now dwell, I 
may be allowed to refer to my monograph on the 
subject lately published. 1 The history of the race is 
not without an important bearing on the ballads, as will 
be seen below. 

Attached to these tribes are many families of a race 
known as Doms or Bombs, the hereditary bards and 
minstrels of the Baloches, who are the depositaries of the 
ancient poetic lore. Through them it has been handed 
down to the present day with substantial accuracy, though 
not without variation, as becomes apparent when more 
than one version of a ballad is available. These Doms 
are found not only in Balochistan, but also in Afghanistan 
(where their name takes the shortened form Dum), in 
Persia, and in North-west India (their original home). 
They generally make use among themselves of some 
dialect of SindhI or Western Punjabi, but are, according 
to their location, equally familiar with Persian or Pashto, 
Balochi or Brahol. 

Among the Baloches they are the professional minstrels, 
they sing the poems in the assemblies of the clans, but 
are not poets themselves, as they often are among the 
Afghans. 2 They are merely the agency for handing down 
the older poems or publishing the compositions of modern 
poets, who are in almost every case true Baloches and 
not men of low or mixed origin, as among the Afghans. 
It would be undignified for a Baloch to sing or recite 

1 The Baloch Race. By M. Longworth Dames, 1904. The Royal Asiatic 
Society. 

2 See J. Darmesteter, Chants des Afghanes. Paris 1888-90, p. cxciii. 140. 



Character of Balochi Poetry. xvii 

a poem publicly ; so a poet who wishes to make his 
composition known seeks out a Dom and teaches it to 
him. Allusions to this practice are frequent in the poems, 
e.g. in No. XXVI I., where the 'sweet-singing Lori' is 
enjoined to listen carefully to the words of the song. 
(The name Lori, minstrel, the Persian Lurl, is frequently 
given to Doms in poetry.) 

The whole of this poetry is purely popular in origin and 
form. There has never been in Balochi a literature in 
the correct sense of the term, and literary influence 
cannot be detected anywhere, except perhaps in one or 
two of the love-poems. The forms of Persian poetry 
which have been the universal standard, even of popular 
poetry, in Afghanistan and Musalman India, are not to 
be found here. There are no ghazals, no artificial 
arrangements of poems in divans, none of the pedantry 
of Persian prosody. As in form, so in substance, Balochi 
poetry is simple and direct in expression, and excels in 
vivid pictures of life and country, which it brings before 
us without any conscious effort at description on the part 
of the singer. As might be expected in a parched-up 
land, where water is scarce and rain seldom falls, the 
poets delight in describing the vivid thunderstorms which 
occasionally visit the mountains and the sudden trans- 
formation of the country side which follows a fall of 
rain. The heavy atmosphere laden with dust and haze 
is transformed into one of transparent clearness and 
inspiriting freshness ; the brown mountain-side is covered 
in a few days with a bright green carpet, the dry 
watercourses become flowing streams, waterfalls leap 
from the heights, and every rocky hollow holds a pool 
of fresh water. The shepherds, armed with sword and 
shield and matchlock, stride along singing in front of 
their flocks marching to the upland pastures from the 
parched and sweltering lowlands, and the women join in 
bands and wander about alone in the hills, free from male 

b 



xviii Introduction. 

molestation, as is described in Dosten and Shiren (XLL). 
So this season is to the Baloch poet what the summer- 
tide was to the old English bards who sang of Robin 
Hood: 

' In somer when the shawes be sheyne 
And leves be large and long, 
Hit is full mery in feyre foreste 
To here the foulys song.' 

Vivid sceens of war and rapine are common, and the 
characters of the actors are sharply defined and 
brought out in their actions and speeches. 

The names of the authors of the poems are preserved 
in the majority of cases owing to the custom of 
reciting the name and description of the author with 
the subject of his song as a preface to the actual 
singing of the poem. This preface is treated as an 
integral part of the poem (as in the case of some of 
the psalms of David or Asaph) and is never omitted 
by a properly trained Dom, although in some of the 
poems in this collection (collected from non-professional 
reciters) it has not been recorded. In this point Balochl 
poetry differs from popular poetry generally, as usually 
the author of any particular ballad or song is not 
known ; and in any case the personality of the author 
is not a matter of importance ; the true ballad is im- 
personal. To a certain extent Balochl poetry shares 
this characteristic with that of other nations : a general 
similarity of style and treatment runs though a whole 
class of ballads or songs, and epithets and phrases are 
repeated over and over again; there is a conventional 
dialect and phraseology which every author must follow. 

In spite of this, however, there is a much stronger 
personal element than is usual in ballad poetry. It 
would not be correct to say here, as has been well 
observed with regard to the English and Scottish 
ballads: 'Not only is the author of a ballad invisible 






Character of Balochi Poetry. xix 

and, so far as the effect which the poem produces on 
the hearer is concerned, practically non-existent, but the 
teller of the tale has no r61e in it. ... The first 
person does not occur at all except in the speeches 
of the several characters. ' 1 

These words could not be applied to many of the 
poems in this collection, in which the authors are 
themselves actors, and speak in the first person. This 
remark applies especially to the following poems : 

No. XI. Containing the five poems exchanged between 
Chakur and Gwaharam. 

XIII. Poems of Chakur and Jaro. 

XIV. The song of Nodhbandagh. 

XVI. Shahzad's ballad of the conquest of Dehll. 
XVII. The eight poems of Bijar, Babar, and others 
regarding the war between the Rinds and 
Dodals. 

XVIII. (2 and 3) The poems of Balach. 
XIX. Rehan's lament. 
XX. Blvaragh's elopement. 

It also applies to some of the later war ballads. These 
poems are full of satire and invective ; they are believed 
to be the actual utterances of the celebrated leaders whose 
names they bear, and I can assign no good reason for 
refusing credence to this belief. The personal feeling is 
so strong, and the allusions to contemporary persons and 
events long since forgotten are so numerous, that it is 
difficult to account for these poems on any other theory. 
The language, as I show elsewhere, 2 lends support to this 
view. It may be held, however, that these personal poems 
are not ' ballads ' in the strict interpretation of the term ; 
and, if the word ' ballad ' necessarily implies a story, it 

Cambridge Edition of Child's English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 
London, 1905, p. xi, Introduction. 
2 See Note, vol. ii. p. 180. 



xx Introdiiction. 

is true that they do not always answer to the test. Never- 
theless, in form and language they belong to the same 
class as the true ballads, and it is not possible always to 
draw a hard and fast line of demarcation between what 
is a ballad and what is not. These poems form an 
important part of what may be called the heroic or epic 
poetry, equally with the purely narrative ballads, and the 
long speeches and invectives put into the mouths of the 
heroes of the Iliad and other primitive epics must have 
been derived from originals of this description. In con- 
sidering poetry intended for recitation to an audience 
already familiar with all the events of the story, it must 
be remembered that the verses containing or believed to 
contain the actual words addressed by a hero warrior 
to his adversaries are quite as important as the purely 
narrative poems. One class cannot be dealt with apart 
from the other, and I prefer to use the word ballad in a 
sense wide enough to cover both. 

These poems bea*r a strong resemblance to the older 
parts of the Poema del Cid, in which there is a similar 
strong personal element. The Cid poems are less primi- 
tive and have been more subject to literary influences 
than the heroic ballads of the Baloches (although in actual 
date they are older), and there is no part of them as they 
stand which can be attributed to the eleventh century, 
when the Cid lived ; but the resemblance is still con- 
siderable, and we may well believe it would be still 
stronger if we had before us the original songs from 
which the existing Cid ballads are derived. The purely 
narrative ballads which deal with the old wars in an im- 
personal style are probably somewhat later than those 
referred to above, but many of them no doubt go back to 
a period not long after the events dealt with. 



Classification of Poems. xxi 



III. CLASSIFICATION OF POEMS. 

The whole body of poetry here set forth may be con- 
veniently considered under the following heads : 

1. Heroic or epic ballads dealing with the early wars 

and settlements of the Baloches. 

2. More recent ballads, mainly dealing with the wars of 

tribes now existing, and other tribal ballads. 

3. Romantic ballads. 

4. Love songs and lyrics. 

5. Religious and didactic poems. 

6. Short poems, including lullabys, dastanaghs, and 

rhymed riddles. 

I. The first class includes the poems numbered from 
I. to XXII. (forty poems in all), and comprises ballads of 
both the classes alluded to above in II. These form the 
oldest and most important part of the traditional lore of 
the Baloches. The central event dealt with is the war 
of the Rinds and the Lasharis, and some ballads refer 
to the events leading up to or following this war, and to 
the war of the Rinds and Dodals. Briefly the argument 
may be stated as follows : 

The Baloches formed one body, divided into several 
tribes, of which the Rinds and the Lasharis were the 
chief. A great movement of the race took place, which 
led to its descent into the plains of India by the Bolan, 
the Mullah, and other passes, and the occupation of the 
lands SibI (always called SevI), Bagh, Shoran, and the 
plain of Kachhl generally. Here they soon began to 
quarrel, and a rivalry sprang up between Mir Chakur, chief 
of the Rinds, and Mir Gwaharam, chief of the Lasharis. 
The principal cause of the feud was a lady named Gohar, 
who was beloved by Gwaharam, but rejected his suit and 
took refuge with Chakur, who also loved her. About 
this time a horse-race took place, in which Ramen Lasharl 



xxii Introduction. 

and Rehan Rind backed their respective mares. Ramen 
by right won the race, but the Rinds falsely awarded the 
victory to Rehan. A party of Lasharls then went off 
and slaughtered some of Gohar's young camels. She 
attempted vainly to conceal this from Chakur, who vowed 
revenge. Blvaragh, a leading Rind, tried to restrain him, 
but his cousins, Mlr-Han and Rehan, and the fiery Jaro 
urged him on, and the Lasharls were attacked in the 
Mullah Pass. The Lasharls were supported by the 
Nuhanls, under their chief Omar, who is held up as a 
pattern of liberality. Among the Lasharls the leading 
men were Nodhbandagh, Gwaharam's old father, pro- 
verbial for his wisdom and generosity, Bahar, Bijar, 
Ramen and Bakar. In the battle the Rinds were de- 
feated and Blvaragh and Mir Han were killed. Chakur 
himself was saved by Nodhbandagh, who mounted him 
on his mare Phul and let him escape out of the battle. 
Blvaragh's elopement with the King of Qandahar's 
daughter and his appeal for help to Gwaharam rather 
than to Chakur belong to a period before the feud began. 
Chakur took refuge with the Turks, that is with the 
Mughals of Herat and Kandahar, and finally obtained 
their alliance in spite of bribes sent by the Lasharls and 
the severe tests he had to undergo. The war went on 
for thirty years, and ended in the destruction of most of 
the Lasharls, and the emigration of Chakur to the Pan jab, 
followed by most of the Rind clans. 1 The Rinds of 
Shoran and the MaghassI Lasharls of Jhal still continued 
in KachhI. Chakur and his son Shahzad formed an 
alliance with the Langahs of Multan, and afterwards with 
the Mughals under Humayun, joining in the attack on 
Dehll (XVI.). Many clans refused to accompany him, 

1 The Lasharis seem to have allied themselves with the indigenous tribes ot 
Sindh, the Sammas and Bhattis, to counterbalance the alliance of the Rinds 
with the Turks. Gwaharam [XI. 3, 1. 10] threatens to bring these tribes from 
Thatta. 



Classification of Poems. xxiii 

and recrossed the Indus under Bijar, where they fought 
with the Dodals, already established there under Sohrab 
Khan (XVII.). The only episode dealt with in Part I. 
which is unconnected with what may be called the Chakur 
Cycle is the story of Balach (see prefatory note to 
No. XVIIL). 

The characters of the chief actors in this epic story 
stand out clearly throughout the ballads. Chakur him- 
self is brave, generous, and rash, but with some of the 
failings of a semi-savage. He entices away Hani from 
Murid by unfair means, he provokes Jaro into killing 
his own son, and Haddeh, Chakur's brother-in-law, and 
then taunts him with what he has done. He does all 
this simply to test whether Jaro will keep his oath to 
kill any one who touches his beard. On the other hand 
he behaves with magnanimity in the matter of the Lashari 
women taken prisoners by the Turks and towards Haibat 
when the latter took possession of his camels. He is still 
looked upon as the ideal Baloch chief, and his exploits 
are magnified by modern legends into something mira- 
culous, but in the ballads there is no mixture of the 
supernatural ; the events described are such as may 
actually have happened. Nodhbandagh is the Baloch 
type of generosity, and sets forth his views in charac- 
teristic fashion in No. XIV., which is widely known and 
often quoted. He acts the part of a chivalrous old man 
and saves Chakur's life in the battle because of a charge 
laid upon him by his mother in childhood. Later legend 
has connected miraculous events with his story as well 
as Chakur's, and his name, which means 'the cloud- 
binder,' would seem to have been possibly derived from 
some forgotten mythology. Mir Han and Jaro are fiery, 
impulsive Baloch warriors, impatient of restraint, and 
eager for revenge, while Bivaragh stands out as the man 
of honour and good counsel, who tried to restrain Chakur 
from following the advice which led to such a disastrous 



xxiv Introduction. 

result. Shahzad, Chakur's son, appears rather later in 
the story as a gallant leader in the attack on Dehli, and 
a man of mystical and religious character. Later legend 
attributes his birth to a mystical overshadowing of his 
mother by 'All. 

There is no independent historical evidence regarding 
the thirty-years' war between the Rinds and Lasharls, 
although there is some regarding the alliance with the 
Turks under Zunu, that is, Zu'n-nun Beg Arghun, and 
also regarding the rivalry between the Rinds and the 
Dodals under Sohrab Khan, and of the alliance between 
Chakur and Shahzad and the Langahs of Multan. The 
other actors in the drama are not to be found in written 
history; nevertheless, as the Baloch legend is supported 
by history wherever it is possible to test it, it may 
reasonably be assumed that the whole story is historical 
in the main, although it has no doubt been freely ex- 
aggerated and altered, as is usual when actual historical 
events are dealt with in ballads, as in the Poema del 
Cid already alluded to, and the English ballads of the 
Battle of Otterburn and the Hunting of the Cheviot, which 
show what various forms the same occurrence may assume 
in popular poetry. 

The oldest ballads seem to be those mentioned above 
in 11. as the actual composition of certain actors in 
the story, with which must be classed No. X. (The 
Bulmats and Kalmats), which probably refers to occur- 
rences anterior to the thirty-years' war. The question 
of the antiquity of these poems is discussed below in VI. 
Of the narrative ballads the oldest seem to be Nos. II., 
IV., V, VI., and VII., and some of the romantic ballads 
in Part III. should also be classed with them as regards 
language. Nos. I. and VIII. do not seem to be quite 
so old. Rhyme is only occasionally found in the oldest 
ballads, and becomes more frequent as time goes on. 

2. The later ballads found in Part II. are mainly 



Classification of Poems. xxv 

accounts of inter-tribal wars during the past hundred and 
fifty years. They vary greatly in age and merit. Some 
are spirited and fiery, while others are little more than 
catalogues of warriors. The language is in the main of 
a later type (although old forms not used in conversation 
still survive in poetry), and it is often corrupted by the 
use of a number of unfamiliar words, mainly of Sindhi 
origin. The metres are more elaborate and varied (see 
IV.), and rhyme becomes the rule. Generally one rhyme 
is pursued through a large number of lines, and a change 
is made when it is necessary to allow the singer a pause 
to take breath. This pause is followed by the repetition 
in a highly-pitched tone of the last line uttered before 
the pause, and the singer then drops his voice to the 
pitch in which he has been singing all along, and pro- 
ceeds with the next passage, generally with a new rhyme. 
The best of these war ballads are Nos. XXVII., XXVIII., 
and XXXII. No. XXIIL, the Wedding of Mitha, is a 
poem of a different class, more akin in style to the poems 
of the early time. The elegy on Nawab Muhammad 
Khan (XXXVI.) is the most modern of all. The two 
poems on Sir Robert Sandeman's expedition into the 
Baloch Hills, one in BalochI, and one in Jatki, are also 
modern, and are placed here as most akin in style to the 
war-ballads. 

3. The Romantic ballads are placed in a class by 
themselves, but in style some of them approximate to 
the early heroic ballads, and judging from the language 
none of them can be of very recent date. Others, like 
Blvaragh's love-song, rather resemble the love-songs of 
the eighteenth century (see 4, infra). The language of 
these ballads is generally clear and simple, and free from 
the corruptions which abound in some of the later war- 
ballads and the pedantry of some of the love-songs. 

In Lela and Majna the widely-spread Arab story of 
Laila and Majnun is adopted and given a thoroughly 



xx vi Introduction. 

Baloch setting. The picture of Lela sitting in her little 
hut, and going out to the pools of fresh water after a 
storm in the mountains, is one of great beauty, and is 
expressed in truly poetical language. This scene with 
slight variations is found again in Dosten and Shlren 
(XLL), and in one of the lullabys (LXII. 3) with slight 
variations. 

Dosten and Shlren appears to be a purely Baloch story, 
and the poetical part of it should take a high rank among 
love-ballads. Miran's message (XXXIX.) is also a graceful 
and fantastic poem. Parat and Shlren is evidently an 
adaptation of the Persian tale of Farhad and Shlrin. 

4. Love-songs and lyrics. Under this head I have 
included all the love-poems which are rather lyrical than 
narrative in their character, although it is not always easy 
to discriminate with accuracy between the two classes. 
I have placed Blvaragh's love-song (XXXVIII.) in Part 
III. and the songs of Sohna and Bashkall (L.) in Part IV., 
but there is a strong resemblance between them. On 
the other hand some are love-songs pure and simple, while 
others are tinged with Sufi-ism, and hide a religious 
meaning under amatory language. 

The most famous Baloch composer of love-songs was 
Jam Durrak, who lived at the court of Nasir Khan, the 
Brahoi Khan of Kilat in the middle of the eighteenth 
century. Five poems in this collection are ascribed to 
him. These beautiful little poems are tender and graceful, 
but artificial in expression, and evidently follow a recog- 
nized conventional code in the imagery and language 
employed. Yet this seems to be an original development 
among the Baloch bards, and, although many Persian 
words and expressions are used, the forms and versification 
are not borrowed from Persian verse, but are the genuine 
forms of Balochl poetry. Nevertheless, these poems lack 
the free and open-air atmosphere of such ballads as 
Lela and Majna, Dosten and Shlren or Miran's love-song ; 



Classification of Poems. xxvii 

they do not bring before us the mountain-side, but the 
bazaars of the towns; and the women who inspire them 
are not the Baloch maidens in their little huts, but the 
gem-bedecked courtesans of those bazaars. Bangles and 
nose-rings and scents of 'attar and musk take the place 
of the picture of the girl coming out of her four-sided 
hut to fill her earthen cup with fresh water after a storm. 
This class of poetry may be compared to the love-poetry 
of the Afghans, as to which Darmesteter has observed : 
' There is always a sound of swinging nose-rings, of gold 
mohars hanging from the hair of the beloved, the glittering 
of tlkas on the forehead, beauty spots on the cheek and 
chin ; there are the complaints of love-lorn mendicants, 
darveshes at the shrine of the loved one, hearts pierced 
by the knife of separation, roasted with grief like a kabdb 
or become sail like Indian widows. The store of poetical 
trinkets has, as we can see, been purchased wholesale in 
the Indian market, and even in the metaphors of senti- 
ment we are involved rather in Indian than in Persian 
traditions.' 

In judging the Balochi love-verse, however, we find that 
the bazaar atmosphere is to some extent tempered by a 
breeze from the desert: the Baloch is not a born towns- 
man, but only a chance visitor, and although his love 
may be set on a lady of the bazaars, he often draws 
his images from nature. The clouds, the rain, the 
lightning, the creeping plants, the flame of a log-fire share 
the realm of jewels and scents, and show that the author 
is not a town-bred man. 

The verses of Sohna and Bashkall are even more 
conventional than those of Durrak, and are full of the 
usual Persian imagery, besides being infected with Sufi 
doctrines. The other short love-poems (XLVL, XLVIL, 
and XLVIII.) are simple and natural, and evidently come 
from the mountains and not from the towns. 

5. Religious and didactic poetry. The religious poetry 



xxviii Introduction. 

falls into two classes, viz. those which set forth the 
Muhammadan faith, or those parts of it which have most 
impressed the poet, and those which deal with legends 
of the Prophet and the Saints. With the latter may be 
classed the prose legends of saints which are included 
in this part or added in the supplement to it. The strange 
verses attributed to Shahzad son of Chakur (LI.) stand 
by themselves, embodying a Hindu tradition as to the 
origin of Multan. The little poem regarding Isa and 
Bar! and the miracle of the tree is perhaps more widely 
known than any other in the BalochI language, having 
been recorded at Dera Ghazi Khan, at Kilat and in Sindh. 
The poems regarding 'All and that of Moses and Sultan 
Zumzum are also popular favourites. The remarkable 
lines on the conflict between Youth and Age, in which 
the two abstractions are personified, is the composition 
of a young Mazari poet of the present day. 

Great originality cannot be expected in religious poetry 
among Musalmans, as the same ideas have permeated 
the whole of Western Asia. It may be noted, however, 
that the Baloch exalts generosity into the first of all the 
virtues, while greed is condemned as the worst of crimes, 
entailing the most severe punishment. The very realistic 
description of the Angel of Death, and the manner in 
which he visits men and presses out their breath is also 
deserving of remark, as an illustration of the anthro- 
pomorphic form inevitably assumed by such legends. 
Still more remarkable is the account of Muhammad's 
visit to heaven, and how the saint, Plr Dastgir, lent him 
his shoulder to mount by, and attained great honour 
thereby (LVIIL). 

In addition to the poem on Youth and Age already 
mentioned there is another on the same subject (LXL), 
in which an aged Mazari laments the advance of age in 
pathetic terms. 

The religious poetry generally displays a sincere and 



Classification of Poems. xxix 

earnest spirit, and a desire to draw moral lessons; the 
morality inculcated being of course that of the Baloch 
race, not always in accord with Western ideas. 

6. The last part contains short poems of various types, 
including three interesting lullabys collected by Mr. Mayer 
in the Leghari Hills, and a girls' singing game from the 
same neighbourhood. The rest of this section is made 
up of dastanaghs and rhyming riddles. 

The little songs called dastanaghs are mostly short 
love-songs of a few lines which are sung to the accompani- 
ment of the nar or Baloch pipe (see prefatory note to 
LXIIL). Some of these are tender love-songs, some are 
comic, nearly all are vivid and picturesque. They are 
all free, open-air compositions without the impress of the 
town and the bazaar. The dastanagh prevails only among 
hillmen, and tends to die out in the more settled parts 
of the country. 

The rhyming riddles and puzzles are characteristic of 
the Baloches, and are much enjoyed by them. They 
are often improvised during journeys regarding objects 
which have been seen or events which have happened 
during the day's march. This form of exercise is also 
prevalent in Sindh. 

IV. FORMS OF VERSE. 

The forms adopted in versification owe, as has already 
been stated, little or nothing to the literary forms of 
Persian poetry which have generally been adopted .in 
neighbouring countries. There is nothing of the nature 
of a quatrain or other form of stanza : every poem of 
whatsoever length consists simply of a number of lines 
of uniform metre, with or without rhyme. The metrical 
system has never been reduced to prosodical rules ; but 
it is, in fact, fairly regular. The metres are quantitative 
in nature, and rhyme is rather an accident than an 



XXX 



Introduction. 



essential feature. It must be remembered that the verse 
is intended to be sung, and always is sung, or chanted, 
to a musical accompaniment, and that a prosodically 
long syllable is actually lengthened in singing to corre- 
spond with the length of the musical note. But proso- 
dical quantity does not always correspond with natural 
or grammatical quantity, but rather with the accent or 
stress which falls on certain syllables. Accent is strong, 
but it does not in any way do away with true metrical 
quantity. The system followed in arranging classical 
metres is, therefore, not unsuitable to Balochl. The 
metres may be classified as follows, long and short 
syllables being marked in the usual way, and accent 
being marked by an upright stroke : 



Examples : 



Guditha hir chi khenagha zahra. 



Rind Lasharl ma-buna bratheri. 



IX. 23. 



II. 29. 



Occasionally the second foot may be a single long 
syllable, as in 



Shihgura shast shangura phanjah. IX. 61. 

The caesura after the second foot is well marked. 

This metre is a very usual one, especially in the older 
poetry. It is found in Nos. II., III., IX., XL (i a, ib, 
2, 3, 4), XVI., XVII. (i, 2, 3, 5), XIX., XX., XXI. (2), 
XXIIL, XXVIIL, XXIX, XLIIL, XLV, LVL, LXL, 
and LXIV. (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 14, 27, 28). 



2. 



This is very similar to No. I., but it has no marked 
caesura, and a redundant syllable is frequently prefixed 
to the first foot. 



Forms of Verse. 



xxxi 



Example : 



gushl gran klmate lale bi drashke. L. (2) 2. 

This metre is not common, and is not found in the older 
poetry. It occurs in XXVI., XXXVIII., L (2). 



3- 



Examples : 



Bachhi man thara rodhentha. 

J I _L _ I _L _ I _L II 

Panjgurl deha ganjena. 

_L I _L _ _ I _L _ I JL II 
Whard dumbaghen meshanl. 



IV. 12. 



IV. 5 . 



XI. (5) 14- 



Occasionally, but not often, a redundant syllable is pre- 
fixed, as 

_!_L_|_L__I_L_I_LII 
Go havd-sadh bangulen warnayan. IV. 121. 

This metre is very common. It is found in Nos. IV, 
V., XL (5), XVII. (4, 6, 7, 8), XVIII. (i), XXXVIL, 
XXXIX., XL., XLL, XLIL, XLIV., XLVL, LIL, LXII. 
LXIV. (17). 



Examples : 



Roshe ma jange darbare. 

_ _ iu ___ ,-JL'I 

Bagan bala zurtha shume. 

_ _ II _ _L _ II 

Zorenwara avristhaghah. 



VII. 57. 

X. i 4 . 

LIX. 23. 



This metre is frequently found. In spite of the short- 
ness of the line there is a distinct caesura. It occurs in 
Nos. VI., VII., X., XIV, XV, XVIIL, (2, 3), XXI. (i), 
XXII., XXX, XLVIIL, LI, LIII, LIX. (i), LXIII. (12), 



xxxii Introduction. 

LXIV. (12, 13, 1 6, 1 8). It bears a strong resemblance 
to the Arabic hazaj metre. 



5. 



Examples : 

_L _ I _L ~ ~ I _L _ II 

Zen trunden arablya. XIII. (i) 3. 



Phopul o hlraii warana. XIII. (2) 23. 

Or with a redundant syllable prefixed : 



Gwar Chakura durren gwahara. XIII. (2) 25. 

This metre is found in Nos. XIII. (i, 2), XXIV., XXV., 
XXXI., XXXIII. (4), LIV., LXIV. (4, 7). 

Examples : 

_!_> _ I _L , _!_!_!_!_,,_!_ II 

Sai sadh phanjah khushta go Lashar-potrava. XII. 21. 



Chakura chham phrushta wathl gudl g'horava. XII. 16. 

-L____IJ___II_1I_L_J_!I 
Haibate Blbrak Rind dema ya kaul khuthe. XII. i. 

J-^__I_L___II_!_I_L__LII 

An wathl baga nelun go Lashar-potrava. XII. 8. 

Bhucharl Dalan kilat nam gire. XXXIII. (i) 5. 

This metre is of a very varied nature, and is uniform 
only in the number of accents or beats. The first part 
of the line has many crowded syllables with only two 
main accents, while the last part is sung slowly with 
the stressed syllables close together. The chant to which 
it is sung is as follows: 



Forms of Verse. xxxiii 

This metre is used in Nos. XII., XXVII., XXXIII. 
(i, 2, 3), XXXVI., LVIL, LIX. (2), LX. 



7- ~ 

Examples : 

_1,_IJ__I_LI_L_-LI! 
Much bant kafutar ma khofagh sara. XLVII. 10. 

This is a shortened form of No. 6, and is sung to the 
same chant. In this form it is found in Nos. XLVII. and 
LV. A variety of this metre is found in L. (i) and in 
LXIV. (23, 25, 26), as follows : 



Pane nishtagha phar baud Kaunsar. L. (i). 



This metre is very clearly divided into two parts by the 
caesura, and it may conveniently be divided in writing 
into two lines. Except for the third foot, consisting of 
two syllables instead of one, it corresponds very closely 
with the classical pentameter. The addition of this 
syllable gives it a rhythm much resembling the English 
metre used (for example) by Swinburne in the well- 
known chorus in Atalanta in Calydon : 

Pleasure, with pain for leaven ; 
Summer, with flowers that fell. 

Compare also the Arabic taivil which resembles this in 
general effect. Sir Charles Lyall has used an adaptation 
of this metre with excellent effect in his translations of 
Arabic poetry. 

It is not very common in Balochl poetry, being found 
only in five of the poems here collected, Nos. L, VIII., 
XXXII. (i, 2), XXXIV. 

Examples : 

_L_l__l_L_ilJ___|_L I II 

Bauf morbandeh lihefan hingaloen manjavan. VIII. 33. 



xxxiv Introduction. 



Mastharen logh Dombkleh, Gaj syahafa sareh. VIII. n. 



Rind Lasharl waryamen hon-ber lotagha. VIII. 100. 

In the last instance one long syllable is substituted with 
good effect for the first foot after the caesura. 

9 . __i ii. 

Example : 

gosheth kunguran. XLIX. I. 

This short metre occurs only in No. XLIX. 

10. Example : 

J_ ~ I .1 _ I _ II 
Nodhari bitha grand. 

Found only in LXIII. (7). 

11. Example: 



Zwaren Zarkhani tho g'horav khai-e. 

Found only in LXIII. (30). 

In all the above metres, when used in poems of any 
length, occasional irregular or defective lines will be found, 
and an unnecessary redundant word, such as the con- 
junction gudd, and, is sometimes found at the commence- 
ment of a line. Such a word receives no stress and does 
not affect the rhythm. 

V. METHODS OF SINGING. 

All poems, with the exception of the dastanaghs given 
under No. LXIII., are sung by Bombs, professional 
minstrels, who accompany them on two instruments, the 
dambiro and the sarlnda. 

The dambiro is a long-stemmed stringed instrument 
with a pear-shaped wooden body shaped like that of a 
mandoline, but cut out of one piece of wood, with the 
exception of the flat surface. It has four gut strings, made 



Methods of Singing. xxxv 

of sheep's gut (roth), and is played with the fingers in the 
manner of a guitar. It is of the same nature as the sitdr 
of Persia and India, but longer, slighter and more grace- 
fully shaped, while simpler. The sitar usually has five 
strings, while the damblro has four. In the hills it is 
usually made of the wood of a small tree, the Tecoma 
Undulata, which in the spring is a conspicuous object 
on the arid mountain sides with its mass of brilliant 
orange-coloured flowers. This is the lahura or lohero 
of the Punjab and Sindh, the reodan of Afghanistan. 
In Balochl it is known as phdrphugh, and the instru- 
ment made of its wood is sometimes alluded to in 
poetry as phdrphugh-ddr or tecoma-wood. It is a tough 
greyish-coloured wood with a fine grain, and takes a 
good polish. 

The name damblro is connected with the Persian tambur 
and dambara, and the Sindhi damburo, and, through the 
Persian word, claims kinship with the tambours and 
tambourines of Europe. 

The other instrument used for accompaniments is the 
sarmdd or sarmdo. This is a short dumpy instrument 
with a wooden body covered with parchment, on which 
the bridge rests (as in a banjo), and a stem curved back 
in a right angle as in the ancient lute. It has five gut 
strings passing over the bridge, and five sympathetic 
wire strings underneath them, which pass through holes 
in the bridge. It is held upright like a violoncello, and 
played with a horse-hair bow. In the hills this instru- 
ment is made of the wood of the Grewia x tree, known in 
Balochl as shdgh\ hence the instrument is often called 
shdgh in poetry. The wood is elastic and tough, and 
of a reddish-brown colour. 

The sarinda has some resemblance to the Indian sarangl, 
but is shorter and broader. The form used throughout 

1 Either G. vestita or G. oppositifolia, or both. The name shagh is used 
for both species. 



xxx vi Introduction. 

Sindh is almost the same. The name seems to be akin 
to sdrangi and the Persian sirinj. 

The nar or pipe is used in accompanying dastanaghs, 
as described in the prefatory note to No. LXIII. It is a 
wooden pipe, about thirty inches in length, bound round 
with strips of raw gut. 

While the performers on the damblro and sarlnda are 
always Doms, the performers on the nar are always 
Baloches. Most of the chants are very monotonous, 
having a range of very few notes. The nar accompani- 
ments are graceful and melodious. 

VI. THE ANTIQUITY OF THE HEROIC 
POEMS. 

The question of the age of these poems has already 
been touched on above, but deserves a fuller investigation. 
The nature of the language is one of the most important 
pieces of evidence, and this I have dealt with separately 
in the note which follows the text in Vol. II. The result 
of this enquiry is that the language of the heroic ballads 
and of two or three of the romantic ballads is distinctly 
of an older type than that now prevailing. In poetry 
many old forms survive even to the present day, but 
it is not difficult to discriminate between the modern 
poems, in which old forms persist, and the really early 
poems, which I believe to date from the early part of 
the sixteenth century. The metres used in the early 
poems are three only, viz., Nos. I, 3, and 4 of those 
mentioned in IV., and they are mainly unrhymed 
Isolated rhymes occur occasionally, and there are a few 
cases of assonance, but this never became the rule as in 
Spanish poetry. In such general historical ballads as 
Nos. I. and VIII., rhyme becomes the rule, and this 
has continued through all the later poetry. No. VIII. 
is evidently a summing up of the whole story long after 



The Antiquity of the Heroic Poems, xxxvii 

Chakur's settlement at Satgarha in Gugera in the Panjab 
(now the Montgomery district), where his tomb still exists. 
The settlement at Satgarha is alluded to in the final lines. 
No. IV., the longest and most circumstantial of the 
ballads, dates evidently from a period much closer to 
the events. Chakur's adventures among the Turks are 
not given in any other ballad, and the name of the 
general Zu'n-nun Beg (Zunu), and his mother Mai 
Begam, have a warrant in history. This ballad concludes 
with the expulsion of the Lasharis by the help of the 
Turks, and there is no reference to Chakur's migration. 
In No. II. there is a reference to the expulsion of the 
Gholas from Sibi, a circumstance forgotten long since, 
which points to this ballad also being of very early date. 
No. XVI., ascribed to Chakur's son Shahzad, alludes to 
the alliance with the Nahars and Langahs, which is his- 
torical, and also with another tribe, the Kungs, whose 
very name is now forgotten. This ballad and general 
tradition are the only evidence that the Baloches took 
part in Humayun's conquest of Dehll. The fact is in 
itself probable enough, as Humayun had made the 
acquaintance of the Baloches in the course of his wan- 
derings, 1 and their history at this time shows that they 
were ready to take service with any leader who made 
it worth their while, as they did with the Arghuns and 
Langahs. They were also no doubt ready to attack 
the Suri dynasty, as Sher Shah had expelled them from 
the Multan country. 2 The poem itself seems to be a 
genuine composition of the time, and is a valuable piece 
of evidence as to the composition of Humayun's army, 
which was made up of adventurers of many races. This 
poem is probably nearly contemporary with the conquest 

a For instance, in 1545, ten years before, he bestowed Shal and Mustung 
upon Lawang Baloch. Erskine's Saber and Humayun, ii. 327. 

2 The historical evidence is discussed in my monograph on The Baloch 
Race, p. 45. 



xxxviii Introduction. 

of Dehli, A.D. 1555. The poems as to the wars between 
the Rinds and Dodais (XVI I.), also are evidently con- 
temporary with the events, and the same remark applies 
to the interchange of poems between Chakur and Gwa- 
haram (XL). Many allusions in these poems would have 
been unintelligible except to actors in the drama. Persons, 
places, and events are mentioned which must have been 
familiar to those who first heard the ballads, but which 
have been long quite forgotten. No Baloch can now 
explain them all, and it is impossible that they could 
have been inserted at a late date. 

The dates of these ballads can be approximately deter- 
mined. Shah Husain Langah died in A.D. 1502, and 
the first settlement of Dodais under Sohrab Khan took 
place in his reign. In the reign of his successor, 
Mahmud, who died in 1524, Chakur arrived at Multan, 
and was still living at Satgarha shortly before the death 
of Sher Shah, which took place in 1545. 

Shah-Beg Arghun son of Zu'n-nun Beg came down 
the Bolan Pass and established himself in Sindh in 
1511. It seems probable, therefore, that Chakur left 
SevI and came to Multan about that date, and this 
marks the conclusion of the war between the Rinds and 
Lasharis, to which the ballads under XL belong. The 
struggle between the Rinds and Dodais cannot be put 
later than 1520, and the ballads under No. XVII. belong 
to this period. We may therefore consider the Rind and 
Lasharl ballads of the oldest type to belong to the first 
ten years of the sixteenth century, the Rind and Dodal 
ballads to the next decade, and Shahzad's Dehli expe- 
dition to A.D. 1555, when Chakur, if he was still living, 
must have been an old man. The oldest narrative 
ballads, such as Nos. II. and IV., are probably nearly as 
old as this. 



System of Translation. xxxix 



VII. SYSTEM OF TRANSLATION. 

In translating these poems I have not attempted any 
reproduction of the metrical form of the original. Success 
in such an attempt would not be easy to attain, although 
Sir Charles Lyall's admirable translations of Arabic 
poetry 1 show that it is not impossible to transfer some- 
thing of the form as well as the spirit of Oriental 
poetry into English, and Sir F. Goldsmid has given 
some interesting examples of what can be done in this 
way in his essay on translations from the Persian. 2 

I have endeavoured to give the meaning fully in simple 
prose, while avoiding the baldness of an absolutely 
literal translation. I cannot claim that I have succeeded 
in every case, for passages occur in which the true 
meaning is obscure, and doubtless in some cases the text 
is corrupt. I hope, however, that in the main, I have 
been able to present a fairly accurate reproduction of a 
large body of popular poetry which has maintained its 
existence to the present day almost unknown to the out- 
side world. If I have succeeded in doing for the poetry 
of the Baloches some portion of what was performed for 
that of their neighbours the Afghans by the late M. James 
Darmesteter in his Chants des Afghanes, I shall be well 
satisfied. 

1 Ancient Arabian Poetry, by Sir C. Lyall. London, 1885. 

2 Transactions, Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, 1893, p. 493. 



PART L 
HEROIC BALLADS EARLIER PERIOD. 

I. 
BALLAD OF GENEALOGIES. 

THE following poem was first published by me in the Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society in 1881. Since then I have noted several 
variations and additions, and am now able to give an improved text 
and translation. 

The poem is undoubtedly an old one, although its language shows 
it is not one of the oldest. Its original composition may be referred 
to the period succeeding the migration of the mass of the Baloch race 
into the Indus valley and the adjoining hill country in the early part 
of the sixteenth century. The poet may have been a member of the 
Dombki tribe for which he claims the highest position, and he makes 
equality with the Rinds the standard by which he estimates the rank 
of the numerous tribes then gathered under the Baloch name. There 
are a few variations in the list of names, due no doubt to the desire of 
bards to bring in the names of tribes not to be found in the original 
poem. These are not very important, and on the whole, though the 
poem, known as the ' Daptar Sha'ar,' or Lay of Genealogies, is 
universally known among Balochl-speaking tribes, there is a sub- 
stantial uniformity, which bears witness to its authenticity and value. 
The more important variations are given in the notes. 

I return thanks and praise to God, himself the Lord 
of the land ; when the rest of the world becomes dust 
and clay, He will remain serene of heart. 

We are followers of 'All, 1 firm in faith and honour 
through the grace of the holy Prophet, Lord of the Earth. 

1 'All is universally known among the Baloches as Yaili, from the invoca- 
tion 'Ya 'All,' Oh 'AH. 

A 



2 Heroic Ballads. 

We are the offspring of Mir Hamza, victory rests with 
God's shrine. We arise from Halab and engage in battle 
with Yazld in Karbala and Bompur, and we march to the 
towns of Sistan. Our King was Shamsu'd-dln who was 
favourable to the Baloches, but when Budru'-d-dm arose 
we were suddenly harshly treated. At the head was Mir 
Jalal Khan, four-and-forty bolaks we were. We came to 
the port of Harm on the right x side of Kech. The Hots 
settle in Makran, the Khosas in the land of Kech. The 
Hots and Korals (or the Nohs and Dodals) are united, 
they are in Lashar-land. The Drlshaks, Hots and 
Mazarls (or the Drlshaks and Mazarl Khans) are equal 
with the Rinds. The Rind and Lasharl borders march 
one with the other ; the greatest house is the Dombki, 
above the running waters of Gaj. From Halab come the 
Chandyas together with the house of the Kalmatls. 
The Nohs settle in Nail together with the Jistkanis. The 
Phuzh, Mirall and Jatoi tribes are all in SevI and Dhadar, 
the Phuzh are the original Rind foundation with Mir 
Chakur at their head. The Gorgezh are known for their 
wealth, and are settled in the land of Thali. The 
Gholos, Gopangs and Dashtls are outside the Rind 
enclosure, all the multitude of other Baloches is joined 
with the Rinds. The Rinds dwell in Shoran, the 
Lasharis in Gandava, dividing between them the streams 
of running water, Shaihak 2 is the chief of them all. 

This is our footprint and track ; this is the Baloch 
record ; For thirty years we fought together ; this is the 
Baloch strife. Following after Shaihak and Shahdad (or 
up to Shaihak and Shahdad), Mir Chakur was the Chief 
of all. 3 Forty thousand men come at the Mlr's call, all 

l i.e. the East side of tribes marching south from Sistan. 

2 Shaihak was Mir Chakur's father. This seems to point to a time before 
the rupture, when the Rinds and Lasharis were clans of one tribe, under one 
chief. 

3 One of the readings refers to Chakur's succession to his father Shaihak, and 
the other to his being succeeded by his own sons, Shaihak and Shahdad. 



Earlier Period. 3 

descendants of one ancestor. All with armour upon their 
fore-arms, all with bows and arrows ; with silken scarves 
and overcoats, and red boots on their feet ; with silver 
knives and daggers, and golden rings on their hands. 
There were Bakar and Gwaharam and Ramen, and the 
gold-scatterer Nodhbandagh (these were Lasharls). 
Among the Phuzh was Jaro, venomous in reply, and 
Hadde his sworn brother, Pheroshah, Bijar and Rehan, 
and Mir- Han the swordsman of the Rinds. There were 
Sobha, Mihan and All, Jam Sahak, (Durrakh) and Allan ; 
Haivtan and Blvaragh among the Rinds, Mir Hasan and 
Brahim. 

The poet makes these lays, and Mir Jalal Han com- 
prehends them. 

II. AND III. 
THE HORSE RACE. 

This ballad is, judging from the language, a very early one, but 
unfortunately is in a fragmentary state. The part included under II. 
was taken down by me from the dictation of Baga, ShalemanI Lashari 
of the Sham. The part given under III. is taken from the Rev. T. J. 
L. Mayer (p. 12), and seems to be a part of the same ballad. The 
subject is the horse-race between Ramen Lashari and Rehan Rind 
which led to the quarrel between the Rinds and Lasharls and the 
killing of Gohar's Camels. 

II. 

Having driven the Gholas out of the whole country, 
Chakur started, and making forced marches by force took 
SevI from his enemies, and laid his sickle to the ripened 
pulse. Mlr-Han built a fort at Dhadar. There one morn- 
ing some Lasharls riding about came to Mir Chakur's 
town. They saw a fat ram belonging to a Mochi (leather- 
dresser) tied up in the shade of a manhan (i.e. a machdn 
or platform for a crop watchman). (They said) ' Let us 
race our chestnut mares, trusting in Providence.' When 



4 Heroic Ballads. 

the swift mare (i.e. Ramen's mare) had passed and won, 
the Rinds falsely swore that Rehan's ' Black Tiger ' had 
won. Then Ramen took the ram and went his way saying, 
' Through rage on account of this false witness I will not 
pass the night in this town.' In the yellow afternoon 
watch they started off, and in their rage slaughtered some 
young camels saying, ' We have heard with our ears that 
these female camels are hardy beasts in cold weather, 
and have passed a year in Khorasan ' (i.e. above the 
passes). 

The day before yesterday, when they killed Gohar's 
young camels, they made the poor woman weep without 
guilt. 

Shaihak and Shadhen swore an oath, and urging on 
their mares passed over the cliffs and joined the heroes, 
owners of the Mullah pass on the borders of Gwaharam's 
assembly. 

The Dombkis are the great men in song ; better are 
they than red gold. The Rinds and Lasharis at bottom 
are brethren ; the world knows that they are Hamza's 
offspring. The world delights in sweet tales ; they are 
mighty in the land, and of great fame. 

III. 

Rehan Khan sings ; to his friends he sings. 

O my friend Gagar the blacksmith, Mulla Muhammad 
Bakar, skilful workman, make six-nailed shoes for my 
mare Shol, and bring them to me with pointed nails, 
bring them and fasten them on with skill ; let them 
look finer than flies' wings, and let them shine from 
above down to the hoof-marks of the mare as she 
gallops. As I have passed moonlight nights when the 






Earlier Period. 5 

camp marched from the bounds of the low-lying lands 
and left Jalakh with its gardens and bazaars, and set 
its face to the Bolan with its golden hollows. 1 



IV. 

The following two ballads seem to be derived from the same origin ; 
but although they have many lines in common, they differ so much 
that I have thought it best to give them both in full. They proceed 
from a Rind author, and lay stress on the slaughter of Collar's camels, 
while ignoring the affair of the horse-race. No. IV the longest and 
most complete of the two ballads, I took down in 1893 fro m the joint 
recitation of two Umranl Khosas, Hairo-Han and 'All Muhammad. 

This is the only ballad I know of which continues the subject 
beyond the first defeat of the Rinds by the Lasharls and the departure 
of Mir Chakur, and relates his adventures when a refugee with the 
Turkish king, of which I had before only Ghulam Muhammad's prose 
narrative, embodied in * The Adventures of Mir Chakur ' (in Temple's 
Legends of the Panjab}. Ghulam Muhammad's version of the ballad 
(No. V.) does not go beyond Mir Chakur's departure. 

The Sultan Shah Husain alluded to is no doubt Sultan Husain, 
Baikara, of Herat, under whom Zu'n-nun Beg Arghun served. This 
King reigned from A.D. 1468 to 1507. 

Mir Chakur's adventures while with the Turks may be compared 
with those of Doda or Dodo in the Sindhl poem of Dodo and 
Chaneser while he was a suppliant at the Mughal Court. 2 

A warrior's revenge is dear to me, on those who attack 
my lofty fort. Ask the men distinguished in race, how 
the Rinds came forth from Mekran and the rich lands 
of Panjgur. 

Mir Bakar and Ramen and Gwaharam, great of name, 
came one day to the Maheri's tents, and Gwaharam spoke 
to her saying, * Make a betrothal with me/ but Gohar 
spoke with her tongue and said, 'As a child I nursed 
thee and as a brother I have esteemed thee. With me 
there can be no betrothal.' Gohar went from the herds- 

1 Possibly a reference to golden sands. 

2 See Burton's Sindh, London, 1851, p. 125. 




6 Heroic Ballads. 

men's camp ; she was angry with the old headmen of 
the herd ; she drove away the full-toothed camels and 
pitched her camp at Senl. Taking the chances of the 
running water, she followed down the slope of the Bolan 
to Mir Chakur's abode, and she spoke with her tongue 
saying thus to Chakur, ' Gwaharam has driven me out, 
my chief; I take refuge with thee: show me a place 
of shelter for my camels.' Then said Chakur, ' Choose 
thou a place, wherever thy heart desireth. Dwell by 
the streams of Kacharok, there is grazing ground for thy 
camels, thy horned cattle and sheep : there is safety in 
all the country.' 

On a certain day, as God willed, Chakur by chance 
came forth and arrived at the streams of Kacharok. 
The female camels came home stirring up the dust, the 
milk dripping from their udders. Then rage seized the 
chief: 'Why come thy camels in a cloud of dust, why 
does the milk drip from their udders? 3 Then said the 
fair Gohar to Chakur the Mir, ' My Lord/ she answered, 
' my cattle have been taken by a natural death, 1 a 
pestilence has seized my young camels.' 

Then spoke a herdsman thus to Chakur, 'The day 
before yesterday the Lasharls came here galloping their 
mares' for exercise. Thence they came in their wicked- 
ness, hence they went back in their madness ; they slew 
a pair of our young camels, and for this reason the 
female camels stir up the dust and the milk drips from 
their udders.' Then Mir Chakur fell into a rage and 
said, 'Let Gohar march away from here,' and he sent 
her towards Sanni. ' The waters of my home have 
become as carrion to me, as the flesh of sheep before 
the knife (i.e. sheep killed in an unlawful manner).' He 
halted his mighty army, and in the early morning they 
poured forth from the dwellings of Gaj, and slaughtered 
a herd of Gwaharam's camels, and cut off the camel- 

1 Wadh-mm, lit. ' self-death.' 



Earlier Period. 



herd's arm, in exchange for Gohar's young camels. So 
a woman planted the root of strife. 

Then said Jam Mando, 'Let us make an expedition 
into the mountains and cliffs.' But Blvaragh the brave 
said, * Leave the castle of Rani, the windy stronghold of 
men, the streams of the open country.' Mir-Han the 
bold replied, ' We will not leave the castle of Rani, the 
windy stronghold of men, nor the streams of the open 
country. We must keep these safe for others, for our 
grandchildren who will come after us, and will stand 
exposed to the scorn of our foes.' 

Then the Lasharls assembled ; they came thronging 
like cattle, driving the cows from thirsty Khalgar, the 
sheep from the thy my Sham ; countless cattle the 
warriors distributed among themselves. Then the Lash- 
arls marched thence and (Omar) NuhanI did a thing 
wondrous to behold, killing seven hundred head of cattle 
and eight hundred sheep, and he ground a hundred 
sacks of wheat. A great grinding he made for the 
Lasharls. Then Chakur the Mir went forth in his wrath, 
and sent forth his spies into the wilderness. The spies 
came back from spying out the land, and said, ' We have 
seen a hundred habitations (of the Lasharls) all separate.' 
Then were the Rinds filled with joy and a mighty army 
gathered together, thronging like a herd of cattle. 

Then Blvaragh the brave seized the Chief's bridle and 
said, ' Chakur, sheathe your sword. The Nuhanls are a 
thousand men, and the red-scabbarded Lasharls are 
heroes mighty in battle. Let them come and attack us 
in our windy castle. To flee is hard for thee, to go 
forward is death to thee ! ' 

Then spoke some braggarts, 'O suckling, mother's 
babe ! Blvaragh trembles at the Rind's arrows, he 
shrinks from the glittering Indian blades, he dreads the 
Egyptian steel. Fear not ! when we draw our swords to 
fight, we will post you far out of reach of the arrows ! ' 



8 Heroic Ballads. 

When these words were said he let go the Chief's 
bridle. In the early morning they poured forth ; raising a 
cloud of dust, the comrades rushed forth. Blvaragh was 
slain in the fight with seven hundred youthful warriors. 1 
Then Chakur in his wrath for his brother's death would 
not stay for one noon at his home, but went forth to 
the populous town of Harev (Herat) and saw the Sultan 
Shah Husain. 

Then Mir Bakar and Ramen and famous Gwaharam 
sent a beautiful mat, and bribed the Turks. At once a 
messenger came to Chakur saying, ' Chakur, the Turk 
sends for you, and asks you one question. If a man be 
alone, empty-handed, without his weapons, what means of 
escape has he?' Chakur came and faced him saying, 
* Hand and heart make their own following ; there will be 
no lack of weapons ! ' They took the Chiefs weapons 
from him, and from his band of faithful friends, and loosed 
on him a furious elephant. The elephant came charging 
on him ; a bitch was lying in the roadway ; he seized the 
dog by the leg and dashed it upon the elephant's trunk. 
The elephant turned back ashamed, and the Chief came 
forth a conqueror thence. 

A little while passed, and again the messenger came 
back quickly saying, ' Chakur, the Turk sends for you, 
and asks you one question.' Chakur came and faced him, 
and the Turk said to him, ' I have a savage horse, purely 
bred for seven generations : ride him here before friends 
and foes.' The Chief was without help from his band of 
faithful friends. 'Bring him, I am willing.' Seven men 
held the stallion's bridle, and seven more saddled him. 
Then the Chief whispered to the horse, ' Thou art the 
offspring of Duldul ('All's horse) and I am Chakur, son of 
Shaihak ; thou hast strength and I have skill.' There 
was a blind well which lay straight in front of them. 
Over that he urged the thoroughbred before the face of 

1 Most accounts state that Mir Han was slain. 



Earlier Period. 9 

friends and foes. The savage horse became so gentle that 
a child might catch and lead him. There too the Chief 
won the fight. 

Again the Turk took a bribe, and a messenger in- 
stantly came saying, * Chakur, the Turk summons you, and 
has a question to ask you.' Chakur came face to face 
with him, and he said to Chakur, * I have here a fierce 
tiger. Call for your glittering sword and test it on the 
tiger.' They gave the Chief his weapons, his band of 
faithful friends, and drove on the savage tiger. On this 
side was Chakur, on that side the tiger. He drew his 
sword from its sheath and struck the tiger so that it 
fell in two pieces, and the red-booted Mir won the 
victory. 

A herdsman bore the news to noble Matho, mother of 
the Turk. The Begam said to her son : 

4 Chakur is the head chief of the Rinds, and. he has 
come to you for help. Now give him mighty armies, 
Zunu's numerous troops, or else, for the sake of Mir 
Chakur, I will break through my thirty years' seclusion, 
and throw my red veil behind my back/ 

Next day he mounted a camel and despatched a 
great army to assist Mir Chakur, under Sahlch Domb. 
Zunu's numerous forces marched by Phlr Lakhan and 
Lakho, NanI Nafung and Lakha. They came down the 
slope of the Bolan, and in the early morning burst 
upon the dwellings of Gaj, and gave rest and peace to 
the Lasharls ! (i.e. exterminated them). 

Let Gwaharam refrain from both places; let him have 
neither grave nor Gandava ! 



V. 

The following ballad is evidently derived from the same original as 
the preceding ; and its 65 lines correspond roughly with the 88 lines 
of No. IV. (35 to 123), being somewhat more condensed. This 
version was taken down from the recitation of Ghulam Muhammad, 



io Heroic Ballads. 

Balacham Mazari. I have already printed the text in my Balochi 
Text-book, Part II., p. 3, and the text with a translation in Temple's 
Legends of the Panjab, Vol. II. (comprised in 'The Adventures of Mir 
Chakur'). 

Chakur went forth to the chase, and he ate at the 
return of the camels ; * for a little he sat down to look 
round him. The female camels came in, stirring up the 
dust, with the milk dripping from their udders. Then 
spoke Chakur the Mir to Gohar the fair : ' Wherefore do 
thy female camels stir up the dust, and why does the 
milk drip from their udders?' 

Then replied the beautiful Gohar to Chakur the Khan: 
My young camels have eaten the poisonous shrub ; 2 
my young camels have died of themselves.' 

Then out spoke the camel-herd, in his dirty garments: 
'The day before yesterday came the Lasharis, racing 
their chestnut mares as on a pleasure trip. They 
slaughtered a couple of our young camels, and returned 
hence in their madness.' 

Chakur became heavy at heart, and summoned seven 
thousand Rinds, saying : ' Let us form a band of four 
hundred young men, all equals, and let us come forth 
cunningly from the low hills.' 

Then Bivaragh Khan rode after the Chief and caught 
him by the rein, and said : ' Chakur, restrain your rage 
a little. The Nuhanls are a thousand men, with the red- 
scabbarded 3 Lasharls.' 

Then out spoke the headstrong men, Jaro and fiery 
Rehan : ' Bivaragh, you fear the arrows ; do not be 
afraid of the Indian swords, you shall have your fill of 
them. Sand is a bitter food. Then we will place you 

1 This sentence is doubtful. 

2 The poisonous sol probably refers to the oleander (nerium odorum), 
which is deadly to camels. This bush is now called jaur or poison, while 
the word sol is used for the Prosopis spicigera, which is harmless. 

3 It is necessary to read lal-juMta^en, as in IV., 1. 104, and not lato 
khushtaghen, which is unintelligible. 



Earlier Period. u 

with the Dombs and Bards, Blvaragh Khan ; we will 
post you far off while we are slaying the Lasharls with 
our swords, and are among the water embankments ; 
while we thrash out the ears among us! Stay and see 
whose the advantage will be, whose leaders will win the 
victory, whose the profit will be!' 

When these words were spoken he let go the Chiefs 
bridle. And spies were sent out to spy, and a word 
was fixed for the watch. The spies came back from 
spying out the land ; they had seen a hundred separate 
dwelling-places over there in the Nail defile ; they had 
spied out the town of Gaj and seen a herd of Gwaharam's 
camels lying there. In the morning (the Rinds) made 
a raid in front of the Gaj an fort and killed Gwaharam's 
camels, and cut off the hand of Safan 1 in revenge for 
Gohar's young camels, on account of this woman's dis- 
grace and rage. The Lasharl assembly marched away, 
when the sun was well risen they were high up ; (the 
Rinds) followed on their tracks and overtook them. 
The Rind army was put to flight ; they lost Mir Han 
in the fight, with seven hundred young men, all of one 
rank. Then Chakur returned in sorrow, grieving for 
Mir Han, for the beautiful hair of Mir ; and fasting, 
took the way of the Lehrl Gorge. 



VI. AND VII. 

The two ballads which follow bear a strong resemblance to the two 
preceding, but differ so much from them that their origin is probably 
not identical. The two now considered are, however, undoubtedly 
versions of the same ballad. The first given (VI.), which is the 
fullest, is taken from Mr. Mayer's text (Gohar, p. 28). The second 
(VII.), taken down by me from the recitation of Baga Lashari, omits 
the first part, and corresponds with the latter part of VI. (beginning 
at line 32). For this part it is the fuller version, its 63 lines corre- 
sponding to 52 (32 to 83) of VI. 

1 Safan was the name of Gwaharam's herdsman. 



12 Heroic Ballads. 

Taken both together, it will be seen that this ballad proceeds from 
a Lasharl partizan. The incident of the killing of Gohar's camels is 
passed over quickly, and she is made to tell Chakur of it herself, 
instead of trying to conceal it as in all other accounts. Similarly, 
Blvaragh's attempt to restrain Chakur is given very shortly. On the 
other hand, we have a fuller account of the battle, and especially of 
Nodhbandagh's magnanimity in saving Chakur's life in the fight. 

VI. 

Good were the days of old, men lived then of great 
fortune, all men were pillars of the State, 1 and the rulers 
were of one counsel. There lived a fair woman, lady of 
many herds of camels. She was known as Gohar the 
Maheri (herdswoman). She moved about in luxury ; her 
tent-poles were all of gold, her bed-coverings of silk. 
Gwaharam himself sued for her hand ; by day and night 
he sent her messages, an agent of Chakur's was their mes- 
senger. It came to Chakur's knowledge and he came to 
Gohar the Maheri, and there passed the heat of the day. 
Then Chakur the Amir asked Gohar the Maheri, 'Why 
are your female camels lowing, and why does the milk 
drip to their hoofs ? ' Then said the Maheri Gohar to Mir 
Chakur, ' The day before yesterday the Children of 
Lashar, the horsemen of Ramen Han, killed the little 
camels and cooked them like sheep's flesh ; they broke 
the coloured bowls and made the poor camelmen weep.' 

Gohar marched thence and became a refugee with Mir 
Chakur. Mir Chakur was enraged ; he called together all 
the Rinds, and for three nights they discussed it. Then 
Bivaragh, sheathing his sword, said, ' I will not let our 
men be killed for the sake of the herdswoman's camels/ 
There were some turbulent men who spent their time in 
bragging, Jaro and headstrong Rehan and Sohrab, whose 
mare's neck was like that of a crane (i.e. the Kunj or 
demoiselle crane). ' Leave it alone, Bivaragh/ they said, 
' Do not stop it.' The alarm reached the Lashans, ' Be 

1 1 take arkan to stand for the Arabic arkanu'd-daulah. 



Earlier Period. 13 

men, for men are upon you, the Rinds with their friends 
attack you.' Gwaharam stood with his sword sheathed. 
* It is not in the Rinds' power to reach us with their 
swords and inlaid matchlocks, their spears and blades of 
Shlraz. Stop the mouth of the Nail defile.' When the 
sun had risen a little, the Rinds on their mares made the 
attack, and we engaged with bows and arrows, spears and 
ShlrazI blades, and shields of stony rhinoceros hide. 
They joined in a royal battle ; the wretched Rinds gave 
way, and as many as seven hundred were slain with Mir 
Han of the gold-hilted sword. Chakur was exhausted in 
the battle, and stood with drawn sword guarding himself 
with his shield. Then Nodhbandagh turned his mare 
Phul, and mounted Chakur on her. He gave Phul a blow 
with the whip, and Phul, by God's help, passed over the 
salt swamp, the precipices and deep gorges. Then said 
Gwaharam the sword-wielder, ' Nodhbandagh, thou art a 
Rind, thou art no Lasharl ; who would help Chakar ? 
They would have cut him down like a stalk of millet, and 
have broken him off like a radish root, and taken Sevi 
with one hand.' Then Nodhbandagh replied, ' No Rind 
am I ; I am a Lasharl, but I was born of a Rind mother, 
and sucked the milk of Muzl. When Muzl nursed me and 
sang me a lullaby at midnight, and swung me in my 
shagh-wood cradle, she said, " One day Chakur will need 
you, when he is distressed in the battle." The memory of 
that day is now upon me.' 

VII. 

(Chakur) asked for news of the Rinds, and for four days 
they joined in discussion. Then Blvaragh, pushing his 
sword in, said, ' I will not thus slay our men for this 
Jatnl's camels which thieves have hidden in their houses. 
Is it for us to dispute about these camels ? ' 

There were some braggarts there who passed the 
watches of the day in loud talk. They gave him the name 



14 Heroic Ballads. 

of a woman, and swore loud oaths. Then he let go the 
Sardar's bridle and let his black mare go forward. The 
Rinds all bore inlaid matchlocks, black-shafted spears, 
brazen stirrups, scarves and turbans of silk, and sandals of 
phlsh on their feet. 

Then the alarm reached the Lasharis, Bijar and Ramen 
at their head wearing red boots. ' The Rind cannot arrive 
beneath us ; we will stop the mouth of the Nail defile, the 
pass with windy cliffs.' On the day they came forth from 
Sevi the Rind horse attacked them, there God's power was 
shown, the sweet world became bitter, they joined together 
in fight. (The Lasharis) tore up the fine drums, smote 
and overthrew the Rinds, and slew fully seven hundred 
of them. Mir Han and Blvaragh fell. Chakur was ex- 
hausted in the fight, and stood in the path with his sword 
guarding himself with his shield. Nodhbandagh came 
from this side and made him mount upon his mare Phul 
He struck Phul with his whip, and Phul, by God's 
strength, flew to Phaugar over cliffs and yawning chasms 
and the inaccessible haunts of the markhor, and carried 
him over the crest of the hills. ' Bravo ! ' cried Bahar 
Khan, and thus he spoke to Nodhbandagh, ' Thou art a 
Rind, thou hast become a Rind, thou art in no wise a 
Lasharl. Thou art a Rind, and to us a foe ! ' Then 
Nodhbandagh answered him, ' My Chief ! That day is on 
my mind when I sucked the milk of a Rind mother. My 
honoured mother, while she sang me a lullaby at midnight, 
and at the five hours of prayer, and in the yellow after- 
noon, said to me, " Thou art needful to Mir Chakur, thou 
shalt save him one day in a fight, in a fight and a 
terrible battle " ; and now that day is upon me, for who 
else would have helped Chakur ? They would have struck 
him down like a millet stalk, or rooted him up like a 
radish, and taken SevI in one day/ 



Earlier Period. 15 



VIII. 

The poem which fpllows is of a more general nature than those 
given above. It commences with a recital of the legendary history of 
the Baloches, similar to that in I., and concludes with an account 
of the dispute regarding Gohar and the war between the Rinds and 
Lasharls. 

I first took this ballad down from the dictation of a Ghulam Bolak 
Rind at Sibi in 1879. This version was published with a translation 
in J.A.S.B. Extra No. 1881. Since then I have heard other versions 
which have enabled me to make various corrections and amendments, 
and I believe that the text now given will be found more correct. 

Kilati, son of Hablb, sings : to the exalted Ghulam 
Bolak Rinds he sings : of the fight between Chakur and 
Gwaharam he sings : of the harbouring of Gohar some- 
what he sings : of the thirty-years' war he sings. 

Let me celebrate the name of God, from the beginning 
my morning-star ; Haidar is my support and protector 
with the Holy Prophet. 

Come, oh minstrel, at early morn, learn my songs and 
carry them to the friends of my heart and my loving 
brethren. 

The well-born Rinds were at Bompur, in Kech and 
the groves of Makran, the Dombkls were the greatest 
house in the Baloch assembly. 

The Rinds and Lasharls were united, they took counsel 
one with the other, saying, ' Come, let us march hence, let 
us leave these barren lands, let us conquer the streams and 
good lands and deal them out among ourselves; let us 
take no heed of tribe or chief 

They came to their carpet huts, and ordered their 
turbaned slaves to saddle their young mares. 'Bring 
forth the slender chestnuts from their stalls. Saddle 
the numerous fillies, steeds worth nine thousand. Drive 
in the herds of camels around us, from the mouth of 
the Nail Pass.' The fighting-men called to the women, 
'Come ye down from the castles, bring out your beds 



1 6 Heroic Ballads. 

and wrappings, carpets and red blankets, pillows and 
striped rugs and many-coloured bed-steads, pewter cups 
in abundance and drinking-vessels of Makran ; for Chakur 
will not stay in this country, but goes to his own distant 
realm.' 

The Rinds clad their bodies in silken coats, with 
helmets and shining armour on their arms and chests ; 
they came with brazen stirrups and red boots on their 
legs. 

They seized Sevi and Dhadar up to Jhal and the Nlla 
Pass; Habb, Phab, Moh and Mall to the further side 
of the Nail ; the fortified city of Gaj to the land of 
Maragah ; Sangarh and the Mountains of Sulaiman were 
taken by the tiger-men ; Sang and rich Mundahl became 
tributary to our Chief; from the boundary of fertile 
Kachhl up to Dhari and Bhanar. 

There was generous Bijar with his sabre, and Jam 
Sulaiman with his sword. 

Gohar came as a refugee with all her herds, countless 
herds of grazing camels, saying, ' Behold, my Chief ; show 
me a place, a shelter for my herds of camels.' Then 
spake the far-seeing Chakur to the fair Gohar, ' Stay 
by the streams of Shoran, in the neighbourhood of 
Kacharak, graze your camels in safety, settle down 
without care.' 

One day from Gwaharam's village there came forth some 
wild youths riding their slender chestnut mares for sport 
and exercise. They slaughtered a pair of young camels 
to fill their bellies. Curses fell upon the wicked, upon 
the workers of evil, rage was upon the tribes, as of a 
thousand : on both sides injury was wrought, on this 
side was Gwaharam with his sword, on that side Mir 
Chakur. For full thirty years the war went on over 
Gohar's young camels ; all the leaders were slain, their 
teeth dropped from their mouths (or they ground their 
teeth in their mouths). The tribes only were left (i.e. 



Earlier Period. 17 

without leaders) by the mercy of God, and shake their 
swords at their foes with open wrath. They expelled 
Hasan the BrahimI with Chakur, and then the Baloch 
rulers made peace among themselves, and Chakur through 
the fault of his brethren passed away to Satghara. 

God protect us all from taking the sword again, and 
the Rind and Lashar! warriors from seeking revenge 
for blood ! 

IX. 

This poem, containing part of the story of Gohar, and illustrating 
it by the episode of the lizard which took refuge with Blbarl, is very 
popular among Baloches, and is often quoted ; but, nevertheless, I 
have only been able to recover it in a fragmentary form. One 
version, here reproduced with some emendations, was given by me in 
the J.A.S.B. for 1881, and a still more incomplete one in the Persian 
Character by R. B. Hetu Ram in his Biluchi-nameh* 

The ballad purports to relate to the war between the Bulmats and 
Kalmats, but these tribes are not even mentioned in these versions. 
Hetu Ram's text only gives the latter part of the ballad, commencing 
with line 36. 

Nodh, son of Bahram, sings: to the fierce Rashkam 
Baloches he sings: of the war of the Bulmats and Kal- 
mats he sings: of the lizard's refuge-taking he sings. 

Sweet singing minstrel bring hither your lute, bind 
on your head a white turban, let the good man take 
gifts from the giver. 

Yesterday from barren SannI marched the fair Gohar ; 
she came for shelter to the Mir, to Chakur wielding 
the glittering Shlraz blade. Then spake fair Gohar : 
*My camels are on the foothills of the Mullah pass, 
the Lasharl have a grudge against me.' He collected 
all Gohar's camp and goods and placed her in Kacharak. 
(The Lasharls) came riding to Shoran, the town under 
Mir Chakur's rule. ' We will gallop to the groves of Gaj.' 

Lahore, 1881 (in Urdu). Mr. Douie's English translation (Calcutta, 
1885) omits the poems. 

B 



1 8 Heroic Ballads. 

In the evening Gohar's female camels come lowing, 
the milk dripping from their udders to their navels. 
Chakur asked the camel-herd in dusty clothes, * Be quick, 
Jat, tell me the truth; who has done this to Gohars 
cattle?' And the dusty Jat thus replied : 'The Lasharls 
came here on an expedition, they slaughtered the young 
camels as with spite and rage.' 

Gohar the herdswoman, with pearls in her ears, made 
a sign (lit. winked) saying, 'Jat, leave this matter alone, 
let the noble Rinds remain at peace in their tents ; the 
female camels are perpetually bearing young.' 

Then Rehan the Nawab was angry, and Jaro the 
Phuzh, bitter in reply : ' For fair Gohar's young camels 
we will take a sevenfold revenge with our swords, we 
will gamble with heads and hair and turbans.' Then 
Bagar Jatol answered and said, 'Where are the fair 
Gohar and Sammi? Hot was never lacking to his 
refugees; for when on Shah Husain's day of trouble 
Blbari sat in front of her hut, a lizard ran out of the 
phlsh-bushes. Some boys came hunting it from behind, 
and it ran into the Chief's house. Then the good woman 
stood in front of them wearing beautiful ivory bangles, 
white as fresh-drawn milk, slipped on over her soft arms. 
Blbari spoke to them with great dignity, and with many 
entreaties said, 'Boys, leave the lizard alone, it is my 
refugee ; do so much for me for your own name's sake.' 

But the boys, ignorant and boorish camel-herds, 
killed the lizard with sticks. Her lord and husband was 
not there in the house; she sent him a message of com- 
plaint. Hot returned from the assembly of Chiefs, and 
thus Blbari said to him with great dignity, ' If thou dost 
not take revenge for the lizard, I am thy sister and thou 
my brother.' 

The hero thus replied to her, 'Oh lady, have patience 
awhile, for a little stay, do not speak to me. I will act 
so on account of this lizard that the ground will be full 



Earlier Period. 19 

of blood, sixty (corpses) lying on one side and fifty on 
the other, all gathered together in one place for the 
lizard's sake.' 

Omar 1 has left a memory behind him for keeping his 
word, and Balach the avenger of blood, and the hero 
Doda for the cattle. 

X. 

The war of the Kalmats and Bulmats alluded to in the heading of 
IX. forms also the subject of the following fragment. The first- 
mentioned tribe is alluded to by its more usual name of KalmatI, 
and the adversary is called Bulfat. The form Bulfat or Burfat is 
still found as a tribal name (non-Baloch) in Sindh, and as a section 
of the Lasls of Las Bela. 

The Kalmatis tied up their mares bridled under a 
scaffold. They eat pulse (moth), molasses (gur) and 
milk, and yellow cow's-butter. The camel-herds came 
running with torn cheeks and broken arms, saying 'the 
women saw clearly how they drove off our cattle; they 
wept tears of blood, wiping them with the corners of 
their veils, for the men were taken captive the warriors, 
with their old fathers, brethren and young sons. You 
have brought misfortune on our camels, our camels and 
herds of cattle, our fat-tailed sheep and white goats, our 
buffaloes with distended udders.' 

Mir H5t was angry with the tribe. ' The women have 
lost their wits, the women of the Kalmatis, to drive out 
the camels without spears, or body-armour. I will not let 
the murderers carry them off.' We beat the mares with 
sticks; we made the fillies' heels fly. We passed the 
boundary of the Wakavl, and overtook the enemy; our 
friends called to us, Tuta and sweet-scented Sahak: 
' Strike with your liver-cutting hands, with your wide- 
wounding Egyptian swords ! Behold, what God will do ! * 

1 The allusion is to Omar Nuham, who entertained the Lasharls, alluded to 
in IV. and in the Song of Nodhbandagh (XIV.). For Doda and Balach 
see XVIII. 



2O Heroic Ballads. 

They threw their soft blankets (over their mares' backs), 
they took back their camels from the Bulfats, and 
recovered from them the blood of their fathers. 

XI. 

CHAKUR AND GWAHARAM. 

The five poems included under this head are attributed to Mir 
Chakur and his adversary Gwaharam, and are supposed to have been 
interchanged after the first battle between the Rinds and the 
Lasharis. Nos. I and 3 are Gwaharam's verses addressed to Chakur, 
and 2, 4 and 5 are Chakur's replies. It is probable that the series is 
incomplete. I give two versions of No. i, of which (a) was taken 
down by me from the recitation of Baga Lasharl in 1893, and (b) in 
Mr. Mayer's version. These two differ so much that it seems 
desirable to give them both in full. No. 2 is taken from Mr. Mayer's 
text, with a few alterations and additions from a fragmentary version 
in my possession. No. 3 is derived from two versions, one that of 
Baga Lasharl, taken down by me (36 lines), and one given by 
Mr. Mayer (27 lines). Eighteen lines are common to the two 
versions, and, as both are incomplete, a more satisfactory text has 
been obtained by combining them. No. 4 is derived solely from 
Mr. Mayer's text, and No. 5 from a version taken down by me at 
Sibi in 1879, an ^ already printed in \hzJ.A.S.B. 1881, Extra Number. 

I (a). 

Gwaharam sings of the day on which Mir-Han was slain. 

Let us meet on the bare desert foot-hills, and have 
our interview on the barren plain, the grazing ground of 
wild asses. Let the Rinds and Dombkls come together, 
let the Bhanjars and Jatols repeat their gibes! The 
Rinds came with booted feet, with their slaves they 
alighted. From every hamlet they took their blood, and 
the far-famed Malik Mir- Han was slain ! Chakur fled 
thence by night; he took a stick in his hand to drive 
the cows and to graze the slate-coloured buffaloes ! x 

1 That is to say, Chakur fled into the hills and became a herdsman. The 
buffaloes are called ' slrmughe ' or surma-coloured, from their dark-grey colour, 
resembling surma or powdered antimony, corresponding to our slate colour. 



Earlier Period. 21 

Whither went Rehan and mighty Safar, Ahmad and 
lordly Kalo? 

What was the matter with you, thick-beards ? 1 Was 
not your tribe established in BhenI ; had you not in 
your hands wealthy Bingopur? Your place was with 
your love on the coloured bedstead ! 

For the innocent blood of Mallm the Khan Gwaharam 
tightened his saddle-girths, and let his mare go to the 
Mullah Pass! 

i (b). 

Gwaharam, son of Nodhbandagh Lashari, sings : of the 
fight of Rinds and Lasharls he sings. 

Let me sleep in the good lands of the Baloches ; green 
are the streams at the mouth of the Mullah. Let us meet 
on the low hills, the grazing-ground of wild asses. They 
came drunken again and again, with the roasted hind- 
quarters of wild asses. 2 I saw them with their red eyes ; 
a Rustum arose before me, Chakur and Haran on their 
powerful horses. You turned your tribe away from 
BhenI and fled over the mountain gorges, terrified Rinds 
on swift mares ! What ailed you, thick-beards ? You 
possessed wealthy Bingopur, the wharfs and markets of 
royal Chetarvo. Your fair lovers were in the lofty 
houses ! 

I make a petition to the Creator ; may the Lord of 
Mercy be exalted ; he gives a hundred and the hope of a 
thousand ! My hope is for well-watered lands, but formerly 
I had no such hope. 

The Rinds and Dombkls come together from the dwell- 
ings of Banar Jatol. 3 They have attacked the village and 

1 An epithet of the Rinds. 

2 This translation is doubtful. It follows Mr. Mayer's version, but I have 
never met with the word kunar for wild ass. 

8 Or ' the Bhanjars and Jatois repeat their taunts,' as in (a). Tana* warn 
should probably be read for thanavani. This has nothing'^to do with thango, 
gold. 



22 Heroic Ballads. 

taken the innocent blood of Malim. I know that Chakur 
is losing his wits from the prayers and wisdom of Plr 
Wall. He had no advance guard with bragging Mir Han 
in the narrow defile of the Nail Pass. The Rinds, with 
booted feet, dismounted from a thousand swift mares. We 
too, with the Mlr's gathered armies, alighted with our 
followers. We slew the far-famed Malik Mlr-Han, and 
the two young sons of Shaihak, both the greedy Sohrabs, 
Hamal the backward and Kehar the miser, Chanar and 
Hot and mighty Safar, Jland and distinguished Pheroshah, 
All, slayer of wild asses, from among the Royal Rinds, 
and Thamah's young son was slain. From every camp 
we took our revenge. Their horses vailed their spreading 
tails, pierced by thorns they knew not of. I gave him 
(i.e. Chakur) a stick to drive the cows and to graze the 
slate-coloured buffaloes. Rehan and Hasan will churn 
butter, Khohu will carry buttermilk for the Mir, and the 
Elephant 'All, that mighty man, will no longer keep the 
watches in the assembly with his long hair, the delight of 
women. 

2. 

Mir Chakur, son of Shaihak, sings: the King of the 
Rinds sings : of the Rind and Lasharl battle he sings : 
in reply to Gwaharam he sings. 

You injure yourself Gwaharam with that enmity, by 
raising dust among the Baloches, in that you have bound 
the name ' Nail ' on your waistband, and raised a name like 
Nodhbandagh higher. For once you were lucky in your 
game, and killed the Rinds' swift mares, whose footprints 
were clearly marked in the lowlands of the Mullah ; but 
remember the vengeance for that ; how Bangi and Hasan, 
son of Nodhak, were slain together, Adam and famous 
Nodhbandagh, Ahmad and lordly Kallo. You left out the 
flight, like a stampede of wild asses, on the day of the 
fierce struggle when the Rind arrows devoured them from 
behind in the fatter spots of their hind parts. You took 



Earlier Period. 23 

flight from the fort of Dab, and drew breath at the mouth 
of the Mullah, yet I never made such a mock of you, nor 
sent a bard to taunt you, reciting a song with twanging of 
strings in front of your noble face. You did not receive 
a blow under the ear from my tiger's paw, as you shook 
your head like a frightened (mare), hiding your head in 
holes and corners of the world. Half of you passed away 
to Gaj and Gujarat, half went wandering to Phalpur. 
You come making obeisance to the Rinds, and asking for 
a measure of grain in the skirt of your white garments ; 
you toil under shameful burdens, and carry the black 
waterpots on your head ! Now you hide under Omar's 
protection, I will fall on you as a man slain by his 
brethren. We are the Rinds of the swift mares ; now we 
will be below you and now above ; we will come from 
both sides with our attacks, and demand a share of all you 
have. Much-talking Gwaharam, keep your heart's ears 
open, make a long journey, perhaps your luck may come 
back. I will spin the top for a wager, and at the end 
I will raise a dust as I promised, and drive all fear from 
my friends' hearts. 

3. GWAHARAM'S REJOINDER TO CHAKUR. 

O my friends, noble in the assembly, come, well-born 
men of my tribe, come, all ye Khans and Chiefs of the 
Lasharls, come, and let us form a gathering of brethren. 

When I recited a taunt in verse, wind came into 
Chakur's head ; never was there such a ruler as he ! But 
I too am, like him, a man of violence. Let the King 
but give me an opportunity one day, and I will bring 
together the Sammas and Bhattis, and will pour the 
armies of Thatha on his head. I will place coals of fire 
on the palms of my hands and blow upon them like the 
south wind, and will kindle a mighty fire in the houses 
of the covetous men, so that the Turks of Dehll shall not 
be able to put it out ! 



24 Heroic Ballads. 

When I fought with the thick-beards (the Rinds), the 
Rinds climbed up from below to the cold hill-skirts of 
Kalat. On the day when these words were spoken Chakur 
slaughtered a black cow ; Chakur was filled with manly 
rage. He did not pass by the deep water of Jhal, nor 
did he saddle his mare Sangwath, nor did he bring his 
minstrel Gurgln with his tightly-stretched drums. Ha 1 
Ha ! what a victory was ours ; we struck our foes a blow, 
and off went the chestnuts, like wild asses, with cup-shaped 
hoofs. Every mouthful in famous Sibi does Chakur carry 
off with livelong grief. 

Chakur climbs the steep cliff, Mando's beloved son turns 
back. The weary wolf stands in the dense shade of a 
tree and looks behind him. He goes off to the country 
where the wild pistachio ripens, and his mouth and face 
and curly beard are stained with the milky juice of the 
dlro}- A JamotI woman will sing lullabys to the son of a 
Baloch woman, his son will be a companion of camelmen 
and cowherds, his hands will be galled with much digging. 
He collects measures of corn in the skirt of his white coat, 
and carries the black waterpots on his head. 

4. CHAKUR TO GWAHARAM. 

Mir Chakur, son of Shaihak, sings: the King of the 
mighty Rinds sings : in reply to Gwaharam he sings. 

O my bay ! eat your grain from your nosebag ; make 
your neck and legs as stout as those of an elephant ;, 
swiftly, giving you the reins to mount the cliffs, I will 
return from Sibi. For you I have stored in my tents 
the sweet camels' milk. Stand in your stall with six 
pegs, eat of the wheat and satisfy your heart. Strengthen 
yourself for the enemies' mountains, for right or wrong 
I will come back again. The folk are displeased that 
you should be tied up in that land where I see the brave. 

1 The dlro is a small plant (also called launsh) with milky juice, which is- 
eaten by mountaineers. 



Earlier Period. 25 

I swear on my head and hair and turban, once I get 
free I will lay many low, lives will be overwhelmed 
among the spears and lances. Let that man come on, 
whose hour is come, the cup of whose reckonings is 
full ! I too ask from my King and Creator victory for 
the true Rinds at Sevi, rather than for the slender-footed 
thin-beards. Hereafter the Mughal youths and maidens 
will receive enlightenment. 

5. CHAKUR TO GWAHARAM ON FINALLY 
LEAVING SIBI. 

Chakur, son of Shaihak, sings : the mighty King of 
the Rinds sings : somewhat he sings on the day of leaving 
Sibi : in reply to Gwaharam he sings. 

I will leave man-devouring Sibi, curses on my infidel 
foes! Let Jam Ninda the Bhatti distribute bread for 
three days. For thirty years, for all our lives, will we 
fight with these gigantic men. My sword shall be stained 
with blood, it bends like the jointed sugar-cane, so that 
through crookedness it will not go into its sheath. The 
youths wearing two turbans (i.e. of high birth) do not 
rise up to sport among the tents under the shadow of their 
venerable fathers, nor do they rub scent on their mous- 
taches, but they feed on the flesh of fat-tailed sheep 
and boil strong liquor in their stills. There is none of 
them who bears the signs of a ruler ; they have eaten 
all their Indian blades, their broad swords are rusted, 
they have gambled them away to the usurers, they carry 
children's sticks in their hands. 

Gwaharam is in dusty Gandava, a stone cast into the 
sea ; the fishermen have drunk his blood. All and Wall 
possess all his countless herds of camels, the rebel fort 
is deserted, brought to earth by fierce Turks and Rinds 
on high-bred mares. Gwaharam has lost both places, 
and will possess neither grave nor Gandava. 



26 Heroic Ballads. 

XII. 
CHAKUR AND HAIBAT. 

This poem was taken down from the recitation of Ahmad Khan 
,Ludhiam Lund, of Rohrl in the Dera-Ghazi-Khan district. 

The subject relates to a vow made by Haibat or Haivtan, son of 
Blvaragh (Bibrak), one of the celebrated * Four Vows.' Haibat swore 
that if any camels got mixed with his herd he would not restore them. 
Ja.ro, Nodbandagh and Mir Han made vows at the same time (see 
* Adventures of Mir Chakur ' in Temple's Legends of the Panjab, 
vol. ii. p. 475). The vows of Jaro and Nodhbandagh are the subjects 
of the following poems (XIII. and XIV.). The Miralls or Children 
of Miral are identical with the Buledhls. 

Haibat, son of Bibrak, made an oath before the Rinds, 
striking his beard thrice with his left hand : ' If any 
man's herd of camels becomes mixed with mine (I will 
not return it). If he would keep his camels let them graze 
on the further side of the ridge.' Suddenly Chakur's camels 
came and mixed with those of Haibat, son of Bibrak. 
The Rinds got ready to fight. ' We will not leave our 
camels with the Children of Miral,' but Chakur kept 
them back, and made fools into wise men. * Many such 
camels have I given to faqlrs in the name of God ! ' 
Upon this the alarm was raised that Gwaharam had 
carried off a herd, and the Rinds pursued the Children 
of Lashar with the sword. The Rinds were tired, the 
neighing horses turned back. Chakur shaded his eyes 
and looked for his other troop of horsemen. Suddenly 
a dust arose at the mouth of the Narl defile, and Hai- 
bat son of Bibrak's troop came riding with turbans all 
awry. With the sword they charged the Children of 
Lashar; seven-score of their own men they lost in 
recovering the camels, and killed three hundred and 
fifty of the Lasharls, and fifty more were slain, all 'alims, 
readers of the Quran. Both tribes bore away their dead 
in doolies, but the Lasharls had the greater number. 
Haibat kept the recovered herd apart, and the Rinds 



Earlier Period. 27 

made ready to fight him. 'We will not leave our 
camels with the Children of Mlral.' Chakur hardly 
restrained them, saying, 'That herd was stolen by our 
enemies, and they are better with our brethren than with 
strangers, and anyway they will be of use to us some 
day. I will not break my own arm, nor set fire to my 
own jungle. With whomsoever you take them, I will 
keep quiet/ 

Three or four days passed in such discussion, and on 
the seventh day the herd came back to its own place, the 
same full-grown (large-toothed) camels, with Kotal the 
camel-herd. Chakur then gave Haibat as a reward 
the Nan stream and the town of Sibi. 'O Miralls! fill 
your horses' nosebags with green fodder ! ' 

XIII. 

The second vow (see above under XII.) was that of Jaro, who 
swore that he would kill anyone who laid hands on his beard, and also 
that he would kill anyone who killed his comrade Haddeh. 

Chakur, who does not here appear in a favourable light, induced a 
nurse to bring Jaro's child to him so that it touched his beard, and 
Jaro thereupon killed his own son. Again Chakur induced Haddeh 
to touch Jaro's beard while passing him in a horse-race. Jaro shortly 
afterwards instigated his nephew Shaho to kill Haddeh, and when he 
had done this he himself killed Shaho and buried him with Haddeh in 
one grave. Jaro is known throughout these ballads by the epithet of 
jaur-jawav, i.e. poisonous or bitter in reply, a title fully borne out by 
the second of the following poems. Haddeh was Chakur's brother-in- 
law, being married to his sister Banari. The text was recited to 
me in 1884 by Ghulam Muhammad Balachanl. 

i. CHAKUR TO JARO. 

Chakur, son of Shaihak, sings : of the day when Jaro's 
beard was seized he sings : of the slaying of Haddeh 
he sings. 

O Mughal, saddle your steed, as swift as deer or 
tiger ; saddle your fiery Arab and bring him close to me, 
that I may tell you a dream. 



28 Heroic Ballads. 

The Rinds are my mountain forts, but for a slain 
Rind there is no door open, on both sides his life is 
shut in. 

Because he arose in sport, Jaro with knife and dagger 
slew them both ; he slew him with his companion, because 
Jaro's curled beard was seized, because Haddeh seized 
it roughly. 

2. JARO TO CHAKUR. 

Jaro, son of Jalamb, sings : in reply to Chakur he 
sings. 

Give ear, O toothless Mazido, to this strange tale, O 
Mazldo 1 ; a strange tale and a wonderful dream ! 

Speak not falsely, Chakur Nawab, speak not falsely 
that you be not held a liar; let falsehood be outside 
your teeth, away from your noble tongue ! 

It is true, O mighty Mir ; it is true, O Chakur Nawab. 
My curled beard was seized. By this my life was taken 
from me, by your own double shame, by your spiteful 
taunt ! 

One day saw both Haddeh and Shaho in a far-away 
home in the ground. With him was his jointed bow, 
his quiver full of gold, his keen blade with new scabbard ; 
both of them slain with knife and dagger ; each slain 
with his comrade. For your heart's pleasure they were 
killed and left there. Haddeh never returned home 
eating betel and cardamoms, to his wife in her four-sided 
hut, to Chakur's fair sister, to Banarl, best of women, 
nor sat with her in close embrace. 

Seek for Haddeh in the ground, for Haddeh in the 
ground in the grave of two men ! 

1 Mazldo is said to have been Chakur's original name. 



Earlier Period. 29 

XIV. 
THE LAY OF NODHBANDAGH. 

Nodhbandagh was a leading man among the Lashans, and is 
celebrated for his generosity. He has already appeared as the 
chivalrous protector of Mir Chakur, whom he saved in the battle, and 
mounted upon his own mare Phul. Chakur had in former days 
tested him in various ways. Nodhbandagh had made a vow 
never to reject a request, and never to touch money with his 
hands. Chakur gave him a pair of saddle-bags filled with 
money, and made a hole in the bottom, so that the money 
dropped out. It was picked up by a band of women who were 
gathering tamarisk-galls, and they bestowed on him the name of 
Zar-zuwal, or Gold-scatterer. Afterwards Chakur sent him a Domb, 
telling him to demand of Nodhbandagh everything he had in his 
possession. The Domb did so, and Nodhbandagh said in reply: 

* Give me your phushti or upper garment, and I will give you all my 
clothes and other possessions.' This the Domb did. Nodhbandagh 
divided the phushtl into two parts, with one of which he clothed 
himself and with the other his wife ; and then gave the Domb all his 
clothes and everything in the house, and it was left bare. At night 
Nodhbandagh and his wife lay down to sleep in the empty house. 
At midnight a laden camel sat down before the door of the house. 
Nodhbandagh said to his wife, ' Go and smell the camel's mouth. If 
it has a sour smell, drive it away ; but if it has a sweet smell, call me 
to unload it, for Heaven has sent it.' 

The good wife smelt it, and it had the scent of musk. Then 
Nodhbandagh unloaded it, and opened the bales, and found that they 
contained garments of every sort for men and women, all sewn and 
made up. So he and his wife clothed themselves. Next morning 
when he came into Mir Chakur's assembly, the Mir said, ' Nodhban- 
dagh, thou art verily the Gold-scatterer.' 

This poem is Nodhbandagh's reply to his brethren when they 
reproached him for giving away all his possessions. I took it down 
from the recitation of Ghulam Muhammad BalachanI in 1884, and 
included the text in my BalochI text-book, 1891, and also in the 

* Adventures of Mir Chakur ' in Temple's Legends of the Panjab. 

Nodhbandagh, the Gold-scatterer, sings : he sings some- 
what in his own praise. 

O friends, friends, my friends and fiery brethren ! The 



30 Heroic Ballads. 

avaricious have uttered a speech, and laid blame upon 
my head, so I perceive plainly, they have done injustice 
to an innocent man. 

All men carry beards on their faces, but those who are 
no men wear them below ; they display them on their 
knees and heels, and some on the nape of their necks. A 
man has never been so disgraced and put to shame before 
a woman, as when a hen strikes her chickens on the head 
with her beak. He sits and weeps near his love, and 
draws forth sighs from his mouth. 

The generous assemble with me and the greedy quarrel 
with me; they quarrel and say, turning their faces away 
from me : ' Nothing will be left with Nodhbandagh ; Phul x 
will not bring forth in due season, after six months at full 
moon ; she will not bring forth nor bear a foal.' 

Now foolish were my bitter foes, nor do I fall under 
yesterday's taunts. When I was skinning my sheep and 
goats how many of the greedy would assemble, how many 
of the grasping be gathered together ? I had the wealth 
of Muhammad ! Seven or eight hundred herds of cattle, 
innumerable herds of grazing camels ; nor have I ever 
gambled, nor is their tale told by the coloured knuckle- 
bones, nor have impostors extorted my wealth from me, 
nor mighty armies robbed me. I have given it away in 
God's name to pious men, reciters of the Quran, and to the 
poor dwelling in the wilderness. In the morning they eat 
their fill, the warriors of the faith come joyfully, with joy 
they repeat my name. As gifts I do not reckon sheets, 
scarves, silken overcoats and quivers, or wide-wounding 
Egyptian swords. These the Ghazis carry away. A 
striped shawl worth three hundred, 2 worn but for one 

J The name of Nodhbandagh's mare. See VII. p. 14. 

2 The currency alluded to is probably the silver coinage of the later princes 
of the house of Taimur, such as those issued by Sultan Husain Baikara at 
Herat. These are thin, broad dirhems weighing from 80 to 90 grains 
of silver. 



Earlier Period. 31 

night, is carried away in the morning by anyone who 
asks for it, by a Dom, a singing minstrel. The good 
praise God and return thanks for this. But let no such 
petitioner come to me and ask me for a wife, saying, 
'Bring forth a pillow and a lady fair, 5 for of such gifts 
there are none to be had. An oath is to me as to Omar, 1 
as to Omar is an oath to me. I will not be stopped from 
giving. I am not a man to be stopped. Whatever comes 
to me from the Creator, a hundred treasures without 
blemish, I will seize with my right hand, I will cut with 
my knife, I will deal out with my heart, I will let nothing 
be kept back; for then my young brothers, my nephews 
and mourning brethren would quarrel among themselves 
as to the partition of my inheritance and property, over the 
wealth of Nodhbandagh. 



XV. 
THE LAY OF DILMALIKH. 

Dilmalikh was a Rind noted for his generosity, and for the 
sumptuous entertainment he gave the Lasharis just before the 
outbreak of their war with the Rinds (Legends of the Panjab^ ii. 
472). Afterwards he lost all his wealth through gambling, and was 
set to cut grass for the horses by a woman from whom he asked 
entertainment for the night. The following song, taken down from 
the recitation of Ghulam Muhammad Balachani, is evidently incom- 
plete. The last three lines are Dilmalikh's reply when the Lasharis 
offered to adopt him into their tribe. 

Gambling has brought famous Dilmalikh, through 
malice and spite, from the brilliant assemblies of his 
brethren and the gathering of the Rind encampments. 
A Rind woman calls him uncle, puts a sickle in his 
hand, and famous Dilmalikh has to cut grass for galled 
jades ! Now I give up my long boots, my brazen 

1 Probably the reference is to Omar Nuhani, the ally of the Lasharis, who 
was celebrated for his generosity. 



32 Heroic Ballads. 

stirrups and bits ; the sandals of phish 1 make my feet 
swell. I was not worthy of the bay mares, I have given 
them for an empty amusement. Their story is in the 
coloured knuckle-bones. 

God cannot turn a Rind into a Lasharl. A Musal- 
man cannot become a Hindu, nor wear the Brahmanical 
cord of heathendom. 

XVI. 
THE EXPEDITION TO DEHLI. 

This poem is attributed to Shahzad, son of Mir Chakur, and relates 
to the exploits of the Baloches who joined Humayun's army to recover 
Dehli from the Suns. The text is derived from three versions taken 
down at various times, the fullest being that of Baga Lasharl. The 
Rinds and Dodais appear to have joined in this expedition, and to 
have been accompanied by men of the original tribes of the Indus 
valley, with whom the Baloches were associated, the Langahs, Nahars 
and Kungs. The Langahs ruled at Multan, the Nahars in the 
Southern Derajat. Nothing is now known of the Kungs. 

Shahzad, son of Chakur, sings. 

From hence come the two-sworded Langahs, the 
Nahars and Kungs, greedy of gain ; the Dodais go forth 
with the sword, they draw their scimitars from their 
green sword-belts, girt over their shapely shoulders with 
velvet and scented leather of Herdt. Forty thousand 
Rinds are at the head, and Humayun comes with three 
or four hundred thousand men to deal a mighty blow 
on the tribes. 

The sun rose and the army appeared, Humayun's 
innumerable army. From the shadow of the shafts of 
the thrusting spears there was no room on the ground 
for the foot ; birds sat on the lance points. There was 
no place for man or horse. The call was given from 

J The phish is the dwarf-palm of the Sulaiman Mountains (Chamaerops 
Ritchieana). 



Earlier Period. 33 

the skin -covered drums to forty thousand men sprung 
from one ancestor. Their hearts did not tremble with 
imaginations, the true Rinds came with keen edges. 
Your countenance was in God's protection, with your 
wives and golden-fronted sons. There was gambling 
with heads and hair! Thither they came by agreement 
with the Turks. 

The fight began with bullets from guns, on white-faced 
grey mares. There was not a single moment's delay; 
in a moment water was turned into milk. I beheld it with 
angry eyes; the army gave way in the left wing; all the 
Miralls (or Buledhls) broke and fled, some turned and 
abandoned the Mir's side. Then the true Turks of 
Dehli showed their strength, and Mai Banari, daughter 
of Shaihak, alighted and drove back the Rind warriors. 
The furious Turks of Dehli stood firm, the Rinds on their 
slender mares wielded their swords, and the foul-eating 
Turks fled from Dehli, ashamed, before the Baloches of 
the mountains. Seven thousand of them were slain by 
the man-tigers, ground as it were under a mill stone. 
Three hundred were slain on the Rind side, Allan, 
first in attack on the foe, Allan who blackened the 
bragging foe, and Noh was slain who came with Nohakh, 
and Balash the Royal who came with the Mir. They 
took Dehli-fort with its thousand treasures. There Chakur 
halted for eight watches: 'Let us rest and let our mares 
take breath, and let the young fillies with pointed ears 
have a little rest, and let their withers recover from their 
swellings for a while. And I, with my eighteen young 
sons, will drink bhang in the bazaars, and in the early 
morning we will again urge on our mares and meet the 
enemy face to face!' Men who come from Sindh, from 
the streams of Rani fort, from the nine-branched water- 
courses of ruined Uchh, (tell the women) to cease from 
their midnight lamentations for their true-loves and 
heroes, to wear no more dark-blue for their lovers, or 



34 Heroic Ballads. 

bashful women for their lords, for the ants which eat 
men's corpses are in the courtyards of others, and our 
black clothing is brought back to us by our sweet armies 
and our Lord and Amir is free from care or envy of 
anyone. Let that Amir come and behold Chakur's 
shadow ! 

XVII. 
THE WAR OF THE RINDS AND DODAlS. 

When Mir Chakur with his Rinds advanced towards Dehli a large 
body of Rinds, headed by Bijar son of Pheroshah, separated from 
him and returned to the Indus Valley, where the Dodals under Sohrab 
were already settled. The Dodals were allied with Chakur, and a 
war ensued between them and Bijar's Rinds. No details of this war 
are known, but it must have ended in a division of the country, as 
most of the tribes of the Derajat claim descent from these Rinds, while 
Dera-Ghazi-Khan remained in the possession of the Dodals. GhazI 
Khan son of Sohrab founded the town, and his tomb is at Churatta, 
a few miles away. His descendants, the Mirranls, kept the Nawabship 
for two hundred years. 

The following eight poems relate to this war, and appear to be 
contemporary with it. The poets on the Rind side are Bijar himself 
and Jongo, and on the Dodal side Babar son of Sohrab, Hajl-Khan 
son of GhazI- Khan, and Hairo, son of Mandos. Many of the allusions 
are obscure, and refer to events of which the memory is forgotten. It 
may be noted that Bijar calls himself Badshah or King of the Rinds, 
a title generally reserved for Chakur. 

The poems were recited by Ghulam Muhammad Balacham. 

I. 

Bijar son of Pheroshah sings : the head of the Phuzh 
Baloch sings. 

Let Gagar 1 work his waterwheels in the night watches 
in the lands belonging to me Bijar, for now I will no longer 
dwell in the village crowded with faces. I will go to 

1 Gagar was a peasant whom Sohrab instigated to take possession of Bijar's 
land on the Indus, and irrigate it by means of a jhalar, or water wheel, 
here called arhat. 



Earlier Period. 35 

generous Brahim, generous Brahim and Muhammad, who 
will drink wine in a golden cup, drink wine and give me 
a share, and give it with a joyful heart ; else is he no 
Rind and the Dodais are my brethren ; there are no 
mountains, and we dwell in Hindustan ; there is no Sindh, 
Phailawagh is my pasture; the brackish water of the 
Chachar is my friend, it is sweet in my children's mouths, 
for those embankments are far away from the Turks. 
Drunkards are the young men of the Sindh country; 
there is much water and bhang is cheap, and wood is 
plentiful near their houses. 1 

2. 

Babar son of Sohrab sings : the Dodal sings. 

Wonderful head ! What idea has overtaken you ? That 
wide-wounding sword has struck you, the arrows can be 
seen under your armpits, the snakelike arrows bite into 
your body from the hands of Rinds on slender mares. 
Another day do not speak falsely to Chiefs and generous 
Lords, and Kings, rulers of forts. 

This kind of speech is used by angry men. Wayfarers 
as they pass by all come as guests to me, and I struck 
Bijar with the bright sword. 2 Know that you have many 
foes to let out your life! The golden cup of my days 
was not yet full. The warrior Jongo is my witness, in 
what way thou didst look upon my face ! The brave man 
does not utter falsehood, nor the noble householder with 
fair sons! My Chief is the taker of forts when he goes 
to war, he gives shelter to the grazing herds of camels, he 
is the bright lamp of sorrowful eyes, the reliever of the 
oppression of the brethren who hold the ford ! 

Now I give up, it has come to an end ; the melon has 
been devoured by a crowd of comrades. Our attendant 
huris are grieved and distressed, and wander sadly with 

1 Implying that it was easy to distil spirits or to mix bhang. 
2 Lit. 'the green.' 



36 Heroic Ballads. 

their little sisters. No rain has fallen from the banks of 
cloud with us and our companions, nor with our mighty 
uncle. 

3- 

Jongo son of Ghulamo sings : in reply to Babar he 
sings. 

rain-clouds piled up afar off in banks as the cold wind 
drives you on high, bear a salutation to my foes and say, 
'O mighty Babar son of Sohrab, you send me messages 
full of noise from Sindh, and call upon me for words of 
evidence. A witness is he who stays behind, those in 
front do not pull in their bridles. For what cause should 
I find a fault in my Chief? The Dodals are all brave, 
one like another, worthy to be praised by poets. So much 
knowledge I had. 

When you came, riding with your comrades, eleven bold 
men, one like another, I formed in my heart the intention 
of making a slaughter of you all ; but when you came 
near, you quickly turned back, so much did the Rinds' 
thrusting spears hurt you, the sharp buffets of your foes ! 
You carried away your shame in your flight on the day 
when generous Pheroz fought, you felt the dread of 
Shaihak's sword and were in terror of Melav's 1 Lord. 
You did not keep back your head from the crocodiles nor 
from the buffeting of the river's waves. 2 The hungry 
Machhis pulled you out ! Of youths such as you, sub- 
duers of women, of such the Warrior Bijar has many. 

1 am well acquainted with Bijar's customs ; he will not 
accept female camels in payment, nor the male camels of 
the towns, nor swift mares. The food he devours is young 
heroes. He had prepared and arranged a wedding-banquet 
for you. When this time the gathered armies of your 
enemies come upon you they will clothe you in the same 

1 Melav is the name of a mare. 

2 Babar is said to have fallen into the Indus in his flight, and to have been 
fished out by Machhis (fishermen). 



Earlier Period. 37 

(red) garment, in which they clothed your uncle before 
you. A piece of the same cloth has been kept for you ! 

4- 

Hairo son of Mandos sings : the Dodai sings : in reply 
to Bijar he sings. 

Sharpen my sword, my diamond-like lightening blade, 
my friendly green-flashing sabre; sharpen it on the harsh 
whetstone, temper it to an edge to cut silver ; gird on 
my sheath for the slaughter, both hilt and edge are 
fasting ! 

A message has come from the Rinds, from the wearers 
of dirty clothing. The sword-wielding Rinds have arisen, 
led by renowned Bijar, slayer of men, to fight with Malik 
Sohrab ! God grant our petition, that we may stop their 
gathered armies in the yellow afternoon and at early morn. 
We will come forth from the foothills, from the distant 
sandy skirt of the mountains ; we will show ourselves on 
the Rohrl hills, and Rinds will join in battle with Dodals. 
We will pair off our gallant youths ; Nathu (Rind) will 
struggle with Shahzada (Dodal), sweet-scented Wall 
(Dodal) with Chata (Rind), Shambo (Dodal) with mighty 
Shoran (Rind), Madan (Dodal) with powerful Allan 
(Rind). The opposing armies with weighty forces will 
come to the water's edge, and will thrash the ears of corn, 
one of the other. 

Then will I with my black troop of wild asses, lance in 
hand, on my mare LakI, search out and slay Bijar, re- 
nowned Chief of the Phuzh ; and perchance, if fate so will 
it, he will flee backwards. I will pursue him, and swiftly 
seize him by his dirty robe. I will cast my hand upon his 
neck, and break my sword upon his head, and so transfix 
him with my dagger that it will sink in up to the trusty 
hilt, and my right hand will be stained with his blood. 
Bijar will fall from his bay mare's saddle, and will sleep 
upon the plain, and alone with my Indian blade I will 



38 Heroic Ballads. 

carry off the Rind quiver when by Divine might we win the 
victory ! 

Many arrangements will be made about women ; depu- 
tations (to ask for terms) sit in our assemblies. I, Hairo 
Tasoam, have slain him, and have girt on the sweet- 
scented, knotted turban of Chieftainship, and a pillar has 
been overthrown by the Dodals. 

5- 

Bijar son of Pheroshah sings : the King of the mighty 
Rinds sings. 

The Chiefs dwell among the wealthy bazaars of Sindh ; 
Lai and Mando are drunken with drinking too much wine, 
and excited with intoxicating majun, but the men of the 
Rinds, with slender mares, have sent out keen men to spy 
out the land, and these cunning spies came back with joy- 
ful hearts. With joyful hearts they came from the enemies' 
land, bearing with them broken branches of the //zfr-tree, 1 
and thus they spoke in the assembly : * We have spied out 
all the boundary, and have bound the tiger-like mares with 
the fetters of full-grown camels, and fastened them to pegs 
of siris-wood and iron. Jongal seized them as the eclipse 
seizes on the moon. Thence we went to wealthy Sindh by 
the order of our Lord the Khan : HajT Khan has slender 
mares, Ghazi Khan has powerful horses ! The Dodals are 
very mighty warriors. Hairo Tasoani on his chestnut was 
very strong in his hatred to his foes, but little Natho struck 
him a blow with his thunderbolt (i.e. his sword), and his 
head fell from his powerful mare's saddle. He was rescued 
by the hungry Machhis ; let him take his braggart speeches 
to the far-dwelling Namurdls, and sit in the assembly of 
the Royal Amir. O, Jam Ismail, if you ask my advice, I 
say, ' Turn Babar out of your house.' Another day do not 
speak falsely to a chief, a generous lord, and ruler over 
many forts ! 

J The Salvadora Oleoidcs> borne as a sign of success. 



Earlier Period. 39 

6. 

Hajl Khan son of GhazI Khan sings: the Dodal sings. 

Gallant youths of both sides, leave your womanlike 
dreams ! They give me a pain in the head, and my noble 
body is heated as with a fire of Kahlr-log 1 charcoal, it 
melts like wax and wastes away in its soft white robe. 

The day before yesterday news was brought to me that 
my bitter foes had come. They brought boats and ships 
and seized the narrow fords. Every man came running 
for dear life's sake, and thus they shouted, ' Quick ! cross 
the river; go to the other side of the ferry; they are 
standing in the boats, to bring upon us great woe and chew 
the bones of our funeral feast ! ' 

Friends, you may choose for yourselves, but I have 
sworn on the siris-tree to move when the helpless siris 
moves, and if the firm land (marches I will drive pegs into 
it to stop it. Bijar will not seize me from behind when he 
comes in pursuit ; like ten-score men will I come forth to 
meet him. I will cut through his stout horse's neck, and 
will give good entertainment to the spearmen. I will so 
wield my sword in that place that it will cleave him to the 
saddle-bow, and he will fall on his hands and his neck and 
gnaw the earth with his mouth, and my revenge will be 
even for my chief, for Hairo's gold-hilted sword. 

7- 

Bijar son of Pheroshah sings. 

Clouds and dust arise by the bank of the Sindh river. 
They have taken burning brands and set fire to the bushes, 
and having fired them the folk assemble, and are weary 
with putting it out. 

The day before yesterday said Allan to the warrior 
Chief of the Rinds, 'Bijar, if you would do well, make a 
loan on good ground, and drink blood to satisfy your 

1 The wood of the Kahir (known in Northern India as the jhand), Prosopis 
spicigera, is much used as firewood, and gives out a great heat. 



4O Heroic Ballads. 

thirst ; do not take your tribe beyond their bounds. For 
our chief is passionate and bloodthirsty, the hero of the 
swift steed ! One day I will demand of you an answer for 
the priceless slaughter you have done ! Hairo of the loud 
voice is not one man's equal, but is the match for a 
hundred, and beats his enemies as with a stick, with the 
edge of his glittering sword. Think of the grief I have 
undergone, nor destroy your brother's liver with sorrow!' 
Hairo, I swear by the prophet, a true! oath on his shrine, 
I dare not say I shall escape safely from Hairo's rainbow 
blade, but let Muhammad Mustafa befriend me and give 
me my turn of victory, so shall we both go together to the 
other world, and together we shall gaze upon the Hurls 
and the lakes and streams of Paradise! 

8. 

Babar son of Sohrab sings : the Dodai sings. 

Bijar, if you would do well, O Khan, if you would do 
well, come and look upon Malik Sohrab, prostrate yourself 
three times before him, kiss his booted feet, and let your 
moustache trail in the dust and your beard sweep the 
ground ; else begone from this country ! 



XVIII. 

THE WAR OF DODA AND BALACH AGAINST THE 
BULEDHfS. 

Doda Gorgezh is celebrated among Baloches for the protection 
given by him to a woman named Samml, a refugee from the BuledhI 
tribe with her cattle. He, with most of his brethren, was slain in 
attempting to recover them from a BuledhI raid, and he is often held 
up as a model for other chiefs to follow, and compared to Mir Chakur 
who fought about Gohar's camels. 

Of the three following poems the first, relating the death of Doda, 
is given by R. B. Hetu Ram in the Persian Character in his Biluchi 
nama, p. 88. In transliterating the text I have been obliged to make 
a few corrections. The second and third poems I took down from the 



Earlier Period. 41 

recitation of Ghulam Muhammad Balachani. No. 2 is also given by 
Mr. Mayer in a nearly identical version. The series is incomplete, as 
a poem by Bivaragh, Chief of the Buledhls, should evidently come 
between No. 2 and 3. Blvaragh had taunted Balach with lurking in 
the hills like a jackal, and this assertion is scornfully repelled by 
Balach. The story of Balach and the Buledhls in prose was taken 
down by me from the narration of Ghulam Muhammad Balacham in 
1884, and included in my Balochi Text-book. A translation of it was 
published in Folk-lore, 1893. I give this story here to render the 
ballads which follow more intelligible. 

THE STORY OF DODA AND BALACH. 

There was a certain Buledhi who dwelt in the land of 
Sangsila; he had much cattle but no son. And in that 
place he grew a crop of millet 1 One day as he walked 
round his millet he saw that a herd of cattle had been 
eating it. He searched for their tracks on all four sides 
that he might see whence they had come, but not a single 
track went outside the embankment which surrounded the 
field, 2 although the herd had grazed on the millet inside. 
The next day when he came he found that the millet had 
been eaten again, and again he followed the tracks, but 
they did not go outside. Then he made a smoky fire and 
left it burning by the millet, that the cows might come 
close to the fire, as is the custom of cows. On the third 
day when he came he saw that the cattle after grazing on 
the millet had lain down by the fire. Then he knew in his 
heart that this herd had come from heaven. There were 
nineteen cows ; he drove them off and brought them home, 
and gave them to his wife, whose name was Samml, saying, 
' This herd is thine, for when I die my heirs will not give 
thee my other cattle.' Then he moved away from that 
place, and came to live under the protection of Doda 
Gorgezh, and said to him, ' When I die let my heirs carry 

^Zurth ; the Arabic dhurrah, Indian jawar (Holcus Sorghum). 
2 Every field is surrounded by a lath or embankment to keep in the water 
which is let in for irrigation when the hill-torrents are in flood. 



42 Heroic Ballads. 

away the rest of my cattle, but this herd is Sam mi's. Do 
not then give them up to anyone, they are under thy 
protection.' 

One day Samml's husband died, and the heirs came 
and demanded the cattle. Doda gave them all the rest 
of the cattle, but not Samml's herd. The next day the 
Buledhls came and raided that herd. Doda pursued 
and overtook them at Garmaf Daf, and there they 
fought. 1 Doda was killed by the Buledhls, his tomb is 
still there. Then the Buledhls came again and raided 
a herd of camels belonging to Rals, son of Doda's uncle. 
Rals, with his brethren Kawri, Chandram, Tota, Murld 
and Summen pursued and overtook them and gave them 
battle, but they were all slain there together with Rals. 
Only one of the brethren was left, Balach, a poor-spirited 
man. Balach then went to the shrine of Sakhi Sarwar, 
and for three years he fetched water (carried water pots) 
for the pilgrims. After three years were past, one night 
he saw a vision. Sakhi Sarwar came and roused Balach, 
saying, ' Go and fight with the Buledhls.' He arose and 
bought him a bow, and at night he left it unstrung. 
When he arose in the morning, behold, his bow was 
strung. Then Sakhi Sarwar gave him leave to depart, 
and said, ' Now thy bow is strung, go and smite the 
enemy.' So Balach went and waged war upon the 
Buledhls. He had but one companion, Nakhlfo his 
brother. (They had the same father, but Nakhlfo's mother 
was a slave- girl.) No one else was with him. 

They fought in the Sham and Nesao, in Barkhan, 
Syahaf and Kahan, 2 for in those days all that country 
belonged to the Buledhls. When men lay down to rest 

1 This is the subject of the first of the ballads which follow. Garmaf 
Daf is the Hotwater Pass. There are several places which bear the name 
Garmaf. This one is near Sangsila, in the Bugti country. 

2 That is in the country now occupied by the Mam, Bugti, Khetran and 
Gurcham tribes. 



Earlier Period. 43 

at night in their homes they would discharge their arrows 
at them ; three-score and one men they slew. Then 
the Buledhis left that country and settled in the plains. 1 
When Balach became old he lived at Sangslla, and a 
band of Buledhi horsemen came and slew him there, 
and lost one of their own men as well. It happened in 
this wise. When the Buledhls came they said to Balach, 
'Balach, pay that money that you carried off!' Balach 
replied, ' Come nearer, I am deaf.' So they came nearer 
and again demanded it. Then Balach said, ' In the days 
when I had money you never asked for it, but now 
that it has all dropped away from me you come and 
demand it.' He had a razor in his hand and he plunged 
it into the belly of the Buledhi, saying, ' There is your 
money,' and killed him. Then they fell upon Balach 
and slew him. It was thus that the Gorgezh and the 
Buledhls fought. 

i. THE DEATH OF DODA. 

The good woman Samml came with her cows to Doda 
for protection. Ramen, a youth who dwelt near by, 
saw Samml's cows ; the Children of Mlral (i.e. the 
Buledhls) raided them, and wickedly drove them away. 
In the first watch of the day the alarm was raised. 
Doda was lying asleep when his wise mother came and 
roused him, saying : ' I bore you for nine months in my 
womb, and for three years I suckled you. Now, go forth 
in pursuit of the cattle, for who is so swift of foot as 
you ? and either collect and bring them back or bring 
destruction on your own head ! ' And his wife's mothen 
with great dignity, said, ' Men who promise to give pro- 
tection do not lie asleep in the day-time.' 

Generous Doda arose, and thus spoke to his mare 
Surkhang, in excuse (for riding her in the pursuit) : 

1 The Buledhls, or Burdis, still live in northern Sindh, near the Indus. 



44 Heroic Ballads. 

'The lady has brought you cold water on her head, 
and a relish of fat sheep's tails; lentils in a broad dish 
she has given you, and for your heart's content grain in 
a red nosebag, and water in a fine bucket. Now is the 
time of Doda's need; I go forth through the craft of 
my foes. That day (for which I reared you) has come 
to-day, and somewhere we must overtake the cattle.' 

In a place below two cliffs, where the water flows 
through the gorge close to Garmaf, Doda the Brave 
overtook them, and fell upon them, the young man, his 
mother's beloved son. The Angel of Death brought 
him thither, him and Jam 'Umar together, with Surkhl 
his mare of the light paces. A youth struck him from 
one side, and Doda fell from his mare's saddle on to 
the plain, and together with Jam 'Umar he died there, 
with red boots on his feet and glittering rings on his 
hands ! 



Balach son of Hasan sings: the Gorgezh Baloch 
sings : the avenging Baloch sings. 

Take away Blvaragh's black-pointed sword ; how has 
he become as a foolish boy, and taken leave of his 
childish wits! He came and plundered the cattle which 
grazed in Doda's charge on Mir Hamal's sandy waste, 
leaving the owner enraged, the grey tiger in his wrath. 
For me and you, oh my enemies, such thefts were not 
to be carried out, picking out and counting the cattle! 

You saw Doda in his wrath when he came raging 
after you ; he was not in a pleasant place. You killed 
his mare, striking shoulder and hip-joint ; blood bubbled 
from her mouth. Doda followed on foot, wearing red 
boots on his feet ; your horsemen overtook and slew 
him. You slew my brethren, Rals, Chandram, Kawarl 
the bold ; you killed fiery Rals, and had no fear of what 
was to follow! 



Earlier Period. 45 

Doda, thy lordly armour, thy harness and kingly 
weapons, thy feathered arrows the plunderers divided ; 
the makers of butter carried away thy helmet! The 
women in the camp were scattered ; they saw clearly 
what had happened. Tears of blood they shed on their 
shoulders and bodices which were wet with their grief. 

ye, who have slain this man, the Baloch women are 
left without their lord, and wander about outside. I see 
the bay mares running loose, roaming about turned out 
of their stalls ; I see the children naked, the women go to 
earn their bread in dreams, no lover comes to comb their 
hair and spread it out over their shoulders. My lordly 
body grows hot at the sight like a log of ^afar-wood 1 
charcoal, like wax it melts and wastes away in its soft 
outer garment. I sit and fight with my heart, and my 
heart thus answers me : 

'Balach is a tiger, a hailstorm. That wealth which 
Blvaragh carried will never become fair clothes and 
raiment, nor will he be able to give away in presents much 
of that cloth and Khorasan coats. This is my Chief's 
token : Doda's gold-hilted sword and brave Rals's tigress- 
mare on Blvaragh's bull-neck ! ' 

3- 

Balach sings: in reply to Blvaragh he sings. 

The mountains are the Baloches' forts, the peaks are 
better than an army ; the lofty heights are our comrades, 
the pathless gorges our friends. Our drink is from the 
flowing springs, our cup the leaf of the dwarf-palm, our 
bed the thorny brush, the ground we make our pillow. 

My white sandals are my steed, for my sons you may 
choose the arrows, for my sons-in-law the pointed dagger, 
for my brethren the broad shield, for my father the wide- 
wounding sword. 

1 and Nakhlfo went forth, yesterday evening we went 

1 The Kahir (Prosopis spicigera) gives out great heat in burning. 



46 Heroic Ballads. 

down to the valley, and in a village we saw a bard, a 
cunning man in singing songs. We tarried awhile in the 
assembly and heard the bard sing a new song containing a 
taunt from Blvaragh. 

Blvaragh ! Thy wits are in thy head, thou knowest that 
to flee is not for a Baloch. The blood of seven of mine is 
on thy head, and on the band of thy young brothers. The 
deaths of Summen and Doda are on thee, of Chandram 
and Kawari the bold, of Tota and sweet Murid, and of 
Rals the foremost in battle. Thou slewest them, and hadst 
thou no after-fear? 

I have not made war like a jackal, but like a tiger have 
I burst through my foes. I have no bay mare worth a 
thousand rupees, nor any swollen army, but I swear on my 
head that every night I will burst forth like a storm-cloud 
in the Rains, I will come forth to fight when your young 
men are all sleeping in their huts in the arms of their fair 
ones, and your priceless mares are all tethered in their 
sheds. 

Blvaragh ! Thou dost not speak as one of understand- 
ing when thou sayest in the assembly, 'The death of 
Balach by God's will will come one day through a trick of 
mine/ 

Blvaragh ! How many jugglers, such even as thou art, 
has Nakhlfo slain with his blade through God's help, how 
many have we devoured with the edge of the sword ? 

XIX. 

REHAN'S LAMENT FOR SALO. 

Rehan cousin of Mir Chakur is said to have composed this lament 
on the death of Salo, whose lover he was. The text is taken from 
Mr. Mayer (p. 13). I have met with no other version. 

Yesterday as I came along the highroad on my black 
mare, well trained for the chase, listening to the beat of 
her hoofs, forgetful of all the falseness of the world, as 



Earlier Period. 47 

I came back from a far country, I met with Sahak my 
beloved kinsman. I was sitting with my legs crossed and 
wearing my scarf, Jam Sahak with his red scarf in a knot. 
I broke my hunger with cardamoms, while my mare 
nibbled the tops of the gorkha-gruss (Elimurus hirsutus). 
We gave and received the news, and first Jam Sahak gave 
his tidings to me and said, ' In the village where you once 
dwelt fair Salo has fallen under a deadly illness.' A pain 
fell on my flowing locks, and from my burning heart I 
made this prayer : ' Would that thou hadst not come, Jam 
Sahak my kinsman, would that thou hadst not come, and 
that I had not met thee, nor received these miserable 
tidings from thee. I make a vow of a black cow from my 
herd and a red-eared ram from my flock to the Great 
King, my knife and dagger and sword of Khorasan, my 
black mare with her harness sewn by mochis (leather- 
dressers), and to set free a slave from my hearth, if my 
fair love may be saved from the heavy inflicter of pain.' x 

I urged on my black mare with the whip, and as I 
came near the dwellings I sat down behind the house. 
Before long a cry of ah ! alas ! arose, and they carried out 
my love at the back of the house, her black broidered 
hair spread out. They drew off the silver neckband from 
her neck, slender as a crane's, the polished round pearls 
from the tips of her ears, the golden ring from her finely- 
shaped nose, the rings from her slight fingers ; and 
covering her with a fresh sheet they set forth, the mother 
weeping, the mother-in-law weeping, the brother weeping, 
the husband weeping. I too rained tears like the clouds 
in the rainy season, on my moustache and curly beard. 
Learn, all ye chosen youths, turban-wearing sons of the 
Great, do not grieve for this outward shape which we hold 
in our hands. I have seen this world passing away. The 
day before yesterday the lady of the village departed. 
1 I.e. from 'Azrail, the angel of death. 



48 Heroic Ballads. 



XX. 

BIVARAGH AND THE KING OF QANDAHAR'S 
DAUGHTER. 

This poem is taken from Mr. Mayer's text (p. 8). Blvaragh son of 
Bahar, one of the principal actors in the struggle between Mir Chakur 
and Gwaharam, is the hero. He tells the tale in the first person, and 
relates how he abducted the daughter of the King of Qandahar, and 
brought her back to Sevi. Also how he joined Gwaharam instead of 
his own Chief Mir Chakur, and how he pacified the Turkish King 
who came to take revenge. 

The King alluded to is probably Shah Beg son of Zu'n-nun Beg 
Arghun who ruled at Qandahar at this period, and was frequently at 
war with the Baloches. It is probable that Blvaragh's reason for 
taking refuge with Gwaharam rather than with Mir Chakur was that 
the Rinds were in alliance with the Turks, and unlikely therefore to 
give him any countenance in his escapade. 

For Blvaragh's genealogy, see Table II., Appendix III., in my 
essay on 'The Baloch Race' (R.A.S. Monograph Series). In the 
ballads relating to the outbreak of the Rind and Lashari war he 
figures as the moderate man who endeavoured to restrain Mir 
Chakur's rage. See especially No. IV. Modern tradition holds that 
Blvaragh had a son named Gishkhaur by his marriage with the King 
of Qandahar's daughter, who is the ancestor of the Gishkhauri tribe. 

Blvaragh son of Bahar sings : the lofty Rind sings : of 
his love he sings : how he brought in the princess he 
sings. 

In Qandahar is a garden, an ancient place, the abode 
and dwelling of kings. Wandering through the crowded 
streets I came upon a way, and at a window I espied a 
fair lady. I let forth a complaint from my helpless heart. 
In Persian words the fair one called to me, ' Come quickly, 
with that form, bring your flashing sword and your trusty 
shield.' I went, trusting in God, with my royal steed. I 
repeated a text from the Quran (as a charm), a powerful 
word from God's revelation. Distressed and dark in soul 
I went, through desire of my love's golden necklace. 
Under the palace I tied up my mare, and I climbed the 



Earlier Period. 49 

walls, driving in iron pegs. I entered the private rooms, 
and with joyful heart I perceived my lady reclining on a 
golden couch. Seven nights and seven days I abode with 
my love. Then said to me the enchantress, the beauty 
and crown of her companions, ' Blvaragh, my prince of 
chieftains, my King bears great love for me, look that he 
does not secretly receive tidings of our doings, when he 
will leave neither of us two alive and well. If you have 
any manliness within your loin-string, it were well to carry 
me away to your own land.' 

I understood my love's speech, and she left all her 
possessions and her golden couch. When we came to 
the foot of the palace wall I unloosed my mare thence, 
and seated my love on the black mare's shoulder. I 
turned my face back to the Bolan, and came to the walls 
of Sevi fort. 

Then said my fair enchantress : 

' Bivaragh, my chief of chiefs, thou saidst to me : "I 
have mighty armies." How many are thy Rinds' swift 
mares? How many are thy Mlr's bands of young 
warriors ? ' 

Then I replied to my love : 

' Forty thousand men are Mir Chakur's warriors, thirty 
thousand draw the sword for Gwaharam.' 

Then said my lady Granaz : 

' Which is thy friend, and which thy foe ? ' 

And I replied to my love : 

' Chakur is my friend, Gwaharam my foe.' 

Then said my lady Granaz : 

' Let us go to Gwaharam the sword-wielder, for Chakur 
does not take his ease at his home.' 

So we came to Gwaharam the sword-wielder, saying : 

' Gwaharam ! Prince of Chiefs ! we have not halted till 
we reached you ; the spoils of the King are with us. If 
you will keep me I will abide with you ; if you will not 
keep me I will look for shelter elsewhere.' 

D 



5O Heroic Ballads. 

Then said Gwaharam the sword-wielder : 

'Come! you are welcome, Mir of the Baloches, with 
your love to stay in welfare and safety.' 

He arose and showed us a place to dwell in, he cleared 
for us a palace in the Chief's fort. He gave us a bedstead 
and spread out the rugs, cups of silver, platters of gold. 
From one side came trays of pulao, from one side came 
roast meat on spits, from one side came flagons of 
wine. 

Neither did I eat of the food, nor my love. Most of it 
we threw away under the walls, and a little we left upon 
the dishes, and my lady Granaz said to me : 

' Blvaragh ! you have become a Lashari. What saying 
is this ? You sit on a mat and are filled with wrath.' 

I replied to my love : 

' I will not eat, for the salt (of an enemy) is not good. 
That salt will one day become unlawful.' 

I called a shopkeeper from the town, and a Minmin (i.e. 
a Khoja, a Muhammadan shopkeeper) came at once. 

' If you wish to eat I will bring you something.' 

'Bring some sweet scents that we may inhale them, 
bring garments that we may dress ourselves therewith.' 

Seven or eight days I kept a tailor working, I became 
indebted in seven hundred pieces of silver. 1 

Then Gwaharam the sword-wielder took counsel, and 
sent a messenger (telling him to speak) thus : 

' Tell Chakur the Ruler that a Chief's business is not to 
play nor to act like a boy. Blvaragh has brought down a 
great burden, he has the spoil of the King with him.' 

The King's army passed out of the Bolan Pass, there 
was no room for the Amirs' tents. The sun rose with 
battlements of gold, and Mir Chakur's army set forth. 
Mir Chakur and Gwaharam took counsel together, and sent 
out the swift horsemen of the Rinds. 

1 The coin alluded to is doubtless the dirhem of the Taimuri dynasties, 
weighing about 80 grains. 



Earlier Period. 51 

' Go forth ; circle round the head of the army and return 
(bringing news).' 

Blvaragh said : 

'I myself will be your scout, be on the watch for three 
nights and days.' 

I went forth trusting in God with my own royal steed. 
I came to the army, and fetched a compass about it, and 
tied up my mare close to the army. I repeated some 
powerful verses from the Qurans, some mighty secrets of 
the Almighty. I went on with my glittering blade, and 
came close up to the King's tent. I was seen by Jago 
Khan the Turk, and I drew my glittering blade from its 
sheath, and struck such a fearless blow that it passed 
through like lightning in a thunderstorm. The King 
(God) protected me, and made my way clear. I cut 
through the strong tent ropes, and went through carrying 
my head on my shoulders. I came and saw the King of 
the army lying on a Turkish bedstead. I took the Turk 
by the hand and roused him (saying) : 

' I am that Blvaragh who has been spoken of. It is I 
who have done this work of Shaitan. To forgive is the 
heritage of Kings. If thou dost not forgive me it is in 
thy own hands. That is thy sword, this is my neck.' 

He called his trusty men for counsel, and for a little 
while they discussed the matter. Then the King presented 
me with a swift thundering steed, and clothed my body in 
red silk. The army struck its tents with stout ropes, and 
turned back by the Bolan Pass. I came to the fort of SevI 
and told what had happened in the Rind assembly. No 
man was held to quarter through me, nor had the Rinds a 
heavy battle to fight, nor the Lasharl to join in war. With 
joyful heart I stay with my love, and sport with her golden 
necklace. 



52 Heroic Ballads. 



XXI. 

SOME FRAGMENTS OF BALLADS, 
i. THE SERVILE TRIBES. 

The following verses are often quoted to show the servile origin of 
certain tribes said to have been presented by Chakur to his sister 
Bhanarl as a wedding gift. The first version (a) was taken down by 
me from the recitation of Baga Lasharl ; the second (b] was printed 
rather incorrectly by Leech sixty years ago. I have corrected the 
spelling in the text. The tribes mentioned in both versions are the 
Kirds or Kurds, now considered to be Brahols (but also forming a 
section of the Mazarls), the Gabols and Gadahls, always admitted to be 
servile tribes, the Talburs and the Marls, now an important Baloch 
tribe known to be of mixed origin. Leech's version gives also the 
Pa.cha.los, of whom no mention is to be found elsewhere, and Baga's 
adds the Bozdars. 

(a) The Kirds, Gabols and Gadahis, the Marls of Kahan 
and the Talburs, and the rotten-boned Bozdars all were 
Chakur's slaves. He presented them to Mai Bhanarl on 
the day of head-washing (i.e. seven days after marriage), 
and Mai Bhanarl set them free. 

(b) The Kirds, Gabols, Gadahls, Pachalos, Talburs and 
lawless Marls all were slaves of Chakur. He presented 
them to Bhanarl, but for God's sake she did not accept the 
gift. 

2. How DODA BECAME A RIND. 

For the story of Doda see The Baloch Race, p. 39. This fragment 
is evidently part of a longer ballad which has not been recovered. 
The Doda Sumra, who is the hero of the Sindhi poem * Dodo and 
Chanesar,' seems to be identical with the founder of the Dodals. 1 

Yesterday thou earnest dripping from among the fisher- 
folk, the Medhs, burned on the thigh and bitten by the 
frost ; thou earnest towards Mir Salhe's house, and he took 
thee for his esteemed son-in-law, and gave thee the fair 

J See Burton's Sindh, London, 1851, p. 125. 



Earlier Period. 53 

Madho to wife. Madljo saw the excellencies of Doda, and 
for the woman's sake the man became a Baloch, who had 
been a Jatt, a Jaghdal, a nobody ; he dwelt at Harand 
under the hills, and fate made him the chief of all. 

3. THE WOMEN PRISONERS. 

Frequent allusions are met with to the capture of the Lasharl women 
by the Turks. The Rinds, who were allied with the Turks, took charge 
of them, and by Chakur's orders protected and guarded them until 
they were restored to the Lasharls. On the first night a son of 
Blvaragh and the princess (see XX.) was on guard over them. He 
was praised for his conduct by the women, who said he had stood 
apart from them all night like a post of the house. From this Chakur 
gave him the name of house-post (Gishkaur), and he is the ancestor 
of the Gishkaurl tribe. The next night Muhammad Brahim was on 
guard, and insulted one of the women. Chakur was about to kill 
him, but the woman said, ' Do not kill him, his clothes are dirty ! ' 
So he 'bore the nickname of ' Leghar,' or 'dirty,' ever after, and is 
said by their enemies to be the ancestor of the Leghari tribe. The 
following lines are evidently part of a longer ballad about the im- 
prisonment of the women. It is alluded to in Sobha's poem (infra 
No. XXXIII. i). 

The Baloch women came in after the battle, and said 
one to the other, * Our husbands have met us.' Jaro, 
Rehan and Hasan were there. They gave up their 
mares to the shamefaced women, and themselves trudged 
on foot to the throne of Shoran. 

4. VERSES BY THE DODAIS DISPARAGING OTHER TRIBES. 

These satirical verses are intended to throw scorn on the generally 
admitted claim of the Dombkls to rank first among Baloch tribes ; 
and on account of the similarity of name they are alleged to be rela- 
tions of the Dombs or minstrel caste, who are not Baloches at all. 
The other tribes sneered at are the Kahms (called here Shahs or 
faqirs, on account of their Levitical attributes), and the Mazarls (called 
here Shers or Tigers, as Mazar in Balochi means a tiger). 

The Dombkls are younger brothers of the Dombs. The 
Dombs are the bucket and the Dombkls the well ! 




54 Heroic Ballads. 

The Dombkls are the wool of a shorn sheep ! The 
Shahs have lived on our alms for seven generations. 
The Tigers are the offspring of our braying asses! 



XXII. 

MURID AND HANI. 

This poem is a romantic ballad relating to Mir Chakur and his com- 
panions, but is probably of later composition than the epic ballads of 
the Chakur cycle. The text is from Mr. Mayer (Baloch Classics^ p. 16), 
with some additions from a version given by Leech. The story is to 
the effect that Ham daughter of Mando, was betrothed to Murld son 
of Mubarak, but that Chakur induced Murld while intoxicated to 
surrender his betrothed to him. After her marriage to Chakur Murld 
followed and began to intrigue with her. There was a disturbance 
at night among the horses, and Hani was sent out by Chakur to see 
what was the matter. A third time she went out in festive attire, 
and this led Chakur to suspect Murld. This leads up to the opening 
of the poem. Apparently Hani had explained the disturbance as the 
result of lightning. 

Mr. Douie, in his edition of the Biluchinama, gives the following 
version of the story (not in Hetu Ram's Urdu edition). I have altered 
it slightly, as Mr. Douie did not know that Murld was a proper name, 
and took it to mean simply a ' murid ' or follower of Chakur. 

Murld and Chakur were both betrothed. They went 
out hunting and became very thirsty. Then Chakur said, 
' Go to my betrothed and drink water with her, and I will 
go to yours.' Chakur came to Murld's betrothed, and 
Murld to Chakur's. She gave him water to drink and he 
became very sick. When Chakur went to the other woman 
(Murid's betrothed), she put straw into the cup and then 
gave him to drink, so that he was not sick. In the even- 
ing, when the people returned to their homes, both drank 
together, and Murld lost his senses from drunkenness. 
Then Chakur said, ' Give me thy bride/ and Murld replied, 
' She is thine.' Then Chakur said, ' All the Rinds are 
witnesses that Murld has given me his bride ; and he also 



Earlier Period. 55 

said, 'To-morrow I will celebrate my marriage.' When 
Chakur had been married Murld left that land, and his 
father searched over the whole country that he might 
behold him again. Chakur had then settled at Fatehpur, 
and Murld's father had searched over the whole country 
without finding him, and said : 

Si sal hamodha gar khuthaun 

Af gharoa dohithauri 

Main sar syah-saren kirman jatha 

Fatehpure khohl kilat 

Suny bath sunya rawath 

Nodhe mawarathi zare 

Binge rawant ma bhana. 

That is: 

Thirty years have I wasted there carrying waterpots on 
my head, so that black-headed worms have attacked my 
head. May the hill-fort of Fatehpur be deserted, may it lie 
waste. May rain-clouds never bring it wealth, may dogs 
howl in its cattle pens ! 

And since then rain never falls in Fatehpur ! 

[The verses given above are evidently part of another 
poem on the same subject, and resemble the curse with 
which this poem concludes.] 

COMMENCEMENT OF BALLAD. 

The Rinds held an assembly below Mir Chakur's tent, 
and Mir Chakur said, 'How many times was there lightning 
last night?' No one gave any information. 'Sardar, 
there was neither cloud nor storm. How can there be 
lightning, after the storm is over, on a fine winter's night ? ' 
Then said Murld the Mad : ' Let not my lord be angry, 
and I will tell thee the truth : If my manly body be not 
destroyed, I will give a true token. Last night it did 
lighten thrice. The third time it was but feeble, but twice 
it blazed out.' 



56 Heroic Ballads. 

Then said Chakur the Amir : ' Well done ! son of 
Mubarak, with thy unworthy stones about Chakur's moon- 
faced lady/ 

Then Mubarak pulled off his shoe and hit Murid on the 
head, saying, ' Leave off, Murid, thy evil deeds and shame- 
ful works with Chakur's moon-faced lady. Chakur is not 
a man of bad reputation. At his call a thousand armed 
Rinds ride forth on sturdy horses.' 

Then said Murid the Mad : ' Oh, my excellent father, he 
is but Chakur, and I am a shaikh. I too am not a man of 
bad reputation. He rides out with a thousand horsemen, 
and I with my own companions. It were well he had not 
seen my fair one, the par! ; the palace-shaker, with bare 
head in her narrow hut, the maiden of towns and camps, 
Hani of the seamless garments. For she belongs to me, 
who am ready to answer for her, though I wander and am 
lost, and have but a Kuran with me. I am not in chains 
and fetters, nor are my hands confined in iron manacles. I 
flee at the disgrace of the blacksmith's touch. When the 
breath of the south wind blows I am, as it were, a madman. 
Bring no forge for me, no mulla with many documents. 
There is no plague among my cattle. I will not become 
either mulla or munshl, nor will I say many prayers. And, 
with hands joined and head bent, I swear that on account 
of that blow from Mubarak's shoe I will cut off my hair, 
and will at once depart and go to a far land. I will lay 
down my noble weapons, put off my rustling clothes from 
my body, and I give them to Mir Mando, Hani's royal 
father. Fair Hani will keep them white from the moisture 
of storms and clouds. My carpet I give to 'All, my cross- 
bow to Isa. And I leave my horses tied up, tethered inside 
my hut, I leave them to Mir Chakur. Myself I will go 
with a cubit of cloth for a waist cloth. I am a mendicant 
and beggar, and go with those men, the naked brotherhood; 
I will go as a pilgrim to salute the blessed shrine of the 
prophet. Thirty years will I pass thus, thirty years and 



Earlier Period. 57 

part of a year, and one day I will return and come to a 
camp of the Rinds/ 

The Rinds had set up a mark below Mir Chakur's tent. 
' Now let the faqlr shoot arrows at the mark.' When he 
drew the bow the wood snapped. 

The Rinds then guessed and perceived that it was Murld 
of the embroidered garments, the lord of the iron-bow: 
' Bring Murld's bow-string.' They brought his iron-bow to 
him ; he kissed it and laid it on his eyes ; the unstrung bow 
he strung. With the first arrow he hit the mark, with the 
second arrow he hit the notch of the first Then the Rinds 
knew him that he was certainly Murld of the embroidered 
clothes, the lord of the iron-bow. Then they placed Hani 
and sweet-scented Murld in a house. Murld, as mad as 
a mast camel, bit Hani on the cheek and her two soft 
lips. 

Then said Murld the Mad : ' Hani, as long as I had need 
of thee there was no kindness in thy heart of stone, thou 
wast with thy lover, Mir Chakur. Now the powder is spilt 
from the pan ; I am not in a fit state for thee. Do not 
separate me from my companions. From a seeing man do 
not make me blind.' 

As soon as Murld had turned his back the Rind women 
began to lament, and Hani said to her companions : ' I 
will put my sari around my neck and go twenty paces after 
him. It may be I shall turn Murld back from the naked 
brotherhood, and if I do not succeed I will get a token 
from his hand.' Then Hani called after him. This was 
the answer of Murld : ' May Chakur the Amir be destroyed, 
may thy house be burnt with fire, may thieves carry off 
thy horses. (If I consent) may the token of my hand be 
destroyed, may my body be laden with the burden of sin.' 



PART II. 

LATER WAR BALLADS, AND OTHER 
TRIBAL POEMS. 

XXIII. 

THIS poem is an epithalamium on the wedding of Mitha Khan III. 
son of Hamal Khan II., Tumandar of the Mazarls, from whom the 
present Chief is seventh in descent. (See No. XXIX.) The poem is 
attributed to two BalachanI Mazarl ladies ; Hani the mother and Rani 
the grandmother of the bridegroom. 
The text is taken from Mr. Mayer (Baloch Classics, p. 20). 

The BalachanI ladies sing : Hani daughter of Mlrdost 
and Rani daughter of Salar sing : they invoke blessings on 
Mitha and sing. 

I accept the gifts which God bestows ; may God bestow 
those gifts upon the distressed, may God give sons to the 
humble of heart, a fair companion to each of the princes ; 
a swift steed to everyone good or bad ! 

May God magnify the sons of the fathers, may he make 
Mitha Khan as great as a King. He has manifestly acquired 
the knowledge of the Quran from learned men of sweet 
voices. May turbaned Phadhehan race his chestnut mare, 
let him gallop his steeds bounding like tigers, and delude 
the coquettish women. May Mitha put his feet into the 
brazen stirrups, drive in his feet and gird on his sword ; let 
fair DanyanI (his sister) clap her hands, let her clap her 
hands at Mitha's wedding. For wedding-gifts there are 
red jackets and shawls, gold and pearl embroidered bodices, 



Later War-Ballads. 59 

a pair of kettle-drums 1 are a gift from Mitha's father's 
shadow. 

A country in rent-free grant is a gift from his father's 
shadow ; his father's shadow gives him horses and bridles, 
his father's shadow gives him a bow for his hand. To-day 
is like the pilgrimage to Mecca, a day of good fortune. 
To-day God's rainclouds have gathered, the storms have 
burst above the hills. May the pearly drops be shed, and 
Mitha's gilded weapons become wet, may the far-famed 
gun worth a thousand rupees be wet, and the boss-studded 
shield of Herat, and the sharp-cutting sword, whose sers 
weigh maunds. Tho dagger and knife with silver hilts, 
the silken fringe over the filly's eyes, and the streamers 
of the turban hanging down his back ! 

Come, O Mitha, with heart-felt prayers; let not thy 
bitter enemies come, those who are mad from the pain 
inflicted by thee, to the wedding shouts of my lord's son. 
They will beat, Mir, upon the tightly-stretched drums, they 
will continue to beat sweetly all the time. May Mitha be 
secure of this lordly throne, a fortunate King supported by 
the Prophet's hand. 

Bring hither Mithan's beloved friends, bring the servants 
who have received gifts of money, bring the minstrels of good 
name ; let them carry bowls of oil and fuller's earth and let 
them lead this their brother to the flowing stream and wash 
his hair with a hundred blessings ; let them bring him to the 
closed entrance of the tent ; the white tent of that bed, that 
bed anointed with musk with its four legs of sandal wood, 
that pillow with embroidery of pearls. Under that bed is 
a glittering dish ; under that dish the wine of the Khan. 
Drink off that wine and rub the spices over thee. The 
bride has been brought by her handmaidens, wearing a 
red sari with silken borders, her breast filled with strings 
of almonds. 

I will speak a word of advice to the women of the village. 

a Won in a battle from the Chandyas. 



60 Later War -Ballads 

Know that my lord's son is of high rank. Weigh ye his 
head with its golden helmet, his breast covered with an 
overcoat embroidered in silk. 

To-day the mother (of the bride) with joyful heart, like a 
fresh rose, will not remain a moment in the white tent. 
She will look upon her son-in-law in his embroidered gar- 
ments, her moon-faced daughter in the doorway. At the 
wedding rejoicings for my lord's son the shepherds pour 
down from the mountains above shod with Herat sandals 
of sheepskin or of dwarf-palm leaves. 1 May it rain upon 
the Ghatlth and Tin streams, and may the Karabo come 
down in flood with the storms. The assembly will amount 
to more than twelve thousand, the mighty tribe of all 
the Mazarls, in reckoning by counting a hundred thousand 
axes. 

O God, accept the words that I have uttered. 

XXIV. 

THE WAR OF THE MAZARlS AND THE 
JAMALI BRAHOIS. 

This ballad relates to a' fight which took place about a hundred 
years ago in the time of Sardar Bahram Khan, father of the late 
Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan Mazarl. The text is taken from 
Leech's version revised. As this was taken down about 1840 the 
circumstances were then of recent occurrence. Although Leech 
obtained it at Kalat it must be the composition of a Mazarl bard. 
Ghulam Muhammad BalachanI thus relates the events (see my Balochi 
Text-book, Lahore, 1891, Part II. p. 17, for the narrative in Balochi 
prose). 

' When Bahram Khan was Chief, a band of Mazarl horsemen with a 
troop of Khado Kird's men, drove off a herd of camels belonging to 
Gul Muhammad Brahol, without being pursued. Afterwards Gul 
Muhammad sent a Sayyid named Musan Shah as a deputation to 
Bahram Khan to demand the return of the herd. Bahram Khan con- 

1 Two kinds of sandals are mentioned, both worn by hillmen, the CHABO 
made of untanned sheepskin, and the SAWAS of the leaves of the dwarf-palm 
(Chamserops Ritchieana) beaten to a fibre. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 61 

suited Drehan Kird and said that he would restore twenty-four female 
camels, but no more ; and accordingly he sent him back with the 
twenty-four as a peace-offering. Gul Muhammad on hearing this was 
very angry, and said that he would make war on the Mazarls. He 
brought up a body of horsemen from Thainkot in Kachhl, and drove 
off a herd of Mazari camels from near Bhandowall, killing a man at 
the same time. He told the herdsman to give his salutation to 
Bahram Khan and Drehan, and to say, 'I am taking away your 
camels, and intend to take my pick of them whether you follow me or 
not.' The Mazarls, however, pursued and recovered the herd. Again, 
Gul Muhammad came with seven score horsemen (the ballad says 
two hundred), and drove off a herd of camels. Sixty Mazarls pursued 
and overtook him at Jatro-phusht. Both sides alighted and fought on 
foot. The Brahols were defeated, and Gul Muhammad and eighty of 
his men were killed, the Mazarls having only two men wounded and 
none killed.' 

Let me call to mind the Plr of the fresh spring-tide, the 
Lord always true, the King, the Creator of men, the five 
pure ones, the four companions, Supporters of the Tiger's 
offspring (i.e. the Mazarls), of the unequalled Rustams. 
Sarangls, keen on revenge, support the Tiger's children ; in 
the shadow of Bahram Khan, the male tiger, his tribe dwells 
securely. 

The Mazarls led forth a troop and Khado with his horse- 
men was with them. They saddled their swift mares in 
numbers, raiders of great fame. They went to the plain 
of Kachhl and drove off an innumerable herd of camels. 
They brought it to the Chief in his strength, and divided it 
by arrow-shafts. 

Gul Muhammad Brahol sent his horsemen as a deputa- 
tion to the Mazarls, saying, ' Give me my herd of camels.' 
Drehan the Avenger replied, ' I will not give them during 
my life. Listen, Gul Muhammad, to my words, for foes, 
whether few or many, the Mazarls have broken and 
destroyed.' Then said Gul Muhammad the steadfast, 
' Listen, Bahram Mazari, I will either carry off a herd of 
your camels in exchange, or the Mazarls shall carry off my 
head ! ' 



62 Later War-Ballads 

The camel-herd brought the message ; the alarm is sent 
out among the assembly of tigers. The Chief and Nawab 
in his castle in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, sounds 
the drum of rejoicing. He himself mounted in front with 
his tribe and brethren, with the might of an Arab Sultan. 
1 1 will not leave my herd with my foes. Come forth, Oh 
Mazarls!' Hot HamalanI rides in front, the Mir and 
Chiefs of rank. He girds on his precious weapons and 
saddles his Shlhan (tigress) mare. The highly-bred chest- 
nut whinnied, harness and brazen stirrups and horseshoes 
clanked and sang. At his saddle-bow with merry heart 
the hero gripped his saddle, three-score Mazarls with him 
urged on their swift mares, the victorious Mir at their head. 
At the bank of the Jatro torrent the Mazarls overtook 
them ; great is the fame of the Tiger's Sons. Bijar and 
Khan are mighty warriors, as bold as tigers and lions. 
Hajl Han is one of a hundred hundreds, foremost among 
the fighting men, known in warfare among the best men. 
There was Jlwan on his fiery chestnut, Kadu the hammer 
of his enemies, sword of the fierce Durrani. The young 
hero said with his tongue, 'Let my hand be first in the 
field, with Zafar Khan JalianI ruler of the regions of Kin, 
in company with the Tiger's offspring.' 

And the Maghassls Siyal and Path were there ; gallant 
swordsmen were they ; and the Chandyas Gulzar and 
RazI took part with their swords at the time of the reckon- 
ing game (when the slain were counted ?). 

There were sixty Mazarls in the battle and two hundred 
Jamall Brahols. They abandoned their swords, guns were 
discharged, and shields dashed against faces and jaws, and 
eighteen Phandaranls, Mirs of the Brahoi country, were 
slain ; I know not their names that I should recite them. 
The Mazarls returned giving forth shouts and cries of 
victory ; they shall be called the Pearls of the World. 
They have left their mark on the world, and shall have 
honour in the tuman. Death awaited thee, Faujall, thy 



And Other Tribal Poems. 63 

sword played thee false, and thou wast slain instantly. 
Hajl Khan was the avenger with the fighter Bashkall and 
Husain Khan the brave. 

The Chief was in the midst of the battle with the heroes 
Gulsher and Dildar. Jan Muhammad and Jiwan Khan. 
Gulmakh and Taju Jamalls fled, their enemies shouting 
behind them. The Jamalis will ever be a laughing-stock. 
Gul Muhammad and twenty-four men were slain. The 
Creator gives the victory and spreads its sweet savour over 
a whole lifetime. 

Oh ! assembly, repeat the Kalima. 



XXV. 
THE ATTACK ON TIBBI LUND. 

The subject of the following ballad is an attack made by a combina- 
tion of the powerful Leghari and Gurcham upon the Lunds of TibbI, a 
small but warlike tribe. Lashkar Khan the Chief was killed in this 
fight, and his brother Mazar Khan (grandfather of the late Sardar 
Mazar Khan, and great-grandfather of the present Chief) was 
wounded. The Khosas and Rinds alluded to in this ballad are not 
the large tribes bearing these names, but sections of the TibbI Lunds. 
The Rind section, always disaffected, joined the hostile army. The 
Gurchanis were under Fateh Khan JalabanI, an ancestor of the present 
Tumandar, and the Legharis under Rahlm Khan, who at that time 
had usurped the Tumandarship of that tribe. He belonged to a 
collateral branch, and was first cousin of Jamal Khan, great-grand- 
father of the late Nawab Muhammad Khan. 

The ballad is probably the composition of a Dom or professional 
minstrel. It is remarkable for the number of expressions borrowed 
from the SindhI not found in ordinary modern Balochi nor in the 
older ballads. 

The Guardian of the world is King. He keeps watch over 
all the four quarters ! To speak the truth is our custom ; 
falsehood is a blot upon honour. 

The Lunds, the Gurchanis and the Legharis all own 
lands and running water, wealth and cattle, separate one 




64 Later War-Ballads 

from the other. Avarice is the worst of evils ; a fiery steed 
that shrinks not from precipice nor torrent is in the end a 
protection to his owner. To speak truth is our custom ; 
falsehood is a blot upon honour. 

To wield the sword with the hand is man's duty, but 
victory and advantage are in God's hands, who is ever the 
abode of fortune. 

Lashkar Khan was Tibbl's embankment, a place of 
defence for fugitives. From Chakur is his descent and 
lineage, from the foundation of the Phuzh Rinds. He is as 
a bridge built over a river. The Lunds and Khosas 
gathered together Lashkar Khan's men like dust in the 
air. Their horsemen mounted rapidly, ever ready for 
battle, and Mazar Khan thus shouted, ' Let no one return 
from this fight to the cultivation of Harand.' Then they 
ascended the Soma stream ; lofty is my song and did 
not shrink from the Chachar Pass. 

The fighting men of the Jalav-zais (i.e. the Jalabanls, the 
Chief's clan among the Gurchanls), with Fateh Khan at 
their head, marched away from their tribal lands and 
camped close by, and a famous battle began. The enemies 
took counsel with Mahmud Khan at ChotI and all the 
Leghari tribe. Seven tumans assembled to fight together, 
biting their beards in their mouths, and saying one to the 
other, ' Let us look upon these tigers of Tibbi/ 

The followers of Lashkar Khan stood firm, true men 
were Hasil and Gaman, Bashku and furious Mazar, Said 
Khan on his fiery mare Kunar. Muhammad Rind then 
said (with Mirza, of name far-named) : ' Come forth from 
the foot-hills to the fight. From henceforth it is shield to 
shield ; I will keep my promise as Omar 1 did, I will either 
carry off their goods or cast my enemies from cliff-tops. 
My trust is in Lashkar Khan, who looks back to the Rinds 
of distant Kachhi. . . .' 

Then spoke Lashkar Khan, his words flowing like milk : 

1 Cf. A similar allusion to Omar Nuhani by Nodhbandagh in No. XIV. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 65 

' Muhammad, hold your bitter tongue. I will not leave my 
companions. I will protect them with all my strength. I 
will assemble my whole tribe from the hills to the rich 
lands of the plains (lit. Hindustan). I am making my 
preparations for war, have confidence in my word.' 

Then issuing from the fort came the Lunds, thronging 
forth like a herd of cattle, urging on their swift chestnut 
mares, tearing up the ground as they went, playing with 
bridles, the Lunds with swords raised for the fight, with 
matchlocks, spears and bows. 

On the other side came riding the Gurchanis and fierce 
Legharis. They tied up their mares, worth a thousand 
each, with golden harness and trappings, their Shlhan, Lakhl 
and Bahri 1 mares all pawing the ground. On foot they 
fought with their chiefs, Ghulam Muhammad, raging like a 
lion, Rahlm Khan the young warrior. Our furious warriors 
raised their swords on high, calling loudly for vengeance, 
and pointing out spots in the Soma torrent (where men had 
been slain), and saying, ' Keep firm in your honour, spread 
over the whole ground. Lashkar Khan will not come back 
hither with his weapons of seven kinds. One word of his 
is worth a hundred thousand oaths.' 

Then they came opposite to one another. Well done ! 
all the men of Gaj ! In front are they, like elephants or 
male tigers, striking men to the heart (kidneys) with their 
spears like mighty warriors of old, seeking for death in the 
battle like their own Lashkar Khan. 

Now was the market of shields, the judging and weighing 
of swords, buying and selling of heads, all of picked 
warriors, casting down and raising up of brands, and 
striking again and again with swords. On both sides was 
a deep contest, sons and brother's sons fought together. 
The heroes of the Lunds and Gurchanis came together as 
the water of a torrent comes against an embankment. 
There was a royal combat, men met their death with 

1 Names of celebrated breeds of horses. 
E 



66 Later War -Ballads 

empty sheaths. The Chacharls charged with the sword 
together with the JistkanI clan. There were Shahld 
Khan. Dadur and Dilshad with his grey Bajurl sword, who 
was foremost at sword-time; the ShaihakanI and HotwanI 
clans rich in castles and lands, the Durkanis and the children 
of Lashar (i.e. the Lasharls), and a mighty host of Legharis 
led by Rahim Khan. Great bravery was shown by the 
Rinds for a short time, the Rinds famed for chestnut mares ; 
then the Rind Sardar retreated and fled from the field 
together with Mazar to his own fort ! Honour to Mirza 
ShaihakanI, hearty wielder of the sword, he carried off the 
wounds of the enemy, and drew in front of Lashkar 
Khan. The Lunds and Khosas were burning, scorching 
like moths in a flame. Lashkar carried the bell of the 
Lunds ; whirling his sword with his hand, he was in front 
and fell fighting like a martyr with a hundred and six 
score warriors. 

Let me count the swords of the Lunds. Fourteen of 
their enemies they slew, and wounded seven score in the 
face and arms, severing them with their swords. They 
were four hundred and fourscore and four, while on the other 
side were nigh two thousand. This was the reckoning of 
the swords as I have heard tell in the assembly. They 
gave up their lives in a lionlike fight, and were not ashamed 
before the face of their Plr, the tigers of Mount Dragal's 
snows ! 

God gave the victory, the almighty himself gave peace. 
The Lunds dwelt in safety with their possessions and their 
cattle. Everyone reaps what he has sown, nor has anyone 
a written contract for life. This is the song of the thirteenth 
century. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 67 



XXVI. 

THE WAR OF THE GURCHANIS AND DRISHAKS 
AGAINST THE MAZARlS ; BY SHAHYAR. 

The author of this ballad was Shahyar, who, it is evident from 
internal evidence, was a Gurcha.nl or a partizan of the GurchanI cause. 
The subject is a raid made by the Mazaris on the camels and cattle of 
the Gurchanis, which appears to have been repulsed by the latter, 
with the assistance of the Drlshaks and Gophangs. 

Nothing is known of this conflict except from the ballad. 

The language is involved and incoherent, and its interpretation 
presents many difficulties. 

The poet Shahyar sings this song with his tongue. 

In the wars of God and his prophet, the Chosen one 'All 
tore out the livers of the unbelievers. 'All shouted his war- 
shout in the town of the Gabrs, and spread the Faith of 
Islam through the cities of the believers. God joined in 
the battle on that day ! 

Dalel Khan and Muhammad possess the hearts of lions, 
and Jinda Khan also faithfully obeys his chief's orders. 
The Mazaris are subject to our Chief, and receive monthly 
maintenance in grain as a free gift. At that time Nur 
Khan was our Nawab, and the Mazaris were always pray- 
ing with their tongues for his alms. 

The King of both worlds was arbitrator in this strife. 
He made 1 the Prophet resolver of the heart's doubts (?) 
You are the Giver of wisdom to all the ignorant, and lay 
your knife to the root of all doubts (?). 

Mistagh and Tara, leaders of the army, put a spark to 
the tinder by giving this counsel, and the fierce Ahlawanis 
drove off a herd of camels. 2 The horses were galled by 
their bits, and the camels started off; from above they 
come down to the level lands by the water-courses, swiftly 

1 The meaning of this passage is not clear. 

2 Or, They drove off the herd of the fierce Ahlawanis. In the present 
day there is no Ahlawa.nl clan either among Mazaris or Gurchams. 



68 Later War-Ballads 

they arrived close to Jalapur. Khan Muhammad and 
Jinda AkhwanI, both on horseback, drove away 
twenty sheep. Behind came the footmen in pursuit, 
generous-hearted warriors. The brave fighters overtook 
them, and the Mazaris fired at them from below bows, 
arrows and knives there were in multitudes. Muhammad 
Akhwam 1 received two bullets from our enemies' guns. 
The bows replied to the guns with many arrows. 2 Imam 
LashkaranI the poet met his appointed fate(?). The 
white-faced steeds carried off the generations of our 
enemies. Bones, spines and skulls of heroes were shattered 
in the fight ; Gwaharam cut out the livers of our bitter 
foes! 

Brahim Khan gave an order with his tongue : ' Slay the 
leaders, and scatter the adversaries ! ' 

Rakhya he stopped short with his sword : ' The mirror of 
your life has been turned to night.' Jlwan Khan there 
washed ail his garments, with Sad ik, Ghulam, Ther and 
Chirak Muhamdanls. Ghulam broke through the enemies' 
armour. Jindehan gave forth roars like a tiger. The 
swords of the Jamalanls seized on their foes ; forget not 
Muhammad, taker of lives! 

The lord Surehan gave his life to save the fugitives, 
together with Jinda Khan and Hura Mazaris. ' Do not 
slay them, O Muhammad, the camels have departed, do 
not drink the camels' milk, do not act thus ; forty days 
have not passed since the Gurchanis began to graze 
their herds ; the noble Rinds and Lunds and the stout 
Khosas. Let Kawalan and Lalla flee hence, let them 
depart far from the clash of war, let Phlzdar and Mistagh 
shut their eyes ; and you, Jamsher, Mistagh and Yar 
Khan. Jhinjarls ; you, Band 'All, with your son and 
Karm Khan, Sunharls ; let your swords go like sticks 
burnt with fire ; you were broken, and the Mazaris were 

1 The words ' Kuri Kez bora ' are unintelligible. 

2 1 take ' Khumar ' as a misreading for * Khaman,' bow. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 69 

stopped. All the Drishaks and the Gophangs were 
present in the fight It had been better for the Tiger's 
offspring (i.e. the Mazarls) had they met their death there. 



XXVII. 
A FIGHT BETWEEN MAZARlS AND GURCHANIS. 

This ballad is evidently an appeal to the Mazari Chief of the time, 
Hamal Khan (probably the second chief of that name), from the 
Gurchanls, to be content with his glory and plunder, and to make 
war on them no longer. The feud was probably a continuation 
of that dealt with in the precec 1 ' ballad, and the Mazarls seem 
to have been thoroughly successful under the leadership of the 
Tumandar Hamal Khan, and of Mangan leader of the Kird clan. 
The immediate cause appears to have been an appeal for protection 
made to Mir Hamal by the Lunds of Tibbi who had suffered from 
Gurcham depredations. The period was probably about A.D. 1700. 

This ballad is a much better one than No. 24. The language 
is clear and spirited, and it contains several poetical touches. The 
poet's name is not known. 

Every morning I make my petition at God's gate. 
His treasure is an hundredfold ; a hundred times he 
grants our requests. I remember too the Holy Plr, the 
lofty-granting lord, and the pure and mighty 'All the Lion 
and Guide. Be near me and keep me beneath thy golden 
skirt, and bring me safely to the abiding place of rest. 

Thou art life and protection of the pure-hearted in this 
world, thou art their friend and close companion of their 
heart, better than son or nephew or subject tribes. Thou 
art a protector who wilt risk thy head for thy comrades. 
May I drive my horses to drink at the streams of Paradise, 
and enter into the assembly of Heaven ! By God's com- 
mand may I be clear from every spot ! 

Sweet singing minstrel bring hither the guitar 1 of merry- 

J The dambiro, here called the Shagh, from its being made of the wood 
of the Shagh-bush (Grewia Vestita). 



7o Later War-Ballads 

makings. For a little while place your figure before me, 
and attend carefully to the words of the song I sing. 

My chief, for his pleasure, entered on a new feud, my 
Khan and Lord remembered the blood of Jamal Khan. 
' I will not abandon my own blood to strange men.' 

Then angry men girt on their strong weapons ; before 
daybreak they fetched a compass round the mouth of the 
Tibbl Pass, for the full days had come for the destruction 
of the Khosas, and all saw the Mir openly in front of 
them. 1 Then the Lunds fled away and went as petitioners 
to Mir Hamal (saying to him) : ' O Mir ! countless 
troubles have fallen upon us.' How then did the Tiger's 
offspring act for their own honour, strong as mountains 
in taking vengeance for blood? They assembled at Kin 
and Rojhan and made all ready; quickly a great army 
advanced, taking swift scouts with them. Mangan rode 
in front on a suckling filly. Like a black-wind dust-storm 
springing from the hard-baked soil so the Tigers poured 
like a flood through the pleasant mouth of the pass. Their 
guide Dilwash Lashari, who was then heart and soul 
with them, cried angrily : ' I am the avenger, a Baloch 
cannot be put to shame before his own tribe, the ears 
are offenders if the world says so.' 2 

In the morning, having arrived at the boundary, they 
made an open attack, and showed themselves on the 
sweet-scented Sham and the slopes of famous Mount 
Marl. They were met there by a brave man, in appear- 
ance like an Amir of the mountains, Khan Muhammad 
with his sword, a leader of widespread tribes. The Khan 
called out with joyful heart to his enemies : ' I am a Chief 
of the hills, I am not a robber of other men's cattle. That 

1 I.e. the Gurchams attacked the Lunds of Tibbl (of whom the Khosas 
here mentioned are a section), and the Lunds went south to ask assistance 
from the Mazaris of Rojhan. 

2 The Lasharls being a branch of the Gurcham tribe, Dilwash was trying to 
justify himself for taking part against his own tribe. Apparently he had 
a private feud calling for vengeance. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 71 

man is my comrade who comes sword in hand, and lays 
his hand on my neck.' 

Then Mangan charged him with a troop of a thousand 
slender mares ; he marked the spot and struck him 
with his bare Egyptian blade. He cut through his steel 
helmet and turban, and felled the foe to the ground. 
At the first blow the leader of the tribe was slain. 
Then Jamsher and Basik met, armed with sword and 
sabre, two men equal one to the other, met as the 
eclipse meets the moon. The Mangan running up 
quickly brought assistance, and these two men were slain, 
the ruby and the jeweller. 

Khan Muhammad was slain with many men of good 
descent. Ditta the Nahar was killed there, and Baghul 
the Hot ; the friends wielded their Egyptian swords with 
the might of 'All. Nine men were slain here ; they swept 
up the cattle like stones, and with glad hearts the Mazarls 
returned to the head of the sweet-scented Sham. Some 
men who passed along the road brought a salutation 
from Mangan : ' Give my greetings to Bangui GurchanI, 
and say to my brothers, the heroes Kiya and Murad 
Come by appointment to Son and talk with me there, 
and let us arrange for the two armies to meet at some 
place face to face. I will willingly let them go, I will 
seek no shelter behind battlements; we will close in 
front and rear like mad fighters. The youths of the 
hills have become lazy in the softness of the river valley ' 
(Sindh = the Indus valley). 

Thus they went on speaking with their pearl-shedding 
mouths, and at this time our Guardian Plr preserved us, 
since there may be an opportunity for fighting even 
after an oath to keep the peace has been taken on 
the Quran ; T and this speaking was a boon (inheritance) 
for the Children of Gorish (i.e. the Gurchanls). 

1 This appears to be the meaning implied in the difficult and elliptical 
line No. 67. 




72 Later War- Ballads 

Three or four young men stood firm with hearts like 
rock, but the King and Creator deprived them of strength 
and understanding, and put weapons into the hands of 
the cowards of the tribes. With tears streaming from 
their eyes they turned weeping back, and their company 
was broken up by the death of noble Khan Muhammad. 
Shame upon Mitha, Khudadad and Sabzil; but Pahro 
and Piran are worthy of praise in the assembly. Their 
tender mothers pray for them, and poets sing their 
glory. 

Bard ! when in your wanderings you stray in the 
direction of Sindh (i.e. the flat country along the banks 
of the Indus), take a greeting from me to Mangan 
Kird, and my homage to Hamal the Mir (and say): 
4 You are strong and mighty, may you never be in 
dread of any adversary; may the pure Sarwar Shah 
protect you from your enemies. A thousand blessings 
dwell upon you, warrior of Sindh. All wise men among 
the Baloches put their faith and hope in you; you are 
the trust of refugees, and bear the signs and clothing 
of Mir Hamza. 1 

' Since that day when war fell out between you and us 
many youths have fallen, and many swift steeds. What 
is the profit to you and to Fath Khan, lover of war ? Two 
thousand of our cattle you have taken, and sheep without 
number, but refrain from windy words about goats and 
sheep ; for has not Gaman ridden his troop into your 
Sindh gardens? The Creator has guided our horses to 
the streets of your town, and the grazing ground of your 
camels is deserted. The red -clad Jatanls (wives of the 
Jats or camel-herds) utter loud lamentations at eventide. 
Where is now Mir Khan, foremost leader in your army ? 
He was your guide, your scout, and guide with his 
whole heart. 

1 Uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, and traditional ancestor of the 
Baloches. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 73 

'O ruler of Sindh, I make my supplication to God 
that the Apostle and worthy Prophet may make peace 
between you and us. May there be peace between us, 
and may all men look upon their land again.' 



XXVIII. 

THE FIGHT BETWEEN THE JATOIS AND MAZARIS. 

The Jatoi tribe had settled at an early date on the banks of the 
Indus, and are now mainly found in the Muzafargarh District on 
the left bank of the river, while the Mazaris are lower down-stream 
on the right bank, with some territory also on the left side. Their 
early settlements near the river were marked by struggles with 
the earlier Baloch settlers in these parts, the Chandyas and Jatols. 
One of these rights on the river Indus forms the subject of the* follow- 
ing ballad, which gives a vivid description of this combat on the 
water. The Indus is personified under the name of Khwaja Khidr, 
who is represented as an old man clothed in green. This river- 
saint is alluded to in lines 31 and 55. 

Allah ! Thou art the protector of hundreds of thousands 
by thy might. Thou givest maintenance to all thy wor- 
shippers. The cool rain-clouds gather over the ocean, and 
wander thundering over the land ; the grass becomes green, 
and the young corn shows itself. 

Let us halt and remember our Plr, the Plr 'Alam Shah, 
and Wall Husain Shah. The Prophet 'AH strung Bahram 
Khan's bow for him. Generous is Rindan Shah, and 
generous Mughal Khan. Karm Khan wore the attire of 
a Chief, silken garments and trappings on his mare's 
saddle. Many valiant men went across the river, four 
and forty wielders of the sword ; with them as guides 
went Massu and Gul Tasavani, and Dathan was among 
them stubborn in fight, and Khota demanding an answer 
from his bitter foes ; then Bavro Khan and Hasan the 
bold, Mlro the fighter and Nur Han Saragam, Budhu 
and Juma springing up like the waves, Khan Jamal- 



74 Later War -Ballads 

Han with fine streamers from his turban, Vagha and 
Ghulam as clever as jugglers. And three men were 
with them from the Short-foot Drishaks ; I can reckon 
Gullan, Mubarak and Bijar. All these bold warriors went 
over the river, they swam across to the other bank ; they 
hid themselves there in the enemies' country, and killed 
the enemy suddenly (as if they were firing off a gun). 
Massu and Haidar with eight or nine companions, and 
the two friends Nur Han and Dathan with them ; these 
Mazarls untied a boat from the ferry, and let it float 
into the Khwaja's waves. 1 It rose on the waves, staggering 
like a drunken man, and floating on they came to their 
companions. ' Friends ! gird on your weapons, quickly 
don your sword-belts and swords, buckle on your accoutre- 
ments and your quivers.' Our comrades all went together 
and made a sudden attack, and surprised and destroyed 
the grazing hamlet (madd) of Bhura Kanjar. They drove 
out the cattle and returned with joyful hearts, and drifted 
out into the current, strong and swift. Messengers ran 
to tell the bitter foe what had happened, and the Jatois 
gathered together to pursue them ; in front was Mehwal 
the fighter, but this day Mehwal was hunting a tiger. 
Remember in your hearts the day when Plr Bakhsh 
was slain ! 

Mehwal the chief, wearing a silken vest, led three score 
men to their death ; he fills the boat and urges it forwards. 
The fighting Mazarls had come floating, and had waited 
and stopped the way in the joy of their hearts, and like 
skilful huntsmen, laying their guns on rests, they showered 
down moulded bullets like rain. Round featherless arrows 
and four-feathered arrows were all mixed together, the 
Khwaja himself will remember that battle ! Muluk Han 
put his confidence in the river ; the reports of guns 
resounded in a royal fight, with the clash of swords God 
gave the victory. Everyone who overcomes is favoured 

1 That is Khwaja Khidr, the river-saint of the Indus. 



And Other J^ribal Poems. 75 

(by God) in the show of arms. The heroes on both 
sides engaged in a desperate struggle, they lashed the 
two boats together and let them drift, there was a hand-to- 
hand fight on both sides ; the raised swords swooped down 
like kites, it was the shock of bulls fighting, the rush of 
a flood against an embankment. You melted away and 
slew many of your foes! 

Dathan thus spake with his mouth : ' Tie up the boats, 
O noble Gul.' He drew his ShirazI blade, splitter of 
enemies' livers ; he wrapped himself in the garments of his 
religious guide. There Mehwal was slain, the pearl of 
the other side, in revenge for Plr Bakhsh, foremost of the 
Zangalanis. When the sword struck him the twist of 
his silken turban was unloosed. 

Nur Han SaraganI with his Bajari sword, having raised 
the pole of the boat, fell upon the enemy, thrashing them 
as one thrashes out ears of corn with a flail. Darehan, 
sword in hand, thus spoke in wrath : ' To-day I will 
not leave the bitter enemy!' Bavroan and Hasan, 
sword wielding heroes, with uplifted blade stopped the 
enemy's warriors ; swords were on every side like 
the flow of waters when storm-clouds are gathered. 
Dathan, ever brave in fight, was foremost everywhere 
when swords were flashing, under the protection of the 
mantle of Plr Jamal Shah. The Khan Jamal Khan, 
opposed to Ghulam Husain, stood like a post in a flood 
of swords, like the swift lightning was the green-flashing 
sword. Muhammad the Minstrel put up a prayer to 
the True One, he levelled and fired his gun ; the Creator 
struck and overthrew his adversary. 

As a hawk swoops so did Vagha with his blade, four 
blows he struck without giving the enemy an opening ; 
the bitter foe was stupefied, the flood was their tomb 
and shroud ! 

Mahmud fights with his blade of fine water (jewel-like) ; 
the true Prophet gave him the victory. BudhQ and Juma 




76 Later War- Ballads 

were workers with the sword ; they showered on them 
arrows and darts from their quivers. With the raging 
Tigers (Mazaris) were the Bhimbhirams, they beat the 
bitter foe into warp and woof! Muhammad son of 
Mahmud had a fiery heart in his body. Shahmlr 
Zimakanl, fighting with his sword, caught on his shield 
four blows dealt by the bitter enemy. 

Come, O Lalu Minstrel, singer of songs, bring forth 
your beautiful songs of heroes, new tales of the Tiger's 
offspring ! 

MehwaTs harvest was gathered together in one place, 
four and forty men were destroyed by us, the swollen 
Sawan 1 flood we made as red as blood, multitudes of 
crocodiles tore them limb from limb. Karman Khan 
sprang on his horse like a storm-cloud. ' Ride with 
your band, carry the news of the victory. Tell it to 
Shakul Khan Gurcham, at whose door lies the death of 
Musa son of Mughal. Listen, Gurchanls, for the shame of 
your oath on the Quran ; take up the Quran and bring 
it to the battle! Write and ask the Brahois how Gul 
Muhammad with four-and-twenty braves came and fell 
into the hole of the upper millstone, and were ground 
to powder, by the Male-tigers of Sindh! They fled 
from the fight and left their comrades to perish among 
the bare hills of Jatro.' 2 

XXIX. 

THE LAY OF MIR HAMAL MAZARI. 

The legend on which this ballad is founded is to the effect that 
in the time of Mir Hamal II., Chief of the Mazaris, during a war 
with the Bugtis, five Mazaris were surprised and killed while 
gambling with knuckle-bones. The Chief thereupon prohibited 

1 Sawan (July, August), is the month when the floods of the Indus 
are highest. 

2 This is an allusion to the events dealt with in No. XXII. 












And Other Tribal Poems. 77 

gambling in his tribe. One day he caught his son Mitha gambling 
with others in an enclosure. Hamal shut the door, whereupon 
Mitha leapt over the wall. Hamal let fly an arrow from his bow, 
and transfixed his son through the leg as he was leaping the wall. 
This event led to the abandonment of gambling among the Mazaris, 
and even now it is less prevalent among them than among other 
Baloches. The story of Dilmalikh (No. XV.) contains allusions to 
the prevalence of gambling with knuckle-bones, as does that of 
Nodhbandagh (No. XIV.). 

Hamal the Mir made a prohibition. If any one shall 
take out the ankle-bone of a sheep from the pdtdr (i.e. 
a hole dug in the ground over which meat is roasted), 
and if any wayfarer shall see it, he will know that they 
are Rinds, descendants of Tigers (i.e. Mazaris). This 
order is the doing of Mir Hamal, he has stopped the 
tribe from this evil occupation, he has held back brother 
from racing against brother, and all evildoers from gambling 
with animals. 

These men are filled with vain fancies like huntsmen, 
nor do they stand up with the mighty men. 

With you the country is illuminated with rain-clouds, 
the beasts of pasture have their bellies filled, they may 
be seen standing there. Whenever old age comes upon 
an evildoer he will himself take out the heart of the 
wicked person, and if he does not take it all others will 
be held guiltless. 1 All gamblers shall be driven from 
the assembly, and oaths regarding women will not be 
binding where they are concerned (i.e. they would not 
be entitled to any compensation in matters regarding 
women). 

XXX. 

A LAY OF THE KHOSAS. 

This ballad is evidently fragmentary. It was taken down about 
1877 from the dictation of Sikandar Khan, at that time acting a 

1 The meaning of these lines is doubtful. 



78 Later War-Ballads 

chief of the Khosa tribe during the minority of his cousin Sardar 
Bahadur Khan, the present Tumandar. 

It is not now possible to trace the events to which the poem 
relates. 

Thanks be rendered to God the Merciful, who himself 
is King without equal. Many are thy attributes and 
qualities. Keep thou me in thy guardianship during this 
false thirteenth century. The modest men have departed, 
they have left this deceitful world. Haidar was the 
generous lord, prince and ruler of the mountains, greater 
even than Mir Chakur, helper of all the Baloches. The 
sword of 'All was girt about his waist. A liberal Chief 
was Haidar who made war against the army of Yazld, 
he went into the field of battle and fought amid the 
clash of swords, for thus was the will of God, and fell 
a martyr on the plain. 

Among the Khosa warriors Nuran and Bakhu are 
heroes, with Karm and the bold Ahmad. Their abode 
is with the Holy Prophet, and till Doomsday their glory 
will stand fast. 

The other cursed cowards fled, and abandoned their 
friends and companions. They shall sit with shame in 
the assembly, and feed on carrion and unlawful meats, 
because they remained alive after their leader was 
slain. 

Minstrel ! When you go wandering through the land 
take my message and bear it to the Amir Murld and 
say to him, ' Thou art the mighty son of Sarang, cunning 
art thou and wise ; thou shouldst be ashamed to recite 
a poem. Let that man recite 'poems who is himself a 
fighter in the foremost ranks, who throws himself into 
danger before his chief, and wields his sword with both 
his hands, either to slay or to be slain, or to lie groaning 
for six months until the physician has healed his wounds.' 












And Other Tribal Poems. 79 



XXXI. 

A SONG OF THE WAR OF THE BIJARANf MARfS 
AGAINST THE MUSAKHEL. 

This ballad commemorates a Mari raid against the Musa Khel 
Pathans, headed by Karm Khan, Bijarani, a well-known raider, 
whom I knew as an old man in 1880. The Lums, another Pathan 
tribe, were associated with the Musa-Khel, and the Mason Bugtls 
seem to have been allied with the Maris. Such raids were of 
frequent occurrence, and the Lum tribe was by them almost 
exterminated. It is evident that on this occasion some of the Marls 
behaved badly, and that the raid was not altogether successful. The 
language is occasionally obscure. 

I first invoke the name of Allah, that I may sing a 
worthy song, chant with a lofty voice, and give due praise 
to my chief. 

Thou givest protection to all, and even though thou give 
it not we will put our trust in our Plr, and follow after the 
commandments of Shah 'All, to whom all good men pray. 

God's will is one ; the Marls are stronger than any 
other men. Karm Khan is fierce and untiring, he rains 
blows on his enemies, and brings them down at one shot, 
like a wild sheep. 1 Thy enemies have been cast down, 
God has put them under thee, the Sham and Phailawagh 
and Kahan. 2 He has laid open before thee ; the heroes 
have been wont to come down the narrow Gaz Pass, 
striking the ranks of the struggling foe, and in haste they 
brought back with them the bay mares with embroidered 
trappings, and harness of broadcloth and Russian leather. 3 
Mian Khan said to his friends, * Marls ! put on your 

1 Gwarakh (lit. a lamb) here seems to be used for the young of the 
Gurand, or wild sheep (pvis cycloceros). 

2 The Sham and Phailawagh are open plains which long formed a subject 
of contention between the Mari, Bugtl and Gurcham tribes. Kahan is 
the headquarters of the Marl Tribe. 

3 Lit. Bulgarian, referring to the original seat of the Bulghar or Bulgarians 
on the lower Volga, whence the scented leather was brought. 




8o Later War-Ballads 

weapons, your glittering swords and scimetars. Karm 
Khan has sent letters by swift messengers to the 
assembled tribesmen, scouts bearing the war-cry have 
gone forth. They have gone up by Kwat and Mundahl, 
and passed beneath Laro-Luk ; the noise of the army is 
heard from Gaza to Dulla under the mountain of Bambor. 
From the Luk 1 the foray begins, bring no boys nor babes 
with you ; fighting men for the battle-smoke!' With us are 
the Mawranls from the dusty Beji gorge. The assembly 
was in the valley of Bor. 2 Thousands and hundreds of 
thousands by reckoning they came with their bay mares, 
and fixed the Nar Han as their trysting place. The 
young men gathered like storm-clouds, they came to us 
riding hard, and then the scouts came in. Muhammad 
Khan stops us and gives the news to the foremost riders. 3 
'The country is filled with evildoers, the Pathans are at 
Ilgarl.' Then said Karm Khan to that bold horseman, 
' Let the headship of the tribe break to pieces and depart ! 
It does not belong to a woolly sheep ! Let Dadall the 
Scout lead, and the Masons with Akhtyar Khan and all 
your noble warriors! Let the Jarwar heroes come, may 
God bring Mir Muhammad, and may the Turks speak 
of it in Kandahar. 4 

'When the time comes for the Maris to come back we 
will not all return from the Sham. Let not the Lunls come 
to Makhmar, we will not all return from the Sham !' 5 

i A Luk is a flat boulder-covered plateau, a common formation among 
the lower Sulaiman Mountains. The Luk here alluded to is the Laro-Luk 
mentioned above. 

2 Near Phailawagh. Hence the course would be up the Kaha river and 
by Vitakri to the Makhmar Sham. Thence through the Khetran Country 
to the Han Pass. 

3 The news must first be given to the leaders, who always ride in front. 

4 Karm Khan is speaking sarcastically of the Chief of his own tribe the 
Maris. The Jar wars are a sept of Ghazan! Marls. 

5 The word Sham, or Watershed, here alludes to the Makhmar Sham, 
not the Sham mentioned above. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 81 

'The mares were affected by the merriment when we 
camped at nightfall, their whinnying was like laughter, 
the ground shakes as if thunder-smitten, the laughter of 
the footmen is the lightning, it gave forth a pleasant 
sound to the enemy following on our tracks ; the laugh- 
ter of the footmen resounded in the direction of Sher 
Muhammad and Surkhl, so that the leaders of the Turks 
speak of it. All our friends were there, some gambling, 
some doing other evil deeds. Our time is at the next 
opportunity; let us fight at the first watch, as soon as 
things are visible, or in this close atmosphere all our men 
will become worthless ! ' 

They raided the sheep and started off, and came to 
the mouth of that torrent where they had to fight a 
second time. Day makes the host clearly visible, and 
the shouts of the Musakhel are heard behind, 'Marls! 
if you do not let our sheep go, their revenge is the 
business of their owners; then let our sheep go!' 
Curses on Omar Bor, let him not come to wild Bambor! 
To-day it is my task to sweep him out, and to cast 
scorn on him. 

Again hast thou fallen into disgrace in that thou 
didst not fight for the earrings of thy lady-love ! 

Then swore Karm Khan. ' All the men have become 
cowards ; the Marls are all scattered ; Jalab is at his 
village, the Musakhel have portioned them out among 
them.' But the clouds rained at last ; Babul Khan 1 
remembered Lakhl and struck the walls with his staff to 
heat your oven ! 2 The Marls were victorious in the 
battle, their leaders were heroes in the fight; their fame 
is waxen great, but the reckoning of the cowards is yet 
to come ; the horse-grooms tell of it, the beggars, the 
minstrels and the bards. They had neither life nor 

1 Babul Khan was chief of the Khetran Tribe, who appear on this occasion 
to have helped the Marls against the Musakhel pursuers. 

2 The meaning of this passage is very doubtful. 



82 Later War-Ballads 

boldness. The cowards held back their horses and crept 
along like snakes : when the enemy's army was broken 
and put to flight their faces were turned backwards. The 
glory of the Marls was turned to darkness, and the 
rumour thereof will spread even to Kandahar! 



XXXII. 

The two following poems were taken down by me in 1876 from 
Drlshak and Shambani bards. They relate to a war between the 
Drishaks of the plains and the Bugtis (or Zarkanls) of the Sulaiman 
Hills. The first (i) is by Harm a Saidiam Shambani (the Shambams 
being a sub-tribe attached to the Bugtis), and is addressed to Jinda 
Khan Drlshak, a leading man of the time (about A.D. 1800), though 
not chief of the tribe. Fatuhal alluded to in 1. 37 was the Drlshak 
Chief: KechI was brother of Mlrza, great-grandfather of KechI 
Khan, the present Shambani Chief, and Ahmad Khan was brother 
of Bivaragh Khan, great-grandfather of Nawab Sir Shahbaz Khan, 
the present Bugtl Chief. 

The second poem (2) Is a reply given on behalf of the Drishaks 
by Kabul a Dombkl, who replies not only to Harm's poem, but to 
another by Haddeh, which is not forthcoming. The death of Daim, 
Tara and Muhibb Drishaks is alluded to by both bards. Muhibb was 
Jinda's brother, and it is his death that is alluded to by the Shambani 
bard in the conclusion of (i). 

The language of both ballads is sometimes obscure, and unfamiliar 
Sindhi words are used to excess. Harm's poem is tedious, and 
part of it is little more than a catalogue of names of warriors with 
conventional terms in praise of their valour. 

I. 

Harm son of Shahzad sings : the sweet- voiced Saidiam 
sings : of the combat of Drishaks and Zarkanls he sings : 
of the day of slaying Muhibb, Daim and Tara he sings : 
the victory of KechI and Ahmad Khan he sings: the 
victory of Mir Dost and Bivaragh he sings. 

Let me sit and return thanks to the companionless 
Guardian of the Earth, to me at the five times of prayer 



And Other Tribal Poems. 83 

comes help from Multan Mai the generous giver. 1 He 
casts our foes, of wealthy assemblies, into the salt sea. 
Suddenly, through God's might, the tumult of battle 
begins, and we meet the Drlshaks with splitting and 
breaking of swords. When Sobha the liberal was slain 
we did not forget the blood-vengeance, our iron bows were 
strung, there was measuring out of heaps of corn (i.e. the 
dead lay in heaps like corn in a threshing-floor). Jihanpur 
was left empty, with blackened face (i.e. in disgrace), 
and Jinda's might was broken. Our leader Suhrav, when 
dying in the fight, said, ' Friends do not forget me.' 
Suhrav ! thou wast a master of the sword in battle, a 
reckless man at sword-time ! And Karm 'All's blood we 
will not let go. Be present in our midst and guard us ! 
Drehan's blood does not leave us, it comes back mightily 
after years and days. A multitude of other Baloches will 
come to the fight, each one calling for his own revenge. 
Was not Gamu JistkanI slain, that purse of gold unloosed? 
The men of the mountains are lords of this blood, and 
they have prepared for the battle ; Jallu, sword in hand, 
is our leader, the champion of the Jistkanls. 

As tigers spring forth, so do the Zarkanls of noble 
blood. 2 There are Sharbat and Jallu and Yara, and a 
hundred men all brethren, uttering roars like tigers, 
there is Omar with his mighty bow, and furious Wall 
Dad with him; their mares and fillies are saddled, they 
have girt on their arms and weapons, and are watching 
the bitter foe. Fatuhal is chief of all, he bears the marks 
of a great leader. 

The herd of camels went forth from the narrow streets 

1 The use of Hindu terms should here be noted as of rare occurrence among 
Muhammadans. The term Dhartpal or Guardian of the Earth is purely 
Hindu, while the equally Hindu Multan Mai denotes the saint Pir Shamsu'd- 
din, whose shrine is at Multan. 

2 Khase-potravan, lit. grandchildren of someone. Cf. the Spanish hidalgo 
for hijo (falgo, son of someone. 



84 Later War-Ballads 

of the walled town, and the owners of the camels came 
back saying, 'the females will not leave their young 
ones.' 1 Karzl is steadfast in pursuit, he comes galloping 
like a wild ass to the green Phitokh Pass, 2 and there he 
spoke with his enemies. With a sound like the roar of 
a tigress Shah-Bashk, the warrior with his gun, and with 
his Syrian sword, laid low a swift-saddled mare. Then 
Mir Ahmadan and the valiant Kechi of the sword took 
counsel together, and generous Mir Dost and Blvaragh, 
amirs in rank, protected by the royal Prophet and by 
the prayers of Plrs and Murshids. They sent forth scouts 
from the houses, and from the tents supported by four 
spears, the hero-leader Karlmdad, Hablb the Champion, 
Hudha-dad MondaranI who cares not for the foe, and 
the forty (Abdals) support them through the strength 
of the Holy One, Last of the Age. Sobha wins victory 3 
through the Imam, he ranks as an amir. Plr Sohrl* 
goes in front with our Khan's mighty armies. Our 
champion Ahmad Han rides through Sindh plundering 
towns and villages and a thousand ; Bada and Chutta 
were devoured, it is said, by Suhrav. They missed their 
way and returned on their tracks, the sheep went off with 
the goats. 

Here the valiant Drlshaks took counsel among them- 
selves, and Tar Khan let out an oath : ' I will not thus 
leave the enemy. Do you forget Gangal and Zaunkhan, 
the eager warriors of the Drlshaks ? They have left their 
beds and bedsteads, their fair ladies and red couches.' 
And Rindo said in manly wise : ' I will not thus leave 

1 Apparently the Drlshaks had killed the young camels. 

2 The Phitokh Pass is the principal one leading from the open country 
of the Drlshaks to the hills of the Bugtls. Wild asses were, till recently, 
plentiful in this neighbourhood, hence the comparison with a wild ass comes 
in naturally. 

3 There is a play on words here, as sobh means victory. 

4 Plr Sohii is the principal saint of the Bughti country. See Balochi 
Folk-lore, p. 262. (Folk-lore , 1902.) 



And Other Tribal Poems. 85 

the enemy, our foes who came from Marav.' Learn the 
language of swords ; flight does not soar high. Here 
are Bashkali and Sabzil Han, and brave Kaura and 
Fatuhal, warriors among the first ; on that side are sixty 
brave men, on this side untold hundreds ; bold Chata 
and Nihal Han foremost with the bow, Hamal who 
will never take to flight, as Baloches reckon, when the 
green-flashing blades sever the skulls of heroes. Jla 
and Sadhu are tigers, leaders, lords of the sword ; when 
clouds are gathered on the other side, when there is 
the clashing of sword-blades, where the fight is thickest, 1 
Aliyar is in front. 

At the flashing of helmets and armour glad is the 
shout of Dalu, Kala is valiant with his sabre by the 
help(?) of Shah 'All. In the fight for Shahro's blood 
the saddles were covered with bloody caparisons ! Chohil 
and Kalandar are ravening tigers of the Phongs. 2 

Never will the flight go far of sweet-singing Shahyar, 
of Lai Han the gallant fighter, when sword-blows are 
exchanged. Shambo with his black Thai mare shakes 
his saddle with his eagerness. The jewel-like son of 
Balochan, the valiant champion ; in the thick of the 
fight he stood like a post in the front rank. Listen 
to a hundred thousand praises of the death of the fair 
Kalphur. 3 It is lawful for Bahazur Han to bind a turban 
on his brow, a fair medicine it is lawful to bind on 
his head. Hear it! Tagya and Bashkali, together with 
Manka's help, brought death upon Shahbaz ; night cut 
him off from their companionship ; on his chestnut steed 
he (Manka) is the devourer of armies ; let him be at the 
army's head. Ala Bashk weighs his chestnut mare against 
the heavy squadrons of the army. Nihal Han is the chief 
sword-wielder among the Masons. 3 Shah 'All be his 

1 A doubtful passage. 

2 A Bugti clan, also called Mondrani. 

3 The Kalphurs are a clan of Bugtis, the Masons another. 



86 Later War-Ballads 

guardian, God keep him under his protection. Pahar 
and Gulsher are true, fine, lion-men. Among the Kalphurs 
is 'All Sher the hero, the Almighty gave him the victory 
with Shahbaz, the foremost of men bearing spears, young 
Jam and Phurthos and BakrI champions, far-famed Hauran 
and Bodho, well known at the army's head. Kasim 
and Blra are fighters with sword and cutting blade ; 
Dhamal, Hassu and Batil are guides at the head of 
the army, they have devoured the land of the enemy 
and ridden to the banks of the Indus. Lofty is the 
name of Ahmadan, who came and conquered ; Nindan, 
Jinda and Hayat-Han are good men, each equal to 
the others. KechI struck Shahran a blow, and hit him 
in the mouth. No more will he embank his fields 
above Fatehpur, nor graze his cattle up to Jhalal, and 
to the head of the Chedhgl Pass. 1 

A new desire seizes upon my heart like the flood of 
the ocean ! Listen, O sorrowing Jinda to this story 
of Harm ! He will not come back to you when a short 
time of waiting has passed. Sit and offer up thanks 
for the making and marring of the Lord ! Drink your 
strong wine as you sit alone at eventide, for your heart's 
darling will never return to his prince, O Jinda Khan 
Drlshak ! 

2. 

Kabul son of Gullan sings : the sweet-voiced Dombkl 
sings: in reply to Harm and Haddeh he sings: of the 
day of riding to Syahaf he sings : the slaughter of four-and- 
twenty men he sings : of the day of many camels he 
sings. He sits and sings the victory of Jinda son of 
Hayat Han. 

I raise my voice to sing the protection of God, the 
Guardian without companions, the King on his throne, 

1 Fatehpur is a town belonging to the Drishaks. The Chedhgl is a 
pass leading into the Bugti country near by. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 87 

the merciful-hearted and mighty, Lord of Jinns, Bhuts, 
the angels of the land, and all things that live and 
move. 

The root is one, the branches are many, every man 
is a fruit of the tree. He pardons all believers, the 
holy apostle and prophet of the faith. 

If thou recite the five prayers and keep the thirty days' 
fast, there among the lordly stars the Maker will be pleased 
with thee. In gladness shalt thou dwell with the martyrs 
if thou art a man of prayer ; thou shalt be a shell in the 
ocean of pearls if thou are generous and brave ; the hurls 
of Paradise are thy portion if thou attain to martyrdom ; 
if thou art a believer, a sunnl, a worshipper, if thou art 
a warrior at the door of the Faith, then art thou the Gate 
and defence of Kabul, Kashmir and Qandahar, thou art 
the noble King of Justice in the Purab and Dehll and the 
Dakkhan! With Hayat Khan's glittering blade thou, O 
King, art keeper and protector, generous-handed, sea of 
pearls, lion of the army and the horsemen. 

The high-bred horses of the Golden Drlshaks are 
caparisoned with embroidered broadcloth. Their shields 
and their well-wrought garments, their knives and daggers 
are studded with gems, their quivers are like kites and 
hawks, numerous are their mounted bands; sword in 
hand on their newly-broken fillies they meet their enemies 
face and mouth, the foes, wealthy in darbar, will bend 
before them as stalks of millet. Thou art the Master 
of wealth, and givest help to the Sultan, thou Nindo 
with thy Egyptian blade art champion and wielder of 
the sword. The five pure ones 1 are protectors of well- 
descended heroes. The lion incarnate with roars rushes 
to spring, as tigers spring on cattle, and as the ripened 
ears are rubbed in the mud. 

Ahmad, with your numerous mounted bands you have 
worn down the mountains with their horse-shoes. 

1 The five pure ones are Muhammad, 'All, Hasan, Husain and Fatima. 



88 Later War-Ballads 

You talk too much of Jinda and his strong drinks ; 
he rode through Syahaf, the throne of the Children of 
Zarkan, 1 and slew four-and-twenty men of the Kalphurs 
and Rahejas. 2 Your boasting was like that of women, 
but in the end you were scattered. You swept up the 
tracks of the camels in the defiles and precipices, you were 
lost in the haze of the dust-cloud raised by the horses ; 
you fell into the Chankan Defile, and then you said : 
* They are not here/ You fled from our battle and 
followed the track leading to Kahan, you searched the 
merchants' account books, but you did not find the reckon- 
ing. We remember the slaughter of Tangai, where most 
of the Drlshaks were slain, now the reckoning between us 
has begun, you can count up the balance due ! 

Listen, O Harm of the Songs, do not speak falsely, 
for thou art a poet. Lying is a blot upon honour ; 
thou hast taken leave of thy wits, thou hast fallen into 
the wisdom of the Brahois, though thou ridest ahead 
as a scout. The Drlshaks have brought up their horsemen, 
and thou hast become helpless. Mlhan and Sanjar were 
left dead, while thou livest in disgrace; Hamal with his 
Egyptian blade gave thee excellent counsel ! 

Sweet-singing cunning minstrel, bear my speech word 
by word, and repeat it with my greetings to Haddeh of 
the beautiful tales, and thus say to him : Too much thou 
singest the praises of men and horses, the blows of Kaura 
Bugtl thou givest to the Rinds, and assignest fame and 
glory to Hajl Kalphur; but the Rinds dwell in Phedi, near 
the capital of Shoran, up to the limits of the Dombkl tribe. 
Thou are not wise nor skilful, O sweet singer; see and 
reflect, all thy arrows miss their mark. Daim and Tara 
and Muhibb thou makest even with Suhrav! Thou 
thinkest leather boots and brazen stirrups no better 

1 Syahaf, the capital of the Bugtl Tribe. 

2 Bugtl clans. The Raheja clan is the phagh-logh (abode of the turban), 
i.e. the clan to which the Tumandar belongs. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 89 

than palm-leaf sandals, 1 and how canst thou weigh gold 
mohurs and ashrafls against plain silver ? What shall 
I say to the poet ? Thou now showest thy greed ; at the 
profit of 'Allsher Lashari thou wast filled with envy and 
malice. I have given thee a stone in thy mouth, and I 
will so butcher thee as thou dost a sheep. The Bugtis 
of the mountains are mad, they live in dread of the sword ! 
Thou askest, Haddeh, about Lai Han and Phadehan. 
They are with me. They came to the mat of the Plr 
and Murshid Wall Han, but the golden Drlshaks gave 
muhnt 2 and sent them back again. When Jallu's band 
went forth thou earnest here with it, this band showed 
its greed, and thou hadst a share in its devilish deeds. 
When the camels of Mer JatanI, grazing from the fort, 
were raided, thou wast there, and also when Daim, 
Tara and Muhibb were slain at Muhammadpur at day- 
break. Too much evil hast thou done in thy wrath, 
thou are like a moth in the flame. Sixteen valiant 
fighters have proved equal to seven hundred, and fifty 
more wounded in their bodies and arms, in the face 
and the mouth, gave up their lives for their chief, and 
now dwell in the assembly of heaven, and are reckoned 
among the martyrs. I now, as is my duty, repeat the 
Kalimah. 

XXXIII. 

THE WAR OF THE KHOSAS AND LEGHARIS, FOUR 
POEMS BY SOBHA AND GAHI. 

I first took down these poems in the years 1876-77, and published 
the text with a translation in the /.AS./?. (Extra Number, Part I., for 
1880). In the present text I have made several corrections, and a few 
alterations taken from parts of the poems recited by Baga Lashari in 

1 The Sawds are rude sandals made out of the leaf of the dwarf Chamserops 
palm or phish, and are worn by hill-men. 

2 Muhnt is a share of stolen property restored by raiders to the owner as a 
peace-offering. 



9O Later War-Ballads 

1893, and I have carefully revised the translation and corrected errors, 
but the alterations are neither numerous nor important. 

This is one of the latest specimens of the controversy between rival 
poets of contending tribes, of which earlier examples may be found in 
this volume in numbers XL, XVII. and XVIII. Number XXX. may 
be contemporary or even later in date, but the style of the composi- 
tions of Gahi and Sobha is superior, and the poems are in spirit 
much closer to the earlier ballads than are most of the modern 
war-songs. The bards are not sparing of personal invective. Sobha 
taunts Gahi with being a member of an impoverished mountain 
clan, a cutter of phish-leaves on the hill-sides, while Gahi retorts 
with allusions to Sobha's age and infirmities. Both bards claim 
ancient descent for their own clans, and deny it to their adversary, 
and incidentally they bring in an interesting recital of the old 
legends of the Baloch wanderings and settlements, which may be 
compared with the accounts in I. and VIII. 

The dispute between the Khosa and Leghari tribes, which 
forms the subject of the controversy, took place when Jawanak 
Khan (from whom Sardar Bahadur Khan, the present Tumandar, 
is fifth in descent) was Chief of the Khosas. The Leghari Chief 
was Baloch Khan (from whom Sardar Jamal Khan, the present 
young Chief, is sixth in descent). Doda Khan was head of the 
Kalol Clan of Legharis, to which the poet Gahi belonged, and 
the taunts as to impure descent hurled at him must be taken to 
apply not to the whole Leghari Tribe, but to their mountain branches, 
the Haddianis and Kalols, who are akin to the Bozdars, and are 
generally reputed to be of mixed blood. The Jarwar clan of Khosas, 
to which Sobha belonged, occupies the country adjoining that of 
the Kalols and Haddianis. Boundary disputes in the valley of 
the Vador stream have occurred within the past few years, but 
in Jawanak Khan's time, about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, the Khosa claims evidently extended further than they 
have since done, even including the Mithawan stream and the 
valley of Kharr (close to the modern hill-station of Fort Munro, 
on the slope of the mountain formerly known as Anari-Mol), 
which have long been in the undisputed possession of the Legharis. 
Both poets address their song to the bard Relan, enjoining him 
to learn it and repeat it to the adversary. 

The first poem here given is evidently the answer to a preceding 
one of Gahi's which has been lost. It is said that the complete 
series consisted of seven poems, but I could never succeed in 
recovering the missing three. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 



I. 

Sobha son of Thegh 'All sings: the Jarwar Baloch 
sings : the fight of the Khosas and Kalols he sings : 
of the Leghari refugees somewhat he sings. 

Sweet-singing Relan, take with thee thy guitar of 
rejoicings and give my salutation to Gahl the poet, and 
say, ' Sit down and make clean your tongue from false- 
hoods.' How can you weigh a single seer against maunds ? 
You name the forts of Bhucharl and Dalan, but you are 
piling nine-maund weights on yourself. In the face of 
Jawanak's armies you will one day fall, beneath that 
elephant's foot you will be crushed, beneath its blow you 
will pass away from the Vale of Kharr. Make peace 
with us that your land may be left to you, and then 
you will be under the protection of our swords. If you 
are troubled in your mind make your land a lawful 
possession, 1 for when swords are biting you will be in 
an uneasy place, when on this side and that armies stand 
face to face, and fierce men are satisfying their sword's 
hearts with slaughter, when the shout of Jawanak's hosts 
falls upon your ears, and the dust of the horsemen arises 
on every side, so that the moisture of your children's 
mouths dries up, and the lightning-like horses come 
galloping to their stalls at eventide. 

2 Come now, at what place did you go forth from the 
Lasharls? You were missing on the day of the fight 
with Zunu's horsemen. Did you reap a harvest of Mir 
Chakur's army ? Did you pursue the Rind chargers from 

J The suggestion is that the Kalols should admit the supremacy of the 
Khosa Chief, and separate themselves from the Legharis. As they were an 
affiliated clan, and not part of the original stock of the Leghari tribe, this 
course would not be hard to follow. Such clans often change their allegiance 
as their interests dictate. 

3 Gahl had evidently in the preceding poem (now lost) claimed Lashari 
descent for the Kalois. Sobha challenges him to prove it, and asks which of 
the Lashari leaders they accompanied, Ramen who was killed while fighting 
against Mir Chakur, or Bakar who marched to Gujarat. 



92 Later War-Ballaas 

your land ? When Ramen was killed you beat the 
drum. 1 Give me your proofs, on what day did you 
separate yourselves from them ; did you march with Bakar 
or with Ramen ? Did you accompany the horsemen of 
the army to meet the Turks, that night when the Turkish 
horsemen thundered in Jhal or towards Gandava when 
God was on our side ? The Turks rejoiced, but the Rinds 
went thence angry, 2 and blood came forth from their 
eyelids when the (Lashari) women said, ' Our lords have 
met them in fight/ The great men of Shoran became 
heavy with shame, Bijar the Phuzh, Chakur and Shahdhar, 
Allan and beloved Sahak were there, Jaro, Rehan and 
Hasan were present. In their shame they gave the women 
a string of camels, horses and bright gold they gave them, 
and on foot the Rinds went to Takht and Shoran. 

Formerly too the Lasharls gave quarter to the Rinds, 
when they let Mir Chakur ride away from Kawar on 
Phul (Nodhbandagh's mare). 3 

Sweet-singing Relan, take up thy guitar of merry- 
makings. How does our chief deal with those who take 
refuge with him ? All the world knows about Gahwar 
and the Chief Sahiban. Again and again they cried 
to our Nawab and Khan that the Gurchanls, united with 
the Marls of Kahan, had formed an alliance against them 
with the Summenzals* from above. Your men came as 
refugees to our Khan Jawanak, saying, 'We are Khosas, 
we are in no wise Legharis,' and four years they stayed 
with us, sharers in our protection ; the marks of their 
dwellings will be seen on the hillside till seven generations 

1 This is equivalent to saying that the ancestors of the Kalois were Dora 
minstrels and not true Baloches. 

2 The Rinds were angry because their allies the Turks made prisoners of the 
Lashari women. They ransomed them, kept them safely and sent them back 
to their husbands. 

3 See the full story in VI. and VII. 

4 Probably the Shamozai Kakars are meant. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 93 

have passed. In Manik's house everyone dwelt in great 
hope: Manik's dwelling shall be by the streams of 
Paradise! In his second age, after he had passed into 
the stage of blindness, two Baloch women came for refuge, 
and two nights they spent with your Khan and Prince. 
Tears fell from their eyes from their weeping. He 
brought forth a mare and gave it back to them for double 
its value, and the modest women paid it for their own 
credit. Great, O Doda, is thy glory in the world ! Then 
he made an agreement with Shakhal Khan and sent them 
on to Tumi and wealthy Bakhar. 

At the head of Jawanak's army is Plr Gajl Barbar ; 
the Plr is with us on a swift camel with Haidar the Lion. 
When we came to the banks of the Sin and Mithawan 
the mountain-spur was made the dividing line between 
the two sides. Up and down the slopes of Ekbal 1 did 
the two bands of warriors pursue each other, till we made 
a stratagem, and brought you down to the lower ground, 
and as a tiger strikes down a buffalo outside the fence, 
or as a slmurgh brings down a hawk on the open plain, 
our Khan 'Arzl called to his companions, the Khosas' 
iron-shod horses rattled on the rocks, your chiefs were 
ashamed, they were as an elephant carried off by a 
slmurgh, Bashkya's shields and flashing spears cast a dark 
shade, and Dilshad Khan bravely encompassed them about 
on the other sides. Honour to the father who begot 
you ! Between the two armies we made red graves for 
our foes, and Doda in haste made peace with our Khan 
Jawanak. 

2. 

Gahl son of Gorish sings : the Kalol sings : in reply 
to Sobha he sings. 

Sweet-singing Relan, bring hither thy guitar of 
rejoicings ; bring into my life the fresh breeze of the 
morning; strike powerfully with thy fingers; drive out 
1 The name of the highest mountain in the neighbourhood. 



94 Later War-Ballads 

grief from the noble body. Do not shake the heart with 
battle-array; but give praise to the brave. Thou hast 
sat in the assembly with an ever sweet song of praise, 
and from our forefathers hast drawn forth our tracks 
and our story. 

After greeting. The tribe's Chief is day, battle is black 
night. After the battle there is no fair day for men or 
horses. The glittering weapons devour the youthful 
warriors, and make crowded forts empty of display. Some 
youths boast with their mouths, and say that they will 
take part in the fight, but afterwards they turn their backs, 
and do not wait in the company of the young heroes, 
and then afterwards in their grief they sit and beat their 
heads and knees with both hands. At war's alarm they 
wander away to all the four airts ; cowardly men flee, 
like wild asses, at the mere sight of the foe. But the work 
of strong men is to go forth to the plain, they push 
forth their hearts in the boat of resolution, they clothe 
their noble bodies in arms and armour, they drain cups 
of fiery spirits, with burning white brands they fall upon 
the throng, they wield their glittering blades to their own 
fame, with their Khan and Lord they become as a sweet 
odour. 

Take away, O Relan, sweet singer, thy guitar of 
rejoicing. Give my greeting to Sobha the poet, and say, 
' O Lord, take up the track of your descent. Who were 
you at Bhoimpur ? 1 Know in your hearts that you are 
not whole brothers of the Khosas. 2 A venal awarder 
of victory, you will be burnt with wood. Alas ! they know 
that you have passed your hundredth year, either you 
have lost your senses or have been turned out of your 
home. And in that you cast scorn at me regarding 

1 For Bompur or Bampur in Persian Balochistan. Possibly this Indian form 
(Bhumpur = town of the land) dates from the time before the Baloch invasion 
of Makran, when the population was mainly Jatt. 

2 This is specially addressed to the Jarwars. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 95 

Ramen and Bakar, on what day did you become either 
a Rind or Lasharl ? For you were lost in the waves of the 
river's flood, you served Mir Chakur's attendant for 
your daily food.' 

We sought for our glory like mighty Rinds, and every 
day we have weighed single seers against maunds \ I 
will make it clear to your elephant's brain. Come out 
into the plain. I will be a simurgh and will strike you 
down with a blow of my talons, as in Sawan the flood 
sweeps away the men of Aro. You have tied on your 
brows the newly-twisted turban belonging to another- 
You are gasping in death, what days have you left for 
pleasure ? You have cast away honour, and made your- 
self a friend of worthless life; know in your heart that 
death will not spare you at the last. The blot of Doda 
is on your white garment; Medhs and Machhls are no 
fit companions for Mir Hamza. You (Jarwars) are shut 
out from sharing home and food with Khosas and Rinds. 
How did the true Rinds deal with suppliants ? How 
did Mir Chakur act regarding Gohar's young camels, and 
touching Sammi's kine how acted Doda of the Sword, 
when, like a tiger on the mountain-tops, he gave up his 
life to recover the cattle of the poor? 1 

3- 

Sobha son of Thegh 'AH sings: the Jarwar Baloch 
sings : in reply to Gahl he sings. 

Every morning I commemorate the name of the Creator, 
I put my trust in the service of the Almighty. 

O Minstrel Relan come, with thy pearl-shedding speech, 
strike upon thy dambiro, and chant in detail the story 
of the Baloches. Thou hast ever dwelt with noble men. 

From the beginning Rinds and Lasharls continued as 



the story of Gohar see IV., V., VI., VIII., IX., and for that of Doda 
and Sammi see XVIII. Doda Gorgezh, the hero of that tale, must not be 
confounded with Doda Kaloi alluded to above. 



96 Later War-Ballads 

brethren, but at the present day the Lasharl Baloch have 
fallen into contempt. Take up the track, it goes to the 
land of Panjgur. List, while I tell the tale of Kech and 
of Panjgur. 

We are those Rinds who arose from Halab and twice 
we joined battle with Yazld. Setting our faces to the 
rising sun we descended from the upper country, and the 
Prophet gave the victory to the offspring of Hamza. 
With the Imam we went up to the City of Istambol, 
and thronging like a herd of cattle along the broad royal 
road we came, and again in that place we fought, and 
God is witness that we separated at Jaban-i Shahan. In 
Slstan again our valiant warriors engaged in battle, the 
towns of Slstan we divided among us by bows. 1 We 
fell into adversity with the King Shamsu'd-dln, but by 
the might of the Merciful we passed on thence. On that 
side we divided Kech and Makran among us, and drove 
out Harm thence at the edge of the sword. Thence- 
forward we Baloches separated. Thenceforward you 
should give me the tokens of your track. 

The Rinds were in Kech. In what part of Kech did 
you dwell ? There were four and forty settlements ; with 
which camp were you ? When in our marches we arrived 
at the ravine frontier, the Kalmatls chose out Las and 
Bela and settled in prosperity by the Habb and Baran. 
The Nuhanis in front descended from Nail, the Jistkanis 
encamped by the running water of Gaj. The Chandyas 
came by the Lakh and Salarl passes and settled in Kach. 2 
The Rinds and Lasharls spread out over the watered lands 
of Narmukh, the Rinds came down from above to Dhadar, 
and the Lasharls descended to Gandava. 

l Z,e. Every warrior who bore a bow took a share. Up to now the 
share of plunder in a raid is known as a ' Khaman ' or bow. 

2 This probably refers to the plain of Kachhl (called on some maps Kach- 
Gandava). Another version says Kech, but this is probably incorrect, 
as the poem here refers to the settlement of the tribes after they had left 
Kech and Makran. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 97 

At Jalikan and Loi, in what running streams did you 
share? See! Perhaps, Gahi, you came with us by 
mistake, or perhaps you were among the captives when 
Harm was defeated, and came shamelessly among us on 
that day? 

You removed Sahib from the light of day, and carried 
off his wealth. When you came to the low ground you 
divided into two. Enquire, Gahi, what does it profit 
you to live? You argue with me in a sleeping man's 
dream. 

You came to us as refugees with ten families, and 
became our spy at the Khan's mansion for your daily 
bread, the gun in your hand was a gift from Umara 
Han. 

Know in your heart that you are not the equal of 
our Chief of great renown, you are his subjects, and he 
is your Sultan and Head, for you came as a refugee 
to our Mir, and all the tribes on every side beheld it. 
You cast scorn at me regarding the cattle at Kumbhl, 
but you yourself award praise to the retainers who cut 
phish on the mountains. Gahi, do you not understand 
the words which have been spoken ? Take up and follow 
the tracks which lead to Bhoimpur. In Manik's village 
blood has been shamefully shed, and a cairn has been set 
up as a memorial for times to come. 

4- 

Gahi son of Gorish sings : the Kaloi Baloch sings : in 
reply to Sobha he sings. 

Come, O Relan, bard of rejoicings, King and warrior of 
song, to the assembly of good men. Take the songs I 
have uttered and carry them to our warlike foes. Shut 
and open these ten words of mine, replies given head 
by head, arrows of which a seer is as heavy as a maund. 
Take them to Sobha that he may listen to them, and 
forget the words that have gone before. 



98 Later War-Ballads 

He takes up the track of our forefathers, he divides 
the heritage of our fathers ! What shall I say to the poet, 
to the bard beloved of my heart ? 

Let him drive out (from his heart) his scorn for the 
Rinds, let him remember the byegone days. Hear, O 
worthy Sobha, genealogist of the Khosas. You took up 
the track from Makran when the Rinds were in the 
land of Lashar. The Rinds and Lasharls were together 
in one body, they left the towns of Kech and came 
thronging to Harm, seizing the land and the sweet waters, 
and dividing them among the brethren, making the parti- 
tion by bows. We and the Jatols were equal, we separated 
into two parts at the boundary stream, the land and town 
we divided into halves, distributing our property by arrow- 
shafts. 1 

One fourth was at Dhadar, we got our satisfaction in 
Khanpur, our home was in the well-watered land, and 
Mir Chakur was our head. 

This is our footprint and track, this was the abode of 
the true Rinds, a lofty name among the tribes. If you do 
not believe it, no man has seen it with his eyes, there are 
no ancient documents nor eye-witnesses who beheld it ; 
but there are tales upon tales, everyone says that so it 
was. 

I perceive, Sobha, that you are blind and deaf, and that 
you are not a skilful tracker. Fear to speak of Jawanak's 
victory, and give up your grasping greed and your manifest 
falsehoods. To speak the truth is a true custom, falsehood 
is a blot upon honour. 

If you would be prepared to sing, henceforward you 
should produce your evidence, bring forth and show your 
deeds ! 

Come ! leave poems alone, do not meddle with the old 
Rinds, tell tales of the present time. Surround yourself 
with men of understanding, and lay my songs to heart. 

1 That is by drawing lots according to the length of the arrow-shaft. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 99 

Sobha ! You have passed your leaping and flying 
season, your youth lies under your feet, bare are the 
branches of your Tuba-tree ! 

In battle with us you fled, you were broken and fled 
disgracefully before the mighty power of our Chief. You 
fled from the valiant men, from deeply-hating Chandyas, 1 
our friends of the Runghan and Vador, and the mighty 
tigers of the Sanghar stream. Honour to the faithful 
hill-country, to Muhammad Khan, the best of all, the jewel 
of the loyal Bozdars, wearing turbans and garments of 
silk, whose dwelling is with Umara Han. 2 

Joyful tidings were brought to our Sardar and Khan by 
the refugees who came to us, and left your war-array ; 
from the Runghan, the Kandor, the Vador and other 
streams, from the Sanghar to the Sin, from Bakharl with 
its many embankments, places which were outside the 
boundary of our tribe, they all came with glad hearts and 
mounted at the call of the Legharis. Enquire, Sobha, of 
the poets ! reckon yourselves up in your mind, and call 
our Chief ' Lord.' If our Lord has not washed your face, 
then you did not slay Lashkaran and Jam, and you have 
forgotten the revenge for Shakul. 

Of worthy poems an account is kept, they are spoken 
of in ancient volumes, they are recited in the assembly, 
and they are firmly fixed in the memory of the hearers. 
And when refugees have come or shall come to noble 
chieftains, they are held more precious than the two eyes, 
or than our youthful sons and brothers. But you have not 
abandoned your disgraceful actions towards those who 
may, from this time forward, take refuge with you ; where 

1 These Chandyas are a section of the Legharis inhabiting the skirt of the 
hills close to the Kalois, on whose side they fought. 

2 The Bozdars live entirely in the mountains north of the Kalois and 
Haddiams with whom they are connected in blood, and joined them in fight- 
ing against the Khosas. They also occupy the upper valley of the Sanghar 
stream. 



ioo Later War- Ballads 

is your bright honour ? No man acts so among Baloches. 
Your own people came back ashamed, expressing their 
rage and spite, their cattle and goods were with the 
enemy. 

Our agent brought them from your fort, and your far- 
seeing chief saw it with his two eyes. Hear, Sobha, 
and attend to this my long discourse: I too have listened 
to the words which you have uttered, I have reckoned 
up your musket-barrels. What honour is left to you ? 
Ask of your own chief, of the unworthy Jawanak. Did 
not our Umara-Han give him velvet and chestnut-mares 
and silks, did not the Khan Nawab Baloch Khan unloose 
the white mares from their stalls and give them to the 
valiant Jawanak? Ask how the Rinds acted towards 
refugees in their ancient dwelling-places. The phlsh- 
cutters are the tigers; the phlsh of the mountain-side 
is no subject for scorn. 

XXXIV. 

The following poem is a description by a Drlshak bard of an 
expedition into the hill country of the Marl and Bugti tribes under- 
taken by the late Sir Robert Sandeman, then Captain Sandeman, 
in 1867. I took down the poem in 1877. The event was a new 
development in Baloch history, a successful attempt by a ruler of 
the plains to manage the hill-tribes by peaceful methods, and it 
struck the Baloch imagination as deserving celebration in song as 
fully as a successful raid. Mr. R. J. Bruce, who was Captain 
Sandeman's assistant, and accompanied him on this march, has 
described it in his recent volume (The Forward Policy, by R. J. 
Bruce. London, 1900, pp. 26, 27). The chief addressed is Mir 
Han or Mlran Khan, Tumandar of the Drishaks, who, together 
with Imam Bakhsh Khan, Mazarl, Ghulam Haidar Khan, GurchanI, 
and Mazar Khan, Tibbl Lund, all Tumandars of their respective 
tribes, accompanied Captain Sandeman. 

From this time on Sandeman possessed enormous influence over 
the Baloches, and his name, in the form here used, Sinaman, became 
proverbial. Mr. Bruce is also alluded to in the poem under the 
name Burj. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 101 

I sit and raise my voice to my Royal Lord; now in this 
thirteenth century may God keep me in his protection. 

Hearken, thou lordly Mir Han, hear thou my song. 
It is a true tale I tell, do not grieve in thy heart. The 
inheritance of the saints is on me, a flood has poured 
into my heart. Once the hero Hablb Khan was beloved 
by all men, his wealth and cattle were beyond counting, 
much he received from thee. Now I see Hablb Khan 
no more in the chief's assembly. A fierce warrior is 
Hablb Khan on the children of the Son stream. Once 
his friendship was great, with all those advantages; meat 
and wheat beyond imagination didst thou spread out 
on his couch. 

And this was the brotherly friendship shown by him. 
Twice did he raid thy camels, and with the object of 
attaining a party of his own, he divided them among 
his followers. Brahim and brave Fateh Khan dwelt in 
thy house, and thou thyself gavest them a camel with 
joyful heart ! I will sit and invoke blessings on thy 
head ; may thy enemies and bitter adversaries fall into 
the salt sea ! May the bountiful Plr Sohrl smite them 
with his glittering spear. May Dalian and Mir Salem 
Khan * be blessed, and Allan with Shah Mehran in a 
little time. May thy iron bow be strung with Plran the 
Chief, may thy SindhI sword carry out the orders of 
the Makhdum, and by the help of 'All's hand thou hast 
become a ruler over all. Thy oven is heated for free 
distribution from morn till eve, and many poor and hungry 
men sit in the Mlr's dwelling. 

Listen, O noble Mlran, and understand in thy sad 
heart. Sit in thy house and be cheerful, there in thy 
princely court-house, where thou dost judgment and 
justice, and God himself is on thy eyes ; leave falsehood 
and disguises and the deceitfulness of mankind. False- 
hood is a blot upon honour, there is no blessing upon 

1 Brother of Sardar Mlran Khan. 



102 Later War-Ballads 

it. It is now the thirteenth century of the attacks of 
avarice, and brother wars with brother over their cattle 
and property. 1 

I have seen a FiringI Sahib in whom was no matter 
for shame. He took counsel with the great men of the 
plains, with all the band of Chiefs. I made an excellent 
resolution to go to Rajanpur, and there I saw the assembly 
of the Sahibs as all the world saw it. The Sahib gave 
his counsel to all those Chiefs, 'Let us now go into the 
mountains and march through Phailawagh.' Then went 
the dust and noise of the horsemen on high through the 
scented Sham, and all the camels pass below through the 
entrance of the narrow gorges. Sandeman and Bruce 
themselves fetched a compass through all the hill-country 
down to the towns of Syahaf and up to Kahan and 
Barkhan. 2 They all galloped together, horses and mares, 
and then the Sahibs turned back and came down again 
to Sindh, and much service under Government they gave 
to all those chiefs. 3 Thieves were brought in as captives, 
grief departed from the cities, from the gallant Marls 
above and from the borders of the Bugtis, and, accord- 
ing to my understanding, from the whole country. 

XXXV. 

1 add the following poem as it belongs to the same period, 
although, with the exception of a few lines, it is not in Balochi 
but in the Jatkl dialect of Western Panjabl. The poet wished to 
express his admiration of Sandeman's exploits, but as he came from 
a part of the country where Balochi had ceased to be spoken, he 
preferred the language with which he was more familiar. He follows 
the model of the Balochi bards in the style of his poem. 

1 This is probably an allusion to a long standing quarrel between Miran 
Khan and his brother Salem Khan. 

2 Syahaf is the headquarters of the Bugtl tribe, Kahan of the Marris, 
Barkhan of the Khetrans. 

3 That is, men of the tribes were engaged by Government to form a 
militia, and keep the peace of the country. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 103 

First remember the pure protector of all and then the 
bountiful Chief and Sahib. 

On hearing of the coming of our ruler our souls were 
filled with delight, from the encamping of the army of 
the Firingls, throwing down the towers of rebels, blowing 
up the forts of the disaffected, winning the victory, carry- 
ing off the glory. For what Sandeman has done in the 
country of my district may it be well with him. May 
he beat his enemies and make them weak, may their 
senses depart and become feeble, may there be no failure 
in the land, and may the district stand firm till doomsday. 

Bruce wrote a letter and sent it, and Sandeman read 
it and gave an order that all should join together to go 
to the mountains, and he led forth his army to fight. 
Being angry he arose in his wrath and made a march 
out of Dera (GhazI Khan) from that place of flowers. 
' I will go out to march through the land, and will visit 
beautiful Syahaf. I will make my liver hot and will 
fight, encompassing the plain.' Then from the City of 
Rajanpur the army made ready and went up, having 
prepared their uniforms. Sandeman the bold rode in 
front, he rode on a swift horse, a very powerful Arab. 
His followers asked for his orders. With him went the 
valiant lion Haidar Khan, 1 riding with him Mazar Khan 
(of TibbI Lund), Jamal Khan of the Legharis, Nur 
Muhammad Khan of the Bozdars, Sikandar Khan (Khosa) 
with a fine band, the bountiful giver Mlran Khan (Drlshak), 
Imam Bakhsh Khan (Mazarl), good in counsel. 2 The 
people of the world heard of the Sahib's good report as 
far away as Rum or Sham. Thy army stands firm, fight- 
ing with scimetars and swords, every one has become 
obedient to thy orders. Thy intellect is of great 
penetration. 

He sent two letters to the army, to the force of Green 

1 Ghulam Haidar Khan, Tumander of the Guechanis. 

2 All Tumanders of their respective tribes. 



IO4 Later War- Ballads. 

Sahib, 1 and the two dust-storms met together in one 
place, like trees forming one roof. The hard ground 
rattled under them. At Syahaf they alighted and set 
up their tents with famous Ghulam Rasul Khan. 2 There 
was no lack of fodder nor of water nor of grains of gun- 
powder. The band of beasts of burden moved on, to 
where the stream of water flowed (I have heard with my 
ears, I was not present). The Sahib had arranged for 
these good things to be collected. Then the army went 
to climb the mountains, he made a way for them and 
dug out a road. He despatched a messenger (to Ghazan 
Khan, the Marl Chief), saying, " Come hither." Then 
Ghazan descended into the plain and passed through the 
land of Nesao, and mounted and came to meet him. 
When he arrived the army turned back, and for two hours 
they discharged their guns. He wanders about alone like 
a tiger, nor is anyone so strong as to oppose him. 

This is a long-lasting Government. The world trembles 
from dread of it over the whole land as far as Qandahar. 
Justice is done in the assembly by this glorious and lofty 
ruler ! 

Thou art the Commander, 3 thou art the Maker of 
Arrangements, thou art the leader of brave youths ; as 
lofty as the peaks of the mountains, wherever thou hast 
rested a mark remains ! 

I am now a follower of Kalandar Shah, and I have 
spoken out my praises from my own mind. Mihtar 'Isa 
the prophet has given me the purse of generosity. He is 
lord of all who distribute alms. 

*Sir Henry Green, who met Sandeman's expedition at Syahaf in the 
Bugtl Hills. 

2 The Bugti Tumander, father of the present Tumander Nawab Sir 
Shahbaz Khan. He was the most famous Baloch warrior of his time, and 
his reputation for strength and valour is still unlimited. His proper name 
was Ghulam Murtiza Khan. 

3 The word Kaman is adopted from the Hindustani. Kaman means a mili- 
tary force, a 'command,' and is of English or French origin. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 105 

XXXVI. 

ELEGY ON THE DEATH OF NAWAB JAMAL KHAN. 

Jamal Khan was chief of the Leghari tribe for many years, and 
was a man of great mental power who had much influence among 
the neighbouring tribes. His name occurs among the Chiefs men- 
tioned in the foregoing ballad. He accompanied Sir R. Sandeman in 
many expeditions and was ultimately given the title of Nawab. He 
died in 1881, shortly after returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca 
accompanied by his nephew, Tagya Khan, alluded to in this poem. 
On his death an assembly of .Chiefs offered a camel as a prize for the 
best elegy, and this was won by Panju Bangulani (a member of 
the Lasharl clan of Gurchams), from whose dictation I took down the 
poem in 1884. 

Panju Bangulani sings: of the decease of Jamal Khan 
Leghari he sings : the Baloch of sweet speech sings. 

Let me commemorate the holy Sohran and the Prophet, 
let me celebrate the Pir, and lay aside all wickedness, 
and let me make my supplication to the pure Creator. 

I have asked according to my faith for a son with 
milky eyes. Forgive my sins, and pardon all thy slaves. 
In this thirteenth century mankind have false tongues, and 
show greed and deceit towards their brothers in the faith. 
With my mouth I have sought favour from my King 
and Creator who bestows upon me the two worlds with 
willing heart. I have made my petition to the Lord Jam 
Shah, to the Sayyids and saints (walls) to be bountiful to 
his children (?) Take up my song, O singing minstrel ; 
play its air upon the strings of your damblro ; carry it 
to Choti, and let the Leghari warriors hear it. I sing the 
praises of Mir Jamal Khan's goodness from Runghan and 
the Vador to the Sin and Mithawan, 1 from the mountains 
of the Pathans to Barkhan of the wealthy Nahars. 2 All the 

1 See the introduction to No. XXXI. Runghan on one of the higher branches 
of the Vador stream, marks the Northern limit of the Leghari tribe, and the 
Sirl and Mithawan streams are to the south towards the GurchanI frontier. 

2 Nahar-kot in Leghari Barkhan, adjoining the Khetran country. 



io6 Later War- Ballads 

world knows that this is Jamal Khan's realm, and his fame 
for digging kdrezes, by God's assistance, has gone out 
into the world. 1 Mir Jamal Khan and Tagya. Khan took 
counsel together, and called a gathering of the whole 
Leghari tribe. When he had taken leave of the men 
sitting there he took his departure with much red gold, 
and travelled across the sea in steam-boats to unknown 
places of unknown men, and arrived and performed his 
pilgrimage at the court of the illustrious shrine, and freed 
his soul from the punishment of sin. Two thousand 
rupees he gave to the maulavis and started on the home- 
ward track joyful and glad of heart. To the boatmen and 
servants who pulled the boat-rope Jamal Khan gave three 
thousand rupees, and he arrived at Dera Ghazi Khan with 
his camels and strong male camels, and rested there for 
his health. Tagya Shah kept Murshids and plrs, and we 
Baloches quickly prepared all our towers, and the rulers 
of the land celebrated his fame among the Rinds and 
through Hindustan. All Baloches grieved for Jamal Khan, 
and many men brought their companies to visit him. 
There came Jaro Haddiam with his down-hearted band. 
But God, the Pure Creator, had such love for him that 
he summoned Mir Jamal Khan to the golden streams, and 
on the demand without enquiry he set forth for heaven. 
The Lord's presence set him down in his assembly, and 
made him rest with the houris beneath the trees of Para- 
dise. Had but the Sayyids and saints and believers offered 
up prayers, had but Jamal Khan arrived at his beloved 
ChotI, all the Legharis and the hakims would have minis- 
tered to him ; ' God would have been merciful and saved 
Jamal Khan from the blow.' But Allah strong, and 
mighty, and wise is not moved by supplications ; thy deeds 
are good, no fear of any being may come upon thee. 

1 The karez or underground watercourse constructed by Jamal Khan at 
ChotI Bala is alluded to before. Before his time karczes were unknown in 
that part of the country. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 107 

Thou hast disposed of Jamal Khan, the Chief comes no 
more to ChotI, it is well with him, his face is turned away 
from the days of illusion. 

Allah sends his command to 'Izrail. ' Take Mir Jamal 
Khan's breath away. Carry him from his fort, bear him 
far away from the converse of his golden brethren.' Men 
must bear whatsoever burden thou layest upon them, with 
the medicine of kindness thou bringest about his future 
welfare. 

Jamal Khan's tribesmen came thronging to pay their 
respects to him, fierce rage burst forth from their leaders. 
Great was the gathering in the Rind assemblies, in the 
yard there was no room for men and horses ; the baker 
kept his oven heated day and night. Great was thy 
almsgiving, thy seal affixed to white paper, chestnut horses 
and camels were given to applicants every morning ! But 
the Angel of Death will let none go, at the last he takes 
away the good men; the kings, sayyids, saints and 
believers ! Wonderful often are the deeds of the 
Almighty; golden sons he parts from aged fathers. The 
archangels made a petition to the Lord, that he should 
seat Jamal Khan upon a throne, spread rugs for him 
upon a brightly-coloured couch, and give him sugar 
and milk in a golden cup. ChotI mourns for the counten- 
ance of Jamal Khan, saying, 'Would that God had 
done this one thing, that he had spared Mir Jamal Khan 
and brought him back, that he had come to ChotI with 
golden ornaments, that drums and pipes had sounded 
forth gaily, and that Khan Jamal Khan had girt on his 
noble weapons, while horses neighed, and pawed the 
ground with their dark hoofs. 

Jamal Khan, head of the province, Tiger of ChotI, a 
hundred times praises to the splendid presence! When 
he drew his sword and made war on his foes, or sat with 
the English on a chair of state. In the fulness of days 
justice will be done to his rights. 



io8 Later War -Ballads 

A voice came forth from the gate of God the Lord, 
'Bring hither Jamal Khan, greatest of the Legharis, 
prepare a place for him by the streams of Paradise.' 
A golden swing did our fair Lord make for Jamal Khan 
to swing in under the shade of the Tuba-tree. 

His friends were Turks and Durranls, kings of the 
land, with Imam Bakhsh 1 his friendship was greatest, his 
company and brotherhood was with the Khan of Rojhan. 

Papers and writings came from distant lands, from 
Agra, Dehll, London, and the country of Lahore, with 
kindly prayers for Jamal Khan's welfare. Thy rule 
extends even to the records of the English ! The fear 
of Jamal Khan was established everywhere, when his 
enemies heard the news their land became hot! Of all 
chiefs of tribes the ChotI Nawab is the first with sharpened 
knife in hand to slaughter cattle, to kill the fatted kine, 
sheep and goats, that nothing should be lacking in hos- 
pitality in the household of 'All, 2 hand-mills and bullock- 
mills perpetually grind corn, and processions of trays 
with golden covers pass in ; and minstrels in numbers 
overflowed the place, bringing deputations into the 
assembly-hall in Jamal Khan's dwelling, and many 
thousands of enemies and friends abase themselves ; 
Khosas, Bozdars, Lunds with noble dishes ; Gurchanls, 
Khetrans and far-famed Marls, all the Zarkanls and the 
Drishaks come in separately ; the whole of these are 
known to be pensioners of Jamal Khan. 

It is good to speak the truth, let everyone speak with 
good faith; every man in distress receives a hundred-fold 
from Jamal Khan. Short is the journey of the wicked, 
the wind of death passes over them ; it comes at the 
time when a man is unaware. May the Prophet 

1 Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan, of Rojhan, the Chief of the Mazarls, was 
associated with the Nawab Jamal Khan in the principal events of his life. 

2 Viz., the 'Allan! clan of the Legharis to which the Tumandar's family 
belongs. 



And Other Tribal Poems. 109 

Muhammad be surety for his life, when his times and 
seasons bend and fall. Every one had confidence in 
Jamal Khan, and with Jamal Khan dwelt many poor, 
and received their maintenance much or little according to 
their fate. Without hesitation came 'Izrall the Deceiver, 
and seized Jamal Khan, Amir of the Tribe, and he had 
to give up his breath at last on the spot. With a hundred 
thousand kalimas may Jamal Khan be happy ! 

Sweet-singing Sobha, take with you a message from me, 
and in the early morning strike upon the tecoma-wood, 1 
and sing my verses in the assembly of nobles. Take it 
to Choti and lay it before the Khan, Muhammad Khan. 2 
At one glance the tribe may perceive a Lord of the Turban 
(successor to the Chieftainship). From the foundation of 
things the Prophet has given him the Rind Turban, and 
Suhrl has given him a ruler's renown throughout the 
hill-country. 

Welcome and greeting from the tribe to far-seeing 
Muhammad Khan ; thy religious teachers have left thy 
mighty bow ready strung, Qadir the Lion, Din-Panah 3 
and the prophets and poets have searched for texts and 
extracted them from the Quran and made prayers and 
petitions to the five holy ones, 4 may the Quran give a 
golden son to the Khan. Muhammad Khan ; 5 may he 
swing in a golden cradle on the upper story of his 
palace. May my words be accepted as a blessing to the 
sons of the Sun. 

Oh God ! bring up the storms, the water-swollen clouds, 

1 The dambiro or guitar is often made of the wood of the pharphugh 
(Tecoma undulata), here used as a synonym for the instrument. 

2 Muhammad Khan son of Jamal Khan succeeded him as Chief. 

3 Din-Panah is the saint whose shrine is situated at Daira Dm Panah 
on the Indus. 

4 Viz., Muhammad, Fatima, 'Ali, Hasan and Husain. 
5 A son was born to Muhammad Khan shortly after this time. He is 
named Jamal Khan, and is now Tumandar of the tribe. 



no Later War-Ballads 

may Allah protector of thousands bring the pleasant rains, 
may they come in their season and rain upon Choti's 
mountain-skirts, may the river rise in flood and the 
creepers burst into flower. 1 The poet's mind knows that 
these words will come true. 

Nur Ahmad Khan the lion-man is the tribe's firm 
post ; let no man say that any are more powerful than 
the 'Alianls, many many of rank have come to Choti, 
and Nur Ahmad Khan is victorious in war against his 
foes, and the country has broken the heads of those fair 
enemies ! 

He is a sardar of the tribe, an ornament and crest 
among the nobles, the Creator has cast upon him the 
glance of friendship. Let me also sing the words of 
blessing on Tagya Khan, greeting and welfare to him 
and his sons, evenly-matched twin racing colts mighty 
in fight, with silver harness and velvet saddle-cloths ; 
may Jlwe Lai come to their protection from the town of 
Sehwan, may he come with prosperity into the court- 
house and office; may the tribe adhere to Muhammad 
Khan and Nur Ahmad Khan, the very wise Tagya Khan 
and Din Muhammad Khan, friends one to the other from 
the time they could see. 2 

The journey is short, may the Lord send rain upon 
the land. My service is ever to the name of Allah, 
although I neither recite prayers nor keep the fasts ! 3 

1 In the parched-up Indus valley cultivation in the skirt of the hills (naghor) 
depends on rain in the adjoining mountains which fills the hill-torrents. In 
the low-lying lands along the River Indus it depends on the periodical rise 
of the river caused by the melting of the snows in the Himalaya. 

2 After praising Muhammad Khan the bard passes on to other members 
of the 'Allan! family, Nur Ahmad Khan, brother of Nawab Jamal Khan, 
and his sons Tagya Khan and Din Muhammad Khan. After Muhammad 
Khan's death Tagya Khan acted as Tumandar of the Legharis, as guardian 
of the infant Jamal Khan. 

3 This is characteristic of the hill Baloch, who thinks it enough for the 
whole tribe if the Chief observes the Muhammadan forms of religion. 



PART III. 
ROMANTIC BALLADS. 

XXXVII. 

LELA AND MAJNA. 

THIS is a Baloch version of the widely spread Arab tale of Laila and 
Majnun. I took it down in 1875 from the recitation of Khuda 
Bakhsh a Dom attached to the Marl tribe. The poem has a strong 
local colouring : Laila is converted into a Baloch maiden dwelling on 
the slopes of Mt. Bambor, a mountain in the country of the Marls, 
and her surroundings are described in picturesque and vivid language. 
The phraseology is clear and simple, and the language in general has 
a strong affinity to that of the heroic ballads. The repetition of 
certain phrases will be noticed, a familiar form of expression in ballads 
of a primitive type. 

Fair are the slopes of Mount Bambor ; there the clouds 
gather and the rain falls, the pools are filled to over- 
flowing. Then Lela takes her earthen cup and goes to 
the sweet, fresh water, she sits down and washes and rubs 
her hair and spreads it out over her shoulders. She goes 
into her little, grey, four-sided hut, and lifts up the mat 
which hangs at the door. She puts her hand into her bag, 
and draws out a silver looking-glass, rests it on her shapely 
thigh and gazes on her hourl-like loveliness. She sits 
there happy and at peace, and closes a curtain of the hut. 

Poor Majna wandering round looked upon fair Lela, and 
then fair Lela cried, 'A gift I will make thee of strong 
camels and pointed-eared racing mares, if thou wilt but 
go away from my beloved land.' 






1 1 2 Romantic Ballads. 

On hearing these words Majna replied, ' I will not take 
the strong camels, nor the racing mares with pointed ears, 
nor will I leave thy beloved land.' 

On hearing these words fair Lela was enraged, and 
Lela's mother in anger said, ' This is indeed a loving 
youth ! He is a treacherous young man. Bring hither 
to me the bitter poison that I may moisten it in a cup.' 

In the morning the handmaiden carried the poison to 
the lover Majna. He took the poison and drank it up 
and said, ' O maid, when thou goest back to fair Lela, 
say that what Lela has sent me is a cup of fresh curds 
of cow's milk. Bring me quickly another cup of it.' 

On hearing these words fair Lela was enraged, and 
Lela's mother in anger sent for a jogl from a far land ; 
who caught a black snake in the desert and moistened it 
in a cup. In the morning the handmaiden bore it, the 
poison quivering in the cup and the snakes' heads moving, 
to Majna the lover. He took the poison and drained the 
cup saying, 'Maid, when thou goest back thither to fair 
Lela say, " It is a promise that thou and I shall meet ; the 
poison has strengthened my love for thee." ' 

On hearing these words fair Lela was enraged, and 
Lela's mother in anger told the camel-men in haste to 
load and lead away the strings of camels by night. The 
herdsmen have marched away for the sake of their herds 
of camels and cattle. Then came poor Majna with beauti- 
ful pearls in his hands. Lela called out Dur bash 1 to her 
dog. Then poor Majna stood there and became like a 
dry log. Creepers formed a shade over his head, and he 
became a hunting-post for hawks. 

One day the herdsmen marched thither and encamped 
at his abiding-place. A wood-cutter went out to see the 
land, and to chop wood for his daily bread. He saw a 
log of kanda wood and began to split it with his steel axe. 

^hat is, in Persian, 'Be off.' Majnun took the words as addressed to 
him. 



Romantic Ballads. 113 

Then a voice came from the log, 'I am no log, woodman, 
I am but Majna the lover. Here I stand for the love 
of Lela.' 

On hearing these words the woodman went trembling, 
his teeth chattering in his mouth, to where fair Lela was, 
and he said to fair Lela, 'Come hither, for I have seen 
thy lover become like a dry log, the creepers forming a 
shade over his head, and the hawks sitting on him as 
a hunting-post.' 

On hearing these words she girt her garments about 
her loins and cast away her shoes, and, holding her newly- 
budded breasts with her hands, she ran to where her lover 
Majna stood, and began to break off the creepers which 
grew over his head. Then Majna uttered these words, 
' Do not break off the creepers, O my beloved, for the 
creepers have been kinder to me than thou. At night 
they have guarded me from the winter cold, and by day 
they have been as the shade of a cloud, whilst thou hast 
enjoyed the love and converse of thy friends, and hast 
reclined on couches with soft raiment and pillows.' 

The reciter of this poem concluded with the rhyme (in 

Panjabi), 

Ten na men 
Khak dl dhert. 

Neither of thee nor me a heap of dust remains. 

XXXVIII. 

The text of this poem is given by Mr. Mayer (Baloch Classics, 
p. 15). It is attributed to Blvaragh (see No. XX.), but does not seem 
to belong to the same period as the heroic ballad. The language 
rather resembles that of the love-poems of the eighteenth century 
attributed to Durrak, and it is probably the composition of a bard of 
that period, who employs the conventional imagery then in vogue. 

The clouds rain on the two plains of Son, drifting past 

in succession close overhead. I rise at early morn, and 

H 



H4 Romantic Ballads. 

a woman comes swaying towards me, clapping her hands 
over each of her shoulders, turning her head to one side 
like a skittish mare, her two eyes glowing like fire in a 
fireplace. Her nose is like a sharp sword, a blow from 
which takes her lover's life. I will be the smith who 
gives it an edge. 'Do not wash clothes in this pool of 
water, for here my young camels come to drink in the 
evening.' 

* It is no fault of mine, O lady. I do not possess the 
price of the clothes on thy body. To thee belong garments 
of silk and satin.' 

' May thy sainted mother dwell in heaven, that greatest 
of women who bore thee.' 

Come, Plrwall Minstrel, at early morn; come and take 
my song and sing it where Granaz may hear it. This 
false world passes away, it endures but a little space, 1 let 
her not forget me in the false world. My heart is formed 
on thy shape. Be thou a gazelle grazing on the plain, 
and I will be the hunter encompassing thee round ; be 
thou a swift racing mare, and I will be the rider flourishing 
my whip : be thou a flower growing on the plain, and I 
will be a bee humming above thee, taking sweet scent 
from every flower. 

When I come to the encampment of my own clan, 
when I see drunken Ahmad-Han, and go to Phaben and 
Bhani's huts, I will send a messenger secretly, thou shalt 
know my fairy-like fair one and give her a ring and a 
silver circlet 2 for her neck, a charm for her throat and 
a silver bangle, a nose-ring flashing (like lightning) on 
the dark clouds, fine cloth shoes with velvet soles. She 
will come swaying up to my body, shining she will come 
like a moon on the fourteenth day, and we will recline 
bride and bridegroom with joyful hearts, beyond the 
middle of the third watch of the night. 
!Lit. two days. 
2 The has is a neck ornament in solid silver resembling a large bangle. 



Romantic Ballads. 1 1 5 

I have taken leave of my fairy-like fair one, flower- 
like tears drop from her eyes, and fall upon her soft 
bodice. 

XXXIX. I. 

MfRAN'S LOVE-MESSAGE. 

The text of this poem is taken from Mr. Mayer (Baloch Classics, 
p. 1 6). It falls into the same category as No. XXXVIII. Mlran, 
the companion of Mir Chakur, sends a message to his love by a blue 
rock pigeon, called in the poem green or blue (savz) bird. For 
another version see the following poem. 

In the morning let me remember the saint of Sehwan. 
Grant me faithfulness, O Jlwe Lai. Oh dove ! Oh pigeon, 
among the birds be thou a messenger of my state to my 
love. Travel over the long distance, I beg of thee, blue 
bird, fly from the cliff where thou dwellest at night, from 
the rugged rocks of the fowls of the air, go to my beloved's 
home, and perch on the right side of her bed. She 
will put thee into her sleeve and carry thee into her 
four-sided hut from fear of the wicked old women. Do 
not fight like a bird with thy five sharp claws, do not 
strike my love with them. She will ask thee one question, 
' Pigeon, of what land art thou ? Why art thou so thin 
and wretched ? ' Then, blue bird, reply to her thus, * I 
am a bird of the land of Lahor. I am thin and wretched 
because I am hungry all day and I travel all night. I 
come on a secret matter, and nowhere can I find the 
stream of Lahrl nor can I see the hut of the loved one, 
to give that youth's message which I bear with me from 
beloved Mlran of the tribe of golden dishes.' 

Then said the lady of the village, ' I beg of thee, blue 
bird, to rest here a little while, till my husband goes out 
and drives away the cows, and childish sleep takes my 
mother-in-law away. Then like a Turk I will fall upon 
the house, and take out abundance of goods ; the gur and 



1 1 6 Romantic Ballads. 

wheat from the shop, sweet crystallized sugar, skinfuls of 
yellow butter, sweet cows' milk, ears of beardless wheat 
of Gaj. Take these things to Mlran from me.' 

Mlran came fully satisfied, and with him came the Mlr's 
troop, Mir Chakur's armies of thousands. 



XXXIX. 2. 

This is a shorter version of the preceding poem, and is given by 
Leech under the title of ' A Balochky Love-song.' The two poems 
have the same opening, but differ greatly, and in this version there is 
no mention of a bird messenger after the first few lines. 

In the morning let me commemorate the shrine of 
Sehwan. Oh Lai grant me true faith ! Oh pigeon, pea- 
hen among the birds, be a messenger of my state to my 
true-love, to that most modest fair one. 

A minstrel has come with his guitar, and has brought 
in his hand a love-token from my love. My heart revived, 
which had been dry as a log of wood. I got ready my 
slender bay mare before the mulla's call to prayer was 
heard. I slipped on her embroidered head-stall, and I 
come riding without stopping to flourishing Belo on the 
Nur-wah, the dwelling place of the Jatanl. The reed 
huts are crowded, my love is the fairest among her 
companions, 1 the most modest among her friends and 
comrades. I sent some-one in to enquire, carefully 
arranged my Rind garments (?), I opened the side of 
the hut, like a bee smelling a flower. The pain of six 
months' separation departed, and my form appeared 
before her. 

[Then follow three lines evidently transcribed by mis- 
take from the conclusion of No. LI I.] 

*I give this translation from Leech's version, but the text is evidently 
corrupt, and the words gath and phal-chhat are unknown to me. 






Romantic Ballads. 1 1 7 



XL. 
THE DEATH OF PARAT AND SHIREN. 

This romantic ballad of love and misfortune is told in a simple 
and picturesque style, and does not claim any connection with the 
characters figuring in the heroic legends. Parat no doubt stands 
for the Persian Farhad, the stone-cutter who dug through a mountain 
for the sake of Shlren. The text is taken from that given by Mr. 
Mayer (Baloch Classics, p. 34). 

Looking through the countries of the world the king 
perceived that the name of names is still Shlren, and the 
king said, 'I have a stone weighing a hundred maunds. 
Whoever shall crush that stone, to him I will give the 
hand of Shlren in marriage.' 

Then the madman twisted up his hair, from the right 
shoulder and one arm, and the Lady Shlren said, ' May 
the stone become even as wax, may it be ground as fine 
as black surma (antimony powder). Do not hurt my 
lover's hand ! ' 

He worked at it for a year, and the stone became as 
soft as wax, and was ground as fine as black surma. 
Then said the king, ' Money I will give without reckoning, 
red gold without weighing, to anyone who will kill this 
lover.' 

Then said a wicked old wife : ' I will take the money 
without reckoning, the red gold without weighing, and I 
will kill this lover.' 

Now she went along making plots as she went, and 
came to this Parat and said, 'Alas! my child for thy 
sorrow. For a year thou hast worked at this, and not 
for one day hast thou had sight of her! The Lady 
Shlren is dead. She has seen the word of the Lord.' 

In the morning Parat perished, the water on his breast 
became cold. All the corpse-bearers carried him forth, 
and took him under the palace wall. Then said the 



u8 Romantic Ballads. 

Lady Shlren, 'Nurse, ask those bearers who is it that is 
on the bier.' The bearers replied, ' It is young Parat 
who has died.' Shlren called her nurse, saying, 'Nurse, 
wash my hair, and I will put on a red chadar, for I 
thirst for my lover!' 

Then said the fair nurse, 'Parat was but a carpenter 
by origin, a Jatt dweller in the plains. 1 But the Lady 
Shlren said, 'Dai, do not speak such idle words, I do 
not seek for a lover of high descent' 

The Lady Shlren died, she saw the word of the Lord. 
They will meet hereafter in the other world. 

XLI. 
DOSTEN AND SHIREN. 

The romantic tale of Dosten and Shlren is attributed to the 
period of the wars between Mir Chakur and the Turks. The scene 
of Dosten's escape is the old fort of Harand or Arand in the 
country of the GurchanI tribe, which guards the mouth of the 
Chhachar Pass ; one of the principal means of access from the Indus 
valley to the plateau above the Sulaiman Mts., commonly known 
locally as Khorasan. (This name is not specially applied to the 
province of Persia now bearing the name.) 

The prose narrative is that of Ghulam Muhammad Balacham, 
taken down in 1884, and first printed in my Balochi Text-book 
1885. The poem was first taken down by me from the recitation 
of Brahim Shambam in 1876, and with some additions from a Marl 
version, and one or two from other sources, was published in my 
specimens of the Balochi language (Extra No. J.A.S.B., 1881), and 
again in the Text-book mentioned above. Translations of both prose 
and verse were published in Folk-lore, 1897. The translation and 
text have now been revised and corrected, but there are no important 
alterations. 

Another version of the story is given by Hetu Ram in the Balochl- 
nama (translated by Douie). 

Prose narrative. There was a Rind named Dosten who 
was betrothed to the daughter of Lai Khan, Shlren by 
name. Both Dosten and Shlren had learned how to read 



Romantic Ballads. 119 

the Persian character. One day the Turks made an attack 
on the Rinds' village, and killed some men. Dosten 
they seized and carried him away with some others, and 
imprisoned them in the town of Harand. There they 
passed many years in captivity. After this Shlren's 
father and mother betrothed her to another Rind, and 
he too was called Dosten. On this Shlren made a song, 
and wrote it on paper and sent it towards Dosten ; a 
faqir brought it and gave it to him. 

Now as time went on the Turk who ruled at Harand 
as Governor under Humau (i.e. the emperor Humayun) 
made Dosten a groom and put him over his horses; 
and as he worked hard the head-groom became his 
friend, and made over to him two fillies to train, telling 
him to train them with great care. When the mares 
were four years old they saddled them, and Dosten and 
his companion the other Rind rode them about to train 
them. When the Turk took off their fetters he made 
Dosten promise not to escape secretly. 'I will go when 
I have your leave to go,' he said. So they rode and 
trained the mare till the day of the 'Id arrived, when 
the Turks held horse-races, and the Governor said to 
Dosten, 'You have my leave; you may both go and 
race the mares.' And Dosten said, ' Have we your 
leave to go?' And he said, 'Yes, you have my leave.' 
Then these two men went, and let their mares go, and 
left all the others behind ; and as they galloped past 
the post where the Governor was, they cried, ' Governor ! 
we have your leave, now we are going.' And they 
went off. The Governor ordered his troops to pursue 
them. ' Do not let them go ! Catch them ! Kill them ! ' 
he shouted, and off went all the troop after them. They 
headed for the Chhachar Pass, and when they had arrived 
a little beyond Toba (a spring at the lower end of the 
Pass) a grey mare among the pursuers fell and died, and 
thenceforward the place has been known as Nlll-lakrI 



I2O Romantic Ballads. 

(Grey Mare's Flat). And further on that day a dun 
horse fell and died, and the place is still called Bhura- 
phusht (Dun Horse Ridge). And a grey horse stumbled 
and died at Nlla Khund (Grey Horse Vale) below the 
plain of Phailawagh. All these names have been in use 
ever since. 1 

Then from Phailawagh the troop turned and went 
back. Dosten and the other Rind made their way to 
Narmukh, where his home was. When they arrived 
there and alighted in the evening they saw a boy watch- 
ing a flock of lambs who was weeping. Dosten said, 
'What are you weeping for?' and he said, 'My brother 
was carried into captivity a long time ago, and left his 
bride behind. They have now given her to another, and 
to-day they are marrying her. That is why I am weep- 
ing.' They asked him what his brother's name was, and 
he said, ' His name was Dosten.' They said, ' Do not 
weep, for God will bring your brother back again.' Then 
they asked the boy to point out the camp where the 
wedding was to take place ; he showed them the place, 
and they rode on, and coming to the place they saw 
all the wedding festivities going on. They alighted at 
the wedding platform, and the Rinds asked who they 
were. Dosten replied, 'We are Doms,' and then they 

1 The names are actually in use at the present day. It is possible, however, 
that in origin they meant simply Grey Flat, Brown Ridge, and Grey Valley, 
and had no reference to horses. 

In addition to the names given in the text, Hetu Ram's version adds the 
following : 

Nlla Kachh. 

Buravad. 

Syaheh' Khatlkk. 

Syah-thank. 

Nlla Kachh is probably identical with Nlla Khund, kachh and khund 
having a similar meaning, a piece of flat alluvial ground near the bank of 
a torrent below the rocks. Bura (or bhura) vad answers to Bhura. phusht, 
the dun hill ; Syah-thank is the black pass, and Syaheri-khatik means the 
black bodice, a name which probably has no relation to this story. 



Romantic Ballads. 121 

said, 'Do you know any songs?' and Dosten answered, 
' Certainly we do, are we not Doms ? Bring me a damblro 
and I will sing.' They brought him a damblro, and he 
raised and sang the song which Shiren had written on 
paper and sent to him ; [and this is the song he sang :] 

Poem. ZangI is my chief, Gwaharam my leader and 
friend, the lord of royal mares at the time when swords 
are drawn. I swear by thy beard, by the soft down on 
thy face, that my black mare (which can run down the 
wild ass) is pining away. She cannot drink the water 
of the Indus or eat the coarse grass of the low country, 
she longs for her own mountain pastures, for the herds 
of wild asses on the upland slopes, the female wild asses 
of the Phitokh Pass, the pools filled with sparkling water. 
The mosquitos and sand-flies irritate her, the vermin do 
not let her sleep, the barley from the grain dealers' 
shops hurts her mouth. 

A man has come from Khurasan, his clothes were 
travel-stained but smelt sweet. Bales of madder he 
brought with him, saddle-bags of fine bhang, loads of 
sweet scents from Kandahar; a message he brought 
with him from a Rind maiden, a true love greeting from 
Shiren. 

1 The storm-clouds have rained upon Konar, on the 
plains and slopes of Mungachar, on the sweet-smelling 
hills of Sanl. The pools are filled to overflowing, the 
water trembles like the gwan-leaves (the wild pistachio), 
the waves bend like the jointed sugar-cane. The graziers 
have made ready for the march, the owners of sheep and 
goats, the shepherds Sahak's sons. The women have 
tied up their baggage, the camel men have adjusted 
their loads, they go by the pass of Bhaunar and Nagahu. 
The yellow camels bend their knees, the males in long 
strings, the females with tender feet. 

The sheep are filled with dranin grass, the goats with 
1 Shiren's message begins here. 



122 Romantic Ballads. 

the red-flowered gwarigh, the Rinds with finely ground 
wheat, the shepherds with curds, the dwellers by the 
stream with gwan-berries. Shlren has pitched her little 
tent in the waste land of Narmukh. She calls her 
beloved handmaiden and takes an earthen cup ; she goes 
to a pool of freshly-fallen water, combs and rubs her 
hair, comes back to her four-sided tent and shuts it up 
on every side, plaits a mat (of phlsh-leaves) and spreads 
it out and lies down upon it. She puts her hand into 
the bag and pulls out a silver mirror, rests it on her 
shapely thigh and gazes upon her own image (or, gazes 
upon her houri-like countenance). She weeps with her 
tender eyes, the tears drop upon her cheeks and wet the 
upper edge of her bodice. In come her sister maidens, 
fair companions forty and four, they come and sit clown 
by her, reclining on their sides on the shawls, and ask 
after her heart and her condition. 'Why,' they say, 'are 
thy jewels neglected, thy red and blue clothes thrown 
aside, thy locks unkempt and dusty, the hollows of thy 
eyes filled with tears ? ' 

She weeps, and pushes the women away from her. 
1 Away, women, you are not good. Away, I say, women, 
sit apart from me. Let my jewels be neglected, my red 
and blue clothes thrown aside, my hair unkempt and 
dusty. I have no need of friends like you, for he who 
was the friend of my heart I have beheld taken captive 
by the wicked, cursed Turks. The Turks have carried 
him away from Herat and left wealthy Ispahan behind, 
and shut him up in a dreary dungeon in the town of 
Harand abounding in gold. 1 They have destroyed the 

1 Probably the original town was Hareb or Harev, i.e. Herat, and Harand 
is a later alteration. The capital of the Arghun Turks was at Herat at this 
period, and the epithet ' zar-josh, 5 or abounding in gold, is applied to Herat 
in IV. 124. It is evidently more applicable to a large town than to Harand, 
which was never more than a small fort. If this is the case, the localisation 
of the scenes of the escape of Dosten in the Chhachar Pass must be of 
recent date. 



Romantic Ballads. 123 

happiness of a noble woman, and taken my love away 
from Ispahan.' 

When the daughters of the Rinds form a band and 
come thronging down the slopes, when the women come 
wandering with blessings accompanying them, they break 
the maur-blossoms from their stalks and pluck the red 
gwarigh-flowers. Some put them in their bodices, and 
some hang them in their earrings and some keep them 
as love-tokens. One, for my own heart's desire, I pluck 
and hold fast in my closed hand, may he be protected 
from his bitter foes. His sister and love says, raising 
her hands to God, ' May God bring back Dosten to his 
true love again, not this Dosten but the first.' 

O chestnut mare, far away to the south come swiftly 
by long stages, bring my lord and amir to meet this 
fair one, to sit and rest with his father and mother and 
the loving assembly of his brethren. May Malik Dosten 
appear, may he come and show himself to me once 
more. 

Shlren heard the song and knew him, and cried out, 
'It is Dosten who is singing.' Then they asked him 
who he was, and he said, 'I am Dosten.' Then the 
other Dosten, whose wedding was going on, said, 'Now 
that thou art come and art here thyself, Shlren is thy 
bride, take her and marry her ; and whatever I have 
spent I give to thee.' 

So Dosten was married to Shlren. 



\ 



PART IV. 
LOVE-SONGS AND LYRICS. 

XLII. XLVI. 
LOVE-SONGS BY DURRAK. 

THE five following poems are attributed to Durrak, a poet of the 
Dombkl tribe, who lived at the Court of Naslr Khan, the Brahol 
Khan of Kalat, in the eighteenth century. He is generally spoken 
of as Jam Durrak, and occasionally alluded to by the title Jam only, 
by which he calls himself in XLII. and XLVI. Durrak is supposed 
to have been in love with a lady of the Khan's zanana, and to have 
undergone great persecutions from him. 

XLIV. is spoken in the name of Mlran, probably the same Mlran 
as the reputed author of XXXIX., the cousin of Mir Chakur. The 
style is that of Durrak, and the poem is considered by modern bards 
to be his. Possibly XXXVIII. should also be given to him. 

XLV. and XLVI. were taken down from the dictation of Marl 
bards in 1879, anc * were printed \n. J.A.S.B. (Extra No., Pt. I., 1880). 
The others were taken down soon after, but have not been published. 

XLII. 

At early morn I will sing the praises of the true God r 
the Maker and the Giver. Give ear to my words, 
friends ; to the songs sung by Jam ! 

Minstrel, learn my verses (lit. lift my string), and 
accompany them on the yellow gut-strings ; and take 
them to my ruler and chief. 

One day I went upon my business to the darbar of 
wealthy Dhadar, and there I saw a fair one in the market- 
place. The train of her dress swept the ground. She 






Love-Songs and Lyrics. 125 

combed her locks with a comb, and plaited them over 
the top of her head ; her lips were red as pomegranate 
flowers, and she moistened them with walnut-bark. 1 

Her nose was long and like a dagger. 

In a garden I saw three parroquets, as like each other 
as three pearls, flowers that bloom in my Lord's garden, 
beneath the protection of the royal turban. I said, * I 
will look upon my beloved, I will sit in the noble 
assembly, I will abide there for a year.' Now that we 
have come face to face, I have seen the abundance of 
my love's beauty. My grief has been slain, my heart 
has revived, it has blossomed forth with fresh flowers, 
on every branch its own hue. My love took pity on 
my heart, she gave me her face with all its jewels. 
Zewa and Jamal 2 are witnesses that I banished all evil 
from my soul. 

XLIII. 

Jam Durrak Dombki sings : the martyr of love sings. 

The lightning which came last night, flashing and 
staggering like a drunken man from the direction of 
Julgo, brought me news of my love, which as it were 
clothed my body with flowers. A rainbow sprang up 
in the south, and near it a purple storm-cloud, it was 
like my love in every point. I am a fool to fight with 
my heart, my heart is a fool to fight with me, it weeps 
like a golden-fronted babe, it struggles like a fierce 
marauding Turk, and tries to pull out by the chain 
the peg to which it is tethered (?). In eight months 
one is born among a hundred, and I will rain down 
gifts in thousands and hundreds of thousands. 3 

1 Mushag (walnut-bark) is used by women to give a bright colour to the 
lips. 

2 These are names of paris. 

3 The whole of this passage (lines 10-14) is very obscure. 



126 Love-Songs and Lyrics. 

I told my mare the state of my heart, and the mare 
swiftly galloping carried the news, spreading out her 
tail like the Zamur creeper, and flicking her shapely 
legs with it. 

' O my master, intoxicated with odours, the musk of 
Khorasan is on thy turban, for God's sake be careful 
of the way, and at eventide I will carry thee thither, 
to that lordly abode wherein dwells that gazelle-faced 
one with the figure of a cypress ; she will speak with 
her voice; there are rubies and diamonds, and the 
odours of bye-gone days; make sure of those words of 
former times and repeat them ; sit and declare the 
wretched state of thy heart and cast away all thy 
grief/ 

XLIV. 

Last night in strange vision I saw some-one come 
swaying towards me, in beauty surpassing a houri, with 
head raised like the Wazlr of the birds (i.e. the peacock), 
who is king among all his companions, and all are lost 
in his magnificence. She was decked with gems and 
jewels, and was like the full moon in splendour. Her 
grey tent of mats is a shade for her head. Her starry 
eyes are flowers in her face, there is no way apart from 
her. She stands like a faqlr. 

On thy feet are shoes of velvet and scented leather. 
Thou hast passed thy hand over the edge of thy lips 
and slain this poor wandering mendicant. The grief of 
thy beauty has consumed him. A token has come to 
me from my love's hand, my grief is slain and my 
heart has revived. The steps of her feet are full of 
grace, her locks are scimitars which cut through my 
armour, her eyes are like brilliant torches and shine 
afar off like yon lamp; she is like the sweet scent near 
a garden. The finest of gems shine in her bracelet, 
pearls gleam in her mouth. 



Love-Songs and Lyrics. 127 

Put a golden necklace on thy neck, like a snake are 
the beads and grains of it, turquoises are on thy hands, 
and thou art in my heart. Do not turn away from me, 
my love on that side and I on this. I will not put a 
mirror on an equality with thee ! She has put on an 
ornament for her beauty, in appearance like the bright- 
ness of the moon ; my withered heart has become as 
a garden. From one branch have grown a thousand 
branches, on every branch its own flower, every flower 
fresh in hue. 

I have read in a book of blood, a flame gleams in 
my eyes. Thou hast a medicine for the suffering; I 
am a servant at thy command. Thou hast a shop for 
selling necklaces, I am a servant at thy disposal. Do 
not exert thy power too much, my tyrant, like a juggler 
dancing on the point of a sword, and do not let me 
be far from thy hands. Mlran says : ' Quickly drain a 
cup with me.' 

XLV. 

The cloud that passes unasked from Heaven comes 
from the direction of my beloved. Last night I met 
my love face to face. The lightning flashes out, it is 
my love that has awakened me. The scent from her 
locks has seized me with sweetness. Separation from 
her melts me as wax in the night-watches. I spring up 
like the flame of Kahlr-logs, 1 I am without rest in the 
midnight watches from the sweetness of meeting with 
my love. Give my body a little breathing-space from 
pain ; I will not say ' No ' to my love's command, my 
body is as a shield held out to protect me. Let my 
eyes be gladdened by the sight of my fair one, let the 
pain caused by my lady be a little appeased, which some- 
times is less and sometimes more. I cannot use my 

1 The Kahir (prosopis spicigera) is much used as firewood. 



128 Love-Songs and Lyrics. 

mouth to speak by day, nor have I any strength left, 
she is so strong, to come to meet and speak to her. I 
sit and pray for that day ; may God be merciful and 
incline his heart to me. Let my love come down from 
her golden throne, let her come swaying towards me like 
the full moon, and I shall be exalted like King Akbar. 
Then I shall ask from her pearl-dropping mouth, O 
priceless ruby, like the badhashkan l berry, take me, thy 
husband, thy sworn man ; sudden slaughter has overtaken 
me, for thee I will lay down priceless jewels ; they will 
be the blood-price for this sweetest of creatures. 

XLVI. 

Last night I saw my heart-enchanting love, the crown 
and ornament of women, and deceitfully I spoke with 
my mouth, saying, 'Do not wander about aimlessly like 
an animal, nor flutter round the flame like a moth, O 
bane of many lovers. The locks of hesitation are burst 
open, I have obeyed the call of true love/ I said to 
my beautiful love, ' O pearl-shedding fair one of a 
thousand tricks and speech like crystallized sugar, this 
is the state of this poor wretch ; his heart is galled with 
his lamentations ; let that one who is ruler and friend 
be apart from the hard-hearted. The body of Jam is 
in the dust. It remains but to bid thee farewell, to re- 
member the King and Creator and to groan through the 
cold midnight.' 

XLVII. 

THE WOMEN BATHING. 

There is no tradition as to the origin of this poem, which I took 
down in the Leghari hills in 1884. Narmukh is in the high plateau 
above the Bolan Pass. 

1 The badhashkan is a creeping plant, probably a species of nightshade or 
bryony. 






Love-Songs and Lyrics. 129 

The poem is unique in BalochI, symbolism of this kind being 
almost unknown. 

The ' Kunjes ' or cranes mean women bathing, and the pigeons are 
their lovers. 

This poem may be compared to the Turkoman song translated 
by Chodzko (Popular Poetry of Persia, London, 1842, p, 386, v.). 

On a cloudy day with a curtain of shade, the clouds 
dense in some places and open in others, I make my 
prayer and petition to the clouds that they may rain 
upon happy Narmukh, and floods may rush down all the 
water-courses and torrenfs. Then will the people hasten 
round, they will make embankments to retain the water, 
the pools will be filled. Then the cranes gather together, 
rising at early morn, they cry out and go into the water, 
and there they pass a watch of the day, and then come 
back. The pigeons assemble and sit upon their shoulders. 
They pound up spices with stones, skilfully they anoint 
themselves with the spices kept overnight. Thy rings 
are of twisted gold, twisted by the hand of the goldsmith, 
excellently have they been wrought by the gold-workers. 
Thy nose-ring is a gold-mohur set with gems. A worthy 
man sings these few words to the world : 

Come down, O pan, that I may perceive thy perfume. 



THE PARIS. 

This is a fanciful description of a meeting with the pans on the 
slopes of Mount Ekbai, a peak of the Sulaiman Mountains, in the 
Leghari Country. 

Two days ago I went forth from the gardens of Bela 
on my swift mare Mehlo, Mehlo who will suffer no bridle, 
no well-made girths nor stirrups ; at early morn I left 
my home, to see (my love at) Mount Ekbai, below the 
hill of Ekbai. Cold clouds had snowed there, day and 



130 Love-Songs and Lyrics. 

night the snow surrounded me, snow in the dark nights, 
it was necessary to peep through a veil of snow with a 
golden fringe. Wild grapes hung ripe upon the preci- 
pices, 1 limes with abundance of fruit ; the beasts of chase 
and fowls of the air ate them, the hawks and hungry 
pigeons, the saints and angels of heaven. 

The pans lit a fire on the top of a peak of the moun- 
tain. There the heavenly pans gathered, there they 
gathered clapping their hands. I started forward to 
seize one ; as I came forward they shrank back, and 
the heavenly pans flew away. I was overcome with 
astonishment, and stood like a bashful lover. When 
they had flown high up, the heavenly pans said to me, 
' O foolish faqlr, foolish and mad art thou. No beings 
of this world are we. We are the pans of the saints. 
On the day when thy fate shall come upon thee, and 
arrangements are making for thy funeral, we will sit at 
the cross-roads, 2 we will bathe thy heart with water, and 
fulfil the desires of thy body.' 

Give attention, O my friends, my friends and fiery 
brethren. 3 I shall be wedded to a heavenly parl ; my 
body and my sins I will leave far behind. 



XLIX. 
A LEGHARI LOVE-SONG. 

This little love-song from the Leghari hills is in a style and 
metre not found elsewhere. 

Hearken, my friends, my bold comrades, royal com- 
panions. Listen to my songs. I am a poet, a bard. 
I have gathered a ruby, I have uttered a speech, I have 

1 Wild vines, figs and pomegranates are found on Mount Ekbal as a 
matter of fact, but the limes are imaginary. 

2 Where the corpse is carried past. 

3 The same expression will be found in No. XIV. 



Love-Songs and Lyrics. 131 

pierced a pearl. The night before last I saw a heart- 
enchanting vision like a fleeting dream. Her breast was 
full as a dumba's tail, her skin like a fresh meadow, her 
teeth like pomegranates. Thy smile is a flower of slender 
beauty, a narcissus which wounds the heart. In the abode 
of fountains we shall both be together body and soul. 



SONGS OF SOHNA AND BASHKALI. 

The two following poems, by Sohna and BashkalT, are composed 
in a corrupt and obscure style in which the Balochi language is 
mixed with unfamiliar Arabic and Persian words and whole phrases 
in Persian. An accurate translation is almost impossible, and that 
which follows can only claim to give the general meaning. The 
poems are evidently Sufistic, a religious meaning being hidden 
under the amatory language. This is distinctly stated in the 
heading of Bashkall's poem. 

I. 

Sohna son of Bashkali sings : the Surinam of pleasing 
speech sings. 

To-day, by God's grace, I beheld my charmer like 
Jamal the fairy or Sultan Shapur wearing his crown. 
There has not been in this age another newly-ripened 
fairy like her. What claim has the slender cypress to 
compare to her ? Fair pan, dwell but a little while in 
peace, and spread thy scented curls over thy shoulders, 
while I make a feeble statement in praise of thy beauty. 

On thy forehead is a seal like that of King Sulaiman, 
by thy arts thou boldest in captivity the jinns and devs. 
For thy needs thou hast the mirror of thy forty per- 
fections; what need is there for the bow of the ruler of 
the firmament? Thy eyelashes are a paradise to thy 
lovers, thou exaltest the souls of many poor wretches. 
Thy slender nose is like a sharp dagger. Like a chief- 



132 Love-Songs and Lyrics. 

tain through the medium of the mirror thou beholdest a 
mouth of two pearls and a nose without rival. Thou 
art as a pan seated by the lake of Kaunsar, who had 
two red lips and whose teeth were jewels all taking 
their place in an even row in her mouth. Her speech 
issued from her throat with a sweet tongue, no parrot 
has a sugared voice like hers. 

O lady, by thy womanly smiles my sad heart has been 
revived. I have made ready a bright-coloured garment 
in which to present my supplication, and the lover has 
become as magnificent as a peacock. Thy two breasts 
are like pomegranates. I may go on picking out thy 
several beauties for praise, and I keep a reckoning of 
thy wasp-like waist. Thou liftest thy steps sideways 
with swaying gait. 

All living beings are wont to hang their heads for 
shame, thy tyrannous beauty has carried me away gaping 
like a fool, like Majnun I am borne upon the flood of 
but two words. 1 

The approaching blessing has entered into my heart: 
let my state but become known to my rose, and then 
in a little space I shall quickly become well. 

2. 

Bashkall the son of Sohna the Surinam of sweet speech 
sings : on the subject of God he utters some words : in 
reply to Sohna he sings. 

To-day my love, in the imaginations of my brain, says 
thou art a ruby of great price growing on a tree of 
which the price is even as a hundred thousand ' falus ' ; 
do not mention it, the jewellers have left me empty and 
the dealers in civet-like perfumes. Thou hast expressed 
a desire for scented oils, they drip on to thy priceless 
girdle. A blazing torch glitters from thy bright shoes, 

1 Possibly the allusion is to Majnun being stupefied by the utterance of 
the two words 'Dur bash' by Lalla. See XXXV. 



Love-Songs and Lyrics. 133 

they seem gilded warriors under thy command. All the 
slender poplar 1 trees have become thy representatives, 
and the red roses in the garden beds ; compared with 
thee the figure of the cypress in the grove becomes 
crooked. Many who were low thou hast exalted. Thou 
art the King and I^am the dust under thy feet. Let 
me never be out of thy remembrance, do not let thy 
heart forget Adam. 

Listen ! I will make one representation to thee : ' No 
one speaks well of a violent ruler. If he first give the 
poor cause to hope he then makes a powerful safeguard 
for himself.' Let harsh speech be far from a pearly 
mouth, let it be as a stone fallen near by, as a weighty 
rock or piles of stones. Let not fair women, crowned 
by their countrymen, be moved by every breeze or 
shower. 

Hear my prayer, heavenly hourl ; raise the veil awhile 
from thy brow. Let in thy spouse and put anger far 
from thy heart. The guardianship of the world is in 
thy hands. I will praise thee, my heart is with my 
love. I will travel far in peace and safety, thither where 
no fear is of my terrible foes. 

1 ' Shamshad ' seems to bear this meaning here. 



PART V. 

'RELIGIOUS AND DIDACTIC POETRY AND 
LEGENDS OF SAINTS. 

LI. 

RELIGIOUS POEMS BY SHAHZAD SON OF CHAKUR, 
WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE ORIGIN OF MULTAN. 

SHAHZAD or Shahdad the son of Mir Chakur accompanied his 
father in his settlement at Multan. There is some reason for 
believing that he was a man given to religious speculation, as 
Ferishta states that he was the first to introduce Shi'a tenets into 
Multan. His mystical origin according to modern legend [see (3) 
below] is evidence of the reputation he obtained during his life, 
and the following poem is in keeping with the historical and 
legendary accounts. His warlike poem on the expedition to Dehll 
has been already given (XVI.), and there is every ground for accepting 
that now under consideration also as a genuine composition of his. 
The poem consists of three parts. First, fifteen lines of religious 
rhapsody in archaic Balochi ; secondly, eight lines on creation in 
a kind of corrupted Persian ; and thirdly, twenty-seven lines in 
Balochi on the four ages through which the world has passed, and 
the transformations undergone by the town of Multan during these 
ages. The creation of the horse is alluded to at the end. 

This account, although mixed up with Muhammadan names, is 
of Hindu origin, and Shahzad must have learnt the substance of 
it after his settlement in Multan. There is a very close cor- 
respondence between Shahzad's poem and an account written in 
Persian (of the Indian type) which I found in 1884 in the Kitab-i- 
bayaz, or Commonplace Book, of a leading Syal family of the town 
of Jhang, I give two extracts from this as appendixes to the 
poem. The first relates to the four ages of the world and the 
history of Multan, and the second to the creation of the horse. 



Religious and Didactic Poetry. 135 

Some similar account must have been known to Shahzad. The 
names given to Multan in the two accounts do not, however, cor- 
respond, as may be seen from the following comparison : 

Shahzad's poem. Jhang MS. 

First age, - ^ gpur, - - Rahanspur or Hanspur. 

Second - Hasapur, - Makpur or Bakpur. 

Third Syahpur, - - Shampur. 

Fourth - Multan, - Multan. 

The names, however, evidently have a common origin in the 
local traditions of Multan. The whole account is a curious jumble 
of Hindu and Muhammadan names. The poem was taken down 
in 1894 from the recitation of Baga Lashari. 

i. SHAHZAD'S POEM. 

I recite the praises of the Lord, of the mighty Muham- 
mad Mustafa, of royal 'All the lion of God. One day I 
heard a legendary tale in Hibb Hablas, a lamp burning 
before a mirror with a glow the likeness of which cannot 
be found. My sight was fixed upon the true form of the 
King. He created the golden throne of heaven, sweet 
was his speech and heart-entrancing; his appearance 
was like unto the Lord of light. He formed the day and 
night ; day and night are of small account to him. He 
created the open plain of earth and the smoke that went 
upwards. 

1 There was neither heaven nor heavenly throne, there 
was neither creation nor speech, there was neither grand- 
mother Eve nor grandfather (Adam). Ibrahim the Friend 
of God was not ; the ark of Noah was not ; 'Isa the Spirit 
of God was not; the throne of Sulaiman was not. He 
was himself He is, Hamid 'All. 

Now I will sing in Balochl. 

The world was made in four ages. In the first age the 
Royal Creator made his own country with one hundred 
and seventy thousand beings therein, and they passed 

lr This passage is mainly in Persian, and at the end of it the poet goes 
back to the Balochl language. 



136 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

their own period of existence. In a moment, in the 
twinkling of an eye, the gathered storm-clouds passed 
away. Multan was now made Bagpur. 

In the second age the Royal Creator made forty 
human beings. There was no wife nor child among 
them ; pure they came and pure they went, for they were 
sprung from the Pure One. They too fulfilled their 
period of existence. The gathered storm-clouds passed 
away and Multan was now made Hasapur. 

In the third age the King and Creator again created 
his angels, and they fulfilled their period of existence. 
In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, the gathered 
storm-clouds passed away; Multan was now made 
Syahpur. 

In the fourth age the Royal Creator sounded the 
trumpet and drum and created for himself a horse which 
continues to exist till Doomsday. Multan now became 
Multan. 

2. EXTRACTS FROM THE ANCESTRAL COMMONPLACE 
BOOK OF AN ANCIENT SYAL FAMILY OF JHANG 
SYALA IN THE PANJAB. TRANSLATED FROM THE 
PERSIAN. 

(a) Account of the Creation of Heaven and Earth. 
In the beginning God Almighty created Marij Dev 
from fire, as it is written in the Holy Qur-an and the 
glorious Furqan, 'Wa khallaqa'1-jann min marijin min 
an-narin.' 1 From the rib of Marij the Almighty created 
Marij a (i.e. a feminine form of Marij). These two mated 
together and two sons were born to them. One they 

1 See Quran, Ch. 55 (Ar-rahman, the Merciful), v. 14. The correct 
quotation is: 'Wa khallaqa'1-jann min marijin min narin.' 'And he 
created the Jann (or Jinns) from a smokeless fire.' This has been misunder- 
stood and considered by the writer to mean, 'And he created the Jinn 
Marij from fire,' Marij being taken to be a proper name instead of 'a fire 
without smoke.' It has no doubt been confused with Marid, the name of 
the most powerful race of Jinns. 



And Legends of Saints. 137 

named Jinn, and from Jinn's rib the female JinnI was 
produced. These two mated together and two sons were 
born to them ; one they named 'Azrall, and the other 
Mahaiidev. From me rib of Maharidev Korchabarl was 
produced, and the duration of Earth and Heaven was 
six millions two hundred and eighty-five thousand years. 
And from that time Multan was inhabited and passed 
through four ages. 

In the first age they called it Rahahspur (or they called 
Multan Hanspur) 1 and in this age it continued inhabited 
for ninety-two millions four hundred and eighteen thousand 
years. Isar Mahandev had twelve sons. 2 The first was 
named Koin, the second Narayan, the third Vishan, the 
fourth Kishan, the fifth Birahman, the sixth Parmesar, 
the eighth Narsarig, the ninth Bhagwan, the tenth Lat, 
the eleventh 'Uzza, and the twelfth Isar Jagannath. 

And Isar Jagannath had twelve daughters, their names 
were these : Mahmal, Devi, MesrI, Parmesri, Devani, Bhag- 
wanl, Lanka, Mathura, Jamna, Totla, Ghazz, Lanka. 3 

When some time had passed after this in the second 
age Multan was called Makpur 4 and was peopled by 
angels for one million eight hundred and twenty thousand 
and five years. In the third age Multan was called Sham- 
pur. And in the age of Bakpur forty human beings dwelt 
in it, and some say there were eighty, but there was no 
begetting nor generation among them. 

And in the fourth age Multan was called Multan, and 
in that age it was inhabited by horses, there were eight 
hundred and seven thousand of them in Multan. After 
eight hundred and seventeen thousand years Mihtar 

a This is the more probable version. Hanspur corresponds to Shahzad's 
Hasapur. 

2 Only eleven are actually named. 

3 Only eleven are named, as Lanka is given twice. 

4 Probably a mistake for Bakpur given below. This is closer to Shahzad's 



138 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

Adam the Prophet God's mercy on him was created. 
From Adam's time till now sixty thousand nine hundred 
and forty-five years have passed. 

(b) The Story of the Creation of the Horse. 

By Khwaja Hamldu'd-din Nagorl God sanctify his 
venerable tomb it has been related that when God the 
Holy and Omnipotent had created Adam on whom be 
peace from the clay which remained in the mould in 
which Adam on whom be peace had been formed, he 
made four things : first, dates ; secondly, grapes ; thirdly, 
pomegranates ; and fourthly, the face and eye of the 
horse. And from the saliva of the Hurls he created 
Paradise, and from Paradise he made the horse's body, 
and from Heaven's holy throne he made the horse's back, 
and from the tree of Tuba he made the horse's mane, 
and by his own decree he gave life to the horse. And 
its perfection is such that he keeps the horse in his own 
presence and does not entrust it to others ; wherefore 
the Prophet God have mercy on him, and preserve him 
always kept it with him, and was accustomed to clean 
its head and face with his own illustrious cloak and 
mantle and to give it barley to eat in the same cloak. 

And sins are equal in number to the hairs of the 
horse. 

3. THE BIRTH OF SHAHZAD. 

This legend of the miraculous birth of Shahzad is current at the 
present day, and was taken down from the relation of Ghulam 
Muhammad Balacham. As far as I am aware it does not exist in 
poetical form. 

Mai, Mir Chakur's wife, had sent for water and was 
washing her head when a shadow passed in front of her 
as she sat. She looked around, in front, behind, every- 
where, but no one was there. Then she sat down, and 



And Legends of Saints. 139 

as time went on she became aware that she was with 
child, and afterward* as time went on the child was 
born. Chakur was away at Delhi with his army. After 
the child was born she was sitting rocking it in a 
swinging cradle when tidings arrived that Chakur had 
returned and had halted at Choti. 

Then Mai told a Dom to go to Chakur and to con- 
gratulate him, and to say, 'A son has been born in 
your house, and he has been named Shahzad.' Mir 
Chakur was grieved and became very sad, thinking, 'I 
have been away travelling for three years ; what then 
is this son who has been born ? ' Then he ordered his 
army to halt where it was, and it did so. The Dom 
returned and told Mai how Chakur was troubled and 
had caused his army to halt. Mai answered and said, 
'Go and tell Mir Chakur to come home, and not to 
grieve, but to say ' Salam ' to Mir Shahzad, for my 
child has been begotten by the shadow of a saint.' Then 
Chakur gave his troop the order to mount, and they 
mounted and rode to Sevl. When he had alighted 
there he said, ' Salam to you, Mir Shahzad.' Then 
Shahzad, who was a child of six months old, said from 
his cradle, 'And Salam to you Mir Chakur, daddy. 
You have had a long journey. You are welcome home. 
Are you well? Are you happy?' And he gave him 
all the news. 1 And Shahzad said ' I was begotten by 
the shadow of 'All.' 

LII. 

THE LAY OF ISA AND BARI. 

This short poem is better known than any other specimen of 
Balochi verse. Leech published a text and translation, and Burton 
has given a version in Sind Revisited, Vol. II. p. 165 (London, 1877), 

1 Shahzad goes through the orthodox forms of salutation among Baloches, 
and follows this up by giving the ' hal ' or news of what has happened. 



140 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

of which the original is not forthcoming. Burton no doubt had 
Leech's text and translation before him, as on the next page he 
quotes the fragmentary verses given by Leech on the servile tribes 
(see XXL), giving Leech's translation verbatim (without acknow- 
ledgment). His translation of Isa and Ban, however, contains 
passages not to be found in Leech or any other version to which 
I have access. I took down the poem in 1876 from the recitation 
of Khuda Bakhsh, Marl Dom, before I knew of Leech's publication. 
Mr. Mayer has since printed another full version in Baloch Classics, 
p. 33- I have used all three versions in the text here given, the 
principal variants being given. 

In reciting the poem a commencement is often made from 'The 
story of the tree is this,' omitting the exordium. It seems probable 
that this does not form part of the original, as it contains slightly 
disguised amatory allusions, while the remainder of the poem is a 
plain story of the legend of the miraculous growth of the tree. 

O clouds that drift past, bestowing verdure, sweet 
clouds of autumn, drive away the cold mists, refrain from 
excessive anger. 

Pass before my eyes ; I am thine, O my crown, firefly 
flitting through the villages, fruit of the tree with snaky 
locks, O pigeon beloved among women. 

The story of the tree is this : 

As Isa once upon a time was roaming about and 
looking upon the countries and regions of the earth 
Bar! was sitting in the desert. He perceived Bar! in 
the desert. Isa then said to Ban, 'Whence dost thou 
eat thy bread of faith, how dost thou live in the 
wilderness ? ' 

Bar! answered and said, 'Isa, sit here for a moment, 
and see the power of Cod.' 

Isa sat down for a little while and saw the Almighty's 
power. 

A tree sprouted from beneath the ground. At early 
morn it raised its head, at fiery noontide it put forth 
its buds, at full zuhar (about 2 p.m.) it bore fruit, at 
yellow dlgar (afternoon prayer-time) the fruit became 
red. The tree bore two fruits, excellent food for men. 



And Legends of Saints. 141 

As it was with them, so, by the hair of thy head, may 
it be with thee by God's blessing, O good man, and 
water will flow from the hard rock. 

These are the wanderings of the far-famed darvesh. 
Assembly, repeat the Kalima. 

LIIL LV. 

These three following poems are expositions of the popular creed 
of Islam as held among the Baloches. 

No. LIIL is by Brahim Shambanl, who was living at Asm in 
1876 and there recited this and other poems to me. The other 
two by Lashkaran JistkanI were obtained at the same time. 

It will be observed that a strong bias is shown towards the 
ShI'a doctrines. The * char-yaran,' the four Khalifs who succeeded 
Muhammad, are only once alluded to, while great stress is laid 
upon the reverence due to the twelve Imams, the five holy persons 
(panj-tan), viz., Muhammad, 'All, Hasan, Husain and Fatima, the 
forty Abdals or saints, and the Pirs presiding over local shrines. 
Yet none of the authors would admit that they were anything 
but Sunnis, and the immediate successors of Muhammad (Abubekr, 
'Umar and 'Uthman) are recognized and not cursed as among the 
true Shi'as. 

A considerable part of Brahim's poem and Lashkaran's second poem 
is devoted to the four Archangels and their duties, but their names 
are incorrectly given by Brahim and not at all by Lashkaran. 
Brahim substitutes the name Wahl (inspiration) for Jibrall (the 
Archangel Gabriel), who is especially associated with the inspiration 
of the Prophet. He puts Arzel, that is 'Azrall the Angel of death, 
in the second place instead of the third. Mlkail (the archangel 
Michael) is omitted and Khwaja Khidr (the prophet Elijah or Ilias 
according to some, and in India considered as a sort of river-god) 
takes his place. Fourth comes Israfll, described as the Trumpeter, 
and Shaltan (Iblis) is put in as the fifth, who lost his position by 
rebellion. 

All the poets give vivid descriptions of the day of judgment, the 
terrors of hell and the joys of paradise, and mention the classes of 
men who will receive rewards or punishments. 

The poems throughout are pervaded by a tone of earnestness and 
sincerity, and bear a strong resemblance to mediaeval poems dealing 
with similar subjects, such as the Anglo-Saxon 'Be domes dsege.' 



142 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

It will be noticed throughout that the greatest virtue is generosity, 
the crime demanding the most severe punishment is avarice. This 
is in keeping with the Baloch code, according to which the bountiful 
man, the free giver, deserves the greatest praise, and the stingy and 
avaricious man the greatest reprobation. 

LIII. 

Brahim Shambani sings. 

I too am God's servant. I sit and say Allah ! I repeat 
the name of God. I remember Murtaza the King who 
has poured a torrent into my heart, and the pure Prophet 
who sits upon his throne to do judgment and justice. 
The true God is very merciful. With him is neither 
greed nor avarice ; nor is he father of any fair son ; nor 
is there mother nor sister with him. I cannot tell who 
has begotten him, nor can I fathom his might. 

Five angels stand close to him in his service, to do 
his bidding. The first is Warn (Inspiration, that is 
Gabriel), and then Arzel ('Azrail). The third is Khwaja 
Khidr, and the fourth (Israfll) with trumpet to his lips 
sends forth the wind that blows over the wicked world. 
Last there is Shaitan, who rebelled on account of the 
creation of mankind. 

He sits alone and adds up the full reckoning of each 
man. Then he gives his order to Arzel to take his 
breath at once, who looks not at good nor evil, nor 
heeds prayer nor supplication ; children he takes away 
from their father and mother. He takes neither money 
nor sheep nor goats with them, he carries men away by 
the hair of their heads. There is no pity in his stony 
heart, nor does he hate any man. 

The poet Brahim has spoken. 

Listen to my song, to the story of the Divine Lord. 

Thus have I heard with my ears. There was no 
heaven nor earth, nor Mother Eve nor Adam ; this 
world and land was fire. In a moment he built up 



And Legends of Saints. 143 

the firmament, by his might he made the water, from the 
foam thereof he created the dry land, he spread abroad 
the mountains and the trees, and set them upon the earth, 
and the smoke he made to go upwards. He created the 
Seven Heavens, the Garden of Paradise and Hell. 

And these are the tokens of Paradise. A tree stands 
by the gate to shade the city. The fruit of the garden 
ripens at all seasons. By his power there are figs and 
olives, grapes, pomegranates and mangoes and the scent 
of musk and attar. There the peris may not enter in. 
In that place is the assembly of the generous who are 
equal to the martyrs and sit with the King Qasim (the 
divine distributor), and in the court of King Husain. 
Beds and couches are spread for them. Fairy-like houris 
are their attendants and stand in their service. There 
those heavenly men eat of the fruits of Paradise. This 
is the description of Paradise. 

Attend, oh young men! I have beheld the greatness 
of God, of the Lord who makes and mars. I have seen, 
and am terrified, how hundreds of thousands are born, 
and if He does not give breath to their earthen bodies, 
their souls go to meet their fate. Some are Lords of 
the land, some are poor and hungry. I am not an 
open-handed chief, I fear how I shall speak. I ask of 
mullas, of some of those who keep the fasts and repeat 
many prayers and daily say the name of Allah. Com- 
panions in the way of faith, ye are associates of God ! 
Some humble men enter in, those who repeat the Kalima 
day by day, and those who die a martyr's death; they 
are called flowers of martyrdom and a place is given 
them in the garden of Paradise ; they receive gifts and 
rewards and houris in pairs wait upon them; they go 
even before Kings. O men, be not angry. Mullas and 
blind Hafizes obtain heaven according to their fate, and 
receive the favour of the Lord, and God gives them 
what gifts he will. 



144 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

I make my petition to my religious guide in the pure 
Prophet's Court. Preserve me from doomsday, from the 
fiery flames of hell ! Build as it were a bridge for me 
over the way of Sirat, let me pass over straightway, and 
let me enter into Paradise by the order of God the 
Creator! This is my judgment and justice. 

Oh assembly, repeat the Kalima. 



LIV. 
RELIGIOUS POEM BY LASHKARAN. i. 

Lashkaran son of Sumelan sings : the Jistkani, the 
friend of holy men, sings: he praises God and the 
Prophet; he praises the twelve Imams, the fourteen holy 
Innocents and the forty Abdals. 

First is the commemoration of God's name and the 
recognition of the Prophet and the Word, and Haidar 
(i.e. 'All) the Ruler of the faithful, who smote the 
Khaibar of the infidels. 1 The four companions (i.e. the 
four first Khalifs) are without doubt powerful at the 
gate of faith. 

There are two red roses of Heaven, Hasan the King, 
Husain the Prince, Haidar's generous sons (jewels). In 
the Divine Presence stand the twelve Friends (Imams). 
Fourteen confidential messengers ride forth, and forty 
Abdals (saints) ready to help, that give utterance to the 
Words of the Lord. 

Petitioners at the gate of thy Treasury never return 
thence empty. The Prophet the Lord of Creation 
preserves men by his mercy. No man is free from sin. 
I am in dread of thy wrath, when Munkir and Nakir 

1 That is in Muhammad's war against the Jews of Khaibar in the Hajjaz, 
from which 'All has received the Persian epithet of Khaibar-sitan, Destroyer 
of Khaibar. The name has been transferred to the celebrated pass near 
Peshawar. 



And Legends of Saints. 145 

question me, when the clouds come rolling up, and 
turbaned heads are laid low. A fiery club many maunds 
in weight they heave up with both hands. God preserve 
my body in the heat of that fierce fire! When I have 
gone through that narrow pass clouds again gather in 
front of me. Have mercy on me at that time ! O 
prophet, thou who sittest enthroned, skilful to weigh 
with the balances, put forth thy own hand ! 

He gives his orders to the sun at that very moment 
of time (i.e. the last day), it will come upon creation, 
by the eyes of the mighty one hell-fire is seen to be 
lighted. The earth heats like copper, the son will not 
honour his father, brother will be separated from brother, 
the child taken away from the mother. Each must bear 
his burden on his own head, each is entangled in his own 
sweat. Eve and Adam are departed, they have gathered 
what their hands have sown. God guard all Musalmans ! 

I make my supplication to the Almighty, the Lord 
Merciful and Compassionate. Grant my request through 
thy righteousness, show thy mercy with universal bene- 
factions. Let me pass, behind his Presence, over the 
sword -edge of Sirat. Those who are misers, cowards 
and usurers lose their souls in their reckonings, the 
Qaruns (Corahs) are the world's carrion, they are ever 
seeking after profit and attend neither to Fir nor Mur- 
shid. These wretches groan in their grief, and are cut 
off from the scent of Paradise. Their eyes are fixed 
upon the sun, so that their heads boil in hell. 

My brethren and friends, hear the lay of a Rind. 

The story of the generous is this : Their sins are for- 
gotten, they sit in the same rank as those who die 
for the faith, they pluck the fruit of the Tuba-tree by 
the golden halls of Paradise and the divine fountain of 
Kauhsar, 1 and their hair is combed by the petitioners 
whom they have helped. 

J The Arabic Kawthar, the Nectar stream. 
K 



146 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

Let me cherish my Plr, the Husaim, sun of light and 
fosterer of the poor, Murad Bakhsh Shah, 1 who comes 
down as a light to his disciples. Also Shahbaz 2 the 
generous to his friends, a firm embankment erected by 
the Ruler of the Faithful. Turel also has come to that 
spot, following on the tracks of Haidar. The five Holy 
ones are first worthy of honour. 

Let me repeat the Kalima of the Prophet. 

LV. 
RELIGIOUS POEM BY LASHKARAN. 2. 

Lashkaran son of Sumelan sings: the Jistkani, friend 
of saints, sings: he sings some words in God's honour, 
he sings the praises of the five Holy ones and of the 
twelve Imams. 

Mighty in the Lord, he is without companions, by 
his power he has created the world. God is King, 
Muhammed his minister. 'All is the helper and atten- 
dant of the Imamat. 

There are four archangels at the holy gate. 

One (Jibrall) is the ambassador to the prophet. 

The second (Mikall) rides upon the storm-clouds. 

The third ('Azrail) wanders about to destroy and build up. 

The fourth (Israfil) has the trumpet at his lips, his 
loins girt, his eyes on his Lord. The North wind blows 
from his mouth, and, when the Lord commands, he sweeps 
all things away. 

The pure spirit looks upon his creation ; one half he 
colours like a skilful craftsman, and half he leaves plain 
with troubled life. My soul ! Do not possess thy heart 

1 For this saint, Plr Murad or Murad Bakhsh, whose proper name was 
Muhammad Husain, see Burton's Sindh, 1851, p. 222. His shrine is near 
Thatta in Sindh. 

2 That is Lai Shahbaz of Sehwan in Sindh, also known as Jive Lai. See 
Burton's Sind Revisited, 1877, Ch. XXV. 



And Legends of Saints. 



in grief; the last abode of all is the same, in the dust 
and clay. The prophet is responsible for all creation, 
men of the faith carry their own provisions for the 
journey, the five times of prayer and fasts for their sins. 

Debts are due to God by his slaves, for till now all 
are mad and out of their minds ; the Mighty one will 
demand his debts, our hope of paying is in our surety. 
With my hands I cling to the skirt of thy garment, my 
eyes are open and I am in perplexity. 

Upon his throne he sits at the Last Day. He orders 
Ja'far the Imam to make an attack on the unbelievers, 
to beat the gong of the faith against the ranks of the 
heathen. Men and horses fall in the midst as a tree sheds 
its leaves. He breaks into the rear of their army, and 
they become runaways and cowards when they behold 
the Lord Jesus. The Prophet strikes by God's command, 
and the unbelievers' heads are cut off from their bodies. 
Then the clouds gather and the rain falls down, a heavenly 
rainbow appears on the storm-clouds, by God's mercy 
the rain falls and the ground is cooled. Then again the 
Prophet will make his proclamation to the four quarters 
of the earth, and a garden will bloom for those stedfast 
in the faith. 



LVI. 
THE LAY OF TAWAKKULI. 

The author of this poem was Tawakkull, a Sheram Marl, who 
died about 1885 A.D. I took it down from the recitation of Baga, 
a Pom of Rankhan. It is rather a didactic than a religious 
composition. 

The day before yesterday I came through the desert 
country following the track of the wild beasts under the 
mountains. I came near my beloved Samal's house, and 
found that rose-coloured spot deserted. I quickly became 
anxious with many doubts, and I sent out trusty scouts 



148 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

to all four quarters. If the King knows upon his throne, 
good luck will come to the ripe fruit of his garden. 
Wheresoever may be the appointed place for the 
expedition, let the armies come to the spot agreed on. 1 

I remember Allah and 'All, and I recognize the 
difference between friend and foe as well. Where is 
my beloved friend Samal ? She is not shut up as an 
idiot in a lock-up, nor is she in the prison of the Eng- 
lish. She is staying at Choti in the uneven country with 
the heroes descended from 'All, 2 the generous children 
of the lion Jamal Han. In the morning a call came 
from the Sahib, and the Chiefs girt up their loins to 
meet him preparing for the stages of the road. I came 
to a town embowered in palm-groves, and entered into 
the bazaar of Dera. 3 I saw a Kanjarl, a woman like a 
peacock, who came swaying her body looking like a 
moon on the fourteenth day. She had sprinkled her 
plaits with scents of attar and sweet musk. 4 A vile 
custom is that of the women of Dera. I will not change 
Samal's customs. 

Come, O my Chiefs given to drunkenness, do not waste 
your strength in towns, nor quench your thirst with abomin- 
able strong drink. I have met with excellent Malang the 
hero, who yesterday saw Bahar Khan in his wanderings. 
' Come,' he said, 'for there is some manhood in you; come, 
for I have a message from your fair love Samal, whose 
eyes are red with weeping and distress.' 

So I paid my salutation at the Shrine of Sarwar the 
Sultan. 5 

1 This passage is very obscure. 

2 That is with the AlianI Legharis of Choti. 

3 The town meant is Dera Ghazi Khan, which is surrounded by groves 
of date-palms. 

4 Line 29 is unintelligible. 

5 That is to say he started from the low country of Dera Ghazi Khan 
and Choti for the Marl hill country by the Pass of Sakhi Sarwar, visiting 
the Shrine there on the way. The saint is generally spoken of as Sultan. 



And Legends of Saints. 149 



LVII. 

THE PROPHET MOSES AND SULTAN ZUMZUM, AND 
OTHER TALES OF MOSES. 

The following poem is compiled from two versions, one dictated 
to me in 1893 by Baga Dom of Rankhan (a\ and the other taken 
down by Mr. Mayer (Baloch Classics, p. 31) (). Both versions 
are defective, (a) omitting lines 4-11, 20, 21, 25-30, 44-47, and 50-55, 
while (b) does not contain lines 17-19, 22-24, 34~39> and the long 
passage 60-77, describing Sultan Zumzum's sufferings after death. 
Even this description of the tortures of the Inferno is evidently 
imperfect, as only two classes of offenders are mentioned, viz. : 
women who have slain their children and men who have led their 
brethren's wives astray. 

The Prophet Musa or Moses is made the medium for conveying 
the admonitions of the deceased Sultan Zumzum. Musa figures 
in many narratives current among Musalmans generally, in which 
the workings of Providence are illustrated. These are often variants 
of that given in the Qur-dn (Ch. XVIII. 59-81), in which Al-Khidr 
conveys instruction to Musa by various acts not easily understood 
by him. A similar tale will be found in Alif Laila (Lane's Arabian 
Nights, II. 577). The three stories which follow the poem are 
of this description. The original texts are not given here, but 
will be found in my Balochi Text-book (Lahore, 1891), stories 
XXVIII.-XXX. 

LVII. 

The Lord Moses loved to wander about the country, 
and once while on a hunting expedition he saw a skull 
lying in a desert place. Black-headed worms had taken 
up their abode beneath the ears, the sockets of the eyes 
were full of earth and filth, and the hollows of the nostrils 
were full of fine dust, and the dried-up teeth had dropped 
out of the fair mouth. The Lord Moses put up a prayer 
to the Holy Lord. ' Grant a petition of mine, Oh Lord. 
My request is this ; give back his breath to this thy 
slave of earth.' By Allah's command, life came into 
that old head, and Moses then questioned the old head. 



150 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

Seven times did that bony skull fail to reply, but the 
eighth time the bony skull spoke. 

Stand thou there, my lord, I have something to tell 
to thee. 

I was a king, Sultan Zumzum was my name ; I was 
a king, but I was blind in my rule, tyrannical and violent 
to the poor. I had wealth beyond that of Qarun. 1 My 
cattle were more than any of my people possessed ; I 
had as many herdsmen as the people had cattle. Thou 
hast a herd of three thousand 2 camels, but I had three 
thousand male camels fit for lading ; three thousand 
young men rode in my company, every one of them 
with golden rings in his ears. As many as all thy 
followers are drank of my cup (or ten thousand men 
drank of my cup every evening) when my loud drums 
sounded forth ; I had three hundred fair women as my 
concubines, all their clothes studded with jewels and 
pearls, and two thousand men were my slaves bound to 
my glory. Five hundred hounds I had and seven hundred 
hawks and falcons. They used to spread out mattrasses 
and race the horses on them, for the dust flew up from 
the horses' hard hoofs, and (they said) 'let not the dust 
fall on Zumzum's turban.' 

One day I had the fancy to go a-hunting. I saw a 
wild goat in the jungle, and spurred my mare after it. 
The goat thereupon went up into the sky, and on that 
I was seized by the delirium of fever. First of all I 
wandered in my speech. Men came saying they would 
administer medicine to Zumzum, but not one man in my 
following had with him a remedy against the Angel of 
Death. 3 Charms and medicines are not scattered about 

1 Qarun (Korah) is proverbial for his wealth. See the Qur-an, Ch. XXVIII. 
76-82. 

2 Z#. thirty hundred. 

8 Malkamith is a corruption of Maliku'1-maut the Angel of Death, i.e. 
Azrall. 



And Legends of Saints. 151 

like little pebbles. One hundred and thirty remedies I 
had with me in my coloured pouch, but when he swoops 
down he comes on a man without warning. The Angel 
of Death came with his evil countenance ; four feet he 
had and eight hands with claws. One of those eight 
he put forth towards me, and with a thousand insults he 
took away my breath. He dragged out my breath, and 
they carried away my body to bury it, and then I was 
decked out like a tabut, my sons and brethren sat and 
gazed on me with their eyes ; my sons and brethren 
bore me out on their lordly shoulders. In my very 
presence they dug a narrow-mouthed grave, they lowered 
me into it, and plastered it over my head. 1 It was a 
shock when the worthy corpse-bearers turned their backs. 
They buried my body and went away, and whether I 
would or not the Lords of the Club 2 came to me, they 
raised their clubs and struck me in the face, and pounded 
my body into grains of earth and fine dust. Ants and 
worms feed under my ears and black wasps have taken 
up their abode in the hollow of my nostrils. My withered 
eyes are filled with earth and sand, and my dry teeth 
imitate the appearance of betel-nut. 3 

For a moment I stayed in that place. Women came 
by with the hair of their heads all twisted. These are 
those women who have killed their little children ; they 
ground them with a millstone from the skirt of the 
mountains, and they fought bitterly over the blue water. 

For a moment I stayed in that place, and men came 
by with their faces and beards all dried up. These are 
those men who did wicked deeds, and cast their eyes 
upon their mothers-in-law, and the wives of their 

1 Tombs in Northern India are generally heaps of earth of which the surface 
is covered with mud plaster mixed with chopped straw to give it tenacity. 

2 Munkir and Naklr. 

3 There is evidently a gap in the narrative here, and what follows is but 
a fragment of an account of the punishments inflicted on the wicked. 



152 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

brethren and sons, and put their brethren's honour under 
their feet. 

Now I will pass on, and tell the youths who follow 
after me to mortify their passions in God's name. With- 
out dissimulation give hospitality to all comers. Leave 
me now and do good to the poor. 

[Rejoinder of Moses.] 

Thou wast a king blind in thy government. Thou 
wast violent when thou shouldst have done justice to the 
poor. Hadst thou but spoken with a tongue of milk 
thy voice and cry would have reached even to heaven. 

LVII. 

STORIES OF MOSES. 
(a) THE RICH AND THE POOR. 

The saint Moses, the Friend of God, once went to God 
and said, 'Thou art the Lord of Creation, and among 
thy people one is hungry and one is full, one is poor 
and one is rich. Wilt thou not make all thy creatures 
satisfied ? ' And God said, ' As thou wishest, so will I 
do.' With God it was easy, every man became full and 
happy. Moses, the Friend, then returned to his home. 

Then God commanded his angels to go forth and over- 
throw the house of Moses, and therewith the house fell 
down. Then Moses said to the people, * I will pay you 
your wages if you will build up my house.' But they 
all said, ' We will not build it,' for everyone was well 
off. Then Moses pondered in his heart and said, ' I first 
prayed to God to make all men satisfied, and he has 
done so. Now no one will build my house, what shall 
I do?' He went back to God, and sat down sadly. 
God said, 'Moses, thou art my friend, why sittest thou 
there so sadly?' Moses answered and said, 'Lord, do 



And Legends of Saints. 153 

not ask of me. I prayed thee to make all men satisfied. 
Now my house has fallen down, and no one will build 
it up.' God said, ' Thou didst ask of me to make all 
men satisfied, but, if all men are satisfied, how will work 
be done ? Who now will build up thy house ? ' Moses 
said, ' Lord ! make things as they were before.' And 
it was so, some were full and some were hungry. Moses 
came back to his home, and called the people together 
to build his house. Many labourers came for hire and 
built it up, and the house of Moses was completed. 

LVII. (b\ 
MOSES, THE FAQIR, THE GAZELLE AND THE SNAKE. 

Once the Prophet Moses was going along the road 
when he met a Mulla, who had his bowl for ablutions 
in his hand, and was clothed in a garment of prayer. 1 
He asked Moses whither he was going, and Moses said, 
' I am going to the Divine Presence.' He said, ' When 
thou comest into the Presence I beg of thee enquire for 
me whether I, who have performed so much service, said 
so many prayers and kept so many fasts, shall have 
my abode in Heaven or in Hell/ 

Moses passed on thence, and he saw a Faqlr standing 
there with a staff in his hand ; he was a bhang-eater 
and a drunkard. He asked Moses whither he was going, 
and Moses replied that he was going to the Divine 
Presence, and he said, ' Enquire for me from God whether 
my abode shall be in Heaven or in Hell.' 

Then Moses went on, and he came to a parched-up 
desert, and there he saw a lame gazelle standing, and 
the gazelle said, ' O Moses, whither goest thou, and Moses 
said, * I go to the Presence of God.' Then the gazelle 
said, ' I am dying of thirst, if it rains I will drink water* 
Enquire for me when it will rain.' 

'That is he was outwardly devout. 



154 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

Moses passed on and saw a black snake (i.e. a cobra) 
coming towards him. The snake asked whither he was 
going, and he replied as before. Then the snake said, 
' Make this request for me. The poison in my head 
has become too much for me. May I have permission 
to bite some one, so that it may be diminished ?' 

Then Moses the Friend came to the Divine Presence, 
and first he presented the petition of the Mulla who 
had said so many prayers. And God said, ' His abode 
shall be in Hell/ Then Moses asked where the abode 
of the drunken Faqlr should be, and God said, ' His 
abode shall be in Heaven.' And Moses said, ' How shall 
that man's abode be in Hell who has performed so much 
service, and his in Heaven who has acted so wickedly?' 
But God said, 'When thou goest back to the Mulla, 
say to him thus I have seen a wonderful sight in God's 
presence, a hundred camels passed through the eye of 
a needle. He will not believe it, but will say that it 
is false, wherefore his abode has been fixed in Hell. 
Then say the same to the Faqlr, and he will believe it, 
wherefore his abode is in Heaven, because the Mulla 
will not believe and the Faqlr will believe/ Then 
Moses said, ' I saw a lame gazelle, who is dying from 
a three-years' drought, and he asks that by God's mercy 
it may rain and he may drink water/ And God said, 
'Tell that gazelle that it will rain in the seventh year, 
and then he may drink/ Then Moses told about the 
snake, and God said, ' Tell that snake that, in a certain 
place, there dwells a goatherd, living alone with his 
mother; he may go and bite that goatherd/ 

When Moses the Friend returned he saw the snake 
sitting there coiled up, and the snake asked for his news, 
and Moses said, 'Thou hast permission to bite a goat- 
herd who dwells in a certain place/ 

Then he passed on, and perceived the lame gazelle, 
and he told him how God had said, ' It will rain in the 



And Legends of Saints. 155 

seventh year, and then thou mayest drink.' Then the 
gazelle sprang into the air with joy, crying out, ' There 
is still a God, there is still a God.' And at that moment 
the rain fell, and the gazelle drank. 

Then he passed on, and he saw the Faqlr standing, 
who asked him his news, and Moses said, 'Before I 
give thee the news, I must tell thee of a wonderful 
thing I have seen.' The Faqlr said, 'What wonder 
hast thou seen?' Moses said, 'I saw a hundred laden 
camels pass through one needle's eye.' The Faqlr said, 
'Thou sawest a hundred camels pass through a needle's 
eye, but if God should lift up the whole universe and 
cause it to pass through the needle's eye, is it not in 
his power?' Then Moses said, 'Thy abode is in Heaven, 
Faqlr.' 

Then he passed on and saw the Mulla, who asked his 
news. He replied, ' I saw a wonderful thing in God's 
Presence, a hundred laden camels passing through the 
eye of a needle/ The Mulla said, *O, Moses the Prophet! 
Utter not such falsehoods. How can a hundred camels 
pass through a needle's eye ? Tell me now where my 
abode shall be.' Moses said, 'Thy abode is in Hell.' 
On this, the Mulla dashed down the bowl which he 
held in his hand, and broke it to pieces, and went on 
his way. 

Moses too passed on his way, and thought to himself, 
'How will the snake bite the goatherd?' Walking on, 
he arrived in the evening at the goatherd's house, and 
the mother was sitting there. She asked him who he 
was, and he said he was her guest. She pulled out a 
piece of palm-leaf matting and gave it to him to sit on. 
He sat down on the mat, and in the evening the goat- 
herd came home with his flock of goats, and called to 
his mother, 'Bring out some fire, I have seen a snake.' 
She took out some fire, and then Moses saw him bring 
in a snake which he had killed. Moses said, ' Bring me 



156 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

that snake and let me see what sort of snake it is/ 
When he had brought the snake, Moses saw that it was 
that very snake to which he had given the message. 
Moses passed the night there, and the goatherd gave 
him bread, milk and food. 

In the morning Moses went to the Divine Presence 
and said, ' O Lord ! Thou gavest permission to that snake 
to bite the goatherd, and now the goatherd has killed the 
snake. Why is this ? ' God said, ' The days of that snake 
were accomplished, it was appointed that he should die 
by that goatherd's hand, and I sent him there because 
his time was fulfilled.' 

Then Moses said, 'O Lord! By thy order I told the 
lame gazelle that rain would fall in the seventh year, 
but thou madest me a liar, for it rained that very moment.' 
God said, ' I was pleased because the gazelle was happy 
and repeated my name and still kept his trust in me ; 
wherefore I caused the rain to fall. And the abode of 
the Mulla which I first said should be in Hell I have 
now made in Heaven for this cause. When he broke 
his bowl a drop from it fell into the mouth of a thirsty 
ant. On account of that ant's blessing the Mulla's abode 
will be in Heaven.' 

LVII. (c). 

MOSES, THE HORSEMAN, THE CARPENTER AND 

THE OLD MAN. 

One day Moses the Friend of God was walking along 
and sat down by a well, and washed his face and hands, 
intending to say his prayers. Looking back he saw a 
horseman come to the well, tie up his horse and lay down 
his weapons. Then he untied from his girdle a purse con- 
taining a thousand rupees and laid it down, took off his 
upper garments and bathed ; put on his clothes again, 
girded on his weapons, mounted his horse and rode off, 



And Legends of Saints. 157 

forgetting the purse which lay there. Then a young 
carpenter came and bathed ; he saw the purse and took 
it away with him. Then an old man came and bathed 
and put on his clothes again. The horseman came back, 
as he had remembered his money, and said to the old 
man, ' My purse was lying here j if thou hast seen it 
give it me.' The old man said, ' I have not seen it.' 
The horseman, who was a Pathan, said, ' Thou hast 
stolen my money, no one else has been here. I will not 
let thee go, give me my money.' The old man said, ' I 
know nothing of it.' Then the Pathan drew his sword 
and struck the old man on the neck, so that his head 
flew off. When he had killed the old man the Pathan 
mounted and rode away. Moses the Friend saw this 
sight, and went to God and said, ' I have seen a strange 
thing,' and he related the whole story. Then God 
answered and said, 'The grandfather of the carpenter 
who took the money built a house for the Pathan's 
grandfather. His wages amounted to a thousand rupees, 
which the Pathan's grandfather did not pay. Now I 
have given him back his due. But the grandfather of 
the old man, whom the Pathan killed, had killed the 
Pathan's great-grandfather, so the price of his blood was 
still due by the old man, and I have recovered that 
blood from him. I have done justice to both this day.' 



LVIII. 

THE ASCENT OF THE PROPHET TO HEAVEN. 

This version of the legend of the Mi'raj or mystical visit of Muhammad 
to Heaven does not, as far as I know,_exist in metrical form, but as 
it is of considerable interest and illustrates the purely anthropomorphic 
form that such narratives assume among the Baloches as well as 
among other uncultured races, I give it here in prose form as I 
took it down from the dictation of Ghulam Muhammad Balacha.nl 
in 1884. It has not been published hitherto. 



158 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

On the day on which the Holy Apostle of God ascended 
to! Heaven in the Mi'raj, the Angel of Inspiration (Wahl, 
i.e. Gabriel) carried him up, and he passed above the seven 
heavens. Then the Angel said, ' I may go no further, my 
wings will burn.' Then the Saint Dastglr the King, whom 
they call Hazrat Plr, 1 came and gave him his shoulder. 
The Prophet set his foot on the shoulder and went up. 
Then the Holy Prophet gave this command to Dastglr 
Badshah, 'My feet rest upon thee, and thy feet shall 
rest upon all other Plrs.' 

He went on and met a tiger standing in the way. 
When the tiger opened its mouth wide, the Prophet drew 
the ring from his finger and put it into the tiger's mouth. 
And now, as he went on, and presented himself for his 
Mi'raj, God gave this order, ' Put up a sheet between us, 
as a curtain.' The sheet was put up ; God was on one 
side, and the Apostle of God on the other. Then God 
said, ' My friend ! ' and the Apostle said, ' My friend ! * 
Then God commanded as follows: 

I have created thee, and I have created the world, 
the land and the firmament for thy pleasure. Had I 
not created thee I had not created the rest of the 
universe. 

Then the Apostle said : 

Lord ! I have come hither to see thee. 

God commanded as follows : 

O my friend, I have made thee a promise that one 
day I would show thee my face. If thou wouldst see 
it at this time I will show thee my face even now, 
but if thou wilt look upon it on the Day of Judgment, 
together with thy people, then I will show it unto thee 
upon that day. 

The Prophet said : 

1 This saint is identical with 'Abdu'l-Qadir Jllani (see Crooke, Popular 
Religion of Northern India, I. 216, and Temple, Legends of the Panjab, 
II. P- 153). 



And Legends of Saints. 159 

I will look upon it on the Judgment Day, that my 
people too may see thy face. 

Four score and ten thousand times did they converse 
in one night, and in that one night eighteen years 
passed. 

When food was brought in for the Apostle of God, 
he said : 

Lord ! I have not at any time eaten bread alone. 

And God commanded and said : 

Eat, and One will eat with thee also. 

And as the Prophet ate his bread, a hand kept coming 
forth from beyond the sheet and taking up the food. 
And the ring which he had put into the tiger's mouth 
he saw upon a finger of that hand, and knew it to be 
his own. 

Then the Prophet received permission to depart, and 
he returned and came to his own home. And as he 
arrived the chain of his door was still swinging as it 
had been swinging at the time he went away. Having 
come in, he related what had happened and how he 
had returned so rapidly, and how eighteen years had 
passed in one night. Then a Hindu grain-dealer 1 said, 
* See what a great man he is and what great lies 
he tells!' 

On a certain day by God's will it happened that the 
shopkeeper had caught a fish and gave it to his wife 
to scrape, and said, * I am going to the creek to bathe 
and to fetch a pot of water.' He went to the bank of 
the river, took off his cap 2 and laid it down with his 
shoes and his waterpot, and went into the river to bathe. 
He dipped under the water, and when he emerged he 
perceived that he had become a woman. His clothes 

1 The word Bakkal ( Ar. baqqal) is always used by Baloches as meaning a 
Hindu Banya, or money-lender and grain-dealer. 

2 The Hindus in Balochistan and the Derajat were not allowed to wear 
turbans, but skull caps only, and this practice still prevails. 



160 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

were not lying there nor his waterpot ; it was another 
land, another place, and he was a woman ! He sat 
down naked on the bank, and a horseman came by 
and made him mount on his mare's saddle-bow in front 
of him, carried him away to his own town and married 
him. Seven children were born to him. One day he 
took the last child's clothes to the river-bank to wash 
them, and having washed them spread them out in the 
sun, and went into the water to bathe. He dived under 
the water, and on coming out saw that he was a man 
again, and was back in the first place ; the waterpot, the 
cap and the shoes were all lying there, he was that 
very shopkeeper. He went back quickly to his home 
and saw his wife scraping that same fish on one side. 
His wife said, ' Didst thou go to the river, or turn back 
half way ? Thou hast come very quickly.' ' Woman/ he 
said, ' I have passed many years,' and he told her all 
his story. Then he confessed that the Prophet's tale 
was true, and became a Musalman. 

Afterwards the Prophet fell ill, and some one came 
and knocked at his door and rattled it. He said to 
the maidservant, * Go and see what sort of man he is, 
what is his description.' The maidservant went out and 
saw him, and said, ' His appearance is not that of a 
man of these parts.' The Apostle said, 'This is 'Azrall 
come to take my breath. Go and say, ' There are still 
eighteen years of life remaining to me. Go and enquire 
from God whether it is not so?' The maidservant went 
and said this, and 'Azrail went to God and said, 
' Lord ! Thy friend says that he has still eighteen 
years to live. What is thy command ? ' The Lord 
commanded as follows : ' Go and tell my friend that he 
passed through those eighteen years in one night at the 
time of his mi'raj, and say, 'If it is thy desire I will 
add yet a thousand years to thy life, but if thou wilt 
abide by the law thy time is now.' 






And Legends of Saints. 161 

'Azrail came and explained this to the Prophet, who 
said, * I am willing Pass in.' 

Then 'Azrail came in and began to press on his 
breast to drive out the breath. The Prophet said, 
* 'Azrall, dost thou use as much force to my people as 
thou art using to me now ? ' 'Azrail answered, * To thy 
people I use the force of five fingers, but to thee I 
am using the force of but one finger.' 

Then the Prophet said, 'Press upon me with the force 
of all five fingers, but upon my people with the force 
of one finger only.' And with that the Prophet passed 
away. 

LIX. 

LEGENDS OF 'ALL 
i. THE PIGEON AND THE HAWK. 

The text of this poem was taken down in 1884 from the recitation 
of Ghulam Muhammad Bala'cham, and it was included in my Balochi 
Text-book of 1891, but has not been translated. The heroic 'All of 
Muhammadan history here appears rather in a Buddhist guise as 
the merciful lord who was prepared to sacrifice himself rather than 
let an animal suffer. The Jataka of King Civi is almost identical : A 
stupa in memory of the self-sacrifice of the Bodhisattva was erected in 
Udyana, and it is represented in a sculpture from Amarawati [S. 
Julien, Hiouen Thsang (Paris, 1857), Vol. I., p. 137, and Foucher, 
L'Art Greco-Bouddhique (Paris, 1905), p. 270]. 

A hawk and a harmless pigeon both struggling together 
fell into the King's lap, and the hawk first prayed him 
for help, and said: 

Hail to thee 'All, King of Men, Thou art certainly the 
Lord of our faith. 

I left my hungry children on the bank of the Seven 
Streams on a deep-rooted tree. I have come swooping 
round that I may find somewhere some kind of game to 
take to my ravenous young ones. Do not take away 



1 62 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

from me what I have hunted and caught, for thou 
knowest all the circumstances. 

Then the pigeon made his petition : 

Hail to thee 'All, King of Men, Thou art certainly the 
Guardian of our faith. 

My story is this. I left my hungry children on the 
slopes of Mount Bambor. I came here that I might 
pick up some grains of corn to carry to my starving 
brood. I have been seized by this cruel hawk who has 
taken me to tear me open. Now give me not to this 
ravenous hawk, for thou knowest everything that has 
happened. 

He called to his servant and slave : 

1 Kambar, bring me my knife.' He laid his hand upon 
his thigh. ' Come, hawk ; I will give thee some flesh.' 

Then he cut out as much of his own flesh as was 
equal to the weight of the pigeon, and even a little more. 

The harmless pigeon began to weep. ' He is not a 
hawk, nor am I a pigeon, we are both angels of God 
whom he has sent to try thee, and well hast thou 
endured the test!' 

LIX. 
2. THE GENEROSITY OF 'ALL 

This poem was taken down at the same time as the preceding 
one. A prose narrative, of which the text is included in my Balocht 
Text-book (No. XXXII. i), fills up some gaps in the poem, and 
finishes by stating that the blind beggar to whom the caravan was 
given was Sakhi Sarwar himself, the celebrated saint of the Nlgaha 
Shrine. Kambar, the name of 'All's servant, means coloured, and he 
is supposed to have been a negro. It is generally believed that the 
KambaranI Brahols, the clan to which the Khan of Kelat belongs, 
are descended from Kambar. 

Ahmad son of Shoran sings : he sings the praises of 
the Lord 'All: he sings of the day on which the Lord 
'All was sold. 



And Legends of Saints. 163 

Ahmad tells a tale of the King of Men, a tale of the 
King of Men, the glory of the King. 

A petitioner came and said with downcast countenance : 
1 Give me some money that I may marry my seven 
daughters. Seven daughters I have, who sit at one 
hearth, but I have no money and the rest of the tribe 
does not know.' 

'All called Kambar to him at early morn. 'Kambar, 
bring a white turban and bind it on this old man's head.' l 

'Thou hast brought me out of the town, whence wilt 
thou get the money ? ' 

'Money I have none that I can give thee. Take me 
by the hand and sell me in the streets of the town, sell 
me there, where I will fetch the price of a hundred men, 
and bring a strong mule to carry away the money.' 

The money was paid by a wealthy woman of Gauranl. 2 

'What man is this who is sold for the price of a 
hundred men ? ' 

'All then said with his pearl-shedding mouth, 'Haidar 
is my name. I can do every kind of work.' 

'Take a hatchet and go out to cut wood.' 

He came into the jungle which lies above Gauranl, 
and there Haidar went to sleep with happy dreams. 
Then tigers fell upon the beasts of burden and began 
to tear them to pieces. The king awoke from his happy 
dreams. First one tiger and then three others came out 
of the jungle. He took them by the ears and loaded 
them like black donkeys and came in by the upper gate 
of Gauranl, all the four tigers roaring with one mouth, 
and came to a stop under the Rani's palace. 

' Stop thy tigers, and the whole town will become 
Musalman at once.' 

1 The prose narrative here adds that Kambar brought the turban and 
bound it on the petitioner's head, and then 'All said, 'Come and I will 
get you the money,' and took the old man away into the open country. 

2 Gauranl, that is the town of the Gaurs, Gabrs or Unbelievers. 



164 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

'Now I will stop them, as the Faith of Muhammad 
is increased.' 

Three times they repeated the Confession of Faith of 
Muhammad. 

Then 'All quickly called to Kambar, 'Come, Kambar, 
I will take a caravan to Medina.' He loaded a thousand 
camels with the gold-mohurs (he had received from 
Gauranl). 1 A Faqir, who was sitting at the cross-roads, 
asked Murtiza to give him bread, and the King said, 
* Kambar, give the Faqir some bread.' 

Kambar said, ' The bread is in a camel's bale.' 

The King said, 'Give him the camel with its load.' 

Kambar said, 'The camel is at the head of the 
string.' 

The King said, 'Give him the whole string.' 

Kambar gave a shout and fell from his riding-camel, 
and the dust was scattered all over his royal mouth 
and face. 

'All smiled as he sat on Duldul's 2 saddle. 'Why is 
thy noble form trembling, Kambar?' he said. 

Kambar replied to his ancestral Lord : 

'When I was young, my father and mother told me 
that I was household slave to Duldul's true lord, and 
now, seeing thy generosity, I was astounded, fearing lest 
with thy other gifts I might also be sent off with Faqirs 
to wander in the desert ! ' 

The poem concludes here. The prose version adds : 

Then Kambar took the whole string of camels and 

gave them to the Faqir, putting the nose-string of the 

leading camel into his hand. The Faqir said, ' I asked 

for bread, and thou hast only given me a string.' 'All 

1 Here the prose narrative says the caravan started and halted for the 
night, and next morning loaded and started again and met a blind Faqir 
sitting by the wayside. 

2 The name of 'All's horse. 



And Legends of Saints. 165 

said, 'Open thy eyes and see.' The Faqlr received his 
sight, he opened his eyes and saw a thousand camels 
laden with riches. That Faqlr was Sakhl Sarwar. He 
took away the property and distributed it in alms and 
built a house. It is now well known in Balochistan that 
that Faqlr became Sakhl Sarwar. Kambar's descendants 
became Khans of the Brahois, and are still called 
Kambarams. 

LX. 
YOUTH AND AGE (i). 

This poem is the composition of Jiwa Kird, a young Mazart, from 
whose dictation I took it down in 1895 a * a lonely police post of 
which he was in charge. (The use of the English word ' police ' 
in line 45 may be noted.) Jiwa had a local reputation as a poet 
but I was unable to take down any more of his compositions. 

Let me remember the Lord who is the ruler of creation. 
My soul is oppressed by my unnumbered sins. I call 
continually on my helper, my honoured Plr. By God's 
command thou dost the work, man is but a fool. Fasting 
and prayer at the five appointed times are the health 
of the soul, and the highest rank belongs to those who 
are most bountiful. The Holy Prophet himself is security 
for both good and evil. 

Youth is man's opportunity, it is the season of pleasure ; 
age destroys our chances, and puts youth on one side. 
If one should lay his hand in the direction of old age, 
he would set faithful spies to spy out his ways. A young 
man would make a compact with his own youth, he 
would send for the owner of thoroughbred mares, and 
adorn his horse with harness, coloured by cunning workers 
in leather; he would be in a hurry to thrust his feet into 
the brazen stirrups ; he would saddle his young mare, 
commend himself to God, and then with whip and heel 
urge on his steed, make the dust fly from its heels high 



1 66 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

above the turbans, and scatter the goatherds on the 
desert paths. The business of horse and rider he would 
carry out with attention to rules, he would seek through 
all the four quarters of the globe, search all the camping 
grounds for black-eared bays, and strike bargains with 
the owners of highly-bred chestnuts. He would know 
how to fight with earth-shaking age, and completely twist 
round time-devouring age. From afar he would dart 
his whistling bullets at him, and the smoke from his 
gun's pan would go as far as a shout can be heard. 
The youth would twist backwards the face of old age, 
strike with his keen newly-sharpened sword and separate 
his lordly visage from the neck. 

He would hang it by green straps fastened to the grey 
beard, and carry it away, swinging for many miles, on 
his swift mare, and then throw it to the wild beasts of 
the wilderness. Minstrels at merrymakings would sing of 
it to chiefs, and kings would hear it in their palaces, 
how God had freed his people from this bringer of 
misfortune. 

Then old age replied : 

Listen to my words ; intoxication is for the wicked, 
and good counsel for the wise heart. Perchance thou 
art mounted on the horse of a devil (shaitan) or demon 
(betal) 1 , and at the end, by God's command, thou wilt 
have spent all thy strength. I am not alone, many are 
the assaults of the Angel ('Azrail). The Angel of Death 
knows no fear, he is powerful in attack, a pitiless foe 
and separator of friendships. He violently takes away 
golden lads from their old fathers, he is head of the Police, 
and his orders are in force. At that time will I come 
upon thee, when thou art enjoying thy life most 
thoroughly, when thou art wandering round with thy 
heart's desires fulfilled. Give up desire, and repeat the 
name of God. 

1 Note the conjunction of the Muhammadan shaitan and the Hindu baital. 



And Legends of Saints. 167 

Then I answered to that bringer of sorrow, old age : 
Thou art the manifest enemy of the young. Thou 
bringest to despair all those fair-coloured forms. Come 
thou not here ; when they take one of thy spies the words 
uttered will not be fit for lordly assemblies. They are 
always calling for intellect and wisdom as antidotes, they 
will not allow the joys of lovers to exist for a moment. 
Let them not stand before us ; let them begone ! 

'Azrall with the sweats of death is better than thou 
with thy catlike form. Many youths are wandering about 
with anger against thee. Through hatred of age, they 
furbish up their swords. 'Old age,' they say, 'is no one, 
he is a mere juggler with no associates.' The clouds, by 
God's command, discharge their rain, by the fixed compact 
of the Lord they give forth the water; rain falls on 
Hind and Sind, and the moisture spreads over the four 
quarters of the earth. 

LXI. 

YOUTH AND AGE (2). BY HAIDAR BALACHANL 

This poem, like the last on the subject of youth and age, is also 
by a Mazari poet. It is no longer the defiance against the advance 
of age delivered by a vigorous youth, but the lament of an old 
man already in its clutches. The text is taken from Mr. Mayer 
{Baloch Classics ) p. 6). 

Haidar Balachanl sings of his own old age he sings : 
Come my sons, with faces like bridegrooms, valiant 
warriors of the Mazarls ; do not afflict your life while you 
possess it; old age has now set me on one side, and 
I must refrain from the silver-mounted saddle of the 
young mare, from the sweetness of fair women, from the 
embassies to chiefs' councils. A man living at ease, fol- 
lowing upon my tracks, has seized upon my noble form, 
I am caught as if with tigers' limbs. I must withhold 
my thighs from leaping horses, my arms from the fully- 



1 68 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

strung bow. My hands tremble when I hold the bridle, 
my fingers shrink from the ShlrazT blade, my shrunken 
teeth in their gums like betel-nut no longer break things 
as they did formerly ; my eyes become heavy from gazing 
at things far away, my neck shrinks from armour and 
helmet like those of David. As long as my time for 
conversation lasted, I had my abode at the meeting of 
four roads, and my fort had its gates closed. Whenever 
they spoke to me of guests, I called upon the Doms 
and minstrels. They dragged out plaited mats, and red 
rugs, and the knife was laid to the yearling lambs, I 
had room for them in my cauldrons and ovens. I distri- 
buted full trays of food with pleasure, and gave them 
to the Baloches whom I entertained. Two thousand 
(twenty hundred) men came and drank there, and for 
them I cut down the sol-trees, 1 which were the shade 
over my horses' stalls, and the place where I said my 
prayers at the five appointed times. My saddle was put 
upon suckling fillies, my servants ran in front. I saw my 
chief on my upper storey, and there I sat side by side 
with the rulers ; I sat on a chair of honour and arranged 
terms for my tribe; they gave me coats of kincob and 
silk. And when I came out from the nobles up to the 
boundary of my own chieftainship (my market was at 
Marav, at Sangslla, with its flowing watercourses, at 
Gumbaz and barren Syahaf), 2 I took a share with the 
nobles, the heads of families. Now I sit and put up 
prayers for that day when my King shall grant me his 
protection. I am travelling with my face towards that 
resting-place, and Haidar has passed his life with comfort. 

J The jhand or Prosopis. See Note in V., p. 10. 

2 All these places Marav, Sangslla, Gumbaz and Syahaf are in the 
hills occupied by the Bugtis, adjoining the Mazari country. 



And Legends of Saints. 169 



APPENDIX TO PART V. 
THE STORY OF DRIS THE PROPHET. 

The original text of this story as narrated by Ghulam Muhammad 
Balacha.ni will be found in my Balochi Text-book (Lahore, 1891), 
and a translation, here reproduced, appeared in Folk-Lore, 1893. 
The name Drls is a shortened form of Idrls, who is generally 
identified with the Enoch of the Book of Genesis. The connection 
may be traced in the conclusion of the present story, narrating 
how Drls finally departed from this world. A similar story as to 
the exposure of the thirty-nine children is related of Hazrat Ghaus 
of Mt. Chihl-tan near Quetta (Massorfs Travels, London, 1844, 
II. 85). The name of the mountain Chihl-tan, 'the forty persons/ 
is interpreted as referring to the saint's forty children. 

There was a certain Prophet named Drls, who possessed 
much cattle but had no son. He perpetually asked for 
the prayers of faqlrs that God might give him a son. 
One day a certain faqir passed by and begged from 
him, saying, 'O prophet Drls; in God's name give me 
something.' He replied, 'I have been perpetually giving 
and giving in God's name. Now, I will give thee 
nothing, for no son has been born to me.' The faqir 
said, 'I will pronounce a blessing on thee, and God 
will give thee a son.' Then the faqir blessed him and 
said, ' I have given thee forty sons in one day.' 

The prophet's wife conceived and bore forty sons. 
Then the prophet and his wife took counsel together, 
saying, * We cannot support forty sons, let us do this, 
keep one and leave the other thirty-nine in the wilder- 
ness. The mother kept one, and he took nine and thirty 
and threw them out in the waste. 

When a year had passed a goatherd drove his flock 
to graze on the spot where the prophet had cast away 
his offspring, and there he saw nine and thirty children 



170 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

playing together. He was sore afraid and said within 
himself, 'This is a barren .wilderness. Who are these 
children? Are they jinns or some other of God's 
mysteries?' In the evening he told his master how 
he had seen forty children in the desert, and knew not 
what they were. 

The news was spread among the people and it came 
to the ears of Drls the Prophet, and he said, 'I will 
enquire from the goatherd,' but in his heart he knew 
that these were his children. He went and asked the 
goatherd, who said, * I will drive out my flock and go 
with thee and show thee the place.' So he set forth 
with the goatherd and he showed him the place, there 
was no one there, but their tracks could be seen. Drls 
sat down there, and the goatherd drove off his flock. 
Drls hid himself and waited till they should come. 
Then he saw the children come out and come towards 
him, and saw that they were indeed his children, one 
like the other. He came out and showed himself and 
said, ' I am your father, you are my children,' but the 
children fled from him. He called to them, 'Go not, 
come back !' but they did not stay, and ran away. 
Drls stayed in that place a night and a day, hoping 
that they would return, but his children did not come 
to play in that place. He returned to his home, and 
told a mulla all that had happened to him before, and 
said, ' Now in what manner can I obtain possession of 
them?' The mulla said, 'Thou canst obtain possession 
of them in no other way than this, let their mother 
take out their brother, whom you have kept with you, 
to the place where they play, and put him down and 
hide herself; when the children come to play and see 
their brother, perchance they may fix their hearts on 
him and stay there. When she sees that they are 
staying, then let her come out but say nothing, but if 
they take to flight, let her say, 'For ten months I bore 






And Legends of Saints. 171 

you in my womb, give me my rights.' In no other 
way canst thou secure them.' 

The woman then took her son and bore him to the 
playing-place, and put him down there, and hid herself. 
The children came out and began to play with their 
brother. Then the mother showed herself and they took 
to flight She cried to them, 'Ten months did I bear 
you in my womb ; go ye not away, 'but give me what is 
mine.' Then the children came back, and the mother 
comforted them, and gave them some sweetmeats she 
had brought with her, and accustomed them to her. 
When they knew her well she took them away with 
her and brought them home. 

The prophet Drls was very glad and gave away much 
in alms in God's name. All the forty children he taught 
to recite the Quran and to say their prayers in the 
mosque. But a command from God came to 'Azrall the 
angel to take away the breath of all the forty at one 
time, and after some days the breath went out of them, 
and they died, and they bore them away and buried them. 

After this the prophet Drls said to his wife, ' I can 
no longer stay in this country ; if thou wilt, come with 
me ; if not, I go myself.' She said, ' I will remain and 
sit by the graves of my sons ; I will not go.' 

Drls set forth, and lay down to rest in the desert, and 
when day broke he went on again, and coming to a certain 
spot he saw a plot of watermelons. He plucked one and 
took it with him, thinking to eat it further on, and then 
he saw a band of horsemen coming behind him. They 
came in front of Drls the prophet, and saluted him, and 
said, 'The King's son is lost, hast thou seen anything 
of him here?' He replied, 'I have seen nothing.' The 
watermelon was tied up in a knot of his scarf, and the 
horsemen asked what was tied up in that knot. He said 
it was a watermelon. They said, ' Untie it, and let us 
see.' He untied it, and found the King's son's head! 



172 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

On this they seized Drls, saying, 'Thou hast slain the 
son of the King ; his head is with thee ! ' They carried 
him before the King, ordered them to cut off his hands 
and to cut off his feet and to put out his eyes, and that 
they should cast him forth and abandon him, and they 
did so. A certain potter saw him and said, 'I have no 
children, and, if the King permits, I will take this man 
home with me, and heal him and tend him for God's sake.' 
The King said, ' Take him and look after him.' The potter 
took him home and healed him and tended him. Then 
the prophet Dris said, 'Thou hast healed my wounds, 
and now seat me on the well-board behind the oxen, that 
I may drive them and work the well.' So the potter took 
him and seated him there. Now the King's palace was 
near this well, and every morning the King's daughter 
rose early and recited the Quran. The prophet Drls 
would listen to her voice, and he, as he sat on his board, 
would recite the Quran too. The King's daughter laid 
down her own Quran and fixed the ears of her heart on 
him, for his voice sounded sweet to her. Every morning 
she did thus. 

One day the princess said to her father, ' Father, I wish 
thee to find me a husband that I may marry. Gather the 
people together, and let me choose myself a husband/ 
So the King called the people together and they assembled 
there. Drls asked the potter to take him to the assembly, 
so he carried him there in an open basket, and set him 
down. The King's daughter filled a cup with water and 
gave it to her handmaiden and said, 'Take this and 
sprinkle it over that maimed man.' The maid took it 
and sprinkled it. The King was not pleased, and said, 
'To-day's meeting is a failure, let the people assemble 
again to-morrow.' The next day the princess again sent 
her handmaiden to sprinkle water over the maimed man, 
and she took it and sprinkled it. Then the King per- 
ceived that his daughter had set her heart on this man, 






And Legends of Saints. 173 

and he said, ' Let her take him.' So he married him to 
his daughter and took him into the palace and gave him 
a daily allowance. 

One day three men appeared, saying that they wanted 
justice from the King. The King said, ' I will first wash 
my hands and face, then I will come and decide your 
case. Wait here/ They said, ' This King will not do 
us justice, let us go to the prophet Drls, and he will 
decide our case.' The King overheard what they said, 
and when they went away the King sent a man to follow 
them, to see where they went to visit Drls. They went 
to the King's son-in-law, and saluted him, and said, 
'O prophet Dris, decide our case.' He said, 'Who are 
ye that I should decide your case for you ? ' The first 
said, ' My name is Sihat (health) ' ; the next said, ' My 
name is Bakht (fortune),' and the third said, 'My name 
is 'Akl (wisdom).' Then Drls said, ' I have been hungering 
greatly after you. Now I am happy.' They embraced 
Drls the prophet, and at that moment he became whole, 
and with that the three men vanished. 

Then men went to the King and congratulated him 
saying, 'Thy son-in-law has become whole.' The King 
was much pleased and set off to see Drls the propliet. 
Drls told him his whole story, and said, ' Now dig up 
that head that thou didst bury, and look at it.' He went 
and dug it up and looked at it, and lo ! it was a water- 
melon. 

Then the King was very sad, thinking, ' I have done 
a very unjust deed.' But Drls said, 'Be not sad, what 
happened to me was ordered by God. Now pray and 
I will pray too, that God may restore thy son to thee.' 
They both prayed, and after a day or two a message 
of congratulation came to the King that his son was 
alive and was married and was coming to him. Then 
the King was very joyful, and he prayed that the sons 
of the prophet Drls might come to life. 



174 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

Drls the prophet then said that he would go to his 
own country, and the King said, ' Go, and my daughter 
will go with thee, and I will give thee a band of horsemen 
as an escort/ 

Drls set forth and went to his own land, and when 
he arrived there he found his forty sons alive saying 
their prayers in the mosque; so he too became happy. 

God had made a promise to the prophet Drls as follows : 
' One day thou shalt behold me, but thou must also 
promise that when thou hast seen me once thou wilt 
depart and go.' So he went to make his reverence before 
God, and sat with God. Then God said, * Now depart ! ' 
He went out saying, ' I go,' but he was not able to leave 
God's presence, and having gone out he returned and 
came back again. Then God said, * Why hast thou re- 
turned ? ' Drls said, ' I forgot my shoes here,' but he 
spoke falsely. He came and sat down, and God said, 
' Thou didst promise that thou wouldst depart, now why 
goest thou not ? ' Then Drls said, ' I made one promise 
that I would arise and go, and I have kept that promise, 
for I went out. Now I have returned, and I will depart 
no more.' And he abode there in God's presence and 
returned to earth no more. 

Note. Masson relates the story of Chihl-tan as follows 
(Vol. II. p. 83): 

The ziarat on the crest of Chehel Tan is one of great veneration 
among the Brahul tribes, and I may be excused, perhaps, for pre- 
serving what they relate as to its history. In doing so I need not 
caution my readers that it is unnecessary to yield the same implicit 
belief to the legend as these rude people do, who indeed never 
question its truth. 

A frugal pair, who had been many years united in wedlock, had 
to regret that their union was unblessed by offspring. The afflicted 
wife repaired to a neighbouring holy man, and besought him to 
confer his benediction, that she might become fruitful. The sage 
rebuked her, affirming that he had not the power to grant what 
heaven had denied. His son, afterwards the famous Hazrat Ghaus, 



And Legends of Saints. 175 

exclaimed that he felt convinced that he could satisfy the wife ; and, 
casting forty pebbles into her lap, breathed a prayer over her and 
dismissed her. In process of time she was delivered of forty babes, 
rather more than she wished or knew how to provide for. In despair 
at the overflowing bounty of superior powers, the husband exposed 
all the babes but one on the heights of Chehel Tan. Afterwards, 
touched by remorse, he sped his way to the hill, with the idea of 
collecting their bones and interring them. To his surprise he beheld 
them all living, and gambolling amongst the trees and rocks. He 
returned and told his wife the wondrous tale, who, now anxious to 
reclaim them, suggested that in the morning he should carry the 
babe he had preserved with him, and by showing him, induce the 
return of his brethren. He did so, and placed the child on the ground 
to allure them. They came, but carried it off to the inaccessible 
haunts of the hill. The Brahms believe that the forty babes, yet in 
their infantile state, rove about the mysterious hill. 

Hazrat Ghaus has left behind him a great fame, and is particularly 
revered as the patron saint of children. Many are the holidays 
observed by them to his honour, both in Balochistan and Sind. In 
the latter country the eleventh day of every month is especially 
devoted as a juvenile festival, in commemoration of Hazrat Ghaus. 
There are many ziarats called Chehel Tan in various parts. Kabul 
has one near Argandi. 



MUHABBAT KHAN AND SAMRL 

This story was printed in my Balochi Text-book in 1891, and 
a translation of it appeared in Folk-Lore in 1893. I reproduce it 
here, as it is a semi-historical legend akin to some of those dealt 
with in the ballads. Abdu'llah Khan was the Brahoi Chief or 
Khan of Kalat in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and 
his war against the Mirram Nawabs of Dera GhazI Khan is his- 
torical. The tract known as Harand-Dajil is close to the town 
of Jampur, and continued to be part of the Kalat territories until 
conquered by the Sikhs under Ranjlt Singh. 

Muhabbat Khan who figures in this narrative was a son of 
'Abdullah Khan and succeeded him. He conquered the plain of 
Kachhl from the Kalhoras of Sindh, and received a grant of it from 
Nadir Shah the Persian conqueror, but was afterwards deposed by 
Ahmad Shah Durrani, who favoured his younger brother Naslr 
Khan, the most able ruler who ever appeared in Balochistan. 
This story was narrated by Ghulam Muhammad Balachanl. 



176 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

In the days when 'Abdu'llah Khan was Khan in Kilat 
there was a war against the Nawab of Dera GhazI Khan. 
'Abdu'llah Khan raised an army, and he marched down 
by way of Syahaf (i.e. through the hill country of the 
Bugtls). Mitha Khan was chief of the Mazarls at 
that time. 'Abdu'llah Khan summoned him and de- 
manded an army from him. Mitha Khan took with 
him a hundred horsemen and went to the Khan. All 
the chiefs of Balochistan, the feudatories, the Sarawan 
and Jahlawan (upper and lower) Brahols were with him, 
but the Gurchanls and Drlshaks and the other tribes 
of the plains were not with him. Then he went by the 
Syah-thank Pass (between Syahaf and the Sham plain), 
by the Sham, and came out into the plains by the 
Chhachar Pass to Harand. 1 

When the tidings reached him that the Nawab assem- 
bled his army at Jampur, 'Abdu'llah Khan called together 
all his Amirs to consult them. Mitha Khan's counsel 
was this, ' Strike straight at Dera, for when it is known 
that the army is marching on Dera every man will 
make haste to return to his own home and his own 
children, and the army will break up. Then attack 
Jampur and take it/ 'Abdu'llah Khan said, ' I agree 
with the opinion of Mitha Khan Mazarl,' and he set his 
face towards Dera. The Nawab's army broke up, and 
'Abdu'llah Khan attacked and took Jampur, and there 
he abode a month. 

There was at Jampur a very beautiful woman named 
Samrl, a Mochi's wife, 2 and Muhabbat Khan son of 
'Abdu'llah Khan made her his prisoner. After the con- 
quest the army returned to Khurasan (i.e. the country 
above the Bolan Pass), and Muhabbat Khan took Samrl 
with him and made her his concubine, and loved her 
greatly. Samrl's husband then went as a petitioner to 

J For these localities see also No. XLI. 

2 The Mochis are leather-dressers of low caste. 



And Legends of Saints. 177 

'Abdu'llah Khan to Kilat, and begged in God's name 
that Samrl might be given back to him. 

'Abdu'llah Khan said, ' Muhabbat Khan is a man of 
such a kind that if he hears that Samrl's husband has 
come he will slay you. As far as my Khanship extends, 
go and wander round ; and wherever you find a maiden 
to suit you, I promise to give her to you in marriage.' 
But the Moch! said, ' I do not want anyone save Samrl 
only.' The MochI tarried for a year at Kilat, but at 
last he received the order to depart, and he went back 
and went to the shrine of Jiwe Lai at Sehwan, and there 
he remained as a petitioner. 1 For a year he carried 
waterpots (for the pilgrims to the shrine), and after a 
year had passed one night this order came from Jiwe Lai : 

'At Jampur live certain eunuchs, and with them is 
a faqlr who takes out their donkeys to graze. Go to 
him, he will bring Samrl back and give her to you.' 
So he returned thence, and came to Jampur and went 
to look for the faqlr and saw him grazing the donkeys. 
As soon as he saw the MochI the faqlr spoke first, and 
said, ' Had not Jiwe Lai power to do it himself, that 
he sent you to me?' The MochI said, ' He sent me to 
you.' Then the faqlr said, 'Now go, and rest in your 
house, and come to me again on the day when the eunuchs 
dance in Jampur, and I am dancing with them and am 
happy. Come to me then and pull the hem of my 
garment.' On a certain day there was a wedding at 
some one's house, and the eunuchs were dancing, and 
that faqlr was intoxicated in the midst of them, the 
mochi came and pulled the hem of his garment. The 
faqlr clapped his hands, crying out, ' Samrl is come ! 
Samrl is come ! ' At that moment a crowd of men came 
running up to congratulate the mochi, saying, ' Samrl 

1 Cf. the story of Balach, XVII. Jiwe Lai is identical with Lai Shahbaz 
of Sehwan, for whom see Burton's Sindh, 1851, p. 211, and Sindh 
Revisited, 1877, Ch. XXV. 

M 



178 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

has returned, and is sitting in your house.' The MochI 
comes home, and finds Samri sitting there with her 
hands covered with moist dough. They asked her how 
she had come, and she said, * I was at Kilat, and 
Muhabbat Khan had such love for me, that he would 
eat no bread baked by anyone but me. I was moistening 
the flour to make dough for his bread when a green 
fly came flying round before my face. I closed my 
eyes and waved my hand to drive it away, and then 
I found myself sitting in my house at Jampur.' 

So the MochI and Samri lived happy together, and 
Muhabbat Khan was left at Kilat. 

THE LEGEND OF PlR SUHRI. 

The story of Plr Suhrl, one of the most celebrated saints of the 
Baloch hill country, has probably been told in verse, but I have not 
met with it. I give it here from Hetu Ram's prose version contained 
in his Biluchi-nama (in Persian characters). A transliteration and 
translation will also be found in Douie's edition. 

The Nothani Bugtis, in whose country the shrine of Plr Suhrl is 
situated, are a section of the tribe to whom special religious and 
magical powers are popularly attributed. 

Plr Suhr! was a PherozanI of the Nothani clan. One 
day he was grazing his flock of goats in the jungle when 
the Four Friends (viz. the first four Khalifas, Abubekr, 
'Uthman, 'Umar and 'All) appeared to him and asked 
him for a goat. Suhrl said, 'This flock is not mine. I 
am only the goatherd. One goat belongs to me as my 
hire, and that I will give to you.' Then he brought the 
goat and gave it to them, and the Four Friends roasted 
and ate it. Then they called Suhrl to them and blessed 
him, saying, ' If ever the owner of the herd should drive 
thee out of thy herdship, then make a large fold near 
thy home, and drive into the fold all the goats that thou 
hast of thy own. By God's command thy whole fold 
shall be filled with goats. In thy fold will be found 



And Legends of Saints. 1 79 

goats of such a kind that no one shall know them.' And 
the Four Friends gave Suhrl a staff and said to him, ' If, 
at any place, thou art in need of water, drive this staff 
into the ground, trusting in God, and then and there 
water will flow from the ground, and thou mayst drink 
of it and give thy goats drink also.' 

Having said this, the Four Friends departed to their 
own place, and thenceforward Suhrl never drove his goats 
to water as before, but wheresoever he was when noontide 
fell he would drive his staff into the ground, and bring 
forth the water and give the goats to drink. 

After some days the owner of the goats said in his 
heart, ' My goatherd does not bring the goats to the 
watering-place as before. I know not whether he waters 
them at some other place, or whether it is so that my 
flocks are dying of thirst.' So one day he went out into 
the wilderness and hid himself, and he perceived that 
Suhrl was watering the goats on the top of a mountain- 
peak ! When Suhrl had driven the flock away to another 
place, the owner came out and looked at the spot, and 
behold there was no water there, nor any place for water. 
Then he went to Suhrl and said to him, ' Tell me regard- 
ing this water ; how didst thou bring water for the flock 
to the top of a mountain?' At first Suhrl put him off, 
but afterwards, on that very place where they were sitting, 
he brought forth water with his staff for his master. That 
evening the master returned to his home and told his 
wife. They took counsel together and agreed that this 
man was a divine faqlr, and that it was not well to keep 
him as a goatherd. At night Suhrl brought back the 
flock to the village as was his custom, and lay down to 
sleep in the fold. Early in the morning, when the master 
came to wake him, he saw a black snake (i.e. a cobra) 
lying by him. Again the master was frightened and said 
to him, 'Thou art a faqlr. I cannot keep thee as a 
goatherd.' 



180 Religious and Didactic Poetry 

On this Suhrl made a large fold near his house, and 
in it he put one goat which he had brought as his wages. 
He slept there at night, and in the early morning when 
he awoke he saw that the whole fold was full of goats. 
Most of the goats were red (i.e. brown), some were white 
with red ears ; they were goats of such a kind as no man 
had seen before. 

One day as Suhrl was grazing his goats a band of 
Buledhls fell upon him and slew him, and the place is 
called Suhrl-Khushtagh (Suhrl's slaughter) till this day. 
As they were driving off the goats Suhrl came to life 
and pursued and overtook them. The enemies killed 
him again, and cut off his head and threw it away. 
Suhrl took up his head in his hands, and went to them 
and said, ' Give me back my goats.' When the enemies 
perceived how it was they gave him the goats, and fell 
at his feet and asked his blessing. In this state Suhrl 
came home headless, and then fell to the ground and 
died, but first he had said to his sons, 'On the day of 
my death bind me upon a camel, and wherever the 
camel sits down and does not rise again, there make 
my tomb.' His sons did so. The camel first went and 
sat down at four separate places where there were Kahir- 
trees (Prosopis Spicigera), and these trees are still there. 
Then he came to the spot where Suhrl's shrine now is, 
and sat down there and would not stand up again. So 
they built Suhrl's tomb in that place. Suhrl's daughter 
also died the same day, and they made her tomb close 
to Suhrl's. Next day they saw that Suhrl's daughter's 
tomb was in another direction and not in its former place. 
Plr Suhrl manifested many other wonderful deeds which 
I am not able to tell, and from that day the Zarkanis 
and most of the other Baloches of the hills and of the 
plains pay great respect to him. In Balochistan the 
greatest oath is by Plr Suhrl, and from fear of Plr Suhrl 
the Baloches will not take a false oath, and they say 



And Legends of Saints, 181 

that Suhrl will do some great injury to any man who 
swears falsely by him. Most Baloches give a red goat 
as an offering at Suhrl's shrine ; l any one whose wish is 
fulfilled takes a red goat and presents it. The attendants 
on the shrine kill the goat and distribute it to all the 
men who are present on that day. All Baloches consider 
the whole NothanI clan to be faqirs. At present 2 their 
headman is Fatehan PherozanI, the Baloches pay him 
great respect, and thus he has become a strong and 
powerful headman, and most Baloches fear him because 
he belongs to Suhrl's clan. Many men visit Suhrl's 
shrine every day. It is one day's march to the west 
of Syahaf. 

Note. The latter part of the above is no doubt Hetu Ram's 
own account. He was well acquainted with the country, having 
accompanied Sir R. Sandeman in his early marches. 

1 This may be due to the association of names, as Suhr means red. It 
will be remembered that the miraculous goats were red or partly red. 
2 /.. when Hetu Ram wrote this about 1878. 



PART VI. 

SHORT SONGS (DASTANAGHS), 

CRADLE-SONGS, RHYMED RIDDLES 

AND CONUNDRUMS. 

LXII. 

The three cradle-songs or lullabys and the playing song which 
follows are taken from Mr. Mayer's collection, and seem to have 
been collected among the Haddianl Legharis in the neighbourhood 
of Fort Munro. 

I. 

Hushaby to my little boy ; sweet sleep to my son. 

I will kill a chicken and take off its skin, I must have 
a chicken's skin. I will make a little skin bag of its 
leg, and send it to my mother-in-law, a bed of gasht- 
grass I will spread in the shade of a cliff. A skin-bag 
full of yellow ghi and flesh of fat-tailed sheep shall be 
the food of my son. 

Hushaby baby ; may you grow to be an old man. 

2. 

May 'Alam Din grow into a white-clothed youth and 
bind on the six weapons, shield, gun and dagger, and 
carry his own quiverful of arrows, and the Shlrazi sword 
of the Rinds. May he ride a swift mare and may he 
entice away a woman #f the Jatts, and give her a shining 
mirror (P) 1 I will give thee money and the flesh of 

1 Mr. Mayer translates ' comfortable words,' but I think that azendh is 
undoubtedly the same word as aden, adhen or azma, a mirror ; Persian aina. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 183 

little kids, sweet sugar from the town, which will make 
the Jatnl pleased in her heart. She will come and say 
this to thee : ' When the sun bends his knees to the 
ground, and dips down to the mountain-tops, and the 
stars begin to show through the haze, then saddle thy 
swift mare, thy fast galloping bay, and bring it to my 
help, tie it up to the tamarisk-tree and wait, for my 
trust is in thee, till Punnu starts and goes out to the 
pastures, and sends and drives away his buffaloes, and 
the dreadful old maidservant is gone to sleep. Then 
I will come to thee step by step, I will come close up 
to thy body, and we will rest in joy and content until 
the morning star is seen. Then take thy leave and go 
lest the wretched Punnu should come back, or the old 
woman awake.' 1 Go thou back to the Rind assemblies, 
for the Chief sends a messenger to bring 'Alam Din, 
the leader in war, for there is war against our bitter 
foes, the men of Dajil and Harand. 2 We will lead our 
troops of horsemen against them, we will gather a 
thousand armies together, and as a flood we will sweep 
away our foes. 

Lullaby to my son. May God the King protect him. 

3. LULLABY FOR A GIRL. 

Nazi has pitched her little tent near the boundaries 
of Gumbaz, and the feathery tamarisks of Syahaf, her 
grandfather's grazing ground. She calls to her father 
and her uncles, and her brother's companions, fair to 
view, and her uncle's tiger-like sons, and her aunt's 
well-trained children, ' Come, all of you, into my tent, 
for the clouds have gathered overhead, and perhaps 
your fine weapons and your quiver and arrows will be 
damp. The shameless slave girls have gone away, the 

'The passage ending here is spoken in the character of the Jatt woman. 
*I.f. the Gurchanis, ancient enemies of the Legharis. 



184 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

cows have suckled their calves in the jungle, and the 
Gujar has driven away the herd of camels. 
Lullabys I sing to my little girl. 

4. A SONG SUNG BY GIRLS PLAYING A GAME. 

The girls call you (So-and-so) 1 to come close to 
pleasant Gumbaz. 

(So-and-so) will not come, girls. 

She is busy in needful work. 

She is sewing her brother's trowsers. 

She is sewing her father's coat. 

She is making a peg for her uncle's bow. She is 
embroidering a bodice for her mother. 

She is making a closely-fitting jacket for herself. 



LXIII. 
DASTANAGHS. 

The dastanagh is a short poem of a few lines, only intended to be 
sung to the accompaniment of the flute or nar. These little poems 
resemble very closely the dorhas of Western Panjabi, of which 
many examples will be found in O'Brien's Glossary of the Multani 
Language? These, like the misra's of Pashtu, 3 consist of two lines 
only, but the Balochi dastanagh is of more elastic form, and its 
length depends rather on the strength of the singer's lungs than 
any rule of composition. The singer draws a deep breath and 
sings as long as it lasts, when he ends with a gasp. 

If the poem is a short one of only two or three lines, they are 
repeated again and again until the singer's breath gives out. The 
Sanyaro of Sindh is very similar. (See Burton's Sindh, 1851, 

P. 79-) 

The dastanagh may be on any subject, but most of them are 
love-songs, and they may be compared with the Italian Stornelli, 
which are of a similar nature, though more like the dorha than 

1 This is a similar game to the English Jenny Jones, where various excuses 
are made, when the girls call on her to join them. 

2 Wilson's revised edition, Lahore, 1903. See O'Brien's introduction, p. x. 

3 See Darmesteter's Chants des Afghanis for a collection of these. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 185 

the dastanagh in form. Many are addressed to married women, 
and some of these take a comic form in describing how the jealous 
husband is to be got rid of. Others are of a more tender and 
romantic cast (as No. 22), while a few deal with other subjects, 
such as the march of an encampment to the hills, some celebrated 
raid, or the praises of Sandeman for the prosperity he brought 
upon the country, shown in the form of fine jewels for the women ! 

The dastanagh prevails mainly among the hill-tribes ; those settled 
in the plains know little of it, with the exception of those sections 
which move up into the mountains when rain has fallen, and they 
can find pasture there for their flocks and herds. 

The method of singing these little songs is peculiar. The singer 
and the nan or pipe-player sit down side by side, with their heads 
close together, and the singer drops his voice to an unnaturally 
low pitch, exactly the same as that of the instrument. The whole 
is sung, as noted above, in one breath, and the effect is of the 
nature of ventriloquism ; the voice seems to proceed from the flute. 

I took down the words of the dastanaghs at various times from 
the recitation of the singers, mostly Mazarls, Gurchanls, and 
Haddianis. 

I. 

Wandering maid, I am on thy track ; 
These three years past, I am on thy track. 
Though I am hungry, I am on thy track ; 
A pain in my inside, I am on thy track ; 
A fool in my heart, I am on thy track ; 
Helpless in soul, I am on thy track. 

2. 

Friends give me flowers for my hair 
And take my message to Sheran, 
A golden ring for my finger bring 
And give me flowers for my hair ; 
A fine saddle for my riding camel, 
A fine scabbard for my sword ; 
Come to the well to draw water 
And take a message to my love. 
'With joined hands, thy slave am I.' 



1 86 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

3- 

Long mayst thou live, my Blbal, 
With thy beautiful hair, my Blbal. 
On Mt. Gendharl, Blbal, 
At the well of ZangI, Blbal; 
O move towards me, my Blbal; 
Come to Dilbar, my Blbal, 
To 'Umarkot, my BibaT. 

4- 

My ring is on thy finger, do not now go back ; 
Thou art my old love, do not now go back. 
Thy pledge is on my finger, do not now go back ; 
Thou wast never false yet, do not now go back. 

5- 
The woman speaks. 

This ring is thy token, God be my friend ; 

I smile but am helpless, he will not leave the burden 

on me. 

This rupee is thy token, God be my friend; 
Smile but one smile, and my little heart will be glad. 

The man speaks. 

SohnI, thou dost not go alone, but with my flock of 
cranes. 1 

6. 

The sign of death is a hot fever ; 
The sign of rain is dust and haze ; 
The sign of love is smiling. 

1 Apparently the meaning is that he cannot meet her as long as she is 
in company with other women. Kunj, the demoiselle crane, is often used 
in poetry as meaning a woman. See No. XLVII. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 187 

7- 

The storm-clouds have thundered, 1 
The whole camp moves away 
And halts at Zangl's well. 
Come and let our hearts meet. 
They have chosen a new camping-ground, 
And made their abode on Gendhari (or Gyandar). 2 



8. 

O riding Zarkanls, what horsemen are ye ? 
Shaho our leader, what horsemen are ye ? 
He is head of our troop, what horsemen are ye ? 
We go below Bakhmar, 3 what horsemen are ye? 



9- 

Wandering maid, I'll be thy love ; 
My word on it, I'll be thy love; 
I take my oath, I'll be thy love ; 
Girl with the hair, I'll be thy love; 
Pitch thy tent near me, I'll be thy love ; 
I will keep watch, I'll be thy love; 
Show me the way lest I go astray. 



10. 

A fine land is that of the Marls, 
A good land is that of the Marls. 

1 Zangl's well is in a pass on the way to Mt. Gendhari. 

2 Gendhari and Gyandar are two forms of the same name ; a mountain 
in the Mazari country. 

3 Probably this should be Makhmar, in the Marl country. 



1 88 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

ii. 

There is the sound of Bhimbar's toe-rings. The trath- 
plant 1 consumes the saltpetre in the ground in the low- 
lying river lands. 

There is the jingle of Bhimbar's toe-rings! 

12. 

All the courtyard knows it. 

I must go as I promised to meet my lover. 

Whether we march or whether we halt, 

I must go as I promised ; 

Whether I laugh or whether I weep, 

I must go as I promised ; 

There is the camel-men's bivouac in front, 

I must go as I promised ; 

Whether I am bound or whether I am free, 

I must go as I promised. 

13- 

Come, my chief of women, 
Move, and come to your tryst ; 
Accept my faithful promise, 
Move, and come to your tryst ; 
Move, my girl with the nosering, 
And come to your tryst ; 
Every day I spy on you, 
Move, and come to your tryst. 

14- 

Up grow the lonak plants, 2 get ready and come to your 
tryst ; 

1 Tbe trath is the Anabasis multiflora, a plant which grows in saltpetre- 
impregnated lands. The subject is of course quite irrelevant to the allusion 
to Bhimbar. 

2 The word in the text is laung, a clove, which is a plant quite unknown 
in the Indus valley or Balochistan. It probably stands for lonak, a common 
grass (Stipagrostis Plumosa). 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 189 

Tie up your husband with a cord, get ready and come 

to your tryst; 

Tie the cord to a log, get ready and come to your tryst ; 
Throw the log into the creek, get ready and come to 

your tryst. 
He spies on you all day, get ready and come to your 

tryst ; 
So give him a push in here, get ready and come to 

your tryst; 
Girl with the plaited hair, get ready and come to your 

tryst ! 



Savl's husband must be caught, 

He must be caught, he must be beaten ; 

He must be made to ride in a train, 

He must be taken to Sibi. 1 

He must be clapped into the gaol, 

The barber must be sent for 

And all his hair taken off. 

His beard must be shaved off, 

And only his flesh left him to rub, 

And he must get him a new wife ! 

He must be beaten, he must be caught. 

1 6. 

Aunt, the boy's cap is lost; 
Let me look, the boy's cap is lost ; 
Let me jump, the boy's cap is lost; 
I am destroyed, the boy's cap is lost ; 
The boy's cap is a bullock-load on me. 
I am happy, I have seen the boy's cap; 
I am content, I have seen the boy's cap. 

[This is supposed to be said by a woman who wants 

1 The Mazarl version says : 

He must be brought here to Rojhan. 



Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

an excuse to go out of the house at night to meet her 
lover. The last two lines are said after she has come 
back.] 



Come out to the watered land, MastanI ; 

Be my butterfly, MastanI; 

I have taken the enemies' gun, 

And I will shoot thy husband ; 

I will separate him from thee. 

I gave thee a ring as a token ; 

Alas for my heart, MastanI ; 

In the town of Rojhan, MastanI ; 

Long may live my MastanI ; 

Much gold is thine, MastanI. 

1 8. 

My riding is on swift mares, 
My love is by the green water-springs; 
For a short moment I will sit there, 
I will look upon her wandering face, 
I will put an end to the black delay. 

19. 

Adhra, I am thy servant. The courtyards of the 
village are strong. Thy husband is dead and thou art 
alive. The tiger's tail is a sign of ravening, but my 
mouth is not for ravin when the marriage feast is on 
the fire. 1 

20. 

I am the slave of my fair friend, 
I am the slave of her deepset eyes, 
I am the slave of her wavy bodice, 

lf The interpretation is very doubtful. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 191 

I am the slave of her bright lips, 

I am the slave of the flowers of her breast, 

I am the slave of the bangles on her arms, 

I am the slave of her white teeth. 

21. 

O player of tunes, when wilt thou come ? 

O piper, when wilt thou come to thy love ? 

Piper, the courtyard is deserted, when wilt thou come ? 

To see thy love when wilt thou come? 

To the veiled Mudho, when wilt thou come? 



22. 

Janarl, 1 she is my soul ; 
When she laughs, she is my soul ; 
Thy head is mine, 'tis on my soul ; 
Thy head is mine, oh be not sad ; 
Thy head is mine, I am not sad ; 
At seeing thee, I am not sad. 2 
When she is with me, she is my soul ; 
Whenever I see her, she is my soul; 
If she be old, she is my soul ; 
When far away, she is my soul. 

2*0*). 

Thou hast lied to me, false one ; 

Thou hast left me, false one ; 

I thought thee true, false one ; 

Thou hast taken another love, false one ; 

Thou hast ridden away, false one ; 

Thou art far from me, false one ; 

Give me back my love-tokens, shameless one. 

1 Sometimes the name is Bujaru. 

Should thy husband die, I'll not be sad 
is sometimes added here. 



192 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 



I trusted in thee, false one; 

Thou hast taken another love, false one ; 

Give me back my tokens, false one ; 

Mayst thou be blind in thy eyes, false one ; 

Mayst thou be lame in thy feet, false one ; 

Mayst thou be maimed of thy hands, false one ; 

No sin was mine, false one. 

24 O). 

Bagi, thy limbs are soft as wax ; 
Sit here by me a moment, 
For a moment attend to the pipe's music, 
Bagi, come and sit here. 
Thou hast a lovely form, 
Bagi, come and sit here. 
Thy earrings are of gold, 
Bagi, come and sit here. 
Look for a while on God's works, 
Bagi, come and sit here. 
Look for a while on man's wealth, 
Bagi, hurry, sit near me. 

24 (J). 

Bagi, waxlike are thy limbs, 
Bagi, come, sit near to me. 
See for a while the new deeds of God, 
Bagi, come, sit near to me. 
Thy form is very fair, 
Bagi, come, sit near to me. 
See the display of pipe-playing for a moment, 
Bagi, come, sit near to me. 
Thy legs are like butterflies', 
Thy nose is straight as thy shefagh, 1 

J The shefagh is a brass rod for applying powdered antimony to the eyes. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 193 

Bag!, come, sit near to me. 
Thy legs are like a camel's, 
Bag!, come, sit near to me. 



25- 

When the horseman comes I shall be happy, 
With the piper for my love, I shall be wealthy ; 
Give me the dumb ring, and speak to me, 
Give me the ring of betrothal. 

26. 

May Mehro move this way, and may she ever go softly ; 
May she leave her husband, and go with me ; 
May she always go, may she go to the assembly ; 
May she go to the village, may she go to the assembly. 



27. 

You, my companions, call to God 

That he may bring my love to me. 

I am helpless in my soul, 

Let me go and see my love, and return. 

My lover is one of thy creatures, 

I will just go and cry 'ha' to him, and return. 

You may make the distribution of the cows, girls 

God bring back my lover ; 

With both hands raised on high I pray, 

God bring back my lover. 



28. 

Your feet are aching ; walk softly. 

What do you want with shoes ? walk softly. 

Noble is your name; walk softly. 

Your feet are aching; walk softly. 



194 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

29. 
Attend to me, false woman, 

I am stronger than your husband ; 
I will turn back from the ford, 

I am stronger than your husband ; 
I will burn your winner of races, 

I will drag you by the hair; 
I will kill your winner of races, 

I will terrify your husband. 

30. 

Sandeman Sahib is the friend of us all. He gives us 
money to have nose-rings made. All our jewels are made 
of gold, and if we have no gold he listens to our words. 1 

DASTANAGHS IN JATKI AND KHETRANI. 

The three songs which follow are in the Jatki dialect of W. Panjabl. 
They are not, however, dorhas, but true dastanaghs, composed by 
Baloches and sung with the Nar accompaniment. The fourth is a 
similar song in the kindred KhetranI dialect. 



O fair Kirarl 2 with the nose-ring, 

Kirarl with the necklace, 

Kirarl with the hassi (a solid silver neck ornament), 

Kirarl with the braided hair, 

Kirarl of the town. 

32. 
The woman speaks. 

I am frightened, I am dying, 
I can hardly fill my water-pots ; 

1 This song dates from the time when the late Sir Robert Sandeman first 
established order in the Baloch Hills, and enrolled the young men in a local 
militia, so that they received regular pay for the first time in their lives, and 
no doubt spent most of it in jewellery for the women. 

2 The Kirarl is a woman of the Kirar class. The Kirar is a Hindu Arora 
trader, corresponding to the Hindustani Banya. 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 195 

My right arm is trembling, 

My left foot is moving. 

The flowers of my breast are coming out. 

I am confused when I remember my love, 

I move the ring upon my foot, 

I am afraid of my husband. 

Make haste, I am turning back. 

33- 
My love is gone in the train, 

I trust in my love ; 
He is a servant of the Khan, 

I trust in my love; 
My love is gone in the boat, 

I trust in my love. 

34- 

Pheroz Shah, come to me here, 
My lord, at eve come to me here, 
My lover, at eve come to me here. 



LXIV. 
RIDDLES AND PUZZLES. 

There is a great abundance of rhymed liddles and conundrums 
among the Baloches, and they are addicted to composing them on 
any unusual circumstance which attracts the attention of the un- 
sophisticated hillman or shepherd. The riddles are of the primitive 
type usual among races in a similar stage of civilization, and may 
be compared with the well-known Anglo-Saxon example which 
expressed the naive wonder of the sea-rover when he found a Runic 
inscription carved with a knife on a log left on the sea-shore. These 
are riddles of which the answers cannot be guessed. They are 
meaningless until we know what object the author had in his mind. 

These riddles have been collected by me at various times. Some 
of them have already been published in my Sketch of the Northern 
Balochi Language, 1881. The rest now appear for the first time. 

N 2 



196 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

Nos. i to 5 are by Brahim Shambani, the author of the religious 
poem (LI II.). No. 15 is by Ghulam Muhammad Balachanl, from 
whose recitation so many of the poems in this collection have been 
reduced to writing. The authors of most of the remainder have 
not been noted. 

I. 

There was one good thing in the world ; an enemy has 
pursued it and driven it out. In the morning watches it 
passed along the road. Now neither prayers nor entreaties 
will bring it back. 

This riddle was composed by Brahim. 

Answer. Old Age is the enemy who has driven out 
Youth. 

2. 

There is but one good thing in the world, the cause 
of violent disputes and wars a hundred times over. 
Everyone comes and throws it on himself, and yet I see 
nowhere any wound. Attend, wise man, and guess this 
verse rightly. 

Answer. Water drawn from a well for irrigation and 
bathing. 

3- 

The day before yesterday Brahim uttered this saying : 
I saw a thing of a wonderful kind, 
It was rugged outside but ruby-red within. 

Answer. A flint. 

4- 

By God's might and power, 
Where there was no land nor ground, 
A crop grew untilled. 
By God's might and power 
A garden of leaves and flowers, 
And just about to ripen. 
Answer. This was composed on seeing an ear of 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 197 

wheat ripening on the beam stretching across the mouth 
of a well, which supports the water-wheel. 

5- 

Yesterday as I walked along the highroad I met the 
owner of a thing to be sold at a price. I was astounded 
on learning the price. See this man's cunning and skill. 
How he takes advantage of the fighters! 

Answer. This refers to the cleverness of a dealer in 
stamped paper on which applications in lawsuits must 
be written. 

6. 

A black plant which ripens in watercourses. At the 
bottom there are three-score spots of blight, but at the 
top there is a healthy ear. 

Answer. This is said to refer to a plant named thigni, 
which I have not been able to identify. 

7- 

You are a tribe blind at night, united in oppression 
arid violence. You are strong in attack, but you are 
wretched creatures in form. 

Answer. Mosquitoes. 

8. 

The good God has caused a tree to grow by his will 
on the face of the earth. Its root is one, its branches 
two. One is dust, the other ashes. 

Answer. The tree is mankind ; the branches are 
Musalmans, who are buried, and Hindus, who are burnt. 

9- 

A full cup I saw in a certain place ; a bright one sat 
down and she had no attendant. She drank up the cup, 
and then perished, so that all the world saw it. 



198 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

Answer. The full cup is a chiragh or small lamp, 
which consists of an earthenware saucer filled with oil in 
which a wick floats. The bright one (lal = ruby, red or 
fair-woman) is the flame which expires after drinking 
up the oil. 

10. 

I saw two sisters embracing, very happy at the embrace. 
There is not the slightest difference in their appearance ; 
one is blind and the other can see. 

Answer. The reflection in a mirror. 

ii. 

The day before yesterday I passed along the road into 
the town of Bhakhar ; there was a voice of sweet sound, 
but when I seized it, it was a male tiger! 

Answer. A snake. 

12. 

Last night I came on my hawk-like filly, and peeped 
into the house, but, on recognizing what was there, I was 
driven out. 

A nswer. The answer to this is said to be a firefly, but 
the meaning is not clear. 

13- 

One day I came with my filly, swift as a hawk, from 
a distant land, and I cast my sight around and saw a fine 
flock of sheep. The shepherds were wandering about 
among them ; in their hands were pointed spears, with 
which they slit up the bellies of the sheep and caught 
the blood in dishes, and at last men ate it up. 

Answer. The flock of sheep is a field of poppies. The 
shepherds are the men who go about pricking the poppy- 
heads with needles, and collecting the gum which exudes 
from them, which is opium. 






Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 199 

14- 

A riddle made by the poet Khidr. 

1. The lover dwells in the waves of the sea. The 
beloved dwells in every town ; when they behold each 
other, they destroy each other. 

Husain Khan BalachanI guessed the riddle, and replied 
thus: 

2. Far-famed Khidr, you are a clever poet, in the sharp 
tricks of a juggler; but how can you hide your meaning 
from me ? You conceal your tracks in the ocean, and they 
will not let men who are tied up follow them. 

You saw a glittering-stone (adamant?) in the ocean, 
which breaks off the iron from the ships. 

Note. The answer requires almost as much explanation as the 
riddle. The lover and the beloved seem to be the loadstone and 
the iron. The loadstone is confounded with the diamond ; it is in 
fact the mediaeval adamant, which was believed to drag the iron 
out of ships, 

IS- 

A riddle composed by Ghulam Muhammad BalachanI. 

I saw a fort with closed doors, full of bitter enemies, 
their heads strengthened with stings, and furious to fight. 
First they destroy themselves, and then set fire to their 
enemies. 

Answer. A box of matches. 

1 6. 

One day the poet Khidr made a riddle about hail, as 
follows : 

i. One day I came on my stout horse from a distant 
land. Fierce-fighting warriors caught me unexpectedly 
on the waste. I urged on my stout horse with stick and 
whip, hoping to arrive at some inhabited spot and to 
save my life. 



2OO Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

And Husain Khan gave the answer as follows : 
2. It is true that you came on your stout horse from a 
distant land. The storms and gathered clouds poured 
hailstones on you from the sky and caught you suddenly 
in the desert, and you drove on your stout horse with 
stick and whip, hoping to reach some inhabited place 
and to save your life. 



There is a house built by the Creator which has seven 
doors, while others have but four. By your wisdom guess 
and explain this. 

Answer. A man's body. 

1 8. 

It is black, but will not be black ; it is sweet, but cannot 
be eaten; it rides upon horses and is opened by little 
women. 

Answer. Musk. 

19. 

The black mare is saddled and the children's hearts 
are glad. 

Answer. When the pan is put on the fire the children 
rejoice. 

20. 

Three conundrums about shooting, used by hunters. 
0) The ball falls into the hole. 
(This is used of loading a gun.) 

(b) The cow lows and the calf runs. 

(This refers to the explosion and the flight of the bullet.) 

(c) The camp marches, but he faces backwards. 
(This refers to a gun resting on the shoulder, with the 

muzzle pointing backwards.) 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 201 

21. 

Send away the cattle and milk the hedge of the enclosure. 
(This refers to getting rid of the bees and taking the 
honey.) 

22. 

What is as green as young wheat and as fat as a sheep's 
tail ? 

Answer. The gwan-tree. 

[The gwan is the wild pistachio (Pistacia Khinjuk], 
which is one of the few green trees found in the Sulaiman 
Hills. The berry is much esteemed by Baloches.] 

23- 

A few hired servants of strange forms; they step by 
calculation on duty and service. This army is bare and 
unarmed, and is at the call and order of other masters. 1 
There the army meets slaying and slaughter. 

Answer. The pieces in a game of chess. 

24. 

I sat and saw with my eyes a city and country without 
shade. Between them was strife and war, and there was 
none to arbitrate between one and the other. 

Answer. A game at chaupar. 

25- 

As long as the Lord had charge of him he lay in the 
house. 

Now that men have built him up he has become fair 
and well. 

With sweet discourse and pleasant speech, 

He walks about with his fair companions. 

Answer. A man who had lost his leg, and has been 
supplied with a wooden leg. 

1 Phoshinda, one who gives clothes, a master. 



2O2 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

26. 

God with his mighty power cherishes mankind : 
The prophet Muhammad is ruler of his people. 
There are a thousand men and one dish, 
No one goes empty away thence. 
There they have taken and eaten everything, 
Taken away the dish and carried it home, 
Thrown it down and broken it and left it deserted. 
Answer. This refers to a thrashing floor surrounded 
by a hedge (thdli) which is torn down when the corn has 
all been carried away. Thdll also means a dish or tray, 
and there is a punning allusion to this meaning. 

27. 

Yesterday I went forth from the town of the hedge. 

I tied up my mare in the shade of a high house. 

I gave her corn from that flowery plain, 

And the handsome bays grazed in the nosebags. 

My father is the friend of the hill men, 

My brother is a bead taken from its socket, 

My sister is decked with jewellery of every kind, her 
name is Gul-andam, of perfect form. 

Answer. This is a puzzle containing a number of puns 
on the places round the author's home and the names 
of his relations. 

The town of the hedge (thalr) is Bhag, taken as equi- 
valent to bdgh t a garden surrounded by a hedge. 

The house with an upper storey (bebar) means Marl, 
which has the same meaning. 

The corn (dan) in the third line refers to Mitrl, from 
mithiri, the name of a kind of millet. 

The far-fetched allusion to Sibi or SevI in the following 
line alludes to the white-ant or weevil known as s~iwi ; 
these are the bay mares which graze in the nose bags. 

The father is called Bahar-Khari, which is considered 



Rhymed Riddles and Conundrums. 203 

the same as baharkkd, the spring season, the pleasantest 
time of year in the hill country. 

The brother's name is Lai or Ruby ; he is the bead 
or jewel taken from its socket. 

The sister's name is Gulandam, or rosy-bodied. This 
is taken as the equivalent of the word Sihat, health, 
which is punned upon and supposed to mean sahth, the 
BalochI word for jewellery. 

28. 

1. The country is fear. 

2. The mistress is living in comfort. 

3. The little sister is ready to go, 

4. The mother will not move. 

5. The son is already mounted. 

6. The father is not. 

7. The grandfather is living. 

Explanation. 

1. Fear (thars) is the Balochi for dar, the last syllable 
of Dhadar. 

2. In comfort (bar-karar) is equivalent to be-gham, 
without grief. Her name was Begam. 

3. The sister is named Hauri (the SindhI word for 
light), and is therefore ready to start. 

4. The mother is called Gauri (the SindhI for heavy), 
and therefore will not move. 

5. The son's name is Shah-sawar or fine rider. 

6. The father is named Ghaibl (Arabic ghaib, in- 
visible), and therefore does not exist. 

7. The grandfather's name is Haiyat or life. 

Aphorisms. 

29. 

If a ruler is a friend of thieves, 
His honour and name are lost. 



204 Short Songs and Cradle Songs. 

30. 

If a ruler does justice, they will forgive him many 
faults ; but where a ruler acts with tyranny, they will 
raise tumults without anything being said. 

31- 
A violent ruler no one considers good. 

32. 

Old shoes and an old wife 
Are the ruin of a young man's life. 

33- 

He who has been scalded by drinking hot curds (or 
hot milk) will not drink water without blowing on it. 

Note. This is the Baloch version of a well-known Indian proverb. 
The English 'The burnt child dreads the fire 3 is not so forcible. 
The Portuguese ' Gato escaldado d' agoa fria tern medo,' ' The 
scalded cat is afraid of cold water,' is a closer parallel. 

34- 
By toil, trouble and pain do men become prophets. 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. 



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FOR COLLECTING AND PRINTING 



RELICS OF POPULAR ANTIQUITIES, &c. 



ESTABLISHED IN 

THE YEAR MDCCCLXXVIIL 




PUBLICATIONS 

OF 
THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY 

LIX. 



POPULAR POETRY 

OF THE 

BALOCHES 



M. LONGWORTH DAMES, M.R.A.S. 

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE (RETIRED) 



VOL. II 



far th* 

DAVID NUTT, 57 59 LONG ACRE 
LONDON 

1907 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 
ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



The numbering of the Poems corresponds to that in the Translations. 



PART 

I. Nos. I. to XXI I., - 

II. Nos. XXIII. to XXXVL, 

III. Nos. XXXVII. to XLL, 

IV. Nos. XLII. to L., - 
V. Nos. LI. to LXL, - 

VI. Nos. LXII. to LXIV., - 

LANGUAGE OF BALOCHI POETRY, - 
GLOSSARY OF RARE AND OBSOLETE WORDS, 
KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION, 
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS, 
INDEX OF NAMES, 
GENERAL INDEX, 



PAGE 

I 

62 
III 
125 
135 

161 
1 80 
192 

201 

205 
207 
217 



ERRATA. 



Page. 


No. and Line 
of Poem. 






6 


iv. 1 8, for 


Leni 


read Sen!. 


19 


viii. 35, }} 


tasari 


tasan. 


23 


ix. 40, 


khanana 


khanana. 


29 
29 


xi.(4)8, \ 
xi. (4)9, J " 


khan 


khan. 


32 


xiii. i. 


Khan 


khan. 


36 


xiv. 68, 


brath 


brath. 


52 


xx. 15, \ 


marl 


mari. 


53 


xx. 30, J 






53 


xx. 31, 


mariya 


mariya. 


55 
57 


xx. 115, 
xxi. (4) 4, 


human 
-war- 


haman. 
-war-. 


58 


xxii. 36, 


marl 


marl. 


86 


xxxii. 43, 


Sukhune 


.. sukhune. 


89 


xxxii. (2) 51, 


gind 


gind. 


93 


xxxiii. (2) 5, 


wash nlsh 


.. washen-ish. 


99 


xxxiii. (4) 104, 


mad! 


madl. 


101 


xxxiv. 1 8, 


sav-zen 


savzen. 


107 


xxxvi. 72. 


zareri 


zaren. 


128 


xliv. 51, 


dar 


dar. 


133 




Thahajat 


Tha hajat. 


137 


line 22, 


panjum 


.. panjum. 


137 


line 23, 


shasham 


shashum. 


137 


line 24, 


nuham 


nuhum. 


139 
H5 


line 4, 
liv. 29, 


Paidha 
khan 


paidha. 
.. khan. 


! 


Ivii. 19, 
Ixi. 15, 


mal 
dathan 


mal. 
dathan. 



BALOCHI TEXTS 




BALOCHI TEXTS. 
The numbering of the Poems corresponds to that in the Translations. 

I. 

DAPTAR SHA'AR. 

SHUKR Allah hamda guzaran 

Badshah mulke wath-eii 
Thl jihan khak o gilo bi 

Wath khoshti 1 wazh-dilan 
Ma mu rid-On Yaille 

Din imana sebat-en 
Ummat o pakeri Navle 

Ki jihana wazhah-eh 
Aulad Mlreri HamzaighOh 

Sobh dargaha gwar-eri 10 

Azh Halaba phadh-khayari 

Go Yazlza jherav-eh 
Kalbala Bompur ma-nyama 

Shahr Sistan mizil-eh 
Badshah mam Shamsu'ddln eri 

Go Balochan khatir-en 
Nl ki Badr-dln dar-aldita 

Naghumaneri shiddat-en 
Ma-sara Mlreii Jalal-Han 

Chhil-o-chyar bolakeh 20 

Khakhtun Harine Bandar 

Kech rasten phalav-eh. 

1 Or Hekii nindl. 
fr A 



! Balochi Texts. 

Hot Makurana nindl 

Khosagh ma Kech-deh-eh. 
Hot^ Koral awar-en, 

E ma Lashar-ghar eh, 
Drlshak, Hot, 2 Mazarl, 

E go Rinda yagsar-eh. 
Rind Lasharl ma mulka 

Sim go nyamagh-eh, 30 

Masthareh logh Dombkl-eri 

Gaj syahafa sar-eh. 
Azh Halaba Chandiyegh-ah 

Kalamatle logh pha-gwareh, 
Noh nindl ma-Naliya, 

JistakanI pha-gwareh. 
Phuzh, Mlrall, 3 Jatol 4 

Drust ma SevI-Dhadar-en ; 
Azh bunyada Phuzh Rindeh 

Sar go Mlreh Chakur-eh. 40 

Gholo, Gophang, Dashtl 

Rind thaliya dar-eh. 
Nashk-daur pha Gorgezh-ah 

E ma Thaliya deh-eh, 
Thi Baloch baz-bishar-eh 

Drust ma Rinda manah-eh. 
Rindah ma Shoran nindl, 

Lashar ma Gandavagh-eh, 
Jo-mltaf bahar-khanana, 

Kull sardar Shaihak-eh. 50 

E manl pera o rand-en, 

E Balocha daptar-eh, 
Phllaveh si-sal janga, 

E Balocha shiddat-eh. 
Shaihak o Shahdad randa 5 

1 Or Noh, Dodal. 2 Or Khan. 

3 Some insert Jatak after Mirali. 4 Some say Jamall instead of Jatou 

5 Or dani. 



Balochi Texts. 3 

Las sardar Chakur-en, 
Chhil-hazar khal Mir-gwankha 

Thewagheii dade-potar-eii. 
Hoi-posh dast-kalala 

Druh khawan o jabah-eii 60 

Path-pecha go khawahan, 

Phadh lalen mozhaghen. 
Kharch-katar nughraena 

Dast mundrl thangav-en, 
Bakar o Gwaharam, Ramena 

Zar-zuwal Nodhbandagh-en. 
Phuzhah Jaro jaur-jawav-en, 

Haddeh Dlna bradhar-eri. 
Pheroshah, Bijar, Rehan, 

Rlndan Mir- Han zahmjan-eti. 70 

Sobha, Mihan, All 

Jam Sahak 1 o Allan-en 
Haivtan, Blvaragh ma Rindari 

Mlr-Hasan go Brahim-eii. 
Shair ki sha'ran jorl, 

Mir Jalal-Han surphadh-eri. 2 76 



II. 
RAMEN REHAN GALAGH-THASHL 

Kashtagheri Ghola azh hamu mulka 
Chakar pha lad-bozhi rawan bitha 
Zor SevI chi duzhmanah zitha 
Pakhagen dal dath-ish wur bitha 
Dhadara Mirana kilat bastha 
Bangaha Lasharl phara chahra 
Khakhtan dan Miren Chakura shahra 
Dltha-ish MochI gurand bor-eri 
Basthaghlya ma manaha saya 

1 Some insert Durrakh after Sahak. 2 Or munsif-en. 



B aloe hi Texts. 

'Thashuh boran pha tokala shaha.' 10 

Bukhtaghen golanl tharen tazl, 
Ash-phadha Rindan droh-khutha bazi 

' Gwastha Rehan Syah-mazar tazl/ 
Guda Ramena gurand giptha, charitha 
Ash hawari droghl gwahlya zahra 

' Neri shafa bhorainan hawen shahra.' 
Rapta ma zarden dlgara pahra 
Guditha hir chi khenagha-zahra 

' Ma wath! goshan ashkhutha hale 
Dachi ma gwahara baithalen male 20 

Ma Hurasana jalithl sale,' 
Gohar hir ki guditha phairi 
Be-gunasa greainthaghant hairi. 

Shaihak o Shadhen kalam zurtha 
Gwar-janana pha alkahaii gwastha 
Malitha Mllaha-dawar hotan 
Hadde GwaharamI jamaetah. 

Dombkl guftar mazain mar-ant 

Bathireri suhreri thangava shar-ant 

Rind Lashari ma-buna brath-en 30 

Jag sahigh-eii ki Hamzaha zath-en 

Jag pha washen kissavan shath-eii 

Maii-deha zorakh, mazeh-gwath-en 33 



III. 

The following fragment given by the Rev. T. J. L. 
Mayer (pp. 12, 13) is probably part of the above ballad, 
which has not been recovered in a complete state. It 
refers to the shoeing of Rehan's mare in preparation for 
the race with Ramen's alluded to in the ballad. 






Balochi Texts. 



Rehan Khan gushl, wathl dost galan gushl. 

O man! bel, Gagara lohar 

Mulla Muhammad Bakar ustadh 

Gar manl Shol shaztalen nalan 

Dan manl biyar go tegh-saren mihan 

Biyar-ish tan wastadhl man-I bandan 

An mahisk-pharen nasthar gwah bant 6 

Burzaie azh som hukaie burjan 

Jahla azh shlsharen thashokhenan 

Cho manah nokhanl shafan gwastha 

Laditha halkan azh bum haddan 

Bagh bazaren Jalakho ishta-ish 

Dem zar-suchen Bolava datha-ish. 12 



IV. 
CHAKUR SHA'R. 

HotI ber manl shahi en 

Main baladh kilat zedham 

Phol mehr-sirah pha zatan 

Ki Rind chi Makuran bahr-bltha 

Panjgurl deha ganjena. 

Mlren Bakar o Ramena 
Gwaharam mazan-namena 
Roshe khakhtant Maherl marran. 
Gwaharam pha-zawan gal-akhta 

'Go ma ubdahl sange khan!' 10 

Gohar pha-zawan gal-akhto 
'Bachhl man thara rodhentha 
Brathl man thara drost datha 
Go ma ubdahl sange neri.' 
Gohar shi mahera rapto 
Kahne mehr-siran zahr gipto 



Balochi Texts. 

Zurtha leravari neshenari 

Gohar telhitha Lenia 

Afa nasiva zurtho 

Sar pha Bolava shef bltha 20 

Mlreri Chakura mana. 

Gohar pha-zawan gal-akhto 
Hamcho Chakurara gwashta-I. 
' Gwaharama manari resintha ; 
Sardar, man thai baut-an, 
Mam bagara baninde phedar.' 
Gwazh-bl Chakura Mlrena 
' Chihen zir bl tho jagahe 
Har jah ki thai dil lot! 
Tho nind ma Kacharoki joari 30 

Jldh-eri girdaghen baganl 
Haren goram o meshani 
Iman-en hamu mulkani.' 
Roshe shi Hudhal roshan 
Chakur pha thufakhe akhto 
Kha' ma Kacharoki joari. 
Dachl akhtaghant darizana, 
Shir pha nafaghari sharizana. 
Guda badh burtha Sardara; 

' E thai dachl pha chi khara darizant 40 
' Shir pha nafaghari sharizant ? ' 
Gwazh-bl Gohara Hlrena 
Cho bi Chakura Mlrena 

'Sardar/ jawab gardentha-I 
' Mala wadh-mirl gon khapta-I 
Hirana jaghlno bltha.' 
Rawachi pha-gall gal-akhta 
Cho bi-Chakurara gwashta-I 
'Phalrl akhtaghant Lasharl, 
Sartheri sailaho bor thashl, 50 

Shango akhtaghant kastigha, 
Shungo tharthaghant mastlgha, 



Balochi Texts. 7 

Main hir khushtaghant jukhtlgha ; 

Dachl ph'e havaran daiizant 

Shir pha nafaghan sharizant' 
Gwashta Chakura Mlrena 
Sardara shutha ma zlrena 
' Gohar bi shawedha ladlth.' 
Dem-datha-ish pha Sannia. 
' Logh-af manaii murdar-an 60 

Phesh kharch phasam gozhdan.' 
Urde dlr-sareri jumbenthal 
Suhvi rikhtaghen bangahe 
Gajan banindl loghan. 
Bage guditha-ish Gwaharame 
Baske buritha-I sarwane. 
Matthe Gohare hiranl. 
Zale bun-jatha-ish shirranl. 

Gwashta Mandava Jamena 

'Lajjan man kawand khoha khan.' 70 

Blvaragh 1 mangahi gal-akhta 
' Bile chajjavl Rama 

Kot gwadh-giraii marenan 

Jo khllaghari pharenaii.' 
Mir- Han mangahi gal-akhto 
1 Neri khilOn chajjavl Rania 

Neri kot gwadh-girari marenan 

Nen jo khllaghaii pharenari 

E tika ban phar gudighan 

Main gudl-mathagheii chugzakhtan 80 

SyalanI shaghan khoshtaii.' 
Guda mel-khutha Lasharah 
Har-mall malhana khakhtan 
Gokh shi Khalgara khushkena 
Mesh shi Sham-sara miskena 
Belari bahr-khutho be-ganja. 
Guda lad-khutha Lashara, 

1 Or Barlvagh. 



8 Balochi Texts. 

Chham-dldh khutha NuhanI; 
Havd-sadh phandar o hazhdsadh mesh 
Gandlm drushtal sadh gwalagh, 90 

Drushadhe khuthal Lashara. 
Guda Chakura Mirena 
Sardara shutha ma zirena, 
Charl khashtaghant baranl ; 
Chan akhtaghant chahranl, 

'Ma sadh logh jidaravlgha dltha.' 
Rindara gale bahr-bltha 
Urde dlr-sareii jumbenthal, 
Harmall malhana raftant. 

Guda Blvaragh mangahi gal-akhta, 100 

Wag giptaghan sardare : 
' Chakur, khanava kota khan ; 

NuhanI hazar mard bl 

Lal-jukhtagheri Lasharl, 

Bandaii phalawah janglgha. 

Bi-ayant chajjava shah-gwathl. 

Phadh-kizagh thara gran-charl 

Dem-juzagh thara homghari.' 
Gwashta thangrueri mardan, 
* Mathi khatamaen bachha 110 

Bivaragh gondalan Rindlghari 

Sahmentha jaren hindighaii, 

Mirzlgha mashande dath, 

Odha ki januri ma theghan 

Thara thlr-daure dlr nyadhuri.' 
Sauve gwashtane hame galegha 
Wag ishtaghant Sardare. 
Suhvl rikhtaghant bangohe 
Danze somarlan rikhtant, 

Blvaragh ma-phira phirenthal, 120 

Go havd-sadh bangulen warnayan. 
Guda Chakur ghussava brathlgha 
Ya nermoshl na-nisht logha. 



Balochi Texts. 9 

Sar-josheri x Hareve khafta 
Guda Sultan Shah Husain dithai. 
Guda Mlren Bakar o Ramena 
Gwaharam mazeri-namena 
Sohnal thaghard shastatho 
Turka gar-burtha goghae ; 

Kashid akhtagha jalte-palk: 130 

'Chakur, Turk thara lotai 
Ash tho ya hawale phursi. 
Mar ki evakha daz-horg bl, 
Hathiyar ki ma bant-I, 
Ahhi thufakh chacho bl?' 
Chakur akhto ru blthal, 
* Dast o dil wathl ambrah bant 
Hathiyara khami hechl nen.' 2 
Hathiyar gipthaghant sardare, 
Shahl yag-raheri dost-dare, 140 

Guda hath! pherithant khunie. 
Hathl akhto tak khafta. 
Hindri man gaily a khafta ; 
Giptai chi kshik phadha 
Jamathai hathl sar sunda, 
Hathl tharatha ermana ; 
Shodha sobh-khutha Sardara. 
Gwanden katrae maii-gwastha 
Kashid akhtagha jalte-palk : 

' Chakur, Turk thara lotai, 150 

Ash tho ya hawale phursi.' 
Chakur akhto ru-bithal, 
Cho bi Chakurara gwashtal: 
' Main khunT naryane asteri 
Hapt-phushta hamedha thashl 
Dost o duzhmananl dema.' 
La-char bltha go Sardara 
Shahl yag-raheii dost-darari 

1 Or Zar-josh, wealthy. 2 Or Anhiya thufakh hechl nen. 



Balochi Texts. 

* Biyar-ish, manan manzur-eri.' 
Haftaii giftaghan zong wag 160 

Haftari chandum! zen-khodhagh 
Guda gozhmale khuthal Sardara 
' Tho di Duldula aulad-e 

Man di Chakuran Shaihake 

Go tho zor-eri, go ma droh-eri.' 
Khorchhath pha-nadhar phedhagh-en 
Guda haft-phushta hamedha takhtaghen 
Dost o duzhmananl dema. 
KhCini naryan narm bltha 
Gaughae girant-1 bushkan ! 170 

Shodha phir-burtha sardara. 
Turka gar-burtha goghae 
Kashid akhtagha jalte-palk 
' Chakur Turk thara lotal 

Ash tho za hawale phursl.' 
Chakur akhto ru-blthal 
Cho bi-Chakurara gwashta-I : 
4 Go ma zahranen narsher-eii 

Thai theghan gahwarenari gwankha 

Azmine wure narshera.' 180 

Hathyar dathaghant sardare ; 
Shah! yagraheri dost-dare 
Sher zahareri jumbenthal, 
Shingo Chakur o shango sher, 
Chonen draiizithai miyana thegh 
Narsher kotaghigha khapta 
Mir mozhaghan lalenan 
Shodha sobh burtha sardara. 
RawachI ki burtha kardara 
Go math makkahen Mathoa 190 

Gwasht Begama bi bachha 

' Chakur sardar-en sari RindanI 

Gwar tho pha thufakhe akhto 

Nl bashk-I lashkarari granenah 



Balochi Texts. 



ii 



Zunu kahareri phaujari ; 
Neri, pha Chakura Mirena 
Man si-sal satar bhorenari 
Phusht pha phambanleri lungl.' 
Phalrl pha kawate blthai 
Sar-khard khuthal sardare 
Dathai pha Sahlcheri Domba 
Urde dlr-sareri jumbenthaT, 
Zunu kaharen phaujan. 
Pha Phlr-Lakhan o Lakhoa, 
Nam, Nafung o Lakha, 
Sar pha Bolava shef-blthal, 
Suhvl rlkhtaghan bangohi 
Ma Gaja banindl logha ; 
Chhut-chen x khuthal Lasharl. 
Gwaharam du-jah rozl ma-ba' 
Neri gor bath-I nen Gandava. 



200 



211 



V. 

Chakur pha shikara rapta 
Bagaeri tharae warthal 
Lahze pha sawada nishta-I : 
Dachi akhtaghan' darizana, 
Shir pha maighari shanzana. 
Gwashta Chakura Mirena 
Wa' pha Gohara hirena : 

' Thai dachl pha che kare darizant, 

Shir pha maighari sharizant ? ' 
Gwashta Gohara durrena 10 

Wa' pha Chakura Khanena : 

' Mam hirari warthaghant zahreri sol ; 
Main hirari wadh-mireri go khapteri.' 
Guda bag-jat melaveri gal-akhtal 

1 Chhut-chen appears to be a compound of the Sindhi words chhuti, 
safety, and chainu, ease, and its use here is evidently sarcastic. 



12 Balochi Texts. 

' Phairi akhtaghant Lashari 
Shikko saile bor thashl 
Hir azh mam khushtaghant jukhtla 
Shingo garthaghant mastla/ 
Chakur man-dila gran bltha 
Rinde hapt-hazar lotae 20 

' Ma chyar-sadh ya-tharen warna bun 

Dane dar-shafuh syarall;' 
Blvaragh Khan phadha dragana 
Wage giptaghant sard are 

' Chakur, khenagha khame khan, 

NuhanI hazar mardan bl, 

Lalo khushtaghan 1 Lashari.' 
Guda gwashta sar-batakl mardan 
Jaro, jaren Rehana 

c Bivaragh gondalan sahmenthe 30 

Hindian ma-thars, ser-dathe, 

Rekh zahranen whard-an ! 

Guda Bomb Langavan sh'a khar-om 

Bivaragh Khan, thara dlr nyadhun, 

Makh-om zahm-janen Lashari, 

Afo banal manah-un 

Hoshagh phinj-khanuii aptiya ; 

Nind o gind khai slth bl, 

Mulan pha khai de vail, 

Sltha pha khaia gon-khal.' 40 

Go hawen gwashtana taukhegha 
Wag ishtaghan' sardare 
Charl khashtaghan charanl 
Bol basthaghant pahranl 
Charl akhtaghant golanl 
Sadh logh jidaraiya dlthen 
Odha ma Nali-ghata, 
Shahr charitha Gajane, 
Bag jukthiyen Gwaharame. 

1 Or lal-jukhtaghen. See IV. 104. 



B aloe hi Texts. 13 

Banghava khuthen phasane 50 

Pha Gajan kilat dema. 

Bag gudithen Gwaharame 

Dasta buritha Safane 1 

Matan Gohara hirani, 

Haweri zali shumat o shirram. 

Mel kuch-khutha Lashara 

Rosh-othane burz bltha 

Lasharl khura gon-dathe 

Rinda lashkara bhaj-blthe, 

Mir-Han ma-phira phirenthe 60 

Go havd-sadh ya-tharen warna 

Guda Chakur ghamzamla gartha 

Pha Mir-Han ghama lahmena 

Pha humbo chotaven Mlrena 

Lahrl khaur gawarari gipte. 65 



VI. 

Wela hadhiyeri jawan athant 
Baz barkateri mard man athant 
Mardan hamo arkan athant 
Go sahivari yak-tran athant. 

Samaitha durreri jane 

Baz mal-bagl banukh-e 

Nam Maherl Gohar ath 

Man narmlgha ludaigheth. 

Phezdar kulle thangavan 

Nishtejane avreshaman 10 

Gwaharam wadh pha minnat en 

Rosh o shafara balaven 

Nyama vakilan Chakuren 

Chakur girarl akhtaghadh 

1 Safan perhaps stands for sar-phan, the equivalent of sarwan (camel-herd), 
as in IV. 67? and is not a proper name. 



14 Balochi Texts. 

Odh gwar Maherl Gohara 
Nermosh hamodha phroshta-T. 
Phursitha Miren Chakura 
Wath azh Maherl Gohara: 

' Dachl chi kharen danzaghaint, 

Shir dan khuriya shanzaghaint.' 20 

Gwashta Maherl Gohara 
Wath bi Amlreri Chakura : 
' Phairl ki Lashar-potravari 

Ramen-Han ghoravan 

Toda aruen khushtaghant 

MeshI ma nlra phakhagant 

Tut kambaren bhorainthaghant 

Jat melaveii greainthaghant.' 
Gohar shamedha laditha 

Baut gwar Miren Chakura 30 

Zahr-khutha Miren Chakura 
Rinden hamu lotaintha 
Pha sai shafa gobl jatha, 
Bivaragh thegha jug jatha 
' Makh na jenun alama 

Pha JatanI hushtura.' 
Chule bataki man-athant 
Jaro, Rehan sagh-saren 

Suhrav bor kunj-gardanen. 40 

' Bivaragh bil, pagasl ma bi.' 

Dah gwar Lashara burtha 
' Mar bi, ki mardan giptaghai, 

Rindan go syall jheravan.' 
Gwaharam thegha jug-jatha 

' Rind phujaghe nen main buna 
Thegha, kavochl tupakan 
Balaii, ShlrazI luran 
Bande Nallya-khaur dafa.' 
Rosha ki chle burtha 50 



Balochi Texts. 1 5 

Rindo bihan zhil-blthaghant 

Man-akhtaghun sandeii jughaii 

Balaii, ShirazI lurari 

Khohari gende isparaii. 

Jang badshahl machitha 

Rind melaven phadh khishtaghant 

Dan hav'-sadha nigerithal 1 

Go Mir-Han zar-mushteh lura 

Chakur phira bahmattagha 

Thegh khashtagho oshtathaghath 60 

Kheri pha gvvarpan dathaghant 

Charentha Phul Nodhbandagha 

Chakur khuthal Phul sara 

Phular chabuke jathai 

Phul go Hudhal qurzata 

Gwastha azh an sohren-zira 

Azh ghat garlnbokhen garari. 

Gwaharam thegha gaj-gaj khutha 

' Nodhbandagh, Rind-e, thai Lashar na-be 

Chakur khaia tala khuthen 70 

Sar cho kharabl burithen 

Chonah ki mull tror-khutheri 

SevI go ya mushta khuthen.' 
Charenth javav Nodhbandagha 
' Ma Rind nlyah, Lashar zih yari 

Azh Rindanlya blthaghaii 

Shir Muzle mikhtaghan 

Loll Muzle dathaghari 

Manan loll dathal nem-shafa 

Man whav shaghen gwanzagha 80 

" Roshe phakhar Chakur 

Man jarig nawhashi saitha " 

Mara hamaii rosh wal-adh.' 83 

1 Or nln gerithai. 



1 6 Balochi Texts. 



VII. 

Rind hawal lotaitha 
Dan chyar rosh ghobl machitha 
Blvaragh thegha drinbitha 
' Choshen na-jenan alima 

Pha Jatani hushtura 

Ki thekan ma logha basthaghant. 

Ma galwar kharan hushtura ? ' 
Chandl bitaki gon-athant 
Ma pahar gozari khaptaghant 
Nam 'jananl' giptaghant 10 

Saughand mazaiii phirenthaghant ! 
Guda Sardar wag-e ishtaghant 
Syaho-bazlya raptaghant. 
Rind kull kafochen tufak-ath 
Kull bal syahen nezagh-ath 
Taseri rikef doravath 
Phatten khawah o shaddav-ath 
Phlshen sawas o chabbav-ath. 
Guda dah go Lashara burtha 
Bijar Ramen wa' sara 20 

Go phadh laleii mozhagha. 

' Rind phujaghl neri main buna 

Bandun Nali-khaur dafa 

Thanka ghatten gvvadh-gira.' 
Rosha dl Sevla burtha 
Rind bihan zhil giptaghant 
Odha Hudha khar akhtaghant 
Washen dunya jaur bithaghant 
Janga khutho man-akhtaghant 
Tofaii damame dirthaghant 30 

Rind jatho niberthaghant 
Dah haftsadha nigerthaghant 
Mir Han, Blvaragh khaptant. 



Balochi Texts. 17 

Chakur phira bahmanthaghath 

Thegh rastagho oshtathaghath 

Khen gwarfanda khutho. 

Nodhbandagh sh'l gurea akhtaghath 

Guda Phul sara avzar khuthal 

Phular jathal chabuke 

Phul pha Hudhia kudrata 40 

Udrathagha pha Phaugara 

Pha ghatan grinbokhen garan 

Pha phashinanl badleyah 

Odha burtha ma sar Shame! 

' Shabash ! ' Bahar-Khana khutha, 
Cho gwashtal Nodhbandaghar 
' Rind-e, ki tho Rind blthaghe, 

KullT ki Lashar na be 

Rind-e, ki phar-man khalis-e.' 
Guda jawav da Nodhbandagha 50 

' Sardar, mar hawan rosh war-en 

Ki man shir Rindani mikhtagheri ; 

Main makkaheh matha manan 

Datha ki loll nem-shafa 

Panj-wakht o zarden digara 

" Tho phakhar-e Mir Chakurar, 
Roshe ma jange dar-bare 
Jange giraneri rohave." 

Mar hawan rosh war-e 

Nehen Chakura khaia thala khutheri ? 60 

Garden karabbla jatheh 

Bilan dl mull tror khuthen 

Sevi pha ya rosha khutheii.' 63 

VIII. 

Kilati Havlv gushi : sari Rind Ghulam Bolak gushl : 
Chakur Gwaharam karakuta gushl : Gohar bautiya kharde 
gal gushl : philaven sl-sal-jang gushl. 



1 8 Balochi Texts. 

Yad khanan nam Ilahl 

Man awwal sarnavaghan 1 
Haidar phusht o phanah-en 

Hazrateh akhir-zaman 
Blya Lorigha sawal 

Zir mam guftaraghan 
Bar gwara belan dileghan 

O salatl bradharan, 
Mangeha Rinda pha Bompur 

Kech baghe Makuran 10 

Masthareh logh Dombkl-en 

Mail Balochi manahan. 2 
Rind LasharT awar-en 

Tran bastha-ish pha-wathan ; 
'Biyaeth shedha biladun 

Biluri giyaferi ulkahari 
Jo mltafa bi-katun 

Bahr-khanuri bi pha wathan 
Go raji rana khadh ma lekun.' 

Biyakhtan dan logha gidhan 20 

Hukm tonden nakhlfan 

Nokh khuthantesh adiman 3 
'Bozhe 4 borari baraghena 

KotavanI andara 
Saj- 5 khane bazeri bihanan 

Nuh-hazarl markhavari 
Biyare bagah girdaghena 

Azh Nali-khaur dafa.' 
Gwankh-jatha jodhan bi khadari 

'Er-khafeth azh chajuan 30 

Khashe gall o palanga 

Jhul suhreri kamalan 
Bauf morbanden lihefah 

Hingaloen manjavan 6 

1 Or sarlam khan. 2 Or meravan. 3 Or nokhutha cho an ziman. 

4 Or khashe. 5 Or zen. 6 Or manjalan. 



Balochi Texts. 19 

Sikkavo tasan bijore 

Makurani kadahan 
Chakur e deh na nindl 

Ro wathl diren amilan.' 
Phoshitha Rindari wathl dlr 

Pha khawah o shaddavan 40 

Daz-gula gozan malan 

Hoi go dantl zrihan 
Phadh lalen mozhaghan 

Khakhtathant x go doravah. 
Dhadar o Sevi gipta 

Dan Jhal o Nllaha dafa, 
Habb, Phab, Moh, 2 Mall, 

Dan Nail an zima, 
Gaj shahra bastaghena 

Dan Maragaho deha, 50 

Sangar o khoh Sulema 

Giptaghan sher-naran 
Sang Mundahi dhanlya 

Dan dath bl Methira ; 
Baghchaeh Kacho sima 

Dan Dharl o Bhanara ; 
Nangaren Bijar thegha 

Jam Sulemana lura. 
Gohar bautl ki akhta 

Azh wathl mal sara 60 

Girdaghen bagafi dinani 

Gwazh * Malik gind sara 
Mal mam othiya bag-en 

Hande phedare manan.' 
Chakura dlr-zanaghena 

Gwash bi durreri Gohara 
' Nind ma Shoran joan 3 

Kacharaka phalawa, 
Hemina baga bi-chare 

1 Or Kasathant. 2 Or Mol. 3 Or Baravo Shoran Joan. 



2O Balochi Texts. 

Nind be-andeshagha.' 70 

Roshe azh Gwaharam shahra 

Raftaghant kharde chariari 
Baraghen boran zawar-ant 

Pha shikar o sailaha ; 
Hir khushtant jukhtaghiya 

Phar 1 wathl laf-seriha 
Mehrava thekan khawathant 

Go badheri kirdaraghari ; 
Raj bundathant hazari 

Azh du-deml zianeha 80 

Shingura Gwaharam thegha 

Shangura Mir Chakura 
Phllaveri si-sal Jang ath 

Gohara hir phadha. 
Sar-galol baithaghanti ^ 

Nesh rikhtant azh dafa. j 
Mara di ekhava di ishta 3 

Pha Hudhal asura 
Shash mushti pha badhlghan 

Zahara phedhawara. 90 

Dard Brahimi Hasana 

Khashtathish go Chakura 
Guda Sultane Balocha 

Sahl khutha bi pha-wathah 
Chakur azh brathi qasura 

Gwastha Sateiigarha. 
Pardawa rakhe Ilahl 

Manavo gudl tura 
Rind Lasharl waryameh 

Hon-ber lotagha. 100 

1 Or azh. 

2 Or Dathaghanti sar-galoi 

Nesh khashtant azh dafa. 

1 he last line also reads Nesh drushtant man dafa. 
8 Or Raj khishti evakhlgha. 






Balochi Texts. 21 



IX. 

Nodh Bahram gushl : jaren RashkanI Baloch gushl : 
imar Bulmat Kalmat karakuta gushl : baghar bautia 
gush!. 

Whazh-gushen Lori biyar wathi shaghar 
Ma-sara chareri bairame paghar 
Jawari mard datara gire dadha. 

Zl azh Sannia giyafena 
Laditha durren Gohara shodha. 
Akhtagha bautl gwara Mlra. 
Chakura ShirazI gawhar-zira 
Gohara durrena hawar datha 
' Bagavo Mllaha avur dan-en 

Go ma Lasharl jherave man-en.' 10 

Gohara lade sar-jamagh dashta 
Dasta Gohar man Kacharak nyastha. 
Raptaghant Shorana phare saila 
Chakura MM bandane shahra. 

* Ma thashun dan baghchaen Gaja.' 
Gohar dachl ma beghava dahzant 
Maigha shir dan nafaghaii shanzant 
Chakura phurs azh Melaven jata 

* Zith khan jat, dai manan hala 

Cho khutha khai go Gohara mala?' 20 
Cho jawab datha melaven jata 
' Akhtagha Lasharl phara chahra 1 

Guditha hir cho khenagha zahra.' 2 
Chham-jatha durr-goshen Maherlya 
'Jat, hame gale bile sherlya 
Phuturen Rind ma deravan druah-ant 
DachT pha hiran hardame zahant.' 

1 Or hame chindri. 2 Or mardl. 



22 Balochi Texts. 

Badh burtha Rehana Nawavena 

Phuzh Jarava jaur-jawavena 

' Ma phara durren Gohara hiran 30 

Havbara shamalo janun shirari 
Shart khanun haisl chotava biran.' 

Bagar Jatol jawab datha 

' Bakhu-ari durren Gohara Samml 
Hota pha bautah niyath khami.' 

Shah Husain cherava rosha 1 

Bibarl phesha nishta ma logha 

Dar-shutha 2 baghar azha geda 

Chhoravari ilga bokhta pha dlma 3 

Gur-khanana dan 4 medhira logha 40 

Dema dar-khapta mardume jawaneri 

Sharr kalanch-ant cho dushtagheh shlra 

Dholant oshlshe kalalyan 

Bibarl gal-akhta mazeri shaneh 

Kiamaha minnate khuAal bazen 

' Chhoravan baghar bil, manl shameri 
I-katar mara phar wathi nameri.' 

Na-janen joraejaveri jatan 

Chhoravan baghar khushta pha latan. 

Qdh niyadh logha sammaveh salo 50 

Dast-kaullya phijatha darihl 

Hot azh miran! dara akhta 

Bibarl gal-akhta mazeh shanen 

' Agh tha pha baghar na khuth khal 5 
Man thai bhen, tho man! bhai.' 

Suriha pha dema jawab datha 
' O amul-maih, sabr khane gona 
Ya-bare bosht, gal maya go-ma, 
Man phara baghara khanun chona 
An dighar shahmi blth azh hona 6 60 

1 Or Kalmatiani rohav rosha. 2 Or Dar-khafi. 

3 Or Chhoravan irgara phara dlma. 4 Or ma. 

5 Or na-ro bai. 6 Or phur hona. 



Balochi Texts. 23 

Shingura shast, shangura phanjah 
Drust phar baghara blthagha yag-jah.' 

Omara nashke ishta pha kaula 

Hongireii Balacha phara hona 

Suriha Doda phara gokhan. 66 



X. 

KALMATf SHA'AR 

Bor Kalmatlyan basthaghan 
Sher manaha ahizaghan 
Moth, gur, shir warant 
Gokhl zhalokheri roghana. 
Bag-jato khakhtah rasthagha 
But o karai sisthagha ; 
Ahin ki odha dashtaghan 
Khadan pha rashev dlthaghan 
Hone ki anzi grethaghan 
Shara kataka giptaghan, 10 

Jalu ki jodhan blthaghan 
Jodhan go arlfa phithan 
Brathan sauleri phusaghah. 
Bagan bala zurtha shume 
Bagari haren gorame 
Meshan chulumb padheri buzari 
Meh! go mashkeri mahighan. 
Mir Hot tumana zahr khutha 
' Algh shutho khargazari 

Kalmatiyanie janan 20 

Bagan bigar trakoraghe 

Be bal jame jokahe 

Nelan ki honT-izh barant.' 
Tratan lakorl basthaghun 
Phidhaii bihan bal-dathaghuri, 
Slma Wakavl gwasthaghun 



24 Balochi Texts. 



Go duzhmana gon-khaptaghun ; 
Gwahkhe manari belan jatha 
Tuta miskanl Sahak, 

' Dasta jaghar-buran janeth 30 

Mizirl mazari-tape lurari 
Ginduri Hudha chona khan ' 
Shal mele phirenthaghan 
Bag Bulfata gardenthaghan 
Hon-ish phithanl giptaghan. 35 



XL 

GWAHARAM TO CHAKUR, i. VERSION A. 
Gwaharam gushl ; hawan rosha ki Mir Han khushta. 

Ma mukabil bun brahnaghen daiie 

Gor-char o pattl mulakat-ah 

Ya-sara biyayan Rind o Dombakl 

Bhanjar o JatoT tana'-wanl 

Rind khakhtan go mozhaghl phadhan 

Amsara thlhanl bi-er-rikhtari 

Azh hamu halka hon wathi giptal 

Khushtal namena Malik Mir Han. 

Chakur shabe azh-gura bokhtal 

Dathal daz-late phara gokhan 10 

Slrmughe gwameshan bi-charem. 

Than-gura Rehan o Safar gurden 

Ahmad go Kaloa sahavena, 

Chi shal ranj-ath o nawath-rlshan ? 

Raj pha Bheniya charentho, 

Dast-atho Bingopur hazar-ganjeri, 

Dost ma lalen manjava hand-ath ! 

MalimI hona be-gunasena 

Han Gwaharama kanjukhan bastha 

Mai pha Milaha zhalangentha. 20 



Balochi Texts. 25 



GWAHARAM TO CHAKUR, i. VERSION B. 

Gwaharam Nodhbandagh Lasharl gush! : Rinde Lasharl 
karakutari gushl. 

Waspaii jawanari mulk Balochani 

Savzant Mllahe dave syah-jo 

Gor-charo dananl mullan khatan 1 

Har phithe waqte klava khakhtan 

Go kunaranl phakaghen wangari. 

Man nazar jadh pha rakhtagheh chhaman 

Azh mano dema Roshtume rustha 

Chakur o HaranI naryan zongeri 

Rajie azh beniya 2 bigardentha 

Khoh saro ghatafi bi tapentha 10 

Drapo Rindari baraghen boran 

Che shawar ranj-ath, o nawath-rlshan ? 

Gonathe Bingav phur 3 hazar ganjeh 

Chetarvo shahl pattan o bazar. 

Shal dost man marlyan athan lalen 

Gardagar 4 minnate man lotari 

Khawind bajanl baladh bathah. 

Yag-sadhe dath, dah-sadh omedhen. 

Manan omedh khapar rej-en 

Asaro omedh niyath choshen. 20 

Ya-sara khaiyan 5 Rind o Dombakl 

Banara Jatol thanavanl 

Haqq avo halka a-burtha chonan 

MalamI hona be-gunaskena. 

Chakur 'aql cho zanaghan kamba 

Phlrwaliya gon whanagho hoshen 

1 This should probably be mulakat-an, as in (a) 1. 2. 

2 Probably Bheni, the name of a place. 

3 This should probably be Bingopur, the name of a town. 

4 Probably this should read Kirdagar, the Creator. 

6 Khanjan, given by Mr. Mayer, seems to be a misprint. 



26 Balochi Texts. 

Sar na dashtal cho gwasareri Mir-Han 

Dan Naliya o thank-dafeh ghatta. 

Rind azh tazlyan hazarlyan 

Er-rikhtari pha mozaghl phadhan. 30 

Ma di go Mir jamsareii phauzan 

Usara thihanl bi-er-rikhturi 

Khushta ma namena Malik Mir Han * 

Go do ShaihakI blngaven bachhan 

Hardo Sohraveri ser-tamaena 

Na-sareh Hamal Kehara shimeri 

Chanar o Hoten o 2 Safar gurderi 

Jiand o 3 Pheroshah manayanl. 

Azh sari Rindan gor-khusheii All 

Thamahah sauleri phusaghe khushten 40 

Azh hamo halka hon wathl gipten 4 

Zamaren dumb ghumarl bltha 

Na-sahlya dangaran shitha 

Datha ma daz-late phara gokhari 

Slmureh 5 gwameshan bi-charem 

Dukhavan Rehan o Hasan mattl 

Akharan Khohu barth phara Mlra 

Phil Allya pahlewanena 

Pahr na bandl nishtaghen sattan 

An mazari padhaki jam zauhkah. 50 

CHAKUR TO GWAHARAM, 2. 

Mir Chakur Shaihak gushl : sari Rind Badshah gushl : 
Rind Lasharl karakutari gushl: Gwaharam phasave dath, 
gushl. 

Zyanaho Gwaharam go hamen badha 
Go Balochi isbedhaghen garda 

1 This line is corrected as above from (a) line 8. Mr. Mayer's version is : 
Kushta ma name nam alik Nuran. 

2 Or Rehan, see (a) 1. 12. 3 Corrected from Jian do. 

4 Corrected from gitam ; see (a) line 7. 5 For sirmughen, see (a) 1. 1 1. 



Balochi Texts. 



27 



Nam Naliyaho bedagha basthal 

Nam cho Nodhbandagh burthal burza 

Yabara nazentha wathl barizl 

Baedhan Rind bahranl tazl 

Malema Milan! nighor phadhan 

Pahr haman bandatha glrare. 

Jukhtagha BangI o Hasan Nodhak 

Adamo Nodhbandagh manayani 10 

Ahmand go Kaloa sahavena 

Thau khishta gorl phrushtaghen rumbari 

Roshe ma graneri phihano jange 

Azh phadha Rinde gondalan warthant 

Man maghundari bastharen jahan. 

Rumbi azh DabanI kilat zurthal 

Gin ma Mllaha-dafa khaslth 

Man thara chosheii na-jatha ahu 

Man shair pha phurkhashan na shastathan 

Phasav go changani aghazlyaii 20 

Dan thai baladha sahavlya 

Azh manl chapole mazarlya 

Thav ma chalen gozh buna 

Sar thrahana cho kurthaghen (madhin) 

Sar thahure man 'alama khunda. 

Nemavo Gaj Gujarat gwastha 

Nemavo be Phalpur shutha rulla 

Thau haman RindanI salamlye 

Topava bauren chadar jalal 

Thau ki sher baranl laghoranl 30 

Ma sara syahen ashkaran dohe ! 

Nm Omara pahnadhl gwaran dake 

Gon-khafan lalo khushtaghen mardl. 

Ma haman Rind baraghen borari 

Gah sherun o sar bur leturi 

Khakhtun go badhan hardo demena 

Khotagha thewaghlya talab-dar-uri. 

Baz-gusheri Gwaharam, jawan dil-gosh khan 



28 Balochi Texts. 

Shar safar khaii, daur phadha gardl 

Shartan be jallaki bicharenari 40 

Go kalaman gard khanan ahir 

Bern azh dostanl dila kinzant 42 

GWAHARAM TO CHAKUR, 3. 

O manl shahi aundall brathan 
Biyayanto RajanI gehen mardan 
Las Lashar Han Sardaran 
Biyayanto diwane khanun brathi. 
Man ki ma shair tanjava ditha 
Chakura gwathe ma-sara bltha 
' Chonah gumara x khaz malik bltha/ 
Cho wathen mard-an namarrenl 
Sha manah bane da roshe 
Man Sammavo Bhattian bicharayan 10 

Thattavl phauzhah ma-sara reshaii ; 
Asa pha chappoan man darari 
Asa layan cho dakhana wara 
Bungran granen logh mughemanl, 
Thosagha Dilll Turk dalekhlm bant. 
Datheri jange go nawath-rlshan, 
Rind chi jahla kenthaghan burza 
Man Kilat bith ma nighor sartheh. 
Man hawan gal gwashtane rosha 
Chakura syahen phandare khushta 20 

Chakura mardi khenagha man-ath 
Jhal go juhlafa na gwazenthant 
Sanj go Sangwatha na phirenthant 
Gurgin go wa'-rodhen damamoari. 
Howe ! howe ! ki sobh manl bltha ; 
Ma jatha chapole badhlyarira 
Raptaghant gorl bor kator-phadheii 
Har davare pha masharefi Sevi. 

1 Perhaps for jamara or zhamara, ever. 



B aloe hi Texts. 



29 



Chakur pha zendane ghame zin. 

Chakur pha juhlen khandaghan burz bl 30 

Mandavo shahl phusaghen ber-bant 

Khosht! ma drashkanl bazen sayan 

Manthagheri gurkhen ash-phadha gindi 

Baro haman deha ki guna phashant 

AlaroanI shir gawah bantl 

Man daf o dem 2 o brinjanen rlshari 

Pha Balochla chukh lllhayan 

Zal pha JamotI gal-ay ant 

Chukh sharikh bai go Jat Gophankan 

Dast ma bazen jhapaghan resh bant 40 

Topav ma bavaren chadara pandha 

Ma sara syaheh ashkarari dohe. 



CHAKUR TO GWAHARAM, 4. 

Mir Chakur Shaihak gushl: sari Rind Badshah gushi : 
Gwaharamar phasave dath gushl. 

O khumeth nosh khan thlraghe dana 

Baz khane phili gardan o rana 

Tikkaeri wagan de kumundena 

Whashiya azh Seviya mawa gardan. 

Shakhalo sarphuran sohaglyan 

Pha murade ma derava dathan 

Bosht man shazhmeha harevlya 

War gadema man hadhire jam khan 

Azh badhan khoheri thlware sham khan. 

Hakk o nahakka phadha gardan 10 

Jagh nawhashen ki basthaghen bandari 

Ma hawan deha ke ale gindari. 

1 In Mr. Mayer's version this couplet reads : 

Roth avo drashkani buna nindl i 
Zahranen sherl pha phadha gindi \ 

2 Mr. Mayer's version has ' barotan ' instead of ' daf o dem,' 



30 Balochi Texts. 

Kaul-eii go haisl chotavo phaghan 

Yabare bushkan man bazen shefan 

Jam azh bal nezaghan gark bl. 

Biyaith hawan nar ki wadhae akhtal 

Kadahe phur blthal hasevanl 

Man di azh Shahen Qadire lotan 

Sobh pha SevI phuturen Rindah 

Geshtar azh hir'-phadh thanakh-rishah 20 

Azh-phadha chukh jano Mughal rokh bl. 



CHAKUR TO GWAHARAM, ON LEAVING SIBI, 5. 

Chakur Shaihak gushl : sari Rind Badshah gushl : an 
rosh ki SevI khill kharde gal gushl: Gwaharamar 
phasave dath gushl. 

Bilah mar-iawasheh SevI 

Gauren badhanl margavl 

Jame Nindava Bhattiya 

Sai-roshari bahra negha 

Si-sal uvt o uzhmara 

Jan-jebhavari jangiya 

Thegh azh balgava honena 

Chotan cho kamandl boghah. 

Jukhtana nashant larena ; 

Warnayan du-mandllena 10 

Lad ma deravan na rusthant. 

Arifen phitha sar-sayah 

Misk ma barutan na mushtant 

Whard dumbaghan meshanl 

Karwall sharab sharr joshant. 

Shahan pha nishan yake nest, 

Drustan warthaghan hindiyan 

Theghan pharahan zivirenan 

Shartan dathaghan shimenan 

Bachaki lawar bariziya. 20 



Balochi Texts. 31 

Gwaharam muzheh Gandavagh 

Singhe ma zirih phirentha ; 

Machlya lawashta lanjaith. 

'All o Wall druh-daran 

Bag girdaghen be-shon-en 

YakI kilata be-ron-en 

Hagh kawall Turkanari 

Rind baraghen boranan. 

Gwaharam azh dude hande bl 

Nen gor bathl neh Gandavagh ! 30 



XII. 
CHAKUR AND HAIBAT. 

Haibate Blbrak Rind dema ya kaul khuthe 
Sai-phara chapeii dasta nohata jathe 

1 Har khase manl baga gon khafl 

Ah ki moll, khandagha andema charl.' 
Na-ghumane Chakur lokah lah-jathal 
Haibate Blbraka syah-gwadhani shudha 
Lachitha Rinda pha miraT merava 

* An wathi baga nelun Miral-potrava ' 
Chakura tek phalitha gonokha sirhala khudiant 

' Chandle chosheh leravah 10 

Name Hudhal man faqlran bashkathaghan.' 
Hai na bltha ki dahl akhtagha 
Bag go Gwaharama burthagha 
Rindan go zahml takal datha Lashar-potrava. 
Kamatiha Rind ; gartha garokheh naryan. 
Chakur chham phrushta wathi gudl ghorava. 
Na-ghumane danze rustha Narl Khaur dafa 
Haibate Blbrak go wathi tond phaghanl ghasa 
Zahml takal datha go Lashar-potrava 
Havd-glst Mlrall datha bagava ravagha 20 

Sai-sadh phanjah khushta go Lashar-potrava. 



32 B aloe hi Texts. 

Phanjah khushta kull kuran-whan 'alimari. 

Har do Rajan dolian burtha 

Geshtar doll Lashara ghara. 

Baga pahnadhl khuthal, datha Rinda pha mirai merava, 
'An wathl baga neluri go Mlral-potrava.' 

Chakur mushkila kharanl gushant 
' Hawan baga phithi mardan burtha, 
Phithl mardan go man! brathari geshtareh 
Akbat roshe man man! kahoa raven 30 

Bazgan na bhoran, ladhara asa na dean, 
Khai gwar gire, arawa khanan.' 

Sai-chyar roshe chachroeii tranagha 

HaptumI rosha bag jug-jaha ghasa 

Hawan mazen-neshen leravari jate Kotala. 

Chakur mam datha Narl go Sevi shahraka. 

' Bhar, Mlrall, thai savza thlragha.' 37 



XIII. 
CHAKUR AND JARO. 

i. 
CHAKUR TO JARO. 

Chakur shaihak gush! : Jaro rishanl giragh rosh gush! : 
Haddeh khosh gushl. 

O Mughal sanj Khan naryana 

Ahua sher gumbazena 

Zen trunderi Arablya 

Thank nazlkhen biginar. 

Dan man kharan hiyale. 

Rind man! khoheri kilat-ant, 

Khushtaghen Rinda galo nest. 

Hardo dema jan dan. 

Lev chitol kharoah, 

Jaro di kharch katar jukhtaghiya 10 



Balochi Texts. 33 

Gonl-ari band an jathlya. 

Brinjaneri rlsh giptaghlya 

Haddeha pha zor gipta. 13 

2. 

JARO'S REPLY TO CHAKUR. 
Jaro Jalamb gushl : Chakur phasave dath gushl. 
Gozh de, O khanden Mazldo 
O Mazldo, bange halefi 
Bange hal o baz khiyaleri. 
Drogh ma bant, Chakur Nawaveri, 
Drogh ma bant, ki drozhl na bai ! 
Drogh azh dathana darra bl, 
Azh zawana bl sharrena. 
Rasteii, O Mir mangehanl ! 
Rasteri, O Chakur Nawaveri ! 
Mam brinjaneri rlsh giptaghlya, 10 

Azh ma phawen sahe giptan, 
Azh wathi gudl miyarari, 
Azh khenaghiani shaghana. 
Roshe Haddeh o Shaho bidltha 
Dlr logh-an ma dighar-en ! 
Gon athl sanden khamane, 
Jabahe phur azh thanga, 
Thegh nokh-saj barakh ath, 
Kharch katar jukhtaghlya, 
Gonl-ari bandaii jathlya 20 

Pha dil-kama khutho-khisht. 
Haddeh tilhana niyakhta. 
Phopul o hiran warana, 
Gwar janari chyar-kullaghena, 
Gwar Chakur durreii gwahara, 
Gwar Banana nek-zanena 
Thankeri amzane na nishta. 
Haddeha phol ma dighara 
Haddeh dighara du-marden. 29 



34 Balochi Texts. 

XIV. 
NODHBANDAGH SHA'R. 

Nodhbandagh zar-zuwal gushl: imar|wathl sifat kharde 
gal gushl. 

Kunguran, O Kunguran! 

Kungur jareri brahondaghari ! 

Gale gazlran avurtha 

Aiv phara haisl sara, 

Chosha man gindan zahira, 

Zulm phara bedadhiha. 

Drust dafa rish avurtha, 

Namard rish jahl khutha 

Khond o khuriyan gwah-khutha 

Chunge avur gaukh phadha. 10 

Marda hawen vas na khuth 

Beronaghen mar gwar janah, 

Choshen kl churl kukkure 

Jant-I nasoa ma-sara. 

Nindlth grehl pha-gura 

Ahan ki khashl phar dafa. 

Go ma sakhieh meraven, 

Go ma bakhllen jheraven, 

Jherant o hanchosh gushant, 

Suta karlra res-deant ; 20 

' Mai na bl pha Nodhbandagha. 
Phul na-zal ma mausima, 
Shazhmaho phureri nokh sara 
Zaith niyarl khuragha.' 

Nl nadhan athant jauren badhan, 

Zi pha shaghana na khafari ; 

Agh ma phaso phostl khutheii 

Mai cho mughema melatheri ? 

Cho munklra yak-jah khutheii ? 

Mai Muhammade zir-ath, 30 



Balochi Texts. 35 

Haft-sadh hasht-sadh gorama, 

Bag girdagheii beshon athant, 

Shartan na datha hizhbare, 

Bhedl rangol bayan ; 

Azh ma na zltha katulan 

Bungaho graneii lashkarari ; 

Datha bi-name Kadira 

Bi momin o whanindaghari, 

Bara asilen dargura. 

Sohva larlsan waraii, 40 

Biyayant ghazl whazhdila 

Whazhdil manl nam girant. 

Dadh na lekhan chadharaii, 

Khes go khawaii o jabaha, 

MirsI mazaiii-thapeh lura, 

Eshana ghazlaii barant, 

Sari kafochi sai-sadhl. 

Phar yak shafa osaragha, 

Sohvl bi suwallyari burtha 

Domb gushokhen langavari. 50 

Jawanen sari Rabba lavan 

Shughra hame gal khanaii. 

Chosheii suwalle miyalth, 

Biyalth o ma lot! amrlsha, 

Kl ' Baufa go hathlne khasha.' 

E dadanl chle niyal ! 

Khaule manan cho Omara, 

Cho Omara khaule manaii, 

Man bashkaghe band na ban, 

Band blaghe marde niyan ! 60 

HarchI ki khal azh Kadhira 

Sadh ganj be-aiv dara, 

Zlran pha rasten chambava, 

Buran avo kharch sara, 

Ni bahr khanan go hadhira, 

Nelan khanan pha phadha. 



36 Balochi Texts. 

Guda manl brath bingaven 

Brazakht o brath mangenavari 

Kahr bant aptiya girant 

Mlrat milk johagha 

Nodhbandagh mal sara. 71 

XV. 

DILMALIKH SHA'R. 

Shartari malukhen Dilmalikh 

Azh khenagh o kivar aburtha 

BrathI payafen m era van 

Dimari Rindi deravan. 

Rinde jane 'Nakho' khanant, 

Dasa ma dastaii deant, 

Rema malukheii Dilmalikh 

Burl pha resheri daddavan ! 

NT bilari man! phadh-mozhaghl, 

Thasen rikef o doravl, 10 

Ma phisheii sawasah zom girant. 

Manari kadro khumethanl niyath ; 

Ma dathafi pha sunyen pheshaghari 

Bhedl rangol bayan ! 

Rinda Hudha Lashar na khant. 

Musalman HindO na bi ; 

Trag na zlrl kafirl. 17 

XVI. 
Shahzad Chakur gushi. 

She-phara Langahari du-zahamenan, 
Nahar o Kurigan ser-tamamenari, 
Dar-khafant Dodal phara zahma. 
Thegh azh savzeii amana rastha 
Man maliiki sar-khofaghaii shipta. 



Balochi Texts. 



37 



Bakhmal o bulghar Hareviya, 

Chhil hazar Rindan wa' sara gon-en ! 

Khal Humau go sai-chyar lakha, 

Chaparl zorakh-en avur rajari. 

Rosh dar-akhta, phauzh phedhagh bl, 10 

Urd Humaum baz be-ganjen 

Lakari saya sudhaven balari 

Ma dighara jagah niyath phadha, 

Murgh ma balanl sara nishtant, 

Hand niyath mardar o nariyanar. 

Gwankh khutha wa'-rodhen damamuan 

Chhil hazar dade-potraven mardan ; 

Ma hiyalanl dil na chandentha, 

Phuturen Rind pha dapaghari khakhtan. 

Ma Hudha amane shume baladh 20 

Gwar jan o thango-droshameri bachan, 

Shart avur haisT chotava bltha. 

Thagwar akhta go khauli Turkan. 

Manchitha jang go tufaki thlrari, 

Pha sagharan saroeri lllan, 

Der na bltha dan-dama dhakhe, 

Af shir bltha dan-dama nakhe, 

Ma nazar khuth go rakhtaghen chhamah ! 

Urd azh chaperi phalawa phrushta, 

Phrushtaghan rad-galu Mlral hame 30 

Chund azh Mira-nemagha khentha, 

Zor khutha Dili! phuturen Turkan. 

Jug-jatha Mai Banarl Shaihak, 

G'hor-khutha Rindan pahlavanena, 

Phusht-khutha Dilll zahranen Turkan, 

Zahm-jatha Rindo baragheh boran ; 

Phrushtaghan Dilll Turk haram-khoren, 

Ma lajjava alkafan Balochlyari. 

Hapt-hazar nar-sherl garakhenthal 

Jahl jandara malana drushta. 40 

Sai-sadh Rinda phalawa khushta, 



38 Balochi Texts. 

Allano jangani julav-glra, 

Allano gedhi gwath-saren syaha, 

Noh khushaintha go Nohak akhta, 

Balash sultanl sara Mlra. 

Beratha 1 Dilli kot hazar-ganjen 

Odha hasht-pahrl derave dathal. 

' Mar 2 karar bant o bor bi-sahsar-ant 

Gosh-numa sahsarl dama nokhen 

Som-ish chi simari hukman dlr bant. 50 

Man dl go hazhdah bingaven bachhan 

Mandrl bazar waran bhanga, 

Lllenan 3 drikhenan sari suhvari 

DuzhmanI mardanl dil-phushta.' 

Mard ki azh SindhI phalawa 4 khayant, 

Chajue Ranlya payafena, 

Phrushtaghen Uchhi nuh-thalen bahm, 

Nem-shafI kahreii zarihan khilant! 

Pha wathl khauliyan buzurgena, 

Pha wadil lajjanl hudhabundan, 60 

Pha makho nila phara dostan. 5 

Veravan gudl mahrwaren mor-ant ! 

Syah manan boen lashkaran zirant; 

Avr man! bandhah amlriyan 

Nesteno pharwah garz azh khasa, 

Ail Amir gindl Chakura saya! 66 



XVII. 
RIND-DODAI-JANG. 

I. 
Bijar Pheroshah gushl : sari Phuzhen Baloch gushl. 

Gagar arhat bahant shafl phasan 

Man mam Bijarl bunindlah, 

1 Or giptai. 2 Or Kot. 3 Or Melaveh. 

4 Or nemagha. 5 Or jannat-suhran. 









B aloe hi Texts. 39 

Nlri na nindari ki dem-bazen halkai ; 

Man rawan odha nangareii Brahim, 

Nangareri Brahim go Muhammada 

Warth sharava ma kadahea zaren 

War' sharava, da' manl bahra 

Agh phara razleri-dile dathaish ; 

Nahi tha Rind na bl, Dodal man! brath-eri ; 

Khoh na bl, Hindustan rivayat-en ; 10 

Sindh na bl, Phailavagh man! jidh-en ; 

Chachara soren af manan dost-en, 

Man manl bachanl dafa whash-ant 

Dlr-ant azh TurkanI hawaii lat-an. 

Pha mawalian Sindhrl jawan-en 

Af baz-eri o bhang arzan-en 

Dar loghanl gwara baz-en ! 17 

2. 
Babar Sohrab gush! : Dodal gushl. 

Hazhava sar ! ki che gon-datha ? 

An mazen-thapeh thegh man-ayan, 

Thlr man alaen-kashe gwah-bant, 

Gondal mare khad-khanant jana 

Dast Rindano baragheii boran. 

Thi-phithi roshe drogh ma gardane 

Go medhir o sardaran sakhiyena 

O kalatam gardanen shahan. 

E havar charl ranjaven mardi 

Akhtagha gedhla gidharana 10 

Akhtagho mehman manl theghe 

Theghavo Bijar jadha savzen. 

Zan ki janbozh baz-athan jane ! 

Phur niyath mam roshanl kator zaren. 

Gwah manl Jongo-en manayam, 

Pha chl rang! baladh manl dithai ! 

Drogh na bandlth ki khar mardaneh 



40 Balochi Texts. 

Medhirl salokh droshameri bachhl. 

Man wathl janganl kala gire 

Girdagheii baganl phanah mir-eii 20 

Rakhtaghen chhamanl charak-nlr-eri 

Phathani brathanT sutum-zir-en. 

Nm ishtom, ki ahirl bitha, 

Zyadhahen matan thezhaghi shltha, 

Hur manl nighran o phareshanen 

Tangdila roth go daz-goharakhan ; 

Mahaur go ambrahan na gwarentha, 

Go wathl nakhoa khavlhena! 28 

3- 
Jongo Ghulamo gush! : Babarar phaso dath gushi. 

JT zira mahaur basthagheii nodhari 

Kaunsh pha thalanke barah burza, 

Gon-deari honlari risalatah : 

O manayanl Babaren Sohrav! 

Sindha go shorl manan shaste, 

Gwahiya galari azh mana phurse. 

Gwah hamanh-ant ki azh phadha darant, 

Mohrl vagana na ginarant. 

Man phara chla aiv khanan, Hana ? 

Dodal yarangen bahazur-ari 10 

Lash ki shairano salahanant! 

E-kadar malum-ath manl hatha. 

Tho am-rikefiya go ambalan khakhte, 

Yazdaho yarang bahazuran, 

Man dila niyato murad esh-ath 

'Sh-e-phari g'hanoe bi-gardenun ! 

Tho gwar-akhto ki zlth phadh-khisthe, 

Thara dor-khutha Rindl sudhavo balari 

Duzhmani champola hawashena. 

Tho mayare ma dambaghari zurtha 20 

Nangareri Pheroz rana rosha, 






Balochi Texts. 



Thara drap azh Shaihak lura bitha, 
Mehlav sher-bhlm hudhabunde, 
Sar azh sensaran na pharezthe, 
Azh daryayani lahar thelankan, 
Thara dar-burtha Machhlyan harlyena ! 
Cho thav-e mahlij er-khashen warna 
Bazeri gwar Bijara varyamena. 
Man hel Bijar mahzaba sahiyan ; 
Neii pha-guzar tharl-madhaghan zlri, 
Nen shahr-lokan, bahranl tazl ; 
Whard bawarant bingaven hot-ant. 
Sambar o sir man aha raz-khant 
Shimbara jam sar-jame khayant, 
An khavaha ki man gura shef-ant, 
Phesha thai nakhoa gwara dathen, 
Daina azh hama chlta khotaghe er-eh ! 



30 



37 



4- 
Dodal 



gushi : Bijarar phasava 



Hairo Mandos gushi : 
dath, gushi. 

Thegho arjala naptena, 
Man dostl lura savzena, 
Dai bi kadana zivirena, 
Zar-ziren raha aman dai, 
Jukhta bandl pha gahniya, 
Goa go raha pharezl ! 
Phaigham akhtaghan RindanI, 
Melav-chadharen mardanl, 
Rindan zahm-janen phadh-akhta, 
Name mar-khusheri Bijareh 
Vadi go Malik Sohrava ! 
Bandathe Hudha choshen khant, 
Phauzhe chlthagheh jumbenuh 
Zarden dlgar o banghawahe. 
Dane darkhafun saraeri 



10 



42 Balochi Texts. 



Rekhi damane dir-panden ; 

GanjI rohrl phedhagh bun, 

Rind Dodava merenun. 

Mat-geghun geheri warnayan ; 

Nathu mal bigipt Shahzada, 20 

MiskanI Walya Chataya, 

Shambo shavguren Shorana, 

Madan Allana gurdena. 

IptI lashkaro granen phauzh 

Af-banavl man-ayant, 

Hoshagh chof-khanan' aptiya. 

Man go bahiranl syaha 

Dast-nezagho Laklya 

Pholari o khushan Bijara 

Phuzh sohavo sardara ! 30 

Bashant! thufakh hancho bl 

Phada' pha phadha, merenan, 

JahdhI melave gon-gezhan, 

Dasta man gware phirenan, 

Thegha man sara bhorenaii, 

Chonan ghut-khanan katara 

Biroth dan birjaka radhena, 

Rasten dast man! hone bl ! 

Bijar azh kulung-zena 

Wafsl ma phire shaml bl; 40 

Ya-mar azh mano hindlya 

Zlrl jabaha Rindlya. 

Sobha pha thufakhe katl! 

Ahdhah gwar janari der bandi, 

Sath nishtaghen dlwana, 

Ma Hairo TasoanI khushta, 

Phagh birave granch bastha 

Thuni Dodave chandentha. 48 



B aloe hi Texts. 



43 



Bijar Pheroshah gushi : sari Rind badshah gushi. 

Nishtaghant sar ma Sindh hazar-ganjen ; 

Khihava Lai Mandavo shahl 

Azh sharabanl zyadhaheri charah, 

Kalf go majuna girakhena, 

Go naren Rind baraghen borari. 

Jehalen charl bi-shakarthan', 

Jehalen charl whazhdil khakhtan', 

Whazhdil khakhtan' azh hasadlyari, 

Gon saro phlrl phrushtaghen talaii ; 

Chosh ma dlwane hawal dathaish : 10 

' Charithon sarhad mazar-bauren 
Basthagho neshen lerave penderi, 
Go sarm aho asinen mehan 
Jongala maho mahghaml gipta.' 

Shodh raptOn man Sindh hazar-ganjen 

Phar wathl gwashtlya khudha Hana 

Hajihana go baraghen boraii, 

Ghazihana go phaldahen malari. 

Dodal zorakho bharjala. 

Bor Hairo Tasoaniya 20 

Sak-ath pha sharoan badhanlya 

Nlmcha Nathoa jadha napte 

Sar azha zong mahvala khenthal. 

Dar-burtha Machhlan hariyena 

Tek go dlr-nyadhen Namurdlan. 

Meravan sultane amir nindant ! 

Jam Samail, ki azh mana phurse, 

Babara dar-gezha azh logha ; 

Thl-phithl roshe drogh ma gardane 

Go medhir o sardarari sakhlyena 

O kalatanl gardanen shahaii. 31 



44 Balochi Texts. 



Hajlhan Ghazlhan gushi: Dodal gushi. 

Shahl durangen bangulan 
Bile' zalfl wazwazan ! 
Dard ma-sara gezha manari. 
Thafs! mam jari malighl 
Kutho kahlreh hangarl, 
Mom! hal-blth o rishi 
Man narmaghen phairawana ! 
Phairl hawar bitha manan 
Jauren hasadi akhtaghant 
Bozhi jahazah arthagant, 10 

Thanken thirari ginashtaghant. 
Har mar ki akhta hasthagha 
Azh shakalen gino srafa, 
Meha hamcho hum khutha, 
' Zlthen gwazene' zira ! 

Azh pattana an dem khaflth ; 

Khoshti phara jaezagha, 

Lahmen ghamanl khashagha 

Munslr hada chundagha.' 
Belan, shawa yakhtiyare khanith 20 

Ma ahdh go sarmha basthaghant 
Chall sarmh becharagheri, 
Ladi dighar nekamilen 
Mehan ma-nyame janan ! 
Bijar na-darl azh-phadha 
Khaith phara merenagha ; 
Glstadh pha-dema darkhafan, 
Zandeh naryana gwar janan ! 
Bala-khasha mehman khanari 
Thegha haman hande janan 30 

Thegh bigipt zen-khodhagha, 
Zhil-bl ba chaukh o gandana, 



Balochi Texts. 

Hakha zlrl pha-dafa 

Matteh mam baderava 

Pha Hairo zar-mushten lura. 



45 



35 



7- 
Bijar Pheroshah gushl. 

Charant jhur gard o ghubar 
Sindh gwaren bahn davar 
Tandl tekan dathaghant 
Aso ladhi bungiptaghant. 
Bungiptagho giptaish jihan 
Pha thosagha bahmanthaghan. 
Phairl gwashta Allana 
Rind khavlhen wazhaha 
' Bijar agha jawari khane, 
Warn a phara behi dighar, 
Hona phara lafseriha, 
Azh bandane raja ma-zlr, 
Honi hudhabund zahranen 
Hot go travokheii markhaven. 
Roshe ki sandayari thara 
Be-hidhaghen hon sara. 
Hairo mazan-awazagheh 
Ya-mardaghl matte nen 
Sadh-mardaghiye mangana, 
Jath la wash! duzhmanan 
Pha arjalen theghl-raha. 
Bi-mari ki noshan giptaghan 
BrathI jaghar buren ghama ! ' 
Hairo, rusulo ummat-en 
Tahkik ziyarate khanan, 
Man di na 'shari druah rawan 
Azh Hairo drinl khanava ! 
Mehr khath Muhammad Mustafa 
Sobh-phira bashkl manah, 



10 



20 



46 Balochi Texts. 

Hardo ravuri ma an dunya. 30 

Hurari gindun jukhtagha 

Haudh kaurisare joe sara ! 32 

8. 
Babar Sohrab gushl: Dodal gushl. 

Bijar ! aghar jawari khane, 

O Han ! aghar jawan khane, 

Biya, o Malik Sohrav bigind. 

Pha sai-pharan harm bl, 

Ah mozhaghl phadhan bichukh, 

Bilah tha hakheri ban baroth, 

Rish bl-dighare phadh-khanant, 

Hai bil ! 'sh hame deha baro ! 8 



XVIII. 

DODA O BALACH. 
I. 

Gokhah nek-zane Sammle 

Bauthari gwar Doda. 

Ramaneri ghar warnae 

Gokh-ish dlthaghan Sammle. 

Mlral-potravah jumbentha 

Na-hakk phadha rumbentha 

Dha arthagha goile. 

Doda wapto whav bltha, 

Matha phadh-khutho slmena, 

'Nuh mah thara laf-khutha, 10 

Sai-sala thara mishentha, 
Tho gokhan go khane goali, 
Ah-kl cho wath-en sal-phadhi ? 
Hai gokhan sar-jaml biyare, 
Hai wathl chotava zyan-are ! ' 

Wasia mazen-shanena 



Balochi Texts. 47 

' Afi-mar kl khanan' bauthari 

Rosha na-reshan' whava.' 
Doda nangareri phadh-akhta 
SurkhangI hame 'uzar gipta : 20 

* Banukhl sari sarthen af 

Mesheri dumbagha mahelav 

Lit! ma jhazl sarakhah, 

Datha pha dill razlya 

Dan ma thlraghan lakhena, 

Af ma pachhaml kodiyan. 

Wakhte pakar-eh Dodara 

Ma syali shiddata sharoan ; 

An rosh maroshl akhta 

Jahe gon-khafuri gokhanra.' 30 

Jahl digumbadhari jarena 
Syahaf thankhe guzari 
Garmaf gwara phadhena, 
Doda nangaren gon-khapta ; 
Halu jatha warnaya 
MathI sar-tama bachha. 
Doda arthal Lltla 
Wath go *Umara Jamena 
Surkhl sawakh-gamena. 

Pahnade jatha warnaena 40 

Doda azh phurang zena 
Khapta ma-phira shamaya 
Wath go 'Umara Jamena, 
Phadh go mozhaghan lalena 
Dast mundrlyari jarena. 45 



Balach Hasan gushl: Gorgezheri Baloch gushl: hon- 
glreri Baloch gushl. 

Syah-khodh Blvaragha bizlr 
Mondar khizan kham-akulath 



48 Balochi Texts. 

Tifll azh aghla sar-shutha ! 
Khakhto hawan gokh jathant 
Pharat Dodae charant 
Mir Hamall rekh sara. 
Whantkar khishtant zahrena 
Ah shuptagha bauren mazar. 
Mara o shawara, o badhan 
Chosheh badhanahe niyath 10 

Glesh mall lekhave ! 
Shawa dlthe ki Doda zahren-ath 
An shuptaghlya akhtaghath 
Ma narmagheri jagah niyath. 
Sha mal khash o khuptan jathen, 
Hon pha dafa gulgul khutheh. 
Doda biyakhten pyadhagha 
Go phadh lalen mozhaghah. 
Doda thai khori khushagh. 
Tho khushta manayanl Rais, 20 

Chandram, hoten Kawarl, 
JanganI sar-drahzeh Rais, 
Tho khushta, phadhi chindr na khuth. 1 
Doda ! Thai mirl saleh, 
Thai sanj o saleh sultanfareh, 
Tekari phull bahr khuthant, 
Hoi dabavlyah burthant. 
Man deravah dast dast athant, 
Khadah pha-rashef dithaghant, 
Ariz! shi hona grethaghant, 30 

Khofagh saro jlgh khatik 
Ma wazwazanl menthaghant. 
Shawa ki hame mar khushtaghant 
Zanari Baloch be-wazhah-ari, 
Charan khayah azh dara, 
Boran gindari bukhtagha. 
Man-ravan' sher khashtagha, 
1 Some of these lines are repeated in the following poem, 11. 26-29. 



Balochi Texts. 49 

Bachhan gindari shengala 
Whava ravant rosha sara 
Dost na randith mafaran, 40 

Zhing na khant khofagh sara. 
Thafsl mam jan malighl, 
Kuth o kahiren hangarl, 
Momi hal-blth o rishl 
Man narmagheri phairawana. 
Nindan jheran gon dila, 
Dil cho jawavo da man a, 
' Balach mazar, istezagh-eii, 

An zar ki Bivaragh zurthaghant 

An phuleii gudh o khes na bant; 50 

Baj o Horasani khawah 

Baz dadhane bashk na bant! 

Chilak man! baderave : 

Doda zar-mushteii lur-eii 

Hoteh Rals shlhan-eh 

Man Bivaragh sandl gardan-eri ! ' 56 

3- 
Balach gushl : Blvaraghar phasave dath gushT. 

Khoh-ant BalochanI kilat, 

An ban azh banzgiran geh-ant, 

Burzen hashl hamsayagh-ant. 

Ambrah be-raheii gar-ant, 

Af bahokhen chashma bant, 

KhodI phlsheii khundal-ant, 

Nishtejan kharkavagh-ant, 

Bauf digharl thahthaghant. 

Bor main swethen chabav-ant, 

Mam bachh gishene gondal-ant, 10 

Main zamath shilen khanjar-ant, 

Mam brath thalaren ispar-ant, 

Mam arif mazeri-thaperi lur-ant. 



50 Balochi Texts. 

Makh o Nakhifo raptaghuri, 
Zi began! er-khaptaghuii, 
Halka ma dltha sha'ire 
Sha'r-gwashtano klmangare. 
Ma majlise gwande khutha 
Sha'r sha'ira nokhe jatha, 
Blvaragh shaghane gon-khutha. 20 

Blvaragh ! Thai aghl ma-sar-en, 
Jistagh Balochi cho nen, 
Hapten manl hon gwar-eii, 
Shal bingaveri brath takar-en ; 
Summen, Doda, gwar thav-eh 
Chandram, hoten KawarT, 
Tota, miskanl Murid, 
JanganI sar-dranzen Rals. 
Tho khushta, phadhl chindr na khuth? 1 

Jange na dathom tholaghi, 30 

Sherl bhorenthom badhl. 
Na bore gon-en dah-sadhi, 
Na lashkare gran o bazl. 
Man phar wathl haisi sara, 
Har-shaf, cho BashamI dradhan 
Bandan khayaii pha miragha. 
Thai warna ma kullah waptaghant, 
Go durren gulafi whav blthaghant, 
Bor hazarl basthaghant, 
Sher manaha ahezaghant. 40 

Bivaragh ! galari na zantkare gushe, 
Ma meravan hamchosh 'she, 
Ki 'Balach maut azh Kadhir-eri 

'Nlmon roshe azh man-en.' 

Blvaragh ! chosh ki thave banzigaren 
Chandl Nakhifo lura 
Khushta pha zoren Kadhira 
Wartha pha thegham raha ? 48 

^ee above, XVIII. 2, 21-23. 



Balochi Texts. 51 



XIX. 

REHAN SALO SHA'R. 

Zl khakhtan pha madane rahe 

An shikaranl hoshenthaghen syahl, 

Syah trufano man nigoshana 

Raptaghuii kuriya shamoshana. 

Nm ki ma dlren ulkahe khakhtan 

Tretthauri miskanl Sahak syaden, 

Ma palatri go bochana bastha 

Jam Sahaka gon retagh panda. 

Ma dil-dard go popale proshta 

Shlhana gorkha-e saren charitha, 10 

Ma hair-hawal datho hair-hawal gipta. 

Hal mar pheshl Jam Sahak bltha 

Gwashtal 'Thai halk maderien bunlndane 

Khapta go kharien Salo lalen.' 
Dard ma laugharen sara khaptal, 
Man dua khuth ba sokhtaghen zirda 
Thau niyayathe Jam Sahak syaden, 
Thau niyayathe ma ma tretathom, 
Azh thau gwar hlrtheh hal ma girathom ; 
Main goram syahen gokh kaulien 20 

Megar suhr-goshen gurand shahai, 
Karch katar, main thegh khurasanl, 
Syah gon mochl-dokhtaghen sanja, 
Bandagh man azad khuthun chulhe, 
Hing azh granen dorokhan dar-shodh. 
Syah gon chabukaii talor datha 
Nm k! gwar kullanl gwara khakhtan 
Akhta go loghani phadha nishtah. 
Der na bltha ki hoe ! hoe ! rustha, 
Hinge pha loghani phadha khashta-ish 30 

Syaho morbanden chotav zhingen. 
Has azh kunjl gardana khashta-ish, 



52 Balochi Texts. 

Gosh-bunanI pharestagheii gird-durr, 
Thangaven nath azh shefoghen phonza, 
Azh piyafen murdanagha mundrl ; 
Go bochane korowen rawan bltha, 
Greana math, greana wasl, 
Greana brath, greana kaull. 
Ma dl chon bashami jhuran gwartha 
Man barothan brinjaneri risha. 
Dahin, o warnayaii gisheniyan, 
O mughemanl blrsaren bachhan, 
Daz-rasa baladha ma ranjene ; 
E dunyai ma raptagha dltha 
Phairi go ber-banukha rapta. 



40 



XX. 

BIVARAGH O GRANAZ. 
Blvaragh Bahar gush! : sari Rind gushi 
sha'r gushi : BadshahzadI kharlth gushi. 

Kandahar bagh-en yamara gahe 
BadshahanT hand jagahe. 
Julgavl golan khakhtan pha rahe 
Takhcha phedhagh bl amul mahe, 
Main ajizen ruha ishta ya danhe 
Pars! lafza gwanjitha Lala, 
' Biya shitaviya go hame bala, 

Go saghara o sacheii dhala.' 
Raptaghan hila Hudhaiya 
Go wathl mala Badshahiya ; 
Datha ma yasin kara saken 
Zorl yasin Rabb israra. 
Raptaghan muhtajen dilo thara 
Sik wa dost thangaveh hara ; 
Mai ma marl buna bastha, 
Ma charhana pha asinen mehari. 
Akhtagho mahal banukho dltha 



wathi aski 



Balochi Texts. 53 

Whazh-dilla ma thangaveri khata. 
Havshav o havrosh go mlr-jana nishtan. 
Gwashtagha lodokha jananiya 20 

Sunh o sartaja amsaranlya, 
' Blvaragh ! vadera manayanl 

Go ma man! shahe dostl-en saken : 

Gind, nawari daha gir innangaha 

Mara har-dunan nellth zindagho duraha. 

Agh thara marde bedaghe man-eii 

Mara wathl dehe dar-baragh jawan-en.' 
Man wathl dost gwashtanan zantha, 
Ishtal mal go thangaven khata. 

Nm ki ma marl buna khakhtan 30 

Mal azh mariya buna bokhta, 
Dost ma syah mundhava nyastha. 
Dem avo Bolana phadha datha 
Khakhtan ma SevI garhen kota. 
Gwashtagha lodokha jananlya, 
' Blvaragh ! vadera manayanl 

Thau manari gwasht "mam dlrsaren fauj ant" 

Thamafi thai Rind bahranl tazi? 

Thaman thai mm majlisT warna ? ' 
Ma jawav charentha wathl doste, 40 

' Chhil hazar Mlren Chakura fauj ant 

Si hazar Gwaharame luren-thegh ant' 
Gwashtagha Granaza jananlya, 

' Khai-en thai dost, khal-en thai doiman ? ' 
Ma jawav charentha wathl doste, 

' Chakur mam dost, Gwaharam mam doiman.' 
Gwashtagha Granaza jananlya, 

c Barawufi gwar Gwaharam luren-thegha 

Chakur wath aram na khanth logha.' 
Khakhtun gwar Gwaharam luren-thegha 50 

' Gwaharam ! vadera manayanl ! 

Khar na khaptauii dan thau danl, 

Gonen aware badshahan. 



54 Balochi Texts. 

Agh manan dare, man gwar thau nindari; 
Agh na dare, man thl-phire gindaii.' 
Trad khutha Gwaharam luren-thegha, 
' Biya, durshad akhtae ! Mir BalochanI, 

Go wathi dosta khair o amam' 
Wath kharo bltho hand mar dathal 
Wand khuthal mm chhajav mahale. 
Dathagha khat nyadh palanganl, 
Zaren khodi talari suhram, 
Azh-gure khakhtan tal pulani, 
Azh-gure khakhtan sih kavavani, 
Azh-gure khakhtan dung sharavanl. 
Nen man wartha nen main dosta ; 
Geshtar bhitanl buna rekhtaii, 
Khamtir ma talanl thaha khishtari. 
Gwashtagha Granaza jananiya, 

' Blvaragh, shawa Lashar-e, e hawar chon-en ? 70 

Chitr ninde dl ghusave gon en ? ' 
Ma jawav charentha wathi doste, 

' Man na waran ki nimak jawain nen, 

Hawan nimaka roshea haramkhor ban.' 
Gwanjitiiom bakhale azh an shahra, 
Minmine akhta man hamah pahra : 
' Thau ware, chle phar thau biyarari.' 
' Biyar khal buan ki man-e noshari, 

Biyar ham an jaraii ki man-e poshah.' 
Hapt hazhd rosh nyasthaghaii darzl 80 

Hapt-sadh zare bithaghaii karzi. 
Tran-khutha Gwaharam luren-thegha, 
Kashide shastathal hamari gegha, 
1 Chakura malum khaii waliyena 
Sardar nen ki lev-e, neri ki chhoravl khar-e, 
Blvaragha letentha mazen bare, 
Badshaham gon-en aware.' 
Urd azh Bolari dafa gwasthant 
Jah na-en tambuah amlrlyan. 



B aloe hi Texts. 55 

Asitha rosh go thangaveri burjan, 90 

Sar-khutha Mlreri Chakura urdari. 
Tran-khutha Mireri Chakur Gwaharam, 
Khashtaghant Rind bahrani tazl. 

' Barawedh, hame urd sargira, thare.' 
Bivaragha gwashta ' Ma wathan charl. 

4 Sai-shaf o sai-rosha khabardarl.' 
Raptaghari hlla Hudhaiya 
Go wathl mala badshahlya ; 
Akhta go urde sargirun gipta, 

Mai ma urd-phalawa bastha, 100 

Datha ma yasin kara saken 
Zorl yasin Rabb israra, 
Raptaghan ma go jaunhari thegha, 
Akhta go tambu kinar githum. 
Dlthaghathan Jago Khan bi Turkegha 
Ma wathl miyan jaunhareri hindi 
Chonan ma be-chindra chaghal datha 
Gwastha cho grandokhari samlneghan. 
Sah-burtha Shaha mam rah churiya. 
Burithun tambu tanan saken, 110 

Sar wathl mm khofaghan gwazenth, 
Akhta go urd badshah dithom, 
Turk khatani sara whav-en. 
Gipto ma dasta Turk hagha khant : 
' Man haman Blvaragh-ari kalamanl, 

Azh ma gwar kare bltha shaitanl. 

Bashkagh miraten badshahanl, 

Agh na bashke kar thai dasta-eri, 

An-eri thai thegh, esh-eh main gardon.' 
Gwanjithant jawain mar phara trana, 120 

Dan-dame gwande tran o tran blthant. 
Bashkithal tazle grandokhen 
Main jan go patari suhr khanainthae, 
Phatithant tambu tanan sakeii, 
Urd pha Bolan phadha garthant. 



56 Balochi Texts. 

Khakhtan dan SevI garhen kota, 
Hal man Rindl merave datha, 
Neri manah marde thorave bltha, 
Nen Rind pha granen phlhane dathant, 
Nen Lashar pha janga na mirenthant, 130 

Whazhdila nindan gon wathi yara 
Mam lev go dost thangaven hara. 132 

XXL 

FRAGMENTS OF BALLADS 

I. a. 

Kird, Gabol, Gadahi, 

Kahan Talbur, Marl, 

Buzdar no had-khare, 

Drustari ghulam ath Chakurl. 

Mai Bhanarl bashkathaghant, 

Sar-shodh rosha dathaghant, 

Mai Bhanarla bashkathaghant. 7 

I. b. 

Kird, Gabol, Gadahi, Pachalo, 

Talbur, bewakefi Marl, 

Drust ghulam-ath Chakurl. 

Bhanari bashkathagha 

Dath na zurth Hudhaiya. 5 

2. 

Zl ki chi Medhani thar khakhte, 
Sukhta-lingi o bauhar-jathlya, 
Sar gwara Mlren Salinha bltha. 
Phusagho azlze nighah dashte, 
Dathai dabanT Madho lalen. 
Daur Madhoa go Dodava ditha, 
Pha jana sanga mar Baloch bltha. 
Jat-Jaghdal mard be-khase, 



Balochi Texts. 57 

Ma Aranda khoh buna wase, 

Kismata sardar blthaghe lase. 10 

3- 

Balochani akhtaghant wakya phadha 
Gwashta maiyan ' Main hudhabund gon-khaptaghant.' 
Jaro, Rehan o Hasan sanl blthaghant, 
Bor-izh ma lajjanl katar dathaghant, 
Pyadhaghari phadhan takht Shoran akhtaghant. 5 

4- 

Dombki Domb kastharen brathen, 
Domb charah-en, Dombki chhath-en ; 
Dombki rid shithaghen phuzh-en. 
Shahl mam hapt-phusht zaghath- war-en, 
Kird mam belani bala-zlr-en, 
Sher manl zhangokheri khar chukh-eh ! 6 

XXII. 

MURID O HANL 

Rinde kachahrie khutha 
Mir Chakura kull buna. 
Gwashta Miren Chakura 

' DoshI girokh chori-baran ? ' 
Khasa gawahl na datha. 1 

' Sardar, neri ki jhur-en nen jhamar-eh, 
Bad azh jhuran thama girokh 
Zagharen zamistanl shafe?' 
Gale Murld dewanaghen 

' Sardar hamara ma khat, 10 

Man ki thara rast gushan. 
Agha jan mard khusht 2 na blth, 
Rasten nishana rast dean. 

1 Or Khasa na datha shahidl. 

2 Or khushl na be. 



58 Balochi Texts. 

Doshi girokhaii sai-barari. 

SaimI bara shenken jatha, 

Dan dubarari shamal khutha.' 
Gale Amiren Chakura, 

' Bhalo ! Mubarak phusagha, 

Go na-rawaen kissava, 

Go Chakur mahen jana.' 20 

[' Hekale zlth rawan 

Dirbane mulke khafah.'] 1 
Khashi Mubarak litira 
Jatho Murida sara ; 
Gwashtal, ' Bil o Murld 

Badh-kharl o badh-faileha 

Go Chakur mahen jana. 

Chakur badhen marde niyan, 

Gwankha hazar Rind charlth 

Poshlda go zanden naryan.' 
Gale Murld dewanaghen, 

' O sharreri bawa manl ! 30 

An Chakur-en mail Shaikh-ari, 

Man dl badhen marde niyan. 

An go hazarari charlth, 

Man go wathi hamzadaghari. 

Sharren na dltiiai dost manl 2 

Marl ludokhen pan, 

Klleh sara bareri kulla 

Shahr janikh wa derava, 

Hani go bedoshen gudhan. 

E dl manari, ki phe-wath-an 40 

Ma charaghan gar khuthari, 

Man dan kuran dan wathan, 

Ma nel o zinzlran niyan, 3 

Ma daz-kilateh asin-an. 

1 These two lines placed here, as given in Leech's version, belong to a later 
speech of Murid's, and I have inserted them after 1. 55. 
Z 0r Jawan-eh na dithai somarl. 3 0r man nelo gatiyah niyan. 



Balochi Texts. 59 

Lohar pha basa phadeari, 

Go dakhane gwath-dafari, 

Phacho mane dewanaghan. 

Pha ma miyare thavdan, 

Mulla go bazeri khaghadhan ; 

Mala mam haufa neri. 50 

Mulla munshle na ban, 

Makh namaza na parhari, 

Dast basthagh o sire bukhtagha! 

Gud azh Muvarik litira 1 

Kaul-en kl tharashan chotava. 

Hekaie zith rawari, 

Dirbane mulke khafan, 

MM salehan er-khanan, 

Jan karakohen gudhan. 

Eshan dean Mir Mandava 60 

Hani sultane phidha ; 

Hani sambhl kheghadheri 

Azh nodh-nambi o jhurari. 

Pharkalav pha Aliya, 

Dast-khaman pha Isiya, 

Borafi khilan basthigha 

Kull lafa ahezagha, 

Bilan pha Mireh Chakura. 

Ma choto harshe wath-athan, 

Makh malang wa gada, 70 

Man go hame mardari rawari 

Khlndareri brahondaghari. 

Tahklk avo hajja rawari 

Hajj dara ziarat khanari, 

Si sal hameri go gar-khanari, 

Si sal sail khotaghari, 

RoshI kl wazgarde khanari 

Khayari ma Rindi bolake.' 

1 Or Gud azh Amir mozhagha. 



60 Balochi Texts. 

Rindan nishane aditha 

Mir Chakur kull buna. 80 

' Nm, bilan faqlr thlrari janant.' 
Man chikitha dar sir khutha. 
Rindan hamedha khes * khutha, 
Zanan Murlden phul-gudhen, 
Loheri khaman whazhah-eri 

' Biyare Murlda jigha ! ' 
Lohen khaman artha-ish, 
Sar chukitho chhaman khuthal, 
Er-jlgh dho-jigh khutha, 

Yakhe nishanar jatha, 90 

Duhmi man thlr blrava t 
Rindan hamedha zanthagha 
Jahe Murld phul-gudhen 
Lohen khaman whazhah-en. 
Guda Hani miskanl 2 Murld 
Man kotavlya dhakitha. 
Masteii Murld cho lerava 
Chakhe jane Haniya 3 
Narmaghen do rakhan-I. 

Gale Murld dewanaghen, 100 

' Hani, dankho ki phakar thai manari 

Mihr niyarth khohen dila, 

Dostar Mlreri Chakura. 

Nm darman janokheii rikhtaghaii 

Nm ma thai gegha niyan. 

Azh sangata khard ma khan, 

Azh didhaghan khor ma khan.' 
Nm ki Murlda phusht khutha 
Rlnden janafi wiswas khutha 
Hani 'shl ma amsaran, 110 

1 For the Ar. qays or qiyas. 

2 Leech gives Markhane Murld, which he translates ' noble Murld. ' 

3 Leech has hanala, but as he translates Hani, the reading given in the 
text is evidently intended. 



Balochi Texts. 



61 



' Ma shefah sanya mari-gwara 
Gist gam pha-dlma rawan, 
Basha, Murlda ber-dean 
'Sh-e khlndareri brahondagha. 
Nm ki dalekhim khanan 
Dast-nishanI er-giran.' 

Hani gwankha pha-phadha 

Esh-en Murlda jawav, 
' Chakur amiri baiida, 
Logha thaiya as khafa, 
Bora thaiya duz bara ! 
ManI dast nishanl gar bl, 
Man! dil azh gunahan bar bl. 



120 



123 



PART II. 

LATER WAR BALLADS AND OTHER TRIBAL 
POEMS. 

XXIII. 

MITHA SIR. 

Balacham mal gush! : mal Hani Mirdost gushl : mal 
Rani Salar gushl: Mitha nekhen du'a khat, gush!. 

Hudhal dathaghen dadho kabul-an 
Hudha dadhari dea dar mandagarira, 
Hudha bachhan dea muhtaj-dilanra, 
Khlzan dost hamen shahzadaghanra, 
Sawakken bor hamon, nekh o badhara 
Illahl ki phidhae bachhan mazan khan 
Mazan khan Mitana Sultanfarena 
Jathal ' ilm Qurana malumlya 

Hamah sherin-zawana 'alamlya. 

Phadhehan birr borl thashaghl ba' 10 

Bi-thashI markhavan sher-gumbazena, 
Refl khargazan pharewarena, 
Mitan jane phadha man an tasen rakefa 
Jane phadha, hindiya ba-bande, 
Jane chapa mazan sobhen DanyanI 
Jane chapa man slra Mitanegha 
Lahadhe retaven phashk sarlya, 
Lahadhe thangaven durr katikan. 
Mitan phidh sah lahadhe jukhte damama 
Lahadhe phidh sah deh go inama, 20 



Balochi Texts. 63 

Phidh sah deal bor go laghama, 

Phidh sah deal dast-khawana. 

Maroshi hajj no-bandadh roshen, 

Maroshl jhur khutha nodhan Hudhaegha. 

Gwaritho Horasan samlna. 

Jathi murvadhir trapari bl-reshe 

Bi-mene, Mitane sonl salehan 

Hazarl tupaka nam gipthaghena, 

Harevi ispara phul basthaghena, 

Thai barakhen khanava seran manena, 30 

Thai katar karch nughraena, 

Bihan selhava av-reshamena, 

Sar-birra o phusht panbanla. 

Blyala Mitan go paken nlmashaii 

Miyayathant thai jauren hasaddl, 

Hawan ki azh thai dardan gannokh-ant, 

ManI han-zadagha slr-tawara. 

Ba-drimbant Mir pha rodhen damamo, 

Ba-drimbant drimbaghen whashen hamo wakht, 

Mitan musallim bl thara sahivl takht 40 

Rasul chambaven Sultan buland bakht. 

Biyare Mitane belari dileghan 

Biyareth-I naukaraii zar gipthaghena, 

Biyareth langavari nur mahzavena, 

Ba-zlrant tel-metani kathoraii, 

Barant-I brath avo joe bahokheii, 

Bi-shodhant-I chotava sadh asurena, 

BiyarthI hemaha dav-gipthaghena . 

Haman khata kull goraghena 

Haman khata ki pha miskan navishta, 50 

Chyaren-phadh sir-khand-dar ant, 

Haman baufa pha motl-jarena, 

Haman khat buna thale juluskl 

Haman thai buna hane sharavan. 

Sharavan ting de o miskan thall de, 

Jinikhe ki rasentha daz-goharari, 



64 Balocki Texts. 

Sari lohen go path kinarari 

Gware phuren go badam haran. 

Naslhate gushan ber-janara 

Man! hanzadaghe qadra bi-zane, 60 

Sara go thangaven hola bi-tole 

Gwara go pech zar-kare khawahari. 

Maroshi whazhdilen nokh-gulen math 

Dame man goraghen kull na nindi, 

Wathi zamath gindl phul-gudhlya, 

Wathi mahen jinikha man darlya. 

ManI hanzadaghe sir-tawara 

Sarlna e rishant khoha phasol, 

HarevI chhabavo phadhan sawasant 

Haman Ghatith Tlri gwarl 70 

Karabo lur go meriharan khari, 

Be vadha baz ba barah hazari. 

Tumuna sabal-eri drusten Mazari 

Hisevan lekhaven lakh kuharl. 

IlahT main gwashtaghen galari Kabul khan'. 76 



XXIV. 

MAZARI BRAHOI JANG. 

Yad khanan Plr nau-bahara 
Hardame malik sachara, 
Shaha mardan kirdagara 
Phanch-tan pak chyar yara! 
Phakhar sher-potravara 
Be-murld Rustumara, 
Sarangi dawagarara 
Jumll sher-potravara 
Sah Bahrain nar-mazara 

Raj nishta ba karara. 10 

G'horave zurtha Mazara 
Kadu gulathe zawara, 



Balochi Texts. 65 

Sanj khuthant tazi bishara 

RahzanI nam-tawara. 

Roth Kachhl dighara, 

Zurthal bage be-shumara 

Artha shahara ba karara 

Bahr khutha thlr-dara. 

Gul Muhammad Brahol sawara 

Akhta sathe gwar Mazara, 20 

' Dai mam bag-katara ' ! 

Gwashta Drehan dawedara, 

' Phok dai sari jamara 

Gosh, Gul Muhammad, ph'e tawara 

Chandehari hon! bishara, 

Bhorentho wartha Mazara ! ' 
Gwashta Gul Muhammad sacharl, 
' Gozh-dai, Bahram Mazarl ! 

Hai barah bage guzarl 

Hai sare barant Mazarl ! ' 30 

Jat baga dai salama 
Dah jatha sher-kesava 
Deravl Khan Nawava 
Manavah phalk gharry a ; 
Dhol waj shadhlya, 
Mir charitha wa' sarlya, 
Go tuman bradhariya 
Zor Sultan Araflya. 
' Bag nelaii go badhlya 

Dar-shafe sher-pharaganl.' 40 

Ma-sara Hot Hamalani 
Sahave Mir mansabanl 
Basth hathyar kimatanl, 
Zen girth shihanani; 
Nazukhen bor narahanl, 
Sanj thasari doravani, 
Bltha nal-gwankh o kahanl ; 
Vanga dil pha jam 



66 Balochi Texts. 

Zen girth pahlavanl. 

Lekhava sal-gist Mazara 50 

Zurthaveh tazi tara 
Mir ma-sara sobh-khara. 
Jatro khaura davara 
Artho gon-datha Mazara; 
Nashk bl sher-potravanl. 
Bijar o Khan wadhwanl 
Sher shlhl bahazuranl ; 
Hajl-han sun sadhanl 
Mohan bith surihanl 

Jang mashkul durr-gehanl ; 60 

Jiwan bor dadhwanl 
Kadu wadane badhanl 
Zahm-en masten Durrani. 
Bingava gwashta zawam, 
' G'horo pheshl medane 

Go Zafar Khan Jaliani 

Hakim Kin dehanl 

Sangati sher-potravanl,' 
Syal o Path Maghassi, 

Gon-ath-I zahma himmati ; 70 

Chandeha Gulzar razi 
Zahm wakhtl lekho-bazl. 
Sai-glst jang-en Mazari 
Do-sadh Brahol Jamall ; 
Wathi zahma hawall 
Trada napta bukhta ladi, 
Dhal dashta but-khadl. 
Hazhdaho PhandaranI 
Mir Brahol ulkahanl 

Nam nazanan gananl. 80 

Garthal Sherl turana 
Hakal haghari deana ; 
Nam Durr-jihana girana, 
Ishtal nashke man jihana. 



Balochi Texts. 67 

Bith samho go turn an a. 

Math blth go Faujallya, 

Droh-khutha thegha thafya, 

Lut bl yakhe gharlya. 

Hajlhan dawagarlya 

Go mirokha Bashkallya 90 

Husain Khan mardl rallya. 

Jang manjo blth Sardar, 

Surihan Gulsher Dildar. 

Jan Muhammad, Jlwan Khana, 

Gulmakh, Taju Jamall 

Azh-phadha gwankh siyall; 

Daime khandall Jamall ! 

Khushta Gul Muhammad gist o chyara. 

Da' fateha kirdagara, 

Mishka da' sari jamara ! 100 

Dlwan ! biyare kalamava. 



XXV. 
TIBBI LUND JANG. 

Dharat-pale Badshaheri 
Har-chyaren chundrari nighah-eri ; 
Rast gushagh mara rlwa-eh, 
Drogh pha Imana khata-en. 
Lund, Gorlsha, Lagaeri, 
Milk mitaf judaen, 
Daulat mal slwa-en. 
Shirr shumat ghazaeii, 
Sak-saren bor ki hawaeri, 
Kadh khorara nighah-en 
Roshe ahira wazha phanah-eri. 
Rast gushagh mara riwa-eri, 
Drogh pha Imana khata-eri, 
Zahm janagh dasta slwa-eri, 



10 



68 Balochi Texts. 



Sobh sitha daste Hudha-eri 

Sale bakhte kl jah-eh. 

Lashkaran ki TibbI band-en 

Laj bautam hand-en ; 

Chakurl pera o rand-en, 

Man bunyada Phuzha Rinden, 20 

Cho daryaeri phohal-band-eri. 

Lund Khosa awara 

Lashkarani muzh-dawara, 

G'horo jalderi zawara, 

Harro pha janga taiyara, 

Chonan dahkentha Mazara, 

' Khas na thare ph'an damara 

Pha Arande malguzara.' 
Guda somae charlya, 

Burzathi surgo manly a 30 

Tak na khapti Chacharlya. 
Surihen Jalav-zalya 
Fathehan wa' sarlya 
Laditha raj-dhanlya 
Nishtal gwar pha gwarlya 
Jang jhoreii masharlya. 
Pha-wathan maslat tran-atha, 
Chotiya Mahmud Han-atha, 
Las Leghara tuman-atha. 
Havt tuman jangl bahana 40 

Man dafa rishari drishana, 

( Ginduri ma Tibbi mazara ! ' 
Lashkaran rastha dighara 
Hasil Gaman sachara, 
Bashku go masten Mazara, 
Said Han go trunderi Kunara. 
Muhammad Rind awara 
Mirza go nam-tawara, 

' Dar-khafe dane dighara 
'Sh-e-phara dhala-e-dhalun 50 



Balochi Texts. 



69 



Oman khaule phalun 

Hai sara madl galun 

Hai duzhmanar drangi drahun. 

Wadh Lashkaran manl salaha 

Dir Kachhl Rindari nighaha 

Bagavo jug jah-jaha.' 
Gwashta Hoten Lashkarana 
Hamcho shin vahana, 

'Muhammad, dar wathl shaghrefi zawana; 

Makh nelun sangatlya, 60 

Dar-sarah wasa wathlya. 

Much khanari kull tumana, 

Khoh dl bagheh Hindustani*, 

Khanagh wathl janga samanS, 

Khaul mara etawara.' 
Azh kllata dar-sh'ana 
Akhtaghan harl malana, 
Bor malandrlyan janana, 
Go lagham lev-khanana, 
Lund phare zahma tulana 70 

Tupaka, sangl, khamana. 
Thlmuri khakhtan radhana, 
Gorisha, masten Leghari; 
Basthaghant bor hazarl, 
Sanj saughatan sunari, 
Shihan, Lakhl, Bahrl, 
Harchi katathi andharl. 
Pyadhaghlya sar rishana 
Go wathl Sardar Hana 
Ghulam Muhammad sherl jushana, 80 

Rahlm Han en j a wan a. 
Zurthaghan zahm main dlwana, 
Kantagho guthari janana, 
Soma nashkari deana. 
'Sha sabita dare' Imana. 

Thume du ble dharatl, 



jo Balochi Texts. 



Lashkaran phedh na gardl 

Hathyar athl sat-bhattl 

Ya sakhune lak pattl.' 

Akhtagho bithaghan muhmel ; 90 

Sha'bath-en thegh Gajmer ! 
Ma-sara bi phll narsher, 
SangI bukkiyah janana 
Haricho dingen pahlwana, 
Math pholi ma tawana, 
Cho wath-en-I Lashkarana. 
Bitha bazar isparanl, 
Tak-tola khanawanl, 
Vanij-vapara saranl, 

Druh gishenl bahadhuranT. 100 

Uchal-ubhar lar ath, 
Khanawanl mar-mar ath. 
Hardo dema jang lar-ath, 
Bachh birazakht man guzar-ath. 
Lund Gorlsha malandari 
Man-akhtathan af bandl, 
Bitha jangl badshahl, 
Math khaptan jukht-tahi. 
Zahm jatibagha Chacharlya, 
Jistkaniya phallya. no 

Shahithan Dadur athlya 
Dilshad savzeri Bajuriya 
Zahm wakhta bohanya, 
Shalhak Hoto phallya 
Thul be-chindren dhanlya ; 
Durrak, Lashar-zalya, 
Leghari grani mahlya. 
Wadh Rahlm-Han mohariya 
Dashta Rindah wazbarlya. 
Damdama jhat-gharlya, 120 

Rind boren masharlya. 
Rind Sardar guttanlya 



Balochi Texts. 71 

Azh rana bhajo kariya 

Go Mazara yagsarlya, 

Dan wathi kot garhiya. 

Wah! Mirza Shaihakani, 

Zahm-janagh mianjl dalanl 

Tap zurthal duzhmananl, 

Chikathal mohar Lashkarani. 

Lund-Khosagha jalana 130 

Cho patangl phelishana, 

Lund g'hand-eii Lashkarana 

Pha dast zahma janana, 

Cho shahlda khapta dana 

Go sadh o shazh-glst jawana. 

Guda Lund zahmanl ganam, 

Chyardah mard khushtai badhanl. 

Havd-glst but karal 

Sisthaghan theghaii judal. 

Chyar sadh o chyar-glst o chyar athant, 140 

'Sh-ango nazl do-hazar athant, 

Zahm ganantrl o shumar-ath, 

Ma kachahrlyan pachar-ath 

Sar-de sherani kar-ath, 

Plr buta rasthaghara 

Dragul baure mazara. 

Dathagha sobh kirdagara. 

Wa' khutha sardl tala. 

Lund nishta bar karara 

Go wathi madi mala. 150 

Har khase rahdl ronen, 

Na kagadhe patrae goneh. 

SezdumI same taware. 153 



72 Balochi Texts. 

XXVI. 
GURCHANI DRfSHAK JANG GO MAZARIYA. 

Gushe Shahyar shair binde zabanl. 

Hudha o Nabl Murtiza kargahanl, 

Allya jaghar khashtaghant kafiranl, 

All kadh Gabar khuktha jang-rawani 

Khutha Dm Islam shahr mominani. 

Hudha jang jon hawari roshl danl. 

Dalel Han Muhammud nahengeri dilam 

Aghar Khan Jinda hukm hakimanl. 

Mazari ki nokar manl sahibam, 

Roz mahlna barat wajaham. 10 

Bidhamakht Nur Nawave parjanT 

Parhel nit khaira Mazari zabanl, 

Nyamagha musaf badshah do jihanl, 

Khutha thar salah dil Navl hat gumam. 

Shumal aghalfam hamu jahilani, 

Khutha kharch phishkar buzahe ghumani. 

Mistagh, Tara, saran lashkaranl 

Chireng phurz gola sohav-diani 

Jatha bag shl burza jaren AhlawanI, 

Lagham resh aspari, shutur bl rawam, 20 

Saraera pha waha dighare pha dam, 

Akhta zuda-dahl Jalalpur gwaranl. 

Chan Khan Muhammad Jinda AkhwanI 

Do athan avzar, gistari phasanl, 

Phadha phusht piyadhagh saran saldilani, 

Shutho gon-khapta ajab mangehanl, 

Er-esh Mazari jhakor tufakanl, 

Khaman, thlr, chutkan shatamb chundiyani, 

Kurl kez bora Muhammad AkhwanI 

Do thlr tufake mam e duzhmanani. 30 

Khumar tufaka geshtara gondalanl. 

Ajal shair kajal bl Imam Lashkaranl. 



Balochi Texts. 



73 



Sagharanl pirl zurthaghan duzhmanani, 
Rana had ranakari kapal surihani ; 
Gwaharam jaghar-bur jaureii badhanl! 
Hukm Brahimana khutha pha zawana : 

' KhushI Hakima khar khane duzhmanani.' 
Rakhla daz-glr khutha thau rawani, 

' Shuma gin darpa shutha phashawanl.' 
Hamu odha shustha jareri Jlwan Khana 40 

Sadik, Ghulam, Ther, Chirak Muhammadam, 
Ghulam silgihe phrushtari duzhmanani, 
Jindeha magahan mlsl keharanl, 
Jamaliyaniya thegh chataeh sanl; 
Ma bl sir Muhammad chataen jam. 
Sain Surihan datha sar pha razal, 
Aghar Han Jinda Hura Mazarl. 

' Ma-khush, Muhammada, bag rapta judal, 

Ma-war bag-shlra, ma-khan e rawal; 49 

Chhil roshe na-gwastha, charant GorishanI ; 

Geheri Rind go Lunda, mudhah Khosaghani. 

Kawalan, Lalla 'sh I mosha ball, 

Janga halahosha halo tan, 

WathI chham Phlzdar Mistagh dan. 

Jamsher, Mistagh, Yar Khan Jhinjarl ; 

Band- All go bachha, Karm Khan Sunhari ; 

Shumal lurahari rogh da asei lawarl ; 

Shumal sisthaghen band bltha Mazarl/ 
Hamu Drlshak Gophang janga bl sanl. 
Blhtar bawainthal Mazar-potaranl. 60 



XXVII. 
MAZARI GURCHANl JANG. 

Har sawa ardasi manan ma Rabb dara, 
Ummat sadh ganjen, dhaniya da sadh-bara. 
Yad-eh Plr Sahib go buland-bashken sarwara, 
KurzatanI paken All Sher go murshida. 



74 Balochi Texts. 

Phalawa biyaith kajl sher zareh barizira, 

Sath salamat phuji dan jahl mizila ! 

Ji phanahari e dunyal a dil safa, 

Dost-ath-ish hamsayagh gawandi ma hadhira, 

Bachh, birazakht, bandane rajan bathira. 

Ji phanahan ki pha sharikhari wanijan sara. 10 

Thashah boran Kaunsarl syah-joe sara, 

Jantal mava man bihishta marakhavari. 

Hukma Allah azh hamu aiven be-mayar. 

Whash-gushen Lori shadhihani shagha biyar, 

Katre gwanden gwar manu baladha bi-dar, 

Mam hadlsan gwashtagheri galan bl hoshyar ! 

Shiddate nokheri zurtha mam Hana hanskar 
Hon Jamal-Hane sartha mam Khane mehdhira, 

' Man wathl hona nelari gedhl alima.' 
Zahranen mardari basthaghan jandireh hathyar; 20 

PheshI banwlya berithal Tibbia davar, 
Phllaven roshan Khosaghe akhtal man-guzar, 
Mat Mlregh! har khasa dltha phedhawar. 
Thakhtaghan Lund dahln gwar Mire Hamala. 

* Mir ! angane khare blthagho khapto man-gwara.' 
Pha wadhl nashka chon khutha Sher-potrava ? 
Takare honane ma sanderi dawagara ! 
Kin Rojhana jumbitha phauzha pha saman, 
Chiktha bungah muhim jaldeh sohavari. 
Man-sara bltha Mangan shirwareii bihan, 30 

Otharu nll-gwathi rodhana pha kapuran 
Har thihanl Sheran pha misken khaur dafa. 
Sohav Lashari shawan danl dil pha jan 
Gwashta Dilwasha ghussave 'sharoe manl, 
Phar wadhl kirdaran Baloch lajji na-bi, 
Gosh gunaskaran ki jihan hamchosh gushl.' 
Bauhgahl ph'e sima dathal phasano mai zarl, 
Takhtal humboeh Sham o Marl namzadhl. 
Marokhai akhtal khoh-amir gindeh sangali, 
Thegh Khaii Muhammad bandani rajani dhani, 40 



Balochi Texts. 



75 



Gwankhav o honiya jadha Hana tah-dili : 

' Man khoha sardarari, man nlyan mal marde phithi. 

Siyal hawari mardeh khanawa biyaith dast-gwarl.' 
Mangana teleritha hazar nazeri bahram, 
Medhira jah datho jathal mlana misarl. 
Hoi go molha sisthagho zhingenthal ghallm, 
Go oil dhaka baithl raja-manakl! 
Thegho Jamsher Basik dast gahill 
E-dune mattan gipta cho mahl mah-gham! ! 
Mangana bhlre artha jahaz wahiri 50 

E-dune mardari phrushtaghan Lai o Jauharl. 
Khushtal Khan Muhammad, walhare mar jawaineri phithi 
Naharo Ditta khushtal, Hoten Bagh-ali, 
Misri yarah janant pha zore All. 
Khushta nuh mar, mal boharthai pathari! 
Whazhdila gartha shera pha miskeh Sar-shama. 
Rah-gidhariyari arthaghan Mangana salam : 
' Main salama daith Gorishaniya Bangulah, 

Suriheri Kia wa Murad brahondaghah, 

Drahl Sorie biyaith shawa, gall bl manari, 60 

Jagahe dem-o-dem khanun hardo lashkarah. 

Ureya biluri, sar na-phareze kungurah ; 

Pha-do-dem merenuri mirokheh dewanaghari 

Mldhaghan khohi warna SindhI narmaghan.' 
Gal phara durr-chini dafan chosh ma-wadhan, 
'Sh-e-bari mara dar-burtha Pir Murshida, 
Waj da roshe Kurana hair phadha, 
E havar mirath bitha pha Gorish-potrava. 
Sai o chyar warna sahl-ant ma khohen hadhira, 
Taghat o tauflk zitbaghen Shaheri Kadhira, 70 

Hathyar dastah dathaghan rajanl radha ! 
Chhamo arizena garthaghan garyana phadha. 
Sangaten sistha-ish azh muluken Khan Muhammada. 
Mitha sharml go Hudha-Dath o Sabzila ! 
Pahrav o Pirana hilal-ant ma derava. 
Madhi nazekh shairanl sipat o sata ! 



76 Balochi Texts. 

Lori ! charana sail-khane pha Sindha naslb 
Mangane Kirdar salama dai, azh ma gwarl, 
Hamale Mlra bandakiyari bazen ban. 

' Sak zorakh-e, lahame hech khas na bl, 80 

Tone honiye pakar Shah Sarwari, 

Ma-hazar hairari badhe, Sindh sangall. 

Asur o ometh-e Balochah dana sari; 

Hll baut nashke o pashke Hamzahl! 

Sha umdanl khaptagho jangen malgh-o-thal 

Chandeha warna kapithan tazl bahranl ; 

Che thav o jang-dosten Phathehana slth bl ? 

Do hazar gokh mesh burtha mam, be-lekhavl, 

Pho buz o meshahl galo gwathan baz ma bl, 

Gaman challah thakhta thai bagheri Sindharl.' 90 
Borah chartha Kadhira ya shahr gall, 
Bar athal baganl bunindl jag-jah thai, 
Zarehah greant begaha laleri Jatanl. 
Thahgur-en Nur Han thai muhlm main mohari? 
Sohav o charl saroghan dil khavl ! 
Gwar Hudha ardas-efi mana, O Sindh dhanl ! 
Maigh o thai hairan khant Rasul o durreri NabI ; 
Maigh o thai hair bl, tha zamina dhartl lahl. 98 

XXVIII. 
JATOI MAZARl JANG. 

Allah ! thav-e lak-pal kurzatani, 

Rozl rasane hamu bandaghanl. 

Bandah samundara nodh tadhilanl, 

Khanant gaj-granda zamln sailihani, 

Savz bant rem, sawad khllaghanl. 

Nishto khanari yad Pira wathlya, 

Plr Alam Shah, Husain Shah wallya. 

Bahrain khawan chartha Yaillya 

Sakhl Shaihe Rindan Mughal Khan sakhlya 

Karamah sardar poshidaghani 10 



Balochi Texts. 77 

Patt o patlhar zen markhavani, 
Para shudha walhare surihanl 
Chhil-o-chyar zahml dawagaranl; 
Sara sohaveh Massu Gul Tasavani, 
Dathari nyameri shirr shiddatanl, 
Khota jawav-glr-en jaureri badhanl ; 
E Bavroan Hasan mangehanl, 
Miro mirokh-eri Nur Han Saragam, 
Budhu Juma cho lawari charani, 
Khane Jamal Han sun turahanl, 20 

Vagha Ghulam daul baiizlgaranl. 
Sai mard gon-ant Gwand-phadhaghanI ; 
Gullan, Mubarak, Bijar gananl. 
Para shudha walhare surihanl, 
Giritho shudhaghan par dawara ; 
Shudho tham bitha ghallma dighara 
Khushto ghallme dathaish man guzaran. 
Massu Haidar hasht nuh yaran 
Nur-han Dathan hardo bel awarari 
Azh patana ben bokhta Mazara, 30 

Bitha lurhao Khwaja Lahara, 
Zurtha wadana kaif-kumara, 
Khakhtari bahana gwar sangatlyan. 
' Bandeth, belari, salehan wadhlyan 
Shitabl aliband khane sodehlyan.' 
Karikaro basthaghan jabahiyah, 
Shudho mari-rikhta mam bellyagh rehlya, 
Bhura Kanjar madd jathaish gumrahiya 
Jatho mal leten garthan whazhdillya, 
Bitha lurhao sire lurry a. 40 

Dahl thashana war jauren badhlya 
Khun blthagheri Jatol masharlya ; 
Sara bitha Mehwal dawagarlya, 
Mehwal maroshi sherl shikaren ; 
Plr Bashk rosha dilaglr khare ! 
Mehwal Sardar azh path-pahrl 



7 8 B aloe hi Texts. 

Saiglst mar zurthal maut-guzarl, 

Phur khant beriya khan agdarl ; 

Agh basthagho nishtaghan hariskari 

Khakhtuii bahana Jang! Mazari, 50 

Sara hakale blthaghan nar Mazari, 

Adana nishta phullen shikari, 

Thlr kalivanl misil haur-gwari, 

Shi khat gondal kapa awarl, 

Khwaja janga wadh glr kharl ! 

Bastha Muluk Han tokal daryal, 

Dhar-dikk naptan Jang badshahl ! 

Tar-tukk zahman sobhen HudhaT ! 

Har mar ki kattl sawaden lakhal. 

JangI rana mal bitha mirau, 60 

Har do jahaz basth, khishta lurhao, 

Har do dema bitha zahma malandrl, 

Sari zahm bitha kota patangi, 

Takar sanhl misl af-bandl ; 

Sha galitho khushtaghan syal chandl. 

Dathana gwashta hamcho zawanl ; 

' Band beriyari, thau Gul mangehanl ! ' 
Rastha ShlrazI, jaghar-sind badhani, 
Poshldagho poshlne murshidani, 
Mehwal khushtagha, par durranl 70 

Matteri Plr Bashken kahev Zangalanl. 
Zahma-vakhta khishtan pech shaddavanl. 
Nur-Han Saragani go Bajarlya 
Vanjh beriya zurtho khapta man badhiya, 
Val hoshaghi shuptari Hana maniya. 
Darehan thegh gwashta zahranlya 

' Nelun maroshl jaureh badhiya.' 
Bavroan Hasan zahmjane mal 
Sari zahm suriharavo duzhmanl jhal; 
Chaukund zahma kakar basthagho chal ! 80 

Dathan janga sada bahazureii, 
Har jah ki zahm en sara hazureri, 



Balochi Texts. 79 

Phushta Jamal Shah Plr chadhureii. 
Khane Jamal Han Ghulam Husain mahtara 
Nehin bltha man zahm tara, 
Girokhl dhamal-ath savzeh saghara. 
Sacha maddateri Muhammad Langavara, 
Nazr gipto as dathal tupakara, 
Jatho rer-dathal ghallm paidhawara. 
Baze shimoshe Vagha sodehlya, 90 

Chyar zahmjathal be-baravlya, 
Jauren hasadi shudha khehavlya, 
Gor-o-kafana samundra kadhlya. 
Mahmud mirokheii go jaunhariya ; 
Sobb dathaghel durreri Navlya ! 
Budhu Juma kasab khanavam, 
Thlr gondale jenthaghan jabahanl. 
Masten Mazar gon-athant BimbhiranI 
Jauren hasadi khuthant tandalanl. 
Muhammad Mahmud jareh dil pha jam ; 100 

Zahman mirana Shahmlr Zimakanl, 
Chyar zahm dhalent jauren badhani! 
Lalu Lori, biya zemirani ! 
Singhar shairen zlr bahazuranl, 
Nokhen hadlsen sher-potravanl ! 
Mehwal rahdi yakjah khutha 
Chhil o chyar mar ma barkhan khutha 
Sir sawane cho lure lal khutha 
Sesar bahudan dil-o-jan khutha. 
Charhl Khane Karman jhureri badila. 110 

*Zir g'horave tha, pha sobha gala. 

Musa Mughal gwar-ant gwar Shakula ; 

Gorl ! nighozh-dar, Kuran haya. 

Zire Kurana, khane ma baya. 

Phurs Braholya azh akhara, 

Gul Muhammad wa gist o chyar bahazura 

Akhto shudhaghan jandara gara, 

Mahu kudhaghant ma Sindh-nara ! 



8o Balochi Texts. 

Bhaj rana ishtaghan sangata 

Man Jatroeh sandh sara ! ' 120 

XXIX. 

MIR HAMMAL SHA'R. 

Mulla Wasu Bulethl gushi : Mir Hammal Mithar thlr 
janagh rosh gushi. 

Hammala. badhle khutha mlri. 

Patara bhediari khai zirl, 

Rah-gidhari ki khaptagha gindant, 

Zanal ki Sher-potraveri Rind-ant. 

E hawar Mireri Hammala bind-ant. 

Raj azh shime pheshagha gwashta, 

Brath azh brath thashagha dashta, 

Shartl chind hareharlya. 

Eshan wahmeri cho shikariya 

Na hameri khoshtant go zor-zarlya. 10 

Eshan darman-eri avur dera, 

Gwar tho nodhari deh-chiragh bltha, 

Hareharlya laf-ser bltha, 

Harehari oshtathaghen dltha. 

Har-khadheri chindar rasl phlrl, 

Azh zahirah zirdah wath zirl, 

Agh na zlri jag be-zar-eri. 

Shart-janokh dargaha halakl-eri, 

Pha jan soghanda talakl-eh. 19 

XXX. 

KHOSA SHA'R. 

Shughro karin-sazen Hudha, 
Wadh Badshahe be-niyaz! 
Baz-eri the! rang-o-raza, 
Man pardawa rakhe manari, 
Man kuravo sezdah sadha ! 



Balochi Texts. 81 

Laditho hayavande marari, 

Ishtaish hawen droghen jahari. 

Haidar sakhlye sahiba, 

Khoho Nawaben Badshah, 

Shi Mir Chakara burzathira, 10 

Kullen Baloche azira. 

Sirlne Allye khanawan. 

Hane sakhiya Haidara, 

Jango Jazize lashkara 

Akhto ma dawae phire, 

Zahman karakuto miren 

Hamcho shutha Rabb-raza 

Khapta shahidl ma-phira. 

Go Khosaghen dawagaran 

NOran o Bakhu surehan 20 

Karm go varyamen Ahmada. 

Gwar Hazrat-ash bithai makan 

Tan kyamata shahvash lahant ! 

Baki malami phrushtaghant, 

Yar sangatan-I ishtaghant, 

Sharmlgha nindant ma meroan, 

Murdar haramana warant, 

Shi guda amlra zindagh-ant! 

Lori, ki tharana ba-rawe 

Malgha risala thai bare 30 

Amlren Murida sar-khane : 
'Tho Sarango bachhe vale, 
Basugar o dana thav-e, 
SharmI saren shairari gushe. 
Shair haman mard gushant 
Ki wadh-muharl dawagar-ant, 
Phesh methira joran khafant, 
Zahma do-dastlgha janant, 
Hai khushtatho hai kharithant, 
Hai shash-mah go phata narithant, 
Ki jana tablban durah khuthant.' 41 



8 2 Balochi Texts. 

XXXI. 

MARI SHA'R. 

Awwal jl name Allah-en 
Janan sha'ran ki rala-en, 
NakhutI buze awaheri, 
Wathi Mlrar gila-en. 
Pare zwar sarondahen. 
Deal, tha kull pardah-e, 
Na deal, tokale shah-e, 
Allye Shaha huka-en 
Gehan mardan nek-dawa-en. 
Hudha ki niyat yakh-eh 10 

Marl azh har-khasa sak-en. 
Karm Khan mast anthak-en, 
BadhiyanI sara dhak-en, 
Gwarakhe tha napt ya-dhak-en ! 
Thai duzhman jatho er-eri, 
Hudha khant azh tho sher-en, 
Sham o Phailawagh o Kahari. 
Khuthal mallm dan Sargahan, 
Srafen Gazen bungahah, 

Janana khakhtathan bahan, 20 

Mirokhen duzhmaneh drahan, 
Khumeth pha zeb jinsara, 
Banati sanj bulghara, 
Shitabi artha khardaran. 
GushI Mian Khan bi yarari 
( Marian band hathyaran 

Luren theghan wa talwarari' 
Jaldeh kashido khattan 
Karm Khaii artho pha sattan, 
Shuthaghan harljen dahl, 
Charitho Kwat MundahT, 
Laro Luk buna jahl; 






Balochi Texts. 83 

Gazao lashkara hulla 
Buna Bambor dari Dulla. 
Charhi bltha azh Luka, 
Mayarith chorav o chukhari, 
Bahadhur da rane dhukhan ! 
Ur-itha bar go MawranI 
Muzhen Beji khauranl. 

Shutho much bltha ma Bora. 40 

Hazaro lekhava khoran, 
Khumethan shll sar chora, 
Khutheri drahi ma Nar Hana, 
Dhawana khokarT warna 
Radhana khakhta gwar-ma. 
Hamedha akhtaghan char! ; 
Muhammad Khan manan dari, 
Da hala sar sawari, 
* Dhamltho deh dan chandarl 

Shutha Pathan pha Ilgarl.' 50 

GushI Karm Khan pha shah-sawarl, 
' Bhurlth roth sardari 

Na khaptai mesho zunhan. 

Sara bl Dad All chart, 

Mason gon Akhtyarl. 

Chara humbo the! sari. 

Bahadhur biyayan Jarowarl, 

Hudha Mir Muhammad biyarl, 

Gushe Turke Kandahar!. 

Marl pha gardaghai bara 60 

Na garduh azh Shame sara, 

Mayal Lunl ma Makhmara.' 
Khumethan laitha lara, 
Khuthan otak shafl handa ; 
Khumethan g'hanta cho khanda, 
ZamI chandl janagh granda. 
Giroldii pyadhagha khanda, 
Hulken datha pasanda 



84 Balochi Texts. 

Badhlye sajalen randa ; 

Charakhen pyadhaghe khanda 70 

Trafari Sher Muhammad o Surkhl 

Gushe ki hakiml Turk!. 

Sawahi bel-athen sara, 

Khune shart, khune hara. 

Phadhi baroa mam vara ; 

Hamodha ki blthagha sahra, 

Miruni go awwal pahra, 

Hamen garmen damo pahra 

Laghoren mard bant sara! 

Jatho mesh khuthen rah!, 80 

Dafa khapta hawen wahi, 

Mirl duhm! bara jahl. 

Sohav bl rosh go ela, 

Phadha naraen Muskhela, 
'Marl, sar ma da main mesha, 
Gharpish wazhahan phesha, 
Guda sar-de main mesha.' 

Dama chi Omara Bora, 

Nayan mazh Bambora, 

Maroshi jharunl phora. 90 

Jathe g'hute shighanani, 

Thav-e pentl mayaranT 

Na-mire sarhosh yaranl ! 

Sukhun khashta Karm Khana, 
' Laghoro mard bant sara. 
Mariyan khir athan khera, 
Jalab bitha ma hawen thera, 
Khutho Muskhel ma-nyam behra.' 

Samini pahana gwartha. 

Yad khutha Babul-Han Lakhl 100 

Jatha ma lakn lathi, 

Mudhan lahar-ath thai bhattl. 

Marl sobh phira khattl! 

Sari bahadhur takoranl ; 



Balochi Texts. 85 

Shudha zum zoranl, 

Phadha lend laghoranl; 

Gushe galphana boranl, 

Garlv o langav o lori, 

Na bltha-ish saho drori. 

Laghorari dashtaghan g'horl, 110 

Sare kutan cho syahmara: 

Kwaten tha phadha langa 

Phroshtam badhl jawanga 

Dem-ish khutha ganga. 

Gipta Mariya pha zum andhara, 

FratI biro' dan Kandahara. 116 



XXXII. 
DRlSHAK ZARKANf KARAKUT. 

I. 

Harm Shahzad gushl : durr-hadis Saidian! gushi : 
Drlshake Zarkaniye karakutan gushi : Muhibb, Daim, 
Tara khosh-rosh gushi : KechI Ahmad Khan sobh gushi : 
Mirdost Blvaragh sobh gushi. 

Nishtagho shukra guzaran, la-shariq dhart-pal, 
Mara phanj-vakhta maddat-en, nangare Multan Mai. 
Daur darwaren hasadi, ma zirih sore chal. 
Khar kuzraten Hudhai, na-ghumana shirr-shor, 
Ma go DrishakanI lagaen, khanawan! bhanj-bhor. 
Nangaren Sobha khushta, na shamoshta hon-ber, 
Main khawan lohe charitha, khail-athe jauhan dher. 
Suny syah-deme Jihanpur, phrushtaghe Jinda zor. 
Rahzane Suhrav jangi, ' Dost, mara na-shamosh ' 
Thegh-zane jangi Suhrav, khanave vakhta anosh ! 10 
Karmall hon nelaii ; dar-miyan bai, parde-posh ! 
Drehan hon na ravant, vail tharan' sal rosh, 
ThI Baloch druh pha badhl, har-khase pha band-bozh. 






86 B aloe hi Texts. 

Khushta Gamu JistkanI, bukhta zaranl himan ? 

Takare horn hudhabunda, khutha jang saman ; 

Rahzane Jalua thegha, Jistakl darughara. 

Cho mazarah bhir-kharthan, Zarkan khase-potravan. 

Sharbat o Jalu o Yara, ji sadhen brahondaghan, 

Keharl gajari deana, Omara sandhi khaman. 

Pharaghan gonen Walldadh, sanj malsham bihan, 20 

Zire jandren hathyaran, chare jauren duzhmanan. 

Las Sardara Fatuhal, zyadhahen wadhen nishan. 

Bag azh kotl galiyari, ruvtho bitha ravan. 

Khayan' baganl hudhabund, 'nelant tarl-madhaghan.' 

Daima karzl ravokh-en, khai pha gorl pohaghari, 

Mauhshareh Phitokh thaka, bitha gall go badhan. 

Surahen Shah-Bashk nafta, tradaki cho shlhanari. 

Ma-phira Shamiya phirain, zen drlkokhen bihan. 

Tran-khutha Mir Ahmadana, Hoten Kechiya lura, 

Nangare Mlrdost Blvaragh, pha amlrl mansaba, 30 

Pakar Shahe Rasule, dawal Pir o Murshidan. 

Khashtagheh charl kadhaken, char-balanl derawari. 

Rahzane hote Karlmdad, Havlv Pahlavan 

Mondaranlya Hudhadath, nest andesha azh badhan. 

Chhil chauklya haiyare, Hadhrat akhlr-zaman 

Sobha sobhani kh' imam-e, go amlrl mansaba. 

Pir Sohrl ma-sar-en, go Han granen lashkaran, 

Saila pha Sindha khanana, Ahmad Han pahlavari. 

Shahr tattlyari phulana, go hazarl nuzbatari. 

Bada Chutta lafashta, grl' pha Suhrava zawan. 40 

Randa gartha gumrahiya, mesh ruvta go buzari. 

Edha DrishakanI gehenari, tran-khutha wadh-pha-wathari, 

Khashta Tarkhana Sukhune, * chosh nelun duzhmanan.' 

Gangalo zaurikhan shamoshe, Drlshak sar-khashe alaii, 

Ishtaghan' khat go palanga, dost go lalen manjavari. 

Gwashta Rindoa pha mardl, ' chosh nelun duzhmanan.' 

Syal khayant azh Marava, sikh zahmani galari, 

Udr baladh na charl, Bashkall Sabzal-Han 

Hoten Kaura o Fatuhal, ma-sari chlnda-valari, 



Balochi Texts. 87 

Shango saigist bahadhur, shingo uzhmar sadhari. 50 

Hoten Chata o Nihalhan, ma-sar-ethant phe khaman, 
Hamal udr na charl, ma Balochi lekhavaii. 
Chak-khadhan savzen sagharan, surihanl khoparan, 
Keharen Jla o Sadhu, zahml bahadbureri alari. 
Bastha a-bande jhuriyan, khanavam mar-mar 
Odha ki Murcha gada, ma-sar-enl Aliyar. 
Ranakagha holan poshah, whash Daluya tawar, 
Thegh Kala mangehanl, Shahali zarkhawar. 
Shiddato Shahro hona, sanj athafi zen khunar. 
Hoten Chohil o Kalandar, Phong drimbokhen mazar. 60 
Udr baladha na charl, durr-hadlsen Shahyar. 
Thegh Lal-han mangehanl, bltha zahmanT guzar. 
Shambo go Syaha Thalena, zen hull go asara. 
Gahware bachheh Balochan, suraheii dawagara ; 
Khaptagha ma jang-jhora, bltha nehTh ma-sara. 
Sadh hazar shabas ashken math phulen Kalphura. 
Bahadhur Hanara hilal-ant, shaddo bir ma sara. 
Sohna darmana hilal-ant, ashkanT halsl sara. 
Tagya go Bashkaliya, Manaka dast gwara, 
Math ShahbazI niventha, burithai shahbazh gwara. 70 
Bor phauzha mar-lawash-en, bal ma phauzhanl sara. 
Bor Allah Bashke tulana, urd granen chapara, 
Go Masorlya Nihal-Han, khanavam man gara, 
Pakare Shahen 'Aliye, Rabb rakha pardawa, 
Pahar Gulshera hilal-ant, sundare sher-nara. 
Kalphure hoten All-sher, bashkatha sobh kadira; 
Gon Shahvaz wa' sarlya, go dast-sandl sargala. 
Bingo, Jam o Phurthos, Bakarl dawagara. 
Namzadhen Hauran Bodho, sohun phauzhanl sara, 
Kasim o Blra mirokhen, zahmo o durrkhiran dhura, 80 
Dhamal o Hassu Batil, sohava ba ma-sara; 
Duzhmana deh lafashta, thakhto dan Sindh bahara 
Nam bulanden Ahmadane, akhto sobh khutha. 
Nindan' Jinda o Haiyat Han, mar geheii bant yagsara 
Chapul Kechlya jathaghe, man-akhtai man dafa. 



88 Balochi Texts. 

Bandane shahran na bande, burza azh Fatehpura, 
Gokh dari Jhalaye na charan', Chedhaghlya dan sara, 
Dil mam nokhen chahe warth, cho samundarl jlharan, 
Gosh Jinda dardvande, esha Harm bayam. 89 

Nm thara dast niyayant, gwasthagha gwanden ragham. 
Nishto shughra-guzareii, ma khawind bhanjogaran, 
Nosha kharwall sharavari, ekwa ninde dlgaran, 
Dil thai bodh niyal, phar wathl shahzadaghaii. 
O Jinda Khan Drlshak! 94 

2. 

Kabul Gullan gush! : durr-hadlsen Dombkl gushl : 
i-mar Harlnar, Haddehara phasawe dath gushl : Syahaf 
thashagho rosh gushT : glst-o-chyar mar khushagh rosh 
gushl : bazeii baganl rosh gushl : Nindo, Jinda, Hayat 
Han sobh gushl. 

Kunf awazen Hudhal, la-sharlq parwaren, 
Azh kursh Badshahen, rahmdilen zorawaren. 
Jinn, bhut, deh-malaikh, jun hamo juzindaghen, 
Mund yakh-eri, lamb bazen, har-khas drashk-bar-en. 
Momina bashken Hazura, din Rasul Paighambaren, 
Agh parhe phanchen namazan, si roshaghan dare, 
Odh gwar Sahiben sitarari, baz pasind paidaware, 
Shath go shahldah awar bl, agh parhiyao alim-e; 
Sip ma durren daryaia, agh sakhl o surih-e ; 
Jannatl hur kasuraii, agh shahadata lahe; 10 

Momin o sunnl o dindar, pahlavan dm-dar e, 
Kabul o Kashmir o Kandahar, dar o parbat e, 
Purab o Dilli o Dakhan, badshah ald-o-shar e. 
Gwar Hayat Han saghara, shah pakar pardav-e, 
Dast-sakhl o durr-daryaen, phauzh g'horo Kehar-e. 
Thangaven Drlshak baraghen bor, sanj banat kezum-e, 
Isparan, geha poshak, kharch katar jamdare, 
Jabah cho chilen patanga, gran-grofen g'horave, 
Thegh nokh-sanjen barakhan, duzhmana dem dafe. 
Daur-darwaren hasadl, cho karabl kalm be. 20 






B aloe hi Texts. 89 

Sultane rafi madateri, nukrl wazhah-e, 
Nindo Mirzl saghara, zahm-jane dawagar-e, 
Davtarlyeii surihanl, pakar Panjen Tan-e, 
Sher-autar hawaran, chamburan thashe, 
Mai maniye mazaraii, hoshaghi gil mushtaghe, 
Ahmad bazen bihanan, khoh pha-nalan shlthaghe. 
Jinda karwall sharavari, geshtara malim thav-e, 
Thakhtal Syahaf gwazena, takht Zarkan-potrave. 
Glst-o-chyar marde ki khushta, Kalphur o Rahejave, 
Azh shame gwath malya, akhira zhand blthaghe. 30 

Bage thankhan g'hatan, patarl boharthaghe, 
G'horavl danzan dataii ma muzhan gar blthaghe. 
Khaftaghe ma chhur Chaunkhan, shai gushe edha niye, 
Azh manl Jang hirasa, patr Kahan thashe, 
Phole bakkalT vahlyan, lekhavan sar shon niye. 
Thangaiya khosh yat-en, DrTshakan geshtar khushtaghe, 
Malgh o thaighi lagaen pha-dar baklya gane, 
Guzh-de, O Harm, hadisah, drogh ma band, ki shair-e, 
Drogh pha Imana khata-en, aghalfama ishtaghe, 
Khaftaghe Klrgal dana, ma-sara charl thashe, 40 

Chikitha g'horo Drlshakari, guda be-was bldiaghe, 
Baitha Mlhan o Sanjar, tho chi lajjl zmdaghe, 
Hammala Mirzl saghara sharr naslhat dathaghe. 
Whazh-gushen qabil darokheri, nughdaho galan bare, 
Main salama durr-hadlsen Haddehar hancho gushe, 
Mard borani sipata geshtara baz khane, 
Bug Kaura Bugtlya thau go Rinda gwar jane, 
Kalphura Hajl jawegha, nashk namudha diye, 
Rind ma Phedl banindan, takht Shorana sare, 
Dan rajl Dombkiye, zanath o sarihal niye, 50 

Durr-hadls, glnd o dihan khan, thau radhen thirari jane. 
Daim o Tara Muhibba, tek Suhrava gane, 
Mozhagh, taseri rakhefan, go sawasa matt khane, 
Arshafi, suhraii muhrari, nughra chachhoh tule? 
Chi gushan man shairara ? jufoa jhat khane, 
Slth Lasharl 'All Sher, khenagh o kivran athe. 



90 B aloe hi Texts. 

Dathaghan singh ma dahana, cho gudan g'hatl jane, 
Khoh masteh Bugtlya, khanavan sahmenthaghe, 
Phurse Lai-Han Phadehana, Haddeh, go ma er-e, 60 
Plr Murshid go Wall Han, thagharda akhtaghe, 
Thangaven Drlshakan khutho muhnt, phadha tharen- 

thaghe, 

Shirr Jalua kharo bl, phedh sangatl thav-e, 
Shirr shumat kharo khudh, khar shaitanl phar-e, 
Girdaghen bag azh kilatan, Mer Jatani jathe, 
Daima, Tara, Muhibba, sohve Muhammad pur-e. 
Geshtara bada zahra, cho patangl ma jal-e. 

Shanzdah jangi bahadur matt khafta havd-sadhe, 

Phanjah but karal, sisthagha dem o daf-e, 

Dathagha sar pha manayan, pha shahidi mansabe. 

Nishtaghen dlma shumara, farz goyam kalamave. 71 






XXXIII. 

KHOSA LEGHARI JANG. 
I. 

Sobha Teghall gush! : Jarwaren Baloch gushi : Khosagh 
Kaloi karakuta gush! : Leghari bautiyari kharde gal 
gushi. 

Whazh-gushen Relan shadhihanl shagha bare, 

Main salam bi shaira Gahiya diye, 

Nishto droghani zawana whash khane, 

Ewakhl sera go manah chachhon tule? 

Bhucharl Dalan kilat nam gire, 

Nuh-manen barafira wathar kans-diye, 

Jawanak urdanl raghaza roshe khafe, 

Ahih sher hathi raghasa chit-arthaghe, 

Sher chapula azh Kharara thala guze, 

Go manan hair bl, zamma jahl lahe, 10 

Phesh guda main sailavanl dempan thav-e. 

Agh thara wahm bl, zamlna jaiz khane. 



Balochi Texts. 91 

Dav-charen zahmanl na-washeri jaha rase ! 

'Shingura 'shahgur lashkaraii demo-dem khuthe, 

Zahranen mardari nodh-dilan serafa jathe. 

Jawanak urdani tawaren goshaii khafl, 

Harchyar dema g'horavanl dato rudhl, 

Cho thai bachhanl dafani gonaf hushl, 

NodhI berana beg'hava biyayan 1 thanahl. 

Biya, O, Lasharl azh gwareya dar-khaptaghe ? 20 

Gud azh Zunua g'horava rosha gar-athe, 

Sailal Miren Chakura phauzha ruthaghe, 

Rind nar-boran azh zamina resinthaghe, 

Khushtagha Ramen, damamo charenthaghe. 

De manan nashkan, thau khithan rosh khard bithaghe ? 

Bakar o Rameni khithan lada gon-athe ? 

G'horavo urdan phelatho TurkanI rukh-ath, 

Doshl ma Jhala Turk g'horayan grandaghath, 

Ari-dema Gandavagh Hudha mam dem blthaghath. 

Turk shadkam ath, Rind shamedha zahr giptaghant, 30 

Hon azh chhamanl chimaka dar-khaptaghant. 

Gwashta maiyan 'Mam hudhabund gon-khaptaghant' 

Lajjavo ShoranI dhanlyan gran blthaghant, 

Bijar Phuzh, Chakur, Shahdhar akhtaghant, 

Allan o miskani Sahak madan athant, 

Jaro, Rehan o Hasan sani bithaghant, 

Bagavo lajjanl sara katar dathaghant, 

Asp go sonaen zarlya bashkathaghant, 1 

Pyadhagha Rindan takht Shoran akhtaghant. 

Thorave Rindara oil Lasharl wur ath, 40 

Mir go Phula azh Kawara drikenthaghant. 

Whash-gushen Relan, shadhihanl shagha bizlr, 

Mard pha bautan choshant, sardare mam. 

Gahwar o Hanen Sahibana jag sahl, 

Gwar Nawav Han kuk burtha bazen ban, 

Gorshaniya sangat o Kahan Marl, 

Burza go Sumenzala bradhargarl. 

1 Or Bor-izh ma lajjanl katar dathaghant. 



92 Balochi Texts. 

Akhta gwar Hanen Jawanaka bautari thai, 

'Khosaghan, ki ma niyan Leghari khadhl.' 
Go ma chyar sala nishtagha bautl sharikh, 50 

Bandave khohen nashka to hapt phushti guzl. 
Manik logha har-khasl omedha durah, 
Manik khato bihisht jo sara. 
GudI sama khotal pahrae phadha. 
Do Balocham akhtaghant wakyal sara, 
Do shafa bitha gwar thai Khaneri Methira, 
Chham arizlyan raftaghant x grlhana phadha, 
Do-baha dathen markhave paida-ish khuthen, 
Lajjl banukhan phar wathi shana bashkatheri. 
Doda thai namuz ma jihana mashar atheh, 60 

GudI drahiye basthal go Hanen Shakhala, 
Tumi gwazentha wa ganjeri Bakhara. 
Jawanak phauzhanl sara Gajl Barbara, 
Shah mariya gonekha go Sheren Haidara, 
Nm ki akhta dan Sin Mithawana, 
Niyamaghl zlhar maiii sharikhah har do sara, 
Jahl-burzlya Hikbaiya 2 resintha alari, 
DeunI reba, er-khafi jahiya buna, 
Sher ki gwamesh phroshi lorhaya dara, 
Banz ki slmurgh jhatlth maidana sara, 70 

Hanen Arziya gwankha bi ambrahia jatha, 
Khosaghan nal-basthen galagha kurka khutha, 
Lajj whantkaraii phil-athi simurghla burtha, 
Ispar o savzen nezaghan Bashkya sah khutha, 
Hanen Dilshad mardiya bera tharatha. 
Shai phitha ashk eii ki shamar paida khutha ! 
Hardo urdanl nyamagha saml suhr khutha, 
Doda Hanen Jawanakar zlthen hair khudia. 78 

1 Or garthaghant. 

2 Or Jahl-burziya hek-bya resintha jaran. 



Balochi Texts. 93 



2. 

Gahl Gorish gushl : Kalol gushl : Sobhar phasave dath 
gushl. 

Whazh-gusheri Relan shadhihani shagha biyar, 

Kaunsh bang'hava gwar mam baladha bidar, 

Chambave sak jan, malghl dlla gham guzar, 

Jang! katara dil ma chande : jawanan bisar. 

Nishtaghe sata whash nish namudh tawar, 

Azh waliyanl khashtaghe rand o kissava. 

Hair phadha. Raj Han roshant, Jang syaheri shafant, 

Jang phadha mard o markhavari jawain rosh niyant, 

Gahwarefi hind! bingaven hotari charant, 

Dauraven kotanl sawada zel khanant. 10 

Chandehan warna pha-dafa gozafi janant, 

Jangavo ninja bl, phadha pahnadh girant, 

Bingaven hotan! raghama ambrah niyant. 

Azh phadha guda nishto amsodh warant, 

Go doen dastan sar-o-zana janant ! 

Jangani dahaka har-chyar khundan phirant, 

Gwadilen mar go gindagha goriya trahant. 

AshikanI khar-eri, medhana ravant, 

Taukal berlya dilar telanka deant 

Malighl dlla pha zirih o zirih-posh khanant, 20 

Kadahan zahrena sharabl nosh khanant, 

Ma sagharani thaftaghen jhorah khafant, 

Gahwaren thegha phar wathl namudha janant, 

Go wathl Khanen Methira miskl zarant. 

Whazh-gushen Relan shadhihani shagha bare 

Main salam bl shairen Sobhar diye : 

'Methira! randa zlr, ki Bhoimpura khaie? 

Man dila zan ki tho Khosagha mathl-brath niye 

Sobh laban nyamaghl daran sushe. 

Armana! zanant azh sadheri sala gwasthaghe, 30 

Hai ganokh e, hai ya thana kisthage ! 



94 Balochi Texts. 

Bakar o RamenI shaghana mara jane, 

Tho khithan roshl Rind Lasharl blthaghe ? 

Ki ma daryayanl lahravo chalan gar athe. 

Beghava Miren Chakura chaukldar athe.' 
Ma wathi shan cho mastharen Rind pholatha, 
Evakhi ser go manafi har-ro tolatha, 
Man thai hathl maghaza shon dean, 
Biya medhana : chambava slmurgh bian janah. 
Arava mardan Sawana lahrl rasthaghe, 40 

Nokh-nochan phagh phithl mardum basthaghe, 
Mark nasenthe, pha chihan roshe shadeha, 
Shan phirenthe, gandaghen gin dosteha; 
Man dila zan ki maut thara nell dan-sara. 
Dodal dang bitha man bawren chadhara. 
Medh-Machhlya Hamzaha jori na be. 
Khosaghan Rinda manavo maniya dar-e. 
Phuturen Rind chori khutha baut phadha ? 
Gohare hiranl sara choh khutha Mlreri Chakura? 
Sammiya gokhanl phadha Doda lura, 50 

Khoh sar-dema keharen mana lura, 
Sar wathi dathal gariben mal sara? 52 

3- 

Sobha Thegh 'All gushl : Jarwaren Baloch gushi : 
Gahiyar phasave dath gushl. 

Kadir nama har sawaha yad khanari, 

Sagsataren bandaghl ardase manan. 

RelanI Lori, biya, hadlsanl durr-gehah, 

Saz-khane shagha, gwash BalochanI nugdahaii. 

Daima nyadh-e blthen go Sultanl sarari. 

Rind o Lasharl ma-buna brathan daima, 

Makhta Lasharl Baloch khapta pha shighan. 

Mihane zirl, 1 roth Panjgura deha, 

Kech Panjgur kissava gosh-dar ki gushan. 

Ma hawan Rinduh azh Halaba phadh-alditaghun, 10 

1 Or zan ki. 



B aloe hi Texts. 95 

Dubaran jangi go Jazlza man-akhtaghun, 1 

Dem rosh-asan azh sarlna er-khaptaghun, 

Hamzah aulad sobh rasula bashkathaghun, 

Shahr Istambol go Imama wath charthaghuh, 

Harl malhana pharahl shah-daga akhtaghun, 

An-gurl dasta thlbare janga giptaghuri, 

Rabb sahlghen ki shl JabanI Shaihan khard bun, 

Mol Slstana go jangi jawan-mardan gon-athQn, 

Shahr Slstana wur khamanan bahr-blthaghuii, 

Ma Jaghma gwar Shams Din Shah akhtaghuh, 2 20 

Pha Karlm-saz kuzrata shodha gwasthaghuh, 

An-gurl Kecha Makurana bahr blthaghun, 

Pha-thura jangi shodh Harlna khashtaghun. 

Shedh pha dema ma Baloch thala blthaghun. 

Shedh pha dema thau wathi nashka de manari. 

Rind ma Kecha: Kech than dema nishtaghe? 

Chhil o chyar halkari : go khal lada gon athe ? 

Nin-ki ladana khaurl sar-hadda akhtaghun, 

Las-Belao Kalmatlyari gl-warthaghun, 

Habb Barana pha-muvarik she-bithaghuri, 30 

Phesha NuhanI azh Nallya er-khaptaghant, 

Jistkani ma Gaj-syahafa bukhtaghant, 

Lakh-Salarl Chandeh Kacha nishtaghant, 

Chatr Phulejl mari-sara Hotari giptaghant, 

Rind Lasharl Narmukh rej bukhtaghant. 

Rind azh Dhadara sarlna er-khaptaghant, 

Lashar pha Gandavagh sara-era bithaghant. 

Jalikan Loi thau khithan joan bahr-athe ? 

Gind ! navah, Gahl, thau radhlya gon-khaptaghe ? 

Arna Harm basthaghen baldaii gon-athe ? 40 

Thau hawan roshe be-mayarl akhtaghe. 

Sahib rosh zurthagheii zarari arthaghe, 

Shera man-datha pha-do-handa khard blthaghe. 

Zindagho druaha man dighara sar-blthaghe. 

1 Or Azh phadha be-dlne Jazlza gon dathaghun. 

2 Or Ma Jaghlna go Shamshahl Shekha akhtaghun. 



9 6 



Balochi Texts. 



Phurse Gahia! Thau chl masklfl zindaghe, 

Waptaghen mardanl thafakhan go mail gane. 

Thau go dah logha akhto baut blthaghe, 

Han Miriya pha barata charl athe, 

Tupak daste Umar Han bashkathaghe, 

Man-dila zan ki thau mazen-shan mat niye, 50 

Tho raj ahane, an thai SultanI sar-ant, 

Gwar manl mlra akhto baut blthaghe, 

Harchyar khundaii har hamu rajan dlthaghe. 

Khumbhl go khan! shaghana mara jane, 

Khoh phish-bure ambaranl sifat khane ! 

Gwashtaghari gala Gahi, thau saharal na-be, 

Medhira randa zlr, pha Bhoimpura khayant, 

Manik halka hon avo lajja rikhtaghant, 58 

Dan phadh-o-phesh-I chedhaghl nask oshtathaghant. 



Gahi Gorish gushi : Kaloien Baloch gushl : Sobhar 
phasave dath gushl. 

Biya O Relan shadhihanl, 

Shah ghazi charawani, 

Majlis jawanen saranl. 

Zlr manl guftar-galah, 

Bar gwar jang-dosteh syalari, 

Band-bozh galan dahena, 

Phasavan sar-pha-sarena, 

Gondalan seran manena, 

Bar da Sobhaen nighoshl, 

Oil guftaran shamoshl. 10 

Zlri randa phlrukegha, 

Bahr khant milka phithegha. 

Chi gushan man shairara, 

Dil-harlfen sugharara? 

KhashI RindanI shaghana, 

Yad-khan' oil jihana. 



B aloe hi Texts. 97 

Gosh ! Sobha maiigehanl, 

Daftarl e KhosaghanT. 

Rand zurthe MakuranI, 

Rind Lashar dehani. 20 

Rind Lasharl awara, 

Raftaghant azh Kech shahra, 

Akhtaghant Harm malana, 

Mulk mitafa girana, 

Brath yarl bahr-khanana, 

Bithaghuii bahr khamana. 

Makhl Jatoi yagsar athuri, 

Sim jo-a phado athuri, 

Mulk shahra nemagh athun. 

Roz bahar pha thir-daran. 30 

Chyarakhe ma Dhadar ethant, 

Ser ma ma Khanpur ethant, 

Hand ma rej deh ethant, 

Sar go Mlren Chakur ethant. 

E man! pera o rand-eii, 

Phutureri Rindam hand-en, 

Nam ma rajah buland-eri. 

Agh thara etibar na bltha, 

Khasa go chhama na dltha, 

KhattI kuhneri gwar niyatheri, 40 

Gwah shahid khadh niyatheh; 

Kissavani kissavathant, 

Har khase 'shl hanchosh athant! 

Man sahi ah, Sobha, khap-khate, 

Ne pha rand perowate, 

Sobh drapa Jawanakegha. 

Jufo jhata wathlya, 

Drogh-bande zahirlya. 

Rast gushagh rast riwah-eh, 

Drogh pha Imana khata-eh, 60 

Ar pha guftara taiyar be, 

Shedh-dema gawahlya de, 



98 Balochi Texts. 



Khatte mara khash phe-de. 

Biya azh sha'ran karar khan, 

Oil Rindari pha phadha khan, 

Nlna-wakhta kissawa khari. 

SarphadhenI pha gwara khan, 

Mam hadlsan man dila khan. 

Sobhal khaptaghe azh drikh-balan, 

Thai nighwari sher nalan, 60 

Sunya thai Tuvl dalan. 

Zurthiya jangeh manlyah, 

Zulm zora Sahiblya, 

Phrushtagha be-ronaghlya, 

Zurthaghe mardari gehena, 

Chandeha juhl-khenaghena. 

ROnghan Bador yaraii, 

Sanghar ladi mazaran, 

Shan hilalen khohistana, 

Muhammad Han druh-gehana, 70 

Zeb Bozdara, hilal-ant 

Shaddav o khes go khawahan. 

Nind-o-nyadh gwar Umara Han. 

Hal kharthan hanskari, 

Gwar mam Sardar o Hana, 

Gwar ma bautl ki akhta. 

Azh thai Jang! rahedha. 

Runghan o Kandor Bador, 

Shango Sanghar dan Sirlya, 

Banda bazeri Bakhariya, 80 

Raj-athant siman darlya, 

Drust khakhtaghant whazhdiliya, 

Gwarikh Leghar charlya. 

Phurs, Sobha shairara, 

Sughar o lekhl wathara, 

' Whazha ' 'shl medhirara, 

Whazha thel dem ma shushte, 

Lashkaran Jame ma khushte, 



Balochi Texts. 99 

Shakula her shamushte, 

Mangehl sha'r pha hisav-ant, 90 

Gal pha uzhmaro kitav-ant, 

Majlise ma meravan bant, 

Dan nighoshan nishtaghen sat. 

Akhtaghen baut ki khaiyant, 

GirdI sardaran gehena, 

Dostan cho chhaman doena, 

Azh bachh-brathan bingoena, 

Sha pha bautan wathlya, 

Lajj neshta pha phadhiya, 

Bukho-en shwal marigeho shan ? 100 

Khadh na khant cho ma Balochan. 

Akhtaghe lajja wathlya, 

Khashtaghant gudr lavilan, 

Mai madl go gallmah. 

Basth kharthant mam vaklla, 

Azh thai kota garhena, 

Thai medhira dlr-zanaghena 

Ditha go chhaman doena, 

Gosh, Sobha o niazl, 

Esh manl guftar-bazl, 110 

Thau ki guftare kahetha 

Man di pha goshan sunetha 1 

Tupaka-danga ganetha, 

Cm ma shan a sar-akhta ? 

Phurse Sardara wathlya, 

Jawanaka be-amilena, 

Bakhmal o bor go khawahari, 

Dathaghen main Umara-Han, 

Han Balochana Nawava, 

Nukarl bokhta-ish thana, 120 

1 Note the use of the verbs kahagh and sunagh, borrowed from the Urdu 
kahna and sunna, to say and to hear. Cf. also rahedha (1. 77), a past form 
from the root of the Hind, rahna, to remain. None of these verbs have 
been generally adopted in Balochi. 



ioo Balochi Texts. 



Datha Hot en Jawanakara. 

PholathI oil banindari, 

Blthaghe baut go Rindan, 

Khoh phish-buren nihengari. 

Phish phara khoha shaghan nest ! 125 



XXXIV. 
SINAMAN-SHA'R. 

Nishto shora guzarari 

man gwar shahen Malika, 
Terumi 1 san maroshl 

pardava rakhl Hudha, 
Gosh, thau Mir Han Malukeri 

thau mam guptaragha, 
Man gushari rasten havare 

thau ma-ranj-e man dila, 
Shahiri mlrat mara 

lahrl atka mam dila, 
Yabare hoten Haviv Khan 

dost-ath-ish har-khasa. 
Zar mal be-kiyasa 

ash thau gwar baz burtha, 
Nm Haviv Khan na gindari 

man ma Mlra derava. 
Zahranen hoteh Haviv Khan 

chukh Sorlya sara, 
Yabare dost! baz-ath 

go hame khatu-gala ; 10 

Gozhd gamdim be-kiyasa, 

thau datha ma khat sara. 
Dostiha brathe hamesh-ath, 

dubara thai bag! jatha, 

1 Note the use of the corrupt form ' terurm' for 'thirteenth,' instead 
of 'senzdumi.' 



Balochi Texts. 101 

Niyata phushte murade, 

bahr khuthal go bandagha. 
Brahimo hoten Phathehan, 

nishta thai logha gwara, 
Neri tha lerave dan! datha, 

wa' pha khushlen dila. 
Ma nishto hairan loturi 

pha thai haisl sara, 
Thai duzhman jaureri hasaddl, 

ah khafant soreh zira ; 
Nangareri Soharl jant-ish 

wa' pha sav-zen nezagha ; 
Dalian o Mlreri Salem Khan, 

batha hairanl thala, 
Allana gwar Shah Mehran, 

ah khisaneh danea, 20 

Thai khawan lohena charlth 

Plran kulla sarwara. 
Sindhurl thegha thaiyeh, 

hukmeh Makhdum Sahiva, 
Yaill daste phusht-e 

bithaghe kulla sawa. 
Thai rauza o bhattl balagheh 

bahg'hava dah begaha, 
Guzhnagho bazeh shudhlya 

Nihdan Mira derava. 
Gosh thau, Mir Han, malukeh, 

samajh ma mauzhane dila. 
Nind, ma logha khush bl, 

odh ma Mm daptara, 
Tha khane ald-o-sharayah, 

wa' phara main khudha, 
Bil-dai drogh o libasah, 

alima pharamagha. 
Drogh pha Imana khata-eh, 

barkate hechl niya, 30 



IO2 Balochi Texts. 

Terumi san en maroshi, 

jufawa pasanava. 
Bratha go bratha dl jangeri, 

mal milkanl sara. 
Sahibl dltha PhiringI 

o haya hechi niya, 
Tran khutha Sindha gehena, 

hame sardar-gala, 
Drahi bastha pha gehlya, 

ba-rawuri avur Rajanpura, 
Dltha jalsa SahivanI, 

cho ki dltha har-khasa. 
Sahivan datha salahe, 

bi hame sardar-gala, 
' Imbara rawunl ma khoha, 

dauravo Phailawagha,' 
G'horavan gard o gawareri, 

burz avo miskeii Shama, 
Leravo-gala bahaghant, 

jahla thaiikhanl dafa. 40 

Sinaman Burjaen jinda 

khoh thegha bera^ia, 
Jahla dan Syahaf shahrari, 

burz dan Kahari Barkhava. 
Ah nareri madhagh khuthaghah 

chapparoaii yabara, 
Gartho Sahiv dl khakhtan, 

jahla ma Sindha buna. 
Naukari baz datha, 

bi hawan sardar-gala. 
Duz khayan' giptaghiya, 

daur azh shahr chitara, 
Burza zha phullen Marlya, 

azh Bugti phalava, 
Ma man! aghl o dihana, 

azh mulka shutha. 48 



Balochi Texts. 



103 



XXXV. 

Another poem on the same subject in the Jatki 
dialect of Western Panjabl. 

Karal yad pak parwar kuri, 
Sakhi sardar Sahib kuri. 
Sunnan sarkar awanda, 
Thia ruh khush abhawanda, 
FiringI urda bahanda, 
Baghl de burz dahanda, 
ParyakI kile udawanda, 
Fatah kar sob chawanda. 
Meda hi mulk da zila, 

Kit! Sinaman thiwis bhala, 10 

Dushman kuri markar dhila, 
Vanjas thi hosh phophila, 
Na hosi mulk vijh gila, 
KiyamI muhkame zila. 
Chitti kar Burs ne path!, 
Parhea Sinaman agon ditti, 
Paharari kar yake badhi, 
Laran kuri fauj uriheri kadhl. 
Kavvar-kar josh nal uthi, 
Kltus cha kuch Dere te, 20 

* Ise phulari dl sere te, 

Vesari mairi mulk daure te 

Ajab Syahaf phere te, 

Desari sek zere te, 

Larari maidan ghere te/ 
Jitehai shahr i Rajanpur, 
Charhea lashkar taiyarl kar. 
Pushakari jor-kar sambhar, 
Thia Sinaman aguri bahazar, 
Ture ghora bahuri rah-bar, 30 

Arab da bahuri zorawar, 



IO4 BalocM Texts, 



Hukm kuri kar puchhan nokar, 

Bahadur sher Haidar Khan. 

Charhea sangat Mazaran Khan. 

Leghariya Jamalan Khan, 

Buzdaran Nur Muhammad Khan. 

Ajab tola Sikandar Khan. 

Sakhi datar Mlran Khan, 

Adalat nek Imam Bakhsh Khan. 

Sahib de nek-naml da, 40 

Sunea khalkat jihanl da, 

Aguri ha Rum ShamI da, 

Teda lashkar kiyaml da. 

Laren shamsher zahmi da, 

Rahe har the hukaml da. 

Aql ha! bahun fahml da, 

Mujonis urd do akkhar, 

Sahibe Green da lashkar ; 

Thein-i yak-jah do othar, 

Misal i drakht jun chapar ; 50 

Kare kharka zamm kappar. 

Latthe Syahaf tambu kar, 

Ghulame Murtaza mashar. 

Ate nahm khutt rast 1 panl da, 

Barude tofdanl da, 

Thilhin gale halwam da, 

Vahe jo mauzh panl da, 

Sunan kane, na sanl tha, 

Sahib he daur mam da, 

Ate geae urd paharan charh, 60 

Banaeas rah sarakan ghar, 

Pattheas kashid ki ' Tun a-par, 

Lattha maidan vich jakar, 

Nisai mulk vich pakar.' 

Ate charhea Ghazan a-milea, 

Pihchan te urd phir valea, 

1 For rasad. 



Balochi Texts. 105 

Duhain te tofakari chalea, 
Phirin shlhan vangeri kalha, 
Na deve matt koT vala. 

Hame sarkar uzhmara, 1 70 

Jihan draushl zhi dakara, 

Tamam mulke dan Kandahara, 

Adalat blagheri darbara, 

Hazurl burzT sarkara, 
Ton he Sahib kamanari da, 
Tori he Sahib samanari da, 
Tori he Sahib jawanari da, 
Uchcha ju roh banari da, 
Jithe baitheri nishan ala ! 
Hun muridari Shah Kalandar da, 80 

Bulea mam slfat andar da, 
Mehtar Isa paighambar da 
Dittus thele sakhawat da, 
Khawind sabh roz-langar da. 84 

XXXVI. 
NAWAB JAMAL KHAN WAFAT SHA'R. 

Panju BangulanI gushi : Jamal Han Leghari wafata 
gushl : durr-hadisen Baloch gushi. 

Hazrat Sohran Rusula yad khanari, 
Yad khanari Plra, phalava shahlgha giran, 
Mari dl go pakeri Khamda 2 ardase khanari, 
Lottho Iman bachh go shir dldhaghari. 
Bashk gunahari ma'af khane kulleri bandaghari, 
Serizdahml sameri ummate khotaeri zawan, 
Jufo e jhateri droheri pha dln-bradharari. 
Phar dafa Iman lottha Shaheri Qadira, 
Do jihan mar bashkari pha razikheri dila. 
Malika ardase khuthe Jame Shahara, 10 

a The five lines 70 to 74 are in Balochi. a For Khawinda. 



io6 Balochi Texts. 

Saidh auliya rah sakhl anhl ba chura. 

Zir guptarari, gushindaeri langavari, 

Saz-khane taran sarodh damblravan, 

Bare ma Chotia, biashkhune Leghari jawan. 

Mir Jamal-Hane nekhlo tarlfan khanari, 

Rurig'han Bador daii Sin o Mithavvana, 

Khohe Pathane Barkhawah ganje Naharan. 

E Jamal Han takht saigha am-jihan 

Pha karezaeri khashagha Rabb kuzrata, 

Dan jihan asten nashk, ishtl pha kissavan. 20 

Mir Jamal-Hana Tagya-Hana tran khuthal, 

Las Leghari jumla kullari gwan'-jathal, 

Nishtagheh mardaii ash phadhigha mokal khuthal, 

Suhr sona zar chandle ladithal, 

Ag-butan pha samundranl pand khuthal, 

Nokhsaren nokhan mizilan jahl phujithal, 

Hajj darbar wa' sharlfe ziarat khuthal, 

Jan chl dukhan gunahan aja khuthal, 

Do-hazar rupia maulblara bashkathal, 

Whazhdil o whashl pha phadhl randa pand khuthal, 30 

Vag muhana naukaran ben chikthaghe, 

Si hazar rupia azh Jamal-Hana kharch athe, 

Leravo lokan Derava akhto khen khuthe. 

Murshido Plran Tagya Shaha rakhithe, 

Ma Baloch wara naghuma burj drakhuthe, 

Rindo Hindustan hakime mulke jar-khuthe. 

Pha Jamal-Hana kull Balochaii arman khuthe, 

Walharen marde go wathl tolle burtha, 

HaddianI Jaro go jhanjha tah-dile : 

Wadh Hudha-paka Khamdar haricho bhaw-athe, 40 

Mir Jamal-Hana thangaveri joe dahmathe, 

Phurs be-phola phar bihisht-rah shuthe, 

Hazrate dlman ma kachehrla nyadh khuthe. 

Jannat baghan nlri buna hlrari sah khuthe. 

Saidh, auliya o mominan sha 'arz khutheri, 

Mir Jamal-Han bihishteri Choti phujitheii, 



Ku 



Balochi Texts. 107 



Kull Leghara wa haklmah daru khutheri, 
Rabb mehr bl, Jamal-Han chl dhakl bachithen. 
Allah be-niyazeri, sak o zorakh o 'alimeri, 
Kar thai jawan-ari, thars pha hech khase miyal, 50 

Jamal-Han band-bozhe, Sardar dan Chotla niyal. 
Asteri wadh druahe, kuraveri roshari odhar-e. 
Hukm Allah Arzailar dem-diye, 
' Mir Jamal-Hana gwadh girain, kota bare, 

Thangaveri brathanl salah dir-e khane.' 
Banda bar zlren, har ki tho chakha khane, 
Mehr-dawa go arigo phadhlghah halra khane. 
Jamal-Han rajae ummata khakht-I pha salam, 
Zahrari khunl bokhtaii chi hakimari, 

Iklasan geshtar pha Rindl majlisari, 60 

Man vaisakha hand niyath mard o madhinan, 
Nangar bhattl chalaghath-I rosh o shafari, 
Rozdar thai baz-eri, muhr ma hingen kaghazah, 
Suhvl suwallar bashkaghath bor leravari. 
Malkamith nell, akhira barth jawain sarari, 
Badshahaii, saidh, auliya o mominan, 
Khamdar kharan tobah-e chl bazeh baraii, 
Thangaveri bachhari khard ki arlferi phithari. 
Malikar ardase khutha malkh-phrishtaghari, 
Mir Jamal-Han nyasthal ma takhtanl sara, 70 

Jhul nishten, thul go laleri manjavari, 
Sakhal o shir dathenari zareri kadahari. 
Choti slghl-eri pha Jamal Hari droshama. 
Er'geri ya khare khuthen pakeri Khamda, 
Mir Jamal-Han bishteri o gardenth-I phadha. 
Biakhteri Chotla thango sona kanehar, 
Dol o sharna-eri vajitheri sir! nau-bahar, 
Khan Jamal-Hana basthenari mm hathyar, 
Hinkagheri aspari, tilhitheri boraeri khura, 
Jamal-Hari subae maushareri, Chotl-mazar ; 80 

Sadh-barari shabasheri thai sohnaeri chitra, 
Go syalari syali khutho gwazenthal thura ; 



io8 B aloe hi Texts. 

Wadh go Angrezan nishta ma kursl sara, 
Khalth-o hakkanl phllaveii roshanen shara'. 
Akhta awaze azh HudhaT Rabb dara, 

' Biyare Jamal Han, kulleh Leghar masthara, 

Hand-e joraine ma bihisht jo sara.' 
Thangaveri shaghe aditha lalen Sarwara, 
Tuba sah phar Jamal-Han jhutagha, 

Turk Durrani asten mulk badshah, 90 

Yar o dostl go Imam Bakhsh e geshtara, 
Sangat o brathl Rojhan Khane wazha, 
Kaghaz o patr akhta chi dlreh ulkaha, 
Agra, Dilll, Nandana, Labor deha, 
Go Jamal-Han Sahibari mehr-du'a, 
Thai hukm raja wadh dan Angrez daptara. 
Thurs Jamal-Han azh har-khase handa karar, 
Duzhmanen mard saigh, tafslth-ish dighar, 
Chi zat-sardar uttam ma ChotI Nawab, 
Thekhtagheri kharch daste pha mal jenagha, 100 

Landaven khosheri phandaran, mesh o buza, 
Pha sakhawat ghat niyal 'All ghara, 
Jatharan doshe, geshtar jandar dan-kar, 
Thalah katareri thangaveri makalaen buna. 
Langhavah kharthan sar-resh uchala, 
Sathan dlmane ma Jamal-Han derava, 
Duzhman dost palithanti chandl hazar, 
Khosagh, Buzdar, Lund, go thallen sharif, 
GorchanI, Khetran o nawanl Marlgh, 
Las Zarkani, Drishak bhajl rail. 110 

E barat-war ant druh Jamal-Han zahlrl. 
Rast gushagh jawan-eh, khase pha Imana kahl, 
Har khas muhtaj go Jamal-Han sadh ban, 
Kuraven gwanderi mizil-eh, gwath-e guzl, 
Khal hawan wakhta ki banda sudh na bl, 
Ummata zamineri Rusul Muhammad NabI, 
Muddato jugan mausiman chot bah, larl. 
Jl Jamal-Hana asra handa har-khasl, 



Balochi Texts. 109 

Go Jamal-Hana nishtaghant chande gharlb, 

Roz chittleri baz khamen-1 pha naslb. 120 

Be gumana akhta drohaeri Arzall, 

Go Jamal-Hah dashtal rajaeh amir, 

Sah pharahlan akhira jaga ilaghi, 

Mir Jamal-Hah lak-baran kalima ba naslb. 

Whazh-gusheh Sobha main risalate gon-bare, 

Bangahe suhvl pharphugh-dara saz-khane, 

Ma Amlraeh daptara guptara gushe. 

Bar ma Chotla, Muhammad-Han Khana sar-khane, 

Ya-nadhar raja ginde phagh-wazhahe. 

Ma-buna Rinde phagh Rusula bashkathaghe. 130 

Khoh-suhrla hakima ikbal dathaghe. 

Biyaithe ! Mahaira ! Raj dir-gindeii Muhammad-Han ; 

Thai khaman saken charitho ishta murshidan. 

Kadir shera, Dm Panah o paighambarah, 

Shaira gal pholitho, khashto ma Quran, 

Ma hawan suwal 'arz khutho go phanjen tanan. 

Muhammad-Han Khanar thangaven bachha da Quran ! 

Mahl-mana jhutl ma shagheh gwanzagha ! 

Gal mam ami ban barkate shams-putravah. 

Ya Hudha biyari khokhar, afbandeh jhuran, 140 

Allah lak-palen biyari humboen jlharah; 

Mausima biyai gwarthaish ChotI naghor ; 

Da darya challa machathaghen phul banwar. 

Akul samjha shaire ki rasteri ha war. 

Nur-Ahmad-Hana, raj durr-kilen sher-nar, 

Gal ma-bar marde chi Allania ban' zabar, 

Akhtaghen mardan baz ma Chotla kadar, 

Jheraven syall Nur-Ahmad-Hari sobh-sar. 

Deh ch'ari phule duzhmanah bhorenthai saghar. 

Raj sardareri, go amiranl zeb o phar, 150 

Dathagheri dostl Khamda ki nekhen nadhar. 

Tagya-Hane nekh-du'a-eri galah gushah, 

Go wathl bachhah biyaithe hairani pahan, 

Ya-thaleri tazi sanjathi malshani bihan, 






no Balochi Texts. 

Nughraeh sanjan go banatah bakhmala. 

Shahr Sehwan Jive Lai khaithe wahira, 

Sarfaraz biyaithe ma kachehrl daptara. 

Man-khaT raje Muhammad- Hah, Nur- Ahmad- Hah, 

Mashareh dana Tagya o Dln-Muhammad-Hah, 

Yak-aptlya dost-dar chl dldhaghah. 160 

Mizileh gwandeh shahlyar jamin shall, 

Name Allah hardume mar-en bandaghl, 

Neh man parheah, neh namazi rosh bl ! 



PART III. 
ROMANTIC BALLADS. 

XXXVII. 

LELA MAJNA 

Bambori nighor humboeri, 

Nodhari ragham gwarithaii, 

Dor phur-ant o amrezari. 

Lelan zirl kadahe metaegha, 

Ro' dan shakalen nokh-afa ; 

Nindlth o mushl malgorari, 

Zhinga khant avr khofagh sara. 

Ro' dan goragheri chyar-kula, 

Logh kambalari letem. 

Dasta jant avr barzlya, 10 

Khashl nughraen adene, 

Mm zan sara er-khant, 

Hlrl droshamana gindi ; 

Whash heminlya nindi. 

Kulara darle bandl. 

Majnaen faqlr charana, 

Dltha Lelava lalena. 

Gwashta Lelava lalena, 

' Thara bashkun leravaii lokena, 

Tazlari kalam-goshena, 20 

Bil man! ulkaha miskena.' 
Pha hame gushtana galegha, 
Majnaen jawab tharentha, 



1 1 2 Balochi Texts. 

' Na zlrari leravari lokena, 
Na taziari kalam-goshena, 
Na khilari ulkaha miskena.' 
Pha hame gushtana galegha, 
Zahr-khutha Lelava lalena, 
Math ki Lelave jherana, 

' E di 'ashiken warna-eh, 30 

Asteri sadariyaeri jawaneri ! 
Biyare kathula jaurena, 
Shamena khanun ma tasa.' 
Suhvl zurthagha daiya, 
Odh gwar 'ashikeri Majnaya. 
Gipto kathula ting dathai, 
Gwashtal * DaT, ki rave dan odha. 
Odh gwar Lelava lalena, 
Gokhani dahi rodh-madheri, 
Phar ma Lelava shastatha, 40 

Jaldl kadahe duhml biyar.' 
Pha hame gushtana galegha, 
Zahr-khutha Lelava lalena; 
Math ki Lelave jherana, 
Jogl lotithan desanl, 
Syah-mar giptaghan barranl. 
Shamena khutha ma tasa. 
Suhvl zurthagha daiya, 
Jaur ma kadaha larzana, 

Syah-marl saghar juzana, 50 

Odh gwar 'ashikeri Majnaya ; 
Gipto kathula ting-dathai, 
Gwashtal ' DaL ki rave dan odha. 
Odh gwar Lelava lalena, 
Ahdh-eri, maigh-o-thal melo bl, 
Jaureri muhikmae pech-eri.' 
Pha hame gushtana galegha, 
Zahr-khutha Lelava lalena. 
Math ki Lelave jherana, 



Balochi Texts. \ \ 3 

Ashtafl khuthal jatarira, 60 

Lokari pha shaft kataraii, 
Shedha ladithal maldaran, 
Bag goramanl sanga. 
Majnaeii faqlra rapta, 
Dast go chlravan hingoeghan. 
' Dur bash ' khuthal blngara. 
Majnaeii faqlr oshtathai, 
Chonan hushkaneri dar bltha 
Valaii wur-sara sah bltha, 

BahzanI shikar-jah bltha. 70 

Roshe laditha maldarari, 
Khakhtari dan binindl jaha, 
Bataro shutha charana, 
Dara gudagha rozgara, 
Munde dithal sarkande, 
Pholati thafar dinjenthal. 
Awaz akhtagha an bunda ; 
'Bunde man niyaii, bataro, 

Man di 'ashikeii Majnayari, 

'Ishk Lelava oshtathauii.' 80 

Pha hame gushtana galegha 
Bataro shutha larzana, 
Dandaii ma dafa karkana, 
Odh gwar Lelava lalena. 
Gwashtal ' Ma thai dost dltha, 

Chonan hushkanen dar bltha, 

Valaii wur-sara sah bltha, 

Barizanl shikar-jah bltha.' 
Pha hame gushtana galegha, 
Shara phalawa sren basthai, 90 

Phadh-mozhagh phirenthai ; 
Nokh-moreh gwaraii darana, 
Odh gwar 'ashiken Majnaya, 
Valaii wur-sara sindana ; 
Dema gal-khutha Majnaya, 



1 1 4 Balochi Texts. 



1 Valan-uri ma-sin, O jam, 
Ash tho nekien valani. 
ShabI chhilave depanan, 
Rosha cho shamena sayan. 
Tha ma dostani dil o thaukhan-e, 100 

Khat o mehvai o baufan-e.' 



XXXVIII. 
BlVARAGH SHA'R. 

Samma gwarlth Soriya doena, 

Bahlr potavan gwar pha-gwarenah, 

Sawaha bang'have ma phadh khayari, 

Jane khal azh mano dema rodhana, 

Doeri sar khofaghari chapa janana. 

Travokheii madhen-T khandari deana, 

Doen chham-khadhaen as! balana, 

Sara phorize ki shai thegheii bahokheii. 

Bisat azh 'ashik jana guzokheii, 

Mane lohar bah wado deokheh, 10 

Ma-khan gudh-shodh hame doran talena, 

Sohag maigh begaha wath af khayah 

Manah do nesteh, o banukh jananl, 

Manah bha nen thai jan-gudhanl. 

Thara-eh path o khano avreshamanl. 

Bihishta bath thai math makkahanl, 

Thara paida khutha banukh jananl ! 

Biya, O Pir-Wall, Ion, muzhanl. 

Blya o zir man! sha'r raliya, 

Gushe odha ki Granaz nigoshl, 20 

Dunyal raptaghath kuragh duroshl, 

Nawari mail kurava mara shamoshi, 

Main dil joritha dila thalya, 

Thau bai ashkalo patta charokheh, 

Mane topchl bah pahnadh girokheh, 



Balochi Texts. 115 

Thau bai bahranl tazl thashokhen, 

Mane avzar ban chabuk janokheh, 

Thau phul-e ki ma-patta rudhokhen, 

Man benagh-mahishk dam-dam khanokheri, 

Hamo phul sara was girokheri. 30 

Ma khakhtaii bolake halka wathiya, 

Ba-gindari Ahmad-Hana klhavlya, 

Ravari man Phaben o BhanI jhoka, 

Man shastan mahrame batinlya, 

Khane malum manl hanjeri parlya. 

Da mundri go hasa man gallya, 

Gwaren tawTz go zareii hatallya. 

Phuluha chape ma savzen jhurlya. 

BanatI pab-shefan bakhmallya. 

Rodhana biyaith dan dlla manlya, 40 

Shalana biyaith cho mahe chyardahlya, 

Binindun naukh salokh wazh-diliya. 

Manari sai pas nyama zyadahlya, 

Khuthaun mokal wathi hanjeri parlya. 

Gule anzl trafoz trlriz blthaghlya, 

Khafant-I narmagheri jlgha wathiya. 46 



XXXIX. 



MIRAN SHAAR. 

Suhva yad khanari Sehwana, 1 

Bashk Lai man! Imana, 

Kahne o kavot murgham, 

Hal mahrame dostani, 

Direri mizilo rahiyani. 

Gwar thau manl minnat-ari savzen murgh, 

Udre azh wathi shav-dranga, 

1 The allusion is to the shrine of Jiwe Lai at Sehwan in Sindh. 



1 1 6 Balochi Texts. 

Azh murghanl kamunderi khoha. 
Biro gwar merava dostegha, 

Thau ninde manjava rastlya, 10 

Thara shefi maii wathl astiya, 
Barth-I man wathl chyar-kulla, 
Azh phlreri harraghanl drapa. 
Thau phesha zor ma dai murghlya 
Phancheii changulan theghena, 
Eshan thau ma jan mam dostara. 
Azh thau ya hawale phursi, 
' Kahne, than dehe murghan-e ? 

Phache laghar o hairan-e ? ' 

Dema gal-khaie, savzen murgh, 20 

' Man Lahor dehe murghan-aii, 

Hacho laghar o hairan-a.ii, 

Ma shap pha langan o rosh pha pand 

Ma ya patten shalari khaiyaii. 

Hech jah ki niyath Lahrl khaur, 

Phedha wath na bl dosto kull, 

Paigham gon-ath-un warnaye, 

Gon-an ludane Mirane, 

Raj tharigaven hlrane.' 

Ber Biban gal-akhta, 30 

1 Gwar thau main minnatari, savzen murgh, 

Jhate savr-khane, edha nind, 

Mam kaull sargipt, gokhari baranth, 

Chukhi whav baraii waslya ; 

TurkI ma khavari loghara, 

Kashari sasatan bazena, 

Bakkhall gur o gandlma, 

Mirzi shakalan whashenaii, 

Zike roghanan zardenan, 

Gokhi shakallen shlra, 40 

Gaj pambane thorhiyan, 

Eshaii bar phara Mlrana.' 
Miran rajathiya akhto. 



Balochi Texts. 117 

Gon-ath g'horava Mlregha, 

Mir Chakur hazarl phaujan. 45 



XXXIX. 

2. 

Sohva yad khanan Sehwana, 

Bashk Lai manan Imana, 

Kahnl kahev murghanl, 

Hal mahram dostanl, 

Geshtar birsarl hothanl. 

Lori zehmaran akhta, 

Dost dast nishanl artha, 

Maujdareri dil bodh akhta, 

Karzl baragheh singartha, 

Pheshl mullavo banga, 10 

Phulen sar-mahare shipta, 

Yak-pattl shalana khayah, 

Ganjeri Belo Nur-waha. 

JatanI bunindl jaha. 

Kulia gorglna gath (?) 

Dost amsaro phal chhat, 

Jedl amsaro lihavl, 

Shasht mardume pha-phurse, 

Rindi berageri sagh bandari, 

Kull barizara letenari, 20 

Bhaurirl was girth lalla, 

Shazhmahl zehir thalari bl, 

Rozi ba manl baladha, 

Barkat ilahl jawaii marda. 1 

Rele zahire darbesha. 

Diwan blyare kalamawa. 26 

1 The last three lines no doubt belong to No. LIL, Isa and Bari, where they 
are given by Leech in the same form as here. 



1 1 8 Balochi Texts. 

XL. 

PARAT O SHIREN. 

Deh o ulkaha gindana, 
Name-nam phar Shlrena. 
Guda gwashta Badshaha jinda: 
' Gwar ma sadh-manen singe ast, 

Har mar kl hame sing phroshl, 

Dasta sir khanan Shlrena.' 
Choto walitha almasta, 
RastI khofagh o ya dasta. 
Gwashta banukhen Shlrena, 

' Sing cho mominan bathe, 10 

Syahen sirmughl hlrth bathe, 

Dasta dor ma khan dostegha.' 
Salea khuthal kama-I, 
Sing cho mominan mom bltha, 
Syahen sirmughl hlrth bltha, 
Gwashta Badshaha jinda, 
' Zarafi dean be-qaila, 

Suhreh tharigava be-tola, 

An ki 'ashika ziyan-ari.' 

Gwashta harragheii randlya, 20 

' Man zaraii giraii be-qaila, 

Suhren thaiigava be-tola, 

Man hame 'ashik ziyan-aran.' 
Nm alopari janana akhta. 
Akhta dan hame Parata, 

' Bachak ! arman-eri thai dukhanl, 

Thau salea khutha kama-I, 

Ya-roshe na dlthae dldar, 

Shlren banukheii ziyan-bitha, 

Saughan Khawindegha ditha.' 30 

Parat bangoha ziyan-bitha, 
Af ma dobareii sar' bltha, 



Balochi Texts. 1 1 9 

Zurtha-ish hamo kandhian, 
Marl buna gwazentha. 
Gwashta banukhen Shirena : 
' Dal, phola khan azh kandhian, 

Patela chi khase gon-en.' 
Kandhian jawav tharentha, 

' Parat banguleh ziyan-bitha/ 
Dal gwan'jatha Shirena, 40 

' Dal, shodh mam malgoran, 
Ma burza tokh-deari chuniyan, 
Ma pha 'ashika thunlyan.' 
Gwashta kheghadhen dalya, 
1 Parat ma-buna drakhan-eri, 

Sind nishtagheri Jaghdal-en/ 
Gwashta banukhen Shirena, 
' Dal, thau ma-khan e tata, 

'Ashiq na-pholaii zata.' 

Shiren banukhen ziyan-bitha, 50 

Saughan Khawindegha dltha, 
Demi an-jihan mela bl. 52 



XLI. 
DOSTEN O SHIREN. 

Dosten nam Rinde ath ki sang bithiyath go Lai- Han 
jinkh ki Shiren nam ath-I. Hardo, Dosten dl Shiren 
farsi 'ilm parhithaghant. Roshe Turk akhto maririkhta 
RindanI halka, kharde mard khushtal, Dosten giptal, 
yakhe thl mard dl gon-gipto kaiz khuthaghant-I, Arand 
shahr artho. Hamedha kaiz blthlya bazen sal gwastha- 
ghant Phadh Shiren math-phithan sang khuthal thl 
Rindea go, ki aiihi nam dl Dosten ath. Guda Shiren 
sha're jatho kaghadha likhtho Dosten negha shasthathal ; 
faqlrea artho Dostenar datha. Guda blana an Turk, ki 
hamodha Humau phalawa hakim ath, Dosten wathl galagh 






I2o Balochi Texts. 

chakha galphan khutha, guda khidmat khanana mazaeri 
galphan dozwah bithal, do khuragh dathaghantl ki ' eshari 
sambh, sakiya sambh-ish.' Madhin ki chyar sal bithaghant, 
guda zen bastha-ish. Dosten hawan Rind ki sangat ath-I 
juzaintha charaintha hoshenagha pha. Hawan rosh ki 
Turk arihi nel bokhtaghant, Dosten-azh kaul giptal ki 
' likana na rawari, ash tho mokalainari guda rawari.' 
Hawaii doeri madhin hoshentho thahithaghant, guda 'Id 
rosh akhta, galagh-thashl khutha Turka, guda Dostenar 
gwashtal ki ' Thara mokalen, shawa doeri baroeth, 
madhinari thashe.' Guda Dostena phol-khutha ki 'Mar 
mokal-eri ?' Hakima gwashta ' Hau, shawar mokal-eri.' 
Guda shutho an doeri mardari bukhto galagh ishta, nlri 
ki thashana akhta hakim nazlkha gwashtal, ' Hakim ! 
mar mokal-eri, ma nlri ravaghauri,' guda gur-khuthal. 
Hakima phauzhar hukm datha ki ' Maileth-i ! gireth-i ! 
khusheth-i'; rikhta-I urd pha-dlma. Ari-mar Chhachar 
daga shutha : Tobava 'sh-andema nllleri madhine khapto 
murtha, 'shan rosha phadha an hand nam Nil! LakrI 
bltha, dam nam hamesh-en-I. Dema Bhura-phushta 
hawari roshe bhuraeri naryan khapto murtha. Guda Nlla- 
khunda, Phailawagh sherl phalawa, hamodha ya nllaeri 
naryan trakitho murtha. Har hand nam 'sh-an wakhta 
phakha bltho shutha. 

Guda azh Phailawagha urd gartho phadha shutha. 
Dosten dohml Rind dl Narmukha rasithaghant ki logh 
hamodha ath-I. Begaha ki hamodha rasitho darkap- 
taghant, ya chhorava gindant gwarakhan charainagheri, 
gregha dl asteri. Dostena phol-khutha ki ' Chhoro, pharche 
greghae ? ' Gwashtal * Mam brath shutho kaiz bltha derl- 
dani, arihiya nokhe ath, thl yakhear datha-ish, maroshl 
sir blaghen-I, man phawarikha greghari.' Phursitha-ish 
'Chhoro, thai brath nam khai ath?' Chhorava gwashta 
'Main brath nam Dosten ath.' Gwashtal 'Tha gre na, 
thai bratha Hudha khan.' Phol-khuthai ash hawari 
chhorava ' Sir ki khanagheri hawan halk bakhu-eri ? ' 



Balochi Texts. 



121 



Hand dasithal, hakalana shutho hamodha ditha-ish ki 
sir chalagheri, guda hamodha sir-manha bi-khaptaghant. 
Rindaii phol-khutha ' Shawa khai-eth ? ' Dostena gwashta 
' Ma Domb-un.' Phol-khutha-ish * Shawa sha'rari chle 
zane ? ' 

Dostena gwashta ' Sakiya zanun, ma Domb-uri, dambiro 
biyare guda sha'raii gushaii.' Dambiro artho dathaish. 
Dostena guda hawan sha'r zurtho jatha ki Shirena kaghadh 
lafa shastathaghant. Sha'r hamesh-eh ki gwashtal. 

Zangi man! badero, 
Gwaharam man! jam o bel, 
Whantkar shlhaneri shahiye, 
Ludhokheri khasha veliya. 

Saughan pha thai rlshana, 
Nokheri akhtagheii masana, 
Slgh-eii gor-khusheri syahara. 
Afa na warth bahnegha, 
Kikh o karjalan Sindhegha. 
Lot! bahiran dashtegha, 10 

LotI wadh-maharen jldhan, 
Phitokh dafa madh-goran. 
Don phur kumareri afa. 
Suti phurl khalavan, 
Whava kalara nelari, 
Marwarl jauah zivirenan. 

Marde azh Hurasan akhta, 
Leghar chadar o humboeri, 
Bar rodhanani gon-ath-I, 

Hurjln maidheri bhangani, 20 

Sarbar kandaharl misk-ant. 
Phaigham gon-ath-I RindanI, 
Tahklken salam Shirene. 
Nodhari shahz-jatha 1 Konara, 
Dashto damana Mungachar, 

1 Or gwarthaghan. 



122 Balochi Texts. 

Saniya naghor humboeri. 
Dor phurantl, amrezan, 
Larzant 1 cho gwananl thakhan, 
Chotant cho kawandl boghan. 

LadI man-chatha maldarari, 30 

Mesh! buz! whantkaran, 
Mezhdar Sahak bachhan, 2 
Bumbar basthaghan banukhan, 
Sarbar larithan gwanechari, 3 
Bhaunar 4 khandagho Nagahu. 
Khondari 5 phrushtaghan zardoah, 
Lokan go srafen 6 kataran, 
Khadari go himaren phadhan. 
Mesh azh dranina ser khan. 
Buz azh gwarigha lal-phula, 40 

Rind azh maidheh gandlma, 
Pahnwal azh panir-poncha, 
Lahrl azh gwan-photakha. 7 

Shlrena jatha sradhen kull, 
Ma Narmukh geaveri reja, 
Gwan-janth dil-sareri daiya, 
Zlrl kadahe metel, 
Ro' dan shakalen nokh-afa, 
Randlth mushlth malgoran, 8 
Khaidil dan wathl chyar-kulla, 9 50 

Kulla darlya bandlth, 
Shiskant thaghard, nishtenth-I, 
Jhul phalawa letenl. 
Dast janth avr barziya, 

1 Or drafshant. 2 Or yaran. 

3 Or Sarma giptaghan larekhah. 4 Or Mol. 

5 Or go phadhan. 6 Or pha shavi. 

7 These five lines (39-43) occur only in the Shambam version, and are 
inserted between lines 45 and 46, where they are evidently an interruption 
of the sense. 

8 Or Malgor shusthaghen mahlija. 9 Or Biyaith ser-muraden kulla. 



Balochi Texts. 



123 



Khash! nughraeri adena, 

Phuleri zan sara er-khant, 1 

Gindl azh wath o gonafa. 2 

Gregh khanth humareri chhama, 

Ahzl rlshant nia drama, 

Jlgh sar katika menan, 60 

Biyairit-I gohar janlya, 3 

Sharren somareh 4 chhil o chyar, 

Biyayant o gwara er-nindant, 

Shar phalawa leteni. 

Phursant-I dila o hala. 

'Pharche khunalat khor-dema, 

Suhreri man makho nllana, 

Brlkh thai bambaveri daiizenan, 5 

Thai chham-kadahen aiizenan?' 

Gregh blth, 6 janan telarik dath, 70 

' Dir blth, o janan, jawane na, 

Dir bith, o janan, dlr ninde, 

Bilan khunal o khor dema, 

Suhrafi man makh o nila bant, 

Brlkh o bambaveri darizeri bant, 

Dosti shume pha-kar neri : 

Ari-mar kl jana dozwah ath, 

Suhra rea Turkara, 7 

Dltha harragheri bad-duayan 

Turkan azh Hareb gwazentha, 8 80 

Ganjeri Ispahan phar bitha, 

Man zar-josheri 9 Aranda shahreri, 

Sunjeri isp-tahaleri lafa. 

Bakhta Mlr-janegha khushta, 

Dost o Ispahana bokhta.' 



1 Or Era kamalu sar zana. 

a Or Much man janan jedi gohar. 

5 Or be-zaunkh-an. 

7 Or Suhranl riar rakhi. 

9 Or dir-panden. 



2 Or Gindi droshama heriya. 

4 Or hirth jedirl. 

6 Or zahr girth. 

8 Or Turkan Mughalan gipta. 



124 Balochi Texts. 

Dung- bant janikh RindanI, 

MalanI phadha shef baii, 

Khayant khargazl kramana, 

Nekhen niyateri gon-deana, 

Mauran azh kurmari sindana. 90 

Phatan gwarighi lal-phulan, 

Nem jamaven jlgha jant, 

Nem khunal o sarhoshan. 

Nem pha samaeri kauliya. 

Yakhe pha manl niyata, 

Chitho man wathl mushta khan, 

Ba' phusht azh badhah jaurena. 

'Shith daz-gohar jediya, 

Dastan pha Hudha burz areii, 

'Allah ki biyar Dostena, 100 

Sat samaen kauliya, 

Eshiya na, hawan oliya ! ' 
Bor pha lamaghan sherlya, 
Baro mizilah dlrena, 1 
Biyara wazha amlrena, 
Mel marduma hlrena, 
Nind o nyadh phith o mathanl, 
Dlman shakaleii brathanl. 
Rozi ba' Malik Dostena, 
Dldar khasha, rozl ba'. 110 

Shlrena ashkhutho phajyarthal, gwashtal ki ' Hawan 
mard Dosten eii ki sha'ra janagheri.' Akhto phol-khutha- 
ish ' Thau khai e.' Gwashtal ki * Man Dosten ah.' Guda 
an gudl Dosten ki sir blaghath-I, an-marda gwashta 'Nln 
ki tho akhtaghae, sani blthaghae, Shlren thai nokh-eii ; 
baro slra khan, an ki ma kharch khutha thara bashk-eii.' 
Guda slr-khutha Dosten go Shlrena. Thi hair en. 



PART IV. 
LOVE-SONGS AND LYRICS. 



XLIL 

Sohvan yad khanari satara, 
Rozi razikhen datara. 
Gozh-dare' hadisah yarari, 
Jam gwashtaghen guftaran. 
Lori! zlr man! katara, 
Gon-dai go zhalokhen tara, 
Bar gwar hakima sardara. 
Ma roshl raptaghan paikara, 
Ma ganjen Dhadara darbara. 
Ma shakhse dltha ma bazara, 
Kirith-I sari goshara. 
Janth shanava zunhara, 
Pech dath avo glwara. 
Rakhe rakhtaghan gulnara, 
Sham khanth-I mushag-dara. 
Phoriz drazha cho katara. 
Ma baghari dlthaghan sai totl, 
Har sai amsaro azh motl. 
Gul ma Sahivl baghan-an, 
Sher Sultane saro phaghan-an. 
Gwashtom ki amula gindari, 
Mm majlisan nindan, 
Sail mahvalani bandah. 
Nm ki bithaghun rO-pha-ru, 
Dithun kasrat o dost khub, 



10 



20 



126 Balochi Texts. 



Gam khashto dilam bodh-akhta, 

Gulari tazhaghe phul bltha, 

Har shakha wathl rang bltha. 

Dosta azh dila sau bltha, 

Dem go azlzan bashkatha, 30 

Zewa o Jamala ditha, 

Ma arwaha badheri khar zltha. 32 



XLIII. 
Jam Durrak Dombkl gushl : sohav-shahld gushl. 

Akhtaghan khandana girokh doshl, 
Kihavlya azh julgave phara, 
Hal dostanl dathaghan mara, 
Ma gull ginnashtan avur jana, 
Rustha ya drine dakhane phara, 
Pha-gura istlne ajab-range, 
Drust mal doste mahzabe gonan. 
Ma ganokh-an ki go dila jherari, 
Dil ganokh-en ki go manafi jherl, 
Greh khan thango-droshaml bachhl. 10 

Zora khan shaiho zaliml Turkl. 
Ma muzhaii zanzlr mafare loti, 
Hazh'-mahah ki ma sadhaii yakhe, 
Mula ma gwarah dah-sadh o lakhe. 
Ma dile hal bi-markhafa datha, 
Dah-burtha bahriya ravokhena, 
Zhinga khan mawrl zamuren dumba, 
Janth avur sar zana malukena. 
'O mam wazha, banga miskanl, 

Ma thai phagha misk Hurasani, 20 

Kadhire sawwa rah nigah-dar bai. 

Ma thara begahl baran odha, 

Ma hamah mlri deraT logha. 

Ah khase ahu-droshame man-en, 



Balochi Texts. 127 

Sarva-kadden o gwar gawar grlheri. 

Lai, hlra, o an-siml boeji. 

Farz-khari iz'har kh'an-sarl galan, 

Azh wathl muhtaje dile halan, 

Nishteya andoha khane thalari. 29 

XLIV. 

Doshi ma hiyale nokheh, 

Dlthom mardume ludhokhen, 

Zeba hlr phar mah those, 

MurghanI wazlr sar-khashen, 

Lai ma amsarari wadh shah-eii, 

Dab-ant-T hamo gum-rah-eri, 

Sahth-o-zewaran zeba-eri, 

Wadh-go-en kabull maheri, 

Kulla goragheri sar-sah-eri, 

Istaran gule dema-en, 10 

Neri ki pha-judai rah-eri, 

Kaferi cho faqlra zurda. 

Huniya kahe cho raftar, 

Raftaran gise cho bazar, 

Paiyari bakhmalo thai bulghar. 

DastI arizayan mushte, 

PardeshI faqlre khushte, 

Lai andohah pheloshte. 

Dosti daz-nishane akhta, 

Gam-khushten dile bodh-akhta, 20 

Raftar payari geghenthal, 

Zulf zirih-buren theghenthai, 

Chhaman chogh misall sohan, 

Cho ki an chiragh mashru-en, 

BaghanI bhara khashbu-eri, 

Dastlne phurongani sar, 

Dema droiish-ant-i murvadhir. 

Andiye atake man-khan, 



128 Balochi Texts. 

Thangaeri khalllae khan, 

Grlh thangaven hara khan, 30 

Syahmaro larho likh o jau, 

Daste-azh mile pherozau, 

Mara maii dila aste thau. 

Andema ma-khan yakh atrau, 

Shango shadyan o shingo ma, 

Aina na-khanuri jukhto tha. 

Ras glptaghan pazeban, 

Mahtaba payaferi gegh-an. 

Mozheri dil manl bagh bltha, 

Ya shakha hazar shakh bltha, 40 

Har shakha wathi gul bltha, 

Gulan tazhaghefi rang bltha. 

Huniye kitabe wantha, 

Chhamara chiraghi bltha, 

Dorokhari khane darmane, 

Naukar-oii thai farmane, 

Dukhane gwar-en haranl, 

Naukar-on thai nazanl. 

Nazari kham-khane, zorawar, 

Theghl nawako bazlgar, 50 

Nen ki ash thai dastan dar. 

Mlran 'shl, ' Go ma pyalae zlthen war.' 

XLV. 

O samln be phursa bihishtiye, 
Azh latlfa nemagha khaiye. 
Man gula dema mel khuthe doshl, 
Bairamo as! sar khutho mah-thos. 
Bo azh brlkhan raptaghan whasheh. 
Hijr manari momlh janant pasah, 
Cho kahlranl araveii asan. 
Be-karar-ah mail nemshafl pasaii, 
Pha whashio dost hubbo iklasan. 



B aloe hi Texts. 129 

Zillatari sahsare deae jana, 10 

' Na ' na khanari pha dost pharmana, 

Cho isparari dempari mam jane, 

Chabuko chashm-dld palkane. 

Kahr amulani girgireh naz-ant, 

Dan-dame gar-ant, dan-dame baz-ant. 

Neh dafa glr ki gal khanari roshen, 

Neri manari kurzat, mazal chosh-en, 

Pha dafa mahllja di jan ay an. 

Nishto dua go hawari roshe. 

Wa' hudha mehrari man dila shef I ! 20 

Er-khafl dost azh tharigaven takhta, 

Biyal rodhana cho chyardahl mahan, 

Masaron bl cho Akbare Shahari. 

Guda azh durr-chlreh dafa phursan, 

O badhashkani gran-baha lal-eri, 

Mara thai loghwareh saren saughan, 

Irmiri gon-khapton anagahi, 

Phar thai sahth sakhaleri nyadhah, 

Hon baha ban pha sakhaleh khulkah. 29 

XLVI. 

Doshi dil-rava-en jani, 
Sartaj o samand khadani, 
Gwashtom pha dafl phanani, 
Osa thau ma-char haiwanl, 
Girdi aravan phirwam, 
Chandl ashkanra ziyanl, 
Kulfo phrushtaghan shakanl, 
Ishko manitha hakanl. 
Gwashtom keghadheri sazara, 

' Durr-chino hazar nazara, 10 

Phulkhand o shakar-guptara. 

Hal e faqlre esh-an, 

Zirde azh phirathari resh-an, 
i 



130 Balochi Texts. 



An ki malik dozdar-an. 

An azh munkirah be-zar-an. 

Jan Jamavan khaksar-an, 

Harzata darud khar-an, 

Shaheri kirdagar asar-an, 

Gwafshe nemshafaii nal-an.' 19 



XLVII. 

Rosh ma jhuriyen ki sah bl satar, 

Sarina ki bandah, sarlnl khakar, 

Nodhan duanl 'arze khanan, 

Nodhan shalith shadhihi Narmukha, 

Domshah khanant chur khaur go haya. 

Charant, basthaghant band, dor bant sariaf, 

Kunji amul phadh-khai bahg'hava, 

KunjI kharkant, ma doran ravant, 

Pahre phroshant, gardant phadha. 

Much bant kafutar ma khofagh sara. 10 

Lesan g'hararant rohenawan, 

Pha-hunar av-dean shaf-jatheh ladena. 

Thai chhalav mundri go sonewalah, 

Reh-dathaghant dastl sonaravan, 

Ma rasheb g'harainthaghah zargaraii. 

Thai phuloh sona-muhreh trafl go khajari, 

Sarafl gushi gal nem alima. 

Sher bl parl-thos, wase glrari, 18 

XLVIII. 

Phairl azh bagheii Belava, 
Man go ravokhen Mehlava, 
Mehlav rakhefano na da', 
Pakeii khashaii go doravah. 
Suhvl azh logha raptaghari, 
Hikkabahla gindagha, 



Balochi Texts. 131 

Hikkabahl azh khoh buna. 
Sartheri ki nodhan shan'jatha, 
Barfan shaf-rosh beritha, 
Barfan tharlken shafari, 10 

Barfari jalishkan bothaghl. 
Ma zar-harlyeh tahthaghari. 
Drakhl ki drangaii phakhaghari, 
Llmo go harzatl barari, 
Saidhan murghan warthaghan, 
Baiiz o shudhiyeh kauhtaran, 
Arbab o arshl phrishtaghan. 
Ase parlyari balitha 
Ma khoh bamborl sare. 

Much blthaghan arshl pan, 20 

Much blthaghan chapa janan, 
Phesh khaptaghaii, yakhl glrari. 
Phesh khapto, phadh kinsthaghan, 
Guda arshl par! bal-giptaghan. 
Man go hayalan manthaghari, 
Go shajane lahme shama. 
Bal gipto burz blthaghant, 
Arshl par! gal-akhtaghant : 
' Ohe faqir, haiwanagh-e, 

Haiwanagh o dewanagh-e. 30 

Ma e dunl mardum nayuri, 

Makh-un shahldanl pan. 

An rosh ki adhat biyal thai, 

Khar-khana muklml sambarl, 

Nindun ma thai chyara sara 

Zirda thaiya av-deuri, 

Dlla pha maskifa muradh.' 
Halo khaneth kunguran, 
Kungar jareri brahondaghan. 
Arshl parl sir khanari, 40 

Jan o gunahah dlr-khanari. 



132 Balochi Texts. 



XLIX. 

Gosheth kunguran, 

Be-lokenaghan, 

Shahl ambalari. 

Gozh-dar guptaraii, 

Shair daptar-an. 

Lalo ruptaghari, 

Galo gwashtaghan, 

Durra suptaghan. 

Phair! phanagha, 

Dlthom dil-rava, 10 

Uzhroa misal. 

Sinae dumba mar, 

Postana bahar, 

Dandana anar. 

Thai phulleri khandaghari, 

Hlrtheri jenafaii, 

ReshI nalgazan, 

AinanI makan, 

Hardo jind o Jan. 19 



Sohna Bashkah gushi : durr-hadlseh Surihani gushi. 

MaroshI huzhmata bail ditha dilbar, 
Jamale tajasar Sultan Shahpar, 
Nashud misle wakad ashras 1 naubar, 
Chi darad dawahe shamshad i arwar. 
Pare nazana man-nind azgar. 
Kamun phar khofaghah cho zulf i ambar. 
Pare zebari shane Shah i khuban, 
Bayan chiktar khanari husn-o-satahari, 

1 This obscure word may be a corruption of the Skr. apsaras, which in Sindhi 
takes the form apchhard or apchharas, a fairy or houri. 



Balochi Texts. 133 

Anlshagh-muhr-eri cho Sultan Sulaiman, 

Pha hikmat kaiz dari jinn dean. 10 

Thahajat dasht aina chil rasari, 

Chi hajat ba khamane rab-I-kasan. 

Zannat bi-ashkari mizhgan chautlr, 

Kanat baze ghariban jan i taqbir, 

Biyafe anfim cho tez katar, 

MianjI ma aina choki sardar. 

Du motiyah dahan-eri phonz bairisar, 

Pane nishtagha phar haud Kaurisar, 

Doen lab lal-ath-I, dandan jahwar, 

Dafa I jah giptaghant durusta pha yagsar. 20 

Gula guftar shirm-zawana, 

Nakhat toti shakar-lavzl eshanl, 

Niane az thai khanden zaniya, 

Chare mauzhen dila zurtha mamya. 

Ajab sarhari sawartha saz rakbat, 

Misal taus askari bitha azmat, 

Du-fista sen bar misle anaran, 

Satahan geshinl zebae blana. 

Hisaban gwar thai gwamzl miana. 

Kadam zlre pahnadh lod raftar, 30 

Rivaj-e blthaghant hastl nigharsar. 

Manan go zalimeh zeba pha yagnath. 

Bi-zurtha dav-dale cho ki gannokljan, 

Charani lahar majnua du-tokhan. 

Dil andar dathagha fazle karlman, 

ManI hale gulara bl cho agha, 

Hadhen-1 zillatan zlthen ban druah. 37 



Bashkall Sohna durr-hadis Surinam gush! : imar hudhai 
lakha kharde gal gushl : Sohnar phasawe dath gushl. 

Maroshi dost ma dabanl dimaken, 
Gushl gran klmaten lale bi-drashke, 



34 Balochi Texts. 

Niyarze nirkh cho lake falushah, 

Khali dare manan jahwar-faroshan, 

Zawad-tate 'atar-dalelan, 

Jathai saikalp J telan phulelan. 

TrufI ma maizara gran-klmatena, 

Shamal rokheri ma kosha bairamena, 

Nazr ki makuma zareri kumatan, 

Khuthe ma kamakaii shamshad kull ban, 10 

Guleri lala gulzaren gulistaii. 

Kijil bltha kadah sarve ma bostah, 

Khuthal chandl chakor sar-fareshari, 

Thav-e Sultan, man thai pae-khak-aii, 

Manaii hardam ma ban zi flkr hoshan, 

Manan Adam azh zirde shamoshan, 

Nighozh-dar iltimase gwar thau wadh 'shari, 

' Bakhilen sahiva khas na 'shl jawari.' 
Ummedwar khanan phesha ghanbari, 
Wathara pardave guda khan ant gran. 20 

Sukhun ki azh dafa durren dara bl, 
Misal khaptaghen singa gwara bl, 
Kamund gran cho singanl barah, 
Naro' go gwath bazen haur-haran. 
Geheri khadan rajl taj-darari. 
Man! arza nlghoshe, jannatl hlr, 
Nukaba azh jablna azhoa zlr, 
Biyayan mahram o dagh ban dila dir. 
Thai dastan jihan pas-pamr, 
Wath go bl go sata dil pha janl, 30 

Rasari dan mizila hair o amanl, 
Hamodha ki thurs neh draperi zalimanl. 

1 For sankalp. 



PART V. 

RELIGIOUS AND DIDACTIC POEMS AND 
LEGENDS OF SAINTS. 

LI. 

SHAHZAD SHA'R. 
Shahzad Chakur gushl. 

Hamde khudawanda gushari, 

Madhahe Muhammad Mustafa, 

Shaheri 'All Sher-eri Hudha. 

Roshe ma hadlsl kissave, 

Man ma hibb hablas ashkhutha. 

Ya-shamba 1 gwar adenagha, 

Ya tab atho misle niyath. 

Shaha pha kahare 2 nazar. 

KursI zaren ras-khutha, 

Lavz shakhal o dil-momin ath, 10 

Waj'he wali-ath roshin-ath. 

Rosh-o-shafe jah dathaghant, 

Rosh-o-shafo hlrthen hasev, 

Jagha zamln ras-khutha, 

Aii dud kl baladha shutha ; 

Nen arsha bud, neri kurshe bud, 

Nen loh 3 bud, neri kalam 4 bud, 

Dadl Hawa Dada na bud, 

Ibrahim khalllu'llah na bud, 

1 For sham'. 2 For P. kahar. 

3 Ar. lawk creation. 4 Ar. kalimah, speech. 



136 Balochi Texts. 

Kishtl NuhanI na bud, 20 

{ Isa ruhani na bud, 
Takht SulaimanI na bud, 
Khud bud ast, Hamld 'All. 
Man nm pha BalochT gushah. 

Dharti pha chyar karnah * khuthi. 

Karne awwal Shah Kadhira, 

Deh wathl paida khuthant. 

Ya lakh o shast o dah hazar. 

An dl wathl naubat khutha, 

Ya-nindo chhama butagha, 30 

Nodho raghama gwasthaghant, 

Multan nm Bagpur khutha. 

Karne dohml Shah kadhira, 
Bandaen chhilen sakhtaghant, 
Arihan zan o farzand niyath, 
Ah pak akhtagho pak shuthant, 
Azh Pak-phushta blthaghant. 
Anhan dl wathl naubat khutha, 
Nodho raghaml gwasthaghant, 
Multan nm Hasapur khutha. 40 

Karne siam Shah Kadhira. 
Aghdi phrishtagh wathl paida khutha, 
Anhan dl wathl naubat khutha, 
Ya-nindo chham butagha, 
Nodho raghaml gwasthaghant, 
Multan nm Syahpur khutha. 

Karne chyarum Shah kadhira, 
Bor! 2 nighara wajithant, 
Aspe wathl paida khuthant, 
Dah kiyamata oshtathaghant, 
Multan nlh Multan khuthant. 51 

x Ar. qarn. 2 P. biiru, a trumpet. 



B aloe hi Texts. 137 



2. INTINKHAB AZ KITAB-I-BAYAZ-I-BUZURGAN-I-QAUM 
I SYALAN BA SHAHR I JHANG-I-SYALAN. 

(a) Khabar-i-afrlnisk i zamin wa dsmdn. 

Avval Khudal ta'ala Marij Dev az atash paida kard, 
chunanchi dar Quran-i-majld wa Furqan-I hamld khabar 
mi-dihad : 

'Wa khalaqa'1-jann min marijin min an-narin.' 
Khudal ta'ala az pahlu-I Marij Marija biyafrld. Har-do 
dar-miyan-i-khud juftl kardand. Az eshan do pisar paida 
shud. YakI nam-i-wai Jinn nihadand, wa az pahlu-i Jinn 
zan Jinni paida shud. Hardo dar-miyan-i-khud juftl 
kardand, az eshan do pisar paida shud. YakI nam 'Izrall 
nihadand, pisar-i-duwam-ra Maharidev nihadand. Wa az 
pahlu-i Maharidev Korchabarl paida shud. Wa muddat-i- 
zamm wa asman shast do lak wa hashtad wa panj hazar 
sal shuda. Wa az an bar Multan abadanl shuda wa ah 
chahar qiran buda. 

Dar qarn i avval Raharispur x nam miguftand, wa dar-ari 
abadanl budan nuh-sad blst chahar lak wa hazhdah-hazar 
sal buda. Wa Isar Maharidev-ra dwazdah pisar budand. 
Avval-ra nam Koin bud ; duwam-ra nam Narayan bud 
sium-ra nam Vishan, chaharum-ra nam Kishan, panjum-ra 
nam Birahman, shasham-ra nam Parmesar, hashtum-ra nam 
Narsang, nuham-ra nam Bhagwan, dahum-ra nam Lat, 
yazdahum-ra nam 'Uzza, dwazdahum-ra nam Isar Jaggan- 
nath. Dwazdah dukhtaran Isar Maharidev-ra: nam In bud. 
Avval dukhtar u-ra nam Mahmal, duwam-ra nam Devi, 
sium-ra nam Mesrl, chaharum-ra nam Parmesri, panjum-ra 
nam DevanI, shashum-ra nam BhagwanI, haftum-ra nam 
Lanka, hashtum-ra nam Mathura, nuhum-ra nam Jamna, 
dahum-ra nam Totla, yazdahum-ra nam Ghazz, dwazda- 
hum-ra nam Lanka. 

1 Probably this should read : 

'Dar qarn-i-avval Multan-ra Hanspur nam miguftand.' 



138 Balochi Texts. 

Chun chandln guzasht ba'duhu, dar qarn-i-duwam 
Multan-ra nam Makpur mlguftand, wa dar an abadani 
firishtagan bud hazhdah lak wa bist hazar panj sal budand. 

Dar qarn-i-sium Multan-ra nam Shampur mlguftand. 
Wa dar qarn-i Bakpur abadani chlhl adam bud ; wa b'aze 
goyand ki hashtad adam budand : fa-amma az eshari 
tawalud wa tanasul na bud. 

Wa dar qarn-i-chaharum Multan-ra nam Multan shud, 
wa dar-an abadani aspan bud, hasht-lak wa haft-hazar 
eshan dar Multan bud. 

Ba'd az hasht lak wa hafdah hazar (sal) Mihtar Adam 
paighambar, salatu-'llahi 'alaihi, afrlda shud. Az gah-i- 
Adam ta In dam shast hazar wa nuhsad chihl wa panj 
sal ast ki guzasht. 

(b) Khabar- i-dfrln ish-i-asp. 

Az khwaja Hamldu'd-dm Nagorl (qaddasa-'llahu 
sirrahu '1 'aziz), mazkur ast ki Haqq Subhanahu Ta'ala 
chun Adam-ra 'alalhi as-salam biyafrld, wa baqi gil 
ki az qalib-i-Adam 'alaihi as-salam mand, chahar chlz 
afrld : avval khurma, duwum angur, sium anar, chaharum 
ru-I aspan wa chashm ast. Az lu'ab-i-huran bihisht afrld ; 
wa tan-i-asp az bihisht afrld; wa pusht-I-asp az kursl wa 
'arsh-i-majld afrld ; wa mu-i-asp az Tuba afrld ; wa jan-i- 
asp az 'azmat-i-khud afrld. Wa fazilat In ast ki asp-ra 
pesh-i-khud bidarad, wa hawala dlgaran na-kunad ; zeran- 
ki bara-I-ari Paighambar, salla 'llahu 'alaihi wa sallama, 
madam pesh-i-khud midasht, wa ba jama wa rida-I- 
mubarak-i-khud sar wa ru-I-u pak karde, wa dar an jama 
jau charanlde. 

Wa ba miqdar-i mu-I asp gunahari. 

3. SHAHZAD PAIDHA-BIAGH HAL. 

Roshea Maia, ki Chakur-zal ath, afa dahmaghath sara 
shodhaghath, cho ki nishtlye dema sayae gwastha. Guda 



Balochi Texts. 



139 



dihan khutha, dema, phadha, hargura, mardum chi neri. 
Guda nishta rapta sahl khanana ki mam laf phur bltha, 
chukh blana blana paidha bltha. Chakur gar ath Dillla go 
wathl lashkara. Paidha bitha chukhe, ma gwanzagha 
lodainagheth, hal ki Chakur gartho er-khapta Chotla. 
Guda Maia Dombar gwashta ' Baro, Mlra muvaraka gwash 
ki thai logha bachh paidha bltha, nam dl Mir Shahzad 
basthaghenl/ Mir Chakur ghamnak bltha, arman khutha 
ki sal sal ma safar nyanwan bltha, e chi bachh en ki 
paidha bltha. Guda wathl urdar hukm datha ki hamedha 
er-khafe, thahre ; urd er-khapta hamodha Chakure. 

Domb gartho akhta, Maiar gwashta ki ' Chakura arman 
khutha, urd hamodha than shutha.' Maia gwashta 'Tha 
baro, Mir Chakurar gwash " tha biya logha, ansosa ma 
khari, Mir Shahzadhar gwash ' salam alaik ' ki mam chukh 
azh wall saya paidha bltha."' Guda Chakura hukm 
datha ki ' Charhe.' Phauzh charhitho akhto Sevla, logha 
er-khapto gwashta 'Salam alaik, Mir Shahzadh.' Guda 
Shahzadha ki shazhmahefi chukh ma gwanzagha lafa 
gwashta 'Wa alaikum salam Mir Chakur babu, biya durr 
sh'akhte, mazain safar khuthe, durah-e, khush-e?' Hal 
dathaghantl, Shahzadha gwashta 'Man azh Yaill Saya 
paidha blthaghari.' 



LII. 

ISA o BAR! 

Nodhafi ki guze' savzena, 
BashamI jhuran whashena, 
Khashe' khokuran sarthena, 
Bile' zahriyah bazena, 
ChhamanI sara gwazena. 
Ma ki phar thavo tajosar, 
Ber shaf-chiragh x parewar, 

1 Or Chham-chiragh, light of the eyes. 



140 Balochi Texts. 

Syahmar chotavo drashka bar, 
KhadanI gishenl kauntar. 

Drashke kissave chhoh bltha. 10 

'Isa dan-dame 1 charana, 
Mulko klchahan gindana, 2 
Ban bewana nindana ; 
Ban dlthal ma bewana. 
'Isa go Bar! gal-akhta. 3 

' Ashkho tho ware Imana, 

Chacho zindaghe be-tama ?' 4 
Bariya jawab gardetha, 5 

* 'Isa dan-dame jhate 6 nind, 

Shah kurzata chie gind.' 20 

'Isa dan-dame er-nishto, 
Rabba kurzatan dltha. 
Drashke sher dighara rustha, 
Bangahl suhava 7 sar zurtha, 
Taftaghen nermosha bur bltheh, 
Mazain zohara bar bltheh, 8 
Zarden digara lal bltheri, 
Drashka bar-kano do blthen, 
Jawain mardume whard bltheh. 
Choki go hawahha bltha, 30 

HaisI chotava hancho ba, 
Barkat ilahi jawaih marda. 
Sing o khoha af bltheh, 
Releh zahireh darbesh-eh. 
Dlwan ! biyare kalamava. 35 

1 Or akhtagha. 2 Or golana. 

3 Or Cho ki phursitha 'Isea. 4 Or be-dana. 

5 Q /gardentha. 6 Or edha. 

\tharentha. 7 Q r kaunshen bang'hava. 
8 Or drashk dan begaha lal bitha. 



Balochi Texts. 141 



LIU. 

BRAHIM SHA'R. 
Brahim ShambanI gushl. 

Mail dl Hudhai bandaghari, 

Nlndari Allaha khanan, 

Nama Hudhai giraii, 

Shah Murtizari soritha, 

Lahre datha mam dila. 

Pakeri nabl takht sara 

Nishta phara ald-o-shara, 

Durreri Hudha merajava. 

An jufavo hirs niya, 

Neh thangaveii bachhe phitha, 10 

Neri math gohare pha-gwara. 

Man sahl niyari zata khai-a, 

Guj manari malum niya. 

Phanch phrishtagh-ant-i khidmata, 

An nishtaghant jind gwara, 

Har wakht ki hukm managha. 

Yakhe Wahl go Arzelava, 

SaimI Khwaja Khidara, 

An chyarumi tutu dafa, 

Gwath-I ki khashl kurava. 20 

Shaitan wa' bigaratha, 

Pha alama khanenagha. 

Ahmar nindi ekhava, 

Cho phllava khan' lekhava. 

Guda hukma da' Arzelava, 

Sahan girth! ya-bara. 

Arimar na gindl nek o badha, 

Mehraii na mam, minnata, 

Bachhah barth azh math o phitha, 

Zaran na zlr! go mesh o buza, 30 

Barth marduma haisl sara. 



142 Balochi Texts. 



Thars niyal khohen dila, 

Arimar syal khasl niya. 

Shaire ki gwashta Brahima ; 

Gosh mam guptaragha, 

Rabb o Hudhal kissava. 

Hancho pha goshana ashkhutha : 

Na asmana neri zamin, 

Nen Mai Hawa go Adama. 

As-ath hawe mulk o deha, 40 

Burze ma drikhe joritha, 

Go kurzata af khutha, 

Jhage zamin thahenthagha, 

Loho kalam phirenthaghan, 

An pha zamlna daragha; 

Duhon aghar burza shuthan. 

Azman hapte sakhtaghan, 

Baghen bihisht go dozhaha. 

Bihishti nishana man deaii. 

Drashke avar darwazagha, 50 

Shahre hamodha sah khutha, 

Bagh hamo wakht phakhaghan, 

Hinjir o harzatl hath-an, 

Arigur, anar, amb athan, 

Bo khaturl atar-an. 

Odha pan man na-ravan. 

Handl sakhlya mera-en, 

Wa' go shahldaii ya-sara, 

Shah Kasim nindi gwara, 

Shahen Husain daptara. 60 

Khat o palang nishterijanan, 

Hur pari-ish molidan, 

Ma-khidmata oshtathaghan. 

Odha bihishti marduman, 

Baghan bihishtegha waran. 

Esh-an bihishtani nishan. 

Gosh, kisane kunguran, 



I 
Balocki Texts. 143 

Man dltha azh Rabb kurzatan, 

Azh khawind bhanjgharan. 

Man dltho bahmanthaghan, 70 

Ki paida sakan lakh o sadhan, 

Saha na-da bi-khakl butaii, 

Ruh milant go mansavan. 

Kharde ma mulka sahivaii, 

Kharde gharlb guzhnaghaii. 

Nen man sakhl rozavan, 

Thursaii, hanchosh gushaii. 

Phol-khanan azh mullavan, 

Kharde ki daran roshaghah, 

Baze namazan parhan, 80 

Har-ro dl Allah khanan. 

fmari rahla sohavan, 

Shal go Hudha shamilaii. 

Kharde gharlb mari-ravari, 

An kalamava rcshe parhan, 

Ah pha shahldl miran ; 

Phullen shahid-ish gwan'-janah, 

Bagheri bihisht-ish jah dean ; 

Dadh inamana lahant, 

An jukhtaghen Hur-ish milant, 90 

Shahan hawan phesh ravant. 

Zahra ma-khane, marduma, 

Mulla o khoreii hafizari, 

Bihisht go naslban mill, 

Asten go Rabba khatira, 

Date ki bashklth-I Hudha. 

Arzeri manah go murshidari, 

Pakeri nablya daptara ; 

Rakhe manaii azh kyamata, 

Azh dozhaha garmeh jara ! 100 

Rah Pur-silat 1 azh cho puhale jura, 

Ma ki guzun-I ya-bara, 

l For Pul-i-Sira),. 



144 Balochi Texts. 

Hukm azh Hudha-eh khadira, 

Baraun mail bihishta andara! 

Esh man! aldoshara. 1 

Dim ah, sha biyare kalamava. 106 

LIV. 
LASHKARAN SHA'R. i. 

Lashkaran Sumelah gushi : Shah dostdaran Jistkani 
gushi : Imar Hudhal Rusul sipat khant : dwazdah ImamanI 
sipat khant ; chyardah Masum sipat khant : chhil Avdar 
sipat khant. 

Awal name Hudha yad-eri, 

Rasula kalamo tat-eri, 

Amir al mumimn Haidar, 

Jathal bl kafira Khaibar. 

Chyareh yar be-shakk-ant, 

Avo dm-dara sak-ant. 

Doeh gul jannate lal-ant, 

Hasan Shah Husain gahwar, 

Sakhl Haidare jahwar. 

Huzure dwazdaha yar-ant, 10 

Suhagen chyardahe sawar-ant. 

Waslle chhile Avdar-ant, 

Huzure gal guftar-ant. 

Thai ganjlye dara suwall, 

Na-garthah pha-phadha khall, 

WathI pha mihr sambhall, 

Navl pha ummata wall. 

Azh gunahan khadh niya khall. 

Thai kahariya manan thursl, 

Naklr Munkira phursl. 20 

Rudhana thlwarl khayant, 

Sare birran er-ayant. 

1 For 'adl o shara'. 




Balochi Texts. 145 

Manani atishl gurza, 

Du-dastiya baran burza. 

Ilahi rakh man! dlla, 

Ashiya garme tavo vlla, 

Ashiya thankeii tira gwastha, 

Aghar dema jhuraii bastha;^ 

Fazl khan dan Hawaii waknta ! 

Wadh nindl avo takhta, 30 

Taraji tol-khanagh wastadh, 

Navlya wa' dean dasta. 

Hukma khan 1 bi sureja, 

Hawafi phalk damo wakhta 

Khaith ummat chakha. 

Ash ahi zalime chhama, 

Ha war rokhane ditha. 

Dighar cho tramari tafsT, 

Phithar bachh na sebal, 

Juda b! brath azh bratha, 40 

Blzar bi chukh azh matha. 

Avo haisl sara bar-en, 

WathT hedha giriftar-eri. 

Hawa o Adima rapta, 

WathI dast khishtaghe khapta. 

Ilahi rakh Musulmana, 

Manan arz-en gwar Suhawana, 1 

Karlme Rabbi Rahmana. 

Suwaliya bashk Imana, 

Fazl khan barkat-mima, 2 50 

Guzun pha hazrat dima, 

Salat 3 khandavo slma. 

Hawah rnOzi, bagha, sar-ant, 

Dil-ish go lekhava gar-ant, 

1 For Sub-han. 

2 Barkat-mima probably stands for the Ar. 'amlmu '1-barakat, ' universally 
enriching. ' 

3 For irat. 

* V 



146 Balochi Texts. 



Dunya Karun murdar-ant, 

Phar slthan talab-dar-ant, 

Neri Plr Murshid dar-ant. 

Ghama gldi wath nar-ant, 

Bihisht boa bezar-ant. 

Doen chham gwara rosh-eri, . 60 

Sar ma dozhlya josh-en ! 

Man! brahondagho yarah, 

NighoshI Rinde guftaran. 

Sakhlya kissava chosheh : 

Gunahar e faramosh-eh, 

Shahldan yagsara nindant, 

Azh Tuva bar sindant, 

Bihisht thangave mahla, 

Huzure Kaurisarl joa. 

Suwaliya chotava randant. 70 

Wathl Pirari sambhalari, 

HusainI shams-nurlya, 

Gharib-parwar huzurlya. 

Murad Bashk Shah Aihae, 

Murldan roshan er-ae. 

Sakhi Shahbaz-eh go yarah, 

Amiral bastane banda. 

Turel akhta hawan handa, 

Khanana Haidaro randa. 

Avval panje tanah sahra, 

Rusulo kalamo kharari. 81 



LV. 

LASHKARAN SHA'R. 2. 

Lashkarah Sumelari gushl : Shah dost-dareri Jistkani 
gush! : Imar Hudhal laka kharde gal gushl : Panj-tan 
pak, dwazdah Imam sipataii khant, gushl. 



Balochi Texts. 147 

Zorawar-eti Sahiben la-sharik, 

Wathl khatira ummate khalk-ath-I. 

Hudha badshah-en, Muhammad Wazlr, 

Waslla imamat sakl 'All. 

Chyareri malaikh man pak dara : 

Yakhe wakll-en gwar paighambara ; 

Duhml juzi go nodh jhura ; 

Saimi char! man bhanjghara ; 

ChyarumI nafll man dafa, 

Sren bastho, chham gwar whazha, 10 

Gwath shim ale khalth azh dafa, 

Hukm whazhae bl, khanth-I safa. 

Avo khalkaten pak jind nighah ; 
Nem rang lai cho karlgara, 
Nem sadeyen go gma halak. 
Ruha ! ma-ranje neri dare dila, 
Jah kulla yakh-en ma khaki gila. 
Wall rasulen phara ummata, 
Phanchen namazeh, gunah roshaghan, 
Dlndar zlrant wathl toshaghari. 20 

Karzari Hudhal avo bandaghah, 
Tone ki mast-ant devanagh-ant ; 
Zorakh wathl wama hukman girant. 
Ometh esh-en gwara zamina, 
Dast-en manan ma thai damana. 
Chham zahiro mara asteri guman. 
Avo takht nindl akhir-zaman. 
Farmudave bl azh Imam Jafara, 
Halan hazure avo kafara, 

Gavr lenagh dm takor, 30 

Thakhl rishant nyamagha mard bor, 
PhadhI lashkare shah khant bhanjbhor, 
Cho Hazrat 'Isa gindl bhas bl laghor. 
Paighambare jant pha hukme Hudha. 
Sar kafare blth azh buta judha. 
Bane ki dratl, khalth buna, 



148 Balochi Texts. 

Nodh go samlnah arshl jhurari, 

Gwarant pha rahmat, sarth bl dighar, 

Than hoka navlya pharo chau-daha, 

Bl bagh gulzar, dlna karar. 40 

LVI. 

TAWAKKULI SHA'R. 
Tawakkull gush!: SheranI Man gushl. 

Phairl pha bewane manan khakhtari. 

Rastaranl khoh-buna khorav, 

Dan-dame tripari mer khutha odha. 

Man gwar girden Samalen logha. 

ThTmuro garghuna geavena, 

Wahm-khutha shikrah shitavena, 

Khaul-khutha charlan chyarena, 

Badshah malQm bitha ma takhta. 

Phakhagheh bagh pha tallo bakhta, 

Har-khadhen jaizo bi-moimani, 10 

Phauzh ma drahl jagahari biyayah, 

Mar Allah o Yaill yat-en, 

Azh-phadha dost o duzhmanan tat-eri, 

Thahgura girden Samala bell? 

Neh gannokh pahro Ispahan gwastha, 

Neri ki ma kaizanl Phiringegh-ari, 

Nishta gur Chotia deha dhinga, 

Odh gwara All-potravari hotan, 

Sher Jamal-Ham nangaren potan. 

Banghavl sado Sahive bitha, 20 

Methirah pheshl kamar bastha, 

Sambarana pha maizireh rahe, 

Khakhto ma khajl-ladharen shahre, 

Deravo bazara giruri bahre. 

Kanjarl murghari sh'hawah muhrari, 

Khal rudhana cho chyardahl maha, 



Balochi Texts. 149 

Chant da khazhbuan avur brlkhan, 
Atar o humboeri katurl-eri, 
Gungur o sohnaen amaelan. 
Derave gandaghen adhateii rana, 30 

Samala adhat na bhoralnah. 
Biyaeth, man! Sardarah khavlhena, 
Zor ma kotavari ma charaine, 
Dilgiren kaifano ma khaware, 
Tretthon miskanl Malang hoteri, 
Zi Bahar Khan ma charaghan ditha, 
'Biya, ki mardle thara man-en, 

Biya, thai dostan phul paigham-eh, 

Samalo suhr-chham pareshan-eh.' 
Ma azha Sultaneh salam gipta, 40 

Sarware darbara daryaena. 



LVII. 

MEHTAR MUSA WA SULTAN ZUMZUM. 

Methir Musa wahm ath go bazeh charagha, 
Roshe charana pha shikaranl saileha, 
Khopare hade ditha ma barren bedihah. 1 
Syahsaren kirman hand khutha goshanl buna, 
Kadaheh chham phur-ant-I azh hakh o nukha, 
Lokhmen danzah jaha khutha grarizani taha, 
Hushkeii dathan rikhtaghant azh durren dafa, 
Methir Musaha arz khutha paken Khawinda, 

' Thau khan hamen arza. Hawinda, thai manzur khutha, 
Main arz hamesheh, saha dai hakhl bandagha.' 10 
Hukm i Allaha sah bltha kuhnaeri sara, 
Methir Musa phursitha azh kuhnaen sara. 
Ha' barah drohl dathal haden khoparl, 
HashtamI dhaka gal-khal haden khoparl, 2 

1 Or, Khoparie dithai avo barro bediha. 

2 Or, Khoparl gal-akhta walien brishkhandagha. 






150 Balochi Texts. 

Bosht thau, methir, ma thara hawale dean. 

Ma badshah-athan nam man! Sultan Zumzum ath, 

Badshah-athari, mam badshahiya khor-athah, 

Pha gharlvan zulman o zahrl zor-athan, 

Mai zha Karune dunya baz oil gura, 

Mai azh gedhi gura jagah geshtar ath, 20 

Ikhtar gedhla mal ikhtar mam malanl shawankh, 

Si sadh thai bageri, si-sadh main bar! leravan, 

Sl-sadh warna am-rikefl gon-athant, 

Yakh pha yakhe thangaveii durr-goshan athant, 

Ikhtar thai belan, ikhtar mam pyalav-nosh athant. 1 

Nm ki main barguneh damamoa hakal ath, 

Barokheri bao an suheli main sai sadh ath, 

Kullani handep manake motl jamvar-ath, 

Do hazar mar mam basthaghen zanga go ghulam, 

Mam panj-sadh ath blng, havt sadh banzo shikara, 2 30 

Bauf nlshtenth sar-bura bor-thashl khuthant, 

Dariz zha borl mohkamen nalan burz shu^iant, 

Ginnavari darizeri Zumzume phagha girant 3 

Ma shikaranl sailiha wahml blthaghari, 

Lelrae dithom pha ladhanl phadha, 

Bor rez-datha lelraen chakha datha, 

Lelrae arza burza azmano shutha, 

Ma hawari handa gipta behosheh thafa, 

Ol 61 giptal manari charokheh zawan, 4 

Alam khalth 'Ma Zumzuma darmane khanan/ 5 40 

Malkamlth darman gon neri khasa sangati, 6 

1 Or, Dah hazar mar main begah piyale-nosh athant. 

2 Pers. shikarah, a hawk. 

3 For lines 31-33, version B has the two following lines : 

Man gil nishtent sar-bura bor-thashl khuthant, 
Nawah hakh ma Sultane saro mandilan reshant. 

4 For lines 34 to 36, B has the one line : 

Na-ghuma roshe giptaghan sai-takhi thafa. 

5 Breads: Har taviv khaith 'Ma Zumzuma darmane deun.' 
6 B reads : Maut darman pha ummata paidaish na bant. 




Balochi Texts. 151 



Thaod 1 o darman cho khameri singan na rishant. 

Si o sadh darman man-en ma lalen khlsagha, 

Hmzhagh! bitha adime khalthan na-ghuma. 

Malkamith akhta go wathl ganden droshama, 

Chyar-ath-i phadh, hasht-athl daz go changulan, 

Sha hamari hashtenari yakhe mai negha dranzlthai, 2 

Shakalen sah pha hazar adhaban burthai, 3 

Khashtal sah, zurthaish but pha phuragha. 

Ma hamari laza cho tabutan singarthaghari, 50 

Bachhari o brathan nishta go chhaman dithaghan, 

Bachhari o brathan zurtha pha jame khofaghah, 

Azh man! phesha thankh-dafeh kabre katitha, 

Er-khutho mara sarbura zurtho limbetha, 

Dahkaghen bitha nekheri khandiyari phusht jatha, 4 

Phuritho but garthaghan khandl azh phadha. 

Hal na bitha akhtaghafi gurz-wazha, 5 

Gurz burz artho man manl baladha jatha, 

Jan manl hakhl phuri hirtho dariz khutha. 6 

Mor marari charan pha goshanl buna, 60 

SyahakI gwamzan hand khutha granzanl taha, 

Kajaleh chham phur azh hakha o sikha, 

Hushken dathan phopulo phanar jatha. 

Dan damaghea man hawan handa chah-khutha. 

Zal khayant buzh sarani phelo shuthaghant ; 

E hawan zal-ant ki chukh klsaniyan khushtaghant, 

Jathiren khoha daman chakha drushtaghant, 

Nllaghen afani sara baz jheritha, 

Dan damaghea ma hawan handa chah khutha. 

Mard khayant rish-o-dema hushk athant ; "70 

E hawan mard-an naroan khar-ish khuthant, 

1 Thaod 'is probably corrupted from Ar. ta'iuidh) a charm. 

2 Lines 44 to 47 are found in B only. 

3 In B, Main shakalen sahe pha ziri adhawah burthai. 

4 These six lines, 50-55, are not found in A. 

5 In B, An do warna go asinen gurzah phujitha. 

6 In B, Asinen gurzan dir mam khas-khasl khutha. 



152 Balochi Texts. 

Chham avur dushklsh nisharan chot khuthant, 
Phadho brathanl na wathari er-khuthant. 
Man avur gwastho phadhl warnayan gushaii, 
Sokuro satari pha Hudhal nama khushaii, 
Bi-riyaen wahna wur mehmanan daeth, 
Nm manan khile, man gharlban jawaiii khanah. 

Badshahe thai badshahiya khor-athe, 

Pha gharlban shara* wakhta zor-athe, 

Agh thai shiriyeh zawana bolithen, 80 

Thai hakal o hughah dan azmana shutheh. 

1 Lines 60-77 occur in A only, and the concluding four lines, 78-81, in 
B only. 

LVIII. 
BAYAN MI'RAJ-1-I-RUSULU'LLAH. 

An rosha ki Hazrat Rusulu'llah 'arsha shutha mi'raja, 
Wahla zurtha, hapten azmanan burza gwastha ; guda 
phrishtagha gwashta ' Ma dema shuth na bun, mam phar 
sushant.' Dastglr Badshah, ki Hazrat Plr gwan'-janant-I, 
akhto khofagh dathal, khofagh sara ladhagh er-khutha- 
ghantl, charitho shutha. Guda Hazrat Nabia pharmaintha 
Dastglr Badshahara ki ' Main kadam thai chakha eh, 
thai kadam hamu Plr chakha eh.' Dema shutho mazare 
oshtathiyen. Mazara ki daf phatithal Nabia vlndo azh 
dasta khashto mazarar ma dafa dathal. Nl ki shutho 
mi'raja hazir bltha, Hudha pharmaintha ki ' Chadare 
nyama kharo khane parda sanga.' Chadar ki kharo 
bltha ya-dema Hudha bltha, ya-dema Rusulu'llah bltha. 
Hudha pharmaintha ' Main Dost.' Rusulu'llah gwashta 
' Mam Dost.' Hudha pharmaintha : 

'Ma thara palda khutha, ma hawah deh, dighar, 'arsh-kursh 
thai khushiya paida khuthaghant. Agh ma thara paida ma 
khutheh ta ma bakl jihan paida na khuth.' Guda Rusula 
gwashta * Wazha ! ma thai gindagh wasta akhtaghah/ 






Balochi Texts. 153 

Guda Hudha pharmaintha 'O mam Dost, go tho ma 
jaiz khutha ki ya-roshe ma wathl dema thara pheridaran ; 
agh wakhta ginde, ma thara dema nlri phehdarah ; kiyamat 
rosha go wathl ummata phajya agh tho ginde, guda 
hawah rosha thara phehdaran-I. 1 Nabla gwashta ' Dldhar 
kiyamat rosha khanah ki main ummat dl thai dema gindl.' 
Chyarglst-dah hazar thaukh-tawar khutha-ish ma ya 
shafa, hazhdah salah ya shaf bltha. Rusulu'llah whard 
ki akhta guda gwashtal 'Wazha! ma evakha naghan 
mundhori na wartha.' lludha pharmaintha 'Tho bawar; 
Yakhe dl go tho phajl warth.' Nabla ki naghan wartha 
ya daste 'sh-hawah chadara gwasth khakhtath, whard 
zurthath-I. Hawan vlndo ki mazar dafa dathal nl hawah 
dast murdana phajyarthal ki ' maigheh.' Guda mokal 
bltha Nablara, thartho handa akhtal. Chonari akhta 
ki khundo take ludagheth hawen-r'ga ki juzagh wakhta 
ludagheth. Akhto kissav khuthal ki 4 haweh-r'ga tikkalya 
tharthaghah, ya shaf bltha hazhdah salan.' Guda bakkalea 
gwashta ' Gindari chikhtaren mazain mardeh, chikhtareh 
droghe bandaghen ! ' Roshe hudhal bltha hawah bakkala 
mahle gipto datha zala pha chillagha, gwashtal ' Man 
ravaii dhanda jan dl shodhah, af g'haroa dl phur-khuthl 
kharari.' Shutha ki bakkal darya khargha, topi dl er- 
khuthal, kaush dl er-khuthal, g'haro dl er-khuthal,phehitha 
ma darya lafa jan shodhagha pha : tubl ki jathal af- 
azh dar-khapta gindl 'man zalan, nen main jar er-ant, 
neh main g'haro-eh, thi dighar-en, thl hand-en, man zal 
blthaghan.' Kandla khlndarlya bitho nishta. Akhta ki 
auzare, zurtho madhin zen-phushta charenthal, shutho 
burthal wathl shahra, slr-khuthal. Havd chukh paida 
blthaghant-I. Roshe phadhl chukhe jar zurtho shutha 
pha shodhagha darya khargha, shustho rosha phirentha- 
ghant-I, andara phehitha jan shodhagha, jathal ki tubl, 
dar-khapto gindl ki man mard-ah, oil hand-en, dilo dl 
er-en, kaush dl topi dl er-eh, hawan bakkal-ari. Thartho 
tikkaiya logha ; gindl hawah mahia zal haweh-r'ga ya 



154 Balochi Texts. 

pahnadha chillagheri. Guda zala gwashta, 'Tha darya 
shuthaghai, ya nem-raha tharthaghal, ishtafia akhtaghai.' 
' Ran ' gwashto ' Man baz sal gwasthaghari,' guda hal 
wathl dathai. Guda kabul khuthal ki Paighambar kissav 
rast-en, akhto Musalman bltha. 

Phadha Rusulu'llah na-durah bltha, mardume akhta 
galoa dastagh jathal kharkenthal. Dalar gwashtal 'Baro, 
gind-I, chacho-en banda-eri, eshi nashk (sijill) chi-ant. 
Daia ki akhto dltha, gwashta ' Eshi sijill e handl ban- 
daghanl neh.' Rusula gwashta 'E Arzel-en, akhta mam 
sah giragha. Tho baro gwash ki hazhdah sal mam dam 
umra asten, baro azh Hudha phola khan.' Daia hawari- 
r'ga gwashta. Arzela shutha gwar Hudha, gwashtal 
' Wazha ! Thai dost gwashaghen ki hazhdah sal main 
umra dam asten; thai chl hukm-eri ? ' Hudha pharmaintha 
' Baro, mam dostar gwash, thai hazhdahen salari ya-shafa 
mi'raj wakhta tha gwasthaghe ; thai salah-en ma hazar sal 
thara wadainari, tha shara' kabul khane, thai wakht hamesh- 
eri.' Akhto Arzela ha weri-r'ga dasidiai. Gwashtal 'Manari 
manzur-eh ; gwaz biya.' Akhto Arzela senagha zor dathaT, 
sah khashagha pha. Nabla gwashta 'Arzel, tha ki manan 
zora deaghal, mam ummata dl hamikhtareh zore deal?' 
Arzela gwashta ' Thai ummatara ma phancheh murdanagh 
zor dean ; thara ma ya murdana zor deaghari.' Gwashta 
Nabla ' Har phanchen murdanagh zora manan dai, ya 
murdan zor ummata dai.' Guda faut bltha Paighambar. 



LIX. 

BAYAN YAILI. 
i. BANZ O KAPOT. 

Bahze kavot be-charagheri, 
Hardo mirana raptaghant, 
Ma Shaha kuta khaptaghant. 
PheshT suwal bariza khutha. 



Balochi Texts. 155 

Ji Shahe-Mardan Yaill! 

Tha be-shakk mam din-wall, 

Ma chukh shudhiya ishtaghant, 

Azh Havd-darya an kharagha, 

O er-bunen drashke sara. 

Ma jhatan deana akhtaghan, 10 

Jahe shikare dast-giran, 

Pha guzhnagheh chukhan baran 

Mam sherl shikara tho ma zin, 

Ki arihwal kullan gwar-thav-en.' 

GudI suwal khuth kauhtara, 

Ji Shahe-mardafi Yaill. 

Tha be-shakk manl din-wall. 

Choshen afihwal-en manl. 

Ma chukh shudhiya ishtaghant, 

O khoh Bamboren sara. 20 

Khakhtari ki chekhoe chinari, 

Pha guzhnagheri chukhah baran, 

Zorenwara avristhaghan, 

Giptal manari phatagha. 

Nln o guzhnaghen barizar ma dai, 

Anhwal kullan gwar-thav-eh. 

Gwahkhe nakhlf thlhar jatha, 

c Kambar, manl kharcha biyar,' 

DastI avr zan sara, 

' Biya bahz, thara gozhde dean.' 30 

Chonari wathl gozhd burtha, 

Mighdar kahnl kauntara, 

Aghdl zaraeri ma-sara. 

Guda greghl kapot be-charagheri. 

*E neh bahz-en na ma kapot. 

Ma hardo Hudhal phrishtagh-un, 

Paken Hudha shastathaghuri, 

An phar thai azmutagha. 

Jawan-eh ki gleshtae shara'!' 39 



156 Balochi Texts. 



2. YAILI SAKHAWAT. 

Ahmad Shoran gushi : Yaill sain sifatan gushi : Yaill 
sam baha-blagh rosh gushi. 

Ahmad khashlth Shahe-mardani kissava, 
Shahe-mardani kissav, ShahanI siwat. 
Khal suwalie, galeth pha ermanen dafa, 

' Dai manafi zaran, ma havd janikh slr-khanah, 
Hapt mam dukhtar nishtaghant ya as sara, 

Mai niyath mara, hal niyath iptl lashkara.' 
Yailla bi Kambara sohvl gwan'-jatha, 

'Kambar bairamen phaghe band haweh phlr mard 

sara.' 

' Derav azh khashtae, ashko khare paisavari ? ' 
'Zar manah nesteri, ma thara bashklsha khanan, 10 
Glr manl dasta, khan bahal ma klchahan. 
Dai hamodha bah pha sadh mard baha. 
Hastale sakeri biyare pha zar dohagha.' 
Zar khutha GauranI malukianle jana, 

*E chl marde ki bltha pha sadh mard baha?' 
Yaill galakhta phara durr-chlneh dafa, 

' Nam-en mam Haidar, ma hamu kharah laik-an.' 

' Zlr kuharava, baro pha dar buragha.' 
Khakhtan dan GauranI sarlnl adanava, 
Whav-shutha Haidar man wathl whav-shadhiha, 20 

Khaptagho sheran phroshtaghan olak pha-gwara, 
Sar-khutha Shah azh wathl whav-shadhiha, 
Ya phithl ole sai phithl khakhtan azh ladha, 
Gipto ma gosha, ladithaghanti cho syahen khara, 
Khakhta dan GauranI sarlnl darwazagha. 
Naraheh sheran har chyarenari yag-dafa. 
Trakitha mahal khaptaghan rani sher buna. 
'Dar wathl sheran, ma shahr Musalman bun yagsara.' 
' Nlh daran, ki dm Muhammade waditha.' 
Sai pharah kalimo Muhammada phur-khutha. 30 



Balochi Texts. 157 

Yaill bl Kambara zltheri gwan'-jatha. 

' Biya tha Kambar, man Madina sathe barari.' 

Yak-hazar lero sha hawan muhrari phur khutha. 

An phaklr khoreii nishta ma chyar-rah sara, 

An phaklra azh Murtiza nane lotitha. 

Gwashta Shaha ' Kambar tho phaklrar nana bi-dai.' 

Kambara gwasht ' Nan ma barkl leravan/ 

Gwashta Shaha ' Lerava go bara bi-dai.' 

Kambara gwasht ' Lero ma katar sar-eri.' 

Gwashta Shaha 'Jumlaeri katara bi-bashk.' 40 

Kambara shore zurtha, loka azh pharitha, 

Hakh pha sultanl daf-o-dema jhapitha. 

Yailia ma Duldul zena khanditha, 

' Chon-eri, O Kambar, thai malighl baladh halitha ? ' 

Kambara gwashta bi wathl radheri wazhaha. 

' Man kisan-athari, gwashtaghan mam math-o-phitha, 
Khanezat-e tho Duldule radheri wazhaha-e, 
Azh thai bashkah dltho man hairan mathaghari, 
Nawari go thai bashkah go mazho darbeshah rawan!' 49 



LX. 
PHIRAI WARNAl SHA'R. 

Jlwa Kird gush! : imar phlrai warnal kharde gal 
gushi. 

Yad khanan Rabba, kurzatani malik wadh-e, 

Jan mam ranjan azh gunahari be-jaukhaveri, 

Hardame gwahkhari waharle Pir Sahibe. 

Rabb pharmana khar khane, banda jahil e, 

Roshaghe phanj-wakhta namaz jan sihat en, 

Mansabe sachoeh sakhianl ziadhahen, 

Wadh Nabl pakeri pha badh-o-nekhan zamin-eh. 

Bandaghe warnal ragham, 'aish mausim-eri, 

Bachhakah pahnadhe phaghaz-zlreii phlraheri. 

Phlrai dast ma kible khasea khutheh, 10 



158 Balochi Texts. 

Asaveh charlan huzurla charitheri, 

Iran go ninjen bachhakan warna khadheri, 

Baraghen borani hudhawand lotaitheri, 

Mai go mochi rakhtaghen sanjari paharithen, 

Phadh ma thasari doraveh jahdhl shefitheri, 

Zen bihananl gipteri ; Rabb yad-khutheh, 

Mai go chabuk o khurian lotharithen, 

Daiiz go daulian sarenl phaghan shurfieri, 

Ajarian pha ujaram dagari jathen, 

Bor sawar kharafi pha hukm-pharmani burthen, 20 

Ma kiblo-khundah har-chyarenan pholitheri, 

Maizilen syah-gosheii samandan dahmolitheh. 

Baraghen borani dhanlyan drohl jathen, 

Go zamm-chanden phlrahe blrari sahr-khutheri, 

Daur-dawaeri phlrahe murl watithen, 

Kalivl shlkohah azh-dlra jhatithen, 

Lib duhonha dan gwaiikhea shutheii. 

Gabrua pha phusht demia pechitheh, 

Phlraii nokh-saj barakheri thegha jathen, 

Malighl baladha juda azh gardan khutheh. 30 

Kanjukha savzegha charanz rlsha tangithen, 

Baraghen boraii maizilan chandola burthen, 

Bar bewana rastharanl hawa khuthen, 

Langavah shadhkaml gwara sardaran jathen, 

Badshahan mahal-manan biashkhutheri, 

UmmatI Rabba shi balazira chutithen. 

Phlreha waldl datha ki Galan gozh-deae, 

Shahiar masteri, durr-hadlsen dana dil e, 

Ginavan shaitan betala aspa chare. 

Dan-sara wasa Rabb-pharmana khar khane. 40 

Ma niyun ekha, jasol bazari malike, 

Malkamlth natharsen, jasole zora war-en, 

Na-murad verl, vichorah dosteha, 

Zor bar' bachhari zareii, arlferi phitheri, 

An hukm jaii-en, polls! 1 e nazir-eh. 

a The English word police. 



Balochi Texts. 



159 



Ma hadhen khayan, daur pha-rashefl ware, 

Pha dilari masklf 1 muradan go thathare, 

Jufo bile, tha Hudhai nama diye. 

Guda ma jawab datha an balaziren phlrahe. 

GabruanI rlmlasen veri thav-e, 50 

Ah maluk-rangen suratan badh-hlla khane, 

Thau miyaithe, cho ki thai charle girant. 

Thaukh amlrani majlisah pasandl nawant ! 

Akul o danahah thiryal gwankh janant. 

Shajjane shathan dah-damea zindagh ma-bant, 

Samano demla ma-oshtan' ; zlthen talant ! 

Ash thau, gurbaghen ranga, go Arzela arkan geh-ant, 

Chandehah warna la-tamaeh mari-ravant, 

Phlrahan shikkan khanavan nokh-saj khanant, 

Phireri khaz nesteri, la- shank banjoghar-ant. 60 

Nodh pha pharmana Hudhaegha darishant, 

Basthagheii ahdhari Khawindegha afa deant, 

Hind Sind gwarant, chyareri khundan shalant 



LXI. 
Haidar BalachanI gushl : wathi phlrahe gushi. 

Biyaedh o salokh-droshamen bachhari, 
O Mazarle gedaren hotan, 
Daz-rasa baladha ma rangene, 2 
Azh bihananl chandane zena, 
Azh amulanl shakhaleii nyadhan. 
Azh amlrani sath dlwanan, 
Phlreha pahnadhe manafi dadha. 
HeminI marde pha mam rand-eii, 
Giptal man! baladha maluklya, 
Ma phendari cho tarzana mazariyan, 
Main zari azh mahmezan narlyah, 
Baiizik azh phur-khashan kamaniyari, 
Main dast larzan ma slmuren wagari, 
1 Masklf, for Ar. maksub. 2 Cf. XIX., 1. 43. 



10 



160 Balochi Texts. 

Chambo azh shlrazi lurch theghan. 

Khushkeh dathan azh phopuleh rakhah, 

Nen phroshah cho pheshtaren rosha. 

Mam chham azh dlren gindagheh gran-ant, 

Gwar azh DaudI zirih o holah. 

Dan man! bar! ath hadlsani, 

Ma deravo chyar rah sara basthath, 20 

Mam ah kilat pha daro bandath, 

Har-khadheh mihman pha gal-khakhtant. 

Mam gwahkh avo Domb langaveh mardah, 

Khashtathant shiskan o gale suhreh, 

Kharch avo salwareh gurandan-ath, 

Deghchaho bhattiyah mara gah-ath, 

Ma lanjaveh whan phagal dathant, 

Dathan bl mihmaneh Balochenah. 

Nosh khuthant glst-sadh akhtagheh mardah. 

Ah mam go ahhl trash tagheh sol-ant, 30 

Ah mam boranl phagah o sah-ant, 

Ah man! phanj-wakht namaz jah-ant. 

Mam zen avo shirwareh blhanan-ath, 

Manah nokareh mard wasara thakhtant. 

Ma mlr avo mane sara dlthant, 

Am-nashlna go sahivah nishtah, 

O hamah zilohah chirrakhena, 

Nishtagho rajl thorave basthant. 

Manah bashkithant kimkaf o khawa-khaseh. 

Nm ki azh miranl dara khakhtah, 40 

Dan wathl mlr! bandane raja, 

Mam Marav bazar ath tan a warn, 

Sangsila go bukhtagheh joah, 

Gumbaz go Syahafa giyafena. 

Mam bahr go haislyah mukhi mlah, 

Nm nishtagho dua-goah hawah roshe, 

Shah mam Imana manah bashkl, 

Dan hamah deml-mizilo rahiyah, 

Guda Haidara daur pha sarjamagh wartha. 49 



PART VI. 

SHORT SONGS (DASTANAGH}, CRADLE- 
SONGS, PLA Y SONGS, RIDDLES. 

LXII. 
CRADLE-SONGS. 

I. 

Lolilo manl phusaghara, 

Whasheri whav manl bachhara, 

Murghe jane sarphost khan, 

Murghe phost manaii phakar-eri, 

Zikki phadh pha jorenari, 

Shastan phar wathi waslya, 

Gashti pattaro drangl sah, 

Zikki roghana zardena, 

Mesh! dumbagha gozhdena, 

Rozl ba' man! bachhani. 

Lolllo bachhera, thau phlr bathe. 11 

2. 

Alam Din phul-gudheri warna bl, 
Bandl har-shasheri hathyarah. 
Dhal tupako katara, 
Zirl wathl jabah morthena, 
Shlraz! lura Rindlya, 
ThashI markavan trundena. 
Jaghdaleri janah pharami, 
Dath-1 dirawari azenan, 

* L 



1 62 Balochi Texts. 

Thara jarari dean suhrenah, 

Zaran dean naghdena, 10 

Hlrthen poharanl gozhdan, 

Mirzl shakhalah shahreghan, 

Cho JatI mari-dila razl bl. 

Go thau hamchosh gal-khal, 

' Rosh ma dighareri khonda jath, 

KhohanI sara dolo bl, 

Istar man muzha sahra bant. 

Thau sanj khan wathi markava trundena, 

Hama drikhokheri khumedh chakka. 

Biyar-I dan manl pakera, 20 

Band-I da muna gazegha, 

Nind pha manl hll bl. 

Cho Punnu sar-glrth jidha biro', 

Sar-da barth wathi gwameshari, 

Harragh dal ni whav biro'. 

Ma gam o gam khanana khayaii, 

Khayah dan thai baladha, 

Nindun whazhdil o whash-hala. 

Cho istar bangohe sahra bl, 

Mokal dai manl indara, 30 

Nawan Punnueii laghor than biyaith, 

Nawah randl dal na hagha bl.' 
Thau baro wathi merava Rindlya. 
Sardar kashide shastl da, 

' Biyare rahzanen Alam Dina, 

Main jang-eh go doiman jaurena, 

Dajal o Harrando mardan, 

Ziruh g'horavan granenah, 

Jumbenun hazarl faujari, 

Bahari bel-khanun honlyan.' 40 

Lollan dean bachhara, 
Badshah ki Hudha ami khath. 



Balochi Texts. 163 

3- 

Naziya jadha sradhen kull, 

Gird Gumbazan j arena, 

Syahaf thanakheri gaza, 

WathI phlruk bunindl handa. 

Gwankha jath phidh o nakhoan, 

Brathaii somareri zangenan, 

Nakhoi mazareh bachhaii, 

Tri phusagheri saulenan : 

Shawa biyaedh man man! chyar-kulla, 

Nodhari azh sarlna bastha, 10 

Nawan shwai mlri hathyar misant, 

Nawan shwai murthen jabaha namb girth, 

Molid be-nango dl turen, 

Gokhari maii-ladha meshentha, 

Baga Gujaro gwazentha. 

Loliah dean wathl jinikhara. 16 

4- 
A PLAYING SONG. 

Falankhla! Jinikh lotaiyant, 

Pha whashen Gumbaz naze khan. 

Falankhl na khalth o janikhan ! 
Dast ma guzareri khareii. 
WathT brath sutana shalwarl gushadeh, 
Arlfa khawahe doshl, 
Pha nakhoa khamanl jhale, 
Pha matha kuchithowen phashkl, 
Pha wadh jamaven jlghl khath. 9 



164 Balochi Texts. 

LXIII. 
DASTANAGHAN. 

I. 

Girderi jam, man thai rand-ah, 
SaimI sal-en, man thai rand-ah, 
Ma astah lahghanah, man thai rand-an, 
Ma laf dod-en, man thai rand-ah, 
Ma dil ganokh-eh, man thai rand-ah, 
Ma ruha be-was ah, man thai rand-ah. 

2. 

Yaran, chotl phulah dai, 
Sherana salama dai. 
Main sohna dostl verhah dai, 
Sohna chotl phulah dai, 
Sohna mahrl pechah dai, 
Sohna zahmi hulah dai, 
Afa phlr chhatha biya, 
Yara main salama dai, 
Dastah band, ghulam-ah thai. 

3- 

Jl o ji mam Blbai, 
Mendhe nal, mam Bibal, 
Gendharl khoha, main Bibal, 
Zangi chhatha, main Bibal, 
Phaidha til, main Bibal, 
Dilbar lahn, main Bibal, 
Umarkota, main Bibal. 

4- 

Chalra thai dast-en, nih na phiral; 
Ola main yar-eh, nih na phiral, 
Thai verh main dast-eh, nih na phiral, 
Neh ath khota, nih na phiral. 



Balochi Texts. 165 

5- 
Zal gushl. 

Chalra thai nashk-ari, mam Allah bell ! 
Has-aii be-was-an, manari bharl nell, 
Hawaii rupia thai nashk-eri, mam Allah bell, 
Khandagheh khand, main dilri khush bl. 

Mard gushl. 

Sohnla, ekha na rave, mam kunjan toll. 

6. 

Mauth nashan garme thaf-eri, 
Haur nashan danz-o-muzh-en, 
Ishk nashan brishkhandagh-en. 

7- 

Nodhan bitha grand, 
LadI kulll trand, 
ZangI khutha hand, 
BiyaithI dilah band, 
Nokhah khutha trand, 
Gendhari khutha hand. 

Or, 
Gyandar sara band. 

8. 

Zawaren ZarkanT tho g'horav khai-e ? 
Shaho sar-muhr-en, g'horav khai-e ? 
Gal sar-muhr-en, g'horav khai-e? 
Shera Bakhmara, g'horav khai-e ? 

9- 

Girderi janl thai yar blan, 
Mam kalaml-en, thai yar blan, 
Ma bol palah, thai yar blan, 



1 66 Balochi Texts. 

Mendhewall, thai yar blan, 
Rad nazl bl, thai yar blan, 
Phara cho daran, thai yar blan, 
Dag dase, nawari gar blan. 

10. 

Jawaih deh Marleghen, 
Acha deh Marleghen ! 

ii. 

Bhimbar phadhl thaunkh-en, 
Kalar war! tratha, 
Kachha ya beta, 
Bhimbar phadhl thaunkh-en. 

12. 

Verha kull sahi-eri, 
Ravaghl glyal drahlya; 
Tone ladan tone nindari, 
Ravaghl-ari drahlya ; 
Tone khandan tone girayal, 
Ravaghl-an drahlya ; 
Dema JatanI mer-en, 
Ravaghl-eh drahlya ; 
Tone bandah tone phirne, 
Ravaghi-en drahlya. 



Lah, man zalanl sardar, 
Lud, mam drahariya biya, 

Lai, main bolanl sacha, 
Lud, main drahariya biya, 

Zalan bulewali lud, 
Main drahariya biya, 

Haroan thai chart, 

Lud, main drahariya biya. 



Balochi Texts. 167 

14. 
Ubhar laurig buta, 

Sambhar drahariya biya, 
Marda band go tindan, 

Sambhar drahariya biya, 
Tinda band ma mundha, 

Guda drahariya biya, 
Mundha jan ma dhanda, 

Guda drahariya biya, 
Rosha theiya charl, 

Sambhar drahariya biya, 
Phedha band jhuta, 

Sambhar drahariya biya, 
Zala mendhewall, 

Sambhar drahariya biya. 



Savl mard giraghl-en, 
Giraghl-eii janaghl-en, 
Rela zawar khanaghi-eh, 
Sevia baraghl-eri, 1 
Jel-khana mah-khanaghi-eh, 
Nal gwan'-janaghl-eh, 
Phut-gal er-khanaghl-eri, 
Risha gaur-khanaghl-eri, 
Charoen gozhd mushaghi-en, 
Neka nokh khanaghl-eri, 
Janaghl-eri, giraghl-eri. 

1 6. 

ChachI, chhorav topi gar-en, 
Chirari, chhorav topi gar-eii, 
Bhlrah, chhorav topi gar-en, 
Rulari, chhorav topi gar-en, 

1 Or, Edha Rojhan di baraghl-eh. 



1 68 Balochi Texts. 

Chhorav topi dhuggav bar-en. 
Khush-an, chhorav topi dlthom, 
Bonsh-an chhorav topi dlthom. 

17- 

Rejan till, MastanI, 
Phopat bl, MastanI. 
Tupak zurtha badanl, 
Thai marda mail satanl, 
Khard arari thai dastani. 
Chalra datha nashkani, 
Toban dil main, Mastani, 
Rojhan shahra, Mastani, 
Jl o jl mam Mastani, 
Thai zar eh baz, Mastani. 

18. 

Zawarl trunden borani, 
Yarl savzeh mindanl, 
Jhate phalke nindanl, 
Girden dema gindani, 
Chlreh thare sindanl. 

19. 

Adhra, thai naukar-ah, 
Halk verha sogav-en, 
Mard murtha thai zindagh-eh, 
Sher puchha drimbagheh, 
Drimbagha main dav na bl, 
As chakha jhunjaghen. 

20. 

Baragheh bell naukar bah, 
Kadaheh chhama naukar bah, 
Vaivaleh jigha naukar bah, 



Balochi Texts. 169 

Savzeh rakh-eh naukar ban, 
Senagh-gula naukar bari, 
Barizubandari naukar ban, 
ChittI dandari naukar ban. 

21. 

Lahre lang, khadho phedhagheri, 
Nan, yare gindagha phedhagheri, 
Nan, verha bar, khadho phedhagheri, 
Yar gindagha phedhagheri, 
Mudho chumjund khadho phedhagheri. 

22. 

Janarl 1 mam ruh-en-I, 
Khandagha mam ruh-en-I, 
Mara thai sareri go ruh-en-I, 
Mara thai sareri, munjha na bl, 
Mara thai sareri, munjha niyari, 
Thai nindagha munjha niyari, 
[Thai mar mm munjha niyari], 
Go tilhagha mam ruh-en-I, 
Go nindagha main ruh-en-I, 
Thai gindagha mam ruh-en-I, 
Phlr bl mam ruh-en-I, 
Dlr bl main ruh-en-I. 

23 0). 

Go ma drogh khutha, drohra, 
Azh ma khard khutha, drohra, 
Ma thara sahl khutha, drohra, 
Yare thl khutha drohra, 
Nlri ladl bltha, drohra, 
Azh ma dlr bltha, drohra, 
Nashke pher-dai be-haya. 

1 Or t Bujaru. 



170 Balochi Texts. 

23 <*> 

Man thara sah! khutha, drohra, 
Yare thl khutha, drohra, 
Nashke pher dai, drohra, 
Chhama khor bie, drohra, 
Phadha lang bie, drohra, 
Dastan tund bie, drohra, 
Manan doh nen, drohra. 

24 (a). 

Bagi, mumalan thai ling, 
Jhate indema bi nind ; 
Jhate nar sawada gind, 
BagI, indema bi nind ; 
Thai surata pasind, 
Bagi, indema bi nind. 
Thai thangaven dl bOl, 
Bagi, indema bi nind ; 
Chle Rabb khara gind, 
Bagi, indema bi nind ; 
Chle mard daura gind, 
Bagi, bhirak nazl nind. 

24 (b). 

Bagi, mumalan thai ling, 
Bagi, dhuk nazl nind ; 
Chle Rabb nogha gind, 
Bagi, dhuk nazl nind. 
Thai suraten pasind, 
Bagi, dhuk nazl nind ; 
Jhate nar sawada gind, 
Bagi, dhuk nazl nind ; 
Thai phopatan chl ling, 
Thai shefagheii thai phonz, 
Bagi, dhuk nazl nind. 



Balochi Texts. 171 

Thai leravani ling, 
Bagl, dhuk nazl nind. 

25. 

Phirari sor ma saull ban, 
Narl yar main daurl ban, 
Chala gung dai, ghall da, 
Chala mendhanewali da. 

26. 

Mehro till, sadari dhilll, 
Marda bill, go ma tilhl, 
Sadaii till, merhan till, 
Halkari till, merhan till. 

27. 

Shawa jedi khane Allah, 
Mam yara Hudha biyar, 
Mam ruha bewas-ari, 
Rawah yare gindan khayah, 
Mam girdoh thai halakeri, 
Rawan ha d! janari khayari, 
Shawa gokhe khane vandl, 
Main yare Hudha biyara, 
Doen dastari khane burza, 
Main yare Hudha biyara. 

28. 

Phadh thai dor khanth, narmiya biya, 
JutI thai chl khane, narmiya biya, 
Bahadhur en thai nam, narmiya biya, 
Phadh thai dor khanth, narmiya biya. 

29. 

DilgoshI dar, ThagI, thai marda man sak-aii, 
Man pattana gardan, thai marda man sak-an, 

Thai gobar-jan luhan, thai chunrla druhari, 
Gobar-jan satan, thai marda man jhakan. 



172 Balochi Texts. 

30. 

Sinnaman Sahib main yar-eh kullaeh, 
Zarah daune ki natha garaheh, 
Sahthan kullah thangav kanaheh, 
Thangav na bian guda mara sunaeh. 

DASTANAGHS IN THE JATKI DIALECT. 

31- 

Lai kirarl bulewall, 
Kirar! jhamkewall, 
Kirarl hasslwall, 
Kirarl mendhianwall, 
Kirarl shahrenwall. 

32. 

DardI ah ki mardl ah, 
Dille jor bharendl ah, 
Sajji bahh ludendl ah, 
Khabba pair chulendl ah, 
Slna gul karendl ah, 
Rutha yar manendl ah, 
Chalra pao main did! ah, 
Pai kanuh main dardl ah, 
Tikka thl, main valdi ah. 

33- 

Yar charhya rel-te, pharat hai yar da, 
Naukar e khan da, pharat hai yar da, 
Yar charhya berl-te, pharat hai yar da. 

A DASTANAGH IN KHETRANI. 

34- 

Pheroz Shah ethah thl, 
Nathlra bega ethah thl, 
Marura bega ethah thl. 



Balochi Texts. 173 

LXIV. 
BUJHARATAN. 

I. 

Ya shai jawairi ulkaha asta, 
Duzhmanea resentha-ish khashta, 
Bang'hawa pahre rah sara gwastha, 
Go minnat mehrari niyadh dasta, 
E bujharat Brahima bastha. 

Bozh. Warnal o phirai. 



2. 

Ya shai jawairi ulkaha yaka, 
Go jherave jangari sadh-bare saka, 
Har-khase khalth, jathl wathi chakha, 
Mari na gindanl jagahe dhakka, 
Gosh danaha shara bozh wa hakka. 

Bozh. Chhath. 



3- 

Brahima phairl gwashtagha gale, 
Dithaghari chie, ranga be-hale, 
Rangeri kojha, andar-eri lale. 

Bozh. As-khoh. 

4- 

Hudhai kurzat o khara, 
Zamin nestath o dighara, 
Be-khishtagheri khishara, 
Hudhai kurzat o khara, 
Sabzo phul bahara, 
Pha phashagha dl taiyara. 



174 Balochi Texts. 

5- 

Zl khakhtan ba namzadhl daga, 
Be-sani chie tharatho aga, 
Blthaghari hairan go name aga. 
Gind, hameshi akul o saga, 
Go janokhan blanti laga. 

6. 

Phakhagheh churanl ravat syaheri, 
Man-buna saigist rezam jah-en, 
Dan ma burza hoshagha druah-eri. 
Bozh, Thignl. 

7- 

Pharo-en shafa khor-en, 
Yake pha zulm zor-en, 
Pasano takor-eh, 
Buta dl sha laghor-eri. 
Bozh. Phurl. 

8. 

Ya drashke jorentha paken Hudhaia, 
Ma zamln phushta pha jinden razaia. 
Bund yak-en-T, lamb-en duaia, 
Yake rekh bitha, yake sawaia. 

9- 

Pyalae phureri dltha ma jahe, 
Nishtagha lal o nestathl dal, 
Pyalae wartha lal shahld bitha, 
Chonari ki kulleh alima dltha. 

10. 

Do gwaharari dltha ambazl, 
Ajab khush ant gwar-ambazl, 
Nen-I surata khami, 
Yake khor, dlgar chhaml. 



Balochi Texts. 175 

ii. 

Phairl khakhtaii pha gidhar, 
Man Bakarl shahr gwara, 
Boll ath-i whashen tawar, 
Dastan giptl nar-mazar. 
Bozh. Mar. 

12. 

DoshI manan barizen bihan, 
Chari ma loghan blthaghari, 
Sinjanavar resenthaghan. 
Bozh. Shaf-chlragh. 

13- 

Roshe mano bahzeh bihan, 
Khakhtari azh dlreri ulkahari, 
Guda man dl nazar charenthaghah, 
Man dltha suhageh mehir-en, 
Nyama shawankl man-ravant, 
Go dast-bahokhen nezaghari, 
Lafa go dastan chankh khanant, 
Hona ma hlranl girant, 
Akhlr dl banda-ish warant. 
Bozh. Aflm. 

14. 

(1) Bujharate kl Khidr Shair bastha. 

Ashik waslth ma zirih lahra, 
Mashuk waslth ma hamu shahra, 
AptI gindant, zian khanant khara. 

(2) Husain Hana BalachanI ki bhorenthal, e'rga gwashta. 

Namzadheh Khidr, tha shair-e tikka, 

Pha shitim barizigari drikka, 

Azh man gwar chachori khane likka ? 



176 Balochi Texts. 

Man darya gar-khane randa, 
Dl beh nelant! basthagheri banda, 
Tha man samundra dltha chamak-watl, 
An jahazanl asina phati. 

15- 
Bujharate k! Ghulam Muhammad Balachama bastha. 

Dlthom kilate basthagha, 
Phureri azh jaureh badhan. 
Sar sogaveri go duzhana, 
E pha miragh zahr khanant, 
Phesha wathar gar-khanant, 
Guda badhle sar-khanant 
Bozh. Tiliani dabll. 

1 6. 
Roshe Khidr Shaira band bastha throngal sara. 

(1) Roshe manan zanden naryan, 
Khakhtan azh diren ulkahan. 
Jang! mirokheri bidukhari, 
Gipta ma baro be-dihan. 
Man di wathl zanden naryan, 
Bastha pha trat o chabukari, 
Jahe wasandie rasari, 

Sah wathlya dar-barari. 

Guda Husain Han di bozhaghen-I. 

(2) Jai tho zanderi naryan, 

Sha khakhte azh diren ulkahan, 
Nodhan av-banderi jhurari, 
Arshi rishokheh throngalah, 
Thara gipto ma baro be-dihan, 
Guda tha di wathl zanden naryan, 
Bastha pha trat o chabukan, 
Jahe wasandie rasari, 
Sah wathlya dar-barari. 



Balochi Texts. 177 



Ya bangula e Kaltarl, 
Havd daragh, thl chyar dan, 
Danal e, tha bozh shon-dare. 
Bozh. Mardumeh. 

1 8. 

Syaheri, agha syah na bl, 
Whasheh, agha warth niyal, 
Chanth avo marakhavan, 
Khull kizanen kharghazan. 
Bozh. KaturT. 

19. 

Syahen madhin sanj bitha. 
Chukhan dil ganj bitha. 
Bozh. Thafagh ki wur bl, 

Guda chukh khush bl. 

20. 

(a) Gori ma garamb khafl. 

(b) Gokh dhikhl, ror phadath. 

(c) Halk ladi, dem phadh-en-I. 

21. 

Mala sar-dai vara dosh. 
Bozh. Mai benagh-mahisk-en. 

22. 

Savzen cho hlth-eri, charpi cho meshl dumbaghan. 
Bozh. Gwan. 

23- 

Talabl naukar-ant kharde ajab bhat, 
Kadam pha lekhav-ant-ish khar o khidmat, 



1 78 Balochi Texts. 

Hame phauj dhura be-hathyar-en, 
Phithi phoshindaghari yak o tawar-eri, 
Hamodha lashkar khosh o khushar-en. 



24. 

Nishto dlthom pha nadhar, 
An shahr be-sah watan, 
AhanI adh Jang o jadal, 
Nyamjl nawant yake digar. 

25- 

Dan ki shaha parwareri, khapta man logh buna, 
Nm ki bandaghan razentha, bltha pha husn o phara, 
Whash hadls o khush lisan, 
Roth go phulen ambalan. 

26. 

Hudha pakho kurzat-eri banda pallth, 
Rusul Muhammad-en ummat wall; 
Hazaren bandagh yak-en thai!, 
Chamodha khas na-roth horg o khali, 
Hamodha gipto harchl dl wartha-ish, 
Hama whan zurtho logha dl artha-ish, 
Guda jatho bhorentho thai! uj artha-ish. 

27. 

Zi rapta azh Thallya Shahra, 
Bor basthaghan bebara saya, 
Dan 'sh-awan dana ki gula datha, 
Sharr khumethan ma thiragha chartha, 
Phith man! khohl marduma dost-eri, 
Brath azh grambah-en madrikhane, 
Gohar azh hamrangen gahan-bar-eii, 
Nam gulindane rahmat-eh jane. 



Balochi Texts. 179 

28. 

Wilayat thars-eri, dost bar-karar-en, 
Ravagha gohar kisanaken taiyar-en, 
Na-rothI math, bachh ola sawar-eri, 
Phith nesten-I, phlruk haiyat-eh. 

29. 

Sardar ki duz yar bi, 
Namuz name gar bi. 

30. 

Sahib ki insaf khanant, 
Chandl gunah maaf khanant, 
Odha ki sahib zor khanant, 
Be gwashtanlya shor khanant 



Bakhllen sahiba khas na 'shl jawari. 1 

32. 

Kahne litir o phlreii zal, 
Warna sara sar-bar. 

33- 

(a) Chonan phaneran sokhtaghaii, afa phukana warah. 

(b) Khatan sokhta afa phuk! warth. 

34- 
Wail, wakya dukh paighambaran blana akhtaghant. 

J Cf. XLIX. 2, 1. 1 8, where this saying is quoted. 



THE LANGUAGE OF BALOCHI POETRY. 

FOR a general account of the Balochi language I may 
refer those interested to Professor Geiger's account, 1 which 
gives a full list of all works on the subject, and to my own 
text-book, which contains a grammar and vocabulary. I 
do not wish here to do more than to indicate the points 
in which the language used in poetry differs from that 
of ordinary life (specimens of which will be found in the 
prose narratives included in this volume), and especially 
to draw attention to those points in which the language 
of the older poems differs from that of the later com- 
positions. 

A conventional poetic dialect appears to have become 
gradually recognized as the medium of expression, and 
this has continued with some modifications to the present 
day in the use of many words and phrases which are not 
commonly heard in the spoken language. 

These words are of two classes : those which formed part 
of the older language and are now obsolete or obolescent, 
and those which never were common, but are introduced 
by the poets to give variety or picturesqueness to their 
style. The latter class is drawn mainly from SindhI, often 
no doubt dialectical or obsolete SindhI ; and the love- 
poems contain many unfamiliar Persian words. There 
are several instances of a word occurring once only, and 
such words are not always easy of interpretation. In the 
older poetry we have in addition the survival of old 
grammatical forms, and an unfamiliar syntax. It is not 

l ln Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, vol. i. pt. 2. 






The Language of Balochi Poetry. 181 

indeed to be supposed that the language of the early 
sixteenth century has been preserved in its purity. It 
would be impossible that this should happen in com- 
positions which have never before been reduced to writing 
and have been handed down by word of mouth for four 
hundred years. The bards inevitably and unconsciously 
modify the form and pronunciation of words to suit the 
standard of their own tribe and period, and a certain 
modernization must thus have taken place ; but, never- 
theless, a good deal survives, as will be shown by a 
comparison of the language of the poems we know to be 
early with that used in verse of a later date. 

The following are the principal points : 

(a) In the inflection of nouns the terminations have not 
always the same force as at present. 

The inflection in e has a wider range of meaning than 
at present. It may be used for the genitive in any 
position, and not only at the end of a clause as at 
present. For instance : 

Matthe Gohare hiranl. IV. 67. 

In exchange for Gokar's young camels. 

Where the modern language would simply prefix the word 
Gohar without inflection, as : 

Gohar hiran ; Gohar's young camels. 

Sometimes e forms a locative or dative, in neither of 
which senses it can now be employed, as : 

Brahnaghen dane. XI. (i a) i. 

On the bare plain. 

WathI doste. 
To my love. 

The termination z, not now found in the inflection of 
nouns, is also used in the same way as e, as: 

Mali lekhave. XVIII. (2). 

A counting of the cattle. 



1 82 The Language of Balochi Poetry. 

Pha theghl raha. XVII. (7) 21. 

With the edge of the sword. 

Mathl bachh. IV. no. 

Mother's son. 

Where the modern language would have : 

Mal-lekhave, thegh-raha, and math-bachh. 
I may also be used at the end of a clause : 

Jange na dathom tholaghi. XVIII. (3). 

I did not wage a jackal's war. 

Kutho kahiren hangarl. XVIII. (2). 

A log of kaklr-wood charcoal. 

Bauf dighari thahthaghant. XVIII. (3) 

My pillow was made of the ground. 

This may be lengthened into tghd, which has an ablative 
as well as a genitive signification : 

Narsher kotaghlgha khapta. IV. 186. 

The tiger fell into pieces. 

The termination dm is singular as well as plural, and 
is not confined to the genitive meaning, as : 

Charl khashtaghant baranl. IV. 94. 

They sent forth spies into the desert. 

Hal dostani. XLIII. 3- 

News of my love. 

The dative termination dr is generally found in the 
fuller form drd t as: 

Cho bi Chakurara gwashtal. IV. 187. 

Thus he spoke to Chakur. 

Nouns which now terminate in a consonant often have 
the termination o, as : 

Hiram jaghlno bitha. IV. 46. 

A misfortune has fallen on the young camels. 
Sarthen sailaho bor thashl. IV. 50 

Rindo bihan. The Rind's fillies. 



The Language of Balochi Poetry. 183 

Kutho harigarl. A log of charcoal. VI. 51. 

Manan kadro khumethan! niyath XV. 12. 

I was not worthy of the bay mares. 

the present forms being jaghln, sailah, Rind, kuth, kadr. 

This o termination has nothing to do with the o found 
in words borrowed from Sindhl, which is still found, and 
in Balochi is treated as an integral part of the word, 
becoming av when followed by another vowel. 

(b) Pronouns. 

1st pers. singular. The form zih for I occurs once only. 
This is the Zend azem, analogous to the Pashto zah. 

Ma Rind niyan Lashar zih-yan. VI. 57. 

I am not a Rind, I am a Lashari. 

1st pers. plural. Makh, we (or sometimes I), appears to 
be an older form of md, and to preserve the guttural of 
the Zend ashmdkham: 

Makh na jenim alima. VI. 35. 

I will not have the people slain. 

Makh-om zahm janen Lashari. V. 36. 

While we were slaying the Lasharis with our swords. 

Makh o Nakhlfo raptaghuh. XVIII. (3) 14. 

I and Nakhlfo went forth. 

2nd pers. plural. Shume is sometimes found instead of 
shawa, you. Example : 

Bagan bala zurtha shume. X. 14. 

Pronominal suffixes, e sometimes takes the place of i, 
as : 

Ki man-e noshan. XX. 78. 

That I may drink it. 

Sardar wag-e ishtaghant. VII. 12. 

He let go the chiefs bridle. 

ish is often affixed to nouns, as : 

Pakhaghen dal dath-ish wur bltha. II. 4. 

His sickle was laid to the ripened pulse. 



184 The Language of Balochi Poetry. 

(c) Adjectives. 

In addition to the termination in en used now with an 
adjective preceding a noun, the form an is also found. 
More frequently the adjective follows the noun and takes 
the termination end or endn, sometimes even dm. E.g. : 

Biroth dan birjaka radhena. XVIII. (4) 37. 

It goes in (i.e. the dagger) up to the trusty hilt. 

Mesh shi sham-sara miskena. IV. 85. 

Sheep from the thymy (lit. musky) sham. 

Biyare kathula jaurena. XXXVII. 32. 

Bring the poisoned cup. 

Thau ki sher baranl laghorani. XI. (2) 30. 

You are under shameful burdens. 

(d) Verbs. 

The particle bi is much more generally prefixed than 
in the modern language, and its use rather corresponds 
with that of MakranI Balochi than with that of the 
modern northern language, in which it is now con- 
fined to the imperative, and occasionally the conditional, 
of verbs beginning with a vowel, the only others taking 
it being waragh, to eat, and ravagh, to go. With these 
exceptions it is not found with verbs beginning with 
consonants. Its use in the earlier language was very 
general. Examples : 

Amsara thlhanl bi-er-rikhtan. XI. (i) 6. 

Together with their slaves they alighted. 

Nathu mal bigipt Shahzada. XVII. (9) 20. 

Nathu may struggle with Shahzada. 

Sirmughl gwameshan bicharem. XI. (i) n. 

Let him pasture the slate-coloured buffaloes. 

Rajle azh Bheniya bigardentha, 

Khoh saro ghatan bitapentha. XI. (i b} 9. 

You turned your tribe away from BhenI, 

And fled over the mountain gorges. 



Language of Balochi Poetry. 185 



Shartan bi jallake bicharenan. 
I will spin a top for a wager. 

Biyaeth, shedha biladuri. 
Come, let us march hence. 

Biyayanto. 

Let them come. 

G'hanoe bigardenun. 
I will make a slaughter. 



XI. (2) 40. 

VIII. 15. 

XI. (3) 4. 

XVII. (3) 1 6. 



Biman ki noshan giptaghan. XVII. (7) 22. 

Think, what draughts (of grief) I have drunk. 



Malik Sohrav bigind. 
Look on Malik Sohrab. 

Phadhan bichukh. 
Kiss his feet. 



XVII. (8). 
XVII. (8). 



The particle bi may be separated from the verb, as : 



Gohar bi shawedha ladith. 
Let Gohar march hence. 



IV. 58. 



The negative na or ni or ma with the imperative, 
when applicable to two verbs, is sometimes expressed 
only with the second of the two, instead of with the 
first. Example : 

Biyaith o ma lot! amrisha. XIV. 54. 

Let him not come and ask me for a wife. 

Zalth niyarl khuragha. XIV. 24. 

She (the mare) will not give birth nor produce a foal. 

In the usual language the prefixes kh and bi are 
omitted with negatives, but in poetry with an emphatic 
negative they are retained, as : 



Nen khiluh (for neluri). 
We will not leave. 



IV. 76. 



1 86 The Language of Balochi Poetry. 

Verbal Nouns resembling in form the Persian infinitive 
in -tan or -dan are occasionally found, as gwashtan, 
speaking, dddan, giving, in the following: 

Pha hame gwashtana galegha. XXXVII. 89. 

On the utterance of this speech. 

E dadanl chie niyai. XIV. 56. 

There are none of these gifts to be had. 

Abnormal forms. 

Shortened forms of verbs are occasionally met with, as : 

Gwazh-bl, says. IV. 27. 

Chakura phurs', instead of phursitha. IX. 18. 
Zhil-bi, went out. 

Burz-bl, ascended. XI. (3) 30. 

Gwah-bant, they appear. XI. (3) 35. 

The optative is occasionally found : 

Bath, ba', may he be. 

Rozl ba, let him appear. XLI. no. 

Logha thaiya as khafa', XXII. 120. 

Bora thaiya duz bara'. 

May fire fall upon thy house, 

May thieves carry off thy horses. 

Suny bath, sunya rawath. Vol. I. p. 55. 

Let it be barren, may it lie waste. 

Nen gor bath -I nen Gandavagh. IV. 211. 

May he have neither grave nor Gandava. 

Thau niyayathe. XIX. 17. 

Would that thou hadst not come. 

The participial form in a, as dkhto, come, is often used 
in the same sense as the participle in a, i.e. as an indefinite 
past tense. 

(e) Prepositions. 

In addition to the prepositions go, with ; man> in ; dan, 
till ; pha, on or by ; azh, from ; phar, for ; and gwar, with, 





The Language of B aloe hi Poetry. 187 

in possession of, which are still in use, we find avur or 
wur, upon, into, and bi, to : 

These are common in the older verse, and are still 
found occasionally in modern poetry. Examples : 

Dast jath avur barziya. XLI. 

She puts her hand into the bag. 

Dai bi kadana zivirena. XVII. (4) 3. 

Apply it to the harsh grindstone. 

Gwankh jatha jodhan bi kadan. VIII. 29. 

The warriors called to the women. 

(f) Epithets. Descriptive epithets are numerous, and 
there is a conventional uniformity in their use, as is fre- 
quent in ballad poetry in all countries. The principal 
actors in the epic ballads have their own proper appella- 
tions, as in Homeric poetry. Thus, Nodhbandagh is 
known as zar-suwdl, gold scattering. Gwaharam is theghd 
or luren theghd, with the sword, or with the sharp 
sword. Jaro is jaur-jaivdv, bitter in reply. Blvaragh is 
mangaht, the brave, a term also used for Mir-Han, 
while Chakur himself is simply known as the * Mir ' or 
the 'Nawab.' Among women Gohar is the Maheri, the 
shepherdess, and is also known as durr, good, while Lela 
is called Idl or ruby. A father is generally spoken of as 
drtf, venerable ; a mother as makkdh, respected ; brothers 
and sons are called bingo and saul, young, or shdhi, beloved, 
and sons are also called thango-drosham, golden-fronted, 
and sometimes simply drosham, thango being implied. 

Mares, more generally ridden than horses by Baloches, 
are generally spoken of by their colour, the word for 
mare being understood. Thus we find them called : 

Khumeth, - Bay. 

Bor, - - Chestnut. 

Nlli, - - Grey. 

Syah, - - Black. 

Kulang, - Roan. 

Savz, - - Green, i.e. Dun. 



1 88 The Language of B aloe hi Poetry. 

Other epithets are tazi and Arabi, both meaning Arab ; 
trund, spirited ; bdragh, slender ; bahran, swift ; skihan, 
tigress ; and we find such phrases as bdraghen bar, a 
slender chestnut ; bahranen tdzi, a swift Arab ; mazdr 
baur, a white tiger; gor-khusheh sydh, a wild-ass-slaying 
black. 

When a horse, as distinct from a mare, is spoken of 
he is called zanden narydn, fat or stout horse. 

A man's beard is always a curly beard (brinjanen rlsh) ; 
a friend or relation is spoken of as miskdni or musk- 
scented; enemies are jauren badhdn, bitter (or poisonous) 
foes. 

Swords are known by a great variety of terms, among 
which zahm, now the common word only occasionally 
appears. We find thegh, lur (sharp), tur, khandwa, Mirzi 
or Mir si (i.e. MisrI or Egyptian), Hindi (or Indian), Sindhi 
or Sindkurl (from Sindh), Shirdzl (a sword of Shlraz), and 
these again have their special distinctive epithets, as mazen- 
thapen lur, wide-wounding sword ; jauharl thegh, jewel -like 
or glittering brand ; savzen lura y with green-flashing blade ; 
arjalen thegh, a diamond-like sabre ; saghdr, white-flashing ; 
napt, lightning or thunderbolt (which in the earlier poems 
means a sword, and in the later a firelock); and bajari, a 
term of doubtful derivation. 

The Lasharls scornfully call the Rinds nawath-rish, 
matted beards, and they retaliate by calling the Lasharls 
thin-beards (thanakh-risJi] and hirth-phddh, little-feet, 
meaning no doubt that they were like women. The Rinds 
are often called ldl-moshagktn t red-booted, and the Lasharls 
sometimes Idl-jukhtaghen, red-scabbarded. The phrase 
bdraghen bordn, with slender chestnuts, is often associated 
with the Rinds. 

The Mazans are mazdr-potravdn or sher-potravdn, 
descendants of tigers, and this form is often used for 
other tribes, as Ldshdr-potravdn, the children of Lashar r 
i.e. Lasharls ; Mirdl-potravdn, the children of Mlral, i.e. 



The Language of Balochi Poetry. 189 

the Miralls or Buledhls. The Drlshaks are spoken of as 
thangaven or golden, and also nicknamed gwand-phddhagh, 
short-footed. 

Warriors and heroes are called by a great number of 
names. Hot, the most usual, is in use throughout, while 
kungur, mangeh, manaydm, pahlezvdn, jodh and khavih are 
common in the older poetry, and surih, ddwdgar, mirokk, 
malandrf, and mohari in the later ballads. Forms like 
gehen mard, good men; walharen surih, valiant hero; 
jawdvgtr, demander of answers, are also found. 

Bows and arrows are frequently alluded to in the early 
ballads ; the bow (khamdn) and quiver (jdbah) are part of 
every warrior's equipment. Arrows are known as thlr 
(which in later poetry means a bullet), gondal, tek, and sand. 
Coats of chain armour, zirih, and helmets, hoi, were worn by 
the warriors, and their arms were also protected by armour 
(dast-kaldi). Spears were much used (bal and nezagh\ and 
knives and daggers (khdrch, kdtdr) are also mentioned. 
We find the epithets sudhaven bal, thrusting-spear ; savzen 
nezagh, green-flashing spear. 

Matchlocks or firelocks come in later on, and are known 
as tupak and napt (i.e. lightning), while a bullet is thlr, 
formerly an arrow. 

ACCENT. 

The accent in Balochi is strongly marked, and is of great 
importance in the correct reading of both prose and 
poetry. 

There are many short words, parts of the verb to be, 
pronominal sumxes, etc., which are of the nature of enclitics 
and have no independent accent of their own ; these are 
treated in pronunciation as integral parts of the words to 
which they are attached. In the text I have always 
shown them as connected with such words by hyphens. 
On the other hand prepositions prefixed to nouns often 
take the accent, as in the phrases pha-wathdn, among 



1 90 The Langttage of Balochi Poetry. 

themselves, and ma-bund, at bottom. The negative ma 
used with imperatives, and the imperative particle ba in 
baro and bdwar, the imperatives of ravagh and waragh 
follow the same rule. 

Certain forms, such as man-dn, I am ; thav-e, thou art, 
have only one accent, but it may fall either on the pronoun 
or the verb. 

These rules apply to prose as well as to poetry. The 
following examples will illustrate their application in some 
of the older poems : 

Ash-phadha. From behind. II. 12. 

E go Rinda yagsar-eri. I. 28. 

Rind Lashari ma-buna brath-en. II. 29. 

Gohar pha-zawan gal-akhto. IV. ir. 

Zale bun jatha-ish shirranl, IV. 68. 

Go-ma Lashari jherava mkn-en. IX. 10. 

Bivaragh ma-phira phirenthai. IV. 120. 

Ya-bare bosht, gal maya go-ma. IX. 58. 

Dana thav-e. XXX. 33. 

Har-khase shi hanch6sh-athant. XXXIII. 44. 

Valanon ma-sin, o jam. XXXVII. 96. 

Paigham g6n-ath-I Rindanl. XLI. 22. 
Kadam pha lekhav-ant-ish khar o khidmat. LXIV. 23. 

Phith nesten-i. LXIV. 28. 

Dem-phadh-en-I. LXIV. 20. 

Ma-sara bltha. XI. (3) 6. 

Compound words of all classes, whether compounds of 
nouns with verbal roots or adjectives, or verbs with 
adverbs prefixed, follow the following rules : 

If the first member of the compound is monosyllabic, 
it takes the accent. If the second member of the com- 
pound has more than one syllable, a secondary accent 
may fall on the second or third syllable. 

If the first member of the compound has more than 
one syllable each member keeps its own natural accent. 



The Language of Balochi Poetry. 191 

Examples : 

me"hr-siraii. Head herdsmen. IV. 16. 

dlr-saren. Numerous. IV. 62. 

gwadh-giren. Wind-catching. IV. 72. 

phur-khashen. Tightly strung. LXI. 12. 

phadh-kizagh. To retreat. IV. 107. 

chug-zakhtan. Grandchildren. IV. 80. 

yag-rahen. Of one sort, equal. IV. 158. 

wadh-miren. Natural death. V. 13. 

sar-batakl. Headstrong. V. 28. 

Chham-jatha durr-goshen Maheriya. IX. 24. 

gur-khanana. IX. 59. 

ar-khafl dost. XLV. 21. 

hirth-phadh, thanakh-rlshan. XI. (4) 24. 

nawath-rishan. XL (i b) 12. 

kator-phadhen. XI. (3) 26. 

kurkn-whkn. XII. 22. 

Lashar-potravan. XII. 

The above are the principal points requiring notice. 
The normal accent in words of two or three syllables 
falls on the first syllable, and this is generally adhered 
to unless the word is affected by one of the rules 
given above. There are some exceptions when the 
first syllable is light and the second has a long 
vowel, as in saghar, kildt, but the tendency is always 
to draw the accent forwards. Occasionally at the end 
of a line a word normally accented on the first syllable 
will take the accent on the last for the sake of the 
rhyme, as in 

Chham anzlyan raftaghant grlhana phadhk. XXXIII. (i) 57. 
Go doen dastan saro zana janant. XXXIII. (2) 15. 

where the words phadhd and janant would normally be 
accented on the first syllable. 



GLOSSARY OF RARE AND OBSOLETE WORDS 
FOUND IN THE POEMS. 



THIS glossary must be considered as supplementary to the vocabularies 
of Balochi already published, such as those contained in my Text- 
book (1891), and Douie's translation of Hetu Ram's Biluchi-nama 
(1885). There is also a vocabulary in my Sketch of the Northern 
Balochi Language (1881), but it is less complete than that in the 
text-book. 



A. 

Adagh, p.p. aditha, To set up, to 

erect. 

'Adhat, s. Death, fate. 
'Adhat, s. Custom, manner. 
Af-band, adj. Filled with water. 
Aghlfam, s. Intellect. (Ar. 'aql-wa- 

fahm.) 

Ahezagh, v. To tie up, to tether. 
Ahu, s. A deer. (P. cf. ask.) 
Akbat, adv. Somehow, anyway. 
Al, s. A leader. 
Aldoshara, s. Judgment and justice. 

Ar. 'adl-wa-shara'. 



Alkaf, "I ,, . 

Alkah /* Mountain > 



.. 
dlff - 

To sharpen or 



Aman-deagh, v. 

temper a weapon. 
Arav, s. Rest, quiet (for aram). 
Arava khanan, I will remain quiet. 
Arjal, s. A diamond. Flashing like 

a diamond (of a sword). 
Ashkar, An earthen waterpot. 
Ashkar dohagh, To carry water- 

pots, i.e. to fetch water. 
AstI, s. A sleeve. See Astln. 



B. 

Badh, s. An enemy. 

Badh, adj. Evil, wicked. 

Bahar, s. A line, series, row. 

Bairam, s. Lightning. 

Bairam, adj. White, clean. 

Baithal, adj. Strong, hardy. 

Baj, s. A kind of cloth. Ar. bazz. 

Baladh, s. Height. 

Baladh, s. Shape, form, figure, face. 

Bala-khash, s. A spearman. 

Bambor, s. A peak. (Also the 

proper name of a mountain.) 
Ban, s. A peak, mountain. 
Bangui, s. A youth, a warrior. 
Bariz, s. A hawk. See Baz. 
Bask, s. The arm. 
Baur, 1 
Bawar ) a( ^' W *" te > light-coloured. 

Bazg, s. The arm. See Bask. 

Be-hldhagh, adj. Countless, incal- 
culable. 

Bern, s. Fear. 

Be-nang, adj. Shameless, without 
honour. 

Ber, s. Enmity. See Bair. 



Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 193 



Bhanj, s. Splitting. 

Bhanj-bhor,j. Splitting and bursting. 

Bhanjoghar, s. Breaking and mend- 
ing. 

Bhar, s. Bank of a river. 

Bharjal, s. A warrior. 

Bhaw, s. Regard, affection. 

Bhir, s. A leap, spring. 

Bhir-aragh, v. To spring (as a tiger). 

Bhirak, interj. Quick ! hurry ! 

Bi, prep. To, on. 

Bidukh, adj. Fierce. (P. bidakh.) 

Bingo, adj. Youthful, heroic. 

Birjak, s. The hilt of a dagger or 
sword. 

Biro, i 

-D-' j- s. The notch of an arrow. 

Biro, s. Scent, musk. 

Bodh, s. Feeling, perception. 

Bodh, s. Love, beloved. 

Bor-thashI, j. Horse-racing. 

Bon, s. A trumpet. (P. buru.) 

Bozhagh, p.p. bokhta, v. To open, 
untie, unlade, guess (a riddle). 

Brinjan, adj. Curled, curly (applied 
especially to the beard). 

Bun-giragh, v. To set on fire. 

Bungran, s. Conflagration. 

Bun-janagh, v. To lay the founda- 
tion. 

Buzh, s. Hair of the head. 

C. 

Chamak-wattl, s. Diamond, ada- 
mant. 

Chandenagh, v. tr. To shake. Dil- 
chandenagh, To shake the heart, 
i.e. to be afraid. 

Chant-deagh, v. To sprinkle, to 
splash. 

Chapagh, v. intr. To flash. 

Chapo, s. Palm of the hand. 

Charah, s. Bucket. 



Charanz, adj. Grey. 

Charanz-rlsh, Greybeard. 

Charenagh, v. causal of charagh, 
To cause to go round, to spin (a 
top), to graze (cattle). 

Chaukh, s. The palms of the hands. 

Chekho, s. Peckings for birds. 

Chham-didh, s. Sight of the eyes, 
something worthy of being seen, 
a remarkable event. 

Chham-kadah, s. The eye sockets. 

Chllak, s. A token. 

Chindaval, s. A hero. 

Chindr, s. Fear. 

Chir, s. Time, duration, delay. 

Chirak, s. (for chiragh), Lamp. 

Chirak-nir (for chiragh-nur), Lamp- 
light. 

Chirrakh, adj. Dirty, torn. 

Chof-khanagh, v. tr. To thrash. 

Choto, s. A waistcloth, ' langoti.' 

Chundagh, chunditha,7/./r.To chew. 

ChunI, s. A woman's veil or chadar. 

Chunl-jind, adj. With veiled face. 

Chunn, s. Hair of the head. 

D. 

D aba vi, s. A milk-seller. 
Daf-phatagh, v. tr. To open the 

mouth wide, to gape. 
Dahmagh, v. tr. To summon, to 

send for. 
Dahmenagh, v. tr. causal of dah- 

magh. 

Dalekhlm, adj. Powerless, unable. 
Dambagh, s. Flight. 
Dana, adj. Wise (P.). 
Danzagh, v. intr. (of animals), To 

low, to bellow. 
Dapagh, s. Sharp edge. 
Dath, s. Sickle (a more correct form 

than das). 
Datar, s. The Giver, God. 



194 Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 



Daur, s. Time, age, season. Daur- 

dawa, Time-devouring. 
Daur, s. Wealth, property. 
Dauri, adj. Wealthy. 
Daz, sometimes used for dast in 

composition. 
Dempan (or Depan), s. Protection, 

guardianship (from dem, face, and 

Pan or ban, protector). 
Dhuk, interj. Come here ! 
Dilrl, s. dim. of dil, heart. 
Dradh, s. Storm-cloud. 
Draharl, s. dim. of drahl, promise. 
Dranz,in the compound sar-dranzai, 

Hot-headed. 

Dranzagh, v. To strike a blow. 
Draushagh, v. intr. To tremble. 
Drlmbagh,\7/. intr. To devour, to 
Drimbagh,/ ravin. 
Drohra, adj. dim. of droha, false. 
Drozhi, adj. False, lying. 
Druhagh, v. tr. To drag. 
D rush adh , s. from drushagh, to grind, 

Grinding of corn,hence a banquet. 
Dul-darya. See Durr-darya. 
Duldul, the name of 'All's horse, 

corrupted from the Arabic dhu'l- 

janah. 

Durr-darya, s. Sea of pearls. 
Durr-gul, s. Fair one, wife, mistress. 
Durr-khil, s. Firm post or peg. 
Durshad, interj. Welcome. 

Dushk ' }s. Mother-in-law. 
Dushklsh, J 

Duzhan, s. Sting. (P. duzhana.) 

G. 
GahnI, s. Slaughter, destruction. 

See G'hano. 

Garagh, v. intr. To neigh. 
Garokh, adj. Neighing. 
Garakhenagh, v. tr. To cause to be 

slain. 



Gaugha, s. A child. 
Gaur-khanagh, v. tr. To shave. 
Gedar, adj. Valiant. 
Gedhi, s. The people, folk, for- 
eigners, strangers, enemies. 
Gegh, s. State, condition. 
G'hano, s. Slaughter, destruction. 
G'has, s. Shoving, pushing aside. 
G'hut-khanagh, v. tr. To stab. 
Gl, s. Choice. 

Gl-waragh, v. intr. To choose. 
Gil, s. A taunt. 
Ginaragh, p.p. ginashta, v. tr. To 

hold, take possession of, pull (a 

bridle). 
Ginavan, conj. Perhaps, lest, let not. 

(See Nawan.) 

Girah, s. Weeping. See Greh. 
Girakh, adj. Intoxicating. 
Gird, adj. Round. 
Gird-durr, s. Round pearl earring. 
Girdagh, adj. Grazing, browsing. 
Girdoh, s. Lover, friend. 
Glyal, >$. Lover. 
Go, s. The hilt of a sword. 
Gobi, s. Discussion. 
Gobi-janagh, To discuss. 
Gogha, s. A bribe. 
Gonokh, s. A fool. See Gannokh. 
Gophankh, s. Cowherd ; also the 

name of a tribe (now Gophang). 
Gor-khush, adj. Slaying wild asses. 
Gosh-bun, s. Lobe or tip of the ear. 
Goz, s. Boasting. 
Goz-janagh, v. intr. To boast 
Grambah. s. A socket (in which 

jewel is set). 
Greainagh, v. tr. causal of gregl 

To cause to weep. 
Greh, s. Weeping. 
Greh-khanagh, v. intr. To weep. 
Grmbagh, 
Grmbokh, 



Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 195 



Grof, s. Band, troop. (P. giroh.) 

Guftaragh, s. Song, poem. 

Gul, s. A flower. Met. a fair one, a 

sweetheart. 
Gunas, s. Fault, sin. Be-gunas, 

Faultless. 
Gunask, s. Fault, sin. Be-gunask, 

Faultless. 

Gunaskar, s. Sinner. 
Gushadagh, i/. tr. To sew, mend. 
Gwadh-gir, adj. Windy. 

Shield (lit. breast-pro- 
tector, from gwar, 
Gwarfand, I breast, and fan or 
Gwarpan, J pan, protector. Cf. 
dempan, shefankh, 
gophankh, etc.). 

H. 
Halak, s. Creature, creation. (Ar. 

khalaq.) 

Hanj. adj. Graceful, pretty. 
Har, adj. Connected with cattle. 

See Han. 
Hareharl, s. Any grazing animal, 

such as cattle. 

Haren goram, Horned cattle. 
Hart, s. Cattle. 
Hart, adj. Hungry. 
Harm all, s. Flocks and herds. 
Hasagh, p.p. hastha, v. intr. To 

run. 

Hashi, s. A high mountain. 
Hawash, s. Desire. 
Hindi, s. and adj. Indian, especially 

an Indian sword, often used for 

swords generally. 
Hing, s. A lover. 
Hmzhagh, v. intr. To swoop down 

(as a bird of prey). 
Hlrizhaghi, s. A swoop or dart down. 
Hoi, inter j. Alas ! 
Hukam, s. The quarters of a horse. 



Istezagh, 
Istlnzagh, 



r. A hailstorm. 



Jaghm, s. Calamity, misfortune, 

pestilence. 
Jah, s. A place. 
Jahe, Somewhere. 
Jai, It is true. 
Jalagh,/.^. jalitha, v. intr. To pass 

or spend time. 

JalakI, s. A top (for spinning). 
Jamo, adj. Fitting, well-shaped. 
Jandar, s. A millstone, mill. See 

Jandar. 

Jasol, s. An attack. 
Jehal, adj. Sharp, keen, cruel. 
Jenaf, s. Grace, distinction. (Ar. 

janab.) 

Jhakagh, v. tr. To frighten. 
Jistagh, v. intr. To flee. 
Jumbainagh, v. tr. (causal of jum- 

bagh), To cause to stay, to halt 

an army. 

K. 

Kadan, s. A whetstone. 

Kahagh, v. intr. To say. (This is 
the Urdu kahna, and is found 
in one place only in the form 



Kaif, s. Intoxication. 

Kaif, adj. Drunken, excited. 

Kaltar, s. Creator. 

Kandhi, s. Corpse-bearer at a funeral. 

Kanjukh, s. The leather thongs of a 

saddle-girth. 
KarabbI, s. The stalk of millet or 

jo war. 
Karwall, adj. Strong (drink), intoxi- 

cating. 
Kathul, s. Poison. (Ar. qatil.) 




196 Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 



Kaul, s. Promise, engagement. (Ar. 

qaul.) 
Kaull, s. One bound by agreement, 

a husband or wife. 
Kaunsh, s. A cold wind. 
Khad-khanagh, v. intr. To eat into, 

bite. 
Khamda, for Khawinda, the Lord 

(from Pers. Khawand). 
Khamund, s. Cliff, rock. 
Kharkavagh, s. Thorns, thorny 

bush. 

Khase-potrav, s. Grandson of some- 
body, a man of good birth. (Cf. 

Spanish ktdalgo,from hijo d'algo.} 
Khash, s. The armpit. Alaen- 

khash, under the armpit. 
Khatik, s. A woman's bodice or 

' choll.' 

Khavlh, s. A warrior, mighty man. 
Khawah, s. An overcoat. 
Khawaragh, v. intr. To quench the 

thirst. (P. Kuwarldan.) 
Khenagh, v. tr. causal of khanagh, 

To let do. 
Khenagh, v. intr., p.p. khentha, To 

leave, to fall, to abandon ; to go 

out, ascend. 
Khenagh, s. Rage, envy, wrath. 

(P. klna.) 
Kherl, s. Guarding, warding off 

blows. 

Khehavlya,]^' Drunken, stupe- 
Khihavi y a,[ f A ed > intoxlca <ed. 

t (Ar. kayfl.) 
Khil, s. A peg, nail. 
Khllagh. s. Country. 
Khodl, s. Cup. See Kadah. 
Khota, adj. False. 
Khundal, s. Leaf of the dwarf-palm. 
Khupt, s. Hip-joint. 
Kivir, s. Malice, spite. 
Kuchithagh, v. tr. To embroider. 



Kull, s. A small hut or tent : also, 

Chyar-kull, a four-sided hut. 
Kuth, s. A log of wood. 



Ladhar, adj. (fr. ladh, jungle), Over- 

grown, surrounded with trees. 

Khaji-ladharen, Embowered in 

palm-groves. 
Lafashagh, p.p. lafashta, v. tr. and 

intr. To kill, to be killed, to 

devour. 

Lahmen, adj. Numerous. 
Lakh, s. Knowledge, information. 
Lakha, prep. With regard to, on 

the subject of. 
Lak-pal, s. Protector of thousands 

(Hindi), occurs once only. 
Lakrl, s. dim. of lak, a small 

plateau. 

Langan, s. Hunger. 
Lang'hav, s. A minstrel (Si.). 
Lanjo, adj. Full. 
Lash, adj. Worthy. 
Laughar, s. Long hair. 
Lawan, v. They praise (found in 

this form only). 

LelrS 

Lend, s. Account, reckoning. 
Llhav, adj. Modest. (Si. llha.) 
Lok, s. A male camel, a strong 

camel. 

Lokhm, adj. Fine, powdered. 
Loll, s. A lullaby. 
Lotaragh, v. tr. To urge on, to 

make a horse gallop. 
Ludan, adj. Beloved. 
Luhagh, v. tr. To burn, to scorch. 



kid ' a 



wild 



M. 
Mafar, s. Woman's hair. 



Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 197 



Maghund, s. Buttocks. 

Mahaur, s. Lines of clouds, strata. 

Maherl, s. Herdswoman (applied to 

Gohar). 

Mahr-war, s. Eater of corpses. 
Mahval, s. Saddle. 
Maizar ? \j. A stage, journey. See 
Maizil,'j Mizil. 
Mai, s. Fighter, athlete, wrestler. 
Malhagh, v. intr. To crowd, to 

throng. 

Malshan, s. A powerful warrior. 
Manchagh,^./. manchitha, v. intr. 

To join battle, to engage. 
Mandrl, s. Market, bazaar (Si.). Cf. 

H. mandl. 
Mam, s. Bread (a SindhI word, 

rare). 

Mashand, s. Fear, dread, 
awall, s. Drunkard, 
ehr-sir, s. Head herdsman. 
Menagh, p.p. mentha, v. intr. To 

become wet or moist. 
Mesenagh, p.p. mesentha, v. tr. To 
moisten. 

s. An Egyptian sword, also 
used for a sword gene- 
rally. (Ar. misrl.) 
Mokho, s. Outcry, accusation. 
Moll, adj. Wanting, desiring. (Cf. 

Ar. muwla'.) 

Mughem, adj. Great, mighty. 
Mughem, adj. Stingy, miserly. 
Munslr, s. Funeral banquet. 
Murl, s. A fight, struggle. 
Murl-wattagh, To engage in a 

struggle. 
Murth ) 
Morth ) *' Arrow ' 

Is. Walnut-bark, used 
by women to give 
a bright colour t 
the lips. 



irsi, V 
irzi. J 



Mirsi 
Mirzi 



N. 

^aghor. See Nighor. 

Malgaz, s. Narcissus. (P. nargas.) 
Napt, s. Lightning. (P. naft.) Met. 
a sword in early poetry and a 
gun in more modern times. 

Naso, s. A fowl's beak. 

Nasthar, adj. Finer, thinner ; com- 
parative of Naz. 

Nath, s. Nosering (H.) ; rare, the 
ordinary word being phuluh. 

Nawan, conj. Perhaps, lest. (Pro- 
bably a contracted form of gin- 
avan. Now the usual word.) 

Nawath, s. Pride, honour. (Ar. 
nakhwat.) 

Nawath, s. Felt. (P. namad.) 

Nawath, adj. Thick, matted. 

Nawath-rlsh, With matted beards. 

Naz, adj. Fine, thin. 

Nest, v. Is not. (Now only found 
in the plural form nestant or 
nes ten.) 

Niberagh, p.p. ni bertha, v. tr. To 
conquer, overthrow. 

Nigeragh, p.p. nigertha, v. tr. To 
slay. 

Nighran, adj. Sad, grieved. 

Nighor, ^ 

XT , \s. Side, direction. 

Naghor, j 

Nimon, s. A juggler's trick ; by 

trickery. 
Nodh, s. A storm-cloud. Met. a 

sword. 

Nohat, s. Beard. 
Nohata janagh, To stroke the 

beard. 
Nokhsar, s. New man, stranger, 

foreigner. 
Nukh, s. Dirt, filth. 

O. 
Ol-ol, adv. First of all. (Ar. awwal.) 



198 Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 



p. 

Pab, s. Ball of the foot (Si.). 

PadhakI, s. Long hair. 

PagasI, adj. Stopping, hindering. 

Paghaz, s. Chance, opportunity. 

Paghaz-zir, Destroying chances, 
taking away opportunities. 

Pahnadh. See Pahnad. 

Palatrl, adj. With the legs crossed 
(Si.). 

Pamban, s. Wheat (Si.). 

Pandh, s. Knot, corner or skirt of 
garment. 

Parsi, adj. Persian, ParsI lafza, In 
the Persian tongue. 

Patela, s. A bier. 

Payaf, adj. Beautiful, slender. 

Pend, s. Fetters, used for camels. 

Phadh, adv. Back, backwards, hind, 
hence. 

Phadha,/n?/. Behind or after. 

Phadh-kizagh, v. intr. To retreat. 

Phagah, s. A horse's stall. 

Phagal-deagh, v. tr. To give away. 

Phaldah, adj. Mighty. 

Phambam, Red (only in the phrase 
phambameh lungl^ a red veil, in 
IV. 198). 

Phan or Fan, in composition only, 
meaning protector, guardian, or 
protection, as in shafan-kh, go- 
phan-kh, dem-pan, gwar-fan-d. 

Pharestha, adj. Polished, shining. 

Pharezagh, p.p. pharestha, v. intr. 
To refrain from. 

Phelo, s. Twisting. (Si. phero.) 

Phewath, adj. Answerable, respon- 
sible. (P. pivaz.) 

Phirath, s. Complaint. (P. faryad.) 

Phopat, s. Butterfly. 

Phur-khash, adj. Fully drawn, tightly 
strung (of a bow). 



Phur-khashagh, v. intr. To taunt. 
Phuzh, s. Wool. (The name of a 
tribe.) 

R. 

Radh, adj. True, trusty. 

Ragham, s. Season, opportunity, 

time of waiting, threatening 

weather. 

Ragham, s. Rank, dignity. 
Rakhta, adj. In the phrase rakh- 

tagheh chham, red or angry eyes. 
Rashef, \ s. Clearness, thorough- 
Rashev, / ness. 

Pha-rashef,^ 

Pha-rashefi, j- Clearly, thoroughly. 

Pha-rashev, J 

RawachI, s. A herdsman, messenger. 
Retagh, s. A scarf, a garment worn 

over the shoulders. 
Rlmlas, adj. Manifest, 
Rodhagh, causal of rudhagh, To 

bring up, cause to grow, nurse, 

dandle, to sway, to move. 
Rodhi, adj. Apparent, visible. 
Rodhl-blagh, To appear. 

S. 
Saghar, adj. White, bright, flashing 

(of a sword), white-faced (of a 

horse). 
Sambhalagh, v. tr. To keep, take 

care of (Si.). 

Sanjath, adj. Born together, twin. 
Sar-drahz, adj. Hot-headed, fiery. 
Sar-gir, adj. Circling, encompassing. 
Sar-jamagh, s. Completion, comfort. 
Sar-khanagh, v. intr. To leave, to 

place, to set out. 
Sasat, s. Goods, property. 
Saul, adj. Young. 
Sh. Words beginning with sh, see 

under Sh. (separate heading). 



Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 199 



Sik, adj. Desirous of. 

Sinjano, s. Recognition (Si.). 

Slrmugh, s. Powdered antimony 
used as collyrium for the eyes. 
(P. surma.) 

Slrmugh, adj. The colour of anti- 
mony, slate-coloured. 

Som, s. Swelling. 

Somar 1 

Somurf- Com P amon - 

Sraf, adj. Narrow, small. 

Srafa, prep. For the sake of. 

Sudhav, ~\adj. Thrusting (applied 

Sudhavo,/ to a spear). 

Suhell, s. A female companion, con- 
cubine. 

Sultanfar, adj. Belonging to a sultan, 
kingly, royal. 

# Sh - 

Shaglkh, s. Axle of a millstone. 

Shahrak, s. A small town, village. 

Shakaragh, v. intr. To order, in- 
struct. 

Shalagh ,z/. tr. To rain on, to moisten. 

Shaml, adj. Asleep. 

Sharo, s. Hatred. 

Shavgur, adj. Powerful. 

Shef, s. Lower part, descent, slope. 

Shef-blagh, v. intr. To descend. 

Shefagh, p.p. shipta, v. tr. To put 
in, to put on (a garment), to hide. 

Shefogh, adj. Slender, finely shaped 
(applied to the nose of a woman). 

Shengal, adj. Naked. 

Shenkhen, adv. Weakly, feebly. 

Sher, s. Lion or tiger. 

Sher-gumbaz, adj. Bounding like a 
tiger. 

Shlagh, p.p. shitha, v. tr. To eat, 
devour, to rub away, wear down, 
to prick, to shear a sheep. Shitha- 
ghen phuzh, shorn wool. 



Shil, adj. Sharp. 
Shlr-didhagh, adj. Milky-eyed. 
Shisk, s. A plaited mat. 
Shufagh, p.p. shupta, v. intr. To 

be angry. 

Shuptaghlya, Enraged. 
Shufagh, v. tr. To thrash. 

T and T. 

Takar, s. A band, assembly. 
Takor, s. A gong, drum. 
Tandilan, s. Warp and woof. 
Tata, s. Nonsense, idle talk. 
Tatti, s. A village. 
Tek, s. Vaunt, brag. 
Tek, s. Arrow, dart, brand. 
Tekan phull, Feathered arrows. 
Thai, \ s. Tray, dish, hedge round 
Thall, J a threshing-floor. 
Thalar, adj. Broad (applied to a 

shield). 

Thangru, adj. Boasting, bragging. 
Thaod, s. Charm or medicine. (Cf. 

Ar. ' ta'wldh,' charm.) 
Than, s. Young camel. 
Tharl-madhagh, Female young 

camel. 
Thavdan, s. Forge, stove. (P. 

tabdan.) 

Thegh, s. Sword, sabre. (P. tegh.) 
ThI-phire, adv. Somewhere else, 

some other time. 
Thorhl, s. Beardless wheat (Si.). 
Thosagh, v. To extinguish. In 

comp. Mah-thos, extinguishing 

the moon ; parl-thos, eclipsing 

fairies ; terms applied to women 

in love poetry. 
Thuni, s. A pillar, column. (P. 

situn.) 

Tokh-deagh, v. tr. To clothe, wrap. 
Tokal, s. Trust (in God). (For Ar. 

tawakkul.) 



2OO Glossary of Rare and Obsolete Words. 



Trad, s. Speaking, voice, shout. 

Trad-khanagh, v. intr. To speak, 
to shout. 

Trafoz, s. A drop. 

Trat, s. A stick. 

Trmz, s. Dripping, dropping. 

Trip, s. A drop. 

Trufan, s. Hoof-beats of a horse. 

Tulagh, v. tr. To weigh, to com- 
pare (Si.). 

U. 
Ubdahl, s. Betrothal. 

V. 

Vadl, s. Disputing. 

Vaisakh, s. Courtyard of a house 

(W. PanjabI). 
Verh, s. A ring. 

Verha, s. A courtyard, enclosure. 
Veri, s. Enemy. 
Vichoragh, v. tr. To separate. 

W. 

Wa', shortened form of ' wadh ' or 

' wath,' self. 
Wa'-rodhen, adj. Self-sounding 

(applied to a drum). 
Wadh-mirl, s. Self-dying, i.e. 

natural death. 

Wai, prep. On, upon. See Wur. 
Walagh, v. tr. To wind, twist, 

bind. 
Was, s. Scent, perfume. 



Wazwaz, s. Dream, imagination 

(Ar. waswas). 
V3\x,prep. On, upon. 
Wur-blagh, v. To be upon, to be 

incumbent on. 
Wur-khanagh, v. To apply, to 

sprinkle. 

Z. 

Zaghar, adj. Fresh, quick, calm, 

clear. 

Zaghath, s. Alms. (Ar. zakat.) 
Zaghath-war, adj. Dependent on 

alms. 
Zang, s. Glory, beauty, adj. glorious, 

splendid. 

Zarih, s. Lamentation. 
Zaunk, s. Delight, pleasure. 
Zedh, s. Enemy. 
Zel, adj. Empty, bare. 
Zemir, s. Song, poem. 
Ziloh, s. A blanket. 
Ziyan, s. Hurt, injury, death. 



Ziyan-blagh, To be hurt, to die. 
Zong, s. A strong mare. 
Zunharl, adj. Woolly, hairy (sheep 
and goats). 

Zh. 

Zhalangenagh, V. tr. To urge on, 

let go (a horse). 

Zhil-blagh, \v. intr. To go forward, 
Zhil-giragh, J to charge. 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



As Balochi has never been a literary language it has no recognized 
alphabet of its own. The few Baloches who can read or write have 
usually received their education through the medium of Persian or 
Urdu, and employ the Persian alphabet, as used in those languages, 
when they attempt to write Balochi. But there is no recognized 
standard or uniformity in its use such as exists in languages like 
Urdu, SindhI or Pashto, and no attempt has been made to adapt 
the Arabic letters to the sounds of the Balochi language. I have, 
therefore, adhered to the Roman alphabet, as in my former 
publications on this language. There is a large range of sounds 
both vowel and consonant, and any adequate representation of them 
in the Arabic or Persian system of writing is impracticable. 

The system followed is, with some slight modifications, one 
generally understood by Oriental scholars, and corresponds nearly 
with that laid down till lately in the transliteration scheme of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

The modifications found necessary arise from the abundance of 
dental and guttural sounds. 1 

Among the dentals are found the ordinary sounds / and d, their 
aspirates th and dh (as in Sanskrit and modern Indian languages), 
and th and dh (as in English breath and breathe). To these we 
must add the cerebral sounds, /, fh, d and dh^ all of which are met 
with. 

In the same way we have the gutturals k and g, with their aspirates 
as in Indian languages, and also the spirants kh and gh t as found 
in Arabic and Persian. 

I have endeavoured to indicate all these sounds correctly without 
undue multiplication of diacritical marks. The gh sound (ghain) has 
been left without underlining, as it is extremely common, and never 

J For a full discussion of the sounds, see Geiger's Lautlehre des Baluci, 
Munich, 1891, also Die Sprache der Balutschen in Grundriss d. Iranischen 
Philologie, 1898. 



2O2 Key to the Pronunciation. 

occurs initially, while the Indian aspirated g only occurs initially 
in a few borrowed Indian words. There is, therefore, no danger of 
the two sounds being confused. 

ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF SOUNDS. 

[The letters in Column I. are those used in this book; those in Column II. are the 
corresponding signs in the Oxford English Dictionary ; and those in 
Column III. are the signs used in Grundriss d. Iranischen Philologie.] 

I. II. III. 

a (#) a The short obscure vowel corresponding to the 

a of Sanskrit and the fatha of Arabic, as the 

u in English run, summer. 

a (a and a) a Long as in alms, or the short broad sound as in 
Ger. Mann. 

b (b) b As in European languages. 

bh (bh) b b aspirated, found only in borrowed Indian words. 

ch (t/") c As in Eng. church, Spanish hecho. 

chh c' The same sound aspirated. 

d d The dental d as found in Persian and Indian 

languages. 

dh d' The same sound aspirated. Only in borrowed 

Indian words. 

dh (fc) 8 The sound of th in Eng. with, breathe, of Mod. 

Greek S, and Arabic 3 dh. Never found as 
an initial, only as a medial and final. 

d (d) d The cerebral Indian sound, like English d. 

dh d' The same aspirated. These cerebrals are mainly 

found in borrowed Indian words. 

e (e, e) e Short open e, as in English ten, moment. 

e (e and e) e Long e, as in English there, survey. Open e before 
r, otherwise close. 

f (f) f As in European languages generally. Not found 

as an initial. 

g (g) g Asin^. 

g j h g' g aspirated as in Indian languages. Only found 

in a few borrowed words. 



Key to the Pronunciation. 203 

i. ii. in. 

gh (y) y The Arabic and Persian ghain, Ger. g in sagen. 

Never found as an initial, very common as a 
medial and final. 

h (h) h The simple aspirate. 

h h The strong Arabic aspirate (^). Only used for 

Arabic proper names. In borrowed words 
ordinarily it becomes h. 

\ (i) i The short open i as in Eng. kill. 

I (i) I The long I, as Eng. ee in see. 

j (ds) j As j in Eng. judge. 

jh j' The same aspirated. Only in borrowed Indian 

words. 

k (k) k As Eng. k. 

kh k' k aspirated, as in the Indian languages. 

Hb (x) X As Persian &/t, Ger. ch. 

1 (1) 1 The ordinary sound of /. 

m (m) m The ordinary sound of m. 

n (n) n The ordinary sound of n. 

n n The cerebral Indian n. 

n (n) voweTas a Gives a nasalized sound to the vowel (anusvara). 

o (<?, 6) 6 The sound of close o ; open before r. 

p (p) p The ordinary sound of^. 

ph (ph) p { The same, aspirated as in the Indian languages. 

q q Used for the Ar. qaf. in proper names. In bor- 

rowed Arabic words it is replaced by k. 

r (r) r The ordinary trilled r. 

r r The cerebral r as in Modern Indian languages. 

s (s) s The ordinary sound of s, as in song, glass. 

s s Arabic (J o. Only found in proper names. Usually 

becomes s. 

sh (/) S As Eng. sh^ Ger. sch, Fr. ch. 

t t The dental /, as in Indian languages and Persian, 

th t' The same aspirated as in Indian languages. 



2O4 Key to the Pronunciation. 

i. ii. in. 

th ( 6 Eng. th in heath, Greek 6, Ar. /yfc, j. Never 

found as an initial. 

t (t) t The Indian cerebral sound, Eng. t. 

th t' The same aspirated. These cerebrals are found 

in borrowed Indian words. 

t t Ar. ]o is used in proper names only. It generally 

becomes t. 

u (u) u The short , as in Eng. bull. 

u (u) u The long u, as in Eng. frugal. 

v w Purely labial v (as heard dialectically in Ireland), 

As Punjabi and Sindhi v. 

w (w) v As Eng. w (Urdu and Arabic iv). 

wh (hw.) v' Pronounced hw, as Eng. wh. 

y (y) y As Eng., French and Spanish y consonant ; 

German and Italian/. 

z (z) z The sonant sound of s. Eng. and Fr. z. 

zh (3) z As French j, Persian *, Eng. s in treasure. 

z or z z z Ar. ^ and Ji become z, and are used only in 

Arabic proper names. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

ai (ai) ai As Eng. i in line, ai in aisle, Ger. ei. 

au (cm) au As Eng. ou or ow mfoul, cow ; Ger. and It. au. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS OF 
POEMS, ACTUAL OR REPUTED. 



OF the poems in this collection a certain number are anonymous. 
These are Nos. i. n. iv. v. vi. vn. xn. xvm. (i), xxi. xxn. xxiv. 

XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXX. XXXI. XXXIV. XXXV. XXXVII. XL. 

XLVII. XLVIII. XLIX. LII. LVii. Lix. LXii. LXin. and the greater part 
of the riddles included under LXIV. The remaining sixty-five poems 
are ascribed to the following authors : 



Ahmad, son of Shoran, - 

Babar, Dodal, 

Balach, Gorgezh, - 
Bashkall, Surinam, - 
Bijar, Rind, - - - 
Bivaragh, Rind, 
Brahim, Shambani, - 
Chakur (Mir), - 
Dilmalikh, Rind, 

Dosten, 

Durrak (Jam), Dombki, - 

Gahl, Kalol, - 

Ghulam Muhammad, BalachanI, 

Gwaharam (Mir), .... 

Haidar, BalachanI, - 

Hairo, Dodal, 

Hajlkhan, Dodal, 

Hani, daughter of Mir Dost, BalachanI, 
Harm, Saidianl, .... 
Husain, BalachanI, - 

Jaro, Phuzh, 

Jlwa, Khird, - 

Jongo, Rind, 

Kabul, Dombki, .... 
Khidr, 



- Lix. (2). 

- xvii. (2 and 8). 

- xvm. (2 and 3). 

- L. (2). 

- xvii. (i, 5 and 7). 

- xx. xxxviii. 

- LIII. LXIV. (i to 5). 

- XL (2, 4 and 5), xiu. (i). 

- XV. 

- XLI. 

- XLII. XLIII. XLV. XLVI. 

- xxxiii. (2 and 4). 

- LXIV. (15). 

- XL (i, ib and 3). 

- LXI. 

- xvii. (4). 

- xvii. (6). 
Part of xxm. 

- XXXII. (i). 

- LXIV. (14. 2 ; 16. 2). 

- XIII. (2). 

- LX. 

- xvii. (3). 

- XXXII. (2). 

- LXIV. (14. i ; 16. i). 



206 Alphabetical List of Authors of Poems. 



KilatI, Ghulam-Bolak, 
Lashkaran, Jistkani, 

Mlran, Rind, 

Nodh, Rashkanl, - 
Nodhbandagh, Lashari, - 
Panju, Bangulanl, - 
Rani, daughter of Salar, BalachanI, 

Rehan, Rind, 

Shahzad, Rind, .... 

Sobha, Jarwar, 

Sohna, Surihanl, - - 

Tawakkull, SheranI, 

Wasu, BulethT, .... 



- VIII. 

- LIV. LV. 

- xxxix. (i and 2), XLIV. 

- ix. 

- xiv. 

- xxxvi. 

- Part of xxni. 

- HI. xix. 

- xvi. LI. 

- xxxiii. (i and 3). 

- L. (I). 

- LVI. 

- XXIX. 






INDEX OF NAMES. 

INCLUDING NAMES OF PERSONS AND TRIBES, AND ALL 
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. 



(In the Indexes the references are to Vol. I., unless Vol. II. is 
specially mentioned.) 



'Abdu'llah Khan of Kilat, 175. 

Adam, creation of, 135, 138. 

Adam, Lasharl, killed, 22. 

Ahmad Khan Lund, 26. 

Ahmad Khan, Bugti, 82. 

Ahmad Shah, Durrani, 175. 

Ahmad son of Shoran, poet, 162. 

Akbar (King), a symbol of great- 
ness, 128. 

Aleppo (see Halab), 2, 96. 

'All, companion of Chakur, 22, 25. 

'All (nephew of the prophet), known 
as Yaili, i. II. 155, 156. 

'All, legends of, 161, 162. 

'All, legends of, Buddhist element 
in, 161. 

'All Muhammad Khosa, reciter of 
poems, 5. 

AlianI, clan of Legharis, 108. 

Allan, companion of Chakur, 3, 33, 

37, 39, 92. 
Allan, Drlshak, son of Sardar Miran 

Khan, 101. 

Anarl-Mol (Fort Munro), Mt., 90. 
Arand. See Harand. 
'Azrail, the angel of death, 151, 

161. 



Babar, Dodai, poems of, 35, 40. 

Badru'd-dm, King of Sistan, 2. 

Baga Dom, reciter of poems, xiv, 
147, 149. 

Baga Lasharl, reciter of poems, xiv, 
3, 13, 20, 32, 52, 134. 

Bagh, a town in Kachhl, xxi, 202. 
See Bhag. 

BagI, a woman's name, 192. 

Bagpur (Bakpur, Makpur), a former 
name of Multan, 135. 

Bahar Khan, Lashari, 14. 

Bahram Khan (Sardar), Chief of 
Mazaris, 60. 

Bakar (Mir), a Lasharl leader, 3-8. 

Bakhmar. See Makhmar. 

Balach, Gorgezh, 40 f. 

Baloches, wanderings of the, i, 15. 

Bambor, Mt., in the Marl country, 
81, in, 162. 

Bampur, a town in Mekran (Bom- 
pur, Bhoimpur, Bhuinpur), 2, 15, 
94. 

Banarl (or Bhanarl), sister of Cha- 
kur, 27, 28, 33, 52. 

Ban, a saint, 140. 

Bhanarl. See Banarl. 



208 



Index of Names. 



Bhanjar, a tribe allied with the 

Rinds, 20. 
Bhattl, a Rajput tribe allied with 

the Lasharls, 23, 25. 
BhenI, a town held by the Rinds, 21. 
Bhoimpur. 
Bhumpur. 
Bhucharl, in the Sulaiman Mts., 

held by the Khosas, 91. 
Blbarl, wife of Hot, 18. 
Blbrak. See Blvaragh BugtI. 
Bijar, Lasharl, 14. 
Bijar, Phuzh, 16, 34, 38, 39. 
Bingopur, in Kachhl, 21. 
Blvaragh, BuledhI, 40 f. 
Blvaragh (or Blbrak), Bugtl, 82. 
Blvaragh, Rind, xxiii, 7, 8, 10, 12, 

13, 14, 48, 113. 
Bolan Pass, xiii, 5, 9, 50. 
Bor, a valley, near Phailawagh, 80. 
Bozdar tribe, 52, 90, 99. 
Brahim, alias Leghar, 53. 
Brahim, Shambam, author, xiv, 118, 

141, 196. 
Brahols, 60, 176. 
Bruce, Mr. R. L., 100, 103. 
BugtI (or Zarkani) tribe, 82. 
Bujaru, a woman's name, 191. 
BuledhI (or Mirali) tribe, 2, 26, 33, 

40, 43, 1 80. 

Bulfat (Burfat, Bulmat), 17, 19. 
Burton, Sir R., xiii, 5, 52, 139, 140. 

Chachar. See Chhachar. 
Chakur, Mir, attacks Delhi, 33. 

attacks Lasharls, 8, 

n, 13, 16. 
character of, xxiii. 
Chief of all, 2. 
disputes with Haibat, 

26. 
disputes with Murld, 

54- 



Chakur, Mir, King of the Rinds, 

22, 24, 25. 

poems attributed to, 

22, 24, 25, 27. 
prisoner with the 

Turks, 8, 9. 
saved by Nodhban- 

dagh, 13, 14. 
shelters Gohar, 6, 10, 

12, 16, 17. 

Chandram, Gorgezh, 42, 44, 46. 
Chandya clan of Legharis, 99. 
Chandya tribe, 2, 73, 96. 
Chedhgl Pass, 86. 
Chetarvo (in Kachhl), 21. 
Chhachar Pass, 35, 118, 119. 
Chhacharl clan of Gurchanls, 66. 
Chihl-tan, Mt., 169, 174. 
Child, F. J. (English and Scottish 

Popular Ballads], xix. 

Children of Gorish = Gurchams,7i. 

Lashar (Lashar-potra- 

van) = Lasharls, 66. 

Mlral = MirallsorBule- 

dhls, 26, 43. 
Tigers (Mazar-potra- 
van or Sher-potra- 
van) = Mazarls, 62, 
69. 
Zarkan = Zarkanls or 

Bugtis, 88. 
Chodzko(Pofiu/ar Poetry of Persia)^ 

129. 
ChotI, chief town of Legharis, 107, 

148. 

Crooke, W. (Popular Religion of 
N. India), 158. 

Darmesteter, J. (Chants des Af- 
ghanes\ xvi, xxvii, xxxix, 184. 

Dasht, an upland plain, especially 
the Dasht-i-be-daulat above the 
Bolan Pass, 118. 



Index of Names. 



209 



Dashtl tribe (not Rinds), 2. 
Dastglr, Pir. See Hazrat Pir. 
Dehli, expedition to, 32. 
Dhadar, at the foot of Bolan Pass, 

settlements at, 2, 3. 
Dhaclar, riddle on, 203. 
Dilmalikh, Rind, poem of, 31. 
Dm-Panah, a saint, 109. 
Doda, Gorgezh, quoted as an ex- 

jmple, 19, 95. 
tJoda, Gorgezh, war with Buledhis, 

41. 

Doda, Kalol, 93. 
Doda, Sumra, founder of Dodai 

tribe, 5, 52. 

Dodai tribe, allied with Rinds, 32. 
at war with Rinds, 

34-40. 

origin of, 52. 
Dodo and Chanesar, Sindhi poem, 

5- 
Dom (Dom or Domb) minstrel 

tribe, xvi, 20, 97, 139. 
Dombki tribe, allied with Rinds, 20. 
distinguished as 

poets, 4. 

high rank of, 2, 4, 15 
sarcastic verses on, 

53- 

Dosten, legend of, 118. 
Douie, J. M. (translation of Bilu- 

chi-nama), xv, 54, 178. 
Dragal, Mt. (in the Sulaiman Mts.), 

66. 
Drehan, Kird, a Mazari leader, 

61. 

Dris, a prophet, 169 f. 
Drishak tribe, 2, 67, 82, 89, 100. 
Duldul, 'All's horse, 8, 164. 
Dum. See Dom. 
DurkanI, sub-tribe of the Gur- 

chanis, 66. 
Durrak, Jam, a poet, xxvi, 124 f. 



Ekbal, Mt. (in the Sulaiman Mts.), 

93, 129. 

Enoch. See Dris, 169. 
Erskine, W. (Baber and Humayun), 

xxxvii. 
Eve, 135. 

Farhad, a legendary hero. See 

Parat, 117. 
Fateh Khan, Gurchani Chief, 64, 

72. 
Fatehpur, a town in S. Derajat, 55, 

86. 

Fatuhal, Drishak, 82. 
Fort Munro, 90. 

Foucher, A. (L!art Greco-Boud- 
\ 161. 



Gabol tribe, servile origin of, 52. 

Gadahl tribe, servile origin of, 52. 

Gahl, Kalol, a poet, 90, 97. 

Gaj (in Kachhl), 2, 6, 9, 16, 17, 23. 

Gaji Barbar, Pir, 93. 

Gandava (in Kachhl), 2, 9, 25. 

Garmaf Pass, 42. 

Gaur (Gavr, Gabr), heathen or un- 

believers, 163. 

GauranI, a town of the Gaurs, 183. 
Geiger, Prof. W., II. 180. 
Gendhari Mt. (in Sulaiman Mts.), 

1 86, 187. 
Ghazan Khan, Chief of the Marls, 

104. 
GhazI Khan, Dodai, founder of 

Dera GhazI Khan, 34 
Ghola tribe, expelled from SevI, 3. 
Ghola tribe, of servile rank, 2. 
Ghulam Bolak clan of Rinds, 15. 
Ghulam Muhammad, Balacham, 

reciter of poems and poet, xiv, 

9, 27, 29, 31, 34, 41, 76, 118, 138, 

157, 161, 169, 175, 199. 



2IO 



Index of Names. 



Ghulam Murtiza Khan, Bugti Chief, 
104. 

Gishkhaur son of Blvaragh, an- 
cestor of Gishkhaurls, 48. 

Gishkhaurl tribe, 48, 53. 

Gohar, Maherl, heroine of ballads, 
xix, 5, 10, n, 12, 16. 

Goldsmid, Sir F., xxxix. 

Gophang tribe, not Rinds, 2 . 

Gorgezh tribe, 2, 40. 

Granaz, daughter of King of Qan- 
dahar, 49, 113. 

Green, Sir H., 104. 

Gujarat, settlement of Lasharis in, 

23, 91- 

Gumbaz, in Bugti country, 168, 183. 
GurchanI tribe, 63, 65, 67, 69. 
Gwaharam, Mir, leader of the 

Lasharis, xxi, 8, 9, 12, 20-24. 
Gyandar Mt. See Gendharl. 

Habb, R. (now the boundary of 

Sindh and Las-Bela), 19, 96. 
HabTb Khan, Drlshak, 101. 
Haddeh, Rind, brother-in-law of 

Chakur, 3, 27, 28. 
Haddeh, ShambanI, a poet, 82, 86. 
Haddianl, sub-tribe of Legharis, 90, 

99, 106, 182. 
Haibat son of Blvaragh, Buledhl, 

3,26. 
Haidar, a name of 'Ah, 15, 78, 144, 

163. 
Haidar = Ghulam Haidar, GurchanI 

Chief, 103. 
Haidar = Ghulam Haidar, Khosa, 

78. 

Hairo, Khosa, reciter of No. IV., 5. 
Haivtan. See Haibat. 
Haji Khan, Dodal, poem by, 34. 
Halab (Aleppo), 2, 96. 
Hamal Khan II., Chief of Mazarts. 

69, 77. 



Hamal, Rind, 22. 

Hamza,fMlr, uncle of Muhammad, 

traditional ancestor of Baloches, 

2, 72, 95, 96- 
Hani, courted by Chakur and 

Murld, 55. 
Hani, daughter of Mlrdost, part 

authoress of No. XXIII., 59. 
Hanspur (Hasapur, Rahanspur), a 

name of Multan, 135. 
Harand, an ancient fort near the 

Chhachar Pass, 64, 118, 122, 183. 
Harev, a BalochI name for Herat, 8. 
Harm, ShambanI, a poet, 82. 
Harm, war against in Mekran, 2, 

96. 

Hasan son of 'Ali, 144. 
Hassu, Brahiml, a companion of 

Chakur, 3, 17, 22, 92. 
Hazrat Ghaus, the saint of Mt. 

Chihl-tan, 174. 
Hazrat Plr (a name of the saint 

'Abdu'l-Qadir Jllanl), 158. 
Herat, 5, 8, 122. 
Hetu Ram, R. B. (Biliichi-nama), 

xv, 7, 40, 43, 117, 178- 
Hot, KalmatI, 18, 19. 
Hot, Rind, 22. 
Hot tribe, 2. 
Humau, Balochi form for Humayun, 

xxxvii, 32, II. 37. 
Humayun, Mughal Emperor, xxxvii, 

32, II. 37- 

Husain son of 'All, 144. 
Husain (Shah), Sultan Husain Bai- 

kara of Herat, 5, 8. 

Iblis. See Shaitan. 
Ibrahim (Abraham), 135. 
Idrls, the prophet. See Drls. 
Imam Bakhsh Khan (Nawab Sir, 

K.C.I.E.), Chief of Mazarls, 100, 

103, 108. 



Index of Names. 



21 I 



Imam Ja'far, appearance of at end 

of the world, 147. 
Imams, the twelve, 144. 
Indus, R., xxiii, 76, no, 142, 147. 
Indus, R., personified as Khwaja 

Khidr, 73. 
Isji, a saint, 140. 

(Mehtar), the Spirit of God, 
_ 104, 135- 
Isar, a Hindu name for God (Skr. 

Igwara) (Isar Mahandev, Isar 

Jaggannath), 137. 
Israfil, the archangel of the last 

trump, 141, 142, 146. 
Istambol, 96. 
Izrail. See Azrail. 

Jaghdal, Balochi name for the Jatt 

tribe, 53. 

Jalakh, in Kachhl, 5. 
Jalal Khan, Leghari, 3. 
Jalal Khan, Mir, head of the 

Baloches before their division 

into tribes, 2. 
Jam, a title, ii, 121, 1. n. Jam 

Durrak, Mando, Ninda, 'Umar, 

Gwaharam, under respective 

names. 
Jamal, name of a pan or fairy, 125, 

131- 

Jamal Khan (Nawab), Leghari Chief, 
103, 105. 

Jamal Khan, present chief, grand- 
son of the above, 90. 

Jamal Shah (Plr), a saint, 75. 

Jamall, a Brahoi tribe, 60. 

Jampur, a town in S. Derajat, 176. 

Jaro, Phuzh (' jaur-jawav,' or bitter 
in reply), xxiii, 2, 10, 12, 18, 27. 

Jarwar clan of Khosa tribe, 90. 

Jarwar sept of Ghazani Marls, 80. 

Jatkl dialect, poems in, 102, 194. 

Jatol tribe, 2, 20, 73. 



Jatro, in the Bugtl hills, 61, 62, 76. 

Jatt, an Indian tribe, 53. 

Jawanak Khan, Khosa Chief, 90, 92, 

93, loo. 

Jhal, in Kachhl, 16, 92. 
Jland, Rind, 22. 
Ji brail {or Wahi), the archangel 

Gabriel, 141, 142, 146, 158. 
Jinda Khan, Drlshak, 67, 86, 88. 
Jistkanl tribe, 2. 
Jistkani clan of Gurchams, 66. 
Jlwa, Kird, a poet, xiv, 165. 
Jiwe Lai (or Lai Shahbaz), the saint 

of Sehwan, 115, 116, 146, 177. 
Jongo, Rind, poet, 36. 
Julien, Stanislas (Vie de Hiouen 

Thsang), 161. 



Kabul, town of, 87. 

Kabul, Dombki, poet, 82, 86. 

Kach. See Kachhl. 

fa grazing ground at 
Kacharak, I the foot of the hills 

Kacharok, ^ in K achhl,6, 16, 17. 
Kachhl (called in maps Cutch- 

Gundava or Kach-Gandava), the 

plain below the Bolan and Mullah 

passes, xv, xxi, 16, 61. 
Kachhl, called Kach in text, II. 16, 

96. 
Kahan, the chief town of the Marls, 

79, 88, 102. 

Kalandar Shah, a saint, 104. 
Kalat, capital of the Brahoi Khans, 

60. 



} tribe, 2, 
J 



17, I 9 . 



Kalmati 
Kalol clan of Legharis, 89, 100. 
Kalphur clan of Bugtls, 85. 
Kambar, servant of 'All, 162. 
KambaranI Brahols, 165. 
Kandahar. See Qandahar, 82, 87, 
104. 



212 



Index of Names. 



Kashmir. 87. 

Kech, a district of Mekran, 2, 15, 

96, 98. 

Kechl Khan, Shambanl, 82. 
Khaibar, a fort of the Jews taken 

by Muhammad, 144. 
Khaibar Pass, 144. 
Khalgar, in Kachhl, 7. 
Khalifas or Khalifs, the first four, 

144, 178. 
Kharr, a valley in the Sulaiman 

Mts., near Fort Munro, 90, 91. 
Khetran tribe, 102. 
Khetram dialect, verses in, 195. 
Khidr, a poet, 199. 
Khidr, a prophet identified with 

Elijah, and localised as a river 

saint of the Indus, 142, 147. 
Khorasan, used by Baloches not in 

its ordinary meaning of a Persian 

province, but as the plateau of 

Balochistan and Afghanistan 

generally, 4, 118, 121. 
Khosa clan of Lund tribe, 63. 
Khosa tribe, 2, 77, 89, 100. 
Khuda Bakhsh, Dom, reciter of 

poems, in, 124. 140. 
Khwaja Khidr. See Khidr. 
Kin, a town of the Mazaris, 70. 
Kird, the Brahoi tribe of Kurd, also 

a Mazarl clan, 52, 61, 72. 
Konar, a grazing ground above the 

Bolan Pass. 121. 
Kung, a tribe not now known, 32. 

Laila, heroine of the Arab tale of 
Laila and Majnun. See Lela. 

Lakhl, name of a breed of horses, 65. 

Lakhl, name of Hairo's mare, 37. 

Lai. See Lai Shahbaz. 

Lai Shahbaz (Lai, Jlwe Lai), a saint 
whose shrine is at Sehwan in 
Sindh, 115, 1 1 6, 146, 177. 



Langah, a Rajput tribe, ruling at 

Multan in the i6th century, xxiv, 

xxxvii, 32. 
Lashar, eponymic ancestor of the 

Lasharls, 26. 
Lashari tribe, rivals of the Rinds. 

War with Rinds, 2-25. 
Lashkar Khan, Chief of TibbI 

Lunds, 64, 66. 
Lashkaran son of Sumelan, poet, 

144, 146. 
Lat, an idol of the pagan Arabs, 

137. 
Leech (Lieut.), first to record 

poems in Balochi, xiii, xiv, 52, 54, 

60, 1 1 6, 140. 

Leghari tribe, 53, 63, 89, 105. 
Lehrl, in Kachhl, name of a torrent, 

and a town of the Dombkls, u, 

115. 
Lela, heroine of the poem ' Lela and 

Majna,' in. 
Lori. See Dom. 
Lund tribe Lunds of Son, 26. 
Lund tribe Lunds of TibbI, 63. 
Lyall, Sir C. (Ancient Arabian 

Poetry), xxxiii, xxxix. 

Machhi tribe, originally fishermen, 

non-Baloch, 36, 95. 
Madho, daughter of Salhe, married 

to Doda, 52, 53. 
Mai, wife of Mir Chakur, 139. 
Majna, \hero of the poem of ' Laila 
Majnun, / and Majnun,' ill, 132^ 
Makran, province of, 2, 5, 96, 98. 

Malam.^ 

-\it-Y \ a Lashan herdsman, 22. 

Mall. See Moh. 

Malik, a title of Mlr-Han, Sohrab, 

etc. See under names. 
Mando (Jam), Rind, 7, 24. 
Manik, Jarwar, 93, 97. 



Index of Names. 



213 



Marav, a valley in the Bugti Hills, 

168. 
Marl, Mt. (in the Sulaiman Mts.), 

70. 
Marl tribe, 52, 79, 187. 

ij, name of a dev, \ 6 
ev, / 



ija, a female dev, 
Mason, a clan of the Bugti tribe, 

85. 
Masson, Ch. {Travels in Afghan- 

istan), 174. 

Matho, the mother of Shah Beg, 9. 

Mayer, Rev. T. J. L., xiii, xiv, 3, n, 

20, 41, 46, 48, 54, 58, 113, 115, 

117, 139, 149, 167, 182. 

Mazar Khan, Chief of TibbI Lunds, 

63, 103. 
Mazarl tribe, 2, 51, 54, 58, 60, 62, 

67, 69, 70, 73, 76, 77, 1 08, 176. 
Mazldo, a nickname of Chakur. 
Mecca, pilgrimage to, 106. 
Medh, a tribe of fishermen, 52, 95. 
Mekran. See Makran. 
Mikail, the Archangel Michael, 146. 
Milah. See Mullah Pass. 
Minmin, a name of Muhammadan 

traders, Bohras, etc., 50. 
Mir, shortened form of Amir ; a title 
of chiefs, as Mir Chakur, etc. 
Bakar, 5, 8. 
Hamal, 69, 77. 
Hamza, 2, 72, 95. 
Hasan, 3. 
Hot, 19. 

Jamal Khan, 105. 

Mir-Han or Mlran, cousin of Cha- 

kur, xxiii, 3, 7, n, 14, 20, 22, 115. 

Mir-Han or Mlran, Chief of Drl- 

shaks, i oo, 103. 

Mlral, eponymic ancestor of the 
Miralls or Buledhis, called 
Children of Mlral, 26. 
Mirali. See Buledhi. 



Mirrani clan of Dodais, 34. 

Mitha Khan III., Chief of the 
Mazaris, 58, 77, 176. 

Moh, an unidentified place, asso- 
ciated with Mall, Habb, R., and 
Phab, 1 6. 

Moses (Musa), 149 f. 

Muhabbat Khan of Kalat, 176. 

Mullah (or Milah) Pass, 17, 21, 

22, 2 3 . 

Multan, origin of, 136, 137. 
Multan Mall (the Champion of 

Multan), a name of the saint 

Plr Shamsu'd-din, 83. 
Mundahi, in the Marl hills, 16. 
Mungachar, in the uplands near 

Kilat, 121. 

Murad Bakhsh, a saint, 146. 
Murid son of Mubarak, 54. 
Musa. See Moses. 
Musakhel, an Afghan tribe, 79. 
Muzl, mother of Nodhbandagh, 13. 

Nahar, a Rajput tribe displaced by 

Mazaris, 32. 

Nakhlfo, Gorgezh, 42, 46. 
Nail Pass, leading from the uplands 

into Kachhl, 2, n, 13, 14, 15, 22, 

96. 
Nan R., flows into Kachhi near 

Sibi, 26. 
Narmukh, a plain above the Bolan, 

96, 120, 122, 129. 
Naslr Khan, Khan of Kalat, 124. 
Nathu, Rind, 37. 

Ninda (Jam), King of Sindh, over- 
thrown by Chakur, 25. 
Nodh son of Bahram, poet, 17. 
Nodhbandagh, Lasharl, type of 

generosity xxii, xxiii, 3, 13, 29, 92. 
Noh or Nohakh, killed at Dehll, 

33- 
Noh tribe, 2, 96. 



2I 4 



Index of Names. 



Nothani, Levitical clan of Bugtis, 

178. 
Nuham (or Noh) tribe, 7, 10, 96. 

O'Brien, E. (Glossary of the Mul- 

tant Language), 184. 
'Omar, Bor, a Marl, 81. 
'Omar, Nuham, generosity of, 7, 

19, 21, 23, 64. 

Panjgur in Mekran, 5, 96. 
Panju BangulanI, poet, 105. 
Parat (Pers. Farhad), 117. 
Phab, Mts. on the Sindh and Las 

Bela frontier, 16. 
Phailawagh, a valley in the Gur- 

chani Hills, between the Syah- 

Koh and Khup ranges, 79, 80, 

1 20. 
Phalpur, a town of the Lasharls, 

now unknown, 23. 
Phaugar, Chakur flees to, 14. 
Pheroshah (or Pheroz Shah), Rind, 

3> 34, 38- 
Pheroz, Rind, 36. 
Pherozani sept of Nothani Bugtis, 

178. 
Phitokh Pass, leading from the 

Indus Valley into the Bugti 

Hills, 84, 121. 
Phong (or Mondranl), a clan of the 

Bugti tribe, 85. 
Phul, name of Nodhbandagh's 

mare, 13, 14, 30, 92. 
Phuzh, the royal clan of the Rinds, 

2, 3, 1 8, 34, 37, 64, 92. 
Pir, a title given to saints, as Plr 

Suhrl, Plr Jamal Shah, etc. See 

under the proper names. 

Qandahar (or Kandahar), 82, 87, 
104. 



Qarun, the Muhammadan name of 
Korah, proverbial for wealth and 
greed, 145, 150. 

Rahaiispur. See Hanspur. 
Raheja, a clan of the Bugti tribe, 

88. 

Ramen, Lasharl, 4, 8, 14, 91. 
Rani, a Rind stronghold in Kachhl, 

7, 53- 

Rehan, Rind, 3, 4, 18, 46, 92. 
Relan, a minstrel, 91 f. 
Rind, the principal tribe among 

the Baloches, i, 4, 5, 10, 13, 15, 

20 f., 32, 34 f., 51, 54, 88, 91, 95, 

96, 98. 

Rind clan of Lund tribe, 63. 
Rohrl, low hills, especially those 

near Sakhl Sarwar, 37 (the name 

does not refer to the town of 

Rohrl in Sindh). 
Rum (i.e. Constantinople), 103. 
Runghan, a valley in the Leghari 

Hills, 99, 105. 
Rustum, the Persian hero, 21. 

Sahak (Jam), Rind, 3, 92. 

Sahak, Kalmati, 19. 

Sahlch, Dom, 9. 

Sakhl Sarwar (i.e. Generous Lord), 
a saint, and the town where his 
shrine is situated, 42, 72, 148, 
164 f. See also Sultan and 
Sarwar Shah. 

Salem Khan, Drlshak, 101. 

Samma, a Rajput tribe, formerly 
rulers of Sindh, 23. 

Samml, a woman's name, 1 8, 41, 95. 

Samrl, a Mochl's wife, 176. 

Sandeman, Sir R. G., roof., 194. 

Sang, a Marl village, 16. 

Sangarh, a district in the Derajat, 
16, 99. 



Index of Names. 



215 



Sangslla, a Bugti town, 41, 43, 168. 
Sarigwath, name of Chakur's mare, 

24. 
SannI (or Sanl), a place above the 

Bolan Pass, 17, 121. 
Sarwar Shah, 72 (see Sakhl 

Sarwar). 
Satghara, a town in Gugera (now 

the Montgomery District of the 

Panjab), 17. 
Sevi. See Sibi. 
Shah Beg, Arghun, 5, 48. 
Shahbaz. See Lai Shahbaz. 
Shahbaz Khan (Nawab Sir, 

K.C.I.E.), Bugti Chief, 104. 
Shaho, nephew of Jaro, 27. 
Shahyar, Gurchani, a poet, 67. 
Shahzad, son of Chakur, 2, 32, 134, 

138. 

Shaihak, father ot Chakur, 2. 
Sham (lit. watershed), name of 

several districts, esp. the Sham 

in the Gurchani country, often 

spoken of jointly with Phaila- 

wagh, 7, 71, 79, 176. Also the 

Makhmar Sham in the Marl 

country, 80. 

Sham (Syria or Damascus), 84, 103. 
Sham, used with the epithet 

'miskena' or 'musky,' i,e. scented 

or thymy, 7, 71, 102. 
Shambani, sub-tribe of the Bugtls, 

82, 141. 

Shambo, Bugti, 85. 
Shampur (or Syahpur), a name of 

Multan, 135. 

Shamsu'd-dln Khan of Slstan, 2, 96. 
Shapur (Sultan), Sasanian King of 

Persia, 131. 
Shlren, a woman's name heroines 

of two poems, XL. and XLI. 

117, n8f. 
Shol, name of Rehan's mare, 4. 



Shoran in Kachhl, capital of the 
Rinds, xxii, 2, 16, 17, 53, 92. 

Sibi (or Sevi), 2, 14, 15, 16, 24, 25, 
48, 51. 

Sikandar Khan, Khosa, 77. 

Sindh (i.e. the Indus Valley and 
not the country of Sindh), 71 
72, 102. 

Slstan, the Baloches in, 2, 46, 96. 

Sobha, Jarwar, a poet, 91, 95. 

Sobha, Rind, 3. 

Sohrab (Malik), Chief of the Dodals, 
xxiii, xxiv, 37 f. 

Sohrab, Rind, 12, 22. 

Sohrab, Shambani, 83, 88. 

Sohran. See Sohri. 

Sohrl (Plr), a saint, 84, 101, 105, 
178 (also called Suhrl, Sohran). 

Suhrl. See Sohrl. 

Suhrl-khushtagh (lit. Suhrl's slaugh- 
ter), a shrine in the Bugti Hills, 
1 80. 

Sulaiman (Solomon), the seal of, 

131- 

Sulaiman Mts., 16. 
Sulema, Khoh, form of Sulaiman 

Mts. used in text, II. 19 (1. 59). 
Sultan, a name for the Saint Sakhl 

Sarwar, 165. 
Sultan, a title of kings, as Shapur 

and Husain Shah, 8, 131. 

Tagya Khan, Leghari, no. 
Tawakkull, Marl, a poet, 147. 
Temple, Sir R. (Legends of the 

Panjab), xiv, 29, 158. 
Thatha, a town in Sindh, 23. 
TibbI Lund, a town in the Derajat, 

63, 69. 
Toba, a spring in the Chhachar 

Pass, 119. 
Turks (or Mughals), xxii, 5, 8, 23, 

33, 1 1 8. 



216 



Index of Names. 



'Umar. See 'Omar. 
Umara Han, a Leghari Chief, 99. 
Uzza, an idol of the pagan Arabs 
(see Lai), 137. 

Vador stream, the boundary of 
Khosa and Leghari tribes, 90, 
99, 105. 

WakavT, a stream, now unknown, 19. 

Yaill, general Baloch name for 
'AlT, i, 161. 



Zangi, name of a chief, 121. 
Zangl's well, a place near Mt. 

Gendharl, 187. 

Zarkan, children of. See Zarkam. 
Zarkanr, a name of the Bugtl tribe 

187. 
Zewa, name of a pan or fairy 

125. 

Zumzum (Sultan), legend of, 149. 
Zu'n-nun Beg, Arghun, xxiv, xxxvii, 

9,91. 

Zunu, the form for name of the 
above used by Baloches, 9, 91. 




GENERAL INDEX. 



Abdal, a saint. The forty Abdals 

(or Avdars) are often alluded to, 

84, 141, 144. 

Adamant, riddle on, 199. 
Age, poems on, 165, 167. 
Age of heroic ballads, xxxvi. 
Alif Laila. See Arabian Nights. 
Anabasis Multiflora (trath), a sal- 

solaceous plant, 188. 
Angels described, 142, 146. 
Angel of death ('Azrail, Izrail, 

Arzel, Malkamlth), 107, 142, 146, 

151, 160, 166. 
Angels of the land (deh-malaikh, 

the Hindu dig-pal), 87. 
Antimony, powdered, applied to 

the eyes (slrmugh), 20, 192. 
Aphorisms, 203, 204. 
Arabian Nights quoted, 149. 
Argument of heroic ballads, xxi. 
Armour, 3, 16, 19, 45. 
Armour of David, 168. 
Arrow-stems, drawing lots by, 61, 

78. 

Arrows, 7, 10, 35> 57- 
Arzel, corrupt form of 'Azrail. See 

Angel of death. 
Authors, names of, II. 205. 
Authors of poems, xiv, xvii, II. 205. 
Avarice associated with Qarun 

(Korah), 145, 150. 
Avarice repudiated, 30, 102. 
'Azrail. See Angel of death. 



Badhashkan, name of a creeping 

plant, 128. 

Badshah. See King. 
Bahrl, a breed of horses, 65. 
Bajurl, epithet of a sword (Bajaurl?), 

66, 75. 

Ballads, nature of, xviii, xix. 
Bay, used as synonym for a horse 

or mare, 24, 32, 37, 79 ; II. 187. 
Bees, love imagery derived from, 

114. 

Bees, riddle on, 201. 
Betel-nut, 28, 151. 
Bhang, an intoxicating drink made 

from hemp leaves, 33, 35, 121. 
Birds (hawk), 75. 

Birds, met. for women (crane, vul- 
ture), 123 (Text, II. 124, 1. 88), 

129. 

Birds sent as messengers, 115. 
Birth, miraculous, 139. 
Black clothing, a sign of mourning, 

34- 
Black colour, used as synonym for 

a mare, 121 ; II. 187. 
Black cow, a votive offering, 47. 
Blue, dark, sign of mourning, 33. 
Blue bird, the blue rock pigeon, 115. 

(In text, savz, green, II. 116, 

1. 20.) 

Boats, 74, 75, 106. 
Boots, red, worn by Doda Gorgezh, 

44- 



2l8 



General Index. 



Boots, red, worn by Lasharls, 14. 

by Rinds, 3, 9, 

16, 20, 22. 
Bows and arrows, 3, 7, 13, 35, 45> 

68, 77, 83. 
iron, 57, 83, 101. 
buried with warrior, 28. 
partition of property by, 96. 
Branches (of Salvadora Oleoides) 

borne as sign of success, 38. 
Buddhist element in legend, 161. 
Bulgarian (scented or Russian) 
leather, 76, 26. 

Camels, raided, 26, 61, 67, 89. 

young, killed, 6, 10, 12, 16, 

18. 
wealth consisting of, 30, 

150. 

sent from heaven, 29. 
Cap, child's, 189. 
Cardamoms, 28. 

Carrion, met. for anything abomin- 
able, 78, 145. 
Chamaerops Ritchieana, the phlsh 

or dwarf-palm, 32, 60, 100. 
Chants used in accompany ing songs, 

xxiii, xxvii. 

Chaupar, game of, riddle on, 201. 
Chess, riddle on, 201. 
Chestnut colour (bor), used as 

synonym for a mare, 62, 66, 85 ; 

II. 187. 

Cid, poem of the, xx. 
Clouds, 36, 39, 73, 125, 147. 
Courage held up to admiration, 66, 

78, 94. 

Cowardice condemned, 78, 8 1, 94. 
Cradle-songs, xxix, 182. 
Crane, a metaphor for woman, 129, 

1 86. 
Creation, legend of, 135, 143, 146, 

158. 



Crocodiles, 36, 76. 
Cross-roads, perls await funeral at, 
130. 

Damblro, a stringed instrument, 

xxxiv, 69, 91, 93, 105, 109. 
Dark-blue. See Blue. 
Dastanaghs (short songs), xxix, 

184-195. 

David's armour, 168. 
Death, Angel of. See Angel, 
of Balach, 43. 
Blvaragh, 8, 14. 
Doda, 42. 

Mlr-Han, u, 13, 14, 20. 
Nawab Jamal Khan, 105. 
Parat, 117. 
Salo, 46. 
the Prophet Muhammad, 

161. 

Zumzum, 151. 
Dirhem, silver coin, 30. 
Dorha, short poems in West Pan- 

jabl, 184. 

Drums, 14, 24, 33, 59. 
Drunkenness, 21, 25, 35, 38, 54. 

Egyptian sword (Misri Mirzl), 7, 

10, 30, 71, 87, 88. 
Eighteen sons of Chakur, 33. 
Eighteen years passed in one night, 

159. 
Elegy on N. Muhammad Khan, 

105. 

Elegy on Salo, 46. 
Elimurushirsutus, a grass (gorkha), 

47- 
Embankment round a field (banu 

or lath), 41. 

End of the world, 145, 147. 
Epic ballads, xxi. 
Epithalamium, 58. 
Eunuch (dancers), 177. 



General Index. 



219 



Fairies. See Paris. 

Falsehood condemned, 28, 64, 88, 

98. 

Falus, copper coin, 132. 
Firearms, 13, 14, 33, 68, 75. 
Firearms, gun worth a thousand 

rupees, 59. 
Five holy beings (panj tan-i pak), 

87, 109, 141, 146. 
Flint, riddle on, 196. 
Flowers, worn as ornaments, 123, 

185. 

Flute (see Nar), 184. 
Forms of verse, xxix. 
Forty abdals or saints, 144. 
Forty children at a birth, 169, 175. 
Forty-four clans (bolaks), 2. 
Forty thousand follow Mir Chakur, 

2,32. 
Four friends or Khalifas, 144, 178, 

179- 
Fourteen innocents (masum) or 

messengers (suhag), 144. 
Funeral attended by pans, 130. 
feast, 39. 
of Parat, 117. 
of Salo, 47. 

Gabr. See Gaur. 

Gambling, 25, 30, 31, 76. 

Gaur (Gavr, Gabr) cf. Guebre, 

Giaour), an unbeliever, 67, 163. 
Gazelle, legend of, 154. 
Genealogies, i, 2, 92, 96, 98. 
Glossary of rare words, II. 192. 
Gold, 58, 83. 

Gold-hiked sword, 13, 39, 45. 
Gold scatterer (Zar-zuwal), an epi- 
thet of Nodhbandagh, 3, 29. 
Golden rings, 3, 47. 

cup, 35. 

necklace, 48, 51. 

Drlshaks, 87. 



Gorkha-grass. See Elimurus hir- 
sutus. 

Grewia bush (shagh), xxxv, 69. 

Grey (nlll, melo), colour used as 
synonym for a mare, 120 ; II. 
187. 

Guitar, used in translation for dam- 
biro, q.v. 

Gwan (Pistacia Khinjuk\ the wild 
pistachio, 122, 201. 

Gwarigh, a plant with red flowers, 
122, 123. 

Hail, riddle on, 199. 

Hailstorm, met. for violent attack, 

45- 

Hawk and pigeon, legend of, 161. 
Head carried after decapitation, 

1 80. 
Heaven, visit of the Prophet to, 

158. 

Heaven attained by a trick, 175. 
Heaven described, 143. 
Helmet, 16, 45, 60. 
Helmet of enemy used as a churn, 

45- 

Heroes' epithets, II. 189. 
Heroic ballads, argument of, xxi. 
Hindu names and legends mixed 
with Muhammadan, 83, 134, 137, 
1 66. 

Horse, creation of the, 136, 138. 
Horse-race, origin of war, xxi, 3, 4. 
Horses, proper names of : 

Duldul, 'All's horse, 8, 164. 

Kunar, 64. 

Lakhl, 37. 

Mehlo, 129. 

Phal, Nodhbandagh'smare, 

13, 14, 30, 92. 
Sangwath, Chakur's mare, 

24. 
Shol, Rehan's mare r 4. 



220 



General Index. 



Horses, Surkhangor Surkhi,Doda's 

mare, 43. 

Horses, spoken of by the names of 
their colours, II. 187 : 

Bay, 24, 79. 

Black, 121. 

Chestnut, 15, 62, 66. 

Dun, 120. 

Grey, 120. 
Houris (hurls), 35, in, 126, 143. 

Indian sword (hindl), 7, 10, 25, 37. 

Jam, a title of Chiefs, 7, 25, 121, 

124. 

Jat, a camel driver, herdsman, 6, 
10, 1 8, 24 (not to be confounded 
with Jatt, name of a tribe). 
Jataka of King Cjvi, 161. 
Jewels, alluded to under separate 

names, as : 
Bangles (hatali, banzu- 

band), 114, 191. 
Bracelets (dastin), 126. 
Earrings (durr-gosh, gird- 
durr, sarhosh), 47, 81, 
123. 
Neck-circlets (has or hasi), 

47, 114, 194. 

Necklaces (har), 48, 127. 
Noserings (bulu, phuloh, 
nath), 47, 114, 126, 129, 
194. 

Rings (mundrl, chhalo, 
chalra, verh), 47, 129, 
185, 186, 190. 

Toerings(phadhl),i88, 195. 
Jinns, 38, 136. 

Kahlr-tree (Prosopis Spicigera), 10, 
39, 45, 127, 168, 1 80. 

Karez, an underground water- 
course, 1 06. 



Kaunsar (Ar. kawthar), the fountain 

of Paradise), 40, 69, 132, 145. 
Kettle-drums, 33, 59. 
Khan, a chief, the common title. 

See under proper names. 
King, title of, used by Chakur and 

Bijar, 22, 24, 25, 38. 
King of Herat, 8. 
King of Qandahar, 48. 
Knuckle-bones, used in gambling, 

30, 32, 77- 

Lament. See Elegy. 

Lamp, riddle on, 198. 

Language, old forms of, II. 180. 

Later ballads, 58f. 

Legends of saints, I34f. 

Legends of the Panjab (Temple), 

xiv, 29, 158. 
Lentils (litl), given as fodder to 

a horse, 44. 
Lizard, episode of, 18. 
Lightning, 55, 125, 127. 
Lightning, horse compared to, 91. 
Lightning, sword compared to, 37, 

38, 51, 75- 
Lonak (Stipagrostis Plumosa\ a 

grass, 1 88. 
Lords of the Club (Munkir and 

Nakir), the examiners of the 

dead, 151. 
Love-songs and lyrics, xxvi, xxix, 

113, 115, i24f., 184 f. 
Lullaby s, 181. 
Lyrical poetry, xxvi, 124, 184. 

Madder, brought from Khorasan, 

121. 

Malik, a title, 21, 37. 
Marriage ceremonies, 52. 
Marriage of Dosten and Shiren, 

123. 



General Index. 



221 





Marriage of Mitha, 58. 
Matches, riddle on 199. 
Maund (or man), an Indian weight 
of 40 seers (about 80 Ibs. or 40 
kilogrammes), 145. 
Maur, name of flower, 123. 
Metres, xxx. 

Migration of tribes, xxii. 
Millet (i.e. holcus sorghum, great 
millet, Bal. zurth, the dhurrah 
of the Arabs, ihejawdr of India), 
13, 14, 41, 87. 
Miracles of 'All, 163. 
Ban, 140. 

Hazrat Ghaus, 175. 
Lai Shahbaz, 177. 
Moses, 149. 
Muhammad, 157. 
Pir Sohrl, 180. 
Sakhi Sarwar, 42. 
Miraculous ascent to Heaven, 157, 

174. 

birth, 138. 
camel, 29. 
flock of goats, 178. 
herd of cattle, 41. 
substitution, 171. 
Mi'raj of the Prophet, 157. 
Mirror, riddle on, 198. 
Mirror of silver, 109, 122, 182. 
Misra' 1 (Pashto poems), 184. 
MochI, leather dresser caste, 176. 
Moon, eclipse of, 38. 
Moon, extinguishing, epithet of a 

woman, 126, 127. 
Mosquitos, 121, 197. 
Mountains, praise ot, 35, 45, 121. 
Muhnt (a share of stolen cattle 

restored to the owner), 89. 
Musk, riddle on, 200. 
Musk-scented (scented, thymy, 
etc.), an epithet of aromatic 
pastures, 7, 71, 102. 



Nar (or pipe), xxxvi, 184. 
Nawab, a title, 67, 105. 
Nicknames : zar-zuwal, 29 ; Mazldo, 

28 ; jaur-jawav (bitter in reply), 27 ; 

thick-beards, 21, 24; thin-beards, 

25; slender-feet, 25; short-feet, 74; 

tiger, 76. 

Oath, on the beard, 121; by Pir 
Sohrl, 1 80 ; by the siris-tree, 39 ; 
of Jaro, 27; of Nodhbandagh, 29 ; 
of Haibat, 26. 

Old-age, personified, 165. 

poems on, 165, 167. 
riddle on, 196. 

Oleander (Nerium odorum\ a 
poisonous bush, 10. 

Origin of Baloches, i, 15, 96, 98. 

Oven heated, a symbol of gener- 
osity, 101. 

Panjabi verse, 113-. 

Panj-tan, the five pure beings, 87, 

109, 141, 146. 
Paradise (bihisht, jaunat, jantal), 

93, 106, 107, 143, 145. 
Paradise stream or fountain of 

(Kaunsar), 40, 69, 132, 145. 
Pan (or fairy), 130, 131. 
Peacock, the wazir of the birds, 

126. 

Personal element in ballads, xix. 
Personification (of age and youth), 

165. 
Personification (of health, fortune 

and wisdom), 173. 
Pharphugh (Tecoma undulata), a 

tree, used in making musical 

instruments, xxxv, 109. 
Phlr (Salvadora oleoides), a tree, 

38. 
Phlsh (Chamaerops Ritchieana), the 

dwarf-palm, 32, 45, 60, 89, 102. 



222 



General Index. 



Pigeon, messenger, 115, 116. 

Pigeon, met. for lover, 129, 130. 

Pigeon and hawk, legend of, 161. 

Pilgrimage to Mecca, 106. 

Pir (lit. an old man), title of saints, 
73, 75, 84, 101, 146, 158, 178. 

Play ing-song, 184. 

Poema del Cid, xviii. 

Poems, classification of, xix. 

Poetry, Balochi, character of, xiii. 

Poison, snake's, quivering in cup, 
112. 

Poison bush (jaur), 10. 

Police, English name used, 116. 

Pomegranate-flowers, lips com- 
pared to, 125. 

Poppies, riddle on, 198. 

Pronunciation, key to the, II. 201. 

Prophet Drls, 169. 

Moses, i49f. 
Muhammad, 157. 

Prophets, aphorism regarding, 204. 

Prosopis Spicigera (sol, kahlr), a 
tree, 10, 39, 45, 127, 168, 180. 

Providence, workings of, 149, 153, 
156. 

Pun on name Sobha, 84. 

Punning riddles, 202, 203. 

Quantity in verse, xxvii. 
Quivers, 28, 30, 38, 74, 87. 
Quran, 48, 51, 109, 136, 172. 

Rains, 73, 109, in, 121, 129, 147, 

167, 183. 

Razor, used as a weapon, 43. 
Red-eared ram, 47. 
Red garments, put away as a sign 

of grief, or on leaving seclusion, 

9, 122. 
Red garments, worn by brides, 58, 

118. 
Red goat, offered to Pir Sohrl, 181. 



Refugees, duty towards, 18, 43, 92, 

99. 

Religious poetry, xxviii, I34f. 
Rhyme, use of, in verse, xxv, 

xxix, xxxvi. 

Rich and poor, 146, 152. 
Riddles, xxix, 195 f. 
Romantic ballads, xxv, in. 

Saints, see under the following 
names : 

'All, 139, 161, 162. 
Ban, 140. 
Din Panah, 109. 
Gaji Barbar, 93. 
Hazrat Ghaus, 174. 
Hazrat Pir (Dastglr, 'Ab- 
_ du'1-Qadir), 158. 
'Isa, 140. 

Jlwe Lai (Lai Shahbaz, 
Lai), 1 10, 115, 116, 146, 
177. 

Khwaja Khidr, 73. 
Murad Bakhsh, 146. 
Sakhl Sarwar, 42, 72, 148, 

165. 

Sohrl, 84, 1 01, 178. 
Sandals of hide or phlsh, 13, 32, 

60, 89. 
Sarlnda, a musical instrument, 

XXXV. 

Sawan (July- August), the month 
of rains, 76. 

Scabbards, red, 7. 

Seer (or Ser), an Indian weight 
(about 2 Ibs. or I kilogramme), 
^yth of a maund (to compare 
seers with maunds, is to compare 
small things with great), 59, 91, 

95, 97- 
Seven heavens, 143. 

kinds of weapons, 65. 
seas (or streams), 161 



General Index. 



223 



Sewing, an occupation of girls, 184. 
Shagh (Grewia Vestita\ a tree, 

also a musical instrument made 

of its wood, 69. 
ShI'a sect of Muhammadans, 135, 

141. 

Shields, 13, 45, 59, 62. 
Shihan (in W. Panjabi, tigress), 

a breed of mares, 62, 65. 
Shirazi, of Shlraz, applied to a 

sword, 13, 167. 

Short-foot (gwand-phadh) a nick- 
name of the Drlshaks, 74. 
Shrines of saints, 42, 109, 162, 174, 

177, 178. 

Silken garments, 3, 73. 
Silver-hilted sword, 59. 

knives and daggers, 3. 
mirror, 109, 122, 182. 
Slmurgh, a fabulous bird, 93, 95. 
Sindhi, applied to a sword, 13, 

101. 

Singing, methods of, xxv, xxxiv. 
Singing game, xxix, 184. 
Sirat, bridge of (approach to 

Paradise), 144, 145. 
Siris (Albizzia Lebbek), a tree, 39. 
Skull-caps worn by Hindus, 159. 
Slender-footed (i.e. effeminate), a 

nickname of the Lasharis, 25. 
</ Snake, legend of, 154. 

Snake watches over Pir Sohrl, 179. 
Snake's poison quivers in the cup, 

112. 

Snow of Mt. Dragal, 66. 
Snow of Mt. Ekbal, 130. 
Sol, a tree 10. See Prosopis Speci- 

gera. 

Solomon's seal, 131. 
Spears (bal, nezagh), 13, 14, 19, 25, 

32, 36, 84, 101. 
Staff produces water from the 

ground, 179. 



Stipagrostia plumosa, lonak grass, 

1 88. 

Stirrups, brazen, 14, 16, 32, 62, 88. 
Stornelll compared with dastanaghs, 

184. 

Sufi-ism, xxiv, xxv, 131. 
Surma (collyrium), applied to the 

eyes, 20, 117. 
Sword, epithets of, diamond-like 

37 ; lightning or thunderbolt, 37 ; 

38, 5i, 75 5 green or bright, 35 ; 

black-pointed, 44; jewel-like, 75; 

gold or silver-hilted, 13, 39, 45, 

59; Bajurl, 66, 75 5 Egyptian 

(MisrI, Mirzl), 19, 30, 7 1, 89 ; 

Indian (Hindi), 7, 10, 25, 37 ; 

Sindhi, 13, 101 ; ShirazT, 13, 167; 

Syrian or Damascus (Shami), 84 ; 

KhorasanI, 47. 

Tecoma Undulata (pharphugh), 

xxxv, 109. 
Thick-beards, a nickname of the 

Rinds, 21, 24. 
Thin-beards, a nickname of the 

Lasharis, 25. 
Thirty-years' war between Rinds 

and Lasharis, xxii, 16. 
Tigers, children of (mazar-potravan 
or sher-potravari), 62, 69, 70, 77. 
male tigers, 76. 
met by Muhammad, 158. 
(sher or mazar), name of 

Mazarl tribe, 54. 
tamed by 'All, 163. 
Titles. See Badshah, Jam, Khan, 

King, Malik, and Nawab. 
Trath (anabasis multiflora\ a 

salsolaceous plant, 188. 
Truth eulogized, 64, 88, 98. 
Tuba-tree, in Paradise. 

Underworld, the, 159. 






224 



General Index. 



Velvet (bakhmal), 100, 114. 
Verse, forms of, xxix. 
Vulture (khargaz), used as a name 
for women, 123; II. 124, 1. 88. 

Walnut-bark used to colour the 

lips, 125. 

Wars of Buledhi and Gorgezh, 40. 
miscellaneous tribes, xxii, 

58 f. 

Rinds and Dodais, 34. 
Lasharls, xix, 5, 9, 12, 

13, 15, 20. 
Turks, 32. 
Washing the head seven days after 

marriage, 52. 
Wasp-like waist, 132. 
Wasps, 151. 



Water, riddle on, 196. 
Watermelon turned into a head 

171. 
Waterpots borne on the head, a 

sign of servitude, 23, 24, 42, 177. 
Water wheels on bank of Indus, 

34- 

Wild-ass (gor), 37, 121. 
figs, 130. 
grapes, 130. 
pistachio (gwan), 121, 122, 

201. 
pomegranate, 130. 

Youth, praised and personified, 165. 
Youth, riddle on, 196. 

Zamur, a creeping plant, 126. 



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