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1, S, UD 6 BOND 8TBEET. 

leea. i.. 


r* * « • - 

• •/•••cAhiwwt, isaa. 

,.f •■ '. 

'" //■■■ ^ 



giniTAV Humait luiiuiaorr 



MAT. 1888. 


Mr Hu». 1>AVII> A. WKl.lA. 


FAKT m. 

<0N* i» Qozt naknd to tliv wooiid (assumed) co 
' ' .linconU-ut iif labor, nitmely: 

i'.irr ttr naturr of riuiJotfm^Us conso- 
riH (>/ WW viethod.1 — vtitchiin'ry or pro- 
ifrf AaPiP iftn/r<i to ItniHr tlu^ ijrailc of 
)rnc€, and rtalriet Ihv mentfll tlevrlop* 

I., '• biiVA bmn fn tbo tutture of uvil,<ra» not 
I : but tboy an not utrw iu duu-actor, nor aa extea- 
- ' " ' < < in poitularly )(ti|ip(»*wl. Subordi- 
tuLion t It] U mi nHwitilliU t^'lumunt iu ull 

•yalttiwtia**! ; und in not a fi>w I'lujiIoyiiKfiits and 

[,i...f.,.;..r..- „.. .^.i.itnry anil nHval lifi>, luiii iu nnvigatloQ 

k— nn aliiKHit aimjiU'ltt aurrvuder of the indt^ 
tl, uiid uii iinreoHouinK mct'hanical oom- 
< m, an- \X\v indispoamble coiiditiomt Tor 
ili'fp^H) o( snocflflsrol effort. In very many 
■ ! '- ' , '-■-., naation for Bubordination 
I till- rocogrujtion tlint saub 
y.iui'l uro tbt' nwMMwary anta- 
. : :]»• and motiultmy am donbtlMB 
t-iw alluvijit><d whttn thu oporatire con 
'iruty, ail' ' ' '' in 

.1 ill midi . ! "*• 

'. Lvuiini vl labor haa beoo vorriod to on uxtranw ; 



iw .i...(.— 1 


where the prodnct of the worker is never more tluui a traction' 

of any finishwl " whole," and where no greater demuul is QUtd< 

upon the brnia tliim that it shall seo that the lauMclos of 

arm, the hAnd, or tlie finger exei^ute movements at Rpecifio Mm 

and CTintiniioiisly in connection with machinerj*. there are fe 

^ HUch comiKnsatiuns or alleviations ; and the general rusult to ths 

HiDdtvidaal working under «uch conditions caa not> to say thi 

^^ leaift, be in the linv of uithur hoalthy mental or physicat duvido; 

ment. Happily, however, the number of industriee, in whi 

division of labor and its subordination to machinery haa been 

productive of such extreme results, is not very large; the ntaim- 

facture of boota and ahoeii by modem machine methods, in which 

overy finisht-d shoo is said to represent sixty-two distinct m«- 

■ oluiuical employmenttt or products, being perhaps the mu«t noto- 

Blilek And yet even hero tliero is not a little in way of oompeU' 

sating benefit lo bo credited to such ft system. Thus, for euuU' 

pie, it is stated that " the use of machinery has compelled 

omployi^ to apply themsi>lvi>« more closely to their work ; and, 

^ being paid by the piM%<, has enabled them to make better 

^B wages." Wh«n shoentaking was a handicraft, "Uie hours of 

" labor were very irregular; the workmen, who decidivi their own 

■ hotirsof tabor, worldng some days only a few hours, and then 
working far into the night for a few daya to make up for lost 
time. It was once customary for shoemakers (iu New England) 
U> work on an average fiftw-n hours a day ; " now the hours of 
lalxir in the shoo-fnctorifs aru not in excess of ten hours. It is 
also claimed tliat the introduction of the sewing-iiuicbinp into 
the manufacturo of boots and shoes has greatly increaswl tlin 

Popportunitiaa for the employment of women, at U-li^-r t&us of 
wagea. In tha manufacture of clothiug, which, tn routinti nnd 
inonot4>ny, is analogous to the manufacture of boot« nud ttlioea, 
it is generally mnceded that the influenro of the ^ewine-machinn 
luw been to increase wages, and that " notwithst-inding the con- 
stantly growing use of these uiacliinos, the uumln-r of vmployt^ 
^is greater tliun formerly, owing to Uio vnhirgunit'nt of thu 
■.bui^ness." * Furtiiermoro, the "coUwtivo work which odmlta 
11 of iK'injf '-arri'-d on by I'l ' -y prineipl" "' ' rinwion 

^ (if hiUir and by the hnn.. ■.■liter of lai, ■ "t I<er>- 

^■jthi under (inu roof and one control " does no) ut ]iri»iunt, in tbtt 
^■United StalDD, (cive ocruiHtliirn to muru Ibati onu in ten of alt who 
^Bfollow (^iiiful (K-i-ii|Httiipns iu the whiilH country ; whiln for thu 
^■■li t|al t'lemenlii of icciata continue, 

^HK<'' . -tid in indi^iduui . . i^ 'o and p<?r>toiuil 

^KiuintMl capacity ; and this experinnno of tliii UtUt*Ml Slatos will 
^Bprubalily And n paraltul In all otliur inimnfacturiiigcouiitrlcR. 



I Tho inipcnHMlMru of men by woidimi and young peroons in 
pixtito miuiufuctorteH, wliii-b (nii previously notioiLil) lias oo* 

B- ' 'n Buch iin t'xteiil iii New England that certain f<ictory 

l|. vu i-Himu to bv popularly iliwignatud lui " nhe-towiut," At 

ftr>L 1118 ili-iplomMv. But. on tW utbi-r himd, it is 

j»rtJii - - ■ I nuiwrs^iure has been mainly tlu' rt-Bull of «uch 

■ diminutiun of the severity of toil througb tb« improvements. 
Rt ' ' t flxicb a grt-ator division of labor couBequent 

I ij -is of production, a» have open«d up nuw op- 

I I !•_« I'or i-mployiueiit to women, by making it possible for 
' ti.. ... ;■. do (ui^ily work which, under old syHtemii, ruqairud the 

Ifrvatitr HtroDgtb and endurance of men ; chiUlrea, fur eumple, 
beiog able to !t]iin yarn on n " riiig^frAme," which men alone 
vliv al>l« to rio on u " Hpinning-mule." And, bowevor such 
■langi-ii may b>> regardetl from the Htaudpoiut of the mole oper- 
BttVfM, Lh« greatflr opp<irtunity afforded for continuous work at 
K^liirr wngi-tt thuu could bo rtutdily obtained in other occupa- 
RiuDii, in prolxibly not regarded by the women in tlie light of a 
b^fortiuiu. Experience al»o showH that the larger the Bcate 
^^Miich oipiUiliHtic production and distribution ia earriod on, 
^^^■^■1 it ran coonteuanco tbo petty devices fur Hwiuilling 
^H^^lbniig," and tho nogtwt and di»n-^ard of thL> hvalth, 
Kfc>ty, anil L*omforl of oporativivt, which bo frt^queutly charb 
■rlvrisu indtutriul eatvrprisuA on a small (tcalo; or, iu other 
^or da, tbit iii»iut<-nanci> of a high Htandard of industrial and 
^■sBiitrt^ial miirality in ctiming to t>e recognized by tho mnna- 
HHB' of nil great entorprises as a means of Having time and 
■voiding iroublv, and tbon^fore as an undoubted and impor* 
^■tt^tami'iit of profit. And it Ik to tb^^n* forta — ^the natural and 
HBBfer gr't^'th of vrhnt hii8 biiiu t4.'rmo<l thv " capitalistic tiya> 
Km" — tliat a n<ccnt Englirib writ«r on tho condition of tho 
^■■k-"-' '-swi*, birjrely attribute!* the suppression of the truck 
^^V' \a, ibi* enactment of laws limiting the hours of 

^^^b, tli>- iu:rininiiocac« iu tho exiHtuniN> and power of trade- 
^Hnin, and tbi* inorMwing attention to sanitary regulations; re- 
ftmis that havft mformml away the worst features of tlio con- 
■Mtti of lab' ' fXtAted thirty or forty yfant ago in Great 

^^Bwu.* TI : the conoem, the greater usually the steadi- 

Ewt of < K'nt. and th& mora Influential tho public opinion 

W tho t'lii,;- ,,. 

B Dr. Wumi^r Ijtemons. the celobratod Gemum scteatist and in- 
R ■ Berlin on " Science and tbe Labor 

lL;i^ :',w«»ity for extensive factories and 

^■JBMtioiM — infnlring large capitid and ao almost "ulavish" 
^PB^Iiii' ' ■- ' ''or — to Mwiiro tbo maximum ohrapnem in pro- 
I •"»■< 1 Uw WnrUnK OuH ia Rncteul I* IM4," 1.} Fraicrick EaglM. 





dnolion. " was due, to n yrwit extent, to tha yet imperfoct dovel- 

Bopmont of Uie art of practical metibaoica " ; aud that meobuii- 

Heal skill vril! ultimstdy effvct "a return to Uio 8y«tem (now 

y>^iD°"t I'^xlinct) uf imU'pifiiilmt, ttelC-mintaininK ilomiciliary 

labor " liy the introduction of ohAap, oompact, easily set up aiid 

operated lahor^aavint; tnac-binttry into the uualler workshops 

id the homes of the vorkingmon. Should the dilEculUoe now 

httendaat u[>ou tho tmusmi^ieu of electricity from {xtiats wbcro 

it csn be cbvnitty gtinorat«d, and its safo and eflfoctivo sukdtvb- 

. and dimtribtition ti» a motivo fon^e, be overcome (an it ia not 

aproboble they ultimately will be), thas doing away with thu 

leoeBsity of multiplying expensive tiud cumlxtrsome machiuory 

— etc<um-engin<.«, builurs, dams, ruMorvoirs, aud water-wheels^ 

j^for thu locttl guQbnition and applicatiou of mtichaiuiuil power, 

Btlieni can be no donht that moHt radical changes in the uao of 

^power for manofacturitig purposes will speedily follow, and that 

the anticipations of Dr. Siemens, as to the change in the relu- 

tiona of luachincry to itH operativoH, may ut no diittunt day bo 


The tJiird caum which lioa mpedidly operated in noent yean 
to-oooaaion disoontent on the part of la)>nr ha.i been undr>ubt4vUy 
AetnoTWim ^ w^^cnc^ or general itt/onnaiion on ihn /turl of 
Ote ma9M« in aU ryivilized eountriea. 

The beet definition, or rather stat^meot, of the easeatirti diffnr- 
enoe between a mitn aud au auiuukl that has ever bceu given is, 
that a ouu) has progressive wa»tt«, aud an animal has not. Un> 
]er tlio guidance of what in termed instinct, the auimal wants 
lie same haUitai and quantity and quality of food as itii |irognu)> 
>», and nothing mori'. And the more nearly man appn'iu'hwt 
. OMidltion to thv animal, the more limited is the dphure of hin 
rats, uul tJie greater his oontontment, A greattr supply of 
labber anil skins to tho Eaqmmnux, more " pulqw " to tho na- 
ive Mexican, to the Wi«it Indian negro a const^tiit supply of 
imH and ploiilains without ljtlM>r, mid the uliility U) )iuy five 
It herring for the same print' that he tiOH now to give for throe, 
roald, in nikch nuo. temfMimrily fill the cup of individual happi- 
naaa nearly to nr ^!lized men, tlKM-ontimt- 

joentand alaoxb.,. ,::ihorhoods in which the 

ipulatimi come little in eontnot with tho outer world Mid 

ivi.' little of diver- ' ' • i * • , V t - iro- 

rerhiiU. Now the ^'. en 

liade within lliu hu>t quurtirr of a cnntiiry lla^ y ilnnc 

wrv to ovurcfimi* tho Inertia, f"' ."iiii-" M.. i.r rhu' 

than all tlial Iuim heou hi' >>>u . 



rmcHv pfmRtimUil jUnioiit iiuiipiirablK obcitiiclw in the way of 

irwi butWM'n [Myiple tif ditfitrent riioiw, countries, 

' ' ■ tniuli- lliis uivilii:^! worlil, ilk it wcro, 

ry MK-ri>»i«L'd fni-ilify t.hiil iMiUTordtK) 

; of itittilliKi'tivo, or for|N>r>»oRuJ inoremeut, 

— .. ■juick rosi>onse in an uxtt-mlixl wmk The 

«Titi«^ ' i-f—lptU-'m and ennia— exdmnK>?(l ihrutigU 

' ' , ■ ■ ] lMitw<^D tlio ytwira 

I , ,, niitu)j(-r of p«o|ile 

tmuHpiirtnl on milraoilti itlnue (>xcim>i1h uvory yvMT rnuny 

I . . 1 - ...1.. -. t .1 . -iiiLry; tlici minimi nunitwr 

nj lUan sixtet!!) timeti Kn^aX- 
< r ilicite powurful hut nntom) 

^^^fe< OH. Tiller have AODtD to know more of what 

^HB^n a.<. niaelveo are capable 

^Bf . rirvl ' rwuied, not mnrely 

^Kj ' lit i|tiuiitiii"H «i (be tbingH lu which tbuy have ulwayit 

"' ■ 1, Im). wry nij»uy iirtii-lM and •orviow whivli 

Ltiviily riM'Kiit |M<riixl witm regarded as laxarieo, 
an- fixn li'iHul mid ilHiiianded as ne<^>fl- 

•iii. " A , .. : [i.fuuMl jiowdr of production and 

ion, and tlui comutqunnt red notion in tlie cosl of most com- 
moaiuin and inrvicmf, have abio work^xl for thu outiNfiu-tion of 
Ikav wnntK in >mch a deffnw tbnt a romploto revohitiim liao bc«n 
rilar' '^tnt yuirM in Ihn evnry-diiy lif*) of all 4;UisaM of 

ff" ■ •?-■■'■• '•■'"•''rial and pommurcittl ix)mitrio«. Let 

<> "n of oven tbi<>al>jt><:l poor uf Loo- 

d(*ii,a* dMMihUid iu nxx' K-utionx. with tlio comlition of 

lafaorarv u dw-: v writf-rH of fU'kuov>-liHl)^-d au- 

not mnni Uian forty ytMin ago,* and ho can not renist the 
loo that the v ' ' of Kn^Iaml are now tetter pro- 

fmr thftn won* r.. : her cummon Itiliuriug-niun nt 



..^ of tho uphpre of ono's BiirronndlnKB, and a 

ii-e with MiliKr nuts and tlieir pur)iuita.bavo long 

uMlui-tivi- 'if conlont.t Writing to bin 

. 11^), ThoMuu Ji<ff«nMi« llitut tronoiaely 

I nf iCrtnlMrml htwiiii In Kta*nl,aa4 Uip «!■«(■ «IuiiMiM,lBtW 

I Ktafitim. I'wr.j M tttj ^rar* tf>t m ikwrilivd bj Cailjle in Ua ' Pwl urf PlM- 

Md -tutor ttMnta*.***! k; wuthw MM rtUabte KnfitUh MllMrigr. Vr. W. T. 

,1a Ua -(^konwiMUUM muI U* KcMdy," vm n dtiOorabb IkuH bnin* 

I Uiai It vw taliUd. 

bdl)l)> [«r taMma^MlbM tMl«Mn Gnu Bfilate iixl Uiir TniUil ti«/UM 
■U bnw ■ knit (mUt I« ■MulonUe tl" rmvt [irufousLl ilteoaaiaia of 
T-^wJ : okl iwKlliol MiriJoBUk* H»d iWir ntMlaf laiul iqtWfB ht*n Wia MOf* talul' 
■U. I.. ih> trub t<MMi.i kiul (nWu. tUira ibt; kaia Imbu annbtei lu inn|Mn Uw to- 



ezpresscMl tlio ro«uIt8 of his own o1>M>rvation : "Travuling," 
says, " maktw men wiaer, bat lean Imppy. Wlieu men of aob«r 
age travel they gather loiowlo)]^, l)ul they are, aft«r all, subject 
\i» r«collL>clions mixed with rygret ; their affoctiuus are weakened 
by hoiii^ oxtviiilud over murv ubjocttt, and they Xnxiva. ni^w habits 
which can not Iw grntiflod when they rcturu home." Again, iw 
the former few and irini]>le requin^mentii of the mniittefl have ht^- 
como more varied and ciwrtly, the individual effort necessary for 
thu satiMfaction of the lattvr in uut relatively less, even under the 
new conditions of production, tliiut twforo, and in many instAncos 
^is possibly greater. Hence, notwithstanding the large advance 
^iu rticeut yean in the average rate's of wages, and tbeir increase<l 
pun'huuiug power, there is no less complaint than formerly of 
thocoMtof living; when (as M. Loroy-Boaulieu Itju pointod ont 
,n the case of France •) the foundation for the complaint Is for 
the most part to he found in the circumstance that a totally dif- 
forent stylo of living luw been adopted, and that Mciety luakua 
conformity with fiuuh difforont stylo » etandaixl of family ro- 

There is, therefore, nnquestionably in th«<w facts an explana- 
tion of what to many ha8 seemed one of the greatest puxzles of 
the times, namely, that with greater and increoaing abundaoco 
and cheapness of most desirable things, popular discontent witli 
the existing uconomic condition of affaire does not Mem to dimin- 
ish, but rather to groutly incruaso. And otit of suott discontent, 
which is not basod on anything akin U\ actual ami unavoidoblo 
poverty, has originated a feeling that the new conditions of 
almndance should be further equalized by Home other muthoda 
tlun intelligent individual effort, self-denial, and a imturul, pro- 
(frossivo material and social dovelopmunt,^ uud that thu sUito 

MlUtbM nnikr >Udi Ifcgr Itn iMn Urate whUh Ibdr npatriattd ttHev^oaiUpMH #»■ 
Joy elM«limv 

■ "The l^tt Ib the riko Dt OMRMdlllc*: H* Cuoa uid BSM," bf tiini;-IlMii> 
OfU. »e«inl«t/nMf«{(, Afr^, UtTT. 

t A« h li laiporUni (o inak* ciMt Uio full f«rM md mtvang at Ibo tan« "ttif. 
dMdal ''«oJ " nMunl pra^raMha imWiUI and *(kUI dcrtUpinnil," u ibi>*« mMl, Mt«n- 
Unn la Mknl lo tbo Mlowlns ooMliknalaM i Tbc liir«rtiptiMii Of Mr. AUilaMnt ahn* 
Uial «a lacnuM el flvt wnli* «onli of nialoiial eoaxtott per da^, for pr«Tj ila; Ik iba 
fwr, U tadi iBhaUtant at tlin I'liiiM MaM, voalil tttt«\n Ikt unoal |i«i>l«ctlun ui<l 
•qvlttbb dirtftbuiloa of inotr tluii tl.O0a,O0C^000 •orlli of ooouMdlU** ! In iha tuU 
MklfaU, llwrKrorr, nillonal prroaporll; aaJ •dtvnllf arr «H«*«nl)fc- ' • ti<v ftbkh 

I* MM tn mrrnot Ike t>rl<N uf • dallr Rlajuof Ihht; or, It Btami ' (noduH 

for Mill Inbttilun) muU 1m ailiUil la th« laplikl of llw mnUrj In p><w* «< Ui* Krmw f * 
tor Muli da; In Uw }f*r, aiwh a faar, b; m>tom of lu lamaMd uAannn anil nm of 
InOlThloal MttafullMM, mmU WH tm aOirr than moM pmfunmt. 

Ac«l«, the minmrttmrj and onnparatlf df ncaM m\iittiuif 1 " Iti" ii,<t of iMBapcn- 

tatlM W ouiaiMidlltM hj laarf aad oaivr (i* tlit ait ol ili* Vt - A omA IIuiIwhi 

> Riilriail. I--W <i(iiiii>l,t ffiHt. ■•. ai.nvu >if H II h*Ii |r< rnll* hi tMt lo 






eoold, if it would, make til) moij prosperous; aod therefore sliould, ^j 

in BoitJi' way not yot clearly tlt-finod by anybody, arbitrarily in- H 

bTx-i'uo ttoU uifeot it. And tills fixfling, so fur aa it aesumoii ^1 

iiU'UMS of idea and purpose, constitutw what ia ciiJlwl "bo- 

following iwMitional results— ludniitrial and aociAl — 
wiiich bavc bMw atti'iidaat upon the world's recent material 
pn)jrn»« an» nino worthy of conaJderation by all dosirons of 
fully com[>rrfht'iiding the present ecouumic sitaatioii, arid the 
iMitl' iie future. 

Kx. :..:■ 'J. IN ^S'AOBs. — The avetttge rate of wag*«, or the 
■hora which ihi* laborer ruceivoB of product, has within a com- 
pani^ ' <-<-oiit ponod,and in almoet all countries— certairdy 
in si . -X cotuitriea— greatly increased. The extent of this 

r.'oae Hinco I8&<), and even since 184)0, has tmdouhtodly ex- 
Lw.ii.-.! that of any pr«viou8 period of equal duration in tho 
vurlii'M history. 

Mr. GilTi-n i-lnims ag the rwult of his invcatigations for Great 
Bhiain. tlml. " ttie average monoy-wa^-s of thu working-classes 
\A the commnnity. loolcing at them in the muss, and compar- 
tnff tbo mass of /(Yt/ yoars ago with the mass at the preemt 

MA nf a r*M b IRRD), whlfh havf rtiliicwil lh<> |»trM oT cha vaimmaa arllciM <A food to 
itu x m tm rm Ma ib« #itc(il of rat>tuiitjall]r one half, did nol iDTotr* In tketr eaneoptlon and 
■an7(ag om u>t l-ta of iKMlblnK bninaoiljr ; but oo llw wnUuj thoa* ImoMcUatalT 
a iumi tfl Ib cfffotlng iho ImpcowiMiiU thai hat« led I0 MCh nmlU, Dtf ar wcmld har« 
•(mImI Ha raua lo ili« public, but <r«Ktd baire (onlralM trad naliMabcd ibcm U ibdr 
an praAl, had ib<7 tmn aU«. Bat, by iha font ofagmcfcaifcrt bavc been abort huniMi 
ommt, tliK} ha*e not oolj nai bMii abb ta do *», but bare been OotMtalMd to prompiljr 
WB*pl bMbiaat at cmiliiuaUr daonoiiiai; raua, a* a cnndiiiM of aaklBS ao; praflt tor 
rtMilw ahauiar. Aad ahat li irua «l ihe naalu o( impfovMWM* la tht tnuiapo^ 
Mlm tA prodiwta la tquallr tru« ol all MMbod* (er *eitamaMvi, and laHlluiini; thrir 
pnalaelbiL Thrfan alKaoMra Inoaacnat oaMral maTtrntni foroDulmuIljbcreailog 
and «pMlUlBj( alwiHlaDeo. 

* Ob tlib patet til* CoHinMsiwr of Ibo Burrau of tabor SutUttca of the Sui« of 

nawBCticM, tn Ua Tvpcrt fa* ISR!, if>Mh* a* follewi: "KM«H«r>' oasu baro mulll- 

flirf, (MhI aoalrly ilamtBdi ae nnMh la the •lyle ef G*b(t that Ibe laboring-mui Qoda It 

almoM iKflw— I M a i» lit* m f tj paela b ly dov M hb >a|pM u bla htbcr did Uiirtj -jxxr* 

4nKi Bpim bla. That b, aaciu hare not kept pace *ltl) tbe Inortaiang wasu and atyle 

•if Uttflf ilMMadad br *0'bf7. The labom think* ho mm a aldtr dlffernm b<M««(in 

A« ojlc Itt •birii bl> iini^li'ycT llm and ibc «•; lie I* eonifiellcd M ltv«, ihaa ciiited 

i_>._ Mn'.l".!* ani nn(>lu]rAf thirty jeara a^n. He tMiih) l^t lUl dltttr«Be« k 

■ iLji iiie jMii. Xa«, u a nian'i laenme l>, la ftnecal, mrtiftr^ bjr Ml 

i li'i>a, W caa Bill TMbl Ihc msdoikit that a laincr fbani of the proAUof baal> 

. ^ tu hta Mqil»;«T ihaa cnploTtn rtcelfed In (onoor jtan; tkat tba InevnMa of 

'<<ia bunaacd man rB]iUI; tlian tbaw^nof einfilojrte Tha labcrtos peo- 

illw to ibo fact lliat ■edtm fatrtaUoM and the like make lai^r Income* 

j^llil' an-] riitbt. "Ruif do nut owaplaln «t ibeM bt]^ IneofuM, hut titftj do beUere 

tamk fKitumiM) tbat iImj an nut rMtarl^ (hcb b'r <l>ai« of tba bentdli* oeaiferred 

w|Mi wolM; br Uitao larMilou and bboc-MTlm machiawb In tbb betbf Ibt the pdn- 

djal aaww «f UiKr oatvU." 




time, have increase*! very nearly 100 per cent* It is also oon- 
o«l«cl of this increaae in Qreat Britain, that by far tho larjcfst 
proportitju has occurred within the later y«!«r8 of this period, 
and \u\» Ixwn cuncnrront with the latfier introduction aurl lutu 
of nia«hiiiery. Thus the invesftigations of Sir Jnnies Caird 
(tbow that UtF- advance in the avera^ rate of wages for nf^^cult- 
Ural hkbor in England in tlie twenty-eight yeara between 18&0 
and l)it78 wiu 45 per cent greater than tho outiro advance that 
took jilaoe in the eighty years next preooding 1850i 

Mr. UifFen has aim called attention to an exceetlingly inter* 
exting and enconraging feature which lias attended the recent 
unprovement in nioney-wagee in Great Britain — and which 
^Kirohably finds corroHpondimc^) in oth<>r countries ; and that in, 
^Bhat Uio tendency of ihu M-onoinic clutngutt of the last llfty j'ean 
Hpiaa been not merely to augment the wages of the lowest claaa of 
^labor, but also to roduoo ia n marked degree the pr'>|><irtion of thin 
deacription of labor to the total vaaea — " its numbers having 
dimini!ihe<l on acoonnt of ui>onings for labor in other dirM'tionit. 
But thin diminution has at (he same time gone along with a 
Btendy improvemout in the condition of tlie most onskillMl labor- 
ers theniM'Ive-^" So that, if there had been no increoae whnt- 
iCver in the average money -wages of Great Britain in recent 
[yenni, the improvement in the general condition of the masses 
t that country " must have been enormous, for the simple nio- 
. that the population at tho liigbnr rat» of wages hna iocruosed 
lisproportioiuituly to the othera," Butallthiit is only another 

Hxray of proving tluit nuu'ihinory always saves or minimizee the 
lowest and crudest kinds of lalmr. One of the most interesting 
and uD<]ueetionably one of the most accurate iuvi ' co- 

_8lR-<^'ting the change in wagee sinoe 18S0, in the i ua- 

of Great Britain, was made in 1883 by Mr, (ieorge Ijord, 
'reeident of the Manchester (England) Chamber of Coumiuroe. 
lie reenlts 8howe<l that the percentage increase in the average 
rages paid in eleven of the leading indiistriLW of that city be- 
rtween IttfiO and 1883 wan 40 pt<r cent; the inomaae ranging 
from Vr'Xi per cent in mechanical oaginoeriDg (fittnrs and tnm* 
s) to 74"n per cent in thoc*u«iof oUw-r mwctuun ' i mv 

lium cotton spinning and weaving. In the L'i.< ^'- 

ionling to tho data nffonhyl by the cenwun returns for Jl.'MJ luid 
ItitiO, tho average wugra juid for the whole country iuoreoMd 






• llh •Utmnii n« %m vmM \ij Mr, QWm In llWa, In Mt tMngMBl adilna* a# 

of |-if|>al*r Inuradullii. Itm nvtirrtMe to tlio iMiia mbjMt lauollvrMr" > to 

itw Mm* wtlM; la ISM, Mr itilTia ww*fi« UiM tm^tm bi*artt|pitlinM •' < :• 

la Dg loMlttMlttin oliaiofn t«r wj ikalit* Uiat niir^ lurs twn tnlortilMJ •• m «<> ou^ 
I at Ui MMtUuM. 

Tns scoyoMW ootloos. 

Aroints th** (otorrnl "f tfn'Ko ywirii by SU'D per cent; or in li 

IMC tliiin w»H exporioDRud during Ills 
■■* or that diittrict of England of 
I u Uio (■(>ut«r. The fifiun« of tho 

I iif itiiocan not, how«\'cr, bo accejitod with 

A 'rt Afcriinilturol labor in the Uuit*^ Stat/w, thi> aswr- 

'■■<\ thiit. Idkin^ into n<T<nint th'i hourti 

iiiiil ll)t> ]iri(.y.-»i uf runitnoditit^fl, tli«> avcr- 

.' in l(X) i>4>rc<>nt bettor olT al tho pnwunt time 

irty op forty yinnt ago. In Mass«chuM.-tt« tho 

in iXw money- wn(;6H of thii* d<«cription of labor 

I IKSOmu A6 pi'r ceut. with lK>ard in additton. 

i<l 1846 tlwWMgw of agricultural labor in tho 

Ilk to almost tli» lowest points of tbe oentary, 

'< ' !iiiiiM of tlio Haasaohofletts Borean of 

' jul Vance in general wages in that 

fn>rn l^'-o to iHMit wno itS'Sfl per ifvnK. while tbe (.-oncliutions 

^'i '"i-viii an* iliat tlwvagMiof raivlumictt in Mjiesacbu- 

[HT (■•■lit mont in ISBfi than tliuy wore in IHCa 

T*kii)M tbi» «xp«ripDC« of the cititw of Ht. Paul mid Mtnneapo- 

!i» \f ii huAn, recent inventigationii aim hIiow a nmrketl increaae 

^;:Q wogtM of all doKcriptions of labor in the norlh- 

'^f tho Tnilod 8t«te«, cotnparing 18KG with 187S, 

■■ fmif In nil nulrond-worlc. the fact U> which 

11 rm a gnitifyioj; nwilt of recont 

.-,■>, ,j.. :.i ... . ... -. i:j ;.- mijipt'iiTft — naiuelv, l}iat the pro- 

pnrtiim nf men cfLmiug thii higbcHt ratus of wngns in tnticb 

I. or mon- Kkillitl workmen and 

: iVcly i'iiipl<iyi"l. 

A i'^ial tftntiNticH, publiobwl in the " Anuuaire stn- 

f '■ " - T 'Tin the ratfii of wngi* paid ia 

i mc-o in t«(inty-thn'<i Umdiitg in- 

\r-ai and lK8:t reitpectively, show that, 

, ..-..;.. J <-(l to, the iKlvanoo in avemgu wagw in 

. ■ 4.1 per rt'ol and In tho provinces 08 per wnt. the fig- 

' '" to ^,^(l7.'«''^ workmen out of a (otnl of 

to 111' otvupii'd in tbei«i< tndmitrii'fi by the 

IB i>f lti7U.t >!. YvM Qnyot, tho ominunt Fnuioh 



■ Jl tl M A* Mnw diM «nt ■ lluW •IgnlkiM ilul lb« COMinlMbMr at Om Hwm- 
iRhimii rf t^lmr r»<' VI liamvjKitMd In IIM. wilimauli at bkln- 

Ihal vhLla (niu. itt ••gui adtAiiMd mi >li iicn;^ li par nat 

I . iIm; iImAimiI ua Uw tranga la ItMMalniMilU iluriug iliv tama jwriud 

• r I ,. /I-. TIMrioMy ■nd btrfnitnof L>)>«r at llmsvMia Abrokd," b]r 

; ... - J' v.'7<.i^fti..U>iT^ MmMmI Bodily "l().ll-KI>«Maili«r. luM. 


TBS POPULAR sc/eyc£ MOXTirir. 

economist, is also Uh* authority for tlio tstBt«mt>nt tUat the aver- 
■fl ilnily wages of work-wonieii in Friuioo engaged in tho moiiu- 
atunt of <:lt>thiiiff, lace, embroid«rie>3, lanndry-work, aiid tho 
liko, iiicn-aMt] 'M pur c«Dt betWLM*D the years 1944 and 1872. In 
tho cotton-millti at HtiUiaaaeu, Qunuuny, thv rat«« ut iiici-uaso in 
wages between 1835 and 18S0 nuigu tKitwuun IX)iuid iM jfurcont, 
tho increase in the later years, aa in other countries, having bctm 
purticulurly uoticuablo, 

Accepting tho wage statistics of Prance (and they are ofB- 
cial), it would, therefore, uppwir tluit tlio ri»e of wagon in that 
untry during tho years abovu ruvivwtyl was gn.iator than was 
ix]wrienced in either England or the United StAt«8. 

One factor which haa undoubtedly oootributcd twmowbat to 
tho almost universal rine of wages daring the last quarter of 
the century has buea the immonsu progress that has beun modo 
in tho abolition of human slaver>' — ubnolute, an well as in it« 
moditioil forms of oerfdont and jieoiiagi! — which thirty years ago 
exLitiMl uiiimpair«d over no inconsiderable arttas of the earth's 
surface, and exerted a powerful influence for the degradation of 
labor and reduction of average wages to a minimum. 

Rklation oy Waqbs to Liviko.— All oouclusioiut as to tho 

offoct of ohimgtis in tlie ratwt of wage* in any country are. how- 

;«Ter, incomplete, unless accompauiod by data which i>onuit of a 

conversion of wages into living, and the^e, in the cano of tho 

Unit4^l Staten and for tlie peri<Ml from 1800 to MifS. have boen 

furniHhi>d by Mr. William M. Gnisvenor, thruugh a cjmiful 

tnbtihitiou of Uie prices of two hundrvd commiKlitiuH, embnuriug 

nearly nil those in common lue. From th(vit< comparisons it ap- 

p««n, Ibat, if the purchasing power of ime dolhu* in gold roiii in 

^May. IStK>, bit ukt^ii as tli© standard — or as one hundrod cent*' 

^Kporth— the corre«(M)nding purchaaing power of a like dollar in 

^Tho year ISM was WH per cent greater. The nrluuui in Mossa- 

1^ L'huwtlK in this Utler year, therefore, could either " have largely 

^k»i'"'^l tii<' standiml of his living, or, on the same stiuidnnl, iviuld 

^Kave tuivtvi itno third of hiH wages." Himtlar InveMtigutioiui in- 

^BUliitvd in Oi-vat BritJiiu (lutd which had Iwea before uotjovd) 

^Htidicnle t-orrc-'iioiidint; n-fviiltH. 

^H AnothtT i-(iii>duhiuii of Mr. Atkinson would also HMnn to ba 
^HirJipnlile of rurotravunlioD, namely: That thi* grually incroas4Ht 
^Bnnluct iit the flelds, foniilM, fai'tiirics. and miniui of lhi> Uuilicl 
^BtotMi which has ocnurrei] during the poriml from 18tlli to IH85 
^^^h: 'N>4<» moMtly coiuninHfl by thiMt who ] 'lie 

^Hm» tieonuM) they otmHtiluto ao large a pt' , nb- 

^■autially about nin44y per cant— of the whole number of par- 


K'. . ... 





Oiu Uoiiwl Stiibw. in Uid rtricteKt nioiiniiig of thc» words, lu-i', 
<1«^' -juli', iMXTuriQK I'l their own <i«o and eiij<>}*ment at) 

r> ' iin- in u i«tiiiMlUy Increasing product," • 

T ' t^f tlifi Bureau of IniluDtriitl StatiRticH of tlio StAta 

yi«r 1D87, aim) pro«ent« sumi- iiotable eviiUmc-u 
' ;acn«se in the porcboidiig powur uf vragcs ; and 
fw fch*t, toJcini; tbo t*xperienoe of A typicAl American fomiljr 
ildflvinfc tLoir UWug from manufacturing employ- 
% ImmIii, w> inucli of food could bv bouglit in 18t^ for 
I- w would havi» cost «!.:.*<) in 1883 luid »I.a<> in 1877; the 
. ttning uoiiily duo to riHliictionit in the prictH of flour, 
!>'««, friMh mwlK, lard, oil, and soap. 

' : tit-.; ' I till- British Association in I88fi by Mr. 

L I, I In HI' ii :>-' ill thti purcluunDg pownr of money 
mmiKlitit'K, and iu (]i<cn>aso in purchasing power as 
raipvrrin lii'ior in Knulnnd during the |M<riod rn>in li:480-'63 aa 
(iiimpar»H| wtib tin- ]H>ri'>d from IK-JI to IHlM, was thus illustrated 
i .riTrt and (|ui»ntitieB: Thua in i680-*»t3, 

: ;:- . . :.. :- > :;<,:.:<{ huvu bought OS mucll of grain OB lAi 

nuita could liavo doDu in I8SI-'48; but, iu respect to tabor, it 
*■ ' ■ iinitji of luonoy to have bought uBmucTi 

I il ill IK-Jl-'-bH. In ruspect to cattle, the 
iig powxr of nioiiK)' had docrBaHnl in the ratio of 'AVi in 
■•'•' in the fornitT pi-rirxl; but since 1879 the cantass 
..w notably diK^linml m Eugluud: inferior t>W!f 
lull iimrkut to the* oxtitnt of 43 jmt cunt (in 1885- 'tt'i) ; 
, ..-I porci>Ht; pork. St:! pcrci^nt; middling mutton, 37 
It bi nhw ondoubtfclly true, as Mr. John Bright has 
■ ' ' ii»I. in common with milk and but- 
. high pricuH in England, " bocauw 
", by ti. '>f faniilteo, now tiat miiUt M-ho formerly 

' ' '• ' tiiir iniiM)rb!> of theut ortiolus ore not 

riort* uimiiTii)* rate." 
iirnl to this discussion, which has 

- icnlion of studonta of social science 

id and Frana», has altto biHin raudu a matter of oommoot 

' 'hit Dorthwwitcm t7nit<?«l 8tatf«, espetrinlly in St. 

'! . -tpoliii, and in probably applicable to ull other 

■1 i-ountry ; and that Is, that expenditurus for rent 

' ul a much larger itom in the living expenses of 

I ever befnn*. luid for the reason that people are do 

-•tra of hnnsps as formt.'riy ; 
^o-colled tniMlwru iniprovo- 
^nd watiir and bettor warming, ventilating, and soui- 
::>' iiU^whirh must bo paid for. 
^itZui," i>A7. t ("itr Ul Urn La«doti "Tlttoi." Kav«nl»r, IB' 


pw Ollll. 

1 ' 







^B Rbditctiox IX THK HouRfl OP Labor. — Conourmitljr irith 

^PUie general increase in recent veani in the amount and puruluu- 

^^ing (jwww of muufy-n-ogei) throughout the civiiizeJ wurld, the 

huiin^ i^ir Intxtr Imvu tMwn ulw g«aorally rtKlucitl. In tho oatn of 

Great Britain, Mr. Gifr«D in of the opinion thnt the rwlutitiun 

during the laat tifty years in the textile, house-build ins, and on- 

ginifhitK trades has bum ut Utast 20 pi<r cent^ and tluit the Brit- 

inh worlcnian now guto from 51) to lou per cunt more mouuy for 

^JO per cent lees work. 

^V In the United States, the datn afforded by the censrui reinnu 
^^Of 1K80 indicato that in 1830, 81'! per cent of the recipientii of 

»n-giilnr Willi's worki'4 in uxcuw of ten hours per day ; l)ut for 
ItitiO, tho numlier so working wan about id'h por cont lu 1830, 
ld'5 per cent worked in exc«M of thirt4>cn bouni; but iA 1880 this 
ntio bad been reduced to S'5. For tlie entire country the m<ut 
oommon number of boars constituting a day's labor in 1880 was 
Kten." V 

That the conclusionti of Ur. Oitfea reBpeotta^ the general H 
effect in Great Britain of tbo increase in Tragea and rednclion in ^ 
the hours of labor, as above stated, find a oorreepondEmoe in the 
United Htat«e, might, if space permitted, be shown by a gnrnt 
amount and variety of testimony. A single examplo — drawn 
from the experience of the lowest class of labor — is, however, ee- 
pecioMy worthy of i-t-oorrl. In 1M(», before the war, tb*.- aM-mgH 
amount of work oxi>(x;tv<l uf ^piodu-laborera on the wosIitii ilivin- 
uns of the Rrio Otnalt in the SULt« of New York, wan tivo cubic 
of earth excavation for oitch roan per day ; and for thb 
»rk the average wages were seventy-five cents jmr day. At the 
t«.'nt time lh«» avenvge daily excavation of i>ach man I'mploywl 
prc-citfely the Bsme kind of work, and on thu umio canal, Ik 

' Tha naalu of mi (n*MtlEitla« Ttcnil; iMt1iiUc<l b; ilift Pmukii OorornBaiil la 

moMqiiMM ei • dimwiul nii4« tor m ■bMlcte imhibiiloa ot r>aniUj taliar Is biwIwM 

^■•KiqikllaM Ib thai ceuili?, have r«T(«M • cuii««t uiil >pp«ntitl7 «a imupMaed tarn- 

^MtdiBi of public MtMlmmt rm tka Mbjtd : Thw rmm Mimi «Ualat<d (nai tlilrt7 out tt 

^BMnj4h« [wwrii ifl M or ie^munM, oominiiig 400,1 AS nsnutmaMt\m$ MniilUinMnu tmi 

^pi4m,DVI*orta«a,it*M tMDdtkM»K*|Mr<«ninr Uii fwioriaa k*pii U •oik wHum. 

ik;, On tli« <iUif* tia>4 ilia Uf|t"r n<anbariiXilioniriiiiwD,or Olf,!' i n !)uid«r, 

Ai rtf^rl* mile lad lnin*piituilnn. Ii »•• fmmd lk»l In tmnxy ii . i (iiul of 

iMrlj flTi<), ii( I t;,3lA ntaUWuMBli of *«ii> noit m iMtW, ttvf\aj\c^ Sl^otil itmooa, 

17 pn mil «VT* ofwa iw hoidaf, aad ** p« rrvX «f lk« Mnpb>]4« voitifd do ihiU d**. 

A CUnaM at iliK pariMU nMuratlf mnai tolmwiij tn lb* mauiar— L a., I>i« tm\iUijtm— 

t^weA, liintBTn, Uiu atilr • mmpMsUtdj hmU a— ibar nra la fktnr af iha pnfMnl 

maaiiin. Hum, Tnr otamflfl, nl ttwM) mhm Mca fwMuliirt la tkf praal (*inoriM m aionis 

iHilj ill pM- iwnl n( d» mi|>law(« 4fn! in f. . a-M .7 l)ir i^IhIiIi.^p] *<it in fnf'r '-f lulaJ 

■■mkibhlML til Uie Nuallc n 

MmI 11 pn rail uf llu- rmtil \nt 

ml of ila roiji'' . ite i£rtil>7«n ■n4 II ya 

J«V>i »J ltd rrjil^l.i 




ithnxt and a half cubic farda, ot a vumpenaatinn of 

A. - '■■' - ■ -f -riPDces, in reepect to WAgftsouti 

hfitr. .i-ct that failiil tu ciUl attention 

i» tb<- tttcTt thut iliu lioUDtiU Irom BdraiiceA in the ouo ciwu, and 
rwluctiouM lu tbti uthur, buvo accrued mainly to ojierativoH in 
CHtoniMi iuid to nrtuiuu and Kkilled m«chamcs, and have boou 
in tho IflMt dogrvB. and largely mii ut ull. by employ^t^. 
boak-koepera. onpyU'tA. eti'., enfcaged in nivrcitnlilu and 
innrial (i)M<mU<iiui uihI twtiibliHhmetitJL The i-easoii of litis 
li nur ■'■- ■' • "hn impply of lliU lattw oIjism of labor bag 
Wa <-ly groalvr than that of thu former,, and 

matiuitully tcixln 1" 1h> in uxct>e« of domntii] ; ami, under tfurh cir- 
""»-*« "'•■-1 although thtt amount of diiscoutcnt may be, and un- 
dwbtMUjr i». v»ry i^nnl and well warranl«<l, tliu organized and 
■miwiwi Mcpnaidoa of it tinds littlo sympatby un tbo part of 
lh» pabltc 

Ttic qniwttnn lian baan oakiwl, Why is it that wage« of manual 
labor bavii IwHi eoostautly rixinic in recent yeara, while all other 
peioa* liavn boon eoncnrniiiily fallint; ? or, to put it differently, 
vby nt oVRr)' '" c-lu-dpeotng the )iroduct> 

.^Hicbeai" . .:.''. produces it ? Tbeanswor 

at lltA price of the [iroducta of tabor is not governed by the 
''' t >!- wa^ell, but that waged, or eamingR, are resnlta 
.I'l not oonditionii prooedent. Wageo, aa a role, 
out of pr««iu(;1. If prtHhiction Ih Mninll, no employer 
jwy hiwh wagw; but if,€»n thotMntrary. it itt large, 
I in tvniiN (»f labor in of low ouAt — wbidi coaditioua 
' itrtK-.turiMtio of till.! mi)dt>ru mvtliudjn of |irodQC- 
• r i)t not ouly eiiubif^d to pay high waKea, bnt 
'1 t4i do at), in onler to obtain what is resU; 
wnM of the moHt ufficlont) labor. The 
me to n-coj^nizu it, but it is nuviirthi<Io88 an 
' thd invnrijtblo concomitant of high wages 
■^ maf:Uiuury ia a low c<>»i of production 
I. In tho first of the roRults is to be 
I li for thi» <'o»(inna!Iy increasing tendency 

■; in tho mn-ond. nn explauatiou why tlio 
I lilt of labor by macbioory bos not bci'U generally more 
M- If, liinrfvvr, it bo n3Join(>il tlmt "the romjtnrativt 
,.f ...tti.ii. nnd wu(jlMi)>mill o|Hirativeft, aud of woiuon 
•*," and the )ik«, dona not nUAUiin the 
•inofltidn in jM'rtini»ot, Comparativo with 
\i and iii<i!i(T)L'ioot oa may I10 tho wageH of all thii 

l< '■■ never, in cotnpariiioa with utlior 






BOit. — While the remuneration of labor has enormously in- 
crDosMl during recent years, Hio return to cspitiU ban not beoD 
niiy wny imjiiurtiomtt«, nud is uppurvntly growing Bmaller and j 
Hmnlli^r. For this economic plienonienou thrtre ctin Iw but one 
general explanation; and that in, that regarding labor niid capi- 
tal as commodities, or better, as instrumentalities employed in 
the work of production and diBtrihution, rapital haa beoome 
relatively mort> ubuiiduut than lalxir, ami has aocuuiutat«d faster 
than it can be profitably inve»tt«d: and, iniu^ordnncu with tbei 
\iik.v of supply and demand, the compensntion for itit une— interact 
or profiUt — has ncxrcssarily declined ae conipaml u-ith the com- 
irntjon paid for labor.* 

One efficient cause uf this greater nbundanou of rapitnl is, that ' 

every new invention or discover)' prodttOM always fia much, and 

oflttu a much greater amount, of product on a lew amount of 

capital thuu was previouBly invested. The reHult of material 

progress is, therefore, to supplement the neiMl, or economize tho 

tue of capittti, and nt the itam« Ume fncroase it. For example, 

a first-claas iron freighting ftorew-stcamer cost in Great Britjiin, 

in 187!i-'ri,$lM) (i'lS) \>fir ton. In IKS? a hotter steamer, constructed 

of steel, fitted with triple <;ompound engines, with largely in- 

I creaseil carrying capacity, and consequent earning power, and 

capable of being worked at much leas expense, could havo bven 

1^ fumislied for $35 {£1) per ton. How rapidly capital liiui soon* h 

^knutatetl in recent yoai's under the new conditions of pnxluclion fl 

^'is indicated by the circumstance that, althongh most of the great V 

loauH which have been negotiated within the last twenty-five f 

I * Th« psdtlnB h*« brvu ukm, b; mmte Iii««Mlp)Mrt nA vilttn, that lb* Rmi 

■kdlac I* tba valiu of Mpllal— h* rvMon of kd latpalnnwl of iba aMUif of Ua mntn, 
I. e~, Ikrouitb ka* of dlvMmdi o* InvNimMiU uiA «f pfete In bain***, u pniAM* «a4 
CMMmo Ibc predoMi ol labot, Md • lUtvnlon nf cBplitl, from b«lt o( rivoMniUva In- 
<MB«.]rlel4laK idVMlncau, |M« («Uryiri>u* not nirc4(il Mill to omMJonliif »rar)wahi» 
Hon— hu b««B « priiiw uil pffhap* iIm> nais nhm ot all Ih* Mooonle dliluitiancn l> 
IMWAI jrani. IWl 10011 a tuMu. In toouKni otih loaa; otiwn, haa bm InMnunaiiul 

! In oMaaloolnit atikiM dktaibaacca, mmj nol be (|iwKio«(d ; b«l tbal Ua lalliwnoe baa noi 
bdon IM tMj araac ^Aatrj wooU aeeni erldtot, mbfli k la OMilikTed Uial ih* n wao n ■li]' 
iMplUl ba* tna w wed and «h«apcnod In Uiea« Uu«r ttv U, ihM ««BhfaHl. ilirouith a 

I hifn biM«{aiV« and bettor nw of Uio f«ne* a( N'*i<in>, baa bora MiaUW %o prodwn, and 
aKaalljr baa pmluncd, a far frmler abondance ol almmt all maWrtal Alnp (iir, b Mbtr 
w«rd*, a iftm*a abiindawo of <a|ii1al) iban at any fnrnMr prrlcxl of Uirlr hlalM^. C^]il> ^_ 
ul, *i itiK miijri. irrriiili imitrltHiud ut minli * dprtinp""''''' "^ '^'"^ '*" "'*■"' ^ <'■■* ^| 
Xaatern faMc, |i pnamiinnl iha toMBiaikm wliltti w\ iba nalml fiitcn at onr'. : *t»t ilm ^H 
WcnWtnl iMtaato aad woa«i|ww>l lni|ialnnan* la iW talurof nptial i>b> -uIi, ^| 

waMhlaWnnt aailrtp*i«l.aM4 Iha CMllniMil (irtifrmuaf wlikb riMiivnct-' < . Uia ^| 

lb" mdaHittt, now >«d ihamadiM fM^arlaM to thr<\.. Tb* aarlnc In iha oral af Ilia V 
frMBhl Mrml Mlltfi nlboaib of aratr moitrr. ■m'"'-"^'"-* I^'^^ *>>!' 1*40, aad aMonv H 
loft lllr qnantllln tn bora lown lnua|inli<d M i mIIiU » yra H iil ^| 

^V^iw nmr irweir* t\.^n i^ riHrrlfml --^^y -if i^ut nt^lf ^H 




jmr* haw t»«n for tho rcplncement of cnpit«] tinproductlvnly 
nM<l up, or BbwJlutcly Uwitiviyoit io "War or militAry operatioiw, 
ootw -' ' ■ tiiiK i\\n imniODfle amount of capital tliat lias 
l,w>T. .il 'Inriiip thesnme poriotl hy thu rpjilivcomout 

nil ■ on n«>w inventions, tin.' vncuum tliuii 

a««U' J : .u promptly tilled, but tlm comiwtitiou 

for tho privil»>}{o "f fumiitliing furUier eupplies of capital for 
■ntUar imrpoMw wiut uonr greator. 

AgMiiit iM eapiUtl uii*rc«HS ttnc] competition betwcun its ovn- 
mi% itst itn proAtJiblii invuntrnvnt beconiEw more intense, and as 
tuiwlfm niH.b(Blit <-jin bring uU tliu unemploypd capital of tlie 
■•tIiI within n frw boiini of tlio world'tt grv&i ouutvrs fur finan* 
dal mpply, tli" rat*' of )in>tli. or iiiturest to 1m obtjiiiii-d by the 
tartstUtr or li<ti<li-r, fmm thin aiuse, niso nccessiirily tends to 
riuink towanl a Riinlmum. Such a minimum will he reached 
" ■ ' ■' '■■r lh«* use of capital bcvome insufficient to 

. ! ■ Miivo it, tapfcially iu the form of its rep- 
[ < -iioy, and thiiti wM to the nvuilahle rcwr^-fcit hy 
- induHtriM r4ui bo irupiK>rt<^)d.'* And to xuch a 
1 tni-iji] world wreimi to Im' idwayH inuTtug )>y thu 

Ions* of l»wa wbttih no cximbinatioD of capitalists can nwist,* 

"t altb Biwrht nperimoM otn bcnSr imIIm Uia giru cImIIm 
. 1 1n iha ptin tad predM at MplikL Tinii, (bt tnrffi raM of 
- "« T«(fc, rUkMphte. OndBMtl, St. Look, uwl CU- 
f pn^Ho inaMslkni, tRm 1M4 M lHaa,vMlMptr 
' Mihiatod itiBt ilw ••trap nM el bUrMl «•> a 
«• ud bcMdt >t Uiu tkm boU ta Or«U Brilds, 
[toMi ti« iliu mnur^J^i bwulml uul Uv mlllhai ddlan, *«* kiwI 
•• all M Mno H* (*^ ^ ■ BtelnuRi. t'p (u INTI iht VtlUii SUIM htd sol 
%mm Bbia u adl uy r«**la« nf Iu huulMl >Mi, bcufaig * p«r «cni fold btmn b 
ftMifM* HMkM*, M Mnw M Ci»««lil« •• |*r la (old, tTbllrd tkatco BTo-tirtatf *• 
h^g qwM<d m ib« I/«dea turkt* la WO ta low m 074, TV hllovlng 1« * trin- 
Md^ «r tlW pito* uf raftaw WMritb* m qmlal on iIm Loadm MArhvl In IHTI : G«r- 
—fhwiyiiiiiliMi nhlliiniliiM II [11 f iiiiiii, in PKD(bD>lleaddor«n«ca^HTi UumcIiH' 
• a^ «t ; a«ini^ l*. 1* : HiMxkli S ptr ecau, mumi bj • motIc^* ea Um cil» 
^■MtilTKNafaiM of X** iluiaiUti, In MUaUoo to 1^ faith of th* Com r atttW. 
*- .- t TT: littll«a«p0 onU, tKnirwl bra pledirrnf ib« Mai* rnnw* fren lebteoo. 
Jt|nMM«t>«rmnia,IWi Fuiuun lUUroadTpar orMfmml mwlf^gt, Mi Hlelii. 
pB I BMral Ulraad, Bnt-mmiKifB •InUnnfuad, K p« otM, U ; rannarlrtnU Raltraad 
• ^•MlpaMnl HDTipc* tiUrllnit), SI. To^ajr the OntnamtKiM af (imi Brtialn 
«■< •• Cnlud tkMM MB nNiUl; borra* Mcwjr u If p«r onl ; tH Dntt-dan r>Uro«id 
• tttfm (art ] «WU mUltaat of mntf km btm kiMd In rtwat fe*n on 
wnriij In ib> Talird Hut« lor 4 per nw. «Bd la flrtai IMialn (or S per 

^tf. tft fi J tin Karbrt rai* of iliboam for a cniMUcrabb pMkd In 1U7 we* a* 

tw (nw 1 1 tat I par a*t Knt MUT j«m *«<> 1^ cwtmnarT m* of InwnM dlawnl 
Ip *• Mih^iliiali uit tnM Mwpaala of 1fc« noiml Aalco ««• « p«r nM ; no* Ibo 
timm Iw (kr ibm( pan paj bn 4. unI iha mul oaaipa«k> but I to 5 paroMt. IWlUk 
^^ iB KavMBliV, )«1, iwkltntWUnalof «Vl*rMim«hnioIth«'b(it(<M>ml' 
wai iiJIirMil Maikt at Onoit IMiata Ma« na« miini *■ mucli •■ 1 |<rr rani on tliirir 
rkti ptiM. Tl* dltM*»4* of tho Inparlal OMr*iI>«^i) lliuik of (Mniauf JM_ 





To tliose who are the possessors of largv proportics, a gnula- 
tWy diminishing rate of retarn for the tuie of capital makes hut 
little differeucb su far as personal comforts are concerned ; Lut , 
to tlio noall caplttUititx the xteady reduction in iucumv which has I 
been exi>erieiic«<l in rucoiit years moiuu always tliitcoiufort, and 
often misery. A ntriking illustrabion of this, derived from actual 
oxponent'u, and citntiufjeat on a reduction by the Pruflslan Gov* 
emmeat of tbo iutun^t on its dubt to 3i and .1 per cent, ib thus 
given by a rowut corrcaponduut (ISB") of the London " E*;ou<>- 

"Tbia MdflcUon," ha mj*. "atriKlc % brnv; lilotr nt t]i« mM«iim of wUl 
mty bo oaUtd Ui* ■ caiddlo cUmm ' lo OtnuMtjr—tliat k Ui« grwt Diunber of 
people wbo own % cumU cdpilol inTMted tn taait, betiAtm uMT^iim oa tarn* 
imimn or liarinic mbi« other profeuloii, Tb« oonbiued teeomo from Imtli oa- 
abUd tbeai to lira In fair rtjlo, makinK botti md* bimC hj wny of MrofBllr 
regnlalod ozpendltan. Tbeee cbsew lure formed for orer Iwlf n ceRlurj the 
' baokUiDO ' or GorsiiiDj. Thof ore now gradnalljr dbtppettrliiK, tiwkfti|[ room 
Cor great wetUi on oao «U« end greM porertf oa tlie otiier." 

tDRCLiKK IN Land- Values.— Another iotereeling and curious 
feature of the existing economic condition — the direct ontcomf of 
the recent radical changes in the methods of production aiid dis- 
iribiilion— haa tx^n the dwline in the value of land over large 
areas of the earth's surface. Thus, in the caw of Groat Britain, 
while every other item of national wealth has shown an incrcuM) 
— oft<>ii most extraordinary— fljnoo 1840, the estimated value at 
Innd in the Unito<l Kingdom since that date baa besvily de- 
creased.* A similttT experience is also rejiortod as reeiwcts France, 

Ihe four jmx* tram 1M9 to UM InolMlf^ dedhwd O'BS per wnl, aod iIn araagi «f 
tfaepitTaMbMiksaf Otnnni7dwlngdwMIiwpvrlod,l'aup(roMl; all «[ wlikh daer^ 
IndiMlM tbu die t)«iikinc bwiacra of Onratn; li beoaning Ims and ItM proBuMcL 

• jUoDidii^ to Ui. HutlinU. Om Eaglkb *utMkfa>, Uw folloiriag Uble nUUla Um 
(kaagH tn ih* kaiSiig Imid* of it««Ufa Id Qtt*% Briuin (bios IMOi 

[OroHtltig «i]>liur«.] 


















1 'i'Wt ^ 








■ --•'•• 


la IHT Um pfiiiUil 
N«t an Ibotm* •hinii 

lilUfldom «aa M/KKSOWf In iMl, tt 

: lUF Ewnoa III mi 




*r** :■ 





*IU 1 


Ucrmatiy,* ani) Purtu^. lii tfau latt^T voiinlry, tlio owners and 
< -H ttf Lli» Mtil iHX'm tu Iw in a remorkalily unfurLuimte 

e"nui>.»-ii- Tlin Pi(rl.umiiinH fanrnjr, dtt^pitu Iioa\-y protective 
4ati«B, Siulk hinuHilf unHtiln lu flnct'oesfully coi)t«n>) with the in* 
-lilH, itmnily from the Uuitwl HcdIvh. The 
mvrly lluuriiiliuig. is so no Ioii;{er, throujjh 
lvo um! of Atnuricntt tfottun-soed oil lu a sobsti- 
Tiiiiml for PortUKUese wiaes, which fur a time 
I ).i- luwl \ititu){t'» of Fronce, is boin;; iiiip»iri>d, 
itvmii n-ith (histnictioii, by the coiilinually iu- 
. >j lU thii tVciich markets of cheupvr and more 
■ fur mixing })ur()0!u.>t} from CiUifuruiu, tho Cnpu of 
' truliii. lu lul'litiim, tbt' t'opiMT-niiin'i^ of 
'1 •fvwrply in rocciit yei»rfl fmm tliecliwipor 
>f Ainiirinui uoppor. In the Canary lalands, wbnru the 
' .ml ft-rtilit. niid tho vugotuHou uf both the 

ziiiH-H ttoiirixhtvi in gnitt Itixurinnoe, the 
Uad qiMMtitin hiu aIk) Itocomo of a* much iiiiiHirtanoo and uin- 

Urm— ' "- ''1 li«w favortjd coimtriee. Tim former great re. 

Biu> 'ry of lliow UUuuln was wine, " canary " ; but 

tUa, I '~ the vintM, hoa become of little account. 

TIUsi I'ly funiiiihcd (ho world with u \ax^ 

y «r oochutoal, for the production of which thoy hiivo »]m- 
oaj iulvanU4i;«<c; but rriui'i\ through the diHcovory and uso of 
anflinf* «!*"•, (■•xOiim-al. which wm* once worth $1.75 (7*.)t W'H 
:> I'fDtd (xi.x)M>iH'o), thin imlu^itry has l>ecome 

tJ .-, iiImi, a compantttvi'ly extviiiuve iixi>ort of 

p ntm llii-Mi> iMlumlo to tho S|mniuli Wmt Indies ix dimin- 

-lion of lli<< luniii) vi>^eta))le 
fr i» KoOinH Lo \w iiotliiii^ U'ft 

for Utt> liu)d pr«>pr)(<t<>r« and cuUivatom in thiA locality to do, ex- 
onfit to rvwjrr ' '' < thod. Hit much in favor nt thn proABut 
ltm«, 'if ♦«»!'. f'lr thf'ir mutual lH>nitfitt Ovir large 

I ' liitidti, ^rrnt <iuiintitif-tt of excdhml 

L — _ . „ . ; UK n^ardd facility of comniuuica- 

tiitii with ollwr fiutitriiift, under excpptionitlly hvtfiltby dimntio 
r- rtd much of whifh luu* Ihi-ii formerly undi^r hitch 

c . aim Imwu uliMituU'ly alMtiidoiioti, or i.i in Uic rupid 

•Owb( Ik* Ih«M ludkHiaa* nr AoMHuKtlMla ihu* TMrnDf DiF««««RlUmMir: 
* k tmf T^n afu wf "■*•!» •JmiUnl of (h« proflnliU oolUtklWu vt wlMtl i )ral tht 
r»m rf vlHMt, ihnNth Um o^peilUiB *iq>plla> ot lb« t'uliol Mmii, uid la tptte nt 
^tk pK^^Mr* diolM M turn "wl Is •Wf4 ■• ottwit lliat Ifc* i.nilil*kilun ■• ■» 

^^la yndulila. Th> miui 'i nutrn Ui Iht JoOMMh lAuxrlu) growing of 

^^ l«lvHr. Uv HWMnflMiwM «f Um Iim« wm a*BU protmllua, tn Ihe ^T«Blfa« ot 
taa^M l7(k>«IM*t<BM*»|iaratln f»>d**MU vnrartuaU; to' Ulwrniul pinvtJn^ 
mm0^n. iMi KOwnatoahuiai iifteiUMT tjrtvm, •bloli l*BMlMi|lr•ta1ll•• 


progress of aljandoDtnent, In the United States, tho decline in 
tJie vaiu« uf Ittnd hiw, iu many instance^ boon oXm ti'ry uotablii. 
In the Netr Etiglaiid States nt tho present time, agriculi.uni 
land, not remote from large oeoters of population, can oft«» 
bought for a smaller price than lifty years ago would havt* l>Pen' 
re^rded ad a fair appraisal, and oven leas than the cost of the 
buildingH and walls at present upon it. Since the last decennial 
appraisal of nml «etato in Ohio {in ISSO) "there ba« beon a huavy 
decline. Farm projiorly is from :^S to SU per cout choapor to^lny 
than it then was."* " In the t«a cotton States, tho value of ugri- 
cultural land was in ISlX) «l,-t7t$,000/X)0; in 1K90, •1,019/»(»,000, 
decruasu of (450,OOO,O00. It would require an addition of 45 
cent of its vuiitL* in IHHO to raise it to its vuluu in 1800." MtMUi' 
while, the population uf these same Stiitiw hiu incn>Jut(Hl 63 pur, 
cent. " In Igeo, the value per acre of improved land in Qeorj 
I wu 96; in 1880, bvlow M..'iO ; dnrreaee, $2.A0. Were the agricul 
1 urol laud divid<xl out among the people, the value pur tiuudj 
M would have beau: in 1860, $160; in 1686, t03; dacroaw, t^r." t 

f^ lafll (1 


In the foreftuing seriee of papers an attem))t has been made I 
out and exhibit in somothiiig like regular order the caue 
the extent of thti industrial and social changes and aocom'^ 
ponying di8turhan(;«« which have especially characlerizod th< 
last fifteen or twenty-five years of the world's hiMUiry, Tho idc 
ailopli^l at the ont.-«et, and an ndhoi'euco tit which hat Huhn»'.j 
quently been kept constantly in view, has b«m to relate slmpl] 
but compreheusiyely what has happened, and thus pi-vitare tb< 
way for a solution of tho many problomB of interest and impor 
lAnoe which are tho outcomo of the Kit nation, ratlier than atteini 
the more difficult and to some extent (at present) impossiblo 1 
o( directly formulating and offering satisfactory answers or 
phuiations. At the same lime the presentation of whatever 
tJie way of deduction from the record of L<x[>i<nt.'n<;e hn* seemo 
legitimate and likt'ly to aid in t1ii> dt<termination of torrect con* 
elusions hiM not bwa di8ri*gar(ltHl, and with a view of furlhur^ 
contributing to mch rosult« Uie following additional oonsidom-H 
I tions are finally mibmitlc^l : " 

I It seems clmr thai tho firtit and most enwutlal thing for 
thwHi who are dasircnu of determining tho extent uf the o\ 
which the recent t-conomic <liHturhimceH luive - i : ■ ' 
what courwo of protmlurc on tho juvrt of souii't) 
I ia Ukoly to prove most rome<lial of tliom. Is lo unduavuf iu 

• ■' Iniupinil ,\<Urrw nf n«T«n«r Pwr«li«r." tmaut, IBI?. 
f nf-.rt aA ■ (uaiiBtllvB of dUanu »t iW tea o»iMni«r«iritij| SMa*("8Ma " Umd* 
)«[ ■. IrauiV'Oatba OMM>ti( Ui> DqnMpO OcomIMm nf ApliMltU'*, *wi' 





l.p*iin.t tl.r. .;niAi;,.t. iM itu mUrviy; and that effort \» likely lo 
'■ >l and iHjiturhiuice inteaRifietl tiy a]l diixrus. 

»:. rttnrt fmm miy otlior baeie. In factvonw of 

II.' ■• r-...\ 11J8 of llip flituation Iias bwn the tendency 

of many of tlio bout uf cum in nil conntries to rush, ns it were, 

{•■ " '- - ' ', niipallwl hy Bomo of the revelations which txo- 

f <n» nvcrywlmro wvoal, and with the emotional 

\u n<-ir iKT<x'{>tiv« and rcuLSoning facul- 

ii. . - , ;i;im ia n failure, or that somothing 

i>iu{bt iTniDitliiituly Ui bo done, and more especially by the Htato, 
vilhfml I. i-Ii>itr nr di'Huito ideu of what can be done, or 

irilh »ny iiiilcri'il niid pnurtioiil method of doing. The 

patfillun of tho Itiiininn iiovoHfil Tolstoi, before noticed, is a cam 
ID point. Thi; iliiifroio'inM ])ictun< of what the world 1ms come 
indarioic tbt* liftv ymrwof the rciifii of Qu(>Qn Victoria, us drawn 
1 ■■■! Ti'imyfuin in ' " Locki*luy Hall." and which 

M ' . . :-tono luw m> inii>r ■ roviowed itnd elTeclually dis- 

pruwJ. ia aouthur. On the other hand, it may be oonGdenUy 
•Mvr<< ' ' ijiiive view of the situation will show 

tiat 1. M rocent ecoiiomie rhanges or dtfitnrb- 

taom ous \w rili"), whii-h Iibm not been attended with much in 

\\-^ of alloviatiim or coniiienBation, the comparison being 

t' Ddividiiala and ohmiw luid society as a whole. Thua, 

tW fM-'tk in n'lntiim to the wage* earned by the poor men mid 
«tv>«m who work for the Mlltmi of cheap ctothinj^. and who 
•-TU Ut be nnAblo to find any more remunerative ocoupntions, 
»n» kndfi"' ' ' '■!(. if clothw wore not thus made cheap, 
amy tr" <l far more poorly than they now are, or 

peiHi' it alL It in not the rich man who buy's "ulop" 

f—'- ' ' >>ut the man who, if he could not be thuti sup- 

( .iraed or without them. If the decline in iJUo 

I - ' < . vuiuo (jf unililu land baa forced many 

wL., I |iurfitit« out of employment, there 

novrr wan a tinio in the hintory of the world when the mass of 
miinkind was f*«l to olmndautly and M cbi-aply as at pr«eent. 
If t>tt' •t'Tltne in the ntea of inuinwt on capital has been a sore 
£ to the small cnpitaltiitii, a re<luction in the rate of In- 

, -. ;ov.,-(«t property menna in the final analyais that 

t! >i» than it baa before for the use of its ma- 

f ' ' w ubtAJainK a " l»r);iT" and capital a 

inpensation paiil for prtxlurlioti. 
>ti9>trit>ution of wealth aeums to many to 
' ■ ' " '.il evils. But, great na may Imi 
tt K'h a condition of thingx, the 

(' »f wi-uJtb would undoubtedly 

1 „,_», ^ :_... L.'i.-^ _;, :u with one's condition 10 the 


. in-V 



motive power of all IiuiiUin prognwH,* nod tliara u no such 
oentive for individual exortion u tlio ApprehennoD of pr08[ieot- 
ive want, "If everyliody was content wiUi his sihiation, or if 
ovurytxxly bcliuved tliat no impi-ovement of his ouiidition wius 
iwwibic, the 8tat« of the world would bo that of torpor." or vvvn 
worse, for society ig bu constilutvd thitt it cun not for any lutigtli 
of time remain stationary, and, if it does not contiuuolly ad- 
vance, it 18 sure to retrojirradat 

It vi a mutter of regrijt tliat those who dechum most loudly 
against tho inoquolitiue in tho distribution of wualth, and are 
reedy with sotLem«e fur the more "tniuol diviidou of muKiuol 
earning" aa remedJee agoiust milTeriug, are Uie ones who sotmi 
to havt) tlio least appreciation of tlie positive fart, that most of 
the suffering which Iho human race endures is the retiult of 
eauMB which are outirely within tho province of individual 
human nature to prevent, and thai, (bi.-i-<.-fui-e, reformation of the 
individual is eomothiug more ini{>orUuit tlmn Uio reforuiatiun of 

To understand the problem of poverty, as it at prenent ex- 
Uibite itself, espwiiolly with refereui-o to remedial offucte, it is ne- 
oeeaary to look at it comprehonvively from two difTemtit HtniiJ- 
points. Viewed from the standjioitit of twpiity or twenty-five 
years ago, or before what maj be tenned the advent of the " ma- 

* "ThD InoMWiTM of twagrem wt Ui« dMftrat hhcrooi In hnniMi mMm— «)ia dttirt (o 
f^raiify Ibo nmb «f lb( mIom) Mlnro. llM woMi of ih* latoUiclul D«tur«, uui the mnb 
of llw *j«i|ialIiFlfc Mtun — rfmrm iImI, thort of Inflnllj, cu ncrvr be otlaBod, u ikfj 
grav b7 what \hey ftail uti." — llutar ntdaa*. 

t n* conBttoni »hMt •!« Miiintllx ImbediM, m h ■nn, \a \uiem» MUnr, ud 
«liMi *u ^wt Iba rMllautcB of Uw Um of m uIiUmm ofiuUtjr la ib« dUiribinlcn 
M pniliilim «f npiut, Im«w boM Uioi oliMrij mhI brcHilj pAluMl mi I>t Mr. Gwir|{* 
B*dm FamU in bb " Km Bomta tor Iha OU OMM17," publUliod b 1673 Uur ■ 
V> AnMmlU ud .Va« SCndud [ "Blwwlba antnl of mu In (lit world Ihtn liivo limi 
INfpoM*) iiuMtlniilni;* m M «hj *l) nun or* not atll olT ^"hi *h«dd (bt pmJ tblngi 
of iM* Ufa b« M unoi|Mll7 dlxirtbvWil ? Tbo iwu fpM mum*, dm m powwful u tint 
oUiar, M* HrmtmHtmn* and talMti Hul itioM t<ro op|m>llir niUM all tbraugb mii'* Itflfl 
tnlliMoot ach oUmt Kr«ulr. ('iKunxutno-t call (orih )iiKHl)ar Ulonto *bkh ntsM iXhvr-' 
wli* be tMimdj ibiraiuit, uxl Ulmu ntuni uk* ■4nuiU([* of pMulltr drvanuUuoM 
wlikh inl^lit oikwwUo b* ofartooknd iii'l mUMxI. U U by nu mnMi lnit'n>l>oMi- tlial m 
iha oorM KTOvii «la«* Mn* nuwit 1HII bo fouliil ei o»n<l<l«nblf ntWng Uw lowni iti^i 
«r ozUMm, b«l U (> fMifWji iv«i<u< Ur iMfiiiv a/ Mngt iKm aff *W*M &> tyM^ in 
viV. lanaH piMo omtlnoMllr nt]taa num M Mirii Ibu whMi h abovD lfcf«, ud In 
hanilnoH In lUo h iIm bwt* RaUnil uf ntk neepMln iivim. TIm ammU*! tnla U l< 
work rnv't ntn rimimauuto* M tb« bl a fcit petni «iiiala>bfe h; mmm irf Ui« tkl»«iU 
■Mwd. Theu ulonu IM7 bd mIiI M iwelTa Ifc wul T w Iniu tartoM (apMAb, and a osi* 
nnj haro mjiIuI fo» ikn tmpranmnM <if bta oovdUbw bi llw f""" "f •■«•», bralt-. <» 
liMlUi aad (IrMHtib— In fMt. Iw may Uirlrr b^ iha ;uaM*'i 
Unld, of ika nlMl, iir of Ilia budr- Wlih UiU fultf ii > n p iU- 

I, \\ onnM wnn iiIitIomI; imponiUt fvr n fftf^t M nmdmv uniy hi iir Awnw*'/ 
/^mmtmim ■>/ ffant p-^raal aiUn» in any MfHter." 



thbory ppoch," thoro is no cndonco that the nggrogato of 
pomrtr in tho trorld in incrensing, hut mucli that proves to tbo 
f ■'■■ Darked prolongation of Jmniftn lifi-, or the ilo- 

<: <ihg«dost>b-nite in all cotiittrie« of high civiliza> 

tho rw:ognJwMl largo incroaso in such coontriee in the per 

■ I *i''n of hU foo(l-prodiict«; imd the further fMt 

in tra<l« and industry, rjUainitous lU) thoy still 
an, »i-t» I'-nf ill n-ceot timra than thoy iit^ed to be, and Xinm di»- 
■trouM rm thtf whiilu in Ihtir (sffect^ on the masses, are absolutely 
(QOcltudvo oa this poiot. Oroat as baa been tbo doprcsuion of 
ttOTtntwi liiWfi 1873, tbi^n^ 1.1 no evi(l«nrf< that it has yet made any 
iw rn't' swl on on the "etoreil irmlth" of the people of the great 
<' ml (vtuntrif^; and thut, alovr as is the acoumuiation of 

c, year pmbubly now never pssxcs in which Bom© «ddi- 

ttoo in not niitdo to lht> pre\'ion8 ituin of the world's material re> 
■KtroM. The rwo^rnixivi t^indenry of thi* i>oor to crowd more 
uul morn into tho gn^at centwR of population — drawn Ihither, 
n 'l]y, in no amitll part by the (juiritie«i which are there 

■pcciuliy In be fonnd, and aI»o by tbo fact that town latwr is 
WUorpuid than i-(>uiitr>' Iiibiir — and the contrasts of eooial con* 
dHluna, which oxhtbit then).ielveA more strikingly at such cen- 
ton tiian idBowhero, naturally cause popular obeervittton of pov- 
crty In continually center, ad it were, at ita focns of greutettt 
tatao.' : :itea impH'ssiona and induoiw conclusions that 

\>Trirv' i» ity»temati2«d inspections often fail to mib- 

* Indcul, one thing which the public needs to recog- 

II ' "- 'han it Avts ).s, that in most of the leading na- 
!, and rigid investigatiooH, in rcspoct to most 

jwUt and queationa, hav« now been prooxiuted for 
' p(trti)d by govemmont» aixl individuals; thut the 

III I conclnxlons doducible therefrom in respect to mor- 
laUly, LuuJLli, wagcut, prices, panperism, population, and the like, 

* A ^fMr f rmn th« kocm ciperioice at the «il7 of Braofcljn, K«w Torli, ia rwpMl 
r- |M«ipafl(m. affnnb > my Wrikiof; Illaairalinn at thi* aUkBCBt In Uio fita grsan (ran 
l«t« \i- '■ '■ . ^t\Tp,thu tiiHBb«rDl iMfwnNoho uktd •nd fMKfrtd ouuUa poor nIM 
turn U. TtilM InenaMl mora (haa Ml p«t omt, akila ibe !■«•■■• (a tha popi^ 
lUUa nl tK- nxj lining (he atnia period •«• I*m linn 14 par cant. Tbc avidsuv *«ii1^ 
ttuwrfw. atauiii aMin condattra that Uw tnaMea of this cii* nra tapidl; baoeanlBK 
pMnv bmI jmarm. la tha Uticr jrou, hovewar, ihc tptam o( p^ng ouutda poor tttitt 
W vfcoll} 4lM>oiii|Banl, I* on" frarad bj mnuj ib«i Uiia >Mle« «ouU ImJ to |crtai 
<« f i ami Rillrrln^, l^ rtfable penm Baik p«vfamlk«M U nnrt th* itcmaadi 
Atj nffuA trnal.t I" >ii Ikeni. KatUng of dia Und oenmid. Xo( ont; 
«aa Dm «linl« n<iMlM<r < lo/v,! i >iraviaf; aid fMm ika maul)' wlioUr Hopped, bat It wu 
•lBiUvn'^'t>ii>1'.t Iir *diKn>aM>dilnnuidantlMpnblloln«ihMlaiiiud ptlnw nIM aocb- 
Um <rf > * mliKilnn b Ihc Hmbcr «r lniti»t«i la Um ahnaliODio. Tlie tcaoU- 
tw r./ ..ff nUdi ha* «ltua bean olwwhcra anhalulkud, k, tbanfofc, to iho 
lin BDiDbukahln pm-ifi o( IncrMilng poran; iroi« OMraJ; aatb- 
,...1 oa tbt S>1m from awiilica n ej. 




are not opoa to an^Iiing like reasooablo doubt or siuipicion : 
Aiid also tbat tbe peHimifltio viowa which nuuiy eat^rtaiu as to 
the future of humanity are often directly due to the exiMMnire of 
bad Bocial coiiditiniiR whir:!! have been niade in course of these 
iuvcuttigfLtiotiH with the purpoHe of amendiug them. 

During tlie last quarter of a cuntury thu pi-ubkim of poverl]^ 
liaa, however, been complicated by u new factor ; namely, the dis 
placement of common latwr by machinery, which has beei 
greater than ever l>efore iu one genei-ation or in one country,' 
To what extent the numbeni of the betpleas poor liave been in- 
creased from this cause is not definitely kaowu; hut tlie jKip-MJ 
nlar idea !» <lnubtleBs a grcAtly exaggerated one. In fact, cou^^ 
didering the number and extent of the agencies that have been 
operative, it is a matter of wonderment that the iuBtiODcoa in 
this direction have nut bi>un greater. In the Uniti'd States little 
or no evidence has yet boon prewnt«d that there luw bnen any 
increase in poverty from this cause.* In London, where the cry 
of distress is at present especially loud and deep, it is " note- 
worthy tliat no moosuree have yet been taken to ascertain 
wliotlior that distrcea is normal or abnormal, and whether it is 
iucrensing or decreasing." t But even hi.'re tho opinion, based 
on what \s claimed to be an exliuuative inquiry, hna beeu ex- 
pressed tltat, " although the niunbur of those who are both capa- 
ble and willing to give fair work for fair pay and are at the 
same time deatilitte, is in the aggregate cniiBiderubltt, they yet 
form but a very small proportion of the unemployed " ; and " that 
probably not over two pur <;eut of the deetttute are pontons of 
gix)d charnctor as well as of average ability in their tradoB." t 
The following additional facts, of a more general nattire, are 

* Aeeofidiif l« lh« R«pcrt of tlie Bwwa <if StMbllo* of Labor foe MimwIumiIu 
r«r tom, tha «rtinl« nanbrr of pnnoM of bMh tern la tk«l flMta, vhA bwo nnnifc 
pinfcd ■( tbdr principal cvai|ailan diuiog mm* pMt of tlw ^tv prrRtlLng tlio lUu nC 
ik« tnom fMinaniUm {Ua; 1, 18W), wu S41,a8», of *baiti \t%,Vt» wtrt imIm w4 
Mi,tini >*ra (aaulw. OomiwtiiB Uhm flgwM with Uuimi of Die popKUiloa In 18S), 
tIl, I,U4I,4ci, Ii Ii found IbU tor ottty 91M panoiw itwrn >m oh penaa meiDpIoftd 
far Miuo iwn «f tLe /Mr tt lib or bor priM^Ml OMUiaikB, (be ptntnUg* of man. 
|t(9*ilfad«iggr«aMrlMlb««lMofHaka «Ml !«•• In Iko <M»of (mnalM. Thtaa aon- 
sIhAmik hevnw, (bnw m R|ht •• tbo mwAor «( p«wn« obo tim iiMmploj'tri bf 
nMona of Jbp l aBt— tt tif mMfabunT t ud art alao llkelj M mlilMil, uIpm ndndni 
OMuUarallo* (* gitn to ibt bcl ibat ibt aunbw «t IddoHtU pc w pa 'b' aa m^iih. onl/ 
adtnti <A bctnit ptaaaBwKit ilariag a parUim of iba ;<ajr \» In onfT oonii ' - aid- 

al4«n>lila. Ami, a« a matior of fMI, tba latwiliiaiimi ta qawUoB iImi* "biv 

ta&j IM pc«*ou rtpwn H hiB lianUr mora ihan w w tbln) nf oM pcv %m.\ «il Uw wbola 
nnmbor of ib« aamptoroil In lU* Siau, «lio mra ralvnied m laTlof btra aantiptojad 
■Inrlae (ha milro IwtJ** otcnUui 

f •■ TliR PUtrni In UndM." " Furtal|)hltr Bttt**," Landw. Jan-wr. IS**. 

1 -Tha WiiiblMi^ (b* TbtUdliH, aad Uw Wurtiila**," ' 0iMi«m|i0Tai7 iarUa.' 



■1*0 pertinsnt to this Bubjoct : That wagos everywbcro bave not 
lalltm but «dvftii«yl. ox » sequence to the introduction nmi uw 
of cheaper lUid better machinery and procos8C«t, proves that labor, 
thniuifb variituii consee — probably by reaAon mninly uf incrt^ased 
r — ^haa not yet boon Bupplant^y] or eoonoDiizod by 

»i- : I- „ ^ to 8 Bufficiwii fxt^-nt to rwiuee wagee through 

uy computitioD of Che nneniployed, Tlie muUiplicity and ooq- 
tinnanot of strikes, and the difReulty expenencwl in filling the 
pbu^M nf Mtrikem with a desirable quality of labor, are alw> evi- 
dimcQ thnt the supply of skilk-d ]a)>or in almost every depart- 
mtmt of induHtry is rather Bcarco than nbuudaat. Agutn, it ia 
a matter of general exporEeooo that when, in recent years, wagee, 
by rvtUKm of a doprwsaion of pricfts, havn l>een reduced in any 
ilH<cialty of production, auch reductiuum liave been mainly tem> 
pfitKry, and are rarely, if ever, equal to the fall in the prices of 
tLv articlitf produiM^] ; which in turn aigriilie» thnt the loss con- 
tingL'Ut on xiifh reduction? lias beeu mainly borne by capital in 
tbeabapoof diminUhed profits. Notn'ith»tandiitg this, it must 
If- "•i'"itted that the immense changes in recent years in the 
\ 116 of pruductiou and dhitributioa have considorubly 

iiiiKiiiL<»< ' "ially from the ranks of unskilled labor and 

fn»m agi 'I occupations — the number of thoee who have 

a rigbtfnl rlaiui on the world's help and sympathy. That this 
iorreoau is loniporar)' in Ite nature, and not pBrmanent, and that 
n'Hr'f will ultimatfly come, and mainly through an adjustment 
lo Lbi) iwvs conditiotks, by n proceiw of industrial evo- 

1..: . ihoru lh much reason to believe. But, pending the in- 

btrvnl or nonessary i»eriod for adjustment, the problen» of what 

' ' k maw of adults, whose preWouB education has 

a for taking advantages of the now opportuni- 

h mau>nal prugross offers to them, from eiiiktug into 

' ■* nud perha}M penmuieut poverty, is a serious one, 

;. ■ iwy to answer. 

A (:.)iiiiiri'bfu.'*ivL' review of the relationB of machinery to 
wuuiw, by thiwe who by reason of Bpoctal investigations are 
ntmiN'U^ut to judge, has led to the following conclusions : Wlien 
madiioury In firrt intro<Iuced it ia imperfect, and requires a high 
gi-Bdc t-r w'rkmft! to succeasfully operate it; and tbt»e for a 
1 ><ly high wageA. As time goes on, and tho 

,, ..- i. ^ more perfect and automatic, the previous 

\-A for goes up to better work aud even better pay, 
/■»' who couM ni>l at the outset have operated the ma- 
■j . [it all, are now nillod iu ; and at higher wages than they 

bad earned before (although less than was paid to their prede- 
vmm ■ " ' "' t Cnpital in devi'loping and applying 

BM;li :>.', be fairly ruganlud oa in the nature of 





■ a force, ' 


force, aiuntontioaally. but of necessity, coDtJnualljr oporating 
to raiw all industrinl effort tu highur und Iwttor ounditiotu) : and 
lioroin vro hn\« na explanation of llio economic phfmomenon 
tlint, while the introduction of improved machinery ecoitumisM 
and supplemonLi labor, it rarely or never reduced wit^ta 

One of the most curious features of the existing uconotnio 
iidituation is the advocacy of tlie idea, and tli» dogrce of popnlur 
favor wliloli haa l>««n vxtemlud to it, ttiut u r4.<duction of tliv 
hount of labor, enforced, if i\vv*\» be, by »tntute, >» a " natund 
means for increasing wages and promoting progress,"* TUi« 
movement in favor of a shorter day of work is not, him-uvor, of 
recent origin, inasmuch tut it has greatly cummendvd itMlf to 
public »«ntiment iu Groat Bntniu itinl in Ihu Unittnl States for 
many years, and more recently in a h-M<<er di<gree in the stntea 
of continental Europe. But it is desirable to recoguixe that the 
early agitation in furthoranoD of this object, and the »uccom 
vrliich I1A8 altendfd it, wae howd on reasons Tery difft-rvut from 
U1O80 which underlie tlie argiimuntii of to-day. ThuR, in Eng- 
land and on the Continent, the various factory acts by which 
the day's labor has been shortened, were secured by apiwaling 
to the moral kuuku uf the community to check th«> overworking 
of womoii and children ; or, in other words, moet of Huch legtH- 
lation I1118 thu« far buon inlluouced by mural comiiderutjons, and 
hoa 80 oommondMl itmilf by it« rc«ult« that there is probably nn 
difforenoo of opinion in civili)H>d countrios as to ita deeimbiUly. 
But the form which tJiia moriunent has of lal« assnme^l is on- 
l^rely different. It is now economic, and not moral, and itit finat 
PfiMlysia in txised on tfio aasumption that the lobonir can obtiuit 
moro of wealth or comfort by working lew. 

]( would M)om to need no t;lnbi>rato argument to domonaliata 

'the absurdity of tlus position. Production must preoedo oun 

BumjiUon and enjoyment, and the only way in wliirh the ability 

of vvurybody to rounumu und oujoy can Ih' iiirrt'tuH^id, iti by in* 

. cn!aiting, so to ^pij^ik, tho output of the whole human family. If 

prmluction \to incn^iaod, the worker wit] necesKarily receive », 

larger return: if diminished. h« will neoeesarily g<^t a rnnallerj 

ntlurn. And it makfit no flilTcronce whether the ilin ' m bei 

ivITtJottxl by riohiction in th" hours of work.orbyl- livoj 

I work, or by disusoof lalwr-HaWng machinnry, or by other »l»-i 

fBlrtictiTe agonrii'fi. TlicnHnilt will ini<vit4tbly be the ^^ "■ Mn'rin 

wilt W lf>HS f> divide tttiiong Mid pr'Hiuiyir* afirr th- "'lyl 

dimiiiinbiiig n'turnn <jf capitjd have beim witlnlrnwn, I 

I It will ilcublliiHH Wi iirgeil \\utX man's knowlerlgi* and nintroll 

lot the foroi:^ of Nature have Incrowwid Ut such an extuot In roJ 

coot yvtkn tlitit idii' ' invf'n iinliiilrial mmdl ' ' txn 




witit tndch Ifss of plij-Hicttl effort than at luiy fonnpr 
imrtiid ; oiid lhi>ri>fi>n> u gununil uoil arbitrary reduction of the 
liiiur* of Inbtir. iDtlufH'ndnnt of what luis aln^ady occurri'd and ia 
farlliw Uk^ly to wcnr throiiKti Uie (j<iit't influeQce of natttrul 
-1 bi not only justifiable, but evury way practicabln. 

T;... ., "uiii tinduubt^tdly bv truv if maukind wern coiittvut tu live 
u their ratb<ir» did. But they aro not so conteiit. Thuy want 
'J ■ ' ■< w j>rog:ressive, that the satiiifactioiw of lo- 

ll •_ "' satisfactions on tho morrow. But what 

''tiMini"uf abundance, comforty and even luxury to tho masBeA 
hw bvwn aohidvod — and i\» agf^eeatn has not be«n small — has 
MA Imkki liniugbt about by aiiy diminution of lat>or, but has 
bom dun oiaiuly 1/> tho ffit-t that the labor Kct freu by the utiU> 
nliou of luitunU fiircim tuw bova ru-^niploywl, as it M'oro, to pro* 
itoca thnrn ; or, iu oUinr words, rec«nt material pro^n^^MS is more 
cfftT" " ' lied by sajinR, that it consists in the attaitimonl of 

jtrnni !-i witli a k'^^'" «xiMjnditur# of labor, rather than 

1' iirnniit of formw r*eull»t with udiminishi'd oxpenditnre. 

U <i'-iii<-i' Uk' proHont roUUion of pro<luction to consumption 
whirh it now xeenifl neceiwary should b« mnintnimxl, if tho 
imwmt idntuK of abundoncfl, wages, and prices i» lo )>e con- 
tiautfl atid furlbi-r projin'iBss made, can Iw maintained witJi a 
dimiiiiiihtid oinonut of labor, may not at present admit of a sat- 
ufu'<' wpr. Production iu oxcuo» of current deinaml.oi- 

oTur)- "I. wlitcb has Kn-n and xtill is a foaturo of certain 

<)i*{«nlM of industry, and wbidi raayiteem to favor an aOirm- 
ativv aiunrer, \b certain to bo a temporary factor, for nothing 
irill lonff continiio to Iw proiluced unless there is a <lemnnd for 
If ' prictBt from ihosu possessed of means to pnr- 

vli.:- ;i', and thun-foro can not be le^timately tak^n 

Into account in forming on opinion on this subject ; but, other 
than this, all • ' !" evidence indicates* that tlio answur must 

Utiitiil iu till >, Thus, for example, the latest results of 

inveatittntion by ihw HssBsohusettii Bureau of Labor Statistics 
• '^'iring thu year 1S8A all the products of manufacturo 
i-ould luive lx»n wxntred by stMuly work for 307 
H each, if this steaily work could have 
; among alt the p<Taons enRaged in 

'.irofi. But, to effuct Buc:h an equitable distribution is at 
'' : and if it couM be brought ntx>nt, a 
la[>or to eight per day in such indus- 
tixl l.y many, would re<luce the pws- 
t! ' -o'-busetts to the extent uf more tliaii 

Li . from tho (Uiuurtrons competition 

V ■* ftiid countries wht-ro 

Iti I. under such a rcdui> 








tlon of prodaot the Blmre at present npporlJonwl to the workc 
or, what in the same thing, tlie existing riit«s of voges coald bo 
Duuutaiuvd, booulb utterly preposicroua It is not even too 
much to «iy tlial thu very existence of multitude would bo en- 
dangered if tho prciMunt viiorgy of production wcro dimiimhi'd 
twenty per cent. And iu this conuL-ctiou how full of lucuninfC 
is Uio following deduction which Mr. Atkinson finds w»rrnnt4>d 
hy inv(.'«Ktignttun, namely: "That over a thousand tniliions' 
worth of product miutt be added every year and prices be main- 
tained where tliey now arc, in ordfr that each person in tlie 
United States may have five centi) mor« tlu»n lie now does, or in 
order that each person engaged in any kind of gainful occnp*- 
tioa may Ixt able to obtain an increase in the rate of wages of 
flft«OQ <»nt*i a day. Great and undoubted, thcreforo, as have, 
been tlie benefits accruing from machinery luid labor-eaving iU' 
veations, the margin that would nocrfs lie tniv(ir»i>d in order tol 
oompletvly neutralize them by rendering human lal>or less itffi 
dont, 18 obviously a very narrow one." To wluch may bo addi 
tliAt thont id probably no countr}' at th» present time when Um' 
itire nccnmulBt«d proj>orty would sell for enough to iinbsist 
ib {wpulation in a frugal manner for a longer space than three 

The greatest of the gaina that have aoomcd to the masses 

through recent material progress has boon in the saving of thoir 

iimo; not so much in the sense of diminiHliing tlioir hount of 

lalior, iM in iifTordtng them a grvater op]K)rtunity for indindual 

Belf-advancetnctit than has over before been {lOHsibla To clearly 

I c6mpreheuil thift proposition, it is necessary to keep iu vlitw t 

■ fact that (ill men, with the exception of the comparatively ft-w 

I who inliiTit a comiwlence, are born, as it were, into a condition 

of natural bondage or servitude, Bondage and aerviluUe to 

what ? To the nocwsity of earning their living by hani and con- 

1 tinuoufl toil, " In the sweat of thy brow eliall thou ent brvad," 

has l>pen recorded as a divine injunction, and expcrioiice shown 

that a great majority of miiukind, as the roiiult of long yearn of 

[ toil, have never bitlierto ]>eon able to command mucli mom t' 

la Iwro 'ico. In rountrieii of ovnn the 1 ' ' ' > ivilizo* 

^tion, ^^ <-> H^cumiibitiuiL of wt<alth in gi- -A mnfi 

M()uably di^idvn), investigation has ahto li<d to tl>e conclu^ 
' that ninety p«?r writ at least of the [wpnlalirin an> Dover po* 
LihvuwmI (if »tiifi)clent pnii-'fty «i ihc lime of their demise to ri-qulrp 
IUk' of an ti! 

\ > .., in ihecou! ... :.:.<. it ha« bi>comu pocwlble, through 
\vt groator knowlmlg* and conlrtfl of the forces uf Nattiru, to guiq 
[iui>'. • ■ ■ ■ ■ ',■■•.-■' . , ' 



vhn, 1(1 MMoro u much, hftvu burutoront hemi oompolkvl to toil 
A.< i.'CiK nfl •tranxUi luul years would ponuit ? The ntwwur is, the 
»n*tit pro«i>- ' ' ition fnun such imfavorabln roudi- 

bi^ns. ThuM, i.Jx>r will now givu to im inili^-iiJiml 

UmmbdvU'ucworliviiig, for tlie attainment of whic)it«n, twelve^ 
fooruwu, ur onm mon* huum of lubur were formerly (Imt not re- 
motely) owvauiry, Intolliguut iwlf-iuton^t would fteeni to dic-tate 
U> him to work eight bourn on atX'ouut of Bulteist^ncv, and thoa 

Buuiy moru boura us npportuuity or Htronglh will jH-miit ; antl 
uf tho tfikiu fnr till «uclt work not nxjuirod by nt.<vviMity, pur- 
ci from (oil l)efore bro has fHiiiibtl his ou- 
tfaii- I -i, lilt bim yurround biint<'lf aa Im livt*. in a 

uOAlly incnia-HinR proportion, with all tliMu additional ele- 
BiHiiia— niuttirinl and intellecturd — tliat uinku life ))vtti.T north Uv- 
hiff. And, thri>u|;;b tbo rapid withilmwiils frum thn ranks of 
r r, or the incrwuKxl di-maiid for the products of 

1- . .:,... - 1 \tu thus occ'Oflionecl, the number of the unem- 
pioysd, by wmmm of hide of opportimiky to labor, would bo vn- 
iMOtd U> < iiurn. And that these pOMibilities nm alnvuly 

neaptlxt . . f<*pl4rd by not a few of tbe groat lioiiy of vrork- 

WKi, ta pnirni by the fat:t that thn ^ealor the op))orluiiity to 

work '-■ '' - , and llui greatur the latitude afFordeJ to work- 

BiMi ' :i<itrrtwu limoin connection with eamings, the 

cnAtvr Lhu dijtittcUaatJo)! to dimiuiith tho boura of labor.* " No 
Man," anjn a rltiittnjnilthed American, who from small beginnings 
bM riwn to high poaition, " ever oohieTed eminence vho com* 
nMnead by r«du<!iug bin hoiini of labor to the smallest ntimlwr 
pird»y,and no man nvur workt-d very hard mid attained fortune 
»bo dtd not loijk back on hia working days as thu liappiLvit of hlji 

*A fa«Bl vHhir, UiM«flila( Mrtala hettriai la X*« SngjMld, «hei« lh» work ii 
■itatT W tUa A«f»r»tr. Mf>i "Hw d*^ trm tinif for ' piooe-woric,' Md iIm butj md- 
^p^ an ladUfnaiU H iliilht-lwiir kIm. TIm; rowrre only B(^ inoajtlt M ftnU tbtlt 
«Vr Ihw, tmd al ialUa;1it limj itlw >p lh*l> tlM of laAnh. Al iirrvnt tbc; ut cam- 
Il( hi^ On* IH a<« duUkn iwriU)', MCMdlnjita iMr Mpadlj'," llut. ■* llhutnllug 
lanhM bu* kiwr tnaU Ubor, II b ttUnd : " Tha tnplo^ ar* u^ou Mta, aad ttnj alll 
■laBw a dagla niM twliialii to witk ■ iwIiImc *III Uicr pvnaAitay bof undwituwii, 
•r ay ■■■ mat i>aMr'«ap pm*% uf are, U laam Iha WAt." 

4MMhM.*laMBb«*|wHmB*hu bM«*hillar,alHtlm*ai>t);«latMllwouoi "I 
tv* aftis mmbtad bu* •(ir1i*n niitvi to net on •pan df^t bonra ■ dij. 1 can nM do 
Ik 1 fea** -"-k'-l "^r ahrr faar IbcItd Uiiin a da*, anil I liBOW men la mj rocalioo 
•Wkawilr : rfl hiar*— Mil fortJsbl boun' piT, biit forfcarttan Wmt^^j. 

t^ • aaa «;_ ■■ l'-iii^ d«j vafra for A»f» wnrh «ini4d<-T linv naav hont« there an la 
■ka t^j. Hayp iw <h( da/i wnrh U n rn U« ; allov lira fur mrali.— iliai makra loatra : 
t^m IM* b* *b^ and dr«Mlaf, ihal tnaliM lofoiy-oBii- Thvra ar* ilirac bean* a da.* for 
^■■K ^ That la uhat |in>di. TW«« I* fonni lot laof* iimRi m hiinMtlt la ihaao tlin« 
h^ tbaa ifc* pmflt ut iW aaqtlnfif on ih* in Ikxim i^ bl* varklng day. ^raa bvnra 
thntt ^ifctaaa bi Pia Mck— amH/ tha MjiiKalant of Iho cUar difa la tW wMk, a boa- 
*irt daia tt Iba jwtr.' 






Tb« couree of eveute, nevertiielcfls, warranta mankind in ex- 
]iocUDf; ttiBt tho progrosa which has boeu miwlo in n-wnt yoais 
in diminishing tlio necessity for long hours of labor will 1>(> c/>n- 
'IJnaod; but 8uch progress will be ptrmiuiciit and prmliictiveuf 
tlie highrat good only bo far as it is determined by natural ugon- 
ci««. " If the attompl is uuwlo to suve the time of the massea by 
radical and artificiiU methods, leisure trill become licenae; but, 
if th<.-y can bo taught t<^i i<nvij their own time, k>i£uro, a» already 
pointed out, will bo oppuri unity." 

Probably the most signal feature of the rwent economic Iran* 
fiitiou» ha-i b<v«n the exten-iive decline in the priooi of most com- 
modities; and as greet material intereRts have been for a time 
thereby injuriously alTec-ted— commoditii-fl nt rcducfid valuation 
not paying tlio same omeunt of debt m lH-fore~tho drift uf 
popular t!outimenfc mmju to bo to tlie olTect that such a rvsulfci 
has (wen in th<> nature of a CAlamity. Awonlingly, a ^reiit 
variety of propositions and devirass have been brought forward 
in reoimt years, and largely occupied the attention of the public 
in all civilized coimtrii'v;, which, in reality, have hiul for tiieir 
object not merely the arrest of this dwline, but even the restor*. 
tion of prices to something like their former IpycI ; and in such 
A category the attempt to regulate artificially the relative values 
of the precious metals, the increasing restrictions on the free- 
d'-m 'if t'xchungi-H, the stimulation of trotlo by bountii-s, the for- 
mittioi) of " truMtti," " syudiuitL-m," trade and labor organ ixal ions, 
and thu like, niny all Im properly classed. But all such attempts, 
ns Dr. Biu'tli, of Berlin, has expre«»od it, "are nothing more 
than designs to lengthen the cloth by shortening the yanl -stick." 
Decline and instability in pri<t«, if DCia^iimetl by temporary nod 
artificial ngt:-nciL-s, are to be deprvcatt^^l ; but a decline in priooa 
rausud by greater economy and efTecUvonoM in manufactnto** 
and grenler skill and eavmoniv in dixtribnt ion, in plwe of being 
a calamity is a Iwnefit to all. and a certain pnxif of nn mlvaiico 
in civilization. The mere fact that the general fall of prices 
which ha« occurrtKl bait boon attended with an almoiH idmulta- 
nooufl and universal incroooe in the connumption of l]ie neem 
nu-ies of life ami etiior com , i)t conclusive not only of ■» 

great improvement in the C'-i..-::. n of the nuuuea, but oIki tha' 
all ntt<*mpt« ti» retard m- rovenn this movemenl by gove. 

m.M.' ,■■■■■*.. -,••.■■ 1 , . , ■ .: . :. ■' .,, 


the price uf meaLH and cereids IwtWMn \Wi nnd 

mAl<*i] to have nwdteal in proiluring an atn 1 •• 

arliann cnnaumer of kl.DA [ji<r Iti«u1 in nn-nt i. 







to provH rlint Ibe uggrogsto consumption of wlirat 
uil m>ulM iu Onut. HritAiu boa nut Ju rMXtut yi'ors ini'roiuicd ; 

b-" ■: •'■ 1 V- f.-d ri'HoU will itn>l>ab!y tlnil lui i-xiilanation 

\- !uit lliL>uni]i(ubt4.><l iuc-reaHod F-aniiii^'Mof thv 

■Mi» i.i'ii' ! M ibu HiitisfyinR a ilHsiro fiir iimiiy 

t»ni>t[ li I'iJ!;l>.;ij ihiy could nut gratify, ratlier tliuti 

I. -iniptioa of bruofUtuffH and moat producta. 

juugfui by Ui' ! ]>olim««i, moAt KovenimontA Would also 

Mftn to ngiird n in |(ric«fi, i>a(>eci»lly in rettpocl to f(K>d 

pf-KluetM, M In tbo UHluro of a culumity to tbuir |>«o|)le. With 
lb* ucopUou of Qroat BritiUu lUid Hollniid, nuarly uvury uuUon 
piwtMiiilfnit to any ilngfio uf civil ismtiou — \xn» witbtu rrMsout 
fBoi* Kraolly iannNwudl it« taxes on itfl hiijiiiIt of food from nith- 
iKit.aiid mom uipuciAlly on meaU and iM<i't<uIii. A eompurUon 
Mf tlui iiriona of wliont in Engljitul and Franco for llAHI ebowH 
Ihsl Fruoch ixinBumi'n )Aid during that your alono C«. 'Ad. ($1.60) 
|«r qiwrtar iiion> thitn they would nttHl bavo done for all the 
«1>Mit xumA liy tbiuD H food in tlio country, hod Uie free impor- 
»'■ ■■■ ■■' wln-al into Fnukce been penuittod, or $.18,tKio,(XW on 
I tmum Aoccro^te oonnumption for twelve mouUu. In 

}I iH«t in tilt' Frimrii diitiM on Ibi' iuiiwrUtion 

• •'. <• !.. it :\<«i«ud \\.t price in Frauci' to i\x\ uvcragu of 

iM. 'vd. (t:j,](>) [NT qtutrt«rovi'r the uurrosponding av«nva;o ratwi in 
Eflfftaiid . ' ' ' ' " - ■ n, if uiuiutaioed for tlie ixn^uing twelve 
ta-Hitii*, :"fuii<d the agfcrpf^te cost of broad to 

\ liii' liii'i,'" Hum of f8:.(H>o,Of)(), 

■..^. u;r«l HuluH of bi>rHd-Q<vili for hnmnn eou- 
>:.:;<■ n in I'lirin w«ro 1,^%.\\t iKiundu. In IHHII ibo sales 
»■ :i :"; I i.ilK r- ;■ 'tf.ii lui Imvim.- '< ■ --d to '.i.00i;if«! )hiuiidR, 

m.iii ,tu .f 'ii.i'.iii) iii({ niiirkt!<I ill 'it in tbo ciui^iimption 

lA pork. Whi'thvr Uiorn Sm any mt-tw^iry i-onn«ction Iwtween 
Iba two expvriuncM tuwd not bo allinnod, but Lbu foots ura HUg- 

■ruiili out of uw, by Ip^nlatirm, onti of tbe 

1 rittKof Uit* ai{<', uanivly. lb>! innuufactureof 
lio fat of tbu oXtCtiujUly as wbolesome a& that mode 

I ' ^11 row, ia a libul on civilizulion; and, as 
.. tho miuMLW of n livtlvr articlu of d«-iiir- 

' ruuii, tban very many of thoin liave been 
r- .i nr can now procure, woul<] bo floroely ro- 

«iti L-fi proptirly and popularly undt^rstood.* ' 

• 1 f«p««t M ito >abjM of " iAtmWiAT^T lijr lim Ropl Itrtthh DFjianmail ■■ 
Manh, 1<iH7, mti i "TU* pnxtnn b iMik b btmi jMit fnn ■ueb 

_ _ Bte M an DMfH) b Iihwinl. BMwIjr, lh« fiM «r grmtm ; aad Uw n 

b* t k af tawnriaDar, a# U hruUiaa la llM piwprc h aiw •tuhrtliala for talMr •h(iA 
• ^i«v and M Um taaia itea MBriiUii|[. Wa ilUiA ibat UUa want liaa btan MppSad 

Th» r 

frvm lUi 

a mnairti; 



The fact thut in no country do the nuuses ever experienoaj 
as mticli 1>ciii>tit from o fall of prices as they would seem 
Ix) fiiirly entitled to, owing to the ureat difTerence betwoonl 
wliolesale and retnil rat««, and thut this ditTiironco i» uIwayB 
greatly intouBiti^Hl in the case of the poor who purohmw in smnU 
(joantities, clearly iudicat«6 one of the gronteiit and aa yet least, 
occupivd fiulds for economic and aocial reform. Flonr, in 
form of br«iiul, costs usually Ihreo tiniLo) more, when distributud^ 
to the poorer consumer)) in ritii^ uf IW Unitctl Statue, than 
total aggregate cost of growing tho wheat out of which it ta 
made, milling it into flour, barreling, and transporting it to thoj 
hakorivs. Tho retail prices of meals are enhanced in like man- 
ner; and invo»tigu1ion Homo years ago showitd that when an- 
tlirucit« f^al vffts being sold and di'livoixvl in New York city forj 
$4.60 per ton, it cost the people on tho East and North Kiven,] 
who bought it by the bucketful, from HO to $14 per ton. 

Similar result* are notioid in all other couutrii* Out ot 
every £100 pnid by tlio consumers of milk in Lomlnn, Mir JantM ' 
CaiH estimates that not mora ttian £30 finds it« way into the! 
hands of the English dairy farmers who in the first instance sup*! 
ply it. In tho ciise of siime varieties of fish — mackerel — the cost 
of inland distribution in Engluud has been reported to be us high 
OS 4O0 per cent in exows of tho price paid to the fishermen. Kgg* 
colk-cled from tho farmers in Normandy are sold according to 
size to Parisian consumers, at au advance in price of from H^ to 
200 iwr rent,. 

The payment of rent is believed by many to b« the chief 
cause of social distro!M, and a continujtl draught on tlie rwonrcos 
of the \KHir, for which no luleqimte e«iuivalent ix retnniHd, And 
VBt investigations similar to UioM) (l^foro rioticeil) which havo j 
deinonstrate^l how Rmall need he the first cost of the fixxl uiiMni*^| 
tials of good living, have alsx) Ie<i to the opinion that, " not much^l 
mon« than half tho money tliut mi-n usually (Miy for rent would, 
If cxiH-'ndod in tho right diroctiou and under imsily pnipomlj 
guaranlooM, Hocuru them possession of good homiifl, prott^cted 
all the rights given by a title in foe 8iinple,nnil which theyouul 
Lniusmit uneticnmbei^ to their familim." 

CiMtiMinitivo aasociatioiiH have done something tn Oie way 
rtmiiiJying the evils resulting fnim unfair and tiniiooewtnry on- 
hannmnonliH of prio« lo eonsumcrH buying at retail or in small 
qujintitieM : tmt as yet the success that hut att<«nd<-d their olTorta 
in thisdinvti'M <h promising, has bo«»n parti:il uiid in- 

oomph'to. As»^<- - of tills character appoar to lind mnct 

In « nxMl uUifacUfj mmwr lir Ui* MUiiifiwninnf anlMal hattft. Ami H I* 
I In Ow MarikU lii a fwUtilon *ii[>arlo« to nMUnl Iiuuor o hr •• ilanlniH an^ nn 
Hon an> RMavninl." 




popular favor MiJ sujiport in Englnntl tliAo in the United 
■ : and, protiiibly, fur Ui« rwison that tlio great osublislf 
iittvn Hfipung !ii> in rocont yeiirs al alinoet all the 
taoA*' ••iiittrH uf [topulation in tho Unitwl Statw f«r (lie 

ittof'J -tin)i]i; riinim<<<littr-(t, nml which ant systematically 

MwIdj.: - -1 till.' it!tiu»fnuf biieiH Uiat large sales with rulutivdy 
■Dall prufits oUitnatvly BMure tho largest aggregate of profits, 
«Qgfinil»(if 1' r iridicatixl at luwur r(>lail prices tlitui 

(PriitiIIt t'r<-' i.iik). nml »o limit thu Kpliuru uf bene- 

t :i of tho Ainoricmi co-(j)forative sooioties, 

ri bftwovn pricM and povi^rty liaa lou;^ attracted 
fl- : n».ihini{ now in tli« way of theory reniain-t to bo 

>j|[|.Tr>l. ml or moFB ywirs ayo, a corttiiu wise man, 

wli,, 1,,i.l ,. ,rtH of triuli), ami mudu htniBolf couvonaint 

« rtitturoor wliolnsnle and rvtail trettutacUonii, ombodiod 

Qt ih, ti){ Hbort and nrnplu acntonoo oa much in tho way 

(tfnT- 1 "f tlitwo involvud phonomona os the beat reBaJt« 

■ ! ' will probably nvor bo able to ofTor, namely — 

" i ... .ir ,■. . ... I M.^. ((/ Ihr ynoT is thrir jtovfrty." — Pmrerits, JOlH 
ckai^trr, IMh i'M-»r, SomvthinfC in th« way of a real rontribulion 
la oc ^! uniliTHlan>liii»; cf this subjttrt would, bowovur, 

■■BBi 1 . iii'l in tliL> n-t't'iil (ilitM.'rval(un that tliv vuluo-pur- 

rmnniiC wrniio or faculty is not iuiploutetl by Natnro in every 
pgwin, but dt(F<-n< wicK-ly in difri>fnt rooMi and familiee; and 
tkat "ho who hart i( will ito-umnliitA wealth with comparatively 
tliicht uxtTti'iii, whilu ho who box it not will not ^uin it, no mut- 

ta» bow r-: •■■■.illy ho lubora."* Btuiitratiouit of thia nro fo- 

ttUikr to ndt^nt and invoiitigator of Bocinl eciouce; but 

tlw f"' . .|i. I ■ iMy wurtliy of rwonl : On the 

r<*ri. ■ ^v ''l l^riMiklyn, thn ratoH of Udl were 

yiwn m^ga reduced a«urly ono half lo oil who would buy at 

otu UIDB (or aI w 

pxwi nf'(i'-<H( 



1 fifty iwnls' worth of ticlcete. But it 
wiirkinR-clnasoifi, who at morning and 
.'■ iiulk of th*> tntvul, rnruly bought LickotM, 
anAantle by those who l>olongei] tu baulc- 

' whirh within theloflt third of the 

,. iitral material progress are the 

and Aoatrallo. 11iia has lieen dut> largely in both 

ft L.t.iin ! '. ' : ! ' ' -f'l,. land, wliifh hna 

I 1- I I- lie in population. 

y mlluentml in inoreiuiing th« 

..ipid nilio thou in most of the 

•* of Europo. The Uniu-d Statoo, by reason of Kb 
r.--..(!r. .... .,1 ■ -ivn «iMi of mochtnery and con- 


[uent ability to coatrol the supply and the price of muiiy 
the chief etaplu articlce of the world's oonsumption — cutlon, 
uureiils, meuUf, tobacco, petroleum, and silver — ^bi at present thoh 
g^tutt dLiturbing factor in the world's economic condition. BuU 
of all old countries, England leads in all thut pertuins to riviliuM 
tion ; and, making allowance for the oxceptiuniU Bdrantagen cti^ 
joyed by the United States and Auxlndlu. her relative pr(iRnw» 
has probably b«un as grvat as that of any country. In no one ofi 
the Dountriea of £uro[>o XmR the int-nuiw of popuhitiou hwrn 
gi-eatur, and in Italy, Germany, and Rui»ia only, lias there bona 
tiu approximate gronth; and thi» result has been eRperinlln 
romarkable, inasmuch as for many years Kngland has not hiul am 
aero of virgin soil to expand upttn. In no country of EnmpeJ 
fiirlhi'rmon% has the iucreuse of i>upulatiuu been probiibly ed 
largely a«;compuiiod by aa iucroaw in comfort us in EnglandJ 
Forty ye«ir8 ago the United Kingdom owned only about one thirJi 
of the world's shipping. Now it pi'iw:tical ly own.1 more than oDft 
lialf, and of the existing steam-tonnagn it owns suvttaty Jier ocntJ 
In respect to expurttj and im{K>rt« — oonipAriM>ii8 being made pen 
capita— no other nation approxinintuH England in itM roKalt« td 
aa ezt<>ut Kuffiek-nt to fairly justify a olsim in ita behalf to oved 
the holding of a secr>u<l place." J 

Something of inforeiioo respecting tlie economic cbaiige« ofl 
the future may be warranted from a study i>f tlio i>ast. It mayj 
for exampli!, be safuly predicated that whatovor of ti-oaomic diiM 
tarbnnce hiui been due to a change in the ridativo value uf Hilvea 
to gold, will idtimattdy, Aud probably at no very di^ttant {icriodJ 
bo terminated by a re(«toration of the bullion price of lliu formed 
mt'tal to the ratoji (IW to fil i>enpu i^-r ounce) (but proviulml foB 
many yiiirs jirior to the year 1873. The rtiwons which WKn'ttldl 
such AQ opinion are briefly as follown: Htafl 

Silvor Lh the (miy suilnblo coin medium for rouiitrioft of cona 
parntively low prices, low wages, and limited] excbangt'H, likd 
India, China, Central and South America, which re[)i>»M'nd 
about tJitvD fifths of Utu populAtiou of the world, or altuut ■ 
thousiuid millionn of people. Civilizntioa in most uf thwMi coonl 
trio*, through the tulvtmt i>f better moiu»i of pi < ! v,x\ 

change, in rapidly udvaneing— aeoeMiituting u . . inJ 

orcaiiing ilcinaiid for sih'er as money, as well a<i of inni for u»M 
and machin(>rj*. Oimeratiims abut will [kuw heforc t' -'fi nl 

iitiuh courilri'rH will iM'gin to I'Conomixe nioiioy by tl. luijl 

(ixtxnt uf ilj4 rupHMt'tiTHlivf^— pn[M-r and CV' cxtA 

cnmHlannw u KCHrcily, rathur than a Mipmi. .... ...:. .., ; ly (li 

>i)v(fr. in the world'n market, in the outlook for thi* future; IdaiJ 
much u A coinpiirativ«ly amall p-t >-Jipita : < -o ol 

* ItalHid Olfio, Mun lo il» I-uinlaa 'T.ii I 



dvcr by «ach vwt nnttibtini would not nnly rapidly absorb any 
■cMbC nirpIoM. but jxiasibly au|[trmnnt dcmftnd in uxovee of any 

■ nt Btiiiply.* Tho truB econor : '"■ y of a oomirry like the 
-! Staffs, wht'-h is % largo ; ■ r nnd selU-p <jf ailver, 

B I to be, t<t seek to facilitate tmch a nnuU, 

li u. .T.-.4»olee in tho way of rtunmurt'o bi'twwn it««lf 

lig oountrieK, in order tltat, tltrough incri'-a^cd traf* 
6e MuJ tniUMMjumit jiroHpi-rity, ttiu donuuid for )ri]%'cr ou tlie part 
uf tba latt«^r miKbt W promulvd. 

Tb« KTcnt n<durti(iQ in tbe cost of traoBportutiou of comniodi- 
tifl* ha« b<<f>n onr*of t)ioni<wt itt dicing fnttiin-sof riK-enl ercmoniic 
liijttorT'. Proiluw i* now rarricd froin Auistnilia to Eii^lainl.udifi- 
tuuv of eifvvu tlitiUNiiid iatl4^, in tewi tiint^ and nt less cost tbaii 
»-!- — I'tirwl a hundn-d yi-ant ago to convey goods from one ex* 
t- f th(t Britixli InlandH to ibc other, Tlio average cost of 

ifji.- ^^ht one uiilo on tlii< Ponnsylvania 

P-i ' '■• I I", . wuH |W«of uc-ont. Atfin^t tbougbt 

lAif tmpruvi-mvut in lliti)si)Itprv of human effort bad 
r ' . ' it ; but tboro ore reasons for bulieviue that 

!■ i« ar« ponibia Apart from impnjvomunt* 

li , (uiil grv'iitiT (■■■■ni.(iiij)>»i in ojioratbig, vt*ry few of the 

g],..; lmnHi>urtiitioii. i-ji])ifia!ly th<' railwayn, have as yet 

•oflc: iiK-wt to TOUtinudiiMy exhaust thuir carrying cn- 

' -< ttffeotod, and the preBcnt largo class 
li'portionwl to B largw buitlneiw. lower 
nis f't fmighl, fmm thU nnuHV nlon<T, will be permiraihti) ; nil 
rf w! ' ' "WW. is wmply e-quivalfnt to reufllmiiiig the old 
Irwlr tliat it costs proimrtionally loss to do a large than 

asmn >-■«. 

Ai^ „ .i>atioa uf an immmso inormM in tiie near fuhm.*, in 

ll^* omnmnrc* botwuon the countrieti of tbo wostem and eastern 
bABfapbaTM, ovring cwpocially tu tbo hitnolnctinn into tho latter 
of tattar methoda for eflfecting exfliangra and tranHmitting in* 

M •uuawnu HriimlUcd (a On lt«f*l (BngUik) ODmndMioii on Tmlt 
, "TiwiiMMiltrMriNiNiiltw aiMl f«r a^mmfi iwr p ow, ikriig Uwbsruoii 

/««■ adkV l"N. vM alum rijEtana par M«l giBftUr (kN Iha loul prodMoUon datlait (!>■* 
^1^4 : Mirf UuH* Ma ndMr MUMMttM alUdipUni Ike ranuuniiiiaBala MfllH|luirflfat«. 
K»i» fc» mi ■iilMiJ Utt Uw colanpi ifa— ml it fpl Iniii ptiiaf «ouww ihta Uw WMiiitl 
•amftt al tfca nfaHH. Il !• (ajiplM lA wiDM ittMl b; Iba nsltli^ dv*a a< oM oala*g». 
* ll »wfc | Ibr UiIm, lM**i«r, ibB (nUeMa i>t MalMv |tMi lo •liow thM Uw edugt do* 
tmA tm (h* iMUl U, !■< hw han, •aOtknt U» fttMaci the vhote «f tlir uuiiial tupj'Ij 
iku fa Ml (Mi »fM iLa MMomiidnii la ttM wta end aanuflMnitT* luu bvm ••■(ipKr >l : 
I la —Dfrtiil b; th* AM Umi tMi«hrre tlirou^ knot tb« wmIiI hut Uiciw 
I St i—dap< nadu tf tb« BtfUl."— /jmriM AamomU. 
TW ^—«1— Mopwla oiM U rwfmiVA M ban baM cnnunpUuil, wnH;, the fann- 
> af • >)'aJ11n nfc» 1^ «>^UM ivowt hvMfe •jmBmu In «l^n^ o^ — fnr lw*roi|>l* 
1 nuAsi Mqi|iHM at *tl*rr b)r (paralail?* pURliaira aarf nu lioldbtg*, aUlt 
I a^MBcr- '"'"' '"~ ■m...-)uit> H«a Ut Iba Mllni pflaa of ililt tsMaL 




formation, is certainly varrsntcd by recent expuriuocos. Tlmi 
if tlio trudo botTToen the United Ein^om alonv und the losdiiit; 
oottDtriuo of tho "SauX, exclusive of Lidin, continual to iiicreaso in 
the next quarter of n century in the same ratio iir it hna dnri. 
the last quarter, when commercial facilitios were much lera th 
at present, its aggregate value of •ldO,000/XX) in l&OO, and %4\ 
000,000 in 18S9, irill irwell to (I^{t,000/)OO in the year 1910; 
bvyond that date, to an amount that must ho loft to the imagi- 

That the only possible future for agriculture, pronecuted for 
the aake of producing the great staples of food, is to t*e found in 
large farms, worked with ample capital, especially in tht< form of 
machinery, and with labor organized somewhat aftor tho factory 
system, is coming to Ixt the opinion of many of tlie best authori- 
ties, both in the United States and Europe. And aa a further , 
part of such a system, it is claimed that the farm must bv d4^ri 
voted to a epecialty, or a few specialties, on tho grouud thut 1H| 
would be almcwt bm fatal to success to admit mixtKl farming, u 
it would be to attempt the production of several kinds of moau* 
focturfd under one roof and eetabliahment. ' 

Machinery is already largely employed in connection with 
tho drying and canning of fruit and vegetables, and in th^^ 
monufivcUiro of wina In the sowing, ]mrvi«ting, tnuiai>orttngj^| 
and milling of whoul, the utilixatiou hoo reached a point wher^H 
further improvcmi^mt would ^eem to bo almost impomible. I^| 
the bosineas of sUughteriug cattle and hogs, and rendering tbd^l 
raoulting products available for food and other useful purpoMc^H 
the various prooMses, invoh-ing largo expiiudituru and great (U^| 
versity of labor, especially in "curing," succeed c«ch othor witl^| 
startling rapidity, and are, or can bo, all carried on un<ler ou^f 
roof ; and on such a scale of magnitude and with such a diffn^| 
of economy, that it is said that, if the entire profits of tbo|^^^| 
slaughtering ostabliuhmiinfti wurv liiuittxl lo the grow "'cm^H 
from tlio solo of tho buef-tonguoo in the one case and tlie pig^H 
feut la the other, the rutnnis on the capit ' 'i ' >tr«] and th^H 
bunoeM tFonsacted would be emiu<-nlly m> t y. It in uud^f 

however, so Wi-U known that the buniness of fitttuning ratbfi^^^l 
the *n called "factory ByrXom." on a most cxti'ntiivo K-jde^i^H 
also been sucoossfuly intnxluciyt in the Xorthwwti'm and tran^H 
Miaslauippi States aitd Tt'iritontt^, " ' great f ' ^| 

presonl thoosunds of cuttle giU hut' < i one kmi; ' --£■ 

going the npfTution of fattening by tliemowt continuotiii,aAji^H 
ivp.and wonomicpmcwix'a. Then-"-'" 'i'- n^^^B 

talci* rant iif two hundnid stoert »tv' '^^^1 

fi ' Hliniiibh^, in a x' ^ ^^^H 

tJi ..{ riiiii'li ](am 1...... .... "^^^1 





Ill : 
»«*• tliB bii. 
nMUtt of an oDiUc 


DMUU nf 

1,,.,,... 1- 



Dirt p 






riflii in t^'mJing fifteen or twMity head of 
" tbn <liiuu]rtii)ta£:es existing ujiott ordinary 
"III p»tjiljU»hmonta "a stertni-cngino 
liirge liarn to imother, as needed, hy 
■ ImU, And 8tipiillee it. to a powttrf ol maohine. 
Into lengths Euit»bt(tfur feeding, and nftorwurd 
hny hy othiT \n>\i>i to iho mLxing-r(»fjra, where by 
" it in mixed with coru-m<.vil; the corn 
.,_, -iielled and then ground on the prem- 
from till) mine engine. Again, the mixed feed 
■lie fW"d-lioxefl iu the stalls. The 
. r for drinking, wliich nina in a 

tnmgb wtt4iiii rMicb of the tttoem; and ovon tho 
.- : 1 V ■.■■■! •Tiliwiharge.l through a bose. the supply 
_ lie and Htiin-^l for Mse. The ateers are 
n till* H(al1« In wiiirb tliuy are plnrcd from tho 
.,;;ig pn>c»«8 i« Itcgtin until thoy are reaily for 
: to tho big )*tnblinlimenta above mentioned for 
The adviuitages of sneb ratablishmenta 
■il lo Iabor-«avii]g exp4.-dieQtH mepoly. 
ty of t4<miH'rnttir(.t aeoorod through oil kinds of 
■<ltilvali.'iit In a niilable BAving of feed; for where 
fiaiTtiuitbnui of ti<nip<<nituru 
l[aardM aguin>t,"a trr<>At lU-n 
?«■!• [• 'blown uwny' nftt-r having Wvn coneurawl by his etotk," 
: in of rital beat, ittnMigth, and growth, which are tho prod- 
xioa -it the convemlon of the grain on digestion.* 

"It IkMliaa F""- ' ■' ■■ "" ■ "'" '!*nil vtHhoiaiapteitrnVftatnmUrmtol teti- 

«( f^M, Miwifcii '!■ ^hdb^, U moM cmilf, m ibe gialn hi iU 

■•■Ml «M>OtkiB >■ ■>!'] -••" >:-^v->--L AMtbwMrtM* ebjwtlan to tlwbnp«rfMt 

rf iW w4iMi7 Iwni U gnto^frodln^ If, tW ifc« grain b fnl l« a too o«f 
I timm ; 1h» IW> Miv imlin««D, or ittHa^uiM, IhU lh« IfarUt o( tttt falUwng 
I fcpimJi Uigalj oa (k* laUmala kdmtiturv u( frouiu) gnia «l(b ouane forage i 
«rf *tf Im;. kU£>, aM( b« Acipp«d, Mul tnur* ihoroaght/ bitonnliiglcd wiib it, bir the 
«a^^Ml ■•( Uw boM MMln, Km lfc« th^cptiig o( ib> b«7 cod atra* ibI ibe utilBg 
MA «m1 m»i *M«r I* « UlMMtnn* nparsilott, tad fc«aw ib« oeeMimy of appljrtni! llM 
■od Urn* Mrtoc Ubor In tb* bwlMM ef fofdlng. Annilinr MVlas I* In 
ih> W3*r iha ittiHUiw In «tiMi lb* inwlilMrT, tli« hty mS ptia, 
I an brpt, ih>- lr*4 (lia |.n pcffiiouMc qBMiliy of lMBb«r iM*dc4 ; udtbn, 
^ta, Ik m^ u ouM Tiporawrv uul nalllulMi, aklA In onllanty funtkis 

M> panii tk^t rrr'-l- iloA, u« •oaaaaJMllj unt iiTMtlnIr r«|tiil>u4- Aa 

Jw !>■■ |«wUo' -.<r MiJ tiMBicn «f term tha«MUi4 tm* (Mr- D. 

• — .rffdbm^L •riwbiihlcliUilfaf MuylicNMarinfamtiInn, cM«> 

^hmH* Ife tutlnvloi UdUlnail t»«l^ af iMi MlijMI fimu dip AmcHim (Wmum) 
^^ -« ■ TW >ir*»g« Wartw* finn b no* ruAlwriy Winy 1. liBI «i|»*m wOl W» 
iiH «dJ •** u|i lUHMwi *l.U!i wtll JbphM thM« naWfal inMlioiK Tto 
-•••to, (v*n U lh# rxKi rUv* <*• nn( now h« p(*dMly Indialcd- At 
(- 'd BiiA uf tlM train, m»I neu); ill nt ihn toiil* bdJ liuplonniU, 

t* Ilka T*i»o«, • 

nri> extreme and rapid, and not 
t'f lliii grain which the farmer 



How Frreat a revolution fn tlie buKluotw of agriculture is jt 
to bv «ffeclod by ttio cuUiviitioii of liuid in largo trocto, with 
full use of machinery and under the factory syatt-m, U nmtt* 
for the future to reveal; but it can not be doubt«.-d thut W 
sliiflleea, wasteful mvthwla of sgrtculturo, uow in prautico ovfl 
viiiormouB aruos of the i-arth'« ourface, are altogetlier too 
baroujs to be much longiT tolerated ; and, as the refmit of 
progrees, the return of the pricifi of meats and cereals to the 
former bijfher rat««t, which many are anticipating on aoconnt 
Die iucrcasing Dumber of tlie world'8 cuiuiumors, uiay bo delaye 
Indefinitely. Possibly in tlio not very remote futum, the worli 
—im Ite population shoirs no signs of abatement in ita increa 
may be confronted vrith a full oocupation of all fanning land 
and a great comparative diminution of jiruduct through au ex- 
haustion of its bl«mout» of fertility ; but> before thut time ar- 
rivcji, improvements may podwibly bo outde in agriculture whit 
will have practically the wme elTeot as on increase in 
quantity of land ; or possibly chemistry may be able to prodt 
food by tho direct ountbiiuvlion of its inorganic elements. 

Finally, a comprehuuaivu review of the economic changes oC^ 
the last c^uartor of a century, aud a careful lioluncing of win 
seems to bave been good and what seems to have been evil 
reepoct to nsalta, would seem to warrant the following conclu- 
sions : That the immeuio mat<<rial progress that those chaagw 
Uiivo eiitailfd han bc-un fur uuiukind in general, movumout U|H 
ward, and not downward ; Cor tho bettvr and not for tlio wone ; 
and that the epoch of time under consideration will hcnuift 
rank in hielory us one that has had no parallel, but which cu 
naiponda in impurUmco with tho ptirii>dfi that succinwively ful- 
lowed the Orusftilus, tho inveutiuu of guupuwder, the eQianni{ 
tion of thon^t through the Ri^fiirmation, and tho iaviintiun 
tlio steam-engine; when the whole plane of civilixntion at 

iIm ulnuUt IbMDMlvM (I do Mil DNina ao« on lbs «tM«la«fc rufw, b<u «t«a «• t 

lnii»'llluu>ii) tinw) liiTo no KKtt o<rvT ihvb bmbs *x««iit tW euMpf ot iMavnk < 

Uw nwrawy gslac Mwukvkl); t*«iiir uiil e<t« lUnjr ^raire* b*bw trta. TImm ' 

fd mHMt la IukiIbc an In |Mn ynaMtA \ij (lip [Inliod fluu* Iiuiii«(Iim4 Uo, *a4 

(b* ooMpalkm of tin libtoto tHthaiuilhW npuM of ofantp Ui»U. W1h« Urn %»» 

nvA, difiwM, u4 InipaonUow am w Iwcif mmAn a kni<lf*>l ami tiwj tonm Hpoa 

Whioh M e«>|ih>f iMr tulMraua nNrlknd*, aai wIirii (kn Uad alrmJ; ulimt ■!< *W1 

hato riMH (nxn lb« In* prioaa al ahiloli It miw aunJa to flhr itiiAan m iniira pM anra. a 

nrw itt*|xv«tloa irill anha. NdiliM Uw milr, nat \h»f 

win Ibca Im nlaad tij' aa; «uab mMboit *• now prrnul i i 

Iba tlaiaaola to wlailar. Trf imcniKh, iW npraJnx M|i M ixlivr \u%ia i ^rillo, 

Soulfc AmafM. Afrtea. mi rftpnti^n-, m»» M*nH| \S\t H— In tb» v»r.-- i t* I 

WMlani part al en.r 

MOla<l*«l; Uiln lli< 

OuntUaml llial um ali ctimar mlaf iKqiubll 

auJ Rlw«la« that Uia liori (mh,* 'i:.hI«>'' 



haBUUttty roiiv !«> n biulu-r Ivvirl ; each grcAl movomcut Iwing no- 
(KapAiiied by nocinl 'linlurbBnctfi of grout inagnitudo aud eeri- 
„r,. :- . -. 1 ... ,.-' ■ -'■ ■ -i»rk'iiwt pmvi'd were but tcmpornrj" in 
i! iii'il in thi'ir inflneiioe for cvW in com- 

pMiMHi M-iLli ' lliitt Followiv]. Aiul n'hnt the watt^hman 

»ii.ii.i;ii..' iin th. :.^!ur emin^nt-e cim ut»w wo 18, thiit tlio time 
li . vlii'n div pupulatioD of Ihe world coimnandt* i^e moans 

•m I'ti'Dcc III II greater dtv^ree and with less of 

• ' •■; and what !ii> may reuonnbly expect to 

rt-mot^i p(>rioil i», lh(> dftwn of a dny when human 

l--i.fi_\ \. 1 motv diMiiictly than ever phyiiical disability, 

DKctal iti< or unpardoTuibU' viciouentits nT lazineoB. 


Br rn-tl U OKWALD, M. D. 

A pntLOaOPHIC mlvornt*! of rulipona tolorancfl holds 
xV. that " tho tniMt r>ffective way to explode a popular fal- 
If If we Hh'^uld npjily thai, method to tho 

IX' I val Kpfflfnt that Dtill haunt the hy-waj-s 

«f Um ninrt««iith century, wo raljjht say that the moral aberra- 
tidu - ' 


of • few : 

d wn« 


Me aROM Bjinin^ cliiufly from thtt tendency to 

• it efftrfit Iff jihyairiil niUHfs. If Ihe ehrtmic 

linviil dynp-'ptir reaeliKl the jduHie of mii- 

ooiifetMor wouM ulviM< him to defivit tho 

{ by dnvotinK hix lelanre to Ihe nwitation 

' "• I' pepiM>r«>d bash and want of 

lior of hJH wife to an unhpurable 

inntrurtod to coiiNider the visitation a judgment 

■■' "p'f, or by hiaopjvwrilion toan extra raacws- 

■■"("ir. The e])i(Iemie increa^of the alco- 

treut'd a« a di»iirder amonablu to the 

;:i :. :iur<i. For ncjxriy a thouwuid years the 

"ao mornla was, ludis-*!, tho history of the 

- wbn bojted to reconcile the 

It Liital neglect of physiologi* 



al of nri'—T'-ni, however, the tendeneiee of 

1 make i <lo thjtt the profn'em of moral 

! with the d(iv^difpin"iit of a 

1 iu a few iiii-iih'ntal treatiBOS 

' minit, TliH poHfiiliilitles of that 

■ ' The rejiiitU of the MaHsti- 

. he«— the moral iudiiunco 




of climate. M<Htem French ecientiata are nothing \i not mfl 
thodioul, and have ropMtMlly cuHmI attvntiuu io the curion 
regularity iu tho goographicul dititnbutiua uf certaJu victM aa| 
virtueA: iutemperance, for instance, north of th« forty -eighfl 
parallel; sexnal aberrations south <if the forty-firih; llmiurin 
extravagance iu liirge seaport tuwntf ; thrift In {NLStural higL]u[J| 
rogionft. It is, inilijcd, a roinarkjihlo oirctunstunoo that in tjfl 
home of the beet wine-graiiea, in Greece and aouthem Spaffl 
drunkenness ia far less preraleut than in Scotland, or in RueauUB 
Poland, where Bacchus can tempt his votariee only with natuui- 
0U8 vodka. The idea that a low temperature hcgets on inrtiucfcj 
ive craving for alcoholic tonios aeems disproved by the teolfl 
toliam of the Patagonian savages, who hor»ewliip every Spanlsl 
stiinuliuit'monger without benefit of clerg:>'. The Lesghiofl 
mountai&ooK, too, oLsitvo the inU.'rdict of tliu Koran iu the itfl 
summit-regions of tho CaucoHUs; hut there ta i>u doubt that till 
bracing influence of a cold climate afTordR a certain degree a 
immunity from the debilitating effect of the olcohol-rioe, aifl 
that a S<.-andiuavian peasant can for years survive the effecta d| 
a daily dose of alcohol that would kill an Eg>i>tlan fellah infl 
single month. But it ia eciuully cvrtain that the tomperance ifl 
£outh-l»nd uatioue is conKiderahly facilitat<.<d by the abundanojl 
of noQ-ak'oholic poatimee. The Spaniards have their faudangoA 
and bull-fight«; tho Gnwks thvir border-raids, cocking-maiu^ 
and horse-mooe; white the Scotchman, after six days of hadi 
work, is confront*^ with the choice bptwoon the delirium of |9 
alcrthol-fever and the ap|>alliug tedium of Sabbatarian oacttfl 
clsm, and naturally chooeee the loss iliKuial altomative. H 

The queetion, though, remains, if raligions gloom itself H 
not an outcome of <:Iimatic influence-s. Cardinal de lietai, Indoufl 
held that orthodox loyalty is a fluwer that can not flourbh ^^H 
of the Alpe; but it is more than probable that tho imrviiv^| 
that |iln»t lias been greatly assisted by tho conuivinfc 6onAon^| 
of south Euro|>eiui ocoleeiastics, who, oonturiev ago, ' ^l 

preciatu the wisdom of extending tite procliou of •■ 

to the claim of oonsisteocy. Tliu " climate of Hupcrxtitton " oiM 

not bo defined by geographical n|>ecifirationn : but, :■ " ■' fr^ 

olouda of the South HohI griz/]y iiv«r tlm ino|iiiiK 'J 

the Nortli, dogmas which tht> i ''1^1 

manage to roeuncile with a gi : ..: n... . ^^^B 

apt lo uHKumo a gloomy charnoUir In the land of tho lOT^S 
boreatui, whoau mtioiinl . . ' ' it^H 

ugsinitt Milf •contradictory < '''^V 

comfortable more rwulily ihuu an ill-' i>nfl 

find the Naliiv.-" ■ ■ Pr<>t«tants ■ d fl 

Japan and w i;t. and the ■ lM 



bUraUtiMl hlebljuidfl of Asia. Tlio moxt obstinate (tis- 
iBiltni'!' (?hnrch Lato UieirdtrottglinliU in aortbfm 

RumU, « ntUm of tho CossAoks are limit«<ij to ultra- 

i>-iftl ouNibrntiiinii of ecoleflifttttic holy-days. Even in oncitmt 
!li ■ '■ ■' I' " jio Sjinrtiinft iieem to hAvo been macb 
Nurth-Ufllenic rivalsi. 
Thn •-VIM I nooiaitHUco of low Latitudes and low mor- 
al*— Itt Otiii'it'" iHiuw ot the wonJ — is u tlioor>- con&idernbly 
nndiflnd by Uiii ropcirU of our latter-day nortb-polu explorers. 
Okanian, Pallna, AdaiuM, Qabriel Sarytchew, and Katto a^ree 
thftt rertain trlbtic of the {mlar rwpuna are sensual Ui a degroo 
.>) bavu Bcaadaliz«d tbo natives of ancient LtiBbia,aiid 
'Mm* to amiuo thv modern Coasocka, who, in theEr 
I tho not ovor-dcrupnlous monUists of the l>niiubian 
I' Among ttio Yftkoots of northern tjit>eria m^aal' 

' ■ ..a anraimtionnlili) kind are condoned uo readily as 

.1 more unprwcJoiitwI dtiRroe of sexual precocity which 
UuualMo Moribw to Uie " nlmoift oxi-luHivuly animal diet of the 
WTrtrlinl mrmim." Our wiually cjirutvorouit Indians are. how- 
f "ri24x] byanexujil iipotby which an able American 

fiiiiji —^ ini'lincil tn considor a principal cause of tlieir 

ICrad II ; uuil Chainiiwo'fl bypothp-iiB must probably 

\m r- iiv*! by olliur explanntioiui — for iimtrtnce, tbci en- 

t'trr,. ,^ of his pyginitw during the anow-bouud souson of 

' day* atul ovurlong nights. IdleneM may likowiso account 
lur the erotic oxoawMM of tMlaiidora enjoying the iK^efita of a 
fiirtile •oil and u gonial olImatA, like the notorious tiAtiTOS of va- 
rious jHuiM of the Qreolan ArchipelnRo and the Leaser Antilleti, 
OnC lo mvntioa thu tw jrfiu vUran dtiwrilM-d iu the rwportx of the 
6nfc SonOi Him nxplorvpH. As a nilo, the prevalence of incon- 
tfauBi' < an IrivurMi ratio ti> the prwloininanco of active 

mrmT. ; in iutj MUSK uf tho word, the coiitmenco of hunt- 

"U bains ftlioMt rivaJol by that of intensely iudu»- 

'KMi*, however, preooctty increaseB with the dis- 
rra of Stockholm, alioni thi> sixtieth dogreo 
'I Eun>p4>nnd the forty-fifth degree in tho 
North of that parallel the stunted and 
■ ly as thfi premature chil- 
li , , - . _ . :<jgiun« gunpraliy excepted. 

1 A natives of the Peruvian aituraa marry late, 

wiui> ' pf**^'M the crvolM of the Bnuulian low* 

IsB^-' ■(Ttmemimtjn Uiu matrimoutjd propensitieK 

rwiyH of fdurt'oni and g<rls of 

'., . il )Mt)ii<vi} Dr. UurmviitkT, even 

lie. The coi <>f Sictly, too, arc exiM-ditious, 




Cor- ^ 

litrffn " 

even from au Itnliiiu point of view, vhtlo on the island of Cor- 
sica a p4wuliur stnte of ngmri^tn iliriiciilties li&a oountoraotad 
influfiiice of climata Uiuif of ihe campantlas or muall ter 
plains have been so oUerly exhausted that tlio uvuilublu tni 
of irrigation fail to rwloem tJjo iuij^vomliwl »K>il, while a largo 
purceutago of tlio productive arvtk 13 in Uie bandtt of the con 
venbi, which re(«erve the right of tonure for their oM retainu 
Combinw] with the straits of that land-famine, the ovor-inc: 
of population bocumo mich an unquulifiMl evil that Uiu comtO' 
seose of the poasanta originated a syHtem of ostracism, ati 
infamy and social excommnnicatioii to tlio proliminarie* oa 
aa to the results of msrria^ before a specified ofte. Id 
the enormous liui-den of taxation has practically led to iin idon 
tical result, and Ihu prevalence of a mode of existence which Ed' 
moiid Al)o«t colls the " c*libacy of prudence" is no louger coi 
fined to the larger cities. 

The lato morria^ of monntaineors, too, may be partly 
plained by their instinctive love of independence. The sterile 
soil of a highland region necwsitatee for and frvquent oxeuT' 
noos in quest of the menus of subsistenoo, and the unnncum 
liered privilege of pentonal fr(Hf<!oin tliu* Ix-cani© often a miidi- 
tiou of survival. With a marmot and a hand-organ, if not with 
a marmot nhme, the young Savoyard perambniateil £urupi> fro 
end to end till he has accumulated the equivalent of an Alpiii' 
oompotcncy. The irumkroa of the upper Aponninos ro<»m Ital 
like gypsies, ready to do any man's harvoet • work. Young 
Sootcbinen oross the Tweed or even the Atlantic l>efore tlw; 
venture to mo the risks of matrimony on the precarious 
flonrcw of a Highland moor. The scantness of population, audi 
the consequent distance from neighbor tu ueighhur, bclji Lo ii 
highlanders iu the habits of solf-help, and thno form that inslinci 
of independence which has generally justiQed the proud mot 

I of West Virginia. 

A similar cause, however, would seem to have 
similar rciHult among all true nomads, vfao lik«iris«ai 

•' Uaks encb itar mri Um daitj rinfal lo Utb." 
But while M - T • 

OS of i\m .< 

I exportable national pride, a sort of hygienic Intuition njipHant 
tvncli mouiitMini<ers lh» tmpifriority ' "'^ ■- rn-- ■' - • ■ l 
make Iheni nviTHe In a [H>nnni»int 1' 
landers, though thi* sUir 

tberefori* nirely engngi-.j . .: , . -, .... : 

pafuiht natious, to nse a Bimnarclcinn nnphulnm, tn-i >U 

lowlandeiv '" :^ ■ ■ •■ 

Tartom. V. . . 

■1 a 

11 of an 


t^l nil th* (ywrt-IantU of tho Mwlitorranean originally 
:t >iiui of LAtiutu ; unil. if Mr. Katkoff's prog- 

0—'-'<l by tiiH diaiiilvgrnliun of iho American 

woaltl Ix) (tofu Ui predict thiit tlte tarKt-r part of our 
' •uiH)li<lut(>(l liy wnup eu|)«|itio low- 
I '>T;r:tii, ittid lliitt the Alloffhanins 

\m\i\ toaiiitJiia tlirir in'! .-o by tliu Ktubbom rvsistaace 

' ■' ^ ' ' ' ■ liirK Tin' :ii>iii.'iiltc lierdors of wwntMrn Tuxas, 
:^ ttmr rvHiHluiioe for many yparn: hut. ou tlio 
• rrh of lint now cmiiirL' would follow tliu course of 
''- for Lbo iloulilo niOMon tliut the Klrvam of con- 
y moved m-owanl ami soutliward. Ruttsia will 
1 iili-H the ea»t«m Meditorrancan «« well fUi 
.iic avowedly intended to ext«'nd hie cmpinj 
If; aiiii, from tho cntiifuiif^it of Kiug Cyrus to thu 
:<T|)ri»ifi of Victor ICmaiitiel. nine out of tou intor- 
. Iiavii iuiilfNl with the rivtory of northt^rn QatioQS 
' nbora. The Ko<]dos3 of fortune would 

:_< 1 . .l:i a fur ca|i, and the euu of thtt south 
» lynx into a Hon doM not neoccearily rovono tho 
inthflcajf ' ' man animal; tmt It t>t true that a 
clfDmt«< ilor "ataying ]K>wer." nn-i iii war 

X^\.. ■ in worth a dozou i*halh'tiK«<- "^''^ hiatory of Eu- 

rofi* lu.h.ii , iiMli.>nl, Mnctmmgc the idea that certain northeru tio- 
tlnu lovtt war fur ita owu sake, though Prof. Vogt infonus 
w that gratuitous cfimltativnoHM i* a ligu of aiMHitflo infr'nnrily. 
" A f)t • and waji}Mi that lacklo evary wayfarer," aays ho, " can not 
'vith tl)« RpiwiMi that ro«orve thiiir energy for eorions 
ht: ■•. nriil wi:!,. u* tho protwtion of tho dog-fanrior tho 

^Bt 1 ' i I '^ ip<'»'"iily tfiicoamb to their pn-ijosterous 

^Bi <-nr's^ w.iuM rather tw^in to bo 

^H . ..|.|ieiir to tiriMtle with etilcttoH as 

^■1 ii cactuMhoniH— the brigandago of Turki»- 

^^L 'iig itN exmt aniiln^ii>> in the kiilua[>- 

Pft] ■vdyiRNi of our uriil S^'Uthweiit. 

It quiti* curtain t Iml tliu " iuxtinct of indufltry " can ho 

' - -■' ' ; ■ f the higli.T lalitu/Je*. Wlicn 

, I hing in hear-Bkinii, Egypt and 
fltiwui-ui "i industrial nativity. Our Korth 

igwnum when Mexi(5o wa» muddod 

poldcMM. But hitro. too, tho virtue of peraeverauce seoma to 

' again' ' ^ ;- ■ . Mhe energy of 

(itart- .1 e<»m petition, 

I Ui dlAtaiiO' ihr tuu'licr enterprise of the South. 

-■ ■ 'f tho won!, in, howover, to 
of the iostiucta of oo^p- 




Erration lud allniisoi, botli of whicL aro uadoubtctlly irtimuUtod 
by the cinorf^iiciee of a rigorous climate. A h«rrl-li«Ml«J tiorlh- 
looder who has himself been snow-lmund luid froet-bitton will 
not j^ora the distroos of a holp-ntt-diiijc uuighbor ; wUilt* tlio ro- 
ligioutu rhnrily of tlio Smmoeo pmituut i» Apt to bo modifiod by 
XXmhi rtiflc^ctioti tlint, nftur the tot*l loss of their fruit^rop, lihi 
storm-Btnckea bretbreo In Buddha can still eke out a tolerable 
living in the woods. 


WHEN, a few mouths ago, announcement wofi modo, inL^ 
potio opulence of mural decoration, thjkt Ur. Barnum^ 
and Mr. Forepaugh's circuses had pooled their nttmctirmit undt 
n Bingle tent, the American small boy lodged no proteM, nor did 
ho invoke the statutes of this republic against the dan^rtt with 
whleb it« iiwtitutious vrcro threatened. But when whisky, or 
coal, or cotton-Miod oil, or prunes, or beeswax, propone to adhoro 
i» happy family compact, the occasion is not allowed to |>af8 
wilbout jerRmia<l on the perils of this commonwealth and tfa? 
departure of the liberties of this peopli^ ■ 

In a paper untitled " Modem Feudalism," in the " NortS 
American Review " for April, 1887, 1 uudenitand Mr. Jamoa Fl 
Utidooii to suggest tliat any old-fashioned ideas as tu the eoou^ 
omy of hirgo produoors over small ones, and suppased oodsh 
quential security of wages, greatest good of the greatest numb^dfl 
etc., which may still obtain in the community, are eur^ ' ' ■ fl 
the dark agi'e', and without place in the enlightened ci^ < < iil 
of tills continent ; and to as.sert that any combination of curpo*j 
rations or large manufacturei's or prndncers for manufacture oh 
production of a single staple, which shall purchaito the iutureet oJ 
business of smaller manufacturers or producers, is a mi-nacinn 
dangvr, not only lo the consumer, but to the State, Mr. t]tidsoil| 
has nothing tu submit na to any iwssible amnll compiititor whs 
mi ' ' 'iftpa lie *v '" reveii anxious to liecrufi ' * " ' il 

a > ttion" r: >ii nitsumc all the chanci 'A 

orajiliing out the larger comp«>tiior. Nor do 1 find him dnteMH 

ing the quftttion wi lo what iut<'rust it is to the o<^ -m >- whoj^H 

the firr>dupt heronsumoM lie manttfactun)d orqui v aa^B 

eitce of political <>couomy to warrant, I Uiiuk, a posutng uoUce Ifl 

111 ■ 

.1 ttuit any tnourporw 

/3 COJfBfiVATJOy CRlAf£t 

Pc4>mhtiuitioD, or ** trust " orffantsed for business purposes ia 

'otirnur" lii tbu ihin^ tuuiufacturixl, and therefor« u^'iiiii»t the 

- )'■"■ uf till) Ijuid Oil well 08 till) public interest. He is 

lit tliu uutaet. EvflrylKxly who known anytliiug 

tlui uAtUir knows that to " comer " a pixxluct is to raiiie 

Itv. not to tbs ooQsumer, but to tho operators adjust wlkom 

' ooruM- " b OQ^luuenxl. Howovor diiiastronii a *' comer " 

la "tborto" who light it: ultimately fatal to the 

rbk publiu iitdigiiatiou if they succewl or tho 

. of biukrupU'y ir lhi.ty fail in suHtainin^; it), I have yet 
of any iN.<miati<int iujury to the consumer — or to the 
bwly of ihu pooplo — nwultiiig from the nHokwloift coroor 
n -uiDptci). Without attempting any )>alliation uf 

r atcuM- ' ■ gamblers who stack staplaa instead of " chips " 

«Ail ahnfllM valntM instciid of carc)«, it is yet, perhaps, itrojwr to 
ma^gmX that i»vea truxti«, com bi nations, and incorpui-atioui* fur 
purpoM* an? of soiuo ultimate j;ood to the commuuity 
(•fit \i> Llu) bruail-wiuuLT; an<] to point out the actual fact 
•a for from raininK* it ui (o tho immediate interest of a 
lUuAtiiiQ of uuoU btuiiiiiiw iuteresla into a large one to at 
chmpuu tbti priooM uf it« pro<lucl to tho very minimum 
uf pnilit at which manufacture cau bo carried on, 
riM>, the crop of now combinations to be bought out 
he TOidlciM. For, sunJy, so long as tho prodnct iu which 
ibination doaU can be manufactured at a profit, just so 
no bo mauuru4!'turert;. Mr. Iludfion. no doubt, bums 
..ny cuosumur of lllumitialiiig oil can tell him that 
e»n buy from an agent of Mr. Hudsou's |iot grievance, tho 
rl ' ' ' -ipi-r' than ho could bi'foro thero 

. B«i ,'Uti,'' and when everj* pnNluiriT had 

'. ii Mr. Hudson ever sent a telegram 
i.. I ..uiago before thtt days of the Westom 
h Company (which, uaughly lut it is, only 
'I'ntji for too words to Cliinigo). at th>.> rulo 
' IM<r ton words to Chicago, without grum- 
at tbi> inooQgruity of the price, bo is a much moro 

>]>' II. L III some of hU n-a<terH take lum to lie. And 
A:-\'- ill 1'— whatovor the immediate camtos — the ira- 
i))iiialions is apt to Ihi to convLmicnrv mtliiT 

ti. th» ruitUjmer ur clivut; \vt uie allude, iu 

tu (what ovurybodf knows) thu fact that the singtu 

* TV l)ua4uJ DQ CWnfwitjr W M rvtnocd ilir ami at Uih pracMB oS ndntng tlial 

tiM hiaa bi>cn4 bna m>i ' ' • iktn ktui nrnti pn p»l 

tM 'xT MUn jm MpAa I " |>kr 1"« *!>» 'o^r «**■ 

n IvDiifll t« IhK ■•n>i>I' ■.( tlilt ooanirf (oMUiia); Uivm 

I umiBu.— -' .S'g» York TtkUa^" lU; 1>, ISDT. 







poworfo] owncnliip of tbo t«Ii%rtiph Uneii of cho United Statoa 
has resulted in the stondy tmpruvoment of the service (the Mend* 
van of fonr measagM at once npoa a single wire tind in opp<»iito ^J 
diivclions Iwing not tbe graaleet of tlicso inipruvumonU). Pr-r-^^ 
iiitjw Mr. HudtKiD thiaka tliat thiwe itDpruvoment« would have 
been itinro patriotically used if the iuTeotore had pnip1(>yo«) tliuia 
tohreBkdown,ijiHte«<l of to aggrandize and strengthen, the " mo. 
noiH>ly." Btit unlE«B Mr. Hudiwii dreams of a |>amdi&e wlieroj 
invonton ecok not tu be pnid, are not stiinukted to activity 
by hope of niwunl (if, that m, he writes for hf» contemi>oraries] 
and not for an iihuil rcpulilic), ho must bo aware of the iinpoiuii- 
bility of legiflntiiig awuy the iniluccun'iit^ to human induxtry or 
the instinct of men to prefer worldly prosperity and hank ar< 
coontH to poverty and dependence. Had these inventions beenj 
UMd to break down exiHting oompanies, the result would havti 
been llnally the name. Tlit-y would have been purchiuod by thu | 
strongf^t purse. But the inventor would firat have boeu ruimstl 
I But Mr. Uudmn, for one, elill writes^ Such propottitioiut ant Ihntj 
Fthere is not a dollar of capilAl in the United States which doi« 
■ not i-epn'«unl somebcxiy's labor and somebody's self-denial, or 
thai every dollar which accruee in profit to-day to the railroada 
or other great corporate interests of this country r«prc«ent« from 
i two hundrml to tluee hundred dollars paid directly, and lo cash, 
to the wage-workers (tho very men for whom Mr. Hudson aa- 
I Bumes to speak) — such pro|M>sitioiis, I say, do not deter him in 
hlie lw8t, nor do I anticipate that they ever wilL If the <xiri)or»> | 
roans of the United States (chartered by the pitople of tho United 
I Btatm for transportation, manufneturing, and oUier purjiostis), 
' in Pndi'nvoriii« to keup abreast of tliw commerce and (radw of Ui« | 
people of tlio tTnitod SljitMt, have grown to such enormous jjro- ] 
portions m \a attract the envy and enmity of those not holding j 
their securilien, 1 re«pe<-tfnlly mibmit that that is tto rtMMon why 
I tiioBocorjinrutiuiiH should U- puuituhed, or thoir intereeta irracked, 
enibarnimcd. or confiscatod, Mr. Hudson to the contrary uotwiUi-^ 
standing. I 

[ The fact— the tntth i«, that (however It may bu in other coun-l 
|lrii'«) the nmimulation of wealth and cer.' nj." 

pnurcp in gruil combinations hna never, in ' ''^j 

ibaen n soarco of oppression or of poverty to tlic noa-cupitnliflt j 
or wftgi'-wurktT. Tlie greatest opprosmr. ^ ' ' i"xir. lo tho eoa-l 
trary, arc not alit-ayH the Inrgmt corpu. 1i i" 'luit^t aaJ 

biki-dy, for exanip]i>, to bu a small Chiitliam liurl 

■who hiniMcIf strngKlcs agninsl the !■ '• ■■ vt-l 

Uoor " puUer-in "), as a Broadway fii i •¥»! 


(or tlfanirUl opno whirli she oporates it. Mr. HudMn ap- 
paan to iufar tbat tbo Mualler the Duuiufacturer, the betu>r off 
tb« ootunT: — '1(1 th« wiig«-work«r ; thiil thuonialli'r lie is, the 
■omllwr 1 ^ tu lht< one and tho hight<r hut wugco to tho 

otb»r. I d'i uui cluim that tliu lnrg«r tlie shirt-^enlftr, th« higher 
tli» prio''* '"■ '>'\VH tu hiit tiuuuiEtrvesufi. I do uot c-Iium that tlin 
■ouUem I' >1 bucomos Mjulful tho mumont h«&nde himself 

^^^norii' "II is tlio other wuy). But I <Io claim 

^^Kbs • !ie fact. I have not had Mr. UuiUon'ii 

upfMirtiuiitiiw, iii>rlmi<a; but, so far uh thtt laws of human eeltlsih- 
■MB .-> ' -• '.( 1^1, 1 hkppoD to know that thu lurj^or thu princi- 
!«] t) r^wun.' tbo «agv« of tho wat^ivworkor, and thtt scale 

ifaif) -I iifit tiLy-io^iirily or oven prohJibly lonor. 

li.. .,;.. . .a (wht'thtir Mr. IIudMn Trill tsvw bccoiiio aworoof 
H uooothinr ou'l how hn]K>rtiuit consideration), that the very Urst 
ffiiccuM«f<i' inwittiring combination doen, and must 

U> ]iut tile I itii product don-n to n figure where it 

vUl [Mit pay for dcvi^tiiutc Kpwuhitont to fonu now Htock com- ■ 
..-■ ■ >r it to "crtu^b" at u hundriKl or more coots on udoUiir. 
it kii-p ii]i it*i [iriwH, cither otiu of two things n'uuld 
r ni'w fiw'torii!)! would Ui 8t«rtf<l, or 

- ^ i:iA I>voplu would invent a euhstittitu for 

tbf prulurt tlii<y fumtubvd, nud bo ruin tho combinatioti beyond 

80 rapidly have pricM lowvred. indwd, in the past, and so 
fiMiMatiUy nn< th(*y iitill fulling, tliivt LAmiwt tvonomiBta have 
b«inun to wondvr what the utid would be; and oven the labor 
ogilator* havu tonu'd Tram the (to thorn) sevniiugly abstract 
quMtUwof hottrH and waKco, on between the otoptoyorand tlin 
aat|iloyad, (u litid in thiii the HUpposad (rreatc«t peril of iho lat* 
tar. ]t ovvu spi)t<an> tliat ono Powdvrly, a chief of one of the 
I, t4> 



biKir uirivi'mriitM," biut miide it tht> t4-xt of L-i<rtitin of 
riL-iii«. Ami, with wluit Dtfkeiui would call iK-rlnqM* "a 
r -.," Mr. Hudsoa himitolf (who hiw ju«t left dt'nying 

t .. >itiliu<Ln<-M U) cimlnUizo Uicuui'dviti liecause tbe first 

t ■■ y did nflftr ciTntralizntloo was to put up pricra), on the 

biBt p«|[t, wiji^ " ' ^di/rly \\a» invi>iKlii'<l agaiuHt tlio sin of 
duMpnoM, and (^ - ;uM-ut to thi> priut-iplu of rombination 
to tmW pnoei, oa the aimimption that hucIi combinations In- 
att adv ' u waffm." (Thouifh to what purixwe Mr. 

•a hv> - I this oxoert>t bin t-otitext fiulu to disMVur, 

< to bis owu nr^moiit, if not tu Us ruodurs, 
it* "'■"■'--Hion.) 

Mr. HudMiQ 

as folh>ws: "It is an old truth 

■"i{ the "' ■ ■ ■ 
,! bvneVH' 


while dfiTJCM to m]e commerce by the snspeoBion of compe> 
tition, and to eznct arliitniry profitx from the mnwm, are the ex- 
treme of ftelfishneM and op[>t\>ii»ion. Tlio nnivi-nvvl imtare of 
this troth was perceived when the world emergt^ from the medi- 
iBTal system of ecouomiod, but it eeems in danger of huin{f for- 
gotten. ThiH is illustrated by the criticism of Mr. E. P. Alex- 
ander, the most rownt writer on the milway question. tJiiit those 
who hohl competition to Iw the only just measore of prnfit^ in 
any industry are years behind the age in comproheitsion of the 
science of the railway question." 

WhatovLT there may ho beyond platitude in the above is 
pure invontioii. The t'k<meut of " the least, cost " ns parcel of 
the definition of " commorco " is certainly novel, and as intereet- 
ing as it is novel. And certainly, too, the remainder of the sen- 
tence — from the words "the universal nature of this truth" 
{which truth ?— Mr. Hudson has alluded to sovend) onwanl — is 
an oxtremuly rt^'umrkable statement to come from the pun of a 
writer who aMnimcs to deal with Mononticjil questions and mat- 
ters of social scienca The allusion lo Mr. Alexander is fyjunlly 
childish, and without l>earing niH>n the matter which we believe 
Hr, Hudson claims to be discussing ; unless, Indeod, ho thought 
it necessary to show, in passing, how thoroughly he had failed 
to comprehend the question of American railway systems, to 
r the discussion of whicli Jlr. Alexander h£is lately (• « 
most admirable monograph. When Mr. Alexander used the 
words dragged from their context as above, he was pointing oQt 
how the question of mcxlern industrial competition hwl hmg 
since ceased to involve simple problems of competition in get- 
ting hnsiuLtse alone ; how it at prosunt inoludi-s aim thti element 
of the cost twr«ijji the price of doing businem at all — that is to 
say, the value of the ojiportunity to do business at nil, as against 
the actual outlay in wist necessary to do the business bronght to] 
the party offering to do the business at all (which element, 
©voryhody — who knows anything of tlio matter at all— kuowaj 
to 1h) not only a very serious and a ver^ " ' :d unc, but acl- 

iially the paramount one, under present < im). (Ak others 

bceidi>s Mr. Hudaon may he ijfnnranl of Mr. Ali-xnnder's mean- 1 
inK just luirc. I may explain tfial, to the milway, the value of j 
diiiuif a comfKaitig business, of kitiiiluglts trniiui running andl 
M) : ' itfl rhartor, is Dutiimlly always n Im 

(•nil .• mere question of a profit — i», in fi» ' 

vital mnsideration that could htt named. Or, stiould the qnes-j 

tion pn>»K>nt itsi'lf differently: a hankrui' ■ ■'- ■ ' ■ ~ ■ *':piii 

no railroad at all. It vm\ run nx-Vli-wdj nn-j 

■ able \*\ ni«>i>ond in diitJ ■'>» <ir i ' "r 

uljy//.. >!,>.) Ai.rl v..t ^',11 ,,. ,.:iuu Ihu ui.-j i-,,. ;., ■•'! 


IS cojfiiiXAT/Otv cnrifSf 


W«rp npnmtM amntig tliomKlvra, tbis very banknijtt 
mail «iuM fiiruH xvcry tir'i^litMinng rond lo Piiyuliitij itwulf by its 
own liirttiou:> iiifR. For, just, iw » chain is no «lr*ing«r 

rlu.n 'it" wt«l. ,, «o ihu UtBl railroutl io lli« conutry can hv 

tliftti tbo worrt, if compotitioo ami notliiug liut com- 
lMJui>u iM U» bfl tlio rule.) 
jBoT with nil <urtlity iiinttorH Mr. Hudson will have nothing 
'111. Uv will not ]\en.r of Buch n thing as a com- 
:lo {trucuods: "But tho wry qucvsliou at itutue is 
uy (L Q.. tbMO ()1*1 itlcoH uf cumpvtitioti) nro not muro 
«fith tlirt i-Nsi-jiliitl prindplM of ninelci-nth-tN-ntury 
ry lluui (li(M» will) nnj tnmilix commerce Iwu-k to t)i» 
jiricifi fix<«] l>y oonihinations Hnd the sQSpenBion of DDin> 
'' thin it( lh«) vury ciuislion tit itMue, it would seotn as 
It a htw wi fnr btwn nrlfiilly miHlu»(IinK \t». Ho oer- 

titit nlltidHl to it li^ftttT. So far as careful jterusal of 
rii. , .., r ha« infonncd uh, the (luestion at issue seemed to be 
whtother » KnuUl manufw^lumr bad a right tu null outhishUBi- 
1' At whnt iK>int n turgo manufActun>r. who 

ti la huyinif out hiK MnuUlor ni)iglil><ir.i, must 

atll a bait, nmi Muhtiiit to a p'diMtrilmtion nil around; and as to 
•h«tbi*r KUiall miiiiufai'tun.'nt dbould be coinitelled t'> do busi* 
at a lii« ntiJirr tlinn miU ont l» larger ones. However, let 
u pAKJnotly tihift our ground an oftxn rut neoeefiary, if bo be we 
diacorL'T wlutt it in that our Mr. Uudflon really does mean. 
ta a fact that modum rlvillKntion has n*ally introduced new 
it« ' '' ■ :iciplca iKHndoK the princijilr of compiv 

-V '.im by all nioanii let uh nlxtlixh, K-t us 

tr < |Mr. Uudtion ImowH bow to destroy n principle}, 

.. •■■ -— towhnt? Not to feudal days, certainly; 
"Ii*m fuudnliitni, and that is wimt Mr. Hud- 
Will i,i,it'! >>l. ■-"' Vf had )>etttir, while we are about it, 

bark to tlii< 1 "t Konh tbi) navi^tor, who ttpent otifl 

Ired and twraty yiwn in building a ship whose tiunrtftr-dvck 
hinw- " ■ • ' '■' ' ' ' ■- not apiM^r that Noah 
any rfv ,^ traili.' — to the jialri- 

atvfa.' III. 

B*- " ■.■ .... ■'■ ^ ., how are wa tn tnm hack 

comanttf What in commorce 7 Wob»t<-r nav!) that what we 
by th.-'" ' iige of 

, Wttiw. . J ■ -11 iia- 

by purcboM and ialo, trwii.'. Imflic." Vt^ry ]»owrrful lu- 
I 't ini tilt' rorciw or n(t''ni-irti which 
1 I'M on lJii's(> — ihc ii|<PT'iit:()nH cif tho 
kvaiau I I'h cnltninali' in llit> nilc of xupply 

>•>>! n~ ' ..„ „,. Jii tbu <iutin> human race. Accord- 






ing to Mr. Hudson, liowovor, theM tendcncioH. Ikwh, nod ru]{ 
not amouDt to so voiy much. It is on on»y oiimijgh motUir 
haodlo them. We have ouly to leginlat^ railway c<impnni«8 oi 
of oxistcuuu, and then enact statutes forbiddioj; two uf thu : 
trade to coniliinw. Thi-n thingB will run smoirthly. Thv Stat 
will hold tho tmcltu^ of tho late railroad compAniM its a higb^ 
way; and every dealvr, Biimufacturef, agricuUtirist, minor, will 
carry bis product to niitl fro, and — there you are! No mon 
tnodem fvudalism; nothing but i>eace, plenty, and oommunlBm L 
Faulconridgu would not fright bojii with huga, but a monfl 
drawn from tho mtddlu agos, by reason of it« \Rntt rcmotoooad 
api>eara alwaj-s to be a jwwerful antic with which to worry tltd 
Dou-L-Mpitulisl imagination. Any combination of like iutereebl 
for liusinuM purposes — the cupartnutship furmod by tbrva bud 
ter^desJera or six roal-minoni to continuv tho buBinow of soUinfl 
butter or mining coal; tho corporation, or "tnist," or combing 
tion formed by amalgamation of any rxUting companies — is ■ 
palpable return to the days of feudalixm. ThuH, tho prvaimfl 
sy8t«m of combinations liecomes " modem feudalism." Yuua 
eombinutious aru so lar^ that tbuy huild up a favored and arii^ 
tocratio class, Uko the old crown \'(issii1b. And again, tJiese in- 
dustrial oumbiuations oro hand and glove with the railways, an(L 
so form a n^work of capital in tho meshes of which Uio f^V 
man is strangled. Now, the simple facta u{Mtn which Mr. Iluill 
son assumes to found this htie and cry are tlies«>, vii^ : The noM 
mal tendency of trade to trade-conters, wbcru Et can Iw mosfl 
conveniently handlod, bos its inovitjiblo oorulbtry in tlm tttnid 
oncy, within the tt«do-ccnt«r, to contraliaition of the dilTerviifl 
bnuichi^ of tradu. In the middle ogw the principle o[>t;ratoa 
to build up such imt>orijil centers as Nurembirrg, Antwerp, ouu 
London, anil the corollary to organize, witldn titooo contxrs, tha 
great trade-guilds. In Iat«r years tbu Atlantiti Ocwin, tho liudl 
wn River, and I*ng Island 8ound combiiwHl to make Ni»w YorH 
city an emi>orium for Oie dvixwit and distribution of tbn pnxM 
ucls and induntrifin of two c^mtlnents, while the morely inmwi'nfl 
convenienco (if traders within that city (nut any ariHttx^rutlo ufl 
would-bo feudal mutivtM on their part) <" il 

groop the luutlier intentst into one <imkri<'i, J 

anothnr, oils and proviiriinis and iron-mongnry into rtill otltern 
And if twti or niori) traders in an i' . ..■> r.. ,: . .1 . ,■ 

selves ncighlioni or united in a c< ^ ■'I 

to bind tbt-m!M.4ve« Into a single firm or ' 1 

no '■■"" ( c<in»ijiinMry sgatnsl tho pul... -i y 

c.>!: i'i» of peixoiul couveuienoe atid ^ thfl 

nil ''4 

(*•;■.- 'J 

IS oojfB/yATioy chime t 


th^m, nitd to Ho tho most exteosivo Itauling for those who 

■n\k cf buuliiiK for them to tio. They woro not 

■.hvir acta of luix^rjtoratiou to finit demand oer- 

. < wxl moral chnmtTtvr, or affidavits thjit the wonld-be 

''imbuintiou of itidiviiliuilti or atockholdcrs 

M corpijratiou. .AJid vol, »n|x;rl1uouK w thU 

u, it In oclaally tjut of auc-h familiiu- truisms as these 

'-:!t to tniit tho Himplt-'iiuMS of tho situation without 

Ikut' ''.nl Mr. Hudmm mtHOH flK"t<^'Ut aftur fii^uiuiit au<l 

i^lm«nt imun tofUnturh nud alarm Uto Qoii-itnxlticiiif; 

Ktwl moil-- :.:i|[c olwuMM uf thiif alruady imperile<l commu- 

M'-y! Ami tho purport of thcee Ggtneuti) ftud the portout of 
:u''- i-bimonw In a]w»y> that any uso of capital iu bulk is crimu 
uk-iiiiifi tbiM pttoplo and this ropuhliu; und that tho iuoor|>oru- 
tiiia for litutiiuMH purposoa " stuiidu ill " witli some railway com- 
|aoy iir all railway Rom{uuiiiiti, bocnuse iocorpnratioiis — und 09- 
(•ciaily ntUiA-uy ini^uritonit^fua — halo thu hr«id-wiuuur and thu 
vagv-wtirkor, awl dmuni that he Iw cninhod and ttwupt frum tho 
^jMaof tbi oortb ; in othur wonlii, oro fL'udal, DWdia'Vul, and un- 
^^^^btic. That U tho whole t«xt and commont of Mr. Uudson'a 
^^^^■tlon. Evon fondolUm itJtelf van not a c-urs€>. It was a prop* 
^^^^pil f-.>nvniii<.iiil ioMtilulioQ for llM day luul djite; cotisid^rio^ 
0iai- .im^iaud hi'l]iIt!*tRQeM,aaythiag«h»owould have 

ban . iithUi tyranuy. It wan the growth of circum- 

•taooua, I iian — aa Mr. Uuditou tldiika— tlio forcing of on 

artAtnu-> 'y tbn strong and uristocrntic u)K)ti tho pie- 

am. . : MO, to bcigiu with, grunting Mr, HutLsou's 

1 owl cApitaliAt rJoaa, and granting that they " force" any 
of thingn uptjn ttm - 'itoliet class, the analogy of 
ut thtutfH t'lthi' ill .. of feudnliun U false and 

ng. But i^m won muro than a Rituation. It was 

,»,K- in V lUi) soc-ivty of the utdottevod and forroO' 

ion coutil bu bvld together at oil— tho only one 

one bond, curb thu de8iM>tii<m of thronov, 

on 'luervtng tlut safety and tranquillity of thu 

tpUu It WM thn inoUi«r of parliumentary government and of 

liberty, to whii:h — in tho fulluons of time — it yielded and 

■ ' Ifton's vision of an analogy be- 

. :;-..iitzatiuu and fvadalism, lot uh 

a, howovuf, that he meanit (he does not nay so) the uiodUu- 

"* ' , ■ ' ' rbapH, were an ao- 

ipBiiitm^ii ' iiiwrary with — tlio 

!:aul M'li'i.'oviir, tht'y wtru brokeu up and 

— ■■•■■■i(in which Mr. Hudson can not 

an thu rout of erery modern^ 



ploy tho labor of anybody ami everjbwiy not it* members. Tho, 
ancient guild was composed of the masters of a certain trade; 



ovil— viz., the growth of private capital and tlio combinuUoni 
of capitalists. Tho modifDval guild wiw a thirit; a)«ri,aQd ito 
type and character have disappeared forever; ami ynt. pe«u.'efu 
and judicious as those guilds were, even the anarchist and labo 
niiioiiiitt uf to-day may dignify his dietriot dek-Kation bycom- 
pitriug it to tho guilds of the middle ages, with more dhow o! 
reason than can Mr. Hodsoa compare them to oar m<xlom coi 
porations. The modem trade«i-uaioa is an organisation irbi 
object is to mouopolixe— or at least to secure — the right to labo: 
tor wages for its own members ; to prevent by force, if necessary 
aod couvouiont (nud it latterly has Ixwm supposed to he both oe- 
oeasary and convenient), tho labor of anybody not one of it« mem- 
bers ; and tn boycott any empUiynr who claims tho right to sm' 

men who had, by mastering its practical art, became entitled to^^ 
that de«<ignation — men who practiced it for a livelihood. It hod 
also the indu»<trial and educational function of pcrpolunting 
itself by the training of its apprentices to become, in thuir tam^ 
masters. In the days of feudalism, when the gr^'Ot crown ten 
nnt« held their territory from the crown by fee of service in it« 
wars (a service tlii-y levied on the i>eoplo to perform in time of ' 
war, grinding a profit to themselves by way of reprisal from 
this Nimo pt-oplo in time of peace), these guilds preserved the 
usefnl artH which ameliorate our own happier Unicvi. fSach 
guild met and ciiacusawl the state of its particular tnwle; d 
vised means of improving it (their di^usttions taking the pUou 
now filled by the industrial newspaper, the trwle-joumal, ani 
tho pri.-fM-urrent). It passed laws also ; but these lawn wore fo; 
the guidance of its own members, not by any means to ho m 
plied outside of it in on attempt by force of arms to make om 
ployment for its own momboni at the expenso of the veei 
rights and liberties of the rest of mankind. So honorable we: 
they in thought, deed, and wonl, tliat the wealthiest London 
merchant to4ay is not above marching in prwcsalon in thvir 
memory behind tbetr banners on Lord-Hayor's-day, orraytsd. 
as Chaucer says thoy were in his : 

"... ta on* Uvary 
Of a grwt uhI mtema KrkUmiltie." 

[To compare them to the u: ' 

ing-mea t*Mlay are the co<>i ..uo- 

nnoo of the honvit wage-worker f» used to dopletu his mnali 

Darnings for the support of vlUt " mairter.wor'- - ' - -alk. 

[ing dalegatuM" who toil not, nrithor Hpin^ i in 

bram or iron of inedimval times i I.i- .1 

|oH>7}2iouMibold as apart of hts I.4 — .. , 1.1 auct;i:t^. 



■ CKB] 

trwla and as a mumber of lus (piild) with the mot 
'kslKbt of labor," who wUI Dot that any should toil for b 
vbo biu not fimt piiid a tax to bla " lotlge " or " heodquarters " o: 
aai[> — 1« to innult the fpiild of tho mlddlo a£«e aod its iiuuit«r. 
But, for all tliAt, thp pfuild and the tnuleft-iinion are nearer 
ta practiou tJmn tJie Ruild and tho modern busi 
OB duutvrod iu uuy knuum quarter of tlio rivl 
wrr iv. One thiii^, how^vt-r, there was in thofle middlo 

•Ifii.. .: -.:eh, happUj- for Mr. Hudjton and hiu kind, no analo^^y 
(uw irarvtviid — nanivl3r, rtatutaa agaiiuit heresy and iw>ditiou8 
iLtUmncea, ' ' [>iUil punit>hmi^ul«, nuch as disemboweling; 
Hm BSf^ fii^ . Tor thi! HtirriT-up of iliscord and unr«aB(m 

Ablff pnbtlct dt«conU'nt. So much for fuudulium autl the guilds. 

Ur. Hudaon'v nejct Hn)t«iice is a lung ono, and it rvadti hero- 
kiUy : " It la tbo alntont uni vernal ple«, in miligaUon for tbis in- 
lOn of tfoonomtc law, that the capital engaged in combiua- 
OMi not WUD fair profltii if competition is allowed free play. 
It what otttutitutoa the jiut moiuniro of reward for capital f 
ore thv fair profit* for capital aockiug investment in 
bonda, ai<>rtfC»Kf«, it Iuoob on commercial paper ? The rat« of 
ielanwt that iit flxwl by fnw eompi^tiUon. What is the juHt 
OMomre of mtumt on capitiJ Inviwtud in hous(«, storoa, farms, 
amoll mannfActurog,or a thotuMuid othur fonuB of ordinary eu- 
t«fpfiw< } Proa oompotitloa. What, indeed, is tho force which 
tint rat« of wages, deiiplta efforla of labor organizuliona to 
combinatiun to the action of (hot force, and Dotwith- 
tha violence* provokod whoro thooe organizationa are 
)ntn mnilict with Uiu (^"ut rombiuations of cupttol ? 
I of bilmr for wotfiw. But tho rt«uU of combina- 

iiMh. fur a faviircd class of capital, by means of 

cmtTul of tliu hiKbwayn r>f oommerov, on exemption from 
f ' ' ' ^ tha jiut rcwon) of all other human efFori, 

. I ofita can bo exacted from tho masses, to be 
by tbit tons of milliomi onouolly; and if the ideal of 
pooling eotitd bo attalnm), this policy would impoea 
npon thv nation a bardcn of tiotitious capital thnw timi<« tho 
amount of th« national cinbtl" 

Tbp tJ!>nu V^"^"°P"*^*^"°"^^*"^^^<''"^^^^^^^''^"'' 

fonyvl coRiiM'ttiiou" (at leant it mennB that if tho re- 

nf Mr. HuiLwD'a piip^r means anything), A and B mnst 

whelfanr they will or uo: tho moment they combine and 

A 4c B, or A, B & Ck>., or Tho A and B Maintfactar- 

pony, t*-' ~- -A public calamity and a stAnding thnvit 

free Uuti' Tho rondor will notice aim that lab'>r 

Hftt law-abiding, pttacjfii!. and hifihly onKlltuhlo 
tuUaiB tmhappily " brought into conflict w 



prest DombinAtioQS of mpttal," lit which cow, of cootm, tb«l 
brokvn heads and bojrcotte are the faolt of the groat comliino- 
tionit. (Query : Whut '* gnrnt combinatioa oE cajtital " woh at 
fault ill the case of tlie poor widow whoee bakery huainess wna 
broken up in thin city nicontly because «ho kept a joun»>>-nuiu 
bakur who did not happen to be a member of a jiarticuUir boy> 
ooUen' onion which was "competing for labor" in the virmity 
of her bftke-shop F) A fi>w <ith4>r Bimplo negations are aoc«uary 
in disposing of the above seutetice — namely: Thure iano sacl 
thing aa "therateof intoragt" that is "fixed byfreeoompetition.1 
The rat«fl of interest are fixed by tbo laws of demand and Kupplj 
!n the mercantile world, and by statute so far as courts and k'gal 
proceedings are conoemed. Labor does not, even when wickc 
capital combinefl, oompote for wages. It appears to be ofteiu 
tlie role, nowadays, that wages compete for labor; and finally,] 
the combination or centralizing of capital \s not ou iofnictioc 
of ecoiiomie law at all ; nor are any oup of the above statomoiit 
WB havu hwu at the \ma» to contradict ever offered aa a " plea ' 
or AS " pktis " for »uch on infraction. As to what tJiit " coin|>ot(J 
tion of labor for wag^ " is at the jireeent dnCo, we may illualrat 
by a aingle example. LfiSt samtner the workmen in asugar-ref 
ery in Brooklyn struck for an advance in wages. The propriot 
cnih^i them together, shoved them his IxHtks. explained to thoi 
his expen)ie<t, and dentonAtrat«<l to them that if hu paid tlivm thi 
wagefl deniandrfd, hia angar would eo6t hin) more thiu th( 
market price at which imiMrtt^Hl HiignrK wore that intMnottlj 
et'Uing in New York city, nnd that, thcrofow.-. ho not only ooulfl 
not compete icith the import4>d sugar, but must cloet< hi* 
flni-ry. The "walking delogot*," however, had liis orders: 
strike i^ould not bo " off." The mtea must be paid ; and bo 
n^Snery was eloeed. Bnt, in this Hr. Hudwm iwrceives nuthlng 
hut Justica Having decliniKl to 8C« that the Uws of supply aud 
ditmnud have anything to do with pricvs, why should they 
«tnnd in the way of n capttalint i>ayinK what wngt^H his"c(mL^ 
I>oting workmen" demand? The owntT of the Brooklyn ri: 
finery was one of t)ie " favored cIohs of capital," who, " by mvaii 
of thi* control of the highwavH of commeroo" (Ui>- 
qiiMion ftiuids on the dock, and ocoan-goiiui tw-i 
diKchurge nt its hatchtw)," eHtablish lui 4«xi>mption fMm tbo forco' 
which fixw the rr»wnnl of human effort," But In this 
some f(irc»' (whethLir that of the "walking Ji-lfffnUi" nrnf th4 
laws nt (?()nimi'rM>, or of tli" Ki-w York marki' 
finer}', neveH-helBSB. The workmen who nifuxt^: .. ., lanii 
contraets nf empWjtneat with the sugar-mfinor— nay (for nioli 
thi» riwfw V . " ■ 

is voMH/iYAr/ojr crime f 


wurknKm frtim tnkinji; Ibolr ]>]iioce, vrere iii reality boncwt 
-mtAulojr. lAW4buliiig citizouHl But tliey ha<l uiihn|>|itl] 
ttrxiuiflit iiiUi ooiillii'l Hitb f^rodt combiuutiooD of CrRpititl,'^ 
Ur. Hiiil^iii'it uricuiiifiitn <u« not ausworablu fur tlio rttiult 
Too niul I liikVu a (H^rfiTt rif^bt U> utw uiir mouns to mftnufactui 
■• 'nil fur (yjal, or to mid to tiiv pnwperity arid wi-iiltli 
]ly by midiritc Ui ouruvrn by vQlployUiK it in any 
vt for. But WD mast Im> ciui.<fiil iiul to stand 
: < rv " ibo compfltitioa of labor for w»gc<e " ta»y 
« bruugbt into our vicinity. For tbiit cumpetttioa< 
to rati up KKninet un, and ho bu brou^^bt in 
and tiiuri'by " violcnvM " miKbt Imi " provokt-d." 
Awl Uion, If our businLwn lit nUuud aud our pnufcrly di»troy«d», 
Ur. iludaon \» »i>t n!«)Miufiilil)i — wo bad fair wai'tuii^l Mr. 
Hod^M aux fill Lin iwiKTV wiUi luiy doctrines it pleasee bim tu< 
liiTimt, nnd find pubUstuin for tbein ; but be will not (nay uu for 
iKir •fuukiuK factorioa and Ifniken machiuery, Tbnt i^ our 
aSair, not Mr. Ilnibiun'n. 

Ur. ilnxli'y Mimi-wlii-r<> ^ihuI^h <>f K>.<ntlumon irbo put tboir 
tfatrDBWnta " int4i ibiliiit ili tin- tjuii'n giutti hor 8uMit>r8 into 
Icin capd. to midcn tlicm l«>ic fomiidubKt." Mr. Hudson 
)'" -'iiti-mt-iita into li^rm fur the name pitramount purp<x»e, 
of tbi> bloat<:><l cnpitjtliiito, by oonibinationit extract* 
tliroo tiniM m large an tbe national 
And went thin not sufficiently ap- 
'. ho u<Jdi to it Ibo following rlazzliug array: "Let 
for lb(t Nilco of tbu nrfrumvnt, that tbu abolition 
inn will rt'dirn a ci>rt«i» prr>[K>rtiu]i of the vidians- 
1^ in \\w tilut|Ht of iuoreiMwl wa(^. If 

, <> raiw-ii tbu price of coal fifty oenUi per 

and aiv<" tbu inincni tun cuiiitti of tbi) odvanoo, a gaia of 

nmuuU wagMof th« mim-ni; bnt 
. -uutl on tho labor tlint <:ont«utiie!i tba 
Ir tbo ooltv Hyndiimtu rai.-«i^ it» prico fifty ceiibi [>er ton 

- ■■ -Vinftnmn i ■ - rn wjvance, the a<lvautago t 

onM iJt $; :[ (I yi'sr; but a low of miui 

i|. iji inlli(.-t«il uti labor in Ww vnrtotw fonnfl in 
mlufl. Atuvlly rttacliVH tbe oonnnraiT, If Ibe 
WHni n<|Mmt<«l by ixitnbitmtions controllin 
<t>t uf rooinimption, vbat would' 
mid bo mads to UiecoMt of life, 
would l<*i Kivon bark to Ubor in tbe fo: 
...1 ,■.,._ (ifii,!, would bi» drawn from labo 
J. ObanK* tbe pro|H>rtion \o\ 
ikct rwmain* that all tJicw i-uin- 
rt.«Mi Ibd proflta of tbu i-npilj' 





engaged in thorn ; a»d tlio incraaae most either be drawn from 
the pockets of oonsamors or extracted from the wagw of 
laborem."— (Page 880.) 

HonstrousI The idea of a oombiiiation being organized to 
iacrensoitspro&te! What an example to theyoulhof Ammcn! 
What att«r demoralixittiun would onsue did it become the habit 
of our citizens generally to go into trade to increitM Ihuir profitttl 
Lut evory stateaman, every economiiit, every proaclter in the 
Intid, impreafl upon this generation rather thn duty of evi>ry ina^ 
to go into trade fur the good of somelxMly else, and to continufl 
thereiti to lessen, not to increase, his worldly storel Let him ma 
hill biLsinHM, his warehouse, hi« fuc-tory, hi» Bt^anutbipii ao^ 
ruilroatln at a Iorh, and, the nionit>nt ho finds his traiixacUoua 
profitable, let him wind up, Icwt he should "swell the profit oC 
capital " ; and if he will nut, let the law, or Mr. Hudson, see to id 

So long A8 the tendency of the prrxlucts of the Ltirih is to find 
A market, jiiKt wi long will it Ix) Ww tumlcncy within that markdl 
for the handling of different classoa of product^) to rontratlxd 
until com and grain are handled in one locality, pork and 
pocked provisions iu another, fruits iu unothur, hldcw and pelt^ 
and Inatlier in Mioiher. Hero is natural hiw, and here is Mr. 
Hudson, too, demonstrating the imminent danger to the Unitod- 
St«tM fhnn the Dormal operation of thin natural lav. There id 
of coiirw, but one remedy for all thia (though Mr. Hudson, iid 
deed, faiU to point it out), namely, a strotiK wntrulizvd. imtitnud 
government like that of the late Brighum Young, who walki^ 
in and out among his people, euooumging them in ilinir eflortd 
to amass fortunon; and than, when the fortunes were amnssed^ 
niretving heavenly visions instructing tlio "sealing" of thoM 
fortuncat to himself t Such a governmental paternity, to be hotqi^ 
might Answer Mr. Hudson's purpoeea in confiscating the Acond 
tions of private capital. But H is difficult to nee how othunriMl 
than under just mioh a particular state we oould snjoy tb»i 
reforms he Bot-ks. 

Whonevcr it Hhnll appear, or come to pass, that the intomat^ 
of oonimmers (ttiat is. of the people) are {inpurilwl by the mottid 
nds whii-h the miniflcatioDS of mo<lem rivilixation impom upod 
rommerci* and thn nperatioui of irado. it may come withid 
the eonstitutiooal Jnriidirtion of Congmss to inqoini Into and 
AhHd>^> Ml" 'i '\:'«W But until such time shall coroo is itnold 
or oiiKht ii f, n tpitfititn whether gmtlctnon whoai tund 

to diuil with <>- ' <Ii> not nwo Mmo duty to ^^H 

country — not tit- -..■. i . -■•■ •>.'-:.'■-■• ....^ii >>.... ^-"^ WH 

o dnty— and whether ; t id 

!iit 1(1 s'-i ' bid 

' ''DvbnuKi' d 



'a IfONO tho Buuiy diiiHtif{uii)h»I mon who have contrilrated 
■^^ to tl)*^ wtrld'fl ])loljiHi:iU! in favor of tllo Darwinian liy- 
Iboiw <m ' u of iip«K:ira. thuro in no one oame mor« dis- 

■IptUbtMl th..;. uf Mr. Herbert Spi<uci>r. He has pnrsuod 
itbmof (IdVf^ldiiixHint witli wonderful iugouiiity tlirough not 
I fi".. iiHUid ranuficutiuiiH. He haa carried it into pLi- 

i>i uiphyncg. Ho has clothod it in numerous and 

' fonni of sptMch, appooling to vnrioun fncultii«, and otFer- 
' to «ach its appropriate objectA of recoK°i^<^"- Hu is tho 
ftuthor of that othor plinuio, " the survival of the tittest," which 
I almost r ':irwin's own originul pLruse of " nattiml 

Jartiun," ^ . L,d bo happier than thiH invention fur the 

' of Kiviatf voKUu to whaU'vor it might Im> sup|>oBed to 
"" rn is a rouu'IiiKKH. niui(ne«8, and cotnpactuoHS abont 
pnrtit tu it all tho (imJitieo of a pnijoctiW wiUi im- 
tiR piiwiir. It is a HiKnal illustration of itself. 
.,. ,..;- ■- ..f itll phrmMw to siirvtve, Thore ihu svnso of solf- 
)t tnitli aUint it which fills us with suUsfArtion. It may 
tpa tn- suspootad somatimoB of being a perfoot spocimon of 
kiiow]i>df(» that puffetb up, becauee Uwre U a suggoetioD 
^boat it— not nudly dtsmissed— Hint it is tautological Tho snr- 
' "itft may b«t trauslntod into the survival of tliat 
..illy Hurvivu. But tho sixwial power of it lies in 
Ithat It BoundM as if it t'x (irdHMxl a truo physical cause. It 
rid (if that duti^tablv roforvQc-u to the aoalugios of mind 
rhich an) iiucparably awtoiriatod with tho phraae of natural 
ion. It is tbs graat object of all truo nrience — as srtmn 
[—III oliminatO thtM, and if possible tu abolliih thuto. Sur- 
rival rrf t)ii> Bltsat •nnna to tnll us not only of that which Is, bat 
It wliirh mnst bo. It bmnthrs tho v«ry air of neceflsity and 
nonoirft'ioii. Amon^ tho iiiUueucfw which have tended to 
"piTi' 'hesis, and to give it tho impoo* 

Um -. , .. - — i/aotory Mplatuitlon of all phe- 

tpfifffnn. it may woU bo doubtod whcitlif)r anything has been 
Oior i the universal ourreuoy of tlus simple for* 


8ooh is th« authority who bna laU^ly coutribtilod to this It»- 
r tw' ■■: n uiHHi "Tho PacUim in Organic Evolution." 
vi'i iM signlAcunt. 

.11 <L-rin\ i_^n> are In orgauio evoluti' 



Tho survival of the fltteet is a 
:ilonc. It is not no rump1«)te 




t b^ 

more elements thAO one, Tlicro is concornod In it not one tm 
hut a plurality of cauaea, A"factor"i8 8i>ecially udoer. It is 
that which works aiid clix>». It is a wnnl apprnpriat^ to the con- 
ci'ption of ail inimtxliut<;, au olhcit-nt cauiii'. And of thtutu ca' 
there are more than one. Neither natural selection nor siirvi 
of the titteBt is of itself a sufficient explanation. They muHt 
tiupplenu-utud. There ure other fatitors which must be admitted 
aud oonfee8e<l. 

This is the firnt aud niost notable feature of Mr. Spenoor's 
articlos. But there S& another closely connected with it, ood 
thJit i» the vmpliiitio testimony he beiira to the fact that the ex^ 
ifitinx ]K>puIar coiio/ption \* unconscious of any dufLx^l or failinfl 
in the all-sufl&cieaoy of the Darwinian liyixttlims. Ho speaks ra 
the process brought into clear view by Mr. I>iirwin, and of thom 
with whom ho is about to arj^e, as men " who conclude tliat 
tftkon alone it account* for organic 6voiuti<m."* In onler to 
make hia own coming coiiloution clearer, be devists new fomwL 
of expreceion for deflni g aoarately tlie hypothmfai o( DarwioJ 
He calls it "the natural selection of favorable variAtionB.''1 
Again and again he emphasizes the fact tliat ttieoe variatious^ 
acconiing to the theory, were "spontaneous," aod that thoia 
utility was only " fortunate," or, in <ithor words, nccidontal. Ha 
Speaks of tli«n) as "fortuitously arising"; t and it is of this 
theory, ito deflne<l and rendered precise, that hendniitK lltnt it i<3 
now commonly suppo^ to liave been "the aole factor" in Uife 
origin of species, • i 

It is surely worth considorlng for a moment the wrtnderfnr 
stat« of mind wliich this declaration <lii*cloiic«. When Mr. Her- 
bert Spencer here qieaks of the "popular" belief, hn is nolj 
speaking of the mob. He is not referring to any mere suiiemtiJ 
tion of (he illiterate mnltituda He iit speaking of all nuiks id 
thu worlil of science. He is qwakiug of some iiverwholm[ng!| 
tnnjoriiy of those who are inTostigatiin of Mature lu aomo on« 
or otli(-r of hur deportinenta, and «'ho ace suppotie<l genemlly \m 
nwognize as a cardinal principle in science, that the reign of lawi 
it univemal there — that nothing ifi fortuitous — that nothin g t^j 
the niiiilt of accident. Yet Mr. U' i r rcpn'^'nta^^H 

groat mntw and variety of men as i.- :.:. ...„ -..: 'Ju< pruNurvM|H 
of accidental variations as " the cole ttnAm," and ae the on* 
odequal*>i-\ ■ "'Cn. I 

Kor caji ^ of Ittn Imt 

proMtnn ii[Ktn tliiit sub^sTl iban tuulwervn bin own i- i hfl 

vwnlurw Ut difwikt. He ^ ''- ■*■ '■■' V'- -ully ., ,i '--fl 

hrwith, yet at leant with a 'I for tin- ; -J 


A essAT coxrsss/oy. 


/ tlio brwiU) of lifu" is a comvpl iun 
I'll "fur tho jiroM'tit," Huaiiwlule lie 


duKnin< wlu«lt ]* rmlly n onrioua p]i«nomenon in tho Itistoiy of 
Ibimiflit. **Wo may litly nuk," he wys, whether it "nccounts 
f ' i'Hi. "Oh ' ■ ■'- I'xwiniiiins tho evi- 

il. we ithiill (ihi . .! :i> ihiuk tlifit it byno 

nwui I tbnt hnat U> Iki t.'xplained." An*] thoa follows 

«B kill I "I' '11 Mi . luioiM «igniiicttu<H«. " Omittinff ," ctays Mr. Spen- 
««r, *• fur Uiit pnwitnt aoy conMt*l«imtiou of » factor which may 
t' ■ 13 prinioniiul — "" Hitw wu hiivo thu mind of 

u... '-- : i>hiltii«»phcr Douf«ising to itself— as it wenj in 

• will i Aniiltf — that Donriu's ultimate conoeptiou of Botne 

primtiriuai " ' 
vtrfnb run "'n 
K V ith n iipc>Qtnt, acl it niiutt bo confoMtetl a nioAt modeetr 

•wi-s ' -11 '/ Mior "fa<;t<ir" in addition to imturdl mloc- 

tixti, wIn' h : will romuvo tniuiy rlilhculties that rouiftia 

I wt . 'ion i» Ijik4-n by itwtf. But white 

'T*'?i - - litcl that Mr, Ilcrhtirt Sj>i'Uci'r<ioce 

tiatuml Mlmition to ho tU» tsolo fnotor in organic vvolu- 
'iiui ilouhtful whether luiy va\uf iittiic-hut to tho 
which hi< tUminm to Bniipteiiiont it^. It s«eni8 
• iiiiImhI ilint Mr. Hcrliort Siwiioor tilioiild mnk<> so 
'~'i( «o Kinnll aniutturati theulToctof uao and dis- 
ortmnH iM 't AoiHUnto ami n newly runiffniiscd 
fiT nwrnt of vnriiitloH, Tliiit jHTsit^d-ni di»uBO 

I'l _^ ^ ''anion atrophy of tin? jMirts coiirormnl, is 

oirtly oiw of thu tx-nt (MtuhliHhvd of physiological facts. Tlint 


DVW fur' 


orfKOit tl. 

qiring ii' 

b a oomdntoil 

T*— - ) 


'1 nn> 1 miiMiiittod by tnhoritnnco to off- 
<'{«ii of futirtional and Htructiiriil dwlinc, 
I I'lil doctriuu not generally diDputtKl, 

- ■ - ; .... ii'tuicd vlreufcth ami duvvlopmvnt Jirid- 
litiial and honlthy iwe of fipi>rial orK»nx. and of 
. 'f '' tTii]inn>f— is a cjw«> ilUi§trHte4l by 

in i[ ' iriKiif doniwitic unimaK I do wA 

kiHrtr to what *ltiO wo can attribnto tlic lung, slfimlor \og» and 


Of Mr. 


I'frtrtly lulapUid to i)))or<d of foot, or 
II ]>oiiit<>Ri and H^tl^rti, or a doztrn 
1 by nrlifiriiil Hclodion. 

... :.. . -.;un) in tho t'lahonil<> iirgumont 

Bptmcttf oa this xnbiitct Is its complu(« irn<Iovaucy. 

" miuln undiT whirh thia new 
< Ijitiidful. In truth, tln> whidM 
m favor of stmcturul moditicntion arising out 

vit whioli impli'-M that 

-n oil thut interpreUi- 

> hi; in iliKputini;. Uv tre»td It aa 

MmUiIt,*- toL n*UI, p. lot.) 



if it were the definite expression of Rome trae pliyrical and i 
cieut cause, to which he ool; claims to add some subniiliary I 
from aQoiher pbiridcal cause which is whoUjr sepamU). But 
iiatuml solcctioD is a mere pLraae, vague onough and wide 
enough to cover any number of the physical cauuM oonc«rnod 
in ordinary generation, then the whole of Mr. Spencer's labo- 
rions argitment in favor of his " other factor " beoomee an 
arguuiont woreo than superfluous. It ia wholly fiiHuciouH in 
aasumiug tluit thiJt " factor "imd "natural B«loction" uro at all 
exclusive of, or eveii separate from, each otlier. The factor thus 
assamed to he new is simply one of the subonlinnte caaps tM 
heredity, fiut heredity is the central idea of natural selectiod 
Thoroforo natural selection includes and covers all the cauaM 
which can possibly operate through inheritAnce. There Is thH 
no difltciilty whutever in referring it to the same one faotofl 
whose solitary dominion Mr. Spencer has plucked njj courage tfl 
dispute. He will never succeed in shaking its dictatorship bfl 
such u small robellioo. His little contention is Uke some bit « 
Bumbledom itotting up for Home Rule — some parochial wttS 
claiming independence of a univemal empira It preteudi to sn| 
up for itself in some fragment of an idea. But hero is not even 
a fragment to boast of or to stand up for. Uis new factor in o^ 
ganic evolution has neither independence nor novelty. Mr. S|ioil 
cer is ahle to quote himself us having montioDod it In hts " Prin- 
ciplwof Biology" publtshi'd some twenty yoftnt ago ; and by ^ 
careful rnasncking of Darwin he shows that the idea was familiM 
to and admitte<l by him at least in his last edition of the " Origifl 
of Specios." Mr. Hpenccr insists that this fact is evidence o( a 
" reaction " in Durwiu's mind against tlio solo factorship of natifl 
ral B^ection, Darwin was a man so much witter than all his f(fl 
lowBCs, and there are in his book bo many indicutioiu of hfl 
Mnse of our great ignorance, that meet probably b*- ' ' ' >w ta 
the consciuusncss of the necessary incompleteness uu ■■ .>-oaM 

ingM of his own explanations. But tliore was nothing wbaterefl 
to startle him in the idea of heredity propagating structure 
change, through functional use and disutte. This idea was i)<fl 
Incoiigniuus with his own more general com-eplion. On thfl 
oonlrary, it was strictly congruous and hanuouiouidy subunlfl 
uate. Hn did not profeas to account for all the varieLiM whicfl 
itmerga in organto forms. Provisioni'i' '. ftir thi 

ooDVonienoo of leaving thar KubJMt 0]i< tln-m sfl 

foKuitnun. But to OMiunie tlu) mnlly fortuiUvus or »- il 

ohortuHer of variation to bo an ii*'' ■'' ' •-' *' -- ■ '^^1 

taoroly onoof Die mauv fullioa and : ^'^^1 

AltJior. ^H 

bort Spen< ' i^^l 



(mkm alontt, to expUun nil ttie fficU of organic evolution, is a 
CM* of llttlt) or Bu VKlue for the purpose, yet tho attitudo of 
mind into wbicb Im Itt thrown io Ibo conduct of hia argumoot 
Uadi him tr> n^ull« wliicb ore emiiivutly iuslniutivi'. The im- 
ptiia» " ■ ' - tu ezoiDine " BOob r phnue as " uuturtil aeleo- 

ttoo" i- If ftQ impolm qmle certoia to Im fruitful, Tho J 

n>7 or liitt impalsegiTm it of oeoessity rijfbt diructtotuH 

tu • proToloat dogma so unreasoning cw to set op ^ 
> vavvti phnMH) u tbo ombodiinaDt of a oomplete philosophy, , 
fto BntAKKiiiMm tbaroUKbly wholettome. Once implanted 
\ Hm'bxrt Six>n(!4>r'M mind, it Im curious to ohserve bow odt 
fit illoiitratvii tho idi-u of dovolopuiL'tit. Having first sought 
I •belter of uulbority under wordii of tbu gniut proplixt liim- 

ted laB 

Miff h* becotnns nioro und taoro aggreseivR ngaiuat tjie preti^ud- ^ 
«n tu his autbority. Uiii grumbles againat them botxime loud H 
and kradiir aa b« ptoceodii. Ha speaks of " those wbo hav« com- 
.oUUud tbvmaelvM to tha oomot exolusivo iaterprutation." * Ho 
I tipaa " inAtUintioo and ntluvtoot attontion " as leading 
of foRtH. Ho Bpoalat of *' oliennlion from a bo- 
:^' natnmliata to alight the evidenoo which sup- 
I , and ndiw to occupy theuinelvoti in Boektng fur- 
. . He compares tbwr blindness now respooting 
>iDcy of natunU mleoUon with the blinduoHH of natu- 
to Mm fwrta of wolution Ix'forn Dan*'iu'» book ii]i]>wtred. 
Biarabali and ntiteiatM tho ohvtouit considi<rnti<m»( wliicb 
>n» that the do^'vlopnunt of ouinuU fonnii muxt necoNsarily 
- Tiimt-iuH* uumbi>r and variety of odjuftted changes 
:it orgnnH, ittl L-o-oiM>ntliug with each othor. and 
: BiMy wijuiiu^l to llii< improvud fanotional aotioBS in wbiob 
iQUflt all ixkrtoko. Hu rodnofn tho practioal imposnbility 
nch changm ocaurring an tho result of aocldont to a nu 
tation. Hn telbi bin 'its tliat tho clionoea; 

'lUato n>adjuMment.'< '>itg1y ariaing "must 

iallnity to outt." t But more ttutn tliin: he not only nipobi 
Darwinian factor as aditqunto by itftclf, hut, ndvuncing in 
I'Us onarliuiniu, bu declares that it must ho vlinijnnl^I nlto- 
gstber. -ihorcDUsidemtion Im tclln uh tlut in Iiir opinion 

|t<tai> > . Ltiar part nur lot in this mattvr. Hu tnsiiit« thnt 

Ifai- 'A changss aro «o ntuntfmua and (to mmoto that tho 

frvaLcr port of thsm can not U> OHorttHxl (ovi'n) In any d«greo to 
tba iilM« fri^ction "f fav'irntt!"' \'nrifttiona. J Then facing tho 
opjuosata ^ I and inL'nKlulitiwi ho has so 

oAoded, bb .-^u...- . ^..' ■> .....uvt. •.>;ui« acoonltug touwoU-l 

frM«ti>- ri'<>H«'MMwiLwii>ir.''n>i. iiTtiup i«t.) 

t Pktn til. r r.<p«lu IMmm UmuUf." tuL mUI. p. Itl.) 




formulA : " N'owndnyg," he Bays, " most iinitnraliiits are mon '. 
winian than Mr. Diu-wio himself."* This \& most true; and 
Herbert Spuacer neod not be the least nurpriuHl. All this Iiai 
peus sccuRliDK to a law. Whoa a gT«(it mun dies, Ivaviug 
hiiid him some uev idea — now either in itwU or in the um 
makes of it — it is almost invariably soizod upon and ridden t<P 
the death by the shouting multitudes who think tlivy follow 
him. Mr. llvrbort Spsnt-cr here directs uix>d their confusions 
the aoaruhiu^ lijfht of liiii uualysiH. He most truly <)i3t)ngt, 
Darwin's hypothesis In it«eU , Sntt from the theory of " org 
evolution in gonfrnl," ami tt^-coudly from " the theory of ovoll 
tion at largp." ThU analyi«i» r^mghly iiurresponds witli the 
tioottona 1 have pointed out in the proocdiug paper; and whoa 
he points to the confounding of Ihew distinctions under or 
phriise as the secret of wide dvlusjons, ho has got hold of a clei _ 
by which mnch further uiiruvoling may bo done. Quided by 
this clew, and in the light of thii* aualyHL», ho brings down Dar- 
win's theory to a place and a rank in wienoo which muat be still 
furtlior offt^'noivo to th<ifie whom he desiKuatai as the " mass of 
readora." Ho MptMiks of it aa " a irreat contribution to Uie theory 
of organic evolntioo." It is in his view a "conlxibution," an^ 
nothing more — a step in the Invetttigation of a subject of enoi 
tnotiii <xiiii]iloxity and extent, but by no moans a complete or i 
factorj' (n^hilion of oven the most obviouft difficulUos premnted 
what we know of the structure and (be history of organlo foi 
It is no part of my object in this paper to criticise in det 
the Tslue of that siracial conception with which llr. IlvrUi 
Spencer new supplements the de&eieacles of tlie Durwiniit. 
tboory. He calls it " inheritance of functiunally produc 
modillcation?," aiid he makes a Irproendous claim on ita boltall 
He evidently thinks that it supplies not only a new and whoij] 
wparate fjwtor, but that it goes a long way t*>wiinl solvinj 
many of thu iIil1iotiUit.*s of organic evolution. Nothing c^iu 
indicate mure strongly the immense proiKirtinns wbtcb this idti 
has a«nmo<l in hin mind than tlie quf«tinn which hv proptmnd 
towiinl the conclusion of hii pnpt^r. tjiipposing the ntiw fact 
to Iw ni!niilti«<!."do thf're rcniiuu." ho iuU£s,*'no cIbsw-ji of 
ganic phcnomcnA unaccouutod for!"' Wonderful (|uoiitio», it 
du«vl 1 But at least it is satisfactoi? (o find ttiat ltir« reply is : 
rati'iiml tinui 1 "Tothi^ r : ■ 

rtipliod Hint . >i» olaiiH- 

accountrsl for. It may, 1 boliove, be uhnwu t.iml certain cji 

irutd <if animnlfl ni"' ■ '■ -i" i' ' t- ■ '" i; 1.;.. . i ■ 

■0 he pnic«<i«lH lo ; 
ninduum Is to bn rt'ilii>:i->l. 



WbAtoroT other vnlur> nuiy attach to ait attempt so otnhi- 

tioo*. it in at ImmI iitUtnrKvl with ihia iHlvButaf;^, thiit it leads 

y[. ti .\ ... *;■ -ir-nr U» Tollow up Uii) ]MitL of "furthiJrc'ODsidora* 

':u»ts nnd fonuulreof tlin narmiiinii tiyjMHbosis. 

\ • 1"! with iin'momlili! resultn. What he hinuwlf 

II. ._, lit la to iililiionito tUv st-paratiug lines betwwu lh« 

otKtma ao<] lh«t inorKWiic, aocl to mluoo all the phunouiHiia of 
life to th« tomuiof inich [>nrt<ly phyiiicAl agoncios lui the me- 
chAiucftl forcvH, or lu liRht, hniit, aiuI chemical affinity, etc In 
thlj qoMit hu TunU tho Unrwiuiaa phniiM<8 iu his way. Accord* 

iai[)y. Kit' -*' '■■"■•vflf thu author and iiiv«ntor of thu motit 

popular II . ho tumft uiH>a thorn a fire of most dcutlnic- 

ivn ■ lit' iillow-s ihom to Iw, or to have be<»n,''cou- 

wnfi imlfHil DwifuP'^in thn conduct of discossion, bat 

I 'iin« tbiin u " liable to mtHli-ad xm by veiling the actual 

ii{>'U'-ii-< " in onpuiio nTolittirm. That very objoction which baa 
aF^fmr* btmn mailo ognimit all phntsoa involving the ide» of 
I- that thpy on« In^^tilpborical— is now unsparingly ap- 

fi...^. .■- t>arwin'fi own pbnuto " natural i*el4>ctioD." It(i"impli- 
Mtiotu " aro prunounco'l to bn " miKbuuliiig." The ntialogloa it 
pointa at aro indwd dii' ' >ugb, hut uitroriunntely the 

* dafinitmeiai ta of a w^< 1." "The Uu-itly iiiiplioa) 'no- 

lUT«* wbirh wil'TtD, in Dot au tinNi'ltM agency annlogoun to the 
man'*' ' ■ -'irlcially." TIum rutu down to the very root 

of th L. and to that ii-ry elvrocnt in it wbiiih ha« 

nuwt wKJrly i-'iitiiiirii'lfHl it to |>opul»r nXNJgiiitioii and ncropt- 
ar>^.< Hnt thta iM not nil. Mr. Herbert Spencor goos, if potwiblo, 
<r ..-r down, and digit np the last v«etige of foundation for 

lh« viut bnt rambling ••■li'' ' ' h bnti been erected on a phrase. 
The apocial buiut of it^ ]"trs ban always beon that it 

npnauutwl and emlto'lifl that grtott rL>fonn which removed tho 
prnriMiiw of orgitnir nvoltitiim onn) and forever from tho do> 
B^Um nf diiM'ptivo nii'lapbnr, and foun4U<d tbem for tbe first 
t' nieal cjmiuitioit. But now Sir, Horljert Spen- 

ci: - - uuof thin. Tht- whole of tliis pi-uU^nirion gooa 

by tbn boanL Ha iiroDoimrw n|wn it thin emphatio oondem* 
oatJoD : **Tbo wonlii natural ■cloKion do not expri^iw a cauM 
In Thr- phymtcal neustt." t It in a mere "convenient figuro of 


.„ ii 

•' ii not enough to natisfy Mr. Spencer in his 

I an. Re ittmm himself into the confescrionaL 

' (tmi'tid Diirwiti's phms^. Ho bad 

■ 'iiiiirwi tti literal I^niia ruther tluui 

tunDa," nnd in thin sHorab be wm led to "sarviTuJ 



' (oL nil, (t. as.) 
■ fvl. xti*. p. n.) 






of Uie fittest." But he frankly admiU that " kindred objectio! 
may b« urged against the expression " to which thia Iwuliuff 1< 
hin3. The fint uf thoeo words in a vri^fi wuy, and tliu w*xit. 
word in n cloar way, call up an ideft which ho must ndmil to 
" anthropocentric" What an embarrassment it ia that tbo 
human mind can not wholly turn the bock upon itself I B«U' 
evioooration, Uid happy diiipatch of the Japuntwc, is not 
possible or oven difficult, although when it is doiio thu ninn 
not expect to continue in life. But Relf-evisooration by ^i 
intellectual faculties ia a much more arduous operation, «»• 
pectalty when we expect to go on thinking and dutioiug tun 
boforv. It is conceivable that a man might livv at loast for a 
Ume without his vi!<<^'om, but it is not conccivablo that a mind 
ahonld reason with only some bit or fragment of the brain. I. 
tlie myBterious convolutions of that mysterious salMtiinca the: 
are, as it were, a thousand retintB— each set to ri'coivo its 
spvcial impn-«siou» from tbu •^'xtt.'rnal world. They are 
needed ; but they are nut all of equal dignity. Somo cntoh the 
leaser and others catch the higher lights of nature ; ftome reflect 
mere numerical order or mechanical arrangement, while otherB 
are occupied with the cuum^ and the reasons and the purpoece 
of those Some phiIo«ophL-r^ make it their busLoeefi to blindfold 
the facets which are scntiitivo to such higher tilings, and to open 
those only which are adapted to see tlio lower. And yet these 
very men generally admit that the facaltieH of vision which sw 
the higher relations are peculiarly human. They are so identU 
fied with tbe human intellect that they can hardly bii Bejiaratoid 
And hence they are called anthropomorphic, or oe Mr. Spenoafl 
prefers to mil thtrm " anthropocentric." This v\um fuwociaUoD— 
this characteristic union— is the very thing which Mr. Sponoor 
dislikea Yet the enrneAt eodeftvors of Mr. Spenoer to get out ol 
himaelf — to eliminate every conception which is " uuthropoooni 
trie "—have very naturally come to grief. " Survlv«l " F Doof 
not this word derive its meaning from our own c" ;uof 

Ufeanddonth? Away with it, then ! What bos a 1 1 -- , -Josot 
phor to do with such conceptions f Why will they intnidf 
their noxious presence into the purified ideas of a mind Buukin^ 
to bo fmp<l from all anthropocentrio con Muni nation 1 And tbeqj 
that other word " fittexi," doea it ucil Htilt more dearly IWoug tJ 
the reji-cttxl conraplii? Doet* it not itmell of thu imalogitJ 
derivud from the lunrtiSecl and disoanli") mombem of inleUjI 
gttnce and of will ? Dofw it not sugK' ^ |H 

fitting a lock, or a glove jilting a h.. .:, 'ipV 

tiie glorified viirion w« may enjoy of Katura to think of hJk 
porrelations as ha' v umloK' '1 

tbme ? tn th« foe lonaiiier'i . . •■A 



I mntiof a paroly monhuLical kind wbicli aro oonspicaous in 
Mgoulo life, Mr. H}>enct>r has tlio oours^ to declare Uutf'no 
•pproocli " to Ibis kind uf fitness " presontablo to the sensos" ia 
to b« found in orgnnisms which oontinuo to liv» in viiiue of 
■pMiol comlitiotis. Whoro materials are m nbiindntit it ia hard 
lo<ip»cify. Rtti lani teinptod to Odk whether Mr. Siienoor has 
■Tvr lioutl of the mm, the t«eth, abovo all the finger of the 
ireHkjre, Uie wonderful twoBt that lives in tho forest of Hada- 
((Hoar, ftud ia vi-ry nk'ely fitted indeed to prey upon certain 
Urvo! which btlrrow up tbo pith of certain trees ? Hero we see 
fiuuaplM of fitlinK in a twuso as purely mechanical as he cotild 
poMdbljr Milect front liuman meohanisin. The enormous ears 
•TM Qttftf] to h«ir the intpmaJ and Hmothorcd ras[(iii);H of the 
Vmh. Thp twtb uro fitted for the work of cutting-cbii«'!«, wliiJe 
'I :- in ri«dticcd to the diroenaion of a mere probe, armed 

kWi'ii ii ii'ioked claw to extract the larrte. The fitting of this 
|BD(;vr-pnilte Into the pith-tube of the forest hougli is preciaoly 
^liko thp flttiiiR [if a finger into a rIovc, It is strang« iiuloed that 
I Mr. 8p**an'r ehiiuld duay the applicability of the word fitness, 
[ In iln rtricuwt " (^ovo " sanae, to adaptations such as theea. Yet 
ha doM deny It In worda emphatic and preciae. Neither the 
orgaolo itmoturM themselves— ho proceeds to say — nor their 
iniliviiliuU movompate aro related in any analogous way to the 
tlitDjifii and actions in tho midst of which they live. Ba^dng 
nuule thia marvelooa denial, be reitonitea in anothur form liia 
ipwat oonfwM gtxm rifiuto — that his own fumons plirase, 

altboiiKb can:! ., _-ssign«d to expruss self-acting and automatic 
pJiyaical ofierationa, ii, after all, a failure. And this result ho 
admits nf»t only a« proved, but as obvionaly true. Hia confes- 
•ba is a humble (inn. '■ Evidently," he says, *' the word fittest as 
thoa ua»d ia a figun* of speech."* 

T*'" -I-*--- lisHuction and condemnation by Mr, Herlwrt 

8; 11' two famous phrssea which have been so long 

HtAUi*li< world as expreeeing the Darwinian hypothesis 

-~4iia mapi jiuUon of tho claim of oithur of them to repro- 

■nnt trofl phyileal causation— his sentence ni>on both of them 
that th«y are mero fl^fM of speech — ia, in my judgment, a 
nMnnrnblo «runt. As regards Mr. Spencer himself, it is a cred'- 

V- ' 


own orgamonta, and its own imaginings, the great weapon of 
aaalffia. Thwn are in all of as, not only two voices, but many 
volaaa. itnd Knlondid work ia done when the higher faculties call 
upnn - r to fpvo an aocoimt of what they have said and 

argwu. :. Tid often, as th« result of such a call, wo should 

: rrepalu- &:<««• M^UUf," rol. islx, p. M.) 

/ormance and an honorable admiasiun. It is one of the 
,-.- ruguUvea of tho human mind to be able to turn upon its 




catch the acoenta of confession SAying : " We have been Bhotti 
our eyes (o the deepost truth, koepin;; them open only to ot 
which wcro compartttivt-ly suporficiul. We hiivo been tryi 
to oOQceal this hy the inventiou of niialoatliug phrases — full of 
loose analoffiefl, of vapue mid dec<'ptiv« genpralities," 

Host unfortunately, however, the special pe<niliurity of Mr. 
Sp«nc(ir'0 introspection appears to bo that it is the Iowi>r into) 
leotual faculties which are calling the higher to account. TI 
merit of Darnin's phra»e lay in it« elasticity— in its lar^e 
ments of metaphor taken from the phenomena of mind. 
Spencer's phratH? had been carefully framed, bo tolls us. tu 
rid of thoeu. His grout endeavor vaa to umploy in the inlerpro- 
tation of Kature only those faculties which see mnterinl tilings 
and the physical forces. Those other faculties which see the ad- 
justments of these to purpose — to the bnildiuf; u)> of structui^ 
yet buing tmpiM-fect, and to the discharge of functions yut lyial 
in tile future — it was his dwiro to osclndo or silenoei. This wM 
his aim, hut he now sees that he has failed. In spite of him the 
higher intellectual perceptions have claimed admittrwoe, oi^ 
have actually entcrod. Ho now calls on the humbler facultlfl 
to chulleuge this lutruKiou, and to assert their oxelusivo right fl 
ocoujiy the field. The "survival of the fitti«t" had lieen cofl 
structed to be tlieir fortress. But the very stones of which it is 
built — the very words by which the structure is com[taH(.<d — cuw 
tbemselve!) permeated with the uisidious elements which tha 
were intended to resist The " sur\'ival of the fittest " is a mofl 
redoubt open at the back, or a fort whioh cau be enterutl at id 
points from on access imderground. And so, like a skillful 
gonnrnl, Mr. Spencer has ordered a complete evncuatitm of tiM 
works. I 

Bnt in giving up this famous phrase Mr. Sjicncer doe* nA 
give np his purpose— which, indeed, is one of the nmin purpoMH 
of his philosophy — namely, to bitild up seatvnow and woiw 
structures which shall eliminate, as far as it is iiossibla to do sfl 
all tliow aspects of natural phenomena which ore htunaii. Uutl fl 
to say, Uioso aspects which reflect at all an intellectual ^u-da 
analo;*nus with or relat4>l to our onvn. " I Itavu ela)>ornli_>d thfl 
criticism." h« says, *' with the iiit<'nti»n of emphnsixinu thit qom 
for sttiilying the cliangos which have goui' on, r gd 

ing on, in organic bodioH from an exclusively jii: , wit <■ 

Tinw."* Atidso, mm formulmare ooustDJCted to explain, an 
to iUtutrato how this is tu >m> done. " s '9 

"human view" of Uf« and dMith, ti> ^4 

UitiD, iLtv th'>y to lio doiK-rilMHl * llioy are " c«'rtuiii unts of pba 
tfjOintwa." Their true physical ohoructer is " simply groujv d 

W 'Fap^'- r P»H»r M<Mi MamMf ." rot «iU. ^ «■> ■ 




dubugciu" In thiokiUK o^ t plant, for oxaiuplu. wu must ct-ase to 
I fpuak of ltd living or ttyitiK- " We tniiBt oxchulo all ihu ideas 
uaucinUHl with tlio wurdB lifv or dwith."* What wn do know, 
phymrrillv. U (htis rlotiiiod : " That thi'ru go OH in the plant c«p- 
min . lit inxM-t-iwcB in pn-at-nci' of furtiuii aidinif or 

hindiii-.... ■■■:■■ uoca outtfide of it ; itud tluit in tiunio kosva h tlif- 
fi<ninrf nf titnictun or a fuvorahln Bet of ctrcouistanceH allows 
li ■ 'piit. iiiYH-nsmM to K" (111 for UinK^r jwriods thnu 

ill How lumiuotis! Milton sjioko of his own 

bltndnrwt u» " knowlpd^e ut oiiw ('ntrwiico qnito idiut out." But 
hfTv wn have a Hfuvimt'n of I.Ir' vitIihI deviw^ by which knowl- 
oH««* nl (»ll '•ntraui'vn nmy l>u onrc-fully pxchided. Life 18 ci-rlaiD 
.'111. prm-.-HMt'!*." Y<^. cprtninly. But bo is death. 
.\ t ytliinn "'Itw that we know of or can conceive. The 

« I l>y Mr. Herbert Spwncer to roprownt the " purely. 

|.i >r life und doulh, arc wunls whirh prosoiit no 

1 1. ;. uiv simply a thick fo^ iu which nothing r^i 

btiMcn. Kxoi'pt ill virtiiiwjf thiK vharactor of general opnrity, 
[f, .. ,.^. .^-iK^Uy itMoloKi for Mr. Siwncer's owti ptiqiofto as well aa 
r <>thi>r. He tweks to excludn miiid. But he fails to do 

•.1. H I io think that when he has found a follocation of 

wonl: - 1:- :i do not expressly convey some particular idea, ho 
him thcn^n found words in which that idea is excluded. Thia ia 
not iM>, Wiipis may he so vague mid iilislracl as to signify any- 
UiiDfc or nothing. If andor the word " fituuits" human ideas of 
■djUBtnifiil and design are apt t4i insinuate thomselvcc, assured- 
], ... .,.,„, \,Ip,x„ not only may, hut mu«t, ho cornprehCTidwl un- 
it' 1 phrits.' as " interdependent proces.'iep." Painting, for. 
!■■ ' jxndi-nt prooeas, and both in it-t execution 

ail : 1- ■ jK-iidenct; liofl in purely physiral combina- 

tinna of viidblo ant) touchable mnterialt). Yet Sir Tbonuis Law- 
r '' Htenil truth when ho snublwd a quvstionor as 

t of hi» art by telling him tluit be mis«d hi.s 

colorn with hpniiw. The whole of ehemicaJ scienee consiata in 


• t 


" (if interrle pendent proeessMS which are {what we 
liVHii-al, while the whole s<;ience of applied cheniis- 
otluT interdependent processes which involve 
r thi' human mind and will. 
Wo havf, l-heii. iu tjiis new phraso u |K*rfect spaciroim of one 
f:^ ' 'if Mr, Hcr!>ert Spmrer in hi» doaling with wueli 

II wi'»IHin of iinittyni-i which tie Uirnn 'Mi fluii'etta- 

t mni hiH own old phnme when he wi.'ihett Ui ntHimhm it, 

luu .■' ..iffii-il with equal xucceiis not only against nil sul)fititut«« 
for it, tmt nifuinNt the whole mntho<l of reasoning of wbiiTli it 
wa« wi ■ The verl«il stnu-tures of definition whiob 

. •;.■ ...I. f ■* ruimlu Scl«Wn Hoalfcl;." tol. illt, p. Bt.) 
f »in — • 



abound in his writing nlwayn remind me of oertsiu doud-for 
which may BometimvH Imi wwn in the weatem sky, especially i 
liorizuuK of tho w.'ni. Thoy uro oft«a n>o«t glorious and inifHwii 
Orcnl lincH uf towora and of fnr-rcwching tMittlomcnto ^v<> the 
imprewiou at niomonts of inountninouM xolidtty iind strcngtli 
But as we gtuw upon them witli vrotidor, nod a» wo Ikx u|> 
them a closely attentive eye, the odges are soon to bo im ui 
sloady oa at first they app<«red U> be enduring. If we nttom| 
to druw them we find tbat th^y melt into each other, and tin 
not a eingle outline ix steady for a second. In a few minuK 
whole mns8i>8 whioh hwl filled thu t<ye with their majesty, aii 
with impn>«<»iou8 as of the «v«rhMling hillx, diosolve themselvf 
into va|K>r urid iiicll away. 

Such are the cloud-castles which mount upon the iiitidlnctni 
horizon aa we wan it in the repi'(«entationa of the mechanical 
pliilosophy. Nothing can be more fallaoiouH than the habit of 
building up deflnitionii out of words ho vaguu and abstract that 
thoy may signify any one of a dowin dilTerunt thtng«, and thfl 
whole plausibility of whirh ronsistn in tliv nmbigtiity of thoH 
meanings. It is a habit ton whivh tinds exercise i» the altemnll 
aniUHoment of wiping out of woHs which have a ildliiiile anfl 
familiar ttense, everything that conBtitutes their force and |KiweH 
I«t us take, for example, the word *' function." Tliere is ofl 
word, perhaps, applicable to our iiitellertiial npprt-henBions ofl 
the organic world, which is nion* full of rui-aning, or of raounino 
which satisfies more thoroughly the many facultiett ixmconied tfl 
the vision and dmcription of itit facts. The very idea of an oil 
gan is that of nn apjutratus for the doing of some deflnile worM 
wbii'h \» i1*i fiinctioii. For the very reason of Ibis riihnpsji and 
fullnens of meaning, in this word conjotne<I with great preciHionJ 
it is unfitted for use in the vapory oloud-castlus of (U'fiiiitiofl 
which are the boasted fortresses of fden*t jmndy phy)ti<:nl. Anfl 
yet function is a word which it is mort dilTlcuU U> dijiponw witW 
The only alternative is to rodut^u it to sonin dditiition whicS 
wii>wt out all it* spw-ial signilioatioii. Afvonlingly, Mr. Hcrl>nrl 
SfX'UcPr has defined function as a word i-quivalunl to the phraM 
" tmnKformations of motion"" — n pbraw piTfiftly vngiif. iiM 
struct, and e<iuully applicable to fimctjon or \n thi< dc*itrueli(n 
nf it, to thd prooeeoes of deatli or the procVMWa of life, In tin 

pb. : .Ofhml " ' I ' ' :" ' : ' i ' 'ii 

nu'i 11 t.hit Hp- 'M 

tian of a whole rlom ol ap'x 

Of ooorwi the ntUmqil i.. ..-.,- 
the facts of natanr in wordk lo«t 
words tvndurod stuHln by : 

• ■■ PftimlpW, .., ^j." •nt I. p 4, 

(iown completely to diinrril 
vague for tbo purpone. or 
oliininnUons. It is not Da 


irtn only, who hiul »l least no dogma on UiU subjvct to biitd Uioi 
Mr. SpDOCvr hinuvlf vbo continually breaks down in the 
' far morit cotnplctulj- timn lio now udmitit he failed in 
ivnl iif till' IttUwL" 'V\w huiniui iiloiiiunl invulvod or 
! in thi' id(*i4 of liliii!SA is nothing to llip hiiinftnity, or 

'a ,'>ii-«tulri(-il]r," of the exprt^isionH into which he slips, 

{wrhapn unawnrt«. wbt>u hv is fucu to fitc4> with those rvquijiit«fl 
nf IftnRUi' 'i nriN.' out of tliv fiicts of obt*crvti1ion. iind out 

of thr nti ■ "f tlmugbt. Thue in the mid«t of itn einborate 

attempt to oxpluiti in purely chemical and physical aspects the 
rr< ' '!'•» nn>l uttnbut«(> of protein, or protopliuim — aaaumsd 
Ir : uintium^ntiU subfltanCM of all orgauisms — ht* breaks out 

into tliv fuUowiug Buntoncu. olmrgixl with tolL^jl Officii I phrase- 
ology; "So thut wbilu the cotnpo^ito atoms of which organic 
tiwuvanre baiU iij) puasesfi that low molecular mobility fitting 
il it rBsulta from the extreme molocular 

t;i< iiL-nta, that the waeto product« of vital 

activity ■ fiwt as thoy are formed."* Now, what is Uie 

valac of •«' i>--m ttuch as this? An an exiilanation, or any* 

thing KfipniiM-liing to an f<xplanatioii, of the wondrous a1ch<>mieB 
of on '■ , and pspccially of the digefllive pror«ssefi — of Iho 

^ipr<-',---^ - .1. nMimilution, and elimination of extemul mnttvr 
— thtH wntencB in poor and thin ioduHl. But whatever etrvngth 
il ' I >'ly iluu to il«i n^ognition of thi> fact that not only 

III I iw n wliolc. lint thu very mutoriala of which it is 

"tmilt up," an> nil ittM-ntiitlly adaptations which are in the 
n^. — .vf "puqKises," Iwing indeed contrivances of the most 
v 'il kindtf for tho di&cbarge of functions of a very spo- 

i'tni ■ < 

V. 1 1 , II. Im the groat reform which these new pnpere are 
int^mdod to itffivt in our conception of Uie fiiotora in organic 
••■.'*' 'V' ijopulnr and accepted idea of thnni has beMi 
Ia il llii- luugiiugt' of Darwin and of Mr. Spencer 

hii[tM>l(. Bnt. thnt lauguagu littH been deceptive. The ncuded 

^rvfurm nunnititM in the xattrv complete uxpuliiion of every element 
that i» "anthropocentric." In onlor Ki iuteriii-et Nature we 
bi ''■^-Ivps. Th»^ eye with which we look 

Bi , -1 1m rut otT, as it were, from the brain 

bshind it. The corr<fi|Kindeuc«ii which we see, or think we see, 
brtw- '' ^yntom of thingtt outxide of us and the B)'etem of 
of «", wliidi iH the Mnicturo of our own inti,-lli- 
(" bi- i' I. This is Uio tuininouH conception of 

■■!l"»oplj.-. :,L I, aire has hitherto bfien conceive<l to bo 
I of DAturul phenomt^ua to an intelligible unler. 
rufurmed ii1> to ln> thai nur own intulligcuce is 

••1 r r BkJ«gJ." TOl. 1, f. U. 






iJ.. ,. 

tiu) ! 



Uie one abounding fountain of «rTor nod ducoptiuo. It is not 
moroly to Ih< di»cijilin<Ml and corrcolin], but it is to bo eliiniuatnl. 
It is t^ be houR(l«d off and ^botited down. 

It iH very clear what all tliiit must end in. Th)i dnmand made 
npon it» in ite lit^ml t'ullnpHs is imiMit^iblu und atxiurd. Wa cad 
not stand outfiidv uunrolvcs. Wu ctui not luok witli vy<.« olbtifl 
than our own. Wo can not think oxoupt wttJi the faculties ofl 
our own intellectual nature. It is impCKiflible, aiid, if it wero poM 
sible, it would be absurd. We are our»>lveH a imrt of nature-9 
bom in it, and born of it. Thu unalotfii-s which tbu disctpliiiefl 
int«llt.-cl mm in extvrual nuturo art* thun-fore not pnwuniubla 
false, but pfMumably truv, or at the loiutt suUttiuitiHlly n^prd 
aentativH of thn truth. 1 

But tho now vuto on anthropoccntric thought, although belM 
lees to oxpol it, is quite competent to cripple and decode it. !■ 
can not rxcludu our own facaltii«: but it may selvct and favoM 
the lowest, tlio liuiiiblt^»t, the moxl I'lvmentary, the most blunfl 
the least perceptive. It may silence the highest, the acuttist, tlifl 
most penetratiuR, the moat intuitive, tliocte most in harnionv 
with the higheBt tntergies in the world uniund utf. All this thfl 
now doctrine may do, and doea. 1 

Acconlingly, the very Qrst instance given to us of tho n«riM 
philosophy is a striking illustration of its effects. It jixos thfl 
attention on nicro outward and external things. It seeks for thfl 
first and beet explanation of organic binnfpi in the tnere niec-haofl 
leal effi'tils of thiiir surroundinRs. The physipid forcos whicd 
not upon thi'Ut from out«idt — the watur or thv air that hotliufl 
ttium— tJio impActs of ethereal undulations in thu form of lighfl 
the vibrations of mattar in contact with them In thi> form ol 
heat — the«M) ore ronceived of as the agencies principally cona 
corntHl. The analogies saggefit«(I ore of the rudoet kind. Olfl 
cannon-balls rust in concentric flakes. Rocks wt^thor into sucfl 
forms as nicking slonttx,* But the grand illustration Is UUcuH 
fmra the jwibbl*.'* of llm Oli<«il b('<irh.t Tht-se are to iiiLnMluoM 
us to the true physical conception of thv wond'Tful phcnomuniJ 
of organic life May not th» unity of thu vertobnitu skelutoi|l 
tiimuHh an immtinsu variety nf cmilur**, 1)i< Lypili>-il by llw 
riMindiii'HH and smoothnens conimon to tho stom-s ndtitd alon^ 
the ftouthitm hinkchfs of Engliuir] from Dcvonshint lu Wi<]fl 
month? The div'-r -'i - of thcMO cnnilurrs, again, howovtifl 
multitudinous in > i-, may they not all be pirtun'<d ofl 

uni' with the t.. v/jfm into wliirh wntor «lft« and 

Non i/<» of rollixl : I . ■ 

But prufuutly wn soo in unotlier furm thu work of " imtiinM 


:tiua " by a tiituil d«lib«rat«ljr divoHting itself of iin owii 
UkIht favnliiuo, autl oliuosing Id cons^uenco to oxort only thoHe 
wlitoli ur« uimpli- udi] aliuoMl inrantile. Tlu^qui^tioii auturally 
nrifWHt, WliJ4t i» \.\w mfwl wuiversfil jieculiarity ami distinction of 
I ic fnmiti ? Whtiii wu g<.'t rid of oureulvE^, when we 8tnnd 
,...;.,. Lilt of our own Arithni)icx:ontrir position, wnd consult oaly 
thf> fncnltiiw wliicli un< iiio«t {mndy iiliy^ictd, we shall Imcoid- 
pcUi-il to n-idy tliftt the pn-itl Hpi>cialty of orpiHic forms is the 
"diffi'PiriitJntion of tlu-ir (lutaide from tlieir inside"" Tlwy 
luvo all on outside nnd aii inaidv, an<l tbi'su are diilHreiit. Thoy 
bi-(^n witli i\ coll, iind a <:•>]) \b a blob of Jvlly with a (>«llicle or 
thin ni"nit>r«m» on tlii> oiituidv. Do wo not wiu in llii» the 
III 1 of thu Huri-oundinj; mt^Kiiuni 'f Tliu .skin may 

•-.. ,. ^:..i., .i . ..1,1 uii tl»' ouljtide, or tho pressure of the medium, 
\).'-~ nut a littlfl oil form ittwif into a sphnre in wator, or a little 
Wiit'-r into » druji in air? And so fn>m one step t^> another, 
con iiol' wi> iroiiiN'ivL- how purtk-li-s of protein Ik<couio colls, and 
liow one n^ll k^'U stuck to unothur, and tlio groupx to groiip»— oU 
with in^iidi-H and otitsidtu "ditTerontialed" from each other, 
wtd UK) thoy can all l>e prei«tKi and compacted and Hqueezed 
toj^i'lhiT nntil t lio orRanisra ifl completed ? f 

Huct) or such 1ik« are the tma^>s preaentod to enable ua to 
Dornoojve the purely physical view of the bei^nnin^ of Ufa 
Tbdr o» I 's in obviouB. It is true that all or nearly all 

L flkin. Most if not iiJl of them twgin, so far M 
Dn by a», In a nueleate<l cell. The oxternul wall of these colls 
i r" )>rni(de. It is tr«o also that one essential idea of 
I.I ion or fwjtregalion from all other thinjuis. Thi."* is 

an «wMiiiti4Ll pah 'if oar idean of individualttyand of fn-n«onality. 
It Ik pvlttde or skin rouml a bit of protein be taken as the sym- 
bol of all that in involved in this ides of life, then "outness" 
ui " udtTiiled ait a very rude imago of one of 

ir .1 I 1 of all organic life. It may even be re- 

goriloil OH n iiynilM)! of the thoughtfl express in the solemn 


" Eurail Atria *t>all atill divide 

Til* •twtia] Mill fraia nil littiido." 

Bur If " iiuttT " and " inin'r " an> used to express the idea of ttome 
■.<!i>-i>iLi>1 niiwhaitii-iil Ht'paration between different parts of the 
I < iQiKm. no that one part may be represimtod as more the 

T- ' ' .' for('<« than huoiIht — then this nide and 

ii.> < ' < . >n i» not only i'ni|jty, hut profoundly erru- 

nwKifi. Ttu!| foroM which work in nud upon organic life kiiow 

* r^r* ?>* <" rvpiiUi .>MtfM yonikir." loi. \t\x. p ra.> 

» Pmi •.ia^SS.t ("tVimUrSolcMvllaBiyr," ml. xil(.p|t. Itt-AS.) 



I nothing of outonas and innpt«. They shine through the ni^ 

f terials which thl^J■ build up mid mold, fit) light iihini*ft thmu^ 

^^ the clearest gUiss. Even the most purely phyttical or thoM* (hm 
^B earned iire ioilependeot of tench relations. Gravitation kuoi 
r^ nolhiug of imieeH and outness. Tho v«.-ry air, which wt-ins 
exteniHl bo us, dovtf uol UR-rcly hulhu or Invu thf Hkin, hut jnu 
meatea the UKkkI, und iu oleinenta aru th« vory broatli of 
in overy tissue of IJie body. Tie moi-e secret forces of vilalil 
dt«l at their wilt with outne(«t and innees. The external hl 
fncra of un« sta^ are folded in and become moat W't-n-t re 
nt anothur. Organs which aro outside in ouu aniiuul, and 
Oonspicuously flourished in the face of day with ozquiaitu or 
nienl of color and of Btnicturc,* aro in another uninml hid awj 
and ran^fully rovertil up. Nuy, ihi'nt itn* niiuiy ci»*m^ in whic 
all thtifie changes are condnoted in tJie same animal at dilTeiei 
poriods of life, and during conscious and unconscious interva 
ttio whok» creetun^ is reformed lo tit it for new surroundinfi 
for n4>w minlin. uud with new apparatusi's adapted to thum. 

If Mr. Spvncur wixhcs to cust any frrah light u|>on thow 
factors of organic evolution rositccting wtii<:h he now vtinfcNMW 
that Darwin's language and his own have lii^n alike defa 
he must lix our attention on somet)iing deeper than the < 
ences between every organism and itit own skin. His snlecLir 
of this most superticial kind of difference as thn firtit 1o dwi 
upon, is not merely wanting — it is erroneous. It hides and 1m 
ns oir the m'unt of iinolhiT kind of oulitidiHlm-si* and iniiidndu«>( 
which ia really and tmly fundamental ; namely, the iuside 
new, the seir-oontainedncss, of erery organism as a whole wit 
refcri-nce 1o all external forcesi. Nolxxly has poinbtKl this oc 
Rion^ dearly in former years than Mr. Spencer hiffl8i>lf, Tb 
grand distinction between the organic tuid the inorganic liw 
this — that ll]e organic is not piuoiive under the touch or im[ 
of external force, but responds, if it responds at oil, with Lli| 
play of counler-foix-es which are esBentially its r)Wn. Drgnni 
bodies are noi simply movwl. They move thiinuH>lve«. Tht 
have "keif-mobility." f They an m coDstituiLxl that oven whtt 
nn exturnal fon^' acis as an excitmient or ii ' ' '" o| 
ganit: fores which emerge and ncl arc much n.' iti 

important — ho ranch mi that as compan-d with the nniultA pt 
ducvd hy tht>M> organic forrt^N the direct D') 
rorci>)i ari! "quit« obNcnmd,"} Mr. Sfumcer 

th4fM> IW(' 

that lu ft I 

iwlioH are iu> 
they " should 

I ri-iipul.. 

; --nt BhilM' 




But lt<* luliU tJuit " tlw i)tii)c*wfibility of tMiiwrating them Mimpok 
iw X*t i]iKn<>:unl tlm dUtiiioiioit U-lwwii tht'in." This is a most 
Umu I'XcuiMs for Uic rairelpus— ami ^itill wdrsu cxciiat' for Ihe 
•indiul — UM) of luulii^uuB IniiKiiuKe whkli i.-o)ifouu<l» tlio liucp- 
•• :i»t in nitliin'. It ciiu not !>«> ailinitteiJ. All reason- 

II .. <ru wiiiilil Ix' liMpi'loiHt iiiilfss Kv cuulil separate ill 

(Imuftlit mntiy tliiugx which aro alwiiya curijoinud in stiUun ; anil 
thin oXL-umt in nil the nioro Ui W' rujoctotl wlmu the alleffMl im- 
IKwnulnllly of separation ift used lt> cover iiii aIniOMt exoliisive 
mmm upon that itno of the two kinds of action which is confess- 
•dly liy for thu fut-Uhst, aud uf Ivast uccomit in the reeulttng 

It MMiniN to me, further, that Miere is anothi^r fi»(al fault in 
thiM att«nipt of Mr. Sjiencvr to reform the langua^^e, and clear 
ii[i th« iduan iif hiolo^cnl sciuncu. Bo»ide« the method of hahitu- 
111' r.a wiinlH Ml ntwlracrt hh to be of ut-cossity amiiignous — 
i !i.> further metliml of htihitually cxiK-IIiiig froHi detinite 

vonlfl iho only sensi-s wliirh Rive ihem value — Mr. Spencer often 
n«urtM, and does so conspicuously in this pafier, to the scholastic 
plan of laying dowii purely vurbal propositions and then argD- 
ini{ dednt'tivvly fvnti tlieni (iw if tliey ri'preiwnt^-d sxionuttic 
truth. By lli" .'*rti<>">lnieii this metlioii «»» often Iegitimut4jly 
upplind to iaibje<!ts which in their own nature admitted of its 
diH>, IwcaiiSK those subjects were not physical but purely moml 
or rellttioiis. and in which ixmst*|ucntly much depended on tJie 
ctiuir ••xpnri'.siiiu of »dmittL<d principktt of ubi-tracl truth. I will 
ant venturv Ui Mty that such verlMil propositions em)x>dying ah- 
■tmrtt idi«na )u&ve ab«olnt«ly no place in phj'sical science. We 
I. r of fnct that they have led some great men lo 

1 1 ' ■« of a good many physical truths ; and it is a 

curious fact iJiai I>r, Joule, who in our own day has been the first 
,. . t 1...1. t[n, j,^^^„ ,yf thodoclrineof the coneorvatiou of energy 
I ' trough rigorous experiment the uiechnnical cquiva- 

i. -rti<l that "we might reason o /ji'iotv' that theah- 

,: . . 11 of living force can not possibly take place be- 
• it» utoairiMlly abiiurtl to suppose that the powers witJi 

I ' I Mi-r can bo destroyed, any moro than 
r , agency." * 

1;. (M 1 do in the inseparable nnity which bind.t us to 

all till- .'-.M.i-n of niituru, I ahouM be the loot to proscribe the 
ovrt'hil mw of oui own abstract conception*!. But it i» tiutto 
r ii'>w iitiivcrmiUy luhnittivl that tho muthoda of 

i:. .!■, ..! iti hi« "Suninui " are lull of dangor when they 

• b • iMVmi rielliTtvd ai ItanilKikv, April >8. IMT. 8«e *-8lrlal>ra m the 8cr> 
■M," itii, t7 R- HL J. B. Joata. J. P^ ■ pwnpliUi pvbUibti) IB6T (J. Dej-ooO, Utb. 



arc used in pliysiciil iiivveligalioiL Yul ah n-^anlfi at lenst the 
tone of (logmii and iititliurity, nnil ul»o n» rrganU thv rontbocl of 
reasoning, vre have from Mr. S|H'noor in tliis [Kijier the fullovring< 
wondorful specimen of HoIiolHstic ti-aching on the profouuili*! 
quL«tiuas of orj^auk Btructure: " At first prutoplaiim could havm 
Du proclivitioa to ono or oDht urmuguiumtt of pHrt« ; unless in4 
dee<L » purply mechRnirjil proclivity t^twiird a spherical fond 
when susppnilpfl in a liquiil. A t tlif outset it must hnw brm p«ui4 
sive. Ill ruBiJuct of its pa&aivity, pritnitive orRanic tnaltvr vntA 
liavti titt-n liku inorgiuiic matlitr. No Bucb tliinj; ae (t|K>ntai]i<oua 
vuriiition row/ff AfiVf.' occurrvcl in it; for vtirinriun inipli<<9 SMarn 
habitual <;oarae of change from whitrh it is n diverfteiioe. and id 
thpn^fofft excludwl where thtire is no habitual course of channf,*! 
What poseiblo knowledge can Mr. S)>enc4>r posaeni of "primitivs 
organic mutter " f What poesihltr i^roundB can he luive for lu- 
SCTtioDS B8 to what it numt hare Iwtu, and what il mtud huvm 
donv Y Surely this i^ schohtKliciHui with a vi'iigunnci* : iIk woriUy 
tta aasuniptions. and its elainis of lof^ical iii«c«6Hity lieing all 
equally liazy, inrnnclusive, and absolutely anlagoniatlu tit liia 
8|>irit of true phytjical science. I 

There is a paseiu;; sentence in one of Darwin's works • whifih 
will often n?cur to the memory of those who liavu obw-rvcd iU, 
Speaking of the teleolo^cal or theological niethodti of (Icecribinfl 
naturi*. hu »iyK that iIhim* ran Iw made to explain nnytliinu. AI 
first iti^ht this may sc^'in a !»trango obj^-tion to any inlellixlbla 
method — that it is too widely applicable. But Darxvin'a iriKunJ 
ing is in its own sphere as true as it is important. An explann4 
tion which is goo(l for (■verything in guui-ral, is goi>d for uoihind 
in tMirlicular, Kxplitnalions which arv imiiMTiniinati- rnn hard- 
ly be also spe<;inl and dii*tiiiguishiiig. In their very ((eiiurulily 
they may be true, but the truth must be as general as the tonni 
in which it is uxpressed. Thus the common phrnsH which wa 
are in the habit of applying to tht* woudurt'til tidaptalious of on 
ganic life when we call them " provisions uf natun>," is a plinuJ 
of this kind. It Mitistim certain faculties of the mind, and Ihrafl 
the highi<Nt, but it afTords no satisfaiition at all to thorn oLhcd 
faculties which ask not why, but how, Ihesa a*i; - an* efj 

fecti^i. It is an explanation applicable to all a<l. , i» oqunU 

ly, nnil to no on« of theui sptwiully. It taki-s no notice wlmtoviil 
of the ()n4-f)tinn. How t It diMM not concern Itself at all will 
phywiatl rminns, I 

Darwin «iw thiK i;l>'rtrly uf such nii-t' t 

liv did nut 9V*: (hat pMviacly the lumip- nii, .,..,: | 

own. The gn-at. gnntp of idruui roetAphnrtcally involvi«l in hA 
phrase uf natuml >u-liTtioti, and not. nikviitw fully ellniinatul tJ 

• I K>»» vnUlii^ »l.*- r^f* 

<rjl ;|i*niii frikTn rin'TT.'if 

A ORfMT COjVf£SS/0y. 


lh« iinmnutry ot It— snrvivnl of tho flttmt— ig ii (^ronp of tliv 
(hclwt fn'unniliiy. It tnuy )k* iikwI tnncootint foranythini;. The 
irocMtfuI ii|)|>lii-^tJoti of it to nny orj^unic ailaptatioii, tiowovor 
jUU nail imiTultttr, in no iuw*y im u» )M«omt> a mere trick. Wo 
turp >iii}jr t4i luwutiii' llii' intr<Mlu<'tir>ti of »ottii' primordial urKan- 
tatn»-~un4.' or iiton^— uln-iuly fomiivl with »ll tliu spvcial powors 
■nrl fuortiorLo nf urRuiiir lift*; vn liMVi* only to assiuno tliu in> 

iily; wt> Imvfi only to iikhijiiio, fiirllmr, 

1 Hit? /i» Willi IIS trnitsmil^ likenpstt; wii 

hnTti only Ui iimuiui'. Mill fiirtliKr, tbiit tht> variutioiis m> urigi- 

,.... > .,. (tiiniMt iiiliiiitit in vurioty, nn<l tlint koiiii> of thvm are 

.in>. lit Mi>ni» tinii* or niiottior, t^j " turn up trumpn," or in 

'. in aUficfiii (lirtvtioii; wnhnvponly 

• - , _ ::.i -' Mill Ixi B4jnioliuw continuixl and d©- 
!■ [■-i-.l ilii-ouuh uinbryolio KtuguH iintU thoy aru fit for Bier%noe; 
' iiKnili, tlint tlicrv iin< a«lju«tin«nt« by 
-~ .11 tranxmutivJ IiiIk iictual U80, has [tovt- 
■■ -r I" irupnjve all udiiptationH 1>y some pi-ocesw of 

■"ii^oi.i. i; tlttni, niukiiitf all tbtuw amamptions, we may ex> 

filuin nuytliiiitt utiil I'VxrytliinR in thn or^anit; world. But in 
« rio« lit iWiinmptiotiH wi> do ni>t spfiik tliu litiiguago of 

ii 1 : . nical ratiftalion. Tliix in wliiit Mr. SlK<niK<r now c-on- 
r<-«M-*. " Natiintl nnlcction." ii<i tmyfl, "could oppTittu only under 

'" ■'" i 1 1 n prolifl.! trntli. It niiwlit Imvr tn^-n dfft- 

• .innil M<l<-«'tion I'otild only ni'lix^t unions 
tbinip^ pfMIMtrcd for and pn-sitntt-rl to its choice. How— from 
*' ■■ :->■• -■■I -- -<li(i tliwid iromi' !■ Mr. Sl)encer'8 reply in, 

I rtitrof^nulv. Uo goiw ttauk to Lamarck, bo 
r- ■'■," to " "iiviMiinK'nt " — to Hurnjuixtiiigii 
- ■ ■:. ' 'I III : iij» conlJ'nt*." t Thiw again am iiiuru 
fituiuww i<> fivin- tlH* tinkudnimi of our own ifftiunuicn. But I for 

II ■:''•* r till* (imcliiHiiin nrrivril al by a mind so 
n ■■al nn thnt of Mr. M|>fn«>r, that "iimong 
1< iliK bi'iiflii ronrnmin^t tlw origin of HiHTitii havu as- 
, ,. ..,ucli H(,( (•linriu;l4>r of a cn-wl, and that wliili* Ixy 
1 (t they hjivt' bwm nnrrowwl. Ho far fnmi further 
*..-•■ M'birli pjtrwin renchwl lui be fffew 
■ .: , i t Iiavi- iftn-Knidwl toward a moro 
r w than ho ovor oxpfwixfl.'* Tho ovil must have 
){' ' '.II tluD gT(<nt aii<wtti> of Evolution has Ut 
pl . ' -orl ni» humbly " it In yet fur tii»^ noon 
I rj- tmnnrrtiiiiK tlin i-mi«i'«' of oryiuiir i-volntion." 
1 Tlinl hut'li an niMumptiou itliould liare bvnii 
I it i* %-irtuiilly iiumIr, i» part of tin' Un;nt Con- 
I- T liii<> I) -In-il Ui dirtfl iittrntion. I bo|K> it 

. >' - i"ik( HiAlhl/,** TttL till, |>. SOI.) 



will tend t«j rwiwm tlie work of Ihc fir>^>tO'^ niilurnl oImtv 
who hiu cv<.T livutl frum tlw gnvit utisuM? wliich litut Ut-u ol\ 
muclu of it. Ttioro is no nml cti8[Mirngcnio»t of tliat work in ea; 
iug that tlifl phrase wliidi enilmlineii it '\n metaplioricol. T 
very hipli«»"i truths are convcyptl in u](>ta|>hor. Tin* (viufcwti 
of Mr. SpenixT is futul only to claims which never ouffht to Ita 
been made. Mnturul liolwtion rU]>r[!«ent« no physical vauaati 
whutMVvr KXfOjit thai, coniitt^tiil with luTwIity. Phynirally 
uxphiiiitt tlh- •iri^iti of iiotliiiix. Bui thu nietaphorii'al I'lcmi-u 
which Mr. Spencer wiitheo ti> plimimito an* of tliu hight^-et vuluv. 
They refer ns directly to those HHpn-mo tahmw to which the 
phyHiciil forces are "nnder subjection." Th<-y rxprcm in Mmiu 
umall di'gnt' that iui-xhaiistilile wealth of pHmonlial iiK-e|itio: 
of xubML-quuut dcvclopmuut. and of rontiiiuous wljuittment, uj 
which aloue selocticrn can hv^in to ojiorute. Thc<M are the 
prenie facts in nature. Wliou tliiti in ctoarly ttoeii and tho 
ouKhly understood. Darwiu'e n.'tN.iurchi.ig and 8iH>cuIatioiu« will no 
longer act an a l«rrier to fiirthrr in(|uiry, m Mr, Spencer com- 
plsiuB they now do. They will, on the contrar>-, l>e the tnotit 
IM»werful stimnlu»i to duupur inquiry, and to more heulthy nuk 
soniug. — Ninrtet<nth Cmiury. 




Bt Da. ftl'SKCKB TKOTTElt. 

OVH -American rolnn is a thnmh— tho rv<l-brciwt4>d thruidi 
his proper titU- — h>> occupifs a hijrh position in tho utttit* ■ 
bird-lifi', and posscswB Honic very iiitci-esting ivcordH of lii» fa 
ily bigtory. When our ftirnfatbers first auun ovw Ihpy fo* 
the fnmk. h(«rty bird with the hussmI bnoist ready to nm 
frieiid.s with thrim, to stay alxml the cli'iiriitgn and around titt-f 
rough cabins, chn'Hng them willi the Mtmng, hopeful «oiig thf 
him f>ver ghuhlentid the heart with il« vigor and fullnxiut 
pmniiM). With what joy thr pionwtm must have wi'lromwl tli 
ftnrt Hjiriiig that 1iniiii;hl iht- rohinH Iv 
winter! To thiit day the rlrwt mhtn oi , 

iation, romingt u ha nftou ilo«ii. amid thu in* and the Know an 
tlu* rmigh wind, nnd nol n Ixnf oti thit Lntni. T' ' ''''■' 
Rn1h«l him " robin " fr<iRi bin roc] bremit, no d>> 
fldiiig wayn, aftor Ihf trm*ty Uttlp warhlur mi dwar lo their hear 
In tho old home n/ -'- 'In. m*a. * - ■' -- ■' ^--t" imitu " rtihii 

in*i>r H)nct>. althonu' 

d i« hu' 

! (u the UM] 

World, whu Ujlwii(i>* Ut the warblM^ 


By virtue at ImiuK n Uimiili. our robin enjoys a very exten- 
f crnintry fur liin linliiut. From (In- Atlantic U> the 

, — .-'■^1* tlw cotittnenr., fniui Ijie shores of (hi' Arctic Oooau 

Mexico antl CVutml Ami)rivit, h« i» finiml ttbiuiduutly. hre^. 

'lit ttic foroHt limits of itiis K-i(]t> an-it, titid building 

^t of ilri>n| Kra88. rooltt, imd platiti>red uiud about 

' -lul in Ihv land. Allhoaf{)i n i'ird of the woodluiitl, 

I "i'' ' ' . Ill' ynt pri'fctrs thi'tftinii-n find Ibr mvlmrd 

tltr> It Hlnnd til II1C Diidttt of tlio IiumIUiik (.Jly bold 

it. Ituux-civorouiiliy niitiiru, 

riiiK liin ilJKl lurK*>ly wilJi 

mittll, wild iM-rriiw of iJiti 

'iiif., tb(< n^liiii liiiM iK-ciiniK, 

nri' miui'M itiviwioti, n lovnr nf 

Jit, keopinft )Mu:fl with miui in 

" ■ • .n of bin tiwto. Thit 

bin taiitv can not bo 

iwvl. H<> tukuM till* hifiif/mi 

'»-rm<« of tbn ntoHt npprov^vl va- 

ani] till' Itiwiouit utraw- 

■ " "■■ '' t r-.r 

11; ill.- 

I iliiiibli< by dnvuur- 
I'M'l nmn' of iniM«l-tifo 

lid >iUim»liily iiov(<r niiil _ 

. litnf, root, luid bmnch. F<irtiinuti> it h thnt 
..: -.,^...jmI hill VHltiiibb? *Mn'lc4', imd prot«t:tud biia by 

' ■ '' ■inhfw— »nd tlw rttbin may lie taken a» ft type— 

ry int«reiitinfi; fiiituri'H in their developmi-nt, 

■•s and K<>ot{r<i|)bicjU distribution, u dtudy of which 

-'■t not, only n\>im iUi> biKtor>' of the birdo tbemiwlvc«r 

II Hivvrrd wididy ditTcrvnt HubjiH.-tM, 
boH b(don(c to thf nioKt highly uiTOUp of 

... : .{.iMCPw— »nd MV fiirlbi^Ht rL-movud inMtrui:rur« rt-om 
tlir Mftriy miitibiid fomiH. Tlii>y pONMiim tfau most conijib-to votaI 

' ■ ' ibe lower Htid of the windpi(>e, 

with .n. Thr winn has nndiTRonp a 

I to tbti nanihnr of it* primsriiai or iiuill-fiwtbi<r» ktow- 

i"iii thr* t'rtiK flnK>-r, tliiTK iHiin^ tt-n of tbi'iu', tbi' flrfit ono 

(uid uhurtivi'. NO thut the thninhi'* may bi> It^iki.Hl upon na 

r" ' ' 'Wanl th*' hi(f!ii-«t tyj"' of wiMK-«lructiir*'. llmt 

•-In t'onjum-tiou wiih thin, tbn foot or ley in 

"Vend by Au unbroken pinte of hnrd. lwitht.*ry 

"I t><d, iMt in othor fonn». A dtwtdvd 

• ii^...,.' in the '■ uiolt," or uliividing of 


AMttamn lltaiil 




f«athen(; the autamiml tnolt Iwing tha only complete procnia, 
wliilo tho tjpriiig change u) cffectftl dimply by tho "custiug" ufTJ 
of tho liroki-u |>oinUt of futtthcT>i io 1h(> worn plumugu, X\w\ 
young of tiU the- thrti8lic8 arv ^>oX\i»\ in tli«ir m-!«tliiii; 'Irciw, but] 
never cftiry it. bt^yonil tlie tirst. autiiiiiii. iiiwuming tin- full plum- 
age of the old birds after the Ili-st molt, so tluit " « binl of the J 
yeur" in the late fall and winter in Rcarcely ilialinguiHiiablv 
roiD it« {MM'onts. Any ont? vrhn is familiar wtlh the young mb-j 
6 hopping about tliu hiwn iu thu 4'«ii'ly tjuniincr, with their' 
lotted hrciutitA un<I mottkxl bucks, nmy have wondenHl what 
Hiiie of thmn by (Xrtolwr. 
( Tho tlinisbfs are migratory binis in the temjierate zone, ait j 

the nature of their frxxl di>maiidfl, pitrtaking in the g«?nntal norib 

I and south movement during the spring and fall tides of mignt-j 
Idon. Though not strictly gregarious, many of the Kpocii-« ; 
biat4) iu loose Hocks, on tlu- appixiavli of nutnnui. and fomgie^ 
over tho country in qufst of fotid. We are all fainiliiir with tho 
flock» of robins in Iho fall, .walt^ering overhear!, or in the gum- 
trees feasting on the ripe, black fruit. They are for the nioitt 
p&rt lu-boreal, living lat^gely among the Ikuh, bat Homo of the 

s]>f4.<ii-» build nrtjttM on the gn>nn<), 
or in tho undergrowth juKt alwvii 
it, and all nf ttinn frequmtt Uw i 
ground at timeH when food in to 
be obtained there. Being among 
the most highly organizml ofi 
birds, the thrutiheii lu-o conw- ' 
quenlly rapid liver;), poteoiising a 
high degree of vitality, and crou- 
suming a very birgti prii)H>r<Jun 
of oxygen. Qreat fi'edent, strong 
of wing and ntnut of heart, with 
warm, faxt - (lowing \A*nA and 
high lemp*trature, they am, in^ 
wnse of th« word, alive to their environment. 
The robin and hiii worM>wido congnnerH form th« gonui 
\ir<iun. .1 ,, tipwun] I'F ''■ vi.Ol-^le* 

neil ny ,1 the forest ■ uf thfl 

;lobi<, ox<'e])ling Auntriiltu and New Zeoland. wliorv tJiuy an>| 
pluriv] by an alliwi K««ip. 
In the luibenn'tii- reKion of the Old World four widely Ai*-\ 
! HpiMnoM ociriir. all having xpottfit hrfiMls in the adult 
..r.:^-:. The red-winginl ihniidi brcuilit in tint biri:h n>giiiQ,, 
d throughout tlio upimr litdL of pine* acriMK Kuropa and Aaia.1 



ktiitiflo ?i"1»»tyon<l the fornut limit The rod-wing wintcre 
fi lCun)jH> liiiil till* Britiiih IslaniU. 

..■ -'• -1 Uirudli, or "lield-fure," has a ranffn soiiio- 

vluil ciiuiliu- vrilli the ubovi- sjieciofl: Asintic individuals uii-j 

r w Ciuihincru, Tiirki-stfin, ami \\w iiijr)JiweHt<?rti| 

.. Tht' uiiMy.i]-tliruidi ItritnlH tlimuf^hoiii cc-utralj 

ruiiKitix tuintwanj to 



-thwrMtitm h1(»)k«i of tils 

!«■ In Kiii'li u mild cli- 

rituiii ofTi^rd, hi_> 

"■' .. .1: iMuriil.biit Chu 

. of iiidlvidiuUif winter 

r . , i\ -lin, and 

' : thrush 

■ «luiUit>r pntiriircUc fonii, 

..^ .'■■■;; KOMtwanl I0 tht) Yuni- 

y, ami in Norway wiui- 

itiTUit; tii'yoiid th» An-tic Cir- 

Ui> liatt u iiiur n'liil.ivu In- 

ioft nttrthvrn and wiiiturii 

(iia, Vi I'l p.'n> David'H 

inuh, r (if a Kooti monk who di>vot4Kl much time to 

■tmly oi omithol(>F{>-. 

itn* »r» tvfo Bi>«Hl"brMi»t«J thriiHhea re«(rictod nach to a 

. iilaiid. Olid found uowhoro <iW: tlio Anjuan thriish, iu- 

ono iif ilii' i>iIiindM of tlm Ci'iuoni ^roiiji, lyiii^ lM■twl^ou 

iruod till' Afrirnii coaxt; uud Miu Ut. Tliouiuti tlin 

taliUid of that luiinu, in the Oulf of Guinrui. 

tbo Nhw Wurld tJw II' i' ' or Nortli Amoncau rugic 

Mvoral KpeeioM of lirvtuitixl thrushw hroodliifi: 

thfJUicbMut ttM fcirwt ama. NoUiIiIh anions these arc \\w- wood- 

tfaruBb, whiHwt tntillow, rijiiiliiiK tiiiiKic we knrrw and Iov<4 iwi 

^ well ; th« ht'.niiil, th« olivi'-luirktvj, tho tfray-checked, and tawny 

■^■■bt" ' iuid fall mit^riLiitM puxsiu); through our woods 

^M In ocAtTHKt to thfl apottod-bmaatml speciea, thore are a rium- 

^K ' '< I ii ! amonft ll)t<m tht; roliin, which nn* tinlidly 

^L. . ,1 fiiw M|MilK Ixnii^ O'lifinod U\ tJi(i ihroiit. 

^^Bp \fts ill eidnr-))nlt4>ni has uiidoiihUtlly ariKi'n fur )iiu;k 

J^ ™* ry of tho (croup from Momn enviroiiinu in(lH*^iiW. 

Hn if thwMt solid-colorod IhriLihed are all xpoltecl like 

Uh» raat, iw) ' ilifi youn^ of nil aaimals tend to revert 

tiiWdfvl anoti- ' : n\» and cundiLions Oio iipottAd-breaativ] i)]t«- 

V \x% hiiikerl upoo iw rupn-itentiiig the more primitive 

"^ A furll r this U fi.uiid in tho two 

1 thniitl- Iif thu ialniidit atxtvt* men' 



tionecl, which from thuir itMtliUoil linbitat nro iia<l<rul>l«dly 
considombli* untiqaity ax xpcciun. Otir robin in Um uiily roprn- 
8eut«tiv<k (if tlio thrashes with twl id •colored breaotH fnumt in 
North Aniflrics. hut a host of them occur in South America and 
!*ome in Africa. 

This contrast between the northera and soathem oontinente 
of the New World, or, to speak 5so6l(>gicully, between the nunrc- 
iic and nuutrujiioiit n-giuni«, in tho numbor of tipL>ci<>» of thrtiuh, 
liu« itv !<olutit>n in tho i>e(;uliarity and viu-ioty of pbyitiottl cm- 
ditions offered by South America. The ntn^oi of tlie Hpeeiw 
inhabiting the great forentti <if the txiuatoriiil 9!on<* ait* in thi? 
majority of instances restrict**! to comparatively limit«<l areaa. 
The variod coudiliomt offt-rod by high m(mntaiii-mnK«*8 and 
doup, low-lying foroats, t^md to the cn«tion of new variutius or 
local racuH, which are consvquvntly limitud to cortnin narrow 
aroAH, nod n luirticnlar species w ofU-n thus rttpramntod by 
oml extreme formi*. In temjiemte North Amerloa, on tho otJi< 
hand, tho fewer special are kept true by miffration, which ten 
to etiualize surrounding conditions. 

In northern South Amerii'4», the valley of the' Amaston, ai 
the foi-eatK of Bmxil, three < varii-tiwtof tho wliite-lhroatod 
thnish occur. The common S'mth Amuriaiii thrush, a com|nr- 
ativoly widely ranging M]iocie», reaching southward to Chili, hni« 
an extreme form in the northwest. The 8a1>inii thninh i» an- 
other Bjieciea which has split up into several fomiB under the 

influence of hH-nl ouudition 
No ntgion in tho world in 
rich in the nunilmr luid va- 
riety of ltd i)nMu>nne bini 
In the iwuth lumfterate {hi 
tion of the oontinont t1 
spocioH of tJinisb ar>- m<i 
uniform, luid vttry few v 
riutitw are found. 

Africa ha» weveml wel 
defincol reprHNnnliilJvfM 
the Holid-colt" 
thruitheit. 'ii 
thrunh and the AbyiwlnLan thmnliarofMUUtm foniu; intliowi' 
thr " " ■ ■ , I., found ; V ' 

th. .-^li,iu.d i; 

chane thniwh range throughout tho Transvaal, Cuffrarui 
Damani I^nnd, the Bi'chuiii': .,-■■-- -i- ' ttie Tapp. 

Th" fiulo. KH thi>y nni : by lliix Itititmrtioi 



jHtttblialiiHl »|iMit«9<, nnd bigli d«f^w of developiuenl wlifrli the 
liiw liavn altAiiiiil, il«tii>l« ttloJr comimrutive f»ilt4]Uity nh U 
f>up iif btnlx. Tiuit' luiH be«*u tlio imiiortant fiu;t<ir in enUI)- 
tiahttuc tliP flprtciini, woA itiuibUuK tiieiu to Hvo Tur und wide in 
'1 dtvunR fouditi<ins of \\t\'.. [I wiDild l>i> dilG<mlt 
in* (iri^QlJ citnlBP of tlmiv develnpnipiit. — |)niLiu})ly 
1 the gn<ai l(Utd-iiiiuutt.>K, ax thu Buri>-AHiitti<: coutini'Ut., 
■' >nrly foniifi hav*) ftimMwl to other ]H>rtions of tht> 
' br«nk itp iiito iiovr vari<Fiic« and x])OciM under thu 
.' (•nviroiimiinUi. 

_ ; ;uniiH huvii Huccumbed in tli« MrnKK'^ f'^i' li'o 

' tuivv liv«d on, nutil novr.tho uimost perfect wing and foot; 
lli*v|t«l ftrpF ' •( holdn tho pluuiagw forayear before it is 

»li«], aad olx' >* th»> nutting ]iftir to rmr three goodly 

hroudi ouch Hpnuu;: tho vocal dttvoloimitmt, tbo oinnivoroiin 
,ii ■ ■>: -t)iiiiidiuu-n and w<irld-vfide distribution of itpociott, toll 
I •<{ huw thw nibiti and bin ooiiyftnent havw coin» to bo 

■lioi Ufoy «t« — a duoiiiuiut lo^i'P 'i* '^^ animal life of the 


r«ra* PMtu in thu lUu'tch prt>viou>ily given I thud *.t\At every 
•t- I'J wienpc, there hftH been a r»*- 

■dijufi' iiK up of »>me mitiiins which 

nally Itnd aothini{ tu do with ndt^on in a proper Dense, but 
hod )n<i-i(ntit n't luiiforiaitnl with ndlf^oibi iH-llnf ax to W 
lTi't<-l with thi' latter — a ((ivinK up of »i>nir> line of di>- 
f' ittht never to have txvn held, Im^-huap not with- 

in ■ >.. ^.|...;..d domain of thoolngy at aU. Until the prueamt 
tbir whoh« difficulty biu lieon thu nwidt of miB)'rincepii<in, and 

11 every M tuly H(ri>iiu:t.herted 

1 olwtruit. ; It which hindered 

But the pnment ntrUKltld Hceniii to many an entirely 

■ ' ' "■ iif* matter. To many it eieeraa no 

, tint of essential reli^ou iltwlf — a 

vih NtruKK'" Ixlween reltsion and uiHtoriidiKin. 

i-ejiticH and Chri><tiuiit<, evolution siK'ina to be 

•> blank DiaUTialiKm. and thrrePiirc cutu up by 

li ;i liydimyinic th. / 0<id 

*<■ Tliiil the eiiein , 'ii. if 

'MiMi 'INnliiilnn <n.l In 1l>Uilnn l» lullfflau* IVtiflK.' Vj PiotMwr ioMpli Lo 

ttmm ■ 



tliure be auy sticb, should luuumo uucl iosiaL itn ihiit iduutily. a 
tbur) oarr}' ovur the wholu Hooiimulat«d tividvuvu uf cvithititm 
» <](*ni<iiiiKtratioti of nmtoriAli»m, although whidly iiimitrninl^ 
is not »o 9UT>risiiig; but vhal shall we say of Ihe iiiorodt 
folly of her friends iu admitting; thi* same idi-utity ? 

A little rvlit'ftiuii will explain this, Thore i;au be no dou 
that tlioru is at prexest u Htroii^ aud to many an overwhtdmi 
tviidoticy lowant materialism. The amazin;; attbiovvniviitit 
modern science; the absorjition of intellectual t^ufTRy in tho U 
vesliBation of external Natui"e and the laws of matter have c 
ated a current in that direction ho HtrouR that of Uiora who t 
it« influence— ^>f those who do not stay at burnt', bbut up in Lb 
urvodii, but walk abroml in thr< HkI'^ *'f niodcni tlxniK^t 
Kweejis away and bears on its Imsuui all but the stron^^t 
mo8t reflective miods. Materialism biut thus U'como a fa«bi< 
of thought; and, like all fasliionfi, must Ite (fiinrdoil agni 
This tendency has b«>n created and is now Riii(lc«) by scifuu 
Just at thia time it is vXrangesi in the department of bioloj 
and ui]H)cially \s ovuluUun iia strouKbold. Thi» tbi.'ory is su 
pottod by many to be simply domunHtrntivo of mutvrifllis 
Onco it was Iho thwiry of gravilalion whi(;h ^t-inMl difmontit 
tiv« of niaterialiHm. The siLsteiilatioii of thi* iiniviTite by L 
R(K>mod to imply thai Naturo oporntos tt«elf and ntKHbi no 
Tliat time is paat. Now it ia evolution and creation by la' 
This will also pass. Tbo thttiry aeems to many th« most mat 
rialiHtic of all sciuutific doctnnu only becauM' it Ik IIim Inxi wlii 
is cluimtKl by materialism, and the absurdity of thu claim is n 
yut miulo clear to many. 

Till' Inilb im, there is no such necessary connection bi-t 
BVoIntiiii) and ntal«rialisni as is iniaKinivl by some. Thi<ru 
difference in this respect l)utw<wn I'voliition and any otltcr 
of Nature. In evoUilion, it \» true, the liutl Iwrrier Is brok 
down, and the whole domain of Nature in now subject ti> I» 
but it iit only '^f UiM : llio march of sciimce has Im^'u in 111" i>ai 
din>ftton all the time. In a won), i>vidutiou in not only u 
idiuitical with mntrrialism, but> to thu dfop thinker, ii li«« 
ndi1t-<) a featlier'H weif^bt to its |irnTwibilit.y f '' 
Involution In oi]i< thin);: and materifilism iiuili' m 
is au iwUiblisbiHl law of Natun% the ntlier nn unwnrrauied 
ba«i1v infen'nci- from f' ■•-■- I.A't no fmi- i -■ V 

dueled bv th'! matt-rial i 

I list in the [>. 

(lie iuuritiuiic III tho oiximii'i from IIik iiri^miir l<i lli>'iii>tC 
from Ibu animale to the rNtionnl rktid mornt >>»'il )••', 
««>mit to him, hitfically n»d im^vilably. In i 

a... t< 


in of phncHKipliv. Btit, on Ht'coimt i>f tht? strong tendency J 
nuiU-rijUiitm luiii the ^killful f^tUnoe of his leaders, tburel 
■ ■; ' ttouudnry; he does not dUtiDf^iab between 

.■•iieo itud the infereiKM's of a ohullow philoao* 

jAiy; xhv wlmlo m in-rn-ditwl to scienn?, and the final coudtwion 
•mmn to cKrry wiUi it all tlio certainty which Ixilongs to scion- 
tiSo nwalttf. Th» fAot tbjit tbeao mutcriulivtic concIuBioofl oro' 

-must acienlUts of tfau iiniwut day 

lillty. In a qnestion of science, viz., 

of evolution, thtor ftutbority i» di«ervfxUy high, but iu n 

ion nf pbilonophy, vile., loateriaiitin), it itt far otherwise. Ifi 

porn wit^ntiktM Hniilo whoQ tbtMlo^pcal philoBophcni, unao-! 

qtiaint«4 with Hi In of Bcienoe, uudertaJc** to dojfmatizo on 

,|Ji« mibjeet of k . i .< u, thoy muAt pardon the philosophers if 

ly aUo umiXa when tbo pure nciontisti) imagine tJiat Oi«y can 

ofMO wive i|a«aUutis i'l ' -^>phy which liavc agitated the 

tonuu) mUfl fruoi thn k^ 'wnt, I lun auxiou» to show the 

kbaorility nf this tiuitHrinliHtiu conc!u.sion, but I nhnll try to du 

I, Out by ui; labunKl argument, but by a few simple illoDtra- 


I. It it rnriouii to obmrvo bow, when tlio qiiOKtiun is conoern- 

\j ^*ntll^-•. w« no aoonor fiod out how n thing Ih miwlo than wo 

BXclaira, " tt U not mnde at all— it became bo of tt- 

: ' ikM w« knew not how worlds were made, we of 

! lhi<y mtut bav(i been created; but, bo soon as 

■eUaee '">»' it wiui jirf^lmbly done, immudiutoty we say 

we yirtv ■■ ^> u— lliHjr wern not ma4]e ut alL So aluo, solong 

•» wt) i>)uld not inukKinn how uew nrgauio forms originutod, wo 
U'litivn thi<y wi^rx rroalei] ; but,M Boon OB we find 
iiit*«| by 1-votution, many ut once aayi^Wowero 
, — no creator Is ncccwHory at all." Itt this 8i> when the 
in ooooeniing a work of mtkn ? Yon, <if one kind— viz., 
work of the magivinn. Hen', indeed, wo believe in >iim, and 
ar» ' ! with liiM work, until we know how it is done, and 

. ...I failh and wonder oo«n>. But in any honest work it 
■o: but. on thn «intrary, when we nnderxtand how it \» 
"is cbaugrd into iutclkvtual delight. Doee 
I luit Ut QHMt peoplw Oorl is a nn-re wonder- 
:nag)oian ? Bui thn mihaion of science lb to show 
■K iiiinK'. iini doon. tuit nny wouiliT, thi'n.Uist to snch per- 
•dwnca Lit ronatikntly dftitruyiug thuir 8Ui>«nititiouB Uln- 
? But if ih-A if! nn honest worker, according to reason — 
I'nfi ti} la»' c^U'lit not wrionce roUirr to oluuige gap- 
into ill' delight — saperatition into rational 

., ii bi curious to obiwrve bow an old trtilh, if it oomu 
via> mn t-^ 



onlyman«i&/ui-m,oft«a0triku(i lu as Homotliing iinlu)&rdof,and_ 
eveo as pundoxiciil Aiid ulmoitt impossible. A little over tliii 
yenn ngo n little philoAophical toy, the gyroscope, was iiitr 
duoed And became very common. At first si^ht it seems to 
tat« all mechanical laws and set at imu^lit tliu law of gravit 
tion itwlt A heavy bnun wliMtl, four to five mtAum in diamol 
at the cn<l of u horizontal axle, six or eight inchos Xoti^, is sot 
rotiiting rapidly, and then the froo end of the axis 18 KupiM)rt«d 
by s atring or otlierwise, Tbo whwl remains suspend^l in the 
uir whil« slowly gynttiug, Whut mvHturious forci> sui^Iaiiis tho 
whuul when Ha ouly ix>iiit of support is ut Iho «ml of tliu 
six or eight incites away ? Scientific and popular lit«raturo ' 
flooded with explanations of this seeming paradox. And yet 
was nothing new. The bo>''Btop, that spins and Itians and wUi_ 
not fall, although solicited by graWty, bo long as it spins, whi 
we have seen all our Uvos without iqwcial woudor, is pr 
the same thing. 

Now, evolution is no new thing, but an old fnmiliar tnitb; 
but, coming now in a new and queationable shape, to, how i^ 
sturtlen uH out of our propriety I Origin of forms by evolutidfl 
is going on evorywhero about u», Imth iu tho inorganic and tM 
organic world. Iu its more familiar fomiB it IuhI never oocurrH 
to moHt of us that it was a scientific refutation of the ezisleiifl 
of Qod, that it was a demotuttration of materialism. But now fl 
is pushiNl one atvp further in tho direction it has always beafl 
going — it is mode to include also the origin of ftpeoiea — only fl 
little change in its form, and lo, how we start I To the doM 
thinker, now and always, there is add has been the alturaativofl 
materialism or theism. God operates Nnturo or Nuturu oporatl 
ifawlf ; but evolution puts no now pliuxo ou this old quwtiofl 
For example, tho origin of the individual by evolution. EverJ 
lHK]y knows that every one of us individuaity beoamii what ifl 
now are by a slow prooBss of evolution from a microscopic sphofl 
uleof pn>toplainn, and yet this did not intorf^Td with tho id^| 
of Ood as our individual maker. Why, thmi, should tbo dixctiv 
dry that the spmteH (or llrst individuals of imoh kind) originntM 
by OTolutiou destroy our l>elit>r in 0<h1 ns the ornator of Hpociv^l 

8. It in curious and very interesting to oInHTve tbo mannor fl 
vrliioh vexed quetitions are always fiimlly n'ttbil, if M'tUcd ut afl 
All vi)x»t <|ULwtioiui — i. o., <]u«Mili(>nH which have tnskod tho po^| 
ont of tlie gTvatt!»l mimhi ago niUir ago— ani sach only t>w»ufl 
there in a real tnilb on liutli Mid>w. Pun.', un' ' ' <9 

not live 111 |>lngiio us long, lilrror, wlvn it i fl 

docH so by virtnn of a gorm of truth onnlnioed. Grvot t]ui<«tiiiifl 
th - ' ~ - ' ' -■ -Li*! pro und wm from agn to a^H 

)': 'Ltf., from itji own yioitit of vi(^| 


— trao, but wrwng in excluJiiiK the other point of view ; and a 
truu iK>tuti(i[i, tt tnit* mtioual pliUuHopliy, will always bo found 
In a view whicli roiiil>in<>« mid rocoiicilutt the two partial, mutu- 
ully ojcfluding vinwB, xltoviug in wliut tlj«y are true and in what 
thi-y un.' false — L-xpluildng their differences by trantwendiug 
tbiim. This is so uniTersal and far-nntihiug a principle that I 
am fnm I will be pordunod for illuHtratiog it in the homeliest 
and tritiwt faiihjiin. I will do so by means of the i«hield with the 
dietiTM cid(M, giving the story and construing it, however, in my 
uwn wny. There is, apparently, no limit to the amonnt of ricli 
mBiTow of trntli that may be extractwl from thu»e dry bones of 
I".l'ulnr provorba and fabl«« by pationt turning and gnawing. 

W4> ail rMnemb«r, th«n, the famoua dispute concerning tlio 
•hioUl, with its sideii of different colors, which we sliall here call 
whit« and black. We all remember how, after vain attempts to 
dist'ovtir lltB truth by dinputo, it wax agnM}d to try the Hcivntifio 
nK^tlim) of invL-stigntiun. Wu nil remember the surprising ro- 
ntlt. Both |)urtt08 to tht> di^ptito were right and both were 
wTf»ng. Ea«h waa right from his point of view, but wrong in 
Ucliulini? the other point of view. Each was right in what he 
■1 ■ and each wrong in what he deniwl ; and the comploto 

I r -H the combination of th« partial truths and the olimina- 

tiun of the partial errors. But wo must not make the mistako 
of Rupputdng tlint truth consist* in compromisf. Thoro is an old 
adage that truth lies in the middle between antagonistic ex- 
tnnniM. But it seennt to us that this is the place of aaffiy, noi 
of trutb. TluB is the fnvurite adage, therefore, of the timid 
man, tiie titno-narrer, the fence-man, not the truth-seeker. Sup- 
poap ' - ' ' htipti on tho ocrusion mentioned above one of 
lliaM' ' >-ophers. He would luive uaid : " These din^pu- 

loniH tttvi ei[ually intelligent and equally valiant. One ^ido eays 
11. > '' ..1,:., -'io other that it is black: now tnith lies in 
■.: .1 conclude the shield is gray or neutral 

tint, itf a iwri ul' |R'p[«^'r-and-«ilU" Do wo not see that ho is the 
only mnn who has no truth in him ? No; truth is nu hotorogv- 
neous mixture of opjioelte extremes, but a dtorooscopio oombina- 
t ' tirfant views into one solid reality. 

itame is true of all vexed questions, and I have 

H trite fublo again only to apply it to the cose in hand. 

are three possible views concerning the origin of or- 

(.- rins wbetlii-r individual or specific Two of Uiew arw 

< '/excluding; the third combining and rec- 

I . . ....... ,.'U', take the individual. There are three 

n <-onocming the origin of the individual. The first la 

:■ ' M iio tbinka that he was made very much 

1. . , < dirt-pioa ; tlio Moond is tliat of the 



\ rtreet-gamin, or of Topsy, who 8fty«, " I was not made at all, I 
^H growfd " ; the third is that of most intelUgent Cbristians — i. a, 
^" tint wo wero mado by u procoM of ovolution. Observe that this 
I hitt«r combiuc8 and reooncilw the other two, and is thus tho 

I more ratioiuil nnd philosophical. Now, there aronlito three ex- 

I ooUy ourreKpotiding theories concerning the oriKia of species. 

I The first is that of many pious persons and many inteUif^ont 

F clergymen, who say that species were made at once by tho Di- 

vine hand tpUhotd TuUuntl process. The second is that of the , 
materialists, who say that species were not made at nil, tlioj^B 
were derived, " they growed." The third is that of tho thotsU^^ 
evolutionists, who think that they were created by a process of 
evolution— who believe that makinK is not inconsistent with 
. growing. Tho one nsBorto t)iu Diviuu agency, but denies natural 

I process ; the seoond aaserts the uatornl process, btit denies Divi 
^_ Etgoncy ; the tlurd asserts Divine agency hy naittral process. 
^y the first two, obtMrvo, botli are right and both wrong; each vie 
^^ is right in what it aiteurts, and wrong in what it denies— each is 
^^ right from its own point of viuw, but wrong In excluding the 
^B other point of view. The thinl Is the only true mtional aolu- 

tra l I 

tion, for it includes, combines, and r(voncileA tlie other two^^ 

showing wherein each is right and wherein wrong. It is tin 
combination of tlie two partial tnitbs, and the elimination of 
the partial errors. But M us not fail to do perftwt justice. Tho 
first two views of origin, whether of the individual or of t3ie 
spocios. an? indeed both partly wrong as well as partly right; 
but tho view of tho pious child and of the Chriation contains bx 
far tlie more eexontial truth. Of tlie two sides of the Bitlda 
theirs is at )««8t the whiter and more beautiful ^ 

But, alasl the great bar to a speedy settlement of this quos*- 
tion ami the adoption of a rational philosophy is not In the haod 
but in the heart — Is not in tliu reniton but in pride of opinion- 
■olf-coneeit. dogniatiiun. The rarest of all gifts is n truly tolerl 
nnt, rational spirit. In all our gettings let us E<tri\ ' ' v 

for i/ alone is true wisdom. But we must not iiim^^ il; 

tho dogmatism is on one side, and that the thoological. Manpj 
seem to tliink that theology has a " pre-empt ivt Hf/kl" to doflj 
matism. If so, then modem mnt<<rialJHtic science hns ">im}icl 
th« daim." Dogmatism has its rootd deep-tK>ddiHl in ihe huuuii^ 
heart. It showed itself first in the douiuiti of theology, bcraual 
there was the soat of power. In nuidifm timtw it has kouo ova 
to the side of scif ■>wJ 

and fashion. Tht<i •ttra 

to Ui« true rntit)nal spirit, viz., the old thi M 

•duntlflo. Ttio old clings fondly to old '* ' r 

«/w o}d; Ihe new gnisps engerly after ■ -ii 



UiKy* arts now. Tract wisdom and true philosopliy, on tho con- 
tnuy. try all tbingfi both old And new, and hold fnal only to 
til "ii Biid fnit', TLu rniw dogmatism taunts the 

r-'i ., unci »u](e[:4titioii; tho old ruproachi'S tlio new 

for hivily and skepticism. Bui true wisdom pon.-oivw thut thoy 
an< both eqnally crvduluus uud equally skeptical. Tbo old is 
ciT'lul'inM of old ideiui and skupiicul of now; the new is akepti- 
r. ! id(>a« mid cnxiulouji of now. Both dt'st*rv« tho unspar- 

ii.p, .. .-.Aio of nil ri^ht-Diinded men. The appropriatu rohuko 
fur tho old doiM:mati»m has been already put in Uie mouth of Job 
in thi* fnnti nf a bitter sneer: '* No doubt ye are the people, and 
wiitdoiii Htmll die with you." Tho appropriiitu reliukti for the 
a«w doj^utiem, tbouf^h not put into thu mouth of any ancient 
l>r>ipbct, uugbt to Iw utterod— I will undertAk<( to utter it here. 

I would my lo theao modem mat^rialiHtA, " No doubt ye are the 
men, and wisdom and true philosophy were torn with you." 

Lnt it Ik.' obtttrvwd that wo are not ht'ro touchluf^ tho general 
(ptustion of th« pcntonal a^«ncy of Ood in operating Nutunx 
ThU woHhall take up hereafter. All that wo wi»h to inmat oa 
now in tlmt the proc«69 and the law of evolution do not differ in 
their relation to materialism from all other processes and tawa 
Nature). If the suBtentation of the unireraG by tho law of 
vitation does not diflturb our belief in God as the sustainer 
of the univi'rso, thoro is no rt'oson why the oriKi'i of thu uni- 
vvtrn' by (he law of evolution Hbould diitturb our faith iu God as 
tlio creator of thu nniverw. If the law of grRvitatioa bo ro- 
Rtinlvd OS thu rlivlne mode of sustentation, there is no reason 
why we aliould not regard the law of evolution as the divine 
prticinM of croaiion. It is evidi-ut that if evolution be material- 
i«in, Uu'ii ifl (Tmvitotion also inaWirialigm; th«n l« every law of 
Nntan<and all ecicnne matorialtxra. If there bo any diffwrouco 
at all. it oomiists only in tbi»: that, at* already said, here is the 
loot line o( defenae of tlie supporters of supernatural ism in the 
railm of Naluni. But beinj; tho Inst Use of defense — the last 
dit^*!! — il U iu-ld<tnt tlmt a yiohltng hero implies not a mere shift- 
biff "f lint', but ni^hangoof Imse; nota n^-ndjustment of details 
ii. It rrconntruclion of Christian iJifohijy. This, I believet 

•m ■ '■■■'*<'«mrj'. There con be little doubt in the mind of 

II J I obwL-rver that we are even now on the eve of tho 
f ' " i.innl views that has taken place fdnee 
Xi But k>t no one be greatly disturbed 
tbdreby. Fur as then, k> now, change comw not to dcstniy but 
t.- ' '■■" " '■- -' ' • ViojMsand aspirations; aa then, »o now, 
t ' lias, in tlio coiinw of ages, Ixtcome eo 
i: KB tradilionu which Hiirio ita Rrowth, 



; >^ tho abuU to set it free ; as theu, so 



now, it has become neoeesar; to pur^fo religioos b«Uef of di 
in tho form of trivialitiee and «ui>(>r«titioaii. This has ever boen 
ami pver will bi> tho function of scioncci, TIib cflacmtials of ro- 
ligioiiii fjiith it do«fl not, it cnn not, touch, but it purifies and 
ennubleB our coucoptionii of Deity, and thus elevates the whole 
planu uf religious thought. 

It will not, of courw, bo oxpfctod of m© to givo, oven In hrlef- 
Mt outlht^, a 8y,stom of n.-con»tnicUtd ChriHtiim thought. Such 
an attempt would l>e wholly uiihcroming. Time, very much 
time, and the co-operation of many minds, bringing oontrihn* 
tious from many departments of thought, are necessary for thia. 
In a word, it cau only iUielf come by a gradual process of evolu- 
tion. But from tho point of view uf science some very funda- 
mental changes in traditional views are already plain. Uf tlieae 
the most fundamental and important are our ideas conoeming 
Ood, Nature, and man in their relations to one another. 


THK difHoulty in determining the tme and exact dlreoHon of 
the Hounds we hear meets us in various ways, llie himtei 
hears the note of a bird, the hiss or whistle of a doer, ami thi 
sound indicates identity and proximity but not dtroction, Tl 
hunter waits for repeated renewal of the »onnd to sacertaiu it 
exact position, and even then verifies bin audition by his viaioi 
Tho hunter by his camp-fire may aim between the luminous drrt 
of reflected light, which he knows to bu the eyint of u wolf ; bul 
be would scarcely be able to aim at or even very nnar that 
on simply hfaring the howl from the wnlf Hint owns the eyes. 

The plaimiman hears a shout in t)if^ difitance. Uo may reoO([. 
oize it as the voice of a comrade, and fix the gvnoral dirii'.tioi 
as north, east, south, or west, but hardly more. Ho may idioul 
beck, and tho two may come together; but if it bo dark an^ 
fchere is im fire or otlier signal, tho shouting Iwu-k and fortli 
be fro«iuently rejiettted, and varied from a simple to n con 
sDunil, that' each may correct the error of his own audit 
eliminate bis persimal uquuljon, and M< 
mring, praidulnm-liko, right and K'ft. \. 
stroke, till the comnvles come tugother. 

The average child, ntttiming from ■ l' ■■' ■» -i"- <iij 

bouse calls. "Mamma:*' Tlie mothor, 
'^*'" mf" in tho next <)in-^'-;i4i, i 

ti4i- Ijl/ OS to tllO rltXir, tht a: 1" 



tbo mother can be fuund. The child caii oot determine its motli- 
tr'A Icx-Jitivia by the wiund of her vuice. This exng^mtod jn- 
ftanco may ix' owing to the rcifltxlion of the soimd, not only from 
tho wuIIh, litit fmiii tho litrata of uir difft-riiig in tomporatiire and 

Huff mftoy of m» going to tlio next street, running at right 
AOglcM in the car-tracks, can toll, from hcurlug the bell of the 
[. Mng i>troi>t-oar before the ciir comes in sight, whether 

.!] going north or soatli 3* It does not seom that aniniaUt 
i\Lii r.^.rmiiie the direction of sound much better than man. 
l*ti>; )>U'iiJtug dog, ruoHed by his master's call, iu all abrood on to 
hlH mavter's location, and duturmiaes it by sight or scent, or 
both, fn^uunlly running in 6u%'L<ml different directions before 
hitting the right one. The deer, on being startled by the tm- 
•i«n hunter's tread, ifl not always right in his selection of the 
ruuto to get out of harm's way. A flock of gi-e«e, ducks, or otlier 
binhi, on hearing a f^m, is as Ukely to fly toward a8 from tlio 
iprtrtaman, if he has kept entirely out of sight, aud the flash o{ 
his piece has not been seen. 

It id a question whether the blind are better able to deter- 
bID' ' ' ' a of sound by («r than are seeing jieople. It is 

potM ir senses of touch and smell are so highly derel- 

opoil that their instantaneous action with that of the ear give 
tliem n decided a<^lvantage over seeing people in this matter. I 
hftve known a blind man to bo so sensible of the current of air 
put in ni'itiiiu by the 8[)eaking of a single word in a room, that 
he could suk-ci Uie speaker by his location, tliougli others were 
prwent. 80, too, I have known a blind man to locate and idea- 

" t (' I . ! lie in tho room, he saying he did it by the 

<jd from each, the seeing people there not 

iog Minslblu of any ecent from any one. And yet he, when 

t — 't- .: in tJie middle of the room with his nose stopped, could 
L tlie ilii'ei'tion of one single speaking person. 

Pmf, Alcx.'vniiiT Graliam Bell reporta, in a paper he read be- 
fora the Amvj-ican Association for the Advancement of Science 
at Sorutugn in IKrfl, a series of experiments in binaural audition, 
i' • ' other things, that dinWion cjin not bo appre- 

fftl ob)*rvation : that when the source of sonnd 
iH III iJiD nadir of the observer, the perception of its direction is 
^^ut<-Iy iir-i'"''", and that not one of the many on whom ho 
^|P the ox ] 1 had tho slightetit idem of tho true direction 

nHt ' ruU uokI bono«th him. 

^ ' o maoh oocostomod to the aid of our other aensBB, 

( y Uuit«f sight, that we incline to give more value to 

^^1 < tlon than it deserves. That is one 

^K. > when so plaood that the eye can 



not corroct the error of tlio oar — in fact, many pooplo smiqi to 
uimwnrfl that they bnve any inability to Ii)«tt« somirt by the ear 
until they have learned the fact by experience, and even the 
they appear to connider msrkod inatanoiis as abnormal. 

It 18 Hufficiontly oftsy lt> account for aberrations f>f audiUoii| 
■a to the direction of Muntl from objective cuusm, »UL-h lu rtiflL*c- ' 
tion, diffraction, and deflection of »ound-wavc«. B»t it may 
also often be accounted for by what Prof. Henry called nubjoct- 
ivecauM», Huch as induce beUef that an anticipated sound haa 
come from a i^ptxrifiod direction, when U hns really cume from 
C|uit« another dinx-tion. Here the persoool oquation of the list- 
ener must be largely taken into coosiderution, Tlie auccoH of 
the veutriloquiHt may also depend upon subjective causes. 

Preoident Welling telh) ua BomethinR of how Prof. Henry, 
wlieu at Princeton, induced subjective causes in h'w pupils, t4>j 
their bewilderment, making them believe, for the moment, tliot' 
a f^ven Round came from a spocilied comer of the cliuw-room, . 
when it really came from quit* a different direction. 

Mariners are beginning to act^ipt the fact that th^y may err in 
awiigning the tnie direction to Bound ; bat their ideea on the Bob-1 
ject nrv 8t iU vague and indeterminate. Hence occur collisions be- • 
twoen idiips at »«a, and Inwsuila botwocn their owners on sbor& 
The collision at 10 p. ii., on September 21, 18SS, between Ute 
Dutch sbonmor Gdam and tJte British stuomer Lcpanto, ott. 
George's Bonk, Atlantic Oooon, when tlio former was sunk by] 
the latter, resulted in a suit in the Unit^'xl States District Couru 
at New York city, in which the case turned on an erroneousi 
location of the Edam by the Lepanto, on bearing the sound 
of her fog-horn. The court dismiaseil the case with costa, hi^ld'i 
lug that "an error uf Gvo points in locating a voaserH jxMitionJ 
by tlio sound 'if her whi^ltlo in u fog is not necesHarily a fault] 
under the proved aberrations in tho course of souud." ThoJ 
judge, in hiit decision, (|uot«s, among othem, papen ntod beforoi 
tho Washington PhilotMiphii-al S-K-itityaa hiBuv' cer-l 

tain statements homakMus to thoHO laws of si nng util 

the CBsoi* I 

Am it woms evident that the unansisted ear Is likely to orn 
[n delormining the location of Hound, the rpiMition aritNW, Cool 
the ear be aide<l in this mutter? Appartinlly thiit is THiinibloJ 
Prof, Mayor, of thn Institutii uf Tiu-hnology at Hot«ik<tii, N. J.J 
hu, to a ceHAin extent, solved this problem by tho conr<tru<:tioiu 
iif an i" ■ •■'.-•' ... . 1 

Prenid'-i I 

abled to locate within ten drgreoj", or b-w than one oompaw- 
p(rint, tho tunnd of a fog-idgnal, vrli<^ '"■ *' " cabin of astMUoeh 
■ liM - PMml IU»gftor,*- (hb i < , p. Mt. I 



_sl MB, mrva milaN nwy, anri Uint, too, aftor bo had purposely 
ItmI htni:titIC of » IciiowIlhI^ of even tliu direction of the 
by hnring tho Htoamur turned in her coiirse from time to 
tVuaiiluut HurLou describuii it thus : 

Tlilt ■piMratu oonabwd of tL« fullowbg ^uU: A vertkvl rod pawlag 
dntra)^ lb* roer nf Um (Uck-okblD, uo Uiu Bp|wr onil of wbioh wu Attached « 
tiwlliiHliI b«r eATTj-ing two Mljiisiable naanaMt*. Bclov tluM wu k poinMr 
«( it rlglil tn^ with UiB aborn bar. RubUr tub«a pWMiI tbrongh tba rool 
•f Iba aaUa aail mra eoBsaoted with a pnlr of oar-tobei. A haodl* attached to 
tlia nvtlaal rod aarvad to lura It In taf dlrKtlon. 

Tba pctoal|>la ti|ioa wbloh tbe oporalioii of thU apparoto* dapcoda waa first 
■liiiaiwail byProt )la7«rln ISTXtea " Anariean Joamal of Sdenue and Art," 
Svffwabar, I ITS, p. SHT), and Ita ganaral oparattoa loajr b« azpUlncd aa foUowa : 

Lit H n( Uia dl^fram b« tlia tonroo of a aovad, and I«C tbu drcl« repreaobt 
• wsvv-aarflKM prudnoad b? tliat aosnd. On Ifala larfac* all tlto iDol«cul«a of air 
fcara, at tba «km Inataol, tlia mido lUreelloo and th« uid« velocUj of TibratofT 
— Unn If wa aas aannrab-t; datarmlna two polnta, R and If, OD tbla vi,T«-n.t- 
1am, and tbki wavaHHtrtua b« a aphtfioal OBo, that b, ba sot dafomod, thao a 
fpidlaalw. 8. apaet«d to tba eaat«r of a chord drawn between these two 
uMi^ vtn, wbea producvd, jiwa throucb tJi« umrce, 8. Tbo method oondata 
Is datanslKlaf tbaaa two p>4Dt> on a aonorona wave-OTrEic«i aa f<^iri: 

Lai R and B' ba two raaoaaton 
•mrai*)? tuaod to Uia note gl*an 
bjr lb* *ibrat«r]r bod; al S. ftop- 

pwa boUl raWBalora el tli« aaina / \ R 

luUM M the wara-aiirCUe, than 
ihar bMb raoattn. al tba mom h>- 
MaM. tba una pbaaa of vtbfMlon, 
oa tba pUaaa of tfaalr looMtba. If 
IV* tafaaa of aqaal laoftb lead from 
iba riaonaloTa and )otn bto Obo 
laba Jul bafora ibej raaoJi tba oar, 
1^ lb«i fba KMad^lMa will art 
tafilibw. bdax ^ tbe taioe pbaw, 

Mrf dta «ar will raoalva doulito ibi* •<-iIon which It «o«M If only ono roeooi 
van WMMrtad wHb tba car. Hul auppoia that om of tlieae tubea, T', dilfera 
talat^tfc ttwm Iba othar tuba, T, bfoaahalf ofa wave-leflfttb oftbototia B^van 
mtk ^ St than tba mom pultaa will no \tmfw work t«ir«tbcr at E, bat win be 
la Mcli other Is ibatr aoUoit, nMtralbtlng aa«li oth«r'i dynanilo effMl, 
pfttdwlnfl altar* rt tba aor, £. TbU laal eandtiloB b the on* uaad id tba 
< above d'w;nt>od, 

Va oonsaet tba two rMOaatw*, It and It', hj a ri^ rod, md h )• avldent, tt 
\ polaUr ba pbcad at tba naalar of tfaU nA iX right anglee to Ita I«DftIi, tltat 
I tba waneialiira, K aad II', are on thn wnva-aorlSine, tlia rod, 8, will |>»iiit 
tba sooree of eoaod at 8. Tli« rifftd rod eomuwtlnK Ilia reaoniOora, B 

I R', tarw «■ a vartkal rod paarfng tlironnh 0. Thia arranitomaDt wee d»- 
I by PrnL Ua^tf bafnrB (La Ifatlixial Acadnfii; in AprCI, 1S76. 



VIVU*) lliii I -lillJ■■.^■.■l^l■.■i' \t\-i\ rill' 
kt* 0*), u» •ivltiili<l, :ii;ij\i->< Uti' I'l^i'i >' 

I lie ontiroly pmct"' 
-.ii tlmt sumo api' ■ 


can b« arranged by wliiob the aberratioQ in the audition of the_ 
martuLT may be so corrected that he can locate the source c>l 
the wjund which ia made to aUsure his i^fcty, bat which, : 
heard, may, att in the case of the BUlam and LiepAuto, 
his destruction. 

It seems evident from President Uortou's statemonta that 
the fog-sigools of the maritime world, or even of one coontrj, 
or even tlioso located in the approaches to one of our groat har- 
bom, were timed to one note, and if the ehijis frt^juenting thow 
waters were fitted with topophoncH, or some similar inBtrument, 
arranged »u as to he in uniaon with the fog-signals, that aberra- 
tions in audition, at least aa to direction, might be corrected, so 
as to deti'nninu the location of sound to within at least one com- 

Since the development of the topophone a number of otlten 
instraments have been invented for determining for the marinea 
tlio direction of sound made to warn him from danger. Fod 
Bome time some of our beet ocean-steamers have been 8uppli(« 
with an iu«trumcnt giving sounds of wonderful pitch and inJ 
tensity, called the siren. It was adapted from the instrumtnH 
invented by Cagiiiard do la Tour, by A. and F. Brown, of tbgl 
New York City Progress Works, under the guidance of ProfJ 
Hour}', at Uie instanoe and for the use of the United State* ] 
LighthouKO Establishment, which also adopted it for use aa a 
fug-uignal. The siren of the first class consists of a hngt* trnm- 
pot> somewhat of the sisie and shape used by Dnboll, with a widoi 
mouth and a narrow throat, and is sounded by driving comJ 
pressed otr or steam through a disk placed in Ms throat. In thia 
disk are twelve radial 8lit.s ; Iwk of the tixvA disk is n revolving 
plute containing aa many eimilnr openinga. The plate in rotated 
%,VX> times each minute, and each revolution cuumw tho oacapfl 
and interruption of twelve jets of air or stmm Uiruugh the oi>en« 
logs in the di»k and rotating phito. In tliis way Sti,800 vibnJ 
tiona are given during each miuute tliat the mwhine is ojwr^ 
ated ; and, as Uie ^-ibmtions are taken up by the tnmiput. on in<J 
ttmne bmm of sound is projected from it, The Biron lii <ipi>rult>i9 
under a preeisuru of soventy-two pounds of stixim, and can 1« 
heard, under favorable circumstances, from twenty t*j Ihirtn 
miles. "Its density, quality, pitch, ami peni'lnilion n>nder ifl 
dominant over micb otlier noinc* after all oUier nigiuU-nounda 
have succumbed." It is mode of viirious sizoH or clawwa, tha 
numb^Tof tilitx in its ihrtiat-diskdii : with itsKlztv This 

instrument is now used as u io^ . ^■,.. by most nuritimfl 
oatiuuR, tltey having fnuikly copied from, and, in ttome ton 
•tanwyi " ' ■ -1 it throngh ihit Uuiti-d Sta* T ; V >nMi Esfl 
tmbU^i iud it has bwn rocautly ndu. oso ufl 

souyD-siayALs at sea. 

It ill well 
li])rinpipU<, 111 

, t- - 

(KVAii-iftaMiwnL Bat, to make it thoronghly uraful, M. Edme 
I rn, a Htuiltvit of tlio Naval School of Mcdicinu at TouJon, 

tiiin ■ VI ' ! 'vith tho 8ir«D wimt punwrta to be tlio Uiuding 

,of I I'hono by fixing ftu invuriiiblegtandanl for com- 

TLu aimu being in commtiiiicntton with tht* builer, the 
it (if vtoaat con be governed by ou ordiiuiry VlUvi^ The 
(iroduond vary in pitch and inteDfdty iii proportion to 
I initUwl, «o that Hounds of any givnn pitch 
'f r(.*M>nnt<>r» <rompI«t4i8 tbo apparatus, 
kutium that two identical resonators vibrat^^ to- 
■•"^- -vrnxui and for that only. Starting with thia 
rtiilar frames containing several resonators, 
i< nwmatora will vibrato or sound only whon 
rnding to them is produc»Ki, Tho siren will pro- 
loon thvas Houndii caiiiiiog vibration)* in tho nwonators, and two 
il KhipN, or a obore-etutlon and ii Mhtp. or two land-stations, 
ipplM wtUi liraiu of a similar ukxIkI and identical fromvs of 
aim, o'lultl m<Mit conveniently communicate. For this end 
fri-*' "-<inai*jr should have nttacbod to it on invarinblo signiflco- 
I ' aam* for all thu fnunM. 

All thif naval and ooaunorotal vesKols possessing sirens and a 
ItBme duryiriR tho >amo onmbor of nwonators, erw^h ninrked 
itta ft mimbor having it<i significAtion, might be prepared to 
ii<MU« with puch other or with the shore. 
!ih» ts tho i-nti'tiniil way of carrying the theory out as pro- 

4.. '., resonator will be placed two metallic rocds, 

oos rigid, thi> otlmr thin and priKlucing extcndixl oscillations with 
1)« Inui' ' h of thwe plocas of stml communicates with 

iinf< ixrii . by muans of the drooit wire. When tho 

I r vibmtnt, thit thin nwl o«cillat«s, touchee the other bar, 

' it'i tiK- ■ T '.t of the batUiry being connected, an electric 1m>11 
inff«, tr ii>* A nigiial, so that the call, whether from ship 

, ena bi.> nx^ignix«4l, while tho ImU of the signal ing-sta- 
'• xounda, shows that the desired vibration or note has 
■tX. This account of Genghiire'a siren is condensed 
M« of axporlmonts* at Lako Geneva in 
>' thn volocity of simnd in wat<>r. He hail a bell 
- " hundnnl and fifty |»oundH suspended some 
■r fnim Iho side of a boot, and struck by a 
'1 Ui thi» And of a lerer. Stationed in another 
1 for tbo boU-nouuds, propogotod benealli the sur- 




I •! tf« lMiUuW«f FtaMv," Tel T, IMS, p^. >3B-SM; Sr John tUncM, 
'•■rtKaukl. W: -jBurultit ISdMoii," nl. i, ISIS, pp. 460, tS I { "fiOabMSii 


tace, which were conveyfid from lUe water by a cylindrical tube 
of tin some nine feet long and six inches in diameter, one end of 
whtoh terminated in ui orifice for ini»ortion in theoar, oncl the 
other WM spread out somewhat in thu form of a iipoon. ita open- 
ing lieiog closod by a flat, elliptic plate of tin, about two wiuaro 
feet in area. By attaching a suitable weif[ht to the lower end of 
the tube it was easily retained in a vertical position with about 
four fifth); of its len^h submerged, it^ flut plate bein^; turned ^m 
townrd thu bout ciuTyiu^ tbo boll. With this uiinple upparulu^, ^H 
Coliadon was ablo to lioar with purfect diHtiuctnoiM thu blows of 
the hammer on the bell across the widest port of Lake Geneva, 
when the calculated distance botweeu the two boata van not less 
than eight miles. 

The Hounds heard by Coliadon appeared as if tiiey hod boon^y 
€Au»ed " by some mulallio body strikini; thu bottom of tho tube,"^! 
and they were " as distinct and briof at 13,OU0 m«iro8 as at 100 ^ 
metres from the bell." OneMtofobsorrations were miwle dur- 
ing a strong wind : " The lake, which was at 6nit calm, became 
violently agitated, and it was necessary to keep the boat in poei- 
tioD by moans of suveral anchors; yut, in spite of the noise of 
the ware<t which stnu-k the tub(>, be took othur obsorvatiooA 
with the same accurncy as when th« air and water were etilL 
And he states, "I am convinced that by omployinfc a bigger 
bell, and improving or enlarging the hearing apparatus, easy 
communication could be effected imder the water of a lake or of 
the sea up to fifteen or twenty Imignes." 

In February, 1883, Prof. Lucicn I. Blake,* now of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, but then in Berlin, while investigating tho 
experiments of Coliadon and also of Sturm, as to tlie Vdlocity 
of Bound through the waters of Lnke Qenero, thought of mak- 
ing a praotiool use of water aa a mettns of commnnication Inh 
twoon veesoU at sen. Ho then devised sovemi methods, assisted 
by Dr. Konig, of the Physical Laboratory at the Royal Unlvor 
sity, which lie tritnl on his return to this country, and be has 
been exj>erimenting in that direotioQ from time to time iiiaett 
that date, as opportunity served. 

llis brief, was as follows: A Houn<l "Ingnpivim- 

tus was to be attached to each vobmI. and to i 1 undur tho 

surfat-e of Uie water. In times of fog or nt night a code of sig- 
nals wimld lie producwl by it which would l>ft tnuiKniitted in all 
dins;lii)iui iJirijUKh tJie wati>r, with a vrlocity ftntr t'> flv» times 
that in the air. Ea(;b v>wiu-l, in addilioii ti) (' ■n\c 

apparatiut, would be provided with a uunud-ri , ;- ..^ -., , Li 

* Vrat. nUki TMd • ptiwr «m lU( aiblM iMfar* tb« AJMrioia AModalloa 
tht AJTutwaMi of IkUmta. u tkt oMMloK la Una Turt, la Augiui, IMI, Iron aUcii, 
vAA M kinil fMKitalnn, lUl alMflwl hM Imm oikda. 





wliich wonlil take a[> oat of Uio wat«r thi> »if^aU arriving: from 
Upj^tilKiriiif; TUMils. As Uiys in Rwimmin^ iximmunicnte tlio 
■ound i>f tliu ■trilcinR of itones togotkor untlur wuu<r, ao is it ]>oe- 
idbltf (o Mwl tnniitoil Uiae8 bam one ship to aiioUior, 

For sUnniHltijiH Uiu soiinil-pnxliicinff u|ipnrstus was rloaigued 
to bv s ■tMUQ r<>K-li<>rD or uliiittk', ^iHwiully couslruck-d to sound 
or WBtor, at»l to bo hfunl at least from six tootght miles, 
rum tho natnro of its tone it v^ould bo easily distingtiislisble 
otbsr tounda always more or Ices present under wat«r, 
iw from bnnkorB, waves, etc. Witb Hut-b wbisllv^ a Morao 
babct of loug and short bloMts ami piiu8t« watt to provide a 
of oxtoiidad communioatioa, wliilo u simplo unJvorsul 
"■ [>'« worse. Since ignoFaooe of tbe vory 

:,. I r than incorrect estimateo of hnr course, 
has bran Uin pnoin|ial coaao of ocean ooUisions, tbb simple bear^ 
lag of 11 \\>\ would provo a most exoell«nt gvnoral sofo- 

HunL >ys worn to lukvo a second boll added uudur 

waliv, V ' :t8bliMi, lijjbtboiiaoe, and any bettdlandn mixbt 

bo j,. ...1 wiUi Hubniprgod bells wbich could Iw rung 

tba hJioto, wbon nt<coMiiry. Sailing-craft, butb Iarg« and 
I, wuuld liai "' : and, Hiuoe an ordinary locomolivo-lKill 
bv beard, no' : i" oxi>L>riment«, at Iwutt two rniliw under 

water, thcM< siuiplo means woul<l seem to afford suflicieut limits 
ytvU ' ' ' r itufii ^■e«t^UL 

A« M' iviuK apparnttis, vritb wbich each Teesel was to 

Inl : Till) oritfiiial plan of IHs:J, and whicH has not b«eD 

» <• to uiiiploy »omo form of telephone ailing as a trans- 

: water, and oonnactod with a receiver within tbe 

surfaco of tlin tmnHmitt4>r ox|>o8ed to tbu water, 

tiiuxt rvctiive Ihi.' R<innd-wav(.«. should be protociod 

ajtoitut let', bamacluii, btAvy wnvm, ota. One dcisign was: One 

«r outnt VRftica) pipus In dilTorvnt purls of a ship were to extend 

fftm tbe -ntMinl's intoriur Ihroogb tbe bull, near the k»el, am) be 

Bp«o to ' aitmJsnvD of wntor at their lower ouds: their 

ntirwir ■■ ; . . i! to mctcod witbtn ibo vessel a little way above 

, and wure to be plngKod, a» that tbe water could not 

J .'■ 'tirt tommL Tht-so pipes would then provide ool- 

• ■ ' always fllill, and would communicate directly 

■ • wai<^ ouIkiiIil Sound wouM thbn enter and paiu) 

■-■•— ^\nd would onconntor microphonic transmitters 

in tbem. Wir«i from tho tmni>imitters would 

I I kUkitli ro>im Mcludod whire coiiveuient in the ship, 

a ta (liKturliing noi-.ii i.n.l hi?ro telephone receivers would 

I !. anil obtwrvcnt ! bore in nigbt or fog, 

^^|. ' -Ilia'' . iipe sbai)ed murh like a 

^^B> ''<>>'': :<raao sUotobed tightly 


across its broad end, made » aucoessfal Kceiver. WiUi the 
iimnll eiid nitide to fit the ear, and the diaphragm eu<l uiily 
few inchas huluvr thu water, the ttuund of a haud-bull hm buoa' 
received nearly a iiiilo diittaiit. Celladon and Sturm used ». 
somewhat similar receiver, and beard a heavy bell t«n milM 

It was nocvmikry to dovisu a better form of receiving appara- 
tuik The Bell receiver and tho Blake trau^mittor will nut work 
under water. The tii'st »uc<;cs!i was obtuiued by u fonn of traiis- 
iiutt«r nwumbliiig the Ader. 

With ibis Pri>f. Blake transmitted and received sifrnals be- 
tween boats half a milu apart on the Taunton Rivur iu tlitK!. 
The transmitter was wi-igbtod to float at diffi'n-nt dcpthB, but 
all positions as regards tho uppnjuiobing sound -waves it rmxnvi 
equally well. Up to half a mile tho signals front an or*linary 
dinner-bell wore distinctly beanl. These experiments seemed to 
iiidioato that a transmitter dependent apoa a variable oontftot 
might yet be mode which would work with salisfoction. Tliis 
line was consequently futlowod up, uud up]iar»tTUt wan devised 
by which signalH were transmitted between boats a mile distant 
off Stone Bridge, near Newport, R I., in the same summer of 
1883 thruu^h a rough sna and in a dense fog. VariuuH forms iif 
microphonic trBuamilters were construct*'*!, and experimontft on 
Long Island Suund uud on tbu Wabash River at Terro Haut«, 
Ind., were conductetl as opportunity permittiHl. One form of 
transmitter which worked fairly well consixls merely of a dia- 
phragm having within itself the elements of a microphone, 
is placed in simple voltaic circuit with a Bell rec«ivor. 
fliaphragm is mode of bard cur)>ou in granulce at>out tiio jiI9m> 
smaltoot shot. A paste is nin<ie of these with rubier cement, 
ami this in a mold ami die under heat and pressure becomes a 
hanl, thin, elastic disk, lliis diaphragm laktw up the souniU 
vibrations quite well out of tho water. TIik acliun is itimilor td 
that of a uiu1tipl<i conta^rt tranaraitti-r. On the river, ho«-everJ 
through a lung distaucv thcHo did not seem mitTiciently KutisfoM 
tory. This differonco in action between a long and short dlM 
taitco \\A \k> the thought that, as tho advancing front of th« 
aound-wave is an arc, appr'»K'hiiig in curvulure n*«r»r nnq 
nunrttr tho tangent to its circle, n largo dtaplmtgin u • < 

more winorous energy and thus probably prove lum. .;..,;,.. i_ 
This Is the point to which the uxpcrimouts lukvu now buim can 
riod, and the next vill Ihi with a '" ' i 

imihiw Kiunrv. In ' ' . l?<>v'>, nignaU «< L 

ravoi%'ed uiiv oitd a lialf mile no the Wi*>Muih Uivnr fmm ■ 

W..' -■■'". ! -■ ■ -.' '.-.r '-■- ' r -■ •■ ■' --■■ - \ 

thi. il 

\ It_J 


socyi>-8taNALs at sea. 


could uot bti bwird through tlie air, yet couM be with fair dis- , 
tiactnw through thu tuk<plion(t. ^H 

It in b) bu Ldiiud thut Prof. Blaku may find opportunity to ^^ 
>ntiiiuv bin uxporiments, bs Iiu metas to bo on the verge of pro- 
'dadu^n pnuiticol tuid ucarRte iudtrunioutof voluo to marinera, 

y <f luting the Mome ciAq of dots ami du8hi«, as r«p- 

«;..■ .: :.,. liiuK nnii short aoundfl of a fog<vhiHtlf) orothorftimi- 

enotrivanL'o, huvo been mode public. The best one I havo 

atil is tliM nt Mr. Frank Purintun, of Providonco, R I., and it 

DIM nf tlio lH-«t iHviause it is tiie Hinipltist. Tlie idea La that, 

rhmi two nhiiM mtnit in fog and make known their proximity to 

i gfibor hy thiiir fog-flignols. each Bhall indicat<^ to the other 

' Nh<t IN rt««ring by thi> lungth nml thu iDt«rmi»Hiou of tbo 

puodti made by her fr>g-iiignjU. Thu following in the code iu 

thu liuig bUutl tmiug roprcaenled by the [ — ] dash, the short 

by thu [•] dot: 















— One dot Hid two 






• TlwMdoto. 






- One dMb uid (wo doU. 

Tho thirty-two poiuto of the compiuw ant n-promnted by vari- 

' ■' " i .tionii of diita and da^hefl on the chart, attd 

' AoaniU with intervals, in practice, Ttinse 

i|pula ' vrii l>y tht> unlinnry sUiam-whiBtlo or by anto* 

■tic Bii^..- (Urijiuly in^'cntod oud in U8U. Mr, Purinton 

ilaimit thnt hi» iyiitein will, if followoil, prevent oolHmona Tbo 
Irior caflinal pointHof thMOompoM are ao represented th»t op. 
■Jta ci>urmN havo oppoidbo ^gnala. One long aonnd meana 
tb ; a Hhurt unv, aoutli. Two long sounds mean east, and two 

-• ' ■^ Other piiiuttt of the compass are indicat- 

r natural combination made by abiding the 
ry coniiuoi liignahi for the intermediate points or courses. 




ti may Im cnlleil the erho>maker, that of 

■.■^ I Lt examitivd by a ixxint of naval officers, 

.mlor Bainbridgo HofI, Unit«d Stataa Navy, va« 

"I mifh* to tha N»%'y r)opartmt>nt of a 

un*. U may DODsimt of n flaring funnel 

iiinzxio of a nfli». U is operated by firing the 

' -1 nf thn impixjisotl obatacle, xiich im a rook, an 

\i, or a chlT. If thu obstaclu ia theru, tbu 


boom of sound projected through the funnel Rtrikes the obstAcIo ' 
and roboundti ; and as the echo is more or less perfect in propor- 
tion as the obstAclo Is moro or loss parsllol to the ship from 
which the gun is fired, and as it is iicar or remote, the position 
of the ohetanle may thus I>e inferred. The board reported that 
Do la Torre's method was hriuK a blank cartridge from a rifle in 
the proi«euco of objects as small an a spar-buoy and as largo as a 
fort, and cuitcliiDg the return sound or echo. He cloima that a 
sharp sound projected at or nearly at an object, and only when . 
w) directed, will in every case return some of the sound sent, 80h| 
that theoroticaiiy there will always be on echo, and the differ- ^^ 
enoo in the time between the sound sent and the echo will indi- 
cate the remoteness of the object The board foiiiid tlmt a rt^- 
turn-sound could be heard from the side of a fort a half-mile off, 
from pasaing steamers a quarter-mile off if broadsido-tt], f: 
bluffs and sails of vcftsols about the same distance, and fru: 
spar-buoy8 two hundred yards away. 

The boaril further stales that the sound from the dilTertTnt 
kinds of masses is different in most casee, and that the ear could 
bo educated to detect quite a range of different objecta, as titi 
echo from a sail was different from the echo from a buoy or 
bluff. If two objects wore near the- lino of projttrLion at differ- 
ent distances, an echo would be roceivod from oivch. Tho hori- 
zontal limit of the return of sount] saomed to be about two 
points on each side of the axis of projection. , 

If Mr. De la Torre tibould see St to oonstnirt his ioslrumonb^l 
for hearing foohle echoes, the hoard indicated that it would ruc*^| 
ommend that it be Gttwl soon to some vmboI of the North Atlati-^| 
tic Station, and that further and, if possilile, exhaustive experi-^| 
ments ought to be made to practically determine the use of tho^| 
I echo as a means to discoTor obstacles to navigation. It was utvo ■ 
I stated that stoam-whistlos could bo heard much farther tlian tho * 

eoho; hut it was said tliat whore tho obstacle could not main 
' the soond, u in the cose of an iceberg, the echo would be r»f tha^ 
greatest use, and experimenta looking to its utilization are de-^| 
monded by the conditions of navigation in time of fog. ^| 

\ Steamers are constantly running among tho islands on tb<^H 

coast of Maine during the summer. This is the season of thlclc^| 

and persistent fog. When pilots can hardly hop thd length of ^Q 

ilieir vessels, they keep up a oonstant noise with tliolr foff-sl^- 

I nalHi 1 ■■* bitrk no sound. But ' \- or r»M 

I mote V;' i]uffs,or nvim high shorof, : aUxl l>y^| 

tlie strength of tho echo ruueivod bock from them. In fact, nin^H 

tiiu: rvooguixwl US one of the noooMltieH of the uavi^H 

/.fii waters. ^1 


lliiii lUtftUod In abo lued to some extoiit by atuamors oa tlio 

riven. Awl it la priurticed on the Great Lakiw to some 

It, notkbly lit n curtain bluS juUinj; out into t.ake Supuriur, 

: stouiicrv, knowing tbomwilree to bo in the v-icinity, whun 

fotlfp-l ' lit thiwo bluff* by fwunding tlieir f<>);-«ignalg 

itil til- : fk tu) M.'bo; tbeu tbey xao tbu bluffs ad a nev 

puiut of (I'litortunt. 

Iti tbin iNjimwtioii I mny say that in the aummer of 188G I 
iIH-rimi'iiUtl ill inukiiig iKibuvu wbile ou a lighthouse ateiuuor 
<i Iamii litlanil Sound, «d<1 found I could got a good echo by 
juuiliog tbt! whiNtlo of my Ktoamor whun [xt&sing a sajling-veasel, 
pnfitriibly a M-hoonor, aa n parallel course. WaTo-sound^ 8trik' 
ig\ * ''I lULgles to lier course, gave a good «cho at 

iTr ; . ' "' ^xm»t uid th« sound of tbu uchu woii mutv 

or liwi guo(i within Ltuit diittaiici<, iu pro|>urtiou to thu angle made 
'th^cdUTHMof Ibo two vuiHvlit wbou their (^turses were notpar- 
Il«l. Wlutii off Bloc-k Ubuid cliffn, which overhang somewhat, I 
i>t a giHjd who wlioii ubnut a mite distant. Hence I infer that 
fOi- r-"'><i(in of ■lUi'tH'U'd diiDgtim of certain kimU can be duter- 
>- Uio (iniduction of echoes under speciQud circumataoceo, 

RpTfint piqiera vtnte titat Mr. H. B. Cox, an electrician wboM 
ll. r)' in at (Vrntuink, mmn ten miles from Cincinnati, has 

Ui>riiL*.-i a trumpet to be uiied for telephoning at sea, on which 
he ban bMD at work for wime months. The invention ici the out* 
growth of br ry of tliogrout di«taiioe an echoed or rover- 

bucwtwl itouii'^ -. -irry, and Uis discovery that spoakiug-tnim- 
pnta, if nude to giw the MUne fundamental note, wouI<) vibrato 
phaDOmeiiOD laiown in aoonitt ic^t &» " nynipatliy." 
A\ .inpet convereatiou in un onlinary toni^ of voice 

camml on between partiiM four and a quarter miles apart. 
> — '■■ r\ niile away, convur«iiig in an ordinary tone, could be 
V h<«nl, ami la two itiHt/uicut tbey were told the nature 
ibfir ronrtTHution, ami admittod that such had taken place, 
I whintlu of B train wax I riu;(Ml beyond Fembank to Lan-reno»- 
lud. It wav found that the instrument has u well-deSned 
' ' ' iity-mx niiltDt; tliat in, a loud sound liko n locomo- 
■ir III"' ntinbiing of a train, ran be ilistinctly heard 
■••(in miles in ovi^ry direction. Conversation 
.: ;iii lietweea two gentlemen on high bills on 
tJiu Ohio Itiver dijttaiit about four and a half 
■ :9jie on tliK water, of variims kinds, showed 
i>vi>ii ]iki,ri< availnbb^ tlutti on laud. 




triii.1 Mr. Ediefin, who has invented 
at nurk, and has made promising 

*■«. ftAUIL'— ) 



pTOgnsA ou the production of what may l» eollixl n 
phooe, by wliich he prtjpoHus to t>nul)le 8hi|wi wilKir ' 
Iaqod to communicittA without wirus, hut atiil hy ul 
uid ruct'ivttl through thu witttir. He is iwiil to I 
through n milo of the Oaloosahatclue Biver, iu X^Iu-l 
hia experimentA made laat winter. 

The objmt of this paper is to coll attention to the 
iniix»tiil)ility of tho mariiior dstoniiininK, by his uiin 
in a fog or in rUirkness, the position of njiottier 8hip1 
noise »he nmkea, and the necesaity that he RhotJd 
the nppliani-Cei nitmiKl, or better onus us thoy n]i|ii-tLr, to| 
ear«, ami thus Uj pruvi-iit the coIliHiuug whii;h are uow i 
and so diitMtroue. Tho Celtic and Britannic iitoan»tni wo' 
havo nm tnto iwch otltt^r hiul ituch appliances b(M.'u u»i 
would the steamer the City of HnitoieU have been nin 4I1 
th(< RnKlifih Channel by the Kt«amer Kirhy Hall hwl tlit 
thus Buppliitd, to say nothing of the Htwuu*.T Oref^u n 
siuik of! Fire Island, and other like oaaes williiu uiiMy n 
iion. Thviw i-t.-«ujl8 corriwl no (iik-Ii iipi^ J 

It is dusirable that public opinion ^h ' brouftl»f| 

on this subject with eooh force that 8bi[)« aholl be trqu 
carry some appliance, so that an wrror of five poinlit in f 
ship's posiHuii will no longer bo jHMsiblo, or, if [losMililiv 
bold to be crimiual nvgligunco. M 

It ia alHo doHirablo that public opinion should be t>M 
bfAr on thin dubjert with so much forci that HhiiM ii^| 
quirevi to cnrry and use proper appUanl^e^ for uacertaH 
position nnd oourse of ships within eiir-shot, no thoyH 
required to carry lights for a like fiuriKwu. ■ 

And why should not thu Fixlcnil Ouvcnimout talnflfl 
in this dinH;tiott, tiiiit i\ui druad all now (n>A »[ i^olH|^| 
Id the fog or thu darknt>8s, may iu some inoasuru bu «1^| 

Since the foregoing was in thu hnniU of the oiUtor^| 
Fryo i tl int.* '' ■ nn No. IWJl,"t« pd 

an iiii' ' tt confi'i' uring gn>utor Aafv^l 

and pniporty at sml" The tmiidont, uiulor this bill, i«9 

each innritimp ■ -r - ■, • ■ 1 v ■ - to a mari' >M 

to jumA at Wii , luid to .i H 

gntiw to rr>pn'Mi-iil tin- i fl 

Ono (if tliM ihiliiw pi • thin confer"'"'" '" ^B 

a uuifonn nysixm of uiarj] l-< or other n <■ 

indiiMit i[iw ' " ' ' lu^ '^H 


ir)..<rw-t. it »■(.■ ri'^rUxI ImwIe Oil Ff'briiftry 18th with certain help- 
On Fcliniarj- a3(I it wii» taken op, when Senu- 
ttir i r- ■ ;hlic hill of vt^^ry gn-at importanoo. 

.,.'■■ 1 tty tlie Prf'anii-nt luiii StcTL-tary of 

Stnti>, And iadonMKl by nearly uJI the l>osnla of trade, clinmbora 
of o(iintu»*rr-o. nn'l maritime Mutorintionn." The hill was thea 
(iomunI ntiil M'Ut to the HouMti of R«<pr(.-tK'ntutiveK, when it wm 
rrfvmol lu itM CcMnmittee on Foreign Affairs. 





'llCAL mnnifi-Htutions, or the «|B:grpgftte of t1 

,. I wh<i«e theatre is th« atmosphere, prtiseat 

ii)y«t«ri(mii apjionmocu to primitive mau, which, whether it soom 

tntiiificpnt or Niirfiil. in iiIwiiyH of a nature vividly to impress thw 

luuijrinntv<n. Il-'nc^' niiiii very iMirly n^rdetl ihvm phcnomenn 

a* I1' nnihiweil with Uxly and xoul, or im sui>erliunMn 

IxTvi-itaiMi- •■. which he wuH nfterward Ind to make rui object of 

womhip. Tliix w onMily Hlmwn to be the fact in the case of the 

(lawn arid twili>;hl, wind, rain, flouds, whiHwiiidB, and wat«!r- 

•fmiitii, liKhtuinft ami thundiT, echoos, the rainliow, thu aurora 

l-'>nnnlia, the mlraffi?, otf. Rain has at times bwn repre»cnted as 

' ' : ■. ft-U fntm the nky to fertili?* the earth, as 

.<>; tlie [x'KtpIes of India have i>ersonified the 

■i th(> nky n» the milkiiiRH of cows ; a step further, and 

s ' .. the ^xldi-rtt of rain. The Khoudii of central India fa- 

> 1 r' .kt tlKwo wnt4>ni were t)Oured u[Kjn the earth through a 

vmpli wlio was railed Piliou Pennon. 

1 Ih huvit lioen iM>rRonifie<l under the form of BerpitntK, 

■InMcotos Unls. oc wolvw; la the mythoh>gy of pooplos who 

fuffi ' Vt thisn iM^rsonifioatioQH take tjie shape of 

tMt' ■; whieh rnrry off the waters and keep them 

^nrb iiMindlationr* may appear !<trange at first Right; 

>t for Oit to imagine that man could have compared the 

'■ raeh ohjei'tH. The philoloi^cul »cbool supi>otM.« that 

■ ■ ■ H "f lUiimidH whiHM) 

: i tliew np]«'lhi- 

I , whii.-h wim in its origin ximply meto- 

I ' I ]< I. u the idetk of assimilating the elondji to 

n,. afn".(.( . - Ihfv >»<>re. Thif thmry in not without 

I It ii« fn ■ ': to 

■■" '.--'•■■■■ Man, i^t i , :..l!.: -.-.:-. isj 



natumlly dUjtosed to substitute a rvlution of identity for a aim- 
pie relation of aoalogy. On this subject M. de Guberootu ro* 
lateB, in his " Zoologie m>*tholo;nque." o> ptnvonal recoUeclion of 
the mu«t HtgiiiticHut cbaractur. Wliuu lio wait four jreon old, hia 
brotli«r hiiviug mllwi liw attention to u curioun-Iooking ffroup 
of clouds by snying, " S«e tbiit wolf clitMitig tlio Hlioep 1 " htt wiw 
BO fully convinced that the cloud was really a hnnftry wolf run* 
ninfc over tlie nionntainei, that he ran into the Louse, for fear that 
the wolf, not findioK sheep, would take- him. 

Dawn and twilight are only rarely made divinities among 
untutored peoples. But they are pereoniiled in a curious E»*j 
thonian myth among the Finna. It is related in tliis story that 
the sun is a torch lit up everjr morning by fot, the dawn, aud^ 
put out every evening by (Bmmtrrik, the twilight. Their father, ' 
Ukko, the ftky, desiring to unite them, they conBented to oomo 
together for a few days every year at the time of the summorj 
solstice, at which time there is in Finland no night Iietween 
twiti>{ht and the dan'n. On these days, the legend oontinuee, 
(EuimerUc passed the torch directly to lua aOSonced, uad she 
blow it alivo with her brtrnth before it hud time to go out. 

AVhilo both the twilight and the dawn wore iK'ifKHl among 
the Aryans, the more special importance was given to AurorKf^ 
tlie rlawo. She it was among the Greeks who daily with hem 
rosy iingers opened the eastern gates, and brought back th^ 
light, which was W(uivitk'tit to a new creation and the dis]>uniioa ' 
of the demotui of night. lu the Greek mythology, Aurum pre- 
cedes tlio chariot of the sun ; and on an Apuloifui cup the doc*, 
orator has depicted an ingenious allegory, showing Holpue (thai 
moon) mounted uptni a chariot, and driving away, with hi.<r focal 
veilvd; Aurora preceding the solar teaman it cuiir»i<s througUj 
the air ; wliile around the chariot infants, repnweuting the HtoniJ 
ore disapp(-aring in the depths of the sky. This ntpremtutoUoa.^ 
is ver}- like a d<?«cription that may bt) found in the Vedos. where J 
it is sung: "The stars fly like thieves, in cotniuuiy with thai 
night, before the ra<liaiicu of tlie dawn, which, like a herald, proJ 
cedw the course of the sun." " Hail, nidrly Uslias," nays onotboa 
hymn, "golden goddess, home on thy t)riKh I ' ' '"' ■ nd^ 

vamceat like a solitary virgin, diwovpring t- "yMg 

all thy hidden gmove, or tike a spouse unveiling to her lund 
biian1ji« wbirh ap|iear Uy him every morning mnp) fnfdi amlfl 
brilliant [ Alt.hiiii(;h thou riiuut4<Kt y)-nntu|iiin yijirn. thou nrM 
alwayn ymuig. Thou nrt the lirvalh uml tlii' lifi veal 

and bn'ntliin, wakening every day ni>Tiiu]N of ]i[ -..: .. puBfl 
QoaiiiaK birds to fly out of their ndsts, and guiding the buny i^^H 

of !■ .:"''".. . "'^^1 



canff by tbo poota of Orocce, nro deities conceived ns ond^r aV 
humnn form, bat vtill Imperfoctly ittoLitud from the phenomena 
ptTHtmify. If, u Max MQll«r thiokB, vltfi'/i, nf the 
.|.tar>-, ix likowineaniime for the dawTi, we bod cltariy 
'-■twt'd at first t*» thi> jwrsoiiifit^i plinimm- 
1 thu duwQ conc«iv(Hl lui iusoparabid from 
itw'lf. A pmiaiiKe la the V»da8 callii thn dawa 
AforfMtver, if Pallftfl Atheiio whs hIwj the 
•k». d()«6 nut thi> fact tltitt nhe was )>nrn iiwn- 
itij; fnnu the bmiii (if Zvn» — that ih, of tlio sky — iiidioatM that the 
wiTTvhip wnit nrlKinally ihldrmsvd to th« peroonification, «vea 
bi'font it wiM onrried over tu the goddeis regent, u( the phe- 

Wind mhI thunder have aI«o boon penKtnifiocI, or mode obj«cta , 
I in whioli ww wmi the action of a {wrsonal bun^ haviug a waun- 
rform aj' ' ■'■' U> it« tHBvi^ To the savage Uit? wind ia pro-j 
by a ! iMiiiig, Uiuudor by a thundering )>eiiig. The| 

I LiiippM imafOne n living cxiHteucti, who xoant in the air, caroftilly 
linit U* the word* of men, and always ready to striku down 
nno whom ho oondemns. Tliv Bushman believe that the 
'irind in n p»rwin. One of tliom ini't him one day in the country 
,fif til* Boer*, and thn<w a tilonn at him, when the wind flvd to tho^ 
lUin. In ttw "Iliad" Homer repnisenb) the winds as sentedfl 
' lit of Zcrphyr, whon Iria aoHciln their intervention to 
-latnea on tb« funonil pyro of Putnvlua In our own 
in Gun)i>o. nc-onling to Mr. Tylor, the Cariiitliiaa 
,...u-i«iin i\ tree in front of his house variotw foods to 
itliit htint^Tof Ihawbid. In the Palatinate, when a storm 
fnriov. ■ T>)tiMint thrown a liandful of meal in the 

nppCM. ' " wind, nitd i'uIIm out : " Htop, wiud, hero Is 

for y<mr rlilld ; f{o away 1 " In South America, the Paya* 
' gitaa, vbr>n tht» wind ithakps their hutti. nisb against the Rtorn, 
I vavlnfr Irfwbnimlii ; while oth«r tribes, niid(,T like oircumatancee, 
oA< Th<> fomiM fpviii to the personitiration of the 

wii ' .:..:iiely voriouH. In Central America, it in often a 

OB thn Cbutfo, a horse : the American Indians make it a 

- " ■'rwtr'Mt it by a dog with clipiwd earn; the 

irtt of i-rturxiiig dogn;nn<l llt« Qreeks r^^ 

■■•y rhm-uliiiii'H heaihi with awelled vheeks. 

Ill-- >>:-A of a diittinction butwi^m tho mnnifoetatlons of the 

ad and thumliT, and the heinfi; which prodncm or controls 

Ixf'n Rradually developmi. Tlip Dakotaa aU 

)ii(' ;rr<-tt( bird and ita progeny. The male pro- 

b)- the beating of ita wings, and the re- 

iouj ui ' ^HMtiugs of tlie wingo of the younger 

winds are produced by four s« 



which, plncocl at tho Tour points nf tlie cotDpaea, beat their 
in aKernation. The AsHiniboiiia bavo a supreme deity, tlie moni- 
tou-binl, who lives in the upper Kkios ; bin oycg shoot out light- 
ning, the biiatingsof his wings produco thunder, and his Iwnk 
csuaes tlit< fnlling rain. Bt'lief in a thuniU-r-liird itt aim foiiml 
unoDg the Brazilians, the Uervey -Islandprn, the Caffres, and the 
Karetui of Burmah. Thor, who strikee men with his hammer, iS' 
well known. In the Vedas, Parjana ia depicted es tho god with 
reeoundiug song who beat« down tho foreetfi and mnkiw the uarth 
tromblo ; who frightoiut tho innocent, while ho strikoe down tho 
guilty; who di(Iuso» life, and at whoso approach vegetation 
springs up again. Tho Yorubaa of western Africa fancy that 
thundur is pniduced by the god Zaconta throwing stones, Tho 
SlaVK nttritiutu the noise of thunder to the rolling of EUjali's 
chariot in the »ki«9. Tho legend of the celestial father playing 
at ninepins with the porter of paradiiw is of common lore. The 
classiral j^ilus in matched by a similar conception among tho 
Iroquois and the Polyneiaians, by whom tho winds are suppusfHl 
to bo controlled by u divinity who holda tbt-m obut up in a cav- 
ern, whence he lets them out at his will. A legend current iu 
New Zealand has it that each wind is assigned to its cavern, 
where the god Maui lets tliem out, or shuts them up by rolling a 
great etonein front of the mouth. But the weet wind is excepted 
from this rule ; the god can nut reach it or find it« cave, and tt 
therefore blows during the largest part of the year. The wA In- 
dinns nil bclievinl in the spirit of the wind as the supreme god, 
or t)ie GreAt Spirit. In Uie Vedas, we llnd in turn I'dt/n, the 
breath, Vdia, the breather, and Rtrudm, the howler. Tho Estho-' 
nions direct their prayers to the mother of the wiikIh, and oxclaim 
on thoa|)pro»4;hof a U'mpt>fit: "The motherof tho winds is grcMUi- 
ing ; who knows how miuiy other mothers are going to groan ini 
tlieirtani?" Someliraps tlie god of the wind becomefl a mytJio- 
logicat iHTaonoge eo distinct that we Bnd it hard to discover lua 
natund character; and it isHtill upder dii«cut<Hioii whether Hor-^ 
mes or Mercury porftiiiifiMl tho wind or the twilight. 1 

Whirlwinds or water-spouts have been personiflvd under tboj 
form of giants, of gigantic nerponta, and of ptea-driig\>nii. *s Wwf 
(■aid in the middle ages. "The sea wan trouMtil Urforu them,'*' 
relates a dmracter in the *" Tliousand and One NighU " ; " from it* 
buHom roiN» a bUu-k ndumn toward tho itky ; 1 liM>ked, and it wiu 
a Jinn of gigantic xlatunt." Tliis belief is c<immou witli all Ibd 
Uussulniiin jmuijiImr. T! 

the eyt« of the Ariilm, l< < , ■ 

tiiat ijiiwe fiirumtions ore drnguiis; tho Zulus makn grt«t tHir4 
puntH of them. I 

It in hard Iu conceive iDlempvrate UlitiidKa of the Mptondor ufl 


thn litHit-iilctuTM fnrmocl by tko aortim liDreolis of tlio polar 
■» : nnii it in not Ktirjirisiii^ Ibut tho Greetilaiirlirrtt «« in 
[ _ .__ L Jaiu-o or K)iiriti4. Evbti iii couutricA fartbor »uuth, wbere 
ntin inbituitty or the pbenomonon is greatly roducod, tbu aurora 
rlKrtvatiii Km ^veii rise to tbe most fantastic legends. An Eng- 
[liAb writT «f \\\v Hixtvuutb cutitiir>'repr«eented tbe ph«noiaeaon 
[M ui " ' ii>n of 1*rilliuiit urchos wbt-nco Jetmo fortified cit- 

Fim, SWoi'.-. 1 wiirriorx in urdor of buttlu; tbcn jbto of rudis- 

rfciutu iu nvi'ry dinHrtiou, clouds kod cotnbatx, in wbicb tbo victors 
■ilBsue tbi) viuii|ui«]i«(I, wbile others fly around iu a surprising 

Ecthn pom* nearly everywhoiv aa the voico of u HU]H!rbuiusn 

T ' Lnndi'r roUtos that on the Niger tiis Ixmlnicn offerod 

.' timn ooha When the traveler iw«ke<l them llie reason 

for it, they atuiwenid : " Do you not bmr the foticb? " It is also 

conrei valile tlmt the existmice of a Voice bbould luuw a belief in 

notn* oiin who HimJcH. The fact that this mysturiouit %-oicH Urn- 

[Ifai itjM.-ir to ri'iHiatiug tbu wortU tbitt arosout to it, biu induced 

|th» fancy thai, the spirit luw |Nirti(-t)Ur reasons for acting in tliis 

Lway. luid it is iu supfiort of such reasons that tuytlis, Ulie that of 

Griiu and othorH, have bA>n given forui. 

Til" n»Inlxiw is tme of llie atmosplieric phenomena that have 
-oDemlly parsonilled. PeopK« of almost every part of 

1. Liiive made of it a living and terrible monster vhose 

law«t vonlnl offeiuu* is that of drinking up the waters of springs 
Had pondi. T) i " ^ is fmiud among the Burmese, Zulus, 

hodlans of Wn>-i< rerrit4)ry, ancient Hexicans,and Finns, 

uad exists anions tbi> popular fancies of the Slavs and Germans, 
HUtd wnmo of tbu Freucli iMtpulutions. The Zulus and the Karens 
Ipf BMmtAb imajtin«< that tbu ruinbow sprvods Hickneee and death. 
pTit wli'-ii they see one, say 1o tbmr cbibln-n: "Tbo rsin- 

Pbow . — me duvru to drink; do nnt ploy, for fear ttiat harm 
Buy w«no to yenl" Very ringularly, too. the street boys iu 
■hp itu away, crying, "Run, it will drink yon np!" Iu 

^^B i>a rainhov is re^ardeil as a heavenly serpent, Ikmii, 

^Bi "-S hniipincKM. The mixlt-ru Gr«--eks hold it to be a 

^K- II i.ut juKt nnil Mwere hero; tbuy say that any one who 
ver a raintMiw will ehango mx at once; but this raying, 
t in KK'MsKv, is only a picturesciuu way of in- 
..., ihility of trauMforming a man into a woman. 
into B man. The Oeliniui offered cakns to tlie rain- 
■■ ■ ! its image on the widls of tlntir t«m- 

. its Kppiwmnco on tin* mju a favor- 
. thet!Artb its infln'iiioe wiui ]M.*rnicious, aod 
. ,i'W, It was p>THonitif<l liy n v\\x^t. 
Iu number of jiuopUw ^wi the iH<rHoniGi,id a COUK- 






istenco with tlio <lui>cr«ouificd nuiibow, or rwluce it to Uio Btltte 
of a thing, but ovon tJion invest it with a marvelous fuuctioti. 
Some hftve made of It a celestial bow, which they place is t! 
hiuids of a gfxi ; with the Lapi>s, it waB the bow of the Rod of th 
thandur, by mvuuH of whioh he shot off hi« arrows of fire ; with 
the Aii»tniJiaii», it was the p}iaUva of the gud of the Kky, which 
graced the earth as it pASHed; with the Sainoyeds and the Earn- 
tchatdales, it was the hem of the clothing of Billoukai. the god 
of the thundering nky ; and among the classic ancienta, it wm 
the scarf of Iris, the f»ir int'KM'uger of the goda. In Pol>'Qesia and 
with the QermoiiB, HinduoH, Per«ian», and Arabs, the rainbow 
waA regarded as a bridge uaiting the abode of the god« with that 
of men ; the rood over which oouln traveled ; witii tlie Jews, it 
symlxjiized the allianeu of God and man ; with the Oreeks and 
Bomaos, it was a iiign of war or of Btorms. — Tran^ialed for ijie 
I^)puJar Science MonDdyfrom Cut et Tern, 


ch I 


Bt TUOSiAS J. UAY8, U. D. 

ris qnito evident that the history of the Americ-an people 
would be very different from what it is, or from wliat it 
wi[] be, had they not on the very threehold of their exiatcnon en* 
ooimterod a race of warlike savages, and had not their ttliibilily 
beon still further threatened by a lut<>r introduction of slave 
labor from Africa. Had the iounigratioQ to tJda country boeii 
strictly conliiied to membeni of the Caucajiian family, there 
would undoubtedly exist a mutual feeling of phyxiologiod and 
social harmony — since they all Btand on a plane of civilization 
which is common to the American; but so soon as the latter 
came in contact with raceti which were aliens and stra&gen to 
thit Anglo-Saxon blood, and which were several thoumiid years 
Itehind it in point of civilization, an Inevitabh* rliwhing of int«r> 
rata began which prevails to this day, and which will continue-^ 
until the race diffvrcnceti are eradicated. Ko ono, howpvor, who ' 
luw given serious attention to the ]K)litica] and six^ial <|ui«tions 
of this country con fail, even at thin dny, to perceive tliat, iu : 
•pite of statutes and of prejudice, tlu-ro an« inlluioicus at worli 
which lend to fuse our hctim}gcnixiuit population into ooecoDii 

nioR whole. Vilielher tbcso inH 

coliiriiil or avgro nice la oonoci i ^ j 

mininl, since accurate statistics brnriiig on tliis point are wanti 

ing: ypt indirect oviilenfo. i- ■ ■ ' v ■' ' '- ■ 

fnTom tnich a vinw. The i' 


ba oonOond to on intindy as to faov far these mflaei)c«s nbtnin 
MDODfT our NoKh Amt'Hcan IiiiliAiis, tnacoin) pooMes more ra- 
ilfl tUta ci>ni!umiri^ lliiit than that of tho ni*sro rooc 
QoJtA ntr^ntly I hiid tlie opportunity of making an inveettga- 
' ri'Kpiratioii MK it cxinta in the Indian femaJe, 
{•«lly f'liiitil that It large proportion of thd 
lodiao ffirU whirh wsra oxaminud bitd whit« blood coursing 
through thuir vchui. and that this not only modifled the citlor of 
thnir Bkiu, hut altxi hod a markMl inRiioncii on their niodo of 
braathiog. It In wt>ll known thiit,a» fur t^iok && 1774, Boerhaave 
obtorrad a dilTerunt tyiw uf n.')i[iinitiiin in civiltzod man and 
wcMHUk— tbi formor bnutthing priiiripally mtb the diaphragm 
orabdon" ' -h in calli<d thenlxluniiiinl tj-pe; while the latter 
bmath** . : 'ily witib Hi*' upjHir pui-tiou of the c^heitt, which 

il called tho c^oMlnl ty]«. This inTWtigatiou was carriMl on In 
tha Lincubi ituttituUou uf Philndolphia — \\ i«chool for Indian 
girl* — and was undortalcen witli a view to ascertain whether the 
I -"main, who in not orcturtjinuil to the wearing of corseta 

;. . . ,1. rliitliiriK around the aMomeu, has the same type of 
i>^iMr.>tiiiaas that whirh obtains among our civilized femalM, 
and < ' 'xnmintMltho <'hi>fit'iiioveniciit« of eighty-two Indian 

girlh un iif n iinrum<>gni{ih doviwd by me somewhat sftor 

that nf Paul Bert. In each caao I took an nhdominal and a 
f -■-! 'racing. Of tho olghty-two girls which were examined. 
X) agM ranged b(>twotm t<!ii and twenty years, there were 
■ly-thriH) full-blofxtt-d ludiaiu; fiv» WOP© one fourth, 
■ ■■ wcru onu half, and two were three-fourths white. 

^ tivD girhi ihowm] a decide*! abdominal type of breath* 

[k rutta] type, and in threo both were about even. 
-iiiwi«! the coetal type, or a divergence* from the ab- 
Hi of bnutthing, came from tho more civiliEi>d tribw, 
'•^"•V- niippMrftB, etc,, and were either one half or 
, while in no fdngle instance did a folU 
ItuUua girl pon ow this type of breathing. This is sig- 
in ibowiog that, so far n« the Indian \* concerni'^I, the 
b tl typ«i In the riHginal type of rtmpiration in both male 

au'i i4.-nuU0, and ' ' ' ' ' i -(jntjil t y[K> in the civlUtod female in ac- 
qnlnri thruQKh : trirttnK intluence of drees around the 

abdamniL That wtiii-h m of litill gr«ater importance, howoTur, is 
t)... r.^-1 flint only thniui girls who were either one half or three 
",and who were himca nndor the frreater domination 
t: . ' I ii-ji of civilized M i -^hcnuhI tho 

(•-■... I'dtnl tj-pe of rcbj 

A n 'if tht' pupilH of tlin Lincoln liidtitution, thero- 

... ii... .. _... . I ttmalgumatiou is takiux place 
u nuxa, but that the luttur iti 

1: .^. ' I 

T;.. - ^« 
111... '■ ■ 

hi --i,-] 





also acquiring soma of Oi« phystologirAl pecnliarities of t^ 
Conner. This blmiding of white ami Indiau blood is still fur- 
ther con5nued by the vuhod cuiupoiiitioi) of thu Indian mulo 
pupil)) iu the Bducatioual Homo for ludian Boys iii Philtululphio, 
as is sliown by the rejwrt of thin insditution for 18tt6. From tLlD 
source we learn that among the one hundred and Beven boys^i 
there vere only thirty-eight full-blooded Indiana; of the r9^| 
muindur one waa tliree fourthe, sixty-one one half, luid seven wer^^ 
OQO fourth white. Similar tiwtlmony <^^nii.-s from the n-itort« of 
the CoiHinissionor of Indian Affairs. These reports not 
show tlie exiitence of a very larfce proportion of mixed bl 
among the 250,000 Indian population of this country, but alao 
nmrkod increase of the former during tlie yoan 1885 and 1886 — 
thu only yours in which a rocord of the total number of mixed 
bloods is suppliL^d. Thus, iu the year IttBS there were 19,412 
and in I88i> there were 20,4(i7 mixed bloods, an increase of more 
thou 2,000 during one year. The pure Indian pojiulotiun for the 
former year was 'iS'J.'ia, and for the later i47,<fll, a docrwoso 
of over 11,000 during the 8ume time. 

It is furthermore evident from tliwe reports that the nam 
of mixed bloods in each agency is very naturally determined b; 
the luugth of timu which thu ludiuu» have huuu exposed to con 
tact with the whit* race, oa ia shown by Ih© following tublo, 
where are given the tuunex of various agvnoios, thu Indian popu 
lation in each one, the number of mixed bloods in euch, the p: 
portion of mixed bloods to Indian population, and the dates o: 
ti-euty : 









Na«york,K.T. ....... 

Nonh CvoniM. K. C 

ChcrafcM, tod. T<*. . . . . . 

0«i*#t«, bid, Tw 

Ort««Bk7, WU. 

WUt* Butk. Ulna 

HMMniio, Kiob 

Culotwlo KiTcr, Arta,..,. 
IOimIhim, WyoB. Trr. . . , 
Chmua* Mnr, Dtk. Trr. 

riMiRiitee, P«h 

FortHAll. Iibko 


i<aD tad Foi, tfrva 

riu, yiilwpa. and Pk. 
Itfa, Attl., . 





I. lit 
















1 wa 

1 lell 
1 Will 
I Mil 
I lo (» 
1 In HI 

U* >hlM Ml 







>0)i.— U IMf Int (UUU UmI Uw 4sm of MalJBt \uaj iiul tw ituuluitlj wmtSL- 


Afbir niAlciiiK iJop allowRucM for tho remote location of Bomo 
"' tmiitM, Uiis tnbi'j sIiowm vury con<;IiisiveIy that 

IL _ are most numentu.-^ in tUutsu tribuu that have 

iKtM) lunKiwI in oootoct with the white race. This is illustrttted 
!■ ; --^t AOVtfii A^nciits. Of ccmrsit Iliis is i]uite natural, but 

1: itrnteB rtill further that iu thy older agencies, like thoaw 

o( Now York, Qroen Bay, and Mackinac, there are nearly as 
vuuty mixod m imm hhHxlH. This iti indeed siirprifiiiig, for, if we 
oocuidvr tho fact of lli» iiicreiwe <>f the mixed bloods in counec- 
. with th(* fiurt lh;it tlii' i>un< Iiidiuu in probably deoreeaitlg in 
imbitn*, it ia quitu ovidvnt Uiut tho day wilt uut bu far dititaDt 
wbtm the miuniuit of tlio once proud American Iiidian will bo io- 
oorpomlMl iatit tlie white mco. 

Tbla. thnn, nci far a» the American Indian is concerned, lit tho 
uutaml drift nf thingit im Xxxet it can bo divined at tlie present 
time, and that whii^h l>iy.*omuH of al>Mrbiiig iut»rotrt to ub is tho 
qneatirm of the Ktattility of this new product. Will it be Iwttor 
afal* to nwivt diMMUw and deatli thau tho original Indian stook. 
or wUI tt. likn the latter, tvnd U> di»ip]>eiar becauee there is s 
want of tutnnony between ibwlf and its surroundings t While 
' ii cannot be dctermiued po^tively on ucootutof a 
!l> Htfltiittir^, thvru are reaaoiiH for belioring that the 
of Mucli lui alManro ht xtrongfr and mort> vigiirv)iin than 
Inillan. TlitH in in accord with what might linve been 
on a priori grouuds aloue, for the mixture of a lower 
witii a Iiigbtir hltHxl will certainly iuiprovt) the mitnrt) of the 
fiirtDer, whiii* it will jiiHt m certainly imjmir that u( thu latter. 
Tlw* experieoeo of the taaohoni of the Lincoln Iniitttution 


|l hman 

^'i<twfl hen expmsHod, that the mixetl Indian in more 
pntyn'mnry diMvawt than the pure Indian ; and, fur* 
flier. T ttr<! ottnrkM by di^ii^a^, they offer greater 

eociiit I'-x )•■ it ituiu tho latter. Tbi^ view in tieo 

eoofi ' "iico of Captain R. H. Pratt, Sui>er- 

bilei' itu SfdnKil, who says in hi^ last re< 

prjrt liat thn mixtvl blood-i I'efiist diseefie 

aorl daatli f rum ptilmunary tnioblen lietter than thu full-blooda ; 
and our b««t bMlth conditions ore fuund among those wo »end 
oat into fMniliA*— duo, I think, very largely to tho rtgular occu- 
I*ti' i." 

S -...:» been exprawed by others f who have re- 

iiilc>l thtf mixed or half-breed races in the northwestern 

|iKt T' . ro luiid to be Htrong aud hearty, 

lonK iisu. HO long as thoj remain in 

*•■ Bfpwt al UdkB nMniMlnorr Tar llM, p. tt. 

t«n -ritMl •' tUirnn«d Bmm nr Non)»aM<-m Ouw^'b; Or. A. F. SxU. 
I td •)>■ Aukm|iiU>.v*^ iMtltula," IH^t, vol Ir, f. it. 


their nntive cjlmato. They regard llieiiwelvog as the equal o(, 
the whiten, and look in it gmtroDizing wny on Uie Itidiitu. The; 
families aro uattally very large, and the female sex is mid to 
very handMome. 

Quito reccutly I had occasion to iiiveetigate the question 
whether pulmonarif consumptioti tttula to exUrminate the Anur- 
Kan Indian f * and I thun found that nearly nil thutto Indi. 
a^noiea whioh show the lowest coaauraptiou rate are pi-wiwl 
those which are shown in the table of thin paper to contain ih 
largest numbor of mixed bloods. Of coarse, it is just jxissib 
that the preawice and Uie ubHonoo of pulmonoiy eotiMum|>tii)D 
certain tribw is purely a oo)niu<loMoo ; yet I thiuk, from what h 
been said concerning the improved phynicAl rondition of th 
mixed Indian, it is quite evident that the greater immunity 
these tribee from consumption is dae to the fact that they 
I^ise a large element wliioh luus a snperior power of wurdiug o: 

These facts and inductions obviously show that Nature steps 
in and adds more toward a solution of the difficultieb of iho In,' 
dian prubtum than stateftmunship has ever aooonipUtthed. Suci 
a prooeae, although nt the beginning it acta prejudicially to tl 
intereota of the white race, will in the end operate to the odva: 
tage of both racee. There can be no doubt that the harmony 
feeling which it establishee, and the permanency of commci 
interests which it insures, counterbalance all the evils which i 
ever inflicted. Moreover, these developments also contirm tbi 
wisdom of the course of our Qovernment. and that of our pfa 
atithropio people who have undertaken to Kcond theeo effo' 
of Nature, by educating and tmining th<> growing gonuration ol 
IndioDB in the ways of civilization and of Chrintiauity. 



THE publication of the^Lifoand LotbrnorChArloit] 
a review of which has already appeared in theptsnilC 
"Guardian," .teems a fitting opportunity for nttcmpltng to fat'^ 
the question how far Darwinism alltwts Cbristtttu faith, 
what are the points of tnvlitional interpretation or aTK>lug 
whioh ant modified by it. Christiiui ' 
loiaatiflo dtscurerios. It cluinui all tm 
to Him who is the Truth. But OlirivtJiui theologians arh be 
Kluwty looming that pnnio foar of ' ' "oHm ia as uni 


kbla an Uio Btbtmpt to luwu the et49mn] truth of reltKioti on what 
nwy oviiDtuiilty pruvu to liu n triiiuioiit phiuw of eciuutUic belief. 
WiUi n-KMnl to dvoIuUuu, lKiwt>Ter, we aru iloaliug vith what 
BLay fuirly cbiiiii lo bean wtahlitthed doctrine, CerlAinly it 18 
onk loo mai:h tti nuy ttmt m the si-ioiitilic world it has woo ita 
w»y toMcurity, an^i hun brought ovur to ito »idu the viuit ma- 
jority of thoM who have a right to give an opinion on the ecien- 
tiftc quQKtloa. In wiyiDg this, however, we do not mean that 
evolnti'm in Hl«r<!>otyp<Nl in th<* form in which Darwin guve it to 
'. 1. No one Would moru iiutigimntly rL<eunl such a pOMi- 

1....;,. ; Dtirwiu hiiuwir. And it iK roiuurknblu Ihnt the yc&r 
whit'h b>ld a« the vtory of Darwin's work and life, found u-s face 
tu foot with two attomptt to cnrr^' out the doctrinal of evolution 
in diffnnrol. and ao it Menu, tnutuiiUy ineon»iHU»nt Vuxv». In the 
Jaly DOBibor of th« " Journal of the LlunBon Society," 1S80, Mr. 
BamaiMM pmpoondtxl a thtiory — porhapn wo shoulc] more projv 
orly imy mftfturtod for coiuiidomtiou a theory — to which ha ii^ve 
tlM Vmxa* of phyKtoloffioAl iiel<x:tion. Loot year, thanlco to two 
aK0i>)t-t>» flii'lvM in " Naturu," by Prof. Museley, uud a pa{>i<r at 
Uur i \«<«<;ialion on " Pohw Globulus," wo weru introilucod 

to P' .inaiin'ti " (forni-phwina" doctrine. 

\\ <-umtui)iily known as Darwinism includes in it two 

utmnmit* which arw by no mivuu neoessarily connected — the one 
thtf bttiuarokiMi lh»ory t>f doM-'ont, tho other the more strictly 
DM-WTntan th^ny of natural iH.>U>ctioa. Wu bad gotsoaccus- 
1 ' Id that thvcxiMTionceof odo ganoration iiocaiuo 

' ._: .: iiiti next, aud that the traDMniauon of ao(|uirod 

uionoof thu miMl imporuint as well as the most obvious 
111 :!i<' variation in sporiw, that it in Homewbat startlinf; 
T 1 , :i> '■> ■ iiat thttro t» no vorLtiud cam of the trauMniasion 
.i'iir..| > !..iract<int, luid thnt the Lamarckiiu doctrino of 
' ' WA- [!■ vor i-Mi<nttal to Darwintiim, thouKh it existed as 
>iw.l Lii it. Yi-t I his, in Hhort, is Prof, WeinDann's view, 
"d with f^niinU fuvnr «l the Manchtister meet- 
: iiJi AjMiociatitm. It would swun to thowB who 

^ ■ 

d. - 

a ^1 

«p(aJc without Kpw-ial knowlndgo that tho two vIowh advocated 
naptotivaly by Mr. !' -i and Prof. WrUmaun are mutu- 

«tlf laeompotililt), ni. wv lutter new if ailo[)te<1 would 1k> 

fatal lu wdnv of the ni'Mt churiHlivI thi>oriiis of IIi-rlN>rt Spoa- 

1- - * r.i;.... tij Mr, Rouuuiw. " [uitiiral Miloction tit not a the- 

I of ■rpucioa."* Acconlinx to Prof. WotKmann, 
rfcji; .r.i, _ ; . ; .:. ■> tlj.' main rauiie of mndi varialii.n. Mr. Ro- 
:..'- '.iin ' hwiunpinii wITuctit of iiktt>rcri>N)ini;," whlla 

I } < mm in nwry cam of aoxtial r«pro<]uiaion a uiul- 

il'oc.*[>"» •» liiv pnaiibiUtii<« of adaptation to an oufavorable 

• - Joiinal ~ p. tu. 







imvlronmraL PinoIIy, Mr. Rj)manea poetuIatM a highly v» 
Able reprodnctive syHtoiu of which no vxplnntttioa \% fprc-n, a] 
by this he would explain the sterility of spociwi inier «■ ,- Pnv 
Weismann carries us back to the Prolophyta ami Protozoa, 
whoro Htrictly speaking there is no reprxxluction, anil to t 
direct action of cnviroiitntnit npon thooo, from which, in th 
Metaphyta and 91 etozoa, by soxtial reproduction wo gil ** spon- 
taneous " tendencies multipied in geometricnl ratio. Th 
" Bpontaneouii," or, as we prefer to call them, " inherent " tende: 
ci«8 or characters, are transmissible ; acquired characters are ni 
Wo trust w<i hftvo not misroproiwntvd these views. We noti' 
theni not in tho lofut with a view to ducidinj; botwwn th 
thoiiffh there i.'» little doubt which way thii balance of scienti 
authority at present inclinK; Htill U«.t with the wijih torn 
capita] out of their disa^^reement, but in order to emphasize the 
fa*.-! that, whilo Darwinism Li ffenerally accepted in the K<-i<>utific 
world, thure is much which as yet is unsettlMl ; in other wordi>, 
that, whilo every competent man of scionco now bolievcit in tlt« 
origin of species by prognModve variations, we oiin not l»e ( 
much on our giiarl against etereotyping any tlioory as ti 
proximate cauMS. II is nearly as true now as whuii Darw 
wrote it in 1878 that, tliough " there is almoHt complirUi 
nimity among hiologists about ovolution, . . . there is Hlill- 
siderable differouoe as to the meann, such as how far natarnl 
selection has act«d, and how far external con<iitions, or whether 
there exists some mysterious innate tendency to pe^fwlibility."^ 

In the pre«ent and a future article we propom* to deal wild 
tho <Ioctrino m far as it is generally accepted by Bciantjflj 
men, and. without attempting to discu»i the evidence on whicH 
Ihw iIiH-trine restsi, to answer the following niieslioti: Uiven a 
Churchman who aooepts the dogmatic position i>f tlio Knglitih 
Church on the one hand, and who, so far as he is able to nnderg 
stand it, beliuvi^ the doctrine of evoliitioit to l>e lh« tniCNt ttnlin 
tion yel diwovcred by science of the fiuits open to its obserraJ 
tion, what rwonxtniction of traditionally accopt4<<) views and 
arguments fs nec(«8tiry and possible ? How Is ho to relate tliJ 
new tnitb with the old ? \ 

III 00 stilting the problem we pat ont of oourt Uuw) oIoMOs td 
riersons : (o) those who, intrciichcd in tlie forinvs of n-liKioiid 
certainty, are content to leave ititelloctnal pndilems alone nin 
ignore the movement of snicntilic thought nrouml ibi-m; \)\ 
tlioHe who nn< hd " iitimirHod in mntt^T" that Mie reli fl 

llieir nature liOA bt'come attxiphiet) '"■ il^^n-.- j.r'il i ...J 

pOMHMH tho wonderful power of V- lal and 

religious life " ' '<!{»< with nn uii , w h<i, il thrv worn chaB 

DAStWiyiSil AKB TirH CffJtlST/Ay FAITH. in 

H^ft to fttvA a tlitxiry nf Immnti nntiin), vould have to rppro- 
•Ut H M tr it wcni a euocIctd ironclad built in waU-r-tight coiu- 

bt contmHt. tliini. with thew tliroe dnasee we take tho caso of 
%: ' ' pi'rhapB sometMag more than tlio 

or iiliiliveiot«r«tt«,iiiulcortaiiJy with 

k wloflgti of wbftl t»(/ie fidit and wbat ts not, tlian mutit 

Tlhurr-iiTiinn |)uiiksh; u miin who rpjeet*! tlie modern pnnacon of 
iodtifiuil«uM"t and reftUBB, o%x<n tbuugh hu might claim the pre- 
cvdmt of n Htimurin giKldess, to throw over the bitUte-Gflld " a 
Btmbnd of KotUt<a mii>t " to coror tho rt'trLXit or defuat of a 
larorite hi<r4>. Such a man, Acn^ptinR Darwinittm, will expoct 
ij' ' t ft rrcoii-' "i, or at least a resetting, of hifl bo- 

lt ij<>C(NUUir\ . •> tliat real effort, moral and intel> 

l«ctuft], will be rwiniw;«l Tor tlie work. No new truth ton, with- 
,^,.. .. _. 1 .. 1.,.,^ ^j(h jjjg tmth already apjipopriated by the 

11 !>*r and more fnr-roschiuK the truth the greater 

ti i> rwiwinil. Tliisifl why theiii-msh of new 

tr _ :. II mat, and perha|>s, in the retronstruction, a 

T iiC of pomtithing which hiu) Ixiun a^sociatetl with spiritual 

truLZ:. ::: 'i>k'ti '"'\ of tlio MKenoe of the truth itM'lf. 

Dr. A-.. ' ir.iv, the AmeHonti iHtlaiilMt, writing to Mr. Darwin 
afanat the ** Ori|;(in of Spocies/'* Bnys: " It id refreshing to find a 
poiaon witlt a new theory who frankly confeesest that he lindfl 
difflonltieH. iruninnountable nt icjwt for the present. 1 know 
•UDV fho Ufver have any diHieulties to spenk of." 

lu _.;>ung to aiuwor the <)ueMtioa we have proposwl to 
vuB, we do not profuwi to be uf the number of thoito huppy 
1 '" who liave " no difRcultins." We cmi, at movt, 

hcrpe ' imudiflicuUied which are more api>areut thaa 

tval, ami, with regard to othcm. to ttnggest bintji which have 
bclped Ufl, In *'■' '^'.•■'-^ tlmt they nmy bo of use to others: 

I. Thefir^' fy which will probably occur to any one i« 

thte: T. ' ;<laniilion of the origin of species. 

H'jw i the iirst article of the creed, the 

t> "f Uit) Bible r A man of average intelligence will 

' ' rn, unloHR the itwue ban been confused for 
i Mtutemnnt« of igiionuit jiiirtiRniiK For 
nor profeneea to roy, anything atxnit tha 
:igH. Mr. Darwin eayR : " I believe that all 
-1 from at most only four or five progeai- 
'•^ numt>er.t. . . All the 
: on tliii* eorth may l»ede- 
[iol form." t And he adds, " Tlu-re 
■ >!■ .» .'i .il'u.with it4 w-'vemi iwwerB, ha^-ing 
J,r.t& t-'OrlctaorspMi«>,"p. 4H. t IbM., p. lia. 

hira by the 






^K^been origiiially broathod by tlio Crontor into a few forma or i 

^^^^ Haeckel and mme other evolutioniata would go furthor. Tbey 
^B would bi<Uev«, tliough all thv cxpi<rimi<atjtl ovidotico u tit present 
ngninst »(uch a view, thut life ultimat«ly arose from iiiorffaaio 
luiilter. But €v«D bore tliere is no tmg^estion as to tho ultimato 
origin of tbat matter, out of which alt the world, aa we know it, 
come. In the language of tt^i-hoical thoology, uvolution d«!iilit 
with secondary (i. o., derivative), but does not touch primary, 
creation. In Haockel's less exact way of stating the distiuclinn 
it deala with " creation of form," but knows nothing abou 
"creation of matter." Of the hitler, L e., original creatio; 
Hacckel says : " The process, if iudfud it over took place, in co: 
plotely buyoud human comprehc-iisioti ; and cau, thoruforv, uc-v 
become a subject of ^ciontiflc inquiry," \ 

Prof. Tyndall, speaking of the " evolution hypothesiB," say 
" It does not »olve — it does not profeaa to solve — the ultima: 
mystery of this universe. It leaves, in ^bjcI. that mystery un- 
touched." Prof. Clifford again says: " Of the buginniag of the 
ttnivoreo we know nothing at all." Herbert Si>onc«r, indeed, 
rej'ttta primary creation, but not on the ground that «.<vtiIutiou 
' offers an alternative for it, bat becaofie it is " litt>n«lly un- 
thinkable"; and Prof. Huxley, on the ground that, a» muoucd 
knows nothing about it, nothing can be known. Q. E. D. BiJ 
Mr, Darwin tells us that " the tlieory of evolution is quite coni| 
I patible with the belief in a God " ; J that when ho wa» colleclinJ 
' facte for the " Origin '' Im " belief in what is called a jwrsouJ 
Qod was as Arm us that of Dr. Fusey himaelf " ; " ; while even al 
the time when the " Origin of Sitecies " was published, he <1« 
served to be called a theiat," I Later on hesaj'a: "The myKtfTra 
of the beginning of all things is insoluble by us ; and I for oiw 
must bo content to remain an aguoAtic." Yet, tlireu y«.<ars lat^iJ 
(1871>), in a private letter, ho write*, " In my motit extreme flncll 
> unltoiw I have never been an atheist in the scniu- of denying tbfl 
QXtftlence of a Qod."^ Theise quotations, which of course mlgla 
easily be multiplied, are enough to show that evolution noithol 
I is, nor prrtti'nds (o )m\ un alti<riiutivi< theory to original creatioin 
\ All cvolutiuimt, thuri<for(\ who dL'ikii<» the fact of creatioD, goov 
on fur beyond tlio uvidonco which Dcieiice ofTont as if he had as- 
■eried his l>rli*'r in " the Maker of heuvttu and esrtli." . 

S. But then uvulutiou doee clearly offer un u theory on to liofl 
I Ui i ■ ' ii it now if", iiTid ' 1 

W K" I : ilin unvarying I" iJ 

Wo have here a eluar iSMiiu roinud between two oltAntalive tha 



-Um> oi»o Ui« theory of Darwin, the other the theory of 
"KpeeuU crvotioD." and they uro mutually deetmctiva If tho 
theory of " vpacul oreatloti " in truit. Durwiuib-m i» false ; if Dar- 
wtnlam is troo, "vpeciikl creiitiou" '\» fnlM-. And thi« issue is 
plainly nrmjit«il by \kA\i luirtioR. Thus Mr. Darwin snye, "I 
havij at leiuft donu good service in overtbrowia^ the dogmu of 
an|Mu»lA croatiuan " ; and Haeckel, in the preface tu his " Evolu- 
I ^!nu." Ixiiuitii tlint " whc-ii, in 1)^73, the grave closed over 

L ... -i^iimiz, th»liuft ^Tvat uphuUk-r of the constancy of speciw 
aad of miraculouii creation, the dogma of tJie constancy of speciOB 
cam* to an end, and tho conlrnry aamimiitinn— the assertion that 
■n the rarioiu vpecien dnu-endfol frutn common anoestral forms 
^Bow DO lonf^r encounters serious difficulty." Darwin was 
fnlly ftwaro of the oppoeition his theory would have to encount- 
•r. And lie feonNl the nicu of ocionce an much as tho thoo- 
loifianik. " Aiithrirs," heiMyii."of the Iiighesteminenoe seem to 
ba foUy NiliMfituI thnt each speoiea has been iudependently cre- 
kUkL" When hu flrwt hinted at the theory to Joseph Hooker in 
IMS. b0 layv, ** I am almost oonvHnced Mint spcx-iiiH are nut (it ta 
Uka omfeadnft a murder) iminutnblu," * and hit* utinoHt hopv U 
that he may Im> able "to show, oven to sound mitundiiits, that 
tfa«r«- arr two tiidc« to the question of the immutability of spo- 
clH."t and tlijit "nllipd apecieti are oo-descendanta from com- 
r L^K."! Whether true or not scientifically, this does not 

h> .J 1.0 a diuifttToiiH henwy, and yet tho outcry raised from 
the nde of rvlipiou was aa great us that raised by contemporary 
«d«ti< T' < ri now ndigiouM }>eoplo are surpriwd to be told that 
H w !■ >u:irntiti(- iiutuittcin, to lje dt^^ided solely ou Hcivutilic 

•vidmcet and to Iw dealt with nffuctivdy only by R<-ietitific nietu 
It ia ODt the qnmlion whether siteciee were created by <]o<l or 
eatna into existencn indi>p«nideotly of him, or (as Huckli^bcrry 
Fita pola it) " whutber ••'• re mode or whothur tliwy jtiKt 

Inppentd." For sdenco : . <u<« chance — exmpt 08 a nitmo 
far oiiffKtilalned oauaation — as oanteetly as religion does. It is a 
qnaatloa between two viowit m to iiM.-on(lary creation, or, more 
•trietly, tietween a thtniry and the deuijU of the possibility of a 
Iboory as u> tho m*'tbo(| of tliix crcolioD. The qutittion is this : 
Wore speriM dirtTily rnvted at tho fin<t, or by intcrmixliate 
lAwa.a« individoaU are F" Were Ihey iudi-|imiilently created, or 
dMcowl*-' ' ^1 " To nay thnt: spwiwt wnre cre- 

Blnlaaa- . iwin,"is no scii^ntilic cxpliuialion, 

rit way of saying it is so and so." * " Hpucial cro- 
'>n the agiio«ti» si<le, while evolution at least 
^ Gud'M ac-tiuu in the jMut in Hue with his action 

'•UU^A UMm." 1, ^ SW. t thM., I. p. 3W. { IbM., L p. SM. 

• HML, I, tk SN. I UiUm 1, p. 4S7. * UiU., I. ^ *Vl. 



indi* I 

in the present ; bis creation of species with his creation of indi 
vidnals. According; to special crEotion, forms of life are pro- 
duced by the will of God ; having, indeed, the minutest onalogiea 
to OD« uiiothvr, and yot having no relation to one another. Ac- 
conling to evolution, npccids ore not merely created by Qod, but 
created by him according to a method whicJi relates «nch species 
with the rest, and explains their analogies, like family lilcenessea, 
by a common ancestry. 

Wo htivu purpusoly stated this in the language of ruligion, as 
Mr. Darwin not uiifruquontly does. But it is a purely scientiUc 
question ; and Mr. I>arwin, we think righlly, uftcrwunl i-x|ireefied 
his reffrot at having umNl " the Pentat^uchal tprm of creation," • 
because of crwtliun, in its strict sense, as ultimate origin, scien< 
knows and can know nothing. The queHtion thuH liMximcs om 
b«twi>an those who hold luid thow who duuy tlio immutability 
Bppciea. The "ia^i ure commonly spoken of as "Transmutation 
istfl"; the former might have been nicknamed " Imraotablea," 
but unfortunately they were too often called " Oreationista," and 
the scientific issue was olwcured for both parties t)y tL' ' _ ' 
animtui. Hoitoo a bolit>f in God as Cn-atur cjunu to lie w 
witli the denial of tmnHmutiLtion, and » thKtry of trniisniuttiti 
was supposed to imply a n'jtxition of the Christian crc^<d. 

It is really time tlint the doctrine of " sptwia) envious," whl 
some theologians cling to so tenaciou.'<ly, was held up to th 
light. Where did it come from ? Who invented it i* Every- 
body will at once say, " The schoolmen," because nobody reads 
the schoolmen, and peojde have a vague notion Uint " g«nus " 
Olid " species " are as much a monopoly of the acboolmcn as otq 
"entity" and "quiddity." But the M'hoidmen were tnuwmaj 
tationiKtal They didn't believe in tixity of sinwira luiy mnJ 
than ibry betiovud in the uniformity of nature. Fur tlit<m tla 
transmulation of pIhmIs woh iis powihlv as thi' ' J 

metals. The " wign of livw," wJiich in a romni _ ■ A 

vaa unknown even in the dnyit of Bncon. It is hardly onKlibll 
to us that LonI Bacon, the father of mtMleni )«cienin>, as ho fl 
callc<l, though \w WHS only a schoolman touchotl wllh empirfl 
cisni. lirliovcd ii'it only that oiio 8{K-oii.'» might |huh> into nnothefl 
but that it woM a matter of cliaiioo what the tratuiniiilutton wouM 
b«. Sometimes the medin-val notion of vtvifinuiou from pntiv 
flint )(<» \k ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ la 

UmghM ]>i 'I 

tmii (nri douhl)," Uu Btt>'H,t " it is nol l.lii< oak lltnl tiini>>th intui 

Tine, but the iwk hongh, piilmfying, ii'^t '■'■.•?! " ■'■ i • fr« 

forth a vine of Itsi-lf." Sonmiinu-n h- I 

implii-« a kind of law, as vchfin hi> thinkn iltitl iiii.- slump «if M 

"• U/^ uni LtltPn," tt,f. VM- I'-XalDfal UlMun.' tNinL trl. p. SSL I 



bMch-trw wbfm cut down will " put Torth birch," b«cfiu£e it ta 
*a tnm of » Ktnalli^r kind vhich iK>(<(]oth ]«8ii noiiri«Iitui>ut."* 
Rb»v ■ ; rient of p<tlliiif; a willow to nee 

wfant I having HtM>ti one wliii;h hm) a 

hrmi'ktui foru (rrtivrint; out of it ! Aud ho tukiti it m probable, 
loatth it i* inirr mngnalifi naiunt, tliftt '" wlintovur uroattiro 
iTtDtf lift' ii KiTiit-rutL'd without af*ed, that crrmture will uliau^ 
I'D! -i-ifH into uiiothiT." Bac-uD looks upon the seed h » 

Mabu ^ ^'•'Kfr, limiting n vuriiitioD whiob, in ifpoataiieous 

gimcrftlioiui, b pmctl<;iilly iofitiiti*, "for it 18 thu Aoed, and the 
' ' <*h lockitth ami b<iiin<lctb in tht> orenturo that it 

"." HfK tb<> fmrt of tmiiitmutation ia taken for 
ftruniMl, L ..n fiviin imtn'ffvctiou Ix-iiig Hi>inL'timi« called in 

a« a dettM lund Ui cxpliiin it. But Buuoii cvrtuiiily had no 

Idtta Ihxtt Ibn <fxUtii)g Hitfc-ittt of plants and luiimnlK rt-jiruwDt 
UiiiM- urigiiuUly cruittivl by Ood, and this is wbut special cKation 


li might b«i 0ii)ipOM-d, however, that the doctrine of "special 

rz ' ' 

But I 

St. Au 



' i' \hf privutw pmiM'rty of coromuDtotors, enggMted 
i1 of iT«>ation ^ivea in OuiiiviiM. And tlierv wore, 
Ii« w int4>r|>ri-toil tho wfnila "ftfter his kind." 
.i,..., wa« in no wny c-omiuitted to this view, while 
' ' !■ dixtiiictly rejwtB it in favor of a view which, with- 
■ ' I ■ '■ to IfUiifuiu^'. we may call a thwjry of evolii- 
I' ^,-[> i.ii'sL of th<> ttrbuolmt-n <It4tbi.>mtt'ly iKlupt«d SI, 
•••"u viciWH and ngoctvd that of special creatioo. His 
« rwmiirkablo that thiry are worth quoting, Ewperially 

« "ver sran thciu n)fvrrod to in thtH connection : 

Ai U) lt.» |>rudBirtloci of flnnl*. Anmptia* biiMa K aUttmt vww. For 
■«w aspoilinrs mf that od Oxia UilrO dny fortTWillon) plmila wow •rlBBllr pro- 
iMMt MFk ta lib klad— « vl«w «lilrli Is favoreil \,j a raporfdal rMdioR of tho 
IMW «f Soriplsn. Kul AniniMliM Mjr> Uut tli« t»t%ii It tbra nid to kart 
tnmttd torth pwt uiil tr«>M eamtUttt—i. «... |i then r»«.lTwl Uic power to pro- 
Am tfe«iii. Tlii« nkir bo mtiflnni hjr Dm KatiuirMj of 8eriplii«^ whioh «y^ 
-Tb-" »r» tlw. s*t>vnitloai of ilw limvm tail of tha Hrtb, wboB Ui«]r w«f« 
■TMlad, to Um 4«y IJiat Um Lnrd Gad tnii'le tli* onrtb anJ IL.- Iiwarwiii, mi 
•WHT ptut of th* Sold b«rnr« U wm in Uio e«nh, and drci-y lu-b of lb« fleW 
Won U tnw." inanod*. It, 4.) Befon Ihra Utty Mrn« IntA btiuf on the 
n-h •» '•««>« mad* ciiM«]lr in lh« «arth. A&il (bit b ooaSnned by rwaaoB. 
I - Um d«ya fldtl rando «r«atiu«a primarily w MUtaliltr, mil then 

mi.-] tr»ui hU iirufk, uJ jvi nriirr Uiat, hy h'\» MpartBiandeDce of tlililit* 
oMtad, Im «»![■ tTHi til iliti ilav tn t)ii> wiirk of propainlloo. For Ui*pro- 
I itf ptttitt friiQi tU oanii bdiin«« to (bo w<irii of prApagaUoa. 

r.i JH no idea of tbfi method by whifh the 

ii ftirlh from thp farth.orof their intt-rrL-la- 

tiuuB With won anuthiT. thtTc in a rlitur t-nucpption of cnwtion by 

• - Katiual niMarr," CM. tl. p. ktl. 




f^'wHx or evolution, vliich ia quite coutranr to what U kno 
UK special creation. And when we remember that thi< schoulmmi 
hi^M what IK now calktl ubtogeneMH and genoratiun from put 
faction, both in botany and zoClt^y, we feel at once how infiait« 
more elastic their theory of Natnro waa than that implied in 
doctrine of special creation. But if special creation is a doctri 
unknown to Bucuti and rejected by St.. Tbumas, it is not likely 
be essential either to Hciunce or rolif^ion. 

Where, then, did it comu from? It includes olemonts bri 
scientific and religiotis. nnd it in interratinjf to notice how t 
tilemeuts combintMl. 

Half a century after Bacon's " Novum Organnm " ^-aa pub- 
lished, a great poem appeared, which has since then, often on- 
oonaciously, intluencH^ thoolt^iaus and apulogi8t«. It is, do 
doubt, a thanklefiii and ungetierotui liutk to bring the heavy 
artillery of science to bear ui>on poetry, and it is only justitiablo 
when truth is endangered. Home time ago Nasmyth, by the help 
of the " Nautical Almanac," di8«;oveiiMl that, if Sir John Moor© 
vas buried " at dead of niyhl," be euuld not have had the advan- 
tage of "the 8tniggliiig moonbeam 'n misty light," liecanne the 
moon must have been far IjoIow the horixon nt the time. Wh 
this criticism was reported to the late President of the Roy 
Irish Academy by Sir K. H. Ball, he is said Ut have replied. " 111 
t«U you what it is, the time will eome when that little poom will 
bo taken as the »o1e authority about the matter, and all youc 
astronomical calculations will go for nothing at all." Thia ■ 
very much what has h»p]H<n«xl in the cose of "Paradise Loetvi 
Petiple have come to think of it as a sort of inspired gloga on Qm 
early chapter* of Genesia. Yet there ia u huge fiiffi'renuJ 
between the text and the commentary. In the Bible we hava 
"And Ood Rttid, ' Let the earth bring forth.' " «t«., words whioB 
are at least consuttent with a gradual development But Miltofl 

says: I 

^ " Th« |cr*M7 cUida now calved : duk lialf Kppttrtd I 

Tt>o Uwn/ liun. pBwlng to got frM ^J 

nia hinder pirta, ifaeo sprtoita U broke frofli \ioait, ^H 

H Ani) niraputt ibakM hia brindcd niu*; Uiv oiidm, ^H 

H Tbo likUjiI, wd til* tigor. aa Lhu mol* ^H 

^B Rlxliiff, 111? criiriiblp<l oirtl) above tliMi) lhr*w ^^M 

H In billovk*! Uie iwlft uUg Irom iinileritroiiait ^^M 

H B«r« up bia braiuAlRs liaad," «(&, etc* ^H 

This is litemltxm and realinm with a veugranco I Aad ]j^H 
U hard to h<m why Milton should not do in poetry what Bl^HH 
in the Vatican had domt in art. ^ 

But wlmt ^vm imch im|>ortan(t< ti) the oixyianlof oroatton ■ 

^ ■ " Pmdlw Um," tM. il 1, ri wf I 




' Poradiw Loit " in, thiit it fiyt)chrtiniz«<l, curiously piiouglij with 
thr timt attempt to limit the logical t«nn " species " to definite 

t..x ' 'jintfjr)' UMigu. Thin wiuj the work o( Milton 'a younger 

c rury. John K«y, fnim whrnii tho thociry of thu fixity of 

s[wcie» tu»y bo Miid t4i (lnt<<. \\1)L-tlit'r Milton iDflticiiei-d Ray, 
ur K«y MUton, or wht^iur tbo thuory wuti "in thv mr,"ltiD 
difficult to Niy. But in tlie next century, we find in Lintiatus 
Ihanwoti' ' '>f Mtlton'K a prhri view of Creation ami Ray's 

mwrlanti' iit><>f tisfd s^K-cii's. Tho voU-kuown wonU of 

LtREUfOM ia till) " Philomipbiu SoUum'ti,"" Spec ws lol sunt, qttot 
rli '■ ■- fnrmttM nh iniiio proitturU Infinitum Ertu, qwe, fortna, 
t, ,. yrn'-miioniit ituliloji Irgrs, jtroditirere plures,at sibi 

mtnfmr aimilm" * nrv thujt Uw first formulation of thu theory 
or qteciikl <-n.iation, which nngry rn'olutioniHts attuck und uuwtso 
•polofficLi dt'fi'nd. It) Linnieua'8 own time it came to be guner- 


the mnt^ 

quciBtioQed by Bullon, who contanded for 
filMwiee. Popular bt-liuf ia tlio Linneeati 
<! UN to liavo Uvn iihaken by Cuvicr at the beginning 

ii ill c^'nturj'. ftcd dvstroyod by Darwin's " Origin of 

S 1 yi<t thridiiul hand of an explndcMl scientific theory 

r '■ ..'V.anfl all good faith, set t^j work 

I'. J '. which lian Duither Biblical, nor putristic, nor 

dMliMval anthority. 

It in dillii-ult a prirtri to ««* how tho qiiwiMon. i^xrt'pt by a 
rnnTiainn, ItLvonntn n ndigionN i(ui'iition at all. Writing to a 

hiKl tviuHultctl him as to the bearing of uvolution on 
tl Mr. Dnrwiii Buyn, "lean not «ee how the belief that 

* :•■ boiuKH. including man, hare been genetically derived 

r- ' i>' iH-iiig. iIult4^wl of having been soporutoly 

< L your dtflii-ultics"; f and ut the clom of the 
■ .iHnof Hi-H-im-lie had wrillen, in the aame 8pirit,"lBee 
I ' ' *!irt ri»w8 givim in thia volume should ebock 

I. 'if any oiio."! 

Tbii biblo, nodoubt, in itt) vivid ronwionsnom of the omni- 
piMwne of (]od, Mi)4>«ikii of overj-thing tut wrought by him. He 
n»kM the tfraM to trrow. He fec-ds the rnvenfl. He riothefl the 
WmL H- ' *' L^> forth, and the beute of the Geld are 

flude. C" fruit of tht.' womb are hio gift. Ho 

eovftt* the infaat In tbi> mothor'm womb, and fiuihiotis it« limbs 
w iLny am madi> in Mvntt, Dimw any wine nian suppose that 
Uii* ainflii-t* with what we know of the lawa of growth and 
girnitnixion, or that it implitw an oblitemting or an sbridgmout 

* (nm an m nuT tptda* ■■ ibm wmw (US*nM foniM (vvdurtd ia the bVflBnlae 
kf Om tiA>iM IMac md i-'ir— r"nBa, aMHinllnG U t^ pnaoftad !»■« «( nfnSuOim, 

toT* fci ^M h«ih ill* 

iilw«fi Ilk* UhriiuItm-] 
1 r. 4(1, 



of wtiiit wo call natural procwBOB f Tfacro is no doubt that 
tlieoiy of " H|Kt<-iftl ciNwtioii," as Mgainst " rrpatitm by (ienvatio: 
(for this 18 the true antitbaiiis), poAseBses a etmuge attractiuii fi 
some miudtt, just as some cling to a Calviuititic thiwry of " i 
jnutablo dwTeeB," though at tlie price of making God an &r 
tniry, if not inttnoral, dcspat. But wo do not n-Hlly make 0<mI 
more mighty by aNcribitig M Iiim actiftiis whidi are uniiittilli- 
gible, nor do we derogate from hia jKiwer by fOiowing that t 
Maker of heaven and earth is not autocratic, or cajiricious, 
irrational, but works aooording to law. 

It may, however, be said : " Crwitiou \a a greiit niysl* 
Why attempt to theorize about it ? To ffiMxnilate U]>on a uiyKt'; 
is to rationaliiH* it." There seems to lie only one anawei- to 
objection, and it is that reason is the gift of God and not r»f 
devil, and therefore it can not be wrung to try and underutan 
what we bi'liuvf. Prwu-hing at St. Paul's on ChriMtmaB-day 
the supremo mystery of the Incarnation, Dr. Liddon says : 

It iru perLapa lii«vltBbl« tliat tli« qacctioii thoolil lie wk«d, Hoir ■» 
nnlon of iwo natiiTM whbli differ m i1i« Onator dlSVn frcna the orMtni 
tbv iiitinilu diffen from tli« tlntu — was pomlblof It miflil bo iiniMitli to rcpl; 
Uul oUJi tiod aU thing! aro poMibto— all UiEaipi, at Itmv wbicJi do not roai 
diet hia moral p«rfecttoiia— tbal b to aar, bla eaaooiial nalor«. . . . Dot, 
(rntli, il oufihl not to bv difBcult for a boinc poaaaaaad vl auoli ■ oampoMite nai 
M la man u> aiuwur tlua qoMtioo. 

And he proceeds to draw out the analogy suggested and jus- 
tified by the Athanasian Creed, " As the reasonable sonl and flesh 
is one man, bo frod and man is one Christ." If it is not wronti 
nay, if it is a very noce«sity of Christian wowm to ask how 
nnion of Qn<l and man is possible, it can not bo wrung to 
How is creation possible ? and to answer it by the analogy ( 
what we see and know. 

But the moment thia question is asked In the prMont state i 
scientific knowledge, two things btcomo im'rt-asingly apiiarnnl 
{fl> the enonnoiifl difJlrultiw which on the theologlcHl sidt- alim 
ft theory of *■ special creation" has to face; and ('i) the runiarl 
able gain to theology if wolutiun ntther than " Bpccial crMttion| 
is tnie. In both cttaee wo propose to put the scioiitilic evtdo 
for evolution on one Hide, and trwtt it as a bare hypothMis. 

(») Notliiiiif li'is brought lint the ■' i| 

crwition" th«)rj- nion? atronyly tlian t)i' 

[lanitive i)mbr}-ology. It bus added enormously to nor knnw| 
p<! ' "'I't fixistencuof {af'. • ■ '• ' ' ■ 

r. iry organs, and :■ 

n 1 the way of the "fi|n'>'mi rreitlicii) 

stand ' 


.•plj ; 




rof twlhitiRrther witli mdimeatary hind-legs, fur- 
oialtM with boii(>«i. Joints, and muHcles, of which there is no traco 
iiKiamally. fi4)th l4>t'th aud Ivfpi (iuMppifir before birth. Ou the 
UwKiry ihxt tho wluUv is u dusceudiuit of a knd-umnuil, which 
OH^ b(ilh li'Ks mid li<eth, lLi>y arc intolIiKible as aurvirala iu u 
ennttiin' U* whuh they are apparently usel<>Hii. But that OotI 
■btrald liavo civated these utructures in a now being, which hjul 
no orguuc rolntton witli ollii'rci\<]UiHl forms of lifo,0eom£ almost 
inooooiinbli*. Wn oiui rir'iihi.T Ih'Uovo that they were created 
■ for mero iiport or variety." nor lliat they are " Divine mock* 
» " nor IM un intfi'iiiuuB but luithrapomorphic writer in the 
Spectator" miKK^^t*")' that God ocouoiuically kupt to the old 
~|i1Mi ibuuftb ill* dvtaiU tuul CMsad to have eithf r appropriate- 
OOH ur om. Tlin difllcuiUtM on even stroui^er in tlie case of 
mas unil th<* nuw wvlt-kiiown fiM:tH of hta embryonic life. Hov 
ia it puHibhf, in '' ** of tlie^e, to maintain that we have id 
nun » ormtioti i: < nt of Ihu rest of God's crwitivu work P 

Of ciarw, if the thvorj- of " Hpv<;ial cnrnttoii " existed cither iu 
\)... iiM.j,, ^f in Chrixtiiui antiquity, wo mi^ht bravely try and 
• for it. But it cnnie to us nome two centnriea ago from 

li. -'''•■ the imprimatur of a Puritan poet. 

Aik'l. Ill 

<ii are now t^tufl to palm off uiiou theo- 

loipma* thnr ovm niistnkfw. rulif^ion is not bound to wear, still 


ml of, tho ciMtttfT idothMi of physic«l science. 

" otlinr hand, and aji^ain apart from the flcientiflc 

I in favor iif evolution, (i« n fAi^'Tf/ it is infinitely more 

I II Utuit till) Iheor)' ■>f " npeciid cn<ati<in." For it iniplius 

I mi-nc* (if 0<jd in Nature, ami thu omnipresence of his 

\ v. Thi«»«« who opiMiHivl the dnctrineof evolution, 

ii ' "acontinmil inti-rvention "of Uoil, seem lo have 

fall«d to notiw that n theory of occatwnal intrrvtntion imjAien 

- ' -■ — '-fivea thfory of ordinary o/w^nciT. And this fitted 

' . th'* deism of the liivt century. Fur deism, even 

r;:ii"l I'l 1m> orlhixlox. ronstanlly Bi>ok«of Qo<I as 

, 'aL of un itbAcntou landk>rd, who civreM nothing for 

rty so loUK as ho gets his rent. Yet anj-thing more o\>- 

y ' ' r thii niblo nrid the Fathers can hardly 

I- itlianiuiiuii.llii' immanence of the divine 

I ' >on of the ailaplations and unity of Xaturo, 

«■ >-..- i . ■ '■■■'.-J.I is the explanation of the truth 

':jiif«of (Joil. Cittjiclysmal geolofry 

i.-ntiJli- nnalo^'uo of di'ism. Order, 

-- i-'j^ie of tht' Christian viuw of Qod, 

tlius ; For Christians the faei« nf Nature 

Rellxion ri'hitis UteMt facts to God as 

nilnu« thnm to one another as integral 

that nuii 

•ai qwciiU v:i'>4ttii>ii . 

<l«V»lr>(iiii' Tif. law, an 

V sum up 




parts of a visihle oHer. Religion dof.% n^\ tell na of Uieir inter- 
relatioos ; science can not speak of their reUtion U* Qocl. Yc 
thw religious view of the world is infinitely deepened and on^ 
ricliod wliun wo nut only recognize it a» the work of God, but 
are ttble to trnco the rolntion of pitrt to purl — to follow, if we 
may say it reverently, the steps by which Ood workwl, to elimi- 
nate, so far as poeatble, from the action of Him, " with jwhom 
18 no variableness, neither shadow of turning)'* atl that ia arbi- 
tmry, capricious, unreasuuuble, and even where 08 yet we am 
not explain, to go on in faith and hup».—The Ouardian. 


THE history of physics in our centnry i» not poor in emlneo 
thinkers and f^eat inveetigatont ; litit it ia safe to prp<li<: 
as Prof. August Heller remarks, that when the student of 
futurv age tttkes bin perspective view of the achieved resulta 
onr contemporary rosoarch, lie will pronounce Kirchhoff one • 
the greatest of them alL Yet, nllhongh bin workB b»T« 
his name immortal, and mnst raune it always to t>e in mit 
where physios is taught, so simple and modoitt was he as bo in 
pmscntud to us in Robert von HclmhoUx's delineation of him, 
that hiB person is quite hidden behind the science to which he 
devoted Ilia life ; and that few, except fellow-laborers in the (Runo 
tines and tliose who wi<r« so happy (ut to have had close rdik- 
tlons with him, arc aware of Uie extent and importance of hu 
labors outride of the field of spectrum analysia 

GusTAV RniiHKT RtKCHHOH-r was lK>m — the son of onunselo)! 
at-law Kircblioff — at KonigBljerg, Prussia, March 1?, IH2+. Hm 
ing pnsiwd the course of the Kneipbuf Qyninaniiim, hu eontioav 
his studios at the Albertina in bis native city, under Neuinnn 
ill phymi-K, and Jiiliui! Ricbelot in mittlntmiilifM; and there, 
hia eighteenth year, decided thnt phynios was the bmncb tin 
preannl the stniugest vlnims uimn bis att<>ntioi). It was a |M!H<m 
of rapid prugrees and important discoveries i» wJence, Mnyc 
had pubtUhixl his tirHt piii>er toncerninp the fori'w* of Inammut 
Natnre, on the eve <if t\w working out by sevcrnl iiide|>e[iiti'i 
obBervert of tlie law of correlation and conm-rvalion; the umh 
latory OifH)ry of li;;ht hiul iH^n wttnhllshed. but it^ ninlbitmali^-j 
(V.' ■"■■ .■;,.■ 


tindiT inTiWligaUon by 

hftTP Him.' ' ; 

tho«jry. I: 

at difTi-rentcunlarH, wbiMX* 

aKSTcff OF ansTAV Robert KiRcnnoFp. 121 

iukI rnlAtiNl bnnrhnti, wn« on« uf tliosu fortnnute young luon, 

kpiyx Prof. Hetlor, vrlio ap|tear, by ttm tintiim of their facultiett. 

Bd b« MpoctlUly iw!tt[>t«<t to their cal]iiiK> His mro matlieinatioal 

■kktnt adapted biiu to the uso of aiial>'tir»l aid» to sacb on ex- 

ft. ' ■' ,t \w (-(lulfl ulwiiys rwwlily bring the \«x\ methods to the 

f tir any problem. On Septombor \, 1847, he took liis 

irom Uw Cnivvntity of KttnigBlHTg. In the following 

*ij-. ,..^ ii.- Uw"* hill iipi>f«<sional cureer at the Uuivontity of Brr- 

hiti aon PritiU-lt(M-rtil, He had iilreotly, while astad«iit, in 1845. 

■Mtiii|ii?<) a pn]H*r in P()KK>"id'>rrr 'h "Aniinla" tm electric con- 

HHtiiin tn a thin plate, and spM-tully a circular ono, to which 

wim upp^ndtid two thooniiits which bavo ginco bucomu gonurully 

InujwD am Kirchhoff's laws. Thiit was followe<I by other valu- 

[»>.lv pfiprra on ulwtrical nuostious, among which were tho6M> ou 

!< ' 'III in rurvtsl nheeta. on Ohm's law, on the distribution 

\li. — :.iirily on two inlluemnnK sphere, ou thv dist-hurgu of the 

ELnydttn jar, on the motion of electricity in submarine cablcB, etc 

Mtnmir '' ^«> iii a pA)K'r on thi< determination of the con- 

ptant oil ilepemU tlie iiitonKity of indiicod riirrvnt«, in 

brbirh U involved tho abvoluto riieiuniromont of elrtetrio resist' 

■■PB lu a di'flnitti win. 

HPin IKiui ho wiut npimiutix] Extraordinary Professor and Co- 
EirMMjiir of thi- Physiiiil Iniditnt*! in Breslaii, where he remained 
tf..„T-*. and formi*<l a life- long fellowship and wiientifio 
' ind with BunMm. In 1854, Bunxcn baring pnH'Lxlcd 

hr.i. 'KU'wi til HeiilePK-rg, where he hud l>oen 

rlii- <iMiT of PhynioK, in pkre of Jolly, who had 

Ux'i) irtiiMfomKl to Uunii'h. Here he lived and tatigbt for 
t- ■ • ■ '■'.the bloom-jieriiKl of hie life. The brightest days 
|ii [ y of this gnmt univtrntity, to wbtwe fume and pro- 

Kir^bhofT cintrihnti'd very mad'rially, fell during the 
.-,r;.„l To the general public, sayit Rol>erl\-on HclmholtK. 
-iiitt WHM ihrn knoNvii of Kirrhlioff. His labors at 
^Hitug in a (inM wholly tlieoretical, had at- 
■I only of iix|ii'rta. "There was, therefore, 
,r|ih«t tn Heidi-U^frg when the slender, remarkably 
i:ul, mo<l<«t, evun tuufhftil Xorth Qenuan appoared, her- 
,dn) by RnniH'n'it wann ritcommcmlntioniL Hiti reHue*!, aui- 
5i, hto eourteooa and attractive demfiuior, his fine 
,.»' jwi.l bia wit. Hoou won him the liking of nil men 
" in rtontacl. He wan, therefore, a welcome 
ial gathcringii of the circle into which 
■ ith Bmiweu iNx-nmn very chine. Bunaen 
!•> bi« eldiT. Htrong and lirond-Hbouldnrvd, with 
Hiding lem|M<rainent, making his inlluonce fi 
The two men were tbuH ijuitu <lifferent in the 





»...!_ 1 

outer sHpects from une anotlior ; yet t3i&y uot only imrxuwl their 
groat wurk» in common, but »iI»o livod their ilmly *kx;hiI life to- 
gotMr. Ttiuy took walks in cumpiuiy iii the enviroas of Hoidol- 
berg, and they traveled together daring the vacations. 

Theflistrovery of the spectrum analysis is destined, like that o 
gravitation hy Xuwton, and a few others, always to rank amon 
Uw gro8t«gt aclu«vement« in the history of scieacu. Mowton 
succeeded in .separating white uttiulight into lia ooloroil coustit- 
uentH. Wolla-stun liad, in \^i, dincoverLil the dark Vuwti in tho 
spectrnm ; iind Joiseph Fraunhofer hod, iudi-pondently, Komo 
ten years later, investigated those liaixi tlioroughly, tixod tlie 
position of more than live hundred of them, and marked tlie 
]irincipul groups with lottcrs. Now, half a centur>' afterward, 
KirclihofT fouud the key to the remarkahle phenonieuou. For! 
it is r«iitly the law of tho relation of emissiou and ulMorption, lu 
discovered by KtrchhofF, that furniahM tito theoretical bu»i« u{, 
sjiectrum analyRLt. More prr-ciaoly expressed, this law decln 
that, fur a given temperature and rays of the some color and p< 
larity, the rvlutiou of the power of emission and absorption is th 
same for evt-ry body— that is, independent of the nature of thi 
body. Prom this tlK-orom it follows that a luminous body which 
sends out lighl'my.s only nf a certain wave-length, will also ab- 
sorb rays only of tho same wave-length. Under tjiis law condu* 
sions can be drawn from the <Iark lines of tlie solar spectrura 
conoemiiig the coustilutioa of the sun's atmosphere. Kirch- 
hoff 's first pulilicjition on this subject apitwartKl in the monthly 
reports uf thu Berlin Academy fur OotolM>r, 1859. Tliis slioiis 
notic« WAS followod by a rapid succossloii of papers descrihind 
the re@oi(relii>s of the two invi.<stigatorA (Kirchhoff and Bunsenl 
upon the solar spectrum and the spi<.-tra of thr elements. 

While engaged in these iuveetigations, Eirchhoff injunxl ht^ 
vision by oxposuro to the glare of a ch^ir spot in tlie sctlar sjkv- 
trum, HO that in Inter years he was <ibliged to spare his eyes. In 
Iftft? he flufTered nn injurir' of his f'»t, in oi>iisc<juence of whicli 
he was fur three years unable tu get about tacept upon n ]ii-rum^ 
bolotor or with the aid of crutolieK, and his health was ollectei] 
fnr the n-mninder of his life. But tho rijvulta of thin |H>ntouiu 
mixtiap wi>n' ttri'ii in IiLh phynicul lift) only, not in his"-fr:«, 

In lK7fl KirtihbofT acn-pU-d a call to the proC i> of 

Mnthi-niaticnl Physics in thu Unlventily of B(.'rlin, (.Ki i i.<.un)fl 
previously deolinf*) two invitalioiw to tho nu»<> liuttitutiouJ 
Kitn> li' I'd fctr (H'vcrii! yf-nri* r>'Kiilar iroiiriio!* of ' * 

ou \\w J "K nt Hultd and lluid iKKlies, thn tbi-ory ' ', 

and light, ' 'y ami mngiuitixm, mathematical optics, auq 


tifli' {oinatiU mny w-i>U )>■» tloubtvrl, Tlit> tmchor, it in truci, gains ' 
m wi ' livUy. Iiiit till) iitv'.-iitigutor U rtthWiI of 

p U' Kircliijiitf w»s, liuwcvtT, yrolectud by 

bhix i -;»itiHl most of the drive of tlio capital J 

m'ni ■■ , 1 u.-i hi' hwl usoally done. . . . His rnvorit« 

B*<ii it, .<' liHYiDK lliu most uiiiluriug result*), wns his' 

^^brM on mat hi' milt i (111 pIiyKk'x. Hii* uri<lrt'<it& wus iniprcmtive 
HHMwn of '■lio '■If.'K'^i'^^ >^i'^ pnvcitiion of Lin ittut«m«nt. 14'ot a 
^mWMui w-untiii^, not a wo)-il wah in <?xc«e8 ; never an error, an 
BBfc r' iitiiiitffiiily. itcninrkable kIbo was the exactiieM 

P^lii- - --- I'iDB— « mnttur of oxtreme difficulty to laymen. 
p*hc wbolf ouilorinl urrfin|i;«] itself bcforu tlio vyvm of the cluw in , 
1' * ni of n niimly luljiixtct! numter^work of scienlUir nrt, 80 
I ry imrt i>n*rt''rl its full Hffeet iin the others, and to wilr 

nifrm Mtix of htj> ilHtliirlioiin wiis o real ii^thettc onjoymeut. The 

}r '■ • ^■^vtAIldins oMiiii n<nfiounit; on thoew most difficult 

■ r !. of courw. some knowK-dgo of the muthouintifiU 

! '-.'-Av <jf thought; and it might ha[»- 

ij ii^ucji hnpfK,-!), that ft hearer could not 

ttompnthtrnd why Kirchhoff madw this particular dednction and 
rii * ■' , hut fvory ono was able to follow his o<>ursip of 

[ I ' r it. mill rt'udttr it correctly. So that, piirodoxionl 

UN it mny nji]H>iir, it wiis u'lt im|Mi)wiljI<>, without huvliig rixilly 
budont'-") K'-'-hholT, to n>pn>duco hi>t locturw front thu notus 
Snlti tt T' '• IhmiIc. Kirchhoff was able to givo his Iccturus 

■■III' f: "in for nino ymra But we who heard 

Hm ' iTort t.hi*y trauwii hiui, aud how hn had 

[ ( tnd hi» Ktrvngth. Yet he was alwnj'A punctual, uud the 

k^H. 'in U'oi-hlnKit wns nvrvr d«i)rc>c-iiit«<l. Finally, in 18R4, 

^^Kti '><rl>fiil" him to niul ; unit although hewait ennblod 

^Hi> 'oritn o(-ru{iittii>n for a time, it was evident 

VR :■•' ■■ ■ - .■ . titm wud ubuttvrod." 

BMidiw tbn sub>icU we have already mentioned, Kirchhoff 
,•■ ' r ■ ■■ , ' ■ iu tht- oquilibriura 

111 , I , . form of pliitt-H und 

piDla. Hbt pubhcAtionx wcrv not volnmiuoDS. His contributions 
-mlcmy of Srien«>s ans H)M'jken of ax having been 
'T, Hi« r<tllisrt«Kl pii]}crH {OtimnivitUv Alihtitid- 
tifly in nurnbiT, weri> pulilitdiH in Lviptiii: in 
v.ilntiu', Hio Jwturt* OH dyimmirs {tWr.>u«- 
Phytiik), first publiJihwl in 1W8, have 
U■^^ ■ ■ Th'-y iin> ^' ' ' " - Prof. Tait 

»■ itniuly noun 4 tlio Inbnr 

y f<irm rothur it rollw-iion of short trt'O- 
-- ..II 'if tllf titlt.]|.(-t. tlmii nsyntt'iT::*' ■ '■ — ' 

it i: k,*'Thti R>'Mi-iirchv« iiu thu ;^ ^ 

l>,.-i:., *. 



tnim " (Uniermichungen iiber doa Sonnensjxeinim), was, almost 
iminp(liab*ly after itif nppearanre, republished Jn an English 
traaalatioD. To tliese works, and the papers un radiatioD, jiartly 
□utliL'tnatical and portly exiM<rimental, puhlUhMt iu IK5<) and 
I860, which led up to thv gr<<ut wurk on the fwlur HiK-ctnini, he 
has added, so far as Prof. Tait has Itoon nltle Ui discover, only 
three or four morn recuiit pniM.Ts, nmoiig which are one on the 
change of form which an elastic Holi<i undergoea when it is mag- 
netically or electrically polarized (Bertin Abhaniiiungen, IB^) ; 
a sobflcquent [Htper giving applications of the rraulta in the 
BBIIM {nveetigiitiou ; and additious to his paper ou th(.> diittrihu- ^ 
tion of electricity on two influencing spheroe, ^M 

Prof, Heller says that Kirchhoff possessed in an eminent de* ^^ 
grve all the qualities most Bought for in an academic teacher. 
Mr. Hotmholtz »it« in him the prototype of a genuine German 
investigator. The religion and object of his life was to sw-k the 
truth In its purest form, and exprtcs it with quite abstract un- 
aelfishnees. He loved and cultivated Hcienee for itself alone, and 
deemod the blighti-iit adornment or excursion from logical exact- , 
iieiiH in pn.'sentiug it to he n profanation ; while all mingling of ' 
it with personal motives or with the strife for honors or gain | 
was most repugnant to him. As hv ootw) in soieuoe, so did he in I 
life ; and what he recognized as a manly civic or ofGcial duty 
lie pursued with logical thoroughness, divested of all i>ersoiial 
motiva Winning amiability and goodness of heart were re-| 
yeoled in all of his personal intercourse, so that both in Heidel- 
horg and Berlin he was one of the most popular of the academical 
teachers. He was fond of U^ilHng a sN»ry of how, when tlu> Con-i 
versotion turned upon tlie qnetrtion whether the Kraunhofer 
lines conveyed any information nwpecting the presence of gold 
in the sun, his ttanker ajike<l, " Of what use is gold iu the xun to . 
me if I can not go and gi-t it ? " Afterward, having received an ; 
English gold medal for his discovery, he showed tt to the hanktir,] 
and said. " Sw, ! have got some gold from tlie sun 1 " HuWng I 
iH^m C4>m[iellml by hiH growing tlisabilttied to n-tire from motive j 
life, Kirchlinlf hjh'hI his last mouthx with his family, iiri'MT^ing a 
living interrtb-t iu the questions with which he had \tvvn iHX'upii'd. j 
He was never he<UHl to uttur a nimplaint, though hn must hnvuJ 
known '■ ' ' i ■ IilypHwii "i , * , ■ , 

him (|Uii "Wasiul' ; 

Ah di>scnl>i>d by Prof. Heller, he ww of a Htjtl ure rather nnderj 
than above the average, with finely modeli-il, »Iinri>ly <""t ft«t<| 
un's; tutving a hl«h fnrfibiMul, rm whii-h itwety yiMra of funt4n>| 
liouii tliought h I 

tlie iienetrating „ : , i . , . .^y 

habit of giving oloaio utlejition to abflniul thought, ^1 





IdU Mi w« Mr. Ropt'* Wu«r m lU« 
aoblM OMII l»d*7. A* b« 4««trM w 
■^mr.l Ml] HJ k inj f«ii voril. 

TU HlMtaM* at Hr. Hotm'* dlOwli; 
!• ni*: Tk* dlihM MMMs tram ikr osg— 
inw; IM ilM vpi tlOT omm ftoia ik» 
^ Idii ifci aaiuf* lafaml U arolnd fren 
<k> jwui LWll, bM lb* caraKoril te pr«dua*d 
nl; b* Ik* tmUvn kulnwl. Mo bu ll bMD 
rr>M cU tii«l»ahgi, VTUAtaamT U»e 
*• SM i|«Im w nudi nUoMi tltu Ibc 
(Mian •nteAl, ■« dial Ifca ptiiMvtl ur iifo- 
UfluM, VM flnl t Of Ikf lao, b* lUnlu 
A> HmMr Aa mois fmibaU*. 

b) iwnpxr, 1 »mIJ « Uut Uf. Bop* !■ 
MiAtlilT r%5it. LIK* rfU WIM1W wUU 
Ik — l >w OTpMUo. IhM, woaidbK la 
■vtkltaBM. ill* |irt<Mtl omaten 
hah mrmtt< l t •*< laahiri / lor tli* 
■mMiIiM Mil tb« matyn omJIiIob, 
a lawan fnra* «( Uta, w« UmikaL 
lowwl !•««, «*«• M*. can hardly bt 
M ha*a a* aoM«ala buMrr. for Orni 
dtvUa aoil ndlrtda •llbDUl oMon- 
Ula. lb* fom^ma and Ibe 
^■nn oripaltnLall caow lafflhar al Ihi 
•MM MB— M. Bo*, wa ban Ml : but, 
MM iMWwJMiJ. tha llHM7 cf arotutloa 
|iaaa lb* mmnm u( ahaaita dariag tb> no- 
^»nl UMAfT af Ibi «|BBla bli^dow, aad 
(hat It U aiallar Hi Iha ooitMle 

MM* La Ocum. 




mm: IlMitonirf -TlMropdar ttclaim 
JUmMt " an jp««U7 loMrtml la iIm (ton. 
D»*M A. Wad* fur iha laivr amnini of 
•alHaMa WmmUm vbioh hi bM Main 
baril awaalWa aard laMfMIn^ |a bb m- 
«M attUw M tb* - KaNumk Oadonk i» 
*a ValMl auM." nui, u aouU anrMlr 
bi aatiriitoih la baadltng iiMh a vaM bm« 
■f —larial ai Uw aUaoi ut lia JI—nbM 
fagiba>,ba ba* in^lla i» tillan intuvrvn of 

niHMaaf aUrtilBlab lo rsll alUMloii. 
■ |i^a 4«0 aad lai at Iha ftibniar? 
' b> aa^: 'yiutf ^nn aipiadraaa* 
I lb Iba i:bbw4 HUuu hr atvaiilx '^ 
ikt iba#|i ntp iir a trrlaS'l>ao 
mIn| Iha Wib of nail aar lo ahnll 
aMNbar. Is lU* var abaat 
I IB tM bova aanU ba aiiaUol, 

and tbt bborar a«ald rtoelta ibout on« fifih 
of Uk tt«duct." 

?1>M Hr. WtBt gam «■ t» dn» mMla- 
aloaa, ^ring tbc pofvladoa of ibe g(«at corn 
ScaUa ai ovor S,d0O;0O0, and MTbu It «oald 
ba oeedfnl fat tba whola populaiioa to aU 
utridtof pan* and ifaoTtb (orooa bwndrwl 
and l4« i%jt to abell iba corn^tton ot I8IW, 

Now. ahal ar« the (acttf 1 hart bc«a 
oTM ibc gnat con SlaUa Btcntianod, at 
•«U ai Santadrr and TouMaaar. I out pi 
batk aon Ibaa forlj wan or trail Miljr, 
and know abtrvot I tp«ak. V\t\y ftai* ac« 
■ml mora iliii (uaMT aboiraiiteij looonnit 
hii mm tnio ■Uik; to lend by flakboal U 
Nav Orleans ibcMS l» Cuba or CharlwUm, 
onloadtd (Mn oait to ivo huadrvd buahtl* 
opoa bb banBoor, and pui (Foo* tour to als 
SOD buiMt thalM. TUt wia raaU; belWr 
than altUng Mirida a frring-pan or iborel 
■■J aetaplnKoC ttrv bHahalaada^. I did M 
BMiyllniW, aad hMw )oU bow It waidonab 

Again, wban iba fannar waoiad t«ukea 
ImJ m naal to Ibe market, be Ihrvw a load 
of oam on hU barn-door, mt tavlj bathela ; 
•bt* took th« «ld.taablODOd flail thai biion 
In rirrj bani. and la aii hour ba bail lila 
fMiT bu*h>U atwIM. Tliin, loo, «aa bctur 
tbaa Hltilnc aalrtda bla (rving^wi 0* tboral. 
And U« ma tay. fbr tba honor of Iht " aid 
lall" and IWdcmrtedoaca, that U van about 
aa l!;D0d a band-ihcUc* aa h; ibai vera 
fonnl III ilia otd banu. 

Oaimn Nonan. 



A coi&jumon. 

mttar l\nml.f .S^itt Nto-MV . 

Sii : Mt iiUaMlan bu Iipm callod lo a 
nltqiaoUiJoa from Dr. C V. Tavlor'a payw 
on "Eaollonal Pmdlgatlt;." abicbocarrea 
In tmj orUelc oa " Kmatlona Pfrtat UttHk 
la VTunian,'' tirloMd In the Fcbraary BOia- 
btr of Tour magirina- Bafarrlnit (o Dr. 
Tirbr'a arK«tom that MMKhnal dhiiub* 
aaura oondncod lu otrlain abaotwal omdi- 
tkma In cfaltdran, I ban wed Uw ItnM 
d btatm of tht ipJnr a* OMnlnR «nder bit 
noilot. Thb I* an uolumilanat mlaq|D0ia- 
llon, aa Dr. IWilor um< the laraM httrat 
f uwitlnr* and bUfml ihtivriiim : and, thai 
■nf <i«n thoagbl ■•• not of dlwaaaa, but 
n^ihex'iboorwlllei.lbaoonieil win >bmr. 
la Uut aamo pataipaiib (pa|[a Mn) th* 
(Mi quotation, to ba anibn •hnukJ rraJ 
"I ttavaar thai at btal iwn IblnL) ol 
/afrxaf AMrNmt of ibo apiaal ooliuu tiri 
dlmMtf liMtable lo nwaial avctaoUai^ 


tDttaijt if Dot tmirrlT, of an eoiolkaikl 
ctieJa. Tbera «mi be no donbi that thU \t 
Um tmA, bMUM Mt Ibm (hu Uirg* Sfiht 
of ttKMO bIki omuuU ne in tha Milicr 
•UfiM TMOTor «tltMUt an; other trcalmeiit 
Ihu A MTcful alMlMiiJiu fKon wbKldter 
«sdtM tndue «fDotloiia m ihe mbJoM of 
iW diMMdcm." II7 (juoutioii* ««re nud* 

fna mranorT. mil I ncM iImI IU* aror 
occutrcd, M the lUMlnouon I* u bnponaBt 

U 700 mil kinil); gire bc mom fur Uito 

ootT««Uoii in jour ooluan*, jrou >ltl vbUgr, 

Ta«B wry tmlr, 

UlBT TltVLOl RlMtLL, U. D. 


0OJir. All riB A ■rs'u^ ojr kcosomiv 

IN th« prMMt namber of the " Hontb- 
l;*^ will be foand Ui» coodnding 
artlelo of the xwj InterMilDg and vali>* 
nbl* (vriei confribntml to wa colnmiiB 
b; U>« Hon. DaTid A. Wells. Tbe lab- 
jcct o'tiMli tUa able and wall-«qiiJ{iped 
writer bos ao ampljr diaouxcd is one, it 
k alinoat ttipctflDua* lo mj, of tbe rtrj 
Uyboat imporlaooe. Tb« (wndltloB ot 
tbe body poBtie b n luttlcr to vbich 
DO one with tb« sbgUlMt prelvoaioos to 
liitdtleeiloe <ian alh>« hiintelf (o bo in- 
diftrrat. la It well with a*, or )* It 
HI ntlb DJL, In tbo tMwUI lUtol — enrol; 
that lit a qtie«tiiMi which bdm but tliv 
igiMraat or th* frivolou «an regard m 
other ibim hmmA moiiiMtoaii la dU- 
onaritifc "«oonotnlc dimurUnfo*" Mr. 
Well* ha* h«d Uiia quNtion conRtantl; 
In view. De bru written not la a m«re 
(loliniinnB, or M a dit*ot«« of the war- 
li«t, but a* a tlaXummaa, m • patrUit, •• 
a (Head of bnmanltr. Our r«a>ler* uui 
not luive failed to nntico tbo \Ktf/t apirtt 
< of bomoBh; tliat brealhca Uirongb hia 
''■rtidea. VeTociturvtoMrtbatflotfa- 
I Itar atriaa ul artido« wa* «T«r prodgcod 
mm frto rrom utiotiul preJndlM or 
tlve sjiirit of niitl»nal MtlflibiM-M. Mr. 
VTeJU haa waKilMd. simI baa lnUir«at«d 
btoiaolf In, Um wholn Dioranwat afid*- 
lliutlofl ; and ha hiu lJ»' ' r-i of 

^eomtnBOlcatliiB Ifl bta ri' liar 

, talar9«n«nt of Uxwglit au<J ■jtufatli;. 
In 111* wrllar aKld** of ili<i wrUe 
■llctiiton wu cnllnd lo ihn tmUvnalilf, 
ataoog tha more advattood oatiuoa of 
Um icIoIw. of ■ niHtlthiii of acmhioilu 

distnrbanca datUif from about tb« 
18TS, and eoBtlmthig, « itii more or lets 
Vt flnotnatioo, to our own dajr. Tbo 
ortdeDce oS«red aa to tbe reaUtjr of ihe 
pbenoiiMDoii \%, in the fbllcat aana^ 
dcinonatrative ; indeed, tba leading 
•ccoatokta of all roimtrio* nr« (tall J 
agrMd as lo tbo fa«l : <liT«ts«Be« of 
(^IbIod obI/ bc(lns wHb tbo ditnna- 
Mona of tba canao or caates. IVithout 
wishing \a partlclpaU )& Ui*di*egHaloB 
onnalro*, we max cspreat onr oonrlo 
thiD that, la ilngling out aa the ifrnt 
oau»* of tbo proloDsed crUis under 
oonaideratioo tbe ntpWii; with whkill 
mode* and moditlona of produ^tloi 
and traanponalion bare obsavMl durluf 
the last flft«OD r«*rt, onr enntrlbiilof is 
eaMBiiaUjr tn tbe ri^bu Tha plctnre 
bo hai drawn of llm Uurtuatiooa in 
•pociol Iradca, incladiDg dbfilueRivBts 
of labor, oonnqMint npun tbo praitrei», 
of inrrnlion and dbcorer;, la utriking 
ami poworfnt ; and U la BOt a matter of 
aarprlso thai, wbsa aUantlon U pmi 
cenlratod n|>aii this pletnra, a vi 
lloomy foroMii U npt fo be TonDwl 
tbo Itnmodlalo fontra of sooletf. WIi 
dbpUoMBoM ol bbor, w* m« destrue*' 
lion of eaptlal, ilBaartsl saporlalaty, 
BBil a (crowlof; fcellait, on iho port hot it] 
of ei»pl«7»ni and emplnroit, that iIm 
are tba iporl uf furivi llmt oao aollhi 

Ur. I 

or 1 
tbri'u.' I ■ 

l[) Oi'>' ' 

Aarosrtj l-inti MUtt ' 

uace n>ur* hiu J' 

an; one kiow tin momoit wbsn ei 




inlutriaJ •ftUm nuor luit ha 

I ta Ha biM« by (Ita laln>d«BlkM 

n»w furco nr prooMe mon 

' Ib lu vffKtt tliau kII Uud 


Erklmtlj wtut b wmtwl for tli« 
^jprednctiuD ui) ratinleUBoi «if tli« 
fona of •(•eUJ waO-bdiig b not 
B bwfv ooninuid oitr th« foroM 
! VatMr% bat a niMultU oiiaHini of 
ilv bi Ui« RvnnTkl coBilltlou ot 
Tlw bek vf aacli •Utilljljr *nUiU 
•wila Dot imSj oularkl but tiiar«l ; tBi) 
«■ w* ladljitd, afUif ft eanftil roadiog ol 
Ir. V<Jb'« |i*fo*' lo 1m-11«*c Uikt b ow 
at iDclal rt«ti» Uia latlnr piwdoni- 
I mn tli* funttfr. If tli« qvMUoti 
»Mk«!, Uava Ibo warklnrclaMM, In 
I #f fiK*. ■•ilurad fntom fanRUbipa 
Ir ^ SftMo 7>u* Uian ilor- 

ttt'. . • flft«M, or (d pot UiSN 

Uy r Us uMwor, ■iiimllax to 
If, W.itl, i.,r!.t iio UI onplMiio So. 
f» ■ (I, fo furtlxr 0*1 tli« 

|tii '■! !<>•■ IkU h« funidMi, ud 
' that up Id tlii> pn^DBt, waitM Ii»t« 
^nQ.j MmiAWj Hsliig, wldla tb« 
pnwttr of mniMi; tua hoMi 
tniriMlB>. Aa a raralt of ihU douMu 
^^ u r« H NM l In Um rvoiuiuTftllon of 
bbir. Uia wl>ul« (Uuilanl of llHiw 
4»>.«^ tU wM^carotr* li** adTanood. 
I itMwIiaate or artUiia oaa to- 
nyi'i iMira both orcuBifon and of 
■arf tl«B etttwm of ■alMUnttal tnoana 
bra doaa a ir«irTBtl»B or two 
Ob tka otkrr band. If we turn to 
■^■italM rU»^ and aak wbatber 
and parplnltUa hato do- 
1 tiMir Dwd* of lit lDir, ur d)mln- 
' ii.n iLifiinni aai] TWblo marks of 
'-, w« mad tb« anawor 
wH* i>i»'i>insa «tr»otJ of all Rteat 
iMraaborbi^ If. do La**- 
riwiirtij a bw jvar* acm willi 
I r«liira>M lo OMtflnratal Esropo, 

of thtf BUM* CT U Mp ta lOM brU 

kBfa «•• tlia vtM lanMM in mkl- 
waahk aai) Imiirr; and oar- 
MibIt tha phwtifpaBoD I'liallmicaa oV 
M Ua*t aa prtwarfullr in llib 

Goaalr7. Tharory "rtrike«*'lhBi Lar* 
poatkad our Uom bara In tfaanselTea af- 
n>rded avidraea of geoeral proaperhy, 
abowing:, as regardii tli« atrlken^ tbo 
pOMeatiua ot reaourcM on wbl«b tbej 
could foil Uack daring tb« iieriod of 
Uioir rolantary IdleoMa, and, aa rfgardi 
tbe emiiloyoro of labor, an aUUtj 
to wiUiatond tbe daraageoKot of buU 
BMs wbifli tbo «tr)ke« tuuac baro 
vntaUed. Tbe truth wontd iborefore 
•oven lo b«v (bat oar " econoaiie dMnrb- 
anoM " hare Invulred more of aarest 
and aniioty than of acioid aulIeriDg. 
Society baa been, naturally ononiib, 
in B Darrou, oxdtad ooadiiian, and 
men^ mind* bare baao (Iliad with ap- 
pr«boBitOBa of erll thai fortunatoly boa 
nul y«t come to paaa. EDach a ooadltlon 
b not firm from dan^r. Man doea not 
BOW, and novcr did, " live by bread 
alone." Hu llroi alw by fortnod 
babha, iiormiiBcot nuoolailon^ aettled 
vjewa, wiill-gtonnd«d bopea. Takeaway 
a&y of tbow, aait yon not only unclotba 
but artnally unbuild avcmgo bnniaD 
ftainre. It b not cMagli to aopply 
brood. Tbe braad-ealcr, if lie b to 
thriio la milxl ai weD aa la body, mut 
U enabled to feel that it b iMt oil a 
matter of ebnnoa whether be geta the 
bread or sot, but iliat there b aonie 
ninilar prarldoa In the general aeheoio 
of thluei whereby bb labor and tJiot^t 
OM batraaamated iolo analeaanM for 
litmntf and Uioee dependent im him. 

Tbb view of tbe matter oao not. 
we iblak, reealve too mach atieotloa. 
SoHM one, rblBg from tbe peniml of 
Ihone artloln, iiuy bo dbpoais] to M> 
elalfli: "Ofa, It'* all r<cbt oJW all. I 
eee tliat wajre* uo betlor (lien lliey 
Bwd to bu, and llie t>i>rkliv<'la«ee en- 
Joy a great many r(iaifurti> tlioy were 
not aooiwtocned to fornaerly, and thcra 
b mmra worit to be done lu lli« world 
ilinn Clitire arer wa« before. Wliy, 
erorytliinj; b aploMlldl " No, erery- 
tliloic h MM eplondld. On the Bul^ritl 
<U« we are prtxperiair, bni the deep 
Boraat that perrwlua Mtolely la act a 




heallbjr ajoipMai ; tad bnforv ire toka 
inu- ease we abtnild «ee vbat eta be 
done 10 monittM tlia oiMtinf oooilUioiu 
of iadmtrkl XAt. txA to i^ive to tbe 
world** wofker* ■ ooovktion that the 
DutiiMi uf ttntoral uul sociiJ fortes U 
maiki&K for their (Mod aad will cod- 
tiiiac to <lo HO iu the fatareu Ilow ia 
thia to be done ? Bf BDf form of go*- 
BriUDOiil action I rpoo tbb point Hr. 
Well* doe* not givo ■» ^1 tbe tigbt 
we ebouM dealre to bave; bat we 
tbaak luin for baring abowii, in tbu 
inaUer of tbe eugar booDiks end dr«w- 
baoka tod kiadrad nMaaarea^ the fatilo 
cbnraoter of B^rerooMtit iuterfercuoo 
wllb trade. On tlie icora of mtricUTO 
toriffii mafib mlgbt bare been aaid. If 
the little, compantlTdr ipoaklng, that 
boa baeo done b; dilTDrcint connlrioa to 
foroe tb^ Mgar upoo otber coubItIm 
ba« b««n |irodiKtit-a of lo mocb dia- 
tnrbanco a« Ur. Wvlle deaerlbea, to 
what a TMi •xtent luuat the aataral 
ooarae of iadurirj aod ooouiMrco have 
buea interfered with \>j tlie boetlle 
tarlfi^ tlial dlfferattt netiooa bare erected 
in ord*r to (bnt ont fracn tbetrinaTketa 
the oheap gooda tbat otber cooimuiil- 
tie* wore prepared to aoppl; I Had tbe 
eomneroe of each eoonirf been ro- 
i]0Jred to ndapi kaett aimplr to tbe 
natanl cooditioaa eotaUIabed la tbe 
wortd, tfaere would bavo boon far laore 
of perroaneoM and Um of noccrtainty 
In «U bnalnCM arraamflkenb; aad a ant- 
nral eqnilibrium wonld have reaattcd, 
tlie bMeAta o( wbicb wonld hare been 
ahared b; all oouDtriM alike. Bat with 
tarilTa coacied ritfaer bf breiponalble 
aatocrata or by mure or low pnrchaMble 
BulloritlM of r«f>r««entadr« aMerablk*) 
wbollj InnalonUbla elemaata bare been 
[atnNluoed, with reanlla aa irrieTuu* to 
Mianerve in lli»lira«ila*[>oat«ad wonlil 
W tbe abllUnc of tbe «tan to oavlKa- 
tloiu Dot more lujarloita ulill than 
any aidual Qnuii-UI liua raaultlni tVinii 
iDvanuMDi InierftfWH baa boea tlwt 
halM> ■■ ■ ■ 
tail' ■ 


(overameDt or tlie legldatare, aot 
to control ibe chana«ls of trade, but lo 
aecurn tbe oatiaoitl prtMfwrily. With 
ail oar boaMed InlelUgeaoe we make an 
abeolotft foikh of ibo aUi^. " Wbenee 
have llieee men tbi* wbilutn)" oii^ 
well be asked regardlajc tbe Bieo wbo 
DBilortake to make our tarifli^ and mj 
Ju» bow nnob of tbb or ibal (orelgD 
article we aball import, and bow raoob 
we aliall pay for a rimilar nalire prod* 
not. Bat few, coniparatlrely apeak- 
ioff. iok th« qoMttoo ; tbe aHramptian 
ia gNwral that the nuo wbo Is elected 
to CoogreM and pUeed on a ODmBlUev 
1* tliweb? lorcated wiih a wiadon ani 
knowled);* altnoM sapornatoral b tbeir 

For oar part, we do Mt ahar* tli* 
dulumon. We do not believe tbat an/ 
man or body of men ■• wUe wnoiigb to 
bo iuiraKlcd wiili tbe taefc of tettarlii( 
(he indiutry of a nalioti or pretcrlbiag 
tb« «xt«n( to wbi«li it« cltixen* aliall 
trade with other nationa. We do not 
bellere tbat deotlon to aaj repreaento* 
tivo aMcmbly wbataw eaafon nob 
wiadon. Holding aaeb Hewa, we ar« 
&tr IVont looking to gomrnment for an; 
help in the proaeot criaU. Tbe only 
help, aa we eoapeivo, thai tlie govvra- 
monte of the world eoatd gi *u would bo 
to oeaae tbeIr loterfenBcv witli naa^ 
depaitmemu of life whirb titey no 
nndertake to control. Leaving, th 
erery forai of alato ncllaa ont of ibt 
qnealion. we believe that nixih 
night be done by tlie dlMnsinatloa li 
ft ooodonaed nad atrlUag fiina of m 
bote a* Ur. Wolli ba« en tMluetrionalj 
gatl»en>d; and we loom with |draaur« 
tbat It la tliat gentlptnan'* Inlrpiloa to 
republl4i hb eway* In I" 
uicb Binllfloatl'Mia aa wii- 
to popalar uenfniaota. If tbu nor 
Inx^olaawa uoiilil be broa^lit to unile 
Nlaad tbe acTtliia of at»>naBih) aad 
ctal law*, and If HivmM bed- ' 
to llir«n tliat np to tba pr^^ 



pOHrd Ui flnd Biaeli Awlt with the pro*- . 
not toedrac; of Uilns«. It tliey eoald 
ha ptnBMl«<l that tka iiutAliilit; ■>( ' 
bluiMM w«a da« In no amdl d«gr»e I 
hi foranimeot (ntorfaroiwn witk poid- | 

Wr inviiv »p«clal fttUotioB (o Ihroe 
MticlM on '- Donrinijiin aail tbe Cbr»- 
linn Fftith," Ibe Brat appearbg in (lib 
nanbvr of tbe " Uonlhl.T," nlilcb wen 
roceotlj^ pnbllsli«d iu "Tbo GurdLaii,'' 

tuaroo and loiliittrj, ud llial it troulil I Ui« leadioit Olmrcb Journal in Eugland. 

I>« ftdatlj \A Uxdr advaaup to relv on 
a «ert(l-«<|iiiUbrli9m Id barinoai laaUon 
mbarlliau ni<oD uoo Blade nBcI uiiiuad« 
bj natkiniJ UrifT legi^lallon, llxlr In- 
SMDOg woolil probably Im tUruwn in 
Eanit ot DoanittTcial ftwsduiu. iD9l«ml ot, 
w» W no* Um cbm, niatolj in Rii|>i>ort 
of oMuowrcial natriotioa. Could tbo7 
aiw bo iMda to mllM tbat, It th«ir 
ptwsat lacraaard wae<«, coopkd with 
oumpandrs Iowmm of (irifoa, kerci 
tbfn In naaf oaica rtlll In ibe (rip of 
what wfm* tito imvrrrty, It Is boonaN 
(baj '.' ~ d««in<* for Ihp enjoj- 

RMDta ' oulniB ei'i'n ili«lr to- 

lariTMl laaaBa. Any ooeiiiay laadbioiM'tf 
in aia«i7 wbo iIum tbat. VmiMj, it can 
nnttr bv •ap>.-rllnoa« to preacb tlia eT«r 

Tbi-w aJllel««ar« 8|>okcit of a* "romark- 
ablc " hj tbo oditor of " Nalur«." wbo 
fanb«r cbaract«fi£ai tbero oa fullowa; 
" Tbo inlbor ia aaonyniixiB, but i* no. 
dcntood to be on Uifurd Oull«f e tutor, 
nail Hooorar; Cuuuu of Chrirt Uliiircb. 
Th« Oflhodoir of 'Tba Guardloo' b, 
woboUove, animpeacliablo. Wo uotinOi 
therefore, wiib gratiSratlon ttiat not 
only la Darwiiiiiim thnfoaitlily acwpled 
and luciilly expooiuled by the writer in 
■Tbe Guardian.' bnt that ba la aa «x- 
ccpliiinnlly well-infamicil and rapablo 
crflie, whow wleolillc knowledge ia 
rariod aixl aoand. Tli« pubtication of 
tlicw orliele* in *Tbo Guardian* ia a 
proot tliRl the cl«T|ty aa a body arc not 
■o nnwilling to accopt now (dcntiflo 

iru* ilutflrino ibot tli« key to liappintoa ', Heme m migbt be tuppoaed w«re we to 

bofinitaRL Of tbnae wbo renlly r««l Im- 
biOorad affala^t Ui« i>xi>rtiD|t rondilHo 
at tlilufn bow many enn tnily aay tbat 
llwy |iB*a liaoB tnie to tJiceia«tn«; that 
ili«y liavo made tbe Biort of tbeir Op- 
puTlunltios 1 that tbey bave nut, by 
auvM *aal of aelf-«i>nln>1, mamd their 
awn o ar aaraT Ko social ttale cnnld by 
any poarfblDty bo l8««nt*<d In whiob a 
tartala tiambar of uulcontenta wonU 
■ni b^ ■, . . iif.t^tidi, wbo 

arv a<' . ' or faiilte of 

oood" I'l »( {lower ninat deal. 

Tkarv I ..iiud to bo vffoctad, w« 

Irmly balleva, l>y Att^\tit with nKn aa 
DwB, ladlvldiialty intt^lUirml and Iwll- 
ndaaDy raapoutlble, ami >Ioltig away aa 
br a* wn piMatMy can wllli (lie pr^pot- 
iMtim Butlim ibni iImt orn pawn* to 
b« moT«d ii 't by nuuiip- 

sbitora of ' ilirr (ootlu- 

nua >' Huir- 

b*'i> < i I a Diaa- 

i ., gf tmllvliliuJ oad national 

r«i|tard f}«an Bnrgon aa a fiur Mmplo 
of 111* ola«." Tbe other two artielo* 
of the anlM will appear In early nam- 
b«n of tbo " Uontlily." 


RroLcnon aim tn Rit^noM to Rii-iaroua 
Tnouowt. Dy JogitrK 1^ Coxn, New 
York: a Applcteu k <\>. Pp. 8U. 

Tnin Tolutue, by (he ProfnnoT of Grol- 
ogy uid XntunU Illalory In (he rolrmlty 
of rkllfonik, I* a anlablo eoulribulloD la 
a dUtiwiioa pcmnlal la lu IntrRM. Ko 
queedoo to-day nera pnibnndly ailia the 
inlad* of ibaagbttnl CbriMbn* tbtn bow 
Ibe ptdloaopby of noluilaa ihall Modify 
thdr eoorlctlova. With creey paMlog ytar 
ti b beosndng bcUcr ondeniood that It la 
tffii with lellgloD, bat viih tbealc^, that 
arleoce baa had ooofllct By a ntetoalty, 
purely and atvply bblodtal, Ibeoloey bu 
unlinl etenwatt very dlveree in telne. Iia 
oore mi MMOM, ivtigloo. bu been pre> 
aMtod la tcnec and do^a* air*;* pklnty 
Ifmliod by tbe lime, place, and knowled-a 
of oratd-oukeia. With rtligiaa have beta 

tw. UltH.— i) 



•MOdMMd ptimitira id«M of ihc dtviM 
mind anil «lll— cruda voraMgoabw eutreal 
al Ills btRluuing of recMdal buDUi ob- 
HrtRiluR. Conotptloni, tniiiiUitt in olitr- 
Mtor, b«T» hod alUiuw with nJLlevt •cii> 
UiMDUv rnirMiri>llf peroioti««t. Wbta • 
ImdlUocri DMmoeoa;, *uc!i w Lho U«aMU 
Ix Innwnltud ■■ of (qu«l Mortdana *iih 
rclljjton, ilioK b gr«*« dMi);«r Ui>l Hiitnm, 
i» di»cr«ditlD|{ iht CMOMgaii)', nut; do b»n 
to rpllglaa. Tlita daogtr U *rol>M wIwb 
«• dlKrimbuil* b«laMn llio tnsaloni and 
ptmuAfM elMDmlt In dwologr. Tlwr« l« 
not, and Mtvr wm, tnj natmmrj c«nnw- 
lion bnisMti aa; iboocr «t NUw«'* bl«io«7 
and (Im karwA ol rtligbn — Ibo Moae a( « 
aiprcme mpimj bAiuil Kuum tho afOM 
of mora] oMi^iioB innMMdlag Mililj', 
and the bopo ot enrlatling lift. Tba oon- 
Hict HblA *o faaoir auppou to br bttwwB 
r«tipon and acimo* ii more aad inor« aNn 
In b« realtj' between no* adenM u»i old — 
it b]' din^tcb of couruaj primUirt vbatn^ 
lion and tbeotudng can ba Mikd adCMo at 
all TiMldiljr, holt Infonaed and canlcaa 
in illMrlnilnalion, Imoginca acianc* 10 bo 
InlrM on doilrofing tba temple of religion, 
*hem* ha tiMti* mlHion U to broaden 
and hclsbUn H. Tbe more Intelligible Na- 
ture beeomci lo Ibe aradnit, tbe ptofoutsil- 
or his rrrerenoe for ibe iBunigence mani. 
foilod in Katnra. ETolnHon, m a pblleao- 
ptij. dcab omI; wUfa Uw biMorj of !fanre^ 
not itaori^n; with lutniufbnnaiioni^not 

Tbal evolntioQ l> t wtfc , and **l otnntlft 
trnlb. Prat Lo OoMc Snnlr ■ainUioa. Ok 
preMnutlon of Ha praoft^ ih»^ npid, la 
maMcrl;, and IwMgbt dom to dalo. Ho 
»eu fonb Um impotUM and nide apfire- 
(iatcd work of AnaMb hi ikti oaamMtiot^- 
hla proof ibM iho law* nf nnbrimnio daicU 
epmonl an alM Iba la<r« «l eoolas^ioil am>> 
cmilea. AipMbi boworer, hoUlag aa bo 
did (Ha iloctHtio of pomaa«K7 of fpocHle 
Ijpm, (Vjmtol 1^ tiiaorj of tlio d«HvatJt« 
Mlfila of a|irdet. I'ruf. 1.0 C«»l« ibcn pnt- 
M»to ill* taolora of eTohttka U-rarl; anil 
ouui'ltiilf-^ha DlFbrta el phfltMl enttron- 
MtBl, uf Uin ui* aarf dlaaaa «f on;*n>, of 
miaral, Miiml, And phjttotcKlaat Mirction. 
Ill liilas* forward »>14^4<3 fof avolaiiiin 
frau i1m t— »1 U<n at animal almdunt, 
latUMUinr tUanlAihuulng belaow anabi. 



at 0^1 

gica and hcMMlogle*. H* tniifaraa tha 
torclitnbi of Matninala, bMb, npUlai, and 
fiabot, part for pan, la a ifirdalt; able Bian- 
ncr. Cnibi7ology U ntvl awnmatiied In 
proof of tlw derlvailTD ortpu of gpoctAo 
fomi. and the panllid btfinvn On devel- 
opmeat at aa Uidli ld«al awl ei ibe ^loeUa 
lo Mhlch tk« buttridiial belon^i b bronght 
out Tcr; fordblj. Tbe ripiibtwioe of r«dl. 
mcMatrotpna— I«eih in ■kalM.tbeoMnnn 
In tBiio — la *bo«a le depend Miel; on d^ 
iceni from fount mhercin iiicb orjana wm 
uaetnl. Uoaiortbod, Uie; bare ilHuidled, 
and lend u dliapiMar. Bfttlnilon it mm 
alMHD 10 be Hqipnrud bf Uw facu of geo. 
papUnI dbirUMtloa. laolatiaa ol iba 
Autiralba ouitlaeM ai a itomm goologiMl 
na axpUns ihi primltlYo dtaraMoriaika of 
It* fauM aad flora. Ika |MauliarlliM of 
Idand-lifc^ iIm rapU rhaa^f In or^Jiia 
toraa dutint Ibt laai elaiiil apeobiaDd ibo 
roceMioM at antle apeoiot to tba aa»irJi 
of Ibo Alp* and Ibe bich monniaiaa of Coli 
rndo and California, an alnaa to ba 
llglble on no Other k,TiKillir<l> but that 
orolutbin. IVof. t4 0MI* lint turtvjt 
kfliioonf dntmi frota Iba artUrUl prodao- 
Ibn of TaHetlea, and prracTi'a with grapUe 
iIlu*tr«ilon tbe la* of tvona-brnding . 

Wkno »4(oliiuia|; Ihal tbe fact of ero- 
liillOQ la certAin, our autbor pnlntu nut thai 
all lu law* arc im jet fulljr ua4(waloo4. 
A»an); iha dlffleultlee abieli l>« oootUva 
■i« ibdoe uf the uMloaaaMl In Utlplanl 
alag«a of eagtni aflerwafd dviebpliic Into 
wcfulMw la anob U fta, far oumpln, 
flna probaUljr (swaMOMd aa liuib fr(a a 
inoikt U b iBIDanll to tot be* aa bui 
lltaj MuM Iw of an; nw, and lliararoi 
boK Uiuj coiil-l be ii*r|tRi*eO lij aalami 
ItviiQn nuUI ilic; pew lo elUdnit ilae. 
otpadall; nalll nowtia vne •lewL.tml 
MOM ibcM. A^ala, In Ibe um o( a *i 
tietjr In a iie> and iikIuI iHrifijon maUi 
Ita apfaaraiiea, »hai lia* praxntwl lit 
erailMi by «n«».bn«Iloe; wtib tba |: 
fomif Tb■l^ whlla b* I""- ■^- 
Ginldibin in Iw nvon ni" 

,„..: . .1... ... ,.- ^, 

al*nlt mil I iiur*! [i" 

m fit i4iuimUan a.i 
ncMne uur auili 
At B(lanaa,h« Oadt 




,M, t.>. p.i.rlaa. Uv m«* ilui iM 

■ '■i^. mai tnaiiX} a;> to. 
nu NBA ■iiiM'ptlMa* of lb« wpoaitninUnn 
w«MM»T an uwilMilj m4 ctcaHj aUied. 
Uta Un U tMtf U U>u u( • IMofi r«4- 
«Mt and towwnl U NUunv *^ okmIoi 
l>; mm»» t4 nainnt ta« la • peileMl; bf 
fgp-'- ar4it. A\ lb* poM In •mta- 
ItaB «Ihm ■■» li w i « M«»>lj ra(|M*- 
hrittg, Iw dwmw ill* hH*w I*!*! to 
A> |>Ii)k|ikI «tI1 kM ben 
'>«la aiiil Mnqalo ll 
^^ lanain! ;i'T*Uin. to b« lialik 

■■al •til w tai *<|uU} tw iarr Tor ilu 
ffvvlk of thanuiar, UiM*. oilicrvtM, h« 
Mto Am kj Ik* pwalbUU; o( ftJI, rouM 
■Mhm gated ilwiUiindblorWT Prof, 
b Ikaw I* lattraetii*, ■aoiMUirv, aiNl «■»■ 
M thiwiiifcuiil v««tr oliai^itr u( hli fcoati. 
h aiU t* hwll'il ■»■ h'l^l to ai»nj •tin 
har ikM thr fni^Tvai uf fdmo* mauu Iba 
•krfUa «( rrUrlim : IhatPuvloMdtifm- 
^ h*N »■■ u u|wv«4 MnLliiwati atM 
i'mIIIi ■. R'fhf, (Md K*«tun «kl]' «Ut«mi1 

V "iMMWi A Ckrkil Ki- 

ll* t.**na PioMiH. Ilf 

i>t >ii 'I'll SewXaikt O. A^pto- 

bn 4 i'» tyi. IHt. PiltW, H. 

|a ikb kank Uia (ntli-ir uulartoltM ta 

MaUUb ■ wlanl bailt for Imlaitrikl iw- 

tMW; M tftaa- baa tn liiarMM iri^eB trtlli' 

•N raAwfcf fimttia <w laaarfas not* ; ami 

I Aa i* — MDh pUlMafAy «r Uiv 

MTaBani. VfaaMraf May bo 

al lb* •utUaaPr «f U« «Mte. 

, tk<c-ii>r Riiiil a^lmil dial bb ddoiHua 

t^- 'il (Old doarl; 

-~-l iilbont (irDJa- 

fW t' lo a ibcpln orleln, 

vs) (Wte«lf*l ami 

>t aoa mail* bj Iha 

L I".' irailar of dw Uhur- 

■I la HMMahMMta JiM 

ta IMl. b* aiuk a t^ 

Mr. C^BlM abuiU MisiArt* bl* 

■Mkof had itin »<t- 

itti [Hnis4-i 

M il la tha 

Cwhloa of a ntnlj dilnkvr. TUt booh 
OMt^pa Bboat balf □( alui Im ta* to m;, 
the pmentalka ot Uia principlw of HMfal 
CcoooKioa bdag naerrid (or anoibw r«l- 
upw. The prtdae \>o\aAa eonnidctvd in <ha 
pficaenl TQlnaae arc ihp dettnltloa of the law 
and caoBe of tnomaiiig pfoduetLao, and 
the thoorMical Malemcnl aad Ualarical aa- 
UbllabiacM of Uie la« o( w^ca. CudM 
tha (MBcr bead, tils Mdaliatle putnlale, 
that " labor b tb« uitatot ol an aiMJih," 
la iihotm to b» ttllaolotuv aad il U lailn 
Ulnod Ihal— InTarwIr M Ibe gtaanl tim- 
nptioa — ibo pratpartl; o( tho Urar«r la 
the bad* ot Ibr oajiitsUat'* rtetna. Ae 
"«««(• fuad," Vnna* A. n'Rlk«f\ nd 
Ur. OMfse** AtoriM of the 1«« of oagia, 
w« all dIamUaed a* oaMiuod, and ibe Inw 
Ucwy U deSoad to be iliai " Oie «bit( d«- 
IcfBtnhig InSaoaos In lk>; eeneral rata of 
■agri in an; eouMf?, ala«a, ur ii>dui4i7 to 
Ibe ttaodard oTUilug uf Ihit tiiuM oipen*lTO 
famltlca tur^aUng a toaawry ^ail nf tlio 
•iipfilji ol labor tn Uiat ooaatry, ohwa. or 
btAanuy." Tbb law ii inmuated and en- 
(orrad b; • t*tI«« of (be ocadiiioMa of 
vafilaRinni'* mgn and iMila* of IMoe la 
Alia and la Rurofn 'at ihe tblitemh and 
faarimilh conlurlM^ aad doan to Hip nlao- 
tOMitb aentuiT. Tho ■Ui>il*rl of llrl^ la 
dMonaiDrd bjr Uwdall; oaniii of ihr pcofilo 
ounonwd— nni «bi lli<'* Lim- n|;ua de- 
aliw l« hatf, tnil alial ihrir will Mnigst* 
to(*t. Tbrtu aaiila irpiUlo ooiitumptton, 
aoil Ibil wjulaUo ptwtuoUon, anil that Um 
pnMparUr o( lb« nplultol and ib« oimcnu. 
ntir 1* datcmilMd. Thn irandard of iba 
wanu b doruod bj mUrfin^ tha asclal 
(■irTHrtantlUx of Uia nia«a«a, b«l aoi bj en- 
tnnt'iii; tlii-m Ca«wr ihin lh« ca|i»citr tor 
CD} 'jliiR tlim (■ a<ipii*»wd, Hip Bnil alvp 
tnoard <U« mil !■ a mlurllun of ibo tiouM 
of labor, fnr, wttbuul Ifann tu IwpniTc iknm, 
oilier nitwu for pronioelap Ibe aaine ob}«rt 
— cdnuatbn, free l*el»«a. public ItbrarWa, 
parka, nHMram*. aa4 ar*-|tiillrrtaa— ar« na- 
(waarllf laHTrDliial. Tel lUli nM«l fao dsat 
■ttiilr, ami rocwnpiimrali'j *Uh Iba Bb> 
UiTHnnil "t fllliiir faotIMn ; tor, in |c|to 
lit* liinir« %o a mas abo data oot Imo* liow 
' I ■*« lb*n arlft^i, la onl^ a eurtf. With 
'ilarndoetliin. arliieh l( la pr«|>oaid to mahn 
ll hour* a 4*^, itaoold (o baK-tlma 
I- for tUldna «l ••»% uodaralilaaD 
jMraofaigaL Anung tha Inibadklc dhcu 






o( Ihs mMKara pn^nd wouM 1m- llw (tn- 
ploymriil of a finuit aumbcr of Ubor«n 
whu arv no" idlo. Tbc pcmuumil clT«:l* 
wobIiI be moM qulcklf Kcn In Uic fonngcr 
Utwrrn; tur, by Uio tppUcatian d halt 
ttiiit, " '111)111 * linglB d««ul« ertfj Uborer 
of tiranlj jMra of ags . . . wouU hare 
bud Hie, ud moo; of ihciu UTm or ti^lit 
ynn' dtil; tvntact irilb llie rluwtloaal, 
iiionl,Mii K)al«l inflnmeMof lohMtlK*. 
It I* elcAT, UierefMC, Uiat the MOMMr? 
oMMqixnce «( iha gfotnl adojiUoo of Um 
hfttt'diMMdiMil I7*i«in tlw* «t«uld banal 
onlj to GTMiI; Unprore and cknM tbc 
home, bcii iti ftlninu raralutiMilu the do- 
idmUd uul iMciil etmiMpberv of (be msMc* 
■UUn « alnglo uiiiiertiloii." The effeoU 
«r thb afiteiu up«u ■■£«•, producU««. and 
prioM, on proflU, and «a rmt, ate nctt 
conndcrdl. and dcdand (o be aU bcntfl- 
dal. Ton iMufblUljr «1 eboK-hoar laelila- 
tioQ ie «ho*n from llic bl*tot7 of the meaa- 
qret la thai dlnctlon lb>l bate bets likm 
fai Knglaiid. The Itwoaji which ibof \e»A 
an dnwn froin coaiparallvn reTlava of 
Indualrlal |rrof;rt«i la Eivlaiid, contl&aMal 
oonnlrku, and (lie UiriMd SuH* : Ibc cljiht^ 
boar and balf-tlBie wjtiKm b pnaented u a 
•<k1i1 and polUcal ntewailr; aod ibeMii' 
dndoa b eipnMMd that it auch a sftXnan 
oonld b« unlfonnlj adopted In the priniipal 
BMmtaAuTlns munUint, " ita tffaet Bpoa 
mUpMkn, Mforocd tdlratas bnaioeM d» 
piMilMa, ud upM iMl wajea, itsclbar 
wlib ibe RTOwih «[ IntelUgM n e ami ae^ 
dnnKtor, iruubJ In vtrtaH^tn* ytux* chaaf^e 
the face of the ladudrlal ami Mdal Inalllu- 
liooa of CbrlMOndon." 

Wi bar* r«niT<d fmm Uatvilka an 
Wmnmtmj CUnatAy, b^ Jfutr and Shirr 

of a change )n the title of prinifais, 
bulk of ibv T«lunw baa been dioiniabcd 
*i«ad of bnoNwcd. TbU aavnal mbcacaa 
both quaBlaltfa aod quaalliaiU* iMljuto. 
and deal* with orsanle ai aoll at lae<|aaie 

Hit niaiam Aillxn't Illlte book mi the 
AmitttI AOaUUt, tlUaklHun. |l) mbodtM 
* Kluni d«Ui-cml baiore Iba Ktliiah Atmj 
Uadlod Scbeel. tn ahitb be HmroaiUaa ibt 
r««mt rwaar diM a« t« tb« pdaeaoua lAcvi 
of Ibe leuoonalno*, and other lutaianeea 
fanned vlibln ibe bod; t,r the phjMologleal 

The flub edliloa of SlonmU OUaririry 
ba* bten l>««M (ittaklaUo, frI.SO). ThU 
work iiKludea bolb orpi^ and IsorKaBk 
cbmiilatt^, and lu dlMtagubhlai faatiuw 
•re It* comiirohcnfltencH and Ibe hup 
•paee It Rtrm to iMbnolostcal appdimikn* 
o4 dmnlcal prIoHfilea. The nambM ef ei- 
peHinrai* Inlrodaoed b aba largn. The 
work baa been cwefoll; revlatd, and a bw8« 
part of It ban bnn rcwriuea for ibb odl- 
tlon. Ibe ftnl edliJe* barioG appeared 
wbcfi nctallaifr «aa ■till treated a* a 
bnncfa of cbombnir, »ora ipaof I* dorotad 
to ii ibatt la uaaal b nkodam ebaninl 
work*. Aa the a»iber bad been far nauir 
jrtan before hi* deatb, nbMi oeoerrvd )Mt 
afue Ibe pneaeM beak had paa^d ihreuRh 
the preai, a prafbaaor la ibo MUlury Anut 
mtj at Wodwkfc, Ki«;land, Iba dbnmlauf 
of tb* Tarioua aubalaacM a ni pfayed la «n^ 
likeflMw b quite rult; treated. 

VmL ilMr urn RiMrr'i tnarfmk 
Clu mi thy (Iflakblon, |11 baa n«eb*4 a 
IbM Ainatiean ediiloiL The praeaM arillta 
oootelae a nObre otteeided wrlion upon IW 
tliermal hfbailor of bfidlM, anil tbmugbaal 
Ibc work freijiMM oonKloia b lalimi lo aall 

(II.SS}, and a PmrHMl CAmbAy, b; J/vfr , auenilun m Ibe djnamkal tide nf 

Md 0»wa^(MoaiU),t*obooki. adapted 
U Mtlterrllir (indent*. «bUb a*« dNtjtned 
WbaMnI lu^bnln letonlaglberfetDCCla 
of rtiomlMl etMiw*. The toraier eolunw 
deal* malalj with ahembal pblloaefdix, 
nbiS d*Mrtptl«e natter (0 (b>w Ibe baela on 
■IM Ibe pelndplM uf ehamtau; roH. Ita 
•wnfjanhm ainb«ii« a eewM of UbemUey 

U Uv tbtnl nUlkm of Ihr JVommJ f/ 

Jmt^UmilChmnUr^'bfAhM iht" iUitU- 

Imoh, $11, a (Miikterablp *B«anl of •twii'"' 

AMMv bee faren lituotfuent, lNtt,b;M»ci' 

rrenkma. The eTCtbei* n]ion the p iaM uw 
and oc«)dnn*atkat of ea*n, and thai itptn 
tbe dltneiatlM phaneiaKnit, hat* aba ben 
(nntMeikhl; Inereaanl, «bile ■«■• faita r^ 
lailag la the ilrwlt and tbab derlTUl*a 
have been tMioduMNL 





^^K- '>■). •■' addMl prapodtloM. 

^B '"lur hM p«hUwd, ftli>«k Jbf 

^■^M ta At DifirtKltd CWMw (LiN«- 

HEm, D) orvul, MfisMMid, BIm iIm pr«. 

bj liU un «ip«ri«iOB vboa 

U U* triumHit «r thr wliiMt. 

I •!** (b( Mad «r 4 minlMxl at 

JoWin <riik ivUUt ii«uiilUci, 

■ck ■ — dw il b In W uMd b 

flM> Inloptl nlmlin ha bid 

M • irjttrtiatM of lb* dUhromliL 

rm. H-. O. /Wt bu wUad lo Ua 

■■dhnMaiiMl mttm u Stnmiluwf TVwMiM 

M A*^fitt4 JTmAuiM (Uatnw, «l.aa). 

«kkli )• tot^Jil ta ambfv* tU IW pria- 

^ilM «r ihli MltniM lh«t m B*»W<I bf 

^1 iiteliaiof wgl wirlag, utUuclvrr, ul 

TIM inaUiuila snil uraiisaniiaU 

•n b*M4 M lb* authiM*! kai|; 

IB IM^I^ Ml lb« Kcbool «( 

TW nlMMMlh tAMm «r Sylntm't 

(UvpptawU, tll-M) ba« bt«a mbol uiU oat- 

bj Vnt. K'iOian 0. Uvkt. «bn 

•a vlramurr uitri* un ilf««M- 

k (laMikllf. umI no* uu ilio oi|M>i|i>a ot 

■MM. Id iW birni it wnlvt, ilia ktIut 

oplabHM nt bl« emu ablck 

h«w liMi u( Um Mihet, wad baa 

M Uw lUanUora of carUlu 


OlaOvi, II), wi BUM M a idms* of MtUiaf) 
*• I^BV ^■aa U ii n , •falab haa baOMM a» 
MBBkba^. TbaaaibarauiMthadUhati7 
Ift kfM pi^pa, Bod itami aanaa aa tba rnkad; 
*■ MH^riM vl (MBual inlak^ lo all Ika I 
aahwb at iba ■nMrr. B« woaU 
r br a indMlid aamaakni 

■u. TWIanaakiirBrtbamtlaniaawUln* 
M^ latNiaallo* I* n^tr\ U iJia M>iraM 
«d nmM* <rf lb- tntaliftackMb In Ui. 
U^ nUaayi. ThMs aN4 dMnthan. 
Awi«l«* ^^ •Urfa abhM to aaln iha 
1,/,..,, -',-M/.#nrfJfcw»; 
Mat.. r>iaf.|[>.W. 

toA Ur^fmt. > *. '. ' I' aiubor aula- 
iMatlM -tk* Ohm; at UaMto'i U» of 
•lul Ua BukTM nvuwlaa b^ 
Mr. Cmivs-' mv ■nUnl; tallaabHia- tl* 
tkt BammttiaNNnabldUMilianaM 


W ibo vmoK aa« of tattbej, awl preanfim 
•a A nmadj Uie iMaiag of moMjr !■ nA 
*«luaM «a ID NdoM inunM (» lb* per- 
entaga of tdTaiicliif wtahb. 

ntOaaMik»ndth*Krm,t>j Wmim 
D. KiUty (Palnaia. tl.»), vmtittt ot • 
a«k« of iMUni doorlbfaif Iha Indoauial 
ud aedal ownMlkm of tb* paoplr of ibe 
BoMhani 8latal in ISS7, a* cnmraaMd wilb 
tbalr randiUon b IMT. Tlw Krorra) Icna 
at iIm boub oo^naa tb« rcnul reporu o4 
wnadaihil MliTonaaU ta ibo fanii anil ga^^ 
dM dbtthu at Pluriils, b ilu> ooaJ and 
Iran mumUt, and iho nev mattsfaoutiing 
dth* ot ilia llowib, aUlo aonw niiukoa 
Ibal have boaa roado an alao pebtwl oul, 

jVff Ahm oh rt* r^i^ ,' mat it b d». 
JiV, br (•"•"•^ ^- fhm^J^ (Waun^ 
TWpwaaae Publiidibs Aawdailoa, ChU 
saga), eoamm* a ituMilon n( vital bUroM 
lo iba friond* 9t buanuiH;, abloh I* occu- 
pflaf a hrgt iognt of allenti«o b all 
ddOnd MdMU. U la Ibal oT tba kdk- 
MrlMnl bopofiatloti of Bqitom lm« AMn, 
aUtb, <«ader die Ilotaaa aliowod b; Iha &«■ 
lb •graaniaai oMMliutbg (be Coog^ n«o 
Kuia, ha* gram into a boalMw of tnot- 
Muua jMopartiiina. Vtt «itoot of It la 
ahMn b7 ibo (paad loUl of 10,877.1*0 gat 
looa— moM ot li •duliamko* of iha <rikn 
<hM«((ei^«blrJi win Alpptd thllbcr In 
ISaaffontrooaintriai. Tba orib inevlt- 
alila undrf Mcb • UaSe do not ntvi lo bo 
dw crib ed or oaoMd Thrir oMgtf nde la 
iMaloulable, a»d ib«Jr cffccM an llkol; lo 
flidura Ibraogb wm^ imuri«. 

Oh or «m», b; inttiam D. rMht 
(Puuuu, %\.m, b a itud; of ibo gmib 
and taadanriM of BuNian (iTllbatioii, b 
vbicb ara brioBf datmlbot tho witMo*; and 
Ibo paoplo of RohI^ aad iba aXXVaj aiv 
tocraoT, >lib akirWhoa of R w ifaa ow m nwa^ 
dia Uatarjr at BMila, iha nfonna of Ala>- 
aiMW n, aad Ibo pr w ia l dattMllain. Tlio 
aulhor «r|n Amarican* In gin ibolr roortl 
■i|>|>im to Bngt*»d b tha NtUabia allb 
RiMb sbltb b praphaabd la ulia plaaa b 

Tha Oral iMniSt* «f a JounMl naniod 
AayrM* <1V CoiigroM PubDAIng Oarnpa. 
or, |l a jnu) roaaa V> tm train Waalilag- 
ton. It* par^HMv b Ufa aaenu to ba lb* 
(llKlpalton of Uiat trwiblotatiw aiirplua in 
ihr I'Bl(*<lt<tal«aTn«nirT,farM*il)r**Br7 
lUug abldi Uprapoaalaidracatalaral 




l..a gd 



h Bppnn l« lmT« DO InUNM Id uijrUiias 
■bkh uod« to <l«<ireu« MuOm. 

CUm .- 7Vaf>ib «md MHtUfatUm m tAt 
* MMU JTiityi/Dn,'* >M a (llann at Jtipan, 
tjj Oestral .Ah«m M H'ttMn (Appleton, 
|t.18), b ui ■tirwUn book of irmval, 
wpocUljr lo the bwdniM maii. Ii to ibc 
oa(oam« at • uip to gulte lofotnuitMi u 
M tb« dctinibiliij' ol ImrwUng Amprioui 
mfiui b> tke buiUInt: «( MllnMda, ud lup. 
plfing other moilcra ImproiMiiaiiu to CUaa. 
TIm natural (oture* uid tdouioca of ih« 
ooiutnj. tbe Tolomc anil methoda of bui' 
HCM, die bMriiigol gorg i nmait itxahiiiana 
dnil Mcial ouftonw on coiaiBerdal alTtir*, 
and Uie attitude ot ilie B^nminonl lovard 
alien tuatpiiM«i »k all iU*cu«a«d. Hw 
bock OMUaiiu also akatclm of CIiIoom and 
JapaneM U«ui7, *riih (Menalafai|i draorip. 
tii>a« o( Kenery, familjr life, aniiwemanta, 
nod ntpeniltioM In botb oounirio*. A map 
of ChtDa nceompanioa the volume. 

A poat deal of iMtonoatlM aboot a foa- 
dnMing pan of our own laud b motived 
b CaU/onho/tktSt^i. bj Dn. ItUbr 
liaMty and J. P. RIJiv.* | Atipleton, ft). 
The qucBilaoi that vonld bo a*l(eil li;r llie 
loariH, lnTkllJ, Mtllor, anil liiToiior iiete 
find fall and drtnltn aattnm. A dtwrtp- 
Hod eif U>« elinMloki^ of Hie Fadfio OMXt 
contao tni In the roluoN, and U aoeom- 
panled br aTnloned olinalieniapor Sontli* 
era Calltornla. In the iceond r*rl of il>e 
bode tb« ornrhMl Hip l« l^iifoniia, and 
tiM naiml fmUiro*. poinrt •( islmeat, hu. 
le)^ tnde, «tno and ftnlt p«4noilMB, osd 
MMiraJ iprinp of the *ro aoaUwra owm> 
tiM nte tenribed, vHh •ullille*. niap«, 
•ml illiiMfnIhMM. Sliort papTu an addrd , 
on " CNimiianilTe ValnailxB of Und* aad , 
I'roHwta." by llr^nml Kflan A. Ulla: 
■■ Trofa, ai™|i ■ FInwen," " Pf- 

Irolrain nail .\ " <]niag^.OnU- 

mn," ' P\Mk KdMol*," " l-rotu tJid Uoih. 
ed* n( t'nill ■ Raialiie." oarf *'T«B Aon* 
Rnouiili," b; eihitr »fli*n tanlllar ailli 
UMw >|K>Hal inplmL 

ba (nt*"-"- •! :■■" '■ - ■■—''■'- ...^....... 

flt Ulo nn : 

TmimmU, ■■^- . ' . I' 

«t Iki booh b . <«i>fuU ' 

Iban to tn«inie( ; not lo tumUi ■loibtta 
for iho aotmbaM or ■indent, bM (a ee»- 
tribute la Ibo piatliM ot " irtaido ' ttatd- 
big, «Udi tuu 00 many dofviwa. 

SeMka Hof tW «pMlalT«i)ano«*'11w 
FUwrici and f\tktiy InduMriaa of iba 
t'nilod Stataa" la A Ungr^Mrti ttni*» 
^lk> Ittlimm MMlrin mtJnOinf Com. 
mmmUia/ar Hit liar 1880, a»d la prnparad 
by GtoTf Br^mt Otodi BMd a aUkS of 
•otlaiaa (Unilod SuIm COMmUalon ot 
and FUbattaa). TW ooalcMa oompda* 
ante (lapert vn the blicrie* of iiach of the 
Atlanlie Ulatot, *ilh ncvoonia of ilio Oik- 
eriaa of the Ualf of Uttios the I>aoiaa 
ooM, and tlia Unat L^kis. anil en appo*. 
dix of " llialorxal th'tereaco) U> Ibe nib> 
«ri«afKa« BnglaMl." TlioHMlwdia^ 
nauHa of Uioto Imlualriai are dcootlbed bj 
town* sad eouMka. mi bommwm loUn af 
■tallulct aia iBMrtod. 

Th Adr«la o/ lit VnM AmIm FUM 
OmwnMm, ToL Vt. tar IBBd, oeolaloa a 
r«r7 tuft nitmherot loUnt frDni Xwmttam 
••d foNtgn MftwpomlMU ot ibe Pbh 
CoauMon tetaitag la i^oeUI lopka In li» 

Oeolw anJ J/inJa? fnilmtry o/ JJmd- 
tillt. CetvmJo. rifi AtU,. by Samit/ r. 
Amiuiu (Unliod Sfaim U*nlo«lMl Sorrvj, 
|S.«0|i, fonoa Tolonio Xll of (be nionognqih* 
of the GraAoeit^ S(m*y. Tlir brnii^tM 
of Ihli Bold WM miilertaliro la I87l>, and 
the rcr«i waa ptamkaQ* OompMed \m Ibt 
fall of IB8I. vhta an abrUOM of it »a« 
made, obleh ha* b«Mi pobtUbed. 1W la- 
fonaaiiea li itm Umvlr nn« Iban tl ooald 
have been InunMlititr alim It «u ||alb. 
md : (nr Ihe iho'intxli iif |wr»ona wli 
few r«an am war* eaeor (o too* 
lb<- nliHO of l«•drlll^ luve ellber j 
hno*li4g« bj vi\trritarr — in manr 
dxail; bo^i— nr Iiovk iiirnad tiitir % 
liun ill other ittrattlnaii. W itetahi|MBanl 
al ibn uiaoa, too, baa gam no npldir, i 
III* orM h«T« tMfna W <*Mi)ni U'<m 
bnnala* anJ rMj.rli1f> in i<i1|iiiiit>- 
ibe tbopi 




i^vpli tt pMaAivai *•!«•. Ttw flnl pen 
rf IM rapiift (ifwU vllh tba geolagj of 
j.iU' 1^.^ nf Urn HiwialM Raoge, to 
1 ■« Motaut «f Uk pe- 
trasiBi-- -■ — ' lUmrtcL 1^1 U dmi* 
•Itb t»r dOMh iBduMr}, aad U Mlnwed 
kf ^fMMillM* M Km alMHMiMl toftiiluittan 
il tfa MM Nrf otW rac^ Hid DD MneU. 

irlHnf AtaMKo a/Mf t^UbiJ tto'n 
yW lOB, pi«para4 Iqr Daiirf r. bttt 
(VoHad HuKa UaoUfiMt tfurrrr, 110 omu), 
to iIh favlb *al«Ba a< a Mttai <U*Mml m> 
iIm «MMte af At ainiajt ktduaMM. It 
^y«M Au Hhm bM b««i a aouble tn- 
•i^M* It lk»*«lH of alBmal prsdMW onr 

IfiK Tto w law cooUIm « papttr, bjr B. 
B. L OmU, pwMilliic ik« iMdng fra- 
■Moaa ti (te Hlalas U«t af Staiw <Mi of 

tB Wo itm*m in JMiiA ^^<n (C 
W. UanhMk «p*MM^ K. V J, Hr. J. U. 
la t«mlik a naaaal aUob 
(lia ■ lant HMvni at dtfll aad t««( 
•wfc, vitkMi InuaJartnc aay nampba u( 
Ub^tsUi. TbalMl htrvnanbaiubjoct'- 
lMHa* In InaDriMt nar, ami uf launi than 
AaUfal alllMj «bM t^ilofnl la axaniat* 

rf i^«r. v. Jr. a^wWk, or VuiJ«rt>iit 

Colaanlif (A. & Daraaa k Co h appwv U 
ha a — ttiwyw 1 awli, olaar au<l <afK<*a 
Is (U itolaaiM^ and Uatlag ao polBt allb- 

■«m lal«llt|ta« MdHTOr (a rI*0 It a aallv 
teiiy lylaaatkn -a ilil^ aUA, In a 

^ f i»«* •* th> ilub 1^ irtlf, It It M« 
• ' A Iba o( ln>3<itu votIm 

t I Jamn A. llmlKia, at 

Wh*m(1m and U<* Colrfnllr. 

C N. (k>pa<- Md II U labo, «rf MIL 
«ute*.MBJ a* l'..fa;>iil^ ' Ja iU^ JMinl 

^ ■-If' -If A^ tWanaa/ Za^ptHif*. m»- 
«f JUUaa iTvtihi JM^r. |i'«- 

I fur 11<-n>l> imraL^nr- ■luiSfMa b; Al-u 

J^B/. .^ of Ika Ull. 

K). VoUpBh 

a. - .- .- ■■'■ — ' 'T- 

!■«»■ aiif < "^1- 

^B « . mil Ma 

^^ '' 'I a lalia)- 

«/^aiai!j. aj a oi>>>i r-.j^ti^wni, aarf at a 

■Mllar Uial ma; p«Hlbl; Uimw fnmo li^t 
Od tba wa; Unkubbm Ooiod lalo b«jng and 
grow, w« *hali waich lia (ato Bttli niiob tb> 
unaaL It I* ■ttiilieloiv to loam from Ur, 
Unilarfcli that VolapUk Li sol vtuanM aa 
jel pcrfoM ; tlint Tru/. KlfthboO; of raria, 
boa alnadr made wina aceoptabla aitd a» 
<jq>lad bnptonnwnta in It \ and ibai ttuira 
la an autboriaed V(dap«li acadwnjr tof ibn 
Mltabto Ngnlalkn irf tboio HaUonL Hila 
work b maqMwd om the bula at kMttA 
KinUwra iK{fiAa4 ; it ha* a ker to iht 
oieitiaa tad voabalariaa, and U bean ilw 
■aariu ef b«ing tin «ack «f a oempoUM 

Wa haic wmMtiraea wonikred, It a u«l- 
T*r*al laagua^ liad to be ImpoNd on mm- 
kind. «h]i ItaUau, aUA to Mug and taadr 
Maria, ooatd not b« chn Hat Tboagli not 
p«rfaai. It fuUIlt moM of tlia itqaMUonauf 
tha AmaJotii PhlloMi|iWtiit Soolel;. Il la 
ahaoJul«i]> phonolle ; Ita mnl-rvoia w« 
taiiUiUr to all Kampt^n lanpmaa ; ha *». 
tubalar7, alilk anipio, b m«4Ml In lu pro- 
panioM ; II* pronuwaailaa b madoal, and 
It* MfaauiK b tlnplA Hoetaf thoaopatnla 
a|>p«ar In Mr. G. //. t/r«ai^n(-« iWifaM 
On—mm; (D. C. Heath ft Do., UMlea). 
wfclob b Um " leaiill of an atttanpt to pa« 
iMa oaa««alent farm and tha aaallaat pa*- 
allila ocanpoM all ilia eraaowr tkat tte 
onUaaiy «|*dcnl In Italian attl natd." Il 
b all ooatnlacd, voeUiulaifca included, In 
IS4 paeaa g and tba watli la avil dun«. 

IVot AAaanf AJajm^i Otnnni Oram- 
ti/ir far M»aU md CM ifm (Boaion, D. 
C. llMih * »>.) b bnwd tn the "Publlo- 
liehoal Qemmm OnMwr " of Praf. Mtl» 
nar, «f Quoan'a CMogt, Mtaal, «Mck 
b rtrf popniar la Uw (Jnlud Ktnsdem. 
Hmii etUnahm h»* hem fUtti l« Ibr aMpa 
of the <nlri^ alih a *ic<r of ClUnR It In Ihe 
want* n( Mudeau of tncrr Knita, up to llw 
rolut nhrre ibc dnnanil ailfM fof the Uj;h«r 
tludr of hUlortcal ami wlantlAo icnuHDar. 
A Millcge profoaaor, who lia* ruaila«d th* 
iMMib rarafBll;, daiorilwa It a« «bara£teriaad 
b; • tuUnMa of llgiri omj«b«re, "and « 
ftflbwi* of maitar thai will In nwaa Mat* 
adoa," and aa diBOnatiatlas " bow aup*. 
rinr tiatnUSo natbada an to tbc IMallad 
pnrtliaat malkoda." 

Afmrtn t/ M Jrait<m Pirtmnu, bjr 
XkMi RiHtt (D. l|i)ibton ft Oa., li awnui 






b ih« BuioMeeniphr at • priiMnw of ibi 
LoinMi of V^a^bkt who b«auM lb« vU* of 
■ Ocnuui gMkxoKa ud mid* her ba«M In 
Huibutg. the \hAj •an • ilaUr of ibe Sol- 
Ma* UaitiU antl Ilarguh ; uul Imt book U 
otliUcnMuKiTisftanTrawlMlimof km- 
Uy Ufo b KwUrn eouru. jl lUrklj ttikd- 
o>od ponnil i* drmaii of GalUD Bugtab. 

The oalkoUan ol Uf. Asabr'j Valrintic 
AMrmm, piiblblial b; Ford*, Hdwunl & 
IlilUitrt, dmuln* lb* nor* lmpo«UDt ad- 
drcue* Bsd comributloiu i» p«rlotfi(^* 
nuide by Mr. Ueccbar bt Am«rlM and Kag- 
Uud. frnm 18at> la IHM, on Oittrf, Ihe 
ci'll "ar, BDil Um dcvolopment ot oiril Hit. 
«nir iu ih« Uniud Bluoa. The l!*t bcgia* 
wiih tbo articJo "StiaH «c eaiapToniwef " 
ntliMi ia I8A0; daring iho poadjog of Mr. 
Ohy** " OMibu* Bill," otwn ib« Imm on 
wlil«h lira eonntr? «aa lo Avido poUwally 
Wit fen Ih* Bnl ilm« cloarlf d«Sii«4 *ftd tot 
(oMb, a»d olotM mWb tbv milog^ OD Oraoi. 
The bucrvonlng addrauvt— e*on Ihangh «« 
ma/ DOC agree alUi tho *Aun io glTbg Ur. 
UcccbOT pcoadoMo* afler I JnoDla mmI HtaM, 
M tte cMbwtOD of <iib«T«, Id InAocMcta; the 
doitlBk* of lb* oevnlrr— are ai dMantblllr e 
pan of Uie UilOf7 ofUw ilmn aeeaf atb«r 
•iMglo a«Tl«i »f eptl*. Mr. J«bD R. Ucnr- 
onl, lb« oditor of Uio peptn^ vbo w>« • 
etoM petMnal fftand of th* eoilior, Iniro- 
duoN ihwn adb • imtl-bUaoced rorfow of 
Ur. Utoeher** nontrbafalr poneoallij and 
bla ksduaoo* e« palitto affalnL Kiollenl 
IMrtmtU are Rlren «r Mr. DoMher In hk 
MMure nuMbood. >l rtiiy-ftte, aiid a frar 
brfx* hfa deed) I and porinlu, vkldb ouglit 
lo bar* been beUer onm. of ilio pnMobiaDt 
ntD of die BM(L«l«ter7 tamlmrtaij. 

Tttt UMM Tolum* of Ur. Itanerojrt Ita- 
tmy of IJH Am^ '*•>" (nio lIMor; Coin- 
panf. l**o Freaeiaeo) i* naikml Dm nltiiti. 
and {• iba frtiih mi'I oemelu<Hn|t Tolvin" of 
llio llitnry •fMnito Ii kIim Uw MotT 
from I Ml to ISfrT, whh aeremibonb* la- 
*ai>>aa hf Ih* ihnc povon and Ihe (BlUiut 
wpofUaxMlbia at iwiirror; Ibaetrantle 
•f Ihe UbiIouii astlnM ihe uMiptlicai, 
NBAnit In ha Inal oiorthra* and Oir oimv. 
Hen of Ua>lnllU» i end ihe ]in«lil*iulea <it 
Juaivt, XmrAo in Tvjaila, GiiiiBatei, aad 

l^>rilrt•Diaa. Tln-jtrtiBnlii'T*""'^!'***- 
rnt oanillllOTrr 



at •• aovenunnil, FlnaMe*, aad UlllUrr " ; 
"UDing, UanntMturai, and Ftiberiea 
" OemioerM ud ttallraadi '* ; - Afrioulti 
RevxiraM ; " " KcdealeMkn) Alhln " ; ' 
dKjr " ; and " Bduoatton. Sdeooo, ArU. 
liloreteK." Of ibe uoiuUl Ion of Minoi In 
Uoiloo, wo loam ibai lb- Naihiiul Ubetria- 
I017, o*tabll*hedb IMTti, include* anieUar*. 
lo^cal »Dd nugMtloobMrralorr.and aaaiB- 
talm roUtloiu ollb the Mat olwcrraUrtee 
ol (orelgD tintlou and with manj *ci*ftlSlk 
asBodatioM. Tb* OmmJ llMoeialegitetl 
Obematorr wa* ceublkbad l> 18T7. A 
eeolo^eal tocld; iraa catablUlieil Ib )S7B. 
the Gcrtgrapbloal and auilMkal Pc^Hj bM 
ooDlribotml 10 tb* dHfuiim o( Inealcil^en 
loeaj tubjccU, putieutailx In eonnteHan 
wltb Hcxioa. "Tbe oonclushn erritnd at. 
•fier a fair InnMleattM of feet*, I* that 
111*117 MMM «f Uexleo haTO made grau tMdee 
la the acqdMon «[ «iimta. and 
imakber of thtet h*Tc eHclltd In tu ■«< 
braachee, and an doing ihclr pan artl 
tbe Iranembiioa to otb**< of ibe knawl 
lbc7 poeecee." 

Bieept fai (he rtJuoikn ol ibe papa to 
(ro«a ocUTO die, 7Ht Knl J&ATtoM */ 
Slutleipiart, pabUibod b; Fmh * W*«- 
nail*, b *a eiac4 pboUfrapbk repitttiNtioa 
of lb» Bnl (olio cditioa of IftSS, TU« 
edilien Is iBTj rare, and of gnat value, 
prixipaTI; bcnc'iF II It lb* on); aulhmltj 
for Hid triuot " Tbe TciapMl," ' Macbeth," 
"Tvelftb Kight,""U(anre forUouBra.** 
- Ooriotaau*." " Julio* OMor," *• TIroaa of 
AibtM," " Anibonr and Oeopoiti." " Cyi*. 
b(JI>*;--'A* Ton Uko li." ■ih1"A 
tor** Tale." It pca»ot*«* an oMI: 
porar; vehw la flew of Mr. 
B»rDn.Shshei1-eere epeeuhtitw, alilrb 
derirod •bollj' frani Uie pMoltarillM iif Oi 
loxl. Tbcve peculUtliloa bHni; i^m \v 
h> eiM* (*e MmlV, thoee liitemiinl In ll 
queMiean rahwl b; Ur nwDi'Ilir "**> ''7 'i 
^ mabe ibclTn>n<«nifiarlMaaf Luiln! 
tkrn* wtlh bla nUrace, 

Hie megadnn enilllot H'emM (Vtimtn 
ruUlifalag Ovipanr. Ce* Tnrb. tl-7n 
■ }p*Tt,"lKBe Hni 'II' ' 

MHibfT, lU7,bUrt' 
and dt«o«e* oantidorKUc t(u..ii alui 
r^i-lMM. it-mtwran**. oftd (iolllloel effort* 

' ' HBUtmj leoitrw 





Btmry l'«" < I'lnor, & tcultl, 

I w lb* bilatlaidMl rrapcij af foreign 
It U ui Kiodlrnt ilucomcnt for 
Ito w|iilta t«a totaruuloaal copplgU. 


Amim Mln't imitM on 7% 
KalM 4* lUfi^ <UjiplncMt) nMq>rl»M Uie 

■vmIm «f iW tuitiM; >taeh lU nl Iho ImiU 
ii Aa art af idnxtat' At iIh oium of be* 
M k IMBhwf nf Tneil m't^r, tl»(li'na 
f i n d ilw Hwl n( a •rianilAo 
f*r har vt, bat iba bau liwIruH- 
■ra ta Kaiapa <naa Iganrinl nf ih« Uai 
aifeM aka Mi^t A(>t>l}lng to lUlaahoIti, 
«hN vaa |irw«aulB( an ln'|iilrj InM Uila 
Mk^M, Aa «M tamnlitail ui uka pan la 
to IpwHiaiha*. and alM aid* laqtortanl 
JI^MwIm br harwir latof aha i«[«)i'«<l 
H U tim a'^Miiw In har tiiiilloi tfam Da 
Raraaad. Tlil* l>a^ nfm atlb • 
l*W ahuaik at Iha Uuni? of hxbI naak, 
llw MhjNrt b (!■•« iTTBUd tiHvMriialjr 
fihyahilactfal, phnitcnl, u><1 aMflialio 
Tlia MnatMra af tW Total eifsua b 
Ik 1 a j ipanJU. 

l#aH* (R. Tlumqiun Jk Co., 
)la« Tait) U Iba tliU of a wain of pa- 
fm^ «• tba Ualurr. mrl, •rlmor, Ilwrutim, 

Mi aiia I" "' ' "A lM<«i« tW 

iCIaliel AinoBS iba 

I I'tol. t»h:alu itmlDi, tlan. 
Oattaroonh. Har. i)«ir](« Cliani, 
•U Kb «>Maa Wmm. Ur. U. .V. n^r. 
^OOr^laltoBlilM'. TU taliu» U tttnd- 
wt^j Mada, aal It illwinUd alth )>»- 
oiM «f Ifca faatribafaa, iMul-ploM*, bl- 
Yi^. n-* Ufl-^acaa, (if TbuowM VTUII^ 

rtTBuraTton iitncrvio. 

Cfaa»««1ita, rraf. 1. R. Tba (1<mm at Uu 
*nl>iM. M1rl.lblV.1lEi4v.Otl1> 1^,94. 

il«*. Witlui. f ■ TU i'Ilinw*>^(L" Vol. 
I. No. L (|»"><r<r MubHIUUL l> M. M 
HUt«, M IHO • jtat, 

(bnOalflntHrnfVuMwIoK, IbilUlte, fcb- 
nwy IV, lati, Is JMOHT it. :>«t. I*!' al. 

UdM. MnM. Tlv »U>T "I LV»>l<ii. Lan- 
4ga «u1 X<* V«M 1 LoMTotvi, UrHu « ■.'«. lii 
Mt nil 

r«aMMtfM Arf •*«) KinrrttiiMl ButM, 
MMAaoirft B>|nrt n» ly>1 \^ ni. 

Ctratfl Ctalnnllf , B<«mmI»IM:--M. U^ 
ta,N y. l-p,*!!^ ^ 

D>B*M, (Iwn M. TW Xnklwl IVoab oT 
VamaiH liItaA UmumI: Divwa Uni^tn, 

IXf, »»MT. Whmtrn4«(U<ilUi*UaU(d 
MUM I»-3-|ib& <.naii. I ii^er. 

I>nr(p>i*c. 'tadi-bi >irfi<iwwia Ibaawoa 
iki i«uiuiY« )i<«b>d- aa-VvMi 0, «nMMa 
a ca. !>. til » rMiU. 

lUWta UIMWI mtiBIIItt S«rM]r, C^ai*! lilt 
K. IV Jowntl to tW. K. r. V«hU(. MrrMHT- 
Tf. 1I«.hIUi PtUn. 

KownA J U. 6UD««au. X«> Tiaa. Dkk 
*niaiH*)4. I>(l. V>CMti. 

r*rtM.Ow«*. LtrU/HaaKlfiMMr. Loa- 
da mi X** V«rV : U aj— ai. Uraw * U>. 1> 
lai. IIAr, 

foMin C«inUM,a«»'id MMi, Itkb. Jua. 
wr, »ta rraanim*. taa*li«: 4(iriaduml 
Cdfaca. rti au 

Uftntt, nnaiUnurt al AarttaMaxL Alha& 

■ffH*. Ml, ur fffUlan »« OaaMi. 

■irrtanl. WlVwa 
llvw* Ihntdi 


"Hir nmaur «f a 
Hu^ .Vtht Ciiipur. IV la 

'1 ili^iMl aar*>T 

Hiw Twfc : J II. TUI jKV h- *lt. 

It«n, a. SlMlfT "Tk* .lin>r«»* Jovaul uf 
rVrlwlM" Quulrft} Fotntn, IMA IWU' 
lun: HMwHT' I'P ("' ■l.f**r*w. 

lUMnl, HlnB tl., Anr^ Iv«. ten rarssa- 
^on,, .1.1 .11,, 1— .««. ff t. 

Il'< ' -laTMh law* am. !>» (It- 

iMUor .'iHMiail lai»rn«MrMI. Pp. 

It. Jt t - - ■•■uti it» luwa IVmiIh* »«Tt<a. 

t>. t. Oal/amW Pt^Mi. I'll « tal *!. 

It n aaifc *I<W4 tVHllnlUvifrwbf 0*S(»<ola 
Km rWm UkbiIIm A i;b I>.7| ftir«lk 

lljrA^ Mary P. rVKttitf U*'«m m Ilw llo «f 

Xatith •Ma I n C, itwik >a 0» Ifi. >t4 
iniMta auu Ibwd rf *«ii lawi. Ma««nl 

Rr«an. IWMinin, if',. bunaftM. f^ M; tad 

WMthrr IU|>wl. !> ML 

InkHldTivT* II. TiMlWtMiMtafafliHar 

IMmw. tKi AUirrMa I^M>nf llHba ftn nt i 

On. r> 11. 

LvamiMB iBMMaU «( IIIIIM7 •») DrWvMk 
SowMoi. t^ J, L». rrW«. PiT«l.«i. riDcvallofm 
ma itflii W i B i- T> 1^. 

I#v|t. A II . D i>. A onml tilling «f taa- 
*q tya^iiri K«« TwIi . I>. ii|-t>kiu« A On. 

I, tl r. H. t> T»* «Mlun OMtlillM 
llwHa AauiMaa raUlt tlaUi* at^ 

tbc^Kiir. flwu. nnfW nin, x. a Tta 
aiu4/ of IamI rm l>. & 

Mmhm ''Ir l>U>r. l<l<Mia« la mnite. 
»"<• VmI> : iMiMirltl Unauta* At m uUia I'a. 

''Umh.I1 R «M iIuII iMUMn^id»T 
rhiiiflH A llhnl. n«>u 

UUiv WatHtThHtrtHtrrivw 






Uub^cu ARrtnliHml Cdkv>. LmMo*. HIbu 
tor irkDi-tHr Cji. I" 

HUM. lUolf . ffllot far tMtatItt LtM. 

UelM^ Elltk rig* Or wi AoifrtMl Uiir>iW<^ 

KiroitnlL, Aln»l. rnl<1)c Iit>4i or Eiuopi. 
N<a Van : iImum Puiauiut i<>iHt«ar. 


OmiIqckI, O. W. !>7iaMl( tt tl>* 4pb]iI14a or 
UMBtMU. AC raw: liHkiclM Silr'F)'. Fp. 

-Tilt IVIDr Kwh V'vkl)'* fM VHnto. Oil. 

Till. L No. I. PMUl S:«i>jw 

fuUxAC tl. S. Ot«>amtl Bamv. MIivmI 
WaUn P* lu. CTmlffurtwi of AamWa Dn- 

Un. Vf. a. 

nnlM.U.It.AOk.XTKT'rt. "nsPmpbir. 
IK(lik,''*vl>narT. ts^ lUathl^. IdanUttllta 


rrerldaM* KniofclU RndeM. Onlno' of Xbtdi 
Ulu«. I-|>. UU. «IU> FIMA 

Br«d, Uroumnl lltnr; *. rUtocnqAr ■» 
nlM tft BartijlBr- >>•>• Voit : J<tta WOtf « 

IIMMHkrd«r.i>4 llBaaIl.8. K. )lfcrtM«a 
HMaa BDH rtaxiaW CbMnWn. l>an I. K<« 
Virt : Jobs WIMr * 8Wh ' 

taMMTAMBocMyar Uw C«; of Sow Ttrt. 

moppf I. K. W. AKIallrllad*nHiim>.<ifU« 
Coat ^IMT t»«ljtn<. K*> T«tt: v:«^panUr* 
■oMIar nao AHonalUa. ti UM*. 

BlaniWrc Ot^rrt M. U. Tk Mtalbcau iM 
bdltUatl r-rnnvkila antMt IrMHM "-mill 
AjDifkaii PoMkt Utaltk Aini*llliii. !>. «l 

eilllBia, JaiDH W. J^itNiM. w 'ThW 1k 
Bancta? Boatad : CMbaui KaiM^ * Ca^ J-p. 

Mrtlm. VTfcai. M. IK OaMnaa af tWIlMl 

PkroMiirr niw)ti|>ua[|>.uMtui»«,#(a*o*. 
Pp. aw. tt-M, 

TiM. raiartat lltir-. T»o BUvT nT lb> nit of 
Kaw Tort, ^•- Y<Ht <l. P. K^M'a 8mk 
■■p 411, -lib riiixk *l.:^ 

(Ilib ■■•< IteMnHI. (H(h«Iwii rt n Ul m il. 
aW.. -M> ■ MrrOnmala n IW MMa C m al MM lMI. 
ky a K<-U«l if riah. P|^ II. 

raurlii. Vfttm C. tlaiMiT ItmHi an4 IftMAt 
l» IhTWartiw OiMn. AmacliMi rutin HmWi 
AMa«tomft. rp fll 

WaAnrarth. H. K rwlAalrlw, niMvM. rU- 
BaaanawA AMtailn>rtlliii»k>u. tM. PhI t na»i 
bftMl Barra^. Pp IM, oMk pMaa. 

WiiMntI'" VMtvHltJ, Bl _ . 
TMMar««aat. t<«TtMll r» U. 

WtaUm Kt« T-^ IMIIaOn br Hitf'VMM, 
ltn*iHiF. Dimilli AhvhI Imwt Pp. 4& 

mML AhWm t> K-iMpaait MMab af Hk- 
■•fTMJl'MUnk IblUnnn. H.UanV' 'V •«. 

WMmwO n.aH A'^KP.ih -Uaml 
uTUanhattT" Hot. Uwrwrii. HoaMiiOlM 
*Ca. pp IM. 

WDMi J rt r«n* Xartlnf. rtlM'lMU: 
J. II. IJfirianni I'Mniuhr, ^ Ml. niD Pula. 

Vlh*^. N ft, (l«al«v«l akl Milanl llla- 
Mrr iBT-ry t^ UinuMli Btpart (w IH* 11. 
Piiil l>). Mil 

' "■■. ''haVMIallaBdorllMSli 



n» ■niliic af Buttr Gnt*.— U' 
NiaM»'> "DktiooMlre Unirtntl" Hyt: 
" The hm o( EacUr c|ig!i b emtnl wmwag 
•n Uie people ol ihe diScrcnt ChriMlu 
Mmmnnhiia, II a|ipcarv h> fa*T« b«en a 
ayiiibolio Iradition of tb« Chriallm Ch itceh, 
whicb haa tmnaiptaiow) in dilt«i«ia »a}«. 
Some aaa In tl ft Mnwmbnmoe of Iho nd 
tgg irtiieh, Koenling lo jaiiw Lain|il<lli», a 
bca htilun^in)^ U> ibe (UrtmU «t Alexander 
!fev«ru* laid on the daj of Wt blrlh. 
Oilion >nc<t it lo (1m martjnlaoi nbidi «■• 
■nlBcUid upoa tihriaiian* bf ihe on vnita 
Aaong m;*'V| I^aER t>ad a tnyitio aenat^ 
itlaitng to U>« ori^D of bobifia and of ibo 
whole woTlit 1 and it ia patfcaf the ouo 
thai till* inulSlion aat |irtwr*ad, aJong whit 
nan; other*, la tb« ne> rellgkn. Tho 
ncai prvbablo InierpreuiloD, hi>w«T«r, U 
thai (ke autaOiii adept* ■» to tbe e^Si 
to rieir e( tlie pliawiiacBoa ol ita 1ial«klng, 
aapaibal of tberManvotkaof ChrriM; »mt, 
b«M* Uw caalom of oarr^iag tfgt lo 
UiDplo OM Eaatar-da; lo be bloaoMl by Ui»1 
prieat, «faich aerc afterward <Ii>lributoJ (o 
ibe (amil; aai (rimd*. But It miir lie Ihal, 
there I* la Oils ftoibiBg more tkAn a Joyfulj 
■anUeaiaUon on Urn ncDaalnit of kavlag^ 
agib) cgga o4 wlitch iho kit; b«4 baaa it-_ 
pdred (luriog th* wbola of Ubl.** 

n* iaAilM HaiMiMt— Wo aro i 

10 ob>Frr« tbai Ibe Aadohoa Uonaanmi 
CaoMniuce are nH>*la^ a* ri]*!!} oa tha 
imUie «itl Mtpport ibats ta Uirir nnhle ab- 
ject of ereMiiig • wortlij mnaMiwot to mm 
BtM BTcat nalaralitt. Tha ailfrtiriwlail»> , 
4tt the bnmadlaw earo d( mir anlUnJagla 
u4 NiMulfla aotMo^ In shnaa bahalf Uial 
oofDinlUecB aM aiabjt i bat eontrlbiiiloMt aro 
daalfd aod *iilldK4 (ron llm (;t*n>«l fuhllit. J 
AiHlalmn gave Indor to tbe AnwcWna nama j 
vhn tl "a* In low natomi la adDUce ; bmIi 
bl* aorvlca tn llturatiirr aaa iMntIf tni < 
tfileaaaa. II< was, mormnr. a nuin of ilia' 
pMpK Wlu uiinhi ibm aari li Mill ica*b> 

\alt lllCB I and It la n ' : .-^fHT till] 

tlw peafilo abotU iir Utm i]ia 

pmt. "■.! 

Waal. K (- . U. tl, 
I hal^ Ua rp a. 

UaOlj or Uu nratt 



U tut ten UMHiMBd dolUrs, ud 
H ^ NHwhil la HaMt In niuUr Ucwcurj, 
wnriinkbiK ik> IIuJhm, ««d bm Iw (ram 
Iki Audahoo naiwiiw. All (Ku vill b* 
^>.t:^<F .u'Li»<iUili>iL n*j om; tw ami 
, r, !io. A) LIbmyHiracI, 

w .,.. , . „,; «* L a yoM«. «. a 

r^ ' ' . U'l JtNMbUI Dvlglil, Jt., ■» 

|Utf w^ ^wImmU. II Wm T««Mr-«llUh 
MOlfe Itanb BarM*.— Tho portion «f 
Ifan^ orfBl (■ III' DrllUL N'ortb Borneo 
I^BfMir b vt kbwU iba Mina •*«> •Uli 
HiWhllJ, MMnUlMW 40 lbs vHMni lU*. 
ImvInb hif* •Hwa Md flaH «■ tk« caM- 
44m. Aiauiie (Im niouaulM U tha Una 
iB,Mera Umb l*,l>u»((vtbl(h. Btnnl 

•Im mu iW nM MMI, aod, roUnW. 
t**>7 biMS*nJ*lndln|«MWN>,(allhiM 
iW ^<ra tkvaul. Tb> JuneUiuor ar*- 
of ihia* (ar«i Iha Klaa DaUnipu, a \ 

MMlakbl* b; Urga MaaoiM* 

IH «)Im Un om al lb* tiUmUffM 

Ibk rl*w, IW qHwmaW. tn ifca Atetaa. 

fdt^ «*•>! HI Iw • sraMl ouanet, bo* 

yttK un lif uii BM«fia>a. Th* H*- 

-Mut rvB through ad uatn- 

r^ti. On llw MM tbfn t> 

A^ |airali>lii» IViiii' •■•• hmllUBlBMi 

In altaali. Ilia ii>|imI>I*ikm ami Mtilfr- 

k«l af tia Mwparalun, U>e ilnaMa «( 

AwhiUkm, xkI Ibn pTodintoiB 

w««lik wlOi alit-h It atmundt, Nwdi 

lUaa (aM|>p»n • Tcrf lafga |W|>- 

rmtflHa *1U uliiial* an ibMiK, 

lafip T— — .""-•'. <■■ )i" I'lmlj. Val- 

i*»t .. ' ']iiiuitlil«, aiul 

J( a^MrfUi ,!••->. -■ ^ avoil lia* liita 

iM. lb* piMud alU W atallaUn («r 

oinilM* arftplb) 

I bhw. ,TM Wfoni ■!>■ artl 

. ft»fii« in •b«l> ■•■ lieU In WtJilh 
' Hi b. M allw. *i Ha^or Uio. uf 
feH«Wrn, Mi «hai Uu> mmUmuloM of 
■llllt «a4 talinr. H r u ii—a H id ll} tlm 
•»! Ilir U»Ja mil—, am tmi 
•rJ< ^nii-^wtiilr III «na a —till r, Imt 
lallam 111 llw 
~..>.llBllpkult*t il- 

iBUnkpooiltiKo Af weic47 at agaltiai Uw 
lodiilduallxlBl (mcm of populnf gorcm- 
mwu. If Uui woritaig «« au« alila baa ra- 
•kIUxI In •nio^ II 1* equall; tha ca*f eu 
the mbar iM» \ bul lin carpotuika b Ualile 
lo llw Inputailoa tku U la wUlioMt aymp*- 
Uiko aal >MMut • OMudtMo. 3W «srk- 
Mu I* into ika iStailraabigo ibal tn llw 
pKOtM mtniKo dlvUui of labor bia oc««- 
(ulloQ ban bocMac alniMi whoOj nivtban- 
kal, and Id case of Uw Iom o[ bi* ifaiglo 
fwiciko be ba* no raMurat. TbU bdil- 
Uiug oi llio norktBOi*! U(o fata dooblleoo 
•g^rawtl ibirif acaao ol anUGODinn 10 
oagiUal. Hm mmo MuanoM aUrh brc 
r«<Uec4 iIib wnrkiitKMui In bU ikil; aoipe 
liars >idcn«<l inikocrlbib:; llio priiilcg* 
aw) Dtiiwrtiwlif ol oi|>>ul. Da» enpUal 
tpiwodaMl N* H thould iba mpcaulbiUlr 
tad Ita lUif oblcti «omo wUh ibo priri- 


lalb(t-«(-PMH li Uii l«4 Su— Tlw 

inni!icr-of-|iau1 Oaliprln of tbe Red Sm rt- 
ln«l ibo «bolo Imsthof dial water. Aboal 
llinie biindrad IxiaU am evploTad t>r llio 
Aiab ulbra wlio an mgagod in tbo work— 
opm, widotkel bonti, of froa ciphi to 
tvcmir Iom biinlun, (wrrrlng a hrf* kuon 
Mil, mannod b^ ero* u( fro« fl*e lo (itoIto 
■nan, aad racb pmriifcil wllh % niiibcf of 
■nan eanoea. IVro are (no BiUhk aM- 
•on* during ibo jwnr, ono at fonr anj ono 
»( right BionilM.(lurtnp uoarl; iha wholo of 
oUdi Ibe iMiali kMp Hm *«>■ Fi'lal *<xX- 
dmla arc wid to bo uttknovn arnvn]] iho 
dlrtm, aaJ iltr; at« rrmwicable fot iMr 
MrtoclS and t:ood btoUb. tW; dlro b«- 
tWMD tho tgn of Irn aaid fntt; ^r«. and 
ih* prartira In laU to In** no III offnt*. 
Oporallona arc MiiduxMd enl.T In aaln 
•Mlbtr, whan tha *boIt e*ii l>« dl*oo««r*d 
by Ibr r^v at •■l«|>tliTar;liiftbi'l«Ma ao«n 
lad AfioMi tailiooM. Of tat* ftaia, tmply 
pMndcMDi tinm wltb the mdi kaockod aM 
uiil a ibrot ot claw ItuNtlod In ooa and, 
liarn b»on uinl to aout tbo ore. Tbo 
(■bard and ol lt<i> Ha (• tiibnMStd "■'■' 
Iho ato, >l>r« a mu«h Akanr narf dfepar 
tUioa !■ oMalMd. DuHog iba bol IM 
;oais llw And )• nlil lo linn dlmloUiod, 
' o»ln|C lo llw doarth of k)ioII>. froia Mn to 
' iwaatT pw oMi In i|'n«i>l>7- S^'<* kMNwhi 
' vo jMUah tor aalo ai« dk|NMwl «( «a ^\x«i 
' aanllM to brapo of aUiui Ulf 






w«i^t Mcti. Aa prGliTainiii7 inspcclloD b 
xM «Jlow«il, ilu) IiidOlng it piirvl} ipnnila- 
lira. Tho bulk of liio rIipIU krc now i«nl 
to TrleHv, a mnall iKimlior to Loadon, uid 
« r*« (« llarrr; aiid ftomr of llie 6nvtt kail 
lanccit ilitlli aio puichawd tor t'tporution 
M Dcihlclicm, rtcK Uiof an ntgnived aad 

of (U 6f«ek \AnAu%, Bwn 
of Uie gnmci of ihc tirotk kUndsM aM d^ 
■cribwl b7 Ur. J. Tbcodorc Dmll, la aa arll- 
da on " Greek Pouuul Lllc," a* sUd, hum 
•• amiulns, and (omc a* disllnclly mend 
to mitiquitj, " M probaU; all uouhl if «« 
haJ ample Koofda lo go upon." X\ Eatte^ 
lime Iho maUim* o( in«n/ IrlaiuU liavc (ha 
Samo of "■'■Iff. Thcj hang • lopa b«n 
ona wait of lb« narro* Tillage «tr«M U Uio 
ottior. On lliU Uk^ (nit tama olothu to 
form a Mat, and Xta maid«iu muUiI ddc 
bj (Ida. fadn(> la oppotito dlrtciioni; *win^, 
•nd aa Uwf **l'|t aing Inoil ditUe*, plaiai. 
Ito for Um mott pan, and is a high, (krill 
*«fa«. The jroung man iry to paM b;, and 
uacalltd ajMiD foratoUofaeopfiK'apHcp, 
K (one uil ft »tng, Itifj etucnlljr dig 
BMfe wonk M ih(M I " Tha E^ld b «wimG. 
tke lUrar i« awans, and •nuag, Un. i* Bf 
tora iriUl l}io gotilon htir." To shkli Iha 
■fttdm rvfillaa, " Who i> il tLni ■■togi ts», 
that I majr ^M him with my farar, thai I 
■M7 mrh for hfan a fu» all cov«>»d with 
pmrltF" DiTlng paid hia eopiwr, Uw 
youtli b allnwad to paw, «ad laanktr «om«a 
tj nad darn llkculw. TbcM 6*mea at Vo- 
^ViM, tn KarpMbea, uko plan on tha San- 
Aija la Law, wtun ibc round m« who arc 
) fhHB ik«U >wk on tkU di; oan b« 
* Wa aro ainngi]' irwlniltd oj tho 
piMaf a»laK<rtiti)htlMinald*Maf lib*M 

, pti^ ta immbrano* n( ths deatli n( Kri. 

||MM, mho hu^t licrwlf from a tro>, wliM 
thajr aaafl plaiMlrc illulo* In hottor of her 

' nanH anil (piriaadrd ilionwWni wbh Do*' 
rr«, whomu no* Iha; ainit •^Irmn dllUts 
alwut iho paialon ami waitrottlon vt lucr 

rLonL Axuoa^ iIm paica pUfrd hj Ihn 

'bwTiar Hamn, I MKonMahMliinoainrl- 
iiHi wiiaJilancc (o tfai|;lik«L-li«t crldoL 
Tlx'Hi are (iTa 

Thof < 


I |iU;«ii i-n Midi lUr Ana aida H tn ; l^ 
Mhvr fli-ldti Tha one vhs O In riufmda 
Id* >Miat, • Mima craMod «a Dm pwt, 

■lUi hh hud. \V1ian Iw lUla tha ball ha 
doc* Dot nin, but oo«nt« onu alMti Iho ball 
Il KM bvfvnd a certain boumkij-llBc i'bsj 
bnTo. If tbr bill hlu lbi> floor, b« b out. 
la the tnonnlola illbgc* uf Samoa maj nlll 
be inuod hi latlou (ann* ibe ancknt sama 
of SoKr^Aar mUxafit, which ■« can lea do- 
pleiod «D a -nM tor u* hi tho Hudob Hn- 
•com. It Qxlaia tUU in Half nndd' lb* 
name of morro, baila lia aiaaiilaai form It 
hat aurvlTpd In Samoa. Va u* two tItlU 
boy* ploj^ teplhar, One leaned agatntt 
a wall, bead downwaid; tha other ptaead 
hU two A«U «(w aboTO lbs nthrr on hia 
plajfellow'* batk ' Vhldi band ii uppoN 
mott T ' b<> eAiA. Thu nibtr piewad. ' Vv, 
It ItnV *a* Kfnarallj ib« Kplj, acMmp*- 
olad bv a pml; anart mack, i, loorv 
ehbMBla fom of lU* i;aia* ta whan two 
bo;*, kap-troR faiMan, •loep down, Uia 
foremost a^ihiM Iho wall, anil iha hdmkr- 
aioit helping htm. A tUrd bay 1m|m t» 
the bock of Ihn ooa noatoat lobbD, eiionda 
a eerulo number of fliyti, anl erioa, * How 
manj llsgcn ht tha atr?* Ute front bojr 
baa lo guna, and It wrong rtceiToa a noMk 
frtan (he rider. Not.oal; among bcra la 
lUi a popolae gnaae, b«t wiam, *Qow 
manj > ' It a (aioriio samo at Ttflag^lcaatiL 
8i( mmn yet* pUflng It whm I mm II, 
three oa mck tidft. Tbo ikrt« on one *Ue 
w«re ealkd the boifl* ol bniden, lliai b (a 
*air, \\ief torwd ItMir backa to tb« other 
three, who JMopod wpnn Ihcm. IlaTlng 
dona (hia, mm of tba tldm pM one haad 
ot«r tb«ejc« at hla'beaal of borden'and 
bold the Mbcr te Iho air, and aa ha dU *d 
asiended aoano Bms"* '"^ ckaed otkHa, 
ud «n«d, -win, 'Dow maajl' If Iha 
iMon «f burden b ttnpld in giieatiag Iho 
ngh* namber of ingert txttaiteA, be r^ 
odre* waiirj boua oa (bi oai* ami pMral 
rongh trtaunenl frooi bia ride* oaUd tba 
Ui^ba and ]e«f« of tbr brtUiMlxra. Whta 
ail Ibrea beatta «l bonlon lit>o Bowatd 
•ti^A, ib«7 change plan* wiUi ihMr riibra, 
who hara to gnoa* la iMf lotiL** 

rrriiaritlaa fltr lh> Tni at »t World. 
— (t I -urn, ltn|^ 


worlilwa*! ' 

moaiu to i><!->i..-> ..- 

II ha 1 



A ,.r i)>« 

Old wumim ■" 



I M hMl. TliM* women, 
[CtfUt^ w ^ <ll" proMMlM thrf MUSht 
r — , .....^,.„,.„ ri„lth*diMr pcdAlt* to 
'ntoiui, lUnlring \hk\ 
;-■ Kit oa flro b; the col- 
flUuant l>o alar*, bfJIornl llul It •«uld 
|.b> mIm la KoU tin >u««u. A (lary It 
J biU of M nil) Dime, <n wiMbcr orawioa, 

iMuMte^Um PMMt Uw «nd a< ih» *«rlil, 
I'VfMt w^MCKlnaMipiaanWrbwtaip. In 

' ltaM>l«f<diam, OMVor^ ■ tfaoUu 
ft IMib-itridwB •ofaRT U- 

likM ito puvon «M BM ai bosM. 
^ f)» Ifct — «■!■< •(Ut I •tarn M Iha Uuul 
I •( Hwt. wMA Mvl; M«« Uw boMc mm. 

l^nt Hr. .dU JM tuttf Um 01B4T 

It t Iki^lit Uw A«)r of ioilgiMal M 
m" »A»d *lui did )m)aor''tli« (Ma- 
Mr MiniL *'Xtil Ur. B- — ,1km ap taA 
I iwtf a VUla MP 0* IM."* 

Jll I'' ' 

rikilplM ar OwiUirfTuufe' 

A ra(«r >rr LUI» J. U>rllu, of IW 
UI^.KiIimI. tmliuwiMbi, un 'OiiinilMry 
|« ih* lltj[1> -KdiouL" caattliw miih ptul 
ttavgku Ml A* «<)1i)H( of taKUliK tk 
MlM-r WhtU Ufiutlad ■uulf, rtfliilr 
BfrW •■>. >lan b"! |i?i«I»<i ■<)*% lia4 
l^tw ifa* hiBl ■< ilUdldlM Ihsl *dnic« 
pil«*, anil ludl ba« own; ailtwi- 
" llir ftol •laiytr U Ual tb« Ac 
r *ri*iw*>lwlr nlU t» tM 
. - :■ libilairtnl itadf,"** t« al- 
ilimv In liM Maiijr Uil-Uiolit. 
... ..f ..... ■>t)t<M*« aji4iriu of 

1 1*1 ik» fvculk/ 
' •\- -J) (■■»■ Uin>u|(t 
UlraraUirf. la prao- 
In >ltiiii>-> iti'- lino aboat (ifaallj lw> 
piOlog ttia r««t>, nr labanlMT-Hork. 
Tl'Tt-iQ Uia tWH, a* dw* ■ rtNID 
flaipla apiHuaMa, naili ur ailaptad 
Vr tta F^rBi i* pnai>«ai«>l ilw Imt i aiid 
har ••« 4««>tifU«a ul Ik* appantua nmui- 
tkaaa iHHt I ha oMM eiHiimi llilot*! 
• «d Uh-w no'lrte aatUoB. ■■T *" naJa 
' oT npFttiDCTital mik 
I't MMab afgl*aU<l lu 
hlgV^bwit*: xra Itwt MacbW pVflll* tb* 
*• «l Ikalr NBa«: vork tfaU aa|«Mliila 
I vab tha ndnlfliV Ua* ul tW »cl> 
klal (bmat tliHi> tn than- 

aiil rcn, or ImltfandtM ipttlUailiv imlffAt \ 
and work tbat Uactica iduitlfle narmm*. 
ar ii<Mat)ui)To ««rk. BocouiagMnrat nf 
|>ii|iU« V> do ofigtnol work and Hriu about 
U wbrn tbcT han done H I* tntaitcl upcat. 
Haa]' cspcriencta hate tau^t Uw autknr 
Uiat ercn ilic l>«tt teit.booka ahoald b« 
;>KrMkd bj work abicli w<Rilil thiow llio 

IMpib upon ill* u>D ot iliolr **niM« In laana- 
iaj; tWr hMooa. la bar own ««a ib lag a( 
UbotBtorT'Woik, la onlar \o lar* Uma, «s- 
pcrtincnu Ul be dona <m a otrtalu daf ara 
Imliaawd ih< ilaf bataw, and acw luanri 
by tbe pupil t and ipMnil dIrtvUuna a« c« 
(be pankular way o( ilotac c«<h eipati- 
a«aa bk el'i™ at lUa bosbulBK ot tha at- 
perinieul4toBr. By a llUt* ancoiimgeniani 
pupUa will do a ipwd doal o( axtn ajipwt. 
iDcaiUl woth, aail muoli of IUb caa be don* 
41 bone, allb EMai pbi ■■ IndtiMBdmc* 
and a(%loaliiy. Tlw aUlIt; to writo what 
ta laU ilown la ike tril-book U not a auS- 
cinil teal for pKHnolkin la chuniUli7. 7W 
" lUnraiii loM " In aiamlnatlona niakaa pu- 
pUa fori Ibot (bnnkal liifonoalkai la lb« 
iblnij M atriia for : and, to ooonumM Ibia 
XraAnxipi, llio autbor auiqscata, la a queB> 
■lun, dial hlccbadMul labafaiodM «ba«ld 
b« opomi r<ir a praolk«l \Mi dutlng as- 
•mlaaikai, l« vaka pvplb Hadatatand that 
■ knowl(>d|ca of atK«nlBU7 bimibb tha abllltj 
to dtal wlib Katnra. 

Tb* OriiriB •r'<■nBtfl.>'-OttoaaU• 
Mrial«r, In aritlng on the iua):M of poIii> 
MM, tnat* tb« tatijrcl aa a unirtnal on*, 
lh« adequate Ueatnunit ot «bich woald 
btT« tu Indnda all people, ot all tlwea and 
plaon, and of eiarj 4(sr«« of barbariam 
and diUlMlia*. An InalHuUun ibn* mh 
aiianalve with Mankind oan nnt bavo attgf- 
niled In nin>«nlleai or tlm oaprlM o( Mat 

nnail aodal poiV^i o' li*^ l>*™ ^^ V*^ 
tout tnj panbular pariod of tloM. Tba 
pWMmpdott i* thnrrrorv }Mtll«d lliai Ifca 
•udal oida of maanDre lian Mm* kind of B 
boariag uO th* JoTate pB HTil and w<tf*iv nf 
Ilia lan. and ibal It enurtbniea to aa«M 
<Bd Ibat oan not bo BB caailjr Toatbtil la 
BO]' otbor wa<(, Tlia ataww of Kmitrnf 
ewulaU la ouf nslnff ika oular alftnt ot aa- 
team loaanl a ptfMO whom wa d» aut 
hno* or Buy InvviJIy daapba. In onlar M 
placB ouraaltca In b pcltloa In 




HMj JmI «Wb blm for Ifcn ll<w bttofi wHh- 
ou: iaoiuTcnkace, ln<kln|[iMi,««r«c«rd 
tb« ottMT pmnii diiiplji a* a rtltav-tncmbcr 
oJ ilie hUBU nu>, md mj M falm bj Im- 
pUoUlMi : " 11)0 good donoiU cf tte rnco 
(OiD«*inl wj mptct. I wilt fmminie Iktt 
jwi belong "> Uwin, but 1 liave U |iitaefil 
no Mtauun to imiuirc wbcllior UiU hi m or 
■wt 1 aill au( spoa tliii pratumplion UII 
Um codubit it Bliuwru I>«al irMi nw m 
ll» MiM priaaple." W« mujtt loak (or ihe 
«ri^ a( tlw ew«r manU«>taliuiU of i»ufi«. 
(J l« libe •ignala of peam manirM amMig 
•Btago UibM and rnde sto. A* maoMn 
bMMM anelionicd, iitnt is Uiu bc^nl^ 
mnuii '• VouT IJt< i* Mirc," <<»niM to mMo 
" Voa am wbIooihc." Sata« of (lie tnanf- 
fotutioua VIM.J be ira«al dhrctl; back to 
Batloro*, w lo alliUidca abowlMK (bo prnon 
uaing Uiacu w b« snaniMd. tl« aicefii a*' 
ff( ta drop hia wMpen*; b« hohb up Ui 
•mplj bandf \ b« arawM bi* am* nfo^ bi* 
bnul : he IiiimIk m he louehM tb« gnmiid 
iMk U« tiirvlipad. Vinm IboM MOM ite 
"(iraMBt arm*" of iho (iiiUlaT7 Mrriee; 
tram the ukbi; «tf of ttio ImIidm nne ih« 
«p«1iig o( Ui« riMr of iIm «U kii%hu rb4 
Ihe nUtlas or louiMtis the bat of the laoii- 
cm Mtolaite; and fwullilj fntm the nis- 
)i« o( (bv tapijr hanib, ih« " >liak«iiMid> " 
fwlBi« of tlio pPBHut ihor. The Bca tbal 
« p«T honor to anollim \>J (tandlns In Ui ! majr be accnuntod for «> tlm tmuIi of *m- 

•0— ^dBhlns tvo iMfHiNd aftd et^lr-Sto 
pouudi. Tlioac kmfiUoi m« oa • apiu of 
the PhcrotiUoiintabt, about flfljwUoi frem 
Ablnsdon and fort; mUea fiwii llsrion, VIr- 
iglnla. The ai;><ai* mre all fonod la dl«- 
lutci^ntcd OTriallliw losk*, ooA(bnlB| ptl»- 
dpaltjr of OMrao feldtpalhle BiaalM^ Which 
batt aB Jceompetd to a ||nal«r d«|ith 
tlMA Uidr porldon. lloal of tbcM are «b- 
lalMd bj dl|g[Inc wlisrc on« CTytHl hat 
bwn fnuiul, or b; drirlntt • p^o« liU rm» 
bsrd objrct I* mrmIc. ScrmI doccn htr« 
been found weishlng frain iweni^ to ihirif 
poundi Mdi. Bone of tlicw etjsiaU afford 
larger inauci of dtur mdt-cr]r«ul tlmi 
hare vTor before been found \m the Cidleil 
Hiatca, and '*sstm the we of tiMl nbHaaee 
for nocli objreu of tuxvej' aa orjrtlal balla, 
dock caiei, inlrrora. He., of vltich oxaniplt* 
ma; be aecn In the Auttthm Trcanry al 

OrlElB ef llitr^vuiiMi.— P>«r. K. & ; 
Shilcr ha* obserrtd. In tiiid^iiy the freah- 
vaur triian>T>» of N«i> Knelaod, thu tlwa 
linn trfahili tto* nsihaatiD; tun bi cfcw 
b(4(, ibrensli ratlojre that an (rte froM 
Hinntpi I whtli' lk« vallefa of all tin rhvn 
Ooniut; to llie ttvtb an ■■•npf. The 
former titer* Uow frt^t, (he laUnr are 
■lu^th. He belkTw iliat thia eoadltlea 

pn»oaoc U ifcwbilrM a MmlTil fraan llmo* 
*hM xm>n Mantf protUon wi* made tor 
•Mta tbw WW, Mid the bcA phoe wa* 
gtTea to the prefsnvi penoit. 

k Btmarkablr Nprrlva nf Rerk-ftT»- 

I tall— Ur. Oeotse P. Kiibi «ihltilu<d tn the 

, Amerins ASeorialtmMOiemntrksblTUrte 

fpecimnu of nKk4i7«l«) fmm A»h«Cou«i7, 

Konli 0*r«Bna. lilt aiKnllnn wm Drut 

culled lo iheloiralllT bj n>rrf*lng tram ihtM 

a ftri;.flna.pnwn<l fra^mt wlduh ■•« «aU ta 

rbani brm bmba fiHit a maw wdgilos 

throe hundrnj tmimli, by « nmi>nUla.slil 

ividrn jonni ohl. (ilher rptdneB* tnim 

htTt0 \n the M^^* ^-^^ 'TiK **'»'»! wttn^ n T*~ 

lurialil^ oinat 

cesMie moremoni* «r ehasf^ of letd 
«hi(4i ii«k p(M« dorlnc the fllaclal period, 
or at and after lu Hme. the eunrauhM hae- 
iag prabablii bent a* foUon: I. The luk- 
iHtBW nf thelandturlacrviiderilieotlj^t I 
of the lee to a depth Ik.-I(iw the letrl of ilia ] 
•ea; 3. \ViibllieTeir#aiDtihele«,are«lera> 
tioo, in a Hiiddvn nuiMirr, lu a lidftlo abwM 
the 1er<< of the eM i and, A Xfink lla dla> 
apfxamnen of iIm Io> fma ihe ««iUneiii| a 
reftdl">tment of lu psalilon end a ohmo- 
qwM InvntaK of the K-mlirTfi p-iiteei rf 
Uirglaijaied ar<u. li li i '< lai 

ihemi|>MUrfennd)|kiiiQl < i i ell! 

paiu are ninall/ driaiiil m 
iifrd. TW pieiem lerrlt ivt (liu mi oral I 

. .'in* iif tlip eoiitlamlel 


(Lil U't^\itI.Ai'^ a \'-'U^-'i^ tin I nn-Jj'*' jmr^-/ | li.-inw uwiv riit>.-i u^nu ii*u "I Ik 11'^ "11 irrnrak ] 




I* l»««fl>iily MMligseM 4f«u hM 

fnM InduMiMt !■ ilw How of ibe 

TV auilrar obwrvt* tliai ilw 

■ blrii U* oooduiloa ti fiiuaJcd 

nia a( tfc* winUwntl. Tlina r.vor-liUiT* 
rauiftdw Dt^nJ farm wbluli Ibt; ImiI bfr 
tea iIm Wi j;la>iil iw ixtsui to m ii|Mm 
ikflB, Mill tlv7 punue iWlr prwcM oonna* 
ihair Am U nuU; ikiwinlaod b; 
nf Umi |ir^Uidftl rirehTalloj* 
ikj tin. ti b iiWr iliai iImn 
"•nltiji daalil np( b«<* ba«B *i(tVU«4 by 
Miwna of tMr imwtU ilaiwi ll **«M, 
H m»l iT». Mocwsr; <* a*n>nM (hu tb* d* 
MM U iha nonbiranl llvwbw rinri dmi 
nan npU In tLa t-r»«lacl*l 
tl I* at p'**cM, or, ta «tlii<f 
•ii*d«, thai ihb pan of Uw cwtf n ani oaa 
•I ibU HcBA itUUhIt toM almlMl IklU 
diaa ll \» unw. 

•r Ui Ct«ln Brtlrit Fir- 
■Mib— In t1>' Arusrlaa AHsdattiin, l*ra- 
li^v rrr I*** IMM mMIUmwI 

(aJWtBi- I wfaicb In bail prvriau*- 

ij t^Bi^Kalail fnccmila; IIm alBinlnm 
fwtiM fnn» tW l.'uvtfa alanflcnl fnreaoa. 
Thi (NaMf "f idwrcoal In pwoUnn aa 
■|- I >'^' '-'^ - )l<»iklr " («r KennD. 
hs, I ■ < » Unvawd br mailagt H 

■Ul tllV . ■»'• < '''.«( 111! piviliwt 

*M«^HM«J )' Ibe dirvotliM 

!■ «lrMi tba ■Ih.iiuiu ogro tntniditaed. 
■mm amMMM* oatwwiM b;^ lord^ alao- 
lrt»ln < rtd la Amoait llwm HM 

4 n^i ^iafttni Uul (U; Old nni 

■b4 m 4>« uJatBin) bf AowHbuh ranecm- 
taif aliMriMam •» It* «ll<m. Ifvdbfwt a»- 
••« «w m ' - >r of l]ia 

' ' r «■« lo 
.11 ■ Mbjivl 0.1 otildi 

dBiT fed (L.! '( iBlwinad. 

I BnM^Mlt^Tlw (abrfE hunrn 

•# wulai \ »-*-^m4i *trm aad etlar tpa- 
i<«) «MiA r, '^Ina, aadp«a 

to Uitta «w4 lit* lamanlal, 

iMtav^H ytaiiii, lurliLc lituad btrI tMrw 
•ttk * «Uw 4B«a an Uw mular ddai, hhI 
Tba tbm l< wvtkad *lib miHli 
I CMna. b«l Mt liBfioTUU Baav(»ru 
kaa Um» ilKialH|K4 la ladU. TW 
u( aam* lima ^p iiBcml a i 

manl far aa «eMumlt»I nrtbed of prvpais. 
Ins iba BUt, aod iho ooal ^a bwa panlf 
flIM lir two Knmdi isveotioM, by oim of 
«bkb Um Mom* 1 1 Ike DFttlM aiv dcvwtl- 
eaud aod (rMd (roin glutjnoat natter hj 
MMiD-lnMiiiffii, mil bf Ilw oiber ibe fiber* 
■t« Mn*ertMl bio • loa naJ; for «fjiuilii)[. 
Tka elntb ■ttufoiiuml froni Ihii Kbcr I* 
gloMji, bat a pcGulkr IraiiffianM?, and k 
«r bcantlf 1*1 leitmi« ; and, at btlibif for Ma. 
Aiwtrj, baa dontile ilw Hnn|[ik«( ImUiw 


Tin nanir Aaorinn friMdt «f Hr, 
tltrtiFrt i=fMno<« bavu trwiuanlly bam 
liklninl doting (ho poat l>o itats by tlw 
Tar7 dlMouniitliis ofwru Mnomttnic th* 
■late of lib IhwIui, and (bo frnt baa b«M 
aipR«*ed ttalbs vnuldbauaolileu Joanjr 
nrarti aoik . iVu uko »iKti pleMure in Mat- 
ins, o** I)** niiihorltr of •jintaU litter from 
a« l«iini«ie trlnnd otf Ur. ^anctr, ibat 
tiKN ba* tiren tn bnpforcscM h kbi too- 
diilon to grMt tliat Iho «rii«r «lMnet«duii 
U a* a "wunilcrfal mioraljon to bcalUi," 

Tw aeal «xtriulro fwcM |4anutlma 
In Ibt tToitod BtatM montioMd la (ba 
" tUpoM ** of tlie [hirlUea of ramlryara 
tbwe oi Om Potl Xci>ll aaO (Iulf RallrMJ, 
and uf Hr. Kmncwell, tiur FartlnKlon, 
Kaua*. of about it 10 acre* «arh, Hr, Itumalt 
Lwdnrili'ii iiluiioiiiMi. of 80O armi. In VJr- 
plnbi : tboM <it ibe Uraan. fa* aod olhen, 
atc«|Uie araoQui nf .V«» bi|laad: and 
««ne of eomlilersblr oit««it In MaUntm 
Canrimla, timall ktotw abound bn ti* 

Cralile Sloio^ anil an foittd Ion tnqwol- 
' la the KaMem tftalxi. notatil/ In Nov 
RfigUtid. In tb* B^RSBio time plaiita- 
Itoat ni-ial aineuM to a ixatldcrable •<««, 
tWwt caniBkakna or bnrvaa* ha*« bora ln> 
etilnied In New V«*fc, Callfoniia, Ohb>, and 

Tni noinmelti* — - '■■' — Trd bjr ihn In- 
t«f«ailoiwl GpoI" ■•» (o riprcM 

lt>« utuniKii'r ' I < alI;;r«|iUe or 

Tbroni ' mt la tkna MrninaHiod bj 

Ur.d < u bU nddnoi brtvre 8(«- 

tinn r. M iiic .tmrrinn Ataodatlea: OC 
•>nilEra|i>»e lUii'loM, tbil altb ibe MghaM 
nsh b f rea^r, ibm twtn*.\)m ^agt. TW 
mtMponilini- cbinM>t><|tIo ilKUleo* ai« trm, 
pmiM, fmik, and ttfif. TW >owl / iiri— 
ifaM b KHrkii^ lo Uir ipMAal (untfiim of 
d^lipiailnic mlaml iuaf>c« *lih rtferatxia 
Ul \\»i< „f\x\n. Ko ootii ha*laff boen aag. 
C 'it/.j \w ill plaiM lo ibriMiia lniIrlUi«t1]r m 
ajtan>i;alf •{ airata, Mr. Gilbert prnfUMa 
Wrw^ and, im tlio ODnM^tftdbifi iwrnan- 
Infle biB, liiM. 



0* olghtT-clgkt nteim of «Md« 4e- 
«Mib«d bf Ur. L. B. rwanMl. of 61. LauU. 
u growing in MnUiwMUm Witeoiuln *nd 
wniliewiero HLuouri, tatij-tax in ot Eu- 

mcoB and lb)it;r^ '^■■^'^■(■'Is'i'- '^"^ 
iMnd of the kitcr clau, aad BMri; «De 
(ourlli of llie cnilre lUl, are (umpoiiui*. 

r«iiiimj>auni hnw btlicTcd lor ttiany 
jMr< llial tlw Qialaridt ctuiM for tnlctnul- 
ttel (iftDr i* ipinciaMd la ilia M>it, aud aci* 
Ihrouxh lt» mi r. TI10 Jbn>T«r7 bf TomuuuU 
Cniiklti and Elplii^ In mdarial Mil, of ■ 
bucUIu* i»tu1ile «t pradttdng (rbrlle tjmj^ 
(oiiii »M ownpeUnt la illmtrftlc Ihe agmcjr 
of iba edl in ihc nutWr, but did not punua 
the naJtriiMw bHuvnce liiu th« sinio^li*t«. 
IV laat ilaa no« been doue bjr Pro(«Mor 
gdilarnxt}, at Tola, wlia liu obuloed ft b»- 
clilui fcQiii the aimospfai^rc. iiuUitinguliha- 
bhl la ntiMtnro Itom thai of Tuminaal-Cn>- 
dalU, wbi«ti 41m praducM tn •nimala [h» 
«b>noUriiti« a7mp40iiui and {lalliolugiaJ 
clungca bekm^ns lo igue. 

Tstnt i* u orange>tTer in Uio frudca* 
at lb« I'alifcot Vcmtllci tlut li more than 
touibandTcl aod flfiy jcan old. It U called 
ihc Grand ('onMalil^, and wai pU(il«4 at 
l>ain|ioluDa, atnul HI'-, lit Klfanor of Ol«- 
tile, Qucini of Ctiarira 111 of N'anrrct U 
wu tiMuplaiitnl to Chullilj and Fontdno- 
bleM, Mid fioalljr u VenaUlc* is l«M. 

A SBW njttonof (c«aga wOTluluubMn 

Cut into operation U ll(alo^n-'I%»ni«*. Sng- 
md. lu objtM b lo aidd Ihe JiMbwge 
of the aowace into tb« rirer — wUA can no 
lonjior be «lt»weJ — and Uti h to a lonl 
wliicb wilt prrmli it 10 b« lurd tor irriga- 
liorn. Kjcrton ar? pUcpd In dilT«f»l p«i1« 
of Ibe toan lo rrmve th« K'VK, and from 
ibotc it i* tonicd bgt oonptoaMd air Into 
laslia about « Bdlo ilbtau, aai IIXi Iwt 
liii;b«r to tUmtlioo, "Hio noUKiJ U not 
VMlf, M \» pr«v«tl praeilnbie, aad h ma; 
flOer ■ miMMAAil lotviion of tfce igocMlM 
of Ibe diqioM) ol tile aewage at ioo-ijias 


TiwKaolbti nnnipflrCTrtarj.rrmrnltlns 
cetiwnl pualthaDCM a* a fad, li. ciiiniM- 
Mllett l« MtaUd fri Ni^lalinc il ■ocoraiag 
lu Ibe pbjriloal oawdiiloa of the eblld, ao 
ibel tt khan not bear too hard npoo tha 
weak. Il II profiMcJ lo make Ibe vtlghl 
of Ibr tod ><ear inme proporllon lo Ibe aoe 
of Ibe ehlU, and 10 perrnlt llir lotivpoalUoa 
of • aedlMl TCW to cue of ertdcoi weali- 

A oow i n w iAiB as(«wlaa of knMt- 
laoee toiepbeninit *«* (dFtoiDd daring TsMT. 
Al Ibe doiM «f llM jm t*f«ij'fl>ii rlivattB 
wvi* at mirk liolweea Kn* Yurii and F" " - 
MphU, tli> Billet iMlMa hi Oawwctli-N' 
bMM auooMCMl, ami Hum nnnrofeei- 
WutwMer, iloMon, UbtMj, aat WMhl^ 

Am ailment agaiaii alioatng cfaU 
lo drUili iDlIk in tlie ■uin«Kr*Ume it dni« 
by Dr. V. C Va^b», of Ibe Unltvr*llr 
Hiobii-*a, ttum the ikUittj of ilie Said 
dereiop Ibe poi*oa— ijrroloxIcMi — whkb 
•nppoMd to be Ibe Iminediaie ihum of 1 
nwr diwriua*. 

Paonana Luiininr and Jrt«felef bare 
found In a mcWoric flone wliioh (etl at 
i£raino«lubodak, RbmIo, hi Kepumlier, 1860. 
eoq»iKlee po«MMi^ Ibe ptWiioil Tbnrau 
terMtn of tho (Bainond, In ■■■cl> (lunutliyl 
a* to {OMpoao o*e per eont of the aioea, I 
Talien vitb iha faou tb«t a»»TphoiM gr»>j 
pliiile nrtMn it a Itkonv oenMiioent of me 
(eorie irooH and Oloeno, aad that crytilal* < 
fraphitle ceilioM bare iMm found b lb 
meicorlc Iron from Weeeem AiwtivUa, ihh 
obMrtalkm mar titraw mom llgibl OU 
JuaoMf in Hbita diaoiondt an lormrd. 

Trr nucb deniiwd agrtcnlBiml lab«ttT,J 
•■J* tiic EUrl of Uoibr. *}m im loomed w 
mlch aoJ sndantawi ihe iSfo* «f Um 
wMiher. to be Itnuviii^ about alotlt, aad, 
vho can UM hie banda alitllfvll;, tboug:Ii In 
niiglit be boclKTftrd in book'k-ariiiiif:, i>i)Ulli 
•■ veil hiHmrtod In onr monhf acoee aal 
the priM |ir<g atufftd villi xnpa of m lecila 
laBcooa iatormaiion, but liBO»ia|; ilula at 
int hand, unaccueloBed to obawta, igoo- 
raM «t atdmaia, IrcM. Soveea, or oonnirr 
Hfe^ tad misliltlod In ug cttft or b lb« 
■laadliag of aay tool. 

D«L A. BicBatDMrn baa lonnd Unrt ai 
too* C. oiiroe«n ptnilde i» ilocoBpoaad 
Into nitileoilde and o»>t*^ tbe gaa beown 
lug noul; eoiorin*. 

Tbk tboorjrtbat ihelncrtaMd beltllauat 
ol bnnan benn vltb adraBdng yearo It 
(be Tonilt of an UmoMC^ peKaniajte of In- 
urganie lalla, ■■ ceklndicM bj tlw eip«ri> 
menu of Ur. Mawn. Froca dolMlnlaalkli* 
of Ihc a)Ji In bone* of Hfljr tub)»cU of A(> 
fetvni ««, be hu (oohI ihet after 
Inn loaMood no larlailun la ibei 
of ealt Uket plMf alth laci«ailn(i 


■ ■•i I 


Ptot. Wn.i.u> D. OffKNiM, 1r«tnf*r 
and writer on aclMIIBe nidilpclf, 4k4 
at (irottty, t'«l,, llaroh mb, In ilie AfiT. 
((siith jvar of U* una. 11* aaa boen in 
ImomlngbuiB, Oblo, in IIBO, wm« gnin. 
aiod froB Oberiia (Mate*, eluilM In mm. 

Gnllifl tntlRRiv Id X'ew Ynik aMd In 
Akj wiib rret Apxti. btU k gJK».,| 
■IJiia In pvlitfj at nilMals I'ullei*, f " 
wi'l In iliubari. lad *at Ibe « ^ 
.1 i... 11, -f Our l"U»n," 

1" -Thi InJi-i" 
I." ibd al Ibe tin 

'■s trnftitfi aa Ilia |iaa- 
-odol; la Oetaler. 







JUVE, 1S86. 




IB thrt tTiilti'd Uutira now in receipt of a revenue derived from 
I.. ' 11 DKVMH uf II n-JUMiiBble expenditure Tor otiuducting 

[to bturitMNB, ^ 

of tliD Oiovivnimont and me«tiu£ thw curmnt an- 
> ^r t)it< ijJtUiin, tlu< pfOHiLOut uud otli(<r lilcu ubligu- 

> pcwittvv unMWcrmay bo given. Yva. Thg 

Kir|iliu revruiau of tbu UnittKl StuUvf, »liovo tbu nt'CCtHSitiy ez' 

niHil t>c(iiiomicnIly udminiutorod, ia nuw at 

ir: niid iiiiI^<M ConKrotw »t iUi )irc«ont soe- 

I the rvductiun of the revenac, it may 

i.^A) oocb your. 

1. it may hv (uked. Would a privsto cor- 

' f (I HurpluB ruvouutf from 

r ly It) dtW witb nt its own 

plmvoro, 1/ it uwm] n birtcu vuin of luouvy onfionuutd and a still 

laiyer nuii nf mutixy pubji>ct to Ito paid on demand Mrithin a 

I>»K-ti"l uf tituf!" tin ttouhd b»]jint.>t« mrtn could \jv found 

'tina tlint uitiliT furU conditionn A privatu oorpura- 

.. :...iki^ any moru nuiiulili.' um) of tho revenue received 

of ibi opooMary expt>ndituni tluui to apply it to the 

' lOHtid.iind to]iro|iAre the way for 

-lion to bi<romo duu at u daU> QxchL 

lie appiifd to tJie pruM'tit voadiljon of tho 

, i;i;"-vr ibnt tbti Guv(<ntmi'iit is not at Uie 

:• ti uf a Kuqdufl ri'Vunne iu nny true 

ll MM* ■it ^tlIn uf nioiiPj* wliifh is n-]ir»- 

^^*Hti ui, known lis Uijiil-irtulrr notra, 

^K- nbacks. 


in "i-'-ii 


r*u_ dirri. — Ill 



In oHor to bo kble to pay these ttotes on deaumd wlioti 

niBod l» mwle, the treasorjr of the United 8tat«fl holds n spwiol 

roserve of $100,000,000 in guM coin : but tlie amount of not«8 duo 

is in round figurv^ «s.wjxiu,O0O. The United States, therefore, 

lOWcs 8ab«UuitiikIly t^5(),i)00,i)(.iO on demand, for which it hiui as 

^fc«t maclo no specific provision either in gold coin or to any con- 

^^adcrnbls extent, oven in eilTcr coin which cun bo mnrlu avuihibln 

for such pAyments. Thr remaindtT of iu gohl h<<ld iti i\ni tnmit- 

ory above Uie epedal raaerve of (lu(.t.«(i0.cMM> in r-ither siihjvct to 

paysumt on dt*Buuul in liquidation of gold cprtirirat<'» of doposits, 

or obio it coaatituttfs a part of the noceeaary doily balance of money ! 

neonesmry ' ' ' ' >nUnary conduct of busineM. The hirgcr imrt, if 1 

xiot the >' : th« eflrer dollan held by the tn-ji^ury uro h<rld ' 

to BMet the payment of the silTer certtflcat«e whioli iutvf Iteen 

iaauA agiunst tfamn. Then are, therefore, sabetantinlly $iSO,- 

OOOjOOO of United States DOtes doe oa demand, fur which no spu- 

eUc piuviskiD has y«k been macte and to thu payment of which 

the ao-oallcd sccrphn nmaae could tuiw bo applied. Yvt ttio 

piabUo mixKl has becoiiM so accnstomrd to the common u»o of a 

debt cvnntej, which nndtr a fiction of law ha» hern dorljirod lo 

bt lawful Bhtttey by the Sntimn* Court of tb** Unita^l .Stntoo, an 

to haT<p IcMt sight oif the fact that the greenback or It'^'nl-toiiiUT 

^J|^ M no< tnw Bxiaey, but that it is an evidence of debt to bo 

^^^K^Raralore, no c wwirtw e ti on ht girtax to the pnsslbltf nppli- 

^HKMoT'nufiltu vmmme, so eallMl. to soch payment of Uioee 

^Bniae ntnr 4ne «b dmaad. 

la v4d(ir thai this sabjnrt may be msde dear, U becomes no- 
cesnary lonK«mM« moc* lolfaeosiginalparxKWfuf thoOovurn- 
IMM ia nniB( Vaitvd Stales aotas and onoapcUui); th'-ir ocropt- 
. MM* •• lawful muaey bf bhbs of tha k^-tm ThrM- 

■sAm w i'i Mwa»4 n> (mm tf mr /brIAr pmrpiut . ■>-ting a 

^MVni 1mi« attAfir mm sI>»t fmrfam~ The DM'v'Wty for a forced 


raw haa ceanri: tl» rsnaoe of the OorcnuMBl 
Iks Ml IIS— j ax|N«At«rML Wbttt At c*fnni> 
taxibtiitt t> paid totbaOtmffuaent initsoa; 
V«h, to Ike MHNttt of wmA Molas pud in, ha- 
«V «^ tontfDK. fcA — ^ w ton iwd to it- 
«s<«t of a tei bw ww Skv a winea batik-<M»w 

PU^'-^^ ft »r» k«^i 





■ I.,. 






ment of a. tax, pxc«pt undiT n speoilic net of Cougroas authorizing 
Ibo co!!<iriiiiii dC a new kmii — i. «., witlioat axx act being now 
puMetl nuthorixiiig a nfw loiui of mou(>y, for which purpose a 
■PIHtnflc juil is requiriHl on the jjurt of Congress undiir Ilii' exiiit- 
iDg ntatuU'S— could CoDgrei« Itiiolf compel Ihu ExL-ciitivo to reie- 
uuti'S ovi'ii iw tho Inwd now staiid ? Conld Congress 
i cann liy n tiicro ninndi^tory act, tn»truoliiig the trea»- 
untr to nn]«(ue the noti.«, without panning an act for borrowing 
money or fur ncgotiuling a new loan on tli« tvrms named in 
ihcate nobw ? 

If not, tli«Tn, HO fur lis th" excess of revenue reci^ivwl by the 
trunMury of Uic Unital Statai over and above its necessary ex- 
|H-niiitur(« under tho appropriations mad« by Coogrees oonsiirt« 
of legal -tedder notm, ituch nolus cease to bu money u'hen they 
come back into tho tronenry. Thoy no longer coustituto a sur- 
plus ; they are simply evideiioos of a demand debt which haa 
lieon pitiiL 

AVhat objection is there to this course being taken ? Simply 
this : Under a fictiim of law, Bustaincj by a decision of the Su- 
preme Court, tUow evidences of debt have become a part of tho 
cirnilrtting medium— h o., a part of that which is lutod as money 
ii, "' * i.rtion of the transactions of the people in which actual 
i; n-iinired; nlso, under the proviRtons of tho bonk act, 

tliiwo notfis may roimlitute a part of the bank re!<er\'ea held by 
thnm to meet ibutr obligutiond when demand is made upon them 
fur paymuul in money. Wliy should banks not ha required to 
hold ri)in only for tliat jiurposo ? 

U[«'n what ground can a rich and prosperous natioa hold to 
tlic belit'f that it can not afford to poy ita debt due on demand 
V ■ ■ ' M bo unable to supply itself with real money in place 
money which \\\\» been forced into circulation un- 
r the Hiruie of war luid under nn alleged nocvssity which has 
I'd P Tlio inittntmeut« of exchange or currency which serve 
the ptirptMW of money in the Uni<«(l States now consist of seven 
ij is, via., goM coin of full IffTivl tender; Government 

I gold coin ; silver dollars of full legal tender ; Gov- 

(•ntmiinl corlilU-atus paynblo in silver dollars; legal-tondor notM 
n ' '' ■■nmnd nnd ri'ceivnblu for taxes; national-bank 

n '■» 'leiiiaiid into lawful money on presenlalion 

Dt thi> )»< ' iry coin of limited legal tender. 

The (-1 I : the transactions of the country in which 

■rtuni monny of either of these seven kinds is necessarily ase<l, 
conatilut 'lall fnwtioii of the transactions of all 

Icin-'I'T. 11, far excoiyling ninety per cent of all 

I i 1, Haliw of goods, stock, and real G«tato, are 

li'^u-'jiivi iii.'i ■..■111...,! by Ute uw of ohecks, bills of exchange 



and book acconnla, without reoourso U) any actual money w! 
ovur. Thu munuy ittu;]f is used as an instnimeut uuly In 
potty tmumiotiuDs of llfo. Yet sucli is tliu dolusiuu n-^antiDK U>0 
neoesaily fur a cerlain quniiLity of nttl or coinixl munuy, ur for 
«ubstitut« money rod««nmble in coin, to bo kept in nctunl circu- 
lation, that a panic nearly happonei] last summer bH;atiK« it mi. 
Msumud that an undue prupurtiun of these varioutt kinds 
money or currc-ucy would bo coUod into the trwuiury and would 
not be reissuotl for lock of appropriations. Eveu the tuoet nk- 
gafious bankers then appeale<l to (be tr^amiry for relief, as if 
tJli» country did not hold a demand crheck upon the reat^rved n 
gold cuiu throughout thu world sulBcient to meet any such ti-m 
porory difHculty ! The ]huuo wm allayed, but allayed only by 
the very judicious action of the Treasury Department ; but 
cause of the panic waa very soon rrmovtd by tile isi])ort of ov 
e.^0,O0O,0D0 in gold coin iu response to our drafts during the sum- 
mer and early autumn. 

Tlio whole volume of the coin of the world is at our dinpoaal 
if wo oliuoso to draw ui>on it lut we did last sumnu-r, If right 
oontfideratiou be givua to exixtiug conditions tlierv could porhaju 
be no better use for the excess of revenue derived by Govi'rnment 
from luxation than its application to the payment of that jiart ■ 
the duuuutd debt, to wit, (2aOtO(Ki,OiX^, which is not now cove 
by gold in th« trousury. Tht-re could then Ix) no objection 
the oontiniied circulation of Uuit«.-d Stales notus in pbuii of tl: 
coin itself ; tlu>ir form could Ihi chniigitd ; tliey could 1hi m. 
into gold rerlificatea correspond iiiR to the wilver tt-rtilicft' 
Then the wliole financial system of the country woulil Im pbi 
upon a solid foundation such as tt bad never twfure reached, 
such a counw were adopted, the oxcexsof revenue over ne 
expeniWB and probitble nppniprinlions by the preM'ut Co: 
would 1)0 likely to amount t*) about the sum of unroverwl not 
viz., t^&O/KXVXX), in the interval lietweun Ww pruNunt time a 
the time when the four and a half (wr cent bouds wutild b«ou 
due and (Xkyubli- in 1601. Any eicct« of ri'vrunent \' 
could thi'U be npptiii] Xm thu paymont of such four and a : 
cent b«>nds. Is it not a finan<:tnl abiturdity to buy Iwnds not yt 
due at a high premium, and to make a forccti loan by the iwni 
of noted duo on demand for that purpono ? 

It tuny, thiTefori', be tinut en>>uKh to Hbn|M« 1< 
nifTVJ (/round «/aii aUtgrd rxr.rJi.v of rvrfnur. •■ . .. 
tender uutosond the four and a half iwr oenl boudi shall nil ha' 
b. , ■ ■ ■ - 

i m" ftir rctttfinK faxatinn. TIte pH 
|HHM of tius munierundum i 
ntVBUUoand tu show thot iii<'i>.- m w. <,.-l ifn.' .>i'"><- mi 




obflgfttionii of lltQ OovL'mmt'ul wliicli nro <]u« nnd imyalilo. The 

pQTtioiM* is to bring <>ttt tliu fiict tlmt there 18 a debt of tlie Caitixl 

Aataa now dui* wliioli r-iui hf \in\A; that the country ia rich 

KoDKh to ]>»y it : (1ml. nn finam-uil ilistur)Niiicu would of neces- 

rity fdnuv: tlmt ihit vimt di<|iiMt<8 of gold coin nuw hold in Ea- 

rupp and our own minunl prwitict wtpuld xuflice to m4?«t our 

cbix'kM for $'A)<),0(i(l,f)(H), without scriouH 4<mbarm!Wiiiont, to bo 

Ksffl in tliK Di-xt two or thn« vrjirH. in liquidation of the balance 

QtiK OS for cotton, for rom, luid for other oommocUtioa which 

tbn wirrltl munt hnvo and can not spare. 

It thrr' ' * >lIowH thiit if itiiy tcini>ornry finimcinl Btrtngoncy 
■hould (» .uMtof thf willi'truwiil of thi.* l<'i|<al-t<^»dor notes 

fr<rm thf Iwink ptttTVcw and from thi-ir uw br nion«y in this conn- 
try. fV- '-"-)nn or ulmin of Hint condition nee<l not and would 
not \' 1 by thii iMinlcH or twutkiTs of (hiji country, but would 

b" tr 1!. :. i:--! to onr di'btors who ovru u«, nnd will continue to 
uwf ijp' [iij!iii/iUy, on our uicn-handi^' nccouiit, more tlian we r©> 
qoira to put mtrmdvtw on the mo^t ^Hd finiincial fonndation of 
any nation in tho world, viz., on a basin of a pa]ier currency 
hn-*-') ii|«>n artual bullinn held in resers-e, dollar for dollar. If 
i that Kuch a d<-niand for coin on the Iwink rosorvi* of 
, . . -mid tw mrt. by a rotum of our securitiwi, may it not 
!.'[<! (!. L' til' 'X securities are mosftly held for invcetnK-nt> and 
'i\i.\\ tin 'ho danger of war and of finanrial dis- 

Iur''Hi'' i tni-H, ihi' larRcr will b<? the transfer of 

cttpital u> this country for invtwtiDent ? 

May it not be li»Ii| tltnt the very nxcena of revenue paid into 
kb^ iTtwmry ovnr and b1k)vb the neiressilit's of the Oovomniont> 
i !f a witnnui t<i the enormous financial power now held 

t,. ■... I'liiteil StuteH Invnune of the verj" accumulation of capi- 
tal which luw opcurrwl durinff the hurt few yt-nn ? May w© not 
\m misled by a ni' -ion in rvtHiimin^ that the h-fj^il-tender 

DOlfli or fprMrnhn- •- any hirthcr U!<ernl function in this 

conntry if they evor liad any ? 

V- •• "j" fact in txddly stated which can not \» denied, 
that 'um of tbese notett from the tri«i«ury of the United 

StjU' 'hi' I'oiiliiiiinnrii of a forniiT loan, hut ii; the nctiuti 

borr-. ; new moni-y und«r a forced loan and in lime of 

fmetf, can anythinK be more nbKunI than to nAfiume that such a 
' is ai<c«n«ary ? If the bunion of taxation demands relief, 
ah/^rether another matter. If, on the otJicr hand, the 
I'm is not serious, to what l«>tter purpose can 
■it than to the))nyinent of any or all debtaof the 
. thf enti that. Iwfore tbo ci-ntury is completed, 
'"' abnolulely frw from the debt which 
. ijatntuin thr intt'grity uf the nation ? 


Bt hebbkrt i«i-ekces. 

WUtLE I do not concur in Hundry of tlio stutomenta A 
couclusioQH oontttinod in tho iirticli) vutitliKl "A Gxv 
Confiission," cotitnbut<.>il by tho Dukv of Argyll to the Wt nut: 
bor of this K«view,* yet I am obliged t<> hiiu for haWiig r;tii«i 
afresh the question discussed in it. Though the injunctio: 
"Roet and bo thankful," is ono for which in msny spheres nnid 
may be said— «Bpc«iiilly in tho political, wli<jit< uinlu*^' n-»tl' 
iicss U proving very inischieTouii— yot rest and l*o thatikrul ts 
injunction out of place in science. Unhappily, while )>olitician« 
have not duly regardcKl it, it appears to liave Ixwn token to heart 
too much by uaturaUitts; in eu far, at K>aKt, usi conocnu thu quva- 
tion of the origin of siKvios. 

Tht> new biological otlio<loxy behaves just nit the old blol 
ca3 orthodoxy did. In the days before Darwiu, tJioso who occ 
pied ttiemsRh-es with the plienoniena of life p>iased by witl 
nnobaervanl eyea the niultitudinoiuj factd wliich [wint to an wo- 
tuttonary origin for planUi and oniinaU; oud thoy tuniud dv4ii 
t'ors to those who iusixtud upon the iiigiiiflcnnce of thette facta 
Now that they luivu come to believe in this evolutionary origin 
and have at the Minto time accepted the hyixithraiH that naluru 
iielet;tion lias b<;en the sole cause of the evolution, they «re siiuiJ 
larly unobservant of tLe multitndinons facta which can not rJ 
tionaliy l»e ascribed to that cause ; and tunt deaf t<ar8 to thosi 
who would draw thoir attention (o thera. Tho nttifutlo i*. t)t# 
same; it Is only the creed which has clutugod. 

But, as altove imptie<l, though the pretest of the Duke o£ 
Arg)'ll again.*<t tliis attitude is quite justifiable, !t eei!<tns to am 
that niHity of his statementa cnnnot be tiiiHtniiKHt 8<jme of theM 
0<incuru ine jH'TSunaUy, and others are of imprrwuml concern. I 
propose to deal with thorn in tlio nnlor in which they occur. I 

Ob page t44 \ the Duke of Argyll quote* nte as omitting " fdl 
the present any coneideration of a factor which may In* distitu 
guishnd at! primordial "; and he repreKenta nio o» Implying ba 
this "thxU Darwin's ultimate runcvplion of some primonlid 
M' ■ of tli.'bf'nlhof Hfu'i^ jl 

!>■ ' i 'fur till* pnuteut.' Evi ; d 

obviouH int'-rpn'tntion, it would have boeu n »u(newhat nuth aa 
^UpptiOD that thin was niy tneauing when refurring tn on ooiifl 

B •<tMT«t>nUrlM«nnU'inllil;"(arlUr. I«OT. I 

I "PefHilM'Sdant* HmUiI;," tii. uilB, p.». I 



U<<1 fnctor; and it ia surprisinff that this msminption should havo 
b(Hn) mado after re«wliiij; the second of the two articles criticiaed, 
in which thitt fftctor omittiil from tJio first i« dealt with ; thtB 
omittL-i] itiirtl factor being tht< direct physico-chemical action of 
tho iiii>dium on the orf^niam. Such a thought as that which the 
Duko of Argyll ascrihes to me, is so inconKTUoua n'ilh the he* 
\\et» I havL< iu many places oxprcsHed that thu ascription of it 
noTiT occurroil to mo ti& possible. 

Lmkit clown on the eaniR page arc some other scntonccs hav- 
ing iH>niunat implications, which I most dispose of before going 
into the gfQi?ntl <|ui.«ttion. Tho Duke says " it is more than doubt- 
ful whi-thor uiiy value attaches to the now factor with which ho 
[I] ilL>airi-s to KUpplumotit it" [iiaturitl )<c-lt.-ctiunj : and lie thinks 
.11 " uiinccountabic " tliat I " sliould make »o great a fu8s about 
bu suiall a matter as Ihe effect of use and disuse of particular 
hrgftn? a» a Sf pnrate and a newly recognised factor in the devel- 
opment of variftive." T do not suppose that the Duke of Ar^-ll 
Bntvodud to cant upon mo tho disiigrocahlo imputation, that I 
Eelaim oe new tliat which all who nro oven slightly acquainted 
hrith tin- fiwts know to he anylliiiig rather than new. But hia 
hrunla certainly do this. How he should have thus written in 
ppite of the extensive knowledge of the matter which he evi- 
Buntly has, and how he should have thus wiitten in presence of 
phe evidence con tjiined in theurticlox he criticises, I cannot un- 
nivnttnud. Nuluralisl^, and uiultitudi^w besides naturalists, know 
tluit the Ityitothesis which 1 am ropnwented as pnlting forward 
■aa new is much older than the hy|iotheflis of natural selection — 
boon bac^k at least as fur as Dr. Erasmus Darwin. Aly purpose 
nros to bring into the forugruund again a factor which has, I 
bkink, bei'n of late yvtan improiK<rly iguorud; to sliow that Mr. 
iDarwin recogiii»ed this factor in an tnorensing degree as ho 
brow <»M showing which I should have thought I sufll- 

Eiuntly 1 the supposition that I brought it forward as 

■t4iw) ; to give furtlier ovidi^^co that this factor is in operation ; 
ho show tlitirn ani numerous phunoiucna which cannot ho intcr- 
kretixl witliout it ; and to argue that if proved operative in any 
■Uqc it uiay W inferre«l that it is operative on all structures 
SlHng iu-ttvi> ftmclions. 

Stnuigely unough, this passage in which I am represented as 
li ' ■ ' ' ' " li I havu meri'Iy sought to 

Uv ■ swcceink-d by a passOgS iu 

Hi|Bb the Uukeof Argyll himself representa the doctrine as bo- 
^QPnunilior and well i<«tabliflhF<tl : 

TiMt oripui" tinu anfflKllnl [i p. hjr |>«n>i«Uot iIwiim] ar« inu)«DiU«d bjr tn* 
l^rilaiMO lo trfTaprip^ in i. illon of (taDOtloaal AmI *tritolaral decline, Is 

BMmlatoil vl'*>i"W'^' nut f«Durall/dtq>ill«(1. T1i« conv«n« <-»■•■— 




of itMnwiMd Ntnoigtb Jtod derctopneiit sridng cMt of tbe babiual mA Itttlnhf 
nae of spcdftl orguia, ftod ot the tmumiMion of Umm to offiqiritig— 1« « 
illuMlratod bf Bian7 axamplM in tbo briMdinit of dumouic Bntmnl*. I ili> not 
know lo wW elsa w« «ui aUrib«t« tbe long «leii<jvr \tg» and bodiw of gra/- 
liODodi 10 nwiifoatlr Bdaiitod to «p««d of toot, or tlio dolicato powcnt of mwll in 
pointera mmI *vtt*ni, or a <1oe(3i osm of modified atriicture efl«ct«d hj ani flri*t 

In noiio of tho iissoriions contttinod in this pnMOge onn 
HKi^^ Had tlio iiilieritanoo of " functlonA] uml xtnivturnl i 
oline" b«tn " not generally diaput«<l," half my argument woi 
have been needlesn ; nnd had the inheritani^o of " inctyuuKHl 
strength and development " caused by use been ns'ogniswl, aa 
" Utustratod by many exumples," the other half of my arf^ument 
would hnvo been newllme. But both aro dispulod ; and, if not 
I>oeitively deiiiotl, are held to be unproved. Qroyhounds and 
pointers do not yield valid evidence, because thdir i>eruliari- 
ties are more due to artificial selection than to any other cause. 
It may, indeed, be doubted whether )<Teyhoiinds n»e their tei 
moro than other do;^. Dogs of all kiiida ant daily in thu habib 
of running atxtiit nnd chasing one another nt the top of tlieif' 
speed — other dogs more froqnently Ihnn greybouiidn, which n: 
not much given to play. The occasions on which greyhound 
exercii<e their legs in clia.'<ing hares occupy but inconsidernlil 
spacer in their lives, and can pluy but smaU parts in developing 
their logs. And then, how about their long bcedti and sharp 
no0W ? Are those developed by running ? The iitruciurD of ih< 
greyhound is explicable aa a rctult mainly of. "election of vari 
ationa otx'aRionally ariaiiig from tinknown causes ; but it ih inex 
plic4ib1e otherwise. Htill more obviously invalid i« the evjdf'n 
said to bo fumished by pointers and BOlU-rs. Bow ciin thuse 
said to excrcim their organu of smell more than other dogs! 
Do not all dogs occupy themmlves in sniffing about here nnd 
there nil day long: 1 racing animnls of their own kind and o( 
other ktndiif InHtend of admitting tltat the olfactory sonM ii 
more exercii»ed in pointers and setters than in othi>r dogs, i 
might, contrariwise, lie c^^ntendod that it is exorcisu'd lean; »t»^ 
ing that during tho groater iwirts of tlieir lives tliey am shut « 
in kennels where tho variety of wlore. on wV.i-'' ' hniftinc thai 
nowut, is hut xmall. Clearly if breeders of : do^n hav 

from early days hubiluully hnvl from Ihi-H" i>ii|riii<'~ of i-ai-h lit 
tor which littd tbo kounntt mww (nnd it in undenlikble that t.b 
puppies of Mch Httor ant mado dilTarunt from rmo another, 
are the rhiMn'o in i-iicb human fnriiih ' 
tiiins of cuuM'it), then tho uxintL'nce fif 

in pninfent and wttturn may Iw accountnl ^or; ' -Mt 

friwi niMaoouutalilv. ThflW instoncM^ and tuarij .^......^ ..<„Xk, 

A covyrsR criticism. 

'dtoold have gladly nsed la supix>rt of my urgotuont had the} 
bocQ nviiihtMn ; l>ut unfortunately they am not. 

On Ilio next pago of tho Duk*- of ArgyH's article {paKeHS),' 
oemrH u pnfixntio u bii^h I iiiukI i(Ui>ti- ul leuglh before I can d«al 
(iffoctujUly with its various statements.* It runs lui follows : 

Bot If iiAtiiTB) MlMtion l« > men plirwe, va^e mkiu^Ii and wide eaoogh \a\ 
corar «n; aamliar of il»e pti7«lcAl eaoM* ci>norni«d in or>Jiiiar>- jrviiwnttleii, then 
Um wbde of Mr. ApwMr's Uborioaa anrumcut in (itror of hi« "other fiwtor*' 
booocMf an nrKnatnt norao Uian Kaptrflaoas. It i* wlioll; latUoioiM la auudt- 
laff tbw till* " faotvr "^ and " iiataral aeteoIioB " »re at all cxdnnTC of, vr veeu tv^ 
>rM« Irwn, each otli^r. The factor Mm* aatomeil to \m new {» ^ixayXj ma of ili« 
fliiliardinata ciUM of liori.'ditj. llat bcrcdit; U the ccntrul idva of ontaral tekc- 
tlon. ThanfiMv oaturNl iiel«a[ion l&oloiie* and covera all tli« catucs which can 
pMrihl/ vpcratc tlirongh tah^ritsaoe. Th«r« la tha* no difficulty vhal«T«r Id 
nftrriait It (v llm aamo odq factor «-boac Nlltarx dotnlnlon Mr. gpenctf hu 
p|iuik«(l tip Murage to <Uspat«. B« wU ii«vor nieeccd in nhnking Ita dictator- . 
riilp hf raeb a imall NtMlllftD. IIli llctio contcnUon ia like tomn hit of BumUv- 
dom aaltiag <ap for Homo Rata— aonio paruchtal TCntrjr claiming iodepeodeBoe of 
a KiilTanal eni|ilre. Il preteodi to aet np fur Ltaclf in mmiw frartn«iit of an Idea, 
Bat b«r* b not «*«n a fragraeot to boast of or to tUod op for. Ul* ii«v factor ia 
urpuiie evolathit) bo* nvilber indepcAdcniM) iiur norelty. Mr. Sp«flc«r la able to 
qiinto hliiMelf m bail&x meotiooed It In lit* PrltttipUt ^Biology, pabli«tied 
tune tWDlf yean aj^t; and br n carcfiil mnaacbiog of Darwio he *liowa that 
lliu I'litn waa fnriiiliu to ftod adinlltird bv biia at leaat Id bi« la«t odiilon of tlie 
Ortf/iti iffS/ifeiM. . . . Darwiu waa a niaa no niucli wiser lliatt all bis follow- 

HaiI thnre not lioeQ the Duko of Argyll's si|i|;nBtni« to the 

nrticlu, 1 (wuld acarcdy have beliovod that tliis passage was 

writtun by Iiim. Uememberiog tliat on reAtling his ar^o in I 

L tba pr«Di»ditig number of this Review', I v/nn slnirk by tho ex- 

' tout of koowlodgo, clearnoftu of diiicriminalion, and power of 

Bxpoaitiun, diiip)ny<>d in It, 1 can ecurc«ly understand how there ' 

I baa ootne f i-oui the aamo pon a jMKKago in which none of ihvm 

^tauU aru exliibited. Even one wholly unacquainted with tlio 

' uifty Mi' in thfl last two ii>?i)tbnoo8 of the aliovo extract, 

ran(;uly ilH propoeitiona are strung together. While in 

tlM> first u[ thnm I aiu roprcaented at) brinjfing forward a "new 

ill ll>n socODfl repn?)i('ntcMl an Haying that I mun- 

y veAfg ago 1 lu the siiniu broath I am duscrilivil 

H < . il as new and assorting it as old] So, again, tlio 

tiniiin .-i roniter, on coinparing the first words of tlie exb-act 

with tliA hwt, will be surprisefl on seeing in a ocientitic article 
|4t«tamentA no manifivttly wonting in precision. If "natural se- 
loetiun ia a mi>ro phraoo," liow can Mr. Darwin, who thought it 
tutplainwl tbt> origin of «pcciv«, bo regarded as wise ? Surely it 
miui be more tluut a more phrase if it ia the key to so many 

■ ■■ IV>Ur fM«»< UodiMt,- nL xtM, p. I*, 


otl]onrise inexplicable facbi. Theew examploB of inconf^ruous 
tliutiglit.'j I giv« Uj pivpare llie way ; and will now go on to ex- 
umiiKt titf cliiof propositions wliicli tlio quoted pawaj^ contnins. 
The Duke of Argyll twys tlint " liorodity is tlie central idoa 
of nalumi selection." Now it would, I thinlc, be concluded that 
ttiuiii< who poBSees the central idea of a thing Iiare some con- 
ttcioiisuoK^^ of the thing. Yet men have posseseed the idea of 
heredity for any numbor of guuurations and have l>e«n quite un- 
oonsciouH of natural Bolection. Clearly the 8t«t«mvnt in mis- 
leading. It might ju.Ht a.s truly be said that the octurreiice of 
Htrut-'turul variations in organisms ia the central idea of natural 
soloctiou. And it might just as truly be said that the action of 
external agoncien in killing some individuals and fostering 
others is tlie ceutrnl idoa of uiituml H-k'cttuu. No mch assoiv 
tions are oom^t. The proces.s Irns threo factors— heredity, vari- 
atioQ and external action — any one of which being absent the 
pToooos ceoMB. The conception contains three corresponding 
i<lpas, and if any one be struck out the coni-opliun cwnno*. be 
framed. No oue of them is the central idut, but they are vty 
essential ideas. 

From the Rrroneoiia belief that " heredity is the central ide* 
of natural selection " the Duke of Argjde draws the conclusion, 
conaiHjui^nt ly erroneous, that " natural seclection inc1ude« and cov- 
ers all the causes which can possibly operate through inherit- 
anoe." JIad ho considered the cases which, in the iVi'/tci/Jc* of 
IHoJiMji/. I Imvc cited l« illustntte the inheritanix* of fwnctionally- 
pro<hict*<l modilicationK, hu would have «*ii that his inference ia 
far from eorrect. I have instmnoed the decrease of the jaw 
ftmong civilised men as a change of structure which cannot havo 
been produced by the inheritance of 8i>on1aneous, or fortuitous, 
Tftriiitions. That changes of structure arising from such varia- 
tions may be maintained and incrca:^ in successive genenitiouv, ^^ 
it is needful that tlie individuals in whom they occur aball do- ^M 
rive from them advantagee iu the struggle fi>r existence — ad- ^^ 
vautjkg<<s, t'MitStillicifntly great to aid their survival and mal- 
tipltcittiou in cunsideniblu dogret«. But a d<vn-aiie of Jnw, ro- 
ihiring its weight liy even an ounce (which wmild be a largo 
Timntion), cannot, by either smaller weight carrie*! or smalW 
nutrition n-quin-ti, have iijipnTifthly ndvnnliigcd ni> in 

the iMitlle of life. Even t<u|i|nMing tiiich dtniintition oj , Imi 

beneli<'iul (and in the n<suUlng decay of teeth it vntiilla great 
'!i hiirdU ' ' * '. ■ iiae the 

i of fill irt^neru- 

jltou «(t4ir - Ti, UnlnsH it has done this, however, de- 

Pr„,..-...i .....,,,, ;,,,. jii^ (niuiii)l havo iKim pr>.«lucet] by the not- 
nnii 'ti of fnvorablu vurtatiuus. Uuw can it tlmu have 


A coujVTEr criticism. 


b*« prodnrwl t Ouly by tlocrtiued runction— hy the habitusl 
UM» of M>rt friocj. jmiiLxl. iKwilily. with thu Aisum of llio t«etli as 
UhiIm. Aii'l ■■- If UiiU tills c^tUM' <>{>i<rnt«.-H ui>uii nil nii'iuborB 

iif u wHiii'ty -.i I I ilia into fivilii4«l linbits. Uvnvrutiou aftor 
KiiupraliuQ thia decraased function changea ita coaiimiiont faml- 
liM Bimultttnootuly. Natural wloctioa'tlotm not cover the case 
at alt — ))fw notltliiK to do Tritli it. And tliu liku luippons in 
mul! iH otlipr cases. Every sixfi-ioa 8{>ro»ding into a 

new J,.. :. oomlog in oontiu^t with nevr foud, exiHNWd to a 

diirtitvnt tcinporaturu, to a driur or muistvr uir, to a more irref^> 
Urn' -toil, &<*., htwi itH mi'inlMifM uiiB uud »11 »ub- 

joct ■< -.^<^1 lu-tions. which iiil1m-nc(t it-s nuutottlar, 

Taacular. nsiptratory, diKCtf^tive, and other Ryatemn of oi^anM, 
If ihiint in inhiTitunco of functionally-produced cbodiftcationn, 
Ihtii itti iU nifnitx>r» will transmit tho stmctunil altorationa 
' in tliKtii, iinil thu spocivH will chaugc ue a whole witliout 

u. ,-(>Lantinii; of iwimn stocks by others. Doubtlc«8 in ruspoot 

o( onrtaln cbanfcm natural Mtloction will co-operate. If tho 
^lecilaN, boinK a prodaceoua one, ia bronchi, by migration, into 
the pramnoo of prt-y of fuoator iipced than iK'foru; then, wbUo 
■11 iu tnnnibum will hn\-u tlivir limbtt strviigiboDod by extra 
action, thuM in whom thia mumsular adaptation ia greatwt will 
Uavn thinr Diultiplituttuin furlhored; ond inlioritanoo of tho 
I' Jly-ini'mowd titnictun>H will be aided, in fmcceasive 

K ^itm, by flurviviU uf the fittest. But it cannot be no with 

tht) maltitudinoiu minor iihangMi entailed by the modified life; 
Thn Diajority of tlioM must be of sacli relative unimimrlancu 
that one uf tbem cannot givt to the imlividunl in which it bo- 
flQW ma«t nuirkod, ndvunta>cefl which imiliiminittc ■> wr kindr«d 
■dTsatoRea rfaiuod by othi.>r indix-idunU from other vhangeA 
mora favorably wrought in thorn. In respect to these, the in- 
baritod • * ' and diHuaa louxt accumulntu indopendunlly 


To makii cUtir tlto rrilationa of tbcM) two fiicton to one an- 
' and Ui hnri'dity, let ua lake a chm) In which the oiwrutions 
'kll tJtrixi tnny baaovorslly identilietl and dUtinifui'^hud. 
H«n> in one <if thtian |Mnoas, oociiai<HiaUy met willi, who has 
an addiiiirniU iin^r on ooob hand, anil who, we will fiiipiKwo, Ih » 
Mackmoith. Ho in noither nhlMl nor niucli hindcn^^l by theae 
■diHti-^al nnKun; bat. by oonatant uxe, he hoN greatly devel< 
tliu mujulea of hiji arm. To avoi<] a [lerturbing factor, we 
aaaumo thiO. hta wifo, t«>o. HXcn-uioit tior nruui to an uniuuiJ 
mi: kiwpv a moiu'^ ! haa all the cuHtum of tlin nuij^hbor- 

boud. Siuh iHiing i; . ruslADC'^, b't us atik whut are tho 

■rtAtiUaiiad facta, ami witaL oPi thn buUuCl and diabeUafs of 



The lirat fact Is Uiat tJ)i» six-fiugorad blachmnith will bo 
lUcdy b) tmnsiuit his peculiarity to winie of Ids childron ; oad 
ftome of these, airai". to Ihein*. It U proved that, even in tbo 
abaenre of a ]ike peculiarity in the other parent, this strange 
variation of structure (which wo must ascribe to som« fortuitous 
combiuution of causes) is often u)herit«(l for mora than one 
goiiumtiou. Now the causes which protluou tliis pcnnst4^<nt six- 
tiiiji^-nHliiftvi are umiu<*~ttic)nitbly nttiKos which "oiwrato thmugh 
inhpritance," TheJhikeof Argyll wys that " natural selection 
includes and covers all the causes which can possibly operate 
through inhoritttuco." How dooe it cover the causes which oper- 
ate here? Natural sclortEon never comra iuto play at all. 
There is no fostering of this peculiarity, since it does not help in 
the struggle' for existence; and there is no reason to sujipose tt 
is such a hindrance in tJie struggle that those who have it di8> 
Appear in conseijiieuca II simply gets runcuULtl [n llie course 
of generations by the wlverse iulluouciiH of other Htocks. 

While biologists admit, or rather assert, that tlie [leculinrity 
in the blacksmith's arm which was bom with him is transiitissi* 
bio. thoy deny, or rather do net admit, that the otlii-r jieculiari- 
ties of his arm, iiiducCHl by daily labor — its large muscles aiid 
8ti«ngtheno(l bonus — are transinttisible. Tliey sny Uiat there is 
DO proof. The Duke of Argyll thinks that the inheritance of 
organs enfeebled by disuse is " not gntierally disputed " ; and ho 
thinks there is clear proof that the cr>nver«e change — increase of 
«ixe cuasoqueut on use — is also inherited. But bioloi^ists dispatA 
both of the»e nlU-ged kinds of inheritftnce. If proof of this is 
wante<l, it will be foimd in the pmcM'dingKat the Insl rar<>tiug 
of tlie British Association, in a paper entilltnl " Are Acquired 
Characters Hereditary?" by Professor Kiiy Lankiertcr. and in 
the discussion raised by that piaper. Had this form of inherit- j 
ance b«<en, as tJie Duke of Argyll says, " not generally dispulixl,'' ' 
1 should not have written the first of the two aH iclio he cxitieiMM. j 

But supposing it proved, as it may hereafter Im>, that such al 
functional! y-produood change of structurit as the bliusksraitb'sl 
nnn shows us is tnutsmissible. the persistt^'nt inheritance Is again I 
of a kind witli which nntiinil wUv^lion ha- -to do. If 

the groatly-stn-ngthi-mHl arm cnabK-d the 1: and his 
diMC4>ndjints, having like strengtJiened arms, to carry on the bat-J 
tie of life in u much more *\\'- ' I way than i1 wiw " ' onl 
by other men. survival of li i would e»*iiir» t ^ilo-j 

nonce and increase In this Intit in suocemire k> ', But 

tliv skill ">r the carjM'Hfer enabbm him to earn q^ '"'^' a*, 

his stronuer neiichhor. By the various arts ho li :ht,4 

the pint' " " ' 

by his 1' ■ , , ,, . jij 




lOolnuuiU'r by hin iCTKfwIecIftt*, t]i» farin>bailiff by bia diligence 
ettiv, i«u(v«hI Lii tlio strugglo for exifltence Ctjtially wkIL The 
advaiitaKc of n Ktruiii; nrin do<«t not pivdominate ovnr th« a<l- 
rAutoKUH which uthur lufu gain by their iunato or Acqniretl |>ow- 
m* of utbur kliHlfi ; uud thun'furo natttrsl selection oumot opor- 
■to M ■■ bi iucnaao Uio trail. Buforu it cim bo im-reuiM^I, it \n 
MatrftUaMl by Uiu tmiuiiH of tli<-ii«o liitving it wilb tliuao having 
utli«r tnut«. Tci whntiivtT «<xtimt, tlierefore, inhcriULitco of this 

f -" "-F^lly-priKlurod lutKliiicatiiin oporaW, it operateti indv- 

1 y of niituml wltvtitfti. 

(Jiix ulhi'' 'U( to bo do((m1 — tho ri'lttlivt^' iiu{>ortjtnoe of 

in fACtor. I Kjiwl developments of luusi-lu nt»y Iw iraos- 

tt«d: if. IM Mr. Damrin bi'Id, there are variottA «trucrtaral 

t' ■ ■- .■■ cnuHod by uao und dimise which imply inheri* 

kiii'l; if iicfiuirtv] charactere uru horodilHr}', ns the 

ArKvll b>ilinvi«:— then tho area over which thiH factor 

• »...tic otrolaliuu opornltvfl in enormous. Not overy moncle 

only. I'ut Dvery tumrn and norvo^eutro, overy bUKxl-vesaeKei'ery 
> nd naariy orory bono, inuy Ih* iunruosw) or dHcmttsod by 

r^ iDOa E^co{itfai({ partj« wbit-h havu pauusivo fuoctiunii, 

(nch CM dortiutl iti)]K'n(Inf;;(ui and the bonos wliich fonii ilie bIcuII, 
Iho Implicatlun it tlmt n<<orly e^-<try urpjui in Ihn budy may Iw 
owkIKIM ill mict^CMHivt' Ki'ii^rittioriH by tbo aiiKuxtnted ur dimin* 
lilwx! ' niiuin"! of it; luid, saru in tite few caitea where 

Uiv ( I Lt-.^i is ona which coiiducos (o survival in a jiru- 

Mniii y\\\ be thus modified indti|N<udvuUy of natural 

•pIucLj' 111. 1 "'mt« but littiu iii Uit> vog*^ 

lal world, fUi'. lalo pnrt in thti lowtut ani- 

mal world ; yv\, Bcvntig that alt thu active organji of all animals 
B- ■' ;«H iu it* iiilldonra, it biw an immense Hplmni, Tho 
I ' Affryll ''■>ni[uinM tho nhiim mmlo for this fiu:tor to 

lipiii wjttiiig up for Home Rulii — »f>mw [laro* 

c: -^..^ :.^ indiTiHJudi^aoo uf a uoivoi-salumpirv.'* But, 

far from Uitn. tbr chum ntadR for it is to an empiro, Imw Indeed 
Uuui thai of ' MttecUon, and ovor n umitll i>nri of which 

iMlanil M>le< I rolMs conrnrrtmt power, but of which tlio 

liidwpotidiint |ian Ham an aruit that in immense. 

'* - ' 'i'*n. that tho Dukr of Argyll ift mistokea in 

iifi rontaiiicl In thu [tfuoutgtw 1 liavo quotod. 
|iiin<<) rlutriw-ttTM i.v cfiHiiutiil by bioluKi^ta, 

:- XI nrtt, ll U not true Uiat " hnrtxlity is the 

'<f natural Mlectioo." The b-tati.>uiutit that ualtira] 

' I vers all thu Raiieaa whinb citn [lotuiibly 

iiC9, is cjuilti erronooiis. And if the io- 

.>nioteni U a factor at all, the dominion 

■^■■,. L. „;. ...Ti^.villeiuit but vast. 




Here I mast break nff, after (It<a1iiig with a pof^e and a half 
of the I>ukt' of Argyll's urtk-lo. A atiito of hwiltli which has 
provontt^xl n)0 from puhtishiiig uiiything since The Ifnctors of 
Organic JStvlution, now ncnrly two years ago, prevents me 
fn>m rarryiiiK the matter further. Could I have jmrsued the 
ar^mviit it wuuIJ, I bolieve, have been practicable to ohow that 
voriouH other positions taken up by the Dake of Argyll do not 
admit of eJTectual defcnre. But wht^thor or not th!8 in pnibahit*, 
the reader must be left to judge for himself. On one further 
puint only will I say a word ; and this chiefly becaaxe, if I paea 
tt hy, a mistaken imprestuon of a serious kind may bo diffuatxt 
The Duke of Ar^'U ropre«ont« mo as " Riving up " tlte " famous 
phrase" "survival of the fittest," and wishing "to nliandoti it," 
Ho does this becauHe I have poiuted out that its words havo 
coanotatiun» against which we must be on our guard, if we 
would avoid curtain distortions of thoughts "With equal pro- 
priety lie might say that an astronomer abandons the utatvmvnt 
that tho planet--! move in elliptic orbits, l>e«niJto he warns his 
readers that in the heavens there exist no such things as orbits, 
but that the phuieto sweep on through a pathless void, in direo- 
tioDS perpetually ehange<l by gravitation. 

1 regret that I should havo Liul thus to dissent so ontinvly , 
from various of the stateineots made and conclusions Uravn by fl| 
tlie Duke of Argyll, because, as I have already tmpliixl, 1 tliink ^^ 
he has done good service by raising afresh the qiieiition he hiis 
dealt with. Though the advantagfs wliich he hojipa may result 
from (bo discussioD are widely unliko Iht- advuntoge«i which I 
hope may result from il, yet wo agree in tlio Iwllef that odvnn- 
tages may bo lookoil for. How profound and wldi^prending ara 
Uie conseqiieDCiw which may follow from the answer girvn lo 
the iiHOslion— " Are acquired chnrarters Iiereililnry ?" I havo 
pointed out in the prefai* to The Fadora of Oryanic Krolution 
in its republished form ; and perhaps 1 may be excused if 1 hera 
n'pro<iurp thp t'jiMpntial passugoe for the purpose of giving to' 
them a wider difl'umon : 

" Though mental phenomeruk of many kinds, and eaiKwiully 
of th(> simpler kinds, are explicable only as n>Kulling fnmi Uie 
natural selwlion of favorable variations; yut Iheroan", I Ix-liuvi', 
still moro nuiiieniuiii mi-titjtl phenomena, inclmiing all ihitno nf 
any oonBidiimblo eomplexity, wliirb cjumot bii rxphilned other 
wisn llian as rusultsof the ttilivrilunce of fnnotlnnally-protluocd 
m<'^ * "*, . . . 

I :*■ thiire ari) involved the ronreptinns wo form of Ih' 
gDncsiH and nature of our highor em aid, by InipHcallon, 

the COO'- t ■■ ' —!• V -itir monn iin>n,i>>n)i. . . . 

" Tluit ■ ■ •* muHt alto he profoundly offnc^ 


by tho conctuttinns we drav nii this [toint, in olivloutk If a nu-' 
' ion is nKxtiflwl en mtutae by trnu»mi>fsitm of the KfTectt jiru. 

' '' • mcmljors hy lhi>rii> modoM of daily 
I . 11.-* ftiiil rircumsUiircs iiivolvo; thun 

WW mast infvr thai hucIi institutioiui and circiimfitAnoas mould ital 
Ditimlvn far more rapidly and comprehensively tlian Ihey can! 
[ du if thn HolncnuiHi of twliiptat ion to tlu'm is the more frequent i 
ri%iU iif io'Uvidonlw who hnpjioii lu have vuriud in fuvunible j 

** I will luid only Uiat, comddering the width and depth of | 
Uu' ' ' '^hlf-h iwcftpUini"*' iif oiif fir oilier of those hypulh««<e8 

mn II our vjuvtm of Life, Mind. MomIi<, and Politics, the 

qotMTtton — Which of them i* tnie i deinaiidR, hoyond all othpT 
•:■•■-*-■ -ri* wlmUiver, the atl«nUon of scientific meii."~AVnrf«nlA 


Bt a. 0. S. KOBLEL 

IM wvilrin); the ejcplaiiation of highly coin[dex phenomena, 
many nimple and enlindy inmlequate rauseH are apt to be as- 
faitrntHl by mi-n who have tn-come absorbed in them to the exclu- 
T faclorH; and an tiltimatu comprehension of tho 
; uHually rT-ftche<I when some witle geueralizatiou, , 

Ukcludinff many ulnglo cauw-B. in found. 

Thu», to ai^juut for tho rceurrinij wiivea of commercifll' 
fdeprtwion U* which ijie m'xlern world is a prey, the binietailiHt, 
'the pr< t, Uie fret'-trii'lcr, and other Hpi'<.-iali)<tM, urgo 

]■•- K-D aH individually tiullkient; while in soniu far- 

lloK rltain of inthieneiw, of which theno an> hnt nevessury 

' ' i 'ily to Ui ftiun'l th(? fi.mph-lM cauao. What fol- 

II ,1 ■ of an attempt an wi brief a Kpoou will [M-rmit to 

fur thiMH phimomena a tieneralizalion of thia kind. 

Lifo. or ir - ;^-neral temiH tho pemiutenee of any or)puiio 

ite, n|M>n aitnptoti'in to flurrounding cinnim- 

aoHL In Iti" niiiniid ereatioti this aduptation is of two funda- 

it,.l il.-'Tiptions : lir»t, tho development of btructiirus for tho i 

II I of nutnni)>nt: and, M-c-ondly, tho dev«hipment of] 

ti I- tliu ublniameut of uutnmuut iu comiietltioii with.] 


I 111 nlniKKh', whieh k^'w more intenJie with thu] 

no' — "!<' formn, this H)>r<ind mode of ailaptatiuni 

in miin. IncltnuTtly, through the ii«r> of j 
/ iifirinpt>'y''d the forcM 
, •■1,'iWH Jitiil lir;vwn of hll 


tl.A 1 

aaimal rivals, and oommand the life>fiopporting prtxIuctB uf the 
earth. These transcendent pownre, by which tliu hratu crwition 
had h«un Bul>jagat«<l, mou »oon luriiod sfn^Uist uitoli other, and, 
tho battle of life botwoon man and man became sa terrible 
that bolwwin man and boast. But, unlike the fierce predntrtr; 
uammaU and the antediluvian monciti>rB over which ho had tn- 
umphiMl, the human animal aoun ceased to nirry un an isolai 
individnal, eflfort of self -preservation. Out of tha early sexual 
Hsociatiuu of matiuf;, which ho developed in common wi 
many other rrentiirw, there spranR th? family, the tribe, and 
finally the nation. Co-operative orRauization vras begun, from 
which baa grown what we call civilized life. 

Tho liriit grouping of many individuals into a tribe was thi 
birth into the world of a now organism. This new organism h: 
in the course of ages »o gi-own, and devi'Iope<l, and differentiati 
in the complexity of its fanctious and atructures, that it is reo' 
ogntzed by modern philosophy ; and the dawning stady of the 
laws uudur which It Uvea comitilutcs the infant science of aoci 

We can not stop here to demonstrate this aaserlion, whic 
the advanced thought of to-day has accepted and which tho 
world at largo is coming more uud muru to unduratand, that 
sociiity, like the individuals uf which it is made up, is an organ- 
ism living by coiiittaut adaptation to ita environment. To tboM 
who deny this, no Inquiry into tho maiit topic of our dtscuiutio 
is possible. Asituming it, therefore, to Iw a necewiit 
to all economic study, let us proceed to examine the i 
that organism at the earliest stag« of it« growtlt 

Tho prehistoric human being, or unit with which tho social] 
otruvturo was built, must have biwn, from our ninctoeoth-cen 
ary atoiidpoint. near nkin to the brutes in the Havagonnut of hi* 
iustiiicts. Bred to a life of peril and physicAl conflict, tin 
aggresHive and predatory in his nature must have far exceodi 
any germs of those gentler attribiittvi at premnt tli 
dirtinctivoly human. Now, as tlm nature of any wl 
dot4-rmirii*i] by the aggrogHtt.* nature of it« com[Minenl (tarUi, ih 
fluperorganie whole which the combination of tlinw oarlier indt 
vlduals cn-at<yl iniwl have displayed in a general way their m>m' 
mon tmits^ In ii wonl, the i-nrly triln- or germ. wa»' 

on Aggnwsive, pre<lntf>ry orguiumn, striving to j , . iwl 
by the annihilation of all similar orgsnlimu witlt which It can)< 
Ini : .t^ 

ict is of frnportam^ li nttr difwiin^iiw we mn a 
oiirtj Hiiciw, If all ' 
tati^m iif their vt" ..,. ;,,.,.,. ;,. 

livej, thiTU a Li ' uf Ibt-M' cin^u: 



t"^ tlv* litrui-turiU pMmUuritipit of tiny given organiiun. It fol- 
lirws, ttitvnfiin', tltnt if Ui» bariictit' humnn societies lived, like 
il ' ■ iiti rniiii wliicli tlifv wt'n' nvdlvLxI.ljyan spRWS- 

■■> I llii'ir iiciuiili'irs.thi- ftitKlutiit^rituI kik-uiI slruct- 

Drv intMt ltnvi< Im-vd ntii* nila|(ti><J t<> wnr. 

Ijii^t lut Ml' if tliiti Ih imt till- fiM-U 

Tli«> linrt •litToronliHtiiii) trtu'fiiliK' in the savsj^ triheii of all 
tifiw* i» the rim- U> [kwit ui tin- Hinmgitit <ir iitilriit iiidiviiltiul i>f 
tlitt (rr<iu)i. mi>l tho growiiiK MiilxinlinHli'iii (i> \\\k mitlmrity uf liia 
fr>IIow«nk Along with thift in tnuxinljle tlmt cliange in tlm primi- 
ti •iirtM hv whicli thii indtviiliiitl ciii-rfrii's are dirpctwl to 

ti . rutlicr ttian llio iii')ivi<iuHl wi^'lfmv, luid Iho lntti<r is 

III a (ifin^*"' ww'rirt''^'"! to tlio B«'nt-nil gmxl — X,\w gfina, in fiK't, of 
what WK uoH- fall iiutnntixtii. WIml ailviintAtre tu tlietrilic thi'M* 
rbanic** iutiiIvh linnlly iii<i'<1m ntatinR. Compli't« nubordi nation 
!■ - lit-nil, liko till' mjiiiliy ivwmiimitwl muscular ac- 

ii .JitiiiK (imiiiiil, in Hii idwtlutr m-cviMity to tho wor- 

Ukn «oei-*«M of A ni-npi'mtinK group of mm. And thu willing- 
M^frf oarh itidividiinl to vntii« llii^ KvnomI triumph nbovc his 
trm mfMv, i» no Ifwi inipurtnnt to the ttami* ond. Oiit of thetw 
Iwo ■ ■Inii'tural rMUptntioiiH then- linvu grown, in the 

cuudm .^1 fvolutioii.u riiMl i-on)|)li4xity uf others btued upon 

lb>mi. and t<>j]ding to (lie eiucci-Miful i>i>rfornuuice of tha same 
if r^isivtUion *if war. 

■II "f thin truth we rpfpr all who may l»e 
•' to Hi'rlH'rt 8|)"iicor'ii diMcutixion of tli« " Militant Typo 

I >." It Kufflii-x f(ir our iiurjxiso to point out that thia 
•■ : ■ tyiM' " in tint oiix iu which wx-iul orgnniznlion lio^ins. 

Id fiansiiiiiK tht< I'nilii of oarty mililancy. tlix wtivK hrnin of 
ti,,,t, ^irii.'k ii[Hm a ixinnw whicli lias fon-vi-r lift*«i him iiImivo alt 
■r: rig Ihinioi. tbn tue and mlnptalion of oxti'mal forc-i'n fur 

II <-\ <*nd«. With thi- first wi-jipon fiwh- 
i- wnrrifir waMO|H^>iH'd a m-w fit-Id for the 
• ■ 11 wii-rny. Work for tho imrjiotn' of minting 
*u.- iiimiij ri i.ininuti ttt the ditrtmrlive activiHw of the ani- 

irid Kti'(i liv Hit'p cxpHndin^ int<'lliK<^iioe h"! thf labor of 
■i» iiroiiitriuK ajipliinufn for war, thi* pn>w- 

- ,>.-.;.^t Uitli man uml liou^t wan niH^cmary to tliu 

m^pport uf life, and (turn t'l Hup[Mirting lift* dingily dy tlii< ■?»<•• 
*i * i>f ilj< I' ' To iiiiiMufiu-turw 

t ' ' >Min-'H r> ' ill to t»ki' the |iliir» 

ot • II mry iitniKilh' ovi-r Iht raw inatorialH. 

L.. - - i! Mitwtitutit for lighting. 

It 'ion that ihln nrw um- of thi- i>nnrgie»i 

h '>')th tlir- rarli'T aiilnuil iuHlin<-l!4 from 

^^^ stnutiir.' (■v.ttv.-.l, \V}iikt, tlii'ii. i-tiiild 

^^^H tK. zmii.— 11 




bv inuru natnral than to find that, with itti growth, a xtructu 
rfiiiIn|itation of thu social orKuaUm has bona tokiiift {il 
Sttt^h a rraulnptntioii has Iimiu, and u>, in coostant ])rof;^<eH ; 
tho Ki-eat authority, to vrbotii w« hiivo abovi> roft"rr(nI,tra««M in 
utitlor thp title " Iiulueitrial Type of Sotijety," tlie charnt^tor 
ttiiKk'iicii-s of thw Hti'urtiiri« it is producing. 

Thus, starting with the dictum of modem sociology thai 
oty 19 All orgnaism living by irr>n<itant ada)>tation to ttnrnmiuli 
cionditions, we fiml that it« L-itrlimit Hlniclun' i» tlii^ " luilitJiii 
titling it for the prwlatory lifo of war; and that a ai'W ntruclu 
BUttcKl to living by the fruits of producttvo labor, ist Iwing c:i 
etjuttly duvulupod by it. Let u« briony contrast tlieso two aoci 
Rtnictnnui us thtiy appiiii' in our highly evoIvfM) life of tot]ay. 

" Militnncy." tw i» ?<hown in it^ curly duvi'lopinont of a r 
or trit>al leader, entails, abovo all, autiK-ratic gowrnnic-nt. 
luttion, to fight well, munt act under one centralizeil contml. 
DOOemitutOTt, furthormoro, the existflnc*' of the individual fi>r tliu 
benefit of thu »tut«: a«, the more compli'to thu ouliordination ^ 
the part to the whole liccomt-s, tho more will thi<< conibititid <<n^| 
gius Iw cou(;entrat4Ki for national onds, and freed from wiuitu H 
tho dinxttion of mere personal retjuirements. In its ('oni]tli'lS 
new, " militancy " means the alusidute niniiaivh ruling unqnifl 
Uoning Hubje<!t«; the development of tyranny iu the uaperitfl 
ndftviHhniou; in the iiubordinatu, and all ihosu hnrdcr and uioV 
savHgu IruiU) which are ^M.•»t suitotl to the niNnlit of war. It 
nioan» tho worHhip of might, and the crtMition of rigid woirEfl 
clas»ei4 lja!*e<l npon it. Nuch as survive even lo-duy in the lu-ixtdH 
raciea of civilixetl Europe. If "militancy" oould lie compl^J 
in its sway, the word " freedom " wonld not cxiwl in Irniu' ■ *^ 
friHxIom denotos the iwiii^>rtiou of iii'lividnality, and " in > fl 

tho merging of all ■ndividualiti<^M save tliotu> of ruluni. In a 
word, society under unqtintificd " militancy " ia very tuiturMlJ|k 
ItcHt typified by an army and the ttystem which governs it. ^M 

What under this rfgtvie wouhl lie mt<Hnt by the wnrd prxfl 

jK'pity ? When iti n militant mjciety jinwiM'rous !* (>bviiHif>^| 

whi'n tho und for tlio nchiuvt-mi-nt t»f which itti Htnicturv hH 

bti'ti ovoIvmI is r<im|delt'ly al<atiii'<l; or. to Hpecify, whun 1^| 

mainU-nuni'4' of tlir livii^ of itM roniiKjnrnt tn<ltvldiu»lit \\a» \k^^ 

AKiunHl by till) forcible deiti ruction •>rconi)>ctiior».and ihoncg^H 

^tion by captuni of all rov('ti<«l fruits of th<< eartii. H 

K To illuKtrat*) by an (•xani|ili<: Rome wm u wmmuntty ^| 

whicli tb 'V 

wboM> Ul^' w^l 

iipplie<l to h»r condilion. Uiv worr I'fl^l 

tbr,. ' -' ^H 

all the .4^^! 


ilftTomcKt iumI »btii>rptinii at rival cotnmiinitiffi analogous Ut 
lllt^ KMitriilulidii iif fotiil by aii niiinml tirK»iiiBin; and, iu fiuo, 
thniiiitli a litwrnl ilitvnunii^; of all Lint ttix^Jal Drftniiiemx Sn hor 
pnviri>i)m>^rit, vrliirli \Ma\.v^ tittlil. Hktt a jurriuit [Kir«tit-cvll, Hhe 
Kiiotr iiitii till' tiiuiiy mnnller cellH tliut (.'niistitutM llie UBtiotu of 

TurniDK to " ImltisfrifJiitm," lui its ilistiurtiv« rooturi<8 am bn- 

e-'- ' "vifi in oUr iiii"l<trii luviliomlioii, wu find 

i< < opjMiKite. To tn'f^iii witli.lliiM-fFort ti> 

fliiKtAin lifL> liy prtMlticlivi* I»I>ur mpiiivet, for iU RUceofM, tlial tho 

(w- ritiiwi of rat-li individual sliould bi* oumrentrnt*'*] an the 

I' r w»rk liiti rajmliilitifM lit liitii fur, and tax(<d um littlu aa 

I"'i ■ '(iiirfim'nix I'f wicii'ty as a whok'. Evury mati 

itiuirr ■■■•Id)' hiniiw'lf t4i tbo iitnuxHt.asthi^lotal [>rodunt 

of the labor i>f all aan iinly incrKa^n with the efficiency of eauh. 
T* ' ' Mtttti nnidiTiil still uHtro iiii[>(Tutiv« by ihnt 

I' . on in indiiHtriiil i>r^unizulii>ii wliioli liH-alizuH 

thit |>ri>*lu(rtion of dilTt'n-iit fumiu of minni'Hlitiim. and livuitt to 
iMrli-r; for only in tlio HliHcnc<< of tliu ra|irici<iu.s niixUllingor 
authority can imxlni-ont of ono cfimmoility nion^tirc the jwrma- 
tM*nt valiit* "f tlifir wiTk in n-Intioii to t)io iinxlncls nf othoni. 
rnrthi'miorc, that 11 ntnaig I'liougli niotivu fur tlio gn.>atctfit indi- 
viduol iiiiirtlonH may ovtir cxUt. thi> retumn of labor muut bo 
)' - I (4, ftiiTuy oxjH'iiilml; and this tboy novnr van bo 
' iiral winking nf chiihi* and t-tTt>rt iji wL luiidti l>y tho 

u' <t) iif giiviTiirni'iit, TIm' (luttrome of tbefxi faolo in 

I. . .: iif rriHMlf-ui; tliM Ituliiif, itxiuTlly opiHitteii to thai of 

< y." tlint tbiT Htali' fxiiitM for 1b» Imnt^lit of tbo indi* 
tiluaJ, and thu coumiiuituI limding towanl |M)|iular guvvrn- 

~ UilitantT>'." thi'n, Mu^rifinw tlm individnat to 8tat4>-pnM<'rva> 
Ion. " ItKlnKlrialiMm " nwoi tbi' atato an a nu-niiH to individnal 
beu-rm'-tit (iriiwing *" niilltunry " jinKliicvM roiin-ntration and 
ii vcniMK-nlnl |H>wi'r; riftrirtionof tin' largiT biitnan 

1 . r. .uX'Avrtl by itJiliunAl cnniitiiii; ritp'lity of clatiK dis- 

t. . oitd Kubonlinntiou lo autburtty, Willi growing "in- 

' 'inlro! dinuiiixlK'N: itM 

. ibo iMiniiiiin linitlii^r- 

hfiod uf man grown with llir iiilvrminKling nf coinini>nTial lifVf 
J- ' '* ' --■ illNtinctiotiH built up by bruti> fon^c ini'lt away in 
t nil of i>rodiiviivi' nncrKy- Tlif I'onininnity livi'* by 

t "i< of itn iinilfi riirri<-il on for jHTMinnl i-ndn, 

II :Iiit UBm-<-< -"''-I' iixnliHiiig of ci-nlral anlbnr- 

I' ' rily undur \i ■<'*, in lut comtdcti'nwui, dif- 

( vii di'tiii' ' i " ly- 

I . .11 uf it v 



Id order to iiisuro it, th« agigrej^ted toil oX the earth's itihnl^ 
itnntii would be left to prncluw from the soil all thu iiulhIh i 
humnii life, ViilininiKii'wl by nrtific'iHl rcntrictioii;), iim) unlJtxi 
by wiislo or ilectnictioii, tliu wcnlth »o prodiuTtv) woulc] rnul 
than siiflice for thLi end. Itx diittribntion. left to the iindti 
lawa of 4'ompetitinn and of siijiply and demand, would Ih< hucI 
that the tp'usti'St enorgy uiid skiU expended wrtuld brint; thv 
grtato8t n-tiirii»; nud men would obluiu of tho world's K'xx^d 
lux-ording to th«)r dvM'rt». Tin.- proKporily of "iiultintrialiNni^H 
in its i>^rH?(ion n-onld Iki hut miothor tintnu for thu inillt'tmiuni, 
when all men would toil in rommon brotticrhiKxl, and each tali 
from the storv of weallli produi;txl the equivalent of the work 

A wide and all-porvadiuK difference thus *xi«t« belwe 
these tyi)eR of slnicturo into which the social or)(snism tt'itds : 
grow, showing itself esinx-ially iu the utterly unlike eondhior 
each requires to realize jirotipenty. Thai thoy «ro at variaiKX", 
and must strive to displace each other wherever they coexist. 
too obvious u corollary to need veritication. Ili>w this fa 
points to a true conception of the philosophy of commercial de- 
pression, let U8 now BW. 

A umv<-r<<nl Inw of social jirogress, witli which we aro 
fatniiiar, is that e8tnhli«hc<) systems in thought, morals, ini 
ners, government, or any de)inrtment of human acli\*ity, stru| 
gle to perpetuate themselves by a light against all imiovatiiiiii_ 
Whatever is new and progressive, or represents the n«]tiin<- 
nients of an eidarging field of life, has got to gain its fotjtliold 
the face of the iiowerfiU opposition of the old and pre-ust 
lislied. TtiiM«e more jierfectt^l and uxact (nmruptions at Xntni 
which Wn cull Hciriitilii- idifi*, hnvL' jm-vaih-d only after i-»in| 
nries of mortal strife with the intieriti-d suiM>rHtltioua and im)M<i 
feet gunomlizationH of our semi-civi lined fort-fathors. The pr 
gres«ive au<l liln-ral gijvernmenls of our most iMlvanci<«il nntiot 
to-ilay IinvL' been i«taldislieKl in spitt* of tlie liittor 'lpJ>ll^ition ■ 
their pn'deiNX'isors, and iirf> lliemMdviit (ightiug t'H>tli and 
tho higher fomis that will succt>i>d them. In litA'ratuni aiid 
old whiKils slrivi- t<i dc-ny existence to the ni-w ; nnd, ev>'n in tt 
little alTnirs of our daily livi'd, we iin> all |HTiniiling ttio Lliiuf 
that are, ami " have sufhi'^tl to our fnlhiin Iwforu lut," to kt 
out the tx'tter thingn that might W. 

The nwult of this univerNal war liutwraui U)»old forinit ui 
the ni'W if, to the f<.nnfr. 
to the Utter— (uid hoii- i." . , .. 

to deiuoiutirate — it U ctMiiitant rrUtrdattmu 



i-oii!" I - jiini u hinilrnnop to the allnttiiiii-nt of 

tilt' Ir ; itiiil Hu uii.tlinm^hoiit hiimait aiTnirs, 

b Ilit'TO a rtimk— bnuftliiml in itit reifulntivo iuflueaco, bat still a 
phwi — 111 iiniKf»*H. 

Vmw, w)iiiI. iin' \\\t'^' nil Itftit lit i Otis of Hctcmn, (n mir kitowl- 
I"' ii'ii mi'i t)iiiii;H. for n rt'liitivc iKimrjincp ? Of tln< ncww 

&i. , ..Hf fi»r ilii* iiUl iiiwi worti-out in jiulitical institutioaii ? Of 
thn ni«w iirt Atid ltti>rAlurt> of liru«ult>r lifit for tlmt wliicli stood 
r ''itC^ iiiiiiwlerui? Of tlio fulim' of nil tliiiigB Im- 

n; . ^' i* Tliey arc fliinply lln> d^'Uilx of tin* nut- nll- 

i: ' chniiK" I'.v H'lttch the aocifil or^iiism ih iiHKxiriK from 

y " Into " iiiihiMtriiiiiKin." Thiit chniif^< in wliich tho 
Ij 'tmctivr" viDlnirv. iiiliunUvl fnun ilm bnitt> cnMitioii, is 

ivititl |>lik-'- III ttin tifi* of |iitu|u<-tivi< lalior we rait rivili»nlioil, 
]il, if wtuit U truii i>r tlii-tte lU'tailn is true, ua It must Ik>. of 
tliMr nilloirtivo sum, tlicD 1h« evnliition of "induBlmliHni" ib 
rvdiNtniilly milTi'nnK reinnialwii from tbu piTsi^toiicv of <!stab- 
liatii'il " niilitjinry." 

Thia iti thi' ({<^ni>mlix»li'iii Hi wliitOi vr<t iiiniifl. Comtiu'txMii) 

di .ri bt (hut to tlu' n>t«rt]nti(in of imhiMtrinl growth pro- 

<l tb» mirvivnl of militiint orf^iiiiwitiun. 

T. It oiin (r-Hl for tin- viUiiltly of nil (li«nrit>s, ami tlint 

u lb) -1 -i I : ■ iitioii to tliu f(u;t« of wliicli thiiy trertt. To fulfill 
ibi* tart in tbv com* bvfont uo, lut ui« turn our titt4>ntion to 
y ■■ ■ ' nil- Dm- cry of i-ontmi<rciuI <b*i>ri'Mtio» liw for tome 
\- ' •'jiliitiiitUy Hciiti'. 

Wi< nuil ili«n- nil iirniinl i-iitiip itf niilio[L<i in t-oiMtunt rtwli- 
UMB for war; tbu rriitnitf 1lii< tirttiiwH UlMiniof tbtt jMMjiIe drawn 
»4I for ibt^ Doiirinbim'nt lutil otipiMjrt of i<vt<r-inrr<'>iu<inK niililnry 
!■■ hilt I'ViTV yiiir (iinm wliiit vli'itiiil !«> tbu n>- 

«._. „ .-: w<->tltli into ru-cumtibiting pubUu ibOit; inili- 

looey in tltv |m>)>nn'Wini{ fonnx of ffovornmuut ; militunry in 
ir.' ,-■''■ ,,riil tniltliktii-y tbc niIin»T itiiibition 

n- l] jiimn! Biit.bioir In niiml. it is no 

loni^r milititnry in it(« prini' — liki' that of MiK-oloniu or Roiiiw, 
|t .. ,...-1...., militancy, riiMlwl tlinm^b uii<) rotttsl nt tbo corv 
:i. Not oiif of tliR Kn.'ot nntioriK. wimlinK itJt hu1>- 
' "if war. rnn i-vir ypt a n-tiirii on 
I ly for RnitliivinK nninlilxmiiK »l«t«ii 

^ oD tbi.' fntits rif tuttilx iH (loitt. Evorj' i-OHlIy strugglo 

* ■ ' inlMilnntH jxiorpr i»n<I ri'iJinli'^l Ihdr 

'.n. to tbf ]ir'i«j«i'rity of Friinint, of 
t»f to l-liiirbin'I, of tho CriniPitn 

it : of I87ii? to Ku8<iiu.of bi'rHtniRgle 

mm of Lbii ]iHrtii]fi ti> Uduoj want bus fut* , 
i^^tiU ul Uiv rnMuy,Jui«l all luivv bttni jolul \uvKii%| 






in tlio wcnitli (ir-gtroywl. How c1(«r, tlioii. is tli© ftoiirce of C( 
mercial distrpss; Tlie niHrliiiicry of war. wliicli cixn im Inn 
Im> iiitulc |irulituble, <'shaustti, iu its tiiuici'i'iii^ury |ii'r|it4ii»lii 
whitt i>U(;)it lo bo Uio surplutii of |mMlui'tiuii. Jl littn Ihito 
systum of (lisbiirsomoiita without cou»U>rbalaiKitig ntoeijito, p 
ilut;iiig sciiirily niid wmit. 

With what stale of ftwt* foiilil our tl»!or>' mnm cxftfitly 
r«>»ipoti(l ? Is not the condition ono where aurviviiiK " tnililone 
is impciliug that " iudustrial " ffrowth in whirh iilonb pivili 
pro(*iK'rity <'iiu I* found ? TIu'H the only romwly for Euro 
jioverty and d iiii n.-SN is jdain. Tht- disiipix-uninw of aiilot-m' 
fp>vi.>mnienta, the disbandmcnt of nrmies, the repetil of art: 
cial ri'striclioiii; on trude imfioeed to raiiie the ruveoi)(>s vi w 
in a word, Ur' rumovul of all that hint il^ riKiIti ui " mililtmr 
Slowly, iiiiUfd. will thiH ^ii^vtt. far-iviK-hiii^ ohiuif^t* t'oiiix alio 
but with it alone can the ^i^wth of wli»t wo call proRpcrily pn»- 

Leaving warlike Europo, and turnintj; homo to our own great, 
piifux'ful. niid hard-working I'tunmonwealth, it would si^h^'Iii thni 
"itidu8trialittui " huiug ho luaiiifoiitly the typv of AitU'riojui civ 
xation. the exiHttinco of commercial dupmsion with U8 nEFo 
evidem'OB fatal lo the thiiiry we have been elahorating. How, 
thin theory ho etoniid. i-«n a land of \tt.-ae*.' and free ^overunieat 
over Ix! the stcene of " hard times " ? ■ 

First, aa a lutrtial »nl>8tantiatjnn of our position, wo woufl 
point t<i thu fatiiiliur fwt that Ihu at.'irou)]ianinit'»t of tho pifl 
ilominatiiig " iuduntriHliMn " of lhi> Uniu-d Stnl«'!» hiis txvn H 
growth of wt-nlth and pro)(iHtrity far uxceudinK in rapidily tin 
of any other historic people. All tbnt remainii for uit to iiliofl 
therefore, ig that thit interruptions to thifi pr(w|tprity Km to ■ 
trsc«<l to militant tHidt-iR'i<-s. H 

Tliereait- two groat \v»w-» hcfon* tho AnnTican i>wiple to-din 
in t<ht< !^'ltl(>mt^^a( of which, lUI arc nRrei.>d, the national wulfofl 
is deeply iiivolre<l. Tliem^ are th<* taritT and thu i<iirr«nry ImnM 
Lii>t tut ini|tiirt< inio their nntur<>. hipitiitilioiix. Iil<i> tM la 

largely Ixt judged liy their gi-nealogy; )ui ti>t iix ask wh- . 'M 

UiiHHyKtimi of iinonnoiDttaxiM upon imports, the wistlomof wht^ 
men ^iew so dlffen>ntly. Wo lind it had itx hirth in thi> noc^ 
nities of war. True, the r<fpr>'wnlalivi'!* of a numlmr of whkIiJH 
InduHlrioH, whit'li have fatteuiNi at the puhlir < (^^H 

nrtiflrtui Iturrier l'> i-ompetitiou, would haw u: . jiiJ^| 

funutiun til n tariff \n to Hturt n nation inUi indtiMtrijtl Ac1.ivH 
-:■ ■■'■.■:,,■;■ dial ii. ' ''"■'' l 

K it a ill' !■ 

aInioHt III : liarricr, whii<h eitntini-N tiur i^^l 

war alum- >>a~ li»- rrijulnr ''' 'Int plitltMipl 

lltr 1 11—. -1 I . 

TJiK J*J/II,OSOPni- 0/r COJlM££CJAl i)£PRliSSIOy. 167 

"^ T, ' ;. t<l liiit ono liilf^rfuvrtaliiiti: It tti a militant »|i- 
k' moiicy. wliirJi luts Ix^-ii ciintinue<I in rxist^-ncn 
[HT ttiililiinl mt'oMsitics Intvr (^>ii»>'<l; and our Bur pitta revenue, 
tintil fri'iii lli« iHlMjni of tint |H»>jtli< niid {X)ur(K] into a tretui- 
ury tlint liiu< un uullvt for it, fitly nynilMiliKtvl \i» ii^t'Uuumusti and 


But Ikiw ubiiul Dili bt'liiif. vvvr v'xsnan In the surface nf our [xi- 
liticttl wUirl|>cH>1. which, in it« uxtretne BhKpu, advocates priutMl 
liiiM-i-n of |iA|H<r n* » nioiliiiin of cxchun^o ; itnd to-day, in a mu<ll- 
&ih1 form, tir^i-H tho niio of n xilvfrrojii of U-ra than it« jin'U-nitiNl 
fmlnt*? Wnn it in tht* »«l(»w <'X[x'ri<*nco nf |icn4-4'fnl cronimfrco 
•1 (init dul(>ct<vl lhi> ifn)>i>oHf^l lioiielitoi of 5ctitioiiH money ? 
Ixvulopinu nw\* c>f indiiBtriul lif« VtwX to iu udu ? No. 
t. War, (U-stiHiying more wtalth tlnin 

uiily coulil Ik* <lmwn iijiori to HUjiiily, 

-•I thn fiilurc with A pntmifwory not«; and the mental 
■■' •■■- Tiv nir-n, vrhit'h irirai>«^ilat«>«i them from jHTCt'iv- 
V tN|iiiva]t*ni'4i lielw<s>n a <'imiH< and iL» ull.iinat« 
•tfitn^ — I'miii kiiii»'inK tlint, in Homi* form or otlu-r, ovory delit in- 
nim^l mitnt ultimately liu ini-t^ — dolitduii thc-nt intxi the iK'lii'f that 
lliio noto (-an |mum ournuit fo^(^Ttlr. 

T iH aff" " i^vfii-Kiiin to militanry was forc«| 

Mfxiii "l civil war, wtiicli, like a dixoitM', left ltd 

deadly taitii tu iho iKHly ]HiIitic to lini^-r oii until to-day. In 
»r ■• ' •>■.- - iiormiuiti growth that our vast territory, our aotivo 
<\ ' tio|iiiliitton. and tlio m-vi-r-itvutinf;; Ntniini of immi- 

^ ii^ii.' roridi'Di] jwiKHililo; in spite of (-ondi(i<mH for wraith 

a... : , -Ay dUili tu* nil [woiilo ever knew ln'fnre — through Iln' 
major |Nirt ttt thuM' lw<<ntyyuarK haa laNtn fidt thu influi>nco of 
^ ; ', irniplt'ti'ni'HN of iir<i)i(«Tity. and tha 

I I liiiH Ix-i-n alniont i-onntwint thnniKh- 

oot th)> land. MiUrant fonni«. KurviviuK in tlio tariff and rlin. 

^ -v, will in limv la) rvcogniuKl oh ttin nflicient I'aumw 

• r <f tliini». 

lid NtainU for a n-al tnitli; and if tin' ^i-n- 

ofall i'Mmm<--rt'ial ri>actions ihUiIio found in 

il Ufii of a ayiitcm that Hnt'ioty liiu> outgrown, which 

Ml of ont' nmri' wiitwi to iu* nt-i'ds — the nvdiwi- 

\n not fail lo U- of vidiii'. All li'i;iHiiitioii. Ixism) 

\,'i<, woulil )inH-c4l in tlit- liriiMif n«l commercial 

• ■-: a It-Ht tiy which to jiidjfc tht< titntias of m<w 

llio ni'vidft of mtKlom \i(v would Ix' tiU]ijdirMl, Liwt 

> viHionitry. yt» aUiM clow with nu illiuttm- 

y t'wlay in di'^-ply moviid by a nvw disorder of 
ii '>r4;iti'iMti known lu tht' " hilnr jirolilvni." Tbir lownr 






clastieh, or tho»e who are more lUsiitirtly jiliysicat a» opjji 
to tnonlal lalKirnr!), are Htnvinfi to offset the cormiitioii ant] 
at>iiM-s of till- vt-ry wwiltliy hy a svfltcm of oi^atiizMl HKirrt-nKi 
uotioii. Tiiyy huvy uc'cuniplUlKMl uotlutig, bo far, Iml han 
to themselves, and diffusM] diKtiirbiiiico to tlio };jii»t itu*ctii»ii8i 
of trade through whioli tlio t'litin' iw-^iitle Ii%"e. The gi'iierj 
izHtion we have tri«) to i-^tablUh furiiisheit the kiry to I 

The interest of th« " lalioriiig class " so callud, as wll an 
tlifl whole cuinmiinity in Aiuerifn, iu purvly linhnttriAl. Tho 
laborers are the prixiucl and Hymliol of indui<trial jfrowlli. 
good, tht'ivfore, <^a!i be worktMi for them Mive Ihroii^h indunlri 
sppliaacLiH. Now, if w« in(|uiru into the churoctor of thv orgui: 
sation known hk the "Kuightx of Labor," wo find it to Im* 
])urely militant ofl th>) name it l>t.-ar». It diMplayx aliiMiKito aut 
racy of government; couiplcti.i loss of individual freedom; tho 
gu»|H<I of clafis hatred and Htrife preacheil in the plaru of tliu l* 
opvration aud sympuithy of "industrisliflm"; and. finally, 
nittiind oiiU'ome of all militJint tendent'ic)<, n rxiMirt to jdiyHii 
violence for tho atlHinment of ends, Tlte " KiiightM of LitlMir 
are a militant organixntion applying militant meana to t 
butterment of industrial conditionn. What wonder that the 
fail ? ' 

And, withal, the indiLstrial meann to the attainment of all 
legitimate rndii that thoy may seek ui'e ever at their dis|H: 
What abuKioi could thu rich few iM'rpetuatv in freit Aniori<», 
the poor many those to um' the l>tdlo|.l>«ix to erush them out 
None. And if, a» a)>)>eai's lo 1m- the cast^. il \» a Krievanee tb 
the able and hard-working triumph over tlie foolijih and laxy 
the struggle of life, the reconatitution of man, not of iKK?iot 
will alone remwly it Is there not herw a hint for Mw 
Powdwrly aud Otnirge ? 

Ik on CMoyon "Tli«8wHriBinKnf M(Tn,"Ur, Kilwonl CourUvjrMciinir* ihtt 
Mnlimitlun 1« MBtrotltd b; « Ton'O irtilnh oiwrulM ns i4r<>nf:l; anrl anl(»r'r>lj m 
Mj uatuml law. B; K, wbvouvrr invn l!n<l It 1(k> linni U> make a llvlni;, i)i*j 
•rw in'lncnt in in<>v« tli4ii>H'lv«« noray, if\K\i*t (o t>tBW* within ihrtr own raunt^ 
«i|iMT work I* niora |>luQllfnl, iw l>< [ilam livjuml lb« mo. " An osncninatlii 
of Intp miitnni iif lllii," lia aa;*, "Inada in Inarliablj li» cunninl Ibw aliinil 
fiiilbt* of mnllliiiiiB InrrKaan witli tlin i)iirdri|>i.i 'i^ 

uovan nf kiiaiK l>H«l kjirlnff* •■•S iwlli-tt*, a noa li 

S|]|: jiH 

til ' tvorablj' aaiuUiail Uian aiMirlM<r«, aiul UiummIuu'I/ iMir« 

wuisTias AXcisyT and modehn. 


Bt )L L til*TOOK. 

"<> i lit, pnilmtily, Iiiih Iirxtn mivokUv] vritli more vb^ 

ri' M Diitii the wliinUe. It woiiM tt)ki> t> vuhimo loj 

pmannt [>n>iHTly all of thi-oti ffiniis »nd their pawnees fmii 
t ' ''i>>r, wlitrh I linv(< mi intdnlioii of (IoId^. I nim onlytol 
I <- -Uh II fi'W ixiiiiU thiti mny iiidimto lo otlivrB Imw cxttii)- 

iT«> a flolil tlicn' iH hilo vrliirh tlii-y iiiny cxiiltirt' if tliuy will, 
primiiry iilcn of u whiNtlu lira iii tlio nmlciti^ of a coliimn uf I 
air to rlbratp, in whnti>v<<r miidition, A» thfre ifl no )a<;lc of 
■r iiiciIiihIh for 'loiiifc tJii»<. II»» infinite' divtrsity of Mi«' 
' <! tlix njijuinitijM Tor iiMHluriiig till' vihrniioiift iiml 1h« tv-\ 

inlUnt MRinilH tR II riiiittftr of uouFHu. Tlio tnoKt gi'tiorul fomi \*\ 
liumnn whintli', vrliirh oiii* ran tnnkn souuil — nfter a fiL^hioii 
Uhciil tiiiii-li pri'liiniiiJiry rniiriiuK: I'Ut many tnuiniriiiiiH have 
At' thi'iiiN-lvi-M iiiiiNt<-n< of itrt itiloiiiit iotiK to hucIi n ilognx' thiit, 
•tMwl of th<t umiihI iiihnniiiiiiiuii!! nml imiilj^thtHlii'iil iliMxinls, 
Mfatxx runUorwith it th*' tiioHt difhtrult |mK»fiK«*< of okhomto 
itioiiH. I ahtill not dwnll upon the nienn.i thnt 
■ 1 t<j nmk<« th«' wmmii* sharjwr und U» uiudulato 
liffir toiuw. Kvnry om* kuowH wlnit 4^>lToct«t iiru jiruduwd by iii- { 
-r- - thit fon> nnd MTond tlnttt-Dt M) om to turn the tunfi^p 
IwM^k iM 1 hi* Miltimn of nir |>iu«nid« over it, or by soiiditiK 

till' Ulnflt IIVIT ltll> i>lltHidi< of thi' lixllt lltltfiTS. 

If wo Milk otiiiT primitivi' wliislhrs, we Uare theTo iu th»{ 
(U»w-immil)Hl k**y, lh» tttrmr of author» luid »)tmMlinns; tluil 
' ' ' tli>, cut whi>n till' twiir ig iiiiMt sii)ipy: th« 
*i ■ ■ . [fi, nplit iiloiiff ilH Km^tli ; th>- nul'Hhi'U \w- 

x\w linH>-n>; tli" cherry - Ntonu, which wrhool-lxiyn grind 
no piiticiilly oil Ihc iw>)i.« of thi'ir whin-x und p^TfornU- ; the 
k>hom. utid ull th<^oth<T Ihintfi which wi> um fond of con- 1 
irly ytmtti, with which to split the tmrs of )iur- { 

8«vi&K that M) marli mn Iw doni' with micb rude tutmns. it is] 
' IIo> will ' . II W(-II-kiiow-ii inHtruni'-nl In nn- 
1 IVniv I ,. |uu<l. tiiiLMtom in Mi>« fntirliation 

TlK'y nimli' ihi'tu in Kr<-nt iiuii))((-r?i, of itiHh, and 
with vnn'oiit iIi-?iiKTiH and li(rurt>H of nnimiilpi. Th« 
'lory Mt Si^vn-M (Kikf. 1) ikiwh-hhi-m two Min'^nmuiM 4if1 
■>iii' >»r V •'ii>)ili-H 11 iiiKhtinKalc : and,] 

■T, il j>i" 1 kind of warbling. Thi-rt* in] 

i iiiUMmm Mt tho Parlit Coworvntory of Muttic, 
tu u -j;-'!! to Ihv piiblio on Hiiinklay kftoruoonn. It 



roiimlod by ClnpisAnn, ni>il in tho 1it>{;iniiinf!: noiiHintud ; 
i)iiis)<< i-<)Iln-tiou — iif wliiftlli'tt, TltU wna, monmviT, i 
rious <'oIlwtion. (loniimsiiiK vfliUtlm of all ligw* nnd i»H 
of U'rr«-i"Ottu. riii>iH>p, ivtii-y, liaivi stoni>, ftc, Willi'" ><{ wlii^ 

n>mi>rkn)>li> (w p>tH>(-iiiii>iiH of itivoniion itml vri .rkiimili 
iitiubt'ly, tlii-1 ■■ ■" ■• n vnin (r:i" - ' • •'■ - ■■: ' ■ 
uiltt tWdiil'V v< mill til' 

WmsrLES AjYC/SA'T Ayi> MODSRlf. ' 

■ill. Hu(<>H of jxircflnin. fiil<niTi of fiti- 
■ .1 , . . ;i iir Kiu'h I'XtRiunliiKiry H(ljiii<tini<iit 

tluit It u n itay'it nurk \n (IJRUiouiit il ; Htiil mmiy otlicr tniwt 
rurioiu cuntrivuncoii f<ir pruiluciiif; iut')o(li«i) ami iicxxiiiipfitii- 


{)ii<' iif tbf> m>iMt ttiitt)ik> wtiii^tlifi, most r]i)»i<i)y a]i|iriin'')iiiij{ 
tbt< lliiHiri'tlt'jJ font), in ttio Aiiiuricaii, ur si'en.>t whlstlH (Fig- •!)• 
which lit ootnp(M(«l nf n litrip of inotnl bout ovvr, unv vnA of 
«' ■ N.wciit tM-vvli'<l, »iiil in [>lareti ojipoaite tho o]Hi)iinK of 
li iv U.x (J *>'. Apply tilt* 

mouth KU'l t>1i<wutu — noHuiind 
U ))r<>()uiH'<l ; noil in \\i\» Iii-h \\w 
tm-Tf* <if til*' liintniriK'iit. Hul im 
> ' >!•' ii[»'(i riiitc T with tlifi 

u. - .. .■tiiJ riiri'fiiiKiT. II viRorouR 
«r1il'<tliiiKMtur)il IN olitninM), the 
ii '■'',, ' .- iuihIi- 

1. iriK tin- 

lipvul. A. •<> AH to tirinfi it muircr 
U> or f«rth«r iiwuy fnun the t*«>x 

A |»"ii 'il-rn-tc whiNtU-, 

with w'lii . . lI-tk ill huliilny 
bijni bnvif bvl t-ijiiHidt'rnhttf Kuc- 
i-wt, i|(<M<ir%*i'« Iti In* iiK'iiiiiiiic*! 

lii-ri-. It M nil onliniiry uIuhIIo iit tbo en<) of a tabv, in which h 
Milt'l cyliwliT if tnovtw] wo an to niorlify »t the will of thu jiur- 
^imMT tht> IcDKlh of Un' iNiliiiim uf ipTbrntiijg air. Persons sIcillMt 
in iwiiiK it «t«> n\t\« to jilny n coiisidcmlili' vtini'ty of Himplv tiimw 
HtHin it. AiiiDHft thi> whlMtluK tliul ^\-vi out ituV4.'ral notoR, wo 


< ■ifui»kin^ Wanrt* 

•W' citA tllf conimiiiitluuf* whicllf (Fir. 3). wlilrli. U'WiW \U 

■' . ti,)lh4l by tht' fon* iind 

it iflvi'H th*' note »V ; 
rtth h*)!*' No- 1 <>|Ntu. liu ; nnil with both liolcfl ujHrU, mi. 



"Wo mifilit make a ilistinct and logitimftte sltirly of iiumOTOnn 
forms of (tDuiuUiig n|>)Htnttu)i, c<>ii»triK-U-<l on \\\v tlioory of tlio 
wiiiiiitK-, wlioti« ixTultariliuM coiisisi Iri Iho ntniinor in which thi* 
sir is wilt ovi>r tliu toiiguo, tht- vihrnlioti of which pttHliices the 
B()uim). Thiiti, wo have the pfMlal-horn, and the Iuiliu-rul]lH>r bulli 
whiBtlo of tramways and omnibuses, tlid viirioua systi-niH of 
lioniit Ihat givM notice of the ajipruacU of finst'iit^tnt-i^, the alnrtn 
whixtW of 8teBm-uufnm«, "huwler" whwtluD, iinil hicoraiptivHi 
whislhw; tho hwt of which aro somctinira tnne<I to nearly n din- 
tinct ti>nR for (fich lino, Mnrh that i» intereHtintf niij^ht aUo )>«• 
Bttid coMit'niinK the variatiomi in the enKintfr's whintlw fdv his 
diffvri'Ut calls, u|>on the siKnal-mnn. for the I'lnurancu of th» 
tnick, etc. But this wuultl take ux away from otir ti>i>iv. ' 

Modern corainou whixtli-?) an- intinitu in their vartely. and 
new kinds ai-o apiicarin^ every day. as tho faaoift-i of (imattnirit 
hring them forth. Tlioy are made of wood, Itark, tnetal, hum, l 
ttlielI,glaSH,and even of sugar. While the form of the apiMmilUH : 
and thit manner of usinj; it change from timv to tinio. tu* the 
fniitfnl iniit^inatioas of fanciLTH deviiae new pnttcrim, the ]>rin- 
ciple of the comtt ruction is invariable. Some coiu'eption of the j 
capahJIitieH in denign of tlie inatrument may 1w Knined from n 
glance at Fig. J. Among the wliislUi^ here repri'Nenled, wr> I 
fln<I the ttcholur whistlt# (3), the tiremaii'd whistle {!>). which gives 
mi when the upper hole is open, »nd do when it is <-]os<h1 with 
the finger; the Belgian whistle (15), of inelegant t4Uu|M); the 
ftqnare whiKtlo with two Jiolen. giving two noted (7); and the I 
Ba<lnel army regulntion whistle (!*). (If a quite different tj'|>e 
Ih the Swisa whittle for railroad-station ageulM Ci), in which 
thi> colnmii of nir is hrrtkun uptm the annimit aphen; and a I 
part w xwallowol np, while another part im thrown outxide. 
The marine regulation tvhi»lk- ()>) it* of a nimilnr ntnictnre; but, ' 
like the Ameriean whialle, then* Is n w<!ret in manijiulaling 
it. In or<ler 1o prednce ii sound. Uie upjier end of the pi]>o nud 
thii a<ljiiront Hphere mu.4t Im> Mliut np in the hand. A variety I 
of movement-! are necessary for tlie exf-iiti'm of ditl'erent modu- 
lattonn, which make a whiMtling-wh'wd on Ihe >imwt«r-dc<'k 
the amUogue of thi> HohooU of th» trumpet ntn) tli» drum iftj 
regiments. There are aloo whistles with t.hre)- or fimr ■■jieiifngH, 1 
like the horn whistle ami the railroail whistle. In the former j 
(I'j) the estn-mitii'H A and I) may Ih< regarded aH mn»t.hH,nud| 
the Kfinndn an' »l<to nxMlitied by rhitiing alti-mnlely or In fcuccea- j 
Nltm the cipi>ninK>t B and C. In the siN-ond (I!)), \rv leaving all j 
IppeD, W' lid. I 

RlMvial : , . < I) I 

butd the blrl whlntK with which the ,n-J 

^Juitate<l. Kiuicy hna run rir» in deyi.'uih' tvi>!V(it w (> i -• u>j^. |i|i| 



Uio iIii^V'Ihia'I wluHtlv (10) for IiiiuUth, itii'l uiariy-L>u<U-il vrliintleH, 
Hka tItA unuy vrliiatlo witli compatts (II), tbo n)utch-l>ox vrhietln 


U ; " - ' ^i ifyratiiamm' It. Fli>«>u'i ■lit'U'. A Marine 

h" 'ilii*D I>f4». (. Iiotari obUita. k Am; rrifslMlMi 

•HiOi I I "<it|r HmiMai i>M>U«. TK WMmI* iBil )u«a rf ilin* 

MM* a llirr-iil TTli'-"r U. Msiblitotud CiHU|i»aofcltU«, IK' kilflu «BMll*. 

- -• ' '!<w, whixtliiit; ciuiHK. wliiiitliuj{ liiiriting- 

.\ ' r» lit In- liikrri iiiUt nw-oimt in tlic iimkiiig 

wu.-. lixtof lUi) liiiigLli tkQii Ui(i dii'iii-'l-r .>r tlm 



tube, the width uf the mouth-piece and its IniKth, Lhtt »\zv> uiid 
thickni.iw of the lougao, tho diameter of ibv instrumitiil, the sizoj 
of thi* uridc^', thu uature of thu niatcrinl of which it is roiiiixmcd,] 
elr.. vnrintions in any uf wlkich proiUn'ft — wtmetimeii wry iiupor-j 
titnt — niodtiUition!! in its tone. KxperinientH have tihon>ii that HiA 
ttiid mi in particular have a round, full. well-supiturtuJ Hound,.] 
which ill lUf Baduel regulation whistle cuu hu heard for » diiduiiroj 
of nmre than .six hiiwlri'il metres. 

('o»ii»t«nt ol)!»iirvor!< hav<j »Miii3rteil that t-ho ninniior of wiiiti-| 
tling ia not always tlie same, and that there are somp unhappyl 
pers<nis who can not whistle at all. A^-ordinp to these author)-) 
lii«, HiDoiig whom \b M. Buduel, to whiNtlu w<<ll it is nL>c-<nisiiry l«| 
pronounce Itt , . . tu slowly ; thvn tu , . . hi . , . In nion- and niorK 
rapidly and quite distinctly, especially taking care not to whiwtlu 
from the throat. To make the double tongue-stroke, we must 
«ay In . . . du . . , ij, tlu, to pive the trill ; but we should always j 
Iwgin slowly, and piiK;e«vi gradually to greater rapiility. 

Correspondents of "La Nature" Imvo sent in to it illu8lra-j 
tiouH and descriptiomi of other whuctW than thotte which M. 
Gutode describes. One of them is a lerra-cotta hiril-Hha|>ed i 
whistle, somewhat like the Peruvian whistles, which has tiwn 
recovered from tliH pr>')ii«liirii- n-liis mvir Florence (Fig. A). Tho. 

net I 

fiK. l.-f^iTTi»ii WiiaTi.> rnua nun ruiuant, 

'tr-ed by hbiwing int'O hinl'M luiik. AimlherJ 

iiipl>> fiimi, U UMut by Ilt» ritninii'ii iti tli» Mpiu^ 

i ■ ti! 



).tn»H(t niiOHijth t" o%-»»ret)tii(' nil l\w othi-T tioiBes iti ilw Hliop, wliilo 
It i* ttlwii Kii ' of muflical mixliiliilioiis, Bui. tlut«i itt n i 

•[•c-ciiil urt iu ;iii; il. The lonttue must 1hi In-rjUKlit uji to 

Um< liiile ill Utu uppitr Uiulu williout .itoppiiig it. iiiid tli» air 
raurt ho [■n)ji-i:tt}il NiuiuKamiuiufly tliruattli iKith boloe, »o u to 

rt*. S.— Nnanii't Wawns, 

W>una It rHMk 

riliratM in th« U'nt-«V('r|<nrt<FiK. 7). After a few wiTortfl. nounda 
• tf iMtotii-iliirtK iMtwor cnn Iw prtHluoe*) on this inxtriimvut^ 

Kvwry W>y kiiowH how t<> mnkc a witlow whi>tl<<; or liu mny 
ii«» liliM' or Biiy of ni'vonil ollii-r winxU wtiuti iu tho kuj>. Tukiii}( 
Ji '< iilxmt till' t<im> of liiM liltlo fitiKtT, lii> rubi n rinu til tlit) 

u.. „ ..„u tx to tlio wotxi. Tliuu, huviiig inoiitlvnod Uie luu-k in liia 


^.tUOH CI. 

CI Wbi*tu. 

Hi. hx ImwIa it, hiililing it im Ilia kn(-i<, Willi tlm Iiatidlu of hiK 
I II will «liili< tiu till* utirk. HuliltiiK tt>u lowtT piirt of 
' ' ' ' '- ' , ;, u'itli liiH ritflii Kiiiiil lu> twiKtA tlio 
:-i it i)lT ill u Bin^tt' ]titH:(', fomiiim K 


hollow cylinder, perhiip* an inch liwig, Ht- tlien »]ii»« tl'o rlug 
bnck over tho xtick us in A (Fig. 8), (jr hv mny trim th4> stick 
and cylinrli^r ns in B or C. previous lo readjunting them, to fr>nii 
the ^^hnpfi alnn^t universally in use, 

AutoDK the latest, dpviws in the way of whisiles ai-e the cu- 
rious chvniiL'ik] toys made with picrutu uf putush. Whim thu 
vrhistlin^ itickclK nn<l Gro-piucus flrat niijM.>ftri*il, the whistHn 
wiis cotiiiiii'iily siipiKWwl to Ixj iinxlmvil iti the !<ftini' wny a» \ 
ordinary whittles, l»y the air-movements prodm-wl hy tlu'ir rapid 
motion. Tliis is, however, not «j. The opemtion is not at ull 
liko that or nn air-whisllo. but lhc< pnHluclion of tho sound ia 
owing lo thu (H-culinr proj^'Hy of picmtv of jK>tjiKh of whis- 
tling when it iit ImrniH]. This effect \* hwtt-d very cKvirly with 
that salt when compressed in a tube, and the sonority may bu 
auKment«<) hy the additiou of vuritms Hul»tan<-*<s. Such a 
(;(>nipiM<iti(in may bu rormf<l, with no i>thi-r diiiigi-r thitn usually 
attends the nianipulittion of i>xplo»iviu<. by trituniting ii mixt- 
ure of flfteen pitrts of picrale of itotaiih and one |>art of Jit- 
thean bitumen. It is then chnr)f<-<l into a 
paatelioard tube a little h-os thmi u hulf-inrh 
in itH interior diameter, and Home two and 
a half inches h»ng (Fig. U). The tutte is 
cloHod at one end by a plug of clowly 
tamped clay. The ei>m|>o»itioii '\* intn»- 
diiet-il in small rharge« eveuly 0'>m], 
till the tul)c is filled to within alx>ut thriH< 
cinnrters of an int-h of the o|>en end. TIui> 
whisth' may t» wired upon thi' wirlridge uf 
H nx'kut, when it should be fumixhi-d with 
a cap iM-netratt-rl hy n ipiiek nmttdi, which, 
enti-rinft the pirraltHl eontpoxition, ia nlMi 
inserted into the thrxHtt of the riH'kel, so 
that the two itru-wiirks shall In) inlhmiiil nt 
tho wune lime. The mnuid of the** whintlwt 
is sharp at lirKt. and [uuomw grndiially, an 
the titlie is emptied of its ramleuts, lo a grave tone. By I'lmiliin- 
ing the M'liisthfi will) various devices of iin'-works, i-in ' --ta 

an- ppjdiiced, in necurdunce with which v-Xpn-Haivu ^ :v.i 

naniett lutvrt lat-a givou tfl the artifloea. 

Whfii the pi' ' ' "' in' firsl ' " i" ; " ■! ivre, mi 

the in-i'itxion of : ■ . lln- "i- ! nl Ih" 

Htridt-'Ut nuiHo thcv mnile, and n : Us origin, ' dr 

"Downwitli (he wUistUng r " ic them'" i ,, 

rtienl of the fentival was nui' when the joke ■ 

\ -Tr»H*lalt*<i for the l't,ftitlnr Hcienct M'mOtlff jrum 

Fmo -Pigiu*! op ftritam 
H'mma u. ukt ■Mililw 

itltk itW«ia atUObMl. 

a.lJt.VJiU i>JiVJt£JSJS vs. USfXARyKD iyCJi£ifS.YT. 177 




READERS of Hour>' Goorgv's empiric pbtlosopb; li&ve beeo 
ttiti]— Hnd tiiii iirolytiw im>c]<11o out tbu plKlitudu wltli much 
phnuiiiiK nn<) iutiiiiU,- itcrntioa — that Kociuty is grcuitly wrongud 
bj- M>mi.'lliint{ which hiu-nlls hq "imearu^dmcrtinieiit," This ua- 
oumMl IscnuiMtit ia a thing which all jiroperty, pereonal oa well 
Mi r«U (if yon axcopt cuh iti hunt! und some uf its fxchauge 
oqutraltuiU), iji suhjuct to. It Dwy hvnp it«eU juat a» vigorously 
opun a (lo«m vg^s or n bavkut of nnap em it <1l>c« upon a pioco of 
Und. Tho iiicnHUODt ari«e*i. t(K>, frum some want or uiovemout 
of aueiuty. Bui thin hnliit which property haa doesu't trouble 
lluMD millnaniam-uukorH onil iiuvuKy-extiaguiahers. It i» only 
• rabjeot for cooiplaiut, in thuir view, whun it touchvs a pioco 

Th6 wtuck namplo of Ui« injutitico Uioy inveigh against is thn 

riiw in valuu of a tontii lot. In fact, you can not get the miud of 

' a '' -'-':{« o(I fruin a town lot. He pitches bin tent there; and 

1 y miuMfii, bt* strays hrielly away, when you are not tolk- 

I. <i, til ihi'ojwn t'utiulry.a wonlof D]i|io«itiiiii to his whim 

, u ... . ..iL biiQ luu-Jc QyiuK to Uuit magic fuoihold, One would 

I mippaM. If thu fury wilJi which hu thraahui Ibo air wont really 
^■^■Ifet >'- mitMxIy cv<>r Ixmtjht n town lot or a plot near a 

^l^^v . not at i>nLX> nilu into a fortune by ita buoyancy, or 

1 nlie nap a ha|ii»y anm whii-h, in «iuiiy, Iwlougs not to him, but 
' to ATcrybody DollMliTsly, Uut the whole doclriuo of Gvorgi*i(im 
ia a trtnuiffa (Mirvanrion of, oot only i>oliltciU economy, but of 
the f lAntlcr in luuid. Thv hiatory of land-own- 

•rah:! - - ■ crj-whero is aa atrikinglya historj' of losBoa 

■• it ia uf prv6tK. Wi* aue thu vucceMSca, aa wo see the ahips which 
Aoal I <>c«ui, while the unnumbered wrocka in both caaes 

■ni i) . lUght and beyond viHiou. 

Al ODO time in the biMory of Bt. Paul, Uinn. — to make one 

bwCance '• ' ''-r a multitudu — only two or three mun coidd 

oomfoctM ! tbi'ir rcial-wtate purcbasee. All the rest who 

bad invntiuuuta ware not only gliul tu give away the hope of io- 
cr<?ninnt. hot w«i« willing togiv<> u]* all, and often more than 
t " to purcluuH) their hoIdiuRit, to be freed from the debt 

in. ■-■ rij In fivt. It I - a\ bankruptcy and i>uuic prevailed 
mir ..f./ -.11 «i,... -AFi- '■ '.: ianutan unconini'iu clrvumstaucu 

! ■ liuy city n-alty.and bold it any limgth 

u — .„.. .:^umvnl iiwy acum vury largv, bavo ^iaid 

«•(. txiut.'-tS 



»Q tne , 
ID for^l 
tea tW 



for this increment entirely tliroagh taxes, interest, and improvi 
mente. I am not «uru that the man who iiaid ho had seen the 
time when lio could buy nil the grooud Chicago stands on 
pair of boots, and only hesitated to do t>o becatise he lacked 
boots, would have made such a wonderfnl bargain as might 
supposed, provided he hiul had to pay for eversrthing neo 
in order to hold it, and hiul huld it up tu date. 

But Hnpposp, in Chicogo'a case, there would have lieon a pr< 
itable purchase for him who thought ho saw the opportuni 
His capital vmbarked, htfl possiblo ri«b, his care and time, won! 
ontitlo him to the outcome. But what shall be said of a town 
not a hundre<l miles awny from Chicago, which was laid oat on 
the same lake with eqnal expectations, wlioso broad, hotiscleu 
avenues now are — as for thirty yonr» (hey have been — a silent 
comment on something quite difTi^reut from the 80H:alled " un- 
earned incroMicnt " ? And what of other similar wouId-l>« citit* — 
frogs tliat, like jEsop's, burst themselves irretrievably, ur those 
who took stock in them, in trying to attain the ox's magnitude t 
The situation in reference to disaster with tlie city lot is full as 
appalling— if furftnght and gain are appalling — as it iu in t 
direction of profit If society has a claim upon tliis profit in 
socialistic way which George and hin followers claim it has. thi 
to make the equities rii^ht mid even, it ought to shoulder, wi 
out a whiinpor, the Iosbcs which have (^fallen the land 
who have suffered from the " earned decrease." 

Probably, if we go outside of a few largo towns (tbe area of 
oil towns being an insignificant port of the planet), it win bo 
found that what I call tbo " onrned decrease " isamoresHrprtwii, 
factor in the history of land than any other fact connected wi 
it. Joiit now there is no farming in this country to iip»'ak of iii 
of a line drawn as the Allfghany Mountains run, and viTy lit 
eaitt of the Mississippi Riv.-r. that is really comparable in 
profits with the profits of almost any other biisinewi that is 
from skillful management. The farmer himself is a toiler v 
has — with a dny'it UlKir at Ifiwf from twt>lvi> to thirt^vn horn 
long — constant olistactos ngniiist Iuh rise, and the majority 
farmers in the older States are little U-tter off to-day than wh 

they began their business twenty, thirty, or more y- , p 

ridel thoy bogan without capital nlrMuly ninied. ^ ■ n 

knuw, too, that the owner i)f land works harder tLm i ; . man 
b« employs?— fn-^uently with lew succ««, and olw:!};- with 
amount of horawiinK anxiety that Uio hirod man rnrety e 
rifiiooi«,aii " I ■ ' ' " ' "1, 

Oiii' uii 'land 

through the* Roiintry, lu diftii'vor that r 
ful catholioon tluin nccvu Ui land to otw 

II \tMi m-L 1 

M there aay wuy to ajiiily lliia rvnitxly if it were an cfifecttiftl 

\ '"T t(j till? fiirmor onw mart — tliu land of n fiLnn 
wvW •■ ' utily iii>w tlinroughly mix«Hl with tlie fariaor'B 
hiit and nkilt in ttin improvement of its coustitnents, but it fa 
oDVt'ri'il with liuililiti^, fvncPB, »litfli»>« for dnUiinj^', ami wells, 
that ri'jin'^'iit his liiinl-esnifl XvA^ir or \i\» fnii ciipiuil nppliiHl 
I'f it. C'jui In.' K«-t itH wliulu vnhio linok wticm biit ciitate is mttlecl, 
f>r if (ic wi«Iii'»i to nitire or remove ? Very rarely — almoiit never, 
iu fturL (Ubiir buuinesH pliuito tbut have been well hfuidletl usually 
It out Nt a i>n>fit, uiurv or ktu). But the form govs olF hX tbe 
rifiri' of an " mriiLol ilecrt'tuti'." Two farms within a bitlf-day'B 
V of tbe pbiru whore I am wrtUn^, iu one of tbe hcBt »oib*d and 
• - "Mwl LTtuntii« in the Stiitn of Now York, hnve lately been 
: iiHiliT Ii'ical co(iatraint) for h»a tJuin half wbnt Iht-y luid 
nr tuii'mvemouta originally coot, involving Xosaw rospectivi<ly 
from oi^bt to tort thouitand dollars. And tbiu i» not a Kti-iui|^ 
•>r tnf rvqufut thing. It, or something like it, is one of tbe com- 
aoiUMt of niodoro occurrences. But do we hear any Hcbool of 
phnanplicini agitstocl nlwut thoM losBes ? Society, in some way, 
ha« unbuilt or leVeli-d their vaiue by just aa responsible doings 
an it hot by worthy and rewurdsblo doings built up the city lot. 
[f it i» Ui Imvit tlii> fat mwit iu it« pudding, on what principle 
'rom nuiponiiibility for the Inati ? Can society 
, .. ,, lit sr«saw with the owners of I»nd ? Can it say, 
HwuU I win tind tails you lose," and ever undertake hereafter 
t " it right and virtue and honesty P If it should ever 
; the " unuanii'.l increment,"' thoro should go with it 
n ^"n It is pasHHl over an accounting for the " i^aruvd deci-ea«e." 
That tbia is not a snutU matter, n refrreneu to the Nuw Eng- 
land "hill-farms,"*] oallvl, will amply show. In hundreds of 
(owns tbsrw, from which lh>' popiihttion has withdrawn itself to 
itJiunadite cwrtuin factory t'>wiiH, or to develoj) the West, the 
. . <!n fuming ami has met witli an irromudinblu loss. Parm< 
r. "■■'• Uiught for fnr litis thore thmi Ibi-ir siirfnt'e tniprovemeuta 
n' ■ —t. A friend of mini) bought a prodiirt.ive farm of one 
1 piixty aiT«<s in Hamai-buBetts a few years ago, with 
', bam, and other fixtunw upon it — and he did not 
i ' Iftal the bam tUunr co»t! PnrchasoMof farms at ft 
•o can 1m. n\a«h' to any extent in New Elngland. 
nwuil country villagea and near railroads, and 
is nu plB(«3 in HaK(uu.'huiK>tt« that is over twelve milus from 
' "' ■■ :.g the bind itaelf for ifJwfAanJKrfA- 

It than Htmry George's creed calls 
hilt liuirl, my friend bad tbe houMi uud 
-x r things, thrown in. And yet the milluunii 



18 a good doul further away from tliuM forms than good eoott 
and the railroads arc But, according to the dovtrino of 
vrho aro afflicted vith Qoorgo's peculiar land-fetichism, it should 
be already there. 

It j» proljsbly true that Weelem farming is a l»ott«r buiiinc 
tbau that which provail» in tho E»»i ; but uu anotMlutu 18 told 
that which, if not lit«raUy tnio, in illustratively ao for many whq 
are engaged in farming. It does not, at any rate, oventtntt- th< 
gravity of the task which many persons assume who uudertake tc 
own the »oil that Qcorge would sequustvr to the state. And this i^ 
tho anecdote : A farmer iu tho Wcot, who kept his business goinj 
until he nearly became bauknipt, vaa obliged finaUy to Mill hit 
farm to his chief creditor, who happened to 1m> his faithful hirti 
man. After a term of years the new owner found him>«ulf hop 
loealy ia dobt^ and lie proposed selling out to his hirul man, wl 
happened to ho the previous owner, and who by thi» time wat^ 
able to buy back his old farm I Whether this proceBS of ex- 
change continued to go on like that nyllogism of Epinieuidwi the 
Cretan, with no conclusion, I can not say. But when anj'thing 
like it can happen unco, how is a more divisional sliare iu the 
aoil to mend or make over the world ? A 

To return for a moment to tho " unearned increment," tha 
question one would like to ask is. why an increment on the Talon 
of laud iH any more wicked than it is ui>nn a ton uf C'>al nr imid 
taken tram the Untl F The title to a house or chair miule (ifl 
wood can not be good if the soil which prorlucal the wood in 
hold by spoliation. That which vitiattvi or nnnuls in onn iiin 
stance mu.<<t in the others. The iiicrement-renaoning, too, if ifl 
proves imything, proves too much. Is nothing eamtMl in thifl 
world hut mL're wug^e ? Is nothing due to foreKight or p<^meiv« 
tag what is likely to happen f Must profit all be rcutolved intfl 
day-wii^(-s fmm mu-scular effort solely ? Are mitid and UiouKhfl 
and skill not to t>e t-ontudered factors which a mtui nuty uih> id 
the struggle for existence P Is the inventor, who is usuullM 
a iiix>r toiler, to have no iNmefit from his wits ? The sect ofl 
" labor " seouis to say " Nu " to all Qxvw i|ui«tiona; and both iM 
and tlie Qeorgoitoa, if tlu-y could have thrir way, would put itfl 
all nn an axprow train toward liarhAriiim luid thu Hi<douin Amta)! 
Trbo ia a George communist, aod to tho extinction of all thai 
nutkcH a civilized life ixutaiblo. I 

The " uncwniiKl iiioivmeut." it should bo notfld, Is not a diwl 
covery of Henry f i Mill and Sixmrcr gtive it u ' -1 

icnl ■ ''■■'■'nee, Imi (....,..- -1 no eucli .i-".*!- <-.-.. ..J.- for ; jM 

sii] > flow from it as Henrr < : -1 and woulfl 

ajijilv. Tlicy nav ''tffl 

lULluut nud B>|ualiil . : ' t^^l 


mrtli, thn lonil no which [woplu lived and moved rofie to a fabu* 
li.iw vutili', tin) profit of wliirli ueemwl to go to a few exclutdveljr. 
Tim ' '■ owtuiii lot in Lomlon 8C«8 itdoublo and quadruple 

(n\i>i < L tJ)4>n d'luble and quadniplo in value again many 
lintt-x. not by any iniprov^'in^ntM he \nit» upon it, nor b>' any 
labor which ho himself dowj, but simply by the- iiicrpase of popu* 
latjou about hlin.aiid thudvmamli^ growing out of tho multipliud 
boalttiCM and waiilH wliirh a jMipulation nniMira)li'k>(I in iiumbure 
onntiMi. Acronliug lo Mill and Bpcnc^-r,* it is society, tlieii, which 
mnkna Uiin vnlun of the laud, and not tho owner of tho land. The 
\\ ' \\ IwrnlU it tK not i>arutHl hy kini, but is tho rwalt 

I li of (Kwrioty. Why not, tlicii, givw laM^k to iiocifiy 

wh&t Mocifty mnk«« f In looking at Knglan<l away from Lon- 
'*■— r.--\ at Hcotlnnd, the land problem is, in addition to thia in* 
' miulit ronipliofttfl by absurd laws of entail and transfer 

- wliicb any otb'T civilized country knows. Out 

. .... .L„„. Lviition, a jiurt of which can be rcuchLid by the 

modlBcution of ar Uiti repeal of uiijust lnw8, the "oneamed 
imm^tuitnl" wjm HURgoetn.1. 

BiK tifiihiT Mill nor 8p«noer proposed to rontore oquslity 
:<diojiti> inuqualitii-a by a wholesale system of iipolia- 
U--.. '.. >..< innocent uwnera. Thoy haw not spokon of tho wlck- 
OMM of owning laud by comparing it with the owuerahip of 
and iu tho nam*' brMith allogin^ that a full rent»t tax, 

oon&prattou Uix, indinnl, will Imivo ovpry miui'a ownership un- 
lnipain-<l. ThMvarwthu ubMur<llti(>ii which have been M loom 
Id AnuTii-A only, whiTf buid van ntill \m Itail for tho asking, and 
«rh«rf< ll)« n|i|iitlliuK pniblcm is for thn man wlio owns land to 
I -uthor thIngH being i<i|nnl— with the man who is not so 

ui atw. It wan anid jWHWcly once, by a nowspap^tr huroor- 

int, that a man living on a smnll, rocky farm in Uaiuo, on an 
' ' ' ' !y a«hnme<I ono day when a well* 

:ii th*^ front yani) pasMHl liiK door 
and ^lutt iniiui8iliv<<1y at tho dilapidated boUMaad 

oatHii-j'-mi M -M •■«, Ah thi? travi'lor dn<w nimn'r, the ssppoaod 
pr«T>rinUir hanUmi'd Uy n)niark : " I am not wi durnMl jiuor ua ya 
t ^or; I don't own tbtH Vn* land!" The joke is 

L . . . il 111 \w nriv loni;!'!- hiiiiii>ri>iifi U\ \\w uVAnge 


' :■ i<i (uiuiil 
..Ii'>:i of tilt' 

llllll tK'IlM' 

rapid liiir' 

Itl |U> 

I '1 

i( 1 

<-\iti;H in tho 
iktiil- viihieti in 

Urg« town*. Tho ini-iiuality \* <>»<> which ao h-gialation could 

• Ular tmmmt ILI* tplrit (nm (lif " r^ty diwp," bolli Mill ud Sp*M«r tkIM to Uy 
kL dr M i^BHt Mj DMM* vlwn-lfT It oodil b* pUntnl. AlltolW ovnenUpk obnliof 
Pl^iitkl NT vraoffnl la Ilia U^lanloc ow tu Qmm •! \\A» pni>ant iiinin«nt • rigbl *»d a 
t»r\ (IB itiKnLilBlaii U> Lv •Uaktil ■■■; \ij • mOV tmMh at luiiUtili;>l(nl lUclfiU. 



possibly remove without opouing a door to imraoomireblo 
luid wrong. Wealth itwlf is an iacciunlity which renders poA 
sible the moist lurid contrast in conditions of hmnan happiness. 
To sec the brown-stone front witJt a (jil<i«d <rarriage at the door, 
while 8 hovol with Htarving iumutus i^ not OLan)' blocitit awu; 
su^eHts a train of thought ns piiilietii; lut nnytliing tko worl 
hafl to flhow. But you can not abolish wi-alth without punishin 
economy and thrift, and taking away the iniM'ntive to rise in th 
world. You can only abolish it by alioliuhing i-ivilization, to 
which woidtJi and iwverty are incident« ; and poverty you can 
not abolinh, either while civiSization la^ts or after it is destroyed. 
Nothing was ever truer — as a declamtion for the pi"eeent, a do* 
scriptiou for the past, and a prophpcy for the future — than t 
Btat<mient, " The poor you have always with you." 

But schemes have beuu suggested for Umiting wealth to oi 
way and aiifitlier, either by extinguishing the owner's y 
bequeath it at all, or by reducing to a .4mall allowance w ■ 
go to his children, or what he may bequeath ; or by taxing eac 
additional ten thouEsnd dollars acquired above tho first ten thou- 
sand at such a frightfully iuorL^aving ratio as to make the in- 
centive to obtain money no longer attractive. This is a back- 
hand way of trying to abolish poverty, or make it more tolerable 
by making everybody poor compuhsorily. Ton can not do a 
more i-ffpctive thin^ toward paralyzing enerpy and ludnstrj", 
and offering a bounty to laziness and unthrlft, than to niuK' thu 
thrifty men of tho world draw all the sloth and inroniiMttcnca 
along. This is taxing them not only to support poverty, but td 
multiply it and make it prevail. j 

I hjive been comparing here the evils that peem to have n-laJ 
tioii to wcolth with ihoM whioh eeem to BOme to grow out of thd 
** unearned increment." But if it is a fact Uiat a hovel of starvJ 
iug inmates can be snoa not fnr from the jmlace of n man ol 
wpalth, is it not even a more closely relatml fact that the riMi ul 
the palace, and the man who livee in it, lnui din-ctly hclpi'^) ihouJ 
saudb iif honest toilers, and coutinur« to help such, wh«l)ii<r tlid 
man who is wealthy wisbL's to help them or not P Bnt we do noi 
notice, on acwunt of this hovel, the th<p'i f vrell-to.dff 

workers all ovi>r tlie land who hnvct Arwv iM! for yearA 

from this wealthy man's multiplied wants and luxiirieH, nnd wbd 
live plainly and comfortably from the fact thi.i ' ' "' « 

lik*' liim livo lux«rion»ly. A six-iety where v -J 

evilf, b"cftujie evil is ini'vilabli' ; but to cripple < i 4H 

would bring a ileluge of <)i <.^>><'x whlcti no t. '^^1 

foretHH' them fully, wonld )- avert. I h.< i^H 


mart BOW emphatically romnrk tltnt it roally cou Qot happen as 
|fe m«r«ly iirivttt« benefit at ntl aiiy more tbaii vfittlt]i can liappeu 
■M liticl). lu a town of immeaHely rapid growth where this incro- 
burnt liriMw, tb« liunott hihorur and poor man who doee not care 
I i Ira land, or does not foroBOO tliu opportunity oi«n to Iiim, 

I >' .>>t (wiuuiatid the means for doing it, titiU rt^:t-iv'M uupiLr- 

ullolnl upportauilim in any pursuit he follows there. Wherever 
p M>>caUvd " onoanuid iocroment " arises, there society at large has 
B*<apo() cfiunMted baatfit* which have been widely dietrilmUid. It 
proaM not boaosy to sot down how far this wuvu of ndvnutuge 
pprMchi : but wb ail know that it spreads very fur, and that lie ia a 
nriiry dull or a very iihiftleas man, who lives where it siatis, who 
IdfKM not Snd iu]m« part of it bMit owr into hiH avra cup, be it 
LUrtfB or Ktnoll. And tliv trouble which would uriso from deupoil- 
pnti thuita who in a fvw instancm liave, by ocfjuiriug laud, uppar- 
putly obtained too irniiy a profit, would Ite tlie killing of the goose 
■rhich hod laid for tli» wliolii public the golden egg. It is more 
Hfaju) pnibablu that the " tuii^rnud iijcri'mi<nt " which haa comu 
Rk) thn lnnd-«iwuirrs in that Eantias town which ha», in five yeant, 

jumpixl from a jiopulation of fivo thousand to nearly forty thou- 
uuid, haa ({tmv tn the livrgt^tt meaxure to men who planned and 
kudu tbtf progrvwi MM^n llion> posi^illle, In plaos where this is 
mh» oaaa in a leiw duin^i, the effort to make things ctjuiU ta a 
kablem too great for any but nuguls and serapha to deal with. 
^Hknort'ly Laman dovitro tan touch it without breaking or de- 
fraying the uuiuupring of <-t\'ili7jition. Yi<t there aro plenty of 
■nula who dare stop in wlK-re angels fear to tread. The man who 
bniniMl up his Itam fillod with grain to destroy a hornets' nest is 
DM aliMie in thw world. He now haa a cuU and a body of dis- 

I 8«'ing, a* all may, how little land does for its owner every- 
ferlMn>, and for an ownnr who has the utmost poMible iuccnlive 
khat th« stronu motive of human Helfishnees supplies to uunblo 
■im ' ' 'wbtcrh till' i-tiit*^- could not havo), whi^ powtiblu 

nop- '*" "f i^'iy ("'ll'-rnient of llitngH by transferring 

all laud to Ui» stat*.' or Ni society collwtively ? Tlirough what 
mpu^-' - - --- ry is it that the state is to conduct all its farms 
|k> n "1 n-nt city lots as to produce more b<.-iii>fits than 

[1 x i No one not stricken with asinine idiocy can begin 


\ * It OBIttit M* (O r«>)Ulr« Mf upKIwa M *•" <)>*> BtWI ■■» otra tiolila Uftd W ItD- 

b"'* U. ** *^ ^T «anai«H knd to M»he It nliuMr, b tlM Mend ud not Uw cMny 

Prtnu AWMnUii •t load. ** It m* uUu, b ^ttf/Aj 1 McrltM for iW 

fw li wni b« tMMMthvrvl tkal h b Mt dlnwi aowH 'M iawl thai 1* bi llm 

iMBiwarj M tmf nwi IndlrldiMl, <ir to utj mm aitltlnn d( bidhMaaU. WImi 

I hr ted b tiafil; tM«M in ih> ptoAwu of tonA, nXtanx, mA abdWr mMda bs>l 

itm Sw, 1/ NNMbadjF <1m vIU <» onpnaMliU M(|.MHm for uj bnwBt, 1 -Ul 




Bow, too. is this iic«(iru] IrniiBfvr of Ijuitl to tho {X'Ople to 
nuulo ? This utep is the pons asinorum which Mill Kti<i Bpeucer 
revolted from, and vhtch Oeorj^ does not succe»isfully croafc 
For tho people to buy tliemselvea out, would be tbe only honest 
n-uy of trau»for ; but this would bo liko a msu st&ndiitg in u corn- 
bosket and trying to lift himst'lf by tt« hoadlea over tlio f«: 
McGIynn, George's prophet nod Hott^pur, cut« the bridge down, 
and saya all land must be taken, without compenmtion to the 
pre«out "miscallod owucrs," and given directly to iho atuti). 16 
i» not Btruugo, willj tliia crude ouncoption of morals uppermost, 
that the new " cnisudors " should not have n wunl to say of tlie 
"earned decrease." This whale scheme is all as ahallow n \noc^ 
of folly as the hiatory of delusionn will have to record, tt will 
very properly take itit place with " the mo<m-boax," and with 
Captain Symmcs's tubular theory of tho «arth, when the nins 
days' wonder of it, now wouiog, ^lall havo collapsed. 

fit OEOBOE IIABLEY, M. D., F. B. S, 

r' is becatue of there being at prespnt such divenw v\evn ex- 
pressed regarding the influence moderate drinking has 
tJio coufititutioii, thnt I am tem]ited to contribute my mitu of 
knowledge to the genenJ wturk, in tho hoiKt timt what I ri'lntu] 
may suggest new idms in the minds of others who, like myself,] 
are interested in the study of Uiia intricate question. For I r&«l 
gret to find that, notwitliRtunding there has alreaily been so] 
much written, and well writt«?u, on tho action of alcohol when] 
taken in oxwfw, no one appears ne yet to have tliought it wortJi] 
his while fully to tackle the subject of modomte drinking. Tho] 
renson of this, perhaps', is not far to Peek, seeing tliat a tittle re*| 
flection reveals the fact that, although the majority of [N-rKoiiaj 
may truthfully be said to bo moderate driukew, ami conse-j 
quontly medical men see far more [>ittient8 Iwlongiug to thlit] 
category than any nlher. they i>os!ie8s but ver>' llttht upfioHu- 
nity of studying the e(fecls of aUtdtol, when thus indulged] 
in, upon tho constitution, for tho following reasoiu: 1. Thnroi 

nil (ilEnuilw Mm m • i«bhcr i 1 will, am <b* iMBinn', 

Huiii'IkmIj bu ham laMtf onmfnillnR Um mlllkM aiol li 

■ hlt4i Ihu t*rtatn In our aeat ikrlfl; kplirnlluntl Kuiiw nr' 

lwni> Uin (vin tntit, n<^~lil Is ur lluil lit iln in |«t(ivtti >i 

lliii, aad lliii ii> :i>Ritllt rvUinJ iu h, I fx'l 

■■•■cTot iIm ^ ' .I'-ff ' ~ U; ipwl fallii*, fiHi ii 

jua itaaU mm te iMra ■*, ur (InUoiIp, dMM Mt 4NHfiK«tB« winH iHiloid nim 


M« not onljr no titXtV* uf Bt«tutic» as to its oR'i'cte in uxisti>n<)e, 
but tht^rvortt uomenosof acquiring them; thn urtAtistice of tlia 
dfMTta ti( druDkunne«u, of which thom iin- iihun<lance of grraiter 
or ItMW valuv, boiiig tmr<)rr,iitiAtcIy of no service ni-hatever in 
•alvitiif thf' pnililrm i>r tlio pffwta of niwlcmtc drinking thither 
tui mtiiJ or iMxIy, 'i. In no inBtnuco an> tho t'lfeclK stiffiduntly 
— r fc i^ ki nvcf'mitou.' any sppcisi form of tn^tment in n puhllo 
faHtftution. X T' '< t'THons iiiHiiimci^ on the iKHlily ftnic- 
tfam krn HO iiiM in thu early Btoguti uithi.'r totally to 

MMtpo tlttiMrtioR, or, what IK moro common, to li-iul tliem to Iw 
„ir_.i ...,,) t^ Homo entirely (liffercnt cau»o. -t. The offwrta of 
I drinking nuinifi'nt themiieiveo in surh a variety of dif- 

r»nu>i i rTi.-, tliiit, oven when thoir truo nature is rwogiii^ed, 
tlw K( u- nil ifrwtiiioaer Itiid not tho opiKirtunity of Beoing a suf- 
Scimt numbor of Kny onu of thum to admit of his drawing «on- 
diui" ' '•■m. fi. Tho men who havo most' oxpi<ricnc« of 

tba *- ' < of fun<-lional diR^'ORa ilireclly trncnnhle to tho 

■•(TiirtM of mixicrrite drinking are. in general, merely those who, 
liku mynelf, nmke liver and kidney diiteiMCtt a Special study ; thO 
liver, kidnej-H, heart, and hrain being tho»ci orgnnsof tho body 
m<Mtt affert^t*! l>y nlt-ohol when inrhiigivl in within the liinit» of 
wtut hi ckllod mtMlemtion. Nolwithslanding tliis fact, it being 
imp'MMibW for me, or even any ono ol«o specially ongagt^d In tho 
tnwlmeiit of liver ntid kidney diMMUxis, to collect u BufRciently 
Unf*> (MitnU-r of telliug cuwM Tnun which to deduce crucial data 
t'ffix'tsof small qnnntitiefl of alc^oholic Ktima* 

;.*... 1.. indulgi'd in by t4-m|H<nite men, 1 purpose wlopt- 

ing the plan of drawing concltiHionii from the idutistii-al data of 

the > ~ ' >1 on the hnnian constitution wtum it is 

t«kri : what in cnlle<l "nipping" — that is to tiay, 

amatl tiaantillex only being tjiken at a time, bnt fn^qiiently in 

t' ■ ■■- . y the day. Of \X\vm. fortunately, the registriir-gen- 

. < iif iiiir national mortality iu diffeivnt indutitrive 

lunuHh iw w ! thing njiiirrwR-hing U* n<liah]i« dittn. Sol 

■li.ilt riinli'' 1. L. in. along with sx^me Oermaii statistita of s 

r> . in iUnstrating the prolwhlo pnthologtcul effects 

01 i;:'Mii'r.v'.i III. lilting on the human confilitut ion. For when otw 

t-av. v-\. ■^•■•■x v>-hiii be wantii, it is good policy to make uw of frhat 

! 't, on the principle that half a lonf is better than uont^ 

I t.. ,.?i t(,„^, (Jmwliackn to tho formulation of reliable 

rdiuu both the direct and indin'Ct clTects of 

ri sninll 'puuititii^ nt a lime, ui>on 

' . ' ;, 'l tho nllH-r of ni-onciliiig ilifferent 

I: : in i>xwitly miuiut by tho term " motlerate drink* 

a qmintity whii^h nno would call nioileratu is 

'ly to bu by luiothtir dMigQatt<d immudontlu 



drinHng. Beforo attumptinf; to define the inirinBic value of 
th« two wur Js, lot me retuind tliu niulvr tliiit tliti ni«i» use of 
tlio tonn " inoderat«," whun opplitxl to anytbiiig whatevei 
whether it be to walking exercise, or anything else — inipl 
tliat it is merely a rclativi- and c{niBL«qm'ntly u fluctaatiug quan- 
tity, iwcurdiug to thu onpitbiltttLW of Iho individual and the cir- 
oumBtances of the cnse ; for a moderate walk to a weak person i» 
quite a different thing from a moderate walk to au athlete, 
the t<irm " moduralu drinking," when applied to a girl in h 
1m.'uh, 16 Komi'thing quitu difTf^Tent from the turm "modera: 
drinking " whon iippliMl to a roWxt man. Cou8i>qui.<ntly iti; i 
triiiitic value is not to be measured by quantity, but by tli 
effects : and fortunately, &a every thinking being is rnpable 
doing tluB for himself, it is quite uniieoeMirury for nie to lix upoi 
any given quiintity, but merely to «ay that by modvrulu drink- 
ing I moan the indulging in alcoholic stioiukint« well within the 
margin of intoxication. I tthftll, for the present, confine my rv 
marks on the effects of moderate drinking to those iuori.> (mr- 
ticulorly otworvod on the four important and indispenKablo 
origans of the body — muuely, tlie liver, kidoeyo, hvart, and 

Although at] persons who indulge in alcoholic atiniulnnts 
well within the margin of actual dninkenneRs upook of thom- 
xelvee as "moderate drinkers," there are two special clmwoo uC 
thom which boar no reaemblaivoe to each other, except in thu onJ 
Holitary ciroumstanoe that tlieynever at iiny tiuif tJiko Hufficicnl 
to intoxicuto thoouelvw. The one class in that which only pckM 
takes of stimulants while eating; the other indulges in then 
between mool-timm. To the latter habit is apjdied in this (xiuiM 
try the title of " nipping," while in the East it is K]>okr<n of ■■ 
"lagging." And this is the most iwrnicions of all fnrins «J 
drinking, from the fitct that stimnlants tnkon without nt tliJ 
same time pArtukiiig of food, though only imbibtHl io fxaam 
qnantitiwi at a time, have most d«>Iel<-rioufl effect intAToJ 

organs. A man who habitually indulges in > crinas til 

aherry in the forenoon, u brnudy-and-iiodn in the a: . nnj 

a gkws of whiaky-aad-wfttor in the courso of the ■ ' 1 

rnusoas pri'sontly to Ixi expluined— <)oes for more i a 

constitution limn one who [Htrtakes of a larger qimutjly of iil(.-<a 
hotio stimulants at mcjtl<timi;i>. Tliut Ihia t» not a mi-ro idi<a 
opmi'in ovolfcd from the realms of fancy, tmt one fouudt<d u|Kjd 

ni" . J^H 

ItortM. As Ihertf, unfortwiuitcly, ox ■ -3 

iiiV.-- ' — ■ ' .--. ' ■■ _^A 


an- ' 


fhitv i7t vvQ iu tbt^ rupurtfl of ptTifotui who, in thu course of their 
-4, orv fxpiMMid to tbe teniptMlon of taking Hiuall <]uaii- ' 
jii. - ' ; iiti '. ' rimulnutii bftlween m<»1-tiii)e«i. with Iho !»• 
(inii I ' i thow, at the Mime ages, whi)»e trs<IeBaiKl 

iixltw of lifii iii> Drit »o expow) them. And thu tvmiltH ure, I 
■"IhiiiV .-.-'■...-tlj: concIiiMre. For thoy not only furnish 11s with 
a c< viF atwjiute Bverngo death-rate in the two sets of 

: nu nmhtffnonn UiiKiiacti., p«)iiit out the exaot organs 
; that ani mo»l iillW-t<''l by uippiug, iitnl give ua tho 
tivc propurtiotui of tho df lotcriuuit iuUuonco it bos upon each 
'of thom. 

Finri, thwn, oa KtKnrdfl the iiiRut>nce of " nipping " on the liver 
1 1. —the two organp nf the body not only more immedi- 

lA..._, :.!\\, but most closely cori'lated, from the fact that 

rhHo tho uno in disvuMNl tho other hait to perforin its functions, 
' ly. Seeing that the av<>rage proportion 
(he same in all industries, when it 
in fluiuhtlored on «urh a vast Hcale as over the whole uution's 
B-- - -'1. 1 winrcely think any one will douM the tru«twortbin«88 
julLi aji ruvualu'l iu the Muhjoiued tjibloa: * 

th»lk-aa» ^Mm ArtHMa 1*4 Jgt* ^f »S and OS. 

M ik> t—piiBiM tt' aitfUf." 

'— " Vi^trrBmmm 


rnbtliMa^ TiMartB, buMca, ftsil wkltnrt , 





I ootuiMirativu death-rut4M of oieu of tlio same ago engaged in 
thnr indttftriw, unl expoawl to tho temptation of "nipping," 
rv, again, n> follows: 

Tmlk nil if I III - mill 111 rii liii|-|fli II if'ii1]|tT|~ 






: iiRi li> theae mofit U>lline atatisHcs, I ihilik I can 

' -'iii)ti> what Baur says n-^rding the jirobabill- 

■I't eni«iwtl to th)^ tompUtiona of "nipping" 

iif IIk"-- * ible to beao tempted. The 

'1 from ) I of PruBsiaa stAtiotirs.t and 

lor th«^ tnki* of muy compariaon in two parallel 

s ":i"w>ug the probable duration of life cttlculatnd ui dif> 


• -CiFpkMM to Uw hn^ Srib Annual Rcrnrl." IMS, p^ SI 




mMUMa vcuiiBM or na un «a >V> 









IB'BS ^ 

14^ \ 

ti-n J 


This, us is nwa., is un Miualljr instructive table. 

To rc-tiint f«ir a mutnuDt to tlie part played by th« SiJ-call' 
modorate use of alcolioUc titimulitntfl in the production of fat 
forma of 1i ver-diseo^e. As it in, I think. imiwiBsiblo tlmt wo 
medical men can know too muuh rugurding tlio itnttmldd dol 
lerious effects of mere " nipping," I liuru subjoin an extract from 
the Kgistrui^gonerars tabloH of tbe comparative mortality from 
liver-diseasce in different industries, between the ages of twenty- 
five and Rixty-livo, in th© yi-ars 1880-'8S, which exhibits tlie mat- 
ter iu a stronger li^hl thoJi any words of mino can possibly do : 

DooktiliuWn 8 

BookMDen 4 

lUucn B 

TobwDCobU 1l> 

Dnglg^tu and pri'rter* IS 

Oardraert and ndnera ID 

Dutrixn II 

FlahcnDen ..•..4...> tl 

Brcaon .. . 41 

luoketpen, piitillcifu^ diUMn, ««Ji. 
cn^ uri banniOi II 

Thu FMult here shown is bo startling that the i«gi«trftr-gi>nj 
oral nut inappropriately designates it as "appalling," seeing thiti 
the projwrtion of deaths from liver disaasea is in reality six timet] 
great*ir among men exposed to the temptations of "nipping' 
than in that of all the other industriLVi combinoii— the ucttiu 
iiguroH b«ing: For brewers, 1,361; for vintnem and other mUm 
moi) of winw. spiritN, and K>t<nt, 1,531 ; and for waiters and 
men (thorn moHt exjxiwd to lemplatiuu), no losa tliim 'l3fA\ 
whereas, for maltsters, who are only conoirnwl with llie mi 
terials from which intoxicants arv maaufnctnn'd, anil iitit wit 
the intoxicjiting liquids Ihemaelve*. the dt«th-nitw in only SB 
Nothing coTild Iw mon' conelusive of the dulet' 
wxalli^l modunkte drinking on the hiimau ronstii 
for, OB nil diff«ront otfocts in this world originating in identicti 
canwHhrit but relative, it ' jlily iwon ' ' "" i1 

of " nipping," though gi to li.xui. j 

kviH cauBU a pr<>|><>rtionate iimount of ruwe'i of liDH'-nw iu tho iivf 
~ kidneyK to thoM given in the above tublifi. 
(TIotwithHtJUidiiuc the familtaritv of m»licjd men wilJ) Ih^ 





bMD propared, wilboiit »ome sperial acquaintance with tlie su1>> 
ject, fur lliu iDfoniintiou funiished by the fore}{<tiiig mortality 
UbteH uf the jiuUrut iK'tioo uf alcohol ou Iho Uv«r, whi>a uiUy 
tttltMn in Mtnall qiiautilles at a time. And, uULuugh it may at 
t ■ ' a[itM<ar struugo tliat the liver of all the organs of the 
b :... ... iuiii bv most pitt«ntly affected by moderate drinkitig,! 

thibk luu) coa tcurcely be surpriaed at this if ho is acqtiaintwl 
*'•■' ' ' iiliar nctiim uf ulouhol iiitruducvd iuto the liver by 

t i[i, Ftir it n^^iiiii-itt, I think, but n small amount uf 

r I UH th« jmrt of t1iiH)« acquainted with the mechanism 

(>1 •ii^i->li<m to uadenttand how alcohol, when taken into the 
«t»nuch. oVMi in nmall quantitieB at a time, is a jiowerful ageut 
In the ]>■ u of )if{i:iti<: ili»i-asa Boeing thut mij«t of the 

luiuiii yi- - -'( our food an> carried directly from tlie inlos- 
titww U\ tho Uvor by the portal vein, it cotisettueutiy follows tliat 
klmoiA every drop of the iilcohol, be it small or be it great, taken 
lolo theilamacb muMl Im dirertly conveyed by thu {xirtitl vt<in 
to the ItviT, uuil t-omiHiIted to filt^tr through its tiKHUei» bi'foro it 

r -"ibly gill int<i the gunund circuhttlou and roach any of 

: >»rgiuitt of the iKxly. The knowlvdgo of the fiict that all 

I >«1 alcohol in directly conveyed to the liver by the pur- 

t... _ :iutioD not only give** a clew to why alcoholic stimulants 
am MO prone to Induce heiMititiH, on well wa to iitcreoee the formu- 
m of ntgor and oKgriivnti! diabetes, but to bring about an at- 

k <tf gout; wving that the -liver is rcgardtnl as the nmin 
'■ iMth vng^r aiul uric wnil— Ihe supiiofied gout-forming 
In addUiun to which, the direct c^onveyancv of alcohol 
I vnr nlTnnlM um a reoiuinnble uxphtuutiou of wliy alcohol 

tj.'^i '1 itino much k'tM dftr{mi.-nt»l to thoDMl- 

iti!!-' t:ikun ou an empty t«tonuM-h. Mi>roo\*ur, 

ii i« o>iw • well-known iiu:i that tlie coDtinuoHo excitement of 
t" '' - '■ 7-t up by hiibitiiiil " nipping," is far more injurious 
t >nit tliiui uii •HTiiHionat outburst of drunkenness fol- 

IuwikI by mtt-rvaU of ntrirl wihriety. It equally account*! for the 
fact that the Uvor is not uluuu thu first organ of the body that 
beeuouMt olTocttHl, but is at the same time the ouo most seriously 
diiordcro'l b^ >te drinking. 

Tbp rffpcl ItidueyR of motlenite drinking are far loM 

I. ■ UiAQ uiKin thu liver; ncv)<rlh>-Ut))), they are sufficiently 

tiL.r .-I iM merit nUi'iiriotL The reoacm why the kidneys wifler 
*> iim-h !■■■•■> '("Ill ili>' iiiibil>cil alcohol, when it is taken in only 
(uij:i. i>*. It tinn' in BufUneully obvioiiB, seeing thnt a 

! .- -1 wiiat pii.<uii<n through the liver never n<«u.-hus 

at all, from a oonNJilerablu part uf it having been 
dliouuai' *' ' 'nth during it« |Huauige in tlie blood tlirongh 

th« taai: iimperauce is a fruitful nuurcu u( Bright's 




I 190 

I disease haa long been Icnown, and tho rcAson of tliiit la not 
I to seek, seeing tliat it is ttio speciul duty of ttie Icidijejra to elimi- 
r nato alcohol from the f^enpral oirculation — as they do ult other 
L foreign mnterials. And the murw work thiit is thrown upon (in_ 

I organ, the more prono are iu tissue* to boromo degenerated, N< 
I only, however, do we know that the kidneys elinoinate the iw 
I bib«d alcohol (from ita being met with in urine), but we likewin 
F know that alcohol, a& ahrohol, satumt^^s tlio renal tittsue to siicl 

an extent that I and othure huve Ik-uu ablu to obt^dn pure ulcuhc 
from the kidneys of pontons who have died iQtoxicAt«d by tl 
simple process of distillation. IBeaidea all thift, howover, there i 
n Bpeciul reason why the kidneya ahould b«?ome diseased in : 
called moileratv drinking; and that ia on aucount of tho circula- 
tion being incessantly inoreaaod in them, as it is utiwwhoro, fronu 
tlie accelerativl heart's action induc«>d by the repeated imbihitioa 
of etimulants in amnU ((uantilies. For no doubt the diamelw ofl 
tlio rvnni bluud-veiMuls \& au^^mented by their engorgomcnt, and 
consotjuently they exert a delotvrious prwBure on the int«rviu»cila 
lar tissues, wliidi will interfere with their proper nou Huh mend 
While, further, this engorgement of the renal vesscla will rendoq 
the kidneya more liable to the injurious effects of chilU; and 
chills are, a» is well known, the most fruitful cauM of kidnv^ 
dtBca«o. This Wew of the case appears to me to givo not otilg 
tho clew to tho rooson why Brif^ht'» diaoase is so [tartictilurln 
oommon among tho inebriate, but likowiwwhy trau)'ii^-nt attnckll 
of albuminuria are ao frequently met with in moderate drinkerM 
among both men and women. Spirit-drinking is said tu bM 
mainly lostrumBntal in inducing the variety of ronni iliMwnM 
nnuuHl granular kidney; while beer-drinking is, on the [>lha 
hand, thought to be most i)Otent in bringing about fatty degenfl 
oration of the renal tissues. Be that as it may, I well know, fmni 
a long experience of urinary alToctions, that even small tinnntn 
tiosof alcohol habitually indulged in sometimes bring on m(>iifl 
troi^lesonie forms of albuminuria, without there being any wallJ 
marktxl symptoms of the existence of either grtmular or fatt^' 
degeneration of the tissues of the kidneys. 

Alcohol, when taken in small quantity, ix ir il 

net as a direct cardiac stjmuliuit, and its stinii: v 

supposed to b« due to \\a possessing tho focully of Incn'oslntf Iha 
m'l . T of tho hearts I t^Au an ei • ' ■ ' "" - - * vjuJ 

of Liid rihull now t'ndwivr)r to hJ: "O^ 

in the force of tho heart's movement*, thr t\. -A 

T>u1m», the fluahing of tho fiuo, ttv- " -*'' --Jl 

blood-vumels. oa wvU as all thu ■>: ' ufl 

r 0,., ,■■■,■■-. . - m 



iQipcular tliwua nt the nen'OK rtuppljring it, but oodiAUy to the 

nverw— tuunoly. its [MirulyziDg effects on tho cardiac 

meclianlstti. TliU may ni)pear a strange idea t^ tlioMi 

illar with tlin lulvanwii Hioori« regurding the acoelerat- 

luifl rcMtrniiitiiff hearfs nervo-forces, NovertheloBs, it is 

iN>D»uoiiiil with th» ruualts or modem physiological invos- 

inon, wbich go tivc Ut prove tliitt every funrtion of orgnnic 

•iin mutter wbethor it l)o tho expulaion of tho urine, the 

Itic mcrTomAiits of thv itit«8tiuei«, tliu throbbing of the 

I, or involunt4U'y ronpiratioa — acta under the immediate In- 

I ' I bifidd norv.t mechanism. For examplo, the human 

: wiw] with two entirt-ty difTeront and oppoidng centers 

-ford*, and HO retroactive are (Iioir rosiM-'ctive functions 

-'--''■ duty of the onu appeitra to be to reguhite and cod- 

lionjiof tho other. To tlio former has been given 

' ibitory or n'stminitig loechiuiism ; to the latter 

iiiriK or iwceli-Riting ni-rve agency. Destroy or 

]y«e Uie inhiliitory nervoKreiiter, or arrest its power of com- 

i '■ with tho heart by dividing the vngus, i»ud inHtantly 

i^t t'Tivt on the cardio-moUir mochaiiiKm in lost, and 

'■^<-iii, boing no longer uiidiir its normal re»trniut, 

, „.... 1 ..' hi^rt'H action in inri-iMuuKl, the paleo is quickened, 

1 exeew of blood iti fon^M) into the veseels, and from their be- 

; engorged nud diluto<1 ' ' ' g>-l» flushed and th^ retina 

anmwted — all the unuul roiv n of a g«n«ral engorgement 

ircoUtion being tlio rosult. InMeiid of paralyzing the 

* n. lutd thereby arrwling it« inhibitory cardiac 

:ilyMi it Uirough tlie inNtniinmitality of a toxic 

it, ami prtH-Ktidy IIik same uhain of [dieiinmciin will <»f neoea* 

be th« n^Milt. The most powerful paralyzorof the vagus we 

pretent loiow of is atropla; and what hnppoiut when it i« 

in a full doMt ? Xothing more or leas than the effecUi we 

have here attributed to thn wxjtion of the vague — tunmltuoua 

.1' tiMii, quickeneii jMilne, congested face and eyen, etc. 

.Ai 'i '1 " '•' on tho heart, I helifvc, in ]ire<'isely the same man- 

i<T..-,\n >|iu-i, although Iivtti strongly; that is to say, it 

Iq (u-tJoii, as well a» a|>|Hirently incnvwiM its 

't - .. J , -: - A itH restraining or inhiliitory nerve mocluin- 

km. This, hnw«vi*r, b ouly the primary action of alcohol on 
tha r< ' ' ' Un'iinnntity iclmiuifitered eaf- 

Bc{m >; Bmt nppiirently stlmalatlng 

* ' '. ■ in ila m»ff i><>iwi."wing mbMiuato power to 

' ..ting M wdl an tlm retjwdinjf oardiao nerve 
:.i ' \r\.'» action, tht^refore, now becomes dimin- 

Tit of the [xiralyzing agent em- 
licieiicy Ik* given) tho 



niovemenUi are totally ftiTMted, »))d death closes Uie ftoeue. 
fects on the human orgamsm being, when properly interpret 
like effocta in the inorganic work! — exactly proportionate to 
cauHo — the at lirst sight nppui-vutly Htimulutiug aud couBoquently 
aalatary action of aloohol on the heart, when taken iti iniKlvra- 
tion, is as much due to the alcohol'a paralyzing power as the 
ilestructioa of all vital action in its result when it is taken in 
poisoiiuuM quautitiuA. From thiH, however, it is uut to be in- 
ferru<l that its iiicipieat xmralyziiig power over the iuhibitory 
cardiac nerve mechanism most necessarily bo in all cases ilutri* 
mental. On the contrary, it may actually in many instances bo 
beneficial Just in the same way as atropia, strophantUK, digi- 
XdXis, and daturine — which are all cardiac inhibitory nerve para- 
lyz«r8— iirove exceedingly usuful medicinal agents whou they ar 
judiciously employed in appropriate caws. So alcohol, by il 
doctor's skill, may in like manner be so used as to paralyze 
cur^ and not to kill, 

It being wuU known that intemperance is a most fruitful 
cause, not only of all the various forms of heurt-disoaee, bat 
likewise of the ilegeuomtioiis of the coutt) of the blooJ-vvtwcIfl, all 
I at present require to do is to prove that even what is called 
moderate drinking has a much greater share than is guncnklly 
supposc<l, in not only gremtly increasing lioart-diAeattes, iu cofloil 
where they alrwuly usist, but also in inducing their develiipmonll 
in the con»tituttonully and htyvditarily pVL-Jisposed to IxvontH 
a(Fecte<l by tlicm. The reason why modorute drinking shoubfl 
induce not uiily hyi)ortrophy and dilatation, but likuwiw valviil 
lar di^N>ase of the h<?art. is not far to seek — from its t>eiug a reofl 
ogiu^sinl fact that ever}* increase in a muscle's activity ix iittsocll 
atv<l with nu increiixe in i\a development, us wull as iU) U-nsioH 
on Uio partA witli which it is connected. The truth of tlie for« 
going fltatfmontrt will, by ft littli' refli^otion, be glean- ■' m 

results of drinking small quantities of alcohol friMjin jjj 

the day, as manifested by the figured Id tlie eubjoiut<4l tikhlfl 
of mortality I have drawn up from the pegUrtrar-gi'n.r '' -Ik 
|>ort«.* of tJie relative frt,-<|uency of disoamw of Uu> oii /J 

system among men betwi.H<n the ages of twenty-live an(liuj|lM 
five employed in different industriea. For it uut only idiiiwni| 
uSecla of ao-oalled moderate drinking pvr M* but likL-wiiie thfl 
uttU more iwmiciouH t'friijtKDf it vrhi'u it Uuapi't ' 4 

mil.lunt muscular etniin— that is tusay, vliH) ' 9 

nhrohul »i>on tliu heart hnn NUiwraddud to it on incnuuio in tiia 
heart's activity nccesRitatoil by ofl-n-]H<atod vudden muiieiilul 

* SupplHiMiil to Ihn (otlj.Sflh AnmM) IttiHirt, lUti; wlilrh Itikm In itiir ■hnln |ud 
Hmw Ua jmia' ivuttt-tMm, wd inaj wn imi wiily b« waqiwU at jhlllin • ndbUr 
WuafK. ^ 


■fforto; for whU« it xliowt) tlint nil uxpoiwtl to tliu partakitig of 
alcoholic Mtiniuliuttn in anmll quantities »t a tiino oru luucli more 
fr ' 'ly ulItN-twd with the futttl forms of cardiac diswisos tkaii 
' in nil i<(]iuUI>* uiimtututcublw vray ahowa that meu wbo^ 
i vurv, rtv|uiru in thu counid uf tlit'ir tradoB to tax their 

ia. . -:.r vtriiu>;th. luid thorvby thnjw udditiouul work U[)Oii 
tliiHr bttartA, ant fur mCire often atUcktsl with thu futiil furout 
' ' ' ' ~ '■' ' circulatory system than men equally 

» iii'liu Htimuluuld, but who ara Dot called 

upon to muko niniilar Iciadtt of utraiiiing muxcular vffortM. 

Thi) ntlativo pntixirtiifna of dunthH from diKviuteK of tho circu- 
lAtorj- nyrtoQi in thtt diffonnit classes are : 

tv» Ml ■> wil l» l>« ii n nw m tt I Tb«**ipM^lirlb*nm)oMI*ik*tMDp- 

4AAks. tMte of dUMUf. 

DM|Mraaa4 tranboiufMcB 18 Ow nnwr c l il invuUn !■% 

OaritMN nd Banwrw" ... 83 VtuMn, Mlter^ ud tamon tW 

rriMloM ... Mi6ra>«n lU 

Uatvovor, it i* wiuiilly known thitt inl«mperanc-e in a most active 
atcrnt io thu induction of uthoromutoiu (fatty grauular) dugou- 
oraUrMU io thn i:oiit» of tbn arterial 8ynt«tn, and lui such a fruit- 
ful aoaron not only uf iluatli by cardiiu: syncope, but Ulo'wiiw by 
mpopUay, tnna thu t-on.<bml v<>a.iela being quite an frerjueatly 
aod m» MTeruty aiToctix) with the degeneration as those of tlie 
bMii itMtlf, and thn coat«of thoono «t<l boiiig as liable t4i suddnn 
raptara oa thorn of the oilier, if not, indixxl, L'Vcn more »<>, from 
th« Iwa M>lid nature of the brain tmrroutidingtt. I wiith novr to 
cftll tpeciiil attimtion to what I believe to be a fact— namely, that 
what is t«nnwl " mwlvrate drinking " is a far more general cauM 
of Btlu'ruauitu(u dvf{eiieniUou of the ooata of the blood>Tessel« 
tliAo is luaaUy nppoaod, 

11 ii^ I beliere, next to impossible to ovorrnto tho desirability 
I ' r.'ouig patieDU WxirinR undor lioArt-discaso, as wull u 
..ttona degetwrations o[ ibu blood'Tessels, with the aliso- 
luu- D«cv«ity of IwiDg HXtromvly temperate in the use of alcoholic 
Ktimutants, if thoy wiah either to live long or to amvliorato tbo 
diMMW of tlto ciri'tulatory Kyst«m under which they labor. For 
aloot' :i in the form of opiritii— brnmiy, whinky, gin, or 

ram <li teospoonful doseti, by increasint; the bvart's action 

has quits as p»ntici(iuM an elTcnt on the organic structural di»- 
tmm'.^ ■ ' - - - . a* killiuloniia ituolf. And I fancy 

all w II with rariliac diaMHS know well 

:>»< ot t)tt» remark. 

" "f organic duieaae of the hnnrt or blood- 
vm»- '. is quiti! US ossouliul to thn wutl-being 

t»f t; ( ; fcr, if thiicaso \m skilKuIty 

tuni^ .- dvuLh to be long averted, but 

*fl«. txmi—n 


Tss POPULAR scrsycB Moyrrnr. 

oven the offocta of t)i« organic changes rednced, and, like th 
cracked jug which goes often t« the well, the life of tho patif 
may he prolonged for yoars ; while, oii lh« itllicr hand, if Llii 
true naturx! of tint ciwo fail to bo enrly rccognixt^d, nml the [uitier 
goes oil living as if there were nothing the matt** with him, lb 
difwase rapidly ailvancef*, and ere long the time arrives wlinn 
is utterly Iwyond human power to avert'a more or leew Hiiddenly 
fatal ending. 

Aftvr having so forcibly pointed wit the baneful effects oL 
oven tinukll quantities of titimii hints i» diwosw affecting thehealfl 
and hlood-vesselH, I think it is time for nio to nhow that in thoM 
cases the laws of therapeuticii are not, like thrxsc* of tho Mtidefl 
and Peniians, unalterable. IHiis arises from the fact that evon 
the same forms of organic disease affecting the circulatory syn 
tein occAJjiooAlly differ very materially in their charactera d| 
well as in their course, not only from the special con>ititutioou 
peculiarity of the patient, but likewise in a markf^d dcgroo froid 
the different circumiHances under which he is p1ace<) ; so thdl 
stimulants may be employed in one case as a useful adjunct t4 
other treatment, in ttpite of their being absolutely forbidden is 
another, la all ciiscm, however, their employment run only bm 
sanctioned under medical advice, for, from its being always nnirhl 
easier to put a thing wrong than to set a thing right, 1henit>etM 
tical comhinnd with pathological knowIe<lffe can alone (»e safoljl 
intrusted to decide whether or not alcohol can 1m> given witH 
either advantage or with safety in any given case of cardiac dim 
«•«•. Even here, however, sonu" genenil riihet for alcoholic trvAH 
tncnt ran be nottfie<] ; for there is no doubt whutever thai, in aUJ 
casos of cardiac syncope, spirits, in the shape of brandy, niraJ 
whisky, or gin, are potent heart revivers, rsiKtoially when thera 
exists no actual organic diftpase of the organ. And oven in com 
tain cases where thore are valvular diTiu i-l 

Innt* maybe liad recourse to with nun ., , rj 

from tho fact of alcohol being a powerful aott-RatuIenl, there Ifl 
flcarooly a ainglo case of or^ -oftheti '' ' ' Mfl 

may not sumetimm bo admi mall (pi;;. iJ 

with innrk<-<I advantage. ■ 

Finally, [ think it may l>o said that the variniui fact* ailducM 
appear to prove — 1. That alrnhid. when tsdulgod in. even wefl 
W;" limitJi of ii" i m»Mt | *4H 

on I rrteone. 3. Ti > ofmuKi: iB^ 

most deloteriotuly on all rormn of organic cardtoc !•■■ . ■ 

That mental excitement h n •" ' " ' ' il 

blood- v^-oM'b. 4. That a meri? ■ ™ 

wind I ■ fatally urn J 

knowlt..^.- ... ii.^-^ facta has (m ..'..,.. ,,... ..i.^m 


it on iuvnrlaltlu ralo tu laijiruwi upon nil pati^mU InWring miifcr 
(UawuM of llt» circulatory sytitvm, who tloeire to miuimiiie Uie 
afFo'' '' ' l.'UiiU aii'l wnrd rtIT ii» long tu i» ptMuiblo Uie 

BM»v ..iinl'iim, t4i jMiy strirl alt<>ntion to what I cull 

II ^sitig thni- giililt'n riiltsH: 1, Take psercisw, withonl fft- 

tih'i- . •:, tiutritii>n, wittumt ittimutAtiuii; luid, 3, fluiUMment, 
with<rtit nscitcm'tnt. 

Ail tl( It-nition of the cffcrts of alroliol on tlip brnirt, 

whtii t« ' vcww, li*-H I'utin-ly outside of the woiih and piir- 

jwjK nf thta «way, I ut oncp pnx-wd to call attention to tlio um yot 
I • ^ '"'rfwrtly known nubjwl of tho infliitnro of smull quiui- 
t iilri>}|ii1 iin bmiii-tltwiuffW, And it being my di'siro to 

miiltt' iJii- I'lTcH-tn of nnxifratc drintcinf; an strikingly npparettt as 
in [MMMiblc, Ks tht'it* nru no statiHtii-s of tJie cfftvta of it forLhoom- 
ing, I full tnctc iiixin Ui4> data furnished in ttio regi«trar-gea- 
«r)il'« n^ixTtN n>garding t!n> conipjirfttivy nilio of mortAlity from 
din-TW-n of tli« nnrvnuB system occurring among mpn between 
' -f twcDty-llv«> and sixty.fivp in (Uffcrent induHtrioa. For 

T 'I <:tartliug a tolo of tliv txiuoftil cfToctH of liking xninll 

- f nlndiolic MtiiiiulnntH f p<viH«'titly thn-ing tbe di»y. that 

i> 1- I'd 1^) annly;!<t ri'jtulls drdin'ihlH from roljatoral 

evuii'ti!) -., Ui nppruriuti' thi'ir intrinsii! vnlne in the elDRi- 

d«tioo nf thn point In hand. The n>gtitt.rar-general's roport* 
lalb lu that tho rflativo mortAlity in uh foUowii; 

DIMM* of Oa 

\ tnii*<M«. 



IhUIom*, wiM, aiUriu Md twer dMlviB SM 

OwdMHC* Mil B«ra«7nMi., 

FUmwaand gn^vn 






PI Tha ttboTV HffunM Bpuak to tho rofl4icting miud in uo luubig- 
feoui lontfuaft*, ao that 1 xnvt\ miike no commvat u[)on ttieui savo 
b oUl Kpxdal att4tt)tioti t<j Hi" furt of diiKMumi of tho nervuun 
^■tem being wi much iiioni mminon ainon|{ drapers and ware- 
biju >^n among throiiiudly indoor nrctipntion of priuttirs-t 

il'" ' •(>> \plamitiun whii;h t dani vi-uturo tu adduoo 

- thiit, iw it is worry, littlo fidgeting mental 

'lan nieut«l work (not exora-sive) to 

it,.!-!' j"'rc«ntAgo of diaeams of the nervous 

1- lu >lniponi and wnr(iliouM.>mea is pOMibly 

■■ i'i iii-ii i>"ii>ti ui>>i'j iiubio to hu mvutally harasiiod in the 


course of their daily vocntions thaa prinUiiti, who bltd as a nils 
DOt subjected to anytliing like a similar claas of petty Biiooy- 
ftocoK (luring thtiir work, no matter how ardaous it may ho. ^^ 

That nftor thu liver aud the heart the bruin should be thl^^ 
next organ of the liody which suffers meet from the injurious 
effecta of alcohol when takeo in small quantities at a time is do 
more than what miffht be expected. Indeed, I think it is even 
less, sooiiig that alcohol acta injuriously upon ll(^^VG■t issues in 
throe distinctly diffcrvnt ways : First, through its chomical ac- 
tion upon the blood ; second, by di»orderi»K the liver's functions 
and causing the bile to accumulate in the circulation, and there- 
by poison tbo brain and nervee ; aud, third, by its acceleratiof; 
the heart's actiou, and thus eondiug an incrMwd supply of blood 
to the brain — every incroasu iu an organ's l>lood-sii)tply being as- 
aociated with a corresponding iiicreoute in the functional activity 
of tlio orKan. 

Thu iucruaee of the cerebral circulation coniwquent upon tho 
incrouBo in the heart's action from the tmbihitiou of small quan* 
tities of alcohol acts prejudicially, however, ujmn the hrain in 
yet anoUier way — namely, hy ita causing an enf;orgemeat and 
dilatation of the cerebral arteries. For, seeing that Nicol and 
MosBop found that so small a quantity as two t«aspoonfuls of 
Absolute alcohol caused marked congestion of the retina] blood- 
vGssols — which doriva their blood-vupply from thu same souroo 
as the oerchral TeBseI»— it i» natural Ut infiT that even the small 
quantity of two teaspoonfuls of alcohol will induce tho sum' 
amount of congestion in the branches of the hlood-vcsscis with' 
in the cranium as it docs lu tboee immediately outNidu of 
and if BO, seeing that tho organ is confined witliin a linii 
space and surrounded on all sides by unexpo&sJhte ridgod walls, 
by tlieir engorgement and dilatation they must of noouesity press 
injuriously upon the hriLiu-fiul^stauco. Thu pressure thus i-siti 
on the nervo-oetls and fiburM will not only prevent ihuir pt^^rfwrni 
ing thoir functions properly, but at the same time intt-rfitre with 
their nourUltmeiit, and consequently lewl to a ''■■•'■-■•■' rrit!<m ol 
their constitueiitf^ The deleterious effects of c \ q( thi 

inturcruuial blood-vossels are rendered apparent lo i i rvn 

other way— namely, by tho feelings of fullness or i -■< oi 

the head experiuncwl hy many iHirsonii after partaking of ul 
holir slimuhinta Moreover, it ■ ■ - - ' -,■'■•( ' ' 
ulhidial tu utToprl a rcusuiutbh' 
happens thnl piTKHiaH who indiil^K iu HUtnli n 

while engagud iu anluoiut nii'nlnl \i\\ U,^. -i 

snddaa montal breakdown, niitwitl 
efT- ■ 

in. : 



fV "ifiU colUpsp id, tbftt tlio brain, liko ovory other organ of 

, wbilit in n Dtnte of functiannl iu;tivity, rlrawa to it a 
•up<-r-nit]»|ily of l>ln(M), and coii.<ie(iUPntIy, when nlooliol is tttkon, 
It aHiIh tu ilie ulrondy existing eDgorgi-ment of the rprehrol to»- 
•cli alining dirtictly from the brBin's activity, hy aowlL-rating the 
hnnrt'H iu:ti<.tri, nii'l DiiTi'liy iiti(jnu<^i>ting it« (k-lutcrioiiti vlTuctii hy 
»tjll fdrthiT iniTitftninn the jin'^siirc exerted on tlio iiervo-colla 
luiil V (]ii< liln'HiIy (IilHti-() »ik) engorK^ vessela. 

V. . .;,..,; now for a momoul gUuco at ihu injurious effects of 
KTiinU <|itfii)titif<8 of ftlo4ihol i^'XtTtod on the hmin through tho in- 
rn -f Ih'' hi'imlic rU'nmgomvDts thnt ^timulnnts iiiduco, 

'! . Iiirgit number of nervo affectionfl, more et^pecially 

in the form of int4>nc<ntiuil disturhnnoee, which come under the 
i< f liv<<r ii])ociitliitt>i, ar«> in a grunt ineiucun> attributable to 

'ti<r of ilm biliary fuiictiium brought nlxiut by tho ho- 
ndulg«ut-» id Ntiuill (|nniititi4'M of «lcnliol Ix'twwn moal- 
f'lr, jut x» wi'l] hnowu, saircdy a more formidable cer&- 
tU UiAii biln cxiRta 

' from a [xitipnt n ^reat deal which he 

w IrvatDli'nt (if others ; and ono of tho 

n pationt tnught me vm tho marvoloosly dopreesiiig 

'Mta tltat a itingU> gtam of spirits will occnsionatly produce 

Iknu trtibjcct^ A leading member of our own profceaion. 

ifl 11 niiirtyr to biliouxnoM, made a number of exjieriments 

pon himwlf rfganling tho dfprowing aftcr-offcct» of nloobolic 

luImitH, and lie tolI» mo ttiut bu has repoaUtlly found tlut ft 

;|i ■ ' iiiHky, or Iirandy, biken dilute^! with water. 

'If in thi^ nvening, whi^n he i» bilious, and 

Fsha(»l>il nfti'r his day's work, will be followpd in from 

'■'■■ n hoiini with Jtnrh a morlitd ilepreseion of gpiritii that 

know* wliiit to do with himm-If ; yet tho primary 

ftJIfvf of ilx- ntii: , he my^. not only rcfn^hing but exhiU 

anttinft. TbiN, v..'...-. ..^u an oxu^ptional chbo in ro far a8 ita 

m vi-rity ill coiwx'nicd, is btit the t3rpe of many othem that hare 

r.,r n')me liave said that a Binglo table- 
ky, or gin, will induw) depreiwing after- 
r hvvm an» out of order. 

-'■■ '1 1 nin account for thin depressing after* 
•if uli^obol, whon tnken by bilions per- 
riiiill nnitmnt hnti tho jKiwer to 
.. _ . 1 1 umfl ltiflni-uct> on tho cerohml 

tiaof* in uotuMiiience of their himng Iwcn already materially 
V ' ' "' ■■ • i ■ TiTtii exi'rt<Hl on the nerve- 

I am led tn this opinion 

o* •}•*/ mui'li !'■?*« ihn (tciiri-ti»ing aftflr-effoctx of 

rlla h*^-^^- .^ twin an tho Uvur'ii functiuuv uru put (o righto. 

ii>(*t« « 
fi... . 

•uui a 




Tbe brain nnd liv«r disordcra luduood by nicohul Uiui* npimtr ' 
lie as closely (xiiTelat«<l aa thoHf) of Uvf>r and kidney. The inoru 
factof a splittiag headache folloning upon adebauch iii ihe cano^ 
of a strong, hitdthy man, and a froutal or uu occi)jiUtl puu sue 
Doeditig tlie driiikinj; of u Hiiiglu Khisii of ttherry iti a iivrvouslyl 
vealc one, may be rr-gaiiltjd, I tliiidi. n» jiroof jTiBitlvv uf tho 
dotritnuntsl effects of alcohol on the nen>-e<tiwsues, aa well naJ 
XkoA us to suppose that it ts most probably due to the oumprtw-j 
uon of Uie nitrve-cclU luid tibor», wlik-h, lui I bavo ubovo triud to 1 
explain, may probably arii*e from the ulculiol aoM'U-niling Umj 
heart'8 action, and thereby increasing the circulation in thi< in- 
tercraoial vessels. 

This 8tat«inei)t nec«e8itat«e tbo making of anothtir— uuuu-ly,] 
that ntberomatoiiB dttgooerslionit of both the canliac nnd ci'ru-j 
bral blood-veHsnU are particularly contmon among inun of great] 
muscular and mental aotinty, who are in general spoken of asj 
"good livers," 

I buvu nuw to call atU'utiou to wbut appt^'urs to bi>a revtTScrl 
kind of preliminary ulooliobo cHoct on llie norvoiis syst^'W — \ 
uanioly, that which is observ'cd in iho incipieut stage of intoxi- 
cation, and is almost invaiiably .ipoken of as n pleasant iustoad^ 
of a disagreeable xensation. Although I imiigine that wboD a 
Itnall quantity of an alcoholic stimulant \» Uikvu, Ihe jiU-asumblo i 
feelings expfriencwl may be probably uutirely due t« its incruus-J 
iug thu cprobral circulation, I nevertheU-«w think that when thoJ 
amount taken \» ttutncient to be )iltimat4'ly nbUi to If-ad to iwm- 
plet*! tinooiisciousneeH, the preliminary stage of the intoxicn* 
tion, which has been described by some as one of sweet nam 
aouci, is simply the offspring of a blunting of nerve umMibility — 
in fact, mert-'ly a partial or incipient ntjigo of vereliru^pinu] |a^ 
rulysis ; pnTiwIy in tbe saino way as fe<>lings of a pleading ctUm 
aro ofiontimiv) felt to pn-cede tbo totjd unconsciouaui-ss of ru-, 
freshing sleep, an<l Hootbinjf sensations of ogTvettbltf Uutitadv] 
have been dewntMid as their fit-lingtt by ji ' ''r al 

lingering ilbiirss have ijuiutly and peacefiilij intoJ 

otvrnity. In all of thcMe canes the plitisurablu nunNUtions expe-l 
rienoed aro mxrely, I believe, due to the grnduiUly iooruaiiiiig ' 
negation of nerTo-«mnsibility. 

Lniitly, iii4 ri'i*uniH til' !iti-J 

tiiM of alcoholic stimuliL; ' j ' "^'h 

the power thoy powmmw of «o acting on thu UHrve-iiabulum m IJiio] 
blowlfts|.o|- - i' ; ' ■ • ' ' 1 

>MHd, ond tin 

' triLina. Almliol dm-^ ihin esatitly m < Al 

Rouiewli"' I- --■■- --'..-' ..;..... -i...^ 

rwoltn ' J 

Tiijs nFrscTa or moderate oris king. 199 

•abject aututi yi^art n^o, n fuU account of which wa« hud before 
till] Briynl Snek'ty, arxl imbluhed ia its " TrAiisoutiotw " in 1884, 
niMltir thu tith* «f " The At-tiou of Physical and Olir-micol 
Ajci^iitn ni-m thu HIuix), with SiHi'iiU Kufurvuco to \\iv lU^piro- 
Uffy Y 

Tht i ;vo Bfft<cta of alcohol anil opium were fuuml to bo u 

follow* : 

M w i>un» or JOK. 
















WHk |iunr MlTt-blooil 4- MB Him. of 


A rIrhou at thin table nafBooD to show that alivihol, even in 
lh«i umall |)mfH>rti(m of ItVh |K>r cent. ext^rtH a (xivft-rfiil oh(>niicit] 
r~ 'il lu! tocntin.Oy rUniiiv:" <>Tii> Iff it« iQOSl 

if ii'ly, (In- fmii'liftii I'f ivMifinition. Th« 

alrohol M-<inn 1» hHvc nclod like an asphyxinnt. inasmuch jie it 
hav r ' -' ■■■ diiniiiijihiHl th(> ixiwoi of the red corpuKck-A to ah- 
Bcirti Imt U^ '.'xh»I» cjirtKiiiic lu-id, and that loii in thu 

Msif uuy, iliotiuh to It luiniKW hat ItrnMci- vxlont Ihnti morphia 
diM«. TliiM )H«nitiiar clii'Uiicjkl action of tin* alcohol on tliu blood 
ni-rvr-pahuhiRi may bi* IboUKht tu fcivo A ninHonublp explanation 
"' ■ ' i-u iifiili'ohol upon the non'ouH nvkU-iilriw- 

ir . \\\\\ niolor ))i>wiT of all viImI lu-ttun, iind in 

■ *itrH^ proimnlon to it«i aMivity nrv tbo nianifi-stationH of llfo 
aMvl^ralml or rftanlol. Kvt-rj- hivAth -wo draw, everj* oioa'o- 
ra<tit w« jirrform. ftvwrj- thought wt> think, Ih hut the outcomo 
■ ■' r iif ninttiT undfT tho tnfliK^nce of oxygon. 

ii. - -. L'l abovf nhown, tlmt aUohol posiomca the 

pDWor of pivvnntluiK Ui» couiitituMita of thv blood from being 
J" . ' ' ' ! (h.'n*by (ItUil for Ihit pnr)»o6e8 of nntri- 

t ml for il8 pnxluchiK a chain of moru or 

hsa V r.tir Hyinplomn t4>rminatiiig at lant in coma 

and lit -.,..,. ■.■j>.i '■'"F" '':- ^"•■■'->n iotioefc 

if k onvd Is Mialf nr AnUrcdo eiplorMJcn) llinl it w(tl prrmoto % D«eil«d 



fWBi aiul UMj In III' 

mti «uBi|>«jlae tW rv ■ 

V''«l ami i;(!o1i>clFn] knowlMteo: wit) rnoirlhuto \a b 

a citiitivi'Uua of ttiw (olciink ilkiltirUaiuiM iii lli* SnnilB 

nlonit A *' wnik tliie " w(lh Ui« voli-nnm-nof Victorin 

r Init wliP-tlHr ntiy -•■rolnr dUlnatla (tknottv I* la ptog- 

>'nrUo *nrV9j of Uio** p*rU 





TjX)R many years I hav« been very much interested in 
^ Ainu* of Japan and Sa^halien.and have read carefully 
everything w^x\. which I could lay my hatid ooiitaining iiifor- 
miition about thorn. FimHng that Mr. ButchL'lur says, "Mi>» 
Bird's remarks upon the Ainu ore porha|>s the l>est that havo 
been written in English," t- 1 came to the conchision that any- 
thing like a satiafiiotory knowledge could only he ohtained by 
visiting, as she did, some of the Ainu villages of Yezo, My dtiisini 
to iwe thorn for mysolf has always heon stimulat«d by the rathe 
conflicting etatunic-uts about thorn which are found in dlflfc 
ent books, and I havo always had a sort of a forlorn hope (as 
thought it) that fortune would twrne time turn me l>tK-k to tt 
shuri's of Asia, which I left nearly twenty yeara ago. 

Thte long-wishod-for opportunity has at la^t boon grant 
I landed in Japan the second time in the spring of Ii^kg, an 
after waiting only long enough to gM a slight working^now^ 
edge of the language, 1 spent a good part of the summer of \i 
in roaming about the northern parta of the empire, and hai 
boon pennittod to km, live with, and etudy tlio Ainu in thiti 
homes. The Japanese oCflcors have made special elTorlo to aiToi 
me facilitieH, and have enahle<l me to do much more than 1 coal 
havo done without their aid in so short a time. 

I haw loaracd of the Ainu history, of tlieir hnhita and ci 
toms, of their myths and suponrtltions, from ihr man in Jniut 
who us adniittoil to know thia people belter than any other |Ht| 
son : and I here wisli to thank the K^t^ John Batclutlor, Cbt 
Hissionai-}- Society, Hakodate, for his kindnoAs, and for the fj 
tient way in which he submitted to my croHs-4|iiiwti(iniiig; fc 
the advice he gave m« how to mak<^< the bent u>ie of the limit 
time at my disposal, and for the assislantw be n'ndi>r«d in mall 
ing what is at the best a rough, hard trip an easy an [MBdiblj 
To Mrs. Batchelor my thniiks an* <Iue for cr'' 
supplemonled the trying fnre of JapiimotM^ it 

1 do not hositato to nay that alt the vnlualAe Informntioti cc 

tainnl in tho«» noti-a 1 ■■'- " ' 'n Mr, Itntchelor 

and tlittt I have only i*. i tuh by my *.\\ 

olim^rvulion, or by 'luofttKining the |h>oii1>' tli' . when 

found sonio who undeml'yid Japancwr. Pi^rli;., 


* I ailofil (1m (iirJIlag of iha mi»* ulilrV. iTir Iti^r, Hr. Ita1«!i*l«ir fatura, u I ytl 

iliinoa lu tilai In ill n*ltan of unci - moprciuc (kit |imi|iI& 

« " t:<.L»<» Trull. In JapM," b; 1mi< i 



better for nte to l«ivn Sir. BHtohelor to tell hi.s own story aboah 
ihu Ainu, liut n tiiLsiIonury who ia working single-liaiidotl (jtrac- 
ticall 'it of tcrrilory which ho is trjinR to cover, 

ema li imi} for etlinologicAl woi'k, nnd ouo wonclers 

bow T&t. Batchclor biw manAgcd to put toigvthor «T«n tlie few 
fltray \h\J^ thnt hnvA como from hi» pen. 

In thit vilI&gi.-« of thu tiutith<;ru and eadtem consts of Yezo, 
Oi«rl)' nil th" men (itml miuiy of the womon aud chililren) apeak 
JaImuimo wt'll. Iloiico it iH nlwny» oosy to got iufurmatiou from 
thum ; but. thongh deson'ing in a Inrg« mcAsuro thi<ir charavt«r 
for huu* -' ' 'nithfiiIno»t, i\\t- Ainu have become stiffloieotly 

civilised ' >)fhly lovo "t^kkiiiK a rise" out of n stranger — 

anil if a bit uf n lie will make the inquixitivu onu's eyes jmp open 
!■'''' ~ '"-il and not"->)ook spring into nnuHual activity, the 
'fnl Kavuf;o " in not going to HjKjil a good Htory by 
•tii-lung til ilry riu.'tfi. 

In thp ttxtreme northern and northenstem coABta of the island, 
and in thit mountjtln fiuitneeeHni of tlie interior, thero are still some 
vllJjlfpw <if A i ' i^roiit nimiericiilly, but prLiscrv i itg their iii- 

te^^rity) in wi pi-oplu hiivetniiflly but finnly n-niHtwl Jap- 

aof«c adviuieet) ami civiliiuiUoR. Id tho«e places tnnny of tlie 
iuhaLitaiitM can uot H])cM\k JapanoMe. They use a f«w household 
DtiMiaila of Ja]iiiri<>Mi manufiu-ture, but, with this oxce|>tion, con- 
t 'ive (Lii murh aa po«sibh) us they did before they ea me 

il: i.Lad with thu Jupanowi. Thin MX'luitioii can not lust long 
Doir, however, for ttio Jaixmem are pushing th4.>ir way xlowly but 
mmly (ni ' ' " i 1 kiuill;/) into every ntiok and 

cornMr ; <■ Mint and cnsUmis biirriiT^, and 

fadt brmking down ilie last Irnco of dijttinctive lines betwepn 
tbe 1" ■ ■—■-:.. Then* in n;narke<l diffurence l»etwt"t»n — what I 
may ■ civiliKi-*! ann Hnviigo Ainu, and therefore he who 

^' "f lliem in anything like their natural con- 

■J - . 1 kly. 

It it not my proieut purpoRC to dincusH this people exhaustivi>- 
!■ ' '"f ethn<il'rf,'iciil nkoteh of them in 

■ I interL-'>tiiig to the general rewlor, 

V. rve ax n •tkt.-li't'm for me er tw^me one who may have 

I. — 'unity In dwJ with the uubject thoroughly, to 

! r future. 

T '*« remaining on lhi> i-nrth whoarftaa 

ini";- ;ia th» Ainu ; and none, ))4Thn{)M, aliout 

whom 9o UtUo can ever bn known. 'Without a titorature, without 
nr •'',•• ' '. . Ilk (.f thedeftd 

. :. Ih) taken M 
'■ I what Uivy have buvn will always 



Tlwir Duiubor can not be given with thu luust ilogrco of tiatii 
faction. Tiio Juitani'sv QovvrDUiout i-^msus w not ourruct. nor ! 
clikimiNl to X>(f. Individual €8tiu)at««( riin^v from lA,Oult to M high" 
m 6U,00li. l>ut I fancy KUKWor ltf,00(> would lie alwiit the number 
of Ainu in tli(} empire of Japan. It in rather ttatisf Actory to Iparn, 
from those vrho tiave been among the Ainu of lat« yeiim. that 
they are holding thuir ovra, if nut actually incrvaiiing in jKipula- 
tion. They nitty huvu Nurvivud Ui«ir luofulnoBB, though it iti not 
iiosy to Kay just wliat that usefulness has been ; but the samo 
reason for alleging that they now but cumber the earth can not 
l>e advanced in thuir ca»e that haa lieen charged against the 
Korlh AuiLTii-wu ludiuus (with whom thu Ainu have been com- 
pui-ud, though u)Hiii what gruundu I can not m-o). The luditm 
naturally a blutjdthirsty savage, white a more peaceful, law-abi<i 
ing race than the Aina can not be inuigined. In my genera 
opinion of the Ainu I hold u middle ground butween Miss Bird^ 
enthusiaiim, whi<.-h muku» him a gracious courliiT, and tlio cou4 
tompt of most Japumwo who »a)-, " The Ainu aro just dogis and 
liavo uo kouIm." 

The people know themselves as Ainu — Aiiw u/am. Xiriu : 
singular, ami itiara Is a plural sufhx: Ainu, howovor, ia of 
used when 8|H>akiug of them oulk-c-tivt-Iy. Inasmuch as tlie Ja| 
anese word for dug is »im, there ia some ground fur eupposiuf 
that the Iruilitiou coiicrmiiig the Ainu dt-M^i-nt from a 
white dog " wait invcutod by the Japancuie nficr they Iwcome 
quainted with the Ainu name for theniselvea, and waa intuQdod 
to show the contempt of the conquerors for the '' vile and igno- 
minious Aino." I do not venture to espross any opinion aa to 
the urigiii of this race of ptHijile, xiiiM' it i» a oubjecl about which 
they ihL'mM'lvtM know nothing for certain. Bntchelur Miys : " Tl 
older Ainu linve a tradition to t4ie effect that a iiaw>a uu 
Okikntiimi " (who is strongly sunpccl*-*! to have been none uthi: 
than the .iupant^t hero Yonhilaiim- — .1. K. G.) "waa ibu 
Aiuu ancestor. He duHOundwl from heaven to a riioiiiilain 
Piratoru mimy yenn liefore tlie JapnnetMi know or wore knov 
by the AiniL Okikurulni had a wifo who was oallod T^'ptkJI 
and who it> always known) by iianie — Okikurumi T' 'i| 

Okikunimi Tumsh Mwhi Utn- a son, whom they < 't' 

wukuru, luid from Wariunekuru the Ainu am tutid to bo 
Bcondvd. 6om» nf the Bnra Ainu t-".'i' ■' ' '' '■■■•:■• ''ipr« i 
from the ixlaudit wlii'-h li" t*' ih" iv nr 

halJen, nKMUilnt; tl 'iiw K 

ew ai '■'■' I" '- ,...:■ .-■ .- .-■ ;.-. ;..^r,'and t. -— «, 

for til r tliti AiniL" 




■b(i*l hitrnnl (Jtn nurtli by the a^icreftsivi), discipliitoil Japftneso. 
Plaiuly Ihoy havo not lietiu v<rry lung inliabitinfc tho ihliind of 
Y«ao, fur Ute trauw ot ihiAt ]in><lucw)M>n( ata tou clearly to bi> 
M»Mi ; nn<l kU m^us sf^utu U> ifi<ltcat« that n( a not very rcuiottf 
J- ■>• wiTi! K[irvn<l over Hip whole of Japan : it is cortain 

u„.- m ibo JapAuoiut biiitonrul jKirioii thvy went as for i>outb 

H tbit Utiluilu of Nikkil in DulTiciuitt DUtabcn) to be dMiiuod dan- 
l[itnton. N ry f«.>atiin)4f Uh' Ainu but jioiiiU to a southern 

<mM mif. I 't luiy tro]iical — <^rit;iii. The frame is nmde unf- 

itly ritruDK to roMist a heavy k>iI)> of wind, but not to carry a 
U wrn** "■' I" -tnlinK <>* ■* ''if'*'. Kulietaulijtl roof. It Buuinii to 
nifi Lbal t: iiitl dwi^ of tbo thick. wolI<btid tJmtch vetm to 

t' iki rain, iiixl that the eztKencies of envirounienl 

b_^ ; I u i'*-i-Uiin cbaugfl aiul a«ldui] Blven^Ui to carry the 

wmtcbt of mov. Had tbo Aiiiu ooiui> (roiu the north or uortb- 
wo<t. it U probabli) llint thoy would hnvu bronjiiht with thorn a 
«tyli> I'f arrh>toctun< iwlapUHl to n rigoniU8 cliniatt* : Uml tlie roof 
wtJuUi hnvf l>Htu li^lit tut HtrouK, mnl the wnlln sufliriently thick 
tn bnwk tbfi force nf tlui ffiUm which ar» known to ewM-p over 
tfait rvtfiouii of north«ru Amis. Ouv of the ittrunj^t (rv)dtiuci.<(i 
tl ' ' iM of aouthern rat)i<*r tluMi norUxTii origin l» 

li li. In thi>t nw]HVt tL i:Ii>7N>Iy nit^^iubloH tlio hnbi- 

t ludieH. Thn Iow,ovt>rluuigin)(eava3 is another 

J .. : HiijiportM tbu ojiitiion. The Ainu havo oevor 
'I iHii: live jjuwerv. or «vau tbo fmiulty of aflnptinjK 
till!'. -' '" ' ' "imurroiindinpi: brnco it im not Hurprit^int; that 
till) :..t\i' rii'>-.<':i U> accustom tht-tuMidve«i to witliMaud thu told 
Itutofttt of rvm«>lnlini{ their babitjitious. 

iiumt to Ihj adduced in mipport of the opinion 
!•' of Koutlieni eriftin ia tlie fiu-t thitt the ^irU 
irly. 1 woM unublo to gvA any rvliubin stjttijtticH on this 
' <vpi<nilr<il uiiou ray own ob«M>r\'(>tion and Ihut of ulht^m. 
of Yozii, and indt«d of all of JajKin — with tbo 
miithi-rn pjirt, the iabuul of Sliikoku, 
. ::. icutly hot to t:ause the early maturing 
« "iM aniotiK the Ju|>an«M', and noticeable among 

Uifi A?" 1 1 iJJ J:tptm, ' '' of rourt«.-OD an* by no mivina un- 
OomDon; nrd. llUll'•^ Ainu womrn do not uKuulIy nmrry 

baCot- <'>ly MixteoD or eighteen, tbry urv fittMl for 

.s,,.t ....,._ 

^ir with the Ainu, lit the case of 

WHS* noioiiud winmandttr, 

' I the tiUKOjLcemenl conductwl bis 

iwo [aHbion. Id figbtfi betwefto vtllatfoa tueo 

itundivl with women, and evon 

.1 Internal wtirfum waa not 








clii\ri)ct«rizo(l I17 tlio vholeeole butchery autl meroilcM slaiightor 
of women and cbildrcn that is usually »o marked a feature of 
savage nrarfare. In a foreign war — e. g., against tJie Japam 
Uio chief of Sara, who was the recognised hoad of the ostii 
assumed command of all the combined forcptt, the village ohi 
acting as colonels. But the utter want of discipline militated 
heavily against the Ainu, ami this iindoubtedly was one of the 
leading causes of thoir defeat, numhi>rs being a secondary o 
Bidertition, With the greater etrongtli and superior power 
endnraoce of the Ainu, had tliey been drilled in concerted action 
by skillfiU ofKcers, such as the Japanese generob have lieen 
since the time of authentic bletory, and t-iiught to make the meet 
of their iiumbont, it can hardly lx< douM«^l tlint they wouhl have 
made a much belter showing than they did. 

The liingtiage of the Ainu is entirely dilTerent from the Japan- 
ese. Many "click" i<onnd8 are heard, and it is much more cog^ 
Bonantal, and there seems to be much le«s objection to the cod 
sonant ending of a word, which Is so conliidly hate<l by til 
Japanese. In the use of pronouns the Ainu language would b| 
considered as philologically in advance of tJie Japanese, as th« 
are used to indicate the antecedent or person in muny instancfl 
where Ja[)nnese would leave the detcTminiition of the persifl 
sijoaking. spoken to, or 8pf)ken of, to the context and Ut the forfl 
of the verb. Honorific and humble forms of tliu verb are nfl 
used. The emphasis ut similar to that of Japaneao; intonati^ 
does not always convey the same shade of meaning— that is, tfl 
ferrogation, exclamation, etc. — as in Hngli-ih. uTihon^h atrtaa M 
often indicated by an explosive sound. H 

The tone of voice is always lower and more iiiusii ;i! t^:iTi Ihfl 
of Uio Japanese, and in the case of younger womi-n 'm i->.ii]:y 'piifl 
pleasing. One ])ectiliarity of the sjteech of women is a Urawid 
out of the tinal vowel of words ending in a or p. At timiw Ufl 
approach^ the long o-a-h or e-f-h of a contented little bitbv. fl 

The Ainu have bti-n called the liniry jicoplo, ni • <9 

with the JH|>.-tnese, lliv name is well given ; »till. I < V 

any of the animal-tike pelts I ha<l been led by some authors fl 
expect bi see. The men have heavy, coarm shoolcB of )<' ' ' tfl 
on the hca<), cut off short iH'hind acrow the nape ^f ■■ ■ J 

luid nllowud to grow nmirly to the nhouhlerH en tV 'V^l 

roughly bnishM to eitbur side from the forehwML ' - '- 'loi^l 
are very strong and quite lonu, bninc allowed to ktow withcn 
reslrniiit Moot of Ui' '4^1 

fnrry growth on the bii ^^^1 

tluin I have Been 00 the shoulders of ooultM ia Ibu tnatb ■ 
r'*: -->w1.h fit. ' - .'.--. I havo »■ 

(' 1 as any H 



la •tattiro llivy uro nitli»r untlvr tbo avcrago of Uie Cauconian, 
D»r do Lliuy Moom to 1n> u tall as the Bouttioro Japani'se, but upon 
thw point I lua uot pn»pared tu inako any po«ilivu iitutomuni, u 
1 Uluk nu mnuNun-cuuDtii. Botchekir wiys : " Thoir inuu would 

TT ■" nbout tlvu feel seven inrhen in li<>iglit, . . . Tlieir foro- 

bfiods BD! ht^li, unil tlie facial au^le meaauivs about 70*." I cau 
twit bat OurJc thin is rutbt^r taU«r than the arerage; for one 
yunntc man who hoomiK) quito a gluiit among \\\a fellows could 
Dtft hnvf* tmtt] mom than fivo f«et eight indu-it in lioight. Thoir 
|r ii« an) good, and thu men are both stout and squamly 

tuii... .<•<> wholo it]ipnitrnnc» being rather more attractivn than 
that of thu Jaimniwu of llio some rolativu (ttiuiding. Thvir at- 
tmctjviKuiga,bowov«rt(Io«)s not t^miptoue to luiy thing likit fnmil- 
iarily. us In tlielr pnnonul habits they aru thu very gxTsotiilico- 
tifjQ (i( dtrtiuMHi. Washing of person or clothing for ttie sake of 
dMnUnan novur WMuna tu bu considered of thu tilightuHt imi>or- 
tAocB to tbcm. In warn) wiMlh(.>r thu young(<r pty^plu am t4;mpl«d 
ta cool u(I a bit by bnthing and swimming in tho rivvrs or salt- 
mlar ontuiirinN nnnr the rilUig<i«: but, during all of my expo* 
riaDOn (and thin is fully confirmed by the statements of others 
w ' " hift loiigor know'lodgu of them), I ncvur oncu aaw a 

til I I woman jHirfornting anything liku abhitiuoH in an Ainu 
villago. Wbrn brought undr<r civilixiug iufluonoes, thoy adapt 
tlwiiuiiilrM Vi their environment, and make very good nervantik 

An old cuntom of thu iii>i>|ilii forbids an Ainu woman exposing 
Imh* |>Braoti In any viky. Homo go ho far us to say that they most 
not be unclothod «ri>n in privntit, Con»M|UOutly, thu girls whom 
I SAW in bathing wore tbnir cotton gowns, cut in tho shape of a 
*'■ ' Iw tliH boyn wore without clothing of any kind, though 

*' lem wore iuduIkIh (of Japanese origin) tied around their 


I van particularly struck by tlio shapeUnMS of tho Ainu 
limbs and tixtniniititw, Sonrn of the women had small hands 
and fvBt, attaobixl to well-turntvl wri}<ta and anktex. whoee sym- 
XBoJiry and dalicacy of iilia)H> lUrt could not hidtv Tho color of 
tb» «kin seams to bo darker than that of tho Japanese, but just 
bi>w much of this \f. due to expoeure, and bow much to their 
ac(tt>uthy lo wattT and utt4.'r iguoriiaoo of soap, it is imposBihle 
I' 'losa. 

. ^. '.iids is round and broad, and although it is locking in 
Inagtb u a rulu. yrt in many instancvs tlie chbi is not i>adly 
alia[* ' 'irgii without lu'lni; diHgUKtingly grosa; the 

CTnk . .11 color, and ruthiT iargvr tli;in thotMr of the 

J without any drooping of tho inaur ctimer of the upper 

I - --: ■•-■ ' .-!-.*-,.. .,t any of the obliquity 

> .the cbiA'lc-bouos are 



high, hot not specially promiuent; tlie nose \b ii»na1Iy Inrgie, and 
in tlio men, oftentimcH indimtni u etn^ngth of vrill which is n< 
oontirmed by thfl character ot thu p«opIu ; the foniti«At] K* hlglj 
and broad, mmetimee ovcrhnnging to mich n ilcgreo iis to \\\Xm 
flify the apparent lowness of tho boae and bridge of the nose, and 
I thiulc thin fact has Ie«l most obflprvers to ovprtook a certain 
shapeliness of that mombcr. Tht« facea of the m*>n iraprese ono 
with tht'ir appearance of dignity, tbo long hnir niul the flowinf 
beard giving them a truly psitriarchal look. When in roposc 
face is apt to have an appearance of aadneaft, for the eyes— ei 
whun hunting or aroused by some momentary excitemftnt- 
rat)i4^ir dull and expreMionleis. This appearance of ttadnees 
|iartictilfkr1y noticeable in tlie yonnger people and children, hv 
it ii very evan«*cent, and di-wppours instantly when anylhir 
is aaid or done in the least likely to provoke n laugh : thpn till 
face breaks into smiles, and presents a sinpnlarly attriwtivo 
ospoot. Though uaturally as shy as a young faw-n, evt>n the 
litUeohildren will respond with a laagh to a kind voril and smile 
from a foreiguer. I do not undenttAnd their language at all, ta\i 
therefore can not speak authorit«tively, but I do not think th 
I was ever called hy foul nnmeu in an Ainn village. One 
usMully tell by the tone and mnnner. and the reception of th 
tnsult by others, whether or not opprobrium is Itoing flliont 
after one. T coxi not sny the snrae of all the Japanese places 
have nirited. 

The rohustneas and general physique of the Ainu may bo due 
to the fnet tliat — so for as known — they have always eaten meat 
freely; whereas their niMghlKirs iiud comiunrorfi, the Japani»o, 
have been pmctionlly vegetarians for nuiny cwnturiofr— fish, ^ 
little fowl, and ramly a bit of game, not tieing a sudlcicnt confl 
pensation for the absence of s<did tlosh frtrm their n>gu1ar diet, fl 

No eidot idea of tho shape of the Ainu mf%\'& '■ ' '>« 

formed from their appearance, for the luiir forms a ii .J 

standing out all around ; but when the vmmen'a hair i<i drctwwH 
their heads seem to be rather small and shB[wly, and wall wt i>A 
necks which are often long and graceful. 

The women certainty have larger m Lin* Jap^^M 

women. This miiy be due to their ne^' uguwdtheHH 

dresHOB, with the strong under-bands and eaurrnotui balta (o&fl 
wh!i-.|) are »«■:>'' ' '' I iiiannw r'l' '■ '*^J|fl 

very young. ■'■'. in fln'^' '^^1 

grace of enrringi', the Ainu woman, wi:' ^^1 

in pleasing contrast to thu HwkWnrdniv^ .'^ ..' j-m- - ■'dRH 

iu puride and Ann linon I ■ 

Almost th '9 

visitini^ an Ai; .jl 



tlju wiimun anil ffirln. At ilm Grat gliuice one \s diK^ivntl into 
iiojipfMitiK tluit thn young mm wwir vciry dflioate mtistach«e 
aittl tmii) llipm citrvfullyl Ak thorn i»ro no writu^u riHx>nU of 
«iy kind ittii'mur if"' Aina, no hkmiiis of comntuiiiaitiou oxc»i>b 
ami. it ifi iiii tu f^nt at iinythitti? like a flati.ifiictory 

•.•i>'"""t)'in ui - .. 1 ;;rion« (»ml thorvuglily di«figuring cusUtni. 
7' l« ttiimiMi]v(<M ttay tlint thoy twloptod it frum tlio pCKtple 

whor i ill iii'M*«*si<iii i*f tlm Iniul (Y«ko) wlit-n tlniy 

osnu* : 1 /'"""t /A« West {?). TluKW i>e'>i»lc, the Kortt' 

pnk^uru, tbuy «ny wurv sinMllor than thnmiu>U'«i, nm) were very 
•non Mill lAMily HubjtigiittMl; hut, <*viiic-mg H kiiidly ilispiraition, 
aod a ilitfin* (<> i>l111l(ktt^> with tho nvw-cijiiu<n<, mthor tlinii tt> cuu- 
linaA to wapi w«ir upon thfm. Ihcy (thft Ainu) met Ihoir ovor- 
tornd liftlf-wny, c^nuwl to fl^ht tlioni, and adopted some of their 
etutomii, ono of Uiiiii Mng thia curious tAttooing. The prix-esa 
OOOnaoo*'' ' i n ^irl is about tcu yifirs of h^'v. A woman 
OiakM tk ' of Miiiiill cutM with » Hhnrp kiiifw on tho lips 

wwl antuHd tlir> mouth, dwp iniough to eaxim ttio blood tu Bow 
fiwly. With womn of the bUHxl, and lumt obtiuiind hy oAtchitig 
no thu tiotliim of an iron jMit. or niiyt liiiiff «liH! whirh may oomo 
li from buruiu;! hirch-lMirk, a |«ifltp is mtwle and 

*-... - (Ht iiitrisioiLB. Aft4>r ihvrt>?iullinK iiiHammatiou 

ha« nibndivl, a numhor of blun marku are eoon, and the procuKt in 
floatinutvl iintl' !' 'rl liwonji'* a woman, when the mouth pro- 
Wttf«lb<' n)n- ..f Ix'int; wiirrounded by a growth of hair 

I- li« dainly mustacht-H of a most ooiutnxnmate dandy. 

1 : iinjiind tho moutli covers about one half of tho 

. Hmi tlie mouth in cl()»e<i thpy api>««r of rather n 
• ' .r. hi thi' miuin timo tho tattoo-nturkit hiivo W-un ap- 

pi. _ ii" fondn'ifl, and ahtiavy liiit-druwu ju»t ovt«r the liridgo 
bf thn miM In uoononl thv eyebrown (which luv not shnvod olT, lui 
iVMNtl cuiitom among thn marritxl women of Japan) * 
hark if tho hnndii and up thn forcArm to thu ttlbow 
w.i.i now UKO JnpAnran cotton and hmnpnii mn- 
irf whniiPVor thpy onu Rt*t thoni, th*'y "1'" «w 
to rtMort to th« materiat cMM atltuih. 
lit of a kind of olm, possibly i'lntiis mon- 
IttMa ' ami Savutic*r'ii catalogue of Japani-tt<> p1aut«i, 

gVBBr '111 in ViTzo AH Ohit/n, \ml the true Ainu name of 

wUcK ''■', attunh mwuiing ' tdni.flbiir.'" It is thoroughly 

kieklwl, tUno spun (or drawn ant into strands), and afterwanl 

* TU* matam to f«(M)f dlMfprnHnu tnm Ifa* otliibbariMod of tbo trMif portr, uiJ 
•k MM OMd la tk« laWtor, u U 41m lb* •Ul) Man illillc«ri»j; liga of ■ raurM 
•HHS, *ta., iU WhritwuJ ttMk Willi thca u« ko1"E ^* •'to" qu">« *">> P*"*/ 


woven with a small Itnnil-loora, whicli is hold by the toee and % 
cord pasatng around the body. This loom is a very r»af;;li bffuir, 
bat in oU e«»ctitial pnrtti ix similar to the hHU<l-loom ntill tu be 
eoea in parts or tho United States. Thu cloth is very rough iind 
hard, but extremely durable. The piece is narrow, but just 
suited to tlie one pattern of outer ^rment worn by ni<*a and 
women alike: thiii i» somt-thing like tlie Japanese kimono, 
highur in thu nuck, and has more shapely sleevM. It ik u lo: 
perfectly straight gown, roaches nearly to tho fuot, folds nc: 
the body, and \a siecured at the waist by a ginllo similar to 
Japanese obi, but much narrower and uuthini;; like so elnbora _ 
The Ainu are very fond of ornamenting this gown with broad, 
stripes of blue cotton cloth (an inch or two wide), stitcht^l on in 
geometrical figures with thread, which makes a eontrast : thene 
ii^r&i are usually put on the front corners, around tho ni>ck, on 
the yoke, and on the sleeves. A burial-robe, wbioh I savr in tlio 
Ainu cellocliun of the Satporo Museum, was made of the attuah, 
tan-colonid, and ornamented with strijKis of Turkey-red (an inch 
and a quarter wide), stit<rhed with black, nnd with dark-blue 
cotton cloth stitched with thread of a lighter shade. The dt>- 
siKQ was straight or at right angles, only one or two alight 
curved lines appearing in a most intricate pattern. 

Thf duniVility <if tho Ainu coat, with a certain attractivi 
about the trimming, makw) it quite pupuliu- with the Jnpai 
and OS soon as one land;) on the island of Ycoo the Ainu sty] 
ore seen. The sleeves of this coat are much more sensible tlia: 
tlioee of the Japanese, which are long and comitnntly Hiippiug 
about the legs, whereas the Ainu fits rather snugly about tU 
wrist. Like the Japaiiese, the Ainu married vf'ouk'u weiu* tm 
uader-garment. or smock, of cotton cloth ; usually this is meruH 
a straight piece of cloth folded around the waint and loins, d 
winter the Ainu wear skin-clothing, and leggings and biHits madl 
of deerskin ; the coast Ainu make boots of salmon-skiu. I 

Girdh^s — or obi— are made of attusb or ohu-fibor. A wnmani 
obi, which I have, is made of homp. It is eight fwt long a J 
only two incticft wide, ooantely woven of large thread, with naa 
row, dark-blue stripes on tho odgea and half-way betvoea id 
edges and middle, and one broader stripe in the wntor with fl 
light-blue mMian line. Niuir each ejid is a tittle bit nf pimI a 
an o'ldtxl oniainunl. Tin* Kiirafulu (Siiglialicn) Aiuu wnuiM 
wear ginllm nimli' of Inntber. and oniiiiin^ntiil with ringH aiH 

Ohiniuie caah, whirh tliey probably gi*l fivim M ' rla. TH 

Ainu do not protoct thuir hdads and ftrnt ut . t durin 

tin . ■■'. ■ 

r the moNt common things Mwn in an Alna vElIogn^ 
the ffipri, or strap used fur carrying alt nuuiltor of buiuUwi, ad 


MrutL It ]» mode from attusb, tlto same material aa was 
farmarljr u»m] lUtugothiT fur their cluUiiiif^. Oiiv in my ptnsee- 
i« ui^lit r- ' ' Thu bark has ]>een rouf{h]y hocklot], uiiJ 

kStut c*iut*T < I tip is briiidod into four fltraii4]s, tJie ontor 

iren iiunnvm of on inch witti-, being nbout twice tli» width 
I inner onmi. Just at thu midtUo for Jive inchM these are 
oo^bt to^ttber by a croM-wfiaving of blue nnd white cotton 
riu a rvgubu- loseoge pattern; tliis is the iwrt which \» 
I uvvr tbn forebuud when carr)-ing a lDa<l. Altout sevea and 
a hiUf iiichi** from this, toward each end, the four atranda are 
lier into a round, double strand, by a notzing which 

'ivguhtfiy. This seizing extends for n(}arly four 

tncbw, aiiil tht'ii thu bmiding 18 coiitinuud iu n single diit plait 
for al)uut iiiKhl4.<<.*ri tnchttt, when it runs out into frayed en<]s. In 
tnilig, thn Imndid b hIuuk upon the )>ack, the l)nNul p«rt of the 
■ i oviT the fumlHwl. so thiil, while tho biick 
. the forvhea<] ktt-iis thu buudle iu place. 



TTP to tilt) point nt which wo have arrived, a churchman, in 
vJ accf-ptlnff Durw-iiiiKu. fliids 00 real difficulty. It noitlier 
IPTM U'lr BUKK"*'" "^ Mlt>-rtuttlv» for Qod'n primary cruation of 
the wurlil. And thouKh in tho "cirii(tn of spitciott" it docs nut 
offitr on aHi'rualivd for "spedal iireatiou," a Cliristian is only 
eallCil ly ri><vntlyailniitt#«l into IIn»oloi;y 

for nil V I'll'li' in tli>^ Cliriiitinn riewof cre- 

aXitn), liul 00 groundit Ixitli iicientiflc nnd theolofpcal \» mora in 
lt«Bjlins with what wu know of God in his proHunt working. 
T%Mt who havD fclluvrrnl tho argument of a pruvious papvr 
wUl admit Prof. Huxli-y'ii Htatomont, that, so far as tho " origin 
of fpeciw " in cujicomod— 

Efditfam itoM not ivoa eon* Into eontntt w(tb iboiam, Moddorwl m a 

Mhwviilad duotnaa. Tlial wlUi wMrli It >!««•« colll'lo, aad with vMpIi It b 

^blttaljr lanjoibMnt, U lU niacvfitloa uf cruatl<-n wliii'h tlmilnffical (Owwr* 

wUfcl] HI— i1«Ibw ha*f bsMi] ii|iiiti tlte butvry onrnxtvil Iu tbo o|ienlDg of 

Wo i*n' tirvpared orcn to go furtlu-r. and to nay not only that 
thnai <t liMti, but thiit it luilunlly gaitu by the nxchon^. 

If DnrHinixiii boa diwtrnyittt Ui» "dugitia of HfHX<iaI cn^ition," it 
Kwt (|*p>tmyi<d » "d'lKnui" which woo a iwieatifiu, or mthor un- 
• I from wliic-h ChrtKtiaaity, like scienoe, 

<. „..^. LHt> itMilf frtni. 

taL nam— 14 



3. But ihe <loctrine of natural selection ia said to haro 
irtroywi the argument from draign iu Nntuw. This 18 a much 
more serious matter. For a Ctiristiiin ia hound to Iwlii'vo that 
Nature ia the work of on all-wiso and hcnitfiount Creator, who: 
he aliK> bolieves (o be almighty, i*o thai the Christina una m 
nccopt tht^i liow adopted hy M!r. J. S. Mill, and mnlco a divfsl 
of labor or of territory between God and a power wliieh limi' 
and thwarU him. We propoee to state the diflicully hore as 
clearly and as trtrougly as we cod, bocause wo lielinvo that it is 
the difliL-ulty which preesea mo«rt heavily upuu thirdcing men 
at the present time. In the kosk- of Mr. Dnrwin hinijwlf we no- 
tice that> while the tnihst itulion of derivation for special creatt 
9oetaa even to have strengthened his belief in tho grandeur 
creation, the substitution of natural selection for I'nlcy's te 
ology cut away the main argument for believing in a Q 
at all. 

Wu are not surprised, then, to find those who are at least 
imperfect sj-mpathy with Christiftuity rejoicing in the discomfi' 
ure of the theologians. Mr. O. H. Lewes'a p«ian of triumph, 
the " Fortnightly *' of l&OS, is perhaps the Iocr« dasaicus fur iJ 
i-iew. Prof. Hujdoy, with ill-concealed exultation, t«Ils us tli: _ 
what struck Idni most forcibly on his first perusal of the " Ori^I 
of Species " wns " thu cunvirliuu (hat U-leology, us commonly ua 
derstood, h8<l roceiv^vl its duath>blnw at Mr. Darwin's hands." 
Haeckel, in the same strain, nnr?i,\ " Wir erblicken darin d 
doflnitiven Tod aller teleologischen un<l vilalisti&chcn Bmirlh 
lung der Organismen" ; and in liia *' History of Creation,"! 
maintain, with regard to the uiuch-tatkud-of ' purpose in Natu 
that It really hiut no existence, but for those persons who < 
serve phenomenik iu animals and plauts in the most superfi 

From the insnh-nt dogmatiBm of Hiu*ckel, and the onti-tlio 
logical (inimu* of Lewes and Huxli^y, it is refreshing to lum 
tile cautious and reverent utterance of Charles Darwin. Iti 
letters wft are able \o traci- evfrj- Mage through which ho ]. 
on this question. At Cnmhridg**, ei«vi I83(i, he tva<l carvfal 
and with " ranch delight " P«Iey'« - Evidences " and his " Natn 
Tht.'ology," and H|ieaks of the nxultng of ttioMt books »s tlie «nl 
part of the acitdomicAl course whii-h w;ui of the least uw in t 
education of his mind." hut \w " did imt trouhh* ab'iut " Pali 
prvniLHus — I. p., he took tlio tuustencc of Qoil us a iiersniuU bt-i 
frir grnntwl. Lolnr on, apparently iMttwotLn IKM awllHai*, tiiiiu, 
hi'Nlill'Mi ' ^11 




I Vol I, ^ IV, BngUili inii.<U[lMa. 

> " lib uul LaU«n, t, ^ *i- 

liARWt!fI3ii ASD THE CHIilSTtAS FiUTH. ait 

Tbs aU ftrsiua«nt fltwi AtApx in Nainre a* glveo bjr P«1*7, wbkk fantwrir 
I lu inw M eaarJddvu, l«ll« nov tli«t tii« lair of nAlurd Bcle-rtion hu bovB 
Vr« con no ]oii(«r vga* llut, br iiiMUaoo, tl>« boantifiil bing« of a 
lr« rii«tl tniut 1mt« bMn tn«(l« by on bteU%«i>t being, lilio tli« hiiigio of » 
■ try man. Tbin wwsu to be no norfl (kti^ in tlie varlnbillljr o{ orgnnlo 
bdafi, and in tlia vtiIub uf lutunJ aclMtUm, lluui in tb« toanv wliicli tli« winil 

An iuciileiitAl nlliiHiun, in m t<-LU>r of 1857,t ithowB that lie had 
eatan to litok ti[>rin a tH-li).'f in iK-iiif^ii atid a bitlit-f in ntituml iw- 
W'tiim nil ulU;niativ«<H, and mutiuJly <^'Xt:luMvc. But )i«re Ditr- 
irin !■. -V ■ •■ > r<.<allzo tho oontmHiction in whirli he was involved. 
On t' lo liin thuory wiis <>]iiiiw(>d to Palt'j''s,on thn other 

it V I . li .. !■ I '.^f': t li ,1 LTV. "Tlio miiih-sa lj«-nulif»I udaptJi- 
111 !!_•! v.hiii V- ■ ■■ Mj vvh'r_' mi-t't vrjlh.I tho vxtrumo diJliculty, 
ur mUuT ImiiiHotibilit)', of oonmving iht8 immetuio and woadi.'r- 
ful unlrcriu', iiii^hiiltii},' nmii with his aipncity of kxtking f«r 
Wi-ltwnni ivuil far into futurity, tun tho fftsalt of hlind rhance or 
naamAij" * thn fiu;! tJint " tli«< mint! nifiixeH to Irmk At thiH ani- 

V 1 -■■■■■ whftt it i«, wilhniit hnvinj( lieen dusigiiiKl " | — thom 

iff JiKnimil " tht> diffit-idty from tho imini'nai' nnmimt 
ii; ■ uii! ill- 'r ;>ri<(n iiiililcctihood that iin omniitclpnt 

lV;i]^ I li!i\'_- tht? world wt wo know it. In 18C0, tho 

yoAT tlUT the publication of the "Uripn of Spvciee," Dar^n 
had nuched t3i« ntngti of utttT l)ewilc!craiont : 

I iptf *« to Mf [lia writo* to \ia tira; ] tbnt I oan not booeall]' gatmbatm 
jov dij ituut 4r*iitti. 1 iu ocnwioai tliat I am In an utu^ly bopol«ai mndillo. 
I no not tbiak Uiat tlia worM, aa wo wo It, i* lb» r»*iilt ot olUDOO i and yet I 
nas DMi kNik ai vach wiitaratfi tlilog u ibo rvbiilt ofdMlgiLt 

And in on wirli<<r bittor of thti man year li« snyi : 

I am Wwildflml. 1 but no InteDtion l» trrilo BUiotftirally. Bot I ovn tliat 
I nan not «■ <w plainly a* iitJim Ju, aiial a< I atiiniltl wtali to do, aridoBctc of do- 
ilga ml hantliaaiiM uo alt '\Ar» uf aa. Tbun wvini to me too mitoh mlMry In 
Ifca worVL 1 mo sot prmadu mrw" ^iuU a tNUteSDonl and MiiniiM>l«Dl Uoil 
«D«U !»*■ (Ualcnaidly craatod Lli* tttiummoniJm wilb tbe «xpTMs latooUoa of 
tbrfr bi4iii - ut cntvTptilan, or tbat a Ml alionld play 

vllb miM- ' D" wwotaity In llie balkftkat tliv uya waa 

n^l^dy daHgDoil. Uo tba otbor baad, t can not anjhnw b« onnt^nlvd lu vmiw 
tUi ■■'DiL-rful anl<rw*^ and MpocUDy ibo nnturv uf man, and to conclude tliot 
• . nnlt i4 tinits frxra. I ntii iiicllnvd to took al 4t«n'tb1nK at 

tw . „„,. ....... jMlfixd law*, «ltb tli« detail*, wbi<Ui»r iiood or bad, lol\ to 

Um •t«itDC ant vf wlia) w* laay mU cbaoM. Not tbat tbli ootioa a( all mt- 

1 -■■ of till* BiiKgtMition, " I am awsrw !t ii out 

to an otDuiacivnt Dvity."} 



1 1, p 4t«- 
t II, p. 114- 

1 1. !». m. 
1 U. Ik iw. 

• I, p.*ti 

t U, i>. 1*1. 



kto ' 

It was umntKUatc)}' sfter tho publication of tho " Origin 
Spedte" that Darwin set about his work on orchids, in wh. 
more than in any other of hin writings, thn notion of piirpotte 
prominent; and some ten years later wp find liiin Kb»dly rwog 
niziiig tbd iiihtTontly teleolojjical cbariictur of uvoluliun, wlii 
bml been poiutod out in a review by Dr. Asa Qmy. Dr. On 
bad written : 

[^ 08 rccoculEe Djirw in'd frrMi Mr«loe to DatVMl »eleDce In brin^n^ back to 
it lot<>oli>(;;r ; i)t> tlixi inalond ol nwrpbolofj mivm Mtoologr, «« «luU baro 
pboJogj wedded u> tdeokip;. 

Darwin writes back : 

Vhnt jroa Mf aboQt t«)o(dog7 plwueB bm wpmUIIt, nad I do not tlilnk «aj 
oii« eldo lint) «vor Botk«d tlio jwiuL I luvu atwn;* nid jon vurw tlie mui to 
hit tl>o nail on tbo bond.* ^^ 

Here we are brought face to face with the paradox which hiuV 
been puwling Darwin. Tho tJioory, which dostroywd Puloy'i doc- 
trino of design, or the old tvlt^ologioul doctrine, tinootisciuuHly 
intro(luc4!<l a new teleology. And the gradtia) r«:ognilion of 
this new fact is alike curious and inslnictire. In 18«H,wben the 
" Origin of SiK-cies " had been four years, and tho "' Fertiliiuition 
of Orchidii " two yount, before the world. Prof. KiiUiki-r, an ad- 
vanced evolutionist, and a »trong opponent of Qnal causes, m>- 
cunes Darwin of being " in the fullest seuw of the word a teleolc^ 
gist," and adds that " the teloolo^ical general conception adopt 
by Darwin is a nuHtaken oDe."f Pmf. Huxlfy answers Ki'ilUk 
and, in defendins Darwin, is driven to distiuguiiih U-Iwl-vii t 
teleology of Paluy luid the toloolugy of evolution. Two yea 
later, in 18(i0, iippvArud the Diike of Argyll's " Reign of Luw, 
in which DnrwiniRm waft claimed on the side of the doctrine 
design ; and the next year Huxley, again in criticising a ' 
professor, Haeckel, and his repuduUion <if teleology, i' 
the remarkable review, some pagus from which reappuar in t 
chapter ho contributes to Darwin's " Life and Letters,"! 
which liofl more than once been quotod in this connection : 

Hio dixAriiM of erotallon [Ii« m^] U tli* bkm* IvnoldAlilo opiiOMitt oT bU 
tiM ootniiiiioor a&il raan«r tarw* of l«kiuioc7. Ifat prrlis])* tW iDiiM rtniari:- 
•bia MrriPo to Um iiliUowpb/ of bio)u|{y roodttvd \fj Mr. Uarwlo b Um roooo. 
fillttiuo of tetoutoKT Mid morplwitoir;'. ai»l tlii< «x|iUuttoa of Uiv bnU uf lioUt, 
wlilob lUi *i*wi uir»r. Til* loloolovy wtit^'h «u|<(iOiHM that |)ii> »*<>, Mir^i h vk 
MO It la Kill or c ':^1tn•n1l' 

nr« It «xhlMl«h f"i -)ir KDlmnI 

liM (iniliint'tmll.T rvcut^ , N'lrTurtlidlii*, |i la wicnMiry lo 

hnr llMt tbnrn h • Willi : - ..jili I* mit tonrliwl I17 tb* ibiotKlM 

luiioD, tint !• Mtiullf liBMol QiMMi tli« fnaiUnvBlAl prupMdtlun of inrolntli 

• " UU ■»! Utun," P. |L UT. 

t g-...iivi 111 


HMWliol'i dvnin) of teleology is tbos eliowti to prove too 
much. And the appeal to radtmentary organs ngaituit toloolu- 
iry. Huxivy ptiiuU out, places the evolatiomst of that duy hi a 
(111 tint niu : 

For MXtmr tliwa radlmcaU af« of no um to tbo miimaU, ia wbicfa oaw . . . 
tfMf ou^il U> kitTa iliMppesrri ; or tbo; an ot ume dm to Ibo nuinul, in wliidi 
■h thi u« (if tM uw w ugnmoDU tgaimt t«l«olog]r.* 

Wd cao bnnlly tw vmiag fn aasoming tlint Dr. Asa Gray had 
AU ravlow c'f Huxti>y*s in his mtnd when ho spoko of — 

I Tlia KTMt tfnia to mWdw trim Mr. DatvIh'i hit'lnit broaglit bock ulcoloj^ 
m KMtani UMory. Id tiarwiitbim [bo Bdib] uMikltiM* and pltr|i0M oaiB» to Um 
voBt mt»io •« wvrkiag pr1nclpl« of Un fint onlw; npoa UiMa, iiKl««>], lbs 
vlmia •jnigta rMto. t 

la tboro, thwu, nodiff(>ronco botww-n thu old and the new tt'lo- 
fiotfy y Im thi> old art^mimt roliubQitutod f Oui wo siij- hen*, 
B lo tbtt triutnpli of durlvation ovi<r t!ri>ecial cretition, that tho 
B0ltUui fKitli UiM«t ii'iEliitiR and f^ns mnch ? "We ari> by no 
!ffKia jir«iuin><l to di<f<iD<) thin ]uirndox. The old and rapid argn- 
mmil fnim Natam tu an omniixitDnt and bunvficiuit Author 
ma oioV' - 'Hy valid. Tu a thinking man its dmtb-kDell 

waaaoaix Kitnt loiiKhuforo ilw death-blow woa given by 

Oarwtn. In npilo of thf' roviti>>tico with which Kant treats aa 
argument, which ho fli>eakH of ns " the oldait, the clcaroiit, and 
miitft in confurmlty with human roasun," he Keen that the very 
mo«t whi 'linho"! by it wouM 1« the exUtence of 

"anAreli- 1 1, nut a Crwitor," It mast fall very far 

•hoTt of it* proposed aim— viz., to prove the oristi-nce of an all- 
vnlEoiHOt ori^nul B«-iti|j;4 M<Mliirn science has niily brought out 
to !t« "wn way and fur onliitary {wople a tnith which tn<»tjiphy* 
- 'y knt'W — vIk., (hat the argument wa.s, as Dr. Gray 

l-... . -■, ". .(^ht»«l with niiicli mure than it can carry. . . . Tho 
liunlvn whivh our fathere c-arried comfortably, with fiome advMi- 
titiHtubeIp,ha«» Uvimie tiw) heavy for our BhouldcrK."" TheoIdM" 
t.-l'"-"ilfi^.^tji noted (x<rtnin fHvot»bloin8ta»ce^, and lav.'X'd on them 
.\ Jitntalivo Rtnioture which the foundation was quite in- 

' uKtuiu; ^v' ' T inKtancert of apparent niMiningleHa- 

-y wotw . .. they were put on one aido with 

In thit priwoni day » Cliriwtinn, wliethir he is an 

. . iir nut. hjM tfi nin the gimtlet with an array of 
1 argumnnta of which hit> forefather? knew nothing. 

,-'til man cnuM now wrin» as Pnley d<xw: 

.. ,. d iiai-fij wtiAd kfUr oU. Tba mli, tho «irtb, ihn WBl«r Uem wiUt i»- 
takUiuf*. In • aprlB? oiwb, ur ■ ntuiiKr «T«iiJnf< oa wbiclMf «r aide I 



■ " aui|a» cad jUlrMM^" ^ »t. 

) -> DkrwInfatM," dup. Ui. 
■ " nanftokM," p>. If i. 



turn taj «]reH mjnnS* at hupp? being* crowd upon mj view. " Tbe insect joiit 
H« OB tbe w ing." SwariBs of Daw-bora UiM nro trjing tlMJr pisiou In Iko i 
Tbmr ipoitJTo mi)tioiid, tlidr wRBtoa uuet, their gratuttoua ■ctlvltj', Uteir coq 
Uimftl dMUK« orpUco wiiboat um or putpoN, teMU? Ui«lr Jujr. noil tli« oiak 
UlloB which tboff*diDlbeirliit«lv<1isooT(rGdfkca)ti<«. . . . Tba whole wing 
ioMct trib«, ft b pro^aUo, *r« cqtiiUI; intuot npoii tbuir |>roptT Mnp 
and n>d«r erery rirfM; of ooosUtatkin, gratified, vaA p«rhip> eqtinlly grMifie 
I17 the ofltocB whkh the Autbor of tbelr nnttu* hm udsned to (Iwr.* 

The Cliristiaa of (cnlay believes, no lesR firmly Uiati Palt 
did, llmt God ia omiiii>oU>nt, and that Gotl is love. But thft ol. 
muUur lie roM view of Niituro is no louj^ poHsible. " Di-stnifl 
tioQ ill the role ; life is the exception." The wmtu in ituoruioaaj 
the Buffering lemble. The many pprish ; the few Riirvlvc. 
down the barIb of seutiout beinR, "perfected liy sufl'erJiig^ 
Hoenui writtOD in uninistakablu churactera The law of Godl 
work in Nuturo is Uideod pwgrtMS, but pro^resa ut u trumonduu 
atui, 118 it seems to us, recklws cost Those aro facta for whiol 
neither ©volution, exceiit incidontnlJy. nor nay other tlu'orj* ol 
Nature, ia reepoiiaible. But they lire fa«"ts of Hliich any Uieorj 
thcoloiiricsa] or scientific, mufit nov lake ixij^iiznnt'e. They urv 1 
fatal to the old teleology of Paley as the facts of etn^' 
aro to thy tihofiry of in<lpi>cu(U'ijt cn*jttioti)t. Wo may - 
erently say, "It ia God's will." but that tx only nn 
that we cnii not explain the fncii), or justify Oiem t'> the rt^oson'' 
or the conscience. It may be a necessarj-, m it ci'rtaiuly is a 
devout, altitude of mind, hut there ia lu it lui undertone 

Evolution IB not reepoosiblo for the pniblem. Con it Intlp ' 
in the solution ? The old toleoloj^y wan df«itroyif<l by the nei 
factA, and Darwin offyrs us a dw-per ami wider view of put 
bawd u|K)n tliose facta. 'NVetuuMl to start with the aiMuniptit 
that everything exists wlely for lhi> k'kkI of nuui. And thoujrl 
we expremed our belic-f in an all-wine and lH<neBcunt Greutur, 01; 
toliido^i<-al iu<|uin<ii) wouhl ttumctinios Inkn tho n 
form of Ittuniuoi Dir.u fail-il (ani dc mowhrx f (\\ 
make sn many tUeg y) a quostiua which wu popiilarly rupjhji 

Ut merfce itwlf in that t>f Un* orijiin of evil. T! 
proceedH ditVi'nuitly. It ittn-ks lo f;ivt> a reason t 
of each s|)eclee. by (itlinff it into itM ]ita<;e in thf 
tree, and relntint; all the H]K«i»i) to ooo nuother In 
ttiD whole. Aji Asa Gray puts it: 

Til* fonn* Hiid ifweli-o, In nil iholr riirMj, n 
JMt lltP ■"'..i'-' I" « MrlM uf m-iin "'.'1 ■ II '■ Iti ' 
mny »iir r ami nof 

tUOrO Uvli'<l''L*'iil. vWW* Ipf lU'if-'IJ III .'^uhliv III*" ii'ii' VT^-rT.i. I 


\Avx, H wiU 

• " .fkluml Tinilos}." pj' "■"■ ""■ 

I " Itorifliduiii.'' f> 971 



^Rvi Ed tbf c»»ti nt orgaos, wo twlieve that " orgiuut hnvis boon 
fi>niu«] Ml that th<^ir iKwscflsora iimy cnuipute BQt-ceRsfiilly with 
fitiwrbeinp) -" ' ■' - increiuio Uioir number."* "We fearlessly 
tliTC) tvik, ill I to «nvh pnrt, Wb»t is ilM usti ? And if it 

i- I'fMeul uw% Kodn nrit Hay, "The Crrator put it tlion- for 

»> ;iy, or nn part of a plan," but vre ttak, Wbat menitinf; btw 

it hatl in tJ)» |i]uit !" Huw cnxi wa rclaLu it with by-gono if not 
with *>xiKtiiiK I.'*!!' " ' If uu/'Mjftiij, Xh« bibt'iryof tbo latli- 

viilual, j{iviM lu ii r , w(a full litu-.k i|]hiii I'h'jioijrny, tbu hJA> 

bwy nf thu racn. < >r|^iiiH, which on the oliJ theory- uf special 
c- "'■ - wcnj tuwlrwi imd mcuoiDRh^sn, ej-e now sewn to have 
c. liuKitiun in th« piurt, ur iu Lho futurt*. aocortUng as thoy 

*r<> r 'ur>' or na^i'i'iit. Tlii<n< is nothJii); uwIoBS, nothing 

r<-"' .. .11 Nntiin-, nothing tltto tv caprioit or Dhauoo, noth- 

Kinol or without a caiinc, nothing outside tho nrigii of 
,w. Tht- '" li.r i'l f I " 'i(y of htw nnd onlcr in the Hci> 

illflr iniid'i.Mi.' ■! t:. . rt tx-Iief in I'mvidenoft And, 

M Pmf, Haxipy nilmlta, ti ih iui " net of faith," brought to Mature, 
nr ' ■ ■ ' ■ ■ ' -ii y«t only in pai-i, vnriliwl in Nuturt*. Yoi to 
(j ■< in evorywiiore rutioniU.aml th«'n.>foro intelli- 

(fitilw, wotilil I..; fur n wintitilic nii»ii an twt of iiitiOhictual Ruicida 
Bat if we bi'liHve in law luid nrdrr ovorywhiTO in Nature. 
tboQich tliiTTM in tc tnnch which t« oa yet hoiKitttwly irr<»litciblu 
t ■ ■ r llmt bi-lii'f tit rra«l inia Nnliini lonR lixf. ■ m 

[' <turt', nmy wo doL nppriKK'h lliu tnomi ii<i m 

Ui« nntnt' npirit ? for thont in here a curious tKirullt'l, Whal uur 
rotiimal nnliire rivM.'ntH in not the oxiiitunro of factw which tec <!aii 
iwit iixpluiii, hut of tixciti which havf ng explnnatlon ; anil what 
tike moral nature rebels At in lUit KiilToring and i«»in, hut n»od- 
Imi L e., miiaiiintt hi wi pain. Biiffi'ring which niiKht hnve l>e«n 
«VT>hlaL And hfre Darwinum givve uh u hint, if it i-i but a hint : 
*' *■ ' ty by and for the good of each lie- 

11 1.' world i»(**goDoriiJlybonoficent,"I 

■tul " Inuda to progrMM t'tward perfirction," Rut tJien — 

Wtthou' ' "KhIp. ao ilnigitUt for life, ami wUtintit thin no 

utani poll ' I tlie filtnl, bo oontimtoai idapbitioti to p|uag> 

tBc HRwi!! .iSeatlna uwl liaproTMwilt l«dlav from lowor up to 

Ul^M-fum- ■■- jmullnit UilBtpt of an to tli* cdil mIioiiI uf lot 

va ^im fiHMe^l* ot tba Daraiolan." 

It b DO final wdution uf the diOlcuIty, and yet man, who ii so 
vial and utyingwith KiukAIi' -f 

QMtQs," I tits ocrancilu IhingB »' '^q 

\mto is lMitt«r urdtT," haa inwDtud comiMtitive vxaminattouis 

• til* Ml Un-n," I, pi 3M 

• Am Onj, ti. i:a. 

f •• CM^Ia." )i. 138. 

J 1. p. a». 



w-hic)i mean suffering and {Miin for aU, without even a oompoD- 
eatlng " Burvivul of tlie GttMt " or improvement of tlio rnce I 

To 8uni »!]) thus far. One wlio Ix-Hovcs in tlie God of Chris- 
tianity is bound to believo that croatioii in tiin work from end to 
end, that it is a rational woi-k and the work of a being who 
wholly good. He ij! Iwund to believe that " God's mercy i» ovi 
all hi» works," that " not a sparrow falk to the ground " witho 
his knowlwlgo, thnt thoi-o aro dwigu and purpoao ©verywh< 
But he lit not 1x>und to know or to say that ho ktwws what 
purpose is, or to show that marks of beneSconce are everywhere 
apparent. Still lees is he bound to assert, as the old teleol 
did, that ho can demonstrate tbo wisdom and Koodnwis of Qi 
from Nfttiii-o alono. Evolution sturtu with an "act of faith," a 
postalate of our rational nature — vix.,tliat everj'thing is rational 
and has a meaiiing, even that which i-H at present irroducible to 
law. In this belii'f much which was once meaningless 
inlelligible, and a scientific man's faith is not staggered 
fact that much as yet remains outside, which sciunco has not 
Ijlaiued. On the moral side also wo start with an " act of faith 
a postulate of our moral nature, that God is good and can not 
the cause of meaningless and unnecessary pnin. And our fai 
is not stagj^ered by much which seems, as yet, like tist>l(«8 suffi 
ing. Even if Darwin's mature judgment tluU. on the wbol 
" happiness decidedly prevails " w<«re not tru«, wo should st 
believe iu the goodness of Oo<l, in spitu of alt that womB to 
tnidict It, and htok forward tu the thnu when our chililren, or 
our children's nhildren, will »eo clearly what to ns is dim or dju-k. 
— 77w (JuarAxan, 


I "VTIXETY thousand Americans go abroad orory mimnic 
I -L.N Among this army there mu.ii l>o many nutders of U: 

[ magazine, who are interest4'<l not only in art but in science; wl 
f find time to wonder, as they Uiil up to Uie t ■ " logne Ga< 

drol, what the stone is that sustains so i .a man, 

whouoo come the crystitU thnt now and ngnin fljiaU from t 
walls ; who, as thoir oyt* roiuns over the vti ' - r, '~ 

alHive, let their iitutgiunfinti rmmi into Ih" ; 

ha<I nnl yet won fmrn the sea Mi" pruviri v. t v, ui li w m 

meaodurn. The arlii^t Onda {fuidobt>uL-< < t.ikiiikiI »ii|i imi' 
loffQi'* f^f mtiMiama ooDlaiiung works of man and critical niil-i 


•fl to bo nwiiljr overlooked, while tlio liiddon forcM prodnoing 
the liinclvciiim thnt the artifli depicts, the battlo-Solds of Nature, 
kwl tho buriAl-|rlac«tf uf ciiiKtu'^rtid and coaquerur aliko in the 
rtruKKl'^' for oxlBtwiots iirw niwly iiutifwl. 

Tlic iip(>|uirl.i'>n <'f scifritiliii int-n th«t gu nliroiul is not stnAll. 
Uunr iuut:h (H'l^tt^i' t^>u number of amatourii ! How tuituruUy do 
oollogo xtadonta pawi from tlio attached life of teotare-room and 
laboratof}', (Irmtinf; off into tln> fn.-«f life of travel I Where better 
c»a thvy fco tliau to Euruiii-, wliem they cmi learu the lauguages, 
tb« keyii to tJip vnriuuti chambers of acientiOti knowledge, and 
vhan> rou<lH and iuoH are so good and abundant P Althoogh 
Suropc in not tlio jMitteru of the world, yet most of our geologi* 
eal tliBtiriM bavo buea fuunde<l on Europoao factt;, »nd it is t^tasier 
to MO wlwra a theory dowi not apply after swing wheru it docs. 

Votoi of sumo uf tho more HutiKfuctory of my excursions, ar- 
raagoil mi>n> or \yM r-otititiuouH]y, may not b« tuuless. thcivforo, 
aqncially if a(H'>>iii[>Jinif<l witli u few refert^nces^ I know that 
tbret) yi^tm ago I would have ^ven five dollnra for auch an arti- 
cle. Of nmrno, my Hket<'h muirt follow the line of my studies. 
Another would douhtkiiH wbh to gi%'e Kuw Onrdens, tho Jardto 
dm Phuitcs,nnd the zoological station nt Naplog more plaoe; but 
if Ibit impcirf«(9tionfl of this article ithonld cause some one oIm to 
■UUfy the crying n«xl of a Mft of Bcienttfic guidon, I would 1>o 

itont. Even if it only leodji some summer wanderer to buy a 

i) aui]> or two, iui<I iteo not only with the eyes but with 

tin nndenloDiling alM'>, it will have hm) reason for being. 

SnppciM we have uH<;aiHMl the illuntratious of the tlnating^ico 
tbeury off Newfoundland, and paBoed a^^roas tliat hnckneyud 
qwcitncn of an ciOL«n-curn.'nt, the Oulf Stream, and are about 
to fotlnw the couran of the sat^^Iiel-guidu or ijome such book 
thruu^h Kurope, with limited time. 

We laud llmt on the Eniendd Isle (13).* Being a glaciated 
coantry, tU» •'^twnial observer will not see so much of the great 
bMda of I iiiferuue limestone which the island is, hut the 

bo|pi dui : ... toilnr dep<»ition of drift are a chanicterifltio 
fuBturv, and wo may woo the drumlin — a word recently Iwjrrowod 
(' ' '^ smoothly ntundHi bills of coiniMUTl Ixiwlder clay, 

f ofl lentimlar, HO common about Biwton. We may 

al»o am tbti Uiant's Causeway and Fingal's Cave, illustrations of 

bMa^' ■ - I have from Portrudh, not far off, a tophrite 

ObUi' Onrvill-L»wia 

Ck>jw-i '. we will not Mop to examine tllO 

li*.I» of A .. <.:..^ ;ui they are, unless we have plenty 

' . if one luw it, and ia intoreifte<l in metamorphic 

pjciui, a •ui>iy (if the grotind, in connection wilb (tost literature, 

• n^ Duubcn rtlat lu Um badu •! ibe ttnL 




uiay help hin uiidftrHtAntllnK of Utnt wliiuh !s lo euiui?. 1/ tn. 
I»ruvi<le(i witli mape, «l<%, we luul tii<lt^r ko nt unon to LoDil 
snO jinivHdL' (luriwIvi.'B lit SlHtifor'I'H, ^'■ t ' 

not frail t<p vivit r.lii! Mufivum nf Pnu 

Stroi't, wl)i(Oi Iwcfivn A numbur f>f catnlogiira vt inTntanimt rali. 
(33), imd n trpo!<ifric«l ^xAe to London, find tvmtdins moddb^ 
onllH-tidus of ivll kiiiclfl. Kvry one will iuliiiirt> tho |ni 
murlikfi, i^niiut*^^, nud '!«8. If wo lufcvu n Sittiirdity 

an t^aoumuu uf tbu Out.; •■,..:- Atuwclulicni luny i.ttt-.i.t un. 
any nUn, vro eliall mitivu tUnt lyiudon lit« va n . il boid 

aiid, if iMtr driukiuR-waii-r is from tMniio '1' ' 
may thank our Marti llml V*nv\on hu» tmirli < 
osaotto be (!ntirtOy il(>|iiiudi'tit fur wutor-sii)iply ujion thf> llltl 
ThnmL'A. I^-t us go uortli. ThiTuaro tlir«o mniii Itur^ of tmiri 
tnvvol. Till* nioul wivttorly pnttiM !iy tliu laku <liiiirirt of Wi 
morelnnd and Cumberland. It in ruriout* to nolo how ut 
tliat combiuatiou of motinlaiu niid Inku wUioti is ui>Mit ni 
(or summer renort occurs wlioro a re(n*i>i "t roi<tjimorphto 
luu beau salijtwt^d to glnclnl nvtiitn. XmVv Kii[K<rior luul 
danuere, Maine bd<) Swilzorlnnd, »U diuwit lo thbt doa>rri 
Wo dare not Htop to disim^s tliu nwKius. (Son 4, dutiittir xxvi] 
10, p, Alt!,) Wit hLuII sw tiitt Bunie mirt of tiling in IJik Tri 
Aud Swilzortnnd. If you want U> du any dulailtid wtirk i 
rogion, start in from K<«wiok, wbare a niuwuia contiuos 
collootionii And models. 

Scotch tmrfaco gvnAogy is of the aamo ^Uc!lnto'l typo 
miliar in \ ' .., und tli' ' ' ■ ■ ■ ■ " ; 

riMulx of I. . . or the l 

to tjit' Scotch Hurvcy f(»r Kuidanco {A, tt, JJ(), i-^ir ui uu 
or two about EdiQhur(;lt rauHt iiuflli-o. Tho (■""■■•'■' 
MuMium uf Sciont'o and Art aru Guc>, »nd wm c 
Crtiiiii\i* uf C!(wttl« Hill, OtltHti Ilill, or Ai 
wondiT what till? Inndscapo wnH liko whi-.n hot . 
8aliHl)ary i^niKs. At NvwhaToi), nuu* by, oQ tbti Blmra 
Firth of Forth, tbo play ir<fnirtono it- * ' : ' ' '■■ 
tb» ubloUK |Hdtbkw, viiu may find a ■■ 
lit) or n-prjiriuni. If yon wish to «•<• niorr ■ 
and tho wml imd iron induKtry, you hnvn ....... 

Qiluutrtnn. near which aiv utinu>njuH conl-ujluui). and umm 
of ... . 

ai'r . I 

Blair, uf LoanUnwL 





08 IM 

On our ■ 

4 l>. 

■ 1 . - 1 . 1 


inaomitraUe oavos. So fur as cavc« nru concerned, the fonua- 
titiD In Ktrntanlry vurpoases it, bat its veicui uf lend nml fluor-fipor 
—blue John lu it t8 cnlloil — am pLV^uHar to it. 

Ktirtll«or Mooth. wva Boiifonl, lliv o<>liU'«i imil OxTord vlny nro 
V >M«J, b<'dn nut much dovelojietl in our Euiitnm Stat>w, 

»i. . :.-.■: iwoiT, noar Cambridge, thflchftlkeonioa in, Tho Cam- 
bridfto cT^'niuuid, formerly worked for pli<»j>bflto0, Im nearly 
worL. ' I buUtfvo, but boxtM of thn rbamiiiiK little ninniun- 

ittw. )' i<j(l8,iuid critbs tbut the working** vii'ldi-d.iire titim_<d 

is tho mnwutn. awiutitiic tixchiuigo. In tlio muM>uin, too, you 
imy 1 , ..1 _ , jj,„ ohnlk is best to b© seen, nnd wliothur any 
r»««»( ■ tiiw jir-.'istV'ly idvune<l the workmen nut uf ull 

T \' nay that fn>in Cmubridgn lo Uio 

L . . ^ almvo twu bnudi-ud feot.aDt] oer- 

talnly off toward tht> fpn-lnnd which num baa redoflmed frcnn 
r i'lininil)l». What achaoge in the gi>ogra)ihy und 

] !■(• a Hubmergeoce of two bundr«<l feet would 


" ■ ■' " nioro in London, other excursions inrito us (»ee 8, 

u tM of exoundonH of the various Goulogicnl Sot^ietiiM 

u itgv <if thti Hritifth Ajwooiatioa) to the I»le of Wight, or 

t' . LLULfd, which LH, nnlurnlly enough, serponttue. But l>o- 
twwm Ki many it U i-fwier lo Hkiji tbeiu ull tluin make a cfaoioi> 
Lot m foUiiw the truck of tbi< Oix i1'>KiHts' AssociatioD to Belgium 
<14). R^urbing Bnum^bi, wu liiid in tho Mua$e Royole n<mr the 
piotare-galltir>- a nutffnifltnnt collection, unitiue in itii iguano- 
dotiii, and flnnly arrangi'<t to illuntrnte gcotogiral excunions. 
IfoUm. for "xaraplo, thf itoction along the Meusi*, with illuHtrn- 
tin vpeL-iiuenK. 

1(1 tbp mburhs of Bntaitels tho work of the Imildor U rontin- 
s I ng and cliwing ttectionB in the tertiary snndti, but horio- 

wiiuro surely imi* c-iui mo tlio gHa fistuleux of (ho Hi "^ n, 
vbimt mrloai injIuuiuh of ■findstona.eoiuiolidiit^H) nv" 1- 

I nlniid u]i amid lb" yet unconxoliilativl wind. Varioun 

fcuu. :nM oocor, boL not recmt informntinn tut to where 

to I*)' :■«> coins of Nattire'a realm ix vnlurltiRfl (compare, 

hovvwr, U). Hhnrk'n nnd nkato'a It-eth also nc(mr, and m-ra- 
Amal ^rnb«. V^'ry rIo#e t>j Citlevoet SUitJoti 1 picked up a cbnnk 
• < >n>olidBt<wi Hand fairly bristling with ttHttb. Tlie poci' 

ymi'. •■^•t% the ground ii>> well that I need not dwell on 

Balffi '.'V. exoejit ti< call att«ntloa to tho ngrionltural gi<o- 

liittic- 05), Nor d'xta H<dland call for parlirulnr nt- 

Tr--i ""■• Hhould not fail to niu down to Katwyk- 

« . or Scbeveniugi-n from the Hague to m<u 

t lUtv-lxjiwurki* that protect tlie laud from the iit'>nua 




Starting np the Rhine, we sliaU hiivo pti8sod out of Hollaud 
bofora we leave alluvial soil, and a route which has much more 
of geologic interest and variety, and in not devoid of beauty and 
historic asBuciatiun, is to go across the Belgian cosl-fieldc, scenes 
of thu woret European etrikoB, up the gorge of the Moum. 


passing, I note thnt the curious porphyroids of Bonney (14) ai 
R(.>iiard have been recently blnst«d into in rood-repAiriug, »o 
that the nest comers will have a better chance than for Home 
years before, when the continuous attrition of geoInRists' ham- 
mers bad roundod off evury corner. At CharlovUle-Mezidres, a 
typical provincial Fraieh town, wo stuud on Ihe rim of thu Pui 
bdiain,and jT'l^fCCMof the Lias abound. Tht'nc^.rtinnin^ aloi 
the rim of the baan past Sedan, we come to Luxemburg or Met 
Luxemburg is bl^autifnlly situated, being surroimdtyl by rafioii 
cut into the saudstoue hero so typically develoi)od that it 
called the Luxumburg sandstone. If we go to MiMz. thu work ■ 
fortification still going on gives good sections iu tli«> Jitru. Onlj 
beware lest you are charged upon by some too vigilant aentry, 
as a friend of mine was, I escaped by being careful not to hav 
maps or note-bouks around in sight. However, if uttuckod, pic 
up a cidaria club and defend yourself manfully. We can go i 
to Treves, into tlie £ife],ur down the Mot*ello,or toSaorbrQckM 
the groat cool-center and first point attacketl by Napoleon II 
and down theKahe to the Rhino. Whichever is omitted 
also be taken as a side excursion from the Rliine. 

Sappoee, however, we go straight up the Rhine. We 
first to Cologne. Climbing the cathedral, wo see off ou the aoutl 
esat the eoven blue summits of the Siebengubirge. whence the 
gray trachyte with sparkling Muiidin cryst^ds coiufM, that lines 
the winding staircaso we have ascended. In the Stebeugebirgk 
is the cave of the dragon that Siegfried destroyed, and true it ia 
according to geologio tale, that onco tlic volruno did cut off tlul 
mighty stream that glides in serpvutiuu courtw iK^ni-ath our tw^ 
The victor)- was but fur a time, however. Sii.-gfrii.'d is dwwl, ana 
so is the volcnuo, but dragons and rivers are bnndrr<d-hi>ndufl 
and immorluI.And the Nibelunpen gold is still guntdwi n^curoljl 
To the Sielwmgebirge, then, will lie onr mutt excursion, ami wfl 
had be«t start from Bonn, tlte famous uuivunity town. Wo ooJ 
thuM buy what guides we wlxh (10), and visit the collections qfl 
the r- ' rU-T StihIosH, valuable and 1' 'vt^l 

and twj i<j us, us tliey illustrate by n< uienfl 

what we are to sou. Botne of the moms are fautJutii-JLUy deo« 

rated with '■'■ ,'-■'■-: "■ ^■■ — •- - ^-^.^^M 

store, itn<< < "^^1 

W K'liiii, :yylot(»iU^ogUu ^ivrji lUiMiy hints 1^1 


Along livrn Bouduker has an aaumiitl amount uf geologic 
doIm, and su wu jkuh mpitlly on, noting casually the imprinU <if 
InavM in tlirt tnuKi uf tiic< Bruliltlml, and th« Laacher St^o, latest 
vorkvd u|K»a by an American, L. L. Hultbanl. At liust -vre reach 
Ootilanta, tt*tm which ooo division of tliv Dovouiau, tlirou^^h 
which v» atv piuMuig across the strike, take» ita namv. Herv tho 
mlliijr of the HosoUo invites as to take a detour into the district 
of Uttlo extinct volcuiovs ouUod the EifvL This is one of the 
■huitUn) KMlogidU ozcursionfl (10), and iu iLl> ANHiitmiutide 
racatjon of IHM there mot in G«roUtoin no les>t than tliii-ty-fivo 
"-t- '■'iitfwentiag 8ve diflferent German universities, and I 
-I bow many nationalitira. 

Tl i'niH that aru spriiikh'd thntii^h the district are 

gnipr.' . "I, luid wuU up on thu cUKtumiu'y miuural Itx-'uHtiiM. 
Thii iji one of tJio gntit regions for volcauio mi&erahi, augito, 
borohlen'' - ' tin, oliviii, A[>atit«, sodalite, etc In the neigh- 
borhood . 1 4oin ahunthmt Devonian fossils are collected, 
<uUoi-' ' ]'li<K.-<-nui, trilobitee, and corals. At Qerolst«init«elf 
ia a <..-... . 11) flucb UiiugM at reuxcuJiblu prices (esci<pt for tlu) 
triLobltcH). Thilt village is prettily gituatMl, and rujoioM in an 
opm <~ ' "oila-n-ator. Those ore, iu fact, oomuiou in tlio 
Bfal, u^iriK tx-ing tho most famous, but many others, 
•■ Rtm'«tK)rD. ani as good. Over against Oerolstvin lies a bluff 
m>wiiiiil with a nijuuiivo limcfitono, onoo tho Iwttom of nayncti- 
ubI f.ild, wbii-li n-minds ouu of the text of Imiali, " Every valley 
• ■ "d," On our uxruraion wo sjK'nt thy first nlKht in 

W... villaKo ii) not near tlie »latiou, for OouLinontal Hta- 

ticma burn a way of splittinff tlie difference betwooD two towns 
wUcti '"> well bomo in mind by the walk«>r. Tlie next 

morti' I'xl'* on to tho extinct volcano that 

has thro- croUT rings very di>>tint-t. Coming down. afU-r a J^- 
titur to the M'vrfvldi'r Maar thai I do not recomuiund (tliu moat 
at thit inn was lilll--. Imt lively), we went on to ManiiuiTK-heid. 
H«nw« luw) a goo<t diim<>r at tliti Hotel ZeUR. No doubt our 
vhMltiiat npprtitfM luMvd Bauce, but those trout irore certainly 

'•n earth so romutlo m th« riliutka of the 
tm-heiil. ABtCBBmflowainftlnceflftliout 
: rook, on which the castles are built, ao narrow 
■ •••\n could hnlil a thousand in check. Out along 
-. thiui st^H-pIy down and up — a rough scrauiblu 
-we Wf'ut to Gilliinfdd, powtug u coujdv 
[> the way. Here we stopped the secxind 
nijtbL The inn wua full, so that I wont out lo the " pastor's" to 
•lnr|> '^' - . ' I • ring and later jxiuring 

wtnt. I lur.anothur lake with* 

1 ifitii'. 
two r 
i" ■ 




out an ont1«t, whore eaoidin bombs may rownrd tlio itooker, i 
bits of underlying Devonian slnto are Hlrewu tbron^h th** strut 
of volcanic aflh. R«ttiming to Oillenfeld, we bad a little Mini 
tiling to eat and driak — the Oernians never ucglc-ct the itiM 
man— and went on past its vrater-kkee to Daur, wbvro wu dinu 
at Hotel HoouneA On the card of this ion ia a 8k«t«b-niap i 
tlio Elfo], and a goologieal map and mineralK are about the houi 
^Vhile waiting for dinner we picked up a lot of au^t« rrrjmt 
from the locality near by. After <li»ner wu hirwl a dniy- 
and pushed on to Dreia, arriving there lato, to spend \hv tliir 
night. The next morning, aftur collecting basaltic liomblenii 
east of the town, in crystals up to the nxe of an Cf[g, mo 
rounded a little by fusion, aiid taking n1(ui some of the olirii 
bombs, of which so many are scattered through the museai 
we went rather across country to Otfrolatohi. Tliore is much of 
interest on tJie way, first potrographio, afterward more paleoo- 

From Qorol8t«in various further excursions can 1>p madet A 
visit to the ice-cave of Rotli is refreshing in the heat of stunme 
But the summer tourist must not tarry. So on to TroTflB, j 
dow-n thv MoHcIlo and up the Rhine, till passing tlnviiigh 
ridgo of Tnunus we emerge into the u[ip«r plain of Uie Hhino i 
BingOQ. From Bingen a side excursion to Mflnstor-am-Slem, : 
no fnrtlier, is of great interest and honuty (17), and tho«tu wl: 
are attnictc<l by the silver sheen of tiger-«ye, the peaocpck hue* i 
Inbrsdorito, or the delicate tracery of moes-agate, should not gii 
Oberstein the go-by. Here, and n«ir by. the somi-precious stoufl 
arc polishod for all Europe, and from Heinrich J, Sk-Hen can 
obtaineil s[wcimons of tho molaphjrre* in whoM oaviciue agatot' 
are wont to come, and of the fossils of the region — tri)obit«a an^ 
ophinroids. The view from the station of town and river, . 
above two castles and a church curiously lot into tho rock, Is Hai^ 
to be one of the thrt^.' Gnust on tho RlieniKh railwnyM. 

Xi«r Kreuxnach I may mention Hnekenheiin rhurdiyard 
and a little southeast as a place where fossils of the Iklaymia^ 
basin abound, and the valley from Kreusmaoh to Winlorbatfl 
and back over the WelBchberg, with its patch of Turtiary M 
Bockelhaim, as giving a good section of tht> country. If y<^ 
want to Mw more of tho Huyooce basin, a goof] way will bii W 
Mok tha tall chimni-ys of the ("■■r — ■ 'nctfrriiw and tho ii' ■ ' ' m 
log Umwtone and clay-pita — e. ■ > if WivMrnnn. !■ . .'m 

n>gion immunHo r)niui1itii« of > '4|l 

The tw. ■M— of iJiegrwatRlu:, o*V 

b(wn < "i a typical CMfb of dropping in, am nut tinlil^ 

M ' ' "■-.'-. {^mM 

Tiis asoLoawAL tourist ly buropk. stj 

roeka. Xmct aaxam tbo OrlpniruUI. The northern ]>iirt of this 
luw not boon r«€«utly described (18) aa a wliolo, although there 

t^ , .. ., ..,.-- .,..,,i,[p j„iep«it. The Rothli(>gPHao«, with its 

« "U tbrou(;h by basalt, which at the Ross- 

t .71 itii'l'wur«it, at the Ovtzberg itandetono inoluHurea. 

li. . -. 1: It ix a muwniai. which may bo of atuustuuco. South 

of IturuiNtiult, aiYiund Castle Prarikt^Dstein, is a mjim of gabbro 
II' ". illi many intereetinji vurielii's, Ncaf Auerbach 

II ■. (iml ill hun.lry other iilacut ^nrnet nfcke, 

Wr) oow am iiitprdru-liiag Hoidelborg, a towu well ptured aa a 
oantM* tor ■■■ ' .-ii: oxcuraiona. Bonccico aiid Cuhim (lit) havo, 
hbvavur, I aa gtwlee. They are ton oomplott' ; »o that a 

fow nimark^ utiiv not be out of place. Korth of Heidelberg tho 
pelrograpbur will tla'l muoh and the palt>oiih>l<>Kiat nothing, for 
Ui» WDlUicnown Triaasic sandatouo oad the Rothlivgcndos are not 
foailifaruoa. SouUt of Heiden>erg, bi>wovi<r, pnat tha cadmium 
■ad «ln« Tiiin«a of Wiesioch, wo lan get a coDtinaotis section 
Ikroii ^ hole Trioa well up into the Jura. Lime-pits ami 

tmiuii.'-- •'■-.■'■• c[uarntM afford expoeurea into the weaker beds, 
and ibn wnrkmrn bavit liiiiruud to wts thtt ammouitm, etc £aet 
of BiiiduJI i.-ig up thu 1>eautiful valluy of llio Neckar. 

w« fx>ino '. , litiite of the Katxnitbuckol.a Ktone in places 

•o coaiw aa to yivid when weathered distinct crystAU of nephuUno. 

lo thtf KriislriohHbnu of tho old unirerftity U an interesting 
cn!Ii«<>t»m "f niujiH, niodeU, aii'l iqicrinicns. Thore \s alBo u sch'x]) 
<>' y much fn'iiuuiited by Htu<lont8 of all uatioiiv, e»])e- 

ri....j .<, oDx. Ou the iit«op way up to tho coatlo from tho 

Prias Garl Hot**! Im the nutural curioeiity store of Blatz, the oM- 
vt hottni in Ot'minuy, I believe, with very reaaonuble pHoeti. 
Tlw RTUiita on whi<-h the caxtle stands ia boBt expoeod uu tho 
Val«ri«a-Wag, a pro) ty path JuhI beyond tho Carliitbor. Loav- 
fall tl^ " " V of tho N(v:knr, the hilla gradually grow lower and 
awn- I till Tti>nr Biwliin WO approAch the Black Forest 

Ihrot! 1. K-'tH'st Kailway winds its Itold and 

inrft, 1, , ^. ,My thin in (uHMintittlly liku tJie Odun- 

V- :':'(! iu(uc|wn!tivi> mafM (W) will w-rve jw guides. I 

, !.. . Sim ii'iri: ni " I" ' irj; without mention. The 
iirir.. iMt y, tui' -, and a guolugioo] aurvoy, 

(be nutumi L-i<rit<T f-T ''Tnursionit in AIfuku — not eo pkiaaant 
Jwtt I'. -~ ' - geology ban \vt» regarri fur fn^mtierH than have tho 
Fm>' larmanii. The uXXwt hua alMO univemity colb^rtions, 

and toay \m mail :iti>r for oxcuntioiia in tiie HInck Korent 

or !.■ ll-rt Kiiiwr,' .,,. :iu>lat<«l vulcituic jM'ak rihing out of tb« 

1. !ity for liinl'urgi1o,pvrowiikito,aod zeoliti<! roin* 

ttiOx 'in those obltmg patehea obanirotvr* 


Switzerland is now our goal, but when should 1 Ie«Te off if 
I began describing ? There the guide-book must perforce pay 
Rtttiutioa to the works of God that towfr bo stupendously nbovo 
thow of nmn. There i« e^'en un old scientific guide to SwitJwr- 
Uud (31), But while leaving you mniuly to tlte booka {2, 3, 6, 
10, 12, 21, 23, 31), I may properly emphasize the enormoua fold- 
ing that the rocks have suffered, till gneiis and Umeetono are 
iuti'rcahituil (Id), tho grudual ris(< of the chain ou the north, oiul 
relatively sudden drop-oH' f<M:ing the grcnt plain of Lombordy. 
The laud'Slips artiund the lake of Zug have attracted rece 
attention, and the origin of the Swiss lakes has already 
referred to. Tlie main scientific centers and cutlwrtions ore 
Zurich, Berne (where the great smoky quartz cr>*8taU ore), a: 

Let us 8til] keep south. In the Odenwald, Black Forest, and 
Taunus, we hiul Reen the old age of moantains, tlieir teeth worn 
down to stamiis ; in the Alps we have seen their manhood, the 
slmrp " dents" piercing the sky. In the Apennines we shall fiiid 
them in youth just cutting their teeth, with gums still hloedina 
lava. But as you reoirh Turin, climb over the huge mass of Mid 
cene gravel to the Snperga, and cast one long look back. FeaJ 
not, for yonder snowy breaker towering high in the north liaa 
towered there for generations, and the plain of Lombardy ittti 
smiles as greon as ever. Finally, we torn our hoclui to the glorfl 
oug vision and press on through hills growing over Mt»'t'i)iJ 
sharper, through rocks more and more crystalline, till sutldi^iilfl 
the bay of Genoa hursts on oar view. At Genoa the universilj 
ifl housed in a grand old palace, hut the collections am huddlefl 
together. The civic muHcium is butler, A couple of milus wed 
of Genoa, north of S4.-stri Poncntc, are some gabbros and serpcai 
tinc« over which is still a lively discussion. All along Uie ooaxt 
of the Riviera we are among rocks that are not old but muck 
disturbed, and contain numerous injections of cuprtfcroos 8el| 

Past Carrara we go— a side-trip expnuuvo aud not very rQ| 
warding; the snow-white quarries can bo seen from the truin-f 
and on to Pisa. The collortion of the universitv " . ' 'I 

finest cinnabar cryatal iu the world. It comes i < < J 

Intorwting islaxul (34*) and 0>rsica ore oonveniuutty roqiH 
from LfghnnL A littlu farthiir dnwn the coimt bmn ■' - - -ffTH 
line U> Saline. Tliis is a pluutant side-trip t^> one itci; tvitfl 

Italian. North of Saline is Monto Calini, with ' -I 

and a unique mica trachyto— uwkI for milo-itoitti*, -■..- . ..J 
KtniiKanH for carving. Ov«r the gate of Volturm near by is ■ 
heml of unknown ant:. ','■■' 'J 

bairtw indoitry, and n _ . . -J 


ID the nt-JKhliorhoofl. Not fftr of! to U]i> nuutb ai-o tliA borax 
i^DRH that Diipply Enn>iM>, tbo ncarMt being at MoQt« ArbolL 
BaiarnitiL' ' ' ^ nimu Htiu m little farther south is Sim Vincunzo, 
wbaroa <- tntrhyt*' occurs, and in the works for leml iind 

xino umr Ity t"wiir(i GumpigUtt fine iqMcimflus of botryoidal liU8< 
taiult** am t^i Ih) fuuntl. 

Uoou oaotbor Uqo goes off to our left to Uont« Amiata, an ox- 
tlnct - ' ' .s« Iitva oontjiiiiH intercHtint; ^lass baUe. It bun 

nwciii 1 t.m^hly dcscrilxxi by an American, J. F. Will- 

ianu (" NuiHM Jntirbui^b," I8K7). Unlf-way from here to liomo 
thtt vnlrunir tufa of tho Cam|iagiia (^) conu's in. ami »oon urn 
»ni in MtKl>' '^f ^^- P<''tfr'tt. Tboi'u aru oollectionH in tbe uiiivor* 
dtY, Irat incin* inoilorii OUM at tbe rooma of the " Coraitato Goo- 
lofficfi," not very far from the railway-atation in the modern 
qtuuicT. <)n the Campaj^iui Ibit Roman cumont — posusuolano — 
«U|q(iti t U-m), and wo should gu faf (.'nuiigb on tlui 

Al^<' 'bo quarricA in tiie melilitb ba»dt nf the 

Oa|in i)i Hiivii, wIkiw cavitira ulxmnd in tiny cryBtala of melilitb, 
afialilv, notjhiitinn, i>tc. Munt« Mario \a well known for Pliocono 
{ami\», and from Tivoli couiua tbw famous travertine building- 
V ' Itonio. Thi> n>^ion of lliu ^Vlbaa Lake afl'ordei prwtty 

u .1 (•<. The w(irkiiii-ii bavo Ivuoite cryKtala. 

LAgo Bolwna U intorvRting but hard to get at So on to 
Ni4)lMi, wtinrv on Engliiibman, Dr. Luvifi, ia tho prewnt author- 
ity fK> on VruraviuM and Monto Somnia,and has a fiuo collocttoo. 
\'' 1 1 1 not f nil u> notice that wuit uf Ni^iiw is anotlier vol- 

ciL ricl, iu t}'pu, time, and products of cntpUoD cfiiite dlA- 

I:. 1 VtwiniTui, tbi) PlilogriDan lieldB, the front garden of 

Uui uif«mal ragkioa, »< ''11. 

Anowl with a yufnu . . i<-« at Xaptua, wo visit tho 

bMutiful park eTati>r uf A^tr^mi. 'I'liv way ImuU past tbe famous 
OroMo d< ! '' ' ' -ix tho I^ffo d'Agiiano, onoo a lakv, now 
di-ainad. ' to PozKuoIi, wherx tbe 8enii)euin ban bad 

UtaraUy so mnuy ujuxuid downs, in Ibt'Solfitlara. itn-itb<-r snudlor 
tint 11 r«lj«r crater. A Mlvitm-tnunway aluocouui-^'tti PuzzuoLi and 
Na{>liip, and thia may btt mailn tb« starting-iwint of n >*M:ond ex- 
m ' Irfiko Avf-rniiM, •'!<•., ■ '■■iiiM 

tii i<inl<t Niiovo, ncU'ti^t > laiiiM. 

STay ]r*>t> bi> mon> furtiinnte ituut I, and haii< a cbancu lo go 

fartb-r--' ■■■ ■• '-' -'.Steily! Rut mtrflt of lui mu»t nowrp- 

tnm. Ia£t wiu-ning : don't lay out ti>o ULUch 

( ■ (k n.iu NaiiIi-s. WuliT in m-jih^ and bad, wine is 

I ill:, r.. Ill il the i-limati> i» nOaxing, 

"■wo will follow the central trough 
.' 1. nwir Ibo wiitor-Bb"! wbure tho 

w :■ to go, was for o Woj; timti very 

t^ nun.— 1* 



marshy, but has been in this ooutury groutlj' mipmvMl by n pre 
cose of ountrolliojf thu mou&taiu-Ktrt.'iiiim mul mnlcing tiipm d< 
fKwil thi'tr (lrtritu8 bo bh to lacroiuw ttio grndu. Notion uii tin 
west eide how tli^ Inyor of tufa orerlyiiLg Pliooeue dutiilii rvsu 
eroaioD and mokes Aat-c«pped, tiaturally-walled hiUb. Tba ut 
vti Orvieto is a pkkI (^SAtnjiIe. In Florence am also ntllcutiati 
fjut the Tuscan Esi><*8Jtiou uf 1887 will proljably (javc nit* 
thoir arnmgomoiit. 

At Pmto, a littlo north of Florence, famoiu for \-Anina-clri>p 
and » bronze screen, we may leave the train mid walk a few mill 
to M'lnte Kerrato.when'lIierBan'quarriea of a Iieair 'br 

ptutru vcrde, much n»i>d for dccoraliou. II is tiurntv i ■. Mil 

pentiuo and poroehmizAd iilato. At the Oavo d«<l Actiua it 
most COAFM and freoli. Siwn nfter we turn »luirply ouil orui 
the ApetuiineH over to Bolot^na (:i, i'A). As rrtini Tarin tn Ofnui 
8t> h(>re — the whole range is Turtinry nml the uiDiu borisor 
which in Bulj{ium we saw hardly disturbud Hince thuir <iop«M 
tioa, aro hero highly metantorpboscHL The Uuirnniity of B 
logrut has n fine, wt'll-onlprfd coll'- 
by thoeewhowill tarr)'ft little in tli' 

WS8 bom (10). Thus they will get an idea of the im-h-uUii 
canio products awaiting thom. There are BtiU Lot hatha \ 

Every oiio will notice the Holland-like fhan 
try aboQt Ferrora, and the way the Pu fiowB ab 
above the adjacent fields, over pebbles from tlie Alpa far i 
and will wunder how long it will Im> bofi>n> the Ingootui 
Venice will iu tboir turn iM^comu fertih^ plainit We havsj 
around Italy. Wo may now go via Verona— don't pay the , 
prices the roan at the nmphithcittre aoks for his fowdli 
Trent np into the Tyrol. The Tyrol and Switwrlimd 
graphically but not gi^tlogically dividnd, lu) I < 
reference to the work of Von Buch on thu d<>i' 
that of the Austrian geologists <19*). la Innsbnuik 
full geognostio (vdlortton. 

Wii may go honre tn Munich, wher« Qroth's n*»w ll 
afford)) oTory luxury to the miuxralogixt itnd ] " 
Zitt«l oonducta the most famotui achnul of pnh 
World, and Onmbel diroctn the Bavarian survey f3). i 
route to Vienna, by wny of the Salskamni' 
and the city hi a fooun of aciuutjfic fntvrmr. 

Farther ' "i> cumial tour' ' ■"' 
y «'[ '• wurpaa aoi :. 

,th<':>' I' 1 it 


^^Ha l>y th'o numeroua Oialecta. Tlie Austrian geologists aro 
fully Hbniust vritti thn timi>M. 

But, turuiii}; from Viciuiu tiortliwi-et, we come into Bohemia, 
Ota »roji<< nf BNrrHititi>'H KTCitt liktxini. lUi mincnil KprtngB (28)1 
of whi(.-b ' ■• tho twidiied orllnicliwe, is tho most i ::ifl linsl tasting; it.'i<!oaI'baaiD, its pbo- 

Dolitrs (that iif Nouhof sbowit Ibe nRplieline to the naked eye), 
and tMoalt* and porphyries, are oil notowortliy (35). The rocks 
luur JCariuabail have been r«oentiy dewribcd by IL B. Patton. 
In thi« TvgioD, loo, iH A jiloco that siiould stir Wiv soul of «v«ry 
AmcricAn, Joarhtmiithni, tho birthphico of the dollar, i. a, thaler. 
Thtt nilvi'r-mimui lu-o iilill carried on in a pica)'uue sort of way, 
lorgt'ly for fimcy upw, uranium, etc. ; but by thoir gradual ox- 
hanirtiun tho population is bt>ing driven into thw manufncturv of 
Boh«nnhui liu^ and kill glo%'<^ Bohomiun giiruutu are too w«Il 
luinwn to niNxl mention. 

PuMiiug iinrth, we will follow the valley of the Kibe, which 
hott cut \\a way through tho mawive Quuder sundiitcme, leaving 
it in plati<anH or iMolal(>d towors, affording the finest sjiOcimou of 
eaSon •century known to mc in Europct. The way in linud with 
qoarrlM, fur the oroam^oolored wndxtone is oxt«njtivcly oBocl 
for bailiUng In Orfl«deit and elsewhere, and takes tho place of 
th» Bunt or new red mndstone in the region of the Rhine. Not 
fii ' Dnwdnt, in Plnuon, are large quarries in tlie roek that 
i- : loan typoof syonit*', luid \% rappoMd to hove no quartit. 

Titt'itn^ wn umy go on to LcipHic. tho MMit of the famous uni- 
viTiily and of the Saxon survey (3 and 2!t). Zirkol and CrwJner 
ar*> l[K!at4>«I hnro. The hWk pyroxenic quartz jmrphyry of Klein- 
■talnlMirK, oloM by, hat nllnx-tt'd iiiii«-h ulttmtion. We arc now 
OD Um fldff* of tha gnmt [lUin nf Norlh Germany, with nothing 
bat namln wiwhM by gliwrial drift from Scandinavia to the north 
ol u>. - - • -' ri> the Hans (the kingdom of Prof. Loswn) riawi 
Bfc* a: ' ). On the way is Staasfurt, whoso mines arc a 

ehmiical Htoruhuuwj for the world. 

TTMire an.', of fourw, othnr poinlji of great interetft in Ger- 
many— Froitmrg, in Saxony, the sUir of whose mining - school 
tu« poawd the sonith. Thojiu who make a pilgrimagu to Bid- 
fi^th nrr amonjc foswliferoos IhmIs (AUersdorff), and not far 
f'^ iLCi'hirgft. The 8<ilenliofen lithographic stone 

Ui>i i.> i.~.u~ i>ti- nnirine, hnt goologic attontion hail not bwn 
reoRittfooncejitratfid on Wlirtemlwrg (26 and 27). We have not 
ymtrUtod Norway, Ruiwia, Spain, or France. Through the latter 
(y)[intrv Vouttlrr Will |fuii|'> iiH (31*,3a, 6), In Pariflwomudt part 
r- aftiT, I ho[M>, a )>1<'iiHnnt tour. Dont fiut to viHit the 

BorD>'C • ■ inil t^L.' ,l(ir.|iri dus PlnntML All theleoturex are pub- 
be, aa<] ;br J.iiihii .1.:. i'limtes hottolMo Gd0 B«Deml coIluctUmiik 



Oentnl Topoyrvphic J/ii^— IIiMiluk(<r'9gni<l«a vo IhwI in tU( rMpeot) for 
RtiiiM mid A1|M MifficienL Ev«r.v notion lius militury map* covcrUiK room 
InM of Europe. The Ausiriiui map cuwn moti of Kurojio, nod i» good. 
<1) Hoc tbo Prc!*-VerMtchnim ot R. Lecbii«r Id VI«Diia <WIod). Alio — 
(fi) SUiBford'* Toarict Cotdogno, 1S84, wilh kddeadA and wirrigemU tine 
(gratii), Tliis flmt't spedahy U nieologle and g««^ra|ilik) publlcallons. Tin 
gnide to tlio Ula of Wiyht bjr H. W. Konnto, IStiT, tn^j Dot b« cnulocn* 

(3) For (tcologio map* m« NatloBiI GooSogJeal SnmvR o( Euro^ by WlHian 
Topl«7 (OcF.), 1885, Loodoo, Traboar & Cdl 

Nolo Uiat tbe official Rtrrcya ar« not nlwafB strictlj ooaflood witLln bonul 
nrjr-tiuua. 8a tbe AiMtriao* liavo doa« math uturk In tli« Itnlkanj^ and 
oorlicr pTCDcb lurtor of t)« BMumoot covera ooe'a routo up lo lUiI/ or th« 
Tyrol. Man; of (be book* tnd geologic ftoides mobtwocd l>ol<>w lactud« or 
aecompnn; niDpa. Such an klarrcd. Of balky irork* on European geology 
tbo fbUowiag ara the b«8t : 

(•I*) Kamuy, Pbymcot Gvokg; and G«ograpliy of Orcat Brll^ti (ll*. td,), 
18T8. K. Sunford, LoDdon. Jim out l» Woodwai^'i GMlogy of England uid 
Walva, I88T, I8«. 

($*) Ouikiu, A., Tex^lklok oTOMlogy, 1S8S. 

(6) Do Ui>par»nl, TrallA do Giolo^o, 1880, F. Savr, Purii. (Tbo but Mt«n 
bnodrud pif;o« conUin a foil aeeount of tbo fonnatioiu in nriou* ooaDlrivi^ irhh 

(V) Moorloo, Ofologlo do la B«lgli|i», 1881. F. 8ary, Pari*. (Purdy tocul.) 

(H> Crednor, U., EJonoBto dor Goologlo, 1888, Lriptti;, EagolniaiUL 

(0) Koib, J., Atleemelao nad cbocoiadio Oeoloete, 1879-1888, V. Ilora, 
B«rlin. (Tbo tocond Tolntn*, Jwt comptoto, b fall of putrogrepUie tocalituo 
and r«f«ronc««.) 

(10) M. HMiniByr, EHgoaolilcbto (16 nwrk«X 18M. Uibtiog. riuUtat, Ulpafai. 
Very frMh and flaoly tUiurtrnted. 

(11) SuoM, Das Antllti dcr Crio. I 
(IS*) Von llmer. F., Geologw (aa applied to Aaatria), 1678, A. IlfrldoiJ 

V)ooiu(Wkn). I 

Of anullor Iransportatito work* may bo mtntioned tbo foOowing : 
(13*) Uclkle, OatliBUt of tbo Owlogy of ibe British Uh» (ia.), 1870, W. It 
A. K. JoliutoR, Edliilmri^. J 

(U) (Joology Of B«l(1uin and ibo Froodi Ardooaaa (It. td.). 1681!, StoufimlS 
IvODiloB. (By rarinoi writora; toolvdea roogh sk»tch-inap and rofanoow lo 
l>0WBl<|on's map, ate.). _ 

A Julnt oxourMon in tbo onrlrons of Bruneta was mwlo liy tlto Grol«|[1it and 
Malooologic SocloUcn, roportod by A. Ruto4, 1881. A arparato roprint of UilJ 
WonM bo tlia b«it irnlita. SmiIi roprluta arv tatoabla guides, and u-o uflm mM 
•nftimA In Batalogma nf aoouDiI-h«nd l>nllk^ or may a)M> oflrn ba obtolnod iit 
tbo iMrotarloa of tli* varUiu* aoololioa tir Hit anilinn. 

(IB*) Th« ngrionttaral p^loity at Bol^nn, ak*toli«d In 14« b InaMd moi^ 

fully liy Ualalaa and Do Urahya. 1 

|l<1*) Ob tbo fwAofj of tU Bblno (EIso<l«k> i i| 

lia* a Mrioi of tiMiinQ«tl*olia Fdlirar In dia Slobou... ..,l. ,.J 

Klfal, uti^. [■ SMclaty prvoMMllasii, rarUiiu paparo by Wntff, Iliilibanl, l.«M 
pa^n^rto. I 


(IT) Pakrrr far B««ieli«r itt yaheltwl, ISSf, V<il|:tUniler, Kroiunocli, hu 
oloiid cimI boUnk apfMiidiooii. 

Tb* worl a( Uia Pr«tfaii 8imro7 ol WatM u>d Lu^]rT«t ud ili« FlOliktrto 
of t^urbmckMi toKj b« aotlcwl. 

(in*) Liulwld, It^ pubtubwl a OMlogifOlia Skin*, to go with tlia mnp ot 
BaM (mc )), out or iiriui noir, Tbero Is k new eurrej bjr Lvjifcina In ooanN vl 

(IIT) Ota(noMlMli» BiMohNJban; Att I'mgvboBg von Heiilelborg, BMiccko 
tOnUa, 1I«T7. 

<Mr} Etik, IL, hw iwwil B tfriM of i^od mtiM oa the Btitck Fonirt, the Rluk 
. lUllwfe? Mid mriroos, RcncliInUlcr, Ottenhofw, *!«., ver/ mu«h delAlled, 

■Ir |irial«d. anil iibMp in |iri»; l085-'87, Lobr. 

(SI) Ualtn, A., b lli« great aiitborltj oo Ibe ■truelnra of tlie Alps, fohla, 
Cull^ ate. IIU rr«ulu aro [Ivoii. Iioworor, lo (8), (6), asd capociollj (10). T^b- 
daO attil AmwaU aro iu<'iiiIiidc<I, hvntrU oaati, on glMlert. 

(SI*) Stapt, U«<>lo|t1cal Map of th« Salat Gutliard Itatlroad rram EntfvM lo 
AriiwkK 1 :H,O0n. PrBCllrall7 covvra Ui« wbole orjmtalllM belt. 

(19) IUI7 liM txH-n Iravoncd b.T •» 1118117 '''^ t''*' If^oloRlo^ ltt«ratar« U 

Iv-^ii'vn. A Ulill<>i,Tn]>ti7 woa pgblUIiMl in IMl for tli« iDigmalioonl Oeo- 
:mM at Bolagoa. J Kotli't Vwur. unci Lavla, la tlie"Q<tarl<'rtr Jour- 
i^. . : .. . iiMlogloa] 8odi<ty," Lotidon, arv u|i la ilato. 

tti'i UlU. &, D*M. 0«oL del [»uU Qba, ISeO. 

(U) Carta Goot. diilU (^rapagaa Rofiiatto, 1090, Roma. 

for tha Tjrrol tlia ItoIiM (tart of lb» ADilriaa pablLoailon* alionld ba ■ot«d. 
GoMm to eollKtlini* ntivn l4a>« a wider usetalticaa. Among nob pn-cmlneat 
an lioM for IkrUii am) MnaliurK- 

(H*) lor WfinaBibary. boridM the oM CeogDoMiaolio Verllillalfe^ by Helil 
(1 nftrkj. IWOt SobwaUwbarl. Hluit«art. 1« ili« Mw«r— 

(IT) IMa fvDfnaallaolMi .Smioilnuiren Wtlit«nib«r^ by Oacar Fnia* (0-60 
), tlilnl 0(111100 JuM (lat, Hdiwelxvrbut. Blattgiirt. 

{Vi) Uabe, a., Otologiarlie Eionra. Im TbennalgebirU d«a N.W. BOhntaa, 
>. Aninoit ()tL«r woikora b ihe laeae Bold la Joimala are Renaa, 
i "b«. aiiil roUoB. 

1 t.< ' II , OMldntaehar Fobrtr dwdi da* alchUadie OraasUtge* 
li 1 1 . ' 'laaaa, L«t(Ml«. Tltar* balao a fallcr "BeaoLrelliaac" bj^ 

1. 1' 'i-ir, 

• R. A., liaa |>utiU»l>«d a xtrj lliorrMifh map ot the Uon, wlilob 
1 .ralan} U xoottij pttlitiabed b; tlie I*nu«lan 'iunnj. Soa 

.^., . : .i.i- .liiL 

(St I Vetulia', S., KxtvrtlMia irfolugtiOM d trvTcn In Fraaoo, 1B8S, 0. Momoo, 
hrU. (Chativ; In'-Ii' *' '-liiiti and part o( Hwlliarland.) 

■n« •miliar Frfii ' 'lolca, e. g.— 

Ill*) Vua RanDB, uaui:»u da QMoglP, are nrj loeal, and liud<r to iIm 

III) CatalofVM t' mannfnictuni, lA pto\n^ nwdaK lo rwk aped- 

a. UaM^, ailnara! ', iiilnlnf reoord*, aad itolda to ffeoliigjr of Lob- 

4ua ({wloaa St., 9*. (UC, ii^ aa, O. DJ:. and U), If uaaam of Praetloal G*a\n$y, 

xaaOc OuU« la BwlUvrUnd, Uorrall. 1 liavo bu4 Icatod It bf Cl- 

Ultavb itiri^ Uu> Uwratare nf oorUiwaMaro Bolwwla to Tachannak'a 
I pair^ Ulta.*UDBr«a, IBH7, WU«, AlIM Uoldun. 




FOR years the world has been on a moral rrusade aRainiit tlig 
employ moil t of cbildri'n iu miuivi ami fuctories, while the far 
greator ovtis thnt result from the mothers goinj; out as wugu-corn- 
ors have attracted comparatively little attention. Labor, within 
certain limits, is good for the child, givitiR it a wholesome moml 
discipline, and traiuinK it for the bufiine«H hy which it is to c« 
ito) livelihood; hut, wbun u married vomun hiis to ni>({lect he 
natural duties for tiio responsibilitii'ti tliat properly belong tu Uia 
other sex, it i» time for hunuuiity to protect in tlie name of hor 
offspring. No one individual can fullill satisfactorily tlie doublo 
or, I should say, the triple function of bearing and rearing chil 
drun, and providing for their maintunanc^v I am a laborin. 
woman myself, and have mot with some succuw A8 a brecul 
winner ; and I know that the conditions of performing thi 
function saUsfact^irily areijuite incompatible with those arduou 
and important duties which make such heavy demands upo 
every coutcivutious mother, especially amoug the poor. Iu t 
homos of tlio very poor there aro no hirtnl t(er\'ants to keep 
household machinery running smoothly while the ml«tr«M is 
away, llie wife of the laboring man is frequently cook, auMo, 
houso-maid, laundress, all in one ; and if she must go out as a, 
broad-winner besides, what is to prevent tho dom- ' ^'in© 
from runuing off the track and galling iti^olf Iioih-Io" . . .<A J 

Of the two evils, if both are evils I am peri<uado<l thai it \* 
better tliat the child should go out to labor than the mother. Llln 
erty, uncurbed by the check-rein of parental rectrnint, Is a moral 
than doubtful hlesaing. for the lotis of which the child llr ■ ■ 

its mother's place in the shop or the mill is more thau <. : ,, . - 
■atod by the advantage of having her core at home. It is of fatj 
gr««t<>r iniportancfl to the physical and moral welMx^ing of thw 
child that it should hn\'e a clwin, well-<irdt^riHl home lo n-ceivo in 
out of workins-houra, than that its workiiig-b(inr» ^bonld l>o oXviiA 
ished. The rual hardsliip to the childn-a of thi> jtoor Ucm not iql 
aetting them early to loam tlie wholeftomn h-atton of labor, bui 
in iMiving th"m to grow up nn liaooniforta i' .•r>rv 

ofn aiiglii'^tiMl home, whih* the i' li bMtoiring ■aou 

and Hpindlo the cnra that Is the natural birthright of hvr llttlJ 
oncfi. J 

But huro vre Htft ronf ront«l with thnf]«nnti(inof «*hinaMon.ani^ 
it will Ih- awki-d, How in tin 
ti> wi.rV .M . ..rly r Such c--;- : .- .-. -,^ 

ha ] 


DO ronl difllciulty, if Tiro could ouce rvl oiiraelvee of those nurrov 
\-inws of edocaUoQ which bound it by tho walls of the aohool' 
jm, And ciui see do way of learning; anytliitig except by ^ttinj; 
, out of ft book. Education, in the prripcr st' of tlio word, \a 
tkftt couroe of training which will host lit an individual for tho 
bujdnnM uf life, or, to siH-ak moro accurately, will host enable him 
tu a'ljuiit himself iu barmouy with but vDviroument. The kind uf 
ition timt ix Wtit for itiiy [H-r^Mii will dopvnd, Ibunfore, vory 
ujioii wliul liix I'Dviniiimi'ut is to be; and as it cort«iii]y 
cut not b*! ttuuiitiuiml thnt the euviroomeDt of the majority of 
cind ift Huch Ml to reciuire a very great amount of book-leam- 
, it may nmsionably Ixi askt-d wliuthL-r sumo of our popular 
iriun of ivliK'iitiMU di( not nvvX rvniodtUin^. By tlitH I do not 
tbat iJtir faciliticH for highor oducatioii should bo in any 
lydiminiHlicfl. but only thnt wo hIiouUI use a little luoredis* 
Vriminali ' ''-'\\\n thom. nncl bestow tlio bighoHt advun- 

tagw wli' " liki'ly t4) do most good. Many well-mean- 

UiK tearhi-'m tutH>r under thv idou that tliey must Eixmd their 
Imrt .-T -■t-.i upiin dull pupilf, and go on for ycora throwing 
awB> . iiio ill trying to aocoiiijtlixh wbiU tlie houiuly wis- 

dom of I'lir fiilhiTH tiHA jinjnounrofl Mir> imp<wu<iblc task of mak- 
ing a " ailk pume out of a sow'a ear." Trim your »ow'.i ear, clmn 
it and comb it and make as decent and reputiible a sow's ear 
uat of it ta yini mn, by all mcami, but don't put your gold and 
pMirlii into ii, nnilnr th4> belief that it i» a silk pursoi Ah our 
UiorgLJk farmer*! my, put your gnuno on yoor best land, and you 

will r' -1 •■ -• t-roiK 

K "ot of tho World's work can be beat carried on 

thou*' '-I for it. The tutelluctnal work, like every 

Iher, c;'- i on with mu^wm ouly by tho«» who bare 

I cMpodty for it, aod, by iMwtowiug nu elnborato intidlcctun] 
1 all aliko, without fgard to nnlund quaUfications, 
ilMh the Htiitu ainl the individual : tiie Htat^^i. by wast- 
iuK ilji rn»(iun!«M>in iinrvmuiii>rutivflinU>lltH'tual products; tho iu- 

<\ '■■■■' '■ !<wling him into tiiddn where be is r<m;od into com- 

■i iliDW" to-ttor tHiuipp*-*! for tbii hI niggle for existence, 

Hij . Ti, iiy the int-xiiniblv law of the "survival of the 

t.t: • ' rhancn to contend with saoooM. 

Wb»rv pMjpIn bav9 money to pay for the education of their 



:h, of crmrse, no remedy t and in our private 

!•»*< we may ospoot always to we rich blook- 

k'h tlxj procusa of what they call getting an 

''<•« itlaUt pays Ihu cost it has a right to 

i 1 1 ao as to securw tbe gmateet iMinefit to 

by u riyid HV^ti-m of grading, 

no to tbu next higher. Let a 



A. bo 

ccrUin 8tamlftr(l of scholuntliip bo rcquirMl in oacli grade as n 
condition of enlonng the next higher, aiid lot nil who do not 
come op to this standard {laas out tn tho fiic-tory, tho workidiop, 
tha plow, tlio whwl, the lathe — ^to wlmtovur, iu fuel, is tu be their 
life's work. Thu rmjuin-mmits in the lower ^luUs »houlcl not bo 
too high, nnd ovory one uhuiild have an opportunity of leiirni 
to spell, read, and trrite, with something of the foar cardi 
rules of arithmetic ; hut after that the standard sliould be rn 
idly rnisLxl, »o as to weed out all but the lx.«t niuu.<nal In 
reaching the liigh-«)chooU and thus avoid the great oconomio 
mixtokeof turning into )>oor scholars material that might Uavfl 
made good artiHan» and mechanics. 1 

Under such a system, the weary mass of juvonilo mediocritl 
Utal ctimburM ottr hi^h-schuuls and ket^pH down tliuir Ktuudanl <■ 
scholarship would bu switched off oarly on the right track ; foJ 
Binee the vast majority of the human race must live hy the worl 
of their hands, it is <)uite as important that tho handd shouli 
be educated aa the head. Schools of tochiioiogy aru nw^led fol 
such of tills class sit may be duuliaod to callings requiring Hjiocid 
skill, such as architecture, joincrj', engraving, ami tho like ; hufl 
for the rank and fll«i of hand-workers. I question whether tlJ 
mill and the workshop are not the beet schools. To many thej 
are the only available ones, for the fsmilied of the very poor cia 
ill afford to sustain non-pro<Iucer», and to thom it is »<&<>ntiM 
that thu labor of every mumlwr should be directly romuneralivJ 

If wo takti tlm broiuler view of education, there is no ruawid 
why its claims should contlict with thu hunuine employment ij 
children in work suited to their strength, at a oonipurativela 
oarly ai?o, and there ore caaes where the enacttueut of lam 
against it would be a positive cmelty to thu cliil(lr'--u tliumsolvesJ 
Especiiilly is this true where keeping tltem at home would uocvs- 
flitate the mother's gr>ing out to lalwr. UnmAiried fomalofi cu 
work as bread-winners without detriment to themselves or tl 
society^ and the ever-incrensing Itanil of "siiiiprfluuuH" wonmJ 
which is so signilicjmt a frature of our advancing iMvilizaUou, il 
quite suflicient to su|ip)y idl demands for feuialu liilH>r wilbuuJ 
calling m«thi<ni away fnim tlieir natural tx^st of duty. 1 

It in not a matter of mire sentiment t^) reserve the mothen 
time and labor fur her i-hildren, but of m>und piiliticiil eeonumn 
•nMrt-o \n no qwwtlon of gri-at^-r importjuioe to tlm wt^-*-' •'■■•> ''■« 
tmiulng of iu future ciliiums; and a home where ' iJ 

Ijnon, and go<x '■ ■ '41 

of d(JKe«tiocoi[i I 'pH 

to uvuu tlw mutd uu9ngBraumJtindiug9,iH a mnrii jiuwerrni rncul 
In r' ! •' ,, ' l^d 



tlto VMt diffurt-uco tlint exists between well-mothored children 
nud th'Mo [MMir llttlu iHhmtw'lites who, UirouKh want of either 
lime ur t-aiuirity on thu juirt of tho mother are left tii wrambla 
olnnir tli» (Kith of lift* MM htwt Wwy may. Thu tMU'hont. with uU 
• < KUil riictlifiihi, ['.in lint Xi-iiA a cliihl ovm to s\)»*a!k. cor- 

n- -_, .;ji'u it liiuTci Diithinff but bad ISu^lisli at liumo; how, 
thni), cnu nur oadeavorti, tem[>orary and intennittont as they 
nart bt),roui<' :%t> (k'mcruliKtitg iniliiKtiot* uF thu shiftlMs> 

iwH and diwK prevail iii a Iioiiitt from wliirli iho mother 

ill slwajn uImuthi i It ia iMtside tho mark to <ilijoot tlutt tho 
moUwr* thoniMtlves ut« oft«n so ignorant and tln-iftlosa an to 
tnalco their iirmuuce little tu be dMtirod in luiy home; <.-an we 
ttXptv ' of thu domt^tic virtues lunonft thoee who 

hart> I. . 1 ' jiporliinity to praclk-tt thomP Wwallknow 

that tliorti am fooliali am) inconitxttont mothnnt in ovHry walk of 
life ; but wntild any otix, ttiurf fop-, ar^ue that it is k*><hI for chiU 
dr^-n in ip-ni^nil to hu dt'privt^i of tli« care of iJieir mothers I* 
t)oi;h fuultfi of thu iKior na nrixu from hu.'k of opportunity wo 
may ho|M< to i-ornnTt ; thotw tliat nrv inherent in human nature 
t iMVtf tu tho monilUt, a» Iwyond tho »coj>e of tliia paper. 



Ur tl. BUNDKUXAHS, Uimiovast. 

THIS iKlnnd of Niiu< in xituntwl in the fifHtdoRree of north Iat{- 
tnilo, and U'lwm-n tht* niuuty-wventh and ninoty-fiKhth d«s 
tCtw* of KiKl ' !•', uod in the largeHt of tliu <.-huiu of iulanda 

that >tret4-h u „ ..•.- WL-at «Mwt of Sutnulnt. It is aN)iit »ev«n- 
Xf tnilua frum Sumatra, out! ia about aerenty-Uve miles long and 
fi • • ■ . tity-Sve wide. It consista almiiat entirely 

I < wliich roiMl-mii.kiu|{ is difficult, and this, 

t> ... uill Kran nmdering tho narrow native paths in- 

1 . ,,: idmotit at the trnvdor'a very foot, makcfi commtini- 

Hoolt Animal and reKotable life are sparsely repre- 
Miit«^ ThcT- "iLH animaU except crocoil ilcw and 

wild awitie, v. .ry dvatrui^ttvu to tin* cultivated 

fioldih Tho uuly diimtixlio iminiaitt uro Hwine, hiintinfT-doga, cata, 

hvomuu) "■ Thu timNT-tnK.-«, in wmnidt'mhlc vurinty, 

fDmMi K wocmIb; iIik ixN'oa and dnritui nrn the pnn- 

(- lunl MiKar piilniH, rice. yamH, ir^ihulimn, pisang, 

» lUid a amuU bciui, are thu principal cultivated 





coTtnts i>xist of tli«ir origin, Somo say ilint tlioir ucustoni c, 
duvni from Uie sky. Aiiotlior account traces tlietr dcwoeot fru: 
the dnu^ht^r of a Batra chipf of Sumntm, wIid, ImvinK K'*! 
exjiellMl from hor home for uncbnatity, wan wt udrift in ii fnni 
laQiky] in Niiie, and hod children by a bod vho won horn ttt b 
tliere. They tiiciiiselvos boUovo tliat tlicy oro UoHcrtidiHl fm 
several ouce-Btors who wttlwl nt tiifTercul placw on thu ixlan. 
and orifonated the various tribes into which the jmm|iIo iir«> t 
vidod. Thoy may be suppused to number ubuut Ihrnt' huLi 
thouMDd. Thoy aru of niMltum Btaturo, am caMly tirod out, 
aro not uuliki< tho MaluyH ia phyaiognomy. Thci' 
primitive, mid couxiittH, fur thu mvn, of a Htrip of < 
nrouod the loiiu and l>etweeu thf> tliixltA. 'uid no girl aa in Itn' 
the enils hanging low dnwn in front ; for (he womuu, uf a Kquii 
cloth, ornamented on the lower hordcr, wnipinKl around tho hi 
80 us to constitute a short pL>ltico«t opou at one Kid«. In uili 
tion, tho mon s<imctimi'« wt<ar a kerchief, jacket, and 
cloth or lookthor, and, on fiwtivo occosiona, a satony thrown 
their flhonldei-s. The •■ ' ■ n they v ■ ' ' 

dressfnl, wear a jn^kut .1 jfy.orlo. 

tho Hhouldvrs, and carry u braes- mouutvd ittjitf witli a 
huH'I ; whilo thi'ir hair in dunu uji with braNw, silver, or 
pirn*, and cnnirrU'd wiUi a brtuut or iicBrl-ernbroidi'n'd fiihiL 
motit ronH|)iriioii8 of tl»> jroMr-n ornanif^ntii islli' 
fnuuuwork sti-ucture litkil t« tho h(!nd,mH) Q)\y.<i..- . 
toavw stampod with a human face, uiiniatuni palm-trv> 
othrr curious dccomtion«. Thu vrua}>oiu( tronxiKt •' 
knifo or nword, and ii iiini'lil ; armor of overlying i 
orcoAtHof hiiffa1<i-hi<le, and hehnela woven out of paWfi 
cocoAQut filmra. A ft<w possetis uhl rusty gxiiw or atniil^l 
for foitivo occaaioDH, but tho intr«>ductiou of fir<>-aruui ^| 
den liy Ihi> DuU'h (Jovonimi-nt. Thvtr Iwda an (^ 

Iowa bloclui ; nud for dinhua tht>y haw iKin-chun r^ 

leaves, which do not have to be wnalied. Tho biitwii^ 
outfit .also inoludtai pork-traya, m*ji1ua for ^ ' ' . rb| 
emallcr balnncu for gold, a cuplxMtrd mado ^ 

rioO'Htamping np[>aratua, iiarthon <x)i>king-}>(JUt and Wi 
trougha, luid. for tooK kntvox, a primitive hn'-'-' ~ i-hi 
file fur tho ti.>«th.ati(t a amith'a atond. Tho hoi. i>) 

«ix fM>t (il- 

Ktyli- of li ; . ' J.^^^ 

(or it mtvtM a f{ood turn for di<fuiuilvo purj>uMw;fli^H 

mr'.^ ' r- ".-•.■■- - ' '^^^H 

■tU. , .^H 


oonUiiii Sr«pbee»— boxM filled vttL nartli— ami oeci-ot exits for 
■Mpa hi cue of attack. 

T' ' .1^ is difficult, liat 1 havf> not foaad it poor in cou- 
r< . tiavo mut no foniiiduhle dillicultiea in traiiBlating 

tbo QfMpolx iiito it. . It \\B» no litomturv, and has only ruceotly 
bian writtAtL. Mjrtlm, i>iirAbli4i, jirovcrbs. riddloB, tlio wisdom of 
UkSMion, ui4 tlM> r«cit»tious at the danc«R, are all trnnsmittod 
o^ 1 lUT- IIiiTi'l'' t ill many vordoQS. 

; ■ipln aruof ■ I )^imj>]ii-ity,c'aro]«M,oft<m eporiivo, 

drtwlfully itlvcn to falmihcxxl, luid tiiicoQquvrubly uvurau to suv- 
l&Kor niukinu nny prnviHion for tLe fuiuro. Not «veii tbo doitire 
of gsttiuK n wif». wlio hiut to be paid for, will induce a youDK 
man tii mvi*; \w would nillier Iturrow of a chief, and so put 
luouittU andiir nbliKatioiiH which are almost mire to be equivuk-ut 
Ui MTVitoda Thti chtof owupntion of the Niha appears to bo 
away tho tinio. What little work ia dono with any regu- 
ia chiefly ]>orfomiod by tlie women, who have to take care 
of till' KWltie and look nrter tbo food. 

Wltile the Hporiid timu for oontractinfc loana is a month after 
th» barve«t, bormwiiiK f^ups on all the year round. If thu debtor 
can not futy nt tlio miiturity of liui louu, tliu froditor uuiuires the 
riifht uf nuikiuK hiiuwflf at bomo iu hiu bouae, and dumandiiig 
and rooeiviiiK the best until b» in paid. A simibtr privilege is 
ft- 'to guest*, who ar(4 enl^rtniiiM with groat show of hos* 
tud are very apt to make the nniHt of it. in complete 
: -11 bj Uie comfort and feolin^ of the family. 
:l:r' inltunl in numtnally under the riilH of tim Dutch, it 
nii-]<T till) rantrol of a set of Liliputinn (.-liiKfti, wbonro 
•'{M'lili ^t of one anotlitT.btit tmvo the mu«t ezalt4-<d idea 
iiunjiiificcnt im|K>rtiinco. Their title, baleoeoe, whicli 
may alao bo acquired by auyouewbo|^vo!i n frrand feast, is often 
■don) '' ' ^upplomeotAry epithet, like "the foundation of 
Ihae^- r than tho comb" <of a cook)," who it; notJiing 

dm than dn," " who in always above," or " who is higher than 
Um Malaya." No mul connection exixts between Uie different 
elauk Huad-bontioir is very much in vogue In the interior; but 
la Cbr ( th» iHliind nn iirraaiondl bleached skull, 

Rtfptij . _ , '.is the only n>mioder tbut it once existed. 

BnWed btMula, where tbo custom still prevails, must Iw had on 
h ■ ' ., AH on tho burial of a chtt-f or the founda- 

t ' ' of tho peaceful tribes whom I vixiletl iu 

onnpiuiy witr U<r MntuveM, in .Ianiiar>', tt*;?, ron)plnin<<>l 

uf '^" '■■— -■ ' "ifTurM fr<ira a more warlike neighlior- 

f luul hwt twelve of bis [woplo in six 



} in iu' 

quii>- '.ii'i 

of ihi'ir 

id ani>tb«r tfii, 
laimed Utnt ibu \\ 


in danger o£ 



being extcTminftt«cI. The murJurers arc hired, and put their own 
heads or those of thoir ctnlilnm in ptodxo wlicn tlioy go out on 
their expeditions, to be Un-l^iteA in cast- tliey brinf^ in no HtranaK 
head. The food of the departing hend-tiuuter is set in Hi^ pig- 
trough, as if to say that he is no better than swine or a dog if be 
comes iwiclc empty. If thoy rt'turn, bringing one or mor« bends, 
thejr are feastod in ^Taiid stylo ; but if thoy liave notliing, tfaom- 
selveB or their children are slain. 

The village chieflets nominally stand in a kind of patriiurhal 
relation to thoir people, for they are all more or Utw directly or 
distantly n-lated to one another. Hcuco thoy un< usually spoken 
of as father by the older people, and grandfatlicr by tJie younger. 
But the chief function of this patrLtrchal relation appears to be 
the exaction of exorbitant interest and hard terms for loans. 
The thoughts of the chiefs arO turned to the accumulation 
gold ornaments and to makiug a groat name for thums(<lv| 
With an eye to the latter object, thoy plant largo stones io fi 
of their housen — male Htonos, long and slim and set upright, a^ 
female stones, broad an<l Hat, and laid at the feel of the form< 
either being sometimes hewn to the shape of the human fij: 
The instilutiou of the stones, or the acquisition of a vnltutl 
omamont, is celebrated by a groat feast, at which bocatonihs of 
swine are slaughtered, the people, especially marriu<l persons, 
bping expected to oontribate portions of tlie pork. Evt-ry chij 
who desires to be of com>equence must give such a feast onoo I 
least in his lift'; and then he gets a niiw name, corroepondii 
with the additional luster with which hu imiigini-s his famo 
been investod. 

Women are in low oetat4>, nnder the pressure of a kind 
polygamy. Uouming for the loss of a wif« is ecliptwd by Ian 
tations for the money she has cost the widowwl hn»t«»nd. 
the husband, the wife is " the one who does his worlt," or " wl 
tokoB care of his food." If she does not suit him. iustftad of i 
ting a divorce ho takes nnutlier wife and makes tbu fonmir ot 
flla%'e, with a ri'grot that he had [mid so high a prin^ for her, 
the husliaiid dicM, his brothi^r or father tiik*it his wife; Tor 
would be a pity Ut let tlie vatne she repri'sents go <mt at 
family, and a widow will not bring more tlian half iwi much I 
thi' riut^idiMiii' *■ ■'■■ 

the wifii left I _ ;. . I I 

Chihlnm grow up like the gmoH and wiihIs, without di 
Pan>nt« love thr-ra too much \a \"''- ' '' ■■ ■ ' ' 
training to I'mpty scoldings. Th* 
and is hardly liMhcni'd aftur tlio m- 
tiirity and inarriM. A-;«-.iiH« up« .. 
trilUugaiul itidilTvreir i<r,aro|' 



niaU cbildroii arc pat into a ucfc, vith un ugg and a Btick 
of saipu- • c»ni>, and hung on a limb to utarvv. Murdvrs are 
•Tontnxl in bUforl t)y tlie friendu of tho victim, or tlio crime 
[a bnm({'it Ix^fore the chief and piinishtyl with n f!n«, of which 
thn n-Iritiviii n^ceivo a part. In ca«o tliie is not acceplnbl» to 
tboni, thuy protiuod to uxurcLoo juntico nocording to their own 

ThoftH aru puntshul by dvath or fine If thv tliiof is not 
found, u nunw tx iiKuod ngninat him, l>y, for iiiKUuco, burning 
a (lt>it alivv and invoking a mnitUr fato uptiu the guilty luaii. 
OrdfAla an* iTniidoyod for tho det«ction of tbt^flH — as the onleal 
of <«.-nti'r; or a In-n's head is cut off, and notico is takuu of tha 
[I- itTird whom thu docapitatod fowl JliMi. Thu roHuniptiou 

111 . : y n'latiouH iiftor diaagroomcrnt is smlod by tho imprccA- 

tioo of a t<Tribl.t cumo upon the jmrty who ahall renew the qnar- 
rrL The pnrti(<H niid thnir friendrt in aucceasioa take in hand a 
polm-lvaf which in suppotwd to n-pn-iwnt the person upon whom 
Ihn cuDM in diT<tiui.<d to full, prewnt it boforu thu auvcstral 6g- 
anwr Kud uy, " If uuy mulicu is lufl in N. 21. 's hMtrt, if he sctikK 
to do harm to thu otiicr, thL*n twint his cock, O imago of my 
faUuT, imog" of my grandfatlior! " 

When a nhiM bi bom, the father and mother most refrain 
from doing atiytlung that can poHsibty suggest avil, lest it foil 
a|ion thti ehild. Tlicy nntiit not slay any boast, thuy must not 
Oat of a pig that \\an diud (to which otbomrlao llioy urc not 
ATnnii>). th<*y muJit not pam by wlioro a man or an animal hiut 
bMio IriUwl, or mak« an idol or a wator-trotigh, or blow a bol- 
lowM, or bum a fiidd, or bent iron, or take u knife in band, eto. 
In any itu<-h caaM, tbtt child is supposed to acquire some of the 
anpl<<aNinl qoalitiu oMociativ] with the obnoxiotu object or ac-t, 
{n a lyniboltiTal if not real wnuip. 

In timii tho child ih introduced to the anowtral godfi, and a 
imnui b given him, which umially haa some |>articular nignifi- 
eaocy, ami often ndatcs to siime fact in the family history. 
DftugbtnrM are not wuloume, and are liable to bo given such 
nama* as " The no umj," or " It dooitn't tanto well." But many of 
Ik* nopliviuint nnnif*! that aro hcani are Huch an are given oa 
nickiuunea "for luck"; for, when a child is called by bin tnio 
evil HjiiritA may leant it and bring harm to him. Clr- 
cQEUfLxi"!! is ' ' 'O', iu connoctiou with which offerings are 
f"r tli> hntiltti, and to inform the ancoetral gods 

' , I rii I ■■; I itl. 

11! i]riii. . ...:... according to their station, and is 

■' irirrM mlativcM, thu chief, and tho pcHiplu of the 

plf'ft tdiaro K'''« dividtjd into too 

:i monay,aud is pitid out iu littht 

that ! 




driMl fish, or in Halt. Betrothals may take placo at a very < 
age— sometimes before the ^1 is born, or «von when Ui«ro : 
present jirosjioot of a girL 

Tlie brido-seoker, stArtmg on his quest, pays great attentic 
to his dreatnB. If they are of fire nr flood, the matter has a dubi- 
ous aspect, and he usually gives it up; bnt to ilr^sm uf ck 
water or of nv^oiviug money is a good sign. The girl ie not cc 
salted, and all is arrniigod Ijy intermediaries, without the jictrtii 
seeing one another. A few days prerioua to the wedding tl 
bride goes round and takes leave of her relatives, with lament 
tions that she is to be oonsignL-d to strangers — for marriagi>s i 
always botweon persons of diili;mnt clans — and reoedvea the 
wedding-gifts. Then, just in time to bo nt the wo'Idirig. tlio peo- 
ple of the groom's village march to the bride's village witli drum 
and song, and parade tlie streets, brandishing (heir drawn knives 
mid ahuuting, till a wild danc« is started, whit'h iiasses into a 
long, ecrponiinu movement with windings and inwindioga, at 
the chanting of n rocitutive by one of the parlicipantA, and tt 
repetition in chorus of the lost strophe, or its final sound, whle 
is always a vowel. There is nothing like singing in this, fo 
musical song is not known in Nias. Tlie women donee in jxtii 
deliberately and gracn.'fully waving the ends of the scarfs wbic 
arc hung upon their necks. A breakfast follows, and a more 
elaborate dinner in the evening. 

The bride sits through these proceedings with downcast eye*. 
wearing an air of modest reserve. Previous to her leaving the 
house, she must be {uiid for; and then she will not go, and ha 
to be token out When sht* has been succossfully brought iloi 
tiio ladder, the groom is calk'd and eaunters ont frotii 1h(> thn>r 
like one of the most inditTerL-ut persona in it. Then the hiowlu i 
the pair are nin<lo to touch at the foot of an idol-poet which hi 
been planted in front of the house, usually agaitu^l thn r ■ 
of the bride, and (hey are a married couple. The gn- 
the bride's lips with a certain leaf, telling her she must not 
obstinate, and she is led away — for she will not goof banelf- 
botwecn two women. 

On arriving at the groom's rosidpnce. a kerchinf is thrown 

tover tlie heads of (he couple, and the chief gives thorn liin biw 
ing by waving his sword over them. The brido b lAk<m int 
tbo hotua without hiT UiU': M of rho Wider— fur " 

tVH ar« the flmt thing t'l i i"d by her — mid, wli' 

, wuite<l, a hoy is placwj iiiw>n her lap, in token of her bocunu 
a Kon'nnt. after wliirli r'-' ■-■• --i lK.t»>l to her huatuuid. 
The gRKim or bin f. i-k a ft>i«t in bin turn, at which 

ooniniltntion ■ * 
Uelunninu w)i 

W rns isiAXD of a'ias axd its people, a^ 

H iatriMlacM] to thu oncMtml gods, and \a oxpeotod to tuko hold 
B Tii'lt-KViii witli which Ihey srs decoraUx). 

ft : - .-^1 tlicfUHht whoa u |K.>r»on becomes critically ill is to 

Bt]MU« 111* ciiIQd, n bellowed lo;; closed with a plank. The 
BpiilBt Twlatirus iireiMire food for him, ntul rMuivo his fnrowuU. 
^Kttt ii|>pro«oh of the la^t moment, the dying nian'ii eld<«t liuu 
^^^kii niouttk itRainst the father's, to rectrive his spirit, which 
^^^hm'od tu isitan from the mouth in the ahape of a pebble. If 
^^^■mi hoM iiu HOD, the Bpirit \a received in tlie mouey-purso. 
^^Bllarwurd hung upon the anoHlral ima^o which in prt^|)arod 
^^B^vantit thi< ilvceaaed, and is supposed to enter iU When re- 
^Hrod by Llu) aon, it is Uioaght to help make him a wise and 
^Bbat mun. Afti^r death, mourning ix heguu with the bvating 
I^HiniN uinl thit liriiig of gtmfi, if ixiwdtT cnii \w got. The Doee 
H oaMfd is closed, his chin is bound, mid his great tooB 

%ii lorefinffoni and thumbs are tied together, to facilitate 

Utf> cucApe (»f tht< immortal part. A dance, not unlike the mar- 

rla^^Mlaii irtiiitil by chant« reciting that the dtK'eased 

u not rem . is only goiiu away, although hu will never 

■i frtim U'youd the eoaa to tlio present world. The fanoral 

na*T u> markwl by tlio Dumber of Hwine that are slaughtered for 

B^ and this appiwn to bo the question that most occupies tlie 

fflinds of till* pabliti when a d<'>iitU is announced. AVhile the cof- 

ta V )'-'!"' bntught down into the throng of rolutivvs, some 

may ^ nog whether theroaro any circumstaocw to indicate 

■) rn may ba' lioldiiig before tlie deceased artioloa that 

^ . . . /mI, in t\t>\fT to outbid any persons hostile to the 

Btally whi> miLctit try to entice his spirit away from them. 

A 1 ' ' ■liii'ii''n aad ric« is pushed intcthe cofiin for the 
MM -■ .'iutwl in tliu other world. Thu OofRn having been 

L< kvn, thn stem of a n-rtiiin pliint '\» iiii^orti'd »o as to 

iL-'i iht> surface ot thti ground and form a way of 
•itdkij or relic of the heart, which is expected 
U'Ci-' ' in the shape of a littht lipider — ^thisonly 

in •-a MiH left posterity, Wbilv thu dead are usu- 

a' it a^ «>on after death as |>ossible, if the family have not 

a-. '-' -wine rmpiir^Hl for a suitable feast the body may bo 

t, larn, in n tightly-cloaod coffin, for a year. 

g',-A w « t ni till* foot of the house-tlmtch twice a day for a 
r..<* ■\.a\" jifi> t- 'till funerah The idols which the doceaacd bod 
looasion of his sickneei, and the articles he had 
i: Mi<*grave,en that the ghost shall not ntum 

t . . A wocMlt'o image of the deceased is made^ 

atud hta immurta) part is invited by the prieet to take ita abode 

An amuaint oaratnooy is that of tho recorory of the fliM^ 




li^kb, a little spider which ia looked for on the grave, and is n>- 
gardfd &» tliQ rulic of thv heart. Sometimes the cerumony i« d»- 
liiye<l for several yoant; oud if sickness oc<;ur« in thv fiunily 
tho mmii time, it is considorod nn infliction on account of 
□eglect. Tlie grove having Imwh clwired up, rice is scattered ovi 
it, and clothing and jewelry are laid upon it. Tim family tli 
sqiutt around it, f;trelch out their haodit, and invite tlio mOkO- 
m<}kA to come, and delay not; all the relntivet* aro there waiting 
for it. A piece of clothing is lifted np, and a fipider is dictcov- 
ered under it — they are running all around, for that matter, 
the doxen. tt is not caught at once, hut is invited to co: 
upon tho outMtrelchcd hand. Now it in discovered that it 1 
six legs. Olid can tii>t be the mSkOinOkO 8)>ider, for tlint sh' 
have only four legs; no, it is the right one, after all, for two 
the supposed le^ ara only hairs. "When the genuine mflkiJmOkA 
is found and Identified, it ii; put into a bamboi) cane and brought 
to the ih\a (bridge), a kind of gathering-place of the dead, whara 
a stone is planted for each deceased person, before which [ 
sherxis are set to represent a plate and a flaak. A kind of f<wtiv 
is held here, after which the mOkOmOkO spider is sot free cl 
to Ihe imcenlntl image, which U 18 supposed to uulor. -^ 
offortHl by ivich person pnwont, and the family aro coun 
before the imago, and prosperity is invoked for ooch one, as 
Bs for their herds and fields. If a crack appears in the imi 
which is of wood, they say that the m^kAniAkri Iiak pecaped Crotn 
it, and a new image must be made and instituted vritti a ru| 
tition of the ceremoniee. 

The ri'Iigion of the Nihas consists really of tho wnmhlp 
demons and of aiifiwtors, while there arc two beingii who ai 
neither, to one of whom the highest power is ascribecl, and wh 
name is invoked in oaths ; but they are worshiped only in an 
indefinite sort of a way. 

Tlii^ir psychology 'm very peculiar. Besides the spirit vbr] 
whose transmission Ut posterity in noblo fnniilii.>H lias Ix-on < 
scribed, they si>e«k of the breath or soul, no«o, which ban u ki 
of pre^xisteuce — not in a personal fonn, but as a part of 
general soubstock, from which each p 
out or mit off from a line— «ach oiif '■- 
much of it he will have. Upon hix answur, nnd his oo 
allolmont, will de|H-nd tho length of lifn tbiil li-' ■■ ■" - r' '■ 
immortal part, fN-rAor elmafa — a spirit distinct c 

U regnr<k<<l as a men) shadow, ha\'ing a hyiMitltoiKitl tsuiLitiTli 

A peculiar central iiosiUon, and a multitude of functionn, 


Id Uiv form of h 8|)i(]«r. Hoiking Io(]gtn«nt in tlio luicoBtrul 

lBUga,nH bus '' i : 'T^wly rliUHTtlMxl. 

Tho Nihn uina of the cunditlnn nfter <]«nth are c<in> 

FummI. Till' iHviiotr g«> bvlow iutii tho city of the iliwl, where 
lliry bavu Ui iljw uinu timvs, ur, nccortling io ttoiui*, a» muuy tiuiofi 
tm thn nuui liiu livot] yrani on Uiv ourth, atul nro xtippomd to Ii4ul 
li' TUoy takd with thi'tii tlwiir cnrthly 

III : t thf fvnu i>f fltiHilowf, ami run not ex- 

p«ct 1*> httuin II hitchor ittuto of vi-alth thiin they did on the 
tiarth: ihon-foro liviiiR nit«ii iicouimilitto iw much vroiUth iw po«. 
«jh)ii, in finlur thiil Iht-y nuiy tiiko tho »thiiilow <if It with thuiii, 
T I nmn retnrii to thp c<>r|j»ip in tho gp«vi«, 

(lu-i ..: -^:o ttiirtli. Mfn who have no niulp issiio opu 

tortiMl nftitr thinr mauifolil di-aths into iu);ht-mi>t.bfi ; ttii«e wlio 
n- ' ! i ii. Thn Ijochwi uf munltTwl nii-n unil 

» . into atoHlui from the othvr tn-chw. At 

hMt.itbmiJ.ihi'ttirth will ilic.oriiink into tho mm. nml tli<-rf will 

\-- - ■ ••nrth. Tlit-n thi' 1»«:hop of the r^ats will let thebwliooof 

t 'I over th(< ((ulf into tho now civrth.thfl «!«<> of ii ewonl 

Bi . 1. LP* II hri'luo. Any on<> who, in lifo, hiis riuim'K-KsIy tt>r- 
ncit-i 'T killLoi a fjit, will )h> tbrowu liy tlumi into tho iihyHM. 
Tbfr^fll^u ornry iK>nH>ii ik afntid to go tioiir cuts to tuiuny tlium, 
()■' ' ' ' ' ' ! 1^' Ko ov.'P. while iilhnrK hi*. 

f. ,inil. Thn h(x.'h()« of chil- 

nrv I'iirriiii ovvr hy th<-ir inolhi-i^, unil ^o to Qoil. 
Afu-r IjiWMJanRi, with whom m«n hav« littlo to do fjtwpt to 
mALx An iiTi'iutiuiinl iifTiiriDX, tho miHit imgmrljinlof tliofliviniti'rM 
b Loiiioro. EIc (riol to mnkr iiii'ii from the lom-fniit, and, not 
•u.'.'.v-lititf. calli'ii upon Li>wnliinKi Ut help him, and n-'civwi tho 
•w a K^rt of iwinff. Hence ho i« calird Lntoom of tho 
1 I ' iDiiftlly fciita A man — that in, his Nhndow 

;ind cat a pig. when tht« fact i» muni- 
/(Wwi by tin* illN>»tH of th(t victim. In tliij* raw im offorins In 
naul« to iudiiiri] him liii:liu(i«u nnothcr, fatU^r man, from ii dif- 
laitinl part iif thn couutrr. If thio |M-ttti(ii] fnilH. tin- niiui will 

' , HhadowA 

... ihf rain- 
bow for tlivir ntit, ami HMniiilnit hy uir^lof:!!. whotui hnadn iiro 
' 'Htiftiito? 1 ' ' ird.nnil which aiv in I . !'v 

It i" I viT. liv m(>*ms of npi i- 

iivftly wiiind. nnh'Nrt I^iiwi '^ 

< ...... .UI luul of thi* jHTson in ,... -, ^-.i, 

t fnll vii'limu to thuM> dlvtni>iiii|K'tilvtt nro miw- 





THE POPULAR scisycE uoyTffir. 

sIiikIows. Tlio I>oclioo of wumon who Iiiivo died in oliiHt>wl arfl 
(iiippo«4ed to flpizfl men's ami!) and try to twist tliem nrounil o: 
set them WTonfi iride fonmicst. A kind of anKEilic K'inK ia a 
pointod to convoy iho souls of the dead back to tin; soiil-et 
■ or utriug from wUicli lh«y woro cut off and ullottcd to thoj 
penouogos at tlio time of their birtb. Next iu order nx« ih 
ancestors who nTf honor^ on epccial occasions. JiniJ after UiPi 
the near ancpstors, of vhom imagat are made, which the mii 
mdkO accepts ao its abo<lu. OfforingB am ma«]u most uuuuHy 
a propitiatory shapo, as wht-n Lato«ro is iiskM] to choonc 
other niftu iiistwul of tho one lie hrut miidu ill, or the »liailow nf 
pi;r or of a hen is ofTerod to the booboo imteuil of tlie sliiulow 
a man. 

The priests form a separate class. The si(m of the callitiR 
tbc office iu a fit of insanity or some illn4.>es. After a sih>U 
woiiderini;, the condiduto qualifies hiuiMolf for liia funclionK 
means of n short courso of iujitniction from an nctive pricKt. 

The minor divinities. or atfof* (idoU), lire very numerous; ui 
in order to make sure of accosting the right one for a porticul 
occasion, the priest institntes a kiml of onleul. Oni- of ihc If-J 
formst is toutimu the list of thediviiiitie» wliiletrj'ing to itmkei 
egg rest on n bottle ; the one nt wlioew name the egg Hlan<l8 is II 
right one. A new adoe or idol has to be <;arvod for every case 
illness; and the offering is made white the ixitieitt iit huldtng tl 
ima^e in his hand, with dnimming and prayers. In iiivocutio: 
of Latoi're, three mediators are employed between the priest ai 
Uic goil : the adoe, vrbicb is asked to tranHmit the matter ; Sali 
who was formerly n man on the earth, but hits been ' ' ' '-4 
tliesky, wlio interce<li-» with the thii-d mediator, u < lio 

(Ntrt in the alTair iM not very 4;loiir. 

If the prayers Und a hearine, Saho reveals the sign, wlitoh 
maiiifiTile'l in a Krttat wave or cloud QiKitint; iibove. Iml wm 1 
received rmly by sunlight. The priest. intiTceiiln it with a riot 
upon whidi il \m refluetinl, in u nbnpe like that of a glow-won 
and puUs it upon the pationlV brow, vrbereiipon ho is mndn we 
This -'■■■■•■■ : : .-■•:...,...• 

other ■ 

comtw from him, upon whom lifeordesith ultimitlely depd 

Offerings to the nneefitnd god-< -r- ■■•Idom mn'l -■ ■ - '^1 

ne«ix, hut UMunlly to lutk a hli avert m <r ■ 

nn.itB tl:i ' : uni luiii 

.ii'Ht, Tl.i -■■ held ID .,, . „ 

and all maoQur of evil b prediuted againfft any ma who i 

A > in any nlTair or ra 

of ofTen«i Jiafi uui donit rightj and in nlrnid lliiU lio Trill 1m oiai 


Ul nu orouunt of it. Thu iuIimi of Home former (deceaaed) maKis- 
u to turn tkwity tlio vvil ; aud whoa nay 

t)ij I !. Mo wanl ulT tlio vlTvct of thi) iiupn-ca- 

tkm by an offorinft. AdoM Are alao mode luid offered to drivo 
o(T ■ ■ I * ■ ,irii i)lf the spirit*! (»f ]>e.4tileiii?«thiil may be 

HI .^1', Tlio uooiisioiiu for offering aiv, in fact, 

V. iilp.iuitl [MTMutui who HulTur much from iltuvux uru made 

I>>^ ..vomit fif tiidm. 

Tim aildirt un> HiippiiMid Vt hiive oriRtnaU^l from above; and 
tl: ■ of wliii'li the i'lols HIV mtiilL' itru tlio cbil- 

li^ 1, of till) iliviiiilii-M whioh, fux'onjiny lo otio 

Tvniidi) of ttio Ittg^iiulK, Hpnmg from chips of wood, and were xeiit 
down to bivd Ihu dlmMUtus of the earth. 

hiM-iiA'M wliirh nxv 0ui>|)'>Ni.vl to liavo beon produced by curses 
ti '• itn< nlno lut^l by oirorinjiCtt; but acxTlaiii li»t 

til — . ;' . . ...:: ti are ctiUM-il by n ixw tliul in duppowxl to hftvu 
viaim frtim Uiv vpirit of » cxirmt which was uttered by a certain 
!■'■ ' ' ' m;< feven*, disorders of the 

■; , -have to bu ln<iil"il with 

n I -Id ni Kii|H^nitiii<ju in much butter tilltHl by the 

?i i.Mi lire their rift'-fu'UlK.— 7VciH.'t/«ir<i /or M*- llopu- 

/i 1' nlhlyfruin (Ac AU^cmeine MisnionS'ZeiUKhrtfl, 



THE I'lono connection l)«>tw('<>ii iioimal» and thoir surroundings 
if Kt'uurully riH-ogniz^tl Kith by thoxo bcliuviiig in crvntioii 
t.i ,?,^L-n .111,1 1.V ihiiHi) liiilrliiitt to evolution. ThiH connection 
•I Ul be nvil rii.'teit to tlie adnpLnlion of cortain 
i.< ' if Kurrii ■ I . ; (. Oft*'ii- 

ri'lutol . ii'^ iiiv the 

luid ihi* fnr and rouiuL. 

, . .1 .. ... iMiibted iidJHHtment of single organs to 

nvironiiient, there ia reason for believ- 

'Uiou of the great animat ty|)t«. Iho 

., lid thu moi>t trivial, itt adapt4.-«l in tho 

' uwn ti{M.<ct4i] fact of auvironment. la other 

<r t>i)i< havu bwn Intl ''; oTiulniHit- 

-; and, where «uuh : .liuns arO 



*Umim* nf •|wi>*Tiai "Tlu ImporUBre ol In4ltliluft1 VtunI ttatirnuvmH Is the 
nI Xtlanl Of wti* ul A^nab," nwt Iwfpn tta Anunku AhmIuIm (or tiM 
It IdmM. Xm Aibur ibmUuk. IUL 


distinct enough to b« rooognizod by tliu clivu>ificr, t]i« fuctsi 
onvironmont on vrlticti th«y dopond itliould l>e distinct euougli 
Iki discoverwl by the observer of nnimal habitti. 

This proposition can be eatablialipd only by the counectir 
stnictnr© with habits and with condilions of environment 
largo number of groups uf diflforunt vahitis in each of the iy\i»si. 
Its rposonahloncss is bent Hhown by the fact tliat it ti« r<-' hIh 

aa tnie in those groups whose habits and Mructuro .< .|H 

known. The difficulty of establishing it as a general truth huo 
rather in tho lock uf knowledge of animal habitu and Burround- 
ings than in a lack of knowtedgo of structuro. 

A few undoubtixl exaraplts of «'ii\ptntion of groups to specti^H 
environment are of birds to avrini habitat, of fishes to watar, i^H 
rodents to hard foods, and of squirrels to arbonnl tiouda wit^H 
hard coverings. ^H 

Oiii> of tho diOicuIticti in tracing tliis ronnvction betwoon e^H 
inting groups and tho oittrironmcnt to whii-h they are sdiipb^l l^| 
in this, that the more fundamental structural characteristics niii|^| 
remain after the animal potvtnssing them haa, by later tmjwr&ci^H 
RHxIiGcations, bocome adapted to uther and i)crhii]i8 antjigoi)fl^^| 
conditions, and oven aft<>r the conditions leading to such stwil^H 
nres have disappcnred. Of tho first case we have such exampl^H 
ua the ostrich and penguin, which, while retaining their bit^H 
characteni, have lost tlight, a]id have 1)eoome, one of ibem terre^H 
trial and the other aquatic; and the bats and whuh>n, niammn^H 
which nrv nu longer capable of ousting in the normal uiunuu^^J 
lian liflbitat. ^M 

Of I'xnmploe of tho luicaeo, aninndx ('^' fter the roi^H 

ditions lewling to tholr existence hn^'o dis i, , ' i, wo nin n^H 
b« &D anre; but the mareupinls nnd tlie prolKtNcidinnii ntnon^H 
mammaU, and the turtk<s ani«ng < > ; '°1^^| 

point. If nnimuls may btK-oniomijx 4^^^| 

may oxiiiit under coiiditimis dijTt^'rt'ni from iti<>H< lor wlncli th^^| 
were primarily litted. they might still exist afti^r surli |)riRuu^H 
conditions had rental to exist. %Miale<s nttglit uxist tf nil lou^H 
weri< di-itroycl. ^H 

Another dilVicultyin mmnccting animal forms with upeci^H 

cnndittoiut of toiviixinmonl itt in tlm iimltitudi* nnd vnrioty i^H 

n,' ■ ' - Mnnt) that have takon place. No tyjie of animal lifp hi^H 

hi ■•nr< fuki of ■•hnTigi<8, tf Iboro wii<> onn KjinrliM of hlr^^| 

(' n'ny for "^^^1 

om«nt ..... . li'ni woii'.<. ''^^^I 

group of animals luu* IxM'omu nthipt4>d to n new foot uf w>^Y^^^H 
v- ■ ' ' ■ - "^^^^^ 

again bLwnmis Imikua up into sabdtvi»iuDs iwtnpiwl to iMch ^H 


tlwiin. Tliiii jirtiiwwi ui nfiientt^l sgnia ajkI ngsiii until grnuii^i of 
MuiunU nnt rvociiisl in wliirb tho differences <if Rtruotiires tiepO' 
ratiiiK tlium from (nli»<ni buc<im« 00 mioutv thnt tbuy ure called 
TkriitUil ur «p<?cilli;, \rliilv tliu <iilTiiritiicu8 of vnviroumoQt ti> vrbieh 
AoM) - iiri> iiibi|i1<-il ^row fiiiiit«r mid fitiiiti<r, until, 

wh«ti , : :>• rL>iK;bu<l whun* tlie I'hwHilior is i-umpc-lled to 

tJtrmr togeUior » number of nutmab) and cnll tlieiii a spec-ies, be* 
atuwt bo can no ]uut;<'r lloil Htructund diffurc-nccs to (onn di- 
Tisioiw upon, tbi>n.< Ibu 8tudi.>nt of unimitl babit«< will tiud tbo 
wmu animalH nilat4id to pnioticnUy tdonlicAl facts of ouviroit- 

Au ttzaniilu of auuli chiuiges in environment and of such fol- 
Imrbix HI ■ -nM <>f structure*! may lie tuki'n from tb« quuu- 

mnlH. \*' . iirborivil in bitbit^, uiid climbing, vrillt hands 

<!< I tm on» or both jmin of linil>s, their skulU and javrs 

u- - - 'itted for mft«tiralinK tbeir food. All of tbetr 

» . hml cimi)!)' swallowed their food wholo. 

'Ibu luaiumnlina cliunKlor of the t<'otb, when atljutiod t<j, 
nuidn of tmiKjrtauc<\ fur (liu lir»t time, Huch iliCTerdnees of foods 
M QivctDnilfttiid difforent kinds of tcvlh for imiHticating tbem, 
BEKuinfol in \\\\r> nt^ixfl, tbL> fiKxI unlinarily made uh3 of by 
■yf.pi.1. itiity tiL- roughly divided into livi- claw«ii«— fru>l«<, in- 
MCU, floili, HTiiA", iind bard foo<lH — and tboM bavo led to the for- 
■utirm of the livi> grtuit orders: |inmat«s, iniwctivonw, carai- 
Turw, unindaten, and r^idenbi. The im)>ortanco of these food 
ctutT' - lu niiwlifyinx niiimuiiilti mjiy b« seen wben it is 

*inti : i.-Ht- live onlfn", with tbe botB, which am flying in- 

, contalu fivB sixths of the mammalian siMCicm nod 

I [uiin< than niuKUwD tweutixtlis of all tbe individitidH of 
1^ Akuiu, Ibi' Ut'ominfC lltU'd for hnrd fi>o(lii, by tbe 
i< rouKbt them under ihu intlucncu of a new set of sur- 

p v'. nituiely, llio varioiu bx-utions in which such foods 

ftxi'['-l, ;t[td tbi* fnniilioB of tujuirrels, mic«, ham, besTers, otc, 
ar^ Mil' f—iult. TliT' name jtrortiiw again took place in the formo- 
u<'ii "i t)io |^>nl'm imd npocies uf thoae families. 

Wm must look upon the rbuH, order, family, genus, and spo- 
^- ' - ' - r > r, lividnnl animal a» structures which Qt 
■I tors for as mnnydiMtinct facts of on- 

K r Kuiuiol and more trivial Hlriictures majr 

■^^.. .1..: .1111 mora ancient and fandamentAl oui!S, lika 

^^^■Uft writings on an old pailimpxest, but all are to bu made 
«••'' ' !<.tllful is- - 'As hits liLM'n lutid, tbo lino of 

II ■; r."! u dir«<rt one, but it in often so d*** 
t' whirh WKrit primarily adnptv<l to one fact 

' ■• liJlod Kccondarily to fit thom for 
)1 uutugoiiistic U) the first. Tho 




examples of swimming and runniu^ liinli) wiUiout fligbt> aud 
marine and atrial matntnals, have alrt-ody bwu glT«n. In Uie 
cas^s, the fimdamental slructurwi b«.>conio in jiart worn and tni 
tilated, and some of thum c-ntin-Iy luHt. S<<in« of tliu ninnin; 
birds have lost a largo i>nrt of the l)Oiiea of tlm winp, iinJ lb 
irbales bnvp lost tho hinder liinho. Such mutilation and toRti i 
piu'ts is proof that the animal wliioli has suffonnl thom lioa < 
parted from tho enviroumvnt of its »ncost4>ra. 

But though (lufli'ctioD and nttttij(oit)Mtn of )(tnietur«« hip 
ble and frequent, it is necessarily not UMial : Inlor DiMiflcatir 
of strufturos are ordinarily in harmony with more fundnment 
ones, and later eonditiona of enrironment with primary oik 
Ppojfress is ordinarily nasiest in a straight lino. Most fishi-s lii 
in tlw water and swim, though they Ixfomc variously mudil 
for the various tocoudary conditions found ia thia mudiT 
Most liird« fly, though thoy are aiihjectcd to imdlesii mocliftc 
tions wiiich are in harmony with flight. Tlie mass of shot tdi< 
the spot aimed at, and not the scattering ]ioHuts. When lat 
modifications are in agreement with primary ouos, the prii 
Btructures remain in full iK-rfwtion and use. 

The facts of onvirrjnmi<nt bvaring \\\KfA life ore so vitriol 
and 30 heterogeneous that they allow of but little olussillciitic 
Those conditions whirh have existed pretty generally orw 
earth, and with little or no change sinw tl»' orPation of li 
have bad tho most profound modifying iuflufuci.-. Among th 
are the different molinms n^pirifl, air and wnlor, and tho difTa 
ent horizon.^ or locations rf>K]uiring peculiar orjpins of locoi 
tion, deep and shallow water, earth, rocks, and trttcH, and nl 
Tho divisions of t)iM« which are usnolly (iifrnilic*! by 
tJsts with the title of classes have their rciiwin for i*a: 
conditions of this Icind. Tho live recognized cIiissm of vui 
bralps— flshoii, amphibian!), reptiles, binls, «nd nionunali 
simply modiHcatinns of type for life in li' sboltowilf 
land, ou trees and rocks, and in the air. 

But those conditions are not conflntHl to this first ■■■" ' 

upon tho typos. Being in continual and nnchanvod ■ 
they nf^nin had their ;; ' 
lag the Btsxindary iliv. ., . " ' 

orders, aud have caused many or nil of the il< 
from 111" chiK ' - ' — : \\\ri\ In the r 
whalen and b;i 'Ifgr""" the > 

|)oint. AmnngtliH birds, the , with thn ' 

ing, running, aud swimming h,. . ,., ,.i....i.--, 

_ordi'r» iKtiVntlueni'if yf^lhusii CTt'Ot 


ffurli ruiilli«s na tliD bwivor, in titu:li goDOra M the ottor and 
aninknil iintl nyinK-wtuirml, itnd in 80cb upL-cies nil tliv wnbir^ 
baru uf tlii> Suutliuru SlaUm. 

Ill lulilition tt> tliu vla»i of comlitions ubovB mvuliontHl wliicli 

IwV' ifx-n«'s of brcEtt)iiiij< or^itim luid of 

ori^ir . i:iy. tliort) iiro utliura n-|iioL Imvt! had 

a muoh mnra Hupcrlicial uffvistta mwlifyttig life Tbifiuureiiticb 

M foodii, onumUv, cliinalt', iind ]x-rhii[)a ctliers too miUile U> be 

■tnovru ul ptTMMit, Tluwu (till'iT from the Oi-b-t 111 haviiig conut 

BiiK> vxlntviiiui, umtiy i>f tln-m. ttiiuH! tliu vi-i-»tii<ri of life, luitlin 

BHviti^ liivii in A <-(iulifnuil »\aiv of cbniigi*. Tlio groU])3 culled 

knliin, fnniiliivi, K^'ucrn, uiul Hprrvieo. ili'itetid iiJX UieBu in most 

^HB for tlu'ir rviwuii for iixiHlt>iic». Tlit^ stnii-tun-s m<itliQi<d luad 

H^Bffitrctii^ii <if Hizo, folor, N)ia[)C', t4.i-tli, or tillivr orgniis uf fodd- 

bkiTiKi and Nocondnry ininlitirntionB of the orgaiis of locomotion. 

■.ilce Ibtf nrnt <--Iiim of cotidititiiiH inontioii«<l, thowi m»y nUo by 

■lelr '*<mtSiui»1 «xiHt<>ii<.-tr a,\u»n miHlirniitions in other croupn 

Bft> illynnd |>riiiianly lilted toihcni. Tho pritiutttu) 

KS f .,.-:.. mil tlio bntii itru noruiuUy itu>iH:t-LtiU'ni; but the 

If s nro Mwondarily modified in toi>tb, ifize, stomach, etc., 

for . 'IK. 

I1 ii>N fouudwl on ttii.«(i wt'ondnry and chuiigiuff con- 

Mitiiinii bnve also bn-n in a corr<>«[>ondiiig titute *>{ chntigf', old 
Hiinns (liiii>]i|MMirinji nud ni<n' mwa \aV\x\^ tbdir plitca Wbcre 
^^cta of tbJH M>ciind ftikKi biivu a[ipriMi<-liiHl Binbility, th« Rrouiui 
^tap9i]>otidin){ bnv« ]inrtukon of ibis cbftnu'lvr >n tbo same 
I wRr ■■■ Till! fuodH wbicli iHiriimo iincli intjiortmit tacUint in the 
[1 tiiin of mnnimnU tuiiBt bnventn very early perioil tukcu 

^WLi. ' «f fruitti, fl<«b, insiictf, kuvk*. ntid bnrd 

^^01 imltTH Mv-urvnt tin vnrly jHriiid formed 

■O'l buva n*nmini?d, mid miiitt du so whito Iba uirtb oxiKU) in 
nUtytbioK I'kr il» imTH^nt »\m.U\. 

Mmiv I if ibii ■oH-alli'd funilifui are nUo baoMl upon conditions 

■ iif p<'niiHn"fice; but as t be b-sHTunmpB 

, '^^ of piivironmont upon wbicb tbey ure 

:ti0 moro juid more narrow and mnro cn|inbltt of 

H|ki 11 or I'luuif^. Wliilc tbe prctifral Aut& of Itiird 

^^P# tiu w lonK iu< tvm-atrial lifu cxJHt^, imrticular 

uf nut'irwit or "f yniinit mny •ii»ap|ic-i»r. and with thorn 

, ■■.•u>m di']M'nilinK u[i<iii tbciu for wxi»l>tnn]. Ah 

1; to tbt> rormntioii r>f tbti li'^M-r ffroufM urovr 

riu-Irr.lii'iiii; liiiiit"'*! I 'le 

I'ion in wbii'b this ■■ 1 1 > i'o- 

I aljKr, iau\ «o Oiu chances for ItB destruction are 

' '' baagtwamoiiK 'be ulf 

ohanguof tbuiHJudiii 







enviroijinimt slow enough to be accompfinioi by clmiigc of • 
qjccice di-pondiug upon it. Thora ciui bu but liltk- doubt 
many if not most or all of cxistinj; ii]>cvi€« ore slowly chariKiiiil 
in mass and in place Into Bonii'tbinK els« tlian wb«l Iht-y nrfl 
now. This process may b« 80 slow that it will rei[uiru sijiut< sut-t 
careful »tudy and delicate calculation a« bn» bti-n usiil by 
Inpnumcr;* to prove that tbu su-cuUi.<d fixvil stars nr« in motion^ 
hilt tho well-ruuiido*! bcliuf that goologicul dmiig(>» are Rtill );o> 
ing on upon the earth is enough to make us rr'rtaiu that rhangos 
in living tilings must accompany these or follow clone after. 

Ill udditiou to such slow changes of the maw of individual; 
of n iipccics as muat finally pruducu a form 8iK<cificAlly dilTercnt 
from it, there is auother method of foniintion of sjwvies whiul 
would seem to be much more proUtic in its results, and whicl 
oluuo can keop the earth populated during ages of <;bangQs i 
onvironniout, some of them so rapid and violent that they di'xtro] 
preat numbers of species. This i« by the mignition of individunU 
into .lurrounding areas where the ivniditions are fo near like 
tboM' to which thoy are accUBtome<l that they can exist, and stil 
dilfurout enough to set up rapid chnngos of structure. Tho off-' 
shoots of tho parent species might tlius become numerous, and 
still retJtin likeoow «nough to each other »o tliat they would 
thrown by tlie systomutist into n common genus; or, if thi 
ofannges of environment were less, we sliould have u sot of ml 
species or varieties, Tliere is no line or rule fixed in w' 
which wc can say that this is a genus with several spe. \\ 

this is A spucied with several varieties. If thifl is a true tiieuT 
for thit creation of HpeviM. theru should oxikI certain spocU 
snttlctt and fixed in charactt'r, which bavo exist4Hl with but Un 
slow mod ill cations of stnictures catiwd by geologi 

while other species would be ready to change in any 

to revert rapidly to tho characters of ilii {uiront vpoctM. 
varieti<^« and sjiocies of man's make art* exnggenttiid ■ ' "i of 

the latter cla»s, and man himn'-If would furnisti ill': .^t of 

tlie same thing in such ancient and well-established spa-ciea u 
the Cliinese, Olid such a recently-formed variety as the Angle 
American. Thit huterogern'ous obiuiu*tur of tho conditions t«^ 
enrironment bearing npoii life, ami their utter lack uf ■ 
or ixguivnlenoe iif modifying power, give goiHl and suHicii i.^ 

•on for that look of equality uf structural voluiw among gruuiN 

wi ; ' : • ' ■ ■ ' ■'. : ' *■■• ' ■• i. . 

aj.-:. .. 

raiw in itoitit. As long as tti' 

nrwa werestudi'-' 'li ■■'■.■ •■ — 



boring ATuiM, Kp^irieH lost iu Bif^iflcancu as u Lenn of fixed ueati* 
lag. nn<l nui not Im iii>iiuriit>_'(l fruiu guuiut ou uuu sidu atid Bub> 
■|)«ci4<*i or vnriuty ua l\w otliur. 

Thoutili tlu» vxiuiipIi'H niAilo use of in tlib diiKus^on aro taken 
1< vortobrutt' (Jlienf uiiira«l«,1Iie other ^'rentdivUions fall 

iiii ' Muno ti»W'. vtu-'Ii iu ilt own way, niul iiwlor limitations 

Ht by thn cljurautoN of tho typwj tbcmaulvcA. 

I ffiri 

Br Pwir. W. l'H£TK8. 

. I " [ n ■ ' I 

"■'Mtiu tu oxiictly as imsttible the date of the first iniita< 

iH of v^iiryinl iiiturt'tit in rogiird to tile geneoifl of 

.1 II cvi'it tliit iiidst iiiHiiniitlciiiit iniitiitivu movement 

ii "HIT Jipjof <if iiclivity of tii" iri^rttliruin. For, in onlor 

tufnibiti-, one luuNt ftnt pi>n^ive throngh the senans; imcomllv, 





itf wlint liiw IxH'ii pcrecivwj; thirdly, <'x<-cul« a 
! n'j»i«indin(f to ihi» lili'ii. Now, thin tlirt^-fold ccn- 
-\ mil m>l rsirtt without a c.-robriiMi, or without cvrl«in 
.., . ■^''. )>vum. jirobiihly tlio cortioul ntibfiUince. Without 
v.u-rUiin )HT(-('ptions are poiwible, to 1>e sure; 
ATt' jH'Ksililir, btit not thv yciifnit ion of ihp lat- 
ni-r. llowi'Viir oftou iniitutiou hiui thu iii>|)cnr- 
*aa* at an invnlunlJiry inovvminit. yet when it wnit i^xvcuted tho 
fir ■ ' ■ . il rniiiil hitvo hiinn rxiviitod with inti^ntion — i. p., vol- 
I; WliMi It rliiltl iiiiit(iti-i«, it had already It will. But the 

ofhiui^r n t'ulantitry niovi-mttiit in rt-jK-Htcd, alwnyH In ttiu same 
way, ftu miirh mom it ii)i|)roxiinat4-H n>tU'X movument. B«dc« 
many imiUitivo iwrtii, even in the child, occur involitntflrily quite 
< ''i;t the tiratODM are willed. Wb<m do thoy make tboir 

If we nuvko, for lliu infant to see, a movement thut he haft 
often iiTTi''-| ' if lliu own aixont, he uin tnakea Hm-civwfiil imi- 
bilioti mil e Outii il iMinmonly Hiipitoiwd. Hnrh a ninve> 


I'd an Hiiit»bli< for I'nrly iiniljtlioti, is the 

. tho itcutnidiuK of thu eloHuil li]i», wliioli 

in (even in adulttt), olon^ with a grnit xtrain of the 

Tiu.i protrndiOff of the Hp« occuired with my child on the 

•Am -tVHliKl irf iW CUIdi Putt Tlw itmaca imI ih« WRL" IIpI^ ok 
•r- i< >«k>]iniBnt of ttv buiimn tw4ng to Ui« DrM rttr of 

11^ lli}«iu(oti7 III Uiir I'lilrrrwllr ■( Jmu. Tr«l»Ulcd 

V ^ :- ',.- ...,:. > - u \\. uiMmu, mtU *a luueifaiitlaB by 11. tiualii; UalL &'«■ Totfci 

V .IfF-Wus. A <-Vl. 1"'! I. 



teeth day of life (in the bath, wliea a bnminj; cauillu wna buM 
before him at the distance of a luutre) ; in thi» ftt'Vt-iitli wwk fl 
Wii8 decidedly inarkod at eight of ii new fnco <]tiUe ne;tr him; fl 
the t«uth we«k, at the bending and Htrotohin); of his \\'ff» in t^| 
bath. It was as if the letter u wen? to l>i> pmnoiinoHi — nnd yfl 
thevhild was wholly uiuthlo to iniitatu this uiovi^unmt so i-iwifl 
niiidu by him (us lst« as tho fuurtconth woek) whc-u I madit ■ 
for liim under the most favomble circumstances. At tliv und fl 
the fifteenth week appeared for llu^ first tim« tlie hoKiiitiiticH fl 
an imitation, the infant makin)^ nttprnpts to purse Ww lijKi wh^| 
I did it closv in frout of him. That this was a case uf iiuitjitifl 
movement i.-^ i^hown by the iniiMirfoct charactvr of ll in couipa^| 
son with the perfect pui'siti^jof th>*lipH when lu<nmkrx llu' niovfl 
ment of his own accord in some other »trnin of the atti-nl!ii^| 
Strangely euuui^h, the imitation was attempted on tho one hi^| 
dnid and fifth day, but not in the following days. H 

Further attempts at imitation ocvurreil to siddom luid wtifl 
so imiwrfc-ct, notwithstanding much piaiu8 on my iMirt Ut indnfl 
them, in the follomni; week», thitt I was in doubt whether Itit^ 
might not be the i-eenlt of accidental coincidences. Not till tlu^ 
oevouth month were the atlomptH to imitate movi'meDt« of tin 
huod, and the pursing of Ihu lips nlii-ady s[K>ken of, tto Ktrikii^| 
that I could no longer n.<for them to a<:cid<-ntal coinctd(<^(■(^ jH 
particular the child often hinghed when one lnuf;he<l lo htm (fl 
14tl). The attention is now more and more ])Iainly straimti wh^| 
now movements are nmde for the infant to nee — he follows thi^| 
with evident interest, hut without coming to tho )H>int of uu ofl 
tempt at imitation in a »ingli> iniitanco. Thin indoletico wns tlH 
more Hur{>risini{, as even in the xevent^mth wei>k IIji* prolrudlifl 
of the tip of the lun^ue Ix-twoen tlni lipH (i-u?<tiiiiinry with inuiS 
adultjt ikt their work) was ]ierfectly imitHte<l once, wht-n done ^H 
me iK-foni thocliild's face, and tho old Id in fniit uniiliHl direct^l 
at this strange movement which seemed to plenw him. lioil^l 
tivo movemeuts thus ap|)i<ar in the foi" ' '^^l 

stivcnth, and even the ninth, do nut sir "9^1 

feotly lu^hioved. Yoi in tho tenth month corroot imltalionii S 

all Korl* of movomciitj* wi'i-e fp .-'•-■: ,.- ■ S 

wore exei^uted with di>ttiiict C'-\. . J 

tiitiuR movemtHiUt of hand and arm freipicully repoattKl bcto^| 

him—*. g„ bfckoniuif (in the g<tii'""' ■ "• of mit'"'"" ■* id>^| 

audMiyiutt— "Tatttt"— thechihi I My at U,< i^H 

cvrnml, and then ofl(>n nuddonly mukiM thu movvuK-ut ()uil»^^| 
rectly. H 

Itvckouin^ ItVinlifit) ia in gHueml ono of <i fl 


h" wua gi/ing to tw titkvn out, bin motliur U8w) io maku a sign to 
ttkitn, iu)d mm i)<< likcirino miwlo n sign, a1ni<N!t iuv&riably, in tho 
Hoorvmy. with oiw nrin. frcqiieiitly with lK>th nniis, >-»t with an 
nixiiroMiori of fitc«' that iii'iirideil tliitt lie movni the anus or nrm 
nrith'iut ninicrBUiinliiii', upfiii th«' opciiiiig of the door, Tho 
htru'ir of tills Mm ill tho fact thut, wlivn I oiilor thu room, the 
bUIH, ik> Ioiix oh thci door is in nmtioii, malow thai mo^-emont 
■Mi-' ' ' ' litNlfMl, ntiil (}<xt4 it n^utnrly — no luiit of 

^Hr< < nv. Tlic Ixv'tconitiK inovemmit iH iiiiulb 

■ilwi At othi-r tiniMi — o. ff., on thu ofivuiiig miil shutlint; of u Inrge 
■■|faaonl; it hiM, thitrvforc, coniplL'tvly lust ltd purL'ty imitiitive 
^^BkCtar, Thi> ni(/V('in«ut iH>iiMint» otMuntiiilly of ii m[iid niisiug 
^H'dropinnK "f thr* t-xti-txIiHl nrm; it is not, tlicn-foro, geuuino 
PHtonitifT. Kut till lifter Miitio Wf*eks wore niolionfl of the hnnj 
■diiotl, itnil thin more akillftil imitation made it seem as if tlio 
■Ml ' < ' w<»ro made at the o|>eninK of the 

^B" iiitAry, urere moro mid more inten- 

^Huiy iK-rfoni)'"! rut gonuinu Signs of li>avo-tHkiii|;. But at this 
Hllmd (ti'itlli tnontti) Kiit-h un nrlion is not yet luliiiiteible; for 
fchun I nuvk« tho wune iMTkoiiin^ inovemont for tliL' i-.hild with- 
^Bii ' l.hi' door, liK ri'jM'dtt it ofti'ti in » purely imitativu 

^^k _ . .'lut dolitH-rutiou, tlioufifh. to l>e Rure, tJii> eye hcui an 
^^■bwioa of great stmin of att4<ntion, on account of thu difll- 
^BRyoftwui: o quii'k « movtinn-nt. 

Nnl I'Vi-r i<>%vitii'nl run Ihj ho clearly porceived to 

'' 1 lu can thii* on*'. Wiien one entora a room in which 

l^w. - .-ooti nintiy infnnbi. all quiet, one can noitily ohiiorx'v 

^Bi- iH iulluoim' of orying. For, if only one t'hild lM»ginii 

Kiiry, 1 1 ' are crying, then nuuiy, of ti-u all of 

|p>*)n. ." , iiiglu infant (in the ninth month) 

Bau* oth»*r rhiMruu cry, he likewise, in very many cases, boginM 

■|My. Tho oliliir tho uhild lui-omes. the moro (M>ldom appuani 

HP'Vtntl of undi'iiintlih' iniilnllon; but even in children four 

t, quite ctimU-Mi imitotive niovenientii niny often be i>er- 

■ '11 mftimcrirr ptttimiU) if tho chililn<n ore obmirvod 

r knowli>.iKi'. Fop example, they sudili-uly hold tho 

:mm1, a» a Htnuiffcr pretieot in doing, aud bow as he does 


rl ill tho hut quarter of her flrst year itnitatwl, 

' ' - 'ii. hnrsi'ir cxiM'H'-no-il in her tw 

r dot) a bntli. ]>iiiiishing it, kiHsing 

Dr. K 

and iMifi.r" tho end of thf first yoi»r tdie 
•f tl" dog aud tlw bluotin^ of ttio tdiwp 

'I a 




tbe forcfingor if ad^ one did so to bci*, luiod » bnmb aft«r hIu 
IukI tMM.1) bruiilics luul cudiIm. u»ot] a npuoa protMTly, luttl dnui' 
from a cup, and niwle a kind of • ' 
doll, siugiug. " Eiu — eia." In llu- 

uiiulv tlio motiou of wwiitg, of writing (inoiith'iiiug tltv pttitit 
Uit^ jM'nuiHn lior mouth), ntnl of fulditig llio uraitt. In ''' ' 
t«eiitti montb hIio fud Uio doll tut sbu vtrm fud livnu-lf, 
9liaviti){, on liur own I'hin, und ntiding iiloud, movhij^ lii<r liuK<i 
aloti^ th« [lines und moduluttng ]i<;r voice. In tim etji^litiuuii] 
month shi^ imitated einginj;, and mods the motion nr turning 
crank liko a Imrdy-Rurdy player wheu hUo lifiard inusiiv, in tin 
nineteenth she went on liauds and fwt, crWug " An, tui I " (im 
uw), in imitation of a dog ; in tliu twontJeUi uhu imilikii-il Btnol 
ing, holding a canu finuly with her fingi-rs i-xiw-*'' ■ ' ■ 

smoking a pijic, Hor younger itiittur, in hur 
fln^t imitated the movement of Bowing and of wrtiin({ ; mIuI 
elder, in the nini^t«cuth iiiontli, after rcjM'atctl nlti'mptu at ii 
tion, eewed together two ptecea of cloth, witlnmt inirtnnrtioB 
druwiiig the mtudlo through correctly (Fnm von ■' 

Toward tlui oiid of the first your of lifo the ' itti 

tivo movomi'nUi, morv QumorouA than Imfonn iiro i<xi'<:ut4<il mnd 
more skillfully and more quickly. But whun tliry 
plex coordination they uaRity fail. Whon (ut th'> 
th« twi'lftU month) any ono atnipk Eicvrnd timiw witli » wtl| 
Bpouii on a tumhlvr no that it mMnndud, my child Uxtk thi< i 
lookot] at it sMidily, and tlam likowiso LHikI t4) striko <h 
glni«9 with it, but bo (-ould not make it ring. In 
which are entirely new, and on Hint nroount Ri' 
prGSAion, as In the cane of pntUng {Ptistt-n), it woul<l bap])Ci 
tboy Were repeated by the child in bin dri*»mM. witiiuut 
tion of his sloop (twelfth month), n proof tbnl th« i<s[ii 
the day, bowovor uuim|u)rtHnt lli^y u'' 
stamped tbum»olvi« firmly upon thu im; 
child. But it lakes alwayii »ome twooudK WSorv a nnv ur ' 
new movement, however stmpbt. ia imitjttcd, wbtin it 
thu child lo imiljtle — e.g., it wna a biibit of my < 
fourteenth month) to move both lU'niH Hyuiuu-ti 
t-hitber. wiying, "ay— f, ay— VV" (iilrogi-llit- ■'■ 
more |M>n«iii(i'ntly and rapidly, than when 1< ^'). If 

ori' ■ ■ ■ 

Wi ■ ■ , I 

Mi-oniU boforo the child could oxoctito tho movement 
fcudiion. T' ■ ' t - ■ f ...... . 

IkUuh inur: , ... , . 


ings, bat acts spontaneously. If I clear my tliroat, or cough 
purposely, without looking at the child, ho often gives a little 
cough likewise in a comical manner. If I ask, " Did the child 
cough ?" or if I ask him, "Can you cough '(" he coughs, but 
generally copying less accurately (in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
months). The bow too tightly strained shoots beyond the mark. 

Here, besides pure imitation, there is already understanding 
of the name of the imitated movement with the peculiar noise, 

Tliis important step in knowledge once taken, the movements 
imitated become more and more complicated, and are more and 
more connected with objects of daily experience. In the fifteenth 
month the child learns to blow out a candle. He pus's from sis 
to ten times in vain, and grasps at the flame meantime, laughs 
when it is extinguishetl, and exerts himself, after it has been 
hglited, in blowing or breathing, with cheeks pufEed out and lips 
pnilruded to an unneces.sary degree, because he does not imitate 
Mfiiraleli/, For it can hardly be that a cliild that has never seen 
hnw a candle can be blown out would hit ujjon the notion of 
blowing it out. Understanding and experience are not yet suf- 
ficient to make this discovery. 

I find, in general, that the movements made for imitation arc 
the more easily imitated correctly tlio less complicated they are. 
When I oin>n«<t and shut my liand alternately, merely for the 
pnrjMijui of aniusinfj the cliiM. lie suddenly began to open and 
t'hnt his rinht hand likewise in quite similar fjishion. Tlie re- 
semblance of liis movement to mine was extremely surprLi^ing in 
coniiMirison witli the awkward blowing out of the candle in the 
Iirevii>us instance. It in r)ccnsi()ni'<l by tlio greater eimplicify. 
V<-t. s<imi»le as the lK>nding of tJie finder seems, it requires, uever- 
thi'lfss, so many hurmonions inijiulses, nerve-excitoments, and 
f..ntnu-ti(ins of muscular libers, that the imitation of pimi)lo 
movfUH'iits rven can hanlly bo understood witliout taking into 
.'ufoiint tin- element of heredity, since unusual movement,'', never 
iwrfurnn-d, it may I>e, by amesturs — say, standing on the be;id — 
an- never, under any tircnnistanres. imilaled correctty at the first 
attempt, TlieojK'ning and shutting of tlie iiand is just one of 
the movements by no means unusunl, lint often perfni-mod by 
jincest' >rs. Still, it is to be notieeil that at the beginning tlie imi- 
tation proceeded verj- slowly, although ron'eotly. On tlie very 
next day it was much more rapid on the repetition of the at- 
l-mpt. and the child, surjirisfd by the novelty of the cxiierience, 
ii'iw oliwrved attentively first my hainl and then his own {Qf- 
t*<i>nth month). 

Of the numerous more comiilicated movements of the suc- 
ceeding period, the following, also, niay be mentioned, in order 
to show the rapid progress in utilizing a new retinal image for 


Tss POPCLAS saexcs nos'THir 

tb* ex«cttSion of Ki act o>m-si<vi»!ui# to it: A lbrg« ring, vhid 
I iiluvly pat on my luod and took ftv»y »tnuB, wiw M'izMl by tL( 
, ' ' ' - ' -mt by him in Um mmn way tm hi* oti-r ' ! • 

Lxt««tilli miuatfa). Bot. wlun it in n r 
lou o( a dedsiti' action of tb* mtMelM oi 

tioouf the brmtli, tJUHunM*UD fmitli--. L... .: .^. 

luAilti bufon UDH of ihieta •aocr* .ii«i, in Uiu l-um*, n in 

ly wurkiiig ctT th« ootDiuicauiJ l, 

A hib the reat mn5t l«> frmnti 

;^, a»'t any t«nB uut ori 
ilh. tuiil !rit"l ti> '-•- '■'■' 
y tlit> rifflit tn»' 
>', iiuU {rom tbut Umti wb« usvbi 

rhild nintd not, in flpite of v. 
saxwW hunti^ ■ ' •— '?■■ — 
tLe bMM »' 
blowing wii- 
^OfKOttCO U-^- :- -■— - 

After Ibv chLU lutl ttovo bow bis mother co)iib«)tl bor toDi 
biface ft glaa^ btf Ui»k a )< 
^&D OMnb umukd i>q his hw'. 
10 lialr. So, t(Xi, b« wuuld nuir&twl thi 

•"to bnuili bis h'-'' ' liU tJivw. but i.- .. ^,.. ,,... jm- *ii 

bni.4ung also tt' •( furniturv. Mon- thnn Diiri- br ai-tt 

tio'k u sbrv y n fvnifr ' 

.twbtntl bini . 1, rnxiuttilly ■ .■ ^ _ u 

lii. He aiw pot A t.-vUtu- round bia n(«k -. b« trifd to dry \ 
' .1, but with<.>ut SI wlu-rvas " " ' i| 

. iJM\\ without ' ., wu« ii 

lot vitii uini'b nkill, yrt loU-rably woll; none but v«ry 1 
Cfctod iniitJitivc acti-'- ''■■—' '^.1 rU uf tbi'iu, in llii^ 
iy, brloug to tb« ' y uf tbi> Ni'nud y« 

»Uy irajvirtiuit {tt.- 
iuft, btil'lin^ tliinpt : 
[Lindnur in tbn aixtb QioDtb) tin Lmitatinaof ruu' 
a .,, r or p«i. '• ■ ■' ' ' ■ . ' ' , 

j*ili. i uf ffTB^ 

[ihr liniiw tiM if thf 

But bow little t. 

^tM>lf then' mw, vvea in tbtn jn'riotl of 

l-or, •■ u> i 
iow, too. tbo rhiJd ItkM tu takn a pvudi, \ni\M tbo 1 
[m^r :-* ' -' [, mtikiaialt wrta of nuirknuD atiiM>t 01 
■if 1, 

Juitt oa I 


.,f t1.. 

TirB nrrTATTrB facultt of mrAyrs. iss 

Towanl thn odJ nf tlic etoconil yctit various cprcmntiiouii tuovtv 
IB*iit«, D" "0 or MtIiitJiti«it, »■*» aIm) iiiiitAleil. Thd 

dliiLd »w- . 'T I>oy liiki-s off liin hut in sahitutioa; im- 

niMliaU'ly hi) Uikun atl liU own lutul-coTorinjf and pute it on 
a^in, Iik<* tlto otlicr lK>y. 

AH th.^> niovi.iiiciita Inst enumRratftl are distingtiislied fn>m 
tho f-i it tJujy wcro exwuti-*! or attenipUvI by 

th»t--^ - - :- 'lit Iho loust iutlucumDut or urging, en- 

tirely uf hifl own tnntion. 

T! . ' A', iiu tJir oiiH luun!. liow powerful the huitrttlvo 
UDpul >ri<i-<>iti» (in (Iiu w<:oD<l year): on lli» other hand, 

huw iin|>Mrtaiil thm impulse must In) fur tho furthiT mental de- 
TelitpDinnl. For, if thti chiM at thiit agu pOBiKis tliu (^uator purt 
at Ilia time in compnuy ituitloi^tlvo to manncrft, or unmilned, 
tbtn 1 f thinff-t injurious t*i him, iinil will 

«mU} , "T liirt further developtnont. It io, 

tlwniforp. or tbo p^atoHt imjHirtauee, even at tliia early period, 
I-' it the intciro^tunw of eliiMren with strauf^'m, and to 

u- lylhiuft that mlKht oik'ii wrong iNttha U> tht> iiuit^ilivo 


Ti... :.!iit«li\Tj movptnonts of the miisclos of gpewrh. the child's 
if: • of wiuudn, xyllaliW, and words arc treated of in detail 
i: f thiM vrork. Tho Hriit answer of the infant to 

t.r nitfutd tu him by his roktivc*, which i» said to 

b* mode, io iiKlividual caoet), iia early n8 the eighth and ninth 
w '■ ■■-'-. to Sully, ltJ'<3). i« no attempt at imitation, hut 
a ■■ mommunl, liko s<Teaming after a blow, etc. 

H "ly h'H'ii Di'-nti'iuod osoueuf the earliest imi- 

Li^--, ,- ;, .:.-L.. IS. It ia trui) of tlMwe, M of ail later imilatlonn, 
that thu llrvt tniilatioD of every now movement id voluntary on 
tho purt of lh« ' id, in eam* nn involuntary iniitatioa 

Mum* Ui iiccur, t)i i' thin hiM alnvidy Ixvn ofl<-n n>i<eate<l 

a» •ocb, or it is a mcivemvnl often pra<'tU-ed withnnt imtlatioiL 
T' / .1 . :..,.. j,j(„j ,j„[„,n,|9 liithi, however, «]xiu the 

\-oe«»rehraI aotivily. On thwronlmry, 
rl if iurerior nieiiiJtl undewineut aiuong tbo«ie born dejif 

». puHWjra (lurconlinj; to Oude) a purer and more distinct 

< n than thow mort? (ntt4<(l. 

. L . _ - . I. 

A ■WMCia of Um wUndor tut* U«n prepMc*) by U. OMton AntivHn to itio 
AatnaDmlcAl fi'tivtf at FnB(<t>, lltn i>tijvi-l iif wlilcb U to bitvp Ittw ■ain* ilaj uf 

-''--. -- t ■'■■-. ' ,T nf ilii vfwlc. Ill) woalil ilivMa tlia 

irtLirtiwn w««kaoiirb— raokluc Uin« 

' ' r«# hoDl1r*4| Olltl ullt^'flfth 

I rti tkc wockl* ntid inonlhly 
lUiiyam^ ' da** tHth, 

[t>« thrpo-i I '('koiilag; 



Ilr C. nEVKZ. 
Aimoiraicm a rait nox*x OMKurAToaT at ■muuuji. 

THE litMu yHluw cnnillc-flamu, which !» gm<ltially ()iaaii])i.i| 
ing from our bouseholda to g^ve i)laoe to briUinut giw u 
elertric lights, etill plays a considcmblu jiart in tbe In' 
ivscarchcs of pbysicisls, t'huiuittty, niid nstroiioniorB. Tl. 
And in itn source of hciit ciiixiblo of mi-ltiiig mid oxtdiziiif; 
reducing the moat refractory metals. The lant oiiiploy it mi'' 
photometric unit, both to muasuro the ni06t considerahle ligliW, 
and to delcrmiiiu Iho himiuotiily of stars sn Fuinl thnt thpy < 
h.'tnily lie sivii in Iht* grunt tvliwcuitos. But thu moHt vuri 
itm] inti>n>!iting thing iihout thin littlu lliuno is tJio fitct that 
optii^nl »ttidy of it \\a» oontrilmUvl very Inrg^Oy to our IcDowIolf 
of the el*?mentary comjxjsition of thft celestiat Ixxlit^ 

Carefuily i-xftminod with the uiikwl oyo, the tlamo of u cant] 
is composed of thr«o distiuct l»yerx or onv(.-Io)M-», viz., s d 
central part, the dark cone around the wick, formed of gnM>< 
produftfl of low tcmiwrature, an<I Iiohling in m)sp4>nKi' - 
in a Btato of fine diviaion, but not yet iiicamh«cfnt ; n . 
part, Burroundiug the durk imrt, and comp'jiu'd of rjirhon rail 
to a bright inraiidLWceiiov; and a thin i>xti.<mn1 onwhipo. ru 
faintly luminous and faintly coloro«l. yeUow lowanl \\w U 
whom the carl)on is comph-toly Ininuil, iiml liliiixh towiini 
base, where the primary products of tbo dtii-omi^wilion "f tl 
matter of the cnudlu imt burning in contact with the air. 

Anuly/A-"! by the aid of tho fe]!-. ' :-.', (In> !i:i 

gives a brilliant (Uid t-onttiiuoiifl 


the appwu'anco of a ribbon exhibiting nil the colcini of tlio rat 
bow. while the exterior, faintly htniimius (ruvelopu gtvoi a 
continuous AjiiKtnim formed of thrw bright l)iaiulM — ouo yrlli: 
oue green, and oiii> blue. 

Ah only solid iiicaiidi'scent Iwdice are onpnbh' of giving n cti 
tinuou!) spectrum, we conclude that carbon in theiuilid xlale] 
ill ' ' i-nt in tho biniinouK envelojw of '' ' 
K, . iif Ihe t?xl*"rior <'iivi'l'>pi. In-in-^ .1 

clii'ie tbiU it \v oompiPMsI cnliriUy < «!^ 

The ill r;tT„.,.; ;., . , ;i,., 

and ill 111' 



biutitm (if carlioh. 




The britrlit '-nvolopo m-»rly ull iliiuiiipivrs, while the inner dark 
ctmc i -"mbiydi'V(tli)[H"l. rL-richofis \-aryhigh temperatoro, 

unit to: I H|>{H'Lrum idouticul witti thiit of tho outvr cone of 

the ori^tml tinuit^. The hriphtuesa of the npectral bauds ia aiif{- 
numted )' ini^ of Iho tt)m)>f'nititr«>, and two new luniinoua 

bnndM, ii -. ' u violvt oiiu, bLxxiuie vUible in the spectro- 
KMpo. Al tbiH niumont vre rooognin that these hands aro coni- 
|)OM«l of » writn (if rayH or bright linos, aepontiMl from one 
ttoiilbf*r by dark i<|uich\s. 

\Vliih> ]>iTfi)niii[if( the prismatic snalysis of the inner cono 
of K (:n.<i-li)cbt tlatiiu fod with pure oxygun, M. Stiis obborvLxl, with 
tbfi lUkiDc it|»>rlniK;upe, a spectrum sontsibly dilTeront im to the 
ti ■ itiitinj; tlio tmndg, acconling as the olinor- 

» .^ ' 11 the top of the imier cone, wbere the tem- 

pvnUuru in lnKix'st fuid miffioiont to keep iridiani in fusion, or 
uu th»' fiTnit or the «ido of thin innur ixtno. The pbyaiogiiomieti 
of tht-tNt Ibnt' Mjw-lm vary iM-oordiiiiBr to the 8pe<-tro«eoptt em- 
plujtwL If we iiwi n (ipii'tn>s''op« with direct vision and weuk 
divperNiitn, wi- ol)tM.>rvu it sp«M^^trum rvwuibUug that of the candle- 
lUme; hut, with an iiiiit.runiunt of more conitidemblo disjioniivo 
f. ' >iiiI«i]Aflno till ' 1^4 into brillijuit rayo, some fiiio> 

i.. Hiu), Imvitit!:- lydenrodgw. Tlie«o facte, M. 

tltM tvmarkn. iiim-parnbly connect tbo facks of the xpectrum of 

^^- ^ ■' '!■ ''*• K'"™*'"" or loss elevation of tomiwrature, and 

i> i;C itiKtriinieiit« umployol. 

AlLliouKU ihu luminoiM intonmty 'if the inner cone of the 
(tsyhydniKiin-Banie in iitiite w^iak. Mr. Pinzxi Smyth has dUcoT- 
crvdtni'm than 400 briKbt rays in thespectnU haiidnof Uiin coub; 
rbL. "~ ' in tht< ri<il, lu in the yellow, 97 in the green, 107 in 
tb» Ir :t i'l t)ii> violt-t luiuds. 

H > -'iH of the electric arc, the light of wliich 

dow I... >dly from that of the candle — for it is also 

tlw rmult of ' ■M of carbon— Ihnt tihowH us thene speotnl 

)' r, mid initint4-M n9 into the gnutcl com- 

: i-iu. Like a luminous rihlMn passing 

V fnitu mui ahado to unothsr with diminishinif briU- 
1 1 I . I. - ,- y hthI of a con.iideTObb> iiumlmrof briKht 

T-. .. [lifi|H)M^l with n woiiilerhil 8)Tnme(rj-, 

owi-rof the auidyzing iiutruiui-iit and the 

; the ploctrlr arc ; the bruuKT bright mys 

i: into fimtf ray*, and new liimiiioiui myii npix'arinff in 

I'antte t' 'M rnyB. WIiil*> t)iiiw) 

'•i(<»d rig' ai the eaiae manner in 

rthehtw show a groat Rwvmbtance in their 

mw far the rusolation into bright lim« at 

(w. jAuu. — 17 



the dpectrnl WmU of the electric arc (which are identioal wi 
thoee of the candle and the oxyhydrogun blow-pipo) mny be c: 
ried, I have published a epecimeu of the facita of the yello 
greoa, and blue bAuds, indicutiu^; the intuititity imd normal dt 
tance of tho rays ix)nnx)8ing them. It appears, from this work, 
that, for a fifth part alone of their total length, these bands sho 
respectively, 163, 1410, and ISO linos ; this would bring to aboi 
f!00 the number of lim-s (."oustitutiiig each band, aiid to ut 1 
4,000 tho number of tho linos foniiing tho five bands of llie r: 
tnim of the electric arc ; for the more intense bright lines are 
donbled again when they are obser\'cd under conditions faroi 
able to their brilliancy and dispersion. In comparing, with 1 
same spectroscope, the Bpectrum of thw electric arc and Iho sol 
spectnim, wo ob«orvc that the former spectnim displays a m 
coQRiderable number of bright rays than the solar spectrum 
dark rays. Since it is nearly certain that the spectral bands 
long to tho spectrum of carbon — for tlioy are obBer.'eii when 
electric arc shines in a vacuum, that is, when carbon nlone \» 
ignition— it fallows that the spectrum of tliiit elomont contni 
more rays than the entire solar Hi>ectnim. 

Some physicists doubted for a long time tbp irlpiiiity of tho 
spectra of carbon and the candle-flame> bwunw- there uxislvd 
Bpoctrum of cwbcm entirely different from tho banded upoctru: 
But Oil I have succvcdod in domoniitraliug, on the one hand, t 
this si«H!triim does not belong to carlion, and on the other h. 
that the spei^trum of the candle-llame waa brightly visible in tho 
ignited filament of the incandescent lamp when tlio vacnum 
as perfect as it is possible to make it, I think thero sliuuM nci 
be little doubt n?i*iK'Cting tho identity of tho two «iii'otni. Ca 
bon, being fnuitd in various combinations evorywhen.) on tli« ml 
face of the globe, should of necessity reveal its prusenou in ma 
of the bodies subjected to spectrum analysis. Eminent rhemis 
have oven fonnd traces of it iu tho nearly (lorfoct vot-uiim of ay 
pnuumatic machines. 

The absorption sjxwtrum of carlion, or that which shnuld 1 
composed of the dark lines detaching thcmsolves upon a cuoU: 
Qoualy br" trum, has not y*'t b- < * 

pftrative t.! it I hitv« luiulc of (li. ■ , i 

spectrnm of cjirbou, I have shown that most of ttio l>right m; 
forming tho carbon bands do not IT T-.' -V'! ■' ! •'- - - 
the 8ob»r Hpeutnim. I have been 

tliat tlw abHor|iticiu Kp«-otrtmi of nii-ixjit t\< U^ 

lar K[MKitrii<>< 1'"> I bnvc not boon alilo tut' iH 

olnsiun t< - tho emiwinn t<iM-ctrnnv >fl 





Uiitl th" (-right myn cnn bo rocogniaxl on tlio bright p«rl of Uio 
I- 'rum «uly by tlto tliffurt-tico of tlioir brilli«iicy. On tlio 

oi i:A, «•« htivp not rpeo^n»W"<l tlio i)r(«onci) of llio iMniiwiou 

q>Mctxuiu of corlxju nmnfift the numerous bright ray» observed 
It ■ , ' ■ ,- w,li,r «tmos]>lipro; mul this fact ROpa to 

ill :' carboii aiiiutig the t'oiiittitiii.'iit ulumtints 

n( ibe sun. Dut 8uch mi assertion cau not bo niodt) uiitti our uc- 
qQnintnncu with tbo Kubject be^iomes more coiiiplelo and clear. 

Although it is lumlly possible, in the actual state of our 
koowlodgn, to oetabliiih tlio j)n<«oiice of carbon in tlio suu, it is 
dtramoly ooity ta rMwgniz« it in the B|>octra of comet«. In ISRg, 
«h(>n tlio ounuits of Winnccko and Bi-omen appMirod. S«cclii in 
Italy, HuKionn iu England, and Wolf in Fnuicf, studying (ho 
>p«-tru (>[ tli'jM* xtam in rotipeot to thoir cumpoHition, disri'mcil 
that thii thnv briKhl biindn, yellow, green, and blue, of which 
llioy wvri' funned, could be regarded as analogous with the .tpec- 
trau of curbnn. It is ptMMible, in fact, in a gas-light ro-enfoRt-d 

by uxyg* T ii-aa of tbe flomo E« reduced and a s]fec- 

tnMoc<|>o<>: : , :nisn»ed, to obtain a spectrum exactly 

Ukn that of A comet. After these observations, Ur. Christie and 
n " iiizod till' violet luind in the »ipoctruni of the comet 

i> Dr. Young hiu found thut the groou baud, or tho 

moM bnUimnt onv in tho spc^rtrum of thin comet, is formed of 
pf- i'^-'- !)it> corn^ponditig gn<i<n lutiid of tho spectrum of tiamo. 
1 ilvof the two)t]i(KTtm in thi'TTiforo demonstrated. 

'so sHfljMK-tivl, if uol definiliOy rec- 
Pi;: , . ' lin strtrs, tho orange or red (;<iIor 

of wbli:h indiriiiiii a lemiiomtapo of relatively inferior elevation. 
Tll« fpecrtrn of thcNu stnni consist of several dark bondii, aufier- 
fMi^rd npon a lontinuoiis hri(;ht spwlrnm, which present u great 
• cf iipixvi and (lONition with the luminous bauds of tho 

fl|.- . . I.... iif carbon in ajmotn. illuminating gas, and the candle- 
llam<\ W» bavo thwi, here, tho abw^rption siiectmm of carlion. 
Tbe - ■ iiuiilyiiii* " ' rao tbtis permits hh to dii»* 

r»jvfr -ivl metbi , of one of the most impor- 

L <if our glolift In luminous bodies, whothor cclusttal 

ri: "'' ' ' r their dbttance. even though it bo BO great 

1- uwuids of yc.-ir'i In coming to us. — Trana- 

Uttwi/itr Uf thqinlar Science Monlhty from Ckl tt Tifirrc 

Hmxi* j^fiiimnr iiMMfillD(llr. Juam Viimj'* Ti*wa r*Aantin)c llin fomfttion 
<irh«Ti :U, Mr. J. I.. WUnalon would n>f(anl m tlm prbHixil igvat 

»]it tli« wiliitlnD tBd wmIiIox out of iicaA ooriil 

\Bnm p«rt nt ili« r««r o( fi^xl, all nuoridimciK 

lla vt tiio outer nwf ftwn Him «at«T iMfun K 




O* Pa. 


THE indtioiico which Luui« Agsasix had in tho dbvuIo]iiu<'D' 
of Amerieaii science is to ho e»tiniated not hy his ]>abliii]i 
worki!, Imt l>y tbe enthuHiasm he instilled into all who c&mn u 
d«r his instruction. In the years from ISfil to 180J there were 
gntburt.-<i ut Cumhndge as hU pupils eight men, each of yrho. 
has luftde a nomo for himsolf iu science. Thcso eight Mccro Ali 
audor Agasniz, Alplieiii* Hyatt, Edwuni Sylv<-!iti-r Moi-v<', Aljdio 
Spring Packiinl, Frederick Wani Putnam, SitniiK-l H ttlj)>arii Houd- 
der, Nathaniel Suuthgat« Shaler, and Addison Emory Verrill. 

Alphbus Spring Packard, the subjoct of tlie present sketc 
\» one of the four sons of thu veuoratetl Prof. Packard n-tio 
over sixty yearn vtxA connuotcd with the faculty of Bowdotn 
lega He was bom at Brunswick, Me., Fcljruary I'J, J839, and 
Uia age of eighteen entered tlie college where his father was 
I)rofc«sor. Wliile a utudent he evin(x<<] a marked predil<vli< 
for natural hi^ttory, a lc>ndency which was fo8t4>rud luid entyiu 
aged by the late Dr. Paul A. Chadboumc, who nt that tiimi w 
o professor in both Williams and Bnwdoin Colleges. At Wi 
ianiH there was a flnurjehing students' Rociety, the Lyceum 
Xatural History, which at this time hod sent out several scim 
tific i<xpi<dition», and in the summer of IfiiSO they laid their \t\n\ 
for another, the objective t>t>i"ti> of which were Labrador 
Or««nhui<l. Wlioii the exjieilition set flail from Thl>nm^t 
young Packard jo)iie<] it and wi-ut as far ns Lalim<lur, ■>■ 
epeikt fifty dayn colleclinR near Caril>oti IftlMud. The othrm we: 
loOreenland, and on their return took him and his collootE 
hnck to the States in time for him !■> iH^gin tlie studies of hi 
iM'nif>r year. Tliese, however, wore not without int- : i, T 

before graduation ho Iwl u i>arty of claiwniates on » < 
oollecting expedition to tlie Bay of Fundy. 

At commencement in 18C1 Bnwdoin gave him iiiw l-i' 
decree, and then the tield was o|i«>nt'd to him to follow 1 
tific bent, In the K|>ring uf that year the Legislature of 
lijul nuthorix«d a ttcientifio survey of tlie State, and Mr. P, 
received llie appointment of «nt«mnlogl«t on thft porpiw lo 
ipiH'ily he ac' -il a jwiity who -. 

the Penohr- tlicu .[own tliP -\ 

Hivert) lu far oh Wuo<l»itock. With the n 





friuuty im iJio urwy-unrni, wiiivh a' 
<*r/ili)e dnin.'ii.v t'. rtTi-iinilti'cuI ml 


with othom by Uh^ iituiio author, wrs published iu tlio first report 
of Uip Kurvcy. 

Mr. I'lU-'kartl hiul aow fully <l«>cid<.><] to dovoto liinutolf to xo- 
oltvy. uitl, in ordrr to widen Inn vipws nud iucreuso liitt knuwl- 
*"' "■ itliridgi* to stii'iy with Agaosii!. Hpre for 

11 J liiniBfU til piitomuloKy and mailo tnicli 

pn*Kn-'fifl ttiitt during tlio liulur purt of the timv hv hvld tbc poui- 
ticin nf smixtnut. Uv lAi<l n brotui fuuiidutiun for bis future 
Ntudin in «>nton)iilo^, and in r, pnpcr jAiblished in I8C3, under the 
tltlo " Synthetic Typ^-s in IiibccIb," h** introduwJ now viwwe into 
tbo cUuKtlioition nf tbfsu form». From tlml duto to thu prf».>iit 
Uma Dot a y<.><ir bits piiwicd without numvrou)* articles from his 
poo. n '^^t of which would occupy more spsco thnn cim Iw 

dovol- . 1 Hkotcli. 

At thi* Hnuit' tini" tliiit ht> was Htuilyin^ zix'Ioffy bo was reu'l- 
ii)(( ut<dirin(t nnd altcndinK betun-s during tliv wiutur t«rni ttt 
Utn mcdicut tM:liool mnitccttHl with bi» Alma Mitttir, whi'n) in 
1^ i^wxl llip niti'SHrtry 4-xnuiinationM iind rw-'oiw-Kl liis doc- 

t<>: ^I'v. in the HunituL'r of thv; i<)iino yitir \w set sail H^m 
for LAbnwlor, thui timo in company with the marine artist Brod- 
f-' ' " " ' nijittirialit for a mt-nioir of the K^)1(>K>' and natural 
L: .t then little-known ri'^ion. On his former trip ho 

h>i 1 ■■ I .^'l only Uic i»outhfni portion of tht' cooBt. Tbii! timo 
h*' u'lii jut far north on HojMslalc, droilginj; at favumblu htciUi- 
tiiw alnuit tba Khoru. nml everywhere i>aying nttontiou to the 
^ '■■■'■: lo till' fiirnier traces of };lacial action. 

: iri]» wi-re not, bowerer, to be immwluitely 
worktid up, for cm hu return to Brunswick be enlistiKl for thrvo 
y<«r« an n ' t HurgMtn In the First Regiment of Maine Vete- 

raa Voliin ;i'I marched awny lo ji»in Ibo Array of tht' Pottf- 

mac. Willie m Virf;intit llie M-iontitir luiHHiun nilifl Htri'tit;. and 
innny lui inw^t fidl a vict im to the colUvting*bottle. Fortunately, 
iMfon? the three ycom for which he enlisted were over, the wiir 
t 1. and Hr. PiM-lcard was miistend out iu July, IRCfi. 

a; 'y ""d itiiilieid exi«Tii'nee of ten months. 

Hi) nnw rulunied to Bostou, and for u while actnl as librarian 
nr ' - ■ • ': -. at ibe Boston Society of Natural Hitstory. at the 
^ .kiiii]' np llie rCMulUi of bis Lulirndor ex]iloration)i, 

»> iu» a memoir by the B<ii'lon S<xiety of Niit- 

u . ; ...tud whii'hMill remain the tdiicf wmrce of 

u' r<" of the fauna and Keobijry of that retiion. Tlio 

«' ' " "mrt duration, for at f ' " 

t! ■ , wa» diKpluying gii . - 

1' ntl liiaiory, lutd u>-gotialion» were in prog' 

r -.,..1..... i:._,r^„ p,.,ilxidy, litokttifc toward 

w. ' County, Tli<«)' pbui^ rapidly 



look euoli 8}tai>o ttiat the IiMtituto thcmglit it adviMblo to 
creoiie its scieutific force, and so in li^tl it calltyl tuSittom tour 
Uio students mentioned in the oiK-niiiKl' ' '" ' 

naiu, Mori^v, uud Uyiitt — us curut<jnt of 

Tlit!-'«<> ]>Imi8, howovcr, took n liifFcrLmt turn Irova Uiui - Ij 

by aomf, and tli6 result was an iii(li'pt>n<k>iit iiiHtitutiuu, in. 
body Araidemy of Sciencp. with an i-iidowintmt of 9I10,INH). Tin 
Imttitutii (uraed ovur iU c:idU>ctiunii lo thu new coironitiKn, luid 
with tliuiu wi'ut the fourcuriitore. Tbvy rfluim;d their connc 
tloDs with tlio Academy for varying Ivngtlia of time. Pruf. Hyuf 
WM tlte fint to lonvo, »* hu wun olTiTod tli*> \- 
of the Boston Society of Nuluntl Hi>it<ji-y. 1 
and went to Bowdoiu College as Profe^oor of /^i>ii<>f;y. H^l 
Putnam, in ISJfi, was apiKiint(.-d Curator of Uiu Pt-nbody MuMuut 
of Archaxtlogy aud Ethnology at Cj>uilindgi>, another imitilulioi 
which owe<l its cxiftuucc to lliv libiTJility of Mr. !'■ I>( 

Packard retaim^d hia cotinectiim with thp PealK«]y ■. li 

Science until 18T8, when he reitiguvd to accept thit i 
of Zoology and Qeoluf^ in Bruwa UuiTcreity, u |ii>niti><u wmu^ 
hv holds to tho prosimt tinio. 

Thi'»o twtdvo yoam at Snloin wore proliilo in work, only 

i«mull frucUon of which can l>e uoticod. roisibly ('■ -t, 

portant service <lone Atncriuan Mrienoa was thu four. 

'* American Nuturalist." a iM>iHilar umgorju- 

by MvRtnt. Pucltanf, Morse, Hyatt, and Piili ■ 

thiit journjil Dr. Packard wat> conuM'lvd, a part uf thti 

soIp editor, fdr Iwi-nty years, only stivering I * , - : - 

it in thu beginning of tlm year 1887. It in 

matfl the value of [)r. PiUiknnl's editorial lnlH>i-H, uud il 

tainly safe tu aay that if we consider this point alunn no or 

done more t'l shape Amoricaa zoljlocical sciimon tlinti bo. 

Packard. howi'viT, did other work. 

irons in the llr<-. Eiituniolngy was 

ing the lock of any manual for studentt in thin depur 

Hcience, he pul)liHhL>d in ]8ii!> the first odition uf his wc 

" Qiiidi? to the Study of Insofta," u v"liimit whW-h In iht 

without a rivnl. It niity be wiid. p(n 

ard is now eugngeil in couipbftely n ^ . tl 

may aib^quately represent ibo outumoh'^ if lJir< 

out time. T ' . , ,' 

ous i«y»l»'iii. ; . 

which wnM aa account of the devniupmo&t of that tv- 

thiibor— ' -1- 

"Xii' exploration wan 


IImI K»y Wiwt unci tKo Tortugiw for thn purpoeo of studying a 
tm)iiiik] niKritto fnunii, un<l from which he brought bock livgo 
colIiwiionM of nmririf* ijivvrtebrnUfu to swell Uie museum of tho 
Pmbody A<-U(lt<my of Soicnc'd. Ou kia roturn he stopped for a 
whib* at I' N. C, hiiicu luatlo xo colubruli"! a» a, zoological 

(.-ofiK-r b)' <>ra of Dr. Brouk>t ntiil his KltuluiitM, but which 

at that timu vroM itcjm'ely knowu. The next vinter another 
Suuibtini trip vriui taken — this time Ui Charleston, S. C, where 
tanui wivikn w««n< K[K)nt in the study of marine embryology, the 
mtiltH of whii-b lu-e still ulmoat untin-ly iu maiiuscripU 

Aj li wisll kuowi), u hu-go proportion of tho niiimnU lUid 
pUoU of thtf United States wore first ^cieotiiioally described 
in Earr>p»i from Hihiimcus «*-nt from here there by early coi- 
luctoni. Till' i«iH-iiiiiciiH « hivh form tho basin of thttw diwcrip- 
tiottH C typ™ " tlwy ar» called) aru scnipnlouely preserved iii 
(h« muKoiimM, and it oftuii bccomoo noccstary for the naturalist 
lufviiiHttlL tbiiui toiuici'rUiin oxiK^tly what sjieciis sumo prBvioua 
»: id iH'furi.' liim when be wrote tho duiwriplion which t8 

til ; . :. ! iirnl Ui idnnlify thu siwc-iea. So Dr. Pm^kurd found it 
oiMxvMnry to vinit Eurc>iM>, Iu 187:j, to sou for himwlf the iitacctti 
dMcrihnd by 1^ '' " i 1 .m onUmiologistfl, Bod the result of 
th<^ trip was • ■■'^y* in thn DKmm of maoy of our 

1 1 anrl niollto, fi>;onliog to thu ruk^ of zoOlofncal no- 

II ", tlift llrNt name npplttsl to a species is tho name that 

II 1. All (ho chiiiigcH which prove so vexatious to thu bo- 

Ifuuinr, tuid fi'r wliiih ii \v not always easy to see the rf-nson, aro 
bat itftpM tnwanl pcrmaiionce. By lind by each species will be 
kuowQ by th»> naDin first givnn it. and then thure will be no moro 
of tlul Inuing from jiillnr to post. 

Daring th»» ymn* ln:i-lKr:( Dr. Packard hold tho jKisitton of 
Statr Erii 1 it of MiuWfU'hnsi'tts, and leeturtil at )x>th the 

UaiiM) aixl .'>■>•:-.•• liiiMillM Agricultural Collogos ujiou thu subject 
of fetmomlti (■ntomulfigy ; but us lh««« |>oi>itions were vory oco- 
aomlcally nuiQAgi'<l by the ^' nd wi^re ofTio's of honor 

rsthcr tlian protit, they iroro i „ 'i tbv laLtor year. In 1671 
Mid lifli hu had written a Hmnll book in connoctioa with Prof. 



" itniniiJs found in tint Mamnuiih Cavt^.and then 

u for that int^'nwt in the origin and effects of 

■*uim to come to fruition in an vxtonsive mem- 

j. ■ L. Asanwultof this luxik he witH appointii) 

!ii 1H74. on thf> Kvntui-ky Utvilouicnl Survey, tlten 

Prof, Sbider, ami 

; ■ Kentufky wivoa. 

ira ho held the portilionof aAsiHtnnt zotjiogist 

' ' ' -' -;il jvnd 0*^>graphic;d Survi-y of Iho 

■4 i'ruf. F. V. liitydi'ii, and iu tJiat 



cftpwiity visited WTcniI of the Vfoeltmx TwrriloriiMi, and jiuhHBbr 
a iavg^ qtinrto tiiomoir on tl)o family of j^eomotriil iiuttlifl. faniitiii 
exaniplra of which are thoee forms the larvw of which ure km>v 
AS canker-wormii. 

Th« your 18T3 witnossod the OBtablishmciit of thy A ii(It<r.<ioii 
School of Nutuml HiHtory on the illy uilupk'ii iittnnJ of Pciiil 
uid here for two 8umnii»rs (tho wholo period of the uxiKteB 
llie BcliiMiI) Dr. Pftckard pave tliP I '<■■' thn urljcn 

Wht'U the Penikese «siK;rimont w, 1, (hi' iili-a 

tnimmor iKitilogic-ul Ktation whoi-o Htutlctiut ctruM oimc for ilii 
summor aud puwuu a otmrso of study wab taken up hy tht< Pn* 
iKxly AcmiL'iny of Stiont-o, which for fivo yi'm-u mitlntniniHl xnul 
A itchoid. linring tho iirv% thro" ywirs of the 

Salem school (isro-'Ts) Ur. Packard was at iu li - 1. „ „ . 

ures, assisting in demonstrations, and in tiV(<ry way trying 
mako it n suoL-em. 

The yoi»rH from 1S73 to I&7G will long hv romimi1>erod 
iuhabitanls west of the MJHMiftriippi, from tin* turrilili* del 
tioDS of tlie KiK.'ky Mountain loonnl, or Knuashoppxr. lu it i»\ 
fomiliarly known. Over etiormoim tracts of fuiinlry ova 
gi'COu wiM (k*voiin«l hy (hose inst^'t piitlfi, and an onor 
nmonnt of ttulTerinj; wan oanxud )>y the dcmtniftinn of tho 
of the farmers. Indeed, so serioua wore tho ravnfieii that Coc 
gross was implored to cn.'ato a cont ' ' ' * 

^ts to tieck imme way to check tin 
ravage*. Congrces pft«.*«<l the desired i>iU, oiid tlie 
the Interior appointed, oa the Unitwl State« Gntomoto^c 
mission, Prof, C. V. Riley, Prof. Cyrus Thoiniw, ami Dr.j 
Packard. If th" logi« i>r ;"W h/r, rT<r> jmi;' 
hotter ap (loin tine ntB coniil havn l»e<'n umor 
tlioRo [wrKunH began Uieir duties Uie locust trcmliloa waraj 
materi.tlly diniiiiiHho<l. The thiHw memtxTtiof the pob 
diviJisl Uii' field Iwtwwtn them, and Dr. Pnckanl inn'U 
trips to till' TiTritories tu study thit extent of ll. 
and to ascertain thotr hreediiiff- grounds. One ol 
him t*) California, On^n, ftn<I WaHhiniflou Territory, 
been Niiil, till' Ii«-tiKt invii- ■ 
oouiniiiwioiiers were apiwiir 
pouts ill otlicr part* of the country, and so ( ' 
scojw of tlie commi ■ ' 'i ' ' ' 

theehinrh-l'UK. 111. . 

tho dunitiiiii iif lht> t':(iHlr<Mi-i* nl Ui» iNinnl tn livi 
commiKsion liavit ptiblintied thrwi I'l.'.n .1 r..i».i-i„ 
Voltimt-H. filled with. informatiDn 


In 1NT8 Dr. Pudcurd rw'olvwl tlio ttiipointmvnt (>f Profotmor of 
KoAluRv iimi ({I'oluyy in B^o^v^l L'liivfrsity, lil Pn>vi<iernt'. R. I., 
ft piMiLiiiti wliii'h bu holclfl at the pretviit tim«. Here, besideti his 
duLliw an tnirhnr, ha liaa foand time tn coniliict various itivo^ti- 
fpttinuK. (MMiilits writing three lext-bwiks uf zoCAof^y, all of which 
huri! nu't with lui Axtviuiive salL>. In lliu ispriti)^ of \!iJi& ht» found 
Unto U> luko lui «xt«iuiTO trip through tliu Bouthorn St«t«8 oAd 
Unxlcu. " (loiit^ " the Inttor cotiiitrj' in a maiinpr not common 
■inev tho ooni]>l«tiuu uf the MexicAit Centi-itl Hiiilway, Ho cut 
looM from tln> nIi'Hiu-li'inic iiud tniHtod hiuisulf Ut tlit- old-fiiah- 
IcmumI diliKriii'o, tmvvliug thuB acroiw tho couutry iu it tuoro Kn- 
lumly uiauner, luid spoiiij; fur moro nf it and uf its inhiil)it«ut« 
tbnu ran Im M-un by thi> orditury esouraionist from Iho window 
of a mitwiiVH-ar. 

In IWl? Dr. Parknrd vae marriwl to Elliuil»iah Durhy, tho 
dsaxhtur (if thu Utn Samuul B. Wnlcott, of tialuiu, Mu«s. Uo 
has four rhililrcii. 

Si' itliim in the lifoof Priif. Packiir.!. Of his writin(r« 

we li ' I Itiii litllv, rliivtly from iimbilily U) cIiooho from 

Ihtir aiimUtr, That tht>ir morit han hoi<n nt'ogitliMM by sciun- 
Ufic mi'u imhIiiiwu by tin* numlH^ni of sooit-titfi which hove con- 
ftfTX'i tlx' 'lixliiicliiiii of hoiiontry meuiherslilp upon him. A 
( ' I'^nipliyof liiH writinpiliiui rrx-t-ntly bi-viiiin-iiartHl; 

h... i.;.:iiui Uj Llii<«M!uln<wly mcntioia-d in tho pn'ML-iil urtick", 

Wn nuty t.'nil nttontioD to a fvw of tho mor« proniiiiunt wurktu 
Ir ix-rlivply ho [iiibliMliwi " Our Common In- 

»■ 1 i-H witli lni«v:la," two ]iopulnr works on en- 

t' In the latter yonr Iw also puliliithi-d " Lif^ liiatorini 

t<t AiiiijuiLi," whii-li WM thf first conip''n'liuni of all thi- known 
factM in iliK il»v>'Io|)ini>Nt of the animnl kingdom, a work which 
ha«, '■ Ib'cii l(irK"ly nuin'rHi'iiiil by tin- nmri' t-xtcupivo 

T.I w- Eiiibryol.jKy"of th«;lnr4^ Prof. F. M. Bjiifour. In 

] -iinil htH monoKraph of thv " Phyllopoil Crustuccn," an 

if A fiinnll Kroiipof suiinnlH which n-m-h thoir Kr<'»t<'*it 
■i;"nt la Auiiriiii. Fortuvoral y^nn hi> rontribut.-d the 
1 iiuKw to th(- M-irntiflo iloportmrnl* of '• Unrin'r'it Now 

\| ,.;• ,„„i (tf tiio •< New York 1 iidoiK-ndwit," Of 

liitH havi' takon n turn in tin* lini< of tho philo«- 
r Ihou in Mint uf llio iU>Nori|>tioii of Hjiociw 
' nf aiHx-imt'nit. Ho 18 now mon> intonwtcd 
m anil growth nf antinal», and tUn prittcipliM which 
anoiTiK' nil ir diBlribution in ii]ia*.-><, Ihiin in tfan dvlailsof mu- 
•VOID work. 

V- . Dr. pAckunl it a very pliiwini nnd otitiTtaining 

^ ■' "■■' I'lul iimon^ hirttfoo"! quiilitii-n ix tin' int«<n>!!t 

h iwany ]ir>iliUitiuii toward ituimitific work. 




I Tbceo he U iilwa>-8 rondjr to assist uud uncuuriigo tu iliu cxttiot uS 

IlU utility. Ax will Iw tmn from tho forcsotu^ iikt'tchi ha lb niJ 

I iti(]vfftiitf»lilu workiT, uihI, U\ (ho l)riof mi ' ' i'! ' r1 

givon aljrtve, Kjuico will naly nllnw it few oIIj j 

[ discuverips he has made uqcI thn thenrien hu hiui julvaaccd in tbd 

L viin'iiis tines of z^Kiloj^col an<] g4xi1ofp<-u1 ros<>arch. I 

I ' 'When Agassiz camo to this country, ho brought vitli Lim dob 

only lit) iiitt-n'St in iojjlogionl finbji-cti". ' OiiiJ 

siitem which made his iiniiiv famous in cm iMin 

I Qf glaciers. He pointed out the existenc? of lucul j^lacitnn in thfl 

IWhite Mountains, hut Dr. Pwkard traa.'*! oij^ ' "' i :'■ i r-1 

rbeforo tlio i'xU<nt of this I<x'al i-y>jtvni, fxllu. . j 

i(W fn>m Mntint WiMhitigton mid iho u<lj»a>nt )M-4Lka ijown thai 

1 valle>'» of wcsleni Maine. Tliis work un ^luciorfi wna 8till furJ 

ther elaborated in his large moilioir on Lal^riulor, innntiomd 

1 above, and h^d (o other 8]>eca1atious uf a zuT'IugicHl mtlittr fMfl 

I of a ])Urvly {;i-olu);icaI vhuruc-tttr. ^H 

Thrao wore that the uxiuting insoct fnttna of at Icniit thci Ni^H 

CAKUTn United StAtcs had its origin fmm o, circuuijKilnr Tert^H 

fauuA. The fnolR for this com'Ia8iiin ■vrc in |)nrl lln> fullow^H 

Oswald Heer and Dr. Asa Gray hail -vii Uiat ft? 

plants of the same region hml Ihusui .„ ,.::.. ii niarv 

[iif Orwiilond containing many goncru which are charn> 
of the ■ ; * Xow, I ■ 

is them i -:>twr*'ii i ■ 

iuscct« und the plants on which they fitnl, and tbn habi 
tuany insit'lA can only l>e aroounted for upon wimii hucIi m 
sition. Fur tht'S«> in dutall the ittiidoiit shnulil M-4'k Dr. Pack 
"Monogra|di of the Gi^^mctrid Muthn." hut wi- vmi muntinr 
kinstam^. Certain butt3rfties and moths are known tonhiy 
[from the colder regions. Thuy aro found in Labnulur and fn 
fther t\>r. " ■' Hit in the TJii ' ■' *' 

' widely i aionnUtin-r . , 

rn<Io, Thi'He, il is assuniod, niuM liave livt-fi ni'nr Die i^ige n 
great continnntal ice>Hhet>t of glacial timi-s, and must lin 
1 currud in nil the )nt4.>rvi-ning exttmt of country. An the i. 
trealod and tho ii-rritory l' 
the lorvii« fi-d rmild only fiii' : 
|«iice on tluiHt high mountain-n>gionii on 
han-f .' r ■ , |„r. TW- 

'ivi'M iIh 111 h Dr. 

rnphii-Jit 1'- .: ' 

i'ltunl. who HflvaufHi 



tiranty Vfinm Ago— Dr. Krnopotiti has dnoo worked oror tho sub- 
y rftuift of the bet's .'m>l wiui()s in an ofgnii cunipnecd 

ill ._. iiibii, and in lo l»u it-iiurJM tut hotuolu^^us with tlie 

orgnnji wliich, Ln other iiutwU, am dovotcd itolely to roproductive 
fti *' 'V iMjtDtit Iw ciirriixl oiil ho that ho could Irace 

.- . , Im one iu th<' pliysioloffiailly very different or- 

■ui of tilt- ollirr. 

Thu hut iiT till) etudies vrhicU vo cuu allude to are those of 
tliB diii-rtut'iuvnt of Limtdits. Dr. Lockvrood, thu fir«t to study 
11 tit tho sitiiilarity of thv young horsosboo 

IT. . and this Dr. I'lickard elaboratf<(J in hig 

mcira vxU>niiiVft [utper. His Btudiw iu tluti <linfctiou lod bim to 
i^ntto tho utict-otry of tlio kiiig-<*mh, and tio now has ia 
an oxt<«niilvo nn'moir on tho foiwil kiiig-crahs, in which tho 
Mhjwt will rocvtvu ittill furthtT trii:itmi'ul, and will, no douljl, 
preccnt many m>w viuws \tain.ii upon tho study of extensive suit«s 
of iqjccimww. 

L;- thin "f Dr. Piirkiin! nrfi of ititeTBst, not only in 

lit lut inhlunci-H of ln-ruiHly, Dr. Packunl's father 
auiunof innrk, IU uvory ^mdnato of Bowdoin will tvHtify; 
' -' L-nlfathi-r Pft«:k»nl — a Iti>vtdutioiiary iuddir-r — wa« 
» I niid a tutor in [larv.trd C'olU'go. His niatornal 

((rafi'i ilid Rttv. Dr. Apijluton, formerly FroBident of 

BuwUl ... .. r, . With Kucli nti aiici:«try. i^ it to bo wondorod 
that threw of thf* Mnv iiliould rlso to oininuooo as colloKo pruf« 
on, whilo thti fourth iihoald Iwcomu n promiuout pbyidciiin ? 



IS K wtr* fJi*nrxd Ibit 8&d«r oar 
9«lMi of BUfaraiDMit tatmant ot 

biarHl L'-. V.m nhiitt pmtilf, pMrtkn- 

1 'Mwrn tlivlr 

tu.' .. viiit/u, WuTdnjil 

v- r -i friiQi Ibo I>«s- 

Uttart Una ciicM'im of pitnly looul 
*• tnr tliAt tb» MtkiR of 
' np tu tliB pfuvrni tn tb* mot* 
b« of lalvriKilonal oopirlflii m\Ai h* 
Aa>l ai • •Uilciai; roar In |viIiil i'lir 

(UI.ii n^r» r-a.[ ij.ii iMliVln^J nilfl ill 

Ui r U lU llf 

•fifc* 'U IM- 

oexltr, both u a mallor nf Batloool 
»9it-n*peel mi alw m <iii« rltoJIr nf- 
(Mtiog iwr inlotl«ctiial growth, cf Ihu 
oBactniaiit of nn liitpniall»iiAl roji^- 
riglit kw. 0<>ii|[rM«, bovcvtrr, hi Iu 
M»i for " ajiproiTlattctii " m>i1 for iwrtf 
ar»t«e7, MW Doililn^ tn thU ileiDiinil 
la oaairaeDil It to My B|<Mital oltmttoiu 
On Uio eontrtrjr, tho qawHon ralMd ww 
not ono t]i«t tMowd to oamo at oU <*ltb- 
Ift Iba rancv of pnetlcol polltlra. flni) 
tli« jmtaottn rvi>trwiiU«d oag part; In 
tito ti&ln. aoil hail tboy brad abla to 
Juiw tit»t Umj ifuro ononlonl f'»r *f- 
fodlra patij' wnKare. llioy wo<ilcl tiaro 
K*)t a roifiwlfal kforlnK *t JHWt from 
Um lUo ibof Kip[Mci«il. llulDOi tlicjr 


bdoDged U> bolb pNrti«(^ and KUBit uf 
tbem jMThtp* bod Um •niatAij to b»- 
long to neither, and in generKl tliej 
warn not cootqiioiiou in the coneai or 
CUDOai for ibcir kaowlwljrt <i( rop*t 
Mid wim. Tl)a7 w«re duipl/ Anuri- 
ou flStlMD^ vmiaaal f«r AmaUt tad 
KbUltf, plMdlDj; 1 onuM in wblcb not 
ttao; aloao biit tli» wbola poofilo wer« 
oonoerBMl. nail in wtiioU, mi far m (liej 
tbsBwclTM w«ni p«rMSa% hUsroMd, 
tbe7 bad a um m alroDji u JoaliM tod 
«oaui>oa avoM ooHid make It. Ail tbia 
ftrailvd Imt litlla tu oodiuw tbs Iti- 
(IISurMiu of Ciiogreaa to a pmiKallivn 
tbiu couki not b« riprMwd In tvrtBi of 

TWa Kaa a IUiIb mure tbau initif- 
f<nnc« in it, lKtw»T«r. Tli« propod- 
tlon wat tbat Dot coanliy nboald eaaao 
to afiprapriNtv wii limit emupeoMtiuo 
the literary eikmU <A fiireiKiirr*, |iar- 
tknlarljr of tli* DriUtb: an>l tliU il'xl 
Hot full in vltb tboM euBihtoratlono uf 
«i]>«ll«iKV wlihth aro an llkelj to inflo' 
«noe tb« atUuda nf oar )»ffb1aton to- 
ward tnara) iiamUanik fluv vonlil tiro 
niirtauBtaUTv axetiM bliiiaclf to bia 
ootulltucata for niaking aartbtng door 
in tbo laiarfM mrrvl/ of abitnioC Jua- 
lica and of ilia biiilier tiilcllMtaal ita- 
trinprneat of Um ooiuitr; lU Inrpit 
It woa al4» tb« case tbat omatn or- 
gnslK^ liiteroila w«ra amif od apJntt 
Um prlDni|i(c of lotiirnaiional roi>]r- 
rigbt. Thcro wa* av Utile opfiiwltloa 
to It ittionj |iitblitli«T\ pHotara, rfr- 
reotjiian, ooBniTcra. cU^, who tlKiuylit 
lltojr law In It Hiu tlirwU of a aari- 
ou dlminuUon (if biialoMS. It b no 
Wdcxlar, tbtrrrfuro, Ihiii CooirrMiabmiM 
liava p«l tlia Matli-r ulT from ^ror tu 
3<!0t\ Man onl; wonder, lo'iccd, l» 
that tbiNta wlio ballaatd la tbu {iiriu* 
d[il« Uidul-l bncM bad tbu ctiurasa to 
fa uQ and slniold itoir bj dint nf |ia- 
tiaat t>t!rtl<i«cii<« b« In a p'^Itlon Ia 
tirMdbt tn Con<rr*> a tfnmsiir ra^o 
tlian a*sr— uni' ilini «iin unlj bn. 

, alftota, wit tba halaora ' ' 
ibo bl^Mt Ufa of tlio v 

I A* tli« auit«r ktaiHi* ru.v.. iii«ru 
subaUiBttall; lial mm ujilnlm atn4ia 
pubEUhara ud oatbon tn ro^ard to i 
<wp7r%t>t iiMUloa. TUoonaid 
of jntt1c4 III fori'Isn auilinta rvnu 
'if cuctne, a* Wrore, M-iitirr KlroaH 
nor WMtfr; bol rarnfal rrllonlno ! 
led Ibv (^rcsl aiiO<^'/ of i1i«m lal> 
aatltd Ui llfo puLUiblni; tmda to ana llti 
in tlii* enan. jiuaica to tlio (nn:l| 
titcnaa advoataga to lliaaoMU^ 

"' tbal wuold (■<■ .' ■'•'ttut 

■•■iT] tirixJarlUia liiUi 

of nifijrijtfat 111 Anwrlrao aUUi< 
furelfin «orl:« would ailmlttiMll)' 
rory invat; and, aa tlir autlmr l-bh 
uc4liiBj[ witboot iha priDtiir and 
Uaber, tlicae vudd ska re tli« baM 
wiUi bliu. Tbcr* ara UII* noar U-fo 
balb binuca of GociKroia— ilm Uou| 
t'Ul Ma^ a ropy nf ' 
iotu tbu Nanato \iy A 
KUudu I>l.ind— p' 
t«n*i'in of copTrl^: 
altera an ooodltlun tbot tbo ' 
wblcb lli« iFflollrfa ia auoplil 
liabad iBniUtaxiooiMlf In tlia 
BtaUi anil In tlio riMBlij of 
Proof of fuMicntlon wtll ba tb^ 

uf 1*0 rri[.lr<i <it 111* ImhI An 

adilion i<f il;n ixirk In itio olBiwI 
Llbrarii ■■■■m. t'pooi 

inftotc^. < a furaJfu W'i| 

IiBpdrtatloa uf all foritl^n irJIt 
Uia work 1b i|Tieailan, aara wi 
duoai-itl of tliu boldar <if tha cwp 
ii bioTillrtinl. TiMMrara 
pro' >■■"*)* 1^ llba luaatwra, I 

nntiiN><'iiil til 
irf Cunt"'"'* n . 
Rio*t uUrJttiuB, n- 
twtb UiiiiK-* lia> 
vbarga r<ji<inai], ' 
Till;*, ia Tai "' 



tlia Cn)i 



UaHail SuiM m Ui<t uto (OaDlry dalm- 
1 10 Im etrillMd wkldi ilteregaMa ibe 
nrti'iarr ri«(iU of foraign wtlidn. 
' lumllni ud biprovlng th« 

C-: .... Milve BuUxinltlp. 8. A« tli« 
rantl vf tli« Iwu irroomUng bMHIU, 
' af tJiv lonnl ukI iiit«lI«oiiul tun* 
I BT l»M of Um wIkiIo pMfiW. Wo 
nil n ruttrtli tianeflt, the phw- 
' " wboU |iql>IUliuiK trad« of 
I mmmXij on « MMOilcr FuullDg. 
Tho Pbpular Mrncc MoBthl/ lion, 
tr>m III* tint, |>l»ooil fLtelf on tba rigdt 
••>i« of ibU <)u««(lua b^ coanlviiinilj 
mxiUui-llDc 'w t^« priDi:i|iI« iirtiitvriu- 
I eopjrrlirlit, awl tfcat witboiiil sajr 
T«a*rvM In rcfcarJ to magulDe 
i> ancn* moiiition of CongTMi 
Pk^ < ipMMHl tu maku, bik] «mL m 

It miftu tw ni|)paMd w U to tba tai«i^ 
Mt of ■ |i«rkMlle«l r*i>rlBtbi« mora or 
1^ trtm fr>r«lgn mrarori miftbc ba 
lko«ffhl to furor. Our lotaral lo tlia 
vtJMot, DirrufurH. U boI Mw-bom, but 
la iMralj tk« niciUDiutloa of thit v« 
t»** both M\ mkI vipmMKl wbdMvor 
Ui» i^urrtlixn liai lii>ra imnaliiMitlj b*> 

fiMii lliv |>al>liiL In aUliportlaiK tbp Ull 

»>w lidbr* Ooo^rtn, »• ilunot wbh to 
b« nodafaUKHl m elalmlnit UmI It b ■ 
pvfMt BMUNN. or that it raa/ not, alt- 
rr lunu) vipdriuBi-u vf Ita wurklnjt, bo 
f.iit&JtatMMjMitamlniriiL Allttutoui 
talrtr ba wUil nf a imw Inw U ihat It 
^••aM •fflrtn a aouud prlani|>tii, and 
■ HJa Uia awut tor cvrjing 

l> i4a bita mora or loaa offtoilvc 

ima mMarimr oiiowiloii. TI.U, Ikiw- 
mttr. m»j U daUnaa fur Uia Cojtf ri«bt 
BUI— UmI U la bu h(Ja or ooraor raoiw- 
•m. BO iirndiMit at mUtb raanl.tnaiiaiM 
■•iiiM lU iwml tiil««t, but ibot aU 
It dam at la for tbir [^tbile ymid. 

jurramw amkoio. 

i< Uiooib pnmnnt* 
1- '■■. OMiHMwbo tn 

•■a«7 pMOto oorapMl innnnMia fTO«nl 
«lih tht ci-n itrMrWiw^ lip hiJ t|,,t 
•ipaiii rll uul Dmt nxuLiiil 

'*■"'" --^ out CMDM* nblcb ora p 

otnoBir tbo best «l>«nul«rifitlci of tbo 
wiantUlo toraper. Ilo tia<l turaml aride 
•i compietoly from catMUophWin in 
linniftn liistorjr a* Rio<I«ni RoolofttMa 
liare dono la rt^nn! to tba phj-iiMl 
bUtorjr of tli« fftobo, or luodero bioh>- 
giata ia ngwd to tbo 4or«lopii>«iit of 
Ufo. Uo oiBjr at tinxo bnvo KMTed 
rubor faaclhil ibcorioa of lilt own, but 
be WB* alwBjra wIlliBt; to briajc Uieia to 
the- teats of fa«taBil logic TboBsh aot 
lui^klnir hi salf-eoDlldeac*, ho was far 
fhiRi being ilonmatlc, onJ Iw laTnriBbl;r 
trcaiod vpiionvniB aot aol/ wiib n- 
■Iioot, lint wltli BOtaiiiug ktndlinMB. 
Uo had, i>«rbap«, aa [BvIoqnNlB apjwo- 
ciatioa of Uio Talu« uf certain liaoa of 
■dontUo LnvcMigstioe. and, enn^tm^ 
I7, b« mar tiivo fomiod an «xacBVTBl«d 
satltuaU of ibo voluo of ibu Uterar; ola- 
in«iit in education : bat ovory man mnat 
bs aUowoil, as tbo Fren«h *ov, lo |iroach 
bla own aalnt ; at>J Uatll>«w Arnold'a 
prMoblQR bad alwajB aodiothliig la- 
atriKtlre In li. ^'o tnan, H b almoit 
a««dtttM to sa/, eoold wrilo ii»oro IiiImv 
Mllngly tbaa U; and ihia was doubt- 
Ina bKBUBB, nritfa bU flae plftis bo look 
life tajQvAj, and appllnl hia mind ear- 
BBStlr to some of fu greatert proUont. 
AUuwtoir for all dsdcMiidps aad for a 
faw lBa&norialn^ bo was a aoand anil 
trlml«BonM tbinkvr, and a woful tnan 
IB bla uraorntiiin. Tboro can b« no 
dnplil tJiat, in tiia own way, ho powor- 
M\y aidod Uio great ackntilla novo- 
Diont of tho Bffo. No mind Uiat f«ll oa- 
dor Mallhov AraoM'a iQlliimoo ronld 
■>• eloaed pgainiit tdiiatiar ociaroplloai, 
or nould to nay avrioua cili-nt undcr- 
valao tbo work of •riotipn ; and tDB»r 
mint bavo owed to bia tivorliMia pen 
iMr flnl roalliatloB of Ihu nu-iil to 
whiob modmi Hioocbt hail la«ad«d 
BDd dlamaalled tlw foriroH** of aacUat 
prcjBdloo. By bis pnciry, loo, h« sup- 
oBedod, perhapi wlllvuut Intcwllair U, 
In abowhtg tlial mudum iboogtit la aot 
di'BtlcaU of til* inulort Un U-aaly, and 
tbat It I<«d4 lUrlf ta an ><*|i>c1bI man- 
oi-r to tbo doUiMnikia of tba bsauty of 
rlKbioviMMB. Wb ar« Dot suro tW 




taxj pcwt uf our tltiM liM qioken w dl- 
rMitly tQ til* eaBMtcDCM of ibo mora 
enll^iMiMl ponlcQ of lib cunUnipo- 
nrie* M Mauli«v Arnold. If, m Iho 
ICoRiu pMl liM Mill, " tlivfo us t«u« 
in tiiinx*," m> «!•» nro (tiero deep oad 
gniro AiluoDlilhin*, etnmt (ilv^dinci, 
vnr n vuice fur Uimo who will li(«r, 
aalliog 10 man tii wiilk is Uiit li][!il sad 
fmIIu tb« liliiH «f Rionl frooilom. Ur. 
Arnold till* mndo liiin»elf tliviDlvrpnitM' 
to Bi of tli« mill of thiug*, and Uila la 
wbat gfvM hi* jioctrf Its MknovMced 
wvigbl and valoe d««pite 111 aoiaavliat 
rtatrlcWd Imtglnatlre raage. To rvud 
it b to eoDimnna vrilh Ktlur*, not Mlth 
huiiun fttttbuTiijr. Curl;!* tiillti of lliu 
"ctvr&ltlw" ud '• iBinMQaltlcft." Ur. 
Araold doca not Ulk of then, bu be 
bflDga vi into tbeir preMDo»~ 

■• Tha worM Out *M tfn I na ban, 
TIm valid Ili4t liMi vlwu 1 m i^d.** 

In tiia " Cinptidorka oo Fine," «rltt*n 
Ix^ore lie waa thirty frara of ai^ Ur. 
AnoM iDo/ ba iaIJ to Imre akvlobcd 
a icleniUlo |ibDiMo|>lir of llta^ We are 
l«i&pl«d to (piote a renc or two : 

" to T>ln oar |>ea* allla ftM, 
A>d miulil tba vmIi) lubdua. 
CiniilHko all «« dn ; 
Omi Inla lUk •« ■», a»d lift bmM bo nut 

" Bom liita Ufa t— man (i«*a 
rnrtb fraip Ma paieiiti' rtMK, 
Aiwl btenik Uietr btood^ aa tfctM 
Of Ihcbi ara bint In than ; 
So aacfa naw man lUlIie* root Into a Air to*- 

" Tha werhl'a wkm pioraa Uh wniia 
On vhkb man «iiw«MitaMc 
Bn*m the fuoorcnninn*— 
Va •(■ura it, aail taiTanl 
A fkbaeoatia n>rth> a^irU andfcraonalvaa 

"lairi r*arMl l.lftctlt] 

Lmtm biiniMi (Am - 

X\m. rfiiw It* *twBa ■ I ' 

Tlia wiirld baa loit In Itr. AmtiM 
niBD eicT loToI to tba ciuaa of trut 
and evsr iabiruUr-! '!' '' - -■--■ ■■' i^J 
tiuiiU;. Viv ma) 

t«in|itvd to npirti ■iiiii 111 J. i| 

ofedeolincdbclidine; bui , t- 

enil ret^i^w of hia ciirt-ur wu 
: iwUeU to reeu^siw Iillo aa as 
' an ailvcranr;, and aa me wlio, ^ 
I CBiixe lid cultlvnud n fipedal fi«14^ 
own by oivtJiodt of bia OKU. wEH 
MBlly ba rejiUoed. All Ilia inorc, Ibn 
mnat <ra valne, aa alnimibla at |ir 
tli« s|)Irit tliol becaihea Uima 
w(>rk« n»d tbo InHoenoe bvqna 
fail cbofaetcr. 


Thi RcLKuori SamnBRB oanu Dca 
liian. By D*mu. Qaanu.u' 
WW, anllMr of ■■ A SyaUan «I V*j 

S" •'Hw Pralilmi of »riV m. 
I aad Sim Yotki LangBMnaf Or 

*Cas ista. 

In Ibe (olaDio licfM* ua, Ur. TluHar 
bai ontcrtd «pan a tnliful ilnld of ' 
and diawiaitoa one, mamnvr, •lUdi 
qokaa peal taM anil ibllnrf U Ita oali 
Uan II tba auilwir OMiU acnira ilia 
ItieUeaad rtapMlful ailimllgaol bia i 
In llila rea|Nci Ur. Tbiiint«io baa 
Doubl; auuraaifaL Itii iraaiOMvt «t 
icqiio la daln, Uaaytnte, |>l>lhw)(ilik»l, I 
trmn btaa, appaaUaf la rwaua raiW- 1 
la theolugtaal w aMl-dM«Aaclaal |u*]nilla 
Vbllo Ilia diacKMloa of tba rill|ta«a pM| 
Ifm It (Mlral; frank, tnaalf, a*d aiurmwt 
tlaiid, it Li ■!*• duly aoniUan' 
(i>nc-v<'"n* okkli ba la raw^ 
ni'illt uij o\'ff. fcaaa of Ua auuclMk 
■ 111, nn-MtMni, pnibabi; autiiriaa i 
aail; |li<>aq «h« aM eoBMrraUira adJbcn 
nf tin CluifUan Mtb, batt ala 
ban aoraptod aCMatbrar i 

Our aotW dtttwi trtl.iii 
pr*fala of Umim h 
mind arlaki^ t" •' ' 
of V >■ 

utehabv yoTWKS. 


« Kitnr- " •n-1 Uw " tupenwUinl.'* 
i!- ' "'d" U caiuBsalj under- 

»'- iij ilw *UUi ualmM 

ul k«, iwupkil |j]r •ibtirar; Intel tlgonCN 
wUdi «m; dt*M«J IdIu Uw siUural nnWr, 
tml tDlmn)ii lu M(|«eMc, •Uhcr l«« goad 
«r for UL M r. Tliuaqitan'ii ** fuptrnAlw^l," 
«« di* casmrj, U «I«mI/ naltli«r mort nor 
•m* Una lU |iUlo»aplil(«l " uiikn<n»U« " 
— 4h* •IUmMb mjtbrrj Iftiift Miiiid pb*- 
MMWa, lb* OTilf |h*ulbta kiio<ir)»>%« of 
«U«k li • n(S*dt« •pfnbMulon. 

W* nl|[U fUMtloa mIm wbrfbtr ilib 
4diMiM U NfllaiMUr btUdrt. llow, 
for • Hr.TltiMptM oonMitwtl; 
m4(b • wllgl— ohunoUr ta peddTlm, 
«UA Indi Ita ob)«M of «M^lp wboti; 
«HU« <fc« uUir*) •»)•* (rf ibc vorid ; or 
M Dr. AUait'* " MbMHo tbtUm," vklrti 
mJnH not unl; lk« pi)iukr notion of iIm 
nvwaalantl. bat kbo tlia BpfowrtMi " ua- 
ta awJi l n," bMlag lU aonlilp upon lli« 
baaMc* *r M bitoltoly nIuIomI ud 
ifcwIi W j law— M» utiknn»y Ur.Tlwnp- 
tm, MMd. anwrrallf tMoenlM* pcaltlr- 
te M " Iha nOflon oT mcUI ImnortalU 
tf," utordBt ibu " Uw 4o((riiM of dtllr 
AwuMMIalljr blM«lnc to llilt unrtcm 
Bf MMTI* «umil>dji pMllialMk." CtmI*- 
hH, bavavwr. nfmily r*|M4laiM til «<» 
■k InplUatlini* In Iho i>h\ivt et lu wor. 
«p-iu UmJ Am bctag Muptj atgule 
bMHiK]'. Bn« pMUhalMn, m Umtlgd to 
A> n<M^ 4am vat \mf\j mptnaXanX- 
Im Kailior. m ta ib* sDidH •! OvMIm, U 

• Witf ■•• tta Od wta ■« iMMfa W ■•« 

4*«> >Mln. mi •**<■ O* ««U m« 

of the ftrfunwni. Aa tltU W bMn IrMtH 
In ulfnto In ifce luthor'i " 9ytttta at Tuf- 
oboloej,** li don not tail for (pvcul «lud- 
dntlon hnni. Tlirou;;liovt lite, b« nigUM, 
the 90 p«r(«l?«a llnl ll» nriMl; to MOC^ 

miUf Umhed. Ihjooi Um Unit lh« ton- 
•dooMNM podu n Mwoatal vbkh to imI, 
jrM latomfirchonriblo. tinu •lUt* Ibi tdn 
«( tbc tDp«nMtiir«l (nnkDOvUilf). To ifct 
quMlloM wb/ T wbcnoG t and whltbN t 
libMt ll missmU, we Ma finJ no idoiinnM 
•olutloo. Ailcmpilng l« mako iho Rip«r< 
ntliiml tbe obJcM ot thouf^ht, »c lUul IbM 
wc can onl)r do m bf wcriblng (o tt llio U> 
titbiite* ot Kttore. TIm*, m farm rm- 
bollMl DOtioo* oj k whkli TUj »l(h ebaai^ 
tng oondltios) of iMtttal deiiciopaunt. Uo 
>rbe uUhf«)Min>o(phb conofplku of rn- 
pFrtutnnl bda^ blew of btarcn «nd btti, 
111* •■•■incd eonacoltMi of ■upcnwUnl la- 
lolUgoMM vUh mlnntl phtnwnft, oie. 
ni* bellDf In Ntperantutol Inl w foww bw 
dMM (ear, lmp«b •onli^, mhI InBtwwi 

mi HatH >■ M> tann kaiUi.- 


i«ail tunr, llut "a 1 . 1. 

U •MuBlfOMl tof »U kanolnlgo 
f^B* «bo aof^l Ui iHj- 
itiifap •in Aw l uli wmM 10 ihU HMc- 
MBt. A ptaaf? ddbldoo nt rrilgion, 
V, M «naU «|>p*iar to ih^ riwuld bd 
I towwrm lU iiUloMifdUMl tbib 

fhru t 11.. t n i"fi. l^'ln.. .M.I IMl.H'fla 
■ 13 

B«lut-' ux 

n***'"^-— ' '•• > - (--iwtafbal Ittifa 

Onranllwr ranb poljibtiim nborc 1 
Mli«tMt M u bMMtive to tiil«)lMtul tai 
Md>l progi«iw. Tbe bUtor to nutocrtUfi 
•ml Mbrerti tbo Indlildun] JudgncBl. The 
fonMC, ntiilMntlc In lu nniuM, «cl»iitotca 
ibiM((bt Md CMOutaipM lltPTMurc and an. 
ChftaiUnli]', xlih lu Tdnii* isd tncolio 
liknit«hr, he r«f[u<U u a t^l;iboi«l)« niih> 
KT IWn • moDoibtbik lalili. l*ioiliclm to 
democtkilo, aad Utan (he fn« de*«(o|^ 
m-nt of Iho liulttUual toMon. BMwMii 
Hmw dUferont <one(f«bM of Uie Mpw- 
utunL imh funbibM oocriiMtea of todg. 
MMiL We MB aHlfBi of ndthn of them 
BMftliiaS utoro Ikui lu pnnhaWllt;. 

la the dwricr nn - Tim Oontlneltjr of 
reewnalHy," Ur. TboraiMoti tn;uce from 
•cientlAr anil pajtbeki^Ml Mtlogtoa fn fa< 
Tor nf a fniura life AdmlUbix Dwl Ibe 
*i>li]uct la bcwt Btih dIBcultIca, he tncVnet 
to llie ojilninn that ' the graiMd tor the it- 
fcritea of fo d mortim penooal Mlt-«oa- 
erfquwiMi b Mentit; with anteinorba tdf- 
oonadouanni la finaer than iIm oonitaiy b» 
UitL" a futun Htm la,dha aoriaJ rUUsmi, 
•ad Urn hnwthialt of tfae wpaniiaa of tW 
pMd tram the eril, with (ho AmJ red*nM> 
tk« <>t the Ulirr, ttma minnetito. Our 
author fuixlthm no IlitoflM nf fab own 
oamvn^H the RMlln «r kmilloa nt 
•ii|wnialuitl wiirVl, tu ran lU {" ButiQwil 




8«ntiin»U In BtUUon U> PoHIng and Co*- 
diiot") b« nNn;»iw« (hs Iralief In k fuwro 
lit) u hTMti^ |t%li iU«l emU, «yi« dU- 
balhf 4c p rMi n lb* mcnul onvi^iM, ami 
foMDH mUM talDjniMius at tlie ipwe of 
•OcU a«I*lllr«. lie MoilBUiBa Uinilu^il 
cfguilBlknu abli^li Ntidtlktt Ibnir (ellun- 
•Up on tlw MOfpUacn ol (tkiIi, knil uum- 
mcnd* th* (onMluiklm of Uiv Vtm HaUgMUS 
AModMiea u tiM Ik*i plufcnn for a k- 
ligknu orgMtlaalkoi. " An MlhtUo wonUp 
golded I7 tnitb " b, bo tUnlu, a b coofa M 
tbolraiawi not. 

Tho floal <baptcni <n '• Tbo BduMUon 
of Ibo RciBglaiw SeBUwont** Imvo aliMtdf 
appearei. In iiibiUiwe, In " Tbo Popalor 
EciMco Uooiblr." Tbo;r praaut aliwig an 
guiBciUa fof nDparUun odMllllo InaUnolloii 
in tbo lilMorjof wUi;leao. uul the «ooipto(« 
•Nuluintiwi of our |iiibU« iqliuoU •« Ui« 
(aireu and noM prMleatir* ntana of pn- 
»Brvi»^ (Mr faih^ijr aad UMtalnMH Tb« 
book, 0* a vbok, oUmuUiw tluMghl awl 
liuldi Uw alUcUoa at the peaJiv. la om- 
nteilon >tib •' A ij;*l«ro ot Fijdioli^ " 
aad " Tho VnMaa «f KtU," It >MUnM m 
In nnklne U« aatker aiMngwir alilul pUI- 
oa^bloal tlilalien. 

Tni Cotimwo-oi-i ItvTvi* or CKiuacm 
Tiftia Amtiuvitt, Omniv, 1x0 Wtna 
Diffntaoncoi, A t^iwl; iii Fi-lk-Lora. 
hj UmnT CjaniMnnii lli>i,Tn)i. Uiit- 
*« a»] Ntw Yoih : 1), AiK-luloo li Co. 
int. Bvum flT«t Pp. iU-123. Ptfco, 


In till* lumibomi'lr-f-riniod Tolvmn Ibo 
author baa oollMicd a laryv nunlMr of lbi> 
Mtlon* du|qpr«U luwil bf chUclm In couiiv 
In^-out tor Ibf p«rpa«o ol dfvnclnlaft "he 
ohall be {f la (KvUtn fuuM. noilotallatU 
«aaianM aa imoiloed In KkU Uriiala aod 
AnoriO), anJ glroa uianf aumptca. «Ndi *^- 

" Oa nw in Iwn^nall *it ir a J MB, 

Kobull itarcar, a>lh '•■ tia t 
lUnn tqafam, vtrfla «m<uh, 
ZBMaai, Maaan, lia* r 

Tbo author tbm ilio** Uiai HilMnn ' 
dvUlmt aiht wvotHfUlsnl taom hai> 
lar |>i>i": "ivat ilii|^ni|« aiili 

mniDon < ilni aiaaipbmai* i^tr 

in tomij lantTMCM, ImMIbk ' 

|l, Anbfc, ftrtWt. I'"'- 
all iW 


Buibon Marif efna hwulml, of wkkh 
abo« toiu bunilml nA amiiij.ftn am to 
Ei^llah. nil wUo dUMbMlM eltbi pM. 
ma ol emuUbiit-oal, aa4 tlia (act ibM la 
all laogaaeta orrtaln fcatana oX \h* 
eorcl* an wmianw, jHiinl to (nrot anllipl 
(or lb* aialon, •blidi, lb» aullior nlali 
oti^naUd In Uio aufi^nnlUou* pntslc* uf 
di*loa<le« \ty 1m— tutUlvVK Tlila tIm ta 
ba«M oat hy aiau; aa« l <i Kl » Utaom as- 
dent meibod* ol dMnaikc aiul ibo «ifai> 
big cblldm'i gtaat^ Om fkapiw mala 
ot oonJimUew, uordnna, aad diai 
rent la oaH/ UmM ; aawbir 
q a u a H ea abatfaar Umm rb^wo* are 
froM Im\a pc«;r«r», and |«u>t* nai 
trkordiaar]' HUraty fraial p«rptral 
IMO hj John IMIaaJar Kor. Iik 
tbaplcr the amfaor aluiw* Uiat, la a 
«iteni, the ehoBBM la En^lib 
inlMBced b]rgeagr*phlmltn*l: 
a ffw InUanoca lb« eiacl data at 
fim dog^rtl aaa eompoaod MB h* 
latned l^iia botl caloiiHg. n* 
lutaw K B ef Oennaa bunlgiitiM In 
ka U maniicM In vna Uwm 
rlirmo, naajt of ahkfc an nf Owinu 
^ ; for ctanplo— 


tkn, iiwt, *m, ta*k. 

nU ua dwgow a inal maar tartatl 
brief cbafiwr fTlaic* lo lb* Anf l»Ofan 
Sam, aftd ibo atcMd pan «f 1 
ulna elfdit biiadrvt aitd 
■bynaa iCKnipad and^ > i-" 
tim BMerla) for tt.i 

vj 0OflTa| WWin tttCa4 '^ 

of thtf rii;aMat«li< 

lMta»M hj the Inli' 

A blUhiKrapIiT of ' 

000 tMturo of ibe V 

10 appear ob ilia i' 

the eaCaUliboimi of iii-; t-ti:. 

mm Falli-LnTA, Tb* lolinaa ' 



ff|-f(f Ot Ht*: [UTX at IWCBtKoHIS- 

ixt*<M< >'i >ki:'ii iTiiii). u<B Qwnii, 

U> - ' uiT, M. D. H#« 

Yn-i. * Tp, 411 

Tn HfUwr'a poquiM la pnrfwlng thia 

Iwj ban to urit* 0>» oOUial ulupUM 

f • *uliU bul* Im- tlitt DOiuoietalaK >ad 

lOciillmi nf dlMaw i U> whvm MidM 

n» iliat BM* c<iiitrtl<<ita lo Ihat 

It m4 10 All «lt«ntki« lu Iho tnipro- 

pllWbi trUul In lli« vi'a*"") «n<7*i»malla 

■rr J . «lth • ik«* UMdirdng iha 

I of nt(-nh. Tlw teak !■, la tlNn. of- 
m"* pla> fur Ibg ninro i^iiiMtMilo 
01^ of <Ui>Mi», ami a* m MlftdHal pro- 
I ^diMl ihrir ailnlaR nonuiKkiwn aad 
, •Hh Iba bopa ilwt iliia fi9- 
•111 baooMa nmvial as«ag UaAera 
ndMta, abo itMia Iha MocMjly of 
lb* EDOillllan tJ omUilna, «ilb- 
ma ondMrlaklaK W ilntmr iu laliria In 
w4f M laooaittwl Iti bnt rninr la ned- 
14, alBfiltfj, aaal ltii|)tvt# ll bj grMlwllj 
^^^^^i■l^[ OMI Wraa for (haaa wtileb 
hara ftar iMi aa yw l oorrad UaM." Whlla 
k t* aa*; in ateurb an axiiiliiareln) impat- 
IMaa M uwra W ^ ll li avldau that a 
pMbi^Uaal waaaalatun, bawd npoa Iha 
NmI tad MvnaliMil prlaalptta «r Iha id- 
■« u vUah It b ui ba appliail, la a paat 
aU IN Iba wJmUniUaf; ef that itoimt and 
M larwrilag lu adnnca. But tba pia» 
rinl dUauk]) arina la wnrj acianor, and 
, thai uaiiiea bata l« ba 
Utocv It U iMwribla coh 
■■■Ir ■■ ^aiiiilaa tlw prtodplah la lU* 
1^ whlab 1« OMnMabla, vulMa «« w«alil 
I vkhmil ■Qdii, aa Biul 
at tba M— llaa !■ aaww ih> 
I aad tha wuBBolag namri 
«f •hM> Dr. Ooalar a«af■Ua^ a*d «hWb 
iKMBbMlhbdtai to MNtaci. Ua rang- 
itoi Uia oaloiB of ilu r*it, aad, oUla aiiK* 
t^ m laJ a fwnir aaj %pf\j U. doaa Mi 
•awbadi tba lB|MiriaMa at mtll»§ pradaBl' 
^ <9^ iW ■aUvr. TbanfoM ha a*ri 1 
'(kMamutMi b pnlaMVObjr abcB ap. 
|4W M aMnla thai Imn aMad iba Iral 
■f fMi^aBil an MlU adJodcMl toad uh4 
T^A* ikn^JitthfWfwl lanaa alddi 
MiuH b« ital- 
ic.. ~;, i,..i li... ^..iiLiMaof ml*- 
•tpnMMaa^ Itt ha tnand k lb» Ul. 
af wdidw^ ihRld »■ aiMMUIr 
of a^daf I— llol mailiaa 
aok sxaoL— ■• 

aad dloUoMrfM, aad tbdr plaoM OlliJ 
wlih wtU^botm mnI phUdofclMUr mrtact 
vwik" Tnio lo iIm aplrii thus aiUblUd, 
ba doaf nM M muA *U|tiD*M a nc ac* of 
MOM, allhouf^ that {wlal b noi ttrar* 
l«»k«d, a( ha diawnaia tba lalndptca an 
ithlA tbeolaiMflcathMcf AMMcaaod ibclr 
ncmiatlitfe abouM ba baaei. VUh Uia 
iIUb—Im an wifeadied rerieir* o( the rari- 
oqa ajNmii of olanlBMIIsa IbM ban beta 
taUodotitd t« tba pnfcaakin I7 Ua nael 
«inlMal nprtaratatiTn «f all agn, (raoi 
nippemUn down U Bmo*. The Bnnl mu- 
duMoo b rpacbfi thai mnj »ytMm of n»- 
aograpUr, le ba ot uUliljr 10 theaa aban It 
eonocnu, ibavld be Iba muh «f iho cnib 
)oiM laban of the nedloal pnidwkM of ftll 
tba dvIUud nathuuL 

nnoKT or m Cownmnatn nr Rnccinoii 
roans YunlSOD-'M. K.U. U.Oiw. 
aox, CtantnlMiaDer. WaaUnoiua 1 Ud- 
reaa of KJiaaaUan. Ff^SI-I-I*!. 

Tim rtpoH ha* boM prepared bjr N. B. 
IL Dawwn, who >■• appolMad aoiniBlHkata 
aoea attar tbe doaa of tba jmt aUdi It 
oovcra. 1hiiiia««onDiMaiurdat«*inlBa<l, 
aftc* ibaaomplailaa af tho rrpon tor IHH- 
ti, oUcb waa Mill la banil, to coacaHni* 
tba ««rk of bl( force apon Iba iirrparstion 
•f tbc pnaoM Tolima, ao tbu IliU aiul t*- 
twv leporla nlgbl ap^mr iiiont pnmtflif 
Uwn pnrioaa bnioa haTa, Tlia mull has 
beta thai, wfaUe tba prrcwillnjt Toluaw >•!■ 
iliMribulad IwealylvoiuaMbi attar Ihneiul 
•I the jrar whtrh It ooier*, Iha laport for 
IHHB-*M baa nol ba««i a« hns del*5«4 
bj thr«u inuolba. IU* b a oamwan^aMa 
(dMURa, [aa mamf nt m* Oereninwnl 1^ 
pott* tne BMcb of tbair Taluo by il«b]r la 
paapafinf and pablbhb* Ibtai. Ur. Db«- 
«0B haa atoo rnbad the plan of the nf>««a, 
villi a Tie* ef fartber fauUiUtiaff pMnpl 
pt«f«nlka and tarij priailng of tlia dooa- 
mane. The nature of tbeebanea I* " lo anU 
npoiMlona, to earit mlMpottant lleni; lo 
MMottdaia nIaiBl bnt hllbarte ac|Nnud 
{aoU, and t* nslia th« iiaMnrfon of NatbH- 
oal (vuSUoD* wirb the tabular aUtaninnu 
whervlo ihej a{>|Mnr.' Tlie ippoidloea ooa- 
lain ibe naaal lUU'ili* ihn nndllnl lu 
form. AnK«>dli I doab tritb Rui* Khool 
l7*Mani. Ila eUlbUotl tahira at* fullowad 
tqr a rimml «t tb* Kcneral tvoiJIdoa 0/ inib' 
Ua acboob hi the aareral ttain and Tani- 



ImImv ilnvii ehittj trom Uia |»1iu*(l m- 
poru «l tW Hiptrinicndaau tharmf, u4 li 
MDOluiIca villi •» Abauad «f Ik* pabtlu- 
wtiool U«i of «mIi StAte aiiil TiirrltiH7. jk 
UUr kppendbt oanUios tlu report of llio 
Genonl Aj^u of Ednmka to Alukk for ilio 
rnr 18S»-'tf7. AiMagtb*«>iti)MtaM«likti 
titt oonmbalanet directa Uh*lk«i iro Ui« 
pntpoM tod cooditioa of •mondary Iac1n» 
liga, tbc oeol b> pfi»f«Miaii«I vMdMU at • 
pratioa* libenl coufw of MBd^, and 111* 
Ttlne of (NMiul tndofaig in U* '■''■■■n"t m 
tbc mJAd- 

Tm Anxicjji auwwur. Tot. 1. Ko. i. 

JuuMn. IMS. ylanoualii. HoulUy. 

l>ik«, |> • jw. 

Tin gMl(clM« u( Anorlca ki« to b» tos- 
gnndatad thai tbcir liraiuli of aclniM na« 
liu Ut vptoUlioarMl in lUa cosutrr. TliU 
UMfUlMk U U MnouBMd, alll bo ilavoinl 
to swlosjr lu Ui «lilut mwcl » )| all! in. 
Unit, Uwiwtoi*, within tlie KOp« of iu 4i» 
mnIou u4 ooMHbiMkttt M tb« nieiiM* 
(ku an kfaidm), and ibM «anl>ihuUi I17 
Ibtlr Mon (pccikl larenlfulaa*, t« tb* r«i>- 
mU Klmcc ot cfokfj. It ■til hone* wrTa 
u 4 mtSam «( ialalHgMwo to Um «■»■ 
llKi«]ih«r, tlte p(tiv,(nplM*, 11m pdtoatoki- 
gUt, Ike miner^agiM, tk* bMll IwUnK Uia 
oliMUtepA, ilM ehnalM. Uwpti;nldH, Uw 
MbnolneM, tlw (tMallit, the wtkrapoto- 
glai, ud Ihi MU«BMMr, la all ihoa* dliw- 
!!«■> whcrr ihrir •|K<eln) Innallfuloaa hoar 
UtrtaOj vi>aii lh« couMUtlka aad hluoiyot 
Itnctolin-" Vtc ■■ (IralDRlM " •ill alM maku 
k (fwvltl elTail to bM tkr iMcihcr ofscvl- 
0|t7, both bj auiB^tiaii naUndi of !•■ 
altimloM, «Md br (wiUahlng new faoUand 
llbMlTUkMu, II will uiK* eD-oiwralloa and 
Mlpalauloa awons R*ila«l<t>, aiul olU aim 
to tiratorro wJ tiiomu* that gfaiBrsI intor^ 
OM in KNloRkMl adanur ohkk tnnKint both 
|iritab> anil oaliuaal IbwIIkoMoiw. pf 
ediMcs and jiraprUMn <r« I'fi>r. B<uiu> 
CUitn. IVrf. W»afUW ' ' '■■ '■ 
■ItarVtawT. I'rol. UR. II. 
Dt. A.WIuiibal!,«na IVt. >. U \v 
The lb«t BuiBliBr mnialBa alt aliOTt ■ 
'do on tlip Ltkd 
1 'in* ant aim do. 
i|iuuk-iH)itiv», awl Ttf f>n>n*al 

Ihal Um " Orakflat " oarta out oil It ■ trmt%^,, 

ohM (odlonat a^ieel— on' 

vditun rcridlait owl ot 1 1 

»( ilic *li Iwdy artMa* la Ibu nunb 

da the lutciustLiail Con|pw*, 1 

aojtUns b«l Wtalern fat^iltoaa Tlia I 

let fsMim, u IcMt, *boulJ U> I 

(alarr MBibaia. 

Tac UaTEVina or *Ma Rukm. Hit J. 1 
titnLoaiiTni, r. U.S. lAddmiaad: 
T»k:)Ua^llaaJiOo^ !>. HO. 
|-«|wr, ed (Uitk 

In thli llulo Tolune lh« author hai | 
anitad aKMenl tIm> «4 that jMrt 1 
007 ralalhiglo the plana! on wblilil 
Tb« fiiit chapter de*'" -i'Kf^-.k.ui.i 
MnmnDurar meami 
U followtd bj' a rfa^•t• 
of time. The ratatioa ot lln vaitk, 1 
cartli'* rcTolutioa, nail iba Mndllfea* nf) 
revoliMlfin, ara auonwiralr dnMHh*4, 
Um cloafais ahaptar la ibrolcd ht Midi 
Mlt« at tvCatlna and ratobrtion a« tiia 
cnriODof dair aadnlitlu and of Uia 1 
iminilnn aad nuulian, ate. Tb« aljla j| 
tha booh ii tltwr and fn>|<iikT, thq<f(k < 
aut apodal aCort la bu *Dte*ulidR|^ 
a'ltlwa iMondi U fodn* tlila rulaui* 
olhcM, lUallng itllh uUivt cttmllal LwUm, 

7Mm> ADCi.Tttjktioa AWa na 1 

Juai r. Itiniainiu, Ph. U^ 
K(« Voik and Lumtua: K. 
Kpnn. i> »t». rnoa, taMl 

Tna pBlillv ku it t"i>M par 

nM daalan li' I'tt* 

anwaa It more tkMi; thaa 
and It la cktitng upMi bil l In 
1*1*. phfaldiM, and Iba in-i 
Ib tht<> artMa* far | 
Miinitllh: biiiialrt4* Mwidd 
■ n Utt niatt'- -' ■'- 
If (ba frc- 
'"I \n Xm a li«n"'"'ifj 
i-tl a»l niuM apiifond 
1 ■dMtanoT' 
trUaka trt ' 


.1 linivl iobImUIi 

•«i..-.- - 

literahy xotwes. 


cwUp liw ttUioiWDp*, of Bilk, ti«l«r, ■ml 
Mter fiat, Mardia, i^iIm*, aitd oiganlmM 
tMul In *al«r ; tbo «1tb pUtM npflMM- 
laf tM bdJ othtr laarM Mid tbo emiMr*» 
ttoii of Uw po4Ml«B0pa. TbU »«ik will 
lla*a ft iftlM U JUMftan •imIjM* «ier all 
pmliHM trMki «u rMd^talMmte Is Uio 
■wprut af Mm onum In Dut (onklrjr, 
•Ml Iwww 0TlaK MM •ilMlkn 10 Uio 
•MtWIkM WMl pneUiwd ktta. Tba 
UlMt naaUa UUload li]r Mr Kotkaal and 
fkato BMnbW Ibatlh la tti^ 10 W|)U». 
<!■<*■ I it toot u* »imi lna*rtod. IW ap- 
p^illt funpriw • UbBi^ntpfc; of Uie mU- 
jiM. ■tUi iIm rull Ivtt of iha Mott iaipor> 
teM U», a»l a nunaatr; if niliort, raoanllj 
WMotoil (■ Ibli omiUT for tb* pfcrmtlon 
i(bNl-aiklta«Ilna. Tliu UM)nn|;lHi(iM auJ 
«N «llh «Udk Um wl'jwl I* pnaroMl. !» 
pMbn villi th« tiluabU cliaraowr of Iba 
ittMiniliw*. ud iba lidtifnl iMWrii In- 
I In tba artxwIU, naba Uw book well 
twr ihi moitt 4«fMBd«aM of ifco 
JairiHi I ml unljl 

A 1BMTMB 00 7%t Arta/ htfUmg, bj 

m AW T'trt Orafav tlppUun, Tt oMU«}k 
I* vltat MOOT ponpb >(II Iw Rla4 to htxi^ 
ThM llliW Imofc (lirto ikt obonoo for proHt 
Bad tbo rttka oooawcud otih (}o««raiDPnt 
tai muttdp^i oUfijMtoM, ntlmoil and Mh- 
ar ■niba. MortXP^M, wam-norlt* Ioom and 
aoaaririta, villi hiMJi a> in ilia labor, and 
— aW Baay ln>d<Uir> krvor Uiloh of— 
ohaa M a>lL Ttinrr I* a (hoplCT na apoeu- 
IMIa& vhkb tmniAm nan; aid alMai; 
■MMM obji Iho I— yw^oBoaJ thoaU lal 
ibM bm» of laiMlim olooo. An apf>»- 

Al WBlalM Ikt* of MMirlllM, liawcitbod 
tmm (ha t««ba of oar pilndpol tufcaaiM, 
Aovln^ *b«D aafJi MTKriti U jiijabb «m1 
IM OMiiai bovod. 

A dmtlpllM of Tkt l-Mtory nHo.f 
kM bwo pahHiWI bjr /^> KM Retndtn/ 
itboMihor, XooVofk. iHloUMtonoof 
a boada^i^ obiiNitoady OlaMraUd roan, 
fbli^ ol VMfla MiM. ThU UmubI ti looaud 
MMT TMohbowvfc, r*,. on una ot tbo Unoa 
— Aail olib IV Uliiali VtOrj Rallmod. 
It •■* *oirl*l>>l la J*iM', \*M, mmi U o 
tMl* tw tWa lbr~ f...'U,, .• , „.i> Lw,- 
ffW i^ia^Wl dn 

AvttoMwn-! "■ ,, --, 

voatiwitoa ut tbo 

■reblag, uid rarioui nlaor raatUn. Thoro 
uo olao lablco of progMM tn omTatla* 
uul coottnutioii, of btiik tod oament UMa, ' 
«nd of <DMnet prioM ud oo^m Tbo 
inaaf pUat, aopiV and tIowi oiahc up a 
rroHd of alpMiwm aUili will dooUloH 
Louf valuoio allbittiaigDOf ilnillBrwttln. 

Tli« HMary of th* Otla»t OH<f C%^ 
pMH /luAoiM 0/ J/M^wH, bx jlni/r(» y, 
JKaMird (tbo aotbor, lUibor Spttoiti, 
ltML,«I), ia a oalquo publioallon. It b 
•nitlCB bjrao aducawU lodlan, wboM faibcr 
««a dilof of tho Oliaitaii and compLritot, 
bcaUn a lUtiortual akclch of Ibc Irtboa 
nionllaacd, a brisf Uitorj of tbo anibur'a 
lU*, aad a gmamu of tbc (htana and CUp- 
|i«VB laasuago. Ur, Dlaokblnl haa bcco a 
L'lillcd SlatM Inlcrpfotor mdor oeror*! lo- 
dUo •genu, and afltnranl «w pooUMaaitr 
at lUtbor SprtoE* foi vlL-Tta jttit, wbon, 
tlic poiitioo batio;!; bcoomo a doalnblo om^ 
bi- ■■* viBifL lie li now ■«•■(; »0nwj 
yvan olil, and In ocontf droanutonoa*. 

iJr. A, I'. /Vobx^ ho* wrilira n <rolim 
of lhi*irJ Hmhittmm iTIdiMor. (I.ISX 
■Ucb vrmf ooo who ha* boon lo auf mmj 
uaoctaUdaUi lb«•onl■r>bt•pT«•ob•v•mo^ 
hiia, or tba wilTcriHf . oUI wokomo. U eni' 
ahu ol tkalobM of Uio <oU«fa oMm** "lioao 
aauioa afipoond wllb Iboi of Ibo OHIbor fai 
lb* nxnl •iintul eoiolcfnoi )a aUck ha 
WW nt^toKil u u a dt r p o Jiioio. tbcohti- 
usi Hiidanl. and lu4or. Tbcro la alao a waji- 
ploincnlafT cbaptor doaoribtuf UamnI Col- 
irf» rliljr ro>r« fo. 

J/n. U U. MitrtS*<tA liai pal (esctlior 
A /Vw /oriribMIt U iKt Li;4 of I'm/. Jamt 
I', apf (Ularfcc & Co.), In ord«r lo cOfTcol 
an linixMilaa thai hb cofljr olocatioa «M 
Mgilofied, vblch U (1*00 bjr tba iMIomtnt 
In Ufa I l^rloj IVMtg'i ToodnbcoMM that 
at ilio am of •oroniMa BiproonM not mul. 
lUri hU •»• aMTlTol bl«. or hod b* Ml 
aay odUdcon. w« iboatd prvboMj liorii had 
■ Inllar Moaoiil of ilio llf* ut tlia alrfr aa- 
tlior nf - Tlio PliiloMpb; at SMbw." 

TAr Stml. or AlCbMof FiflMDfif (/ 
Mnmorf Smmtmlur]/, b ptb H tba d b; tbo 
Srw CbuKti Boaul of PaMhatbft. Xcw 
Vaik, In a ir«n*Ull>>n hj Mr. frank t«c*all 
*,...t. Dm Utln c4lilun of Or. J, K. Inniaii- 
. . L It furtna (be trtmtli part nt Uio 

..1 ■ freot wcrb ou "Tbc .Inlmol Klus- 

dooi." Tlia |NiiUlea from wbtrii )!wt<b«>> 






hwg riew(4 lb; oortil o( inlail nA u«i(«r 
vu ■ pwallar niio, Klitl ilocj iwc iK>rrT9|>ui»l 
irjUi Uiat rram wtiioh iIm tcicaiUKa liivMti- 
^tor cf «ten Uie (Mtbed»« diri^Uin nf the 
IMVMM ihj ng*rd« >l ; but all rannMle, we 
btltrrv, tlMt bt anU li-uiiodlj mil Ium«M- 
\j, Km) wlUi IbomtiU thM apfNol iiivnit); 
Ui wruin <lMMa of neii. Aocwdng lu Uia 
InnalalM', tb« a»* dcalra uiil alia ilial mi- 
inaicd (bi! otilin Mtk* of his wriing* "u 
iho "Anroti for Ihe Kntl." CotinmliiK ili« 
tciniilfie Imringa «r bit •■Mkx, Ur. ^onU 
dcdumihtlthfffpMk " IW )Clori«M pnuB- 
iM of a n«ixd u> bo fMotisil MglMr arm 
■haa that MUgbt for) of *ii ■nil whoM m- 
nliiaiJim, oalj bUnill)' auti** for ia die 
MOiwtiaR Iwldm of kKiatMlga, tataj £lbi 
■nd inumfaiM atl tk« •ubonQiuM nl»aM 
wlih a tighi, ■ vMiiiib, a boatiif IdvohmIt. 
ablt httot*. . . . Tba ttitoiUu of U>« pn*- 
mt daf, altfc Ihttr nntul Diabominn of 
lh« faCi* of Miifnout kaoaloiil^ an> butlil' 
bf wIht ihoB tWf Vaom ; (hi^lr awu alma, 
lb» paill«ukr tbMrka Ihej tml to wMnUlfli, 
■M of ailbOf WMWk— Uio; ai« iho ImuUm 
pUetd bcfoN II M Mum it to Mik "— 
iMdtng itHin cm, «f eourac tovwd ih« nx 
■Utalloii ot hIb-lMr dkmnriaiL 

ADDtlitr Mir lanipiatt* Imi tiwn coo- 
MtWMi, aad I* dMcHtxil bf llw (awilor, 
jGSa jWKlir, lu U< /1m /or «h ,1»n4h>i 
£a>VMvr|ibowtbar, Brbl«t, D.T., 
Dil* tangmgD I* baaed on EaglUh. n^ni^ 
tag all iroida not of -Oanaaido origla, aad 
with (■■ aptUI^ DMdo pboMtlc bj tb« iM 
of mm ltit«n, vi lu l»6c«llaaa made ng- 
alar. T«irdi have Imcu pnferKd !■■ »•■ 
Baannu tor laiaMtloaal endlngiv \» onbr lo 
piT* ib« iM> laa^agn not* Mfibmij tiiaa 
Bagllih baa. The mihor dalau ih>l liia 
Aawfken or Ot«nianli\KBeli*h taopia^ 
hu Uie Mine curiloaoM a* VulapDk, and 
I* liHM adeptod f* aM bf lb* Qenaailg 

7W ftport ^ rA« >W n^' ■ ■ : - 

All' ' Tii-i^iir, elutiuflu* t'li' n-iitlll 

tit - Ib •(•alia ■ obt* naf(« ■( 

a»li>tiu. L".«i>ldc"i'' ■ 'HO**- 

fnoiit* of a>ill<«at<T . 
lit llir polaU I* rDpHltfit 
•lao di-w-rtpH™* 

uitbol baring bo« from ai tba aiali 
taof* llian one aaanon. U«i]r miBor 
h*ni *Im rciralTad altonUuiL 

Df. nW^oM //. /MfMO**) |M«]ih 
outltM Cbm^nunJ yiui^Mi e6>iHr dr 
Man &4«(« (I'unl; l^ablbUnR Vamp 
dlOto fttnn ihe toniMon nai of KtjKWltla 
of ikU ib>clHne In baln|r vrtiiun In gooil 
RoslUb. aud la utiowlna for lu aalhor bthm 
aUllij l« ihliik. tl pT*Mnu a fstrt} rlou 
<<«w nftha not m; cltat Iheorr el "(Iwto- 
ilau toloam," iir ralhc tbe aulbor'a !■!». . 
futlalbM ot titil UiPWT, for lu 
mitaia nn Uie >uIi)om agrv* •iiti i 

Ktr-Xmbv, \>J J- C. Fr£Ui^ 
UliptnoaU CsmpaMf ), U oof uf a 
" rrKtlc«l lummt In .Vanitgi," tif dll 
enl Biubon, jniblUbM Itj Uiu aaiae bo 
II b ilMlpiid (or ilie ua* of prafMalin 
end olbcr nuiM*. aaJ rtpntiaf u • 
bo«li for n«r*ee ta tmlalnit Tliu laalr 
IbMM wen Dnl gt'ni (ii m^rtm ul bnii 
Btro bcton) lb* iiunui ibua al ibe Hdlj 
d*l|dibi Iloiplul. Ill (bam Uie aathv 
•Mgbl 1* tml tba Mili)«ul bi |ila)a wnii 
ami ttvm the ela«l|N)bU iif Um iibpd*W 
and 111 iiarii uot flolr bu* lic*e?-pailm 
are lo t« «arad fur, but nbf lb«j mkM ' 
mm) (W b> iwnlnla' avm. 

Tha OwMi" "'ifiMiff 

ilr.WiaiamSi. .i.lla«*l 

tlM) WM da(t].-nni |ininatilf 1m IW 
of ■uilnau \m tliai ImMh tn ihn 
Iric, and U no* |i'ildkili*d la i 
Ibai ll will W (uuiid uMfnl lu > 
denla aa h baa liaen lo lliaiu. The ] 
trahim of Ilia Ikh'Ii » k 
naauaU, U Ibe |it<'< 

M aolirtl - ■ 

(aul, all 

of eii<«ii<»'iM 

Ml Ik |Wrfor» 

UTEiiAnr yoTicEs. 


•pMi lit* dLff<mM t^rli, inil miil<r diffenut 
fmuiaf iilmlalttntioa. TIm tullisr bc^an 
bar ujMriBRaU lor (Im luTaulKntlon at llw 
I •nipUoM I'ro tl^ Md l>7 Iwllaii «nd 
, but SMM IvmA lk>( (o fOfTD >k 
i<W|iii»i ujwuiilioii ol ilw rX\iAt>t:j at ili(*« 
■M* U aiMU Im —owwry lo ra^tnl Ilw 
pwBwn hF lodlam *ihI hnnliRD In (holr 
wMj. Tim riiD Niwi MaTlooeil tbat 
4ha imiMMM ma wlf a •trcog wwniaa- 
liM at lb* irKpbiHU, goMidared aonMl of 
BwdlwULJow. (0 wlildi UlUa fvgtid bad bMU 
■ItwtMil Tin* liur ln«H(le*Koa gmlakll} 
!«■»■• Ki lbnniui;li awl rar-«it«ndlag (Iwt 
■Im «•• bnniflhl (• suulla* It (at tlw prownt 
to MIm, laadng tinHatM (a a MlMO(|iifnl 

atii«*—ft.' t'M, «h( lUi* hil «»•• 

hr /. Jir. fiMrwH (i>ii& * nu- 

iinU, to miul, moadiliini ihn Uinpcf- 

UM* V'"*'*" ^""^ ' P^' "^ *^ '"** 
tonllf latum. Tli* arthor neuil* altolMl 
•■••aUrat piwIaH, luvlag UmCmoI otw, 
■wl Mtka (v Miwftla Ibaaa omi fniM tUa 
•taiw at Mmiv Dquw* and laiotlcutan. 
WM* Wfclt— iIh *Q lUmc llquun, b« 
kaUt pan «lMa U Im illa|MbM good, Mid 
Wtovw Uut, atlli Uir nwplton of •(■Mdal 
fa«Bi «r aacaMnllaUn lariirvlaB, iha aM 
ti Um* K*d* M UmH IimH tftd I* onttf*!; 
Mhi aad IbU ia ih«lr im lla* ill* tDMl 
iAmuJ Mnltml at bnoliltm up iba alea- 
l»dk baluL 

TV A»dU.r) Or* AmI. br ll" Uoom- 
tfd* Udy CW (OdUabifVtr, <0 «niu). !• t 
(pii_. . I !...< ...Hiw-a for tnpu^iMi ■ 

*< ulhl iMfarifM it 

1dc"->i' '-" rallk*. irrwla, 

•. *lnp*, an.1 
i«(Tuiif Biio a IM* kind* of D>ti 

ronucATiuim Mcicin:i>. 

«i^w' r-i-^iiim ' 


"" ■" ■ .,...- .. -■ 

T it lawn* n<i 


WMl*aUi*ka. mT l> la. 

rMtak<i.i«ta J. H. (>.. Mu-M*. Am*- 

CW«.>, n.aU flWdlw^lr. tl. TVi Wa4M> 
nwa raiT* maaa It laii i Oiaa * Oil rp. 

I'nA, (1, II K<iHn of 111* euu (i>^«iu of 

lUaJtiwr- I'"!' mUB t>«i^ ■■inUa|4. 

<-«>H. t>r IaI«I, aad WtUit IImh*. I'unlhs i 
O. I*. PulUUl'* HH ff. U*. 

D.«ia, K W. fttiHrt on tlM KcMtwIi KaM' 
uwb«y •/ IiaouM. 1>W l>.M 

UuIja. C. W, U. D. AiMIhH aad Bamrim- 
dn mb*(ltAU: BUIMoa. 1^ ML »«MM. 

run. H. U . aM Unnall. B. fl. • FMIk or 
AtaiMMuaf" XoRb Anwrteaa ■•*1M'. IV W. 

l-HbH. S. A. K»4 «< fniifVli*n rwb«. 
rwu IH^ W. rnBk>«MM. IV**' 

r<NW.M..*a«MlHrh -jMfMlorriiTiMtw*" 
Vol IX. !«•■ I. UmbiMo. KafWadl MMWIla 
iBUPuncBI iMnpaaj, 1^., M. >llb Palw 

rM.J. J.. ■■>! RscH. nr. W. M. "Mnnar 
Ptu m npto.- U4aUir. PUylilidM ^ iuam W. 
Qan * Uh Til SL I'l fou. |1 ■ fw. 

rnt. A. E 0«(naliir-TMiUa& wiUi But- 
Mad'hiir, llfd*l'«rt,lli.ia.: Bn3M*raMata- 
MUgmixar. IV »«. 

llhitU. lifawtaT lb pNmJInnatlbt BUM 
Rm><1 of Uiaak, Cai«i«K Al*!^ ttM. IV U. 

ladMtrUl MiMttoa AhhWiIh. Onulw of 

li«f«n. J. K , M< Jmm, l>mC K. ^. A lll>- 
Inn f Mlucal e«M«r- >i** VM : ManaUlM 
*Ca IV >M; flW. 

ittiM.vr^Ji x<|(«inr<h(nua*inaMah(w 

nrCaliUnta i*"T, Swraii-aMn: IV*>a, 

j4n«,V. U XwrnUffM. BMloa: ll*VkMB> 
iaaia*>;a IV 111. tl- 

U-K A II. » U..»l IHUm^ 0. O, "t^a 
OHikoi, lat MAuft IMwIifly." A|«ll, Una. 
AibHRvHn, M. Y.: AMkd aabkaui TnM 
ewV4r, I'p. M VHaMajrau, 

IdMliUa<nb(i«4ndSnrt>l7. rnvMffnnli 
UtmarjU Hoa J. C HHrwn. Mr*. IV K. (Ian- 
vftmr.ltM. JtlU) tinmowL u>l A. ». UaniM. 
1l**JtlTa.X T. 

IV tl. 

»h tMI II. U\ 

KrfiArlarik* AfMnAanI I'M. 
- - iKrWblaHl 


Iblttn*. Dr. WaablMtM. TW rr*r>r<f a 

«*ii«, r».i4 

wan^ Half, iMitac. Xtib. ' Xatfiuti la- 
«».- tya. 

Mtn TlMmH ^. U.n. FMMtMrta. Ttf 
nr)iIi4MlMl Anka •< Xrwtli^ ICnaUa». aM 
tMr aIIih. IV •, Oh* MinM»U* oT lb 
ladlaa rMnak TV ■■- UMk«4 Im MmiMIIw 
U* I.B>»I f*aaan AtWa >« UrMi. l-n ». TIm 
1 IIMra) Valat if Iht llH«a(n|>k iSi. ». Tb 
fMnalM Af Itoa of BntiM Hd MrratalH. Pp. 

WbWaw. rjinnllir at rutwpWnt ■'•pm. 
1 tnlonllT UaMUa Mr « A. !>••«• IV 
<i> U lUacWiHlthii-aaxlunafUfc Bj41l>^ 
VlHmu. rv **i ■' I'-ialrlMua la IA* fvuna 
of lAw^Um TalaM. IW W. tl. fvtt- If t> 
4 Hi'lHt ftiaaar M a IUsa«M lir ttimtf 
»»«il iMl iiOM MmIw tm*—m PWaHM 

■ui UtoMwt, b« 1. c. mn IV ta. MuB 

— vx! 1, TIm KMm at Uiwamm. »t Jala 

"1 I'll »i «. •bmIuIt* t M am m ract *t 

■MM Kr AIumIIwWWAA IV**- *■• 

' r.. AvJnwi*!.^ 

T»k aiM fafcliMlin'. Kkaba. bpart 

nkMLitUaal riW*>H.W,ll. IVanM- 
MuMUifarMafUwwUMIaa. IV 1 


(MW<jOMar^M« U«. J R. A U»««l>« 

Hwuil rfOllHlllhT. ll^aiHl tn* PlH 

ua>H«xi « r Ka.«H, IV «» laM 

r«(«. LkwM tl. C«»lilb«U«M u IM Dd— I 


!«■«-' n l-p. W. 

r)w.«r.vr. n* MM 4r um auu. D-jtrai*- 

I l-nAlV Cp SM tl.M. 

OTdif. BMaaifiUxr.Uaim*!.'*. )> *M. 
ICarHl If Ibt IImi4 •( 



HHkMtof. Xf- Y»ft 
BloniM*. rp. IT*. 

KtflHWa (Imnr. ml Jn4Ha. W. It. rma* 
or XMimi Un. Vim VwH ; Mawlllui * Ck 
Pv WT. to, 

llwBiULX.f TTw MriWiniAmi BfMtn. im 
•Mnilt« Lallo, ■■■rt I. Mwlaai Hriitoniun 
PulMOiac l.'aiD|M)r. IV M> 

£airr<T, It, K^ U I>. ntnv WhU. Sm 
r«i>An>:Tba Kumn Can»*nr. Pp M, 

SWhidl, K. W, OlwmllMtaatW PunlMM 
atl^KM* iHiMa, l> in. 

Xmsw. PnrfJ.W aiMklbiMto>«X<r>» 

MdltltkMIIWlH |-|k<* 

Tmht, T. U. ILBwsd* a pt*«u. FhU*- 
drllAU ; I*. BUlUm Pp lit. » nnu 

■n«iiu.o it.M.a niMaWH- omutM 

•jtmamj I* tt» TwtttMM tti I MMiihinitoi oi lU 
(iiulw Mwifn 1^. It. 

IWlMMia'* raWIUikc CMttfaav, 5rv Tort. 
Uwt'iUtf. drown' Ocmlft t'wnll'u* tnl U> 
ino"'"-'''^^'"' E*di. ». M. «a< M frau. 

^ ' LMd> UUOfWk 

M'-.i II, JUkalLOa. Dofl^ if Uw 
DniK l-p » 

K-'H>it«wik. WUS«n. TW mhxW irnh 
Xul»VA, J. (lUfc*. I>. G llMib *(.'■> rp »» 

W<ifti.J. M. N Vwtl-i'.IWitUdt. (SrIntI 
Rm4m^ BiMUa : IX C ticuli k i^ irp, ST. 



TW Vktnmnt tt CbJBrfhni. — Tbi' 
Joffnaon Gomty <X. Y.) mitutUal SoclMr, 
luittag Mcarcd ihc IwUle-ftcM of StAtli'i 
lUfbnr, t«*UM ermtlne « noniUMM tu Uw 
Midicn buried UHTf, bu deumiiiiMiI to |Wi- 
|M«Bt« tlio n*iaw7, Im \ ilinlkr ony, ul 
Or. 8uiiud Oiuliriii m Hi* dUcorcier at 
olildnilonn. In alil of Uil« uhjn^ Mr. 0. 
Uutlitk luu prvpannl an acraaiil at Dr. 
Outlitk wid hi* work, la m\ait> kU aUbu ^ 
l« lb« origiatl (li»Mi«n|]' ot dbkrofonn sra i 
Ml funiL Dr. Onthrla wm bars ih* Km \ 
«( • pTMtltiag p^lcba b BriioOxlil, I 
Mw*., is I7A IId WW «n »usfalfir 
KMa In lite vnm ilnrlait Um War irf > 
•iiil MteiiUih*'! 
(it'i Uartiar, fur 

tllrrr. III IHIT lio i„tiMi>t>l tu I < 
ftml i''' v'. - i filit( Miirrtmni^* lo ' 

•-pvrfiMiioM ^11"— nuulg lliBra, I* of lib 

InrolUiML UoiUodln IKtX. IIUi:liii» 

priority la tbo iHiivnrT of " ' 

DpiiQ (lb puhUotik*, In " 
Ml" tar OcmImt, ISSI, irf xti uni. i- 
drcnrnMAACM indioitc in linn bnn ' 
not bier Itiui b July of tlw i 
•«rifalng ifae pnpMmllM oA pr 
*fi1tIUK>« Miluiloa n( clibrtc Mlicr. 
Mfctf WW {irrfanJ tiy lUtiitling ahlnrUi i 
Uiiin wlUi alrohnl. U ibc nrtldn 
to, D*. flnthriB na.n: " DwHiip i1i» 
iBOBllii • gnwl niittilw* r 
dnmk of till! solution of clil 
laboralofy, MM only r«r< 
i|iieiiily 10 llio point of li"' 
ao tar u I bare obMTinl, U katf ayymmnA 
10 be ringuUtly Riatrful, Uitb lo llic |>altii 
and woaaoli, [•riHt<ii-i»)i t<nw>|«)y ■ lit* 
Uo* of anIiiMl *^%\'' ■•" 
(jnailiT, aiul Uavlnt. - 
tlv of iliat ihiiniMlo?. 
at nnbal (iilriu. 1 
IkUftiMlMpm |>«r«ili>-<, I 
mis Uin elllKrt al II In f ' 
bcnllliy niiliji'tti and lliii* i'> ■<' 
far M •udi Irlib mnit-l dn, |i 
nlun u a nicJidna." tlm vnij^ii 
bcvii lurmllEaltd tfaKD Uia 
Ur. (hiUirio'f |iunpbl«t, by a mn 
thvUili-*^ W<sl>(«l Rode**, >bcM« 
liitaoilatn Tr,] 
)• »p>war«, b 
tliit' I 

oi'-. - :*>• 

- [•ilor lo \' 

, wal 01 111. 
,-.■ i| ,■/. I 1-, 1. (.1- if I'ri'iijii.illl 
li]p. I IlIK'n^i \:i.\ I'.'i '-'l' liill.ll 

arliif* for ■!( fT«n(h«. TIlU X.uld 
Uxi (lalU (*- '^"^ ill./^iv^rv Idi'li 

Tb> oIoIr- 

b l«- ■! ■ 

In J 

TtablNf (Mr (Vmn<<-WHrl>.r— tl.iij 

I fkikif "1 r>ft|['* |[^TT» *iiii*, wp'" 



JbtM, dtf nnoadlf of prwtUlog li; Uw [or 
I wlml-'— ot 1<<mU Umi bar* Ukni 
■Ulc COMr*M la ■Mllulc* m hcoormr; 
I ol ttr elnk* In b« (uplajcil In Ihd 
vorii oT M«ibii«il nffloca. Thta 
■•• W tvrj t«iilydiiw olllionl cipcodltUM 
bf Um UoToraam tad >llh llic very liMt 
■HMBk nauiu. W« uIm • onwu* of Uio 

ITritri flutn fw*rr <™ iw^ ^t> ■* ■ i^^ 
th« DMs thai art bm-igM Inln (lie work 
bai* ooUtlB( of MaUirtk*. TW7 dHHiU 
ba mlBiid In U>« nrr vlfivnury wwk oT 
Ifct t^M tiltlt »ad rf «iMt»ilo»l •denoa, 
a** oMdb MM* i M owloJ tdr ifa* Gov- 
■ IM1I la iMplUMlMlkMel tlklbLtduit 
hoilly «PnJn)i'l la lh« bdwiw af miuw- 
mU^i, ««m U (hoy fa BO nun ikui (hul; 
(■ra«, —i hoib, awl aaallwa taameeuA 
att iW prMMiuUaa of iha Uam of iIm 
1 1 %«mj aoiild bp MTod, 
h* MM* IhoraqgUx apprt- 
, mJ pnlilaiu vonlil b> aolTod." 

HmpUm aa4 tbitr lami IIhhIm^ 
Tvo liBtum la ttw lU* of |iI»l-tio» an 
da (aAiBBM nl* M wliloli Uip; uulilplf , 
aal Iba luilitraiirM akli uhldi tlief 'oniA- 
<llMtr|mr. TIh* ilimj-tilw* luij IM 

vlib tliFiii Ui Hit, anil In a nuwib 
hard; • vpadaia nl ilioni will b« foii»l 
nia «vtn^ rt'lJann b <■■» lu lliHr IwMI 
MMliw A «7|i)i'u niaei^ otlb a pdnlwd 
ImI, «p Hr. A. J. O>oh. ol tb« Aplmlt- 
wsl CWbKv, Hkblean. )wl nt via In pUat- 
iUl It MMiii navvr miUIkI. «nil h I* hard 
(H viilM>tutl bu* n nuall an IomcI can 
> •» larp- ■ nMaL TiM lailf-blnla, aad 
all; Unti Ian* a* ptif, du irignal 
■nlaa ta Ui> Miu* dbtMhUk SvranI tjw 
Ifaa hT Dm |nM< jlfMSw of Uw kliMU- 
BIB Iiiu'li. 11-ir nlnate fanuUta, AmUaj 
Q> I •wad*. Tim*, t>1aui-Uce 

W-— "■> '■l*'-<> ■>; IbiaatMi 

mmwii* r, arvalmcni 

■ aaiptil.. ■■ ....... ~ ...xxt. In lOBB 

fi«n. bnvn^r, pfvlnbl; famiKl bj dmaclil, 
Ma plaai-Uw n*o mil ut |in>|<*>rtl«a, and 

t ta *%»*« of Ibair •nrnriM. abw th»j 
I BrV>«(ln|in7. TW7 ara umallBM 

U>w«d, l«a. b| ^((KiM iialll*alut*, olw 
' Uwte ■■latM^ aMIkUiaC iWn fur 
laiMU. fba apUdaa nay t« 

4- -m a n d 1 *11 Klxt- 

■ . '.mnuBt a powad 

«t bard totp or a <|iian of Mifl »uap, and a 
quart nf i*al<rr, bvattd lIU lb* mmji b dla> 
•ol'od, (0 vlilcb a ptnlof kfOMCM i« addad, 
and lbs abalo ajilUiRl till a ptttnaneiit 
oialileB or nlituia I* (iirnicd. It It ap. 
piled vltli a ton^franpt o( oUdi (ono an 
madt (m tbo purpoM. 

n«aiBr«t>, BnlplaiM, ud iMcri^ 
tlOBR al r*ptB.-Ur. Il- r. UtodikT haa 
BUide a (TMomBtlo cu^natloa at iba pria> 
dpal nilM of tbo andctti ritjr of Copao, la 
Central \»eifca, «tw of Ifae nott Inttrwt 
Ini; of Iba ihea eiptotcd aad dcwrlbad bjr 
Ihaphcaa la hta tnt ■wouai of kb Inir*- 
Ugallaaf. Mr. Uaadilci'i ciamlntllan In- 
tdudcd turrcjr* and tnouumnonta of tbo 
maiiadf, oxoavntioBa, aad tbc uking of 
caMa, aUoh «UI be p«««emd la tW Smiib 
Kvniington MoMnm. l\t baM wii ibal lU 
nalivc of tha tinatturvB bw b*an In mdc 
poteu Bil<«tk«D; ibu Uw w-oallod pfia- 
uitdi aro iho r^iod fouadailoii* *lilch aop 
|io««l roofed bnlldlnga — iirobalilj lait|d«* 
— wliicb Mere approached lijr ntr\t tf;;hW 
•f ticp* ; iliai tbe tong bi«|ia of Munot 
wblik *er« ttken to b« the rulat af dl; 
walla ai« la fact the ronaina of tlaslo- 
tlunborad, a l ot roofed bouiet; and (hat 
ibBgnai "rinriitll" b mcrclyawtll In 
appatisMv, mnlibi; from the rdw ktring 
diaagtd ha aoon* and pairn i«o Ui* raiint 
wnun aad lofl; foonilationv ua Ibe cott 
•Ida of tlM niiaa, tbt plan of lb« tInicUm 
eti Uut *tdi< taiini; bean Ofiginall; Uie mhm 
aa on the other lidce, with tispta aad alBir- 
wa^i. A fpw worked *Ioik«, InoludlBg aona 
bvklianda wborlof JbiI«, praibi,aadcartod 
piocra of (bell, a pot ooalaiiilag ml powdor 
anil aatorvl uunoM of quIcktllTer, hiuaaa 
bone*. %Vf'* tMth, and ikokiou of )t|{aafa, 
(lana uf Olio of oblcb went |ialated red, 
■ere timn'l la Ibv oxcwtailoM, Hr, UauiU- 
bry odduent •vtdeiice, from Ihe ftllurv ol 
all ill* I^iiaiiLih ehrnnkUr* to ninka any 
■nauliuo of Ibr *Ula whloli Itttoa niisi 
rrprotcnl, or of tuTllilniC Uke tWa, aad 
froiD llw Mni|wrt>on of tli* rsln* with what 
lt.» fi|iankw4t dU iprab of, ikal Ike tiM 
bad y^tpo dcaeitwl, Bud tbo badldlag* bnM 
Id Ilia foraai aad hat, long b«f««o tbo tima 
of Ibo noaquatl. 1W raloa of Oopas bare 
bom (anunia mar ilnoe AaphiBB made ihta 
fcaown, for iba prof utloa of BMlptwod on*- 



iMdUeioglTphieiwydidwjrbMi. la 
(u»MnK Ihaia, lb. Mwirtrfcf wm Mmk 

la ik* iMlfWat*. 
iMric b otlM fMWl !■ 
Batnnl or man «r bis paMi q ai bMmm 
hMd i ud on^iira UBikT nrfoai dl^ulMa. 
la nuur of Bklck lu p r aiiaw li aoi iv- 
*iaki>l kl Bnl lighl. One of Ihc nwM lM«r> 
wUkk poliiti nMked la ibe InaBripitga*— 
«liUiibe ulbat bcUma (iMttU be nad la 
dooUa toiwniM, fram Ml U rigbl, aad 
from lop lo bolUK— It Ibat all iboM aWdl 
tlMta tt nafon lo btllet* atecompJcie froo 
Uw b«g|aiitag an headed bj what ml^ ba 
tallci an iaiUal mtcO, and bi^ «kh tlw 
■■« fonmla, tmallj m«lld^l^^ duoasb 
tU xiOBfia of Ua^fpUe stltlDg, Hmt 
•iiUi Htmn^ or MnolliDei Iho lilMr btU 
<d ibE litUt tqMM^ la a InnnaB fac^ HMulljr 
In prafik, ladoaed la a liuw or caiMaciNi, 
like Uw Moci «< ite Uap ia EsTpiha in- 

Sow OM Malsnl BMxri fi UW 
n«*'^Ku'iM( MunJi ; «r, a QtMa npc^ 
MMtiiiC Uie >'acc of ih* VoM," "Uch >aa 
pabliahcd ia KTO, btrar« Ow aclinitof real 
(doMt^ COKlaiat acoie tct; cuiknu Halc- 
■naati la MMral bliury. Tba bigMw of 
dM •balM^h aa;«, "tirnkllzcth Uie OUU 
•admielilf UooaUiu." lB(W>d, mowbh- 
iboit boiIImi "for grnti-r whaln Uian 
UicM." AtiM* all otkna, mniMa am] 
nennaidiate wariJawd " thaMoat awpc 
flih ia (kc waun." A Dna fpadmaa of 
namiBU, wbldb «Ba and lo baira baaa 
caught la Kollaad, " tnlland bmalt l« be 
doaLbod, M vlih braad, niUk. and o<kir 
nMaU,aa4 ■ooU oflan autre to ateal aipln 
Into (he MB, hat, bdng ean^Uj waKbcd, 
■lie ouvid finL Uoracnw, aba laannd to 
t|ila aad ftrlona oib** paUj uOtta of 
■ODieit I tal at iha tm ibcj elaanwd tan 
«r Iba «aa-moM fbleb dU atklt about bcr." 
Tba aaUkfc la aaU lo b( eaofMnnultil. «■ 
it ■r«i«,flf a bin) uicl a bnwi. For suk- 

lop B Jr^iiLkinl lualbn hit Dl|1MT, a pt*' 

*a- "cn I«r braabtav 0*1'* iffia 

anil , .!.. , u.nni Intir K. D!-'- -' - — 
■UM*'ti*T« no alDp^MUbTr ' 
• lalalliaali 

Eke a tm»- }mnM aA, ■*»> a 
■^ oataT hb fnik^j'a mj rM aM 
.. . batai ahnrf (BikalnaaM la fa 
B0 faaaMTa kora ta^*^ •hkK «Ute idM 
baea gaaa ahna to daf, Aar ka*a aaavdj 
bUadtd Ika iTaa at Iha verU tri« Ikftr (yi 
tW* of ik« gnoauaaa ^ Cod^ pvM •vrkk." 
Tbe pjqp* t* - a IwM ^ MtTft 
M lank aiMa. B» n«Mb kk a 
Maad >f rifk^ aad. w% •»>, ka 
fonk a honWa aad tIAj hreath, abkk 
latactaih aad pay j M wt h Ita air- Tke 
ea^irk* or tedkakboBcd ik* Ua( af 
aMpiBn,Bo( oalr as aeae«« ol Ua alaab 
bn abo "lor Ua tuMj ;■» aad tmpuril 
■aaa Mlad.- IDa |aiM» aeankaa ika 
piM aa U h wcK bataal Tha -btMaa" 
of Ua cT«a win kin a an. Tk* d)^;sa la 
fond tUaflj is bidlaHdBdii^.la. "Ub 
wlnpi will can; bin la avak Mt pmf »hrn 
•ml «bere«oauiaaaar*Mk') Ua Imh us 
ler; ahaip and act Skt a n>, bat Ua pro, 
dl^oMaiM^ik "reocth is kb talL" Tb> 
■inpklrtieaa baa tvo bead* aad ae lafl, 
-batl^ a bc*d at boik 


Talnala Lata-<aa«k— Profi 
obatTTM, la eaaacciba vUb amiUa* of Iba 
taaoni arapHou «t KIbaaa, Ibai b KUaraal 
ilnaa tba antaraf Mflilr *i>ckl bra b anr; 
aallkaikal«rikabt1>lr tI'cU. Tb* cma 
la ika (ofiaar ollca riaa *ltb ilufiM tt hua 
80' to U*t tkalla ibabtietelicael bai 
Iroaft'UlU*. Tbc fnnnat wiiaaotady a— 
dmlora bwpl; la nakbc lia cOMi m aba 
baa tba loM Citaibb wthndba* laia- l« dial 
■tik ; Ibo lalkT b bn-Mad«, clraWr do. 
pealla bdac eubonflnain le tlnw of Ura. 
Tka muer In oie b l«>$tl>anad iipvafd at 
Iba top bj' dadan, aad ka* aaiar^eanea 
abool <aiib toniaf IbHJ Ura ahkU tbe 
crater t tbai In iIm uiker !• iilun a hraad 
pti, ultli a taOT iif nMbrt Uia, bnv abl 
are large aad aniiU Un-iaaia, and 
lamnaib oof^ '^''-' •-'■■— ■■' "- 
nor kbadbn'i' ' "i[-- 

tbn, ellk tmUi < • 
nubt In agnie (lUtki 

POPVLAIt .vrscuLLAxr. 


mmt, hM tl«7 an lUBWrta In Mma of 
ihi MMilU sT tk« Ktloa gaiitiS <■■>• BOl in 
■MM or hmUhhU Th« tni of tlio i»o 
hUt ■( TnlouHfM pnpani fur • uw «nip- 
Uh bjr t)i« pwhul flUlog U|i «{ Uw «m|i- 
Oal oMcr, iMm tUk by ohmm of om nr 
■OM btk-nnU W >h« bouaa^ vUtli, !«■ 
■Uw llira«r||i( urtlBdw*. Iiara ihcir liitW 
fUfl<M> 4u wM dMriliol by 8M<4il (or 
TiM*ta>, Mil kn(i(i ml Um iriirt unill tlin 
MMirbBUnl, VDMiV tn; kiul tli'u come 
Ite bfok ud Iha frailer iMiAowt.^ Tlio 
fMw4 UhI dUlcr nn)]' m la tlw <Mon ; 
«dla KUwiM. «■ to Um Wtht nl Uw bar 
Wm« tk* ouibTMh. DMh fton VaMvlui 
Md KUaMM •• iMm iliu, out M ih« 
b*«^«U, th* cwof af B toI«m1« tOMOUia 
l« lu priiM ar mom famh^cMtl (ImmoI. 
Il ImIsm) tlw uu«stl)> <rf « l«ti.«oailiai 
•C ifMtorar Iom kfwU (tal rMAwdon 
fa dM «aM af OtM ; tod Uib ImIimmw n- 
IM iMMMua of tiM •JtoUaoi bj nulflon 

•ad aiMfeoM iif ilifl n>iuvi|MaA iarnn, 
IfcaqpM, oMch niH*raii4l wJlitoa* b 
kqp |wil lUtermlBa. Tk* BMwfng mmbI- 
alBwiMi an aul b» Hil of lu «Bt«r«ie«fil 

hf dat fftwU«t itttapiwranM aad luMlInf 

.'|ip*iM, iIm onMr li ttlll of 
.'. tr halt or vbnilr ntriUcr. 
•1 ■■' if^i rwtofol ; ubI la l\Mf 

hf !>-, 11 ■i<;iii7l*nffrnnw««>llnlhan|cluM 
hf ar* ttupmmtUt artloa bHii». If m 
a^Bvad, l( laar go forvud iliti)U|th r*- 
JirtaH aail arw kngiiiriniRit. Itul Ui* lUil 
Mip OM^ ba tlM W|i(«lna of tlur «1i| IIm«i« 
«faN «hldk Uh> naUi «■« uhgla«Ilj iu»lu i 
In lU» ••; i\« taTMuadall alglH mvm 
Im itwdf ■■ onew an apM nay to Uip mu* 
IhH. b »ar >>• <>iat iIm Oaana af lb* old 
ftaava ha* htaa a ibM (auM (■ tfrtamlul«S 
Ikt tmm al a aniari ftixl tl nu; bwl, la 
«JW4daiar7. la chaiuBt In th* loou* of Uw 
<kW nM, er as •toosaik* of iW miar la 
«» UnMUa oiliar iIuji la anotha*. 

V«lar<npM aflMd. Tin, and Im— 
Oa (ha ^aviVia oliW " Anlim uf Driakli^ 

* ■ .- r- - ,l.«.«ial 

II ini}<r><(|MliU, 

•«l<la, »Udi lhi«7 

''T Imn pl|i«, 

.1. lo 

Imd pipca lbs tln&lng 1* found not onljr i» 
Ihi ikirittMiaJ la ilio ttrmpli of tba load, 
but la b« Ululf , unlMS (b« coailag Is per. 
tMt, to laUt Uib dkfokUon of Uia lead. 
Iran (ripMi alUtougk Umbs, and lafa m far 
4* bcaltli U ooaocTDcd, ant Btra Uk«)j to 
break, nior« dlBcnlt lo adjuM and npair, 
T«T7 tu; <•( oxUaliMk, and Ikbb; lo obairuc- 
Uon (root BoeuiMilatiou of ibn oxide. Tin 
k alM aoiml U|«u b; ii*l«r, tbmgli lu uiilo 
acUon It bokiB tbat of lead. Il la taitty 
fcilbfe, b«t (oar lion «a cxpowlf e aa lead, 
bill a lUiincT (i|>« auntd m(Bcc 1b«a la 
rwtaa, lionicr, lo UU«v« ihai vaun 4a 
Ml aflord a prouaiv* Molieg M ila aa 
Ike; do to lead. Tho adTaaUgai ol Icwl 
a«r*fi^pal ar« their ohe4|inaaa, diuaUt- 
ll)>( and fletibtliij, and iba Maa alUi abkh 
xh»j can bo wrougbi and n^rod. Tlia lu. 
ikon rcoMniuond tho ajMmatlo and con. 
tlauoiu Slualion o( tbc oaiirr, wlili aacih 
wodidcaUcui* of Ui0 nUvr-bnl u *IU liunira 
lu bUiAmI liUMlkuk Tlibi «ill. In tkrir 
kdlef, mUndu a»d |iracliaill; (itvionl lbs 
action ol tke naiar ua ika laaid aarfaOB^ 
Il wnld, mormiTBT, lajiroTB Ike Meliiaaaa 
a»l color of ih« aniL-r. aad lOMcn Ibeqiian' 
tit; of ot^ak nialtor baU b toluliaa. 

PratUtal tkrslXrr la BMMkMf !«•— 

Tb« " FoiuiUr Mcii>» Kdv* " not)«ca »oim 
faeU oannaclBd wlib Urn iirvpamloD «f fotd 
Uiai IllMMnu bo* Ui« liouatkaeper it la 
r«Blh; a pnaiati cktiabi. Ttta object «r 
all ooafclatt or Bnineadm ot baai I* Ike 
nw luawria) of fiwid, U lo bria; atoM 
c^aiiCi-a h ika diarartpr af vntaia bodlM 
of roiii|dln4ad wgnitaalkro i aod ilita la 
oftnn dana vUkMt ppadntini; aajr dllt<9*a«o 
In RXBiMMlilaa pcrnf ilblo lo Ilio (bonilat, 
ItiiA U Uio raaa *bra albaoim h mag» 
UMiI t *• «l«r colTnc Blih altiainni or 
ik* vbitB ot aa rsK, Uinw^ lu povpr «( 
bKdodag |i«rtldr« ta a m p aa dno akrii II 
kteonia lianl. If tbaeaffarmalnraMolbb- 
«b(a, It |wr(onna tkn aaiua aOle» bj fornilag; 
n ktuJ o( Icaihor alUi Ik* UMnln of Ui* 
oofff*. (llw ki a oaarM, Bftd (Oohhif pl»- 
tin a rellMd fnta of Ik* Mwe aiibtfUMa, 
aWtk la iMulubIa fa oM «Mar, bal ak- 
•cnW It, Knllluu up and WtomUng Bofl. 
WWn braicd ■lib tka waliv, Ealula dl*- 
miItw, and tkia, abra roolnl atpibi," JoUl " ) 
bat, If krilal too kM« Il Iibm iba "Jdl- 




[ng" qaklltjri tlia mom ptojicrtj nt ^■ 
ailiJdns l> poaMMWl b tnilu hj p«c(liit, 
wliMi ii, harorcr, ■ dlttiart nlManw. 
Tb« MiniHlAlfais proiMTtlMof wo mil «>ffoa 
Mc dwe W tlk«k p««uUif ftU^olito, llMiat 
wad MiTtino ; Uiafr ttator, M arniuBLli) cub- 
•tuwe* wUcii m txtrMtcd l>]r lb* bol «uer 
tram ibc lokt or b«rr7. VrbMl-to«r b 
«ainpeMd of aianh wlUt ^tn^ utd uiar* 
or kM«(wla«i*l or Inoffule HiMUncui. 
Tbs in«r ud trliltM Ooun u« nev); pirr* 
■Mrtb, and tra hm Ml MUliknu m Urn ttM 
»Ur*ellr« broird ban. Tbtt nUnR ot 
dnugh U « iruo prtwai of fcnMni&ikm, 
|ind»dy •Imllir (o iliat of lb« btrwrr or 
tliclllkr, bM ihc dcobol won immou amv 
8)ipr, aWtt btaltd. nwlls, i>d b ooav 
Imo an mcTjmllbrd, |ilitni luu*, lii< < 
ki bari«r-«qjtT,«« a(igu-oi»lv. At • *onio- 
wiMt higbtr lem|ioraWrr ii li dreeMiKMnd, 
tnil « ilttk-brwii aubBltiicc, kiuiwo m cai- 
■oicl, ia turned. OnuwUkd mf/u \t *ol- 
dam ■duiwnlfli. TUt litB Hb. ta lU 
Icdinkal letat, iMlmln the tais, ■Mcfa nra 
MBpouDdi «il chmetMiwle iui'!< 'Hk gl;- 
mria w « bue. l'|Nn adiing f>ou»li ur 
(oda, Uie acU comUoM «U1i ihe alkili, 
(nmlng aoap. nA lis glrterin It Mt tno. 
If Mda b aMd. bod aoij), tt piittib, u>li 
•iMpt I* (onucd. 

hrittailM tt %tngt b7 iBflMUoi. 
— FIHntlos uT »v«l);^■ l> dcflMd In Ibc m- 
p»it ot llir lI'iTil (VuniiilatloB OS )Ie(t«poU. 
Uu Scit*);!^ IH<i1i*r|,T Iv lie lU ooMcnln- 
llcni, at (liort IiiWtTaU, a* ao area of tfxdallr 
cfcoKa poroui graiaad, ai fiual) aa wtU ab- 
Mtb ajwl tleanic ii; not Fu^adln^ '"'p*'- 
Uon-ctdiurt, but naliUi; tba pradam of 
■eeoiidafT intportanoe. On • Mdiable Mdl. 
■uob w I Mod'' loanl with a loitll i<r ■: 
tton ot prtlt; grard.tpctlallj prcgiai' 
•urfwe luvcDnR aad dovp iiBJpr-dralcig', 
aue anv U mH ta b* CapaMc i>r pufitjlii|[ 
lb(i MSB^ of niic ihmiMnd pi^K OMSH- 
fMl'i'*!** rxfuu and •lArni and MUihaa 

W«t*T4 Dirtllllivl. I'- ■ . 

hw !ind trti •rti'^' 

iui<l liK i>'ir>!l>' 'I, iJu«* uu^ 

ihlnk Ii ni-i" ■ """i r«ir<, 


ilylfi- ■ . 

of Ibc land or ef injuiing rcgat^i 
adriitt* (he lajii^ out of llw til' 
ia ivlgnt aod (iirrao*' ' " - <• 
B«ir into lliit fitTT««> 
loAotaltlwrtdcaeu ".-x^ ,.,.^.- . 
tabtea ar« graalaf. Aa mod aa lli« < 
ot aMgOOAth* iMMof IliofarmvaUi 
danl 1» pforttl inUtnUnn In an]' grot i 
grro, iIm araaso abawld ho wlUihaU I 
arau to alTurtol Tha alndlgn tbauh 
bo ath>*«d I* lb; panUll; Is ibe 
aadaWoa Bloondill>niU> llfi*) aad( 
liiio tbe rblfaa. TV illn 
liu a) pcaial ta taulilc- 
piiddtctl llio hutuou ot <!' 
OFi. idiriaka la a f4ln of - 
inoaa lilMa ilrv, aad b rs- 
. sad oaluil >{ih (ho aoIX 
tnliUMT ot iha apfillauioa ot ' 
ID tba Olwrtwla b •atonliaL 
aliouid haire oltilileco huur** rr«l oat u( 
I <><«>)'• tour. (0 allow ai' <" '< ll<"> !>>" T'-> 
»f llw takd, alid tli-: 
tog prcprnWa iif the ■^■ii •." ...„..,l.,, 
IwKor o( i:niolag |<t*i>lt I* duibtlaaa abu' 
fiTM all) b tlio pDrlAcatl'iu ot i 
tenallleni Utralloo b proti«li))r, 
Ilkdf to havo lit euoai (awfiil apiiE 
eaiuUnatloD wUb ntfan or btoad irr%alki 

iibtlaaa abu' 

n* BUitt ri«it tt U. lllrba 
fwal oC 81. KbMM lake* U>c |>Uaa^^ 
aouoef tkaBbvlopaiK^rt, iiTiti^r i%(l 
Ttio ehkt faalore of i 
cUuiliin of iba (Ula 
■ItXif''' whtehfhcBinl bl>iiiipb| 
\r} afnutb draMrd In 1'>'>i- ■>>lrai 
atilia ttlh t^rf. aiii' i 

—I - II- ■■ a 

■, bnnu, t'i 

rWna. Tim titliaiiwt uIih tJarat | 
bniiaaa arlinrf ikc oln' 
■Mr ataadaff partli 



•nwUiid la,*ail, ililk i1u>,* *rr Ml iUovmI 
Ml kiJiL-iV \Ua ){oaJ ■lilUnni, lliujr tm p«t- 
K. •«! Uui nai>Xli>r ouetAt uiudi 

u . .. . TW ytrttinntmn |iiihn wt 

bM taUi an boir u( |uUltT uiil roai|<l^;, 
Tb* idillJm ■■■•lax nmninl lo ttwit own 
lainMu^ ■ml oIJ iWU pt«;>m pr«>lou<lj M 
p4>ig tu Iml, jilMa ilMnt or tiMkvto u|joa 
fha •lluh<t<•il^ sltk ibvlr nuDCs urtiua 
•UiIb tlmu, litt llw )irw«u(i >Uik tk, 
JOtbaha !• to brlif. 

nihnUa.— n« rolljton of Ultbnt, <tt, 
rilkn-, Una aiMl tonm tta^Kt/vi allli it, 
ytajwl Ml Uaiwtttnl pan III tho tliuuglit 
•r llx rail)' nt>(iiil4* i>i Ihn Atlatlta vm, 
j«t Dull U kn')"ii of Vlllirekm at tba 
y f t iJiw, anJ tlu> lUacoMloM «f It an 
Uffd; •pamUUfr. li hu twn JitMiatly 
|j«alKj ■• biflnx Iwra a mun f "rin of *ua- 
»n.^, I. Ml tJial wnuppMind antli|atry, 
I! r*,liaiiM|<n«M.|||iiilMlWf that 

I) -.. .: :.4IIM> til* aonUli iif OnniiDl, 
llv tV^tan cniH*|Xlnii of llw Diltf. *ISA 

>-• caia)^ In iSa Jsvbll n>iK«l><l<iil of 

I Whila 11 (na/ nnr«T knio iilial 

.1 '<-tut lu^ili-rina murt, ll I* vtX- 

} ^ronvil ■ lilcli anil amn 

•il la^mljij lliniuj{h a innhonra 

Mm* lilljutMa. CawMllaa 

(« kUkdna *ni< lluwg^ aiiina twvtfa or, 

y^h^M, <l|t>ii* tiiih «t tilijtini aailur. 

•DM, V flr- ' i!ii|, «t£, tn onlf* 

tu piwait i; loll; and fra* (ram 

Thn paiial tknmgit ■•tvrat ife 

, ibd vna oiIImI, aMwdbi]t to llialr 

»t m mkinamtmi, lima, hrmw^ nrcini, 

••((■^ Mil ha*k>. tiff* •vnfwraiuunlaa 

•( ^H^**) •B'l atMulaitaB, an oblulua of 

Utb.1 uL-l • UMt, Md a tiMrhhn ol ili« ra»i 

I .^uilkal tvj^maulatlima wara 

L . . ... -^u.rn. .".r raandiMlvJ aoali 

ihnwe^ 1^ tial lUtla bkht 

tt kK.- *"■- '■ —' 'ii; 


I, •TU' Tl f»'r4"^"rMHI*IB 

I — aWtbar Ika Cliri* 
b.Ti.-<ii lr'«i Iba Ulllirald' 
Inoi (]« l.lirMiant, v ' 

. fiBT <^ sanal. Til* 111 

1Lvi< <> iMr aaahc^ 

injKeriiw of anc4Mi Iwlla; aad H naj be 
tliat lb* ChriiilwH jhUtd to tW iinnptaiiiM 
to ouoipraDlna b ordor to niaVu th« paMa|» 
ut tiioTirnioii nulcr ; a* li li lolcnlilj ctwr 
lliat tb(7 dkl Is llir appcdnlntcut of • tmin- 
Inr »( Ibe dMKft tutlfali. Hlilla iLvm 
itacniUuiee* and relatMoM nwit nukn tbti 
rallgkn a matu* ol porpctaal Inicrcat, Iti 
ori^ and nature are In fact "Utile leuob- 
•onro than tlie tarenia In wbkb Ita »rt. 
loltm* (Itca tiav tnioe pcrforvacd. . . . Tbal 
It ra* nmatWallo ia dMiint^ *»A tavelit 
Uw bcBeriD a rulnr« lilu; Cbal M towlorted 
« oode of moraliij, la aWeb tmk, JuMIk, 
and tempnaai^ foivn) tba pTiiwfr<U Tir. 
ta«a, it all that al pi«anA anni* dfor fran 
Ibo aMDijr «ttdiiniM ilial rtwalni of U>" 

TMSnulltuarfirMriag I* OiMfc.— 

Ttia itawilon, U dcatli fros talowa oaU 
palnlCH t U uBivand !>; a writur b " Chank- 
tnn't Jiiiirval " fiwu liU ooa MpfriMim 
OB* daj In tliQ Pcnttlaa Alp* Ailar a bol 
Jul; eltiiiU to lb* ttNxrdbf, la wbkb tha 
iraTolor ><«l out cf bit ■»}> In fnii)ii«t 
cxoordcot fur boautUal ob^-la, and ilU not 
rat, tb« iinirl uul llw ra]i(il diau^ lo lu- 
lm«o colli ViA |iIkp. I^wiIj prtputd la 
raihra lbs iranaltliiD, lh« vrlior Colt a p^. 
m\Ua •ppcuaoiM In an U* awriMndhi^ 
"Kvrrjnlibg bobd haij to mj •rUoB— 
vrta lb« WM« and tba mcha Ijrtnic abawt 
iHiktd M If oinkficd in ■ fog, alUiOiigll 
tba aflarmKm «a* b«MllfUll]r olrar. Tbad 
I fth that I VMi all dotrn uhI (■)or ll( 
bal tba cnHa'a flaib «l A'i'iwAinuMr tux me 
gotagg agnln. Tf)' aoMi. ho««rer, Iho for> 
nar faallaji rturnipd; but tba miu« Insl- 
maiM ian(Mi«ri)j' mumerod mr. Al laM I 
took u MuabUnjt almifb f<lt dawn aaranl 
UuMa. aMd a4 Imgth <imM ttnl brlji lu/wlf. 
U; ooinpanJani arpd »■ lii tbIb to arwu 
\o CO* MOT* effon; but It wu nMlaw." 
Tira Bonlu tivin ilia hoa|-k« aetv bniu|;(il 
Ui 1b« tntctit, anil tli«; and tba irulda ** look 
am In baud, and, tliaklui; nii> up, *«iU tmj 
iHDdt olaqi a ball niiiud lliu t^dr'i valal, 
ami f>ib vt l]ia nmuka look as arm," ami 
that fuUid Um thmuoh iba a*«an a»d t, 
half ■dnU iWbMplee. "TbiMMtbM* 
r thai Jaaraar, tlnrlag fMewbmal fUame of 
"uctouMins" f ■■ •rtUr oMllnuaa, " Wfll 
rar Iw oraiod fran mj nil»l I* time 
Lib an ciiiHiCi of aaaiaito daOgbt at Ada 




marlat If there is. it must ban bvM 
•MMdiing III'* It. or tlw -nrj tlilag ItHlf, 
wtibh I tojirtd iJbU day. Na wonU caa 
peafiblf cipruM iho nirprltta; duira "lilcfa 
I f*tt u iIe ^an Mtd njoj mj f«lioilj — 
uij alnp. But pif inuomlil* trieoda troow 
thu alotp rowai dmili: tad ikaimh raj 
rapviMd >ppcd» at ' DouDmiflii^ douo*- 
mrat I ' >0T« pUiollre mongli, Itioj worn Bct 
by P0d<nilri<Ml ollaru m force in* onnrd, 
ov«a vfan nr mu Ick> would not moro 
kUf longor. . . . During the ■oiMliMd «f- 
tan* of the tkrM men, I hkd but inomeat- 
atj gllmptc* of conscloniiMBL 1 monuber 
■odng two (omcUilngi, tikdi, o«w tat each 
iide, but Tcr; IndiiilncL TlieH, ol oourM, 
were the trindlj nionln. Tlie oac over- 
wbeliaiDS Idea OM tl\tA mj mind ibcn wu 

bow to gBl to tllftt slwp, lll»t titiuful CU' 

tliauuU wliinli pooM hkve (ung thout, but 
wbioh uj winpaoloni were driofi tbdt bi-rt 
to rob DM of, Jwl whon I ti*d got il witliin 
m; cnup." ll«nce It b oonduJed that 
dMik tf«n tntcoM o«U lur at nil ertst* 
ba pkiuttM. 

DalfftCrQiar] of Rillwa]r ITork.— Ur. 
EilwuJ \7oads Pr«.i.iriil <A tliu Bnglliili 
IiultUillini of HtU CajliwiPr*, ont«ml tlia 
NTTioe of Uia Urtrpuot and UuiriiMUr 
iUdtAjp CaiDpaojr moiv tbaa flfty yaw* a^. 
It Ibu tkM Ik* MMaltod ■' Ui-MIM " 
ni\» -utn Mod, woisUng tUrtfJin poasda 
to tbe jard, and WM« laid lu hVD (taira aa^ 
liorwd OM (totM biociti. Sutfe bed* proTod 
Uo rigid, and wrM tald wbk iMaTlor raib. 
Then w»«Jgft *i(q>en, bdng moro oiaatlc, 
•rare adopted tiwuad of Honc, and a wooden 
*edg^ iMtead of aa lt«D ome, for baldiai! 
the rait In ibe cktjr. Tbe mmI ilctfKT* 
niiw cwnlni; liiU> rocue in place ol wood arc 
•0 tomwd *> Ut gire gr««t ehaiidi;, and 
aroid lb« Uanilor of % cigtd mad. The a*- 
•oMkl ch«n«i«tt»tia of iho lanrnMlroi; 
tkoayh HTMl lai|initnD«it4 haro bcM laailo 
In Ikwi, ktre not bocn i)haas*d) liul a 
wuodarf 111 e<»*onix ha* !>«« •fforlnl In llin 
eoiw«ni|illoa »( ooaL A iarj^ar IraINc It now 
ptfrvrniBi wlib iluw UioumaJ '-■'-'-"-' — | 
lona a( o^' i>rT anauin ihiin " 
rii>lo« alttilatlK thoiiHial nt 
lona. TiiD Irixdl'v |)>iw«r sf tmgh 
I Md luntiBa 

worlfod tj looomailTM arc now oa«By 
uiouotcd. tlM ««r«ge of fpeed hu Imcii 
IncroaMd ooMUrMbljr, bat tke MaxieniiB 
not grfatlf. In ail tbe «ioworj detail* of 
nllwif worb, mdi a* (ipMling. (wIuMuk 
btaldng, cU., there baa b«cn a great aail 
inponaat adranoe. 

aad I 

F«rMtrT b SwltatriaBd.— WUI« bj 
CoMtltutlon at ISTi tlio narnUrallMi 
the right of •upcrrliloM, each eanioa 
Swltmiaud po«MMaa In effoM It* vwu 
■ehcmc «r tomuy organlutloa. Two tju 
lull)* are prvrakav tK^ ^ whkh baa lu 
adraaUgta Id wnaia cbeuartUncM. In 
tb« otolnt, •outborn, aad auicm |iarta uf 
Ibe fodaralloa, the \nAtarf of Uio oaaiea* 
U ponlonod lutu dl«lriou of Irom i 7,S0O to 
T'J.OUO acm Moil, with aa intpMWr aad ■ 
number of ualnod torcsUn and Iwqiera 
chown b; Ibe owDor* of tin wootla, and 
poild bjr Ibcm. Each forottor bta aboU 
\fiW aoTM multr fala eiK, ■»!. under tbt 
couiFo) of the InapfCMr, ourW out lb* pnt 
tm t t * d «u)iiriilun, looln atur liia tiaiv- 
orlaa, ciran ride*, and dlipo°<« vt tbo tin- 
brr <«l down. In llio wolcrti (mI taw 
f^IST^ pan* of Ibe oiualry, wiMrv lln ow- 
[otu haro long pnwaeed fotcsi orsanla^ 
tlon*, Bwrtlf pnMoedtw ■laeaim an anbi 
ordinated to niatnliaanrn of a adwiUealtf 
vaincd oSeial alaK. Ifeil of the nanimul 
gorenuneBti own fond* abloh Mrra al 
once at nodek tor the olhtr (o«««i piqprto. 
ton and a* aacMoimgeaent for nit aeiaW 
fill«wN«l <d priraM alaffa of k<pp«r». la 
ihoM oantona the aapetinr (••r<»ier doc* 
nwck that la kfl eUeabtn u> wwliDM 
haad^ tht Mfierior fereaien arw vtttf 
whrra nominaUd and palil by itao alalt^ 
wlli^ ibn iLoilcr-fotviter* are miMllji arlMtfil 
and paid lij Ibe foraat^ivnnra. In boM 
BWtMit I'HMI adwliilalralina la ro«diMI«l 
bj a dpparUnenI und«r lh< rnU nl • OMtn- 
bM nf Uu p>r*minont, aativMl by ■ 
fon^ipr. Tba fwy In ail gtailaa n( Um 
l«g U ainall. 

lunl in Jifao fniiii 



«i||hl «t W, Md Mcrl/ i«a tifib* of niinv 
pMMif naUcT. TUt wouUI g(r« it tUM 
iiMt Mm nuliWM vbIm of hMf. Tlw 
it^mtt* iinnxtra It hjr loaUng ifc* bMU 
In *•!■* rnr tavuij'.foiM bevr*, Ihan ptod- 
Uc Hum I> b Mum bIU "itb lb* |mml 
••ur obUtukMr, id U I* (ano > Uiln t«lp^ 
7W I'ulp )• Iminl to bcdlias, abtn KKiro 
««« b «>Ub1, ud il i* ballad agtla ; ikta 
MM* auU *■!« b adtlvJ, *nil U i* ■lluirtil 
In rtSMl. Via liifMir U tlHS ■tnlnut «>l 
Ibminfc • b*);, buI iuIb* b nlmd lau 
IL TU* ^fuu ■ «ii«iibUM, *iij iba rani 
te pmH4 M In ■aUbc cbvDM. Pnf. W. 
MmOm WOUmh h«i ubuiMd mJuUv «• 
Hill bj itMlhis |M* In • rimllMT uanori 
■■4 W mbmAi UmI all pMi u4 hmmi «lll 
jMd (oMiU owrin Bbm •» iTMhiL IVof. 
WIUmn MiiMU* lb« ami tt produdog 
Iba bMMwd, tqnal U m< wjinior to Um 
bMl «bMM ««d* b* Iba dkbr, at abcnt 
IbnapaaM (Mr iMoad. 

WltOMlallHf btrcn Utt*n.-Wtnt. 
Inf hw baaM ani«l on to tb« 8(ilub»|*n 
a.^ .)»,.•.« iha ta>i rurtf jmh, M«M^ng 
i< 'IT, of iha ilMiMr BttlpM, od 

r*- •..—>. <-r >b« »U of Iba iraOe In M>b, 
*ttt •baa* pf>»lai«a tba (»p» lo lh« ougo 
•i «^li>tn<Ddii0la «an> flllnd i bat data Ibo 
taaadnnlnn nl ■!«•»• raaMik ta •boMl 
ItM^ tb* MBla ban btaa w cvmptMeljr «>■ 
IBH^aittl ibM I* BO hB f lf par* a Tiiaal 
ta p> ta •aarnh a[ tbiw. Aaam bai alM 
baaa (a a (rmi Ttti«l tba nib »f tba Oimu. 
Imd ihah iihtag Tb« *bti« «m nocil- 
taf tmbar aal <Mtbt( iM» lb* loo, vbM« 
Il bt *■! I iiTili la foflo* ibtaa. So hr a> 
au h* J«4|c4, tbav ata prebabtr m Cinm 
«balB Ml* (ban Ibtn vm* fivij jmn 
■rs bal ibfT ara sen laMcoaribW. a* (h«y 
M Mh iw*r Mi^lMnt hiibw back br 
*• MitB at Dm waaw inlaM. Noiatib. 
<— Bat tbr piiPT diOoiliT la poiiMfailne 
tbi la* •! iscb a itrac, a " cbaa aaaMO " !■ 
' hi ibK ■balo-bibxf, ter tlio ab' 
naif *r|Mar te Iba art^hjibii i ..i 
l-tM. «*J Im a|«k waaoaa Ibn lao b eWK 
Ir bnAan iqi bf tte avrlt la anna 
^H iba ahalra air Uu-' In i|ipaarlB( 
a b> ' iiMk) il«M b about 

»" 'nm ibal UiM lbs 

< It ;>.— 1.I..I till abwl Iba «iul 'if 
•Ixtt dw vImW iIIm|i|iii a ev« 

bMscfc of nitnpriM bu ticm deialofxJ 
wllbln a f«w jvan is bblcf for iba nnaU 
"beUta^Ma" vbala. tb«a» obalM jlelil 
Iio buoa, bu p/n about a ton «aoli of aa 
oil aiioal Lo lubrlcMlag po««r lo tbo aoalb- 
era •p«nn-«hala «fl. SIuco ibcj bqpMi to 
b« buniod, mun Iban tao bandred bare 
McwtiflM* bm UUad in a iMWtt bjr a ringla 
«Up; bM ibtre arc dpi* thai the tnda I* 
balsg oitrUiiua. Tlio oU*, foiMtrtj lb« 
nMb-ata; a( Ibn Sahcriei, wcm at otie lltat 
Iar|«l7 ttirA for Usbtlag colUMit* and alrMt- 
laea]!* i Ixu for a gtod MMsy jrtm bock 
ibef ban been prlndpallj Haplojod bj }ui« 
maaufaciurtfa fca lubricating parpataa. 
Stoo* Iba dlionvra; of ib* gNai BuMlan 
patmlouiD-wetU at Dakn, howarcr, tb* de- 
mand fur ib« kbI buiI alade olb bal grtntt/ 
tanmolT; b««baltboncbno«Blabigb«r 
piriM Ibtn CTor. CWjiialn Gray itprd* Ibo 
pranpcM of finding a n«» and luoralliro 
«bal(-flib*i7 In Ibo aataitda *aaa at ntj 

Ballaat* M FaUtnn ff TMdt.— lb* 

hlilur7 of rallaar cuaalniHio* In India Q- 
lutraua b» a nnarkaUo aajr bo* rapUlf 
traflla b donlopad a» anon aa fadlMM ara 
opaned b* U. Until wlibin a jan or ivo 
paM Iba Q«iiarttmmt af iba oa«uti7 ainaU- 
and tbai II ■*• unUbelf tbit an; nllny 
(n lodte voutd pa; tbai dU not jwh iWougb 
k dmo popuUlfcai. The Oo w r um cal «aa 
aiana la ooaatniollng nSvaja la Dunnab 
tUI b««lnoM biKtaai ur^ Il au iiNnf tf 
that Ifao mNrinMil «a* Irfi'd, abni, lo ibo 
anrprfM of Ibo adoOnialntk*, 1b« Itannab 
Ibllaif paU abonl n>« pn ront aa *wn 
aa II aaa a|HMil. lo tlm unia anj Iba 
(litToraaMnI donM ibo peaalUIMy o( a*. 
taMtta IraSa npoa tlio Bajpootum anil 
Iha Indua Vallay nlliiaii, >lilr)i ai>r<i mi 
•truMMl aolnly fur altaltiilc pniKMm Uirvugh 
a iiooilj (wjiiiUtod ouaiiti^. RW] ■ narruw 

— -"■ -11 Ll mwldaKwiL T(* ao 

11I17 bM* tirai^il u»d<r 
■ -.'i-iii.iir, 11. '. I 111' umi'Jalbin b«» la^rtaawl 
•o fMI, tlial In laoa lilt Indna Vatlay Balt- 
•a; MiTtal r. •■■,\ tod Ibinj-ali 

ttOlkn aiili' aad two biMdnd 

BuJ aiii' :i«a «t gaad* 

aad r- ' MM M It* 

Il .m nlla- 






pu*eas«i« ftnd itin* knnilivc] oad tiontj- 
M*co (nlUioa nllo-MM of goodi tad gnin, 
■nil piU O'OT p«r mm ^Kin iu cifiul. 

fits ■snared tthslx • Waatf .~Tlic Uiii- 
la> BiMbiiKsgua hiui k c«|>Mlt7 for filing t\x 
httudrecl round* ■ miauu^ or Nt 1mm ilwe* 
lima* gTMior Iban ikkl o( ny Mlmr »»■ 
clilae-gnn. It liu onlj k tingla l»fT*l, 
■Mch, Hbea Uie ^ol i> ftrtd, tcoalb « di»- 
nuicc of ihiTc qu»n<f« of >a Invh on Uic 
oUicr pftru of tbc gun. TUt roraU *t\a 
iDOTing th« iaacMiicr]r obirb autoinaiinlljr 
keep* up « cantiautmt Stbg u iho •iitaon 
dbuj rate of l«ii rounda t frcoiid. Etidi 
recoil vf llw Uurel boa llicnfor* to ptrf am 
Ibo niMva«a>7 fonciiow of eiirartiog %tui 
ejecting tbe «Mpl; cartridn*, ol briugfaig Dp 
tbo cett Ml oii« and pUc^n^t II in iu proper 
piMhien in ilm band, of cocking Ilia ham- 
taor, and puLing llw Ulgsor. tbo barrel \t 
cooled «ilh k «>Ur-Jac]c«t, i« adJ^uUblc In 
Mcry (Jiroction, knd liu *, outlmiwu range 
cf clehtccB liiiadNil r>r^. TV giii vdgb* 
onl; one Iwadfttl and Ai pound* ; U can b« 
Mk«K *p*r1, (oldrd lip, lod put logctbcr 

■gain, Dm luur opontlon being poMlbli In 


now limber can be inldltenMl; eolU- 
Tal«d od fami-lMi ot tiaa ililcrn lo iHcntf 
»nr* *ai eipUincd b; Hr. Itcn^imlii H»iL». 
■ar at tbc Mlcblaaa StmttTj CDartMion. 
WMIe Ibe timber u jonne (Iw peuad «n 
be nud for paHurc, and ev«n tor «bc«t 
and «M*. After the ibaile hu groan 
denM, tbe ttmporar; tnlve of ilie lud i> 
fvdiKcd : bnl in elslil or Ua ;(*n afiorvard 
tlio llmbrf beraiiw* MLrbetablo. Tnm 
pUttted la benSrr Mcvani, un ff<l %t*H, 
«itl «Bpf«rt a wire tunot, alTonI a sapplT 
«t art>-««*d tnm ibelt irlamlap, a«d add 
pofklftt^ U Dm aUianlreMM, valun, and 
ptoDtablv oaliiTalton of the (ana. 

Tn Pronch AaMiriatbm mrt tlila nar In 
Umfa. ■■ Uran, In AkmU. M. UuwikI 
■a* AoMB jinMbkai, and MlrntMl an ad- 
ilfTM •« 11m rfHIblM InAiwo of r-^-^'f 
Tlw iBfWlai ira* held la ibn mKng 
of iho tilBtnpr. nn i.'vr'na tX eiliMtt' 

UiL Viwrnr J*couR. irnlM 
ot tbe n'olToTbaiBfiUa and SUlTo 
C«Dfrsl Boapilal, wlw U abw Major 
Wolitrhampiok, jirotltJfd rviviilly al ' 
" Berial KtJonn " nwetbg, nad tlellnMl I 
leforBii rtsuirrd lo be : cvIVm o( iIid mn _ 
perivhaUe and ligkted nuMttel, all laMlng 
*ub«t«itM bdng rel^ciedi Intcmirnu »• 
cariT t pOMdble ; Dip nil la )•« lOtaardad 
a* an iinMvtmaiir and baocfuJ onraitag, 
and biiiial in plain tarlb •itb toial dtraaa 
of laulta and bnckrd grticA Vtiilia ynrr 
condemttcd bf Dr. Ualel. nii<dlcal bi«iib> 
eiHttr tor ilie bernnob, a> lending la tho 
>prcad «r ^tttt. «ad injur; to th* bcaJlti 
of petMua aUeniSiig boriaW. 

A cnuKTM!! of olijretl T(J*l)n|c in re- 
llslon — alur*, iitIhu' rabee, and kindred 
obJMti — rimI* in lbcnnir>ctif MrnftI jrmn 
b; U. Gaimet, wu Muno litne ag« | * ' 

bj bim to the ■nmldpnllQ of Fui* 
lion Ibat a buDdli^ *l>o«ld b« a^ 
^'oted loihtM. ThcbuUdlag, whiiti b 
I» ihe TrocniUio TnlaMv baa juM boon Dm. 
Iibed. aad aill tborily be aon|dod aa a nm- 
•Mm of idi^lona. 

"RaiLVAT-itu»i"»a uc^^ 
Dr. TbomKQ lo a nturceia i^t _ 
roamDcni of ibe ncrrca dtuIiik'I wj i 
>hock meiv<il b* Ibc brad on a raiUaf. 
car. Ifl the jianioaUr cbm dwaHxd, mo 
aoiind !■*• itvrirrd. and conarteaMMM «>■ 
pr^'cniil al tbe liioe of ibe injiiiy, Jl 
■ Bid the pailmt beoanie mclaOk-lKille, 
eomplobicd «l InMuudk. btadocbc. 
patn, irtaitnrw, and failin* «f ag , 
A t^glnie tod pallUUra Uvmdmm 

Ax bvlervulng eiiiarlnieni aa* 
made bf a Dr, LtiiiaM, In refsKM* U 
tulaiiie t««cT uf imaEloatlen Ib Ihe 

»«»««, llr Ei»r (none hut^O'^ "' ' * 

]>iliil palti'liu ■ itnw nf 

and nlmnlj" a(ifT»ii-'t pii' 

parcniljr (re*'' 

uiistake adnii. 

In a foa init»>i(-t U-m iii<f-> r,i ir.r 

veie *0Mtud bf lb* MppotMl enMlh^' 
wore malnh aw*, wUle erer/ mw af 
Ml aSoolM w«io wowwii. 

pi-' 'altr forr. 

d'-' . 'ji-^'f ("'H' 



AHMKtailm*— 1 

Tat grau Vnaia prbr -t It 
or |g.tiilK Im bttn tttmi-^- 

>■■ Iha a»il_Ba oT OkIo. 




Tn daMvrlng* rffiral or ktwnle npOtt 
!r illMMueil M the raiho- 
l(> I 'iHlnii, kflor ft Mannwd- 

ilii . .uditiaA llaidilnMm. !%> 

•Un l» Uir Uuaa ou «hkk ftrtoiilc liu iwr- 
ba)n lu miKi Bkrkad bifltmca. Ibt (Xil- 
(Stt ««i opull IW mwipUiloM lii>4«*d of im- 
Mwitnc ll. In niaUua ll mmMt >nil an> 
drini;. A almau- tniM b viUbhM) In 
tU fMtt ol (hi aUa, mJ tuf kiui to (Iw 
<iirfoi»Ml erf Mfi vnnM, BDi Wirt*, In (Iw 
palvi hI ik> luud ui'l M>ln (■( Iha fnt, 
•Wa • roi^oanl «iailtilan alio gram up 
MdfT b* IbUmiiM' Hr. HutdilBMai «(• 
I Wifi dW brilrf tku uMmlo OU pcwbMe 

' tlMIH Uiat tbn MiMlihaM nt Ik* 

nfc'* prrilipll'*) TMM^pi Willi ihs ■■miaii 
iMlas •ir«r7 linvt^OW I huiiaa n J J*v« 
iib> tL* Mgalaf rorarmiM of • Mttbera 
1 pMtoJ. U. Adolftift tl'.lMlor ha> ckU 
I ih»i ilw lul cUiitI pcriuJ (WKtMd 
ladaOnub-M In HiO >. e, unI that Um 
pnUd uf RftaUM mwli In 
tt* ■orUurnt lunnlifilwi* owumd *. d. 
Ilaa, •£i*r >hli!li »w ImawBtltly tw)pw lo 
Mwn WvanI Um uiit aUuiii poriod. alilcb 
HH tmA lu hri<t<i In. k;, *. a ll.TU>. 
Bmm 1h« Mrth muM Mvc Iwm ■ra'ilaji 
mltf Antal lb* lu* ri« liiin>lr«d jrenn. 
IrfiMM l« DM vaailac. ■■ <rAMlar m- 
MnMn ^MBf Um> haTD Iwon obMnvd 
U (M naHhani lUalU irf ([Tusth and ripm- 
lai tt Mtttin pkal*. UiM (hb ha* b«« iba 
««>. aa4 l» aa«M Mrnral iMUMgi. 

Bk 1 rK«T, In a Mpn M Dr. 

TW«*< .-oIlMltaaa/tilnb'ilcrM 

aal aki*!!'. iu«uLli>na •« a faM Imk **" 
kM«« )■ hK -Mifc b llluinlal bf (|imI. 
■«• Id ttm •utlaeilun, Uiii Dam ara a 
mat tBMrmrta of N'orlli AaHfltan U(da 
ttM ipaiaaliT ImiraaH in 4id aa *a paia 
bm iW «Mtk/n parti ai Iha ocMnir? t»- 

T>ri Amicb la Iha atj ^lih atli uu j of ^lan- 
Irr I'alH a u Mlillii K ta ih« aooMnt of an 
bcbk tnttnatr IhnMrtT la iha aanloi of 
1lHnMflu»i>> M fNBaf bk^aUuiaa 
iinlaMyapii i ^ » bank w bash la 

oWataad >> ' 'a>v potnUL Tha 

au^'..~<.., ■iibant aHntUin of 
ami Mb abufaa an mUvoi 
fMMtal 1^ aMaa tiBMk hM Klron rt« to 
■Wabaa nad awcpnaWU Mnu of tha alai 
at lh> ftnr. Tlia fnral ulal*, *onw fl>« 
hMalnd aAU* In ■«»«•(, UinK<h atiJi-h ti 
fM* boa, I* aanimil (or iV iiuwl [>itl wlih 
m|il«tl >r4Cl«> alawkJlM la rara 
ratoahl* (Mn* ■( pUttUU*. Trae- 
an-t tamr Tmlt<llaa af orditia >>l 
mdaarr »niiMM). on -atty ■■ ii. 

■M r--- •rvTTi) hln>l* l>f |>laL : 

ji. I ilM>i;a07,aad aUnn 


X cnaiava mabat bttwcen two hiwfait 
bb4 an «■! la dcacribed la )Uiar4i«kenl 
NeahiH** "mshfatida et bdla." Tho 
ihfto blidi dm pcrrnrnad a praUminarf 
Hrt«« d( upaard (jrathina, anch (Mleaveaw 
iaslogDl a pa«iikma(adrtnUf:cBUirc (lia 
other. >1acttlr one of the linokt mado 
^ood hb itroke, and both birdf fell lo dm 
grouad like aatontk, VTlMn Ibc author roda 
up. tho Itiile haat wu aiaDdlas In Iha auk 
luila of a OMMueror on iho owl'a body, 
nlioM haad b« nad laUtod u8 and held U 

Tna aorfd wiufuiw ananalt;, aoeonl- 
Ing to an EndUk aulboriif (n iba trade, 
•haul (AOiMM tana of eoRcw. and produoaa 
a (omapondlng i)«aotUT. Billinatiug ih« 
arenn prtco ai (400 a to^ ihli rt^ (wMita 
a talun of $S«0.OO(\0oa Jiwaita otSao U 
Ibe ObmI groan, but onljr (uimlAea about 
tfiOOtew, Eatt Indian and Oejlon eoHaca 
Bia cf rary hlRb inalltr Ihu \hvf ila nol 
loeMlier produoa mom than tVKK> lona. 
The OeylDD crap BMd lu b« more Imparuat 
ibu ll Ll, hui bw Iwen ndwMl In voaae. 
qucDcD of a dMaae of Ilw jtlaaU. Tht 
BTon^je orap «( Jara U froM niVXiO la to^ 
ooo iMM, aad that of llraiU from MO.OOQ 
ti> fiSiVOin (ana. Cotu Hka and (ha clbar 
Onilial Auwrioan ilaUa alao cipwl ooff**. 

WatLi It appear* from (ht nrnnl* a( 
Knellib healUi omcat* dial torn* dbaaiei 
baM tpMiial •caaon* la ahkh ihc^ am mOM 
lIMjr la vrerall, It b not *lia«« thai eooa- 
dunal itnaUon* la lompmiuf* have nudb 
bioMM In Iho Bultvr. Knriei rarer li at 
iM uinilmuoi from Jvunrj l<> Kit, aud at 
ha wulnMm hi OetotK* aa4 Nomaber. 
tMphibttte la me** aranly ilItfribaMd 
tbmiRli ibe jaar, and li bmiM ihiagrn w a 
Uiile Tatar Ihaa aarlel faver. UeadN and 
•buopbaKDUgh Mum la be aanwwhai ait- 
pavnted by mhl vaalher, but ars mmI (alai 
ta Mmj and Juna^ H«i maiher la advcfwi 
•o unall-jioi, and faifirahla to dlMtdota of 
Uio Uiarid, putlnilarlj hi cUHrcn. 

Itnnnifa to catrh uilm b itMlircd (« 
ba daaftnina, nM (ttly nn ne«c«nt of Iha 
iHoaediate pfdb tl laTolTM, bat aba Ixv 
aaae ll lanib la Iba Iouk ran In •hartM 
llt<L Wa— al tnul prram* «ho hara paaaad 
niddb y h awoah a otrlaln a u wawt of 
I mrM, and all that «n draa upaa In 

Unrrbt b abtlraMed from ikal which (boald 

br dUtrflMiieil Ihroueti ibe rrmala4«r of 

llfft, Tha iNvrrt nf luuffvvlty It pmk«bl]r 

■kill Ln M ecnaawlrini ibt rmpnc of tital 

MMTO a* 10 »ak« It bal oal aa unamal 

ptrtod, Fwamia who ti««ln nnaanal MW 

: i-tv* in K«ik «Mt ailapt ihab oonuUnileM 

: mil Kif tlinrvtiji bold <« 10 

-I ot lifri bwl (hiaraa nutba 

r OM aalU UIl malun M* bf 

1 (■ ■ ■■!!. 




Olir h known lo pla; kii (RiporliBt . 
pan lo tfae growl)) of pltnta b« foniitbiag 
llwm ftnil the aarfacc of ihiii<oI[%itb moliA- 
ura. In hoi omt nJnlcm oouniiica Mid wb- 
HU. (n fkCt, ptanu tniiDliI not be nblo to 
raattk muuriif wro It not lor tho d«« 
vhi«b (uppliM tli« ddkipDc; of nln. Ac- 
Mtdioe to M. Ptiltioni, do* pla^ ■nolhur 
•nd mtachlmiiH part In pronraling Ibc 

Cth ot parkiliic fuTigotdf, vlMte aporoi, 
jtbt bi (ho Hind, o*« to It thoir po«cr to 
gtrauiMto 00 Ihf planlji on uhlch thrj llghl. 

A nvMTTm o( Oie Kn;lUh Hodiati 
Ooiuwtl hoi txvn ai'poinicd lo cgnddcr the 
bMl nMna ol Incn-uluK llio pnodcal o)o- 
mMt in mfdiotl •duMthm. AtilKninh th« 
•irittl; unniilSe pan* of msdicina ar» 
iMigbt U they now hare )NCn uucbt bn- 
foiTv H I* eoncnloil thai there hna dmd • 
fatUiiK off In ihft prsctioal |)«n, aoid thu 
the ii«w gnrfoal*, alihouf^ ntora l«anwd In 
iniaoM anKlomy, «b<m1ili7, aad pttjaIolog7 
than hi* prodMOMon, ia I«m apt u racog- 
nUng attd tiMling oamnwn diMwo*. 

Tnx capadljr of BUfcnMla lo fotra a <o- 
Rent, long: knoaa, hu (ton rr|prrf«d Imn 
A pnclin) point of tlen (ano« tha rceliluDa 
and (othpiMucu ol the SlMafun poUwh 
loaantKtuiv have tl«rn lo MmnKttiat tni- 
poHMWO. Dr. ^ink*! («nimt of magneiia 
anil ttiloriilo «t BaoMrium ma% imfonu- 
nal«l7 liable lo llw ol^Mtlon of awrlliiif: uid 
brtaking up, lUw mne «( Ibe lin)p-n<iomt4^ 
In conMqnene* of flow bjilratka. Dr. 
(IfWtdinan, of Blractbfq;, haa patmtcd • 
B«w prooHa, In whieli, Inwad or taJdnhiii 
tk magimia a&d tTMLiing tl with vUcr, ha 
■Mkea • caitatwie «f U bf raiwabw h to 
aarbaido add aa praduoed bjtbe bvniuigvf 
eoko In <kaa apartncniik It tkai ftw«a a 
■ubaUsn u han) a* maipwdu and tapablo 
or taUnff 00 a Hb« polM. MiMd vlth 
inarUo^iiHi, M forma an attifltlal dokmtu ; 
and, «llh iObtble alUMtca, u artUdal 

Eimnmra with an ele«trio locamo. 
tWa aro no* bttne umiI* on one ol the itn- 
derfi«inid Toadaln Loaden, vbttKlf aM- 
fMafnl, wilt d» awar vith lh« rhlof annoy- 
anoeot andmnxiM traT«l, tho nook*, aiiJ 
the ikaiKr tncadmi lo oaining a mwmIuI 
olacMa omtcM ahmg lb« line «UI be tt; 
nath Iw nml oa Uw undatKraoMd ajaten. 

Da. R tt'. :^iiiTKUit Ins wad* nnat- 
anmaMi of ilm lup.' nf I*-* lltxlr»n tur" 

nliUi (/./<> 

oonmi plaliM '-<! >''- iIm:<-. . 
Iiartns tenli tllmvlaW'l \<j ■ %■ 
»hnlnla(*iflbi|;-r>"- "' <i 
fla>rt4 tunlro aj»l 

ban rarely dtan nwra (lian four foel 
any flagla laifi, vhllc Uie labUt i* aatlaS 
irilh nther mote iban liro f««t, aad, «rT 
quicUy (tcdlBie ^wut the ta^bnUi, 
tnick* nude br an Indlrldoal of ekhcr (fa- 
cka may aMoally onctlap each olhor." 

Tna UnoUlpt] Cbasril of Taiii tnuoda 
to fonnd, In CMmecdon with see ol 

framlncnt publio liuiltutKiit*, ■ rhair 
bilowpldcal ZoSlogj. «iih ■ ri>f>flal t1) 
to tbo pn-pacaiiM a( ihg [taivUiiaa do 
trine of crdutlon. AmonE those Kh« ■ 
named n« t««bable omipanta of ibl* dia 
the fltlnt l> *aid (O b« )(. Alfred Oiatd. Uto 
of Ulk, but M>« ot Pah^ •bo baa tauclii 
ihia dooli4ne and made rtaaardfaoa rrgudlBK 
It, and hia galhetad araund Uw a adiod <n 
young aofibebia. 

A maTm In "CtNnb«r«> Joumat " kai 
«iigp?>t«d that. If rrbooUptfam are'tft br OM- 
linurd, ihdr rharattcr might be bnMoTod, 
and ihoT mieht be made lo eoniilMte la 
real Mai la Ibe putailt nf kn««M«>, and 
lo b«eo>n« a tttniuln to tarlbor alfDcl, by 
nTina a part of tlieir lalae, at Iraat, la 
uiu larm of prlTikgM of fire tuition In 
totaa tefcool vbi-rv ibe rtdHml** faiurtte 
b«Mlig* could bo iludled tut a longvr Uiaa 
and to icrealev praBohvry : aUlo a amaller 
Mrt Might Mill bt applM Is Iba prarfe 
loD of a aMda^ a* *iatble rvldanoa I ' 
iDctit and dbilsetiotL 


Da. MuxiHium t-aiHinr. an 
tMoIo)Kil, and INtwinr of Iha KnAh „ 
Qaitlenii at Bnlla, ha> reutatly died, aTl 
aga el tfty^four ytan. 

rnnv. IUkk Ciat Fattasics 
ma l^c1ll(ttlv^, Ibe l)«iil*h aatnaia 
<Uod al the 0>a«^u««a Ut 
natbcr ISlh. lit waa bom In II 
Unaulahad bl«Mit In malliMiailcfl 
Po1]ri«(4iiile Hchool In Cii|>*ntiii;^n. tn 
pointed ohaef rrr in ilie nlil olf na lotyj 
Oaptnba^jtn In lnAl.anil *iiiKrtdc' 
Mw one >hni ll iTH camplrtcd. 
t«rotni4 the nrhil ol Ilia 
made una obaerratinna af tlie wan hM« 
1»* of Mrlh and lA' of aniltb dndb 
inmlatod 9v*at de»otJr*bM>a «( 
atan ttom the orlf*n»K c™>tri*«» 
Jounul *'' ■ 

--''■ -■in tii liNf. T7H P4H-P. J 

laiL flin Antn Coam Ekt.J 
■ •' -IJHajdirt 

I.Kafn. r 




f ULT, 1888. 


Di WILUAH K. UOTT. 8. 0. 

rwumliUlo mora tluii) fivi!i yt^n ngo that Dr. Fr&ok Ilast- 
iaBM Hamilloii wrote Tor "Tho Populjir Scionco Monthly" on 
II- 1 Nuwor-RiiH, in which ho vigoroiiily iirraigued ecieaco 

r lure t'l ki-*>i> ptwB with civilizAtion in tho dispoanl of 

ii i WMUfi. Tho oiroct of Dr. Hamilton's article was quHo 

^l 'I. Hiii fon-ibhi proiuttitation of facts and theories no 

u'.. ."i]Milnr minO am tu cn^ate an almost univerml His- 

IraM o( (wniu-kry Hi-ii-nc«r, niul, ovtm at thv proMmt tim<>, the idim 
prorftlU thut |>lum)>inR flxtun« in our hotiscfl arc always a 
«>ure« nf dan^<r. In maunxinrai ami nflWHpA[>orH tlie diHctimion 
bwi htten fn-m ti: wM, ami tin- Riimn pMMimiiHic 

▼iown uro ahniMt i ;hiit wor« fimt mlvniicvd l>y J>r. 


' i ' ' i-il-nvil hdw to dt'tt-miino if thta QltfON 

:■• >]>-HTi)n-d as t'xintinff livo ynom ago 
iiiirn. Wi> Hhonld know Ihi? truth or falsity <if the UMT* 
' - ' ,« iMfji in Iat» yirars a retroi^ra^le niiiv(.'inont,hjr- 
t«d. in KnlislittitinR lioii»o-drainfl and Bt'went for 
' ' .itii) rnHt)-p<H)l.<t. C'aii we lutve plumbing fixt- 

tiE- 1 > without dnnKcr to hi-alth. or must wo maka 

(natt r(>Di!i'«»inna in comfort and conventi'ncn for the sake nf 

'■■ - liMt aono of it« interest since Dr. Honi- 

!)ii' tniiitwortltinMaaf HUiitary ecienoe. 

(^ (U esaiuluo Iho pridentw upon which ihv bidicttuenta faAvo 

Wmb DUhdiL Wci ' " " il, in th4< tint pi ^ ' I thoni ia a iiur- 

friiiiig popnlar -.. ■■ in ri'^nrd to tl <in> of tlio iiri- 

vom, H<iw ainny Wfll-iTi(onni'"i [Kirxma arr llicri', h-1io know of 

Uw work ' ' "- "-nkofur, of Carmirluwl, of Nnogtdi. ami Witmich, 

1' -iv 



and Miqwi'l, aii<! a ftcoro of othur ttt-ii 

{{nUoiia biive addtx] ao much tu <iur \\ 

to health smd Uie mmiis of ov<ircM)i»inK thmi ? And buw mat 

have ltr>Ard of tho cftn'ful t.i ' i * 

Hciciitillc AutlioritU'8 ill tltu I 

and Putnam oiid Piiniiiully and 8mytb bavo boen no Imw vuIuuIi 

bat thu i-oconls of thoir Uivcstj^&t iuns nnd nxitcrimonU, iltli^ 

uf gruat popular iuUTutd, are tiut widely Unun'ii. No onf 

speak or writ« inU-'lligi-utly on suuitary tcpicu without fiiiiiil 

with tliLB litvraluru; hut thu writvro who havt- urmiKiiL-d dant 

scionoo so Hevercly are those who are most iguorout uf it« Dii*tf 

odu aud \\s principlts. 

Let us consider the popular notion already alluded to— t 
nre can not safely have plumbing ^xtures in oar huUMH. It 
evident that the present refjuirf-raents of i" " ' if i 

mand a reasonable uumlkerof ronveuiotit ImiIei j4i 

and all the ueiial apparatus of this kind wUiuh uim)i>ru clviUn 
ttou hoB intruducod into the huuKOH 'if tliv wull-to-do, Wf 
Imrdly coniiidor thuw SM hixuries. Th(.-y ore, in fact, ubwohi^ 
Dc«Bitio«; and to disjH'DKo willi thoni would cnuw groat in&^ 
vonionce and inconceivable loss of comfort, and uvon of hf 
In compliance with the demands of u high oivilir^tioti, utt 
ficience haa been directe<l iwreistently toward the r 

mmns to obtain all possible conv<^nien<:es for ivw u: 

ablutions, as 'n'i>ll as for thn immediate and voutpl'^ttr remr 
household wnstrti. VTlint i-vidonco i- 
in tilts particular ? II i« utiiid thnt c- 

rato and cxpi>niiivo appliances for luxuriouH living have boon] 
iDvaded by diseofio and death, luid t)^. ' '* nutu' of thin hi 
aower-gafi. Tho^o fiu'ta can not b« . -, bill it in nl»n^ 

claim tliat sciouro in ut fault in thix matter. Th<* unfiir 
results of such L-at«ee nre inv&riahly due to ignorauiio tati 

Ill his Pfnstia rcporti, Dr. BillinRs pHtiniati'H that, in ihti 
Stat««, one hundred Uiousand deaths iKrcur uvi>ry yt 
strictly preveoUiblo diBeoHes alonu. This U unfiuratt 
Very til"' lotimato, and, if tlmrH n- 

riwi'H ol 1 lIuDW for I'Vcry ibxith, w. 

of ]iufr«>riiig roHult« from ignonuiuu of isuitUir)' print 

Btit huw in this igncr. : ■ ■ 
comiM'li'iit ti> diMi) with ; 
will bii uaid. piirhapii, thnt. il tt> 
direct tlin fTuLim work nf housf 
hi* flttiutw. Bu,tJtjdllU 

KAFsrr IX nousB-DnAmAOB. 191 

BlAndinfif or tlis mitjoot It in porhnpii tuifortuiutto that tlioro is 
an littlv in the aovoro ami aoplead&nt doUlIx of 1J)ii4 wurk bo oom- 
tntnd it U> UtoM whcMD tastes havo ]e<l thwm tu the etudy uf the 
mon* »ttn»ctlvu principles of urtiHtic coiwti-uction and the sciense 
of irathiticH. Ad architect Khould have the soul of an artist, bat 
Uirn^ ant few riivm wh<iB(! nature is so broa<l aa to combine truly 
artistic tawt^iH with a love for the details of diflicult mechanical 
work, invulvitttf the ueoeasity for undertakiiiK comprehensive and 
exact Hoicutifiv rcmordi. It is the province of the enKiueer to 
«iigafp> in au occupation of tliix kind. Hi8 untural iaclinal ioiLS 
and hin Hxid traiDLilg in scioutific jiuriiuita fit him BQieoIatly for 
thi' diroctiuo of mutteiv n-lating to dminage and Nwage diiipofnl. 

If Wo tiiktt the Uwtimony of competent Bauitury authoritlos 
who are cuuMtutitly employed in the design and execution of sys- 
tenui of houMt-drainagu, it will be found that there are very few 
arcbitoctji who am Im: trusted to prepare xpecifications for plumb* 
tnft- In fnct, t\xv work of the avovage architect, in planning and 
•ujierriHinf; coaxtructiontt of thix kind, has )>een found to be 
alu<Mt uiiivonully clumsy and unscientific. Thtii tias been the ex- 
porience of the writer in almost every i--At<« whore his Kervices bave 
bn«D callivl into n^cpiiHition t'> remedy voriotta dofecU in houne* 
bold dralnagtt which have ftomctimes cauned inconooivablo loos 
and miM>ry. In thla connection Uiero may bo quotod some purti- 
ii ' ' >ii(> of our K'Kt known and most reliable sanitary 

» I'l G<t>rgctE, Waring, Jr., whorecently wrote; "I 

havn had much exj>uri4>nce in connection with plumbing work in 
hiiu«i<a tltimgnod and built by some of the first architf^bt of the 
cnnntry, anil I do not lufsitate to say that, in my experionco, 1 have 
t I a xingli) ctufi" whi-n< thii nrchitivl liim made use of tliu 

p._:.. ..; and bt-Ht di-viil(j|H«! knowledge of tlie day on thin subject. 
I maybn mifltaktrn. but t think that no itrchitect with whose work 
I havi ' dit ('iUiitr wrute or underatoud the specifications un- 

dar wi > plumtiiug wiw to be done." 

Purha]<H w» riuill lie able to mm now a little more clearly why 

•0100 of our moHt cimtly dwflltugrt are veritJibln whited sepnl- 

ehfoa Bui what <'f tht.- plnm)>i>ni ? How in their status to be 

dafinhd in thin connttction ? From motives of economy, a plumber 

i- -•' •tra« vniplnywl to tnkti chargt* of an entire Bcln'me of 

iinago, and the employer intrusts everything to his 

" unfortuii»ti.> riwultii <'f sucli confidence are iwMm con- 

't iJui uHhanitary condition of innamerablu himsofi of 

I poor alike in %\\ of our large citioL Them is hardly a 

■ly othi'r occupation whuni mi'n handle 

ii such recklewincnt and with such dis- 

'"us i*< The plumber is a mechanic, and pitrhuiM a 

iiii' I >|ij-)rtmilttciii forstudy are few, and hU iaolloa- 



tloiis ere rarely toward self-improvomont or uiteful luominfi 
Ho blindly considers it his iutorcst to induce liis vustomvni ti 
nilow liim to use the gr«at«et itmount of ninteridl {>o!«il>le iu lii 
work, nnil tho Ki^-nter the complication of arninxvment of |ii]>t' 
and fixtures witli the oonaoquout myeiificution of hts imtroiu^ : 



generally regard all improved methods developed by the applica- 
ion of scientific principles as dan^rous innovations, interfering 
vith the ancieat and time-honored traditions of their unpro- 
Ijeesive fraternity. 

There is another and a stronger obstacle to scientific progress in 

Aoitary matters. This is to be found in the powerful influence of 
»pitaL In our large cities are the extensive wholesale establish- 
nenta of dealers in plumbing fixtures and supplies. The amount 
H numey invested in the stock and patterns for matrafactnr- 
ing oerUin forma of plumbing appliances is enormooa These 
irttclaa an^ nway of tliem, exb«mely unsanitary and even danger^ 



GUI when a]>plied to Actual use, Init Ibt) profibt uu tbmr mUv 
large, and tho introducltou of bett«r and mom umpli) forms 
ftpporatuM would Hfrioiisly •!' 
Thu uliolitioit of llio trup-v. 

thouiinnd pounds or mnri) of tisolcu iron fuul Itutd ptpw (rutn 
plumbing of wery goud-siztNl houi*u, Miunifiirturom nii! ^ 
would 8utTcr kimvy lo88c«,a)id tK> tlio vnKt ItiU'n'btx ii)v< 
curufully gujirdcd )>y ivll tho n-Koui-oi'S wliicli moiit-y can vai 
nijuiil in muii)ci]Mil tt'^inlntion. Tkiti iiitluoiico liiui i.>xU-i)''' ■ - 
tothupreKS; and vro sou tradusmon's journulti [K'n«iMt«iitly 
scientiiic progress and upholding Htill tho old turthoiU wlni h «, 
to enrich uuscrupulouti manufavturem and tlivir clientitK*^ of u 
educated mechanics. It is for the interest of investnd cnpitAl th. 
plumbera be kppt as ignorant and A0 uiipro^ I < '•.lihlu. 

In this conflict of ignoraiiC! and prcjiuii > iic«, it 

not diflicult to trace still further the cnuso for i*u munh impu 
distrust. If tho mofit rominon dofitrttt in tho apfnanituM for 
dinary house-drainage could he clearly uiukTstiKxl, it would 
rcbdily eeuu that the want of confidence in pluuihiiig appltnnr 
nrisw loainly from a general misapprehuosion reganling Uii 
real imperfections. We know, for example, that w^wnr-ivir, 
sewor-gaa, as it ie improperly callwl, finds Itii way uontinn 
many houses, and frequently causes ditiease an<l death, li 
this sewer-air gain an entrance? If you consult your plum 
bo will deny that there is any ]iossihility of siii-h a di ' 
in thedrain-pi])ra and fixtures he has put in. Kut y<' 
will tell you tluit tho symptoms of illurw* of somn mi'iiitxir 
household Mhow unmistakable eWdnnro that tlu< pnlient b 
poisoned by Kower^lr. A thorough exniiuiialinn of tho 
pipes shows that they ari< it«rurely }ointc<l, mid Hint thi-rij 
leaks in tbom. Xwcrtlioleiis it U (-i<rt«in that sewor-air gi 
entrance to the house in considomhle (|uanHtii'«,iuid after 
it is discovered that the poisonous air finds it- ■ 
the trapa attached to the basins and i<iiiks utid >. l' 
vord of explanation may be necessary in regard to tltuae 
Although of a great variety of fori' idl fwwtnti 

device for allowing waste-water to t . . ihi<t)i fro 

fixtnrM to which they are attJichwl into tho dminii, and to pi 
air or gases from inutsing in tho opponite din ' '' 

The resiiitiiig int^'dinm in m<iat rases Is a wm 
a siiudl Ixxly of Htiuiding water in thi- iMtiiy of the trap. W 

is found that wwer-uir piusid fnwly thn ^' *' '•■-■ f 

have heon designii) ti» liei'p it out, the 
thnt lh«i wiitxr-tD'at* are at ! 


I., i< 

ii\ '.«!■ \\\\\, 


It in nt lliia point that the Bcrious error of a falw assumption 
I Ao fr(*<)iU'ntly mode. The truth is, that Hevrer-air does not coma 
Into oar hoiiiKW in luiy appreriable quantity through the water' 
■eola of tfttpiL On tho contrary, it iiassee through the trap vhen 
Uui iwal biu b«on tost — whuii t)io water bAs b«en aocident«IIy 
irithdmvm or fnrowl uut^ Tho hroiul prineiplo of the efficiimcy of 
wntnr'MMlx La not a!litvU<A by thoso Appan*nt failurra. Thedifli- 
mlly U in mnintjuiiing thu B«als — in kMping thoin int«ct and 
fncur« aKninst all thp various odv^^TKo influi'iici^^i thiit may iiffoct 
ibrnn. And hore the ud of sanitary scifnco muHt bti wiuglit ; for 
tbr plnnihfr'R art has been powerU«s to doviao traps that will pro- 
twl iiiir hriuHRH from the foul air of the Bfvrers. Every failure in 
lhi« atU>mpt hfut been from a disregard of principles that liave 
bum Willi tnitAhlichud by competent authoritii-s. What are thoM 

uny yrarn, skillful chemiRta, devoting thnmselvee to Bam* 
tory work, h«ve bM>n currying on caR'ful invmtigations regartl- 
in([ thi< iMHwibility of the inutKagv of novror-air and diMeaBO-gorms 
thruatfb thi« waU'r-MuflU of tm[m. Tho (U^fluito determination of 
this quvrtton ia n«c«unry in order to oatablisb proper mwnH of 
(l(ifAnM!> iigniuKt tho dangvni we have aln«dy considered. It is 
evident that the form of tnipH and other apparstuti to h« UBed for 
t' '<>w< will d<-;M>nd u|>on a i*oitclui;ive demonstration of the 

li , . . iidiiityi)f IheviuwHof thoae who have maintained that 
water iw A rmisting medium gives no protection in this par- 
ti'-uliir Til" evidence which we have upon this point is clear 
mitt conclusive. 

Ad long ago nil 1877, Narge]], on eminent scientific authority 
in Munirh, csUtldlMhed cniidusively that diH(vu<^•g<.'nnfl can never 
\n' glvt>n oflT from a lltguid at n'Ht in any onlinnr\- tcmifitnttanK 
Ij»t-r r>-Hi un-hwi by CArmichael, Wernlch, and Mir|ui-I. chemists 
ai. I ""-'-iri»ts of wortd-wido reputntton, con-uborKti<<l the truth 
III i's demonstrations in every reeped 

111 i.xjM) Ihc (hiiU'd SlJitfs Nnti'iiinl Board of Health, through 
the i>(r<irt.<i ijf C'lloni'l 0»-or;^ E. Waring. Jr., secured an appropri- 
atiiin for the purt*(Mu nf investigating the Hnme subjectv Two able 
cbnmiat*. Pnif. njiplini'l Puniii-lly and Ot^orgo A. Smyth. Ph. D., 
Wrro wmploym] Id >-i>iidurt thn iiiv>-<iti};ntionH. A loug BOriflU of 
J I and didicAtQ vx[M<rimr>ut8 was moilo, oxt<>nding through 
■"■rr' ~ ■ ■' L^iil the iiuliliiiliivl ri'inirt of thn rt<»ultti forms a 
v»lifi '■ I inn to llie lit«'nitun> of sanitiuioti. Tho oonclu- 

ire nri> pny-iM«ly tliti tumu as those of tlio othor 

' ■.. rnferrivl ti>— viz., tliat dlimwo-germs can not b<i 

to the air from any ({uiuiKt'ut lii|uid nt a noniuil t4un- 


Tht) BXpflrimenta uf Dr. N»il rannichwil, Fellow of tht^ Forulty 



of Physicians and Surgeons at Glasgow, are particularly inte: 
ing. ITiey were conduct«! with raro skill and an lione»t Aiideu' 
to ascertain the woret conditions existing ordinarily in ho 
nontsininf; the usual forms of plumbing Gxtnres. Dr. Carmicbool 
attached his experimental apparatuii to tlio traps of two comm 
water-closets connected with a foul soil-pipe leading into an 
sower. The outlet of this sewer, some three hundi-ed yards awa; 
was submerged at high tide, so that sewer air or gases were fo: 
back toward the houses. The top of the soil-pipe ased for tho 
I)erimenta was ventilated by a two-inch pijw posting through 
roof to tho outer air; and, to inipoi^o thu motft Mivero <;ouditioi 
pOBsiblo, some of the experiments were conducted with the 
pipe tightly clo«od ut the top. Thu avorag« result of many d 
ferent oxporiuicnt* by Dr. Carmicluui] is givea in tho followi 

iiaanlitatm DtterminatUn ^ Quit «»AJcA pamJ thrtufk Wattr-Traiu (A 
Bi lit Tit*nt]/-/puT Uoun. 



t Cubonk Mid . 

Soll-rip« open J 

Al UM top. . . J AlDIIFMIlft 

" "* "*■■• (ftilpliwtMd hyinsfm . 



itr. ttt< t)»> lit 




t iriiM 
1 10-170 



Ffllriil oiguie Tkpots, if preMi>t| ar« iiiclHJod in ib# Mnmoaln. 

With the top of the soil-pipe closed, it will be seen thnt 
amount of gaevs iinisiing through the water was coiisidemlily 
creomd, hut was stilt extremely small. And this reiiresonlj* tl 
worst possiblo condition thnt can exist in houses which are pr 
orly protected by traps having water-seals. 

Tho deductions of Dr. Cannlrhael from theso experiment* 
hare givon in his own wonis, tftken from tlio " Proceedings of 
PhiloBophical Society " of Glasgow : 

" These are the quantitio* of thu only sowtigo gams eristing 
the Doil-pipe in estimiiblo qunntitios which pusa thnrngh un or 
nary water-closet trap iu twi-iity-four hours. Diffuiwd into 
atmosphere of a houiw during thia timt', these quantitiwi am, ft 
u linalth point of vil-w, quite inconHi'I*iraliI(i — ]i 

Thirty-two grains (the largi-nt quantity of carl.- ; Ji" 

(Imn llie quantity of the same gm* given off wlion n bi>ttle of It 
oil ' 1. .\ II ill tho ' 1 

hllr til'' lilji ' I 'jkHHa'K (! 

an UTi' 

Dr. LtiTDiicuMi viji'ii i:xpiauu( ia dutuil iiiu (.■Aiwriiuiirii* 



I to thu pnssugo of disease-germs through trnp«, and eonclntlofl 


**Tho liquiils ill nil thesa tubes and fliuikR, though kopt from 
two to fivn muntlia at cultivation temperitliire, hnvo rt'tniviriod 
pmfoctl)- clflnr, and even wht^n examiuwi with a h-iw multiply- 
ioff oitiii tiundnnt diaiiietem, exhibitvd no tmco of lifo. Thocon- 
ditlorw of th«M> vxpt'rJRieuts seem to mo rrucinl.niid to wamuit 
tho concluiiion th»t );r4<mi8 do not paw thruiigh n eoniid wuter- 
trap. If tii> goniM pOM thrmigli, Wwn it is cvrtain tliiit no parti* 
rXrm puui through, Iwcaiiso th» loirtidcs in a soil-pipv nre putrid, 
nod b«csuM» thu piuugv of organic purticlce through water noce»- 
•nrily iinprcgnntt-ji th«ni with gwnas. 
Citnrly, tht-rt'fon*, such pitrticlas ftS 
^lithaliitm from tho Ixiwi-b in typhoid 
fevnr, rouLatning Ihn typhoid routagia, 
tfv cqI oIT RDit ttlFui'tually excluded 
from thf hiiuiuf hy a miund vrat^r-trap. 
Wat4<r-tra]u> iin>, thcrrfore, for the pur- 
pMM for which thi>y uro timployud — 
that Ih, fur tho nxrluitioii from huusea 
of inJuriuuH KulmttiDccH conUiinod in 
tho ikjil-piiw— perfectly trmrtworthy. 
They ffxclud" th<> H'>iI-pi[M) almospluve 
to mch nn oxti^nt thai what escnpei 
thruagb the wator iB so littlo in amount 
and so purified by filtration as to bo 
ptfrfflctly hannlerta ; and tliey orclude 
fintindy all girmH and jmrtii-loA, inclading, without douht, the 
•pfciflc ip-niiM or conUigia of diiKAse." 

Tltv tnttimony of these diHtinguishod sriontiiitii must l>e ro* 
jptrdiid •« ' VI) in the Ab«enco of contrwiietory evidenc*-, I* 

Ibem Rorli M'i< on n>cord P Let us exiiniine tho nuthorities. 

It b cloinisd that different results have been obtained in a tow 
IbiIbi" ' Iher )uvt-«ttgator8. Some ymrs n^ro, Prof. Dontmut 

•how* A^Mi would pass through water from one tcHt'tube 

ki another. Bat it innat ha rememhcred that the gnsus used in 

" r-'finumtji wirre in a highly concentnitod form. Such 

. na weru thim impotu^ are absoluMy imimtsihle outMtda 

c.[ al Ubcirutory, The atmospheri' of st-wtTH, draiuH, 

ai' . ., . is in n-nlity ordinary air containing hii» than ono 

|i. if the iraatw and partjcli-s uivon off by di'comi>uftiug eew- 

■•,-,•■ 4 mad'- by siifli mun as I>r. 

]■:'•■ I Ml- late Prof. Nioholfi.of Bos- 

-•f imly four tenths of one i«er ct-nt of car- 

' '; ' "I hydrnfjeu, T' " ' vui, 

, ami Lhu \i-' -■■•H 

Pw, a-A r*»Tm» •mrm* now 


I germ.1, ]>arti<;le!i, and Hporea of f angi, were fouQ<l a]ao in extremt^ly 
^^ minute (|uantitiw. But the important conBideration is, that th« 
^r gernnn, particleo, and spores, the moat dangerous eletnentA 
[ 9ewer-air, can not escape from the wat«r-«ea], and tliat 

quantity of carbonic acid, and the accompanying gases ariait 
from »ewer-air, which, eren under the worst con<lition», can paw 
through water, is minute' and utti^rly harmless. The experimoi 
of Prof. Doreniua were therefore irrelevant and valueless aa 
plied to a det«nninatiou of tlte eflicicncy of trap-seals. 

It lias been said, too, that Mr, Paton, a chi'tnist U-mporarily 
tho employ of the health depart moat of the city of Chinigu, i 
ono time observed the passage of wwor-gruics through tliv aval i 
a trap. Since frequent rcfercnc« hfw bvon mndi< to thi* oxporimt 
it ia fortunato that tlie report of Mr. Pntou is still aci-vttMihle, 
^B exAmiDfttion of the docunivnt in ([ucstion, and of a drawing of Iho 
^^ apporatus employed in the eiporimoat, showa at ouco that the 
I Hulls obtained have no ndatiou whatever to tho subjcwt wn 

I conaiduriiig. Mr. Pnton, iustead of trying to oscerUiia if 
I would dud their iivay unossistwl through a trap-seal, adopted 
I very original method of forcing them through the water int 
^K vacuum by stmoBpheric pressure. A more sl^eur^ pro<-e'<')it 
^V could hardly be imagined, were it not for the fat^t that these 
porimonts were in reality conducted to determine tJie value of j 
Ko-called germicide which the )tealth oQlcers had boenaitked 

Thwro is^ then, alxsolutely nothing in tho form of pcllrtbU' t^'tti- 
mony tltat can Ikj brought forward to contradict in any partlcul 
the iKwitivc and comprehonsive Htat«ments of tho eminont vcit 
tilJc authoritic* previously referred to. 

11 i% Mtahliithcd beyond qui 
tion that watvr may be Maffl 
iwed Hj> u t)(tal frir tntp«, 
may thero iKit Iw a better at 
more oomplote mwlium of tvulii 
ance agu!n»t si>wor-air ? The i 
tempt ha* U-t-n madn io *iul 
tute mechanical vut viol 

kinds in plac* of t... ;..ur| 
seal of mercury hw bIko 
(■nil ' 

boiin UMd In conjunction with water; but tlime ui 
addition.^ \,.< ■■ ' , . ' i ' 

■COOUllt i)i 

causing actiuni >f lilth in Uie iTny miu) ' 

it ill iKil at Hi'. |>i.>L.,iltliv thi'ii, Uiatiiny Iwltttr <-<•<■ 

■ lauce 


llui of a WHtur-NO»l will wvt-r bo 'lnvisfd for the protection of our 
hoDJKia from tiii^ poiiwiious nir of draitiB an<i sewers. But, ha\'i»g 
(Jnli'ruiuml tbis point, we find tbat there are still serioua difilcul- 
tini to overvoiuv in luukiD};: (rape that will not ta«ie their seal. In 
oar houMo-drainit thiT*.- are always <;ertaiQ influenceii that toiiJ to 
lower tbo water in the traps, or even to ilraw it forcibly o»»t. and 
tbnn, of countu, with the aeal destroyed, there is no protection 
kfpiituit iivwi^r>iur. Siphoiiage, capillary attraction, anil ovapora- 
Uoo «ro amoiiii; the mmii potent of thes« hostile a^'»clo«, Certflin 
Atauwphorir diitturbnncos nlao, such on strong draughts of air, 
max pnMlaoA the same olTei:t, and tlw trouble which has rosultod 
t: tf thiit kind ha», for the mo»t [uirt, been ignorantty 

rii the iiU{i|>oM.'d oiuiy penni'uhility uf thu watur as ro> 

gmrd> the ilanKMrous gusvii of decom posit ion in our sewers. 

VaricrttK meanH have been devised to prevent siphonage of 

trspik Orin of thu most common is that of trap-ventilation or back- 

vnuting. nt ralliol. In its most c^immon fonn, it consiiils of a 

C]r«l<<m iif air-tuhwi connectett with the crown of each trap, and 

mnniug by one or neveral lines of larger pipes to the outer air 

a' ' f' (if the bnililuie. It was expeotwl Uiat thiei device 

w lit entirely thi< siphonage of tnps, and in several 

ritjm plumbing laws Iiavn been fmmod requiring all traps to l>o 

' ' 1 thin manner. But in hiiudnNtH i»f houMW to-day, where 

li<i>l of jtrutifctitin ban bemi nihiptinl, we find i»ewer-air 

ttumring fnH<Iy thnjugh tni[w that coiitiiiuslly I04W their sciaL 

*: t it will Iw MUiily jM-cn. after a litUo reflection, tliat tbis fal- 

it remiHly rauwiH qtiit^' as Ht'rious eviln au th<HH> it is designed 

f- ubvialti. In tlitt Ilr<t |ilat*4<, if the vtiiitilution of the trnp by 

tliia method Lo elTt-otive, u current of uir in introduced close to the 

water-wMil, and this circulation iDUxt induce evaporation of the 

'rap. rapid in proportion to its efHciency aaa venti- 

ihe Bcol is w«)» dwtniyod. This fretjui^ntly bappena 

Ui the tmpa of Uutinn and otlier plumbing fixtures that are not in 

' '' UM^ Again, it is found tliat the frirtion of the air in 

'i\>t^ UjiORietimefi so gront as to prevent th<'m fnim fier- 

pruper function. In thiA ca>te, whore there is the 

■■■(:-•■ '•! in the pawukge of air through the vent, 

■ and the mvi\ of the trap w <le«tn>yo(] u 

r«*di]y an if the \- . ha<i not iH-r^n uhlhI. Again, the lower 

orifie»of tbv atr)ii| iniiueuUy obdiruetod by lilUi tlirown up 

to th* crown of the in^t ox the waiit4<-wator passes rapidly out. 

In tir. 'Q iucrauM Ut mkIi an extent that the vent* 

rip*-' 1 14 piUUfCa for (be air, and there bcoOMh 

■ \y no ndief for the mal whim sipbonagu occuth. It aboohl 

-"' ' "' "-' " '"i-n huuDtti, whi're trnp-veiitilationin 

t, (btre i* Btill anuthur iH>t uf air- 



tubes, running from tlio Inside of ovory trap-M«l to tho Itu-^pf air- 
pipe's exUmding through the roof of the huiWing. With lln« 
double ventilation, the delctt-rtous effect of air-curruiits ou ita\ 
aeals is, of course, greatly increased. 

Some idea of the complication and enormous expense of 
system may be formed from an illustration of its application t< 
group of four plumbing fixtures in adjoining rooms on one lie 
of an elegant residence recently built in Now York city {Fig. 
It will be seen that the air-pipes require an almost compic 
duplication of the waat« and Boil pipes. This, of course, odtl 
greatly to the cost of the plumbing, and increases the danger from 
imperfections in the largely augmented number and lengtb of 
pipes with their multifarious joints. 

Fig. i shows the same number of fixtures in the same relali^ 
poflitiou, but the plumbing is arrangcKl in accordance with the 
(juirementa of ino<lern methods as developed by the applicaUfl 
of scientific principles;. 

Not long after the adoption of the fallacious de\nce of 
venting, it became evident that more efiiH^'nt means of gui 
ugalnst the dangers of M>w«r-air were uecessary, and persii 

m. (.— AM««n Anr w tiu OtfMuPuuiT n ut Ann HraoMo Tur. 

effort was directed toward devising bt^ttcr methods of hni 
drainage. The reeult has btvu tht> nttainmontof r new order I 
things by the recognition of i»i'icutific priuciplos previoudy 

For the df ' Tit of tbil wionce, oredil m' 
mainly to an >" ■• , iished sanftariMt of HwmcTi 
Picknring Putnam, whose experimcutn fttu) inv< <tt od int 

jc [ ' 'illg to li 

111' iigh nii'1 

Tlirtlirstof ll.L 
Htialth of BoMl"!., •!■ I 

1 t 


'>'■■ 1 ■ > , 


Ljik m^4i]i Hint 1 1 


WATB ibown before \\w f^ufToIk District Medical Society of Massa* 
dtUMttt), tbo BoHUm Society of A rcliitects, and oUiers. Tbe re* 
■alto bnvtf biwn puhlisliotl io the "Boston Medical und Surgical 
Jounuil," tlio " Ainorioftii Architect," tlio " Sanitary Record " (rf 
London, »nd othi-r [juriodicAls. 

WHlitrnt referring now diroi-tly to tlio cxporimpnts and inros- 
tigntiotw, im may considor briefly certain principlos which have 
t«nn Mtabliahed by them. Tlii< tir»t and cardinal principlu of 
■cii^acu uH applied to bouse'<lrainage is Bimpliclty. In the place 
of a wililHrnt!fH of pijira tangled in hopeless confusion about every 
Axturr, ni(xlRm science demands that there shall be only a simple 
and (MNUlive system whirh shall act with directness and certainty 
ia ornry cana Thn old air-pijK^s from traps are discarded. There 
OTD fower juinlii. and the danger fruiii leakage is lessened. In- 
uf trept that easily lose their seal, uotwilhstaiidiiig the 
-pipes attacbtxl. tra)>s nn.< now U8v<l tliat in thomsolves will 
nwixt tlie hoHtile tufiuenci-s of evaporation and sipbunaga Tbe 
new lyKtsm drauuulH that biuinit, idnks, bnths, and water>ctneot« 
■ball bt> tKi c<iiutructcd lui to twX after the uiaaner of lliiHh-tanka, 
and iicour the whole Byst«m of wute-pipesut eacb rlii»ch»rgu. It 
rwquin-A that there ulifdl be no biddou and inaccewtiljlo rucv6«c« la 
plumhiiiK fixtun>K, where 6Hb 
may oillect and ptitr^fy, ho ns 
to become offuuHive luid dau^'T- 
ooa, Tbe obaoluto prrvtutiim 
at aerioua evlbi in considered 
of far vraoter importaDoo thaa 
to palliate them. 

: in OTi 

■^r ' ■' ■' - ■ •- 
p: of th<' 

whii^b am dir><ctly ti{ 
tboae of lh<* old. "Wv lu.v;. .<>..„ 
a little mure clo«eIy Into tbe 
driAiLfi (if tbi'irt'xi'i-iition. Sim- 
plicity luw Imoo m<cured, as al- 
ready atat4x), by tbu rejection 
(if ■ <1 vont-pipcM, luid 

\> :i 'it trajw swure 

a. ■ or evapora- 

t- ' ' vclopment of one form of mjch a trap is an 

>: ' tbon' is Kpiice only to outline the priiiciplce 

M - ructed. 

.1- - -|- ' Mr. Putnam on trnp-siphonape showed iu 

what matttier the wuler is withdrawn from tniiis by siphoniR ao- 
Uoti. It -mw ur, nifhiiiK fhrrniKb th" wal to fill n 

TUt'itiim ln-yii ■■ wjiicr upward and outwanl tbrougti 

rN.t— tannriiin tvs Pnmnji M ta Am- 


the oriflfe of tho trap int^» the wnste-piiw, iw shown bjr (urotm i 
tilt' 8kct<-h of a i><)t'trap (Fig. 3). It wiw o1.»»crvH, too, tlmt a ; 
of t]iL> water »tnick the toj> of tlio trap luid wm* n-Hcctod bnek { 
the form of spruy. This i«ug^Mt«<] the itosi^ibilily uf n'tutoil 
the wfttor in th« trap under sipbonic disturbaiK;© by n-pt-at 
defloctioiis from reflecliug surfaces. Various oxpprinifntJil \n 
torus of traps were madu l)y Mr. Putnam, as shown in Figs, 4 
C; and, finally, the form sliown in Fig. 6 was found to be 
siphonic and self-cleansing under all conditions that exist in 
[ilumbinff prartice. It buB four reflecting surfaces to defied 
vthU^t from the outlet, and the seal is so deep and the ron-ih 
tion such as to enable it to resist both evaporation and capillary 

The general principle that all plumbing fiitures shall act! 
flusb-pols, »o that the waste-pii^es shall be nutomatiraUy rleansi 
is of great importance. A .ttrong flushing action is securud 
making the ootleta of the flstares as large as the wasta-pt 

*KD Tu AnuHniaiKT ur Ui tuy «>i> X*Ar to unn Taoaiiiiuo ti-ntmnti n Wur*-nv 

tbemsetvee, and by tho um* of trupA having a fren watvr-way, wi 

no hKlIs or m<^'ha»i(wl valvm to obtttnict tho flow of wnsti'-wat 

A(!m(ion i-- "T ■ ' 

into th« V.I , , 

ing from Oie lixtnrwi alwvo. 


ofliw old luratM uf »iipliiuiooB wiUt whioti viv liavn boun fiuiulil 

. . ■ 1 . 1 . »-. 1 . 1 . 

11 •; I.. ..I 


Oor iMutiiiK, iMitljn, mill jmntryHiiikR Iinvo lii^n idiuIu vHth over- 
Ituw iiiwiiinffH vtmiiLS.'tiiig with pipt'ii ooiitM-alLtl from view atid eo- 
tirvljr itmcct'Siibl* for clvftotng. Theso overflow -pi pec invarialily 
bccoiuii ron.>|itacleti fur filth, anil the emanBtiotie fniin them are 
ftlwiiyit (ilTt^nsive aiiU dniiRoroas. Th» now patterns of basinit, 
uokn, and baths have the OT«rflow8 in the fortn of a ahort, mova* 
bia it.i ' ' «et in a recettfi at the bank or end nf the fixtures. 
Thli < , I'tf serve!) uitu) as an outlel-pluif. When raiited fmni 

its tMn( by n mimple HftiiiK device, it permits tjie e^npo of waste* 
wattr, and by ii ititiffle movement it is readily detachtid from its 
plart* for i?lt<aniiig (Fi(f. 7). 

Thu uvi>riIow-pi|H< of uur oommon st<t-1>afiin!i funns a re(N>ptac1e 
fur the ort-umulntiou of n thick do]io»iit of filthy slime iii its inte* 
rior. which, by putrefying, pollutuH tho air of hoases to a danger^ 
i>'i ' (Fi({. S). Sinrothu 

ill t' this \H\tii i» r|U)t« 

hiaocvMiblu for piir]iu«h.ii of 
cI«UQiiiuK, thvri' it* no n.>niMy 
for iho evil oxccpl by ntum- 
donlDK Uiu ujui of thla old 
form of llxtun>, which tin* 
lUau othvr nqunlly ohjijction- 
ablo fuulun-ji. The chain at- 
lochod tit thu outlut • plug 
invariably ooUortii a great 
qomatity ' ' in itjt nu- 

mATOUatti ; tod rit-ivs- 

M and cm tlio unt(r« irregular 
■arfacti uf tbn linkH. U is 
•Immt iuipi>Mii)il« tti rtrmove 
thin filthy oocumulutinu by 
any onituar)- mnnim, aiid thu 
ortitinnmil UM* nf a boitMili<di] l^i«- 
f -. diffor^ 

••x; , vetugood tastu, and violati-s tlie generally 

•cooptnd Btondanlti of pi'rsoaal cleaalinees eBtabliahed by ordinary 
bygienio printtipltw. 

Oar common wutvr-dosota iu general use have so many sen- 
'nu faults of dmiga aud coustruvtion as to demand eepeciid con- 
«U«ra' " ■ 'H. 8<»m<' of the moirt c<i«tly and etabo- 

mtw I .'ignod and put ujxjn the miirket arc 

oud untit for uite. Delicately tinted and fancifully 
.iiajMM of |H;riN.'lnin or oarthenwarc nro no guanmtooH of 
^sty. Biuiiljiry n<qnin-ni«iita in the cun^tnivtton of water- 

' the 4«/(He»lial featurva can bo 

H/ \fir^ — — I 

'-\.« irihii /J I' 





First of all, the wat«r-a<>Al mast be deep— never Ions than tu 
invliHS — aud this oeal must be exjxis^ to view for rtnaoiu wht 
wi)] be }ier«>aflfr f;iven. Again, there niust \m u con ' 
(Jopth of Hl.intliag witl«r in the bowl of the citjst-t, to , 
fecnl matter anJ to sei-ure cleanliDeiis. The outlet of the ha 
iniwtt aim be completely anltmerged, to prevent its 1'" r 
iui(] ^tTeiiaive from ut«e. The t-luset should invarin' 
device for tnabitiiiuiog tlie wat«r-su«l against loss from uvapoi 

The traps of water-cloeet* uro eapecialljr expoBod to the da 
of losing their seal. This happens frequently from the effect 
wind and other atmospheric disturbances. An open tire in an 
joining room, or a ventilator near by, may cause this loss of 
from Rudden draufchtit of air, and sewer-air frequently ha4 f< 
entrance into hou»e-ii for hours and evt?n days at a time when 
danger is not suspected by the owupantii, since the wiiter-wal 
the trap, in btwlly constructed fixtures^ is wlioUy concealed fr 

In A si'ries of careful csperiments, conducted by the wrltur^ 
was observed that even in well-ventilatod i«ri{|-]iii>eM, strong 
oarrents jirevail to hucIi an extent as to catLse the water-iM<uU 

traps to fluctuate witbj 
quick rise and foil, so 
enough w&torUwM>aspil 
ovi-r the ouHi ' 
UhM'itt ihoin > 
rosults of thttu! experimeJ 

have rucuutly \<'--- 
conllrmiil by olh' 

Of rourM', Uip mnr 
low lliu Hval, the 
the diiager of itii ba>^ 
stroyod from any 
and for tJiEs muMn 


Ih* f — '■ WimHier" WiTnt-Cimrr, *ii»in*a wow 
Aeavttiiix iMBTWMTiovi aAT aMtu cuDcrankii 
UTBiTHAr wnMnttoMKULasriuM V»*- 

OMtary, also, that this sent should ^ 
ordiT tlmt any l<»wi of water rn>m ; 
by loakiiK". may bn rmiltly iiotictHL 

But it will Iw i>> -■■^ •'■■' ■'■■ 

usti hnvu an exlri't;. 

Yfitll thn inipiTferl iiK'nlin (tiii|>l>>}> 

(if \\ r.Ti-l- ill llrl- t ni 

I'M. 10— "awnOnmB" WxTn-CLovr. Miowwo 
AtcntiiitiuM* or ya.n in tu Btwi. 

"wnah-oul" rlim'tii, so called, with (he allied forma of "short 

liop[M'n ** null " lonR hoppers," luid the cximpHcated and daager- 

nua ■'pliiBjpT." " viUvp," and "pan cloeets," all dii)eiid on tliu 

wi-ikIiI of II xtnrnm or body 

uf vtaUT faltiii){ frutn ahovo 

t» forro imt Ibv wtmU' nuittar 

fmm (.h» IhiwI of tin* cl'Mwt 

thruui;ht-bt< trnp U.>l4iw, This 

Emrm ii nuuly sufficient to 

I^vm (iriipitr lltiitliiiig action, 

wvii with u tthullow tmp- 

■oaL A d<K<|M>r trap would 

Dppoite t(>D niucli ri-NiHUnce 

lu thu dtwlinr^o of wa.Ht« 

matt4'rH friMti ckim'ts of thci 

kiud juHt njfvrrwl Ui. Clcnn- 

Ubuw and nafoty am Im* »ti- 

ouivd only by n KTi'iUly niu<li- 

6ed form of ruiiHtnu'^tion, 

tad by tbu employment of 

totally tlKTi^n-iit uhiiiim for fIit;*hiiiK. The prineipira of llio ftfphon 

and of tbu wntiT-ji-t hijiv« bi'^n applicni successfully to this pur- 

powt, M that dt-ijp and Hafu water-eeals can he used which are in 

full virw at all tinii'H. 

Th<> tlliixtratU-n, Fi^. 11, shciWH a form of oiphon closet devtaod 

by Colonid Waring. The flushing is effectwl by opening a Talvo in 

a lank above, which pro* 
daoHB a quick rush of 
watt-T i nto t ho bowl. 
This (ills the lunger arm 
of the siphon and tbo 
weir-cliamber below hy 
thit (ivfifli'W tbrougji 
thu nwk or short arm. 
As wMii) as thiB takw 
place, the ffinlonts of 
tht) bowl are forcibly 
drawn out by siphontc 
action and dischnrgiKl 
into tlip waste - pip*", 
aftvr which tho normal 
loTol of thn water in 

llfc IL-A Ihjwni Cuwt, vit* Dnr WinB-Kui. 


. . '■ ■ nil fri 

• '■M I'U- 'T siphon 

avoidw] on mrniint of ihtiir 
'*n)t. TLi^ |.ii.><:ii>io of couiitructiou Udiructly 

il'l U 





opposed to Hnnitnry reqiurumvnttk Double tmps oro Lnl pnnul 
stble in uny case for n single pliiiubiii); tixtiire, siui-n Lhi-tr 
gDMUly nstunis Ui» ouIUdw of waler and wriat© uin: 
cau&ing lUxuiuulutiuuH of tilUi Uiut uru djuigi^ruui u...- 
It should bo obsurvod, too, that in thtiwe cloiwt* iho wcotitl (rl 
givt-M !!■ ■■''"■ ■ r .,.,,■■,,. ' 

fromiJ.' -: : ,■ , ■ . ' ■ ■ ■ 

TUtmi in wliich the clueot U pluowl through u cottcualucl 
abovi> tho flushiiiK-Liiiik- Tho main trap u abto complotoly hidd 
fi-om viovr in a part of tho cltwot outirvly imicceBBibld. 

Figs. 13 sod 13 dhow u trup-jut closet deviiMM] tiy Mr, J. Pio| 

ering Puln:uii to coiifoi 
to the requiremnntH of tha 
wtteiitinl prineipUis nli\<uily 
stated. tt« cunntructiuD 
oxtrcmoly iiimplo. It hiui 
donp and perfectly protonti 
trap-wal oxpoflod to pi. 
view in tho bowl of 
cloeot. TliH UufitilnfT-i 
standii alwuyii full of n': 
ter,eqiulibriuui In'iDt; niai 
lained by uhiJiMphvriu 
sure. Siinulr) thi< vr 
the bowl lin liiwcrvd 
evaporutjou or iiii>l<.><i^iL 
air wiU eator thu 
l4po tliroiich KUi 
opeiilogi> lit thv 
aud water ItDin 
iKvndM to nwtore 
tlit> trup'tool. 

Fii{. U KhowK a td 
luKtratJoti of Uiiti p 
in tho akutch of tin iu 

Tho oontiinta of tho 


lua the luTul of tlMRurfuo of thtf Quid . 

but if this bo loivi>rf*d, no that air toian thu muutb of thu 


■■Aft •■!) UUllfl (N kCN HfMMaM 01 BtipWiM 





(if Wiltil 

irtn. T 



tbo froMli. piir» nirof tlio moiintnins, often return to houiica whirl) 
lukV* upliulhtiirM fiirtiittiro, carpeLii, curtains, nnd hoavy drftpories 
Mturatnl witli tito foul anil potsonoiM nir uf suwora and drains 
wbirli liiui liiul luin-titrirU'd i<ntmuco to ttio dtusertod liuiiwA fur 
montliH at » tifnt>. 

It will Utnolioiy] tbnt the lower end of tliefliuihing-pipe shown 
fai FiK> 12 ii dividud, une orifice being connected with the flunh- 
tng-rim Aud tbu uthur vith a small oi^ening at the hottom of the 

Fm U— l^arJn OLotat, MtovtMa t>i Aorvab Msirt. 


U! ■■ 


Wh'ui thu v-bIvc ill thn tank i& raixoil, the lower opentng 

w» A utmnn jH of wut«r to bo thrown upward toward the out- 

Tliia fori'ilily cxpula ft portion of tho contttnta of the bowl 

■:i tbi' wnU"r and watrto mattcni into the neck, whence 

I jortwi by tbo combinod action of tlie upper and lower 

'■n<amv. A titrong wiuih dcecendint; from tbo fliuhing- 

T thoroughly and afterward refills it to the 

l>>t The discharge of the cloeet ia ulmaitt 

Hince tho lower orifices of the flushing-pipe are Bub- 

.,;.■ iinrAblo Hjtaco haft been given toa demrnption of the moBt 
n U of plumbing (ixturrs, for \\w roaaou tbnt thoM 

.-.- iiro QHUally the tiniiU8|)echHt source of danger to life 
'1 in houiw* wbt'ro the plumbing in moxt olabonUe and 
~ i tb<i drain-pipva luid Iraky joints an> 
I rial may bo eoMor avoided borauw thity 
•od. It may be M^tl, in concluiiion, to noto a fow 
' Mbould bo obiwrrvod in cvory woU-dcaigxutd 

'ud on much ■■ 



tliat the various Sxturea sliall be uear one vertical linn of -■■■! ^-i 
extendiuR throuKh the bouse from bi)»eiueiit tii nx>r. I 
pipe should not be lees than four inches iu dijtmottir, \\,U, 
extensiou above the roof of a size two inches largur. tit pnivt* 
ubetruction by frost The upper end of this extetunun atiould 
tijien, vnthout an ntlacbmetit of bond, or rowl.oi ' ' 
not o|«ju near a window or ventilator. The soil i 
bo connected in any way with a cliimney-fhic, since duwiiwiu 
draughts, when the flue ia cold, or whoii stronif wiuiLs urn hbr 

ing, will, in such cai«t>s. circuli 
Mwer-air frooly tlirough 

ThiT 8(>il-pipo. if i»f cjwt-Lr 
ihould bo of t1i 
Dees inndu for n. . , 
Kufttguanl ngiiinftt hiild«m ilufn 
in lliu iron luid th<* diu)| 
splitting at tltv joints. Soil 
and wntvr-piiK-s ithould bAVv 
all ciises as few jointif lui )> 
and tbi'Bu »i)iou1(l 1w tuw]« 
the grwitoHt t'nm Tim 
known Durham syiit^m. whi 
etuploj-s screw - itiintii for 
,,(„.. , ■ . 

WPj'^: .. :i ,.,■■■ . 

giTUH much graitcr «noii 
■■gainst leakugn Ihnu <' 
■ommon melbixlH uf !■ 
which ro([uira All Jtiinla 
made by calking with Iva 

Nu druin-tilitH ur lu^rtlii^ 
pipua of iiiiy Iciud hIihuIiI U 
in the houiw or under thi 

dutioUS to COUVOV M'WUint.1 

An. It— iKTnrnv I'' 
ptlMlf>B ot an Ml 


In IM 
.J ulMr 

tain local conditions may i«j!' 

nulisoil water shnll bo laid witJ. .. 

eaam It is bettl to havo a wparato Ud« of drulu 

jHndont of the sower, but. i' 

into Ibt) main hou»e-<lrain. ' 

diMtiuioo from the faouNo, in Ruch a w»y ua : 

lu% ' " ■ ' 

bitf) liinniKti tiit> •>, 



Hofi (nirr<»iii<Ii[iK >^^ foutxiiittutut in <lrav,-ii Fruoly into our dwell' 
iiiKH. uiiil luij- jiullulioD of tliis Koil-tttmotipburu must occasion se- 
rious (Ijitifcer, 

III n li' "f, miii-wtttcr conductors are io h& cut off from 

adirvct >■■ "ii with tho hotist? drain or sewer. The up|>or 

nd of coiulucbor-jiiiwe opening near windows may readily convcjr 

j|ftwi*r-aJr into thu huuM, unless special precautions are taken (o 

^nnrd aKainnt il. 

It tn uKuiU to pluco u large tr»p in the main house-clrain a short 
ilistun^i* otilsidu of the cellnr-wnll. The ohject of this tx iti keep 
i\w air of thu rI reet-Hewvr from entoriiig the (Iniin-piiws witliin 
thi> houM'. But n tmp in tlte main drain obstmcttt the otitward 
(low of lM:lwnf;l^ to such an extvnt as lu cause accumulations of 
filth to coUort. which may produce a comlition of nITairs in thfi 
liontKvdrain oaositlerably worse than that existing iu tho suwor. 
In ordinary nui« it will be safer to omit the trap, and allow the 
air of the sower to Itow through the main soil-pipe and out at tha 
lop al>ovt> the roof, tint there are importaot exceptions to this 
Ktmeral nthv A trap hIiouM always he used between a oess-ixKil 
■nd thr hiniMn draining iuto it. And when wwvrs have a slight 
In -' ■ '■ n, Willi n nhiggiAh flow tlirough (Iiem, so that tliey are 
U' fnu), it will Ui belter to have tmfis put into tbo oonnect- 

b»g hoH*iii»-ilrainn, WIicuhvit ih'w trnpH are uwO, there must Ixs 
an iiiU»t pnwidixl fur thx wlmiiwioii of a copioiut supply of frmh 
air to the drain-piiMW between the trap and the houtte, and as near 
r in-r i\yt ]ii)«iibht. Thia will cmitto an nlraij«t cunKtant up- 

' uf air tJirough the niiiiii chniinol of the hoUKu drainage 
■yslem, iriving free vontilatiott to plnc«fl where iinpuriUua may 

Bpnce will not allow a more extendetl consi<]eration of matters 
of dntail. The di-iiiftu and execution of our systems of honse- 
^_ .. — 1. .1 I iiYk'Hvs be intniRttHl to some competent sanitary 
u ■• of being left to the hajt-hnxard direction of 

c . • and ignorant plumben*. Tho importance of 

v\i. ^ ,. . -"'inly where ut much inherent <lang«r exista 

can not be o\ iied. With nil the advantages derivad from 

aootutaii' ipment of the Kcieni'e of Knnitation, our 

boOMa ni-', (tgninHt tbe enlrnnce of sowor-air. The 

pcriln arixing fmm ignorance and neglect are eiuily eliminatod. 
A" " ' ■ ' ■' ■ ' iM bo maile to nroiute 

l< rriptNil of ohjoctionablo 

r. I ramod in the lutorost of corrupt poliliciaos 

aii'i iu(-ii->-iit>i > >iiv>' ^ijitia. 


Tffs POPVLAR svmycs xoyTUir. 

. Bt oba»t allkm. 

pi « 1,1. 1 .1 

(JTROLLINO, this afternoon, down tlio str 
O where tfilont Arab wamf>ii, muffled up to i 
iioiBelenaly past, tliHappoared at ray njiproiic'h, Ui ntthl atnl i>v 
tlowQ darklin^f doorways iu the tiArniw nlUiy, I cltuiicod Lu 
the Moorish shop of my friend the Hiwiji ()niar-k'u-Mi*rohot, wl 
removing his pipe prav^Iy from his moiitli fur » ii > 
ouod me it) wit)] his biuid ti> thi.t court-ynrd of hix \wv 
tuy favoruhlo iuspooiioo of his now iitock of niHtio, buid-tna 
Kftbylu pottery. I folIowtMl hiiu through thn uon-ido: 
<mtt,or c«ntritl hiill, uiid prcKxitlivI to h>ok ovvr li 
porUktionu. Tlio Hiwlji'a warns wor« iutlucd prolty niid enrlo^ 
enough, miuiufiictui'od in quaint tniditional t>hap<>H fr — 
coarse yellow clay of the country by Iho defl-fingcrwl v. 
the Djurjura Mountains. Two amon^ them took my fiuivy en] 
cially. One was a flattened circular vase or buttlti, witli n ahc 
neck, and two handles at the side, covered witli a pr»tty ninnl 
arabeaque pattern of the kind m» common on the Morocco cai 
ware. Tiio other watt a quaint littlo n;d gourd-aliapcd 
with two bulgoft, comttrictetl io the middle, oxnctly liko tho or 
nary sliopluTd'a gouni that ono wtos no otton ' 
countryrajui'it girdltt on tho Runiim Campagnn • 
llill-sidoK. Aftvr tho umml chaiTtiring and higK^iiK »f thv mark*] 
conducted on both iiidos with unabatoal ardor for mv -* ' 
my good friund Undji Omar ronsiintio] nt Initt to n 
pair — from me only, ho called Allah to witnuKi, an ii [inr 
uuslomnr — one third uf tlie |incu la< had n1 fimt dtmnndnd ; 
' walked off in triumph, at tho end or imr dt-hatii. with my U 
Blung proudly in my liiind. and i 
much nioru than double the naii , 

Now, at tho wino>ahop next door, whnni a Barbary Juw. in 
bUio turhnn, jacket, uitd «i--' ' " ' 

Prophot'* veto, to thirnly Iiu 
tlun ur Mfl«Ii<m, lli»ru hung at ihu luil4\i n wi 
— tlionatum] fruit, look you, not any HpurtN 
which intomrtot mo fitnui{;r<dy, litH^ukuM^ iii. -, In 
to two nopanit^ varii'tiMi, tin* ■ 
would bavo It, of my two curi"'- 
mtemblaoco, 1 bought ono of ouch, t 
(ivo mimourn of ■ 

H ^ *> n 1 1 J n V'' 



cUtitir Uj barlmrutm or civilized people. For even that fmniliar 
t)rowii kIiuw r«:«])tuclo out of which we pour Ba»«*fl beer at our 
mut!t-ni (linii(>r-tubl«ii, derives its shajie nltiinatelj' from the Mod!- 
u-miKwii B«m-d ; Had every other form of bottle in the Icuovn 
world is (Kiually based, in Uie last resort^ upon borio niombor or 
othfr of thu gourd family. 

I don't bi^liuvu, indtMid, the importuncru of f^urds, as a class, 
in Uio hiKlnry of civiliantion )xa6 ever yet been properly re<;t>K- 
iiixnl by Uiu lUinaUiita of culture. On thorn, it would seum, with 
tiuir olowi ooagfiicT^ fhe tropical ralabiu<hr-<i, the entire »rt and 
mjltoty uf pottery ultimntolydeiwud. It u* possible to trace biwlt 
ftlutoMt m'ttry viutt or othor flctile v«esol inanufnctured t4^*-day at 
Bunlvm or at Vallaurifl to thin moDt primitive uud simple of all 
pOMlblf wntor-jnm. It behoovM lu, therefore, in un epoch of pot- 
bunti<ira, to know ttomothing of the nature of this MirlieBt pot, as u 
monont in the ovoUilion of our existing civilization. A phuit on 
whlcb «o ancient and universal an art lU last hasce itself may well 
claim Krmo twenty minutes of our scanty leisure in this a<stJieiic, 
rfifinwl, and pott«ry-wor»hipini{ centurj". 

The Kouril, then, to begin at the beginning, is of course a cu< 
enmher hy family, belonging to tho name great group of rapidly 
growing and hirgo-ltttvod cHmbnn as the melon, tho pumpkin, 
■nil tb« veguLubW morrow. All tlifmo plants are mere annoals^ 
aud thi<y art' remnrkablo among their clnM for tlio stature they 
attain in a niiiK''' yutr, for thu hizo of their Icovis, and for the big- 
nwoi of the fruit, in cum[Miriiu>n with the short timo it takes in 
growing. Only the sunllower and Indinn com can Mpin] them at 
■11 ill thta hurt rwtiieot. Vegi'tntive onurgy bt the strong |>oint nf 
ll 1 ■', Tliny Iiave a jKiwer of growth ami u vigor of ctmsU- 

tUL ^wliere iiur{>U8Sed among yt;arliug plants. It was not 

without rMUMiu in tli» luttirv of things that the creeper which 
frow ' lit and overabadowed Jonah should have bemi 

Agar- ! I'rL'W allegory aa a gourd, No other pinnt grows 

■o foat, or produoos in ao short a space of time so luxuriant a can- 
opy of shudy foliaga 

Thr- true gonnlR, in fact, have adapted thommlvcB entirely to 
t)< 'iiibiL ThiH is in itm<lf a half-pnrasilic mode of uxist- 

^^^^r » iiiv II many plnnlx hnve taken as a bid for lif», because it 
^^^tthem all the troubli' and ex|)eiise of producing a stout and 
wvmily stc-m for their own nupport. Thn way the gourds climh \y^ 
by moans of spiral, i-urled tJmdrilia, which ore in molily small 
•bortlra stipalns or Inof-appondagw*. »pe«Mtt]i««l for the work of 
1*1' :. b>' it bouch 'T *tti>m "f foine nlJier 

p iiul pivruflilo rapidly sprrails itself. 

1 . . uah thcntselvH out on everr side, re^'ulving as they 

li-'h II 



Cftfi nttncli themstOvfis. It is curioiw an'l intereeting to ww 
them as they grow, luul to stfu liow closely their movements sim^ 
la(o intelligent action. The little curled ivhorla go filing at 
on every siilo for n euititblo foothohl, groping blindly, as it wt-i 
in soaroh of a HU|)piirt, und rovolviiig slowly in wiile-flwiveiiii 
curves, until at bet they hupixtn to lay bold vith tlieir growii 
end of n pnipcr ohjocU Onco found, they seem to wIkc it i«g<>T 
with thoirlitMu Qugorii (for )□ th« gourd thu Uindrtls ttrc limnrhd 
not simjilv), liud lo \vta|) it round at onco many times over in thi 
tight embracu. It in wouderful how far they will go up out 
Ihtnr way in their groping quost of a proper foothold, aud how. 
when at length ihey stumble upon it, they will look for all the 
world a« if thoy hod known beforehand exactly when and wh< 
to search for it. These actions come far closer to intelligence 
most people imagine; they are deliberately ])erfonnod in rasixil 
sivo auMwoi to external stimuli, and only take plave when the ritj 
conditions combine to ezcit« them. 

Your young goui-d, then, once it grows from the seed, bo| 
from the very first to look about for a ncigliboring buidi up whi^ 
it may climb to reach the sun and air that it could never get at ' 
the ground bonoatii, or approach by its own tinnidnd offorUi. 
this rcsiKct it t8 ono of the moHt advanced and highly devalof; 
monihon* of it« own family. Its humbler Jilly. Uie : 
cucumber of the Mediterranean shores (a quaint little 
about which I shall have more to aay hereafter), remains to tl 
day a mere lowly trailer, unpro\'ided with tendrils or other ntt 
of climbing, and therefore necessarily contined to open, 
places, where alone it can hope to pi-ocure its fair share of air i 
(iimlight. In the tnie encumber, on tlie other hand, and 
bryony of our Kngli^h hedges and waysides, thi're are climbii 
lendHlii, but lliey are simple and unbranehed. In iJie guunl it 
however, a phuit of Indian origin, accustomiNi to the rough, 
scrub of the tropicm tJio temlrils are forkeil, «a aH tti aid tlit- pli 
in cHmliiug rapidly over the ihick and tanglxil v<>gi'titti><n of 
nativit juugli*H. The umplu lituves then spn.*ud theninelviw 
broadly in the full suusliine, mantling their unwilling he 
with thfir InsciouB green, and oli- ' '! 

ting iitr from its foliage all tho ^ 
Induit air. 

All annuals flower as bh-:- ■■■■■ -i ■■■ v ■■ 
tnrial for pr^idncing th'-ir ' 
however, liko thoiw of ' 'M the \v.> 

Kent one vety curfouji j.. . n.jly. In i.;, 
aro diitiml: aud. lu miwi of thriu, the miii 
aTi» liorue ' 

llli'lit in II. I < 

1.1-1 ^ V ^-i;" -Til 

aoonus and bottles. 


reriilieiition. And thU is how the guurd and cucumber have 
nolv*'*! thiit gT«al: crtw: of plant orKaiiiziitioii : 

The male Ilow^rs are lar^^or than tbo female, and cotuist mm- 
ply i>f a funnel-iibaped corolla, iaclosuij;: a oohimn of t<>11ow Rta- 
men«. They ha^*? no fruit or ovary in the center, nor eren the 
abortivu rudimt^nt of siirh an orj^an. The female flowers, on the 
othnr bund, lukve no nUnteiiH, Init the corolla caps a small ronnd 
berry, Uhi parent nr embryo of the future fruit. Itji center gives 
riso to n HluniliT «tyle. furkwl and feathenvl at tlie tip, which is 
ttM Benditivo BUrfjico of (he nimwi)llen ovary. Now, when the b«e 
nr oilier furiJlixing insoct vlaits a male flower, he dusts himitolf all 
flvur (uncuiiitcioiiKly, of course) with the fiir1ilizinf( pollen. If, on 
dying away, ho uoxt vliiits another raole blo^isani on the same 
pliint, ho only colIt-ctH ntill more pollen. But If ho liiip]ii<n» Xm (lit 
off to a fumale llowcr, he brushes off Bfuno of the pollun. as he 
pUM8, on to the fntthery, eeu^itiTo 8urfiu.-o protntdeil hy the 
plant ri;L;)it in his path, on purpose to meet him. In this way, 
OH'li ft'iiiiLlo ttloHiiom niakeH perfectly ceriaiii of iluo forLilization 
from a Hvinnitv nrganiitm ; and Buch cross-fertilixntion, ns Darwin 
has sbovn, produces in the long run the m(Mt fertile Hceds, and 
the atronHf'Ht. hcartient, and most vigorous oeodlinipi. 

OrigiiiuUy, there can ho little douht, the flowers of the gourd 
faintly wnre all bermaphrodit4>, at) those of many among tlieir less 
diivelopecl relations still remain to the present day. But, once 
npiiii a time, certain progressive gourds happened ac<'ident«Hy to 
acquire tlie hahit of producing more or less abortive iitainens on 
onrtaiu hlosiwnis; and aa these gourds would therefore almost 
neoownrily insure cross- fertilixati on, and si> pro<I»ce in the long 
ran Uts flneot iM>e<]lings, the liabit oiicn acciih-nlally -^S. up would 
bo carefully fontered by natural soloctioa, till it grew at last into 
aconrirmiNl prnrtico of the entire race. All through nature, in- 
dct.'-l, W" TiikI ihut the Hcmblneitt, weediest, and shabbiest sjteciea 
Htill retain the primitive hnhit of eel f- fertilization or in-and-io 
breeding; but that nil the cliief places in the bierary:hy of life are 
filled by siH-ciw which have a«]uire<l in one way or another the 
«Uutury pra<'tic<- of crnss-fertilizatinn. and which thus encourage 
bt the utnio:«t of their power the frequent introdnction of fresh 
blood. The goords, as a very dominant race, have naturally con- 
f..- I ' • th^ gcn>'ral practice of higlipr lypesin this n-upcct; and 
gi>. find, when tlu-y exclude insects from their Imt-bouses 

AUd curnraber-frames, that they have to come to the aid of Nature 
by orllficiHl means, and to fertilize the blossoms with a cuaol's- 
bair [)a)nri1. 

The fl' * the melon, the encumber, and the vegetable 

jd „i'..'«t, if nut finite, soeatloMi 


hora chiofly coiicern«<l, oro wliitfl and perfumed. Now, notl 
iiuturu is withuut a ronson; iind this change of color in the i 
kind from Iho ordinary nortntU hue of ite race at large is n»t wit 
out tt sufficiuiit purjioso eithiT. I dont know whether m- 
have evi-r riuticL-tl tlmt bi'll-ahaiicd or tubular white tl< 
ulmoiit always heavily )Mx>iit«d. Examples familiar to overybody 
occur in tho jasniino, tho »t4>]>haiiotit;, the gnnlcnia, the tubcroi 
and tho lnrg« white tohacco liu much cullivulL<d of lute itt ^anle 
bordtTs. It ofton happens, indeed, that a plant posseeses two al> 
UikI varieties, ono of them hlue, pink, or yellow, and sceutJc 
white the other is white and deeply perfumed. In tliese caaes, ' 
first kind is a duy-Bowering plant, while tlte second opens i 
spreads abroad its scent in the dusk of evening. One well-kuoi 
instance exists in England; the red caroi>ic«i or day-flow«r 
lychnis is pink, scentlens, and strictly diurnal ; while iUt ally, 
white campion, is V>oautifully iHTfumcd, and ojicns it.t flowt-m i 
ttio sunset only. Tiio rooson is that tho oao specie* is feriUiKod 
day-dying l»*s or buttorflicw, and tho other by cn'puacular 
night-flying moths. Now, in the gray dusk no color can w 
ho distinguished as pure white; and lest this peculiarity nhii 
should prove inBufficient to attract moths to the patch of lif 
among the dark foliage, the adde<l attraction of perfumo 
thrown in gratis by moth-fertiliMtl plants. Snch night-floworit 
white bloit»oin9 never ponscait the spots or lines or culoreil 
on the iietaU, which servo as honey-guidce in other ]i1anta to 
the htHtt strnight ti> tho laden ni-ctary. In thi* twilight, vn 
tioi) or dappling of thnt sort would be wholly uhcIorh. 

Tlio blossoms (if tho gourds, then, aru fertilized by ninths, i 
tmcted to the plant at nightrall by the white corolla and the ric 
heavy ixirfumo of tho bell-MhaiMyl flowers. This perhimu ia < 
of u type much affectoi by a-sthoUc mutliM, and nut unpli-ntumi 
ourwlvea in tlie open air, but too cloj-iiig for a room, as is the n 
aim with the kindred scent of stephanotis and tulivruso, 
anon as tlie flowers have been all ft>rtiU?.eil, the male bbvinimt 
witlier away Ui m>thing ; but the smnll berry underneath tho 
male ones begins to swell out into a big, round fruit with vur 
ing rapidity. Great h^ut luid muoh 

in onier U> prodtico thin startling i jl 

and hoDcc tho gonrd family consists mostly of luxuriant tropic 
or Biibtropi ' Iwr. Thoir . , - - ' -; ■ - ■ . - ' ' ■ 

in India. V ' < ios and iu<l 

Thonce the gourdii h.ive Hpr«iul, with gradual m- 
climatic (ihangos, toall tho hoti-r •''■rMttoH of > 
Worlds. Some of them hnvo r far as I' 

bAeaoht II 




' ■ ■ ^l«. Tlie l)pflt known North Amonciui 

I a»it at leafll, U the pretty litU« " prioklj- 
otMnimbur," iu> oomiuonlf used in New Knglnnd and the Middle 
StafeM Alt A climbing phtnt for nrhom and trellis-work. A single 
gpteie* oltino nMU'hiti Kngluiid, the fiimiliar hryony ; and, iu this 
cafe, ihn neceMory miKlififntionit And dwarflng of parts to meet 
tbi* rircunwtnncoKof u cuhl clittinto arv at once apparoQt. The 
[ilmiit huM homi forced to beconx* n pcromiiAl, and store by nutri> 
int'fit fur rtiming yrnm in its tJii<-k iind poimMioun mots; for the 
•htirt oi") trt>n(-h<Ti>tJH English HiimnaT would nut sulliro for it to 
hrinic iu frnit to maturity iu the first soaeon. The berry has also 
)• ' ' wa from ilH tropirxil dimfn^ions touhoiit the v\zvi at 

It I, in uc4:ordmii'<' with the nuuds of ISnglish friut- 

valing birdH, for a reason which we shall fully exiuuine a little 
Ut«r, If onn coinjiartti these two tiny northern gourdu with the 
mvAttrcplL-al i-jthtlinshfls, oft«n six feet long and eightevn inohca 
retind, oun will mv at once the amount of de^adstion undLTguno 
liy th« gonnl kind on its northward progress, in adapLutiuu to the 
imwIh of a L-htlliur climate. 

Al' inl-tike friiits are the same in ground'plan, familiar 

Iu (iv< :, , lI) m>H)'-A(ii^tion in liiocaseof the unrijM! cucumb«)r 

w it appmrH ut the dinnor-tahia There itre always the same three 

<>' if flatU^nt'd MMxU, immorii'd in soft pulp, and sur* 

I "•' fruit with it« harder skin,uri<rii brillinutly colored 

with rcl or yullovr. But infinite variations of sliajto and wjxi are 

'* \ in evory dirpntion u[>on thiH single origiiuil central plan, 

LHH riot in moil ifirnt ions of d<-tail. In order to undor- 

^1.' til, '■vo munt remember that the gourds, an a family, are 

^'So- A\ WiH pluutii. dopondent in inert ca»m tor the diii]H!reion 

uf thnir imkxIn on the friendly olBceaof birds or aiiiroula. It Is 

' viowM and tnstes of those their animate 

: I. a tho dilTftrent hues, coverings, and puljM of 

r«r*e Horta have all been uhipted. ■ 

•' '.'■ r if we look at the one early monilwr^ 

■<^ not soek to attract animals to dovonr 

wjuirting ououmlior— and observe the many con- 

■- iti which it broadly diffem from all it« congw- 

(-■ Iff cncnmbor is a fucnibby MwHlerranpan trailer. 

■ ■ "- Mirld at Ki<-i> and Cannoa, bearing a long, hairy. 

- , . . -.Jy fruit, which nminins gnwn ertm when rii>e, 

tin-, fetid, and sickening to the souses in all stngin. It 

' Til its ctinouH hnbit of breaking off 

, sniping away fn>m the parent stem, 

, while al tlin name time it squirts out all its aoeds, with 

■^^wi ' ' ■ ':•. into it« tttfgri^(a.,r'fl face, through the ojmn- 

^^Bi Li stum. Thu K>iiiirliug cuvuDibur, in short, 




if I roRy venture eo lo dt'S«ribe i*, is llie ekuiik nmong v<?gol4ihI"fi, 
Its object iu life, its solv aiiu aud duKtre, ik to dct«;r luiinuih* from 
entitig its fruit and eiiodi;: uud therefore it tDak«« itself lut un- 
pleasant and sti in<.Mni<piruou» as it possibly catL I> isgrtwn, m 
that animaU may iiot rewlily detect itfl presence among it« IcnvnL 
tt is 8piu«^Iad, so that they may not attack it with their tctwH 
iioses; it is nasty to the taste and disagreeable to the t;m<'I1,H 
that they may avoid its neighborhood nrhen once they Imfl 
learned to know its personal peculiarities. If a goat or a donk^| 
wandering among the »crub, chanoe» to tonrh the long, truiltfl 
branches, the cucumber squirts nut its juice in tii» eyen, and at t^| 
same time bowb itii seeds all round on a spot where no liuNtfl 
creature is likely to interfere with lliem. We have here in a vdfl 
extreme form a specimen of that rare type of mi<v;ulent fr^ 
v,-hi(.'h does not lay itself out nt nil to atlmct the attention J 
friuudly animals, but, on the coutmrj', endmvors energetically fl 
repel them. H 

The mass of the gourd-kind, howfver, [inrsue tho cxuclfl 
oppoiiite tactics, Thoy have Icanitil by exprrience lo imit^| 
rather a i>oli«y of conciliation, and to turn the bird^, qunilniiN^| 
and fniit-eating animals gvnumlly iu thi'ir eiivironmirnl frtfl 
deadly foes into friendly disst>minatorii. For this jiiirtitwo. th^| 
fruits, when ripe and fit for needing, bot-onu' n-d, yellnw, pink. H 
orange, though they only assume those brilliant hue^ at the Rx^| 
moment when the sec^ls are ready to be aevered from the p(UiH 
stem and dis[ietsi>d for germination. Till that time, tliey ronuS 
green and sotir, or at least tosteW^. The Rec<ls in these case* Mfl 
nirronnded by a soft, sweet pulp, especially noticeable in dH 
melon and the wntermoloa ; and this pulp tlie plant giv.- . fl 
RI>eak,asan indiicomont to animals to disseminate il» ^ -fl 

the surrounding country'. It hoH leame<l organically the vatuofl 
rotation of crops. It desires fn^h sioil in which to exjiand. 1^| 
actual eoeds themeelvM, however, are not Hweot ; tliey aro incloi^l 
in a hard and Homewh.-kt horny or leathery Hh"ll: y t^^ 

seldom oaten and utill seldomer digested by binls oi .>..:-..», oH 
ing to their tough and slippery surfaces. We Itavo h^m, then, tH 
very name inducements of food, ^' ■ ■ l9 

expended by the plant upon its H h 

that we saw liefore expended upon the flower for the vuke of ^| 
Lain ing t:ro»t-r 

At Ihi' wm" 
gourtl ftini 
bitter, nn<i 

aniin»]ii f; >^ with nr > tint. (lii«i' 

ff li . .,..., ;., ;..i .1^...... ;.,. i 


. t.' Hiftt nlmott nil 

» in M>mi< jiart nr other ct 

'^rnnal princif' — 

ir with nr ■ 


licular plitnt in npot-inlly vxiiommI. The nil I»orr!r« of our Englixh 
lirj'ony iin* oaton by l>inlH, who aid, of courfu, in diuM'ini tinting 
Uia amhIh ; but Uio big and mwoIIvu i-uot, known to Fruncli liorbul- 
i«ta iM thi) nnrrt ttu iliaUe. in wliirh tlio plunt nion-M nil its uc- 
niimiilHtMl Diiit«>riul for ui-xt yi-iu-H growth, iit Htri-iiuously pro- 
inUt\ from the attiurks of rubbits, |iig«, atui other grubbing 
Am ' ' ' lit intonnily biltor uud poisunoim priiiciplv whii'b 
il liryoiiiiiit. Ciilwytith.ugaiti — thu amoroiiH colocyntb 

—in a plunt rinM'ly iillirxl to Uie mitlon aud eucuiulwr; but in tliia 
owo Lhn iiil>!MMtly bitter mid jmisonous eitsencc (tbe "uncom- 
poatMJotl jiillN " of tliK poiil) is dilTiLied in the frnit Jtaelf, which, 
likv tbiit f'( thi' Kiuirting cunimbftr, draires to rfijifll rather th»n 
tu iintiri' Ihv ntlt'ntionx nf nniiualii. In the edible ouctmiber, oticu 
moTT. wbidb iirvfvrw Ut bo «nt«n, the billor |)ri»ci]i1v in uollwtod Ht 
(1 ' "f tliP unri|H< fntil, tu> well an gonvnilly in (be outer 

m /iug (o pri'vont »lUt<:kH in tbt>i'tirlyatngf*8 of growth, 

or uiuiuthori»'d grubbing into tho soft |ml]> by uiteliws inaoctn. X 
mpp" I I hnrdly ni'mind oven tUo non-agriculturul miud In 
thpw' villA-gitnloniiig Ibnl the npo cucumbi'r ta bright 

)--llMW.?r rh.itnd fntntly Bwoetiab ; on our tubles it uhvays »p- 

|H>an in lU unriiw fftngo, when it in green, hnrd, and covered ex- 

tumnlly with rough excreffMUceA, intonded to re)M>I the attacks of 

■ ■<*, In thi- I'ltrly glirrkin xtnto it in ovnn prickly, 

. ill) fniit of tJw urtual Iwttlo-goiird itnoir ik intormediato in 

•iM bt-twiwn thr> gn>nt tropicnl caIaImu*]) imd the ]ittl« bryoiiy- 

■H of our nortbiTii li<iiK<»-rowii. lt« oiio nott'Wortby pr«uU 

I lira in itx bitril,r"rin<'<->iiK, ami ohining rind.fnrnioru woody 

io ciiaractur than oven tbnt of its m-tirullicw tho pumpkin* and 

111 ' ' lAHhuw. Tblii peculiarity, Mgnin, i« not without a uiMiuing 

lory rtf thi! rwe: it pointit bark with no uncertain fingur 

lit 1h! di^niud tingcni ?) to thu subtropical origin 

-,..jiejt For thti b«ittli>-gfiunl il»p|f, tu employ tfau 

mn«t frt<<]u«nitly nppliml to our Aryan brother, is a 
■li it iiitfl Umn liivn riiltivntt'd for thp sake of 

- liole Mi-diterraufnn. Now, it is a noticeohlo 

fatft in the pbilnnnphy of fruits that moHt trmla of iKirthom 

Ktrawhurry, rnsplK-rry. IiIiii'klH-rry, and currant, 

cbrj bui*h, tnw. ur vimi, mid po|i{)wil at onm iuto 

tbv mouth without any pn-puratton; but aliuoft all tropical fruita, 

' '■ •' - ■ ■ 'm, nuuigo, and iMkiiniia. nv]uir« a plata 

-it tlii>mwith: in othor MunU. tht>y can 

r w)i lutvc Htrip|ii'd ntf a hard or nnu»i'ou« rind. 

-.■.ii>ntnr»y Widl, it linii rvf<'r«'Uii» (•liuirly to tho 

kiad .d« by whidi thu miikIh of each are iif(4.<ni«'t diaseml> 

nalati tt, am 

Bttlin ' I", but 





QOver digest the hanl, knobby i»e«<l8, ho consipicunuB in the \^A 
berry, the cun-ant, and the grape. Southern fruits, on thn c<a 
trar>', are mainly eat«n by i>arrots, monkeys, and other large frttl 
fnedere, for who^e attraction the idants specially liiy theuifwl*! 
ont Hence the southern t^^>e3 desire to keep off unaiitbm'lsd 
Kmnll intruders, which would merely pick holes in their pd 
without doing any real good to the plant, as was]* do with tii 
nortlieni jxiaohi'S. For this puqKKte, natural selection hitH r»viiri 
in their eaw the dovolopmont of various fthstniiw ilovices for keij 
ingoff the sm»llor binls and animnlK. Sometimi>8, \\» with tl 
orange, lumon, and citron, tlio outer rind iH bitter and nsJi^ 
liomotimos, as with tho oiisliew, it U viotoDlIy pungent, o^^rid, nj 
irritating ; Komctimis, ua with the pomogrannto, it in mern 
hard, stiff, and loatliery. But, in all instanocs alike, it U mcanll 
repel by itvury nieaiiH in the plaut'ii [wwur the smull intruill 
Monkeys and parrots, however, the friends of the 8i>ccies, do id 
mind these slight outer defense* ; they strip them off easily wn 
hand or beak, and roach the sweet pulp within, duly int«^'ndt'<^l by ll 
grateful tree fur their edification. On the other hand, the nula 
eoed itself in tropical fniits is always thoroughly welt protectj 
against their teeth or bills, either by a verj' harrl atone, a» iu tl 
olive, date, and mango, or by intense bitterness, as tn the onwi 
aod lemon. ■ 

It 18 to this specially defended tropical type of fr»it« that tl 
true bottle-gourd essentially belongs. Our little English bryol 
has a meri' northt-rn blnl-lH-rry, round, and red, and H»ft, na 
almost rindlcss; it has adaptoil itself in this multur to the smi 
waysof robins and finches. But the gounl has a hard and forfai 
ding rind; it fastens itself up in a firm covering; it lays ilwlf m 
with nil its soul for the llirgi-r fruit-oaters of tropii-nl forvn 
Knl, indeed, that in its raw ripe state the gounl is by any maul 
no dry and hartl as in the arid form which wu soe in so^m 
wino-shopt^ The method of preparing gourds for use iw ^^| 
is, indenl, a anfUciently lengthy ona You pick your fruit nl 
hang it up to dry, not in the sun, hut under the shndir of the ruJ 
for a whole year before it is fit for boring. As soon na it d 
hardrmM evenly all over, you cut » round ' stnlk^l 

(lit least in the common double-bulging foi i<. , , I aa a fbd 
by aotilhern sliepherds) and rattle out the dry Mo<di and p^ 
which easily «;ome out of themselvos 11 i , ' ■' 11 

remaining huHlc im hnnl enough nri<l (hi r na 

1 have several gounls in my 1' \\A 

ralinf with Moori"^*- ■ ■ " -nm, i... ,.,i„ .,.ii,H nu i 

JwavfoltrJ.llllfHji;. -ttiXtlrv ' 


In iuivf f'jmiiHl tbo I'urlii't-t naturul obJMte nmployn] nsTeaials bjrj 
j.ri:iiitiM- liuuuiuily. But iif iitl tliiioo Uia gourd, by ita singulari 
varii'ty uT wlutiu-, Xv^t Imil itMtlf Uj thu j^rtuaWt ami moot vuritid 
U)u>^ Hcsiili^i till) rotumon doublit^liul^iig form, cotuitrict«cl iu 
t)in iniilrllii, vrtlli Ui» littlo bulb nbovo aoi] th« big one below, en < 
I- lut u wuUT-ltottlc, yoa cftQ g«t gounlH in an immaain 

1 ; ^'f otlior tyiwB, globular, compnwswJ, bowl-liko, or fladt- 

itba]M<(l. A ConicAQ model, wbicli Um before me tbU mom«nt 
IU I >' 'in flattened rirciilitr form from buck to front, the 

burk ' . -'i Hide next thi> bt^lk, and the f root the side where the 
•xirolln bjut fallen off, ItuiWng a little umbilicus or knob to mitrk 
iU \Aae« in ttif very renter. This form ia ingeniously tamed by 
tho C!()r>intii.-4 ititii u vory neat sort of (ias)t or bottle for the girdto 
by cutting hoW in the nAirow Hide and fastening two hiutdka for 
•UHiKttiwinn at a gnuN^ful point hiilf-way betw««n the mouth and 
the miililK' lintt of ilie circle, The pretty Tenel thuH obtained is 
the niii'lfl <iti wliidi ihoiKundti of oxiiuiHite tahm have long been 
tamMl out in ancient Etruriit and at miidom VaElauris. 

Thecommontwt nhopc of all, however, ia the Syrian gounl with 
aruand til ' Mward the stalk in a liiu^ neck, ami cajiable, 

wht-n fii;' ' ' !■• or water, of xtonding swun-ly oti itH own 

l^oai* by mtuuji of the slight depre«sien at the umbilicus. This li, { 
tudncd, the original parent from which almost oil boltlee, carqfej, i 
«od drcautiTH, nil thu world over, bavi; ultimately deieended, 
Tlin t*-rrU'Cultn fnrmfi umkI as wstor-hottlua, with a round bulb 

' ' mrk, luoet cloeely rasemble l^eir original to the prvMuil 

I III Japonnaii vasoa of two or tbree bullw, snocoHdvely ooti* 
- larger from top to bottom, mu«t cloeely 

. .Hilging variety. 

The rmwm why vmrda are ho manifold in shape is twofold. It 
in par' - are a nalundly plnMi<- fipccii-a, coDstontly 

(rfviii, li divergiuit forms, like their niiigfabora the 

ciicumbcrKi which divorgont formn havo, of conne, been seised 
Qpon and Htill furlhor dovvtoped for his own use b>* grmrd-uslng 
man. Hnt it \m partly, also, bocaiue gourds, while growing, con 
bo moile to oMiime almost any dosiri'il nliapi* or curve by tying 

-'-■ - - - - '■■.iid thoir rind. Primitive man early discovered 

1 1 iif mnnufacturt>. 1 hnTesem gourds which in 

' Ixi'o twibt4'«l into the KL-mblnncu of powder- 

nnd othpfs which liav» 1j«'H inducwl to ring 

I half a doxen times over till they look almost 

" ..•<■. 

.\A, ufied hia gouid osugounl alone. But as 
t < DO be began at liu<t, npfmrrntly, to employ it as a model 

f ■ 1 " r..WiUtiy hift i-arl'. ' iiithefiofcUe 

■ \. It L* u couini' .. iSaTOgMtOi 



put walnr to warm on Uiu auiit»-f!re iu a utlsbuiih or gtmnl w 
wet clny nnirared uvor tlio bottgni to kwp It frdui burul 
Whpppver tlie chiy tlius > i ' 
mold uml biike UhfiI in xliii^ 

ubckI timo and again in the eamo way wittiuut rftnvwoJ, litl at 
it came to bo ntgitnkod ulniosb aa n roiiiponent jmrt of ttii< et 
pound Tflssel. Tracox of IbU uta^ iu IJie ■•v<i|uti<m of pot 
Blill BxiRt in vitrious uiillying comers of Ibn world. Sjiviimw 

been uote<l who Hmuar tltvir (IIhIji^s with clny; utnl tiuw^ 

found in rariuui muwuuw whi<;h kUU coutuin motw ur 1 
the reUc8 of tli« nntiintl objwt im which thi-y wen- 
one raso th« thing imUxldi'd iu tht> cltiy Ik>w] 1m u -kid 
presumably an onomy's. 

In muid ctkHos, howowr. tlte inner gnunl or :. ri, 
portion au it wuE wi'll ciNin^I up to the very l4ip wuii ;i *;.■ 
t«ctive layer of clay. wouI<) tend to get bunii'<l out by tliD buut 
the &re in the course of time; until at huit tlic idcn ' 
that the natural form was nothing more than a w. 
model, and that the onrthenwnro diidi which gn-w up 
wa« the aub»taut)vo vtiiii««l. As soon ah tlii8 HlJkgit of p 
was arrived nt, tho proorsa of Oring would Ixwome deUl 
fitefu) of nccidi'iit:tl, uad tho vittstd would only 1" 
plotn IU MK)n us il hod buen subj(.H't4.-d to a gruat 1 1 
flffectnally burnout Lhogourtl orcnUlKudi imboddod io ths 
But tlie I'loB*- liimthirily of early ficlilo fonn« nil 
and their obvious likencHs to thfi same »jimpK>, ii,' 
bine to iihow ut) that the art of pottery bnd eviiry wburo itn 
finsy origin, and that it was overTwheru bosotl on thu kuiqu 
live uiiitmiiiiriii'turiv) vuhm^Ih. 

Tlitt-e main formn of potlt'ry, aiirl later of g' , i 

'nly held to Ijike ihoir origin from th'* ' ' ■ " 

flntt i» tho double or troblo-buU>wl vojw, 

new and Oriental jxittery. This \& ^^v xw 

of all. and it has given ri>»e indir«:(ly t'' ■ ■ 

aerond is the Uat, rircutar vano witli two latoral tiuudJ 

dirAa — always ■:' 

nature of iUitfi 

ttomoof my Morocco HiiecimenN) from ttmumbtticiuturci 

the centiT of the fruit. ■'■! *' i- ■ ^ " ' • - 

with round bulb Ixdnv 
luni to the vtuil IX 

Kvnn the <n"" i 

bult»}'i' ' upiiut] 

lil Ml !' [.I"U L 


hand, nwtut iU aliape nitlipr l<t lh<> gourd or ciila)int<}) cut in two 
tnuuvfrwlif, uid*\ iis uii o]icu receptacle fur liquids artd pow- 
ilttra. Of iiuch Ik>wIji I liavo onu or two excelleut snvage S|iwim(<D8. 
To tliU ty|w may «t liwt Iw tniwd. I bolipvA, the tua-oui>, \ha 
rolT<<o-cup, i\w tnug, mid i>«r)m)>.s a.\»» lhi< luiiililfr. 

I may luld tlint, lu oiuiplo ntid t-iirly lyjieH of putlt^ry, i)i» orni^ 
mcmtatiiin is iilwnyH 1jtu«e<] on tlio natuntl forma suggotttixl by the 
Hrnt <ir olIuT primitivo inmlo). Tbo ilixMrfttioas woro first copiod, 
I . Troni tim i>rimtu(<iit»ti(ii) cjtrvod or wurlci-d on tlio nut- 

ui IU, oxcotct wlmru tlii'y iinjM) from tliu marks of tliuugii or 

uthur «u8|K'i)d»ni iiMfd in t)i<> rir'uig.' Now, in tho gounl wu \uwc, so 
to vpcak, tlirt'o niituml uluuioiitx uf oniiuiK-iitiitinii to wliich all 
docomtivo odjunctti, if any, must uuL-c<»«ttrily uditpi Ibiimsclvoa : 
Ftmt, tbnm in the iitnlk cut off to form the mouth in my Sret and 
third typon, but retuitiod at a central tvrar or knob, the main fooiu 
of tho whol,% in tho Becond or diutic form so common in Corsictt ; 
ridty, thi>n> lit what I havo v(>»ture<I here to call tho umbilicoa 
^iiiii mark b'ft by tho foiled t*Jt1yx and corolla in the ixnitcr of tlio 
fruit, MAJni-it DM a coiitnd [loiut of the vommJ in nil ihrc-o formii; 
H ' uri) llu> liiit'H ill tlii> gndu uf 1hi< (^uurd which 

r. . .... ii;. i /liJuiH from ititbtT {lolv, running frmn the etom- 

M ir : /lit round tht'Mjuator to the iimljiUcuj!. Whoovur Iriwto 

I ii'itl ^''inrd.t'ithi'r liy carving or iminling, will find hira- 

^ iii;iiiy I'oiiiiH'lIcil to fall in with ihi- uuturnl liura thuH 

tDoritahly hud down for him ; he must obey the Uws of bta prinio 

inktMnah Alt gounbi actually dt-curatod, bowevEir rudely, in simple 

and nitivr HiM-ii-tii-iH urn ho n<Ioriif<l. Hence, in iJm flrxt mid tliird 

furmNt thti di-corntion runs u)i and ilowu tho sid<^a of the bottle, or 

lu tnuuvemn iNm and hmgitudiniU linen; while in the wwond or 

tlwt, cirt-utar viu*>- ly[>e it runi always in coiicoutriu riugs round a 

* in Ihr! uiiddb-. 

.. ^iw, iJiiit pri'Uy Kabylo ware, which formed the original text 
fur my pmwiiit HBrinon. i« pottery of a very antique and naive 
typo- *, of Hurient Phcenician art. The Pha>- 

aiciai ■ ■^■* with them to Carthage, and tbo Cm- 

tbaginiana diltuHod thetn among the aboriginal mountiineere of 
th* Atlw range, wlunw lliwal dtuicendants are tho Kabyles of 
Um* Djarjura in our own day. That simple ware, with it^ yellow 
groutidwork and il4 dichromatic ornamentation in rujiHCt-browQ 
*nd blttck (tho uuo ochre, tbo other peroxide of mnngam>He), has 
ln<vn manufucturnd ever ninee in the uplandN of tho AUim by the 
[(Nhmtif^l grnndMoti .iE«d M/turitaninnH. In tone 

id color it rwjilln > -^ -i' '.-.r .irlii>»t fiiwk and Ktruncan 
but the Uw uf tidiuo, uf coune, prfVi-ntA the intrtxlttotion 
of human or m the omanion* ' <w oot)iii«t« 

oraboaquo dMigu^, modatod to 






the neoeeaarv tmtnral litic« of their K'>t>t^ originals. Bach 
haa its own distinctive patterns. I have a siuaU collocUon 
native Kabyle and Uorooco pottery, and in evor>- piocu withe 
nxonption one can see at once tlie particular sort of gourd — doubj 
single, or flat-faced— on which each individual vnso muxt hu finallj 
Afllliat«d. Atid^ vhen once one bas learuod to know and nwognixe 
those central types, the character of the onaameatation on 

advanci-d kuramic prodaots of other nations often enables one 

guess correctly from what original natural form the particular 
piece in question is ultimately descended. I beUeve it would 
possible so to arrange all the keramic products in a great niummi 
along a series of divergent radial lines from certain fixed cent 
that the common origin of all from each upecial sort of gourd 
calabash would become immediately obvious to the most 




"E come now to Oiat which mo«tt people feel to be the 

difficulty in the way of accepting Darwinism. No woU-in- 
structod churchman supposes that the faith of Christ staiuU or 
falls with the theory of special creations, or tltat the existence of 
Ood is leas certain hocauso we have k-amed that the witnosa of 
oonscienoe is necessary to interpret the witness of Nature, and 
that physical science by itself can toll us loss than we thought 
about the pontonality and the love of God. 

4. But Darwinism means a great deal more than the snbotit 
tion of derivation for sjwcial creation, or of the new teleology 
the old argument from design. It means a new view of man, . 
hia place in creation. Darwin foresaw this from the first, and 
the "Origin of Si»ftci(«" a.ssort4>d hia belief that "mnch llgl 
will ho thrown on the origin of man and his history."* Nol 
if this had only meant a chemical nnalyiua of ''the dnst nf 
ground" out of which man wojt fomiod, if, like Mattln' 
Darwin had assared us — on grounds fur which, indeed, ui' i — 
is given— that the dost was " not gold dust, powder of penri, di| 
mond dual, hut common dust; dust of the ground"; " nr 
dust, but d«st wetted with the miiit which wont up fnr 
earth," it is clear ndigiou would have fell that it hail IimiI aa litj 

as soiencA would have 
Ruui with the hlghw - 
which tiutde nthttr sp- 
Tlus was the Morvt uf tU- 

But Darwin's l' 
■ Ipv nrmliigii>n ix 
from I 

,j.i,...,;„.i, ;„ lhfl"Ou^. 

•r. «» 


U WOM xvA Wi mucli wLut wiui tjUit:L'<l, us tho obviuiu implicutions 
of tht> dortrine, wlticlt moa BhratUc from. DurwiD, who bud noth- 
ing of Lhn dotlAut UTOgiuico of some who speak iu bia name, was 
ovun ' <f dinbonesty in not clearly i>tating at the outset the 

boariiir; : L..t doctrine on man. And his volume on " The Dtscent 
of Uan " wiui hi» answer to the charpie. But his letters show how 
fully h« realizMl tho cou-tcciuences of hia theory from the first : 

1 am ii»\Aj onnvlaoed [bo wrol* to L70U, wbil« reviaiiiit th* praof-tbMt* nf 
Uia " Orlfia "\ lUtX U l* abialiilcly hmmmdf to gu the wlMit« vtui lea«Ui, or sUok 
< Um eruDov of Muh KpiraU ipeck*.* . . . I ciin vca bo poaslUe tucuia of 
l«tmt Um llm ■&)! M^los. H«r» ;oa mvM slop.t ... I beller« man b b tli* 
•USB tir«dlcani«nt witb ollMir uluuU. It b, In hict, liopoMlUe to doobt iLt 

For th« wiontifip acriiptance of Hie thwiry, as Darwin says, "« 
n'fnt que If jyrrmier jns iftii etitUe,''' but for people gonerally, who 
Jad^cTi n thi^orj' 1>y its consequence, not on its evidence, it i», as bo 
mya of Orptintcr, " the last mouthful that cbokea" | Of courae. 
an be kdmltjc, it is open to every one to believe that man apj>L-nrMl 
by a aopnrntit mirwlo,* but to bold the doctrine of special creatiou 
hero'" 'v is toi^^noro thoargtimcntawhichfCJC Aj/p(VA«/tt. 

carrii ' ■• wrrywhoro elao. 

It was OD this point that Darwin and Wallatw parUxI ctimiNUiy, 
tbondh the divergeu<i> in commonly n-iirc^xntMl aa far groatiiir 
than it wan. Walloi'u adniittiol tbn uvohiti'm of man out of a 
Ifiwrr form, but conti-nds. and this was what be aills his " heresy," 
tkat nnturnl Mdi>ction would have only given man a brain a little 
•npnrior Ui that of an ape, whereas it is greatly superior. Hn 
tbi'n'fiin' c<intrn»t« "iiian" with the "unaided pr<«hi<'1ions" of 
Notun", anil arKui-s that, as in artiSciat tuOectiou, man supervene* 
and UM-N thft hiw of nuturul selectiun to produce A desired reaalt, 
I' ■■ linvM Kiii»"rvene<I.and uiw«l thf) law 

■ ■1 ' niAH. WhutbuT fnmi the W-ientiiic 

■Ide this w rittbtly calli«l a " lnTctKy " or not it Is not nwvasary Ui 
deci/l- ' ' "Hainty, from tlir religious aide, it bos a strangely 
nnun ' <'k. If, na n Clinstinn believes, tbo " higher lotcUi- 

jgnuM" who uMid tbuu' biwM for the cruation o( man was the same 
Ood who worknd in and by tiieao name laws in creating the lowvr 
forma nf Life. Mr. Wallace's distinction, as a distinction of cauae, 
diMppear '' il wai not tho tuimeQod, we contradict the flmt 

aittelw of oil. Whatever Iw the line which Cliristianity 

dxaws betwotm man and tbo rent of the visible creation, it certufoly 
d' '11 man or tho work of Qod, and leave the rest to " un- 


W« bavo tbvn to taev the quustiou, If it b« true that man, " a« 

■ ■•tjtmtmt Laltm." I, p. ai». 

■ ill W HUl« ibt Sni Map thai oMU] II, |L M. 



tar a« liiB corporeal frame i» coaoernod,"* U crwtwd, a» oQiw af 

cic« were, by dvolution from lower forma ; if ln> w«it not. 

bjtvo been acc-ustoiiHxI to tfiink. »n indepeii ' 

lated tlirougU hU whole bixlily stnioturw m; 

perish " ; if ho was not an absuluUtly now dopartaro, but the hij 

t^rm in a protfTwBive scries— how doo8 Oiis ntrw view offuct 

Christina faith ? 

We might have been ready to answer, It nu nit>ra tuuchiw 
Christian view of human nature than a scluntilic proof, if il 
Iwon [fOH^ible, that our blessed Lord van very loiiii would BiTi<cl^ 
the truth uf his divinity. And the anuluK)' i?* a very uluH nt 
It is not heresy to asaert tliat C'hrial i» 'Av$fHimt, but that bo 
i^tAiK Sr$pii**n, man and nothing morv. Siuihtrly, ^ly wluU, 
will of the afQniti*^>H of man's jthyiiionl niitur>', il in utily whtu 
deny that he ii auything more tliul wo rvnUy di-j^nwlo hitn, 
Bacou wmewhuru puts it— 

T1i«T ihat ilfDy • Ood ietUoj man's nobllitr ; for ':i«u U u( Lin , 

tli« b«wtt hj bU boij ; *ih1 If 1m bo oot oT ilo lo Uod i i, lio U an i 

lilo orMturo. 

Un flirt una tely, Chrisliai) apuloKint*! 1 ' 

di&tint^tiuii. They h»vu not ituvn Uml 
Darwinian oguutttic is a eoutrovemy with hin btm, 

with his Darwinism ; with his limitation of .>'! ' 
facts of sense, not with any doctrinu hi- rn:^ 
OS to the intDrrulatious of the fact« < ' 

We aru consluutly told that Diu'irt ..1..3L1. m dvffrading, tliatilj 
unworthy of the dignity of man, tliat it is a " gospel of dirt." 
such a oharffe had come from a roprvisentative of tluMn luttinjf 
which held Die descent of man from gods or domiguda, it wut 
have been intelligible enough, but it sounds straoKe in tlio moo 
of those who )>elieve that" the Lord Gi ' ' ' ' the dij 

uf the groutiiL" IitdutHi, what iu Durwi 
of dirt," appoars in the Bible oa a " gooin't of gniov.'* We 1 
us Klugaley aays, suok — 

To tat ap WHIM "difaUyof huxMn naturr," wt lanala lUErHcrity tu 1 
■nab, OD •mhicb wo tua; priila onnwIi'M m e«r owo }>aiar~ 
ikanlu wlih fMr auO uvinbUag (or it aa tba«pvcUlBift of A<.ii'«».; •ludl 

But the inspired writers " nwel in '■^^-■^■— •■■-'■•*', 
they may the more nxalt tlio love and cv 
moral, as distiiirt f; 
not lx> mintake-i iu 1 
inbreathiKl with tlio breath of life, is formed nf tba tl 



pnrjKMicw. Th<i clvuirn people Iriu-wl tliinr ile-scent fmm "ft Syriitn 
rawly \*> ixfrtHh." Thoy were the " fewest of nil jK-opIo," and ooo- 
•tantly minindM of their nrigin. " Riimi'mI>or that tliou vast a 
bonil-wTviint." " Louie unto the rooka whotice yo nrt* hi-wn, and 
Ui Ihu hdlti of tho pit wlmnco yo aro diggod." Aiid y«t th«y were 
what Um^t woro. Ui« d«tinc<i rppoiutory of tho oracles of God, 
II' " " !<;at'lH'r8 <rf thu World. The BiMo at leaat gives 

III' ' . wlik-li refuses a d(!griuli><l orif^n fur man. 

Bot Darwiiiixm, dualing with man, as it is boond to do, flimply 
fram the lido of hit miima] and c»qx>real natnn^, haa done aoino- 
tUnjf to (fiv" i>ia» hi)i tnio place in tho phytticJil universe. U has, 
by tii» application of its own m&tli<Ml8 and it« own twta, recog- 
ftisod him im tho mof and crowii of nil things viHiblo. And hy m 
doing it haK rt'n<l<«ro«l any form of Naturo-worBliip henceforth im- 
poulblft. The highKst. or tho Ifto^it dograding of theso, was the 
wonhip of tho miti. \Vlion Anaxagoras ventured the speculation 
that tho gront god Helio«i waH a moss of molten mftal, he waa con* 
dnasiod ON a hnretio. Scicnco hati trodden in his fixtlnlops, and wo 
know now tliat the nun in a very largo ball of t(oli<l and gauoiu 
niatt«r, in a stato of llorco incandeitcenco, and supported by invol- 
11 ' <i:trilii>U<pnii. It hafl been " found out," as ooinpleboly u 

t.: . V r{in<l, when people woro sliown its works — 

Va mni [«■ tbo IHkt of Arfl?ll mji] mb wonlilp a b«ll of (In, liow»T*r Wf ; 
BMT wa ki tB«l KnUrl\il tii It, ODt Iot* It, dot odor* it( ovca Utoa)ili Iib lioaiua bo 
b> kin til* vory IIkIu ot lifo. Neitbor in li, nor Is tfc» Bier« pliyiictl foroM of 
wUiIi li U ttM Mbtor, L-an «o wo uijtlilng approacblng to tlio raak uil dlgnltj 
of •no tlu bdutUMt bnnian heui.* 

Nnrcan wr any longer worship organic Natunt. For w« aro 
onnielvtii, if DarwiniMn is truo, tho Iiwl torm in tlio sorieti. If 
nuut mUKt huvf a rislblo god, ho muxt lieiiooforth worship bimiwlf 
or ■otru^thing lowor. lu Genesis \\f is mado lord of the vixibln 
world, to havo dominion over tJie llt«)i of the tim, and ttm fowl of 
thriUr, and eV4ir}' living thing that inovcth u|ion tlie^wrtlu Wbnt 
Grawis Hpaakw of m tho will of QkA, Diirwini»m nwlM in Naluro 

i ■ Hjd [wj* Dnrwlo] In ibo nwto^t lUle la vlitoh be aoir exiit> la the mo* 
I damlMnt uilmal ihu hw <iT«r iflwsrcd oB ihb Mrtb. II* hM oprmd mm* 
f Midair that) ■07 MJi«r lilflil; orfulMJ form, anJ all Olbrn liavv jrioldod b»> 

It is nut true, tlu>n, tJiat Dnrwlaixm diigRulca man, for in tracing 
1: m thu ir<" 'in to the bigh- 
ts: ' haianv -igc. 

Anil what nbriut tho aool P If man. In bin aiiimjU nature, wu 
erdlvwl from lower cnviturM, when did Ood "brosthe into his 

■ .: r_,.. „* v., .,. • ^ ie^ t " D«VTI)( ••( Mu.** )i 41 



mwtriU the breath of liffi " » Was the ' ' i 

lultoii, or WHS Hiai at lea«t a " itpecial < < r 

be it observed, gotiif; beyond Lhd rangft o( our sulyt-ct, wlm-Jt vii 
llio rolatiun i>f Dai-wiuism to the Cbristiuu fmtb, luid pi*' ■■' ■ ■■■! 
a reg:ton wUero neither scieiica nor reltgioii tuw i*pcikt«n. I 
nays " Uieolugy diH^s not hold trnn.ifonni>it iht^irittH fxirlwlidH 
Holy Scriptuni, ho that tliey sjinro llio auiil of iubh." But hoH 
HliaroH the itoul of muu, just as it siNirw origioal vreuliun. bocnn 
it cnii not Iiiivu any k«i>wliMl]|^» r»f oitbor. It can ' * 'ti, Whi 
is tborti that man cun not duny 'f It may even ■' doguifttj 

denial by a sombluuou of reason with tho help of tb« major pnl 
ise : " What acieaco can not know can not be known." Frd 
thiB, no doubt, tlio conclusion follows with lo^ral n"c<>wiily. ffl 
we answor with negatur maior. With rcjirnrd, ]jowov<>r. to tl 
qnestion of the origin of the soul, aft a thirvlogicnl pmtilum. it 
perhaps eattier to say wliat is not true thiui what ia. 'I'Iii> k<>u1 n 
not ho A "special" creation whothor in Adam or in hla rhildrJ 
There is no " Hpeciea " of soul. We may call It, if wo will, an " ■ 
dividual " creation; but is not all creation individuul oniotil 
from thit rt'ligious p«)iRt of view f And if bo, it is a phnuui wfaij 
does not liulp us. I 

We can, howevor, «xptatn tho difficulty in protriiiuly the ima 
way in which science explains a law — namely, " by tiutMtitariM 
uuo my»t«ry for another."* Wo may say that tln^nr b no ^H 
or i'onceivablo difficulty in the creation of the soul of Adnni will] 
dow not recur in the case of every child lK>m into tb" world, j 
its Buul inherited, like its iHHlily organiitm, or in tt lul'b^l Ut tl 
body? Tho instincts of Christianity, raiJivr tlinu miy i ( 

cision, have throughout bot^n agouutt tra<I)icituiit>m, i^r < i 

itance of tho soul Cruationijqu, or tho infnsio a»iv I 

othwr hand, gunnla a truth which tri^ lu lowm. iJm j 

Hpite of all the authority which can Ix' i for it, it mOM 

crude and slnuLge, to our wayH of tliinkiug. The vory Vti^H 
/uffw, and, in a loBser dogriM, the ImrbarouH w-ir ! "i^H 

suggCftt that the soul is & thimj which at n (1> jdH 

known moment is put into tho t>ody " like a xiUMtag^m 
boat," 08 Aristotle luw it. If so, thi* body iNtforu the aM^| 
tho itoul was not in any real boum hunuui. For " t)ii) rtMui^l 
soul " is an OMuntiat to tniii huiniuiity nn the " (li-sh." And ^m 

aAalogy BUggwt««] in tlie AtlianaHtan Cn . <l Iririir^ U^^H 

ing to that groatcr niyKtory.on which ' I^^H 

fuiiMi of tho fir ' ^^^M 

have to rumen i 'fl^l 

Thing," which in thn fullnnaa of time waa to Im liimi of l.^B 


gin, itrt-notfi at any inoment the Word of Oo<l. In iha liUtory of 
Uw iodividaal, su far as hitt pliyncal Rtructare in concerned, sci- 
MUM am tTucv nneh steji from th« mirroticopic cellolar germ lu 
(bv fully duveloiN^ ntaii. If we tx^lieve that man as man is an 
imtuorlol soul, though vrv cau not say when be became so, or that, 
ittrii-tly liixwkiuK. bu ever did become so, we need not be surprised 
tu miwt Uiv diffiuulty u^kin Ln the evolution of man from lower 

In botb CUM nmn is what he is, whatevor bo camu from. Wo 
io not nay n nun ia not rich because wo liave futmil out bow ho 
uuido bin f'irtunu. Ww ilo not say the cyo am not »w bt.>L-itutw wu 
van trace it \»u:k Vt a Hjicck of pigmvut semiitivo to Uglit. Wbuther 
Qod fomn-d mjui Iit«r»lly " from the du«t of the ground," or raitiod 
him by iiro>;muiive w<Ux:tion to what ho is ; whuthur, in uciuittiGc 
louffuatfo, man rooe to manhood " by the final arbitruuiont of tho 
battle fur life":t or whether, as Ur. Wallace thinks, there in a 
onrtnin amount of "unearned increment" to be accounted for, man 
]>■ m, "tlic ul">'y and the ncandal of the universe.*' Dar- 

w . liff " tho ^-xtntmo diflicuUy, or nitbor iniiwsciibilily," of 
coocciviuff tho univurao ns not bolng tho work of " a Fimt Caum 
having an iutrlliui'nt mind lb Homo dognw analogoiiM to that of 
man," t i" driven Un-k into agnoHticbnn by the qaoHtion. " Can tho 
miml of uuui, which ban, iw I fully buliovo, been devulopvd from a 
mind iw low tut that |MMS3<«(iod by the lowest Hninml», \ni tniHtod 
whi'n it drawn Buch Kraod concluHions ?"" Yot when Darwin, in 
all thu wtnltb of bis scientific exporionco, and all tlie Mtn^UKth of 
LiH diKuplinod ruoson, gives us bis matured judgment ou the pro- 
cB W i of Natura, who would dnuin of saying, " How ran I trust 
lli 'jsiiinH of a man who wiw nuix" a Iwiliy " ? Wn truKt him 

f' I uu in, uitd uiit f<ir what li« wtui. And man in man, what- 

aVur bo came from. And wliut m man "r— 

•• DktlDfiiUbod link In Mas'! amlliM ohiln I 
IDdwBjr from nudiltiit Ia Dm Vtity I 
A bMm vUimiot tulttwl nai ab«orpi 1 
TbcMifli iuJIIm) auJ ilwboiMiml. Mill dlriiwl 
Dkoi lulolitars of grcsUivM kImoIoIo I 
Ab bntr af gliw? ! a frail cliihl of iluil 1 
HdplcM InnMrtttl I buoct IbHoitc I 
Awunnl tGodt"! 

,Vhit«ploMof worlt linu [«;• Ilamld). In anhn, bo« llk« ko bkc*): 

liuv Uka •tpA'. iba I-aaMtj of ilm worla; Uie pongun of aaUuals ! 
Aa^ jot, U> too, wh&t U iLln •jQlotvaaoaco of dual t * 

Haa U a part of tiattira [U hu b«rn hM), and no artlSnlal ikftnldooa nw aafN^ 
rata Un tttim U. Asd jH \a aaoibrr aetua tt W tnia Uiat mu la abovo Natnra— 



• IbU- 

I •• Xl|lrt Tbrniibu." L 

J " UU and LxMra," 1, ^ ' 
' AM II, MMt k 



ontaide of It : uxt in tlib oepeet be la tli« rtsrj Xjyn snd laup <*' l**' 

By Nature we anderaUuid stl risible thinf^, ioclnding oum i 
far as ho can be obeeirwl by the naked eye or thii micixwoopo— I 
morphoIoRy, his physiologj*, hia histological ciovolupmcnt. Mi 
for a Christian this does not exhaust human uuturc. Kur hi 
vitiible Nnturo is the sogmont of a circle, " we nee but in port 
And the X'iflible is not ooextwnsivo with (he laiowD. f t > 
ultinmte ox]>1nnAtio» of "the IhiiigH which are seen" 
sought in " the things which are not seon." Them Mtv for 
vrhitih rofuee to bo menMurcd by " fout-ponndfl," fiictji which f<l 
over must LTHriipe tho luiiToscopo, ronlitios vrbirh ciut no 
npon the 8pecti*um field, a life which thu scft1i>L>l can neitlil 
cover nor destroy. A Christian beliovBs with Mr. Darwin 
man in thu distant future will be a far more perfect ereiitunt thi 
he now is," and finds it "an intolerable thouwbt thiit he und 
other suntinnt beings are doomed to complete annihilaiiim aft 
such long-continued slow progress" ; t but he boltis It in a diflfi 
ont way and on different grounds. And, believing in the 
man's di\'ine nature, he can watch without anxifty, not 
interest and gratitude, the work of those who are ahuwing 
man's place in the physical world. Darwin tells n« that, nit 
lay on tho grass on an April morning at Muur Park, amid 
joy of opening spring-tide, he " di<l not can' one penny how 
of tho beasts or birds had been forraod."! Amid the mi 
realitieA of tho moral and spiriluiU world, or in tlia dnrc 
study of the Word of Owl, it liecouii'M a malU't of :■ ' 
purtunce to a Christian whether he m t» trnOe hin |< 
dirwrtly or indirectly to tho dust. For it is God's world after i 
We believe in the resurrection of the body as well as tb> 
tAlity of tho soul. That which is material is not "cm. 
ondtaii " ; 

IThnt w« are fuyit iriiis«l<7V iri- sro b? llw prae* of flod. . . . 9nlat 
mDmI the tiirds liLt brDlltcni. Wlt«lh«r liu «m vantxi, iilUiM' UivnhitrlrAllT I 
aoOlogicallr. Im WM plainlr frM rnin tlml tw < ' 
wMob knunlf m tanuj In (Iicm mii>l<'rn tlmi^t, l'< 

a iptriliMl t>«tD(, b« t>i<ni;(t<t H nl )ra>t imimMq tlut hinla nii|;Ut hn >plruual 
IttR* likowUn, tDriubato )Uu lilimtnir In nuirUl iLvit; Km) •■« tii> • 1 
tba &igB\lj at hiinuB nnturc tn i-Uimlntc kiailml lui'lusl; trllli r; 
ttrnl. Ml wMidvrfat, who <■■ bu fUioM ta hi* ntd-fMliluotil m*3i I'Tnifi xwj 
ib« foriM, vv«n a* uiiH* <l'il ta biMTM.* 

With regard to nil thin higher iddn of uian's iiutoru. Ur. 


Uti did, he niimita tho dilliculty lu wull an ihn 


of hi* poHtUon. Ttii'n' wiw< a lintc wlieii iiicii tlnrcd to say that . 
bocnoiH) thff proscnco uf »in vuils ttio knowlutlgu uf God, tburvfon< 
ibpy who do not accfirt OhriBtianity in a Christian country mast 
lie ^lilty t . if nut oix-n, stu. Tlittt phiisv', tlmnk Gud, has 

(numkI. .1 ri — tlint nn?n might havB a tlieorj-— they talked 

of EntL'llortnftI prido. IntellectaaJ pride, which in 6utf-as8ertioD,DO 
doubt obnonruH thu vision of God. It is oi; much a rejection of 
Ood M A sinful lifo iM. But dare anyone tuiy that loss of fuith 
or tbo inAhility tn rvceivo it munt spring from one of these two 
couMr — tmmornlity or intellectual pride ? We lit-Heve it tB im- 
powiblt' lo nwl Darwin's " Life and Lettera" without natictnj; as 
thn in(if>t nlrikiiiK i-hnrai'tmHtirH of Damiii's tniutl his inlrnw 
mndMty, his m'ir-f(irKi<tfulni>(«s, his nhrinkinR from popularity or 
appUow, whiK< j^Indly wiOcominK the tesUuiuny of tbone who 
wvtv ' 'tit !•) jtulKo iif t)i>i tnith of htfl work, his ilrvotinii 

ta trir iiown liy t)i>< wfi^ht he ^avc to uiifHVorahlc riictH, hU 

humility, IiIh HiinpUcity, hiN riTvprvnco. How could such a luvablo 
natnn% wi- ant li-uijitcrj to luik, have rojwtod Christianity ? or, to 
pill it ililTiTi'titly, how could ChrJHtiunity have faitvd to mako 
(wnI itM apiu-ul to i4ucli a haiuro us this P 

Id thii wholi) rcconl tlmro is nothing eo iutvnwily intcrosting 
tu Darwln'H account of his religiouK opinions and tho steps by 
M ' booiimu on agnoHtio. What was iiis ri'ligious history ? 

li. !,.*r waa a Unitarian, his father he describee as "a ftflc- 

tUnJwr in n'ligious matters," though nominally belonging to thi* 
Cbnrrh of England. ]>arwin himself was christened and wiw 
iDfluit to b<don|: to the Church, but ho was »ont to a day-school 
ktfi>t by tho Unitarian minister. His mother attended the Uni- 
.0 chuftol and took hnr sons with her. Kho di«l when he was 
:ht yiwrs old, and art«-r that ho CK'ems if* Iinve gone to churtrh, 
aod Iat<-r on vrc boarof his intention of "going into the Church "* 
—an int^^tiuQ which was not abandonecl till the Keaghi voyage. 
Vb* \~iew of th» mitiistry is incidentally given in a letter from 
linu in IRIA: " To a ptvnton tit tt» take tho oflire the life of a 
elcrftymiui i« a type of all that is rMpMtabto and hajipy." t Dur- 
inx ftU thitf |M-rin<l hu " bad not thought much alwut tho oxistenoo 
tif » por*"! '" 'I/'t YIo hmt rea^l Paley. but had Utkcn Paley's 
pT*'ml""*« "t,"* HO that even Iuh ITnituriuniHui, which, an 

h . bis grain] ffiOiT vpoko of as "a feather-bH for a falling 

CiinxLinii," wiw hardly i<noui;h bi break the fall. Under such coo- 
ditimui wrt are not mirpritMHl to hcmr tlint tlie intention to be a 
elorgyman "dtt-*) a ualund •b';ilb."| Tlial idea abandnneil, tho 
two pmpfl on which bia n.>li^oii roHtiMl— Paley'n " Katuml Tbft- 
dnity " and Pnarson " On tlip Crettl "—gradually gave way. Tbo 
Palryan itrguDitmt dimpiKinnHl witit the ahamloaincnL of special 

■i-r "- ILp-IM. JI,|i.»T». •I.p.41. |l,p*8«. 


PTTPp*. for th* wry Ktuaa uui, ammm » « 

aboulJ Ijo evolvoil ilirwtly from a lisU, ami ri 
he shouU be cvolvw) fmni tlio liiglier vorlt-br 
nilatiyn« witli both, but thiwu n'UttoM arojl 
iu(liff«n-ut from which hn is dorivfil. fl 

It was not religion iihme, hovfvvor. thi»t *a 
in Darwin's* cnsn. It is ftluiost i»«tlielic to r« 
way in which he fell <iut of corMwpomlenco w 
ing. Up to thiriy «ir hi-yond htt dflHKhlwl 
they ceaaud to iiit^trt-Kt him, and finally th< 
(listostoful : 

I can Dot eudoro to read a tin* of iioMrj : 1 ' 
sjieBK, and toani tt on intolwnlily dull ihat it ti" 
toy UMe tat pkluree or tsofki. . . . Mj ulad iMiM U>1 
diino for KrioJioi ([«n«il lawB out o( l*t«« aJUrtloi 
■bouM Udve o»U»d Oi* nlropliy of tliiit iwrt of U>« 1 
blgbor **»U« d«l>«d, I e«n not ooBiwlro. . . . If I »i« 
wodU Lav* mad* a rule to rvod aoo* po<^ ■>&<* 1^*^ 
ODM • wo«k ; ff r perbspi U)« I'orU of my lir»lii now i 
tiMD kept MtUu tliTou<;ti UM-t . . . It b BD acouraod ^ 
Hooker In 1868] to bttxnaa m »bcurbod In V17 Bul')Mt 1 

We »hftU not, wo trust, b^- m-onswl ■ 
or want of chnrity, if, in Ihe light of v 
hla Migioim history, wb sam it up in U 
failh. Thivt nhirh Ba'-on boU fn 
the tendt-ucy to <Imw everythiny ' 
suit, sliowfl itwif in Bs nmoy finms m th* 
It , .. m '^■•■-rvi^mm- * r*- 



(intiflc HpwlalUi will bltuidly put tuUIo ruligion, I>«caubo lio can 
nnt without troubli! rolalo it with vrhitt hu can touch und twrto 
ami hiiiKUo. To mliitv truths which hulung tu diffurDDt onlerci 
pUinly n-'iiuiroa a yn-jitor I'fTurt than to rulato those which belong 
t>i lhi< NUI1U. Yet if tho effort be nut miule, the prodominant study 
tiuiy still a<lvanc(<, but at a real, perhaps a fatal, cost. The atrophy 
uf fnilh Is iMniinittivr than atrophy elsewhere. For men have comn 
to think llutt whiU* they mu^ devote a lifetime to Bcience, or phi- 
toMopby, or art, or literature, they con pick up their religioD w 
Uu»y ic<^ Ao'] thu rmult j-i, that religion becoaie« like a tender 
ttzutie in their Iiv4«,iuid in theirstniggle for existence "the tliorus 
Rpriug up and choke it," Agnouticism ix often tax tx iKiai facio, 
though honiwt. Juxtiticatiou in theory for a roIigiouB atrophy 
which \\a» iilriuiily taken place in fact, just as men deceive them- 
Nolvcta and appeal to "other^worldlinesa" to cover the neglect of 
daily diiticnt. Cliristianity makeH faith the Christian's watk. It 
knows no nborl cut to spiritoal Imth, only the royal road of indi- 
Tidoal Mfian-h and jx-ntonnl offorl. But there are agimstics like 
Oarvin, and thi>n' aru ngnonlics whoKO uguiwtii-iHni w u thin diit- 
ffuiw for plump N^If-fAti^fnction. Thcn« aru evolutloniBtii )iko 
P ' ' <-an not aeo their way to Christ ; tlioru are also evo- 
\y- < tbo RTwt American boluuiKt, just deuil, who spcu^ 

i'f htmiutif 


Om «bn 1» K4atiUfli»t]/, and In hi* «WD fMliloo, ■ Darwloln, pbQoaopliiunr 
a PoaTlBeod UitW, oad roUgioaalj on •eooptar of iImi " Cmod ooouiMMilf Mllud Um 
VtetM " M lb* upnaiioii of tbo CbrlatUn Wtti. 


Ant'<ntr Mio many dilTIrulties wliii'h In tho pnvreding articloB 
Wf- have not t<iu'-lie't, there an.> two which will proMtly 1>» prea- 
•nt to the mindf of many. Without attempting to diwuss tbem, 

W' ■-■ tnte thi<m, and suggest thu Uuoa on which, as it Hoenut to 

li! . iiould t>(t di'itit with. 

rl t. U may bii said, "Then yiunrt' prepared to give upOencfliB?" 
!b which it may l»e luiuwered, " Yen" if by " giving up Ooiiesin " 
yon nw<an refusing to chilm for it what it never claima for itxelf— 
(bat it in ft I' ■'• of ninete*iiilli-century acicnco, 

and a revmlo'l nism. Wo ran not sympathUn 

witlt thoM''nK)oncilcini'' who would n>ad twtwoon tho lines of tho 
V, ' i.itorya i.-i r' : ' hail !»<*» sf nt^xl in pUtn wonU, 

vs •tl> put !■: xler ntrain on the fntth of llioso 

fifr whom il woA written thiui even its verbal accuracy would put 
im uura In tkr> pn>At>nt day. 

S. Then, il mny lie aakod, "flnw alKiut tho fall? Is that nn 
allr^ry, or a tn for a sU-p forwnnl in evolu- 

fT,,.. » " "W,. ivti-. ..^ , 1..- fiJl implies a change, and a 



cbiuigo for tlic worse, iti ilio rolntioii or nuui an 'n livinj; mm\ 
to his Ci*«t«r — Qod, Poidtivd »c:iouct< — bhiI Ihirwininui \» in »xw 
way Ixiuriil liy thi.' liinitM i>f pimitivo Kcicuct-— will m-i' i> tior- 

hiiiilur \i» in diHcunDfinj; tho rvLation bclwi-.!) iw> i- ii 

wldoli oro outtrirlo iUt rantjto. 

In II word, wo nw an llltlo prf-punxl to coiii^iilt (.!■ 
onlor of \\\v jKilcoiitological m.<riLV) iw to luk Uiit In, 
modoni 8«iutui) to koIvo for un tba ilifficulUw uf uur tDi>ra] 
spiritual life.— 77»! Guan/tan. 


Bv U. FAm. JAA'ET. 

r giving the nnmo of Espnrimonto] nD<1 Corojiantire Psjcholi 
(fy to the pliiiir into wliich it Iina Imiufor ' ''•■ lUiciH 
dirtir of tlio Liiw of Nature iui<l of Niktious. thn (.' :' Ft 

luM sought to fpvuita titio brotui itnd comprclivmiivr rrioufth 
uci'ommodnio itttulf to all eontingcociM. To liavu<^lk'<] it \i, 
logiciil [wycliology would huvo miulo physiology loo proi 
ond tho chair might then ovuntuiilly have hcoomp a nwrp aani 
of thai Bciencc Phyeiologifitfi hnve done much, hut tUvy hal 
not done everything, for experimental ps)-cboloKy. An intvll 
gent magiittrate who has thoroughly studied the v 
state of criniinaU; a philoitopber versed in ethn'i 
mal (isychology ; a pedagogne who has ohwn'ed human fncultii 
from an eduaitional point of view; n p«r« r ' ' 
()uaintn<l to the bott^im with all jiartsof the i»cii 
uf including them in n )<ingle pliilosophical xynthuiiii— n 
compete for such a chair, which wouhl not then he the ■■*> 
domain of nny one Kpocialty. Tho real num» for thin 
would ho objective payeholngy, if thfvt I'-rm • 
for common n«o. There are. in fact, twi. pi*j c: 
]8 constructed hy the inner eense. and Iji the bajtiji of tlto 
whirh ini;;lit 1m> cnllt-d Sii' 
romufi hy iiuiwnnl ohwjrvni 

animuls, or of the iiurvona ayMlem, whicJi is Uio objc 
ehoh>gy of which we an* Nptwlcing. T! 
always i-xistM lo a gruatur or \"-^ i-i'' 
new U^ tn-at it in and for itsnlf, . 

constituUi it au im' ■;' ' 

parlM iif which it tfi i 


Ti i 


THS TEAcamo OF FsrcHoioor. 

b ill iU Lum divided into two jiHrlx, noconliaKly iw it ><ituiltes tlio 
luiuid ni&D ur the diseased man. TUb former is ptiysiologicui 
pa>'cliu1rifty pKiperly callfK], tlie ottior pntbologiral imyvbologjr. 
Thin di»ttiitfLitiri in, however, more idenl than reHl, bouiuau so far 
tlio whditi Rttnly hits proceeded rallier by Uie jiHtbidof^cal rood 
than by the direct dbsorvati'tu of thv huiilthy condition ; but [t is, 
MtverlboluaB, correct in priuciplu. 

Tho mattor of the now ncieuce comprLnos a numhcr of fact* not 
jritt connected or co-ordinuUxi, but which have b^-cn determined, 
tn ft rcrtain extent. Among them are corehrul localizations, aphasia 
in jiartlriilar, the muacular sense, heredity, siiggeelion, double c-on- 
■nii)unn<.*)>ii, etc, besidoo otheni which have been longer knon-n. 

Thi* theory of cerebral localizations was sui^geeted by Dr. 
Oall and the phrenological school, who, however, compromised 
it by awKTitttinR it with an untennblo system, for whirh they 
did n<it offtir a nlmdow nf i><>tsitivo proof. Flourons approiwhed 
the subject in a acientilic manner, with experimenUi on the 
brains of pigeons, from which he dtvluctxl tlint tlie brain par- 
tidpatus in the functions of lliouj^ht niul feeling as a single 
whole. Hr nevortholenH o|H>ned the way to localimtionR by dis- 
ttnguiithiug various organti in the brain, and employing the dia- 
tinctitmii of the spiritual philosophy between sensation and 
thought, sitating lliu IntU-r iu tho bmiu and thit fomior in the 
spinal uuuTtpw. Tlio tliiMry of locatizutions has bticomu much 
mora pmciso since Flounms. Kot only has it been possible to 
•rat ihn nintor functions and tJivir various disorders with a quite 
novfl jin't^ision in thnir several parts of the brain and spinal cord, 
but the Turntal fncullitw nlno have lM>guu to yield to efforts to 
Idonlixe tbuiu. Thus, the facuttic^i of pure thought have been 
plAoM in the gray matter, luul the plurality of the corebml organs 
and thn dtvnrxity nf lhi<ir functions appear to have been eetab- 
Ushm] in the surest and most hrilliant manner in the theory of 
the iHMbi of language, in which tliu fuc:ultiivi relating to spoocb, 
nodinK. wrtting. and Injuring arti sovoraUy aaaignod their spodfio 
qnartfrrx. In this we have on« of the clearest and most prociw of 
tb* data of psyvho-physiologicul science. The object of tbis sci- 
■oea is the di>t()rmiuntion of the physiological or organic condi- 
tiODSaf the mental facultiitH. Iu Uio present case the mental fiio- 
nlty is luuguuK*^ ; the pltintlily of aeats is the organic condition ; 
,1 .1.7. ..i,...,.i;.v oxplaiiifl thfl KingularseparAtions that are mndn 
: cases betwi'vn gronpK of jihenomena ulMolutely 
' xotnple, between reading and writing. Yot 

- ^a goon to any that this explains language 

in so far M it Is a psych o|<>(;i<'al faculty. It is a raan of 

' ng more, 
.uostions of physirw 







lofpcal psychology U tho theory of tho miiitailar winsp. Dmtii 
(ie Trftcy rnninliiinod that without motion we wulii Dot \m 
knowledge of the cxistcucp - ; f()r il in arrw '<M 

that gives the st^nsatiuQ of i .<_'. Tho <?«4T)lla. , ij^ 

theor>- is to distingniith tho eenwi of effort fmm purely lum 
tnusculAT MDsatioiDt. If roiitM-ii>ii»iu<M U a g<Mj(l jii<If;f4i in thfl 
nialU'ra, sayti Ali'itaixlor B:uii, wo may miv that in voluntary i-(Ti) 
we hnvo the fo<)liiig of a fiiculty cxporienc^ni fnim within 01 
vanl luid aot that uf u aoosible aurfitcu KtiiiiiilAtv<I hy an ' ' — 1 
agent and traiutiiiiltiDg au iiupr(5»>iciii frtmi vithout to \: I 

nervous centers. The sense of effort would tlicu mucm t>i bo tj 
focUng of tho production of motion ruthur thuu uf imttitm i>i 
duood. It 18 anterior and not posteriur to the motion. Withtj 
going into detail, we ran, according to Baiu. f ' -iH 

sensations to two great classM : the aenflstimi uf ..iH 

of motion. Tension is an act of effort in so far as il moaU \ 
invincible restatance, for example when it endeavors to ruM 
weight that is beyond its etrf-ngth, or ti* stop a gallopiug hon 
We can distinguish thrm dinttnei senaatiann in tliat uf l><ufi>i 
pressure, traction, and weight. The first occurs whrn wi> wuth • 
onuh an object, as a nut, with the hands ; thi> si-nond, wlmu * 
winh to lead an object, as a horse, or a man who \r. .^H 

and the third, when we li/t a weight. The fiwt i .... ::a^ 
ourselves on tlio exterior object ; the second, of the Dxlerior obja 
on us; and the third, an upwitnl effort. Tli- ' '■ 
the same, wliolher the extvnttor or Huxor mil- 
ls in a certain manner tho fuvHng of force in otiuiUbrlun 
the exterior force, hut at ita limit, and tinable to (^> f ' '' - 

II in surprising that Baiu, in diMrnuxing what ; 
sensation of motion, did not 0nt auk if Kuch a mniiuitioa 

Without doubt, since we effect motion, thnrt' munt t- 

in tlie I'onsciousneos that corruspondu to it: but dn. 
thing resemble what we nill a motion—' <.if| 

8JMK0 !" We see that the question of till : ni 

closely bound with the idw of the perception of $\Mce, u 
the most obacure an ' ' ' H 

this notion of sjnan-, "fl 

the name of U>n«ion or of contmrMon, for thiiN^ u>rros imp 

tion.and motion implir - T' - ' ' - ■' ,r*|i 

uf muscular Heuhottioii kj . « 

fatigtie distinct from the exturnai ifl 

cnUHPS fontigii to us. It ctniHimto in - « 

the production of a dcHintl act. W ' rfl 



Onn 'if lli<> iiiont dolicaU.' qULfitions of tlie theory of moscul&r 
itiiiun in tliiit of <l(.-fiuuig tiu-tual sensationa. Having ab- 
■tnetrfl froDi toaob all tliat rvlateo to tbe sense of effort, what is 
lafito L-unMituto toiich jiroper? SeiisationH of temperature, ami 
what wf cull Bt^Dfuil ioiit) of contact. But cnii tbere be armsatioD^ 
of onQlu'-t witbout tbere being nioi-e or )e<«a of pressure, traction, 
eta.? !» iiiinplu contact fidt, othtTwino tban ili tiont or cold, wlion 
wo obntrort all inuHCulnr HPiiitiitton ? Might wu not xiniply revert 
front it, a» <li>l Bintii, U) tho iliHtiiH-tioii brtwmm [Mutsivo touch and 
Htivo touch, tho liitter includiu^ thu etl'orl !' But tburu nfipunr to 
be pathological ciwc^ whuru the touch pcraists whUo the aitixcular 
wtuw in aboUnlKKl, oh, for oxamplt*. wlicro ibu gmtii'nt with bin 
ojTM cIonmI can not toll wburo kU UuiIhi hrv, wlivUit.'r hiit arm 
ia raiiml up or lying don-u, etc; but these coiseif roUto to the 
bxiallxation of m^nsiUionB, another of the most complex quea- 
tkma, atul to that uf the perception of our body, which ia no 

Tb«rc iK left the physiological question proper, that of tb« 
■■at of muHcular Hennntion, on which tbimt are two theorieD. Ac- 
Donling to what ia cikllcd the ci^'ntrifugal tht-ory, tlie fi-vling of 
mnacuUr <!(Tort ia connoct«<l with the outgoing current of the 
motor influx. According to tho other, the cuntripi-tal theory, it 
\m produciol by the MQSutlonH n'tuniiug from the member in 
motion to ttio oeateni. Both of tbuHu tht-uriee hud points of tup- 
port in exp^irimonla mwle upon hysteric putienta, who have in 
theae ilnya become voritabto aualyticnl mnchiiiea for tbo une of 
pcyeholugy* On lb«* one side are hysterics who, having hwt the 
maacuhu- wiuh>, oud shut their eyes, hare no kuowlmJge of tho 
pawivq movi^mriitH that are impreaseil ou their Umbs; and yet 
this loa> of muM-ular Bonae tnlcM away none of the preoltion of the 
OMtiotui wliii-h the subjeot ozecutAS; an obsi-rvittion wliich ia 
iaterprut4vl by M>me authors as favoring thu C4iitrifugiU ihoury; 
baoauM, ruutrtp«.>tal aeniiaUoug being aboliahod with Ihwo patient*, 
Ihoramost exbclfom'' ' ' >ii of comu-iouaneaa regulating their 
noranuiota, and that i ' : i of oouwiousaesB can bo detorminiHl 

only by the uulgfjing current of tho motor influx. There are, on 
tlu* cootrary, other hyittorica who, losing consciouenvas of the p«a- 
flivv movvturnto, lose aluo that of active motions, and become in- 
capabln of »>x<x.-utii>g a Kiuglo act with shut e>'es, which is int«r- 
— •-' "1 mnaniug lliat voluntary motions are impossible when 
d tenuitioiis are atmlbibMl. This int^trpretation would 
itv that ' I ling allied with the motor diTfohiirg)- 

- - '.-ompAU-u „ 1 ..i'--tiou« in the absence of centriiwtiil 

■Bsnutionai It iw apparent thiit physiology has yet very far to go 
>■ ' ' t.>bnvDiK>lvi<d theaeqaeetionjt. Hul.oafaotit. 

t. , iiwtJon am very Intarwting; and it happens 


vnrj- Trwiuontly in lliu tximriintMiUJ noieoces Ln^-i. ••<• pcwami fi 
wiLlidut liuinj; iiltlv ti> oounuct ilium by thuoriiw. 

According to Kimt's luw, all our fieusatiuOfi aro [nti'iislvo qi 
titivH; tbut u, tUi-y uro matters of degree. Cau we, tbon, apik 
prociso mutbematical measores to their mteitfity ? Evc>r}' hub 
tiou <Ioi's, in fnct, present itiKtIf to ua sa being m- ' m hI 

aud couHc-quoutly as a ma^itude. Then why mi ' mc 

it, like any other magnitude or any quantity ? But we inuift 
a difEuronce bolwecn psychological or pbj-aiological muARORM ; 
the phyaieal measures of physicista. As pliysics mottimrcft iw« 
light, and heat, it might appear thnt we Hhoiild alnwly liav* bnn 
able to measure scusutiona. But it is obvious that i>V ■■ ■ - ^t;- .t- 
ures these qualities only us objective properti^w of 
the ))sychoIogical m<:^ii.siire of Minsationn w n quitiv otlK-r quimLtutu 
The present qtiestiou, for example, is wbethi'r two qiutntititMi 
light, ph}'8ienlly and objoctively equal, produce t<\\aa\ ftensatior 
mid iiit>.4)iuil liimiuous oan»eH pru<lu(.'u iiii- 'i'lL 

whflliir, in sburt, the proportion existing Ki him-i 

bxiBt« boCwoen tbe effects. " There is uo one," »ays M. Ril 
" who hna not compared two sea.sation.4 and rcuinrkMl ihnt taw I 
stronger and the other weaker. We df^lnru without hi«'itatte 
that there Is more light at noonday than lu nioonliglit, 
A cannon-ahot makeB more noi«e than a pistol." So f/ir i' 
netta is saflioient ; but this is not what w« call ine'o«iirviii 
the mathemHticral [>oint of viow. To mtwtuni a v 
matically is to find how many timt« it ie (xint:i...' . ... 
muguitudo token as unity. Bus the mn a hoodrod or & tht 
times more light than the moon ? Do«* th*' 
dred or a tboutumd times more noise than tb'. , 
tioDs can not be answered by the conacioueneMi, which «ui n^ 
ns how many times one sennation is <■ " ' I In iinothi 
would naturally nccwT to the mind that •■- hivrvmitpaii 

portion to the excitation, n8 when HitImH thought that two 
would give twice ns much illumination as one. But liila 
(rue. We hc«r dlslinetly »oundi» in the night, or (n 
which aro inip< ■ in the r' .r in tin 

bunintiiWi. A dn , . . .ume of h- — .. not pri ■.,.;; ^ 
number of Instnimentii or of singers ot a concert to 

with Uio excitntiOD. This ia uon uf tbu uT>jM:t« of wbal u i 
piiyr' ,' ■ - 

'I ' ttf bcretlity la aii"»hi'T ttf fhr* ut«w ntntt/tM 

V hiui ii 



i)i>-)du«l WAH ronxitlAred ns on abfiolute wbol**, tnifficieut in hiniMlf, 
«n>] liftving uo root« in the pasl. But tlio theory might tilmost be 
CNtabluihtMl a priori, for it is airtAiti thnt herotlity jiluys it jwrt iu 
tbo phyiticul man. Every ono r«coginxo8 thn oxintcncc of lior«di- 
tar7 diwHwei) and the nwnablancv of cliiUlrcii to inruuts. It is 
mlmt fpioontUy acknowledged ttint tlio phyKioitl oxorciiuw a <;<!rttkin 
iiitlii«4)<!« over th« moral ; it foUowii, thortiforo, that what is triut«- 
mittwl by tb» phyoicul mny bo rommuiiicatod, la a ciiriaiii nieaa- 
unt, Ut tlip moral. Yol mu<?ti prucuutiun in Dooded iu thu lutorpre- 
tntina of tbnfi fad«, for tlie law of lioriKlity tiaa to com|wtu with 
ftnothor psychologiaj law, that of imitation or of contagion by 
nuulneni, the delusion, and tbo same delusion, iii communicated 
to another by contagion and not by heredity. Undoubtedly, If 
tb& csan is ona of mother and daughter, it might be maintained 
that berutlity plays a part ; but, in the case of two Binters, there 
' > ' U ia ueooSBUy, therefore, in dixcuiwing the facts on 
" thiwis of psychological heredity is supperted, to select 
tboM wtUi which it ut poesiblo to disengage theso two elementa 
from iroc auothur. 

The furl uf hyjmotio fiuggvetion, which han been so macb 

talkail uf roi**'nily that it bait nearly hecomo wearietome, is aover- 

ih-t..mi line of thn moat certniu and bc^t ontabliHhed facta. It 

* aaliiQtahtnettt solely by tho extraordinary conH-qurncva 

wtiicl) hav» boon twn to be pnnlurivl )>y it ; for, at bottom, it wiu 

Dot unkDOvn. It is a funilijir fact (bat there can alwiiyit be moru 

or law of commanicatiou, in normal aloop, botwoen the sleeper 

' '' ' : 'Its arciund him, No onu U surpriaivl, for example, 

. iiiio is p<?rfome«l in the presence of a persoa who 

' thrfjiigh it without waking, he will say on waking that 

ill ii.g hb h]i>>'p hu atU-ndoi a concert of aogoW The seiiMitioD 

bu liiti'ji >'ntfuigh>d with the »lc<op, and hnssnggested byaitwiciatioD 

t imagus which Imvo n relation to it. It in known, nlm, 

in, in Homo coaes, act ui>un Ibu sleeping man, and obtain 

by sjteaking, or excite and direct his drc«ms by some 

mark. This olemeDtary fact, exaggerated and deroloped 

orgaulxotlorui, and in i>articular diacosM, e«pocially in 

V.yotf-rin, bua bocomo the extraordinary fact of suggcotion with 

■•■H. It is not iniiVfBsible to find its origin in 

If we tell an infant that the murmuring wind 

iK'r, or that a pale reflection of moonlight 

1 1-. .>r void.* and «oe ghoRltt. The same fact, in 

pnutiiim arkd byatena, pro«luceH Hurprisiug phenomena. MoTe- 

' toent- ' >ni>. and more or Ivw* complex acts may be KUggested 

f.. (!•. iu«l fiatienl. Illusory sensations, and ronm.<(|UonUy 

. can also be provoki!<l. Like efr«ot« con bo ob- 

m1 .■ 



even by tlic simple nssocintioti of idou. Suggestion can evfii 
brought to bwtr upon purify pIiyiricA] phnnometm, oh, for exAi 
pie, pnmlysis. Wo spciik now of 8ubj«ctivo bumiiiKS, of r4 
gcet^ bliston ; and piwifibly tbo Htmiigo phonomt'iiA of Migmaa 
may havo their origin in somotliiug uf tlio kind. Tito RiiggvHtia 
of acts lire the most important in this category, because thvy i 
what must cAvmn Bomnambulists to T«»emble vakcful mnn, wli{ 
passing from the domaiu of s\\xp into that of waking. Tlioy pi 
Tokothogravequostionof respoiiaibiUty. Snggiwllonsof t)ii«kii 
can bo relegated to thrw groups : suggt^stionii niado during git; 
of acta to bo accomplished during sleep ; suggeotjuns made dutij 
sloop of acts to bo octromplisbed during the wnkoful conditio 
and suggestions rluring the wiikoful condition of iw.\» to ba \ 
compllslicd wliilo awake. Hero suggestion appoan in its Ta\ 
wonderful manifestations; for examples arc cited of suggustid 
enduring threo months of incubation. Kotbing is, without r]i.m] 
easier than to supiMSO a simulation under such circumsUinc^ 
and our professors of h>i>notism do not mako efforts enough I 
invent counter-proofs and traps against imposture. But the naj 
bor of foots bearing upon the matter ib so confiidembte, uu<] tl^ 
are verified by so many examples, that a iiniversal dvcuplioti wod 
be as hffrd to understand aa the fact itself. ] 

We can give only a bare outline of the facts here and will mere 
add that the question of suggestion raises many others; araoi 
them that of the relation of hypnotism to hysteria; that of hi 
notic phases (lethargy, catalepsy, and somnanibuliHm), whieb ■ 
affimted at Paris and denied at Nancy ; that nf the posaagv frq 
the norma) to the sug|Q;esLivR state, and rire v^rsa ; iiw philoaop 
ical questions that are more or Iras involvtyl in the discusiia 
such as thntto of free-will and responsibility, and tlie quugtlocJ 
double personality. 1 

'Die fa<-t of sli<ep may of itself have already suggmtod tbe Id 
of two distinct persons, for we certainly are not the same slsapa 
and waking. Yet, in sloop, wo tinvo rocolloctioos from tho wakn 
state, and wo can remomlwr from sleep whi-n awake. Thmj 
tltcrefore, an eswntial connt^tion betwwn the two statos. Thf 
an» in niitiiral somnambulism at the same tlroe mure and less] 
analogy witli the wakeful condition. In one rosiwct It more 1 
sembltw wakefulness; for while, in nattintl Hhtcp. ' :im 

absolutely incoherent, tho somnambulJKt plnyx oii' i-aa 

tliat Is, hti oxecutos n system of co-onlinated movenienta having 
bi'i-' ■ i)h| 

in the fact that tho man awakn whollv hw>a the i on] 

.) , -1 . 

i _ _. I : 1 


tamti fanhion. two Uv«s, anil the bypothesb dmiiiKHl of by Pascal 
in vrry u<-«r to being realized : " If we drofttnetl I'vcry iiigbt Ui« 
«uuu tliiuffii, it wiinld affect us a» niuob m objiwts tlint wo mo 0v«ry 
djiy ; luid if nJi orlisan were Burfl to droain during %\w twolvo bourn 
uf ovirry iiiffht Uint be was a king. I l)«li<>vo tbiU ho would bo 
almoft KM biijjiiy us n king who fdiould drMiin for twidvo hours 
that hu wiut on arliaiui." pAw;al sjionks hero only of drouiut&g, but 
it muHt not be fiirgott«n thnt sumniunbulijini is vompoiwd both of 
dnwm uu) nality, Tbv N^tmniuiibulist iM-rforius (ictions tb»t tuko 
ptac<> In the roiJ world ; ht- wnlk*. liu writes, be does nearly overy- 
thtnut th»t hv do«8 whiio nwuko, nnd is even able to Bpeak and 
ruply, HoQOv wo have only to n-prcjiftnt to ourselves somnambu- 
U«m gminlcig niun> luid more u|Hin the waking ronditioo, encroach- 
ing upon it, and at last becoming a tiecoud waking altornatiDg 
with the other, and n^tjiiiiing only one fi'ature of wunnambuliKm — 
thf Imw of rto'oll(x:tion on waking. Take the ca»eof Fultda, the 
c«letrrate<l mibjmt on whom thin double personality wan oliservod 
for the lir«t time. She (who I believe is still living) has two siu> 
oneding and nltrroating rxislenct^fi, in «A«h of wbiidi she has a 
difTcrfut eharai:t4>r and dilT^-rcnt trains of thought ; but nUive all 
maaiiiB tbe characteristic f nt-t tlint, in the purt of Xwv lifu that cor- 
ftapcmds with the former normal condition (for wo can now hardly 
doti<ct a diffannos botWMH thu two stnti'n), uhe doc« not rocoUi>ct 
from her oth>r ezUtcace, whilv in thu lattur shu often remeinb<>r» 
From thn former, Prom this wo have the expressions secondary 
coodltiiiu applied to ttio second waking, and primary condition 
•fipUnd t'l tbu first wnkiug, or original normal state. Tbnre are 
tbfti two Mtlviw inip«'rpu<H>d in a fashion and alternating with one 
anitthi^r. If al any moment the memorr should di.'<apppar fraui 
the formnr st«l4<, the ruptun* would be abMoluti', and we should be 
in the situation imaginiHl by L<-ibuitz*: "If wo could suppose 
Uutl two M<|itimt4t. distini:!, nnd incommunicable comu-iotiBnCAses 
wurti wrtiug by tiums in the same body, the one duriug the day 
nod the ittbcr during the night. T ask if, in suih a citM', the man 
nf ^h" day nod iho rulii of the night would nut l>o two iK'rsona as 
I i-t u Sucmt^w ami Phitu ? " 
i ' *' it Tiomena of succi'mion, itm added those of sbanltano- 
wn <\ iif the pentomility. M. Tuiue eiti« an exampl» of 

If, II work on " Int<dligeu«'," from tht! obeervationa of Dr. 

Ki,.-,.,. .- iL. A patient had loMt the consciousness of his own exist* 
enco. otul had aft^Tward rairhod the feeling that he was aome 
or T. " It Mvmeil to me," be said. KiK'nking of 

t _ . : tvaa no bmgf.'r of this World, that I no longer 

d ; Imt I bad not then the feeling of being another." Of tbo 
• tte h)]«iliMt* b rMll; ax b7 UttoUi. Ihu hf LMke. Md LdtaUt tw oolj rtff^ 




Due tic 

[ from 
I riMulb 


id state: "I felt myneU so completely chuTKr-"^ *1"'' ^ "" 
to have becouiu anothop being. Tbia Uioiigbt in' 
me vitbout my forgul ling for an iti»t.uiit itiut. it vriu> ilUiwiy. " \t 
once saw, in tht- ui^yluiu of Stu^ihiiiiBft-'bl. ui'i»r Strutburg, u juititi 
who was lu tbo firtit state aiid hod not yet roncbed tin* oecund. 
who \itu\ porliupa passud it and bod no 1' < 
believe bimsolf othvi tlinn biius(.>lf, fur, i' 
tad died in tbe nigbt. He said to mc " You artt tery imppy, ji 
other ppople; you have a me, I hav« no longur u m«." Bi-did 
even perceive the contradiction, and tbcn wu nmiinded Kim tt 
be was living, and existed as much aa wo did. " No.*' he imid, ' 
is tbe external powers that sumtaiu me and cause me to live, 
not myself." The ))oor fellow felt that life was uMcaptng bio 
held only by a thrpftd, tlmt it was hiins to 
tion, and pxpreswed the thought in mr-tajiij, 
probably made some studios in pbiloeophy; hu bad at luat 
teriorizod bis v^jusciousneHs, and was very near hotng ■ 
eliw than himself. An exainjtlo ix:our.'i in Gratiulnt of - 
who imagiuixl that ho was in two Imls at tbnsamii Liniu. La n 
■if suiuidal mania, it is not rare t<i8on tbo subject ihmbliug hit 
and litwriug voicra cotnnmnding him io kill biuui**lf. Hi< n»L 
be ivpltvs, making tho obj\>clion and the reAjMrnMi at th<* 
time, but he doc-s nut bcUuvo that it i» himaelf doing holh. Tl 
Is what happem also in spiritualism and iu thu caae of wh