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APPLETONS' 



POPULAR SCIENCE 
MONTHLY 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM JAY YOUMANS 



VOL. LI 

MAY TO OCTOBER, 1897 



NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

1897 



COPTBIOHT, 1897, 

Bt d. appleton and company. 



L I B R A R Y I 30 

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'XMO^ism'imwim'iiiimmmimim 




JAMES NASMYTH. 




APPLETONS' 
POPULAK SCIEI^ 
MONTHLY. 



^ 



MAY, 1897. 
KOREAN INTERVIEWS. 

By EDWAEU S. MOKSE. 

DURING my residence in Japan I sought many interviews 
with Korean students, attaches of the Korean legation, and 
others, and in journalistic fashion asked them many questions 
concerning their country, people, habits, manners, customs, etc. 
At that time I found no Korean who understood English, but the 
younger men were studying Japanese, and so through them, by 
the aid of a Japanese interpreter, I managed to ask many ques- 
tions of the older men. Since my return a number of oppor- 
tunities have occurred meeting Koreans who spoke English, and 
for several months I had a Korean as house companion. The 
information thus gained was not originally intended for publica- 
tion, but for comparison with similar material of a cognate but 
far more advanced people, the Japanese.* 

I may say here, though not as an excuse for any errors which 
may doubtless occur, that my questions could not have been more 
carefully asked, or the answers more promptly recorded, had I 
been on Korean soil. It is also proper to state that in every case 
the information was derived from Koreans of official position, 
and therefore the statements, so far as their own class is con- 
cerned, ought to be reliable. 

* It is an extraordinary fact that in the late war with China the Japanese, single-handed, 
overawed the Koreans, a hostile nation of at least eight million people, drove every Chi- 
nese soldier out of the country, and, had it not been for the interference of three powerful 
European nations, would have held the Regent's Sword, and would have supported the 
young Korean party in its patriotic efforts to regenerate that poor country. That the 
Koreans could not make the faintest stand against the Japanese, though aided by Chinese 
armies, leads one to wonder what manner of people are the Koreans, and this is my reason 
for publishing the following memoranda, disjointed and fragmentary as they are. 

TOL. LI. 1 



2 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Family Relations. The relations between the father and 
son are very strict, as between the king and the subject. If the 
son enters the room where the father is sitting, he must meekly 
stand with hands together until invited by his father to be seated ; 
in sitting, he must lean forward in a humble attitude ; he can not 
rise again without permission. He sweeps his father's room, 
makes his bed, and rises early to perform these menial serv- 
ices ; he often gets up at midnight in solicitude for his parent's 
comfort. Filial love prompts these attentions, for fear the serv- 
ants may grumble and cora])lain and thus bring disquiet to the 
parent. In summer the son fans his father and attends minutely 
to every want ; this same attention and respect are shown to his 
father's friends. Seasonal changes of clothing are not made until 
the parent's consent is given. It is considered exceedingly im- 
proper to cough, sneeze, eructate, or spit before old men. Boy- 
hood continues until the fifteenth year, or until marriage ; up to 
this time the hair hangs behind in a long queue ; when manhood 
is assumed the hair is tied in a knot on top of the head. All the 
possessions of the children, as well as their earnings, belong to 
the father, and no matter how much the son may have the father 
can claim it all. If, however, the son lives in a separate house, 
he has the use of his earnings as well as his wife's dower ; but if 
the father has no money, he may sell his son's house over his head 
and take all. Old men will not allow their sons to drink intoxi- 
cating liquors. From all that I could learn, the son is in abject 
enslavement to his father. After the death of the father the 
property goes to the oldest son. Brothers are very devoted to one 
another, and aid in supporting the less fortunate among them. 

The daughters have a much easier time ; they do nothing but 
eat and dress ; they jest with their father and brothers, scold 
them, and act with great familiarity ; indeed, all my inquiries 
about their behavior brought out the fact that they act like 
spoiled children. 

Virtue is rarely lost among the more favored classes. Male 
and female servants do not sit down together or work in the same 
apartment. The wife is absolute mistress of the female servants. 
The apartments of the female servants are under a separate roof, 
and male servants never enter these apartments, though their 
duty is to clean the yard and garden belonging to the female 
servants. Servants are inherited by successors in the family ; 
they are bought and sold. Loyal servants work and support their 
masters when they become poor. Masters can and do free their 
servants. 

Education. The higher classes employ private teachers. 
Children at the age of five or six begin the study of Chinese 
characters ; they are provided with books for composition. Five 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. 3 

rules of conduct are drilled into tliem ; these are : To obey the 
father, respect the elder brother, be loyal to the king, be respect- 
ful to the wife, and be true to friends. These rules are strictly 
Confucian. After these rules are firmly fixed in the minds of 
the pupils they are taught to compose letters ; next comes the 
study of history ; after these studies Confucius and the Chinese 
classics are taken up, and finally the art of poetical composition. 
These studies go on through life. A gentleman will study classics 
in winter, composition of poetry in spring, and in summer study 
those subjects which will fit him for official duties. The king 
appoints judges to examine candidates for office ; the number 
appointed may be three, seven, or twelve. The student for ex- 
amination is locked up in a room for three days without books. 
The subjects usually selected for examination are from ancient 
poetry and classics, as follows : 1. Long- word poetry of seven 
words. 2. Short- word poetry of six words. 3. Problems in clas- 
sics. 4. Clearing up doubts in classics. 5. Criticising famous 
men of olden times. 6. Considering what system of morality is 
best to correct or modify bad customs. 7. Suggesting what kind 
of military organization is best to defend and control the coun- 
try. In these various examinations it is claimed that poetry 
reveals one's nature, that problems in classics show one's knowl- 
edge, that clearing up doubts in classics demonstrate one's powers 
of decision, that criticising famous men indicates one's knowledge 
of persons, that judging of the best system of morality and decid- 
ing as to the best kind of military organization displays one's 
mental attributes.* 

In olden times Korea had public schools ; for centuries it has 
had none. Private schools are kept in private houses ; no special 
school building is known in the land. In many Confucian tem- 
ples free classes are supported by the priests, but only Confucian 
doctrines are taught. Buddhists have no schools, but have stated 
times of teaching and expounding. 

Position op Women. The condition of women in Korea is 
unhappy and degraded to the last degree. Among the more 
favored classes the women are kept as prisoners within the house ; 
in rare instances they may visit relatives. This seclusion begins 
after a girl reaches the age of ten or twelve. Four or five hundred 
years ago they had greater freedom. The women often refer to 
these times, and the intelligent classes express sympathy and pity 
for their present unfortunate condition. The seclusion of the 
women from the men is so strict that it is customary in the cities 



* The swindling and thieving character of Korean officials, their torturing and murder- 
ing subjects without trial, and the degradation and helplessness of Korea to-day, stand in 
curious contrast to this ennobling list of studies and examinations, and indicate a depth of 
hollow pretense and hypocrisy which is simply appalling. 



4 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

for the thatcher, before climbing to the roof, to shout in loud 
tones, " The thatcher is coming ! the thatcher is coming ! " so that 
the women in neighboring compounds may have a chance to run 
to cover. 

Women are confined to domestic labor. Among the lower 
classes the husband has a right to beat his wife. There is no law 
for women. If she commits a crime, such as a personal assault 
or theft, she is not punished, but her husband is. A woman can 
pass in front of the king's procession, and the king must wait. 
The women are considered greater than men in trivial things. 

Customs. The chopstick is evidently not so commonly used 
in Korea as in Japan or China. A spoon is used for soup and all 
other forms of liquid food ; even rice is eaten with a spoon. Dry 
food, however, is eaten with the chopstick. Guests of high rank 
sit midway between the two ends of the table. If two guests are 
present, they sit side by side. When at table the Koreans remain 
silent and eat very slowly. In passing food both hands must be 
used in holding the dish, as in Japan. In summer the meals are 
usually at seven, one, and eight o'clock. Dinner is at midday, 
though there is very little difference in the character of the 
meals. Salxe is drunk at every meal. 

The relation between master and servant is supposed to be the 
same as that between father and child. The servants help the 
master through the yard to his house and up the steps, and this 
attention is given whether the master stands in need of assistance 
or not. At dinner a servant ties a big napkin about the master's 
neck. 

The Koreans have no music at weddings or funerals. (Con- 
trary to this information. Carles records loud chanting at funer- 
als.) On birthday festivities and times of feasting music is 
heard. They have battle songs and love songs. 

The Koreans never tattoo or wear earrings, though in the west- 
ern part of the peninsula prostitutes are sometimes seen with ear- 
rings. Women use paint for facial decoration. Men and women 
wear finger rings, but this custom is not very common with men. 

An extraordinary feature is seen in the dress of women of the 
lowest classes, in the fact that the breasts are fully exposed. An 
abbreviated jacket drops from the neck to the upper part of the 
breast, while the waist of the skirt portion comes up just under 
the breast. The exposure of this part of the body seems all the 
more singular when it is considered that Koreans never go bare- 
footed ; even coolies working in the city do not go barearmed or 
barelegged. Women rarely wear a comb in the hair. Men and 
women do up their own hair. 

Among the middle and higher classes it is considered improper 
to speak of money, and for this reason mathematics is not taught. 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. 5 

All openings in the house must be square. An arched door- 
way or window is not allowed except in the emperor's palace. 
There is a prohibitory law against decorating in any way the 
outside of a house, nor can the people build a house of over one 
story. Streets are named after trees, famous men, historical events 
which have happened on the ground, and attributes. Thus there 
is a Happy Street, Blessing Street, Virtuous Street, etc. 

For centuries the fishermen of Korea have been accustomed to 
pour oil on the water to make the sea calm. The Japanese also 
follow the same practice. 

Makriage. Koreans never marry cousins or any one de- 
scended from the same ancestors, or even any one of the same 
name. One of the most famous of Korean kings, Seijong Dai- 
wang, four hundred years ago, said that intermarriages would 
cause the race to become extinct. It was this same king who in- 
vented movable type made of iron. Marriages are arranged by 
the parents. The bridegroom does not see the bride until the 
wedding. The groom goes to the bride's house and escorts her 
to his own house; after reaching the house they bow to one 
another standing. The bride then bows to the groom's father 
and mother and other relatives. She then offers wine and fruit 
to the groom's parents, and this represents a form of tribute. 
The relatives of both parties then have a great feast. When the 
groom goes to the bride's house he carries a paper from his 
father to the father of the bride, upon which is written, " I have a 
son, you have a daughter." He also carries with him two pieces 
of silk one red, the other blue each piece sufficient for a suit or 
dress. The red silk is wrapped in blue paper and tied with a red 
cord, while the blue silk is wrapped in a red paper and tied with 
a blue cord. The cords are tied in a peculiar knot called the 
" same-mind knot." Blue signifies the male principle, and red the 
female principle. This silk constitutes the wedding present, and 
is known as the " first cloth of ceremony silk," meaning the first 
present of her future husband. Dresses are afterward made of 
these pieces. When the wife dies the letter from her husband's 
father, above mentioned, is buried with her. 

The first son derives his name from both parents ; thus, if the 
father's name is Kum Pak and the mother's name is Chul Hei, 
then the boy's name will be Kum Hei. A boy may marry as 
young as fifteen years that is, the ceremony may be performed 
then but he does not live with his wife until he is eighteen. 
They may see each other, however. 

Adultery is punished by fining both parties. For rape the 
offender is heavily fined and exiled for three years. Prostitution 
is recognized by the Government. Adulterers are often forced to 
be cooks in prisons and otherwise severely treated. Concubines 



6 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

are allowed by law, but the practice is considered bad, as it is 
liable to break up tbe family relations, and the finger of scorn is 
often pointed at the man. Rich men have concubines in secret. 

Widows of higher classes never marry, though four hundred 
years ago they had the privilege of marrying again. This prohi- 
bition does not extend to the lower classes. Divorces are not per- 
mitted, but separation takes place in case of adultery ; the man, 
however, can not marry again. Marriage with a slave girl is 
considered a great disgrace, and the friends of one who commits 
such an offense desert him. Children born of such a union, how- 
ever, are not regarded with reproach. 

Manners, Habits, etc. The Chinese practice of medicine is 
in full force ; the lower classes rarely employ a doctor, but ask 
the advice of gypsies. The people believe that all sickness is 
caused by evil spirits. Blind people find employment as devil 
expellers. 

The liquors drunk are distilled and fermented from rice, cor- 
responding to the Japanese sochiu and sake. An impure wine is 
made from oats ; there is also a malt wine resembling ale. Liq- 
uors, cordials, or wines are made from' bamboo, honey, peach, 
and pear mixed with sake. A wine is made out of the new 
twigs of the pine ; there is also a wine called the hundred floiver 
luine. 

A Korean gentleman of high rank assured me that it was con- 
sidered impolite for children to say " Thank you " to their parents. 
Parents never thank their children, and at table the expression 
is not heard. The children eat at a separate table from their 
parents. It is considered impolite to smoke in the presence of 
another without asking permission and offering tobacco. 

As an illustration of the rigid lines of propriety, a young man 
in the family is chided if he undertakes to make any addition or 
improvement to the house ; he is told that such work is for the 
carpenter or cabinet-maker. He must attend to his books; he 
can not even invent or suggest any device. 

Five hundred years ago the Koreans had paper money ; this 
was very thick, and varied in size according to the denomination. 
Until within a hundred years they had gold and silver coins, len- 
ticular in shape, like the checkers used in the game of "go." 
The coinage was abandoned by the Government on account of 
the extensive counterfeiting. The nobles now use these coins as 
checkers for " go." 

The iron horseshoe was invented by a Korean general who 
fought against the Japanese invaders in 1596; before that time 
straw horseshoes were used, as in Japan. 

It is customary to build large bonfires near pine forests, to 
attract and destroy moths, thus preventing destruction of forests. 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. j 

Religion and Morals. The general Government supports 
Confucian temples. In one temple there are over two hundred 
Confucian philosophers. Every county has its temple, with 
twenty or thirty Confucians. The Government stands in fear of 
these men, for they vigorously protest if rulers err in any way, 
and more particularly if their allowance is abbreviated. Con- 
fucius forbade the study of curious things as disturbing to the 
mind, and this ridiculous idea has grown into a superstition, and 
thus a man is prevented from preserving any relic dug from the 
ground for fear of a ghost following it. Previous to the four- 
teenth century the country was strongly Buddhist; since that 
time Confucian doctrines have spread from China, and within 
four hundred years Buddhists have been expelled from all cities 
and towns, and their temples have been destroyed. The priests 
can not even live in the villages, but must live in the mountains 
away from the villages. A certain Buddhist monument, thirty 
feet in height, was so beautiful that even Korean bigotry would 
not destroy it; it was cut halfway down, and the upper half was 
placed on the ground near the monument's base. 

Pupils of Confucius are taught that if struck on one cheek 
they must turn the other, and if spat upon they must let it dry, 
for wiping it away would signify anger. Friendship is believed 
to be more faithful among Koreans, and the people are supposed 
to be more truthful than the Chinese or Japanese. 

Burial. The body when buried must be clothed in a shroud 
made of native cloth ; this differs but slightly from the usual 
dress. A burial service is held, but no religious ceremony. Poor 
people hire a hearse, but a rich man will have a special one con- 
structed. If the deceased cared for any special objects, these are 
buried with him books, for example. The grave is dug to the 
depth of six feet. This depth is fixed for all. Books are pub- 
lished describing the forms of burial. The expenses of a funeral, 
with the construction of a tomb, a new hearse, etc., are often very 
great. The body may be kept in the house from three days to 
three months. Confucian doctrines enjoin a mourning period of 
three years, during which time no work is done. The king 
mourns seven days. A prominent feature of the mourner is a hat 
of large size, which comes down to the shoulders, thus concealing 
the face. The mourning color is yellow ; it was formerly white. 
The clothing is always made of flax. No one ever accosts or 
interrupts a mourner on the street, and Jesuit priests often use 
the mourners' habiliments as a disguise. 

Operative. Among the various trades and occupations are 
those coming under the definition of silver- and goldsmiths, iron 
and bronze workers, builders and architects, wrights of various 
kinds, masons, decorators, artificers, weavers, saddlers, butchers, 



8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

curriers, salt makers, a few seal engravers, plowmen, cattle and 
swine drovers, special thatcliers and tilers, no barbers, but hair- 
dressers, dyers, tanners, carpenters and cabinetmakers, and these 
latter go by the name of large and small carpenters. Craftsmen 
are not allowed to sell raw material ; the lumber dealer, for exam- 
ple, would prevent a carpenter from selling even a board. There 
are also stone polishers, paper pasters, and tailors who make cloth- 
ing by quantity. As in this country, such clothing is not consid- 
ered as good as custom-made clothing. Women make their own 
clothing. Boys are not commonly employed, but are sometimes 
seen on the streets as peddlers. In Japan, on the contrary, boys are 
everywhere employed, and in all occupations, thus adding to the 
industrial strength of the nation. Men make shoes, though this is 
considered a mean occupation. Sandals are made by monks. As 
with us, there is a localization of industries and trades. A system 
of apprenticeship exists. In the first year's service the apprentice 
is fed, in the second year he receives half pay, and in the third 
year full wages are paid him ; in the fourth year, if skillful, he 
becomes a partner in the work, or goes off by himself, the master 
helping him. The Government builds long markets in which are 
shops for special merchandise, such as silk, cotton, shoes, paper, 
etc. These are hired by merchants on perpetual lease, and the 
merchant who thus rents a shop receives all the trade in his 
specialty. Thus every one dealing in cotton must come to the 
cotton shop. A shop thirty or forty feet long will sell for five 
thousand dollars. Traders are accustomed to borrow capital from 
the nobles, upon which they pay interest. There are a great many 
guilds, which are called Brotherhoods in Trading. Partnerships 
are common. In the guilds, if one meets with a loss or failure all 
the others help make up the loss ; in partnerships this is not so. 

Public work is done by the co-operation of villages. In S^oul 
public work is done by the general Government, the city, how- 
ever, collecting taxes for the work. If the people volunteer to do 
the work, no taxes are imposed. If the municipality does the 
work, then continuous taxes are collected ; if the Government 
does it, the city is taxed for it. In the country, five days' work 
on public improvements is considered an equivalent for the tax. 

In farm work no distinction is recognized between the sexes. 
Female domestics are employed in spinning, weaving, sewing, and 
universally in cooking ; women even of high rank may cook with 
propriety ; indeed, such service is considered quite legitimate for 
women of all ranks. Men never become cooks. In certain dis- 
tricts women make hats and straw mats. In the western part of 
the country silk is made, in the northern part linen, while in the 
southern part cotton is made. This kind of work is all done by 
women. 'A 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. g 

Regulative. Co-operations are not hereditary, excepting 
those connected with the soil, such as mining, brick, tile and 
pottery kilns, etc. Farm labor is done by freemen and serfs. 
Serfs are called tributary slaves. The Government pays for its 
labor. During the times of great depression the Government 
orders certain work to be done as a relief to the people. Three 
kinds of public work are done namely, by the Government, by 
the city, and by the people. For example, the people living near 
a river embankment may plant trees upon it (usually the willow, 
pine, or elm). Serfs in government employ work eight hours a 
day. In the Department of the Interior, and other departments, 
the king appoints a secretary or head officer, who in turn employs 
the subordinates. As an illustration of the shameful waste of 
time, it is customary for a force of employees to work by install- 
ments : thus, if thirty serfs are employed, ten of these work for 
three days only, then another lot of ten continues the work for 
three days, and finally the third set of ten takes up the work for 
the same time ; thus, each set of ten have a week's vacation fol- 
lowing three days' work. What wonder that the people are 
among the poorest on earth ! There are two kinds of serfs, a 
higher and a lower kind. The higher serfs take their vacation in 
precisely the same way. The chiefs of departments have under 
their control not only various clerks, but also serfs who accom- 
pany the chiefs to their houses, and the chiefs may employ them 
on their own private work. There are no lawyers. Judges there 
are, and these are appointed by the king. 

The commercial ways are very low. In some respects the 
methods are like those of nomadic tribes. Peddlers are called 
burden merchants, and travel through the country ; if they have 
means they will buy their food ; if not, they beg. They have no 
house or home, but with their families are traveling all the time. 
These people have very severe laws among themselves. Adultery 
is punished with death. When this crime is detected a letter is 
circulated among them. Hundreds assemble, and each one strikes 
the adulteress with a stick or club. They are very kind and 
polite among themselves. In many respects they resemble our 
gypsies, but are true Koreans, and are considered the lowest class. 
There are the other kinds of merchants who have no shops, but 
assemble in small towns on every fifth day to buy and sell. This 
is derived from an old Chinese custom. The higher classes of 
merchants have shops. Pawnbrokers abound, and auctions are 
common. 

Festivals. The last day of the old year and the first week of 
the new year are given up to festivities. The fifteenth day of the 
first month is called the New Moon holiday. A particular kind 
of food is made at this time, consisting of dates, chestnuts, honey. 



lo POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

and cake rice (a peculiar kind of rice) boiled together. This food 
18 called medicine food, and is supposed to be prophylactic and 
also to strengthen the brain. In the country, torches are lighted 
to welcome the moon, and people assemble in great numbers to 
catch the first glimpse of the moon, as it insures happiness. This 
day is also observed as All- Fools' Day. A favorite trick is to 
attach a flower secretly to some one's clothing. 

In the second month, usually on the sixteenth, Butterfly holi- 
day occurs. The third day of the third month is observed as the 
Flower holiday. On this day young men make cake of flowers 
mixed with wheat and rice, and this is fried ; they also cook fish, 
and other articles of food. 

The eighth day of the fourth month is called by the Buddhists 
the Washing-day of Buddha. Households have a lantern for each 
person, and these are supplied with oil lamps instead of candles, 
as candles are made of ox fat or honeycomb, and Buddha forbids 
the killing of animals. Oil for lamps is always a vegetable oil. 
The lower classes attend church on this day and sacrifice to Bud- 
dha. A cake is made of black beans, and this was formerly deco- 
rated with flowers ; now this is rarely done, though artificial 
flowers are sometimes used for this purpose. At this time forms 
of animals are made of meal or lime and sold to the children. 

The fifth day of the fifth month is called Swinging Day, and 
is derived from China. Swings are suspended from trees and 
frames, and everybody indulges in the sport. Boys put on their 
new clothes at this time. The root of the flag is cut with a slop- 
ing edge which is colored red, and this is worn in the hair to 
ward off calamities. (The Japanese have a holiday at this time, 
but have no idea of its derivation.) 

The sixteenth day of the sixth month is observed as Hair- 
washing Day. Everybody observes the day except the laborer. 
At this time wheat cake and macaroni are eaten. 

The seventh day of the seventh month is observed as a general 
holiday, and cake and macaroni are eaten. The holiday is based 
on the following story: Two stars in heaven were married; one 
was the daughter of God. Before marriage she was very indus- 
trious, but after marriage she became negligent and idle, and 
God, becoming angry, banished her to the eastern part of the 
Milky Way, while the male star was sent to the western part of 
the Heavenly River, as the Japanese call it. The woman had 
to weave, and the man had to attend cows. The female star is 
called the Weaver, while the male star is called the Patroller. 
They are allowed to meet once a year on this day. If it rains 
during the evening of that day it is interpreted as being caused 
by the tears of separation. 

The fifteenth day of the eighth month is the Harvest holiday. 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. ii 

It forms a great festival for the farmers, and is mucli like a New- 
England Thanksgiving Day. Gentlemen go to the country to see 
the festival, have food and wine, and generally get hilarious. 

The ninth day of the ninth month is observed because the 
maple trees turn red and yellow flowers are in bloom. Poetry is 
written about the day and its beauties. 

The tenth day of the tenth month is observed by every one 
making cake in the evening. Each one makes a number of cakes 
and presents them to all his friends. Friendship is supposed to 
be bound and strengthened by these gifts. Gentlemen engage in 
this pastime, and it is also a great day for the farmers. 

On the eleventh month, at the winter solstice, a drink is made 
of red beans, and on this day sacrifice to ancestors is made. 

On the twelfth day of the twelfth month people go hunting. 
Young men also call on the old men, who offer food and give 
good advice, and will say, " One year older, one year more." On 
this day the young man can sit down in the old man's presence 
and will listen respectfully to his advice. 

Besides these stated festival days parties are often given, and 
if ten are invited, for example, provision must be made for three 
hundred, as each invited guest is accompanied by many servants, 
high and low. A large table is provided for each guest, and this 
is heaped with food and fruit, of which little is eaten, as most of 
it is given to the low servants, special tables being provided for 
the high servants. An ordinary party of this kind may often 
cost a thousand dollars. 

A certain kind of picnic is called a " one-dish party.'' This is 
for men only, and each man brings to such a picnic a dish of 
some one kind of food sufficient in quantity for all. 

Games. The Koreans have dice, and cards of two kinds, with 
which several games are played, one being a gambling game, 
which is forbidden by law. They have chess, and " go," a pecul- 
iar game with four sticks, and also many puzzles. Children play 
ball by patting and bouncing it on the ground, have whipping 
tops, and fly kites. A portion of the kite string has broken glass 
stuck to it, and by this device they are enabled to cut the strings 
of other kites. (In Japan a device holding a sharp cutting edge is 
employed for the same purpose.) Children also play jackstones, 
using seven balls and having many ways of picking them up ; 
these ways have their special names, such as " Hatch the chicken," 
" Laying eggs," " Making the kitchen," " Sawing wood," " Win- 
nowing wheat," " Collecting eggs," " Striking ground," " Wear- 
ing the hat," etc. " Pease porridge hot " and " Cat's cradle " are 
also common ; this last is called " Thread dipping." 

Superstitions. It is believed that if a cat approaches a dead 
person the body will stand upright. In such a case it must be 



12 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

knocked down with a broom from the left. In Japan a similar 
superstition prevails. In eating rice (which is always eaten with 
a spoon), if the first spoonful is accidentally spilled it is a sign of 
bad luck. My informant's father often did this, and purposely 
challenged other superstitions as well, to show his contempt for 
them. In parties meeting together it is desirable to have an odd 
number, as in two, four, six, etc., there is an end, while in three, 
five, seven, and the like, there is no end ; hence thirteen at the 
table is considered a lucky number. If a bride, in coming to her 
husband's house, stops on the threshold, it is a sign of bad luck. 
A horseshoe fastened over the door is to invite good luck. Bad 
dreams are, as with us, neutralized by saying that dreams go by 
contraries. If the hat is blown off by the wind it is a sign that 
something will be lost. In occux)ying a new house it is customary 
to have a woman, either the wife or a servant, enter first, carrying 
a bunch of matches ; this insures prosperity, as a flame burning 
up. To avert infectious diseases, it is believed that a paper ob- 
tained from a priest and fastened over the door will be effective. 
A fierce face carved out of wood and placed over the door will 
drive away diseases which are supposed to be brought by the 
devil; also the burning of strong incense will have the same 
effect. Nothing can be removed from the house structure with- 
out vigorous protest from the womenfolks. (The women in 
Korea, as elsewhere, are the conservers of superstition. Old 
women, even in the higher classes, are superstitious, though there 
are some exceptions.) If the removed portion is to be replaced 
by other structures, then no objection is made, but to take any- 
thing away from the house structure without substituting some- 
thing else is considered a bad omen. If a coal gathers on the 
lamp wick, it is a sign that one is to receive money, or some lucky 
windfall ; so fixed is this superstition that many will not remove 
the coal. In Japan also this is considered a good omen. If the 
ear itches, it is a sign that some one is talking about you. If the 
chin itches, it is a sign that candy or cake will come as a gift. If 
one dreams of a Buddhist priest, it is a sign of being poisoned. A 
certain bird singing in a tree near the house presages the coming 
of a guest. If an owl hoots near the house, it is a sign that the 
master will soon die. If a fragment of tea floats vertically in the 
cup, it is a sign that a guest will come. If a candle is lighted in 
the middle of supper, it is a sign that the boys will get fierce 
wives. If money is found, it is considered a sign of bad luck, as 
it is gained without labor; an unexpected calamity will occur 
unless the money is spent before entering the house. If one acci- 
dentally places his spoon on the table upside down, it is a bad sign. 
If one's boot is upside down, it is considered bad ; one will remain 
in the house if this happens rather than risk the consequences, 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. 13 

whicli are, that he will lose something or be insulted. If both 
boots are wrong side up, it means nothing. 

When lying down to sleep it is considered best to have the 
head directed toward the south. The head pointing toward the 
north is considered very bad. If the head is directed toward the 
south, it indicates longevity ; to the east, happiness ; to the west, 
success ; to the north, short life. If one eats during lunar or solar 
eclipses sickness will follow. In Japan it is considered proper to 
remain indoors during eclipses. In Korea drums are vigorously 
beaten, to drive away the assailant of the sun or moon. This is a 
Chinese idea. An eclipse is observed by its reflection in a vessel 
of water. In Japan the same thing is done, because it is consid- 
ered impolite to look directly at the eclipse. Shooting stars are 
supposed to be the excreta of stars. Farmers have an idea that 
the moon is trying to catch the sun, and if the moon ever over- 
takes the sun they will both fall to the earth, pressing the sur- 
face below the water, and thus the world will come to an end. A 
country philosopher told one of my informants that the sun was 
many hundred times larger than the earth, that the moon was 
three times larger than the earth, and that all the stars were 
much larger than the earth. Lightning is supposed to be the 
result of God looking angry, while thunder is supposed to be God 
scolding. It is considered rude to lie down when God is scolding. 
The lower classes believe that if insanity occurs three or four times 
in a year it is an indication of the devil's work. Gypsies are called 
in to drive the devil away by incantation. Intelligent doctors 
look upon insanity as the result of physical disease namely, that 
the fire of the heart burns in excess. They also believe that some 
hearts are chilled, and that other hearts are empty. Cases of in- 
sanity are not common, and cases of idiocy had never been seen 
by my informant, though he had heard of instances. It is be- 
lieved that when a certain river becomes filled with sand Korea 
will become powerful, and so it is a custom with many people in 
passing this river to throw in sand. The true-lover's knot is the 
same as ours. A ring around the moon is a sign that it will rain ; 
the larger the ring the sooner the rain will come. The accidental 
breaking of a mirror is a sign that death will occur in the family. 
After the birth of a child persons can not enter the house for 
three days, nor can animals be killed for three days. 

If a man's eyes have more white than black he will become 
foolish. Tapering or pointed fingers are looked upon as indicat- 
ing dexterity. A long arm is considered an indication of wisdom, 
and its owner will occupy a high official position. In Japan the 
same peculiarity indicates a thief, which may be regarded as only 
another name for a Korean official. A large eye is a sign of short 
life. Physiognomists interpret many features of the face ; thus a 



14 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

curved line extending from the lobe of the nose on each side is a 
sign of starvation. 

Palmists also exist in Korea ; thus the line of life in the left 
hand indicates long life, as it does in our palmistry ; the same 
line in the right hand, however, indicates position. A line corre- 
sponding to our line of heart in the left hand indicates riches, 
while the same line in the right hand indicates power. The num- 
ber of wrinkles at the base of the little finger, on the outside in 
the left hand indicates the number of brothers one will have, 
while in the right hand it indicates the number of sons to be 
expected. Other lines occur in the palm of the hand between the 
line of life and the line of heart, and these often have a fanciful 
resemblance to some Chinese character. A combination of these 
lines resembling the character for water is considered most pro- 
pitious, because water is unlimited, and man can not do without 
it. Here the Korean chiromancer is far ahead of his Occidental 
brother in idiocy, for he can make out many ideograms in the 
fortuitous wrinkles in the center of the palm. 

A familiarity with the language would undoubtedly reveal 
many peculiarities of expression; thus, for "Excuse me," they 
say " Do not blame me." " Naked truth " is called " Blood truth." 
Where we say " Neither hay nor grass," the Korean says " Neither 
calf nor colt." A house fly is called parri which means slan- 
derer; the connection is obscure till it is explained that a fly 
leaves a light spot on a dark surface and a dark spot on a light 
surface. Among the sayings is " Rare as a white-headed crow " ; 
in Japan it is a " horse's horn " ; with us it is " hen's teeth." A 
mean man is one who gets his smoke by asking for a light from 
another man's pipe. In Japan the same expression occurs ; also 
in Japan a mean man is one who finds his clogs in the dark by 
rapping his friend's head ; the light emitted from such a blow is 
supposed to illuminate the vicinity. Our expression " The devil 
is always near when you are talking about him " is rendered in. 
Korean " Even the tiger comes " ; in Japan it is said " his shadow 
appears." A stupid fellow in Korea is called a " pumpkin face " ; 
in Japan, a " pumpkin fellow" ; with us he is a " pumpkin head." 

Miscellaneous. Twins at a birth are not uncommon, but 
triplets are very rare. When the latter event occurs the Govern- 
ment makes a present of money to the amount of fifty dollars to 
the parents, besides furnis'iing rice for two months. 

A Korean gentleman told me that when he first saw the Jap- 
anese he regarded them as savages, but was much struck with the 
convenience of their dress. Another informed me that his father 
sent him into the country to learn farming, at the same time 
instructing the farmer who was to have the care of him to pro- 
vide only the ordinary food of the farmhouse. The young man's 



KOREAN INTERVIEWS. 15 

mother, however, used to send him secretly nice food and deli- 
cacies. 

Among ignorant people the impression of the hand is signed 
as an autograph to legal documents, but never to marriage docu- 
ments. 

Human statues are not made at the present time, but in olden 
times figures of large size were sculptured in wood and stone. 

Reddish hair and beard and blue eyes are not unknown ; my 
informant had seen a number of such cases. 

The classes of the people in Korea rank much as they do in 
Japan ; they are in the following order : 1. Nobles. 2. A class 
like the Japanese samurai, which is inherited. 3. Soldiers. In 
Japan the teachers would come third, but they have no rank in 
Korea. 4. Farmers. 5. Merchants. 6. Coolies. 7. Butchers, ped- 
dlers, and gypsies. 

Suicide is uncommon. When it occurs it is among the coun- 
try people. Forms of suicide are usually hanging, the taking of 
poison, inhaling fumes of charcoal, and cutting the throat ; the 
most usual form is that of hanging. My informant had never 
heard of more than four or five instances of suicide. Infanticide 
is not known. People in the western part of Korea often kill 
each other in fights. A curious story was told me by a Korean, 
who vouched for its truth. Two men, strangers to each other, 
were stopping at a hotel ; one of them went away forgetting to 
pay his bill ; the other paid his bill, and, on leaving, the landlord 
demanded pay for the one who had defaulted, supposing him to 
be his friend. This he refused to do, and a dispute over the mat- 
ter led to a fight, in which the landlord was accidentally killed. 
The man who had forgotten to pay heard of the row and murder, 
and hastened back and inquired of the other why he killed the 
landlord. Explanations followed, and the forgetful man, in re- 
morse at having been the cause of such a tragedy, killed himself ; 
whereupon the survivor, in horror at having caused the death of 
two, immediately committed suicide. 

A brutal sport is not uncommon wherein men engage in stone- 
throwing, and a number are often killed outright. It is consid- 
ered a great feat if one can catch a stone and return it. They 
also fight with sticks and clubs. Boys imitate the men in these 
kinds of fights. 

The Koreans regard their country as possessing eight remark- 
able objects : 1. An artificial pond thirty miles in length. 2. A 
mountain known as Kumgansan, having twelve thousand peaks 
of white stone. This may be the mountain known as Pak-tu, or 
White Head, which is likened to a piece of porcelain with a scal- 
loped rim. The flora is said to be white, and the mammals white- 
haired. (If true, a case of protective coloration.) 3. A hole in 



i6 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the mountain from whicli the wind constantly blows. 4. A build- 
ing in the southern part of Korea which has one room having 
the dimensions of one thousand squares ; one square has the 
dimension of seven feet each way ; the floor equals an acre in 
extent. 5. A beach composed of water-worn stones assuming the 
shapes of wild beasts, cattle, mountains, and other forms. (Ob- 
jects of this kind are often seen mounted on little teakwood 
stands in Japan and China.) 6. A river called by a Korean name 
which means " against sand " in other words, it is believed that 
the water flows in one direction while the sand runs in an oppo- 
site direction. 7. A flute one thousand years old, and only one 
man has been known who could play on it. 8. A stone Buddha. 

An examination of Korean objects of manufacture, as exhib- 
ited in the United States National Museum, and in the Museum 
of the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem, will convince one 
of the degraded condition of the people. The rude musical in- 
struments, rude pottery, rough work generally, and the almost 
complete absence of all industrial art handwork, testify to the 
alarming decay of the nation. Flanked as Korea is by China on 
the one hand and Japan on the other, with their advanced indus- 
tries and skillful art handwork, and possessing, as Korea does, 
the records of a great past, the degradation and decay that have 
come upon the nation must have come about through their own 
fault. Repeated demands for an explanation of these conditions 
only brought out the answer that a noble could ruthlessly claim 
from the artisan any work he might do, and this without recom- 
pense. As a result, all ambition is crushed, and the workman 
dares not attract the attention of these official sharks by fabricat- 
ing anything of special excellence. From hand to mouth they 
live ; the masses are in abject poverty, and the only comforts 
they appear to command are heat and tobacco. The corruption 
of the official class makes Tammany officials seem like white- 
robed angels. 

Conclusion. If my various questions have been correctly 
answered, one may glance at the preceding statements and realize 
in how many ways the habits and customs of the people prevent 
work, discourage industry, and in a surprising number of in- 
stances encourage the survival of the unfittest. The appalling 
waste of time, the degrading habits of life, and the avarice and 
oppression of the official class illustrate in a forcible manner the 
result of unnatural selection. When one learns, for example, that 
custom, following Confucian doctrines, commands an industrious 
brother to waste his energies in supporting a number of idle, dis- 
solute brothers, thus permitting them to survive to transmit their 
lazy and vagabond tendencies, one can easily understand the 
present degradation of the people. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 17 

Despite these lamentable conditions, there is a leaven in the 
nation which may work for regeneration if the accursed and ster- 
ilizing effects of Chinese influence and dominion can be rooted 
out of the land. I have met Koreans of the highest character, 
noble, unselfish, possessing every lovable trait and animated by 
the highest patriotism, and these men may yet be heard from in 
the councils of the nation. 







THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 
A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY. 

(Lowell Institute Lectures, 1896.) 
By WILLIAM Z. EIPLEY, Ph. D., 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TF.CHNOLOGY ; LECTURER IN 
ANTIIROPO-GEOGRAPHY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

IV. STATURE. 

THE average stature of man, considered by racial groups or 
social classes, appears to lie between the limits of four feet 
four inches and five feet ten inches, giving, that is to say, a range 
of about one foot and a half. The physical elasticity of the spe- 
cies is not, however, as considerable as this makes it appear. The 
great majority of the human race is found restricted within much 
narrower limits. As a matter of fact, there are only three or four 
groups of really dwarfed men, less than five feet tall. Our map 
of the world shows a considerable area inhabited by the diminu- 
tive Bushmen in South Africa, and another large body of dwarfs 
occurs in New Guinea. The line of demarcation in the first case 
between the yellowish African Bushmen and the true negroes is 
very sharp ; but in the East Indies the very tall and light Poly- 
nesians shade off almost imperceptibly in stature through Mela- 
nesia into the stunted Papuans. Other scattering representatives 
of true dwarf races occur sporadically throughout the Congo 
region and in Malaysia, but their total number is very small. On 
the whole, considerably more than ninety- nine per cent of the 
human species is above the average height of five feet and one 
inch ; so that we may still further narrow our range of variation 
between that limit and five feet ten inches. We thereby reduce 
oiir racial differences of stature to about nine inches between 
extremes. These variations in size, it will be observed, are less 
than those which occur among the lower animals within the same 
species. Compare, for example, the dachshund, the St. Bernard, 
the Italian greyhound, and the smallest lapdog, and remember 
that they are all ascribed to the same species ; or that the Shet- 

TOL. LI 2 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 19 

land pony and the Percheron horse are likewise classified together. 
These abnormities are, to be sure, partly the result of artificial 
selection by man ; but the same variation holds to a considerable 
extent among the wild animals. 

The bodily height of a group of men is the resultant of a num- 
ber of factors, many of which are as purely artificial as those con- 
cerned in the domestication of animals. These causes are quite 
as truly social or economic as they are physical or physiological. 
Among them we may count environment, natural or artificial 
selection, and habits of life. Beneath all of these, more funda- 
mental than any, lies the influence of race which concerns us 
ultimately. This is overlaid and partially obscured by a fourth 
peculiarity manifested as a result of the sportiveness of Nature, 
whereby a large number of variations are due to chance, seem- 
ingly not caused by any distinct influences whatever. By scien- 
tific analysis we may eliminate this last factor, namely, chance 
variation. The first four causes besides race are more important 
and deserve consideration by themselves. 

Among savages it is easy to localize the influence of environ- 
ment, as it acts directly through limitation of the food supply. 
In general, the extreme statures of the human species are found 
either in regions where a naturally short race, like the Bushmen 
of South Africa, are confined within a district of great infertility 
like the Kalahari Desert ; or, on the other hand, where a natu- 
rally tall race, like the Polynesians in the Pacific Ocean, enjoys 
all the material bounties which Nature has to bestow. It is prob- 
able that the prevalent shortness of the Eskimo and other inhab- 
itants of the arctic regions is largely due to this factor. It is also 
likely that the miserable people of Terra del Fuego are much 
shorter than the Patagonians for the same reason. Scarcity or 
uncertainty of food limits growth. Wherever the life conditions 
in this respect become changed, in that place the influence of 
environment soon makes itself felt in the average stature of the 
inhabitants. Thus the Hottentots, physically of the same race as 
the Bushmen, but inhabiting a more fertile region, and, more- 
over, possessed of a regular food supply in their flocks and 
hefds, are appreciably taller from these causes alone. All the 
aborigines of America seem to be subject to this same influence 
of the fertility of their environment. In the Mississippi Valley, 
for example, they are much taller than in the desert lands of 
Arizona and New Mexico. In the mountains on either side of 
the Mississippi basin, they are as a rule distinctly shorter, al- 
though living the same life and belonging to the same race. The 
Creeks and the Iroquois exceed the Pueblos by several inches, 
probably because of the material bounty of their environment ; 
and where we find a single tribe, such as the Cherokees, inhabit- 



20 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



ing both the mountains and the plains, we find a deficiency of 
stature in the mountains quite marked by comparison.* 

Among civilized peoples this direct influence of environment 
acts likewise through the food supply to affect the stature of any 
given group of men. Thus, in Europe as a rule, it may be said 
that, as among the aborigines of America, the populations of 
mountainous districts are shorter than those which enjoy the fer- 
tility of the plains and the river basins, f Wherever the geology 
of a district has produced a soil which yields with difficulty to 

STATURE 




After Colli gnon 



cultivation, or where the climate is unfavorable to prosperity, the 
influence is reflected in the physical stature of the population. 
All over Europe we may locate such "misery spots," one of 
which will, however, serve as an example. It is depicted in the 
accompanying map. 

This spot is likewise indicated in the south central part of 
France upon our general map for Europe, on page 30, by a small 
black- dotted area. This means a general average stature of five 
feet and two to three inches a low level not elsewhere touched 



* Dr. Boas, in Veihandlungen der Berliner anthropologischen Gesellschaft, Sitzung 
von Mai 18, 1895, gives fine details on the American aborigines. 

f Ranke, in bis Beitriige ziir pbrsiscben Anthropologic der Bayern, finds the mountaineers 
taller in bis country ; but Dr. T,ivi proves the opposite for Italy. Vide also Der Meuscb, ii, 
p. 126. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 21 

in France save in a little spot to the southwest of this, where 
similar conditions prevail. Here in Limousin there is a barren 
range of low hills which lies along the dividing line between the 
departments of Dordogne, Correze and Haute-Vienne, about half- 
way between Pdrigueux and Limoges. The water courses on our 
map show the location of these uplands. They extend over an 
area about seventy-five miles long and half as wide, wherein 
average human misery is most profound. Dense ignorance pre- 
vails. There is more illiteracy than in any other part of France. 
The contrast in stature, even with the low average of all the 
surrounding region, is clearly marked by the dark tint. There 
are sporadic bits of equal diminutiveness elsewhere to the south 
and west, but none are so extended or so extreme. Two thirds of 
the men are below five feet three inches in height in some of the 
communes, and the women are three or more inches shorter even 
than this. One man in ten is below four feet eleven inches in 
stature. This is not due to race, for several racial types are 
equally stunted in this way within the same area. It is primarily 
due to generations of subjection to a harsh climate, to a soil 
which is worthless for agriculture, to a steady diet of boiled 
chestnuts and stagnant water, and to unsanitary dwellings in the 
deep, narrow, and damp valleys. Still further proof may be 
found to sho'sv that these people are not stunted by any heredi- 
tary influence, for it has been shown that children born here, but 
who migrate and grow up elsewhere, are normal in height ; while 
those born elsewhere, but who are subject to this environment 
during the growing period of youth, are proportionately dwarfed.* 
We have referred in the preceding paragraph to another 
similar "misery spot" to the southwest of the Limousin hills. 
It is dotted black upon the map of Europe. The cause is here 
the same. The department of Landes derives its name from the 
great expanse of flat country, barely above the sea level, which 
stretches away south of Bordeaux. There is no natural drainage 
slope. The subsoil is an impervious clay. In the rainy season, 
water accumulates and forms stagnant marshes, covered with 
rank vegetation. At other times the water dries away, and the 
vegetation dies and rots. Malaria was long the curse of the land. 
Government works are to-day reclaiming much of it for culti- 
vation and health, but it will be generations before the people 
recover from the physical degeneration of the past. Influences 
akin to these have undoubtedly been of great effect in many 
other parts of Europe, especially in. the south of Italy, in Sardinia 
and Spain, where the largest area of short statures in Europe 
prevails to-day. 

* CoUignon in Memoires de la Societe d'Anthropologie, series iii, vol. i, fasc. 3, pp. '61 seq. 



22 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Environment thus acts directly upon stature througli the food 
supply and economic prosperity. The second modifying influence 
lies in so-called artificial selection a cause which is peculiarly 
potent in modern social life. The eflSciency of this force depends 
upon the intimate relation which exists between bodily height 
and physical vigor. Other things being equal, a goodly stature 
in a youth implies a surplus of energy over and above the amount 
requisite merely to sustain life.* Hence it follows that, more 
often than otherwise, a tall population implies a relatively healthy 
one. Our double map, covering the westernmost promontory of 
French Brittany, shows this most clearly. In the interior can- 
tons, shorter on the average by an inch than in towns along the 
seacoast, there is a corresponding increase of defective or degen- 

STATVRE AN,. HE/\LTH 
^^ FIN15TERRE 




AFTER CHASSAGNE 




0-29 
8-69 



erate constitutional types. The parallelism between the two maps 
is broken in but three or four instances. The map, in fact, illus- 
trates the truth of our assertion far better than words can ex- 
press it. 

This relation between stature and health is brought to con- 
crete expression in the armies of Europe through a rejection of 
all recruits for service who fall below a certain minimum stand- 
ard of height, generally about five feet. The result of this is to 
preclude the possibility of marriage for all the fully developed 
men, during their three years in barracks ; while the undersized 
individuals, exempted from service on this account, are left free 
to propagate the species meanwhile. Is it not apparent that the 
effect of this artificial selection is to put a distinct premium upon 
inferiority of stature,- in so far as future generations are con- 
cerned ? This enforced postponement of marriage for the normal 
man, not required of the degenerate, is even more important than 
at first sight appears. It implies not merely that the children of 



* The two maps by Chassagne on Brittany are given in Revue d'Anthropologie, series ii, 
vol. iv, p. 440. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 23 

normal families are born later in life that would not be of great 
moment in itself it means far more than this. The majority of 
children are more often born in the earlier half of married life, 
before the age of thirty-five. Hence a postponement of matri- 
mony means not only later children but fewer children. Herein 
lies the great significance of the phenomenon for us. Standing 
armies tend in this respect to overload succeeding generations 
with inferior types of men. This selection is, in operation, akin ' 
to the influence which Galton has invoked as a partial explana- 
tion for the mental darkness of the middle ages. This he ascribes 
to the beliefs and customs by which all the finer minds and spirits 
were withdrawn from the field of matrimony by the Church, 
leaving the entire future population to the loins of the physically 
robust and adventurous portion of the community. Mind spent 
itself in a single generation of search for knowledge ; physique, 
bereft of intellect, was left to its own devices among the common 
people. 

The intensity of this military selection, potent enough in time 
of peace, is of course highly augmented during the prosecution 
of a war. At such periods the normal men are not only isolated 
for an indefinite period ; their ranks are permanently decimated 
by the mortality at the front. The selective influence is doubly 
operative. Fortunately, we possess data which appear to afford 
illustration of its effects. Detailed investigation in various parts 
of France is bringing to light certain curious after-effects of the 
late Franco- Prussian War. We do not always fully realize what 
such an event means for a nation, quite irrespective of the actual 
mortality, and of the direct economic expenditure. Every family 
in the land is affected by it ; and the future bears its full share 
with the contemporaneous population. In France, for example, 
during the year of the war, there were seventy-five thousand fewer 
marriages than usual. In 1871, upon its conclusion, an unprece- 
dented epidemic of them broke out, not equaled in absolute 
numbers since the veterans returned from the front in 1813, on 
the cessation of hostilities at that time. 

Two tendencies have been noted, from the comparison of the 
generations of offspring severally conceived before, during, and 
after the war. This appeared in the conscripts who came before 
the recruiting commissions in 1890-'92, at which time the chil- 
dren conceived in war times became, at the age of twenty, liable 
for service. In the population during the progress of the war 
the flower of French manhood, then in the field, was without pro- 
portionate representation. There must have been an undue pre- 
ponderance, not only of stunted men, rejected from the army for 
deficiency of stature alone, but of those otherwise physically un- 
fitted for service. Hence, the population born of this time ought. 



24 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

if heredity means anything, to retain some traces of its relatively 
degenerate derivation. This is indeed the case. In Dordogne this 
contingent included nearly seven per cent more deficient statures 
than the normal average. Quite independently, in the distant 
department of Herault, Lapouge discovered the same thing. He 
found in some cantons a decrease of nearly an inch in the average 
stature of this unfortunate generation, while exemptions for de- 
ficiency of stature suddenly rose from six to sixteen per cent.* 
This selection is not, however, entirely maleficent. A fortunate 
compensation is ajfforded in another direction. For the gener- 
ation conceived of the men returned to their families at the close 
of the war has shown a distinctly upward tendency almost as well 
marked. Those who survived the perils and privations of serv- 
ice were presumably in many cases the most active and rugged ; 
the weaker portion having succumbed in the meanwhile, either to 
wounds or sickness. The result was that the generation con- 
ceived directly after the war was as much above the average, 
especially evinced in general physique perhaps more than in 
stature, as their predecessors, born of war times, were below the 
normal. 

Another illustration of the operation of artificial selection in 
determining the stature of any given group of men appears in 
the physique of immigrants to the United States. In the good old 
days when people emigrated from Europe because they had seri- 
ously cast up an account and discovered that they could better 
their condition in life by coming to America that is, before the 
days when they came because they were overpersuaded by steam- 
ship agents, eager for the commissions on the sale of tickets, or 
because of the desire of their home governments to be rid of 
them in those days investigation revealed that on the average 
the immigrants were physically taller than the people from whom 
they sprang. This difference, in some instances, amounted to 
upward of an inch upon the average. Among the Scotch, a 
difference of nearly two inches was shown to exist by the meas- 
urements taken during our civil war. These immigrants were a 
picked lot of men picked, because it required all the courage 
which physical vigor could give to pull up stakes and start life 
anew. This law that natural emigrants, if I may use the term, 
are taller than the stay-at-home average was again exemplified 
during the civil war in another way. It was found that recruits 
hailing from States other than those in which they were born 
were generally taller than those who had always remained in the 

* For further details, vide the excellent analysis by Dr. CoUignon, in M6moire8 de la 
Societe d'Anthropologie, Paris, series iii, vol. i, p. 36 seq., and Dr. Lapouge, in Les Selec- 
tions Sociales, pp. 208 and 234 scq. A most noteworthy treatise in many ways. Vide also 
Bulletin de la Societe Languedocienne de Geograpliie, xvii, p. 3c5 scq. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 25 

places of their birth that is to say, here again physical vigor 
and the adventurous migratory spirit seemed to stand in close 
relation to one another.* 

In times of peace, perhaps the most potent influence of this 
form of artificial selection bears upon the differences in stature 
which obtain between different occupations or professions. The 
physically well developed men seek certain trades or occupations 
in which their vigor and strength may stand them in good stead : 
on the other hand, those who are by nature weakly, and coinci- 
dently often deficient in stature, are compelled to make shift with 
some pursuit for which they are fitted. Thus, workers in iron, 
porters, firemen, policemen are taller, as a class, than the average, 
because they are of necessity recruited from the more robust por- 
tion of the population. In marked contrast to them tailors, 
shoemakers, and weavers, in an occupation which entails slight 
demands upon the physical powers, and which is open to all, how- 
ever weakly they may be, are appreciably shorter than the aver- 
age. Moreover, certain diseases fall upon this second class in a 
way which tends still further to lower the average stature among 
them. Thus, consumption is uncommonly prevalent in these par- 
ticularly sedentary industrial classes, and it is also more common 
among tall youths. It seems, therefore, that this disease weeds 
out, as if by choice, those who within this relatively stunted class 
rise above its average. As an extreme example of this selective 
influence exercised in the choice of an occupation we may in- 
stance grooms, who as a class are over an inch shorter than the 
British population as a whole. This is probably because men 
who are light in build and short in stature find here an opening 
which is suited to their physique. Their weight may neverthe- 
less be often greater than the stature implies, because of an in- 
crease which has taken place late in life. 

The final effects of this influence of artificial selection are 
highly intensified by reason of the fact that, as soon as the choice 
of occupation is once made, other forces come into play which 
differentiate still further the stature of the several classes. This 
is the last of our modifying influences upon racial stature, name- 
ly, the effect of habits of life or of the nature of the employment. 
Thus, the weakly youth who enters a sedentary occupation imme- 
diately becomes subjected to unfavorable circumstances as a 

* For most of the examples of social and economic diiferences in stature, I am in- 
debted to Dr. Beddoe for his superb work On the Stature and Bulk of Man in Great 
Britain ; to the Anthropometric Committee of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, report of 1 883 ; to Roberts's Manual of Anthropometry ; and to our American 
results given in Gould's Investigations in the Military and Anthropological Statistics of 
American Soldiers, 1869; and Baxter, in Medical Statistics of the Provost-Marshal-Gener- 
al's Bureau, 18*75. 



26 



POPULAR SCIJiJNCE MONTHLY. 



result of his choice. If he chooses to take np the tailor's trade 
because he is physicaly unfitted for other pursuits, all the influ- 
ences of the trade tend to degenerate his physique still further. 
Among these we may count the cramped position in which he 
works, the long hours, the unsanitary surroundings, etc. An 
active life conduces to growth and vigor, especially an active life 
in the open air. Denied all these advantages, everything oper- 
ates to exaggerate the peculiarities which were due to natural 
causes in the preceding generation alone. This direct influence 
of the nature of the employment is probably the second principal 
cause of the great differences in stature which we observe among 
the several social classes in any community. At the head stand 
the liberal professions, followed in order, as our table shows, 
by the farmers and the commercial group, then by the industrial 

Average Stature in Inches (Great Britain). 



No. of 

Qbeerva- 

tions. 


Age (males). 


Professional 
class. 


Commercial 
class. 


INDUSTRIAL CLAS8. 


Country. 


City. 


3,498 

592 

1,886 


15 years. 
23 " 
30-40 " 


63-6 

68-7 
69-6 


62-2 
67-4 
67-8 


61-8 
67-4 
67-6 


61-3 
66-4 
66-8 



Averagea by Occupations. 



No. of 
observa- 
tions. 


. Occapation. 


stature (inchts). 


Weight (pounds). 


174 


Miscellaneous outdoor 


67 
67 
67 
67 
66 
66 
66 


6 
3 
1 
1 
9 
7 
5 


142-0 


242 


Clerks 


lSG-7 


834 


Laborers 


140-0 


209 


Iron- workers 


140-0 


135 


Tailors and shoemakers 


134-5 


235 


Miscellaneous indoor . 


1 32 - 5 


101 


Grooms . . . 


138-7 













open-air classes, and finally by those who are engaged in indoor 
and sedentary occupations. The difference between these last 
two namely, those who work in the open air and those who are 
confined within doors amounts in Great Britain to upward of 
one half an inch upon the average, if we consider masons, carpen- 
ters, and day laborers as typical of the first class, and tailors and 
shoemakers of the second. As our table shows, the differences 
during the period of growth often amount to upward of two 
inches, greater among girls than among boys. As an extreme 
example of divergencies of this kind, we may instance a difference 
of seven inches between boys of fourteen in the well-to-do classes 
and those who are in the industrial schools in Great Britain. 
Later in life this disparity becomes less, as it appears tnat the 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 27 

influence of factory life is more often to retard growth than to 
cause a complete cessation of it. 

Interesting deductions might also be drawn from the relation 
of the height to the weight in any class, by which we may deter- 
mine to some degree when and how these degenerative influences 
become effective. Thus clerks, as a class, are above the average 
stature, but below it in weight. This follows because these men 
are recruited from a social group where the influences during the 
period of growth are favorable. The normal stature was attained 
at this time. The unfavorable circumstances have come into play 
later through the sedentary nature of the occupation, and the re- 
sult is a deficiency in weight. The case of grooms given above 
is exactly the reverse of this, for they became grooms because 
they were short, but have gained in weight afterward because 
the occupation was favorable to health. 

These differences in stature within the community offer a co- 
gent argument for the protection of our people by means of well- 
ordered factory laws. The Anthropological Committee of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science delares, as a 
result of its detailed investigation, that the protection of youth 
by law in Great Britain has resulted in the gain of a whole year's 
growth for the factory children. In other words, a boy of nine 
years in 1873 was found to equal in weight and in stature one of 
ten years of age in 1833. This is nature's reward for the passage 
of laws presumably better than the present so-called " beneficent " 
statute in South Carolina which forbids upward of eleven hours' 
toil a day for children under the age of fourteen. In every coun- 
try where the subject has been investigated in Germany, in 
Russia, in Austria, Switzerland, or Great Britain the same influ- 
ence is shown. Fortunately, the advance out of barbarism is 
evidenced generally by a progressive increase in the stature of the 
population as an accompaniment of the amelioration of the lot of 
the masses, which is certainly going on decade by decade, abso- 
lutely if not relatively. There is no such change taking place 
among the prosperous and well-to-do. It is the masses which 
are, so to speak, catching up with the procession. It offers a 
conclusive argument in favor of the theory that the world moves 
forward. 

One of the factors akin to that of occupation which appears 
to determine stature is the unfavorable influence of city life. The 
general rule in Europe seems to be that the urban type is phys- 
ically degenerate. This would imply, of course, not the type 
which migrates to the city on the attainment of majority, or the 
type which enjoys an all- summer vacation in the country, but the 
urban type which is born in the city, and which grows up in such 
environment, to enter a trade which is also born of town life. 



z8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

The differences in stature which, are traceable to this influence of 
city life are considerable. The town population of Glasgow and 
Edinburgh offers an extreme example wherein the average stature 
has been found to be four inches less than the average for the 
suburban districts. The people, at the same time, are on the 
average thirty- six pounds lighter. Dr. Beddoe, the great author- 
ity upon this subject, concludes his investigation of the population 
of Great Britain by this statement : " It may therefore be taken 
as proved that the stature of men in the large towns of Britain 
is lowered considerably below the standard of the nation, and as 
probable that such degradation is hereditary and progressive." 

On the other hand, it must be confessed that this unfavorable 
influence of city life is often obscured by the great social selection 
which is at work, as we shall hope to show later, in the deter- 
mination of the physical type of the population of great cities. 
While the course of the town type by itself is downward, often- 
times the city attracts another class which is markedly superior, 
in the same way that the immigrants of the United States have 
been distinguished in this respect. Taking London as a whole, 
the stature of its people is apparently above the level of the 
surrounding districts, despite the unfavorable influences of urban 
life. At the same time the suburban counties about London are 
marked by a standard below the average. This follows, probably, 
from the great selective process by which all of the better types 
of the rural population are continually being drawn off into the 
vortex of city life. The effect of it is, of course, to increase the 
average stature of the town population, taken as a whole. 

It would be interesting to inquire in how far the relative 
height of the sexes is due to a similar selective process. Certain 
it is that among us, in civilization, women average from three to 
four inches below men in stature, a disparity which is consider- 
ably less among primitive peoples. Dr. Brinton has invoked as a 
partial explanation, at least, for this, the influence of the law of 
sexual division of labor which obtains among us. This law com- 
mands, in theory, that the men should perform the arduous phys- 
ical labor of life, leaving the more sedentary portion of it to the 
women. If the conscious choice of mates had followed this tend- 
ency, its effect would certainly be unfavorable to the development 
of an increasing stature among women, while it might operate to 
better the endowment of men in that respect. It is impossible, 
in the time at our command, to follow this out. Probably this 
difference of stature between the sexes is partially due to some 
other cause which stops growth in the woman earlier than in the 
man. The problem is too complex to follow out in this place. 

From the preceding array of facts it will appear that in stature 
we have rather an irresponsible witness in the matter of race. A 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 29 

physical trait so liable to disturbance by circumstances outside 
the human body is correspondingly invalidated as an indication 
of hereditary tendencies which lie within. We are compelled 
for this reason to assign the third place to this characteristic 
in our series of racial tests, placing it below the color of the hair 
' and eyes in the scale. This does not mean that it is entirely 
worthless for our ethnic purposes. There are many clear cases 
of differences of stature which can be ascribed to no other cause ; 
but it bids us be cautious about judging hastily. It commands 
us to be content with nothing less than hundreds of observations, 
and to rigidly eliminate all social factors. The best way to do 
this is to take the broad view, by including so many individuals 
that locally progressive and degenerative factors may counter- 
balance one another. Turning back to our world map of statures, 
it will at once appear that we can not divide the human species 
into definite continental groups characterized by distinct pecul- 
iarities of stature. The so-called yellow Mongolian race comprises 
both tall and short peoples. The aboriginesof America are, as a 
rule, tall ; but in the Andes, the basin of the Columbia River, and 
elsewhere they are quite undersized. The only two racial groups 
which seem to be homogeneous in stature are the true African 
negroes and the peoples of Indonesia and the Pacific. In Africa 
the environment is quite uniform. In the other cases racial 
peculiarities seem to be deeply enough ingrained to overcome the 
disturbances due to outward factors. The Malays are always and 
everywhere rather short. The Polynesians are obstinately in- 
clined toward tallness. With these exceptions, racial or heredi- 
tary predispositions in stature seem to be absent. Let us turn to 
the consideration of Europe by itself, and inquire if the same rule 
holds here as well. 

The light tints upon this map * indicate the tall populations ; as 
the tint darkens, the people become progressively more and more 
stunted. Here again we find that Europe comprehends a very 
broad range of variations. The Scotch, with an average height 
of five feet and ten inches, stand on a level with the tall Polyne- 
sians and Americans, both aboriginal and modern white. At the 
other extreme, the south Italians, French, and Spaniards, range 
alongside the shortest of men, if we except the abnormal dwarf 

* This map is constructed from a great number of detailed local investigations, the re- 
sults of which have been, as far as possible, correlated and reduced to a common base. 
Many serious difficulties have to be overcome, and the final result must be regarded as 
merely approximate. For example, some observers have studied the entire population of 
districts ; others draw their figures from the army alone, from which, of course, all the 
abnormally short men have been eliminated. Some give averages alone ; others- work by 
percentile grades. To be sure, these two methods give parallel results ; but how discover 
the average from them ? Complete details will be published in due season. 



30 



POPULAR SCI EN CI] MONTHLY. 



races of Africa. From one to the other of these limits there is a 
regular transition, which again points indubitably to racial law. 
Two specific centers of tall stature appear, if we include the minor 
but marked tendency of the Dalmatians and Montenegrins along 



Average Stature 




Inches Metres 

70 5-693 [m 1.79-1.76 
69 3-68 1! I 1.76-1.73 
681-669 



1.73-1,70 
669-657*H 170-1.67 
65 7-64 6 gg^ 167-1.6+ 
64- 6-63.4^ 164-1.61 
634-6ZzHH 161-158 
6ZZ-6I0HI 1.58-1.55 



ly^ /? recit 



the Adriatic Sea. The principal one lies in the north, culminat- 
ing in the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Britain, economic 
prosperity undoubtedly is of importance, as the level of material 
comfort is probably higher than on the Continent. With this 
exception it appears that the Teutons as a race are responsible 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



31 



for the phenomenon. Wherever they have penetrated, as in 
northern France, down the Rhone Valley, or in Austria, the 
population shows its effects. 

Central Europe is generally marked by medium height. The 
people tend to be stocky rather than tall. The same holds true 
as we turn to the Slavic countries in the east of Europe. Across 
Austria and Russia there is a progressive although slight tend- 
ency in this direction. The explanation of the extreme short 
stature of southern Europe is more problematical. Our map 
points to a racial center of real diminutiveness, at an average of 
five feet and one or two inches. Too protracted civilization, such 
as it was, is partly to blame. Some authorities, notably Lapouge 



^, 



'A//( 



^ CO 7^ 



'O/v t 






Eastern Bovndary 
or Celtic Speech 



N OR D 



^ 






Percent 

UNDER. 
1^6 METERS 
(5ft i^Wi) 



, -4 

4-6 

\\Z-\A 

14-17 







':^:Kl 



STATV/RE 



LOWER 

AFTER BROCA 



BRITTANY 

(1S50-59) 




and Fallot, even assert that naturally the people are as tall as 
the Alpine populations. Northern Africa certainly favors this 
view. We must await further investigation on this point, rest- 
ing content with the fact, whatever the cause may be, that the 
average stature is exceedingly low to-day. 

We may demonstrate the innate tendency of the Teutonic 
peoples toward tallness of stature more locally than by this con- 
tinental method. We may follow the trait from place to place, 
as this migratory race has moved' across the map. Wherever 
these " greasy seven-foot giants," as Sidonius Apollinaris called 
them, have gone, they have implanted their stature upon the 
people, where it has remained long persistent thereafter. Per- 



32 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

haps tlie clearest detailed illustration of the expression of this 
racial peculiarity is offered by the people of Brittany. Many 
years ago observers began to note the contrasts in the Armorican 
Peninsula between the Bretons and the other French peasantry ; 
and especially the local differences between the people of the 
interior and those fringing the seacoast. The regularity of the 
phenomenon is made manifest by the preceding map. This is 
constructed from observations on all the youth who came of 
age during a period of ten years from 1850-'59. There can be no 
doubt of the facts in the case. It has been tested in every way. 
Other measurements, made twenty years later, are precisely paral- 
lel in their results, as we have already seen in Finisterre.* 

The average stature of the whole peninsula is low, being only 
about five feet and five inches ; yet in this " tache noire " it de- 
scends more than a full inch below this. This appreciable differ- 
ence is not wholly due to environment, although the facts cited 
for Finisterre show that it is of some effect. Tlie whole penin- 
sula is rocky and barren. The only advantage that the people on 
the coast enjoy is the support of the fisheries. This is no insig- 
nificant factor, to be sure. Yet we have direct proof beyond this 
that race is here in evidence ; this is afforded by other physical 
differences between the population of the coast and that of the 
interior. The people of the littoral are lighter in hair and eyes, 
and appreciably longer -headed; in other words, they show traces 
of Teutonic intermixture. In ancient times this whole coast was 
known as the "litus Saxonicum," so fiercely was it ravaged by 
these northern barbarians. Then, again, in the fifth century, 
immigrants from Britain, who in fact bestowed the name of Brit- 
tany upon the country, came over in hordes, dispossessed in Eng- 
land by the same Teutonic invaders. They were probably Teu- 
tonic also; for the invaders of Britain came so fast that they 
literally crowded themselves out of the little island. The result 
has been to infuse a new racial element into all the border popu- 
lations in Brittany, while the original physical traits remain in 
undisturbed possession of the interior. The Normans to the 
northeast are, on the other hand, quite purely Teutonic, espe- 
cially marked in their height. In this case environment and 
race have joined hands in the final result, but the latter seems 
to have been the senior partner in the affair. 

One more detailed illustration of the persistence of stature 
as a racial trait may be found in the people of the Austrian 
Tyrol, familiarized to us in the last paper. Unfortunately, our 

* Dr. Chassagne has maps almost identical with this, for the period 1874-'78. Vide 
Revue d' Anthropologic, second series, vol. iv, p. 439 seq. Our map is adapted from 
Broca's original results in Meraoires de la Societe d'Anthropologie, Paris, series one, vol. 
iii, p. 186 seq. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



33 



present map is constructed by different districts, so that we can 
not compare valley with valley, as it would be most profitable 
to do. We have to be content with more general results. For 
purposes of orientation we have reproduced upon this sketch the 
rivers shown upon our map in the preceding paper, so that certain 
comparisons may be drawn. We have already seen that the lower 
Inn Valley (uppermost in our map) was a main channel of Teu- 
tonic immigration into a primitively broad-headed Alpine coun- 
try by race. On the south up the Adige Valley by Trient came 
the second intrusive element in the long-headed brunette Medi- 



^(\\J^R\A^ 




^^ ^ STATVRE 



AFTER. TOLDT 
least mn 



~^gr 



AvsTRiAN Tyrol 



terranean peoples. This map at once enables us to endow each of 
these with its proper quota of stature ; for the environment is 
quite uniform, considered as in this map by large districts cover- 
ing valley and mountain alike. Each area contains all kinds of 
territory ; so that we are working by topographical averages, so 
to speak. Moreover, the whole population is agricultural, saving 
a few domestic industries in the western half. Such differences as 
arise must be therefore in large measure due to race. The regular 
transition from the populations at the northeast, with generally 
a majority of the men taller than five feet seven inches, to the 

TOL. LI. 3 



34 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Italian slopes, where less than one fifth attain this moderate height, 
is sufficient proof.* The progressive decline goes on still further 
as we go south, as our map of Europe has indicated, away down 
to the toe of Italy's boot. Could demonstration in mathematics 
he more certain that here in the Tyrol we have a case of an in- 
crease of stature due to race alone ? One of the most persistent 
traits of the Teuton is his bodily height. We in America, among 
the tallest people in the world, owe much of our advantage in this 
respect to our Teutonic lineage. The rest is due to the high level 
of prosperity enjoyed by the people in the United States as a 
whole. 



REVERSIONS IN MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 

By franklin SMITH. 
PART SECOND. 

I HAVE already shown how modern trade and professional cor- 
porations are a reversion to feudal corporations, which were 
the natural and spontaneous product not of legislative wisdom 
and philanthropy, but of chronic disorder, and how, for a time, 
they provided security for despised and plundered toilers, and 
promoted the growth of civilization. While pointing out the 
astonishing absurdity involved in the revival of such obsolete 
institutions in an age devoted almost exclusively to industrial 
life a life based upon peace and the largest liberty compatible 
with justice I described some of their more flagrant economic 
evils, the inevitable fruits of their alliance with the state and of 
their establishment of despotic monopolies. I shall now give an 
account of some of their moral evils, the fruits also of the same 
despotism ; and though it will, as before, be confined chiefly to the 
plumbers, because they are the most powerfully organized and 
the most completely protected, it applies with like fidelity to all 
other trade and professional corporations sheltered behind a stat- 
ute or a code of tyrannical rules and regulations. 



An optimistic essayist of the National Association of the Mas- 
ter Plumbers may boast that " protection has not only elevated 
the trade and eliminated from our ranks the incompetent and 
unworthy," but has " reached out and enhanced man's highest 
good, and given humanity the greatest benefactions of the age." 
He may boast also that in consequence of these noble fruits of 
protection, " the plumber receives the esteem, respect, and honor 

* Details are given in Mittheiluugen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, vol. 
xxi, 1891, p. 69 se^. 



REVERSIONS IN MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 35 

of his fellow-men, and enjoys tlie dignity and consideration given 
to the learned professions about him." * But the destruction of 
personal liberty and the establishment of a monopoly in labor and 
trade did not confer these blessings upon the corporations of the 
middle ages ; they have not conferred them upon their modern 
successors. Brief as their history is, it discloses all the traits of 
their predecessors in embryo or in an advanced state of growth. 
They have not transformed human nature ; they have not made it 
more honest, generous, or sympathetic. All they have done is to 
add another to the countless demonstrations that the reform of 
human society is not to come from legislation. They have pro- 
voked strife ; they have stimulated deception ; they have favored 
incompetency and dishonesty; they have discouraged character 
and excellence; they have created false hopes; they have pro- 
duced indifference to the very dangers they were designed to 
guard against. 

The honest plumbers that expected most from this kind of 
legislation have suffered the greatest disappointment. The 
making of master plumbers, said Mr. Edward Braden, of San 
Antonio, Texas, at the Cleveland convention, " is a Herculean job. 
They love to go to conventions, have a good time, and even ridi- 
cule any advancement or strict enforcement of the sanitary 
laws." f So great does the task appear to be, and so vast is the 
work still to be done, that it must long remain incomplete. More 
than that, unless a different course is pursued, it must always 
remain incomplete. " It would seem," says another plumbing 
authority, " to be a safe assertion that too many [plumbers] do 
not have a true conception of the dignity of their calling. Their 
dominant idea is to do the cheapest work without much thought 
of the moral obligations resting upon them to guard in every 
way in their power the health of all concerned." X The president 
of the Milwaukee convention complained that "in several in- 
stances parties, after becoming members of the National Associa- 
tion," have " endeavored to use their membership to keep other 
practical and worthy plumbers out." * Not finding the time ripe 
for such mediaeval proscription, some of them have preferred to 
forego the benefits of the association. Other plumbers, equally 
oblivious to the " dignity of their calling," have been dishonest 
enough to conspire with the jobbers and consumers to violate the 
sanctity of the Baltimore resolutions. One of the more striking 
cases was the collusion of a plumber and jobber in one State with 
a consumer in another several hundred miles away. | " Many 



* Proceedings, Cincinnati, 1891, pp. 129, 131. f Proceedings, Cleveland, 1896, p. 96. 
X Proceedings, Wasiiington, D. C, 1892, p. 80. * Proceedings, Milwaukee, 1893, p. "71, 
I Proceedings, Cleveland, 1896, p. 145. 



36 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

contractors/' says the account of another case, which duplicates 
almost literally the experience of the Parisian marchands de 
Veau* showing again how independent of time and space, of 
feudal despotisms and despotic republics human nature is, "in- 
duce journeymen plumbers to take out licenses so that they 
can give the money to the journeymen and get the goods at 
plumbers' prices. Too often they do not go through the for- 
mality of having the money pass through the journeymen's 
hands. " It is to be regretted," adds the account mournfully, 
" that some supply houses sell to such so-called plumbers when 
they know the circumstances." f 

As in the past, so to-day, the desperate attempt made to fence 
off trades and professions with the barbed wire of legislation, 
and to grant admission to the sacred circles of monopoly only to 
those that meet official standards of excellence, has led to the 
creation of absurd and arbitrary distinctions and provoked fierce 
anger and contention. Already the opticians of Pennsylvania 
distinguish between opticians, dioptricians, and ophthalmotri- 
cians, J thus reminding one of the five kinds of hat makers in old 
France, and when they come to get a law enacted for their pro- 
tection, these distinctions will doubtless be perpetuated in the 
statutes, to the instruction and amusement of some future Mon- 
tesquieu. In the bill that the New York opticians have framed 
the line is drawn with scrupulous care between " dispensing op- 
ticians," who sell the products of the industrial skill of others, 
and " refracting opticians," * who dispose of the products of their 
own skill. But hardly had the measure been published before 
there was a quarrel, or rather a series of quarrels, that rivaled 
any that the regulations of the French hat makers stirred up. 
There was, first, the fight between the regular physicians, who 
claim, by virtue of their diplomas from medical colleges, the 
right to prescribe for optical defects, and the oculists and opti- 
cians, who want to establish a monopoly of this business. Next 
came the fight between the oculists, who assert that they alone 
have the requisite knowledge and skill to practice their profes- 
sion, and the " refracting opticians," who insist that they are just 
as competent to prescribe in certain cases. " When it is remem- 



* " II est vrais que I'on employoit . . . bien de ruses pour eluder les lois ripoureuses 
imposees au commerce par le hanse. Les contrebandiers trouvoient dans le corps meme des 
marchands de I'eau des hommes assez complaisans pour etre les compagnons Idgaux des 
speeulateurs etrangers, et qui, dans le fait, se contentoient de preter leur nom, sans prendre 
aucun part h, la speculation. Lorsque cette fraude etoit d6eouvert, le prevot de Paris 
condamnoit les marchands k I'expuLsion de la comnmnautc de hanse." (Reglemens sur les 
Arts et Metiers de Paris. Introduction. Par G.B. Depping, p. xxxiii.) 

+ Proceedings, Cleveland, 1896, p. 37. 

X The Optical Journal, vol. ii. No. 8, p. 335. Ibid., vol. ii. No. 10, pp. 391-393, 



REVERSIONS IN MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 37 

bered that certain oculists/^ says tlie president of the New York 
State Optical Society, disclosing the bitter spirit that animates 
these two classes of " philanthropists " and " benefactors," " have 
elected to assault even skilled opticians by calling them quacks, 
charlatans, and fiery-eyed ignoramuses, we are certainly justified 
in refuting their allegations in a more gentlemanly and profes- 
sional way." * Finally came the smothered conflict between the 
" dispensing opticians " and the " refracting opticians," who, al- 
though united for relentless war on the oculists, have widely 
divergent notions as to the character and limits of their own 
professional skill. 

The same belligerent spirit exists between the plumbers and 
kindred trades. " A practical plumber, one who is concerned 
about elevating his profession," says a report from Delaware, 
" finds it exceedingly difficult in the small towns to compete 
with the tinsmith and hardware men." f The same complaint 
comes from Kentucky. " Nearly all of the plumbing in the 
smaller towns," it says, is " done by tinners, hardware men, 
machinists, and even ' nigger ' blacksmiths." | Could anything 
be more provocative of indignation and resistance in men pos- 
sessed of a high spirit and noble aims ? Afflicted as the feudal 
corporations were with illegitimate competition, they did not 
have to meet upon the field of honorable labor the ignoble rivalry 
of " niggers." The vice-president of the Oregon Association men- 
tions as a particularly flagrant example of the unfair competition 
that the " honest plumber," one " concerned about elevating his 
profession," has to struggle against, a firm that advertises " Hard- 
ware, stoves, and ranges, sanitary plumbing, tin and sheet- iron 
work, groceries, provisions, and cord wood." " And still," he adds, 
as though recounting a miracle, but showing that honest work 
may be done without laws and ordinances, " these parties do a good 
job of plumbing." * Passing from the country to the city, where 
the evolution of industry has gone further and the lines that 
separate one trade or profession from another have become more 
distinct, the conflicts between plumbers and other occupations are 
more bitter and relentless. || A stone mason is not permitted to 
build a drain under a house nor connect it with the sewer. With- 
out the risk of arrest and prosecution a steam or gas fitter can 
not put in a water or waste pipe. To the hardware man is denied 

* The Optical Journal, vol. ii, No. 4, p. 119. 

f Proceedings, Cleveland, 1896, p. 52. 

X Ibid., p. 58. * Ihid., p. 64. 

II The I'ecent quarrel between the pUunbers and gasfitters in New York city, which at 
one time threatened very serious consequences, grew out of the absurd question, decided by 
President Setli Low, who was made arbitrator, as to which trade had the righ*; to put in the 
thermostatic attachment to radiators. 



38 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the riglit to connect tlie range he has sold with the water system 
of his patron's house.* 

Although this intolerable despotism continues to grow by 
what it feeds on, and its complete abatement is not likely to come 
soon, there are not wanting some faint signs of revolt. The hard- 
ware men of Buffalo, N. Y., have refused to submit to it, and are 
engaged in a hot fight against the tyrants of the wrench and 
soldering iron, f As already indicated, the opticians of the State 
are also in rebellion against the oculists, having discovered in the 
benevolent legislation of these " social reformers " an attempt to 
enslave them. " Let us," says the president of the State Optical 
Society just quoted, summoning his followers to arms and defend- 
ing his course with an argument equally cogent against all other 
assaults on personal liberty, " concentrate with the fearless deter- 
mination to throw off the yoke which some oculists are so deter- 
mined to have us wear by relegating us to a position of abject 
dependence upon them, and thus exposing ourselves to the exer- 
cise of a power which might, in a moment of emergency, make 
perjurers of all who lack the fortitude to resist it." X 

But futile as has been the attempt to create the honest and 
competent plumber and to make him a national blessing, the 
effort to find the honest and competent official to enforce legis- 
lation and to rescue the public from the dangers of imperfect 
work has not been less prolific of disappointment. When I say 
that the failure has been signal and inevitable, I do not express 
the opinion deduced from first principles nor from every experi- 
ment with the black art of the lawmaker since its first dicovery. 
I express only the honest and unpremeditated convictions that 
plumbers themselves have reached. Even Mr. Spencer has scarcely 
described more vividly and effectively the political entanglements, 
the industrial paralysis, and the moral enervation that follow the 
practice of this system of modern magic. " It does seem impossi- 
ble," said a Syracuse delegate at a State convention of master 
plumbers, after listening to a melancholy tale of the neglect of 

* So intolerant have some plumbers become that it has been proposed to pass "a law 
making it a criminal offense for a person to hang out a sign, handle tools, or construct any 
part of plumbing work." (Remarks of Mr. Hosford, of New York. Proceedings, Pitts- 
burg, 1889, p. 105 ) A less intolerant but equally absurd and despotic proposition is that of 
the Michigan dentists. In a State Convention last year they passed a resolution in approval 
of an act for the appointment of a State dental examiner, whose duty should be to inspect 
the teeth of all children, and enforce such regulations as might be necessary to preserve the 
molars and bicuspids of the public. (Chicago Times-Herald, June IG, 1896.) 

f Buffalo Courier, November 12, 1896. As further proof of the unselfish spirit that 
animates the plumbers of Buffalo, it may be said that for the work of connecting a range 
with the water pipes they charge from eight to twelve dollars. The hardware men claim 
that it is worth only three or four dollars. 

\ The Optical Journal, vol. ii. No. 4, p. 120. 



REVERSIONS IN MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 39 

examining boards to do their duty, " to keep politics out of exam- 
ining boards." * But the same trail is just as visible elsewhere. 
" You think it is the Board of Health," said an Albany delegate, 
showing how other officials have shirked their duty. " We have 
been there and made our complaint. They inspect the work 
brought to their office, they say. I have been to the corpo- 
ration counsel and can not get any satisfaction. I have been to 
the district attorney and to the justice of the police court. They 
laugh at us." f This is the experience always had with the ma- 
chinery invented to enforce the laws of any despot, be he French 
or American. The men that refuse to submit to them are too 
influential to be antagonized with impunity. 

Even if public officials possessed the Spartan virtue of Boy- 
leau, who, according to the Sire de Joinville, yielded to no influ- 
ence " de parenfe, ni d'ainys, ni d'or, ni d'argent " ; J even if they 
were to enforce the law with Draconian rigor, it could and would 
be evaded. "' There are many ways of killing a cat besides chok- 
ing him with butter,' " said Mr. Firmin at the Philadelphia conven- 
tion, " and the law may be obeyed, while it is at the same time 
practically evaded and violated. No matter," he added, speaking 
with a professional knowledge that a layman would not presume 
to question, " how impartial, honest, and competent an inspector 
may be, in the very nature of things there are one hundred and 
one ways of putting his eyes out." * Could some legislative 
genius discover a way to prevent this loss of sight, protection 
from incompetent or dishonest plumbers would still be impos- 
sible. " There are a great many things," said Mr. Edward Schus- 
ter, of St. Louis, at the same convention, " necessary to a first- 
class job, which do not come under his supervision and which he 
is not responsible for, and yet they are of so much importance that 
they can not be omitted." || Of what use, then, is a plumbing 
law ? Of what use also are inspectors ? 

Still, the bottom of the Pandora box, which " philanthropists " 
and " benefactors " have stuffed with the evils of such legislation, 
has not yet been reached. While it does not benefit the honest 
plumber, it often screens the dishonest one. Here again I do not 
trust to the conclusions drawn from the doctrine of laissez-faire, 
nor from the unsupported assertions of prejudice. My statements 
are none other than those of the master plumbers themselves. 
" Plumbers imagined," said Mr. Dent Yates at the Detroit con- 
vention, " that the strictest ordinances (a few of which would 
make the framers of the Rhode Island blue laws weep with 

* Unpublished Proceedings, Buffalo, 1894, p. 59. f Ibid., pp. 55, 56. 
:[: Biographie Universelle, vol. v, p. 436. 

* Proceedings, Philadelphia, 1896, p. 91. || Ibid., p. 94. 



40 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

envy) would be a big bonanza. . . . But some of the self- same 
ordinances, designed to protect tlie good, conscientious plumber, 
have here and there acted as a screen for the quack plumber 
and fat for the ward bummer and the grog-shop politicians." * 
Is this not saying, as was once said to a French despot, that 
for every oflSce he was pleased to make God was pleased to 
make a fool to fill it ? With a touch of bitter disappointment 
over honest toil gone for naught, Mr. Firmin declared, in the 
essay quoted from already, that the plumbers that had "endeav- 
ored to be just to their fellow-men," that had " given their best 
thought " to " devising improved methods of practical sanita- 
tion," that " could point to the improved standard of plumbing as 
a part of their labors," had " not been rewarded in anything like 
a just ratio. ... I might," he added in a tone of deeper disap- 
pointment, "even say in an everyday dollars-and- cents view," 
that they " have not directly benefited at all." f 

The most serious evil remains to be mentiolied, for it falls 
upon the very persons whose benefit is, in the eyes of the "philan- 
thropists" and "benefactors," its sole justification. Instead of 
making them more alert to protect themselves from the dangers 
that assail them and to secure the services of the most expert to 
aid them in this difficult task, it creates in them a state of indif- 
ference. Conscious that benevolent statesmen have made laws 
to keep them from harm, they fancy that it is no longer needful 
for them to take thought of the morrow. Plumbers themselves, 
with all their ardent faith in legislation, have not been able to 
shut their eyes to this peril. More than once have the thought- 
ful among them called attention to "overconfidence on the part 
of the architect and the general public" in "the cure-all-ism of 
the plumbing law." " This danger is at once serious to the public 
and to ourselves as business men," said the Sanitary Committee 
at the Philadelphia convention. J " We found," said Mr. Firmin, 
also, " that the public has come to rely to a dangerous degree 
upon plumbing laws. . . . The danger lies," he added, "in the fact 
that the public believe that all plumbers, by virtue of the law's 
operation, are compelled to produce equal and certain results, and 
that if they have a certain piece of work to be performed it will 
make no difference whether they give the job to Jones or Brown. 
. . . Therein they fall into error, injuring themselves, as well as 
the honest plumber. They remove the incentive to progression 
and honesty." The Sanitary Committee takes the same view in 
almost the same words. "There has arisen a belief," it says, 
" that now it is not necessary to use care in the choice of your 

* Proceedings, Detroit, 1894, p. 169. 

f Proceedings, Philadelphia, 1895, p. 91. % Ibid., p. 43. 



REVERSIONS IN MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 41 

plumber, since he is by law compelled to comply -with modern 
sanitary principles and mechanical arrangements. Never was a 
greater error committed by the public," with "far-reaching re- 
sults for evil." * This, however, is only an expression of the 
truth that the public must, in spite of all supervision, look after 
itself. 

But, like a nobler sentiment, faith in the efficacy of legisla- 
tion for the cure of all social ills, including those from incom- 
petent barbers and horseshoers, "springs eternal in the human 
breast." It is not enough that such a law as the plumbing law 
can not be enforced ; that, even if it were enforced, it would not 
yield the benefits that its framers anticipate; that, instead of 
favoring the honest plumber, it favors the dishonest one, and 
enables the unscrupulous j)olitician to bribe or coerce constitu- 
ents; that, instead of promoting the interests of the public, it is 
a detriment to them, producing a false sense of security perilous 
to health it is still proposed to follow to the death the same ignis 
faiuus. To be sure, the most advanced "philanthropists" and 
'' benefactors " do not propose to enact more rigorous municipal 
regulationsor more elaborate State laws. These have failed. But 
they propose to resort to the great panacea of periodic inspection 
and national legislation. Preparing the way for the exercise of 
the last hope of the apostles of benevolent despotism, the Sani- 
tary Committee of the Philadelphia convention declared that "no 
matter how thorough and complete" a piece of plumbing may 
have been done, " Nature, assisted by use, abuse, and neglect, will 
render that which was perfect most imperfect." f It then pro- 
ceeds to urge with fitting solemnity "the very great impor- 
tance of legislative action looking to and providing for periodic 
expert examination of sanitary appliances." That is to say, since 
people can not be trusted to keep their plumbing in order, the 
State must, like a policeman, compel them to do so. "A system 
of laws emanating from Congress," says an authority quoted with 
approval by the same committee on another occasion, after point- 
ing out, among other things, that "the laws enacted by State and 
local authorities are continually subject to change according to 
the whim of any petty politician who sees his self-aggrandizement 



* Proceedings, Philadelphia, 1895, pp. 43, 44. "The committee did not believe, how- 
ever, that national legislation on the subject was desirable. It said: 'In the nature of 
things, it is impossible to form laws which would be equally appropriate to all sections of 
the country ; that which would be best suited to the needs of Michigan would prove most 
faulty for Louisiana. A system approaching perfection as applied to California would be 
ridiculous if applied to Maine ' (p. 43). But, as shown in the text, this sensible view was 
repudiated by the committee in the following year. It was crushed under what Mr. Spencer 
has fitly characterized as the momentum of the socialistic movement." 

f Ibid., p. 44. 



42 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

in any movement that may please a portion of liis constituency," 
"would obviate all such trouble. . . . Such laws would be en- 
forced by the State and local boards of health, and, in case of their 
failure or neglect, such attention and assistance from the national 
powers should be given as the circumstances of the case may 
require." * That is to say, again, a defective principle inopera- 
tive on a small scale can be made a success on a large one. Al- 
though a despotic local law can not be enforced, a despotic na- 
tional law will be scrupulously observed. If local officials can be 
blinded in " one hundred and one wavs," national officials are sub- 
ject to no such impairment of vision. 

II. 

But this is only a fresh illustration of the pathetic faith of the 
chronic invalid, ever on the search for a new pill or a new tonic. 
A change from one despotism to another, or from one set of offi- 
cials to another, will not deliver society from the defects of human 
nature. Much less will that blessing come from the increase of 
despotism and the multiplication of officials. Such quackery has 
been tried from the dawn of Greek democracy down to the latest 
product of popular sovereignty the Brazilian Republic. It has 
failed ; it must inevitably fail. It violates a law of social devel- 
opment as immutable as the law of gravitation, one that punishes 
those that fail to heed it with equal certainty and severity. I 
refer to the law set forth by Mr. Spencer that the more peaceful 
and industrious a nation becomes, the less is its need of the re- 
straints of either custom or legislation. But of this matchless 
induction of modern science the social reformers of to-day have 
no conception. They act upon the assumption that the world has 
made no headway in a thousand years ; that men are still barba- 
rians and require the shackles of an age of disorder ; that there 
must be the official mechanism of an old French or Prussian 
despotism, which had no other use than to recruit and drill troops 
and to wring taxes from despised and impoverished toilers. But 
since the days of feudal chaos humanity, despite the obstacles 
thrown in its path by ignorance and interest, has gained ground. 
Men have outlived the rules and regulations of a military despot- 
ism. They do not pay homage to the occupant of a throne, sur- 
rounded by courtiers as intent on the plunder of subjects as sol- 
diers on the plunder of enemies. Their allegiance is to another 
ruler, which, though less regal, is not less powerful ; it is con- 
science, the embodied restraints that come of peace, sympathy, 
and culture. 

* Proceedings, Cleveland, 1896, p. 31. 



REVERSIONS IX MODERN INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 43 

If the obedience due this ruler of the modern industrial world 
is imperfect, the reason is not difficult to discover. It is because 
his reign has been brief, and human nature is still crude. Too 
many vestiges of countless ages of conflict cling to the brain of 
man. Too much misdirected effort is made to fit the institutions 
of murder and pillage to times of peace and industry. Obsolete 
as a battle axe or a coat of mail, they do not extinguish the traits 
inherited from savage ancestry ; they only stimulate and perpetu- 
ate them. No matter whether they be tried under the despotism 
of a French feudal monarchy or under the popular sovereignty of 
the American Republic, the effect is identical. They engender the 
same greed, the same hypocrisy, the same deception, the same 
contention. No abridgment of liberty that philanthropists or 
statesmen may deem essential to the safety of modern civilization 
will permit them to realize their Utopian dream. The millennium 
lies in another direction in the direction of greater liberty. As 
society becomes more and more complex, with wants so great and 
varied as to pass the knowledge of any benevolent despot ruling 
by divine right, or any group of despots ruling by virtue of uni- 
versal suffrage, individuals must be allowed more and more to 
control their own destiny, and to take the consequences, good or 
bad. Whatever government they may need to direct their count- 
less enterprises for the supply of those wants and for the regula- 
tion of their relations with one another and with the public, must 
not be the product of political selection, but of industrial selec- 
tion ; it must not be the choice of ward bummers and complaisant 
citizens that register the will of an unscrupulous and irresponsible 
demagogue, ambitious to exercise a power that decent people re- 
fuse him, but of the men that have staked their fortunes in busi- 
ness, whose success or failure is dependent upon the wisdom of 
their action. Not the least fit, but the most fit, will then admin- 
ister the affairs of the world. With the continuance of peace 
and industry they will not be the greatest fools or knaves, now 
so often charged and unhappily so often proved, but the wisest 
and most upright. Civilization will not then go backward, as it 
now threatens to do, but it will go forward, as it did with the 
enlargement of liberty that has been the most splendid achieve- 
ment of the last four centuries of thought and effort. 



The eager haste with which men of fixed notions are apt to rush to con- 
clusions is portrayed rather than caricatured in Lord Houghton's version 
of the debate between Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in the Brit- 
ish Association in 1860, which Sir E. Grant Duff quotes in his Notes from 
a Diary. As the story is told, Mr. Huxley asserted that the blood of guinea 
pigs crystallizes in rhombohedrons. "Thereupon the bishop sprang to his 
feet and declared that 'such notions lead directly to atheism.' '' 



44 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 

By DAVID A. WELLS, LL.D., D.C. L., 

CORnESPONDANT DE l'iNSTITUT DE FRANCE, ETC. 

VII. RULES OR MAXIMS ESSENTIAL TO AN ADMINISTRATION OF 
RIGHTFUL TAXATION UNDER A CONSTITUTIONAL OR FREE GOV- 
ERNMENT. PART II. 

IN continuance of tlie discussion entered upon in the preceding 
part of this chapter, as to whether under a constitutional and 
free government, and in virtue also of the natural and inalien- 
able rights of the people governed, a state has a lawful right to 
levy and expend taxes in furtherance of private interests, more 
especially by way of bounties, the following additional points 
may be worthy of consideration : 

Probably no better exposition of the limitation on the exer- 
cise of the taxing power incumbent on a free government pro- 
fessing a regard for the rights of the people, and more especially 
on the Federal Government of the United States, under its Con- 
stitution, in respect to the granting of payment of bounties for 
the promotion of the private interests of any of its citizens, can be 
found than the following, accredited to Justice Thomas M. Cooley : 

''It is not in the power of the state, in my opinion, under the name of 
a bounty, or under any other cover or subterfuge, to furnish the cajjital to 
set private parties up in any kind of business, or to subsidize tlieir business 
after they have entered upon it. A bounty law of which this is the real 
nature, is void, whatever may be the pretense on which it may be enacted. 
The rig-ht to hold out pecuniary inducements to the faithful performance 
of public duty in dangerous or responsible positions stands upon a different 
footing altogether ; nor have I any occasion to question the right to pay 
rewards for the destruction of wild beasts and other public pests, a provision 
of this character being a mere police regulation. But the discriniination by 
the state between different classes of occupations, and the favoring of one 
at the expense of the rest, whether that one be farming or banking, mer- 
chandising or milling, printing or railroading, is not legitimate legislation, 
and is an invasion of that equality of right and privilege which is a maxim 
in state government. When the door is once open to it there is no line at 
which we can stop and say with confidence that thus far vpe may go with 
safety and XDropriety, but no further. 

"Every honest employment is honorable; it is beneficial to the public; 
it deserves encouragement. The more successful we can make it the more 
does it generally subserve the public good. But it is not the business of 
the state to make discriminations in favor of one class against another, or 
in favor of one employment against another. The state can have no favor- 
ites. Its business is to protect the industry of all, and give all the benefits 
of equal laws. It can not compel an unwilling minority to submit to tax- 
ation in order that it may keep upon its feet any business that can not 
stand alone." 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 45 

A brief historical retrospect is here pertinent to this subject. 
The payment of bounties from the proceeds of taxation, or rather 
of exaction, is a relic of the commercial methods of the middle 
ages. They were, however, regarded as legitimate fiscal expedi- 
ents for the encouragement of trade and domestic industries dur- 
ing the whole of the last (eighteenth) century ; but since then, 
under the influence of a higher civilization and modern economic 
ideas, have been almost entirely discarded from the fiscal systems 
of the leading commercial nations until within a comparatively 
recent period, when they have been revived and made mainly 
applicable to the production and sale of a single one of the world's 
great commodities namely, sugar ; * and the history of this 
experience constitutes a most interesting and instructive chapter 
in economic history. 

Although the practice of stimulating the production of beet- 
root sugar in Europe through high protective duties on imports 
and export bounties dates back to the first quarter of the century, 
the present complicated and curious state of affairs is really due 
to a method of taxing beet sugar by Germany which was adopted 
in 1869. The idea involved in this method was, in brief, to collect 
an excise or internal -revenue tax on all sugar produced, and give 
a bounty on so much of the domestic product as was exported or 
sold to the people of other countries. The other states of conti- 
nental Europe, finding the markets of their own product of beet- 
root sugar everywhere supplanted by the German sugars, and 
their domestic manufacturers being thereby brought to the verge 
of ruin, made haste to follow the example of Germany, until the 
policy of Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Austria, and 
Russia seems to have been to stimulate their domestic product 
of sugar to the greatest extent, and then enter into competition 
with each other to see which of them could sell cheapest to for- 
eigners at the expense of their own people. The general result 
is, that the great beet-sugar industry of Europe has been estab- 
lished and is now conducted on what may be regarded as an arti- 
ficial basis, and one not inaptly characterized as a most ingenious 
method for entailing money losses on the mass of the people of 
the countries above mentioned. 

The immediate sequence of this policy has been an enormous 
increase in the beet-sugar product on the Continent of Europe 
i. e., from 2,323,000 tons in 1885-'86 to nearly 5,000,000 (4,789,000) 
tons in 1895-'96 with such a reduction in price that the whole 
sugar industry of Europe is seriously depressed, with a general 



* The policy of payment of bounties for the encouragement of shipping and of ship- 
building enterprise has also, to a limited extent, been established, more especially by the 
two Governments of France and Italy. 



46 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

complaint on the part of producers that the amount received by 
tliem does not cover the cost of production. Under such a condi- 
tion of affairs, the German Parliament (Reichstag), in May, 1896, 
accepting a popular declaration that " sugar was the last and only 
agricultural product in which there remained any profit for the 
German farmer, and that whatever skillful legislation could do 
to preserve and protect that industry should in justice to the 
suffering landowners be given a prompt and thorough trial," 
passed an act increasing the bounty on the export of sugars to an 
extent assumed to be sufficient " to enable German exporters to 
compete against all comers in foreign markets"; advancing the 
import duty on sugars to a prohibitory degree ; and fixing an 
internal-revenue tax on sugars to such an extent as to yield a net 
income to the state in excess of its disbursements on account of 
bounties on exports. The effects of the new statute have now 
become apparent and ominous. The foreign sugar market has 
responded to the increased bounty export by a proportionate 
decline in price ; and a movement now finds favor to petition the 
Reichstag to make certain amendments in the existing statute 
so as to restrict instead of stimulating production, and to invite 
international negotiations for the gradual abolition of all export 
bounties, which have been proved to be simply a burden on the 
treasury, which pays them for the benefit of non- producing for- 
eign countries. 

The present burden which the sugar-bounty system entails 
upon the taxpayers of Europe is estimated at about $25,000,000 
per annum, while the excise tax on sugar in Germany, France, 
and Austria is said to amount to $100,000,000 per annum. On 
the sugar consumed by the people of the continental nations of 
Europe which have adopted the bounty policy there is no bounty, 
but on the contrary an excise tax ; the result of which legislation 
is to make exported sugars very cheap and home consumption 
abnormally dear. This is demonstrated by reference to the sta- 
tistics of the comparative consumption of different countries. 
Thus in England, whose policy since 1874 has been to give her 
people sugar free of taxation, the per capita consumption has risen 
from fifty-six pounds in that year to eighty-six pounds in 1896; 
while the saving to the British people from the reduction of the 
cost of this one item of their living has been estimated to be at 
least 6,000,000 ($30,000,000) per annum. The great reduction in 
the price of sugar has also given a remarkable impetus to the 
British industry of manufacturing sweets, in the form of confec- 
tionery, preserves, jams, marmalades, etc., which last to a consid- 
erable extent have undoubtedly supplanted the use of butter. The 
present annual average consumption of sugar in Germany is re- 
ported to be about twenty- seven pounds 2^^^ capita. In France 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 47 

the declining consumption of sugar has been made the subject of 
recent debate in the Chamber of Deputies, where the question was 
pertinently asked by one of the deputies (M. Mery) if the object 
of the existing governmental policy in respect to sugar "was 
mainly to produce it or to have and enjoy it." The Agricultural 
Society of France has also recently unanimously indorsed a de- 
mand of the French sugar makers and refiners that the Govern- 
ment should increase the present bounty on the export of sugar 
to an extent equivalent to the combined or aggregate bounties 
allowed in Austria and Germany. 

So much, then, for nearly half a century's experience on the 
part of the leading continental nations of Europe in attempting to 
regulate the production, price, and consumption of sugar through 
a system of bounties. 

Practical experience in respect to the employment of bounties 
also leads to a deduction, which may be almost regarded in the 
nature of a principle, that when bounties are employed for the 
promotion of some public good, the object sought eventually be- 
comes subordinate to the opportunity which an unnatural and 
unprincipled perversion of the bounty provisions affords for the 
promotion of private rather than public interests. The following 
illustrations, though somewhat comical in their nature, serve to 
sustain this proposition : 

In the early years of the present century the State of Con- 
necticut, having in view the promotion of its agricultural inter- 
ests, offered a premium on the destruction of the crow; to be 
paid on the production of the head of the bird to the proper 
authorities. Thereupon the sons of the farmers, desirous of 
earning a little money, then much more difficult to obtain than 
at present, diligently searched the woods for the nests of crows, 
from which at the proper time the eggs were transferred to sit- 
ting hens, by whom they were hatched and the resulting off- 
spring brought up until their heads became available for presen- 
tation and procurement of the bounty. A summary of the general 
results of such experience would be somewhat as follows : First, a 
perversion of the legitimate industry of the hen ; second, an ele- 
mentary lesson for young persons in perpetrating frauds against 
the State ; third, an impairment of the agency of a bird, whose 
habits have been proved by subsequent scientific investigations 
to be beneficial rather than detrimental to the interests of the 
farmers. Again, in the early history of one of the Northwestern 
States of the Federal Union a bounty was offered, at the request 
of the farmers, for the heads of little burrowing animals known 
as " gophers," which attracted little attention till the experience of 
several years showed that the disbursements of the State on this 
account had become abnormal and were rapidly increasing. In- 



48 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

vestigation then proved that the raising of gophers by citizens of 
the State for the procurement of bounties had become a regular 
industry. A like experience in British India is also worthy of 
note. Some years since the Government, with a view of arrest- 
ing the mortality among its native population from the bites of 
poisonous serpents, offered a bounty on their proved destruction ; 
when it was found that for the sake of obtaining the bounties the 
cultivation of the " cobra " and other like snakes had been actu- 
ally entered upon. 

Third. The sphere of taxation should he limited to persons, 
property, and business exclusively witliin the territorial jurisdic- 
tion of the taxing power. It would seem to be in the nature of a 
self-evident proposition, although in fact it is by no means so re- 
garded, that the power of every state or government to tax must 
be exclusively limited to subjects within its territory and legal 
jurisdiction. "All subjects," says Chief- Justice Marshall, in giv- 
ing the opinion of the Supreme Court in the case of McCullough 
vs. Maryland (4 Wheaton, 431), "over ivhich the sovereign poiver 
of the state extends are objects of taxation; but those over luhich 
it does not extend are, on the soundest principles, exempt from 
taxation." And again, " the sovereign power of the state extends 
to everything which exists by its oicn authority or is introduced 
by its permission." "Every nation,^' says Wheaton, ''possesses 
and exercises exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction throughout 
the full extent of its territory. It follows, from this principle, 
that the laws of every state control, of right, all the real and per- 
sonal property within its territory. The second general principle 
is, that no state can, by its laws, directly affect, bind, or regulate 
property beyond its own territory. This is a consequence of the 
first general principle ; a different system, which would recognize 
in each state the power of regulating persons or things beyond its 
territory, would exclude the equality of rights among different 
states, and the exclusive sovereignty which belongs to each of 
them." (Wheaton's International Law, chap, ii, 3 ; Foelix Inter- 
national Prisd, 9 and 10.) And in a decision of more recent 
date (State Tax on Foreign-held Bonds, 15 Wallace, 30G, 328), the 
United States Supreme Court said : " The power of taxation, how- 
ever vast in its character and searching in its extent, is necessarily 
limited to subjects 2vithin the jurisdiction of the state. Property 
lying beyond the jurisdiction of the state is not a subject upon 
which her taxing poiver can be legitimately exercised. Indeed, it 
would seem that no adjudication should be necessary to establish 
so obvious a proposition." 

The principle under consideration has also been made the sub- 
ject of adjudication by the United States Supreme Court in a case 
of historic as well as of legal and economic interest. In Septem- 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 49 

ber, 1814, the country being then at war with Great Britain, the 
town of Castine, in Maine, was captured by the British forces, and 
remained in their exclusive possession until after the ratification 
of peace in 1815. During this period the British Government 
exercised all civil and military authority over the place, estab- 
lished a custom house and allowed merchandise to be imported, 
some of which remained in Castine after it was evacuated by the 
enemy. On the re-establishment of the authority of the United 
States, the American collector of customs for the district, claim- 
ing a right on the part of the United States to Federal duties on 
the goods in question, demanded payment of the same from the 
owners or importers ; and, the claim being resisted, the case went 
up to the United States Supreme Court, which with complete 
unanimity gave judgment, through Justice Story, for the owners 
or importers in the following language : 

" We are all of the opinion that the claim for duties can not 
be sustained. By the conquest and military occupation of Cas- 
tine, the enemy acquired that firm possession which enabled him 
to exercise the fullest rights of sovereignty over that place. The 
sovereignty of the United States was suspended, and its laws 
could no longer be enforced there, or be obligatory on the inhab- 
itants who remained there and submitted to the conquerors. By 
the surrender the inhabitants passed under a temporary allegiance 
to the British Government, and were bound by such laws and such 
only as it chose to impose. From the nature of the case, no other 
laws could be obligatory on them ; for where there is no protection 
or allegiance, or sovereignty, there can be no claim to obedience." 

Taxes, therefore, are necessarily the creation of each state, and 
no self-respecting Government ever permits any other Govern- 
ment to interfere with its tax laws or their execution, and a 
toleration of such interference in any degree presupposes de- 
pendence, subjection, or absence of independence. An obvious 
CO- relation of this proposition, and also a matter of fact, is that a 
violation of the tax or revenue laws of one country has never 
been regarded as an offense or crime in any other country ; and 
the Euglish courts have held that contracts to evade the customs 
laws of a foreign country are not illegal. Hence, also, offenders 
in this respect are never taken into account in extradition treaties 
between different nations and their governments. Some years 
ago a United States district attorney in New York procured 
through the Department of State at Washington the extradition 
of a person from England on the. charge of forgery. On his 
arraignment before a United States court it transpired that the 
offense committed was the manufacture and use of fraudulent 
invoices, to which forged or fictitious names had been attached, 

for the purpose of evading the payment of United States customs 
VOL. Li, 4 



50 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

or taxes on certain imports ; and that the intent of the prosecu- 
tion was punishment, not for forgery in the ordinary sense of the 
term, but for smuggling, for which latter offense there was no 
precedent that extradition had ever been granted by any country. 
The attention of the British Government having been called to 
the case, a request was preferred by it to the authorities in Wash- 
ington that the trial of the accused should be discontinued, on 
the ground that a fugitive from justice, when surrendered by a 
country in which he had sought refuge, should not be tried for 
any offense other than the one specified in the extradition de- 
mand, and for which extradition was granted. Compliance with 
the request being refused, although as a matter of fact the trial 
was discontinued, the British Government took occasion, when 
extradition was next demanded of her by the United States 
which happened to be the case of a former well-known citizen of 
Boston who had committed forgery in the sense that constitutes 
a crime in all countries to refuse it, although the offender had 
in the first instance been arrested in England and was in custody ; 
and for many years subsequent and for reasons above given there 
was no extradition in force between the United States and Great 
Britain and her colonies, with the result of making Canada an 
Alsatia, or place of safe refuge, for all criminals of the former 
country. 

All, therefore, that any government can legitimately ask of 
another government in respect to taxation is, that its subjects or 
citizens residing in such foreign state shall not be there discrimi- 
nated against because they are foreigners ; but shall be treated in 
exactly the same manner as the subjects or citizens of the taxing 
power and their property are treated no better and no worse. If 
foreigners feel aggrieved, they must first exhaust all the remedies 
against unjust taxation provided by the institutions of the taxing 
country ; as foreign importers, for example, aggrieved by rulings 
or appraisements at the custom houses of any country, must first 
appeal for redress to the courts of such country. A recent event 
of great economic and legal importance is also worthy of narra- 
tion and consideration in this connection. 

A board of appraisers and assessors charged with the duty of 
assessing, for the purpose of taxation, the property in Ohio of tele- 
graph, telephone, and express companies, discharged the duties 
incumbent upon it taking an express company for example in 
the following manner : First, by determining the value and lia- 
bility to taxation of the real estate of the company situated in 
Ohio ; second, the personal property, including moneys and 
credits, owned by the company in Ohio, and the value thereof ; 
third, the gross receipts during the taxing year of the company in 
Ohio, from whatever sources derived. It was conceded that the 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 51 

returns made by the company to the above officials were correct, 
and that the aggregate value of the items included in such re- 
turns liable to taxation in 1895 the same as other like property 
in the State was $42,065. The board of appraisers and assessors 
added, however, to this amount the sum of $491,030, making the 
aggregate of the tax liability of the express company $533,095 ; 
and based their action not on any belief or pretense that any con- 
siderable amount of real or personal property within the terri- 
torial jurisdiction of the State had been discovered which had 
hitherto escaped taxation, but that sources of reported value 
which were entirely outside of the territory and beyond the juris- 
diction of the State of Ohio when they constituted a part of the 
value of the capital or franchise of a corporation located and 
established in some other State for the purpose of carrying on 
business, and that business " interstate commerce " entirely within 
the control of the Federal Government might be added to the 
intrinsic value of property within the State ; thereby assessing 
not only property ivithin the State of Ohio, but a proportion also 
of all property situated luitliout its territorial boundaries. The 
question involved was therefore the constitutionality of extra- 
territorial taxation ; and the case, after consideration by State 
and United States Circuit Courts, was finally brought before the 
United States Supreme Court. Here, notwithstanding the cita- 
tion of numerous former opinions and judgments of the court 
wholly adverse to the constitutionality of the principle on which 
was based the assumption and action of the State of Ohio, the 
court by a majority of one held to a contrary view ; and gave 
judgment in support of the State assessments on the express com- 
pany. It is clear, therefore, that the State of Ohio has been justi- 
fied, for the time being, in an attempt to tax something that it 
calls property, but which is neither tangible nor visible ; that has 
no intrinsic or essentially inherent value ; and which procedure, 
if generally accepted and put in practice by other States, would 
antagonize all formerly accepted theories and legal decisions in 
respect to extra-territorial taxation, and ultimately destroy all in- 
terstate commerce between the several States of the Federal Union. 
An Implied but Fundamental Reciprocal op Taxation. 
Notwithstanding the absence of any warrant for assuming that 
there was ever any real or implied contract, whereby a State in 
its beginning or development agreed to give a certain amount of 
protection to life and property in return for an equivalent in 
money, goods, or services of its citizens an assumption which 
has been characterized as the " commercial theory of taxation " * 

* " The right of a state to take the citizen's property must be put on higher ground if 
it is to stand on perfectly safe ground. Of course, such higher ground is not to be found 



52 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

it is nevertlieless true that the "co- relative" or "reciprocal" of 
taxation is protection ; or, in other words, according to the polit- 
ical theory of our governments, national and State, and in fact of 
every government claiming the title to be free, taxes may be 
legitimately assumed to be the compensation which persons and 
property pay the State for protection. This assumption, it is be- 
lieved, has been indorsed and accepted by every writer of repute 
on economic subjects who has discussed taxation from the time 
of Montesquieu down to a very recent period ; * and in the re- 
peated instances in which this matter has come before the courts 
for adjudication, the highest judicial authorities have uniformly 
given judgment or expressed opinions to the same effect. In con- 
firmation of these statements the following citations are sub- 
mitted : 

"Where there is no protection," said Judge Story (in the case 
of the United States vs. Rice, 4 Wheaton, 27G), "there can be no 
claim to allegiance or obedience." Again the same eminent au- 
thority (in the case of Miles vs. Duryea, Cranch, 481) thus strongly 
expresses himself : " It is an eternal principle of justice that juris- 
diction can not be justly exercised by a State over property that 
is not within reach of its process that is, property which it can 
not protect." 

" Taxes are a portion whicli each individual gives of his prop- 
in the pretense that the right in question is the simple right of might ; that the ruling 
power, whether monarch or majority, is physically able to take and apply as it chooses all 
that the individuals ruled over called their own ; and that because it can, it morally may, 
take whatever part it thinks fit. With simple ethics the leviers of taxe, whenever they 
are a distinct class, are wont to content themselves. But whatever countenance they have 
received from such moral philosophers as venerate successful force, the principle will hardly 
serve those who study the matter as taxpayers." Theodore Bacon. 

* " The philosophy of our plan of voluntary political association is, that all individuals, 
and all the values within a community, shall aggregate into one mass all the power which 
they separately contain, which sum total shall constitute a sovereignty of the whole. Thia 
sovereignty the soul of the State, which can not be impaired and the State survive re- 
flects back upon its constituents, in detail, all that it has received from them. What it re- 
ceives, and what it returns, is of two kinds, as to both source and object, viz., individual 
service to the Government, and protection to the individual from it. Thus, in his indi- 
vidual capacity, a man is bound to perform military service, and the State, by the military 
arm, is bound to protect him from invasion. He is bound to do jury duty, and the authori- 
ties are bound, upon his demand, to provide him a jury. He is bound to aid the sheriff, and 
the sheriff is bound to execute process in his favor by posse comtfaius, if necessary. These 
personal services correspond to those which in feudal times the mesne lord, holding a frank 
tenement, owed the lord paramount. They can not be compounded for, for their value 
consists in their being rendered in kind. J7ieir performance is the onlij price which the 
citizen pays for his citizenship. The terms are not only consistent and harmonious with our 
general scheme of government, but are highly politic. To all political privileges we admit 
each one by virtue of his being a man, free born, and of lawful age ; we ask him nothing 
concerning his property, unless his property asks something from us." Lowrey.^ Argument, 
Hew York Assemblij, 1862. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 53 

erty, in order to secure and have the perfect enjoyment of the re- 
mainder. Governments are established for the protection of 
persons and property within the limits of the state, and taxes 
are levied to enable the government to afford and give such pro- 
tection. They are the price and consideration of the protection 
afforded." (Ingersol, J., Circuit Court of the United States, Duer 
vs. Small.) 

" There is nothing poetic about tax laws. When they find 
property, they claim a contribution for its protection." (Lowrie, 
Chief Justice, Tinley vs. The City, etc., 33 Peun., 381.) 

Montesquieu, writing with the monarchical institutions of 
France mainly or solely in view, discusses this subject in his 
Spirit of Laws (book xxxi, chap, i), as follows : " The public 
revenues are a portion that each subject gives of his property, 
in order to secure or ejijoy the remai^ider." 

"The right to tax an individual results from the general pro- 
tection afforded to himself and his property." Vattel, Law of Na- 
tions, hook i, chap. xx. 

" Property and law (i. e., government or the state) are born 
together and die together. Before laws were made, there was no 
property ; take away laws, and property ceases." Bentham, The- 
ory of Legislation. 

The principle here involved is also clearly and succinctly 
further expressed in the following citations : 

" Taxation " is, in any view, taking private property for public use, and it 
can not be so taken without an equivalent, both as to the Government or 
the citizens. It is not competent to convert private property to public use 
by way of taxation, and without compensation, any more than by any 
other mode. 

Taxation (if anything in the nature of principle is assumed as its basis) 
therefore implies that the government imposing it will return an equiva- 
lent. But to return an equivalent in the form that was taken, namely, 
money, would be stultification. The only equivalent that a government 
can return, and the only one, in truth, that justifies taxation, is in the na- 
ture of a guarantee that the pei-son. property, or business on which the tax 
is imposed shall have all the rights which the civilization of the state repre- 
sents, or, in other words, "protection." Redfield. 

" If it were practicable to do so," says Justice Cooley, " the taxes levied 
by any government ought to be apportioned among the people according 
to the benefit which each receives from the protection the government 
affords him. This is upon the assumption, never wholly true in point of 
fact, but sufficiently near the truth for the practical operations of govern- 
ment, that the benefit received from the government is in proportion to the 
property held or the revenues enjoyed under its protection." Cooley, On 
Taxation, pp. lJf-17. 

Notwithstanding this preponderance of opinion, argument, 
and legal decisions in favor of the correlation of taxation and 



54 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

protection, the truth of this assumption has been called in ques- 
tion in recent years, and even wholly denied by some economic 
and legal authorities. Thus, in most of the States of the Federal 
Union (but not in other countries), sovereignty in respect to taxa- 
tion is assumed, or enacted to embrace " goods, chattels, money, 
and effects, wherever they are ; ships, public stocks and securi- 
ties, stocks in turnpikes, bridges, and moneyed corporations, luith- 
in or ivithout the State" ; and where the administrators of the law 
tax residents for personal property, even of a visible, tangible 
character, having a situs in another State or country ; and, by 
another irreconcilable rule, tax non-residents for all of their per- 
sonal property having a sittis within the State. (Massachusetts 
Statutes.) 

Such antagonism would seem to be wholly due to an inade- 
quate comprehension of the subject. It is assumed, for example, 
that there can be no necessary reciprocity of the nature indicated 
between the State and the subjects of taxation, because, in the 
case of subjects persons, property, and business upon which no 
tax is levied, there can be no correlation, and therefore no claim 
whatever for protection ; and in illustration and support of this 
proposition it is pointed out that churches and other public insti- 
tutions, specifically exempt from taxation, need and receive as 
much protection from the State as structures used for dwellings 
and stores, and that tramps, who have nothing to pay with, are 
equally entitled to invoke and use the power of the State for pro- 
tection as those who are taxed for millions. " So also the busi- 
ness that is not taxed at all, it is said, can no more be plundered 
with impunity than that which is taxed the heaviest." * The 
error in all this reasoning is fundamental, and arises from a fail- 
ure to comprehend that in every civilized state every person or 
thing is taxed, either directly or indirectly, by the diffusion of 
taxes, and that it is not possible to name anything in such a state 
that is exempt from taxation ; that the primary purpose for which 
the state exists is to afford protection to persons and property ; 
that it the state practically ceases to exist when it is unwilling 
or unable to afford such protection ; and that, even if willing, it 
could not protect, except through the ability that comes to it 
through the possession of the power and the exercise of taxation. 

Fourth. Taxes should he reasonable, regular, and not arbitrary 
as respects method, time, and place of assessment and payment, 
and, above all, proportional. 

The justice and the necessity of these conditions as essentials 
of a true system of taxation ought to command universal assent 



* The claim or argument in defense of extra territorial taxation will be more fully con- 
Bidered hereafter. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 55 

without argument. Adam Smith held to the opinion, " founded," 
as he says, " on the experience of all nations, that the certainty of 
what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, of so great im- 
portance that a very considerable degree of inequality is not near 
so great an evil as a small degree of uncertainty." The evil of 
uncertainty does not, however, often characterize the tax systems 
of the United States, except in the case of taxation by the Federal 
Government of imports, when rates (customs) are sometimes held 
for considerable periods in abeyance by reason of political an- 
tagonisms of legislators. One of the most remarkable exam- 
ple of this occurred during the months from December, 1893, to 
August, 1894, when the uncertainty as to the prospective rates on 
imported merchandise occasioned great stagnation of business in 
the United States, with inevitable great contingent losses. An- 
other even more striking illustration of the evils of uncertainty 
in taxation is to be found in the recent (1897) proposition to sub- 
ject merchandise, imported in strict conformity with established 
laws and rates at the time of importation, to the retroactive inci- 
dence of increased taxes, not certain but prospective in respect to 
rates, and not enacted or embodied in the form of statute laws. 
Such action is in the nature of an arbitrary fine or penalty, and 
not taxation, and probably does not find a parallel in the history 
of any civilized nation, and would not now be tolerated in any of 
the most despotic governments of Europe. 

The term pr^oportional, which is largely used in constitutional 
provisions and in statutes relating to taxation, has, however, a 
meaning so much broader and of such greater significance than 
is generally attributed to it by law-makers and even law inter- 
preters, that it is worth while to institute an inquiry and endeavor 
to understand clearly what it does mean. Scientifically consid- 
ered, it means the making of the burden of taxation equal upon all 
subjects of immediate competition. This principle is one of the 
prime essentials of taxation, and when it is violated the act of 
taking, or the enforced contribution, is not entitled to be consid- 
ered taxation, but becomes at once an arbitrary spoliation or con- 
fiscation. Thus, to illustrate: Suppose it were proposed to tax 
the stock in trade of red-haired men five per cent, and those of 
red-nosed men ten percent; or, as was provided in the income- 
tax law enacted by the Congress of the United States of 1894, 
which exempted incomes below four thousand dollars per annum 
from taxation and taxed all above that sum two per cent ; or to 
do as actually once was done in England, under an income-tax 
law enacted in 1691, tax Catholics at rates double those imposed 
on Protestants ; it seems clear that such transactions could not 
involve any principle or be regarded in any other light than the 
mere arbitrary and despotic exercise of power; or the making of 



56 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the possession of a red nose or red hair, or the result of enter- 
prise, skill, economy, or the fortuitous circumstance of birth or 
belief, the occasion for inflicting a penalty. Yet this was what 
substantially was done in the middle ages, when nobles were ex- 
empt from taxation because they were nobles, and the common 
people were taxed because they were villains or bondmen ; when 
Jews were assessed because they were not Christians, and Catho- 
lics because they were not Protestants. 

It would seem to be clear, therefore, that a tax that is not 
levied proportionally or, what is the same thing, equally and uni- 
formly upon all subjects in the same field of competition as, for 
example, upon all persons engaged in the same business or profes- 
sion, or upon all property of the same kind and all profit or 
income (less exemptions in the nature of charities) in the same 
ratio is a discriminating exaction, without claim to either jus- 
tice or equality, inasmuch as to the same extent that some are 
favored by the discrimination others are inevitably plundered or 
crushed. It is also well to remember that when the term " uni- 
formity" in respect to taxation is used, as it often is, in the place 
of "proportionality," the meaning is .essentially the same; and 
that uniformity of taxation does not consist in the payment of 
the same amount by each taxpayer, but that the proportion of 
the value of each particular class or subject which each person 
pays in taxation to the state shall be everywhere the same. 

In the soundings which have been made at great depths in the 
ocean for telegraphic or other purposes, the sounding line has not 
infrequently brought up from the bottom small chambered shells 
or other minute animals of exquisite organization and structure ; 
and the question naturally arises. How can these minute organ- 
isms live and flourish under the enormous pressure that in some 
instances must be exerted upon them of at least three tons to the 
square inch ? The explanation is to be found in the circum- 
stance that the pressure is everywhere equalized, being as much 
from within outward as from without inward, and thus an equi- 
librium is maintained, under which development goes on and 
existence is made possible ; and it is in preserving this equilib- 
rium, this equalization of pressure, that constitutes the very 
essence of correct taxation.* 

Another point worthy of attention in connection with this sub- 
ject is, that forms of taxation which were not authorized with any 
purpose of making them unequal in their incidence or burden, 
not infrequently (as is especially the case in the United States) 
become so by reason of extraneous circumstance ; inasmuch as 
every tax which popular sentiment, year after year, will not allow 

* Speech of Mr. Lowe, Chancellor of the British Exchequer, afterward Lord Sherbrooke. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 57 

to be equally enforced, is, to the extent that it is enforced, a dis- 
criminating tax of the most unjust and unequal character. Under 
the internal revenue laws of the United States as they existed not 
many years ago, there was a very striking example of this char- 
acter in the case of the tax on matches, to which more particular 
reference will be made hereafter, and one worthy of notice still 
exists, in the case of the tax on negotiable securities (or instru- 
ments) as railroad and other corporate bonds which the laws of 
every State in the Federal Union make subject to taxation ; inas- 
much as it is notorious that such taxes are not paid by the great 
majority of the citizens who own such securities, but are paid as a 
rule by guardians, trustees, and executors, who are obliged to in- 
ventory them in probate offices ; with the result that widows, 
orphans, and minors are plundered and crushed ; while those who 
evade the tax, through the utter inability of the State to collect 
it, are rewarded for their evasion in an increased rate of interest. 
Uniformity or proportionality in taxation is, therefore, one of the 
fundamental principles of every free and just government ; and 
the safety of all tax-payers against the grossest abuses demands 
that in taxing any class or locality the principle of equdlity of rate 
should be kept sacred and inviolate. 

The Constitution of the United States requires that " all duties, 
imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States " ; and the question as to what constitutes uniformity of 
taxation under this provision has repeatedly come before the 
courts Federal and State for the purpose of definition, and 
so has become invested with a degree of historical interest. A 
natural inference, at first thought, would be, that under this pro- 
vision of the Federal Constitution all property subject to taxation 
must necessarily be taxed at the same rate or ratio that is, if 
horses, wagons, and land are taxed, then the same per cent of value 
must be assessed upon the horses and wagons as upon the land ; 
and if some eight hundred per cent is assessed upon distilled 
spirits whisky (as is the case in the United States at the present 
time) every other commodity from which it was proposed to raise 
revenue ought to be taxed in the same proportion. In like man- 
ner under the customs, all imports liquors and pig iron, for ex- 
ample would have to be subjected to one rate of duty. This dif- 
ficulty, so far as the Federal Government is concerned, has been 
obviated by an assumption, which the courts have sustained, that a 
tax " is uniform within the meaning of the constitutional require- 
ment if it is made to bear the same percentage over all the United 
States" that is, it must be uniform as regards any particular 
article in all places ; that whisky or any other commodity, for 
example, shall not be subjected to Federal taxation at one rate in 
one State and at a different rate in another State, but that differ- 



58 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ent articles may be subjected to different rates, provided tliey are 
uuiform as between different places and different States ; as it 
obviously " could not have been the intent of the framers of the 
Constitution that the Government in raising its revenues should 
not be allowed to discriminate in respect to articles which it de- 
sired to tax." * 

In the case of the several States of the Federal Union, to which 
the Federal constitutional requirement in respect to uniformity 
of taxation does not apply, the same question i. e., as to what 
constitutes uniformity has been also a troublesome one, but dif- 
ferent in its manifestation. The provisions relating to taxation 
in the Constitutions of these several States generally start with 
the idea, expressed or implied, that taxes must be uniform ; and a 
strict construction of this language in a tax statute, operative 
in only one State, and where the Federal limitation of uniformity 
as respects place does not apply, might be construed as restrain- 
ing the authorities of a State from imposing any different rate of 
taxation on the manufacture or sale of liquors and the manufac- 
ture and sale of other merchandise, or on the laud and the busi- 
ness of the agriculturist. These difficulties in the way of con- 
struction have, however, been largely obviated by recognizing 
that when in the statute of a State the words " taxes must be uni- 
form " are used, the word " uniform " does not mean, as in the 
Federal Constitution, uniformity as to "place," but uniformity 
" with regard to the subject of the tax"; an interpretation in full 
conformity with the principle before enunciated, that uniformity 
of taxation consists in the making of the burden of taxation equal 
upon all subjects which are in the same field or sphere of compe- 
tition ; or, as has been also expressed by Justice (S. F.) Miller, "dif- 
ferent articles may be taxed at different amounts, provided the 
rate is uniform on the same class everywhere, with all people and 
at all times. Take, for instance, the case of a license : if every- 
body in any particular class is required to pay a certain license 
if all lawyers are taxed twenty-five dollars a year, all merchants 
one hundred dollars, and all saloonkeepers two hundred dollars 
then the license taxation is uniform, because it imposes the same 
burdens upon every man of the same class, who comes within a 
circle of well-defined limits. . . . This interpretation," he adds, 
" may be a little strained, but probably it has arisen from the ne- 
cessity of enabling the Legislatures to levy taxes according to 
common sense, if not altogether with regard to strict uniformity." f 

The opinions expressed by the State courts of the United 
States when this question of uniformity of taxation has been 

* Lectures on the Constitution of the United States, Justice Miller, pp. 240, 241. 
f Miller (Justice S. F.), ibid. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 



S9 



practically brouglit before them, is indicated by reference to the 
following decisions : 

The Constitution of the State of Pennsylvania provides (Article IX, sec- 
tion 1) that " all taxes shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects 
within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax, and shall be 
levied and collected under general laws." In June, 1885, an act was passed 
by the Legislature imposing a tax of three mills on the dollar on mortgages, 
moneys loaned or invested in other States, money capital in the hands of 
individual citizens, and other classes of property. The act did not extend 
to corporations, which were taxed at a similar, in some cases at a higher 
rate, under a statute of 1879. The act of 1885 was opposed on the ground 
that it violated the constitutional rule of uniformity, but it was declared 
valid by the Supreme Court of the State, which held that substantial uni- 
formity had been obtained. 

A decision in New Jersey turned upon a constitutional jirovision that 
" property shall be assessed for taxes vnider general laws and by uniform 
rules, according to its true value." In 1884 the Legislature of the State 
passed an " act for the taxation of railroads and canals," which imposed 
a tax upon the lands and tangible property used by railroad and canal 
companies and their franchises, and touching no other property. The 
constitutionality of this law was questioned by most of the leading com- 
panies, but was affirmed by the State Court of Errors and Appeals, which 
held that as the law was a general one, framed in general terms and re- 
stricted to no locality, it operated equally upon a whole class of property, 
whose characteristics enabled it to be dealt with separately. The court 
further declared, that as a previous act had secured the companies against 
being required to pay more than their full share of tax, a substantial uni- 
formity was thus secured. 

These and other like decisions of the State courts of the United 
States show that in order to sustain a tax law under the require- 
ment of generality or uniformity it is not necessary that all prop- 
erty should be taxed, and that a State has the right to select prop- 
erty for taxation at its discretion. Of course, discrimination may 
result from the exercise by the State of the power of dividing the 
objects of taxation into classes, but while persons of the same 
class and property of the same kind are subjected to an equal 
burden, the constitutional requirements as to uniformity seem to 
be satisfied. 

The fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States, which prohibits any State from depriving any person of 
property " without due process of law," is also in conformity with 
the principle enunciated in the above citations ; for taxation 
without jurisdiction, and therefore without the possibility of the 
correlative return of any protection as compensation, would obvi- 
ously be an arbitrary exaction and not due process of law. But 
if property is otherwise (than by taxation) taken by the Govern- 
ment (as by the so-called law of " eminent domain "), full and 
fair pecuniary return must be made for its value. This is a prin- 



6o POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ciple as old at least as constitutional government, and is so impor- 
tant that it is incorporated in the fundamental law of every State 
in the Federal Union. Article V of the Constitution of the 
United States also provides that private property sliall not be 
taken for public use without due compensation. It is clear, 
therefore, that there must be a line between the taking of private 
property for public use by the law of eminent domain and by 
taxation. But how can that line be drawn except by the rule 
that rightful taxation means uniformity of burden on com- 
peting vocations and competing property ? The following de- 
cision by the Supreme Court of New Jersey is clearly in con- 
formity with this conclusion: "A tax," it said, "upon the 
persons or property of A, B, and C individually, whether desig- 
nated by name or in any other way, which is in excess of an 
equal apportionment among the persons or property of the class 
of persons or kind of property subject to taxation, is, to the ex- 
tent of such excess, the taking of private property for a public 
use without compensation. The process is one of confiscation 
and not taxation." (Township Committee of Reading, 35 N. J., 
p. Qi}, 1873.) 

Fifth. Taxation should not he employed as an agency or for 
the purpose of enforcing morality, or as an instrumentality for 
correction or punishment. 

The punitive or moral idea has probably always entered to 
some extent as an element in all those taxes which have been 
levied on luxuries, and more especially on all those forms of 
luxury which are regarded as frivolous or as mere insignia of 
wealth and title, such as hair powder, wigs, coats of arms, car- 
riages, etc. But when a government assumes to inquire what 
are the articles the consumption of which is prejudicial to the in- 
terests and well-being of its people, and then embodies the results 
of such inquiries into its measures of revenue ; so that while pro- 
viding means for the support of the state it also prescribes how 
the citizen ought to live, dress, eat, or drink, the result is always 
ineffectual for purposes of revenue, and far more so for the pro- 
motion of morality. Examples illustrative and confirmatory of 
these conclusions are so numerous as to make a selection of them 
not a little difficult. The following have been cited by the late 
Sir Morton Peto : "A tax on dice in Great Britain, repealed in 
18G2, had the ludicrous result of producing for many years a reve- 
nue of five shillings per annum from a license of thirty to forty 
pounds a year on the business of manufacturing them. Another 
provision of law was that every person having dice unstamped by 
the revenue officials in his possession was liable to the penalty of 
five pounds for each pair ! But stamped dice could not be ob- 
tained. Every one who wanted dice, even cabinet ministers and 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 6i 

revenue officials, purchased square pieces of ivory for a few pence 
and marked them for themselves. As regards packs of cards, the 
regulations imposed by a number of complicated acts of Parlia- 
ment were so stringent that legally cards could scarcely be made 
or sold. Nevertheless for many years cards were hawked about 
the streets unstamped and without a license ; and the manufac- 
ture of cards for exportation was so flourishing that nearly half a 
million packs were estimated to be surreptitiously made for ex- 
portation at the time the obnoxious taxes were repealed." 

Sixth. No tax should he levied the character and extent of 
which offer, as human nature is generally constituted, a greater 
inducement to the taxpayer to evade rather than pay. 

The justification and wisdom of the above maxim find sup- 
port in a lesser degree from argument than from experience, 
although the deductions from abstract reasoning ought alone 
to constitute its sufficient indorsement. It has been pointed out 
by Herbert Spencer that ideal men are possible only in an ideal 
state ; and, conversely, that a perfect social state is possible only 
when every unit has achieved perfection. As this condition has 
not been attained, and until the "millennium" arrives is not 
likely to be, the inference is legitimate that a large proportion of 
mankind are not " decently honest," inasmuch as in every variety 
of business where opportunity for the perpetration of fraud exists, 
much labor is expended in guarding against dishonesty. This is 
specially exemplified in the case of railroads, " where tickets have 
to be dated, punched, and carefully collected to prevent their 
being used again by the masses." 

But it is in matters of taxation that the largest amount of irre- 
futable evidence is to be found in support of the above maxim. 
Thus in the case of smuggling or the evasion of duties on im- 
ports, the experience of all governments and of almost all coun- 
tries is to the effect, that when sufficient inducement in the way 
of gain from a violation of the law is offered, such statute can 
not be executed even when penalties as severe as death have been 
made contingent on individual arrest and conviction. But it 
has been reserved for that nation whose people claim to be the 
most law-abiding and intelligent, to furnish the most confirma- 
tory evidence on this subject namely, the United States the 
Congress of which in 1865 imposed a tax on distilled spirits 
amounting to more than fifteen hundred per cent on the then 
average prime cost of production. The result was, that the 
Government was only able in 1868 to collect the tax on less than 
seven million gallons out of an annual product of certainly not 
less than fifty million gallons; which last, sold as it undoubt- 
edly was at the current market price (tax included), left to the 
credit of popular corruption at least $80,000,000. 



62 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

The United States is confessedly one of the most powerful of 
nations and governments, but its entire military force can not 
crush the illicit traffic in refined opium, under a temptation of the 
realization of six dollars contingent on every pound of this com- 
modity that is successfully smuggled into the country. 



4t 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 

By victor C. VAUGHAN, 
pb0fe8s0k of hygiene in the university of michigak. 

THOSE twin monsters of human misery, Famine and Disease, 
are now holding high carnival in India. Death follows in 
their wake and gathers in a rich harvest. Appeals to the chari- 
table of the world are being made, and the civilized nations of 
Europe and America are looking apprehensively toward the East. 
The great plague, which has confined its ravages for the most 
part to certain limited districts of Asia for the past two hundred 
years, seems to have grown strong enough to threaten to take a 
journey abroad. The black death has unfurled its banner in 
the face of modern civilization. For a period of more than a 
thousand years this disease once held dominion over Europe. 
The story of the horrors of the fourteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies has seemed a history of a past so remote that it has been 
nearly forgotten save by those especially interested in the prog- 
ress of medicine. Is history to repeat itself in this form of 
human suffering ? What is the bubonic plague ? Do we know 
anything of its specific cause, of its methods of invasion, of 
the means necessary to combat it ? These are questions which 
I have thought might at this time be of more than passing 
interest. 

Oribasius was physician and friend of Julian the Apostate, 
and lived in the fourth century of our era. He wrote a medical 
encyclopfedia, composed principally of extracts from older med- 
ical authors. This encyclopsedia remained unknown in the Vati- 
can Library until the early part of the present century, when it 
was discovered by that indefatigable student of old manuscripts. 
Cardinal Mai. In the forty-fourth book of this collection there 
is a note from Rufus, who states that the physicians of the time 
of Dionysius were acquainted with a disease which is described 
as " Pestilentes hubones maxime letales et acuti, qui maxime circum 
Libyam et Egypium et Syriam observantur." There follows a 
description of this disease sufiBciently accurate to leave no doubt 
that it was identical with the bubonic plague. Now, this Dio- 
nysius lived about three hundred years before Christ. There is 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 63 

therefore no doubt that the plague has been known for more 
than two thousand years. 

The next authentic account of the plague is that of the epi- 
demic of the sixth century. The disease at this time was first 
recognized in Lower Egypt, from which country it extended into 
Europe by two routes. It was brought from the north coast of 
Africa, and it also extended through Palestine and Syria, and by 
this way into Europe. This disease became pandemic and spread, 
according to the chroniclers of the time, to the "ends of the 
habitable world." It prevailed in an active form for about sixty 
years, showing great virulence in certain localities. According 
to Warnefrid, " it depopulated towns, turned the country into a 
desert, and made the habitations of men to become the haunts of 
wild beasts." Hirsch says : " It is impossible to decide whether 
this outbreak of plague in the second half of the sixth century 
was the first general diffusion of the disease on European soil, or 
whether it had been epidemic there before, and if so, to what ex- 
tent. What is certain is that this outbreak gave it firm hold in 
Europe, and that it kept its dominion there for more than a 
thousand years." 

It is an interesting fact that this pandemic occurred during the 
reign of Justinian the Great, the most illustrious emperor of the 
Eastern Roman Empire. This man, who did so great a service to 
the world in the codification of the Roman laws, seems to have 
been both wise and unwise. He is said to have been so filled 
with Christian ardor that he forcibly baptized more than seventy 
thousand pagans in Asia Minor alone ; and yet he was a pagan by 
birth, and there is reason for believing that he died a j^agan. He 
is known as the great legislator, and yet he oppressed the people 
to the verge of starvation by the imposition of unjust taxation, 
and by granting monopolistic privileges to a few. On one side 
he instituted just reforms and on the other he fell into reckless 
and extravagant expenditures. He built the great cathedral of 
St. Sophia, now a Turkish mosque and one of the architectural 
wonders of the world, with a treasury filled with the sighs and 
tears of his overtaxed subjects. I mention these facts in order to 
show that the spread of the plague occurred at a time when the 
masses of the people were ox3pressed by wrong and broken by 
burdens too heavy to carry. 

From the time of Justinian on, for more than ten centuries, as 
has been stated, the plague raged, sometimes with more, some- 
times with less, severity, in Europe. The historians of the time 
generally content themselves with a statement of its most violent 
outbursts and an enumeration of its victims. The numbers given 
must, in many instances at least, be gross exaggerations. It is 
possible, also, that other diseases, especially smallpox, were in- 



64 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

eluded in these accoTints, but, as Hirscli states, the bubonic plague 
takes at any rate a foremost place among the great epidemic dis- 
eases of those times. 

The same author says: "There is only one of the epidemics of 
the plague in the middle ages that has arrested the attention of the 
chroniclers, poets, and physicians of those days ; and that interest 
was awakened by the enormous diffusion theat it reached over the 
whole of the then known world, by its victims reckoned in mil- 
lions, and by the shock to the framework of society which it 
brought with it and left behind it. This disastrous pestilence, 
known everywhere under the name of black death, as one of the 
great events of the world's history, has fixed the attention of 
writers in a high degree, and has been thought worthy to be 
painted in minutest details and in the most vivid colors." 

Several accounts of the plague of the fourteenth century have 
become classical. Among them I may mention that of Boccaccio, 
which begins as follows : " In the year, then, of the fruitful na- 
tivity of our Lord, 1348, there hapjjened at Florence, the fairest 
city in all Italy, a most terrible plague ; which, whether owing to 
the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just 
punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the 
Levant " ; and concludes thus : " Between March and July follow- 
ing it is supposed, and made pretty certain, that upward of a 
hundred thousand souls perished in the city only ; whereas, be- 
fore that calamity, it was not supposed to have contained so many 
inhabitants. What .magnificent dwellings, what noble palaces 
were then depopulated to the last person! What families ex- 
tinct ! What riches and vast possessions left, and no known heir 
to inherit ! What numbers of both sexes in the prime and vigor of 
youth, whom in the morning, neither Galen, Hippocrates, nor 
JEsculapius himself but would have declared in perfect health 
after dining heartily with their friends here, have supped with 
their departed friends in the other world ! " 

This epidemic, like all others of the plague, spread from the 
East to the West. It prevailed in the Crimea in 1346, reached Con- 
stantinople in 1347, and, as we have seen by this quotation from 
Boccaccio, began its devastations in Florence in 1348, and by the 
beginning of 1350 it had spread all over the continent of Europe 
and the adjacent islands. Hecker places the number of deaths 
from this epidemic at no less than twenty-five millions, or about 
one fourth of the inhabitants of that part of the globe at the 
time. Hirsch believes that this estimate was not too high. 

The history of the fifteenth century is dotted with notes of 
local epidemics, and at this time physicians begin to report more 
accurately and in greater detail the characteristic symptoms and 
the course of the disease. It was at this time that exanthematic 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 65 

typlms was recognized as a distinct disease, and distinguished 
from the other pests of the medical profession. 

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the bubonic 
plague seems to have prevailed as an endemic disease in Europe. 

There was scarcely a year during these two centuries that this 
disease did not assume alarming proportions at some place on 
that continent. The last visitation in England is known as the 
Great Plague in London, which occurred in 1665. This has been 
very graphically described by De Foe, and has been the basis of 
the thrilling story by Ainsworth entitled Old St. Paul. During 
the last quarter of the seventeenth century the plague seems to 
have gradually receded toward the East. 

During the eighteenth century it repeatedly threatened to ex- 
tend over Europe, but seldom reached farther than Turkey and 
the immediately adjacent territory to the north. However, there 
were as many as eighteen distinct and severe epidemics in Con- 
stantinople during that time. 

Up to 1841 the plague occasionally became epidemic in the Bal- 
kan Peninsula, and there was an outbreak in the province of 
Astrakhan in the winter of 1878-79. Since the last-mentioned 
years it has not appeared in Europe, but has continued in certain 
parts of Asia. In 1894, just before the beginning of the Chinese- 
Japanese War, it appeared in a virulent form at Hong Kong. 
The Japanese Government sent Kitasato and the French sent Yer- 
sin to study this disease according to the latest methods of bac- 
teriological research. Both of these men were eminently quali- 
fied for the work of their mission, and independently each soon 
succeeded in isolating the specific bacillus. It is found in the 
faeces, in the contents of the swollen glands, and in the blood. It 
consists of rods with rounded ends, which take stains more 
markedly at the extremities than in the middle. Sometimes the 
germ seems to be surrounded with a capsule. In beef tea it grows 
in chains and forms a viscid deposit on the walls and bottom of 
the tube. It also grows on blood-serum and agar. On potatoes it 
does not grow at ordinary temperature and only feebly at 38 C. 
It shows but little motility and grows most abundantly at the 
temperature of the body. 

The bacillus is pathogenic to guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and 
mice, and it is stated that at times of the existence of an epidemic 
of the plague some of these animals acquire the disease, and it 
has been suggested that they may act as agents in its spread. 
In the above-mentioned animals the first symptoms manifest 
themselves usually within from one to two days after inocu- 
lation. The animal becomes apathetic, the eyes are watery, 
the temperature rises, and death, preceded by convulsive move- 
ments, comes on within from two to five days. The tissue around 

VOL. LI. 5 



66 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the point of inoculation is inflamed and infiltrated with a bloody, 
gelatinous exudate. The spleen is enlarged and sometimes the 
lymphatic glands are swollen. The bacillus is found in the blood 
and in all the organs. 

Mice and guinea pigs fed with pure cultures or with tissues 
containing the germs die with the symptoms mentioned above. 
Kitasato found the bacilli in a dead mouse from a plague- stricken 
house. He also inoculated animals with dust gathered from such 
houses, and one of these died with symptoms of the plague, and 
the bacillus was found in its body. In certain parts of Asia 
the disease is, according to Cantline, known as " rat plague," thus 
indicating an extensive infection of these animals. 

Cantline makes the following statement concerning the sus- 
ceptibility of rats to the disease : " On all hands rats are reported 
to behave peculiarly and with a wonderful constancy. Before, or 
it may be during an epidemic of plague, or before the individuals 
in any particular house in an infected locality are stricken, the 
rats leave their haunts and seek the interior of the house. They 
become careless of the presence of man, and run about in a dazed 
way with a peculiar limping jerk or spasm of their hind legs. 
They are frequently found on the bedroom floor or on the tables, 
but not infrequently their death is known by the putrefactive 
odor of their decomposition arising from beneath the flooring. 
So pertinent has this rat affection become, that during the epi- 
demic in Macao in 1895 the Chinese and Portuguese left their 
houses when the diseased rats invaded their premises. The cause 
of the rats' behavior is undoubtedly disease, and the symptoms 
tally wonderfully with plague symptoms of man. Dr. Rennie 
examined them carefully in Canton, and noted the following post- 
mortem appearances : (1) The stomach was distended and filled 
with particles of food, sand, and indigestible substances, and the 
mucous membrane was red and inflamed toward the pyloric end ; 
(2) the liver was much enlarged and congested, and contained 
ova of tfenia and distoma ; (3) there was congestion at the base 
of the lung present in about forty per cent ; and (4) glandular 
enlargement was present in thirty per cent of those examined. 
There is no doubt now that the disease in the rat and man is 
identical. The bacillus of plague has been met with in every 
case of rat disease of this description when it has been searched 
for. The infection of the rat is raised from being a mere popular 
belief into one of scientific precision, and we must now accept the 
rat, at any rate, as one animal liable to the plague. Whether the 
rat is affected previously to, coincidently with, or subsequently to 
man being attacked is open to question. Is the disease among rats 
a forerunner of its outbreak in man, and, if so, are they a means 
of infection ? These are, of course, two separate questions." 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 67 

Exposure of the bacillus in thin layers to the direct action of 
sunlight destroys it after from three to four hours, but to accom- 
plish a like result from exposure to diffuse light as many days are 
necessary. The germ is killed by an exposure to a temperature 
of 80 C. for thirty minutes and at 100 C. within a few minutes. 
Spore formation has not been observed. 

There is some reason for believing that there is a pseudo- 
bacillus of the plague as there is one of diphtheria. In his studies 
of the soil of the infected districts of Hong Kong, Yersin found a 
bacillus that resembled that obtained from persons with the dis- 
ease, both morphologically and in its growth on culture media, 
but it was without effect upon mice and guinea pigs. He also 
observed great differences in virulence in the germs obtained 
from the sick ; some of these were without effect upon the above- 
mentioned animals. There were, moreover, observable varia- 
tions in the size of the bacilli found in the bodies of the sick 
and dead. 

The studies of Yersin and Kitasato were interrupted by the 
war between China and Japan, and a much more thorough knowl- 
edge of the bacillus and the disease caused by it will probably 
soon be in our possession. 

I will now consider some of the characteristic symptoms of the 
disease. It is undoubtedly a septicemia, or form of blood-poi- 
soning. As has been stated, the bacillus is found in the blood 
and in all the organs. It is customary to describe the disease 
under two forms. The milder epidemics are known under the 
name of pestis minor. In this form the glands of the groins and 
armpits swell and either suppurate or undergo resolution. There 
is moderate fever, although in exceptional cases the temperature 
may reach 104 F. The disease usually continues from ten to 
twenty days, and may last for from four to eight weeks. Pestis 
minor sometimes precedes and at other times follows the more 
severe forms of the disease. The former was the case in the 
epidemics in Mesopotamia in 1873 to 1878, and in Astrakhan 
in 1878. 

Foder^, as quoted by Cantline, makes the following statement 
concerning pes^t's minor : " In the Levant and in the Marseilles epi- 
demics of 1820, cases were to be seen which were not ushered in 
by any alarming symptoms, and where the natural functions were 
undisturbed, and where buboes and carbuncles appeared without 
fever, or only with slight fever, or the buboes went on to a healthy 
suppuration more or less prompt, or even disappeared and went 
on to resolution without the help of art, without any inconven- 
ience, and with a perfect integrity of all the functions. This state 
is comparable to benign smallpox, during which children play to- 
gether and walk in the streets without any precautions, no care 



68 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

being taken of their treatment, and yet terminating favorably. 
It is the benign plague of authors, which is observed when the 
disease commences and when it is at its end, though it is rarely 
seen in the middle period, which is entirely devastating, but it is 
not less plague, and it no less merits the attention of physicians 
and magistrates." 

In pestis major there is a prodromal stage, accompanied by 
aching in the limbs, shivering, and a high degree of nervousness. 
The patient seems to be unable to quickly comprehend questions. 
There is a staggering gait similar to that of alcoholic intoxication. 
There is intense headache, with thirst and great pain in the epi- 
gastrium. The eyes become red ; the tongue dry, swollen, fissured, 
and sometimes black, and at other times covered with a thick 
white coat. Coma may set in and death result before there is any 
marked elevation of temperature. In some cases, however, the 
temperature may reach 107 F. during the twenty-four hours pre- 
ceding death. 

In the cases less rapidly fatal there are glandular swellings. 
These occur in the groin in about fifty per cent of the cases, in 
the armpits in about thirty-five per cent, and less frequently in 
the neck and other localities. One peculiarity of the graver form 
of the disease is the occurrence of stablike pains in various por- 
tions of the body. This symptom gives rise to the superstition 
among the ignorant that the victim is wounded by invisible 
arrows shot from the bow of some demon. Suppuration of the 
buboes with free discharge has been regarded as a favorable 
symptom. The skin is sometimes covered with livid petechias, 
w^hich become very dark after death. This condition gave rise 
to the term black death, which has been applied to certain epi- 
demics. Large carbuncles may form in various parts of the body, 
and these are regarded as a very unfavorable sign. 

A highly fatal form of the disease is accompanied by haemor- 
rhages from the lungs. This was a noticeable feature of the pan- 
demic of the sixteenth century, and it was also observed in the 
recent outbreak along the Volga. Such haemorrhages indicate a 
grave form of intoxication, and have been observed in the severer 
forms of other acute infectious diseases, such as smallpox. 

The virulent form of the plague is often very rapid in its 
action, sometimes destroying life in a few hours, but the majority 
of fatal cases terminate about the fifth day. During an epidemic 
at Bagdad it was said that those who lived until the seventh day 
were safe, but, according to Colvill, four per cent of the fatal cases 
terminated after the tenth day. 

The mortality from the plague in its virulent form is probably 
as great as or greater than any other of the acute infectious dis- 
eases. In many epidemics it may be more than ninety per cent. 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 69 

Hecker gives the following statement, which must be an ex- 
aggeration, concerning the mortality of the black death : " Cairo 
lost daily, when the plague was raging with its greatest violence, 
from ten to fifteen thousand. In China more than thirteen mil- 
lions are said to have died. India was depopulated. In Caramania 
and Csesarea none were left alive. On the roads, in the camps, in 
the caravansaries, unburied bodies alone were seen. Twenty-two 
thousand persons and most of the animals were carried off in 
Gaza within six weeks. Cyprus lost almost all its inhabitants, 
and ships without crews were often seen in the Mediterranean, as 
afterward in the North Sea, driving about and spreading the 
plague wherever they went on shore. It was reported to Pope 
Clement that throughout the East, probably with the exception 
of China, 23,840,000 people had fallen victims to the plague." 

Probably the most constant pathological lesion found after 
death from this disease is an enlargement of the lymphatic glands. 
The disease may run so rapid a course that the enlargement of the 
glands is not observable during life, but, according to recent and 
competent observers, changes in these tissues will be found in the 
great majority of cases. This has led Cantline who studied the 
disease at Hong Kong in 1894, to propose for it the appellation of 
" malignant polyadenitis." The same authority offers the follow- 
ing definition : " Plague or malignant polyadenitis is an acute 
febrile disease of an intensely fatal nature, characterized by in- 
flammation of the lymphatic glands, marked cerebral and vascu- 
lar disturbances, and by the presence of a specific bacillus." 

Geographically the plague has been known as far east as the 
island of Formosa, where it now prevails ; as far west as Ireland ; 
as far north as Norway ; and there is no definite information con- 
cerning its extension southward in Africa. It has never been 
known in the western hemisphere, but this is only due to the fact 
that up to the present time there has been no opportunity of its 
importation to this half of the world. 

In this connection the following quotation from Hecker may 
be of interest : " The inhabitants of Iceland and Greenland found 
in the coldness of their inhospitable climate no protection against 
the southern enemy who had penetrated to them from happier 
countries. The plague caused great havoc among them. Nature 
made no allowance for their constant warfare with the elements 
and the parsimony with which she meted out to them the enjoy- 
ments of life. In Denmark and Norway, however, people were so 
occupied with their own misery that the accustomed voyages to 
Greenland ceased. Towering icebergs formed at the same time 
on the coast of east Greenland, in consequence of the general con- 
cussion of the earth's organism, and no mortal from that time for- 
ward has ever seen that shore or its inhabitants." 



70 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

There is no known racial immunity to this disease. It is alike 
fatal to Mongolians, Africans, and Europeans. It has prevailed 
in the marshes along the Euphrates and on the Himalayas ; in 
densely populated cities and in sparsely settled rural districts ; on 
the sands of Egypt and amid the snows of Norway. 

Climate and season have been studied in order to establish be- 
tween them and the plague a causal relationship. Epidemics have 
followed prolonged droughts, and have prevailed during rainy 
seasons. The wind may blow where it listeth, but the bacillus 
heedeth it not. The epidemic at Hong Kong in 1894 appeared 
after a prolonged season of dry weather. Rain was anxiously 
looked for probably prayed for. It was said. All will be well 
when the rain comes. At last the rain did come, and with it the 
disease seemed to be refreshed and the number of deaths was mul- 
tiplied. The attempt to find in meteorological conditions a cause 
for our ills is a relic of the superstition of ages when it was be- 
lieved that disease was sent from heaven to afflict man for his 
sins, and was due to the anger of the gods. 

Overcrowding is undoubtedly a factor in the distribution of 
this disease, as it is of all other infectious diseases, simply because 
it renders transmission of the germ from one to the other more 
speedy and certain ; but that the disease can be due to overcrowd- 
ing is, in the present state of our knowledge, an absurdity. 

Poverty and famine are factors in the propagation of the dis- 
ease. Want of proper food renders the individual more suscep- 
tible. This has been demonstrated in case of more than one in- 
fectious disease by experiments upon the lower animals. Priva- 
tion has always been associated with the most notable outbreaks 
of the plagues. As stated in the beginning of this paper, famine 
and disease are twin brothers, inseparable. Where one of them 
dwells there the other may be found. This is undoubtedly the 
reason why this disease has always found a home in the Levan- 
tine. Cantline says : " In the densely packed cities of Asia the 
poor exist forever on the fringe of destitution, and the least rise 
in the price of food brings scarcity, so that the term, ' the poor 
man's plague,' holds good for all time." 

There has been much written concerning the period of incuba- 
tion of this disease, but necessarily all is indefinite. Because a 
well man comes in contact with a sick one on a certain day, and 
manifests the first symptoms of the disease ten days later, does 
not prove that the period of incubation is ten days. The well man 
may have carried on his person the bacillus from the sick-room, 
and any time subsequent thereto it may have been introduced into 
the body. All that is said about the period of incubation of the 
infectious disease is based on the old theory long since exploded 
that the well man breathes in the miasm at the time of his com- 



THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. 71 

ing into the presence of tlie sick one, while the truth is he may- 
carry the germ under his finger nails or elsewhere about him, and 
there is no telling when it may first find its way into his body. 
We can determine the period of incubation in the lower animals 
by inoculation, and here we know that it varies greatly with the 
method of inoculation, the virulence of the germ, the number of 
germs introduced, and the susceptibility of the animal. All that 
may be said about the period of incubation in man is of but little 
value. The same is largely true concerning the extent to which 
the disease is contagious. In the epidemic of 1835 in Egypt only 
one of the French physicians who attended the sick contracted 
the disease. Bulard, who did not believe the plague contagious, 
wore for two days a shirt taken from the body of a dead man. 
He remained well, and thought that by this he had demonstrated 
the truth of his theory. Such experiments demonstrate nothing. 
There is no evidence that any of the bacilli were on the garment, 
or that, if they were, they were introduced into his body. During 
the epidemic in Hong Kong, fifteen European physicians and a 
number of Chinese medical students cared for the sick in the hos- 
pital, and none acquired the disease. This only shows that with 
care and cleanliness the sick may be attended without danger of 
infection of the attendants. Hundreds of bacteriologists in labo- 
ratories are daily handling the most virulent cultures of the diph- 
theria bacillus, and the first case of infection from this source has 
yet to be reported. This does not prove that these bacilli are not 
pathogenic to man, or that these men are insusceptible to the dis- 
ease. Because an expert handles the most venomous serpents 
without being bitten, does not prove that the bite of these reptiles 
is harmless. 

The exaggerated idea of the contagiousness of the plague held 
by some of the older writers is exemplified in a graphic way by 
the following quotation from Hecker : "Every spot which the 
sick had touched, their breath, their clothes, spread the conta- 
gion ; and, as in all other places, the attendants and friends who 
were either blind to their danger or heroically despised it, fell a 
sacrifice to their sympathy. Even the eyes of the patient were 
considered as a source of contagion which had the power of act- 
ing at a distance, whether on account of their unwonted luster or 
the distortion which they always suffer in plague, or whether in 
conformity with an ancient notion, according to which the sight 
was considered as the bearer of demoniacal enchantment.'' 

The plagues of the middle ages were undoubtedly spread by 
the processions of the Brotherhood of the Cross. These fanatics 
went, sometimes in great numbers, from place to place, praying 
for the sins of the world, and scourging themselves with leathern 
straps armed with points of iron. 



72 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

The horrors of the plague of the fourteenth century have been 
depicted by Hecker and others. The moral depravity brought to 
light by this great epidemic is hardly credible. Many believed 
themselves poisoned, and suspicion fell upon the Jews, who have 
so often been treated by Christians with barbaric cruelty. Under 
the torture confessions were made, and then began the whole- 
sale slaughter of the children of Abraham. In Basle, the whole 
Jewish population was brought together in a wooden building 
constructed for the purpose and burned. "At Strasburg two 
thousand Jews were burned alive in their own burial ground. 
... At Eslingen the whole Jewish community burned them- 
selves in their synagogue ; and mothers were often seen throw- 
ing their children on the pile to prevent their being baptized, 
and then precipitating themselves into the flames. ... In all the 
countries on the Rhine these cruelties continued to be perpe- 
trated during the succeeding months; and after quiet was in 
some degree restored, the people thought to render an acceptable 
service to God by taking the bricks of the destroyed dwellings 
and the tombstones of the Jews to repair churches and to erect 
belfries." 

Knowing, as we now do, the specific cause of the plague, we 
may easily predicate the modes of its distribution. Anything 
that carries the bacillus may be an agent of its transmission from 
one person to another, or from one country to another. It is need- 
less to dwell upon this point. 

Is there danger of the plague being imported to this coun- 
try ? Yes, there is danger, but this being foreseen may be eas- 
ily avoided. Thorough inspection of persons and disinfection 
of things from infected districts will keep the disease out of 
Europe and America. Only by the most gross carelessness could 
the plague be permitted to enter either of these continents. The 
method of disinfecting the mails from the Orient, as practiced 
by the English, is wholly inadequate, and the American authori- 
ties should redisinfect all such matter coming from the infected 
districts of India. 



On the occasion of the opening of the Davy Faraday Research Labora- 
tory at the Royal Institution, London, Dr. Ludwig Mond observed that if 
Great Britain had distinguished itself in one way more than another in 
that glorious rivalry with other nations for extending our knowledge of 
natural phenomena and our power over the forces of Nature, it had -been 
by the large number of contributors to our knowledge who on the Conti- 
nent would be called amateurs in science men who devoted their lives to 
the study and advancement of science from pure love of the subject. He 
need only instance the names of Cavendish, Joule, and Darwin to say that 
they included men of the very highest rank. 



HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN MASSACHUSETTS. 73 
HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

By CHARLES LIVY WHITTLE, M. E. 

IN the course of time there have been many changes in the 
method of transporting merchandise from town to town and 
from one country to another. Here, as in everything else, we see 
the gradual evolution of transportation, at first by man or beast, 
and finally by steam and electricity. Early man used himself as 
a beast of burden, and finally the ox and other animals were 
made to do service in his stead. With every improvement in 
method came a wider and wider range of trade and its consequent 
benefits. Efforts to improve the means of transportation resulted 
in the early invention of carriage by water. Hence we see the 
maritime peoples were the first to attain any considerable com- 
mercial prominence. 

At the time this country was settled the lack of adequate 
means of moving commodities, excepting by water, led to the 
settlement of lands bordering the ocean, streams, and lakes, while 
equally good lands, not in close vicinity to water, offered but little 
attraction to the settler. Gradually the frontier was pushed far- 
ther westward ; the narrow and obscure Indian trails were trans- 
formed into paths for horses and eventually became carriage 
roads. Before the railroad was devised public roads that pos- 
sessed any claims to excellence were limited to the more popu- 
lous States bordering the Atlantic coast. It is without doubt 
true that, had not transportation by rail been invented until the 
present time, the public roads of this country would be in a far 
more satisfactory condition than we find them to-day. With the 
advent of the locomotive came the withdrawal of active interest 
in the character of our highways. All the energies of our people 
were devoted to extending and perfecting the vast network of 
railroads that cross and recross the United States. Railway con- 
struction has now reached an equation of demand and supply, 
a,nd we once again see the Commonwealths awakening to the im- 
portance of good roads, many communities vying with one an- 
other in their efforts to lead the States and earn a reputation for 
the excellent character of their highways. 

The natural conservatism of the farming element of our peo- 
ple has been a difiicult feature of the problem of arousing public 
interest in better roads to overcome in the past. The farmer has 
had but few object lessons in what a road should be. Adding to 
this the objections he has to an increase of taxation, we perceive 
the difficulties that stand in the way of educating the people up 
to the point of appreciating the numerous advantages that would 
accrue to them with a system of highways properly constructed 

VOL. LI. 6 



74 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

and maintained. Little attention has been paid by the rural 
dweller to the arguments in favor of good roads. His line of 
reasoning is that roads that were satisfactory to his father and 
grandfather are good enough for him. In vain has he been told 
that, with good roads all the year round, the farmer and mer- 
chant come into closer communication ; that he can sell his stock 
and grain when prices tempt him, instead of being dependent 
upon a favorable state of the road ; that he can buy his supplies 
on rainy days, and increase his number of perishable crops, 
which are of uncertain value with bad roads, but become of cer- 
tain value when impassable ways cease to cause spasmodic trans- 
portation. 

To-day State roads are furnishing the farmer the much-needed 
object lessons roads which by their general excellence through- 
out the year are causing, as in some counties in New Jersey, a 
marked increase in farm values. Other States, as Massachusetts, 
are building highways with State money, one fourth of which is 
eventually returned to the State by the county traversed by the 
way, while the legislative enactments of other States require a 
portion of the expense to be borne by the county in which the 
road lies, and by the freeholders whose property immediately 
abuts the improved roads. The mutual benefit derived from im- 
proved highways by all classes of people is now generally recog- 
nized in the more thrifty States, and from now on we may expect 
with surety the gradual development of our highways until the 
principal thoroughfares of the country come up to the required 
standard of excellence. 

Travelers have described the celebrated Peruvian military 
road, leading from Cuzco to Quito, that was constructed long be- 
fore the time the Spaniards conquered that country, about 1544. 
This road is variously estimated at fifteen hundred to two thousand 
miles in length, passing over deep caiions and across high moun- 
tain ranges. Large sandstone blocks formed the foundation, and 
this was covered with a native cement of a bituminous nature, 
forming a very smooth surface possessing great durability. Some 
portions of the road are still in an excellent state of preservation. 
The Romans also constructed over ten thousand miles of paved 
ways ; but none of these ancient builders understood the prin- 
ciples made use of to-day. 

The art of building the type of road known as the modern 
highway is not a new one. The second decade of this century in 
England witnessed the first examples of turnpikes constructed on" 
scientific principles in that country as enunciated by Macadam. 
Like many discoveries, the first and one of the most important 
principles involved is one that we should expect would have been 
discovered and put in general practice long before 1816. At that 



76 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

time it was the custom in Great Britain, as elsewhere, to build 
roads very largely of clay or gravel. Macadam observed that 
gravel never afforded a good, compact wearing surface until a 
large amount of traffic had passed over it, when it became hard- 
ened and cemented together. He sought an explanation of this 
phenomenon, and learned that when the pebbles were broken 
under the impact of heavy wheels they soon consolidated into a 
firm mass. Here was the great principle : angular stones solidify 
underpressure; rounded stones do not.* Amplifying this prin- 
ciple, he built up a complete system of road building which is 
in use to-day, as best shown in Switzerland and France, in Eng- 
land, and in other foreign countries, and is being revived so gen- 
erally in this country at the present time, where the farmer is 
learning its advantages in the appreciation of land values, and 
where the bicyclist promotes the cause as the advance agent of 
good roads. 

As defined by Macadam, a good road should be a hard, some- 
what elastic surface to receive the wear of all kinds of traffic at 
every season of the year and during the greatest vicissitudes of 
weather, which shall also serve as a roof to that part of the road 
lying below. To use his own words, " A road ought to be con- 
sidered as an artificial floor, forming a strong, smooth, solid sur- 
face, at once capable of carrying great weights, and over which 
carriages may pass without meeting any impediment." In order 
to realize such a surface it is necessary that the substructure of 
the road should be kept free from water, since, by the alternating 
freezing and thawing of the water, the wearing surface of the 
broken stone is disrupted, the water is offered a passageway 
through it, and the road becomes rough and difficult to travel. 

It was the custom of Macadam, after the engineering work 
was completed and the subgrade established, to spread on a layer 
of stone to a depth of ten inches and to roll this surface with a 
heavy roller drawn by horses. These stones were broken by hand 
with small hammers, frequently a whole family working together, 
and were broken small enough to pass through a three-inch ring, 
or were not to have a maximum weight of over six ounces. A 
family of five people could break several tons per day. Side 
ditches were excavated where necessary, so that at no season of 
the year could water penetrate to the substructure of the road. 

In 1816 Macadam began the construction and maintenance of 
one hundred and eighty miles of turnpike in Bristol District, 



* It is not improbable that Macadam was acquainted with the Napoleonic military roads 
constructed in France about 1775, wliicli involved the piinciple of a thin layer of broken 
stone placed on a rock foundation. These roads were the invention of Tresaguet, a French- 
man, at about this time, and to him seems to be due the credit of first constructing wliat is 
now known essentially as the Telford system. 



HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN MASSACHUSETTS jj 

England.* A modification of this system was adopted by Thomas 
Telford about this time, which substituted a layer, or foundation, 
of irregular broken stone, set up on edge on the subgrade. Nine 
inches was the maximum dimension of these fragments. The 
rough surface thus made was smoothed down by going over it 
and breaking off the tops of the blocks with small hammers and 
packing the pieces thus obtained between the large blocks. This 
surface was then rolled as before. Telford built the celebrated 
Holyhead road, extending from Holyhead through North Wales 
to Shrewsbury a road that served as a model at the board of 
inquiry appointed by Parliament in 1823. Each system had its 
partisans, and to-day the best features of both methods have been 
adopted under different conditions, dependent upon the character 
of the ground over which the road passes. 

In 1892 the State of Massachusetts appointed a commission to 
investigate and report upon the character of the highways of the 
State, and to point out the trend that legislation should take in 
the matter of framing laws appropriating a yearly sum of money 
for the construction of State roads, and defining the powers of the 
Highway Commission to be appointed under the same act. This 
commission made its first report in 1893, and, on June 20, 1894, the 
Legislature appropriated the sum of three hundred thousand dol- 
lars for this purpose, to be used at the discretion of the Highway 
Commissioners the ensuing year. This commission appoints its 
own chief engineer, who has ultimate authority with the commis- 
sion in the settlement of all questions that arise in connection 
with the work. 

The laws enacted at this time do not place the initiation of 
State roads directly in the hands of the commission, but make 
the commissioners the tribunal to which all petitions made by 
towns, cities, or counties of the State are referred for action. It 
is a part of the policy of the commission not to allow a random 
construction of isolated stretches of road, but to make all ways 
constructed fit into a general scheme that shall have for its object 
a system of thoroughfares traversing the State that shall benefit 
the greatest number of municipalities and the State as a whole. 

The method of procedure, as defined by the statute of 1894, is as 
follows : The selectmen of any town, the aldermen of any city, or 
the county commissioners must first file a petition with the High- 
way Commissioners, accompanied by a plan and profile of the 
road. Plans are then prepared by the chief engineer and sub- 
mitted to the commission for its approval. It is a part of the set- 



* Although one of tlie earliest pieces of work on a large scale that was ever attempted, 
the report of the board of inquiry, referred to above, showed that similar roads had been 
built in Sweden previous to 1823. 




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HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN MASSACHUSETTS. 79 

tied policy of the commission to reduce all grades to a maximum 
of five feet in one hundred called a five-per-cent grade. After 
courses and distances are plotted, and the necessary data obtained 
for determining the quantity of the various materials used in the 
construction of a road, a conference is held between the peti- 
tioners and the State commissioners, in order to ascertain if a 
contract for the construction of the road is to be made by the 
municipality, and, if so, at what price it is to be done. In case 
the city or town authorities are unwilling to contract for the 
work upon the prices agreed, the commission advertises the same, 
and it is let to the lowest responsible bidder, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Governor and Council. It is the custom in award- 
ing competitive contracts to require the contractor to furnish 
bonds : one insuring a faithful completion of the work ; the other 
to safeguard the interests of the town or city in case damage 
results from accidents during the building of the way. Upon the 
contract being made and a notification being received that the 
municipality or contractor is ready to proceed with the work, the 
commission appoints a resident engineer, who has personal charge 
of the work of construction, subject only to the supervision of 
the chief engineer. 

Now comes the period of actual construction, and the first step 
in advance is the excavation and filling the road to the required 
subgrade. In general the subgrade is about nine inches below 
the finished grade ; but the extent of excavation differs widely in 
actual practice, owing to the different treatment necessary as 
determined by the varying character of the ground. The sub- 
grade established and rolled, broken stone is then added to a 
depth of six inches, the fragments varying in size from one and 
a quarter to two and a quarter inches in their longest dimen- 
sion. This is then rolled with a steam roller until thoroughly 
compacted (Plate I). A second layer of broken stone, three 
inches thick, is next spread upon the road, the pieces ranging in 
size from one half to one and a quarter inch. This is then 
rolled as before, and a finishing coating of screenings, put 
through a half-inch mesh, is then added to a depth of half an 
inch. Water is now turned on until the broken stone is well wet 
down, when the final rolling is done, and the surface becomes 
firmly and smoothly knit together (Plate II). In the foreground 
of this picture the second layer of broken stone is seen. The main 
part of the road is in its completed state, having just been com- 
pacted with the steam roller. Some modifications are made in 
these steps of the process, depending upon the quality of the 
stone used and the amount and kind of travel to which the road 
is to be subjected. As pointed out by Macadam, it is not wise to 
place a layer of broken stone directly upon a subgrade of granite 



8o POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

or other rock existing as a ledge. Owing to the loss of the ele- 
ment of elasticity, the road would soon become weakened in its 
coherency, and the rate of wear would be much increased. It is 
therefore customar}^ to excavate, when a cut in rock is necessary, 
some four inches below subgrade, and to fill in to subgrade with 
gravel on which the broken stone is placed as before. 

Another modification is practiced when clayey, wet ground is 
encountered. Under these circumstances it is generally best to 
excavate some sixteen inches below the finished grade and spread 
on a layer of gravel four inches deep. Upon this Telford founda- 
tion is laid by hand to a depth of eight or ten inches and care- 
fully rolled (Plate III). A layer of broken stone is then put on, 
and a finishing coating of screenings is added as before. 

As to the character of the roads already constructed in Massa- 
chusetts, Prof. N. S. Shaler, of the Highway -Commission, in- 
formed the writer that, in his opinion, they are in no way inferior, 
in so far as quality and durability are concerned, to the celebrated 
Swiss roads. 

So well pleased are the people of Massachusetts with the State 
roads already constructed, and so active are they in the cause of 
good roads, that the Legislature appropriated the additional sum 
of four hundred thousand dollars for highway construction dur- 
ing the year 1895 and five hundred thousand dollars in 1896. 

At first glance it would seem that the engineering skill neces- 
sary to construct a Macadam road would not be of a particularly 
high order ; and yet the problems involved in building roads in 
the latitude of Massachusetts, where great variations exist in the 
character of the soil, owing to the glacial conditions that once 
existed here, call for engineering ability of a peculiar kind, as 
well as an extended experience in the treatment of special cases 
and the economical application of the materials at hand. 

As an adjunct of the Highway Commission, a laboratory has 
been established in Cambridge, where the systematic study of 
road materials is carried on. It has come to be generally recog- 
nized that materials which possess the necessary qualities for a 
good road stone are both limited in kind and in quantity. It is 
the object of these laboratory investigations to classify the road 
stones of the State in the order of their fitness for this purpose, 
and to prepare a map showing the area and location of the most 
desirable varieties. Here are investigated the questions of the 
rate of wear of stones under impact, and the cementing and re- 
cementing value of the powdered rock on which the life of the 
road depends in a large measure. The hardness and toughness 
also come within the scope of the experimental work. Experi- 
ment has shown that a stone must possess certain all-around 
properties in order to come up to the desired standard. For 



82 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

example, ({uartz or quartzite has a hardness of seven in a scale of 
ten, and for this quality alone it is best suited for road building 
of any rock of common occurrence ; but it does not possess any 
cementing power or elasticity whatever, and is therefore of little 
use for Macadam work. As a result of long trial on roads in 
England and on the Continent, it is found that the stone best 
suited for road metal must possess toughness and cementing 
qualities and as great a resistance to abrasion as is possible in a 
stone having the first two properties. It is an important fact 
that experimental investigation in the laboratory has pointed 
scientifically to the same conclusions that have been obtained 
from the severe test of long experience in actual use. 

The most important road stones are known under the common 
names of " trap " or " dike stones." They are usually of a dark- 
green color, are fine-grained, and are composed essentially of the 
minerals pyroxene or hornblende and feldspar, the individual 
minerals often not being visible to the unaided eye. Geologically, 
they are rocks that have been forced up through fissures in the 
earth's crust from great depths, where they existed in a melted 
condition. Rocks of this kind are very numerous in eastern 
Massachusetts and generally throughout the old mountain ranges 
of the United States. The road engineer, however, has other 
materials besides quarry stone, which, though not possessing so 
many good qualities, nevertheless make excellent road metal 
under proper conditions. Among these may be mentioned the 
blue glacial gravels, kame gravels, beach pebbles, and field stones. 

Another rock in common use in various parts of New Eng- 
land is granite (a mixture of the minerals quartz and feldspar) 
and the allied rock, gneiss. Both these rocks are normally coarse- 
grained, possessing a hardness, as measured by that of their com- 
ponent minerals, a little under seven. In its use as broken stone 
granite has certain advantages over quartz alone, in that the 
feldspar, when pulverized or decomposed by the action of the 
weather, has considerable cementing value ; but the decomposi- 
tion of the feldspar liberates the quartz, and the physical difl^er- 
ences in the matter of hardness, cleavage, etc., between the quartz 
and the feldspar promote differential wear of the stone as well as 
other defects. Granite, however, is an important road stone, and 
is far superior to such rocks as limestones, slates, or marbles, 
which, owing to their softness, are rapidly worn out. 

The production of broken stone has now assumed such im- 
portance that several concerns in Massachusetts are making a 
regular business of furnishing all sizes to the State or munici- 
palities. Broken stone, as a commercial commodity, is now sold 
on the cars at about one dollar to one dollar and seventy cents 
per ton for the best quality of trap. 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 83 



THE DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL 

SCIENCES. 

. By FREDERICK STARR. 

THE scientific work of our Government bureaus and of the 
great universities of our country is of supreme importance 
and justly arouses the pride of every American. It is not likely to 
be overlooked. The work of local societies is less imposing, but 
is of the highest importance and calls for more than a passing 
word. In many American cities there are organizations of per- 
sons who are intelligently interested in science. These hold regu- 
lar meetings for discussion, publish papers as new contributions 
to science, and gather museum collections which serve as object 
lessons to the public. Few persons realize how much such local 
organizations, supported by private means and personal enthusi- 
asm, are doing for the cause of science. To make known the 
story of some of these academies of science and to sketch their 
work is the purpose of the series of articles of which this is the 
first. To present their achievements and their claims to respect 
and assistance is a task which the author gladly undertakes, 
being one of the many students who have been helped and en- 
couraged by them. 

The choice of the Davenport Academy of Science as the sub- 
ject of this first article is simply from convenience. In some 
respects the story of its origin and development is typical, in 
others unusual. There is rather more of personality in it than in 
most, for the Davenport Academy has had a peculiar environ- 
ment. When it was organized the city of Davenport was in the 
" far West " ; opportunities for literary and scientific work were 
meager ; the town itself was small, commercial, unsympathetic. 
That any organization of its kind so far from other centers 
should exist and thrive was astonishing. 

In 1867, on December 14th, four gentlemen Messrs. L. T. Eads, 
A. U. Barler, A. S. Tiffany, and W. H. Pratt met in a business 
office to organize a natural history society. No one of the four 
was a professional scientist ; all were busy men ; none of them was 
really wealthy. They added names enough to their own to sup- 
ply officers and a board of trustees, drew up a constitution and 
by-laws, and then and there became an actual society. Thereafter 
regular meetings were held and topics of more or less scientific 
importance were discussed. Before a year had passed the mem- 
bership had grown to more than fifty, and the attendance at the 
meetings indicated continued interest. A cabinet of natural his- 
tory was begun and a place for its display was secured in the 
rooms of the Davenport Library Association. The first sign. 



84 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



however, that the organization was really purposing to advance 
the sum of human knowledge was given when the academy ar- 
ranged for the scientific observation of the solar eclipse of August 
7, 1869. The undertaking was a somewhat serious one for the 
little group of workers. Money had to be secured and subscrip- 
tion lists were passed. Arrangements were made for photograph- 
ing, and during the two hours of the shadow three dozen negatives 
were made, of which twenty were fairly good. From them sets 




of prints were made, some of which were sold to repay expenses, 
others of which were sent to foreign societies. It was the first 
exchange contact of the academy with the scientific world. 

In July, 1873, the academy, now nearly six years old, rented 
" a small back room," into which it put three or four cases for its 
collection and where for the first time it felt itself at home. The 
next year more commodious quarters were obtained in the Odd- 
Fellows' Building. Increasing activity showed itself by weekly 
conversaziones of a popular kind in addition to the regular meet- 
ings, by the purchase of a geological library, and by field work in 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 85 

local archaeology. More room was necessary, and the lady mem- 
bers for lady members had been determined to be a good thing 
bestirred themselves to secure and furnish a second room. 
This was progress, but greater things were in mind. Even as 
early as March, 1873, there was talk of buying property or a 
building. At that time a combination scheme was in mind, the 
Library Association, Horticultural Society, and academy uniting 
in the purchase. Fortunately, the plan failed. On Washington's 
birthday, 1877, Mrs, Newcomb donated a building lot to the 
academy. The fever to build was fanned. Before the year ended 
plans were drawn up and the building erected. Just one year to 
a day from the donation of the land the building was opened. 

The first president of the academy was Prof. David Sylvester 
Sheldon.* He was born in Vermont, December G, 1809. At six- 
teen years of age he went to Castleton Academy, and three years 
later to Middlebury College, where he was graduated in his 
twenty-third year. Studying theology at Andover, he never 
preached, but entered the vocation of teaching. For a time he 
was principal of the academy at Bennington, Vt., then taught at 
Potsdam, N. Y., and still later at Northampton, Mass, At thirty- 
nine years he had lost health and was compelled to travel in the 
South. Going West later, he settled at Burlington, Iowa, in 1850. 
When forty- four years old he accepted the chair of Natural Sci- 
ence in Iowa College, then located at Davenport. Later on the 
college removed to Grinnel, but Prof. Sheldon remained in Dav- 
enport, where subsequently he took a professorship in Griswold 
College, retaining it until his death in 1886. Prof. Sheldon was 
an inspiring teacher, a man of excellent thought, and of kind and 
lovely character. He was an ardent collector and student, but 
not a writer. Local zoology and botany occupied much of his 
attention, and the remarkable collection of fresh-water Unios 
which he made greatly delighted Louis Agassiz. In his botanical 
field work, the afterward eminent botanist Sereno Watson, then a 
young man, was associated with him. When the Academy of 

* The list of presidents of the academy is as follows : 

186'7. Prof. D. S. Sheldon. I 1884. H. C. Fulton. 

1868-'69-'70- Yl-'7:2-'73-"74. Dr. C. ! 1885-'86. Charles E. Putnam. 

C. Parry. 1887-88. Charles E. Harrison. 



1875. Dr. E. H. Hazen. 
1876. Prof. W. H. Barris. 
1877. Rev. S. S. Hunting. 
1878. Dr. R. J. Farquharson. 
1879. Mrs. Mary L. D. Putnam. 
1880. Prof. W. H. Pratt. 
1881. J. Duncan Putnam. 
1882. Dr. C. H. Preston. 
1888.- E. P. Lynch. 



1889- 90. Dr. Jennie McCowen. 

1891. James Thompson. 

1692. James Thompson (died night of 
his election, Dr. William L. Allen, 
1st Vice-President, acting President 
1892). 

1893-'94. Dr. William L. Allen. 

1895-96. Edward S. Hammatt. 



86 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Science was organized, Prof. Sheldon, then a man of sixty years, 
was urged to be president. He retained the office only a few 
months, but up to the last week of his life he was the academy's 
trusted counselor, constant supporter, and faithful friend. 

Fortunately, there was then in Davenport one who was a pro- 
fessionally scientific man Dr. C. C. Parry. For more than six 





Fig. 2. David Sylvester Sheldon. 



Fig. 3. Charles CHRisioruEB I'aruy. 



years he was president of the academy. From the start he held 
the idea that the academy was called to a higher purpose than to 
supply pastime to a few townspeople. Charles Christopher Parry 
was born in Admington, Gloucester, England, August 28, 1823. 
When he was but nine years old his parents came to this country, 
settling in Washington County, New York. Educated at Union 
College, Schenectady, he studied medicine at Columbia College. 
He settled in Davenport in 1846. There he was a diligent student 
of the local flora. Later on he examined the mountain flora of 
California, Colorado, and Mexico. He was official botanist of the 
Mexican Boundary Survey. Later he held official positions in 
the Department of Agriculture and as special agent of the For- 
estry Department of the census of 1880. His journeys to every 
part of our great Western mountain region were extensive and 
scientifically productive. He was the discoverer and describer of 
many new species of plants and of several important genera. His 
name is associated with that of Torrey and Gray both in geogra- 
phy and on the pages of botanical literature. A man of energy, 
convictions, and heart, he was the very one to shape and mold a 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 87 



young society's work. In one of his presidential addresses before 
the academy, Dr. Parry emphasized the importance of three 
things to be held constantly in mind toward which to work. 
These were (1) a home, (2) a complete local collection, (3) publica- 
tion. These three aims have ever been before the academy. We 
have seen how they gained the first ; the second has been in view 
from the very inception of the society ; the third began early to be 
agitated. 

The election of a schoolboy to membership in a scientific soci- 
ety might seem to mean little, but to the Davenport Academy it 
meant much. One of the charter members of the academy. Prof. 
Pratt, was writing teacher in the public schools, giving instruc- 
tion from building to building. At times he told the scholars to 
write anything they might have in mind on slips of paper and to 
hand them in to him. On one such occasion a boy not fourteen 
years of age wrote the words Davenport Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences. On inquiry. Prof. Pratt found that the boy had read of the 
academy in the newspapers and wanted to know what it was. 
When told of the meetings and collecting excursions he desired 
to become a member, but only if his mother could become one 
also. The question of lady members had not before been raised, 
but now posed it was soon solved. 
J. Duncan Putnam and his mother 
were elected to membership, June 
2, 18G9. The ardent enthusiasm 
of the schoolboy and the moth- 
er's love were to do more for the 
academy than the few members 
voting at that meeting could real- 
ize. It was this mother's interest 
that led to the second rented room, 
to the donation by ladies in 1875 
of new cases and carpets, to the 
gift by a woman in 1877 of the 
lot, and to much of the energy and 
interest displayed by the towns- 
people since. It was the boy's 
enthusiasm and the mother's love 
that led to the publication. Im- 
pelled by Dr. Parry's words and 
his own feeling of its importance, 

J, Duncan Putnam on November 26, 1875, then a boy of nineteen, 
urged the academy to publish Proceedings. A committee was 
appointed to look into the matter and to devise means if possible 
to carry out the plan. December 20th a company of ladies the 
Women's Centennial Association agreed to see that the first 




Fig. 4. J. Duncan Putnam. 



88 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



volume of Proceedings, covering the years 18(J7-'75, should be 
printed. It was no easy task. Entertainments were given and 
other ways of raising money devised. A fire interfered seriously, 
but at last the handsome octavo volume was printed and turned 
over to the academy. The volume formed part of the display of 

women's work and achievement 
at the Centennial at Philadelphia 
in 1876. The happy result of 
publication upon the academy 
was immediately apparent. The 
Proceedings were sent to all parts 
of the world, and the library of 
the academy has grown almost 
entirely out of its exchange. The 
publication has not only benefited 
the scientific world by making 
known valuable original work, 
but it has made the academy 
widely known. The Proceedings 
have been continued up to the 
present time, and Volume VII is 
now in progress. During his life- 
time the Proceedings were ever 
in J. Duncan Putnam's mind. 
Volume II was due to him, and 
early in 1881 he offered to turn over to the academy a complete 
printing outfit and to personally superintend the publication of 
Volume III. He did not live to complete it, and that volume is 
a memorial volume, the final bringing out of which is due to Mrs. 
Putnam. Since her son's death this lady's great desire in connec 
tion with the academy has been to see the publications continued. 
Her energy has never flagged, and finally she has seen the future 
of the Proceedings assured. 

One of the notable papers in the first volume of the Proceed- 
ings dealt with the archaeological treasures found by the acad- 
emy's workers in the mounds of Iowa and Illinois, not far from 
the city. Local archaeology began to attract the academy's atten- 
tion about 1873. A little group of interested students did the 
work of exploration mainly at their own expense and often with 
their own hands. Important objects had been found. In 1874 
the academy published a series of seventeen photographs of seven 
mound-builder skulls. At the 1875 meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. Robert James 
Farquharson represented the academy and read a paper upon 
these finds. It was this paper to which reference is made above. 
Its author was no common man. Born of a Scotch father and a 




Fig. 5. Mks. M. L. D. Putnam. 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 89 



Kentucky mother at Nashville, Tenn., July 15, 1824, he was a 
graduate of the University of Nashville in 1841. At that time 
Dr. Gerard Troost was connected with that institution, and young 
Farquharson was profoundly impressed by him. Graduating in 
1844 in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Farqu- 
harson settled as a practitioner in New Orleans in 1845, and in 
1847 was appointed assistant surgeon in the United States Navy. 
Resigning in 1855, he returned to Nashville and married there. 
Through the war a strong Unionist, he was in hospital service, 
and at its close removed to Arkansas. In 1868 he went to Daven- 
port. He joined the academy in its first year, and for twelve 
years was an important factor in its work. In 1880, being ap- 
pointed to the State Board of Health, he removed to Des Moines, 
where he resided until his death in 1884. Unusually modest, 
quiet, and unassuming, Dr. Farquharson was a profound thinker 
and an original investigator. Among his notable studies was an 
interesting investigation upon Leprosy in Iowa. 

In this same first volume were several important entomo- 
logical papers by J. Duncan Putnam. Mr. Putnam's election 
has already been mentioned and his interest in the Proceedings 
described. In the history of 
American entomology there are 
no more devoted workers. Al- 
though dying when most men 
begin work, he had accomplished 
more than many who live long. 
He was born at Jacksonville, 111., 
October 18, 1855, his mother be- 
ing the daughter of the second 
Governor of Illinois. When a 
boy of eleven years he began col- 
lecting insects, and three years 
later was a serious student of his 
gatherings. He joined the soci- 
ety in 18G9, and at fifteen years 
of age, in 1871, was its recording 
secretary. . In 1872 he took a 
three months' trip into Colorado, 
where he met John Torrey and 
Asa Gray, with whom he formed 

a lasting friendship. In 1873 he was appointed meteorologist on 
the Jones Yellowstone Exploring Expedition, which was in the 
field for five months. Returning home, he continued his prepa- 
ration for Harvard College, but was obliged to give up all hope 
of a collegiate course on account of failing health. It was in 
December of that year that his first hsemorrhage of the lungs 

VOL. LI. V 




Fig. 6. Eorebt James Faequhabson. 



9 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



occurred. Although knowing perfectly what lay before him, the 
young man kept unflinchingly onward. Wrapped up in his loved 
science and toiling like a strong man in the service of the acad- 
emy which had won his boy-heart, he kept happily and whole- 
somely busy to the very end. His labor in a loved cause no doubt 

prolonged his life, but at last, 
December 10, 1881, the long- 
expected summons came. The 
monument of that young life 
consists of a series of papers, 
chiefly entomological, of no mean 
merit and the academy. In 1872 
Duncan Putnam found his first 
specimen of Galeodes. This be- 
longs to the family SolpngidcB, 
a curious group related to the 
spiders and scorpions. From that 
date on his interest centered up- 
on this little-known and curious 
group. To so good profit did he 
labor that even now in our latest 
general authoritative work on 
^^ ^^ ^K- ^^^^ insects Prof. Comstock names 

P^L ln*n-^JHBH[ Putnam as the chief authority. 

Fig. 7.-Cai>tain Wilfred P. Hall. The results of his Study WerC not 

fully ready for publication at 
the time of his death, but Prof. Herbert Osborne put them in 
shape for the printer. They comprise one brief paper Notes on 
Solpugidse, an important Bibliography, and data for a Mono- 
graph upon the American Galeodidse. All of this material, beau- 
tifully illustrated by the author's own drawings, was published 
in the memorial volume of the Proceedings. Besides the material 
upon the Solpugidm, Mr. Putnam's work includes a score of im- 
portant papers which were printed in the Proceedings, Popular 
Science Monthly, United States Government reports, etc. The 
whole motive in J. Duncan Putnam's work was to do what ought 
to be done. As he himself once said," If others are unwilling to do 
what ought to be done, I must." No one outside his family knew 
him better than Dr. Parry, who said of him : " Though over thirty 
years his senior in the broad field of Nature, we occupied the 
same level. Always respectful to my personal wishes or sugges- 
tions, never flinching from any imposed duty, always cheerful, 
hopeful, and zealous, he proved a companion worthy of the high- 
est regard, which he never forfeited either by word or deed." By 
his activity in field work Mr. Putnam gathei-ed a collection of 
twenty-five thousand specimens, representing more than eight 




DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 91 

thousand species of insects. Some of these were type specimens 
from which he had himself described new species. This whole 
collection, together with his entomological library, was turned 
over by his parents to the academy, upon certain conditions 
securing its proper care and integrity, June 25, 1880. 

The archaeological work of the academy has been done in two 
localities. Among Davenport residents who have been interested 
in the academy is Captain Wilfred P. Hall, better known as "the 
old man of the skiff." Captain Hall through a long series of 
years made great journeys on the Mississippi and its tributary 
streams in a little boat. Among the Arkansas mounds he made 
extensive diggings and collected many beautiful and valuable 
relics. The district is a rich one, especially in objects of pottery 
and shell. When fine specimens were found in private hands, 
the captain would secure them by purchase or exchange. In his 
barter, books, including dictionaries, were of special use. After 
every trip Captain Hall brought back new and interesting mate- 
rial, until the academy's collection was one of the finest, if not the 
best, from that district. It was this collection that supplied the 
better part of William H. Holmes's important paper upon the 




Fig. 8. Pottery from Arkansas Mounds. 



Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi Valley.* Captain Hall's col- 
lection is still one of the strongest features in the academy's 
museum, and the old skiff in which he traveled so many thou- 



* Proceedings, vol. iv. Expanded to cover a larger field and under another title ia 
annual report, Bureau of f^thnology. 



92 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 





sands of miles is still preserved on the academy's grounds. The 
other region archieologically explored by the academy is the local 

field immediately around 
Davenport. In the inves- 
tigations here some most 
important facts regard- 
ing mound construction 
and burial have been se- 
cured and curious and 
valuable relics found. 
Among these local relics 
are skulls, objects of shell, 
carved stone pipes, cop- 
per axes wrapped in cloth 
(the structure of which 
has been preserved by 
impregnation with salts 
of copper produced by at- 
mospheric action), and 
stone tablets bearing in- 
scriptions or pictorial de- 
signs. None of these 
relics have attracted so 
much attention as two of 
the stone pipes, called 
from their shape "ele- 
phant pipes," and the tab- 
lets, which are three in 
number, two of black 
slate and one of lime- 

Fic. ;.-CuPPK,i AxLs WRAPPED IX Cluth. stone. About the authen- 

ticity of these five objects 
a bitter controversy has waged. The matter first appeared within 
the academy August 29, 1884, when attention was called to an 
article by H. W. Henshaw in the Second Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. In this article the authenticity of the 
elephant pipes was seriously impugned. A committee was ap- 
pointed to look into the charge and meet it. A somewhat acri- 
monious discussion, in which many took part, was conducted in 
various periodicals. Mr. Charles E. Putnam, father of J. Duncan 
Putnam, and president of the academy, prepared a vindication, 
which was published as an independent pamphlet, and later re- 
published with an appendix of congratulatory letters from various 
archaeologists. While this is not the proper place for discussing 
the authenticity of these specimens, it may not be out of place for" 
the writer to say that to his judgment no substantial argument 




DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 93 

by the opposition demonstrates either the falsity of the specimens 
or fraud on the part of the academy. A careful examination of 
the objects themselves by a disinterested and impartial commit- 
tee has never been made. Until it has been, every expression of 
opinion can only be personal. 

Up to the year 1883 there was no paid office in connection with 
the academy. Early in 1883 the heavy labors devolving upon 
the curator were emphasized, and the payment to him of a salary 
was uged. Toward the end of that year the modest sum of five 
hundred dollars was voted as salary, the incumbent being Prof. 
W. H. Pratt, one of the original four of 1867. At about the same 
time the financial condition of the academy made a vigorous efl^ort 
on the part of its friends to relieve it from debt quite necessary. 
There was a little balance of indebtedness upon the building and 
other obligations had arisen. An appeal was made to the city, 
and a citizens' meeting was held on April 24, 1883. At that 
meeting twelve hundred and ninety dollars was subscribed, and, 
by a short canvass among the citizens, that sum was raised to 
twenty-nine hundred and sixty dollars, more than enough to pay 
all debt. The surplus, amounting to nearly one thousand dollars. 




Fig. 10. Slate Tablet, Davenport. 

was set apart toward a permanent fund, the interest only on which 
was to be available. 

Just at this time of favorable financial condition came the 
attack upon the elephant pipes. Whether this was intended to 
harm the academy or not, it had that result. The society was 
already weakened by loss of active members. Death or removal 
had taken from the academy Sheldon, Putnam, Parry, and Far- 



94 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



quharson. Interested and self-sacrificing members remained, but 
they were not professional scientists. The attack surprised some, 

disgusted others, dis- 
couraged more. A few- 
brave workers kept 
their hands on the 
work. Among them 
the curator was inde- 
fatigable. The care of 
the collections was but 
a small part of his la- 
bors. Besides that he 
had many of the cares 
of correspondence and 
of the library. He it 
was who encouraged 
the young members of 
the Agassiz Associa- 
tions. To make the 
academy useful to a 
larger company than 
its own membership, 
he organized and de- 
livered courses of pop- 
ular lectures to the children of the public schools; these were 
given at the academy, and were illustrated by its collections. 
Classes from the different schools had their set times for these 
lectures, and the result of them was encouraging. The experi- 
ment might well be tried at other places. 

While not directly an academy enterprise, it is certain that its 
work and influence led to the holding of the second annual con- 
vention of the Agassiz Associations of the United States at Daven- 
port in 1886. There were then two flourishing chapters of the 
" A. A." in the city, one at the high school and the other in the 
grammar schools ; the combined membership was about seventy. 
That the active young members of these chapters drew a large 
amount of their interest from the academy is beyond doubt. The 
meeting at Davenport was a great success, and young scientists 
throughout the United States were stimulated by it. 

With the death of Charles E. Putnam and the later removal 
of the patient curator to Minneapolis, the little force of workers 
was still further reduced. The one thing that held the organi- 
zation together beyond all others was the publication with the 
mother love, erecting a monument, behind it. In 1886 the publi- 
cation fund was begun with a gift from Charles Viele, of Evans- 
ville, Indiana, of fifty dollars. From that time the idea of keep- 




Fio. 1 



liLKT, DaVEXPOKT. 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 95 



ing the Proceedings alive was foremost in mind. Mrs. Putnam 
exercised every energy to secure the funds. The curatorship had 
passed from Prof. Pratt to Prof. Barris, whose important papers 
on local geology are a valuable part of the Proceedings. Leav- 
ing to him all the curator's duties and more, she devoted herself 
to this. In 1895 she saw her desires gained : a bequest of ten 
thousand dollars was left in that year by Mrs. Mary P. Bull as a 
permanent publication fund, a memorial to Charles E. and J. 
Duncan Putnam. 

With this substantial encouragement the academy now looks 
forward with increasing hope. Much needed improvements have 
just been made in building and cases ; books have been rearranged 
in the library ; much needed binding of pamphlets and magazines 
has been done. The membership is increasing, and when the 
faithful few long toilers are gone new recruits will be ready. 
Definite plans of growth and development are shaping themselves. 
An effort is making to raise the permanent endowivent fund to 
fifty thousand dollars. When 
that is done a paid secretaryship 
can be established to direct and 
organize the work. Then, with 
permanent publication secured 
and direction and activity in- 
sured, an effort will be made to 
complete the building. The edi- 
fice already constructed is only 
the rear part of a far more ex- 
tensive one. On the lot before 
it is ample space for a large and 
imposing structure. The pres- 
ent building is of brick, and is 
in two stories. The dimensions 
are shown on the accompanying 
ground plans. The front door 
opens on a central hallway, on 
either side of which is a small, 
square room. One of these is the 
office and workroom of the cura- 
tor ; the other contains the Put- 

nam entomological collection and library, and is used for the regu- 
lar monthly meetings of the academy. Behind these rooms is the 
main museum hall. It consists of a ground floor, with a second- 
story gallery running around its four sides. On the main floor 
are the collections in natural history, representing all depart- 
ments, and particularly rich in local zoology and geology. Here 
are the results of the field work of Sheldon, Pratt, Barris, and 



X 




Fig. rj. Charles E. Putnam. 



96 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Pilsbry, not to mention many other local collectors. Here are 
Captain Hall's collections from Arkansas, and the tablets, pipes, 
copper axes, and other notable specimens from the local mounds. 

In the gallery are collections of 
minerals and an extensive series 
of stone-age tools and weapons. 
In front of this gallery and over 
the hallway and two front rooms 
of the lower story is the library, 
which can be used as a hall for 
a reasonably large audience. 
The library is one of the best 
devoted to science in the West, 
and has been chiefly secured in 
exchange for the Proceedings. 
Nominally it contains more than 
forty thousand volumes ; but 
this number must be considera- 
bly reduced, as latterly single 
issues of periodicals have been 
catalogued under distinct num- 
bers. With all reductions made, 
however, the library is impor- 
tant. Publications in twenty- 
two different tongues are on its exchange list. 

Among the most recent subjects in which the academy has 
interested itself is an archaeological study of the State of Iowa, 
planned by the writer. The plan involves several distinct pieces 
of work : 

1. The preparation of a hibliograpliy of Iowa antiquities. 

2. The publication of a summary of Iowa archaeology. 

3. Organization of field work throughout the State. 

4. Publication of a final report and an archaeological map. 

5. Preparation of a series of diagrams and casts of an edu- 
cational character for distribution to the higher institutions of 
learning in the State. 

The first two parts of the plan have been accomplished, and 
the academy is now endeavoring to carry out the third. While 
the academy has given and is giving considerable attention to 
archaeology, it is not neglecting other lines of science, and papers 
of importance in geology, botany, and entomology are in its hands 
for publication in the near future. 

Thirty years is not a long time, even in America. In Decem- 
ber, 18!7, the academy will celebrate its thirtieth anniversary by 
a special meeting. It may then look back with pride over its rec- 
ord. From a membership of four meeting in an office, it has grown 



Fig. 13. \V. II. r 



KATT. 



98 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

to one of scores meeting in its own home; it has a neat building 
free of debt ; it pays a curator a regular, if small, salary ; it has 
something toward a permanent endowment fund ; with six credit- 
able volumes of Proceedings, it has a permanent invested fund of 
ten thousand dollars to perpetuate their publication ; it owns a 
valuable museum, which is open free to the public, and acts as a 
constant incentive to develop scientific interest. And all this has 
oeen done by the academy in a small town in the West, without 
the assistance of any particularly wealthy patrons. 



-- 



SOURCES OF THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY.* 

By E. W. scripture, 
yale university. 

PSYCHOLOGY did not begin with the development of its 
own methods or in the psychological laboratory ; on the 
contrary, it has been largely the product of other sciences. In 
most cases the first impulse to the investigation of psychological 
phenomena was given by the discovery of sources of error in the 
other sciences which were due to the scientist himself. 

In astronomy Tycho Brahe did not accept his instruments as 
being correct, but determined their errors ; it was not, however, 
until centuries later that a suspicion arose concerning the possi- 
bility of errors in the observer himself. 

Astronomers have to record the time of the passage of heav- 
enly bodies across parallel lines in the telescope. When the star 
is about to make its transit the astronomer begins counting the 
beats of the clock. As the star approaches and passes the line he 
fixes in mind its place at the last beat before crossing and its 
place at the first beat after. The position of the line in respect 
to these two places gives the fraction of a second at which the 
transit occurred. 

In 1795 the British astronomer royal found that his assistant, 
working with another telescope at the same time, was making his 
records too late by half a second. Later on, this amounted to 
0"8 second. This difference was large enough to seriously disturb 
the calculations, and, as the astronomer did not suspect that he 
himself might be wrong, the blame was laid on the assistant.! 
In 1820 Bessel X systematically compared his observations with 

* From a forthcoming work, The New Psychology (London, Walter Scott ; New York, 
Scribner). 

f Greenwich Astronomical Observations, 1795, vol. iii, pp. 319, .^89. 

X Astronom. Bcobacht. d. Sternwarte zu Kiinigsberg, Abth. VIII, p. iii; Ahth. Xf, p 
iv; Abtb. XVIIl, p. iii. 



SOURCES OF THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY. 99 

those of another observer for the same star. They found a differ- 
ence of half a second. Later he made similar experiments with 
Argelander and Struve, with the result of always finding a per- 
sonal difference. 

Bessel sought for the cause of this " personal equation " by 
varying the conditions. He first made use of the sudden disap- 
pearance or reappearance of a star instead of steady motion. The 
personal difference was much decreased. This seemed to indicate 
that the trouble lay in comparing the steady progress of the star 
with the sudden beat of the clock. The next step was to change 
the beats, with the result that for Bessel the observations were 
made later with the clock beating half seconds than with one 
beating seconds, whereas Argelander and Struve showed no par- 
ticular change. One other point was investigated namely, the 
effect of the apparent rate of the star; within wide limits the per- 
sonal equation was not changed. 

About 1838 the personal equation began to receive regular 
notice in astronomical observations, as appears in the publica- 
tions of Airy * and Gerling of that year.f 

It was natural to wish for a comparison of the astronomer's 
record with the real time of transit. At the suggestion of Gauss, 
an artificial transit was arranged by Gerling, the object observed 
being a slow pendulum. This is probably the first measurement 
of a reaction time. In 1854 Prazmowski X suggested an apparatus 
carrying a luminous point for a star and closing an electric cir- 
cuit at the instant it passed the line ; a comparison of the true 
time with the astronomer's record would give the real amount of 
his personal equation. From this time onward various forms of 
apparatus were invented and numerous investigations were car- 
ried out. The astronomers found that in such observations 
sometimes the star was seen to pass the line too soon, sometimes 
too late, and that the error varied with every variation in the 
method of observing and in the mental condition of the observer.* 

Let us turn for a moment to another science. The new physi- 
ology, begun by the pupils of Johannes Miiller, in which the 
phenomena of life were to be explained by physical and chemical 
processes, had undergone a remarkable development. Du Bois- 
Reymond had taught how to apply the experimental methods 
and apparatus of physics to the study of physiological processes. 
Soon after this Helmholtz measured the velocity of nervous 
transmission (1850), an experiment that Johannes Miiller had 

* Greenwich Astron. Observations, 1838. p. xiii. 
+ Astron. Nachfichten, 1838, vol xv, p. 249. 

\ Comptes rendiis, 1854, vol. xxxviii, p. 748. 

* For the history of the personal equation, see Sanford, Personal Equation, Am. Jour. 
Psych., 1888, vol. ii, pp. 3, 271, 403. 



loo POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

considered hopeless. This involved the construction of the myo- 
graph and the application of Pouillet's method of measuring 
small intervals of time. 

The nerves, however, are only the peripheral portions of the 
nervous system ; the desire lay near to measure the time occupied 
by the brain processes. Such measurements have been (and still 
are at the present day) impossible by direct physiological methods. 
It was, however, a sufficiently settled fact that the brain processes 
are closely accompanied by mental processes. This consideration 
led to the employment of the time-methods on living human be- 
ings. The stimulus was applied to the skin, to the eye, or to the 
ear, and the time required for the subject to respond by a muscu- 
lar movement was measured. Since the subject could tell what 
he experienced under different variations of the experiment it was 
found possible to measure the time of sensation, of action, etc. 
The physiological processes corresponding to these mental pro- 
cesses were to some extent known. It was soon discovered, how- 
ever, that other mental processes e. g., discrimination, associa- 
tion, etc. could be introduced in such a way as to be measured. 

Beginning with 1865, Donders made a systematic attack on the 
problem of psychological time- measurements, and was soon fol- 
lowed by Exner. Helmholtz had already directed the experi- 
ments of his pupil Exner in measuring the time of sensation, and 
in 1877 the work of Auerbach and von Kries appeared from his 
Berlin laboratory. 

The interest of the physiologist lay, however, mainly in the 
deductions to be drawn concerning brain action. Even from the 
simpler forms of reaction time the amount of physiological knowl- 
edge to be obtained is small, and for the more complicated forms 
it is zero. It was natural, therefore, for physiology to pursue the 
subject not much further.* 

Thus the two sciences of astronomy and physiology discovered 
and developed the methods of investigating mental times ; the 
further development was the task of psychology. 

Another source of the new psychology is to be found in the 
physiological study of the sense organs. The most obvious 
method for determining the functions of the nerves and end organs 
of the skin the nose, the ear, or the eye is to ask the living sub- 
ject what he feels when various stimuli are applied. In this way 
there has arisen a large body, of knowledge concerning the sen- 
sory functions of the nervous system. In this form, however, the 
problem is a purely psychological one. To inquire if the skin 

* For the historieal account of experiments on reaction time, see Buccola, La Icgge del 
tempo nci tVnoiiieni del ])ensieio, Milano, 188:5, and Rihot, La Psychologie allemande con- 
temporaine, Paris, 1885 ; for a summarv, with literature, see Jastrovv, Time Relations of 
Mental Phenomena, New York, 1890. 



SOURCES OF THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY. loi 

" feels " heat is, from a physiological point of view, an indirect 
question. Physiologically, the nerves of the skin may respond to 
heat by some chemical process ; that they do so respond may be 
inferred on the hypothesis of a correspondence between the occur- 
rence of a sensation of heat and the action of the nerve. The di- 
rect question is one of psychology ; it is asked by physiology for 
its own purposes, and the psychological data are collected as long 
as they are of use in this way. Physiology, however, is " physics 
and chemistry of the body," and as soon as psychological data 
cease to afford physical deductions the interest of the physiologist 
generally ceases. The study of the psychology of sensation and 
action, however, has formed and still forms an important portion 
of physiology. 

Historically considered, the study of the sensations of the skin 
received its first great impulse from Ernst Heinrich Weber's 
monograph, Tastsinn unci Gemeiiigefiilile* This has been fol- 
lowed by the work of a host of investigators from the labora- 
tories of Ludwig, Du Bois-Reymond, and their pupils.f 

The physiology of the eye originated much of the psychology of 
sight. Concerning the functions of the optical system, physiology 
can scarcely be said to have gone beyond the dioptrics of the eye. 
Nearly all further knowledge consists of deductions from the 
mental experiences of the subject. For example, physiology 
knows almost nothing concerning the functions of the retina. 
Psychologically, however, the color sensations and their combi- 
nations can be accurately measured. It is true that the investi- 
gations of color vision have been and are mainly carried out by 
physiologists and physicists ; but the point of view has become 
primarily a purely psychological one. This is strikingly exempli- 
fied in the researches of Konig, from which physiological deduc- 
tions are practically excluded. For the various other phenomena, 
such as those of the optical illusions, of monocular and of binocu- 
lar space, we have at present no hope of anything beyond a 
psychological knowledge, and the investigations of Hering, Helm- 
holtz, and others can be regarded as direct contributions to psy- 
chology. 

There is a third science whose influence is to-day the strongest 
of all. Physics is theoretically the co-ordinate science to psychol- 
ogy. Every direct experience has an objective, or physical, and 
a subjective, or psychical, side. Again, the fundamental science 
of Nature is physics, that of Mind is psychology. Practically, 
however, psychology receives from the most powerful science 

* Wagner's Handworterbuch d. Physiologie, 1851, vol. iii (2), p. 561 ; also separate. 

f For summaries and references, see Funke und Hering, Physiologie der Hautem- 
pfindungen und der (iemeingefiihle, Herrman's Handbuch der Physiologie, 1880, vol. iii (2), 
p. 287; and Beaunis, Nouveaux elements de physiologie humaine, vol. ii, Paris, 1888. 



102 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

of modern times an invaluable protection and an uninterrupted 
series of scientific gifts. The photometry of Lambert led not 
only to the methods of modern technical photometry but also 
to the measurement of our sensations of light, while the law of 
relativity of sensations had been before Fechner established 
for lights by Bouguer, Masson, Arago, Herschel, and Steinheil. 
The study of the errors of observation in physics and astronomy 
has led not only to the science of physical measurements, but also 
to that of psychological measurements. Newton, Young, and 
Maxwell began not only the science of ether vibrations, but also 
the science of sensations of color. The laws of mechanics apply 
not only to inanimate objects but also to the results of our own 
volitions. In fact, in every department of psychology, progress 
has been and still is closely dependent on the achievements of 
physics and technology. 

Psychology has not only received most of its methods and 
much of its material from physics ; it has for the first time in 
history reached through physics a definite conception of its own 
problem. The older psychology and philosophy had always main- 
tained the necessity of directly investigating the facts of con- 
sciousness. The standpoint was simple enough, but, as no scien- 
tific methods of doing so were developed, the whole problem 
remained vague and unsatisfactory. Among the proposals for a 
better state of affairs was that of first investigating the nervous 
system and then deducing psychological laws therefrom. The 
brain was to be accurately mapped out into faculties, the paths of 
nervous currents were to be traced along various fibers, and the 
interaction of nervous molecules was to be known in every par- 
ticular ; it was even expected that various cells could be cut out, 
with a memory or a volition snugly inclosed in each. In other 
words, there was to be no psychology except on the basis of a 
fully developed brain physiology. Unfortunately, very little has 
been ascertainable concerning the finer functions of the nervous 
system. Aside from a general knowledge that the cerebellum 
has to do with co-ordination of movements, the convolutions of 
Broca have to do with speech, and similar facts, nothing of even 
the remotest psychological bearings has been discovered concern- 
ing the functions of the brain. The roseate hopes of those who 
expected a new psychology out of a " physiology of mind " were 
totally disappointed. In the effort for something new, however, 
the psychologist supplied the data concerning the " molecular 
movements" in the brain out of his own imagination ; the famil- 
iar facts of mind were retold in a metaphorical language of " nerve 
currents," " chemical transformation," etc., of which not one par- 
ticle had a foundation in fact. The physiology of mind started 
with an impossibility and ended with an absurdity. 



SOURCES OF THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY. 103 

It is to be noted that these statements refer to investigations 
of and speculations on the brain for psychological purposes. For 
physiological purposes the case is utterly different. The develop- 
ment of brain anatomy and of the knowledge concerning the 
localization of cerebral functions are among the greatest achieve- 
ments of modern times.* 

Moreover, the collection of facts and the development of 
theories of the nervous activities accompanying mental phe- 
nomena has given rise to the science of physiological psychology.! 

With these sciences, however, the psychologist has compara- 
tively little to do. The study of brain function has not con- 
tributed a single fact to our knowledge of mental life ; the deduc- 
tions of physiological psychology concerning nervous function 
have begun with the facts of experimental and observational 
psychology, and are still so unsettled as not to allow additional 
deductions backward. 

While this was going on, physics had through Helmholtz, J 
Mach,* and others gradually come to a clear understanding of 
the relation of its facts to the immediate facts of consciousness. 
Direct experience as present in our sensations was accepted as 
supplying the facts of physics. For example, in measuring the 
length of a bar, a visual sensation, the scale of measurement, was 
applied to another visual sensation, the bar. Indeed, as was 
clearly recognized, every direct measurement of physics was 
primarily a comparison between sensations in other words, a 
psychological measurement. From this combined measurement 
the physicist reduced as much as possible the psychological ele- 
ments ; it was but a step for the psychologist to reduce the phys- 
ical elements in order to have a psychological measurement. || 
This step made psychology for the first time a science in the 

* For a historical sketch and an account of the latest remarkable discovery, see Flechsig, 
Gehirn und Scale, Leipzig, 1896. 

f As a representative work see Exner, Entwurf zu einer physiologischen Erklarung der 
psvchischen Erscheinungen, i. Theil, Lepzig, 1894. For a convenient sumraarv see Ziehen, 
Leitfaden der physiologischen Psychologic, second edition, 1893, also translated. 

X Helmholtz, Ueber das Ziel und die Fortschritte der Naturwisseaschaft, Populiire wiss. 
Vortrage, Braunschweig, 1871. Helmholtz, Die Thatsachen in der VVahrnehmung, Leipzig, 
1879. 

* Mach, Die Mechanik in ihrer Eutwickelung, Leipzig, 1883, second edition, 1889; also 
translated into English, Chicago, 1895 (Mach's earlier monographs are mentioned in the 
preface). Mach, Beitrage zur Analyse der Empfindungen, p. 141, Jena, 1886. 

II The psychological standpoint has been clearly stated by Wundt, Uel)er die Messungen 
psychischer Vorgange, Philos. Studien, 1883, vol. iv, p. 1 ; Weitere Bemerkungen iiber psy- 
chische Messungen, Philos. Studien, p. 463 ; Ueber die Entheilung der Wissenschaften, 
Philos. Studien, 1889, vol. v, p. 1 ; Ueber die Definition der Psychologic, Philos. Studien, 
1896, vol. xii, p. 1 ; Ueber naiven und kritischcn Realismus, Philos. Studien, 1896, vol. xii, 
p. 307. I have followed Wundt in The Problem of Psychology, Mind, 1891, vol. xvi, p. 
305 ; Psychological Measurements, Philosophical Review, 1893, vol. ii, p. 677. 



104 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 

full meaning of the term, with all the previous achievements of 
physics for its use. 

With a real science of the facts of consciousness at hand, the 
attempt at a " mental physiology " appears as absurd as an at- 
tempt to establish a science of meteorology from the twitterings 
of the birds especially when the birds are imaginary ones. The 
physicists have thus not only given to the new psychology its 
basis, but have also freed it from the rubbish of an overheated 
imagination. 

There is still another source which we must consider, namely, 
the old psychology. By the " old psychology " we mean psychol- 
ogy before the introduction of experiment and measurement ; in 
its last forms it is the psychology of the Herbartians or of the 
English associationalists. 

We have already seen how the fundamental method, that of 
observation, was established by the old psychology. The method 
of direct observation of mental life is the only possible one, and 
until it had received a firm basis any science of psychology was 
impossible. As has been explained in Part I, all the other 
methods of psychology are only refinements of this method. 
The new psychology is thus merely a development on the basis 
of the old ; there is no difi^erence in its material, no change in its 
point of view, and no degeneration in its aim. What the old 
tried to do, namely, to establish a science of mind, and what it 
did do, as far as its means allowed, the new psychology with 
vastly improved methods and facilities is striving to accomplish. 

This close connection, however, must not involve us in a false 
estimation of the direct results accomplished by the old psychol- 
ogy. The method of unaided observation was applied to exhaus- 
tion, and the later works contained little more than the earlier 
ones. Indeed, the final sum total of psychological knowledge 
acquired by this method can be stated to be a mass of ingenious 
speculations, of endless discussions, and of true and untrue facts ; 
even such achievements as the laws of association have, in the 
light of newer methods, been shown to be merely superficial 
arrangements of facts. It has been claimed that unaided ob- 
servation has yielded valuable storehouses of facts, and it fur- 
nishes a special satisfaction to some people at the present day 
to point out guesses of this older psychology forestalling achieve- 
ments of the newer science. Among the clever observations con- 
cerning facts of mental life and the ingenious guesses at their 
laws, there are and must be some which are ultimately found 
to be partially or wholly correct. As Helmhoitz remarks: "It 
would be a stroke of skill always to guess falsely. In such a 
happy chance a man can loudly claim his priority for the dis- 
covery ; if otherwise, a lucky oblivion conceals the false conclu- 



SOURCES OF THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY. 105 

sions. The adherents of such a process are glad to certify the 
value of a first thought. Conscientious workers, who are shy at 
bringing their thoughts before the public until they have tested 
them in all directions, solved all doubts, and have firmly estab- 
lished the proof ; these are at a decided disadvantage. To settle 
the present kind of questions of priority only by the date of 
their first publication, and without considering the ripeness of 
the research, has seriously favored this mischief. 

" In the type-case of the printer all the wisdom of the world is 
contained which has been or can be discovered ; it is only requi- 
site to know how the letters are to be arranged. So, also, in the 
hundreds of books and pamphlets which are every year published 
about ether, the structure of atoms, the theory of perception, as 
well as on the nature of the asthenic fever and carcinoma, all the 
most refined shades of possible hypotheses are exhausted, and 
among these there must necessarily be many fragments of the 
correct theory. But who knows how to find them ? 

" I insist upon this in order to make clear to you that all this 
literature, of untried and unconfirmed hypotheses, has no value 
in the progress of science. On the contrary, the few sound ideas 
which they may contain are concealed by the rubbish of the rest ; 
and one who wants to publish something really new facts sees 
himself open to the danger of countless claims of priority unless 
he is prepared to waste time and power in reading beforehand a 
quantity of absolutely useless books, and to destroy his reader's 
patience by a multitude of useless quotations." * 

In order to give a psychological illustration, I will refer to the 
case of mediate association of ideas. f The existence of such asso- 
ciations was discovered in the course of an extended experimental 
investigation of the manner in which ideas were associated. It 
was proved, for the first time, that such associations are made. 
A single personal observation of this sort is to be found in 
Hamilton's works. A still earlier one is reported from Hume, 
and a favorable perusal of the works of Aristotle would probably 
reveal something similar. Such cursory observations, fruitless 
and unconfirmed, do not entitle the makers to any special credit. 
The credit of an experimental discovery remains with the dis- 
coverer, regardless of previous guesses that may have hit the 
truth. 

The debt of the new psychology to the old psychology of the 
past does not involve any claims by the " sensation-psychology " 
of the present. Among the pupils of the old psychology there 



* Helmholtz, Popular Lectures, Second Series, p. 228. New York, 1881. 
f The idea, C, follows a totally unrelated idea, A. A and C had previously been inde- 
pendently associated with B, but now B is not thought of, or is entirely forgotten. 
VOL. LI. 8 



io6 POPVLAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

were necessarily many who grew up in ignorance of tlie new, or 
who did not learn of its existence until too late for changing the 
mode of thought. Just as the old psychology led to an improved 
science on the part of the progressive men, so it led to a degener- 
ated form on the part of the others. Unable to grasp and to 
apply the methods of true science, these men can not even under- 
stand what the new is all about; and in their attempt to do some- 
thing new they have fallen into the absurdities of " psychical re- 
search," or " experimented " with spiritualistic mediums, or gath- 
ered " statistics " concerning ghosts, or interviewed the several 
personalities of the hypnotic subject. 

The older psychology, with its traditions and its dignity, was 
a discipline to be treated with filial consideration and respect; 
but the latest " sensation-psychology," plunged in the dregs of all 
the mysticism and superstition of the middle ages, not only con- 
tributes nothing to the progress of science, but arouses in opposi- 
tion to it all the ghosts of the witches' caldron. 

Summarizing, we are entitled to say that the new psychology 
is the old psychology in a new phase of development ; that the 
impulses to this development came from physics, physiology, and 
astronomy ; and that the resulting application of the best meth- 
ods of modern science to the great problems handed down from 
the past is what makes the new psychology a true science worthy 
of its origin. 



THE LATENT VITALITY OF SEEDS. 

By M. C. de CANDOLLE. 

SEEDS that remain in keeping without losing the faculty of 
germination are said to be in a state of latent life. The term 
is not exact, for it leaves us still to ask whether the life of the 
seeds is completely stopped, or is simply slackened in its activity 
questions to which the same answer can not be given under all 
circumstances. It may be that a seed will continue to respire 
without producing any formation of new histological elements, 
when a loss of substance results to the plantule it contains which 
is compensated for by the assimilation of reserve materials from 
the energides, or living protoplasmic masses of the cells. A plant- 
ule may be supposed to live in this way for a considerable time 
if the temperature is favorable and the seed and the surrounding 
air are not too dry. Under these conditions the latent life may 
be considered one of slackened activity. 

An experiment by MM. Van Tieghem and Bonnier proves 
that seeds may retain their vitality for a considerable period in 
this condition. Three lots of peas and beans were left one in 



THE LATENT VITALITY OF SEEDS. 107 

the open air, a second in a sealed glass tube containing common 
air, and a third in a sealed tube containing pure carbonic-acid 
gas. At the end of two years the seeds of the first lot had per- 
ceptibly increased in weight, and nearly all germinated ; those 
kept in confined air had increased less in weight, and fewer of 
them germinated ; the air inclosed with them in the tube had 
changed in composition, having lost oxygen and gained carbonic 
acid. Of those sealed up in carbonic acid, the weight had not 
changed, and none germinated. 

While these results show that the seeds continued to lead a 
retarded life in open and in confined air, it is possible that the 
retarded life was only of short duration, and that it had ceased, 
before the end of the experiment, to give place to a complete 
stoppage of respiration, assimilation, and life. But to admit this 
we have to suppose that the protoplasm in seeds in latent life 
finally becomes wholly inert, while it preserves its composition 
and its internal chemical structure. This view seems to be con- 
firmed by a number of experiments and observations which I am 
about to describe. 

I have already several times related experiments that prove 
that seeds may be subjected to a very intense cold for many 
hours in succession without losing their germinating faculty. A 
recent experiment of this sort, made with M. Raoul Pictet's appa- 
ratus and under his direction, proves that some peas and beans 
and fennel seeds germinate quite well after having endured for 
four days a temperature of 200 C. ( 328 F.). The seeds had 
not undergone any previous desiccation, and no precautions were 
taken to adjust the depression of temperature. Others of M. 
Pictet's researches have demonstrated that the chemical reac- 
tions which take place at ordinary temperatures cease to be pro- 
duced at very low temperatures, like those reached in the experi- 
ments just mentioned. If this is so, we may suppose that the 
protoplasm of seeds exists during these experiments in a condition 
of complete inertia, without either respiring or assimilating. In 
other words, life is then really stopped ; yet this does not prevent 
their vegetating anew when the conditions of temperature and 
moisture permit it. The seeds in these experiments were cooled 
so very rapidly that it is natural to suppose that their protoplasm 
was already quite inert before the test began. It would be hard 
otherwise to explain its complete indifi'erence to abrupt variations 
of temperature, which would certainly have been more harmful 
if they affected protoplasm still active. 

Another experiment I have recently tried casts more light on 
this point. "Wrapping seeds of wheat, oats, fennel, and the sensi- 
tive plant in packages of tinned paper and inclosing the whole in 
a sheet- iron box, hermetically sealed, I placed them under the 



io8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

cover of a wooden box in a compressed-air refrigerator for 
meats, where they were exposed for a hundred and eighteen 
days to repeated but not continuous refrigerations, most of 
which lasted twenty hours each. The lowest temperature reached 
was - 53-89 C. (- 65 F.) ; the highest, - 3778 C. (- 36 F.) ; and 
the mean, 41*93'' C. ( 43*4 F.). After each refrigeration the 
temperature rose to that of the interior of the receiver, but slowly, 
while the refrigerations were rapid. 

After the conclusion of the experiment, when taken out of the 
refrigerator and planted, the wheat, oats, and fennel came up 
promptly; only thirteen out of sixty seeds of sensitive plants 
germinated, and of lobelia seeds, which were too small to be 
counted, only ten. The failures of the sensitive-plant seeds could 
not all be attributed to the cold, for others of the same species 
which were not refrigerated did but little better. The lobelia 
seeds were, however, certainly killed by the cold, for the control 
seeds germinated abundantly. It is safe, too, to infer that seeds 
can remain inert and unharmed in a medium unsuitable for respi- 
ration, provided nothing is present to injure their protoplasm 
through chemical action. Such a medium, for example, would be 
an atmosphere of carbonic acid. 

I desired to ascertain the effects on germination of keeping 
seeds in vacuum. The most obvious way of trying this experi- 
ment, by the formation of a barometrical vacuum, was liable to 
the objection that the abrupt removal of the air and moisture 
might disturb the tissues and modify the structure and compo- 
sition of the protoplasm of the seeds, and thereby produce a 
complication of results. I therefore tried another way, by im- 
mersing them in mercury under such precautions that no air 
could reach them other than what they contained within them- 
selves. The results agreed substantially with those obtained by 
refrigeration, and go to confirm the view that seeds can continue 
to subsist in a condition of complete vital inertia, from which 
they recover whenever the conditions of the surrounding medium 
permit their energides, or the living masses of their cells, to re- 
spire and assimilate. 

At first sight, this return to life resembles the resumption of 
motion by a machine that has been resting when it is put into 
communication with its motor a comparison which has been 
often made. But the phenomena are not of the same nature in 
the two cases, and the energides, of which the total constitutes 
the living individual, are not machines in the usual sense of the 
word. For a machine works without changing its structure, 
while the energides segmentate after they have grown, and their 
segmentations operate in their turn as energides. This is because 
the matter assimilated by living protoplasm augments its mass 



THE LATENT VITALITY OF SEEDS. 109 

without diminislimg its energy. For it to be so, this mass must 
evidently continually receive new portions of energy, and this 
can come only either from the surrounding medium or from the 
reactions that go on in the protoplasm itself. In the former case 
the agency consists of radiations of different sorts, and is of a 
purely physico-chemical order ; while this can not be in the sec- 
ond case. In fact, the life of protoplasm is manifested by move- 
ments which are combined in such a way as to produce an orien- 
tation of its parts according to certain structural dispositions 
succeeding one another in a determined order; phenomena to 
which ordinary physico-chemical actions never give rise. We 
are therefore necessarily led to suppose the existence of a special 
class of reactions of which assimilated matters become capable 
only after their absorption into this special medium, living and 
pre-existing protoplasm, into which they penetrate. 

Under this relation we might, in a certain way, compare as- 
similation to what occurs when combustible matter takes fire on 
being heated in a furnace in which a combustion is already going 
on, and is kept up by the new matter. So, one might say, it is 
only after having been previously put into a special condition by 
their mixture with protoplasm that assimilable substances react 
among themselves in such a way as to produce a new quantity of 
living matter. So one may suppose that protoplasm in the condi- 
tion of latent life, having become inert but retaining the faculty 
of reviving, resembles those mixtures formed of substances that 
do not react except under certain conditions of temperature or 
other influences, and which, so long as those conditions are 
not fulfilled, continue indefinitely in contact without combining. 
Such, for example, are explosive mixtures. 

The presence of assimilable matter in protoplasm or within 
its range is not sufficient for the production of the phenomena of 
assimilation and orientation. Certain conditions of temperature, 
moisture, and aeration have to be realized. As long as they are 
not realized, and if nothing occurs to change the composition or 
structure of the energides, they will remain inert, while they re- 
tain the faculty of evolving anew when the circumstances become 
favorable again. 

Such condition of chemical and vital inertia may probably 
endure for a long time, possibly indefinitely. This, as it seems to 
me, is at least the only way of accounting for the preservation 
of seeds during very many years. Cases are in fact known where 
seeds have germinated after so prolonged a rest that it is impos- 
sible to assume that they have lived during the interval even a 
retarded life. We cite a few examples. M. A. P. de Candolle * 

* Physiologic, p. 621. 



no POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

speaks of seeds of the sensitive plant that germinated after more 
than sixty years of rest. Girardin * saw beans germinate that 
were taken from Tournefort's herbarium, where they had been 
kept more than a hundred years. 

In 1850 Robert Brown, out of curiosity, sowed some seeds from 
the collection of Sir Hans Sloane, of which they had formed a 
part for more than a hundred and fifty years. He succeeded in 
making several of them germinate, particularly a seed of Nelum- 
hium speciosum. The plant has been preserved in the galleries 
of the British Museum.f where I saw it a few years ago. 

The pretended germination of wheat from mummies is said to 
be a fable. It seems, besides, that wheat was always sterilized 
before being introduced into the sarcophagi, so that the possi- 
bility of its being brought to life again was excluded in advance. 
On the other hand, various well- verified facts have demonstrated 
that seeds may preserve their faculty of germinating after an ex- 
tremely prolonged abode underground that is, when sheltered 
from atmospheric influences. The most extraordinary case of 
this kind was observed a few years ago by Prof, de Heldereich, I 
director of the Botanical Garden at Athens. While herborizing 
around the mines of Laurium, this naturalist discovered, in 1875, 
a glaucium, which he unhesitatingly considered a new species, 
and described under the name of Glaucium serpieri. The plant 
had just made its appearance on a tract from which had recently 
been removed a thick bed of scoria produced in the workings of 
the mines by the ancients, or at least fifteen hundred years ago. 
Unless we assume a spontaneous generation, this glaucium must 
be regarded as a species which existed formerly in the place, the 
seeds of which had been preserved intact under the protection of 
the ground and the scoria that covered them. 

Many instances are mentioned in which the opening of deep 
trenches or the clearing of forests has been followed by the ap- 
pearance of species formerly unknown in the place. Prof. Peter, 
of Gottingen,* has very recently made a long series of method- 
ical researches, the results of which are of great interest. His 
method consists in collecting specimens of forest earth, the age 
and all the anterior conditions of which are fully known. He 
cultivates them, taking all precautions against introducing for- 
eign seeds. These specimens of earth are always taken from 

* Sur la propriete qu'ont certaines espfeces de graines de conserver longtemps leurs 
vertues germinatives. 

f See Gartenflora, 1873, p. 323. 

X These facts have been recently confirmed by Mr. W. Carruthers, director of the bo- 
tanical galleries in the British Museum. 

* Nachrichten v. d. ktinigl. Gesellschaft dcr Wissenschaften u. d. Georg- Augustus 
Universitiit zu Gottingen, November, 1893, and December, 1894. 



THE LATENT VITALITY OF SEEDS. in 

thickly shaded spots, destitute of all other vegetation except the 
moss that carpets the surface of the soil. Holes are dug under 
this moss, from which the earth is taken at depths successively 
of eight, sixteen, and twenty-four centimetres. The specimens 
taken from these several depths are cultivated separately. The 
cultivations, prolonged for more than three months, have all ulti- 
mately given rise to plants the seeds of which must of neces- 
sity'' have remained under the earth for a greater or less length 
of time. 

M. Peter has carefully indicated in detail the plants that cor- 
responded to each of the specimens of earth on which he operated. 
It resulted from the experiments that the specimens of earth from 
very old forests gave plants of the woods, while those from forests 
of more recent date yielded species the nature of which was mani- 
festly related to the previous disposition of the soil that is, 
plants of the fields or the meadows, according as forestation had 
replaced one or the other of these methods of cultivation. While 
he is extremely reserved as to the probable duration of the abode 
of the seeds in the soil, M. Peter concludes in these words : " Al- 
though the experiments in cultivation just described do not fur- 
nish a solution to the question of the length of time during which 
seeds at rest preserve their faculty of germinating, the conclusion 
results from this demonstration that for many field and meadow 
plants this duration may considerably exceed a half century." 

These researches of M. Peter's deserve careful attention, and it 
is to be hoped that they will, without delay, be imitated in other 
countries and different kinds of land, for they may reveal very 
important facts in biology and prehistoric botanical geography. 
Alphonse de Candolle * insisted a few years ago on the desira- 
bility of making soundings beneath the snows of the Alps with 
a view of recovering vestiges of the vegetation anterior to the 
Glacial period. It is to be regretted that no one has carried out 
this idea, for the facts I have just summarized almost permit us 
to hope that research of this kind may lead to the recovery of 
still vital seeds dating from very remote epochs. Translated for 
the Popular Science Monthly from the Eevue Scientifique. 



The managers of the Cornell University Experiment Station Extension 
Work are able to draw comfort even from seemingly the most unpropitious 
conditions. They represent that they have been greatly aided in their mis- 
sion of extending the knowledge of plain facts and enforcing their mean- 
ing " by the hard times and multitudes of bugs and special difficulties. 
These things have driven people to thinking and to asking for infor- 
mation." 

* Extract from the Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles. 



112 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

STRANGE PERSONIFICATIONS. 

By M. TH. FLODRNOY. 

WHILE cases of colored audition and visual schemes are 
quite frequent, we have fewer instances of that special 
kind of synopsy which I call personification, because it consists, 
in its typical form, in the concrete representation of a personage 
sometimes of an animal or a thing being regularly awakened 
by a word that has no comprehensible relation with its curious 
associate. This sort of personification in its marked degrees is 
rare, and in the few instances that have come under my knowl- 
edge has been applied to the days of the week. 

In M. E. F , student in letters, nineteen years old, the fig- 
ures of persons of very definite pose and occupation are provoked 
by various suggestions ; among others, by those of the days of 
the week. Monday and Tuesday are to him a young man of 
serious aspect, with his forefinger on his eye dark weather. 
Wednesday is a young man in the act of stealing something 
behind him, stooping down and putting his arms between his legs 

to take it. M. F does not see what this man takes, and does 

not know what it is ; dark weather. Thursday is a man turning 
the knob of the kitchen door to go through that room to the next 
one. Friday is a man selling something on a wagon, which he 

holds with his hands. The object is indistinct, and M. F does 

not know what it is, but in his mind the man is the Wednesday 
man, and is selling the thing he stole on that day. The weather 
is clear. Saturday is a man falling against a door and putting 
both hands forward to push himself back, falling again, and so 
on several times. He is doing this for amusement. Sunday is a 
man buttoning his cuffs, and the weather is fine. 

It will be seen that in respect to their psychological nature 
these personifications are a triple mixture of visual representa- 
tions, of interpretative ideas (the idea of Wednesday's man steal- 
ing an object which is the same unknown thing that he sells on 
Friday, etc.), and of general impressions corresponding with the 
weather that is prevailing except Thursday and Saturday, 
which have no weather assigned to them. The visual represent- 
atives of mental images do not take on the character of hallu- 
cinations, but remain simple mental images. These personages 
have no color, and their dress is extremely indefinite, but their 

figures are very sharply defined. M. F distinguishes all these 

details, and perceives clearly the expression, which is always 
serious (with the exception of Wednesday, who laughs while he 
is stealing his object). The localization of these visual images is 
not less precise. The man of Monday, for example, appears to 



STRANGE PERSONIFICATIONS. '- 113 

M. F always outside of him, but very near hardly a yard 

away ; he is and always has been of the same size as he, from 
which he concludes that they have grown up together. The man 
of Wednesday and Friday, on the other hand, is always seen at a 
considerable distance more than fifty yards. 

M. F does not personify any figure or number, except 14, 

which represents itself to him as an accountant sitting at his 
desk, writing. Of the months and seasons, only autumn is per- 
sonified, as the same sad-looking man with his finger on his eye 
who represents Monday and Tuesday. 

Most of the common nouns are associated with personifica- 
tions, or rather were ; for the phenomena were formerly much 

more numerous and persistent than now. M. F does not 

recollect having ever had such visions for isolated syllables, arti- 
cles, pronouns, and other words without special significance ; yet, 
at an age when he knew nothing of the gender of words or of sex, 
the letters of the alphabet called up some (A, B, C, D, etc.) the 
image of a pair of trousers, and others (as H, M, N, R, etc.) of a 
robe. Words of a positive significance invoked representations 
largely independent of their real sense. Bottle, for instance, in- 
voked and still invokes the image of a large woman, laughing, 
sitting on a little backed bench, with a table in front of her, but 
no other suggestion of a bottle in the vision. Shark {requin) is 
personified in a large horse stationed near the subject and by the 
side of a load of hay. 

These parasitical representations, grafted on the word and 
always accompanying it, were often considerable impediments 
to conversation and reading. Now, with a few exceptions such 
as the days of the week, the figures of which are still very intense 
the images do not rise in the course of conversation or of an 
interesting reading, but they appear readily enough on reflection 
or when the book is a dull one. The relations of the personifica- 
ti^n and of the real idea are reversed in this way: Formerly the 
induced representation preceded the thought of the proper mean- 
ing ; now it comes after it or remains latent, except in a few 
instances as, for example, shark, where the image of the load of 

hay and the horse appears before the idea of the fish. M. F 

believes that his personifications reached their greatest intensity 
in his childhood, when he was seven or eight years old, and that 
they have progressively diminished since he was twelve. He 
formerly thought that as a rule everybody had similar impres- 
sions, but he was met with surprise and ridicule when he spoke 
of them to others. 

M. F can say nothing of the cause of these curious phe- 
nomena ; he finds them as far back as his recollection can reach, 
almost unvarying in intensity and inexplicable. A very small 



VOL. LI. 



114 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

number permit glimpses into their origin ; it is, for example, 
probable that habitual or verbal associations have had a part in 
suggesting the likeness of Sunday to a person buttoning his cutfs, 
and of Friday {vendredi) to a man selling {qui vend) something 
placed upon a van. The masculine or feminine character of tlie 
dress attributed to the letters seems to be suggested by the pro- 
nunciation (&, masculine ; m, feminine, etc.). In like manner, the 
personification of the word college may be explained as a youth 
wearing a large white collar {col) turned back on his jacket as 
children's collars are. So the word cat {chat) brings up the image 
of a cat with a twist in its mouth, as if it were laughing, because, 

perhaps, M. F had an impediment in his speech in childhood 

which caused him to make a face when he tried to pronounce the 

letters ch. But, while M. F regards these explanations as 

very plausible, they are still only hypotheses to him ; for he has 
no precise conviction, no sure recollection that such were indeed 
the causes of his inductions in these cases. The special incidents 
to which these speculations apply are relatively very few, and 
his speculations as a whole are entirely enigmatical. 

Perhaps their origin will become a little less obscure if we 
make account of the exaggeration which follows a process in 

M. F that is familiar to us all in a lower degree. When we 

hear somebody we do not know spoken of, or when the author in 
a romance introduces a new character, we spontaneously form an 
idea of his appearance and moral qualities which is not exclu- 
sively based on what we are told of him, but in which our fancy 
involuntarily participates to a considerable extent. Yet this idea 
usually remains vague and indecisive till more ample information 
comes to it, susceptible of being modified and enriched according 

to the course of events. With M. F this fanciful anticipation 

of the facts operates with exceptional promptness, while the im- 
ages it engenders are distinguished by a rare persistence. A 
proper name is enough to call up in him, without any known rea- 
son, a complete and precisely defined figure, which thenceforth 
continues so fast attached to the name that meeting with the per- 
son himself does not dissociate it. Thus, M. F conceived the 

two Coquelins, before he had seen them, by virtue of their iden- 
tity of name, in exactly the same form and with identical heads. 
He was much surprised not to see me wearing the full black beard 
he had immediately given me the first time I was spoken of to 
him. I supposed the beard belonged to another person of his ac- 
quaintance whose name had some similarity in sound with mine; 
but he did not think this was the case, and could not give any ex- 
planation of the fact. He can not even tell whether it is the audi- 
tive perception of the name, or its appearance when written, or 
its articulation, or a mixture of all these that induces his personi- 



STRANGE PERSONIFICATIONS. 115 

fications. This shows how unknown and mysterious are those 
associations with, which the creative activity of the imagination 
is fed, which a single word suffices to bring into play, and of which 
a notorious consequence is the well-known importance attached 
by novelists to the choice of names for their heroes. 

The rapidity of the evocation of the images and their tenacity 
when they are once formed appear especially marked in the ideas 

M. F conceives of the characters in a book. From the first 

two or three lines relative to a character he sees him rise in his 
mental vision, often very different from the description given by 
the author. A person described as blond, for example, appears 
brown to him. The representation, however, persists firmly, and 
the reading of the story does not modify it. No matter if the 
little girl of the first pages does grow and change her character 
in the course of the volume she always continues to him the 
little girl of the beginning. When he reads the book a second 
time, after the lapse of a few months, the identical personifica- 
tions appear again unchanged. It is not so with the pictures of 
places, likewise arbitrary and inexplicable, which M. F asso- 
ciates spontaneously with every scene he reads about, and also, in 
a smaller degree, with stories told him. These pictures, which 
are usually recollections of childhood without connection with 
the subject of the reading a description of a mountain, for in- 
stance, suggests the recollection of a plain have some degree of 
permanence in that they do not vary from one day to another 
during the time he is occupied with the book ; but when he takes 
up the volume again some time afterward he finds that they have 
changed. He remembers very well on every occasion the image 
of the place which he had before, and finds that the story now 
calls out another. This variability of local images, in opposition 
to the fixedness of personations proper, points to their greater 
immediate dependence upon the subjective dispositions of the 
movement,* 

These details seem to me, if not to exptain the inexhaustible 
phantasmagoria of M. F 's personifications, at least to illus- 
trate the special kind of imagination under the dominance of 
which they spring forth. This imagination is characterized by 
the union of two properties akin to those of sealing wax : great 
docility in receiving an impression at the right moment, and 
that moment once past an equal rigidity which opposes itself to 
any further modification of the impression. Novelty, emotional 
excitement, or a happy concourse of circumstances, accomplishes 



* For analogous examples of curious evocatioms, but apparently inconstant, induced by 
reading or thought, see M. Pilo's Coatributo alio studio dei fenomeni sinestesici. Belluno, 
1894, pp. 7, 8. 



ii6 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

here what heat does for sealing wax, and permits the fixation of 
the group of images, disordered as they may be, that burst out at 
the opportune moment. But while we can expose the wax again 
to the fire, these curious products of fancy do not bear remelting, 
and the ideas or the cerebral cells continue fixed in the fortuitous 
relations that were contracted at that privileged instant. How 
else can we account for associations so absurd and at the same 
time so persistent as that of a day of the week with a person steal- 
ing or selling some indefinite thing ? We can not reconstitute 
the striking incident or the collection of unforeseen relations and 
subtle analogies which accomplished the soldering of two such 

heterogeneous things in M. F 's mind ; but it is supposable that 

the operation is effectuated at once, and that the initial plasticity 
was immediately spent; for the thing stolen and sold continues 
always indistinct, in spite of the natural curiosity which would 
ultimately have precisely identified it, if the activity of the im- 
agination had retained the slightest hold upon it. 

The same remark may be applied to the other incomprehen- 
sible details abundant in M. F 's personifications. We might 

speak of fragments of dreams suddenly registered and riveted for- 
ever to the words which the caprices of the nocturnal imagina- 
tion had momentarily brought into relations with them. The 
dissociation of words from their usual sense and their application 
to other images by virtue of a connection which the dreamer 
clearly feels and finds quite natural, but which vanishes on awak- 
ening to give place to the opposite feeling of complete incoher- 
ence, are in fact a frequent feature of dreams. In the personifi- 
cations the images attached to the words independently and 
outside of their proper sense are nearly always as arbitrary as 
the dream, but permanent, and the connection is felt by the sub- 
ject, although he himself knows that it is irrational and inex- 
plicable. 

The physiological conditions of this singular process are still 
unknown to us. No evidence of heredity has been brought to 

light in the particular case. Still, the fact that M. F has 

never met an echo in his family when he speaks of his impres- 
sions does not prove that his parents have not in their infancy 
experienced similar phenomena, which have disappeared and been 
forgotten in older life. Translated for the Popular Science 
Monthly from L'Annee Psychologique. 



An amusing story is told in liis Notes from a Diary by Sir E. Grant Duff 
of the London Metaphysical Society, now defunct. It is to the effect that 
Sir John Simeon, after one of the society's early meetings, rushed up to one 
of the members and asked, with the appearance of great anxiety, " Well, is 
there a God ? " " Oh, yes," was the reply, " we had a very good majority." 



SKETCH OF JAMES N AS MYTH. 117 



SKETCH OF JAMES NASMYTH. 

JAMES NASMYTH was pre-eminently a self-made man. 
Though, taught in the schools, he worked out his own way 
without regard to the teaching he had received, and by methods 
peculiarly his own. He was a master engineer, an astronomer 
whose discoveries and conclusions attracted the attention of 
learned societies and were admired by the great, and a successful 
manager of men. " There can be no doubt," says Nature, in a 
sketch of him, "that he stands in the front rank of those who 
have advanced the material interests of mankind by the applica- 
tion of science to industrial methods," 

Mr. Nasmyth was born in Edinburgh, August 19, 1808, the 
next to the youngest child of a family of eleven, and died in Lon- 
don, May 7, 1890. He was the son of Alexander Nasmyth, an 
artist of considerable distinction, and reckoned in his ancestry 
two or three successive generations of architects and builders. 
Mention is made of his exercise of his observing powers in very 
early infancy. The conditions of his childhood life, although it 
was passed in the city, gave him opportunities to become ac- 
quainted with l^ature. Many workshops were in operation near 
Calton Hill, where the nurses took the children to play, and he 
was one of the throng of little boys who were interested in 
watching the proceedings of the workmen. Having tools at 
home in his father's shop, he tried to imitate what he had seen 
done. He became skilled in making things for himself, and was 
called " a little Jack of all trades." He was taught by his eldest 
sister, then sent to a teacher of such a character that he con- 
tracted " a hatred against grammatical rules," and was enrolled 
in the Edinburgh High School in 1817. The teaching here was 
of the old routine sort, and aroused little interest in the pupil ; 
but he did his tasks punctually and cheerfully, "though they 
were far from agreeable." 

A different condition prevailed in the shop, where his father 
directed his attention to the action of the tools and to all the pro- 
cesses required for turning out the best work ; and gradually he 
had planted in his mind "the great fundamental principles on 
which the practice of engineering in its grandest forms is based." 
Nasmyth became famous in the school for the perfect spinning 
tops, or " peeries," he could make, for his accurate construction of 
kites, and for his paper balloons. He cast, bored, and mounted 
small brass cannon, and made guns of cellar keys. With the fine 
steels he made he was able to buy the monitors off from the too 
strict enforcement of the assigned tasks. But he learned little of 
what the school taught " a mere matter of rote and cram." He 



ii8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

formed intimacies with fellow-pupils that proved of value to him: 
with a youth whose father had a foundry, where he spent profit- 
able hours, and with another whose father had a special genius 
for practical chemistry, and made colors and white lead ; signals 
were arranged with this boy, so that when anything particular 
was going on at the laboratory Nasmyth was notified of it; and 
the boys made their own reagents, and acquired considerable skill 
in producing various substances. 

Nasmyth left the high school at the end of 1820, not much the 
better for his small acquaintance with the dead languages, but the 
mathematical studies had developed his reasoning powers. He 
practiced accuracy in drawing, made his own tools and chemical 
apparatus, and interested himself in the volcanic geology of Edin- 
burgh. He attended the Edinburgh School of Arts from 1821 to 
1826, and at seventeen years of age he was constructing steam en- 
gines of different designs and for various purposes. He heard the 
lectures at the university on chemistry, geometry and mathemat- 
ics, and natural philosophy. He established a brass foundry in his 
bedroom, but did his heavier work at George Douglas's foundry, 
for which he made an engine to drive the lathes, the operation of 
which had such an enlivening effect on the workmen that the pro- 
prietor affirmed that the output was nearly doubled for the same 
wages. He made an expansometer or instrument for measuring in 
bulk all metals and solid substances, which so pleased Dr. Brewster 
that he described and figured it in the Edinburgh Philosophical 
Journal. He experimented upon steam carriages for highways, 
and hit upon a device for increasing the draught of the engine 
chimney by the use of waste steam that George Stephenson had 
adopted, and which has given the locomotive its efficiency. 

When it became possible, Nasmyth went to London to visit 
Henry Maudsley, the great manufacturer of machines, and seek 
employment in his establishment there. Maudsley's experience 
with pupil apprentices had not been pleasant, and he was not 
at first willing to employ him; but when the young man said he 
would consider himself fortunate if he could even be employed 
to clean the ashes from the furnaces, Maudsley answered, " So you 
are of that sort, are you ? " and his heart was opened at once. 
Nasmyth exhibited his drawings the next day, and Maudsley 
instituted him his assistant workman, or private secretary, as no 
apprenticeship was needed in his case. His first work was on a 
machine fpr generating "original screws"; next, in connection 
with the construction of two small models of engines, he invented 
a device for exactly reducing bolt-nuts. Being given a month's 
vacation in the fall of 1830, he went to Liverpool to witness the 
X)erformance of George Stephenson's locomotive, " The Rocket." 
With the desire to see all he could on his return of the mechan- 



SKETCH OF JAMES N A SMYTH. 119 

ical, architectural, and picturesque, lie determined to walk lei- 
surely back to London. He was impressed with the pretty sur- 
roundings of Manchester, especially as seen from the Patricroft 
Bridge ; visited the cotton mills, and continued his walk to Lon- 
don, occupied with the thought of settling down in the busy 
neighborhood he had just left. 

Mr. Maudsley died in February, 1831, and Mr. Nasrayth con- 
tinued to work with his partner, Mr. Field, till the latter part of 
that year, when, in the twenty-third year of his age, he decided 
to go into business for himself. Mr. Field was pleased with his 
intention, and gave him facilities for starting. He went to Edin- 
burgh and set up a small temporary shop, where he made himself 
a set of engineering tools. He subsequently chose Manchester as 
his permanent place of business. He found a shop in an eligible 
situation, with convenient appurtenances, but in a building occu- 
pied by other tenants. The time of his starting in Manchester 
was an auspicious one for his business. Workmen of all kinds 
were short of the demand, and, taking advantage of the scarcity, 
were disposed to be careless, irregular, and insubordinate, and 
machine tools, which would not get drunk or go on strike and 
were unfailingly regular and accurate, were in great request. 
Mr. Nasmyth got his full share of the work of supplying these 
tools : planing machines, slide laths, drilling, boring, and slotting 
machines, and others ; and orders pouring in upon him, his flat 
became loaded with work. He having constructed an engine that 
was almost too large for the shop, one end of the beam, while it 
was being taken apart for shipment, crushed through the floor, 
disturbing the tenant below, and it had become evident that he 
needed a larger shop. He found a site within the very landscape 
that had attracted his attention years before, as he was resting at 
the Patricroft Bridge. He built there the celebrated Bridgewater 
Foundry, and took in Mr. Holbrook Gaskell as a partner. Ob- 
serving the inconvenience and danger attending the operation of 
the foundry ladle then in use, he invented the screw safety ladle, 
with which, he says, some twelve or sixteen tons of molten iron 
could be decanted " with as much neatness and exactness as the 
pouring out of a glass of wine from a decanter." 

The maxim of the Bridgewater Foundry, " Free trade in abili- 
ty," was put in force early in its operation. By this maxim was 
meant promotion of the workmen according to the skill and 
activity they displayed, without regard to the kind of apprentice- 
ship they had served. This conflicted with the rule of the trades 
unions, which required a seven years' apprenticeship, and the in- 
evitable strike and picketing occurred. Workmen were brought 
from Scotland, the trades unions were conquered, and the foundry 
continued to practice and exemplify its maxim unmolested. The 



120 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

practice was "to employ intelligent, well-conducted young lads, 
the sons of laborers or mechanics, and advance them by degrees 
according to their merits. They took charge of the smaller ma- 
chine tools, by which the minor details of the machines in prog- 
ress were brought into exact form. ... A spirit of emulation was 
excited among them. They vied with each other in executing 
their work with precision. Those who excelled were paid an 
extra weekly wage. In course of time they took pride not only 
in the quantity but in the quality of their work, and in the long 
run became skillful mechanics. . . . The best of them remained 
in our service, because they knew our work and were pleased with 
their surroundings ; while we, on our part, were always desirous 
of retaining the men we had trained, because we knew we could 
depend upon them." 

The rapid extension of railroad construction, and the orders 
that consequently came in, led to much attention being given at 
Bridgewater to the building of locomotives, for which the machine 
tools used there gave great advantages. The Great Western Rail- 
way Company ordered twenty large engines, offering to add 100 
to the contract price of each if they proved satisfactory. The 
premiums came, and with them a letter from the board of direct- 
ors of the company offering to stand as references as to the 
quality of Messrs. Nasmyth and Gaskell's work. The Great 
Western Railway Company having successfully dispatched its 
steamship Great Western between Bristol and New York, and 
having elected to construct another steamer, the Great Britain, 
procured tools for making the engines from the Bridgewater 
Foundry. They were perplexed, however, about the forging of 
the intermediate paddle shaft, which was to be of a size never 
before attempted. They applied to Mr. Nasmyth, and he devised 
the steam hammer, the most famous of his inventions an instru- 
ment with which, as he says in his autobiography, the workman 
might, "as it were, think in blows. He might deal them out 
on to the ponderous glowing mass and mold or knead it into 
the desired form as if it were a lump of clay ; or pat it with gen- 
tle taps, according to his will, or at the desire of the forgeman." 
All was going well for setting the hammer in operation, when 
the plan of the vessel was changed by the introduction of the 
screw propeller, which rendered the immense shaft unnecessary. 
No patent was taken out for this invention, but the drawings of 
it were kept in the shop, open to the inspection of visitors. 
Among those who looked at them were M. Schneider, and M. 
Bourdon, his foreman, of the great iron works at Creuzot, France. 
A few years afterward, when Mr. Nasmyth visited Creuzot, he 
admired the excellence of a certain piece of machinery, and asked 
M. Bourdon how the crank had been forged. M. Bourdon 



SKETCH OF JAMES NASMYTH. 121 

replied, " It was forged by your steam hammer/' Mr. Nasmyth. 
was then taken to the forge department, where he saw this 
" thumping child of his brain," which for him had existed only 
in his books, at work. The foreman had recollected the draw- 
ings, and embodied them substantially in the machine. Mr. Nas- 
myth at once secured a patent, introduced some improvements, 
and made the construction of the steam hammers a branch of his 
business. Though he was prompt enough in explaining to them 
the merits of his invention, it took considerable time to arouse 
the official minds of the Lords of the Admiralty, "who are very 
averse to introducing new methods of manufacture to the dock- 
yards." But after he had furnished hammers to the principal 
manufacturers of England and had sent them abroad, these digni- 
taries learned in the course of three years that a new power in 
forging had been introduced. A deputation visited the foundry 
to see the invention, and were pleased and "astonished at its 
range, power, and docility." An order came for a hammer for 
the Devonport Dockyard. Their lordships were present when 
the hammer was started, and Mr. Nasmyth " passed it through its 
paces," He made it break an eggshell in a wineglass without 
injuring the glass. It was as neatly effected by the two-and-a- 
half-ton hammer as if it had been done with an <dg^ spoon. Then 
" I had a great mass of hot iron swung out of the furnace by a 
crane and placed upon the anvil block. Down came the hammer 
on it with ponderous blows. My lords scattered and flew to 
the extremities of the workshop, for the splashes and sparks of 
hot metal flew about. I went on with the hurtling blows of the 
hammer and kneaded the mass of iron as if it had been clay." 
Orders followed to supply all the royal dockyards with a com- 
plete equipment of steam hammers. 

The extension of the docks at Devonport called for an immense 
amount of pile driving. The contractor for the work had wit- 
nessed the operation of the steam hammer, and asked Mr. Nas- 
myth if the principle could not be applied to the pile driver. 
Such a pile driver was constructed. It was tested. Two piles 
of equal length and diameter were selected, one to be driven with 
the new machine and the other in the old way. The result was 
four minutes and a half with the former to twelve hours with the 
latter; and the steam-driven piles were hardly bruised, while the 
others suffered in the usual way. 

Mr. Nasmyth had the satisfaction of seeing many of his me- 
chanical notions adopted by rival or competing machine con- 
structors, with or without acknowledgment. By the steady appli- 
cation of the rule of " free trade in ability " the factory was kept 
above trouble with the trades unions, being always able to find 
competent and interested hands to take the place of those who 



122 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

might be disposed to go out on strike ; and it was a source of the 
greatest pleasure to the proprietor, "when looking round the 
warehouses and factories, to see the intelligent, steady energy 
that pervaded every department, from the highest to the lowest.'* 
Other features of the Bridgewater factory were the manufacture 
of small engines for various purposes, in which a large business 
was done ; the utilization of waste steam for heating and drying; 
improvements effected in calico-printing machinery; the furnish- 
ing of machine tools to the Woolwich Arsenal, which Mr. Nas- 
inyth had found, when he inspected it, " better fitted for a museum 
of technical antiquity than for practical use in these days of rapid 
mechanical progress " ; and the supply of rope-making machinery 
a new line of work to the Russian Naval Arsenal at Nikolaiev, 
on the Black Sea. 

In 1854 Mr. Nasmyth took out a patent for puddling iron by 
means of steam, in which the superfluous carbon was removed by 
the oxygen arising from the decomposition of the steam. About 
a year afterward Mr. Bessemer brought out his invention for 
effecting the same purpose by a blast of air, and it totally eclipsed 
Mr. Nasmyth's process; but Mr. Nasmyth consoled himself with 
the thought that he was a kind of pioneer of the invention, and 
]\Ir. Bessemer offered him a third share of the interest in it. But 
Mr. Nasmyth " was just then taking down his signboard and 
leaving business," and thankfully declined the offer. He bought 
a place near Penshurst in Kent, and naming it Hammerfield, after 
his hammers and the family crest, retired to it in 1857, when he 
was forty-eight years old, and spent the rest of his life there. 

Here he indulged himself with complete freedom in the study 
of astronomy, in which he had been engaged as an avocation for 
many years. He had made a very effective six-inch reflecting tele- 
scope as early as 1827, and had instructed Mr. Maudsley in the art 
three years later. He then made a speculum ten inches in diameter 
composing the alloy himself of such quality as evoked admii-a- 
tion from Mr. Lassell, and cast a thirteen-inch speculum for Mr. 
Warren de la Rue, whose interest in astronomy had been awak- 
ened by witnessing his processes. W^ith his ten-inch telescope he 
began observations in a general way, which gradually became 
particular. In time he substituted for this a twenty-inch reflector 
with improvements that made it more convenient to use, and in 
1843 began his systematic researches on the moon, making care- 
ful drawings in black and white of the features that attracted 
attention, and thereby training his eye for more accurate observa- 
tion. A series of these drawings, with a large map of the whole 
visible surface of the moon, was first exhibited at the Edinburgh 
meeting of the British Association in 1850, and afterward at the 
Great Industrial Exhibition of 1851 where, besides a council 



SKETCH OF JAMES NASMYTH. 123 

medal for his steam hammer, Mr. Nasmyth was given a compli- 
mentary notice for the lunar pictures and to the Queen and 
Prince Consort personally. In the course of his astronomical 
observations he turned to consider the causes of the sun's light 
and other phenomena of light and heat. In May, 1851, he sent a 
communication to the Astronomical Society embodying his views 
that the light of the sun was simply the result of an action on 
that body of ethereal matter distributed through space unevenly, 
so that its intensity would vary as the system passed through dif- 
ferent regions ; that variability in stars might be thus accounted 
for ; and that our Glacial period was produced by the solar system 
passing through a region deficient in power of luminosity. Mr. 
Nasmyth found afterward that these views were paralleled ia 
some features of the theory of the sun enunciated by Dr. Siemens 
in 1882. He delivered a lecture on the Structure of the Lunar 
Surfaces before the Edinburgh Philosophical Society in 1858, and 
in 1874 brought out his book on Tlie Moon considered as a 
Planet, a World, and a Satellite a work which at once made its 
mark in selenological literature. He busied himself also with 
the study of the spots on the sun, and made the novel discovery 
of the willow-leaved structure of the solar surface, which at- 
tracted universal attention among astronomers. Sir John Herschel 
complimented him upon it in his Outlines of Astronomy ; the 
astronomers at Greenwich made observations that confirmed it ; 
and Father Secchi was trying to illustrate it by sprinkling rice 
grains over a blackboard covered with glue at the very moment 
Nasmyth was introduced to him by their fellow- astronomer Otto 
von Struve. We should mention, too, in connection with his 
astronomical studies the paper which he presented to the Royal 
Astronomical Society about 1851 on the Rotatory Movements of 
Celestial Bodies, which was suggested by the motion of that kind 
acquired by water running out" of the bottom of a basin. Mr. 
Nasmyth was also interested in microscopy, and studied twenty- 
seven forms of infusoria in the water of the Bridgewater Canal ; 
in photography, and made models of parts of the moon's surface 
and photographed them ; in the origin of the form of the Pyra- 
mids, which he attributed to the appearance of the sun's rays 
streaming through clouds; and to the derivation of the cunei- 
form characters from the shapes of the impressions made by 
striking soft clay with the corner of a parallelogram-shaped 
instrument. He wrote Remarks on Tools and Machinery in 
Baker's Elements of Mechanics (1858). 



124 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



gxXltor's Sa:blje, 



SOCIAL NEEDS. 

IF the word "socialist" could be 
defined as one who concerns him- 
self with the interests of society, who 
makes those interests his own, then 
it would be well if we were all "so- 
cialists." So long, however, as it 
means a person who wishes to trans- 
fer to everybody the authoritative 
direction of everybody else's busi- 
ness and the control of everybody 
else's property, we must leave the 
use of the term to those who accept 
responsibility for the advocacy of 
such ideas. Meantime, it is a matter 
for the daily consideration of all men 
of good will what are the most press- 
ing social needs of the hour, and how 
they can best be met. 

Among the phenomena of our 
time in this country there is none, 
we think, more striking than the 
great development of our institu- 
tions of learning. Partly through 
public grants and partly through 
private donations, the means avail- 
able for higher education have with- 
in the last quarter of a century, even 
within the last dozen years, been 
enormously increased; and, as has 
lately been remarked, there will 
shortly be little need for American 
youths to repair to foreign universi- 
ties in order to obtain the latest and 
best results of research in almost any 
department of knowledge. In other 
words, this country is already well 
equipped for the formation of a cul- 
tured and learned class, and is yearly 
increasing its facilities and resources 
in that direction. This is true even 
in regard to branches of scholarship, 
such as the classical languages and 
philology, which might be thought 
less likely to awaken interest in a new 
and democratic community. What- 



ever advantage, therefore, can come 
to us from a liberal provision for the 
higher learning we may consider as 
already assured. 

That culture and learning are de- 
lightful and profitable possessions no 
one, we think, but an extremely un- 
cultivated and narrow-minded person 
would deny: but, taking what may 
be called a sociological view of the 
subject, we have sometimes been led 
to wonder whether the immense sums 
of money which have been appro- 
priated of late to university purposes 
have really been bestowed in the 
manner most useful to the country 
at large. A day or two ago our ej'e 
fell upon the following observations 
in one of our most valued contem- 
poraries: "In truth, one of the most 
startling things in connection with 
our collegiate education is its failure, 
as a rule, to prevent the graduate, 
when he enters politics, from sinking 
mentally to the existing political 
level. This has been the history of 
the larger number of what are called 
our 'gentlemen in politics.' They 
rarely spend a year with politicians 
without adopting their standards and 
their view of civilization." Most per- 
sons, w^e imagine, can confirm this 
from their own experience. But, if 
the scholar sinks through contact 
with the politician, how are we to 
explain the low level at which the 
latter lives? With whom is he in 
contact on the other side? There is 
only one answer: With "the people." 

This makes us reflect. Millions 
are being given for the endowment 
of the higher learning that is, for 
the creation of a learned class. What 
is that learned class going to do for 
the rest of the community ? The 
members of it will make, no doubt, 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



125 



delightful society for one another; 
but, from the wider sociological 
standpoint, what function are they 
going to fulfill? Will they in any 
powerful and eilective manner help 
to sustain and strengthen the ideality 
of less favored classes ; or will they 
live their lives apart, each in his own 
little "palace of art" constructed by 
the spirit of self-love and exclusive- 
ness? If they can be counted on to 
do the former, then the millions are 
most wisely expended; but if the 
latter is to be the outcome, then, be- 
yond all doubt, the millions might 
have been better applied. We be- 
lieve in natural differentiations, but 
not in artificially created distinc- 
tions; and unless our highly edu- 
cated class can accept and discharge 
some social ministry that will have 
the effect of communicating to others 
some share in what they have ob- 
tained themselves, it seems to us that 
this vast expenditure of money for 
higher education may lead to social 
results of a rather undesirable kind. 
The university graduate, as we have 
seen, is cutting a very poor figure in 
politics. The politicians by profes- 
sion will not let him do otherwise; 
and he seems to have no power what- 
ever of appealing to or influencing 
the people against the politicians. 
The reason why he is thus powerless 
admitting, what x^erhaps there is 
no reason to admit in some cases, 
that he has any ideal of his own 
above the common is that the life 
of the people is almost untouched by 
any kind of ideality, and that the 
popular habit of mind is opposed to 
the recognition of any leadership 
based upon superiority of mental or 
moral endowment. We are thus 
led to the unwelcome conclusion 
that there is but little diffusion of 
culture in any true sense among the 
people, and that it is the general lack 
of it, and the absence of any interest 
in larger questions, which give to 



our politics that character of dreari- 
ness and pettiness, not to mention a 
constant tendency to corruption, 
which all careful observers have 
noted. 

One careful observer has lately 
consigned his observations to the 
pages of the Atlantic Monthly ; we 
refer to the article contributed to the 
March number of that periodical by 
Mr. Francis C. Lowell, under the title 
of Legislative Shortcomings. It is 
of the Massachusetts Legislature, in 
which he had two years' experience, 
that Mr. Lowell speaks. "The first 
object," he says, of a member elected 
thereto, " is to secure the passage, or 
more rarely the defeat, of some legis- 
lative measure of only local impor- 
tance. . . . Occasionally, but not 
often, this measure is an iniquitous 
job. Usually the member has no 
pecuniary interest in it, and often it 
is little more than a matter of legis- 
lative routine. Even when it is un- 
wise, it is frequently nothing worse 
than a piece of legislative f ussiness ; 
or perhaps it was devised to meet 
some local demand, and is objection- 
able only on account of the bad pre- 
cedent it establishes; such, for ex- 
ample, as acts to enable a particular 
town to subsidize a steamboat or a 
variety show for the convenience or 
amusement of its summer visitors. 
... If the member's pet measure is 
not a local matter, but an act of gen- 
eral importance, he runs the risk of 
being deemed a crank. If he should 
strenuously seek the passage of sev- 
eral measures, really important, he 
would be thought wholly devoid of 
common sense, and his influence 
would soon disappear." Then, in 
order to get his own little bill passed, 
the member, Mr. Lowell tells us, has 
to trade his vote that is to say, he 
must vote for other men's bills, be 
they good or bad, if he wishes them 
to vote for his. If he should fail to 
do this, ''his constituents, without 



126 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



regard to party or coBtlitiou, -would 
probably deem him faithless to his 
principal duty." 

If such things are done in the 
green tree of Massachusetts, what 
may we expect in the drier wood of 
less happily conditioned States ? The 
Atlantic Monthly would render a 
great service if, taking this article of 
Mr. Lowell's as the first of a series, 
it would give us a dozen or so of 
similar studies of other State Legisla- 
tures. Nothing would more efi'ectu- 
ally hold up to us a mirror in which 
to see our true social and political 
status. Meantime let us first ask how 
such a condition of political intelli- 
gence as Mr. Lowell depicts tallies 
with the vast apparatus we already 
command, and the vaster we are 
daily acquiring, for the promotion 
of higher learning. When do our 
learned men propose to swoop down 
from their heights with culture in 
their wings for the help and inspira- 
tion of the masses of their country- 
men ? Or is this a matter which 
they think may safely be left to the 
common schools ? 

In this uncertainty as to what the 
learned classes are going to do for the 
commonwealth, we sometimes won- 
der whether it might not be possible 
to divert advantageously to purposes 
of popular culture some portion of 
the wealth which is now finding its 
way in lavish streams to already 
well -endowed seats of learning. 
How the money, if available, could 
best be applied is an interesting ques- 
tion as to which we should be glad to 
receive suggestions from our readers. 
We have more than once heard re- 
gret expressed and we share the 
feeling ourselves at the almost com- 
plete disappearance of the lecture 
system which was doing so much 
useful work a generation ago. The 
newspaper has superseded the plat- 
form; and yet the platform, we do 
not hesitate to say, was a more civil- 



izing force in some respects than the 
newspaper. For one thing, it "ut- 
tered nothing base," which is more 
than can be said for the newspaper. 
It gave the people high thoughts, in- 
teresting ideas, pure sentiments, and 
useful knowledge. It was not occu- 
pied with idle gossip, or mean per- 
sonalities, or the criminal side of life. 
It is not fully replaced even by good 
books and papers. As Prof. Corson 
says in his interesting little book on 
The Aims of Literary Study: "The 
intellectual coeflicient can be appre- 
hended through silent reading; the 
main object of vocalization is to ex- 
hibit the spiritual coefficient, which 
is indefinite to the intellect, and 
needs to be vocally rendered as much 
as a musical composition needs to be 
vocally or instruraentally rendered." 
There was. moreover, a certain social 
stimulus afforded by the lecture sys- 
tem which the private reading of 
even good literature does not supply. 
We conceive, therefore, that a 
wealthy man. desiring to benefit the 
people at large, might with great 
advantage establish not lectureships 
but rather readerships. The litera- 
ture of to-day and of past days con- 
tains ample material for the instruc- 
tion and delight of popular audiences 
if read aloud by a properly trained 
elocutionist. Our idea would be to 
have such readings entirely free, ex- 
cept that local expenses in the way 
of hall hire, etc., might be met by 
the locality; and we should further 
propose that the reader should in 
each place that he visited give a 
course of lessons, also free, in cor- 
rect reading. For the results which 
might be expected to accrue from 
such measures we would refer to the 
little work by Prof. Corson already 
mentioned, and to another by the 
same author entitled The Voice and 
Spiritual Education. If Prof. Corson 
is right, culture, no less than faith, 
comes mainly by hearing; and an 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



127 



agency, therefore, by which the best 
literature of the day and of all days 
should be brought home to people's 
hearts through the tones of a sympa- 
thetic human voice could not fail, in 
course of time, to produce very bene- 
ficial effects both mental and moral. 
Within the household itself nothing 
is more humanizing than good read- 
ing (aloud) ; and this would be pro- 
moted by such public readings and 
such instruction as we have in view. 
We hear not infrequently of gifts of 
a million dollars or more to a single 
university; and we think it is time 
that something should be done for 
those who have no opportunity to 
become very learned, but whose 
minds might by proper effort be at- 
tuned to what is best in literature, 
and thus raised above the dreary level 
of commonplace ideas and petty per- 
sonal concerns. 



SPENCEB AND DARWIN. 

A COUPLE of years ago, as some 
of our readers will remember, a book 
was published under the title of 
From the Greeks to Darwin, in which 
the history of the doctrine of evolu- 
tion was sketched, or at least pur- 
ported to be sketched, from the earli- 
est times down to our own day. The 
most remarkable thing about the 
book was that, of set purpose, it 
ignored the greatest thinker on evo- 
lutionary lines that the world had 
ever seen ; we mean, of course, Her- 
bert Spencer. This omission was 
duly noticed in our columns at the 
time, and there is no need to go over 
the ground again. What we wish 
to say to-day is that, if Mr. Spencer's 
position in relation to the doctrine 
of evolution needed any vindication, 
it has received it in ample measure 
in Mr. Edward Clodd's recently pub- 
lished book, Pioneers of Evolution, 
and in the article by Mr. Grant Allen 



contributed to the Fortnightly Re- 
view and republished in our last 
number. No one can read either the 
one or the other without feeling that 
to discuss evolution in its broader 
aspects without making due mention 
of Spencer is like narrating the dis- 
covery of America with but slight 
mention of Columbus. To Mr. 
Spencer we owe a rational and sys- 
tematic statement of the doctrine of 
universal evolution; to Darwin we 
owe an original and lucid explana- 
nation of the natural process by 
which species are modified and new 
species formed. The latter was in- 
deed a most solid and substantive 
piece of work, but it did not furnish 
the general formula of evolution, 
which but for the labors of Herbert 
Spencer would still be to seek. It 
was Darwin himself who said of 
Spencer : " I suspect that hereafter 
he vrill be looked upon as by far the 
greatest living philosopher in Eng- 
land ; perhaps equal to any that have 
lived." 

We feel how times have changed 
when to be recognized as a potent 
contributor to the establishment of 
the doctrine of evolution is one of 
the highest honors, if not the high- 
est honor, which a philosophical 
thinker can enjoy. When Darwin 
published liis Origin of Species, and 
for some years later, his name was 
cast out as evil ; to-day it is difficult 
to keep an admiring public from 
claiming for him the authorship of 
that much wider scheme of evolu- 
tion for which Mr. Spencer properly 
stands sponsor. The record, how- 
ever, is very clear, and no one needs 
to be in error as to the respective 
achievements of the two men. Both 
have done great work for the intel- 
lectual emancipation of mankind, 
and the names of both will go down 
with glory to posterity. 



128 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



^titxiXiiit %iXtxKXxxxz. 

SPECIAL BOOKS. 

The first volume of the Story of the West Series dealt with a class that 
is becoming smaller and weaker, the second concerns one that is growing 
larger and stronger.* The miner, however, is changing his characteristics 
hardly less rapidly than the Indian, hence it is none too early to put his 
picturesque past on record. Mr. Shinn takes the development of the great 
Comstock Lode of Nevada as typical of all the various phases of mining, 
from the scratching of the prospector to the stupendous feats of the en- 
gineer as typical also of the leap into bonanza and the sinking into bor- 
rasca. The Mormons made the first notable efforts to settle the region that 
is now Nevada, but the growth of the mineral interests soon took it out of 
their control. In describing the placer mining and the first quartz pro- 
specting that preceded the discovery of the Comstock Lode, Mr. Shinn in- 
troduces some of the restless pioneers that gave the mining camps of the 
period their rough and picturesque character. After the great discovery 
was made in 1859, came the rush across the Sierras which brought other 
choice spirits who figure in the eai'ly times of Virginia City. There were 
the industrious and unfortunate Grosh brothers; the bombastic, scheming, 
and ineffective Comstock who gave his name to the great Lode ; drunken 
"Old Virginia," who christened Virginia City with an accidentally broken 
bottle of whisky; the wily gamblers and their often hard-working but 
reckless victims; enterprising traders and energetic teamsters; while the 
nationalities represented included Irishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Cana- 
dians, Mexicans, Indians, and Jews. Mr. Shinn shows us the trails almost 
impassable with snow or mud along which a constant stream of pilgrims 
was toiling, the crowded public houses, the conglomeration of huts, tents, 
and dug-outs that made up a mining camp, and the abandoned pits and 
shafts which often entrapped straying animals and men. Passing from 
these primitive scenes, he shows us the various phases of the great industry 
which mining has become in our western country. He tells us how the 
crude methods of treating ores used by the early prospectoi'S were suc- 
ceeded by the arrastra, and this by the stamp mill ; how some great me- 
chanical problems were solved, such as timbering the wide Comstock Lode 
and bringing the water supply of Virgina City through a fourteen-mile 
flume and seven-mile siphon from Hobart Creek, and how the freighters, 
stage-drivers, and lumberers made money by letting the mines alone and 
devoting themselves to dependent industries. Mining litigation and stock 
speculation each have a chapter. We have an account of the days of the 
great bonanza, in which the operations of Mackay, Fair, Flood, O'Brien, 
and others are described. Perhaps the greatest engineering feat that 
figures in the story is the Sutro Tunnel the "coyote hole." as contemptu- 
ous opposition termed it. In conclusion we are told what a present-day 
mine is like, both above and under ground, and what sort of men now 
make up its community. The volume is illustrated with many fittingly 
picturesque views. 

The story of the Mine By Charles Howard Shinn. Illustrated. New York : D. Appleton & 
Co. Pp. 272, limo. Price, gl.50. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 129 

Judging^ from the account of Mr. Loomis, there is much enjoyment to be 
had incidentally from a scientific expedition to a strange land.* Merely 
passing over unfamiliar ground and observing its natural features, its in- 
habitants in their everyday aspect, and its ordinary sequence of events has 
its interest. But when the traveler is engaged in operations that are enough 
out of the common to appear somewhat weird to the non-scientific native 
and arouse his active curiosity, traits are brought out that do not appear to 
the ordinary visitor. A more realizing sense of the physical, political, and 
industrial condition of a strange land, too, is obtained when one has to 
accomplish a definite piece of work with the means that it affords than, 
when one is concerned merely with passing through it. Personal equa- 
tion is quite as much a factor in books of travel as in scientific observa- 
tions. How much we prefer the writer who jots down the points that we 
take an interest in and answers the queries that arise in our minds as we 
follow his narrative ! The reader with scientific tastes especially will enjoy 
Mr. Loomis's book. It describes the journey of the United States Scien- 
tific Expedition to West Africa in 1889-*90, the preparations for viewing 
the eclipse of the sun, and the return. After crossing the Atlantic, stops 
-were made at the Azores, Cape Verd Islands, Sierra Leone, and on the 
Gold Coast before the destination of the expedition Saint Paul de Loan da 
was reached. On the return, Cape Town, the diamond mines of Kim- 
berley. Saint Helena, Ascension, and Barbados were visited. The book 
gives abundant evidence that our author, in addition to his ability to record 
matters of exact observation, is not without a realizing sense of the beauti- 
ful and inspiring in Nature. The volume is handsomely printed, and is 
copiously illustrated with reproductions of photographs taken by members 
of the expedition. 

Another careful study of a special field has been added to the Criminol- 
ogy Series. t The habitual criminal presents a much more serious problem 
than the occasional offender. Criminal habits, like most others, are formed 
in youth ; hence any diminution that can be secured in the amount of 
juvenile crime will tend to reduce the most troublesome class of criminals. 
At present the author's study, of statistics and other pertinent facts indi- 
cates that juvenile crime is increasing in both Europe and America. Its 
distribution agrees substantially with that of adult crime. While the bulk 
of juvenile criminals are boys, Mr. Morrison finds that "female offenders 
are rather more likely to descend into the ranks of habitual criminals than 
male offenders." He accounts for this largely from the fact that " females 
are, as a rule, later in being subjected to reformative discipline than males, 
with the ultimate result that this discipline is less effective when at last it 
has to be resorted to. It is therefore," he continues, " no real kindness to 
female children, when they exhibit symptoms of habitual delinquency, to 
allow these symptoms to develop unheeded." As to the kinds of crime 
committed by children, our author finds that petty theft and vagabondage 
are by far the most prevalent, mental and physical immaturity making it 
impossible for the young to be serious offenders against either person or 

An Eclipse Party in Africa. By Eben J. Loomis. Elustrated. Boston: Roberts Bros. Pp.218, 
8vo. Price, $4.50. 

t Juvenile Offenders. By W. Douglas Morrison. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 317, ICmo 
Price, $1.50. 

VOL. LI. 10 



130 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

property. It appears that most juvenile criminals are undersized and 
sickly, and many have a feeble intellect, bluntness of feeling, or unstable 
will. The operation of heredity has fastened these defects upon them, as a 
rule, so that they must be regarded as belonging to a decadent class. Be- 
sides the production of such disabilities the influence of parents often oper- 
ates to rear young criminals through the conditions and associations of the 
home. From this examination of the production of juvenile crime our 
author turns to consider measures of repression. He finds that the plan of 
suspended sentence is very promising, especially with first offenders. A 
fine which may be paid in installments, or, in other words, a sentence to 
compulsory labor without imprisonment, also commends itself to him, but 
he has little faith in the eflScacy of corporal punishment, in spite of the 
recent advocacy of it. Ordinary imprisonment, which he discusses in con- 
siderable detail, he also finds unsuitable for the young. The corrective 
institutions that have become numerous of late years seem to him to go to 
the root of the difficulty, as they aim to correct the defective physical and 
moral condition of the juvenile delinquent, and thus aid him to keep from 
future lapses. Mr. Morrison urges more intelligent supervision of inmates 
after their discharge from such institutions, which could be combined with 
conditional release before the expiration of the term of commitment. The 
book can not fail to be of service to all who have to deal with vicious tend- 
encies in the young. 

It is a long step from the time when prehistoric man fashioned his rude 
weapons and battled with the rhinoceros and cave bear to the era of such a 
civilization as that of the Akkads, depicted for us by Mr. Anderson.* To 
these early Chaldeans Babylon and Assyria were indebted for their cunei- 
form characters and much of their culture. At Lippur, 3800 B. c, they 
possessed an extensive library. Some of their works on astronomy, being 
unearthed three thousand years later, proved sufficiently new to be studied 
by the Assyrians. In art they showed more skill than succeeding nations, 
and also made considerable progress in science, being acquainted with the 
sidereal year and reckoning the latitude of stars. They used the clepsydra, 
lever and pulley, lenses, and possibly telescopes, since tablets have been 
found apparently referring to the four moons of Jupiter. 

It is almost incredible that the name and memory of a nation so exten- 
sive as to include all of Asia Minor and northern Syria, and powerful 
enough to be courted by Egypt in the time of the great Sesostris, could be 
blotted out of history for two thousand years. Yet this is tho care in re- 
gard to the empire of Khita. and the story of her greatness has to be inter- 
preted anew for us from the walls of Thebes and Egyptian temples. The 
Hittite inscriptions which are found in Asia Minor are as yet a riddle to 
scholars. 

Other of the ancient civilizations happily did not fall into such oblivion, 
and concerning the distinctive features of each of these Babylonia, Egypt, 
Phoenicia, the Hebrews, the Arabs, and ancient Persia the author dis- 
courses ably and graphically. 

* Ttie story of Extinct Civilizations of the East. By Robert E. Anderson. New York : D. Apple- 
ton & Co. Pp. :>13. Price, 40 conts. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



131 



GENERAL NOTICES. 



The strong efforts now being made to 
develop a vehicle that shall propel itself, and 
the measure of success already achieved, 
promise the early attainment of an advance 
in locomotion as great as that afforded by 
the introduction of the safety type of bicycle. 
A good idea of the mechanical principles that 
are being employed in the solution of the 
problem may be gained from a translation of 
a recent book by a French engineer.* Of 
the four kinds of motor that have been ap- 
plied to self-propelling vehicles steam, elec- 
tric, compressed air, and naphtha the au- 
thor has by far the most hopes of the last, 
and gives most space to this type in his book. 
His early chapters are devoted to a state- 
ment of the mechanics of steam and other 
gases, and he gives here also the theory of 
the electric motor. In describing the vari- 
ous systems of steam traction he gives first 
place to the SerpoUet generator the only 
generator of steam allowed for traffic in the 
large cities of France. Other steam motors 
that find place here are the Le Blant, De 
Dion & Bouton, Bollee, Filtz, Rowan, and 
Francq. Compressed-air autocars are repre- 
sented by the Popp-Conti tramway and the 
Mekarski system. M. Farman is naturally 
most familiar with motor wagons of European 
origin, but he has inserted such accounts as 
were accessible to him of the American types. 
Among petroleum motors he ranks as king 
the one invented by the German Daimler, 
which is employed in the carriages of Pan- 
hard & Levassor, Peugeot, Gautier, and other 
builders. He gives a full description of this 
and describes also the Roger car with the 
Benz motor, the Gladiator auto-cycles, the 
Duryea, Kane-Pennington, Tenting, and Dela- 
haye cars, and several machines so far used 
only for agricultural or other industrial pur- 
poses. Electric carriages are represented by 
the Jeantaud, Morris & Salom, and Bogard. 
His concluding chapter deals with lubrica 
tion, tires, bearings, and other details. Over 
a hundred carefully drawn figures and dia- 
grams illustrate the volume. 

The notes which the reader will find 
in Miss Merriani's attractive volume were 

* Autocars. By D. Farman. New York: The 
Macmiilan Co. Pp. 249, 12mo. Price, $1.50. 



taken at Twin Oaks in southern California.* 
The author is a bird enthusiast who, before 
going to the Pacific coast, had known only 
the birds of New York and Massachusetts. 
" Every morning right after breakfast " she 
has her horse brought round, and together in 
silent sympathy she and Canello, the faithful 
patient little broncho, go the rounds of the 
valley, getting acquainted with the birds as 
they come from the south. Canello liked 
well to " watch birds in the high alfalfa un- 
der the sycamores, but when it came to stand- 
ing still where the hot sun beat down through 
the brush and there was nothing to eat, his 
interest in ornithology flagged perceptibly." 
Then after dinner the author strolls through 
the trees to get a nearer view of the nests. 
The white egret, the green heron, the spotted 
sandpiper, the valley quail, are as fascinating 
to Miss Merriam as are the ants to Sir John 
Lubbock. Her description of all the birds is 
marked by a charming simplicity and by a 
beautiful use of English. She is in touch 
with Nature, with an eye for color, an ear 
atune to melody, and intellect clear and clean. 
It is a pity that we have not more such books 
as this and more such women as the author- 
ess. We can imagine no better mental tonic 
than a ride on horseback in the early morn- 
ing while the dew is on the grass, with the 
authoress as a chaperon and teacher of bird 
lore, for the weary city woman who needs to 
be lulled back to rest and get mental and 
physical health on the bosom of Mother Na- 
ture. 

Prof. Ramsay, who was associated with 
Lord Rayleigh in the remarkable discovery 
of argon, has written a popular historical 
sketch of the several investigations that have 
given us our present knowledge as to what 
air is composed of.f He begins with the 
work of Robert Boyle, who published about 
1650 his Memoirs for a General History of 
the Air, and proceeds with the less known 
labors of John Mayow and Stephen Hales. 



* A-Birding on a Bronco. By Florence A. 
Merriam. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Price, $1.25. 

t The Gases of the Atmosphere. By William 
Ramsay, F. R. 8. London and New York : The 
Macmiilan Co. Pp. 240, 12mo. Price, $2. 



132 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



From some pai=sa{res in their writings it 
would seem that each of these worthies came 
within a step or two of discovering all the 
main facts relating to the composition of the 
air, but each failed to look quite far enough 
in the right direction. Boyle, it appears, rea- 
soned shrewdly from imperfect observations ; 
Mayow died young ; while Hales accumulated 
many and definite experimental facts, but 
lacked the ability to make use of them. All 
were hampered by the current errors of their 
time, among which the chief were the inabil- 
ity to distinguish one gas from another, lack 
of attention to gain or loss of weight, and 
above all erroneous ideas regarding combus- 
tion. Prof. Ramsay shows how the phlo- 
gistic theory, which came up about the end 
of Boyle's life, interfered with the researches 
of his successors Black, Rutherford, Priest- 
ley, and Cavendish until it was overthrown 
by Lavoisier. We are told something about 
the achievements of each of these men, 
and the account is made more interesting by 
including descriptions and portraits of the 
men themselves. After Cavendish little ap- 
parently remained to be done but to make 
more exact determinations of the constitu- 
ents that had been found in the air. But in 
the course of some investigations in 1892 
Lord Ray leigh noticed that nitrogen prepared 
from ammonia is somewhat lighter than at- 
mospheiic nitrogen. A i-esearch undertaken 
to find the reason for this difference brought 
out the existence of the inert argon. The 
circumstances of the discovery and the rea- 
soning which led to it are set forth by Prof. 
Ramsay, who adds chapters giving the prop- 
erties of argon and its po.-ition among the 
elements. The author has succeeded well in 
keeping his book within the comprehension 
of the persons without special scientific train- 
ing for whom it was written. 

Prof. Crockett's Elements of Plane and 
Spherical Trigonometry* by a mathemati- 
cian of note who is Professor of Mathemat- 
ics and Astronomy in the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, has been prepared for the 
use of beginners in the study. Assuming 
that a high degree of proficiency can not be 
expected from such students, the author, not 

* Elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonome- 
try, with Tables. By C. W. Crockett. American 
Book Company. Pp. .^11. Price, $1.25. 



striving after original demonstrations, has 
limited himself to the selection of simple 
proofs of the formulas, to which geometrical 
proofs have in many cases been added. The 
definitions and explanations are admirably 
clear and concise. The numerical examples 
have been computed by the author, with spe- 
cial attention to correctness in the last deci- 
mal place. The tables are a special feature, 
are printed from differentiated type, and on 
paper of a different tint from the text, so as 
to make them easier to turn to. They give 
five places, while the angles in the examples 
are given to the nearest tenth of a minute. 
We find the book lucid and convenient. 

The recent book of Prof. Keasbey * on the 
Nicaragua Canal urges frankly and emphatic- 
ally the choice of the Nicaragua route for a 
canal across Central America, and the assump- 
tion by the United States of a dominant posi- 
tion in the political control of this water way. 
The author opens his discussion with a brief 
description and comparison of the ten or 
twelve more or less distinct routes that have 
been proposed, expressing the decided con- 
viction that the Nicaragua and Panama routes 
are the only two worth considering, with the 
advantage on the side of the former. The 
greater part of the volume is devoted to a 
history of the attempts that have been made 
to construct canals in this region and to ob- 
tain political control of the territory through 
which they would pass. The record begins 
with the first Spanish explorations, and men- 
tions canal projects of Spanish engineers 
formed before 1550. A chapter on the Eng- 
lish freebooters opens an account of the 
struggle between England and Spain, lasting 
into the early part of the present century. 
The term from 1815 to 1865 Prof. Keasbey 
characterizes as a period of private initiative 
in canal projects. Two events in this divi- 
sion of his record which have an important 
bearing on the idea of cutting the American 
isthmus are the enunciation of the Monroe 
doctrine and the execution of the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty. The time since 1865 he de- 
scribes as a period of governmental activity 
in this matter, and he closes his chronicle of 
recent events by givmg his view of the po- 

* The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doc- 
trine. By Liudley Miller Keasbey. New York: 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 622, Svo. Price, $3.50. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



13? 



litical, the technical, and the diplomatic situa- 
tions of to-day with regard to the two chief 
routes. In his concluding chapters he argues 
for the construction of a canal as of tran- 
scendent importance to the economic develop- 
ment of America, and gives his reasons why 
the United States should control the passage. 
The volume is carefully indexed and contains 
four maps. 

Among the papers accompanying the Re- 
port of the United States Commissioner of 
Education for 1894- 95 are two dealing with 
important subjects connected with the edu- 
cational system of Great Britain. One of 
these is the question of religious instruction 
in the free schools, and the other is the or- 
ganization of secondary education as shown 
by the report of a royal commission. The 
legal aspects of the Manitoba school case are 
given in another contribution. Foreign mat- 
ters of interest treated in other papers are 
the university education of women in Eng- 
land, the educational status of women in 
various countries, and English teaching on 
the history of the American Revolution. Of 
domestic interest are the chapters on teach- 
ers' pensions, Chautauqua education, and 
early educational history in the United States. 

The book on Alternating Currents aytd Al- 
ternating Current Machinery, by Profs. Du- 
gald C and John P. Jackson, forms Volume 
II of their textbook on Electromagnetism 
and the Construction of Dynamos (Macmil- 
lan, $3.50). The authors have followed in it 
methods that have been found advantageous 
in teaching other branches of engineering. 
The volume is designed to present the fun- 
damental phenomena of alternating currents 
as met with in engineering practice, and to 
point out their controlling principles and ap- 
plications. Descriptions and illustrations of 
commercial machinery are not included per 
se, though where practical data may be use- 
ful in illustrating deductions in the text they 
are copiously used. For the fuller information 
of the reader, a large number of references 
are given in footnotes. In the chapters on 
polyphase currents the authors could not 
hope to supply a list of references that would 
remain long adequate, as material of over- 
shadowing importance is being constantly 
published. Descriptions of experiments hav- 
ing only historical interest have been care- 



fully excluded. In the use of mathematics 
the authors have sought to avoid presenting 
unnecessary formulas on the one hand, or 
giving results without reasons on the other. 
Numerous original demonstrations of the 
standard formulas have been introduced and 
a few additions have been made to the no- 
menclature. The volume contains over three 
hundred diagrams and other figures, and is 
adequately indexed. 

In a neatly printed little pamphlet ff. 
Edwin Lewis has discussed The Philosophy 
of Sex scientifically, delicately, and impres- 
sively. His chapter on Reproduction and 
the Origin of Sex and that on the Nature 
and Relation of Sex lead up to an earnest 
appeal for sexual purity, which can not fail 
to help well-intentioned persons who are 
weak or thoughtless or who do not know 
where to turn for guidance. (Vermont Medi- 
cal Publishing Co., Burlington, 85 cents.) 

Much out of the common run of text- 
books is Numhtr and its Algebra, by Arthur 
Lefevre (Heath, $1.25). It deals with the 
theory of numerical operations, and is de- 
signed to be introductory to a collegiate 
course in algebra. It thus bears a similar 
relation to algebra that the chapters on 
chemical philosophy in books on chemistry 
bear to their main subject. The mathemat- 
ical operations whose natures are explained 
range from counting up to work with radi- 
cal surds, undetermined coeflScients, roots of 
integral and quadratic equations, radix frac- 
tions, and functions. The several chapters 
are based on lectures which the author has 
given for a number of years to his univer.sity 
students with the especial design of aiding 
the large part of them who were preparing 
to teach, hence pedagogical applications will 
be found throughout the book. "Plainly 
the first step," says the author, " to the un- 
derstanding of the algebra of number is to 
understand the nature and laws of number. 
It is hoped that these lectures have been a 
fairly adequate guide and stimulus to this 
step. After masteiing what may be called 
the vocabulary of the language (proficiency 
in this matter has been assumed), the next 
step is to grasp the idea of algebraic /orm. 
In the study of algebra this should be the 
main standpoint. It is only by following out 
the problems which arise in a systematic 



134 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



study of algebraic form that the modern de- 
velopments of pure algebra, or its applica- 
tions to geometry, can be rightly compre- 
hended." 

From the Department of Agriculture we 
have received /wAr^-^s affecting Dome-tiic Ayi- 
imals, an account of the species of impor- 
tance in North America, by Herbert Osborne, 
Professor of Zoology and Entomology, Iowa 
Agricultural College. This report gives, in 
about three hundred pages, a description of 
all the parasites the stock raiser has to con- 
tend with. After an introductory chapter on 
parasites in general, the following six chap- 
ters deal with the various pests in detail. 
The seventh chapter tells of remedies and 
preventive treatment. Classified lists and a 
bibliography complete the pamphlet. The 
report represents the result of investigations 
carried on at intervals since 1885. In the 
words of L. 0. Howard, entomologist to the 
department, it " will form an excellent text- 
book of the subject, and is a work which 
should be in the hands of all stock raisers." 
It is fully illustrated by plates and cuts. 

Observations on the Fur Seals of the Pri- 
biloff Island* Preliminary Report by David 
Sta/rr Jordan, Commissioner in charge of 



Fur-seal Investigations for 1896- 



-brings 



some interresting data as to the condition 
and the fishery of seals on a little cluster of 
islands in the Bering Sea. Under different 
headings it describes the islands, the rooker- 
ies, habits and breeding of the seal, and the 
different modes of killing, and their effects. 
A number of statistical tables put these dif- 
ficult investigations on a scientifically accu- 
rate basis ; and a map appended to the pam- 
phlet locates the routes of the seal under 
way. 

The February number of the Expositor, 
a theological magazine, opens with a rather 
searching criticism of Ian Maclaren's The 
Mind of the Master, by the Lord Bishop of 
Derry and Raphoe. He points out what to 
him seem numerous errors of interpretation 
of the Gospels ; and from his Anglican 
point of view the Rev. John Watson's broad 
if not exactly new proposition that of sub- 
stituting the Sermon on the Mount for the 
creeds of Christendom would mean a giv- 
ing over of Christianity altogether. Among 
the other papers of interest to lay readers 



may be mentioned Christian Perfection, by 
the Rev. Joseph Agar Beet ; John's View of 
the Sabbath Rest, by the Rev. George Mathe- 
son ; and The Priest of Penitence, by the 
Rev. E. N. Bennett. Among the reviews a 
large space is given to books on social topics. 
Two of these reviews are by Prof. Richard 
T. Ely, and one by Prof. William Adams 
Brown. 

The Analytic Keys to the Genera and 
Species of North American Mosses, prepared 
by Charles M. Barnes, and published by the 
University of Wisconsin, is a new edition 
and enlargement of a Key to Genera pub- 
lished for free distribution in 1886, and Keys 
to Species published in 1890, and is intend- 
ed to serve the same purpose as they of 
furnishing a convenience to students rather 
than to present a critical study of North 
American mosses. It includes, therefore, a 
very large number of new species that have 
been described since 1890. For the beuefit 
of amateurs, though specialists may not 
need them, collected descriptions are ap- 
pended of all species not found in Lesque- 
reux and James's Manual. The attempt is 
made to include all the species reported or 
described as belonging to our flora, unless 
later study of the genus has shown the addi- 
tion to be untenable ; and such special stud- 
ies are cited in the Keys. Pains have been 
taken to include as many of the barren and 
insufficiently described species as possible, 
in order that they may be recognized, if 
they exist, or may be referred to their proper 
place. Varieties are not discriminated, l)ut 
inquiry into the subject is suggested. The 
work of preparing this edition has been 
largely done by Mr. de F. Ueald, with the 
co-operation of the author. 

Prof. G. Frederick Wrighfs comprehen- 
sive and fully illustrated account of The Ice 
Age in North A merica, which first appeared 
in 1889, reached its fourth edition in 1896 
(Appletons, $5). Detailed work upon the 
glaciated areas has been going on actively 
since the third edition came out, but Dr. 
Wright finds no occasion to modify mate- 
rially his original statements, either of fact 
or of theory. In his preface to the new 
issue he gives a list of papers in which the 
results of this recent work have been em 
bodied, accompanying it with notes on the 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



135 



contents of many of the papers. He inserts 
also a map prepared by Mr. Warren Upham 
showing the three stages in which Prof. 
T. C. Chamberiin has classified the glacial 
formations of North America and the later 
lines of recession toward the northeast. 
Prof. Wright sees many open questions in 
glacial geology " inviting the continued atten- 
tion of local observers and promising to all 
interesting and important discoveries." 

The Report of the Neio York State Board 
of Charities for 1895 gives evidence of a 



year of active work. The report proper is 
accompanied by a large number of special 
reports of inspections by one or more mem- 
bers of the board, made to ascertain the gen- 
eral condition of the several hospitals, alms- 
houses, children's homes, and other charitable 
institutions in the State or to investigate 
alleged abuses. Institutions found to be in 
good condition are cordially praised, and de- 
fects are unhesitatingly condemned. The 
ordinary operations of the institutions under 
the supervision of the board are fully shown 
in tables. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 



Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins | 
and Reports. Cornell University : The Pistol- 
case-Bearer in Western New York. By M. V. 
Slingerland. Pp. 17; A Disease of Currant 
Cants. By E. J. Durand. Pp. 16 Michigan : 
Bacte ia: What they Are and what they Do ; and 
Eopiness in Milk. By C. E. Marshall. Pp. 44. 
New Jersey : Report of the Botai icsl Department 
for lf<96. By Bvron D. Halsted. Pp. 136 New 
York : Director's Report for 1896. Pp. 30 ; The 
Cucumber Flea-beetle as the Cause of " Pimply " 
Potatoes. By F. C. Stewart. Pp. 10 ; Economy 
in using Fertilizers for raising Potatoes. By L L. 
Van Slyke. Pp. 14. Ohio : Potatoes (Cultural 
Notes, etc). Pp.16 ; Beet-sn gar Production. Pp. 
32 Investigations of Plant Diseases in Forcing- 
hou e and Garden. Pp. 26 : Newspaper Bulletm 
on Black Knot, etc. Pp. 2. Purdue University : 
Ninth Annual Report. Pp. 61. United States 
Department of Agriculture : The Carbohydrates 
of Wheat, Maize, Flour, and Bread ; and the Ac- 
tion of Enzymic Ferments. By W. E. Stone. 
Pp. 44 ; Grasses and Forage Plants of the Rocky 
Mountain Region. By P. A. Rydberg and C. A. 
Shear. Pp. 48. 

America and the Americans from a French 
Point of View. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. Pp. 273. $1.25. 

Angot, Alfred. The Aurora Borealis. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. (International Scien- 
tific Series.) Pp. 264. $1.75. 

Balch, E. S. Ice Caves and the Causes of Sub- 
terranean Ice. Philadelphia. Pp. 18. 

Baldwin, Joseph. School Management and 
School Methods. New York : D. Appleton & 
Co. (International Education Series.) Pp. 395. 
$1.50. 

Baskett, J. N. The Story of the Birds. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. (Appletons' Home- 
Reading Books.) Pp. 268. 65 cents. 

Bell, Louis. Electric Power Transmission. 
New York : The W.J. Johnston Company. Pp. 
491. 

Bulletins. United States Department of La- 
bor. March, 1897. By C. D. Wright and O. W. 
Weaver. Pp. 236. State Library, New York: 
LegislKtion by States in 1S96. Pp. 110. Geo- 
graphical Club of Philadelphia: A Trip to Manika 
Land. By J. E. Farnum. Pp. 10. Pasteur In- 
stitute ((iuarterly), Paul Gibier, Editor. Pp. 38. 

Burgess, John W. The American History 
Series, Middle Period, 1817-18.58. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 544. $1.75. 

Christiansen, Dr. C. Elements of Theoretical 
Physics Translated by W. F. Magie. New 
York : The Macmillan Company. Pp. 339. 
$3.35. 

Columbia Urdversity, New York. President's 
Annual Report, 1896. Pp. 89. 



Conn, H. W., and Esten, W. M. Bacteria in 
the Dairy. (Two Papers.) Middletown, Conn. 
Pp. 36. 

Duclaux, E. Atmospheric Actinometry and 
the Actinic Constitution of the Atmosphere. 
Smithsonian Contributions. (Hodgkins Fund.) 
Pp. 48. 

Elliot, D. G. Catalogue of Birds obtained by 
the Expedition into Somanliland. Chicago : Field 
Columbian Museum. Pp. 38. 

Gamble, Eliza Burt. The God Idea of the 
Ancients, or Sex in Religion. New York : G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. Pp .3.39. 

Greenleaf, J. L., New York. The Times and 
Causes of Western Floods. Pp. 10. 

Hollick, Arthur. Geological Notes, Long Is- 
land and Block Island. New York : Columbian 
University. 

Hopper, Dr. M. S. Origin of the Tobacco 
Habit. Pp. 6. 

Hughes, J. L. Froebel's Educational Laws 
for all Teachers. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 
(International Education Series.) Pp. 296. $1.50. ' 

Huntington, A. K , and McMillan, W. G. 
Metals, their Properties and Treatment. New 
York : Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 562. $2.50. 

Interstate Commerce Commission. Eighth 
Annual Report on the Statistics of Railways. 
Washington. Pp. 6'J7. 

Kofoid, C. A.Plankton. Studies in the Illinois 
State Laboratory of Natural History. Pp. 25, 
with plates. 

McAdie, Alexander. Equipment and Work of 
an Aero-physical Observatory. Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections. (Hodgkins Fund.) Pp. 
82. 

Maxwell, Sir Herbert. Robert the Brace. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. (Heroes of 
the Nations.) Pp. 387. $1.-50. 

Mayer, Alfred G. On the Color and Color pat- 
terns of Moths and Butterflies. Boston Society 
of Natural History. Pp. 96, with 10 plates. 

Mearns, E. A. Preliminary Diagnosis of New 
Mammals. United States National Museum. 
Pp. 4. 

Merrill, George P. A Treatise on Rocks, 
Rnck-weathering, and Soils. New York : The 
Macmillan Company. Pp. 411. $4. 

Peet, Stephen D. The History of Explorations 
in the Mississippi Valley. Pp.31. 

Pellegrini, Pietro. I Diseredati e loro Diritti 
(The Disinherited and their Rights). Borgo a 
Mozzano, Italy. Pp. 205. 

Price, Sadie F. The Fern Collector's Hand- 
book and Herbarium. New Yf rk ; Henry Holt 
& Co. 72 plates, with botanical indexes, etc. 



136 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Reports. Home for Aged Jews of Chicago, 
1894-1896. Pp. 62. Perkins Institution and Maw- 
eachu^etts School for the Blind. Year ending 
August 31, 1896. Pp. 274. 

Ridgway, Robert. Birds of the Galapagos 
Archipelago. United States National Museum. 
Pp. 11-2. 

Scott, William B. An Introduction to Geol- 
ogy. New York : The Macmillan Company. Pp. 
573. $1.90. 

Setchell, William A. Laboratory Practice for 
Beginners in Botany. New York : The Macmil- 
lan Company. Pp.190. 90 cents. 

Sharpe, R. W. Coutribulion to a Knowledge 
of the North American Fresh- water Ostracoda. 
Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 
Urbana. Pp. 7'3, with plates. 

Starr, Frederick. Stone Images from Taras- 
can Territory, Mexico. Pp. 4, with 3 plates. 



Stone, W. E., and Balrd, ^W. H. The Occur- 
rence of Raflinose in American Sugar Beets. 
Purdue University. Pp. 9, with plate. 

Tarr, Ralph S. Elementary Geology. New 
York : The Macmillan Company. Pp.499. $1.40. 

Tubeuf, Dr. Karl Freiherr. Diseases of Plants 
induced by Cryptogamic Parasites. English edi- 
tion, bv W. G. Smith. New York : Longmans, 
Green & Co. Pp. 598. 

Walsingham, Lord, and Dnrrant, John n. 
Rules for regulating Nomenclature (in Entomol- 
ogy). New York : Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 
18. 20 cents. 

Wines, F. H., and Koren, John. The Liquor 
Problem in its Legislative Aspects. Boston and 
New York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 342. 

Work in Anthropology at the University of 
Chicago. Pp. 8. 



vagmciits of ^cizntt* 



Horticultural Extension ScJioois. Ex- 
periments in methods of extension teacliing 
as applied to horticulture have been made 
by Prof. L. H. Bailey in connection with 
the Cornell University Experiment Station, 
through itinerant or local experiment, read- 
able expository bulletins, the itinerant horti- 
cultural school, elementary instruction in rural 
schools, and correspondence and reading 
courses. The greatest good as yet accom- 
plished seems to have come through the bul- 
letins. These have taken the form of sur- 
veys of the status of certain industries, with 
especial attention given to floriculture and 
ornamental gardening. Besides the consecu- 
tive teaching of horticultural schools, Nature 
study and object lessons were taught in a 
series of schools, with the object, besides 
imparting specific horticultural information, 
of awakening closeness of observation and 
careful reasoning from it on the part of the 
attendants. Observation lessons constituted 
one of the most useful exercises in connec- 
tion with these schools. Small objects, like 
leaves or roots or flowers or seeds, were put 
in the hands of all the attendants, and after 
they had examined them for a few minutes 
the instructor began to ask questions con- 
cerning them. This exercise drilled every 
participant in observation and in drawing 
proper inferences from what he saw, and was 
productive of the greatest interest and good. 
Such schools serve better as the culmina- 
tion of a series of extension efforts than as 



a primary or preliminary means of awaken- 
ing the rural communities. Another series 
of lessons had the determination of the man- 
ner in which pupils could be reached by 
means of object-lesson teaching, and the 
amount of interest they would be likely to 
manifest in agricultural matters in case it 
should ever be found desirable to introduce 
such teaching as a part of the distinct school 
work. The conclusion is drawn by Prof. 
Bailey, from this experimental work, that the 
farmers, as a whole, are willing and anxious 
for education. They are difBcult to reach, 
because they have not been well taught, not 
because they are unwilling to learn. 

Effect of Veils on Eyesight. In experi- 
menting upon the effect of the wearing of 
veils upon the eyesight. Dr. Casey A. Wood, 
of Chicago, selected a dozen typical speci- 
mens of veils and applied the ordinary tests 
of ability to read while wearing them. These 
tests showed that every description of veil 
affects more or less the ability to see dis- 
tinctly, both in the distance and near at hand. 
The most objectionable kind is the dotted 
veil. Other things being equal, vision is 
interfered with in direct proportion to the 
number of meshes per square inch. The 
texture of the veil plays an important part 
in the matter. When the sides of the mesh 
are single, compact threads, the eye is much 
less embarrassed than when double threads 
are employed. The least objectionable veil 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



137 



is without dots, sprays, or other figures, but 
with large, regular meshes made with single, 
compact threads. Eve troubles do not ne- 
cessarily result from wearing veils, for the 
healthy eye is as able as any other part of 
the body to resist the strain they impose 
upon it. But weak eyes are hurt by them, 
and prudence should teach not to strain 
healthy eyes too much. 

Domestication of tlie Egret. A resolu- 
tion was adopted at the International Zoologi- 
cal Congress held in Leyden in 1895, favor- 
ing measures for the preservation and do- 
mestication of the egret. Under present 
conditions the bird, so highly prized for its 
plumes, is undergoing rapid extermination. 
M. J. Forest, the author of the Leyden reso- 
lution, is confident that the domestication of 
the egi'et herons will be found as practicable 
as that of the ostrich has proved to be. The 
little egret, or garzette, in particular, has 
already shown itself quite susceptible to the 
taming process. In a heronry established 
at Tunis in 1873, a flock of thirty young 
birds has increased to about four hundred. 
The establishment contains a pool and trees, 
and cost less than twenty-eight hundred dol- 
lars. It was stocked in the beginning with 
captured wild birds, whose disposition and 
capacity to breed did not seem to be affected 
by their captivity. The proprietor repre- 
sents that he gets six or seven dollars a year 
from each bird, plucking the plumes twice a 
year, in June and October, besides the in- 
crease of the flock. The capacity of the 
large egret for domestication is not so well 
established ; but a specimen of this bird, 
which had been captured wild and then tamed, 
was sent to the Jardin d^ Avclhnatation in 
Paris from Guiana in 1853; and several 
travelers Paul Marcoy, Thouar, the lamented 
Crevaux, and Ehrenreich mention having 
seen in Paraguay and along the Amazon 
numerous domesticated birds, herons and 
grebes among them, living in the Indian 
villages on whatever they could find to eat 
there. Herons bearing ash-gray plumes are 
kept in some of the larger houses of Bagdad. 

Inventing a Match. The credit of the 
invention of chemical matches is claimed for 
various persons in different countries for 
Friedrich Kamrer in Germany, Roemer and 



Preschel in Austria, Ironvi and Moldenhauer 
in Hungary, Ivan Worstakoff in Russia, 
Watt and Isaac Holden in England, and 
Charles Lauria in France. The one thing 
agreed upon is the date 1833. For Lauria 
the claim is made by M. Jacques Boyer that 
he thought about the matter in 1827, when 
he saw Gay-Lussac's hydrogen tinder box 
at Lyons in 1827, and had made a practical 
match before 1833. Immediately after wit- 
nessing Gay-Lussac's experiment he began 
to look for a fulminating powder which would 
enable him to realize the dream he had con- 
ceived, and while still in this search saw 
his professor of chemistry, Nicollet, produce 
the detonation of powdered sulphur and 
chlorate of potash. Then he thought that 
if he could incorporate phosphorus with this 
mixture he might produce the blaze he 
wanted. He had no apparatus but a few 
sticks of sulphur-tipped pine and some glass 
tubes. He had got some parcels of sulphur 
and chlorate from the college laboratory at 
Dole, and having obtained a little phosphorus 
from a pharmacy, he proceeded to melt hia 
mixture. As he was inexperienced and awk- 
ward at the work, he suffered a number of 
accidents, in which his bed curtains proved 
readier to take fire than his matches. At 
last he dipped the end of one of his sul- 
phured sticks into the chlorate slightly 
warmed. Some of the chlorate adhered, 
and, rubbing his half-finished match on the 
wall where a trace of phosphorus had found 
its way, the stick blazed up at once. Lauria 
called his comrades and the principal of the 
college to witness his achievement, and en- 
joyed a kind of triumph. He made a few 
improvements in his invention, added a little 
gum arable to his mixture to make it more 
adhesive, and had what is in principle the 
match of to-day. His fellow-students amused 
themselves with the matches. Prof. Puttenay 
made some for his own use, and they found 
their way into a cafe at Dole, but the effort 
to find a more general market for them did 
not succeed. 

Young Animals at School. A new the- 
ory of the sports of young animals put forth 
by Prof. Groos, of the University of Giessen, 
holds that they are a preparation for after- 
life, for the adaptation of the faculties for 
the sterner purposes of maturity, and are in 



138 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



effect dependent upon the necessity of modi- 
fying instincts. The higher an animal may 
be in the scale of life, the author assumes, 
the more varied become its relations to sur- 
rounding things and the less suited to vary- 
ing circumstances becomes a mechanical and 
rigid instinct. If, however, there is a period 
of youth during which inherited instincts 
may be used merely as a vehicle for redun- 
dant energy, an opportunity is afforded for 
modification and alteration of the rigid sys- 
tem. The instinct of a creature with prac- 
tically no period of youth, as with insects, 
must be complete and ready for use. The 
mammal or bird, however, passes through a 
period of youth " during which it has no im- 
mediate duties to perform and is cared for 
by its parents. In this time it plays with its 
instincts, learns to fly or to run and jump, to 
recognize its kind, to distinguish between the 
palatable and unpalatable, to make and un- 
derstand call notes or cries of alarm ; in a 
thousand ways to suit each occasion with its 
action and deserve a place in the hierarchy 
of intelligent beings." The games and 
sports earliest to appear in animals and most 
universal are classed by Prof. Groos as those 
of experiment and curiosity. "Young crea- 
tures play with everything that attracts their 
attention. They try their teeth or their 
claws on every available object. They taste 
and smell, rush and tumble about, collect in 
heaps or scatter everything they are able to 
reach, and, indeed, make attempts on the 
unattainable. The greater the intelligence 
of the adult animal the more surprisingly the 
young animal treats its surroundings in the 
spirit of an empirical philosopher. A young 
monkey observed by a sister of the late 
Prof. Romanes discovered for itself that the 
handle of a hearth brush was screwed into 
a socket. It succeeded in unscrewing the 
handle with ease, and after long experiments 
discovered that only one end twisted in a 
particular direction would fit into the socket. 
Another young monkey, chained just beyond 
the reach of a fire, found out how to tear 
strips from a newspaper and roll them up 
into tapers sufficiently long to reach the 
flames. By some such fertile employment 
of curiosity the professor thinks that the an- 
cestors of man may have gained their mas- 
tery over fire." Skill in flying is attained by 
considerable practice, and " in mammals the 



exercises of the young bear a definite rela- 
tion to adult habit. Mountain-living crea- 
tures, like kids and chamois, continually 
practice standing jumps, springing vertically 
into the air. . . . Gazelles, on the other hand, 
which have to jump watercourses and gul- 
lies on the Veldt, confine their youthful en- 
thusiasm to practice of the running jump. 
Similarly the play of tiger cubs with balls or 
with the tail of their mother, and the wrest- 
ling and mimic combats of other carnivo- 
rous young, all exhibit an instinctive bias by 
which the restless zeal of youth is disci- 
plined for the real purposes of maturity." 

Seals and their Pnps, A fur seal has 
none of the altruistic instincts of some other 
animals, for it will never feed any pup but 
her own. Not a very affectionate mother at 
best, she yet unerringly knows her nursling's 
voice, and he in turn learns to find her. When 
they meet and recognize each other at meal 
time, it is easy to see that they belong to- 
gether. Her duty done, however, she lets it 
shift for itself till the next feeding time. 
She instantly knows any little hungry in- 
truder that is stealing up to her to get a 
meal on the sly. She cuffs and bites, until 
the starveling, intimidated, slinks away to 
die. These orphaned younglings are the 
fruit of the indiscriminate " pelagic " seal- 
ing. Their mother being killed, and they 
unable to obtain another nurse, they perish 
by the thousands. A United States report 
estimates the number for 1896 at 20,331. 

The Last Resting Place of Pastenr. On 

December 26, 1896, the remains of Pasteur 
were borne to their final resting place, a 
crypt at the Pasteur Institute. On the stone 
is inscribed a sentence from his reception 
speech at the Academy : " Ueureux celui qui 
porte en soi un dieu, un id6al de beaute, et 
qui lui obeit ideal de I'art, ideal de la, sci- 
ence, ideal de la patrie, ideal des vertus de 
I'evangile " (" Happy he who bears within 
him a god, an ideal of beauty, and follows 
it an ideal of art, an ideal of science, an 
ideal of patrioti.sm, an ideal of the Chris- 
tian virtues "). Many men of science and 
thinkers of note, both French and foreign, 
were present, and deputations and wreaths 
were sent by scientific societies. A service 
at Notre Dame, where the remains had been 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



139 



reposing for the last fifteen months, was 
followed by the ceremonies at the crj'pt. 
M. J. B. Pasteur said to the council of the 
institute, in behalf of the family, " I intrust 
to you this tomb which we have raised to 
our father in this institute which he loved so 
dearly." Addresses were delivered by M. 
Rambaud, Minister of Education, and M. 
Baudin, President of the Municipality, and 
an address by M. Legouve was read by M. 
Gaston Boissier. 

Bachelor SealSt The young male seals, 
commonly called " bachelors," are very much 
like the females in size and color. During 
the breeding season they are not permitted 
by the bulls to enter the rookeries, hence 
they herd together separately on the so- 
called "hauling grounds." Unlike their 
seniors, who in the " harems " are busy 
founding families, these young bachelors 
have no fixed place of abode, but range at 
will over a large area of ground, usually 
sand beaches near the rookeries. Known 
also as " killable " seals, they are driven 
from their haunts and killed with clubs at 
about three years of age, the time when their 
fur is at its best. Small four-year-olds and 
large two-year-olds, being about the same size 
as the bachelors, are also hunted. Among 
these herds may sometimes be found bulls 
from four to six years old, who, being too 
cowardly to assert themselves in the harems, 
are forced to keep company with these young- 
sters. Another mode of hunting them is 
called " pelagic sealing," which means kill- 
ing them in the open sea wich firearms, or 
with the spear and club. In order to digest 
their food, they lie sleeping on the surface 
of the water, and the hunter finds it easy 
enough to steal up in his boat and spear the 
defenseless animal. This is really wholesale 
slaughter, for the hunter indiscriminately 
kills whatever lies in his way, even the nurs- 
ing mothers, thus leaving the pups to die of 
starvation. 

Nationality and Scenery. In the intro- 
duction to an article in the Deuhche Rund- 
schau descriptive of the German landscape, 
Herr Friedrich Ratzel shows by a few well- 
directed allusions how the intrinsic charac- 
ter of the scenery of a region, even in its 
apparently most natural features, is affected 



by the nationality that occupies it, and re- 
flects the character of that nationality. The 
allusions are local, but the principle they 
illustrate is general. A country with such a 
history as Germany's can have no purely 
natural landscape. The people and their 
land are the resultant of a long material de- 
velopment. When the Romans knew Ger- 
many a barbarian region with few inhabit- 
ants the works of man were less in evidence, 
and Nature prevailed. The effects of cultiva- 
tion have worked in two principal directions : 
First, the woods are cleared up, the water is 
confined within limits, the habitations of 
men are multiplied and enlarged and made 
more durable, and new plants and animals 
are brought in. Then uncontemplated 
changes step in, which proceed of them- 
selves from the works of cultivation. With 
the drying of the soil the climate is modi- 
fied. The introduction of new plants and 
animals imposes new features upon the con- 
ditions of life. Where before only stretches 
of heath, moor, and swamp formed natural 
openings in the predominant forest, exten- 
sive woodless regions arise through the la- 
bors of man, from which the shade-loving 
plants and animals that were protected by 
the forest gloom disappear, and other inhab- 
itants are at home in the cultivated fields. 
The variations in the particular shaping of 
these changes are more especially marked 
where the boundaries run through mountain 
regions. In the Saxon Erzgebirge the for- 
ests have lost all their wildness, and planta- 
tions of firs and oaks grow in regular order, 
all nearly of a height, with no trees towering 
into prominence, and the mountain has the 
trimmed and symmetrical appearance of a 
nursery. The brooks are tamed, dammed, 
and made to earn their right to be as the 
servants of the mills. Passing over the 
mountains and going down the Bohemian 
side, we are in the woods again, with the 
valleys free and irregular, and the brooks 
running according to their own will. The 
contrast is seen again, but less marked, in 
going up from Bohemia and down into Ba- 
varia. Within Germany itself the garden- 
tilled plots near the industrial centers and 
the little rectangular holdings of the south- 
western and middle districts, each distinctly 
marked off from its neighbor, and making 
the whole look like a party-colored checker- 



140 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 



board, impress one very differently from the 
immense fields devoted to single crops and 
the commodious barns of the north. Other 
differences may be seen on the upper Rhine, 
where the inhabitants of both sides were 
originally the same people, but have been 
subjected to different influences in the course 
of their history. The French have made 
their marks all over the Alsatian territory 
and in the towns cf quite another character 
from the native German aspects of the 
Baden side. 

A Snrvival of Torture. Although the 
practice of torture to extract evidence was 
formally abolished in 1789, the spirit of the 
Inquisition has not yet died out in the conti- 
nental countries of Europe. This is shown 
now and again in criminal cases. But not 
the convicts only are treated with the utmost 
severity. The mere suspicion of crime is 
enough to make a man's life miserable. He 
practically loses all civil rights, and finds 
himself at the mercy of an interrogating 
magistrate with full power to extract a con- 
fession, by moral suasion if possible, by more 
forcible means if need be. Subjected to a 
prolonged and tortuous system of cross-ques- 
tioning, the accused often completely break 
down mentally and confess at random what- 
ever has been suggested to them, much in 
the manner of the trials for witchcraft in 
our own Puritan New England. A case 
creating quite a sensation in Paris some 
thirty years ago was that of a woman who 
under this fire of interrogation admitted hav- 
ing killed her newborn infant, two months 
even before the birth of the child. If the 
culprits are suspected of obstinacy in an- 
swering, all sorts of expedients are used to 
make them more compliant, such as making 
their diet unpalatable, or altogether with- 
holding food and water, and penning up in 
close, dark quarters. 

Prof. Cannlzzaro's Jnbilec. The seven- 
tieth birthday of Prof. Stanislas Cannizzaro 
was celebrated on November 21, 1896, amid 
a concourse of the most distinguished scien- 
tists and other men of note of Rome. He 
was presented with a gold medal and a bust 
of himself in bronze, and received innumer- 
al)le letters, telegrams, addresses, and perga- 
menus from the leading scientific societies of 



the world. Prof. Semeraro, Rector Magnifi- 
cus of the Roman University, said in his 
address : " His greatest glory lies in the fact 
that most of the professors now teaching 
in Italian universities have been his pupils. 
The pressure of business as vice-president 
of the Senate and member of the Superior 
Council of Public Instruction, and many oth- 
ers, never were pretexts to him for overlook- 
ing the modest duty of a teacher." Hon. 
Galimberti, presenting him with the Grand 
Cordon of the Crown of Italy, said : '" Your 
name is worthy of being joined with those 
of Galileo, Torricelli, Volta, and Galvani. 
To Emanuel Kant, who, in his absolute sen- 
tence, considered chemistry as a union of 
empirical knowledge, you replied half a cen- 
tury ago, pronouncing among the confusion 
of doctrines immovable ideas and true laws 
that render chemistry an exact science, for it 
lies now on mathematical truth." Cannizzaro 
replied in an interesting speech. Referring 
to the combination of the functions of teacher 
and investigator, he said : " Had I not been 
a teacher, my publications would not have 
appeared, and I should have continued to 
disseminate science of new carbon com- 
pounds. I bring here Lord Kelvin's exam- 
ple, who, in his last jubilee, spoke of the 
utility he had found by the continued con- 
ferences with his pupils." 

Some Antipathies of Animals. A num- 
ber of very curious featuries in the antipa- 
thies of animals are pointed out in an article 
on the subject in the London Spectator. 
There are permanent hereditary antipathies, 
like those of cats against dogs, and purely 
instinctive, inexplicable antipathies, which 
are naturally the least common, but of which 
there are marked and definite examples. Of 
such is the disgust which tlie camel excites 
in horses. These animals " have been asso- 
ciated for centuries in the common service 
of man, and early training makes the horse 
acquiesce in the proximity of the creature 
which disgusts him. Otherwise, it is far 
more difficult to acctistom horses to work 
with camels than with elephants, precisely 
because the repugnance is a natural antipa- 
thy and not a reasoned fear." They get 
used to the sight of an elephant, but the 
smell of a camel disgusts and frightens them. 
English horses that have never seen a camel 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



141 



refuse to approach ground where they have 
stood. For this reason a traveling menage- 
rie was recently refused permission to en- 
camp on a village green, although the people 
would have been glad to see the show, but 
because the presence of the camels would 
interfere with the customary use of the place 
for a market, by engendering difficulties 
when the next attempt should be made to 
drive horses upon it. Yet, at a performance 
of two bears in London, one of the horses of 
a four-in-hand almost touched one of them, 
without himself or any of the team showing 
any nervousness over the matter. The hatred 
of cattle for dogs is supposed to have been 
inherited from the days when their calves 
were constantly killed by wolves or wild 
dogs. But " why the horse not only does not 
share this antipathy, but, on the contrary, 
loves a dog, it is difficult to explain." The 
dislike of the cat family for dogs likewise 
probably dates from the time when the wild 
dogs hunted and destroyed their whelps. 
" There is much probability in this conjec- 



ture, for it is the dog, and not the wolf, 
which the tiger so intensely dislikes, and it 
is only the packs of wild dogs, not wolves, 
which would venture to kill a cub. Leopards, 
which naturally live in branches of trees, sim- 
ply look on dogs as a favorite article of food ; 
and the puma of the pampas, which inhabits 
a country where the wild dog is unknown, is 
also a great dog-killer. The dogs, on their 
part, seem quite aware of the difference of 
view on the part of the various cats ; they will 
mob a tiger and hunt all tiger-cats. But they 
all seem to fear the leopard, and by nature 
to fear the puma, though in North America 
they can be trained to hunt it. It was re- 
cently noticed that a large dog, which found 
its way to a point opposite the outdoor cages 
of the lion-house at the Zoo, crept under- 
neath a seat as soon as the puma caught 
sight of it, and exhibited signs of the utmost 
nervousness and fear." The antipathies of 
most animals find a climax " in the com- 
mon and intense horror of the poisonous 
snake." 



MINOR PARAGRAPHS. 



The Municipal Administration Commit- 
tee of the Reform Club of the City of New 
York has secured Mr. Robert C. Brooks as 
its secretary, who has established his office 
at the University Settlement House, 26 De- 
lancey Street ; has begun the collection of a 
working library, which is rapidly growing ; 
and has practically completed a bibliography 
of Municipal- Administration, of twenty-five 
hundred manuscript pages, comprising a sub- 
ject index and another list, arranged alpha- 
betically and containing nine thousand en- 
tries referring to thirty four hundred articles 
in American, English, French, German, Italian, 
and Spanish publications, with the names of 
twelve hundred writers. It has more recently 
begun the issue of a quarterly magazine called 
Municipal Affairs, the first number of which 
contains the bibliography. It is working 
earnestly to enlist those who are willing to 
aid in propaganda work chiefly by holding 
meetings, at which questions of municipal 
polity are discussed by competent speakers. 

The importance is insisted upon by 
Thomas A. Williams, in a paper on the 
Grasses and Forage Plants of the Dakotas, 
of making every effort to preserve the native 



grasses. They are naturally adapted to the 
conditions that prevail in the region, and it 
is very improbable that introduced forms 
can be had to take their places satisfacto- 
rily for many years to come. Climatal evi- 
dences are abundant to prove that some of 
the native forms will flourish under condi- 
tions that would kill the common cultivated 
ones ; and the prolonged dry weather of the 
later summer, which would be destructive to 
cultivated species, simply cures these native 
ones on the ground, so that cattle can forage 
on them in winter as if they were hay. The 
importance of these grasses is illustrated by 
the immense shipments from the Dakotas of 
stock which have had no other feed than that 
growing naturally on the prairies. Many of 
the most valuable of these grasses are much 
benefited by judicious irrigation, even though 
it be only slight. 

An expedition is fitting out by the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, with the 
aid of Mr. Morris K. Jesup, for the system- 
atic study of the peoples inhabiting the 
coasts of the North Pacific Ocean between 
the Amoor River in Asia and the Columbia 
River in America. The exploration is to be 



142 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



prosecuted during six years, and to include 
both the Asiatic and the American coasts. 
Its primary object is to search for light con- 
ceruing the origin of the American race and 
its relations to the races of the Old World, 
concerning which, in the absence of all defi- 
nite knowledge at present, a confusion of 
opinions exists. The characteristics of the 
American races have been studied to a con- 
siderable extent by the Russian missionary 
Ycmiaminoff, Dall, and others, in Alaska 
and the Aleutian Islands ; Murdoch among 
the Eskimos of Point Barrow, and Boas 
under the auspices of the British Associa- 
tion in British Columbia ; but, as Dr. Boas 
observes, very much remains to be done 
in those districts ; while of the correspond- 
ing region in Asia, notwithstanding the few 
investigations that have been published, the 
types of man, languages, customs, and my- 
thology are practically unknown. 

Among the interesting jubilees celebrated 
during 1896 was that of the York Retreat in 
England. In 1792 William Tuke, a member 
of the Society of Friends, became convinced 
that the methods of treatment of the insane 
which prevailed at that time were unneces- 
sarily harsh ; they were treated more like 
wild beasts than as human beings. William 
Tuke therefore conceived the idea of found- 
ing an institution where sufferers from men- 
tal disease could be treated in a manner 
more in accordance with humanity and with 
sound therapeutic principles. The necessary 
support was after a time obtained, and the 
"Retreat" was opened in 1796. It was the 
first institution in England where the in- 
sane were treated m a humane and rational 
manner. 

Mr. B. N. Brough affirms, in a lecture on 
deep mining, that the greatest depth yet 
reached in mines is 4,900 feet at the Red 
Jacket shaft of the Calumet and Hecla 
mine, in the Lake Superior district. The 
Tamarack mine, in the' same district, 4,450 
feet, is the only other mine going below 
4,000 feet in depth. Four mines in Ger- 
many, two in Belgium, and one in Austria- 
Hungary are between 3,500 and 4,000 feet 
deep. The deepest British mine is the Pen- 
dleton, near Manchester, 3,474 feet deep ; 
and the deepest in Scotland is the Niddrie, 
at Porto Bello, 2,010 feet. The products of 



the mines are now lifted with ropes of cru- 
cible steel wire, of which a flat rope is men- 
tioned weighing only 8 '2 pounds per foot, 
which had a tensile strength of eighty-nine 
tons per square foot, and lasted twelve 
months while used for raismg loads of eleven 
tons from a depth of 3,117 feet. At the 
deep mines of Calumet the cage, carrying 
six tons, was lifted at the rate of a mile in a 
minute and a half. In England the speed 
has been as great as fifty-seven miles an 
hour. The increased cost of sinking these 
deep mines is believed not to be very appre- 
ciable where the output is considerable. At 
Tamarack the cost of increasing depth was 
more than compensated by the increased 
output and improved machinery. 

The most important events in last year's 
history of the astronomical observatory of 
Harvard College were the erection of the 
Bruce photographic telescope in Peru, and 
the establishment of a series of circulars, 
which furnish a prompt means of announc- 
ing discoveries. Twenty-five hundred and 
eight photographs were taken with the eight- 
inch Draper telescope, and twenty-seven hun- 
dred and seventy in Peru with the eight- 
inch Bache telescope ; and " there is probably 
no star brighter than the thirteenth magni- 
tude in any part of the sky from the north 
to the south pole that does not appear on 
one or more of these plates." The attempt is 
made to photograph all the regions in which 
variables are discovered at least once a 
month. In Mrs. Fleming's examinations of 
the spectra photographed, a large number of 
objects having peculiar spectra have been 
discovered. Two new stars have been found 
in the constellations Carina and Centaurus. 
The photographs of one of the new variable 
stars show a very peculiar spectrum and 
changes of light unlike those of any star 
hitherto discovered. Meteorological obser- 
vations were continued at La Joya, 4,150 
feet above the sea ; Arequipa, 8,060 feet ; 
Alto de los Huesos, 13,300 feet ; Mont Blanc 
station on El Misti, 15,600 feet ; El Misti, 
19,200 feet; and Cuzco, 11,000 feet. 

A WORK by M. Meguin on the Bacteria of 
Dead Bodies is reviewed in a recent issue of 
the British Medical Journal : " As a result 
of this work it is now possible to determine 
in a most accurate manner the time of death 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



143 



of an individual by an examination of the 
cadaver and of the successive generations of 
insects which are found inhabiting it. The 
author has established the important fact 
that these successive inhabitants always ar- 
rive in the same order from the time of 
death to that of complete disintegration of 
the body. . . . The importance of this work 
from a medico-legal point of view can not be 
overestimated, and that it is capable of prac- 
tical application the author shows by a num- 
ber of interesting cases." 

NOTES. 

The presidents of sections of the British 
Association, nominated for the coming meet- 
ing at Toronto, are : Section A, Mathemat- 
ical and Phvsical Science, Prof. A. R. For- 
syth, r. R. S. ; B, Chemistry, Prof. W. 
Ramsay, F. R. S ; 0, Geology, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, C. M. G. F. R. S. ; D, Zoology, Prof. 
L C. Miall, F. R. S.; E, Geography," Mr. J. 
Scott Keltic; F. Economic Science and Sta- 
tistics, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner ; G, Mechan- 
ical Science, Mr. G. F. Deacon; H, Anthro- 
pology, Prof. Sir W. Turner, F. R. S. ; I, Phys- 
iology, Prof. M. P'oster, Sec. R. S. ; K, Botanv, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F. R. S. The even- 
ing discourses will be delivered by Prof. 
Roberts-Austen, C. B., F. R. S., and Prof. 
John Mihie, F. R. S. 

A BANQUET was recently given by scien- 
tific men of France to Mme. Clemence Rover 
in celebration of her seventieth birthday. 
She is eminent in the study of the mental 
traits of animals ; translated Darwin's work 
into French ; is an advocate of evolution ; 
and is the author of articles on the Mental 
Faculties of Monkeys, and Animal Arithme- 
tic, which were published in the Popular 
Science Monthly several years ago. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer was offered the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the 
authorities of the ITniversity of Cambridge, 
but, adhering to his uniform practice, from 
which he says he can not depart, has de- 
clined it. 

The Emperor of Germany has just deco- 
rated Dr. Rous, the discoverer, with Dr. 
Behring, of the vaccine against diphtheria. 
Two years ago Pasteur refused a similar 
honor, for reasons of his own. Dr. Roux, 
although the intimate friend and successor 
of the great scientist, did not allow his loy- 
alty toward his master to stand in the way 
of accepting this mark of recognition from 
the foreign potentate. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences has 
awarded an Arago medal to Lord Kelvin, on 
the occasion of the jubilee of his professor- 
ship in Glasgow University. In conferring 



it, M. Cornu. the president, touching on the 
testimonies coming from all parts of the 
world, said : " Nothing is more consoling 
for the future than the spectacle of these 
honors rendered by delegates of all nations 
to great men of science like Kelvin and Pas- 
teur, who so worthily represent science in 
its loftiest and at the same time most be- 
neficent aspect." 

According to the Times, the Government 
intends to introduce next session a bill to 
promote free vaccmation throughout Eng- 
land, following continental methods. A 
small committee, headed by Dr. Thorne 
Thome, of the Local Government Board, has 
investigated these methods in Paris at the 
Institut Vaccinal and the Academic de Mede- 
cine, and in Brussels at the Ecole de Mede- 
cine, and at Dr. Janssen's vaccination de- 
partment under the municipality of the city. 
They intend also to investigate the modes of 
procedure in Germany. 

Edward D. Cope, Professor of Zoology 
and Comparative Anatomy in the School of 
Biology at the University of Pennsylvania, 
died in his museum in Philadelphia, April 
12th, aged about fifty-seven years. The 
illness which took him away was one from 
which he had been a sufferer for many years. 
He delivered his last lecture at the university 
two weeks before his death, had been able 
to attend to some scientific work the Wednes- 
day previous, and his condition had been 
alarming only for four days. A sketch of 
his life and work to that time, and a portrait, 
were given in the Popular Science Monthly 
for May, 1881. He was presiding officer of 
the Biological Section of the American Asso- 
ciation in 1884, and was president of the 
Buffalo meeting of the association in 1896. 
His later publications since cur sketch have 
been: Origin of Man and other Vertebrates, 
1885; Tertiary Vertebrates, 1885; The En- 
ergy of Life Evolution, and how it has Acted, 
1885; The Origin of the J'ittest, 1886 ; and 
The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, 
1896. Prof. Cope was most eminent in 
paleontology, but was distinguished in many 
other branches of biology. 

Prof. James Joseph Sylvester, of the 
University of Oxford, died in London, March 
15th, in the eighty-third year of his age. He 
was born in Loudon, September 3, 1814, 
was graduated from St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1837, as second wrangler, was 
appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in the LTniversity of London, and in 1841 
became a professor in the LTniversity of Vir- 
ginia. He did not, however, remain there 
quite a year, but returned to London, found 
employment as an actuary and conveyancer, 
and was called to the bar in 1850. He was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics in the 
Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, retired 
from this position in 1862, and was appointed 
Professor of Mathematics in Johns Hopkins 



144 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



University. Here his abilities seemed for 
the first time to have free scope, and his 
career was brilliant. He established the 
American Journal of Mathematics, through 
which and by his personal teaching and in- 
fluence he gave a great vitality to mathemat- 
ical study in this country which still pervades 
it. In 1883 he was elected Savillian Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the University of 
Oxford, where he repeated the success he had 
achieved at Johns Hopkins and exerted as 
potent an mfluence. 

Prof. Henry Drcmmoxd, who died in 
March, 1897, was best known to scientific 
and the religious circles by his book on Nat- 
ural Law in the Si)iritual World, which 
touched upon points in which both were in- 
terested. His later volume, a collection of 
Lowell Lectures, on the Ascent of Man, also 
went into both fields. These books, how- 
ever, well intentioned and readable as they 
were, were subjected to adverse criticism 
from both sides. In 1879 he accompanied 
Sir Archibald Geikie in a geological tour in 
the Rocky Mountains, and afterward visited 
the Scotch mission stations in East South 
Africa. A result of this visit was a very 
interesting book on Tropical Africa. 

Mr. Sidney Walker, fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society since 1873, whose death 
was recently announced, read several papers 
on nebulae before the society, and contributed 
an article on the distribution of the stars in 
the southern hemisphere to the Monthly No- 
tices for 1878. He made two very fine maps 
showing the distribution of the nebulae and 
clusters in Dr. Dreyer's catalogue. 

M. Antoine T. d'Abbadie, a member of 
the French Academy of Science since 1857, 
in the Section of Geography and Navigation, 
died in Paris, after a long illness, March 20th, 
in his eighty-seventh year. His scientific 
work included exploration, astronomy, geod- 
esy, physics, and numismatics. In 1893 he 
bequeathed to the Academy, reserving a life 
interest to his wife, the chateau of Abbadie, 
in the Pyrenees, which yields an annual 
revenue of 20,000 francs, and bank shares 
yielding 15,000 francs. He was one of the 
earlier explorers of Abyssinia, observed the 
eclipse of the sun of 1882 in Santo Domingo, 
and published important works on geograph- 
ical exploration and geodesy. 

Prof. Charles To.mlinson, who died Feb- 
ruary 14th, in his eighty-ninth year, was on 
the Council of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, a fellow of the 
Royal Society, a fellow of the Chemical So- 
ciety, and one of the founders of the Physical 
Society. For a number of years he was lec- 
turer on Experimental Science at King's Col- 
lege, and was examiner in physics to the 
Birkbeck Institution. He held the Dante 
lectureship at University College, 1878-'80. 
He wrote many bandy text-books on natural 



philosophy, meteorology, and natural history, 
and contributed largely to the Transactions 
of the Royal and Chemical Societies. In 
1854 he edited Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of 
Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical, Manu- 
factures, Mining, and Engineering. He com- 
piled the lives of Smeeton, Cuvier, and Lin- 
n;cus, and the notices of scientific men in 
The English Cycloptedia of Biography. 

Among the men of science abroad who 
have died are Dr. Nikolai Zdekaner, St. 
Petersburg, member of the Imperial Acad- 
emy of Sciences, and known for his work in 
behalf of hygiene and knowledge of epidem- 
ics ; Hcrr Alois Rogenhofer, formerly Curator 
of the Imperial Natural History Museum in 
Vienna ; Dr. Hermann von Noerdlinger, for- 
merly Professor of Forestry in Tiihingen Uni- 
versity ; Dr Luigi Calori, Professor of Anat- 
omy in the University of Bologna ; Dr. J. 
D. E. Weyer, Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy in the University of Kiel ; and 
M. Vivien de St. Martin, famous for his re- 
searches in ancient geography. 

The death is announced of Mr. Henry 
Boswell, a noted bryologist. Beginning his 
botanical studies with flowering plants, he 
later on turned his attention to the study of 
mosses, both British and foreign, and made 
a fine collection. 

It seems certain that eels, while not ex- 
actly amphibious, venture to spend consider- 
able intervals of time on the land, away from 
water. A German zoologist, Herr Frenzel, 
as well as several other persons, recently ob- 
served a young eel, about five inches long, 
concealed in the network of the superficial 
roots of a bush. It had come from a pond 
about fourteen feet away, and six feet lower 
down, and must have exerted vigorous ef- 
forts to climb the bank. 

A CONSIGNMENT of the American craw- 
fish ( Cambarus affinu) has been received at 
the French agricultural station Fecamp, for 
acclimatation and propagation. These crus- 
taceans are said to have been taken from the 
waters of the Potomac. They are sought 
because they appear not to be subject to the 
disease which has carried away most of the 
crawfish in the rivers of France, and are in- 
tended to make up for the loss occasioned 
thereby. 

One of the latest papers of the late Sir 
Benjamin Ward Richardson set forth the 
qualities of organic membranes as insulators. 
Experiments were cited by the author going 
to show that various membranes of the ani- 
mal body, in addition to performing the 
functions usually ascribed to them, are also 
electrical insulators, and by their presence 
confine and render useful the vital force 
that is developed in the organs they sur- 
round. 




'//.'''//'//i,l, 



KTCHAKH OWKN. 



APPLETONS' 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
MONTHLY. 



JUNE, 1897 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN. 

By W. LE CONTE STEVENS, 

PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS IN RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 

DURING the last half of the nineteenth century, a period of 
extraordinary fertility in the industrial application of all 
departments of physical science, it would be remarkable if great 
progress were not made in the development of the materials of 
warfare, both offensive and defensive. It is true there have been 
few great wars during the half century just closing, fewer than 
during the corresponding previous period, when Napoleon made 
all Europe his chronic battle ground. But with progress in the 
arts of peace there comes progress in machinery of all kinds. 
Guns are machines which happily we are not often called upon 
to use in deadly earnest. The degree of perfection with which 
a machine does deadly work serves as a powerful argument to 
induce caution before bringing it into use. If the civilized world 
ever attains the millennium of freedom from warfare, it will not 
be because the philosophy of good will to men has triumphed, 
but because war is too terrible and costly for any nation to risk 
the sure and swift destruction it brings upon the vanquished. 
Patriotism will not be extinguished, but it will be tempered 
with the spirit of rational compromise. During the thirteen 
years of Napoleon's leadership his wars cost France one billion 
dollars. During the four years of civil war in America the cost 
to the Government of the United States was about four billion 
dollars, apart from treasures expended in vain by the Confederate 
States. The American civil war was thus at least a dozen times 
more expensive per year than war was during the time of 
Napoleon. 

VOL. LI. 1 1 



146 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

With tlie construction and use of the materials employed in 
modern warfare none but the professional military engineer can 
be reasonably expected to attain much familiarity. But all have 
an interest in national preparation for contingencies, and even to 
the nonprofessional it may be an engaging study to trace in out- 
line the evolution of the cannon as now made at great armories 
like that at Watervliet, near Troy, New York. 

It would be only repeating an oft-told tale to show that our 
remote human ancestors were all savages, and that the normal 
condition of society among them was that of warfare. What 
were the earliest weapons employed we can only conjecture. If 
we disregard the long and for the most part unknown period 
that preceded the beginning of definite human records, we find 
that when these records began man was already acquainted with 
the ruder processes of metallurgy. But there are no indications 
that during the age of universal savagery metal was used to any 
great extent for projectile purposes. Arrows and javelins were 
early and abundantly employed, and the use of the sling was 
undoubtedly common among the Israelites long before the 
dramatic duel between David and Goliath. The Romans in 
conducting their sieges employed the catapult and ballista for 
the projection of large arrows and stones ; but from the vague 
description of these instruments we can glean little more than 
that they were probably immense crossbows. They were un- 
wieldy, but powerful enough to project stones, each as heavy as 
an ordinary man, over a distance of a hundred yards. During 
the first dozen centuries of the Christian era there was but little 
improvement over Roman methods of warfare. 

That the elastic force of hot gas suddenly evolved should be 
substituted for that of a stout cord under great tension could not 
have been possible without the previous discovery of the means 
by which such gas could be appropriately generated. There is 
no probability that we will ever learn definitely the true history 
of the invention of gunpowder. Quite probably it was inde- 
pendently invented by different persons at different times. There 
can be little doubt that the knowledge of its composition existed 
at a very early date among some of the inhabitants of India, 
where the rich soil under a tropical sun has during many centu- 
ries been leached for the puri)Ose of procuring niter. Assuming 
the presence of this salt in abundance, it would hardly be possible 
for one who handles it to remain long ignorant of its capacity to 
explode when sufficiently heated in contact with charcoal, sul- 
phur, or any other kind of fuel. It is not surprising that some of 
the earlier alchemists should be credited with the preparation of 
gunpowder. It has been common to attribute its invention to 
Roger Bacon, whose life lasted through the greater part of the 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN.. 147 



thirteenth century. But his language is characteristically vague ; 
for, in regard to the mixing of saltpeter with sulphur and another 
undefined substance, 
he merely says, "You 
will thus make thun- 
der and lightning if 
you know the method 
of mixing them." 

Another claimant to 
the invention of gun- 
powder was the Ger- 
man monk, Berthold 
Schwartz, who is said 
to have ground togeth- 
er in a mortar a mix- 
ture of niter, charcoal, 
and sulphur. Acci- 
dentally allowing fire 
to come into contact 
with the mixture, an 
explosion ensued. The 
pestle was projected 
from the mortar and 
from the hand of the 
surprised alchemist. 
This suggested the use 
of the uncanny sub- 
stance for military purposes, and the mortar was subsequently 
made on a larger scale for the special purpose of propelling pro- 
jectiles. 

The determination of the proper percentages of niter, carbon, 
and sulphur in gunpowder implies a knowledge of the quantita- 
tive laws of chemistry. It is not to be supposed, therefore, that 
the earlier users of this explosive were able to make powder 
equal in quality to that of modern times, or that they knew how 
to adjust its granulation to the special purposes intended under 
varying circumstances. The Saracens seem to have introduced 
it into Spain for pyrotechnic purposes about the same time that 
Schwartz made his suggestion regarding its most important 
practical application. Its first definitely known use was for 
cannon. These were called " bombards," on account of the noise 
occasioned by firing. 

The primitive cannon was a rude tube made up of iron bars 
hooped together, edge to edge, like' the staves of a cask. It was 
by no means readily portable, and was not provided with any 
wheeled carriage. As an offensive weapon its natural place was 




EoGER Bacon. Born near Ilchester, about 1214; 
died probably at Oxford in ] 292. 



148 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




" MoNS Meg " Cannon at EinNBrRoii. 
Caliber, twenty inches. Made in 1486 at Mons, Brittany. 
The arrangement of hoops around staves is shown 
at the part injured Viy its bursting in 1682. 



on shipboard ; as a defensive weapon, upon the wall of a besieged 
town. This iron barrel was firmly fastened down upon a hori- 
zontal bed or to a fixed framework of timber. The balls shot 
from it were of stone. Since there was no provision for aiming, 
it can be readily conceived that the enemy might be equally safe 
or unsafe at a variety of points in front of such an ostensible 
engine of destruction. 

Small cannon, intended for transportation on land, were un- 
doubtedly constructed early in the fourteenth century. They 
were used by the English, possibly as early as 1327, in battle with 
the Scotch, and certainly against the French in 1346, at the battle 

of Crdcy. There is noth- 
ing to indicate that on 
this occasion any one was 
killed or wounded by a 
cannon. The sole func- 
tion was that of fright- 
ening the enemy. Nor 
have we any record of 
the method of support- 
ing or transporting such 
field artillery. It was rather as heavy artillery that cannon found 
their chief earlier use, and they were soon made of such size as to 
be quite comparable in this respect with modern guns. One of 
these bombards, made in Belgium in 1382, weighs about sixteen 
tons, is more than eleven feet long, and its caliber is about two 
feet. It is still kept on exhibition in the city of Ghent. Another 
is the " Mons Meg," made in 1486 at Mons in Brittany. It was 
captured by the Scotch, and is now kept at Edinburgh. 

A gun somewhat similar in construction to that in Ghent was 
dug up about forty years ago from the bed of a river in Bengal, 
and now stands on exhibition in the city of Moorshedabad. It 
was made of wrought iron, was more than twelve feet in length, 
and about seventeen inches in caliber. That the forging of iron 
on so large a scale was accomplished at such a time and in such a 
place indicates a marked degree of progress in metallurgy in the 
far East, and adds force to the thought that cannon may have 
been in use in Asia long before they were ever employed in 
Europe. 

During the siege of Constantinople, in the fifteenth century, 
according to Gibbon, the Turks employed cannon with which 
stone balls, each six hundred pounds in weight, were projected, 
and the walls of the city were thus breached. Von Moltke men- 
tions such a gun at the same place, twenty-eight inches in diam- 
eter at the muzzle, with which a ball more than fifteen hundred 
pounds in weight was projected by a charge of one hundred 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN. 149 

pounds of powder. For some of these ancient Turkish cannon 
the diameter of the stone shot was as much as a yard, while the 
length of the gun was only five yards. 

It is not therefore so much in the size of heavy ordnance as in 
its efficiency that we of to-day are warranted in claiming much 
superiority over our ancestors. The plan of hooping iron staves 
together gradually gave place to that of molding guns, sometimes 
in cast iron, sometimes in bronze. Wrought iron also came ex- 
tensively into use for the purpose of gun construction. The gun 
was made up of a succession of short forged tubes jointed to- 
gether. Over each joint a ring was shrunk on while hot, for the 
sake of strengthening the whole. Many guns made in this way 
during the sixteenth century are still to be seen in European 
museums. 

The use of breech-loading cannon is of considerable antiquity, 
despite the great difficulty that has been experienced in securing 
safety in their use. Among the earliest breech-loading devices 
was that of a short movable tube or chamber, closed at one end. 
This was loaded to its muzzle and then inserted into the breech of 
the large tube. It was propped behind with a heavy block of 
wood or iron, and firmly wedged into position before firing. It 
is readily seen that with such loose fittings much of the force of 
the powder was wasted. None of these guns were provided with 
any facilities for adjustment in aiming. The stone projectile 
was but poorly fitted to the size of the bore. Not only did much 
of the expanding gas escape without doing useful work, but the 
strength of the gun was never sufficient to warrant a charge of 
powder large enough to send the projectile more than a few hun- 
dred yards. 

In course of time it became evident that greater efficiency was 
attainable by the use of smaller cannon and more accurate fitting. 
The clumsy and unmanageable heavy guns were discarded, and 
their places supplied by guns many of which were small enough 
to be carried by a single man. The introduction of the musket 
was merely one phase in the fluctuation of the waves of custom, a 
reaction after many unhappy experiences in the use of large can- 
non which had been inefficient and often more dangerous to the 
user than to the enemy. The musketeer with his burdensome 
flintlock became more important than the cannoneer in field work. 
A variety of forms of small cannon came into use, all of which 
were, like the muskets, smooth-bored, muzzle-loading arms, made 
of cast metal of one kind or another. Iron balls were substituted 
for those of stone, and about the beginning of the present century 
a weight of eighteen or twenty pounds was deemed best for most 
artillery purposes. War ships were equipped with armaments 
sometimes in excess of a hundred small cannon. Custom had 



150 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

fluctuated to the other extreme, but at this stage of evolution 
guns had become well differentiated into two classes, the musket 
and pistol being representatives of the one, while the portable 
cannon was a type of the other. Each was crude in comparison 
with the war machines of to-day, but efficient enough to make 
Napoleon the terror of Europe. This warrior's celebrated remark 
that " God is on the side of the heaviest artillery " was an indi- 
cation of his view that the limit had not been reached, and that 
the art of cannon construction was enough developed to warrant 
the making of yet larger guns. 

In the War of 1818 an American officer, Colonel Bomford, in- 
troduced a large cast-iron gun, intended specially for seacoast 
defense by firing bombshells at long range. Up to this time 
cannon had been made with little or no provision for the varia- 
tion of stress in different parts of the gun due to the exploding 
powder. It was known that this stress must be greatest around 
the seat of the charge, but no experiments had been made to de- 
termine even roughly the rate of decrease, although methods 
were already in use for ascertaining the initial velocity of the 
projectile shot forth. Bomford bored a hole into the side of a 
cannon and screwed into this a pistol barrel, with a bullet in- 
serted. A definite charge of powder being exploded in the can- 
non, the velocity of the pistol bullet gave a measure of the pres- 
sure at that point. A series of holes being made in succession 
from muzzle to breech, the corresponding velocities of the dis- 
charged bullets gave an indication of the relative strengths needed 
to resist explosion and the thickness of metal required. The form 
of gun was therefore modified to suit the stress, and greater 
strength in proportion to weight was thus secured. To this im- 
proved gun he gave the name of columbiad. This style of gun 
was soon adopted in Europe, and long continued to be a standard. 

But there were inherent weaknesses due to the very fact of 
employing cast metal. Assume a mass of hot liquid iron poured 
into a mold to form a solid cylinder, the central part of which is 
to be afterward bored out. The exterior surface cools first and 
becomes a rigid solid, while the whole mass has contracted but 
little. Gradually the interior hardens and crystallizes, but nor- 
mal contraction is prevented by the rigidity of the exterior shell. 
The condition of the mass is much like that of a Rupert's drop of 
glass, which breaks into fragments as soon as the outer shell is 
broken. The weakest part of the cylinder is the axial region, 
which is removed by being bored out ; but still the weakest parts 
of the completed gun are its inner surface and breech, the very 
parts against which the greatest force of the exploding charge is 
exerted. With such a gun the limit of safety is exceedingly un- 
certain. The vibration due to discharge weakens the cast iron. 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN.. 151 



and the gun becomes dangerously weak after but little use. 
Nevertheless, this method of construction did not begin to receive 
modification of any great importance until about fifty years ago. 
In 1846 these smooth-bore, cast-iron columbiads varied in caliber 
from eight inches to twenty inches, and in weight from four tons 
to fifty-seven tons. The projectiles were spherical iron balls, from 
sixty-eight to one thousand pounds in weight, the charge of pow- 
der never exceeding one sixth of the weight of the ball. 

Between 1850 and 1800 Major Rodman, of the United States 
Army, conducted an epoch-making series of experiments on the 
improvement of gunpowder and the method of casting iron guns. 
Dahlgren, about the same time, modified the form of gun, giving 
it great thickness at the breach and as far as the trunnions, with 
rapidly diminishing di- 
ameter thence to the muz- 
zle. This form has often 
been compared to that of 
a champagne bottle. The 
contrast between this and 
the older forms is well 
shown by comparing the 
" Tsar cannon," a thirty- 
inch gun of the seven- 
teenth century, now in 
the arsenal at Moscow, 
with the United States 

fifteen-inch columbiad, as improved by Dahlgren. Accepting the 
proportions thus established, Rodman devised the method of 
"hollow casting" and cooling from the interior. The melted 
iron is poured into a vertical mold, the axis of which is occupied 
by a hollow core. Through a pipe in this cold water is conveyed 
to the bottom and conducted away at the top after being warmed 
by the surrounding hot metal. The hardening of this begins 
thus at the inner surface where the greater strength is needed. 
The exterior surface of the mold is at first strongly heated from 
without and this heat gradually diminished, while the flow of 
water is continued many hours or even days. The cast iron thus 
goes through a process much like the tempering and annealing of 
steel. As the metal gradually cools the inner surface becomes 
strongly compressed, and the outer surface is left in a state of 
tension. The condition is the exact reverse of that brought about 
by the older process of solid casting and subsequent boring. The 
great improvement in strength secured by this process is indi- 
cated by Rodman's testing of two columbiads of the same size, 
material, and form, made at the same time, the one by hollow 
casting, the other by solid casting. The solid-cast gun burst at 




The Tsar Cannon at Moscow. 
Calilier, thirty inches. Seventeenth century. 



152 



POPULAR SCIEiVCE MONTHLY. 




Rodman Fifteen-inch Gun. 



the eiglity-fif til round, the hollow-cast at the two hundred and fifty- 
first round. Its endurance was thus three times that of the other. 
Rodman's process was of fundamental importance, because it 
established experimentally the principle of initial exterior exten- 
sion and interior com- 
pression. This princi- 
ple is applied in all gun 
construction to-day, al- 
though the use of cast 
iron has been wholly dis- 
carded. Like many other 
ideas of great importance 
in the history of inven- 
tion, it seems to have 
been evolved independ- 
ently by several claimants. The names of Blakely, Whitworth, 
Armstrong, Longridge, Brooke, Treadwell, and Parrott are at 
once called to mind. To describe their inventions and discuss 
conflicting claims would require a volume. The discovery of such 
an important principle, followed by the outbreak of the American 
civil war, gave an impetus to the improvement of ordnance which 
was felt over the entire world. 

Hitherto the materials used in gun construction were cast iron, 
wrought iron, and bronze, this last being an alloy of copper with 
ten per cent of tin. In tenacity bronze is superior to cast iron, 
but it is softer, more fusible, and more expensive. Cast iron is 
moderately fusible, but not fixed in composition, having a vari- 
able amount of carbon, silica, and other impurities diffused 
through its mass. Its properties are correspondingly variable, 
but it is in general hard, brittle, and more or less crystalline. 
Wrought iron is the result of oxidizing out all of the carbon by 
puddling, then squeezing out the silica, and rolling so as to de- 
velop a fibrous in place of crystalline structure. It is much more 
tenacious than cast iron, almost infusible, but capable of ready 
welding and forging. The admixture of carbon seems to confer 
the property of fusibility. 

Steel is the product of the recombination of pure wrought iron 
with a very small percentage of carbon and sometimes of man- 
ganese or nickel. Like cast iron, it is fusible ; like wrought iron, 
it can be readily forged ; and it is superior to each in elasticity 
and tenacity. The idea long ago suggested itself that steel ought 
to be the best material for the construction of cannon. But the 
practical obstacle was the great difficulty of securing large enough 
forgings of steel, and this of sufficiently good quality. Only since 
1860 have the methods of steel manufacture been so improved as 
to make this metal available on a large scale. 



100,000 



90,000 



80,000 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN 153 

So important is the relation between cast iron, wrought iron, 
and steel that it may be well to illustrate this by the use of a dia- 
gram due to Professor Merriman. Assume that short rods of these 
materials, each of the same length and one square inch in cross- 
section, are subjected to great stretching force by the use of a test- 
ing machine. As this force increases up to the elastic limit of six 
thousand pounds, the cast-iron rod becomes elongated proportion- 
ally. It breaks suddenly when the stress reaches twenty thousand 
pounds. At this limit of tenacity the rod has been increased in 
length less than one per cent, as shown in the diagram. The 
wrought iron becomes lengthened at a less rapid rate, reaching 
its elastic limit for a stress of about twenty-five thousand pounds. 
In each case, up to the elastic limit, if the stretching force be re- 
moved the rod will recover its former length and condition. On 
further increasing the stress, the wrought iron stretches at a 
more rapid rate, and bears a stress as great as fifty-eight thousand 
pounds. If now the force be withdrawn the iron remains in its 
deformed condition, the lengthening being about twenty-two per 
cent. On again apply- 
ing the stress there is 
further rapid length- 
ening up to twenty- 
five per cent, this 
yielding causing a de- 
crease of stress till 
the rod breaks at a 
limit below fifty-eight 
thousand pounds. 
The elastic limit and 
the breaking limit are 
thus widely different. 
In the case of steel 
the elastic limit is 
not reached until the 
stress becomes fifty 

thousand pounds. Its elastic limit is thus double that of wrought 
iron. Further increase of stress now causes the steel to increase 
its rate of stretching, and permanent strain results. Its breaking 
limit, one hundred thousand pounds, is nearly double that of the 
wrought iron, and is reached when the yielding attains fifteen per 
cent. This is not much more than half of the twenty-five per 
cent of yielding of the wrought iron. 

The figures just given are only averages. Cast iron has been 
made with a tenacity in excess of forty thousand pounds, while 
that of steel may vary in different specimens from sixty thousand 
to three hundred thousand pounds. This wide range shows that for 



a 

u 70,000 

< 60,000 

m 50,000 



40,000 



3 
o 

a 



a 30.000 



20,000 



10,000 





^ 


^^^ 








y^ 










^ 








/ 










1 




\vo --' 






-^ 


'"^x 




^iii^ 








y^ 










fl 










1 Iss 










U^'^ 











10 15 

Per Ceut. of Elougation 



20 



25 



Curves showing Tensile Strength of Timber, Cast Ikon, 
Wkought Ikon, and Steel. 



154- POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the construction of a heavy gun, if steel be employed, the utmost 
care should be exercised to secure that of the highest grade pos- 
sible, in order to withstand the enormous tension due to explosion. 
As soon as this tension becomes equal to the limiting measure of 
elasticity for the steel, the wall must yield, even if the thickness 
of the gun were infinite. Since the breaking limit, or ultimate 
tenacity, of cast steel has just been seen to be, on an average, at 
least five times that of cast iron, it follows that, with the same 
diameter and thickness of metal and the same weight of projec- 
tile, a steel gun warrants the use of a charge of powder of the 
same quality five times as great. 

Professor Treadwell showed in 1856 that, if we assume a gun to 
be made up of a large number of uniform, cylindrical, concentric 
layers of metal, then the resistance of each layer to the bursting 
force of explosion will vary inversely as the square of the diame- 
ter. The stress, therefore, decreases at a rate very similar to that 
of the radiation of heat or light. If the wall of the gun be under 
no initial stress of any kind, its inner portion must have great 
resisting power, and very little is gained by thickness of wall 
much in excess of the diameter of the bore. Treadwell therefore 
proposed a plan of construction by which a cast-iron tube of only 
moderate thickness should be re-enforced by a series of layers of 
encircling wrought-iron hoops. These should be shrunk on while 
hot, so that, after cooling, the cast iron tube is strongly com- 
pressed while the wrought-iron hoop becomes stretched. The 
force of compression is thus added to the ordinary strength of 
the cast iron to resist explosion. With various modifications this 
plan has been carried out by most gun constructors during the 
last forty years. During the civil war it was applied with great 
success by R. P. Parrott, of West Point, and by Blakely, Arm- 
strong, and Whitworth in England. 

It is perhaps impossible to say what inventor was the first to 
introduce the use of rifled cannon. They have now entirely 
superseded smooth-bore guns. The Parrott rifled cannon, made 
of cast iron according to the Rodman plan and re-enforced around 
the chamber with a hoop of wrought iron, was the most generally 
serviceable gun employed during the late war, more than two 
thousand of them coming thus into use. The largest of these was 
twelve feet in length, with a bore ten inches in diameter, its 
weight being about twelve tons. A charge of twenty-five pounds 
of powder was employed to project a shot weighing two hundred 
and fifty pounds. The cost of its construction in 1863 was forty- 
five hundred dollars. 

These details are given for the sake of subsequent comparison 
with the rifled cannon of to-day. For twenty years after the 
close of the war there was a period of stagnation in America, so far 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN. 155 

as development in ordnance was concerned. Our coast defenses 
continued to be provided with, nothing better than the Parrott 
rifles and smooth-bore Rodman guns which had been in use dur- 
ing the war. Meanwhile there had been great progress in Europe, 
particularly in France and Germany. In 1885 a commission ap- 
pointed by Congress reported the necessity for heavy expenditure 
of money in order that this country be put into a condition of 
reasonable readiness to repel foreign invasion. During the last 
ten years appropriations to the amount of twenty million dollars 
have been made to meet these needs, and the work of rehabilita- 
tion is now well started. 

The rifled gun of to-day, as finished at the Watervliet Arsenal, 
is constructed almost wholly of steel. This is of the best quality 
that can be produced on a large scale in American foundries. It 
is made by the " open-hearth " process, for the most part at Mid- 
vale and Bethlehem in Pennsylvania. The forgings, after under- 
going thorough official inspection and careful testing, are sent to 
the great gun shops at Watervliet. Here the various parts com- 
posing a gun are worked up, assembled together, and finished. 
Before assignment for government service each gun is subjected 
to a searching test, more severe than should reasonably be ex- 
pected in actual use. 

The largest gun thus far designed at Watervliet is a rifle of 
twelve-inch bore, forty feet in length, and fifty-seven tons in 
weight. From such a gun an elongated steel-pointed projectile, 
weighing one thousand pounds, or as much as an ordinary horse, 
is shot with a charge of five hundred and twenty pounds of 
powder. It receives an initial velocity of two thousand feet per 
second, and would penetrate through rather more than two feet 
of steel armor plate put in front of the muzzle. If shot into the 
air at the proper elevation it would pass over a range of nearly 
nine miles. Such a missile, thus fired from the lower end of New 
York city, would pass over Central Park into the district beyond 
Harlem River. This range would be covered so quickly that the 
shot would reach its destination several seconds before the sound 
of the explosion is heard at the same point. The initial energy of 
the projectile would be sufficient to lift a weight of twenty-seven 
thousand tons through a height of one foot. If this weight were 
that of a spherical mass of gold, the heaviest popularly known 
metal, its diameter would be nearly forty-six feet, and its value 
eighteen billion dollars. This is more than a dozen times the 
value of the total gold production of the world during the last 
twenty years. 

The cost of such a gun is about sixty thousand dollars ; that 
of the charge of powder, one hundred and seventy-five dollars ; of 
the armor-piercing projectile, three hundred and fifty dollars. 



156 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




JAC^^''' 






The cost of a single discliarge thus exceeds five hundred dollars. 

But this is not all. So great is the wear and tear of each dis- 
charge upon the 

ST4GEsoFTHE/4ssEMBM6E_^ bore that after two 

hundred and fifty- 
rounds the gun be- 
comes unfit for fur- 
ther use until it is 
relined by the in- 
sertion of a new 
rifled tube within 
the original tube, 
the old rifling hav- 
ing been removed. 
The gun will then 
stand two hundred 
and fifty more 
rounds. Assuming 
six hundred rounds 
for the entire life 
of the gun, each 
round thus costs 
one hundred dol- 
lars in wear and 
tear, in addition to 
the five hundred 
dollars' worth of 
material used in 
loading. Such a 
gun as this is but 

Sectional Diagram, showing compression of tube and extension ^ Single Smail Cie- 
of hoops after assemblage of the compoDeut parts of a gun. ment ill the COSt 

of a modern war. 
Several of them, besides a number of smaller guns, are usually 
placed on every large armor-clad battle ship. The cost of this 
with its equipment mounts up into millions of dollars. Neverthe- 
less, it has been necessary to coin into our language the word 
*' jingo," to designate the bragging noncombatant who clamors 
for war because of the fancied stimulus which it is supposed to 
give to patriotism and prosperity. On comparing this gun with 
the largest Parrott rifle of thirty years ago we see that its length 
is more than three times, its weight nearly five times, and its cost 
thirteen times as great. For the cast-iron Parrott gun the charge 
of powder weighed about one tenth as much as the projectile. 
For the modern steel gun this ratio is raised to one half, with 
corresponding increase of destructive energy. 





EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN. 157 

Passing now to the construction of the modern gun, a longi- 
tudinal section shows an inner tube rifled within and slightly- 
enlarged at the breech end of the bore. Around this is a long 
tubular jacket extending from the breech two thirds of the length 
of the gun. Around this jacket is a series of compressing hoops^ 
and around this a second or outer series of the same. Originally 
the interior diameter of the jacket is a little less than the exterior 
diameter of the tube. By heating the jacket suflBciently it is 
made to expand until it can be slipped over the cold tube, which 
becomes enormously compressed by the subsequent cooling of the 
jacket. In like manner the first hoop is too small to be slipped 
over the cold jacket except when heated for this purpose. The 
same remark applies to the second hoop. The final result, as 
shown by the cross-sectional diagram on opposite page, is that the 
diameters of the tube, both internal and external, are permanently 
diminished by the compression of the jacket, while those of the 
hoops are permanently increased. Their contractile force is not 
sufficient to compress the jacket, which is itself resisting the 
enormous reacting force of the compressed tube within. Th& 
hoops therefore serve to re- enforce the jacket by their own tend- 
ency to contract from the enlarged condition in which they were- 
applied while hot. They are in a state of permanent tension. 
The scale of differences exhibited in the diagram is greatly ex- 
aggerated to make these perceptible. The longitudinal diagram 
shows by curves how the expansive force of the exploding powder 
diminishes from breech to muzzle, how the yet greater elastic 



cutive or tuisTtc ntiisTJtHcz 





Curves showing Decrease of Elastic Eesistance, Powder Pressure, and Increase ob 

Projectile Velocity. 



resistance of the steel components, after they are assembled 
together, is adjusted to resist this expansive force, and how the 
velocity of the projectile increases' from breech to muzzle. 

All rifled guns built in America at present, whether for sea- 
coast, siege, or field artillery, are breech-loading. Many futile- 



158 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



experiments were made before a successful breecli-loadiiig mech- 
anism, was perfected. An explanation of either of the two modern 
systems would be beyond the scope of the present discussion. It 




TwKLVE-iNcn Rifle, with Bkeech-loading Mechanism Closed. 

may be sufficient to say that the system in use in America is sub- 
stantially that of the French, an interrupted screw which fits into 
the breech and is provided with an efficient gas check. This is so 
constructed that the mere fact of explosion tightens the gas check 
and effectually prevents the escape of hot gas between the threads 
of the screw. 

The largest and most celebrated gun factory in the world is 
that of Krupp, at Essen in Germany, near the Belgian border. 
Besides monopolizing the construction of guns for the German 
Government, this factory has supplied a great number to most of 
the leading powers of Europe. It was established in 1818, and 
from the very outset attention was concentrated upon the making 
of steel. The first finished piece of artillery in cast steel was made 
in 1847. This was a small field gun capable of projecting a ball 
of only three pounds. The manufacture of steel at these works 
has since been so perfected that Krupp can now be scarcely said 
to have an acknowledged rival in the world. His magnificent 
display at the Chicago Exposition was seen and admired by many 
thousands of visitors. Among these exhibits was a steel rifle 
forty-two centimetres (1G"54 inches) in caliber, and thirty-three 
calibers (forty-six feet) in length. Its weight is one hundred and 
twenty tons, or a little more than double that of the twelve-inch 
rifle at Watervliet. With a charge of nine hundred pounds of 
powder it gives an initial velocity of two thousand feet per second 
to a projectile weighing twenty-two hundred pounds, whose ini- 
tial energy is thus sixty thousand foot tons. When fired at an 
elevation of about eleven degrees it sends this projectile to a dis- 



EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN HEAVY GUN. 159 

tance of five and a lialf miles, and it pierces through armor a yard 
thick at a distance of a mile and a quarter. Another rifle, twenty- 
eight centimetres (eleven inches) in caliber and forty calibers 
(thirty-seven feet) in length, when elevated forty degrees sends a 
seven hundred and sixty pound projectile over twelve and a half 
miles. This is the distance from the Battery to Fordham in New 
York city. The shot reaches an extreme height of a trifle over 
four miles. It could thus be easily made to clear the highest 
mountain peak in North America. 

The j^ower of endurance of a gun diminishes raj^idly with in- 
crease of projectile power. The life of the American twelve-inch 
rifle has been given as only five hundred or six hundred rounds, 
while a field gun of modern make may be fired thousands of times 
if used with reasonable care. Within the next two years a new 
rifle of sixteen-inch caliber will be constructed at Watervliet. 
This is nearly equal in size to the monster Krupp gun at Chicago. 
Such immense guns can be employed only for seacoast defense. 
In handling them complex machinery is necessary, not only for 
moving and adjusting the gun but for loading it. No group of 
soldiers could without machinery lift and put into place a projec- 
tile weighing a ton. It seems doubtful whether any real advan- 
tage can be gained by going beyond the limits of size already 




Twelve-inch IJifle, with Breech-loading Mechanism Open. 



reached. The difiiculty at present is not confined to that of ma- 
nipulation, but extends to the quality of the forgings made on 
so large a scale. Krupp makes his guns entirely of " crucible " 
steel, such as is employed for cutlery. Made by this method, 
steel is indeed the most uniform in composition, but nowhere 
outside of the Krupp works has it been manufactured on a 
scale large enough for great gun forgings. In France, in Eng- 
land, and in America, the " open-hearth " process is depended 



i6o 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 



upon, which yields a high grade of steel ; but in uniformity of 
composition and elasticity it can scarcely be equal to the more 
expensive crucible steel. This perhaps may at present be only a 
matter of opinion. On such a point no definite and final conclu- 
sion should be reached without a series of comparisons such as 
can not be accomplished in a day. 

An unfortunate mishap which occurred at Water vliet in 1895 
may have some bearing in this connection. In assembling the 
parts of a forty-caliber twelve-inch rifle, the tube was, as usual, 
rested vertically upon its breech end, and the heated, jacket was 
let down over it. The heating had been insufficient to secure all 




KkUPP SiXTEEN-lNCH GdN, MOUNTED ON CoAST CaKKIAGE. 

Weight of gun, seventy-one tons. 



the expansion needed, and as a result the cooling jacket gripped 
the tube before quite reaching the final position intended. An 
interesting problem was now presented, that of separating the 
tube and jacket after they had become thoroughly cool, and com- 
pleting the process which had been so unexpectedly interru])ted. 
The gun was provided with the inlet and outlet tubes such as 
Rodman employed to secure a continuous flow of water in hollow 
casting, and the exposed part of the tube below the edge of the 
jacket was inclosed in a bag of asbestos cloth through which a 
stream of cold air could be transmitted. The gun with its adher- 
ent jacket and these adjuncts was let down into a furnace so as 
to heat the jacket. Immediately a flow of cold water was started 
through the tubes, and of cold air through the bag, while the 
inclosing jacket was soon raised to a temperature estimated to be 
1100 F., which was maintained for several hours. The experi- 
ment proved unsuccessful. It was subsequently repeated twice 
with slight modifications, but all in vain. To test the correctness 
of the theory thus applied, a " dummy " was constructed, its parts 



THE SILENT CITY OF THE MUIR GLACIER, 161 

assembled together firmly, and the experiment of separating them 
was rewarded with prompt success. On account of the magnitude 
of the large gun it had been impossible to heat it with perfect uni- 
formity from without, while no such difficulty was experienced 
with the much smaller dummy. A series of measurements upon 
the large gun revealed the fact that during the first experiment it 
had become warped, and the diameter of the tube had been dimin- 
ished in varying degrees at different parts. 

Whether such results as these would have been brought about 
had the materials been of the best quality of crucible steel instead 
of open-hearth steel can not be answered positively. The larger 
the gun the greater is the danger of such mishaps. It is left to 
coming experience to determine which is to be the steel of the 
future for gun construction. 



THE SILENT CITY OF THE MUIR GLACIER. 

By DAVID STARK JORDAN, 

PRESIDENT OF LELAND STANFORD JUNIOK UNIVERSITY. 

MR. RICHARD G. WILLOUGHBY is a mining prospector 
and " promoter," resident in Juneau, Alaska, a man whose 
vocation enables him to see some wonderful things. In June, 1888, 
according to his statement, Mr. Willoughby beheld an extraor- 
dinary mirage from the surface of the Muir Glacier. It was the 
apparition of a great city of tall houses of brick and stone, plainly 
shown in the air under the influence of some powerful refraction. 
Behind the city was a river in which shipping was faintly shown. 
In the foreground the leafless branches of tall elm trees were 
clearly traceable. In the center of the city was a large edifice 
with several towers, and on some of these towers the presence of 
scaffolding showed that building was still going on. This mirage 
was seen by him several times from year to year, and on the 
unfinished building the stages in the process of erection each 
season could be distinctly followed. 

Mr. Willoughby sent to San Francisco and secured a camera 
with a number of highly sensitized plates of the usual commer- 
cial sort in order to photograph the apparition. This he suc- 
ceeded in doing but once successfully. The necessary exposure 
was a very long one, because of the unsubstantiality of the object. 
The one negative, however, gave a fairly clear print. Copies 
were at once made, and R. G. Willoughby's Silent City (seventy- 
five cents each) was added to the wonders of Alaska. I present 
herewith a copy of this picture bought by me in Sitka in 180(). 
The picture is not quite the same as the original edition of 1888. 

VOL. LI. 12 



i62 POPULAR SCIENCP: MONTHLY. 

The scene is exactly identical, but the card has been reduced in 
size by the omission of superfluous sky. It has been rendered 
much fainter and more ghostlike than the original, and is perhaps 
taken from a new negative in which the lines of the houses and 
gravel walks have been purposely made less distinct. 

The original edition has the following on the back of the 
card: 

" The Glacial Wonder of the Silent City. 

" For the past fifteen years Prof. Richard Willoughby has 
been a character in Alaska as well known among the whites as 
he has been familiar to the natives. As one of the early settlers 
of old Fort Wrangel, in which his individuality was stamped 
among the sturdy miners who frequented the then important 
trading port of Alaska, he has grown with the Territory and is 
to-day as much a part of its history as the totem poles are iden- 
tified with the deeds of valor or commemorative of the past tri- 
umphs of prominent members of the tribes which their hideous 
and mysterious characters represent. 

" To him belongs the honor of being the first American who 
discovered gold within Alaska's icy-bound peaks, but his greatest 
achievement from a scientific standpoint is his tearing from 
the glacier's chilly bosom the ' mirages ' of cities from distant 
climes. 

" After four years of labor amid dangers, privations, and 
sufferings, he accomplished for the civilized world a feat in 
photography heretofore considered problematic. 

" It was on the longest day of June, 1888, that the camera took 
within its grasp the reproduction of a city remote, if indeed not 
altogether within the recesses of another world. The 

silent city 

is here presented for the consideration of the public as the wonder 
and pride of Alaska's bleak hills, and the ever-changing glaciers 
may never again afford a like opportunity for the accomplish- 
ment of this sublime phenomenon." 

The picture attracted much attention and met with an encour- 
aging sale. The skeptical bought it as an original document in 
the natural history of mendacity. The credulous regarded it as 
a wonder not surpassed by the gigantic glacier itself. The dis- 
cussion arose in the newspapers as to whether some distant city, 
as Montreal, could have been brought into view by the freaks of 
the marvelous Alaskan atmosphere. Many who thought this 
impossible leaned to the belief that in the heart of Alaska or in 
British Columbia there is some great settlement of civilized men, 
as yet undiscovered by geographers. To those who held this 
opinion neither the nearness of the houses to the observer nor the 



16+ POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

peculiarities of the vegetation (leafless elm trees in midsummer) 
nor the tiles on the chimneys offered any difficulties. The obvious 
but commonplace explanation was that of the few only. Even 
now, every summer, some account of the marvel goes the rounds 
of the newspapers. I am told that in 189G a company of people 
encamped for some time on the glacier, in hopes of seeing this 
great wonder of Nature. 

They did not see it, unfortunately, but others had better 
success, and these lucky ones have recently substantiated their 
account by their affidavits. An affidavit in Juneau costs but a 
drink of whisky, the usual price along the Northwest coast, a fact 
of which one great nation of our day has not been slow to profit 
in connection with an International Tribunal of Arbitration. As 
the sale of photographs declines, more persons will probably be 
granted a sight of the Silent City, and there will arise anew series 
of affidavits and newspaper stories. 

It is hardly necessary to call the attention of the intelligent 
reader to the absvirdities involved in Mr. Willoughby's story and 
in the photograph which is its financial justificaion. But there 
are many persons, not without education and culture, who believe 
without the least question any tale which is uncanny or which 
seems outside the ordinary run of things. In vain does Science 
protest that the natural order is the only order there is, that all 
contradictions to it are either so in appearance only or else are 
deceptions or frauds. 

An interest in human psychology led Dr. Charles H. Gilbert, 
then acting as naturalist on the Albatross, to investigate Mr. 
Willoughby's methods of photography. He learned from Mr. 
Willoughby that the plates used were of the ordinary sort, but 
that the mirage required a very long exposure to set the x>icture. 
Mr. Willoughby had had no previous knowledge of photography, 
and had never tried to reproduce anything except mirages. The 
chemicals used in developing the negative he would not describe. 
It was a secret process. The exposed plates had to be soaked for 
three months in the secret compound before the picture would be 
fixed. This soaking took place in the open daylight, no dark 
room being required, nor did Mr. Willoughby seem aware of the 
ordinary function of the dark chamber in photography. 

The original negative, examined by Dr. Gilbert, was a very 
old, stained, and faded plate, apparently a negative which had 
been discarded because underexposed. 

Prof. William H. Hudson, of Stanford University, who lived 
for a time in Bristol, England, recognizes the picture as a view 
of that city from Brandon Hill, above the town. The picture 
must have been taken some twenty years ago, because Prof. 
Hudson distinctly remembers the scaffolding around the towers 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 165 

of Bristol Cathedral at that time while the building was being 
repaired. The hotel and the church to the left of the cathedral 
are also recognized by him. 

A more transparent fraud could hardly be devised, but its very 
imbecility assures its success. We may be certain that for many 
years to come the " Silent City " will be the " wonder and pride of 
Alaska's bleak hills," and tourists eager to " pierce the veil " will 
speculate on the probability of its being " perhaps altogether 
within the recesses of another world." 

Thus it comes about, as I have elsewhere said, that " there is 
no intellectual craze so absurd as not to have a following among 
educated men and women. There is no scheme for the renova- 
tion of the social order so silly that educated men will not invest 
their money in it. There is no medical fraud so shameless that 
educated men will not give it their certificate. There is no non- 
sense so unscientific that men called educated will not accept it 
as science." 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 

By DAVID A. WELLS, LL.D., D.C.L., 

COERESPONDANT DE l'iNSTITUT DE FRANCE, ETC. 

VIII. NOMENCLATURE AND FORMS OF TAXATION. 

THE most simple form of taxation is a poll or capUation tax. 
Both terms may be regarded as identical in use and meaning, 
but the former is probably more frequently used in tax treatises 
and discussions. 

What is a Poll Tax ? In a strictly economic sense the es- 
sential requisite of a " poll " or " head " tax is that it be laid on all 
polls or heads, and be unvarying in amount. A varying poll tax 
would be an arbitrary exaction, and would not be sustained for a 
moment as a proper exercise of the right of taxation, if laid with- 
out reference to a man's ownership of property. So soon, how- 
ever, as the amount of the tax exacted is made dependent upon 
the amount of the property owned, the tax ceases to be a varying 
poll tax, and becomes a tax on the property itself. The popular 
idea of a poll tax in the United States is an annual tax, small in 
amount, uniform as respects rate, and applicable only to adult 
male persons. Such conceptions are not, however, in accord with 
historical experience, which is to the effect that uniformity in as- 
sessment has never been an essential or even usual feature of this 
form of taxation, but as a rule the tax has been intentionally rated 
to the person assessed according to his rank and station and sup- 
posed property. The " poll " or " capitation " tax of history has, 
therefore, been rather an " income " than a per capita tax ; and the 



i66 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

poll tax of the United States finds few precedents in history. Un- 
der the Byzantine Empire a so-called universal poll tax was sub- 
stituted in lieu of almost all the tithes, customs, and excises which 
had before been relied on for revenue ; and this substitution and 
its influence was regarded by Hume as one of the chief causes 
of the decadence of the Roman state (see page 584, voh xlviii, 
March, 1896). 

The first so-called poll tax in England was granted in 1377, 
and from that date down to the time of Queen Anne was an im- 
portant source of revenue, and, not being uniform, except in its 
incidence per capita, gave rise to great popular dissatisfaction, 
both by reason of its amount and inequality, and also by the in- 
quisitorial methods employed for its assessment and collection. 
At first (1377) the rate was fourpence on every head, male and 
female, above fourteen years of age. Subsequently, under the 
reign of Richard II, in order to avoid the unfairness of subjecting 
all rich and poor, noble and serf to such a uniform tax, a more 
equitable system was introduced, the taxpayers being classified 
by reference to rank, condition of life, and property, the rate 
ranging from six pounds thirteen shillings for dukes and arch- 
bishops, to two pounds for barons and knights, and three shillings 
fourpence on those of " least estate." The retention of the former 
uniform rate of fourpence on all married laborers and upon all 
single men and women above fourteen years of age, who were 
presumed to be without estate, was, however, a cause of great dis- 
satisfaction among the masses, and the attempt to collect it un- 
doubtedly constituted the prime cause of the famous " Wat Tyler 
rebellion " of 1381. In the case of the last poll tax authorized in 
England under Queen Anne a like attempt at classifying persons 
was continued ; the rate commencing at one shilling per annum on 
all persons worth more than fifty pounds, and rising to ten pounds 
for peers of the realm, both spiritual and temporal. One curious 
provision of this final enactment was, that in all cases Catholics 
were to pay double the rate imposed on Protestants. Bachelors 
and widowers without children were also subjected to special 
rates. Some writer has remarked that such exactions could only 
have been designed and authorized by a government of misan- 
thropes ; for if one with a view of escaping them abandoned 
single blessedness, he only involved himself in greater difficul- 
ties ; for there was a tax upon marriages, a tax upon births, and, 
if the health of the victim broke down under these exactions, a 
sum varying from three to thirty florins, according to his station, 
had to be paid before his sorrowing relatives could bury him. 
These taxes on marriages were enforced in England from 1G95 to 
1705, and during the first five years of their continuance yielded 
an average annual revenue of about two hundred and fifty thou- 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. . 167 

sand dollars. It was noted that their continuance had the unde- 
sirable effect of increasing the number of marriages by irrespon- 
sible persons, and in a manner devoid of all solemnity. The rates 
imposed in England as late as 1706 on bachelors and widowers 
contracting marriage varied according to the class in life to 
which they belonged ; from thirty pounds to twenty-five pounds 
on the elder sons of the higher orders of nobility to twelve shil- 
lings on persons possessed of an income of fifty pounds per annum. 

Within a very recent period a petition, numerously signed, has 
been presented to the French Chamber of Deputies asking that a 
special tax on bachelors be established in France, and recalls the 
fact that the French revolutionary Convention of 1789, and some 
of the old republics, established such a tax. The petition further 
stated that the number of bachelors in Paris is nearly half a 
million, while the number of married men is not more than 379,- 
000 ; and " that such a tax ought to be doubly welcome in France : 
first, because it will increase the declining population of the state 
by inducing bachelors to marry ; and, secondly, because it will 
help to make up a growing deficiency in the national budget," 
In Switzerland, in the assessment of an income tax and taxes on 
dwelling houses, certain deductions allowed to married persons 
with families, are not allowed to bachelors or childless married 
people. 

Legislation looking to the taxation of bachelors has also been 
seriously proposed of late in several of the States of the Federal 
Union. In Illinois, for example, a bill has been introduced in its 
Legislature imposing a uniform tax on all single men, sound in 
mind and body, above thirty-two years, who are not able to show 
that they have proposed marriage three times and been rejected. 
The proceeds of the tax are to go toward establishing a home for 
worthy and indigent single women above the age of thirty-eight. 

A Missouri bill makes the tax progressive, increasing by suc- 
cessive increments as the bachelor persists in his state of single 
blessedness. 

In modern times (1848) an English Governor of Ceylon Lord 
Torrington undertook to repeat the experience of his country- 
men of near five centuries before, by imposing a poll tax of three 
shillings per annum, or one week's labor, valued at three shil- 
lings, from every man, rich or poor, in the colony. This exaction, 
in point of inequality, was worse than the poll tax of Wat Ty- 
ler's time, inasmuch as it made the average income of the poorest 
laborer the standard according to which the rate of taxation was 
to be established for all. There was also another curious feature 
connected with this experience. The Cingalese priesthood were 
held liable to pay this tax, either in money or a week's work, 
when their religion required that they must neither perform 



i68 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

work nor possess property. The result was a revolt attended 
with much bloodshed, an abandonment of the tax, and the recall 
of the Governor. 

In one of the states of Central America a poll tax was recently- 
required to be paid monthly ; all adult male inhabitants of the 
several towns and cities being obliged to present themselves at 
the municipal treasuries and pay their dues in person. 

In the colonial period of our history the poll tax was enacted 
by nearly all the North American colonies at one time or another. 
In Virginia and Maryland it was for a long time the only direct 
tax ; and in the latter State it was imposed upon all free men and 
free women, and upon all free children over twelve years of age ; 
and was rendered particularly odious and burdensome from the 
circumstance that its payment was required in tobacco, a given 
number of pounds to the head, the value of which commodity 
was not constant, but varied with supply, which at times was in- 
tentionally restricted, with the intent of augmenting its market 
price. There was, however, another side to this experience. The 
poll tax in the two States named was almost a measure of neces- 
sity. Land was of small value, for there was in the new colo- 
nies little distinction between improved and unimproved lands. 
Slaves were not taxable as personal estate, but belonged to the 
land and figured as real property ; and the personal estates of the 
planters were comparatively small. Polls were therefore the most 
available measure of taxation, and tobacco was the currency of 
the day. All bills and charges were made out in so many pounds 
of tobacco; all lawyers' and court fees were so determined; the 
parish and county levies were fixed in weights of tobacco ; and 
the minister drew as his salary so many pounds of tobacco from 
each parishioner, without respect to the market value of the crop. 
It accordingly happened that a poll levy might be excessive one 
year and nominal the next ; with lawyers, ministers, and clerks 
rejoicing in abundant means one season and reduced to starva- 
tion point the next. Unequal, in proportion to wealth of the 
payer, as such a poll tax was, its inequality was furthermore 
greatly aggravated by fluctuations in the exchangeable value of 
the medium in which it was payable. 

During the colonial period also, in North America, men's per- 
sons were included in the schedules of property made in reference 
to taxation ; and instead of having a fixed sum, as was subse- 
quently the rule in assessing a poll tax, the value of the poll was 
rated according to the earning capacity of the individual ; and if 
he was old and infirm, or in any way disabled, the value of the 
poll was placed at a small amount. 

Possibly by reason of English and American colonial experi- 
ences, and perhaps from an infiltration as it were, down through 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 169 

the ages, of the fact that in Greece and Rome the poll tax was 
exacted only of the people of subjugated provinces, and was there- 
fore regarded as a mark of inferiority or slavery, this tax in 
modern times has not been in accord with public sentiment, and 
in most countries has now been abandoned. The last poll tax in 
England was enacted in 1689. Like all its predecessors, it was 
always unpopular and was regarded as unsuited to the people of 
England. It was repealed in 1698, and " henceforth this form of 
tax passed into the list of taxes tried and never again to be im- 
posed in England. What minister," said Henry Fox in 1748, 
" would presume again to suggest the hated hearth money of the 
Stuarts, or the poll taxes of the reign of William III ?" (Dowell, 
Taxation in England, vol. ii, p. 49.) 

In the United States the poll tax formed, in 1895, a part of the 
tax system of twenty-six of the States and Territories, and was 
not recognized in twenty others, and in some of the latter its levy 
is prohibited by constitutional provisions. In New York a gen- 
eral law for the incorporation of villages confers upon its trustees 
the power to raise money by levying a poll tax. 

From a theoretical or purely economic point of view the pres- 
ent popular opposition and adverse sentiment to the poll tax 
in the United States do not seem to be warranted by any very 
good reasons. The arguments made use of by those opposed to 
its continuance are not derived from old-time precedents, or war- 
ranted by the experience of foreign countries, inasmuch as its 
assessment in the States of the Federal Union has always been 
inconsiderable in amount, and has rarely involved in its col- 
lection any inquisitorial or arbitrary measures. The one most 
deserving of attention has been, that it practically imposed a 
property qualification upon the right of suffrage by making its 
payment a prerequisite to the act of voting, a money payment of 
even so small a sum as two dollars per annum in Massachusetts 
and one dollar in Connecticut being regarded in that light. But 
in answer to this it may be said that paupers are disfranchised 
not because they are vicious or illiterate, but, because of their 
inability to support themselves or aid in supporting the State, it 
is held that they ought not to be allowed a voice in the govern- 
ment of the State. To be consistent, therefore, the advocates of 
the abolition of the poll tax as administered in New England 
ought also to connect with it i. e., its abolition an extension of 
suffrage to the inmates of poorhouses who, otherwise qualified for 
its exercise, are now debarred from it exclusively by a lack of 
property qualification. On the other hand, a leading argument in 
favor of its continuance is that the majority of citizens who pay 
no direct State taxes upon property of any kind, but who are self- 
supporting and not paupers, ought not to be exempt from directly 

VOL. LI. 13 



170 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

contributing to the support of the government, and this argu- 
ment may be amplified and illustrated as follows : Thus, there is 
no citizen, be he ever so humble, who is not vitally interested in 
the preservation and welfare of the civil society of which he is a 
member ; and it is of the first importance, more especially as the 
tendency of the age seems to be antagonistic, that each member 
of society should be encouraged to realize at all times his personal 
interest in the well-being of the State. To the rich man society 
comes and exacts a contribution in some proportion to his means, 
and as a consequence he has inducements to directly interest him- 
self in the fiscal management of the government. To the poor 
man, who is otherwise rarely directly confronted with the tax 
gatherer, society comes also, and, in common with all citizens of 
a certain age, asks a very small annual contribution for the sup- 
port of the State, because each citizen is interested in its exist- 
ence and welfare, has a measure of responsibility resting upon 
him, and should be made to realize that responsibility. In the 
fact, therefore, that the poll tax touches directly every citizen and 
is an effective agency for awakening him to a sense of his polit- 
ical duties and responsibilities, and so better qualifies him for the 
exercise of the right of suffrage, is to be found the true reason 
for the incorporation of a small annual poll tax into every cor- 
rect system of State taxation. 

As has already been pointed out, a poll tax, having regard 
solely to the person and not to his property, is the only tax to 
which the term 'personal can be rightfully applied. It is the 
essence also of every free and just government that every person 
the most humble as well as the most exalted is equal before 
the law, and has a right to invoke the sovereignty of the State 
in all its fullness for the protection of his person. Keeping these 
two points in view, it would further appear that a poll tax as- 
sessed equally upon all citizens, and free from all discrimination, 
represents the most perfect equality of service, and is the only 
tax which a citizen can pay which can be regarded in the light of 
a reciprocal for the service which the State renders to him in pro- 
tecting his person, all other taxes being in respect to property or 
business. 

As the Constitution of the United States also excludes from 
representation " Indians not taxed," it would seem to imply that 
its authors regarded the exercise of suffrage by a citizen that was 
not a pauper and paid no direct tax, as an anomaly not likely 
to occur under a government founded upon equal public rights 
and responsibilities, and also that a citizen who did not pay any 
direct tax to the State was not likely to have any more correct 
idea or measure of his true relation to the State than a wild 
Indian. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 171 

If, however, public sentiment in any community is so adverse 
to the levy of moderate poll taxes that their collection is not and 
can not be enforced with any degree of uniformity and equality, as 
is reported to be the case in many States, then the advisability of 
their abandonment can not well be questioned, for the want of 
respect for all law, which always results from the maintenance 
upon the statute book of any law which a community will not 
regard or permit to be enforced, is an evil that far outweighs any 
possible good that can come from its continuance. Furthermore, 
the statement is probably warranted that in no instance in history 
has it been possible to enforce a permanent tax against which by 
common consent the public has revolted. 

In considering the feasibility of its continuance it should not 
be overlooked that the tax upon property can be collected because 
the State holds a confiscatory power over the property to the ex- 
tent of the tax. But the tax upon the non-property-holding polls 
can not be collected except through the consent of the assessed 
person, unless resort is had to the old law of imprisonment until 
payment is made a remedy not likely to find favor. 

The recent experiences of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania 
are especially worthy of note in this connection. The Constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts, adopted during the Revolution, limited the 
suffrage to " every male inhabitant of twenty-one years of age 
and upward, having a freehold estate within the Commonwealth 
of the annual income of three pounds, or any estate of the value 
of sixty pounds." This restriction was abolished in 1821, but 
payment of a poll tax was still required before a man could vote. 
In recent years, however, this form of taxation has become so un- 
popular in this State, mainly by reason of a general belief that 
politicians, without distinction of party, were in the habit of col- 
lecting and disbursing large sums for the purpose of influencing 
or bribing voters by payment of their poll taxes, that in 1891 an 
amendment to the Constitution of the State was adopted which, 
while retaining the previous obligation of the payment of an an- 
nual poll tax, abolished such payment as a prerequisite for vot- 
ing. The result was that before the adoption of this amendment 
from fifty-two to fifty-nine per cent of the poll tax due in the city 
of Boston was collected year by year ; but since then the percent- 
age of collection has fallen below forty-four per cent. Many of 
the city's own employees figure among the delinquents, and it has 
been found necessary to place hundreds of poll bills in the hands 
of the city treasurer for the deduction of the amount due from 
their wages. Leaving out the persons who can not pay without 
great sacrifice, it is stated that Boston is still losing above one 
hundred thousand dollars yearly in revenue from failure to col- 
lect the taxes upon polls that can and should pay. And this, in a 



172 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

modified form, is probably the situation throughout the State of 
Massachusetts. 

In Pennsylvania the State Constitution makes the payment of 
a State or county tax, at least one month before election, a pre- 
requisite to the exercise of suffrage ; and as the poll tax involves 
the smallest amount of tax that a citizen could pay, it was ex- 
pected that almost every man would pay it. But, in point of fact, 
it was found that thousands of citizens neglected to do so, and the 
political campaign committees, irrespective of party, recognizing 
this fact, have adopted the policy of furnishing voters whom they 
desired to influence with receipts for the payment of their poll 
taxes ; and this practice has attained to such magnitude in recent 
years, that the two leading party organizations in the city of 
Philadelphia alone purchased in the year 1894 over ninety-five 
thousand such receipts. Obviously this is a form of bribery which 
is forbidden by the spirit if not by the letter of the law ; and to 
meet such a situation of affairs the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
has recently (1897) enacted a law forbidding the payment of a poll 
tax by any other person than the elector against whom such tax 
is assessed.* 

Neither of the judicial authorities above referred to seem to 
have grasped the great principle essential to the continuance of 
every truly free state that the poiver of taxation should not he in- 
voked for police purposes, hut be strictly limited to the raising of 
revenue to meet legitimate state expenditures. 

* During the American colonial period some attempts were made to compel the exercise 
of suifrage by imposing a fine on citizens neglecting to vote at regular elections ; the fine 
imposed in Maryland on citizens in default of such action having been one hundred pounds 
of tobacco. But since the adoption of the Federal Constitution no legislation of like 
character is believed to have taken place in any of the States until 1889, when Kansas City 
adopted a charter provision imposing a tax of two dollars and a half on each citizen who 
should fail to vote at a general election. This provision coming up for review before the 
State courts of Missouri, was affirmed in the first instance by a Superior Court judge, who 
took the ground that " in the enlightenment of the present age it is in the power of the State 
to compel its voters to exercise the election franchise, and if the State can do so the city is 
invested with the same power." After enumerating many things of an arbitrary nature that 
are done to maintain good municipal government, the judge said that he could see no legal 
objection to the use of the taxing power for the purpose of securing a full and perfect ex- 
pression of public sentiment and the election of competent and worthy men to public offices. 
The position was an advanced one, he admitted, but not an unreasonable one, in view of the 
fact that " the highest type of government is attained when every voter casts his vote, and 
that vote is counted just as it is cast." On an appeal to the Supreme Court of the State, the 
provision was, however, declared unconstitutional, the language of the decision being as 
follows : " Taxes may be levied," it said, " in money or in services having a money value to 
the public, and he who pays in money does not necessarily have to pay more or less than 
he who pays in services, and vice versa, and it is upon this principle that these taxes are 
upheld ; but who can estimate the money value to the public of a vote ? It is degrading 
to the franchise to associate it with such an idea. The ballot of the humblest in the land 
may mold the destiny of the nation for ages." 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 173 

"The man who will not buy a tax receipt, but expects his 
party to purchase it for him, is a bad citizen. He is, in effect, a 
person who is bribed, and who holds the value of his vote at a 
very small sum." Philadelphia Times. 

Of other terms employed to indicate different forms or meth- 
ods of taxation, and a clear understanding of the meaning of 
which is essential to any correct discussion of the subject, the 
following are the most important : 

Direct and Indirect Taxes. Taxes are generally charac- 
terized or classified as being either direct or indirect j but these 
terms, although in common use, are somewhat indefinite, owing 
to the inability of economists to agree as to their exact meaning ; 
while in the United States this indefiniteness has been increased 
by the circumstance that its Supreme Federal Court has felt com- 
pelled by the language of the Federal Constitution to assign to 
the term " direct" as applicable to taxation, a " legal " rather than 
an economic definition. 

In a general sense the term direct is applied to those taxes 
which are demanded from the particular persons whom it is 
intended or desired shall pay them ; and indirect to those which 
are demanded from a person with the expectation and intention 
that he shall indemnify himself for payment of the same at the 
expense of some other person.* There is, furthermore, a marked 
distinction, founded on sound philosophy, between a direct and 
indirect tax, which, if concisely expressed, will constitute two 
unimpeachable definitions. Thus an indirect tax, whoever may 
first advance it, is paid voluntarily and primarily (in the sense of 
ultimately) by the consumer of the taxed article. On the other 
hand, a direct tax has always in it an element of compulsion ; not 
necessarily on the person who advances the tax in block, but on 
the person who is compelled to use or consume the taxed property 

* " In the assessment of indirect taxation, and such as is intended to bear upon specific 
classes of consumption, the object itself is alone attended to without regard to the party 
who may incur the charge. Sometimes a portion of the value of the specific product is 
demanded at the time of production as in France, in respect to the article of salt. Some- 
times the demand is made on entry, either into the State, as in the duties of import ; or 
into the towns only, as in the duties of entry. Sometimes the tax is demanded of the con- 
sumer at the moment of transfer to him from the last producer as in the case of the stamp 
duty, and the duty on theatrical tickets in France. Sometimes the Government requires a 
commodity to bear a particular mark, for which it makes a charge as in the case of the 
assay mark on silver and a stamp on newspapers. Sometimes it monopolizes the manufac- 
ture of a particular article or the performance of a particular kind of business as in the 
monopoly of tobacco and the postage of letters. Sometimes, instead of charging the com- 
modity itself, it charges the payment of its price as in the case of stamps on receipts and 
mercantile paper. All these are different ways of raising a revenue by indirect taxation ; 
for the demand is not made on any person in particular, but attaches upon the product or 
article taxed." M. Jean Say, Treatise on Political Economy, 1821. 



174 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

or its product. For example, there is nothing compulsory or un- 
equal in an ordinary license tax. If the license is high, no one is 
compelled to engage in a business covered by its legal require- 
ment ; and few persons will until the average profits of the taxed 
business by the regular laws of competition finally reach the 
average profits of other like employments or investments. A tax 
on commodities like whisky, tobacco, fermented liquors, oleo- 
margarine, playing cards, dice, and the like, can always be avoided 
as a primary tax, or can be paid at discretion. But there is 
nothing voluntary in the payment of a tax upon all real or per- 
sonal property, or on the income of such property. Human 
beings can not subsist without some forms of personal property, 
and therefore a tax upon all personal property or its income is of 
necessity compulsory and not voluntary. Any general assess- 
ments of personal property on or by reason of its income, as well 
as assessments on real estate, are unavoidable in their nature, and 
therefore, from a philosophic or economic point of view, are 
typically direct taxes. (See Alexander Hamilton's brief in the 
Carriage case, Hamilton's Works, vol. vii, p. 848.) 

The presence or absence of the principle of compulsion as con- 
stituting the essential difference between a direct and an indirect 
tax has not, it is believed, been before recognized by economists. 
And yet it is clearly involved or comprised in the definitions 
given by acknowledged authorities on the subject. Thus M. 
Leroy Beaulieu, in his Traite de la Science des Finances, charac- 
terizes those taxes " as direct which the legislator intends should 
be paid at once and immediately by him who bears their burden. 
They strike at once his fortune or his revenue, and every interme- 
diary between him and the treasury is suppressed." McCulloch 
(Principles of Taxation) describes a tax " to be direct when it is 
immediately taken from property," and indirect " when it is taken 
from its owners by making them pay for liberty to use certain 
articles or exercise certain privileges." M. Say defines a direct 
tax to be the " absolute demand of a specific portion of an indi- 
vidual's real or supposed revenue." (Political Economy, p. 461.) 

In the assessment of direct taxes a proportionality is generally 
sought between the person who pays and the value of his prop- 
erty, or ability to pay. Thus, in the taxation of watches, which 
are popular subjects for direct taxation, the proportionality be- 
tween the owner who pays and the amount of property rated is 
recognized and maintained, by imposing, as in the city of Phila- 
delphia, a tax of one dollar on watches of gold and one of seventy- 
five cents on watches of silver. In the assessment of indirect 
taxes the maintenance of any proportionality between the tax- 
j)ayer and his fortune is not regarded. The idea of a jiersonal 
assessment, which is characteristic of direct taxes, furthermore 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 175 

does not apply to indirect taxes, and the person upon wliom the 
incidence of siicli taxation primarily falls may be regarded as ad- 
vancing rather than paying the tax, which is ultimately paid by 
a consumer, not as a tax, but as a part of the market price of a 
commodity. 

In other words, the general effect if not the avowed object of 
an indirect tax is to place its burden in a roundabout way on the 
person who ultimately bears it. Taxes on imports, or customs 
dues ; most internal revenue taxes ; " octroi " taxes, or taxes 
levied by municipalities on commodities mainly articles of food 
brought within their limits from without ; stamps and fees for 
registering or verifying documents, are typical examples of in- 
direct taxation. 

The objections to this form of taxation are so great as to 
warrant their characterization as evils. In the first place, they 
prevent the taxpayer from knowing what he pays, by mixing up 
the price of an article with the tax, as has been already noticed. 
Secondly, they enhance the cost of a commodity to the consumer 
to a degree (often largely) in excess of the original burden of the 
tax. Thus, if an importer of sugar, salt, wool, coal, or metals 
pays taxes on these commodities when they enter the territory of 
another country (as, for example, that of the United States), he 
adds them to the first or invoice cost of the importation. On this 
aggregate he calculates and adds interest and profits when he 
sells to a wholesale dealer ; and this process is repeated by every 
smaller dealer or retailer through whose hands the commodities 
pass on their way to final consumption ; and as the number of 
such intermediaries is greatest in the case of articles sold by 
small retailers, the final burden of the tax is greatest on the very 
poor, whose necessities compel them to buy in very small quan- 
tities.* There is thus a very real and close connection between 
indirect taxation and pauperism. 

In dealing ^ith the relative influence of direct and indirect 
taxation, Mr. Gladstone, when Chancellor of the Exchequer, took 
the position in a parliamentary discussion in 1859 that " the dis- 
tinction between them involves the question between rich and 

* Some years since, at the instance of the writer, the late Charles L. Brace instituted 
an examination to determine the difference in price to individual consumers of coal bought 
in comparatively large and small quantities. He reported that as a rule, when coal could 
be delivered at private residences in the city of New York (at the time when the investigation 
was made) for four dollars and a half per ton, its cost to the people whose poverty com- 
pelled its purchase by the " bucketful " was at least twelve dollars per ton. And yet when 
subsequently a philanthropic capitalist proposed to remedy this grievance of the poor by 
selling coal bought in small quantities at greatly reduced rates, his attempt did not meet 
with the full approval of the people whom he desired to serve, by reason of an inference 
by them that the project must in some way be a scheme for the promotion of private gain 
rather than public good. 



1/6 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

poor. All classes pay indirect taxation : the middle and wealthy 
pay direct ; but indirect taxes press much more seriously on the 
laboring population." 

An instructive comparison of the method and influence of 
direct and indirect taxation may be instituted by supposing the 
two systems to be put into practical operation under similar cir- 
cumstances, for effecting a purpose which all are willing to admit 
is most desirable or necessary. For example, a town meeting is 
held to provide means for building a bridge. The direct and 
honest way would be to assess and levy an equitable tax, ade- 
quate to provide for the proposed expenditure, on the property of 
the citizens of the town. An indirect way, as exemplified by the 
tariff (omitting the complicated machinery for appraising mer- 
chandise), would be to provide that the storekeepers of the town 
should charge, on account of the proposed expenditure, an excess 
over general prices to the extent of two cents a pound on sugar, 
twenty-five cents more per yard on woolen cloth, five cents more 
for each tin pail or cup, and, keeping an account, return the 
results of the extra prices paid on the above-mentioned and other 
like commodities by their consumers, to the town treasury. 
Would it not be evident that under such a method of procedure 
the wealth of the town would in a great degree escape taxation 
for the construction of the bridge, and that its expense and bur- 
den would fall mainly upon the poor ; inasmuch as the average 
amount of consumption of sugar, cloth, and tin by the citizens of 
the town, and the average per capita taxation contingent on the 
same, would have no just or uniform relation to their ability to 
pay for the same ? A man with ten thousand a year income will 
not probably consume ten times as much sugar as one with one 
thousand a year. 

In the case of imported commodities charged with import 
duties, not only is the price of the imported commodity enhanced 
directly by the duty, but the price of a much larger quantity of 
competing product of domestic origin is increased to approxi- 
mately the same extent. Thus, in the case of iron and steel, the 
average difference in the prices of these commodities in England 
and the United States during the ten years from 1878 to 1887 in- 
clusive, occasioned by the imposition of indirect customs taxes 
by the latter country on such a comparatively small proportion 
of its domestic consumption as was imported, increased the cost 
of the total consumption of these products in the United States 
during the period mentioned, to the extent of at least $550,000,000. 
Such an increase represented an average of $55,000,000 per annum 
in excess of the cost of a like quantity to consumers in Great 
Britain during the same period ; an aggregate, according to the 
census data of 1880, in excess of the entire capital invested in the 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 177 

iron and steel industries of the country, including all its mines of 
both coal and iron. 

An incident also illustrative of the character of an indirect 
tax was afforded some years ago when it was proposed in Wash- 
ington to ex-Governor Warmoth, of Louisiana, as representa- 
tive of the sugar-producing interest of that State, to substitute a 
bounty on domestic sugars in place of the protection afforded by 
the then tariff (taxation) on the importation of foreign sugars. 
The suggestion was repelled with no little warmth, on the ground 
that such a substitution would be most prejudicial to the domestic 
sugar industry. " The people," he said, " know that a bounty is a 
tax, and as soon as they found out its amount would insist upon 
its repeal, and thus the sugar interest would lose both the protec- 
tion of the tax on foreign competitive imports as well as the 
bounty." How far subsequent events harmonized with this fore- 
cast by Mr. Warmoth is worthy of brief notice in this connec- 
tion. Congress in 1891 entirely repealed all the tariff (tax) on the 
importation of raw sugars, and to compensate the domestic pro- 
ducers of sugar for the abrogation of the protection which had 
been previously given them, authorized the payment by the Fed- 
eral Government of a bounty of from one and three fourths to 
two cents per pound on their product. In a little more than four 
years subsequently, when the effect of the bounty aggregating 
over $30,000,000 and representing nearly the whole cost of produc- 
ing the sugar entitled to bounty had been fully recognized by 
the public. Congress repealed the act authorizing its payment 
without restoring the former protective duties; and with such 
a pronounced approval of its action on the part of the people of 
the United States as to render it almost certain that no Congress 
will hereafter authorize the direct payment of bounties by the 
Federal Government for any purpose.* 

The Relative Burden on Taxpayers of Direct and Indi- 
rect Taxation. Any discussion of this subject would be incom- 

* The fundamental question involved in this sugar-bounty matter has never been passed 
upon directly by the Supreme Court of the United States ; but the disbursement of the 
money voted by Congress for the payment of the sugar bounties having been withheld by 
the Comptroller of the United States Treasury on the ground that the appropriation was 
unconstitutional, the case came up before the United States Court of Appeals of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, which sustained the opinion of the Treasury official, and was adverse to 
the claim that " the general welfare " clause of the Constitution might be stretched to 
encourage the production of a commodity by a bounty. " If to Congress be conceded," it 
said, " the power to grant subsidies from the public revenues to all objects it may deem to 
be for the general welfare, then it follows that this discretion renders superfluous all the 
special delegations of power contained in the- Constitution, and opens a way for a flood of 
socialistic legislation, the specious plea for all of which has ever been ' the general wel- 
fare.' " For further notice of this celebrated case see Chapter VII, Popular Science 
Monthly, p. 518. 



178 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

plete that failed to notice the estimates of the relative burden on 
taxpayers of direct and indirect taxation by persons well quali- 
fied by study, and administrative tax experience, to express an 
opinion. 

It is not a matter of dispute that the cost of collecting di- 
rect taxes is, as a rule, much less than is the case with indirect 
taxes, and that of the receipt contingent on the former the largest 
proportion accrues to the Government. Thus in Prussia, where 
the administration of taxation may be characterized generally as 
despotic, the cost of raising revenue from direct taxes has been 
reported at four per cent and of indirect at twelve per cent. Under 
a direct tax system everybody knows how much he really pays, 
and if he votes for war or any other expensive national luxury, he 
does it with his eyes open to what it costs him. If all taxes were 
direct, taxation would be much more apparent than at present, 
and there would be a continuous popular demand, which at pres- 
ent there is not, for economy in public expenditures. 

In England it has been estimated that for eveTj fifty millions 
of indirect taxes paid into the exchequer, seventy millions are 
finally taken from consumers ; and M. Guyot,late French Minister 
of Public Works, has recently shown by a series of statistical dia- 
grams, that the octroi system of indirect taxation in France adds 
on an average twenty per cent to the cost of goods to consumers 
over and above the tax.* In New Zealand, where a compara- 
tively small population and limited and definite sources of revenue 
have afforded extraordinary facilities for making an analysis, an 
expert has recently calculated that for every million and a half 
collected through the customs the people of that colony have paid 
not less than a million and two thirds. 

In 1851 a committee of the Liverpool (England) Financial Re- 
form Association published a statement, that a careful investiga- 
tion instituted by it showed, that the difference between the 
net amount paid into the exchequer from indirect taxes and the 
gross amount taken through or in consequence of this system 
from the taxpayers, was not less than an average of thirty-seven 
per cent ; and added that the evidence that had led to this con- 
clusion "can neither be controverted as matter of fact, nor 
strengthened as a matter of argument." 

In 1846 Hon. Robert J. Walker, then Secretary of the Treasury, 
in accordance with instructions from the United States Senate to 
report the extent to which the price of domestic products was 
enhanced by the then existing duties imposed on the import of 

* It seems incredible, he is reported as graphically saying, " that Frenchmen, usually 
80 sensitive to ridicule, can quietly submit to be ' sweated ' and ' plucked ' like fowls, with- 
out crying out against this antiquated method of indirect taxation only so long as they are 
kept blind to the tax." 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 179 

competing commodities, submitted the following statement : " Tlie 
revenue from imports last year exceeded twenty-seven millions of 
dollars, of which, twenty-seven millions are paid to the Govern- 
ment upon imports, and forty- four millions in enhanced prices of 
similar domestic articles. This estimate is based upon the posi- 
tion that the duty is added to the price of the import and also 
of its domestic rival. If the import is enhanced in price by the 
duty, so must be its domestic rival, for, being like articles, their 
price must be the same in the same market." (Senate Document, 
First Session, Twenty-ninth Congress, 1845-'46.) * 

In a debate in the Constitutional Convention of the State of 
New York in 1867-'68, the late Hon. George Opdyke, a member, 
and one of the best economic and fiscal authorities of his time, 
stated that his investigations had led him to the conclusion that 
consumers of imported articles in the United States are " charged 
with at least fifty per cent in addition to the duties actually 
received by the Government." 

As the result of a careful study of the subject, based on the 
rates of duty imposed by the tariff law of March, 1883, Hon. Wil- 
liam H. Springer (for a long time a prominent member of Con- 
gress) was led to the conclusion that the average increase in the 
prices of domestic commodities due to the duties imposed on the 
import of competitive products had not been less than $556,000,000 
for every year of the twenty years next precedent to 1883, "mak- 
ing an aggregate of over eleven billions of dollars, not one dollar 
of which went into the national Treasury." (See North American 
Review, vol. cxxxvi. No. 319.) 

The experience of the indirect taxation of commodities also 
shows that they favor the concentration of business in a few 
hands, or the creation of monopolies. Of this the experience of 
the internal revenue system of the United States has furnished 
some curious examples. Thus a tax was imposed in 1864 on 
matches at the rate of one cent per package of one hundred or 
less ; and, although comparatively insignificant, it yielded at one 
time, by reason of the immense number of matches consumed, an 
annual revenue of over $3,500,000, which sum the manufacturer 
was obliged to advance by purchasing and affixing stamps to each 
package as a prerequisite to selling. To manufacturers furnish- 
ing their own design for the stamp, the Government allowed a 
discount of ten per cent on stamps of an aggregate value in excess 
of five hundred dollars purchased at any one time, and sixty days' 
credit to such manufacturers as could offer satisfactory security 



* This estimate was founded on an apparently careful investigation of the prices " of 
sixteen leading domestic articles and the manufactures thereof, similar to those on which 
the present duties (1845) are imposed." 



i8o POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

(i. e,, in tlie form of United States "bonds) for their payments. 
Under such circumstances small manufacturers with a limited 
capital were crushed, and the business of manufacturing concen- 
trated in a very few firms, which raised the retail price of matches 
to an extent considerably in excess of the amount of the tax. In 
later years (1883), when it was proposed to repeal this tax, the sin- 
gular spectacle was afforded of the larger manufacturers strenu- 
ously exerting themselves to influence Congress to prevent the 
repeal, and asking that they might continue to be taxed. Their 
efforts were, however, unavailing. The tax was abolished, and 
the retail price of matches immediately declined more than fifty 
per centum i. e., from fifteen cents to six cents for six boxes. 

Many years ago the late Henry C. Carey characterized indirect 
taxation in the following forcible and figurative language : " The 
whole system of indirect taxation," he said, " is mere petty 
larceny. It is an attempt to filch that which can not be openly 
demanded. It is one of those ' inventions ' of man by which the 
few are enabled to grow rich at the expense of the many, and is 
therefore greatly favored by that class of men who prefer living 
by the labor of others to living by their own. The man who 
plunders a city is of the same species with the highway robber. 
The one who imposes indirect taxes is of the same species with 
the chevalier d'indusfrie. All belong to the genus of great men. 
All are equally destitute of manly or generous feeling. The 
plunderer of cities selects those which are weak and defenseless, 
and the collector of indirect taxes selects the commodities used 
by poor men who can not defend themselves; and where the 
system most prevails, men are most weak and cheap and food 
most dear.^' * (H. C. Carey, Past, Present, and Future, pp. 4G4, 
465, Philadelphia, 1848.) 

* " So long as it (indirect taxation) shall be permitted to exist, depopulation, and the 
system of large revenues, raised by means of indirect taxation, to be squandered by those 
who live by managing the affairs of others, must continue. So long as it exists, the planter 
and farmer must continue to give a large portion of their small product in exchange for a 
small quantity of clothing. So long as it exists, every attempt at the establishment of 
freedom of trade must be a failure. With its correction, every obstacle to the establish- 
ment of perfect freedom will disappear, and the tariff will pass out of existence. The 
interest of every farmer and planter, and of every laborer and mechanic, is directly con- 
cerned in the adoption of a measure that shall be calculated to promptly produce the effect 
desired i. e., repeal of indirect taxation but it is not more his interest than his duty. 
So long as the present system shall continue, trade of every kind must be subject to violent 
fluctuations which enable the few to enrich themselves at the expense of the many, and 
enable gambling speculators to live in palaces and ride in coaches by aid of indirect taxa- 
tion levied upon the hard-working mechanic and honest trader, ruined by changes in the 
value of their property. It is, therefore, the bounden duty of every man desirous to pro- 
mote the great cause of morality, justice, and of truth, to unite his efforts with those of his 
neighbor for the early accomplishment of this great object." //. C. Caret/, Past, Present, 
and Future, pp. Ji.71, 472, Philadelphia, I84S. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 181 

And yet Mr. Carey's name, more than that of any other citizen 
of the United States, is identified with a system of raising revenue 
which is based exclusively on indirect taxation. 

Mr. Henry George, in one of his essays, also thus forcibly 
makes clear a leading characteristic of the indirect taxes levied 
by the Federal Government: " Propose," he says, "to abolish, or 
even reduce, one of these taxes, and Washington will be filled 
with lobbyists begging and working for its extension. What 
does this mean ? It means that these taxes yield revenue to 
private parties as well as to the Government." 

Carlyle was not far out of the way in characterizing legisla- 
tors who advocate indirect taxation as having a purpose, " that 
those who are not hungry should suppress those who are. The 
pigs are to die i. e., be subject to taxation no conceivable help 
for that ; but we, by God's blessing, will at least keep down their 
squealing ! " 

The question of the relative merits of the two systems of tax- 
ation under consideration, has long been since the days of 
Jeremy Bentham a subject of discussion, with a trend of popular 
sentiment unmistakably in favor of indirect, or it should rather 
be said in opposition to direct taxation.* 

What satisfactory explanation can be given for a conclusion 
so clearly adverse to public interest ? John Stuart Mill has 
attempted it as follows : " The feeling is not grounded on the 
merits of the case, and is of a puerile kind. An Englishman 
dislikes not so much the payment as the act of payment. He 
dislikes seeing the face of the tax collector and being subjected 
to his peremptory demand. Perhaps, too, the money which he is 
required to pay directly out of his pocket is the only taxation 
which he is quite sure that he pays at all. That a tax of two 
shillings per pound on tea, or of three shillings per bottle on 
wine, raises the price of each pound of tea and bottle of wine 
which he consumes by that and more than that amount can not 

* " We find, as the result of our examination and contrast, that direct taxation is, in 
every essential feature, vastly superior to our present method ; that the former accords 
with justice, economy, and all the other requirements of a sound policy; while indirect taxa- 
tion violates every principle on which legislation should be based. It must be owned, how- 
ever, that notwithstanding the weighty objections to the one and the economy and perfect 
fairness of the other, there are few of our citizens who are desirous of making the proposed 
change. Direct taxation is a phrase that grates on the nerves of all. Men start at its 
sound as though it was a portent of evil ; something which had impressed them with deadly 
fear. They seem to regard it as deeply imbued with the spirit of tyranny, to say the least, 
if not as the most forbidding impersonation of that monster. So unpopular is this method 
of taxation, that an aspirant for public station or honors would as soon think of committing 
high treason as propose or advocate it ; and if his ambition ^ ere bounded by the present, 
he would be right, for he could not more effectually destroy his popularity." Treatise on 
Political Economy, by George Opdyke. 



i82 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

indeed be denied. It is the fact, and is intended to be so, and he 
himself is perfectly aware of it ; but it makes hardly any impres- 
sion on his practical feelings and associations, serving to illustrate 
the distinction between what is merely known to be true and 
what is felt to be so." 

Mr. Mill also expressed the opinion that men's minds are so 
little guided by reason on this subject that if it was attempted to 
raise all the imperial revenue of Great Britain by direct taxation, 
the dissatisfaction on the part of the people at having to pay so 
much would be extreme. 

Speaking on this subject in the House of Lords in 18G0, the 
Earl of Derby said that " by making the whole revenue of the 
United Kingdom depend upon direct taxation the pressure would 
be so odious that wars would be avoided, because no party would 
incur the odium of carrying them on." 

There can be no doubt that high direct taxes, making evident 
to the most unobservant citizen the excess of burden imposed 
upon him, have been the prime cause of the repudiation of public 
debts in the United States, and the arrest or ruination of internal 
improvements of great importance. 

Mr. George Opdyke, in his Treatise of Political Economy, 
advanced the idea that the phenomenon of preference for indirect 
taxation in the United States might be accounted for in part by 
the fact, that the unjust manner in which taxes were levied by 
Great Britain on her American colonies engendered in the public 
mind of their people " a deep-seated hatred of every form of taxa- 
tion ; and the direct being its most visible or sensible form, it has 
been mistaken for the worst an impression that was strength- 
ened when the most unpopular of our Presidents (the elder 
Adams) recommended this policy, and when the opposing polit- 
ical party, seizing the occasion to profit by public prejudice, 
represented it as the worst form of tyranny." * 

An economic phenomenon in connection with this subject goes 
far to support the idea that political economy can not be an exact 
science, inasmuch as it is largely or wholly based on human 
action, concerning which nothing certain and invariable can be 



* An acute economic student and observer writes as follows on this subject : " I have 
been very much struck by the apathy of taxpayers to the increase of taxes in their most 
direct form. Take Philadelphia, for example. Nearly every man o\vna a house there, 
and yet there seems to have been no objection to the grossest municipal extravagance, 
entailing heavier and heavier burdens every year. The city to-day levies about ten times 
as much per head as it did thirty or forty years ago. The exact figures would be easy to 
get, and would certainly point a moral adverse to your view that direct taxation is twin 
brother to public economy. I am inchned to look for an explanation to the fact that real 
estate values have steadily risen, so that after all the increase of taxation has been easily 
met." 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 183 

predicated. Thus the argument and evidence are complete that 
it is not a wise, humane, or perhaps a moral policy for a state 
created or maintained for the purpose of promoting the interests 
of its people to adopt a system of indirect taxation for the raising 
of revenue ; and, furthermore, that it is contrary to human nature 
for a people to desire or be willing to pay more for any service or 
commodity than it is intrinsically worth ; or, what is the same 
thing, perform more work in return for the same than is a fair 
equivalent. And yet both governments and the people in all 
countries and at all times (including the present) have shown a 
preference for this system of taxation over any other. 

One explanation of this curious inconsistency is as follows: 
It is and ever has been the aim of all governments to avoid re- 
sponsibility and occasion for popular criticism in respect to their 
financial policy ; and a direct tax is an annual reminder to their 
citizens or subjects of the burden of government, and prompts 
them to hold the government to a strict accountability. Under a 
free or popular form of government a general system of direct 
taxation would practically call for an annual judgment of the 
voters on the fiscal policy of an administration in power, and such 
a tightening of the purse-strings as would reverse such policy in 
case of its popular disapproval. But with a system of indirect 
taxation, as a tariff on imports, a government can undertake the 
most unnecessary and extravagant measures and obtain revenue 
sufiicient to defray its contingent exiDenditures without general 
popular disapproval. 

Indeed, the best defense that can be offered for the continued 
resort to indirect taxation is, that with the present large demands 
on the part of all civilized states for revenue to meet increasing 
fiscal obligations, mainly incurred for war expenditures, past and 
present, and the unwillingness of the people to pay direct taxes, 
it would be practically impossible to maintain the modern gov- 
ernment without large contributions from people of limited re- 
sources ; and that this purpose can only be accomplished by taxing 
them indirectly. On the other hand, it may be replied that if 
direct taxation was alone made the agency for obtaining revenue, 
unnecessarily large expenditures through the resistance of the 
masses would not be possible. In like manner, if the present in- 
direct taxes levied on imports by the United States were to be 
replaced by direct taxes, collected in money or in kind from pur- 
chasers for final consumption, on whom the burden in both cases 
finally rests if every person buying silk or sugar were stopped 
by a government tax gatherer at the door of the place of purchase 
and thirty per cent of his purchases taken in kind in one case 
and fifty per cent in the other in payment for taxes, it is safe to 
say that such a system would not continue operative any longer 



i84 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

than would suflfice for the people, througli legal methods, to com- 
pel its modification. One explanation i. e., of inconsistency 
on the part of the people who pay taxes is, that although the 
benefits derived from the institution of government (which practi- 
cally can not exist without taxation) are of the first importance, 
they are not so very obvious, nor so striking, as to be readily 
recognized and appreciated by the masses, who are accordingly 
apt to look with complacence upon a direct (personal) demand 
for a tax in the light of a compulsory payment, for which no 
equivalent is returned. Indeed, this feeling is so strong that it 
has become an almost popular maxim in all countries that " there 
is nothing which a person so hates to do as to pay taxes," in case 
they are direct. But by the ingenious plan of taxing articles on 
which incomes are expended, rather than openly demanding a 
portion of the income itself, the amount of taxation is concealed 
from the mass of taxpayers, and its payment is made to appear 
in some measure voluntary. The indirect tax being generally 
advanced rather than paid, as has been already shown, in the first 
instance by the importers, the ultimate purchasers for consump- 
tion confound the tax with the natural price of the commodity. 
No separate demand being made upon them for the tax, it es- 
capes their consideration, and the article which they receive 
seems the fair equivalent of the sacrifice made in acquiring it. 
Indirect taxes have also the advantage of being paid by degrees, 
in small portions, and at a time when the commodities are 
wanted for consumption, or when it is most convenient for the 
consumer to pay them." * 

In the attempt, furthermore, of civilized rulers to maintain a 
civilized government over an uncivilized people, there seems to be 
no practical method of compelling such a people to help maintain 
a proper and desirable government except through a resort to in- 
direct taxation. Thus, in British India, a country of low civiliza- 
tion, small accumulation of wealth, and under such climatic con- 
ditions as necessitate the minimum of clothing, shelter, and food, 
the only way by which the mass of the native population can be 
compelled to contribute anything whatever, apart from a tax on 
land in the form of rent, toward the support of a government 
whose beneficent and civilizing influence has become a matter of 
history, is by the taxation of salt, the consumption of which is 
a necessity to all, and the production and distribution of which 
can in a great measure be controlled. 

In the British island and colony of Jamaica, populated mainly 
by emancipated blacks and their descendants (557,132 out of a 
total of 580,804 in 1881), who own little or no land, and consume 

* J. R. McCulloch. Taxation and the Funding System. 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. 185 

little of food other tlian what is produced almost spontaneously, 
the problem of how to raise revenue by any form of taxation for 
defraying the necessary expenditures of the Government has been 
one of great embarrassnient. For the year 1884 these expenditures 
averaged three dollars and forty cents per head of the entire 
population, and of this amount an average of about fifty cents per 
head could only be obtained from any internal taxation, and this 
mainly through the indirect agency of licenses and stamps, and not 
by any direct assessment. The balance of required revenue was ob- 
tained from a special tax on some set manufacture, and from export 
and import duties. A similar state of affairs in Mexico, heretofore 
noticed somewhat in detail (see vol. xlix, No. 1, pages 45, 46), would 
also seem to necessitate a resort to a system of indirect taxation. 

It is interesting to note, in connection with this subject, that 
while the States and municipal governments of the Federal Union 
derive their revenues almost entirely from direct taxation, the 
national revenues flow almost wholly from indirect taxes on com- 
modities or personal property. 

Attention is here also particularly directed to a fact that has 
almost entirely escaped the notice of economic and fiscal authori- 
ties and writers, and that is the remarkable change that has taken 
place within the last fifty years in the British tax system, where- 
by, through an extensive substitution of direct for indirect taxa- 
tion, the burden of tax incidence has been shifted to a great extent 
from the community at large to the propertied classes. Thus, in 
1841-'42, indirect taxes yielded seventy-three per cent and direct 
taxes twenty-seven per cent of the total imperial revenue, but in 
1895-'96 indirect taxes yielded fifty-two per cent and direct taxes 
forty-eight per cent. Is not the inference warranted, that in the 
change in the incidence of British taxation above noted is to be 
found at least a partial explanation of the remarkable and pro- 
gressive increase, in comparatively recent years, in the consump- 
tion of the various commodities that enter into the living of the 
laboring classes of Great Britain, and is it not also singular that 
the above facts and their possible inference do not as yet seem 
to have attracted the attention of those most interested in social 
economics ? 

[7'o be continued.^ 



The Mazamas is the name of a society of mountain climbers organized 
on the summit of Mount Hood in 1894 for the promotion of mountain ex- 
ploration, the protection of forests and scenery, and the acquisition and 
dissemination of knowledge concerning these things. The qualification 
for membership is the ascent of a recognized snow-cap peak. The meeting 
at which the society was organized was attended by 193 people, who as- 
cended 11,225 feet for the purpose. 

VOL. LI. 14 



186 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

SUICIDE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 

By ROBERT N. REEVES. 

IN the discussion of the increase of suicide in the United States, 
a great deal has been said in the consideration of the act as a 
crime, but little, comparatively, in reference to its causes or to 
those preventives which society has power to enforce. Dr. D. R. 
Dewey, who some years ago made a careful study of the ques- 
tion as it related to the New England States, declared that since 
the year 1860 suicide had increased in those States to the extent 
of thirty-five per cent. This percentage, with but slight varia- 
tions, will probably apply to all other States of the Union where 
there is great industrial and commercial activity. 

Suicide is so violent a reversal of that strongest instinct of 
Nature the instinct of self-preservation that its causes and 
preventives will always be the subject of deep and careful in- 
vestigation. If it is on the increase, there must be causes for its 
increase, and these causes being ascertained, it is then our duty to 
devise means for its prevention. Insanity, heredity, financial re- 
verses, and domestic complications may be direct incentives to 
suicide, but back of them all is the real cause the growth of a 
nervous, disordered temperament in the American people. The 
steady habits of our colonial ancestors no longer satisfy us, and, 
as a consequence, those amusements, those ventures and schemes 
which excite the mind and nervous system to the highest degree 
are becoming more and more prominent. This, no doubt, is the 
fundamental cause of all suicide. But it is only with the direct 
incentive that society is capable of dealing, and these direct 
causes are so numerous and varied that it is almost impossible 
to classify them with any degree of accuracy. The individual 
may be impelled to self-destruction by circumstances, by an 
innate craving or instinct, by an uncontrollable impulse, by the 
unhealthy reasoning of a disordered intellect, and by many 
other influences. Suicides may therefore be divided into two 
great classes those in which reason is called upon to decide 
between life and death, and those which are due to impulse or 
insanity. In the former class the self- destroyer has, after reason- 
ing upon his condition, come to the conclusion that death is the 
most acceptable of impending evils. In this class may be placed 
all those suicides due to sickness, financial embarrassment, un- 
gratified ambition, the desire to escape justice, and causes of a 
like nature. 

Among the second class, or those self-murders which are the 
direct or indirect outcome of insanity, may be included all cases 
of persons who are impelled to destroy their lives when insane, of 



SUICIDE AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 187 

those who commit the act on some trivial cause or provocation or 
from imitation, of those who while sane give way to sudden im- 
pulse, and of those who, after a longer or shorter struggle, suc- 
cumb at their own hands to a growing impulse. Civilization, 
drunkenness, imitation, and hereditary propensities are account- 
able for much of the self-destruction prevalent ; and so, to a 
greater or less extent, are age, sex, the state of health, and daily 
occupations of the victim. 

Attempts have been made to prove that climate has an effect 
upon the rate of suicide, but these attempts have never done more 
than show that the temperate regions have the highest ratio. 
This, of course, is not due to the climate, but to the more compli- 
cated civilization, the greater physical and mental wear, and the 
more extensive interference with natural laws met with in the 
temperate regions. While it is true that climate exerts but little 
influence over the rate of suicide, the seasons, on the contrary, do 
strongly affect it. The popular belief is that suicide is more fre- 
quent during the months of winter and spring. This, however, is 
incorrect. Cold, wet, damp weather does not, as so many people 
suppose, promote despondency and suicide. Strange as it may 
seem, at that period of the year when the sufferings of the poor 
and the sick are least, when employment is most readily obtained, 
when the pleasure of living should be at its highest, suicide is 
most frequent. May, June, and July, the months of song and sun- 
shine in all countries, give the greatest number of self-murders. 
For this there is no satisfactory explanation, unless we accept that 
of the medical fraternity, which is that during the period of early 
summer the organism is working at a higher tension, every func- 
tion of mind and body is more active than at any other period 
of the year, and consequently there is greater liability to sudden 
physical and mental collapse. 

The sad fact that suicide and education increase at an equal 
rate is now generally admitted. Civilization does not free hu- 
manity from grief, disgrace, and disappointment ; but wherever 
civilization is highest the struggle for existence is fiercest, life is 
most artificial, and there the most failures of the human race are 
met with. There was a time in Roman history when suicide was 
almost epidemic. It was when the great republic had reached its 
acme of civilization when poetry, art, and eloquence were tri- 
umphant. It is probable that the proportion of suicides due to 
mental derangements is increasing, but how rapidly can never be 
exactly determined. Morselli says that about one third of all 
suicides may be attributed to insanity. 

Many people, however, anxious to stamp the act with reproba- 
tion, declare that every suicide is insane. This is wrong. While 
those who bring about their self-destruction may have acted 



i88 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

wrongly or unwisely, we have not the right to declare them all 
insane. It is true that many persons brood over their troubles 
until everything loses proportion, their minds become unbalanced, 
and in such a state they kill themselves. In such cases the act 
may be correctly attributed to insanity. But what are we to say 
of those who are to all appearance rational and yet are the victims 
of sudden or growing impulses ? Such people are not voluntary 
agents, and yet they can not be called insane. They are abnormal. 
There is a fatal defect in their organization which is incompatible 
with their survival under natural conditions. This defect may 
give rise to sudden impulses or may cause a growing gradual 
propensity which terminate in the final tragedy. Instantaneous 
impulses are often brought about by the slightest circumstances. 
Thus, gazing steadily at the wheels of an approaching train or 
looking down from some great height may produce a delirium, a 
distention of the blood-vessels of the brain, that instantly para- 
lyzes the will of the victim. 

In the consideration of those propensities which are of gradual 
growth we are confronted with an extremely difficult problem. 
We know that a great many of those who ultimately destroy 
themselves fight for years against the impulse. How are we to 
account in such cases for the persistence of the tendency toward 
suicide, which seems to be a part of their nature, a part which 
draws them instinctively to death just as the normal creature is 
drawn to a desire to live ? For such cases heredity may be in a 
great measure responsible. It is clear that hereditary influences 
may reveal their force in the suicidal impulses as in many other 
of the problems of life. 

Whole families have been known to kill themselves. There 
are a great many human beings who by nature are predisposed 
to self-destruction, and only wait through life for a calamity 
sufficiently great to prompt them to the act. They are victims of 
their own faulty organizations. 

Individual temperament may have a great deal to do with the 
question of suicide. In America the population is largely com- 
posed of the various European races, and although these are liv- 
ing under the same conditions, each nationality retains its own 
peculiar rate of suicide. Drink and crime are responsible for a 
large proportion of the daily self-murders. Drunkenness, the 
most active agent of degeneration known, is directly responsible 
for those which occur during a period of nervous depression fol- 
lowing a debauch. Among the criminal classes suicide is quite 
common, but it is among the petty and not the grave offenders 
that it occurs. Poverty and disease are also strong incentives to 
self-destruction. Suicide is often regulated by the price of bread. 
Life has few pleasures for the homeless and friendless. Death to 



SUICIDE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 189 

them is often a welcome friend, a happy relief from walking the 
streets hungry. 

How many suicides are directly attributable to disease can not 
be stated with exactness, but it may be said, nevertheless, that at 
the present time, with our advanced skill in surgery and medicine, 
suicide from disease is undoubtedly on the decrease. Of all sui- 
cides there are none to be pitied more than those who kill them- 
selves to escape the racking pain of an incurable illness. For 
the victim of this sort there is no hope. Another class of sui- 
cides, which closely resemble those caused by disease, includes 
those due to infirmity. Often persons smitten with blindness, or 
who have met with some terrible accident, in a fit of discourage- 
ment kill themselves. Those blind or deformed from birth, how- 
ever, seldom resort to suicide. Not knowing the pleasure of sight 
or limb, they go through life contented. 

The theory that we hold more strongly to life as we approach 
its natural conclusion is contradicted by statistics, which every- 
where show that the last half of life exhibits a great increase in 
the rate of suicide. And here it may be pointed out that as to the 
age of greatest frequency, suicide and crime are diametrically op- 
posed. While suicide attains its highest rate after the prime of 
life is past, crime, on the contrary, reaches its highest point be- 
tween the ages of twenty and thirty years. We remark, further, 
the alarming increase in late years of what is called child-suicide. 
It is here that education strongly asserts itself as a true and ex- 
citing factor, for it has been shown that in those countries where 
what we are pleased to call education is rigorously forced upon 
children, there child-suicide is most frequent. And for this sys- 
tem of forced education there is no excuse. It is terrible in its 
consequences. To increase the strain to just below the collapsing 
point is not to educate. It only serves to fill the world with nerv- 
ous, neurotic, morbid beings. 

Another cause of the increase of child-suicide is the fear of 
physical punishment. Instances of children destroying them- 
selves because of punishment or the fear of threatened punish- 
ment are constantly recorded in the public prints. Repeated 
cruel punishments will often extinguish, even in the healthy 
child, the love of life so characteristic of youth. What, then, are 
we to expect of poor, devitalized children subjected to the cruel- 
ties of barbaric parents ? 

At the present day man is much more prone to suicide than 
woman. This is true of man in regard to epilepsy, crime, and 
other marked signs of degeneration. But it has been observed 
that as woman approaches man in her mode of life she also 
becomes more familiar with those abnormal conditions which 
have previously been peculiar to man. The comparative immu- 



190 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

nity of woman from self-destruction in the past has depended 
greatly upon the relatively less harassing part she has taken 
in the struggle for life. To-day it is different. Now woman 
occupies the fields of art, literature, finance, and even politics, 
and, as she goes deeper into these vocations, she must expect to 
suffer the consequences. Already it is noticeable that feminine 
suicide is not now entirely due to the sentimental causes of dis- 
appointed love, desertion, and jealousy, but to those trials of 
a more material order such as have led men to the act of self- 
destruction. 

Imitation far exceeds any other of what are called "trivial 
causes " of suicide, and asserts itself more in woman than in man. 
It is much more common than is supposed. When self-destruc- 
tion becomes epidemic, as it sometimes does, its prevalence very 
largely depends upon imitation. It is said that many years ago 
the wail of Thomas Hood over The One More Unfortunate 
brought many a sentimental person to a watery grave in the 
Thames. And in our own day the vivid representation of suicide 
upon the stage under conditions appealing forcibly to the imagi- 
nation has been known to be followed by the self-imposed death 
of persons whose conditions resembled closely those of the suicide 
in the drama. 

The daily papers are largely responsible for this class of sui- 
cides. It can scarcely be doubted that the general diffusion of 
newspaper reports familiarizes too much the minds of the people 
with suicide and crime. A single paragraph, a chance expression, 
a cause given which resembles that of the circumstances sur- 
rounding the reader, seizes the imagination, and in a morbid 
excitement the desire to repeat the act is born. Newspaper re- 
ports further promote suicide by inflaming the passion for the 
notoriety which will be conferred upon the perpetrator through 
their accounts of the act. 

Has city life any influence over the proportion of suicides ? 
This question must be answered in the affirmative. Where the 
population is dense and the laws of health are neglected, where 
dirt is common and vice flourishes, where the poor are concen- 
trated, and where fortunes are made and lost in a day, will always 
be found the highest rate of suicide. It is in the poorer districts 
of our large cities that suicide is most frequent. In these dis- 
tricts the deprivations of light and air, the poverty, the diseased 
conditions about them, render the poor moody, morbid, and de- 
spondent, and raise in their minds a feeling that life is not 
desirable. 

What can society do to prevent suicide among the poor ? The 
obvious method would be to render their conditions more enjoy- 
able by giving them ampler provisions for pleasure and recrea- 



SUICIDE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 191 

tion, making tlieir surroundings more cleanly and agreeable, and 
by faithfully executing thorough, and most effective sanitation. 
Proper sanitary and hygienic measures have a wonderful effect 
in renewing the vitality of our people. They are powerful agents 
for improving morality. 

There probably never will be a time when suicide will be 
unknown in the world, but there are many preventives that are 
of value to-day. Religion has in the past been a powerful pre- 
ventive. But this fear dies out as religion becomes broader. 
The fear of future punishment on account of self-imposed death 
is not now the preventive of suicide that it was fifty or a hundred 
years ago. The moral influences of family life naturally have a 
tendency to decrease suicide. Thus it has been found that in a 
million of husbands without children there were four hundred 
and seventy suicides, and in the same number with children there 
were but two hundred and five. Of a million wives without chil- 
dren one hundred and fifty-seven committed suicide, as against 
forty- five with children ; widowers without children, one thousand 
and four ; with children, five hundred and twenty- six ; widows 
without children, two hundred and thirty-eight ; with children, 
but one hundred and four. These figures are eloquent pleaders 
in favor of family ties as conservators of life. They prove dis- 
tinctly that man must love in order to live. 

Laws prescribing punishment for suicide are solecisms. If we 
wish to prevent suicide we must change conditions for the better, 
not for the worse. Suicide is beyond the reach of the criminal 
code. Its prophylactic must be founded, not upon a statute, but 
upon a wise and judicious management, medical, moral, and 
philanthropical, of those unfortunate enough to attempt their 
lives. It would be far better and more humane to sweep away 
all legislation upon the subject so far as it relates to the indi- 
vidual, and even take for granted that every person is insane who 
attempts suicide, than to punish their attempts by imprison- 
ment. If the victim is insane, efforts should be made to restore 
reason ; and if failure is met with, a sanitarium should be pro- 
vided. Those who are sane should be reasoned with, calmed, and 
assisted. 

Our hearts should be filled with tender compassion for those 
whose lives have been such as to become valueless to them. We 
should pity them. In the gentlest language possible we should 
condone and not condemn their act ; for it is only with a spirit 
of sympathy and not of vindictiveness that we can hope to study 
with profit the causes and preventives of suicide. 



192 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 

A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY. 

[Lowell Institute Lectures, 1896.) 

By WILLIAM Z. EIPLEY, Ph. D., 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ; LECTURER IN 
ANTHROPO-GEOGRAPHY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

Y. THE THREE EUROPEAN RACES. 

IT may smack of heresy to assert, in face of the teachings of all 
our text-books on geography and history, that there is no sin- 
gle European or white race of men ; and yet that is the plain truth 
of the matter. No continental group of human beings with greater 
diversities or extremes of physical type exists. That fact accounts 
in itself for much of our advance in culture. We have already 
shown in the preceding papers that entire communities of the 
tallest and shortest of men as well as the longest and broadest 
headed ones are here to be found within the confines of Europe. 
Even in respect of the color of the skin, hair, and eyes, responsi- 
ble more than all else for the misnomer " white race," the greatest 
variations occur. To be sure, the several types are to-day all more 
or less blended together by the unifying influences of civilization ; 
there are few sharp contrasts in Europe such as those between the 
Eskimo and the American Indian or the Malay and the Papuan 
in other parts of the world. We have been deceived by this in 
the past. It is high time for us to correct our ideas on the subject, 
especially in our school and college teaching. 

Instead of a single European type there is indubitable evidence 
of at least three distinct races, each possessed of a history of its 
own, and each contributing something to the common product, 
population, as we see it to-day. If this be established it does away 
at one fell swoop with most of the current mouthings about Ar- 
yans and pre- Aryans; and especially with such appellations as 
the " Caucasian " or the " Indo-Germanic " race. Supposing for 
present peace that it be allowed that the ancestors of some peoples 
of Europe may once have been within sight of either the Caspian 
Sea or the Himalayas, we have still left two thirds of our Euro- 
pean races and population out of account. As yet it is too early 
to discuss the events in the history of these races ; that will claim 
our attention at a later time. The present task before us is to 
establish first of all that three such racial types exist in Europe. 

The skeptic is already prepared perhaps to admit that what we 
have said about the several physical characteristics, such as the 
shape of the head, stature, and the like, may all be true. But he 
will continue to doubt that these offer evidence of distinct races 
because ordinary observation may detect such gross inconsisten- 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY Ot EUROPE. 



193 



cies on every hand. Even in the most secluded hamlet of the 
Alps, where population has remained undisturbed for thousands 
of years, he will be able to point out blond-haired children whose 
parents were dark, short sons of tall fathers, and the like. Our 
portraits of four Corsicans chosen at random offer a case in point. 
The people of this rocky island are as highly individualized as 
any in Europe. They offer the purest examples of the southern 
or Mediterranean type of Europeans ; and yet these four men are 
quite different from one another. As the indexes show, the heads 
are quite unlike in their proportions. The man on the right is 
apparently broader-faced than either of the fellows next him, 
although he is relatively much longer-headed than either. The 
four vary considerably in the color of the hair and eyes. Nor in 
stature is there any greater apparent similarity. Such diversities 




72-3. 80-8. 80-1. 

Cephalic Index of Corsican Peasants. 



^5. 



confront us on every hand even in this retired corner of Europe. 
What may we not anticipate in less favored places, especially in 
the large cities ? 

Traits in themselves are all right, our objector will maintain : 
but you must show that they are hereditary, persistent. More 
than that, you must prove not alone the transmissibility of a single 
trait by itself, you must also show that combinations of traits are 
so handed down from father to son. Three stages in the develop- 
ment of our proof miist be noted : first, the distribution of separate 
traits; secondly, their association into types; and, lastly, the hered- 
itary character of those types which alone justifies the term races. 
We have already taken the first step : we are now entering upon 
the second. It is highly important that we should keep these dis- 
tinct. Even among professed anthropologists there is still much 
confusion of thought upon the subject so much so, in fact, that 
some have, it seems to me without warrant, abandoned the task 
in despair. Let us beware the example of the monkey in the 
fable. Seeking to withdraw a huge handful of racial nuts from 
the jar of fact, we may find the neck of scientific possibility all 
too small. We may fail because we have grasped too much at 
once. Let us examine. 

VOL. LI. 15 



194 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

There are two ways in which we may seek to assemble our 
separate physical traits into types that is, to combine character- 
istics into living personalities. The one is purely anthropologi- 
cal, the other inferential and geographical in its nature. The 
first of these is simple. Answer is sought to a direct question. 
In a given population, are the blondes more often tall than the bru- 
nettes, or the reverse ? Is the greater proportion of the tall men 
at the same time distinctly longer-headed or otherwise ? and the 
like. If the answers to these questions be constant and consistent, 
our work is accomplished. Unfortunately they are not always so, 
hence our necessary recourse to the geographical proof : but they 
at least indicate a slight trend, which we may follow up by the 
other means. 

Let it be boldly confessed at the outset that in the great num- 
ber of cases no invariable association of traits in this way occurs. 
This is especially true among the people of the central part of 
Europe. The population of Switzerland, for example, is persist- 
ently aberrant in this respect ; it is everything anthropologically 
that it ought not to be. This should not surprise us. In the 
first place, mountainous areas always contain the " ethnological 
sweepings of the plains," as Canon Taylor puts it. Especially is 
this true when the mountains lie in the very heart of the conti- 
nent, at a focus of racial immigration. Moreover, the environ- 
ment is competent to upset all probabilities, as we hope to have 
shown. Suppose a brunette type from the south should come to 
Andermatt and settle. If the altitude exerts an influence upon 
the pigmentation, as we have sought to prove ; or if its concomi- 
tant poverty in the ante-tourist era should depress the stature, 
the racial equilibrium is as good as vanished in two or three 
generations. It is therefore only where the environment is sim- 
ple ; and especially on the outskirts of the continent, where migra- 
tion and intermixture are more infrequent, that any constant and 
normal association of traits may be anticipated. Take a single 
example from many. We have always been taught to regard the 
Teutonic peoples the Goths, Lombards, and Saxons as tawny- 
haired, " large-limbed giants." History is filled with observations 
to that effect from the earliest times. Our maps have already 
led us to infer as much. Nevertheless, direct observations show 
that tall stature and blondness are by no means constant com- 
panions in the same person. In Scandinavia, Dr. Arbo asserts, I 
think, that the tallest men are at the same time inclined to blond- 
ness. In Italy, on the other edge of the continent, the same 
combination is certainly prevalent.* Over in Russia, once more 
on the outskirts of Europe, f the tall men are again found to be 

* Livi. Anthropometria Militare, pp. 74, 76. f Globus, vol. xlii, 1892. p. 337. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 195 

lighter complexioned as a rule. Dr. Beddoe asserts that in 
Britain it is more often true than otherwise.* But if we turn to 
central Europe we are completely foiled. The association of stat- 
ure and blondness fails or is reversed in Bavaria, in Baden, along 
the Adriatic, and in upper Austria and Salzburg, as well as among 
the European recruits observed in America during our civil war. 
In Wiirtemberg alone have we assurance that the relation holds 
good.f It seems to me significant, however, that when the asso- 
ciation fails, as in the highlands of Austria, where the environ- 
ment is eliminated, as in lower Austria, the tall men again become 
characteristically more blond than the short ones. In this last 
case environment is to blame ; in others, racial intermixture, or it 
may be merely chance variation, is the cause. 

In order to avoid disappointment, let us bear in mind that in 
no other part of the world save modern America is such an amal- 
gamation of various peoples to be found as in Europe. History, 
and archaeology long before history, show us a continual picture 
of tribes appearing and disappearing, crossing and recrossing in 
their migrations, assimilating, dividing, colonizing, conquering, 
or being absorbed. It follows from this that, even if our environ- 
ment were uniform, our pure types must be exceedingly rare. 
Experience proves that the vast majority of the population of 
this continent shows evidence of crossing. Thus, in Germany, of 
six million school children observed on a given day, not one half 
of them showed the simple combination of dark eyes and dark 
hair or of light eyes and light hair. In the British Isles it appears 
that over thirty per cent of persons measured have fair eyes and 
dark hair in other words, that the hair and the eyes do not ac- 
company one another in type. Of four hundred and eighty-six 
students of the Institute of Technology, sixty-five per cent of 
them were of this mixed type. Even among the Jews, less than 
forty per cent of them are characterized by the same tinge of hair 
and eyes ; so that in general we can not expect that more than 
one third of the population will be marked by this simple and 
single combination. We need not be surprised, therefore, that 
if we next seek to add a third characteristic, say the shape of the 
head, to this combination of hair and eyes, we find the propor- 
tion of pure types combining all three traits in a fixed measure 
to be very small indeed. Imagine a fourth trait, stature, or a 

* Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles, p. ITl. The opposite is perhaps true 
in Scotland (Topinard, Elements, p. 491). 

f Ranke. Phjsische Beitrage zur Anthropologic Bayerns, p. 195 stq. ; and Der Mensch, 
ii, p. 124. Ammon, in Sammlung gemeinverstandlieher, wissenschaftliche Vortrage, Series 
V, vol. ci, p. 14. Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxv, p. YO. 
Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie, Supplement, 1884, p. 26. Baxter, op cit., vol. i, pp. 23, 38. 
Von Holder, Zusammenstellung der in Wiirtemberg vorkommenden Schiidelformen, p. 6. 



196 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

fifth, nose, to be added, and our proportion of pure type becomes 
almost infinitesimal. We are thus reduced to the extremity in 
which my friend Dr. Ammon, of Baden, found himself when I 
wrote asking for photographs of a pure Alpine type from the 
Black Forest. He has measured thousands of heads, and yet he 
answered that he really had not been able to find a perfect speci- 
men in all details, as all his round-headed men were either blond, 
or tall, or narrow-nosed, or something else that they ought not 
to be. 

Confronted by this situation, the tyro is here tempted to turn 
back in despair. There is no justification for it. It is not essen- 
tial to our position that we should actually be able to isolate any 
considerable number, nor even a single one, of our perfect racial 
types in the life. It matters not to us that never more than a 
small majority of any given population possesses even two phys- 
ical characteristics in their proper association ; that relatively few 
of these are able to add a third to the combination ; and that al- 
most no individuals show a perfect union of all traits under one 
head, so to speak, while contradictions and mixed types are every- 
where present. Such a condition of affairs need not disturb us if 
we understand ourselves aright. We should indeed be perplexed 
were it otherwise. 

Consider how complex the problem really is ! We say the peo- 
ple of Scotland are on the average among the tallest in Europe. 
True ! But that does not mean that a great number of medium 
and undersized persons do not occur among them. We may illus- 
trate the actual condition best by means of the accompanying dia- 
gram.* Three curves are plotted therein for the stature of large 
groups of men chosen at random from each of three typical parts 
of Europe. The one at the right is for the tall Scotch, the middle 
one for the medium-sized northern Italians, and the one at the left 
for Sardinians, the people of this island being among the shortest 
in all Europe. The height of each curve at any given point indi- 
cates the percentage within each group of men which possessed the 
stature marked at the base of that vertical line. Thus eight per 
cent of the Ligurian men were five feet and five inches tall (1'65 
metres), while nine per cent of the Sardinians were fully two 
inches shorter (1*60 metres). In either case these several heights 
were the most common, although in no instance is the proportion 

* The curve for the Scotch, taken from the Report of the Antliropometrie Committee of 
the British Association for the Advancenient of Science for 1883, has been arhitraiily cor- 
rected to correspond to the metric system employed by Dr. Livi in the other curves. A 
centimetre is roughly equal to 0'4 of an inch. It is assumed that in consequence only 0-4 
as many individuals will fall within each centimetre class as in the groups of stature differ- 
ing by inches. The ordinates in the Scotch diagram have therefore been reduced to U"4 of 
their height in the original curve. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



197 



considerable at a given stature. There is, however, for each coun- 
try or group of men some point about which the physical trait 
clusters. Thus the largest percentage of a given stature among 
the Scotch occurs at about five feet nine and a half inches. Yet 
a very large number of them, about five per cent, fall within the 
group of five feet seven inches (1"70 metres) that is to say, no taller 




IS 

-I 


METERS I 55 

INCHES, ^ 1 + 
ABOVE S FT. 


160 

3 + 


165 
5 + 


1.70 
7 + 


175 
9* 


1.80 
11 + 


1.85 
li-r 


METEK 190 



than an equal percentage of the Ligurians and even in Sardinia 
there is an appreciable number of that stature. We must under- 
stand therefore, when we say that the Scotch are a tall people or a 
long-headed or blond one, that we mean thereby not that all the 
people are peculiar in this respect even to a slight degree, but 
merely that in this region there are more specimens of these spe- 
cial types than elsewhere. Still it remains that the great mass of 
the people are merely neutral. This is a more serious obstacle 
to overcome than direct contradictions. They merely whet the 
appetite. Our most difficult problem is to separate the typical 
wheat from the noncommittal straw ; to isolate our racial types 
from the general mean of the continent. 

We have now seen how limited are the racial results attain- 
able by the first of our two means of identification that is, the 
purely anthropological one. It has appeared that only in the 
most simple conditions are the several traits constant and faith- 
ful to one another in their association in the same persons. Nor 
are we justified in asking for more. Our three racial types are 
not radically distinct seeds which, once planted in the several parts 
of Europe, have there taken root ; and, each preserving its pecul- 
iarities intact, have spread from those centers outward until they 



198 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

have suddenly run up against one another along a racial frontier. 
Such was the old-fashioned view of races in the days before the 
theory of evolution had remodeled our ways of thinking, when 
human races were held to be distinct creations of a Divine will. 
We conceive of it all quite differently. These types for us are all 
necessarily offshoots from the same trunk. The problem is far 
m.ore complex to us for this reason. It is doubly dynamic. Up- 
building and demolition are taking place at the same time. By 
our constitution of racial types we seek to simplify the matter for 
a moment to lose sight of all the destructive forces, and from ob- 
scure tendencies to derive ideal results. "VVe picture an anthro- 
pological goal which might have been attained had the life con- 
ditions been less complicated. 

Are we in this more presumptuous than other natural scien- 
tists ? Is the geologist more certain of his deductions in his res- 
toration of an ideal mountain chain from the denuded roots which 
alone bear witness to the fact to-day ? In this case all the super- 
structure has long since disappeared. The restoration is no less 
scientific. It represents more clearly than aught else the rise and 
disappearance, the results and future tendencies of great geologi- 
cal movements. We take no more liberties with our racial types 
than this geologist with his mountains ; nor do we mean more by 
our restorations. The parallel is instructive. The geologist is 
well aware that the uplifted folds as he depicts them never existed 
in completeness at any given time. He knows full well that ero- 
sion took place even as lateral pressure raised the contorted strata ; 
that one may even have been the cause of the other. If indeed 
denudation could have been postponed until all the elevation of 
the strata had been accomplished, then the restoration of the 
mountain chain would stand for a real but vanished thing. This, 
the geologist is well aware, was not thus and so. In precisely the 
same sense do we conceive of our races. Far be it from us to 
assume that these three races of ours ever in the history of man- 
kind existed in absolute purity or isolation from one another. As 
soon might the branch grow separate and apart from the parent 
oak. No sooner have environmental influences, peculiar habits of 
life, and artificial selection commenced to generate distinct vari- 
eties of men from the common clay ; no sooner has heredity set 
itself to perpetuating these ; than chance variation, migration, in- 
termixture, and changing environments, with a host of minor dis- 
persive factors, begin to efface this constructive work. Racial up- 
building and demolition, as we have said, have ever proceeded 
side by side. Never is the perfect type in view, while yet it is 
always possible. " Race," says Topinard, " in the present state of 
things is an abstract conception, a notion of continuity in discon- 
tinuity, of unity in diversity. It is the rehabilitation of a real 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 199 

but directly unattainable thing." In tbis sense alone do we main- 
tain that there are three ideal racial types in Europe to be dis- 
tinguished from one another. They have often unfortunately 
dissolved in the common population ; each trait has gone its own 
way ; so that at the present time rarely, if indeed ever, do we dis- 
cover a single individual corresponding to our racial type in every 
detail. It exists for us nevertheless. 

Thus convinced that the facts do not warrant us in expecting 
too much of our anthropological means of isolating racial types, 
we have recourse to a second or inferential mode of study. In 
this we work by geographical areas rather than by personalities. 
We discover, for example, that the north of Europe constitutes a 
veritable center of dispersion of long-headedness. Quite independ- 
ently we discover that the same region contains more blond traits 
than any other part of Europe ; and that a high average stature 
there prevails. The inference is at once natural that these three 
characteristics combine to mark the prevalent type of the popula- 
tion. If one journeyed through it, one might at first expect to 
find the majority of the people to be long-headed and tall blondes; 
that the tallest individuals would be the most blond, the longest- 
headed most tall, and so on. This is, as we have already shown, 
too good and simple to be true, or even to be expected. Racial 
combinations of traits indeed disappear in a given population, as 
sugar dissolves, or rather as certain chemical salts are resolved 
into their constituent elements when immersed in water. From 
the proportions of each element discovered in the fluid, quite free 
from association, we are often able to show that they once were 
united in the same compound. In the same manner, we, finding 
these traits floating about loose, so to speak, in the same popula- 
tion, proceed to reconstitute types from them. We know that the 
people approach this type more and more as we near the specific 
center of its culmination. The traits may refuse to go otherwise 
than two by two, like the animals in the ark, although they may 
change partners quite frequently ; and they may still manifest dis- 
tinct aflinities one for another nevertheless. 

The apparent inference is not always the just one, although it 
tends to be. Suppose, for example, that one observer should 
prove that sixty per cent of ten thousand natives of Holland were 
blondes : and another, studying the same ten thousand individuals, 
should prove that a like proportion were very tall would this of 
necessity mean that the Hollanders were mainly tall blondes ? 
Not at all ! It might still be that the two groups of traits merely 
overlapped at their edges. In other words, the great majority of 
the blondes might still be constituted from the shorter half of the 
population. Only twenty per cent need necessarily be tall and 
blond at once, even in this simple case where both observers stud- 



200 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ied the same men from different points of view. How much more 
confusing if each chanced to hit upon an entirely different set of 
ten thousand men! This, be it noted, is generally the case in 
practice. Nevertheless, although there is always danger in such 
inferences, we are fortunate in possessing so many parallel inves- 
tigations that they check one another, and the tendencies all 
point in one direction. 

These tendencies we may discover by means of curves drawn 
as we have indicated above in our diagram. By them we may 
analyze each group in detail. Every turn of the lines has a mean- 
ing. Thus, the most noticeable feature of the Sardinian curve of 
statures is its narrowness and height ; the Ligurian one is broader 
at the base, with sloping sides ; and the Scotch one looks as if 
pressure had been applied at the apex to flatten it out still 
farther. The interpretation is clear. In Sardinia we have a 
relatively unmixed population. Nearly all of the people are 
characterized by statures between five feet one inch (1'56 metres) 
and five feet five inches (1"65 metres). They are homogeneous, in 
other words : and they are homogeneous at the lower limit of 
human variation in stature. The curve is steepest on the left side. 
This means that the stature has been depressed to a point where 
neither misery nor chance variation can stunt still further ; so 
that suddenly from seven per cent of the men of a height of five 
feet one and a half inches [more frequent than any given stature 
in Scotland] we drop to two per cent at a half inch shorter stat- 
ure. A moment's consideration will show that the narrower the 
pyramid, the higher it must be. One hundred per cent of the 
people must be accounted for somewhere. If they do not scatter 
sidewise, their aggregation near the center will elevate the apex, 
or the shoulders of the curve at least. So that a sharp pyra- 
mid points to a homogeneous people. If they were all precisely 
alike, a single vertical line one hundred per cent high would 
result. On the other hand, a flattened curve indicates the intro- 
duction of some disturbing factor, be it an immigrant race, en- 
vironment or what not. In this case the purity of the Sardin- 
ians is readily explicable. They have lived in the greatest isola- 
tion, set apart in the Mediterranean. A curve drawn for the Irish 
shows the same phenomenon. Islands demographically tend in 
the main to one or the other of the extremes. If unattractive, 
they offer examples of the purest isolation, as in Corsica and Sar- 
dinia. If inviting or on the cross-paths of navigation, like Sicily, 
their people speedily degenerate into mixed types. For if incen- 
tive to immigration be offered, they are approachable alike from 
all sides. The Scotch, as we have observed, are more or less 
mixed in type, and unequally subjected to the influences of envi- 
ronment ; so that their curve shows evidence of heterogeneity. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 201 

Scotland combines tlie isolation of the highlands with a great 
extent of seacoast. The result has been that in including the 
population of both areas in a single curve we find evidence of 
impurity in the great variability of stature. 

By the second geographical method which we have described, 
we constitute our racial types as the archseologist, from a mass of 
broken fragments of pottery, restores the designs upon his shat- 
tered and incomplete vases. Upon a bit of clay he discovers 
tracings of a portion of a conventionalized human figure. A full 
third let us say the head of Thoth or some other Egyptian deity 
is missing. The figure is incomplete to this extent. Near by is 
found upon another fragment a representation of the head and 
half the body of another figure. In this case it is the legs alone 
which lack. This originally formed no part of the same vase 
with the first bit. It is perhaps of entirely different size and 
color. Nevertheless, finding that the portions of the design upon 
the two fragments bear marks of identity in motive or design, 
data for the complete restoration of the figure of the god are at 
hand. It matters not that from the fragments in his possession 
the archseologist can reconstruct no single perfect form. The 
pieces of clay will in no wise fit together. The designs, notwith- 
standing, so complement one another that his mind is set at rest. 
The afi&nity of the two portions is almost as clearly defined as the 
disposition of certain chemical elements to combine in fixed pro- 
portions; for primitive religion or ornament is not tolerant of 
variation. 

We copy the procedure of the archseologist precisely. In one 
population color of hair and stature gravitate toward certain defi- 
nite combinations. Not far away, perhaps in another thousand 
men drawn from the same locality, the same stature is found to 
manifest an affinity for certain types of head form. It may require 
scores of observations to detect the tendency, so slight has it be- 
come. In still another thousand men perhaps a third combina- 
tion is revealed. These all, however, overlap at the edges. Granted 
that an assumption is necessary. It is allowed to the archseolo- 
gist. Our conclusions are more certain than his, even as the laws 
of physical combination are more immutable than those of mental 
association. For it was merely mental conservatism which kept 
the primitive designer of the vase from varying his patterns. 
Here we have unchanging physical facts upon which to rely. Of 
course, we should be glad to find all our physical traits definitely 
associated in completeness in the same thousand recruits, were 
it not denied to us. The archseologist would likewise rejoice 
at the discovery of a single perfect design upon a single vase. 
Both of us lack entities; we must be contented with afiinities 
instead. 



202 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



A final step in our constitution of races that is, of hereditary 
types is to prove that they are persistent ; that like father like 
son corresponds to the facts in the case. Of direct testimony 
we possess nothing. No single investigator, save perhaps Gal- 
ton, has to my knowledge followed down a line from one genera- 
tion to another. Anthropologists are human themselves. The 
life of man is all too short to cover such tasks. But of indirect 
proof we have plenty. We know, for example, that in the north 
of Europe, as far back as archaeology can carry us, men of a 
type of head form identical with the living population to-day 
were in a majority. Likewise the lake dwellers in Switzerland 
in the stone age, little more civilized than the natives of Africa, 
were true ancestors of the present Alpine race. Prehistoric ar- 
chaeology thus comes to our aid with cumulative proof that at all 
events traits are hereditary in populations, even if not always so 
in men. In truth, we here enter upon a larger field of investiga- 
tion than the anthropological one. The whole topic of heredity 
opens up before us, too immense to discuss in this place. Suffice 
it to say that in the main no question is entertained upon the sub- 
ject, save in the special cases of artificially acquired characteristics 
and the like. 

After this tedious summary of methods, let us turn to results. 
The table on this page shows the combinations of traits into 
racial types which seem best to accord with the facts. It speaks 
for itself. 

European Racial Types. 







Head. 


Face. 


Hair. 


Eyes. 


Stature. 


Nose. 


Synonyms. 


Used by. 


1 


Teutonic. 


Long. 


Long. 


Very 
light. 


Blue. 


Tall. 


Narrow ; 
aquiline. 


Reihengriiber. 
Germanic. 
Kymrif. 
Aryan. (V) 


Germans 
French. 


2 


Alpine 
(Celtic). 


Round. 


Broad. 


Light 
chest- 
nut. 


Hazel- 
gray. 


Medium. 


Variable ; 
rather 
broad ; 


Homo Europasus. 
Celto- Slavic. 
Dissentis. 
Arverniau. 


liapouge. 

French. 

Germans 

Beddoe. 


3 


Mediter- 
ranean. 


Long. 


Long 


Dark 
brown 
or bl'k. 


Dark. 


Short. (V) 


heavy. 

Rather 
broad. 


Ligurian. 
Homo Alitinus. 
Il)eiiiiii. 
Ligunan. 


Taylor. 

Lapoiige 

English. 

Livi. 



The first of our races is perhaps the most characteristic. It 
is entirely restricted to northwestern Europe, with a center of 
dispersion in Scandinavia. Our portraits, chosen as typical by 
Dr. Arbo of the Norwegian army, show certain of the physical 
peculiarities, especially the great length of the head, the long 
oval face, and the straight aquiline nose. The face is rather 
smooth in outline, the cheek bones not being prominent. The 
narrow nose seems to be a very constant trait, as much so as the 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



203 



tendency to tall stature. Dr. Collignon has even demonstrated it 
as a law in France that the relation between the two holds good. 
The Teutonic race is also strongly 
inclined to blondness. The eyes are 
blue or light gray, and the hair flax- 
en, tawny, reddish, or sandy. The 
whole combination accords exactly 
with the descriptions handed down 
to us by the ancients. Such were the 
Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Van- 
dals, Lombards, together with the 
Danes, Norsemen, Saxons, and their 
fellows of another place and time. 
History is thus strictly corroborated 
by natural science. 

Our second racial type is most per- 
sistently characterized by the shape 
of the head. This is short and at the 
same time broad. The roundness is 
accompanied by a broad face, the chin full, and the nose rather 
heavy. These traits are all shown more or less clearly in our por- 
traits, one from south central France, two from Bavaria, and one 
from northern Italy. The side views show the shortness of the 




Teutonic Type. Norway, Vaage. 
Cephalic Index, 75. 





Teutonic Types. Norway, Hedaleii. 
Cephalic Index, 76. 



head as contrasted with the Teutonic type above described. At 
the same time the cranium is high, the forehead straight, some- 
times almost overhanging. It seems as if pressure had been ap- 
plied front and back, the skull having yielded in an upward direc- 
tion. This type is of medium height, decidedly inclined toward 
stockiness in build. Its whole aspect is rather of solidity than of 



204 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



agility. The color of tlie liair and eyes is rather neutral, at all 
events intermediate between the Teutonic and Mediterranean 





Alpine Type. Auvergne, Central France. 

races. There is a tendency toward grayish eyes, while the hair 
is more often brown. In these respects, however, there is great 
variability, and the transition to the north and south is very 
gradual. Climate or other environmental influence has in these 





Alpine Types. Bavaria. 



traits eliminated all sharp division lines. These peculiarities aj)- 

pear only when the type is found in extreme isolation and purity. 

What name shall we apply to this second race, characterized 

by its great breadth of head primarily, and which has its main 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



205 



center of dissemination in the Alps. For the first three of our 
types the task of christening was simple enough. To name this 
second one would have been comparatively easy as well, if Csesar 
had not introduced his Commentaries by the well-known passage : 
"All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgse 
inhabit ; the Aquitani, another ; those who in their own language 
are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third." The so-called Celtic 
question is all involved in this simple statement. Let us reduce it 
to its lowest terms. The philologers properly insist upon calling 
all those who speak the Celtic language Celts. With less reason 
the archaeologists follow them and insist upon assigning the 
name Celt to all those who pos- 
sessed the Celtic culture ; while 
the physical anthropologists, 
finding the Celtic language 
spoken by peoples of divers 
physical types, with equal pro- 
priety hold that the term Celt 
should be applied to that phys- 
ical group or type of men which 
includes the greatest number of 
those who use the Celtic lan- 
guage. This manifestly oper- 
ated to the exclusion of those 
who spoke Celtic but who dif- 
fered from the linguistic major- 
ity in physical characteristics. 
The practical result of all this 
was that anthropologists called 
the tall and blond people of 
northern France and Belgium, 

Gauls or Kymri ; and the broad heads of middle and southwest- 
ern France Celts : while Cccsar, as we saw, insisted that the Celt 
and the Gaul were identical. The anthropologists affirmed that 
the Celtic language had slipped off the tongues of some, and that 
others had adopted it at second hand. Their explanation held 
that the blond Belgse had come into France from the north, 
bringing the Celtic speech, which those already there speedily 
adopted ; but that they remained as distinct in blood as before. 
These anthropologists, therefore, insisted that the Belgae deserved 
a distinctive name: and they called them Gauls, since they ruled 
in Gaul, in distinction from the Celts, who, being the earlier in- 
habitants, constituted the majority of the Celtic-speaking people. 
This was a cross- division with the philologists, who called the 
Belgse Celts, because they brought the language, reserving the 
name Gaul, as they said, for the natives of that country; but 




Alpine Type. Piednioiit, Northern Italy. 
Cephalic Index, 91 2. 



zo6 



POPULAR SCIEJ^CE MONTHLY. 



both philologists and anthropologists alike differed from the his- 
torians, who held to Cfesar's view that the Gauls and the Celts 
were all one. 

Still greater confusion arises if we attempt to discuss the 
origin of the people of the British Isles, where this Celtic question 
enters again. Thus the people of Ireland and Wales, of Cornwall 
and the Scottish Highlands, together with the Bretons in France, 
would all be Celtic for the linguist because they all spoke the 
Celtic language. For the anthropologist, as we shall see, the 




7- 



Alpine (Slavic) Types. Middle Eussia. 

Breton is as far from the Welsh as in some respects tlie Welsh 
are from the Scotch. 

It happened that the father of modern anthropology, the illus- 
trious Paul Broca, having pre-empted the term Celt for the people 
including most of the broad-headed type and its main crosses, all 
the anthropologists have followed him. The linguists have re- 
fused to yield their side, and still use the name in their own sense. 
We shall not seek to solve the question. If we have shown what 
confusion may result from the use of this term, we are content. 
Our own view is that the linguists and the archaeologists are per- 
haps better entitled to the name Celt; but that they should be 
utterly denied the use of the word race. Be this as it may, we 
shall invent a new term, or rather adopt one from M. de Lapouge, 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



207 




Mixed Alpine (Asiatic) Type. 
Hungary. 



and call the broad- headed type Alpine. It centers in that region. 
It everywhere follows the elevated portions of western Europe. 
It is, therefore, pre-eminently a 
mountain type, whether in France, 
Spain, Italy, Germany, or Albania. 
By the use of it we shall carefully 
distinguish between language, cul- 
ture, and physical type. Thus the 
Celtic language and the Aryan cul- 
ture may spread over the Alpine 
race, or vice versa. As, in fact, each 
may migrate in independence of the 
others ; so in our terminology we 
may distinctly follow them apart 
from one another. No confusion of 
terms can result. It is purely a geo- 
graphical name, like the one we have 
applied to the third group. 

One more matter of racial names 
remains for consideration. What 
shall we do with the term Slavic, which like Celtic is purely a 
linguistic or ethnological term ? Curiously enough, from Poland 

to Macedonia, all over eastern Eu- 
rope in fact, where the Slavic lan- 
guage is in common use, the people 
are of the same physical type as the 
Alpine race. The distinctive fea- 
tures, especially the broad-headed- 
ness, are somewhat attenuated, to 
be sure ; but anthropologists are 
agreed that the two groups are iden- 
tical. Our Russian portraits show 
the tendency in this direction. In 
eastern Europe, however, this type 
ceases to be identified with the moun- 
tainous areas. Its zone of extension 
is widespread over the plains. Shall 
we continue to call these people Slavs 
from their language, or assign them 
to the Alpine group despite this cir- 
cumstance ? Or shall we, as in re- 
cent vogue, apply the term Slavo- 
Celtic to the whole combination ? 
The question is still further confused because the Slavic language 
linguistically is akin to the Teutonic, although the two physical 
types are as wide apart as the poles. If we reject our term Celt, 




Mediterranean Type. Corsican. 
Cephalic Index, 72 '3 . 



208 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Berber, Tunis. 
Cephalic Index, 72. 

rowness of tlie forehead. 



the other, being equally a linguistic term, should go as well. 
The only alternative seems to be to apply the term Homo 

Alpinus to this broad-headed group 
wherever it occurs, whether in moun- 
tains or plains, in the west or in the east. 
The name is justified by the circum- 
stance that its main body occurs in the 
Alps, and that its purest types culminate 
there as well. 

We now come to the last of our three 
races, which is generally known as the 
Mediterranean or Iberian type. It pre- 
vails everywhere south of the Pyrenees, 
along the southern coast of France, and 
in southern Italy, including Sicily and 
Sardinia. Once more we return to a type 
of head form almost identical with the 
Teutonic. Our portraits of Corsicans on 
a preceding page, with the enlargement 
of one of the four in the group, show the 
exaggerated length of face and the nar- 
The cephalic index drops from eighty- 
seven and above in the Alps to about seventy-five all along the 
line. This is the primary fact to be noted. Coincidently, the 
color of hair and eyes becomes very dark, almost black. The 
figure is less amply proportioned, 
the people become light and rather 
agile. It is certain that the stature 
at the same time falls to an exceed- 
ingly low level : fully nine inches 
more than a head below the aver- 
ages for Teutonic Europe. Authori- 
ties are, however, divided as to the 
significance of this. It has been 
shown that while the average height 
is low, a considerable number, and 
those of the purest type in other re- 
spects, are of goodly stature. It 
may indeed be that, as we have 
already suggested, too protracted 
civilization is responsible for this 
diminutiveness. The people of 
northern Africa (illustrated by our 
portrait), pure Mediterranean Eu- 
ropeans, are of medium size in fact. Personally I incline to the 
view that culture is to blame, and that the type is normally of 




Mediterranean Type. Montiicllier. 
C'ephali'" lude.x, 07. 



GLOBE LIGHTNING. 209 

medium size, although it would be impossible of proof at this 
writing. 

It would be interesting at this time to follow out the intel- 
lectual differences between these three races which we have 
described. The future social complexion of Europe is largely 
dependent upon them. The problem is too complicated to treat 
briefly. In a later paper, devoted expressly to modern social 
problems, we may return to it again. Our physical analysis is 
now complete. The next task is to trace the origin of nationalities 
from the combination of these elements. We shall begin with 
the French ; for this single nation is, alone in all Europe, com- 
pounded of all three racial elements ; nay, more, we shall be able 
to point to a still older population than any of these, living to-day 
in France, with an unbroken ancestry reaching back to the pre- 
historic stone age. 



GLOBE LIGHTNING. 

By M. HAGENAU. 

OCCASIONALLY in thunderstorms peculiar electrical appa- 
ritions occur, similar in destructiveness to ordinary light- 
ning, but by no means so transient. Their duration is measured, 
not by thousandths of a second, but by whole seconds or even 
minutes. They move so slowly that their progress can be accu- 
rately followed by the eye. As they generally appear in the 
form of glowing spheres, they are known as fireballs or globe 
lightning. The first account of this peculiar form of lightning 
was given by the celebrated English physicist, Robert Boyle, who 
described a ball which suddenly appeared on July 34, 1681, on 
the ship Albemarle. The sailors attacked it in vain with blows 
and water, but it burned itself out, leaving behind a strong smell 
of gunpowder. 

In Boyle's time ordinary lightning flashes were thought to 
consist of inflamed gas, so that an occurrence like the above did 
not appear particularly striking, but later investigators were 
unable to make the fireball fit their knowledge and theory of 
electricity, and declared it to be a myth. A layman stated that 
such a ball appeared in his room during a storm and slowly made 
its way to the chimney. The scientific people asserted that it was 
an illusion of the senses, and that there were no such things as 
fireballs. But the balls continued to appear, in some instances 
being simultaneously seen by a number of trustworthy witnesses, 
so that their existence had to be admitted. 

Let us notice a few well-attested recent cases : 

Dr. A. Wartmann has given the Physical Society of Geneva 

TOL. LI. 16 



2 10 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

an account of a ball which he observed during a very violent 
storm on December 20, 1888, at half past six in the evening, while 
he was driving from Versoix to Genthod. As he passed the 
entrance gate of a large mansion he became aware of a very 
bright and persistent illumination, quite different from the inter- 
mittent light of the incessant lightning Hashes. 

Thinking it was a fire, he turned and saw, about one thousand 
feet away, a ball of fire some eighteen inches in diameter. It 
floated about half its diameter above the ground, and moved par- 
allel with his own course with the swiftness of a hawk, leaving 
no trace behind it. 

At a point about twenty-five yards ahead of him it burst with 
an appalling crash. " It seemed to me," the report concludes, " to 
throw out lines of fire. We felt a violent shock, and were blinded 
for several seconds. As soon as I could distinguish anything, I 
saw that the horses were standing at right angles to the carriage, 
with their heads toward the hedge. Their ears drooped, and they 
exhibited every symptom of intense fright." At the same time, a 
little less than a mile away, a farmer found himself surrounded 
by a violet light. He heard a loud explosion, and was thrown 
bodily ten feet, alighting on a piece of soft turf, more frightened 
than hurt. 

On July 1, 1891, a fireball entered a carpenter's cabin near 
Schlieben. The carpenter was sitting on the edge of a bed on 
which a child was sleeping. A ball of fire sprang suddenly and 
with a loud noise from the fireplace to the bed, which was imme- 
diately shattered. Then the ball rolled very slowly to the oppo- 
site wall of the room, through which, or the floor, it apparently 
vanished with another fearful crash without setting fire to any- 
thing. The man's wife and another child were sleeping in a sec- 
ond bed and the baby in a cradle, all in the same room, but none 
of the five persons was wounded or even stunned. All complained 
of headache and deafness on account of the heavy sulphurous 
vapor which filled the room, but they soon recovered. Some frac- 
tures were discovered about the stove and chimney. 

Less fortunate were the children in a schoolhouse in Bouin, 
France, who were visited by a fireball while at their afternoon 
prayers. It was preceded by a shower of lime, wood, and stones. 
The ball, which was small, rolled along under the benches, killing 
three of the children, and went out through a window pane, in 
which it merely made a round hole, whereas all the other panes 
were shattered. 

On January 2, 1890, a ball appeared in an electro-technical 
establishment in Pontevedra, Spain. It was seen to strike the line 
wires about nine o'clock in the evening under a clear sky, but no 
one could say just how it struck or from what direction it came. 



GLOBE LIGHTNING. 211 

The ball, which was about as big as an orange, moved slowly 
along the wires to the central station and struck the dynamo, 
which was running. Before the eyes of the terrified workmen it 
sprang twice from the dynamo to the wires and back. Then it 
fell from the machine and burst into a shower of sparks without 
doing any damage. The electric lamps flickered during its visit, 
and the thick copper plates of the switch were melted and welded 
in places. 

Of especial interest is the appearance of a large number of 
balls during a tornado on August 18, 1890, in the French De'parte- 
menf Ills et Vilaine. A farmer of Vizy, who was caught by the 
storm in the field, saw a fireball fall with great velocity. Panic- 
stricken, he threw himself on the ground. The luminous ball 
struck the earth, burst with a loud noise, and covered him with 
dust. 

Dwellers in Vers I'Eau and Samiset saw balls as large as a 
man's head and of a vivid red, which moved slowly toward some 
barns, where they vanished after setting the haystacks on fire. 
In Saint- Claude a great number of balls entered dwellings by the 
chimneys. They moved slowly to and fro and escaped through 
windows, doors, and walls, after doing more or less damage. 
The air in the houses was impregnated with the smell of sulphur 
or gunpowder. 

The region of the Hochgebirge is especially favorable for the 
observation of globe lightning. 

Alluard, the director of the observatory on the Puy-de-Dome, 
reports that frequently during thunderstorms showers of small 
balls of fire are seen falling. On the peak Saentis, in the same 
region, where a meteorological station was founded at an ele- 
vation of twenty-five hundred and four metres in 1882, some 
very remarkable phenomena were observed by a minister named 
Studer on June 28, 1885. He and a companion were caught out in 
the storm after nightfall. All at once they saw on the ridge ex- 
tending from Saentis to the neighboring peak of Altmann flaring 
flames and small yellow balls of light. The latter ran along as if 
on a wire, approached each other, then exploded and fell down. 
A single larger ball of fire hovered over the same ridge, moving 
to and fro in a flat parabola with about the speed of a ball thrown 
by the hand, except that its velocity was uniform. It was visible 
for several minutes. Then there was a frightful explosion, which 
seemed to shake the whole mountain to its foundations, and a dis- 
play of natural fireworks, " of a magnificence never before wit- 
nessed," amazed the spectators. 

The telephone wire from the station to the valley glowed with 
great brilliancy as far as it could be seen, and waving sheets of 
fire extended from it to the ground. Suddenly the whole fiery 



212 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

mass fell to the earth, the wire melted, and the spectators were 
left in total darkness. 

The nature of this peculiar form of lightning is not yet under- 
stood, although Plants and F. von Lepel have succeeded in pro- 
ducing in the laboratory, with the aid of powerful electrical 
machines, small balls of fire which, like those of Nature, moved to 
and fro for a while and then vanished. 

These experiments have suggested the theory that the fireballs 
consist of heated air and water vapor. But this theory is insuffi- 
cient, and gives no satisfactory explanation of the various phe- 
nomena which have been observed. The subject still needs in- 
vestigation. It is especially desirable to increase our store of 
working material that is, of observations. Whoever, therefore, 
is fortunate enough to have witnessed a display of globe light- 
ning should communicate his observations to one of the meteoro- 
logical journals. Translated for the Popular Science Monthly 
from Die Gartenlaube, by Laivrence B. Fletcher. 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG. 

By WILLI A.M H. BALLOU. 

THE Fifth International Geological Congress at Washington 
received an invitation from the Russian government to hold 
its seventh session in St. Petersburg. The Sixth Congress at 
Ziirich accepted the invitation. By unanimous vote, A. Karpin- 
sky. Director of the Committee of Geologists of Russia, was 
elected president of the Bureau of Organization ; A. Inostranzew, 
vice-president; Th. Tschernyschew and N. Androussow, secre- 
taries. 

His Majesty the Czar will open the Seventh International 
Congress at St. Petersburg on August 17th, and welcome the 
visiting delegates to his empire. The Grand Duke Constantino- 
vitch will act as Honorary President. Prof. Karpinsky will 
doubtless be made President of the congress. Circulars of in- 
formation in French have been received by geologists, outlining 
the occupations of the delegates, so far as the Russians can arrange 
for their pleasure. The sessions will last seven days, preceded and 
succeeded by intervals of geological and sight-seeing excursions, 
covering the principal areas of Russia. 

In many respects this will be the most important of the con- 
gresses so far held. The geological map of Europe, which will 
probably be printed complete in two years, will be exhibited. Seg- 
ments of this map have already been received by geologists, and 
will probably have their hearty approval at the congress. The 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG. 213 



committee on geological nomenclature will doubtless make a fair 
showing, although beset by many difficulties in harmonizing the 
views of members. A difference of opinion of grave proportions, 
which has threatened the life of past congresses, concerns the prob- 
able culmination of previous attempts of geologists to get the con- 
trol of the organization out 
of the hands of officials of the 
scientific bureaus of various 
governments. The excur- 
sions laid out certainly cover 
a vast territory, including 
the Ural Mountains, Moscow, 
Volga River region. Samara 
to Kazan, the glacial forma- 
tions of Esthonia, Finland, 
basin of the Donetz, mineral 
waters of Vladikavkaz, Nij- 
ni-Novgorod, Kiew, Dnieper 
River, to Tifiis and glaciers 
by military route of Geor- 
gia, Tifiis to Baku, Batoum, 
and Kertch, all parts of the 
Crimea, Sebastopol, southern 
Russian mining region, to the 
glacier Guenaldon at Pia- 
tigorsk. Lake Gokhtcha, 
Mount Ararat, etc. 

The International Geolog- 
ical Congress was conceived 
by the American Association 

for the Advancement of Science at the Buffalo meeting, 1876, 
when a resolution was adopted, calling for such a congress to be ' 
held in Paris in 1878. The committee comprised W. B. Rogers, 
Dr. James Hall, J. W. Dawson, the late Dr. J. S. Newberry, the 
late Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, C. H. Hitchcock, R. Pumpelly, of Amer- 
ica ; the late Prof. T. H. Huxley, Dr. Otto Torrell, and E. H. van 
Baumhaur, of Europe. Dr. Hall was made chairman of the com- 
mittee and Dr. Hunt secretary. Their labors resulted in the first 
international congress being held in Paris in 1888. The second 
congress was held in Bologna, the third in Berlin, the fourth in 
London, the fifth in Washington, and the sixth in Zurich, at in- 
tervals of three years. 

The geological map of Europe was conceived at the congress 
of Bologna, where it was determined that the methods of accom- 
plishing the ends of unification in nomenclature and coloring had 
become sufficiently understood. It was thought best to select 




The Grand Duke Constantinovitcii, President 
of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and Hon- 
orary President of the Congress. 



214 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Frof. a. Karpinsky, Director of the Impcriul 
Geological Survey aud President of the Bureau 
of Organization of the Congress. 

Messrs. Beyrich and Hauchecorne, 
direction at Berlin ; Prof. Renevier, 
retary; Messrs. DauLree, of 
France ; Giordano, of Italy ; 
A. Karpinsky, of Russia; 
Mojsisovics, of Austria-Hun- 
gary ; and Topley, of Great 
Britain. Professors Dau- 
br^e, Giordano, and Topley 
have since died. The scale 
of the map is one in one mil- 
lion and a half. It is divided 
into forty - nine sheets of 
18-89 by 20-86 inches. These 
sheets, when all are com- 
pleted, will form a rectangle 
11-04 feet high by 12-17 feet 
wide. The topographic base 
was prepared by Prof. Kie- 
pert, of Berlin. D. Reimer 
& Co., Berlin, are the pub- 



Europe as the subject of the 
map because it contained a 
great area, practically well 
known, the largest number of 
geologists, and included the 
greatest number of carto- 
graphical difficulties. Con- 
taining the largest number of 
geologists, representing many 
nationalities, it was conceded 
that any map which could 
pass their acceptance would 
stand any test of criticism 
elsewhere. The inherent puz- 
zles of structure in Europe 
furnished a fascinating series 
of difficult problems for solu- 
tion, long and zealously dis- 
cussed, with both natural and 
artificial intricacies. No bet- 
ter area to test the patience 
and tax the genius of the con- 
gress could have been chosen. 
The committee appointed to 
prepare the map comprised 
of Germany, with power of 
of Switzerland, as general sec- 




1)h. .Iames Hall, New York State Geologist. 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG, 215 



lishers at their own risk. The 
price of the work was fixed 
at 125 francs ($35). The vari- 
ous national committees sub- 
scribed and paid the publish- 
ers for nine hundred copies 
at the rate of 100 francs each. 
The map represents the com- 
pletest and most accurate 
geological information ob- 
tainable, and every step in its 
progress has been carefnl- 
ly taken, so that the result 
forms a consensus of Euro- 



last congress at 



pean opinion 

At the 
Ziirich, Switzerland, two 
propositions were submitted 
by Dr. Persifor Frazer, and 
the bureau was ordered to 
report on them at St. Peters- 
burg, as follows : 

" 1. To what extent does 
the congress recognize the right of 




Prof. 




The Late Prof. E. D. Cope, University of 
Pennsylvania. 



Peesifor Fkazer, Philadelphia Academy 
of Sciences. 

governmental bureaus as such, 
or of any kind of organiza- 
tions, to send representatives 
to the congress ? 

"2. Within what limita- 
tions does the congress rec- 
ognize the right of such rep- 
resentatives, or of only a por- 
tion of the members of the 
congress coming from the 
same country, to choose who 
shall be the vice-president 
representing their country, 
or to take any other steps in 
the name of their country 
without consultation of all 
of their countrymen, mem- 
bers of the congress ? " 

In these propositions is 
said to lie the future of in- 
ternational geological con- 
gresses. If government offi- 
cials are alone to represent 



2l6 



POPULAR SCIEJSCE MONTHLY. 




Prof. C. D. Walcott, Director, United States 
Geological Survey. 



were declared by the Swiss 
council alone eligible and 
representative, and were 
made vice-president and dele- 
gate from the United States, 
At present too many mem- 
bers of government bureaus 
comprise the official roster of 
the congress, although the 
congress itself is composed of 
several hundred of the most 
distinguished geologists of 
the world, who, if not mem- 
bers of a geological survey, 
are ignored by those now in 
control. This is a situation 
which does not commend it- 
self to scientific men, many 
of whom occupy chairs in 
great universities or emi- 
nent positions as specialists. 
These men think the abuse 
has become a flagrant one. 



countries and hold office, the 
congress at St. Petersburg 
may be the last. Formerly 
the officers of geological sur- 
veys of nations fought the 
establishment of the con- 
gress. The congresses once 
established, the bureaucrats 
changed front, got hold of 
the machinery through their 
representatives, and now 
mostly control it. At St. 
Petersburg the unofficial ge- 
ologists of the world will try 
to wrest the direction from 
the members of geological 
surveys. At Ziirich, for in- 
stance, there were present 
thirteen of the most distin- 
guished geologists of the 
United States. Two sala- 
ried assistants of the Unit- 
ed States Geological Survey 




J'u'iF. .1. .1. StI'.vknson, University of New York, 
President New Yorli Academy of Sciences. 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG. 217 



If there is an object for the 
congress to accomplish, it is 
to open its doors and honors 
equally to all geologists. It 
is thought that if the con- 
gress decides that only bu- 
reau employees enjoy ex- 
clusive privileges and alone 
constitute the personnel of 
the permanent organization, 
which keeps the organiza- 
tion alive in session and out, 
then the body has simply be- 
come a medium of ofhcialism, 
a governments' trust, and 
should be disbanded. As a 
trust, it will simply continue 
to extenuate errors and pre- 
serve the power of govern- 
ment survey directors. The 
independent geologists think 
the congress has been per- 
verted and diverted from its 
original high purpose, and that 



/ 



A 





Prof. B. K. Emerson, Amherst College. 



Prof. C. 11. Hitchcock, Diutmoutli College. 

the time has come to rescue it. 
They desire it to be the high- 
est tribunal of appeal on 
purely scientific matters. 

The protesting Americans 
are led by Dr. Persifor Fra- 
zer, of Philadelphia, who is 
an able linguist and parlia- 
mentarian. He will repre- 
sent the American Philosoph- 
ical Society, the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences, and the 
editorial staff of the Ameri- 
can Geologist. Prof. Giovan- 
ni Capellini (Italy), who re- 
cently received the Hayden 
medal and who will probably 
be decorated by the Czar at 
this congress, thinks the bat- 
tle against officialism already 
won. In a recent letter he 
states : " The committee of 
organization has the good 



2l8 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Prof. William N. Rice, Wesleyan University. 

tervening work of these 
committees has been adopt- 
ed, clause by clause. When- 
ever unsettled questions 
were announced they were 
either adjourned to subse- 
quent sessions, or discretion 
was granted to the commit- 
tees to mature their own 
plans. The committees have 
been remarkably successful, 
and no attempt has been 
made by them to force their 
conclusions on the con- 
gresses or introduce into 
the discussions the narrow 
partisanship of particular 
schools. Among the men 
who have been active in the 
unification of coloration are 
Profs. Zittel and Hauche- 
corne, of Germany; Prof. 
Thomas McKenny Hughes, 
of England ; Prof. Del- 



intention of returning the 
congress to the right path, 
in conformity with the ob- 
ject of its institution, hav- 
ing recognized that it has 
been entirely deflected from 
its path in Switzerland." 
While the committee's "in- 
tentions" may be good, it 
will require something more 
powerful to break down offi- 
cialism and restore the chair 
of a university to its equal- 
ity with a membership of a 
government bureau. 

Two international com- 
mittees have been at work 
for some years to secure a 
uniform nomenclature and 
coloration in European geo- 
logical science. At each ses- 
sion of the congress the in- 




Prof. N. II. WiNCHELL, University of Minnesota, 
State Geologist. 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG, 219 



walque, of Belgium ; Prof, de Lapparent, of France ; Prof. J. 
Szabd, of Hungary ; Profs. Delgado, Choffat, Bensaude, Goncalves, 
and de Lima, of Portugal ; Prof. Stefanescu, of Roumania ; Prof. 
Mayer-Eymar, of Switzerland ; Profs. Capellini and de Zigno, of 
Italy; Prof. Nikitin, of Russia; Prof. Stur, of Austria; Prof. 
Vilanova, of Spain ; Prof. Johnstrup, of Denmark ; Prof. Kjerulf, 
of Norway ; Prof, van Calker, of Holland ; and Prof. Torrell, of 
Sweden. 

The committee on the unification of the nomenclature of rocks 
comprises Knop, Zirkel, and Rosenbusch, of Germany ; Golliez, 
Hutenmal, and Schmidt, of 
Switzerland ; Renard and de 
la Vallde Poussin, of Bel- 
gium ; Behrens and Wich- 
mann, of Holland ; Macpher- 
son and Gonzalo y Farin, of 
Spain ; Bensaude, of Portu- 
gal ; Michel-Levy, Barrois, 
and La Croix, of France ; 
Teall, Geikie, and Judd, of 
England ; Brogger, of Nor- 
way ; Zujovis, of Roumania ; 
Lowinson-Lessing, of Rus- 
sia ; Tietze and Tschermak, 
of Austria-Hungary ; J. P. 
Iddings,Whitman Cross, and 
C. R. Van Hise, of the Unit- 
ed States; and Barcena, of 
Mexico. 

A committee will report 
on an exhaustive study of 
the changes which occur in 
glaciers, for which Prince 




Prof. Eugene A. Smith, University of Alabama, 
State Geologist. 



Roland Bonaparte is chair- 
man and pays the cost. It is composed as follows : Richter, of 
Austria; Fintswalder, of Germany; Reid, of the United States; 
Bonaparte, of France; Hall, of England; and Forel, of Switzer- 
land. 

The original American committee of the International Con- 
gresses has been somewhat decimated by death. It comprised 
Prof. James Hall, chairman, Albany; Dr. Persifor Frazer, sec- 
retary, Philadelphia ; the late Dr. J. S. Newberry, New York ; the 
late Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, Montreal ; Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, Han- 
over, N. H. ; Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, Newport ; Prof. H. S. Wil- 
liams, Yale ; Prof. J. P. Lesley, Philadelphia ; Major J. W. 
Powell, Washington ; the late Prof. G. H. Cook, Brunswick, N. J. ; 



2ZO 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Prof, J. J. Stevenson, New York ; the late Prof. E. D. Cope, Phila- 
delphia ; Prof. Eugene A. Smith, Tuscaloosa, Ala. ; Prof. N. H. 
Winchell, Minneapolis ; and the late Prof. James D. Dana, New 
Haven. Most of those above living will be present at St. Pe- 
tersburg, and are nearly all 
opposed to the control of 
the congress by bureaucrats. 
Through the eflforts of the 
former personnel of the Unit- 
ed States Geological Survey, 
the American committee was 
abolished at the Indianapolis 
meeting of the American As- 
sociation for the Advance- 
ment of Science, where the 
survey staff got temporary 
control. At the last meeting 
of the Association, at Buffalo, 
the following delegates were 
appointed to St. Petersburg : 
Prof. James Hall, Albany ; 
the late Prof. E. D. Cope, 
Philadelphia ; Prof. B. K. Em- 
erson, Amherst; Prof. C. D. 
Walcott, Washington ; and 
Prof. W. N. Rice, Middle- 
town. These delegates will 
soon be made a new Ameri- 
can committee, and their number materially increased in the near 
future. The delegates of the Geological Society of America will 
comprise Prof. J. J. Stevenson, New York University ; Prof. 
B. K. Emerson, Amherst College ; and Prof. I. C. White, Morgan- 
town, W. Va, 

All objects for exhibition bearing the address " Russia, St. 
Petersburg Exposition of the International Geological Congress,"' 
can go through without having to be submitted to customs in- 
spection at the frontier. Russian consuls everywhere have been 
instructed to vise passports of geologists presenting membership 
cards, which will also facilitate matters at the frontier. Mem- 
bers will receive a ticket of first-class transportation on all Rus- 
sian and Finland railways. The sessions of the congress will be 
held at the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 

Accompanying this article is a copy of the official map of the 
excursions offered to geologists by the Russian Government, 
which has made great sacrifices to entertain its guests. Over six 
hundred membership cards have been issued, in consequence of 




Pkof. II. S. Williams, Yale College. 



WORLD'S GEOLOGISTS AT ST. PETERSBURG. 221 

which the committee has decided to exclude from the excursions 
all who are not authors of geological publications. It is esti- 
mated that the restriction will reduce the number of excursion- 
ists to about two hundred people. The cost of the excursions, 
reduced to the mere maintenance of individuals, has been fixed 




approximately as follows : To the Urals, four hundred francs ; in 
Esthonia, one hundred and thirty- five francs; to Finland, fifty 
francs ; the great excursion after the congress, six hundred and 
sixty-five francs ; to Ararat, two hundred and seventy francs ; to 
the glacier Mamisson, one hundred and twenty francs ; to Elbo- 
rous or Sebastopol, forty francs additional to general excursion. 
Each of the smaller and special excursions have a price estab- 
lished, estimated at twenty-one francs per day. The committee 



222 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

will refund any overcharges made. These magnanimous reduc- 
tions in the cost of travel are due to the personal efforts of 
A. Yermolow, Minister of Agriculture, to the proprietors and ad- 
ministrations of the districts having works, and to the officers of 
municipalities along the routes of the excursions. 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE AND EDUCATION.* 

By IlKLEN KENDRICK JOHNSON. 

IN 1848 a Woman- Suffrage Convention, called by Mrs. Stanton. 
Mrs. Mott, and others, issued a "Declaration of Sentiments,"' 
which was an imitation of the famous Declaration of Independ- 
ence. It constituted an elaborate indictment of man as the 
oppressor of woman, and the suffrage leaders of to-day still hold 
to it as their broad exposition of principles. The seventh count 
in the indictment was, " He has denied her facilities for obtain- 
ing a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her." 

Among the resolutions passed in an early suffrage convention 
was one demanding " equal rights in the universities," and the 
first petition presented by suffrage advocates contained a clause 
asking that entrance to men's colleges be obtained for women by 
legal enactment. We note that this is far from being a demand 
for education for women equal to that given to men in the uni- 
versities. Men have founded colleges for women, men and women 
have worked together in securing for woman every facility and 
opportunity for education of the highest grade ; but the "barrier 
of sex" is not broken down in education. Bat few of the older 
colleges for men admit women, and those few, so far as I have 
learned from conversation with members of their faculties, speak 
of the arrangement as an experiment, and give the need for 
economy, combined with a desire to assist women, as a reason for 
making that experiment. Meantime the knocking at men's liter- 
ary portals by suffrage advocates has gone on as vigorously as if 
women could obtain education in no other way. 

In the first suffrage convention ever held in Massachusetts 
these two resolutions were adopted: "That political rights ac- 
knowledge no sex, and therefore the word * male 'should be stricken 
from every State Constitution " ; and " that every effort to edu- 
cate woman, until you accord to her her rights, and arouse her 
conscience by the weight of her responsibilities, is futile, and a 
waste of labor." 



* PVoin Woman and tVie Republic. By Helen Kendrick Johnson. In pre.s of D. 
Appleton & Co. 



WOMAN SUFFJiAGA' AIVB EDUCATION. 223 

The State in which these sentiments were uttered abounded in 
fine schools for girls, among which were Mount Holyoke and 
Wheaton Seminaries, 

A rapid survey of some of the educational conditions that led 
to the state of things existing when suffrage associations were 
formed will be in place. Learning seemed incompatible with 
worship early in the Christian era. The faith that worked by 
love was " to the Jews a stumbling-block and to the Greeks fool- 
ishness." That great battle between the felt and the compre- 
hended, which in this era we have named the conflict between 
science and religion, was decided in the mind of the apostle to the 
Gentiles when he wrote : " We know in part, and we prophesy in 
part ; when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part 
shall be done awaj''." He recalled the accusation, " Thou art 
beside thyself, much learning hath made thee mad," and he has- 
tened to assure the unlettered fishermen and the simple and de- 
vout women who were followers of Christ, that " all knowledge " 
was naught if they had not love ; that even faith was vain if it 
led to the rejection of the diviner wisdom that a little child could 
understand. 

The great learning of Augustine and the Fathers brought into 
the Church pagan speculations of God and morality, as well as 
pagan knowledge in art, science, and literature. The Church be- 
came corrupted, and a great outcry was made against the learning 
itself, which was falsely supposed to be the cause of the degenera- 
tion of faith. Symonds says that during the dark ages that 
followed upon this first battle between faith and sight, the mean- 
ing of Latin words derived from the Greek was lost; that Homer 
and Virgil were believed to be contemporaries, and " Orestes 
Tragedia" was supposed to be the name of an author. Milman 
says that "at the Council of Florence in 1438, the Pope of Rome 
and the Patriarch of Constantinople being ignorant, the one of 
Greek and the other of Latin, discoursed through an interpreter." 
It was near the time of the Reformation that a German monk 
announced in his convent that " a new language, called Greek, 
had been invented, and a book had been written in it called the 
New Testament." " Beware of it," he added, " it is full of daggers 
and poison." 

But the tradition of the love that book revealed had crept into 
the heart of the world, and now awoke. Through what struggles 
the "spirit of all truth" promised by Christ was leading, and 
would lead the world, the history of civilization can tell. Women 
shared in some degree the outward benefits of the revival of 
learning. They became in not a few instances doctors of law 
and professors of the great universities that sprang up, as well as 
teachers, transcribers, and illuminators in the great nunneries. 



2 24 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

I could give a long and honorable list of names of woman writers 
and artists, in many lands, from mediioval to modern times; and 
one of the interesting things revealed by such a record would be 
the number who were working with or were directly inspired and 
helped by a father or a brother. The court had some names of 
women who, like Lady Jane Grey, upheld the model of purity 
while taking the learning that naturally accompanied wealth. 
But elegant letters had again become the associate of moral and 
religious corruption in the courts, and the " ignorance of preach- 
ing "arose to combat it in Cromwell, the Roundheads, the Dis- 
senters, the Covenanters. 

Yet sound learning was not to die that Christian truth might 
live. Of the band of Pilgrims and Puritans that came first to our 
shores, about one in thirty was college bred. While subordinating 
book knowledge to piety, they had learned scarcely less the dan- 
gers of ignorance. Their first college was founded because of " the 
dread of having an illiterate ministry to the churches when our 
ministers shall lie in dust." Charles Francis Adams says, in re- 
gard to the establishment of Harvard College, " The records of 
Harvard University show that, of all the presiding officers during 
the century and a half of colonial days, but two were laymen, and 
not ministers of the prevailing denomination." He further says 
that " of all who in early times availed themselves of such ad- 
vantages as this institution could ofl:'er, nearly half the number 
did so for the sake of devoting themselves to the gospel. The 
prevailing notion of the purpose of education was attended with 
one remarkable consequence the cultivation of the female mind 
was regarded with utter indifference." 

It was attended with still another remarkable consequence, 
the effect of which is felt up to this hour. Only men who were 
fitted for a profession were given a college education. It is well 
within my memory when it began to be seriously said : " A col- 
lege education is good for a boy, whether he intends to follow a 
profession or not ; it will make him a better business man, or even 
a better farmer." The country girl is now, as a rule, better edu- 
cated than her brother. It also happened in those earlier days 
that the artist and the musician were expected to attain knowl- 
edge by intuition, save in technical branches. 

During the first two hundred years of our existence it would 
have been almost absurd to expect that women would be exten- 
sively educated outside the home. The country was poor, and 
struggling with new conditions, and great financial crises swept 
over it. There were wars and rumors of wars. Until after 1812- 
'15 American independence was not an assured fact. Whatever 
may be said of the present, woman's place in America then was 
in the home, and nobly did she fill that place. That she had not 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE AND EDUCATION. 225 

been wholly uninstructed in even elegant learning is evidenced 
by the share she took in literature and in the discussion of reli- 
gious and public matters, and in such personal records as that 
of Elder Faunce, who eulogized Alice Southworth Bradford for 
"her exertions in promoting the literary improvement and the 
deportment of the rising generation." Dame schools were early 
established for girls, and here were often found the sons of the 
farmer and the mechanic. These were established in Massachu- 
setts in 1635. Late in 1700 girls were admitted through the sum- 
mer to " Latin schools " where boys were taught in winter, and in 
1789 women began to be associated with men as teachers. In 1771 
Connecticut founded a system of free schools in which boys and 
girls were taught. In 1794 the Moravians founded a school for 
girls at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Here were educated the sisters 
of Peter Cooper, the mother of President Arthur, and many 
women who became exponents of culture. 

New England began before this to have fine private schools 
for girls, but no great step was taken until Miss Hart (afterward 
Mrs. Willard) had become so successful with her academy teach- 
ing in her native town of Berlin, Connecticut, and in Hartford, 
that three States simultaneously invited her to establish schools 
within their borders. She went to Massachusetts, but afterward, 
at the solicitation of Governor Clinton, of New York, she removed 
her school to Troy in 1821. It was a new departure, and there 
was ignorant prejudice to overcome. Governor Clinton, in an 
appeal to the Legislature for aid, said, " I trust you will not be 
deterred by commonplace ridicule from extending your munifi- 
cence to this meritorious institution." They were not deterred. 
An act was passed for the incorporation of the proposed institute, 
and another which gave to female academies a share of the literary 
fund. The citizens of Troy contributed liberally, and the success 
of an effort for woman's high education was assured. 

As early as 1G97 the Penn Charter School was founded, and it 
has lived until to-day. Provision was made " at the cost of the 
people called Quakers " for " all children and servants, male and 
female, the rich to be instructed at reasonable rates, the poor to 
be maintained and schooled for nothing." They also provided 
for "instruction for both sexes in reading, writing, work, lan- 
guages, arts, and sciences." The boys and girls have been taught 
separately, the girls' school being much behind the boys, neither 
Latin nor other ancient language forining a part of their curric- 
ulum. Friends are just beginning to discuss giving higher edu- 
cation to girls. This is a fact especially significant in our discus- 
sion, because it has always been claimed that the Quaker doctrine 
that "souls have no sex" led them to place woman on an "equal- 
ity " with man before other sects had thought of allowing that 

VOL. LI. IT 



2 26 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

they were equals. Lucretia Mott, Susan Anthony, Abby Kelley, 
and a great body of the women who adopted the resolution that 
set forth the uselessness of educating woman until she could vote, 
and who clamored for her entrance to men's institutions, were all 
of this sect that has kept its women generally far behind in the 
acquisition of knowledge. 

In 1845 Mrs. Willard was invited to address the Teachers' Con- 
vention that met in Syracuse. She prepared a paper in which 
she set forth the idea that " women, now sufl&ciently educated, 
should be employed and furnished by the men as committees, 
charged with the minute cares and supervision of the public 
schools," but declined the honor tendered her of delivering it in 
person. Sixty gentlemen from the convention visited her at the 
hotel, and at their earnest request she read the essay, which met 
with their emphatic approval of the plan she proposed. The em- 
ployment of women in the common schools and the system of 
normal schools were projected by her. 

A teachers' convention was held in Rochester in 1852. Miss 
Anthony, though a teacher, was not in attendance upon it, but 
she records that she went in and listened for a few hours to a dis- 
cussion of the causes that led to their profession being held in 
less esteem than those of the doctor, lawyer, and minister. In 
her judgment the kernel of the matter was not alluded to, so she 
arose and said, "Mr. President." She writes that "at length 
President Davies stepped to the front and said in a tremulous, 
mocking tone, "What will the lady have?" "I wish, sir," she 
said, " to speak to the question." " What is the pleasure of the 
convention ? " asked Mr. Davies. A gentleman moved that she 
be heard; another seconded the motion; whereupon, she says, 
" a discussion, pro and con, followed, lasting full half an hour, 
when a vote was taken of the men only, and permission was 
granted by a small majority." She adds that it was lucky for her 
that the thousand women crowding that hall could not vote on the 
question, for they would have given a solid " No." The president 
then announced, " The lady can speak." " It seems to me, gentle- 
men," said she, " that none of you quite comprehend the cause of 
the disrespect of which you complain. Do you not see that, so 
long as society says a woman is incompetent to be a lawyer, min- 
ister, or doctor, but has ample ability to be a teacher, every man 
of you who chooses this profession tacitly acknowledges that he 
has no more brains than a woman ? Would you exalt your pro- 
fession, exalt those who labor with you. Would you make it more 
lucrative, increase the salaries of the women engaged in the 
noble work of educating our future Presidents, Senators, and 
Congressmen." 

Several thoughts arise in regard to this scene, which was so 



WOMAJV SUFFRAGE AND EDUCATION. 227 

strongly in contrast with the conduct of Mrs. Willard or any of 
the great educators. Miss Anthony gave no reason for her belief 
that the entrance of woman upon the other professions would 
raise either the status or the wages of those engaged in the teach- 
er's profession, and as a matter of fact it has not done so. It 
was not the society that cast scorn at woman's " lack of brains " 
which assisted to remove the natural prejudice against her assum- 
ing duties that had been deemed unsuited to her physique and her 
necessary work. 

Meantime, one year before the Rochester meeting was held, 
the first college for women had been chartered at Auburn, N. Y., 
under the name of " Auburn Female University." In 1853 it was 
transferred to Elmira, and it was formally opened in 1855. It was 
placed under the care of the Congregational Church, but its char- 
ter required that it should have representative trustees from five 
other denominations. Its course of study for the degree A. B. 
was essentially the same that was then pursued in the men's col- 
leges of the State. It was expected to rely upon endowment, 
which put woman's education upon a new and more secure 
footing. 

Suffrage leaders lose no opportunity to represent the Church 
as an enemy to woman's advancement. Nothing can be further 
from the truth ; and in striking evidence stand the colleges, 
which, while unsectarian in spirit and in method, have been es- 
tablished and cared for by special religious denominations. Dr. 
Jacobi, in her book Common Sense, takes up the tale and says, 
*' The Mount Holyoke Seminary, the immediate successor of that 
at Troy, was opened in 1837 by Miss Lyon, in spite of the opposi- 
tion of the clergy." Many besides the clergy were opposed to the 
plan for which Miss Lyon was endeavoring to raise money. Her 
idea that the entire domestic work of the establishment could be 
done by pupils and teachers was thought unwise and hopeless; 
and it was simply this feature that they disapproved, not the 
school itself. In that noble school, where thousands of women 
have been educated, a great number have become missionaries. 
When a suffrage convention in session in Worcester wrote to Miss 
Lyon, asking her to interest herself in the wrongs of her sex, she 
answered, " I can not leave my work." Neither was Vassar Col- 
lege founded from any impulse or suggestion of suffrage agitators, 
but in a spirit exactly the opposite. The real impetus to its found- 
ing came from Milo Parker Jewett. He suggested to Mr. Vassar 
an endowed college for women, and visited the universities and 
libraries of Europe with a plan of organization in mind. Mr. 
Vassar gladly accepted this great enlargement upon an idea that 
had lain dormant in his own mind, and Vassar College was 
founded, Dr. Jewett becoming its first president in 1862. 



2 28 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

I may claim to have been beside the cradle of Vassar College ; 
for when Dr. Jewett resigned the presidency in 1864, my father 
named the successor, who was appointed, Dr. John H. Raymond, 
his lifelong friend. Dr. Raymond came to Rochester to discuss 
a plan of work, and, knowing my father's interest, I was on tip- 
toe to hear about the new college. At my earnest solicitation he 
and Dr. Raymond and President Anderson permitted me to be 
present at their discussions. I learned to comprehend the value 
of womanliness to the world by the estimate that those noble edu- 
cators put upon it. It was evident that they were arranging for 
those for whose minds they felt respect. They made no foolish 
remarks about the superiority, inferiority, or equality of the 
sexes, and had no contempt to throw upon the old education of 
tutor and library and young ladies' seminary. They did not sneer 
at the " female mind," but they did talk of the feminine mind as 
of something as distinct in its essence from the masculine mind 
as the feminine form is distinct in its outlines. To "preserve 
womanliness " was a task they felt they must fulfill, or the women 
for whose good they labored would one day call them to account. 
The dictum so frequently in the mouths of suffrage leaders, 
" There is no sex in brain," would have been abhorrent to them. 
In their view, there was as much sex in brain as in hand ; and 
the education that did not, through cultivation, emphasize that 
fact, would be a lower and not a higher product. They laid that 
intellectual corner stone in love, and in the faith that the same 
womanly spirit which, when there was not college education 
enough to go round, had said, " Give it to the boys, because their 
work must be public," would find, through the glad return the 
boys were making, a way to teach the world still higher lessons 
of womanly character and influence. Since that time college after 
college has arisen without a dream on the part of the founders, 
faculties, or students that " every effort to educate woman, until you 
accord to her the right to vote, is futile and a waste of labor," and it 
may well be that the women educated in these colleges will decide 
that, because political rights do acknowledge sex, therefore the 
word "male" should not be stricken from any State Constitution. 

Before the committee of the New York State Constitutional 
Convention in 1894, Mr. Edward Lauterbach, who was arguing in 
favor of woman suffrage, said : " It was only after the establish- 
ment of the Willard School at Troy, only after its noble founder, 
believing that women and men were formed in the same mold, suc- 
cessfully tried the experiment of educating women in the higher 
branches, that steps for higher education became generally taken." 
If Mr. Lauterbach imagines that Mrs. Willard was in the most 
distant way an advocate of woman's doing the same work as man 
in the same way, he is unfamiliar with her life and work. Mrs. 



WOMAJV SUFFRAGE AND EDUCATION. . 229 

Willard, in setting fortli her ideal of woman's education, said : 
"Education should be adapted to female character and duties. 
To do this would raise the character of man. . . . Why may not 
housewifery be reduced to a system as well as the other arts ? If 
women were properly fitted for instruction, they would be likely 
to teach children better than the other sex ; they could afford to 
do it cheaper ; and men might be at liberty to add to the wealth 
of the nation by any of the thousand occupations from which 
women are necessarily debarred." Old-fashioned wisdom, but 
choicely good. 

In a woman's club, last winter, a New York teacher. Miss 
Helen Dawes Brown, a graduate of Vassar College, founder of 
the Woman's University Club and also one of the founders of 
Barnard College, in a speech said in part : " The young girl who 
doesn't dance, who doesn't play games, who can't skate and can't 
row, is a girl to be pitied. She is losing a large part of what 
Chesterfield calls the ' joy and titivation of youth.' If our young 
girl has learned to be good, teach her not to disregard the exter- 
nals of goodness. Let our girls, in college and out, learn to be 
agreeable. A girl's education should, first of all, be directed to 
fitting her for the things of home. We talk of woman as if the 
only domestic relations were those of wife and mother. Let us 
not forget that she is also a granddaughter, a daughter, a sister, 
an aunt. I should like to see her made her best in all these char- 
acters, before she undertakes public duties. The best organiza- 
tion in the world is the home. Whatever in the education of 
girls draws them away from that, is an injury to civilization." 

At the close of an article in The Outlook, written by Eliza- 
beth Fisher Read, of Smith College, she said, speaking of their 
last adaptation of athletics : " From the beginning, the policy of 
Smith College has been, not to duplicate the means of develop- 
ment offered in men's colleges, but to provide courses and meth- 
ods of study that should do for women what the men's courses did 
for them. Emphasis has been put, not on the resemblances be- 
tween men and women, but rather on the differences. The effort 
has not been to turn out new women, capable of doing anything 
man can do, from walking thirty miles to solving the problems of 
higher mathematics. Instead of this, the college has tried to 
develop its students along natural womanly lines, not along the 
lines that would naturally be followed in training men." 

This sounds strangely like Mrs. Willard, who would be the first 
to rejoice in the new education and in the old spirit that it can 
develop. Of course, suffrage claims to have the same end in view. 
Every college woman must decide for herself where she will stand 
on the question. So far, there never has been any open affiliation 
between the colleges and the suffrage movement. 



230 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Tlie kind of education best suited to the idea of suffrage is a 
training in political history and present political issues ; but the 
women who have talked loudly and vaguely of the right of suf- 
frage for years have been the last to present such knowledge. I 
have read their History, attended their conventions, glanced at 
their magazines, but never have come upon the discussion of a 
single public issue. I think those most familiar with it will bear 
me out if I make the statement that their principal periodical, The 
Woman's Journal, edited by Mary A. Livermore, Julia Ward 
Howe, Mr. Blackwell, and Alice Stone Blackwell, has not contained 
any presentations of questions of public policy in the past ten 
years. 

One of the grievances of the suffrage leaders lay in the fact 
that the literary women of the country would express no sym- 
pathy with their efforts. Poets and authors in general were de- 
nounced. Gail Hamilton, who had the good of woman in her 
heart, who was better informed on public affairs than perhaps any 
other woman in the United States, and whose trenchant pen cut 
deep and spared not, always reprobated the cause. Mrs. Stowe 
stood aloof, and so did Catherine Beecher, though urged to the 
contrary course by Henry Ward Beecher and Isabella Beecher 
Hooker. In a letter to Mrs. Cutler, Catherine Beecher said : " I 
am not opposed to women's speaking in public to any who are 
willing to hear, nor am I opposed to women's preaching, sanc- 
tioned as it is by a prophetic apostle as one of the millennial re- 
sults. Nor am I opposed to a woman's earning her own inde- 
pendence in any lawful calling, and wish many more were open 
to her which are now closed. Nor am I opposed to the organiza- 
tion and agitation of women, as women, to set forth the wrongs 
suffered by great multitudes of our sex, which are multiform and 
most humiliating. Nor am I opposed to women's undertaking to 
govern boys and men they always have, and they always will. 
Nor am I opposed to the claim that women have equal rights 
with men. I rather claim that they have the sacred superior 
rights that God and good men accord to the weak and defense- 
less, by which they have the easiest work, the most safe and com- 
fortable places, and the largest share of all the most agreeable and 
desirable enjoyments of this life. My main objection to the 
woman-suffrage organization is this, that a wrong mode is em- 
ployed to gain a right object. The right object sought is, to 
remedy the wrongs and relieve the sufferings of great multitudes 
of our sex ; the wrong mode is that which aims to enforce by law 
instead of by love. It is one which assumes that man is the 
author and abettor of all these wrongs, and that he must be 
restrained and regulated by constitutions and laws, as the chief 
and most trustworthy methods. I hold that the fault is as much. 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 231 

or more, with women than with men, inasmuch as we ha,ve all the 
power we need to remedy the wrongs complained of, and yet 
we do not nse it for that end. It is my deep conviction that all 
reasonable and conscientious men of our age, and especially of 
our country, are not only willing but anxious to provide for the 
good of our sex. They will gladly bestow all that is just, reason- 
able, and kind, whenever we unite in asking in the proper spirit 
and manner. In the half a century since I began to work for the 
education and relief of my sex, I have succeeded so largely by 
first convincing intelligent and benevolent women that what I 
aimed at was right and desirable, and then securing their influ- 
ence with their fathers, brothers, and husbands, and always with 
success." 

Miss Beecher, like Mrs. Willard and Mrs. Phelps, made text- 
books for the use of her own seminaries, and her Arithmetic, 
and Mental and Moral Philosophy, and Applied Theology were 
among the educational forces of her day. It is one of the sig- 
nificant signs of the times that science and education, as well as 
philanthropy, are occupying themselves just now with childhood 
and motherhood and housewifery. Mrs. Willard's high ideal of 
womanliness is beginning to be set forth by the electric light of 
modern thought. 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 

By Dr. CHAELES EKNEST PELLEW. 
I. 

IN studying the history of alcoholic beverages we are at once 
brought face to face with the fact that there has hardly been 
a nation on the face of the globe which has not used some vari- 
ety of stimulant or narcotic. In almost every instance this has 
been some form of alcohol, and in a few cases where alcohol has 
been unknown, and tobacco, opium, hemp, or some other drug 
used in its stead, the introduction of alcohol has been followed at 
once by its use and, alas ! its abuse. A curious example of this is 
given in the account of Henry Hudson's famous voyage in 1609,. 
when he discovered the Hudson River. The Indian chief and 
warriors waited for him on the shore of Manhattan Island, pre- 
pared to sacrifice to the great " manito in red." He landed, with 
a few of his crew, and pouring out some rum into a glass, drank 
it to their health, and then passed a cupful round to the Indians. 
One after another they shrank from it, evidently fearing that it 
contained a deadly poison. At last one, bolder than the rest, 
drank it down, and soon began to reel and stagger, and finally 
fell. His companions were horror-struck. But soon he recovered 



232 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



himself, and described his drink in such glowing terms that they 
all begged and implored for their share, and, before Hudson left, 
they had all become intoxicated. 

In other words, there seems to be a natural craving by man 
for some drug which shall " drive dull care away," and, as alcohol 
possesses this power, it has been used from the earliest ages and 
is still being used by rich and poor, high and low, civilized and 
savages, in more or less complete disregard of the evil effects of 
overindulgence. 

The earliest historical records which have come down to us 
the sacred classics of China, India, Judea, and Persia all give de- 
tails about the use and abuse of alcoholic beverages. The Chinese 




Egtptian Vinetaed, with Kesekvoib of Water. (Wilkinson.) 

made use both of wine from grapes and of a beer made from rice, 
somewhat like the present saki of Japan ; and, if we can believe 
their writings, intemperance was not at all confined to the lower 
classes, but in many instances proved the disgrace and the ruin 
of the reigning dynasties. 

The Rig- Veda, or sacred books of the ancient Brahmans, give 
us many details about the Hindu drinking customs, which were, 
among the upper classes at least, closely connected with their re- 
ligious observances. The common people drank a variety of beer, 
known as sura, made from rice, barley, honey, and other ingre- 
dients. This was cheap and freely used for intoxicating pur- 
poses, and was, accordingly, in great disrepute among the priest- 
hood and rulers, who made most stringent rules and regulations 
against it. But they were full of the praises of the sacred wine, 
soma, made from the juice of certain plants, which, after fer- 
mentation, was offered as a libation to their favorite gods, Indra, 
Vishnu, and others. These deities were supposed to drink soma 
freely, and to be highly gratified at the resulting intoxication. 
These exercises were particularly pleasant because it was not 
necessary, in order to honor the gods, to pour out all the wine 
upon the altar, but the act of devotion might be equally well per- 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 



= 33 




Wjne Phess of iSIatting. (Wilkinson.) 



formed by the worshipers drinking the libations themselves. 
Of course, the pleasant after effects were considered as solely due 
to the divine favor, 
and not to any in- 
gredient common also 
to the vulgar sura. 

In the Bible we 
find frequent refer- 
ences to both the good 
and the evil effects of 
wine. In such marked 
contrast do some of 

these passages stand that serious effort has been made, by many 
well-intentioned moralists, to attribute all the favorable com- 
ments " Wine that maketh glad the heart of man," " Thou hast 
put gladness into their hearts since the time that their corn and 
wine and oil increased," and the like to unfermented grape juice 
or to the fruit itself, and to apply to the fermented juice, the wine 
of our everyday life, only the passages, so well known and so 
frequently quoted, of condemnation. Some grounds for their be- 
lief exist in the fact that two Hebrew words, yaijin and tirosli, 
occurring in the Old Testament, are both translated in the au- 
thorized version as "wine," although yayin is almost always 
mentioned with scorn and contempt and tirosh with approval. 
But this is not always the case. The substances meant by both 
words are condemned alike in a chapter in Hosea (Hosea, iv, 
2). And, furthermore, it is very doubtful whether the unfer- 




Pressing the Grapes and Storing the Wine. (Wilkinson.) 

mented grape juice is not mentioned under an entirely different 
word, debish, translated as honey. In that hot climate, with no 
glass jars and rubber stoppers in which the sterilized grape juice 
could be preserved, and with no antiseptics to delay or prevent 
fermentation, the fresh grape juice must have been at once boiled 



VOL. LI. 



-18 



234 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



down to a thick sirup, or it would have begun to ferment in half 
an hour. That is the present practice in Syria, and the resulting 
debs is used to this day as a substitute for honey or sugar for 
sweetening purposes. And our respect for the wisdom of King 
David and other great men of Judea hardly permits us to think 
that their enthusiastic language was used about a sweet, cloying 
sirup. 

There is no reason at all to doubt that the Greek word otvos, 
used in the New Testament, refers to the ordinary fermented 
wine ; and, on the whole, it seems evident that in both Old and 
New Testament the commendations and denunciations refer to 
the use and abuse of alcohol, respectively, rather than to any 
specific differences between the beverages employed. 

The ancient Egyptians at a very early date discovered the art 
of making barley wine, or, in other words, true beer, as well as 




V,<5i! r-^* *' . ' "^ fW ^trf -^ 0>* 3^- T5J 
Taking Wine like a Gentleman. (Wilkinson.'* 



grape wine. They have left evidences of this, not only in their 
writings and in the tales of early travelers like Herodotus, but 
also in several remarkable series of mural paintings found on 
their monuments. The most interesting of these are at the tombs 
of Beni-Hassan, where, some five thousand years ago, the Egyp- 
tian artists amused themselves by portraying the scenes of every- 
day life in a most graphic manner. We find there pictures of 
vineyards, with the vines carefully trained on trellises, and 
watered from artificial reservoirs. We find several varieties of 
wine presses some for treading the grapes, some for pressing the 
grapes by twisting them tight in a bag. We can see how they 
poured the fresh wine into jars for fermentation and storage. 
We can watch them drinking their wine like gentlefolk, in the 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 



235 





bosom of their family, with wife by the side and children on the 
knee. And, finally, we find pictures of them using wine like 
beasts men being 
carried home from 
supper on the backs 
of slaves ; women 
staggering round, 
hopelessly and in- 
decently intoxicat- 
ed. Verily "there 

is nothing new Un- After a Supper, (Wilkinson.) 

der the sun." 

The ancient Persian writings, the Zend Avesta, dating back to 
the period of Zoroaster, possibly 4000 to 6000 b. c, contain like 
the Rig- Veda many references to a sacred drink, homa, and a 
popular drink, hura. Wine seems to have been of somewhat later 
discovery, but, once introduced, proved extremely popular. The 
lowlanders, living in the rich, warm plains of Asia Minor, were 
especially addicted to its iise, and the temperate young prince 
Cyrus, coming down from the mountains with his Persian war- 
riors, found little difiiculty in routing the effeminate Medes. But 
the attractions of luxury proved too strong for them, and, in a 
few generations, both rulers and people had badly degenerated. 
The famous Xerxes, the Great King, the descendant of Cyrus 
and monarch of Asia Minor, left as his epitaph no great record of 
valiant deeds, but the sole fact that " he was able to drink more 
wine than any man in his dominions." Small wonder, then, that 
his forces were so easily routed by the Greeks. 

For, of all races that have yet appeared, the Greeks have 
been best able to use alcoholic beverages freely and yet with tem- 
perance. Their land was 
fertile and their crops 
varied, and they early 
learned how to prepare 
intoxicating drinks from 
barley, figs, the palm, and 
other sources. And their 
wines, especially those 
from the Greek islands, 
have retained their rep- 
utation, not for hun- 
dreds but for thousands 
of years. The vine was 
widely cultivated, and valued as one of the greatest gifts of the 
gods to man ; and yet, such was their respect for the human 
body and such their dread of injuring it by excesses, that we 




A Woman Intoxicated. (Wilkinson.) 



236 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



find that, in their golden age at least, alcohol was used and not 
abused. 

Their strongest drink, we must remember, was natural, unfor- 
tified wine, containing no more alcohol than our present clarets 




Sleeping Dionysos. (From Greek has-reliel' in the Cainpana Colleetiou.) 

and hocks. And yet they never drank it pure ; they always 
added water to it, or rather, added it to water. Some of their 
wines, the Pramnian and Maronian, for instance, were of such 
strong flavor as to be mixed in the proportion of one to fifteen 
or one to twenty parts of water. The average dilution was one 
to five, or one to four. When the young bloods of Athens had a 
supper party they would elect a " master of the feast," who sat, 
crowned with flowers, at the head of the table, and set the pace 
for the festivities. A very festive youth would sometimes at 
these occasions order the wine one to three, or even two to three. 
To drink wine unmixed well, that was imaKvOiaraL, to act like a 
Scythian, to be a beast and a barbarian. 

It is not to be supposed from this that drunkenness was un- 
known, but in the golden age of Greece it was both uncommon 
and despised. Drinking with them was different from drinking 
among other nations ; they drank for exhilaration, not for intoxi- 
cation. This can be recognized at once from the character and 
position of Dionysos, their god of drink, corresponding to the 
Roman Bacchus. No drunken debauchee was he. His statues 
represent him as a laughing, innocent child, as a beautiful, grace- 
ful youth, as a finely developed adult, and even as a gentle, re- 
fined, full-bearded man, the patron of literature and the drama. 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 237 

For Dionysos was one of the greatest gods of Greece. At the 
vintage in the autumn all was fun and jollity, and in his honor 
rude, humorous plays were acted by the country people. Hence 
developed the " comedy," so named from kw/xos, the country cart 
from which the actors at first held forth. In the spring, at the 
opening of the new wine, occurred the great Dionysiac festival. 
Every one flocked to Athens, from the countryside, from all 
Greece, from the whole civilized world ; and there, in the great 
Theater of Dionysos, the marble seats of which are still standing 
under the walls of the Acropolis, were acted the glorious tragedies 
of ^schylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the noblest masterpieces 
of ancient literature. 

But after Athens and Sparta, and later Thebes, had wasted 
their resources and exhausted their energies against each other, 
a new and fierce and semibarbarous race came down from the 
mountains and conquered the whole of Greece. Under the 
famous King Philip of Macedon the weak and scattered clans 
united, learned the art of war, and rapidly overthrew the more 
civilized and cultivated lowlanders. This marked the end of 
Grecian temperance. The Macedonian nobles were always heavy 
drinkers, and toward the end of his career they were encouraged 
in their habits by the king himself. 

Many stories have been handed down to us about the royal 
drinking bouts. One, which has passed almost into a byword, 




Dionysos, from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. 
(From The Antiquities of Athens, Stuart and Kevett. 1762.) 

relates to a famous philosopher, who brought a lawsuit, in 
which he was a party, up before the highest court, the king 
himself. The case was heard and the judgment given against 
him. "I appeal," shouted the old man. "Whom do you ap- 
peal to ? " said Philip, " I am the king ! " "I appeal," said the 
other, " from Philip drunk to Philip sober." And the next day 



238 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the case was heard over again, and decided in the appellant's 
favor. 

Another episode, which bade fair to have very serious results, 
happened the year before he died. He had recently divorced his 




Satyr punishing a Sailor, from the Chokagic Monument. 



wife Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, and was cele- 
brating his marriage to a new wife, Cleopatra. At the wedding 
banquet, where the wine flowed very freely, her uncle Attains 
made some insulting remarks about the young prince Alexander, 
who at once rose in his place at the table and threw a goblet at 
his head. This enraged the king, who sprang from his seat, drew 
his sword, and rushed at his son to kill him. But, in his rage and 
intoxication, Philip slipped and fell to the ground. Then Alex- 
ander, rather unfilially, shouted out : " See now, men of Macedon, 
this man, who is preparing to cross from Europe to Asia, can not 
step from one couch to another without falling I '' 

When Alexander came to the throne, a year later, the im- 
provement in manners was but temporary. At first, indeed, the 
young king, with his companions in arms, devoted all their ener- 
gies to affairs of state and war. Two years after he came to the 
throne he crossed the Hellespont, and with a small but picked 
army routed the vast, unwieldy hosts of the Great King. In a 
few campaigns he conquered Asia Minor, and even led his victo- 
rious forces into India. But with success came intemperance, and 
his brief and glorious career closed in disgrace. 

In the garb of Dionysos, accompanied by a band of drunken 
roisterers, he entered Carmania in triumph. At Samarcand, in- 
flamed by wine, he killed with his own hand his friend Clitus, 
who had saved his life at the battle of the Granicus. At Persep- 
olis, in a drunken frenzy, urged by dissolute companions, he set 
fire to the famous palace of the Great Kings, and although. 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 



239 



sobered by^the result, he urged his soldiers to the rescue, it burned 
to the ground. 

His most famous exploit in this line took place, during the 
last year of his life, at the tomb of Cyrus, near Pasargadae in 
Persia. He attended here the immolation of a famous Hindu 
philosopher, Calanus, who had followed him from India, and now, 
falling sick, burned himself alive on a great funeral pile. On his 
return from the ceremony Alexander asked many of his friends 
and chief officers to supper, and that night organized a great 
drinking contest, offering a gold crown to the victor. A young 
nobleman called Promachus took the first prize, with the respect- 
able measure of some fourteen quarts of wine, and others fol- 
lowed close behind him. But a cold wind came up that night, 
chilling the revelers to the bone, and Promachus and some forty 




MONADS IX A DioNTSiAC Frenzt. A great figure of this sort, with splashes of blood on the 
garments, was one of the chief ornaments in the Dionysiac Theater. (From the Cam puna 
Collection.) 

of his competitors died from the effects of cold and drunkenness 
combined. 

This course of life could not last long. His soldiers mur- 
mured, his officers grew unruly, his own strength failed ; and, in 
his thirty-second year, after a drinking bout that lasted for two 
days and nights, a sudden attack of fever ended his career. 



240 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Turning from Greece to Rome, we find the same general 
course of events. At first the Romans were a band of fierce 
banditti, fighting first for life, then for conquest, against the 
surrounding tribes. During the few hundred years that this 
struggle continued the Romans were a temperate, a painfully- 
temperate race. We read that wine was scarce and poor, and, 
such as it was, reserved exclusively for the men, and for men over 
thirty. Women were forbidden to use it under pain of death, 
for the alleged reason that it was an incentive to licentiousness. 
According to Pliny, this last law was by no means a dead letter. 
Women were obliged to greet all their male relatives with a kiss 
on the mouth, so that it could be told if they had been at the wine 
cellar. He quotes the case of one Ignatius Mecenius, who cud- 
geled his wife to death for this ofi:ense, about b. c. 700, and was 




Delivering Wine. (From a wall paintinfr at Pompeii.) 



pardoned by Romulus for the deed ; and he tells of another case, 
four hundred years later, where a Roman dame was starved to 
death by her relatives for similar reasons. 

Later on, when they had conquered most of Italy, wine be- 
came more common, and when the Roman arms reached Greece 
and Asia Minor the country was flooded with it. We learn from 
contemporary writers that manners and customs changed within 
one generation. Old Cato used to tell how, at his father's table, 
only common Italian wine was served, and. that sparingly, while 
the Greek wine was handed round as a great luxury in small 
glasses at dessert. And before his death one general, Lucullus, 
returning from the East, distributed one hundred thousand gal- 
lons of fine Chian wine to the populace. 

The later Romans cared more for their wine than for any 
other natural or artificial product of land or sea. Pliny mentions 
that there were one hundred and ninety-five varieties in general 
use, of which about eighty were of fine quality. Common wine 
was extraordinarily cheap and abundant, so much so that it was 
a jest of the poets that it was less expensive than water. Fine 
sweet dessert wines were imported in large quantities from the 
Grecian isles, Chios, Samos, Lesbos, Mitylene, and the rest. And 



THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL. 241 

the famous Italian vintages, the strong, fiery Falernian, the rich 
Massic, the sweet Alban, the Csecuhan, Setine, Pucine, and others, 
sung by Horace and Virgil and Lucretius, held the palm over 
all their rivals, and in many respects must have compared favor- 
ably with those of the present day. 

But most of them would have been spoiled for our tastes by 
the curious substances which were added to them, for flavoring or 
as preservatives. For instance, both in Greece and Rome it was 
a quite common practice to mix honey, and also various spices, 
myrrh and aloes and cloves. A more surprising admixture was 
that of salt water, which, in small quantities, one to fifty or so, 
was believed to greatly improve the flavor of fine wines. Indeed, 
most careful directions are given by the old writers about the 
quality of this salt water. It must be drawn from the ocean, 
some three miles from shore, on a calm day, when the sea was at 
rest. Another, and to us barbarous, habit was that of adding 
resin or pitch or turpentine, either directly to the wine, or by 
smearing the wine vessels before filling them. This is done in 
Greece up to the present day, and the modern traveler is asked in 
the taverns whether he wishes " foreign wine " or " resined wine " 

oivos e^oTiKOS or otvos peo-tvi^Tiys. 

In one respect they were fully our equals. They appreciated 
the value of age. We still, some of us, have our wine cellars, 
and " lay down " our wines for aging. We smack our lips over 
a glass of Chateau La Rose of '70, and think it old ; while " Stuy- 
vesant " or " Monticello " Madeira, from the beginning of the 
century, is doled out, on rare festal occasions, a few drops at a 
time, like a precious elixir. 

But in Csesar's day we hear of Hortensius, a well-known 
orator, leaving his heir ten thousand casks of good Greek wine in 
the cellar of his country house. Plump little Horace, always re- 
ferring to his poverty, can still write to a friend and ask him to 
visit him at his humble cottage, and take a glass of Falernian 
laid down " Consule Planco," some thirty years ago. His patron 
Maecenas used to give him wine Mar si memorem duelli that 
remembered the Marsian war, seventy or eighty years before. 
And we learn from Pliny that, in his day, there was still in ex- 
istence some of a famous " cru " of wine, made in the consulship 
of Opimius, some two hundred years before. This wine, we read, 
was only used for flavoring other varieties. It was thick, so that 
it had to be dug out with a spoon, and dissolved in water, and 
strained before using it, and when the cover was taken off the 
jar it emitted a delightful, powerful fragrance which filled the 
whole room. 

From the fall of the republic on, intemperance and licentious- 
ness increased in Rome with rapid strides. Nothing more was 

VOL. LI. 19 



242 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

heard of the old laws ; the women drank just as heavily as the 
men. All the writers Pliny, Juvenal, Seneca, Tacitus, Athenajus, 
and many more are full of bitter complaints against the prevail- 
ing habits. No order, no decency, was observed at their feasts. 
They rapidly became regular drinking bouts, where not only host 
and guests, but even the freedmen and slaves, drank themselves 
to unconsciousness. 

Prizes were commonly offered, at these, to the heaviest 
drinkers, and it was customary to use drugs to increase the 
normal capacity for liquor. A separate chamber adjoining the 
dining room bore the suggestive name of vomitorium. The 
emperors themselves did not disdain to encourage these orgies. 
Under Claudius a certain Caius Piso was promoted at court for 
drinking consecutively for two days and nights. One man, 
Torquatus, was actually knighted under the name of Tricongius, 
or " Three-gallon Man," for taking that quantum of wine, so it 
was said, at a single draught. The populace, the home army, and 
the court were all equally intemperate ; and it is no wonder that, 
when once the outer defenses of the empire were broken through, 
the rest collapsed and fell to pieces before the onslaughts of the 
hardier, even if no less intemperate, Northern races. 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Bt JOHN COTTON DANA. 

THE opponents of the system of free, tax-supported public 
schools never have been answered. That they are wrong in 
their position is not proved, as so many seem to think, by a sim- 
ple reference to the great growth and seeming success of the free 
public- school system and its attendant free public library system 
in this country. An institution may thrive, may apparently ful- 
fill the purpose for which it was designed, and may at the same 
time be working great harm to the people who have adopted it 
and maintain it and trust in it a harm which may become appar- 
ent only after a long series of years, and apparent at first, even 
then, only to the most careful observer. It is a familiar fact that 
a great change in governmental policy may not produce its full 
effect for many decades. We are still in the dark as to what will 
be the final outcome, and especially the final effect on character, 
of the free public educational system. 

The individualist opponent of that system says that the indi- 
vidual is the important thing. He contends that the individual 
is happiest when he has the maximum of freedom ; that he best 
develops when he most fully reaps the rewards of his own exer- 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 243 

tions and his own self-denials, and most fully receives tlie punish- 
ment of his own indolence and his own prodigality of his own 
failure to adjust himself to men and things about him. The mass, 
he says, may restrain the individual who would make an attack 
on others ; it may refuse to affiliate with the individual who does 
not do those things which it thinks he should do. For the mass 
to do more than this, he says, is so to restrict individual activity 
and to prevent the play of natural forces as to make impossible 
the development of the only kind of individuals that can form 
the ideal society. 

This is stating it crudely. It at least suggests, however, that 
the advocate of liberty has on his side some of the arguments 
gained from the study of biology and of history. The former 
seems to tell us that the fittest have survived in open fight that 
only by this open fight do those more fit appear ; the latter seems 
to tell us that the better government governs the least ; that the 
only wise thing the ruler, whether king or majority, can do for 
the social organism is to let it alone. 

If it is of doubtful expediency, then, for the sovereign majority 
to take from the individual by force the means wherewith to 
maintain a library for the pleasure and edification of all, it is the 
part of wisdom to see that that library is made, as far as may be, 
the sure antidote to the possible bane of its origin. It must 
teach freedom, by its contents and by its administration. It 
must cultivate the individual. It must add to the joy of life. 
Always it must truly educate. 

It is in the light of the preceding, perhaps rather doctrinaire, 
remarks that the following notes have been written and should 
be read. 

The public owns its public library. This fact sheds much 
light on the question of public library management. It means 
that the public library must be fitted to public needs. It must 
suit its community. It must do the maximum of work at the 
minimum of expense. It must be an economical educational 
machine. It must give pleasure, for only where pleasure is is 
any profit taken. It must change in its manner of administration 
with the new time, the new relations of books to men and of men 
to books. It need not altogether forget the bookworm or the 
belated historian, and it can take note here and there of the lover 
of the dodos and the freaks among printed things. But its prime 
purpose is to place the right books in the proper hands, to get 
more joyful and wise thoughts into the minds of its owners. The 
means of its support are taken by force from the pockets of the 
competent and provident ; this fact should never be lost sight of. 
It lives in a measure by the sword. It can justify itself in this 
manner of securing its support only by putting into practice the 



244 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

familiar theory tliat the state, would it insure its own continn- 
ance, must see that all its citizens have access to the stores, in 
books, of knowledge and wisdom. It must be open to its public ; 
it must invite its public ; it must attract its public ; it must please 
its public all to the end that it may educate its public. 

The old-time library was simply a storehouse of treasures. 
There were few to read books ; there were few books to be read, 
and those few were procured at great cost of labor and time. 
They could be replaced when lost or stolen only with great diffi- 
culty, if at all, and they were guarded with exceeding care. With 
the cheapening of book-producing processes the reasons for this 
extreme safe-guarding of books disappeared. Its spirit, however, 
is still active. Several causes have combined to keep it alive. 
Even to this day there are a few books, relatively very few, which 
are of great value and can be replaced only with extreme difficulty 
or at great expense. There are also books first editions, fine 
bindings, last surviving copies, and early specimens of printing 
which are rightly much prized by the artist, the antiquarian, the 
curio hunter, or the historian of handicraft. These are all most 
properly regarded as treasures, and are kept under lock and key. 
But the fact that there are a few books which should be carefully 
preserved from loss or injury is not sufficient cause for keeping 
up in these days a barrier between the public and its library. Set 
aside these greatly valued books and the few works highly prized 
for certain special reasons which the average library contains, 
and there is left the great body of modern books, not expensive, 
easily replaced, and of far more importance to ninety-nine in a 
hundred of any public library's constituents than all the book 
curios the world contains. In any save the very richest and 
largest libraries in this country the books which can not be dupli- 
cated at a reasonable cost have no proper place. It is with the 
modern, inexpensive works that the public library chiefly con- 
cerns itself. Its art publications and its rarities of every kind 
can easily be disposed of in safety vaults or private rooms. Its 
more valuable works of reference can be guarded from any prob- 
able mutilation by a little special service. Its main collection, 
sixty to eighty per cent of the average library, is what the public 
wishes to use. These form any library's real tools in its avowed 
purpose of aiding in the education of the community in which it 
is placed. 

The readers of books, moreover, are no longer few but many, 
and have greatly changed their manner of looking at books and 
the guardianship of them in the past hundred years. The tax- 
paying citizen to-day has his own daily or weekly paper, if nothing 
more, and knows well that a printed page is no longer a sacred or 
an expensive thing. He walks up to the shelves of the bookstore 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 245 

or to the counter of the news stand and selects his own reading, 
Tinder his own rules, in accordance with his own opinion of his 
needs, and after an actual inspection of what the shelves can 
afford him. He has learned, or is fast learning, that public 
library treasures are in the main treasures no longer ; that the 
only rational selection of reading is one made after the examina- 
tion of many books ; and he is beginning to demand that he be 
permitted to come in immediate contact with the volumes he is 
invited to read. The public library, whether it be a library which 
the people are taxed to maintain or a library which belongs to them 
by gift, must, so the demand goes, be managed with as much con- 
sideration for its patrons and with as much appearance of faith 
in their honesty as the ready-made-clothing house or the book- 
store. This demand is seconded by the new view of the functions 
of a public library ; it is, in fact, a part of this new view. The 
library is no longer looked upon as a storehouse of learning, to be 
used by the few already learned ; it is thought of as a factor in 
the growth of the community in wisdom, in social efficiency, and 
a factor therein second only to the public schools, if second even 
to them. It is accordingly widening its business of book distrib- 
uting by the addition of the powers possible to it as a laboratory 
of general learning. Of books it is as true as of the materials of 
chemistry, botany, or biology and even the non-literary, wayfar- 
ing man begins to see this that only by working among them 
and with them can one get out of them their real worth. The 
public to-day, in a word, sees the importance the absolute neces- 
sity, in fact of the laboratory method in that study of books 
which underlies, or at least accompanies, the study of all other 
things. 

In its attractiveness to the would-be student, not to mention 
the desultory reader, the library whose resources are open for 
examination and selection is far superior to the one which keeps 
its patrons on the outside of the delivery counter. The book 
buyer finds delight in a personal inspection of the volumes he 
would select from. It is by the unrestrained browsing through 
a score of inviting volumes that the student, whether beginner or 
expert, finds at last the one which meets his case. To all who are 
drawn, whether in ignorant questioning or in enlightened zeal, to 
visit a collection of books, the touch of the books themselves, the 
joy of their immediate presence, is an inspiring thing. Those 
who have had experience of both methods testify that the open 
library gives more pleasure, encourages reading of a higher 
grade, and attracts more readers than the library which is closed 
to the public. 

The cheapness of books ; the growth of the public's feeling of 
ownership in its library, and of the propriety of laying hands on 



246 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

its own ; a recognition of the great educational value of the labo- 
ratory method in library administration ; and the widening of its 
field of work which a library gains by the added attractions of 
free access to its shelves these considerations, save in certain 
peculiar cases, seem to decide the question of the proper policy of 
the public library toward its public. That more communities do 
not now demand the adoption of the system of open shelves in 
their public libraries is due largely to the conservatism of library 
boards, and to an unreasoning submission to authority on the 
part of the reading public. Even the enlightened are slow to ask 
for a right before they have exercised it and experienced its ad- 
vantages. 

These statements of proper library methods will seem to the 
reader who is not familiar with public library methods as they 
are, simple, commonplace, and self-evident. He may well wonder 
why one takes the trouble to repeat them in print. By way of 
justification it should be said that the manner of conducting a 
public library now in almost universal use in this country is this : 
Between the books and the would-be users of them is placed an 
insurmountable barrier. At this barrier stand librarian and at- 
tendants. The reader or student flounders about in a list of the 
library's books until he arrives at a guess it is often not more 
than a guess at the titles of the books he wishes. A list of these 
books he hands over the barrier to the attendant, and of them the 
attendant brings him the first one that happens to be in. Perhaps 
he wishes to make a study of some subject. Generally, in such a 
case, he must make out a list from a brief catalogue of the books 
which he thinks may help him, and of the titles of articles which 
he surmises will be useful in files of periodicals or proceedings. 
This list, handed to the attendant, brings him some of the things 
called for. Half of them are probably not what he expected, and 
he must try again. Always between him and the sources of in- 
formation the personality of librarian or attendant obtrudes itself. 
His wants must trickle over a library counter, and then must fil- 
ter through the mind of a custodian who is perhaps not very intel- 
ligent and is probably not very sympathetic, before they can be 
satisfied by contact with the books themselves. In a good many 
libraries a few reference books are placed where any one can 
reach them. But this is in most cases the limit of the concession, 
made to the demand for immediate contact with the library's re- 
sources. The new library in Boston has stored the most of its 
popular books, the books which the majority of its patrons most 
call for, in a dark warehouse, lighted only by artificial light, and 
reached, as far as the borrower is concerned, only by mechanical 
contrivances which compel a wait of nearly ten minutes for every 
book called for. The borrower can not see the books ; he can not 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 247 

even see the person who does see them. He must depend on lists, 
telephones, pneumatic tubes, and traveling baskets and this in 
the most expensive and most extensive and most lauded library 
in the United States to-day. 

What, now, the open- shelf method of administration being de- 
cided upon, should be the character of the building in which the 
public library is housed ? The storehouse idea must be discarded 
at once. What is wanted is a workshop, a place for readers and 
students, not a safety- deposit building. The men and women who 
visit the library and use it their convenience and comfort must 
be first consulted ; how the books are to be stored is another and 
a secondary question. Nor can the monumental idea be for a mo- 
ment maintained. The library, if it is to be a modern, effective, 
working institution, can not forego the demands of its daily ten- 
ants for light, room, and air, and submit to the limitations set by 
calls for architectural effects, for imposing halls, charming vistas, 
and opportunities for decoration. The workshop, the factory, the 
office building, the modern business structure of almost any kind, 
these, rather than the palace, the temple, the cathedral, the memo- 
rial hall, or the mortuary pile, however grand, supply the exam- 
ples in general accordance with which the modern book labora- 
tory should be constructed. It is a place, is this book laboratory, 
in which each day hundreds and thousands of visitors must, for 
ten minutes or as many hours, use their eyes in reading type of 
all degrees of excellence and badness. First, then, every sacrifice 
must be made to secure all possible daylight in every corner. It 
is a place, again, in which many of the daily visitors will wish to 
go, at the same time, to the same shelves, the same cases, the same 
alcoves, or the same rooms, and the same desks and tables. Space 
well-lighted, well- ventilated floor space then, should be given 
to the public with the utmost prodigality. There is no room left, 
unless economy in construction and administration be entirely 
disregarded for architectural display, except as it is the natural 
outcome of plans based primarily on utility. 

The power of a library lies first in its books. Up to a certain 
variable limit, varying with their character and with the time and 
the place, quantity of books is of first importance. As the library 
supported by compulsory taxation is justified only as it serves to 
make the ignorant citizen wise and the wise citizen wiser still, its 
first care should be for its supply of tools its implements for 
cultivating wisdom its books. The library building, as of the 
second and not of the first importance, should therefore be eco- 
nomical in its construction. It need not be, it should not be, 
penurious in its appearance. To a limited extent it may speak to 
the passer-by of the generosity of the community, of the respect 
in which its builders hold the business of education. But if solid 



248 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

and plain and manifestly adapted to the purpose for -whicli it is 
designed, it can not well escape the attributes of dignity, and, 
to the reasoning observer, of beauty. The magnificent pile, to 
which architect and trustee can point the casual passer-by with 
pride, which may awe the taxpayer into forgetfulness of the con- 
tractor's bills, this has no excuse. It comes, and it promises to 
come often ; but it is permitted by the populace in momentary 
forgetfulness of the public library's excuse and function, not in 
reasoned belief in the utility of bibliothecal palaces. 

The free public library building, large or small and of the 
college, university, or reference library the same may be said so 
constructed as to serve thoroughly well the purposes for which 
it is intended, exists in theory only. It may be possible to find in 
this country a few small libraries in which an honest attempt 
has been made, with moderate success, to grapple with the libra- 
ry building problem. In the vast majority of cases such light 
as experience in library administration is able to throw on the 
question of the proper internal arrangement of a library build- 
ing the proper distribution of expenditure in securing room, 
light, ventilation, and workableness has been simply ignored. 
Arguments drawn from utility, from comfort of readers and 
borrowers, and from economy of administration, have been set 
aside. Full rein often, the loose rein always, has been given to 
trustees' and architects' desires for architectural effect. This is 
the more strange because certain principles of library construc- 
tion are well understood and are no longer matters for debate. 

Convenient, economical, effective administration of a library 
calls for greater ease of access and facility of communication in the 
building used than does any other form of business, be it indus- 
trial, commercial, official, administrative, or religious. And this 
need for ease and speed in intercommunication increases rather 
than diminishes with the increase in the size of the library, and in 
the number of its patrons. Illustrations of how this general prin- 
ciple of library construction has been ignored may be easily found. 
To note the Newberry Library in Chicago and the Boston Public 
Library is here sufficient. Compare the accommodation possible 
for the busy and impatient patron and the busy and impatient 
patron is one of the patrons the modern library should especially 
strive to serve in these ill-adapted structures with that possible, 
with a few quite minor changes, in the modern tall office building, 
and the point is made clear at once. The whole monumental style 
of library architecture is almost of necessity the greatest of handi- 
caps on library administration. It may be said, of course, that 
it is sometimes advisable to erect first a noble monument, then 
to make out of it as good a library as its monumental character 
permits. Granted. But it should be thoroughly understood. 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 249 

when such a building is up for consideration, that it is a monu- 
ment, not a library. When our architects have fully seized the 
modern situation in its demands and its materials ; when the 
spirit which put up the lying exteriors of the Chicago World's 
Fair buildings, and thereby delayed our architectural emancipa- 
tion by many a long day, has begun to die out, it may be pos- 
sible to erect a thoroughly useful and entirely workable building 
which shall be in every part a library and also an artistic monu- 
ment. 

The point in the free public library to which the public comes 
in the largest numbers is the delivery counter. The public side 
of this delivery counter should be a room easy of access from the 
street, with cloak and toilet rooms near its entrance ; well lighted, 
that catalogues and lists may be easily consulted, and that the 
work of the assistants may be done in the main without artificial 
light; large enough to accommodate comfortably the greatest 
crowd the library expects ever to attract ; and so closed in that 
the talk and movement which necessarily accompany intercourse 
between visitors and the library staff will not disturb workers or 
readers in other parts of the library. A corner of this room, easy 
of access from the counter, should be devoted to the information 
desk, at which the stranger or the student will get prompt and 
courteous and full replies to all questions in regard to the library's 
methods and resources, and suggestions in regard to books or 
departments to be consulted on any specific topic. Near this in- 
formation desk should be the desk at which borrowers' or mem- 
bers' cards, permits, etc., are issued. In the delivery room, or in 
a room opening from it, should be the catalogue resources of the 
library. The delivery counter should be so constructed as to 
serve as an aid in the transaction of business as a means of com- 
munication, not as a barrier between the assistants and the public. 
Near to it and easy of access should be the books of the lending 
department ; nearest to it, those most used. If for good reason it is 
found necessary to forbid the public access to any part of the lend- 
ing department, it may prove advisable to place such part at some 
distance from the delivery counter, and to move the books to and 
fro by means of lifts, belts, or like devices. But any plan by 
which the attendant, to whom a request for certain books is made, 
is prevented from easy access to them, stands in the way of the 
library's educational work, especially where the would-be bor- 
rower is himself denied the opportunity to see for himself, in any 
department, the books he would select from. If a book asked for 
is not in, another of equal or greater value on the same subject 
may be in. The borrower, denied access to the shelves, should at 
least have, if he wishes it, the benefit of the attendant's knowl- 
edge of this fact. A delivery service made up largely of mechan- 



250 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ical contrivances may easily put into the hands of the public 
several thousand books in a day. It may serve a good purpose iu 
so doing. It may find its proper field in performing part of the 
book-lending work in any large library. But it certainly can not 
compete, from an educational point of view, with a service in 
which the attendant puts himself for the moment in the inquirer's 
place, and himself goes to the shelves with an intelligent interest 
in the inquirer's wants. 

Near the counter should be the catalogue room ; and the pri- 
vate official catalogue of the library should be open to the public, 
if possible. Such an arrangement saves much costly duplication. 
It is also desirable to have the information about the library's 
books which is stored up in the catalogue room made available 
for the public at short notice. 

Near the delivery room and not far from the main book room 
should be a special room for children, in which may be kept all 
juvenile literature, so arranged that the children may make their 
own choice from the shelves. This will prove a strong attraction 
to the young people, will increase their use of books of the better 
class, will free other parts of the library from the disturbance 
children necessarily entail, and will save time and labor at the 
delivery counter. 

The room for reference work, if the whole library is not 
thrown open for this purpose, must be not far from the main 
book room, must be near the catalogue, and should be near the 
delivery counter. It should be so planned that those who come 
to the library simply for a book, or to ask a question, or on sight- 
seeing, will not be compelled to pass through it. 

The retiring rooms and lunch rooms for assistants, the conver- 
sation or class rooms for special work, the rooms for rough work 
as mending or binding and the manual part of the preparation 
of books for the shelf the periodical room, and the newspaper 
room can all be placed at a distance from the library's real cen- 
ter, the delivery counter ; though the last two must be near enough 
to the reference room to make it easy for readers in the latter to 
consult the current numbers of magazines and journals. 

The office of the librarian in charge should be near to the 
delivery room, and preferably not far from either catalogue or 
reference room. 

The books in the public library should be selected with refer- 
ence to the people who will use them. The people who make use 
of the free public library are, sixty per cent or more of them, 
readers of little but the newspapers, the popular magazine, and 
novels. The reading room should supply, and generously, the 
newspaper and the periodical. The circulating department should 
put much thought and much energy into fiction. The fiction 



THE PUBLIC AND ITS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 251 

shelves, perhaps above all others, should be open to the public. 
If they are thus open, the question of how low in the scale of 
literature the library must descend in its selection of novels to 
attract as many readers as its income will permit it to supply will 
almost solve itself. Liberty to go to a collection of novels, em- 
bracing the best works of the best writers of all countries ai;d all 
ages, will be attraction enough. It will not be necessary to put 
on the shelves books of the South worth, the Roe, and the Mary 
J. Holmes school to draw to the library the ignorant and inexpe- 
rienced. Such readers are wedded to their literary idols, not 
because they find them best, but because they know no others. 
They will not often take the evidence of expert or of catalogue 
that there are other good novels than those of which they have 
heard from fellow-readers in their own walk in life. But the 
book itself of the unknown writer, placed in easy reach, with 
attractive title, cover, and illustrations, will prove irresistible. 
Liberty to see, touch, peep into, and taste the new and heretofore 
untried will set the known and the unknown on the same plane 
in the mind of the inexperienced ; and the unknown, if the better 
book and if selected with an eye to the library's constituency, will 
gain the day. The horizon of the inexperienced reader will, in 
such a library, soon widen. The devotee of mush and slush will, 
under her own guidance, following her own sweet will, almost 
unconsciously rise to a higher plane. She will be proud to think 
that she has found possibilities of pleasure in good authors whom 
she herself has had the wit to discover. The fiction list then will 
be long, but it will be select. Four to five thousand titles, many 
times duplicated, will cover the field. 

With the shelves open, with full liberty of choice given, the 
obliging attendant will be all the more appreciated. He will 
obtrude no opinions and no advice, but will be ready and able to 
give both, if asked, or if opportunity offers. He will be supple- 
mented with catalogues. And just as the library will make its 
fiction department the department in which it will first reach, by 
which perhaps it can alone reach, from sixty to eighty per cent 
of its visitors the most attractive and most carefully adminis- 
tered of all, so will it for this department best equip itself with 
aids and guides. It will have here catalogues of the most varied 
kinds special lists, descriptive lists, like those of Griswold ; his- 
torical lists, like that of the Boston Public Library ; annotated 
lists, like that of the San Francisco Public Library ; critical jour- 
nals; and books and essays on the novel, its development and 
uses. In addition to all these things, it will tell the inquirer in 
which novels he can find set forth great historical characters and 
the prominent personages of fiction ; in which he will find de- 
scriptions of notable scenes and historical events ; in which are 



252 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

found rare psychological analyses, striking descriptions that have 
become part of the everyday life of the cultivated ; and discus- 
sions of social, political, and religious questions; and which 
novels will best tell him of life in this city, in that country, on 
the sea. In a word, the public's free public library will recog- 
nize at last the public's demand for the novel ; will not attempt 
to excuse it, to hide it, to make light of it, or to counteract it ; 
but will make use of it as an educational force in itself, and as a 
point of departure to more serious things. The novel reader is 
not a hopeless case. If he be a confirmed novel reader and noth- 
ing more, he has at least the reading habit, and in his youth can 
in most cases be led from that habit to question and to think. 

The reference room of the free public library is in some sort 
already here. Not a few libraries recognize the reasonableness 
of a demand on the public's part for access to dictionaries, ency- 
clopaedias, atlases, gazetteers, and the like. Under the modern 
view the whole library becomes, of course, a great reference 
room. But the reference department proper, even in the modern 
public library, should contain ample accommodations in the way 
of desks, tables, writing materials, etc., for the casual inquirer or 
the student. 

In other departments the wants of the reader, the beginner 
in learning, should be first supplied, books for the specialist 
being added as rapidly and to as great an extent as actual 
demand makes advisable and funds in hand make possible. No 
money should be expended on mere literary curios or on histor- 
ical knickknacks. The historical society and the antiquarian can 
look after these things, and should not have the public purse for 
their competitor. 

In accordance with the general spirit of the open-shelf method 
of administration, great liberality should be shown in the issuing 
of library cards. To the library itself for purposes of reference 
every one who applies will, of course, be admitted, so he be clean 
and reputable in appearance. To become an accredited borrower 
of books from the library one should be asked to do no more 
than sign some simple form of agreement. This, in addition to 
the information which can be obtained from a few questions put 
by librarian or assistants, with perhaps a reference to the city 
directory, has proved to be enough in actual practice to prevent 
the issuing of cards to people who wish them simply to make 
way with the library's books. In spite of this fact, the custom 
still holds in most libraries of demanding not only the signature 
of the person who wishes to become a borrower to an elaborate 
contract this signature to be written at the library itself but 
also the signature of some accredited citizen who agrees to be- 
come responsible for the borrower himself. This is entirely 



SCIENCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. 2^3 

unnecessary. The additional clerical work involved in tlie keep- 
ing of the two sets of names of borrowers and guarantors of bor- 
rowers, together with the labor necessitated by looking them up 
in directories and elsewhere, will cost more, save in very excep- 
tional cases, than will the books which may be lost through the 
adoption of extreme liberality in the issuing of borrowers' cards. 
The people's money in this part of its library's administration, as 
in every other, should be spent rather in extending and making 
more easily accessible to the average citizen the library's re- 
sources than in setting barriers of red tape between the books 
and the people who own them and wish to use them. 







SCIENCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. 

By M. p. E. M. BEETHELOT. 

THE part performed by science in the general education of the 
human mind and the progress of civilization has been often 
misconceived by pedagogues, hedged in as they are by the tradi- 
tional formulas of classical teaching. I recollect having heard a 
conversation some twenty-five years ago between Duruy, then 
Minister of Public Instruction, and a general school inspector, in 
which Duruy spoke of the importance of the experimental sci- 
ences and the necessity of giving them a larger place in the 
school course. The inspector, proof against general ideas, and 
despising utilitarian results, the importance of which he could 
not comprehend, saw nothing in this but a kitchen school, good at 
most to teach future dealers in petroleum and coal. It would not 
be hard to find similar opinions among some of the blind parti- 
sans of classical instruction founded on the study of Greek and 
Latin. 

Yet, if the material conditions of human life have been 
changed if the accumulation of capital and the increase of the 
productive force of man's labor have gradually added to the gen- 
eral ease and given workmen a relative independence and rights 
which they did not formerly possess, and which are extending 
every day for the good of the race such advance, we should 
never cease to recollect, is not due to literary studies or scholastic 
or religious or philosophical discussions, but is attributable essen- 
tially to the growth of science and to the increase of general 
wealth brought about by it. 

This immense development of wealth and industry, as well as 
the correlative development of the liberal and democratic spirit, 
are due, we declare loudly, to the discoveries of modern science. 
If the supply of food at the disposal of the human species goes on 



2 54 POPULAR^ SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

continually increasing, it is not by the effect of logical reasoning 
or theological declamation, but by the necessary results of discov- 
eries in chemistry, mechanics, and physiology, which have already 
transformed agriculture and will transform it still further in a 
near future. However slowly peasants may change their tradi- 
tional practices, we have taught them how to get from a field in 
a given time, with the same amount of labor and expenditure, a 
much larger quantity of wheat than the field formerly produced, 
and we are, in this matter, still very far from the goal that sci- 
ence permits us to set before ourselves. It is in consequence of 
the progress of science that everybody, or nearly everybody, in 
France now eats the white bread which formerly only richer peo- 
ple could get. The number of cattle we raise in our pastures has 
increased in no less proportion during the past two centuries, and 
always by the application of methods created by science ; and, by 
virtue of what those methods have accomplished, animal food has 
been made accessible to our workmen and peasants, to whom it 
was unknown sixty years ago. By virtue of discoveries in chem- 
istry, sugar, a rare and exceptional luxury in the last century, is 
now produced in colossal quantities, and has become one of the 
usual foods of the people. It would be easy to extend indefinitely 
this enumeration of the ameliorations of the conditions of life 
achieved through science. 

Now all these advances, I repeat, are not due to dialectic or lit- 
erary discussions, but to the positive discoveries of the physical, 
mathematical, and natural sciences. I do not mean merely prac- 
tical discoveries made empirically, but the chief part of this prog- 
ress is attributable to the highest theoretical conceptions of the 
positive sciences. Thus all the modern industries of metals, 
stones, wood, work in materials of every sort, rest upon the gen- 
eral discoveries of chemistry and mechanics. So with the im- 
mense development of ways of communication, which every one 
admires and acknowledges has opened indefinite domains to com- 
merce and industry. It has permitted a general distribution of 
products and wealth among all civilized peoples, while it has at 
the same time tended toward a certain continuity of the ideas 
and the intellectual and moral education of the nations. The 
last is a capital point, for it is the fundamental characteristic of 
science to belong particularly to no sect and no nationality, and 
to be the general domain of mankind. 

It is important to recollect how this distribution in common 
of all the resources of the globe, which has resulted from the 
development of the ways of communication, has been realized. 
We should never forget that it is through the discoveries of 
astronomy that the course of ships across the ocean is directed 
with certainty, and that the general plan and detailed map of the 



SCIENCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. 255 

continents and islands can be traced with an exactness hitherto 
unknown; that the findings of modern physics have revealed 
the theoretical laws of vapors and thermodynamics, which are 
applied daily to supplement and multiply man's labor in all in- 
dustries ; that the discoveries of chemistry respecting gases, com- 
bustion, and the preparation of iron and steel, added to the inven- 
tions of rational and applied dynamics, control the fabrication and 
operation of our machines, ships, and locomotives. In short, these 
marvelous advances have been accomplished through science 
alone, and not through a blind empiricism. I will not here dwell 
upon the wonderful facilities that have been given to life by such 
subtle discoveries of the physics of our time as the electric tele- 
graph, the telephone, photography, and electric lighting ; and I 
only refer by way of a reminder to the complete modification of 
the conditions of war effected through the very recent discoveries 
of science concerning explosive matters. I can not, however, pass 
in silence over the prolongation of human life, the mean duration 
of which has been doubled among civilized peoples during the past 
two centuries by the discoveries of physiology, hygiene, and medi- 
cine, in which some new advance is marked nearly every day. 

All this progress and all this transformation of life have not 
been accomplished and will not be continued by chance or acci- 
dent, but are the fruits of modern science. And this is why pub- 
lic opinion is every day demanding an increasing intervention of 
the methods and teaching of science in public instruction. This 
participation is, furthermore, not destined to be for the profit of 
the community alone, but by a necessary consequence is prima- 
rily profitable for individuals to whom, prepared by scientific 
instruction in their secondary education, it is all the time opening 
new professional careers. 

While the necessity of science in secondary education is thus 
demonstrated by the most imperative reasons from the material 
and social point of view, it must not be supposed that science is 
less well adapted to the mental and moral education of the indi- 
vidual, and that it can not form minds capable of elevated concep- 
tions and develop good citizens. 

There are two courses in science corresponding to different 
aptitudes, but not contradictory the mathematical course, deduc- 
tive and rational, and the physical and naturalistic direction, 
founded on observation and experiment, combined with reason. 
Mathematics gives the young man a clear idea of demonstration 
and habituates him to form long trains of thought and reasoning 
methodically connected and sustained by the final certainty of the 
result ; and it has the further advantage, from a purely moral point 
of view, of inspiring an absolute and fanatical respect for the 
truth. In addition to all this, mathematics, and chiefly algebra and 



256 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

infinitesimal analysis, excite to a liigh degree the conception of 
the signs and symbols necessary instruments to extend the power 
and reach of the human mind by summarizing an aggregate of 
relations in a condensed form and in a kind of mechanical way. 
These auxiliaries are of especial value in mathematics, because 
they are there adequate to their definitions, a characteristic which 
they do not possess to the same degree in the physical and mathe- 
matical sciences. There are, in fact, a mass of mental and moral 
faculties that can be put in full play only by instruction in math- 
ematics ; and they would be made still more available if the teach- 
ing was directed so as to leave free play to the personal work of 
the student. Mathematics is the indispensable instrument of all 
physical research. But the physical sciences introduce new and 
most important elements into education. They rest chiefly upon 
other methods than mathematics, the teaching of which con- 
tributes to the evolution of the child and the manifestation in 
him of new faculties no less essential, mentally and morally. I 
mean the faculties of observation and experiment, the object of 
which is the knowledge of Nature, a thing which, different from 
geometry, is not acquired by reasoning. In the physical sciences 
we are slaves to a truth which is exterior to us and which we can 
not know except by observing it. The teaching of facts is worth 
most here, and should be given from the tenderest infancy. On 
this side, scientific teaching, and especially natural history, are 
necessarj'' from the first years of secondary instruction, and it is a 
great mistake, I believe, to postpone it till the later years of study. 
Nothing is more suggestive or better fitted to develop the taste for 
the knowledge of things and for comparing them than the study 
of zoology and botany. Children acquire very early the fancy for 
collections, and morphological notions, so useful for the develop- 
ment of the arts and sciences, enter their young minds, we might 
say, insensibly and without forcing. They acquire at the same 
time the general idea of classification, which plays a very impor- 
tant part in all human knowledge, and the still more general one 
of the harmonious combination of organic systems into living 
beings. A delicate aesthetic sentiment thus gently insinuates 
itself into their minds. 

In order that the elements of the natural sciences may have 
their full educational virtue, it is indispensable that they shall 
not be presented to children under the form of arid nomencla- 
tures, dictated and learned by heart as a kind of task ; a method 
very well fitted to give them a disgust for these sciences, which 
are, on the other hand, really most interesting and most entertain- 
ing. The teaching of natural history should be based on the sight 
of the objects themselves. 

The teaching of the experimental sciences, such as physics and 



SCIENCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION 257 

chemistry, should follow. It can not well be given before the 
period of youth, and should be associated with at least an elemen- 
tary degree of knowledge of mathematics. Such teaching, prop- 
erly presented, is adapted in the highest degree to shaping the in- 
telligence and morals of the young man ; because it furnishes him 
at once the precise idea of positive truth, that of the fact proved 
a posteriori, and the most general notion of natural law, or the 
relation between particular facts, which is determined not by rea- 
son or dialectics but by observation. Truth thus imposes itself 
with the irresistible force of an objective necessity, independently 
of our desires and our will. Nothing is better adapted than such 
demonstration to give the mind that modesty, seriousness, stead- 
fastness, and clearness of convictions which raise it above the 
suggestions of vanity or personal interest, and are closely con- 
nected with the idea of duty. The habit of reasoning and reflect- 
ing on things, inflexible respect for the truth, and the obligation 
of always yielding to the necessary laws of the external world, 
communicate an indelible stamp to the mind. They accustom it 
to respect the laws of society as well as those of Nature, and to 
conceive of the rights of another and respect for him as a form, 
of one's own duty and of his own personal independence. 

Thus science plays a most important part in the mental and 
moral education of man. Besides forming useful citizens it 
makes men free from the prejudices and superstitions of former 
times. It teaches them how to combat the fatal forces of Nature 
by labor and will power, resting on the knowledge and direction 
of the natural laws, rather than by mystic fancies. Hence science 
forms free spirits, energetic and conscientious, more efficaciously 
than any literary and rhetorical direction. When scientific edu- 
cation shall have produced all its effects, politics too will be trans- 
formed, as industry has already deeply been. Both will become, 
to use a familiar term, experimental. 

Furthermore, and contemporaneously with this recognition of 
the laws of phenomena, observation and experiment give power 
over Nature. Through this fact, more than any other, youth can 
be engaged and drawn by an unconquerable enthusiasm into a 
really scientific education. To control physical and moral evil in 
industrial as well as economical life, to strive to diminish suf- 
fering, poverty, and misery of every kind, and to make the effort 
by virtue of the immanent laws of things, was the generous aim 
of philosophers of the eighteenth century, and they depended upon 
scientific conceptions, as they unceasingly proclaimed, for the at- 
tainment of it. The same end should be sought in our new edu- 
cation, and thereby science will become fully educational. 

Scientific education has therefore its own peculiar virtue, and 
it is by a deep misconception of its character and effect that the 

TOL. LI. 20 



258 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

assumption has been made of reserving the monopoly of the full 
development of the mind for literary instruction. Literary edu- 
cation has hitherto found its highest and most efficient formula 
in the teaching of the ancient languages. The teaching of the 
modern languages is less efficient because modern literary culture 
was derived from ancient culture, and is still, in principle at least, 
subordinate to it. However brilliant and original our modern 
systems may be, they have not produced, in either literature or 
the arts, superior models to those of ancient, particularly Greek, 
culture. So far, then, as the essential object proposed in secondary 
instruction is the formation of cultivated minds, there is no rea- 
son for expecting equivalent results from the simple substitution 
of the teaching of living for that of the ancient languages. But 
a purely literary teaching, even if it preserves its form and inten- 
tion, does not adequately meet the needs of modern societies. 
Everybody, even the most enthusiastic partisans of literary stud- 
ies, demands the addition of a certain amount of scientific teach- 
ing as a subordinate affair, comprising at least the elements of 
the sciences, to which no cultivated man of our age has a right to 
remain a stranger, whatever place he may propose to take in so- 
ciety. We may go still further, for it is certain that the formula 
of classical literary teaching, even as thus comprehended, is not 
adequate to all the careers and fundamental needs of our period. 
A very large number of citizens demand another discipline, based 
on a more thorough knowledge of the sciences, which have be- 
come indispensable for practical life, as well as for the general 
direction of society. Human society does not live on art and 
literature alone, as it once did ; it now lives more on science and 
industry. Hence the necessity for a scientific not less than for a 
literary teaching, not only from the practical point of view but 
also from that of mental and moral culture, and these should be 
given parallel with one another. This scientific teaching should 
not be exclusive any more than the literary teaching ; and it 
should be complemented by a subordinate literary teaching to 
which no cultivated man should be a stranger. The ancient lan- 
guages are not indispensable for the realization of this special 
kind of literary teaching, because it no longer constitutes the fun- 
damental object of the new organism. 

Two parallel courses of instruction, endowed with the same 
prerogatives one founded essentially on ancient letters, with the 
addition of some scientific culture ; and the other based on sci- 
ence, to which some modern literary culture is added that ap- 
pears to me the most desirable formula of our time, and that to 
which we are destined to be led by the force of events. Trans- 
lated for the Popular Science Monthly from the author's hook, Sci- 
ence et Morale. 



SKETCH OF RICHARD OWEN. 259 

RICHARD OWEN.* 

By President DAVID S. JORDAN. 

EIGHTY years ago in America the feeling was becoming gen- 
eral that the age of competition was past, and that a new 
social and industrial era was about to begin. Benjamin Franklin 
held that if every man and every woman should work for three 
hours a day at something useful, poverty would be banished, and 
each one might spend every afternoon of his days and the whole 
afternoon of his life amid the consolations of philosophy, the 
charms of literature, or the delights of social intercourse. In 
the words of Robert Dale Owen: "Every one looked forward to 
the time when riches, because of their superfluity, would cease to 
be the end and aim of man's thoughts, plottings, and lifelong 
strivings ; when the mere possession of wealth would no longer 
confer distinction any more than does the possession of water 
than which there is no property of greater worth.'' 

William Maclure, a wise man and a learned geologist in those 
days, refused to invest money in the city of Philadelphia, giving 
as a reason that " land in cities can no longer rise in value. The 
community system must prevail, and in the course of a few years 
Philadelphia must be deserted, and those who live long enough 
may come back here and see the foxes looking out of the win- 
dows." 

It is not strange, therefore, that Robert Owen, of Lanark, 
fresh from contact with the reforms in the Old World, and full 
of projects for the development of the New, found in William 
Maclure an ardent disciple and active co-worker. 

Owen and Maclure did not overestimate the power of co-opera- 
tion in the struggle of humanity with Nature, but they did over- 
look the fundamental law of Nature that co-operation means work- 
ing together, and equality of reward must imply some degree of 
equality of effectiveness. "The fatal error" of the New Har- 
mony Community, according to Robert Dale Owen, lay in their 
failure to recognize this law. No " industrial experiment," he 
continues to say, " can succeed which proposes equal remuneration 
to all men, the diligent and the dilatory, the skilled artisan and 
the common laborer, the genius and the drudge. . . . Such a plan 
of remunerating all alike will ultimately eliminate from a co- 
operative association the skilled and industrious members, leav- 
ing an ineffective and sluggish residue, in whose hands the ex- 
periment will fail, both socially and pecuniarily." In other words, 

* So far as I know, Dr. Richard Owen, of New Harmony, was not related to the famous 
comparative anatomist in London who bore the same name. 



26o POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

no comnmnity can succeed in which the drones and the workers 
have equal access to the honey cells. 

But though the project at New Harmony, judged by the meas- 
ure of its founder's purposes, was a failure, still the influence for 
good of the men who, as a result of the experiment, became part 
of the life of the infant State of Indiana, is incalculable. New 
Harmony was located far in the backwoods, in the long- despised 
county of Posey, but for a time it was truly the center of Ameri- 
can science, and to this day few names in the annals of our 
science are brighter than those of Le Sueur, Say, and the Owens. 

To gain a just appreciation of the scientific career of Richard 
Owen we must consider for a moment the lives of the men of 
science whose dreams and projects he shared, and who were the 
companions of his youth. It was through the agency of William 
Maclure that most of these were drawn to New Harmony. Mac- 
lure was a geologist of note and an earnest student of social 
science. On leaving Philadelphia he planned to conduct at New 
Harmony a school of industry where the arts of the conquest of 
Nature should be taught to all. The essence of human progress, 
in his thought, was the increase of human knowledge. The 
farmer should cease to be a mere tiller of the soil, and should be 
trained to make the earth his benefactor. A man is better unborn 
than untrained. An unskilled laborer is a deformity, and they 
who toil should do so to the best advantage. 

William Maclure published fortnightly at New Harmony a 
magazine called The Disseminator of Useful Knowledge, contain- 
ing Hints to the Youth of the United States, from the School of 
Industry. Its motto was, " Ignorance is the frightful cause of 
human misery." Its subscription price was one dollar a year in 
advance. 

This magazine was filled with wise reflections on social and 
political matters, having for lighter reading scraps of science and 
bits of useful information of every sort. 

In the pages of the Disseminator the name of Thomas Say 
often appears. Say wrote on the shells of the Wabash. He fol- 
lowed Maclure from Philadelphia, and came down from Pittsburg 
in a keel boat, along with the notable company famous in the 
New Harmony Community as the " boat-load of knowledge." 

Thomas Say had been with Long's expedition across the Rocky 
Mountains, and had already won fame as a naturalist and traveler. 
His papers on shells and insects were widely known. These in- 
vestigations he continued at New Harmony. A close and con- 
scientious observer, his work bears the stamp of a master mind. 
At his death in 1835 it was asserted that " he had done more to 
make known the zoology of this country than any other man." 
With a touch of his own modesty, one of his friends said that 



SKETCH OF RICHARD OWEN. 261 

"he will he remembered ever as one who did honor to his country 
and enlarged the boundaries of human knowledge." A worthy- 
monument stands to his memory over his burial place at New 
Harmony. 

One of the most attractive of our pioneer naturalists was the 
artist, Charles Alexander Le Sueur, who was a native of France, 
but had lived for a time in Philadelphia, from which place he 
came to New Harmony in the "boat-load of knowledge." But 
before leaving France his fame had become widespread. He en- 
joyed the friendship and correspondence of Cuvier. He had been 
around the world as a naturalist in the celebrated voyage of 
Pdron. He was one of the most careful of observers and had 
singular skill in drawing and painting animals. The turtles and 
fishes were his special subjects of study, and his pictures of them 
are among the most lifelike ever published. He had been the 
first naturalist to study the fishes of the Great Lakes and the first 
to examine the great group of fishes called suckers and buffaloes. 
He made large collections of the animals of the Wabash Valley, 
which he sent to Cuvier, and which are still preserved in the 
museum at Paris. A number of his water- color sketches remain ; 
one, a small but very lifelike portrait of the old Governor Francis 
Vigo, I have seen in Indianapolis. Le Sueur painted the drop 
curtain of the theater at the Community Hall. It represented the 
Falls of Niagara, and to heighten the Americanism of the scene 
he painted by the side of the Falls that other great wonder of the 
New World, the rattlesnake. 

When the community disbanded, Le Sueur returned to Phila- 
delphia, earning thereafter, it is said, a precarious living by 
giving lessons in painting. Afterward he returned to France, 
where he became curator of the museum at Havre. Richard 
Owen was a great favorite with Le Sueur, and I have already pub- 
lished in these pages Owen's account of him and of the days when 
as a boy he waded barefooted in the bayous of the Wabash to 
gather mussel shells for the naturalist. 

Dr. Gerard Troost, a Dutch geologist, was ^Iso a member of 
the community, and after leaving it he became State Geologist 
of Tennessee. He made a magnificent collection of minerals, 
which was purchased, it is said, by a society in Louisville for 
thirty thousand dollars. 

Dr. Joseph F. Neef, a blunt, plain-spoken, honest man, was the 
teacher of New Harmony, and he was a great favorite with his 
pupils. He was born in Alsace, and in his early life had been 
both priest and soldier. He was a mathematician of great ability. 
After leaving the army he became an associate of Pestalozzi in 
his school near Yverdun in Switzerland. He was mentioned by 
Pestalozzi as an earnest, manly worker who did not disdain to 



262 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

occupy himself with the elements of science. Neef left Switzer- 
land for Paris to introduce there the system of Pestalozzi. In 
Paris he met Maclure, and was induced by him to come to 
America. " It is my highest ambition/' said Neef, "to be a coun- 
try school teacher amid a hardy, vigorous community." And 
this he became in New Harmony. 

He was an intimate associate of the Owens. His daughter 
Caroline became the wife of David Dale Owen, and Anne the 
wife of Richard. 

There were besides these, who were a part of the community, 
other men of note in science who spent longer or shorter periods 
in the community as visitors. Among them was the eccentric, 
" mattoed " Rafinesque, whose stay was so short and whose story 
80 long that I must pass him by with a word. Sir Charles Lyell 
was for a time the guest of the Owens. 

Reared among such surroundings, and with such men as 
friends and teachers, it is not strange that the sons of Robert 
Owen were imbued with a love of Nature, nor that they formed 
high ideals of the work they should do in life. 

Robert Owen, in accordance with his own theories, gave his 
children the. best education which the world could offer, and they 
made good use of their opportunities. Robert Dale Owen, the 
eldest son, had a strong taste for philosophy and literature, and 
was long known as a charming essayist, one of that circle of 
writers who gave to the Atlantic Monthly its high literary char- 
acter. He too was a part of the " boat-load of knowledge " and 
took an active part in the affairs of the community. He be- 
came a member of the State Legislature, and exerted a powerful 
influence in shaping the school system of Indiana. He must 
ever remain one of the prominent figures in the history of the 
State. 

William Owen, the second son, died early at New Harmony. 

David Dale Owen was the third son, and Richard Owen the 
youngest of the family. These two were intimately and con- 
stantly associated.both in their early education and in their later 
work. They were alike in taste and disposition, and, if we can 
trust the portraits of David Dale Owen, they were very much 
alike in personal appearance. They were born at New Lanark, 
in Scotland, David in 1807, Richard in 1810. They studied first 
at home under private tutors, and afterward were sent to Hofwyl, 
in Switzerland, to the famous school of Emmanuel Fallenberg. 
Later they studied chemistry under the famous Dr. Ure in 
Glasgow, and in 1827 they came to America together in a sail- 
ing vessel, landing at New Orleans. Until 1832, when Richard 
Owen was twenty-two years old, he had never been separated 
from his brother for a single day. 



SKETCH OF RICHARD OWEN. 263 

David Dale Owen was especially interested in fossils and min- 
erals, and was employed to label and arrange the large collection 
of Maclure. A part of the collection became his property, and 
formed the nucleus of the famous Owen Museum, containing 
some eighty-five thousand specimens. This was purchased by 
the University of Indiana for the sum of twenty thousand dol- 
lars, but it was in great part lost in the destruction of the mu- 
seum building in the disastrous fire of 1883. 

David Dale Owen spent most of his life as geologist in the 
public service. He was State Geologist of Indiana in 1837. After- 
ward he undertook government work in Wisconsin and Iowa. 
He spent five years as United States Geologist in field work in 
the region beyond the Mississippi. Then in turn he had charge 
of the State Surveys in Kentucky, Arkansas, and Indiana. He 
was State Geologist of Indiana at the time of his death, in 1860. 
His work was admirably and conscientiously performed, and as 
first State Geologist of several different States he set a high stand- 
ard of public work which few of his successors have been able 
to follow. One of the most untiring of workers and most unself- 
ish of men, David Dale Owen has left a deep impression on the 
history of American geology, and the students in the Geological 
Department of the University of Indiana are proud to do their 
work in the building named " Owen Hall." 

Richard Owen spent much of his early life as a teacher. He 
served for a time in the Mexican War, commanding a company 
under General Taylor. At the close of the war he became his 
brother's chief assistant, and was the first geologist to explore the 
northern shore of Lake Superior. For a time he held a professor- 
ship in the Western Military Institute in Kentucky, and after- 
ward a similar position in a college in Nashville. This position 
he resigned to become his brother's successor as State Geologist of 
Indiana. While engaged in the survey of the State the civil 
war began, and he became lieutenant colonel of the Fifteenth 
Indiana regiment, under a commission from Governor Morton. 
While in camp he read the proof sheets of his last geological 
report. He took part in the battles of Rich Mountain and Green- 
briar, and was promoted to the rank of colonel of the Sixtieth 
Indiana regiment. 

The following facts regarding the war record of Colonel Owen 
I quote from an address by Judge R. W. Miers, one of his stu- 
dents: "In the winter of 1861-'62 he guarded at Indianapolis four 
thousand prisoners captured at Fort Donelson. In the spring of 
the following year he was ordered to Kentucky, where his regi- 
ment was taken prisoners of war by General Bragg at Mumfords- 
ville. Three months later they were exchanged. Although the 
regiment was paroled. Dr. Owen was not, nor were his side arms 



264 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

taken from him. On the contrary, General Buckner went out 
into the field where the regiment was guarded, and thanked 
Colonel Owen for his kindness to the four thousand Fort Donel- 
son prisoners at Camp Morton. He was treated very politely by 
General Bragg, with whom he had become acquainted in the 
Mexican War." 

Later Owen was in the battle of Arkansas Post, and took part 
in the campaigns of Sherman and Grant about Vicksburg. He 
was with General Banks in 1863 on the Red River campaign, 
and while thus engaged was elected by the trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Indiana to the professorship of natural science. He 
accepted the position on condition that his place should be tempo- 
rarily supplied till the end of the war. 

On January 1, 1864, he assumed the duties of his professorship 
in the university, which he continued to fill for fifteen years. In 
June, 1879, at the age of sixty-nine, he resigned, an increasing 
deafness, the result of sunstroke, having made his college duties 
burdensome to him. He retired to his estate at New Harmony, 
where he lived until March 25, 1890. His death was a tragic one, 
caused by accidentally drinking a quantity of arsenical embalm- 
ing fluid. 

While connected with the university he continued his work 
for the United States Geological Survey, exploring New Mexico 
and Arizona. During 1869 he traveled widely in Europe and 
America. 

Of Dr. Owen's work as a teacher I may speak briefly. Under 
the present system of elective study he would have been an ideal 
teacher, earnest, thorough, and inspiring. Under the old system 
his best powers were never called for. He had neither skill nor 
taste for the work of drill master. He taught those well who 
cared to learn. He believed in large freedom of the student. His 
students were on their honor, and those who had no honor abused 
their freedom. It was part of the vicious system which prevailed 
in our colleges in the last generation that learned men capable of 
the highest work, and full of the inspiration which comes from 
thorough knowledge, should be compelled to spend their time and 
strength in crowding the elements of various subjects upon un- 
willing and unresponsive boys. A teacher should have the oppor- 
tunity to give the best that is in him, and to give this to those 
who are ready and worthy to receive it. 

In 1873 Dr. Owen was elected President of Purdue University, 
the agricultural and mechanical college of Indiana, established 
under the Morrill Act. This position he accepted, but, as after 
two years the school still remained unorganized, he never assumed 
the duties of the ofiice. He published an interesting report to the 
trustees on the proposed method of organization and government 



SKETCH OF RICHARD OWEN. 265 

of the new School of Agriculture. Its discipline he had planned 
to place in the hands of a representative senate of students. The 
lower classes were to be divided into sections, each numbering ten 
to fifteen, and each section to be under the direct supervision of 
some member of the senior class. 

Dr. Owen's scientific publications were very numerous. His 
favorite subjects were the significance of the contour of continents 
and the causes of earthquake action. His mind was especially 
attracted to the study of hidden causes in the development of the 
earth that is, to those causes which we have not yet learned to 
associate with their effects. This diflBcult line of research involved 
a vast amount of reading in every tongue, and the breadth of his 
early education made such reading possible. His first important 
work, A Key to the Geology of the Globe, was an endeavor to 
show that the present features of the earth are all the results of 
fixed and demonstrable laws, like those governing the develop- 
ment of animals and plants. He believed that the earth was a 
great magnet, made so directly or indirectly by the heat of the 
sun. As a result of this, he thought that the axis and coast 
lines of both continents tend to conform to the axis of the 
ecliptic. The angular distance of twenty-three and a half de- 
grees, which marks the northward extension of the sun in sum- 
mer, he took to be a natural unit of measure in the structure of 
the earth. 

Whether these relations are real or fanciful I have no means 
of knowing. Perhaps in the ultimate progress of science it does 
not matter, for many hypotheses must be framed and tested be- 
fore we come to the full measure of the laws which regulate the 
changes in the earth's crust. 

Dr. Owen was a gentle and reverent man, unassuming and un- 
selfish in all his relations a man of perfect courtesy of manners 
because of perfect courtesy of thought ; a man whom everybody 
loved because his love went out to every one. He was the highest 
typve of teacher, of naturalist, of scholar, of soldier even, because 
above all his was the highest type of man.* 

* The writer once gave a lecture at New Harmony in the old building which had been 
the Community Theater. Dr. Owen presided. He was then nearly eighty years of age and 
very deaf. He did not hear one word of the lecture, but he had the art of appearing to 
hear. To every point the speaker or the audience deemed good he responded with a smile 
of appreciation, the expression of perfect courtesy, the courtesy of the " gentleman of the 
old school," of which type Dr. Owen was one of the most perfect examples. 



266 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



%i^i\ox^s %Mit. 



PERNICIOUS LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY. 

THE past winter has probably been 
the most remarkable on record 
for legislative activity. Although a 
considerable number of Legislatures 
has not been in session, owing to 
the adoption of the biennial system, 
those that have been at work appear 
to have spared no effort to give evi- 
dence of their wisdom and to add 
to the enormous volume of statutes 
that overwhelm lawyers and judges. 
In New York State the phenomenal 
record made by the previous Legis- 
lature was broken. Over thirty-five 
hundred bills were introduced in the 
Senate and Assembly, and of these 
over a third of them passed both 
Houses. Although figures are not at 
hand in regard to the activity of 
other Legislatures, the newspaper re- 
ports of their proceedings leave the 
impression that they have not been 
less productive. 

It is not diflBcult to account for 
this remarkable phenomenon. Ever 
since the civil war, which gave a 
tremendous impetus to legislative 
activity both at Washington and at 
the capitals of the States, there has 
been shown a tendency to rely more 
and more upon laws to curb unami- 
able traits of human nature and to 
improve economic conditions. The 
old belief in the potency of Yankee 
energy and thrift to overcome the 
obstacles of life and of public opinion 
to bring wayward people into line 
with the best moral thought of the 
age has become much weakened. 
What has affected it most unfavor- 
ably of late is the business paralysis 
of the last few years. The result is 
that few people entertain the notion 
that anything can be done in the di- 
rection of either moral or industrial 



improvement without the enactment 
of some law. 

Only a careful inspection of all 
the bills introduced and passed would 
enable one to make an adequate 
analysis of the subjects that have 
received legislative attention and 
treatment. But the accounts given 
of them in the newspapers indicate 
clearly enough their general char- 
acter and tendency. They show a 
growing lack of respect for indi- 
vidvxal and corporate freedom and 
for the rights of property, especially 
the property of rich men. They ap- 
pear to be based upon the theory 
that progress lies in the direction of 
regulating more and more the con- 
duct of everybody, and of taking the 
money of the people that have it for 
the benefit of those less fortunate. 
But no argument is needed to show 
that this is despotism, although it is 
created in the name of the people, 
and that it is a reversion to a much 
lower state of civilization than the 
one to which the American people 
are supposed to have reached. Until 
this truth is realized, it is probably 
too much to expect that there will 
be any amendment of this deplorable 
evil of over legislation. 

The subject that has perhaps re- 
ceived the most attention is trusts. 
With many legislators it has been a 
kind of mania. As a consequence, 
a mass of bills has been proposed to 
regulate all large combinations of 
capital, from railroads and insurance 
companies to department stores a 
new object of legislative hostility 
and to increase to the furthest limit 
the burden of taxation put upon 
them. Although this mania has not 
been confined to any particular lo- 
cality, Kansas and Oklahoma have 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



267 



been the worst victims. So unfavor- 
able to capital has been some of the 
legislation of Oklahoma that the 
home offices of insurance and loan 
companies outside of the State have 
ordered their agents to take no more 
business. The possibility of such a 
result in New York State had doubt- 
less much to do with the modifica- 
tion of similar bills at Albany. 

Naturally, where there has been 
such a shameless disregard of the 
rights of corporations, little con- 
' sideration has been shown for the 
rights of individuals. When a wave 
of despotic I'epression passes over a 
community it shows no favor ; it 
treats all alike. One of the most 
characteristic bills of this class is 
that compelling school teachers to 
contribute a certain percentage of 
their salaries to a retirement or pen- 
sion fund, to be managed by the 
municipalities in which they live. 
It is, of course, nothing less than a 
step toward the establishment of a 
system of civil-service pensions like 
the one that now exists in certain 
countries in Europe. The legisla- 
tion against the wearing of hats by 
women in theaters, against playing 
football, against the organization of 
Greek -letter fraternities in State- 
aided institutions, etc., is equally 
worthy of the same despotisms. 

It would be interesting to speak 
more at length of other legislation, 
proposed and enacted, such as the 
prohibition of gold contracts, the is- 
sue of scrip as money by State and 
county governments, the payment 
of bounties on agricultural products, 
and the exemption from taxation of 
certain manufacturing industries. 
Measures of this kind are sufficient- 
ly significant to merit special com- 
ment; they illustrate in a striking 
manner the growing tendency to in- 
terfere with private rights and to 
plunder one class for the benefit of 
another. Equally significant also is 



the New York State lav? to pay to 
every indigent family a certain sum 
for the care of each child; it is a 
practice that can not fail to revive 
in this country all the shocking so- 
cial and economic evils of the old 
English poor law. Finally, it would 
be interesting to dwell upon the vi- 
cious assaults that have been made 
in New York, Illinois, and elsewhere 
upon civil -service reform; they in- 
dicate the same decadence in public 
opinion as to the requirements of good 
government that may be observed in 
the renewal of archaic legislation in 
the field of morals and economics. 

But it is only possible to call spe- 
cial attention to the efforts made very 
generally to provide money to meet 
the alarming increase of expenditures 
that has followed the large addition 
to the duties of the State. Desperate- 
ly pressed to discover new sources of 
income, legislators have resorted to 
many novel and extraordinary ex- 
pedients. Of these the most iniqui- 
tous is the graduated inheritance tax 
enacted in New York and proposed 
in other States. Not only does it 
violate the fundamental principles 
of taxation, namely, uniformity and 
equity, but it is likely to serve, like 
all iniquitous legislation, as a pre- 
cedent to violate still further the 
rights of individuals and of property. 



THE POSTAL UNION CONGRESS. 

The city of Washington is at this 
moment the seat of a congress strik- 
ingly different in character from 
the Congress which we are accus- 
tomed to associate with the national 
capital. It is a congress of men 
chosen for their competence to deal 
with a particular subject. It meets 
for a business purpose. It will at- 
tend to that business. It will attack 
difficult work and keep at it till it 
is done. It will not be the scene of 
vain eloquence, nor yet of party 



268 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



maneuvers, and will know nothing 
of log-rolling for appropriations. 
When its labors are concluded the 
result will be recognizable in rules 
established, disputed questions set- 
tled, methods of procedure im- 
proved, distinct advantages gained 
for the whole civilized world. It 
will afford an example, as previous 
congresses of similar nature have 
already done, of what can be accom- 
plished by the mutual counsel and 
concerted efforts of a body of men 
chosen expressly for their recog- 
nized fitness to deal with the inter- 
ests committed to their charge. If 
it does not teach a lesson as to the 
improvement which might be effect- 
ed in legislative bodies could their 
members also be chosen on grounds 
of fitness and competency for the 
work of legislation, it will not be 
because the lesson is not sufficiently 
on the surface. 

The congress referred to, as our 
headline shows, is that of the Uni- 
versal Postal Union. The formation 
of the Postal Union may be regarded 
as marking the transition from a 
period of semibarbarism in postal 
matters that is to say, from an inter- 
national point of view to a period 
of civilization. Prior to 1874 each 
nation followed its own devices so 
far as postal arrangements were con- 
cerned. There was no attempt at 
uniformity of postage rates or regu- 
lations, and all international rela- 
tions were complicated in the highest 
degree. The postage charges to no 
two countries were the same; or, if 
they were the same, it was by acci- 
dent. There was no accident, how- 
ever, about their being high. It had 
not occurred to anybody as yet that 
there could be such a thing as cheap 
international postage. It seemed to 
be an accepted axiom that, if corre- 
spondence was carried on across a 
frontier, it must be made an expen- 
sive affair. 



A far-sighted German, however, 
the late Herr von Stephan, of Berlin, 
conceived the idea of introducing 
order into this postal chaos. He did 
not see why, if uniform rates could 
obtain through the extensive terri- 
tories of a single state, uniform rates 
might not also be established over 
the civilized globe. He saw no sense 
in international frontiers in postal 
matters. A letter, he held, should be 
free to go whithersoever its sender 
willed, at the lowest charge compati- 
ble with reimbursement of the ex- 
pense of conveyance. And as, in 
the main, the correspondence which 
each country would send to any oth- 
er country would be about equal to 
what it would receive therefrom, he 
saw Jio necessity for international 
accounts. The result of the commu- 
nication of these ideas to a number of 
the leading postal administrations of 
the world was the summoning in the 
year 1873 of the Berne Conference. 
The result of the conference was 
the establishment of the Postal 
Treaty of Berne, to which the lead- 
ing nations of the world were signa- 
tories. That treaty established a uni- 
form international rate of five cents 
for a half-ounce (fifeen gramme) 
letter, with a provisional permission 
to levy a surcharge up to five cents 
more on correspondence addressed 
to very distant countries, and subject 
therefore to specially heavy " tran- 
sit" rates. International accounts 
were in the main abolished. There 
were still, however, complications, 
arising from the fact that a great 
many countries were yet outside the 
Union, and that accounts had there- 
fore to be maintained with these, and 
certain debits and credits in connec- 
tion with their correspondence to be 
passed on to other countries. 

As time went on, however, things 
simplified themselves gradually. 
One by one the outlying countries 
fell in ; and at the present time there 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



269 



is no government on the face of the 
earth deserving the name of civilized 
that has not adhered to what is justly 
styled the " Universal Postal Union." 
Nearly all countries have voluntari- 
ly abandoned their privilege of sur- 
charging letters for remote destina- 
tions; so that, broadly speaking, the 
whole world may be described as one 
postal territory, while a five-cent 
stamp is the talisman that will se- 
cure for a letter conveyance, from 
any point where it can be posted, to 
any other at which it can be deliv- 
ered by postal agency. For that 
very low payment it may go half 
round the globe; and if the person 
addressed is not there, it may com-- 
plete the circle in order to find him. 
The great empire of China is prepar- 
ing to fall in with the scheme, and 
has already adopted it to a consider- 
able extent. Japan became a full 
member of the union many years ago. 
The task, therefore, of the postal 
unification of the globe may be said 
to be all but accomplished. One or 
two difficulties in the working of the 
system remain to be smoothed away, 
and these are engaging the attention 
of the present congress. The most 
important question is that relating to 
"transit" postage. Some countries 
are so situated geographically that 
they are required to handle far more 
coi'respondeuce for other countries 
" in transit " than those countries 
have any opportunity of handling for 
them, while the situation of others, 
again, is the exact reverse. France, 
Italy, and Belgium are countries of 
the first class, a vast volume of coi-- 
respondence for the continent of Eu- 
rope passing through France and 
Belgium, and most of the correspond- 
ence of Europe with the East passing 
through Italy. Great Britain is an 
example on the other side, the postal 
business it does with foreign nations 
far exceeding the use made of its 
territory by mails in transit. The 



consequence is 'that every year in the 
settlement of claims and counter 
claims Great Britain has to pay out 
nearly half a million dollars more 
than she takes in. 

Heretofore these claims and coun- 
ter claims have been established by 
means of statistics taken periodically, 
and the question now before the con- 
gress is. Can these statistics, which 
entail a vast amount of labor, and 
more or less impede the postal serv- 
ice while they are in progress, be got 
rid of altogether ? The German post 
office has a scheme by which this 
object can be accomplished. The 
plan is briefly this: As the taking of 
the statistics costs a great deal of la- 
bor, which, of course, means money, 
it is proposed that countries having 
a less claim in the general clearing 
than ten thousand dollars a year 
should forego it altogether in con- 
sideration of getting rid of trouble 
and expense to that (supposed) 
amount, and that the same amount 
should be deducted from all claims 
exceeding ten thousand dollars. It 
is estimated that the making of these 
deductions would decrease the total 
amount to be paid by the debtor 
countries by twenty-five per cent; 
and, taking the latest statistics as a 
basis, it is proj^osed simply to assess 
each debtor country accordingly, 
and pay over to each creditor coun- 
try the amount to which it is enti- 
tled. If this scheme commends itself 
to the congress, the international 
postal system will have reached 
nearly the acme of simplicity, all 
postage accounts, between the differ- 
ent countries having been swept 
away into the limbo of the obsolete 
and the useless. 

To how great an extent such an 
organization as the Universal Postal 
Union makes for civilization and for 
international unity it is needless to 
point out. It is one phase of the fed- 
eration of mankind, and gives ground 



270 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



to hope that other steps in the moral 
unification of the race will follow. 
It is satisfactory to think that it is to 
a large extent the result of individual 
effort. The different governments 
of the world have been rather passive 
than active in the matter. They 
have had the grace and they de- 
serve credit for it to let the best 
heads in their several services co- 
operate in developing this great 
scheme, which deserves to be regard- 
ed as one of the most definitive steps 
in advance that civilization has ever 
taken. When the proposition was 
first made it was not looked upon with 
great favor in more than one high 
quarter, but, as it did not involve 
much expenditure of money, no seri- 
ous obstacles were thrown in the way. 
The thinkei's who had it in hand soon 
showed what could be made of it, 
and to-day the world is reaping the 
benefit of their labors and their sa- 



gacity. As we began by saying, the 
congress of this world-wide union 
is a congress of the competent let 
us add of the responsible. As it hap- 
pens, these are precisely the two ad- 
jectives that are least ai^plicable, gen- 
erally speaking, to the members of 
political assembles elected by popu- 
lar vote. As to competence, there is 
no need to discuss the matter ; as to 
responsibility, it means nothing in 
political circles save liability to cen- 
sure and rejection on the next occa- 
sion, if the representative has not 
pushed local interests with sufficient 
vigor and sufficient disregard of 
wider considei'ations. It would be 
vain to look for any sudden change 
in the working of democratic insti- 
tutions; and yet an object lesson like 
that afforded by the Congress of the 
Universal Postal Union is one that 
should not be wholly lost on reason- 
able men. 



SPECIAL BOOKS. 

Those interested to learn of their paleolithic and neolithic ancestors 
will find an interesting account of their conditioning in Prehistoric Man 
and Beast.* Although embodying the results of recent geologic and ar- 
chaeologic research, the book is not at all technical, but adapted to the pop- 
ular reader. If he knows anything of scientific theory, he may be aroused 
by the epithets applied to the cherished hypotheses of some writers. The 
great ice sheet is called " a myth," the polar ice cap " a monstrous fiction," 
and the astronomical theory of an ice age receives no milder treatment in 
the chapter devoted to the discussion of the subject. But, having dealt 
as an iconoclast with these favored cults, the author writes of the lore of 
fairyland in an opposite fashion. Fairies are not legendary beings, but real 
folk, whom scientific people "may no longer dare to despise." The small, 
tricky natives of an island off the Schleswig coast were called Pucks, and 
even mermen and mermaids had their prototypes in a Finnish people who 
dressed in sealskins and were taken by the Shetlanders to be half human. 

The record of primeval man is not found in documents produced by 
impressionable minds, but is registered in the river gravels, cliff caverns. 



* Prehistoric Man and Beast. 
Co. Pp. 298, 8vo. Price, 83.00. 



By Kev. H. N. Uutchineon, F. G. S. New York : D. Appleton & 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 271 

kitchen middens, and long barrows. In these ancient dwelling places the 
weapons, utensils, ornaments, burial and hearth stones testify unerringly 
as to his mode of life. The degree of skill attained in his handiwork serves 
as a basis to differentiate the earlier races from those of later times. Men 
of the older stone age fashioned their weapons and tools in the rudest man- 
ner from rocks, merely chipping the edges. In the succeeding period, the 
neolithic, they had learned how to finish them by grinding; while in the 
bronze and iron ages they discovered the use of metals. It is somewhat 
remarkable that while it is a disputed point as to whether paleolithic man 
possessed a bow, it should be a well-attested fact that his wife used bone 
needles and knew how to sew. 

These authentic sources of knowledge concerning our early ancestors 
are not the only data to be studied. Primitive races exist whose habits 
indicate what prehistoric man may have been like, and the author pleads, 
" It is sincerely to be hoped they will not be improved off the face of the 
earth before we have learned all that they can teach us about the past." 

Nothing definite is known concerning the place of man's first appear- 
ance on the earth, but probably the northern hemisphere of the Old World 
can claim the honor. This may have occurred fifteen or twenty thousand 
years ago, but the allowance of eighty thousand odd years is deemed an 
unwari'antable waste of time. The volume contains ten full-page illustra- 
tions based upon such details as the researches have furnished. Primeval 
man, however, is reconstructed without a skull as a model for his features. 
This feat must have tested the creative power of the artist, but we are as- 
sured that even this has been done acceptably to the archaeologists, and we 
can not demur if it does not coincide with our ideal. 

About one fifth of Macleod's History of Economics is really history.* 
The rest is exposition of basal principles. Macleod declares that economics 
should and can be as exact as physical science, and he is putting forth vig- 
orous efforts toward making it so. He says that most of the modern econ- 
omists' work up to this time has been destructive, but that constructive 
labors are now urgently demanded and that the ground has been fully 
cleared for them. His present work opens with an essay on the method of 
investigation proper to economics. He gives much credit to Bacon for 
enunciating the principle that physical inductive science must precede and 
guide moral inductive science and protests against Mill's declaration that 
induction should not be taken as the method of political economy. Hav- 
ing placed economics among the inductive sciences, our author proceeds to 
lay down some general principles of reasoning which this position makes 
fitting for it. " The fundamental concepts and axioms of every science," 
he says, " must be perfectly general," and " no general concept and no gen- 
eral axiom must contain any term involving more than one fundamental 
idea." The clarifying of fundamental concepts, in fact, is the chief object 
of this treatise. The historical portion comes next. He rejects the insular 
idea that political economy began with Adam Smith, and gives to the 
French Economists the credit for establishing it as a science, although cer- 
tain of its principles had been fixed from time to time before them. He 
states the doctrines of the Economists regarding exchanges, money, wealth, 

* The History of Economics. By Henry Dunning Macleod. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
Pp. GOO, 8vo. Price, $4.50 net. 



272 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

productive labor, and other economic concepts, giving also the opinions 
held by the Roman and Greek jurists as to what things are wealth. He 
then discusses the views of Adam Smith, pointing out what he regards as 
Smith's chief merits and chief defects. In a similar manner the economic 
doctrines held by Ricardo, Whately, Say, Mill, Bastiat, Perry, and Jevons 
are critically examined. He also describes his own contributions to the 
science. In pursuance of his conviction that a great part of the confusion 
and false teaching in economics is due to lack of clear definitions, he 
devotes the remaining three fourths of the volume to setting forth the legal 
and scientific bases of the chief concepts of the science. Among these con- 
cepts are acceptilation, accommodation paper, banking, capital, currency, 
cost of production, credit, debt, exchange, Gresham's law, money, negative 
quantities in economics, rent, value, and wealth. Each is discussed with 
considerable fullness, particular attention being given to the early history 
of the ideas. Macleod is a vigorous and positive writer, and a study of his 
pages can not fail to substitute exactness for many hazy economic teach- 
ings. 

With modesty and excellent taste Mrs. Rogers has presented to the pub- 
lic, not a fulsome eulogy, but a view of her husband's life as shown in his 
letters, supplemented only by the necessary biographical facts and a para- 
graph here and there to explain and connect the matter from his own 
pen.* Many of the biographical facts she allows the late Dr. Ruschen- 
berger to tell in extracts from his Memorial of the Brothers Rogers. The 
son of a physician and professor of science, to whose chair in William and 
Mary College he succeeded at the age of twenty-four, William B. Rogers 
was early introduced into the field of scientific education, in which he did 
masterly work up to the last hour of his life. There was not much money 
available for the support of science in the United States during the thirties, 
and the teaching and research of Prof. Rogers were carried on with very 
limited resources. His means, moreover, were frequently drawn upon for 
the benefit of his brothers, who were struggling in the same field with 
rather less material success than his. In 1835, at the age of thirty-one, 
Prof. Rogers was appointed State Geologist of Virginia, and in the same 
year was called to the chair of Natural Philosophy at the University of 
Virginia, which he retained until 1853. The geological sm^vey was al- 
lowed by the State Legislature to continue for seven years, and furnished 
the occasion for undertaking what was Prof. Rogers's most extensive con- 
tribution to natural science. The letters exchanged between William and 
his brothers reveal something of the turbulence of hot blooded students 
and the paralyzing influence of narrow-minded authority with which 
many science professors had to contend half a century ago. All the im- 
portant discoveries and controversies that mark the history of geology in 
this century are discussed or at least remarked upon in these letters. In 
the diction of many of the epistles, and especially in that of extracts from 
several addresses that are inserted in the volumes, we find all the evidence 
that can be given without his living voice as to the powers of oratory with 
which Prof. Rogers has been credited. We are especially impressed with 
the testimony of these volumes to the ability of their subject as an educa- 

* Life and Letters of William Barton Eogers. Edited by his Wife with the aseistance of William 
T.Sedgwick. Boston: Iloughton, Mifflin & Co. Two vols., 12mo. Price, $4. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



273 



tional organizer. This is shown especially in his Plan for a Polytechnic 
School in Boston, and his labors in furtherance of the scheme, which re- 
sulted in the establishment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
His grasp of modern educational conditions is shown also in documents 
which he presented to the Legislatures of Virginia and Massachusetts in 
behalf of the institutions with which he was successively connected. Abil- 
ity of the same sort appears in the part that he took in organizing the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of Social Science, and the National Academy of 
Sciences. His death in 1882 closed a career of marked influence upon the 
advancement of science in America. 



GENERAL NOTICES. 



In order to judge fairly of the key to the 
problems of the uuiverse furnished by Mr. 
Silberstein,* it is not only necessary for one 
with scientific habit of thought to subdue 
this mental temperament, but to place him- 
self in that receptive frame of mind with 
which he should attend a seance or view an 
impressionist picture. However easy this 
may be for the metaphysician, it is almost 
impossible for the physicist or chemist, who, 
without his rule of verification, is more help- 
less than a rudderless ship at sea. 

This comprehensive work is well divided 
into four chapters : The Idea of God, The 
Creation, Matter and Force, and Universal 
Mechanism. 

As the conception of a machine precedes 
its manufacture by the mechanic, so the uni- 
verse in its potential being antedates the 
physical universe which is individualized 
from it. The abstract concept of the uni- 
verse as a whole is absolute intellectuality 
or God. This conclusion is reached by the 
a priori method of pure reason. The cog- 
nition of man, which concerns itself only 
with the perception of things manifest to 
the senses, is no knowledge at all. It teaches 
us nothing of true entities. We observe 
bread and man as two diiferent things, and 
also that they are mutually convertible. If 
they were real existences, " how could they 
merge one into the other ? " Hence " we 
are forced to assume that the entity of any 
compound object as it appears within the 
limits of time is not real. . . . Thus the 
science of experience and experiments alone, 



* The Disclosures of the Universal Mysteries. 
By Solomon J. Silberstein. New York : Philip 
Cowen, 1896. Pp. 298. Price, $2. 
VOL. LI. 21 



of which our naturalists are so proud, and 
which they call 'exact knowledge,' is a de- 
lusion." All the causes which exist in the 
universe are bound up together in the knowl- 
edge of the causes. If man knows one 
cause, he knows all causes of eternal exist- 
ence. Man, however, knows that he does 
not know, and in this comprehends the whole 
knowledge of the entire universe. He thus 
arises to Diviuity itself, and human intelli- 
gence is identically the same with the one 
absolute knowledge. 

In regard to the Creation, we learn that 
the universe consists of two kinds of exist- 
ence, sensual and intellectual. " The exist- 
ence of any Creator before the creation in 
time, or behind it in space, is an impossi- 
bility." Matter can not contain in itself the 
absoluteness of existence. Man as a mate- 
rial being is an accident of changeable mat- 
ter. The creation of the universe is an 
eternal emanation of the Absolute Intellectu- 
ality. The essence of the universe vibrates 
in spiritual waves. Physical waves, which 
appear in various forms of energ}', magnet- 
ism, electricity, heat, and light, are contained 
in these. 

In Matter and Force we are given a resu- 
me of the theories of various philosophers 
from Thales to Spinoza. Many modern phi- 
losophies are considered. They differ from 
that of Spinoza only in their names. " One 
calls his system Positivism, the other Mate- 
rialism, the third Skepticism, the fourth 
Evolution, but they are all one in the Spinoza 
fanaticism." Among others Newton came, 
and through his mistaken theory of gravita- 
tion " reduced mankind to a still lower de- 
gree of pure wisdom." Chemists have also 
led the world astray with their inductions. 



274 



POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY. 



The law of the union of gases is extremely 
repugnant to the author ; " even if proved 
by ten thousand mathematical calculations, 
it is yet a natural impossibility, because 
these calculations are based upon false 
axioms." 

Under the head of the Universal Mechan- 
ism the laws of motion are discussed. The 
property of inertia in matter and the first 
law of motion are said to be " absolutely 
false," while the author promises to " en- 
tirely annihilate " the force of gravitation. 
Instead of these, he gives us centrality, " a 
power of conservation whose impulse is to 
keep an atom or a body in its peculiar state 
or form." Inertia is accordingly " nothing 
else than centrality holding each physical ob- 
ject in its chemical bond. . . . Centrality is 
an active force, while the force of motion is 
passive." Another argument is furnished to 
show that " chemical combination has only 
to do with the qualities of objects." Even if 
the laws of gravitation were correct, " it 
would be a natural impossibility that the 
moon should have an elliptical motion around 
the earth." 

Those who prefer the idealistic to the sci- 
entific method of explaining the mysteries of 
the universe will find the book of interest. 

The results of over two hundred experi- 
ments on phenomena connected with the X 
rays have been collected in a volume by Ed- 
loard P. T/iornpsori* The book is designed 
for students and workers in electricity, hence 
no attempt has been made to render it at- 
tractive to the general reader. Many of the 
experiments were made before Rontgen's 
famous discovery was announced, some dat- 
ing back to the time of Faraday, so that 
those who made them of course had no idea 
of their connection with the X rays. Among 
the special points that the experiments bear 
upon are the action of a magnet on the 
cathode light, photo-electric dust figures, 
mutual repulsion of cathode rays in the dis- 
charge tube, behavior of cathode rays outside 
the discharge tube, effect of the X rays on 
various chemicals, and penetrating power of 
the X rays. We note the following well- 

* ROntgen Rays and Phenomena of the Anode 
and Cathode. By Edward P. Thompson and Wil- 
liam A. Anthony. New York : D. Van Noatraud 
Co. Pp. 190, 8vo. Price, $1.50. 



known names among the investigators who.^e 
work appears in the volume : Faraday, Davy, 
J. J. Thomson, Crookes, Lenard, Rontgen, 
Edison, Tesla, and Lodge. The text is illu.s- 
trated with a large number of reproductions 
of skiagraphs and other pictures. 

The authors of Curiosities of Medicine 
have been working a very fruitful field, and 
doubtless could have gathered an even larger 
harvest.* Although medical journals are 
constantly reporting curious cases of abnor- 
mal formation or of recovery after injury, the 
present volume appears to be the first sys- 
tematic collection of such material. To the 
physician a knowledge of such cases may 
often be of service in indicating what hope 
there may be for ameliorating similar abnor- 
mal conditions that may occur in his practice. 
To the layman the collection is one of start- 
ling and often rather painful interest. In- 
stances of children born joined together, of 
which the Siamese twins have long been the 
traditional type, are well represented. With 
these are classed persons with supernumera- 
ry limbs, heads, and other organs. Minor 
abnormities present a wonderful variety, in- 
cluding albinism, excessive hairiness and 
hairlessness, elastic skin, homy growths, 
large or small heads, harelip, congenital ab- 
sence of limbs, deficient or supernumerary 
fingers and toes, tails, extra breasts, and mal- 
formations of the internal organs. Abnor- 
mal forms and functions in the generative 
organs afford a large volume of curious ma- 
terial. Celebrated giants and dwarfs and 
other anomalies of size furnish material for 
a chapter, and there is a group of records of 
extraordinary longevity. Idiosyncrasies with 
regard to sound, vision, smell, taste, touch, 
foods, drugs, etc., endurance of fasting, power 
of contorting the body, endurance of pain, 
supernormal strength, etc., make up a long 
list. Many cases of recovery from unusual 
forms of injury to various parts of the body 
are recorded here, and there is much inter- 
esting material under the head of anomalous 
types of disease. The concluding chapter is 
a record of historic epidemics. A full gen- 
eral index and a bibliographic index are ap- 

* Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine. By 
George M. Gould, M. D., and Walter L. Pyle, M. D. 
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Pp. 968, impe- 
rial 8vo. Price, cloth, $6; half morocco, $7. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



27^ 



pendcd. The volume is illustrated with near- 
ly three hundred figures and a considerable 
number of plates. 

An address on The Railroad as an Ele- 
merit in Education, delivered at the World's 
Fair in New Orleans in 1885, by Prof. Alex- 
ander Hogg, was widely circulated at the 
time, attracted much attention, and was 
noticed in the Monthly. It was an honest 
and forcible attempt to present the benefits 
the railroads have conferred upon society 
and the nation, and to antagonize the un- 
reasoning populistic prejudice against them. 
It showed in a few words appealing directly 
to public intelligence that railroads have 
cheapened communication and transporta- 
tion, have opened remote parts of the coun- 
try, making them near and accessible, have 
removed the dangers of local famine, have 
contributed vastly to the national defense 
while removing the necessity of keeping 
large standing armies ; and that in view of the 
services they render and of what is charged 
for like work abroad, their rates are extreme- 
ly low. Further, the men who have acquired 
the most wealth through railroad manage- 
ment have also distinguished themselves by 
their benefactions to education and other 
contributions to public welfare. This ad- 
dress is now republished in a revised and 
enlarged form,* with additional chapters re- 
viewing the development of the ten years 
subsequent to its original publication. Of 
these chapters one of the most important is 
the one on The Inception and History of 
Strikes, the methods of which are shown to 
be " wrong in principle and ruinous in prac- 
tice." 



of grasses and clovers. The present volume 
supplements the former one to a certain ex- 
tent, but in most respects it is an independ- 
ent work. In it the grasses are classified and 
described, and each species is illustrated; 
and chapters are added on their geographical 
distribution, and also a bibliography. In 
most cases the generic characters closely fol- 
low those given by Bentham and Hooker in 
Genera Plantarum. Extracts are given re- 
garding the writings of prominent authorities 
on the grasses ; and also notes regarding the 
tribes and some of the genera. The author 
has been permitted to examine, during his 
studies for this work, the herbarium of Mich- 
igan Agricultural College, all the grasses in 
the herbaria of the University of Michigan 
and Harvard University (including the grasses 
of the late Dr. George Thurber), those of the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
and those of Prof. F. L. Scribner ; and, him- 
self one of our leading botanists, has been as- 
sisted by Prof. L. H. Bailey and Prof. S. M. 
Tracy in the matter of geographical distri- 
bution, L. H. Dewey and A. A. Crozier. The 
work is a real addition to our botanical litera- 
ture, filling as it does a department that has 
not before been completely occupied. 



The first volume of Prof. W. J. BeaPs 
Grasses of North ^meHcaf was published 
ten years ago, and was noticed by us in 
November, 1887. It was designed more 
particularly for farmers and students, and 
comprised chapters on the physiology, com- 
position, selection, improving, and cultivation 



* The Railroad as an Element in Education. 
Revised and enlarged, with New Illustrations. 
(Special edition). By Prof. Alexander Hogg, 
Superintendent of Schools, Port Worth, Texas! 
Louisville, Ky. : J. Morton & Co. Pp. 113. 

t Grasses of North America. By W. J. Beal, 
Professor of Botany and Forestry in Michigan 
Agricultural College. In two volumes. Vol. II. 
New York : Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 706. Price, ffis! 



Mr. Thomas D. Hawley, of the Chicago 
bar, has prepared and published a new sys- 
tem of logic,* by which, he claims, reasoning 
can be carried on by an infallible process, 
even as the interest can be calculated upon a 
promissory note. The method consists in 
the repeated use of a few processes which 
are performed in a mechanical manner, and 
the results appear automatically. " Its tools 
are a few simple signs namely, the capital 
letters of the alphabet to represent positive 
terms, the small letters to represent negative 
terms ; the mathematical sign of equality, 
for 'is'; a short prependicular mark, (for 'or,' 
and a square for the ' universe of discourse.' 
When a square is divided into a proper num- 
ber of sections it is called a Reasoning Frame. 
By the use of the Reasoning Frame every 
proposition which can possibly be made with 
the letters used is set before us. We then 
eliminate every proposition which is incon- 



* Infallible Logic: A Visible and Automatic 
System of Reasoning. By Thomas D. Hawley, of 
the Chicago Bar. Lansing, Mich. : Robert Smith 
Printing Company. Pp 659. 



276 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



sistent with the given proposition or state of 
facts. The uneliminated propositions which 
automatieally remain in the ReaFoning Frame 
will then give us every iota of truth which 
our data will yield." Aside from the signs 
and the device of the Reasoning Frame, the 
treatise does not appear to differ materially 
from other good treatises on the subject. 
The author's explanations are fairly clear. 
A complete index is an excellent feature. 

An unusual and fascinating biography is 
that of Sir Richard Burton,* the explorer 
and linguist, written by his niece. One does 
not know whether to wonder more at the ex- 
tent of his travels or at his indefatigable in- 
dustry in language study. The titles of sixty 
odd books are included in the list of his 
works, among them being an entire volume 
of the Royal (reogi-aphical Society, transla- 
tions of Portuguese and Arabic, and several 
grammars of Hindu dialect. His joumey- 
ings were equally varied. We find him 
dwelling in the far East, in India and Ara- 
bia ; later, crossing the Andes and pampas, 
in Brazil and Paraguay ; now discovering the 
lakes in Central Africa, then investigating 
Utah, or exploting the mines of Iceland. 
Patient, persistent, undaunted by difficulties, 
he was admirably fitted by nature for the 
task of exploration. Had he been equally 
keen to read humankind, his local success 
among men might have been greater. Yet 
he may not have lacked discernment, but the 
will to be politic. Society is the rather to be 
arraigned, if, as we are told, " the habit of 
veracity sadly hindered him at times in his 
struggle with the world." 

There is reason to believe that intellectual 
American women have somewhat surfeited 
themselves on the long-forbidden fruit of 
an education "just like the men's." They 
seem now to realize that the idea of a 
" woman's sphere " can have its dignity as 
well as its limitations, and that the posses- 
sion of acute perception, clear reasoning 
ability, and high power of application can 
be shown in the wholesome and economical 
provisioning of a family and the efficient 
management of children and servants no less 
than in struggles with Greek roots and mathe- 

* The True Life of Captnin Sir Richard F. Bur- 
ton. Bj Georgiana M. Stisted. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. Pp. 419. Price, $2. 



matical operations. The household arts are 
getting an increased share of attention both 
in women's clubs and in women's and coedu- 
cational colleges. A book now before us 
embodies a course of lectures on home man- 
agement delivered in the University of Wis- 
consin.* These lectures give a general view 
of the field, presenting what might be called 
the theory of their subject, and using practi- 
cal details merely by way of illustration or 
to give definiteness to the views set forth. 
After a preliminary chapter on the Statics and 
Dynamics of Household Economy, Mrs. Camp- 
bell considers first the house. These are 
some of the principles that she lays down as 
regards building : 

The plan of the house includes beforehand not 
only all that has been sai i as to location and its 
bearingp, but alt^o the settling of the cost and au 
intelligent idea of the special family needs. Here 
a woman's judgment is absolutely essential. It 
is the woman who lives chiefly in the house, and 
who, if common sense were brought to bear, 
would soon put an end to the type of thing the 
average builder offers her. Why should we per- 
petually go up and down when going sideways is 
so much easier ? Why should we accept stupidly 
planned and inadequate closets or no closets at 
all, and kitchens in which everything is calculated 
to bring the greatest unhappiness to the greatest 
number ? The utmost convenience in every inch 
of working space should be the law. The differ- 
ence between a pantry opening close to the sink 
and one at the opposite end of the room may seem 
a small matter ; but when it comes to walking 
across the room with every dish that is washed, 
the steps soon count as miles. 

With regard to decoration, she urges the 
claims of the simple and elegant as against 
the flashy and trashy, and insists that the 
adornment of a useful article should never 
interfere with its use. Thus she says : " The 
pitcher that does not pour well can not be 
beautiful, though of gold. . . . The spider- 
legged table and its insect family of chairs 
the things that creak when we sit down and 
tip over when we get up these are not 
beautiful." Her treatment of domestic in- 
dustries in general, the nutrition of the house- 
hold, cleaning, and household service is in 
the same line. An excellent list of books 
for further study is added to each chapter. 
Lists of subjects for the use of women's clubs 
in studying household economy and iufonna- 

* Household Economics. By Helen Campbell. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sous. Pp. 2S6, 12mo. 
Price, $1.50. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 



277 



tion about clubs that have given some at- 
tention to this field are appended. 

This monograph * gives, in some eighty 
pages, a list of the published maps of Vir- 
ginia. The first map, made in manuscript 
about the year 1585, bears the name of John 
With, a painter who was sent into the colo- 
nies by Walter Raleigh to paint the red- 
skins and the other curiosities of the new- 
found country. Captain John Smith drew up 
his famous map in 1608. " In the boundary 
dispute between Virginia and Maryland in 
ISYS Smith's map was used as an authority, 
and prior to that it was the foundation upon 
which all the maps of Virginia were con- 
structed." From 1608 onward the maps 
multiply, down to the last one, a railroad 
pocket guide published in 1893. Specimen 
reproductions, especially of the quaint older 
maps, would have enlivened this catalogue. 

The greater part of the Twelfth Atmual 
Report of the Bureau of Labor Stalktlcs of 
the State of Connecticut is devoted to the 
practices prevailing in the various towns and 
cities of the State with regard to assessments 
for the purpose of taxation. The bureau 
has evidently investigated the matter 
thoroughly, and has discovered considerable 
foundation for the ahvays current rumors as 
to inequalities. The information gathered, 
including suggestions from local assessors, is 
conveniently arranged, and besides its value 
within the State may well serve as a guide 
and model to officials of other States. The 
bureau has also collected the appraised 
values of over seven hundred probated 
estates, finding them to confirm closely the 
figures given by assessors. For purposes of 
comparison the tax lav\rs of Connecticut, New 
York, and Massachusetts are here printed. 
Other investigations whose results are given 
in this volume are on the taxation of corpo- 
rations, the condition of bakeshops, and the 
wages of factory hands. 

A wonderful quantity of information con- 
cerning the various materials, processes, and 
applications of the photographic art is con- 
tained in the eleventh American Amiual of 
Photography (Scovill & Adams Co., New 



* Virfrinia Cartography. A Bibliographical De- 
scription. By P. Lee Phillips. Smithsonian Mis 
cellaneous Collections. 



York ; paper 75, cents ; cloth, $1). The aid 
that photography can give in surgery, min- 
ing, detecting forgery, etc , is told in special 
articles. Directions from which the amateur 
can use his prints to make a number of tasty 
and pleasing oljjects are another feature. 
Work with the X rays and color photography 
are two important recent developments that 
find place in the volume. There are also 
standard formulas, useful recipes, tables of 
chemicals, of capacities of lenses, of conju- 
gate foci, of enlargement and reduction, of 
comparative exposures, etc., lists of photo- 
graphic books and patents of the preceding 
year, and of American and foreign photo- 
graphic societies. There are also a full 
almanac for 1897, postal and patent infor- 
mation, etc., while the large number of ad- 
vertisements add no little value to the book. 
The volume contains over three hundred 
illustrations from photographs of pleasing 
and interesting subjects. 

In his Fird Year in German^ Mr. /. Kel- 
ler has sought to avoid the defects and com- 
bine the advantages of the grammatical and 
"natural" methods of teaching the lan- 
guage. His method is simple, and includes 
practical exercises in which the grammatical 
features are explained as they occur. They 
consist of progressive reading lessons, trans- 
lating from German to English and from 
English to German, with explanatory notes, 
oral and written exercises, and conversation 
exercises, with grammatical paradigms in the 
appendix. (American Book Company, $1.) 

The Report of the United States Commis- 
sioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1892-93 is 
accompanied by three special reports of as- 
sistants in charge of especial inquiries. One 
of these deals with food fishes and the fish- 
ing grounds, and reports investigations into. 
the physical and other conditions of the in- 
land and coast waters of the United States. 
Another is occupied with the statistics and 
methods of the commercial fisheries, and the 
third details the operations of the commis- 
sion in propagating and distributing food 
fishes. Following these is an extended ac- 
count by William A. Wilcox of the Fisheries 
of the Pacific Coast, which have recently 
grown to importance, especially the catching 
of salmon for canning. The whaling and 
sealing of the Pacific are also important. 



278 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 



The volume includes also a report on the 
work of the steamer Albatross and a descrip- 
tive catalogue of the collections of the Alba- 
tross made in 1890 and 1891. A number of 
views and other plates illustrate the several 
papers. The volume for 1893-94 contains 
reports on the same general inquiries as its 
predecessor, and among its special papers are 
a description of the exhibit of the commis- 
sion at the World's Columbian Exposition, 
The Whitefishes of North America, The 
Fishes of the Missouri River Basin, A Re- 
view of the Foreign Fishery Trade of the 
United States, and a List of Publications of 
the Commission from its establishment. 

Volume XXX, Part IV, of the Annals of 
the Harvard Observatory is devoted to a Dis 
cussion of the Cloud Observations made at the 
Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, by H. 
Helm Clayton. Mr. Clayton begins with a 
historical sketch of cloud nomenclature which 
introduces his statement of the new system- 
atic nomenclature adopted for the Blue Hill 
Observatory. The names devised at Blue 
Hill are designed to specify the form, alti- 
tude, and origin of the clouds. After con- 
sidering briefly the methods of cloud forma- 
tion and the relations of clouds to rainfall 
and to cyclones, Mr. Clayton gives an ac- 
count of the annual and diurnal periods in 
the wind and the cloud movements that have 
been found from the Blue Hill observations. 
Other topics treated are the movements of 
the wind and clouds at different heights in 
cyclones and anticyclones, cirrus motions, 
and the velocity of storms. Some notes on 
the use of cloud observations in weather 
forecasting are added, and there is an ap- 
pendix of tables and diagrams. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons are now presenting 
to the public Volume II of Books and their 
3 fakers duritig the Middle Ages, by George 
Haven Putnam. In this new volume Mr. 
Putnam recounts the vicissitudes of two 
centuries' books and bookmakers the trials 
and triumphs of those first ambitious, de- 
termined little companies of printer-pub- 
lishers who, confronted ofttimes by the 
mighty odds of church and state, yet wield- 
ed so bravely and untiringly their new-found 
weapon that echoes of their resounding blows 
for truth and liberty still ring in the ears of 
men. Mr. Putnam dwells with emphasis and 



at some length on certain of the early print- 
er-publishers of the Reformation period, se- 
lecting as representatives of that class the 
Kobergers in Nuremberg, Froben in Basel, 
the house of Plantin in Antwerp, Caxton in 
Bruges and in London, the Elzevirs in Ley- 
den and Amsterdam, " and the famous fami- 
lies of the Estiennes or Stephani." The au- 
thor modestly disclaims attempts at dramatic 
arrangement or presentation of his subjects, 
saying, as with regard to Luther, that he is 
" not concerned with Luther as a Reformer, 
as a fighter, or as a Christian hero, but sim- 
ply with his work and his relations as an au- 
thor " ; nevertheless, there is much that is of 
deepest historic and dramatic interest to be 
found throughout the book. The volume is 
beautifully put together. With its plain, rich 
binding of dark red, its uncut linen pages, 
and clear type, it is a fitting specimen of 
what books and bookmakers have attained 
to in this day and age. (Price, $2.50.) 

German Scientific Reading, compiled by 
H. C. G. Brandt and W. C. Day (Holt), em- 
bodies an excellent idea. Students of sci- 
ence taking up German, without caring to 
linger long over its literature, but wishing to 
acquire rapidly the facility of reading Ger- 
man scientific prose, will find here an ade- 
quate answer to their wants. The extracts, 
mostly by well-known German scientists, 
have been chosen for the simplicity of their 
diction and the value of the information they 
impart. Covering a wide range of sciences, 
they might prove as interesting reading to a 
class of general students as to specialists. 
Some twenty pages of descriptive prose, by 
those masters of style, Goethe and Hum- 
boldt, enliven the book by their literary 
quality. The notes are adequate, and the 
vocabulary "is intended to contain every 
word in the text, simple or compound, liter- 
ary or technical." This collaboration of two 
specialists, professors respectively of German 
and of chemistry, has produced a Reader that 
should recommend itself to German teachers 
and classes in general. 

Another portion of Weisbach's great 
work on mechanics, as revised by Hermann, 
dealing with The Mechanics of Bumping Ma- 
ihintry has been translated (Macmillans, 
$3.75). It is designed for the use of engi- 
neers and students of engineering ; hence, 



S GIENTIFIG LIT ERA TV RE. 



279 



while it gives some historical information 
about early forms of water elevators, it pre- 
sents the mechanical side of even the simple 
bucket and sweep and the Dutch scoop. It is, 
of course, chiefly occupied with a technical 
presentation of the theory of reciprocating 
and rotary pumps, but gives a chapter to 
such additional water-raising machines as 
the hydraulic ram, ejectors, injectors, spiral 
pumps, and the pulsometer. The machines 
described are depicted in nearly two hundred 
engravings. 

Miss Sadie F. Price's Fern Collector's 
Handbook and Herbarium (Holt, $2.25) is in- 



tended as an aid in the study and preservation 
of the ferns of the northern United States, 
including the district east of the Mississippi 
and north of North Carolina and Tennessee. 
It is a quarto volume, on the right-hand side 
of each page of which is given a full-size 
representation of some species of fern (sev- 
enty-two species being included), while the 
opposite page is left blank for the insertion 
of a pressed and dried specimen of the 
species. The letterpress consists of direc- 
tions for preparing and fixing the specimens, 
the technical description of the order of 
ferns, and the list of illustrations or of spe- 
cies illustrated. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 



Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bnlletine 
and Reports. Cornell University: Mos. 12ii-13C. 
Currant and Raspberry Parasites, Sweet Peas, 
Uahlias, Experiments with Fertilizers, and Potato 
Culture Pp. 120. Delaware College : Nos. 32, 34. 
Combating Anthrax and Plant Diseases. Pp 24 
and 22. Iowa: No. 34. Nine subjects. Pp. 104 ; 
Report of the State Board of Health, April. Pi3. 
2.) Massachusetts Agricultural College : Thirty- 
fourth Annual Report. Pp. 356 ; No. 43. Elec- 
tro-germination. Pp. 32. New Hampshire : Nos. 
40-42. Eighth Annual Report ; Potatoes and To- 
matoes. Pp.42. New Jersey: Nos. 119-121. Ap- 
ple-growintr, Potatoes, Cabbage Bug, and Melon 
Plant Louse. Pp. 5G. Ne,v York: Nos. 112, 113, 
11.5, and 116. Potatoes, Director's Report, and 
Fertilizers. Pp. 150. North Dakota (Govern- 
ment): No. 27. Smut of Grains. By H. L. BoUey. 
Pp. 58 ; Climate and Crop Service. Pp. 8.- Ten- 
nessee : State Board of Health Bulletin. Pp.16. 
United States Department of Agriculture : Insects 
affecting Stored Vegetable Products. By F. H. 
Chittenden ; In.fect Parasitism. By L. O. How- 
ard. Pi3. 57; The Clover Mite. Pp. 4; The 
Mexican Cotton-Boll Weevil. Pp. 8. University 
of Illinois: No. 40. Various. Pp.24. 

Acloque. A. Les Insectes nuisibles (Injurious 
Insects). Paris : Felix Alcan. Pp. 192. 

Alling-Aber, Mary R. An Experiment in Ed- 
ncation. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

Bell, Alexander Graham. The Mystic Oral 
School. Washington, D. C. Pp. 38. 

Cams, Dr. Paul. Homilies of Science. Chi- 
cago:, Open Court Publishing Company. Pp. 317. 
35 cents. 

Clodd, Edward. Pioneers of Evolution. From 
Thales to Huxley. New York : D. Appleton & 
Co. Pp. 274, with portraits. $1..50. 

Cuadrado, Dr. Gast6n Alon o. Introduccion al 
Estudio de la Bspectroscopia (Introduction to the 
Study of Spectroscopy). Havana. Pp. 39. 

Chapman, Frank M. Bird-Life. A Guide to 
the Study of our Common Birds. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. Pp. 269. $1.75. 

Foster, Hon. John W. The Annexation of 
Hawaii. Washington. Pp. 16. 

Geikie, Sir Archibald. The Ancient Volca- 
noes of Great Britain. New York : Macmillan 
Company. Two volumes. Pp. 477 and 492. 
$11.25. 

Grimsley, G. P. Gypsum in Kansas. Wash- 
burn College, Topeka. Pp. 27, with 4 plates. 

Grosse, Ernst. The Beginnings of Art. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 327, with 3 
plates. $1.75. 



Harris, William T. Art Education the True 
Industrial Education. Syracuse, N. Y.: C. W. 
Bardeen. Pp. 77. 50 cents. 

Harvard College Observatory. Observations 
with the Bruce Photographic Telescope. Pp. 4 
text, and 3 photographs. 

Kellogg, E. L., & Co., Publishers, New York 
and Chicago. Educational P'oundatioi s Vol. 

VIII, No. 7. March, 1897. Pp. 67. $1 a year. 

Kempster, John. The Blood Relations of the 
Soul. London : James Clarke & Co. Pp. 16. 
Twopence 

Kirke, Ella Boyce. The Study of Oliver Twist 
condensed for Home and School Reading. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 348. 60 cents. 

Matthews, Washington. Navajo Legends. 
Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Pp. 298. $6. 

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. The Development of 
the Frog's Egg. New York : The Macmillan 
Company. Pp. 192. $1.60. 

Murray, Gilbert. A History of Ancient Greek 
Literature. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 
420. $1.,50. 

Nichols, Edward L. The Outlines of Physics. 
New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 452. 
$1.40. 

Nichols, Edward L., and Franklin, William 8. 
Elements of Physics. Vol. III. Light and Sound. 
New iTork : The Macmillan Company. Pp. 201. 
$1.50. 

O'Shea, John J. The New Political Issue in 
Ireland. (Advance sheets.) Pp. 16. 

Reports, Proceedings, Bulletins, etc. Central 
Indiana Hospital for the Insane : Forty-eighth 
Annual Report. Indianapolis. Pp. 51. College 
ol Science, Imperial University, Japan. Vol. 

IX, Part 11. Pp. 216, with Plates. Forestry As- 
sociation, American : Proceedings continued. 
Pp 75 ; The Forest Reservation Policy. Pp. 8. 
Harvard College : Annals of the Astronomical 
Observatory ; Journal of Zone Operations. By 
J. Winlock and E. C. Pickering. Pp. 299; Spec- 
tra of Bright Stars, discussed by Antonia C. 
Maury. Pp. 128. Massachusetts Institute of 
Techuology : Announcement of Summer Courses. 
Pp. 12. Missouri Geological Survey: Biennial 
Report of the State Geologist. Jelicrson City. 
Pp. 63, with maps. National Science Club, Wash- 
ington, D. C: Proceedings. Pp. 34. New York 
State Library: Legislative Bulletin. No. 8. Pp. 
56; Examination' Bulletin. No. 12. Pp. 112. 
New York Academy of Sciences : Fourth Annual 
Recei)tion. Pp. 62; New York Public Library: 
Bulletins. March and April, 1897. Pp. 44. Rose 



28o 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Polytechnic Institute, Terre Hante, Ind. : Fif- 
teenth Annual Catalo<;iie, 1807. Pp. 83. Smith- 
sonian Institution: Report of the Board of Re- 
gents for IHO). Pp. 837. Society for Pgychical 
Research: Proceedings. March, 1897. Pp. 20. 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries : 
Report for 1895. Pp. 590; Illustrations showing 
Condition of Fur Seal Rookeries in IBO.'i. and 
Method of Killing Seals : to accompany Report 
of C. H. Townsend, Assistant Fish Commis- 
sioner. 42 plates. 

Reprints. Babcock, Warren I.: "From De- 
moniacal Possession to Insanity." Pp. 6. 
Bauer, L. A.: On the Distribution and the Secu- 
lar Variation of Terrestrial Magnetism. No. IV. 
Pp. 8. Boas, Fran/, : Traditions of the Ts'ets'Sut. 
II. Pp. 14. Bolton, Prof. H. Carrington : The 
Language used in Talking to Domestic Animals. 
Washington. Pp. 47. Call, R. Ellsworth: Note 
on the Flora of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Pp. 
2. Diller, J. S. : Crater Lake, Oregon. Pp. 8 
Fairchild, H. L. : Lake Warren Shorelines in 
Western New York and the Geneva Beach; and 
Gilbert, G. K. : Old Tracks of Erian Drainage in 
Western New York. Rochester, N. Y. Pp. 2<J. 
Grimsley, G. P. : The Study of Natural Palimp- 
sests. Pp. 7. Hollick, Arthur : The Cretaceous 
Clay M.irl Exposure at Cliffwood, N. J. Pp. 12, 
with plates. Insect Life. General Index to the 
Seven Volumes. Pp. 14.5. Johnson, Henry L. 
E.: Appendicitis, etc. Pp.12; A Case of Pyo- 
salpinx, etc. Pp. 4. Kemp, J. F. : The Leucite 
Hills of Wyoming. Pp. 10, and the Geology of 
the Magnetites near Fort Henry, N. Y. Pp. C8, 
with map. Mason, Otis Tufton : Influence of 
Environment upon Human Industries or Arts. 



Pp. IG. Miller, Gerrit S. : Notes on the Mam- 
mals of Ontario. Pp. 44. Ward, Lester F. : In- 
dividual Telesis. Pp. 20. 

Schimmel & Co. (Fritsche Brothers). Leip.^ig 
and New York. Semiannual Report, April, l89i'. 
(Chemical Extracts.) Pp. 5.% with map. 

Storer, P. H. Agriculture in some of its Rela- 
tions with Chemistry. Seventh edition, revised 
and enlarged. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. Thieevols. Pp. 62C, 602, 079. $5. 

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock. The Hebrews 
in Egypt and their Exodus. Peoria : E. S. Will- 
cox. "Pp. 315. $1.25. 

United States Geological Survey. Geologic 
Atlas of the United States. Yellowstone National 
Park Folio, Wyoming. Pp. 6 text, 3 views, 4 
maps. 

United States Hydrographic Oiflce. Classifi- 
cation of Clouds for the Weather Observers of the 
Office. One-sheet chart. 

Vincent. Frank. The Plant World; its Ro- 
mances and Realities. New York : D. Appleton 
& Co. Pp. 228. 60 cents. 

Webster, Arthur Gorman. The Theory of 
Electricity and Magnetism. New York: I'he Mac- 
millan Company. Pp. 376. S3..50. 

Wiedemann, Alfred. Religion of the Ancient 
Egyptians. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
Pp. 324. 

Will'ams, George A. Topics and References 
in American Hi-tory. With numerous Search 
Questions. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardeeu. 
Pp. 1<6. $1. 



fragments ot ^clcucje. 



Large Trees from the Coal Period. The 

approach from the south to La Grange, Ala., 
is marked by the fine view into the valley 
of the Tennessee River, three or four hun- 
dred feet below, which it presents, and by 
the masses of sandstone lying around the 
village, where it has been precipitated from 
the cliffs above by the wearing away of the 
limestone under them. But the most inter- 
esting and remarkable feature of the locality, 
says Mr. Henry McCalley, in his geological 
report of the valley region, and the one for 
which La Grange will always be distinguished, 
is the profusion of the remains of fossil 
plants. Nowhere can one gain better ideas 
of the magnificence of the flora of the coal 
period than at this place. Trunks of Lepi- 
dodendron, two or three feet in diameter, lie 
buried and protruding from the debris of the 
sandstone. These trunks have in general 
preserved their form and are not at all com- 
pressed, whereby they show that they stood 
erect in the beds that inclosed them. Al- 
though stripped of their bark, the scars are 
plainly impressed on their surface. Two 



very fine specimens of these trunks are in 
the cabinet of the Geological Survey at the 
State University. One of them represents 
the lower part of the trunk, and has two 
large roots attached. The other has been 
used as a horse block, is about three feet in 
diameter and four feet high, and is remark- 
able for the impressions of calamites and 
other plants of which the sandstone com- 
posing it is full. The supposition is drawn 
from them that, in the process of petri- 
faction, the interior of the trunk was re- 
moved by decay or otherwise, leaving a hol- 
low cylinder of the outer layers of the trunk, 
and that this hollow cylinder was filled up 
with sand and fragments of calamites and 
other coal plants, which subsequently hard- 
ened. 

The Moki Indians and their Birds. 

The Moki Indians are described, in Dr. E. A. 
Mearns's paper on the names of their birds, 
as having a superstititious regard for most 
Uving things, particularly as holding serpents 
in reverence and a number of birds as sa- 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



281 



cred, or as looking to them as representing 
their clans or secret religious orders. " Ob- 
servers of Moki ceremonies have seen large 
wooden tablets in their kivas or ceremonial 
chambers painted with a green ground, or- 
namented with the rain prayer and some one 
of the countless Moki gods, and have re- 
marked that the little bird in the clouds sug- 
gests the thunder bird of the plains Indians." 
Bourke remarked upon the constant appear- 
ance of feathers, chiefly those of the eagle 
and turkey. The Indians will not part, for 
any amount of money, with the wands of 
eagle feathers used for fanning living ser- 
pents at their snake dance, for fear of offend- 
ing their bird deity. Sacrificial plumes of 
eagle down, attached to little sticks, are 
buried in the corners of the field at the 
opening of spring. The feathers of the par- 
rot, brought up from Mexico, are treasured 
in the Pueblos, and will always be found, 
according to Bourke, " carefully preserved in 
peculiar wooden boxes, generally cylindrical 
in shape, made expressly for the purpose. 
With them is invariably associated the soft 
white down of the eagle. The Mokis have 
an especial veneration for the two species of 
eagle, which are kept by them in cages, and 
are fed largely on field mice and rabbits. 
Capt'in Bourke alludes to eagle feathers as 
common articles of commerce among these 
people, to which they attach a determinate 
value, and ascribes the high price placed 
upon them by all the sedentary Indians of 
Arizona and New Mexico to graver consid- 
erations than mercantile. 

"Wild Indian Corn," The question 
whether wild Indian corn is growing in Amer- 
ica is- raised in Garden and Forest by Robert 
P. Harris, who assumes that such a corn 
has been found in several regions of this 
continent, naturally reproducing itself, and 
that it has a character of growth that fits 
it for long preservation in a dry climate, al- 
though, if planted and cultivated for a few 
years, all the characteristics of wildness 
gradually disappear. '' The cobs of wild 
maize are thin and hard, covered with lines 
of mushroom shaped elevations, each having 
a wirelike pedicel growing from the top, at- 
tached to a glume inclosing a small pointed 
grain, or a flat grain smaller than any pop 
corn. These kernel husks overlap each other 



toward the point of the ear, like the shingles 
on the roof of a house. The imbrications 
are largest and longest at the butt of the 
ear, and gradually become less pronounced as 
they advance in distinct rows to the point. 
The individual glumes are from an inch to 
two inches long, and are much longer than 
this where the grains are not fertilized, par- 
ticularly if the entire ear is of this character, 
as is proved by a specimen in my collection. 
Over these imbrications is the outside husk 
as we have it in all cultivated corns." Mr. 
Harris further says that Indian corn in 
its wild state has been found in Arizona, 
southern Texas, the valley of Mexico, and 
Central America. He has known Rocky 
Mountain corn a long period of time ; it has 
very small ears. One of the professors of 
the University of Mexico has been experi- 
menting with the wild corn of the valley, 
and has the engraving of a plant that grew 
to be about five feet high. Wild corn has 
also been grown by the Landreths, near 
Philadelphia, to whom it was sent from Ari- 
zona. Some found by Dr. Williams, of 
Houston, Texas, is a white flint of large 
size; but fifteen stalks produced only four 
ears, which grew on two of the stalks. The 
plant is a very vigorous grower, but it is not 
productive, and eight stalks grown in Texas 
did not bear a single ear. It may be doubted 
whether the evidence is as yet sufficient or 
is clear enough to establish that these speci- 
mens are really wild corn and not corn that 
has escaped from cultivation the more so, 
because Indian corn with glumes to each 
kernel is not rare. 

Dr. Yersin and Plagnc Yirns. Nature, of 
February 1 8th, brings an interesting account 
of Dr. Yersin's discovery of the plague virus 
and its antitoxiue, during the epidemic at 
Hong Kong in the spring of 1894. His at- 
tention being attracted to the extraordinary 
number of dead rats lying about in the 
squalid Chinese quarters of the city, he 
examined them, and discovered immense 
numbers of a short bacillus, that could be 
easily stained and cultivated in the usual 
manner. He found the same bacilli in dif- 
ferent organs of plague patients. Noticing 
quantities of dead flies in the room where he 
carried on his post-mortem examinations, he 
investigated this symptom, and established 



282 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



by experiment that these insects also were 
infected, and assisted in the spread of the 
disease. He forwarded cultures of his bacil- 
lus to the Pasteur Institute at Paris. Ex- 
periments made on rabbits and guinea pigs 
proved that the dead bacilli, if injected in 
sufficient number, are deadly ; smaller quan- 
tities, however, act as a vaccine, and protect 
the subject against stronger inoculation. 
Experiments with larger animals, such as 
horses, were equally successful. " That the 
most remarkable therapeutic value attaches 
to anti-plague serum, as now elaborated at 
the Pasteur Institute in Paris, is shown by 
the success which has recently followed its 
application in undoubted cases of plague at 
Amoy, by Yersin, now director of a Pasteur 
Institute at Wha-Trang in Annam. 

Marriage of the Dead. Among the many 
curious practices that Marco Polo came 
across in his travels in the far East, the Tar- 
tar custom of marrying the dead deserves 
notice. He says : " If any man have a 
daughter who dies before marriage, and an- 
other man have had a son also die before mar- 
riage, the parents of the two arrange a grand 
wedding between the dead lad and lass, and 
marry them they do, making a regular con- 
tract ! And when the contract papers are 
made out they put them in the fire, in order 
that the parties in the other world may know 
the fact, and so look on each other as man 
and wife. And the parents thenceforward 
consider themselves sib to each other just as 
if their children had lived and married. 
Whatever may be agreed on between the 
parties as dowry, those who have to pay it 
cause to be painted on pieces of paper, and 
then put these in the fire, saying that in that 
way the dead person will get all the real 
articles in the other world." This custom is 
also noted by other writers, even as late as 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. It 
is said to have been adopted by Jenghis 
Khan, for political reasons, and is named in 
his Yasa, published in 1205 a. d. 

The Three R's " of Prchlstorie Man 

M. Ed. Piette has published an interesting 
discovery in V Aiiihropologie, (vol. vii, 1896, 
p. 385). He found in a cave at Mas-d'Azil, 
in the department of Ariege, a quantity of 
pebbles, rounded, oblong, and flattened, such 



as are taken from river beds. They were 
variously painted with peroxide of iron ; 
some had their whole surface colored, and 
others again showed a border around the 
margin, or were dotted and striped in dif- 
ferent designs. Crosses, serpentine patterns, 
and even trees could be traced out. M. 
Piette thinks that according to these devices 
the pebbles stand for numerals, symbols, pic- 
tographic signs, and alphabetic characters. 
He gives loose rein to his fancy in interpret- 
ing them, especially the last named. He 
reaches the startling conclusion that some 
are probably syllabic signs, used for inscrip- 
tions or in building up words. Twenty- five 
colored plates accompany the memoir, and 
give food for speculation on these cabalistic 
memorials of a bygone era. 

Animals on the March. Among the 
animals that take long journeys in great 
numbers are the springbok, the American 
bison, the musk ox, and, in smaller bodies, 
wild horses and the antelopes of the steppes. 
Journeying mostly over the plains, they near- 
ly always move in a wide front, a way of 
marching that gives an equal chance to all in 
browsing. Some species of birds also migrate 
on foot. The guinea fowls always go in sin- 
gle file, a favorite mode of travel in Central 
Africa, where paths have to be cut through 
the dense scrub or impassable forests. The 
European wild geese are the champion walk" 
ers among birds. Belying the stigma at- 
tached to their name, they show much fore- 
thought in their pedestrian expeditions, 
which are undertaken either to accompany 
their young, or during the molting season. 
Uuhastmg, yet unresting, they march ahead 
in column, often ten geese abreast, careful 
not to jostle their neighbors, with head 
erect in the air. From time to time the 
leaders give the signal to halt and feed, and 
then to " fall in " again and continue on the 
road. Abroad, before the days of railways, 
dealers in poultry, making use of this march- 
ing power, often saved expense by letting the 
geese transport themselves. Droves num- 
bering nine thousand have walked over the 
road from Suffolk to London. At Antwerp 
not long ago large flocks were seen marching 
up the plank to a steamer bound for Har- 
wich, and then gravely descending to the 
lower deck to range themselves in an inclos- 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



283 



ure, quite unwittingly going to their own 
death. Animals on the march rarely suffer 
from hunger. The quadrupeds, being all 
vegetarians, go toward the regions of their 
food supply. Birds " feed up" for a time 
before their migration, and during their sea 
trips live on the fat stoi-ed away on their 
bodies. Fish on the march are the most 
leisurely of creatures. Floating along with 
hardly any efforts of propulsion, and con- 
stantly surrounded by their food supply, they 
appear the favored among travelers. 

Maori Tattooing. Major-Geueral Robloy, 
who has studied the tattooing, or " moko," 
of the Maoris, represents that the custom is 
no longer practiced among the men. King 
Tawhaio, two years ago, carried to his grave 
" one of the last really fine specimens of 
moko." Apparently every chief who was 
decorated had a special design, and a vari- 
ety of beautiful patterns in arabesque arose. 
They certainly show, the Athenjeum says, 
that a variety of designs can be derived 
from the adaptation of scroll work to the 
outlines of the human face, and exhibit 
much technical skill in dealing with an in- 
tractable material. The work was done with 
a chisel made of a sea bird's wing bone 
or a shark's tooth, a fragment of stone or 
hard wood, ground down to a fine edge, 
which was driven into the skin by a smart 
tap, causing a deep cut and much effusion of 
blood, which was wiped away with the flat- 
tened end of the mallet or with a wad of 
flax. After contact with Europeans, iron 
chisels were sometimes used. The associa- 
tion of a special design with the individual 
tattooed had the advantage of serving as a 
means of identification, and this led to the 
curious result that Maori chiefs attached as 
their signature to deeds and other documents 
a facsimile of the moko tattooed on their 
faces. It is said that even an enemy would 
respect a head conspicuous for a beautiful 
moko. 

The Caucasus as a Pleasure Resort. 

The Caucasus Mountains are held up by Sir 
Douglas Freshfield, who knows them well, 
as a desirable pleasure resort and especially 
well adapted to a horseback excursion. Pro- 
visions are plenty, and the configuration of 
the region lends itself to a riding tour. 



The Caucasus is suited for general travelers, 
for lovers of the picturesque, whether or not 
they are painters, as well as for peak-hunt- 
ers. If above its snow level its granite 
crests, its icy hollows, its hanging glaciers, 
and fluted snow slopes impress the intruder 
with a sublimity beyond that of the Alps, 
its high valleys have attractions for men of 
the most various pursuits and hobbies. The 
physical geographer will find materials for a 
contrast between the features of the Cauca- 
sus and those of better-known ranges. For 
example, why do so many Caucasian glaciers 
fail to fill their valleys and leave a pleasant 
dell between the moraines and the mountain 
sides ? . . . I am not competent and do not 
attempt to act as a guide to the Caucasus 
as a whole. My ' Central Caucasus ' bears 
to the whole region something of the same 
proportion that the Central Alps, between 
the Little St. Bernard and the Bernma Pass, 
do to the Alpine chain. It is the most im- 
portant section, but it is only a section. On 
one side, to the east, lie the wild highlands 
of Daghestan, the scene of Schamyl's resist- 
ance, with their high plateaus cleft by nar- 
row ravines, their hill fortresses, and at least 
three high glacier groups. On the west stretch 
the great forests and granite crests which 
hem the tributaries of the Ruban, a region 
probably of extraordinary beauty. The gla- 
ciers of one of its groups have just been 
mapped for the first time by the Russian 
surveyors. They are otherwise wholly unex- 
plored. The only travelers to penetrate these 
fortresses have been Dr. Radde, who has, in 
PetermanvUs Mitiheilungen, published an ac- 
count of his journeys, a stray botanist or 
two, and those indefatigable pursuers of wild 
animals, Mr. and Mrs. Littledale, who have 
hunted the aurochs in the wilds of the Ze- 
lentshuk." 

Historical Wampum Belts. One of the 

last papers of the late Horatio Hale was re- 
cently communicated to the Anthropological 
Institute, London, by Prof. E. B. Tylor, and 
related to four historical Huron wampum 
belts. To this Prof. Tylor added some re- 
marks of his own, which were illustrated 
by the exhibition of specimens and lantern 
slides. It was explained how the Iroquois 
belt might be distinguished from others by 
the occurrence of diagonal bands of beads. 



284 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



contrasting in color with tiiose forming the 
ground. These diagonals are derived from 
the diagonal rafters of the peculiar " long 
houses " of the Iroquois. Other well-known 
conventional symbols represent hearts, 
houses, lands, the " peace path," etc. One 
of the belts exhibited was itself a historical 
record of some mterest, as it depicted a pro- 
posal of conversion to Christianity made by 
the early Jesuit missionaries to the Indians, 
the message being effected by working into 
a wampum belt a symbolic group consisting 
of the lamb, the dove, and several crosses. 
The investigations made by Mr. Hale seem 
to show that the " Penn Belt," which is now 
in New England, is not a record of the fa- 
mous scene depicted by Benjamin West, but 
of a more obscure treaty concluded with Iro- 
quois chiefs. The intrinsic evidence afforded 
by the belt convinced Mr. Hale that it was 
made by Iroquois. In this way anthropology 
has been able to correct history. The speaker 
also illustrated the use of wampum belts as 
records in modern times, exemplified by the 
annual meeting of chiefs, at which all the 
belts are carefully gone over, in order that 
events of tribal importance may be kept 
green. 

Elepliants in a Lninber Yaid. No work 
done by elephants perhaps requires at once 
greater intelligence and strength on their 
part than that of those which are used in 
unloading and piling up timber in the lum- 
ber yards of Burmah. The most important 
of these lumber yards, at Rangoon, receives 
the timber that comes down from the im- 
mense forests of the Irrawaddy, with the 
great logs lashed together into huge rafts. 
The workmen cut the cords, and the task of 
the elephants begins. Plunging without hesi- 
tation into the muddy waters of the river, they 
go at once toward the logs. Each animal se- 
lects a stick, pushes it with his trunk to the 
shore, picks it up, and lands it, all that his 
driver has to do being to indicate what log 
he wishes taken. Twelve of these animals, 
according to M. Charles Marsillon, eleven 
males and one female, work constantly in the 
yard. The female is the most intelligent of 
all of them. At the sawmill she places the 
piece to be cut before the saw. She uses 
her trunk as a hand ; takes the boards away 
as they are made, and piles them symmetri- 



cally in the drying heap. As the sawdust ac- 
cumulates and threatens to cover everything 
up, she blows it away with her powerful nos- 
trils, keeping the place cleared so that the 
work can go on unobstructed. When the din- 
ner bell rings, nothing neither threats nor 
caresses can keep her in the yard, industri- 
ously as she has worked till then. She seems 
to see to it too that her companions also stop. 
The elephants return to work immediately 
the signal is given. Sometimes one of them 
comes upon a stick that is too heavy for him 
to handle alone ; and then one of his compan- 
ions, perceiving his trouble, will come to his 
assistance. It seems to be one of the easiest 
things in the world for these animals to ar- 
range and straighten the pile of logs when- 
ever it begins to take a crooked or uneven 
shape. If they are not able to do this with 
their trunks, they use their tusks until the 
pile is got into order. They work willingly 
and with interest, call for help when they 
need it, and respoiid to one another's appeals. 

Snbstitntos for Glass in Germany, An 

interesting account of glass substitutes is 
given in a recent copy of the Journal of the 
Society of Arts. Tectorium, which is used in 
Germany as a substitute for glass, is a sheet 
of tough, insoluble gum said to be bichro- 
mated gelatin about one sixteenth of an inch 
thick, overlying on both sides a web of gal- 
vanized iron or steel wire, the meshes of which 
are generally about one eighth of an inch 
square. It feels and smells similar to the oiled 
silk that is used in surgery. It is lighter 
than glass, tough, pliant, and practically inde- 
structible by exposure to rain, wind, hail, or 
any shock or blow which does not pierce or 
break the wire web. It may be bent into 
any desired form, and when punctured can 
be easily repaired. Its translucency is about 
the same as that of opal glass, with a 
greenish amber color, which fades gradually 
to white on exposure to the sun ; so that 
while arresting the direct rays of sunshine, 
it transmits a soft, modulated light, which 
is said to be well adapted to hothouses and 
conservatories. It is a poor conductor of 
heat and cold. Its surface is well adapted 
for printing in oil colors, and is thus valu- 
able for decorative purposes. The objec- 
tions against it are that it is inflammable, and 
is apt to sot ten in warm weather. For hot- 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



285 



beds and forcing houses the Germans have 
another substitute glass called Fensterpappe, 
which is a tough, strong manilla paper 
which is soaked in boiled linseed oil until it 
becomes translucent and impervious to water. 
This paper costs wholesale in Germany 
about 19s. 66?, per roll one hundred metres 
in length by one metre in width. It admits 
sufficient light for growing plants, does not 
require to be shaded in hot sunshine, is 
light, durable, and practically secure against 
breakage, and is said to be a hundred 
times cheapef than glass. There is a new 
product recently patented and placed on the 
German market, called Hornglas. It is very 
similar to tectorium in appearance and prop- 
erties, the two advantages claimed for it be- 
ing greater transparency and less liability of 
softening under a hot sun. 

Animal Traits. Among the birds in the 
" Zoo " at the Hague not commonly found 
in menageries is the " rhinoceros bird," or 
" buffel pikker," from the Transvaal, which 
is described by the natural-history writer in 
the London Spectator as a bird of remark- 
able habits and unusual plumage. Small 
flocks of these birds accompany most, of the 
large antelopes, the buffaloes, and the rhi- 
noceroses in South Africa, and run all over 
the creatures' bodies, picking ofP flies and 
insects. When an enemy approaches, the 
"buffel pikkers" sit in line with heads 
raised on the back of the animal they are 
attending, like sparrows on a roof ridge, and 
signal the alarm. The plumage is close, uni- 
form, and compact, giving the bird an ap- 
pearance of being covered with polished 
satin rather than with feathers. The mon- 
keys have an outdoor house, floored with loose 
sand, exactly suitable for a playground agree- 
ing with their natural habits, which communi- 
cates with their cages by holes through the 
wall. The holes fairly represent the rock 
crevices in the animals' native hills, and the 
monkeys slip through them to the sand, which 
they can turn over in search of insects, as they 
do at home. When thirsty, they go to the 
stone water troughs set in the runs and drink, 
standing on all fours, sucking up the water 
as a horse does. The elephant in this Zoo 
has had to sacrifice his dignity and come 
down to playing tricks. It earns small coins 
by blowing a mouth organ with its trunk 



and grinding a coffee mill. It plays domi- 
noes " with laborious care," lifting each piece 
from the table and depositing it next that 
placed by the keeper, with a very audible 
noise. 

Canon Core on Evolution and the Fall. 

In a lecture recently delivered at Sheffield, 
England, Canon Gore examines the contra- 
dictions between the Christian doctrine of 
the sudden fall and the scientific doctrine of 
the gradual rise of man. " According to the 
theory of evolution," he said, "man began 
his career at the bottom, emerging from pure- 
ly animal life, and slowly struggled upward 
to his present level of attainment. Accord- 
ing to the Christian doctrine, on the contrary, 
he was created perfect, and then subsequent- 
ly fell into sin and accompanying misery." 
Intellectually, however, the Bible does not 
represent primitive man as perfect. His 
faculties at the beginning were in a childish 
state, and his mastery over the arts and sci- 
ences was a gradual acquirement. But it 
maintains that man from the first was en- 
dowed with a perfected moral feeling for 
right and wrong, and that his one act of dis- 
obedience not only affected his own life but 
also tainted with lawlessness his after-com- 
ers. Canon Gore maintains that according 
to the third chapter of Genesis man was at 
first in direct relation to a divine will, and 
could have followed the path of development 
pointed out to him. He thereby would have 
spiritualized not only his own nature, but by 
the simple law of heredity would have fa- 
thered a race moving in an altogether higher 
moral sphere. 

Marsupials and their Skias. The mar- 
supials (the pouch-bearing animals) of Aus- 
tralia, the opossums, wombats, kangaroos, and 
wallabies (smaller kangaroos), are among the 
fur-bearing animals killed in the largest num- 
bers. They have been looked upon as pests, 
and a premium put upon their heads by the 
Government, so that now they are exter- 
minated in many parts of the country. Their 
skins are not at all estimated at their proper 
value, being mostly made up into cheap rugs, 
or used for sole leather and japanned boots, 
or the hair is scraped off and manufactured 
into felt. Yet they would be a valuable ad- 
dition to the European fur trade, were the 



286 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



animals not constantly killed and the skins 
shipped to England in the summer, when the 
fur is almost useless. The coat, especially 
of the kangaroo, is close and soft like plush, 
with beautiful tints of French gray, warm 
red, orange, and rose color. The famous 
"boxing kangaroo" attracted a good deal of 
attention some three years ago. It earned 
an immense sum of money, sometimes given 
as 20,000. It had not received any special 
training ; its keeper timply took advantage 
of the fact that a tame kangaroo who knows 
its master will always " box " when invited to 
do so, putting up his short forearms to ward 
ofE any imaginary blows. This kangaroo set 
the fashion for the sport, for the animals at 
once were sought after for sparring exhibi- 
tions, and for a time all the kangaroos in 
Europe outside of the menageries nightly 
drew crowds to their pugilistic feats. Kan- 
garoos easily adapt themselves to the Euro- 
pean climate ; they thrive well in the zoo- 
logical gardens, and have even been success- 
fully kept on private estates in England. 
Their graceful poses and their soft, beauti- 
fully tinted coats make them objects of gen- 
eral attraction. 

Roadside Orchards. The experiment of 
planting fruit trees along the sides of pub- 
lic highways has been tried with satisfactory 
results in several German states and in Aus- 
tria, and the products of the plantations 
have been the means of adding considerably 
to the revenues of the Governments thereof. 
In Saxony the profit derived by the state 
from that source during fourteen years is 
estimated at about four hundred thousand 
dollars. Planting of forest trees by the sides 
of the roads has been abandoned in Wiir- 
temberg, and the plantation and care of fruit 
trees are regulated by law. The trees are 
placed in the care f the abutting proprie- 
tor under the supervision of the highway 
inspector. In Bavaria and the Palatinate 
each road man is duplicated by a horticultur- 
ist, for whose qualification special instruction 
is provided, and who has to pass a competi- 
tive examination. In some regions the lines 
of the railroads are also planted, and in 
others the minor roads and even private 
roads. The system has made the most rapid 
progress and reached the highest develop- 
ment in the grand duchy of Luxemburg, 



where special classes are held every year, 
under a professor in the agricultural school, 
for teaching the inspectors and road hands 
the theoretical and practical elements of the 
orchardist's art. 

The Dalai Lama. Mr. St. George R. 
Littledale, who traveled in Tibet in 1894, 
learned from an interpreter that the Da- 
lai Lama then reigning was about twenty 
years old, and was to come of age in the 
succeeding November. The Rajah of Lhasa, 
who was acting as regent, would then lose 
his power and retire into private life. The 
last two Dalai Lamas had died between the 
ages of eighteen and twenty, which seemed 
to be a peculiarly fatal period in the lives of 
these potentates. The present regent had 
held office for forty years, and might per- 
haps have given interesting details of the 
last illnesses of two of his sovereigns. The 
Dalai Lama, however often the dignitary 
may be reincarnated, never really dies; the 
incarnation descends to some infant, whom 
it is the business of the lama priesthood to 
discover. When found, he is brought to 
Lhasa, surrounded by crowds of lamas, who 
educate him for the position he is so seldom 
allowed to fill. The Dalai Lama of Mr. Lit- 
tledale's time was discovered as a baby at 
Thokopo, five days from Lhasa. The Teshu 
Lama at Shigatze was a boy of twelve or 
thirteen, who during his minority was under 
the tutelage of Lhasa. When a Tibetan 
lama dies, they carry the body to a moun- 
tain, cut it to pieces, and the vultures do 
the rest. The Dalai Lama is embalmed, and 
gold and jewels are inserted into his face. 
The three great incarnations the Dalai 
Lama, the Teshu Lama, and the Taranath 
Lama are all equally holy, and their sedan 
chairs, when in Lhasa, are each carried by 
eight bearers, while the two Chinese manda- 
rins are allowed only four bearers apiece. 

Qnick Growth of a Myth. A pertinent 
illustration of the way myths and legends 
may grow and expand is illustrated by the 
story of Alexander (the Great), of which Mr. 
E. A. Wallis Budge has published the Syriac 
and Ethiopic versions. No instance of the 
development of fables, says the Athenaeum's 
review of one of these publications, can be 
more instructive; for we start from a real 



FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



287 



man, living in the clear light of history, 
whose acts were chronicled at the time by 
respectable historians. Nevertheless, so 
transcendent was his genius, so marvelous 
were his deeds, that almost immediately 
after his death probably, indeed, during 
his life popular imagination lays hold of 
him, adds adventures, miracles, words of 
wisdom, wonders of all sorts, and so trans 
forms him into a colossal mythical figure, 
which looms through the mists of fable, as 
fantastic as Jack the Giant Killer. The 
diffusion of the Alexander stories is prob- 
ably the widest ever attained by any heroic 



legend. " There are versions of them stretch- 
ing through all the middle ages in time, and 
reaching in space from the Malay Peninsula 
to Ireland ; and, as every nation has desired 
a popular or home edition, we can even yet 
find either complete or partial texts in at 
least wenty-three languages." Dr. Budge 
describes the process of amplification of the 
myth as starting with the distortion and en- 
largement of the first tolerably accurate de- 
scription, and going on till, " when the hero 
has become a mere memory, his name will be 
made in each country that adopts the story a 
peg on which to hang legends and myths." 



MINOR PARAGRAPHS. 



A BOW and arrows taken from an Egyp- 
tian tomb of the twenty-sixth dynasty and 
exhibited to the London Anthropological In- 
ptitute differ in a very marked manner from 
the native Egyptian bows, and are believed 
to be of Assyrian origin. The differences 
are very evident when a comparison is made 
with the typical Egyptian archer's equip- 
ment which was found in the same tomb. 
The bow is elaborately built up of several 
materials, and is therefore to be classed with 
the " composite bows," being allied to the 
modern Asiatic bows comprised under this 
term. The materials of which it is com- 
posed are wood (two kinds), dense black 
horn, sinews of animals, birch bark, and glue. 
The birch bark, which completely enveloped 
the bow in a continuous sheath, would of it- 
self proclaim the implement to be a foreign 
and northern introduction into Egypt, and 
the whole character of the weapon bears out 
this supposition. 

It is related in the Life of Brian Hough- 
ton Hodgson, the first great collector of 
Buddhist manuscripts, that while seeking for 
books in Nepaul he was surprised at the wide 
diffusion of literature among the masses. 
He attributed it to the knowledge of prirt- 
ing which the Tibetans had derived, prob- 
ably, from China. " But the universal use 
they make of it," he said, " is a merit of 
their own. The poorest fellow who visits 
this valley is seldom without his religious 
tract, and from every part of his dress dan- 
gle charms made up in slight cases, whose 
interior exhibits the neatest workmanship." 
The universal use of writing, as shown by 



the abundance of manuscripts, was hardly 
less noticeable than the wide diffusion of 
printed books. The writing of many of these 
ancient manuscripts exhibits fine specimens 
of very graceful penmanship ; and they owe 
their preservation, the author of the memoir 
says, to having been guarded in their wrap- 
pings of silks as sacred heirlooms. 

The well-known germicidal qualities of 
oxygen have led to its recent application in 
the treatment of surgical wounds. Exam- 
inations of the bacteriological conditions of 
affected parts before and after treatment, 
says Mr. George Stoker in a recent British 
Medical Journal, show that oxygen has a se- 
lective action in reference to microorgan- 
isms. Whatever may be the connection be- 
tween the organisms and the state of a 
wound or sore, it seems to be established 
that when in a wound treated by oxygen 
healing is arrested or retarded, there is al- 
ways a corresponding decrease of favorable 
and increase of unfavorable micro organisms. 
If the strength of the oxygen bath be in- 
creased when this condition arises, the char- 
acter of the micro-organisms from the wound 
is entirely reversed. A long and varied ex- 
perience of the oxygen treatment has led 
Mr. Stoker to conclude that the method 
heals in less time than any other form of 
treatment, allays pain, stops foul discharges, 
forms a healthy new skin, and is far more 
economical than any other form of ti-eat- 
ment, both as regards suffering and money. 

The scientific merits of archaeology were 
well set forth in an address made by Mr. 
W. M. Flinders Petrie at the recent annual 



288 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
The science had made great advances, one 
indication of which was the unexpectedly 
large circulation of books on the subject. 
There had, too, been a more scientific spirit 
shown in its treatment, and problems were 
approached simply with the desire to learn 
the truth, and not with the expectation of 
proving something. The time had indeed 
come when archicology was regarded as one 
of the elements of a liberal education. It 
was now fully recognized that it was not a 
mere fad or dilettant amusement, but had 
thrown great light on the history of the 
human mind. 

NOTES. 

At the meeting of the Coimcil of the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, held at Washington April 21st, 
Prof. Theodore Gill, as senior vice-president, 
succeeded under the constitution to the posi- 
tion of acting president, vice E. D. Cope, de- 
ceased. Prof. Gill was requested by vote of 
the Council to prepare an obituary notice of 
President Cope, and to deliver it before the 
association at the Detroit meeting in lieu of 
the ordinary presidential address by the re- 
tiring president, and he undertook to do so. 
Prof. Leland 0. Howard was nominated vice- 
president for the Section of Zoology (Sec- 
tion F), vice G. Brown Goode, deceased. 

The observations of Mr. Percival Lowell 
at Flagstaff, Arizona, in which he assumes 
to have had vastly more distinct views of 
the planet's disk than were ever before ob- 
tained, indicate that the period of the di- 
urnal rotation of Venus is identical with 
that of its revolution round the sun. 
Hence it has one side constantly turned 
toward the sun and the other constantly 
averted from it everlasting burning heat 
on one side and never- intermitted cold on 
the other. 

A PROPOSITION is under consideration in 
the English scientific societies for the estab- 
lishment, in commemoration of the sixtieth 
year of her Majesty's reign, of a Victoria 
Research Fund, to be administered by repre- 
sentatives of the various scientific societies 
for the encouragement of research iu all 
branches of science. 

The people of Detroit are working ear- 
nestly in preparation to give the American 
Association a cordial welcome and hospitable 
entertainment at its coming meeting there. 
A general interest seems to be taken in the 
matter, as was exemplified by the recent at- 
tendance of an audience of twenty-five hun- 
dred persons upon a lecture by the secretary 
of the association, Prof. Putnam. The 
press is co-operating with the citizens' com- 



mittee in making the interest lively, and the 
effect is apparent in the subscription lists. 
While it is already reasonably certain that 
all who go to the meeting will be well and 
amply taken care of, the people hope that 
their invitation will be responded to by a 
large attendance of Americans and English- 
men and others interested in science. 

The work in anthropology in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, for the present associated 
with that in sociology, includes courses in 
general anthropology, general ethnology, 
prehistoric archaeology (European and Amer- 
ican, in alternation), ethnology (the Amer- 
ican race), physical anthropology (elementary 
and laboratory courses), laboratory work, 
Mexican ethnography and archaeology, eth- 
nology of Japan, the pueblos of New Mex- 
ico, and lectures by Dr. W. I. Thomas on 
folk psychology, primitive art, and Slavic 
ethnology. Several important collections 
are on deposit in the university, represent- 
ing Mexican archfcology, the cliff dwellings 
and cave house of Utah, the Aleutian Is- 
lands and Eskimos, Japan, and the collec- 
tion of the International Folklore Associa- 
tion. 

The Blue Hill Meteorological Observa- 
tory, Massachusetts, was established in 1885 
by Mr. A. Lawrence Rotch, and is main- 
tained by him at his own expense. By 
arrangement it co-operates with the ob- 
servatory of Harvard College, and its obser- 
vations are published, partly at Mr. Rotch's 
expense, in the annals of that institution. 
Since the land surrounding the observatory 
has been taken for a public park, a lease 
for ninety-nine years has been taken of the 
ground it needs, which will enable its work 
to be continued under invariable conditions 
of exposure. 

The French journal V Anthropologie pub- 
lishes an account of the discovery of the 
Moi race of tailed men by M. Paul d'Enjoy 
in Indo-China. M. d'Enjoy saw only one of 
the men, the rest of the village having run 
away, but he conversed with this one and 
saw where the people lived. The man was 
found in a large tree, into which he had 
climbed for honey. His climbing was like 
that of a monkey, and in coming down he 
applied his sole to the bark. The tail is not 
the only peculiarity of this race, for their 
ankle bones are extraordinarily developed, so 
as to resemble the spurs of roosters. The 
Mois use poisoned barbed arrows, and are 
treated by the natives around them as brutes. 

Baron Constantin Ettingshacsen has 
died at Graz, aged seventy-one. Beginning 
his scientific career as a doctor, he later on 
devoted himself to the study of botany and 
paleontology. He arranged the paleonto- 
iogical collections in the British Museum 
(natural history). He wrote many papers 
for the Proceedings of the Royal Society, and 
for the journals of other learned bodies. 




HORATIO HALE. 



APPLETONS' 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
MOKTHLY. 



JULY, 1897. 

THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 

A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY. 

(Lowell Institute Lectures^ 1896. ) 

By WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY, Ph. D., 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TE0HNOLOGt|; LECTURER IN 
ANTHROPO-GEOGRAPHY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

VI. FRANCE THESTEUTON AND THE|CELT. 

SEVERAL reasons combine to make];_France the^most interest- 
ing country of Europe from the anthropological point of 
view. More is known of it in detail than of any other part of 
the continent save Italy. Its surface presents the greatest diver- 
sity of climate, soil, and fertility. Its population, consequently, is 
exposed to the most varied influences of environment. It alone 
among the other countries of central Europe is neither cis- nor 
trans-alpine. It is open to invasion from all sides alike. Lying 
on the extreme west coast of Europe, it is a place of last resort 
for all the westward-driven peoples of the Old World. All these 
causes combine to render its population the most heterogeneous 
to be found on the continent. It comprises all three of the great 
ethnic types described in our last paper, while most countries are 
content with two. Nay more, it still includes a goodly living 
representation of a prehistoric race which has disappeared almost 
everywhere else in Europe.* 

* It would be ungracious not to acknowledge publicly my indebtedness to two of the fore- 
most authorities upon the population of I'rance Dr. R. Collignon, of the Ecole Superieure de 
Guerre at Paris, and Prof. G. V. de Lapouge, of the University of Rennes in Brittany. In- 
valuable assistance in the preparation of this and the following paper has been rendered 
by each. No request, even the most, exacting, has failed of a generous response at their 
hands. W. Z. R. 

VOL. LI. 22 



zgo POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Thirty years ago lay observers began to note differences in 
central France between the people of the mountains and of the 
plains. As early as 1868 Durand de Gros noted that in Aveyron, 
one of the southern departments lying along the border of a 
mountainous area, the populations of the region thereabout were 
strongly differentiated. On the calcareous plains the people were 
taller, of light complexion, with blue or blue- grayish eyes and 
having fine teeth. In the upland areas, of a granitic formation, 
the people were stunted, dark in complexion, with very poor teeth. 
These groups used distinct dialects. The peasants differed in 
temperament. One was as lively as the other was morose. One 
was progressive, the other was backward in culture, suspicious of 
innovations. This same observer noted that the cattle of the two 
regions were unlike. On the infertile soils they were smaller 
and leaner, differing in bodily proportions as well. He naturally, 
therefore, offered the same explanation for the differences of 
both men and cattle namely, that they were due to the influences 
of environment. He asserted that the geology of the districts 
had affected the quality of the food and its quantity at the 
same time, thereby affecting both animal and human life. When 
this theory was advanced, even the fact that such differences ex- 
isted was scouted as impossible, to say nothing of the explanation 
of them. As late as 1889 I found a German geologist, in igno- 
rance of the modern advance of anthropology, strongly impressed 
by these same contrasts of population, and likewise ascribing 
them to the direct influence of environment as did the earlier 
discoverer. These differences, then, surely exist even to the un- 
practiced eye. We must account for them ; but we do it in an- 
other way. The various types of population are an outcome of 
their physical environment. This has, however, worked not di- 
rectly but in a roundabout way. It has set in motion a species of 
social or racial selection, now operative over most of Europe. 
This process it is our province to describe in this paper. 

Before we proceed to study the French people, we must cast 
an eye over the geographical features of the country. These are 
depicted in the accompanying map, in which the deeper tints 
show the location of the regions of elevation above the sea level. 
At the same time the cross-hatched lines mark the areas within 
which the physical environment is unpropitious, at least as far 
as agriculture the mainstay of economic life until recent times 
is concerned. 

A glance is sufiicient to convince us that France is not every- 
where a garden. Two north and south axes of fertility divide it 
into three or four areas of isolation. These differ in degree in a 
way which illustrates the action of social forces with great clear- 
ness. Within these two axes of fertility lie two thirds of all the 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



291 



cities of France with a population of fifty thousand or over. The 
major one extends from Flanders at the north to Bordeaux in the 
southwest. Shaped like an hourglass, it is broadened about Paris 
and in Aquitaine, being pinched at the waist between Auvergne 
and Brittany. The seventy- five miles of open country which lie 
between Paris and Orleans have rightly been termed by Kohl 
" the Mesopotamia of France." This district is not only surpass- 
ingly fertile; it is the strategic center of the country as well. 
At this point the elbow of the Loire comes nearest to the Seine 




Elf veXion above jea. 
0-2.00 meteri 
Z-500 
^^ over 5oo 
ni riounti-inous 



j Primitive 
! with infer 



in all its course. An invader possessed of this vantage ground 
would have nearly all of France that was worth having at his 
feet. If the Huns under Attila, coming from the east in 451, 
had captured Orleans as Clovis did with his Frankish host at 
a later time, the whole southwest of France would have been 
laid open to them. The Saracens, approaching from the oppo- 
site direction along this axis, had they been victorious at Tours, 
could in the same way have swarmed over all the north and 
the east, and the upper Rhone Valley would have been within 
reach. The Normans in their turn, coming from the north- 



292 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

west, must needs take Orleans before they could enter the heart 
of the country. Finally, it was for the same reason that the 
English fought for the same city in 1429, and the Germans took 
it twice, in 1815 and again in 1870. This district, then, between 
Paris and Orleans, is the key to the geographical situation, be- 
cause it lies at the middle point of this backbone of fertility 
from north to south. 

The second axis, lying along the river Rhone, is of somewhat 
less importance as a center of population because of its extreme 
narrowness. Yet it is a highway of migration between the north 
and the south of Europe, skirting the Alps ; and it is easily 
accessible to the people of the Seine basin by the low plateau of 
Langres near the city of Dijon. This renders it the main artery 
of communication from Paris to the Mediterranean. Down its 
course Teutonic blood has flowed. The culture of the south has 
spread into northern Europe in the contrary direction. Such is 
the normal exchange between the two climates in human history^ 
the world over. The great fertility of the Rhone axis, moreover, 
is in strong contrast to the character of the country upon either 
side. Judged by its population, it merits the important position 
we have here assigned to it. 

These two axes of fertility divide France, as we have said, 
into three areas which exhibit the phenomena of social isolation 
in different degrees. East of the Rhone lies Savoy, exceedingly 
mountainous, with a rigorous Alpine climate, and of a geologi- 
cal formation yielding with difficulty to cultivation. This region 
combines two safeguards against ethnic invasion. In the first 
place, it is not economically attractive; for the colonist is un- 
moved by those charms which appeal to the tourist to-day. We 
reiterate, the movement of peoples is dependent upon the imme- 
diate prosperity of the country for them. It matters not whether 
the invading hosts be colonists, coming for permanent settlement, 
or barbarians in search of booty ; the result is the same in either 
case. Savoy, therefore, has seldom attracted the foreigner. It 
could not offer him a livelihood if he came. In the second place, 
whenever threatened with invasion, the defense of the country 
was easy. Permanent conquest is impossible in so mountainous 
a district. Combining both of these safeguards in an extreme 
degree. Savoy, therefore, offers some of the most remarkable ex- 
amples of social individuality in all France. 

The second area of isolation lies between our two north and 
south axes of fertility that is to say, between the Rhone on the 
east and the Garonne on the southwest. It centers in the ancient 
province of Auvergne, known geographically as the Massif Cen- 
trale. This comprises only a little less than two thirds of France 
south of Dijon. In reality it is an outpost of the Alps cut off 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



293 



from Savoy by the narrow strip of the Rhone Valley. Much of 
it is a plateau elevated above two thousand feet, rising into 
mountains which touch three thousand feet in altitude. Its cli- 
mate is unpropitious ; its soil is sterile ; impossible for the vine, 
and in general even for wheat. Rye or barley alone can be here 
successfully raised. At the present time this region is almost 
entirely given over to grazing. It has vast possibilities for the 
extractive arts ; but those meant nothing until the present cen- 
tury. For all these reasons Auvergne presents a second degree 



Cephalic Index 
France 

AND BeLCIVM 







87 and 88 

'roundheads 



After Collionon and tlouzE 

16650 OBSERVATIONS 



of isolation. It lacks all economic attractiveness; but it is not 
rugged enough in general to be inaccessible or completely de- 
fensible as is Savoy. 

Brittany, or Armorica, the third area of isolation, is perhaps 
somewhat less unattractive economically than Auvergne. It is 
certainly less rugged. Extending in as far as the cities of An- 
glers and Alengon, it is saved from the extreme infertility of its 
primitive rock formation by the moisture of its climate. Neither 
volcanic, as are many parts of Auvergne, nor elevated seldom 
rising above fourteen hundred feet it corresponds to our own 



294 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Teutonic Type. Blond. 
Index, 11. 



New England. 
For the farmer, 
it is more suited 
to the cultivation 
of religious pro- 
pensities than to 
productsof amore 
material kind. It 
is the least capa- 
ble of defense of 
the three areas of 
isolation ; but it 
redeems its repu- 
tation by its pen- 
insular position. 
It is off the main 
line. It is its re- 
moteness from the pathways of inva- 
sion by land which has been its ethnic 
salvation. 

In order to show the effect which 
this varied environment, above de- 
scribed, has exerted upon the racial 
character of the French people, we 
have arranged a series of three par- 
allel maps in the following pages, 
showing the exact distribution of the 
main physical traits. For purposes 
of comparison certain cities are lo- 
cated upon them all alike, including 
even the map of physical geography 



as well. A cross in the core of 
Auvergne in each case ; the Rhine 
shown in the northeast ; the loca- 
tion of Paris, Lyons, Belfort, etc., 
will enable the reader to keep 
them all in line at once. 

Earlier in our work we have 
seen that the several physical 
traits which betoken race vary 
considerably in their power of 
resistance to environmental in- 
fluences. This resistant power is 

greatest in the 
- head form ; 
less so in the 
pigmentation 
and stature. 
As we are 
now studying 
races, let us 
turn to our 
most compe- 
tent witness 
first. It will 
be remem- 
bered, from a 
preceding pa- 




per, that we 
measure the 
proportions of 



Alpine Type. Ilautcs Aipes. 
Neutral. Inde.\, 96. 




Mediterranean Type. 
Brunette. Index, 76. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 295 

tlie head by expressing the breadth in percentage of the length 
from front to back.* This is known as the cephalic index. We 
have also seen that a high index that is, a l)road head is the 
most permanent characteristic of the so-called Alpine race of cen- 
tral Europe. This type is bounded on the north by the long- 
headed and blond Teutons, on the south by a similarly long-headed 
Mediterranean stock, which is, however, markedly brunette. It is 
with these three racial types that we have mainly to do in this 
paper. Passing over all technicalities, our map of cephalic index 
shows the location of the Alpine racial type by its darker tints ; 
while, in proportion as the shades become lighter, the pre valency 
of long and narrow heads increases. 

The significance of these differences in head form to the eye is 
manifested by the three portraits at hand. The northern long- 
headed blond type, with its oval face and narrow chin, is not 
unlike the Mediterranean one in respect of its cranial conforma- 
tion. This particular Teutonic type is slightly misleading, from 
the mode of dressing the hair, which tends to exaggerate the 
width at the forehead. The Alpine populations of central France 
are exemplified by rather an extreme type in our portrait, in 
which the head is almost globular, while the face is correspond- 
ingly round. Such extremes are rare. They indicate the tend- 
ency, however, with great distinctness. The contrast between 
the middle type and either extreme is well marked. Even with 
differences but half as great as those between our portrait types, 
it is no wonder that Durand and other early observers should 
have insisted that they were real and not the product of im- 
agination. They may have erred in their explanations, although 
not in their facts. 

Recalling the physical geography of the country, as we have 
described it, the most patent feature of our map of cephalic index 
is a continuous belt of long-headedness, which extends from 
Flanders to Bordeaux on the southwest. It covers what we have 
termed the main axis of fertility of France. A second strip of 
long-headed population fringes the fertile Mediterranean coast, 
with a tendency to spread up the Rhone Valley. In fact, these 
two areas of long-headed populations show a disposition to unite 
south of Lyons in a narrow light strip. This divides the dark- 
colored areas of Alpine people into two wings. One of these cen- 

* It should not fail of notice that these maps are constructed from averages for each 
department as a unit. These last are merely administrative districts, entirely arbitrary in 
outline, and entirely in dissonance with the topography of the country. The wonder is 
that, in view of this, the facts should still shine out so clearly. Thus all the Rhone depart- 
ments lie half up among the mountains on the east. Their averages are therefore repre- 
sentative neither of the mountains nor the valleys. Between Dijon and Lyons the depart- 
ments completely span the narrow valley, entirely obliterating its local peculiarities. 



296 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ters in the Alpine highlands, running up to the north ; the other, 
in Auvergne, extends away toward the Spanish frontier. At 
the present time let us note that this intrusive strip of long heads 
cutting the Alpine belt in two follows the exact course of the 
canal which has long united the head waters of the Loire with the 
Rhone. It is an old channel of communication between Marseilles 
and Orleans. Foreigners, immigrating along this highway, are 
the cause of the phenomenon beyond question. %,^ 

The long-headed populations therefore seem Xo follow the 
open country and the river valleys. The Alpine broad-headed 
type, on the other hand, is always and everywhere aggregated in 
the areas of isolation. Its relative purity, moreover, varies in 
proportion to the degree of such isolation enjoyed or suffered. 
In Savoy and Auvergne it is quite unmixed ; in Brittany only a 
few vestiges of it remain. And yet these few remnants are 
strictly confined within the inhospitable granitic areas, so that 
the boundaries of the two correspond very closely. The spoken 
Celtic tongue has also lingered here in Brittany for peculiar rea- 
sons, which we shall soon discuss. The main one is the isolation 
of the district, which has sheltered the Alpine race in the same 
way. For it is now beyond question that the Breton, the Au- 
vergnat, and the Savoyard are all descendants of the same stock. 
In nearly every case the Alpine race is found distributed, as Dr. 
Collignon says, " by a mechanism, so to speak, necessary, and 
which by the fatal law of the orographic condition of the soil 
ought to be as it is." In the unattractive or inaccessible areas 
the broad-headedness centers almost exclusively ; in the open, fer- 
tile plains the cephalic index falls as regularly as the elevation. 
So closely is this law followed that Dr. Collignon aflSrms of the 
central plateau that wherever one meets an important river eas- 
ily ascended, the cephalic index becomes lower and brachycephaly 
diminishes. 

The two-hundred-metre line of elevation above the sea seems 
most nearly to correspond to the division line between types. 
This contour on our geographical map is the boundary between 
the white and first shaded areas. Compare this map with that of 
the cephalic index, following round the edge of the Paris basin, 
and note the similarity in this respect. There is but one break in 
the correspondence along the eastern side. This exception it is 
which really proves the law. It is so typical that it will repay us 
to stop a moment and examine. We have to do, just south of 
Paris, with that long tongue of dark tint, that is of relative 
broad-headedness, which reaches away over toward Brittany. It 
nearly cuts the main axis of Teutonic racial traits (light tinted) 
in two. This is the department of Loiret, whose capital is Or- 
leans. It is divided from its Alpine base of sujjplies by the long- 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



297 



headed department of Yonne on the east. This latter district lies 
on the direct route over to Dijon and the Rhone Valley. Teutonic 
peoples have here penetrated toward the southeast, following the 
path of least resistance as always. Why, you will ask, is the 
Loiret about Orleans so much less Teutonic in type ? The an- 
swer would appear were the country mapped in detail. The great 
forest of Orleans, a bit still being left at Fontainebleau, used to 
cover this little upland between the Seine and the Loire, east of 
Orleans. It was even until recently so thinly settled that it was 
known as the Oatinais, or wilderness. Its insular position is for 
this reason not at all strange. The Teutons have simply passed 
it by on either side. Those who did not go up the Seine and 
Yonne followed the course of the Loire. Here, then, is a parting 
of the ways down either side of Auvergne. 

Another one of the best local examples illustrating this law 
that the Alpine stock is segregated in areas of isolation and of eco- 
nomic disfavor is 
offered by the Mor- 
van. This " mau- 
vais pays " is a 
peninsula of the 
Auvergne plateau, 
a little southwest 
of the city of Dijon. 
It is shown on our 
geographical map. 
It is a little bit of 
wild and rugged 
country, about for- 
ty miles long and 
half as wide, which 
rises abruptly out of the fertile plains of Burgundy. Its moun- 
tains, which rise three thousand feet, are heavily forested. The 
soil is sterile and largely volcanic in character ; even the com- 
mon grains are cultivated with difficulty. The limit of culti- 
vation, even for potatoes or rye, is reached by tilling the soil 
one year in seven. This little region contains at the present time 
a population of about thirty-five thousand less to-day than fifty 
years ago. Until the middle of the century there was not even a 
passable road through it. It affords, therefore, an exceedingly 
good illustration of the result of geographical isolation in minute 
detail. Its population is as strongly contrasted with that of the 
plains round about as is its topography. The people, untouched 
by foreign influence to a considerable extent, have intermarried, 
so that the blood has been kept quite pure. The region is so- 
cially interesting as one of the few places in all France where the 




Types in the Morvan. 



298 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

birth rate long resisted the depressing influences of civilization. 
For years it has been converted into a veritable foundling asylum 
for the city of Paris. Its mothers have cared for innumerable 
waifs besides their own offspring. This isolated people is strongly 
Alpine, as our portraits show, the boy on the right being a pecul- 
iarly good type ; the other one has a strain of Teutonic narrow- 
headedness from all appearances. Beyond a doubt here is another 
little spot in which the Alpine race has been able to persist by 
reason of isolation alone.* 

The law which holds true for most of France, then, is that the 
Alpine stock is confined to the areas of isolation and economic 
unattractiveness. A patent exception to this appears in Bur- 
gundy the fertile plains of the Saone, lying south of Dijon. A 
strongly marked area of broad-headedness cuts straight across 
the Saone Valley at this point. A most desirable country is 
strongly held by a broad-headed stock, although it is very close 
to the Teutonic immigration route up along the Rhine. Here 
we have a striking example of the reversion of a people to its 
early type after a complete military conquest. It serves as an 
apt illustration of the impotency of a conquering tribe to exter- 
minate the original population. The Burgundians, as we know, 
belonged to a blond and tall race of Teutonic lineage, who came 
to the country from the north in considerable numbers in the fifth 
century. The Romans welcomed them in Gaul, forcing the peo- 
ple to grant them one half of their houses, two thirds of their 
cultivated land, and a third of their slaves. For about a thou- 
sand years this district of Burgundy took its rule more or less 
from the Teutonic invaders : and yet to-day it has completely 
reverted to its primitive type of population. It is even more 
French than the Auvergnats themselves. The common people 
have virtually exterminated every trace of their conquerors. 
Even their great height (shown on our stature map), for which the 
Burgundians have long been celebrated, is probably more to be 
ascribed to the material prosperity of the district than to a Teu- 
tonic strain. One factor contributing to the result we observe 
is that the fertile country of the Saone Valley is open to constant 
immigration from Switzerland and the surrounding mountains. 
The Rhine has drawn off the Teutons in another direction, and 
political hatreds have discouraged immigration from the north- 
east. The result has been that the Alpine type has been strongly 



* It should be noted that this relation does not appear upon our map of head form, 
because this represents merely the averages for whole departments. The Morvan happens 
to lie just at the meeting point of three of these, so that its influence upon the map is 
entirely scattered. Most interesting details are given in Memoires de la Societe d'Anthro- 
pologie, Series 3, I, 1894, fasc. 2. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 299 

re-enforced from nearly every side, while Teutonic elements have 
been gradually eliminated. 

Another and perhaps even more potent explanation for this 
localization of the Alpine type in Burgundy also lies at hand. 
This fertile plain is the last rallying point of a people repressed 
both from the north and the south. The general rule, as Canon 
Taylor puts it, is that the " hills contain the ethnological sweep- 
ings of the plains." This holds good only until such time as the 
hills themselves become saturated with population, if I may mix 
figures of speech. Applying this principle to the present case, it 
appears as if the original Alpine stock in Burgundy had been 
encroached upon from two sides. The Teutons have overflowed 
from the north ; the Mediterranean stock has pressed up the 
Rhone Valley. Before these two the broad-headed Alpine type 
has, as usual, yielded step by step, until at last it has become 
resistant, not by reason of any geographical isolation or advan- 
tage, but merely because of its density and mass. It has been 
squeezed into a compact body of broad-headedness, and has per- 
sisted in that form to the present time. It has rested here, be- 
cause no further refuge existed. It is dammed up in just the 
same way that the restless American borderers have at last set- 
tled in force in Kansas. Being in the main discouraged from fur- 
ther westward movement, they have at last taken root. In this 
way a primitive population may conceivably preserve its ethnic 
purity, entirely apart from geographical areas of isolation as 
such. 

What is the meaning of this remarkable differentiation of 
population ? Why should the Alpine racial type be so hard 
favored in respect of its habitat ? Is it because prosperity tends 
to make the head narrow ; or, in other words, because the physical 
environment exerts a direct influence upon the shape of the 
cranium ? Were the people of France once completely homoge- 
neous until differentiated by outward circumstances ? There is 
absolutely no proof of it. Nevertheless, the coincidence remains 
to be explained. It holds good in every part of Europe that we 
have examined in Switzerland, the Tyrol, the Black Forest and 
now here in great detail for all France. Two theories offer a pos- 
sible and competent explanation for it all. One is geographical, 
the other social. 

The first theory accounting for the sharp differences of popu- 
lation between the favorable and unpropitious sections of Europe 
is that the population in the uplands, in the nooks and corners, 
represents an older race, which has been eroded by the modern im- 
migration of a new people. In other words, the Alpine Celts once 
occupied the land much more exclusively ; they were the primi- 
tive possessors of the soil. From the north have come the Teu- 



300 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

tonic tribes, from the south the Mediterranean peoples ; in France, 
just as in the Tyrol, as we have pointed out in a preceding paper. 
The phenomenon, according to this theory, is merely one of ethnic 
stratification. 

A second explanation, much more far reaching in its progno- 
sis, is, as we have said, sociological. The phenomenon is the out- 
come of a process of social selection, which rests upon racial or 
physical differences of temperament. This theory is advanced by 
Ammon of Baden, and his disciple Lapouge in France, in two 
very remarkable recent books.* Briefly stated, it is this : In some 
undefined way the long-headed type of head form is generally 
associatad with an energetic, adventurous temperament, which 
impels the individual to migrate in search of greater economic 
opportunities. The men thus physically endowed are more apt 
to go forth to the great cities, to the places where advancement in 
the scale of living is possible. The result is a constant social 
selection, which draws this type upward and onward, the broad- 
headed one being left in greater purity thereby in the isolated 
regions. Those who advocate this view do not make it necessa- 
rily a matter of racial selection alone. It is more fundamental. 
It concerns all races and all types within races. This is too com- 
prehensive a topic to be discussed in this place ; we shall hope to 
deal with it later. Personally, I think that it may be, and indeed 
is, due to a great process of racial rather than purely social selec- 
tion. I do not think it yet proved to be other than this. The 
Alpine stock is more primitive, deeper seated in the land ; the 
Teutonic race has come in afterward, overflowing toward the 
south, where life offers greater attractions for invasion. In so 
doing it has repelled or exterminated the Alpine type, either by 
forcible conquest or by intermixture, which racially leads to the 
same goal.f 

Before we proceed further let us examine the other physical 
traits a moment. The map of the distribution of brunetteness 
shows these several Alpine areas of isolation far less distinctly 
than the map of the cephalic index. It points to the disturbing 
influence of climate or of other environment. If the law con- 
ducing to blondness in mountainous areas of infertility were to 
hold true here as it appears to do elsewhere, this factor alone 
would obscure relations. Many of the populations of the Alpine 
areas should, on racial grounds, be darker than the Teutonic ones ; 
yet, being economically disfavored, on the other hand, they tend 
toward blondness. The two influences of race and environment 



* Natiirliche Auslese beini Meiischen, Jt'ua, 189o. Les Selections Sociales, Paris, 1896. 
f For an exceedingly interesting discussion of the action of economic and social forces 
in France, vide Auvergne, by T. E. ClifFe-Leslie in Fortnightly Review, xvi, j). 736 sey. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



301 



are here in opposition to the manifest blurring of all sliarp racial 
lines and divisions. Despite this disturbing influence, the Au- 
vergnat area appears as a great wedge of pigmentation penetrat- 
ing the center of France on the south. This is somewhat broken 
up on the northern edge, because of the recent immigration of a 
considerable mining population into this district which has come 



BRUNETNES5 

France 



3k ;X"'*/ 




Relative 

ORDER. 
OF 

DEPARTMENTS 



After Topinard 

Zoo.ooo Observations 

from other parts of the country. The Rhone Valley appears as a 
route of migration of blondness toward the south. Little more 
than these general features can be gathered from the map of color, 
except that the progressive brunetteness as we advance toward 
the south is everywhere in evidence. Were we to examine the 
several parts of France in detail we should find competent expla- 
nations for many features which appear as anomalous as, for 
example, the extreme blondness upon the southwest coast of 
Brittany. 

The map of stature still preserves evidence of the threefold 
division of the short Alpine people into Savoyards, Auvergnats, 
and Bretons. It demonstrates in great clearness the influence of 
the Rhone Valley in the production of tall stature. In this case 
the process is cumulative, for the fertile valley productive of in- 



302 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



creased bodily height is at the same time a highroad of immi- 
gration for the Teutonic race, which always carries a tall stature 
wherever it goes. The main axis of fertility from Paris to Bor- 

Stature 

France 




to 92.6 
to 108 



Average about 

5FnT3lNCHE& 



After Broca 



deaux does not appear, for two reasons. The area about Limoges 
and Perigueux (see map of cephalic index on page ^Oo), with the 
shortest population of all, is the seat of a prehistoric people which 
we shall describe in our next paper ; and north of it toward Or- 
leans local causes with which we have not time to deal here have 
been operative. 

Brittany and Normandy are two of the most interesting re- 
gions in Europe to the traveler and the artist. The pleasing land- 
scapes and the quaint customs all serve to awaken interest. To 
the anthropologist as well the whole district possesses a marked 
individuality of its own. Within it lie the two racial extremes 
of the French people the old and the new closely in contact 
with one another. Attention was first attracted to the region 
because of the persistence of the Celtic spoken language, now 
vanished everywhere else on the mainland of Europe quite ex- 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 



303 



tinct, save as it clings for dear life to the outskirts of the British 
Isles. Here again, we find an ethnic struggle in process, which 
has been going on for centuries, unsuspected by the statesmen 
who were building a nation upon these shifting sands of race. 
This struggle depends, as elsewhere in France, upon the topog- 
raphy of the country. The case is so peculiar, however, that it 
will repay us to consider it a little more in detail. 

The anthropological fate of Brittany, this last of our three 
main areas of isolation, depends largely upon its peninsular form. 
Its frontage of seacoast and its many harbors have rendered it 
peculiarly liable to invasion from the sea ; while at the same time 
it has been protected on the east by its remoteness from the eco- 
nomic and political centers and highways of France. This coin- 
cidence and not a greater purity of blood has preserved its Celtic 
speech. Since the foreigners have necessarily touched at separate 
points along its coast, concerted attack upon the language has 
been rendered impossible. This fact of invasion from the sea has 
divided its people not into the men of the mountain distinct from 
those of the plain a differentiation of population, by the way, as 
old as the reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes. The contrast has 
arisen between the seacoast and the interior. The people of the 
inland villages contain a goodly proportion of the Alpine stock, 
although, as our maps show, it is more attenuated than in either 
Savoy or Auvergne. To the eye this Alpine lineage appears in a 



^AMNION 




Eastern Limit \ *y 
Celtic Speech # 

(approxjmate) 



CEPHALIC INDEX 

Normandy and Brittany 



roundness of the face, a concave nose in profile, and broad nos- 
trils. Along the coast intermixture has narrowed the heads, 
lightened the complexion, and, perhaps more than all, increased 
the stature. For an example of these contrasts our maps will 



304 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



serve as an illustration. We have already made use of one in a 
preceding paper. It is reproduced for purposes of comparison. 

In view of the nature of these physical changes induced by 
ethnic crossing along the seacoast, we must look to the Teutonic 
race for the lineage of the invaders. They must, on the whole, 
have been light and long-headed. History, in this case, comes to 
our aid. The Saxon pirates skirted the whole coast around to the 
mouth of the Loire. In fact, they were so much in evidence that 
part of it was known to the old geographers as the litus Saxoni- 
cum. The largest colony which has left permanent traces of its 
invasion in the character of its present population, although 

/Eastern Boundary 
OF Celtic Speech 

O 



PERCENT 

UNDER. 
U56METERS 

14--! 7 




LOWER 

AFTER BrOCA 



BRITTANY 

C1850-59) 



Caesar assured us that he exterminated it utterly, is located in 
Morbihan. This department on the south coast of the peninsula, 
as our map of coloration of all France shows, is one of the 
blondest in all France. Its capital, Vannes, derives its name 
from the Venetes, whose confederation occupied this area. Both 
Strabo and Diodorus of Sicily asserted that these people be- 
longed to the Belga' (Teutonic stock), although modern historians 
of Gaul seem inclined to deny it. Our anthropological evidence 
is all upon the side of the ancient geographers. 

From a different source, although due indirectly to these same 
Teutonic barbarians, are derived the physical characteristics of the 
people in the north of Brittany, near Dinan, in the valley of the 
Ranee. Its location appears upon both of our maps of Brittany. 



THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. 305 

This little district is very distinct from the surrounding country. 
The landscape also is peculiar in many respects. The cottages 
are like the English, with hedgerows between the several plots 
of ground. All these outward features corroborate the anthropo- 
logical testimony that this was a main settlement of the people 
who came over from Cornwall in the fifth century, ousted by the 
Anglo-Saxons. They, in fact, gave the name Brittany to the 
whole district. They spoke the Celtic language in all probability, 
but were absolutely distinct in race. They seem to have been 
largely Teutonic. The Saxons soon followed up the path they 
laid open, so that the characteristics of the present population are 
probably combined of all three elements. At all events, to-day 
the people are taller, lighter, narrower-nosed, and longer-headed 
than their neighbors. A similar spot of narrow-headedness ap- 
pears upon our map at Lannion. The people here are, however, 
of dark complexion, short in stature, characterized by broad and 
rather flat noses. Here is probably an example of a still greater 
persistence in ethnic traits than about Dinan, for the facts indi- 
cate that here at Lannion, antedating even the Alpine race, is a 
bit of the prehistoric population which we promise to identify in 
the next paper. 

Normandy is to-day one of the blondest parts of France. It is 
distinctly Teutonic in the head form of its people. In fact, the 
contrast between Normandy and Brittany is one of the sharpest 
to be found in all France. The map of cephalic index on page 293 
shows the regularly increasing long-headedness as we approach 
the mouth of the Seine. In the Norman departments from thirty 
to thirty- five per cent of the hair color is dark ; in the adjoining 
department of Cotes- du-Nord, in Brittany, the proportion of dark 
hair rises from forty to sixty, and in some cases even to seventy- 
five per cent. . In stature the contrast is not quite as sharp, 
although the people of the seacoast appear to be distinctly taller 
than those far inland. The ordinary observer will be able to 
detect diflPerences in the facial features. The Norman nose is 
high and thin ; the nose of the Breton is broader, opening at 
the nostrils. In many minor details the differences are no less 
marked. 

Normandy, on the whole, is an example of a complete ethnic 
conquest. At the same time, while a new population has come, 
the French language has remained unaffected, with the exception 
of a spot near the city of Bayeux, where the Saxons and Nor- 
mans together combined to introduce a bit of the Teutonic tongue. 
This conquest of Normandy has taken place within historic times. 
It is probably part and parcel of the same movement which Teu- 
tonized the British Isles ; for it appears that the Normans were 
the only Teutonic invaders who can historically be traced to this 

TOL. LI. 23 



3o6 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



region. Wherever they left the country untouched, the popula- 
tion approaches the Alpine type, being darker, broader-headed, 
and shorter in stature. This indicates that the tribes, such as the 
Caletes (the city of Caux), the Lexovii (Lisieux), and the Baio- 
casses (Bayeux) in Caesar's time were probably of this latter type; 
in other words, that the district was Alpine in population until 
the Normans came with Rollo in the tenth century. The Romans 
appear to have allowed the Saxons to settle at places along the 
seacoast, but they had never penetrated deeply into the interior. 

The correspondence between the map of Norman place names 
and that of cephalic index is sufficiently close to attest to the 
value of each. One of the common features of the Teutonic vil- 
lage names is " ville," from " weiler," meaning an abode, and not 
from "villa," of Romance origin. This suffix appears, for ex- 

Place NAMBS 
I! 3AXON Brittany and Norhanoy' 

Norman 
Celtic 




ample, in Hacon-yiZZe, or in a corrupted form in 'E.Si,Td\villiers. 
Another common ending of place names is hcRuf, as in Marboeuf. 
Dr. Collignon has traced out a considerable number of such place 
names of Norman origin, all of which point to the Cotentin that 
distinct peninsula which juts out into the English Channel as a 
center of Norman dispersion. Certain it is that Cherbourg, at its 
extremity, shows the Norman element at its maximum purity. 
Probably this was a favorite base of supplies, protected by its iso- 
lation and in close proximity to the island of Jersey, which the 
Normans also held. The Saxon colony near Caen was a factor 
also which determined this location. The extension of the Nor- 
mans to the west seems to have been stopped by the human dike 
set up by the English and Saxons about Dinan, and by "Nor- 
man Switzerland," the hilly region just east of it. Follow the 



FORECASTING THE PRO ORE SS OF INVENTION. 307 

similarity between the boundary of long and narrow beads on 
our map of cephalic index of Brittany, and the cross-hatched lines 
and tints on the map of physical geography of France on page 
291. Note how it cuts across diagonally from northwest to south- 
east, parallel to the course of the Seine. Here the economic at- 
traction in favor of the invasion of Brittany ceased, and at the 
same time the displaced natives found a defensible position. Pre- 
vented from extension in this direction, the Normans henceforth 
turned toward the Seine, where, in fact, their influence is most 
apparent at the present time. Paris, the Mecca of all invaders, 
toled them away, and Brittany was saved. 



-- 



FORECASTING THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 

By WILLIAM BAXTEE, Je. 

THE great progress made during the last fifty years in the 
domain of science and invention has aroused a very general 
desire among intelligent people to know what the future has in 
store, and in many cases the desire has become so strong as to 
develop prophetic tendencies. Whenever a banquet is given in 
commemoration of some scientific event, or upon the anniversary 
of some ancient and honorable society, the orator of the evening 
is sure to dwell at considerable length upon the great discoveries 
that are still to come. By contrasting the extraordinary advances 
made during the last century with the comparatively limited 
progress of all previous time, and by showing that the rate of 
advancement has been continually increasing during the latter 
period, he arrives at the conclusion that in the years to come 
development will increase in a compound ratio, and the discov- 
eries will become so numerous and so great as to dwarf into 
insignificance all that has been accomplished up to the present 
time. 

Writers who dwell upon these glorious achievements of man- 
kind in modern times follow the same vein, and make equally 
extravagant predictions as to the future. If these writers and 
orators would stop when they reach this point in their medita- 
tions they would be wise, since it is a self-evident fact that prog- 
ress in science and invention has been increasing very rapidly 
during the last fifty or sixty years, and certainly there is no rea- 
son to suppose that we have reached the end, and that henceforth 
development will be very slow; but at this point the spirit of 
prophecy seizes them, and they proceed to describe the wonders 
yet unseen. It is here that they almost invariably fail. They 
would not be satisfied if they assumed that future progress would 



3o8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

be along the lines of possible development that would be too 
commonplace and altogether out of keeping with the ideal of the 
greatness of the future achievements of mankind. They must 
necessarily assume that what is brought forth hereafter will be 
so far in advance of what we now know of as to be revolutionary 
in its character, and so much so, in fact, as to consign to the scrap 
heap the most perfect devices of the present time. Some of the 
means by which these results are to be attained are not capable of 
accomplishing such wonders ; others, while of great theoretical 
possibilities, are surrounded by certain practical difficulties so 
well understood at the present time that we can almost with cer- 
tainty say that they will never realize the dreams that are based 
upon them. The remainder are problems that can be solved to- 
day, and would be if it were not for the fact that it is by no 
means certain that their solution would be of any practical value. 
The improbability of ever realizing a substantial gain by the 
solution of many of the problems upon which jDrophecies as to 
the wonders of the future are based is fully appreciated by many 
of those who have given the subject careful consideration ; but 
those who dream of the revolutionary character of future inven- 
tion never take note of such things. 

Nearly all those who succumb to the fascination of meditating 
upon the changes that may be wrought by inventive genius in 
days to come follow the same line of thought. The problems 
upon the solution of which their fancy paints its pictures are 
always the same, although some contemplate the whole category, 
while others only dwell upon a portion thereof. These problems 
are aerial navigation, the development of electric energy direct 
from coal or some other equally cheap substance, and the utiliza- 
tion of the various forces of Nature, such as solar heat, tide and 
wave motion, and wind currents. Of these, aerial navigation is 
supposed to be by far the most important, obtaining electricity 
direct from coal and the others following along in the order in 
which they are given above. 

As to the utilization of solar heat, tides, wave motion, and 
wind currents, it can be truthfully said that they could be util- 
ized at the present time if it were considered profitable to do so. 
The energy of wind currents, as every one knows, is made avail- 
able on a very extensive scale, but always in small units, and this 
fact alone shows that it can not compete with the steam engine, 
which, according to the prophets, it is sure to supersede. The 
energy of tides and wave motion is also utilized to some extent, 
and solar engines have been made from time to time. 

It can not be said that these unlimited sources of energy are 
not brought into the service of man because of our inability to 
devise apparatus with which to harness them successfully, for, as 



FORECASTING THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 309 

a matter of fact, a great deal of ingenuity has been displayed in 
this direction, and the cost of the mechanism, with reference to 
the power recovered, has probably been reduced to nearly as low 
a point as is possible. In the matter of simplicity and durability 
equally good results have been obtained. 

An analysis of the most salient features of these forms of 
energy will show why they are not utilized on a more extensive 
scale. The power of waves and tides is only available along the 
seacoast, where, as a rule, power is not in demand ; furthermore, 
any kind of apparatus made to utilize this energy must be very 
strong and bulky in comparison with the power it will give, and 
as a consequence very costly. In addition to this, the amount 
of energy will vary greatly at different seasons ; hence the output 
that can be depended upon at all times must be far below the 
actual capacity of the apparatus. A further drawback is the 
great irregularity of the power, which renders it of little value 
unless means are provided for reducing it to a delivery at a uni- 
form rate. 

Windmills are not so much restricted, as to location, as the 
foregoing, but they are very large in comparison to the work they 
can do, and, as the velocity of the wind may drop to nearly zero 
for a long period of time, their average capacity, taking the year 
through, may be exceedingly small. 

Solar energy is available everywhere, but the capacity of an 
apparatus made to utilize it would be very indefinite and far below 
its maximum, owing to the fact that cloudy weather may come at 
any time and continue for days or even weeks. 

The irregularity of the power derived from these sources can 
be overcome by resorting to some form of storage, but this would 
not help, except to a limited extent, to increase the average out- 
put ; therefore, when the apparatus was working at its full capa- 
city, there would be a large surplus of power going to waste. By 
increasing the capacity of the storage reservoirs, the average out- 
put could be increased, and if the intervals of time during which 
the energy developed is little or nothing were short, say two or 
three days, and were followed by corresponding intervals of max- 
imum output, it would probably be profitable to make the capa- 
city great enough to store all the surplus developed at times of 
maximum output ; but, as these periods may each extend over two 
or three weeks, it is evident that about the best we can do is to 
increase the average output slightly by using a greater storage 
capacity. 

As these natural forms of energy can be obtained without cost, 
and the fuel used by a steam engine has to be purchased, it is ap- 
parently reasonable to assume that they would constitute a more 
economical form of power, but wherever a constant supply is de- 



310 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

sired it is very doubtful whether the economy of the steam engine 
can be superseded by any one of them. It is true that there is 
no expenditure for fuel, but the interest on the extra cost of the 
plant and the maintenance thereof, as well as the additional space 
required, may more than offset this gain ; and the fact that so little 
is done in the way of utilizing them would seem to show that up 
to the present time their value has failed to make any great im- 
pression upon engineers who have looked into the subject. It 
does not follow from this that they will never come into use on a 
more extensive scale than at present, but it does follow that the 
dreams of those who believe that they will eventually supersede 
all forms of prime movers that consume fuel will never be real- 
ized. Through the increased value of fuel or the reduced cost of 
construction of the apparatus, or both, they may become compet- 
itors to a greater or less extent, but more than this can not be 
expected. 

Considering, now, the effects of the solution of the problem of 
obtaining electricity direct from coal, it can be said that it is far 
more likely to revolutionize the affairs of the world than the utili- 
zation of the natural forms of energy ; but it must also be said 
that we are not justified, in view of what is now known in rela- 
tion to the subject, in assuming that it will ever realize the pre- 
dictions of the oversanguine prophets. If we could solve the prob- 
lem according to our ideal, all that is expected of it would be 
accomplished ; but such a solution is highly improbable, if not 
actually impossible. Our ideal battery would be as simple as a 
boiler, and be provided with a place where coal could be fed in 
and another through which the residue could be removed. In a 
boiler, the pressure of the steam, as well as the quantity generated, 
can be increased by simply increasing the size of the fire box, but 
this simplicity could not be obtained even in our ideal battery, 
because the electromotive force would remain the same no matter 
how much the size of the cell might be increased. To obtain an 
electromotive force high enough for practical purposes it would 
be necessary to use a large number of cells, and, to feed these with- 
out too much trouble, it would be necessary to devise an auto- 
matic feeder capable of operating with a degree of perfection 
hardly obtainable without the aid of human intelligence. 

It may be permissible to dream of such perfection, but we are 
not justified in assuming that it is possible. Electricity can be 
obtained from chemical action only when the material acted upon 
is in the electric circuit. If two metals are placed in a solution 
that can decompose one of them, an electric current will flow in a 
wire the ends of which are attached to the two metals. If two 
solutions capable of acting upon each other are separated by a 
porous partition, and into each a plate attached to a wire is im- 



FORECASTING THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. ^\i 

mersed, a current will flow. If in a solution two metals that are 
not acted upon are immersed, a current will not flow in a wire con- 
necting them. If into this solution pieces of metal or other sub- 
stances that will be acted upon are dropped, no current will be gen- 
erated, because the chemical action takes place between substances 
one of which is not in the electric chain. Coal is not a conductor 
of electricity, in the practical sense ; therefore it can not be used 
directly in the electric circuit, even if we could find a way to oxi- 
dize it satisfactorily ; hence the only probable way of solving the 
coal-battery problem is by some indirect process, and this may 
introduce complications great enough to entirely offset all the 
advantages. 

The belief that great development will be made along the lines 
discussed in the foregoing is confined to those who possess some 
familiarity with scientific matters, but the general run of intelli- 
gent people only have a vague idea of what may be expected from 
these sources, and the pictures drawn by their imagination in rela- 
tion thereto are decidedly hazy ; with them the greatest of all 
future achievements is the solution of the problem of aerial navi- 
gation. This belief is undoubtedly due to the fact that the theo- 
retical limitations are not understood, or are not taken into consid- 
eration, and as a consequence the average conception of a perfect 
air ship, as well as its movements and velocity, is very different 
from the actual possibilities. 

The most striking difference between imagination and possi- 
bility, in this line, is perhaps in the relation between the size of 
the ship and its carrying capacity, the latter being always greatly 
magnified. An examination of any considerable number of the 
illustrations of flying machines would show this point very forci- 
bly. In many of these pictures the force of gravity is treated with 
the utmost contempt, the ship being made apparently of sheet iron, 
very similar in shape to a submarine torpedo boat, the sustaining 
power being obtained by means of one or more moderate-sized pro- 
pellers mounted upon vertical shafts, or else equally small aero- 
planes. In those designs that display a greater regard for the 
laws of Nature, the disparity in the proportions is not so great, but 
in all of them it is very decided. 

It is evident that with our present knowledge of science there 
are only two ways in which an air ship can be kept afloat, one 
by the use of a balloon and the other by means of aeroplanes. 
In the former the sustaining capacity is small relatively to the 
volume, being about one pound for every fourteen cubic feet ; and 
with the latter it is small relatively to the surface, being probably 
not over one pound to the square foot. From this it can easily be 
seen that the carrying capacity, even of a craft of large dimen- 
sions, must be small, very much smaller than the popular notion 



312 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



would make it. The sketch presented herewith will give a fair 
idea of the difference between reality and the general ideal, the 
small car shown in solid lines being large enough to carry all the 
passengers or freight that the balloon could sustain, and the one 
in dotted lines about the size generally shown in illustrations of 
air ships. The sketch is not above criticism, since it does not give 
the location of the motor or any means for revolving the propel- 
ler, but that is a peculiarity of the majority of air-ship pictures, 
and the writer may be pardoned for following a common custom, 




Diagram showing Difference between Supposed and Actual Carrying Capaoitt 

OF Air Ships. 



especially as the object of the sketch is only to show the relation 
between size and carrying capacity. 

That this sketch is not exaggerated can be easily shown. The 
balloon is supposed to be one hundred and twenty feet long and 
twenty feet in diameter, the taper at each end being forty feet. 
From these dimensions it will be seen that the displacement is 
about twenty-one thousand feet, and the sustaining capacity 
about fifteen hundred pounds. Now, the first thing that any con- 
servative engineer would admit would be that the apparatus 
could not be constructed within this weight if the same factor of 
safety were used as is customary in designing any ordinary struc- 
ture ; hence, if any carrying capacity is to be obtained, the weight 
and strength of every part must be reduced to a point not re- 
garded as permissible in ordinary practice. Following this 
course, we can assume the weight of the whole ship at one thou- 
sand pounds, which would certainly be light considering its size; 
we would then have a net carrying capacity of five hundred 
pounds equal to, say, four men. The car is drawn four foot 
square and six feet high, which is ample for four passengers. A 
contemplation of the difference between the size of the balloon 
and the car is enough to dampen the ardor of the most enthu- 
siastic believer in the possibilities of aerial navigation. 

It may be claimed that by the use of aeroplanes the size can 



FORECASTING THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 313 

be considerably reduced, but this is doubtful ; and if it can, it 
probably would not be any benefit, since, if the area of the planes 
is reduced, the pressure must be increased, and this would result 
in a less efl&cient application of the energy required to keep the 
ship in the air. Another mistaken notion that is accountable in 
a great measure for the belief in the wonderful possibilities of 
aerial navigation is that great velocity could be obtained. This 
assumption is entirely erroneous, and as a matter of fact it can 
be easily shown that higher speed can be attained on a railroad. 
As is perfectly well known, the principal obstacle that stands in 
the way of extraordinary velocity on railroads is the resistance of 
the atmosphere, and this would be very much greater in the case 
of an air ship owing to the increased size. The cross-section of a 
train of cars is less than one hundred and fifty feet, while that of 
an air ship of the same carrying capacity would probably be ten 
times as great if not more, and the power required to overcome 
atmospheric resistance would be in about the same proportion. 
From this it can be seen that the energy necessary to propel the 
ship, without saying anything about that required to keep it in 
the air, would be many times greater than that required to drive 
a train of cars at the same speed; hence, as a means of rapid 
transit, aerial navigation could not begin to compete with the 
railroad. 

There is another direction in which the air ship would be 
seriously defective, and this is almost always overlooked, and 
that is in the matter of making landings. Being a large body, it 
would necessarily be unwieldy, and its motion in any direction 
could not be arrested in a very short space of time ; therefore it 
could not make a landing within a limited area. In a dead calm 
it could probably be lowered in nearly a vertical line, and thus 
make a landing in a contracted space, but if the wind were blow- 
ing even at a moderate velocity the case would be different. As 
the wind is always "blowing more or less, and as it frequently 
changes its course in a few seconds, the ship would be tossed 
about quite lively before it reached the ground. If it came down 
at the rate of three hundred feet per minute, which is a high 
velocity, and the wind were blowing at the rate of ten miles per 
hour, the side drift would be three times as great as the vertical 
descent ; and if this were counteracted by imparting a velocity to 
the ship equal to that of the wind and opposed to it, the side draught 
would be doubled if the direction of the wind should suddenly 
reverse. It must therefore be evident that to be able to make a 
landing safely, without running the risk of colliding with church 
steeples and modern sky-scrapers, it would be necessary to have a 
large open space, and in order that the passengers might not have 
to walk a large portion of the length of their journey convey- 

TOL. LI. 24 



314 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

anceS would have to be provided to transport them from the place 
where the ship might land to the station entrance. 

It must not be assumed from what has been said in the fore- 
going that the writer regards the solution of the problems here 
considered as of no special value, for his views are just the oppo- 
site of this. The object aimed at has been to show that the won- 
derful things that it is expected will be accomplished by the solu- 
tion of these problems will never be realized with regard to some 
because they are not possible, and are not likely to be realized 
by the others on account of inherent defects that the solutions 
may bring to light. The coal-battery problem will, no doubt, be 
worked out, in some form or other, but who can tell whether the 
objectionable features of it will or will not offset all its advan- 
tages ? The hot-air engine is a far more perfect converter of 
energy, in theory, than the steam engine, but its defects when re- 
duced to a practical form are such that it is of no value except 
for small power, and this may also turn out to be the case with 
the coal battery. The utilization of the energy of tides, solar 
heat, etc., is as possible to-day as at any future time; the fact 
that they are not utilized is proof that they are not considered as 
desirable as other forms of energy. In the future the cost of the 
apparatus for harnessing them may be so reduced as to render 
them available to a much greater extent than at the present time, 
but that they will ever revolutionize the industrial affairs of the 
world and drive the steam engine out of use is hardly a remote 
possibility. Aerial navigation will, no doubt, be accomplished, 
but in the opinion of the writer it will never be used for com- 
mercial purposes, simply because it can not, even if developed to 
the highest state of perfection, compete with transit on the surface 
of the earth, either in speed or cost of transportation. It may be 
used in warfare, but more than likely it will be confined to pleasure 
purposes. 



The higliest value can obviously be given to present research by dii-ect- 
ing it chiefly to those departments which are undergoing most rapid changes 
and therefore most urgently demand immediate study. The subject is tlius 
regarded by Prof. A. C. Haddon, who, trying to put himself at the point of 
view of our successors a hundred or a thousand years hence, asks, in Nature, 
what they would wish we had done. Studies in the structure, development, 
and physiology of animals, polar research and deep-sea research, will not 
suffer materially if the pursuit of them is delayed ; but " our first and im- 
mediate duty is to earn for science vanishing knowledge ; this .should be 
the watchword of the present day." In this category are the study of 
native fauna and flora before they are exterminated or crowded out or 
mixed with introduced species, and the study of native man before he 
is contaminated by contact with civilization. The opportunity for these 
studies is diminishing, and once lost can never be recovered. 



SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 315 

SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 

By Dr. E. W. SHUFELDT. 

ONE of the most extensive and at the same time one of the 
most interesting groups of insects in the entire range of 
entomology is that order which has been created to contain the 
ants, bees, and wasps with their numerous allies. This associa- 
tion was called the Hymenoptera by Linnaeus, the name having 
reference to the fact that the anterior and posterior wings of the 
winged forms are, during flight, connected together by a row, 
upon either side, of small hooks. This is Kirby's suggestion 
(Text-book of Entomology, page 103), but it would seem more 
probable that the word Hymenoptera was derived from the Greek 
hymen, a membrane, and ptera, wings. 

Primarily, this order is divided into the Terehrantia and the 
Aculeata. In the first named the ovipositor is employed as a 
borer, while in the second it has become modified into a sting. 
These two subsections are by various classifiers again divided 
into several other divisions, and these again into families, genera, 
etc., as in the case of other natural alliances of animals. Both 
the habits and structure of the insects included in this group are 
characterized by great variety, and the majority of its members 
exhibit an extraordinary amount of intelligence, especially this 
being true in the case of the ants and wasps. A perfect host of 
parasitic insects also belong to this group, attacking both the 
larvae and eggs of other insects. Were all the literature extant 
that has been devoted to the ants alone got together, it would 
form by no means a small library ; but such a library would be 
completely overshadowed were it compared with a similar one 
collected in the case of bees. Of the common honeybee alone, 
Mr. John Hunter, the late Secretary of the British Bee Keepers' 
Association, has said : " No nation upon earth has had so many 
historians as this remarkable class of insects. The patience and 
sagacity of the naturalist have had an ample field for exercise in 
the study of the structure, physiology, and domestic economy of 
bees ; their preservation and increase have been ob'jects of assidu- 
ous care to the agriculturist; and their reputed perfection of 
policy and government have long been the theme of admiration, 
and have supplied copious materials for argument and allusion 
to the poet and the moralist in every age. It is a subject that 
has been celebrated by the Muse of Virgil and illustrated by the 
philosophic genius of Aristotle. Cicero and Pliny record that 
Aristomachus devoted sixty years to the study of these insects, 
and Philiscus is said to have retired into a remote wood that he 
might pursue his observations on them without interruption. A 



3i6 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



very great number of authors have written express treatises on 
bees, periodical works have been published relating exclusively 
to their management and economy, and learned societies have 
been established for the sole purpose of conducting researches on 
this subject." When we have such facts as these before us one 
is enabled to form some estimate as to what the literature of the 
entire order Hymenoptera would amount to as a whole. 

Nor has the historical naturalist neglected the wasps in his 
labors, for the literature upon these remarkable insects is likewise 
very voluminous. They constitute the true Hymenoptera acu- 

leata, Kirby using the 
term Diploptera, divid- 
ing them into three 
families. Of these, the 
social wasps ( Vespidce) 
are represented by a 
number of genera in 
various parts of the 
world,containing a host 
of interesting species. 
Some of these are of 
small size, while others 
stand among the big- 
gest of the entire group. 
One form found in 
China and Japan meas- 
ures two inches across 
the wings. Many of 
these wasps sting with 
great severity, and it 
has been related of 
Mitchell, the Australian explorer, that he was stung by a species 
found in that country, and the pain caused thereby forced him to 
scream out with agony. It had the effect of temporarily paralyz- 
ing his leg, and the great spot on the limb occasioned by the in- 
jected poison did not disappear for at least six months. Many 
wasps are brilliantly colored, while the external structural parts 
of others are extremely unique. For example, the Ilasaridcs of 
Africa and Australia is a family in which the antennae present a 
great variety of shapes, some of them even being clubbed, while 
others are extremely long and slender. Numerous species of 
wasps and hornets are fossorial by habit, either constructing un- 
derground burrows for themselves or else occupying those formed 
by other insects. Some of these types are very large, some are 
small, some are solitary by habit, others live in communities. 
We have one big species of fossorial wasp that I have studied at 




Fig. 1. Bumblebee upon Dogwood Flower. 

From a photograph taken life-size by Dr. Shufeldt 

and considerably reduced. 



SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 317 

various points in the Atlantic coast States. Last spring there 
was a large colony of these established beneath the sweeping 
limbs of a fir tree near the main entrance to the Smithsonian 
Institution. The ground in this locality was riddled with their 
burrows. A great many cases of the sting of this formidable 
wasp are known to me. Years ago I knew of a case where a pas- 
senger upon a Mississippi River boat was stung by one of them 
on the back of the neck, and the man died eventually from 
the effect of it. The insect was knocked down on the deck at 
the time, and was found to be bearing a large cicada in its 
mandibles. 

Some of the smaller fossorial wasps appear like large ants, the 
females being without wings. They also have a sting, and are 
clothed with a fine hairy coat, often of a bright yellow or brilliant 
vermilion. In New Mexico, in sandy places, I frequently saw 
these insects, but never more than one at a time, and only a few 
in the course of a day. They have been called " solitary ants " 
{Mutilla ?). There are hundreds of species in the world of these 
fossorial wasps, some winged, others wingless ; some very small, 
others measure three or four inches across the wings {Pepsis, 
etc.) ; while many of them exhibit the most wonderful coloring in 
metallic blues, greens, reds, and yellow. Nearly all have the 
habit of paralyzing other insects by stinging them, then carrying 
their helpless victims to their subterranean nests, where they are 
buried alive by the side of their eggs, so that when the larvae are 
hatched out they find a fresh repast awaiting them in the form of 
these living but paralyzed spiders, caterpillars, etc. The " mud 
daubers " have the same habits, and we all know them, and how 
they, with pellets of mud, build their curious cells against walls 
and fences and in all sorts of places about our country houses. 
These are great species to paralyze spiders and place them in these 
mud cells and sealing them up afterward for the future use of 
their young (Pelopoeus). When collecting in New Orleans I fre- 
quently did a good day's work in spider collecting by cracking open 
these mud nests. Packard also refers to those sand and mud wasps 
that dig deep holes in our gravel walks and have the instinct to 
sting grasshoppers in one of the thoracic ganglia, thus paralyzing 
the victim, in which the wasp lays her eggs ; and the young, hatch- 
ing, feed upon the living but paralyzed grasshoppers, the store of 
living food not being exhausted until the larval wasp is ready to 
stop eating and finish its transformations {Sphex ichneumonea). 

In a paragraph above I have referred to the family VespidcB 
of the group Diploptera* and it includes some of the most inter- 

* From the Greek diplofi, doubled, and ptcra, wings, referring to tlie fact that the rep- 
resentatives of this family, when in a state of repose, fold their fore wings longitudinally. 



3i8 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

esting wasps and hornets of wliich we have any knowledge. So 
far as it is known to me, the Vespidoe, are all social species, the 
individuals consisting of males, females, and neuters. They are 
also known as the "paper-making" wasps, having the habit of 
constructing paper nests of various sizes and forms in which 
their young are reared. Our common brown wasps {Polistes) are 
too well known to require any detailed description. To those 
living anywhere in the Atlantic States their paper nests are very 
familiar, being formed of a circular disk of a single tier of cells, 
being suspended at the solid back by a median pedicle attached 
to the point chosen by the community to build. Usually these 
cells face downward, but occasionally the plane of the nest is ver- 
tical or nearly so, causing the long axes of the cells to lie horizon- 
tally, or more or less obliquely. This grayish, papery stuff used 
by the paper-making wasps is a composition of their own manu- 
facture. In the case of the common wasp it is made by the 
female ( Vespa vulgaris), she using the fibers of old wood for the 
purpose. These she gnaws and kneads until they come to be of a 
consistence of yapier-mache pulp the mixture being assisted by 
the secretion of the salivary glands of the insect. 

The paper hornet {Vespa maculata) builds often a very large 
and elaborate nest of this material. These structures are fre- 
quently found in various localities in the eastern United States 
and elsewhere. The year before last a colony of them built be- 
neath the eaves of the tower to my residence in the suburban 
parts of Washington, D. C. A great paper nest filled the entire 
angle of the recess. When they build in the forests, however, 
these insects usually select the smaller limbs of bushes or trees, 
making the nest more or less spherical or ellipsoidal in contour. 
Sometimes these are placed high up in the trees, but again may 
be close to the ground. Two years ago I discovered a deserted 
one near my present home that was fastened to the twin trunks 
of a small dogwood, its lower surface being practically in contact 
with the ground. It was of an egg-shaped form, with the small 
end downward ; the entire affair measuring about thirty centi- 
metres by twenty-two centimetres, selecting for the purpose the 
greatest vertical diameter and the longest horizontal one (see Fig. 
2). Eight distinct layers composed the walls of this nest, and its 
entrance, a small oval opening, was situated low down in front. 
It contained three tiers of unipedicled nests of cells, they being 
closely packed together, and the disks faced downward and were 
about a centimetre apart. As usual, any single cell was in con- 
tact with all its juxta- placed neighbors, and when not too closely 
crowded they were seen to be of a cylindrical form, but if the 
crowding was closer they then assumed the hexagonal shape. At 
their bases they were rounded, while inferiorly they were open 



SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 



319 



and exhibited the various means by which the young had escaped 
when the proper time had arrived for them to do so. In some 
cases the thin paper cap was perforated ; in others it had been 
lifted as a cover ; while, finally, in some it was practically gone 
altogether. Paper hornets will, as every one knows who has 
ever had any experience of the kind, sally forth in numbers and 
protect their nest by winged attacks en masse and in loose order, 
their stings being no trifling matter in many cases. I have before 




Fia. 2. Nest uk the 1'apkk IIhiixet ( I'es/nj nuKjulata). One side cut iiwiiy tu show interior. 
Collected and photographed by Dr. Shufeldt. 



me another very pretty nest of this kind found in the same local- 
ity, but built by a different species. It is no bigger than an ordi- 
nary peg top, being att iched to the twig of a blackberry vine by 
its large end, the apex, looking directly downward, being occu- 
pied by a single circular aperture leading to the interior. Ex- 
ternally this little structure is very smooth, and it contains but 
one small disk, composed of but seven or eight cells. 

Other communities of social hornets build their vespiaries in 



320 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the hollows of trees and logs, which they occasionally clean out 
to render the places fit for their purposes. 

Arthur Shipley, in describing some of the habits of the Ves- 
pidcB, has said in part that the workers among hornets " are 
females in which the ovary remains undeveloped ; they resemble 
the perfect female in external appearance, but are slightly 
smaller. Unlike the bees', the wasps' community is annual, 
existing for one summer only. Most of the members die at the 
approach of autumn, but a few females which have been ferti- 
lized hibernate through the winter, sheltered under stones or hol- 
low trees. In the spring and with the returning of warm weather 
the female regains her activity and emerges from her hiding 
place. She then sets about finding a convenient place for build- 
ing a nest and establishing a new colony." 

The methods of making the paper cells and their arrangement, 
the laying of the eggs in them, and the rearing of the young are 
practically much the same in both the common wasps and the 
social paper hornets. So Professor Shipley, after describing the 
manufacture of the paper nest of the common wasp ( Vespa vul- 
garis) how she lays a single egg at the bottom of each of the 
first three cells, and then this, the foundress of the society, " con- 
tinues to add cells to the comb, and as soon as the grubs appear 
from the first-laid eggs she has in addition to tend and feed them." 

" The grubs are apodal, thicker at the middle than at either 
end ; the mandibles bear three teeth ; the maxillae and labium are 
represented by fleshy tubercles. The body, including the head, 
consists of fourteen segments, which bear lateral tubercles and 
spiracles. They have no arms. They are suspended with the head 
downward in the cells, and require a good deal of attention, being 
fed by their mother upon insects which are well chewed before 
they are given to the larvae, or upon honey. At the same time 
the mother is enlarging and deepening the cells in which they 
live, building new cells and laying more eggs, which are usually 
suspended in the same angle of each cell. The development 
within the Qgg takes eight days. 

" After about a fortnight the grubs cease to feed, and, forming 
a silky cover to their cells, become pupae. This quiescent state 
lasts about ten days, at the end of which period they emerge as 
the imago or perfect insect. The silky covering of the cell is 
round or convex outward, and to leave the cell the insect either 
pushes it out, when it opens like a box lid, or gnaws a round hole 
through it. As soon as the cell is vacated it is cleaned out and 
another egg deposited. In this way two or three larvae occupy 
successively the same cell during the summer. The first wasps 
that appear in a nest are neuters or workers, and these at once 
set to work to enlarge the comb and feed the larvae, etc. . . . 



SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 321 

" In a favorable season, when the weather is warm and food 
plentiful, a nest may contain many thousands of cells full of 
wasps in various stages of development, and, as each cell is occu- 
pied two or three times in the course of a summer, those authori- 
ties who put the number of the members of the community as 
high as thirty thousand are probably not far wrong. 

" At the approach of autumn the society begins to break up ; 
the males fertilize the females while flying high in the air ; they 
then die, often within a few hours. The workers leave the nest, 
carrying with them any grubs that remain in the cells, and both 
soon perish. The nest is entirely deserted. The females which 
have been fertilized creep into crevices under stones or trees or 
hide among moss, and hibernate until the warmth of the follow- 
ing spring induces them to leave their hiding places and set about 
founding a new community.^^ 

Where hornets or wasps occur in very large numbers they fre- 
quently, at certain seasons, do considerable damage to fruit and 
forest trees by gnawing off the bark to build their paper nests. 
They destroy the fruit they attack, living as they do upon the 
juices extracted from it. But, on the other hand, these insects 
are very useful in that they likewise feed on flies and other in- 
sects, and so very materially diminish the numbers of these pests. 
Some wasps live in part upon honey, which they collect from the 
most open-petaled flowers, and thus to a very moderate extent 
they may be regarded in the light of flower fertilizers. Kirkland 
says, in the first volume of the American Naturalist, that " the 
paper hornet {Vespa maculata) often enters my nucleus hives, 
when I am rearing Italian queen bees, and captures the young 
queen in the midst of her little colony, usually just after she has 
commenced her first laying. I have seen this depredator enter 
the small hive, drag out the queen, and fly away with her to the 
woods " (page 52), Some of the species of the genus Polistes 
store up honey which is poisonous, from the fact that it has 
been collected from poisonous flowers. They are found in South 
America, where also species of the genus Chartergus occur 
wasps that make a very remarkable and tough nest, with funnel- 
shaped combs inside, arranged one inside of another, nest fashion, 
but not in contact except at their points of suspension. At the 
apices of these cones occur the apertures of entrance for the in- 
mates to pass up among the conical tiers. Icaria, a genus repre- 
sented in Australia, the East Indies, Africa, and Madagascar, 
contains some very remarkable species. Some of them have the 
power of contracting the hinder segments of the abdomen so far 
within the body that at first sight they appear to have been 
broken off. Many of these species are very small and brilliantly 
colored, and often build curiously shaped little paper nests. 

TOL. LI. 25 



322 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Wasps and hornets are not witliout their enemies, for their nests 
are frequently infested by parasitical insects that feed upon their 
grubs. According to Shipley, " In the tropics some species are 
attacked by fungi, the hyphse of which protrude between the seg- 
ments of the abdomen and give the wasp a very extraordinary 
appearance." 

From the wasps and hornets I next pass to a consideration of 
a few of the species of bees, omitting, however, anything in refer- 
ence to the common hive bee {xipis mellifica), of which insect 
entire volumes have been written. 

Hundreds of species of wild bees are now known, and they are 
to be found in almost every part of the world, and doubtless many 
species yet remain to be described by the entomologists. Those 
found have been arranged in the two families Andrenidce. and 
ApidcB by Kirby, and are subdivided into a number of genera. 
In the first family all the species are solitary of habit, while in 
the second both solitary and social species are found. True honey- 
bees are found wild in this country, and the species most nearly 
allied to them with us is the common bumblebee (Bomhus), of 
which genus upward of fifty species or more occur in North 
America. This bee, or rather a queen of this species, hibernates 
all winter, but early in the spring makes her nest. This may be 
under any old log or piece of turf or the vacated nest of a field 
mouse. A dozen eggs or so are laid in a mixture she makes of 
pollen and honey, and the young appear in series from egg to 
imago, the period of development being of no great length. From 
this time on the study of the colony is full of interest, but the 
sequence of events is not altogether unlike what has been de- 
scribed above for the wasps, the nature of the nest and the fate of 
the eggs when first deposited being the main difference. 

Bumblebees are preyed upon by a variety of parasites, the 
most curious being a species of Aimthus, an insect so closely re- 
sembling its host that it requires the eye of an expert to detect 
the one from the other. Many of us are familiar with the history 
of the tunnels in posts, planks, and similar places made by that 
large species known as the Virginian carpenter bee {Xylocopa vir- 
ginica); and then, too, we have its pretty little ally, the bright 
pea-green Ceratina duplet, that constructs similar tunnels in such 
plants as have a pithy center, as reeds and elderberry bushes. 
These tunnels in either case are intended to hold the cells in 
which the eggs are deposited and the young reared. The habits 
of the tailor or leaf-cutting bee are even still more interesting 
{MegacMle centuncularis). They have strong, sharp-cutting jaws, 
by means of which they cut away bits of leaves to be used in the 
formation of their cells, the site of the nest being in elder stalks 
or under planks or in the hollows of certain trees. Their very 



SOME FACTS ABOUT WASPS AND BEES. 323 

interesting habits have been closely studied by a number of 
naturalists. Mason bees of the genus Osmia are also small and 
brilliantly colored, blue or green, having habits somewhat akin 
to those of Megacliile. A European species is said to build her 
cells of mud, depositing them in the empty shells of snails. Many 
other species of this genus Osmia, in various parts of the world, 
possess habits full of interest to us, that have been described in 
the books with greater or less detail. Then we have the less 
intelligent types of those bees that burrow in the ground, that 
are solitary, and leave their young to look out for themselves. 
These fossorial bees see their types in such forms or species as 
the common Andrena vicina, that I have observed in many parts 
of New England. Parasitic bees, called cuckoo bees (as Nomada 
sex-fasciata) , prey upon these fossorial forms, such as Andrena or 
its allies of the genus Halidus and others, by laying their eggs 
in their nests. They are also infested by numerous other para- 
sites, such as by certain ichneumon flies and oil beetles {Meloe)> 
and others. Some of the South American bees are destitute of 
stings {Melipoma, Trigona), and I have frequently seen a large bee 
here near Washington that does not sting. It has the appearance 
of a Bomhus, but the fore part of the head is nearly all of a very 
pale yellow, almost white. 

Carder bees {Bombi muscorum) are known to all frequenters of 
open fields and meadows, after the haying season has commenced. 
A popular writer at hand says : " They select for their nest a shal- 
low excavation in the ground about a foot in diameter, or, if such 
a one is not to be found, they make one with prodigious labor. 
This they cover over with a dome of moss, or sometimes with 
withered grass. They collect their materials by pushing them 
along upon the ground, working backward like the tumblebugs. 
Frequently in the spring a single female founds a colony, and by 
perseverance collects the mossy covering in the way described ; 
later in the season, when the hive is populous and can afford more 
hands, there is an ingenious division of this labor, A file of bees, 
to the number sometimes of half a dozen, is established from the 
nest to the moss or grass which they intend to use, the heads of 
all the file of bees being turned from the nest and toward the 
material. The last bee of the file lays hold of some of the moss 
with her mandibles, disentangles it from the rest, and, having 
carded it with her fore legs into a sort of felt or small bundle, she 
pushes it under her body to the next bee, who passes it in the 
same manner to the next, and so on till it is brought to the border 
of the nest in the same way as we sometimes see sugar loaves 
conveyed from a cart to a warehouse by a file of porters throwing 
them from one to another. The elevation of the dome, which is 
all built from the interior, is from four to six inches above the 



324 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

level of the field. Besides the moss or grass, they frequently 
employ coarse wax to form the ceiling of the vault, for the pur- 
pose of keeping out rain and preventing high winds from destroy- 
ing it. Within this retreat the eggs present an appearance not 
very different from that of the bumblebee." 

In conclusion, I may say that among the ancient Hebrews and 
Romans the error was widely credited that bees made their nests 
and reared their young in the carcasses of dead animals; and, 
although these people knew that bees were governed by a ruler, 
they labored under the impression that it was a king and not a 
queen. Such ignorance can easily be overlooked, however, when 
we come to consider that it is only of comparatively recent date 
that we have worked out the biology of these insects, and, as it is, 
there yet remains the greater part, by all odds, of their natural 
history of which we know little or absolutely nothing, and to 
which must still be added that of the host of species of this order 
yet to be discovered and made known to science. 







THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 

By EDMUND NOBLE. 

ONE of the many interesting things about evolution, oftener 
taken for granted than formally recognized, is the fact that 
the changes which everywhere accompany and constitute it have 
their rise in a simple excess of pressure in one direction over the 
pressure in another. For all movement, whether it be of simple 
or of complex matter, whether it be of an inorganic or an organic 
system, whether it involve will and conscious perception or not, 
is in every case and under every conceivable set of circumstances 
movement in a single mode that is to say, movement in the 
direction of the least resistance, or from the direction of the 
greatest traction or stress.* If we look to the origin of the move- 
ment, we shall speak of acting as in the line of the greatest 
stress; if we consider the resistances in the presence of which 
movement is produced, we shall regard acting as in the direction 
of the least resistance. But, however we may describe it, the 
truth of the law is obvious, since it follows from the very nature 
of movement. For if a body be equally stressed from all direc- 
tions it will not move, while if it be stressed differentially in one 
direction more than in other directions it will move in the line 
of, or away from, the greatest stress. Now, as all movement must 

* In order to save repetition, the word " stress " will be used throughout in the sense of 
traction or stress." 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 325 

take place in the presence of or against resistance, a body which 
moves in the line of the greatest stress necessarily moves in the 
direction of the least stress, and it is this movement in the direc- 
tion of the least stress which we mean when we speak of move- 
ment in the direction of the least resistance. 

We have next to note what is meant by the greatest stress. 
This is not necessarily a stress applied at a single moment in time 
or at a single point in space. The movement of a billiard ball, for 
example, may be determined for part of its course wholly by the 
blow given with the cue, but the cushions soon come into action, 
and thus the total course of the ball is decided, not solely by the 
cue, but by the cue and all subsequent stresses of the cushions 
and balls that happen to be struck. In like manner, the initial 
impulse is given to the cannon ball by the exploding gunpowder, 
yet this initial stress is immediately complicated with gravitative 
action ; and when we say that such a ball moves in the line of the 
greatest stress, we mean not simply the direction originally given 
by the cannon, but the whole direction as determined by cannon, 
gravity, and atmosphere. The greatest stress determining the 
direction of movement, then, is a stress made up, not only of the 
initial stress, but also of all subsequent determinations encoun- 
tered as resistances by the moving body in its course ; and when 
we say that a body moves in the direction of the least resistance, 
we mean that its total movement is determined by the total 
of greatest stresses. It is true that a distinction may be made 
between the original impulse given to a body and the subsequent 
stress or stresses entailed upon it by its own movement, and due 
to contact with other bodies at rest or in motion. It is an active 
stress, for example, which gives the initial impulse to the billiard 
ball ; it is a reactive stress by which the cushion deflects the ball 
from its original course. But this distinction is little more than 
formal ; the whole of the stresses determining movement, however 
easy it may be to analyze them into parts, must be regarded in 
their totality ; for if we have to account for movements that 
take place in time in their totality, we must consider the determi- 
nations to those movements in their totality. 

The law of least resistance, as we may briefly call it, finds 
exemplification alike in the realm of life and in the world of 
inanimate things. Not only are all movements of masses and 
their parts from the descent of a bowlder down the hillside to 
the revolutions of planets in their orbits ; from the activities of 
gas molecules in a chemist's laboratory to the movements of cos- 
mical aggregation out of which suns arise due to a differential 
stress producing motion in the presence of resistance to that 
motion : the law is valid also for the activities of animals, since, 
if the molecular forces embodied in an organic system impel that 



326 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

system to move to particular ends in the interest of maintenance, it 
can not move to such ends save in the direction of the least resist- 
ance. Thus, if a stone thrown at a mark takes the shortest route, 
having regard to the whole of the influences which act upon it, so 
a pedestrian goes to his destination by the shortest way which the 
circumstances permit. A volume of steam finds exit from an 
overstrained boiler at the weakest point ; so by the weakest point 
an animal escapes from its cage. As a river flows through its 
channel, determined to that path by the resistance which pre- 
vents deviation from it, so the traveler is held to the beaten track 
by the broken and difficult ground on each side of it. A bullet is 
diverted by some obstacle suddenly encountered ; the root of a 
plant coils round the stone it meets ; the railway engineer usually 
carries his line round an obstruction instead of through it ; the 
secondary current of an induction coil avoids a journey of many 
miles by leaping through a flaw in the insulation; a dishonest 
pupil avoids work at examination by copying the replies of a 
fellow- student. The light wave makes its way, roughly speaking, 
spirally through ether ; objects of large surface and slow descent, 
such as certain suitably shaped pieces of paper, descend through 
the atmosphere in a spiral path ; a bubble of air ascends spirally 
through water ; the plant climbs a tree by spiral windings ; a 
horse mounting a steep ascent with a heavy load takes a zigzag 
or spiriform course ; men ascend and descend by spiral stair- 
ways ; water sinks through an orifice spirally, and the descent of 
a whirlpool is a spiral ; boring instruments, such as gimlets, au- 
gers, corkscrews, have spiral blades. The hunter seeks particular 
animals at pools and watercourses which they frequent, as certain 
medusae throng to water traversed by a beam of light because the 
illumination attracts thither small Crustacea upon which they 
feed. Earthworms, in drawing leaves into their holes, seize the 
leaf at such a point as will permit its passage into the hole with 
the least amount of resistance ; a man carrying a ladder on his 
shoulder through a crowded thoroughfare carefully regulates his 
movements so as to avoid collisions. Men escape from an invested 
city by utilizing the wind ; the invested dandelion balloons its seed 
to a place where it can grow in safety. Certain organisms wear 
the garb of others in order to increase the ease of their existence ; 
certain men mimic their fellows to the like end of diminishing 
resistance. As a mother disguises her child's medicine in sugar 
or sirup, so plants offer their seeds to animals in sweetly fla- 
vored fruits. Bees construct their combs in the form that secures 
the utmost capacity for storage with the smallest expenditure of 
building material and therefore of energy; so human builders 
attain in their constructions a maximum of needed effect with the 
lowest minimum expenditure of material and labor. A general 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 327 

carrying on war, a statesman conducting affairs of government, a 
merchant engaged in business negotiations, alike take tlie path 
which, having regard to the whole of the circumstances, offers 
the least amount of resistance to the attainment of the ends in 
view. 

All inorganic and organic movements are therefore alike in 
the fact that each is due to a greatest stress, and takes place in 
the direction of a least resistance. It is true, of course, that a 
pedestrian does not rebound, like the billiard ball, from the re- 
sistances which he encounters in trying to find the easiest path 
through a forest or over the mountains ; yet he consciously seeks 
the path of least resistance, and does so because he is diverted 
into it by the greater resistances of all other paths ; these greater 
resistances become part of the greatest stress which determines 
the form of his movement, just as the reactive stress of the cush- 
ions forms part of the greatest stress that determines the path of 
the billiard ball. Inorganic and organic movements differ from 
each other simply in the fact that by living animals the path of 
least resistance is more or less consciously chosen, while in the 
inorganic world the path of least resistance is not chosen. And 
this unlikeness arises out of a more fundamental unlikeness still, 
from the fact that movement in the realm of the organic has end 
for its concomitant, though not necessarily conscious end, while 
in the motion of things inanimate end is wholly absent. Organic 
movements, that is to say, are all directed to some end, while in 
the realm of the inorganic, movements are simply unintelligent 
effects, results, or products of differential stress. In the form of 
organic movement, end plays a most important part, while in in- 
organic movement it has no part at all. Thus a pedestrian may 
find a circuitous route through a forest the easiest if his only end 
be to pass through it as quickly as possible ; yet, should botaniz- 
ing be his object, the form of his movement will be quite differ- 
ent, and may very well be the direction of greatest resistance, so 
far as physical obstacles to movement are concerned. In the case, 
moreover, of particular ends, numerous opportunities for the ex- 
ercise of choice present themselves. The more direct path up a 
mountain is chosen in preference to the one less direct, yet, when 
the " easier " path is the more dangerous, the traveler takes the 
safer and more difiicult passage. So the more efficient tool is pre- 
ferred to the less perfect instrument ; and so, out of numberless 
ways in which the ends of life are to be reached, men instinc- 
tively and consciously choose those which, by encountering the 
least possible resistances, involve the minimum expenditure of 
effort. In the case of organic movements, economy of energy is 
possible because of the presence of end, the existence of various 
ways of reaching it, and the possibility of choosing the one which 



328 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

involves the least expenditure of energy. In tlie case of inor- 
ganic movements there is no such economy, since those move- 
ments are mere effects, and comply unvaryingly with the laws of 
mechanics. Finally, the exertion of choice by an organism does 
not determine whether movement shall take place in the direc- 
tion of the least resistance or not for that is the inevitable mode 
of all movements, organic as well as inorganic but whether the 
energy expended in the differential or greatest stress producing 
movement shall be a larger or a smaller quantity. 

We have next to note that the economy of energy which is 
possible in organic movements has two forms. There is economy 
in the realm of the conscious will, exemplified in movements by 
which animals reach various ends ; and there is an economy in 
the realm of the unconscious life of the organism by which the 
parts thereof rearrange themselves in such a way as to lessen the 
expenditure of effort in the work of maintenance. For, whenever 
function is imposed by the organism upon certain of its parts, such 
parts, moving into configurations of least resistance, set up the 
intelligent adaptations which we know as organs. The only dif- 
ference between a tool and an organ is that the former has been 
consciously shaped by man, whereas the latter has arisen through 
the unconsciously effected rearrangements of living molecules 
upon which function has been imposed by the organism. All 
organs, like all tools, are paths of least resistance, ways of reach- 
ing ends of organic maintenance with a minimum expenditure of 
effort. Simultaneously, moreover, with the saving of energy 
spared through the gradual perfecting of organs, there goes on a 
gradual improvement of the ends which such organs are uncon- 
sciously produced to reach. For this is simply to say that all 
effort saved by an organism through increase of the efficiency of 
its organs and processes goes the circumstances being favorable 
to increase the complexity and delicacy of its relation to the 
environment, as well as to enlarge the scope of the activities of 
maintenance. 

The way in which organic molecules move into configurations 
that offer the least resistance to their special activities may be 
seen in similar structural formations which are more or less 
unconsciously assumed by human beings. One of these is the 
habit of taking turn by people waiting, say, at the box office of a 
theatre a configuration which is assumed more or less uncon- 
sciously, because it is the one which, under the whole of the cir- 
cumstances, involves conditions of least resistance. There is a 
similar selection of conformations involving a maximum of ease 
in the manner in which pedestrians avoid collision with each 
other. The throng in movement on the crowded sideways of a 
great city divides itself naturally and without conscious delibera- 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 329 

tion into two streams going in contrary directions, each pursuing 
its particular course without the slightest resistance from the 
other, and to the manifest advantage, both in amount of energy 
expended and speed of movement, of every individual concerned. 

The history of social and industrial ascent is, throughout, a 
record of the lessening of the resistance encountered in the attain- 
ment of human ends, as well as of the constant improvement of 
those ends. Social ascent not only diminishes resistance within 
the tribe, community, or nation ; it everywhere lessens external 
aggression, substitutes mutual aid for the antagonisms of con- 
flict, and enables men to devote energy spent in war to the pur- 
suits of peace. Step by step with this lessening of resistance by 
the reduction of conflict, there goes on within the social body, 
and between the group of social bodies, those co-operative move- 
ments which, by tending to unify men, gradually bring to the aid 
of the individual the whole power of the social organism. In the 
beginning there is little industrial co-operation : each man is his 
own agriculturist, hunter, tailor, shoemaker, and soldier each, 
that is to say, discharges for himself the work which individual 
maintenance involves. But little by little men discover the 
superior ease of mutual aid, and as they learn the value of the 
division of labor, the function of maintenance, originally exer- 
cised almost wholly by each individual for himself, comes more 
and more to be distributed among sets of individuals specially 
differentiated for the tasks allotted to them, and finally there 
arise those wider interdependencies of industrial and commer- 
cial co-operation that bind the inhabitants of almost every clime 
under the sun in bonds of mutual indebtedness. That the whole 
of this movement is a movement of constantly increasing economy 
of energy in the reaching of special ends, and of constant ascent 
in the scope and perfection of those ends, will be evident when 
we remember that the lower we go down in the scale of human 
existence to the stages where coacting is least developed the 
Tuoi'Q rudely and imperfectly are the ends of maintenance reached, 
and the more completely is the time of the organism exhausted 
in attaining them, while the higher we look in co-operation the 
more efficiently are those ends accomplished, and the less time is 
taken up in their performance. 

The way in which labor is reduced and end perfected, both as 
to the quality of the work and the time in which it is performed, 
has been shown in many familiar examples of co-operative acting. 
The advantages of giving particular tasks to specialized sets of 
workmen in such processes as those of coining and pin-making is 
well known. The gradual improvement of tools which are really 
means to the attainment of the ends of the individual and of the 
community of individuals, and must therefore share in the move- 



33 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ment of ascent in whicli those individuals are engaged yields in 
its every detail an illustration of the mode of all movement. At 
first, tools were of the rudest kind, and men reached their ends 
with labor enormous compared with that needed for the attain- 
ment of the same ends to-day ; but in proportion as they acquired 
knowledge of the external world, of the properties of things, of 
how things act and may be acted upon, and of the means and 
methods by which desired results may be brought about in pro- 
portion, moreover, as human need, widening and becoming more 
varied with human ascent, made demand for a larger number and 
a greater variety of implements in such proportion did men per- 
fect, not only their tools, but also the ends possible of attainment 
therewith. To the implements, moreover, once used only by in- 
dividuals, there have been added the tools called into service as 
social appliances by groups of men, and finally by the whole com- 
munity. Thus the progress of tools has been an ascent, not only 
from the sandals of rawhide to the shoe of civilized races, from 
the knife of stone to the modern blade of steel, from the sticks 
rubbed together to the lucifer match, from the sling to the rifle, 
from the bone needle to the sewing machine, and from the gnomon 
and the clepsydra to the timepiece it has also meant the gradual 
development of such social mechanisms as steamboats, railways, 
street cars, post offices, telegraphs, and the like. Finally, all such 
improvement, whether of the individual or the social appliance, 
has been, from first to last, progress in the economy o\ the labor 
needed for particular ends and perfection of the ends themselves. 
Illustrations of the law of least resistance may also be drawn 
from the realm of mind. The need of economizing energy in 
thought is one which, however conscious or unconscious we may 
be of it, dominates and directs, so to speak, all our mental activi- 
ties. This is suggested by the familiar antithesis between breadth 
and profundity of acquirements by the fact that artistic genius 
is usually divorced from depth of intellect, that speculative ability 
is rarely associated with knowledge of the world, that the thinker 
who is deeply versed in general principles is almost never a spe- 
cialist, that the poet is only phenomenally a man of affairs, and 
that the power to think originally and philosophically and the 
power to excel in the graces of literary style are rarely allied in 
one and the same individual, or present in any individual at one 
and the same moment. In a general way, we can concentrate the 
mind, so to speak, upon any particular object only by abstracting 
it from all other objects ; our attention to a speaker, or a book, 
ebbs and flows according to the interest we take in particular pas- 
sages ; more than half the familiar activities of our daily life are 
performed without any attention to them which can properly be 
called conscious. We are constantly, on the one hand, reserving 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 331 

voluntary effort for the less habitual processes and activities, and 
on the other committing such processes and activities, to the ex- 
tent that they become habitual, to the realm of the subconscious. 
What is true of our bodily activities is equally true of the 
mental processes through which we form judgments and reach 
conclusions. To men in the mass, partial aspects of reality are 
easier to seize than complete verities ; they find " concrete facts " 
more comprehensible than general principles; the gently undu- 
lating slopes of belief offer them a less arduous path than that 
which leads over the steep cliffs of knowledge ; for most of them, 
the rosy streamers that herald morning are more beautiful than 
the full lights of day : 

L'homme est de glace aux verites 
II est de fed pour les mensonges ! 

Hence it is that in their earlier thoughts men explain the invisi- 
ble parts of the external world in terms of -the parts visible to 
them ; that they confound the object with the garb woven for it 
by the subject ; that they conceive anthropopathically of things 
and activities in the external world and that most of their ideas 
of the universe and of its parts presuppose the human organism 
as the source of the analogies which alone make them intelligible. 
There can be thus no theory of the universe, however crude, 
and no religious belief, however barbarous, which may not find 
its justification in the fact that, for a particular stage of mental 
ascent, it is an expression of the law of least resistance. If, more- 
over, the beliefs and theories of individuals and races, at first of 
the simplest kind, become more complex as men ascend in mental 
power and knowledge; and, if, as the spheres of feeling and 
knowing draw near to one another, each grows richer in content 
until in both the mind is enabled to range in a world of ideas in- 
accessible to man on a lower plane of development these results 
are reached in every stage of the progress they constitute not only 
by the saving of energy through the improvement of mental 
operations, but also by the enlarging and perfection of the ends 
compassed by those operations. 

The history of the concept is itself full of evidence to the same 
effect. In the early stage of mental development, men attach 
high validity to appearances, and thus form concepts which con- 
nect things only on the basis of their superficial likenesses and dif- 
ferences ; the stage is one in which, while there are terms for the 
members of a class, those descriptive of the class are either very 
imperfect or do not exist at all one in which, for example, there 
are names for particular trees, particular plants, particular ani- 
mals, but no general name for tree, for plant, or for animal. Not 
only are objects imperfectly known in the absence of the power 



332 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

to form these general concepts ; it is impossible to think of tliem 
in tlieir proper relations to one another, and thus there is at once 
imperfect knowledge of the external world on the one hand, and 
on the other, through lack of the bond of likenesses between 
classes, that comparative slowness of mental processes which must 
have been a character of all early thought. The more imperfect, 
in fact, are the links of likeness which binds concepts together, the 
more the mind tends to resemble the confusion of an unclassified 
library, where the needed volume can be obtained only by great 
expenditure of time and effort ; the more complete is mental seg- 
regation, the more the mind may be said to resemble the same 
library properly classified. Ascent, therefore, from the knowing 
of things by their superficial characters to knowledge of them 
also in their fundamental characters .enormously increases, not 
only the ends reached by thought, but also the ease and rapidity 
of mental operations. 

There is another economy to be noted in mental operations 
the economy wrought by the increasing content and the growing 
symbolism of the concept. The name first given to any object 
simply expresses the most prominent out of a very small number 
of qualities by which we know that object. In onomatopoetic 
words, for example, the quality perceived and named is one of 
sound, and the process gives rise to such terms as Jcolokol, the 
Russian word for " bell " ; gunguma, the Gallas name for " drum " ; 
hwdlalkwdlal, used for " bell " by the natives of Yakama (North 
America) ; tumtum, also a Gallas word, meaning " workman," or, 
more literally, " hammerer " ; krahra, the name of a Dahoman 
watchman's rattle ; cJiaclia, the Aino word for " to saw " ; the 
Peruvian ccaccaccahay , signifying " thunderstorm " ; the Austra- 
lian hunghungween, used for "thunder"; liou-liou-liou-gitclia, the 
Botocudo word for " to suck " ; kakakhaka, which in Dyak means 
"to go on laughing loudly"; sliiriushiriukanni, used by the 
Ainos in the sense of "a rasp" ; and the Quichua chiuiuiuiniclii, 
indicating the noise made by the wind among trees. At first, 
that is to say, the name means no more than the most prominent 
character, and perhaps the only known character, of the object to 
which it is applied, whether that character be one of sound, of 
acting, or of appearance ; but, as men come to learn more of the 
qualities and relations of such object, the name gradually loses its 
descriptive value, and becomes a mere symbol or word counter 
for the total content of the concept. Thus, " the Russian called 
the duck utka because he saw it plunge its beak into the water ; 
the Pole called it kaczka, because he noticed that it waddled in 
walking ; the Bosnian gave it the name of plovka, because he saw 
it swimming " ; yet in their survival none of these terms for the 
duck retain or even suggest the character which originally gave 



THE PRINCIPLE OF E CON 031 Y IN EVOLUTION. 333 

rise to them they imply the duck in all its characters and activi- 
ties. It is for like reason that the various symbol values of a 
vast number of terms in our own language have gradually 
emerged from their original meaning as words descriptive of a 
single quality of the thing named sheep from "bleater," its 
original meaning; dawn from "shine/' pig from "grunter/' or 
" the maker of the su sound," mortality from " a wasting away/' 
mother from " fashioner/' sky from " cover/' mouse from " stealer/' 
ant from " swarmer/' bird from " upstriver/' father from " nour- 
isher" or "protector/' ground from "the trodden/' foot from 
"treader/' woman from "bearer" (gune), "soft one" {mulier), or 
"the suckler" (femina), night from "the blind" or "dangerous/' 
earth from "the dry" (terra), house from the "built/' horse from 
" the neigher/' picture from " scratching/' stars from " strewn/' 
fetters from "footers/' fingers from "seizers" {Fdnger), language 
from " tongue/' imply from " folding in/' apprehend from " taking 
hold of/' develop from " unwrap." The gain of the process is ob- 
viously this that the mind, instead of describing a single quality 
by its name instead of having to deal with all the qualities sepa- 
rately is enabled to include in a single concept all the characters 
which the thing named is known to possess, and to bring such 
concept into true relation with other concepts equally rich in the 
number of qualities which they connote. That the economy thus 
attained is no small one that it means enlargement and perfection 
of end as well as saving of energy may be realized by remember- 
ing the enormous increase which has taken place even in recent 
years in the meaning of such simple terms, for example, as stone 
and star. " Stone/' to the uncultured man, is merely a hard sub- 
stance of a particular color, size, shape, and weight ; to the geolo- 
gist the concept " stone " has a rich content of both chemical and 
physical characters, and demands for its thorough comprehension 
a familiarity with the whole history of the planet. So to the 
ignorant man " stars " are little more than 

specks of tinsel fixed in heaven, 
To light the midnights of his native town ; 

while to the educated, and above all to the scientific mind, the 
concept is rich with thoughts of cosmic processes and solar evolu- 
tion, and has a content of materials drawn from well-nigh every 
department of knowledge. 

Economy in language (which throughout implies economy in 
mental processes) is probably shown as much by that which 
escapes as by that which attains to expression in speech. "Words 
are brought into use only to describe things, actions, and relations 
that are of habitual or frequent occurrence. A vast number of 
phenomena are left unnamed for the reason that they do not recur 



334 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

with sufficient frequency to demand formal attention for the social 
purposes of language. Thus, if only one railway collision had 
ever occurred, the word " telescoped " would never have been in- 
vented ; so a single case of " marauding " or of " boycotting " 
would have been totally insufficient to bring into existence these 
now familiar terms. It is because most emotional states are too 
complex ever to recur a second time in the same form and sequence 
that they can never become fixed by language, and that the feel- 
ings excited by the sight of a beautiful landscape, or an Alpine 
range, may be but imperfectly suggested only by the multitudi- 
nous epithets of a poem, and need a new poem to suggest them 
every time they are felt. The naming faculty is in fact called 
into action only as impressions emerge into familiarity : for the 
changing complex of the activities and relations that never recur 
twice in the same way, and often never recur at all, the mind has 
no process of classification, and therefore no concepts that can be 
named. 

Uttered speech is full of the signs of this ever-present striving 
after economy. Observe the constant omission of particles and 
words whenever intelligibility is to be attained without them. 
Where gestures will suffice to convey our meaning a beck of 
the hand, it may be, or a shrug of the shoulders we do not 
need speech, or, when we do, a " Pooh-pooh ! " a " Mind ! " or a 
" Beware ! " will often answer all our purposes. We say " in 
French " for " in the French language " ; " Thanks ! " for " I thank 
you " ; " Herein ! " for " Kommen Sie herein ! " In phrases like " I 
go to-morrow, not you," " Ni Tor ni la grandeur ne nous rendent 
heureux," "Dove ci e despotismo, non ci h virtii" (Gaetano Filan- 
gieri), " Er war armlich, aber doch sauber gekleidet," " Me ipsum 
ames oportet, non mea" (Cicero), we habitually omit words for- 
mally necessary to the sentence, but not needed to convey its 
meaning. As, moreover, words are dropped from phrases, so let- 
ters are dropped from words. When there is no literature to 
stereotype a form, as in the case of the native American lan- 
guages, degeneration by process of syncope sets in rapidly ; it is 
not delayed long even for classic tongues, like Greek and Latin, 
or for their successors of the Romance family, on all of which 
phonetic decay has set its mark ; while all literary tongues, an- 
cient and modern, display the process in their colloquial forms. 
Thus the process which turned anima into dme, femina into 
fernme, and pundum into point, which converted the earlier Latin 
ad diem into the later Latin of ad die, and in Italian shortened 
de ah illo monte into dal monie, has its analogue in the Bas-Valais 
peasant's contraction of genisse into fni and eteindre into tede ; 
in the Berlin workman's conversion of "IcJi" into "J"'; in the 
English reduction of " I love-did " to " I loved," " boatswain " to 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 7,7,^ 

"bos'n," "God be with, you !'^ to " Good-by ! " and in tbe slang 
wbicli in portions of tlie United States has begun to dwarf " How 
do you do ? " into " Howdy ? " 

There is abundant scope for economy in all the forms of liter- 
ary expression. Not only do we avoid as far as possible redun- 
dant elements, we also choose words calculated to convey our 
meaning with the minimum of effort on the part of the reader or 
listener. Where our end is simply that of intelligibility, as in 
the case of scientific statement, we choose words as simple and as 
expressive as possible; where to the end of intelligibility are 
added the ends of style, we employ words more ornate and pic- 
turesque in their character. In most prose compositions we are 
satisfied if we succeed in conveying our meaning ; in most poet- 
ical compositions we seek, in addition to the end of intelligibility, 
to produce emotional excitement, to call the imagination into 
powerful activity, and to give rise to various pleasing effects, such 
as those of rhyme and alliteration. But whatever are our ends in 
composition, and however multifarious they may be, we alwaj^s 
strive to reach them in the completest way and with the least 
possible demand upon the attention of the persons whom we are 
addressing. The sparing use of metaphor and parenthesis, the 
placing of the stronger epithets after instead of before the weaker, 
the avoidance of long and involved sentences, the care taken not 
to repeat words already used instead of their synonyms, the pro- 
vision for variety which excludes monotony both of thought and 
of style, the observance of a best arrangement for the words in a 
sentence, the choice of particular material for the various para- 
graphs of a composition, and the construction of the links by 
which unity is secured for the whole treatment all this is ordered, 
as far as is possible in each individual case, so as to produce a 
maximum of effect with a minimum of material. 

How intolerant men are of speech elements unnecessary to in- 
telligibility is shown by the drift of the educated and uneducated 
alike toward a phonetic spelling by the gradual doing away with 
inversion in both word and sentence, and by the growing tend- 
ency to use adjectives as adverbs, to discard subtleties like the 
subjunctive, and break down the well-established distinction be- 
tween " shall " and " will." The economy which has taken place 
in the domain of grammatical forms is shown both in their 
gradual acquirement as means to the increased intelligibility of 
speech, and in the haste with which the mind, no longer needing 
them, hastened to discard the scaffolding of the structure which 
with their aid it had built up. The enormous gain which has 
been secured by the dropping of inflection may be appreciated 
somewhat by reference to the clumsy paraphernalia of such un- 
developed languages as Zulu, in which, as translated by Dr. Bleek, 



336 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the simple sentence, ''Our great kingdom appears; we love it," 
must be expressed as, " The kingdom our dom, which dom is the 
great dom, the dom appears, we love the dom" {U-bu-kosi hetu 
ohu-'kulib hu-ya-honalcdla si-hutanda). So the saving attained in 
such a language as English may be easily inferred from the wild 
luxuriance in analytic distinctions of all tongues in an early stage 
of development. 

It should be added that the gain which comes of the gradual 
rejection of inflection is a gain not merely in the domain of lan- 
guage alone, it is throughout made possible by mental ascent, 
and the whole of the progress which it implies is a progress not 
only in the saving of labor in the intercourse between men, but 
also in the enlargement and perfection of the ends of that inter- 
course. 

We now return from this brief and highly incomplete account 
of the various forms of acting to consider the application of our 
principle to the case of the organic system. That principle ad- 
mitted, it will be at once obvious that the law of least resistance 
must be true of all those rearrangements and activities which are 
imposed upon a living protoplasmic system in the interest of 
maintenance. If, in other words, such aggregate be impelled by 
the forces inherent in organic molecules to maintain itself, the 
various means by which it will maintain itself will be means such 
as, from the minutest detail of structural rearrangement to the 
highest organ and process, are best adapted under the whole of 
the circumstances to accomplish the end of maintenance with the 
minimum expenditure of energy, and this for the reason that only 
such means can arise by movement in the direction of the least 
resistance. It also follows, from the inevitableness of the law 
and from the character of the organic aggregate as a system of 
parts, that the means by which maintenance is carried on by such 
aggregate will undergo progressive improvement, and will there- 
fore illustrate the same gradual advance in the economizing of 
energy and the perfecting of end as those which are exemplified 
in the ascent of the human community. 

The obvious analogy between the parts of an organic system 
and the individuals constituting a human society is completely 
borne out on examination. Whether, in fact, the primitive or- 
ganic aggregate be viewed as a union of previously separated 
units, or as an organic mass divided into unit parts that are first 
likes to each other and only finally differentiated, or as an aggre- 
gate that undergoes differentiation of its parts the moment it is 
sufficiently advanced in complexity to possess organic character, 
the fact remains that the parts can not constitute an organic sys- 
tem without aiding each other in the work of maintenance. Even 
if we could regard them as independent of each other, though 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 337 

associated, we should be compelled to say that, acting in accord- 
ance with the law of least resistance, they would find it easier to 
divide that work among their own number than for each to main- 
tain itself apart from the rest. Yet the reality is even stronger 
than this : since the parts are interdependent, must each act in the 
interest of the whole of them, and are each by that whole domi- 
nated, so to speak, into co-operation with one another for the ends 
of maintenance. Just in proportion, moreover, as special activi- 
ties are imposed upon special parts, in that degree are such parts 
differentiated for the tasks they must perform ; special centers 
and organs arise connecting the various processes with one an- 
other, until finally the whole unified system is an aggregate of 
co-operating but subordinated individualities, of which each is in 
the service of all, and all act in the interest of each an aggre- 
gate, that is to say, in which each of the parts, instead of having 
to carry on itself all the activities of maintenance, obtains in 
exchange for its own small contribution to the general labor the 
services and power of the whole society. In other words, the 
parts of such a system, impelled to the activities of maintenance, 
move into those configurations in which self-maintenance is the 
easiest and completest for all of them, and do so by a process of 
gradual adaptation and interadaptation, every stage of which is a 
stage of increasing efficiency of end and of greater economy of 
energy in the reaching of that end. 

The progressive unification of men in the human society also 
has its analogy in the progressive unification of the organic sys- 
tem. In the lower planes of life lack of complete solidarity be- 
tween all the parts and processes of an organism often manifests 
itself in the well-known phenomenon of iterated organs. The 
system in this stage consists, so to speak, of groups or segments, 
and every segment has its special set of organs such, for example, 
as the legs of the centiped and the lobster, the multiple breath- 
ing holes of insects, and in a variety of organisms the iterated 
eyes or ocelli, as well as the repeated nerve centers of many of the 
lower forms. As the organism becomes unified this phenomenon 
of iteration tends to pass away, and the change is wrought through 
what may be called the discovery by the organism that it is easier 
to produce and maintain a single set of organs of each kind for 
the body as a whole than to produce and maintain and use a sepa- 
rate set of such organs for each segment or group. Hence the 
ascent of the organism from the stage of iterated organs to the 
stage of single sets of organs, from the condition of imperfect to 
the condition of perfect unification, is ascent by diminution of 
resistance, by perfection of end, by greater economy of energy. 

As, moreover, the improvement of tools is a saving of energy 
to the individual wielding them, so is the improvement of an 

VOL. LI. 26 



338 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

organ to the system whicli needs and has produced it for ends of 
maintenance. In the degree that the organic parts have special 
activities imposed upon them, in that degree do they become 
modified by those activities, and therefore adapted to the doing 
of those activities. An incipient leg, tail, fin, or eye, or any other 
organ, impelled to a particular thing, to act in a particular way, 
will do that thing more perfectly, will act in that way more com- 
pletely and efficiently, with every repetition of the acting, for the 
reason that the parts of the organ and of the organism become 
with every such repetition, up to a certain natural limit, more 
and more adapted to the doing of that particular thing, to act- 
ing in that particular way ; and this is why use is said to im- 
prove organs. The parts of such a system rearrange themselves 
in such a way as in every case continually to lessen the resistance 
offered within the system to the acting needed for each particu- 
lar end. Just as from the simple foot of the snail to the leg of 
the vertebrates, so from the membrane of the worm sensitive to 
light, from the ocelli of insects and marine organisms to the 
highly developed eye of mammals, or from the incipient forms of 
internal organs to the more perfect and efficient forms of such 
organs, there have been progressive stages of ascent in the econ- 
omy of energy with which given ends have been reached, as well 
as improvement of the ends themselves. In the case of organs, as 
in that of tools, the improvement has been made possible by a 
finer sense on the parts of the organism acting of the direction of 
least resistance, a finer self-adaptation by that organism to the 
environment, and a more perfect reaching of more perfect ends 
as the result of that adaptation. 

We now see that the advantage gained by the perfection of 
any given organ or appliance necessary to maintenance is the 
advantage which, given the end to be reached, is gained by the 
saving of energy in the reaching of that end that, in other words, 
the inducement to the improvement of any given organ is the 
saving of the energy spent in reaching, with the aid of that organ, 
the general end of maintenance. The more perfect are the appli- 
ances of the organic system, the more easily and completely does 
that system reach its end of maintenance ; hence the gradual im- 
provement of the organs with which maintenance is accomi^lished 
is so much movement in the direction of the least resistance. 
Thus the eye is gradually perfected in successive organisms, not 
because there is anywhere any foreknowledge that a given con- 
figuration of parts will lead to so highly useful an appliance as 
the organ of vision, but because, given the impulsion to mainte- 
nance and the general conditions of organic life, all structural 
changes leading away from the development of an organ like the 
eye would involve loss of energy to the organism in the reaching 



THE PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMY IN EVOLUTION. 339 

of the general eud, and because all rearrangements of the organic 
parts that lead directly to the development of the eye are favored, 
as against rearrangements tending in any other direction, by the 
fact that every successive stage of such rearrangements results in 
a saving of energy in the reaching of maintenance to the organ- 
ism bringing them about. In a word, the path of structural 
movement toward the eye is the easiest path, the path of least re- 
sistance, while the path away from the eye is the most diflBcult 
path, the path of greatest resistance ; and what is true of the eye 
is true of all other organs and organic appliances whatsoever. 
Given, therefore, the molecular forces which in some way not 
yet understood impel the organism to display those activities of 
maintenance which we call life, and there follow, by virtue of 
those forces, of the character of organic matter, and of the general 
conditions of existence, not only the intelligent adaptations which 
make possible and facilitate maintenance, but also the gradual im- 
provement of those adaptations which constitutes organic ascent. 
What, finally, is the outcome ? In the biological world at the 
present moment the great question which interests inquirers is 
that of the meaning of intelligent adaptations. Thinkers in this 
field no longer question the existence of intelligence in the uncon- 
scious form ; they seek to discover what that intelligence means. 
" What we should like to discover," says one of them in a letter to 
the writer, " is the seat of the so-called unconscious intelligence 
which brings about those structures which the older teleologists 
called designed." That natural selection supplies little if any 
material for an answer to the question is already recognized. It 
being impossible to trace these structures to an artificer operating 
outside, our only recourse is to look to the organism itself for the 
power to which the fashioning of tissues and organs is due. And 
though we can do nothing toward solving the fundamental prob- 
lem in biology, the origin of life itself, we need not despair 
given the fact of life taking the powers of living protoplasm 
for granted, of comprehending something of the process by which 
intelligent adaptations arise. For, the rest being assumed, we see 
how from the operation of the law of least resistance all the 
mechanisms of life result by necessity. Writ minutely in the 
tissues of the organism the law is inscribed broadly and grandly 
on all the features of our modern civilization. Not an activity of 
the busy industrial life around us, whether it be due directly to 
travail of brain or hand, or find its realization in that wonderful, 
external side of human life the life of machinery but illustrates 
the universal mode in which all conscious intelligence reaches its 
end. And so also in the realm of the unconscious we have only 
to take for granted the powers of living protoplasm, and the sim- 
plicity as well as the exceeding beauty of the process by which 



340 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

intelligent adaptations come into existence flash upon us like a 
revelation. We look as with vision renewed upon the pine cone 
in the forest, upon the flower shining amid the expanse of green, 
upon the sudden lightning of the firefly, and the manifold hues of 
insect and bird. For, little as we have attended to them before 
save as the commonplaces of our knowledge, we now see that 
they are paths of least resistance objectively embodied proto- 
plasmic tools with which, in the silence of the unconscious world 
the organic system is slowly but surely reaching its ends. And 
as we ponder it becomes clear to us that the same system is 
at work in the making of tools and the fashioning of organs 
that, though the one process is conscious, the other unconscious, 
they are deep down in the heart of them the expressions of but a 
single method. Everywhere we find the evidences of this likeness 
in the awl of the shoemaker and the tool of the boring insect ; 
the earth-trap of the native African and the pitfall of the ant 
lion ; the web of the spider and the net of the fisherman ; the 
digging stick of the Australian, the foot of the mole, and the 
spade of the navvy ; in the single oar of the boatman and the 
sculling tail of the fish ; the sticky tongue of the anteater and the 
slime pot of the human catcher of birds ; in the kayak of the sav- 
age and the floating pupa skin of the gnat ; the scale armor of 
the armadillo and the soldier's cuirass ; in the climbing hooks of 
the tiger beetle, the claws of the bat, and the grappling irons used 
in naval warfare; on the one hand, in the pulley, screw, and 
wedge ; in chisels used in stonecutting, gravers with which wood 
is carved, axes for felling trees ; in screwdrivers, lifting jacks, 
Nasmyth hammers, battering rams ; the cord and weight of the 
window sash, the wheels of carriages, and the rollers whereon 
heavy masses are moved from place to place ; on the other hand, 
in the muscles, sinews, and joints of animals ; in the wing of the 
bird, the paddle of the porpoise, the hand of man, the mandible of 
the ant, the horns of the cow, the lance of the swordfish, the 
stinging cells of certain coelenterata, the channeled poison tooth 
of the snake, or the defensive antennae of the spider ; even in the 
vertebrate eye itself. For all these, being objective paths of least 
resistance, are signs of a law that, pervading the realm of living 
things, has its roots in the inorganic world, since it springs from 
the very nature of motion as a result of differential stress. And 
when adequate account is taken of the presence of end in organic 
activities, of its absence from movements which are inorganic 
account, that is to say, of the fundamental difference between 
living protoplasm and inorganic matter then the whole of evolu- 
tion, viewed apart from its secondary processes, may be summed 
up in the simple formula movement in the direction of least re- 
sistance. 



LET US THEREWITH BE CONTENT. . 341 

LET US THEREWITH BE CONTENT. 

Bt ELLEN COIT ELLIOTT. 

THE men of America have met the suffrage agitation with an 
admirable gallantry. Aspersed to their faces from the 
rostrum as masculine creatures of unfathomable iniquity, they 
return only a deprecating smile. Assured by the " new woman " 
that the ever feminine leadeth them on, and that politics will 
clarify as soon as the superior purity and integrity of the sex are 
brought to bear upon them, they appreciate her splendid confi- 
dence, applaud, and cry her on. There are those who, ever sus- 
picious of the masculine character, take umbrage at this favor, 
looking upon it as an impertinent condescension. But surely we 
may grant that the slow partner of our humanity, admiring our 
victorious advance, and bewildered by our swift onslaughts from 
all points at once, wishes by his expressions of good will to 
placate our wrath and further our desires. Stupid and mannish 
he may be, but after all he is rather good-natured. 

American women, however, are taking toward the question 
at issue a curious attitude. One large and picturesque division, 
when exhorted that they " ought " to desire a finger in the polit- 
ical pie, if not for the sake of the pie at least for the sake of the 
finger, show a sweet resignation, and, definitely premising that 
they do not wish the ballot, cry meekly that if it be the will of 
God to give it to them they will do their best to make a proper 
use of it. Others express a frank impatience with our prophets 
and saviors. Others, still, recognizing that the vantage ground 
upon which American women stand to-day is not entirely the 
result of democracy, give due gratitude and appreciation to those 
who through hard battles have helped to win the position. 
" But," they exclaim, " stay in your ministrations of deliverance ! 
Forbear to impose upon us the added responsibility of the suf- 
frage ! " And, worst of all, masses of these shackled citizens 
show an unalterable apathy toward the injustice they are suffer- 
ing, and indifference to the hands reached out to help them. 
Surely never did enthusiasts have to deal with more refractory 
and exasperating material. The suffrage leaders have i3roved in 
their own persons the angelic quality of womankind in not giv- 
ing up long ago the attempt to free such inveterate slaves. 

What is the significance of this general reluctance ? To give 
her the suffrage is to add another to the long list of her oppor- 
tunities for exercising power and influence outside of the home, 
and the question becomes. Do American women desire this, and if 
not, why not ? The answer is bound up with the hackneyed sub- 
ject of " woman's sphere," and, as all our philosophy is nowa- 



342 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

days biologized, it rests back upon the great physical fact that 
women for all time must be prepared to bear and rear the children 
of the race. Granting that much of her physical disability is 
due to various sorts of foolishness and may be removed, it re- 
mains undeniable that in even the most normal of women the 
reproductive system is by nature so constituted that it requires a 
much larger proportion of her vitality than is the case with man. 
Hence, leaving out of account all other possible variations be- 
tween the sexes, this difference alone is a definite handicap to all 
women who " compete " with men. For married women there 
is the further fact that childbearing and the care of children 
add a new and very serious handicap in any " competition " with 
men. 

If, then, woman is physically at so great a disadvantage in 
many occupations, shall she not consider that these occupations 
are, for her, but secondary issues ? For her specialty shall she 
not look along the line of least resistance ? Instead of denying 
her physical constitution, shall she not exalt it by a consistent 
allegiance to its fundamental significance ? Notwithstanding the 
present apotheosis of the physical sciences, woman will not rest 
satisfied in a purely physical explanation of her destiny. Bitter 
rebellion is inevitable whenever she is confronted by her physical 
limitations and possesses not the spiritual key to their meaning. 
But a spiritual significance in the life of woman has been more or 
less felt in all times, and in the present it is not only tacitly con- 
ceded by society in general, but it has received definite scientific 
formulation. From their physical constitution women more 
than men must inevitably sacrifice themselves for the progress of 
the race. Unconscious and unwilling though they may have 
been, necessity and habit have so trained countless generations of 
women in the practice of self-denial that they have grown to be 
in the world the special witnesses and exemplifiers of the altruistic 
principle. So true is it that motherhood and the love and self- 
sacrifice which it involves, is woman's peculiar contribution to 
evolution and progress, that, as has been keenly pointed out, " the 
woman question is not solved until it is solved by mothers." In 
other words, a woman can not solve her life problem on a purely 
individual basis except at the price of her influence on the race. 
A man may lead a life largely self-centered and still transmit 
his qualities to his children, but the self-centered woman can 
not pass on her qualities, for she will have no children to inherit 
them. If she would, in any large way, save her life, she must 
lose it. 

The actual facts bear out this conception of a woman's func- 
tion. It is not that women are wholly altruistic. Though loath 
to own it, we are but mortal. Nor will any (except the suffrage 



LET US THEREWITH BE CONTENT. 343 

leaders) contend that every woman is more unselfish than every 
man. On the contrary, it is only too easy to point out cases where 
feminine selfishness is shown again and again in petty ways to 
which men, as a rule, do not stoop. Yet it remains in general 
true that the practical life of women the world over calls for a 
more constant exercise of self-sacrifice than that of men, and 
that everywhere women have learned in the main to make their 
sacrifices cheerfully because lovingly, and even to court a life 
which brings them. That this acquiescence should be often 
considered an indication of tameness, if not inferiority, is but 
natural in a civilization which has even now only half realized 
the dignity of the altruistic ideal. In the affairs of life intellect 
has enjoyed a long prestige. Character, which, according to 
the highest conceptions of the race, depends at its best upon 
altruism, is but slowly growing into an equal recognition. In 
a rough, general way, men have been the apostles of the one 
and women of the other. It is true that the ideal of humanity 
is one. Women have gained in intellect and men in character, 
and this must go on ; but it has not come about, and it will 
not come about, by a direct exchange of their activities. 

These considerations lead to the good old dictum that "home 
is woman's sphere." It seems well-nigh superfluous to enumer- 
ate the obvious qualifications of this general statement. Surely 
no fin-de-siecle person would understand it to mean that woman 
should look upon marriage in itself as the sole desideratum of 
her existence, or that, failing to marry, she should devote her- 
self to pets and fancy work, and live upon the charity of her 
male relatives. Surely at this stage of proceedings no one would 
attempt or desire to limit woman to purely domestic pursuits. 
It has been reiterated and most abundantly proved that she need 
not be circumscribed in freedom or opportunity for the sake of 
binding her to the home : it is not necessary, for Nature will take 
care of itself ; and it is not expedient, for the more she is allowed 
to be in herself the greater the gift she can and will bring to the 
race. Moreover, no one will contend that every woman ought to 
be a mother, or that an indefinite number of offspring is a wife's 
chief duty. In a word, marriage, and the bearing and not bearing 
of children, are individual accidents dependent upon a thousand 
private considerations. To fulfill the law of womanhood one 
need not be a mother, but only to be motherly ; one need not be 
a wife, but only to be loyal to the unselfish principle of wifehood ; 
one need not eschew the paths of business or professional life, so 
only that slae recognize hers as the exceptional feminine career, 
the more normal and significant one lying within the walls of the 
home. 

Consciously sometimes, but perhaps more often with uncon- 



344 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

scious instinct, a woman does thus stand by her colors. Why 
this eager activity in the matter of temperance rather than the 
tariff ? Because intemperance menaces the home. Why this 
quick sympathy with organized or unorganized charities, as op- 
posed to the average apathy over finance ? Because charity 
touches people whom she can love and homes which she can 
transfigure. And if one may be pardoned a notion somewhat 
transcendental is not her oft-observed lack of creative ability^ 
together with her equally notable power of appreciation, due to 
the fact that with her an idea is not worked out so readily in 
purely intellectual formulations as in the material of character ? 
The laws of mechanics as such she does not readily apprehend, 
but the truths of rectitude which are their moral counterpart she 
grasps with special illumination. The masterpieces of formal art 
she does not create, but she, more naturally than man, can live a 
life which may properly be called a poem or a picture. 

And why this respect for womankind deeply rooted in the best 
of men ? The individual character of woman is not, unfortunate- 
ly, so much loftier than that of man as to compel it, and that she 
is the " weaker sex " hardly accounts for so large a fact. Nor does 
it look like a merely left-over remnant of mediseval chivalry. Is 
it not, at bottom, that sound and sensible men recognize and 
reverence the altruistic ideal, which, however faltering her loy- 
alty, it is a woman's special privilege to perpetuate ? The beau- 
tiful phrase so bedraggled by controversy 

Das Ewig-Weibliche 
Zieht uns hinan 

does it not mean that the principle of love which rules a woman's 
life is also the loadstar of human progress ? 

Homes must be made, and the masculine half of us, as they 
make haste to proclaim with amusing emphasis, have neither the 
inclination nor the ability to assume the task. Says one of them, 
naively, " If marriage meant to a man what it does to a woman 
in the way of suffering, labor, and social status, I am convinced 
that not one man in fifty would marry." It is impossible not to 
be reminded of the similar disclaimer 

Oh, then I can't marry you, my pretty maid ! 

and the milkmaid's retort 

Nobody asked you to, sir, she said 

seems singularly appropriate, did we wish to be so impolite as 
to use it. But, strange as it may look to the masculine mind, 
women in general do choose to marry. They are not driven to 
it by the conditions of society, nor impelled by a blind sexual in- 
stinct, nor misled by the enthusiasm of the martyr. They know 



LET US THEREWITH BE CONTENT. .3^5 

perfectly well what it will mean in their career. And they need 
not be looked upon as fools for so doing, being in fact possessed 
of the average degree of common sense of the race. They choose 
it because they want it, and they want it because, in spite of its 
restrictions, it brings the most satisfactory fulfillment of their 
aspirations and development of their powers. 

The same masculine thinker is firmly convinced that " women 
wish to be men, but men do not wish to be women." Both parts 
of this proposition are delightfully characteristic of the sex which 
has never been backward in claiming its superiority, and the last 
clause, by the same sign, is doubtless unquestionable. But the 
first is as unjust to woman's ideals as it is derogatory to her mis- 
sion. If she give up social pleasures, literary activity, pecuniary 
independence, or a hundred other personal ambitions, to minister 
to the interests of one modest home, and the career of one average 
husband ; if she turn from the gratification of public recognition 
to years of the unapplauded cares of the nursery ; if she drop out 
of the onward march of purely intellectual progress, and spend 
her life marking time in the ranks of the housekeeper it is not 
because she is the poor-spirited victim of circumstances. It is not 
that one half the race is, by some mischance of destiny, doomed 
to a life of tragedy. The bird with one wing broken droops in 
its flight, and humanity thus hampered would have sorely lagged 
in its onward sweep. On the contrary, she chooses these things 
because law and the satisfaction of her life are not that of indi- 
vidual ambition or attainment, but the law of love and service 
" unto the Jews a stumbling-block and unto the Greeks foolish- 
ness." 

Women, it is true, do not always feel or admit this. Many of 
them have a taste for pity, and they pet and pity themselves and 
each other. Yet the more sincere own willingly that everything 
has its price, and that they have paid none too dear for that 
which they have gained by their sacrifice. The strongest scorn to 
pose as martyrs, because they see clearly that in life as it runs, a 
woman, exactly as a man, gets what she pays for, and must pay 
for what she gets. And they conceive of no more just equality 
of the sexes than this. 

As to the women of America, to begin with, they are not, as 
some would have us think, downtrodden drudges, manacled 
slaves, or what not, after the same order. Rejoicing in the most 
perfect social freedom the world has seen, proud in a position 
and influence quite equal to those of men, they can afi^ord to laugh 
at such tirades. With the exceptions that must always accom- 
pany general statements, woman in America may do whatever 
she wishes to do. She may run the typewriter in an office instead 
of a sewing machine at home. She may carry on a farm or a 

VOL. LI. 27 



346 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

business. Slie may teach, write, i:)reac}i, lecture, practice law or 
medicine. Journalism and belles-lettres are her happy hunting 
grounds. She may marry or remain unmarried with equal honor, 
and no one dictates in her choice of a husband. She may wear 
bloomers and ride a wheel. She may carry on public agitations 
to an unlimited extent. The most serious drawbacks to her com- 
plete freedom result from flaws in her own standards and tradi- 
tions, and are in no wise imposed upon her from without. 

American men are neither tyrannical nor condescending to- 
ward women. From childhood up they have been in the habit 
of seeing their sisters walk beside them with independence and 
privilege equal to their own. Their attitude is one of frank 
comradery based upon a respect which on both sides is uncon- 
sciously taken for granted. They have, besides, a genial tendency 
to be proud of their women and to applaud rather than discour- 
age their ambitions. If women wish to vote, these men will not 
deny them. In fact, many an American household presents the 
edifying spectacle of a husband more ready to vote the suffrage 
to his wife than she to accept it. 

Notwithstanding this freedom perhaps because of it one 
need only obtain an unaffected expression of their feeling to find 
that, maid and matron alike, the women of the country are, as a 
rule, content in marriage as a career. They wish for children, 
and gladly make the prolonged sacrifices necessary to their care 
and education. One day a young woman exactly such a one as 
may be met with any day anywhere in the country went " in 
fun " to consult a fortune-teller. But she returned in tears, and 
confided to her girl friend that she wept because the seer had told 
her she would never have children. 

It can not of course be said that among women there is no dis- 
content, no restlessness. The age is full of discontent of a certain 
kind, and restlessness is in the blood. Women do not escape 
these general influences of the time. Moreover, there is, at least 
among college women, a special dissatisfaction with the drudgery 
attendant upon home-making. With the increase of individual- 
ity which the higher education can not fail to bring, comes the 
need of a new sort of home ; and the conflict and adjustment of 
old with new ideals, old with new duties, old with new purposes, 
brings confusion and sadness into the problem of many a modern 
woman's life. Notwithstanding this, the college woman is found 
in general to be no more ready than her uneducated sister to go 
back upon the womanhood which means self-denial, and the 
career which means self-sacrifice. 

When these American women, full of the complicated in- 
terests and duties of the American home and its dependent 
sociological activities, are confronted with the prospect of exer- 



LET US THEREWITH BE CONTENT. 347 

cising the suffrage, their instinct seems to be to draw back. Ask 
the women, one after another, in a representative community, if 
they wish to vote, and again and again will come the answers : 
" I haven't time," " My hands are overfull now," " How can I 
undertake a duty which means that I must inform myself upon 
all the public questions of the day ?" Naturally, many of them, 
especially those who are temperance workers, or those whose 
property interests are not represented under existing conditions, 
desire the ballot. But the great majority are content to occupy 
themselves with the multitude of interests which are already 
theirs, and to leave the formal affairs of state to men. The great 
majority, when they speak sincerely, will say that home-making 
and its allied interests is their chosen life, and that its demands 
are so exacting that they must leave the work of government to 
other hands. 

This attitude is certainly open to criticism. Perhaps it is true 
that the sons could be better educated by mothers who voted, 
that homes could be better made and protected by wives who 
held the power of the ballot, that the welfare of schools and 
charities would be furthered if women who are interested in 
them had a share in the making of the laws. Yet it would seem 
that if woman possessed by nature any great aptitude for polit- 
ical life, she would be eager to exercise it. It has been said 
that " the men are not what they are because they vote, but they 
vote because they are what they are." They make politics, and 
they are interested in the work of their hands. Women do not 
make it and (always in general) are not interested in it. If 
woman alone were to govern the state, how radically different 
would be her methods ! And how can oil and water mix ? Until 
she can disfranchise man and establish a rule of her own peculiar 
sort, woman may perhaps be expected to show indifference to 
political affairs. Furthermore, she might evince more alacrity 
for reaching out for the august power of the ballot if she ob- 
served that the men who exercise it thereby get what they want. 
But to her puzzled query, " If you want this reform or that 
measure, why don't you put it through ? " the conclusive reply 
is that " you can't get at it," on account of the " primaries," or 
" the bosses," or " the spoils system," or the " rings," or the 
wheels within wheels of whatever other complications interfere 
to muddle the brain and thwart the will of the sovereign Amer- 
ican people. A woman answered thus, and reflecting upon the 
suffrage, is apt to wonder, in her silly, feminine way, if the 
game is worth the candle. 

Perhaps it is worth the candle. Many a wise man thinks so, 
and having the suffrage himself, a man should be able to esti- 
mate its value. However that question may be finally settled. 



348 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

women will be women. The practical conviction that this is 
after all what they most wish to be must have an important 
bearing upon their particular aspirations, and it is this convic- 
tion whicli, to say the least, suggests misgivings and compels re- 
serve in the minds of a very large number of average American 
women whose voices are not heard in the land. 



WILD FLOWERS OF THE CALIFORNIA ALPS. 

By Mi8S B. F. HERRICK. 

THE Sierra Nevada mountain range with its lofty, snow- 
capped peaks and majestic glaciers, its serrated crags and 
romantic caiions, its foaming rivers, sparkling waterfalls, and 
dense pine forests is the California Switzerland. The climate 
of this region more nearly resembles that of the mountains of 
the Atlantic coast than any other section of the far West ; and 
the vegetation is in most respects quite similar, though there are 
many varieties of trees and plants that are peculiar to the State. 
Spring is late in these high altitudes, and the summers are of 
all too short duration. 

Among the first flowers to greet the new year is the curious 
snow plant {Sarcodes sangri*t?iea), world- renowned not only from 
the fact that it is exclusively Californian, but on account of its 
rare beauty and individuality. It was first discovered by one of 
General Fremont's exploring expeditions on the slopes inclosing 
the valley of the Sacramento; and is common at the Yosemite 
and on Mount Shasta, at an altitude of from four to nine thou- 
sand feet above the sea level. Though generally supposed to be 
parasitic on the roots of the pine tree, eminent botanists, after 
careful investigation, now claim it to be a " saprophyte," or a 
plant growing from a rotten substance near the surface of the 
soil, like certain species of fungi, an aid to this conclusion hav- 
ing been found in the fact that the plants are sometimes known 
to flourish in open places considerably removed from any growth 
of timber. Their usual habitat is moist, sheltered forests, where 
the winter snows fall deeply ; and they make their appearance 
when the spring sun warms the frozen ground and melts the 
fleecy snowdrifts. True leaves they have none ; and the fleshy 
bracts, bell- shaped blossoms, and thick, brittle stems are all of 
a brilliant scarlet, icy to the touch, and of the consistence of 
crystallized sugar. The average height is about one foot, what 
corresponds to the underground roots or bulbs being of about an 
equal depth and of a much lighter tint. 

These plants are members of a suborder of the heath family ; 










O 



g 
o 



350 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

though their resemblance to the sturdy manzanita, the fragrant 
rhododendron, or the velvet-limbed madrone is not at first ap- 
parent. They abound in gallic acid, giving them a sour smell, 
suggestive of ink or vinegar. In early summer the flowers are 
succeeded by hard, circular pods, containing numerous fine seeds 
like those of a poppy ; and despite repeated experiments in ger- 
mination, they refuse to grow in a foreign environment. Trans- 
planting also always meets with failure, though specimens may 
be dried and kept for several months. A writer in Hutching's 
Heart of the Sierras thus graphically describes this matchless 
Alpine flower : 

A pyramid of tiny tongues of flame, 

Darting from out the rifts of dazzling white ; 

A strange bright phantom, born of ice and fire, 

Flushing pale wastes with gleams of crimson light. 

On the bleak, ice-bound heights, at an altitude of from eight 
to twelve thousand feet, is found the curious " red snow," a very 
low form of vegetable life, which, though common in polar 
regions, occurs in the United States only on Mount Shasta and at 
the head of Cross Creek, Colorado. When it is trodden upon in 
a half -melted state, the footsteps of the mountain-climber fill in 
with a clear, blood-red fluid, which leaves no stain, even if exam- 
ined in the handkerchief. Some of the patches are of consid- 
erable size, while others are scarcely a foot in diameter ; and the 
color varies from a deep magenta to the faintest shade of pink. 

Rivaling the snow plant in general interest is the singular 
Darlingtonia, or California pitcher-plant, indigenous to open, 
marshy places in the northern part of the State from Mount 
Shasta to the coast, and the only species of its genus, though it is 
related to the Eastern Sarracenias, or side-saddle flowers. The 
pitchers, which are said to be in reality the enlarged and hol- 
lowed petioles, or leaf stalks, average about three feet in height, 
and are terminated by an arching hood or crest, furnished with 
a pair of mustachelike appendages, which are the genuine leaves. 
As these are provided on the under side with numerous honey 
glands, and are usually highly colored, they constitute the prin- 
cipal lure ; though the cunningly devised, nodding flowers, con- 
spicuously borne on the ends of long, bare peduncles, also contain 
an intoxicating nectar. The interior of the pitchers is lined with 
innumerable fine, downward-pointing hairs, which form a most 
insecure footing for the struggling victims and render escape 
almost an impossibility, while the glare through the lacy, dome- 
like roof only adds to the general confusion. 

The colorless liquid which half fills the tube must be secreted 
by the plant itself, as the covers of the pitchers prevent the 



WILD FLOWERS OF THE CALIFORNIA ALPS. 351 



accumulation of raindrops ; and the insects ensnared are mainly- 
winged varieties, such as flies, bees, wasps, and beetles, though 
ants, spiders, slugs, and other crawling creatures often share their 
untimely fate. In one of these omnivorous vegetable traps the 
writer once discovered a tuft of three straight pine needles, six 
inches in length, though how 

they ever worked their way, un- I'iSiip."!"' WIS 

bent, through the curved mouth, 
will ever remain an unsolved 
problem. 

Intermingled with the pitcher 
plants and coarse grasses of the 
swamps is often found a tall, 
graceful orchid (Hahenaria leu- 
costachys), with spikes of small, 
white flowers, distilling the fra- 
grance of the tropics ; and in 
its company frequently grows 
the California Cypripedium, or 
" lady's slipper," which has leafy 
stems about two feet in height 
and from three to a dozen blos- 
soms, with brownish, twisted pet- 
als, and a white lip veined with 
purple. 

The rose-tinted, drooping Ca- 
lypso, and the Spirantlies, or 
" ladies' tresses," are also lovers 
of wet places, the latter bloom- 
ing in the late summer months 
and being easily recognizable by 
the curious manner in which the 
little, greenish-white flowers are 
coiled or twisted around the 
stem. 

Somewhat allied to the "la- 
dies' tresses " is the " rattlesnake 

plantain" {Goody eara Menziesii), the leaves of which were used 
by the Indians as sovereign cures for snake-bites. From the 
center of the variegated, rosettelike foliage springs a pubescent 
stalk, about a foot in height, bearing a spike of one-sided white 
flowers, which bloom in the deep woods through July and 
August. 

The epipactus {Epipacius gigantea) is found in the tangled 
undergrowth along the banks of mountain streams, and has 
slender, leafy stems and from three to ten brown and green blos- 




CALiroBNiA Snow Plant. 



352 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



soms, marked with purple ; wliile the Listera, or northern t way- 
blade, may be distinguished by the stout oval leaves, clasping the 

low stem, and the downy 

1 




of tiny purplish 



raceme 
flowers. 

None of the above-men- 
tioned orchids are parasit- 
ic ; but there are at least 
two indigenous species 
which draw their nourish- 
ment from other plants. 
One is the well-known 
"coral root" (Corallorrhi- 
za), so called on account 
of the fleshy rootstocks, 
which resemble branches 
of white coral. There are 
several varieties, inhabit- 
ing dry spots in mountain 
forests all over the State. 
Both flowers and stems are 
of shaded browns and yel- 
lows, and the plants readi- 
ly escape detection, as they 
are so nearly the color of 
the surrounding dry weeds 
and grasses. 
The other parasitic orchid is the Cephalantliera Oregana, a 
northern species of especial interest, suggesting the "corpse 
plant " or " Indian pipe " of the Eastern woods. It is wholly des- 
titute of green leaves, and the stems and flowers are of a pure 
glistening white, somewhat startling in their unique beauty. 
Like the epipactus, it prefers the neighborhood of forest streams 
and hides itself in the shrubbery. 

All along the banks of the foaming Sacramento there grows, 
as though planted by a landscape gardener, the giant saxifrage 
(Saxif raga peltaia), locallj known as the " umbrella plant," and 
also as the "Indian's rhubarb," certain portions of the plant 
being edible. Its generic name signifies " rock-breaker," as it is 
said to disintegrate the rocks from the clefts of which it springs. 
The graceful stalks, often a yard in length, are terminated by 
scalloped, circular leaves a foot or more in diameter, which 
resemble small parasols or umbrellas inverted by the wind. 
Though highly attractive in the spring and summer, they are 
especially ornamental in the autumn, when their clear, green 
tints are changed to yellows and russets. The clusters of small 



CALiFOR>nA Pitcher Plant. 



WILD FLOWERS OF THE CALIFORNIA ALPS. 353 

pink and white blossoms, on the ends of the long, fleshy flower 
stalks, ripen in June into little double seed pods, which, when 
shaken in the hand or brushed against by accident, produce a 
sound much like that of the dreaded rattlesnake. Sometimes 
these plants domesticate themselves upon submerged rocks, the 
leaves floating on the surface of the current like those of a water 
lily, while the masses of tangled roots threaten to trip up heed- 
less fishermen. Though many varieties of saxifrage are found in 
different parts of the State, none equal, either in size or pictur- 
esqueness, these beautiful border plants of the northern Sierra 
streams. 

At irregular intervals along the banks grow tall thickets of 
fragrant azaleas, or rhododendrons, reflecting their bright green 
leaves and pink and cream-white flowers in the limpid water be- 
low ; and behind them are terraces of feathery purple or white 
ceanotlius, or mountain lilac, beloved by deer and honeybees. 

Then come the dogwoods, flaunting their showy white bracts 
full fifteen feet in air, and mingling their spreading boughs with 
those of the laurel, the alder, the cottonwood, the wild hawthorn, 
and syringa. At their feet appear the freckled faces of the 











Giant Saxifrage or Sacramkxto Eiver. 



tawny tiger-lilies, the largest of which is the Humboldt, as tall 
as a good-sized man and with from four to six whorls of leaves, 
each whorl ten to twenty leaves in number ; and rivaling them 
in attractiveness are the stately Washington lilies, with their 
satiny-white chalices, flecked with black and gold, suggestive of 
the Bermuda or Easter lilies of gardens and greenhouses. 



354 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Among other lovers of moist localities are the Aralia, or wild 
sarsaparilla (the long, aromatic roots of which are sometimes 
used as a substitute for the genuine commercial article), and the 
poisonous Cicuta, or water hemlock, a member of the parsley- 
family, easily distinguished by its lofty, hollow stem, large tri- 
pennate leaves, and umbels of numerous rays of small white 
flowers. On the borders of Lake Tahoe flourish the beautiful 
pond lilies, prized by boat-riders as trophies of summer excur- 
sions ; the white Brasenias, or "water shields"; and the sulphur- 
yellow Niqjhars, or " spatterdocks," the large flat leaves of which 
are the favorite camping ground for small green frogs. Most of 
the forest underbrush is composed of the manzanita, or " little 
apple" [Ardostapliylos), sometimes known as the "bear-berry," 
as Bruin feasts on the fruits. This shrub averages about five 
feet in height and has round, thick leaves and tiny white or 
rose-colored blossoms which ripen in early autumn into dull- red, 
globular berries, resembling Indian beads. The smooth, mahog- 
any-hued bark peels annually, like that of the madrone ; and the 
larger boughs furnish a hard cabinet wood capable of a fine polish. 

Other flowering shrubs include the heathlike bryanthus ; the 
Audiberta, or white sage ; the rabbit brush, and the Oregon grape 
or holly-leaved barberry (Berberis), a low bush with prickly, pol- 
ished foliage and racemes of yellow flowers, succeeded by round 
blue berries much like those of the elder. In great patches under 
the pines grow the Chamobafia (a little evergreen plant about a 
foot in height with blossoms like those of the strawberry), and 
the trailing Vaccinium, or "squaw's carpet," recognized by its 
small, serrated leaves, and round, pale-pink bells, or hard, reddish 
seed vessels. The Alpine phlox clings to the rocks in high alti- 
tudes, together with the arctic willow and dwarf conifers, while 
the juniper redeems barren, sandy sections from utter desolation. 

Two pretty little wood plants, nestling in the dry leaves under 
the trees, are the Fyrola, or " shin-leaf," and the pipsissewa, or 
"prince's pine" {Chiniaphila) , the former having radical varie- 
gated leaves and nodding white flowers, suggesting those of the 
lily of the valley, and the latter being known by its shining ever- 
green foliage and terminal clusters of waxy, flesh-tinted blossoms 
of delicate fragrance. 

Near by usually grow the quaint little " Dutchman's breeches," 
with their fine compound leaves and drooping, pink corollas, as 
well as the Asarum, or wild ginger, so called on account of the 
rootstock, which has a pungent flavor. This is an odd-looking 
herb, with several heart-shaped leaves, and a curious, brownish- 
purple flower, about the size of a large thimble, which makes its 
appearance just above the surface of the ground, and has no 
petals, but a three-parted calyx. 



WILD FLOWERS OF THE CALIFORNIA ALPS. 355 



In open, rocky places one is apt to come across the downy, 
pink and white " pussy's paws " {Syraguea unihellata), together 
with clumps of gorgeous lupines lilac, yellow, or rose-color and 
patches of golden coreopsis, purple pentstemons, and lovely gilias, 
godetias, and Indian pinks ; while tall columbines, larkspurs, and 
wild roses peep from the tangled shrubbery. The beautiful Mari- 
posa lily, or " butterfly tulip," a member of the calochortus fam- 
ily, derives its name 
from the large dark 
spots on the petals and 
through June delights 
the eye with its yellow, 
violet, or snow-white 
chalices. 

In the early spring 
the wild flowers run riot 
everywhere, carpeting 
sunny, open spots with 
a veritable crazy quilt 
of bloom, chief among 
them being the large, 
purple-spotted Nemopli- 
ila, or " baby -eyes," the 
white forget - me - not, 
the blue, white, and yel- 
low violets, the wild 
agapanthus, the yellow 
iris, the wild strawberry 
blossom, and the far- 
famed Eschsclioltzia, or 
California poppy, the 
emblem of the State. In 
these mountains there 
are a good many va- 
rieties of old-fashioned 

herbs, which have been used medicinally for ages, and are sacred 
to the memories of the spicy garrets of ISTew England country 
farms. The chamomile and the aromatic peppermint and penny- 
royal head the list; then come the aconite, or monk'shood, the 
flannely-leaved mullein, useful for lung troubles of man or beast, 
the woodsy yarrow, the yellow tansy, the wintergreen, and the 
Brunella, or self-heal a cure for quinsy and all sorts of wounds. 

On the outskirts of the Mount Shasta meadows, where the plow- 
man stands knee deep in rolling billows of red clover, timothy, 
and redtop, there grows a singular iioral torch, known as the 
California veratrum. This plant is a member of the lily family. 




Azaleas. 



356 



POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



and resembles the yucca or Spanish bayonet of the southern 
counties, the small, greenish-white flowers being borne in a dense 
panicle on the summit of a stout stem, from three to seven feet 
in height. The long, narrow leaves are smooth and grasslike, 
and are suggestive of corn or sugar cane. Close at hand, the 
spirea, or steeple-bush, waves high in air its feathery white or 




WASiiixftToN Lilies. 

magenta plumes ; and beyond are thickets of wild plums and 
hazelnuts, mingled with low bushes of thimbleberries, huckle- 
berries, and large, prickly gooseberries. 

There are a number of roadside and pasture plants, known by 
farmers as " weeds," which nevertheless seem to have imbibed 
the very spirit of midsummer. Among them are included the 
dainty evening primose (Enofhera biennis) ; the clematis, or " vir- 
gin's bower," festooning itself gracefully from tree to tree, with 
the wild grape and ivy ; the milkweed {Asclepias), with its dull- 
pink flowers and big, oval seed pods, filled with brown seeds and 
silky white down; the yellow sunflower; the flame-colored Cas- 
telleia, or " Indian's paint brush " ; the golden-rod, three to six 



THE PLANET SATURN. .357 

feet in height; the aster, dandelion, and the bright-eyed little 
Hypericum, or " Saint John's- wort," formerly used in certain parts 
of Europe as a charm against evil spirits. In sandy places, on 
the edge of the woods, grows the curious " horsetail," or telescope 
reed, sometimes known as " file-grass," as the rough, furrowed 
stalks were once used for polishing purposes. Being without 
true or visible blossoms, this plant belongs with the ferns, 
mosses, and other cryptogams, and is said to have deteriorated 
from the coal ages. 

Toward the end of September a change creeps over the face of 
Nature, and a solemn hush heralds the approach of autumn. The 
great, towering yew tree clothes itself with scarlet berries, and the 
dry, yellow leaves of the maple flutter downward through the 
quiet air, the chokecherry dons a robe of scarlet, and ripens 
clusters of astringent fruit of an equally vivid hue ; the deciduous 
azaleas drop their foliage into the sparkling river, and the dog- 
wood and poison oak assume a garb of solferino, while the con- 
tinual dropping of pine cones breaks the silence of the mountain 
forest. Then the snow falls like a fleecy blanket, and winter sets 
in, with its rigors of ice and sleet. 



THE PLANET SATURN. 

By CLIFTON A. HOWES, S. B. 

DOUBTLESS many observers of the sky are familiar with the 
planet Saturn as he slowly moves through the constellations 
from year to year, but how many of them stop to think of the 
wonders and mysteries connected with this far-off member of the 
solar system ? Very few, probably ; and yet this planet is well 
worth a closer acquaintance, for, as Prof. Langley says, " In all 
the heavens there is no more wonderful object than the planet 
Saturn, for it preserves to us an apparent type of the plan on 
which all the worlds were originally made." 

Saturn was the remotest planet known to the ancients, and it 
was probably on account of his sluggish motion along the sky 
that a malignant influence over human affairs was attributed to 
him by the astrologers. This slow movement is only apparent, 
however, for he is really bowling along through space more than 
twenty thousand miles every hour ; but such is his distance from 
us that we can scarcely detect any change of position from night 
to night, and must wait thirty years for him to make his circuit 
of the heavens. 

In point of size Saturn stands next to Jupiter, the " giant of 
the solar system," and upon his diameter nine earths could be 



358 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

strung like beads on a wire, while from his vast bulk seven 
hundred planets like ours could be formed. But just here comes 
a factor which has an important bearing upon the present con- 
dition of Saturn. In spite of his enormous bulk, he " weighs " 
only ninety times as much as the earth, which at once shows us 
that the materials of which he is formed are much lighter than 
those composing our world. In fact they are but three quarters 
the weight of an equal amount of water, so that theoretically, if 
placed in an ocean large enough to hold it, this huge planet would 
float on the surface like a wooden ball. 

There is but one conclusion from this and also from some 
other facts connected with the planet. Saturn is not, like the 
earth, a solid sphere covered with oceans and continents capable 
of supporting animal and vegetable life, but is midway between 
this state and that of the sun. In other words he might be called 
a semi-sun, perhaps giving forth but little light, yet so intensely 
heated still that its vast bulk is probably but a distended mass of 
liquid fire a world where " the solid land as yet is not, and the 
foot could find no resting place." It is too bad to destroy the 
pleasant theories we often see about the inhabitants of this far- 
off world and the conditions of life upon its surface, but we can 
not evade the facts as they open up to us. 

When viewed through a good telescope the planet presents a 
most beautiful sight a huge golden ball, crossed by parallel 
belts of a brownish tinge, and capped at the poles with a bluish 
or greenish gray ; and, most wonderful of all, surrounded by a 
thin, broad, flat ring, likewise of a golden hue. As if this were 
not enough, it is accompanied by a retinue of at least eight satel- 
lites or moons, some of which will be in the field of view. 

Under very favorable conditions faint markings can be dis- 
cerned on the belts, which seem in every way similar to those of 
Jupiter, and like his may safely be assumed to be masses of roll- 
ing clouds ranged in belts parallel to the equator by currents 
analogous to our trade winds. It seems very probable that these 
clouds may be mostly aqueous, and we may thus regard them as 
the future oceans of these planets, suspended in the air at present 
because the surface is not yet sufficiently cool to allow them to 
settle and remain as bodies of water upon it. 

That this must be the case is shown by a moment's thought. 
We know that on the earth clouds are formed by the condensa- 
tion, in the upper and cooler portions of the air, of the water 
vapor raised from the surface waters by the sun's heat. But at 
Saturn, nearly ten times farther away, this heat is reduced to one 
one-hundredth of its intensity here. On the earth too, as a rule, 
the clouds are somewhat sparsely distributed, so that a large part 
of the globe has usually fairly clear weather. On Saturn, how- 



THE PLANET SATURN. 359 

ever, we never yet have caught a glimpse, so far as known, of the 
real surface, whatever that surface may be. The rolling cloud 
masses completely envelop the planet and shut it out entirely 
from the sun's light. 

We can scarcely suppose, then, that these clouds are raised 
upon this distant world by the solar heat, especially when we see 
how feeble that heat is compared with what the earth receives. 
And this is but another argument to prove the theory of Saturn's 
present condition as already given, for it is most probable that 
the planet holds in its own vast bulk the immense amount of 
heat whose presence is so certainly revealed in these phenomena. 

Of course the rings are the unique and most wonderful feature 
of the whole system. When Galileo first turned his rude tele- 
scope upon Saturn, in 1010, he announced that the planet was 
tri-ple, the projection of the ring on either side making it appear 
to him as if two smaller planets were joined to the larger one. 
Gradually, however, these smaller companions decreased in size 
and finally vanished altogether, much to Galileo's amazement. 
Later on they reappeared and still further increased his per- 
plexity. 

Saturn thus remained an enigma to astronomers until an in- 
crease in the power of telescopes brought out the fact that it was 
surrounded by a thin, flat ring, which, by its varying positions as 
seen from the earth, caused the peculiar appearances that so puz- 
zled Galileo. 

This so-called ring, when seen through large telescopes, ap- 
pears as a very thin, flat disk with a circular opening in the 
center in which the planet itself is situated. It lies exactly in 
the plane of Saturn's equator, and extends considerably more 
than half the planet's diameter on either side of it. The breadth 
of the ring is just half the planet's diameter, so that there is quite 
a space left between its inner edge and the surface of the planet. 

We speak of it as a ring, but in reality there are many of 
them. When favorably situated, a dark division can easily be 
detected which separates it into an " outer " and an " inner " 
bright ring ; while within the last fifty years a third one, inside 
of the others, was discovered at Cambridge. This innermost of 
all, known as the " dark " or " crei)e " ring, is a most peculiar 
object. In appearance it is more like a shadow than anything 
else, for it seems to be semi-transparent, inasmuch as the out- 
line of the planet can be seen through it where it crosses the 
planet's disk. It shades away gradually from the inner edge of 
the inner bright ring, and becomes fainter until it disappears at 
some nine thousand miles from the planet's surface. 

What the nature of these rings may be is still in some degree 
a mystery. They are not gaseous, and it has been shown that 



360 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

they are not liquid, for no liquid could be suspended in sucli a 
manner without being precipitated eventually upon the surface 
of the planet. Nor are they solid ; for it has been demonstrated 
that no solid could hold together under such strains, such tre- 
mendous forces, as the attraction of the monster planet would 
subject it to ; it would soon be broken up entirely. 

The only supposition remaining is that it is composed of 
myriads of solid particles a ring of dust and fragments of rock 
and stone. In this case we may imagine it as being an immense 
swarm of tiny moons or satellites, each revolving in its own par- 
ticular path around the planet, and the aggregation presenting to 
us at this distance the appearance of a solid mass. Of course, the 
word " tiny " must be taken in an astronomical sense, which 
would not preclude one of these " dust " particles or fragments 
from being as large as a house, or even a mountain. 

That the ring is composed of solid matter of some kind is 
proved by the fact that it reflects the sunlight which it receives, 
apparently unchanged in quality, and deprives of sunlight those 
portions of the planet on which its shadow falls. But here comes 
the question, If we know the ring is composed of solid matter, 
how do we know that it is in the form of dust and fragments ? 
This question was long a stumbling-block, but, as Prof. George 
Darwin points out, the investigations of M. Roche, a French 
mathematician, seem to have solved the difficulty. 

Briefly, the reasoning is as follows : We know that our moon 
always keeps the same face toward the earth, but perhaps it is 
not so generally known that the cause of this is in the moon's own 
shape, which is that of an Qg^ with the longer diameter pointing 
toward the earth. Not that this egg shape is so very pronounced, 
but it is sufficient to keep the moon from rotating as the earth 
does, and to keep its longer diameter pointed toward the seat of 
that force which holds our satellite in its path. 

The cause of this egg shape is simply in what is termed the 
" tide-generating force." The moon's efl^ect upon the earth due 
to this force is rendered noticeable and well known in our tides. 
The earth also exerts the same force upon the moon, only, as the 
former is eighty times more massive, the effect is correspond- 
ingly greater, and the moon's globe has suffered under the strain 
has been pulled out of shape, so to speak. 

Now this force of course increases as its source is approached, 
and were the moon brought nearer and nearer the earth, a point 
might finally be reached where the solid materials of which she 
is composed could no longer hold together, and her globe would 
be torn to pieces by the tremendous forces to which she would 
be subjected. To determine this point was the problem which 
M. Roche solved, and his conclusions led him to place it at a 



THE PLANET SATURN. 361 

distance just under a diameter and a quarter from the planet's 
center. Within this distance, then, no satellite of any consider- 
able size can circulate for the reasons above stated. 

Now, the most remarkable fact remaining is that the outer 
edge of Saturn's ring system lies just luithin this limit, so that 
the conclusion as to its nature seems to point to the " meteoric 
theory," as it is called, as the only possible one. Either a satellite 
has been drawn within the fatal circle and disrupted, or the mate- 
rials now present as a ring have been prevented from uniting to 
form a single satellite, as they might otherwise have done. 

So much, then, for theory. The next point is. What proof can 
we get to substantiate it ? This might seem at first a hopeless 
task, but that wonderful instrument, the spectroscope, has recently 
given us direct testimony on the subject. 

One of the peculiarities of the spectroscope is its ability to 
detect the motion of a luminous body in the line of sight, by the 
shifting of the dark (Fraunhofer) lines of its spectrum from their 
normal position as seen in the spectrum of direct sunlight. Ad- 
vantage was taken of this fact by Mr. J. E. Keeler, who obtained 
photographs of the spectrum of Saturn and its rings which plain- 
ly showed that the shifting of the lines due to the motion of the 
rings was greater in each case for the inner edge than for the 
outer, proving conclusively that the portions of the ring nearer 
the planet move faster than those farther away. 

Let us see what this means. In the first place, if we suppose 
the rings to be solid, it is evident that they must rotate as a whole, 
the angular velocity of all parts being the same, but the linear or 
actual velocity being much greater at the outer edge of the ring 
than the inner, because of the greater circumference of the circle 
traveled over in rotation. 

If, on the other hand, the ring is composed of separate par- 
ticles, each in effect a little moon, it is apparent that the nearer 
these tiny satellites are to the planet the faster they must revolve 
to overcome the increasing pull of the planet and save themselves 
from being drawn to destruction upon its surface. In this case, 
therefore, the inner edge of the ring will have a much greater 
velocity than the outer. 

Thus we see that the two theories require opposite condi- 
tions to obtain, and that the proof given by the spectroscope 
confirms directly the approximate correctness of the "meteoric 
theory.'^ 

This latter theory offers a ready explanation for the curious 
" crepe " ring. Shading off gradually as this ring does from the 
inner edge of the bright one, it is natural to suppose that it is a 
portion of the former ring in which the fragments or " meteorites " 
are more sparsely distributed, their numbers growing gradually 

TOL. LI. 28 



362 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

less as the distance from the main ring increases, until the eye can 
no longer detect their mass and the ring apparently ends. 

This explains why the outline of the planet can be seen through 
the dark ring ; but if this fact is not enough, an observation made 
on November 1,1889, at the Lick Observatory will further confirm 
the theory. This observation was of the outer satellite, which 
was in such a position behind the planet as to pass through the 
shadow of the rings and be eclipsed by it. Watching the satel- 
lite, then, as it left the planet's shadow and slowly passed on into 
the shadow of the rings, its light was seen to grow gradually 
fainter as it passed through the shadow of the dark ring, but did 
not wholly disappear until the moon had entered the shadow of 
the inner bright ring. This shows clearly that the dark ring is 
partially transparent, but becomes more opaque as the bright ring- 
is approached. 

With regard to the satellites there is little to be said. There 
are eight known at present, and there may be more, for they are 
mostly quite small, as heavenly bodies go. Still, they form the 
most numerous as well as the most extended family within the 
sun's domain, for the outer one of all swings around Saturn at a 
distance of two and a quarter millions of miles ten times as far 
away as our own moon. This one, which is named Japetus, is just 
about the size of the moon, and apparently shares the latter's 
peculiar trait of always keeping one side toward its ruling planet. 
This supposition is due to the fact that when on the western side 
of Saturn Japetus is always very much brighter than when to the 
eastward ; in fact, though easily seen with a telescope of moder- 
ate power when brightest, it will almost entirely disappear when 
faintest. It is difficult to explain the cause of such a marked 
change, for one half of the satellite must be extremely bright and 
the other half very much darker to produce it, but the fact re- 
mains. 

Titan, as its name implies, is the largest of the group, and in 
size is midway between Mars and Mercury in fact, it would make 
a very respectable planet itself, for it is nearly half the diameter 
of the earth. The other six are all considerably smaller than our 
moon, and have been discovered in the order of their brightness, 
their discovery keeping pace with the increase in the power of 
telescopes, so it is quite possible that there may be others in this 
already numerous family to be introduced later on. 

We spoke in the beginning of this article of destroying the 
theories often put forth concerning the inhabitants and condi- 
tions of life upon this far-off world. There are certain facts 
and deductions, however, from which we can gain an idea 
of some of the conditions which may prevail when Saturn has 
finally reached a stage where life will be possible upon its sur- 



THE PLANET SATURN. 363 

face, and it may not be uninteresting to consider some of their 
peculiarities. 

In considering the climatic conditions of a planet we find they 
depend principally upon three factors : the distance of the planet 
from the sun, the inclination of its axis, and the length of its 
year, with incidentally the length of its day. What the results 
of this combination may lead us to expect in the case of Saturn 
we will point out by using the earth, naturally, for analogy or 
contrast. 

In the first place, as affecting animal and vegetable life, the 
greater distance of the sun, and the corresponding decrease in 
its lighting and heating power compared with the same effects on 
the earth, would materially change in itself the character of such 
life on Saturn. As already noted, the heat and light are reduced 
to nearly one one-hundredth of their intensity here, but no one can 
tell what compensating features may ultimately be provided for 
retaining the internal heat of the globe or storing up the sun's 
heat. As an instance of such adaptation we have only to turn to 
the planet Mars, where we have visual proof, in the melting of 
its polar " snows," of a much milder climate than the earth pos- 
sesses, although the intensity of the sun's heat there is reduced 
by half. 

In connection with the foregoing is the question of the com- 
position of the atmosphere, and whether it could support such 
organisms as we are familiar with in terrestrial life. The spec- 
troscope has told us but little about Saturn's atmosphere, but it is 
known that the planet is provided with one of considerable ex- 
tent, and apparently of a similar constitution to our own. The 
presence of water vapor has been detected, according to some 
observers, but not positively ; yet it is fair to suppose from other 
considerations that this most necessary adjunct of all life is plen- 
tifully supplied. 

The change in the seasons will, of course, depend upon the in- 
clination of the axis, which in Saturn's case is twenty-six and 
a half degrees from the perpendicular to its orbit. When we 
remember that the corresponding inclination of the earth's axis 
is twenty-three and a half degrees, it will be apparent that the 
change of seasons would be quite similar to ours, the sun mere- 
ly rising three degrees higher in the heavens at the summer 
solstice and three degrees lower at the winter solstice. But the 
length of the seasons, determined by Saturn's long journey around 
the sun, will be, on the average, nearly seven and a half years, a 
fact which would render unlikely much similarity in organic life 
to the forms found on the earth. If we add to this the rapid suc- 
cession of day and night, each being at the equator of but five 
and a quarter hours' duration, we may look for still further dis- 



364. POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

similarity ; but the greatest difficulty comes when we consider the 
effect of the rings. 

At first thought it might seem that the rings would have little 
to do with the climate of the planet, and in fact such is the case 
during the summer of either hemisphere ; but winter tells a dif- 
ferent tale, as we shall see. Since the rings lie exactly in the 
plane of the planet's equator, they will be presented edgewise to 
the sun at the equinoxes, when the sun is " vertical over the equa- 
tor." At this time their shadow, part of which must fall on the 
planet, will lie directly on the equator, and presumably be about 
as wide as the general thickness of the ring system, which is esti- 
mated to be not more than one hundred miles. 

As the sun travels northward from the equinox, it is apparent 
that the shadow will fall farther and farther south of the equator 
until it has covered the whole southern hemisphere, save a por- 
tion of the torrid zone where the light comes through the space 
between the rings and the planet. After the summer solstice the 
effects are reversed : the shadow retreats toward the equator, and 
after the succeeding equinox the southern hemisphere will have 
its summer undisturbed, and the northern hemisphere in turn will 
have its long winter made still more dreary by this remarkable 
daily eclipse of the sun. It thus appears that only in a relatively 
narrow belt lying on either side of the equator would be likely 
to occur climatic conditions approaching those with which we are 
familiar. 

One often sees in articles on astronomy some reference to the 
grandeur of the Saturnian heavens at night, where, in addition to 
the starry host familiar to us all, would be the wonderful ring 
spanning the sky as an arch of golden light, and eight moons in 
their various phases. In a measure this is true, but it depends 
upon circumstances. During the summer half of the year in 
either hemisphere the illuminated side of the rings is, of course, 
visible perhaps even faintly so in the daytime, as is the case 
with our moon ; but when the twilight falls and the golden arch 
shines forth in all its beauty against the darkness of the sky, it 
must certainly be a sight which for grandeur surpasses any celestial 
phenomenon known to us, save possibly a total eclipse of the sun. 

As soon as the sun has set, however, the shadow of the planet, 
where it falls upon the rings, rises in the east and mars the 
beauty of the arch as it travels across it during the short night 
and disappears in the west at sunrise. At the summer solstice, 
though, the sun rises high enough in the heavens, or, more cor- 
rectly, the planet's axis is inclined far enough toward the sun to 
bring the outer ring clear of the shadow, which then appears 
somewhat conical in shape and reaches across the inner bright 
ring nearly to the outer one. 



THE PLANET SATURN, 365 

But after the autumnal equinox and during the winter season 
all this is changed. Not only do the rings cause daily eclipses of 
the sun, but they give no illumination at night, for their dark 
side is then toward the observer, and they can be only " nega- 
tively visible," so to speak that is, their position in the sky is 
shown merely by the absence of stars in that portion. 

As to their appearance from various positions on the planet, it 
might be said that the whole system is visible above the horizon 
as far as latitude 41 that of New York and Constantinople in 
our northern hemisphere, and Tasmania and New Zealand in the 
southern. At this latitude the inner edge of the dark ring will 
be upon the south point of the horizon, and the arch will extend 
about a third of the way toward the zenith. When latitude 51 
is reached, that of Dresden and Winnipeg, Manitoba, the dark 
ring will have sunk below the horizon, but the whole width of 
the bright rings will be above it ; and, finally, at latitude GG 30', 
that of our Arctic and Antarctic Circles, the entire system will 
have disappeared. 

Of the illumination given by the moons in the absence of the 
rings we must say a little, since one often sees some statement to 
the effect that so many moons must compensate in some measure 
for the diminution of sunlight. But as the moons are illuminated 
by this very sunlight, their brilliancy is reduced in the same 
ratio, and in Saturn's case their total light in no wise makes up 
for this loss. 

Reckoning from the best estimates of their sizes, we find that 
the total area on the sky covered by the moons when full is about 
two and a half times the area of our own moon, but their illumi- 
nation, could they all be full at once, would be only the fortieth 
part of what we are accustomed to at the full. Then, again, as all 
of them except Japetus, the outer one, lie in the plane of the 
equator, it is evident that at the equinoxes, when this plane 
passes through the sun, they will all suffer total eclipse at the 
full, and will continue thus until the increasing inclination of the 
axis toward the sun brings their orbits one by one outside the 
shadow at this point. Thus we see that this numerous retinue 
does not amount to so much, after all, in the matter of illumi- 
nation. 

One other feature, and one which would doubtless be noticed 
first of all were any of us suddenly transferred to another planet, 
would be our change in weight due to the change in surface 
gravity. If we take the dimensions of Saturn as revealed by the 
telescope to represent its true size, we should find much less dif- 
ference than one would expect, considering the tremendous size 
of the planet. The combination of three factors the much 
greater distance of the surface from the center of the planet. 



366 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

wliicli is the center of the attraction we call gravity ; the much 
greater " lightness " of the materials composing the planet; and 
the great centrifugal or " throwing-off " force at the equator, due 
to the rapid rotation, and which would, of course, counteract to 
some extent the downward pull of gravity results in making 
but a slight increase, so that a man weighing one hundred and 
fifty pounds on the earth would weigh only about six pounds 
more at Saturn's equator. At the poles, however, the change is 
more marked, since there is no centrifugal force, and the polar 
flattening, due to the rapid rotation and consequent bulging at 
the equator, brings one nearer the center of the planet. In this 
case the increase would be about thirty- six pounds, and would 
probably be found some