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*""**^ f :;;H;: /T;;:\r- - ^ 

tto li«T, T. a n. StofaUn^ U 

W. BoumU, RL^ lUuttlratod 2A 

Hoi;** UiMTtmt XI BtiiJJXHH. By Ttcory J- ^Znclit F,0,8. .„ ^ 

A rHOTOOWin DT NtTCTut CoT^iTWL By J. Tnill Tfcj-lrt ... 41 

l>j" X^irti A!ci» rtifTM iw E^fOLiKo. B7llrH fUchufdioo, F.B.S. — W 

GiOATTSc CcTTU-Finnn By VV, Savillo Kent, F.L.S. Uluatrntod-.. 119 

Ov THX SrtiTDXooRLrD, Oft rrun^RnoDunoL By A. TL Onrrod, 

BA ^ 12H 

Tk» Fuu> Tbumb^h- By A. EliUiArd AtteridgcL lUaitnitod ... Ill 

61m l^an'Tv ox Tin: I*otlti> Dinaus. By Worthiafrt>:jnO. Smith, 

F.Ud^ niu£trat«I ., •■• .. ^ IW 

Ant KicNKtm TiiK ^licnnflcori, Ry thn EiHtor, Illiuitnttvd ... Ifl2 

Osr TiiK TiujcicMwwijs OF 8otT?n) bt tob AT^oapBFBB. By Jh 

TjndUl, D.C,L 175 

PtUTiTiAKUirt. ByaoR*r,T, nincHra^. Illu-trated .„ SS6 

Drituu] A^rv FuKEio^r I'liEfAiUTto^A rou ini: Tiunflir vr Viixvfk 

By R. vV. Proctor 336 

Dx ruB N&rrTiuj, llmoKT aitd Ot^mup&icAt Uuraimrnov or 

Ljtcio ^11 ExTmcT BcAK«. By A< L^tb Aduiu, Rtt.d ... 2A0 

Or ihr Lirni:c-Oi>Ni»u Quumo;?, By U»« Rav. J, M. CTOmbiA, 

P.Ua IIIi»lx«Ud ,,. ., ^00 

Tat [jC^Ooa^S, oh WftiriX'j u^ tmi Voick, By W. IL Bulow, 

),lhEX*" ■■> ■■> *>■ ■!■ •'- ■>■ --> ... i7& 

Tqe S<u« ur F>BU»a>. By Jubu C. Ualluuj F.US, lUivlrntod 

CLissmoATTOV or Coicna, Bj R. A. Proctor S50 

FiBBT FsarcrsTLBi ot Aibial Tbaxsh. Bj F. H. Wenhun, 0^ 3^ 

Thi THKBKOiarEfi as a CoKPunoir tk Daily Ltv^ By A. H. 

Gumd 370 

The VseiTTABiJs Cv^ By A. W> Beooett, RLA Illaetnted ... 382 

ToB CKAjnnEL TuinrET. By W. Toplay, RG,a Bliutnled ,.. 394 

The Woolwich Ballooh AsaEErr. Bj CupL O. Orde Btowil D- 

hutnt«d 401 

BEmws OP Booza ^ 63, IBd, 289, 411 

AitnidWy • .''" '"' V,: "" ' 78, 203, 305, 424 

Botany'^ ^^^ibif ^ynology 82, SOfi, 311, 428 

Chemiltfr ';■ *:/:*"', .»•, 85, 306, 313, 433 

GeofciC'-PJ^^i^W^CT ^» 210, 316, 436 

MechinJbtf '"•',!'• "-" 94,214,319 

M«dical SdeoM 9G,:215, 321, 439 

MetallargTi Mineralogy, (uid Mining 100,217,324,441 

Microscopy 102,218,326,442 

Phyfiicfl 104,321,329,443 

Zoology aod GoQipamtire AnAtomy 106,323,833,440 

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Biru«a4aii Snlt - ClrttU^- t^ --^ u^ I&Hh>; rjiifr v^f^sf-^bii' 

^^J.uw«umii f»H io«i»" eti»l*l I j u^o'* ■I*' V'ii 

rf ^=1 iiwie* i**f* {*) 


«•*■«. t»t 



Bt TtOtUOK B. WOQIIWARI), F.O^, ok t» Ov^LomciL SCSVBT 
or K70iA3i> AXD Wxus, 

ALTHOUGH tbo Gwlogy of r/>n<Ion may at fir*t tJiougbt 
apprar h HnmrvlMt him^n miltjr^^ ^i^t^ when Wf« coma to 
oonsidcir a)L ito »pcct«, -wc find it iti reaUtj a very fruitful «iid 
lnt4>Tin4in^ HikIv, [f we v/f*tv tfi fjtkn Llm ** Town G^^logy,'* 
ftji Omon Kiu^^bey li^ im> c*baniiinKly dcutcnbod it, wc tnifht 
iT3[;inLiiie lliu diAiTrvraL building flonefi and rriBcl-mutrTuila, 
inquiries w&oood tboy cui» and how ihoy vcto fi>rm^*d, tK> on 
Lo Wni Ibonr porticjns of Ihc piiic-icriil fjiflon: nf tli** **ar(li uf 
which UxTV are tV- reuorda. Wis do nt:*t, bowtvor, prv-posc to d^ 
UiiN ou Ui« prt**«(it octaiJuK, but to tr£Qt Uie niihjrft in iWt 
ptix«ly natonl ruipoct ; viv thnU look d««)> into the ^^^rth. njtd 
eodomrouf to »bow what chaii£c» tbo pniticulax arcu, ncjw 
oraliraecd liy Lorujoo and tU tubiirb«> bat undcrgoDo duriof 
ciminnnilivrly zccval geological timeA. 

Vh j> c:itinot draw our rM4dr« to ronuuitic oliff-4o^DL*ry, nor to 
macv quarrii:^ (farming with fowdlfi, but wo c&d atujy pbi*- 
Doin«nA which rereal m&ny utotUvliii^^ cbangtM in tbi> ar^ 
from condition' of deep-aca to i\i*>Ae fiLvoiimblo to thr- fonna- 
tioQ of iand-banka und p^bht^-rldgA? ; und from a climate 
alcnost tropical to oii« of intoiuc cold« when glacial depubiu 

Hni of all, w« mnnt rr^c&nunc into tJit* <liflrrc^t kind^ of 
" focki ^ or strata found £n and arounJ London. Tbt^M: nil! bo 
reoogsleed aa cbalk, and varieties of clay, e&nd, and Kravcl, 
vrkMi WP til know lo occur in patticuljir plaotrf," (See Pt CV. 

We miut. However* (ktcrmiiac their relfttlcnu one to ULotW^ and 
thU G^ be done io on^ vny by ohtnlnlog th» T^cofdi of 
of tho Loiidf>D deep-well* ; nnrl in ftuoflicr vny by EludyiDi; Uie 
ruineroui; pUn and mHwaj-fHatrnx*, whitit fprajtiriitlr tltav th« 
jiinclioti bi'twtH-'U two c>r mor«of tho difiWi^nt rock*. Cbnifrin^ 
the ob^ervatioB^ ai> ida/I-^, we» And th^ foUi^wing U th& order In 
which tho 8t.raU o<!«ur s nnd nlthoii^h of c<rur«c aQ arc not 
laitil.iniiaiu iivrT llni arou, <liiA i>n]rfr ]> iinvur invnrtiid : — 

SS" nd. a«d brickc«r.h I ^^^ '^''^^^ ^*P»^**? 

Ba..ldj.rokj l«L^i^d„p^ii^ 

Uravcl ftud Band I '^ 

Lower B^fifiliot. beda. 

London clEiy. 

01dh/ivi*n Ijrdu- 

Wc'>]wicl] anJ Kcudiiig bciirL, 

TbttTiR lieds. 


Thuji wo find from wctl-&«ctionfi that tbu ohntk U 4)7«r7wlMra 
pm*»^iiL algicat dwptha b^nuath LoQiluia, (Soo Srt(;f,ion.) Ag^o^ 
ID whoteocvrr Uiroction w© go hy mil on tho matn-liiictfi Wd 
conm in ihn mitcrnp of the chuJk, ox iif^ar IpnwiL'h, Bb]i^*t 
Stortfon), H&tfield, .St. Alb^Qg, Watford, Mnidnnhoad, Ba«ii«- 
at->kiei Guildf^^rd, and Cnf>dou. The- eluilk, tlirinrronft, rarc^ps up 
on the C'-rth, WMt, iind >mit1i af L'>ncit.m, and fornia a dort of 
bwdn in which the I^ndoti ckiy anfl r-lht^r bedt uuw Lite Ucui^ 
thia ((C-jloj^ii^l ansa is cftll-^i Iht? ^' Londoc Ruin." ^ 

Tbi' chalk ia u»iull> dixiiled iiiio tht' upprr nhnlk with 
flint>i, thi* ]ow<*r oh-ilk wifhmit flmts, and th^ tliilk mnrl ; tho 
toUl tliicknc-u of which » cftUontcd to tc about 500 feet &t 

'the pita at Charlton, Grav??»jotl, mid Qtayn arc no doabt 
wrll known to I^ndnitttrh; whllBt tho hoUow lliuU oontuiniD|f 
HpoD|:ef, the ^^ «iignr-looiv£4f" or M^urahins, and thd -' tlkumtf^r- 
IinlU" (an HorneliTuta Lhe n<^tr'mnito^ at. fiUioT^ tho nodultf 
mruduflol iron-pjrited, are <^allLH|), which arc i'mHid in tho cluilkt 
ure iN^iudly ffirniliftr. ni>44id«ut -^pnigeii and v^uuivljiiiK, tho 
chnLk yields maxiy Igrmii of ntnmoniti-*, o_vtfU*r*, lujtl other 
molliiwii, 11 frw i^irnlrs ii iiumbe»r L>r TiiJi luid mptiLt^s, amon^^ 
which t^io Mi>ifii«<turui U oflUmut^d to hiivc hcoa 84 foct ia 
leujilh. But till? ino«t nbundanL foKsiliK found in ibo <!hiilk, and 
of which indfml it in to n groat itxt^tit made up, are tho Fora- 
mini^-m, minuU tn^nj^drnmbtrcd nhellis whi(;h MonK ^ tbo 
lowest «lii«e of Ch« ajaimal kuif{dom. ''Ttio beat rnvrihod of 
Qnnling tJiecu b to scrape a «uall i|imnUt> <if ihr chjtlk r^ be 
ezamiodd vity fi&ely with thi^ penknife, and after m^ini^iuti^ it 

nvt OROLCOT or t^irDorc. 

le* to let a dr()p of Oaaadfi bcU»m fall on it, 

tt tli# vnint> timi* ovct n lam]), Bf^iiig now onvpjnd 

of UiiD microdcopio ^lotfs ^^ ^>^t aoiin fuac^rt^in 

tlifi mloroiiTope) whot.h?r we have been sucec-^iful 

Th* obslk Sk cnnjsid^Tnd to h*VTf Tm«ti fonn"! in u de^ and 
*poi «*, and indeed the rcflctircb« vrhicli Jiavc hc<!ii tvimncl 
An 111 (hr NnHli AtlnTittr Oi<ean nhow fLa]. materials fur :i cvm- 
UQiLDiu bod of liino4<tr>nc, with tihit aoduloe, u now biding 
Jqioiitrf rbpre. Prof^^tsjor HtTntry, whn hn>- drsrrilird the otftf 
iWtTcd from dq^thia bctwouii l,7(K> and 3,-IQO 6it.hom:ii, coo- 
liilenlhiil 85 [ler c«Hl. tif the whole Ijuloug Ui ciiit* ■[h^i^icji of 
' OM^erina (a ffcnn? of Fomminifoni), 5 per c>ent. to otticr 
|i alcwecnw orgmiifilii« nf nt mnrtt four or five spttrieji, nnd titnt 
^ ifiDaming LO p«r c<3it, ooa«iit partly of i^milcs of qiuutx, 
uid lorlly nf animal (^Pois/cyHinsts) ami vegrtaile (/>i«- 
h Um/Mx) OTf^nism^ provide with Hlit^enu? skel^ioikd and 
' «nlDpefl.t Tbcac wiliccou* orgnai--<m.s give ufi the clue lo the 
f'imiatio& nf tho ^ntc. The^v ooniist atmovt entirolv of dloz, 
■fech is gmcrjJIy aggn^ted round «ome Qud<^tia of ^pc^>Ilgc, 
tra-iLwhia, or mollusc, and, sw wo now flnd thi^na^ they occiir 
iotiodiil*^ and banis. Th-^r fii-ntartic shnpcfl gov<- ri*c to the 
J"^^UeitiDa, a f<w yciw a^'o, of ii Lmnoroiu^ thtnigh pmft^twdly 
*aflttiftc work, in which the author fibred n iinmb?*r of 
(vrirtujji^^fonui.'d flints whlcli he had collect^, and idoutiSt^ 
^^<^n Accordioff to tho objects to which they hod nn apparent 
'^'^bUncie. Among«t- Ihutro nrrr a hird of prunrli^, «nni<' 
^ea, hippopotxuni, lahe^p. and a pair of xhocj^l Thcjio l^o 
^iJlftt forwTirl OA evidF-Tin** of a uni^vncil dehi^^.{ 

Tlwi Thaoct beds, which ovcTlio the chalk at London, l>ut 
tHu sway nortJumrdji. § mn^int gi^nrmllv of piilp-(hd(*iired 
latrUoK rand, and wciv ho iwmod by Mr. FroMtwich from thrir 
telaff lioMt t-xbiliiLei] bi ihe Isle uf ThaneU luiriK^liatrW 
Wroih lyindon thr-y haY4> a tbickno«« of about twenty fcct ; to 
*^^ wuth Mr, Widiakcr haa noticod mictions ntnr Ep^m, 
Q>*«n, and on the «iLst«m «ida of the Croydon V.-Uky, iU-^ 
iiturkx that ilit grtat pit eai»t of Charlttm nilw:i>*^TnMon 
>fcon a reiy lonj* fnco of Thantt aancL The dopout 1« not 
r«rous, brit contains aomo maiain« of iisb, moUusoat 


W, IHilop, *' IVflfcfdiopi ft iho GcolojtlKtVjUwciitwa,'' t^I, u p. 388- 

t *Fa;lji tnd FoMili »JddO«d to proTo Ibt Pclu^ of Xonk" 3fy 
Jl'V'^Oin. Tff^tilow, 

* f IWr oocuTTVHve nl Sudbioy, oa the aonhem outcrup of thu LQndj»i 
^••ia, »iwd* liiM* hurt nnt |irnt4niuil]r b«tn dfincfcd, liM lrtl*lj bewi n»iide 
*>»n by Mr. AMiitfJ^r. 

?, hun'i-Ai HCIEKCl STTIBf. 

, a;.' iL^i iifljjj* J' V.H(.jnvi-:i ant. lieania^' i>ta- na? '-*« 
«^,-i»:4i* l.j» i;-i.iLr lij-ri* ^MiJi" t aoivntiuvrt' OT. Tfl* ijn:^ * 

:...■ .'. --S^/;!! ;:-:!.. Si.-' 'i' JiuOj'J: r -i'^^lOL OL Uit Kilitt^ 

'P:.^ *.,■.!.. / '.iL^ ft.-,.;, HT.'.-v '.iia; til- cmidiuoitt '^^ y^ 

.,'1, w.o,,f ■ '.i lMi.-i;i: ft'HTi.^.rtu':* iitdjcuuur e*inifi^tie^ 

.4 'r-:.\'- [f-'-^': ifui'.i^i ■.'iii'j:',MDK. B»?^ii^ titf mrilin^*-^ 

^j..-- -r ■.—■..•- .i:/ „•...,*-> *i? rv.c^'-'j^ivt iihT-t 'i>esi- ^.-azri It 
'j I. ,..'•.: .w . L.,-. M iiui/iir vl V Uijj-:-}-i:e t;^'"^*^^ cLZif^ lit 

'•'.■'\ ^^ ■** I >•.•.' t fi\']r •j'j^':r !u t Kcixiy jjih'jn^ hiid LTt Lvallj ■ 

^'j t..»:' Ji '-"-* .'■'".*/j.i-.\i M' /r. vj'j'b'yjd I Lev are ties: peen 
.h' J',j-,ii..-; ' iH,.-.v'^ ■■<.'! iJjL-i.r r>.:»'|j, ,^Ir. ^"biTaker «m- 
*-'_<>, ■ ',1.^ i ' ■ <;! 'j'/^r »»* ji Tj'ji Jv/jfjiTd ciiv a ^"fcsach along S 
'■i..-..f .'.',1' _ i,A^ .'. i.^.so ■ j.ri »vfv hfj'jijlfj c'jLtaiii maDT flint* 

i/.-i JA-M/ fc-'yl'* i.'-'; f.' ir \^A 1 h'^rrl'ir^r W illfpr ihflt ihcj 

/*.i,^i ^L^^^ V-* "^ 'I' y/r-'^f'. tf}iiit wav 'jfj' Uj'- hLoTe, is & batjk to 

iwf »j,i.;( ii/ ' ■v'*. 'J *j' / '■yr^^^jjjj "jajjj f.^ri'j)\ti^ of molluMa, some 
tifjy wiA i*v*i* '■/' '"''!■ /. 

/■Afii' ^i.' »'-' '^i'JI^i/ ** ri ^^/Jr ''/jjji'^ flji^ Jvrri'lon clav, & deposit 

•,i l/finti iiU'i lA'iifU (/r'7 ' hy, w»U* '/"ji-MtilouaWj bands of aep- 
\.iihi ui * * tn* i*y p^f^ti* c i ^\i* rt- Jiil.iiT, whi<;}i un: dredged off 
llmwji}i \',t i\i*- uiittt*i^ivUit*' 'tt ■-'-fnirul, unri which occur in 
j^M'ii* tonii\itit 'fii iLi: fU'iir. ttt. H'jiilJj''iirl, ftre composed ol 
i^Uyv Ji»w:ti'*Jii: with tihinitsUH 4,t tojrfii oj' ciirljonate of lime. 
AfxijjilJiJtf t^/ Ufp WhitJibn, In Umi i«-i^)]lK>ijr]iood of London, 
iU ilij<;kiii^ii« ttV<;rM|p:t 4it'i fn'^t, HuiiUifiiH unj i^mmon in th< 


mA/kr and Ule-j&nl^ but perhapa tl« most noted lAcnlity in 
^kdoii is at Vligbj^Tilr Archwrij, wheie Mr.Weth^rel] obUiiTie<l 
^p^hiahlc ictUis of foctcik. To fin ordiniiiy observer it would 
Bl ■pfKUf bj Tuty inenxiti ft foraiLlWimL ib<]Mnit,, ^hk Uiv fnKMh 
Bcitf 111 particular bands or EOQl^Sf and &» not vnry oHou diEt- 
HikV<nl ill the claj-pil^ Sbepp^v h one of the hanl 1uuiKLi«h 
B fosiiU, nnd it bcu jioldod u ntunbfrr of fossil fn;ita wbich 
H^ dcMrrilicd^ m&uy jrcorv agij* bj* Dr. Dovc^rluink. 1'bc 
BlidoQ claj le indeed v^r^f rlob in foA§iU— cnbi and bbvtcm, 
Hplbucftt fifb, biutleSr crocodilf^, aud ft tev oiuiomala. Frtr- 
Hnr OwcD nsfnarloi that tbc uiJinbpr of Kp^oie« of turtles 
BluTjc<] froin Sbcpp<*y f^jccoc^dcf tLut nf tbc »pccicv of ChclQnc 
BvlcDown to exlet thToiighLnit the j^lobc. 
^Hh'UOei remarkikblc fo«eili bcwcv^r* of llie Loaduu cUj, 
^^Kld aliao at Sbi-]>pi--v, wac r^>cy?ntlv di^tt^rtbod hy ProfeMor 
Hko. It itf tbc ftkuJl of a bird, coDAtAtiui; of the bntin-oMei 
Bth tbe bsGal portion of both ja«f, the alvedlor mar^ua of 
RicJi tra produced into bonv tcctb. Tbis bird bo aamed 
^Hba&t^:^, 7it\i\ fmiti ;t cun^df-mti^tn of '\tr^ rbnrn(^t«-nt, he 
^^Htted that it ^m w^b-tbulftl and a tinh-oat^r, and that in 
^p^hfng of its slippery prej El w&i^ uiidcit^d by tJie unna- 
B« of it^ jawiL 

■ Ttc nuturr of Hie LotKlon clay, according to Mr, rrmtwlcb, 
Htiutc* a tmii^pul dcrpont of no great dopth. The ftiina, 
^bn altngetbrTr. be (njiiaidt^ni lu iii<l]i:JLttt a mc>di<-r:itif ratbiT 
Ka a IropicLftl oliraato % aad y«t the flofa i», do far lu can bo 
^R«d, cettainl; iicipicJil in its n11initiir»i 
BKtfticg in iiaolatc^d patches iipnn tho London tlay^mid fcrm- 
^k coitBpiLUuiLi bilU whmico tumn of th^* finrvt vinwii nrjLr 
Kidon ar« to b^ obtained, la a deposit of liue lut^aly band 
VHcd tlitf Uagthob ftand, about 100 ft^c-t lu lbic-kD«Ba> Tliia is 
fi^(! at [farrow, Hampcti^ad Hratb, lligh^tcs High Bor-di, 
VsA BrcQtwncd, In Kaoex tbc vatid in trvcHain bj pcbMo*bcds 
^mlltfd llinU. Thf>y ar& undoubtedly marine dtpu^lCa, formed 
b AaDov watcf- FoMiU arc ciocodingly «ca]'C(?, a few cMte of 
iklt» bnTing alonn iHHm found. 

The 1n^ to wliiob wo bavL< now alluded loaj all bo coq<* 
•difwl Mnformable, thai f* to ray, ib^y lie evenly and re^ilarly 
tab npoD the other; although, 00 w>.> have mi;Dtir>Deai tho 
ttdluLVpn hf<U di'^ otri- rvrr thr. nortbrm fvirt. nf tbf l/indon 
■!*>. Wc liave no cvidcccc of jiuy <itpoftit i^mn?dil^t^lly 
foOoviag tile Ba^^nbut \m\^ in thiTi district. Tti the [^1e of 
;bt vo find tb«m succeeded by bodA ccntaTtiinj? fr€«bwator 
M ftl llciuirtu Ffill ami Wbit-firHfT Hjiy. WhJIf^ tb*'iPW 
were fonniiig, acd uiidcubtodly during th<> Huccct-dinjc 
la-Tiud (wbicbwaa clmiat-teiittedby u liigbei temperature 
extending oven aa far as Greenland, where the fig, 

Uu» palm, und fenu tbca gicv)t tbo Lontion area wu piDt^j 
dry UiuL The action of rnin lUkl nT^^m in wcoriQtf avnj tw 
biid tbea oame iat^ opemioa. nyl prolMlly the tmia fatran* 
»f tbii part of tic ctrtui'.rv were furaoetL dubecquently, dnrvi^ 
Uw pli<X!«cke period, pitrte of tb« «cuurm coud of XcrfoUu 
S^olk; Attd Euci OLino vithia tlu? influenoc of Xhn Mft« vrhkfa 
hu left lu lruct4 lu tho dcpooiU of ^belljr mid c&U«d cng. 
He evidence furniaUtfd l»j tiie moUoan b tlbcee dc^oiita Aowi 
ft gTftdiL;U Imr^'Hrig in the tonip«inturc, while Tvitiuitf of 
niMtotioii, ricfbnntt tnpir* rhioQCcTMt hippopotwnujs bcur, ftui 
mii»k-ox &re fcunJ in «ome of tbe Uc^r depct^u of th« period 

We now ci>rac w treat of deposits of which wc tind tnoce to 
tbp nnrrh oif TdOtidom, nnd trhi^h indicAlii thjit a gliiH.-U climttLe 
ptrcmlod over tho northern htoiiiqilicnN la the rmlvay- 
euUio^ at Rni'kei, WomJ (U^rttf^^n M^iitr<ird juiaI SU Alban«)b 
and at Fiiichk'v* aUo in piu lii Mu^wdl Hill, ne find a elajv; 
di^pri*it ixmlaiiitng t1ir)t>, ii[jinf-MHi9t [irlliHft Aitd luiiMrrn m 
flbolkt a&d otiicr rock^ otid fi>LVil» firnm almctft t^ver^ Keolo^icnl 
rorinulitiu uj EnglaucL This U v^lhtl Ui« Uiulder clttj. and 
it oveili«« in pkc«« bdds c^f laod and i:;invo], formed of rocb 
wbicb bavfi consB from far dirtant partv, and containing 
foudU Ukifwifiu dnrived from oldpr and ditftant geolwi™ 
fbrmatioua. Ii;di.-r-d, Uatn tUvxr i3cpoidU at MuaweU HOfaDd 
tlie oeif^bbonrhoodf Mr. Wt^Uier^JU of Hl^i^iRiat^, ottde a vo^ 
esUmsivc collucUou i^f Biilihli foNuK Tlit^iw taada andgravtbi 
ealM middle gl^tcial by Mr. Seeuies Wood, jun., havo been 
prm-i^i to cciQtoin nomc orgnoic reiaaiot wluch lived at tlko 
time of their dcffioHiU They cctnpriM ovei sixty formi of 
mariDe ibellm wluch be had collected near Yarmoutb. !%• 
bouldrr olay owoe JU origin to very different condition. The 
preecQoc ot the rolled cbolk in mich nbtmdnnce can be doe to 
no otber af^cy than moving Joe, uccordfti^ tj Mr. W<;cd. 
The dcf^ading iiiHuenca of a vwt ice-*beet which ooTcxed the 
luirt.hrrti roiintirv would have Ibrmed an tmropttu* qiidoUtyof 
material, aDii ihu bciot; gradunlly cupcUod nt the marpn xS 
the tvt whti'h llirii atfotcifirri owt tho voutb of Kii^hiDd, it W 
vadiod away and dirtpe^nt^l over the toidland and caflleni 
rotititirv, ^vh<'n* nr row ^cd it. 

The oouQtty xniut then hnvo boon in a condition rcecmbling 
the polar jv^iruiH, wlifire viut iJienU of ier, itu« In the acdum^ 
LatioD of (SOW oo the beiehta, proM downwaid* into tba 
lowUwlvit ^0^ *^ «ikwnid t*^ thi.^ tea, to hrvnk off anil form 
LeebergK, Ijringing with tbcm and di«pc4r«inf; xnncb cliiyeyt 
eeady, and gravelly material and boiib!<<n^ >(r. WochL poiate 
out, that trom ihe> middle iflacial depoeitu to the boulder oky, 
Although there waa such aa nbiupl tLiun^e id character, then 
wftf :ia uninteiTuptod voccoaion of d€|MUt. 

He h?li«ve»Uiatthe«ea depoiitiDg tlicf fcoiildeTcbT extended 
jood tbo Jimito of Hnglond, aLtboii£;b the doDudation ha» 
too cninph^ttf la show jm^ Uvcm of the deposit on the 
outbeni M» of tb^ TliaBMri VaUof. 

Wlion i1i« area wan t^levated at IhA dose of i.lii* gkt^ml 
icriodi *oiDC mitioir tncca of gravel were formed, aecordia^^ to 
dr. WcmmI, bmotigsL iwhtrli rnny ]>f* itinliidj-r) llic- thin (ifi|miit 
ipon tho Bfttp»bot umd at Uuiupjnt^^l HrAth, Lbc Uilcc« on 
Ihootor^ HiU, L&iigrL.>D Hill. ^',. 

Tboro ftr«, however, odior and more importAot di^po^lta o£j 
jmirAt mad, A&d brick-4-njlh, wliioJi M'^iig to posUgladalj 
vbtcb wd bav« aow t-i oomidcr, Sudi am thndoponita 1 
COV«r the gr»Ht«r imil uf Ihe city, ami Ktn-Lch irregularly 
into th<* REibiirb*. Tb«y border thf Tham<-« at Hammi*}^ 
CiiclKKt 4iid #trdch Roithw/u'i* to Iliglibury and 
rf. Eorttr^rdA, thi.' uiU nt Ilford an-v pc^rlmps ^^^ l*<i»t 
vrkUe aouthwardfi the 1>eda extend to (.amlnw^ll, ^ud 
ov«r CUpbam and Wandj^worlh Commfina, They aw 
J«l the lluuiio Valley drpofttA, am] tliry have bwm doiibU 
AOcumuUtfd by the rivt-r itMtlf, Wimn, liowntrj w* 
mmMce tbo extent uf tli^ M Thamen Valli^y. hs jtidic^^ttrd bj 
Uke«» i^nfeli, and tb? conipArAtlvcly «ina]l obang^'e ib&t now 
take plnfo, vo cannot but iranpnc that Iho Hcnudlng and 
tmivpoitiug pawvan wrrr- iriDtty gtvAiIrr fn formi*r tini<^ thun 
UhfiJ Borw nrt. Profrwoi' Phdhpn* on-iid^n thut wc? rcf^uiro 
tbe Bgf^i^ of Bhallow tc^taft«, formed in t.hi? valley, to move 
Mcno of tho Uage blockfl whicb arc fonnd in the gravel. Hn 
cntrndrsu that iTii? R^{ioii vmtt Kiibjrcrt to ^rr^aitt^ rxtrmiirH »f 
cold tbsn no^'t ^itb ciore abuudont miri and imaw — thut tbero 
va^flB fad, a jibivS&l perltxUa^ Mr. Alfred Tylor fiii^ty)igt>^t>^, 
ftft^r V7lt;cb tbo kcal ciiouvtc bos berrn ^diml[y irnpri^vin^, 
fttul iu<i|Uimi]{ mon! of tH uutdiir titi1ciTii''.u am) f'{imjj;imUv<- 
ilfjiMiiL, duo in i^m'y uiuiniire to tbo opi^ratioua of inaji in 
tlniuiog and in tbe cutting; du«u uf fuieatb. 

PrafoMor Homfoy u of opinion that t.lio area of tho Thamoi 
dniaogo hiui gmdunlty i^iAitiatrtinl during t<>rtijkry nntl recent 
ttmciL He pointH cut bow tbtf e^arpincuti, bcjih of ebaUc nnd 
oolites Ar« (d>jvrly «tiU cUangicg nnd rooeding catitward, and oa 
that of the oolito rooodM tho itv«n of drains^ will dimuikh, 
mud tbe Tbuna d<«r<ft>e iu roUimr.t 

BMidoA Duuiy fpoclcfl of land and fru^hwi^t^r moUusea, whieh 
Btn found in tbe brick-eartbs at Haekue> Down, Stoke New- 
tagton, and other pl&c««, ntiro^rooa njatDToaiinn remains tiavo 

* ?« « Oo^tcvT of Oxt<^ -nd iho Vtttlor nf tbo TbanciL" 

t ''I'bydcal Q«€li>go' ^^ On^mfAij of Unnt Drit«tn," 3rd EdLtina, 


FOFTlah daE!fCE eetiktt. 


wSmo bw^ diKsovo^d, Tt)«o incjode the Uw, wolf, foi, b] 
CAv^lbHp bI»uD, Irlfih elV, itiiink-ox» tOtrpiiant (mnniBioUj 
Tlnni>ccro«," liipf-opotAmu^ boftvcr, Ac Od" of theiDosADOleJ 
Irx-MliM'i^ for m^imnmliiiii ivtiiiiitii> U nforO* and tliU i» in a grfft 
mc&^iurr dtw to tht faergy of Sir A. ISndy, who biui <l*rrttri 
much fillip anil ex[H-n^ to IJirir collnALoD ^lid pit^ert-fttion. 

Tli*rv arc good Krounda for belie-vinff th^t mftn <x-«d<ti 
with Mifwi nninmti. Tlio diaoo^viy ul" flint implemvntii ' 
workii of man, to our x-alley-praviclf. plncc* hi» amiqnitj ' 
a duabu 

Hio <ulit«t record (befoM 1715) of thft divcovRT/ of 
iiD|j|pni«at in rccordci] ia the Sloftue ChtnlosoA {I 
MuMTum). « So. a46, A Britwb Weapon foiuiil, »kb elepba 
Ux>tli, ujijKifilt* loBLacJt Mm7V&«>^ Grayv« Inn Lane, li 
ft laTRo black flinl nhaptd into Uw fiffure at a »|M*ar"K poinL* 

In \f<C,H AH implrnttiit k^h fuUDii by Mr. Nnrmiu Kvatu: 
the bricl{-i?ttnl ul Hii^bbiiry Nrw Pnrk ; iwul in 1871 CcjIc 
LoDc I'Vx found an implcmrntN ^i^ht iucb^* L->n{>, nt Ai 
twn*^^Lh thin^»«i ft'rt of winl and snivel- fHbrr iiii|>lfint!i 
were fouoii at Biiliaf:, and all, aooorditi^ to Mr. E^tui^, wi-rc flf 
wi41-tn!irk^ pRlopntithfo ty[t<u^ linpT47tDert$ have aUo bean 
Ibund at llnckncy Down, Hummers mttii, B«ttet««a, Homttlov 
Hwif h, At-t 

In rv^^nrd t^ th^ a7iti<)mt7 of maik, which b indicated by 
diMMvrry of Ihf-iJt' nml otbrr rviddKn* of biv woikinaitihi p^ 
may quot« tb" wnrJ-* '*f Mr. K^^aiu. 

'* \\lt<-n AM " I"! Hiul tlitf traid]Liout» of tlie migbty 

bititonc cttv ii'tw >'i.N ikJiu^' arrr«s ibo vnlley of tho Tbamoo 
not cnti^ iiH bnck rvm to tbc «lo>c of th-it period of 
eetiturint wb<^ii a bri^nEisiulu^; |>4?opli< ucf^tjpii.Hl iliia in 
wbev wi^ boar in mind tbat beyond tbat pfriiod ]ie« aQiiUj«r 
prolmbly int I'lngr-r iliimtion, whrn ntir iaTba.Hc pivdi 
0ocnrtiai» poJisbT-H] their Hiosi^ ituplcnicnt^, Init w^iv «tiU 
arquaintM with the uwi of raelallic looU; wfien to the hift^j 
bronoc, And ticolitbio (nrw^r Ftcno^ agca« we mcntAlIy 
Uiiit long nrrrio* of yisLFi whii'h iTiimt bavp l»en tr^iiin^ fir 
eld fjiun&, with tlit; mammoth and rbinoocro^, and otiwr to' 
strange and iuiaGoii»tom«l formi^ to be aupplantM by s 
of jinimftla moro olotoly roMtnbln]^ ihot^c of the present dd] 
tmd wfipn, rrtmfinbnrtiig all tJlil* w<i nialitn tiir farr tliAt 
tfaonTftMtr pohodd of yeaiB liava intiiTr«iied«LDo«th<;compl&t» 

t I'or Uivw puticutiira vra uw ind#bUd to " Tho Anfiltmt ^Toitc Im] 


«f tbe pnkcclithic (<tldt>r iiton<t] period, Uie mind U almoal ]o«t 
a nuttvmctit At thtr \-:i-in a( atitiijiiity ilitiplayed.*' * 

VCbta «& c«Di«, lu^wuvi-r, lo diieiiBd tLe^ fubj«>ct^ wo bngin 
t* In^^aai on ttiL* jjiruvioce of Uie ait-^La-oUgi^t, and wc mu«l 
kftTft th^EO to coxiAider a few more pciiiU conuecUHl with 

U/. Preatvlch t boB »hown h<vK zhd earUeil BettlemeDta in 
a&lftiouud I^adun wt-re dejwndoat Tijft>iJ (Jw geological stnic- 
t«rt, fciid for thw r^iion. I'he London pky which (icctipii'* no 
Ufgc ui Afya i^ tu wo have mcntionrd, covcrtrd to u lar^rc- ex- 
tfiil by the vuJltv gravoli, aDti in tin- north (*f L<mdoii by here 
udUwroaa outljiiiiz bUluf Bu(£«bot sand. Wdb sunk tbraugh 
thnvAndy and gmvelly df^oi^it^ wore nlwHyR nippliR<l v'uh 
irnirt, (rhich w*« kept tip by t^c inip<'n-i<ii»i I^ndou clay. 
\itiicv iin UiT* n'uli.7 cu|]])1t np* nil Jill-ifnE)ui'1Jiiil (|iifaIJ0]I Vfith 
tw •ttriy bOlUtrH, bo jIjl-t followc^d Ihc coutat.' of tLi> waW-p- 
bflring MiTitji, while the ban- L4>ik]i<ii fUy w<w unoiviijiiit) 
onUtho ?iovr Utrorand otht^r w^(i,<7'Work.i did nNvny witli tlio 
tMnnuly fiir wrdK Thii* tlir c*luy diklrifTUnT HulUrw^iyf Ouadtrn 
Ifltn, lU^cul'd Pttrit, St. Johu*# Wood, W**lloixrms and Not- 
tioif Hill r'-criv>:-J tuMn [lupulalfonii uiticb UUr tbait i^te^toey, 
J£&L!kiic>f IiliDgt'^n, Ktm^ington, C'livJjfcfl, and i^mborwoll, 
*tich tksv tfitiulcd ati ^tjlvH. 

la tbe 6ame way, Mr. Trt^Twit^b him pciintvd out hc»w (m Lhe 
tUtiUjld uf Limilou a aneewwitiii of villngTrs grew up for milw 
onthogrwit bc^d^: of j^Tavt^l, ntngLnij on tho outfit to Unrking, 
Und and Itonif>>rd ; on th*.- nortli, following the vnUcy of tbe 
l^to Kdtno&ton raid HodtWdc^n ; and cm i\>a wc^l^ up thi> 
llvDCB valley* to HauiuLi-TamiUi, Kaliiij:. Houusluw. and Ipc- 

C Around Hjtnow, wbioh etandfl on Lbe Bag«bot ftind, ai 
area of bare J^ondon clay rxtoDdA, wliicb is remarkably 
ftn^eveo uow from tbia ijnort>aciinifi]t of hoiijW'is, piirliculurly 
^riKven Uarrow and Ickcnfiain on the wnt, and Edjfwaro on 
tbe Bonb-ea«T. 

WbcD tho nipply frifin Jhc f-haliow wells thrcngh the vnlloy 
ttnnU wui faund imnffit'irnt ta fumith th'^ demand for wuter, 
dMper wcllfl wurt ntmk throuaK tJjc l^ntton clay into the 
4r1« be&eath and into the chJillc, which hold a grcnt iiiantity 
*' ««tcr. Owin^ to the out-^rop of the chalk both to tho 
tartb ttDd nouUi of l^adon, fimiin^ aa wr kivr im^iitiimnl, 
ttNLondoD bojiia, thu formation Tcccivca a <|iiantity of watw 
fnoi the min-fall which, |>tiK'uh{tiM^' IhruM^h il, it^ i^uAtained by 
tbedayoy botU at ir^ bfuc^, &nd ia prevented fiom rising tip in 
U« cvctrc uf tliu lizuiii, owing to tbo covedag of liondon einy- 

* "Thv Audvnt ^tiju'j Impkiitii^iiti, Wcap<?i)i, vid Omnmciiiii of Oreni 
firftiin." By John tTacF, FJt^., 4c. 
t Aifllvcnnry ftddtctttatbo Q«olofrlciU Sodely of liOndoD, 197^ 


OaMVi^tinitlTt lilwn a devp vvfl b Bmk In Uimfeii iotti th 
claUu tike vftlcr TiMito tfaMiribo sorftc* ftosi tbr prD»w o 
IIm nCrf prat Dp in tbr bttra- Wijb af CIni kind lumn 
«riffiaaUr btva d«|( is t^c pr v r in cg <3i Aitob (Arttsioa) i 
FliacQit we bnee Usmed srtcnsn srlbk 

Sm giriBg Uua lirivf duUh of the feoliifiical tntfory of cK 
CRA tspoo wfilch TiQOilou uov BtAiub, S9 hBVT< pntctod out bu 
t Fev of lie ^'Tf^t dnuig«« in iu ptiyricul gto^n^y «kicr 
hftTe UJc^ pUc«. ViV lu«c tnaUd of ibe cMk SM otm 
lying itm«, bnt ve linve not i g fe fte d to the cMev rock«, nu 
vbrii vc «tat« tint tlxae, k> &i u tbc; bare Ivcn prove 
In Itriuin, conuitut^ n trnM no l««s tfain tventj timet s 
tlddc ftA Ibc h<ds me Imtc noticed, vc oic » Boocb lofi i 
sv»inp4<iajiiigf^ch succecdve ofatf^^e dnrlDg tbeir d<*[uud 
ffon, u we bTc at Ifaf imiiMiuitj of lime tbAt murt ur 
r1ap»Ml «iurr< tlt#- corlint «trfitiini was Iniil dovn. Comparin 
Mt period to a y^or, th« a^ of num hu bcfrn bat B aoooiid ! 

Wp liAT^ iafd enough to Indtrare l)i« many interv^ing lul 
J4^ctt whicb a itudj of the gtolc^ of Loudon ctnbrucua.* On 
<iiljji!ctt liuvnTrrr, anil oni>, perhApA. nMmi impnrtant to til 
p«ojdff CtflMfrnUj tban any clhcr, wc liaro ni^L-cU'd ; thU is th 
pmnaldlity of «oal uodrr Ix^ndufi, oi ht<if^th iht^ cT<'tAc;<ioii 
rock« of tiie irautb-«utero and «ul«m ooontiftf- Tltin outtUo 
wax di)bci3«t«l liy Mr. Prenhrich not long %ga in t)»i; roniLA 
SciCHCR Kkviev. It i« oov being put to tbc t^^l bj tbo S«i 
WoftLdtni Exptfifmtion. A boring ■ Win^c cnrripd oxi to pa\>i 
Ik* pd^cooio fwAm in Suams, and b« pviMtnied to thn dvpt 
of 300 feet, wliciv tbe Kimeridge cIaj biu^ Ih^h Juvt nocbfti 
It M«nu prohibit that at ktut IfiOQ f<wt of ruck imut I 
borod Ix-fort' ilir? lAdtvr rjckn can be t^ipcclvd, and then tbc ri 
iiullii will no doubt tbrow coaflidonbl'^ li^bt on tho v^xod ano 
lion of the probabiLty of coal in tbit neighbour hood. It 
neodlem to t-nlAigti upon the boni'tit^ that ifuc^b a dfw»v«] 
inovld coufer* fur iiLthou|£h according bo t}ns lEoyal ConI Con 
Tntat-iTi wo have a supply cal<rulated to laet throo contiirii*«* t 
tbrr hi^li price of tho fiicl is a |^rc«t sottrco of divquietuitd 
th« natiou, It wmdd vtt^m rfnuitje iiidiwd to witnftw minll 
activity noLr U> Loudon* ami probably the findiog of cool woa 
rrHtjHTti ibe u^l^cted iroii-rnin^ of thp Wi^idiL 

* TbriMvlia vriih to parrtjv ibn xLil-jtcl Iti deuil tlioiLid coovok 3l 
Wbllalior'ft ** OfQ^cirj' of th« Lnutlna }huiti," " M«iiiciin i^f di» GAohygk 
Harttj of KngiAad ftod ^VaIm," roL ir. ll c<QlAin« iid irthAiiiitiT* Ikt 

othor woirkfe oa ih« jt*o1of{y «f tbo diitdct. and noonU of «<t«v 600 vi 
•octlcm* uid boringiL 

Mr. Wblt4k«r baa «l«n Uloly oaoitnieud a Ur^ mait^ of Londcn ■ 
U« b«iff bboivWood, aab(«vihir ^k kft* tif 4bT<ii liU tqnne niLhi*, oa I 
Mslvuf >u iiuhaa (D tat JuiJiw IIua ia cxiilbitod at Ibu Uoiwiai la J««iu 

UK F,V0LLT10-V. 

BT TBB Bxv, T. IE. K. STEfitiLN'G, >LA. 

TFK Seionau whicb dc-als with tbo «>viHonec* of dcei^ ot 

ooietittuLt for lhi> iiikc^ of ulilcU anything in produMKl or 
toe. The old lii<ly who fouud a boi-^Iar lu LtT stotT?-cli>-(F7i., 
nfa^d him for tK? final cniui^ i^f liix ptcwmc^ in tbnt HD^lrvx 
ituatioD when jJjc wid. "What brin^ you licre, sir?'* In 
luwwviDK) ** ^^^Vt ica'aio, oui> muat 1>e iomowberof,** he ovi- 
faiUjr adopW llie Ihoory tlal &1I tilings the movomeiiU of 
buDflti b^ingK iticliidcrl, arff rot bj piirpoKt^ tniC by chance, and 
Am therefore it wnn idlr uudcr miT drcomitanocf to nak the 
NMOo wby. Of that tZtt;i>ry Aichdeo^ci Pbk-y cflVotuiUJy 
^!|K)«c<J many yl^am a^o. is lun iumoiiEf and popuUr trciitiie OD 
%liual Theology. Hit wliot^:^ srg^uniont ]« an flrgum^Ql ftoia 
fail caiiwi. TTic same argument, n&d after fauch Uio samo 
Wrthod, t* piintur**! in McotJirr delightful IkioV, ttir Bridg^-^wjitrr 
thati*c on ''The Haud ; it4 Mcchciubm imd >'ttul Eudowmc:it«, 
umTtiriu]^ IV'hi^i," lij 8ir Cliaritt Bdb N-j oiic, iiiil[?»-[|, will 
Ub«Yc Ibat Iho flcxiir pcrf\»xin« of tbc fintjor fnund it* way 
llbrciigli X\\f Jirxitr jtrr/urtLlutk only \vf nociditnl, j<i*t wlirrr tlip 
ttftfiiicid npacc of tlic iuutow «-loii|^t?d di^t m^tdc it all but 
c«mtljd iJjiat out* vi Uiow ujUKltti tJiouIJ yxktaa Lbruugb a hale 
atbu otbor< Ni> od>^ nndcretJindiug tho anatomy of tUo anu, 
lad how thi.' phiilnDgf'j^ of Iho f iigiTi^ iirr iK^ntn nnrl !tt.rn]ghtriiod 
flA«fly by mtiwlo* lyiii;; aloti^ the front aivl back t-^f tb^) forc- 
tnn,'vDiild for a iiiomtiil iidmit lUal thtflcnglt'iiiiiual ieudoii» 
«f Uio^ Tuuulee are bcund down hy th^ an&nkr li|;^t&«nt at 
the vvibt only through a luclcy coincidcncc- 

Wb are content, and may well be so, to recognise pcmonal 
ayoicj and dx.-?ii^ti in tlie ciriutiuclrcn of a n;tUh, a micro- 
a 0t£aia-eTj^lne, without bfivtug e^QD tbeot made or 
tbe inakira; nnd Hinoc nr arc sorroundctS by coil- 
ASAlogoun, though in important parUeulort superior, 
Ukac coatriranocs, nuvny of them lon^ &ut«ced«at lo tJic 


rorti.AA 9nE»ci Ksn^ir. 

orifiu of iDUi. aJ)d f&r bcyomd hie akill to inveaL or ctcd imi- 
tate, tbi? i:if^rf<ia?r* io often draiwn Aeems a foir luad 1«fi^tiTnat« 
mfcicucc, t'hiit j>crAf>n:tl agciiic^ Acd design uodcrlio all tbAU 
for oanrtQit'iLce of Unguagfr or IVcro r«v«Tcatial m^UvM, v« 
c«ll Uie w^ka of lCatLirt.v 

From the grwir, roncliislon, hh^ on To1po!ogy,lhRt Natari\ 
Orwition, tli« Order of ibc Lnif^r^r, hitf nTucn^^kt from c-hauoe 
but, hy flesijiiDf we ttiril llit'Ti to ciMuT L"(iiji'li»ii)[i», !(U|>pt«ci^l to 
hv t^rouuded likewise on Tolt-olosy, and moiaUintxl by the 
nftftiH *^mini-nt uritKiv who havi* t]i#d m mucb Itutre ou the 
tiffl pnrt of the lu^imeiiL 

TliAt* hulliiitv nrit? crjiiarnind tri jin^vo nrit milj tltnt dmjgn 
viu viable in ^'ntuie, but thati aut of many vay» vkirb tbo 
iEiiTji.1 (1 priori nij^bt conoi?U<' 3l»- pc»i^ilb\ tlii? Dtfoi^er liad 
cboFon onfi farliculor way. in )i]-i!C(*r(^ni?4t to &11 othor vrftys* 
4>r^ ll]^ puqjtvM.-. It is uerdtcM to conceal tbat thsjT 
Vi-re lud 1o malataiu this ticfy of &rj;^ment by th« iiEi|>mfdoii 
t-xiptjag ID their mioda that dio De^ignei bf»d llimwlf dixlaivd 
biii cboioi^ of plan, und tbiit Uittrcfbrt- bU Ijodout KUfi involved 
in ILr trutJ^fume»i cf tlic dcclur&tiau. Tlity deemed it Dcoe»- 
«an^, then^ to tln-ir piirjic**, fo t^liow two thiuf-* = f^tfl^ tbut this 
particular pbin bad in fic:t Iici'r purftiod; and stv^undly. tbai 
iipoa II bn»d gimr'^rjtl view, and jls fur ai thi- btimnn iiiteU««t 
&nd human ecleuo; coiUd jiidjfo, Uiu plan iv^ of all coDceiv- 
able pUne tJie veiy best. We propo^ to Join Ittut- with thom 
en both thc^c poiot^t and trt ehoir tlijtt th^ tcachinjf of TcW> 
li^l^^X i>^ >ii rnvntiv of .1 (iiffrrrttt uhm ftt\m tJut vhloh tf»^ 
tbtmj;bt mtifst, huit liLtii fidlowtd; djfli.Tcn(, v/c my, from ibein, 
yfT t^iiui3ly roiLpUleiit ((itb Fviipreitiir' ui^doiii uxu\ ^mkUuvs. 

On «bat4>ver plan tho L'Diveno mnv have tjocn contrived and 
[irdrrr^d, a finiii? iDt<Oh^-l. Hcunnin^ mid giuigitig it, not OA a 
vholo, but purl by part, obstn-iiiig only iuGnittatinially amoU 
fiottiuU!! of it ni nuy oox* tiuue, and inobt vi ii ni?vpT, otti 
scarcely foil to be intpret^ed vith ulmt «oroe ux)uld call 
iiDpirrfrctioQ and i'lint nuii'ty i^i tlic sclimnr', but what otbora 
vrould uioro logically rut vt.41 as mi>ra rovtrcntly d^cribt) aa 
probkniA aWtinj; ediitiifiJ, jj myttleritts not to be frivoliiudy 
blupbemod bocau^e imponotrablc or uDmttRfactory to a jmrb- 
oular ordcf of iutcDigcncc- But tbia doctrine, undenuablD a« 
it ffiroly ig, tbn>*'» Ha a^gis «|iially wer every tbi^ury of 
CTfation, prot^ctini: all oquidly from a priori objections- Wo 

are fpally concern wl with notliiTigrTieojjt tbo facts of the ca«o 

foot* i^mduolly rmerj^inif, ^bwly n^vcaliiijc Ibr-mitrlvcflt <>r bcloz 
Tevtr&ilei!, tt> tiie pnjphetji aril &po4lleri uid jxk^Is of Hcirnce, wil& 
tluiir ttraiigD |;ifta bcyood thn run of commou men ; gifte of 
hrroic |uitii^cjt ant) Melf-ttiTiLihl, by wlur^h, with aire Aops 
ihou^ cloT, they penulrflto tbo innomiast aroftna of UkO 


BO psrt of it ^1 ifl UBdl»«i or un^Tar^d for, h\Lt all ti?<eiDing Tlth 
Ufemolloui vorkt irith tbe sUmp and imprces of puj|Hne, with 
ibo tt'gM of ^n omQiprtMenr IntoUigenM. 

OpintuvB about the artual ooune cf Natuie luive clunjied 
maoy ttiD4>s a^^I with <*sich chsngo tbo religious plii1oBopTi«>r 
bu ftiil AcknowlrdiTi^ri, m^ lie vvn* boiiiid to ocknowlcdgtH iU 

vbctbcT he tlif>uj>ht tbfkt tbo round ^^rth liad tvk-ii nukdo »o 
*nre tb»t it r-^inH m^t, ho moved, or knew ir to be eo^ifed 
iooc^nntlv in rapid had vAn<^d motion ; whether hp thought 
Itpf^rUi » i^irciiUt |)liirk ilutU*ik wfili h!U>< ntid KiirrDiiiiilod by 
u oontn Tirer, or Icu^w it u> b« an ol>bl4-' spheroid j whoUjer 
b« behaved Ute fiiii] nnd moon to liave been c-reAt«d iTiive or 
four days ftftcrthocarth'i;r<"dflenpt:oJi from chftoii,orbolio\'od that 
|«rtjctjliLropiuioulo Iht iiLt'^rljr aboiLiil ; whctltpr h<f ilimiglit that 
Dft Other aDinoal^ had 0Y«r e3tuu<d i^u the &ftrth than tfuoh oa V6 
nov Icoow, or waa avafn that miiltitudea of otltir geoera and 
i|i«ct«a bad long ago dUd out ; whether ho bi'hovod tbo «Arth'a 
cmat to hftvo l)cen formed only hy fjcij ngcnoie« ox onlj 
thtoiif:U the iiwtrumt^Btality of watar> or kn^w^ it lo have b**ii 
Ibtnitrd by oeitlitr of thc«« o;rcluaW«ly ; whether he belioviMi tbo 
^bito rockc tA V' prlm^vtit, thn Htrong foiindntions of tho 
firth whereon a\\ it« oiitor covcrirtg rented aod had be-p^n built 
Qp4 or ki^w tbnt graui Co-roc ki iuul beoo continiiullT forming 
ball (fcvhfgicid ptriodtf; — Uiroui^h iiU th^-^cb^ne^of opiniota 
h» continued, ae to our view ho wais b<>tiod to «ontinue, sIvMi^ABt 
in loyaltf to one belief— that, hownn-cr tho world hod bcc^ made, 
it bod bi^Q made wU«ly and hud been trmdi- wdl. 

Wc propose, thoD, to cotucidor the tboory of the world'* 
IdMory which the old wrllera on Teleology maintained, and to 
c«ttmt it with the theory which tbcy rojcct^rd. Sir Cliarloa 
Bril nayji ripnWy : '* Kv«ry thing dEM:lar<w i\x'' %iwr\vjt to hnvn 
tU origin in a distinct croutioa, not iu a (rrudiul vahutiun Irom 
aorae original type; and any other hypoth^ia than that of a 
MW en?iAtion of aaitDAb «uitod to tho flncoo««vo chao^ in tho 
uioi^nie imitUrr of th«". glol>o— the coTidition of thri whI/t, nwX 
ttmovphcff. mid ti^joptniture— briiiK** "*th it only an accnmu- 
latiui) ui difilctdl^f-i^^' * But it it uow abuudujitl^' cleiir ihaL 
■■the «.«hangt>': in tb9 inorgnuic matter cf tho globo '" of which 
fiiir Cha^Ic^ Doll nprokn have; not tjikoti plucc middcnly and at 
long intertills, ai ht aupnoeed ; they have hevn continuous and 
ttncK!iafLing ; they are woriung now. We noei not witn^afl Etna 
and V«uviu* in eruption to ho &wDr« cf thnsf^ chjing^ Tb* 
boy who " ia a ehowcrfu) fipnng fiam nt the »pate ^ may eee 

Ddl, ■'Od the Dond," p. !€& 

i^ttn^R isasucs KKmnr. 

IIm< diftHi or mad «VAliliif ^cnfA fhe dnp% aiu) gndualt/ 

hill ifnt) rncul nn^cr ihp Tttrong Hiff ami on thr lip iif Uu^ 
octi&ii, si^'ii:^ to iU Liquid &!»«>, **HtHtrrt<i «}iult tbi>u ootae, 
ftod bm duul thy ijruuituiTn !it*iUTrd;~ Un with Ui« winter 
froflt aixl ia ttM wiEkl4.'r ttonn Uio dlfT &1U and tLe vpvf^ bnt 
on, luraing dr^ ]:tnd fnto ma; irfall«> p^pwlifirr Uin ooidjjr 
li^t-bouM, built qIijo an th^ Hj^ of tbo thot^ for a bcfteon lb 
tbe man pen la Ibc connn of rr-an i» left ^ inland hy the 
r0O«diDf- iTftt^rf. B; tJiid f*m3ix&l rMhtlribution of land and 
wftttfa bj fradiial ctmiKt^t of t^lt^vuliMj lod dfrprauoiu by t^ 
«l>w divtmitoQ of hot ntid cold carr^ntd, ftud hy oftor oauii>« 
liktvicK; opriattD^ nloivljr, thi? tctDprrttttuc of the «drth*ji 
ftiifaee If diveniB«d, not an 8 vhol<f, but by |-radual iDtcT- 
chaogo of clinute between iU irvenil portioiu. Ro^ona dow 
t<TmpRrat« in other dajv have known tbe ]vri>critAl ^l^idt-r and 
tbu icebeiff : and the Mmc rc^^oni^ now tcmpcmtt^ tacii clactalt 
at ypt ADotliet limr bavc ivnn.'d in Ibc^Er vann ecTuHng 
tummcn Ibo grateful »liad« of palm-tnyfl. The hoaxm Sortli, 
trr«1p«« tut It lEflw ifl, 0I1C9 ahouDdcd In timber nn^ foliagis 
within a few dt*fi;rccii of the Pole. 

If, iLen. Sir CJiarl** H^W eouM hivXy argue tliat sodd«! 
chiuigc* iti (he iDnreanio tDa1t«T of the ^lohc, id the noikditjon 
(if Hip WRt^r, thn ntn>a4ph«Te and t*mp?Tat*Trp, pnlnr^J <'Irtirly 
to Miccr-niir<^ crcntif^n^, not tbo ^Tflduol viLTintiiiu of cpcca^ii^ mny 
WL' uot ;« (lAirlj- iiifrr fn>m Ibr tfJiaJi^rr-* wliirli art wiw proted 
to hnve been p^ual iisHtcud of euddcn (bnl j>radaal variattoo 
of fpccirf in mnre llkelj lo bavB pfnvniW than »ucee«Fiv« 
creation Y Cortafnly the tclffr>1ojiitft ennnot cUiin tbv point iO 
favour of liii aiffnment from dfsi^rn if, whilr thi* uulv^rd ani- 
ditiom* of liie are ooDFi^Dtly oba&ghiff, gpevi^ have b^n to 
ntubbonily orgmiisod tbAt they can make no chon^ in cortc- 
Hpondouor. Bui ompbnttcaUy h* eaa elaiiu lh<? point in &vour 
of UiA nr^tiuiviit if he fiutU that not only have livini* orf^anituiA 
nt nnjone period of th« world't hintory b™n ndmiml^jly »ilt«d 
to the coDditJonof the world /it that period, Hi that U%-ing 
orfpLniimi have b^^^n tv miLrrellouBly c^iii^ttltnttid itut, at Unw 
foIIa <in aod chTnutefl ehnn^, nud mcnns of Hibiil^t^iDce viuy, 
nrd lh*i whole fsu^ of tJir mrlh in ftbifwl, Kpi*<*im laa — which 
HE^em to «hortliv<£d and abort^ifrbtaJ ob^rrrem rigidly tixcd nnd 
iinufleiuble — can adapt lhoaneh«e 1^ iitfinitu i^j-i&iiL^ctf Li tlw 
cMbK'lM* tiow of circumslttncca. Whit i^ the Adaptation of ft 
fuw Ihidita &&i1 iiiuivlf!^ iu tbe arm atid hand fur the- advantage 
of a HiDj^le imimult o>rapared with tbUarfimont ftoDD Lbeadnp* 
tattoo of atl the Liiing iipcciF# on ihr* ^obe, not to a eingle urt 
inf, hut 1o a not^t^r-ifndjo^ \^^rit-Ey. 

led the pcHAjbdlity of our planet revolving with- 


tmtuif pefxnuirat axi» of rot&tioB. ^ The eflfcctf** he Ajf,^of 
ttiis tmfix«du«itt and iQ^tability would be^ that the equatorial 
of tbe ua/tli might become tho polar, or the pillar the 
I, to th«^ miirr dcTitTuctioD of pl&Qtitmnd knliriAl*^ which 
not capable of intcrcliuipnf; their ^biatiiTUci, but atc 
ively adaplM ta ihe<!r own/'* His tdea wai, tbiit upom 
MM porticuLiT flpot of tbe cartb'a Eurfa^o each or^nism, aa we 
Biftw k&0« it, vnn shniptly cnllcil into rfxi«t<inc^(^ nut nf thn dimt 
«IU>c eortli : in one plucc a whaki in anotb<?r a gv.dgtsfn, here a 
MAkej and tliere a man. For instancetln one place he re» 
pMcbu bifl fcLow-moD* «ariD£^, ** Wc JDTad^th<^ torrirorir^ of 
will bMSUaad vrfinmoui rrjitilrri, iirti th^ii rompLiiTi fh;it. icp 
ue mfcitod by their bito* ccd ttiEgj.'^ And hiiTio^ tcad that 
ttme exUHiitive plaina in Africaare nhuoctt riiciivly tiover^ with 
Ntpenta, bo cxclainut ** Th<>#o are tbo naturM appropriated to 
Uw iitiuttii>n* I>^t tbern ei\|oy Ihr^ir (.'Jtifrf'tTnoiT : lot Ihrio have 
tftcv countrj." According to tlu* doctrine tlic t^xtcrmi nation 
rfiolvtw fruui Eu^laml ^na an nei of inipiely : unU wlirn tin 
luiij|{at« oxa hoiu«(» to rid thorn of asiioalB emaller indeed than 
■amibijt alrooAt c^^iullj ohji^Hii>iuiblc-, tbougli obrying the 
)$m of comfort vo aro ckfying tho prewcriptiont of N'alurn. 
Bdltrrin^, aa Palcj did, and aa lo inan}' pt-nujitei contiLuo to 
Wbtte with him, (bat the anceiiti>r of &3^h speeiea naa a fixed 
nA faabbtad doaign, likt- a nat^L a^ it comes Iroui thu iiandfl trf 
tb» n4chiDftk«r, only with th<» fAC!ulL7 which no human 
ttciitncTj cTor bad, of producinjc copies ol iUcIf, it ^nf natuial 
fcTlfmaUot>beUevvTaiidbeli«Ting to £iricjhe pt^rc^ivcd, tbat 
btaie bad a ^pocJal care foi- prvaorving^ the^o d<iaj£tiat preMTv- 
Qg thMQ in thft placac for which they wor<i spncinlly d««ijifned, 
Uiprcfcrvin^tliciQ unaltered. l{ecr)nUmpJut<^5;in-aTigcTiicnt« 
'^fltf the pre\-vcitii3^of the lo«£ of eeruiu fipeeies from th« uni* 
Votoi a m^ortuDfs.*' he sayB, *^ which floeEon to be Btodioual/ 
giniiM niptiEiM.'* "Thougli hivrr* m^iy im tlm nppoaruica of 
ftUiuCf''hc ci^nlHJnURj, ^in domti^f thodi-:a]|jiof 24aturc«woxk»f 
llbargrc^a pjirpinw* thtfrcnt^er are- Her ifped« nevur fail/' 
It it c«ftain that be ia utterly wronf; in the inajority of tbeeo 
C*ttc[uijon«. Th** rJimAifiri vhJHi lii« (hoitgltt tixpd for Mie 
AiBercDt <iunrt<^r» of Iho ^1"''*^ htiva brycnd all d*iubt l>cen coii- 
taualiy, or v-wu CAKiimtumaXy^ v-4xyhi^* rUiil:t ami auimitJH 
hir« not bMft dMtioyed. ri^ ^e thought they must be, by AOi^b 
c^Kgeai; ono rvoion, tlxiu^ oot tbc only rrtwcifi, 1)eing, tJiat 
phau and aninmlK, which ho thoiiffht woro not capablo of intoi- 
fhaofpng thtiir i»itnaIJoiM, undoubtedly ait ca^nbh; of tbcW 
Msiationa. Thaoitinctioo t>f «peoi»e Unot ^titdioiuly guarded 
^fUUfi by ^(urc, and hrr ip*>:Jca do £uL WitJiin hiHti^rical 

timcff wr have ihc rcocrd *>f .luch fiiiliirc- Now if f be 
believed 1)j&t fiTiiy of H{)ecifM wan tiiopIj &LvoinEuod<l4id in thd 
ficli«[no of ?{aturo U> imcbanj|;iii^ climAU^i t<) infttpocity For 
Tnigrnticiii amratg Ihn tv^Trral fonnn of lift*, «m3 to contrivauopc 
for prcventinf; the extinction ©f any, cnn lie rcfnso to fidmU 
ihttt, ifii- drcttm«ijimK» tiL-iii^ jiucL tin- rrvi*nw nT wtuit )w bikd 
euppoe^ the a^omraodation, th^mi^ptaUou, tbo ooini>1ctcn«M 
Hint perfiL^ctimi of <]44i^ for wliiHi hr* is urgiiin]^, imply i^ot 
^lit^ of >ipooin< but vnriAtinn ? Tbifi or thnt minuto orgnniflm 
maj bnvc xitrvivrHt M ctititi^^ for uti incpilciLlmbUt p«TJO(|i 
Drod^fiii;; GXpudiiioiu mny bria;: tip from the depth* of tiic 
oc«an forj^otten forms of «pG<;i<« mppoeed to bavo Uoen lonfp 
extinct ; but ito rr(oarcho« will give na tack in the elothinp id 
ficah the gig^cintit; tnamnmNi lircU, nxtd lju^^iliiin« with whose 
foMilbooc* wo arefnw^uaUv becomini:; f&miliiir mider lb« *««• 
iospIriQg nameeof P«c^«9?fftariuii« ftml />m<»r-hM aud Me^ah' 
murtirf. It i«*af©toiffirm thut !}]■> greftt ^feiocmio torbolMf 
CQloa99ch4ljf4 Aila^ will cra<*L ^nd cjrecp ncvc agoiii in nctin 

Btm it may bo argiicd, tlmt power of mig^rfttlon nrlticb j!|^H 

of Tftricition in cliinjitr ntid other conaittotii without x^nria*- 
ti{>n ic tlic iinioit?^ Iht^mveUt'i- It wnuM hiA\t ; \t iv not t.nifi 
tLut it woidd suffiooi becem» tho power i^ limited. Sonu^^ 
thing more was required to maintain tliat woDd«rfu1 divcf- 
eity which wo porccivc both iti tho prncont and the pwl — 
pliwfip]l\^ imnKTly, tii ilm kjv-H™ 1.h"mwtlvffn. 

One <ff tbo icnatd oi^umcDU tiTK^'d r^'pt*atedty agaiiut iho 
vnriutionof Hpt'dtfH h thi-t — tiial nijoiio lia«6VprBe«i]oii«tip(4.-ii4 
clian^ into aoothcr ; thEit th^rv* u no known inrtanoo of Eueti 
AH i^cnimrni^r. It it a wondtrfiil nr^uni^if mpiHrijilIj wondpTr 
ftil from tb(? lips wbcnco in fipirnt^ it prooeedA-Erom lips ercv 
pruitt? to t^xidt tht- deui)iui]3of fnilL JiliovothodecJaioDattf tugliL 
By tb^ eeutk^ Ar^^iment no rn:in e4in belin<re in God, nnce no 
raati Um ov^t (^>n Him. Ttir vcrj ninM; ar^imfnat telbi ri^iull/ 
against wbit Sir C^arJco Bvll ualU <fL»lMt^ i7r«alHm, flitie« no 
mac liaa imui tfoen a Hinjcle iotfUuico of that m«tliod of prv* 

To prove design ic the worl:^ of Kature, lUcy comparod* 
nit well lu he might do^ the coiutrticlioii himI action of living 
OTpminw with the oon^truetioo and a<iio& of uaohiaefy made 
by hnmiQ ait, ofwcially one bnautifuh ingooJoui, and well- 
knowb piece of machinCTj — a wateti- H'^ propounded further 
Uir concN^pdon of a vatcU " ]M<unc*iii;f t|i« prunrjty of pro- 
dueioc* in the coume of ita movomi^iit. ajioUi«r watch liko itaeU^"* 
Inferring JDfltly that LhaefT^cc vcndd be to incr>>aj<» aaoWrviw'i 
" admiration of tho o^ntrivanoc, and his oonviction of tba C4>&- 


namflic fldU of the contrivor." But not a single Kpcdism of 
bumui trt dooi^in fiurt, iMntm ihix fncuUj', w)ii]i* U in coTnm')n 
C0l ooly to manj, but to ftll. tbe tfimciea of liviuff OT^uiviaF, 
Viih rJiU oti^rttml ^litT^vtip^^ lh(Ti, i>-*t'ffe*Ti Ihe d««1gnB of art 
■Del nS Nftluro ticfi^r'' bin «i^o* oiwl n4>k<l l»v hin pc«, ho was 

ii li)r uttritMitiiig r<i tKii]-hrtm'4jt jHJwvra ur agtiiii« the actiuiu 
aod finlit%f oF mankind. M'hal witb tbo imperfoction of Ua- 
ma|{c aitid Ihi- fiT>|]1rtt«-j» of ri'iiwin, vi* nitEuot wholly i^j^apf* 
nea tbu fiilUca-* lotu Tvtidi auUiivrpuinor^ihiun i<( Apt to li.^cd 
IB. Aufll'jgin) of th ' [KLiiil<.T uiid ibe l^tlur uul ihv umhu- 
■Mian hav* overniMt<?r<'d I'lJ^y and many othor« wh*>o oontem- 
^ l^iii^ Ihr tx)1oiin< am) llt»* dmpi^ry giirti Ity Vat.Eirr, und »11 
iWe luTur* and valvtv and »yriii;{tii and lutwc and ini}^tic« ait^l 
citculatJajE fluldt^ viihin th& budy« whicli iho t»amv Nalurt^ bbji 
<ciifyalr<l under robMftlmo^ ^ndlinly vaiyio^ in textvr^huis 
ud pa*icxa. Ncrw Guliion* arc invented t^ ImaiAn lAiton and 
^UMndWi to imtUfv h-.unan «aprioe; and urtifirini ctolbing 
H^^^Bff^idBpt itatU' to (.-ban^^A of eeawn or tbo i.-xi^rT>i!i(<fi of 
■ ttareL To meet vjtiiecy of di\'iiin&UDce inari mtiBl rctort lo 
P variety of deiigtt, to many a ^'diiiirLrt erealicn,'* $o to irp«akt 
in thr? nihi^Tc of art. Ktit Naltiix* U not to Th! thoiiglit of a« 
a mort^ .irtirt, u a li;iiiiiu] mechanic. Kntim^ ii not to be 
tbofgod wiEli caporie^*, Kutnri* ie not bound l^v all th« Umita» 
tioiiM ubidj ftfl'/^ct the o>Qlrivanc?9 of ruan. Ult^ioti^ilytand by 
tbc oobfefMon if all, in orgiuiip lifi* thr»iv U a jxtwr-r of repro- 
dueticm ; t^c irciininf: pniocT«i of jEcLLcmtioc. Thjht a Urin^ 
ofgnnbm U fldapt4<d to pirtMlura an orj^aniuu likr> ilAt^f, ikv uU 
admit ; but what to many aoenu lo iinpowibUs m hercticolt ao 
tory Uk iiy-n\ A.nd man, U Mmply tVir, that mi organiatn 
br adaptril by Nature to iirodiici^ ad OTKUuiMn not like 
ftvolf, 'fills 1% the crime vi the EvuInIi'triinU Ilit! hvA*\ mid 
front of hid uUVadib^, that ho att rib aloe Lathe Author of Nature 
m powet of coatrivAtico vg dtt iMTyond tn^nV, a f(>n»igbt> an 
ftdftiMatioc of m^aiiri to oiid% not only immau«urabty boyoijd 
irl>at appi^am in Ulc ibr-Uirrvi^jni-ntji of ;iH. bat Ix^yonil oil ibat 
art lu* ev(T acttm| ■>]* vv(}n itan^invd, XTcn heap tooni 
U|WD tbe ])rcK^?r«oI dL'\tlMj>iij<jul,A«ttrotigh it wcreaLi^ht thing 
for Orampot^nc*^ m a momcriit, abruptly, by au act of distinct 
irrnUinii, to oil into rxiaicuor?, out of the du^t of tht eaiUi, n 
man with Idi eyea aud arms and brains atnd gn^iie jmcea and 
all the other cuHcufl cbemisti-y and mcchfini^m of hi» body i bab 
thvyioem to think tliat Uw ftinkcfJmmpot<!i:cu would haw bees 
baffleti in tbc attempt, bonrevi^r Innjir pumued* to derive a man 
from aaotfaer croalure ab4.-ady or^nnloed, sucb for example as 
aa A^ndiau. TUej might ju£t m ^oli t&y that geocratLon is 
VOL. xin.—,\o, L. 



iXDpossiblct ftod that cvcr^ individual fish irhi^li tfvims in 
Omn mujit Iw Lhf- n^^nlt of nn itct of diitinrt omftUon. IChch 
fiaJi preritiLtd cvid^^uivi q^ dpcciftl di^iftu Every tsiDflii ur^* 
tn^Qt uhlcb ha^ been used to pr(»'e ihni living creatordft could 
oat bavc AttfliDcd their picscoit fur&u thrt>iigli ti procMs of 
drtrlipmin^t tril! jifr>v<< i-i|L]aHy t.hiit ll^<■T roiild tKit IiAvr lipen 
genanttid Id any but tlidt mulutv foniu. Thu abnird couciu- 
aloii would no doult Ifnv« U'rn ^^rt'^^^ttiible enougU, had w liv^n 
fimiliar with oonrr btit lulult rnrms <>f life, bod wo knoirn 
nntbine nf tlmt luliuittj^fl nnd imdiynintilu t^iiiirtimf i1(»v<'lf>pinevit 
wLivh luodtt from tiio iccrm and c^mbiyo Ut ihc fidl crc&DUaUoa 
of th» crt^luK? ill iU prime. A uurli) of bulUvfliis vtnikt 
plausibly arf^ie tbat tb«ir own development out of gfOVelUii^ 
c&h}vi|>i'*<-jvtii;^ GAtrTpiDiuv wm n1>oiit n^ cootnuy to cxmimon 
iiccsc< ac any tl^«ciry tint routd well bv duTi*cd, iMulCiDg to tbe 
Author of NjituTvs jtH impjMi»iu>; thnl Hr would Ijiiitj; a cleui 
tliiL;; i>Qt of an unol^Qn, and di>f^TAdin<* to thT>iiu^lT««| thd ^htU 
drcD af the tvai^ fed on ncctni and clod with the rainbow. 
Thin nrgumont aguinKt dtfwIafiioflDt tAted upon thn an|itttioi 
difn^ibr of one creature above anotbcr cri^atun will not bow % 
Tncmeufd ^MiamiDiitioD. Tbe largeit brain, the faireit baaotv 
<^ve^ fuimd fiTnon^ mankind, bftve bc»en nurtured by foodi A 
Nf'Wton ftijd a CVnpdtrn pmdd tid have b/^n^Uivrr or Iwutifiil 
without AOiur »Ltdi :EU»tr&anoa 4« beef ood chkkciL Thry fed 
ou Uie ox, and tho ox fed upon gT&i«, and the gnui fed upoa 
I33anure ; or if tbcv wik^hcd dowu th« tnulcr 6ceJi of puUcLv with 
M&reotio wine, (he wirjo thni i;hvo the- grapee hftd ltd rooU in 
compost, nnd the chicken picked worm* &ut of a dunghill. Of 
thifl dl^itififvl fTrriiLvjir, mati* ho ]>uii[*t.[]imii! libout hi« origin, it 
is eoid inacL-rluia pUec, ^lliu svortn ehaJt fcedffwocFtJronbiia." 
You will percf^Ive, perbjips from whaL haa been uld^ that the 
W6I71Q is only taking a juat revenge— devouring its dovoorer* 

In reality, Ixiwcver, oj>(Mij(iUnu to thn drT^'lopment 1hfH>ry 
founds it«clf not upun argument but upon autlKirity. Alca 
BUppoMT tliat thej have ftuuud hifclcrica] wJtui^ti that man wtu 
produced a few thousand yt^n brick in & perfect state by a did* 
tinct act of cmUt*!!. Monil fnilurt^thify U;ink, 6ntmade1iliii 
tUblc to bodUy paiu, and tbat Jw waft cxikd fr^m the cxtcntftl 
Pimdtw? bucAuu* hr baitl i3«etjroyi;d tlicr Pamdimf wilhiu hitn of 
his own inte(-rtty> It will bo lotervetinf;, theceCore, to bear 
what so rmintnt a lelcologist dj >Sir CharW Boll — » religious 
phitoeophor above cuspialon — i&ys on the subject of Min, boar^ 
m^ ID miud ibftt tbo Bndgew&ter Tre&tiiea to whicu his work 
was oontributed %ie speciiilly ^on tbe WjBdom, Powc-r, luut 
Ooodneas of God, as manilcstcd in the Creation." " To uipposo," 
he SBTV, ^ that wo could bemovedbrtht^kolicitaUcnsof plortsujv 
And have no ejpciifiace of pain, would be to place x^a whcro 


pfl would m©« M at ev^ry step »nfl in evary motion, tvod, 
WE iVlt i>r not, would bs deitructive to life. To ftujJiHi!* 
TO tro t^ inovo «Dd ftct, witb^nt osp^^rtcncd i>f reiietODce 
of pftiSt U lo lappovu not oaljr tb/it inAn'» iintuni in uli^ingcid, 
tbfi vkole of exterior oatur« bUl*. Th&r« mtut bv notbiog 
1. .^ '^ H^ bodjOf hurt theeje, notbinj? noiiouH toLt? dmwo 
In ' i^reatli: in «boft, it i« to jinngiii^fLlt'>g;rUi«r another 

Ibitc cf cxifi^ncc, ukd tho phiIo»ophr-t ^oiild W mc^rt^lioi nrie 
■« ia put. tlii* interpretotio:! en bin meatiftLg. P:iii] i^ the 
Jktcc^^ixry comtrait to pleaaufe : H uaTicra us icti> «xitt«nce or 
«oii«oi'>t]goeM ; it Atobe is capftble of exciting th^ orgiii)i inUi 
Activity ; it U tlic compcutioD nad Uio giinrdinn of hutnoo life,"* 
T« argiMJ» thtTKforr, Uvxi nuin iu Piimdim* w;l* fh^f from 
pkin u tooTBiic tli&th« «^ mthout th« nvcc^io^y comprvnion 
cud (^nardlnn of life, with>>iit. Ilmt tmhicli nlone ia capable of 
•Bcdting iu9 orgtos into nctirity ; that he vrcLfi liable nt every 
•t^pund ia nvi^ motion to dnsitnicUvts irjuricu; niicl tbitt h«i 
Wti4 rtiranlcd for sinniDjsr by thun firet booomlnfi: CApitblc of 
plrtfii^iri'. Or you can avoid§d conclunona and DtlU cling to 
tLfl old opinioD thot physical pftin find death wen? introduced 
i&to tbf* Tnrld Uiroii^'h m^ti's tiuiisgrc^&s]t>Ti, by miiiiit'ikmng 
thjit uuli! that crctit thi^ lion rcorud as geotly as saiy sucking 
4iovt<, ciiid Eliot beak a,iiJ irlnw and talon and enveiioitity! tim^ 
irtiT4> only prospective contTiv&ncoSi tbo ingenious apparatus of 
pull i til lop-nt bcnrrfionitly dpsigncHl before any f^mtt IiiljI Ijcc-n 
«OEaciittod. Wlut tc-nderui^ji und benevolent frisdum we-diould 
^vopgniw? in a bumhu fttirr-iLl. who, a^auuu as LJa chill >v£lh born 
«r 6T0D sooner, provided s Ifirge £orit!s of rods to choetiso it^ 
anticipitcd oiTuacci ! 

Wo turn, in conctunon, to n aXmt of cases wbiob apponi to 
KOtinicfit more forcibly ila^u any otbiera* SlicIj aii uppi-td 
bM DO proper cogienoy in rigid argument, but the use of it h^ 
A definite value end adcv^uoto jiifti(ioativin when the mind » of 
men havo bocu provioiwly clo»L^d to thy reception of piirdy 
logical infer^QCt^ by ecntimeutal obj^^ctiona. Thcr« ia a 
ctroouf popular bia4 In favour of tlie old Lypot.hesia nf HistiTiot 
cnMtion. Ttat bypothrain ooncoircji of ench Jiving ciecvinrc 00 
lltf log bnnn vprninlly drsi^jud aud uui]5triicted fur its pluot? in 
tbe irorld and fi>r ccrtuiu methoda of opL>ration, && & vatcb, a 
fttfam-«nglne, a miero«cop«, a giiHlntine, migh^ ho ibui^rned 
attd con»trtiotod by man. Wittt thui bypottcda bcforo our 
milida, lei nn iakn. Ibn i--xm* 4if Lbr* Ht^rmit-iirab. Tbia unlmnj 
«iica»c9 tti ioft dcfcnccbii body ia tho unoocupiod alioll aX n 
moncnk. It^^ aiidomen ia Airaiebed with hootr^d 'ippndage^ 
te mnblo it to i^ttaoh it^lf to thi« tenement* Here, tbev), wc 

* Hit CLfiriM B«U, BndgevroteF TreaEJsp, " On th« Bfcat/* ^ ISftX 


poFCLAit Bac^K kkh&it. 

Imve tho death of thcr moUuflk difllincil^ cr^tcmplntcdt in 
anUdpalioiiT no flauVrt, of tbi? Fall ftf ^Inn, whii*b wiftiM Kiol 
tipcin the* lowrr auimnln. Khortcn Uie iqxiii of exiateuco for Ihc 
Trirritt'Ila and ill? Wbtlk, and »<> ai Uik^ftU ii'.VinmnuMlst** Ui* 
mIiIv^Hd^ CniflUoran with n iio'is-^ au^l ii hi^Mfiui for iM tJuU 
Hnt thU, it. si'^^-ms wns lik»>lj' to mnV*' Ibr* Hrrmil. !-iii iiimf*i*f^ 
oMr ; *i mmllKr ap^^ttil i-rfattgn prr^nniJ itaclf in tli<^ |(Ua|>t- of 
rerUiu Ithi/jxv-pdak, wliidi bavL-:i fri.^ f^xlafi'tioi^of n few (Uy^ 
cmd thou attjich tticmfohwi to tho H<^rmit'9 ftbJoni<Mi. tn tld« 
aifap-hdirnt, by Ktit^c Miilh^r'n nnonunt, Uk-h- i>ly«rU of d!i*» 
thirt CTTiiititm " nr!ivtnin AatoirmlotLi (*•*. vrithoui mootlw\; IbrtP 
Iiw all IliPir linilia ontifJT^tv'K'. tod ajrpHor tt6 * 
nauk^ahaperj, or dieooulnl f s<rre«wrjc<-* of ttmr Ia' 
tiiiir-ji, mmifi'-^l ]ik<- rnotn, Rnk i[ili> bi>j interior, twifi nmiid htiL 
itit4*riinoT ^^ brc9m<f diO'iL^r^l ainonj; tho «Ac-llk^ tubes of hii 
Iiv«r. But di»tiuci crtslioa hoa atA jrt do&t with the Ifenoit 
an] )iia |;pjwt ; f<>r in the c&«e of >S(U^ijv< pnrpuTta th^i roolj 
of th"* p3rtfit<T lire nude iwc of by tiro othcx phnuitcA. whj<^ 
iak<* up tbi-ir ubod« b«iM>ath the? &tfcutin(tj A»d cause It it> di*- 
a^jy by ititirrt4!ptiDff the r^mri-hoivot coDv^ired by tbo rooU ; 
nni whVn th<Y Sai'ntHna il^lf )« di^ itj: roorn oontimtA to 
lloiiri«ti And abounti, nt lh4> cxf cQic of ihc Hrmiit Aad lor the 
beiK^fit uf the Ijenle^iig B*ypi;rva. 

Tbt" dUtinot cxuatioQ of this »cric» of animals— of a cnh i»<»l 
fiti-sl likr nthcr frmli* to pr-ndupe a aWl of i(5 owtj, \nti ndapicij 
otiItI'-" [>oc^^pTt^^^^ vhrllof a dt-ad nioUtiAk ; of n ^ac<^.itirni^ B<W 
funjj^hrcl likr iiif^al, auinijils with n miHith nnd liiril>o(, but vjih 
rool^ Bititod only to et«a] away the vitatily of tbe cnh i um) 
lr*l!y of n lU'p^ryix^ not <lv«t^i>l for IriLl^firrndrnt «fKi*ti>iiGfs 
bttt oootriTM u» dcpt^nd fctf il« lifo upon the destruction of all 
Imt the rooU of tho .SoAru/.'un — M-vtu^ ut mi? an uuHb* imr 
ordinary notioiM of wUdom auJ bem'vidf-'iiciN a* contrary to all 
ft&alogy of btfoun art and cotiti i\aiLc*.s j» anything that oifuM 
MaUy be ooDCOJvod, Would nny iruui in )d9 M^tuwfi mUe i. 
Iniildiot; fq)raa11y ^W^it^ to oar> M-t of m;ichiii«ry, and at thu 
mTOP timo spcially conlrirt^ a dilTei^iit ^t of iQa<rbin«rT to 
suit that 9tylc of building; j^nd at tho lamo timo dcvisu a third 
of on;;lnM «hfch CL>uld not work cipart fmrn tb»* f 

Unw yd work with tUat «t *?a<x|>t by ilcaUitg 

proddirtj^ \ ami nt thr kjutip. tim*? JnTcct a &jurth •©! to rub Ih^ 
third >v;t of vt>&t it «t(>k- from tho second ? From mch a i^nrnp 
of dmgiJ« ni* fihmdii infer either that thoro hail hrtm wvunu 
do>i^> hotftilo in purpcvor or, If on other t^round* wc w«re 
KUre tiiat opf* viMf iua*iler*&rlirt. wam IJie author of thf<m alU 
should fool «^viaUy fwfur^ th^it tho vrorkin^ oiit of thr^c 
dc3ic&» had nt>t t**n cofl)t«rapotanwu« but a gnulnnl pmontfr 
workod out io cofreapondonoo vilh gradually varying ciecueii- 

iQBref^ s» diflereiiL mutcriiila and dlflfereDt faciliLiM cAine mc* 
«mvpl7 to linn<l- 

Vi- will Like mititJirr group of nnimfilK-^hn Rnt^HEoiL- Ttipa* 
Ut uiinuli wbscb, aa ihc i^ttmo implicv, liT« vrjUiin other 
uuBoJju Th« o^jtuuer ^itJ cuiuikt t^f lilV lu id \cnti oni< wi-.ll 
ki]<nni iDFlun;^d u »» follows: — The e^ ib d«pciALti<d on tho 
grmiHl ; it i* fnAiU^wi-il hy ^ixiirr Kcilijvorou^ animal, JD the 
itoAiftd] of vliich llu.- o'EiLrvn <suu|^o» frv>m tho <%^. It luftkca 
iUmy U]r\iii|;[i Uic vaUn iH^ thv ^toirLAcli. {uid hy tlL« ^urtnl 
cjfOiUtioD may h& earned Into dny psit of tb« tu^uo* ol itfl 
bnU It tbciG developed ialo a form ka^wn &« c^fCto^^ru^ or 
UftdiJcr-tniL Itt mitnmeat » of cgu»o derived from thd 
aniattJ in wbicb it rr^iiUv^^—A pi^r it itmr br. or M>va*^- othrr. 
B«t U U noi defi^^.Hl ta t'lid lU lifo vitln'r in tUit iWin or ilk 
llu p^silit^in. lit't tlie yi^ K- killtrd Aiid i^xm br luuit. it may 
btj ff Mtnn otlif-r ejinitvon^tm nnimalt luid thf-n Thi> oy-ticercuf, 
davio^ itdi hr,it| out of itti ing^ vfiili Uookf nnd urn ker^i f.iKt>'nH 
m %*> tlie iiitistiue of it* n«w liMt, and Uiddiu^ <jut an ini- 
ame aeries of iwf^mt&t^. Iiccoines a tap^xvevnu If. Ih^reft^rr, 
An tflpi>-irorni is the rrsnlt of dfetfnet erc^iinn, ir mitit ka^o 
Urn diftitictlT ciyatr<l wiib n view to the d^ntk of one animal 
mA iko diiM-UML< of zldhsImt, Niiy uuirc, dintiurt cn^Jtiou of tiin 
■Mt tapt^vorm miut k»ru bc«ii itwlf the didtiucL cniilii^n of 
dnnset sAd of dtiwnw irr t>Tie r>f Us mo^t r^piiUiva fonnii. An 
lutl of Ei> lovDD or>niii'ati<>& a« to be JUtlu more enpubk of 
|jip{idm«« tliAfi u csiiAtig*^ ii Thii^ n[p|biiu^l t<i hnvr lioeTi in- 
T^tcd, kv (be direct cifrcim* <it (iii iui,'cmiif.y that ctnc woiiUi 
tcufviy turt* Ut call divine* ro be lUf* vviiur^v af piKN ^^^'^ ^^ 
UI fi^-t^ttii;; cai'mvorL'*, Tbi'fli> an^ not solitary inouacea; 
clu/ might rn.' Hippleiinrntftil hy hiLndrodtf :noro, 

Vet^bi^lcTQif thro4|£l)oLit tlio ivhok' anlniiLl crenlion, tiot a 
ttgWcrr^turo haa 1m"«i fmiiid wiili etiThrt»mciit* iTijurioti* fi> 
i^adJ. FaK'T etpeei:<Jly iiksiHU on tJjt<i "Ibu w<»Hd," hi' «aT*» 

*« ofo itM(iJai[>tnd with ^rc- liiivc^t^^ to t>rn<<(i\?iiil purpo»efi. 

Enl, DO iloiil'U c-iUl^ buL i« ncvt^r, that wl vjiXi \tr.TCtd\K, tlw 

<4jw( of contrivance, T^tli are cotitrived to e^t, not to acbe."* 

^d ugain, ^' We i:>evt-i diK<iver n tjuiu of coutiiiauce lo bring 

i6ou£ alt 4>S'il |]tiq)0£^, Xo nnA^^mijit <TVi«r <Iikii^!>viir«d n t^y^tvut 

oforguumtiou (filrtdnlcil to 7>r^LLce ptiiu loid ii]»e»»e; ov in 

tiplaiuiii^ tlic puru I'f (be liuiuan body, ever laid, thid ti to 

inritat^r, lliia lo itilhcnor Hid point l#, that iio cr(<Ature |iotatTH,'H 

ecailrivut>c<^ ^xpre-Juty fur iu. owninjiirr H'^ mi^bt have&iided 

t^t no trcntnrc p^MiMt* contrivances cxprc*sJy for the bcacfit 

of otbftn — a ein-'mu<*iaoee, na iticoutifttTnt *iib the idea of 

apedal dettign aa eouM wtU }>i.* iitiu^imd. Hut Palc/a own 

point ift almoKt rtpudly ]ne^>ii«i*f4iDt witb tliat iJe^, finee it 


tlw, Ifi 

diMWc Md dotb : if tU 


: b« ir kdimtb* 

fcet that no tpedii |— tt «y ifwctol Pw Hu iB i i fui lo ^mblvj 
U* fonaen U C9|itett Md Mtnf it, aor wj far 

mr WBj fav tJia Qialtation of iu nwa wmben^ lUUior 
Vfl ddftdJ te the plia, tcutehr cndfUd isi 
AUi^w, fjn ihi* ritber buvl, lli&t fbe VfiniM of anlnul lift- bAT«] 
twin ier»druJlr dcvdoptd tiu<oq^ vmlj-ordAicM pnxM«»os 
rAdalimi, ttjiii DBlxfml «1i!Clidai tfar«rapDia«itrtkJ]uiUftiid 
iMgnlriw at ahm viiaUu We «« tba vliy - ia~ 

^vnl prvMnt DO ooBtrivuicefl InJuriouloAftt-' ^uMtj 

mi^U ati^ Ui4f iMtft likdy to bc< pnMrr<«l, ftmi vhy ibi 

KmnJ lUAlif IsJnriAti* to oibrr iiainuUK, Iiccziiim* ttuclt CoQ«| 
vuncPN KTo bti:<*floiftl to the podVMMrt ir« bm why 
eh tlK'^l^ or^^irtwd utJfluUs ai« niiMt «tBoeptiblo tj> pan 
»# palii i« tho moft flfficmit monitor ind ^ar<liHn o1 

lVLirrMii};ii vrriiiM Moii bo lo«t. Tliu vomcIljT of toiue aaituAJbi 
[iknnt l'> iwoppt IU the baicvoleiiep of special dcsign> i« euil 
till- Tliiriljn iiM kti ndTftnbtgo cfepv«k>|w4 in tbp NtTug)tl» fo 
■ , nu'rfincr with it utinriior vtrrngtb and couni|f« ; 

nI-1^ iiiik NfH^v[o«Qra|;nuliuilly<ti>^'i>lo]>inp[ voraH<Mu nppetfi 

ollinrft will fnttd n coimpoiulii)^ »ilvflQt;i4'« iu incrca(M-'l U 
lHy. A |isir fi< iN-mn^ntk nUtc%* will bf-Cintnn tJi** jiruTntH 
htU»*Jr4nl tliitiitnml or ;^ millioo >»"»? r«nr!i,iLii<l <Hit i>rtUi 
4rroii(L ti4»1 tti<)n\ »» tin- n\iinif«, lluni Inn nill nrirvlvi- to Oil 
rliii# 14 liTi'. A* (Ijo ^Vuch if^^^scnkl f^<I of KugUahnieD' 
AhT Urnrivy, ** It i» mn^uiiiH^nl^ )>ut it. u not wur/ 
fif 1Im> KtrtordinATf li^lity which enable 


vpociM of 6«h Dot to hkcroAM ioi numben but to survives it U 
taM^ldcetii^ biit lUHvirvdly it w not, tlir rrvutt of nf kxUI dvMJgD. 
Sir Charles Btdl i!p«kM of ** tbo foroo of our oonWcUou Uiat 
al) that Tvgarils m&iitt state U ortlrrvd in porfeoUon," Biabup 
WjJjon, on tho contrary, caJU " th« r«mfiDl)nac» of onr own 
£Bfinmti<« t&d }fiK-ry» ao excellent Aotidoto agunst ^ PoiKm 
of Vuiity." Wi! itimcl 1iij;:h:!ftt in Ibo vcAk of viidble N&tiuo; 
and b«c«UMT wi; iw ut>thic]c lumber ihno ourMlrec. wo tftinlj 
tnd ingtoihously thiok that *< the for*.*e of Nature can no funh«ir 
^** %> claim to be autochUioos. spniDg From tbo ground 
ftufrlf, inTL*vtiog thi> old pn^nn bound with thG difpilT of a 
dirinc utt«n&ace. Wt cannot embrace Uie idt-a culbcr of u pa*t 
vfa^n man w&s fomethin^ le^ than radn, or of n fntnre when 
v«n vhjtll have become somctbin^ more thiia mnri. Wr- t«]l 
our cbildrcn fin^tty ftSlfci aluitt tJ»* man who wiKhc<l fur rypn 
vjtii tJic powers of tbo f ncnt micro^opc. And the niui who 
■itbfd to tte abl^ to read the thci)^ht<4 in the breAKts of bis 
brcthtenT and the man vlio asked to hnow tbo nmnboT of bis 
dijii, tlml lift might )ip rprtifir-d liow tong bn hml tn live, find 
lb« mnn who soarod to the ftk]r oo cloud- pi orcins wins:* > <tnd 
the nxiral iti ih&t aH th^A* vftiltoA and striving fin- raeiiltles 
tnlftTi^d and «nDobIcd* far st^metblng bettor iixtm our present 
fdrriH vometbing more^ peifecl^ than qui present porfoction^ 
yl^od in di^iftfter and ^amc. Silly little monul craven, 
^^|^1>1r^ juid pri-mdiiim, nniurfllii^Tt nf m(iir>i nripn, with nn 
W pniotntion into tho dcvtin;^ which that ori;;iQ forf^iodcivra! If 
W t<loology» the ttcJonea ct dvfi}^i, li^urlus anjrihiii<ft it teaches 
thii, tliat the world as it ^xitte for humuiicy oould never havo 
Wn «o tiP"^ norvo Ipnd, thai Llio raco of pinn conJd ncrer bsvo 
b«cn eitiM>r to bleated or to curtod att it i«, if tho whole oompl«r 
dcdgn had bt^u fiuiti tbt- Uni vlatlufutry, utiprogrvHUve, iuca-* 
fMn of improv<Hnient, liLiah^^d out of hand hj an act of dis- 
tinct erratic n. 

Tb« Irithman cntd tTiat one man wan iit t^ood as another, and 
a frreat d«al beltt-r* N^umlitmi of pi-t-Hmifi, who are not Iri&Ii* 
nLtintaJn that the creatiireti InhabitiDj^ i>ur f^lobe are jit«t the 
ivno ikn thfiy were at tbe Creation, and a gTCfit< deal wor«e. 
Tkii, in fuel, in tho old, timo^homoim-d, orthodor, pupidar 
opinion. There ia an oppomto opininn hc^li br a unalt svt of 
noatlrs, known rs men of aeknee. that fonut of lifo have l>een 
eoQliniull^ cbanginj;, that they arf- Mill changing* and arc 
likHjr tt> continue to ^bnnf^t*. Tliriy liplievu that tb« objuigea 
hare t>een on tbc whotu tbr the blotter, and that th(.< lAwtt of 
Nature made £t almnnt iiupob«tble tliat Uiejr ahonid have been 
or ihould be on tJ^e whole foi- tho worm, 'fhoy think tbia coo- 
ioit of Xatiin* ijuitii 'tH worthy of nn Aiti»t supremoly wiao 



roroLAU eciDicx trnrr. 

and f!X>od, as thai vbiob impute to Him a liitd daEdga, h^n 

Thritr (Tbi> hc)I^ tltMO oppoflitf* npinioEic mnv Im ttimpin>il (a 
th^ two armourers iu thi^ aiM'iri>t Ifg^d, one of vrb>m iiotuilodi 
aa the onhodijx *»oasi, lliat lis *:>>it of mail wa* impeiw^raWi' ; 
tbo other, like the fcicntitic awOi that be h&d a rwi^rd «li[ch 
nr> colli nf miiil coiJd rnciirU Jtu; kc fu:aTiu jxTsariK )ilak<.< ttjjptr 
rt^ilijfiou on Uic tnith of Mtmc fivouiili; prcjudicts U:»i> <itiO 
d^iEj|ii<hii ii^frL-ii^.l (i> 4l-.iUfl Uie buflW uf his rival's tfvord In Lbe 
arm<>iir v/hich Lo thctu^h^ o^uld ttcver oc pkTCod. lire blow 
df'un-iid'Hi, ;iDi1 hi* fXitm] iiTimnvnl, Ainiling wiUi it-irrti anil 
trlumpli at Uic nrnitcr, tm acanc prrlup^ arc evoji now unit ling 
at Lhtf itiE?[Hcacy uf iny ar^iniriiti. Biit i\w ^il1u-r mtd* ** Ifl It 
poetiblcs my fhtMid, you do not know tbat 1 Jat© cirt vott in 
tvro? Ju*.t Mbflke youreeir/ Ami the triuiRphnnt FNuuitrr 
rfwok biawtlf, tind fi^li tc^ pai'ofy. "Hj*: kiH^niirt;* aiid U'iu\tvx of 
til* l)Wif had diait wlut Bcw-iilitlr rrivicni him ilotnf wiUi a Lar){e 
CTonp of popular prt-juditv-^. Tiey still =4acid upnght and 
Ixik acicDcc in the faLrtf &iid laugb at lU But aciciu'c baa 
al^4^ady cut Ihvia in two, »'>v^r?d ilw'ir hi^wlfi fri>ni thl;tr to4it* 
Even now Scit'iic^' b Niyii^^ lo 8u|wni,t,itIoii, '■ Shake? younMlf^" 
and piv^^nlly Supi^ratiliuu will vliaW itself utid fall to pC«oae. 
ltiit di-i not fV^r ihat Ibe df^tJi of SLperFtilion Aud lL<^ nuiiA ^f 

SicjuJitx' will mvx»Ivo aaydoiDOge or liurt lo Hi^i-"U. lli* 
cath of the cnp is the life of the oLhLT, At in tlic li^nirxwle'a 
alleguTj, wh<ra Ihe giguiilit; and lioirililo figure of Vt^^ih. ba» 
bocQ ck'ft throu£:h hcflmet and ibroui^h nkull, 

*' Out fT<rtD tliii 
lMuc<t tha briglil r*M of n bloouihitf bvji 
Fnwh u ft flawar iLDV-hotri ;" 

eOt whoJi SuiK^mtitioe* hn^ bccc slain, Kfligion stnnd^ forth, oo 
loui^or Uamiiudkd by vain hJOHiur m>r. cif jjrouf, tio loiigi-r dii^ 
torti'd by gbastly ium^centM^ acd miKrepr«avDt<.<d trnder form 
and tVnl.Tirc« not iU owu, bat in unclouded majesly and ifTacix 


> * h 

• '•■'. - , 




-^Bl wliu'hluks a larf;t* aoiwiuil i^dnitli in iU applicaliuu to 
ttikliinLl »deQC4r. Ae lung as n;^! umUiiU ^^mfinud iticii a(t4^jliini 
to tiif Lirci**t aiu! mrxt pv rfixitly d<rvi.OH.-ipo(I r(>p»TH?t;tiLtivi?8 of the 
tvro king«ifiE^ iuto nliich ort^mk ontiLrc i« diTEdrnt, tWy coiild 
Dbtoin but a vL-rr ebjlli^w iiiM^)Lt idCl) Aome t>r ibe mu«l im- 
jwrUut phecomona of L!fo, inliHbr-r atkimal vt \vgeta\Ai\ It h 
lUeiDvetti^ti[>n — aiiO c*p*^L'ially since tlic mirroscope haa bwD 
tjiougLt to it* prcjcnt. pitch of pcfffction — of oigaalMus i.kbti 
eitrf<BU*1y minute,* or vi^iy low iu tlio i:oa1v cf or^itniBation, 
of the Amutba* t)io Aiicidi;iDc, tli<a simplcat aiid oltcn micro- 
Kopic /tiDjj^ and a]g«, tbat liaa lod to tbo»e problema 
of the gi:ii(«aaad d^vvlopmc&t of organic life that ait^ u<jir 
«ngi£JiiC *i> largn ii Tthiin* of tlic isHrntion of t.hi* lirifrfitilic 
vnvlX tirto tJir dbcuahiou uf thcx problem* wo da cot pro- 
pose DOW to entf-r, but ralher to ^\\^ ibe ri>ader a [^eiierul 
acfount of the pcculiaritJrd of ^tnicturc which ocour u:i on« of 
th«r bvTgint and lon1b<»l iliviiiiotLK nf tbr n^rtJiMp wnrld, the 
olgKH a>>*l rtf]>cci&ll> of that loctioQ of it known poputiirl/ otf 


TTic iiivt piwit nfttnrn] diW^ion of the 7t;Rctoblo kingdom, ne 
for ft8 KTiy diviniiiii fn^^ Im^ <!onind#vr^ iTfilly Tiivtiini]. in iiitu 
ocUular nnd viuvulftr pUnU. I'JantH bclancin^ to thi- fonuiT 
dividuii are t1iar:iL-leri»e(l \jy lb<-ir Uhhuk h1wa>h n^muiuiiii; ul n 
ffgUqTiff ootHliti<>nt ^^'^ >^^t developed into tho fibro-vusoulai 
or any otb«r t>t tin* l,i*i-ni-» < harfti^Uriatic of tbe ingLcr [>UiitM ; 
tbvj aro tiKrc!lbr<.<, uji n luiv, di-ftincd t^ onlv a vory »hort 
penud of cxint^^iiiTf:. It itit^Iailrs nl^'^^fiinjci- UcTicilev f^li^u^ct^^ 
Uvpaticte anJ moeee^ Vuecular pUutSi m which lhi> oeiU nro 
tnufonned into v&riotv kiuds of vcsk^K acid t^Huos tbua 


TOfTLi&B gC'lEM.1 KA*illV> 

iDOBcd akalttod for u tednnap utm ci liii^ an* rcprtMcoted 
faf tern, bnrMs4aiU, <tiib ta owia, asd >]I flmcwring pUjil<. 
Ai&OAjr *^ II liar |4iintfB tbc Icwcit pl^od u mocibIIt nirtirofH to 

oleiMfituf ID tbcir Mnkctmr wilh tli« lowest lanna <4 ftlffSi, 
Tb gif« ft oaciriftn tfcfaniAl ilMrripdco whldi slnll dm* tW 
line be t w e en al|^ and fuofi i« ikot cm; »od iodeod, m we 
•lukU ic« pr»«ently, llm two ptwip o*?rUp at Mrerml points 
Sororal weU-ntttkcd dMnct«» which hotd irood In the lu^ 
iriijoncy of nuf^ maf, howo^rer, be mifiitimcd. AJgn «od 
fnagi agree i& bcin^ ^liall^phTtcti^ i<«. i& tho fiMt th«t tliej 
<lo Dot. in fgvaenl iLow uijr dificrmtutiois iif thirtr |«rta iBtu 
dittiaci AUm uid leave* i thej differ, bowt-vf-r, in tbe locali^ 
h\ wliioh lii^y are fouod, alf^a* Mug gentfTBllj wnt^r-plaDts 
(«itbor frf^-fh Gt fM) or, if not, growiB^ at k«0t in vcij dftmp 
p1iw:<^ wbilc fungi arc Mrial pUnt*, ajhI T<Tr cvmimmlf wrn- 
ritctt. A more inqwrtont didtinctioQ U thai ftlf^ olDMHt 
inTartabl> funu dtlumpbylU llit (crrvu cult^uriu^ matM on the 
proMiHW of which dcpMldfl the pow«rr of tbe plant to d^conapoco 
tbe cartwDic acid of th« atmoepbefc (of of the air di«u>K«d in 
fre«h or Kftlt water) and hcnoe to cany on an iiMtependect tiiid^ 
ent:*;; irhUc fungi ncrrr Cbrm ritlicr chlorophtE ot blAJctu 
and h^n<^ have no power of ludi^pen^frDt erleteniri?, bat \m av 
parasite? or epiphyta on either ]iv'ms os dieca)iikg rcigttAbltt 
or animal vnbeiance. In MOrWc^ds, howw^, it in vviy oonunoA 
ki the cblorophrll to bro^-crUid and obMurcd bjr Min«otb«r 
eolotirin^ mj&tcriul^rcd. brownor purple. The intMle of r«<pro- 
ductiou u* AS we flhall tWt estxtmAj variable. 

Tho dividoQ of ihe groat gronp of alg^ into orfl^m U 
attended with great difncLdtii^ Ooe of the mont caiity imdtM^ 
itood Mjfteou of duMlteatioD, though not in aU n^ApeeU lati** 
faotory, reco^i^niaea three ordt?r«« rueocnbed br tbe colour of 
tboir tliciiM and mref- vix. (1) Rhodot^rev or >*Iorii!Rfl>, 
viih a Jraf-like or nlamontoui Toec-rcd or pnrpio, t^cIj brown 
or i^rrrTaiili-r'*d llmlluR, n»:l n?d «poT€o ; (2) MtdtiKupuivit- or 
FiiOoi*k'u.', iri'h i\ U-jJ-lik'.', iibrubby, oonj-lilcc, or GJumuUms 
tltAlbifi of olive'^rt<eD c-r hrovn eolt>iir, and drukep^^; niul 
(3) ChlnronporcjD or C-^tiforvoid^iF, extmocljr variable in form, 
uud ciftrn n^ienwc-npic, wiUt ^rrcni Bpotn. Of Ibrw*, (bo pUnta 
Woii;*iii^' in the £j)it two onicn &r« almoeteieluHivilj nurino, 
whiti* rhnn^ l»Tlo£iu^ng to tlie iJurd cLleCy Liihjtl:»it< ttvih water* 
It will Ik) our object to enciino them ni{>re in detail, and 
nuanly in icupMt to llicir micti>PCopic firurttirc and thi:> 
phyiiiolo(^ Df their repro<ti!ctiaa, mibtrr than in rdation io tbo 
modo by which Iho fumiiie^ or ttp^ciea can \tv diiilln^uidttd &om 

1, Taking tbcM orderi occordin^ to tboir grado of orgaau^ 


UoD, and beirinniDg inlli the lovrcat^wr tied the CiiLonoitrc^itzjE 
or Co>'nairoit>B£ to ba & b^t^ro^araus assemblage of ati 
imtacuso variety of fonaft diflciiiig most widt?!^ from oao 
uioth4)r, nnd ftrTni»g<»il into n cnTiMdr'tnWp nnmbo-r of familipp, 
vbo»c rank is by no mran^ iitiif>rm« ami #(imc of which might 
well" be raised l*> ihe (;iadi> of iciAi*fk>rideiit order*. We 
propow to describe aoiuL- oaly '>r th<! more iuii^ortnni and in- 
t«i«Et£iig of tll(«P. 

Amoog the lowest form* of thw prot4«n order ftic the two 
lkmili«« I>init^naceft ami Ofj/midit^tpf. Tin* various and ex* 
t»melj numt-roud tpeoi» bdou^ii:!: tu tbew faioiHoa arf> 00 
rcEnurksMf? imd pecisUar a« to hnv,> attmcled n Inrgf ftlmn* of 
att«ntioQ, and to have fonncd almost a etiidy of their own. 
We* iJi> not, t.brHTfnrr, prvipnjrf* U^ *iilftr fiirtln-r into I.lieJr i!(*- 
acriptiou hero. The i^xtrcme beauty and £nL*Dc«a of tbo mark- 
ing of Ih^ bilreeons^iiiitiuj^of iht c.'A\ito? DIattimf) liav&ienderoil 
them fiivourito t4?sl'obj< cte for iho higher poirrr* of micro- 
acopic Iniifti'Ji. TI»T jM*i"idiiiri(ini nf tbrir ■tTiirttiti* mid modr 
of Tcproductiou rendered it lorjjf a doitbtfcd point ivbi-tUtT thej 
Iwluu^ni i(j Hw niiiuml or tlit? vegt-ULble kiii^iloui, tlie jfrtrat Ger- 
main authority, Prof. EbrvnbtTfj^jbaviug penieU>ntty mainrai&od 
t.hi*ir Jinimjil dilLTnet^^r. 

Tbo fuDiily of P(tlm^Uac<^aj or Chr<tocQiK<ieecD includes »>mo 
of tLe simpliTsl |K>sMUr? formn cjf vr^ablr life, comprised under 
the desj^^tiou u( L'aicellidar Alga% In PmtoG\ftx\i& the indi- 
vidual eoQftiBta af a biu^lti l'L'U Lorupi^sed ofct^U-wall and pimto- 
pluiaic cont«»t« (but without a nudeus), the latti*r of ^-niio^is 
coloun* BeprodnctioD taken place b; the ordinary proeeitf of 
oeU*divirio% tbo protophtmic contenu of Iho cell firBt beeom- 
iii8«oii9tTicted at two opposite poinUfUjci^EniHtricUOTiAadviLndDg 
tfllthfy n:t<>K^ and thus dividing the piotcpla*m into two hnlvr*, 
the cdLI-wnlt nflemutdf folding in «ind (innlly dividing; the 
pwcut-eoll into two d(akffht4.'r-ct'1U vimilur to llsolf. III this 
instaace, horreveir, the daujhttr-celU wliicL proceed froco a 
BiDgle parent-cell remain united by a c^mmrfli gelatinoiifl 
ivclopc, Pclmrlltt cr^^ntti formn the wcll-kiis»wn ro*e- 
»luurL<d cfl-iliTiou* pJiiehpM formd au dump whIU, whieh Ibvka 
off when dry. P)-vift^tyccti9 mVafm irs Uu- v.-L-ll-knowu " Hod- 
Snow,* the wonder of Arctic Iraveller^, a blrnid-refl gelntinoiis 
snbataooe, which incrcoacfl with sucb cxtmordinary nipiditj 
tJi^t milnof virgin >^nw will br^rome t'^vrrrd tvil.b it in a 
Kindle m^iU It i» ocoajicnidly mcTb WLth iu tbid cotmtry on 
oifaer mbstanoea than jinow. Tbe faruLI^ includes* b]§o Home 
other more comptkot<?d stnictuicis lu Ot<roc(ip^a and Meri&nu^ 

Itt y&ttocticea fire inaludL-d tiornu very remarkable forma 
of algas, evpcHTLally tho well-known Xtj9t9c, Kaierald-gr«ea 

raFCLiR A:tK?«CB XKTlKir. 

&t^^UL»ntly by fotirii] on d^mii iriotict<, raHlw nr m- > 'f- 

prttltFs *^*"- riaiH-'d iiti<l-^i' ill" i[urriiM;<i}H-, iL ii- in.-i n ^i 

»ro not ii^nir^i^iicofw nji>^A, W- tijil tlw^y c-j:^' m 

jliem a iiiittjln-r cif n*'^■kli^'^'-Uk(t llirrj^l* uf eelK ■.. iiu 

Uio true yottoc^ at niuiili:! ot' iudividtuU boic-; «^llect^l into a 

UultiOJ' Hlfr<Hii^iltfi] \ry t)i4'^ljiLiiiOflHlTiivr|<i|>0, Tn rom<' i^f Oio 

gODom tho ««lb of which the u<^kbcn conKiitu &iv of two 
aiiTi^-nt iVirms t^c- ^-iiiCi-r nutiitiRr ^trt? i^trt-n mid 4:u|)abl« of 
<liviviou ; lictwLy»n ihp*L- otrur a'. JLt<:r>:ih, itt at tho ecKts ol tW 
Oirt-uiiLs ru)utul(^-9i lY-lU i>r LuuikdcmLk' Mzi; and iiXApablo pF 
divikicm, called HeUrocy^lB, Tlicw hittor ar*- miimUlT ooa- 
ucct^d with II yet undiMJovcied proccM i>f ix-^^fixliioliuu. The 
ordftmry mode of propaf^stiun w thiui di'pcribod l>j Ttiir&iU« ! — 
The jelly whkh Miriouudfi iIil- colouv bctjnic* &>^<iio<l hy 
ffatc?. tlj.» poitioBs of Ihe iliri?a:it tiat Vtr («iwi-<a llu^ lM*ii^rio» 
cj>t* brom^ drUclk-d, #cpanU^ fn^m fb^- yWy- :«id nnvif-bU^ti 
tlienuoivc*, the lnTlcrocyrt* thcmw'K-4-T* n-'imuntiif; in ib^ j*''^y» 
Tho port [olid of Ihc (hrc'juhi vrliu-h l».-c*>mi! il«uabi:<l w* pu- 
dowod, after entering tli« water, «ith «pont;ineinit» nifttion; tlin 
odN DoiF grow tf&iitvrncljr to Lhc iuu» of tlii^ ftliimmil, ticconic 
di)te*fh;tpi*(U uTift Hnnlly divide luVi llirf^U :iL nidthi ADk^K-s to 
thi? i>niciiji*l oiw, tind iliiu lorm ricw >' ► ' ■ .h 

tbf-n lii^oiimv eiK-lo*v^ij in a nt* i;t^\aXi- - . u^ 

Fpccic« of 4^'ctBtoc are puia^ttkw tbirJK^ luotilo liitrtwfc* having 
Ui4'ti «^-ji hy .tinrsiPWHlci * ti> entvv t\w utomatii of nrtAm 
Kpociod of HipaticiTt of ^bich Itry wpn; Iodjc tlwHii^ljt io bo 
[H^cuiUr vi^i^t'lfifivc rr-piodtuTUre oi^ni^ ntid bi'iii^f ulto Vtiown 
t<3 inhabit the Ur^ lm^IL- ui tki-^ 1l'A\'«« of ISphHffn^tTfi, Tbo 
8pi*'u^of tliift faiud^' mv Xvry widely di^tnbiUetl. -re 

cominot) in thi> (ountty, aVWi/c «iJvfo u (Itietl by r > ■ ., ■ ^^ 
aiid fiiiDiH aji iii^Tt^iUwit in llirir ioiijk Oik' nptviv-^ Aluituda to 
such a de;;feo in tho Polar r^ijiou^ ai to af¥^i>rd an anicta of fogd, 
GOurh-tJD^ of a uiudidoafioa uf ci-ltulof^u without auy dirlclerioua 
fldmiitiiti:'. U if^ produeod on foW anJ li-^Zffy vlopi;* bcirdcrinf; 
tliu Alio, iwd 11 c-Einii'd by Ibr wind in all dirrcliuin, tulliii^ 
alonfr the tnaisKe. Anotlior KfAcies waa foimil hv Dr. Hixikei in 
Ker^UL-[en*M laud> hvnt thi> ^-julbem polt^. i*}iik- H-Vtiiul occur 
on th^ tiir^c« of the luilt hike« of Thibet, and others jo tiio hot 
Bpiin^ of India. 

Votvoelntat i* a kiuall family ineluding outy a fow |^«im 
( VvUk/x^ i^tepAaiivffpKiitrai (i omuwi, and a C«w otliers) wluch. aa 
tho itamv imphes an> in a onoi^tant lYiUing motiao. Kacb 
indiTitlual plant conusta of riUicr a finglc cell or o hu&Ijct of 

- " Au. <Ui rfd, Nm.,** 1879, p. ^ lid » Quar. Jour. Uier. 9oi.;* 187^ 

p. aoT. 

ji!49«: TMKiB ynrnTni»» iiii" stfwtK OT KKPaoumios. 29 

mAU enllecttf! into An^ilar or ta^mhr kwU***, t}jrir tiiotjon 
b>cii:i^ oaufod by Kno threiLdtf nr dim of proUpUwrn. whicli pro- 
J*vl, tlirmigh IW iHilrtiirlnv* hj^iliuft rjiVTli"»fio of r»:*llnJ*"<' In 
^hii-h thi^y AFC rnclor«l ; [hiw difi'i^nn^ fern tho nion? common 
" rt«»rn^fli|iiTn^ " av^jh'K wr >hall iLfii-ntiinU fxaminr^ :itnl which 
jwo lukea or ui:»pruiiiJc<l w-iii a coatu:;; ol ciMlulnf*;. Tho 
ptmcture anci mtxio of r^pnroiluctJtin of Strjthani^itphtrrix (Plnl* 
^VI, fi£f, I ) ftfo vnrv ciihoiu. WIk"!! *HiUy miilnro it is a hynUne 
bnll in wTiicli lie (tiglil or innirr ^t*ii ci'IIn it-aniling Vfrrtj<<nltjr 
no Uii^ It^rvEonta] dbmet«r> and cannecU^ witb Ut>» cruv^lopm^ 
tu>Qi^>tvie by Ibroidft <if protopltLUu. TLtae evWb f-inu tr>xi^lhe]' 
ti f^mil^ which Ti-'lAtm OD nn nxif. fi^procliiclion is i^lf^c-tM by 
-CAcli of ihe%r^ crili (liviiling in tiicn^MioTi into tno^ tour, atirl ciglit 
MlU; tlieM <^JJ>bt itaiLj^httriwwIU form a femiJj\ vrMeh boccimr>ti 
■Mhad intb a& evt'cUpf^ of CLllulo&r, mih cilia prutradmjf 
HJPJIjgb it ; ami at u c^ttzit\ ju^riofi, \x^oe^ tlm nTptiire of tiM 
KttWtniMt tormbrATic, right >Tiimg familict nuiy he foimd 
BnvLik^' in cire?«?' ntthiTi cLtir parL-tif, Voltox fft^ihato-r U a 
Bntot-S^T^CD ^'lolmlct /^-th inch in dJAtn^ttr, c^^uucon in pouilH; 
Ki^haptMphit'rxtptuvia^is U f^tid ia T^in-v^let in ihp tiollona 

■ Ttxif OitcilUttori^fB an* n fivmSly nf oliviTiir<* plaiit^s <**^*-0 ftf 
■lUrmAoopisH pjti>, <>ou5i?tiui; |*t.mi.'raUy of threads of cnUr^ and 
N*' I't^hjan nppttxently sponUnpoiH imtitilatlDg or ser- 

[Ih notion- Ti> Ibib f;imilv arc gpncTOllj referred IJio 

Bpt>/nVr7irA riiiH H\ifJrr^tt which ithntuiti in driumi pniin^; infiiMmis 
■f vi^-Uhlc subsUi&OF*; thu ililHculty of obtaiuinjf coDditi'inn 
■Ui4i*r vbkdi i\iey fail to 1h> jimMliiot^d having giv^n rli« io lliu 
BDOtrovtfrTFy nypoclinff the fpi>ntan*»H:' ff^mpntion of vo-jrtalio 
BMUiivmH, whik'li }\nA Tin^iilty ^LHiiuiml >o mni^h Dttcrjltini in 
■|Bai«oli6<f vr<^rl<l> 'J'hi<T raay, liciwovtir, he »[DpI<ir fbrm* of 

^^Halgd'. or evrJL i>f fuij^t. 

fn tba family of ^iTJ^^'Tn^tr, ttud espc^aially in iU typical |-raufl 

-FitH'rArj'wi, wr hnvr a more uoinplio-iit^id wt.rui.'^tiiroi and moci*? of 

mpirMluoticn tbun in any of tboiacf rtlruuly pu»u<d in rovi«w. 

Bba iivlividujdb cmim^t dlvntvA of a sin^l^ ceTU oflen educTi 

HHoliAd, bnt iiover divide liy sEipta into st number of di^tlnot 

Kn<; tbcy abound In pools or ^n damp iv^il or mtid. There 

Brv two diflfiuct nvxii^ of rcproduc-tioTi, one vexual and one 

IkexuaL Tl)€ latt^^T is hy Iht? prodticUoa of tfpontaneoi^ly 

^otil*' loo^poroe, or "Bwann-apores" which ri*» pr<Tdiicp<i by tbo 

proto|>buniic contcctif of ft brAocb cf o tiUmciit ai^ciiinidatiagf 

at tlw mid at Tho hrnrn^h ^ns reprwiMjt«l ia fiy;, 2 ii)^ imd finally 

f^illia^ out, 'flic escaprt! roopporo £f id an tllipioidal inun* of 

roloiiri«i protoplaiiti contfliniiig ^rrninti r-f rblorophyll, aind 

jovr-fcd CTorywh^^rc by short dciicnt*' dcn&fly crowdi^d ciliaj tlio 

Mtmti1« minion cif wbfrh mnHRt thi^ nuiLion i>f l.tir zocvpan^ or 

ropoiAR »>axxcK urnmr. 

itranD-^T«. Ttia iDc<le<tf propAgatloD by '' fire«-c<dl<Cbnna- 
ti<>ii.'* &f( it is tfETiDodi iif <me wlucb bM tbfotni gtcnt Ugbt od 
U30 couAUtuiion of tltcf ve^[otablc cfll, elcadr docioiHtmling 
that Uio viUl jirincipk of tie cell n^idtr? not ui iU cdl-voll <if 
c^oloief but in Its proiopUfTDic cont^ntet ot«u vfa^n* as in the 
present CftSCt the piotoploau docs not ponowa nudcus. The 
ficctuwd aooKpore of Vaueherut in, for all nhyiriologicAl niiipoM«f 
ecu not enclosed in an cnnilopc of oelltiioMj or a naked ocU< 
At waa aa Uie vibratilA moliun of tlie ^-Hla ««aM«, the toatpon 
ooinf«t4> rttft, nipifjlj bccomos cficyrtcd mtb nocUuloAc-wall, 
nnii gmwM inlnjt tii^w ViiiicKr-rijupbitit fiv tbnorHiticiiy proceed 
of coll-diviKion. Tbv tfeptLmtion of tlio protopluni in thcr 
Eilnxmuit Kcimnilly Ikvi'ih in Eiit? iii^bi, Uur jowqiontt iwapn in 
tbc morDiDf^v ^iid their ^rTDiiiuti<>it oommetioeB tb& oozt iii£fat« 
The »«xii;(1 rrpforli]rt>i<>ii is Hcoimpli^lied hf mefttid of tic^ dl»* 
tinct oT^uu ( fig. 2 o, <f J ftnd < f , 1 ho oo^Diaf nr fonMlo cclK lUid lh& 
&DUkeriiliiu 01 uiulr- i^Uf, tlie twu kiiiUn iKiti^ uftrii piuhicrd in 
olow proximity. Fi»m the protopUain of the aDtberidiam atu 
prciduv^'d a DuiLiber of ^knlbmjzotdrs ^viy DiiuuU' lung l)udktf| 
CAc-h ivit.h W^i cilin. At tli« timn tliut thoM aro rMdy to 
«KCApc^ tlie uoiitouLi of thr uogoiitLitn lin\c Mff^llrd up intn ft 
jolly ftod burA tb» coJi-wall; eotne of the uitUerocEoicU eotvr 
tliioi-igti the opening, mingle with tbo ptrotoplasm in tli« interior, 
fertilUibg it, and causing it to aseume the fonn of snooipore 
or *^mtiiig^-«porCt** wbicb then dcrclopet into the new pUot. 
Thft fbrmation of tbe oooonift And nutboridJa bogin« in tho 
OTQXiinif. and ic» c>mp]et«d tbo oeit moniing ; fcrtQisatian bein^ 
pUtbed between Um and four in tho day. Cicely allied 
Vatichaia in tlio very rimplo /^o^'V^Cum.; but in otber 
j^iMir'nL <>f $ipl)oai<r, tbu frond, thotigli nlwityi conrintinff still of 
ft Eiicgle cell, a^mne-i tlie mott remarkable and beautlfid fomn, 
from th^ ^xtrtiordiykAiy eit^nt to which ft briinehes, na fn 
AcetOiimUitia M&iiUrran«i (lig< 2\ clc^cly rc«cinbfiai- in form 
II hynumomyocrtouN fimf^Uk, luid Ctxnlftrpn Laxt/olia (^^. 4), 
yihttt Uie frond actually simulated diltcrentiation into stem, 
kav^ and roots. 

Tho iEdottojmm an> a amall family, including only two gciw- 
rtui, (Kilog^miu.'w. mid Rvihaaluttr^ but int^rriding ni* fitmUliiof* 
an iltuttnition of a phf>nomenoQ moro eoiamon among fungi 
Ibau al)£M? — tliat of 4dt<-nialii>ii of f^nrraUouA. Front tbA 
ooeporM or roftiu^-fporee prodncod by a »xnal pvocceat whicli 
liavo rrtnainnd at rat for a cniMid''nil>1o timis teieral {luualljr 
four) ifnarmHrpor«i ar« iraoMdialvlj^ formed; ihtttn produce 
a£it-xn&l« i^, hvarat-epove-toTudu^ |iUdUs frixn vludt agxjii 
fitmilar oa^ procMd, until tbo »»ri<>G i^ oIo»h1 by a Mrxual 
gcQcnttoB. witli fbrmatioQ of ooipon:K Swano-eporm btq also 
produced Id an ordinary eaW of a fUamoQt by tha oontracttoii 

AiAJi : msift sraoarKS a5& idOBS ov BEPfioDccriox. 31 

of iu wliole protop)uBiuaTOl»Uiic«<- It bursts tliroiigb the vail 
of tb« coll ftQd beootnc* free a« ao oUip«i>id<d bodj (fig. 5 a 
und &)t oae L^nd of wbit^b U c1iloTopbyU*^r<H>D, u^d th«» oUi«7 
hj^no. tbe ktkr bctxij^ create with ft tuft <>f cilia, bj tbc 
vlbntioi) of vhioh It is propelled rapidly Lbroiigh the wac«r. 
WhoG it coini<ii to rc»t> tbc cilib ditoppcor, at tbo cod wbcro 
tbrj grew rttcit-likr pronsH** iirr put out bf wludi it utljicht^ 
ilvoJf to u Aoli<i body ; it Ihcu clcjth«!« lt«ctf ititJi zi cclI-wnJJs «ad 
dev^lopM iu the ordinary way. 

The £%Q7ianwD ojc often unit(?d with tbc <£do^aiofi^ 
Diatonuaostj ami Dv-imiilirii: iiiUi ihf. futrily of OfmjH(fatt:e, 
Tbc &imly ineliiLkii a couddtmbk' uumht^r cf lilamnitous 
{rtHl)<-«aL«r aJ^ wbich uuij ba foiiud iu aIuiohL ;iuj dri>p of 
eta^&ant water, n>Qiarkab]f: from tbc bhlli^Lnt ^r(>^Q of Iheir 
dtloropJiyll, which i» arrAngi'd m tlji< innAt v,-irit^d untl bt-autiful 
fomiii of *tv«, platen, ur bondK, rvvL<a}tfd imder Uie micrci«cop4 
Jraru Uit perfrtcL UausparHUCJ^ uf tboii tt-U-ivalla, Ono t>f bfiu 
coamoDMt aod nio«t ^ikisg olject^ is Sf/irog^fra iongota 
(fig* €)* in wbich tbc baud^ oi cblorophjll arc anaugcd in the 
mtMt bcuutiful «pinJ fibrin. Tb« Zyfpwtiicac produce aE> motile 
nrann-vpoit^, hat uidimiry rertiuic-tporcH or x}ifosp*in^?« by a 
procon known a£ CoDJiigntioD, c>>n^ned to th^ CoDJitx&tfo and 
a fcir fuDgi^ wbich m&y be conndcird as the sioiplrAt poa»lble 
form o( ftfrtilLmtion, th« two conju^ting celU h*?\ng abke id 
form and fitnictiiTr^ and thcreror^ not distingiii^hnblc m mole 
and funsle* hi Spircgj/rtt the conjugation alwayii i:ik*^% fjlnco 
between tb<^ adjacent celli of two moro or hea paj'alkl £hi- 
□HDti. A pi:epanticin ia mada for it b^ t)uy formation of lateral 
proinbonDCc* (tig, 6 a) wbiob contmuc to grow until tboy 
Dutri. Tlw protvpluunic body, or '*(-ndooliromi?" of wwb of 
ihe two colla oontnictfl simultaneously, dotaclii>d itaelf from tlie 
BiltroiindlDg opll-w;ill, Hiid n^^nnicui 9ti rlHpKoidAl form. The 
coll-wiill then opotw between the two protulwruacoft, nnd one of 

tbe i-llipsoidal protopljuimic budit** furt*i-a ilsi:lf iuUi the CotJ- 

nevtin^ t-banncl IhnA fomi^jd } it gUdea slowly through it into 
tbe otb«r ivll-caTUyt and a» woo n« it louche* the pTu(oj>]aHiuic 
bodyoontainod in it, the two cnalMce. Aftur eompleto union tbo 
united iHHty i% a^iii Mlipmidal, mid tiirarci?!^ largi-r, owing ta 
the expuUion of ytnUr, tian oacb of ita two oooaUtu^utd tepa- 
iBtelj. It clutbea itaelf with a cell-wall, fiiiming tb« body 
known OS a Zygocporo, wbic^ gonninaten after u period of ircat 
of viiuv. moutbis '^d dcvclopcs a new filamctit iif celK 

In ILv family Co^farvae^cs are included aoi enonaoua numbor 
oC green &Mh-watei algte* found in all ponda aud running 
wai«r, TV'prodnaod by minuUi stoo^iporec er mfitamorphofled 
jifint*. Hc»dc« the more ordia^ry formis a number of otheia 
are doubtfully rcferr^ Co thia l^ooUyf aa Hydrodict7fi>TLj in 


roPTLiLB KtiESrc Bcvnrw. 

con^Utti of cTi^UkiTtH of juiated Uir««b, attacKtHl W aolgnPT g Bl] 
pUnU; B8 EqaUexumi and mxuy otiion. I 

Sometimes inchulnl iindcr the Ci>nfftrTM:ciB* btit oflcn vept-J 
ntod m coiuequenco of ih** rnxniliarilr of iu fih>^ ' • '■ ^ 

two (;en«m Saprs^Uffnia »n>1 Achftfo. If the dead budjh vf fe^ 
fly Qools for n little whiic vn wiitrr, it rapidly tKvorAfv covrredj 
on tbo iinclrr tii{lR ^y a tvaUiigof tiuu whito Itaim, ivtrtfitUutJiie 
tlie aT^ kaown na AM^^ jtrofi/fnu If, on tbc otlirr litmdt 
tlie d«ad Hj Ifi ^ipm^ to dry fifr> ns od a wiiido«^|:aii4?, Ui 
&tw [H>ou btvocaw tnrroundcd l>y a nnmbcr nf whi(o thruadfi 
fh** myrrliuTn i»f Utf wriUknfiwii ftiiigim EnijiUM,i }ftnii^A 
^tiiiiy cryptoEnmiHt* an? ci uptiiton thM ih^f Idtj or]2:mirtiu, 
tbi< <>nrt Hii ul^ tlie other a f(ifi|-ti^, are ^iuiply i)iffi?fe:it nUitr^ 
of iht} Hiine pUnt, produced under dif^r>'Dt drcuiaBtaacoa r] 
vrhW^ oUirrni n^mwirr ihi- Ach/jfi Ut \u: nn wjiuti^* fono of aj 
Botrioid, orof iroRi^ Mv^ tuo^uK. Jn luiy (?a^s t)ii5 nMnnrkAUe 
fuel prrrt i-a Uif t-JitrttOidy dose atUniiy U-Nton llic lovw forniM 
of Hxv^- tvro ^;T«ikt riaesd* of fIow«rl-:^4 plantf^ I 

'2> The Ft:roiOK,>h iTjrliidi^ ;in caorinoTjN mitiiIk^ of tuftrion 
aJgHS of lirowD or olivi^ colour, miiciLi^iitou)i iu ttrxtitnf, had oTI 
v«!i7 Tarialtlc fbniu To thi» artier Wlotif; LHp 1ni^c»t imilj 
DoUcfft uf tfoavoedi, of abrubby or ovod arborvsctot fnmul 
rn-ulliui^ tho UUctit tren in tlu actual it!t«^Ui of tl)iffr| 
bran^fh-iip j w tho Lm9onia f^i^*f<^r,w nnd ib" ^puitir Jlftim*- 
Cjfttit pifri/criu T(rpir*eiiti-tl in o«r l'lil»- Cfi;L;*. II .ind 12ll 
&>mtUo Autarc'Mc $L^>aA. and tho bi»toriQ £<ir;i7^^um ^a«C4-] 
/eruwi, or Alliuilic Gulf-wccd, TUe dcUclii^ luaxw^ vf Uui I 
aea^^nroed form n flontir^ mnfldn^, linowti u thit "S9ri^f6o-«cttt*] 
in the uudflt of the AtlADtic^ between SO^ ukd 25" N\ lot, audi 
nbout 40* W, If>QjX.. and otretipviog on arwi urtitnati>d to equal j 
ill sue tl]p irliulo of Kninty-. nus rtiomrnw field lias ofTrtiUnlj"] 
oocupi^ tlif* tame ponition sine*** fhi» timo nf Ccliiml.iis, whi>*i« 
lirst expedition v^a* w (isrionJiiv dMayml iy it lh;Yt ib'^ Mulom 
vcTi- on thf? fioimt of muUuy wlic^a a t!3\<iiinib1e vtiid cnrriau 
tht^m bc^'ond iU It eoii4i»t4 entirely of llriatms tasvot^ buoyra 
op by the irtallced bcrry-likp iir-hliiddw?i from whirh It denran 
iu Ddtnr, lait nrvc-r prodiidn^ fntit- It fonn^ the h^cae ol 
TTiiilliMtclitJE of »r;i-iixiif]iiiVis Mr-hn — ofir «f nliiob bmM* a ont-J 
niul cnj.-itJiC'M, many of whteh. we loam from Ibc report* vend 
lioiTiA by tbt? "fliatlenger*^ eipt'dilikiri, fiimi^ifi n^niurkaLlil 
ifietAxiccpf 'rf ••prolctftivoiaimicry," cioMily rwf«iil>liog to oolotis 
tbe ^raxwei^d tti thi< mtifctt nf vliicb ihtty livc^ tiiii Unn^ llicid 
only prolectioa ajl^iiiat llieir oiiccQi««« J 

Tluiet divided tbe p\icuidc«, or Mebmusponne, into twj 
f>Toi]p0| of vrbich tJi« PbesofporM^ im^LHliog Lamin^tHa^ 

mwm: TVBttt omronrns asiv u<nt^ ov BBPnoi^mmoir* 

wllllie tlir- FiUiUiynr OTrt'llt'; iif t.llfTm. 

e «ttiioturd of tbo ^'iiriom ur|;^aii^ oi' th« /'u^Tooece mnj be 
Efd In tTieIr mt^l jteif^ct fonii kii our irommon Rlmldftr- 
^TMk, /Wv« v^^f4;tjJ^K«, oDO of tbo most nbuudaEt aon-vreedji 
^ our cmjit- It IP* foiin<l mi ntl thv tihitiv* of Kuripc--, ami In 
thif North Soa it (^roww k> abiindautly that it w uimd for 
' dometttic jiiirpubn, au^rli aa roL>fui^ Luilh-^, It is aWi burnt. 
Mid alkali eitroctcd from its ssbee, th« ordioory Itrsxi. 
"pot-mh* hdne dcrirnd fmm thiji innd« of obtaining it, A 
BnCurff frond of that »«*ii-woo<l, ajt ibowa in tig. 7, proscmt^ two 
OUBpiotioiu orgsmft; llit? bUdJerv (^). which Bcrvc to flout tbo 
rftoooi la tbe vr%t«r; and tbo tuber^loa (a), at tbe ends of tho 
'AondEi which couUlid tbc orgika# of rc-producttoDi Tliei^^^ rtrpro- 
dtftctiv« oTgiioi An} Iiollow bodi«4 or croaceptuckji of two kinder 
iD*lo acd femmle; in mo*t o£ our comm'jn epecies thn two 
Ulb^ ti» foimd on dl6r«rent pl^voU, which are tberofor^ dian- 
ciovfli Tilda receptacles oic not formed in the inb^rior of tbo 
tiffiw, hnt lui dcpnwionN of tlir* «urfii^ whi^^h becnmr waUed 
m br tbo siuroundioj; ttuut\ a.nd »n ovrrjfrown Uiat nt Icn^h 
only M Darrov cluinDo] riMnnins op^nln^ outwards. AmoDj^ tbo 
foproductirc organs c nrnnbcr of bnira arc produced lu the 
rocvp4acl«iv wbicti in Fuatif jikttyavrjniif prfijrcJ out of the 
mouth of the rcoeptoclc in ibi^ form of tiifu. The mnlc t^n- 
c«plAcl«4 (^. ft) pnxlikce tlie Ai]thv<ridl» ux uiinnte oi'ati? wicp 
altftehod la f^Mt numbers i-y I'lnir-like AhLmoBte. Euch aullic- 
ridiiitn mn^Htii of k tbin-wikllrnl ov^d cell, the]n>im of 
which npliU up into a number of minute spr^nnntoAoirln or 
ftBtbiTinijifl!*, piuutt-d aJ^ one vi\*\t Hud endnwf^d wltb i^puiiUH 
Ii«ou9 inotiofli cau^ by two vibratilo eilia attauhod to oach 
aDU>iT(HUkid : in tb« iDterior th*-/ conbtin a icd r>r orange 
irpcclc. Thoy are i:<?arcoly ijl„th of an inch ia Jenj-th ; thr* 
two eilSa are of uuA|tm1 bnigtb ; tb« larger nut? points ft»rwiiril« 
duii&f prof^reiiiion, produvtojic the raotioD, while the uburiur 
ooe tnile bt'biod, aud apptuiirt ti> act th^ part of u luddcr. 
The fomnia conccptadow (%. 9} prcKluce in thr mirlEt of the 
bain a number »f st^ilkcd oval bodiva, tEie oogiiuia or ^pn* 
nnjc^. Th«e bodiea bucomc fiUod with dark prvtophum, 
vbicb diTidf:* into two* four, or et^bt Epoie^, ^hiob art* uut 
frM hy the burctiaif of tbe envolopon or membrAnen in which 
ftTO conlinodi The prcccH ol fcrtilimtion or frcundation 
6 vporas bM been carefully wulobed hy M. Thuret, and U 
oDcecdingly ctineiu. Th« proc^v tak«a pUco out^idd the 
r»c«ptecle«. At a certain period, when, from th.i rntltii of thi> 
tJde» Uk<« fertilu brnnchcn arc lying outride the w:vtcr in moiHt 
Biff Che antheridi;! b^emu detai*b<'d from i\\v hain on which 
ihey grow, ani t»tl4;ut in krgo oumbcra ouUidt* tho mouth ^ 



»1>ti:LJlR WTlKlHTfl HBtlXV. 

tlui male reocptacl^. prvrnQlinif tlw ap]MrftraDO(> of a timp hT 
vUc>m cxudaUoD. At tlw tome tim-:-, tl*c 9pOT«6t durrxumdnt 
1>V Ibe inivr irkembmnf? i>f the nogtHiium^ aiVf ul^^ e\pu1let), ^M 
ooU«ct otrtfido the mouLhti i>r the fcnulo roccptiKlctk WktA 
ttioy n^n nnnie iuUi L^unitdiel willi Oivt u^trr* Um ■jvin^n bnnt 
thr^iugli tliift m^mbrAiie, and at th« samo Unu* llii? anthL-n^okti 
f-«.Ti|)t- fr>ri Tbrt TUitlL^nHin- Tbo artln-mr/iid* t<ill^<"t iu larg? 
namhmrr<Ttii':Mh<^irporM,ajiTppTi»«T]lrtliT; tt^. lOsatidOivinovc- 
nient of tliHr cilU in iit PUt-ncuUci titat Ibry imparl (o the apom 
to which Ibcr are nttaohed a rolAtorj moliottf wbt^h Usta loir 
alxiEjt Unlf an boiir, tiaall}' C0a1oc4i wjtJi fU auJ Uiitv frrti- 
tino^ it ; ftftor vhicb it Hrially ootm^ to r«8t. A ahf^ii timn 
aflei IbcJKJ prwnwct are completed, tlxr fntilised *[)ore or 
ooftpord «]rroimd« Utcif with a o^n^woll^ fbc^ itbcif (o ^mp 
Dihcr «iliatan<«« and 1:<vgiiu,irith<>ut any period of rx^i-, t') g^riu)- 
nate. lengthening and dividing; at the mme Uine. Thi* prwMV 
iiaiy he followed nmler tbe mici-OftCOpc by placing Lu^fctbrr in a 
drop f>r wat^r tome of tli^ apor^ aud a imatl quantity of tiift 
viKona roatl^ {nkcn with Oifi poiot of a nc^dlrr fiom the tuutit^ 
of th^ milf" rfr»*pf/irTi*s. Thr e^miT*' fli.-ld of t!*** microiscope 
may scniclim^H he. etern e-ovcrcd with IjTOVDijli Apbcxn!! hriMliag 
with atithrroTuuifl, whifh roll tln^mnf-Ivcv ahcut isi sU dircctuxM 
UQcior Ihe iat!u(^i>f of the vabmtile cilia- 

XThoKroniaAiKoir KHolx>4l■oiIl.^lia1^'allBo«tlnvarjab17roa^ill^ 
al|pe, a Tcry fow fonns bein£: tcmnd in fre#h water; Uji-a' iiiit 
pfynorTillv ofn nwwrnl, %uih'L« nr piirplo oolour, often with'leof- 
Kko trixuid, !>ut ^X'ty *-ari:ibl'J iu tiaw nml in Uie cnRti»rr>[i4<i* <?( 
thrir ti«(ua* Tlie ivdouH fairillk^ cnnnot hne tw di^^^fiol 

ft^i^ftm, hut ona doMTVM fpM-ial EDcntioDtCrooi tbo pcciilianij 
of l\A *tnicturc, %-ijc. ;— 

iilaiict! \a the e^ial-fijnui:tf; pitlvji*, Dipw anb*^an«a WQtV 

mppoted to bolon-c to Oi^ animal kin^om ; Uit arc tiOTf 
known lo l>c nlgir which {«>mi/4» a ^itnilAr power of oitjiictms 
tbQ cnrbonat^ of lima trom fva-watcr. Tbo limr. ixuy bt 
remgnil 1)y vmk add. und the nature rtf the trm> Msn 
rei'(<a1^. Thoy aTo tvproditcod by a rpgclntlvo proci-^v. b 
rnmna of TctrwporcA, no sexual orgnm nf ivproductlcc. 
hitherto boon dit^otiriYd. Tba ^KimtSAn v^w*et<^, r 
qfihinalMt grows evoirywberft bctwy 
iu]dprc«eiit«a hf«nched,inoiUjpir^i .1 

lucnta o^'ocly coated with cnfW:iai<> uf lime. 

Two diftinrt mnde* nf rcpKdoetion occur in m<tt* 
of f1<fridea>, the a^oiiul and tlifr sexual. Th»T Hiti > 
guiibed ffom Ibar known fn of lii*r fan]il£«« of aJ,- ^ 

that toovpofi^ endowed with frc^ n^ntAneuin mu i 

~ ; but in Ibwir place Twniepor^*, wbiob un pcrkdlV 



om^le. Tbey consist cf an oUong or globular cxtonud c«ll 
r tft^ If. find mini with grunulir ronti>iiU, wT^Jcli mib^iA- 
\ifMj vcfmrtii^ iuto fo'ur porljciu, often tirniiij^«^ nd the 
tnnfTs of & t«'trHlkei:1ri~>n, but &l4{> fn^iuontlj £d a ivivr, or lik« 
I* <jti^idntQt« of a sphere:. Very rnrcly tbc nuotbcr ie greftt^r 
■ fimallcr Ilin-U fniir. 1*hi'y an- nol iilnt^ril Jti »|u'ri]i1 rewp- 
Lfk«f tomcHmetf cxposud on tbi^ fftirfiicci of tbe frQi;)(l, more 
Icn imbetlded in ila tUiiit^f tiflea iw Uniicliea of prculiar 

»*»y •rpi rn**1.MavI in lOIipUcnl <v»T]ri*j>rflr.lM, 
Thf^ kiiul] reproduction of the Fioruii^ prc^onU forac 
'm-'itkabl*?*. Tlie mnU-. iMitl fcmiilt? or^ipiiis^ mllnil 
nUii^ridijLabd TriL*hoj*yTkC'S, ^t& pr^dticc?d on diUi/rcut iudt- 
kluals to ihv t^Uju^pore-s. TEii' »rjthi.Tiditk aie either ^tu^Ie 
f\U at Uic cniU ot the bmnchtrc, rjuh producing on]^ ODO 
atlurrD^oiJf or thc»c purt^iii ct^lU of ILu airUlicruxolil* tab can* 
Kg&ted tof^her in h.rffd riumbtsnt od a oommiDfi uxia oa tbo 
snolDdl laemter of & very »bmt branching »yet«in« 
Tb? ftaUwroKiidft tire minittoroimdi^hbodiiMvithotit cilia nady 
ikv tlkrtfTtnwpoTftf^ witbmit any powcrof independent mo tiLin,1]ijt 
u« tnovc^l alL>ng |)flwlv&ly by the v&ter. In fi^. 1 3 a r«pr«MnU 
h« autUtrridium witb & number of zuitberoKoids ca(^aptaJC from 
U Th^ ffimftli' nrgnn, or triehogynp, i* plnocd At tht^ miiDntLt 
tifa frpocuil org&D, the Cyttocarp, nlikli. after fi^LltllMiTiou, pro- 
Succs llio iipor[?<; in tlK-«< orgiLUt it amy Ih? Ji:iid th^it wo bnva 
Lhc firvt nadimcnUry iudici\1iou of or^:uLUa corrcfjioiidin^ to th« 
ICi^tDa ai>d ovnry of ^ow^dn^ pbnU, tb^ antheridiuni and 
■Dthtroioidt ccnvTrpondiDg in tho anther nnd poII«i]-gnun& 
T%ti crntocArp ooniivU, in it^ rudimMiUrr eondltlon, of brancboa 
btfTom of only one or twocc^llo., wbicU Quli^E^^tucntly divide into 
t Wgvr tiiimWr. One of tlif^e c<>lU at tb^ slcie of tbt? vyttlo- 
4Up »ab«>i«cntly d"»n^'atc^ gr*?iitly into three, tbc two lowcr- 
UDft fif vbirb fiiiTii llif^ Tridiupbori', aliilr i.hrr upfannwt 
dcnf^tci 9ti)I ftirtb(!r into n baLr-likc prolongation, the Tri- 
<ki^rDe (fig- 13 c), wbicb tbeiefore grow* up by Iho Bid*? nud 
not at tbc aiiiatiiit of tbo eystocarp. Tho sporce are prodncod 
latbiY epiilral ci*!l of tbi' fiystociirp, iind tlirn^t'orp itM. in iuini^ 
6u« connection nitb tho triv*boj^<yua cr tricboplioro. Tho 
UtlbfTiij^>ida eolleul i\>vukI llit) top ol" tbtf tiicbo^ynet as rHjirt?- 
f^ed in lh<t fi^iire ; and t-hdr fortilmnj; power h traiiDmitt«d 
tUaugb tJin tubr^ to tlif )ip>a's» in »ojnt unLuowu wtit, jioMJbly 
■aila^uA to tlw part por&nned by tbe poUen-tulc of doworin^ 
fbou. In DH</rwrWTj/>:ordiagltjTbm-f-t anS 
mnttf EtUI more e««d. In tbU CMUifi the oye(oi<arpa 
tfi! fKniucy'd on altogi^tbf r iliHvrcat bnmcli<4 from the ixiclio- 
^»Tt\ Aftc^r tli« lou^ tjiirxl tricbogVDft Iula been fi-nilisud, 
^dii-n ftprin^ out front it* and Crom uieac are produced tubed 

t>t J 



cure produced on thrnc »p&Hal fortilo l>TfliiGb>c*i luid Um 
njiparently ccuvey thc! rrnUfF«iiJ)£|)o«tT btMU the LHcIius^jd^ 
them. tIiq &ct of feiiilittUoD alff«ja consuteof b coDJi 
of thercuiiHltHh&iLtberor^ciid wlt.1i tLiTLricho^yoe, itc jjroUi| 
Biibet^inccpa&8tiiL;ovcr inl^* the bttcr. Soclic GompoTM tbft 
OMx with tliat whicli pniihiL^fjt l}vs frucUnuuttiiii uf tlir 

Tlicf Flurldi^w, Iiker oU i>ther Hg^ contaui abondiiwe 
chlort>phyl], which i^ howovor, eooceolod From viow by tho 
colouring au^aUiticc, phytuir-rTthrinc- M. ftotanoET ifxUad«i 
bhu lulwtnncu by aM wutor, and exoznined il accutatvly. h 
IrauAiniltMl light it b Larmmi?-n?Ll, lu rtHt^ct^d light nKldisb-, 
yellow. Th4« |-mn» of chloro[>h5Ll aIao show sooi 
if l>3fl behind when the pb^coci^thriDC b» esc«ped 
coaii«(]uciioa at Injury td tho cell*. The vbolo pUnt rei 
greea whoa the icd Colouring mfttto- liu been extract«dj 
dMtJ^yed hy heat. Millirdet obtained ia tho «imeway 
tho Fucaccfc, by cxttaction Tnth alcohoJ, « yclbw ml 
phycouLntliinc-*, jtud & reddish -brown colouring' mutU<r, pi 
pbtvinfj, iv]ui;U in like mauuer cddcc^ Ihe chlorophyll i& 
Ijrown or olive-green 8e4i-we*>d?. 



««Mp«4 icxi§p<>rc with ¥ibnitU<r ciUftj (jj brAnt;!^ prodi 
npri>ductivo oi^^rifl; (VO rmtl]«rjiliiini riuictirj;! uiUioroKAdlE 
(t) ooffonlum ; (/) Hntberosoiile, furtlit^T magaifird. 

0, *VWyrH fon^rtfd ; (a) caJU ptop^riag for OOiyugrtioH- 


bnutcfa*d hnlM bt*ii.rJiig lb? ncEiiariJia. 

3a FartlUincicn ar -Fktoiu t^wu/uni; >pcn fturr>iiodod by oui 

12. J>«««i>py^ I '"■"' Hooker^- -" 1-Trti- .\Btar.ti^- 
IS, ilpVitiafHon piWir^4Ai;n ; («) male Intazh., ecuHtliog imllin 

iLaihiiTi>ecfld« r«aoh. 



rlK popuUr TiotiocL that all ii«it-Ei»kiD£^ bird« work hj 
iHAtmi^t^ rtrithtr <roii(.roltr(l nor mAd)li«d bj rwuoa, htv 
OA bfcii eicccpt<Til by many diptiDEiiiiihcd obfttrverw, ancJ hag 
U«n demolHhed by Mr. AIIVl-iI Wdlkoe, irbo!!iupjplIei iibtiudutit 
noMiu for his opinioQ '* t^iat llii.^ mental &caltic»4 exhibited bj 
linl* in thr iinnrtriurlinii of thnir rLi^st* jirc thr? Anjnc? Iti kind aa 
tliQM nmuifo«to] by cuinkind in tbc odneitriiction of their 
dvi-lliuf^M."* If It U Uiiil thaLL binls are acirubiuiiivd tr> ilo tbc 
njuo tliin^a in tbo sauio way, ctvcr and oT«r ftg&in fcr years aod 
gmcTatianHt it nhaiilc] 1>3 reimeiabered thai Ibis i»&W tnie of 
Duiy nK<» of men, D&d, t<r aomo c^ttcnU of &11 men. ;Sncb 
piiU|jib[tii>uft are oiJj tnii? iti n lir^ml mid gKii<-jYil Htniwi, find it 
9 pr»ljabU* that a threat mauy t.*xe4.ptioufi would bo found 
isoatk^t IntilJiu^ biiiiikif ihcy vwxi^ ir^reM^y b>L>ked for. After 
W buiMin^ crcatJiro ho^ I'ormf^d u bahil of confilructitJ^ it« 
ibodc ill ii pn^rtioiilnr w;vy, it^ will iiio»t likely oonliaui; it until 
Wa obbn^ of oircuiriaUncc!!! r<>mti^TH it itapmcticabb or 
ipooiar«aueut« aod Lbcn mUale^ex puwcn. of i^casvu aud ob^efvi^ 
^Q it po««««M« will be eti^rted to gc»t over the diMcidty bj 
*vne altcntjon In tbc matcnol or the plan. 

Bonw tfme ftj;^ M. Pouchet, of S^iuen, notlodd that the 
■'illows of ihu jut'Tciit day, itibaHLuiB tbat pletur«*que city, 
Wd t bettor pattern for tb^ir ne^U tbati cbcflp of older date 
■htdi hod bocn prcxrvcd iit thu mu.-K'uni. Tho new oou- 
•UJusUoa i* moro roomy ihiu tin? old. Hcr*>, tbt-n, U a proof of 
^'^V^Hatce from any nuppo.^d " inatinotivc '^ patt«rai and it b 
•Ot likely to 1>e a solitary eveeptlon. 

Uuhng Uic last three or tour ycara tJio writer Iuls notiood 
9(txaerotift divrrgj^ncir-H und v^irirtit^ in liie ncsl* m^ide by Iirjutie 
Btetiw Totiad bii own dwcltinj;* InrLl^ud of saying Ihoy 
U] boild alik«, it voidd hv miicb nearer tlie IrutU to »By that 
euh pair have their owd notiofia on tiie matter, imd vary them 

• " lai lUodUAl Oh«rT«r/" r&l ri. p, 430. 


roruTAn »cmcs rktivw. 

within certain Utniu Crom Um^ to tlm^- At lh« prM«iil 
moment, on the oootb nde, near Uie poiot of a ^oblc-t i# & nm 
built n^invt cwr «lopo of woodnmTt, tied tbf^ lo^h, cftirf'-wiU 
brlo^ it* thh DC^t \ian ad obliiur, roii4,'1i-<.HlA:nl I'ntraDOiii 
followiikg the }iitD of Oie onvoi'. Atioibvi: oetf nashtiilr l/^nrliin^ 
U with an 0|Miiia^ in ani»fh«r din^ioo, bnli {kIh^ miKl 
dXT)C«od to viikl :uk1 wrnlhi^r, it laimblnl dovit. In unotW 
gnbic nrttd arc built p\rty ycnr, qtiiI full voi>[H:r ^r latex from 
vlnd ftTitl min. Tlit? nmir ai<«t« U\ ibU utitntlun liare not bom 
esuKt n:potUioii3 of the old onc#, but »o£itcwbat brooder at tlie 
brw, ftml witli nn ruirftn^-p difff-rrfiUy nrrmigfiU Thi'^ binln dii 
not ohooM to Icnvc tJjiH pUcc, b^^ ti«y hcivc doI yot aucooedod 
in ninlEiiijj; & ueKl lu IoaI l»iit;» 1lu>u^b ibf^y may be mid br 
b^ impiovin*. 

On II141 <-att fiklit of the boiute, under thu jinijocsUng rooif^ 
tbcTD arc nov two n««bi attiMfaod to vnch cither, udv hj cidCk 
Tb» find. btiiU lim3 n ruusdUh hul^ fiir ui euliancQ *>u ikfi 
rijcbt-band M«i jxurt uiid«r tho voitdwork^ Thd wcoud im«I 
has Its eutraucv t>ii (Ll- Ii^ niJ^ of iU ciirvc« not d<t^ to 
tb« woodvork Uko tbft former, Uit providivl with ft «1i|{bllf 
Uik'Icc-iKrd ftiul proja^'titig rim. AuothrL' ur'il may I1' tuUgbif 
lilLUEied to a bij; convex oyfltcr »bv}U ntuck up under a bnri- 
AODtal pait of Uuf proJ£^ctiajf rcof, and open all along the tom 
vnth a rough edg«. Thi» has beoD a rery (Common form of ncdt 
for throe or four yean* in soxral *itimtionji< 

At the point of u ttonitbcm giltU a nt^tt vn.* mftJi.* thta rmf 
attj^<^b^ to the ri]fbt-hjiD>i slopo of \hv vaod^atk a^ vft-U a« to 
the wall, Ahovin^ a Inrg^ Blopiog openfn{^ on tlut eitl^*. 

IVi^ nc«tii aro tixcd «idc by sdc, and attnclMxl uiwkr tho 
projt^ctitkg window af an upp<* rooio, anci in th<* tJ>p rviniur uf 
thi; winJow of tbo* room below. M'lira thu firsi nc5t was buiUt 
catensied to fU cin the window-till tn^ look longirglyat Its 
inhabitant. Thiw did not tronblo the birr^e — Ihoy bad ap- 
itarciitly ksUil^ihI fhi-iitK<-1vr« that it wmilH tic too uwkwanl n 
Jimp for pumy to :iuec*L<c(l in, and up to Uic pieoent tl]<jy have 
bMin itght, So tami' ar^ thv binb when Iniihlin^', and so 
eatifiGinl of prot^^jtion* that thoy «iid not «bovr any anxiety irboii 
workriic'ii wrn* do*n by tlirm riintir-g tXw wall* ailh ci iiilk» 
pK'paraticii, 00ml? of which wau vri^cd oi'er their imiiuiflhod 

Th« Aocond of thow Attached nirtta waa mado thiit y^^ar. It 
Sk murh tfugi'i tbin iJh* lind, nml hojt a difTi^Trnt »ort iif rn* 
truicc. Tl>i- way into ih'j Hnt neid in by a toiuiiI hok< ju«t tin 
the middle and at tba top of ittt coavoa tnrvcu I'he »rcuiMl ODe 
IB i^nt^rnd Ia? a Ur;;p> irfi^Rular ap*f*ar»> in 1b<} b<fl-]iMii>I 
Wing A nparr hft in th-* coustructl^iQ, Ly not carrying ' 

< iii**t at thai plaoo up to tbo nil of tiio bouae, 7UU 



iHAft of imlranco mi^lLt be thougbi dxtrEUuoly iDoonvocueotv 
LeiL Uu; IjinU coni^laiLtljr approucli it at a Tight o,ng\ff Anil iniili« 
a *tKUicQ »liArp tura into it, vith no diminutioD of iholT 
^OiUnaiuy speed, Tbia [RTrn>r]im3iL*f? will n'mitiil thv oM ciftn^li 
timr^liwof tbe vraf in w)uch f-jur liorru^ and tl>e Y«<liiGle were 
mldcDlj vhi«kciil rouod ;it Gulldroid, bud got tLiough ao 
eatADCQ that v!iu burcly wido onougb for their mlimc«ioB, imd 
At sight anjeU'* tu Ujc rufid. 

Thrw neels were made two or threo y*ftM a^jx) und^r Uj« 
cftTcs of m lower pfirt <^f tbi; Jiuuad cu the uortb Bidch but wal^ 
wotticLed ufpLiii)^ tbv vit>!«nc9of triitd jutdniin. The drominm 
ttt>m Qk 3'ouii;; ljirdi> licittg incx^nrciiicnb nt tbi« ppot, a nc«ial 
v«d put tindr^r tb<j oerf* to eaitfh iln?«i. Tho hlrdi did uortr 
approve of this &lt«rativu, aui Un^k tbc troulilo t<i coiLstruct 
fn?£li abodk>fi in vonw pofitione mih^r ibftn p»t up with il- 
IVrhapo tliQ board wan pUccd nearer to tbe nwt» tlmn thcj 
approved of. It mi^hi uUo biivu u]Titn.t] l^%o convinileiit a reatbfj^ 
pbc« for cotmioi i^ibJuu;; to attack tb^im, wliich ODce happcQodl 
wWji ohi^ nf^if. wna Tited by ollicir hirxi-* 

It ifl wolj Utiowu thfit tbo houw maitin wiU often mako ei- ^ 
IHTimciilJ, IjL'furi* delrrminit^]^ th*- »iti? of ^ nmt, hy atirkbigi 
litlk hittf of mud to u wUl ; but ^'orkti oi Xhia kind buve bccol 
Aotict^d for eevoTH.! yi^&Th vtht^a no mure neetA M?i?iDvd to be 
«Uit4>d for thai ^eoAon. Wcro thL^dc ulemcatanr building 
IrtMonM fnr Ihn Imnefil of thn Hktu^ ^t^tipmtinn, nr pn^pftra- 
tioDfl for A vubiEcqttctit »mr^n ? The UittiT aiixv l< |>robabl«^ 
lliuu^b why ajjoutd Ihry put itJtiie dmcr^ »r itujTf jtiiUlif-n alt ofl 
a row vbcQ im]y & ivw wouJd ho used? Acfhow, tboec wbo 
bad Dot been buildtn in a pr«viiiu-i jcfir wrnjid bfive nn op- 
portunity of leeinjf bow Ih^ proecAi; wax commcncu?d. 

r« '*Tbi? Birds »f Slirrwinwl K«i«*i.," im iitterpttUniir l>ijok liyj 
Mr. Sterbudf tlio wnt(.*r, Fp«Jik!] of lim oavL'g of biiildiugfi, orl 
^^nK-ifL of ttitjdowd ia tb'j iiiust f^wiuJ'iti: spots for martinsl 

Eig, " but," bo udd^ " I bnvo niA'cr invt with a neitiiL 
lacc^ open at Uic lop, :i5 [ \iA\e fru^nrntly vct-n it n-pre- 
in vorlu of natural hwtofy. lo odo rocent book, t bo .i 
&lii)n« i>i whicb oro generally vrr/ faithful, the nest M 
figtircHl AC a iihnllow dish fixod to a moM and mtirt^ly opt-n at 
tbe top. Siirvly thi* niui-r. be a mittakc, or if diawn from 
tiaiure it eauuot hn tulc&n a* tb«- tv pt< of th^ ni^t of rh\» apectPFt. 
All that 1 have ever ^en li^ve bad Uioir walh earned Lip until 
Ihi^r met tlie prrjociioii nnd*:^ ivliicb Uiiry wt*r« buUtj b'aving ii 
roondcd bolL- immc-rliAtcly under the nngli! of tbe tU<s or 


in none of tbo nesU wliicli it i.t Ibt-- piiq>t»Bo of this paper to 
d««eriUT eoiild til* form be likeui:^! tn '■mIiaUov' dUbr-^," but Uie 
crpm tops have been oommon, Jklr- l^tcrJand is not likdy tol>p 



tTiiHtnkf^ tn hi» olist'naUoit^, sorl if opm-tnppcd jioU Lap^ 
buvn unknown in ili'y rnponii of hU divrrvhticn^ it U aerugo 
tLal Ul«v a}jLjiilJ it found clwwhi^n;. Tlie mf«rtQCO MOCoi t> 
be thnl variations from & normal pattern mft/ bfi ImaI ; ud 
prxhaps ft cruefiil cumpuIhOQ of tho buiMing procccdhiicv of 
thti miLTticifl in <litTor^nt countUA micbt throw Light tipOD tbek 
WftTft* aql) Icn/I t>> A )ki^}HT view uT tncir intdlijct^tict^* 

I miy be iWiuuHtt? in Laving my bcutJA freqxi^nied by amore 
erperimciiUl raco of tuartluA tbuii uie cociEoont and tl>cnc nnj 
b« nn Adnncod tJu&ker nmo&j- tbecar analogoiu to the retVirmcrf 
who Hnmctimw npriag itp ntnongst tfAgnnnt tribes of tneot I 
cannot, liow^v^r, s^^-nturi^ tc Ikcter my»fi]f (bat thi« it tb^ tnw 
explanation until I ln*ar the rteutt of careful iaqtiirios in other 
qtjjin/Tf. AU I can say is, that the marijn*' ntKt* rounfl my 
rook trxbibit iii:ftTlyiu much vailcty id fonn ai tbu hou-^<3 &f 
tho biuiiaii foltcji Iti thn vilb^ Urbtw, and a rr<uoo aw usiiaUy 
bo 6ccn for tho variatiuna tli«v <Ji»play, Opaa-top|>od iwiti 
bavit lti]ii*iTi found in th<^ mnat. sheltered plstox*. Wlirn iJv linV 
&bodt« Imvt' Ixx^n built in o.toplc^ like Ihc acmi-flctftcli»l vUlM 
in ihv uut Jtirl-1 of UiwiiN l.hf fuLra-TM^-t liavr litvn 4rniiij(i-0 W 
Oft cot to como t:i3 clo«>e tojt^rtber. Tlie di«taiioo4 are euffioient 
to nmdcr colluioof of out'^^ng and tn-going birds improlnUci 
imd 1 ui>ti«u otliirr adapt^lionA of kuctlds 1o outlfl- 

lu Hiuumi'r Uii^ imirfin fumUii-A wciri stuircAj ta iJ^i alalL 
AL mi(lnj|;bt ami at cnrly mr^m the younff oxi«0 twittor. Ijitft 
in tli<; evmu^ Ibf? pdreiiU Krvp iigi Lbeir clugftut flighUaod 
t]i«j uro &t It a^ia as taili^ht paicefl tato davu. 


rOIIN RUSKIN' (OTncvhcoio tayi tiiat bo vrould ruthor li&ro jl 
goo*l cn^^ntWtif^ thnti the bcvt of ccilaiiri<d prinU. Uv 
qwok* i>f c^iinsD or tlioi^ oDpice of nia«t«ra' work« wLicb &ro 
pTMlvccd vritli movi; or ]e« appruxinuticE to f&c-ftirailc bj Ui« 
mochanictil prinUng-prcAc. And ))o &r a« mHtiv of thnifo ir« 
conocnici be icnj not itnprcbobly 1>a hi the right ; btit tltfTo 
i^nuiiu tb^ fact that colour, to ulmoit fJl eywt, is ilie Ufe of a 
pdclure* Tlio blfick tibudoHi tbut sire tbf form at hsiii put 
befbre u» » tbing Hmt ia rokl nnd, ^ttfl it, u rnly whrti t^<^ 
glow of colour ii* brought out on face or Junil»c(ipc thut itM full 
eb*nD r:ui t-filttr aud poMVi Ili« fnind, Kicej>L in ibu cunr* of 
tboec nho ar»> bn lomo extent uosusoeptiblo to tbo cifibotfl of 
lii9y either ibroii^^h p^nial colour-blininesa or from ^va&t of 
te«to or cdufstion. Ibis it* bo tmo timl wo oro disponed to think 
tkit II vpty iinli(T"'r*'Mtlj r^ppiiU'd pitlnrit jm f" if* liTtfs mny 
tally caity hii^hci mc^mib^A to iti bt^b^iliLTJ thibti a mere imago 
lit black auii v-bili^. Witliotit i^ulL>iir tt lb tiot p»)4^ibtt^ to bave 
tttebonaony — euch hnrraony Qii a eummor luxid^-apo pro»ouU, 
for IhpIbuc*-. Abnirjict fp>in that liTitiM'iipiT all it* wtalUt of 
gnvtLj ttbJ wbut woultl then ranmiii that wculd lull of Iha 
MUQQ or expitw* jlji pttcuy ? ft lui^bt liw ejLbor autuaiu or 
spring for AUght \t& black and wbito roic^ht say. 

Odour, too, id f»Dc of tbr? higbr^;tt <b^mnit* of oxprr-jflton la 
w biusDu faoLS tbr pule li^M »poaUiii^' of (vxlt or 6xul ro^olro; 
llo8lub«d bri>kv tdUiii; of tuitcrir, ruiK^ bc^tb, or Ibe ^Itiw of 
^>«. True, the engraver maj coauRi^ wltb littlo (tubtioti«a to 
D^Dt ftt come of tbcfc things nDd Ihc cbcbcr sometimes 8hovs 
& voadorfut tbciilty for j-tmulnting colour, but tho fuel romiunii 
^t colour :h the lift, and that without it wo but liilf know 
■W 9 foce or a land-icape has to say. 

^'ith regard to pboto^^iapby, thL* iramodi.'htD subject of our 
rinurks. It U crrtain thnt tin* wnnt of Ibiu plemnutH of pictorial 
Wiily TTiw very tarly felt. Tho chctmcidB hod donu tn much ; 
could they not b^ niAde to do a little moro, and catch tbo 
■Utiag huc4 of lifo ifi all tbelr Ouab oiid glow ? A dream of 



rorcLts HieycE osubv. 

thU pcmbility had norer licni 'iltAjj^etfaxT aU^ikl Emm U« 
min<U of chrmiM» vincc tlio v t ..f vliat photfifn^phv 
itctiuilly 0:^11 aiTcoiii|>li#h vi-re tl; -^i lu %i>^'. In fpit* 

of many fftUuns vklcti hri^x^ come ^^'alUiinpU hlttiiitc tiim^^ tu 
realise thtr^ liofw, it i« hy no nx-Jin* yi?t^ mi/rrjulrn-tl }rv »!l. At 
tiic ttJDe tJciKr, it hiu w.-cca<!d oufliciciilly iicat iiD|>o3Ajb4bfj u( 
n«ili3L»tiaij Co iniluei.* in^kiiy lo luin UAuIraud t*vk Hm fiJliliurfil 
i>f it hy otLcr ILau pbot^^'r&pliioi nuuns. Ttc buiwt of tht 
paiuUv or litlEOgr&iiljiT hs,i- 1te«D calliTil in 1o rVr i>ii1. 1)ie ihofi^ 
ComiD^ fjf tho ch^mJciLl myn ; and no iaM^'iiiuoajit iiuoee«« to 

ftekl. 1lKrc are tku* Lno Uiaiu^l bBe« of euquityi wUich »« 
riiall irtiileQVuur to tiuce iMT|jBUttU4>'. 

It U tic>t n little nn^ that vrbilo Iho prOMnit bigtt «taCa 
to nrhich plinttigrapliy Uiv^ ;dri-4i)y Ix^l-ij bioiJ^fnt is inriu^ maiAt^ 
ti> tbc jnvi-nUVG fuctUty ;Ltt<l |>roUQc proo0es-«flMiKl«rlt|g 
rtworvb of Eu^^'IiihtuL'o, iL i^ Uj a few tVcDck phUomphttn 
Uiat yiMt are indebted for nearly c^-crytliUig that lia* y*t beat 
€£r<*ct«d ill the direction of pholi>-polTclirMnyt botli in iha 
natural or dt^mical, and in the in««1uuicAl dcpattmeoLi. 

Si> looj? ajc** 3t l»3t> Uie kle Sir JvIju llvr»<^cl DMJn ' ^^- 
Int^rcB^tiiig fact pop*^r vliich ha;i borti nrnrirrn^i e- 
bycbkridr of silver, 3.ud ha*l bo<'U i>spO(«ni to ligbt 
<UrLt?[tud, war Utcii iu a coitdtiivn to ivpiodiKw rai < 
vhcn aij^ain expired to thi> Acti^m uf lisbL nudcj h 
oolouTHj piectv of gliLtf. AlUivui^ Str John Horvliel aj , .^'^ 
continue thu lino of inv^^U^lioiii bo nys that kio snvr enough 
from h'lA first eEjii'rinitT&u to vtariant him in arriiin^ at Un 
o>ac!ii:ii<>n tlvtt f h<iio^inpl)j in natAjrsi ooUmita miittt rcttMB- 
iibly Iht exprs-'lr^d U* In* hnmj^ht Wf[liiii Ibe rau]Ci* '*f fXiMtiMB 
accompli FiLmout. U id jiu a^rt nt jufitic<^ to uur di8UngfEuibc4 
conn try maik Li plnn^ rw n>rntx1 thefnrl. that th4» mcml HimTi-suTiil 
l^turcs in natural colcHira tb^t have Ikicii produc>cd in t«iw« of 
nxm^ roiu-ct tini<% and by iitbtr uxpi^rJiiH-uUliHLd^ bavt* beta 
obtained by nH-aiM of procuiaue based <nx biB ^idQavary of tlio 
capability of tiil>-i'ldi>rl<li? of fdlrer t-o rt:<*rive ooloiin**! impni^ 
rioiUL (ii]id<«l by ih*^ diK^tioik^ of M. I'mtmn, ^ ^n 

many |iirtiin-> in tuiiii^d niloum by a mi-Unul d.- < . Uy 

tbe lattoi ^ntltiuan, t>ut tinder wlidi lheii» ran as a fiut^- 
»tm1um the iirvTiuaa diseuviM-y of He:«eliol uhicb, if crack, 
wae at l^wt ■nigi^vrttn*. 

It tmj if oIm^vk'l^ ber^r, Ihat a ii3lij<^l«l4T 
ponrovntaliitti ia h4*lioubn>nay ijg to bo l\tU£iiL 
ordinary wTLti&jc-iJup*'<^ ^bot bno bouD koujcncxl 1% at fit^tad 
upoti, A v^ weak 8oIntiun of ecmtnon nit in vatw, md^vHB 
<Lry impregnated by bcang bvutbcd over iritb oinmonio-Dit^H 
of lilvtr^ mil >how MTeral colour* with n<l«gnM of di«tiilH 


A rHOTOoa^ra l^~ siAitiiLAL ooLotiL?. 

iWMScJciit, lit any rate, to lulmiC of their being vasUy recog<- 

dinL Ammoiiio^oitTntif of 'iilvcr ih in mnlity .t «ohitioa of 

obde of tuivcr in mtntc of nnunonia, nnd u mada bj nddioj; 

B»AMhutiau of nlitai*.' of i*llver of aiiy (Jqrn« of Mrvtigtb-^ 

vamllyoaoof axty ^roiiuof the ars^ntic «alt to ihL* ou&c« of 

nii't — itritng Mttmnnm hy onn rr t^rn iln>pH at n liinfip At 

flivt. a ^cnn- prcH-ipitatc of oxiilc of nlr«r Ik fi^rmcd, \yni by 

OHiUuuiti^ till? ;tddiiu>ti iif llip iLKimcmiii iL i> rt'-dlf^htnlj n%ui 

tfao lK|Did bucoiDOfl duar uffiiii. Th^ro nro othiT mcihotid of 

pr«|Ming pn|>pr o^i which thr colours of the tfpcrtrttm lUiiy Ije 

ofaciiiufid; for example-, liyGnL tnuhinc the mir^o oft ho p^por 

iricb tutmm of aiUt-r, ajiiI thvii wiUi flu;Ui; nf suiU; «r by 

lao^DH of obtorLdo of li&iium and uitrate of tilvL-r, with a pre- 

"f A dilute fr>lMttuii ^f Ridint*. Kxp'.-nrnt^utH with 

iijco* will [jrovo (»j:;)TCHfitivOf in ^idditi^in to tho io- 

lensl ti^at ujll jiitodi bo Llic ux|K-rhocat4 por Mtt. 

TfwT^ «i« thr^ dd6Dit« lut^thoda of prMdudn^, bj puitily 
chomicat idcqim, pbotcgraphtf In natural ooloure. and ihoM 
diffor ODtirvly from each othor. 

Tike writer of the pfcftcnt lutJclr hod in his poseoaion 
doiiog the Bummer of IS03,a minUture com, contnining a 
fOvcr pbt« OQ whidi waa improved tJic- trpcctniia in all tbo 
ociUun of iiatiiro, Hf* obtaiucd H tr^m tbe hte Sir David 
Brevntcr^ vluMc property it wn*, fnr the fHin>o**i of exhibiting 
R to U.H.H. the Duke »f Eiinbiirgh (then PrIrLai< Atfrr^d) itnd 
Lord nrnYi;^taiiu Tlit pploarri nx-m drddt^], altboiifb not 
brilliaiii ; and a Ap«^tal point of interi*«t hy in tUo iiurident of 
thi« pkiUTt' haviD<> bocD expcwd to aotar Ufht fof nearly a 
fortttight^ Without any ngnw of liidTng l#ln£ alf£OT«Ti»d- The 
photo^^raph in question vraa produced 1>y M. licc^iu^rrl, vho, 
uwifu UiHii itiiy other, Ilaa iiiadi* lieliooUromy the >iii>ijrct of 
dofiiiiU* and protmct«d iDraatiifation. Th«4oinvealijfatiou»huvo 
iMLllt^ in tlio lUs^oVfrr of twft piY>ri-w*'s hy wliirh 0"?loiirJi 
cui bo obtAinc<li ThoAc wo thali dcMrilxi in drtoil. 

Dicbtoridv of uopjH^ nnd iiulpb;itR nf mhU :irf? fiiritu«d hj 
doubU' deoocnpofTition, axi^nf; from thu iniKturv of one tiwace 
of pandert^ salpbato of copper, tvo oiinci?i» of powdi^red 
cblorido of »xliuin, au<l Gvo ounooA of vntor. Tho«o aro mixed 
in n tfsf^loju* Of tiiM wlulidu tbreo otuioH tam uaxtn\ nttJj 
& bk4> quantity of a ratunLtcd ar^luhon of oommon lolbt and 
«igbk-cii ouii<:et of waUu ; iiuil tLIri foiim tJio aeiuiit«fllo|f bath 
for tho Ailvcr plnttm. A HMtallic phito fucod with oIvkt, boor- 
U^l a bi^Ej t)oli?l;, and made rcty clojio, is iuiinrned in thu 
aotuLion, and is rapidly coated with a viol^^t-ooloui^ mib* 
cMoridv; vbru it is withdrawn, waidi<^, atd driod. This ia all 
tba prvpcmttion rc-qmrE^i for fitting it to receive the cotours of 
tLe eprclnim. It ia not very oensitiTC, for altiiough it bcara 

romrUt eciKMTi BBnnr 


oompQri»ofi with Iho svosihreiicM of ordUMry photo^rnt^ie 
pcLper tn the vailiest da}> of L^ie artfldeficea it is verv : 
slower than adt ^f tbo pr«peuution« tuod tX Uk pru- r. 
for tiliUitiitkg prlun^ in llir ciinirrn. WiUi n Utu of Im;^* 

expomuo of an hour. Not hu, h<inevt?rt if Ujt^ l^^ht wwu ,i 
to ftct tipnn tho jwiiiitivo Furfitce thr^ugli coloured or pam'^.ti 
g1jUftfU]><'r:p;[KJV<d on the plal'; or if the «i>Ur jiprctrtun wf m 
Allowt.-J C4> fall 'ip<m it ; tmctor theio oirouauUnoi^ an tupcdorft 
of u feiv minuter wimlJ nid^cc 

Another pToce* of M. J)«icqiierBl, in wliich giilvaiii<T «lf>ctn- 
city U emploircd in Uvo pr^T^railion of Ui* pUtc«> given fOLceltent 
re«ulb, and u the oim bjr which vii prixiucicKl llie «pi-<lriim ill 
Uit* £Diuiultir« €ftA« ref!uTod to A« b&viajf Ixvu preseottiJ l<> Lim 
to 9ir I>,ivi>l Br«wit«r. ThiBjurodMa wwdUooror^iu 1^-19, <v 
nboiit ten T^'Jir* nftcr Sir J. }[cr?cbcra firat exfrf-ritm-iiu He 
lud oljscrvL'd tiiat red ruyi* wbioli exercSfe altm»*L do 0^10*1 
upon Hco^Hivr^ pai^T j>f<*jianH] in tl>« dark, ftcUd imicb taan 
rapiilly iijKiii thn Kjirac papor aftOTtt badbp^n pipow?d to ligHs 
rxnd tbot while Uic patft^r in tbe tirfit of f bt*f« oondUioiv gnr? 
only a brovn or idiglilly \io|[»t troWr in ihr iL^iink' thvw, piper 
in tho second aiaii*. or after tLo txpoiuro to li;;b(, tcuvi' variaW 
coljiir^t rfH^jLllini^ Iho^e of tht^ niyH vhi<-L prcdimsl tlvem, and 
even dcvcbpii'd thoao colours ia the lc99 rvfmctcd part of tbe 
Api-c'tniin. PiirhniiTig t\\o Kuhjeft^ hti vn« loil ti a n-rtnia 
method for ]>rcprarin]E platf^n, on vhieli could \tc rwwivoj 
(Hiluijtird impnrMicjiis, and which, divoitol nf many i«isinis wlildi 
JL Bccqitertil cummiuii<'at«d to tho wrilor for tbo adoption «nd 
|PiKiin1in^' of ccitIaid line^ of prcK^-dtJir, i« tuhttAtitially a« 
foUow*: — An orUiriary dagucrrcotvpfi rlalc — thiL iifaplatc^f 
copp(-r tu'til niUi 9tllv<tr — )» puIibtii^iL aud thu back liaviug 
betn proU<Ttod by ^^aroidi, le allached by meanfi of two hootn 
to lliL* pubitive pok" of a voltaic Iraltcry- To the negative polft 
is attached n pi«oo of platinutn foil, and boUi an> then im- 
n^rivrxl in dtluttd hydrodilm'ie Jkcid. ouc part of pitie «cld to 
eight part* of water beinj^ a auitable dep\«& of *li*}Bgth. In 
tho course of about si uunule the pUt« will liaro paswd tkrotigh 
several ^ng^ of col 01 nation, including gTey, ytdlo^v, bine, groeo, 
iDic, Tiolrt and blue. When of a Unckbli violet ccjIoi^ the 
action U KKjpped and the plate i* washed, then dightly nibb«d 
with oottju wuol, aud dned. It i* now r^ady for U^ing im- 
pFMced Titb tb« oolmm of tho tpoctnun. If n ]iUi^ cd prvn 
poTod be heated before cspowiurc, it ncqtdrof new i>rup(.'rt4c«. It 
cbaii^rn Lfi a n?d cobiir^ wliu-'li ia tha idalt* ujosI BiittAble for 
rocciviug oU the ooIouta. Kipceure to the eun ufidcr a >li«ot 
of pnpf^r impregnnt«d with i^iilphate of quinine ironfers IJie> 
MQMi propcrti» » tho ^xpotam to beat. ^m 


V\ioto$X^!g!bM in natiiral coLoiir«i, pr>:iduccd by tlic ]siit M. 

the Jjondoa Phr^graphio Socially. Ifuvinif jvpmtecl M. !(«<•- 

uat it waa |>o8»iblo tliorc might be ^mo rr^lation between ihe 
oototir wbirb n body rorarnimiiv'it/'i (n n flFimr-T cmd Uir 4-f>!niir 
vbich light dc%Tli>p<^ on a f^bCc; of silvirr IbM had btii tt i^hlori- 
disnl wilb the Wly Uml L^>IoTirKl ihu^ llnTiie. The Ixilh in 
which ho immCTBcd Ibcpkb^wiial'ijniitTdof vtAt^rsatumtMl with 
f^hlonneito which h<t ftddrd ft <ihh<ridi^ cTidoncd wjlii the pn*- 
pcrty of imparUne to Home: thn colr»iir he wiuLriI rcpr^tduccd tm 
th*! plul*?- StTdiilitnu, fur c^i^iitiple, {^ii!tnil the n^l atkI piirpt« 
tiaU la be sindly impreesed; to s^it^ tbo onuif-e ray, 
calLniim or urRDitua wiu» used; aodituaor copper sufficed for 
th<* yollcwa, and >o f<>rth, Hctiircn posjrjisiinc Ji f«r dagnv of 
brilLiaiury in tbt-ir ccThium may bo ubLJii&rd iti Ihi* way. 

An importAui adv^oce in belloi?hi-ouy h^ beon made by 
M. Puilrvii^, wbu, iDblead of wing QicLatlio pkt<-^t ba^ eitiploTca 

Epef aa tho ^n^imdwt>Tk of hid irx pern m4?nt<. SUirtiug on tbft 
n« of Hf-j^bfl'tf oriipual discovery, be tak<^ Ettpcf and pre* 
ptrM It with 4r.tbcb1orid^ of f^llFer. The m«tbod of doing thld 
u kikovrn to cvoiTinlolligcnt photog^mplirr, conflating in expos* 
iftg to li^ht ordin^iry chlaridfl of »ilvT*r» whW.lirr ijifrud upon 
pftpcr by ttte luunl wiudicis or fbnnt^d in collodion, tit sMsgMed 
by the Ut* iL J. Kciwkr, the advantaj*e of tlie latter being that 
it cpcntf aa awoue (or reproductions -hI la nctfative — from the 
plrUU^ first ohrjin<*i!- Confining onr d*>4rnpTmii ti> thp pn>- 
doctiOD of bfliDdirnmofi itpon paper, wilh n^hic)i tvc hnvn o^>n- 
diict'!^ numerous Mtireni«fid ^ip^^i'iuic^lit-S v/t* [>b^e^v4? thai, tlie 
problem v/hivh prt^^outod itself wa£ tbo producUon of a sub- 
chtorlMd jKipcr nnd of un oudiHing sgicint which, wlifn <-xpoF4-J 
tptlw coiourod rajTMT iihonid rrrprDtluoo thoAC co}oun with tJio 
grMl4«i jKHKible drgrcv- of hrilllnncc', and in the pbortrvt jki^ 
fibk* period of tini'^. How far tbaae eouditione havo beeo 
fntfiltrd rn.]\ pr<^w*ntly he fixn- A piece of Mdnbloiiird paper 
ym$ fioatcd for a miuute en a sutunxLcd «ohilioii of tiohromuto 
of potash, a iTrcntr-Kcaln Jtolutiou ^>f ohloridt? of putzuntun, 
iiul a iaturated £oluticio of sulphAte of copper mixed toj^c^bet: 
in «qual volume** and wan then bung up to dry in a daric 
room ; tdtnt this it nan n»dy for oxponuro. Tbc rt^curd of ouu 
trial will affoid an ojtportrunity of jndfrin^ liow far aucceed was 
aehlered. Some brilliantly* paints ma^o LanterD il Ides were 
obtAiucd, and Mndri thc»c wore ploc^id piuc^A of the Aen^Itivo 
paper, t\w whol« 1»Hng thpn ripoipd la thu light of a doiidy 
«ky- Afltrr ait t^xposiiro of 6tlc:!ii minntcn, one of tho pictures 
talG^n inro a darlconM room and examined. The e(d>J««t 
«A0 ao Arab with a red gnimcat, the iky boiug blue, and the 


oT the «fmtnil njf wiw qult« tbe nw^ne or vkat ii i« ift 
obutognptiy of tbe uaiul kin^ for tbe »d drxik ytaa ftrottgtj 
iinpr<«»04] IB n good Vnglit rW, wbito th« bJiio had Mdnilf 
bc^att to lUHlrrgo q cli«ngc : ihr gm^ and TWk>v, too, «eT« 
inferior to thu tEcl, After a «oiiCiii«uUjoQ «»f Uje «-xikMtini fix 
rtiKilIi^T <ivuutcj^ of iu }muu a fwrtber «r^' a-iI 

a i^^it (tinrpsun in tbe rtMail r.f tb<* rofnufp < ih* 

re<l biut not become in tl»c \nat dcgnv (iolcrioraii.*-! br Uie 
iiii-ri?iu(?il txpoifuru. A xoorc proloouod trxpo^urv broU|;bC out 
elII iW- coloiu^ Tli« print* ««ro tivM bj inuneraion inioor-Mivi^ 
in wat*T, ndrlrbited with cbmralc %tiA, a vo^ colntkin of 
Ditmtc of Ictid and diatillrNl wntor. At tbo time uf theoo ot- 
p-riTnirnU wi' wi»n» ntA 6ivoiir»Uy im]»fi'*w(i with tbe por- 
frcUon <>r tlio fisio;;; nL*vortlit'Iy*s, tbt- lw4iAcbnjmi<! pnob 
Hiiitc ]>FO(Iticeil r^Tiiamed In n t4)1**rftbli* 8tal« nf pn^^r^ztiLis] for 
about oif^bt wccikSk attor whicb titnc tJioyiKrc pftf^atod t4}» 

Ity modHyiiig PoJt«vfii*i^>niitilft,M.dod. Ftoroatliiut^raitJ; 
iuL-rr^aiattd tl^ seaiijtiT«new of tbe paper e» ^A\ a^ ih" pj^rfn^ 
tion of tbe fijinff. Ht immcfding thr ftiWil ; 1 1 

Icilli of a TfTy Tvmk x-iliition of nilrrtlr of th . :?« 

pLTtiitlly (Iryiu^ with blotting poper, tbo tii^ttn ot pnp^r aiv 
iiTiiiitTf il Mu <i(?tiKirivi> Asto raeeivij fruma«tip<^nipinn1on]onred 
cli^Jii a vi^roui iEDpreeaion in a quarter of a ininutc- Bj 
adding to the bath jieb mentioned a imxtnrB <' < • ^ i 
two parU of a mtiiratrd solution of 1t!i*hivimai'A ty- ■ vo 

partu of sidjiburlc ;kdd. ami cjitt- jki^' . :W 

colours art* moru vivid without any ■ . ' ■ w^- 

ncBB. l''^xiQg i& ofr<«tcd in mnnxmio diluted viih nlnnbol 
in tbo proportioD of on« port of Ibc form^fr tn tirv^iitv of tht 
Utf«r. followt^d bjr inunorsion in an atkalmo i^hfiiH'ir ^luttuD- 
Punouily <?nou^1i, an IntTM^M dcgn'^ cf rtipidJIv U found t* 
hv obtAiD<'d if th(^ ^ubcblorido of iiilvcr fi)rmt->d v>r M>crap«Ti< 
pr^pATvd hy oxpoAiro to light nndftr a Wolot glaai. The t-nA 
of (be 3'car ltt73 finda tlic ])TAb1cm of pbotograpby iu UAtunil 
lulouTA Gtr Dt*An>ra aHtiBfinciory solution tlmn di<l ibV b?^nnliif> 
of tlic year. It IB to bo rcgrrtt'xl Ibat tho atuaiivr of coqitn* 
nbpntiiliiU in thi«6H(l nf rraramh km «*xnvrnni;lr limttod. 

i^ctidin;; Iho tido,riii^ lo a p»ictiuil '' i. <f 

uiitun! |iolyi.'liiiiEii:i1iL' pbMUt^iui-lii, hIn i'IA 

tolerably aooceeeful, have boon madfr to wiuIwdc coI-hu- and 
pbotoignipliv Inr m«anfl morv or trw mrdtanical. A tt*w vvein 
affo, Mr. K^iK-rt H»vo Anbton obtaiiti^l a potfmt for a mrtbod 
of applying ouluuf to pliotoc;nipb) jvuiliK-nl lir llir liWu-tihiarj 
pmcoH^— amothod which, altbough it hue not'rvt bcro cnoh 
uacfcialljF dcvclopod to tbe extent it« tneritd dimtaQil, U j^ 

ni^u, idinpic, 4nd cnpab1« of pr^tiL-in;^ gciod re^utt^ In 
WiM4llit«y jBriKv^ thfl- lightn ftiid *hsulrtw)j :in» fonnE*d of 

lUpttTODt'OolauTed (£datiii<i in vimou* il<^^c'-c^ of thiokn«^ 

±;b< rij^vfi^l shsduws tiein^ ci>mj>o4Ml of Mie greiitt-^fp thi^kncM 

of t:i»* ^p'lnticotKt ink. If & pi^ur? of Ibid kind bti printed 

Xijr.'^ J alw^rt of *l!il<' pnper, i( will be ill nionodiionn:' ; l>iit \t 

CHVtirp.-J lo Mr> AflhtoD to try Uio effect of producing flftt tint4 

Ijj Jr '-aa* i^i diiooiij-litlir>]tt;iphj" ou pzi|tt-r, ami upijii tliu 

friiiLLng tbo Woodbury piotiire in correct refjislratlon with 

^Ikwc tuitfL Thiji, in prinftipl*-, U totally diffdrcnt from th« 

«iklonfin]> of a photograph by upplvinj; pi^mc^tu apon it ; for, 

ik tbif laltet. every touch of lut^mriit lidr.i *om<? portion cif 

thp (^ m pkttir^, wfavrtftfl ID tfce former ih^ pljotograpli U It-fl 

quite mtAct; tliiM nftturc Cftn be innUt^d wUh it wonderful 

iff^n¥* of exa«tfi««s, t)i« mort dolicAt* dotoiU of tho photo- 

Ifrapb bfing banDonioiulj wedded to oolouni poMCiMinfr nU the 

vigt^ur of tbn ftrtt^t'4 pigmoiats. To prodnco by thli ph>oe«i a 

thoiuttnd or mor« phot4>^apb8. the R^r^ico^ of a skilled tirtirt, 

are PequfrtHl only to iirrangn thf* colotirH on Ihi^ varvon* litTtrt- 

IpVph)^ f tonc«, and viheii ihn id done tbo prodadioii of tbo 

idirami>>lithiigrap)i]> prirji which is to act nfl tfie 'ittl'^twliirD tbr 

tli0 pbat4)CTBpl], ii« «dl 1^ ihe photogrupb itnlf, i^ a mere 

mrc1iaini«Bi IbsiIc, n-quirinj^ b'cfiiiictil mtVi hiit lUi HrtiHin xkiU- 

It id a&ticipntcd that the appUcntion of colour in thia wivj to 

Wo<"dbnr7 P'^nta will lie exttfnidvely c]irTl»] out (luring the 

fvvr now bt^n. 

At thi^ la*t nw*rtitt^ n( ttu» Briti>Ji Aan<;iAtion tnvrth iniirrr-jit 
wta manifi*itc*l in n n<?w proci?«fl of pboto-polyohromy whi^^h 
waa drMrrileJ, snd wiMicimPij* exhibiltil im litliiilf uf M- L^OQ 
MdA], of Jilarieni«d< tbo inv^^ntor of tlio procoee. It U ba«od upon 
tlw«tfbi«i i>rpigTn«utpn(iHugpmf*'j»i,l>"'»'^'^*<'J"iW«iin principle 
chromo'litho^fTiipliy, Every diffi-Tent tiuL that i* shown in the 
nictJtre implin a ttL-juusitt piiut, iUe (rifluiiiliig [uattcr of which 
tfl ««t off or trftnsfiamd to tb4> ^Iieet upon n;liirh tbtt finished 
i^Kkuic i% finally improsftcd. As many nrgntivr.-* mnnt bo cm- 
ploy^ u there nrr> colmim to be pnnt^jL For examplei viip- 
powi that the dubject to be phfltograplit'd wtrc a web of UatMi 
«oai|MMed of tbr&e colour*— reel, bltip, aiid yoHow; thnn- nc-ga* 
tive« would Lave to be toki^n, lund from the timt t very part 
except that which is to litj printed r*i would be sl^ippwl out 
with npnqn« rarnUh, nitd the name in reapc^ct of *hc otlirr twj, 
Thn*e ibeeta of plf^#iite4 wnsitlve pnp^r, nne Umn\^ uf «»cb 
of ihn colours required, arc now print<il by the orxlinary pr^tyM^ 
of |ibotography, ih& rod pigmntt*?*! ]Ki[ir*r Ijeing prinU-d by Ik* 
(^frMpoodin^ itrgativc, nnd the samo *ifh tlio yellow and blue 
e«loiirf. Each picture when finiahfd hnx only a portiuu i>f the 
pattern iiDpreoMd upon iU Bnt Ibc p^pdi* U thla a^wl trutt- 


48 FonrLAH aacMcc betuw. 

poront, nnd thfi colmtriB^ matter rckdily eeta ofl" U|H>q 
tthn^L uhk'h fomu iu pcrmnntnit ftbirlfDg pliuat, Thfi 
I^orlioc of tbt- picture U bid dovrn upou tSu &nal vuppart, 
liif t^^Tiglng tlie tack of the WnHfLiivDr Impr^isM pa^vr w^Uh 
nJcol^ol tlic imngc Jcovcf the LttUv and wibcrt:^ to tbu rt>riMi 
ffljevl. 71:r HrvTiiTid pirUint iK Tinw IaiiI i!imii in a RrirUbt 
nuumor; luid Uie Uimponuy tupporl kcinj; transparent, coi 
registr&iion l» M^ciired by raoring the fieofiiil pk-cnn? uTiUt 
cobtif u SDOD t> foil into it« proper plft<-(L Fioally, the tbEfd 
ccilmir print tn trraE^l in th'^ mmn wiiy, aad tht^ r4>inp1i'<4«l 
picture eontaiiu m'cvj portion of tlici cubjuct, iiIr.!i;;iU|;U pnot^l 
hy t]ir«a difTerpnt upvnktloru« Tim niixtiuv uf iDliHun iuhj b« 
practiaed to any d«Bir»d axtwt ; tbuPt if ai-^en in to be priiit«4i 
tbiTCurrraipaDdiiig portion fiviidd 1m- ittopped nut of r ^ ':nt 
Eiei^Uve oaly, and m witb Ui^^ <)tl)«r vecoadiu}- l . . jtk 

lusd oiait£& 

Tb« foroj^log vas. In ^^flfect, tb« dMcriptlon wbkh the wnUr 
of tbin nrticlo giLvc of M. Vidal** pfocrM of pW'^polycbrony 
at the DritiKh Aif^datioiu uiu) tlie «pcciBi«iui wIiIl.^! bv 4ixbiUt«d, 
A^Krviujf tbe pn^uctii^i of a pkluro in tit it« Bt;k|,:u«a wcrr rv* 
cpive.1 with a roirkrii <i<'i^ep of ii'iter*»*rt^. Thp prix*^'*^ ceflAlnljP 
h ingtniou", and tbi^prni** ir:^ vcir Jinlliunt, lltcj b3v<* bem 
ptimp]\riMi to (?!]roii:o*1il1i<i^iph>, Imt jUbmigli pm(!ttcnl in > 
mainK^r Homcwh/it aiialo^u^ tlirrc ii lliu iiup^rUiU diflcrettoe 
between thi^in, vfi., ibai wWle In the btr«r tl;er© la no rt^ 
d&lton of louo* tho cbromo-photo^rAph pafl»o«M9 all tbo 

licutcr of filuHing am) lint pr-nilinr t/j a phntngmphlc pHnt* 
Bui lu th^: procifiolLon of r^ch tint it t\\i^ r^iiiltr nf an cccpoMffO 
nC -iT'/eril ieiiijuIl'S to llto li^ht of l1]« H^m in a jjrinLLUj^ fnuna, 
it f^lowa tliat^i-t-il m tbe prodMcfion of thc«e priutacan ncvtf 
Ut aiTAftitul. It' npii^lity tm rU^viriM), a mH.}ind of prlntilg 
similar to tbat of litjuif^phy mutt he vmptoTod, and tbrtunntdf 
ru lliB naw e-Simsivi-ly m1i>pttid *y*tcm of " JitUutypjr " nc '*<vil- 
iolypy" w*f liavo that v<*ry moftDs at di«po«al for producanic 
plioti'-licliix'hraa(?i in ;i muTiiKTr fw more nij«"l «jid ti^jiuUlf 
iTti'vct.ivf? thciQ Hint of .M. ^^idal. Wo «liall pruM-itl au outlifiv of 
a, ni<Kiifif.Hl prooi'.^ of tlii.ikind bv wiii;.4i trc li^^t; ncanauuinber 
of coluiifod pnoU of |*r«it menc produced by aa ordinary 
Albion pnnting-prt^A, and it is vcvj probnbk tliat thia prixmatf 
will fitxm bn Rttunini'vly adopted for commordAl puq>0M44 fa f _ 
this rcAson, that while tbe proctf* ptgncai all tltc briilljuiooof 
cbronKi-litbo^raphi^ tliey farther ponew tbo aeetiracy tutd 
bc&utiful gTAdaiion of pbotograplu. 

Th*^ nr^tivcw ar*' ])ri'parE**i in tlm uanp way a» thnno of Jl- 
Viiilal, vi£,^ tbcxi* inu?! be oh miuiy Dp^^tivrti as tburc Jirc colourtf 
to be produo^l, and fVom 4^ii4i niegative must be £fop|vd otit 
cT«ry part thaL do^j not rvproHBt one special eokor. &ippoM 

fTi( BQltJcot i» a ifui Utt, <?Ui<t with foUsn^s anrl ndoniod 

vithred flowers. Thoir iK-^Livi'?i mubt Iw olrtHin^^J by r^upcr* 

pndtioa from on» oHgtniL] : nil but the floW4*rs t^c^ rniTilc, and 

Ac} lcAT<4 ttro tphco nwprctivdT stoppwi out in t.iio m^fHimtc 

ntgaUvvA, Thw* printing "formci" or *urfft43M ar^ iit>w p^4^- 

f^td—Knuv for (sacli '>f tlit'ai! aegativft* : lb»j pnnttnij eitriaci} 

Ivting, nf f oMTw*.^, ns adopf^l In tbe h<-Uoiypr pme«s9«*s, 

llrc l**Tr» iu!> fiiTit, print^dt )wing iok«d vrith Krrcn. Three 

will appniLT hi iiil Llif- }H-mitifiil di'Iiiuifj* m»! with iiU thr ntnic* 

loml detail visible in tlio oriipual trvc. Wbta tht^ rLM)iiii]tc< 

nttBib»»r*— liiin'lri'd* or tliou^utiids — uf imprt^fcmn'J lisw Uvn 

printed, the printing mrfn^t) It rvunovc^l (onoprc^ only i* coir 

mppnutl to lir Hiiiplnyial), ftnt) ii nrr-ond ** formi?," r^jiriwitiiiiig 

tbe tiowr^ itt tnii'ftcd in thu bed of tlic prtm, Tim is ittki:!d 

with A T.niiirij>rtri/ijt renl litbogmpbk irilc ILe c-olrtur <^rUiir Hotter; 

ud tlio pnitiAhv-prmtod proofa aro K^nl tbrou^^h tli« piv^ a 

frcQcid iinn", ca.Tr Wjn^ tfiWu to kcfp fiori<*('t n'^'iM^-i". A third 

tim« tbo fipt-ratton is rvpi^utcd, vrr lui to inixuducu th*,- btown 

oulifiu i^f llie (junk muJ bniuidii^n. If M^ceKtfujTv l'^Ivius luay 

be tmde to overbip- 

W'liat vTc ba\x< «aid abont the printing cf fiowcra AppU«« 
fi^atUy In that of JuidwapM, portrnits, cind indr^cd to ovcr^ 
ibiug Ui2t cun bo rqutvcuted by pbotogi&pliy. 

rOL lin«— XO. I. 


Tin*l r>bJ4>ct of tUii pflp«T b Co nijjptst & thAoiy Uist Utem 
r:iUU a ruOattoui^Lip Wtwecn tbe DaxoMof Ui« imlivvift- 
habitantd of tht» iKlancI and tbo rac«« to vhich tbey beloni^. I 
Bieui bctWMQ Hit! #ujiULiDM and tlio race. If tbe tlworj l« 
trao, itop^iiiK up a «a)ijt>ct of ph^vfoloffiod ind ftrfm ^ political 
importsAico. It Uoiu to catublisli t£e vii^w, wliicii I, fot mj 
put, bpltt*v«^ to be corroct, that dltrtmcf rao^ hi>vt'^4.'T doMdy 
t^eymay he united togct4bort bj rt^KidciKic in the midc coimtij 
and bv int^frmarriEign, n^tma thi*ir oHgnul qmlit^ of noei 
that ull duw^ from admixture U but. Cnutfitory in chara^«r; 
luit-l iJiul tliere Ih do end to aiiy niiv e^i^^pl byiU^^iUurtutti. 

Canid^n WU0 iha Eiraito point out, in bifi '< Itcmaino ct<]ir«rv 
inp: Dritainr n ftiot, wbiHi * vru in »bin day i» known to ^vry 
few pcraone -viz, th^it tlic 11*0 of jnimamcd or ftmily &&niF<( dul 
not iwgjtj tit^lilhbr^il. [lit* t.iuitrof thi? Norman Coai|uoitt, Tbb, 
u a giMKrral iacU 10 pov fLdmitti^d, but tber« aro outtoin ncop- 
tEoTifi of a rar^ i^baractirr wlitcb indicAte tbat llm ^^tutotn of 
fidoptin^ o HiirtMimr <^ittcd a littlo bcforo tho Con<|iirdt. llitu 
Mr. Mrirk Aiitmi.v Lower, in h\v li^tmn] work "Th<' P^fMUf* 
mica Britanniwi," iliowt from a document in tbo ('i>ttj>trti&i] 
MSS., tvhiirli mutt bave existed earli«^i tb&u lOCft, tbat nne 
Hwita IUt1«, :i kiwpftr of boot in Hrrthfc^lda, hud a ilau^ht«r 
Tat/r Hntlc, \fhii iAiut Ibo luottirr nf WiJitigr the Kliooter, uid 
tbat Lulle Halte, ibo *Lst«r of AVuUij^tf, vra* vifc of one 
Jlrb^tAQ in WcaUdcue. Otbor mcmbcia of tbc? tami* &mily 
are alw namoil ; but to pccuUjtr is tJt<- fact of sucb ' - ^ifti 

Mr- FcT)>:Ufon maintaintv bui>> 3lr. I^nofi. foi ' ^i>S 

fiunilvof H^li, cbit it la proU^My tby otde«t hcTr^litarr uif 
Tiatuo vc buve ou record. The fuUowm^ quoUIiuu fr^m the 
leaned author of tbe ^^Potronjimtm KritaaniiNi" ijdvbaita: 
"I p>oc no rcji»a for <iepartiii|f frana the year 1000 u tbo 
prioxiiruue vUits br the aauiiBptloti of &iiuly namr^. Tbo 
pTBctiofi ^-.^ I ■ ' id gTaduaJljr extended iUolf 

intoKngln . 1.^ 





' From Ute Lime iiaiik«d, Ui6 yt^T 1000, Uie |»actioe bofl oos- 
liliwd. Bud lifta extended bo greBtly t^t at this time tL<<rvi are 
fri>t«bl7 35,000 sainuimcs. Id the sixteenth Ancunl I^cpnrt of 
tlip Re^trAr-GmiFfiil (l8,^fl)Uuriy-twot,hm3wt;ili-JKlit huiulmd 
put oightcea dUTori-itT. eurcamci wure ntcordt^d* oud Uie ha bAs 
fwawdaincg Uiat Lime. 

I lujik Qi^n to ttio '* P&tronyauca Britannkn " for n Kum- 
Duy of f&cts, in thv fuldrmdum of t^itt work, U^arin^ upoo 
lbiii|i;B> einuBasUncov, or qualitioM from whiah HurtHLmw »« 
Lerhed' Cuodeu h^ul already, iii UU Um«, diMM>vt^j-ed a con- 
idonblo numlwrof ohf^isR, olthrtd^h hi« list doe« not npjir-^ti^h 
modcni on*^ to which I am about to rcftx. This Doodom 
exkXMCUsd from thr dcrciimontH ia tha office of IhcH^A^tnuw 
n^ralt vad compiled by a jzcntlemau tTnc*? in thul ulBce, b, 
r. Lower states, auth^mic Xi tvery particnlar. It pLaccn 
in relation to their ong:iEi«f under the fotlowiog licadR :- — 
2fantmfr&m tc&rdtf rtlatin^ tt> rtttujion ^ ojt Cburoh, Font, 
, Praphet, Dcfin, Parson^ Minister, Tomb^ Jfvavcn, H«U« 
nnoa, Crucifix, (vTave, Sexton, Ckrk, Beadle, Verier, Oo7:{f»r, 
Surplice. ^, From WQrde rd<dinq to the mijn>ral 
«idi Afl Ovrtif Ji*wi?l, ,Stoiin, Octld, Silvrr, Sli»el^ DiA- 
Ituby, GIjus Klint, Chalk, Snlt, Carbon, Cky. Slate, 
e, 3. /VfWi wf>nlH refitting to thr t'cjttrihU k-itsjiiomi 
ad Tr«H .Wi, ilircb, Cork, Date. UjUv, ivtmon, Ouk, Pinfi, 
*, r.#nif, RjirW, Clovrf-r, Hat, Cotton, Brinr*, Canp, TTrnth, 
r-U < nvfLrnd* Poppy, A'iokt, I'ink. 4- /"/r^sn Tt^/;-*^ r^utiitg 

buUdiH^fA, if^eir vnrfi, itr,i Mich HH A-JiffoUlj Tnis7<i-1, Smithy, 

ffc. Bam. Mill, Cmitl:*, l^rrn«k. Bufiti-ju, Mok* Templo, 
, Tiinnel, Weil, Pantry, Dairy, Kilclirii, (.'haiiiV'ra, Koof, 
ftor, I JiTiior, Window, Oven* Tilo» &, Froni T^in-iU rt^latlrtg 
atui itn artirtrmitaniji r sn^h a* \^^i^rio^, Swun), Da^iger, 
f Cannon, Guard, ^in&, 0>rp>s Kanlc. Sbiclii, Bauner, 
bor, B'jvr, Anow, Camii« CWjquiraU G. Frovt it<o)xU •rrl<ii' 
ng tt> t*UMxt« Kind tfmpftramants -■ mch as Katwcli, fVam, Nice, 
iavonry^ Joy, .Tc*t, Oay, Mtrrry, Jolly, Rirtd, Muck* 
liaolrUat, Sport, 7- From won^ TfltUinff to itx->i^ical tn- 
tm«ntfrite;fudi»niti{tr1iuni. Fjddlp, Tift. Hom, Pipe, Tabor, 
>nun, Timbrwl, Ffbrp- 8, Fti>m xi}or*h rdntiu'j to r^/chtt of 
j^: mcb M itirtb, Marn'rtgi.^ M'(db>cL !*. fi(^/-f r^fWo \tl^ 
B^ /o «/bUMt: tueh ;l£ Sijunr<\ Hound, Coat*,\ AngT^ 
Su>ciH,aod Circuit. 10. /VmH tt'orc/fl r-d'jXin^ Ur toi?^: jiifih oa 
Hurt, I>or*d, Itoaina, Book, Paj^ Pr«e«f Print, Ijtiire, QiiiU, 
.cd^r. Aniult, Chirt*;r, Letter, Card- IL i'Am* «vre^ «- 
i^tRv/ fu pttit\tA of the comwm«: ncich at Kajil^ Wevt, Nortb, 
oatbt Sotitbivn, Western, niMoutJi. 12. Fr<ftn vx/rds rtlhting 
y imjU^m^nts, toots^ or- eomijuxlitu^ .' sut^b f» pAnvl, Bate, 
■adt. Box, Coopt Tub. Awl, J^w, Soil, ]lon«, J'oiKb, Candle, 


I war 


Ooki.\ CiHicli. KoUf Sontpa, ShoU^ Stirrup^ 13. /Vom wcffd 
rtiitlinff to dt4ir>icter titles ; suoli na TouU Loon, Lau-. I^^^ 
Greyly, Dupe, Hint. M- ^'ivni wi^rds rWofiK;/ 'o ^WifrM 
such RA Oinukl, An^iili, Orit^ PWr, OuiL^ DiLdgriun, rrva 
8lf, Viia« LAwUttf .^^wni^', QiuiaU SIulUot, Vogue iff 
Prom iv^nrie iti*iiln^ todotniiid ami ortbatA^U^; ancb a» (n> 
tii«nt, llat, HiX'd, <^p, Tinpet, .Shirt, Bfiac^ Sub^ Pat(«l^ 
Fc«tli<-r, Vc«|, l[<mc. .Stocking, <jEiitcr, Dmcc, Tap^ DiapOi 
Fiipljn^ Silk, Pook«t> Pluib. 10. Ffofn wordu r&iating t.j a^ 
caa^iind th«lr eottcomiULTit^ ; »\it:h a» FevcTiPdtiy, UifiiLl'tLi, 
BoUs, Riclc^^ lATiitlfw, O-flroft, Chap, GUndors, Sf avin, L«pA, 
Pill* Bfklj>nm, Uolus. Phyidr^, lancet, .Mortar, 17. /'reanemdi 
rc^4ifip],7 't> lifjiton : such ai Wfufr, P*>Tt, SLt-ny, dnr^t, Ntgui, 
VTiiskv, Sloui. Eg^b<>yr, M^d, Ptwy. 18, /Wff* tc^rvii re- 
laiing U> c.ttonrt - Hiieli a* Mine, fire^n. Purple, Scarlet, La^:^ 
Bonn, 13iiff, Grey, Ijivnndcr, Ch«irty, i'cncb. firablo, JHitfi:. 
Whil*^, 1ft. Prom wo^\U rdathnj ta fitf*«: Mwh ha Kiuj:, 
Qut'CD, N<?ble, Koii^btt Squire. Boron, Lord, 31arjn^vc, Teoi- 
plar» Rvi, 20, Froin. ^nttr^ht trlti/i'tt{t U^ i*u>n^j^ ; sucJi «i Cxtv 
C&flh, Giiincn, Pound, ShiJIin^^ Sixpcnoc^r Pcntiv, Fartliiif^ 
Mnrk, NoHp, T«st,'r. PottU-, GilK Mil.-, C.wHt, Kiiflr-ng, Tin!, 
Jnchi.'iH Koiu], Tod, Lfi^t, Pound, Biirrel, Toua. 21. fw* 
^(jft^^irt tytdlir.ff to thA ivf^ithfT t Slid* ns (!^loiid, Dew, Foy, 8|]V 
Mist, Thnw, SleeU Hail, Rain, Wind, Tt<mpo«t, Tbuidis 
Li^lititing. Dj&y, Nuou. Slnr, MoEiywt^athitjnb 22. /Vvn^vonb 
relaiirt'j i<j jifitLres: tmi^L a* Cipher, Uniti IVo, IVoXtc^f So«c^ 
Twti'iil J 11^:11], F(>it>, GrL»4, EveD, DouUa^ 23, /Vtrm «R}nb 
rttatinij t^ tivvi and sfftuionD : siicli ns Spring, f^ummor, Mirtl], 
Mny. Mondtty. UalCuigbt^ YrArly, Fevcrycur, CliriftliiDU, l^vL 
PimteL^oaC. 24. f^^'OTft it'on/8 '^'tiatinfj to txmvmerco; nchu 
Tr&d«r, fSclkT, Bartf^r, Pavt Kan^om, Bonue, Sal&. Scrip, Louu 
Borrow- 25. >Vo**i wonU tu partu^ipU^ and v^tIm : «uoli tf 
Boiliniz* riiKKingT Hiding, It^iviiL^'.^liivin^, Wearing, Seo> Seek* 
Took,Gazi-- 26. Front ^oonia ns^' I nj/ adjeirthtu : mch aaSUniff 
Lufty. D<ni;;L<y. Woukly. Uuiiity, TiJy, It^ady. Prt4ty, IVteod^^ 
Bandy, Cri^jp, HumWe, 51*i]iJi*r, Wt'iiry^ "Svst-, IHndy, T^Qc^ 
27. i'iy?Tn. it^ortU relating to ^tin^iUar ccoupiUicne : eiicli ti 
E*incher, GaiHfflter, Sicjiter* BDU)ki*r, BounrM", Bruuirr, Snapper, 
Leader- 28. iVont -uionl^ meani/n^ much <uia: such a^ Freak, 
Pother, Row, Kont-, Muminpry, Cnr;t,Gomip, 'J*j, Frtmi ^tord* 
r^loHmf io the Vqim: »iich nn 'JV^nc, 'I'lmo, Sing, Bow, ±5ii^ut« 

moll U4 S1m<p> Strong, Galluul, Jump, htcndy^ Mart, Trip^ SUtp^ 
Stride. 31. Fivrntvonls relailttg 14} ganihlhi{f : xiich aa Qatne^ 
Swindle, Chance, Hoimrd, ieatHe, BUliards, Skittle Dioc^ 
32. A^iTiTL v;nn£ir TvColifiy in fpmtiti^ : mirh ns Kidi, Kirhman, 
JUcAU, fittm, Cn^ft» Smarts llaatc, Speed, MtniH, Dump. :^ /jvnt 

ftvmb de^igmUin^ rivers^ mount^un^, n<iiio7t/ilUi^^ cCc, : Auch 
Mt Bcnme, I>4?rvMtt, Tyn<^, Hrnnlwr, Sivrni, Nile, Jortliin, Sn^w- 
4^4 AJp«, People^ Tiibc> Kcntiiili. Huxoq, Nomuin, Jew, Ku£r» 

lioninU/4: such aa PorcnU Struigcr, Blothcr, 8irc, Dmldj* 
Rittbonit, Hridc^Orpbiui, Gniliton. 3J&. From wimU hullraiiii^ 
Ooet^p€Uian$^ 0vitpla\t'n%»i^«^ and offices : mich tm Mti^on, Tilcr^ 
Phimlv^r. RitildiT, t-Viller, Pihtter, Drtjvcr, Waid^^r, Clerk, Pnel^ 
Mmdot, iMiiI<-r, Jjukur, Oirtuuii. 3ti. i'VoT'i 'wor<if »ii/tii/ifinff 
wrmtnal rutmes: such n^ Kvc^ Oditi, AM, Mo«r:'!, Iliiri>[), 
Stepben, Pnulm^c, AjiLX, ilcctiir, Kabian, Livy, Kutui^ Tudor* 
4T* FrvmtLHirii* Tr/itm^i,'/ io cfnuMfJiiU and putiJih thitigsz 
ai/eh ^ Foodf Kvo^, Fitiht Fowl, B^c*d, Ho^ded^ P^^a^oup, 
^farrov, Onioa, Tiffin. Gtitgi^EV Gnpv&t Quinc^^ Ciumb, I>uxl. 
3tf, From top^tfrapkiciU ivonl^t hiioIi aji I And, 3U<a<:tows, 
Field*, Ganloi, Wny, lli^hwnv, iltick, OiitT, Ferry. 3&, /Wwt 
leorcb <l»c^i<kpf j!f« of patU of th^ bodtf : such aa Eyes, Tocith, 
SeoDCHf ColWbciu«t BoKTvU, Blood» WjUieis riuck* KTiccbonc, 
SpdUlo, Gull, Bo^k. 40. Frtmt nam^ rAlatin^ to nftips and 
»0tr <M«0i»ai«OM ; mich m FJcft, Hulk, CraS, Cuttt^r, Tug, 
KeeXf Oble, Oar< 41, iVowi name^ iiffnlfyhtff UnUy qv€iAl- 
rupedst Teptiie^t iitsf^ts* andfiskett: trnch us Uird, Kite, ^^'nioet 
Biivnrd, Finch, Snipe, Swallow, Kolnn, Qtill, Crow, Pigrtm, 
Bmt ni p. Guilder, Gofling:, finite, l-inn, Foi, Wolt Stag, 
Leopard, B«ar, Mont(>, Hart^IIind^itAblnl, Ccmt'y, Hare.Pij^. Ctir^ 
Qoat, Lvnb, .Mou^^ Cricket, Flea, Bitj;, Mite* Fiij^ t^liark, 
SsItnoQf H^rriiig, Carp, Piko, Gad^eon, Trout. 8olf^> Pwirl, 
Biraocle, Cockle, Cuttle. 42. ^"rom tvortte nU<Um<j to couit* 
trim ttnd phuYM : mch na Albion » WsUo*, Oaul, Congo, Cbinap 
Sidney, Calvary, Gat h, IJ^nct, Troy- -13, /"rcwv wordi tdcA- 
YAQ to Ltntdaii aiid ifn auitwrtit : aiwli as Londi)Ti« f^trimd, 
Holbom, Hrtrrow, Poplar, HiLmpBl«£id, Kiliium, Kicbmoud, Kew* 
Atftf^LU*, Hrixtmi. 

It will bv noticed in this Lint of narocfi that several of a 
fJtanu:4t*iiftii7 kind an- iiot iiii^ludr^iX Thiiirt tbe wholr.i of tho 
n^mtB having th& pre^ of Miu\ Ap^ and Fits M<s omitu^l U 
wpII jw dioft^ baviDg tbi." niiffii of «07i. Thrift, !iiiwcv*tr, iiro 
corapfttmd dozik^^ mid uro not «ji«cntiiLl to thd cJawificaiioa 
aJliinl(*<l by the rutitni* 

Thtf compiler who has recorded tb*> naoadJT Bomo of which wa 
bAW^ven bjwfty of iUusLiattuUtlmt divided hi^ list, ns wc hnvo 
Bftcn, into fi>rtT-thrco part«. This was ii convcnitTnt division in 
frxtmctinf: anci hd>idnling 1li4T nainirN firhui Uie iimrvi tliat Uy 
b«forti hivQ. But wbca wo (^om^? to an analysis of the factn^ 
we find, as a primary wid important trntb, that there axe only & 
fev ori^nj of tho saoi^. Wo may divido tlMta origiut int^ 
Um finllowing part•^* 

?A?VLAB flcmpm 

Fir«t And feimplr^, there: arc th^ nomcfl Umi mayte oU 
jMnu^o/. ibat. ix tn my, minmmffi d^rir^Hl Irtmi ncana nn 
vhkh would pow bo colled a Cliri«tian diuhc?, uid whicbil 
c«inlrltH w1]«rA the CbrlAti&ii fnHh in prerlamiiuutit wd 
Uff<dly he 10 cttUtd. to vbatacMrver crood the posveOHt «Ci 
might, betong. T1i«m' names K'hich, a8 T «ay, iro cnll Cfrmtii 
wore once tho onLr nctmc^ % nnd it i« n ttrnn^c &ot^ p«fiiftpi 
pf ihi- «trzit]^{T<HL BictA in liislory* lliat thini^li nnw llu^ 
only to ht> an addition to a eumamor they eUU ooiiMittiLa 
the tnie l«^l DAm« of Ibe own^^u Tbe sura&iae, in Ui( 
oonunoDcing onlya» « f&fJ^tc»n. rcmninfl as ftich. It majt* 
obuis^ftt pldWLX*?, bill thi? Oliri^ItJiii nnmr atUchnl to iU ud 
which riwoi^lly mai'lc^ it^ owner^ can only be changed by U^il 
pfoct.'Hi. It witA ufLtuiaU thcrefort't la [he clunge <^ failtW 
which took plac9 whi*ii suniwrat-A w^rc introdiici»d, thit Ui« 
nntnc bj which the pnfuon had prcvioiijJy bwn kncrwn ibodl 
eithi-r rcmuin a3 a duruame or bLouM be modifitMl by a ptetti 
Auch UA jVot;, the aon i>f, cr a ^ffix< such u son. 

In Ibe aeaond instanov, then im' tbe furriAcm dcnired &am 
naiDc» of placet* towof, counties, cotintricf^ vi1lng««, irvca 
hoiutcn in which the person Lived. The uian woiOd 1w gft^ a d 
so of Buch a place, or Bu-and-ao belonging to audi a place : if ths 
plflce VfK his poss<>s«Ion, ho would be o/ it ; if he merely lived 
in the place, ho would bo belonging to it. 

Tn a Oiirf! divWou of iiamtvt cv»me thosft drrive*! fn>m muw 
inflBimat*-- HubdtanUvo tiling, aui'h ua a fIoiic, a forctit, a TO«d« 
a mill. The person wnuld iw called soand-fi*> of the mill or flf 
tbc Jorcet, upon which, by a very ijight change, would fotlovt 
ill iiwiny riuioK, namiiH frnrii oc^i-u|mtinnj( nonrif't^Uirl with th« 
KulMtantivc tliinfi^, Aiich an MiUur. KoreHtor, and tfo forth. 

lii a fourth liiKlJLnj-'ti were sitnuimts derived from the ijauiM of 
animale, which name^ charactoristic of tho animal, wora eook*- 
Hracs tiatiies of ctintf'mpt- 

l-'itDilv, ibero w^rc nomn: Hcrivrd fr^m i)TiaIitic^ of the nund 
or of the body of thr? jtemnu Tlii? luitii vra« Hprightty, or 
Btron^, or frail, or hardy, or proudf or wild. Svcn peooliariti 
ariitiLg from disease would como under tlus hmdi sdcIl 
b'itSy 8pIayfoc»t, Ltjpcr, or KiclcotM. 

Ill a Pixth and lasL (liviMcm werr? tiamtv HignifyLng nnnTW^ 
tiling mure tlian qualities, that is to wy, Utiw derived from 
eatales ankiTfl or olT^ces such a» Kiug^ Nublei Cmvrn, Court, 
Ji}t\ff&t ^hE^nff, und tho like. 

I hiiV4! rvducixl theiw d^rivaUoat of nanif« lo n fvw simplA 
and n&tnral tonat, in otd^r to 1«tul to the theory I vo\M 
propound respecting: name and rucc^ Wlina t1i<! fib<hion of 
sui-uameA came into usop the surnames veen? taken, neccnanly* 
«3LtlL«i by accident in each cast^ or by soma order or dnMA 


OK VXia A3T> njLCn tlV EKQLAMt. 


though not appufoDt to. Dor Fp^^^'^ti^Jy mtcnd«d hy^ 
ibn (uwiimrvl nr ninfr^nriHl Ibn numfs^ wnA, ni^Tvrt^eleo^ 
tlic in rcvuJt. If the uaiac* wcav Uilccn or nppJicd by 
laaij tlwii it Jidiild ToUow tImL in aU Hm nice* UitkI mndo 
dw Mmmumtir tho luunea veio indiacniuiiuit^ly mixed. 
jutvatHX^c plan wflrr ronwiovdy or iiTii^msrEmMy fi>Ilowed, 
particular nnmn» would \)t: pbimpf/d upon nnd odhoro to 
laL-i-*., Tliw latJrr ]ni«iti<iH U wluit I U?lirvr to hp 

I I BUftn thui At Ute Umcf wheu euru^uut^a b«cam« tbo 

II Eu^Andf tlte fjufaion waa vai'itut do:ordii)g to the 
shUuia ftiiftt«d. 
Ef! thin tlirory dmr, ji U CKvmtiid t<i glniioj* ni tlir 

rliicli i.'xirfc'd on thi> iioil at the time whru tUc sumatne 
a fttrlof iLt- uitLioual hlflL.»r/, Ai thiB period Uitxe 
lilirM dititinot populattoo^ &t least. Tht^<* wng the Celtic 
ion, whic^ b«*l i>fi*ii drivrn, by Saxi^io cmnjiiflimeDt*, 
centre of tho Ulnnd to (he mo tin I oinouB diEtncU, to 
nmj Co the Hi|:hlai)fb of Scoiliiud ; Llittr vfus ihv Saxon 
I, vhkli b«l() Ihe rocj^t docninaut away, and which 
ftonniMiflly incrcMcd in numWr unti p<'wi.<r by tljc Not- 
LVMion; nnd tlicrc ^vos ft Jiwiih popuUlion, the 03c- 
wliich it not known, but which could not luvc been 
tble. To these might be added, thoii|fh E exclude 
tbo prcaf-nt aiguDi<int, the rcmfiins prolebly, of ft 
population, tun] x fmgnLcnt of a noinndic or gipxy frft- 

oog (hiese tUre* (^reai rat'ea, then — Saxoo, Celtic, J<?wish — 
verv mtrodiicixl, dcw-Iopcd, iviid aciit oiiwardd. The 
tbo n&m^j vaj4 Hmil^d in number, as we b^'kVG Eeen, to 
Ia, vhilc the clft»»ificftt.i<m wiw devised, unconHciously 
bnt, ftM I 1jpH(7Vi% itieJhodipally, hy wliat nwy be called 
itieH ur idio^yncniAicd uf rucb r^ico. 
m^Ki to poiuM tliBt vsi'Tt^ ji^'rAontii^ it ia probable that 
• accc foUowwl tno Aomo cjitrnt thn wirac rule; but tho 
ri»C4^ iui»t dUtii]ciiv<-ty (oIIowth) it^ uud )mvi< hi^ld moft 
fently to it, oUboujcb ihty haw in couroo of timfi 
\fd aomo mth nanie^ a« when th^y have turned Abraham 
^tiJiam; Lpvi into Lovob; jAoob into JacobBon; Hoem 


no* derive*! from placa wcti*, I think, dividtxl mainly 
pm tbr Cl'ILi mid .Suxuub; the Cl-K? utpeci^lly takiDg 

PtoriTtrd from tocaUticf- Thi« fact Ih^coto'^a mort not«- 
vben a bit uf uanur* i« tnVc^ up, the Celtic nature of 
bvettlcd by the prefix of Jtfotf or Ap^ 
mm. derived from iiuLmuu^tr thing!* nud from uouupatjoiw 
■igDcd, I tbink, almost exchi^ivoly to tho Baxoitt, Thif 
nccord vitb Iboir character aa n lace. Th« tamit 


rOFCUS eClE?OCB oetuw. 

rul^ Applici aUo to nftnei derived irom «ecu|3tttiaEiet tmiUl 
pTort^oTi>i.aiiJcHUiliX)(^ HiAre exifftji Id 9Ur)i immiik^ all tlierlr 
menl^ of Suxou fcttui^btforwdueestftd limplioitv. The JA^uMt 
Wf>r? fhfi wr^rfc^fi of mibtrnnlivr^ lliingn ; ibpy MU^d iIir wmii^ 
hewed tb€ stouc«i do^ the ditcli««, pLoitfibud tha Ikldtft sovtiit 
thmtJiiHl, am! ground tJie <x)ni, made Iho lircftd, cvJEiLnictnl 
the tiouACts dtlvtd fur tUo ]De4BlSi nc4t«d f^r ihi" tisb, Ijnmd 
the ocean, hiutt^J tlie wild beiist> vlieplii^rded thr Hockf, tgok 
diftreo of tbo ai«tl« or Um priMo, nnd in n wi>rd p« 
thono mdc biit Dccvmmtj sui* by wlik-li a couotj-r. lu* yrt 
of rdinein«mt» and UDOcquftinUd wiLli active oommcrco, U p»- 
pu<ttd to become, by tlir &id of oilier haiuJp, rdincd aud oov 
tcwrouJ. Tlnu it WA«iiiitur%l th»t to thaciiiioiih] ba atltdicd 
f.hvi nnmrjL prrlninirig to Uio nubDUuitin; tiling UirT wi<tn cm* 
plcjiiip,^ or til thii Uijtiiie«i«« upon vbi^li ihey yretv f^mplojcd i 
iLor c£iu there bo a better evidcmco of Soxol blrtb «ad iwe 
than a £umam« so d^ved. 

It vouJd b&rdljr bo fnir, howcvrr, to mj tbiU tbr t^^xoti 
mind ibiAvM no tiga of cnbtflliiliRL^itt of muno by udjeetit* 
^Donym* It ?iL>mctaii^<'^^ &ddcd vordd to exprm tbo quality «f 
3L namu &i It might hSiTe done of a aubstAOce. C^rnHfii giv«f 
u» eome Tcry i^ood illu^tiBtioiu of thu noturr. »p<^kirkg, liov- 
rvnr^ nf I-jlj^IiiJ] Snxniin mtbrr tli&B of Sftiikrw propiTr. For 
cx&mpir, the wurde i»^ «a4 and 0^ in compoitiui nttnei 
n^iiiiiod fill, ot att^igether. Ho jShiJin i» a corup1i*c« coo- 
i^iieror; J^lLcrU all Hluirtriouri. or bright; Aidrt^U attt^ 
jfetlieT iwprpTid ; Al/rwlj altogKher praceAil ; j^V/, iTieaniiM; 
bclp or uci»tQDce, ij< combined witb other vxuxb* m ^£t 
fwfn, atitiitiimt Unnigth; AU/wilfl^ an iw*i*t*ttl. grwt'nior; 
jStfffijit^ belp-'hEiver. vln^ bdon^'ini; ta ttr li tuUural rli»* 

SHicioD. 80 (r4><£aty£ mesoB a di\iTie temper ; Gtjf'irdy a 
bend totBpcr or diepontJOB ; Binianit a filial 'liep«A- 
ti<in ; Ritnrtl, lic^longtiiff tfi rl^rbdM or wrnltji ; Atlri^ tjr 
^ihoU meijin* uobic; no ^thelTtd ia nobler ODOHftc^Uor; Aith§i-' 
ttanU 1^ noble vani or protestor, liidd M^ifii^ LitM; m 
fFiin^af<^ id a TtobI« conquoror. Oft or A^'n lutaua kiik^ 
ibik ; fo CfW-Ai^m i« a protector of kimind* Cuth iti^IAw 
IcDowlcJf*^* or skill ; mo Catkici^ U a skilled conqunror ; C\UA- 
rA(^ a akillnl ociuuneJIor ; CuIJdtetHj a %\ii]\n\, fBrnmi^ or ill 
trioiu man. Fr^ me^iu p6a«e; ao F^vd^mV ici wcoIUit p«>ooi 
1Fi^k^/m£, viHorJoik* peace. IMn tneuib ikfiTuct- ; s» li^-dkiim 
i% ^iutini^iUhi'd clHbncv. Jicn luid ifrm iiu«a an army; » 
JiitivUi lit tfciic^d of oti otinj ; Ilureman^ a chief mnn io Um 
array. //iM la lord ox lady; m JfttdeboiC is illuilritnu IokL 
Matkilih^ n^^At: kidj. Jfitni2 mtaiM peac«: to A'cu^rrmml is 
happy pidLfc; ^£/t»und, all poa«^, Onf mvantcdgeor sbaip- 
sceit 00 OrUfrr^Af la dear or bngbt cdga £dd iocbiia ctnux 

tel; » Conrofl ia akilU'*) in <oiiudl; Htvl or Jiarp>^H^ illuji- 
trious ill roiinril. Hir iiiraiH imuvrful. r[i:)i ; Hf Afjrlir h nJl 
licb or ttroQg; HUxiM is bclonpinj* to tho rtrontj C'r lu'li. Sijf 
ktfuiji victory ; ta Sit/tnul ii ^ irhirinri^i jjowit or lii^imntioB. 
iAon m^'ttm a aupcrUtivo man or thinf:; mc Ath&Uttttiit ih^ 

mmm aUODg, nirablc-. luaty, fornimi* fireL part i>f mui^ n&meSi 

k dofeod<!T of muriv; Wiidifft^ r(*«poatw] of iminy; WU/r^ 
pr«c« to mauy. TTiiv trLejms^ war» ^Lrim^h, or lave uiJ<L i-tliM-ai ; 
cfaoR ITm/rYvf ii viotoriou* pea;>c> US iMrfoie ii&m«di Wold and 
ITofif tncttu ft ruler or (^iiv(.'raiir ; whence BtrticoUit & fAtoous 
govmioT, and j£tMiuofit^ a i;ohlp gov^mor- 

I hatxi: r^uotcil tlit'^i? illiintratkrlkf, vritli gnc or two modi^cn- 
ttOQi, IVom Camden, ai blionio^ ft eeriv* of Saxoo nujnia|*s lying 
A little Bpiut from tJi« mere namea of tliiiii^ TIjIa urrang^ 
brat injtT hjhvr <kCoutmi, nn wil) bo ^th(?mi from thn fvj|Uo1, 
froca « tdnpomrr ncimixliirr of the I^axon and CVI'ta racffMh 
But it will b^ obsvnM iJiat Ui ull thts illuttratioiui jcIv^q, thert 
10 in each dajho tbe t>axiQD mark of a uoun or a eubAtantiro 

Nomca iTkrlicntin^ *jiinlitirs, linving connected with (bcm no 
ftiW^uitivi- lliitijr, \kii %Uti-n\h\g nhmt; iim ficciilinr, t lirlipve, 
to ILo Cfltic ra*^*.-- Tims -Hich iiiuni-fl as Jicrrv, Jolly, GloriouB» 
Hmall, 8lenfi*>r, Crouch, Dandy^ Fri^dly, Fnir, Flighty Tidy, aro 
good ilii»lnttton», &f ar« mQuy noiiiea to which tht^ pniTlix J/otf 
is attiuilml. M.ii'DoEinlrl, rho aoii of Tl^^iiBld, dmvd, nrrord- 
ixk^ to Xxtwcr, from J^onhuiL brown-<iycd, U a typiciil ilhi^* 

NanQ«« d«nvod from litk-a Ih-Io[i^* I think, both U> thu Sajion 
sad to the C'ellic- nic('8, LilV iiK^ht iimues ^tf tlilu kii^d :ar Celtics 
T1m7 Bnmc« having relation t<< «ome ot1ic>^ tli&t has liccn ci^mtnon 
to daxun And O-lt aJikr, ttfltilU iLi^tfoiiiil tur thHr hi1nii)iict)<in 
tolo botli moH. 

SltniUnr^ dc*jiveii froiii ruiiiif^ uf aiiiiUHlei ure Vrfj dimtiuiiLtTO 

of rckon- Thny boloni;, it eocma to mc, from all thocvidc'^nct-^ lean 
collcctfi-xclimiv^dytotju' Jewish race- TotAkenfuwiHiwtnitiftnfl: 
lAtOf Car&Ilo, U'ulf, Hart, $Ia^, tox, LimrtI, Mole, Hablit, 
HAre, Coney, tavirn-l, Iwiinh. Cdekle, Diw, Pnmrf, Dhvi-, finmii, 
HuDd, Swd, Rf>e, I>eer, Hirfob, and ita modifioaUon Hcr£clK*ll — 
t1ie*c aod n great number of uuiiLir name^ if 1 Ix^J spaeu lu 
reoovd th«m, would support thin vi^iw. In mnny in8tAn^^(^, the 
aanea have been variou^y iniMlilinl ; mid ngjiiii, in tnnnj 
iwtafieM, the" more Blriklnjt cUamul*^riTtiG* of Juwieih lypo 
and cxprvmon have been lost by tt^nip^imry wlmixtiirt? of rai^% 
«hi]o the namo bik« bocQ retAinmi ; Jjtit the alt«vntion le hv^vvt 
so |)ejfcct a* io €OT«r the origuud foctt. Id the umc way, tliero 



FortrtAB ffciKKCB Bimnr, 

are vflen vnrioiis mcvlillcfttiom of Jtmriib fKnoual bbimi, bft 
thr dimnj^ rarfAft if •v«r, ooocca1i» tlw tnitl^. 

Now mu\ lltoii U may lir iKitci) t^Kit od*? imudr, ntmit-.' fmrt 
two *ourcc«f iBfty bdnu}; to two ra^^f^, «o ilmi liiore nu- 
tiooL familiea i>f tlu' Baiue naiuo bat ofdiirvrriil ncBf hu ^u- 
rtonce, th»rn in Ui«> Sftion /r<rf^ drtrivfd from the«uneBUti*ai 
HarolJ, an'l tlwrn U ihit JrwiiJi fl'trr, ilcriieil from tlic doind. 
Thcn> X* tbv S«ixcra nikme ifi^^w. df n^tnl ftum ft tMoitb ur eDfltMl^ 
and tUc Jf^ieih ^ow, ilt^ired Crou a bo^Ao: Umm Oitutrativu 
might bo (;rc«tl;r extended. 

If it 1jca»ktd ]ioir it is the Damcsof fttilmnU lire BttadKiito 
ropr^Mnitntivnt of Uio Jeviidi race, bov, indeed, it ctui l» tbtf 
tli-c-j ?1iciuU1 have namctfi num^ of wbicb vtwH \rc repugnamt to 
tlu^ir ri.'<]i^iL^u<- b«l}ef and nnojoAt f^itb, tliia ts the uuwer rant 
(;oiiiiiAt<:nt wiLli pucbability : tbat «! the time when tli« CiifaiM 
of mironrEioK bf*^m* oommAn. tlt«* }fm. an imiffrTiuivft, n^ciil' 
toM, 4lc«pi«cd races ^<vi t^^ objoctio'nAbli^amcA Uini?^ v^'- 
th«m by thoAe who wirroundeJ ibem. S.ime naufM. | 
sucli as Lioo. Ibcv ini^Lt tin tiw*.'tv(> Jiiive awimodt wlua ib(« 
y!hf^ wre ql^ri>Ti;^)^ ^imiitiftl rSi^m wniild fall into Uir f:uhioii br 
rctjuning rt* Mimam** their ori^niLl HlIjitw niuii^. Tbo n^ 
Imsi fiowCTfiili WL" imiy «/ |iriwtiiniUy powerlMi^ vroutfl binr 
forcM>d oil Llicin tlic oumco ex'co of oantecupt thotr maMcte obcM 
to beslon. 

To flum lip. Tli^tbcory 1 would preeont reeprctJDg tJi« orifia 
oFfii]nt;un<^>i isi, thn:. itt ihn \.\n\v xi\\ni\ tJin f»bi<kTi ikf JHimAroin^ 
cumo inl') to^uo it dcvcl^ijx^ vtMilf iii tho thrtrt- i^^X HDgliii 
rftci.4 as follows : (^) Thai jiorwiaal liaiii««, vfiL withr^ut Ue 
pro6i of .Vu^t -'^iN ^if*i or Ui<>i suffix ^(^h WTC' mftdo coutnoi 
jiinnngHl all llie niceH, btit wtT» not iiTiiivrailly a<li>[)Cvd. f9) 
Thut thi^ Sftion rac<i luid tho CrfHc alike partly ticIopt^H) otiwr 

aMiiiaeJ, or liad au(i(n"^d to tbc-m, of tier uamod dwivod oitJiar 
frviii Firi1tb1,iiilLvr tliii)*;H or ffiiiii (X-ciip^ ioaft. (A) 1%*! l^ 
Oltjc nice AAdttmod, or hm^l n^tn^tf^ to tliom, othor iMtQce to* 
prt^uic of ijuiditiiv of mimi ikr IxkIit. (/') Tltat a jnrtioia r^ 
tti«Jewiih^aciifn>^ to tltoiii,or tlic^nusetvaiajuumtfd, tboomiMi 
ofrarloua amiuals* 

The theory aa to the oripu of tk&nHa in £D{>laud which ( 
burc ventured to piopow iu tbo prcvcding pag«« I would i»^ 
tond rurthi,*T, by aaniiaiDj; thnt wliat oceunwl nt tbs orlgia of 
awiuiEU^ cooijuuea to tliis tlay ; tJial oiltiiiKtmc of racv bj 
niArmge, iioponauon of tiew faiaili«s from olbor couiitriia, 
modificntiona of old diudc*, and introductioDa of di*w nanioa bf 
native familitu^ bav« doae do idoto than bmgft f«« trivial eioop- 
ttou to Ihv ^DUnil rule pertainiD^ to euudc mm! race. I »ub> 
rah, moreovN, that clw characterUllot of «ncli of tb« Hitm 

OS muz &5D lUCE 15 EKOLAKO. 


|fHi tacea oooitenrin^ Knglatid and 8cot1sDd at the predecc 
time ftre, aa & rule, stampod in the niUDc« whiclk the individii&Ifl 
fif th« mccTfi buur. 

Wbm DOW we look at the pure Sjixcid, he ia ajt he <^vcx wiu, 
H<> U itrong of body , fair of oompIexioDt trmbful. iiidtutrioiut, 
orderlyt alow, aurt, rotcotivc, oourageouaH firm, and l>y com- 
pArifion with Uie oth«T mc^ mipid. He fighu to th** tWath, 
and doc% not much IW to die; he- lorr^ <l?->^tc<lly, hutbiHUvc 
it eonluiFd to hta own iinuiediatA €irc*le; Ue liiLt<? u inU-iin-ly 
M he \<3rt^ bttt bo b«iUt«itf tc bate nod conEuea hatred to a very 
ftvr object^t his hIow perception prepentfng him from ext^ndfuf^ 
vrid<^Iv hit bond* oHherof Jove or bntc. He wonders Uiocaiib, 
lilEing n homr, but txniig littbt whi^t ]ii* limU it mi ]ftii^ rut it 
iflOomfortabloUKluMiIatcd ; hcu itocml but roeurvvd, and atihura 
beiu^ Inopectftd or ovr^rlouknl. H^ padriiji litt]t^> sinj^n liLtnlcf, 
faiB Teiy amall admiration for othcrr mcc, and as amall a oon- 
tnnpt. HiR bf'liof jii in bitnnrir, nnt ftvtm jiny kind of hbK- 
mtidaciion cr notivo «cciiio ot^ bin own importance, hiit from n 
mill of ci«i»ciiHi«iiPT« tbrtt jiuvozitT Am in iinLiratary fur bin bujh 
pOTt I to thd last of htE life bv dod^ iiot tkutvt'e. but ratijer 
tnmbW Jiiu>, death. Poliiically htr woiibJ level Uic^ aocial 
Otftb of di«tiQc:tionii nt^ ho would tho pliY«ca] cnxth of trioos 
or roeka or mountAiiu^ tnriu^ iiotliitig for tac lu&Liind or attiitio 
lorma bo bnct brought to tbu diut. Uc ih, in foiot, the rudc^ 
pioomi^ uf iill Ibp oibt-T races uf iLn enrlh ; he servtH tbtjui ulU 
ukiOff of them DO bomaf;e^ and oiF<>fmfj^ noue ; tbe other 
taon follow biuj in hi« ooui'se, improve h\* wm k, aikd bold hiui 
•TOT in watchful owou 

Tbcvc are tho tjpical cbaractonatlca of tbe Saxon nmii, ondf 
varied only In rf^rd to i^x, of th^ >*axon voinaiu 

The iBtw fofiUA tbe uifh±fl of llie Eh|>Iiflb people* Cuiitii^' little 
foe rulo 01 ruling ytw&r, and <rtiterin^' £paraely into wiiat » 
CsUed U»r ^Toming claw ff the country, it ncvntbclcH ndc* 
all claMMd- It i« ttic muEh.Htlu' industry of tho cottnUy, 
aeijtiDiE invr^tiou : it dnbt wttb tba nulid HubBtantivo inateriola 
of tho «artb, and it tftk«a mainly, to itBelf individuatly, tba 
nuDo cither of tJio thing or of the work with which it ia 

Wbea &0W wo look at tho Colt vc 9vt: him etill tut he over 
wait. He ina atrong, brtlliaot man, more aHive than tbe Saion, 
but wanting t^on machinery of body and Saiiun will for «tcady 
labour. A man of quick tntnpi^T, he in i^njiily lod intn pantion of 
mirth, oTol'An2CT,orof|;:Ticf,ande«Lri]ylcd outofnUicr; loving 
actd batiDjc by titma the wutie c»bjeL't ; ingt^oiu in work axid pvt* 
oeptive; quick to It^m, and an&^tioal. At borne he ia disorderly 
and improvident. Ready At any time to l^g^^t ^^ eare^ little, 
COCDfjaiBtivcLy, for tbe ol^oct of the content. Not eo truthful 


tu tbe Soxoo, he it much toon; unUtioui of tppluiMb 
to wield pawer,bemlm«torulebjMrie»(»f1ix«dpiriiicipl^ 
WcftniDVent imt cannot oodUdL Fofid ofarUoeiB busy 
ttirai&g^ Saxon hoapft isto goodljr paUccc Thb tv^o fonxu* the 
«ftirtic pftit vid ftcUvc ipociltl put cf Ei^ih life. It is a race at 
qittUtles, uid Id its «itnuuii«, wbea tlwy dUIer from t he Soi^, 
it Uka what It r«pre«eQU, qiatities aa dlsdnct Croia thiu^i. 

Wh^ noirve look ni thd J«v Id Englnd, li9 u ikc h(« c\tr 
vu, C2C^, hof»pilj,thAthci* kMOppioiKd. StnAllofiriAtnn, 
dukikf <Hmi{dcxionfiuid,byiX)m]«H]*QQ, fuchleoflmib, hv ditfo* 
ha taach froca 8sx<m &« Erooi <*'<ilU mUhfiufh eDciallT be ootohiiKt 
more mdlly vitb the Soton. Th^ bbour of the Saxon in Urn 
fidd«, on the vavm* iQ tbc factory, in the mimw* ho drvpiac»i <r 
n1 all pvrntf cHhiwiis Iot hi* put. Tli« batihr frM of ih»? CdL 
{^vv» jiim iiu idm of glory. hCill he laboitm hard iu liis ovii liJiei 
wliiHi U that of iiUliHn^ oontiuerfi^k tli^ mii(»ri]Ur ]»bikDr #f 
ike ir^xfm* And th^ artutic l&boujr of the Celt. Uc matntauiti 
slronjf sympnThy nith hII hin ntm nuv, hut. Ifiwnrdx ntbrf mcrif 
thnu^h h<i mnT be friendly di»po»«d to tbrJo, he (m-Ia no bond* 
Hi«i ilLtini?«i.]c lifr Li, i\M a ruli-. lIif-idihI jB^rfi-ct; and htK %]lii1ity 
liir drirpiuiBL^ rhiiL ut' hia oom[>oerd. Prorident of hi* ovn and 
]>rr>Urr]ivi' of hU hrorher, hi« rival lacn knoir vo littUr of liis 
pch>r, that fl profo^^vi Jew in ad Ko^Iinh vorkhotwo Ua woudsc 
Hp rnrTi'><, i|H hill n^itiif*, «'Uhrr timt iif liiit rallKTUr or tho iianw 
thnt wru impo^rd ti^xm htm vthcn he "wm the mcnt n)iprf»:d | 
or >Lnw MjmiH.ime% diiiKxm Iiin iinnitif takiu)( orit? nf Iiitin 
orif^u* u^ Latfraucft. TJi*?*« are the Jew* proper, if i toay 
100 the tenf>, tlnj^e who etilL Telaiit th^li pecidiiultlefi ad a 
pDOpln ; they, howevc^T, Ti:^ni«L^nt but a oonpixitivdly fnall 
propnrUoot of th« JewuJi cltrment atiione>t uil If name aod 
typo of body may be Ukken foor i^denoo of nic«y a> the thi.«ry I 
met Auggiftita, th«re exisla in cnir imdit'. a pupulatiou of fn-Ujr 
Clin^ia&iei>d JeW| oqual pro1>ibIy, m nunLbon, to eitbor <vi tbo 
olh^^j- mcof^whichMend* with Uii^ot her rnoe^ty^tyriGninfirnciJilt^ 
distinct, nnd unooiuc*iouiily aot^^ in p>1iticri, commiTnv, cuul 
educatiun, HyiniutLvtically and pnacUcaUy with the pnifcAnd 
Jewia^ item wboEQ it eecaofi to hold itself apart* < 

In politico the Saxcn is democrat ; th« (Vlt aristocrat sod 
foiuLU ; thr .T<*nr nrutnl, bnt IcuDing townrds tlio OUic («de, 
especially in hiii deain to found a s^rtsLt hotuo and c»dt hia own 

In religion, the Snon U Pictetdant in tU« fnlkub wnmi of 
tbtt word, to the ext^ntj indtutd, of cLaimiDg ihd isoic peTf«ci 
right of judging for hinifclf« and of bAtii^ any &Dd i*Teiy 
ftuiotionory who *ljall dare to jadffe for him. The CAt i< 
Catholic; hcifl ItLrcdbytboMcxedsymtfoUsnoftheCburch; bo 
lri» hh oTeiry smse luxarlato In the uxjAeriet of the altar, and 

ox KlUB AKO RACE IN £X>:;LA?iIi. 


ffv{4 bu ftoot ions full ptuy in 1^o vorym^ »cn'i<N^B of Xho varriaft 
K»««WL He prrrTrtR, in llio mystifiil ttolcsmiiiiii** of rvli;(ioDf 
iJut Ue tUoulJ be f^uidcd ; mid ta li? mtiintmiu xcalously vhnt 
the Sftxim vruiild a* iMiloiisly ili.'^o)', tlm onlt-r nf Ujit f^irii'sU 
liood and its proa^ljIi^Df;; indLkncee. Thc^ Juw, tbi/ii;-Ii di!fL'ri»;; 
fiom the Celt m ["tlief, leitiu towards (L<^ jjiit-stly mdt'i', uiiJ 
i«C4-pU cc!riamomaU, fuftta, :in<i rititiiU, ;vhicli to tbfi Sa\<^ii WL>iilfL 
W uitijltrmljlc ; but hi* lurvcr jirondylLiEtit, luid, imltx^l^ ii:Lrcly 
ipeakt <tfihc t^ih ho huldit neuxiMit to hi^ h«urt. 

All thf^e p^collAritit^^ lieW^ to oiu- Euf^lit-lt raL-es, t^igt-tlier 
vnth o\hfT* of A phyuological kind, which cow I cenn-it include. 
Hm^ belong fdM through mcc tn aaTm>; And the \.\t\j I take 
it will come, wli«i the PrU'*t» tbt Politida:i, land tUt» Phy^iciau 
vrillK«p<«ctivFly Uram loauy a iu»vfulk'A)(iii frum Akiupvrle«ijfevf 
tfaii relaticouhip. 


THE AKTiqurrV of M4N .• 

How yiM. ibUtuljectfHwoiilo oni» vho Itu aiddaolj^ wklcDord from lit 
nid Bililical (itiUi iD tint irurM ijf tnx iWnMirt j^tn. Jla* waadavM 
miutappur to him tbo muD«r in which llw irMlogbl bviM* ap frum tk 
mMl VMficd •aum* a dmnolofi^ campirril wltL whlcb tkxx oT th» BIUa it 
>ot •pharnioit]- And jot how vlmpl« !■ tiia i-niiN qi]**eif«i %a ujma vbv 
will lEapnrtiiktly look firei <tt lli« nn« ^eturr and tbt« od thft otW. 01 
Cfiitrti- vp do not rncAU tu Mj|»puin thai tiiu Buly'oct li mt flormnilttJ tf 
dif1kulU««i fat laajay of tho quutionft nhicfa Sir CbariM Ljall mIsm « Ul 
pmoDt Tolumc an mo*! nat ul^ «nticd, <uid vilL ptolialijj tnko • ^m^ 
Iks %t Iciut for thrar IToftI •ulolJMt. iSui vh>\ if h^ hat Btjatimtt§i 
powoT of mind, can •ran cvnMilv md Ibii ^«QdMl trtaliM fa tuM^ agi 
ill ibv i*oHd wtlkoul mngupnith tberoljd todTicliOQ* t W tLo Uleortkt 
Bitb u tnld by lamt U ah Ainpty anf! ai fil;iUlaw, u tnrritnpcvAfiuira nA 
■* nnphiliuojihica)* laU UpoMiUo to h*. NV> tniit that niftajwill C^e* V 
tlip h<j\'^'k. kuit tf Ml v<* vuuch for it Ui«t ^w will Inj itdow fr ultii;«alj i it 
u iccirUjiyi^ Thjit it tnuu roiivo thr> Ti!vnid npithj, whM, ahtt Uv b^ 
of ua uobftppDly poaeM F'^t ii U % hw>k vlikh an* p«n«n of dnlittiijr 
tflt^niin^Mi cau rMd mih pruJll, and a turj I'ttlv kiiovtiei^ cif pKdp0 ll 
n^iitqU fiir tta cnmptaTa dl^itiao. 

Wbm V4 ivh Aiuvolra* vrLat hat tbo authur done is thb odliko tLat b 
baa not alrtadj perffrnni'd, ytv dm] aii aiin*i*r tbat mniplEttljr jnitlflaa tk 
pMductlofi ol a now ^Miiion, rTvn n^ mva aftj^r ill** liiat one. Wa «i»Jl nfo 
lo bfLt a ftw frf tho pouitd of noTolty tn tho b-xtk Ivfon v^ aaVc ImapDl 
fill f(M)lr>){ic«l rmden will ^l Um woii if tiu;y do not nLmidj junnfi iL 
Wa ab«, for example, t^al ^ Cbarlu Ly*\i hju proiltod by tkrt pcrwal <d 
^Thiu' ipleodid work on aiURt&t Hnn* im]iU-tni*v>, wbick hm oonm <ii|| 
him^i- hi* Um tdltipon, and bcncB tLii|virtQf his hi6k b tifb ia Ani!* rxlatlai 
lo lUni iiutniui*at» tmA nub likv. ]ti«i], atfain^ bo taa couiabtelj 
the cboptfT un KMit'«i lloto nnd tb« Biiihaia Cavcn* aad mi ad 
rrnjuJd^TiibU misn uf ir^iivl v<\iibtii^<< ntjvduiif Ibfl Cmwr^ Hit tmri if !h* 
work U of cnimidoniblf imf crUDn , f'w \h« T«*t raaarohaa of llr, 1\b^Uj 

* "th* QfolottioU Gvidcoca cdttv Aati^ailv ofMaa. iJtrith ei Mqiffu q|' 
<}kc4al and I'Dil-iVrtaij l^tH^lo^H »»d HAtarfu on th<Y '.»' -!«• 

in Iko apvcial nfantoOi t« Man'* lint Auju^mko tm tbv '■• . iSii 

Chn}i:vUvii\,S<uL,iLA.,rjiJi, <th kdllko, IV«^h4, i.^oiL^; Johh 
Jlanaj, idrX 

faUoiw Iftbonmii Mr. F*locii)if r And Kr. Prv^lvidi— «M»t«<tb7gTiiiti 
(^ Ihit Wttukffblly j;cft«Hiiu bdf Iknnni BuHeU Coiitu wid 1I4 
bcfi) Sotlaljt vid (ttrritvt oil nitliofvwn fiwjicmiviidi'niljlir iiiiTiilv^r rirjruBi 
^UtvmUjt l«l«lf bwa bnnjiht 1C p conclii^An, I'uKhi-r, tbu tulbcrbM 
ilia fH«a a dvicrijilioii at & tkolelon found by M. niiif^re 11; a cum aX 
Vmada, vUrti, f^nt IJifJ un^liiib«) implnmi^nU nnd ritlnr: jmiiriJili ama- 

Bilii bU pniftoo tbftt MTi^ tte wQriL hu btcD priattd n KCond nkolcton bv 
bav btfougbl U» llgbt b^ U. E£i«iAEV, in n cvighbciurlnp r^AVvm, undtT iimlUr 
OiiditiOML Il« huA wvLu«a la SU CbftrtAt LiiLt lnUiiiff bUi Ibnt hv foi^rd 
rilh lUi neood buowi (cm}, a Amt Uuc« sod bat:bi?i bdb uripoliabL*d# 
immd thA ftfio** vnil^ und kneM of thii w«iv bmc^lel* of Mcdilomotoui 
Mb, «Dd Iha ftkeiUt^m ftit4 finmiiiidlnjif nutb wc4<o •tAtacd rod by oxHt of 

afoTisMd tbac vTtTtirt Ajnimil* wvr" klw fmtod «c « bi^bi^r ImvJ, bui ho 

bnki Ihwl ArfdcnH u to lbs pwition cf tbc«« will b&VD «« be Cftnfullj 

EiBlnvd Wfor* Ibclr " gco!o|ficftl bcanii([ ou tbo Agv of bumAJL «k<lelCD* 


nv Mtibor h«t fALtud i1 Qw#*«V7 to ftatirvlj r*out tbkl iwrtioa of hb 

twic vrhk4i dpfllt wiih lb'; period mimadiaLtflj prvrnJiuiT Ib&t in w!ucb wo 

ftttt pMHtT* CrtcM of mnn ^ *Brt Im bM ftddod ■ vMt d«al 4>f qmtA ooval 

laltcc. In nf«rd I0 I««-4ciicm kc U »tiU famovbat uTidQ«id«dr mnd vi ibo 

rwtnt v«aaintv liHilUriiMm 1<c>Ui nilMnf ibb rjomilDri, And aiM» a rjimibvT 

r n«w £>cU of roti-id-11'iili]* ini.'rvvt fiom thv rwwt r ch*^* «f MU, Notdca^ 

Udid Aod ncowTi- If-? hu iI«elt,livi,on tbo nmoto dflteacf finUutiiin af- 

|gd«d tv by Ibi> iruiniitiki-nU of l^pt «Qd orinnl«il countrW IikIiaI on thi^ 

^fOorUi^ qotftjco bo ?ii«« »« « hmkh tif iofornLntiftn wJiiph i4 cnnpZctoly J 

Mid. HuAlIy* JiiDarL;^ iIlo noT«Uioi of ibe pnicnt f<ditii>n imy br? dtol tbo ™ 

nOrUQtftfbi ukanfrmii HuiIo/k papvu' "Onthn TtHationiMpor Itcprib** 

id BirdVMid hw' pmnUo^tr» tb(> i>rjn^n (-Iruifttfr^n] lNtFirlu'« '-|lr»t.VTit 

rilan,* Kud (!«Jlon'« " IIcH^iUn Gcnin'^" Tboe coitvtiluU iihmI, tutl^j 

I VMiw ttlr ^ ^^1 1""'!^!** *>f L^^ nobirt Tdluiii'?, Aud Duv wo tball TAkc a 

MCeat obA orlvo f^rtboin wliuh oJonoorjr fpAOpUI'>vj. 

W« h»To «bundu<^ cif aT*«n nidmco— froiti lunt'a Cmcni tn Kij^lhnil 

I ib« Pfdtwlid raiti rif I.M Rytlivv IMMoi^a; of tho Uti^t at vrhlrb ibi> 

XOAIfulTVif ptKli> n*ptiwuTi1iD)f t\\M iMTuml CAv<4 bun bn»i] kiripjlv J^rit iu 

p Iho puiblbbcr. it Vinir^ ^/^ tirUt^tc, cri^inntK pnrdriocd in Mcwidn J.*nrIot 

wl Ckiitty*! vnU-kri'Tun wnrb. ** TUII^nin Ailtduni^-." 

Tb« AvUior *b&vi thil in abv of ibo aolf^bbourLHf,- carumi ■ con^l Ubl«t 

f If ocj WH fniuid, wbkh unqiJ««itInDnb1y r«prM«Rt> lliv otiunnifjiOii Tbo 

tftob wlufb b« K^tM of UiU Iflavfn nn itoubl i^n th* TVhrlpr'a niirnl m to iri 

ri^ ibo Gwunmolb, ii-r r\vn Ilv« btdkf bkir wbich tbii uRiEital U known to 

iw pjjcm 3 ff 'fn fiuninJ^tiuia of Lco-prv«Tvcd Sibcrinn apvcimtiit*— U 

Mfiy*yw#jit>*d onibo vpei^Uarin, Tbv# JA conrliidto ffvlilanrp*ftiirdfid of 

le bd ikM ^Tioi^iAl man ir*i co-^xjatfoil willi tbo lOBumioib fnmtlj-'^ 

i>l wbidi "Ai bttvl^fotu in ccrrjfljJvnblv di>iibL 

" TbW fap^c fipprnrfd, vrith Iv^ pAjfrn <if illLifllrAlio^ 10 Lbo l^iltJt-AlL 
cncvwi JEvtivw H-.^a'< vtf^rv >rin<. It Wiu r^Ttgrnnlly di'ltwrtvl n* 4 Ucluto, 
at «sr» WAfl (bfl obU Hhi^irhtL-d iorm of il. Tbo illoitraliow nttv douo 
iid«r ProfeiMr UlixL* >'a fUjitniilcmkiiN. 

iMT, hifVAMT, lAfel hfld the airilioT Mugti Aut Id Uio pTopcr diri>ctioiu 
Wd aU* tu v'l^v id.«ilj falhr information Jn ^-^nrii in Uia 
lit#ljing«. (itinkyiiW (» mil Tmniamui in Itwlund^ Iml inrjiw")- 
Arr, Add wc fin<7 iJut bm:l Hir Thuln* J,j-i^U intitjircfl i>f «<»a)i.- of tha 
|mjj]^ (uotecieil vitli iLiit vu^v lucfaL &»uciblion. lLc *' Ivilkenov 
IflOlb-HUl Cf ItBluid Arrliicologi^Al SoeJelf,* ho would hara bun 
U* ^T* toon fully iLc fncU of thcM 4irijc>tiifCA, vrliic?! urjw lio 
•pp^mi I* mndaiir am vntirvl; ^fTrxeat fruoi Ibdr Swua «iid ^Vw UUaeft 

T1n;i« 1* n doil of inipcftftnt otidtiDCD dt^d in r^^-hftl to Ihn cnibrttlon 
«if Rf«t'« PATi^m. wid tami* Intfioruiit ivffJArki on? [rtfiilir i>^ lhi» iiiVj-'Ct of 
tb» tvcUief Mjuriikif<al(i^ .Mr. rdiitrull^ Uopp<u«d ^Mf, Bavd I)iiwlii[i44k 

Jifinito ik^n Mf. rnnjpllir- Tbni, bi^xvivr, wIU not ehucIi nLlort ihc iinpun- 

«»r« of cb* dkooT«rr.of it> 1»Lh, Itoiidov, Mr. I'uHfdW't idoji tlini tbo 

1««tb arv BMl &nKimU««d ah lh« Lvtvi'n Uu^ca Arc, iiu?fl not A}ii)«ur lu u* a 

l«ij fbmiilAbliB QT^«r1]00i Put l^i^ iuomI rL-iiiinulh-t tlipL thit Uvita uf 

iilAifcal d"! tinf imnnAltjr rniTtin m-in' t^jnn Inn ]ivr (x-nt <?r iininjfti IIlnl^'f, 

Vkl t^t ibn dcntiao cOOlAins iil^iJt tn^» thikn tlio ajdimuj' boni4 o|' n Wktw 

SliU, hcjnf*r,tjUc4y<vt|a[i is wurLj of flUuntionH "If, lu) bpUoii;/'mj» 

In/ Lliarift l-T«ll. " tl v«« o«nWmp(ini^ of ihv nunmolh And hjnoA, it 

■tUl Ltt*! oo in Hiclnod niur tbu *rLirkt of muk liAd alnDdy bHo nutanliad 

tn the rrii l<i«ai (No. 7 Id ti|i# <1<]tii^tl t'f llii# rjivrj miJ Hi'iiti-d down VlIL a 

<0<ir«f cUkgmiliv Afid if it va# doiittttivu ftuni thi; ifreccift, inan WU 

«tUl tifullr iu coal VIII p^>rtuv In ihAt caiIj pcriodJ* \niL tr^d to «iri* 

^b«B of th» RAtiqkiUy or iQon, whldi 1a dHrliixl not from ^finlotfy lint from 

hkitolJtMil i* hti-ii now iit«i>«IigaULl,th<tKqthor^vi?4 iih HHriw nf fvi?ar<ij| 

vLfeck |iotet to the £iC4 of GiTilivLCJoii having b«Q in cj^JBtcoCc in llj^'pt bl 

A llmB Blivip MVOrdhig lt> nur cfiniiiian nntion, GnA wu baj)1oolng to cta^li* 

titf urnld, U« fA^ii, '*\V« diviivit iviiiti'iiiplift* tbo itvumj;it njvit nud uum- 

We itf Ut£ pTracudt new v^xUiil [upwr^nLt vt ioiij, Lirifp Aud duiiilJ ^< t<) Niy 

ftolhing df Ihd hmri^llfftiM on ihpm, vrtthout HUppunin;? IJirrn L<i hnv W'li 

ibv Woik Iff ft Luix miM«Bi0n of ffnumlioiv. Vul liio beat nutl)oritk«B 

littUrr thnt tbSH pjtvnidH w^rv hu&U uiutM iIi>lij >M''^^ v<'iiiv hi'iurc Uio 

Idh of CkHftf, Aiul v^ flnH r^riilMirv Ihut iIlv I'VipriiLRh ftnU f/irm ifttmtitd a 

■■aW fOivTMinfti/, 00 A^rmn^ ^olr f*f tiu dfif. dnif cjinuttd tvtnmcivuat 

WliiU f^r ClmrUi L^IJ Mi-t In rogpid tA tba diflimttT of *pcfi«i 

ItTOA »t tb« pi— m d«]r it «Ljif:tly And ri^fldly ItlL*, but wir boJ Jiu UcrA 

iktl tho it«B wu ■■ «Jd u LttiuMek. 'ilw nuthuTwyr* " Whu l^iLiiirck 
th*« ifWrtoU bcB PriniiT in jtUB ^ the niriro nf^w fonni tiflvo Wn iiiulTlfilliikl, 
lb* Itm AA wo aUo to d«ii« vhiS wa m«ui liy a vnrioly, wkl wliat by ft 
«pwlriL" II it Uttdcubtoltj till* i'lm; nt |mH3i1, tlint nil unlnrKliatn L^f niiy 
ffito fhA UiA dftDnbg nf a AjtHnii' a '^LifHiMTi ulikti in iLb4o[utv]yitnpoHib]D, 
1/ the dftflvtlicAi itf to W bold MiAitlv. lu nfurunct to tho Aiiljqii^ly of nuD 
tW^BMtMm ii »Aidtiuid of iutvJtH aA t« huw uiah uaoia bto tho vtfrldr 
Nad <rf conn* 1h# wKkor'A non-i on ihii i^iimUod aw like tboi« of most 

vol. xm.— 5<^ L. r 


commiH oock PnftMor Quby, ju wc luic abnd^ -*■■ " — ^-^ 

an th« xalbor polobi oil; Ibe rrawrbdit* ftuv inCeniioiktD bctviMi MA 
«ttJ itptltM, sklob I^oTovof BXtnti, £f CoouMCtkiU, L^AA^ paktoA-jqik 
1679. Tbb£;nn,whkhbCM^bAUitlh«d»cfiipljr«<m, IV «M* 
oftk*p»en! plajt of U« ikvleioa li mlf bird-1^. but 
l^omofM^Bnd tbtfv Atv w«IM*T*lop«i tMlh in b»tk il4 
plilelj iliJ ibc jaw K«BBibIe a reptile '■ itrt IVo(«K4' Sljurii, vtu im 
di««vp<n^ <Jii]y i1i» Uni^ dMcrilKd it w Uial of m tvplIU bhtr* Ibi «lha 
ptJto wrr* BuUaf^uvntlv rouci). 

W« bjtd Liifffi U boTo t<«<ted <o >cniB ot ihv laat puU of thi i«UV 
Tnf»nt>, Ujue itrUibi; la Mt- Qitlton't Ideft t\t t^ mntiul ■Rprflcin|if 
u»uaDtOn>«««, «Bd «1« to Inuwivlatiaa A«d untnt^ i&«ologj, tvto ««UMir 
of Uw U|Eb«lt latimt ; W wt b««T j1^*J/ cu(ruu our pp«c« MBditBa4| 
(dlMird. ^iifSrr il It r»y, ikml th<*7 urn IttAUd hy tb« auikar wiA Otf 
f«lan<u «n4 o^Ntui'tfrKtxc irlj^h a»v»cbftiw*ttriitioorh£cnMid«U(if(4br 
«J our boU «d«noa wvilcn^ Wd uuit Uicjrfure oncJudc, vblch wo di> mtA 
Ma^lfx bnt «p itliii, ai aH 'tkqii^ ibni t« h«vi» mIlI onaofffi lit piunb 
1^ fvadvt of thir lt«vi«v, hair t««C how Uq*, bov imp^rUot, ud lDl>D»- 
teallj b-]« aXh, u tbu intfiM npsca the antijiuh? of miuL 


TBIS Ua {jti«ti'Mi which w« fvai ibrw air not nuajr uf o«r readtftv^ 
wndd %# cnpAbLo of Hfflcvrtuif W!tb kiv d«|T«o c( dnnioM. Vf* 1C b 
jwiiriibwliu ip»|orl*ncf,**l|iof»ii*nrt wMTidi*'!^-'' • ■ ■ - --^ ■? Itf 

tiU book tippo <«i tablv- It u lO L« ntirvi^fit thai i n > i : i ' r r 4 ■ minlrf 
M Ui iiil« " A rkrcDclojtitt atofius tlic ToW." Tm lIiai I-tuIb lU iWfflv 
inffq- iliAt tt U M vt\ik dfsQpf itlmcfll pxdudrol; virh iba c^r«jt1*t aaitaah 
ut (ho nr*, tiHl iu H fBthiaa wbkh Vbd |iffH)ar km-<^|ui Lict-ir-r**' ■! 
ouv tugo (oiTt0 M commonlr adopt Uf htM thenhj* wc fi-u. ' 
gocMl maltj Tbo Biniply n-^onl ll-r work h phr— afc yk al mir. 
abouri- Tbb weconftiBWMlbftUfbt la v^kh«v curfelni vtm 4i*pHrf 
to iTfinl (ho *a)iuiiT al (b^t «u1ml Dnl <n pctwl it b cfi«ii how HVf 
UlUa p^f»i]>ilnf]r bM fu tb ^ilb t'ni* boii i nixt m Ihc olbrr band, vkil * 
WanUe trocffd it b f^llif htbilv, l40e of Riir^'l. ---"l .^i^.^.^I*:.^ 
of apooide whi> »« rcrj littb kiiii>wn,ia) wh • 
tlio#iu«iao*miihoniiiJTifbei of oiirpfaltitnUr.: 
of tk« voti iriv*' inaonjo |mlM to ih* |t«t. » 
■fcnt »;«« than iweaij jcfunuiqDji Ibr bkibibaU fA ll . 
■Ad tthou hsowMgn of (ho nrioui (titlem* of Ittdb mA 

.r „\.. 

whit btf 

* "A f%ionulorS>d Momtv tim ToWi «V, tbo Stodrof % IVIimW 
TriU b doiiU) Udk' Bj IJVill^iD a HmbilL li*ia>roL ct 

' ToAat toabUd lum lo enunuic th? y^irpU bb ta ibvir cuBtPnifi moda or 

folywidry^ nnd ilaii^f^ of tbctr f<<inAlfr ffaQdnn. On aH tlwu 

|*eC> Ini lia deUl tit ooiutdorftblc \vagKh, aod h« Iiaa, (it Uir vnd of thir 

C^lt b!i bt'tvoiim- viTli thnmn Ki)Tthi>r, hf> Iijm ^Tf^n lifl « ^itt number 

tf tlU>tf«tioa« 1 imd th?te hk^e a pcculut v^uc* fbr tboj aro not of tbo 

arfioai7 Itpc, la ivLI^-^ ihi^ rctidcr ia l«rt Ur Jepc^ii upou tlm lc]i« «f Uulb 

^■4) Ik *rUit pOMNnu; an tiiB rantrtrr, th*y nr* alrQCitt «11 Uigfl phcK 

_ iqpa|ibi, ^«no bjr th« anl^lypfi ]>rvcf7M i and h^nun they conrvj, in a T«ri- 

llUa Mjrbr (b« lEcnpTBl c1iiLTBct(<r oT tin p^uplis of ihgir haliitd, vid'tha mi^ 

cf duBH thftt U HiT{itdT<*<]' Tl>fn> firp ivr^^ fiatMrn. fine \k ihtf IntroduiHltMl at 

itoMDtogy, a tdon<>t v^Licb U ckbioliitelv wkbout fouTidntlvn, sad Uio 

Mlm U tlbv t«iii«whiil Ilitjm* »i^Iv iiTljii;U llm miihor folluwa Brit whctu we 

r«aM»b*> hnv r!-Mn|L>fi|y 'lin liftftlc Itfl* 1>r*«n writfoQ. hfid Oiftt tbo iiattior 

4a>4 hia ppefboj fronj Fftt^^bod. wo hn^a oif uMi amply auRecidul fur Uifl 

MMad of tbnM dtonk Wii ortf omlltli^nt ihut tlii> book would huva ixttor 

Isd ft f«Tj luj^ clrcQUil^^in buJ a bvlt^ btU bovn deriMd fur IL 


THE wufkDOw iaut«i!ii htilf mora Thin ilir ropHnt of Oei^n papvn 
wbich out tfAen will mnciDbcr wore publinhcd in tfatve po^i lomc 
liaa ifo. In lUcamplal* tarm tlin bi)uk I* ai] ftdmSnibU utauT <jn Uia 
tfnlrtvij of itp«ft ftsd li«lF«p««} Aoil it id *» cocnpl^Uly illiiAlnLUd by DMfly 
tiity w^l-ciMoaUd Afpuoo of ibo nuiiHu fbnn^ b^du n fr;iv rtprvrwoto- 
fit«4 of ihn tknUtatt at mto nnd the c]i)iidriinvia» tluit It farmn jin «iri>]i^ic 
nwtt*l for Ibo •ooAa^pft Jltit, 1i«itdiit tJxii, It bat an «Bp«cbd taE«tihti fram 
tbr but lliat it 4ml" witb ihiL quvKiun if bkb Tim Wa «> bmir a iuAt|i<r of 
tfi#pat0 bHWDen Ur. MlTart rni l[ii*<^iii* nlilt^ iiiid Phi^waoT IfitTTi'; nnd Mr 
I]«nria««tb«iMb«r. Wo rofef to tbo'incitinn, \Vu man denbpod b_v u i^Fiidual 
pjtn^ froB tbu *pa«, ct wm bu- tiot^ h Appiffini ifl da UanL Mr, Mhari 
MkM !%• hitH Ti^w, whllrt itditiUlhi;; tlin pnt^lblUFir ^f i>ivi1ittli->n, Hh 
m* to nf-«pd taaa'e bi^n M poLi^vfhiii^ 0'>iiip1*t>lr Hport fr^m finjthliijf 
Uii- tJ^niiuiM. In Ctcif It pfBseu^ a Kml, auJ the muukt-rV dut« mtL 
hutvo tvoTKnlMr.Uinn'iilkfok. If it bo u. If flii?]i bf* hij vt^V^ tb«n 
i»dr«d]jr WD JQcn it'uo willi him. For KlraDjfn t^ \l may ftnOt ire 
ruKiA to deny h tout to th« tnonk^T cf tlic irifilU, if itrr c<aii9it Lho 

Ibe rtnder mar lAki-, li'i U Hiirr iq It mu^ plv^hwd wltb Mr- M^rArt'4bock, 
vbbli U an thv riutr-l>iir«ijuHu aidv, a IwL complolrlj «■ jivrtrnv, mii 
vilboul ft 1»dIC >o pcini liihfT of >ijl^ or fiu^t 


"Ibfiuid A|i4& AaKxpwition of th« Structure lCo9«mb]nn?tft uid Ulf- 

I0M ^«riD^ upon Qi:i4?itirrci« of Affinity and Urigin,'* Ity St, QooTj^ 

VJ'.^.S,. I^r-Iurvroo Zoi:>bj3j nod CcmpareHtiTd Aiulom}', 

I.ijodoa 7 Hi^)«tt Uanlwiokcy UT^ 




ItRmSll HSIIE&* 

Alt the jvjtift offv^Attxlhrivifrt) thU «iw1( w» in^mi-kiiv mt> 

Itnlv bopt tiAt h unj MtAiQ tac*«dia^ popuUil!/, lac it U, t. ''' ^ 
IhickUtid «nbe>l it ta U, «ri viorilBnt fr>pubr ftic>.>:i;x.i oritriiU^ - . 
X rPKDJD aninimt ftt mfnuitl^^D «« Umt w^r<i iT t^ tmiudi Lu^ --I 
fit^jarl^^ ia ibfl rfiUH K^i'^iD, <kn vDOUf ^b. m r«t iMUaeDll»*/^*^t 
ibc niJib'rra inf'.vuiUl'in is of ttc #|ft>dfTcal dimfuiinn*, Altbc.^ 
««iiij«LntiTo aTitic^altt fi-v Luilfi^ i£ dub fuiuisj as riumordbi ; 
tcTivl' But vrt inmt rvinrmbt-t tb«t ilvmctfnrlhtj voott^iafi liiAlJUrn iMi' 
l»aij U wjiUiit'. but fiir 111? onliuiirr iJiiiiiJiul > tlctv/viT, if «« tum t< u 
ordinary ^l, w-* tfiull Unri mir in/iDfitiktlan fiib-r jrnl n^tr* nf 4 Mums' 
ialc^it *Lch ft r«n<tvr, Tftli4 Ui« nunr <di«ipt«rt m tb* cdM-«« ud trco; 
fcr iutuncc, 01 lUoM on lUlt cultur*! aqd bar« va aJiaU kid om M^il 
|i>*ffocdy nt horUff, rCol Uiai it tnnt<\ b- Mip|WHrd fOr ft itinn;«iit tbat vTRf 
ilrili'b I^Ui Aof-t notftift crrtAin «fWrrnlkilI*Atn it, tnd in innit f««i* aftf 
jBuftmtUv "f lUitrj^uie; *icd '^(■vt^H'w W tLU UlUr. ftllJtOMfl V* 
oAim-ii my vf^ry murb In iL« fnvour. Itat ukit^ » m «Jd, iW cdtokrwr 
fi»hfd, V4 iibftLl Jind OUT inf^nnftUmi pojuilu, •Mvmtf. ftftd in iW tfait 
InatftiiCW filled «ilb •& ftfiffnal of faft* ^btcb &» oi)*- vhi* "^n b-f (vt* 
fMily ftt boiTU* m Ulii Vttbjr^^E cVJribI b»P ^i«» li*. ! '^ 

tlL« xnoift of oaeful kiiovl«dft vbicb tbo nutiir)r b4i , ib> 

vulijtd I'f tbv ;<Diul ftod vlUrr lisbi?, let u* (ftke tLn mJidou v> ftn ruaoW 
of till* Vii><kV. If*nn v« nhAtl u^FtU* pUi^ b<>fnm th4 ranJtr Uip br*ji|» 
^tiio BCVtMl fhnptffti; if, vbr* b* hfti rY«d llii»m>b^ ChU Ihfti t]i^ flstW 
baft noi iiwtv bli work crnitcirmiQotlT, we ibid t# vitl bt dilltah tt 
«b«W. f1lic» tkchr ift fth nrirount of llm iftlniofi : 0»i*a fiillmr " SdJun* f^ 
toniicff to thtlt Awn Uifcr," " ll^^v !« mmk IVk," <- l^rw«r oT kv-U h 
SntaKm;' «Moiv^r Stlmon;' -' Tlic Slinnmin n^b," - K^ «l ibt SftL»«.' 
"> [IbifiB Sftlrnnn FiitbnriM" " Aiui-i«iy of itu^ 8ftUaoA/' "Cub«4pftl* «d 
Wmnn," " ^mon it W«inii»'lvrlfrid0o,*^ toratrkbijndftncanfi^^kvn 
In llitt Tliiuiiv*,' ^'Cftiu» of KiiLictkonri'SUmoib ibo TJinmoA,** "Silvtf 
■t AVlnc^Minr;' "Ucwio Lippnr Salmnn;' '^'dcIpu mJ llDvaMctU* 
^loioo," " tsytiag <4 vftil/ run l- i*b/ " i-'^u^ vxi Lati> Uln>i*,* « iVtM^ 
ll«i ftod ?f«m*li^o if t^>ilBf»n."* "iWki*-?- jirV^cU tkli»o«* •■ IW 
li> 1tiipn>t4' Hpftnnin;^ Ib^iK" " I ri^^ ""'^ Low^r l^pritUv* in ft f^ftlwv 
ItiTcr/ *' VaIuu ot Jltitiib S^ImgA h'ith*n«i," nnd luc, tknivb bf >" 
mvfta* Irvl, tbv quf4t)<« cf " Pdiuk I«TfUlft(i<^jj.' U nUl bi ami fnv 
thiiM b'vli(4B* IbAl tl«T* !> TIC jKibjiKt (vimviftM! wilb ih* ^tMUtWo tl 
Mltnoi) iibfrij into ikluch hn cTam n-jc tfilur. Ht^t^Jicfi tke wbol* ii 
dbcaMod in ft pkawit title, tiHljuiJl being bM tuUii^uiftl, aj my ui9 
diwfsvd tbfl BELtbo^, ii'>v many T»n> ngo. witb badng, I1l> iQaalniidivBt 

- " t^mUiftf UUlcry oj llniith Hibo-L" hj VtivaV IhiMtud. ln«tiMW 
*f Sol»oa Fiibtri«fi« Hitflftad >nii WoIn, Ac. && Lcmdosi; oocMT-ltf 
i'naiiotuig Cbmtiju lka»«Jr<i|r. 1373^ 



iliin»n>ua. Wb OQllM 1iAt« wj^liwl tbrin J"ii'* na % much ttnrTT 
mb; fiijl tliAi «v mUAtmov h'^pe will ho thv* rvp iu ibu tLinl rdlttoa of 


Itkl njiHlri.1, >B ]i» tnrii.iiiii vrritiDh:* hail jiUtilUd nB in PXpfCtlSft 
ft bulVrViok <Nmi l1ii> nnv rrntii ^[r llain. T-ooliing up to bim u nw 
bocu fttYUtoiDod for »ri^c couBiJcnbb tiinf i« (^0, we Jind anlkif>4l«d 
llvl in K viiJ^k IQm^ ibr prrTi'l <nihi w1iu:)i I> 44]Wtinl]j/ int4^ri]|i?ij ftir MJiJ*-ftU 
i| biHRi' U14I lit '^ mcrlrji, Im vri»i]i1. In tliirt tlui ah^imuT Mililinn, Tinir inln>< 
IwTiJ ti* i> »oidi>iJ;iD|r nniv, Wv h^iLitify ronfiMi tl i^ cjtiik Dlhcrvuic* hwe* 
%vr, Mfh naia Iim cHrploj*"^ ■ ctPiniilmillff E|iadT id worila, Wo ccmfcu 
btf it nrvmi to ti« llir ^ork mljftt with cutt^ntJi^ Im conjjir^'ur'cl inin oti«- 
hiid of i!* pTiDkrot dLEnELifu-Dii; mad it tbii w«r« ntcotiipiiiUd b^ n lilUc 
MIU aJmjilJriij itT »[>K >v" lUrjk itiiitlj jiifu^l Ih- hr<ii"'^L. .\>t il lUfiilp, iav 
Ipw on! rtiirh l|j-ip" <if iln *i(ppi?«, f tT w» furiP'v ihi' ^nlTinr Iiph nil bf^a at 
Fe«l p«ant in *ijrting up the nior* piiftly suicnlJiic p'lrti&ni of Illi futjwl, 
'11 Ir- iLiit-, llinufn iif itiH mlnuLii u u ^'nud ■Lm\ miJ l3i» nullfurHTU nb4>ul 

^. ^ ^,l.j vrbicli Um \'i£i Sir W. JlAM;ii1|<;>i^ n^ bulinid u^ irjtii th-j ubhoI 
wn oiid dc*nicM ^nih (vbich i»u wtr? wi^it lo lubxUtA Ur lUmV ujunii 
ft n |iluI<woplufr, itiit vKhE vt*t tt\d fuuH wttli it Eh« ftbaua^^* of ad^ dovvIi^- 
I BcirslilW Itir-t ImiJln; In fijfi:)rn' tLjti ilo^triui^ Ofcu^trftt th«<ii: tm ono or 
PO arlvnuAc |<aiitU of ilUrrvAl JEj|r<jdiiCP<, biil wc tbicik Ilia Look ctn iW 
Afrle U cUfictitt in rc^vJ lo whM bn butu lAono in Ibe pliyaiaU^^r of our 
tnoUA *j*c«n, bntb &e banjt and on the Cun'Jnuul. 

wAsn; rriODL'trra and iniievi:i.oi'ED fiLTtsTASCEat 

I^II- litlp of tlkia Wk 14 itM Mitf whu-li wmjU ftltmrl a eAtimt mtiLr, y#t 
AHdkT^T.Vi if ]k> uki:« lip Eltv V'ltEiitic t<> islniio? Ibriiu/b ;(« pv*'^ bu 
rill iu>t fEadiU lAf il ilown Jigain. Iti ntittinr hag bppo coriiit-Lilrrl wilb tbo 
iibi4«t OQ «lii«b Lu oow vnitm (for it i* r«l]v ■ mm book, and nr>t a HDW 
dStjni) for iituiy yvtn^ mjiI Liu ctbUlnviL ibr SixuKiy ttt A^tJ Ufitnl fcrr 
ma i>f Twt lAfitT* iin Thtt mfttt,vr i^f wLilili tii4> bonk t^fiEthlAT*. h ia. ihirii^ 
or*, DOC A tncro roinpiLiticn I th^a^b av«ii if it wvrv ^ompil^l wip ihnuLd 
lilb wdudcr on He tuad vtTjo |i(li it (o^-ctbf^r ^ it it, i^n Iha ruiitfiuVi n 
prkirb roTiifthii tJin fnilt nf mJinr ivnf* Inbciur. itml !■ In wrae mmjunf 

*-3IM uid Ibidj-; Ibe TbMri«« of Ihnir Itfitulion/* 1W AUmndflr 
LUUil'rof«*ior rrf rHfi(rii^laUt»UiuT«nii^orAb»njAaEi, '2nd ICdi lion. 

oo: H-ffiT Kinji. l^"?-"^ 

t ^* W'wiit l^n^ucli and I ndorclciptd Subi.t*DrPt • n Synripui rif Pivi jTtvu 

ttAtt ill liip'ir K^wnceBi^- liilwrttion linnfip the lust L^cAitt^r of a C^ntiirr 
I Hudb* Asi Abroad.' Hy T. f>. Simninnrli, Kili'Lor cif tb# "JournAl uf 

U Mitttf to [aimK tofc. Let w ^c*tnBA*s«M^ 

bw pdpv*d to b> «f pwC v^» In iM FninpiM rim^ri i hin O*? h>rt- 
MOl MfOT !• MidL" Oft «r«7 «fctf tt*d« «r nn^ s^ ««§•■ ai»tisi. 

ml hill ri J ft ml rn I 111. Til I 1 1 I mi mij fun 


ittoiCni-^, 9t^ vhKb it fiiH of btiim mn «« it u. W« t(«4 
b^avevvr. tkat it ia>;a>a ifFJfuCBwJ rJitiocanJ tl^i nLca Jl iciodc 
Mlbar viU ■nttcr tlwaa^ ld« text « iiaK3jrT of «Bfmb/> tiX-a &a 
fbMofn^lu. T1i*r« u tto biMk intb vhieb IP* «u Qovpav it, mlMvUt* 
thAiadadnUe Instil V Uf' B«t8^ wbicli a^Dolxv4ftb<M . .wp^ 

«'TWXMn»lMloiitli» Anuioiu.*' It i> loaMbanff «f O, !tti 

lif a» DIMM tK« «q««l o( fiaW* *c4aiD4iL Aad, cariooilf c«Mi^hf tl i* 
dftBcstod 10 Itfr. [UCn, m lUl «« m^f *app°M >^ rathw took him «1J# 
tjp*. It oT COvt* ^0*4 <<mt»in UlutrmUoiia — lliCa|;b biX anmgb— «d 
•MM of iium, Mpcd^Vr Ui<Me of tbClEofvtt and Um Uimrik 1^^' 
''TIm I^oiT 1jiv««/ and -Mom lava," on grooi; to U oconnmM 
Tbv book oxflta^ o»r omtIj 4UCI pig«t >u>^ >■ ItfiDiTid «l tnUiaitlif 
deocnplkoM of o mo«t io^tnidirfl oniiui?, wiib uxful reocodt «^ Uki 
IndoiMfT^ oiT tho iuUvoh ^f ttcir LklaU, and uf tLf aiitiquilif» sad sblua) 
UiloTj, b^UsicxiJ »nd iook^ii.1, y th4 nttf>k-viir«>d Und whkh iW 
oUtbAT bM fiiiCCrA-frilljr riitlcrvd, Mr. ImU biw A T> ' ' : - ^ . i^l 

Uio tan ftnd Ibvnry wiiL whicb br OwcribR* h^ > < «ii 

•onMdoioUjr to llie di'vm of tho votk. Alt Ikn^v^t ^*- tfl^tt ta W 
ttlrcmcl) fOv«rv ujon Ibc du«ixvttii; Gftmiatdfl ; iod^rd^ tm tatum pwAfv^ 
b« indul/u In tbo trovlMi diflufl^^ a^liuc thorn. And cartifadf ibm 
vunbl/'jiutifj tbiArU tii«-r«mJ>'Tc<biMb«4k vttl«aU«fo(lM4lfa«« hit 
•c4f. llccv i^ bowi^cr. one |h>jiil whkb wo oar«tir» iti«*l t^l nlt?iib 
10 vro »« dnH out nntico of iliin mtrmtiif nnd iiKnjiiivfi i«ltjiB«, 
tb^t utfn tu iboH tJiiiJ-rclJout iwCAUfc* otmiiMttjm vrbb^ ««i1dfA I 

* **TU Nniuraliit La >'kftnftto. ■ Njinitiw of o lUeUtac* ot tb 
Oci&d*iniiin t4 CbnuloUBi JouRifp in tlw HaninnahH wad Fr;- ■- '-*'*■ 
Obanrration* m AaimaU aad llAut* io nffcmio* b> tbe TWot'*r>n;.lii,r K-inu* Ik TboamlhlCi F.O.S. Lombn; J<L.. :i 


lAf bwn $c veil JwfU on by mr. Wrfbic* in hm 
Arctu|iuIiifo." \\V vfiiiild rtfisr nimn pmlJriiWij lo lU* KuUiur"* 
€4 Ui* mos nd 1h4 £r>^icMetA 3X<Vu Ihau fkHyttiiii^ that h* liU 

tW <*>« Af^nnipviting it, ct ilie knf and tha nmu iiikpI, w oimply 
mndloui^ The Ua/ invcct c«l «liU iJIeEvuIlv bn iliv>titijciiL>Iii\l from rut 
(rdlniuy iMf, and th» taaw \\\u-t^t, **of mrhirh I oiilr futind l«o ftjifrinivna, 
had a vovdrrfLil riUf mMniiot l« n ^>ii^cv vf meet, unon^^t wEiifb it cjoc^alo j 

I dfOlftUj atialcm nal." A]tf«^thrr wn Iipifo btrun much ftnaW with Mr, 
Bi1V« *oluiii«, ud Tvdii nnl bp»iinU to ncoimnvnil it to uurivAcIuv. 

tE^ of the moaX importnuc bdT»tAg« ^bloli W for luuj ifCAn Iwjn 
conffltTRd on thn tfiiilrEil of ]>h]|nu>jihic juuiomy Km h^n gtr»Ti b> hiin 
bf Iho lahouft cr Pioftfucr Ki^knr, Ln thi» bo^ vlitoh bi« btMto 1nin»]Al«d 
Mito our iMifUAf* Ij Mr, J . C. 'inlcon. \^']ii} Lu not trjahed, if be bo A 
•tadtnt o( |>1dIuKiph}f, fi^r iiiiiH!!?!!]!^ lUo ■ doflnilD work, !n vfatr4] ho OHild 
foUov v«l tb« Tahoui ccovolmjoiu <jf iho liitmiui broU. Ta Uio tludMil cf 
taplijvicf, %lvi ha* t, tcn«iii kDimlnljrt of uinl^ttut, tblr* field bu b«ea 
tUtly a b«rr mm ; nitil vh^ji lir* liu JVlf'^iiriitrMl in txtnly nay <tf Ibo 
ttwman whicb h-i^e ftpjieiLnd of lato yenn On ibo Mibjocl tf 
l^vii of iprecb, jutd injuiv In l)i< " UIahiI ^rilrllf" liviv d«iUbu1e bu liu 
^in Ml of A vrork cm iIia jiArEicLiUr Inrjilltj of may of thn nvivntuHfinaL 
FiMTtliVr how iApUMblo it liiia bwxi to oDaparu Ibo cunvclations of mntg 
with tbovo of IbfT mp». Of coum n tnuot Jod of work ou iliac butjnclii 
hw b«ai 4ai)t bj Kuf tiffa MiAtomUCfi : but it n lulc nhnrn k th^'M ft iKnk 
on llf* Mibjtd in ICribfii'b, w» nr^ vnuijiJ'llvJ tri i«y nowbi^n:. \U. GaJtor* 
hiA Ihimibrv done trirrl* and nel) in luUuduclnjf to Ui tbia n^mlTAblE eaiy 
<l Dr. EfkpF'fi, wlii^'b, wtf li ttf turmorotiB otccllfltil wocidi?uti, its cloAmow of 
InuUtlMi, nod lU ^o«ral diatinctnatf of lypg, renduM Su ^tuxU Icm of & 
Btadjr than ■ |j]fU>iiiv. Wit thoU bu|i« tluit ibu lutruductiun uf ibU work 
■aong MMltimUbv <optt]i<>r wilb n csrvfid alud^r of t>r Frrrirrii ivuDt B^d 
iiilB*blo nMV«be«, vill do laurh to rtndct th? jtudf of ibp hamui bfrin 
hjr IhoBV vhd b«v« tbo pivo^— tLv •uiMrluuadcoita of lunftU'c nnyluius— 
jBOrv pL<pulLT vid inore prodoctH'* iLnn il bn* btmi of htf. 


'■Oo Um CoarolutioDt of tb« KrviHi** Jtj' Dr. iVluxAndt^r Kckcr, Pri>* 
|hM»r of -ViMtovy in tJ;i» t'tii*firKiiy of tn^Jbuig- l>ui]«lnti'4^, bvpc^rmiuion 

dT Ao ftatlior, br J. C Htiton, M^\^, Ojion, M.U.CJb.^ KU!?, 
Soutb, KId<* ft Co. ]««$. 

liOadou i 

tortLAi eaK^ce ketisw. 



T17 liKN m« *if lliitt ft nwid aJJlbci «f Dftf 1m* tt<M<IUflt Gltld %mX 
*^ lov bafcro u«« wn aLilII dyiUtliu* ^luUoo eoi a f#w of ov Ua 
It^lrftl ETftdcn: nnd uLcti flt^ Jidd rur.hirf lka( lb««tCofti| vilMicfl bWor,' 
ovl by ib« «r«ll-fcftOV7t irrrcnior of Iftr. hla1tbawr« •■ Titm^TftUt,' »* »- ' 
Mliafjr«nof ttj« K»nadlw«a«| tU& bf«< •£<! diMpv^ wotk* wUicb •!>'■'' i ' 
cn tho tiitilv or rrery fttudr^iit, vn can AOt wh-l hn h# U ■ tjtD e: 
plUh«d iff llifi art or i»4>aa:icig- VV« v.viiJ, viih plvMUfr, tf w* ^n" - 
iiiiiinL, riui>t« T*|ft«of tliU Locdj IJUlc fo^uiar, Uil wo un pvJDt bjk' 
nf tIip rajmjnnr^Uuvhir^lb&prcM-itcrtlJIira ppwwi M w <rtwg Itr fttAiCtm^ 
It if ■ w^^uiUrfal l»ok, froni iu Ivltij: iv> mafful lo ilk« partly terdied na 
M (u ill? iiAtiimliil ; nrrd «b ma tlhvflntioa of X^m, ire nuijr m- uijaa tUi < 
fi-t(if&SD«r Vjjdpfi mucli othflr uiictcr on ilw imittt nbJLVi, buiL Iir Hfi] 
bbd ]>r. KUm'f apmiuiiJ on tk* lulf^errt «f moanliDjf nrrvr, Uotk ■■* 
diluridt uf sfidd b iIaiiuiiu iIip if<v(i*^ but lb« vjUMUnLicb ibo Iwc ci^ 
ai« »m«Ahjit i>pprMitf. H'iijrmi*r» ihs rader nuBt iM tfc« lUfTimnm k ite 
b(«ok itHlf. Iho ftuikoFA obtcrritioiiA '^ tb« monaliap of bano mv tC 
intcr^ett null iiBiori^' *Ahrr quotAtiaiii i* (knr from Or^ tVAlr, nbk^ tMmOM 
tbo hiii\* i'.y In* lir vn mAtna jfTciind, w thfit CIU up Ihi* Ivnfun ivul tfUt* 
TleoH* Mr, l^arhvr* ri^wt fa tliv q^iciciua of (lio ujw oF ptnttn fur «^ 
btdriExi^r ^)bj«cU Ace «lfo died, l^nn whicb nv Iciuti tW a b axJul Iq ttsll 
4oitn E>r(tlrvi7 ptntfin cnndlo*. wiib a vm ifUHll tra^wat of pwiflia oiL kt 
ordtf lo mt^f l^" OMM iui>rD niiJJly ^ht. Wo ry^o, 1o^ tb« Inln^nfb^ 
nf muc oWrtnlLon* b^ Ur 6iHlctk un tliu rchcr mediod uTdi^ii^t i im mt> 
whioli art: of (^OTiiidfrtblv rnluD. Mt. Hit* i^V mod* <4 obUuitng tb' jueri^ 
iB^ from rvlALi.i toundiii^'Laid^ ti, Ur^, rf Ln|M)ruscv, m kkrrfri«D b Ur 
McJiitjrv'?^-aud uu ui;it omld l^[) na bvtlvr^— uiode uTodWtflif Ui« icifa 
of MTtua inwcii. Wv ibink ifiv Ruibov of tli« pnv'nt vditicn night kin* 
giion a* ft Itlllo miTt? inrormMkia on ib« Pibjoft c/ bLt'tJ ; ftnd mt alHtr* 
ihit hf bftii ftllosfid tbt' old tiTiffiiitfM 10 ibn '' MltnuviTptt^ Jaunmt" lA 
noiMa vDcbftn^rvd, fti Uiftt ibA r^iidiY Af ih« Ijini^k ft Aba^dutirh luiftbi* t'llirB 
nbctUTihe 'M^wtc^17"o^ "MoaOilj" is itf B«d«d- Bat tbwe tn i«7 
riti^r miiipUlQta u* bftreco Kflkn, md Mitf ««Ab/- vn u« burtUy pbMiA, 
ttiih Ur. M«itb*ini'« kb<ra>a 



rlb«» ktndvDU nrscivdM mdvc TunM tb4t ib«Tv« UbfortUftttbdfl 
in uuAibvr— wbo an tii\tiXlv tii tk^wwii'X "t l\w Liti|HirtMt 
uumt tbo occtTrriiii^ of tbv mjvtjrioiifHid vanifaicitM lbiDjvnurf7<iirfiiiti^] 

I}«ib>A. ^adlSlmou.pit^lIjBcbir/cd, ll> Joba3U»^*r»,3IJ' 
Lnndoii: Ilafdwicke. 1873. 

t ■'Tlia CuiurrTfttion i-f EotfgT! h^nf ftn Hlm)tmtjir7 Tf*fti>M 
r^i|£7 ftH ila I^.n." I^j BUfWr SVririn. M.A.. I.UV. F.ll^, Pm-J 
fmor uT Nctun] r^bMfkj in Owci» CoLlff^ UtAcbcilvr. LcsmImi;] 
Km; & Co., 1ST3- 

vbrili* Uivj Ji^fK villi th« AuiLui <iT not m ro Ifao pmiUliiv or ih*i iro- 

^liUij uf tlv tlivitfon <jf iiiHlUr, ihrr* U iw iJoutit llml ll^y ^lU J^iliow 

ngt QMUf. iiHltnl mott, (cT bit illujittBikiM niih din 1irvli«tt uitm«t, nd 

■ilbA c-kuittfTlW cvlar^bf; ilon of tbo ^l-Uaporlimt qoMlimi ofUio »LX' 

tioa Ivif^mi T'Utt oiid uiull^r- I'Lut j» tv My, Oivy vriU iviLniitcjAllj 

nlirg« 1b«ir kun«lil^rt nf ifm vrririUit vd6 <lilTJrii]r qiijulior wUmLit U U 

pewUe to ««tiCVlT« ©r fMco entildf mid CdupUltlr witlioul mailer 

ta^ttA, tWj will Und ill II & gM)d lIi'aI «;<f nhnc uv i^Hl. (\n illuaUHLina 

itl«^ Bftrk^ll-yiiiit. Klii mjiuti f^01tt ibiM, v* oinnAt '»« eIii iHln>> nf tli" 

mrk, Wc Bxn willing to <onfw tbnt no mnj be bUnd to tbo irrrot 

|iWllial ivpurlniHv of bnvjng jtliolivf n«nl did ikQiai^na a a abject vluUi, 

10 dur wird^, tuuat uiDiiUblj oaA (vt f^ur rumtLia Dttvrlv iitdiitmcr And 

fTtLis ionit *4«itir^t tWro amy br a luluc in Me. fiitVHEL'.i biJiik , but l^r 

adtwIvoB w« tvcfrH tu fiur inability tv Hif iL IJi* tiyta U uiiLntUou^jr 

fFw>4, boi MMBy of bnt pftMing illiiilr«rkin#t ukvD ir\na other lubjtcli thitn 

lb*I to vbkli Lv li«f W^ d*TOted, iir« mKoifcvily nniouDd. 


IRE ApprftTi la be t» iDudk ULAllcr in tba |a<»«iQi woili. Wo fvjcT' 
\\\i hnd lb* NUtFior trTl m good d^*] of b^v irxi for in'ttli^ir toUlidOt ^ 
Id liAVs daa« v^lJ, fjlill, tba bvok ii ucqii<viJi>ni\Uy n wtiut onv, mid 
mmtvruf »axlcHl»i^ itaISj isiinjrlmit y^tittU tpudt^ra iia UHfuLufn alill 
It hiw of coHfw ft nnichvr i>f colnufod tUuitraiioaJ, whi*'b w* 
lb* publitboiT tlilnh t>rvidi^;, Wc^howoiTr, kbould jtriirr ibo 
vilbiuL Ibi'ia ronijJrU'lj ; f^^r v< tQiiet wlv, thnl Miylluai; ibi> 
konibly butbwsvj* vt bur* Milnm. u-« mitfbt iirld cpvi-r. lf^b<*ld. Uiit 

of biJiMin^^ hihI bi^-nr ^t miTmy |iiil tjji a ii-ry rb**njiiiiji| aIaii n wry 4:^\p^>rt«iYn 
vlmclnrp. tbii W»b i> ^^rrttijilr a tnlrmblu LiK'titor. Tbcb, ■{.'aiij^ ii« rrgardi 
lb* OiOt-'Hf* ^f tbf i^rnulouK? — tliPLf Toi'ittj-, fwiji, CAio •nd mmifltfomval 
in rtdtiifr, «nd fbi-ir linbiUtf ici jw»t* or to ^i»r*>fT— ih« rcmiliidBr of i 
ht^k gi*'* Kiupla iuF'iniuUon. It U u(ir|iiiu[&uiinl>ly llio AOfl of Totu 
wbkb « LaadcrMr, vlto dcurM l»"put«p'*ipTV«»bok^«*, ouffht to 


ruACTurAi- AsyAvwat 

^ritAT tliii WwV i« in (tt fniirtli ^litioa, ftml U nm«Ldi<rDJi1y ^nUtgMl, b in 
^ Itwdf luiRdriJt pPMif uf il» ^ftt pnoiiral thIuv, 4\nd of ibc Li^ 
vtlMiH in wLkU it 19 licld l»y ibe HVAjlDg ivoiU ^i^ut^ftUj- It »iu n Ui 

* ^*Tl>i* Amktc-usri [jMpnhoiiM mtd Conaorvntor^/' ByShirTcy Jlibbt 

t ^'A iiwiumi of J-^mfltna Awyinsr." By J*lw» Miloholl, KCR. JU 
•4iti««. Kdittd by %ViLlftrD CrofibM, t JC8, t»adi)ti : LonfmAaf, J473. 

i>j0tlW lor lU ttum U iIji^ divyf "f tU l^rBer Hilu-» M}. J. 
wtrisnci'it Iirt" Iifcd I Iw »(uijm 1*1*11 nf Mr W>rr»*.l#i» F.ILS., II 
brvu^bt up tv t!iu ihM, b.u<1 i« io Ltvpv with Ui« woiAsufl pro^nfl 
liM bem tnivle in eIa bil of vmying dunoj lL« U*t Hi* y^^r^. 
I^aml plit;i of |Ji/i vli;V tftniiJnt lli* *«ijt* m In Ihti bat f^lSlinv^ bitt ■ 
diftl liai bur<i ftJdtJ to tf«cli cfaapttft, »nd all oed }ff40t«c« of aaa via^ «ik 
htn b«ii tupcrwied byn^v lik<^^ ■jc. of ocwk* omlluJ frua \k\ 
^dilioa- C^afii^T Vll- U» for liittsafv, macli duml, nixl b <^ eaa>lili«»1 
lui] bi n boak iif tbt« h^i, t^t il mnUiiUt » fall uA pnfvCi nhjiiflt for 

^n^ucdmuuittuD of oupcnlA** OiW cbntC^re on Ufc^niMf Urn or 
■IbMvd, iid thill tluvhoWl3iitb««imndtfr«d a roltov v^'ti^h nil atloftil^- 
imul b« uquuniol with. 


T\R. AT.TIMT'S' !hH>k U Iiiuill/ oin: i^liiai «v M rtiXM upon u 
'' SCiLl wv mii^ iii>Ein UiEtfiUt uf ii« appvuruot nctr, in itolhiid«ttl 
lUii cduDdcmblT cnUnr<3<l- Tb<j huibor LoAdoae cnrrthir^ la bci*.; Ih4» 
blink up tn ilic pRSffUi itala^4 trfy jidtaani?4 onr.*of *l«r<rlcAl *rirac«* 
ruid tbb aiimitnxis iUujilmUciiiii h% bw gircm boip much lo rv*Atf lh« >Hb)*tf 
iiileUifiblo to ibofu tfhn bit« not bma fauJliu vrttb tb« toon:* of dvfr* 
iridty. I>r. AIUlhuh \*, unquvttiuimhlj, the Elnl ftiiihoriiy ia tlnlv M«to- 
Uy on tUc u^bjcs:! of el^ctrioiv in dimm, aih) tltoMom vU bij * M f 
iuam bnvu jt Cdlnia vultiOi Few ^unvlTOi «« siAyaJjuit bniia'^ • fivol 
fiitb id tlin (iffprUof t1i# ihit^ fonnf— «WtnnlT, galTMii«iu, «r>i] fati^im 
la 4u«uc. Jtui — DO'l ihu u & mailer of ftmI imponAf>eo — ibey oeeq^ 
]c>i> much time to m^t yay^ta m {iccuiiiAry »tuCi ttiv pbvudui vbo Viiiploit 
thtfm. Milled r^dwn rill iJc W4U lu coiwiU vt^M pon cif it^i b^k* it. 
tWt mUliiiK to ilitf doivotiOD of mulingvrmi This » otrtoiblj cjicell^L 

AsrnorffOMrcAL scie:cce PopULAWSBat 

IN th« tVT> rolrimtM that ara now beftin- m wo find nmay fif tha dlAciAlr 
ivnd, to :bo f-f^npral rcndtr. uiiiijl<jr«tLng probUou mkkrod al voo* 
BiiapU iukI nuiTjirknliU in»imctjit Ami i]iirr.-^Ujii,'H Mr- Vr«Ct*r b>« tbe |^ft «( 
miking n ctiaiJii mlIjimtI, vtTy i^wiilr* s-uvt iirtflli^bK and t\h it ma n- 
diuiy foAl. laJrad. h» bDcdtf itfo ^tavng tbo var^ f^wcJ tbo pfifoW 
ahtb ibat nra DvitEioT diiHcull nor iaiu-«ui!al«. Xtv i»Ay, bowcrcTi d<i too 

* *^A TrrAtiw on MvUicul EIn:lrir.'it>. and iu l/ae ;n the TrmiOi'^iil nf 
pRfalrrit, NVKnluU^ lUtA otb^r llimiM'*." Tlv Jii)]lii AltliaUi, JJ.Uj 

t "Thl> Kl[f|[J>dOf llcAtfU; A8«i]iu*or ElMlJl ulL itfiWoQiLnu^ At 

FinnBiiiruL" li) tl- A- Prjclof, B.A. binJuii' Utt\iy Kjnff, liiTfl 

'< Thi! Diirdtilujit uf ^ivDCD ; a fivrkauf Fniiitl'rr I^^.'^Mnth'nv'^ ?Un 
nud riaciHap Sua aad X'^vv, EirHbqaid-cs. Hyl ' 
dc^* By B. A. I^^<Uir, HA, Lijujou: Suihij, 



and tlkat if* iWok l»o Im Iwa djUir dt Inlr. Wo abould Infiiilulj 

to DC* ^T. J'cnciar pf»?»jrBJ Jn' orlifln*^ Tc*i^rriitia than in th« 

orMi^4««<^ t>L>oiJ mm sttiUtt Im «]>iuaJ, adiJ ho in hio tirUvor > 

iht fli« kind «f Ubovr wbirh llie (iriiduL^tiou cf audi books na ttit^so 

1*Vl The chaptM^ in lfar«c tn<i hi>n1ct— whkh cin^ht rmll^ Ia hnTo bi>«Q 

i^tf 00* titlo— 'on Tcr^T iclsrutinjr raaUin^, but ihtiy urfi 

I«VI b* mfiMMi th«t' mr# otlnMit which iir« cliniiH hnri> u-iHWd lo 
m nutvtd fron tho voIudih. In tho vetond boolcL ibnt fratitkd cbc 
^ItfMand of Sckrvc," thvrr I>^ |ji<iu4i's lUlnjrjiiinli'ji] pA(i«-nt, a Tit^v vi'fj 
iMMdny Mid dwlcHy piptrv an ffhotU, flyifM (iiiLf>ii]ii*!i, rTinii'irlvrii^H, Iv 
FbIWt, it c^dUiiuj » i^ijiiul pnrtnil of th<t Authrpr, nrlucb hns been 
■t«Uf»t(f cflgATcd tj 31r. R Hull, lujd ivIiicU b ui riduiirabb likDUou of 


tri[£kll thif othcrv rf tbi* tK^vKml ivriv* vhich Mc^rt. U-^a^Mit trv 
Wic^nfrDul ii iMa^ul-. ibo ^ubjtci cf<JuaiititiLlivD Chuuiknl Aim1y>U 

^ illKtwitwn*, flbiiOi wo d» in'l Ci^ni«rf<ir quii« iiLii|-ir', Uiit ibi-n of oourw 
^ p*3»D vUo InLtfl up ft book cf this iind ia ctrlWD U> liM« puraoed 

'WttMta <irilio tdiLuiCd mppod^n U> lu An <nxcoL1uuI ono, niid tl iw lot^ ofl^'n 
*4W ie(*ctlvi Lir nborut frooi vrurlu of tbi« IiiihI. 

SO*' iU^I bookii a vvjj pi>pii]ar one. liiit lU pxid h'^i'^ and tbn niimhnT 
*f QUttnlncu w^ rcDder ii uKful tj tiic- vofj boj^moon ut cliamu-ul 
^eonv ft rWf fi^r wbom It oiait liAVV been lUloiubJ- 

AV# ^»bD»( Mv nn^thlof^ In fo^Yiiir of oltliJir of ilio n^tr, ritii bo»k« — rbnt 
** AniM«l I'hppoJoi^ br Mr, T A. KLjilrick^ nr Ihnt on A-attcuiomy bj Mr^ 
•^ BnlloA. WoDMUrcdly aliall not iflcumioeoJ tkiim to niiyoui?, TJiav" (vru 
ibi]di bArhuouii In iiyl*. iUmtPidon, and tnjittor Thaj renllv np^i'm- 
l« Ikougfa •oaj« i>nii wba itrat* boai(« vttha Iciud toino tltirtj yi^iLra ng<i full 
t4i^ uid luddfMilx AWnkHiod, 4nd» Liko llij> ^ nu Wlaklt, fumiuenci'd bis 
*<rk ukovr. 

7Wi« bA* bvna no \oo\t unco Patterson's iv^tU- known "TaOoIg^ tov 
lilacdf" dtft hu w couij^bklj iirjvidt^d fur th'- cIom tn »1u^1l ll i« 
lilfaMvd «■ the np^tftl lUtic tcliitn« hy t'T» AUmyhv Nicboli&n, W« 
4£ttk) bowcKTi tbat tbc uiod«tT of tbo aucbor has bc^n roiU/ exccuirp, 
■id «r« lit^nk it A pit/ ibnt fuf " uibviuiu icosojih tlii^ rvprixlucliTo i^jiitEiu 

• -qauitiutii^ Ch.tMii(>Al Annlw*" JtvT. K. Tbo™*s I'h.JI., tMLtiX, 
Vnitmc^ of l.'hcmiitry lit tbv Andrnoiii«n\lniv«ni]tyt Ulaa^w. Louden ? 
LiQ^uui^ 147^ -'vie Kaij Jntrudnciifrn to Ch^mitoy," Kdltod by Ibe 
Kor. A. Kipg; M.A, London: lUvtofftotu- " Studcati' Cliu»-boolt of 
AAimol JliviioJogr;' Jlv T. A. BuLlodt, LLD. Lond^^n: lEclfc. "Sli[> 
4«aU' CliM-bmkWAMrononiyr Jir I'. Uutlock, l.L Ik. Undon: IMfo. 
** Uutlm cf NftttmJ Hut^ry k-r Itfainnor>: b«4ijtf diUicnpltoTU of h prii- 
iiiiMlH MriM of ZoologicfiL Typv«^ Hj ll. AlitfTUA N&cfaolum, B£U, 
Dfi&i rb.U., PrciMKir of NAtuntl lluioiy m tbo' L'aiT«nitj ColWg*, 


roPTLAS soKVCB luensvr. 

»cd fimcMc« of tbc nnun«l* Iwt d«*fnKl«d " hnv Imvi IgMred. At tiU 
ovcncs, wo tru ihank/ul fl>r vlmt v« fc«i« gcd, and v« bopa n M* «ut 
vditivD iho author vill copuut hid «cA«g»«. 

fiiroBr soTioES. 

An httt^dm^Xim to PaUtfmtA^mi Bolimf. Bjr J. IlBUnn I^ttlfcnr. M.A., 
31J3,, IMU^ 3:iiijXiir-U : A. hikJ C. Ukdt— U n ihort Init vcrr bhIU 
ncixjunt rrf fojail plniitt. U b m^ooiapaiiUil b^ •□inn \*rj fv^jd ^riwinpt 
on itotko iind vftod ; bat \X ciuiu:il bu to^ari«4 at Actf« Uwi t> latnt- 
ducdoa. Tbo lilt of wairbj on Ulc uibjnl of CmsU boUaj b p>«^ ^L bj 

Tht r^mulw Origrm 9f fikui JUimurt ii to jnlartidnff and timdtfA 
T«|inal from Ilio ■^Qnnrl*»lr Jourtid uf MiirovCDpicAl Science/* ty JIr» 
Jabe£ Ilo^-. 1i U publiiLiiI ty Hiulliciv nud C^^., Limiion. 

JVHKiifM/ f SnUi iTwi/Att Jiiiuj^irjiJ^^/L Hy John TyndatL l^wian -. Laagi 
iDant, lf<r^ TLia h n U^ld ^n^ f Wimi<:f?n<o of bimMlf ud ihf4« «b<> 
Mrs vm hu Htlt iu the I-Wbi-9 cuumi\cr«)-. hy IVar4?et>r TjnOalL W* iliiuk 
it n VHil Thing Uint u) unpUnuanl a ^iicnui-Mi occ'jnrd mWiqiiKnlJjr 1* 

J^&EniiJtt-, whicli U V"Titptnj^1jl>Iv ^itlx^ it i> aaiio^aU'cl vU'i a ishid IhittMW 
wai ^mnt lu JtiL>k up tOn Wp ihuik lVaft«Htf TjtidoU ftiUj ja«liDr« Ua ovr^ 

ujd rroTfsiir Hutlny's pmiiitin, 

TAf ItM^-inpun TJ**ary, imd lA* Itttc of lit JiIijffviiM t/ fhymuiuL 
Tmnvlfttt^ frou the n^nnnii of M^rix W^fntTi bjp J»m<« 1a Uiird, Lond«a ; 
StairtMuir l^V M;. I^iid wu ^initc tijflt In In&alULnif tlii4 iiatnpIiM^ 
All wlio rftui il will tf» Lew tt^iy grvfiUy il bupporU Mr. I>af«iu~i rictti, 

-Sb/i'J tctfnirf^V' ^y W. T. rkrciL ' London : Loninou^ ll*73. Tfc* 
nuthnr hiu pru(1»(vtl lliU wqi-1« It^Jit^tfr ha ihinht Uif^v U Ait abtnuia of 
bixilot i>f llm kind lu lUtA oc-untrj, cfniipxruil with Fnuif*, It U vUtwml^lj' 

I8T3^ifl A lon^ acuiiunt at t]t-> Spn PLftil .u ttUctt. TbOM wfao with tf> UJ 
lljv wat«tv ibould ptrnffv lUi« bi>uJt kt ibv G»l (Jan. 

Thq fLdUjwittff boolra hw^ lu^t btao rrtria-n^td in ikt pmwnt Xuabtov but 
will V ill ihu btjt:— Mr. OwVa "\\Ti?re thtvva n Will ili*tp"ft » Wajri" 
Dr. WfiMK«'»*' Mintjai of Lnna^:" I>r. I'rttignjw'" " J'^iTJolfl^ of tW 
Cifctiloti^a in rUnlJs la llio txrv«t AxuibaU, and in Mtt^ ; '^ U. Lattot m4 
Mr. Ckmty^ ' R^Viw AciulUuJntr I'l^tt Xllh; *'Tho l^niU Bvllutin 
f^r WmthKr iZ^pirtt, ^i||^Hl S^rtio*, ITtiiIhI NtaiM Attd\\" fi*r i1l# month 
of ScptemUvi l^r^i '' t}anTiiuuu and DMipn. or (.'nAtir>a br Kiolatiaa/' 
bj 0«ar^ St.CUIr, F.G^.; " Aaluial lioctmiidiia* cr WaUurti;, Ssiiuminf, 
and 1<ljinf, wlib a lUwruilAn on A«ranaiiilif«,*' hy J. IMI r*4ttgT«v, 
ALJi, l-.ILivf&f.; "A i:BUlc|jij#ardta» ijbMrvid fit tbtf t^, 24nr4l Db- 
■trrnkiry donnif lU Yean llMA (o IBTl/' lij A^wiiiJ SmAi; tal**AatJ9- 
iIcaI nud ^It'tcorologint OI«cTratif«a mnda during tia rati- 19Ti> at iba 
XftTid UbicrTaloiY.*" B*1L paUli^fd a1 Watbia^M 

Smntific Soticttra CInb 

bkwbtdfCuiM diJGcutiTu U* tb« uiMrtian of a riniioe m rv^nU thU 

iNtiluti«a, fur nv tiav* jmI knowa nbcrc ^^ put it. U> Ilivv, m ft 

ihuight, prit ti l4»nt, M bflng ni I«a«i mnn likiljr u> bn Mieu tlmn If ic 

ijAifipi bodrr tuy of tb» putfCulAf icUiitide dapiutniWLttL At to tho 

of tbi* cJbV— for wIikIii if h ho prKco^pful, wo ihttW hn iiidehlo^ 

[ib Mtrtme and luborioiM prrtiDnmlv i^f tljr IfononkTj SDm>lAi^, Mr, J, 

L«Ufty — vo k&iti now % f-ood tjilo 1o trll. Al u luooIiDg of lh« 

tODiiflitltf) vIjUIi wu bcli xn NutcjuW InaL, * pr-itpi^clus yvtut 

spy wbirli, afipr Hilling iht> ^nifml cbjum^tirr of th« dulp, goMon ta 


^Uri^nU Mcmben wbn *h«U hjir» b«oa AIoiDb«r> oF Ihn l^rvrimmtl 
'^flitllTT, AC foiui^»t t> tlici nuiulcr of £^^t— EDtinnire IVr, two gum?»- 
il^idiacriptioa: Town Ucmlmwy twogfuSni'iu; Cnimiiy Ikkmbon, one 

" Ucmbcn pQU^iuif oTber tbe Club U fciaiiii?^— EdUiidcd Fm, four 
nhvaa. AanuiiL ^^iibvTJpti'm T Town Mfmbprt, thrtv guinMi; Country 

* Xitfaouicb ibcv* foui atn tmiill ^Urjj cumptnil ajJi LLn^r of otber 
U^!|^ » IvT* ntiinbflr of Itrvr^ibum vill furnish nn AiiipUi iiicuiuu for nn 
■Oa«4ii>cit)3j C(iriduci«d acd lacrdirrhlo HUblisUmotit. 

** Wbsn ib» rriuiaiic iiunibcr u( qiuu« bavu b(Mjji rccvkvvd. ii guuL-fnJ 
>«|ia^ vtU ba viHUd In forma]|r found Iho Clithf but unlll tLmi 11 U 
M pfupM^ to incur Any biiycrnil rvrj' triAiiiiir jjraliitiiUAfy i^A^iiitiflva, 
Gutkisivtt >vadiii^ lu Ihvir jjilitkh lo bu uddvd i>j Hit l'rovJti[i.^iiul L'gm- 
lilia* win ootiK^iioally be tin^W tli? [ii>c-iird»ry or ocfa^r linbilitr^ li i*^ 
^tm$MQt bop<^ tfant Ibo pn'p<:i«I iuilt lui^i^t wiiK tbt ^oai;rAl AUppurt af 
jTJiKTini niffii, juid tliki tlituii ^iiutjllc ^uctiellv^ Cbib iitnj U* Nui:cui»fiilly 

TbflTo bu «lr4idj bafln, vo b«lifr¥Of o^ar ft hundred ntvmbi^rfi who liftT« 
^tto in tb«U nitm^* : jind KC^ntlvtimn dniroua of joiiiiof vr\l\ jJhh to HOd 
b tbeu iiftm49 Lv Uiu Eflilor of ttii» JDumal, \y1io wii] thou wnd tbom Pro- 
i^tUMft and ai)t«vr uij ^uoriv tbvy may pLoMo to put. 



J yEH' Ifrrmy^^JWJt fvr E^lvaf«noU.—hopi Uadmj And ^tr FMdd 
^^ Gill hura d«a(Tib«l to iho Aslronnuiwd Socioi^ « form r>f i^Lock whidi 
tbfrj hiiTv dcvbod. nnd whicb fciiU £*» l« nodcr tbo btijirbfr acuutbcj ofnto 
vrbkli i« now dtnmiKJcd bj ■pMtrurti uutlfih wid o.^liMinl photogn^^ 
rmlilj atbiimbK Tha fcJluTving^ onndtllODt b*T* bMn andcATOurvd Bo 
be nftliMrd i— 

1, A drliinfr f owvr four or &ft Unuu lu inu*: ju tiut Mctiml^y r#qutr«d, 
sou it) »T^ii bUi[» wbvn tbfl boIjucluffM U>A liutramn:l irtdtfixCiTa* 

3, A ml0 (if m(»tJf«i fi)LiBl in JUCuFKjr lo ibat of a ^«d •idcfOil doc^ 

3^ Mitnic>Tiri:i<i(< 'if iliii Httni« iintfatmUf of nt« nndor iihugia of work to 
b« doDO, loiee a^ grviC o iboC to vbkh thtt cl<Juk itill If* likoij to W 


4. Ad p>iuj nnd ripid riLAflm ^f wlJuirtJn^ Ihiit nl*, aod S9 tToUio^f d«l^ 
in ilnuE^ lu muoh u poMtblc 

Tht] ui<fLtii)d« b^ iiLb:h ibeM nrMn] vxidilliuiN bai« bwii wriroi it, 
dfrtfliM iu f(i]1, ^Uh \nHout Itlniintrirvi^ laplAinio; t1i« mjirbiacrj om* 
ployed. wr«i- pnTM ni tha J'rf>K(iiinp II,A,£:^. 

M. TuoduiM ^T*d obwnrfiLioiLii, fronn Jaoa to*ad fif AMgmtt,aJaitfi<8huu, 
line t, rkDil ibo ban Hn k^ tUi> tiumbor •! |ioi£iij'a* v«ch ibiy bfl^t QoM. 
Thptc fftTt fnjiTi !^ luiW. AacfeHt)i<jni n w^ihtiUBii Tb«]l»eltri£ 
U aJv«^ found wh^Hi Ibv linn h ii fntiivl ; bot th« nren^ A'tM o?« ^vhjt 
oojtir. .V|>Jiv>lM- i-BjisV ibflCffj* tifl wntsr ;>xBti omt, nnirknjrrrtJi>rtUa|rf^ 
Uiat ih" |ii-tium tiftT nf «poU ftre gtiwrAlly T'r^ liP>Ai»d. ud umij tif iMr 
t^ugM"*, »ir riifMintj, go tiilfaa t*it brirtoiti vi a way ffirtriTr to thNt vhleh 

(Xa vfurwfi ^fiiTViif?*, — A Vfi.'T isij^irlAnl wid vftliuble (i^rbtlMt UJ 
WdTcxii4 livfi'^h AcjidMny l»1ptj liy'M. Kitji* IVcitT^ bo myt, wviht lit* 
ax|iUnLli«n of auronu in » votcoKrb^w^kii be icmu manic 71>c |lic- 
UDmcDft nn timb^btj <Ji;v to tJcclro-oiiigiHtic curntlii tfinu}.- frjv; tlw vm 
to lb* f luiMi, tb*ir T^htd» b«tngf plhrr. JTo himtrdf KhiIuiju iv i«evpl 
iUEj vlcw. Add <iLlntft« aftfntion lo thii f^ron rttiltj aotiig In UlrrpUikHar^ 
npccf. I(j oddiuoa t^ atUnction Uittv h Ibo foioa pmdadnfi tluf php- 
notovn* of comfAa^ I^fii^h^ ni>C lid«, ofi4nufv]r <^n '^u' tiirih, 0ni,hi* to 
■urona? Th««QbcUoriiu*rcputA\e force fti* pEvfurtionid bjwflhnaft&d 
nol 1^ iniww. liiMpiiUf la nrj cl«iia* bu4JE«^ tb«; beoaae nomoin k 


■llBniollKi(«i«,fcATlQf ndtffrtron Awnyfroni iHo nin- TfauantrflAfid 

bm !ur# A vrrr bif ta r^lodlr, lu if ioliclt*d by « ftvc^ twolTu or ^aan 

e pntln liua :W of ^rafitj, ^prctral ooiJjtit nL(rira ■ IIiaI ciruiflto 

IvIvoIlMi of ligkt— <iiW from «n]iu- illurnlniition, Iha othvr jim^Br tn 

«, iid cMnctcnwd hjln^bt ImHof a diacflDtiauoui ■pof^tL'uin, udi- 

hf bdAdowaoe of gn^nnu |4r(i. Tie cariL, t«o, vtowfil frunt ftGu. 

lU |TH*7>E Ivo J^>w.:»~^lhiac nf «ri|jir light, itnci In t\io rihtp^m' pnn pnftr 

»pc4v t&« ilucciittipuoii* n^M^eTrtjm nf it« horurt*, Ih^ti^'U lunl hUJilni. Tbo 

im^om act iLiak the Fnbt« jni?jindF8c«jtcn of comE^tiirj matter i»cAu«cd 

tfibr ht^tf for Ibr hiieio n^ il^i tt^t produfD Biii^h vflVtrL^ wJrli uh. If a 

*cm pUcod flcrav tha Uil, tba puttictoi jlrikiDg it would Ukety 

fuddeittf inctadncccal. Nu^v Ui'^ imdr^it* U Jiut tuch«Mr«ai, 

I ^Bi4«hich ll«^ i]ff(f*ricir mnWiiW of ill" Ti*<THi]iiHity >ititki>t prrMliioin^ 

I ta Kd li^t ) whifr, oa (bo i>thrr bjind, molcicido^ not tbua nrr««T4^d puM 

■fiA? Wblod and fi-4ni ibe t^ib Thiu tliflfe b A doublfl rflVct On mir 

i |Ua atiij iha ntmnfi imcl urj mrv kpr* of Attnnspbrm liAvn nnmn 

I BBld^^ 1o tlu«« duaiin ci-b()1o»hi(Vf but thvy tntj f^vit tUo 1^ Mino of 

[ iW fln-noaiviin ; ni^l Idb bJctdt T'l lb? jmAler ntlracUnii of lh« t;li:ibc 

I MiiiD th^mitTrr about i1. But thi^j tuTkHI [iroduco «oini> fnMti light' 

I 4bdi BfoiAv ic thfMc oS oomoU if iKo ivpulatvo foica ^otnmunwtcd to 

I Ika ■ oriala raj^onj a conaldcrnibto vcWil^, t:tj\nFrit\aii tbuin to Gthar 

[ N^Wdf ourflob*. Tha llmfu of out iirTnru|ihnn« am unknown. biil th^ 

I ^ivdl will b« vbvrt aLiroir, bavinp bcuom^ lunro rnrv tlmn tbvrocuun 

I boBibMC pneumatic njacblniv, hu bent ivlIuci^J lo n iLicJiiini doubtltaa 

[ BM^ntbla In dirCRJtj ta thn oomrtjiry nt^brd^witipf, on trhicli t]ii> mpa141vf^ 

ftnof Lb* mn aaU. CoD»ld/*r tlJi bnait ; it U not hkplj »rphvti£ab Tha 

mt ^j«n of ovr atraotijbtin) nbow by Uic baioiu^tpr 4 wll-ninrkiHl 

^■iCeuv of p i* M iK» xi tho pi^lra, and maxima whioh do ml rointldd vith 

*• cqiiMot. TciupumtTiTo and rfldidtiooB produce fti^i irw^uJoriliea b 

^n; aaiJ it itjiiat hv ibc foujc wjib tim r^Itf^iiiD layr:^. TW^ ]m»bably 

a^ttWnfti Oin iho ^ilo nnxt thoiun, ih« Kida on whli^h tli*^j aUnin lii^h^ht. 

^alija» ft rvfiulaq^' fi^rc^^ iqipfttHn^ in n iJjffbt fircHiire c-PEitmll^. and 

^tnmai at iLv ed^rs. Tbis linuLin^ lajvt u tbur cDnFcivml aa hAvJn^ a 

W«tmtiiT% though a bi^hpr cl«riilioa. dun that of ibu op^iito tide: 

ltd, Aft In ibc JifiaiciT Ittycn ^iboa^ in jrMRtfr dncinA ], jin.i»«nt![ij;(A de^prtd^ 

lim oeai vacb (lute liu llip riirlil >idi\ wbmc Ebfl u'rauud oud lufviitir Ujvi* 

i«liaiD ]+atl ta lbr» boavont. Then aa 1o th^ c^l^t of lUc brrrjitf^bflro 

IikihI taw«r4j the tvn. Tbc onpcrficlal part** rediioad lo i^itromo raritj. 

f^if ib« rv^ublra bm atul are drit«n tan^ii^Uallj, ai-quirjng coiuJiarabb? 

nlKitv to an hr>CT nr tfvo, KAitt^hinj; tbw dtpnusion tti>ar tho pnTtio, Uirry 

tnlcr ll>u nrmtin anit mih aooA* >t Tho tartb'e niTndii^n yirodiicfa d 

■tnog currALJJtv in their tn^vctoiitrff, Aad ibvv meat the liiuiduic tmrfitct- 

•f UU aciBoi|il*nt bijond ihp dcjirr««ion : and if tLvir vrlocity uiat hn%i* 

>«B(h«d Kivral bnndRd mHrDvpcr Kcond, iho inc^tunt nbodi aT ibcw 

viobrjfi partitlu* ayalut the Uxod ifill ^vn rtxi to 1i/til. T\tf flight tllo* 

aisAlaoa whUh *ill b« vidbla to ua in a limiifj pari ^r xht- Iivatcdii w(U 

Jkttfo iko chanolci* of f^ueoua taeandHcriLcci Tbin pfaoDrao^iioii wilJ not 

oeenr vi^iuJI; all round tbn ^lobe. In rr^noa a Htcb^tvaiovvd frooa tbe 

jwIm i1i«r» b no tiut depnMooii lo troa ; Ifaa ihoImuIa la thmt 

pn1v4, find HfUtfUfly At tht> pi^!^ AficdUj rUipr^nii nfttfitaf liftltL 

uUu^ up by M, I'M-i^, who (iniftrs H. ZulLifr'i ¥ww» n; lr«^\i In tW 
" fVii:;pw* Itrndu* " I'f ;ln» French AniJ^inj'. Iln t^xt ilmi ih*' -jiMa *t» 
#corj(o jiPJiuiW br lo'^iJ eH>IiDg cf llic ii]fnnd«c*iil Iji^iml «klitrli f ifBJi l&« 
«Uitr j^h'b''. HiHr n^UU^cW low Icrnpi-rnl^irv fttr* riw to riirrriilt nuiili^ 
rriu« tn IhfVr Hbout rmr rtiatta wiJ i^Ui]iU; only in Uif fun thi'f A* WA 
Ailemate' Tb« lAnr«r cuttphU 0ov |y<rpLVi'lLru1*i-Jv to lliovidoj c^ Iha bl«t 
from williin ouln-anlfi tbe upper fnoi ^itbout bwAnli^ llenn « oon* 
tlTiEuil utitf nf v«riiral ma»tar[ica, tbi^ harUnnUl asu of vh[^b ar* 
i/mfrttUti to thf ^ntount nf \ht tixir'i»^ Ktiunlh tbo F«l4r mli«oan U 
pKtlr puppTMBcJ b^ eiicb nil J^tfl » wid if Ibr t4^iiiprrMiin» jiaW to th« 
point of condenuiT&nn af vapnimin thQi1moM]>bnrr,<Mitdi nrr Cirniml, vbvM 
%ur4 dopdOilii DD tbo Ufi^ur drr^ntJ llavirii; hf»ix nil T4rt4 t^^ritnli tb« 
tnlJi'fil aiu trf tbo i«ti:^t. Tljr; v'lll <v|ir<^MlK Ir jiroJucfil lon^nU lh* 

f<'HfT4l pBflp ftfUl tbfl H^fUlT will Npp<-(IT M h Jlfk MloltlH WJlh ill lYimt/f of 

ptiLLimbri- Thi) ]<i^l tooting, niid tbp duo^^iliii;^ m»>TrnKo( c^ ibr iitni<^ 

iiiic!ni» (rf vpfjtB, iiJ thv tfl^eu M pi>nprctWi< u thvy ■T^«'*li tW cOij^a «if 
Ibc die& H tbfi nMrnding eHrtnila oi>t«tJ« of Uip Mkt &iv ttniiA; iLey vHll 
Imp up nn^ gin tlie Dp|iHir«an iff onbuAtr prinubcmncr^. At Iff (be 
4TiJfiU«( protulxinni^M, ihcv fltv rliw ti> X looil il^(nliiiJh'>4 rif >f;iinqihuic 
pr»*iirr. TLf* ^v» indudfd adJ cnrapn4n?il> or vintpl^ dwrlivj [a iba 
liiiniil inui. tjupi? lilic thi* L'U-buUiln iu Kltft-r «itff aI«ti tti* p>«1r U 
flm^^. 'th* Rii)v«m4Ctt cf ipott mtrt* ot^]n''Twl bv " lr*(Jtv^ "b^ 

jtnbu ti (be n^UAtOf. Thtt ti^t^ntn^.n*. t-t Ihiji xti'ci \n llic : vbv 

pnrnlHx itiTiiintiJtCfi i1j>^ vrleidij itf r^tniinn, xiit) rvr^nU llir- «piiii vfltn tti 
rcginni ncfir lb« pnl^ thun »1 lHi« r^iiitcT, vTifTP llio idin u m/ l.ftT]|« 
KuiiJD oft«n VriNik up nii'l f^rni HvrmI ppot9» tho m<Ai>do>i^til oma a»* 
ppArlng fyom hv\crv,-. JUmMiUlni on ihik ibtury, M- Fnjp pni&u ont tbii tt» 
trpiTU OA DAdiin^ ih# otljin onirbE^ nft^ordlfif? to 11, to *h>a n ^jtttl^u at th« 
«iijff of tbo t^it of Mtf^ <4 wbiH^b lUip K-on» form il« bottom ; bat ibtr* U 
DoDfbi of tliin.nnd Ihpuriflct bti;-irii)'» vt«n«ili OivnJpsof thiilbw: fW 
d«pth oTtbi^ip^iti hoi boon mrruiirodt *nd found «■ no aTonitpft litro* |o fovr 
KCcmdiL RTfli^lbtoff kadiTtttM tbfll tlw Rp<>lA Mt fnvttiru wiJ not |mJKK 
lindih On tbA nUirrbniidr ibo ibeui^ U inott t:li*iiy rrUt^iS tn biA (Itt. 
I'^ky Vh> own Iboi) i\ S^cvhi'ii: bxb mippeH^hK * fiivvtatioD af^ 4>fm rioA 
gf jifdicgea i tb« «xifl^ LowciTfT, biiofr. •o<crdin^ to tbo >> «b 

Am! it ii «^ prrferibb icihoetDpcLHi iheavy in thjU hi ■ ■- *■ 

of iiiovamtfst of tbo ipol*, ono cf thM> being tbnt Mck »p(Jt rottowa tW 
ai^i^nrul r<f tbr pDntJbl la vhJcL U Lf, Uii^ if it pnuc* iato WMrfher |atfiIU 
ihkM tbc nQOTDin^iiit nf lltAt- Mul l]i'<n frnv- w'oiild mippovi* thu lb* UIpIa 
oif «C4ri> wonU bo diirM by tW Indo'windi nippn^d, tvw-^r'- ■': - -tn^ 
lur niko our thip)' Tb<rc b do t'lcb mor^mcnt, nnd onn ■ , -b' 

bi>iirtT3jf ipnih which b»v« UmltoA niOTcnifn^ tn ^^ip^^ iim-.-uLru, on* 
towtfdi lb4 •qTUlor, Um oth«T tawfjda llie p}^«i. Tbo alliptie oaeinAlUiti, 




ka to ootUafT In ^ram^ vtlh Iha djffklnAtmiittt U floAtiafT bodliu, And 

n* ijiotj drk pat npjKfti boT^ftl the -l^h fI'>i^o <)r Utitiul^, v^bUo Ih? ;»>- 
taftvnuiCM fiujip«ol to ba prv^uc^l bj Ibem) iip|>f!Ar u tkr u itio TOlb. 
Lud^, pciQilrW tb* to^i^ «ni ovuCkni utnr rudlaiinn^ Tha iiid, bdiif 
(Anplj a lir|Li^fiffd diap*, waiilJ hhrt- bt>tti hoi- ihIqca CQcpit'iJ>d. U i)u) mq- 
hiliiiilifj of liqiiide uul &>]idB u w Hiualk Lli4t tbuv Kori/o tnut lb« b«ftl 
tf At li^aid« for Anyr^ wivk<, flricl ?T4>n whol^ fnanlli*, tiovr ftf« m to 
tb« contn^oui mdiiLtioD <if 1 ,3O0,00OiCO0 caloricd par »i)ii4H m^ln of 
ili«ll5 ^ A »(nl^ vf flLi:Oily iiii&rlj jfiitfuuf U nw^wwy tv kIIjw tlie 
jitj of »v«ncl{nfr Mid ifA4P4T^iIin^ iiiirrhnrh In lirin^r h^nt up ^t^''" th^^f^ithv 
<t the M>lu ifiuM and wpplj t>i« etifrrlirJn] ratiiniion durin^r m^Ijciiu cf 
jttfir ftbd tOftUovof t]xtf lou^rtMre ccut^acUoa of tUc (,i^^^^ ptfttion uf 
Ai flMB rvfAmnp, in rjilircncf, n pnrtofihcu'cELlftr Iool M. Fiyo convi<iiT4 
flnt th4 clrculAiumof toWLviln^Ava ariujifr^m ik lU'^ru i^DTianU plicnoraonoa 
dna t)uil •iippiMv^ tv M. ZuUniff, m. IIju vurtlu^ii aiuiuiurul* {*Uh 
*«tanl fti«> pnxliirpd 1p iTi* rhoro*^]^*^ Vj iu own •pwrinl tnfirt* or 
mUlloD : «nd ibm nidiAti<:*a u ooaDDcit^ with n *iill moro gvnenti pbcnij' 

^ ^uci^/f Iifiuir JfuiiitpA'TriL— Mr t'. 1*. Xriihui hu ft pDppt In tha lose 
MaWr «f tlio *^ Montll)' Noticv*," in wl^Kh, [ir(<;r foinj: into tliniDbjecA 
vilh tdmlk? mJnutcnm, (10 m^ tbol It rtuituuf (-i n^fti w tliD ubjfctiniii i 
mi the** we g)t«j mlloinn^ xht n^ii*T 1<> «xiiTiiiiu< ib^ p*|ii-r ttt^lf fuT tW 
UfWUMtA la fLi^iiur «l IhU vicv, Hl^ jlpittn '^IjlI the cjbjootbuf* ivitit env 
■r1vr»eKtf(iIktM, An all diiicti^d ti^^ir^'t ah MjifiiithrpT ujtiiiJty udriiic, 
<i«T«ii diTiMr ihin tnirfivri • Lhirj nf vHliifl''*^ b* ttlitH'Tjtil hj^lniit one only 
fMNhuitdredl^i of iKit AtXtaij, Tbe phi-Dnturn^n nfcmd ti by Mr- Prout^iTj 
bUvwirkuD l)j« ^^O0^,w|lnTVl^QLiJ3gt]]l:(■cc1iIUIionL>^n«tA^|l:ouldonIJllrlfe 
fc«iBlii*4r *tmrtiphi»re iulipS pPrtTut tbfw oiit i>irTi, eii-n trifi* k not pr^ 
IWtnl Cfon llie fSTt frcm tho Unnn KfEcrnfrutinn Iftinff dir^r^uut imd m^t 
CBCtt^gmt- na he oipuuiei In Lin illLiilrttlLUti. It oiLl nlnr buBp|Jttrvnilhm 
it Lht deoiiir d the i^ippovd Klinoiplirr'*, no ditlcrrtinn »t • IftAl hi'tnv^ 
D(?a]UVEc'n feuM p^wxiHy ocour ; JUid iliv uiat tppll^ to the ccciilldtlon of 
t yCmii'i Kidt b J'ljiitvT "J i^iiurii : lli*i iiiiuiuMmi t^lTiict nvuld b<t Ui inrrrntfV 
<te^fv Lif IIa l^likUftl bj iibntit 4itii>-tliiniuiiihh, Init iii nn riL*fl tliiUin tt^ 
[V. Da/ftaA* oWrfatjOQ (" Monthly Nulitcv/' \-o\. xir. p. *^)) it ctUi^iLly 
\j^i mnuin Anli-AU.- ranuirii I0 diHKt the \en fJ}|rhl dTL^LL cnpubU i^if bemff 
tlfflud by An hI iiKxipbt-iv of iha fjeiuity tiippnawi. The rR'ectof a hiaif 
MuAfffkLen apon aq cdipto of tho Sun Wi^ulcl, tf (.f ihi? cUsaity u«iiDcHl,hv 
ODiiyy tJiAjiCie u A ilimlituliuu of Ifie H»JnI^iuneler by aWuE (lut^wcnnd, 
[QVoiM b« b*t tu the tffectJ *' ir?«dialinn. Fibulhr il em bun^ly he 
Mr&M»tj ^irxpi tliAl it o^LiId laaiei UUy iaieifcrc witli ihu (ibeninljoo of 1^ 
npNnftl erf ihf tIitI \\r\*-t in Ihx hulHr fpi7EriLnt, cunHNlvri^Lr* Oj^ tnmllruvof 
tUUHjoKt*! ftCmctioni utd the ■itiainejy luiniit am^^ . ^f «caXt*riiif7 of 

^fCMl«fvl ipppfin m limit ■ povihlfi Iun» ftrmi^spliprQ 


tlL8 iU£*T- 

<cn bBtweea lEj* <>(KrutUtiuQ nutl lel«u»pe Bemi^^^'^ . Tbe n*l 

j&u 1111.— ya L. O ^Ul* 


dnMHHM of lb» >ttfto<fh>M tk^tn U b« powlbU upca tL 

lk4 JiMft'l 

{•■bmt fovlivvdfoltWMwdtaDa; md tli«i U bE«a iMarij 
ortbvfmpactiniof tU Mtwo't ibm^ a* tJwEfUi^if wfhwtdaMU 

t* tfat Ac*4«ii7 <x(\i««|iL«« KMidn^'Ott, H) Hut FkEktr 9ewbi hai 
ibal tlM 4il»ti<a <^f tbe f«ai/v of tho »Ur di4iDotv«, m 
manM^dvaontie toufM obcAinrd En th« «p«rtraNi3p« id^Mciip* 
dinei tiilCB prii b«Caro Ui* ilit, itm toM Lh«a th« <lunt;nn arf^D « 
"Gt^mirichNuiUcil AkuaAck^liybUnlO^AH, wIi«bcd b» ioJui liul 
Ji—ilrr lYlhn mnnn rhmnwrin icugo of Ui« flan i* nbontl^i. kM ^km 
4iua«Mr ol tb« ud*^ vitli GOBpoiud (Ijcbt Abtaltiod b^ tbt 
uImcc^ wilb odoucd flM^ SSfoov ]EM-|Tii:bi ii iinwilluif to 
ddflbrvBO*. fU "gy*" poarfU» cauM* of rmtr ^ imperfect m 
uiliUli^ of iwCnuDcotf Miwnco of •(tto«pb«rio n/ncfko, but 

iTiiHj iba bdiunce uif wUiioqa ■>/ l«ai|Hntun <jf lli« pn*«- 
MOiibl7 ^plftc* Ibo tpfdml llau, TU nmuIu u« coitUii^ |Mbl 
Sf«bi MVH ^ but it U roplifd, tbu dnnuirvMb pun^ of tk« volar i 
tbo ^euipAntur? u( Uio pnm oanU ul mn^nuocuimMitvaRd il* t 
would bo rappodocod ponodioUy in «Kc4fl«T« ptwigo* ("mdop<ftdi«flf 
Ibo alBoluto taai|)«ntan). It bt ptvdnlj Uim» poilodk tvUuom 
nii^Iit (lu|ilaoo Uue wUr ininrif bj a i^u&utitj misri; cvciitBnt in all 
tOvOMTo |HMM£«it (Tbis iafluobce ii niucb lau HAdhU lO tbe ODlbfl^ 
Ovn iottnimoDi, ia irbicb tbc ofvriuro U loduecil by a dia|iltf«ii=* atd At 
liti>ai Iju tmii> HUuTTiticn). I >ih*rr pawiblo C iO H g of WTor ww Ibufodal 
liAn nr n-j^iF^ii'^n <ifih« <uii** bonier, kod fliop«nooAl VToria obScffvoCiM 
tbo two ocoUctik Some of th« cflu*r* mcaibaeHL ato kToIded bj udaf tbi 
oljecdrt p]4vm. The wilboF*i chwrrailnqji bv both nwlbod* ^avo 
diiMAg wry liiUo. Aoia tAo *' X»lic«l AlaiMuak " (not 
* w - MS). 


7Xo Oamdia of LitAmtK^Aa ImpcoliVt pap«r oo iVib mbjoH iiipmj 
^^OioTlllaft " (8^t»mb*r;, asd h worlb jof biAag paiuaid. M, ltorv«t, wb< 
rfwuvhc* Ili» p»pi*r dcftb vilb, U tuJ Ia n^nit^r hv bat rataliliihfj 
tnu Mlonbg iiropooattona >-lt Exarr gcnidJuu of a HcbdD Jna^ ht 
forrvd to a vp«ci«« of A1^. ?. Tbo roiTOf^Iiou of tbo bTpba <witb 
gODiiiiii U «f flUcb a iiAlurc- u 1o t<xcludr all fio*«ibility cJ odd 
bcdn^ produced fixna Cbv vllvr, njid cEml di« ih^uiy of fttrautlota oiD 
#xpfaSa U urLifBd'^nT, ^1 liiritfi'A ji»f^. of whi«b ib# ona in ' 
vilW'UanabslraM, U ii]Li«i<nlf4 Tntli <lcT«a ooJourod pIoUri</ mil 
Kdidnl (UanMtioaa nbldi nmtt nrj c^cNdcnblj ibo «ltidJ«ti<fa oT 

anted hy tboH vbo bmu to bare prvdcsl ikc^uaiuLMtce with tbo ii 



flmnnDScSRbil Cuba. It ihniju Ihe fwnuip, uid &l ibo huu« tiuui 

ghW off tfllkVptiO TtpOQK, 

£i%v(n IfuaAkibflmiiifVUiin otMriBoJ fu^.— Al ft tcoout mo^liag of tbo 
AokL -jf Nil. 8cL of njiUdrlpUs, Mr. Tbduiua AEuuti^u rsfuir^d U> 
1 fifir b J pTo4M«or Atfiboriiri Wo<'<r), mtilted p ''S^lfiiUrli jr tlti> iSftftjnl 
(Mof ^r l.iiiACfff]'^ r^i llkD Tacific ccoit, piibtUhcd in iLc vctumt of l^ 
^ywmtilljip " tor IffOH, b w]ilctihod«vr1bM4 '* nvw iipi<i--lru< " rif tSiwn u 
L ITuAm^Hiumm, jrtvijiff, ojt a r«MOia for tli^ iiuifLr UiiLt it vu ^ot^rftll^ 
laowo HB tbe *' L&dr Waebii>;ctoii " li? th« miiten Profcnoi Wooj fuJ, ia 
Ui papnr. lb«t Et wm rbmiu'kabiL' n flrrn n pl^nt bid been nrorbokfid by 
Mh»T bntaaWa* ll co bftpp«Di ih»t il bnd net b»*ri ^vtifitxtk^^ but tu^d 
Iva dtocritwd Uo jvnrt pmri^iLAlir bj I)r. Kr4Jo|£|r, in iho " Pnm«diii^ <jf 
1h* OilflbraiB AradnDj'' for I^VI. Tbrougli ihe uniuiul droanutBiuw cif 
vwoftot^on vnLplojan; tit uiiao miut^tfaA eooTiuaoia «ad troablowbiok 
boMafed ciu^l(«» bibiu \t% dociibrn brlag on atudanu. La Lb» prMvni eoMp 
■ttftot b* grvKt: jvt ll U bat Jit At m T)r, Kt^llogg UiiU tMd E^OTMilon 
ibsoM go iDlo Uic FM^D eif tbo AndMO^. 

<BSiO at M rr««Ciog nf iba AcadAiny «f r4dan«ui, PMUda1|>hIt, ^Uy A <anly 

•DT, NATviuWipriaUdiViJ ciAiulALtd id Kn^lAud), \^j Mi. TboiaOd Mii^bwji, 

wkioerUuiIv aiiptftrs to bn one of Uio mual lodufltujiiv Ub^iorvn U UlO 

b«vik»l tli^ld in Amorin, thut on wrnl on^Ajdcmii, iluHng Iho fi»« put 

fiHVb U b>d bc4Q acitlMd nmouit tb<j fvfridfi^nf ka nitltfov iLat tho laaJancy 

tofvoduM doaUo fiownm via b> wt jutwm ihu nfncud prvrogniin: of Ui<) 

ioiiit to produoe^ Manj of out comnionv^t wild fToir?r% vhicb iw one 

»M]d ibinh of ^olIlTtttiDg, bftd doablo forma id caltivatiou wbJvb wmv 

■D dnibt rirfi^nii&lly f^nirivl ^iUL I1nu ini bud a ijoubli^ fitxnntivi^iui ncritt 

|fi«Hnrulu> &«Jita"*', H^ /TrtTi^, it «|p*n, ftnd ■5tii»» (ilJirn, lltf hid bim- 

f«lf pUnd 00 rocord tbt dinoororj, wild im tho WiaDbukon, of ■ dodblo 

AtrV/Wava T#[;/iiwa, and tbl« lUMLHm a f^Ujiw mvuliur, Dr, JftmAii Ibmmob* 

bad loQod, ia \h*i Ji^mo tocfttioj!, * doubU TraUin^ Aibutu*, /^#d fv^wm. 

TVn worv, in pUuta, two lODtbodn bj wblcli a doublo Hovrer b piojuoed. 

Tlvtibiof tCcrvcv wtHflimpl^Bbnuicb vvrj utoidi jvt&fdui iu itidetdop* 

navt, uvl gcncti^ty thcr« ncrv, on thu ajroiiod bmnoh, xufmj aod«i 

Imuvca i|j« »rntt fi^ritiifig: tlio cUjx or ci:ir4Ufi, mid tba rr^ular atamqaa 

ad fupt>K ir>iirb wttftft mlirvly jiujj|vv>U44ri. Itiit nlifji \ ilijiiblo flow; 

«W pr^Jriotd, aL>tD4UDic« tbiAtv u»u>lI1j icjppn^i^d niidta woald bcCOmo 

dmlopcd. ui irbichcMo tbetowuagTtot lua'aaBtf m tb«niLmbt.TorpuUJii 

wnbiittt juij d^flurbure la lbs sbuniniJ Gbtmct«(ii. But nl ritbi-r tJniM 

(bin irM feo diilurbiAC* of tbo conniLl cbAttcUf of lh4 ajcm. Tb« frUmuoi 

ttau-eLira niiTrlj bociait {rtt4luBd< ThLi va* thft<ii*« in tliv /jMf/tfUa ourr 

4n»l bj Dr. Unrmch. Il« t* iKit aliintr b «»11lujf Arii^niicm tn tb^^o IbcU 

b vlU flower*, for Dr. Qiaj ooJ oUun b*To noi^fdod utaUaoc* iu tbt 

■Annicu Natundi>t." 

.t Srm f^tt^uK Ctr^tittojiia irri\ftlla.-^.\t ctiA (if ihA me4itln|:« tu t)i« 
ttfnu «f 111* K4ilftt>un* rUaiunl li^tory AvJcivlj, >Jr C, J. Mullcf 
(kosd OB JMOcd Ibe diKOTCTjr of a bigUjr ciinoua fus^o*, wUcb bo fuuud 


rorcLAK KtEncx unnr. 

groffa; OD ■pftanwrtti vf JVe^ Jlmu^Awica an Ure mil of CWpW 
PW« in Pctvwjr but Tb* V*^r% vu poTw^n^ kjnoapvt ttuM unil ext il 
nbbi>k of Um v«1I, and AKrinAlly p r wU 4 Ifav uiuaI A^TMhrance of Vk 
fBD|:ub— lh«t i* U> mf, it v» Idovruib, amk, Waati^tiiTxnL af>l t^tikt 
with d<na» fftftdonUta hniia^ md nrivd &d iim fivoi itm JtnM tn !»■ fn< 
in iDroidttk. On tnmiaag. liairvrort the liymCTiuM, or fniiVbMno^ n 
iWc. Iw femnd II tmifa mA ^m[Alhijt, in appmaoM ahogvlkfi ^Utrm 
from llio omaI hjvwaltm oi > l^otUft : ud on njifctag » rtrtirol mh^oq i 
tbo diwr ducoTCnd lUl iht hmttanm vm Udcktr «*Ad«d iritk p4 

l^l« ri'ihA. Hkd SIM fii^ ^*rf dttt bffwn lMaciB<«1:Jtp«id tpr*^ Ij^n^E f>J| 
in tbcir- nvvpUdt. Tho |»ritiic«i» v«ro UMMScd at vui*«« dopUit in tl 
bjawoliuu l^t iLe rettu^ and nere CKr«iu<d villi kji]in« KfUle bcittk 
Tho ftiri ftikl tporvli* at ibA P*riu #iiat*«l In Ibo iw*1 feffn, fait I 
&«1 to Imimant lu tmi»L Aj be cmild find no dcKriptioA ci thi* fnniTi 
in tLv btnla on Itiituh Ktm^i, be rvfrmJ tbc nnAttrr to Mr. M. C. CoqIu 
wfao^ like hTDiHir, vu difj'wl ht Snct 10 rvgftjil it u mnloinfc<«loii«, m 
HeiconldbodiwofcMd} buefurlb«rc<ifiiidqr«JiaD«f tbo nil^ct kd his 
tba oploloft tbiit El Wunfcd U il« ic«aua JfrAntn^ittii at Cmh, nUtb 
MonmjvfilAiiit, Lml thii opjnkn m rnnfiTfVHl bj M r, ^tnllAr'* fefqnjt «b1o i 
^uotnvT in tb« Mflf ftt^ cf tho fun^i« tho rKiAtmicr vt AtrlicaAf ain, 
wbkh tbf* IciDoii'fbBptd ffpcvidin nn prci^ucvtL Tbrn nci up qiiEckl 
diHrJtrd D^i^ Hj Ibt tp«ridU h«cuinp tDoliirv, *o tbai iht lAl(i*r ftpptun 
in U)« pfjitbfc'ift pnftcily fiw, w iporvt «f fear »c«a*tiam in tbo partdiu 
of t coAiuiuj'fpl^iifl funicn*' FlbiBy Mr. CooIl* h«# atmeA Lbi- pbua 
ClrrvifajtfV'Aii HttrrU^ '^IVrjtt flfntt/Mffln^** lE In fntliHly D»ff. Onl 
two «p*<iui L^ ihU ^nu« bnva b»««i Sound in <trwl Bht«iii, »KdU« obtir«e 
of tbv ^nri« an pfcn in CwU'o * Uindbo&k " differs nuitenillf fmn th4 
of lbi> ipMim^n iindifT notin, vo Ibil it nuy l« «|£U quM^aned vbidb«t 
hn» Vt 1 butfi c4.iiT«f d J niknifri. UaMrvk BoriniTy and Droo(n« rtf^MTdfliil it 
s Fpn^r* Ljf Ji/rA)]i4*p'*'^T ^> fpfctca <^ Mbu^h p>riijft liv I ' - ■ Ti r« 

nirili^ ill llrilxUk Vk- thould lilc**, hattpTcr. Li hiLii- Mr ' - <[i^iiifi| 

an ihi* (nblt>^. 

fyiy ohflftrncl l>j >lr, OcViirT, ivh« bM il--v>r^ljiid Dm itfoouK fuUj in 
Acad«ny «f NuunU Sda»M« of l^IadcTphiL 'J'ti* (l»w«r of Iht4 j-lmiti 
COcnipONd «f AA vrrcl Inlifr ni^h « vtunvl cUfc rLiiiinajf alooif ilo Utrti 
w«JU tttmk nbnttLj IbrDii^rh on^-lhirJ iU'aiirv tfngth, prtwfnting ouCwnrdi 
nppiirrtilh' n tnvM efnoVt from 1b« manner in wfai^h 1*^ cnaprow* 
mArjiav r/ itrt (ippvr lip fit b:a ilw roUtd'b cd^» of the Uuvid bbn 
Iba liiLiltr lIpL Tho anpet Dp U aimpmiwi, lurbAl. nnd b^aknl, pr*^**!! 
In^ in Hp^rtniu %\ Xha npoVf Ibroa^ h vhlcb yu^m ■ cunrvd pbi<i| \ Ik 
]o«*r lip it P^Jlvitd- wa>I*ehv <^f tl>m lobcfl, on^ mvlitt niid (vo iitcrftf 
uiuntjiir n jtlHiform nnvi^nHmt. KorToFHi) viitin ihi npl^^r Tip arr fa« 
ttnnMi4. jLi^tntUK^v, witb th^ ■oUi«n turriin^ Wlrvfi'vl'. Cnr-n^ ta^J 
oihet <vninllr. When n|« lL<«o Ofi«H?n ii|dk upon tli ih 

giting A IvicJr^ ffwrmbUnn lo lb aval ■auff'-bax Uiriwi: 
fl« biDgM. tiAfb 0^1 U tibd m*-b whiitt poUM-ftv^ML -Now «ta«a lb 
b«c alL^bts qpon UiQ '.ulc, ij »ana4 cf ;ta tiuJi It Ofwii lb« £«lunl eld 

Bcaamnc susniABr. 


liotv Alluded to, woA, Latia^ l\»n f^vd « partiftl entnuM, it «oa1d dtfut 
ib bl«QtIoDT dlil nut the Ungth *>( the 6oir«T*i tabs vhoa coaiiwtcd vritk 
llui ft th« l»4')i tfUiik, aot'fuutUir 1)ii4 ndiuiHbon «if llin ruiif* h^kd (Jm. 
L- -ill* (Tpcvttiioii th« lip« of Ibkr lbtr«r V9 pTMiMl feput, iXv niKfjriiO* of 
dp* vfipvt lip ii/« Bqjarjiifil to rcc«iT< Uio luwli uid th^ |>oIbn-irnuBff| 
iljiAit^ tip?, hy ihc tnnwimliln doIkhx Co y»hhh Ihnj an lulfjool^ 
h«3«s« dui^ilftd from tLiir mUi, uid ttll dova in a AoaH ihcnt^r up:iii 
ik Im'a bftck And hftiiil. tiaviag obloiacd I bo coiaUd *ff<d, it flioi to 
aMfthar fluwea- upn » iliir>^rfiLi rtilL. a* li^ iiliMirv«d Id a M-\>rw r>i c-jmm 
dkiiB^ two d«p< htiU W&'n> ;*i;tiririj{ tiiv f«ve«dilig <ip«r«tinni.. itstiou* 
tMtf ftvbJlc opuD tbo bwcl lip. iia h?ad camiii^ in coatut niLh Iho vtifTDM 
fli tko ptMiU Thim, b; mi?ftiii or Uui hjun ibot }h%a tbu ini^rr iLitn oT Ibo 
l0«u of okch Mtcnor lo^^ and tbo «oiiiUat rubfato^ logotbw oT t)i# pArI« 
Em^' tit Uoplii or b^tiununlA tabtfU^ tho otUcbod polloD-gniiid uo 
fijhi^ tT> e^vry Uiivciiun, Hurti in Arllifn* Ui tfir- Hi^nw- 
TiUf u tA* A«ttn uf rA« Uaiijktifk tJiwiMM f—lt ti^Ktnt that ifunng tb^ 
tib» of Jui>e *Ad July Thjn dJKUc will tvpcarcuL fnin did^rect locdtidM 
Es^IkhI h hflviny ouuimI cuiui<IcniUt (imoH^ lo UolljliodcL It In 
llio«d, iOf* ft ikjCo Id *' Gfiiillle*,'* tj J^n^rima uiotvt^^arttm (Alunt.), s 
t»c4 pnrioutlr obMncd In iMh cnuDtrj, whLcL wu oriiiirujl^ 
dacribcd by Uostvpio » inxurrkig uu liie uiidi^r HurfiK-v uf Ibo luftvva uC 
^tt#d Qfiewm^, TbvEdi1i>f UpL4al<orv«ciTtdtp*(iioi'iuoD Mnita ^jfhmlrUf 
fvm Ja Iluwej, Kiiqvr of SftlUbur^ i Lr. INbitiMi, of Clii^Mtor^ oud Mr. 
L I^ufttl, of £EM«r. 


Ilfi'unrfiim ^ runiiui »i TAii4»ii*&-^Thiir wtidi night al ooo tin* hSTO 
CMui-Ujod A punl^ |ibyraolofd^ oubj«cC» bu ihiw tu Ujc*o do^ «^ 
,'^ UJCcbts ^ H«Lkb, becamv n tery b«Doiu juid fonpcaUai 
tbUil). 1& t|]0 -< L'tLeiiiical Ndv-i* for Octob^t :I4, tlT^, ftp1>4<us ft 
B Ibi* fljLj->ci. l\A nui])<>r, Mr. -V, IE, AlUn, t'.C.i^, ftfter piiojc a 
altHftltrtB uf ti^Umt, irvEiiU* tlm dvUuln ijf Ibu uicthixl he cm* 
|Atfj«d in 11m HfiJUHtum o( Mnnln, lUttP/ tl\it Iw hail found liy thtt pn- 
vmtk itt );niuicu Uliicb lc4of nthiTinoEV tJina iTmigt' quftiuv ]^'<t per cruL 
^^^uaaiu, vltidi (LTMrnhil ftdi>«« «^[c?[licui vlib itme in ihu old iJiftljsM 

^^^Bloft «3ilkaU llifi <wUiiLn(c4a of Ioqiuji wu vf lliv UfaI Ruparlftno? ■ for if 

^^HMudicil Iho lK)nu*l mnuuitt, ill qiic^vu^i uf ajJulL^iHl^iu bj cthftuMod 

^^BbtU vfti ftl »n tTid, ftiid (Vrnn}:n ]i<«n4 «*!«• vrTJ (tn]Lk<s)y lo in pTMOCt- 

^^pha Otlj fidUrj in luab ft ovnobuuDG wcubi bo eoufted b; oa ftdoaUtiut of 

^^GftXvdiu, or ikw-IuftiVA. Tbr oti; pojnt af irapgititucrj viu tLr pirrciTtta^ 

ftf ** woodr ftbr*,'^ «■ It vu rjiJIi'd by ■ocaa Annlt^iu ; nnd h<irf>, igidBr b« 

WM dupotod It ibisb thftt MiLldi-rii ainLlyiiiH v-m tb^ ouly accUrMU Obc. 

lb* pcccvotftffi of ^^Ma, IbKjlublg uuileri ftjid liumtu m ou; vunpbs of iMf 

I CMukderod tuvM\j, wooJd ooiUo tk% maljftt lo fcvm ft Tety Aoenmto 

dM AtWtfMMhnd Mfte^vtak n^ M MdBdMl]; p»< fir 

or cor of Sp«i0% w mgm ftit t m'JiS i II*«l li w«UMui.binroi*;, from 
Hv; CiMb^r *4rtr* tffi^ nwUnl Mitf Av b giv laiha Wut of Afria 

bKAtr n«fffii cJ dcMluiiC wit^ exUwrlj Iml ««•« m Iv b« luuud ta ek 
ABCff«e^ rtfglhuwwcf ABCr3Mfi^iiwlTtow<!if#tt1phrt4 
«r>t«a^>T d^, and c1m0«<«1 1m* b«aa >MCw w ftdly «>ud I7 die Njultc 
OoPDo Ctoip^j fcv tbo pnriflmiiK «f •vw^c*. At tWr wwki In hn 
ftpoMlj-Mvo tW i***^ of aack [!•£«> ai Loodoai rant, njuai«n> •*' 
LaeAi^ «eftr«H«d is tlie ««db» cf a ipartcr of ta hsmr, EKna la vtfnair^ 
Inoklairr TiW-HDcJfinj? liqulid. inbo tratrr, Mfbt, dnu, boAvrow ju>d UjIv. 
la«, nsck-pouaKltAi, tad vo frv* frwn ajonoaa OMlur at do aUow dwboil* 
flA to five and lbri*« ia it ^'itb a VitUe ai w awij naliicaitHa b« ooi^ 
■Idafi iImC a tnittore capable <f mcikm ihu on tovs Mvige m tbv voai 
pollabU fbr U>* pvhflf«t*o« oT vtaiaf iir driaiiti^ pafp«H 04 ibe i1aI4 
Ccaif. n« vddU mimft ibat tW <l«n>Ml h«» oaiiicrJ. kiI Iti pUov t«p- 
|i11r1 bf a pnvniafTinaLe, Th» aniinftrt pMnth nit tUI dc, btir if pn»< 
oarablo la liae liv baa naaooi 5c« fc^arin^ t^at |ifffiiiBD{patt|o at lini» 
womU «araivf ib« paifvoao Wtt«r. Ilohiapmpa^* nUUit of— 

1 pal cf pcraangyDato of 1kar» 
10 jdTti ftntpbaoB ttf akmbftT 

flad* ibil wbvn be odda tbia to Londoo btit^^, jii i^ prupcvtkti 
to lOfiuOj Iba purtAntjtHi b vary Mtiif a^toty, iinri tbe urUkoiaat fjipM. 
Wli fau] J^lob w«lvr ■ Lta^ t^baclilj wUl do. Tbo saitun can bo lltrrtd, 
buiaatlf flcLiiJifr a bfifhl fillntv, ur it cau b« alljuoA bJ caUl'? Tor li 
aotrlBr of oa hour, vhen ^e Mipunataol wabfr caa to poucad off ■xjdiUj 
bright J1«< Ih ttni fn-ittnd I0 Hf wbat ibc ftu» of lUo udttare wonU 
bo> buL il wuuld tnittaUlj rjot be niac^ pxica i^r buiMl/vd faUun* uf «abr. 
Wo tbhiib lbL« r<t(^n]in*iK[MJoQ AitroninW nJnablo. 

Fttrbvr SUtuiay /* it U aakL tUiti jaLbli's bvnt A^cro loraivdj l^oatal vitk a 
«ciJattMi «f utfontf fai aiiTK i^d, far ih« p«i|««c at aabutdii^ ibnir fiill- 
Lif pnfitftJoo. A Butim «f uiirifl add ud inado fa prDp>«*4 aa a aubMS- 

fC3iirrrnc! jviniAitr. 


to tit* juico of ifTvpn. ciiiluaiuK tDcuin, nits, Ac. uidcalooda^ 

It aLE^Brf^ M[f4 die '* R«tiip Ai Chimifl ^Sj^^ilftqiii}," Ka 4\, tbat 

'Wlobt nundwith tborc^^dacof thcprnpoanftcrthv tint f^nniaTt and 

•gEMOD, •» A» to y\t\A « further ctuimijL} nl' a Lk^uid ^vLiiii uiji/ pcai 

I** iMftj bft |in»T««l<Kl, wbiffb UT H tialAmitj it', tiiv countiy uul lo 

q4«r»;— M. Trucbul bu imb^Mbnl, ui tbo " Oouphsi Kundus'* v( Sttkt. 23, 
ft •rri'w of f^birrratioi)* wbirh v«n* ronde »tjiio<t dMlj during Jitlj uid 
Aif»l at CkRBoDt Forrukd. The method oonsftod inpAUUkfr the ^ hXo 
ym^^mfmalm iirffvluuAlj lilnt«d. th»u aJl^wiaiE d«p»lU«A cf tha <Afbi> 
oat* fitrawl^UiMi titTfttiag aim^h rb« Umpiil AUptmiUaiit ll<)iior, a knnva 
quBUtity of whiab ysaa Kp^ioiod with a pipotto* TUt AiiiDb«» obUiui«d 
thov — i\) Tbntlhcpn»pan]iuiafCO|Ia a UUlc urcbtor duriug the m^lii 
Ihitt Jiiiiag th« di^ (li wm prviloiulj obun«d bj Da Stuanxro ud 
Itn—i^pnlt) (:3j Tb&t liio pn^pcHioQ i« aot v^nuttjr hiHbor in tiw ton 
ikM in t^ ojuntfj. i3j TliaL in the aeljfbbourLvud uf |iluila wjtb irrtfv 
bana Id full vogvUtJon th* proportion of CO, tariM com! Jerablj acicnTlin^ 
Ipaan fitita art lltum^nalod b^ tho iud, dt arc in AbAdic. or ^iiite i& 
lhl« agrw* vii^i B wnU-ltnnwa foct in vnifvtJibli] phyrttplu^* 
(I) Thai, oa a gvianJ »tmft«. tii» pfoporlion i« 4-0» toK par ItlpWKJ f obi 
of air, whkh doidj a^roo* with the ouubtfo obUinad by Do Sauatim 

(4-tAj, nutoard and BnuMlnfftuTt i4), and iWrcr (4-21; IriiL Li mudi 
Ufbvtku thcwaorilongaii otwpRvrt,ychuJi«4:/-i>>, and UtDmlwTg (a-:f) 
•I JtotftocAi and Wecndc* To asrvrtain tbfl influt«>C0 of boy,'bt, do(aruitnft- 
tfnawn rnai« umultanaomd; nt i^l]i.-rn]c]iit Furrntid, i^^^ inHtvh hliovit 4bu 
•aa; al tho lop of i^l)r da llims, l,44fl nttroa; OJidat tho top of \ju%^y, 
UWMttrtb TL« raTooUToaimUr^tron dlJTcki'pci K^OOOof air^ 
ta^ aad 1'7% khottinf a muli^l <tFf Twtii vritb Iliv h«i|rht. 

abid Ij Mr. J. H HvtiLBj. wk> ktolj fNov, 30) road a F^P^ ^^ ^ 
MlfafC Mora Uw Ch«mlr-iil Sochi;. ThU paper nuitAinii tht^ ruulu uf a 
t^aavon avri«a of d«tjaictina11oDji oflb« ipACXEie p-mvtly of carbon diftitpbLda 
ilMull diDbnooA of tduparatujo mnd« in tuu apvar>itiif <jt jx^cultar con- 
Mnetloii, Ki a» to prvrcot «iaporati(int nod lo mliutt ol* th>< iioLMiqikt-iit 
\tat of tba liqa-Ld wh«D adjualod nt low tonLpcnturca Wlion thit 
aa carvfullj gImukiJ, ibv ditulpbidu ciiuJd be Lmtod ut it con- 
litevldf ^)Oitv it* tviiliri^pmnt, Tliiift aflnidlnif a maann of obulnlng Itv 
ipictfe CTvrity at rompruutiic'l^- biph tonptmtarvA 'ilia Eamporaturo «r 
Iba ifacifioiErBi'it^ bulU woi idjuatAd bjimmcina^' tUom b wiitti-Ltfpt at 
■ trnmtin tampiiraiuia br a modinad fiiirm of Carmjdiack'B rippantUA Tno 
UIm <f (bo caloalatod and obMrrad varialion Cs>m 0° to 6'J'' U ia tho 
vnbkH and vpmflc pav tij of lb« diau Lpbido, ilic Utioj rofbrtcd to iruct at 
4% awccDpanf the f«p«.r. Fhiit) thrt rrAAulU tliu author r-LuicJuJiia ibat 
ftrtia diaalpbide cipoDdi cqnaUj to aaoh aqual uiiar«a>«&t of UvpataboOi 
Ibi Buntar dvuuLuu Ujh cocltdaat d nxpaoaoa htdng (KPOUSO, ud thai 


rorriAB »::c;o£ iit^ii:v. 

Jrn/ir»ry*Niv» ui Jlyf mff. — 8(ii.T«l lnpmv«<d inHftoi^ it* diw^iWd In 
Ka >I0 of '* lE^mnnnt Futcr ZmIod^ " IhU (iuiuTi*i CfKiUiiv twt«]iu fet 

^Mp oUv^-gwraiVMl A4n|j i^ wo^ : a nHil-Uicfc, ■ litiK^-Uiu^ ftad & dn^p 

CCSUth on ploilll Ik^a black on ^t^ttna Jitrd, oi^uM* Cf iMUiaff BtLJIn^ ; 
■All n hlut on Bigddj, tLc cMUid iu ««Licb Iub b«« fir»l i1«lri>ii<4 it llM 
T&pDur of hjdnvhlarii* luld, nnd Uw rujiloa nHitrmliu'd «illi dinlk. In 
djoiuit. A^Mf a pr«painLim U uMd, knoKn m ^Ahi^ddf'^annLdfl.' It v 
nmilv by disniltiar. iu iwj luill* o{ )ioi v«Ur — L' iht, uf nliuv, 9 }Ia oT 
indlg'o^iLrDint^, A^id A Ibt. of liAji^kl'^ wiili]^ Uik^ 

Octvbcv 31 ncord* lW deftili vf llii* i^ciQtlvuAa, hvIiom cautrilivtiioaii lo 
ob«BiUCry btvn vi fT«^ii«ni1y wnrirbp^ iU pAfU^ Cno*-Cn1vrTi li^wcif di« 
cwlj j«n» of Iu* life in Fmuo*^ Attn kb ivlani to Kagtonl lie IxAma 

vhii^h pAdlton b« cofititiiied t> hold up to ih« tiiAB at hb dmlL In 18X1 
ho vu aIm LoctuTor on CkQwUtiy in tbc ncc Siml Modlul Scboolf 
Mtiicbtrt«i, Ul Jiiijiuiu liui^iil i(iLii;li bo dijt* uuIrmui lobttTv habl UUr Uinu 
l^sn. In l^i^ht^ vu»Ii^cu>'l«»IlA«i>rth«>KoiiiK'<nHvtj. Fl» WW alai> 
M Corrcapoaiiiig Mcmbtt ctf tbo Ae«df mj^ of Seirmcc* gf Tan*. HDnoMi^r 
Mombor of tlm riiiiru^Afcutknl Soclstj of Piu4>,mii1 ronwfKiiKUDjr Mrt&lwi 
ofthn IndufllrUl ?i^d*ij nf MuLboiuw. Ha died on ibn 34tJi rtfiletobtTr At 
th« «iro «r^ ■' ¥or wvay jMt*,' ttf* tbo «dilar of tbfl *' (.'buaicA) N«««," 
"wTBEgLrytdUiaplawm cdriiUfri0]id^ip,nadlQvnngiT«mafvnlik UMl* 
Doay to bu worA ■« ■ 6bAmi*if or lii4 f^tbfulaou «i • fnaod." 

Af/4nrpti&^ tnJ ^onAnuvmi ZiyHr^ftfi'tjn o/Gatfftly CiW t AAfL^-ln "I^ba 
Mmidiv,*'^^ 1>, in AH liEijH'iUnl L:uulnbuUijJi bjr M. MelasD^ viio MntfHilui 
ho hu oblAlnAd vaod chNJCul Abio|iit#|j pimt^Aiid povMwl of Kuoh hifjk 
nhsorptira power I^At il otn cciXK.'«J)4inl« in it« porr* iU own Vtfi|^kl of fAik 
VTbcii cbonoo) tbuj ulonUil nUbimirof ibcm^i^-fndiJy liqudtAUt fuot, 
«uch u i-jmiio^«n or phb>ni]0. U plnccd xn i ^Iia lubu fitud wiib a ri«ck bvnt 
At hjfbt (uajrlo* And doMd aI ou£< cud^ ahJ benlcd te lUO^ b> a rvmnt of 
8tv*iu. ibn ^ f«us|)v», Hid, rLjaLp»«t^ii)f U>tir Ii> 1^ dutinl end vC the lube^ 
pufA Atoncv Iu ih« liquid stAlo. 

JXtir Id frwe J>iA«« O^Ji>«n « OtiK^.— tint, a •cintioii of fffUtln U 
pnrpDrrd, tianUlnln^ nbnut CO gmuit U> Urn Uln vf wAUr, Advika oC 
blrlir^niBt' h ftMtddtn^bj drop till a ttrAW-mbyir i» ptoducHl i ibo Bnttilln 
coKii'iaibflJiaddediAadtboatitULJudiicWDtd wiib doitnn oc villi revMnl 
BtardL AftorprixIfaig^tbo^iacMVvoipcunlfariuiaohwiriloliglit, wUf^ 
koAm* ^Iniln tvaUibl* iA coctAOt wicli cbrcmtf. Tbo galjlin >»)■ bi i*- 
pWod Tiy A kJuIjmi of atdn b a voaU i|»jiuitUT v! AaniaaiL 

R. W»gii*r, tJinl LebUnc^A piooen Ia ifaciut te b« Mpanodtd in i^lAnd, 
Awlm, nnd GuniAny. A •oUiiixi of cbbHdu of Afldliub !■ fonturtcO bf 
blCATboEiAiu i>f AmraonUliitochiirldft of Aniuionlum Mid U?aHjc4MIv c/nd* ) 
1^0 tuttr ct^^teUiMA out, «btlA ibfr obbiHdA of aonaiion wniBiM in 
•dilka, TbkcU<R>deoifuiiiioiuiiBitadiitiUed vHblwartom^«Ddyi<bU 

sciBvrmc ftaaiAur. 



or niudiMm, »Ucb la ooAterted into bicnrLoaatc hf Uic cxcuhts 
f/ tLa MjiJA >a]i. Xlj lulfiliui or tulphicrio acid Ia ui'^^i-il, Tlia kiiU 
Ttry iCnajf, «nil frw* Croui aulphur corDpoundf^ J'liuit, fuvl, and 
Iftlxur aiQ rcantioiifod, sad tie Cflcapc of nai^ioue taat* u ai no cad. (A* 

mm m He mv Ibii t^Afiu bl wufIe, wn will uiwninii lu |>njhali]a cod- 

fWAiiiAk/ JtJtivn C^Ati^fi.—' ^JUituxntm Fkrb^r <Ei]ilun)|"fajP< lliiit lint i« doov 
a*Mlo«it — Ti3 I0l1in,nr^o^» l«k>> 10 oi^ urCKDrun, lUiJdm^lvK it (nm* 
plK*]j ta boilifig water. Luy tim gciciLli cviimigfat in tha iohLtk<iiH iVo- 
fofe mno red liquor (i1 32^ Unuui^^, ouJ piil int<>a imfjll lui n ttiniiutfut 
iitjr tn work i Ih* at rnlum jum- Wij-k iht* vani f*]f l^n mlnutM, 

11 op tho r^ I^qaor Fo iUvH^LbhJ «fu»uticj, tod v^)rk J lU. inorvj And 
«ooo. tiUUiDintobof iLt yun bjvA b&ca moriaiittd ; itia tlica i^awed lo 
4rj, tdih fnqiiciit mmiziff.^ l^ictv-gooiU ara ^]aetA for an hour Id nd 
]ii|q4r<«r ikv Mkoto cCr«9glb. WJion dry, tbo pi^od* «ro piu^d tbrou^h a 
Uiilin^ bntb of 1 Ib^ at itn:%>Km\ dioJk tu evtr/ 10 Ib^ of tvtloo, And wtebid 
tvieo. 1 tci I| ib. of Gooliiupnl U IkiiIve) out Sn vaUr; a Diili^nr-lnth [« 
saio qp At J(F ItiMumDr. with tU hliitioa «f o Uttlc flATin, nud ihc fo^ 

Sn rA, inr-x 

Mi^ifi^^Mir-itnt if U* ChneJt^at AJli«isiti» mtti ihttr Optitet Qtaa/4fi«.— At 
«Jir iiiofitut; of tbo Cbmoicnl Society* Nov. 4X Xj'. IX Uuward rwd n 
pflpf-r on tliU labjBCt. AflOT «n[iinpr«tinfr iba Truiciti nWivalJo))* thtt 
bad btw dicdidy piAdr, bo dr«v utttfalkia lr> tti^ »p^in>ii(uMii ruUitifi& 
tbp dotlatirM: ouiitd by quuii[^ii] imd diiL^hnnirin and iba »l)ai* 
from vbicb ik« J oro d^r^d; iJiut lb» meflu i^f tb* specific rotftry 
«f (tyiiiln* Bod quimdin ia iU<uli(^Iic ao)uLv<^ if 47^ l^tbv tiRbti «ail 
qaiflciUr L-orrrcted fr ilsc^utbiiivii Atttpr, 4F, whtUli m jiqii«0U 
ftcui, iboj tu^ !HJ y (tod IU-1° rcBpftrtinlj. A acoiUf nppuDiEiiii^ 
<loa U JWnd to le ibo ca>e with dueboaii-ia <u oompftml wiib €lBcbaol& 
ttid efneboiLidLi. Tb* «ci£ipri iirit]ix<i-[iL li^'ilmtfim nn tb>f xUaU'liJ* in w\A 
pafcijiim i^*» ria4 to ronipoKodn wbi'jEi Si^utuplicr^cr lo^anlD u dilTcnug 
fiaoi tbcoripD«l romp^unJ in oiDlunijigoDCAlcpiu Euorc wiW* the rLulbor» 
htMrimr, i» inr]jn*d to ilouhi iliii, m nii citiluiifln of lijdni^^ n^nur* vbrn 
dnchfuan txe cmcbfuilJia ia ln:«l*d ivtiL K^iif ud d^luU kulpburic noid 
Witil B ctxieiilfriiblfi «!<«>« vf tba acid lius U'co added; tbcr r^ticol |iro- 
pVfftiM of tho bodin fomiHl ilti> xery tinLilnr to ibMf- of qulnifriii and da* 
cbovkim. Tbo auiiior tbcn ptoi;»dc>d to doimbo tk«Duih<>d of popajAtioa 
«Bd Aplicid prc|i*Ttin o^ (hit rbii'>iii «lbjl bvr^ fniductd bj tZiQ AOtiuQ of 
*lbj-l iiid&dA at bivintidn on th^ nnrtiima HtkitliiirU r \ht> mbUbiii pfvif1fir#d 
kr tAw MJta of the fltbyl biu« u in modt «uca virry scnrly propoTtioaal to 
tkal vbkh v^LiId be );i«i:ii by * mIl ^if lliv cnjfiiin) ftlluloid, cqiuJ UL 
AVoont to tbhi rcaitftlnvd in tb* iwv «ompound- 

XUirWn'<n> iArfriMtv trmytt^ G^tii»fid*. — Mi. Hf^nry Wuodwftrd, F.TL8,, 

ROH&fbtf ja«l iiciblUbod, iatbo''Ci«do;icnlM«giuijio'^fcEri>D»mfaar,tli« 


«iddTMivbiiAb*d»llturf<i1 Mt>f«ib*fl«^i:igbtir AMoeUtiaiiMtUMnpmiftf 
of U* fne«ottoMian,uilwokMitiK*i»h wc <vt^ pAJJtb it ia follitt 
Ulcvvpigvi&r ili\niUioatftqii«Uou,tbi: mot nblo RddfHHi liiat bw beta 
l^vcQ to *ay p»)og^ »>dalf fbr muy nan^ Aod tbia yt4- t^j vtthi^ul anj 
d«Mi« «rkk1vv^lapftyAMnBipUnc«l U llift »uthor. Tbir ii1k1« tconof tlw 
tdijjmt u culm, m«inabLM. nud, thjnv 4)1, mutt p^ilowpl]^ at tt«ll. tt il 
irortbj of oivfuJ pvniMl, anl we tn«t Iho Soeielj bM lake* ouq Co 1uv« 
it printed fcr pit r^t^ UKoUtion uu'in^ it* mtslvn ; fcur nc know of oocklaff 
IncUt eAlcuUinl ti> iiraa** ih« dunnanl pbtlcvfiue ^\iit Ibfto lU* t&lH- 
ll^nl HiMTv^tt, ThAr* U boE ceo ptft tbil W« will ipiaE*, bad IhM nlftCM 
to thit IKrviniAo dxlfw ^rcTrobtiioo. Klicb wo Bf« 4*3ii^Vtfo4 ta aeo llio 
■ttthor t'uui^eu^ uJ[>pli. lfe«jiiL*'autnotl3*dAabt«dlli«l Urn n^fiiiijr 
of bMMbU and mologuta amid «J;ibo dlsyoiad tr> uwf% tho doettinu of 
EFQludoa ioi Dwcoat witb Mai|ifit»tioi). Tb«o u« rtStl ^jedo scUatifio 
man, birw^Vfr, nhii find iIin iMtftUvo origin cif ipfdtt tr;r d-Mrriit np«^ 
Ttuil 10 Ih^ir td«4h, Kijr tlio opinion* ':^i ntth i htv^ tlw gnttnt pOMsbt* 
rr«pt<Tl, tvtWng iutd Uiotf up |o a MTUun pi^inl, coiitrorcnul <ifipc«itloQ ID 
UBW theurim liu Ltn bniaitrinl wport in Hddtnff w of vravlblMii ivicSdAM. 
But iJjiTvui't Uiikx-y bM -liruvlt- p.u»d Utmrigli ih^ IJiw ; Ilk* stud* on it 
Lu bcon naahod, aiftfd> (m«tj«d, iu»rto<l, ond unolkd, tnd nt tbfr end tJu 
pure uieUl rviEoiiu^ Th? nolj «]i]iatb3ii b Dbo of tvruM ud Munna. Pro* 
bu«tf Owen, wboU biiDHjf amoAt adrt«otd vrolutiaiUBt.if Tonuy bofwrw 
miltod lu judgD of bii vl<^w4 bj hb publltliod wcvki, jEtvfpr* lo ItoU ibo 
«ai]ctbiii UiftlnU fiiTLjLA anil irmdiM cif luib \rrrl*>br7iti< rvid mrrnrhnX* l|fo 
uo duff to * MOjjmUt^ <qu«« <tf iaw^ not lo ' naturnl w\t.<ti<jt\.' Upcra Uio 
ik&tor? of tW« irrrr dcLic&l* aiid bhliUn^ didtiuc^uoj i ffi) m^Hlf ijdto 
luufalo to oattr <ni the 'present ocoujtm, 'I'a tba ranuvT vikdr a/Lir Irut-b li 
ooi uarofta an IrKrarv^itoridU objtot lo &nv<flU^at« Xht pr«c«M bj vbUk 
1U» biw boon fraiduoJI^ uvohcd ca cux cazili; wbi-u, biTir^nr, w h«vp 
loanod aII tbai u In our pTver to dlMoo\«r. thtiro ii Mili Ibr ^rvtX prbhlam 
of Ur» itattlf ODiolrtdf and vo atjind upon tbu ikrHhold oTlbo inliQiU." 

A mt9 JWrff FSmA i/ m^otfn ^l^pr — ThiB U dsunbcd V ^- T^imIi, 
of tho Cnlltt^r of f^li^Tire, i )iib1if3, M«t intanitttnf U bk ftoeanat of ib» 
■InuiuM itf tb« ujiiKfauffafdof tbn bonoiMBr ibo MMivlfff axiavvaj BAjfU. 
Hiu if oxjuiljr limnM to llir alrdcturo of Uia acwM aad pLitat of yaujp 
IgUM^ Ojhci llu ny« ^ ** Tbf> Ikhf vt h^n ttrj tUn, BawndB^ OOljT 
ikbont ^inc^ Ib vortioal MClkaL ImnodiaE^Ey l^ol^w iItq aiufacv U aq 
■baalutaty ttradonloM kyor tS tmupaffvoT gnaoiofl oboui ^j^ iock t^Jck, 
Throng t}]l«, ^ pandurrM cf liaa mrfaco pa*A into ft oot of tbOi Tertfnl 
<«»aU, otob vi<l««iiiff dowQWWda ao a« lo wninio t ntl>«r voiScmI Epsft, 
At tkcir baaoB ihty ttro oanxttcM hf bonK^xiUl tebaf^ md tbU vyaUm aka 
(oaunnnlnitH IkIdw viib Jtci»e imirtilu iiHwork ctf onBnary Qavnniait 
eaiial*, wbHi Thiuify tbmi^ iLt lowr^ part <tf tiL4 aciclioB, acit, bfonailiis 
coaner btlow, -^am i^( Lone "o Id iufcrlor aafnct to amoid* aJuwat a 
ipongj qipennni^i'. T)i>^ Irtftnak bfLw<ii»n Uto Mi nf abort w&lo rattkU 
mnal*, co^bBpvd >ii tit« wv:]!^, iin u«a ui bi^ ««f^ Unvtrrod bj a *vr^ 
tioil tnbfv vrbicb, ^T^unf nil frccn iba lb*«nn» natroib bl«i>. ntoa 
diiUo bi sq aibtnaoml maoiMT into n ^i>aat nymlor of nlopctf rnndfytag 
tauubaa, whkfa paaa lawarik but not ioto IIm wi|i»rfia>l kj'«r oT atn** 



b<V I7 nMb* of ijch*d knmi^kttt, pMriAgAoronfid And h^ilv-dfin iho 

ttiiifr4ib* U]ri]T 1» ThiJi fL-rm^d Mtjv thi» iiiuiotno ; it inuit hv n(it»], ho«- 
cw, dill imnll Ucimo! lov WK^moaoUj- moq uuDog iii miauto iuliuloi^ In 
A« ttVK bono tcluw, luuDOD of IbttoriJavj t)r]>» nbuuud In tl'C iB«*LcAof 

iE> HMV«44iui network, " 

bn prcMsled U> \ha Iiiah Ctcoloj^'nul Sodvt; b}- Mr. E- T. lliniliDUi, 
Rft.OAl. \Y€i Bh»U giti> Llic fFinih i^f ci]f.TLiiMl f lAtnLimtina flni!, 'I'hf fol* 

_te> ui old qu&ny in tht^ tu^iklknd lA I^-^'Uiiiru, ptbi^u^ & niilu uid a linlf 
of Si«wt4Loivn. II1H rb*Lk i» » iadomti.^ u ta bo in fmUIj a 

• true. 

Very pifrcffptlbic* pmu ta lumll 


A ttni:r, 

Aiiioiisl not ottaro&Md. 

Tic ftttUiar luvoaiito fat lu hAnlnuH, !n which i<q>ect i\ difTiirs iuuqI) 
bw Ecgluli ftuUL, bp fLwtumliijr ftn nnormoiu pr«*UT« of tho Jiiab innlt 
«iv jxjuiW out v\vi it, Ik nj^ «h«a it 1* rvai«3jitwrfJ iliai iu tiju 
the busk ranehH n tbluknoto uf bnlwiH>ri -V^^^ i^nd ^Sy^tvv%,wsiA 
ikts l<uh b«Mlt, dLbodjrh BOW but fraoQ 5i)*J to l^tNj f^t tUKk, m&y 

Midatirtii or Ihn Hrtb chklk t<^ pT<<44uf>' Hlnnii; ftir, laUn^- rht* oriifiD*! 
fl kbiai* of tJw lianit at oalj >1,0(tO f«l, tLo pr»«uro en cofb njiiiw jofil 
of undcrljin^ (rlLuli would Iwk nbixit 2,000 toDi. Tbo pulAlvJi^ nhkh ui 
«i|mn<dj' ibmilAr if> on* br Mt. Wcinfor cf Eho Chalk or C'n^uciilftlt, 
C<^ Antrii», Ahnva thai it if liniMUiiin df tafv ^^ftt piinEjt tbo pttT- 
' of tUiciuu* iiiKlt^r briii;f bo nn^U m to be qiiitc iuai^iiiGciUJL It 
tbtrrfnrv. ba <jf lb* biffbHt tahic in min^ clicmiod mrumfftoiiirvt, 
Wj that of bldftcblujE-pcnrdor. But it ia ntaarhaUo Uiat fJibouj^h la 
lurtb irf lix'Ujjd wi immvDK qimiititir uf llii« iLinLtri&l I* uu-d u|k, U ut 
Vift^ lh*n^ liul it inmlly tioporTt'd frnrn f i]fit|paw •nj LimcA>liii>« Sd 
l«r M be kfiovt, ibd? ia nol A nnj;1<: Cblir-riJo <>/ Lime Worlu ia r]iil>-r. 

JlrtftiA FotriX IlUany tH iP'TlJ.— Tlie biyt r^im^ wt? hura »t<u en tbLi 
■Ifivt li tbki pijlliBbi^ bj .Mr. \V. Cofralbat^ F.T:.^, in tlw " (JMlo^rUnl 
UvwbVft" Octi^'W li^Tii. It in A njc«t V«luAbl(i )i»T, Aud thn RTith<>i }j«« 
•ddeil to ihv inicmtt vrLii.'b M^ch a Li» would haTD b>' bricdl; adveitin^ to 
At BftlDM ol vtfh [iDpcT. W* tnut that Mr. CamilbKrn vlU mcitiouQ thi> 
tt-hicb vo ihould muiih Jilio to 0*0 vxtonJ^J to clhcr poHiniu of 
itoynphr Mill jfMrdtij^T. 

Mammofut at Hu ^m </ th/i Miaf*^ FnioJ. — Vndn IIia IIUa 
''Fotoi] Abiiu^I? o( X[niit I^bcroci," M. A Ornidrj Lu jn»l fuln 

ill PAri* A pftiioi wbidi it of Hiuff juLc^niFL nnd wliVh is v«j rnUy 

with in n f4T:«w in tb» ■■ GoologxcAl AUgozina/' Uct<»b*'< ^ ^^'^ 

kwed upoa ibQ dUooT«[3r of Duuicroufl iiiunuet^t* foaaa 



roru[,Au M-ENsm; itrvitw. 

botwoQ fttum which bitv* li«r«tAfoe* b«n Akntldcivd u rarr illuiaft : for 

CftTBJfurv b^lnerij Itifl ffytnta tnl Cinrt; a p4(Lj^riiii b-il^Wti IAm 
^oAUJhvwv) nnd HorK; ■ niinUul bft«-v«n t^ llo«t ^ml Aniftvpl. 
The c«DifiH«>Hi of fuJoiU £ruin »lLf r 1oc«liX:<« Iim fefWiiEid iiiui<t rMtitti. 
With Ilia yivv of comtnUicif tlur <fpi(iU>rjii v]ipofni t>> iiiui, M. Gudf? ^^'^ 
■(udfol UiA fiAkU Mkinof Kiaa^ of M«i! J^«b*toii, >Ai1 hM wnuiBvd hk 
oh»«n aiii7U uoJor Uio Icdlowing hDulini:;* £— ' 

L TbvdMo oif tiio Miooefic rieriod trm* J^lmrtcterbcd hy a (n«l ilci«W^ 
lUQl of ITttblnn, 

it. The Miorvrv Muaiiiftlk proro ihnt Ihv IrpMof l^o hifbcrfoodi hara 
ktva lULitu \jLrmjtt< ihiui Ihv t/tuFi 

.1 An i'\.nminal'nit\ *<{ ihp Mnmniftlln fir-itiu fJjNi ih* Tp^r 3lirVi>n« ttf 

■4. Thr alwly gf tho Mj^icnuif .MiJiiiu«!k anpporbi tho bfputbnu tl»t Uie 
u-pptntiou rif tbd I'rutuii baa biuii^ oalj tbo Haall of lL« iood fliapbrvounl 
Ckf tbo rhuiubL 

T,, Ou iiw i«i&lic(Mj* rorut* cf MumnalU vbkh ban |«vcf4«d uni U* 
InwMl ihcM* oftho irppvr Miawiie, 

IJ. Ub thodijimtluuof n«<«iuid tpvdcd of •muc 31iuim«l» RtUwdOM 
of the MlusiKi iVfiijil. Thn* M«yftnii« uiLjuttn lav ihva iliiniinntj and ika 
rovir^WAT <lt*a]> with Ihi'in in muvihuueii, 

7'Jip CJteiiiit'tt OfifpA i/ Jii>-X-^—'i'h\9 nahjrtit fis ^^itih of routw xnucb 
Ibikt u piuul/ )pucuU(iku u wfitiicu, biti Wtn cUbontel; dctfl wita bj 31. 
D«ubt4«r ud hi* book U bnvltj policed ia Itvr '■ttoolufac*! M«faMiK< ' Wo 
lT]l'l^4t tiftll nltffilK'Ei to llio fik«t of it« hjivhi|7 \r^n |rubE:ih<>J, Tur Uio tuVi*^ 
is ibUt]U too tuL Lo Ikv dLWtibr;d lu A parBgnti^b. Hontvitr, ite b[)|i« iu tft 
i-»l<r buulwr lo dvaJ with tin wholo qufttiov b no orighul artido of Mm* 
Unj^th. l^il Ibni no iiiutl Jmvi.^ It. 

TAf /V(wtr o/ llntftrnit ,\nutAimtU9 m iAn ItriiM Jfwfwm.— W« M 
indtod ghid (4^ Imh) Ifail ih* l(>i>e urtliii hugo Oltlocl bii4 bM eon* lalO 
tbo p«<M3«ah]ii cf tbc Brilub Miueiun outhcniiok We orv told oo b; 
PmfttBfiF (>wfn, who (IcJiTihhl Iba bmo Is tbo -' IVaoctillQg* of Uw 
Zoolo^Hl .s^<'i>," >0T. k', IKUI. Id • lcit*r to tbo oditor k^ tbo 
"Ot?alDinalUvaunr,''N<L llLi, hoMv*: ^TbuioiliTidiml wb^UiiiploWr, 
IWW, bnnighc tbin rjwririn?!! w ini\ fff wbf, hI lli*' IIjibS l*oilfTjo i/ 
tiurgiuaf, ftiktd tod f uiiKtii f<-T it \Vb«n I hod «(>ij^iiiL.vd m;*"!! thnt 
Lt i*i> tbo «liofl uf tbn fiuur cf u blrO, ud Uinl tbc ovidciKi^ suppiini hf 
Ibi* icniliir intdo U aT I^h^I pnlvtlZ'T lli*L Qw t^t\aiHti IikI bniii tmiMl U 
r^pir Zotlrmd^ 1 rvporlod tbo tbvamfitAOHfi to Uo Boorl of <'un.tL>n of tlNi 
lUryol CcAUifU of Hufvvixix, i^Li^ ruci^aiciiroijed tbo f iircbmo f>f iLr rpociUMV. 
Thio «■■ <iN*liw(l. 1 hkd diiiitmdnoi, tv hiin^ ontmcUd trltk oAna in 
tbo UucLcrkAD Miwcum* uol to form a pii^if* ojll*c1:«nf ftinl t&y «lfnai* 
ttiJii^f*, ill ] ^-^)^ did not dlov mo lo flit lea i^uiupu Toi a «|j«diu«0 i AOj 
thitlMflUd t> ibi« vt-ndnr, in rai|UttitiTi; pfrmuMon to i^MJrilifl ud Agwa 
it. which ptfuiskni U- hU-nllj gT%tii<tl, Ibo cptrunni wm puj 
by BccJMtiic Dn^bl. Ei^., pf Ib-ieljj, to «huiu n refj uf tbp Alstntt 
pkfor bod boot! ko;, ood wm plwod ta hii prinU niUH^nni, wUriv rvi bU 
dic»i<- €■*« iDb> tbo pcwceaaa of hb «», Uo oamiMtftiwHn^ t>J Lbk 

fnU««ME lh« dfWffiLiiniT <xt tJi« ori/ibiU hum of th& Dtmoniti Ittitig 
4tp<imttd la llw Brittili Mlimuhi* b« twiti liUmlh pimdtud m< 1i> >ulfmU 
la iW TniMJva nn <>IW, itn m iThtihIk^h, df \\in mtltm c-iill^rlUm niwlii Ijv St« 

Mfiw or p*ptn OQ tha lJii9tAt* llmt bftTo tmce •^ponrel ui tiu ' ZodogiMl 

|tnt rbAncl'rM »f ili« cniifnrrt i^f n ii«wii|ii<Aei cfrrtiril npu bulnngjujr to th» 
teDiljof the J^tnivt. found by M^ Jt-UiUa io tbo pbupbs^lo ba<li of SoinU- 
KAoalt dc n^iiufftT IjiL Fraturg ; ftdJ iIjc " Al-rJii[U>/' Nov. l-j, ifitw tl)« 
ftlllovlag irfniinc t^f it ^^"Trin tlmll, nliU^h U 'tnilfi^, in nf nn i>liinff«t«tl 

■liffhUf projHtib/, but ^^ ta <:onw|ueiiH of tbe di^ivlopmcnt of lltv 
—Tiiili Th« piirii?U]ji mn xtrj i^roMling. f^nutHutin^ nanrlr tha wbala 
4( tW carvbnil ucli. The tumpt-mU ijo tL^l, tbn/tapd, and extwcd iu 
htitft% ihc biiir of l^Al nf tU oL-bJU. TLf fri^nlal df-prs»t«d. Iwaniic « krvl 
■patt tliA ai^rlitn Iriif*. Thi^ nrbitJtl tlrrln i» rln««<), uf n^trly oblique orU 
fafUv BUobply infrliacd to'^uiis tbc dok. Tho ounl bancn an rcry 
tlaogtlBd, thirlilly miivd uri tin- uiiuljiiu Imt', And lurUaitd I'ti iliiir rxlvrivt 
•dfl» lAnnU thi> jttriMi'iiL ^illi tint riiJiiiLUjW Thr> mttiinl ^hikrAOl'vri 
•n ranArfc*bly ujrjiW it lh<:<?i) >r tlir^ ^^(jii .t'^'p b<it ihfy d^bln] ijflt«in 
libtnn il to bvl'-iug^ to ah tutlrrl^v rcw t'^Jiut of lliu Vi^^^f foinUy^ ^Vltli U>o 
tmptiati of iht |inudpnl nml ib^ 1.1^3 rjflji Vitid iniAoJ^ %\\ ibif tHlh mtV 
bnikra olT b; Ibo nYrrfdOAa'A pu'lt, but tlj>: r»oU nf nil of tljcuii tt^h th« 
tfxreption of ILq juu>fin> nr? itdhpn-nt lu lb« tdivvihr, wliit^h htb vlill 
in|>H. *o thJt ?■□ lUokiTi^ ttic narniaL ni-imbfr for Ih? ina»rs, Ibo »«rt« !■ 
Imb4 Io be &i lAlavni inavitt inc, cAidao opot ptdDoUn four, prinapol 
vttlat uitA- liind nnlnn IwJt An ina^ilvtrrciiH cLnrm^iar iji dinfilivftd in Ihe 
»hirp (t^nliriifalion <if ttiu prtrt^trvMiJ It-lb. Tn tlii* Tviil M. Ik'lfnftrjv 
a^^M tLp nnmu of J^lBK/Imuir J/vtH^TL VVLiLbi bio papi>r vna in tbo pTCia 
3L EfoUbrtiia rr>*viiiul fruMi tliv abiivR tocjilit^ n rVht mnndiblu br^oniflng 
to iD icdniduDl of Ibo Mma jpcmt. lltf liu iincQ forrRrd^d bolh 
i^cCtt>UH 10 11. Alln-ri (I.kLjJr/n wbo rGU<-jjfi'iiK.iH lu Umn mniij id^liuCfti 

Wtv«cD thv n^ir fruul and ,4;iAr/<trAfr]'ijn> iMtfrvy', ti^rfnid, and Aii/9pU 
^IWvmM, f'uncr.batb frvm lb< VonigypaLim; m itoU nvwitii tho^Ua^ 
fin«i IkitW^iziy, ni^iir ApL 

An Ejttmittraiiw uftht FautTt/rMn fAv> I'hnrjJiaf* Ht^b nf '^Wf^-^ln tb« 
ImC vulctotv «f thu *' C'jmptw l^indua " of lbs rrmcb Amdciuy U- l\ 
Oiirtu givm ihe molti of kU nmuiiuiiou of ihrw dcpo^duk Among thn 
eoillKtifiDB «i&>iiri«l vu tbatuf M. iJMidiLvrliL^-r, mtu^h wm ramurkftble 
Av tb« ouibW AUd fiiLhl pn*rrvft|jaD ^^{ ItA j>p<-cln;cn», o-intiunlDj{ «Afiii> 
Ab> «:inirtp]»'« of V^a-dtl^rinm uniiNijMdA l<i ibnw iii^i^Ufrini; tn t!ii» lVri» 
liypnipi bnli. iind Mtov rvinmbt of Uhs-aoferttx wvru/in end ^r^ni/^vwiu. 
Tbrtv an aUo uwo :«lb of a roidn&ml ivUtcd to /^AjViorrroir but dillcftng 
fnoi diM pcDiu 1^1 KKiM f-Mctidjd churnct^riL Al- Cturviui. tbr'nfjn^ 
pmpOiw< bonr g*liu& far ita raMpCioa, ubieh b* d^aigiwlti VaUurBbthrrvdrnt 

IM rorcuLB mulsob kvnrw. 

ll« adL&iU wM of iTTfttor boigtit Uinn MiiMtwa* or jlnraMrrmi, 
l«aUt «i)«4il fjf thv Wl i^pimt tduIat wvl fivnJ lowvr Mtilun ; t^ vjffr, 
h^tag lu|p«T uid nwTCver tlun \h*l of iUuHwroL lU 4Xl(^iftl f*r« !■ 
AligktW cODTet, and the hoUo^icw o' ^^ tttnr% m ttiintiv adiI oUh^loL 
TbK ^(iw«>T molua «r« imulbT i1u«i in AMvrwoa. with cullitwi miKb hkm 
obli^u* uid I«ii ^jMilkr^s <b»lr ftd«nuf f»M u und^rtM, ttd Lu bat 
« *lifltt cvnntur^ Tfa« poruiift remaiai 6mu Umm bsb ooMbl of 
AnAtaMhtrimnf j^MjirfWwm, £toitalp«, /fy«Mrnm. ft w » ttoi i iw% 

bclirc^ Uio &i%\ tni Mcond I^W upper pujljua. Tb« t«viUaiU t«ukl 
dT AntpAdroffutm and > «pieUi of f>mjL Tbor* fei» raukf iinriva of 

tcrratilEtl dU fc owJ, KVpecSevoT C/«niIlr, ZoMrftm, ud8erptaUuviU 





mechnajc-nl wittldorUtii liu bv«a lU> fffucvM. wbkb i« of AnMikn «n^<u 
nnd vhirh viytTriA i^h piiiini! iho gtuw mth^r |li«ii lo ml it. For wrioMi 
pol^Tucopic <>laorr&tioiM hnvi* bixqi mmin, in> ttoKyt hj Mr. F W^aliaB, 
V,TVK-^S-r oa UtovubJTCl. Th*^ viwd oljtd of Um bi^ouir of tkUpnmf 
wai to ougtavo MfuanonlAl and other dn4rH u^rm ploln and Mlooiod f Iom, 
«pen Honoi tod upop netftltifi •wffecn,|& an t>ptdHioiu and eeaooatsil 
mammr, *od wilii a alurpn(mflrLt«:h b vnntUiiuUa b/ inj nilifc N)f«iHb 
Tb« mTDtttkn, whlfh oppliM rhiHy to intagtkt kod flat miwr ttiijniTtnf , ti 
btfvd ov tbo ivi that vlien ^Uh, >tOD&, or tt^uJ tt >«ljfclfd lo tin- iofwt 
i7fob]ji*to.'««Ad, i>ro^tdtftl#rit kiuil]frftniikr>ubrtuM,thadftriticnAr lid 
vrfao* «xpa«««l to iu wriioi] will bv lapidLy uDtfted. Alll*»af b ikv mikI- 
liUal mu mi^ ODOignr upon lord «r brittk MHkMo, It ha* ljui« rjf m tfffoci 
npiiii olajtfir aod »ft MbatACcau Hichao kuHfc-niUi'r, v>r, pt|vr, amd loeoi 
and it i« upon 4aoti nbtteacM, ib«f«li*«f^ tbat Ik* fuilMilOD >^c4 6cr f*^ 
tcciiiifr tiLOM parU of ^bv k1"*> atones wooi, or ntUl ubicb afv iottodsl to 
Imi lulniicbul hy ^h9 iand*1jUfl Tha«. a ]df«» of tacv i^voul mtr ml 
ocmnWd td a ihoet of ^kH will k clfu^iuUf proUet 1^ ^Imv wk«i ei- 
iKMvd to tfaa iaud4rliMtr tlut l^i*-' ihrcftia ■^f lb« oftvoik v31, afUr O IbiV 
i«r(iiidfl*«Tpofftti^ bv imiulwhJu thniiUjia^r tii^i ialrrlaf Itsif Uom, wWU 
tbo iwl or Iho 0uft warfam wilt bo ndnocd t^ a frioiiod ur fr'Vlad oteta. 
Tho cAcatij of tbo bk«t depend* opoa iu rdocslr. 1^ wad taaj bo jrth j 
pdird nttbrir by *MMi, water, cir akr, but ntmm U tn ^rflk««I fc«fiirMd vbew I 
hi^b vplccatito iso vw^ubvd. IVIioa a laifro qiaintily of aomU b Co it 
Rfinoitd, u in Iho omamoDHnff oS etone^ a Kcao>-jH of fron M en 1^ Lba. 
maiiUD li u«rd- In thif naM thottcnfil li aavl* of trn^ or nbbiri Wl 
vh^no *uinU /imuit^tr of oBatoradU to b* ^roev avai-, oi thr paHv^ninv^ 
dopolubnJi m m denamoulinji /tu«. ■ ji>t vf oar of rmm j'^th lo I Ul pnMVttM 
la prr^omi. W(Ui o bvw prH-urv, wtfl aol dtli«aU lUtetaaeM, useb M 
pa^ur dw ig n *, Ue<^ loavoa, Jbe.< cooievlod on rl^a, ma^ b« iHt»d> With ■ 
atam-Jol nttov two bo«»v-po«aW tttuttt 70 Iln. preawn, tnd ooa pbti 


nAiniM, iBAj 1>A i^ut AVKj i^r miiiuU^ It nill b^aVrinun tb&t 
iliarcnrr«4 vufMW map Iv Jilika ueted on \ty thu procioWf Ito bUfit bolog 
■ril «■«■ dkvPtol «t A n'^ht on^lo to tho expQMtl Aurfoce, Tbv bLwt prcp* 

4Hll«f (rovTM in <|UftrrjfM aaiI tiiimobs t>r dtwiSng tlmn.^ for cijfti'i^' akmu 
fah fc- ib Ice dfoiua^ bca1« fruiu oibUIii, t^T gnuidng Utbogmpliic cine,, luul 
tr irMorw^— h J Iht tilA nf ttan^-iLa or pbotognphu gvlatiiw — picEiifDi, 


D» <pf i^ bnt pflfiPH iJiit vq b*vo (or n Ino^ limo «r>un en Ihifl imporlont 
nkjea ^ llial irtiich wu «u? Umfl uum nxid br t)f. llAndBeld Jaii««, 
FJtS,1i»fnfv Ih« Itojil Sodcry^ 11 u rtmlly otia of thc^ flnt i^iitnnf!eA in 
■rtic^ pndietfJ uto boa boco uiftd« \tt th& «pbjpra<^j^|ih in dotonoiaifig ti» 
■Nfaaof Ilia l>Mrt in WEOMnltv «*tci>e. TUfw htp uumoroiu nphjgm^ 
p|U> Vfnwil* sTtvim in thi> pa|i«ir whl^-h wilt wtiU rvjuiv ptriUHl. 11)0 
phcipU cuatliKioftt at which iho aulhot nrriiu ma.y be thus atntcd: — 
t TWt tbo )i«wtV (brcc id, tD nioMt cvco, caon or h^ vcakvsttd by great 
■wNmi. i. TtiAt tha aridrlU coutradEUiy U pHibably nlwuyj levuned, 
P« vfns lh« w iwtfao 14 modarnt«, ^p Ihnt Afti r 4<ihfl»» Uiu hAnrt 
n9*m ■ODter than the arteiy. 4. Thai the ln^iut'a ai-tioa, in ubuut one- 
lUriof tk* cBHi of B»Tera buL 1>ricf ctprtion, i< ini^fiHuad in farcr- G. That 
Ibaanlrnikfi of Iha pnUe probftblj dvponiU ohicfly ou ciL;iaiiiiiii»ii of tho 
*>n* A ThBtacc»kn«Ioauf puUn-nU W ;hv •xnrj iflTcct iu mcrunffuiir 
hMrynlar pfnWirA. T. Thnt the U-mjy^nttiim t« imiihlly ^IcvaUd by 
VMdm from ~36^ to 1^ V., but Jn nm inctaaooi^ <a aftor pruloo^d 1n^ 
^ b l»iritr«ii l°<ld lo 2° 10 F. 8. Tliai tUu iifinm of c^mc uid haat* 
'iVllUhiir ouitma, cdnfrldiDj^ with ramumplion at narv^U^rea in miliar 
,tSt9wtf iLnt, in tatao itay, oim evatrv i« opebloof Etntmn/ upon 
at a tifua vt vxij^-cy. 9^ Tb&l this djiuuato twt !■ tpdi5|KUnblu 
>> Mitfudn tbo kMing power of tba hcBtt, iha toaa of thv voaiftlji, rmd EhQ 
*Uly4/ tho ttorro-coDtr<4 rvjrJfttJnK Iho tffaiptinktUM ; in fnct^ Ic |^uj(» 
ftirwiiaf m dlxbcalMhad (hicn th« ocTi'njr forMI. lO, Tliitl thu oj|p«city 
^ adiir* f*iigv« wall iaJicaMi, nM-vu pjnlHif. o hbv p^wwr lo Miduin 

X>. Dapmur « &, PiTTw't IttJtarcAet ua tit JJ/kiia.—Ai two of tlio 
Am^T alUnooiTa JactUM* of Ihg Spod^y LactuK Six^iay iXavcmbvr J?f7'() 
^(^rpcatrr jcaTV diBCUUmtfiiu U>v fundioai of tbij bmu ujd ^vLmt Dr. 
IWlW kai dgA» towanhi n sulutjuti irf ihu didicalt aubji^L^t. Thu bi^t 
*fM uf Ihvt tcoiorM u oti^UMtiouablj tbnt gii-on by tho *^ Timw," which 
■I'to Uq long for inatrtjoii, ia our ci^Imani, IIowctct, wo laay toko a 
hnisof iV mora aapadftlly ihot pui whJdi mltitui lo Uio hi^iufiiut cktda 

If bjJir, l-'tnitr: — ''Tho «r»brito» of m bird way b" oiittfWj raaiovvd, 
loac «p> «howii Ij riorirtiv, wiUiGut docCroying i:BpowciB(J rccoir- 

tOfCtlS iOUCK UiUV. 

of TwndlK ^«utdt; to tkv tw^vn 

4b vol tnOvfisK pBt«f 

ft ffifl MlMklktt Vf IW 

Xtmf lit. Fvzkr't »^ 
i> bn4 to kn» m tliB 

tto t>i if iieiJ wfaiati ^ il 

tlw iMitem pfiimBtd ost Oat 

coQi«c« to *fl fwirtyt* pdMMEiBg • ftigitoin^ wbtb ib« patftfDor te pm- 
lUrlaBiMni UvBMmialB^UblatfcBbfvn,*^ tbvkav, ttaltf 

liDciN ^rtirn l.c ili« Icdwr K Jnni^c*^b TfmirtATjr rmirmrf t^ 
malin tit th- Frmtr'* >xpgA»jp<fc The mittkca iif tfa* ^t^r^^i ff trt 
hrtim ta ik* vMH tfid M^r t^JhU b «Mnaib, or 4««ttMto«f oobvoIdImw i 

loitf* ctflU IfUf bi ih* \tn0rttkm tt » %»Tj rl4M ntit-itUUnn «f caplJluj 
bbod r«*i«l*; and th« 'vkrW or tti>i1irlliiy uibatuc* i)f |1>« inUntt b 
coniprtwd of DfrT« 6bc«^ which coddtcI lUa ootii'^i Urcr wiiJi tUf naB^ 
tiun brtiMih^ind vUrk nUi |ian h M ip* a flw dTflrnvfiE |iir1i V ih» mrtiivJ 
U^r ilivlt Ife Mcvodias il)« mawinwiian iHiiB, hAWvtr^ v« Itoi l^ 
conical Nir? T^dnl mio pUl>, bj vUcbkt ■^rtnrr In Urrclj ^""TfT-*, aiA 
ihfu* (ilairA fnm wkKt nn* kuMtn m lEm 'cfm\;*!iitii)nA.' T)>'<t WCn fir- 
mvrlj «tipp7«*4 t> \m iU*tiUti« cf ir|«Urityp boC (be cartftd it^Jy of UwB 
b^ Lcarrt, Om>kijti,ioii oa&«cibv tbovn th*i U»f<T v* d ia piiwj on » 
r«gmW plnQ> ^tvdwliy InnrnfAtif: ia tvn^lnxUjj vUrb nn Lr inu-Mj up* 
Wdn Uiroqfli lb* f EiadrttflMD* U nab. It wa^ ucbl UMt. ibii tamal 
^octnnti of |hVrii>Z4jt7 Uini ni oiiiamklxc <4 Ibe cnKhruA irouU txcitA 
tUhor MRMtioa ur mutimi, bntit fan«bMiTeont)yfeaod ckti ibr«ppltatiA 
of »|^TiiniccvmoC to tbo Aitti(«I KibfetAnco ctUt fL>rtb«oi('iii>EaUE Bud 
Dr. P«tTWT liJ> Hwl with the bnl imu)u ib" Ufc«v it!i'n-« J'^iadie cumnl 
nf 10 Inli^lt.b rtiti- Thn fasainblP rflVf nf Lla L{4{ilarqtinb lr> Tb* uortioA) 
tnbiUBc^ vr«« in 1UI out* to ffodiuo fta oBlistf bk<d, ibown ' !iU 

diaicctioa cX ibe *uB«b; kni to (iio «<i(nicDted nttJtiii i^. - ^ 

belwuci the til^rd inil Ibr icita aijh«lvi», pMdiidnir U *]iM«ti)tf U«^& 
ilk* Ihiit of Ml wfirebftiftd J^dnujtr, nUHtUMB lotbf itirrct Hhtitrtttio* 
of tbo D«oi>4iitoluiT« iUt'lt, tbv kolwr bltibuted iht 4Mi ' » 

&iti» wMr^ prctloml rt'iTKOiMst tbr ciMMiM «# (bb briof . Irf 

Uiv tlrni- lLaI *a« >c«|«irtd (w|>t«Il7 whca ikv two dAtf»lc#,<Jt p4l«»<ll 
ii.DlfliirT>,wr7vfkift|«it)tocoli:oi1^|k« ooEkabUvtcllwbjtbo&eqwnl 

acEBmno sdhhabt* 


of MtlaOD after Uib BtiinutHtJon had c«bm<1, L>r. Ffliriar'i ex* 

U Wig* in tb« fiT«E initanrv difyf*t«il 1'^ the tlud^ of th&phon^daaii 

<|ftUfy I And bo bond cii*l tbo aftpUcAlioD of tho e1ccCTi>dvii (tb4 ontnml 

•lupcdted Vj cbbirarurixi) ti> \)ari* of Uui onttli^l Ujri: i^l a LliHlHrir^ 

AA «noib*r wmiM teit* ^ttoMl conTijhirma^ itYiu^tly rt^n^^xindiiigr to 

rficmf forms «f «pil<Fp« J. U»t. on briujcinjf tlio «lccttodH ccvar luid 

to cwib '^tbet, Bii u to vicittf t^iily a p&rtkulAr cutLvolutioD or p^n at n 

be toaad hiDUolf nblv to cnll forth t^-ordiiiiktod mov^mtnU 

WfttlinW irvup« oTiDiucIca] fuob M, la on eminml lu iHiOMuibcEL of ita 

wvi abnuU rvRud m expfMnan* iir IiIi^hm nnU Hru(iiiLi[tH. a nbbit 

kcatmorot it* ttguid lf\ (i»if clu:iiliins^ at n mr^mv orBtrikin^ca 

U,iJ«f "^« iu IaU from iildc ti> ndcinud tten ends it^or qvcq exi>i^ui,«« 

Ai auviwtnu at (kwu^ag, 'l'^i^ pfft^iiiin Ini^JkAHlUm of 1b«« [^eutn>t of 

IrtwactivitjUpivvvd by Uiv pL^vvvrof pNdlctlon vrhich Dr^ Fi;mor bun 

iBpiNl M to tiie moTvmcstt nbich wi>uM bo cnu^d by cimb partJcalot 

^ftodoa Af bU olvr-tTodcB, This craiLtra of d| thoe nuiv^menu ata 

bttkl la tho afilvh^r l«bv, aad ia lh« aAti^cr parLiciiu of ifau miitJlc 

Um; ou anOTT'iDeiLto bc«DK Cfttltd f<rrl1i bj Uic nppUtAtlufi of tbu iiLimuIud 

diviatb* pottcrior partH at tht* tn'Mh biljiw »r (1ii< ruL or (tiffr or ti> thii 

|Ml«Qr bbo* of tbo inoiifcvj ; whilo ehi' fdr^&rd prr^loa^aiDJi oi' tboir 

MBOr loUa U tonally iriieapoiuivo. llonce ibea? n^sntjic icaulla uf 

l^rtm>iii, ^anttim H/nm^, fonUnn tbn infirrciu pfevzousLy ijmwn by 

DL r>Hit1'>', ffv'm cKjinpnfi-UTft fuialoony luid from d^rvviopn^uaEj ibul tho 

^ fOMBiM UWfl hrr ibv iii»tnujiii;t- nf Lbufit bigbor (ipcxstinne icaulllllj in 

. U4»«hidL do not prompt to rjnncintiL" 

tvQint nfvBKik ba» 4ppnarcd on tbi» subject from tbo pec of D(. J. SUwLtuu 
UoDiHi, ifiAnfwphpKT, lhn'*rMUit(aphUMo(lli-iUTimaii,"Nf)r, 6th^ l^ra 
ltii *avthy of pi^u«al< Wo mtmZr f^uoU tbtt nutbor^a concluflitru. Thcj 
tfi; 1. Tbat maU) bare, aA n xu^p, tiom tfa« btftfinninp to tbomd of Iirn, a 
lu|k|r l«nip*nEUT«v and a lau rrrquent pnlntic^i nf ibo br^nrt, thui r«nLii]i«<, 
^lljEif, ncTOrl^t^M*, aMordiAir to taoipcnuuoDt. (;L>oiUtuii<:iEi^ a^s, and 
*"ntiiaa of bealtb. S. Tbal cbiMrvN Iiavi^ n biulrni 1rmpuniturt> aL birth, 
■Ifivaaba^ titDV Bub«>qi}Hni]y, whli-b, thoiigb jII^IieIj [<iTi-r Fbaa thu 
^wajalt, ttfircTtbcleai elovly anJ ^ndtiaJLy di«nlj]ii.t» lo n <«rtAiii point 
^ abuut Uio aUtlt year of tt^e i> rencbcd, aft^r wbicb it grAilaHlly 
IxmaA until dfT«lopEn<iTitii] Riatariiy i* n^nchod, whon U gnuUia^ly amt 
^xHy dediPCB agrin aa old a(fo (iwcoiid cbildboodj admncoo. 'i'bu pulaaiion 
<f IW bMit ri]l!i>iTi juflL llic oppofito cintr^T', b(.'tDic tutv^b frvt^UTiul vrbcn tbo 
liBfnvtiito i* lowut, and \vm fni^upnt wbTt it U< bi^hiTCt. ^, That raalojt 
ia ba^a a i^rtatcr vamtian in tompvroturo than foinakf^ tbiu 
wi^ Uu-ir ifTfftli'r iHriAlion ia lUturc and maay other prL^uIiariLictr. 
^ VkOB aU of ivbi<rh w>« (vmrlodA iliat thi? voman nppriin^br^ num- in Ji^r 
*4fiifcMi» a ebild tban Ibe nan daof>T and la ooiuoiqitoatly Ivm lujfbly 
"hijipl Tho nude u A Bvcondary tTolution tr-mi tli<T f<miali\ 

Jl" JNffrmi T*aW« o^ i>^Mifton aw K^^*'! W' ^'' f'^Mich Bernard 
kiieeail kctnrr, «bif^U'ia poblnbvd ic ifie "Kj>tlia Srii*atiHqn« da la 
Ami^* Ortcdxr Itflb, 167S.. Ili- tji^^ *° sccijual of th<> vA.nriii« th^riea 
«& v^enaiitol bj men of vinnca fi-oio Uippocratcd dawnwatdiL 
Xin. — 50. L. IE 




Th« HHOAsi Qn^k ^hpL^n iKmUmd dijcvalao m a onrJdtijr 
GaIa ||>f!*fa**>*J i^ autaeMO of tb)ti« Mod* of dig<vtjm, ib* 
pifnnnMl faa iliii iriiiiuM^, Ui* Mcnnd b tk> tlm^uoH. ftud Ujb Uiird t 

ivgpfdcd dl^vdUn 9a UaumXa^&t^, vad divUnl il tato ax idad«, a «3v 
ja wUdb b« «M foaJa««d brSjItiuj, nUlu, Jt>rla, and ««Wl TU 

la b« ntttvo tiitQiUlaa, > riMr vhicli, u fariit anlBal Rwd vm 
WM •xpcnmontellf f*Iuce4 by tUMinw* UlU wtuvilvi ialmJ 
Uiu ic^KCJinJ* uf bird* pwLioji* of raMt «Dcl««od in pvrfgnlod oMfad 
On kininjf th* hlrd ^^r »nra» llin* ilio xnf«i m Ibmd tn Iwta 
diMOlvod' Svvdiy hntr«tar, «ociu«d u; » ■ImiW autotf, rv«l*tid 
dJ^Mtlve ftocoDB. Bpallminai «uccv«i«| in vHbdnfi^iitf giuulo 
froin wdmiJi, and bj' lU mMo* pnfinMJ oriinriililipi^ikaatuUu t 
btiog Itodj. Tb* *athDir oocclii<U« vHth ft notjc* of Ih* obMrrnliotu 
upcn lib* cvUltaitod A^eua SL-Uaitb, nLo, m U itd]! bawn, k»l a pvr- 
iniumni hnlo iMdtaf Aon vithaul IntfuJ la kb noaach, vt Ibat 
oubslMCV* oonid b« nadilj buoducwd ttkit* bb veocauk, vid nitbdnwa 

J^Mt^riini ^ BiavJ hy Jtndm^ its fVycfO^— TbU U % mocb eVfCT 
than luu bjim thongh^ and i« a1» noob iq«itc g«a<iMUj apfltcnU^ 
l»Uad dccMOipwK ct ibM liju t^vca irr^tt^ hf *eid> or oft««lk «lkall«^ 
hnDJOfloUn b cliurir*d c^t' h (l^w *uUtAan< ; bft<m>ti> b feroK^d, whkb, 
tioot^ncd ^tb LjdtudjbfL^ odil, ;^v<» cbA-<RcCefiHtlc crf»tab. U unlcr la 
(AiUlii tLvta Wit miul pracool tbo*: A tpiull frA^aiHit ot diM blood I4 
pUfwl un A (fliuiH fdJda ; It ii dlM^lviid In h J^tji of wa1«T, and a amata 
poitiMi of MM-talt U ftddod- Il U covmt4 ^th a Uiia »Ud«, and fun 
Acetic add Eud? to pun betvoca Ibo tvo alLloir ^ufl '^ ^ bf«lsd otvr a 
apliit<1antp to btnlin^-pouit A^Qtl« add U m^iLb addod, tad h h bttftd 
«Awh, ftud tbiiA i« vcpMUd 1i!l lU fty>ut* an obUbOML TUoy t^ 
rhomhvxdnl, of « dJrtv bruwn ccftoiu^ (^uit* dumoletutkv aod R^ulrc 10 lin 
««<<D wjih a ain^iiiyinjf ^wv^r of tbiao kaa4p»d <c Aiur haadfvd ilUtaatw*.. 
TVitb tbo MdftUon quantity of blood Hot r*aelM« oui iltrayf b« pcoduood. 

^fdtfif tAr /->ir»xrt d/ jJi*i iVtfo ;^f tJriMit.—A 1A1MUBp^«f ftt ibla 
qtiMiIcm ban bun finntHtuivd to a 3nC« DiiiuWr i:if " VlrobovA ArebiT/* 
fmiLi whkh tlio "Aradtmy" maknaJoii;; ciir»ct vhkb wc ihAU fjtbv ia « 
oburur farni- Ni'tlmoj^d injivtAi add la :bv ilrtt j^lanj Into ihv Itvadtpb 
oTibp fan^n of a tabUL Ho fniind t}i# uitnul t*>»^i)wd quiti dvo^tW 
opnatioTiT and wa& *ub*rqiicntlj \{n]j sad ato veH. Jbi uodljlj 
i^ijiannltj undliftLirL^, and on fvnfory diitarbut* COmU ba daiactf4- If 
Lh^ mJMtian wh» mad* inU< (h«J«(t bffmbpb«Tatb«xiftbC fisndbcd Maid ba 
placud in anj poaltioa, proddtd ILu wcm ikoa ilovijri v^Uioui iu bal^ 
ntacttdf diDDjfb dmilar atttmpilA with lbs \r(t fbnfcol vara protirpllf- 
raiiAUd. Tbo antaial wiD ionvtiniM rvtoain ia aa aloonMl poalaoa br 
MTVoI Dffiulo*. If tbe flUn. bo alJjthtlj F^acbvd tbo Wf uv bowatw, 
inuBcdiatelj nUaotol- Wban tbo ■ninial Urod orer a waab or «o fbl« 
p«e«liaT«oadaioQb<ouiMlaaaadl««iaubod, tboravaioo conaipoad< 
iDf coDdUte ia da bind linba. Aiboibrax^iiuMoluoadof gav^iba 

ftouamnc «uutfAUT. 


u* tliMl tbo ulflu] liM 00 UW r«iiroa»DUttOD, or oalj aa 

im^ at tbr Etisitjcn ft ihtf uxtniuity ; in olLir ivurdi^ (bora In 

psislj^ of tb« muMakr •tckl IId iindi, boirflvcr, from oth*r 

ta, tiimx tiicr^ is DO Torj ftiriol t<:icjiJuAliomjrmiinUl fuiictLiijiniii 

tie cencm WluatfJ IE Uir n^rtni ^f thd cirrAbrum. SothnAgAl finiU 

<^f Um UedenlM DU^ImiM it nlivAyii fcJJcTrvd hy moUT pihrftljiiA, bat 

MCMNtUj bj HttMOTj. l^^jfClioA iuio & dfi£iuto ]>airjt Al iIld aatoituf 

kDcrpMt of tbfl CLirpQA itiJiiium tnucZr^iinaii^iitiJM ^nvi-lh^ foUowLn}^ 

:^Fof It* fi>«t tro or tbroo mioutoi, or dvoa longnr, tho ftniiuul 

qaie«,bot |{&T«lhaliap7oMiaBorii«)nit Gouadoua. TWn, iritbout 

Jlfclart dlonMl inlucioa, k bvjfAL to Wp i>iUi«r «tn.i^bc forvard or 

l^fl rmMttiami tU rrum^, It mfldv from four to oi^t Icopa. 

4iaAl A?!!! 0ns ffv Mcondf, tbca kftpod tigiiai &ad M ga, tbo movoiucuu 

bkf klwAja lui4jr, ihaipAOH rhatttt nid tborur, till at U^gtli thu 

bc^aio O^ndoiuniiii luid aftor flvo lo djfbl BiUatM It fvU nror 

Mit*dA*i ilio ItpuiOTiajr lioUulfi lo tbo ccuxso of a quHiter of balf 

ksv tbi «niiitul wru f^vilo pxhpuutF^^, ikt}4) tnj rpAthotic Tfjo point or 

fttbnia which vkia imUtod pvoduotd iht§o odbgt« >~otbiingel caIIi l]io 

|i^ kttTvEik^ b*Hi rrcontlj piiblUhodt flhowing Uut g^iiro woa opidumic, 
im Urnf vUUb <CV>frv*r<j TiMiAid. ^ipltfuibt^r 29lb) Uut ba bu fru- 
^Ivllj fbund Jf^iUt^- ■oMlvrm BUfTf^r from jin mlar^im^at of tlio llijrdd 
tfMd lad bttl|EU»»arinA; tbwue*, t/wmg U prwfutii of tbo Hliirt'butk'ii, coAt' 
4dw, tad dup ol Ibo cUB|>vto ; a purelj inqcLuiiNral ciiuw. Oa rcpliivui^ 
Aittfttf vfth • J'm^ tbt glttiditUr AwrJiing <liiiiapppiirvy!. Ho U aa~ 
^^iag to Aoeopl tbo icfia tf i tUmK ffaitn far on nJbctiQD at once aimpli: aud 
%flf nuDolIiidt aod ivhicb b« oUIn tL^ttnJi Jlll'i ; nuiI bo siigg«4Ui tb« 
IhAUI^ cf th« nuefaftnl^al caua* iu:liEi|( in th» St-Eti«nn« cu«. 

Thm^ ^^ IkJtfi M A'dflna/ and Ahtti«-7,Mi Stat^.—tha " Cbnimi^i 
M%* En one of Et^ OrUibvr nuubt'n*, ^ive^ ib« following bci^oudI of 
V. B«uQ«ad'« Ticrni^ \a,Ulj laid boforo tbo Krcvioh A»kdi?mj ^— Tba 
ttkm diidBfoIatwi £oct penodj ia cacb ''uteml rdToluiiuu," nf ibo 
lfcyjMociettrriDgfh)mco<Mnftnc>jaqntof onapi;]i*iiont(i thitt nf thn nnit. 
W lb* tmj «forA* Ui* lint (knovrQ fta tho /xi/tf) Ia ptoclucvd hy tbd Tva- 
Mnln i^atola of ibe iHart ; tL» Mcotjd rMuIra fmai ajralDla oflbo B.rtcrioi 
4*4dcbtfiapR«iArB in tbo tint, ji.niro in thn iv^fvin'I). Thi?io two Hltc^mntLnj^ 
MOatitutp tiio aoTmol i/if^uliVin, o( wliLct iha nbcijrmol di[^rat)»rn in 
Ibn icteufif)';iitrf '^npTi? or JifubN, tbat i% AlTtiirlL]^ cJLi;t;r ciiu tb^tck 
<C baih. Id oppntftinn r> HArw^ «ni1 i^thi>r phy^ioln^O, fhi< author 
^pMB« in tlio artfnoc ao iVr^iJiiiiv form, nitbaut vhic^h Uio tAiupott of 
m Ibdd Into «11 piuti of tbo bo<J j ooubl dM U offbclod, Tbo ci»-ordUMtod 
■iVBMOCioftffUriMvid bHut ftraniUdbjgnngUenicinnbrTatiaOrbat tbo 
|Mi« Ao^oa of tbo cv><pTdia4lbc Mcro-outn bu jet to bo ducorond. 

s J 




At Ber&i. m iba TOlli jt«r of hl« «ft> In bim QomMB? luiil tW 
hftn loM ft irin and nt^e nua,— vaoccdtHl b; all to be tlw Dnt Ia idMwa 
amtAg tiw kaniol icm of Gormimy. At Unt 4«r0tug h>iTfi>^f to 
acvHafv b* mbMquAbtljr K**v aU Lij tim« ta fcleati^ ^uMiltf^aDd la ISESSj 
took gplji0Pp«IilniC0Sa li«itjn. lo lU*) I14 W^nai^ PnVi"#iir if Mtii'- 
olo^ia tbol Uwrimiij, Acd, cftttr Ui« d«ftU> of Wct««, IHrKtor of Ibo 
Itojftl MiocrabgicaJ Muafiutt, H« trartllMl exbdUfclj in 8c«&ilaA*b» 
Rn^lADil unci ^ranlnEri, Imlj nf.^ ^\<A\j, FnutCQ ud AmltU. Tn 1^:*1» k^ 
tDjLd<> «iih HumWdlBsd l-tmobmBlhaftunou totir tQ I^Tnt ukJ Alui 
Mcuul^Dfl Slid tli« Cupiio Bt-tk, uirl bflvonj to tbo beorfkct of QUi% 

Sjmua Empuo. Hi* i wm c I™ oq hi* nntiirD vcdj wmb ooifiiul 
Slbflbo lionoDtdiiUL n« dcTotod Uoufilf to iIm itBdf of actcOffitofT 
Vk^Diti^jl boiltM vhlch nw^li Iha wn^ fmm Rtntl«r ipiif'A. Ulih hli 
f vDAlntiOD h* (JUooionil tb« «tmctu)« of iroo lontiKThbi^T ^^ tJM bjoquJ 
cwmponenta of tb&«tHif mi««; vii «tu<H«d ihDibriktnff di?«T«ac««botftt*n0 
nwkiPtUn^ In t connie fttom. iiDd m lb« nBd cruit of tlit •attk — '* 0*o- 
kgi«al HAgMiao.' 

IkntA ttfli^tnar ^rnUmyFj q;^ /mWr^— Sot 1<id^ aftcC U» ^lefttk 
QustAT El<M» the ffdent* of iitiii-nljgj tiprrlcntri?, my* tW '' AcMlfmj/* 
Nor, Ui, boothft flf<At loa by ihc dc«i1i cf iho reoorablo PnC ^ntihmaph, 
ofFTTitrt'r^, wLicli took f>\t\£v toi tbit S'iihl uf OctoWr. Jo^im Anpud 
FTindridi llnritliitiipt wm li'^rn %% rrohidMln, iti«r KiwlfvJd. in JSmj ITttlg 
•nd M Ur Uck v iNirt *ilr?«iJy htM tn ni^poiutiEQcit U tbo b#t{tQtt«ft, kh 
OdfiUcOtlou wiU] wliti]1] Liu ulih, &ft<?r n iip«v of ilitj jtutk b«ftB O TfwJ 
bj bJ> dAnib. rir«l linKniin|Fp.-anl^ t'Mf1ald|fi-lnip*etor >ari QijaUabw 
la Ilia ficTgaatdoDkiv, ruid ie l7:?J7 vpab ■^r-mli'd JV>rr«»oT of MiMslocj la 
llvtidbauL IXUDmI ««rk wA«n " Kunr Chnifibf^rialil " uT A* arisfnl 
iiy«l«in, vh!cli Mfijvftwt in 1R?I\ f^llf^vwl fcy ■ ■■ Volliliinili/* Cbflnktu- 
'utik*' (hot pntKl through tiro cdilicai& QU c^lof prodiiclkB, bowv««rt 
>fm the " Iljuidbucili of MIntrMtof r," vrbldi flfipr«riMt in Ibiw vi>liiiElOir 
b«lWMn lb« jron IH-'Ui and lNt7, Mil matnntn oq rolnwdB, trtitlwi 6«fB 
tioN) Uj tiro? dujin^ new tlinii b^lf » c^^itiryt ft^ra tha fint, tkat app«aro4 
ui 1600. ca fiBtmiuo crfital\ to tbo one d!i:Ckted villi diAcuUy tbnntj-^ 
fhUipg idghl imd Utcnadng batfrmily, lod pubtiibod la tb* <■ JounAj fiir 
liniktiftchD Cbcndfl:," tl di« oomTBonoamont of tb<i prracdal jtttf coutun T»t 
Hlurw uf mulls uf ibc Uidwsi t«Iiw fbr iLe mlrujMcirtiit of syaintkigjad 

MfiaiiifErt>ia V*ms hi fWriTCo/JL— Tltia «ulj«c1 U a eorfooi do* fer m 
Frvnch mnUUviiBlil to title a|i. 31, MulMsant dmwa ibA TirbviDp road»« 
inODtfTOfii hb ctManation* T^Tbo pArtaof ihAfvm vtina* Inriin* apyroacfc— 
moat ocAfly to a veHloal dirMtioA att the mopt prcduriiTc. Tltv rich 
ponlonn ATD ooumcttly, in C^nnniU, vncloved in n pu$a< ct tvtUntm 
bAtdoMSb U«rt &«q«antljibaawtaUif«rria>lttDdaorcoluitt>icieibwtaib4 
aAipe dinctioQ m tbo gwir^. Tbr neb portloM An fraquootl^r 

9CIC»TiriC SCkUiftT. 


■naniiivto Lb«dIracL'oa of tlie«iniTE^pb3r&1 »j«t«m to which Ui« UildjJ 

JC^ of tha Am«rir.ui *' PttljUchitic IWUotin " (ft i:«ir journJilJ. ll lay* ibnt 
ta lUchl^ta ti^TO An liv0 rimtftic* of ore, of whicb the raa*t Toluablo 

nd powdvr, and jioldlrrg En the blut-fUrnftca ffcm nr> to 70 pm ovct of 
aaUUi:! iron. Tb« <rr« ocl-oiv hoth *lntv Acd graaulu or mwojvt- It i) 
cAca baoiM or uaterlsmbntfld wiib n lii^bt r«d qn&rU Lir Jiupiir. jmd b 
ifcB eaUad " mixed atil'* P»bal>ly iho nMi (n <*rdfT nf ioipinnfii^rt Is tho 
vft n«UM3to, vbieib nuDCb rOiomUca iLu brvwii HumaLitp (ifJ'oohBjKnnin, 
TUi orv i» |[fs«iilly fimnU wsJcinUd with tbv bunlr^r otva, from whk-h 
euy tuppoM il Im furtnM bir piTtUI iJi*iiiti"^lii^n. It coatnins K»mo 
vxtor, (hcttu«Allj tcoibiiiMJ, i4 jtoroiu id flriicMuii.^ v^t.1dA nboul C£ p<r 
cvsL of imullio Itiui iu tbu fitrnfttCt U mant tiaiiy fi:iluci'i! ibiin H^iy oibur 
cc*cf tJi* diiilri^t, «nd it U-rratt nn dicollotit niixtiirv with Uiv !i!|i«ouI*r. 
7k4n arv proboblj «tc^ variatiM nf tl»Lc oro vhicb baT« not btrm voll 
Bad« out. TIib£ ftiuud At ilic JftckwD, Ijaka Superior, pud N«tv Fjigland 
■iUH i« ftucdi^lod vnih llio SpvrrulAr, whi|« ihn FMtir bad U a»T«v>l 
■Ui wtaored irom toiy kaciirn dcpnuil nt tbnl oro. 1^« ma|;nvljc <jn of 
Ibi^iptixA iiu Uius Tm bvDii fi^jiud only I^} tin? wi.-il of thn ciihcr fifoi. 
Wkibingt<iti, bldwArdi, »nd Chimpion miai?*, no tariaty biil tbii la 
to C3u*l rxccpt titit Spccukr, mio wbkb Ibv 3r^ii:Ltc ii lliuufiljt 
lo pMA. iho powdur |«ufdD; ficm blAclt Id puqilft, tli^n nd. 

b Mid to b> •tr«s|1h«n«d by tlt« f&ct tliAt tl^c ^poculu or^ ici 
la ocUlicdnl OT^tdAi irLich fotiD ia well known to irlan^ ia tlio 
avldo; henne, ll 1> ullirgiid, thpit ibn Hpacralnr dirpiuju wirA finci^ 
BUjriitUc, wblch bj Aooifr uioUmarplilc nctioo hflia Wn mbU^d of oft»- 
aialb «i Ibrir oJiygm, wbkb would niitlfu tbcin ctn^uiically onLTdrtJiu Uo- 
Dutke. The Flig an u A«ltij or kLibIopi* ^iliciom Htmatlui, f entitling 
mliut Um mxif uid of'tnoro difficult reduction thuo dthcr of tliir jOkivo 
Btta*^ Il i< «ll*a mnfp}ftic. Odd *otni>tiitivA boiiilctd wiUi « dull nd cii 
vbit9 qiiJirii- TbU otn vArifua mii^b In rlHinruA, And comjnuiiiivr^Iy liltlu 
faa tmn «bip|HdH It it prcbiibl/ the mcaat nbundiut ^M in Uio diotricl' 
A Sifieftoa* on^. contAlniug a taiUMc mdoudi ct ooide of MAngiunni !■ 
fa^ld M vr*Tm] polnLir uvcnipony^ingj Iho Ftkg a»^ ThU ore U nni|U(tw 
HoDably of |Zt\>4t valu« m a minturv^ but rm it hai jii«t b«ui latfoduod, Iti 
Mportuicic Iiu Dol h«vn titlctnuatA^ Tbv KtiuorA^ly rwcJTttd jTBolotP'^ 
ihttvy of th« nripTJ of Ihne orp4 u, llbt th?y wi-n^ Kf^dK^iLB dvptnltt, 
vUcb hAT« bc4ii highly in«tanior|]botodi Tlio mrLHu nro tfrQA-ehApcd, 
?ar7i:]{C muuli lu Ibjcl^tm. nu wb!vb iLw iaIilv ufttiTi iium ulii«Oy drpviidji. 
Th«M nmrtM *r* ii^l^Tdntirt^i! with ■ *nri jfjtt,.n n\nii-, jthWh ilvty4 
MeorBpftAloi t^ i^pocnUf nud Mn^otk' t^nt. OT<r1yiD|f thcw bcda U 
ivually found d quniti rodi, wbifb Ia prubAblv i^iiv nf tho uoi: rQtimttjf thi: 
dJBtiii't- Bilow lb* Spflculur \a n pmon ttonr, o!\flii *JiTy, iiid t»*rn>alh 
Hi* ve fine ca muru h^iriiiciiifl of tbn Hn^ ttn, myvnU'l by cry«t4]liM 
idte*. KcKt tildflf tliui Ibe Msit vru ii auotb?r quutiiLe. which Kemn to 
b* M4Htin«« ivpUccd by » ■iUmoiu marblfi. Yat oldor ua ib«gndiii«.rock4, 
whbli •» ftupTioKd to b«ku3^ lo tbo LawrrvtiAn iiyittia of CutudA — tbo 


»?CLil SOiEKt 




Bnimi^^tntv Xo^nhntAry M'erttt^pt-—Xr. Uroiruii^lriiojvrt 
oqt mx hntruatvoU ^^ pli4iir«hxh ban bwn HW timo In imp im t 
tintat, »nd which iir*> in ikn rrviairy dwiMd bj Mr. MajsII, Jvb. 3lvif 
plm LftT* bMO tH«d r«t ptttiog k sarolT«v J^l^ «'luc& «J>oiiU tiare jt» 
cralerifv pfErfnlf bat ik*j kfti* ftloo*! aln*^ TniM. In lb* pmuia 
UtftUM tb« iti^ ftfliJ boflj V« ini4* in <m» plc^e^ i^ Ili4t Xhaj pH^Jro 
iQf Biber, ibiu i««Tt«tiiif AOj ■b»3ik£< of oasiplelQ ctauriair. lur a/ 
ib» bed nnnni bn ftUcdud In crvn ibo «Ughnui bl#r«) dirtf^tkn. 
Hni nv HV tb« ii»li«D*«i ^« WOT* VMlvr l^ impvaaika tbnt il 
with di^dltj b« rDAl« in taj biaonhr Amn, bat tUa ^ifteolijr L 
Muplotrlr fr«l rd of by Mr. Bpvivnbi^. vba ku ftln«dj ttiAd* ■■tAtnl 
Uto tMA*tj otiMtnmni of tta* binottiW klsd. 

FdAiaUf JZvwdrcU* 4i Mr J/ovtib — l>fdd«dli tbe bat mtoffUgBtioai«f 
tiix«M«mtatES ihatb>r**T<^ l^nvn mndwVod orv 'brvA nnv btlDjf roftda Mud 
puli^iboi m ibc '■M<jntb}r Mi^rHMpioU JoumaI"* lor December. IW 
aothiMsaf tbv p&por Jc'cnbii^ :lt<hiu >u iL* Rnv.W, It tUlii^Tr, F.B.M-&P 
■^ Br. DiTtdAlc. or Afi-' form vhlcb thty hftT» dMh wiili th«j ^:— 
'*Wv bkil ibTifl ^tbflivd up llio Uinwb and coaiplctel iW Ufo-bbuirf . 
Tim tiKBJit Enntltod of iLiultlpIuaiian i* hf ^M^on, nbk^ fcea dq »p|«r«nil^ 
t} KfliHiiKTi^vi. Amnnp^it «nor«kcwft B!imb«n tb«r* «w k f»v dutit^^iikbBd 
from lhi< ttbf'n hjr fk ^ijifhi ijaertva ti c£n nnd the pi>w«r to tvim Cr*«lj. 
Haw bnrj^ion itill— fbr ft tinw ttnoibdd^lbm ronnd; a >miJI fnu* wf 
MTvodA Blb^oU out, dlvidhig and inmailry !nte ibx4^ pur of fla^lk. 
Tb« <li<k n]vUu— c«cb iii« beoomea pwwiwfj <tf a iio<lc4r bodr, nui 
wvll-fjrnn.xl moumlainf *vi iW. TIsaeBwim rr**rl^ until ib^jr oXfArl ih 
HlrvaloMi oriintn Catta tbtit bu Ju»t«uiipJ«t«dS>f4«9,*t) ibAtlh* n 
Ai« ftpproxiittAle. Samido vid nticlfi m^lt ^oto taeh o(b«r; tbv 

bcwiuo* oImt lUid divUndcd ; tb<ti bimta tt the ■a^U^r pomtieg out U- 
iWiribftblr mlnulo gnuialos frooa vrUcfa loyiiadt of nov Totuii trlav tt«d 
T9pAfti th« cjrrlc" 

4Jn Mr I'm a< .Vivx^AaAx w 'SkUihi C\>»i'ny,-Mr. Job Uuruw lud 
pppcr on IbU »nl)5'^^ bdbn tbv Uanrbv^cv Lvtom/ipd rLIijij>i.^i 
Sodtlj- Tb Mid : — " T wUi ta bniip latin tba KttdAi rf lh« itiMin 
nd tboM iiiicKM{W|iiiit« vbn ar« bii<T«ft>d in cntltnjp MctioDA of to(i or 
dcUcabt U«iJr», thv i^)v fif imiJithklin u h ^uppcirt hr tach Uhqu In iha 
BCtino rnlh-r, Thu ftilvttnU)^ ohtMlTt*^ bj tlii« iit# of nn|dith«IiA orvrwnt 
4ad otbcr belief rt?ainiiuiid«l f<^t thid purpose ato—A l9w fiub|C-pni 
■bnoc* Drcuktnrtlon b Um tulCcr, t<i^ littlo Ljjuij tu Ibr ndj» uf tb« 
and TOtT THKly intnbllitr nfUr cutlift^ Sit liti^rrtt rir ifiinl, *r« Ih&l Ibo ■«' 
tUnce U raai'?T<d nl oncT> froca ih^f wttion nieh'^iit iajuf^. N«fibtb^ia atA 
bodj not VfTjr gruamltv known inuddi: tbg nvdoi c^ ibo tu^Ullllir or 
eoloor-Dibka?, *o tbat pOHlbly tovo of til* KMonbto ibat not bo ahlo i» 
obtAln «Ainp!o« ro«di!5i but T ffaall h»tv pU«nii« bs ««pp^jb^ it to 007 of 
9ta own iBBaibet*."— " Chaxifkl ^■BwV' Ool»l«- 31il> 




TV MieT^tei/fictiit Aip*<t» t^f fSrwttr Sdur Sprtitu^^-TU^m >n pvvD In 
« papBf' In tba *" Monihlj )llfwa'n[-kir]U Jcitmml '' OotATntr, by I>r> ^0Dtt, 
RR&, who Uiiu bibuUSM Uind ;—'']. A« iiUt«<J m tho ^per 'On a 
Sbuidiar Jar ApbuktiQ \m%^m,' r«giuiiliut} » conita Ion« >* uader-virracW, 
wdcT-Conccticii] Lb tbo*n by iLc KppanT«nc4 of tha lingn boEov or 1j«^Citid 
m focal p^i ud draiiin^mtril iniii mW «ho^ tt. 2. SiauUrUj la tbo 
:iii^co IkiUi uJ4-« (niLb [^]i<ujE« of ouluur felw) dv&otrf l IiiUiulh^ m'lm or 
laadfJioat* of th« iih«mttcio«. 9L An <^topDtn« pntivion nf tho »]iu diik 
ttd ft cTOirdiDfT of tbc tug> mQK cIi«It cd (■»!; ^Jc tliikn rJii^ (>fl]47 i>f tb« 
dmlnr «pcclrum diruotc^ parfJIqliui>T but iLou-L^Eildftilnm-ir uf tlinhJii^trf tLo 
«enT*rynt and dWirpAnl ptnHIiu 4, lUtn i\Tirl hntuliful fnTin* riMvmbUn^ 
fBnchiiUt, VMW, or conKc, innJi> up oTvUip^di pnmbcrlici or bj^boUc 
JUrrartloa-Unvrdraotsubliquily. A. ThvirFormdL-iHnfbonihiiaatimiofltie 
■WrvtiaM prcMot, uid iho mode of trria^ng iba uii of the &on4 of rtyt 
Isniiaif tho kolAT diili. 6l lluuoitmlo eo^torjii;; of iha rcirtip'^ovnt Iudm^C, 
<^h*r at tli« bfJlutlAtor la lU^ uli«iirvin|f or adnJatiiro-nia\iD^ oljvoilTiiiiv 

■ ^kovD \tj ••xruitHo tiirntnii ' poiUraa and tha Hppaumncu of tvo «ff 
■nrd central diAki at tl» noKllt^-it focol Bpcctrim^ 7. Ilia appunto* b^- 
«««ar}^ to diiftlay thvoo bnllUui pbcnoRKnm muAt b« ttxivpclunall^ lif^vy 
i&d aba^jt and tbo&aaidjiuHmvalilii^uJd bar* a cor«w lUU ibrimdA lo 
ibt u«b, a« tLv icai-tlioaMiulttL of an inch id tlie axis c-f oWrratioD 
ow ytiteljchnayM tliBMniPctpf Uippbcnomcmii-" 

liatf ^ I'^pen an Micituntpic An*^"tnif pHblUbvd iu ibfi '^ Mnathly 
UeroMopiral JourrjaJ " f^r <1t'U>bL'r, rCiivBiiibtr. lipcviuVi. Tlii*r* wpie i^^ 

JL DaNvipdoti of tii4 Thrt^d-^ornif l-^Uam immitit, ocuuLoDnlly infuting 
tbe Vattuliu Sy^tfloi of i\,t TJj^h ani Tctui%rL> un Ihc iiiiiii' rrlatlro to 
lfannal«nn in <3i:>Ti^ni1, anJ" thn FilArtii in lh» lltimiLn Rlnixl Ity 
Fnuicu 11' Wrlci, FR-C,^?-Li>, AMUUai Tfi/'vatrof I'atJiolofjy, Army 
Mviliial ^l^^I, Nvtlcj, 6outbniap1ciD.— lUfPAicbca jji C'i^uW Solar 
Spectra, aj^^liiU \n v^\ I^Mtduary A%fTf«tl^n 3n Mu-r4<0'i]wa Aftd 
T<lMC>0|i«fti and lliu Con«tnic^tlm of a CoatponavTm^ Kyt^-pic^, being a 
firquvl to iliv Pkper od a Srarcbur Ibr ApUjintlc Irav^w, Dy Q. Woib 
Ei*ya>n-Hu>>lt» M A-, -M-l>„ Caniah., M«nb- Roy, Col. Hijn, 
Fellow of tUc Camb. Iliil, tkic, ibo Ro/al Atl, Socioly, Jtc, and Uto 
Fallow of St PoLrr*« C^V.. CaiiibiiJ^e,— A Xi^w I'mxlnir Micmluuiv. 
By WUlUo: ItuthoHoKl^ 3J-IV, ^V^^fvmnTflf PhyHinli>pj\ Kih^'b CoU^po, 
l>mdon, — On ail OfKftui?*ri; found in Imb pond \Vftkr. By R- L< 
Ua4doT, Mli.r irK It.M-S- — A DswrlpdiPii of nonni Kwm Spaeliw of 
l^iMomooeoL. By l'\Kilt?n, Norwith, — ^-i-injilfiphyoiiA^r !*mifilmxilw? 
Bj WUUaiu CiirTdEbora. r.IlR— On ImoiffMon OLjtctJtca of ^ttoXt^t 
Ap^rtnri* t^iJin mrrrrspocd* 1*3 ibc MniimniEi p«ribk'for Diy Objjirtitfa, 

■ IW AMieianUSiirnvi^ii J. J- W ^dwanJ, U.S. Aiiny.— Oa Jteflp M«aM«, 
B Dj It. BrftJlbwaito, jM 1^, F.LS-— On tbo InTOiti^ation of MicroicopJc 

■ Forma by mcaui df tK*? Ijukj.-^? which lUvy fu^rnJAb vf EiUirial 
B niije^lai witU niDO IV*Ctio«] ApprLcali<>nt. I^y I'ttsf. Cl N. IIj>0<V of 
P TroT» N-V. — I'urtlj^ir Rttiivia<ehe« liao tbo Li& Ui^ory of tho Mocoda, 
V Tly VV. tr DLllin^-rr, F-HM S,. luiilJ. 1ini<anU M.I>,~Som» lUamrki 

■ OQ ibc art of i'bolographiQg: Mtcrnwyiptc < >l j^rr-j. Ry Alfrod Saadar*, 

■ MJLCS., r.LS,, nnd F.It.M.S., Lcclut«roaConiparatIi<« Amtomjat 


rOm-iB BtlKXCK lUTIKVr. 

lb* LoodoQ HoflfAul Uv^Mtl l^Iffto. — lEaiDtnud AjmivM* (A 
Bcplj to CoL Dr. Woodward.) Bj f, IL Wtbfcui, Vto»-ft*4Jort 
R.M.3.— Oa UiD Cry»uiU in Um Tr<tt «nd Fttioffp «f MvmJ Onka 

QttlUm, FJCS. 


C tt wgPi lfa li on cAf i^rpHlary MonemnU ^ tifnd%.^ U. D»A*rmo'< 

ncBut obMivatiotia on thii Mibj««t »« of coaatdcrablo tduo^ nod v« m 

p»;c/ul Uf ihu wfitwf w|ja uuilv^ tlio Utlidi of A. B> M.^ bu irittu «i 

■GOauataT iImq ia tho"Ch«(nEcAj Tf^wa*" r^r Ni-npinWr 7th. AlW cUs^ 

ftbumba of o«p«riin«Alai tho Author **V4 thai, '*£ii rAmini', tt« li 

Tolndlo. 7flr;r Nolublo; von bj^nfloic lii^ultJr, vbScb clo not (rtiti 

In iha blLTittin^ptpr^ «i« Wxcaw Hbti^li riui tli« high«*t, tf not t^ 

qukklj. TLit ordar of flipillprj buJizhU, thjtt of Tclocatj, Odl tW of MaI 

donliaa, niriy iLv»f<r:c be, luul h fuL nrv. cjuiic diffbftiat fbr lb« Mma 

liquids oipdrjoontod on ■uc^bctvaIj' m copiLUrj i«b«a md Id jnii|i« ol 

Uottioqi-papar* Tiiv l«w* jpTarnitv tbo twopJaiMiduim»4» ^ilbranl. \\ 

■ppoan* from ut|H>ri(iiati[i» nmJrii uu n ]^fvM ubitiUir of n^nSdiw diflhriag 

modi both M to cb«tuical compo^tion md |ihj«i«I pr»p«f1i4i> lk«t wUh 

cApU3arT tubco tKc oquoooi ia1utl<m of clitorbTdnto of tuoouiA 4>4 

uhut ara 1(1 tbu lint nuik for vdodty uid Omd U«ivbl;*vUlaEnsinju oT 

bb>ttuig<-|>iipor tiioM twa Aubttaoou mb ■nipwud ia boti^roipKUi in tbo 

MCood* offpooUtlj, \tf d)lu;c ocdd^ alkiliN. tikd mt«m] poluur, ii>dk, oddo 

jolutkmi, JE& FiitdiDf, In iinip ofpfqwr, chlortiydrif «dxt tm ihA \pv^ML 

T«la<ilj, «ad g«a«r«Uy xvaoUh tb^ tmudoium bifiKliL Si!jcoi4< cf poUi^ 

vbiAbiwitlicftpillAry lubF^ stgijd botmtmiirlyCL-.'iuiiiiid tJiifl-oii la ben At 

tbo Toy br>tiofa of tho k*iiJv; iu ircTnoMit \^ Hlmuit rJ: U cnlf, iiid««d, 

ruiubu abDut 4 lU.DL m tJic bJalIia^-p4j>c<T' From tba frDC«dic^ nuilu 

ntlutiug lu wciibl iif liifULJ* l:i bju1li}i1c ^U\^ ibff fuUfjviii); »rvjvi>a!0 atr 

dmrn;^], TbAy •>i|iUiri boiv lii^uiHA, VMirln ^rriMilvr, with in»l1«rhaU 

by it in colutioci. rieu to Aucb great Leigbt m poroui builditi^ vuUinit of % 

LuujOtivkcrc ibo f iimilaUuiu tvRl lo a dunp mA. It U iHit aii vilnunlftuuj 

ibiug lhAt» afthr aniu4 lim*^ tb« fiTioriiiM of moUtuni and mUi>o mitcr* 

■bould be dotoctcd, not onJjr nn tbc fjround Hoof, but oo tbc lirvt, aod orvA 

tbfl docond ; tlw Uijujd ■Mvndiiii; lu caplUuj mbataiiof of gnat ibidaoiM^ 

and Qoi BLjbjtci 10 LQuch ovAfamUnQ. 'L Pb* r«uila of pksU^ wUb iMr 

liiia)«rou*acasu>ini>*9*, andtbopennmbilitT tif tbe liwutM coiftpeaMj: tbevt 

an mUm cum^mblf lo ^e tupsrpuflol suipa uf bbUiiig*pipar tbui CD 

cijaUny toboii ll u not turpn/riif thn: lh« ^roator part «C tlw mHm 

■qIuUoiib cmi^J^ K->Ud> til for iLcir duiHimii rlM id tb« w wh to b rigMa 

fliaobgn>l«r ilihii whUt wiridd ittj^anil alto mctii*i[LikU/' kia ^i norfl»- 

•MJ, tbco, to barn ncpurtv lo na c>KtroDio fiiTniaiw ijf mttla, tocKpUia Uw 

■accffil of bquida la ibo tuaiuv of planu. It is aufliiicat to iQmaib ihat 

thfl Mlmr Aoliiiiimi nbi^zh natumllj tiisc Ln tba mil ri« Ughpr than puM 

WaUrj MBMUnM t>doiible tl» b»df ta;, f.^., lb« f^iliiffiri^ «1u :— NitiatTf 


fit* of ^tub, clmta of Umo, cftj1>aaKtd of ndi, 

«ad of sodium. 

i^wwfrgff^— 'Tbla flpMtnim, raj* M, Chuuliird (iit tho 

ConptM Rf-ndiu," &pt 8fh), U e1iancicri«td by a numbfrr of ImniJU, one 

cf which hM iho tptdiLl piopertJM of toiuabilitVf lujcum (ia >U diriaioa 

If alkilMv, m clunctcT aut fuaud iu tha Imra ljC luj i.iUipr <)rt:iiijt^ liqujd), 

■id ^Mimdilj. Chlorophjll in pfnnU «vi»ts in tlin^ ilrfTvn'Tir fllntn^ rlijK 

fiig«a«b4ltl(3 tluoDgli tho «ip«ctrain— in Ibatci aowl^ formed, in ndultt rtnd 

fa dvnd lAftiip& In tliv lint oudi c^lorhj dxfc ndd ]iradLiCM am^drufai ietri' 

fBT ff y IsBdt. 1a tho aMCcd it prodaoH quit* Ancitli^r >T>ii-ii) of li&nili, 

viM ikt tdtbor <*Ua dceiimAW pffrmonAit In Xht thbd (And aJcobdJa 

niMioB), tbff iuvldi!tfiUl permAnf^ni bnncLi apisciir immtHli-itcl)-. wiihuut ihu 

tateirmtioD of lijdfocklciric ft>?ld- ^tltoToph^U i< much tr» iJttrabtcr tlutn 
bnvaormUj euppoMdi It R«Q^t• thv action of io^lioo, lu^Ms Allmti^vs lIjxv*- 
tir* wort; »t lAat TVUiniUfr fLHnu.-t«fii by wbJc:h it mnj bi- iLHrcluJ iu 
BhtUTM tli» mtmt (MDoplojc uid r«n«d| ftnd ofEar kfv of ooiuUarBibltf timti 
Bow fo Cte^p'n^ Difftrml Samph* of Oiei^ttrwder^ — A Tvry good paper on 
IUb EvpnriAal |>mcttciil queviinii A^pi.'4n In thv *' >l'>niti-kir SL;ji-uti(iqu« " 
far Sr^tmhvTf \iy 3t, do TroiXMTJio, who dAcribri hia plan tbus: — Tfatt 
^fMiratu pTcflnsf^d 15 A cylbdnrd timoI of evi itooL of tho capMity of 
lulf ft Um- Tlic iditpa ajoHiaC cnniicnn fn thlfkniw. Tho ryl^ndar i* 
doMd mtb ft iCTtrv At4tpp«rt pi«m)d by ft CdalTvI c1i>dqa|, provided with a 
lapftad tw^ Utvnl orific««i luki irbicli ara cviiii-iitifd twu wirrv hom aci 
deuUic ftppftTfttuft to Ignlta tbi* «btir^. It woulJ hv xvtr^fal lo fli n tbtriDo- 
«lBethc d«0Miit in ono of tho ddoi of tho cylinder to iodiciita tbo tom* 
|«cftUuo of ths gftic fft pciiodt followio^ tbo oiplo«iion- Tb^ cylirdvr b 
|li0Nl in ft <b« r*<witiT foil nf woTvr, which wrv* m a Mlorimolor, 
nd vrhioh IB vBiQ encased in o tnugh fiiU ^f ojtCoa, to Kvoid 1<«9 of luuf. 
Tb eylliidor li tixtd ijumGiibly by ft pnufuro-acrviv A^iJu^ upoiL tbi* 
aloppor. A ihemamotdr mnanrM thn ucnparftiuM to ftboiit jJ^Ui of n 
dappw, Tb« wfticr is pro^idvd will lui a^Alvr- 

Avii^ y™Bi Stri'tjot, anJ (A* t'« p/ HoriJiji't Diff^wn A^tjnrratnti- — 
In on« of tha Qumboni of ■■ Iai Mondu '* far Stplotnbar li nn lUVia^mE of 
4q* aollioj. It ft*p Ihftt ibia ftpfifkYftCuii doc* iwfty inth \\\p. rru-ping prri- 
CttA in Uw iuoiiufa<;lurtf of br^t-rih^I «EXunr> d[speuqi.'a irilh tbrtL^fuuittis of 
Ibe nftQual Ubour, atic] cxltnr^T« tbi? <»4ibftriiL<i tiiotlcr coinpLcloly. Tbo 
jiold of Mgftr ftbUintd by tlid uio of thia amui^mi'nt Jim tkia toitMc 

^^■MOtftiA to frfl peroinLt ftu ftmoimC jfTCfttly aup^hcr Lo r.bni obcninvil W; 

^^l^banripg «Mftb1iAlim*ftU wbnrv tt1i«r piooMWv for »Jtimj?Eioa arc its u*o, 

V Tl* Strtiottiu p ic Dfifrmirvttian i>f ihr JVrA of 7on«.— A very interwdng 

V F«por cm tbu curiuiu jul>j<-ct U tbnf by lliTr Mnch, vbkb ivfti nad A)ma 
liaa ago bafor* tha A»d*[ay gf Sdancui %l \'t«naftf oud hft-i rwiM^ntly foucd 

tUa way in aWract Into onn of our EiifftUb eclrntiflc inaxasic^, Jd llerr 
Uidi'a ftpimntm than ia a gtUdJof wbirb loftk?! tbraa rcidtutiDna in a 
Mrotid, axul it dii-idol into firo oelavoi. At oaa and of it b«^iia tO bftcdat 
»ycb, bMrover, becomo mora numcioua aud d«uw towardft ibv otliQr L-nd, 
Mnfl tbare 330. To Uioaxb of a ayrm U l^t«d a dine haviDjf e(|iiIdiHiajit 
■adtftl allta of tho canio nunbav aa th» boira \\% tbo ivion-diic Tho tur^o 
<tf tborotaiiB|rcyla>d(T w looked «t through ttiif alitud diaf, while tbo ityfon 



tttft (awfcw>) ii^i nil 11 th» ■ ill HBf b.|po<li tiai p«tof tfa 
1* tttocfc ladl ■&«■ to tnaf-<H4«. «Md «rate4 A lh«a 1^1 

IW 9eidM» Seboo^ Svvtb ItiiMfirM^ to c<w«d«r Ua iwmiMa of ft 

Lamian, U wt* iwoltcd Otf Ike WtfVtaf g ii d— ■» U w^i 
Mrtv M MB otpkobbv CouojUfl* ^>--W. O, AiUn% & Adszisuk. W. I 
A. nnpK n, C- r^0t, 3. n. OhdMmm, T. U. GMd«n, F. Omkflii, 
Jlimrin, B. Lotwj. l>r. >tSil*, A. V. lC*itM>U, kad U, &p««c«l. A WOir 
tiw rwil fmai Uio LotiU of tke CMnuhGrt at CvooqI va EiUcaUvB. gn«^ 
l>f ibe uut oj iIm rbfrfeil Ltit^nbxj utA Appaatai al Aa Scioooa 
Seboob. 80U&I1 K«i^|to&,ib*tlwfiiTpMca«<U*4focMl7, 



of Air. Cbonli vblcb vtm carrif^ nut mum fw« aiiio* (mil «bi*' 
oni'itfli l<i««nil ut MXDa or Ibo £i«Uktf» M tbe tinM) bnvAUvn r^cwtllj roo- 
Ofuxd Vr ^*(1^K°i«'J*^f^fr' ^- Mf«i<rl»«viu>lM*Cn>d iWbo birds, 
?UiuJ« !<AtDi*,inirvai e|unrii^ En th^ 9i>}]jfchMdfaeod«[f ?r-nm Uum^ 
m;« C Chfiin^Mt NAii«»"Uc«ob«ff 17 mUi " ibfAif torAlf bird* M*eecui 
Uw Wwi Cowl of Abk^ md oa tliAt pArt o( il tbat I 4o mAl *:qi 
wilt, *1r, ffom Loanf^o, In A'?*. Ur, I'k Litilr nth Btj-,(n lfir& kl, fh^ff" 
iMad «Ad proiee|r*d nj U to b» frvqiKcUy lioW in ikstkuk brMt, wh«rv (b^j 
ftni] llitip ftuit Ant vv«l ploittifttlly. UvrrUiv wholvof llitt(uUDl/7l li*i# 
»wrtoiwt,Mrff(«aoMitiiI«rtble4IiU«n- inUad, copptr b Covad maa abufi- 
lUallf diiUtbuUd M mfJadbl^ ^ rneu ouUsotu & in faM, «fMto ani! iadlo^ 
tfoiu of i1m grMD mincEral *r« lo bw noikvd ■Imoot ATctjwhttCk 

scirsnric svmiAnT. 

IWmUiiI* vc, I beJicre, «lin niorv imnllt fDU»i]— I (HrLiii:>lMj ; but llttr U 
Mdovtrt (hitl lu Uiii IwyviuilHit ficntiPXry 1 ImvH ETivnCion^ luiil ciplnphl 
Smtaaaj y*^***. And mttn ILmm hirlt nrif ct>ujmon, MppoT m found vctj «X' 
larir«]j diawmuisCfld. I uu unkble to»T>liolhcf Ukocapptrcnb^r* Ui«ir 
ffilEBi U ■ ccmaliliieElt Af Uieir food^ lu Mi^^juiad by Mr, l^hitn-h» but I 
UUffto ittncxL pTubablo thfiC Uiidu biriJ' iirv ntLni(44d by tb* bright gio*E> 

ibvjt Id <u(nDm wilb all biidn^ Gcmimmp with ili^Ir fs^td." 

71* T^AifbAvMfVnr OirjpiTn* */" jKfti'n- -VerfjMcu- brtvo boon in^««li/;al4d 
Mccaillj by MU- ItubJii luid LaluulU£ii\ nLu t^ulu (" CiuuiiLr?* HvudW 
T, 77, Ko^ A), thAttlua L]^])iilfiLf Kfp^m itiHipri'Ttiiv, ili/tn i.prruulfl ilmiigb- 
ML A Jtllow lioov lono «J adipHci timsuc nt iKu citfiRcr. At length 
Iccopiuk^ lunuAQiiA, ia }*l ivH |ib(^i43g>Bnic . Lt tiulj ruUocu tbc 11^^^ P^^ 
AwmI ^y thn ivhiral pRrL Itiil it di'uui (o^ f^'^^ <^ly ''''■^ Italnt^rrtnl f^J-K bnt 
ftrevj^tj^i il4 ttiichuoM, tho ftetion bcinip; fr\ovrcd by Ibc tniTii^Mmkcj na<l 
tof^ ^T^rEB^mi powci of tba iktty ffIo1>uIi:d, Tbo pb<»iomeua of diipcraian 
ifii mtcrh;r»a» ihui ppoductd mb tlio cmim of t^c ttmmkMc briUimicy 
ipfMrlai; ■abvQ the l\gki from |hi ctnlra ntctj^* n» tnr fm tbi* loiii', Aa 

WbiHi ihhik rh" ]ibfl*jihfiiw*r«iit tlacuo p^^dncM n «iib«unou nhifrb »lnn']y 
WHWoUte* Jn ibc Gi;lU bd<jp«nd<DUy i>f fill nrrroua infiuDUcc, ncd i^f tbd 
ABMOtfd«r with otimr HiL-fuiJo^iB , lunl tL;it only chv iicl by which \i U rlL>* 

Be ibe itadAfww cjttfwtL-d by riiipson, TUv ubuiidaiicu ul' urnb!* in the 
cdb intku it prabiblc ihai urit? ai?M miilu fiatn il^n pholnsphtiic dr^am* 
fOddoD or ll)« pTKifdiiip cufl^lftbU r<iT]i|»^iir]il. Tbo Iflrjfv iumib*rr vf 
tocbfiv ia thv apporiYlufl ttdoubtUaa conn^ttcd witb tbd aoa»uiDpliQD of 
Mypu MTompuiying the pliemtrnMiA. 

MtitipHt^Hon cf Aforifttp.^yi. Mi-^in tv-tuilly r?ad ad impcHwit paper 
«tt thb *uHjf rU nbicb bn" Wu nljAlracUd by tliu " Acjulmny/' N<ii> Ui 
{wblHl j-i-iiriihl, W" ii-rv *iiirry T,» Wni, iH Iha lilfi^ly l>y ^ivh im AiTiLiUr 
ttMiWJUis tt« fiilufis i]umben.J Ui> lukv— '* Whonrc ci^mc ibc Uplon* of 
Kvid« wbkib unko tb«ir ftppv«ruico vvhli >aob japjdiiy m dvcompt^ung 
loldi, mh! vbnt boTiiriLJa of lbf»m whnn thdr vurk ct divL'iifiion ii 
MeanpllUj«d, And thuuiJktldfiHi vbich Umy ft^aii ja r«tlu<rt^ la ilta c^<rtdiUan 
ct ft Arj ytiwAcT 9 Hkw iirniLdiniiRi b** i^miubi, b«*B n<* «i(j|p* lu btnt 
tiifiD ttt>m ipotH ilMolblvd by f&iniiit>; l)ivy baii' uoi tlir^ AffillTy of lUiU 10 
■ftbt* ih«nt to ttodcTtAkfl long mi^tiocif: th«y Jiara toft intogiimoDt« 
vbkb funa but a luy aIIuUi pa^olocUon n^!Un*t txiemAl ogcnit Apd tholr 
lUUnirmtB «ni*mlAA; ibvir i^gi. rdfttlTflly Inr^, nTf not fujad In th* duU ot 
Ai atDtiM^ifv in compAny vllh ibv pAMt]4 of mouldii And lafunory AniniAl- 
rntm ; uxd t^«y do Dal |x>u«»k like tb« anguilLalM) rolifiui^ and lb? trvrdi- 
|TMdi4, thi> pi>cT'-r of rvtivini^ Aflr>r dMiomlioii. 1[cnc« thtry «J4 often 
nfvrcd ti Ik UliuUuibg Ibo carrDCtoua *t< tbm ^o^i by tbosa vba hold 
Ap dodfLQit of tpoiilAPtrjui (tn>'rrtLu>Ei. Hut, ni^-O^^r^ltnp to Mf^Uit vbAt 
fcippi iB in A colony of tyrn^ljpbu, whmt ibi^ privAtlnn of Ciod noATnt to 
^taadfH Lbtin fpVBdj de^truDtiorir t» lltAl tUI adult Aod n^J indirbdaAl* M 

«A lb« lAAdg bOKApod IaITIC dlc:, bbt ihc JOUDg Aod tbo OCtopodttA 

KmiLJUi acnxcB KvnEir. 

BjrcfUv ■» pMKTTvd- T%««* Ufidorgo ■ c^ia^e of form ukI bwom* 
«l(4JM«iUi AcuiruA which roaip]«td]rd)0r«iaNbulfttt^Miuo InneTvo- 
loctK tbcin ; Diorwrort ^''} (Lcquljn > vudvr hj whM tbny ma laablfj to 
adiiae* flrcalj to K»y punag <4j«cl, tmth u Uiai, fpid«r^ injhipoi*, and 
inwcuof «II kind*, <« croo t«> qii«drupcd4i b; wbichtLrj *r* tnci^oct«4 to 
pkicv iIjcj muM sevtT reach b; their o«rn oiUkHlod dfTittsL If tbtfj llni ■ 
vuilJiblo I«c0litjr, lu 00 A pung miubrocin ta tk mu» of dpoompoaag tt»1>- 
»uiT)ct» tbiT Uittfl KMrldao qiute Ua t«mporur luit and It* kypopkl foaa lad 
rMf«im«« i1j« ori^E^iul Ijnifljplilc uuo, Uodur Ui« Inlliianaa of 
fo«4 te nfUdly ^jplnrftt, b«coa«« * mjeuaI ftdult, «bd in rAnj-rigbt 

11^ L\ CbopinHDf in UNcoot fuptf U tba * PTfOfliodiiig< ttf Xha AoMfon/of 
^•tuml &d«no« of pyUdQlpliirL" He«»ra t)iM ih» dicuktloD of tlio 
uiri-n LiJt inij>rt«tirL|r pitcutUfiiw ia tl^ txa#mii;CT of lut pIiiiuMiy 
bfuktD^ up of tbfl brMrkud uid othor &rIflrL«« into rMt minaUirr Uf 
liltUibuLioa of tbo ortoAcf, tho mtetiOMtBlj «io t^o mo«t mnarh»bl«> Tfc^ 
AfA itomlopod, twUlod, Inuiivdd to nueTi ftn nitont, m to fivu tlic i|>pe«r*- 
ODO* «f ■ Urg* Uionc^B flud, lorDi«rlj to fact d««cribod u aod^ Dj tJiu 
■rrufoxaoot of tho uil9r«o«t«l aod othor artfcisa tbrtv w fon&od Urg* 
y<MTrolw af arkntUMd Uoodi enaUb}; tbc ajuuol iwdouh to wum *itb- 
iiU0|[«d tar long pcrioila of titntt. Tho dividing of tho lirKhial orltrj lAto 
cotaoroui bnoGboi b** toou oipUb»d bf tolbmico to tho ikoMacM of tho 
[f^toral daor oppiiToxtrvrtit}, but ibb diaCftbudon bM b«B ab««rvid in 
ccrUia Lomnre and otb^r aoiuule, ia vblcb tb» uppv oaLttVttitj ii vrall 

Thf AhrtiNfon of tKjt XfiP ymlarul Maj^^. — Thl« U Ofvuinlr a «Ml>ton» 
oigno. It i* ilottontiTid hy Mr. M'Uuhliui, whti, ia 4 rrcvf^l uuLal>«v uf tb* 
" RntouKilqfitt** Monthly MAgi^uiic,*' Li doacribbg QMijyMffr FTfiAiryMif^ 
» Kl«w g«nu« Hiul ipftcitfA lif Kphamoridn, frota Nov ZoAUnd, my* Utat dio 
cxlrurdiiiary abdom^o <^ tj;u ftnUBg ^OM*idor«d ftpatt «od wUb<>iit rojir^ 
10 i\\r. r<«L uf thi; bo^lj, ml^bt AlnoAt ha pAfdouAltl; mUtAkcD for lliAt of 
toaw MjnAfDd, wLitiDut th» 3e^ or of ft orostftGoiD. Ffliaal« onlr Lat* 
Wq (^«cvcrT«it Aiid till «^^ i:iitn •omo Lno^vdff* of lli* cfaArKlor* uf lie 
ninJev Uio nfEuIt^n muii rvtouiiL jomifwhftt uocaHaIu. Hr^ t^tva bo* 
pointed out ia hij M<>nogmph ua tbv Epbommdio that a UoAtincy Co 
\nl»rt} prHlacdoa of tlio tcnuiMl *cpasat» tif iLe abdooMC u ikovn ift 
jwicnl ffiffltinii liut tUu auiouiitftf oxpanjlon lildi«no hvcnm U biAnlMrfnwi 
eoinpwod witb tbat pr«a«at in tUa a«w fom, For aotiul AlfioitT n Uiia 
lupectoDo muitlook to thq aquatic fflsfrn cf Bomo f oinu i Aodiftlio amqi* 
tion hj UM, Jolj Ihal tbt* iD-cAlb?d gtriui of bmacbiDpcid cnuuc«A J^w- 
pitioma LahyiH* Ic^ At •ppaan probaU[4> lo roaiU^ imIj lb* «i|aaiifi 
QjoditioA of AD f^pbtmon^ iro kaic ia ilio '^Htnoclo 1 qiHuo cd pltuoot * 
tbA rcAfsst a^ljp » hr o« nv<^* Alidcinieol ftru^rUjr^ tJ> fy Wiok^fiddL 

IJm$ < JUHVHM 0/ i^flrrf ofiPoj^ .AwlU £C* fmi' *>'Mfj f— Aft articl» in ouc 
pmcDl uunW «hav> that lljof d» noL But «i3 l»r« aiUltkail *t idcoo» 
UL lUppcfTt of tfiti bdt« in tho fblbnrlng r*tiinrk>, vrliL^li voco ncMily madA 
to tbo N&lunil 3doD» AoadoDf vf I'failMJclp&U <!^t*mbi« rJnf ), by Mr, 
OoLJify, v^Ylv l^oa lacD MtaMoiog tbo umU of Firw avMoWoi. \iv 

8cns<Tino emvAftv. 




fbst Auilvhm, !n ^watblnir Ibo lUMt of Twto ^fiibrtru, J'vit. atSnna U 
"it pntlil^ cooaiMigWI «ai1 Af»i ta ft ]uirtiAll5 fDiiillA mHitior totman 
tv» tvip of A lorn yrtuih, on a brsocb rnnjiirjc: horiiootallj from ttir mMD 
wtMO, Mud fbrmed ulnni^jr of grmj Ikhvnf, sli^-htlj jici tu^clir^r, KSii lljinl 
«ilh faftrr-f ribt^j fltnn lb* d»r and nccoaLi," 3E]r «ip«TUinP« lioft hbtm r^mu 
diSprvnt. Ont of tht ntmj i»<"U which F bftr* Mfti nnd DxiLmiD4^, I 
CMQDOt nnll t tin^1« f{i«f Im?^ thm irill an^vt^r Co Ilie nbovL^ dvK'nption. 1 
Wo Itw qhU of ihia ffpvfwtf four jf which «m p^Hcotl}- imulAf ia fltnic- 
tBn ; lh« niBHiniac oMi Fonud of tbc culnu of « afcde* r>f .f iVk, cvueti- 
tntiig an «iPt^tinnat ctm, and thn nnty imn t\\At ht* ovur full^n muli^ my 
b0ti«c. T&«j (mail thAltow, loo** io tvit^m^M-^rc^LyKumTti^ th« maaoxi 
fur wUUh li«7 wcro d««ijri^< uid plaonl lwiw«ii two twi^ of n oedar or 
1 vuiplo uoi^ at A eoaiJdcnHe denjlon fKni ihfl graundp an n hrflnch 
■Mil]' bori»tnUl to tbo mm axu. Tbcy arc btutt ontlrolj of pliMtcra nf 
mIc flov^Ti of Ijitfmri pitUMtU^ which, hitTioif p«r£>rini\l Utrir nUutM^d 
fiDtvtion, (Sm Ihrir hmitBbb biie At tJ)9 T«rjr pifriod -vhfn tliey oui bf> 
tflfibNd. llBr* u oTidontly ■ ob*a^ wiibin % modontdl^ ibcrt p«jioJ, 
nolm^ brccu*rj by cilcrnal Cauj^a. TbU OuCMajl^ iq&t lAtrr tfruKri mil 
of lAabllitv t'l fJTWT^Tu iliit fAtniirttd T:]nt#<rinU, or « iiftJ>lN> £)r ibiIf-pr*<^>rrA> 
Id t^ CUM- of tb4 tp«ri«* iiDd«T eocundomtiuo, it cannot be denied 
iLo ut£n lanhilttx. without uulkcobat; pbpicAl c^^rt t^ protimi tbo 
of tb» ftfinrfMTunEicnrd nninifd', pnntPLitaTly in >nc-(iL-hnH wb'r* thty 
haro bMa cotop«^[|fJ ti) ritr«Ht btrfoeo tlu adfktico crf miuit mhj bftve beoA 
of ibe HUKA wbi^^b hfttc mdui;td l]i<« cbBiiKc I am mutfliaJ, ljowai«r, 
llut tt bm Dot bo4ii tbo loidtng ono, but that lalf-prDHFTfttioci Lm optfrntsd 
IB tbitf cav? for ipdividurtl and fAioilj Rood, Tbo Adfi|ilAtimj nf the coloitfv 
«f the femalfi bird to th« li^t^ of ttirrouadljiff objfcl^ dumg tk« ttylng 
pthnd of bcicbAllonr *n'l <bfl otUbliibmont of ooftftia r«««rablAna»i to 
(knulifer VTlrmnl i>bjcct<, arc I wo of the wa\> m wliicli It iiimnjf?At4 ilaclT f 
W .Vr*' Omfn'il-jM /nmi Titfk%tfit9.—T\u-^ '* AiiE;AlfL of N»itiiml IfinEwnf," fl 
Tcd, xik rw Slrtl^ c^>iitiuni ik jfrnul lrtTL»}j|iji>n uf it FEfiuiitn pupitr, tr Vtofiit^t 
KrmHtit on A rc^nrknU*' H^h hc]iiii;rltt;: t? tbo faniLly of the iita;);m>D)^ 
lUiCDf fT*<l bjr A. r, Fedcliiinkj>. la Um ltiii?r Siilr-ilnr, Id TurVlaUn- ThlA^ A 
Cab diflVn ^(H*.ily from ail tbo Unovm flpooiai of llio fi-nnA Act'ipDQHr, in ^^ 
which Itturua i< 10 rirb, and br^loDjr* t/> tbo t^niLi ^Vt^pAirAynfAuAf rstta* 
bliibed •0IU(^ itino a^ti hj 1f«rkdt Art n Nunh AincrirAn wnrgenn. Profuair 
KfaiAtt eallA tbo TurkUtAii H«h ^h /<"dli<?4lfltAoi ^ tbo tutiTo tiAbonairo do not 
coBnder it b^ha a dUliact Bpcclvj, but rtfard it aa o»1j thvjounjf uf th4, 
flCKi|FMn oTthi Ami ^9^ Tb«y i-vidnitlj cTn cblri in fv>7iwqiivJio» of ila uot^ 
eoallf inuQ <i(^ for tbo Utgovt of twclT<] qimaeeo e«ualnod hj ProfoMor 
Kaador was bat 8i inch^P Iod^, tcTum! ^f tbom bdog porfi.-ctV i^ntui^ 
l>r. f9ftDthnr, in a nolo njijK-aitnrl to iho inuijdaTlnn, r^markA Umt. thia di4- 
pvrtry U an ftdditjoaal miuTf«<t]iL^* itum in tUir avriun of laitAnc^o hj ivhiob 
Av ctoae Alfiaity df tbv Ncnh Amrritwi. Ni^rlh AoIaIec. nud Euiopon 
tanaa la prcncd. He quofi<if m mi ana1o||;ouA ciao Lha divoiory of 
AfiWui fInAtfj la tbo YintnkmDf , and addi ! " Aflot tbo diicorcry of 
lUa *p<civ>v that uf ii ScA|<hlrhyiJchiim In A«Li cdgbl have bwu fuK«M]i| 
jwl a* F antbdpAfA vilh rrPiiiUancA tlio (t&voriiry «kr a nADDid in Botdvo." 



raMoOjr ^l$«yrmii by TH. Tbattdom OHL Tha imXf t9>vn fpadnHt ^ 
tK« D*v tr^ wM obukMd f^n * pc^id at HaM^Mrl, MAin«, 4uHftjE tbo 
nionlliarADrwIrbjaii feltAcU f Dr. EdwKrU I^Almttf > of tli« C^mokikiaer 
of t^fthwrii^ i Prnfoab^ir lUiid), ud, notvilbtriniln^ ih« niaidnrxii KtUntko 
of iht commlflUoiiaT nad hL* ■c*fi'r a* otbor *|y<tin<*M ir<«D fc«i>d » U muMr 
tUerf/on, W *£lLin]]j tt rvrj nn ttAi, cc (whnl t« lavrt pniinbAe io wicii 
CMAi) pomUEur 1(1 IVt luitiiut, Mkl mrAy rnntntf «ilhis |h« nuig« of 0|Mff»* 
tLirms or t^e fiohi^nun. An ftttcntitv Dimuiaalicifi «nd cocnpuisoa of Uiw 
BpMUu witl ibo (?^;iriVir7fJWi^ fyrnyftwMM oT Europ*. Lndlou* ibfti U b 
ivm^f Dfd« v^th I)u1 ^SA^iH «nd vrlih lb« iVar-4a« «Avytf|A oT YunvU, hM 
num' rirnrl^ ftllird (^ tho tultffr. A* t]i^ JC*>^9 ^f »>w F^ tbe Sret tiMA 
iutMi]uo?d i(]|o ouf Thiuiji, n dw^rlptiuii cif Uib rhftrvLm> /cinmnn tj> mil lS» 
>p*ekii (g«wn^), Dfl wpll«idiitiaeltv««l tli^ Bawfa.-u («p*dte^ £«gir«&, 
butwoiiU &ot picw i>rintttv*l to tbc frAdcnl rtaJsr. 

of ib» UttT Inbaiirt cjf the ominvnl !4wi» i)«iliknttitl irppoAn la ** 11»e Ac*- 
donij- " fi^r Nav«mbcr Ut, l^TS^ which itb (ju>'itr» id par^ (tulj brcwff of Ka 
lopfrih, btil vn wlkll wn (Villi Indmln U nil. Tbltni^mnlr, ftj;ifi the vrtm^ 
nllu'Lrijf t^} dio WTifk '^D StdMjIary AniiolJibij " «^u TriLlcoi in tb* n«tiuui 
cif l^ro, on Ujo flr« <if CUp*fido'« d^pftttuio for Ntploi ; on LU Vft7 booM 
n^ii In ihu fQllciwieg 9^tjf ho dlfd. AiJiiitPb nf hit Urn Ijj ni!iiri iIa 
iJAuasuro u)d n portmit by lUtaK atp t(ntt».titd \^ \hi/t mantolr^ Tb# U^ 
grwpbical ddUcb eri^u^I; oppauvil b tli^ "Anbirv* ^o K J3iUiotb 
Unitrniillc ds 0«aiVve,*' bitt bj tfn^ rliHim of ihv ImTIf U npuUbhed 
mUb n fcv contetiatii. A very bnuf nk^uZ ol Ui« raemoor tujut 
bir ui^t of i^Acii. FUliul TfiiL a dettomliuidoD Lo ib^rouEbtj lAitcAifftte Hha 
itructUTQ of thv> Anndldv. but liting »t tJiO tiiH AtO^nvTi, CUfflrMo «W 
coaipvllvd U> tdoct AH Cbgoctcto wonn fat bb t««e4Mhffl i Uie r«4u]u of 
hi* iori^fitSj^-iilirtiia itppeitrvd ta n uuul oxhnuattrv tnil baNUti fully illuiuaicd 
KiOlM^rtpU : ^' Hliilinio^iiPbo rnti!nn'?hiU1g«D ttbnf d*o H-»^«tnma' A 
Kyoufu by ^o MC'iidn, bov«T'^ uoAbUd him M pu»l» Iw* i4Urli«* Mil 
fttnliorf nnd la the pr««vut mi-ca^ir bii giTn en thn ccuDut« fl]i4t««ij dC 
ivnnkl qiMdM of Poljdiotv vonni, lfig«fbfT with n diiCUHtpM oj th» 
tlon ^r tb« Ndprocal nfflai^ ^f tho lar^r frroup«. ]hUfty tUUflvr** 
qqIj bo LUTnLigatftl lu ibu UrinK AunpUdt, otbai* kglia ««rc heClvr 
ID aboholu *|imirL*nK Th* procMt ^ Auitlag tb« MctioM Md 
IhiMEj i» fullj do»cnbed| and mon (faso two th^juwrnj mcImM Vf n iuaJq 
uid iiuiiitti<fdT (km icmicnwi angunt^ of tUa iliuitr«tlaa> b«liig dnva finn 
KUmX HctiAruL Tho IbsUofiti irtitrcY a drawing bju b#«n inJid« up fnnn a 
coniporiKia of mt«»1 lectlon* I* q alte n». The ^itf Sjeloal d^nin^ v«ro of 
4 loipe aijti^ nod mrv nftofvnrdi roJueaJ by ihi* ptalfjigEi^* Tha admiCa 
ttnoturo <^ tha Ana^Udi i« duacnbvil umtef tbi foUoviif hvwdj : — llit 
cnticls i iho hypodcioi f <r cuIjidcoi» CdODoeliTO tMu ^ t^ sbkuIu l^vr« & 
tho SeM ; tA« ]i«rlT<«canl cBvky ; tbo drculaiory Myjileiii (onn of iJift fltnct 
ictOTMlug tad rritieuU cfaapum \n ibU vnrk) : tb* dii^««tiTo iptom; lb* 
n^jntmy opicci ; ib« nrrroiu ByiUn ^ aad tho «gnMiiUry oii^icM. Th* 
•zplMtfoion of ihfl piMM oompbii fbriy-Are pirft«h and fnnna « mnt tn> 
poftiaL portioo of tb* wKttk, Tbt vpooM lalMlod £3r ilEuUtttdD w*-^ 

Bcaanmc smiMiir 


/h^A»i^ IMMM JEwvom, Stytarwilm oiomii/nw, AwtoutHia jUtgtrm, 
C lkmi iapt enm wr u ^pmfa ftff , Aruia/aiH^ Tri^ptantt autanon, IJrandkiomv^a 

J)MtA 9/AA0ny Ilantwk, F.Jt.S^—That* bw hitrdl; I»»d it fUktiUAUiC In 
Ihcov ««ivatn«< wboao Ubourt buth ia Molo^y »nil (peolci^ry bar* btvi; to 
T»t nd amntruiu, ^nil nith&J bav« bean vnrnifll out with micb unBohv 
■iolMjv ft* ihoua of Mr. AlUny tlaaeoik, wbd pw«d ftway from omung ui 
«a OecbW Sllli U*t« nt ihc i^ed of nlciut Hxcy-e^^bt j«Mn. To dlit k lLJit<^ 
U» woriu would Ha mtirul^ vftln. Rt^^r/tiEin vrbu Ijm nt-t^n fUnceil ftt 
IDAkgy KiEiU U> f»imUiAT nflh ihnin^ uid llii* Umrnfid kn<:>w wHl hov acco- 
Wto and p^nnCA^cirijz th^.-r T«r«> JIu JifitiatyB ihtt " Geolo^jnfal Mn^rnnnfj/* 

'■wM^in Uifl (trjiuiio B™* ^'f '^'J tcnn, ■InguUrl J" nnoTcnifiil. .SoitmK- 

btUfLaod, lid loiod vNortbo^uairftBiiu CAn — ftnyrdld Im r<TmLk« bu puro 
untnliit'a worlc. I^tndiyniir i^rhii luiLiilnmil njuiiiafb«iS hj iho Aincweri, 
«D0Bnte ob«tTVBtioii. uiiJ ov*r moWl |uLl^rati4a of ncff and jin|h)rueit 
Ikto n bioUgj. Ui> "m^rk ap*^ Or iudf . but tbo vpIHl in wKlcb ha 
riiilp«d,ld«nten»lotcorXiiuirttrnr Wc^nMkos^^unaffiwledfthri^ 
frvB hoEuran whicb wrv f^vcvd up^n Mm. hi» lOAdinM* lo imuut hta 
koovlvdljio or to K^fi JtU ht^lp tc> tbu huiablosb bci|inner irtii> iTM vilUog to 
wA, Ilib Ure-lon]{ IVifrijJdLipb — ftU tb«a lEDat iiui plus amy imrseorded. 
Hay CttULOl pM* onrDj imrrtTtvrjibhirrid hy nvj oi>o nrtc knour hini.^' 

fbh<niic— tfAi'dh /Vriivwi tftr. t>iS.{yt('jim<Hl ttf Ptr^irjiiat'iiUr' I,*/*, — M, A, 
^ftttfimf' hft* pfrft-TiLhil jl |Lit[iHr nri thSu Au1}J*rt In llir Krimcli AriulHRiy 
("CoQBplO* EtDduD^" S^ptdiubcr StLt. He> tnya (hnt tb«n* luu jii Uul Ibreo 
^kiinct »lbikmcn<jid uJLEtfr> in lIio ivbJba «£ *vg«; lu iba ji^lK* buidn tbo 
■bTurjniiii. tpjuit iihln In vAt^r, thit>m ar« mo bAlk» mlubiA In ihju liquld- 
fii ■■iaiBJM tL«| ulbLi(rj«ii, g-'Utin, iofu^ii of j«Mt, viUi or wjtbout 
mtfu, may bfl pnnorTfd t««i]y b fr» coatul mitb ur. Cnnr ncd bln^ 
Vi ctuily prr«ntTbd by £rDiiio(« OT pbcnol. Blot>d li one af thc) liquid! 
wkcn biictoriii jtppfsar tha Ie«it TMdily. 

Tl&e Dftniapmmd'i/ I\>ii/p9.—'Th'ya\Mii3hvett taivsliirntvd fi^rsomL- rvHTifr but 
il h« noT«r liMin w^mplnti-ly mnrlo o«l (ill M l-nrnjitp-Ilritbior* dm n-ccnlly 
Aodiod ihc lUbjcct laoat cnrofully iq ifc crxirta of n icrii^i of cipariQicntnl 
laVMrcbflV whScb bi; curloiloulotilimiil t\m **NiU-tit1t" ti Ffiijicb^litp^ which 
W MBl by ibu Oavtftntn^ni fctr ih# purprrju at mnblnff uiiindli^yi*, Jtc 
«lM|r the AUoiD «aHt of tbe MfidltcrrnTLcnn. ThuiQ roHnrcbe<s wUioh 
hatw W«n Tno»t mlnuudy cutIacI uui^ ciplnla ibn wIkjIo ujjUUt nitb4>at 
doabi, KAd bara bi^tin pubUih^d 1<^ tbn F>^icb Arndi'my by tho niLthor m 
Xerraabvf C4th I&sL M, Ltcucl^utfiiv;? sMriuft furpri^ml Ibnt I'^ji^livh 
sMondJKs ilii>uM bATD tnuaiflcmlibo Mi'ditnTDiinui ■ ratlior b&nna «•; 
k9, fteeafding lo hU m?uiigniioiu, it it TilII «f rnnnnn lifo. The mvfiidr b 
mtthj of poniMl, fcT fn^m h nlanu «nu bv |^uthur<d tbo Autbor'i idciu. Ho 
WMiiUtt tbat tbi^ iibhiTrvMlijJJA liUbviiut nmilf: bnvi^ fnilofl bvicouAA ih«y^ 
not cMTto4 out kuflioi«nfly vtrly ; n\\\t. iwUa^, Iik iaIiowi thol it i« 
bj vrntchiDg tbfl embryo otop by >tcp chnt anyibing an ho doac^ 
WHfa xvfptM ta ili/^ t^ntiicliu hn tmj*t *• It ii tbuj tbut thti tmUda of 
ifflinie thbt fflift liiitU dlfpf»«d M ni0\JAFly, loraaciiiiH in tucMui^e cyi^lea 

'pcO: Oofttc&:tf,ODf the«Madtl:2 0fihftthirdf 34oftbtfourtJi, 


4S of tlie fifth aiie, are Ui from b^ derelc^ed fl at Hie fint epodi, 6 tt 
tbe Mcondf 12 at tho third, and so oa. The nomber 13 haa been prodnind 
at fint hy pAAsiDg fiuccessivalj bj the infeiior nomben 9, ^r ^ 3/aiidi IS-*" 
TheM and MTend other facte have beeo provedt say* the ftathor, with ** an 
ahaolule certuDtj/* for he hsa had the young polyp from the time when it 
^ru BwimmiDg about a» an embryonic glohe without on; diviaiona wbat- 

Dtaih of Froftwor LtmU John Rodoiph Affottk, — Tt ia with the decpflst 
regret that we have to antioimni the death of Profeuor A^osmi, the news 
of which has juat reached ua (December 15th). He wae a Swiss by birth 
and education, and much of hia ^^reat work was done in his European home- 
It woi not till 1840 that he left Europe for America, where be haa be«n 
almost evei sioce. XEe wae awiuedlj one of the few leading men in the 
sdence of Zoology, although he was'a believer in aeveral diatinct epedw of 
men, and a diebelJeTeT in Daiwin> grand theory of OTolution. Of hia 
Tarioue worts it is UDnecesftftry to apeak, for» with the exception of hia 
''Tour of Lake Superior" and *'A Journey in Brazil,** almoet all hta great 
efforts with the pen hare been mode in Europe. He waa bom May S8tli| 
1807^ in the pariah of Mottier, between the Idke« of Neofch&tel and Mont 
Id the autamn of 1871 he joined an exploring expedition to the Sonth 
Atkndc and PacLfic shores of the Continent, which waa his last eipeditioiL 
A careful exploration was made of the celebrated Sargasso-sea, and a nest- 
buildlng lish was diacovered in that raat bed of oceanic vegetatioD ; and 
other important cootributiona were made to natural science. Agossii 
received fewer dLstinctiona from European Sodetiea and UmTeraities than 
many leaa diadnguiflhed men of acieace. The Academy of Sciences at 
Paris awarded him their prize, however, and offered him a acientific prO' 
feaaorehipf which he declined. ITe ohn receirM the Oroaa of the Legion of 
Honour. Ilia natural aimplicity of character made him very generally 
beloved ; and one of Longfellow's poems describes him, amid all tha know- 
ledge he had gained of Nature, sUU at heart a child. 


^^ '»• '*•' -'■ 

J ,^, ^. ^* 


'or our 

t vivid 

V - IV 


• !•- • 



1 with 








-nn the 


tic life 



roup of 



hich it 

in the 

3 would 

to state 



Bt W. SAVn^LE KENT, F.LB., FJ5.fl,, 
Maocmt AMtnutT ix tub jr.inmxL nvToar ttm-AniumrT 


'BC AXkc *ul r< voUtl TpJ^ «Xi/rJc 'Afiftrp'if, 

THAT the E»>lid path of foclA occnsi'?iiilly viclds data for oiu 
conhiiUmliiJi), i-nimlliug nr rvim nurp^wj-'ing iJii^ moat vivid 
crcatioou ol tiction, i« ncaif^t^ly onywhm- no oiipabic df dcmon- 

Aa an lUosCration of the nbovc, wo m&y with (Toufideiico 
aoHTft, that no kingdom in faiiylitTKl wwf ever inve^ll?d with 
«licb ft woalth of form and beauty, a« hai: cf Ut^ ycAr^ bcoQ made 
manifnt to tw throu^lj tJ»o reTelations of t.Ue cnmpfixind 
siicio9«>pe. >'o p.^m-kiJcD for^t of tho •* Arabian ISiKiitu" 
eter giTW it[iob woadroii* Lvuig crystal trr^e» aa SoutihIi, uti|}f.'r- 
^wd hx the Tuiaidcd eve, in tt^ smillMt pool of bracluih 
watcv. Nofoiry banquet-tablo V!i3 ever bedecked with ornam'^nts 
of to choite and rsre dwgn u mi^bt be borrowod from tha 
exbaustletf store of «KqtUiitel; carved vaaes, eheatLB, i>i Itii^klr-rs 
whteh flbelUir from rEtincriion the slendf^r «par)c of myotic Ufa 
tt it exuU in Nature*:* hun^blest fonn.^. 

AMeDdiof; mpidly from the microfii^opic- Iv the iTcdigioiiti, 
wo find tb« Bsxue doctrine o^ually appllcitbk^ Ibougli nuwlictc, 
Mfbupfl, with liiich acruin\ibit£d force hh nmong that group of 
DCiBtfB which ArppHi.:! the titlo of this ccLtriliLlion. 

The pOttitioQ of tbo CtLltle-ftab in lb« scale of **Nntuw,"' 

iU fccxtcTJil *tnirt\trc a* a type of the orJtT to which it 
E, have alrp™lj Iwvn i^o admirably tiented upcL In the 
ptgN of this leriftl.* that a recapitulation of jucb details would 
b« ftipj:Tr^oiit, It b vufficienL for our preau^rit pcirpoHea to etAte 

Sanoi Bvrm. ^. nil, IWl 

II7 St.OtfOf^MiTftft.—PoFULAX 

poFCLijt ectsTics fijmsw. 

that tbo CxiUlo-fiebT m nutmation nitk tbo Calamuriei on S^uJd% 
luc n'r^^rriMJ Isy imturaiJjiU tu LliAt divuiou of ihc Oofih^opodoiJS 
(A«(i<£/(X>t«i) UoUnMiL t«rm«d the Doo&poda, all its repr««eDt- 
btivL-H lijtving t«iianKU wherewith to gnppLo foi and kuo iU proy. 
Two 04a of thorn arv vpocUU^ nKtlilufd, much longor thmn Uio 
rctlDBlaiJag t^f^U ^^ lechoicallj bemv^d ihf. tcnUuniJA, In con* 
tnuitftinoUoii to Iha aboiter and more niimerom app^bdagefl 
which iuv recugtai-et] tb the ordinarj orou. The Oiliniftnca or 
Sqiiid^ TouthKliB, arc ftutJiw distnffuUhod fr«m th*? ordioAiy 
Outtlc-fi*b, •Srpiodic, bj tli« greater length of their body, and 
mctc pt-tfi^t^i adaplaUoD, through the pocoeMtoo of larg[er fioA, 
for i%n ccBtcDtoally pelapc life. ADothcr importADt Aiutomkfll 
charactCTiiticof tW8grm»piHt,hnt, Ihn bnnjt, infj^nral, mlMr^ouB 
cuttLo-bone, or t^io^Uurf^ iji Lcrr rcpljjbood hj a narrow, honi7. 
iDonr or l«Oi tnuuLparmit, ''im>t)," <tr gtatllirM, whicb, in dvobotia- 
tioD with the lariccly d«vdop<?d luk-bofs of those omttmia, haa 
B«ciired for thrrn the popular luid not iniipproprl)it« title of 
^* Pen-and-ink ''Ji*h- 

FrfiTik litiLc iiniii(!nicin:i1 InixliMon hiu ajAugnivt ta crrtaii] 
rocmhcrc of tliij^ CaUmary Lri1«> proportions »o f&reioecdiag 
tho«e of HM)' atkthenrlcAteil rcprMEDtatlveof tho Invert^brftLa, or 
indeed, with tho i^icc^tion of tbo whsle^ of tlio wbolo aninoftl 
IcingLlom, that litUc or tii> crcdeiicic in tht^ir cii«t47Qco bu been 
plncod by n3odi>rQ mon i>r itoicuco. Yd, actwitbrtaDdiog 
tlie birict? i^ltjUt to wbirli 1it4:t juid Hc^Ltuii liarcf lumloulitnitj 
been bl'*i]i3ed tc^ther in the eoiUer aooounte haadod down to 
11^ tljc rvrnt* of tbo liut few months have fuppU«d some moci 
impoitiuitli&kttc a hitherto vDrydiuoonnuctcd ohuin of orvtd«oce; 
tbesQ links eatablulunjc ia a rt<markaljle nunncr, ami bojood 
mieiCion, the euKtenn of Cepbalopodb be-toofpof; to this f^toup of 
tDcmoTt formichiblc dimciLsions. IJeioro eDteruigt bowev«f * ufiuD 
the «ubj<*c*l of ihii latent ftvidcnctf, wo prcpoo to gir<i a bn«f 
rariew of the poaitioii in which wt* prcviouxtly «tood in respect 
to our Imowledge of th^ee ocean moDstere. 

Aristotle, Pliny, ^i^lian, (Hrabo, and other ancitnt writ<?nc, 
artf TuutnimoTu in muddling to tho Moditemneai] wnters rho 
pnaMrnoc ot i^f^auUc (^phalopod^ ; nnd altbougb in miuiy in- 
KtAnt^pAthfTJr biRii>neB sue abimuled in & tiwoo of &bUiuid ox- 
iige^^ti<>Ei,i'(^<xT&tdisoo7oi7con^i«Id us to Admit that inc^ 
linthililitv. hiui »rkTU(< founfktmn in the solid ^ound of fkota. 
Pliuy* iij p:Lrtio(thir, relates n naiTative of ooc of tbcM crcaturte 
<1pHiTof >.*d 111! the cJiaHt of Sp&En by Tn.4iiift Nigi*r, a Ititut^mmt 
acting ill that country for L. LueuDue* The head of this 
Uonxtcr, wbiub wm pmmrri »vnd shown to LuuiiUtu, w of lbs 
riie i>f a caak, and <mu ot tbo arma i^ tCatcd to have m^'HHtffd 

thirt]r feet. Two of Ui«»e anns, tbo Iniit-tiiuneH being doubdeflt 
one, are recordod aa of much greater length than the oUterSi 

GIGi5nC CTTTTLft-riAlt- 


(liviflioti of ihi' OiiliimaiTiet). The duckom ol' thu DpcL^iJitcn 
^[ilxst by VMny m re8em1j]iDg HUfill b^JtkH, mid no 
on bcinff tiiiuic of cbwe or hooks in WfOcintioQ wjtli tbcm» 
Ljr Ik flirt hi?r infcricd thfti UiU tcniUo motuicr wiu more 
« Uas Moaelj oUivd lo Lotiffo and Ominajfrffp/***. TIjo mttunf r 
b which it is Huid to have diiveii ziway tlm doga hy lUe Urrur 
of iu bfttith, and lo hav** iiaud il* formidiibli' nrmt lui clubs 
V^tmL iu iiggrc»(jtB, iHtftrr? it w^u linally o^ erpiiWL^rf^<l ;kEi<l 
detfpotched 1^ rpcar^ djkI triJuots, with oUk-t eilniurtUiiEry 
aUribuM weignc^ to the auiiualt ui^uesfiarily U^r ou l^tir ffico 
tli» ftftmp of «xagg«^mtii>n. 

FrocD the Itomnn period iinlil the coniDQCiicomcnt of the 
■w to teenth cwutury nnd t!io s^jn^uJiug of learcEng And dvilUii' 
tiMito tbi? Qortlu-TD and wtsitrn RUiee ofEuropCt no record of tho 
«d«t«Dce of ihp99 mighty or^an monsters appearv to h&ve b««n 
prescTTcd; Uit fVom this Jutter rJnte up to tJifr pre ecu t time, 
ve fii>() much fnitf military nnil di8:?£>nni*cl*Hl evident-'i? for con- 
tukrvLton. Tho dtwp fiarda and rock-hound ccia*t-lme of Scan- 
lUmvia ap|)«ar to have been a more th&n ordinnrily favoured 
reaort of Eoanj varieties of largo CVphalopodu, and heticc it ia 
that func?iiig th« Soindimivinn legends nnil tniditionn wh fmd 
IWM>ci«t<Hl the wildcat fahrioitioDA t^xtant concerning the imbit* 
pr«portioDa of tbeHr; aikimaJs. Tn the year l€S!> we L^ve 
Dticatod record of a gfigoutic cephaLopod captured on 
c)f ZrtJjuid, anil of nntither of ci>Io»ul1 siy^- ati'R.riilEil od 
in the Qtdi'vf Ulwaiigcn, in 1680, Tliia lust ex- 
■np)^^ wliirli 18 jiutlK-iitie^ilf^d hy Priie, appeam to liiive been 
■ Urge Ponlpc*, or Octopus ratlier ihan a ten-nrmcd CoJatnory, 
smi ptolably onr fiiinilar to this suppliui the muteriid. out of 
tthich that roo«t torr^ble and prodigious of mouBters, tho 
*' Kr&kefit** wim produt:H[l a ct^uliiry uarlici' by Olaua Mttgoue* 
Amhbiabop of ITp^l^ followed kry Pontoppidaa, Bifhop of 
B«rgent in 17^4. Tbia sLupendoiie production of hiitnan imii- 
^nation vjuilctcribcd a« refcmhliDg an ordinary Uutopu^, hut 
of such (TUEuntic tilic that a w]io1r? regiment of nddiiTA waa re- 

C'A to have be^D able to execute maTiceiivrcH *in its hat^k< 
Utic of the largot of LiviDg qeiliiulIj}, *' da4 gntmtU Thier 
m tUr If*/*," WTM givc^ to the Kmkcn by Pomtcippidao, who 
fivtbcr reJatoi of thiii fonnidnble moii«ten *^The Norwcgioa 
AilMraMn BOEa^times ^grf iinaip&oted aballowH whrn a nhort din- 
tawo out &t loa, ihe depth Boddenly diroini^liitt^ from on<i 
'«d bthomv to t^enfv cr thirty, Tbrn they know Ui4t 
Kfnk«a i» riatn^, nnd immcdiiitcly rt^trcaU Hie l)aok tiret 
^ipevs, loohio^ like a ftumber of unall Islandi ; hii^ iirm» riii;e 

EO&stA of a vessel, nnd oic tuid to havu 
man-of-invr :uk] mill it to th«? ItoLiom.' 

poxrr logniup 



f I 


POF0LA1 Bcmcoi smnr. 

'^'ith similar UD#craputotifii<;K(, FoRtoppidan firrt piTO^ 
Urn vtory of thf! Sea^r^qM-nL tail laany uthor nuriiut moaetnMd- 
tic»f Biipportm j bill deAcnptioiu bTiUuUntiuutfcf'rtairtf r]cri>-fsf 
from Ilia Una^naUoc. O. Mngnnn vritM of tb^ Krukcti in 
oorrcflpQiiding t€-nuf,*<«imXwywi intu^ ^tuim ^Mikr*" l-a(tt 
on tli« nftme of Dimin ilf? Moitli^rt npp«Lr« upon tho flcpnf>, ai>1 
he, by fiillf rndcniiiff, with (^nmtfT exafnccr&ticmf, tbc fabLo of 
PonUjppitkii jLnd O. Magtiti^, only rendered pn^vioii:* coiifunoa 
iroTM f4>nfoTtQdcd, and hid tiehiad o yd mor« impADctmble vdl 
of my^ti^ry ttiLitj Hiht nf iliTiriarkaliDti lH<twn^n tnilb nnd flct[<vi 
which di^nbtton oxiutL^d at thi^ outdOt. Tio adoption of theto 
fiilili'."* hy Tiv MiHttrurL waa tlur uiortT jieitiatuii.i in iU rffitcitu, 
on acv^ount of tlio rfiputarion h^ hnd acquired ub a DatumlUt, 
ami till? iiJCMiifi^ i'i cniiliilrncp vnih wlilch Uw cirvHoiw of lili 
inv«iLtivo iiAfi^nutioD wera oOD«oc|ti^atLj acci^ptnd. KrcD 
LiniiEriin v-aa diH:eivi?d lij Ui« dMCriptioax tit" tbe KniLrn« nnd 
f(ive0 it a plaoe under tli» thlo of ^«7»~<v numvownu>f in l>otb 
hitt *' Pauoa of Sweden '' and the fir^t edition of hij ** Sj ^f^nx 
Naturie/' A lac-i4tailv of DcrJK do Mantfbrt'i mo$t sotUBtiotiBl 
rcpjTAcntatioia of tliU creatiirc* iu wliicli U^c monvter is por- 
trajftd n4 ovoi-powering and dn^ng to dc«tnic4ion a tbreo- 
maMed vt^fiMU will ic found in .^Ir. J. GwjnJvffr«7a* cxwUjmt 
** Manital of UritiiK (Vmcliolftiiy." vol. v., p. 148. 

Enir-r^ng from the cloud of dati1>t unA my^tcij nUicH en- 
ftliroiuli! thi* hbi^ry of the Knken, ve now approach ih*» firmer 
atandiuiE-^rcujid cT modem record and iiaveatixJitiot]. 

Pornetty, in his **m*toiy of a Voyage li> \h& Malouinra 

iahalntin^ lIu* tot]th<.-ni seas und kiti>wii to th« cajlnn in tUvM 
partHundtT the UUl' of Lho "ComeL" Molina, in hU •* Natural 
Hifetojy ftfChilJ," n89, uipiiortft th** Kt^T^^mtnta of PemrttT, 
and romLurk? of one Bpcok:i iahnhiting the Chilian Stacs iSciiJKt 
fvnirTi/f'i, ih^it it WRigltK ab hiitft 150 Uhu 

i'cron rclaU-a an a<^couat of a )ari^) CalanuLiy ob«crv€d flo«t- 
Ingtii t!it>it«>igbl>our]ioodorVaiiDieiu?n'MLaud (»uehi:«*^Vr>yngv 
toSouthtral^ndf^" L8£4). Tbobody ^^fthi^mon&tcritfdc&cnlxd 
iw ri'sr^mlilin^ a njwk, and ita largo artiin to hnvi* |KV£«ntMl thv 
appctmncc of tmonnouit enakM vrritUin;; tipon Uio »iurfu«c of 
Llic waiter. TUt; leDgtU of U)«ee aiiu--< U ^ivt^M ;u Ixrtw^a A 
and 7 a,,wUbadiaBQot«r of Tor $iC0* Tliia croaturo was pm- 
lubly a large Poulpn or Oct^ipnf^ 

Quoj and tiaiuard fuioith ud, iii tlicir "^ Voyof^e of Uic Ura&imt* 
in llio nune jcar^ 1824* with udditioiutl valLuMi' rvJdnioe r^ 
lativi^ Lo tbie MhJ9cC; having encountered in tic Atlantic, tkbt 
thi^ l^juatiir, the d^bri^ of an cDormona £|ii.-cifi>rTb. \\tc gmtl4*r 
poriir>n f>f nhi(!h^ iDdudi&g Ih4> UnUodaft, J»ad already be<n d^ 
voujcii hj tljc abarka and aca-birda ; Uiat ivcnainuig wiui «M<« 

cicAKHc crm-B-riar- 


maM tc V(7i^h 100 Ilw*, and a large portion wnr fiocurvd aad 
iJrpututfHl in th« ^{ullcty uf cozDpnjativr Analomjr of t)i<; Pahs 

A species of the unctDutod CAlaiuariee (t«iitaclo4 pfovideJ 

nitb hixikf on w«U &« RUckor«)4 JSuoptctiuthis un^HieulaUt^ tbe 

i£util;i£rJ body of which tow foiind floating m tln^ Houtlj Scm 

bf Ba&k« and Solander, duricff Cook** ftccoud voyage. ivfi« fbr- 

wdod to the MuMum of the ilo^al ColU^i^o of 5urgeoQK» 

London, nnd tUtr* ncuninvd 1>7 Prof. Ovr^n ; it wbb estimated 

bj him to h^ro heen fvMy ti ft. l>M>g wbca pcifcd. The 

■Atiwtt of the- Polyn^tian Ift!«i^ vlic di^'v for uhrll-lTKh, iira 

0Ut«d to Iiavc a tfcU-fmindcd druad cif UiIh formidable apt^ies. 

Tb^ l&Tgpflt CBjamary of whicTi n i*oinp}etd ^g\ira and de- 

teriptioa ha« been pubU»bcd, ocmrs in Dc Tcrunac and 

D'OrbdgTJ3''i« magnifimTit. mcicogrHpbiirtlw-AcrtJLbuktwJ (>pliii- 

lopod&t tiiS'l. undiijiumtidOriifiuuttj'ApfiMifif/antcUii, Tlte total 

IvDjfIb ci tliis animal h ^veu tu rarher leas than 4 ft. 

In 1^1 aCoIoLcl-Smithcommimiaitcrd tothcsccoDd moetinU^ 
□f tb<^ Hril.ihb Aum^initoii, h(<-li1 iif. Plyitimitli, n dtnt^ription 
ot'MfYomt tri^mc^tii of ii^j^untic CuttLc-ti*h picforvcd in tho 

Al the louDioQ of Soandmavian n&tnmlUta at Copciiihfiffoitv 
In the year 1847, rrnffTf^ur .S(' 'UBfTiip cootiibuUd a record of 
two tne:iuit4c ccpl>rL]oyK>di>, captured in tbo Timr* 1631) and 1790, 
p(i i\n\ catkHU of /,['i'^mcl, Oil' first i>f whii^li Idlb ln-ni nlni^iily 
aUudrd (o; end luttt on, in IH5i>, supple miai ted lln>ao obiorva- 

timif with vjiiii? rrr[ii!irkKof li't^h iji1«fti?F^t upon Hiiutlirr FiperiiiitriL 

foand at tho ^ka**, Jutjand, id thf* year 1854, Thie last 
cxiUTiple WM mt to pien^i by the fiAhi^num lo bait tbi^ir tines, 
thi; dJiimeiiiboTi^ body fumiBhinji^ laany bnrrow-loadir, or in iti 
voUrt- cuiidition, uLvunlitt)^ t<i miim? wiit4?ns AllJu^ 3 lar^^e carl. 
Tbo ptiary&^c of this monster, which with lU coataiDcd beak, 
•ijtisUod in bi^T^ an lufaDt'tf head, vra* imfoitunatoly tiic only 
"poctjon of tlic atiinml pixttorvcfd. ThU, hc>wev&L^ with tbe roocid 
of Qw two exiunplcpL from Uif ntri^lilicniring; i^Uad uf ZeeUtid 
jusT m^tioDL-d, «iipph(fd Prolojvor ^t^euetnip with material for 
tho iDftiLutiDn nf Iub new getixis Arohiteuthi^ ; be, accordiDg to 
CroflM and Fiecbor, beetowinj]^ tipL>n tbi» spocieaof which tho 
pbnyox waa prcKTrcd the title of ArckiUnitkia du^^ and upon 
that ropryieott'd bv tin- two example* rvoorded aa captured In 
tfa« ytriun 10311 !xui 1790, tie provi^onal one of ArchiUtt.tJ\iB 

U. P. liariinc pnblicfa':;^ in the "Mrrocim of the Royal Aca* 
demy of Amtrrtnrdnm ft>r 1860." a dt'scriplion with *igiir« of 
vanom portioiu of aomo very Ur^fi cephalopoda cootained 
Ib the muaeam of that town; tlie beak of oD<> of theae, mea- 
vurug nearly &ve inches iu Icnij^th, incluiliug muscular 




FOPULiV miiics VKTiSir. 

Kwkrtf hu conjufI«ni to lidoDff iti m apedes ld«iit:Al with Pro- 
foi*or SU<iustni|)*tf Archit^utSis dti^ 

Tlie mutfULed cun.'^ufs of ft liiige Cutlk^flih wwt iitT&iu1i?il In 
1860 or 1861* between HiJiFwiflk and ikollovniy on tbo wc«t 
C*i:niKlH nf Scnllnnd. The niuitlr<«aG nMflUiurrd 7 ft* Icuig, thn 
tontnclua 16 ft., and tho orAinJuy oraat lulf that ka^ ; ono 
r)f Uti' ^uirkt'rv t^i.tininedby ProlVvaor AUdud vaiklliree (|Uftrt«rA 
of an iucL in diameter** 

III Dciiml-r 18{J1, \{. 11ouy«T, coioiainiiiuit of tlw? Frmdi 
Gor\ctio A U/^t^j/i^ tiiid 31.tieiljtn BerLhetot^ Fftmoli CoCiiul at tbo 
CMiary IsUiid^ eotnmttiib^iU?J ui lLr PaTts Academjr ot 8cieiioe»t 
through ]^L VftiLlaut^ Uto dee«riptioD of » p^i^ntic Calauuvy, 
encountered by tbat Tfesd bvtwccm the iBlan^in oi Mjulotm am 
Tnnt-nffts Thin mcnrtirr vrim fotind tluaLin^ ftt the ^Uifooo of 
Uiir K^trr ulidul' luid-iUy, NorcniliETr 30* of ttm mjho jrcAr, and 
tht< vf-isel Leiu;; ttopf>tHl, immediate hleps vere tftken to effect 
its c^ptnre. A volK-y uF buUetcj which wm Krst dischAfgisd into 
it cntupd Uir Haimal io pliitign bcmcatb tb<» i^bip; appcAriitz 
^hortty afict on thr otnhcr ride, it waa attackd mth boto 
harp<n>na and tiit'-arin*, neitlivr of which, LoweTer^ append to 
tu^ much iiaprttsioQ od iU soft yicldjog Besh. After diviDg 
beneath th« mrf&od and r««ppming ktvi'rlI timi^i:, oni> ball 
»tnjck it with marked effect, the crtdturt' innnedintcly dia* 
charging a qimntity of foam mixr^ vritb bloMl, and af tho 
sojne tunc & vtronif muakj odoiir m adc tUcU patoptihtt* to ail 
on boHtd ; Che flailon vrtre nuwt sjik'^oiie to lover th^ boats nnd 
cafry on the attack at cloeor quarterfei but Captain Konycr fo^ 
bule IhiH, fi';inng thp cTeRtun>'fi pow^Tful anun might aeixe 
€apsiM ifamni At thix point a ncofc waa vuecestfiiUy cast 
tJiie aslmal^A bodj, btit owitijf to tlie HinuoUmei8 of thtt lati«r| 
ftiled to tighten upon it until it arrived at the poFtetior ex- 
tremity, just where llie broad erp»inling titin t/Jok their origin. 
EflTijrU were now made to hoi«t the monntfr upon dcvk* and the 
grf^LiL[*r [Kfrtioii of iIa body wna alroidy uut af [Jie nHU-r* when 
tho DDovmouH 'ffxiiufht cauwd tho ru/pt to cut the animal com- 
pletely through ; the posterior part with the finsww bio^ight on 
board, but tiw rMnoLDdcr, with tho hood and anxui diicapp«ar«d 
beut^tb tbK wa«n^ and vmsi tint anfn ng»iii. Allo^lht^r llie 
cbafle ^fUsi thlA zaonatar bated more than threoboura; thodura*' 
tiOB of Uie advecitiuu tflviug tim« fur one of llie afljocraon boardt 
M. Rodolph^r to nuke a hasty akdtch of the acon(>, which was 
cubmitl^^ to the mctnbcnt of thr^ Aciulemy wiLli UM. Baitj'rr 
and Berih«Iot*dac<?ount ; a fio«itnili> of tli« aime U reproduced 
to occoniptmy tbi» ariktE^, Oti& drcumstaoco of not^a in aaso- 
ciatioQ with M, Jtodolpbo'a dnwing U Um Don-roprotantatioa of 

* Owya J«fi«p^«'BiitUC«aAbokfy/mLT^^ IHL 



Ife two lonj^T tcbUcuUu It U mpf> tkat thn unimnl may 
KiTc pr«Tiou!ily lost Lbc«o in a conflict wilh stjine oUici montUT 
oftbe d^p; it u ^u^lly probable^ however, that they bufl^ 
d^vo pn^ihljculorly in tbc T^tcr, imd wcrs tfciu lost to ftight, 
■ podUOiii wMch lht**i orgmai invftnubly luwum^ in th« duller 
SMtubarB of the ^otip wncu «x1iaiut«d or ji^pproochintc dimolii- 
U'ciD^ Thk> kiifjfth of ihia gigantio Calamary -vim intimated 
hy tLc Dumfroiu witnesfce of the eDgflgemf^nL to Ixr about 
30 n^ af which botvro9ii 18 niid 20 l>oI^ngv4 t^i t,li<r body 
coly. MM. CiXMMi and Pucber, the eminent I'Vcnch coq- 
cIioL^^bU, wen so ntiided with the accuracy of M. liouyer'n 
40ooimt and the drawinf; that aocompanied it, that th<-y h&v6 
uitcr rnpmbliahed tbr iViTnur in tbm ••Jonmul <!4» Concbjl^ 
ikitof|:ic,' for l^l>2» ticvtowioff upon tbc animal tbc namo of 
Lolit^o Bt>ufftTi, iu biwiour ol the vptritMl commander of ibo 
Tienel. Aa imfortuoutely do portion of tbia speoJuen waa 
farougtit homo, it !« imponible ix> nfioerlain wbotbrr it was 
id«DtiGAl vitli cither of tbc species of Ar^UmUhi0 pri^viooidy 
iiuftiUiti-tl \iiy rrofcjaiir Sicfiistrnp, cir wiLli tb*^ Newrinnnilftnd 
iorma ihui \i:t uwaU oar notioc, Nclwithtilanduig iJiic Bt.'riouB 
dTanba<:kt t[ie trfiEitrihuLiDn to our knowledge of th<^h4r gigan- 
tic CuttlcKE^ just dtod muet be rocaxded na oso of chn tuoet 
ootuptrt* wc bttvo yet oniunerabsJl To the diinouaitniN of 
tlio tnimnl already given, it zaaj bo added that tbc c<olour of 
tktf dvaturp vitu hrlck rnl, it» loiij^ fuHiforni budy wuh ri<- 
nuukably thick towardi tho ooctr^, the «yes of enormotu fbe, 
fiieclf and gha-^ly to Ulioldf and tb»? finx at. tbo poitarior 
txtrcooity rounded, Hctby, and vcrry large. Lonifi P^guior, in hii 
^Oonui WorM," rntlirr liringtt discredit upoo tbc alxivo accoimb 
bj tx^gjicniinfc tkiv pruportioi^d of tltis Colamaty in both hit 
text and iltuntnition. 

We now arrive al iha^ portion of oitr e^-idonco which may be 
l^;arded aa of a more gratifying naturr th»n any y<?t brought 
fisnrard i nnco, by a record of the actual eapturu and pre^erva* 
tioD of the animab tliemaulvei!, or the [QO«t important portions 
of tbemi it places n£ in a poaition to pCKitvvt^ly <h^n(r the 
degree of affiiuty exiting between certain of thecw monRtcrs 
y^pl tb« numcrouK smaller reprcdcntativea of tbe group with 
^^Bich wc were preifintuily acquainted, 

Within the lajt few montha^ n* i^, pf^rhnp*, njrwuiy more or 
leaa generaUj known, a conaidcrobic scnnation lia^ lirct^ caintcd 
throdgbout tho •cientilic world by tbo rt^port froni Newfound* 
land of a gigMtbio ccphaiopnd, lately Erneounterod by two fiaber- 
in the neigbbourbouU «>f Conoi^ptlon Bay, a t^nlju^le of the 
19 £Mt long being secured for tbo tSt. John n MuEciun. 
■tOffy of thia advertuTc, jw tohi by thr li-^v. Mr. Hiinej', to 
irtiou WG arc abo indebted lor thu atept tfikcn to prwervo this 


ronjLAR Kies^n iKTrsir. 

ranti^nble tentaoto, m&f be briefly stated so fi>llow«:— Oa 
October £<, 1873, while two 6fch«rm«rD from Su JoliaV were 
pljing tbcjr ^"00111100 off tbo o^tt^rm end of U niU B<^Uo 
Co&oeption But, tboj dctorJed, lit & abort dutaooc &cro 
31 dark ifaapel«««iiiaBa floating la th^ wai^r. f.WcIndinff 
llwu A bolo of goods. poaubTv & portion of tho cir^ of 
vrroickfd vcMot, Uw mfii rowed op to it« nnticipaltc^ a nltia 
prisOtBA^^on^of thcmftmclctlk^objrci with hii lioit-book- In 
on inift&iit Hie dAJtlc mam became AnlniAUxl, uiid upenbg out Hko 
a hu£v umbfclla, di£plA_Ted to vicrw a pair ci piomiiK dI ghaattj 
grw^rtpyenof iTiormntiAcfxA, whirhglnred at tlxint with i^ijioiyiat 
^rocitv,it« hugoparrct-likcboak nt ilic mmctiiiiroprDii];^ in a 
Uivof^ ami UirMtb-Jting ni^tuiirr. 'rhi'mrii uvn- mi tr-rnti^-il liythu 
torrible apparitifwi that for a iDomciit tiiey wtre uuaLie iw filir* 
and l>efo-r& they oonld recover ibeJrjiiL'i^enrr uf mind sufficJeutljT 
to imdoavoor to lonlco tlioir «»»pc, thft monetor, now hut a &v 
frd frnm tliff bmtf Hhot cut frutii arnitnr! it novt:^ Icitig arini 
of conpae-Uko StfuhiocM, and i^rupfthu^ for tliG boat. EU>uf!hL to 
t-iivt-l>p it !d tleEr livki fivldH. Twiv rjf tbeao reacbed IbecnA* 
aai ID oon^qfienc^ of il? ^r^t^T lnn|rth, omo w«it compl«ta|j 
oTcr nnd 1i^j~i>nil iL At thit uioin(Mitf tinr of tti(< iniTii^ by 
namt! Thui>phUiu Pioot, foriuiutL^ly recovciud tis*m hU fright, 
And M*ixiitjc & liatdi«i tbat buppe:ini to be oai board, Micccwdcd 
Lv a d«porat« effort in ieverinj; both tbMC aruia. On ^ndinff 
it^L-lf wouaded, tLo animal oiored ulT baekttiudi<, at tbe eanM 
tim'^ d:irlc<>i2in^ ihn \vittifT with Uainliy trntimont^ aod pTMontly 
WatDR Uxt t^ nif:ht lieiic-;xth titr Kur^^.rc at tUf. wnvm. Ilia 
ntupiiutt^d ancQ* which were left in ibe boai av ti^piito* of tbo 
terribto caci>mitej> netv broughl to 8t, JohuVt aucL tbroucti tht 
vmergy of Mr> Hnrrey, thp lonfjer ire wa^ i«cui«d for tbe 
Tnii.icum, the shorter of the tW'> hAvin^. unfortunately, been d*- 
Mtrin-Ml l)cfore ifi value va* kocvu, Tliemme ^ntlcMcim, who 
Vis ihti first to cKiuniae arid dcdrribc thin sercrrd limb, fouitcl 
tbnt it meAsuied no Ime thaa 11> ft,; a larj^ poitioD, 
€ ft>, had been defltroyed bcforo Mr< llanvy mctied it* and 
finJiprinen htmg of opinion thit at Irtut 10 mote yitrre 
attached to the mon^tcr'n IxKly^ ihn total lc!ti^th miut hara 
been very Uttle rfjort of 40 ft.' TIk* description of tbi* Itnb 
by tho JIov. Mr. Hanej <'irtii'ely bfara out his own opinion 
that it. was on^ rtf th** two longpr afmn ^r t^ntarnla r*f & huge 
CAlamary, and ia ihiw girca;— "* It rnciwunxl Id fl„ i^ of a 
imli? pink colour, entirely dirtiln^noiut, lau^h aofl pliant aa 
lealhtff, and very iiitronir. It U but SJ in. in oircmo- 
fcreiioev 03ceq>t tcvardit tbe eitjvmity, wbi?Tv !^ broadeiu like- 
BO oar to 6 in., and then tapew to a pretty fine p^^iint ; tbe 
under mr&n* nf th<T «»Ttretn1lj U cohered with sucLi^r^ to lb« 
very poiut. At tJic cxtrema end tbcro ia a duster of ctnaQ 



GtaA»TBC C|TTTLE-n*n. 


fuchm* Willi finoiih/irplprth round thwr vtlgrs, itiid Imving q 
Qwcnbnui? Htrnteh<Hi tu-rofM eiiL^b ; of thriuf ihcra nrc about 
mmlj, TIh^ came Iwu n*ivs of vfry ]ur|C<< ^iitiltrni. lhl^ mnvpL, 
ahfe di»k of «acli Ij in. ir diam^teT, tW caH.iIu|];iD[>uB riuc; 
not being dflaticulaU'il ; tbw*c are lwt-Q(j--fDui in iiuiiiWr, 
Aft« tl)M« thore U anotlict Rroup of unclear* witli dcntit?i.ilatc«d 
ftlgrfs nmilnr t» tho timl, unJ 3lH>tit< fifl/ iti luiinlx-r. Along 
the under iurfoco about forty iDori> ^mall suckor^ oro diii- 
trtbuted at inlefvaUv making in oil abcuL 180 auckt^ni uu liifi 

Bofptcting tlic dioKUsion* of tbc ho^y of this cuonnous 
cVMitmx? tk« Ibbemicn appflur to have Iomi too i<^m(u<i nt Uio 
tittfi of tli« exkcouuter to form a corri^ ^.^Atimutc. According 
Id their stat«m^nt it m«MniT«d do li>Ha tbiu^ Co ft. in Ifnjvtb ; 
Wi ulatclTobscncdhy rrofrMitL>rVrrri][, this wnfl probably in- 
Iflodwi for thp- rTttin* iJinu'rivluiDC, ini-'Iuditig iht^ arni«, Wving 
about 20 ft, for the hotly proiycr, Tlw portion of the ordioarv 
annihai ira^ severed ai ^ht* ^tme tlTne,biitaft^rw^rdr(de«tro3'ea, 
i) nid to bflTc been i> d* (on^ nnd 10 in. id diamt.<tor, 

Se>rci*ty bsd the rmw* of tbiit rvmiirknb]<- .'ulvcnturn nad 

acqumtion reached tbia conntry. thun irtcilif:«^cr vhf received 

tbnwffh thy <uni* houroe, frwm the Rev. Mr, HurvL-y* (hut a 

neood (figontio ('iitllt^^fidh, lit* lo iufeiior in aizo to tbe <mt-' juvi 

ditttfibed, had te-n fiiLfn iti n hrrring-tn^t by thre^ fi§horm«i5 

v Logic Baj, wnv ihmo mile* from St- Jobn"?, The (or- 

nddflblo mrmi having Ijrt^atiKi i-nlJin^lKil iti thr! folds of tT;p ii«t, 

th^ crcttturc'd power of rvdintancc wa^ ubnotit coroplctf ly lumi- 

MUt^ ; it npv«tthie*le'4s itxjuited tbe efTttrtF* of kM The meti 

to finally overcome it, nnd it wan not before tbey bod 

inofvedcd lu M^vrring lb*? in(>nhtpr'> bi*iirl fniiii it* fn"idy that 

Ibpy vnvi* rabic to tail' pJs*io*Moii of their priii\ 'J"hn cntiro 

Imly^ of thif* Outtk-fi^h rtUt brou^bl to Si, Ji>b[A» and phciUv 

gra|ib» wcro made of it nnd Mepf tfik^n to pri]iF4erv4> tht? whole* 

An ei«el1pnl rpprodiictinn lif thr h>(*t- photograph liik*'n» n^pre- 

Mfitittg tbf* aote^rior portion with tlio beak und idl the arm^, 

«p|>rtLrr4l witii Mr. ITarvc-y's jioc^mnt of the kujic? in thn 

•* r'icld " for Jftmiary Sh* Tb^ body of this specimen mf^Ottiiro* 

8 ft. iu lr-]]glb. with A ^irth nf 5 ft-.> the two longest tmtihcles 

:f4 ft-, and tJio fligbt fb^rtcr nrmn nnijh 6 ft. in longlh. Tlie foiv 

midabli^ bofnj, pixrrot'^likc hcak is the siio of a manV tint, n&d 

tbo mcmtnutoiu K>okct« of tb« prominent «y«4 f^ve a diiu 

i»Bt«T i)f 4 ind^ri. Hie d^Mtiption and figures pnbli«bed of 

lUi exaaplo Lc«v^ no dmibt that it 1* n BtnalUr individtiAl of 

tha flam« fpode* of which a singlo tcatade only was secured a 

* TV««ftH tbo land cottrVvy of tbd Propri«tfir« «f tb* " Fi^ld/' wi± sr« 
cjwblcd to prtKDi ma r«^«» ivi ih an caitmti^ff of tho i«nio od p, 1V2, 

^b»w«ks previiOuilj; it, liowcvcr, far »urpaj4s«M th* larger oup 
twh Importance, slooe timnigk it, we arr Tor Ihe Ai^i time placed 
Bs& ^11 ]>o«toiuoii of tho <ntirc Ftnictiirc of one of tliL^t^ 

AJ<liUoD2il r%'idcQOC itf tmpplicd by Mr< Hurvcy of other 
■■■Dlio Cultle^tUh previoTiflly Fie>en on t1m L-oaat of KewfiMiiid- 
^^E|: two ID particuJaTmca^uriiig rc?ipi:ctively 4Dft> mid 47 i\*, 
^^^B^W tttiiuid by Uin Ki-v. Mr. Gii1>rir--ls Ite^n ciihl. lULliorti m 
^^^^BUv «f I87(^^71f ni'ur Lumulint^, aa the Routh cotut of 
^^^^hdJ. K«liiililr4 f'vidaiuw iti uInu ^iveii of Hiiuther moiuter 
^HB«d two yc<it« Ut«r, which in toUI JoDg^h moo^ured no less 

Hu soft* 

^^^■WowOT A. K. Vt-crill, in n vt-ry intereirtiii^ onntrtbution to 

^^H^Bion'H Aroericaui Jmirim1«'^ HTpiudtLi^i) in tlit* ^ Annals and 

^^^BUiDO or^AturaJ History '' for March l&tt, « numerates, with 

^^■ifbre^iilgt authenticated tt-atlmony of three other aimilai- 

^^pD»t«rv Itoid the Newf{>tmdLAniJ c<'ju1. One of tlie^e ^a^ 

^^nd flmtirig^ (cp^jun'utly iL^oj]) iimr the? Gr^iitd Bauk^ i.ii 

^^BcrtMr iUll, by Captain CampbelK of tLe a^diooner B. />. 

^■■■fcmt of Qlouceat«rt Matt* U was taken on birafd, and 

^Brt of it iKMd for >iiut. Xltc; body pf this &peciiDi:ii ia sluted to 

^■pra bcm 15A?ct lon^:; and Uic portions of thi; jtrm^ remaining, 

^■hioh wore mwh muLiJated, were e3timatt>d at a length of from 

^■ifcWMo 9 aad IC f«et; the beak was fcrvrardec3 to the 

^^bltfctoiman Institution, iind is now in the hnndfl nf I'r^fesBor 

PBpmlt for the purpoKof doAcriptign and illu9lr;ition. Pr^f<;^or 

^St^^'nitrup, who bft« •een a photogmpb of this beak, thinks it 

maj" poMibly ImIduh; to the ttili very iinpt'rfe<:tly known form 

Virirh iobabitii the noTtlu-rn aisst8 o^ Eiu-npf^, nnt^ which, S« 

Vtatcd at p- liT, he hns prcrpi^scd to diatingui^h as Arckitfiuthis 


Ajw>tK«r Bpecimea U quoUd by J^rofesaor Verrill bb having 
tjeen forind slite in shallow wnter nf Cr*ninb<i* Covp, The Imdy 
of lki« eiampl*^ i« iilat<^ to have moasLired 10 ft. in length, 
thr nmiR f) ft., and imi? itf thet UiiUel<-x ilh nitich aa 42 (\.. 
In addition to thi>s h« mentions u pair of jaws and two sncker^i 
Aiy mt^nl !n ih^ SmlthHonian fukitntioni leceived from the 
It^'. \, 3lunD, who «tAte^ that th<7 wero taken fr-xn u tpccimoo 
tka> rjuur? jwhiirp in Hriraviiitn niiy, unci which int'ii^tired in 
entire' h?nj:th 312 ict't, ThU <*xamplL% to(-utht'r with the one 
1»^ tiiimtth and ihf. species ivprnrnt4?d by the lung tentacLe 
aad perfecL <p«cimeD eociurod for th(» ^t. JohnV .MiLkvum, Fro- 
^~^90T Vi-rrili oonsulttri nuiy \x3 idtoitical witli St<.'cnatrup*K 

Prwion lo tL« appearanoe in this country of Profevsor 
VomlTs ii>t4ce«tiog rem&rk^ on ihesc Newfoundland ipcH^mnnf, 
M ccctroimioUon tm tbc tome Bubject wu aent by the autbi>r of 




tbi» article to Uie Zocjogical Society of l^mdoQ* aiMl in vhl^f 
Wft8 ndduced further ovidmc^ of ihc4*xifttcii6»of UwflemcotdH 
by Ihi^ <1c#i-nptiou of im nrm imlc-i^ Ihan & £L lon^* pr^cmvd^l 
the vuutU ul' tbe Britiuli Mmtiim, but of whicb tmfortiiMti^J 
no autliL-uiicaled fe<:i>rd haa been pn-.-cived. l£«fcTenc« to flfl 
gjgxTktic limb vn^^nmtUbjtbo sun? nittbor in tJ^<> **GukUBhM 
to Urn firigbtoo AqHarinic,'' publiidicd ia Joii*- 1873** tWtm j 
poadiion amou^ tht? Cn1ftmario«, and Lbe probable t<^tul l«ii^ of I 
the peHVvt^ umma], licin^ tb«a aoticifM^ted. Tboae tatt«r dinMH I 
«ioni wrrft <4ti(n.ited At close upon 40 f\., and Che ev«ftU4li 
ttiGpaiit fow montbi^ahdwtbat tbi«Gnlcnlntionnii«ntbex 'inljj 
iJiim ov4-r-nitt«L In Uif pcrfi^ct Bprt'imrn «iptur«I in '''^H 
hay tho uomparatiru proportions or tliL- arruv to tht two bipH 
timtKriiln 11 jnst one to fmir, the former roe^^nrin^ fi an*! tW i 
bitter 21 fc. : the ann nt tbc i^ritufa Aluflcum being dotlud J 
with miclcem tbrou^bmit lU birgth provoM tt tn bp one of thtf | 
eijrbt abortn^r unrxby bo tbut tbu two tt^ntacula in tli<i wuDC fo*- 
portion wotild h*A\e rviKrh^d Ut & tHri^'tb of 36 ft., xnd wkkdv 
joined to the- 15 or 2Cl addttion&l feet, which were no *.1 

En'j«mti*<i bj tb<t Wly of Mk- 7inTm?i!. w« nmv*? nt a b j . 
ttl<> lc«s than 60 ft., OT in fiict tbc cxiict proportions jpvt^ faf 
lilie liHli^mien of (Jit* uumAter Itrsl vuiruujiU-rL'd in CViDi-irplita 
Btvf* This r^nmrkable ai'm in onr nationftl Mucmm »osi> 
ycvuv rincc ci^o/r^d a nichi? in tbr public g^llf rii-s find wssan 
account cf tbat circiimjctAnno ftlono rnmombifrAd bv tho jkuUuf, 
it Uuvixig ittrUL'k him, im iiiic li[>i viaiL U> U14I' cirpHlttwiig 
Btoi'ehou^e <^f tresfluret, att ont^ of IhL* nio^t extraordinary exam- 
ples in tbo wliole c>j|lcctic»[i« As sncb it produced an indelU^ft 
imprcMicoa, nnd tho in«truotivo aod intorcTriting naturo of tUt 
op^mon wlllf it U to W hopird, onnr morf? m^cutc U» rrtun 
from it8 preftf^nt place of reliremeut to a position whtre it 
may now meet with wider u|jprecia(Lou. Tbe auckeni in lhi« 
arm uxe much icoTi^ tbickly ^et tbiin in flitber of tbo NVwIbUIld' 
liind examples nlieody <lt*ciibcd ; tbtre being a double row 
ham one extremity to tlio other, and oacb row containing 
from 145 to 150, or a loUil of juat 300 nuckera to Ihtf wbou 
nna. Ixi iho example fr>Dm Login Buy, one iLrm 6 ft. long if 
ealimittcd to have only about 100 of thc*o MLckcrv ; tliia bkS^ 
poi'Li nil opinion ntro^uZy vx|irt?iEftL*d tbat, if of the ftomu «i)ooifl% 
the iirm in Ibc I!rit(:ih Miutc^nni wad conaidemblj Iohjecj 
before it wnn subjc-cted to the contraetlng infliifiueea of tht 
spirit in which it h now immerMxi. At the same tome thEi 
nvidonce of tho Hn'tish Mtuenm spMimon wax tnlimitted to it» 
Zcolo^ical Society'* notice, it wu proposed, in the erent of ii 
not being posifble to identitV tlw St. John'* «p(»ciui«a* vritb 

* Aba b edition »ItiG« intact, vlih thii Autlior's ii*uie ««c«B«di 

oro4»nc cuTrL£*rmr. 


hoftsiof St^.cii»trtip*« ArchiUiithi9, t^ iiutitut^ for tliem the 
^Ktrrie tiiUi of Mf'jahitfmlhittf or OSciiti Oilamory, imd to fhr- 
LbfT 'lUtui^i^b ti^iD* bolb beta|[ of tbe aaiDr^ Apcoivfi a* 
Me^ilot^ithis //rtn'flyi", in recognition of rlie pT*^at ftFrviCl^ to 
erinH« rendered tbrongb I^li. Hftrvc/a etcp* tftken to proMive 
thfw tftlnntil** ■jK'i'hiU'ns. To tJii* gi-nUfmmi, imli^fd, we an* 
indebted for the m<Mimf of Holviij^f and Ht^Uin^ ut rent for cv<t 
the loDg-veiin] problt-ta of the exlattiuce even of QnMt formidable 
iiiQ«t«n of tbo dOPp. 

TlMSCC4itinUp^ihliAlii*d uf t1i(?9i#TCo1iM»Ll fitlf.Wnf^Ti f^i^mNew- 
UrandUxid faAvchudtl)»cf!i'ct of eliminating much uflditir>ncLl id- 
fiKKiiitionouitci^miijctfmir rjriniihililt- iiuilhi-icjianU lUfir nllii'*, 
iooireopoodooti*' J. M. M.," to'^ApfflytjuV AtuLTioau Jounial 
if Sei^ncf and Art'' for Jhtuhiij 31, 1874,rcljtlt>irlmt » iiiiitmler 
of tlicoight-itnmxl order, a i'oulpo or (>otopLus aucv «oizcd bold 
df a utibnuiniic diver, wliik' at work iu tlti? wreck oi' ti Mtnken 
iUUDOTt off the oomC of Florida. The tnaiif a. poivirful lri»h- 
■ID, vaA quita par&lyBcd in its gTD«p, and, to use hU own hw 
Mgi^, frit both hU .irmr>itr imd himself ** btring craclcod into a 
jtUjr,* It ■cmQH he wof jiiit Ix^injf brduizlit to tl^c surface, 
ftb(firi»e the «xeatur« would Ua%6 kiU^d him, f(>r ho wsu co 
sdfefinji; from tbo terrible embrace that he 4;ould movt* tio pari 
fffciiBC^lf; wheti draggod into th^ nift from nhicb ho had 
farmndid, and fioally rr-li-n#cdi bo fainted away. TbL< men ixi 
1h* nit toisffd tilt? [ttiimjil hy ono of it» armi and tried Co pull 
itoCbvt were uoahk to ovcroomu tlie udhttT^lvc power of a 
di|{le tticker. Tlioy at last ffuoceedt>d Id r^movlDg the inoiiit^ir 
1; dealing it a heavy blL>w ncroes tl'ic eac which couloius the 
itMonch. Thin ate. waH fTtn.bor dmnriboil tut «tnnding up «t£ffly 
above tbo cycl^ which prDJ<x-t4xl likt- ivhjvtcr^i eye* and gloomed 
like fir*-. a]1o^*-ther a fri^hit^jl apparition tr> en(.*ciTml'>r- The 
wKIct adda« that tho Italian fishcrmon of 8aii I^'raacittco who 
fivqnmt tho Kjindlnnr VkhuuU, not unfrriiurrntly tnke tbeee 
dcTil*6sht from ^ to 10 ft. auroa:} their extended tciitAde^. 

R^tttmin^ t*> llie tnw Cuttles or Calamarii.-Tt, a hiij;* nionfttor, 
widentiy of this tribe, not long einco Kizod a ftflhin(f-bont, 
a«r ibt- vjllagp of Kononoti, .Inpnn (■**« '•Nntiirc," Juul' J, 
1873> The boQtmcti at lenath miofcediHl ld dcipatchin^^ it by 
nTpmliMl bh«w>« Tim i^rcJiturt-** bud^', whiiAh v^nn i-xhihifrd in a 
MM near tbe tcmplo at ABaka^ measured IC ft., and tho 
vms nuarly 3 ft. 

Having BfttUfnctorily ettablinbod thd o>i«toDCO of these 
iMiMrehs of iH<^ otrcitn, \i now remains fur ^citmcfT to c-hicidato 
tWu babila luid Bocial L*ot>ooniy. Tlio faeiliti^'i for thin, how- 
ntTf an? at prrseuL uut ^i*ty ^^xtL^nsitcr. Thi* fact of iciuny iadi- 
tili»|g having mad'* their npp^arancr^ \titl)tti a Hmitc-d area. 
Hid aA intcnals fotbwing with markiTd clo»cnc£3 upon one 


fOVVLin MlCXCl WflMW^ 

AoMber, wonM Beta to ii)di«ftt« tiut ihey are 
ta tUiA respect [MrtJcipate In a baUt dooiiBuit 
majohtT or tbcir k«i pKUmtimu eoagcvicrv* la tkvf 
St^Tiid, y^iliffit^ thi- nitmlipr of ova (IrjHMitivl hy Ibip f 
ik^mi^IiiDs; ftMomuliit;;-, liAvinj;; bo«ii oomputud bj Bol 
111* ]efs ihnii 4(}J>00 1 If miytUin^ approftdUng fludi a def^ 
of pTolificDe^ obUina id thcuo gianU of thoir rare, it ij 
matlirr of woncUtr more LnK not Iktu nrm of Uu 

approach Iho liuid wLen driven l>v «treH of wi&d or tj 
UoUko tbc ifhalM, a shoal of tboM nd^i pau a eliip 
DOticod, liaviug no ocauion to nuttc* tha vuifiuv of tli^tr Uti 
alwTc the level of tlie watvr U> Uke in attnodptierid air, at 1^ 
tiie former. Thf* great fpeed, morvovor^ with vshich. all iii4 
bcTB of thtfi group nhoot through tbc mcdiom ibof ishil 
aided by tbeu pdwcrful vlnoc, would enaUo tbom to t« 
vrith eaae a tlir«a(««ed dajujier io tbt fonn of an appvoftcbi 
tbip. AMoclatrd wllb IVin si^pect, it is abo wotlhjof Qote t 
ia the majority of inMnncca tbc czamplci cDCounterod hi 
bion doad, or in a mcitiUlrd or Mbari)tt>'d Atat«. 

The micvtion of Ui« food upon which Xhc^c mon«t«n lire ' 
not yet be^-n detennlDed; though It in all prolialiUiiy ooua 
Drincipallv oi' livinfi; fiab, in oonuQou with moat of their | 
daciou*^ rac*'- TIj« d<»tni<*tion thny work amcirig eh© fli 
iribG» in thi^ ou^ miut, od acoouni of ttidr cnortnoiu sijc, 
very grvat ; but, lu thriMigliouL tbi« k-oIv of lutiiru ym find i 
tribe warring u^n auother &nd Cn&liy aubserricut for Llw « 
port of onefttill mori.^ powirrfiil, wo slnil 6nd thai ihftjift ^ 
Calamarina &r<i thcnifx^lvcg an f^tury pomy to other tooanta of 
dcvp. Thr w]t;d», ill fuel., will u'hich Iliry?inv4' Ivrticnmpa 
in uKc^ aru thutr mo»t tonuidablu and implucablu fitod^ amd | 
Imlilj Ihi-- utjj jkiiiiualh t.'AiaMii<f whuc^rulddppuw* llirMf inonil 
With any profipoc^t of fiuoccfi^ in Hkit -aaiire vkraent* 4 
nuDorkM in tJii^ lvi^ ^n^, i>f eoiirw^ n^tntTl^ to tJM toot> 
whai<M, or Phynf^riday and with tb<-*c vo bavo ubundaiit i 
di:nce to tAinvi th^t th«ooloiaal c«plialop<id* o(nurtlUit«a&i 

A mate of A irhaling ve-«ic] stAtod to the vritvr of 
iDimia\tioD to ^ Appicton'* Journal." already quoted, that tij 
vcre enormous ^fqnid> in tlie vqUAturial ivru ithJch ft 
Ibod to tlw Bpcrm-wU&]e«, and that he lisd on one 
bh urn of one, 30 ft* long, dcpmding from the moulh 
tlint secvnod Hick. CnntAin Knurcit Foct, Captain K. K. Sm 
and othf^^ inritncv^^c^ also supply t^Ktunoiny to tho Mimo oflii 
aod otiv of Xheu*' dee]^ftd having si^^ti a vihaU with an au 
a Cuttle-fiflh no Icdtt than 40 fU In length. Amocf Q^b^H 



ich foajl 




tli lioj iMTMttiLllj luinired t1i« ftuthor that Ic lifia 
vitm-^ikwl tLin prcK*lnity of lh« toothed u1iale«. and 
UoDftl t«wtlmouy mi^JiC V- pruJocr-d to tho nine pai-puiJc. 
So large a mae* of evidence Iia^ now been laid brifrir^ our 
mUtxt tbftt to further augment it would be needles. f^ummiTifl^ 
tlu whole, vo are forced to admit tbut this group of C^pLji- 
Itpodoiu xnolliJAcs coQtaina rqiriracnUitivca of enormuus dimcn- 
uw dfatribiited in T.hee^« rhroitffliout theglobe^ and emhniriTig 
a ill prubaLiility many dbtJnct g:«ncra and spocios. Such U tho 
fcnQtdiiMe site of tlie*^ girint CalamnrirH that they vie L<vei] 
rilh iho CctdLcco in mngnitude, and in this rii^^pect j\*:\(\ to no 
atb»r luiniftli now t^xhrtin^. li further appeurn obvious that 
IlKnnmcrotu! tatceand trailitiona that have htx-n current from 
Ihr raili>«t, timrs, rj"»rrrming {he eiistenct^ of enlcwsal Tipiitdt?* 
tf thU rai^f though in sotm^ iaatoncrs iin^rupulously cxb.s£- 
fR&linr, ha*! in aU proliahilify in t.lie main n ijroTiTidwoik of 
toi and cun t>e no lonjfi^r pui^scl ov(<r as tUe mt-ro tal^ricatinn* 
*f» diMirdvied mind, aa we hav'« been hitherto jncUncd to 
tMfit thcta. 

Bt A. It aAieROr>, EA., Feuow or 9v. JoMV^ Cou., C4XB. 

IT eeciD8 to bo ah imprcmon with the pii&Hc crQcrnlly t&kt 

medicine, tUnt wittiout a ^naiitcrublc amoiuiit of inf«>niiftiUru 
offi the laUj^r kuIj^, little or dli [in^^eHi caji be nuule in lh« 
foriQi>r. Tlic Bamo idea okhI t4> prcml with rcfer^Dcc lo 
ehemittn,', imtil, not tniiry ypnrn ngt), it gra^mUj tecun* 
apparent thnt it bad on iiidc|>eQdL'Dt ciristc'n^c ^f lia own, 

mtg^hL U? f^tiidiuil lij iUtfU witb tuucb ailvaij(;igr<. Thi* en 

impreotdoa about pbjfiiology 10 no doubt ft folw imo ; and th«» 
ffi on more u^ioa agnitMli nti^ tndividuril, vitb vptan timr ^l 
hifl d]>po»d, dn^'^ing ttotno of it to pbyjcioloj;^, than that bt 
KhikiihT iHnrf, Uh ni\A*ul\*m lu UiUiiiv. finiilViol^g}^, S^^ogf, W 
any of thi^ »ui'jivt4 whic'h ar& a^iooiaUnl with thcou 

III ILb pre«.-Jit jjiipur it ta iiiv etidejivour t*i i-iptun Uwt ron- 
lUniction of un, which bnK been loicwu fur a lUUo 
over Urn Tf 'ai>s .'ui*! which, frimi Itu- ci>in[MinitiT«l7 liltle uw 
that hiu bt^tm nude of thi? (tteie which it diittIoM6| haa tbo 
ftdvatiti^cc of leibTinj; a bir^f? 6c-Ld for futu£i? w<jrk, opr^n »|m^ 
cially to thosB who axe of n iDihlbi/mAtical and ukdcbunc^l turn 
of niitid. 

Until thn tiiar of the? iUuttrioua Hnrvtry, tho tnio tctiovi of 
the hmrtt nnd the tL»c of the wvor^ Isofpi blo(xl<*V«lifflfi whkb 
uT* couuLvtcd witli it, w&r^ very Jt]o»>mp1et«lj UDderatoad- It 
was knwffu thai the htart piiLutrii, and Mut l>l^kod out of its 
caritiQfl into lome of tbetw vc-am'Ik. ami ulso that all tbfi vr«Mb 
were not alike ; in fact, ihttt there weio two kind« of b1ix>d- 
VMMb, thoie with ihielcer coatA of a light y«Jlow colour bcin|f 
o&Ued aTt«rii^ bcc&uao tltoy wcio (upp^ed to contain ur, And 
tboee wjih iliinner and Ie»« jrltov ooat«, called vpIib. It wiu 
oUo krown thnt on cottinjc acroNi wmc of iIm*> vlwcIs a^ In n 
de<*p wi^und, U<kjlI hpiritft la fouatibi-liki? ji^^; whilxt la 
opCDioff tfau veins of tbo 0urfa<« of the ann i\w bioofi Bowod in 
a flrtwi^rnnd mnrh more tmifoim f*1nTTim. Ii was Hani^y who 
thoTTcd, from the nt^VQDcr in whii^b the mlvc« of tlic bt-ort wur^ 

0:f THE AFKvaU(HlEArit, OK P[:i>K*f]IX>J»I*KR. 129 

4npns«id, tliat iTii? blond t^ould Ili>w (JirDiigh it only fc oim 
^ifwtion; nnd from tho nrnin^rf^tncint of iLo vnh'cs iu tho 
v«!l]< pn^vnl tliut Uirji- naUL only oiu! <'Li{ir>i< Tor ih*-. liKmil iii 
tbem alMf from wtiiob hd wad Jed to ouimciuU* the great 
proUi^iu of the I'juBUnitt of a tirrulatiuu of lIk? bluod dvm t.lie 
Wt, tl^iigh the aTt<iric8 and into tbo vcinii, It^mty it wa^ 
pifCTixl lljnt tJu'Ti.- w>'rrr iiii^ clirecL iJiam^ of i^L>iiim[itii(:iit.ijm 
Muw-i: tlirjrt-- two Jalt<fr. Wheu the uiicroscuptf t-aiuu jnto use* 
the InitJjoftlierL- being A ciiculfttbD of cUo blood waa vtrifelby 
ibp discovery of thecapiiLuyf5¥t^tD,AD0tW(>rkof vegael^fartoo 
Jniiiute to be «cce bjr tbr: niiaidcd eye, whicli placed the arttiriol 
iu direct eonncctitiji with Ihe vciiou* *yi*t^m of blood- vt*fsela. 

The blond Uinu tlicrt?f<>ro ptiiupcd bj the lita-rt into the 
Bn«Tieif U wilt into thorn in jerk^ or intrirriitt^nt fctreanw, juat 
ia iho mine wajr thai water Ioiv^cib the spoilt of fin oidiuaiy 
fmnip Uittt ii not la-Uig worlciil tjuickly. Tlie iirt*»ric*, how- 
rttr, bei&f clastic, yield to the pre»duru of each c^trukct part of 
lb» ibrcd of ivbi(*h i< thf'rpfbre epent m dUteDrlln^; them, jtAxi 
aMndlnf the bJood onwnn). Thac hdn;^ an iutoTTal bolWLX^a 
fwl) two ht-ntA, thi^ furM' ilnrrd up iii t}n: dittj^mlrd cljittir 
«tcric9 dniiii^ Uipcontradiuuiif thL-L(?arLtdi^iuplovcdin ai<ling 
the oawKrtl bloud-^trvzLiii iliiriux the iiiltTiuI in whidi f^ resTs: 
oikl as a corifieqiiciiicv of this tiic tlow 4if t]io blood bccoiQCs i^iid 
snd k* jerky in the arterirK fnrth-T and furrher from The 
bf«rt, imtil iu tfic capilhuic», luid tUt^rcforc Iu tht; voina nUo, 
Uh? Unn«m iii<|niTr uriirnrm. 

It i> the ubovu-monticuwJ jerkicefs of the Uood-flow in the 
an«Tia6 vfbk-li prodnceA the phonoiuprnoa known aa \h& pulM? : 
uid IU tJioro ar^i nrtcrida of contadcmblo tisia in most parta of 
\ko body, till? piil«? i» to be felt wlieii->4.-r tJiruo v^stcN we 
nSdcntJr sniptfrJieiol. Ou eithor sxdo of tho wnst there in mi 
arlury whiLli can bf found with fucilit/, that on Uiti tbiuub Mt 
bMf; tho one ttiost esftily n^ch^id ftud most rrwlily f^It, 
Hotules tbcAO, the <' in thc^ nock, tltn t<^mporn! not far 
abowr tho oiitLT end of thu f-^t^brow, and tXie <[i^iiix\ artorio* 
aloa^ llio wdes t-f the Sn^rj* &ie perhapd the oioat txm\t^ 
aieiLt for ob^r^atiou. 

On pUcLDg tJie tii]|;cr on our nf tlicK arteries tlie eeufatiou 
of AH init'rmittcnl ti»v and Ihll jt full beneath it, v^hitih is 
Unoed the pul^r* rach Hit; closely foUowJD;; tJtc pidmUou 
agatiut thf^ rh^t.'Wnll prtxluci-d by The hi?Eijt at. the comm«iice-' 
tiieul of it« contnvdtoD. In almost M cd«ef nothing morir is f^JU 
but very attentive obsmattou iimkr-« it rvidcnt that th<< 
impolw ia abrupt, and tliat the follovvuiff fall ik dlow. JSomc 
puIacK appM^r to be muoh mor^ ample than others, and dift'^r* 
rqccd in the mpidity of the beart'j actiou aic the luOHt ea^y to 

TOL. MIt<— .*co. LI. K 

pDptTLiB sctJcMCB unnr. 


Thp fViAlliintc nf th<* iiiri^nniiUoa thnt f-tut Ihitf lir Imnt 
frotn timpLy ptoelnjc tb« tinker on on arter? hiu fof BOiQbe tiDt 
fn><t, ]«1 ph>>(otoffi4tft ti allecapt to pfodcioe ui In^lruinrtr' 
which ^1) mftko the dctaiU of each puJee-bcftt irainitiMt to t^mt 
aense otbcr tlma thir tijiieL. In rlilrHv mm witb WH bcfldi 
Um ftotcri^ bnneli of tbo ^tipcrlicml tf^mpOTal rut«nriit mmu 
Ukr a iiiuiiuui cuimne tuwanlfl llie upper |iiirt of llif fonllid^ 
and it i» poGeible, without much diffic^ultj, to ^uv iU pui«- 
Uon^ Tkfi beating of n imiftH rnwrl vhich ran* from tbf wriA 
to the boll of tho thtunb in often vi«ibl<^ ; ami it ii loiil thd 
GftUloo coo6tnirf<?d ibe firat aphygmofo^jw (0^07^01* ^'t^ 
ptil^ " Attd ffcoT^i, ** T i«« "), tiv pl&c^ng a ■mill lifrht laiiror, 
witb one cdgi^ TMiirg on this artpiy and thr othM on theMf 
h^ dost* *>j, io sinch fl wav tlmt tht> ■uft'« myt Wl upon it,airf 
threw the izua^ofth^moviat^V-om 00 a wftll Mnoe ditftAnco «A 
Thvn* 10* howi?vprf a grent (iitJ3dv3ntJig«» in thli znethod of 
ol:i*crvfition, which if thnt tho result* nnrivcd nt Att not pe(ii»- 
nent ; *n that npvTtnvmtM Tniui« at dirTi'n-nt timr« oiiiBot tie 
compured tos«tbor u to their r«Mi]t9. To obviate thitf inapnfn- 
Uon Vi^rordt lYiDflTiictod a Bphyrjmpgraph {^vY/LSfttfic^m, 
« J write")* which by writing on n paper the movemnita thrt 
tttteridtd its upplii^tioit, riTDilerHt Lijiri|tancn(i ntfly. Tb« tortn- 
ment be employed coiuisted of a xyrtem of two pomUel Icrenof 
the third ordfTf, linked togeth«'C 'ai\<\ nii^df- exc^«iivv*ljr ventitifi 
by pUcing tatid in eoTintcn)"***" <^up*i tiied on them. T^ 
tracings were Mjtaiiipil liv iriitkitJi; t\\f ti^K nf nnf* i>f thn Ipttn 
scratch a mnoked ^a^s plat« which moved |Kwt it »lowJy. They 
were found to Ije vcr^' uuMtlafactoiVi nA i\n^y forinnl titilhing bat 
Glxnple up xad down strokes of vonr nrailar lenf^h and ffwtA 
appearance, the reawn Ixiinj^ tli^it tlirr motni^ntrim <lev»<V>p«d bf 
the weight ot ihe lev^r*, count<*rpoi)ie», Ac., entirrly diitguiiii>d 
the true movemeula uf tlienrlery.aml iiifirIel)]elmcc»]iDp1r<r1y 
valuele^)^ Mh Mnrey, of Pnria, n*t to work to reoiedj thm 
impcrfectioD, making tuo of the impoilanc principle that a 
llotinito prcMurc can ho applied on any ^iven xpot by n nUel 
apripgwith the iutrnduction of a mndi Bin:il1r-r wcij^lit of ma* 
torial tlmn is nfocaonry to produce the «ani« preuure if no vprin;- 
1)1 rmployrnh Iff luade hi* lever exiremeiy light ; prococed 
the com'pr^^snon of the art^rv, which is neoe^sAry before «ny 
moveiiLi-iit (!ji]i Im iinpnitcd, by incar« of a strong trpring. and 
employed a w>coDd tnuJl tpring ti> eountemct any tendency to 
ovdllatioD tha^ might t^cciir. 

3l«iyy> tf>bTgmognks1i, a« originally ciwutroctwi hy Br^ntl, 
rouM:^ of a long bnw fmine, which mpports both the Icrcr to* 
getlit-r with itn aca**orie*,ai wcl! m th* watehwork and pipar 
on which llie Irxriiig^ ariT nninli*d. A strong Aeel «pii&c* 
uboui fotu- incbea long, u attached to thia fr4m«^work near Iir 

031 TRV SF&TOUoaiLAFIt, OK FCLEfi-tUCConnKtE. 


ndddli*, unci i« frw nt 11ic« otht-r end, tn wliich n tm-iW |iad j« 
tCtachcd for prcnjri^^ on tlici iirt<M^. Attachi'd to t\iiB pulae- 
i^riaj* (* a pi<*<« of bra** wr>rk wliioli c^arrfoi* n knif^-**rlgp just 
ovei ihc po/l, an<l this is foiiily miBct) or lowt-ri.<H hy a Irins; 
Mnv irlth n milW Jifml. Tlio knifi^^lg*- i* in i-onUft with 
tbc rccootttng lever acox its ax:*^ bavin^ il eniull stc^el plate to 

Uljh; dcFTV. r; e. I%iLtr-V'L>1, i»r <<fMi of [^;l*v-)|<nLt£. i , c. Arfx^f vn vhlch 
Uh liacorlini: J*r\pr Tutii?« cli:"»e !'» wlit'li lit? rjrriprfu»nje^*|^ai;4 V, ncfn 
r, ftrpiv to r^"li»[* Ih" tlniiHffli of llif t^l<Li-i^>nntf ; ii ii, }£nin Vritnttwotll 

▼flrk upon. The lerer ie of tUt; tlitrd kiad< vc^ry light, luid car- 
iring a thin ^te^I pen or wmtrliov at iu Up. Yr^ym thi« 
|}Q<criptio« it roay W aoun tliat aoj movcmoiU euch fui thnt 
of thn piiloi^, misiTi^ thr piil>u^-pnrl, niUf^H ilio lover alw> and 
the TTTcrTc Tlicro ij a *crrw nrrnn^mcot for vorying tbc 
amount, iif piwaiirif ^x^rteO bv Ibi* tipriii;^ on TJil* :trtt*ry. 

The rec<>r'Jini: pofKT is fiied on u Hat mvUl buclcin^. whicU 

Siin ih c»»iiEn-('iril with H 'M>ri<?s of Ura^s ttttli, lUjiCiaU-h £11 tLe 
mI of thc' ririvine-whrcl of t^K: watch- 
mvk, rtimiitig H* whclr- ii-n^.[i in ti?n 

TI10 whole fnatnimont i& b^ttrnd t)u the 
Enfi bv a eilk cord, that i* atlftohotl t«> 
poe* in tlir ud^^bippi'ti, fixed on titr: 
Dody of tbo iiiHiruic«ut. 

Brr-i||iL'l ULiH iiij]kr:^liib Hpljvgnao^apli 
on A sliflflillj mxiifivd plnn. Insti»ad of 
U,e knifo^go and .cv..» c.rnoctiue tb. "r;;:^.:, St'^r.^.^r^;: 

r*CordlDtC I"VVT W»th fho pulxtvpad, ho (mtrii— rFnm -njuOboak 

bM a idrnplrr scitfw attacltii to ibe apring K" i)ic Hij-siolflp^l bibo- 
in tbe sami* way ibat ib<» blad<» is fixed »''^"J 
m s pockct^kniiv-, to tliat it may be turnc<i down fi&t or up at 
right anglr^. TUa wonn of the kctcw bit43i in tbe teeth of a 
■m&ll ir]icf;l, which rciibnicc^i tbc axlii on w)ii«1i t)ie roconlini: 
lew works, And io make^ tbe different parts of tbe instnimeai; 


torcLu iwiKwi Bsninr, 


t4!triiih4^]it U&>f* wlvAbtftgi^ of il«»ir own; Wt it »«iuf 
tJ*nt in thi' InciE mn ibt? oJU^r coi? will U: tiaaJ tU" 
gi'urmlly afi(ilii::^b]r. atiU I«a Ukrtj Ui \;vt out *t( oidcT- 

The Tecoi'dmL; papr should bo bif^hh ^'J-izf«l, lik^ 
fuliiunod vUiting-^'iinls Lo reduce %h& iiitiivn. ta thft taat |kw- 
eiblo amount ; And furtli^r tc» <lo «Of it iji much betU-r, iiKiiiul nE 
tuiug a rpHt yv^ (\/lih tw» ixjiutfl uoL^Mai-ily) And ink, tg 
smokti thtf f)aper ard ut^ fi flimpio Kte<.4 point n^ the ppo, Tlie 
pftper iH 6mnki?d try <loubliik|r tljc «Dd» nt' tlic ^np roiuid tH« 
lirvi plnt<j on wliioli it i* ■iipporitU, loid ixuojDg it o^^r Um 
UniiK? of o-Q ordinary composite candk imtU ii U dnrk, tut not 
lilaok. After the IrRcIo^ hiia Leen uken It »lioiill be ihmtj 
vaxui»Ji«<l,b^|Kiiiriii^4kaor<iinDf]rphoto^ph ^irit \^mifrk ovne 
it^ iti Ujc muni; w*y tb?tl oolkidiou i* fDiidt< to fl(»w ovrt- a t^bvtf 
pktc. Thi^ varuisli Jfirk-iu* tlio Bmoke film conudenibly. If it 
is jint on thick it im vrry /\pt to crflck off wbrn Ihr [(iperia 

Trt Tnki! n traof, the k'h^w ivhicli ptpssra tbt? |mlp<*-Hpriag 
tJtoutd U.* hlIkhI ^0 ae to laxon it. Somo tlij*ht nuuk riiould b« 
LnAd« iiy Ix'ginncrt on tbr ban* arm, whrvii thir piiW i* frit t4 
bftit mojit tttoLi|cly< Till? ivory pultu-pud nhould thi-n l>e plawd 
over {he Fipot, cure bfiuj^ tftkcu tluit ia ui!it prnst^d lo one hide 
ot the ot L^T ; And tbe whole instnuDcnt etrappod down. ARex 
tbi»i tbr: ^crl.^v prewin^ tk« pubtc-spring »bould be turned uiitJI 
tb« artery ii ceiuider&bl^ t'ompn^i^Kl^ and the Iwcr iuIjeuiUkI to 
Wai in iu proper pUoe jubt oppo^itc nbur? Ujct n^conliii^ pftpef 
iif to rnu, A fully iloiihb^d li^uidk'j^rvhiTf, or voroethtng ofAbmit 
tbat tbi^^knvH, iiboidd be pUccd lictwi^cn tlic nrm and tbe port 
of tbf iTLhtriJiikinr on vvliidi the wntrbwork i* fixwK to cnpport 
iL 'i'hr luoviiij; tMiitJ, witl) Ibo paper alroiidy »mokt<I iLtrd ofl 
it. IB UiL-u AjIjuBLal tu iti plaint offer n'hi''fi^ ibj? rntt? at wliich 
tb<^ ipttUo i« tw&tiug ia found by o w&t<h in tho orUinary wfty. 
All 19 tbcn r«-ady fiK ttic tmcc hieing taken. 

An t]io vfttchwork driv«tt tbe recording piipcr In Usn i>cooodl 
tvii^n the ^n^imtmnt m /<W* if micb bim Ik-<™ tb*.- case, tbt! 
|tnlM^m.t4< may bv cutculitvd indiiiicllv; but to iiimiro grettlci 
•ccuracj, it i» b<4t altt&y» lo «licck tbo rtivult- Iqj (Hntd 


'rill.- TRst point for ccnEi<!cTntioQ t8 tbe yhIuo of tl>e tracing) 
t^kcnwilL MatLy«iikHtniinnit: tjvbatinoro ttiey tvikch iliaa tui 
be Wrat by iimply applying tho tv^^r on the pulse; und box 
the lflii(fvift4-i> of the inalnjineiit, m tlie iatfirpKUlioii 
uunutia- ai*y be ti-rmod, ia to ba imd^rrtood. 

As lii* cpbygniagrtpb cao ouIt be appliwl Kf\ Um art< 
whKh Htpply the nrinas Umum of the bodv, rnvd not to 
ivb><^b run to tbelon^:*— tl^iti*, to ibe ay'htemi^j an*! c 


lyx TWK :<ririGUOo>Arit* on m^K-srconiitB* 


Ihs ptilmonary arlericn — it b not at all net'ttwury tvj tUink of 
mnrf tban one »tde cf tli^ hntrt,— ihiic h t1i«» Wt, wlifm w« 
nttonpt ui cxplnin tli'? tra-cinii:* f*htniiio<L l-V rw tbc in>nA 
tipriiurt froni tbf left ^^orttriole, ant! the lefl vmitricli? rcoeiv*** 
tiiclixHl wliidi il piuups ouwar^rs from llic left mmdct it i$ 
th^charjire^ wbicJi occur diiririif tli* bt-at hi those two cavitleis 
?liirh ".■nlyliJivf^iinv uppi-cciahlc effect on 1ho|>iilfic nt thr wrJst, 

Thr iii(>v<'nirrjt* of liir \t'iii.ricW (iC thu hrnrt, if miirt aUo 
b^ mnrmih-^rod^ ooDntft of two sepHiate Knot of ovrnta^ oii« 
hpicg ilift tfjjvfole^ whk'li i« tli? ppHod during; wliicli it U in 
vtioQ, oDDtroctiai; and ciupt^iB^ iteclfof iho blrKxi it cont«ine; 
Ifceothi-r Wng llic diuMfnU^ wlnVh in thr pnrioci diinng wliiHi 
iircfU JLU<1 t>coomvf n^filluii with Mood rvfiily to pump out in 
Ih? nett liifsioir'. TlitH allt^imtion of fty^ii^lc :iiul flbfttolt? 
iHy bL>i compared with tLo down und up iftri>kc ihut am tiiado 
b the WQikiiig of iin twdirrniy piunji; the iip-tlrtitr of Ujg 
biOdlc e^TTi'fpcindinjc tc» Ibe diuntoli?, in which the cjlindci 
aJ»Tfr the pialiJii is heiii;^ iilh"0 willi wj*trr: Jind tltc diiwn- 
■ttokd to \h*fi 6v«to]«s in wtiiirh the wat^r Iroin the full cylinder 
Il hring raised, eu &* Im fluw fjom the flpout. 

Now to comm\>niTf' with iho «phytrn3oicraph tnoo it«oIf. 
^Cf finl nuth ijf bloixl iiitct thr artcnctt hi tlie ouvet of the 
ffitnlic contraction produoo^ a sudden incrvaie in tLe dfamotffr 
CJ the lir>^ aiterii-h, which ia propagaU^d with considerable 
npiditT £i1oD^ th«< arteiifll ^yst^m to tbn distftnl veM«le. Thid 
ptvttuom the nWiipt and ncitrly uniform riitc {xi] which almoat 
■IvBjv forinv th^ most promlucTit ftiid inonl. con«idc*rablp frntttre 
oT tlie nphygmograplt trace. Thla ri^e It^ therv&irc, thir in- 
fbation of tli« QonitDcncoment. of tbo iy»tol« oi th^ I«fl 
Tiiliiclc, tisA it tniist be borne in mind tl^at it terminate 
htfcfu tht* heart Cons<?i t» controet, e*ptciully in thfl larger 
Srtprie*. The primary rise in all properly taken tracc.i i« 
COAtintuid on a» a ronndM 5ppx* whii^h f^ The h^j^he^. point 
*! tlio twic, and is folJ^^wcd by c t<ill of ^''■>ri«idr'iTirh.i rapidity 
weetnpftml witli tlir )ipno:id d(**»-VTit to bu dfucrilK'd fnrthrr 
W»- Thif full n id.-Hi ijc-ntrully in^e^ruUr, espcciiilly in slow 
false*, beiu^ Imiken by a very «rital1 wav(.^(6), terined iliu Mid»l 
tr*/ by Mr. MabuincdT but prrhapa better, the 'j>rcdicrotic 
«*tr,' iw tlir hilTJ-r naimi iIoih nut invidvtT ntiy tbnnry, niid will 
fcft bcttrr utidt-nlooj thtvptly. 

The dicrruk- t\w if) ib llit? fi-alure m all traein^ next niocd 
Important to tlj<? piimarr accent* It commennoa nt the end 
tiftlw fall ji]<t de^irilN^ ; it ii Irsu nbriipt nixd >iihirtf-r thnn 
iW mnm riK^. and i« mor*.* (^titnie or rouw-bd at itii cummit. 
It !■ fitlbiwpd by ibe »^o<Jud fidU wUit'U la itmeb le» vertjud 
than llirT onr.^ which prr^cedeii it and iDor« irre^^idar, boing 
tejttcntly interrupted l>y two <^r three flight imditlaEioas. At 
Bl 4114 of this 6lU tbc flucocisIirLg priuiuiy n*o camiui^ncea- 

rorrLAH ibtjicmck nnnr. 

DSfTt^roTil. exjilflDiUoiu lave Iipod gtitu of ihr lUcroHe riM 
in ibo aph^iifmograph trace, ad4 ^^xhit plipiok^jpit* ttUl tbiak 
that iU Inir rjUM: lixi n&t ti;L In^'Ii fully mftilf* (int. Tba 
dtKicultj Bri«c» trom tbc foct that at (he MLxaA limo Uiat Uie 
Mttiou uf tUt? vahn. 4<t(|je*cijiUy tie aoatic. bavc to b« ooo- 
Bidcndf tb« maoy diffpretnt d)r«<1 ilxi^I refli-^tvd unduliUoiu 
which are po««ib1tt in distcudi^l pImOc IuIikv muni mtt lj« 
otnittM from coni^ideratiQii. Atl v\'iJi.Hkc«< ci ^ny aifi;aificftiMv\, 
bmvever, gucn to bHuu (hut tUi? dicrotic riMiaaiBaply the ware 
f^erat^ bj th« shock of clkKturo of tb^ aortic taIto, tmu- 
mitt«d aloDg tht! artericft froiD the Ur^ to tbc faiallrr'vctticlf, 
jurt in tli<* Ame mianer a* in tli^ primary iinduUricn. 

IQ rlwv tJift tfSnt of illflkniKv in puLap-iaL* uu Uie ineC'* 

7 71 ^ I (in „ 

In ttt lop tneia; a If IIm ftltavj^ ( tiu |mli«fait«i ud a Ih* £utck nw. 

Tht* KinnU j>n*[1it*rol[fii"TrjfLilttj:ty (^)»boir m'^iitioiW in ihn 
dMoenl fuUowmi; Ihti primary ha^ orl^^niiM from the rttae 
«oufce fiH lU« tlR-iutk-« My otj>i.-r\atR'i]« itith an iustram^sl 
KTlnoh nvckrdfl raniuUnnprntfly tho tnr>vcniciit^ t.f the hoart w>d 
thr imiIm- at ihr niM (Ihc mri]ia-n|khyf^Dograph) prov(> thai it 
ia a{uiuU&ni>i>uft with tlio ctoffuri> uf tho aortic v-jd^c? nt Ilw 
hi'&Tt ; that it is a Mbock wbv« in &ct« vUilH Ibc dicrotic wvm 
Is ibf> m^To ehwlr trav«Iliiifi: undubli^^n of c^ielctmioti. 

Now ihtii wc know MiiiD of the important fratuim uf llv 
^ ^iiph truoc, tUv nuxl point for coosidonUion i^ hgrv 


iKire to maice any unt* of oui infurmiiLic»n. Pr. BuTcdm Sjld- 
MmbaAt by ueajm of « aiiiiple ftpimj^iiuN AUuched lo one 
of tb« iiutrumeitti ^ndenvoiuvd to employ it Jis & Limujuly- 

WbomctcT or guiigts !■> mi^uui of whiVli the pr^ssiir^ of thi; 

Uooi ill Uio urtct)' may bv edtimaUifh By {Ldjti^nng the height 

dilir pube-poiJ, &l Uie MiEto time tLat tlie pre«4uf? i^XfTted 

I^Lbofpring is tetimated on a ^p^uat«^d ecnlp, he Audd the 

4igToe in prcMuii? roquircd to 

pit iDdicationj in the truoe of 

ocMve comprie«»kii uf the u^ 

ttiyigaiiui the bone, and so of 

^ Uood'-premin^ la tlionrtcxy. 

TW^ari' u*\-r-r:il difticnltic"* in 

nf i^inparaUv^ly Utile valiie, 
uQDui* vliioh noay bu nit-titioQed 
tin difr«toticc« in Uia dnstidty 
<4 Ibc ikia of diRcntDt imli- 
liiliuU^aud Ibe luiu^rtuiuty ni- 
^iif the eituatiuu in whi<;li 

iu looking at £f by^n^o^Aph 
tnvr^ from Ibf pidm?.* i>r dit- 
*?ftint rHjtpidilii:K,th('re i« notliinjj 
KKoe MrikiD^ Ibun tbiU Ihe 
feiiltb of tby inlorvnl between 

ftuv and dicn^Lio rue- vari«fl "f" ™ -.--^^^ - r«t«c»E i^ tu» 

oacingf, bonig ncarJy COb«tAtit Hio iu.icflirrul trum Oi* umL.^ 

fbjimlfigv it in -latdl Lliat (here "'«^>-") 

Vft Jr?riiiUe ratio Wweeii LtkLi k'Dgth of Hystole and ttiai of 
*m(Jc The Bulijoint>fl tabb* frcuii *• Oirpenter's Ptincjploe of 
Bttmta Phyaology" will ktvc a^ an fiampic: — 

! CoDtniL'tiun . 

Cnptnctian \ 
I Ftrfl iiflga or iHlsuilon 
(Second „ „ 

X-> biikt, M cs^r ^ivciL to show tli&t tliew rclationi of thfi 
iw\eral p»ri« of tlir^ benit-lM^t mny v»ry, U'caune before 
ibe mtr(n]iictioL of the? £phy^uiigrapli tbc moaiia of carofully 
fstttnating tl]c>m vt^re not nt luiiiil. lbi( as in tho piil^ 
trace it ii |M>«-tLk\ tvnd liot in tho loa^t difficult, to obtcvvo 
bulb the ien^b of thi^ iiy«iU>U^ uw\ thr- liiniil^iili'^ rtvi^ry ii|H*>r- 
I lutiity U uovaffoixkil tor their e^mpiriaoa, Tiiu uu»t be dotto 


Aantriomcd to employ. It is ^iirvmt*\t simple, uid rcqnl. 
oo skill ill Rumu&ctmv. A thin dab of wohmI (a^ ^ inches br 
4* liiui anotber itrnjcbt >tnp of the Jttcnc riAlcrul, G inchi^ 
Jmifc (b), oniM ailing <me of iti loii|^ I3de« io foarm ii nd^ 
nipi)Dii kIjlcIi the tracing maj r«»t. A noall icrcw (c) b Uwd 
fixod in 4 1iii«t cYibtmuMi* wilh thia piftof* of woodf in encli a 
fiosilion lliat U huldfl evicllj tlie Ame r^lalior to the lij^* 
formiTd l^twccn it ^^nt\ the bigger sUb tb-at ilie niuvtug, 

irtic^, pi>rtioin of tin* wukimnork doi** ii> ihr. nxb c\f tlio 

k-via-* A sLoia iipeilU- (j}) It thi-n L]ii'(?;iilt-d with 

or silk (b% of wliioli tli€ Cvro onda ard niadf* to ti& round 

taw nlwvc tiimliniKil, ut ij inchr-s or *** fri>m it* ^-y?, 

iig to U)n length iif the rcconlin^ Icvnr. A ninnll longth 

[ {w) i» alv7 uLtiiclieil ;it tint? end U* tlin taMUii Kicyi, anil 

(o) at 51 iDche« ftom ll ; ih& iiue>lK*-pmnt i* then 

to nm into the kuut a bUcri't dtfctiitK-«*. aiirl projeL-l alif-blly 

id it. Ry thiji ^nmgcmont, if tho ihroad ntid string Are 

on the rt.rctcli, by the finger plnceft Ifclweeu t.hem Agninst 

lu^lcth^ poiut r)f the needle can be readily madtt to draw 

rircie eimtW to that fiirmpd by the VT?conliQg \v\vu 11)6 

^Dg th^n l>^ing |>Irc(*<I nlon^ the- ridge nn th^ hr>ar^, tJjo 

ry cnn'c* nrc innde en it tiom thir pMrtv' whkli it is 

BkccULs of u raiull nrdiimrj apriu^-buw, vritli a icti-w-nut 
inguUt^e the difltftncea b€tW4*en its points, great preci«ioD in 
loring eta be arrived at with a littk pjactic^^ 
; b lira* to mrjuure the length i'f ciivh lieat in thf* tnc«, 
rtrikiiig tlie a^-eragc of thrni ^ill, to coufttd^r that as tho 
ml rsitirt dewrwl. By fhw inoaiH the eomplicalion intro. 
li hy Iho cflVcta of Tc^piratiaii ia imicli rcilucod, nnd the 
]U3Ltiti<Mi in the inoveTnent of the watcLworIt are Jn greflt 
ire ncntr&lisc'h For instuncc, in a ptjIsL* hcalitig forty- 
tim» & tiiiunti* the fulluwin^ were the actual numbertj 

3-77^ 0C!^3: Tilhlhoavcr^giiofd^ 

A^in* iu A pnl)r hc-aUii;^ ^^^ times k tninuto the fallowing 
itnalio th« Diinibert^ m which thd efiei'ts of r<edpimti>>u ar& 















with an aycr»^ of I'*44-1. 

It will not require u lontf expcrir:)oe iu ephygciioj^raphio 
meQWiTeiDEDt to convince the ttiident That it ia in 'luick puUi.-^ 
tliat (h« syvtolt^ L» proportionately th<T longer, and in ^lnw 
puW* th« Hhort4-r, in>-'pr^ii:rii alone putting that U-yoiid a 
dowbt. But wheu chflrnationH becouio more nnnicroun. froiU 
&ott become apparent. The following table gU'ea tbe TCdultA 
obtained from a hiics of mcaAurcili^nt# in which Ihc rnpidily 
of the pntte wnit cur^'fiLlly obKorvrd, anri thft nnmWr of ti'mcw 
tkwt tbe systolic IcDgth ma coutnioed in thcr whole brat ivu» 


POrULAB K*!!?!!.^ hetikv. 


«s^ la tti vlHir la^ irf 1^ ^ 

37 1 mlDBt* 


*» M 


l» ^ 


"« ^ 


« - 


.ifi ,. 


•« -. 


6-1 ,. 


lOU ,. 


la: „ 


Prom tliiii tuU^ U ia evident thnt tlie leD{*tli of tJw 
murt vnrywith the TftpiditjoFt.lir pulR-wmd wiih nutbing 
it Mnfz coTistaTit for any gjvx'n ni!«, or vifij D«aHy conrfj 
nite* which arc very Duuly Uic Miat?, A large ttnmWr of 
ine^im'montJi whidi I )iav> nude all Ixrlp to v€*arity ibe 
nr.nUTlmt the Ir-n^^h of tbc systole duos not clKiaj^r in h 
pTt.-.iw wbc-Ti rln" iml*™ cAinpiriMl are of the ««mf rapi* 
lilt in piilfti'ii of «Jil1<--rpn1 ?p«*dji tin' rjiw i* quit'? iillernt,! 
ifiriy Ur !oi»iid from Uie ikhuv^ table; iit wbidi th<i acUial l«i 
of \hr ij3i*Ai^ ill puj-ts <tf n miuute can Im ol>ui]ird by uinltipiv- 
iii)^ tbv ttucnberc ^vrn in the fiecocd coliiua Ly ttcHc n-^ 
KL-ittiuK tb"^ corresponding pii]fc*ratc« in Uic firsU TUpiju^ 
tiltes thm obtfiin<<d fomi fhc (1f'iit>mirntnrv of llie ^mclMM 
vlitcli ivpnrsent the djstolic Icni^b in port^ of a Eujmi£e>a>' 
th4?y will be turned inro dfoiimiU of a mtiiutr for frM-ilTUiliY 
compnnaon. Ab ao inr^lauct.-, l-7443x 137 — ^3cf-9'j9K iiU 
.„^L^=0-004184I of a miTiUt^, AgaiOn 2'9I xiS4= I86'21,ari 
l^f = U-00^.*tGD of (L minntf. A lirtle oltentium ahftui rU 
tbe fcn^Ch of tbe syrtnlp tlop* nnt v:iry m rjuiekly lu tli* trt^ 
Mid thtaS ^>y e:itr^icting: thc^ cuW roots of the pnUsc-rotrti, miA* 
lien uri? obtained whkli do vnrr ic a corrMpotLdin^ nmxotr^ 
vttihhi ilie UmiU of rxpc^rimt'DlM error* ThuN the cube root of 
til ii I, and that <*f 137 U 5*155 : 


4 : 5"L'55:rI : 1-298 
41841 ;536^;:l; 1-283 

A similar fljilhuicticd proocw iipplicd to thi? otiKr rolMj 
the Bome lable will lead to the «in»? mmll, ii^iitirlv, fhrt 
I«7tf/£A of Ike affvtoUy ae inAiicatM hi the ttph^f^jmotf^-.tph 

ocnwtttnt, !mt varies ta tha cube roU of the rwpwtty cf '^ 

card'mc action^ 

Thfa law, jtj^it stuUtl, m*y be looked at in digrntit 
fiw a^ tbe niaimw in lA'Lidi Ihi^ lic-*n. wiirlw mid i>5ii» Ik 
fvroed, iloH wf iifi always rest dimi« the niffbt wkI i,-oa4i 

OS TOB ^irrGMMAArtr, on ruLefi-ft£CCEi>£B. 


Lh^day; and, rnippoainjEc tliJht ctLch man biL4ci^ht hi^urw' i;Icrp in 

I the t^feiif^r-ftiur, be nui^ be Kukl fu icyt iltjiiri^ iiiii'-thiitt nf hii 

caibUfic-4.\ Jf iho pulAv wt^ro alwuy^ ti> beul hI a mto of 62 a 

, mmutr, Ihrti, an ihp ayt^tni^ circ«pi(*fi one-f.hlni of 0»p< beat, the 

IkjihI of iha heart « repose during Ui<^ lifo of the individual 

»^lit U? twii-UunU of iU Uii^h. 

I igBiD« tJicr^ arc two ^nra in which the va^ccT to wnlk a 

I ItKunnd mili^ ID the Miine ]ium1>t*r of Ikjutk may be laid, 

^Kitfcrr thf total nnmhcr <'f mii^* miirt bo c->mph-U'd ia the 

UflLf> with iu» ifrfriotjonn n* to tlir nmnnr-r in wliirh tliry ar<* 

^(?; or It may be nM^uirod that a mile fshmild tw wiilkcd in 

ttch of tbt huum. TliLA khl caai- i^ luurK i^Erkfly iuiu]ogtiii« 

to tfc« ftctioti of tbt> henrt. The period of vmtk u f^ort, and 

tbft of ririjoB' 14 ^ort [il«i; !)»](. Imth nri.* fnr|i»*Ttt. N<> time 

ix proIoD)C?d mt ik ^lUonvt'il. iil> i\\[ mitrit.jon hv thfj bloixl in 

H|,corODaTj Tewchi mtirit Ik? litmi' iiittriuittciiM^, juit o« tJic 

HbrriAn, in the second of the above titccl iufttaucea* b tri«u if 

K dUiTjbutf^ hL» mealft over bja mlticg intervjiUt iiLstcud of 

^ddft^ th«-nt in lArgf qiuntiti4ii 1m« fOHfiipntly. What tbe 

^Bc ffivcn law mcait* is I hat. fu:<:or(liii£ Xo th> differences in 

^Wngtb of tho repose or dueColo. £o t« tliiii of tbL< vuniitit- 

HPtcdott modified : or agaiiu xpfirmag iu the aiiuluj^T of ibo 

f^Wiriau: fiiippos^ tbavt vrb<^ nTillcing n tboiunnd mi]ot*,one in 

(ac)i lioiir. lie could ^-tovi^r racb tnilc in twtnty minuter, tUmi 

if be hod to do tbu 9nmt> ilUtjuicv In ],5i)0 bourv, tnav in fvu;fa 

Icur luid a half, be vroulti get, over c^^cb mile iit n I^i« time — 

«r Tlfitren niinut^'S — bpcaiijk.' Xht^ Ii.«ti^r ptirioil of reti woiihl 

MitJui vnalking to loucb tbc l<^» ditliL^uil. Ihii it mil Us 

■HMrl£«d that the Imjflh of Th** mtoir- is greftler and nol ]e«g 

vtivo the fliiLftote in Joa^r. Thin i--» pcrfodty tnic% but it docs 

bitjUcer Uie abov4>«taied uuttueof tlie pob1i*rD, bcomuw tlirro 

li t poculiaHty in ihi^ licart'a uctiDU wbicli ta not found in that 

tf thf waJlEmg mfui. 

Tbr bw which rcgitlAtc4 tJic froquf-ncy of tho pulse is not a 
wmpli' uii*-: but ii purtly dfju-uiU nn the inrtiu-tici? *'xcrtj<sl by 
tl»fl diAia)>t!b wbk'b oooiir iu Uk' cdibrc of the smdJcr artcrj<« 
t^ th? vkin ; the piilM* being quick when th4<«j^ vevn^U, whtt'h 
fcwc mittcuUr wnilp, owi very open, and slow, when tUey are 
coaimcfrd ; !«o that wbrn anyontf hbiKhcn thr- piiW nii^pnts 
b tepidity, on aooount of the <blu1iiFinn of th<f pmall vca- 
•ek; aixl wh'rn Ibe ekin gritt \m\r wi[b cold llu- ptiliu* i* 
tttirded. From thcfo rcmarkfl it is evidoct that, when the 
pcdic ii iinich tb<" Uond (TK'iipc* from <ho nrterial ^yfttem into 
tbt fupilmriui moru cjuic^kiy than wh«-n it it f^lnv. Conw- 
Hieaily, the diltculty which fhc btwrt mujtt rx]H'ri«nr<t 
ni emptyiDf; ilt^lf into the arteri^^ I'arifia aocirrdinf; to the 
ibpidity of the pulM; and oa dniiag the diLi^litli? whtL<b pi4?- 
ecdtd any ^j^olu under con«idcntio«i« it yms :»<ipplicd witli 


blood At n oortnin HHiniti* piyHvitnr luuL for A «>rtaiii 4lofinit# 

tttTv and maiiiulD ii tUI m ovrlain *\ hu 

be^u vxetTtitcd. Tlifrr^Tforv the v^uiricir^ iium«idi4iipK tb«7 

twiinUin iLit prcfutirc unlal tlwyarii qjnptr. Ditt it i* 
t1i4t lUfr time n«c«*MU7 to <-iiipty thom of a cUrftaiti^ nTiionut 
of blooU iiuder tliMe ocwlUiooA. mvAt (kpeuil ud Ihc in{ji(litr 
of tip flow of iiloc*d through th^ small iiintri^ nnd ofli>]IUri€S : 
when thr flfiw m Imlvcd tJ*o syiil'jlie tiw<i w *loubWj 1/ iu> M^tr 
foi'C* ro»i*r oifo />^y; looUi«r *vr(lj<,_lhe k'ttgth '>r MU' «y«tol« 
in depcQilcJit ou tbc urterial re^.iiAnoe* If tlicrcforf tic li^j^tli. 
oftb« diastole did not stfToct the l^uglli of tb« sTsto^ wUhi 
Wif formcv i« <loubLrd tho Utter iinutd be dovblod alao 4fe 
from \\m- \iva thni Iho iijvtnlfl vzrini nv th<i c^br rtxtt c th« 
piiliioUnj^ h, if may be inferred ihrtt aacJi t» iwit the cft*o uad 
fri>iu H ^tJuJ^ i.if irai.4n),^ fT^m l)if? lum'tfiuailb of iht< In^urT, ad 
tht^y affect liic chest-ffoll — torcaed cardio^mpU t^^ciD^ — Donnr 
muo}i>; miiv 1^ ^L^vr in fuvnnir of thi* Uw thnt ib<^ niiiritiuii 
of the hi^nrt.'d wnllv vari«« xu thc^ i3t|ijiirc Toot of the dinstoha 
pi*rioJ,' during wlilfli out/ t1i« blood unii Lrawrw ibi* ea|rtlb(rif-^ 
of ilt^ coionafT nyvlcia cf Y««cb, w}u9h fupply tbo venUitMilw 

There i* yet mortf to be icwrnt itam the Fphygmosmpb itMe. 
Aft pn'vioiiHly ntHti^d, tho Lf^n^th of tJin «yri^r drw not 
for any j^ivcn piili^r^mto ; but tlio blood •prctfiiro in the aH^tmI 
iiiyiiteiD ^'uriKi miti*|ii'rideijtly of Lbr iHilH^-nit« ftllo^-Uitrr; ctm^ 
8^ncDUy, iho Leniftb cl the ii^'atolu does not de|>«iid 00 th« 
1iloo[1-prt?#^Tirp. Tlii« reMiiU, M^ror^wliHi parailixi^ aI lint 
tight, un i:inly tic Cf plftiiit^d on ono at^umptioti^ vhieh n tlut tb 
vunALtoiu ill the artrml blooiJ-pit^sfiire Riimt ■fTpcl tlir tititH*j 
tion of tbo beftrt in «ueb a vr\f tlmt tlM cxtiu vrork to bfl 
pcrfonued* ivlieii It la mia«d, |]joduceii a conespoDdfu;; oxtn 
power in tlio vi>ntriclo to overcom** th& iiddfd oUtJielo to it* 
ciniiractioti. Thp corotiarr \rj*t*-U hrinji; din*rt (>ff*ln»iitji fmna 
tbo aorta, ibeir Mood «iu»l vary in puj^uti' witb tli*i in tbdr 
mm ultm : &uU iIiin iu jublitbin to tbo aboi ^^^blalod focu, •]! 
t^ijds to prov^ that f'*-i nwlritiwi cf th* vxUU 0/ tf^ h^ari variH 
dirWtly CI* iht UootUprtm^wn in the fyrtom. 

Th«ve peeuli&TLtliM in ibo mwhani^m of tbt? cardiac 
bnve ft [lcfinit^tf*4« about tb^ro xrli<\i kuu be obtAined 
tlirough tli^ erapl^yFTiTiT rtf th*? fp1iy^'in»graph ; and I 
that tho above r^^nvarkt wiU lea<l others to repeat my ra 
mifot^ia daiii^ which I nm »Atiii(MHi tlini tli4*r will itiibataatiat 
tJiG accumcy oi my n^aulti. 

ADutumy uid rbyM^du^j" liny twl NombbfT, 1673- 




i \ 




F.g 5. 

y ■ ^ 


F.g 7 

^'^^ J3 


Fifi 9 

K y. A 

Tiie Field Telegrapli 




Dt a. ntLLIAttD ATTEieiLGa 
tPUTS CVllll 

y Hie ytsMt 1802* vberQ NapoleoQ wa4 Fifsb OooffuU llirre 
\rrived In Paric twa urtifAna of roitioTc. One of th«^ 
JeaD A^cxftndrr, bad invented n rudimcntaiy fona of the 
t4!lcgTupb, aiitl, witb hiii M^dcI BouumU, he haid Inft 
iLe little ootmti^ town fuli of bijfb hopr^ to submit bi» di** 
[«iv«nr to tiie ^i>at boUli'*r who wnB th^n ^liditj; the d^tiniefl 
«f Fnm?c. He reqiu'sl/^d a pr*r»<>nnl interview witk tl^o First 
ConnrU r?fii^Tig to nnniiniiiifiiti* lu« u-errr to ntiyoni* cUp. Hp 
,111 irtcncd Ifl U»c a*ti\nioruci" JMttinbrc, wIiotiv he KUccecdt-d 
iODviDcin^ of the raluie <»r hb Inveoliua ; «tSli, however, 
lining to reveal the way m ivhkh the olectric ni^mlet Vp-cr^ 
itl«d, iinle«B to Nnpolpoii him>i4"Tf. Dnt tht' latter 
Icfued to grant Ih*^ iri^nircd iiit^rvici*', MyiDg he Iiad no lime 
la ImubU liim-W'lt' wiih ^uoh iimtlt^r*: arid Alrxnndrr Ant] 
Bfft^Tw wCDt back ti> JVitu-r* io bitter dwdpimmtmcnt,* 

[«urw of liittory might hnvo hcen d^AQ^rd ; for bod he been 
Lto Becniv thn rxi'ltiBivt? juKvotyitni i>f Uir? ^bs'tnV frh*gT?iph, 
Cftsj to imAj^iic tlie olfcL't it would have hjid upim hin 
and how difKi^ult it wouhl }iav« Wen fitr rveti the 
umfoe of all liuropo to coni<Tiid ngaiDet a ^(nat i-^m- 
»6er, who, by *oino ►rcrrt, iiumiw iinkiiivwn la them, could 
ncciiratc And mRUiUtumHiue iatbrmation from i^wry 
of Ihn theatri; of war, mid flaali hln urdera ti> a/r^H'tttirit^n 
from liim and each olhi>r by mileiQ of country, wLili^ hi^ 
bad only to tnwt to Imnn'" iind couriei* tu cflny 
orders and ditirputchs^ 
A voy little study of tbo war^ of tbt; Fnnich ^c^'l>luLi4la, in 
ipvifon witb tliot** of OUT own time* will be sufficient to 
m what axi advantage the; tole^iqjh i& to tha mudtsiu coai- 


ropvLAR cauAcB xsnnr. 

tnanjli^. A striking irjct»ciM> of tbo extrviD* diffimiltT onH 
biQinj; Hie opcnUionH oi n^mic oarj^ or armies ia ilio sti 
Theatre ^f war. wLlhoul tbe Aid of Qic tolegrtpliT i« ulTmli^l 
tho hUlorrof the cnoapcu^i of 1796. in Uentuuiy, irbrtci Mom 
jiml Jttttrrlnin «vrrr ■^.trttng in <y)niT^n.'* agAlturt th« Austria 
The Archiitilu! UiArk:^ HI ft vkvM ri^tardittg force in front 
Maivaiiy ftliEli* h^ dSrvctt^l nil hiM &\iuIuUIb iimitfUi mg«ii 
JoiirdaQ; and Uie fonuer trcnont uu* acCiiAltjr advaadn^ 
trinmpU itimiigli Soutlurn 'Vnoaxi^', under l)ii» fhill i»iivfct| 
Uml hin ollcvtji:!!^ hri'l obt^nnl i^ UImt cuoMfU> to tht? »0Ttbvai 

while tbe Ultri Ihd it'LiulIy IwwH dfr^ttvl Hi Am]i**rg, Wrif 

biirf*f and Af^*lu(Ti.-tilnif', AHfl irivf>o liack uptMi tLo Khine. i 
Mon^LU uuly heard iif hledLsi^tpr in tiuie Ui favr* liiv artiiy fr 
dctmctioii by iburripdrrtr<«t throngtithodeOlNof the Bk 
Fuf<rt4. A« n contrail, to t!ii>, let iM isko Uie cninpugD of 19 
wL^n the two Prikfiuao unAtca advimcod from Mfianttc In 
into noliemia, Uyiu^ d-jv-n tlie Uiits <>f Uii? 1VW tc?lt?gn^ii 
th^y movnd forward^ vhiol), beiag c»nn<^}t«d by tlu! pennau 
tclc^mphic J^rrtcm of }^ony, krpi cAcb tumy in cjHkataiit « 
muuicutiou with Lht» otbvr, luii Uiiui «iiabkid thom t'i comb 
their (}jHrra,t)Oi», and 4it ItiUigtli imilowitli ikxuMvc cffi^an' 
batClelield of.Sitdowa. 

It u JLut t'lrcnty ycMir» mc^, fyt tbc litaL Uoivs thi* vhti 
tfllp^Tuph wa* ii**d iti tho fiitld, .iii'! to our own aniiy brku 
ih"; honcur cf having M tin? ifay in Jtfl adoptW, 1 
irt^QoU^ and batteriei bt^fore Se1»titopol won- i?«T<*rsed i 
coimcctcd by liue> of te1«STnpb« and tb« Freodi Hxm foUcM 
our ccxatiipW, iind oonatruct^d a almiUr sjitevi In ihmr tf 
liiic»; while kter on a cabl« lud acrois th« Black Sea] 
ihv nniu4.-« tn tlir l^old iit diriKt ccmmiuit^fition vltb Paifi i 

-Since that timo a re^^ilar telF>|;rapb corp* bnfl bonn iirgtli 
in Qverj EuTiqican army. And th« fiold telc^rapli woa uand 
t1i« Frrnrb in Itnly in 1859, ami in thnir oamp(«i^« «j[at 
the Knbylo* in Aljft^ria: and in Amcrio bolh thi* Fedcrai*! 
Conredeffata madp frty- xtw of pfrmianmt and tj^aponuy U 
durin|r tbo War of .St^^oo-^ion* tho Southern cardrj in pA 
puUr di'.-pl.iyin^j gr«vt dnnng and efit€q*hf*e in riding rw 
%ho fLuik* ftf tilt! Kodi^ml armies WKdng tbrir telr-ffraph III 
Amidin^ Hdwe innoaK^ ^ ibi- norlhrrn gRtiondii, ind tl 
cnjttinf; the line and Mirinf:; aa rapidly and »(;cTi'tly an tl 
rame. It wa^ bowevoTt in tlj<' Fmwian array. aiLd in 1b>> gp 
cnmpaifi^aeof 1804^ IKff!, mid {»7{Wi\ that mil mij 

atlaiiircl iti grcaL-tr. drvbipJiik-'iit ; nw\ iiRrr rl il^lv: 

tbnM* three wnr^ Iht Pru-'Aiaii Idcj^raph oorpi b fi 
most vfticiectt in Etuojfir, Wi' havo uUnul> sncin L-^ .^a 

T11K riKLiJ rKtJanRXi-ii. 


flii> cHiTipMlfpi of 1666,* and In 11^70 It ei^l^ 

network of wirt^ ovr^r tlio aorth-ooet of Fr&ncei that 
MoltW, Kitting in liis l>nii«iri nt Vt-ntiiTlfK, to mnv** hin 

M Qccitmli^lv nnd c^rtiiitjly ivt pi<My-i on u rlict^hciAnl ; 
1 Pari* ilwll" Ji tnri'li? uf (.elcj;ri[ili wiri-s — Llial ul zi 
flftabed jrdonnation of a eortie, and ordi-re for a rtiu- 
i of the thRAtmied point, to nviwy pnrt 4>f tip long 
rixty miliTfl, or which tbr V<*U'^ni my— ci>ntnbuto(l 
I lui aanU townnJ* tlic mlitctuin of the vtut fortipw iw 
Efcle of «14.-4>1 4iud tion, of batt^rii^ps ^^Hhwt^rktiT &nil 
bC^ vrliich, witliifut tbe L'^untrcting link of Uif fck^apli 
d not hftve b^^^n infLinlnined for a f^ingl^ month. Oo 
r: tli*T Kumcli (liji|ibjoI no less energy. The rrtjiilnr 
corpw wft* «htit up in Muia or lo*t at Sinlim : Ijiit n 
waj* orpxoised for tlit armies of l!ir Ri*public\ and 
the t*»leffrapb linr^ linkwl t'kgcrber the erpfliTit^, thfr 
outvoTKf, and the Wad-^iinrtcr* of tii^Uf^rftl Trodiu, 
in th<? ttw^'md sii*gi* of Ihe capiUl ihiii the Kruncb 
corptt obtained its (fu*tttat aTiccwfl. Durinif th© 
Id thB fitre^ta of PariF, En May 18T1, tbo moment a 
7D# takon, o telegraph «tAtion vm» cvtabliitbed in 
ning lioinp, and wbi'n nnotlirr po*t wiw t'jirriMi, th^ 
corpn mnJd npvin move forwanl with the troojWj and 
Mabon wan nbli? to wMfb r\'i-rv turn uf (he fight, and 
for e\-cTy coutJTJijt-ncy, in a way (lial othervist wmild 
en nT.t^rly ira|>"*wible. For onr*elvos, we )jave had no 
in war Nnco 1854; brit oiir ftnnicn have cAniod tbc 
)i with them into India and diina, and through tho 
and paa«v0 of ALycaimii; and now tho ''talking wire" 

1 fr'im Cii|ie C-mhT CuhII** tbmirgh the bunk, across the 
u* the licnrt of MV^-tcrn Africa, hanging; ou tho trcoa, 

nnd Ihrro n fi'w p^ilr*, iJif* wholr* having hfj-n rr<Ttrtl 
Leo kibourer*, ijn<Lcr the direction of a handful of Koyal 

ibj«ct of tbc iield telegraph ia to keep th& hi?adH^nartar« 
ly in (Xknuniinicalioit wiih its several ooqw, and at tb« 

ao with the £enc;ml t^'lt^j^-rnph yiy^t/rm of tbc conntry- 
niwiaiiarmy. wbfu thp trlti^ntjih tnrps w;ls n-tJi^miMrd 
f *»r of 186G, it wat fomKd mtj two diviftiorw— the 

Vrtcgrapb Divtbtoii and tlit? Etap]M^ii Divimod — with a 
Ibo rooTo client |Hirfonnanco of Ihci-o two *0TviceH, 

^ tbfl umivtine vlileh pneedal tli« tnatj of rrngne tn \^&\, thcr 
<ltifiUj**d frrcAt pfiriDJeMaow nboot Ibdr tflo^^nphic communl- 
Qmi ETiigps often ton down a liiiv to li]^lii tbrli Gi«a with (h» 



ulitt-h CMnUiiiiH aU>ul ISO nMn, ibdinlcftri; «fiA«nv 
^prrat<ir>t ]jii>ucr-rB, '«t»rkiu<'ii for the ttcdUtm «f thtt In 
<triv4}ri for the itaUon-f Btore-^ and b^sg«|»t-««c£ociak la 
Ainkic« llir tcK-^apli and mtiUri^ u« of couniet vcoj 
And wi« i^KjlII tli^rcCcim dciic-nW tlint f>f Um FmMUL 

fli^ turo «j»Qiia] p(fri4i>iu uf the fi«ld tvltipsph ^Tf 
Maiion iiml llio liau. In order that Uivrrv maj ol 
tJicltvi'ffd pJiico for crpctin^ t\o ttiEtnicDMitA mod tt^^. ^.^ 

it^tneof tuoro Vh'figifutiH fitted up uvtaUooc; bat vbarrrv i] 
liiOt r>f more tliAQ a few mmutcs >« made, add tl>ert b a 
tt)i1i.O)iiiMJn^avftilnl'1e fi>r that piirpo^p^ a Ulef^npb rtadoa 

*>U»lihfhrd in It bv removing tlio tnttfrirft uid 

friim th4^ irajcgni). Fig. 1 (PUf<* CVITI,) if&anntttltiM><dcftdi' 
a I'tumiuq 0tAUuD*vmfinr'ii ; liif. ]f beJUK a ei^'tioci of Um 
Tb4» wnffff^n it alvottt fV-. long, with nn &nt«ri«r h«igli 
4 ft* <i iu., ^ui u width of 4 ft. It u buill ae liifbtU » pft^l 
ftlMf, nml wrigliK ivhin Tovlnl o:dv 14 rwt., utid U tii^ff' 
itmvrn \>y two horjck« <>n ili? uttttfiai^ jirc two iiuuUtrd Uwt 
ooikiliicUira (r, fi|^. Z), to \vLk)i ^IrM cntj tv Ml;M:lmL \a^' 
Ihu Hiudd^nd ii & £h«]f witl^ a dnwi^i {d}t od wbEvb ihu inrftit-' 
inmt ff) can be p1a(V.vl wliFti in ubp, Hbd ofi^fitc ta cTtU it i| 
»oat or Uticli («) for th:; c^pc^tors on which n mAc can x^lorptf 
tii^ht* rndrir ilif^ m<»1 ih a r«ici<iw itt vhidi u ifHn^ ii - 
<^) i« kc^pU wlkik* tho I'aUi^ni'e are umui^ud La a box 
thmbLOr. When a meMikgB k to be seut from lIit' 
Kintion tho wn^on ia stopped, and tho linc-wiro u 4U^_:_. 
tUit itiif(ilrit<<d conductor (i)- T]i» » oonniTct^^i wlih 
jDhlnjincikt iind battery, and in onkr to complete the ctrcdtt] 
1b« WiU-T> ia placet) ict declrit^I cuiuintuiii:tt1ian with iW] 
vooond in»nlAtvd o*>ndn<-lt>r, to vfbiclt an<iUk«r wir« in ottadt«d| 
wiiiib j->i[i*i it to thr wirth-condiirtor or i>Ai'lJt<4fAk>.- itri/jart i] 
tf^rt-a) ((ig. Aj- TbtiA tliu coiirk.6 of tiio ciirmnt, whra tra&^J 
luiUiu^ u u^rnui^'c, is fxum tliv tatti^i^' to tJte i&ttriinjv-ni, 
^_r i\n* limt iniiiilat^d conductor («, %. 2) to t)i« lino of 
thr o-Aitb-pUlv of tlio recciTJitg etatioii Krlmni&g it la 
<r(irt}^-c(kndiictoi, driven into tho ground near the «nj;|*0Bf 
thtif^ buck by Ibr mrcond itLsiibxUrT conductor to tin- liatlirry. 
'jbcii:jptj-uu)tiic«are of tl.t^ Mitk- naic^ru, toottnu^tM^ 
to fit in a ve-rv ^mult space, and n!Coitiiiij: tbt.- fii^niab witb mk.] 
ThobattPTV^of wbicbtb^nt nrotwoin ^^chftation-wafQ^oa) i« 
nimplc fC'tiD of ?kL Moiic DavyV i^Ltpbatc of diciciltj bati 
It c<^inaifli«of loa vleuentg, cin« of whtf^h is uhann in f«ikm 
Uli' d ; (t) b n ctATCoal vwad* ounUinins ftilpWc of tni 
n)(iiEi4Tnc<] with water to the coam^i^ey of jiasle, ODd in tbj 

plftt« (s) U iuspeuded bj meaos of lb<^ andia-rublier 
(l). Tbd «lic»l« i» placed in tho itidia-niH^r vn^nel (/)^ 
aul a copper collar {^v) iJ* added, !<» which a cniinrctin^ wire 
an bw &tUicl)«d. Thi* lultery Iium lln? advujiiu.^ i>f being vur/ 
pKtablc, vEulc the Judia-nibbor covtr prcvc-i^te tbo cliarj;a of 
fdphaieofinCTCTiTjfromlwirLgppih byiheifiotioB of tln» wng^pjn, 

Tb^ tmc may bo eithor an nerinJ or a i^ound vrire, or n com- 
bitttTi<^n of boUi, tl]<» former lieiug Firrtchcd on poW, whiLo 
Uic latter U iomibit^d by King f uhU^f^^ iii o hgfit cuLlei about 
^alf nD inch tlik-k, and laid aloDg Ly t1i49 road sldts or acrosa 
lb< ficldf. The tminsutatcd wire and th^ coble arc both iaaucd 
to Uv tHr^kjib rorpx rx>ilc;d f^n smnll diurus several of whinh 
AJG cnrriiHl by nitch t(tore-wu^'^ciQ< In tboea coiDpanJca vrbioh 
w 111 ejozt a wire sLrHLtlieil uu piilea, tUtj wugguu uirritft* five 
£D|;li£b milvfl of uniDfiuIalcd ^U'ADiacd iron wirrs on<^ mile 
ioRilat^d iu giitta p<'rrha, 1,000 viinl* of thi? cnble, nud 300 
p«Ieii with ii;«u]u1on attochudt oJl thu wire being coilod on 
twrUt' drunw. If iL in uiti^T^ded Lo luy a gtouu^l Hut?, Hits 
mrnt^i^ifQ earn«« elevven dmnB of tbe cable, one of wire eovor^ 
icitk a light ci>nt of gutta pcrcbn and tnirtxi homp, And a few 
pvletvid itttuktorn, for curryiug the* Htte acrom »iinall boUovn, 
Of nkuditjj it overlictid id crosain^ londti. TV-iiik tlit^n atorc« 
th« waj;;i*on ccnlaiEs all tli« tooh^ Dec<»^ry for the work, and a 
li^bt iilep-ladder u buDg imdcmcath it< 

Tbe wirp ir nne'^ilcd from the dxumg by placing them ettc- 
cetdvcLy on a hnnd-bnjrTOvr, firom which it is poid out m tbo 
barrow i* carriwl along. The baud-barrow ( iig. 3) coitrUUt of 
a Utfht iron frame, wtth wuodcu Ic^ und hjimllni, whtuh aie 
lttd» to ibid lip when not in tiiw. Un tXm framo the dnim (a) 
placed ; one man carric* it in front and two bchimi, the wiic 
ismtiling and mnDttig out lu^lwnn thorn. A whfii'UUuTow 
(6^. 4> is eometimefl oinplnytd, and is improvued for this 
purpc«e hy atlaching ir»>n handlr>i (f/) to the Kt^l adder {hb) 
iod placing it on a pair of Iifht iron whecli^ (■?), the drum (a) 
bring hung in ii KJc*kpL near Ihe tup of the huMi^r. 

Tbo polc0 aro made of well-«<aBOD<>d and Bt'1i>ctod rod piiu% 
■boiit 12 ft* long and a little more tlian an inch tliick. At the 
boUom it on iron point for Cizinj; them in tho ground, and at tha 
top a cockrt (a» tig. 6) «f Lhc Mutitf tiitrtjil. with n WUiw Ktrw to 
ftjceive tho»piudToorvt«m of th^ insulator. XIuh cotiaiel^ of 
an tToii fcpiudle (£), with a tnalo bcivw rut in it, whidi bup- 
pona oiib*T n cap of gritli* perchn (.'/) or an onrthonwaro cup 
fliuniountr<] by a metal LtiU. In UjUi ciuw thnrc in uu the top 
of tbo Mutilator A mctalhook^a), in which the Unowir^inhun^. 
Tbevi? art- alao insolatore» tho spindlee of which t«rmiiiat« iu 
ipik«aor thaq^ ACfvwd for driving inCi> wilU and tre«a, thus 
■nJns tlie tfcuble cf er^tliiig a puat (fig. 9}- 

TOt- iin.— ^NO. u. L ** 



rorm^Au stitKcit ekview. 

WhAii nil tJi«! wire of Ibe find dnira ix Uiil dowB, thn 9Q1] f| 
it i« roufc^ly »pliovd on to the vm of the ovxt Jnim, kq.I the 
joint B^ciired by meanfl of IJip crnneclor (ig. T, PULe CVUL^ 
This corrhU of two lomi -cylindrical piec«»of liAnl wood (^ 
th^tr Hnt. Mid<7 beh]^ gT\)n\<Hl to ilt^ivr Ui<! wins Aod didH 
with a ItijM of icdi^TuVljer 1,^) to act &» pocLinj^* ond t&afl| 
tim juiulr iu ilia caim of Ji ^oitud Utti% tmi) Uicf vrb»1p u luU 
ti^'btly toother by the bnu« colUr Aod BCfev (oc^y fi|*. S). , 

The Itnr u vcvj rvipidly find cttnly comtmctod. In tlnfr om 
of a ground line it is sarnply paid out fioA Uia druBMO&ttA 
hnml- or wljL-el-biUTuw, Ivetng bt;rted m a (h^dlow tnticll S 
vlevat^d on poles, nhon it in D^oecsary to orow a road, ^HJ 
tite biBulation of the <%blc might otlicrwiao b« iigured 1m^| 
wb«4?]H of piutjng vehicliji:. During the invucdon of FraiK^H 
IVufSKinnf frtH^ucntlj avoided the roodi in order to ptfiotcnH 
line fi-om the /r<.tnctlrffurst and made ootulderabtt- dU^ft, 
couocaliijff it ia woodst lavintaand watercouiaca. Mliere lbs 
unlnauLntnd virc i^ utmd, po1«i«»«nt>etod about Hfty paoe«aili^ 
tli« hok to receive each poli^ betnj; mado by driving a ump 
pointed iran bar int'> the ground with a b««Ty mAllot- M 
soon ae a pob is fixed the wire h I'rin tiiTDUgb tlte hoitk oa the 
top of the iDSulator, mid Htri^lchml tight by a tnnxi hk>ldin^ it 
ever hifl ahoiildcr, ^'ho kccpi it in thit partition until tbcMdi 
pole is reii-dy to rwit-ivo it, TVlirti-iY-r there nro trci* or oafll 
near tl:e line, thu vork U etiU further JigLt«ned by di^prnna^ 
with lb** polps, am5 mrrply alTarhitig fhf wire to the llWthCOIS 
apociolly coD^t^lctcd for thi» fiiirpoH;. in thiii way Cbe lina 
wai erecl^i] fur Chti AnLkutH' p^tpt-ilitianT tJir naigro Inbaurm 
QUTylDg: only a li|*bt ladder tL> aacend the tf««d, a lonal] axe ta 
claar a\vay tlie btnij^bs and a gimlet to mako tliti lioli' fnr iba 
epilKUd ofth^ inf^iiUitor. It never took, wo are intonut'dt mom 
than 1iv<i iiuniLti^K Ut fix au tttMihilttr tn a trite ; but, jn thoat 
fvv/ plac'OH wbvr« treus wt>re not avaiUble, lidly Jiaif aji bon 
was iH^'i'upied iu eiectiog ^avli pole, and eveu ihtru it wusi^a 
un^toady aad had to bo ptopprrd ami gayorb ,^H 

In Kiuope, vliftn? tln^in i* an r>tca»ivt tcUiginph syst^^^ 
opemtioQ in every cotintrv-, there U no nocd of th^ hotd^H 
grapli liuen exti^ndiu^ fioin the front of tli« ^nuy Ui Um* ^H 
of operations. Far less than thiir if rixjuired. All that Uii^^l 
aacy ia ta connect the hoatl-t^nartci'* of the anny wili^^| 
Twoawt point on a permaiK'rit Ul^^^mph line, and in B^^ 
Rurom^j Gountrie«i an lumy iu th^ held wiAild nrldoou U 
erer, be more tlmn teomile« from nioh a iine. Ten mile* of tha 
field telegraph can easily be rrcetcd in half a day; tinkiidt 
tha Austrian anginoen aat^il that od fttvournblo grotmd th^ 
could do the work in two hout^> In moA coses, of cout^ev the 
advanelDg army wcKild baw to repair tbe pennanemt linaa 



ftifh would bu pftrtiallf doiCroycd bjr tim rcitiratJng forces 

nd (n this way Lwenty-li^'e milt*!* of win* w^rr of»CTi erected by 

tit Pru^ana in li flinglo day. As »v>ou as An iirmy mov«« 

fi/iiinnl, tbr flnlH lAlpgr.iph lin^ previously ^re-cted U talc^n 

6»o ftnd ro-coilcd on th:* dnim», while a frosh line ia Uid 

Irum thfl i[cw hi^ail-ciniirters to thr m.*jir* fx-rmimmt t^le- 

I ptph. This i* done witii a vIl'w U> ecoT]omiHin^,- the motcrialt 

I u oncBnnom UQount of whicb would li^^vi^ tu be i^JiFrii-cl with 

tk ftToiy, if tho Iraes it loft behind it in iti odrancf^ vrorr tiob 

I r«DOT>d, iinrl Lbr pnh"*, vite Hiid iti^ulnfArA ifmplny^id in their 

' e«RractioD ojftkin ii1ilU(<d. Tho Imnd-larrowfi of the Auetnan 

idtgTspb oirpB Hrc tlMi^Turd lo W TiHtnl in rt-(<;ri1tiig xi wHl ai 

' ttifcilifi]; the wire; and for this pTirpoee ar^ fitted witii a crank 

budk? uid mT<'lii't*w]K<rli^. >■"» an to t:EiAb1e a tnnn to turn tho 

I Innii Jind wind thu cable* upuc it* 

I Be<ido» l1]« ordinary fibld Ulc'^apli comp&nirSf the French 

imy tiidudc« a mountain telegraph corps, orf;an!ted with n 

ric« to opcniitioiu on the moiiDtiiiDom fronlitrft of th^- aoulli, or 

' u> bt rcndy to rn,Txy n line ov«r a Ttngti of hilla in nn ordinftiy 

' d^«i^, thiu avojdinff a Ion|C <Utme.r in the vatlrys, or jkcciu^ 

I ^hteral cvminiini cation with t^opa divided from the main 

111^ by ihv hlQs. As the mountain lino would havr; to W 

bU along nfirrow rocky pnt.hK, and thr^ngh lofty pQsge«; all 

«Kriigce and waggOD* nro di«pcn«c-d with, nn*\ thcii: place ie 

Uttfi by a train ^ mule*. In & niount^iu f^legrnph company 

ftVeiftl erf the muldi are each ladtru wltb two drums of the insu* 

IM cable^tho lnAttiun«LTiti antl battrHrs nr« carried on pack- 

■i^M on the back« of othfr^ and olhrrs o^in transport the 

lM^ig«, pr^ridonii, and foxnga of thi* cnnijiimvii nlso a 

li^ tent to form a vtaticn whenever me^sfLges ure to be sent 

mg the line. 

whito thr- field telegraph affonls n commander a rapid and 

catain mnliiim fifpnmmuuiifit.iHii mth liis bn*r of opf^rationa 

■d the rartoua corptt of hii army, it mual bo rem^nlicrcd that 

'il b 0D« vhlch ifi oontinndly liable to fntemipllon \y an 

vUrpvfoSnf^ cnetny. Wherovox n general ha« to contond with 

M army'wrll providr>d with gpt^t\ (^^-idry, br will find It 

lrin9Dftelj <li6ioidt to proU^ct Uifi tvle^^mpb linee from boin^ 

^BtoyEd by ilarinff raids of his ^ppatienU. ThtrjL- fire pw-vprtu 

wy way^ of making; a telof^ph tine t«mpi>nmly uselcve. 

^ftidmple^t and mntl ohvimii^ method in to pull ilnwn the 

^B nd cut the wim into picetii ; but when ihU Sfl done tho 

^Bb^ u ennily drlecttnit ^'l^I thti repairs at ono^ coauneiny^l. 

^VteterrupUon wiUt tbeTef>re, ho far more fierioua if it c&n 

^Bbeled in a way wbicli will not pcnnit of itr» r-Xhot locality 

^^^ 00 reidily diiicovpnid. Tlibt can b« doiie by entting tho 

tire^ introdnoiBg a piece of j^jtta percba* oi any otJicr non- 


rorciAA aoDcx Bsnnr. 

cooductiu mlvtaaoe into the couno of tiie circuit* asd f<a- 
nccdttg tie dkda of i1i« wfre» with ii, ao aa to f^ve it lb 
ftppcttttiMc of oii« of Ui« ordiMrrjoiitta of aplice« 4>f U>c litft 
At tli« miaf timr a frv poU« can be pn11«cl dnvn in uotbtf 
phcc, and tli^ Tirc« cut, aod the proWbtlity i« tint tk 
CDgiDMn vto t^padr tbe line will not diBcover tlie Udte 
iotOTuption of the cixciut UDtil ftfl«r the; liftTO rcetofOd^H 
ga{k, «ni] found that thctwi'rvt Istdll cut eomewli^rp Alttt^uid^l 
tbcDthc plac«wbcr« the iMQ-conduotnt; mibtftoDcc >< >4H 
dooedwin wti \m Ui^i^ereil un(U comu Ume hu Wp S' 
plo^ ID carelullj Uoti^t; iUt- Un^ with tbo f||«!vtt&omotcr. 

But thf<m am other dnn^r* U> M^^ntfh\c coirmunicfttjooii 
the fic^ld hccsdc* the mttc ilumei^ to the 1ifio> If tho <aMk 
csialry |(et puuRMioii t^f h. M^itioti, tliey mit «i«u(i1y m^ ^M 
ne^ ccntainiu^ falf^ i&foni)atiL>D or (l«lufiv« ordon* to^| 
bDown oflict'r* of tb*.* oppiwln^ force* while f.Tio place ^| 
which thov nro wot, nnd tho cuviiitiexI niimo to which th^ i 
dopBtched, wilt give tlti' rirv(«.igi-T( »tt appcsuaticc of ftDtbO" 
ticity which, if it do«« not completely deceive tho r^eipwV 
will at le^'^t ho the cau^e uf coiiuderaUe doubt aud ptrrpietiL* 
to him, and perhipc mak^ him h««itate to (tcc«pt tho acciinf 
inioriiiaiio]] or aiiifkrnlic nnlr^ix ri^ucivo<l frcMU other mmcifc 
AgftiDt «veEi wilhout oi^vupyin^ a station, it if poMibl« to mi 
the messages wliicli ajt' itajaiun abng a telegraph UnOtUidtt* 
perhaps discs>v^ ioiportant w^Tcts. All that i« requbvd fir 
this purpose is zl umAll portable rcceivme tutniQMQt, and aCc« 
yards of copper wire.' to connect it with the lino, A liugt^ 
individual, thua equippird, cam "tap" a telegraph line, ia 0* 
dny titn^, by receiving the nie*sjiK» in th«» ordinary way ; m6 * 
ni^ht (wheii, of course, it wonid be ccwicr to opprooob the line 
hy li^iteniiig to llir <:Uok]ng of tin- umintiire ngHiiiii Uir cJeetro- 
ina^ct of the inetrLUutTit, But all tht^t ^aq^fs arc onlj of l 
purtial or T^mpomry cliarftcter- By cnrefiilly pntroUiDg is 
testing tlio liuei it cannot bo ititcmtpU^ for any length of tis 
without the damage bdngoWrviHl and n^puiTvil. By luloptisf^ 
pccnt arnm^emeut that ihtre Bhdl to a ofrtAin numbcf d 
letters in t}^ ivn or three words at the tw^rlgniiig ^r end ol 
•▼OTT meiogt, a doapatoh eent by oa enemy can in most caid 
hf^ clrt^vtifMl ; and again, ljy «;mp1oyiiig n cipher alphnbrtf il 
will be difiKeult for azkyone who t«pa tbe Line to obtnin int^yma 
tion from th« menegM which fall into hif hands. 

From thi« brief fkctdi of tho etnictiiro and ife»e« of Hyt Ml 
telograph the reader will iindorft»nd what an important part i 
playt is tcodem war. On the oiarch it direeta the nioremaDi 
of (idt^iii-iD^ cvtliaoBii «a the Itttlh^fie^d it flaidits milan «Qi 
information with tbe ff>«ed of thovfrht to right, «<ein^ umI Id 
of tbe iDiineaf« liuM extended over nile after mile of txxmtrt 

nUbflgincrcrddric^it jlar^ the whaT? cii^fencf fVom momtnt to 
taflBwnttuiderlhc- cyvn of t)i(>Mr mtrurtod ivjth iUdirMtioQ^Uid 
khof uo la^ taIue? ill llie attjick. It iifl not tcxj much to H^y, 
Alt without this wi>Lidrous powur it would bu slmoat impos- 
&Id to direct tUe Lau^Tuaeiitii of llie thmiMiuJn on tbou^OiiidA of 
BtfB,vxl ^uiit: nnd horn^, wh^ch form tli^ VR^t armioit of Con- 
tiftoital Eurcpc. It h>v cITccU^d ti rrvolution in roilitarj 
ixone tiie l€i« important bL-cuu>M it ii^ hidden from the 
viciT, «nd aeldom at^^^t^ tlie attention of even tbo 
^qdtAiiK vpncinl '^:l^^(■«pnnd«■^t, Artopd witli nil tlitr wi^LpouK 
ffaich invontivc grniii^ and mrnhimical skill can devises tho 
rwt^m commander hai tho li^htntui^ alvu to do liia work, i^nd 
Uif dcctric current j:liding on it* ftL-cret jiatU Uirougli the wido 
art^wl: iif rablo und wire tz-IU Mm whit i« piwHing eacli Iioiir 
ittbi; rcnaot4.^t pnrlf of tJic tbcntre of wor, and trauamtls th« 
EiiDdat«4 wliieb decide tlu* fute of itution^. 



. 1. 











4 , 





SffCtiriQ of th« BUnv. 

KnrtL -oonduutor* 

Tol«gnpb potc, axkotr and Liuabitor. 


Tktf UpM ult<izmj'b. «jn-i- Llutvinrc supporlwl Aft 



SO much hat b^^n nlreadv writtvn aV^ut ib% potato diifiUi^ 
that it mifrht rcBMDaUj be 6<yubUid wMb«r anjrtlani 
tmHi ooiildt at tbo pi««oiit U1110, be plaoed on record. Il 1 
tmdicfiiAbly true Uvt noarlr all our koofr!«!pd of facte \ 
htat publitk^ over and over a|;Bfti, ncd It m^ist be e^nfm/* 
thai ibtwd fact^ bavi; been ftddod bat littJc t>) smoc Ihou 
original publication by Hf-rlti^Irv. M<itiUignr, Dwf Rary uvlA 
otbcrfl; but at tbo Aene tiruo maav «idc Ii||btd Jmrc \/ttm 
Tccontly tlirown 011 llie «LttJH:t of the ^e/Ma diff«ue by anaM 

C found amon^t other fuDgi, aad by actiul oxpt-riuMttU 
rvaLioiD and i>xpfvin]<-ni hAv«i, vLtltotit ilnuhU bi^^n (F^^ 
Btimulatcd byUi« active mc04Urc« 8ct 00 fool h^ ibc R(»;i 
Agricultural Sonct^ in ofTrrirg prixi^ for mfdititicial iiifomn 
tioiif and diflcflifo^proof Toricti^t tbu vflbrt to elicit a awr 
Cloinplete knowl^i^'e of tbe potfLto db«u«e ended fn £uibin\ ani 
tthotbcr tb<^ taoro rocoot action in regard to '^di^a^^proof 
viuridjes nill tt^nnitiato in iho mntr imnarf timi^ mn odI 
ohoir. Foffiubj^ta haver bocra moro wriLtcn about by incofQ 
prlf^ui jipntuEin Ibnii tbe piiUtti dtwaw. ttxttl uiatty LuudtriUf 
publifibed ee^yt (iaclndiD!*, perbape^ tb« niDeCy aul^mitlod i 
competition for Lord CTitLcailV prue) atr of little value 
t1i<i iiorticnlttuml pioai for tbo but thtrtj yoan ba* t^^oio 
vitb ocimmEjuknticicw of tbo motfl ^xittblcsiobaiiictcr nn tbi 
v«z«d «ulijei*! in letters whitrh bnve pointed to <v>ccliiiii^tki il 
evf-Tj djjectk*u but tbc ligbt ontr ; tbc deduclwn^ an<l mult 
of one wriu-r l>riiig invaiUUIy ditly contradict^ or tiTiUilii* 
hy tbc cxpcrimt^nU nnd conclnaio&« of nnotbcT* Tbc- bivtoi^ c 
Iho tiM appearan^-e of the pouto diteaAe baa been ably uritta 
by BorkcUy iu tbc fint volume of Uio "Journal of lite Bon 
liorticTjiltuml SoHnTir" and ihit biRtorjr bajs l>opn nFprodticed 1 
ftO matiy diHWmt' fonun unci placrii. that wi? think it Wttrr 1 
pa» it over al. oloc vilb tbe m<<ro rdVrrMKw to iu jv>aitinc 
A vcffj prcdM and clear account of tbo diMue it^*li from 
KCwDtific point of vicv — and onfi embracing all oilt tuo 


hlulib WnowLodgo of tho enbjcrcU jpi^rinp 0%'crylhin;:: Irnt dry 
iub— ]t&« roccuUy hinn wrtU^Mi tor tin: ^*Jo;irniil of thi; Hoval 
Sooietj'* (\x>l. ix. p. I), in alwut 150 Lines by 
OvTuthfiT^, the Kecrper oi tJie BuUutejil Dcfiuttiumi of 
ik British Miideum ; to aay one desiring a r^^i^mii^ of &1L tbat 
ii lotUAllj kjiowD, written in the fewest poHuhLe wojdn, we 
eonuEuad thii euciy. 

To men of ecieiLcvt-, ami hidwd to incj>(L intcHi^rtit' rradm 

(Uunkft to tJie popubr Hoiet^nfio publicntiorti^ ci tbt- i^'^v), the 

haf^ iUtlf is Qow filmMt ^vi well known ujt titu cmiuutmeat 

wyudo pliuLt; but for Ji eoinpU.'to conipr«h(rD»Ljn i>f Pero- 

no^fom tTifaianSf Anii iiti habil of ltfe,gttc Dot oiJy requires 

10 p«dec1l5 know IhiB unit liy itself, but all iU imTncdiato 

dli«a»aiid indcod moat othor funfp. Witbout tliia knowledge 

«M IK fipt to givt- grmtrT impoHanon tn Ciprtniu fncts in its 

Jife histojy tluin tbcy dc.»rrvc, and i<i ignore tlie grejittT im- 

|ortuiefl of i^^rtaiu oilu-i^ hecuiue ib^y m:iy u|ip<mr iu thi^m* 

Nlfcfl to bo trivial. 

Wp will pftwi by thowwriU^rB, wboAp viows m<wt be worth- 
low, who pcr^i^t^ntl^ tronfti^c '*Eoo»porc*" witli **oo8poroe" 
{■nd i!vrtj hdrruiiji)^ niid w]h> arlli^ :it( if our* iinmr wim ^- 
lKioyin<KiH wilb tbL- otber two, "Zoosporea" an-\ of couwc, 
tknc bodi^ found un tbt^ frmtlrg threads (if P^mrioHpord 
(fonnod wjlhin cortmn privileged lareor «pore«, by a diAeren- 
taatum nf Xhv-W {umleiitx^^uiid wliif'li, wlii^n wl fret^, movt* Hbout 
hk« antmalculett by moans cf cilia; wliiUt '* ooiiporc^'^ art 
fiiuud on Uu* myix'lium (biirif^U in tlii< tiKi<tu-j< of lh<< Kiipporting 
plsnt)t and formed by tdt^ diacliart^L* of tho eoiileatu ot u body 
oAving aiitJjiT-likifi ^nialitir^ intu ^mother body, whirli tir'iirst au 
<vffant«in vomrwhat luialo^ouA with tbo cvulo in llowe4'ir^ plants. 
Snerotia proper* which Pamjweip'irxt inftaittiif* may or mjty nob 
hav^i are r^lly knou of deiuoly oampacted myc«htitii, piubnbly 
ionocd by the mye^^lial threads of th^ fitngus v/indLiii; Iht^iu- 
Mtw« rotiud uid round eaidi otlicr in n Icnr^t-likn fnj^hiun^ ^^''by 
the Enyoelium of oertain ftiti^ ahoiili^ pn^i^ru tliit function it is 
lUAtfult to ^y, but It iti ii<>verthi-]t'H3 a itnH that thtj myc'uLum 
ofVAtty of the hiifher fiiugi itivariably fcts tonipactod in this 
«By- Thn potato fnngtiH producer iporcfl mid J^rjotpore?, by 
wkich it propogiitm it^If; md mort writer* compilcnt to 
brm an opinion cotiiidL-r it M^bly probabli* that "o.jMporeji" 
ir« a\m produtxd on ih^ myccUujo, bccJiuae, though uover 
jEt Miftu in connection witli this potato-fungi is itself, these 
'^wtcpvmi" are poroduccd en thu tbrcods of other and allied 
apeoieo of Ptrnmotqirmi. It in aluo unecTlain wh^theT thi* 
ny^lium f:eifl (i>mpnoU-d inV> the BnmU knotty bodies called 
KcWol in ; bnt it llf^pras reasonable to awnme that dorinji wjnier 
t^e fuogiu rc^ in the form of ootpor^j ^'V microtia i or wboxc 


rorvi^ft KiCMCft sbtict. 

can ilir funiins roin« fixim the foltoving jr^ &fti^ a rot of nine 
moQlbi? 3loina;*ti« and Berk*l<?j harB n*fi?rr«d a! soma Ifli^ 
tu a lotl; (dubiooa to luj fouod in a|)^iic |MUto^«, nxtd di^ 
gcnbed mairr y««ra ago a* a *vcon4 form ^f fmit of Perojiotjjam 
ii\/<Hanf, xitrfcr the nunc ot Artotro>jv^, ThU ttxay eicn- 
tiLoUy prow to Ijtf » MfCOiuJ form of fniit of our pbint ; hn 
Oiou^li M^mla^L' ttiidi'ii1jt4!<ilv fuui^ 9om/thini^ wdich be mM 
to lierk*»W, bo p«.W4y n*\"ier met irjth it ag«iv, and wn 
believe no oW-fTcr htA ever met with a tni«! of il uncci At 
the tiiiif of it« Tim ob«(*rviittun aod (k*wn]>tii>n grv&t atrectlovi 
^raa flirected to PciViKt^purtt^ to tlw coiiat-4|ueQl ni-t^Jficl of all 
the otbi?r iripmherB of ibo vaar fongoid amy e^mmftn pdiw^I 
on spent potatoo« : tJtd thii» 10 the rcoMD* wo imn^net vhj 
ArUittiirjuji WH* r^fcTntl I0 /Vmno*jwjm ; for it migbt, wltJi 
tf{\2h\ rvcbioTii liaiTO beea n^ft^rrccJ to n Iht^* nmnbrr of oihe 
ftpeciea hclon^irtg ii> \ery diverse i^nera, j^nlgfug IW»ui tbi 
Diimbcr of if'^^v^fiTt**, Ae-, common upon decaying prttaloc*- 

Wrrjinuut fk-l|) t.hiiikiii}^ that ntidiii* im|)i^r(jifirr hiw l>rn« 
givcii to tla' uoinii-oovuryof ooflpoivjin FartftKMpvra. 1 
liy Hum*- it^L'L'iit wnUTH, wIid hnve laM tjuil thrii J J 

discovery mij^bt help ua to doetor our potatoes in winter, 
■8t> gft rid of tlie rliwuc: it (^rtainlj wenjn flmngi; that a 
pr^iwiit v/v knmv tto litUo of the wmt«-r liUt of thiti mouM afU 
nudi iitii-'MLsJiijr ^™^h hrt* hrrii uiiiiIk hv suo iiiaiij *}inqi Mmli-tiN 
foraudta Diinilitirolyt<ars: it is doubtful v^ether ftcy utoouB 
-of dtrcUtring will kill thcdt^eo^L' uvitl^oiif Jf»Lri>yii>'^ tho polat 
'Own if ocMporoM or )>oloiotin ore iihimnt^ly duco^-crcd* Man; 
oljiirn't-rf hav4<uot«ilthcnin.-Ll1iiutnhrT(0i)mctimc»«>1ircahai?Bi» 
of mycelial threads in the cellular tfAteu« of di ww tgd polaton, 
that it recently became an inteiYiAting^t toobflvrv^'a den»ir iny 
colium p^mieikr itLg ihn r-nrth in the neigh Wjihood of ditMsr 

Ctoctt in ftomc cxprriEnciitit conducted \iy iim. UnfoftitDstcljf 
*ver, niywL'al tliresidii do not nenerally preaeni mavkf* 
dijflinctivc cLaracte»ft ao tliat ft would be impoeaible to lefs 
thew t'lrvuuiit tr> Ftronofjpcra in prefpr^nc« to nnv of th« othc 
moulds, ^o.. common upon hilbv and tubers. The multi 
our eiperiuiculH HLtin^ri-l, howirrrr, lo poiut to llie iXfcuwiljr Q 
cxatninini; o^rvfully the earth fn^m whioh dieeftHd potatootf 
tidcrn. Tbf hnhiu of tiiyri#!|Irim whilHt tn n highly eondcBM 
t/tAUt ore W'ttvr known amnn^t the higher fu&ici ; and, a« an in 
leruaLin^ luidanee in poiui> wa may mcfiatiuii a caan which cam 
undar our owa ohMr^ation lost autiiino in T«eanl to Ttfph^ 
ph/ict>rThh*i, Fr., wldd) plunt ^ sHid |Eettftrally 1^ i^lirinK fn^ 
a eclerotiiiui, rmd of wtiioli Berkeley mjs, in Kif " Introdiictio 
to CiyptOj^jtiiiii: It'>ljuiy," tiiat it ffi^^v^ indi>ciiiiiiiin1rly lt 
Sti^mwni c^npttinaXum, uad S. tieHUlt<itutfi -, and tbat it 
oot improbable tJtat loth are cuutioctod states of th« 7)fpktAU 

^ID^ U'^KTH O^l TIIK iTn^tCl mSRASK. 



like tlie Uibeiir>rm liasf* «f Afjari^^iis luhtfrosHU, cif which wt» 
f^&ll have moT*> ti haj nnon- Tho broth^n Titln^ne haT<* laii^i^l 
nt BrrtipU't's U\m fif oup perrfvot nljitil 'iprfnginy FnifTi two divrr**' 
eclcrotiA, out' uf which in said to Iip pLvnIutr tci Hprmj;, finU ihfs 
oUit^r 1*) AiiLuiiiii tuitl winder ; bul. when na l)ezir in muid tbiit 
" ScWrotium ^' iean nUrtgetherepunou^g^niifl founded on insiirf)- 
^rtlt mntfrriii!, wis W1iov<; that our f'lnincrit myrologift, Mr, 
BorkoUy, will tm fwiud in th^ und to Iw qiuto rij^liL Hv Unit 
Is it niajr, it ^ppear^ tlml Mr. Tit^niiy f-nmd a UitcL of Lbr\>» 
•cl«(OCia (Aid to ho p^culinr to desd kav^f ( on the ^\\U of de- 
Ctjiog A^ricfl — prolwil'lv plants of A^at-huf n^ndarie^ 
BAtM^li. — and fci>pt thcin in jv druti stutfl \x\ hU pocfcot-book for 
*ArM year^ till last autumn^ when he icavc them to Dr. Bull, of 
Heri^ford, uid reqiieit^d him to plam lhc*m, whidi he acoord- 
iliffly did in a flowt^r-pot. After a •hort intcnal of five or #ix 
WMikiiT nnd ju^. iit IIip time of tlin Hnrofonl " Kiin^m- 
farmr," ftl) thcoo ScUrotla h;id grown ^nd piinhc^d up thf!Lr heads 
Ibrou^b ih^ eArthf In the fonn of nuinvruiLi perfL'Ct plants of 
lypftWa ph^KGri'hi^sa^ a hfind^ome aud tnimewhtht raro fun^ist 
in >IiApi* likn n lon^ yellow thrr-iul nr club. It u vi^rv MngaUr 
Uint thcve iDcinhcrH of tho onkr Cl<ivayi^ *houhl ntive hoen 
fotuid in a AclemtioM cnndition upon tli^jif^ElUof a whii44 Hpored 
agvio iA^arictu nthufarig, IfiitJdchi)^ which is notorious for 
jffDdncing an(>thnr tij^TW {A. f^ivr-inn^ttt^ \^\ with ptnk *iporft9 
upOTl the top of it* ptioiifl. it ia aljrf) Wijrthy of lioti> that in 
ntnt^ iii>tiitioi-n Iwo pliuiLs grew rrnui on« itclt^ndiimi, and, a* a 
lulo, tlie tKi^roliti were distinctly io paira, a Jari*i> ap(?cimi?o hy 
the aide of & unaller on« : thia hahit> for which vo can offer no 
proper «n>hinat,ion, ic also common in the eneo of Affar-icus tu- 
mmt i m (Hull). 4ml In Ixith cju-^i-^ wr havi' Kt-eu n Hiugli- {H'lfi^i^t 
plutt KuppLirtrd <>u two tuborifurin LaEVfi, cauAt*d W thu dhootit 
Ifciiui Lhu tubera (.'oult^cin^ at nii i^arly pt-iiuU uf ihetr ginwLli, 
W» ftre tiod^T the dUtinci impro«ion» Uam actunl eitp<'nmf*nt, 
th»t fiingii»*»por4-* ntr ^nnmlly vrry jih*)ri-li\<T<t^ and thu^t. thi*y 
tt« almo*t iiu mediately deatroycd by dry air or too much moi»- 
tevi aad ant only saved from dt'itruotion by theu iiaipefUate 
gvnniualion sLfter leiLving th^^ pai-K<nt phinl, and ao fonitin;; 
dciuc masKi of myccliuin, which .ire able to more ^ccVaaMy 
ncitt wet and drought. Tht? xhurtno!fli of life in funiirus ■poroi 
need not oauae ua purprise vrhi-a we remcmlwr how ahort-livcd 
the tni« B^ds of some flowoHng plnnte arcs ^ in the Umb'^ii-- 
fyt<9w t am aaFurcd by a prac-ricnl plant and «Rcd-^ow<*r, that 
th* tannU of itrtine sipreicn tif Fajvittt will nuL (f<*rmiaate if they 
ha^'c been gatijtrtd for raoro lJ»aji two ww-ka, whiUt ainon(; the 
loa^livod *eed^ of (hi* Lfijitviijiosir-^ Riimo fipecies of Acscin 
have b««n known to reat for three year? before c^rmination 
took p1«iMt (iiiilrsa ihif oiitrr csoat of Lla? mmU hiul Itceu cut 



beforo pLknting). A ml cloftrJy tnlci.ii plaoc villi tho flnupu 
wbicli prorliiora Uk; polaLa [lifva:ti! ; but it doiM DOl CoUovr tkit 
bocauae w« cut bftbt u|>«n tbu fuiijq:iia in & rw^og condition, 
fai« can tberafore deaiojr lU Ii is not at hU ixD|ffo»blc tlut it< 
nnnt«r lif«^ mnv re«i4lo in cxtromcty fina C4>mpact«d ibrcftdi 
^ondcx gnjund and Qcar tlie dccnyiog tiiberv, but £t would \>o 
atiUa«impoaul>Ie t«4>3leniiiiiatetbei*ethr«fidBa8lt would bo U» 
pxit a atop to th« bancst otom bigbcr woodUad fungi. 

Th«m an* many difficiilt)n« yot to 1>n cWml itp tu rf*g«nb 
tlic winter life of fuDf^i ; onr of wliioli wa» vcrr forcibi/ put I7 
Dr, BM nt th^ liut gr^^at Ht-reford Fuagu^^tneetlag bi regiid 
to df7^ricu3 Mjcrotus (lM\)&xid A* cirrfuiiHa (SSdiutn-X botb 
nf ^chiclt i^rin^r fmm !i tiiltpriform tnsi*, id^iHi rr»U tbiritig llin 
winter : t1i<: former in mid to ctcvbc en <\e^d /ftt^ufco and 00 Uie 
grciuml, wliiUl we lia\-e f^mid it imbcddwl at the ia«t of tbe 
tube* of d'^i i'oljporiji ; the lallct [A. c4n^*u/iMj, laoro inrns- 
diately ref^rml to hy Dr. Hii1],v-hi«hiKgim<^tnl1yfinTtir1iumm^it 
dcnd Icdvoti, ho found imlxxidt^iJ in itbimtlutLct; Manic inch^aiKL' 
1i»If or lw» iitdii*M [1n-|] in i.lit! aoIuI tnitli. How ibe cofDpactt^L 
myct^biuu of cue of tiic moet U'uder of Aj^ks got ao low dovn 
in t]i4) ;.*artlit nnd a»« aA^rwanb able to pu^h ibfr UrndvT perfect 
plant throii^b tbo hard eoil, wa4 a <UtficuUy h(^ could 
uxpUit], anrl tme whidj wiu bj IM n>cwi4 ktteiied by Ibc 
tiic pbtiU bcrin^foTuid precisely on tbe flpotnbcreaoine j^ 
ttpeuiiufus iif nu A^fHiic (j4. rtum/ii) iii?« U) Bribuu bail Iwi^ 
previously fouudf and the reoaooable suniiUe, tbat %h in tbe coa^ 
of vlffiiri-^Fji* nrhttUiria Mid ?ypAtt^j>ib<ci3i»rrjU;4it they were ia 
Moziu! way ci^nTu-cfpil v'ith <«eb otbcr. 

Jm to imy voriTTtj i>f poUilo beiojc *'dt0ea»e<proof»" Do Barf 

baa himeelf «a!d tbat tbeie is DotbiDfip in 0110 potato plant 

nnoro tbaa in auotbcr to predispose it to tbc attack of tlia 

rfiinifu^; or in othar wordiJ, no «i>it of potat'>, lieultlky or uo- 

pealtby, nor or old, can withstand ibe ikttacktf of the fporca ct 

"the Pm^jiospovfu Prom ibe conflicting aatiif*^ of lb© e%'id©aoo 

on thi« pKinti principally from groffere for tike ituulcet«t we an 

bound to rotiim a Vf»rdict of " not, prov«n ; " and from tbfi Eict 

of the i^yai Airricnltuinl Society now offering pri«* for 

** d {ii<afi^ proof " ioru, U may be auimiwd Cbet tb« Coundl d 

tlibi ^uciL'ty coiidider it roatonablo to euppodo Uiat eome po- 

^atoea may t&sMy bo ablo to throw off tbf ^uaclcft of x\m 

Pertmo€p&ra^ Tbc forthcoiains ^:Tcat trial of polatoea t^ 

Boeitity will jixoliaUy piit tliU <)tiF«^ton at rfst; whilitt 

&l]owiu}: rword of »omc ciperimenta «f our own, very 

bud bffinr- tbi? Roy&l Horticiihund Society, will proba 

read wilb irdcrc^ at t he pi\"*cnt juncture. 

Wc- wn^Er iu ikn oiitumu of 1A72 to ■cTcnii wxtm 
vt\s\T^it tbecn to f<jrwaid u aampka of diflcreot poUtoc«i 



ponkd by a brief opinion of their merits in rCAiatiaic dittoaae. 
Out rM|ue»^ wa& at oncu acc«?(]wL to^ &nd ono Hnii aW kfudlj 
foTDifliM ufl vritli a lar^ number of potutoce in all stage* 
nf dtirmM*. 

From the liittcr cuUodion wc :x:Ic;otat irpccimcut in wLicb 
Lke dittttae ttj)|)care(l .ili^/ht au*} Biiijetficijil; awl bi>n^wui}; a 
fDfiMtion from the ka^vii otfii-aoy of sulphur in dc^froyiuj:: tlio 
Omnm of tbo vmL\ uo iiii»<itT[1 the [lotutot-H r-xt']-niaJlj' niiJ 
over all Ukj out mxfhccii vrdh ^nl^ur, nnd cnjofully pLintnl 
ihem iu tlj(? vatrlli, sii Itmt ilu^y werii euUmly nurriHUided by 
fulphur* Jo the u«ual cour^ the dieea^^ iippeired on tL(» 
fblUgCi and on dij^'^iiig up tW jfUutB lu (]ii! autumu tliL* ciu{» 
«■• Ib^o 1 but all tlio potatoi« worn very mucii di>4(fn)HHl, amd 

W« tritjd tit) tl¥c-c<t of dipping poLatoett in all vto^^i of the 
diMMo in the followJUK' Kilutiou; — Pimi caTLoIic acid, 2 
dncJuju; glycerinop 3 dritclimH; and dUtillod \t.-atDr, 3 ox., 
vith the fnliowipg remits ; At'tci retting half-an-hour in tlic 
■>lqltoo, tL« pcitato«ii chauigt^d to otj iiiKriUL- erim»cjD*brown 
Bolo«r« wMcb, liowcvcr< at lciit:ili jcmdually* but uot c-ntircly» 
diappaared, and tbe foetid odour peculur to di§«A£ed polntonfl 
pbned <)uil(T Att^y, The potatoes *ccmcd at the tiiiu: none the 
9Qtm for illjipln^, to wv ULSLbi^d :i largi' Ke-rit-j^, nin^iTtg iri time 
bom five mintitfv to twriity-f^iir bourj. and pUntf^l tbcm i» 
Isige pot& ; in lh«> jprin^ ihv potutoos tcvre alt de^ad j^nd rolten, 
uil man; flpcdawa* w^n^ pk?rvad<^d throu^^hout bv a iJn* deep 
nuUocbitr gn^n coloiir ; xha tiiiwi's nt-rr, motwivcr, all 
tWougbly infcntcd vrith viarmit^ \atviF. and iti.icctiu W'c ifcro 
aktat utl Kiirpriwed HI ttit^ao n-iulb, or at tin* inelTeotiml ri^ult 
of any atttaipt to nirt) tho ditfi-aflo wtieii tbo oeUtdur tirisu<* of 
thrpotnto ban onoe bi^omf* corroded, sv* wp rotiHidpr lh<* iVrnm- 
pseitioin of tbo tl^iuc of the potato analosotu with mortihoa- 
Iku tif (lifi Uumuii ^lody, nud tbrit wliini iL baji miCK nub in it U 
inpottiblo to arr«4t iU 

A po4ata luis bcfen laif^ely adv^rtE^ed iif lat^ undi'r the iiaine 
of ''Kcd^kin Moujlall" a:^ ^^duca^o rouetini^t" ard wn had 
asae fit;e muiKl sp«dinfin« »r-]it. on to iii^ fni cxprTimrnt, by 
Utaus. Sutton and Sonw, Mtsarf. \M»"tl(-r and Sijiin, of Gluu- 
ec«l«r, al»j w^at ua a luiltb of "ReiKkiii l-'lmnballi'' ap- 
|Mnr:itIy idonlical with the firnt, *xceptiE|- that tboy wero vrry 
Vtocli oiiciucd- \Vc ciiL nil tho ^pI.H;iI^ErllK ■>f bolh cidlcclium 
(«4«ad asd dii»ucd) iu hiLvc*. and careiully tiL^d wilb twtno 
tho diMaaed half uf one; |M>t4ito tc the? sound halt of another* 
U) M9 if th^ Etfiked corroeivt* plasma from the <Iifioa8ed portJoti 
aotdd comraunicntc iUelf to tlio tound poition. lor one 
moDth Sut-ton'is pfiiatoea wore thu« cxpo«<Ml en a gariiun bi-d^ 
and lumaincd perfectly wuUTcctfMl by the contiict. Wfi bhoa 

156 rorciAi Ecimci vxuww, 

j>1&aUm1 tbem, obfr-luir tlio oollecdoA in We-c poU. aad Uia 
oUier balf in a bed, villi iW loll^wiufc r^^diilisr; tu (he sprfog 
Uk9 tiibora in the pcit« eprout«d aboTtiv<:ly« and ou tuituDg 
tlir<fn cmt SuttrmV iqxTimr'nA nri'Tf ih^-imri^lily rnlU-n, hirt gi-t^ 
mii^atinff from tlie pt(t», iio<I ltif«k^ tlirou;;hi>4it vith iv tlciuo 
tuvci-liumf fnfm vliioli Hpruu)^ VuttitMtt ctlitUn (Fr,). Mrrar*. 
Wh^lcr'd pUntfl wcr4> in & Biato of puthd crfAnu ftad not 
gcnninuiing at »11. Fn llir; hedn th« fflTi-ct vriu diflT^renL; ibe 
lint tiling Ui&t <4nick ui in tlie rj^nng wiu tbo laxuriAnt but 
ctxtreutelj pAln fnlkict^, wliiL<li, an uxtul. Ijc^nntp 3tfTW--tn1 Ity tbe 
dittAtfr ill the anturauu On di^>^ii;> up Ihd tuU-rd i^t a Ut^ 
dfttd^ thote va» a good crop from ^*atloiiV pjaiiU. ao &r 
unaffoctod by th? dbiiHuici thut onlr »no potato wv bfld- 

Wc fil» fiLintcd Ijy tlicmiclia a tuLch uf ^ RnUikin FIoup- 
ball" ia ft bad «Ute of dinaw, a« ivnt oo to it< by M««a 
Wbeeler. &traQ|i;e to »▼, th«8« tubers produced vltli » a 
Mt of a3ic(«odingly httnlUiy planter which gsvo &Uige crop of 
potatoes and of winch, as in thn \ti$i inAtAooe, only ono tubrf 
oould be found ftlTect^. On tukin;^ «oici> or iht^w plnutji up 
in tho fpring, when tho fL>Huf£[> vas io vigorous Lr^ltli, tlio 
bunrtEl tubers vr^rp dottixl all or^r ext^ronlly wiUi Voltttdtit 
cUi<Ua {Vt.). Wc knowofftu in«tai)cc lut, nuluma wlicro a cd' 
l«?cl,iiiri <^r '* R*^l-»kii! Klourball " wiw grtivrn without n ^UgW 
tliicuRd :<pcdmcu b^in^' found 4in:on^tH the entire crop; bnt 
the pr*!uo^ of florae B**ed *.if the (oiue varioty, jfrowlng in lib* 
ncil tii.H, ant) Hcut out by Mr«»fli 8utlou th«(m<t-]voAi ttn»ii 
nm Imilly louc'hfHl with \ht? dii^rnvr-. AufiLT im w^c^n fiSCertabl* 
" Ji<cl^*kiiL Mrkurholl** wax bid Jtut sr^uon id oorUun (lireo> 
tlou^ ntid. quite frev from thtf miurain iti otJieni. 

Ffitui Olio uur>«t^Daan wo roocirt-d a butch of ''I'atcnavi^ 
Vi<'toris»," ii Inti- potAiiit "'^'l "»" ''J^id by the wnder to bo verv 
frte fiNjm tho divcofo »il.b hitn. >*»>w, boing ft Iftto poUto, thU 
WUH »i>U](>irlint rrrm^trkubliN ft> (lae gtmiindljr look* for fr<'rdnrn 
from difioa^e ia the oarlitr v&riotioa; but na ve bod idaa rt^ 
ceii-ed a number of the ^ King of EarHi?8'*%ArI«ty, nearly ovoy 
tuber of which wnfl locro or \am dLftonood, wo thought wo would 
try tn infect thr httir polnlo aitb thn di»rnjind nftrly vaHrtjr ; 
antf 9o veti ti«l badly diaou8L?d hoh'<« of « King of Earliu' " to 
woimd ImhG* of ^' i^atenuu'a Vict-jria.** and pJantAl ihfnn asi 
Uifoi-e. Tho fotingn cnme up dark f^Tec& iu Ui« i^ui^t nod 
becamo afl'frctrj;) nitb th« di««fl*o in tin- iLuUimu; oq diggioig 
tbo planU up, ^ Kin^ of Karli^t*' outy rtnuaiuud ua putrid 
crounj iROf^ whilat all tlie plants of **P«t«imou'9 Victoria ^ 
wore perfeolly licaltby, and eect their at«iQ9 rtriit throuj^h i\\^ 
ruttoit iiiA^^'8 Lif tho ** King of Llarllf^/* Wc oad a good rrup 
of ** Vti\*trn>titt Victoria " without a nngto had tabor, or lixivit^ 
any tiAioc of <li»ca»c except a few pUnt» of Votutilta ci^mUu 
on tlieoxt«nia] 

^ prwuom«wf^ 157 

IttTAllIiy "Fltikc" p>Utoo* pUnttrd in cf^ntact with iiwc^ascfl 
•• King oi Karltcfi" t*>k ihr dic^nae Uudly; tht f<jliiLg»> w^a* very 
lUrk m thcvprin^, BhDwc(lil)c(ti-i«?£L><T?in tlio autumu, aud at too 
Xkta of dt^^ug op the '' Fluko*" were diseased right ihrniigh, 
ud iht '•Ivinj^ol' EarLo*" Jiborlivcly Fproiiting, JioHi were 
ttvtnd with a drnso TnytrHium, nnd t1i« pE:LnU of VohrUUit 
tUkUa (Fr.) wcrp present in nW utatc^'^ of growth lolh iiipid<-* 
lad ouUid^ tlie tal>eTft, and connected with myc^Iijil riir^ndn. 

We alao tried »omc " Pooch '* potatoes planted with <^israiflcd 
■* Kiiijj of Eartira." Thi* foU^igc Bguin cwtiit up iiili^n^f ly fUrlc, 
lI the diftcAK' in nutumn i later ou " King ot Enrlit^ " 
iplelHy putrid mid lull of woriiiH. " Pt^di,*" however^ 
lIlDiMt ittij from di^nK't and what eKieted vus ot a \Gry 
Idnl rhrtrart<*r, two tuliers only beJug »<liglitlyLoiic}i«^ oii( 
of tbc cTitiro crop, which wus very good. 

W« IrinI hfjvUhy " Eajly Rose " titfil to disease*! " Kentiuli 
Etflj^ TLo folia^ was vcr^ lato in appearing, but when it 
did appear it wa« {N-rf(.'<'tly hf^iUliy; it however soon :<linwcd 
fi^DS of ditcAMi ami in the autumn ^* Keutish ICiirh'" w:Lfi one 
piilnd uiiix*t ha^iij^' nimle no iLttempt to germinute, whilrt 
^EailyKo^e" tra« Iialt d<^d and putrid, and ibo ««rth sttr- 
toimding both pctaloea wa» dcntcly traverged by wLite mycelial 
tliroAdH ;— no crop. 

In condition, w<? tiwl licolihy " KiugBboIni Kidney" lo 
dbwari " Ki?Hlith Early/' sotrnd "Glouceftterehiro Kidney" to 
affected *^ Kenllth Karly," and healthy 'Milky White" to 
dinapid ■^Kingcf KjirlieSr" witlj lbs i.*ffvci thut the* tiealtliy 
pjaotd i^t onco t^iok tlie disease-* and wcre^ totdiUy destroyed* 
nuldvic DO apparent efTort to germinate, the deeompo^d por- 
tioDa being found full of acari and wonn^ 

Wt hnvi* fotmdiLK n rulf, in flureiperimpntJ, that thf^potato- 
sidm rciotfted di^jom posit ion to the last, and that tht^ out sur- 
ftcv of wund potatoeti w«ie the readiest to be a^cted by the 
eorroding influence of tho naked plasma prescot in tho diaeaMd 
one*, Thst home potJitoea nre^ )ioi4eveT, able to reaiHt this 
iofliMDCC for Mome time is concluaivaly proved by ^K(^d-»kin 
Flourtall ** remaining imaRWrt^l for a munth. lu thi' autumn 
of 1872 we had a larj;^ quantity of diseaaod potatix.*^ thrown 
into a roTitfT in n bintji. liy the spriug^ of I8T4I the irdeTion 
bftd completely rotted away, k^ii^in^ urdy the diii-d skinu, jvppa- 
rrttllj frer ftuni diw:i?if. T3jtM« akiuH 6proute<l in a bealtJiy 
mftumer, and |j;ave promise of Bound plants, but we had no 
opportunity of planting them. Ii eunniuing tliiu kHoe^ of 
difOMod potiLtoc« iindc^r tha rmcroHcope, we hjt\ti constantly 
fbimd Uir atarcli afTcctod aud Uiaculouied, which lia« uot geno' 
nUy beon aoknowled^ as a fact : and we have also been veiy 
much olruek hy tiie abunduiice of iDjcelium Mmetimtt* pro- 


15d ronruLi kiilxcb itvnsv. 

chK>«(] tiitdcrf-rouDd. «Dd Dot onU tiavrrdiai: the interior txt' tbc 
poUCoof, fml wliit^ning the emh niul inresllnj^ the farokeo 
brick iv«4 for dmiikiAg neh phnta m wtfo fftavn in flo««r- 
poU ; tliiii fUjrorliixn appouinf^ ti> brioiig <o Vtilut^dJn riiutUk 

It may b« mEd tliat these experlmecitd all giv« contrBdlDiaij 
roetilu, DfKi thjtt what hoLda g<K)d iiu^dr ono Mt of elrv^nn- 
t^Uncn totally fiiilvitiulcraDotliRr. Thiflvn^iLiiteadtnit; bat wo 
roiuidtj' (hat it U only by f;oing ov«r tbi« tmcofftnin gnnind, 
mid iiutiu^ tlie coiitradktory nvulLa uf <>xperi!iwiitA| liiat any 
corfiiii kt]owlo(t^ oAi; be krrit^ st lik^T to prove at lenj*tk 
(uoful. It IS nogubr bbftt oertAin vjirictacfl should be h«alifay 
in one plflo« ftod dlMtJird In nnolTu^; buL thtro c&n br no 
doubt (bat c(*rtftin extenifLl circuintitancctt aJTect tlic jioUto 
plant, and AOTnetimes predi^poM it to take the dUea^^ ; but va 
do not think ovcr-cnltivation could do this. Coutintiod cnlti- 
%-fttion probably induces a d«licMl4^ CQc<ttttiitinn, biit nil higfalr. 
bred aiiiiorib (ai w«U ns pUnta) v« dtlicatc, Jind wc conitUntrr 
tee this dflioacy in c)if]dren ; but iriih e^m «ar» bigt^ly-brefl 
ABUnaii acqiurc an oq^ial louc t^t' life wit^ tbc coarecr vanFti<ts 
as It r»«ie*harf« vHll prab:ib!y Livi* it« 1ot;g lui a onrt-hono. 
Kxhiitu^ioii liy t^u h^i^h bn^cdin^ d^cjn* to tu inipotsible^ 
Wlii'iJ ^1 totiLd variety^ sudi a^ *■ SuttoD^a Rpd-flkln FJutirbftll," 
Eftllr? in ar^tnu district ft rv^ty pn^ lo the diM&flc. it appears to 
IM tbat th^ plant hH» h<w»i (in-viontly fJimwn <mt of hMlrb,And 
tbcn n^ a citmoqiicnci; flticcuinUi with Hm vrc^ticcr varieties ; but 
vlijiL it iv thiit drTHij^-n il* hesihli it] (vrlaiii dUlHrt« h»*. We 
tbinki yet to bo learned. Tli&t any pt&nt or crr&tcil thing 
CL^nld he murr^in-procf or dl»on»e-proor L< to ns moi^t imteaiioiw 
nbli^,iuid AJmoa^ f^onyrnoiw with donib-pfoof. Sometbins; we 
«fi4iiiM \hxuV might Iw alluwed fnr idicKynorn^y, or An lni)firr!nt 
pvcuii^Lnty of conatiluUon, which in it««tf piwivpomi cortAin 
pntatut^ to fall a prey to iht dism«e« wbiUt olbei> am Ihmw it 
ofT; ft similar sUto of tUing* oxirtu nmoni; nic«, for w« know 
Lliat wliiUt. Thr^ bibt of in adder pr Kting nf n wn^ vJII «ome- 
tinii-* end fatally with certain indiviib^U, y(^ oUiom niAy bo 
»i3bject«d to tJiesa inoonveolencee nitbovt aijy vny crriomn 

It ha* Wc!Q m]gf;r»t«d to u« tbot id cubmitting gvotaiaea to 
ffucb n critical tu^t ta actual inoculacioo, that tho oacporh&eott 
werr unfair, jiud tbat Xhv I&Aa vtm- analoi^iwii to in«fuUtiThi> i 
«tron^ man for the emnll-poif who nould then bo obL 
seucciunb, altbongh under oi^iitiAiy drcuiutancee be mi^jr. (Jt- 
wcU ablo to ^reiuict" tbo diceow; but wo do not ihivk thii 
argumoni' bolda ipod* for if there U any mi^omng at all in tJM 
wrviU " diflnm^rssiftiiig," ih^se poutoi>i or men (■« ihu cuv 
mar bv) ahouM be nblo to tlitov olT the peet tindrr Ua/L 
—"'^ -"^^ 



The tttid/ of thff potnUi-fim^s in b; no mmn^ a iimple 
tDn-ttcr, cot only from iU vxtrt-nKf tninulcnoii, Init from tlj« 
niunbt r ^f oUicr fimgi which plajr ii ivut iii JuatjojiuK Uio 
pdtalo ; amouf^t the foretDOHt of ihG9& funci tv« roaj mention 
Acro»t€UuffTi\y.s cinnaharinve (Corda^, Ti^n^ta A^r&antnt (Lk<)> 
iloify'turfi ttnfUMm (Kr.), />. jfyrife-ntm iVr.), €Utdc$pofivim 

pKora n\uc«do it*id^)^ Pi' nU* ill hnn rrifstacfurti [Fr.),P. ccmdi- 
I'um (Fr.)t iS^tfrtttUfl flf<3JlO)llC^-J (diKla), Fii6isporiu7t\ tdit 
(Deem-), Fo^ut«/fc£ ciliftta f».), Paputa*pi/ra sepedonioid^ 
(Prouw), ftnd iniriouji vpecies comtnf; under j^jLiar^MfafmiitTiti 
Vermicvlarlat Myrothet^'umy &c.^ &c, Tbe taak to dlscriml* 
nftte between ono and tlio other of thi8 set and man^ otlier 
&IUed Ap^iee t« no (tight pieoe of work, mid nnn nnt liknlif to 
be in tho wnj cf the competitors f^r Lord Cuthcort'ft prixc* 

Wo do not pmjKJse hvm ta eciiitieriLtf the list of ^rowc^ni* 
mietictfi enrly tind I^^tc-, new And oJd, Dritish and foreign, 
■Ucli an* 0nid to hrt Mu mtire or Iusk to nwwt IIlc^ dispAAP, M 
the vubjcct in involved and interminable beyond reason ; tbr ycam 
jMtthrpJiK"-""* l'he"tiardKiUir?»' Chri>uiele"iih«ttUu4t H^iiritird 
Titb ex|>erunent« and rosulU, counter-acpomDOvt« and oounter- 
iwilu, vithout. end. No doubt, if thvM communiOLtioiis were 
]iiopcrly digcst^id anci tubTilatcd, jtomi^tiiinf; vnltickblL^ mi^ht hti 
Inrn^l fmm iht^ linliLdiiHiv fJu-y ivnuld ^tTuiw; Imt atl jfrm^nt 
ndhtng of tho ^rt Una hcvn done, and JiU lh(-< daU foun<k<d 
on thi? expprii-'iK^f of tiiidu j<iuwcii» ai'(T in chautio cuufiifliim. 

So that onr paprT may not bo like Ih^ pliy ^>f " Hamlot ■" 

iritL tJie {Mirt of '^ I^Linlet " i>tnittrd, wir will i[] n^ few words ns 

pMiibtD dMcribe i]i<: fuTi'^'U:d ubi^'ii t« uaid to U.- the uiutoubtud 

aioe of Oie iiot;it<i di&i:asi?. Th* fcpofM of P€ro7U>tpOTa 

fK^nton^ whioh fill upon tbo foUogd of the potato ore OToid 

« trantparcnt, the loagc?^ diomntcr bdag about y^th of on 

itcli,tho KporcN lein^ bcrno upoo ftlender tnuupoient threiidx 

not Italf Uie above dmmeter. Hairing fallen upon a auiUiblo 

I l^dua,withfiitoiin;1>ledri;iim6taT»TPH of humidity, the outer coat 

I tf the Bporci become* ruptured, nnd tlir corroAi^e phisiaa which 

litj eonlain ia *et fa*e- Thin myctlimn «prudTly pmetratM 

' l^P t^idcnniA of the kiif atid permeates the cdlular tiwajc in 

ew diret^Hon, dMrojing tlie ei?llF,nnd ultimately ^t^ndinpout 

I mtebraiKhc-EthrniL^h the brcrithin^ <porc« of the leaf into 

Ifti air. Thnsc! Iii^m^rhi-K. wliieh iLT*r Mffalleii in B monilifonn 

jHpiicr (probuhly owinj; to Tui^t^ated aborUvu aticmptfi to pro- 

BHd» fittiL^ teniiiiiiile y.'li\i s^torvs at iheir e\treiEiitiejj. Nivi* 

[ 'hiUt tbo mjcelium It travcrfin^ tho loaf-et^ka nnd ^tems 

ttl firtrrrinj; nti to Qu- taber itoelf, t» bWkeTi nnd enHHii/iKt 

Ibt rtarch. iht frc« fimpiA ii all the whiL* iiroduein^ iv* 

ipmcs aud amount \ht: i<porc?i badiei of n \tuf^t Hie widdi 


tarn, vbuh 

«mB LtaEn on tiib potato DiaSAaE. 


be URQvd priTil^od eporfts, which mftttirs within th«in- 

(hj a difieraidatioit of tbeii coab^nta) certain repto- 

cUiMfid hodim called xoo^korov. When these zoodpuft^ 

lipe tod wt foe. ibey movo about in m^ifrlurc by means 

cilin with grnat rapidity, and *iither work their wny 

e brc4ti)iii>: porcn or fzcrminntc 0,1 once on the leu 

and p«Tu?>Tnit« the ealicte liice the ordinary spores. In 

vet dowT morning of early autumni when all tb« leaves nre 

it will Ih> iu?(in that u fnw infected plitnt^ mny he the tm^ims 

mpidly difTiLiin^ the diwaic (hy mciins of thcdo cili/ttnd 

i|X)r»i ttl<iii4?)ijvi-r & \ery larj^ eK[uui4v of ctiUivjil^l groiutd. 

if we could imagine the whole of Britain frre from the 

and A cingTr inffs;t'^d tield somnwhf^re iti Franue cr 

ly, a ain^ie puff of wind would »eud Uie spcros over to 

aud wn Bhuuld ut utiuo be ttn badly off aa if we bad i^itfTered 

the iliM}udi* from the iiseU 

Ura miuTakD never com-.^H upon ua III] a eirtjLin time in the 
autuiDDT th<t most roujioiijible au^|{efltion for est term inatiDg 
diMsav UPKinn li» I*? ti' cultivate thtwe early varietirs of 
wliich matufo thtdr fruit before the fungua makes ite 
., and 00 evatU the di«ea«e ; but it will be ^en aingulaily 
&om our actual iripcrimenta, that it woa a posilivnly 
pirtalii, ami not an fmrl^ aiic, which ealircly waid^^d LvfT Uio 
whUjt the earlier varieties: fiueciunbed. And ao vho 
'fta nbjeot. We can at^te foct^ and caU the tacts by 
maei.; but ^R tn whfit the dUeavo h^, we cun tay little mont 
tltta thiLt the potato ditfctufe is the potato <liseiue, as cholera it 

wjt, mi. — so. LI, 


PLAT£ dX. 

THK worM may be said to coaitst— frocn odc paint of vio« 
nt livnt^-of ati earllily «joi] nni] two gnnl scn^: niid fb 

oui&r vert»*hrflti*, ami itnuijr itn prN'^H^le, miiinuN itvi- in ilm 
watery occnu ; hut mun^ mo«t mamiDalbt binlt^ nr>d A tt^ 
bigfi mimbrr of tnvurtelinitH uiiiimlN iiilmhjt l1*e lu'ri^l ao6 
And juft 0.4 in th« »a4 Ut«re tira a cofioin ntimWr of MiiiaaJi 
thai lire compoUcvi tct inliahtL thv hiltiim nlau^, §r> £n tbi 
aerial ocxaa vo find ttu- foioo *tat« of tbiu^- 
Arnmalu Iinviog Lo do will; tli«* hoiff wbiLeanolLt . 
wido nin(;(^ of Iho atmd«pli«Tti in vhi(rb to corn- tm th<-ir iive* 
Of oimnu? IIiU (livmou u well truMk^b luKiwn alr^atly ; lnn IIkC 
liMt iti by no Tn<«nfi m fimilinr, tbat th« v«tt sir «» ^ 
Indian iritli inbAhilnnt* of Wli tbRAuiioft] uid vi*£ ki^if;- 
dotn^ and iti n.-ulit5 ii vtiry tbicklj populated xmi pltuib^ 
although ve bavc uot ordinarily tlio power of reongiLi^iig i 
thisiflfo. .' 

llunwei, tho micTOKt>pr ir.trodacc* ub to 'luili* zl uot 
vrorld; and do« t]iat iti p»w«r« luvd rtschcsd tilniott ti 
highfvt nurkt iww tliat practical art lias c«uly rdoliKd tbrafl 
that U poKitbld in tli** tboor^tlosil ivorid of ttionjeuopy, rout 
iBtoroMopicaJly t1i<- nholo Bible cugtit be writ Un n*\i — (net 
v«<rw in *>vpry rlmpii-r — alumt ox wr k^viij lim :» 

fpacQ of A »at:l*' ><iu^tx' iucb< iii tbc?« tki^^j of . j ^ 

MJlrof 3^tli or^^lb^bid *^ven of ib^ ^^tb^of an moii, wi" 
by iuAtmmcaifll iDcmtts iiitrM[iici.<d to au cntirf wi>rlO of 
a couple of liLinitrHl yram a^a m^ IimI nn< th» falniM. i 
Tlic rrw&rch<4 wliicli wo arE- abaiit to dcpcribf', bowcrcr. 
not IriM-a aiaitrK^M) willi tlie lilgb^t pov*tir:t, iiad fro 
cinjumM4U)c<^Uic;arvliaUcitou>now«rror; itusmiwh aa H 

* It » worttj of iiflt« ihai net <'ii1r aiTv roin^ Mid iMtUaA 
put a ff obJACt^lsH of tmSij wuJfTful dtiajtiaa, but ikli hai tba 



, < 


f. - 


■ J 


Am atnxni tiib uicnoecoPG. 


be Tcty fidrly conbmdod, T17 thoi^o vho aro oppoMd to tbe 
Ti«w) bid dowr ij tJ](^ inL'ti M-lm biive writUm apon the Ntibject* 
t>iu from tho luo of iaf^rior powAf^ a wbola vrorld of AHimaJ 
Ufr nu cut ofT from their gjtze ; but of ihU more h<Tre;i(ldr. 

W« havo DOW lo <^xumii;c Uk> t|my;tin(i, docis tJio air con- 

tftin ? And of ci>iirv« tLu in a difHci;lt problem* froio the XiTij 

^tfTAreot Daiure of thoqu^tlonsthat may be pi.kt. For iujitanodi 

■^fena^ vay in tho first cue, sapposiug thut th« rodder imdor* 

^^^|nfti tlip nir canxisU nf 77 p^r cmt. of nitrogrn nnd 33 

F pif<eaL of oJQ^^t1lt with n certain faint proportion of carbonic 

acM,oioft«>> &<*.^ Ac,, tlkatthr«e distinct qiie^ious preseDttlwin* 

tehfB ftt the outeet. Ut, I0 thi^rc any diflV^rcnci* in the reaulte 

of puntitrntioD of air ux la iW locality whi^h ic pxploradf 

I l&d, ifl tbrrc any ditlcTCDCo ht to the timr atwliich otir 01- 

I plonUoa i« cHnidiurl^^i ? nrul Srd, Ih thi^n- jiny disiiiit-Uon to 

I be nudo in regard to tho timo at which tlitf &tcao£phL>rt* if cjt- 

imimtl * And rhejw* l.lir**** iiiio^ioiui msiy Vh' rrplini i^ g^norB^ly 

^ f^itfj npRntivc — of coufscj mukiDg every nllowfttico for tritlitig 

ii-itioL'tjcmi* dfjiemlt-nt «n liifTerpiice* of lemperiitiirp, aitd upcin 

^(^((fooUof bi!a\7iaUaof mia. Ttie question natumlJy ariaea to 

^who b with Hw- microscope, how arc you U* 

t^^voicQ tbo air? Jf yoiJ look thn>u^h a miorMcopo Himplv at 

tbe itmoHphrrr yim will ctrUiinly «cc nothing, no maLler jiow 

^^ your poYTfT. Well, then, it la neeea&uy, iu u eorUin 

^aucf Uj du wli^t L*] t^qitivalent u» cosdenabg tlu.* aU- : that ih to 

"V* v« inu£t bavD some nurnie of «iamhdDg at onn ^lancij- ««Terd 

Wiftad ailnc fert of th" almonpSrrr. And how is this dojio? 

*!t lOMiii of a vury vimpLo inKtniniuiit which baa Loi-u Ic-rmcd 

^iCTO»ciope(H«%.l, plate CIX). ilfoooTMitmiut aotbeeup- 

^^^ that thla U oisT only moanA, for tf« havo tli« dast on ]«ftve0| 

"^J ibe cpccirDetii collected lij mc^^ns of moUt-^lau «lideK, But 

BUyi ttiy, and nio^t A&tidfactory apparattut for tho icve«ti|^ 
^feef afattoct any qiiaatity of atmniiphf'rici air And what is 
^MnoFOBCopsf It ii an inAtmincnt who^c luc it to c^xpovc a 
^Rbilidf in t\tch 1 mAnncr thut n i<um?nt of fLtT]tri^|«hvri(] aii 
VUpMAOYor it with conaid«jahlt mpi'iity. and iu tuch a foahion 
J? to leav^? Desily ^11 of Us abnomiFiI cDot^TitH iipon thf ftlid^> 
y** iiutnintoat which ia tigriucd in onr ploUj wiu ori^'iuolly 
isrWd liy I>r. Maddox, liop. F.R.M.3., "f amllutnjplon, a 
Mttcmon wcH known for hU fnvu«tisationditito the micicecopic 
Wubitant^ of cliv atmiMpbere. But ithaji been very slightly 
■tfUift] by Dr. I>. Cumungham, of Calcutta,* who«o rux^rchot 
Hbr miemiCDpio tnhabttanbt of the idr liniv 1h.-uij the fidlevt 

* '■Hkioeoopic E»:fibiali<io« of Ait." By V. Doh^Im Canaia^AiOf 
HAt Swffvon n.U. Indmo MLdiad Nervier. Pull:abi%l i> Qt^i'vniaUDt, 



rorin-ift kcibtici &£nEir. 

yet publiflhtxt Fn>iEi hi* voik— Un^ Utcst, m it u otuiaoMi 
Mj Uk futlcvt ind iivo«t ftdmii^Uy illiuiAted voluma 
xha ttulijuoL — wa pereeivo thni bis modi&caUcPO of Oie urifci 
Mdfotdope has been but nay flisbL It Appfttn (A, fi^. 1' 
cOQAUt of thre« tlkiik bma tubt«» two of wLic^ »Up 
tli« thir<l ooiitnl DIM, an4 «0Qie (nto conlacc wiib tbc op 
udoH of ts pn>j«cliii£ rim on iU drcuiufneuct?. 'Il;id noi 
is fonned bj ihe margin of & diftphrwm whi^ divJdof 
the coDtnJ tube into two chunbcn. ^*U u of suffidfiCib 
thickiim to allov of a BplodJe pawio^ up tUrouj^h it (fig. 1» B), 
Tlir UUft eada in a pointed ex^emity^ wticli coior'a ia ocmtact 
trilh tke apper eod of (Tip hfAritig, nod provider lor the fo!« 
rot&tioQ of the 9j«tcm of tiJt>cfL Uoiiwl tlio snArfpn of tfio 
phr^gm them U u n't uf perfor&tionA to mllow of thf? 
of <ur throug^h it» uod in UiO centre of Ha &Qt«nor ^uriiLcc 
ii a «qi.i]un- \Ant« of brnw, with a slightly projecting rim oa tt» 
lover mnigLD. The nntorior of tbc twc> Inters] tutee u pro* 
vidrM\ tvirh H.T1 rxpoiiitM <irif]r«, nnd oinhiinit a umall fln^ljr* 
poiotod fuunt'l m it« iot^nor ; tho poiutt-d oitrcmitj opcQisg 
ijiiiiii?Jia[4.-ly iu front of the centre of the d^aplinm"! p!ki«* 
The poffU^rior tubo i« quito timf 1^ uid hft« a good-eixed ^h 
tall vuio fitted iato a mi in tU eitn-miij-." Such is the con- 
atruotioD of the aeroaoope, aad vrh&n iiaed, a« it vaa moit 
iTxl<mti\i-1j lij Or. CMTiuitighaui in liii Wi? lotpiiriM, it i« pUc*oft 
at a hei^Lt of about 4^ It. ftcm the ground, and U allowed to 
revolve hy mr^ans of a joint ir mch a maimer thntt u«iu^ Ui Ok 
VBJie, it 14 invariably 4ixpoaed irtUi it« month to tbo wIe^^ 
Hcooe if it iH letl, as it uuiaily is. ia oae place for 24 hoar*, and the 
wind is blovingaterenartteof three or four raileaan hour, iho 
qiuutit/ of air that must trarcrw it is ii>dced moat oonaiderahle. 
And now, bov la tho eaptuf« of tbu wiad'i contanta pcoridad 
for? Vciy ^mply indeed. A microacopio covcriag>^lna la 
oarafully cleaned, and ^ne of iU mrfacea fmoa/ed ov«r irith 
pure glycerine. A minute drop of the fame is placed on tbc; 
olaphTagm^plaLeT aiid the dry anrEum of die ccver-gtan appliod 
to it, tca^ng Uie emoared cide expowd. (Thi« did away with 
the TLtoHMty fortpriEigA.) Thra the antiMior tube bcdni* put 
onyitwaareadyfornA;, Mow it » pcribctly clear that witli ^cb 
aa ImtrunuTut it ht cany to euintrtv any nxuonnt of air^ and iia 
QSO hot boon oflva tried by Ihr. CimniDcham ; with what reeuHa 
wyi fJiall Mpenk of pn«vnt1y. But in the firtl tnataaco it vill 
be w well to doaenb« moo of tba coufoqueDcee that have fol- 
lowed on attempt* in tbc >ame dlnrction by' other workent, and 
to divide them into thote who connect the oootaBta of the atmo* 
Rphftre at 43Rrtaln aeaaoufl with ci*rl^u tufectloiu nr rmita^orn 
dtvaaet, and tbo«e who taka finite an oppooite \u-w of tho 


Au)i>aK n*ci?iit vrTitpm wlko hxvp. ilrvntcd mucli Imie and ut- 
on ti^ Uie iuEuoDc^c* of fttmo»phc^o contagion, uiiquoetion- 
he vliD tskt^ the liig;}ie»t rj»k in Mr- Bkrkl^y.* It is 1o 
bt regretted ttnt Lo ha« c^nHD<iid hia Attontion merely to one 
qImi of <iiirn.«(^ Jilunr. Hut in rompi^nsation frir lliis we b/ive 
tilt ttry cxtt'odcd nature of \m »\qinnve and the elalioratc ro- 
ioiucljrs ilat h*^ hns umde. ^tr• IllHcklejr tonsiderH that ha 
ku proved that bay-lever is decidedly raii&ed bv the patient^e 
iblulALJoa of aif cr>DtAiDing a considiTAhlc quantity of pollen ; 
Uiat thU pc^Lleii adheri'ii to tbo itiomhrauous lining 4>r the 
JuyDXUud aii-pa«ngee and the uiuml l-icbryiQ^l moiubraues, e,nd 
IbnK mitfW the exce«*ive secretion which h so troiJh]i?«i>nie aa 
clFcct of thc*G diseased coDditlons. AoA whatever view we may 
lake of ihit piirt <>f hiv b'>oh, he hus by the moii ingeniona 
BiacrMcopical contrivance-} proved beyond the elightcsb <iueetton 
tint a v«rj lai^ amount of pollen is inhaled from the air, at 
^ cvcdU in ecrtfkln bcjiaob^. 

Dr. Hcnle, thnn whntn Ihere is no one of prrtfoiinder experi- 
OKv in micro#Cffpi*: n'!<«ircl], hm^ given his testimony in tavonr 
of i\w vi^w that the btnio^phere contains ihe gi^rms at least of 
certain disc&KB. Ki^ ox&mined the infected air of the cattLo- 
plafpjp prriod, which had been obluined by Mr. Croiikeii, F.R.S-, 
and he found thut the dnid obtnined from »ibtiirating tho 
OOttiO*V-wo(>1 fxjHJFiHl to the u.Tr, in glyeerine, |^ve iiiidoiibled 
widMk«o of fu]i;;u8 flporule^* And Lo even go^'^ so far as ti> 
tbmw out th(^ i:ii^f<"*linni I t»at miduTiiil poison mjiy poAbiMy bs a 
lief^ded type of tht^ bi^fpltism of lower onimalE^ urd pkntd. 

Another oWiver iu this very wide lielri is Dr» .^nUsbuTy, 
of Ute Cnited J^tale^ of America. And his* rcsearohed v*ir& 
mj ncciirnlcly mmle, and Iwid to cnnehisionn most lavourable 
totbow who believe in the atmoBpbere'e tiwnfming with micros- 
oipic life, itud in the posiihJHly of disease Ijciug sfi carried 
from one place to another. I>r. ^liabLiry*«t observaticna were 
Akhde IB the year I8G2, Kheo there was a great prevalence 
of intcrniitlont and i^mittents fevers in the low valleys of the 
Ohio mad Miwmippi. Thesi; m^vladiea app^^red. $ayt» Dr. Cun* 
Diuifkuo, in the moach of May, and were v^ry prevalent in July 
illd AugnaU Tlie season was a very wet one up to the end of 
JmMf but tboro wna no ruin in July, Au^ist or Sept«nibi^r^ und 
wJlb the ccvution of the rdn the increase in the number of 
CUM of fevcf" occurred. Dr. Salisbury in the f^rst place er- 
UMifted ealir^ «iid mucus from tbo mouth aod nares of the 
mffaren^ xnd d^teCttid ih^ prc«one4< nf large nnmbcrs of zoo- 

* " FTpnlmonCH! nfwvrrhoi on the Cauicj and Natun of Catairbiu 

t '* Atn«Kcaa Jonnud cf Medical ^uita««," April 16^. 



0por«s joiiinnlculns ilijUooai, dcuiaiitji, ccUi and SlutwnU 
ft^ie, nnd NpoTM of iimgjL llio ool; bodk« vluch w«iw of coo 
Ntant <Ki:tim*ic«, and geoenilly in great alAindaiice* wic 
•blon^ oelhilea, which iv«qra«iU]«rmkl9d orgronpnd id 
Tb^ bud a ilifltioci nudouft coDtaiiiod viUkia n. ADOOth cri 
«ivo1o|M). Hcf decddfid that tiMy v«f* ^Igul c«1IiJb« ehieftjr 
rttenibliufc polittelltt, and found Lk^t Ihcy oalj occiured ia 
niUftrinl dtfitricu. 

Ho then ptooccdcd to look for (hem in iho air, hi» sactbod 
of urooiMiurQ b^tng to itup^nd pioo(--fl ;>f glou ov«t uinrvbf pouli 
attd AW&iDpx pUc«». Tilt iCMtttt vtm tei in the e%v-[un^ and 
letnoved before lunHi^e n^it mominff. [>rop8 of waiter wee 
fonnd Ddhrring ic thoir under sur&ooa aod containing im- 
BMiTtnw <v)U of vsrioitt kiaiW, but n<nM momMin^ thi« pr<<uliar 
pftbnciUoid cclLule* provioialy alLudod to. U'bcMT norcf bov^ 
ever^ <nD«UiUly pr^ai-nt in uitisidcTaUe numben on tlie tijpficr 
cur&ce«. lli« ncjtt stop was to cndtavoor to aacettain mta 
what notii'Tfl t-bii3r wmi-- ili^ivrd ; nn<^, afl«ir a ooniddt^nlk!** 
amount of tniitlMi MOfob, he dUcovorcd it in a sort of ^^royixk 
uiutLld ci.»\eriug tli« racoutlj oigioat^ vur&ow af cmcktt tu tiob 
pmirie ^r>^tmd, which had! Iwon rooCEoUy dri^ and ivas 
1iiok*<ii i\\t by ihi* frot cif mido. On msponding ^Uibkh 
plncon oov<frv(i bv tliii motUd, bo found numbors of the oolltUvi 
ill Uir lliiid <ni tbmr iinilt^r vuHjiith. 

Id tulloiriiig out tbt«u vx|K?nmont^ Dr. SalUliur^- cauo to 
tic 4:mK]u>ii.»ti» tliU cryptogamic ^iHiHa riw cliiWIy iluriii^ tUfl 
night nt>ri IaII fhortly ft^oi'ftinrl4«; that tl]« bei)-ht to whidi 
thi* iM^iliiW in qiu^tioti roM- ww 30 lo 100 f<^'t from (he ntr- 
1»co; ih:iL none of tbvm n'irru i^ri-tk^ut during tUo day; that 
cororiut; tl»e ivH to a d«ptb of ni--vi:i;i] iu^lic^ lAftJi »tnw at 
<)uiokliiDe provent^ tWir rise ; thai a £tay uf filtuun roibatcfl 
in p1ac<:« in wliicb tboy aboiLDd«l ^nvi- ribo to di-yntftci and^ 
Minla beat of tbo tbmt coincident with th^-ir p^ 
^aiyngcal roauuft; and thai pcnnnn expo^ml t'< 
tioDf even fur from Their oiiginnJ wuicxs iind<-t- onlin-ij dif^ 
ff!rent circuiii«tnfici!5t in noa-nal&iial district^ euffeml &oaa 
sttackn <>f fpvor tu ii conMviiu<i»oe, 

Wc bjtrdly tJiiuk that tbcir ciHiId bo mwe ccffivindiiK <^Ti* 
duave tUaD thif. Gut tli^a it tuw to bo boioe in mind (}ut tho 
diiftfict under oxamination wufioioevhat tia rxcrpticnai oiu«. 

Tlie ^>l«*r\mions of Hr. Swnyno awi Air. Itrittau, tluiti^ 
they wf^rc callod in qiuation by thr »ub»c<|Ucnt Hi-porl uf tba 
Royal Collr^ of Pb^'&JduEu, ^iruihiily giwj m-id^aiTe la favour 
of tbia vii-w of the matUr. Tbcy p» to rliow tbat ia diolera 
ttmee th^rP€Tii4' in tboatmoi^ph^r^ perT-''-- - '* -.' tmc- 

CtiTC, afi i^r na thty coiibl hcv^ was id<i ; tb« 

dl-knimii nnniilnr cnlbi ftom chnWiic t'jcK^dl diiolkiirguc TImt 

AlB BBV&iTa IMZ )nCB0«O0?& 


wefit fo fur lU to piitluh ^gimm cf th««o ooUa. wliioh Ituy 
alleged wrrc alifciit from WalLticv whidi lutcl do diolera caset 
in tlHiir ntii^lboi>rhocd. I>r, liaodomc^ oj^un, j^v^ hU tcati- 
mony m fA^Doi of the view tbuL tlic hit we bri?4ihc< (vtntnEna 
BtuDorotw orgonisros. Tn a paper loftd before Iho Pliilobophicnl 
Society of ?klnnche«t«r, in the year 1870 (and reported in Hivst^ 
pttgccj^ Im tit^ivii ih:it un exauii nation of tho ait j:bi>vFod tbat 
iti cttACtt of iIipttlK^rm duim-rvjufl t;rcwui»h cnnfc^rvril l;)jmu'Dt« 
a^nared : and in tho flir collected fh^oa tb« nui^'hbourliood 
Q? cftflcs of mcA^lcfi, vhoi>ping*coug^bf and plitbmri almndarit 
fixiLmplpi of vmaU rumid confori'oid coHii vrarit found* At the 
SUDC mcetinff &t wb;ch th<^ above? statement wom mode. Dr. 11, 
Browne a]]4^d tbM K^ h!kd oltslned nearlj tbe utmc- rc«ulu. 

Beeid^^ tbii^\ ihtrc ar-r^ tcvemi <iUi«re ooa Uie same idclc- 
Signer 8e^Inii, of Mnnltm, itiLU^-i tiLnl W Itw sx&mlned iho Taob- 
tare procecdui|[ &0111 Lhc air of oaarrhftf, mad ibund that it 
«0flik[tft49d in a ci)D«lder&blu pioportlon of sparoc of it^ and 
Active iufuK-ria. Again, anotL^r ob%rv«r« X>r< Balctftra, baa 
mad** impnrl.'itit nJua'nutioTi* <jii iho nir in ihe Ponline nmnbes 
of Kom^; and he t-UiU-p that thurc,* lurc in it Iho Fpi>re0, of a 
ptwaifth Tf^llow i^jli.iiLr rvnd y^fj^,- Oil", in dmnK^liT, of n minute 
apeciM of al^s a^d that tlrv^M.^ bo haa no di^ubt^ an> tho cause 
of thcM? nuJiiermiH <^k^ of iuT'i^fmtll^'nt ^ve'T wbiob are almost 
cLaractcH^tic of the locniity. M. H<^vcil also shows Lbat lie 
air in th" ^^nU nf Ihn SU J^niU Hiupilal wjir, wh^n rnllepted 
by the microscope, obunilnntly t!hiLr>fi?(i with trpittir-lial colla 
aiid \ariiiii« or^mic 04^r|u^>icl>.'H. Ev iilviLui? in favour of thin 
▼tew ii aUo ^i^'en by M, ^'. Poiilot, wlio statoa (" (7amptca 
Reudiur vtd. IxT,) Ltint he bu found abitrtdant, E|i)antlti«!8 of 
Bactorluif* t^rrw/t J^/onctv frrmo, and if. l/twiflu^. in tho air 
wbicli fmd hf-jn hnathed by ]>rtBitua wbu were xuflrtring from 

Tlir iiiimuil Jitpuiih" fiomj Ibi- Army Medical I>epartia«nU 
too, ^ive iLs a goofl d<^nl (jf tivldctico; and tt if tho nioro 
Taliiable, iiii^t fmm tho fiu^t of ir^t leaning to onr Miif! more 
tins another, At from tli<> i^ir^timatance that tho invotftijKalioaa 
npHaanlrKl harr. beeu m^aiUbly ct>ndncted with lbat Atriob 
rc^rd iuT Iriith whicb r^indors thorn viiluablo m impajrtjal 
aeuiuiitd. TLc slAt^racnt* vary a littlr, acconling to tho 
obMf\«rthst maki^ii them, but *L-m<? of Uiein point dUtinctly 
Lo till? (id iliat thr uir U dccidi.^ly impure from Iho uature of 
iUeontentr. For inttanee, J>r. do Chaumont GtatA that 1^0 
cubic fn;t of air were found to contain '< cpithi^lium in largo 
qoantiiyt bfiif end vnriouv libru«, »and, auut, uryntollinc tub- 

* '*S«DiUr]r and M^dicaL licpofU oC tho Army Medical Dcpiuimeiit 

for imr." 



kUqcca^ and sparanffia of fttt^i and monnrh hi 
^vanfUy." Mn Bacooi'** rceearcbes 00 tbe Air f>t'JhUn' 
ure a1«n of gti-At inUfrr«t, tiiivn t«|rHjtl1y lu^ bi- gin^ lUi 
Dutc of tbo unoimt of «porat prcttnt in tbc upeGiniciM of mir 
KooutiiiMHl. Htt any* tJiai Llipn? vittnt tjt 2^495 /i//vr o/ £Aif a/* 
mo&ph0r4 (an amouct tliat would be broatlied bjr act ordinuy 
IndiTiduml in about tea hfixiT>] wt U^ thm dT,'^i>0/MX) «pomt 
03M(uMtv o/ otA^ ffJurtmaJ*. Ami bc»clc« tlio*e vhMr t> 
Hcnrcbctt wo lmv<^ meQlLoricd, Ibera are uk^xxy ntbers wlioie 
inqiiiriea all point in the ^amo directJoVL. 

Dut it must be coufaaMcl iliat the oppoelto udr is, in r^vd 
to th« ftboKico of spoTM origiiiatiiig «pidciiiic dinftsv*, oat 
d«Toid of erideaific also. It can name no lew ftiithontiti« tliaA 
£hi«nboT|;, tb« f>Taata«t isfuiOflial iav«itfgator in the world ; 
Fouchet^ the oeUbrated 0apport«r of the wtedl-hnown doctxinc 
^f epotitan^oiu g«««rat]oii; tbe Hojal ColUgo of rhynciaw; 
n&d MM. Joljand Mutaet; bc«idc« various other Uw celebrated 
authorities. But the tint eoD only ho cited at opposed to tbe 
id«a that iWe are the feniu of iiift^imia dieeaeea in tbe 
Atmosphere; for be ftbowa mo«l ronrliiciv^ly, l^ infinitely iJoA 
mort f jrtrnirivr of rweAiohrsi, Ihnt the air contain* an am 
nfiiuimcil Hfr- thut iv Minu-Uiiiig rilruorfliiurv, Biili. Bayii 
Ctiuiiuij-hum.t when qteaktng ooi this ptirt ot tbe ^bjcci^ "no 
Bpeml forms of icfiisoiia ot >por^ were to be found in tbe 
Atmospheric diut during tho epadnnic of cbolem in IW-t^," So 
1*-*' tuny Tilmnii t-tmnt KbirnlM-rg on ihp nthrr %\t\%\ i-<'- amonf; 
tlie nuti-contejinotaDt.K. In point of fiict the onXy nkcn o( grcfll 
repuT&noti iipi>i] tbtM tiidr* bul* >f?hl. RmirhH, Joly,aiid MuHtei. 
Their icwarcKta arc rcallj inoBt remarkoblo, (iw tiwy aocm to 
hiLvi? oWrred onnc whatever of the hotUveeru i>y numeroUMolher 
workcTTt, Of coiirpc thcr did find (more cspcciallv Poncbot) 
Bcmie cifrpiEM-)i'K ami 4 frw iitbt^r ur^'aiinsntii;, Imt uolhiii^ at al) 
to aooount f.>r Uij> multitude that verc developed in wntev ex* 
IKi«ril to l)j^ ntr. 

Now wc Riii^t rmcmbor that thcM three (Fouofaet, ^^3% 
actd MuEtitft) vcri; tbe sqieclal advocaten r>f xprjutaowiw gi?iier^ 
Uon, and tltat therufcre tbey could not ^n> oxp^ctod bo Hnd an 
ample fctipply of animal and veKetaUtf life alrrady uxUtiuic in 
tl]<^ ntmo«phero. Jlnt H may h« raiid ve )iav« no ri)-bt to 
nccuie them of f&Uity, and thcrcfoft^ «^ dcdaie that we do 
not do sl>; but whsit we d<j my U, that ptTVoni who wnre 
engagcri in a dcsptiule arK^umrnt nici^inst the exutencia of thnv 
fmni in the atmovphere, v«re not the moit likely peisoiu to 
hnd them in tliat po«ition- 

* Tf]4y won piiMUb*i] in tho '*rioeetd£i^ tt tl»* L;li*rv; and PhUovfr- 
t " UEcrotoopic EjuniuiiLivui vi Air,** 1874. 


At all «v«Dt«, tneh i$ iht ttvidtnae pro ind ccn. We liAve a 
ffnfBit ikftl of T&lu&ble ic^iimoay in luvour of the csuUiii:e of 
ftod vcj^etable life in ihe alTnoq}}i«n>, nDd & c^rt&in 
of that t^fetimoo; gocA to iiho^ thnt contnginiiji 
infociiiim diwiiicK may lisivc tlifTir ori^jia hi atmonphcrw 
; whiUU uo tlic oUicr Imnd, wp Imve liardly a Until part 

witoe«»s ia fAvour of th^ view That f he alirtniiphpre i» not a 
ecntns of anLmal aniJ vc-^taLle life, und thut di»xi#rs do not 
p^vtcmI tlirougb thn AuiHturoi* of ntmoHplir^ric ^rrmft. \Vi.* an* 
now in a pofiition to examine tlic lit«it cvidcnco thnt ha^ been 
o/Sewed on ihe aubj^ct, and lo raiiO one or two objecr-tion^ that 
Uio whole method of invoHti^tioa t^et^m^ to un to be liable to< 

Wr tniint tinw PXAininp Dr. Ciinniii^hdm'i* Icilntiirfl. Thr^sn 
«ppcor to ui to lie moKt \^1iiabtr, und bt; ban pvihlinUf^d tbcm 
ill a Unna whii'U, f^ir f^iiiiipli^U'iii.'itx nf detuil, fui skilful nrrtni^t*-- 
n^ot, and for oxoeJleoce and number of illustrations, has ocr- 
bkinly nn rvjtiftl, nt Ifumt, in riir Inngiugf*. (IfcLiiirftr- ihp tvjidor 
nutft bc^ rcfrrmJ to the vorl< iUclf tor tlic minnlo aot-ount«. 
We cam lUi lltlli? mint*, ijjriti *b'trh hi n in*HL imjierfft't nuiimrr 
tomo of th^ ftHultH at whit-b he bu^ urn^td. Om^ of the lirot 
oiperimeutA In* de-icribe^ ia of int-r^ri^rHi, ju it i^bowK )ji>w many 
diffonnt tiorio* of animal forma may an»o in eiicccuion in tlio 
verj nunc ^^itiKti of vs^it-r wbicb Il«w bcon nt fint oljtaiticd 
from fain CL>ltc'otnl at ^ <^oo:ii(l^rablo hoi^lit abovo the ground 
(baviii^ tAki?!! pv*"ry pri-raidi-m n^iitinL uuiileauliiitia), auil 
whi^li has b«eQ k<?pl for HLnoml davd pL*rf«otlf froa from tho 
admiMinn of \Un cKt.eriinl air- In on*.' (•[jtrcimen (No. EI. p. 4*2 
of I>r. CiinfiinjflatnK w>>rlc) thn antbor fonDd»iOvonty-two Iigmtu 
after it bad bceti ji;alcd, iiti iimplr? lunotuit of myonlial rlrnir?iiU, 
Tben two dayi *ub*eciutnliy (the Epecimen* boing r^^jularly 
scaled aAi^r cxacainaiiuii) be fouud an abundaucL* of oouidja. 
It was tbvn 9QmM Bg^&in, loft Cor six day? moro^ with th^ follow- 
injC multn (ace fig. 2, 1'Uto CIX.) :— ** The lilamciit«wc« then 
greatly diilntofrniti:^, but the cyjts rematuvd v*ry dUUnct, aod 
were pr**tnt in abundance. Tbty coulained a mua* nf proto- 

Kim mArkod with ote or two grannies and cloar spacoAi tho 
CT of wbicb could bo aeen to alter in number ana poontion. 
Di wreral ioftUncoa tfa««e protoplasmic bodic;* worv oluorvtHl 
SnduaUj to irork their ivnj out of tlvir cyat», vrliicb wt-rv tlifMi 
Mt bvhind jw ptiremely delWt« r[Ti(*3» hardly visible *arf» witb 
ouvAU examination. The process was comparatively f li>w, and 
tllB «aaiping lootporro, for tnch thfij XH'mod to 1h?, nhcnuad a 
^MU-dofcelcped fitigtUnTx in activo 7noiimi> /or oomc tima before 
tk^ VMm trUir^Iy free, Onct* d&tdcb4<d in the fluid Ibey moved 
activftlf about by meoiiH of tho tte^eUum tt» well as by froo 
fliincpbmii exti<n»(i>ii]S of th*^iT mibHtaniw, arul in Tnany nti^es the 
flaj^elluiD temporally or permanently diMppcarcdt «o that, Lad 



the pmwitkot be«in nctiulLy ^nbserv^d to toko ploocs tlM> iwi» 
oooditioiu nug^t have kw^n icgard^ a« belonguiK to dlstincti 
organifinc. in utber poulc of tbo prcfpirmticotT lhf» tnriNflial 
tliTcadB bail resolved Uieintt:lv«a Into iimufrf-ralilc comdial 
cells, vliUe in oUierv %hef nrare more or Less coiDplMelf dtt^^g 
poeed into gi:latioous nuuKS ^ntftittlig emtulee aad ftfiitflir 

Bcircnd otltcr cxpcrimcnU of n AJmilnr kiixl were mad^ wiUt 
prettj UBitLy ihe lumi^ r»tilu. Tbio only ijtu=«Moii which bord 
occun Ui tlic author is that concftmiag tJt« oritriQ of IjttctorU; 
bit thjLt I lliink hr givs ori>r vptj &1rly. The ^^DcludoOfl 
which fic ntAtofi firr ns foHovd : — 1. Spc^ineQ^ of niiD-vatCr tft 
Cnk-[jlt;t* oiillnrlcil iptxLli rv^fry |iri-i%-ititioii tAffnttirir thrir fW*«doift 
froED contact ooutaxninaLion, isoooer or lat^r &vqucxitlj riicw tlio 
piMuuco of »pom, mycellnnit loosporei, tnoQadn, baA«roiil 
bodies and distinct hictcria. *J, They do not, ae a rule, ood- 
Udn any vf thn liighifr form* of iikfuwirin. 3. Tbr ronsporM 
&ra demODiftraUy derirod from th« m^^octimik ariMnjf ^m cota- 
mon atiDoupboric «p9r«s. 4. Tliere i* eraty [irttluliiliiy that 
tbo monads nad bacteria hav* i nmilar Ofigia, but it n^tnaiui 
quite uncrrtniti ulirtlirr tWr development i* liiio to hebim- 
j[OD«tii^ or to the pr««cDou of thtii ^eirmt wicbin tboir paroDl 
oellfli or AS tbc result of a procow of uormal <Ievcloj>inenL in thm 

Tbo ucxi sufcgect oiantitiMl hj Dr. Cunninghani ii that 
reflating to tho mi^roicopio ckaiacti^r of th^ air in wmtx^ 
lie plaoe^ hi? atfroKope in sakIl a g^Hjwtion thnt it would haTt 
an opportimity of eacamining the air prooeedin^ Ucm tht* wvftf^ 
of Oitcutttt, but the rwultaho obttUDud wen tvl wty imimrlaot 
(flc« fi^. S, Phto CIX.). Ho found ns a rule nothinj^bitt boctana 
and ILo fporc^^ moat pirobablyf of afpoTgiLtiK Aim! both thaw 
be thuft accounU for. Th« bacteria, li« nvi, aro foand btfc^ 
moro readily thau in the outer oir, 1>t^-aiao tLo mouturc ronien 
them moro rvndily lu'rtt ; tiUkmTiHt £« tlu^ change tli«ir f.-rai 
un<lor tbo inBucnoc of dnni^lit, t^Ley arc lofe obeerved iu nrdt- 
nary pr^panitfoitk, Ae* lu t\w pz^^ivxteo of lup'rgillus and ttiai 
alonot bo tUinks it ia due to tbo foot that of ciounc oth^r fmif^ 
liporpG ooiild liy^l px'itt in thn Hrifir At^nnvphore, while AfpowtlJui 
ULceU tiK re tlic d/imp aUnoq>hcrc and LaaniriaDt orfpukic utter 
which it rpt|iiirrr<. 

The otJior dpeoimcitB tifjfured in our plate are copm uf wue 
few of tho«o tiliioh T)r. Ouiiniii^lLam liSJ LVtlWtMl iij hi^ avn^ 
acopci, which wa* expoaod for 24 houre each dfl*' 't ■ : the 
months of April, May. oni) Jutie, 1872, Jd tljv Pr^ ail, 

aM al a eimilux looality in Aliporo. Tlif? re i -to 

gi\thrj\n^^ aro noi so st^-'ikiof-ly u'liiiirLAHTT ju ^< , ^w 

ei]>ccte<l, pOAfihly^fbr a loattxi that w« fehall rbEer to turtJi^r tMi 


46m nr<* not d«ri>id of intero&t, ns tlie following 

Itotly relc^rablo to tba ttin^uft order*, SphfJ^ronfftnei-t McUtn- 
Mm«»i Toruiaotti^ Dmi^aijiit AttieedinMj Puciyinliri, :i[]d 
thomtutL Among Uimo by fur tbo most iDtoreatiikg va^ a 
fpecimcti of thr. Tornlacfvl^ Ai^pccic* nf tlierane genua ^^pfr'.^J^J';^ 
(aet fij-. 4, Plate CIX,), Thii! wa* found c^nly in two inetmicee. 
The utiit uiLiiuui spedmoi wa* ooe of ;l peculiar gri^en lilgoiil 
««1L Tim yms obtuiied £rt>tn Alipore. Th^ specimen ahows a 
■KBufcoT of men CfitJ« (we ^g- J)> circiil&r in outline, of Toriam 
toMtty and iLowin^' a (Jiviii<m of Uudr cm]t<?ntf into ftcm two 
lo iourAepaiate pilt^i. Tbc prcac-uct? i>f Lb&ie Dr. Canalngliam 
IppRKtitly nttrihut«8 to a tank in iliQ D(<i^b1iourhood.. no that 
if 4bi» view l>c correct tbcy have no ic-ui l^euimi;; nii tb^- case. 
UowcMT, wc muv tiifk|>os(-* uii nt leiut poRniblo thnt thny wora 
aol due to iLc t4ink iituU. Ncit in urdcrr in uin>thcr peculiar 
flMoJnufi, vbich is iuppos^ to lie tba pollen of mnno vpet^iea of 
luy (aoo fig. 6> Of couna ita puuuUuiUy in thia inetanca ii 
dmply it4 mrir.y r>f occum^ncfv 

FinaUj ve oonxcto th& apccimintt tvUi'rti mpre than uny :itber 
have an «i|)ecial importance, uiid t1i('^< are i]n* oncA rv^r^ented 
ia ^^ 7 and 8 CPlate CIX*). Thoy are of tuiportant-'c bocaiisc 
tfaaj W pvcLLliar, and bfcauB«* tboy aro frnm two difiortitit kiru- 
liliciff and from both of ihci*c plnjcre- nt the time v^hi^ti cbolera 
vna jiTevnl larj^r*ly- It iv of iiit^-r^st 1o Eot4? the nunibcr i.if the 
peculiai- curvLvi nporod that appoar m both tliesc oa^ou, aitii to 
■jb»PT»v t.b-it thpw? uporfiji <liil Tint nppear before whiin cbuleiB 
DOt pr«cnt. They wrmld, iotlccd, lead one to believe in 
tlir jmroitu of (zlinlrtfa. But iiTihappily Dr, Ciimiing" 
buD's iDqiiiriets which wera conducted for a long time eubse- 
queiilly to thU oWrvation, abow that these pecnliar apore-like 
bodies did lu^t nppcor in m^ny otiicr caeos in which the mor- 
J«lity frncTi 4'linlrrn wu» even gr>.-^l.i;i' Ui^iu it wiis Jiiriii^ their 
»ce ; thoB idiowin^, a£ lio thinka — witl» vury good rvasoQ we 
ina — Liial iL. wa^ uidy beu-'tiiputt tjieir period of gji.twtti wua 
al the tiino of tbo first o:iporiment, tiiat tlicy worn prefi:nt,and 
tkaL iheir iitif-Jmcfi vais dne not to the nbMfnci; of eholeiii nbidi 
nged violently at tliu time, but to Ibu fuct tluit their peculiar 
Muon hail pass<^d \iy, Aud* a* he very [airperly obBervn*, it 
tbowB the D4>cestty lor the carrying out of r««<«rcb(iH nil tli« 
ytiu loimd ; tvr untpR-^tionLtUy if his inquiries hod stopped at 
Iha period of finding tht^i^ itpoeimirna, a very dilTdrvut concJu- 
akm would inevitably hjirc been ft;uiicd. 

Althoufcb W6 have boeD imable to give even the bri^^fnt 
aooouul of Dti Ouimiii^bani'tt inc^uirica upon thi« siubjcct in 
tmay of thd cbuuuit ha hx» adontrHl, v« may twverthelMi 

te ibu foUimng oondttsiciid wliiuu he haa latd dowD* aa they 


ropuLAK gctucK uniw. 

eoabJa Uie otnerver to peroeiT^ lli« different linea of 
ho hu adopted; — I. Th« xeroflcafw affords a tcr; couvenltftt 
oiethod f^r obUining fipMimuu T«ftUjr repnv«utingf the nttim 
of the tnie Ataootpbcnc chivt* 2. Speciinctii of dn*i vcafhr^ 
from expi^ied lurfaoot eaonot be r^^arded sft fair ladices of tht 
eoQsUtucDta of atmoepboric dint, vnov thtf ore liable to cod- 
taln bodtOB whicb nui^ Iiato r«ftcfa«d tho mimoa othr-ndRc tbin 
by mccuia of the aJr, ai well m others which are tt;e rr^ili of 
loc*J der4-lo]>meuL 3, S|ii-c{nien« ojllwrti^il by gmvitaUMi al*» 
ittii to indicate ttie salure and amount of organic ccIIaooq- 
tiiin<''d JQ thfl ntmotplMrit, a^ th^ himvi4»r xmj>rpl^onft ajxl 
inon^cuiic ooikrtitiKmt« of tho diut arc depoedtod ic rcUtirtt 
excuu line til ttiK itiKltiHj ()4 ciillecliuu, 4. Di-4 nl-iu fmilnto 
aSbfd A i^ood QueoAof iQv«et)fati»j; tbo m1^«ot> ae it be Impoa- 
slbte to BBcare that all ILe bodies really |ir«Hfat in a F^Mcineo 
of it etiould bo coUooUd iotoaruffir^ently niuUI Hpoccs Mtd, 
morrHivr-Tf booauMS it In \inh\a to arcitteiiUil cuuUwinatioJiA, and 
also affoidi a medium in which r^psd jprowth aad dcv^loMDcml 
ara likdy to tak« pbuKf, 5. PisLiocl uifuMdal animalcuki^ 
th«ir g«mi« or ova me almon cniio^y abwint from atowMpbok 
du«t nnd cveu frotn tmixiy >ifrof^iinrti« of dii5t colkctod from 
djqMied rur&cc0. 6. Tbe oi-rcomotAdt and utueba) app««ni^ 
in certaia dpedmona of pun; raiu-wuter appear to be tooiporo* 
developed froca the myc^linl tiUia^nU siUin):; frvirn commoa 
atmospheric spoiee* T* Distinct bacteria can hacdly e^er be 
dotoctrd umc^ijg tho const itunuti vt atmospheric dunt, hut line 
tnotocutc} of ijncerLim nature are almost alway* pii^A^nt ia 
ataimdaoce: they fre<|i]eDUy appe&r In speelmect of laic-u-utor 
col]ecte<[ with «dl prccautboa to secure purity, aad oppL-Ar m 
many nu^ to ariM ftrtm thi^ myceUum c]cwh>|iDd from aLxB»<- 
«phrric iip^rct. 8. Diitinct h^cteria are frofiueiitly to be fouad 
amonjfHt the partielca deposited from ihe molit air of tewcr*, 
thou^^h almost eDtin^lj ubeuat a> oODMilTjcnt^ i>f common 
atiDospheric diist. 9. Tbeaddidnn of dnrdmt (vhkh baa been 
cxpofod to tropical beat) to putn^cible tluidn u follonrd by a 
lapid it^elopiTwut of fun^ and tMicii<r]&, although Tvcu^tiftAblft 
apeoimena of the latUir arc \^ raiely to he ftuud bi it while 
<\ty. 10. SporeH And oth^r vt^j^ahb* c«Jl« are coostantly pr»« 
fcnt in atmoApJicric duM, and i;«QaUy ooctv in coondcrabla 
niiinlHOK ; Uio ouLJnnC'y »f (iH-tit nrn Uvitig aiif I t^jKiblr of gmwih 
aad developmeut : the uroounl o1 Uicm pretiMit m Ihc ur ap- 
poaiB to be independent of coriditlcuA of veliK-ify and illreetioa 
of wind; ivud theii AumberB aro not dimiDii:hod by mointtirot. 
II. Ni> mnfiRCLioa can Imi trarixl hr-twi^rrn tho tiiunb<*re of 
baetetiat >p«>ti>^ Ac, prricnt in liio air aod tbo occiirrriioo of 
diviboeaf djtMiiiterj, djulm, ^E^**^ *-'^ dengui; ; our ]H.-t,ntr-n the 
prMODca or abucdanoe of atty Bpecial form or forme of Otili^ 

ana l)»c prevalrtjce of any of tboie <ii*Rti*tt«. 12, The An;ount 
of tnargTiuii.' mid umt^rptmiin ]>arl iolf-n a [iil oilier ileltrii KiJ.itit'lidHi 
in the atcnoepbero is din.'ctly dependent on cooditiooa of moia- 
Jaae uid of \r1oi-iiy r>r wimL 

■ Ur* Cinkninjj^htua conc]udc?ii bis obwrviitiDDfl will; tome voJo- 
Btltff «UBVi9itHiuiiH »4 Lu iJie n-tuiouH wh> Km inTjiiirim diffr.r fnim 
IfaoM of iiluTtnberp;, For example, be sLowu tliat ih^ im^thodit 
employed by tli*' two dliMivrr* wrif? l-jlally dibtinei. The 
(forman workor fibtninctl nearly nil bin Apocininon, not ^irtctitj 
iu>Til Itiv nil, Imt from Imvnf, pir^or^n of Imrk, LiU of iijoh, 
^. But of comae tLia ia & moat unrelialilu tm^do of ope- 
rating: for wLeu HurfacEri have been wetted witli mlu* tUent 
b no difGcuIty for rotifon, tArdifpkdoff, «id «o forth, to make 
their way orcr them Ia a cotLfidcrablc extent; and it 10 thiH 
cireuiuiftancv, diMtbtlew. which fjave tlie fcu-igo ohfturver euoh 
a widi! {Uiolu^iciU rcmgo to Lu collection. Dr. Cuuuiu^ham*:! 
niod^ could alon<> gntluT whnt wnn actimlly in th^ sir; benoo 
Hb tertrj of rpociincnH htLvc nol liccn ^0 vo:idt?if'ijily ittrange-. 

llic author of the b*t work on the subjoot ttugf^fxU in hia 
final remark* that Ibeao ei.>!lcclions mtgbt, if kt|>t and then 
studied, havfl formr**! n difiVrr'nt tain for tli^ ohsprving htiulent, 
AdiI here, doiibtkf^ bo ]iii?i bit iipoti tlio ri^^ht cord. Wo 
gnsitly rt-^i^t Ibut lIk^ i<h-a rlid nut fK^iriti' tu bim lii<fi>rr% iia 
then it micht Ji&va onabk-d him to gjvo us ftomrlbinc more 
worthy of a genuine micrnscoptoal flhident. It h, ih&n, ia 
abMBOO of this and of another fact that, it app^ara to wu, the 
sntbnr Tiwi, tJirougb ntnindcmT romndltfd a )wriniiK i>iTQr- 

IVo riuo«tiOQ« ariwi from the? H^rius of reftofirchra which ho 
and others hu,ve er^niji^cted, and whidi have bet-ii (WtHhm) in 
tbo earlier pagce ; and thotc nro — K Aro th>?ro alwuytf in the 
ntHKxphero a tfiiiuitity of unLmnl find vi-gcUl^jle gi.Ninj» r^ady, at 
ftny mom^^nt when i>9m3d the iixvourablo ounditioan of develop- 
mmtfto cume ijitOf-'iliU-uue? 2- Do ai*rtiiiii riumU?ruf Uirwi' 
^animal or voi^itahle) promote thote various cpidemiva and 
otbtrr dUttWS "i"* t/irrihln in thrir mflniff^stntionn, and wbit-.h 
coQM> and p? m lu^uiy iubtnuofT^ jutt :ia a 4?U>uJ of minuto pai* 
ticb^ miijbt be drivari hy the wiud? The llnd uf Uii^fc qtws- 
tioni in, it te^ms to nstpnrtly anew^r^^d in the aMrmative; and 
it only requires the rmpl-^ymcnt of tbr hi^bont powers aud llie 
necQsiily of mo«t cartrful wuichruuuiilkip on ih<? part of the 
stodent in order to hare s <ionipktt aad deviaivt reply. The 
Jtev. Mr. Dallinger, K.K.M-S., ban sh^wn us by hU retjunt 
inqulrit^ ('* Monthly Microicopfli'nl Joi:n;o!," January, Febni- 
%Tx^ and Marc^h, 1874) ]tow a wUuIl* hoit of orgnaifnm may 
oompletely cwap« obaervjition by tM uac of powers cwd 
»o high as those Dr. Cimniapbatn has pnployed. ft U only, 
then* by the cmploymcDt of objectives of tho ^^incJi and 


rorfijA 8ciB?scs xsruvr. 

ii^ndi uid the htj^Mt cyc*|Hec<i« th&t ve cbb hope for urjr 
LUMffiil reeuiu And, tiitUt«nDor^, ad Mr. DaUiii^rr w potaua 
out, mobt o&rofiil ftod continaotB ob^n^tion miui bo cVTt«d 
on. AmnmUjr iT lie f Mr. DbIHt^i) hwl tint ndopM the pod- 
tlSQOUi method of ftxidy, he vrould bare dc«eribcd u thm 
or nuTO diiiUtiet iiidtviiluslt wliM. w<-rv mnvly^ Out suqcstmIw 
Ht4(^ of dereii^XDeDt of odo and tM samo bedas. U U Almoit 
al^urd to see, ai we do, in tho cootrovi'tiy vhtch lo<ik pUcs 
BOEOO fow mm ogo botwncn M. PmUut mod M. i'oachct, t^t^t- 
mee to urn ntnjtUvfmetii of a puwtfr uttaiUy of \50 fUam^ 
UmH! ^Mly, A pow4}r of 150 diam«t«n wouU be Altogothcr 
Siuidc'fiimtG to fiidt hboiLre lu thoM that att deauDtleil; it 
wofdil Ut jkv mticli, nnd ■>v'i>n raodxi, out of plaov Una Malpi^iTs 
li'iiHTi would lii^ if ojiiifarod vritli the pnwcf9 of tJiv microeooplc 
anatomtAC r>f tu-dAy. 

Aa to the Mcood pJiDt of iw^ulT^, that las been much las 
fiiUy worked out. Attlioiifrh Air. R1a«kl?j and a Eev otbera 
h&rc attempted to nbow tl^ i[Qii:c<liiitc onmcctiooi betveea 
diaeoae and mtcTo^oopio org^uiuns caudi Um baa bocL door 
than tha subjpcL c1i<iDand& And there cao ha im doubt that it 
onlvavftitfl ti>meoDewhrktlil^«Mr Dallingpr, will hriof- iiit^iM? 
puticuco aod the 1iighc«4 powcn of the laicrotcopc to hear oa 
it, In piialilo tlio ftiihjiTct to he eoanplet^ly cli^nred np. 

At nil crrDUt wn can coaynitiilatQ the warkari oa tbo 
uaeful U>30ijr that they have glreo ta the mtjc<ct> ml 1K tnnit 
only hop*.* that in a few y^ars more, vrc flhall be able to aee moia 
L'WHj' ib;it itnmcti)^ Hii-&t?o whicb ia now mt It ven» a ImtTBD 
plain with an iiamciuity of ex<{uUite rtitragat uprcad ahoT« A. 



THIS notko «in1)moc« thtf fctcnUHc To^iltiA of on incjtnry on 
roK:4i(ni&l% undertakcti at Iho iijhL'ujoc uf tlic Lliirr 
Bnthrett of the TiLiiity Hon«o, aod communio^U^d, with ili^ir 
fiiendl; cCkU^-uiTtriicc, to the Itoy^i] Sociuty. 

Tbd iiiv««ti£ffltioik wu bcguQ on MAy 19,1873, nnd ronUniL^ 
tiUJal5 4- It WAjt rcftxunMl en Oc1o1)er B,Am] rikntimird to 
Umi «tid ef Nov«m1>er. It al^o Inelud^i oUerv^Uoiu mode 
duriui; Uh^ dciue fu^T ^hicb enTolopod Loadon vu Deoeml^^ir 9 
and ii)« succeed itiff days. 

tiopgH and belu wcio cicludcd from lliis inro^Li^UoDt in 
«iiW0Qiitfii<:9 of tlictr pr^vud iuferioHty &> j^tlitr inittrtiin^nU of 
i^iulllng:- Tht? esq^ciimmbt were tnade with LnimpRLt blown 
by powifrTully comprcf^ed Mr, with st^am-whisH^it, 9i^^^t :^d u 
iUam-«TrcDt aat'Kifitcd with a trumpet 16 fc^-t longj 

DaboU's hom, or irumpcf, li;iJ lMf*n highly ispnk*ai of by 
vrit'^TH on fog-^isrtuiJ^' A 1hJrd-<irdrr nppimitu^ of the kind 
had betfQ report*^ es i&Ddtrig tts found to ^ diittant^^ of from 7 
to milcd ftgftinM the wind^ nnd to u disUnct^ of 12 to 14 
tnilcH with the iriml. Kolmpft hud imprnwd iipnii Dnlmll ; ;mfl 
with t«i> in«Cnjtn<:nt:< oi Holmc-« — rot of Mic thinJ, but cf th« 
fin£ orrfM-— our eipt-rimeat^ wtf re mad**. On May 1 9, at ^ milm 
diit^ncgf Ibcy beoanio UK'Icea ft« a foL;-gi|>:iial ; at a distance of 4 
ll)Ues> frith pnddW vlJippMl ixntl nil nii bnurd i|iiirt, Hii'y w^tv 
wlKiUy unhciinj. At it dijt^mc^e of 2 uailcn fr4>m ihi-. Knrrbml 
ihi* f*Tfl*ni im May IS Ijecaiiitf int'h-Ht, TIit* Iwrhe 
(^elock ;cmi, firud witli ^ 1 IK charpfe nt Drop Fcirt ta Dover, 
vu wed hiTukrvl un May 1?, when llir horu« and whisUrg wirre 
iuudiblo. On May 20 tlio porincability of tlio ntmoKphoro 
had loiticvhilt JncivtURtl, but tlir^ jitcam-wlit^illn fidl<^3 to pierce 
it to a <lAp(h of 3 mil<«. At 4 miloe tho h'>m^ thoTifj[h aided 
by quirtn^!^ <u hoard, wore barely heard. Ky caixifiil nurslui*, 
the expreanoD, tbo bom-votinds woro carried to a, 


fortUR ecmci umv. 

di«Uac« of 6 mile*. The superiority of the IS^poiimlor g«c 
mln^y einp1i>^ed by tba TViniiy HiJ(M< ha n. ftig-«i^»t, ovirf 
hoTQp attd «hi4tl^ WM i>n this da7»a dcddcd m tUmotft t« 
vrnrmnt On n-^comrorDiUtion to Uin ricLitfinn of aJI tlio othci 

Notliiir^ trcviirred on June 2 to cjuilL <viir Tinp<^ of tM 
Irumpc-ta nnd whUtlei^ Tbe lioniA nvere aouoelv licanl at n 
di»Tan(w of !& milcfl ; Minrtinvv, ind?^, Uk«iy fntted to Iib hvanl 
at. 2 milwi. Itv koopLi^ cvrrrj-tjiini; qiiift on boAfd, they wcts 
Anc-nr.inlK lit^^ml to a ilistsuco of i> iiiili-ii^ — zi rmili, limrfrrfv, 
uifLiulT duu Co the inkprwed (^oodition of the ahoij^plkfTfu 
rHoiiAidoiiii^' the drmaods u to sound-nuge maJi.- bv vritf-n an 
thU Hiihj^x-t, tJio dciDoiulnUd tDCOtopeUmrrt of borna a&4 
urhiflUr^L <if gtuit reputed pvwer to lii«vi tht!»i* dc^mnnd* inM 
ouooumfni^^* O^ Jiuie Z ibe atmo^pheny tiad «iluinfff<l fur' 
pn0iiiK]y, It waa loiuled OYcrhcod with dark and thrcatciung 
oloiids; tho sounds ii«wt^di>«<, w«f« w*11 beard bi^yond 
D Dtilc-A. On June 10 the acoustic tnuiiqiareai^ of tbc nir wu 
t\*Q veiT &ir» tbe dlatanw penHrsied Mnf; upu-4rd« of S( 
rotlc*, ^10 eubaideaco of tho soond acar the lnHmd.iri- of thi! 
acoustic shadow on t!jp Dowr rido of thfl Fowlainl. and b«fon 
CDt«rmg the shadow, ku to-day iiiddc^n and citraordioNryt 
ftfl^oUcg (xjually bulh lionw tkud guuft. W*i wcrr varned no 
June 3 ihjil. the suprernuicy of tho ffun on one occuion by ao 
mecuiJ iuipHL<d iti Rupremacy on all occoaSon*, tlio itlf-itnw 
intna whiclt iriL ?klay 20 bod so far transcondcd t^ lionki htmfi 
tjtx tbl« day tbHr «k|iulI« acid notliin^ mi>ro. Jun« 11 vai 
ciaploycd in mtufterinp atill fuiUicr the factn rrbUog 1o tho 
aiilHudeiioe of the ioutid easL atid w*** of th** Forplund ; th* 
oauflG of UiU auhddonco b&ingr in patt du«< to thi^ wfAkcnin^ ^f 
tho Aonoroitfl wnvrn by tht^fr divi'rgrnrn into thft aoiund thadaVi 
and in port to intRrf-r^onoc. 

Tlii^ iitjnLmfilKrr*^ im June 25 wa.H a^iu *en" di^frviin- aoon»> 
ticully. 'liw »oimds icavhM a niaximum dJJdt^iDOt- ol fi{ miWt 
but at 4 milc«t on rettmUDg from the maximum dl^tauiv, tJvjr 
wcro vory faint. Th© day had^ m it woro, darfcvrnod acoKiaei- 
<t4Hy. Ou tbis day the ^uiijt tociL atill fuTtiinr tbHr pn>- 
L^minc'OOCt and at ^| miW wen* infi^rior to tho faom. Sa 
ftoimdH vrbalflver rcocb<id Dover Pi« un the lllb; unl it inw 
only towards tlio doso of the day that th«y tiicc«ed«d in 
ri'Achtng it on the 22th. TbuA liy idow dffgrccs tiw caprlcM 
of the atmoipbcre madd themseK'ed knonti to iiii,RhoTOttai 
eub94»qiieiitly that vitiia the liouta of li aiogte day. t^ntn v^Jib 
a flxig\e taiuitti?, th^ air, ajt a vvhiclo of aoind, undorwont ttu^ 
9cru>ut variations. Juao 2^ ym a far better dav than ita ]V^ 
dee«a»orf the aooustic range hew^ OT«r f)^ mUt^. Tlin dire^ti<ia 
bf tho wind VM loM favourable to the cound on this day than 

TRB ATN<^F1Iiei1B. 

«a Uic ptixcding^ ^ncr, pl^unly pronn^ that fomolhin^ t^W^ tUnn 
t}ir ttiud vitot pla> na iuipurt^tut jiiuL lu ^licirt^uing tiie n<JU]JiI* 

On July 1 wp pipprimentnd iipoti a rotnHng }iom, nnd hrnrd 
iU direct or ftxikl blunt, which proved to be the ftron^eit, nX a 
■Attiaicc of LO} milf^- Tht,* tHiimiU wem ol^ ieard at tbr 
^piQe Ui^ht^bip, vliiob k I'iJ mik* from the Foielaiid, Tbe 
Hpoipheri: lud b«cum« decldrdlv clcjvrer Qcotu<licallY, buL not 
^KppUie&lly ; f>r on thU duj tblok hiixe obacuretl the whito 
^Hb«f tkfl ForcLind. In fact, ou daj» of f^ greJiter optical 
Hviiy, ih& Miuid bad fdl^ to roadi on^tliird of the dhUncd 
HiiiDed to-dA^. Id tbe Itgbt of iiacli a fact, rmj attempt lo 
^k* opticnl tnui#pftTrnr}r u mon^urc of ncouKti^ tranaprtroncy, 
^bt 00 MCCD to DO dcIiLfive. (>n July 1 n 12-inc:h AuiericJ^n 
Hdf tie, of nhLoh wo bad heard a highly fivonmblo aoi*oiint, 
HlB Uiod 10 plttoe of Uto \ 2*iDcb Engliflb wbietlo ; but. Like ita 
^pd9C««0T, tbo peTformance of the new ini^rrumfnit ft^H behind 
UtX of the honi:^. An iiitervnl uf twelve houni Hulticod to con- 
Hrt ttie an^tuttofdW dear ^LniciKplu're nf July 1 into an o[iar^ue 
oar ; for od July ^ c\ou thu hom-aotiiidi, with ponddles stopped 
a»d Ml Doivli^w nn tnard, coiild cot peuetr^itti fiirtlier than 

TUiai oacL autvi^tidicig day provided ub willi a virtiuilly new 
lliiMiWpli'il ii_ clearly ehowin^ that ccncluaio&s founded upon ou4^ 
Aiy'o r>baefvation« might utterly broak down in [.lie [jn^tmce uf 
liko ph«nofikonji of another day. This was taoet imprer^fiively 
JfonoDKtJBtetl till the iluy now hi Ih- rt?fi"rred to, Tlie acoufitic 
iBponrioUfBeai ct July 3 waa fijund to be etill ^eater than 
Int of Uw Snd, whilo the optical purity of the day wa^i 
moblj porfiDCt. Thn clltfii of the Foreland could be ioeii to- 
day »t tra tiixicA the? dutanctf at wliioli ibey ceased t^ be viaildo 
«o tht! lit, while Lbs ftoundfi were cut ofT at one-sixth of the dls- 
tttooe. At two r.M. neither guns nor ttumpets were able t-o 
plejoe Cho tiatunorcDt air to a <!<'ptTi of 3, hardly to a depth 
of S roilo* TbiA cxtnuirdinaiy opficity wc consider b> ari.^o 
from the iire^^ular admliture with the air of thi^ uqueous 
v^>oux raued by a powerful sun. Thia vapour, though per- 
fectly isvitihlf*, prodiicc'd an imoujttie al^ud impervioiiv tn the 
fcondvftiKl Irom which the Aound^wuvc? were thrown buck aa 
tlio waVM of light ftr? fhtm an ordinary cloud, Tbe waves thus 
idoMxl traneraiii^ion pro'iuccd by their rotlcGticn echoes of 
tttAordinary UrrngEh nnd diimHim. ThiA wr muy miiitrk 14 
Uto fint time that audible vcboca havu! been proved to 1>o 
ivlUctcd firoca an optically trannpur^nl ainiuKphere. 8y the 
loworinfC <*f ^^ '^^ ^^ productioa of the vapoiu* waa cheeked* 
aad UlO tnnsmiiRVe fmvr^r of the ntmo^phrrr ti-rittrfd lo stecIi 
■1 extoot tbat^ at a distance of 2 miks from tixc Forcitod) at 

TOL. UII-— KO. LI. Jr 


rornLAft scnzvcK utik*** 

tin« iU inUiitfUy nt Iwo r.if. 1 

ihi October d the dWrvaUou ireTC ntfinntfl, a nUAm i^tm 
and A Ctnadiftn «hipi]« nf gmt powei bemj* abided ii^ Uia lijj 
of infltnimmtf^ A boiler bad iU sIoud nixd Ur a {jitnuuMl 
70!hL to UiiMMiuare iDck; on openiiiga ralr^ tbifl^totuni^H 
itfue torcibly in a couUnuotifl Aream, a&d Uic ji>if? fiuicd^H 
tbe ^-7«o VAA to cofiv^rt this lUeaiD into ^aoriisi ui' lopi^H 
ftrong piifFf. ThiA wiu docc bir caimng o diak wjlh i'2 ndlj 
tfUtjtto rotate bvbiad afixvd dtfk vitli tho Atiw number of dUu 
Whon Ui6 fliiu coincided a pulT eociped; ithm tlkrr did nn 
coioi^ide the oiitflDV of otenn vu intenrupted. Eaek puff oC 
fiUam at tbia bi^ porcworo gfrD^mtcd a (onorow ««y« of pwm 
inientityi thr^ vTinpivxivt* wiivrH linkmg thfrroibelTM togvtlief M 
a musical foimd so inUuau a^ to be bat dcaonbcd fti acoOH 

Puiiag Uio caiUfTT part of October B titc optical Lrao^pcuemf^ 
of ill" air wai vi»ry grrat ; it» ncoi»iic imiitpfir^ucvt on Iba^ 
oUior ba^ vrae very dd^Ndivc UloiidR blackcxiod and 1ink»j 
into a vala and haH^Jwex tif ImpkBl vii4i-ti^r*. T\tn tonsdcJ 
nut^d of being d^dtrawiU wen? improTC^d by ihib furioua •iflri 
and, aiUr ii bad liglifjMk<<«l, thus leA^PDJn;^ Tlir local uobe^^H 
BOttods voro bconl at a diitauco oc 7) milo* distinctly loudeP 
tlhan tliey batl \ter^ bKanl Uiraugb f.hi; |ir>H-i?i1in^ rattiUn atim 
ipliere at a distacoo of 5 milM. At 6 rtulce distance^ thcnsGml 
tJi« iiit«tiajtjf of tbo ftuuskd liad been ab kavt douUnl br tb« aia 
—% T««u]t «iniir9l7 i^po«»d to nil previous ajmUgoH, h^i la i 
ohvloa* conirijiiritcr of Ibir tnnoviil h\ c'^iKli^iintirm urtil pmi- 1 

nittoo of tbat Mij>oitr l]w inimirt> of urbich witb Uic ^irMj 
a proved bo iinjudiciul to Uic tound. Oa tbU daj a il»^«ft» 
ddnco v«s ^tnbli^hpd botweon the pit«h of a ik{>to a^id Iti 
pcociratiTcpowcr— tbr^yr^n generating 480 waTt*,beiut,'sUi?ltlj I 
inferior to the honiK, while ^'eaer;itinff 400 wav< > ,1 i\ i 

iras distinctly «upcTit>r. Tlie maiinium ran^ on ^ ' i^ i 

9 milsk On October 9 the transmJidve powei had diminuiu:^ 
the nkaximnm range being ?( mile** On both Ihoae d:i>> thf | 
njTi-n proved l>> he superior to tlie horasj imd on some oe^^iiAOfi 
superior to tJie ffun* 

On the 10th nnd 1 Ul^, a gfile hai^Uff cauMtl ow st^oour InJ 
Kch Eififoty in tKo Down*, wo made Iwi-olaervaUijtii^ Tb | 
dumtion of tli^ U4^m) i^choon wnii for the tyrsn an^l tii« fpia S j 
evcondif, f^jr the bnnu (» Moonds. The dorttiofi Tari<w &ou dtf j 
to day* Wt- nought to tfltimatv ibt? Eultuooue of Um* vM<wl 
wind, and found thot the sound of the pun tailed to rcttcb w 10 
Iwn luuw at a divtaiiitr- of M(\ ytixdi to vHiidvnrd, the «i<nd W 
tbv ityrcjD at tUv vain« time rwni^ to a pictvtn^ inteniritj. T» 
Icemni Ihi? ^ui vas heard at ftvo timiv, at>d certainly migU 

TBAgaacasaoy 07 0oubi> bt tbb ATUosraEES. 


PWe bMTD heard nt 1ifU<^ tiiQc« tlic <iiatAQcG nttaiucd to wind^ 
flui Tlivf uuiiiifTriUfy cl»inirirr nf the giin-ntitiuil rrmlciH it 
fabJf to b« quenched by u ain^i; puff of wind } but rounds of 
W fit«)i gflHtirftlly, wb^lbi^r momfiDtary or not, f^uffer more 
- TX *ti oppocin^ wia^i than hipb onr-^?. Wo Imtl on tho I3th 
li^" i-xainple of thi! |HiuiTr1c9(urii3U {if \K*a\y niitj U) cIcu^ilEiri 

ijf? 14th tte rnaxtmum range was 10 mlles^ bat the 

i*ro did not tnuictoiri thi* pow<^r of trftrFmiwioo, It 

-jjT 1 liar of ritn^nir n|ktic'ri1 cli^inirK* : l>iib Ua acnunUc ctc&r* 

■:.'■•■. diminiahv^ aa Iht day adviuK^L^d. Ill fii*^l tho «un wdi ill 

' tioo* ftV pro^fil to-day tliat by Ijwrtriiij; tlic ph.i-li of tie 

' nadiaii wliiKtle, it4 sound, which hfid provioudy b«on ia- 

iMf-, bvcftmc niddcoly audiblo, Tbc day at lirat wn« 

V r ih<ttfanftmliBioDof lh<^ 1orLjcer)«oimd-wave», Aft*r 

![«« Win th« COM wati rvvc:^r^d, the high-pitch<?d 

. ' ' ' 'I T\'}icn bi'ft.h gim and hriniB were inaudible^ 

1 tUin;^ <lid rti>i continnf^^ so tiipid find 

RiffvifiQg ore iho caprioci of th« aUTio!*pLi-n'. Ac a distance of 
S tmloB^ at X30 rjf-, iIjl- ohJUOfiQ in litiUfiroiaHive powur rcducod 
the lal«n«itr of the »onnd lo at Ipfist. one hnlf of whAt it; 
ftt 11.30 A.u.t the wind UiroughDot ninintcLinine the 
■Livcigtli and dirf^tioTi- Through nW Uiis trompleiity tbo 
kiovledfe obtftmr^l un Ji:ly 3 jhcdd tbi.' li^ht of u principlo 
«Ucb raduon* x^ fifiJ> > r M iiji|>ari*nt <-'»ikfuaionH 

October IS wiu tpcTit nt l>uiigcDee8 in evominin^ tho por- 
farroiuii^ nf DuIhiILa bonr T(' ia n fine iTtstnimertL, mid it« 
ftppLiofttjon wufl ably workL*d out by it* inventor; still it would 
m|uiii- very f^vi.iurab1e atiDoapheric (xjikditione Lo enrilJo it to 
wn a vtCTJDrr bofiwo 9h& hivd como diuij^eroiiBly oEose to tho 
ihfiTr. Tlie dir'^tioti in which the aeriiil echoes retLim wa* 
(Bi^y illufitiuled to-day, that djrt^ctiou being ^IwayB thu one iu 
vliidi Hie Ui« of ih* bora is [Hiiul^^d. 

Tho 16th WW at day of oxoeedicg opticr;! tmrupareticy, but of 
^twmt meaattje opftoity. The tiiuxiiQuni ninge waa only 5 uiilcoi. 
Od thi» iluy the howitter and all the whietlcfl waro i^learly ove«^ 
ouuicred Ly tho «yrcu- It wat, moreovL'r, he-ui-d fit 3^ miles 
with tbepaddiM going, while tha giin vnn unhi-nTd nt 2^ miW. 
With no visililo object tbnt coulti pott^tibly yield iix\ echo iu 
ligbt, Uie pore ai^iul ec^hoea, eomiug from the more distant 
Muthom ftif) weru diatluct and loDg-coiitiuu<^d at a distanco of 
% IBiilef ^ra tho «h<ir«. Noor the bnaa of the Knrrlnnil elilf wc 
tbcir dimtioa and found it to be 1 1 eKconds^ while 
of thebott whi>tl0«boeflWft«6 leeondK. On tbiv day tLm 
;lest Bounded rimultanootuly, wero pitted ag^Linet tho ^yroii 
fiODnd cl«ir!y inferior to it- 
On tho 17th four honu wgto Gompored with the ayreo nod 


raiTLJL« idBitci xmWH 

f^ODcI inCcrW Ui iL TJiU wum oiir day of ^mitMt 
tnuiniujtffit^f Uie sonut) reacbiiig ii iruLi)iiiiiin i>f Aftoi^ jtnUa 
for Uic syren, nnd cf moro than niiu^a for tbo ipuu. IT. 
echfiH on thu ib^ irm-* cHj<ktii;iirit l»[f)CKr Xhiux on auiy u1 W 
occMon. Tiury coDtinticd for fttl««*ii Moo&ds <li^ir duntkia 
iDiltcattnfC the atmoiphenc dtptA fiom vlufli ibey cacoe. 

On October 18, though tli« oxpernnonta ircrft not dirrcuii 
to dctcnnini! the trftnKmbinT«< pnwcr of tbc air, wo wrrc noC 
vitlt^nl proof thut it ^Dtinu^il *o be hii^U. From 10 19 
IOJSK) a«1i,. wliile v^aUing foi tbe bl&dtji ^ tb© Byrcn at ii 
dJBtuioo of thtm tniiM IVnm thcr ForpUDd, tZw continaixl r»- 
poitfi of what wr ^iippowd l^j W the numkct^ of KkinnuJiui^ 

Wnicd tJiat tbo pounds sroBe iVom the riCir pn<4ke on Kiap- 
dowQ beorb, 9^ tnilw awn^. On Jul; 3, whicb, '>p|j(<altj ood* 
Bid«rcd. tm« a &r more pcmci dty, tbo I S-poundcTi bovitxrri tad 
mortir failed lo mak^ tL«m>vh-cit hffxvd tt btUlltii dtnUiiA*. Tte 
IBtli iroa cimivly occujik^d iu determlnijig the infloenee of pdtcb 
and preseiire on cho sjrrfm-ioiind. Taking tb«r Aii«tuaiioni cf 
the atmospheric into accciiatf I nm of opinion that tho wjfvtu 
pf>rfomiiii)( from 2,000 to 2,400 nvolutiom a nuenidf nt^ b 
other words, Kcauuatiiif* from 400 to i^O vavM per eeoood, boot 
meeU the atmosplicHc conditions. We vaned tbp prvwun- 
from 40 to 801be. on the Kjnaro inch ; aod tbougU tbo KB- 
tpnflit.y iVi'l nol ipjunr ti^ rif^ in pmprirtion to tlin prv^nm, 
the higher pTowuro yielded the liardctt and nuMt penrtmtiRjF 

Th0 20th vpFOi a miny daj vilb 6tron|* wind. Up to a 
distance of d| inili'n the tyren continued t/i be Iward Ihron^b 
tho ana and poddlii-noiiwr. Iu rtuigb woathor, indood, what 
locfti tiuirfhLi iLivrfere, Urn iiyren^Loiiiid far IrauHURDds all ulW 
aounde. On vari'>uB oooaaiona to-da; it proved iU maBt^ry onr 
both gun and Loms. On tbe ilat Uw wind waaalrong and tW 
aca high. Tim horn-aounda, with paddlea jTongi waro loft at 
four mili-ji, iffhiUt tbc nyreo coniinunt ncrvii^^^lilc up to C( 
tnll^. Tlid p^nn to*daj waa completely ovennaaCerM, Itt 
pufTi were >4>cn at the Forflond; but ita pound ms iiobear4 
vhan tiic ajTcn was clUtinoMy board- Haavy ruin &i)od to 
daap bhc power of thr .lyim. The wlnrilrA were aUo tried tiH 
day, but wt-re found far infjerior to the »Tran, On the '£2ud (t 
blow a galvt and the UtUaUa quitted ue. Wc n»do oUer- 
vaHonc en land on lb«» inHumioo of tint wind and of local nob**. 
Tbc ahclter of tic Coa«t^ard t^tntion at Comhill eonbtod u« to 
hear guD-«ound» whieb were quite inandi bio toanob<vrrf<Toatiir 
afacller; in the »^dUir al^^both horn andsjrvnro«t.< dEPlicctly in 
power; hut thi^r wnrf> uIko hprm) Anuicln nhnn lV gim v:u 
quite imh«*rd. Am nraal, tho »oui>d to leeward waa for more 


powerful tban ihoM at ^m^uaI disLiiict^H Uy wiitdvf^d* TLo rcho^j 
from ihc clniallnut nir wprc to-day v*>ry finp. On rhn S3rd, in 
Ike ttlvL-Dce of ttir HUnmcr, the €b«crvnti(}Ti)> on thr inSuenoc of 
tke wifiti were crjQtiuttud. TheqiuMii-hiEj^uf tht.^^'iui-'iOuuiIjL.iii 
putieuUrto windwardtVatweUitliuirrut*^, AiUht* sounda, how- 
rvrr, giin iufliidf^t?, were cnrntd mnrh fiirtb^r r.o Ir^wJiril than txi 
vindimrcL l"hc rRrrt of a vii>lcnt thTindcr^im nnd dowHi)oar 
oft^h ill FxiilrtTi^ ihr w>iLTid wiw n^iHi^t'd tv olK^^nm W^ih ti> 
wiixlwfttti and to Ircward of tlm P'^rt?land, Ju tLc rear of llio 
^jren iU niDg« io-djiy w»h iiWit a iziilf-. At n^lit aTi^le» to the 
Aiift, nnd lo windwnrd, it wos nboul tlic wunc. To Iccwnrd it 
rvjif.hni a dlictAnn? of T^ rniW 

On lh<^ a4lh. wli«u ohpyrvotioua were made utioiit iu Iho 
Aoam-tu^ I'aUtierfttont Uie H^itn eihilutrj ^i cU'nr luuali-rv 
ov«r ){imftnd home. Tb<^ mnnimum ranpo was Tj iiiib:^^- Tlio 
wiod liad cbwigml from WXW, to f^X, tlun ti K. A* n 
«oa»e<^uei]c.'e itt ihU, (he i^yrrn tms h«itrd lotidly in th(? itTcetA 
of Dover. Ou Up 27tb ihc wiud wiw E.N.K, ; and tUt? iiyrvu- 
tmiod penctmted ■^verwhero Uirou(»h Dover, riein^ ovm the 
nottaipg <)f thr wind and all otbur ni>[«<M, It waa beard at a 
diiCuioe of nix intlri from t^ie Fnr^Lind on tbo roiid to Folkc* 
Moiie> lUfd would probably baiTc bctn liejinl all tim ujiy 
ti> Folic^oD^ had not the expeirimmtfl c^a.i6d. Afioat and in 
tlie ftxis with a high wicd ^ud sea, this syron, and it ontyt 
raachtfl to a dii4tAnc<> of six miloR; &t five miles it wm betid 
UiTOujcfa tbn paddlo noiM^ 0:i tbc £8lh furtbcr ^Kpciimciiti 
wcfC madr on iht* infiuenc<> of pitt'h, tho^'mi whuii gpnernting 
400 vnreft a »ocoiid bt^iii^ f»und mure (!d<-ctivc tbivii when 
gBDCT^ting 300 wavw n i^oond. The maximum ran^& in the 
UM on this day wu 7} milrji. 

Tbn 29th of October wm n day of ^xtrat^rdinnrv optical 
InaeponfDcy, but by uri nicAn« trannporfrnt AO:>Uitticn]ly- The 
gam vmi tbe gr^at'?4i HiLi1t<n?r. At firit it wuh barely lie^d at 5 
milot; biit atVnvarl^ tt wi\s trW nt 5j, 4^« nad '2^ uiilL^a, asd 
WM bturd at nikiif nf Ihf^^ai dUtnncei^ TUr trr^n at thd 
tunc Lime w\u diittinotly hci^rd. The »iiii \\u shining 
flUODjfly ; and Uj il» augmenting jwwer thf inreehknient of 
tbo guA-Mund wa* duubtleM duu. At 3| inilcfl« eiibaoqiWQtly, 
dnwl In wimiwnnU thp svreii wiu faintly hrnnT ; The j^iin wan 
imhcftrd at 2J milcn. On land tbceyTv?n arid hL>rti-:ii>uTLdit wore 
htiuii to wiiidw;ud !it 2 Ici 2^ mih"** lo Irt-wnnl at 7 milm; 
«hilo in tb*) rt-ar of the instrumrnti Uit-v wcro beard at a 
diitaDon of .^ inLlts4, or fivt* times aii far a^ tbcy had btvri beard 
on Octotrr S3. 

TIk? SOth of OctohrT fiirrij^hril anothfr ilbixlj^tJfiQ of Uir 
fllbcy of the notion which conni^iera optical uiid Jicou^c 
tfiii»|]V«ticy tu K^ h:iiul hi bnnib Tim ihxy ^lis vviy baxy, the 
whit« oUfb of th« Foreland at thd ^uatcr dietances b«iug 


rofTLAn Knam uniw. 

qitit« hiddea ; «tUl the (tun vid ayrcn-aouuMb TEoohiH) mi llw 
btmringof the Tame llghUven^l to n dlrtuiceof 11^ ii]il'.i«. 
The wyrvn w h^ud tbrovgb tlHf pfuMl^iwucff lU 9i raitts, 
vliilfl 4L A( railn* H bocmiiM pfltrirnl «■ a Kifonl vsiih ih* 
TCddlefl le^uiff* The honu w«n> h(<u^ nt 6} nilw. Tliu vmi 
oorin^ calm* Subwqveotlirt v^th a wioJ fruni U]« N^N.W^ uv 
ffoiodf v«T# bo&r<l III 6) n)ilf*«. On load, tho wind btrin^ ocroa 
Hm diroctiom of the KMUulf the ryrm wiut hcnrd i>tily to « 
diiteDC« of 3 ciiUm N.K of ibe Foreland ; in the nihcr tUre^ 
tloD it waa ]i«afd pkiciljr vn Polknluue Piec. 6 milcw duUurf. 
Both gim And honte ^IM to r«acfa Kolkiwtoiw. 

Wind, rain, n rough ka, and gnMt acoiMtic opncitj* cbatac* 
teffix«d October Z\, Both gun o^ horM tttiv unboonl 3 cn£)n 
swaj. tho ajTtn at Ut« aain^ time bein^^ ckarly heard. It afttt- 
warda for«4*d its unvod with fj^«at power through m vioWt nta- 
aqoall. Wiahtn^ the Ain< tr^ividual jud^rnpot to l>e farou^l 
to b«ar upon the M>undK on both nifS^ of tbv ForvlatuL, in ihi 
absence of our ateonu^, vliich b^vd i^uiitcd m fur vaJcty. 1 roin* 
iDlned the oWrrnHona r/i Mr. Uou^Uw. H« Iward t' < 
S milca on the Dover tide, and on ttio ^vkdwiob aid**, v 
mnrn intenicitj, at 6 ntilML 

A en|> (employed by the ei^cincer* in mnlnnf^ arnugematilA 
for puiiiiiiig tbe ap-eti in any r4«<|iilrMl direction) ber^ iiecnrrvd 
in our obMrriitionf. They were reeumedk honxiver, <m ^' 
ber 21,nh«D cotnpnrati\'«*caperiraaDrA wt^^mftdniitiofli t 
and jifTcn- Uoth aoiircefl of «oiind, ^hrn i-inployni m f<^^)t- 
ii;iIh, ^11 not niifrpnti«itly have u> rovi-r an art of 180*; *Dd 
it woa df«imli]e to know with greaU-x prrviBJon how thcHiuiid 
is afTecI.Exl by llie dfrootion in uvhich the ^nn t\T f-vit-n U |iriiiiiiid. 

Tho j^in, thproforc, wai in th« tir«l iiiatanfN* poinf«<i on lu 
ard fin*d, tlini InmniV and firr^il alim;; ^ linr (-rrpcndifMLir lu 
that joiuin;; u^'and it. Thirrt v^s [v HDFibUs lh<iEi|fh umalU 
dilTeicactf the (^ntid-i 'wbicb irticli«! m iu tin- l*u 
GOfce. A eimtlor cAporimcLt vae made with th« syiMt ^ .it'*- 
hfir tbo fall jntf off when ibe initraincnt iw pnintfid 
diciilur to the line jotninj; lu imd it woe very c«njii<i' i^^-i--- 
Tills in what is to bo laptctnl ; foi tlio lnttii|M."f Awcnati-il widi 
tbo 4-yron U oipres^lj iuU-t>d<>d to j-aTh»r up ihv rf'xiiid h' ' 
j«cl it ID a c^Ltain dLiecliocL« i^'ailo uu hu^Ii i.<bjr<l id in > 
thb conftnictloti i^f thiF ^ra. Tho Mp^imcntii ber<' Tr<i>-m^i tu 
wrff! iiiii|ity eorrubomtisi liyothcrnrniadeoa Novriiiltrr 22 ^umI 23. 

On both of tbeee days thv GatofAiM ^un^ wurv final tA 
vindward and to lo«wartl. The aerial echoes iu tli* latti^v ewe 
trcro diftiiiotiy loader and loo^^i^r than in th^ fonncr- the d* 
perument haa been repeated tnany titnc* and olvi^yi with t^ 
same TfsnlU 

In tr>nt M lU* (."onihill CoAet{fi;ar<l Hlation, and only I } 
tho Forolond, theiyr««i»on thi^ ^tit, ibonf-U polnM 

TBAXBUiasioai or soDKik BT nrt ATvo$rtiiaiK- II 

towonlE Oft, fcU suddenly and oonskderably in power. Before 
rfttchiog Dtkvor Pivr it had ctjir-v] fo !« heaid. Tl^e vind ffofl 
hore af^imt tbo K>ui3d ; but l^ii^ thotif^h it canttibtitcd t<t the 
ttPvd^ could nul acouiLnl. fcir U, iioj uiiiIjI tfir' pri>ximil'y af tlm 
«li4dow aocouQt for it. To thaso two CAUiea miut have been 
•ddod aa floJUAtically floL-cLilent t^ouglt optically transparent 
AlnKHrpboro- Thr c-xpcrimi:3jt dc-m^nittrnto* OOQCllinvtrlj that 
tlicre tuc utiau^pLcric juid local coitLliLioiLH which, when cr>m- 
bincdf pre^'ent our moa powvrfol ini^truini.-ntd frcm mnktiig 
IDOre tban a di^tunt apfir^radi to tbc pei furtnuuue whlvh wriUini 
on fog^gntt-lj] hnTA d«mnndcd of thorn. 

On Ncncmbci 24. tbc toimtl of the «jren poiDt-wl to wind- 
vwd w&fl compor&i) at ct^nal diatoDocH in trunt of und bi^hind 
ttie iiutnUDttuU It wha loudei tL> leeward in tbtr rc;ir, thiuj at 
aqoal distances to windward in fr<»nt. H^nci?, icl awiod^thd 
doniubUity of pointing the instrument to windward. The 
«hijtl» v«jo ttittd tb^ dny in « ouiparii^on with tkf t^yron do* 
ftfived of Ha trumps. Tht Cauaditm uiLtl thi; 8-inch whii^tlc* 
pniVMt the mofit i?tfectiTe; hnt The nnkid uyrea was aa well 
luvd 0* cither of thotn. As rrgnrdu opndty, tbo 25th of No- 
Ttfml^r «lmcint n^-aHwl tlj<' 3rtl of July. Thr guv failisl to bo 
bcArd at a dioLmcf: of 'l-b mihs^ and it yiutdi-d only a taint 
crack at 2J ini!e«. 

Mcanwbilc this 3nveit%aUoii bnfl given \t^& knowlcdjco of 
ihn ftlinoApbprp in iU rotation tA mtund, of vliirh no notTon bad 
been preWoTislr cnt<^rtained. M'liile tbo vM<^itjt <>f aonnd \iaa 

hewu \hr ml>ject iif rttJluisl •iwtX rt-ptalin} rxjH'riEiK-iiEj, I nm not 

»«aM tJiiU. aioco the piiLUoati<»a of a cekibmtcd i>ap*>r by Dr. 
D«rkani, in ih^ •* Philofti^phipftl Trun'ncrtinns*' i'lir lTOf<, any 
fyaCematio inquiry hu^ bnon miidc tiito tbo enLinr^H wbicL nffi^et 
ibt? iui^KKity of H>nud iii Xhv atitiuvplidrE-. Diirhnrii^ rr-jnillii, 
thou^'b obtained at a time when th» mean^ of iuvt^itifcation 

tWttie v'vrry defective, have apparontly bi-ec at-oeptL'vl with uii- 
QOCitioning tnwt by nil j«ub»oc|Licnt wril^ri— a fiv^t which i&» I 
Uiink, in nomc part to bcaHuibcd to tbe ^ prUni probability 

tof bit voneliuioiu. 
Tbus Dr. BobiiiHOu, relying Apparently upon Dorliaui, say*, 
^Fog U a powcrtnl dioaper of soiindr nnd h^ g^vee us pfaysioal 
Ttatoiu why it must bo so- " It i» a mixture of air and gloDulce 
of wnt^r, and at each of the iunumt-rabW siirfaop* wber^* Ulcm- 
two Uiuchta pL>rtiou vf the viiratl^jQ ia reflected and boL" 
Ami be adds further f»n, *'T])o rrmnrkfthle povorof f ogi to 
deaden the report of giio hiw bwn often noliccd." 

Aartuning it, inorctjvx^r, a» fjrobublo that the nteujiure of ** a 
fb^tf power in etoppinjf pouuJ" hfam ^ompaiinpltf relation to its 
opacity for liglU, 1*t. R^ihinsftn, ii«l>fitinf* a ^u^^don of Mr- 

LjUejiandcr Cunninglmmr nbateA that " the diftiioce at which a 
given object, vay a lUg or [xjle, disujip^r*, may be tuken as 


rorVLlK K1KM:K ftbTIEIT. 

mMJtiim of llip fi>^% flower * in ot>iLruc!L ihn nuaiL Tliia b 
quite in aci?urdauc<? vtlh preval«ai doUouk j ncU f-mutiit^ thtf 
Uie Tiijuiii] 14 <li^i])MtL^J, a» auumedt by leflt^rlum ffoni liu 
parhtrlce of fop, the <?oiicluftioTi follows thftt tho gT(«Ur Ihe 
liLirnUrr of tlir icilli-i^tiii^ jiiirticlt^ tht; grcnTvr wiU be tliemute 
of »:>tiitil. But lh» number of pariiolet, or, in oUner vrordt, tb« 
divinity i>f ihu fog, ifc (it^lared by lU actiOQ upon ligit ; licncc 
tho optical r>piicicy wili bo u tnfluim of the acoustic ^ipncity, 

Thi^ I ^y, oipre£se0 tk« ODi&ion eeomlly ctjUtlaiav^ 
"ciciir rtill air" beiog r&gard&a u thft Mvt vrhii.*lu for »wmd. 
Wo liave Dot, iw ALjitrd abovtr. t^perimeoted in really dfiw 
fogfi ; bnt Uie ^jporimentfi aetiullj tnade entirely destr^njr 11* 
notion tlwt clear weather is nccc^isarily brttrr for tii« traiw 
mifldion of soond Umn thick wmUj«r. Some o( our daji of 
denwst ftcoustic rj^Mcity liuvc hevQ mjirvelloiuly ckftr optiOiUft 
while eom« of oiir iljiy* of tliick haw have Filiown thflni«lTH 
bigbly fftvourabla to the trntisinitrioD of «oimd. W<a^ xhv 
physi(*n1 cAii^f j]f the; SQiiTid-wzi^ttT Umt ftbavo lUBignrdT flii) thit 
woflbo im^ til uuy muti^rial d'-^^rDu from r^doction At the hmitiif 
inrfeces of the particU-^ of haze, thi^ r^^ilt would t>e iik«i- 

AgTiin, Dfrliiuti, nx i^uotc^d by Sir Jehu Hianc^Kfl, unyii that 
"fiUlir*- raiu tvitcU po«<^rfiilLy to oluftrud aound,' We tmif* 
b&d repeated revenaU of thlu conc-lti>iioD. ^me of uar ol^ 
eervfktione hnve boon TnAdo on doye wbcn mm and hail d^ 
Kvctuhd wiJ.U It pprfpetly tnifiit^ ttity ; rih) in nr) linglr r^iur lU 
the Tain cli^adL-u the ri<>aTLfl; in ovory ouao, indct-il, it lad pn- 

(^laely the o|jpi.iAite <ifTei':t. 

But fnttin^ 9D0W, Jiccarding to Dcrb&tn, ofTere & tnoro verioM 
o1)i4tAc1e tlinn nny oHirr tnctccurQlogicail ngcnt to the Iras*- 
miesioa of sounil. Wd have not «xt4iid«d our ^hMrr^-atioctf at 
the Soutli F**n-laud iuto fcnowy m^athcr ; but tin obewrviiLioD of 
toy own made on December ^9, in tho Alp«, during a hesij 
Wiow-atorm, distinctly negatives the frttttcmont of l)eiliaiu. 

KeverHnj; to tU^ Ci\sQ of fi^, I urn unnbl© in inoiii'm ob- 
Hcrvjitiona to dtiu^vcr anything coQiclvHive ju» to ita nllccd. 
pov<^r of dendetting snimd- I had the pleitiurc of li«lifl||H 
to a very interesting Icrturo on fog-sigiukly, dcUv«n>d^91 
Mr. Bi-'axt'1«y bc^bru iho Uuilud-^'rvicrf Inititution ; and 1 han 
cjLrefuUy pc^ructed tht? printed report of that Lscture* wkd |Aa 
papf^r prevIoiiRly eommnnicated by Mr. Geaiolej to tbo H^| 
tution of Civil Knginccm. JSut in neither of tlicec painfftak&' 
eompiluUoii!t rain I find iiuy udtsjimlo pviikneo of the allegw 
powor of fogtt to d(UKlr;ii doundi 

Indeed, daring the diaoiu^iou wlikU followed the reading ol 

Air. tic4xeclcy> pApor, an important ol>»orratioii in ai> oppoedte 

Brrniui wn.H mcintinnnl by Mr. DmiglaMif, tr> whofto abJlitj attd 

laocuracy aa an oltf^^rvcr 1 am able to bear tlie ftioit|pofl lartJ-j 

XRA5»rUVI0ai of 0OGK1> KT tHK ATIIie<riiKi:K. 




tnonr- Mr- Don^lon sUitpi) that h'^ bad fotind in bUeipertence 
bat littliT ilifi<-n>nco in Ua^ tfnvoUing of FciLUd in fr^jT^y or m 
cIgu wtflLtLer. Uo hut] (}ifltii]cllx limn) in a fo^;, nt lii«^ Sjn;ilU 
rock in the Bristol Channel, paitf lircd ut AlUfbrtl IUvc!tn, 
twcntf-Sve inilo« artav. Mr. Df^a^uluv* luorei^ver, luia lieanl 
tl»o i*iindy-I»knd gtin ■■* at Hitrtlatid Point," n di&tanco of U-n 
miW, (luring ik-n-w fijj. jVfr, IV^nRnlfy* rniifliutinii, indr-fir], 
aouunilvty ^xpr4->^ti the it1iil« of omt hiiawMg*^ whon Ixp wrotr. 
In Aiiidiu;,' lip hi* paptr. ha admiUwi "that tlic mibjei^t 
•ppcLTL-d lo ha wry littlt* known, and thai the more it wad 
lookcfj into the more apparent bectUDc the fnct Ihat the evi- 
dence as to the e0l*ct of fog upn Nound ih cxtromoly conflict- 
ing.'* When, therefore, it ia u]lei^*d» as Jt in sn oftr.n allcgrdi 
that the |iowpr of fogi tt> d<Miden wound i« w*ll kaown, lUw 
dujunctivo not i« to be inserted before Ih-^ prt^dicnt**, 

'Vhf real tprmj lo th** ininmciMsion of sminH t)irrtngh th<i 
Atmonph^irr has, I thiuk. lK^tn cioarly ren-calrd br thn foregoing 
Inquiry. Thrit eoemy lias liw»n prove<i to be not rain, nor hail^ 
not ha^^t nor fog* nor en^w — not water, id £act, in ciUut a 
lujuid or n solid frirm — bal WFtfrr in a vapnrniiM ff*nn mini^lml 
with air no >u Vf n-iiiU-r it aooiiatically turhid and l)<xcuh-^nt. 
Thli» acoi^Ur turhtdtr.y ut\c*ii iK'otirs nil ilayx of Hrirprifiii^ op- 
tical traii«pareDcy> Any »yatem of measured, thorefore, foundi-d 
on tin* a*Biiniptiiin that the optical and acoustic traniparenoy 
of the atmo»phcTo gp hand in hand muet prove dcht^ivc. 

ThpTi! in hut onrr wiliition U* linn difHpnlir ; if. i* tn lunk^ 
tho tourcA of lotiu^i sii powerful aa to he able to rfuliirr: lotm by 
paitU) reflecthn, aiul ffill rt-tjiiii a mifllclent rr-Hutiie for tratiA* 
minicm. Of oJi the in^trumentA hitherto oiamincd by ue^ tho 
ityrcti (7c»nr4 n(-jiTr«t< to thi^ fiilliliiiRnt of thtH criiidiEioi; ; and 
ita ctftablUiUDunt upon our couaU will, in my opinion, prove 
an iibcalculablu T>uou Lu the uiatiiit^r. 

An account of the ohMrrntiona tnndr diiHnff thcrr-cctitro^rmll 
hti included in tho peper vh<>rtly to Ut} pr^x^Lted to the H^yat 
Socujty. Tbfiie obeorvfttioon add the force of demi>tiB(raU'in Ut 
oUi«n reciirdt^ in the paper, that fop* poasew no mch power 
offtifHr;^ voiind m Ihal bitherto nscriM to them. Indeed, 
the mi-Hiti^ awny of foy on December 13 wai ac<?onipMiied by 
ui ac^^uetic darkening of tie utmoBphere ho ;jivat that, at a 
podnt TDJdway betwoon the eneteni end of the SpTpetjtine, 
whero A whittle was itoiinded, and the bri<lgc, tho sound ]jos- 
«i*44l Ifts than uni>*roUTlh of thi? inteniily which it powtvaed on 
the day of dcoMet fog, 

TUwKf I think, haj been removed the laat of n congeries of 
exTOT^ vhich for moio thao a c-entin7 and n half have been 
MUiidat^sl with the trauamiiisinrD of ^niind by thi^ atmoHphfite. 
(ThiK I'aper wu» reo/l before the ito^-aJ tiocicty, Jan. 15, 1874-) 



AN'EW «dItioa dt u *>\^ anil cxofllfnt work Iw mtAt ita 
WImt- *!t9Xi VI* iin* nf li f Tfmt U h a muBt Mlininble ¥obk crniort 
for a momttut bv dsiuQil, «niJ tbat it u vnMva bf an« wbo i* ika m«n 
CoDipIler, bot M hinuvlfa tbiwrngb and coEnploie naxm cf ku vubJBeti wr 
onqiiMlloTiATiln fHfU. I^nt >d3I vc<1mTo AtitllMltDtL W«ilo IM think thai 
the AuUicr gnvu bimwlf T«rj tducIi punt m hU prodncCioB of Uio new 
f^Jjiii^n. And w<«uf thU b«<ifiuM nc d> i>ot SnI ibat nmck iww 
bHan iddrd to Ihfi old one. We da poi nv sltm tbA nM mtuam 
f(j]] of m1i>rc^ and volunblo froDi * blidoli^jfic&l point of tUw, bat 
tniulj should hn^v rxii'*ctvd a un<4t(<r pfupottKn cf mbnlutoljr new 
In mi lisuv of H vnrlc wMchflrvt mnAvi il# ap^H'nntnFv flNvnTfanaga Wt 
lUnk llial Mr, Uoro! ttcilU tovo doQO kilicjtdy briter W bo t^Tta Ibi 
bovL Ui atfuir* viprxipucitd EukrvtcJipiAt tu bnui; uul div ubv v^kka 
Howflver, itit ii^ Ibo volura« i< ail cicvlknt oitp; in poiDt cd* M]rl« it u 
iffoadMiuly dmr, vTDti M a rcodor «bo hai nokr9<:)vp1ed^of KftcMfl; fbrlii 
auilor, haling n thoniU];b KQiiiFLTTitAiici) with Ebi> tuhjtrl, liju L««n m«lbl lo 
ftTi>id th« ifitri>ilfl4'tb» of ti'obnirmlitL^ and hju withkl BtniiUd tho ««|Doj< 
i[icotoftliat"frtG-«id-(«ij"iLi«(bodirbicbbt'>oofic(] UkcdbytJio votdJ-be 
populHTAulJinp, WItb rogard to lILurinitlonr wnllimk Mr- OowwbinmiTvhBt 
to l>Ljii[irt foriit'it tbttodaeing tgnat*risufnl>0f tircutk 'l1i»«alliv mimlttrb 
alh:)Ut ll-l in nil ; there iira or> p1aUc« and moreoTtr tbocat«i,>obr a« vebftve 
Bon, am bftdl; worli'^d. nud tvCb^^i wrf little otdit on ilm frinbiir. It li 
vhon wo «oDii>taT<iiijp<»ih« book form moment. aoHly a* to UbMnlka% 
«iib l'r> CAFpfitit^r'a '.b«t vo vbc buw Mdlf deficHot U i* In UiU nwpid. 
CAipcntur'a ba« LjvvE'-|t30w»iidc;ii:«'lnc«rtfi<«^ wUfi ihw init,aBdadminb1f 
^vorlwd;" bvidM^it poMaMa«iKtl«M than tVtfnt^r-TifufiqtMBtopklM. U 
Vfl Ifrftvc and<? tbftM oly«otwiab]ft featiu«8 ia tL« c^w vdhioa of 3lt. OtWt 
bojik, V* hnvo luueb ioJded to plews ul For ■aDredl^ tbam at« taw mont 
lat«n«UD^ atudicA ttaoo th« mtCMMqiic vEmctara of lJi« vajioai aeiipak and 
tbAi pro Enwtii la tb« iorortobralo «u^kbk[d(im ; and tb«n v^ feit aoljjoeti 
cf general inieml ui tbtf wide wTij/r- thut eitandi fVora ibii tyivma 
cthor|tFL>t««ca U* tbo inaQCl luid the cral, ibat liara DOCloaal * pUoa \m 

* **KT«aiQ£*al tha Mkmeopa^ or, Hi«MkMb«a amocw 1^ Ulna4« 
ud Forma tir.Vniniiil Ltr*." Bf Philip B.OoM,F.]tA A >'<wl 
ndonESooioij^rc^ Pjomotiiiff CliiliM KaowMf*^ J07i. 




Tid« a«qaAint«:iM with 1)la «ub)dci. And fri^m hU tnnodnctlon o,f ftccQUtitA of 
MEunu mtruclum tlut to liimi^lf Itx* dncTibod Ufctfo the HcpjaI mcI otbor 
cS«iCific KiciTtiA. Outi vf lIii? fitcU r?DfiiLlj tntnMluDwJ nlaUw to ibe 
■nuinre of bair; ond on thbpcitat llL^ Author ^a^tM fioAt vx aitido which 
pppoued u A rcpriAl la Uu '■ MoDlhly Miiutwcopieal Jotmol * for MkTch 
nr April ]fir»l Mr. GiMtt«, JiDKovfiir, t^uolM IC trom the '^Kn^llflh Mv- 
chaaic'' tufMn^ I><T3 — « jounMl wluuh, of c^rn^ copi«d pait cf tfac pftpcr 
from the '* MicrDvMpkBl Joufiml," cridcntlj ^lbi>ut acktia7Fli>Jirinp llio 
■3IU1V. Hu, (if couimiff lutwilj of injpofiMirj' (jitlimtfwfp.r; for tril)tUiiL«Unru 
ba » r^fanvd by Mr. Ui:)m« lo tlio *^ HtjiJith M*chHniL? " at UiO " Nnvr Yortr 
Uttlical Joujnal i'* and u the I^eliili jouni[il dlJ uot mofft probably qtioU 

il to Mlf the mdar i> compelluj U> fufrr to n fort'ign jciarnflj, not knciwin; 
thfti U U to bo foand fvUf tvpFintod In ut fnfrli'h opc, 

la Ml. Go«»v'i olinptpr uii Itliiod AD Acouiit ti p-Wvm of Ui« ptctdtAi^ly of 
1b« (TttriilAtlon in Prrvfj/fAnr, on? fif tho 1'litii^aUw, vliicli iji *ri animal th«t 
be exbdbiU to hii imo^arr audionc?, Ih'va cpmlnrc bn* cortiiinl r n curioii* 
Bade of propolluig iu Uuud, kt aIiuuhL nil AuiEOdla iho blood irninU 
Inwlftblj In ihn j^mik lUnii^llj^ti, Ltil Ui Ihln oni> \l in ti<t\' djiTiTont. In tha 
■ntbof'a wurdi; — " Aflvr v/n UnvQ ^-nioJu^il this vmir** folJ'iwtiiif vlIIj n^^u- 
Isriljr fof pcilxnpn a Imndrcd puliAtloii^i or bo, oil of a ?uddcD tlio bcATE 
ttMM (0 btflt^ and lII fhrn ^lobii^<a r^-^r on t^it^li' drcling coiifv^ thu W(> had 
mfpamd iiicc*nu)\ Slmii^v t^j WiuU ! itHvr n paiwi^ of twi) or thr*» 
•Moodfl tli« pulMtioQ br^iu A^aiii. bul at tli^ oppgula cad of the litfAf^ and 
fv^ettdt *itb pcrfsct ra^nbhty, ju*l mb tuforr^ but in tho oppcaito dirc^ 
lioo.** la fuel, Hwn h*» been a compWCf* thvcimI ot tlio i^urruntof !];« 
dsciilatioM. llii rvmirkf on thnton^nsbf moLIuEictvnmiltio uF ciituiclt-mbla 
ittorvtt, Llif>Df1f, of t^iino, n^l dot*] ta tho compftTHtiTc ihUntnnxiiL W« 
^■ll* f^roe vitU Lim wbrn bv BuyF' (hnl '^jt Mtiiidji nlmofit lik*' a fublo lo 
hs toU ttnt ihn ir't'nl upoiti^d iId;/, ^TbiHi vtn tvymvlinitut find cmuJinj; rn 
damp ottUrs, {■Amc« a tangna armed vith l^>j,MXl lcctb>'* Vntlhoraii, a* ho 
rftrrvrftrdd l>Wt>«4, no doubt wlmtJivitf of tbn fucL 

W« mA/ oburva ihKt Ibn jtiitbfit n]fi1i»'i< it t}\\rhl itiSaIjiIca In rivfi^rrtng to 
iMiliMr Gr««r3*'tf v^fvUvnt *' Moniial t>i tbn Aniin*! Kuif^di^i.' lurtutult 
If tb« r«ad«r were lo metiD aiq^niry, va douLt wbctber nay otdiDary b^k- 
nUar oMild teTI wbat ho viinii>d. Finftiijior Gtv'tiic bu wntt^n but two 
■Mlnn««i tbow ara t-Mpvctiwly tDUtM i1l« MnnuaU of Uia Sitb-Kiagd^m 
PniOMft aod CucUaU'intA. I'DdoiiblrJly tbvy d't yotr^n—vi^ tbal l^nl la 
0n1«^— tb* UeIh iif " Miimid nf lh» Arjimu] Kin^ilnm; " btil ihiil hiiqilinjf 
bw faUtn altof^lhur joto di»UM> bvcaiiic tbo on^nal intoadon to 0>mp]eL# 
the *riic« HboniAn Uc^iuh oofi*][xrfcrLuivd. TJicro is buL uuo ollkflr poial to 
wbirh we wtll ftEliidi' -m iv« oIo-« nnr nhA*rtAilj^n>, tvxA ibni U vlit rc^rd 
l» Ur. U<i**a'H n-inorluLblo diacowry of the ourioiLv rini^ of amoiin aiiiiuida 
■VTOvndiiu: tkr pure <^bllouoiii ntftttda) of tUe aioutb of iba IuIp cl tho 
MiAiT. ThiB ring lAfifTurwd in iho bonk, and it it curtAloly amojit fiariling 
NBiiabbuiM toa svrin of hLiiiiiut nAfcvd fifuhw fitauiitiDjT COi^thpr Ln a nngr 
ind tkruttiujf UiL-tr amut nbovc add below tbelr bcada m n ittiU? uf lijt«iu« 
gvaiifiilalion. It it roolly a moat liagiUuly Uf<-hko n>|irtHiiIncinn of A 
EToap of biuaaa bviafrv. Tha Author, who could sot l«^ lo which j^up to 


popvLiB dOBXCB fcst-irr. 

■'WitQol ivft^£iWrv)rf die bdniiuiiL in itiicvdoa I «« ItvaJdenl; 

eipBsd^iJ di«li, nui,kow«Ter,6*l,biit«:ili Ik* two l^vtii jndbdojr IawvU 
ndi vlLcr. like twu bsftrt* «l a lutlf-optavd b(i«^ iXi* tismniiftklf iv* 
minici] tne of tb« gn«l melting ribk trhkh 1 Wil •»** otaIti«4 rpam lb* oblOM 
iunmLic of ^a^uf v/w ;?rwlw/'i, fLui o>nlUnirJ Dir«]^<«cioit of tliviulnnl 
jLlTiniLiiiii iit \kv CjrifL," fr-iiiL ihe kin wiili:h iIh-t oiigicAM^ nf lbs XsrM 
of Kcnii-u iiiithijUi^, Mil! (taat tb«kr being «b JhArfto, tb« ttXtihoF litt puM 
Ihcm thfl utlcof t9r Sahvtiantm. ILiii Atrvi^ tsiinU hat mnakwd iia- 
iwofniiwil for mora ibu KiaQtrm jam, lilt di« Rev^ T, tlUeb SmoI It 
H)^j 111 ihii iiimmcrof lHr:f, 

Jt wiil br> MGU frnm vbitt w<i Wt« titM thai Mr. G(i«te> book to full cf 
mtdiHlinif luiti-riiil, wry ^tn\An<ii^\y R^t bp(c4V ib^ rcAnier; n^d ibmi^h lib 

b^ no mmcAwtiM i; might b^vD bHn^itill w* qmI do it ib« juttiw to h; 
it U A tRAliM tbnl DO Uticmio^pijt tbouU !« VltilMU 


TfKRK Br*, tifi doiibt, A ftfw of oup tnulon who will «dnlni. iib^D 
hikvvrriiul Ehtf biWinjfoftliUnotko, " Whul ooiijifliuut i^orol^ Ibbi 
^M a luUUdv r JimL^-ln? tbc citcuUtEim t>r i}it< Utjoi in ■ hold vf c*bbf^ t 
If uiy^kEic fwli lemptvd ti> niH^f il fv<ifi*rk of thii land, wv ou oslf wt to 
btm, '^ Vuu ntv lufv wrunjr" Moit iinrjno>lUnitb]f pluflte fomvn fttUaUoet 
cLrciilul^rj' ^y>LV(u. ihou^b it ia omjJucW ififlciiiiitty fniiu UiM of the ki|Ebfr 
&niDiAlii In thi^ boolt vhitfh it tiow b*frir>* ii4 l)i* ^ritlior liMgiTrn aa >o 
count af tbo vikrioiu fljvcem* of tbo eiKuUtviy dpfnrftiv4 ia ftUtiutU vU 
plnnUi dndlirt^, of court*, nt lunifth on IlinC vt mu niti uuuiinuilki midb* 
hu llldttr^Evif hi* ramnrL* by nsuroihun ITiO ^tljoiIi'ii ]>, innnr i-J tb<w> b*i<| 
Crom hi« own dmirmea. Of c<iurw tbc l«<turr« of wbiob llio bi»k onOMlll 
worv onijiunlly d^litYtrd la the rci|1c{<n nf ^uTgeaot, Bdintwr^b ; niid fMm 
liiufac^l, rawi^Ilutfrmm tlia iiry blfjb pbjrfclub^eidi*puUl.iiiiio( tbvtutbM^ 
IB|[ in thr^ tbnp* -^f abtulnU <rilicinn to divtpUjr. OoT^I^ 
iu njtjvlj (ji rEwtll ou *onip f>f tin* pntnu of iiilaFa« wMck 
Atrika ui B« lic-irig etp'ciiEiy voitbj of latuHFk- In tr$das IM MOOttnt of 
tbo circuJnUoii m pIalIji, Dr. I'cUJgiow poEut* in t^ur cltflfiranuf of o^inv^ 
wbtcbnIiiiM Wiwacii 1>r. llutlT^iir itn ib» tme bund, und Ur lUih-rtSfsncrr 
(tljo d^«t^:i^iii«bi>J S<x^oJog)«() i>n tbv otb?r- JU- tLui Uja dawn 1^« tv^ 
iipu^r>ni :— lie iboWHflrBi ibnt '* Mr. Hcrborl 9)«(iiN<f Iiah dvmci^lrmltfd by 
bU nxiHTinsttntK tbnt ilni p«ua|ti> <^f Aiilil rlionj^h ibA tf^ml baiJ utlMr Tfnrib 
i« louoh moM npid ilinii tbr>i)x[j th« more nllukr tivsch On th« oiLtf 
bud, Mr. £4pr(i4-tt'< tKw, tbAUbiTvbnadJrrctconaeclioDbtrfwaMtb^ac* 
of kvmmI ftnd iu poiVkflitj'H hubr^irnullod In quflMlon, fur Prafttvor BftUour 

* " Tbo iliTvioIogj of tbo Cir«alMIf« in FJjuIi, In tbt* Lviv^r AniBil^ 
■od in Mati ; brin^ ■ Coum cf T^cctum D^Iivf rrd at Sarpt. r>«' |U]1, K^iln- 
bunrb,UIS7±" By J. IWQ Poiti^w. W.LMM!.8.. PH ^'i: llWnUffl 
bjr ilO DognTiDga on irood. Edtnlu^ ; i>Bv«T Md Boyd, 1679, 

«■;> ^ thii tjkt tuiea&nniD^ Uiv mood nrv jiunloud to fluidi intJiuir yaito^ 
■lalD^ but UiAl their vaQ* •OOD fco^mo tbiolcori«1 by da-poaiu of U^li«, 
ft&d In tbc liUAft<irood i>f trtc» tboir covhbi nro obUl^ratod." Acalbcr 
o^iirCioDt Ifx^ liu Wn nlfixl ftjt^^f^^ ^r. ^^puu^i^r'ji IJ>.-i^ vl^ tbtt tin* npiral 
tiimIi fr«qu«QtJjr Ci>uUi& ait wtthfn th^^in, Iti^t, rh Dr. I'i^ttt^r<tv/ vi^ry 
jually o1i»«t», tliiflbati obj^Mioa Uikvn puroK frora Ibc hn<>tTJL conditi^ja 
in wiiaihl Ufi- : niiJ tln*ri' i* rciiily nn nnaiju whj,- thf^ vi*s*tl! of vpgcuiblo 
tiauB uifbt DotconUtc ttit oa wtU tia tbbiroirculAtory lluid. Ktiud^i, thora 
■n vnty other aoAl^M bvivt-m tb<] vcvrlv iik nnimnUviid pLnntA Tvhich 
Axv dwrlt Ob at rtrfOiv hni£lh hy iho uutliiir, On i\\l- Fiuiiject uf the [ytliuila 
vrttm «f Ibo h«iLn, vhicb iii bi> j^'cuhar, Ihc nuthor r«fert to tfao r^thmia 
•clkn tLtt !■ tecu U ccrUm iiUut-ucUs. Thi; (iboorvAtlL-ine of ITfiir Cobn 
■bow UiMl in <'/vniirni jmtandt niul ottiur pJiuiU tlm cuirtntliEiJiA of tliV 
Vl«aol«a, &k» tbo coctrwjti<in* of our own btnria, Ia1c« place nt r<i^uUr 
IntorvftU. "Tbo coQlractioftBfaiTBSlr Jumcfl rafir^mbbCrooiiiaa Lecture) 
ind l!xH ^liUiiitit^in npfupj equnl pedinda, ju do tbo§n of oar own liflftft 
Tpntriclt*. and wbrri iWL) tuuotes «xiat in on^ cbl] thuir rjtlimb nrv dika 
%a^ ejAfUy Ulcnialt, iricb con Iractiutf 0:10? in ttbouC forty spcnu^J^s ttiid tbo 
MAtfVtiaQ of BA^b o^Furring einrtly m[d'di>iTAnci< bf!lwc«Ti ihp tvct BurroMva 
c^alMCtion* of tbo atbor.'* Tbua vc md the exnct CDunterpnrt id pluil-^ifo 
uT n fuacit^ii wbicb w uaed to oonudcr b.1 ono time cuputUUy aii ooliual 
OML And ibU UuIa ni tbn author to Bpt^kk of ihu vnnoud foHrt of iutjum^ 
a*| to oxpIaiD bj vvry linpla flxpunmaaU Cha itxannor m wiiich thuy Act on 
ibc Lhio^^ ploDt j aad tbuis ho poMca lr> conxidm ^prrncfr'^ tbi^rf of tbv kc« 
tioa «f Ihdwiod in hvniling planlif, nnrl \rf IIiIk cnrr^Ifig on tb«- ciruulHtion ; 
DMI to tho qtiettioD of tba \£\i<m of ■jphonit and (iftnlty io the lO-ciJiod 
dteoUt**!! tu Bieinl* In Seob«ctr*i diBcotcry i mid with bis roiuAilu ou thU 
■n^f^n t^# urtniTiArnii tbo bUtf^ry of Ibe drcuUtion in plAnU- Indetd, tfaU 
part of Li* b«k vilJ wtili rapity tbo KAdcTr Eur Lt 14 a lucid Aiid fuJI Hocouai 
of *h^ bna 1k«d doDU m tb« inhttj^r. 

tl U on thi^ nt<il jKirtion of tb** worlc ibaL tbo fluLbor dJuplnTi faU powera 
to bvt AdrAQtAgu, for it i> bvto tbAl b» is mi.ut hE bome witb hii lubjecL. 
Aad indrrd ba h4i coUuct^d logctbor a □uiubrr of fnciJi, iiinjiv of iJieci frum 
hM Ciiti] ifnginil iKbtiiLrii, iiLii;b ita tn rcuder Lbe tntAfAy ^v'tpiilrLi T^juJcr somo- 
wlukl A^hut At tlic immL-aM mn^i>j' tJiimabjrict. Ma di^^Ja vith tb^ loWMt 
tipr uf uftiJAlory ityilcin, nnd ebotrs tbc modo of itd cpetAlJOii ; Mid tlivri 
bopM»4on to roit4li1(iT ths bibber forrDB, i)Dt[t xi last, AfT^r oivr ooa hiindrvd 
pag^ c<ig«gvd in the diocojiion of tboao eubjt>ct»s ^ oomos to consider tbo 
iareM d i^« huTQUk rlrruUtiirn. And Jio cir^ni to, cr tbnm^b, whlcb tbvA« 
fnrtM tfv^'Mirtwi]. All thmugb he hu tplendidly JIIijatrAted bit subject ; 
Aod WD £j]d hlic. in »t] tbitt r<OHti<i« to tbi< AlrucCum of tb« bumna bcoii and 
b Tfttrrti, giviop lid An Hiiiouiii i^f ii]f>rmnLic(i, mid ptitlliig it in ■€> cully- 
digMl«d Aforai, that by iliu Ud aIuzic, if vo wrp f^Eiomnt of Iha vnluAbltf 
ft^n bo bu pubU*L>r4 oti tbi^ aubjactr wq i^^^uld eon tbht bi:^ hu not ap- 
pMKlwd tb« quwUon for tbi- Ijrit limn^ Iliil hi? bjia prnti nvtr And rrvi^r tl. 
ao t&ai at twt, wbon h« i« >pi^Akiri/H tbaro i« m* uortfriiinfy About wbAt bo 
m^\ bai, t^D iht contrvj, it u aH cIcAi A/^d difttinct^ flitbur th« knovii ur 
mLknowAbI*. Of roun* <>urHpirn will jiot prroiic oi 10 ffivv orenaAkotcb of 
t^ vothod bo piinuui but it will Allow of oor r«oomiscndiDg cortala portions 


roFrtai ecaanct ubtibit. 

of bii v<4umit M •foeJttUy doMPHsf* parunJ- Atrf <m1, «« dunU Mf , 

nwnifif ilt'fibr-uin cuch & |i«riilbtr iii«bii*« lutopmisn thorn iu£id(J«B 
which Id >&inc feofi^ wo aa bctpUcAll*^ TW pvt »r t^ «>n«1c IkM d«il» 
ititU tb* *(nii^luTi> of ibn bout. Hid Um p«<uQtr ftn«B«B*orBl of thi 
vklvuW prL>plRlanit, In aha thui w raiul anoiwl/ witUa duv ainlSci^ ri«ii«n 
to p*niM. In il tbof viU tinJ lb* correct HipUoikUcft of mmck frf tb* 
mAT4fie«i of Ibo b«wt ipvcn, mid tbat tioo, bjr tbo umI dtit ta i| p i fa i> cJ 
modnn iCiidiint of thU waudotftil cooMmct^n. We r^ milj oipnw U 
ooaclittiAD otir dw!<p «nu« or ||;ntiUido lo Ut- I'Qtt^grew for iJi» 1*17 «t1# 
riitumrr ui nbJirb bo Lm ducuwtO, m oi to l< fuul&or to ttay «Foil*odocal«d 
pvnon»«mfiof Ibo noc: c<«^pl^t problomk in tb« vbolo nmgi of pbf- 


rift *tru^ tbU th« idoo bu vol occnnvd to unj Epgliib vTitar tlut & 
bonk irritton tii «:ipUafeEjuD of tbv inunciiM ottd OOVol ftAdu tbol 
chenditry liu iiihcl« mOiia tbo put flft»u yotn ^<'uM protv *a ULlivuid; 
iiit<vf«lin; book ti> llie nMm of anontiEie! luJnd^ Itat it oftim lutppons ifcil 
bo vho t* oataidft tlio roni^c of irotkor*, cc in*ttcr tIiM tbdr pqbjon wij 
Ijvs ii^«n M>tfi tnoPD clofirlj Iho i»uttn> ndmdi:»nji of tb« Uboartbu bo vfaolo 
•ngagod ui it. ''Tho hmt hurlor/' «iy> tbo IrUb prororb, ''UUviti^ 
tho diub." Aod oo it bu hnppffiied in the [iraNnt ioitjaico, for tke ovOf 
bicdc thut hoJL Wn phbUthi*^ no tb^ JiutiJHrt of tho obftDfrrdi ifasi hai« 
oeoartvd iu ob«nx«U7 — ftt Unit lb« ool/ oav Hurt ii o*pMa«iij- ft Mirrajr of 
tbo ecirDoo fef Li io, coinpor<4 vtidi wbai it »w U a book of Anunioa 
authon«b>[L IndNd^jo IbrcmiiLmovt ht* giivn to our InAMllftodcbivCbftOi, 
but va fiLorj ft0t vorj naucb furtfaori Thiouffth>Lii tbo book, ollhooflL 
Ib Bunjr CMC* iLc ludbor ttn ptrfuoU.v plvrtl/ tb^ piutim tbat b ImIInv 
Idm, nod 111 Miiuf* r4L>v4 uppMn to ptit it inrfm tWrljr tioCvo bit MdMDn 
tltta it u bthn bioualf, yol there ore {mutt oa wbub, wa cooIcm^ bo 
Btaaa to na to be dvddfdl; id t^e wr«i j. It is of oouvo koi for u Uj da«l 
with flich qai>«tbnu h*tp u thi* Un llijit tna laJd doiwti la IKll hj 
AvogiuiFo v)tb nfford Co thu oujittitution of tubAiAocBfL Hor la il to bif 
«cp(Ct*d tbftl w: limit d«nl i*jth tho i^uoaUan* of y gn ^iu B faMf oni 
fwMAw in chftte p^fT*^ l^nt tt •««]]« to nt u if tho nntbor, glftad u ki 
ii with ATDTBulinblr do«;fiov«r »f oipUnflQanf hoA ^no f tftb^t Urn buii< 
tuci will alhiyt huu. In 007 cwo, whilutoi 1 lyw tuny 1<fi ultjculcly ttikm 
of thA tbAnttA4 TiA ttM put ronrord, oSl mott tiHoiv tbot b* bra vriltui oUy 
ud olcorijoa arabjtotoa vhiofa,wfail< wo bavo musj iD«a MDoai^ u* tt4« 
oro pncticdly rorocd ia it, nc ImOt nctozthelc^ but laj io«r wbi IM 

« "Tbo Now CliDi»Ji3tf>/' Tty Jumb P. Caaka, Eni^ Pnal^«or«f 
ClumiatiT u>d Mlrwrology in fliLrtwd Unlvoniif, U&A. Kiw Jt Oou 

" I«Ucdttc:Urm Tj tin* 
Corbou omi ito Caa^v>\ii/dt^" 


of Obcadatrj In Iko LondiM lidLtatko. 


Lcaloa; L«afnM% l&fi. 



iUi(»oojiic hdon Ute public with v dlfBciLlt & ia1j«ct«0 wvU denlt «ilh 
ttAMil coo hu b»n br ?kfr, JntiAh 1\ fr^k*. 

Jut nlwnii ill ODif tv n ntf rli«iinfiii^bo4 opvratnr uid IcocUcr of 

f^wilc^l «cUaOB| uil it tJi lik?Jv, 'ill vMt t>pii|iuii, tJ7 bo iLpprorcd of. Wn 

Akk in Out nutMt tfa«l thu AUlhor hiu bDin viu lu oniitling ft r*«t 

tomW of rubotaarcfl vhciu roUtioni to L^tUi'T «rll'^*t«bli«hcd bodi» bw 

MC bcKQ (oiuplDlcljr uiAilfi ubt. Hv di^i^i)^ lWw hr* bius in our ojHiiian, ^Tea 

TOnpaffn— > vad complotanu* tn % vi^EuTn» nbicb vould otbvrwUo haT« 

hm % giTftt^JoinW Bi&n. l)(»ldc«i it rauiit bo borne in miuU iL^i lbs 

wctb«f wbicb itluCDiB aa& «ro iddnmod ctprdAlly La Ulii htudi^nt, nnil U 

i« Ittdlj >iDguip»d to bring ucdor bu DOlica bd ^atanjflod ]iiii4 uf fjtotii- VN'« 

la not AtI*D« wIlL th« ftutbf^r Id npud to tu« DOn-rvctwiitioii of ike divinoa 

«(lb«carWoouipimiid£. H tvimta Li an ih%t Uiu diniion into th« tvn 

gNiii»--^^ asd arocuttic^in ono which hu bo«n mcro tnui uam jmtiStfd 

I7 nCBBi Mark, And wo tliftnafbio ihink \t i« l<i b^ n:|crfiTlt-d ib&l Piarree^^r 

Anutraof bM uJo|>teJE ftdlflbrvut bum or ibmif^ht, Siill^ w Ibink hli 

ftflffrr a good on« ao fu u it goo*. Ho divid« tb? flub4liiDcca inij — dmt, 

<wioiM ; Uicn fcJlow ao ibu order tbo otb«ra. na. Sur cxnokpl?, %r/ru[VJr-Jftm4^ 

ttnlMtf tlhm, aidrJi^M. and^ Atf wb", and or/inu- Wf^ notA, ton, ^Ib 

ptiwn?*, Uiac tb« nulbrir'i 0lyi*i to cI^af hnd to iht^ pobit, «Ttsi if it b« a 

link 0«rmaaic ; and bit oxplanAtioiu Ma 10 m(i«tcfi««> sulEdoiillj ample. 



rflwmis to W9 ibal Mr- Cnxrki^ bmt dvaa luy nitrly In adUfaag Ibn* 
«ploiidid imrki of PrtifpMor Fnnulay'H, nnd onm innrD bringing Ibom 
Wbro II10 poblic ForibrM U • powcv in tkom tfaal i*nnoquaIic<i is xa<«& 
inad*f& mamjF» on tb« itnljert ; sad fuitbor mmv, u ttaj nra nddnMed to 
or ftmnit P<Kipl*i tli'>7 ^U f<='i^ adminblo dMi-booka fbi thiMo 
fttle&d Lbcr Uhrtftnin* Ivctun'fl I'f 0)1 VtK'^tl Iiiflltutloo. BortdcB, tbr 
bu iptradurod a (Miprtnl roAliiri^ — 1ii^ bnif bmaghl in belnpcti 
fsraat^HM^ wb^rorer it ^U uccoaaDiij-, a description of ^^*bk1 F&ndAj 
■rtuaUj did lu tbr cndMToui- ti] mok? an c^ipfiriiuent aucceod. Tl^i^ 
Wc a»w an m two bonk>, nnn nf vhlrb Iji dATohvl to lbi» iiithjivt fiti^rrf* in 
pncnl: and tbr ntb^r rtlntti tlui^I-'hcniLCAl lliitorf of n CAodlp/' W« 
t»j nuuMrk ni poita^^t tbni tlicj &m butli rrmiirkabljr well got up— pnpiT, 
pfiatiBf, Uiu«™iion*, biriding. kdrg nil of thtfin pwwllont- Of coutho, 
Ibcniv notbinjrnvw in iba booka, but tbora u a viut moount of orttvnulj 
a«f1d inlcRiiaUaii, put in s furin tbiit fri; faw mdmd uf iJk<»} vihv Iihto 
loUoirad Fartdy bflvc been able fo imltain Wr fsi^b w« b(td i^di^ lo 
fim oiM of tbi- IrvtutYJi, bill VA \ajii not, AVc bnvc gonit ovi-r Mveral of 
iIm difleiPDt chiip1'?r> ou (bv kubjwl of " Lbv Cniidfc," wilb a ti«w fi inm 
vMJktt v« cciuid tifi find boidv of tham fr^^m which wa could tHl» ibout 

• "TboChnmioul Hurl-ryofH Tiindb*;'' bj MldiMil Farada;. D.C.L., 
F.B.8. EdifM by W. 4"foc»k*J^ F.C'.S, Londmj ; (TbAtta & Whidi» 

^ Tbo VAriou FofCf^ of Naiu» ; " a Couih of L«i?1ur«a at ibn KoraJ 
iMtilalkpix, I^MiobuI FfLtada;, UX;.L., IMi.S. Kdit«d bj W.Ctockoi, 


KC& Lbm»i: CbiitloA Windui. 



rOPVUC ^:tl[^(!K KKTIBW. 

tvnaiT Bbm vlkidi waald fo cooiplaiA in tlwinilra^ bat In vnia. ^e 
wriuc h4« Huh ■ hhliil «l mjIbb ifi ooe put Ui»t « Inet iitiieb o«inia iball 
Iff vripluinl r«ilbn cB, tiat it to ijapOM*U« U fisJ ab> |aft o/ Uiu loctiut 
oomp^rtt^ and trblrli yK Ao** hai anmimc ir> mriT* iH^n ■ f>w ■i"iii*prf4 

Tho oth«r h^ok u m« of n Jj»siMti&c a c^anftcr u tli«E npo« tbe 
CAodk^ jkI It Iv if 007*3^;, mora pUkoopblc. It U •* fticnllMit pi,fokr 
MtBMnpii 10 |mt twCm* Ite n44«r «h«E Ur. Omt« (qmt, v* ^Wtv, JhJ^ 
Qn>T«) hta g^rtm tbo non KMilifla pablio* tu. Ui« ide« lliail «It fonw 
an bat aodifiafitvi oa» of the other, ud an nprodudbk. Tbm, ^niri- 
tfttioa, OF mwlMiricd forco. giTM tiu t> b^AC, hmt to ligfat, tUnmitf, 
'siikjtxietiMii, ftal eftuslcal tctionj viJ all fn*y bv occvartrd bio oa« hen, 
vhicb ihejr c»in« tram odgicallj, Atnl (liU la wh«i u itflimiucmtod m 
woodarftiUrlpopulajly in lb* cUvtr Mxxk boiik beftTo n#. Tbor* ti but m» 
pQrtioa which vra win quotes Aii it Ahow« Ou author'* pt^uUu JtvLv \mUat 
iht^n myXhlng t\tn. Me li mdnrouring to oiplnia lb« iii^llicd bjr vUrh 
h4 bimflolf cuibccom* a «cnductof of o]««tricitT, and h« abow h thiui 
" .Viid if I vrcnt to •boir jflu a alocJ Ubo thick mid WCM to raiflajD tA ^oft 
lU ronairurtlf^n, yiifi VAiild AudTy und«tiiitjind thfct iM kmi |tbM la|t 
b<!«iiiiMa ihcy mo npablc of [»reroBliQf the oloetridtj trom pnog oiniy v» 
tbo ««r11i. 14 Ui«Tcfort, I vfen li> AlAod «n thla otool ud fccnTv lfc« 
tdectndtj nbroagli thU mnducur, I caiitd giTc Jt to an^tbhtg ihu I 
tooohcd itbfl IvtarcF itood up^Q tbo iuuiUUa|>«toal, and plaeod hinaalf ii 
conaoctiiju with ibt* o;tijiijcMor of Ibt uaeUno)' Sg« I as dcctriSsd I 
nu] fr'-l tnjr htur rian^ tip. I>i-t i]« mm vhetlief I can •tucMtl In Ugkliag 
pAdbr touohinff thojot with tat tiii:vt {thclvctanrbFOdfrhlUiSnircTavar 

a jut fnriij wFiitb khji wbS titc^Lrif* uhrJi, nncr uuv 01 liro altttBpO^ tbi 
■park ^lilr-h rafii* fmtn M« iin^pi to Iha jpl »nt 6r« to tba f**)- Vo« aov 
eii« bow itUtbatthiJipgver^UlvotriGityoaiibe twufonad ftom tbo maUtf 
ia viicb il ii ^xiKratad and cooductad alonf win* and €(bar hodioit Md 
ihua be mad* ta lurr* nsw pttrpoaio nttarly iinattainahl* bj tbo |i4w«n ■» 
luiTo ipoboD of on prvTiooo injt," And nil through tba bo«k i« Triilaa hi 
tUj almpla, m«7, fiuoili v atylD— a otylo Tbidi waaaadmctiriatlccf tha 
mnn aHjinj (ithitr «i rcitm»iiiji«v of hM rMnark&blir •impU tn^aof Hf^ 


I^IOSB vbo ore iitfiui^lr dfoaacratic b) Ibck taMca toll doubUa* 
IbU UttU book, fir li ii a ti*xy ^olUrtttMD hUtot; of a iori«a at 
wb<>— nliuOAt rill p^r ciflD^utidir tbo jn^aiavt dil&0a1ii««, ilci 
IhuinwIviMi intPtiHolir to itiv study uf uatoral htototy. Of onith* tba 
AOtbor of lucli n bnnk i* an 'TLramo admirer of aticb men a* br bu takm it 
upon bbuiclf to dcKfibe, ud i» Ukolj OQo^h, In vHlin^ af tbe«r Ijioi, b 
«wgS^raDo Ifait juliuni af Un b«rov, to aa tonaka tbamaMoi to tiilEit«r fijta 
a Uttl« loo barola Jf we «aj tlkia, (t b moTtty to guard ocriraaileit *^fl>i^ 

* "Wh0rAihATip*f a WEI1 t^r«'>a\Var; or, f^f^juuv la iba Citti^. An 
AA<^nmii iif tb» [#ftbnum <^f NafuraUiia in Hnint^t lifd." Ily JantM Caifc 
Iiondon: ITardalcka^ U:^ 



onuiaatoocBofioca^UoKdetoticmlo acitunl Lintorjwaa eo t^oiouffh iitht 

l^r««ncftpbl•of dotru(«XcaM{Ti] onlUinry wnrk fraraO A.Ji. till Itr.Ur Ai>d 

Ifcu^intii&ut Hitingfor orgn h>lf>*i>-botir ut hMiiv,goia|; out a^iint D«tur«li«' 

iig: lilt )t vm» pofii dA^Lgli, uic] U)tn l/icg down iiodor b tfoo IIU mgniia||;*a 

MiflnftldAd them Piw mnrn ta H-tHbuutthplTfltCUTitAll. Of oaiirw, ncrr>[|QU 

•flUildmt«r*utUrly Tnlnalau, juid whara^At thiij-oci^uf lUn T«iulcMviil do 

wDtobcsf tLur&ctiuRiind- Siill, ttiiri? U s lE^^d dun! of hoaeit tiutli about 

te book : utd. iiuuiuiuch jia it rw^ui^froni obljiiou & numlMrorEiteo vhoy 

bowrtTo hiimblo their ^uAlilw^ >n uflaitolj ton Qi^bk ti bo i>llow«d tab« 

itetuttJj forgotten. U bM t T«rj oicellcnt purpoio. Tlio author U deulj 

Unwlf nn* of ihu nnmbflr of tn»n whom hn diurHb«#^ nnd ilo-rffM^ Idi 

mllu^ oHanCioo lo ono of tbfi «iibj?«t4 of hu worb, m one of the ioihC 

rciuaikjiblc adcntLilc men of uiDdvtiL umaj, tuuat \n taken fi;r wbm It ia 

Wiirih; TA Donfajo, onrnplru, ti^ novflr bAving lifjird the ruiEDU of tbv 

ffttttomM bufomf. Ilowirvvr, thfire U int 4vubt thnt tho bio;^pbcr Lm 

4aae bv wovL, if out wiwlv, Jii leut Loo wcll> lad wo uvke biui <]ui ihoiJu 

iir ibe Tdume^ 

TiiE iacno-srncTROscopE and its work.* 

iLflL W. T. SUFFOLK Liu by th^H li^cturn <ia tho ffpc^tnuoQpo *up-> 

■IL jilJAii n wAiii> lUid b4i K^von the upp'itnaliv Ui ialGro>cu|tiL7 wufkviv to 

d? ■ littlo worb^^uid pftrliApi orij^Liinl work— At ih*i< mibjoot of tpMtram 

Milywk TbttO ledum wem oriiniuillydeUvf^rcd orallj befijro (be Soutb 

UuAatk Mktivcoplcal Cbik : rmd Mr, T^ O. Adiltiid, ibo banfirarj rp^htrar 

tt> tbtt soeutf, bM Ytry r^Antalh innucnbod tiiam. 'i'tny iu«, of counw., 

fnilf cl«aM0|]irj, but w![] n4v<'i'lLielv<» tao UOTtdtnKiT vnliublo to titoic 

vluicaftfiACpurDluitK warhi^lih" lto*c(w''«i Th»^yjtrt< wvll jmntnl, nn etfol. 

btrtlj il|ju4m«d witb a Hrifii of w<mdcuti tnd aaFva Ullic^nLpblQ pUtna of 

^Ktoi^ coo of wbicl ayvn iLa Apoclnlbud* la coloon of foorkt^D o^Mt*; 

MaiofibAm bflhi^f t'li'[»i'iii.s Huni*' compojifidflt^dniiiMthti pnidiftr *jiwtrn 

flnibt ci«rtiubiMit«<al/b;iiJi^^ Tli« aiilbor^t*»Ofi«U]t to \[i\ Ifru^^in^ 

>w Uring nppliod cortdiD cf tbo «iiWaac«« from wbJch buida art tukon, 

udlbi% WD think, btyjaatlOed Inddng, Air Mr. ]lrnwiiln^'ji r-nllnRliaa [« 

If M BiMa* An ordinny oa«, u wo know l>on pvnuoai «3^QncD0Oi 



WlTllOCT tbif iligbUfi doubt, tbif hocJt uitmt hkvt ju} ojEt^narv aaloaif 
'* it j» jirv|H^ilv iidvrul>rd, aiilJ ourn-wniM fimnjiiiicniiallinttbeHiitJiora 
we hji upon » now fMiuro In ^rvng «o many prkodl^-oxooutod viowo of 

Thfl Moon: ("iinrtdwd :U % I'lftriflt, a WofTd^ mid ft SAl*11i|«," 


J«Mi XMmjdi, r.K, : and Junu rnrpmuflr, F.U.A.S.^ Uto of th« KojmI 
^iWMlnrj, Lcinrb>n : John 3Inmiy, 1&T4. 

foi^xin.— no. u. 


thf; lunni jtUitnt. Wc caatcm th^X eton tf tho bvok vine to <ooiid tf 
tlif«fl dnlnrp'il vi>>tC4 AL>nf» It vnuld vt\l\ hf^ ■ worit adBtntlklA (n IfATtjr.Bl 
atrildndy (Lttractitc from thofii^ttliit lI pr«**alj Tnitufv* lb4i«n aito^rtkf 
unkuowii to tlnti KiulbU world nt Injjce. U h Uno thil ot IcAo jam ai 
lure, Ifarau^ Mt, rmriofp Wn preunled wilb Milnrgnd ph^.o^tt^mtllk9 
mooali Hlructur* : but ttwQ theuEi:!! llwy mny b« 1D0M1 IffslhAd ia rMf 

Tir^t, itnli^u ttu■yvt^^« fifty HniM ^eiUett'*!. tiMlTvy »> fo«d «3 »}*■ 
fiUtfa vliicb Houn. Ctrpvnli^r *nd Nruaiyth hAV« givcD to 
Tli« AUlb'rit ta A oci'lAiu bitrnt opo]ogi» (Vic ihc libMnkcv fi 
tlia ctiAtoiiinry lutmnoinWl ttuett^ lUtln^ that tbdy lm« 
pauu to jrivo lb» moi^nV phy'ii^KTiipbj, i-r. " Ibo nuMiii^ p 
l«Muji^ IjnMid and J^tiiilt^d, tlmt tbo tni(jtc$ <f ouraat^Ilita 
■tiidj-," Cnt ihsy noi'i oflVru* n<i •pn1'»xy, r>T wbilti iiich iniitl«r biobt 
foand naiply t:if<]n in tUcbioidtodudaiiolRftllMu ■>« ntUoficciy, Atwif 
ciot wtP which sirM u« lh>? vicvllviii iriipluc accouni ihti ibtfj 
fomiiJiod. Thfly Imvfl', i(i th« fini pl*i*A, .1^0* t-jy wiMly i duU 
h»vo fiivpji u* bird'*-i;ii: ricw» ciribo«cc«nF!f7 of V»ufnu u^ ti« 
boot], iHiti hIUk 1]> a^Jc n v1l-vf on liio Mino nalti nppArta^ly nf« 
th^f nior^Ti^fl xEirf^vfi'. \Vt> think tUn Mtm In n vorr biif|ry i:ix< 1 €99 
nothjn;; thnt -roald miKH tlaMiactW co[i\titi;^ avyv^nv tfati tbfl mora^ 
1r Rhii'tEy nuiilc up of VDtonni': diivwb tTiaii tliri ijcir from atuTA 4 
nr poriiont L>f GUI' omi plirtonLp ragioD- AnytUtB^inorv diiUQf tly 
ihfi two HMrrMccA it i« nTju^lutnly ImpMalblo ta cOnotliQ. T^irr^ m 
Htv plHtf^^ hi tbH vnTiiirM', hrthi^W rituiii«rou* vfoiiitcift^, S«d U i»iaipwrfkl«l« 
uy which t^rtbf* rL^rmui i« lUu hvit. TitWtiiiv tho photA^ra^hoflll«aMi 
la imiutnirh mfcnor to tho irpI<Tn^J piduK th«lW]M publl^Md hf^ 
Pr^tor ib^nio timn vlntM? : but thea tic lie^iin, «lmnt Mnfvcuricflr, Af 1^ 
iunjir JtniiffTy hfq corloiuly vnndrouiy and ibAy k(i'» o* ^i>iE« a i lilaf irf 
niMloa tif liioni fCrni^r)- fruui (hut vrlii^k Si» ircnitnlly adopted. It Moaiti* 
thnt the niiitKim nrv tmh aufn^rioxntly iriivbiki>[i in BOBif- t^ lUroiljM 
Idona— motv ««pcciiiliy u thj* tho van in tbo attcmplwl ^tpluutka of 1^ 
peculiar ctKcltJ lUul niradu which m-e m woU knowD to Iukht £nitui«Ok 7l>7 
b*Vf! Iricd fl'Vi^riLl ci: prim rut a oh a jjTAfW||b>W, oh winch Xhfy hiii^nW 
COnudL-niUD uit^mni p^V1lr1■ us bv oxdrttd, Vl<L tbry twax iJvl tbi« ab^ 
Ct»dii?tl iu a |H:culiaf nioiincE iLluetiat« th(< mode in wbkb Uio phistfiMi 
of cntrlLK )ip]H<jir« Of] ihit lunnr nurfnca But vo think Ibfij u* mta^ 
&r th« ^bbv fliitwjH Ha aneki oil Id <^o dtri»cLi<iik, ttad ttoa (Im Dtfctt p^ 
{let lU *ny) towicrd* tbo uqimtur, wbMiNu tL« luuu cacka nfv ■rttt^P^ 
roniidoAchvalGftaa; ond vn chuiiuI inut^nt thnt in lu^b n pUnM thkte* 
whiab produoui vo1r.i^ui)» ycna in a tcpnmii *<^rict uf cLmLm. lj««vr#r|tl'> 
In A Tvry irifliiiK ubji-<liuii to rdiw* TW mtifr y^a an luuncnwlj (Jeife^ 
with oui lulhcffi' Uboupi, iiud vo wtih fhciu prer/ ncc«M m th» »1« f' 
tkaii txG«Llcnt WIj. 




viFiE ikf tbA Mitjtirl fm whii-b Et triitTA Purih^r, h 1a Titry ptnTllttLy 

^«t dull mkdUifi TliD only ebApttr vLick w Jij not tv*^ tbo rorwin at 
^ibnitUD Hph-Bl; on iiuiieinli>gir 11 tha Of«t oj», wbiob doflli eul:i7u wiih 

' "IMwiWftda juid PrrHou* SconMiii iVijaibp Vocijimt nf Gtras, from 
«<Th<«cliof Louij IhoilAftiLt-" IltiuttrnW t^ 1^ eAgrHTiw OD wnod. 


faitf3i7 <ftxiRi «%ich ibe ptvMdbif rut U d^nd) U i ^^ood om^ It ntlsi^ 
foddo* ikt hiatotr of tlw linm gf tlw Aunond lUsMtenoi in BrttU, lb 
maaMM is wbkk ^iwnotid* wmc AuDd &t 6ou1k Afik*, and It mmUh IIm 
■akwtbm ].£ODlOOOiLwiirUi WHrmntlhunikaCi^paarOiMd }trip«i ts thi 
jMf 19TL n» A^una of t^» <UffimaCmta«mh uo tU fiTtC, im «ri] « 
IKovnl ak ^te fc w^ >D ih«t tli« fdioiiltc mdcr will not be din^pculcd 
Among tk^ dlfltovfti UlurtntkM ihtn u one wliieh tbo Pahlithwi 
loiC m% nl vfaLch i« cf i&taiMt It i» s flgUM of ft pUc« of Anibcr Ufp 

Kji«.]!]irTj L>:lu(i^>ui otigTDJill; lo Uio liil« vTvlUluidVD Uukft of Ibrtka^vftr^ 
by whom it w*j< (fhtn ia ih<r KLrchi»r> o<iHHc4iiin_ TLf«v jtn tnnar olbK 
pL>U3U«f inbtrtvtin tli« b^J^, Wul v» bikvv irtvvu ^ouu^b to vlkow iW lb* 
voluuM U an exccUcnt popular ic«v»Dl ofwbat *om« tlui;k«i ■ffdartift'^l 



X iLud Mr. Cl^riatT, And which ij no* TcTf ii«r iuC3iiipl*ti<Ht, u a>1el/i 
und«rthAMlluiT«MpDrrrwft-«nt: liujiivrl Jquu«> Ui« iu« tuiUitirBluiviaKbotb- 
divd Miwe lh« b>ik WM bcgviL W* h*va iww bi/flr« tu rurt* XIM, *aAi^ 
XIV,, niiii wtt Afc UcBtIj n* wcU |dMiod with tbqn lU vrc vrert with U> 
tbM biiT* porf b*fcw. Ww h»y npftriy, r»r «« hto luK qmlte 
witbrort Xlll., wLich to two uf ii« pi«^ eifc.*at«i,iioibTtii 

* '■E«liqLLi» AqdlAsiiw? b*inp CwitrilfutiiirrJi to tlv ArtAnn^br^ «s^ 



Pmdi ix^Ui Mid ^tlf^nplivr, Mr- liOiTTvaUi but hy TjitIot And Fknodfi. 
AihI Mujryill; If vrn wiiTii«d an etLmpli) of rh« iwii ippiIh^Jr, ih« I'Ujrlti^ 
aai tb« i*'fraohf voo oouM not be bctttr atitticd. I'hv Ftviii^h bi4 ail Uxat 
d«ptAfw of dtaigit iiud 11/Lil lrulJ]fulni:u of i^hnr^irlcf which in fto tenuLrk* 
ftbt^ji il^rtfl i'Wflrt*Ti*K- iliftir work, nnd which hM hM«rj *o ticrlluita 
CuAturvi JL lh>i I'firti'fr tfriL^ of Ihix w^irk. On tlin utlmr hmid, ihn Kfiplitb 
Vffk dijipla>4 t'judfHUr^Jid lud n haul of Ijuish iflLidi ujAke U conirut 
Mdlj witJi tho fnrpigii plM(4, Wv nrv gUd to vc thnE tlir* ei]i(j>r linrt not 
OMtiBDod tUife uiifDrtriiinlo liMtiiri^, Tor in IWC XIV, wa bav4 ngriin tha ox* 
lionUFimi'li IjLho^mjib}', IWt XML ifliik>t vnty nmiirknltli: iuilp^fiuun:** 
but r&H XlV.fvnUiuiniict'^uiiilpplnloripprcftirmg lb bI woLI-Vn 13 wu picture 
ol A ■uumin^V tok on wbkch in carded a alickh of thu ojamtauth. Mr. 

•a )t iff vm th4 ravnll ofn Wt* ttndy jf Tb» miinmi, TLU U h fnxrcof 
impoin, for it woald ahow thnt tho aniniikl w« n<nIL^ nlivr in KnLnce 
tb« in^i^fl of iViiguid wtru JnhftbUtxl bj pjiui, Tlio olbcr uinHer ic 

Ite t»o riiejeIhtI of tho ndrk in of ^oni iTilt^TaL \Vc hupr; Brjnri la irt il 



iVKKY iDlvrMiiiijr trorb h IhaL wbfcb lir. Fmtl^r^ bat ^iv^n uiv i^^ 
it U— Mfc t> iboi^ fi?vr<iv]]n Tjrm mi-nibiiti of tlip ^^i^iutj' wtioli 
B«iMBl^>^f A<'ftH]iimii'aI"<ifj ■» 4iiiin'lj noiil lubji^cu l*f cuuitil*, on lliii 
leceont tLcrri tuoj b? nmnv poiMt ou Mi-bicb Ihn mjt^ij>r will hv umI Ui hnTU 
Jifffapd bin iKWt Ur Iehj ili^iiiKLit: nii i-xti^iA. Hovpcii:! tbjs luiv Lc, tliv 
tivit U ttfHlni^lirAtlv anfi nh'tch juttM-uii, kh tniiiifAi Ikr lu^nml t]:ii rom- 
Ma. U u but It piipubir iiccounl nt Uu't ; lti(ii*i> wiin dvxirt^ let go into 
iW Miljflcl fiillj an ■vftri'iTl 10 tbi; aultiuc'a hvII^lottu uirtui>ii* od thi- 
■■^■cft (two of wUch hii hn* bi'cn ^od flPiflugh 10 jiond uji, ni)d whJdi will 
fct kundi;! lb*' Tr«ft»iu.-lniniiijrtbu LiutiUNi Si»oK'lj nrti ii^ thosv of Ihr lEa^iJ 
ii«rirt]r of KdL[ibur/b>> l^ut tbotc vbo i^ntv to ^0 lUruui^lL ibi^ pj^ifr^ t^f ibu 
uliimui b«!<rr« iiB wiJj llml tn ic mucb 10 anUrULU ktiiI 1-3 iriiilrLict liinTii. 
UUfv fiml purl o/lbir wi^rk will bii foiiiif^ aix Dc<;oif^t »f tbir ihil'i-r'-nl uiodfB 
^nlkbg, niiiniii^') flwimTiifn;?, hikI Hj'iii^' iifb>]iU'd by innmnuiK b^nln, nrtd 
■■Ktt I lunpljr i1lLi*tni(itd- Ami in Lb« ■->>i:tm(J — 10 Auf imiid t» inbiriwtin^ n 
*^cct, Ibwi^b <ju? draU wjtL At euniv U^oi^tb bi iko A>^^im(iiliuiil >3oci«ty 
-^vfL bo found, Antlj> % di^nrl^-tabulnti^d utatccioiit nf ili« writ^ttrtc <cti* 
4liaiw 1^ wbicH Aijrlt iw t» bn n(1ii[iipl>?dr lUid Ehra «□ ablu rdi»ni'T of vljol 
Wlinu dun? It tLia ouuitUy iimL on ibvi.'ontin^i'tJt 1^^ r«\uur ibt* pmgrvntrf 
^ iLfvftM nioda of 11iff)iT AU lhn>t]g;li 1h>< bri^ilr in full uf iotrMating 
*iUar, Mkd w« ofl«r our b^t thuilit ti> Vr. r<ui^T<iw f(ir lIiua ndilrosnuff 
fvn«n] pitb1i[' i)ri a point in wbicb it if nut Ivat Jnt«rrr»led than Ibf? 
•pKuJI^r ■ei'^Dttlio iimll. 

• ■ 

Aniojal LonEXtintlira : ur. ^V«1hiiiit, 

- -; or, W»lkiiit, Swimminjr, hil^^ I'V^uif* *'l^i ft 


rorui.AR wiftxui AKTtnr. 


WE fiuiE7 ibnl ibura w doI a fw. pvad nmct^ *dwnt*d 
h^m fii^b tiM traglvil f<iv« whisn tbo dMtriH act gnph 

^^ubtd F«U(>v of Utft O^o^riflikiil Sbctrly, tntd lu U «w » 
irbcre ia Bmilj m^ nnolliQr HUd, vilhoiU doubt It vu A fVl 4 



o-Ttiior d}*trict. 11i« Yi 
-lODA tt^tm, tWi !■ iO » 
lv\j Vftll ri-vnOkn], k a d 

Sute or N«iff Vcvk, W ii 
ttm tDtrlUiTT of Wynolnj 
about niidwty botwvoti t| 
cjiic tIcMQ ncd ib«3fMi 
Ii luM nnly bf«b UImIj 
i(Vib«d «t lOl, frivn toiha Kd«Dtl^t^ v^hJ, uul nuw U Jim all (feafc4 
uiifoMcd tg tlv v*>3't«l vvoder. T]i« autlmrvlt^ book giTM tbe 
iTDtbrnllinf? juvntint ot the aceDcty, nnH or hU ttva mtrtnMotf ^a 
fliid ihrdlmj4 ftdv<mt<ir«a f^n^r Uit iaH>i]uUiiw, Ihrmigh tba mow 14 
spring wiib ftriiuouU; no fjddrr of naj, kkd bul h fpw mou ii 
in a ndghbouring bot vpHng' Ui* dfMnipllLin* an* Mmo ^ ihm o| 

TE» unvfTTCiin 

" " Woadori of tbo TcllovMtooi) Iffgloo, in 1^ Kttkr MouttUte 

nnfl diirr>iiri4ltii^ Sff?«ty. Fi|4oied A ll£(>,7t/ KdJCitl It .lana| Kij 

»on rn-u!.iit: [ElwkieJt Ski, ]87JL ' ^^^^ 



ffliMbfaf cue* Uw is UncciKiJit collie Li1;prl;r Capi « vle^v ui Ilio 

igbl ftad 30 fcot in duiu«tcr al Utc ba«o. lu Ainu boi «apj;o(cd tho 
lof liberlj Cup. It U uttd^ubtnlly ih« n^mHlm "t Ni nl^inc-t ^yH«r. 
ndar wjia tnrnA up idth coDUiUnblrf pr^wrr* atjJ pn>biil>K' wilhaot 
Qt^aap building^ op iti own miei unUl ibi? prndura bta»tli wu 
MMI, UHt ll4« ^pHng ^ituHlly closed llMir i>vHr At Elm jknmiulL 

ifte ftc^ncrr cf Cflrdiarr's IWtcr. on tbir w»y to thn 
[UDteA Ml'. f*niigtbn], who tuyt of iW JflJIs of tLu rirtii 
k* Y«12«mlOlwy vlii«h ftr* burrouiLdvU by coIuqidh of brcociA, 1hot"tli» 
Ml oCtuood on OQO of tb^flo DJLn^tveummitt* At a tcijibt 4>f ;j^ fiut 
Aftbdling ^JUm, nil^ti9 « aluudy lir.<nd jldJ almui; aefitTs . < . ■ 
of l^«iipridaafefarnratioDB wrought from thu ibjilo tioilo mommcDt 
It u woTitl^r. Of ibb kin^ Mpr-'cijilly vtu a hu^ Tnnm lixty fc^rt in 
t (SM fl|:nrA Ahovti)) nrlmOif fr»iti iU hujipuHiid rmuinblAn^o to t^ 
ituJ foot of bi« H«iaujc >Uj4<«Lv, wtf rJtll-d ili« iTvitlV Hoof/' 1^» 
GdndodMbj giiio^ tquotjttioa from ibe liofcmmeatpBpea ttklire 

CuL» kindl; lent hj ibo Publiih^r. 


mFiri^s scrRHCB RCTTerr, 

Kifvt, And in U^ie pitrl tbom ia hvnlj a oMiplo of lia« iloaniUp; cdi if 

TV! ouvrvBL nainoui aMm 

the GuPst bot p^tmgs, we fuppoMi in t^ie wboU world. Wc baio noiHi 
€4 its «t«, hut from th? sutfruant iL&t i1 u mora rajij«aUc tbtui iti gri 

Mr of loahmd, mtnti ble* qlav hn tarim^ of It. T1>a oppruii^ cm 
■Ki fbb g^fHTr Mid from lt« ivktiviL hjxi of tbti UiH4 it irfruld accm of 
WaiimnW^t, MMUttliilVf wu jinuitvApni^f uuf curpriso Lb&i bo IjltJo 
ibVah will absulil, ft^rtfrvn in anolJiL*r chjif't'-iv wliinh rtf}nt» ptporUIIj 
■ Ifa[|«^««t,1fa0 C!bi«f isformAtion ii thii taken rrt^m Kitj^tUh nc^^uutu 
'Inlmd. W#CuiGj OtaA ibc book lin^ bci^u iniittcu h^ tlill'ttriri^t [fivinivi^ 
>teik« ftmlTii] c# Tha Mttcnr, It K «t aU tuttMA^ full of liitttrrHtTiijf 
■ttir, «T«B ircvcaifionAily tooio iif ihu wfiUr'« |whu bo ia w« know qoe; 
exceedingly niorrdbo^ 


7b SlM{tn/*a Gmde lo y^vJoff^. \\y A. WilwD. Londno j ChoiohiDp 
■71 TbU o|i|>v«z« lo W » ^oodbunk. TbuauiburSi di^ni'iriLJji^Uil^Tnvnt*, 
ilioat hitltff At all dAgTTfitic in hU Tiju-hlnj^. Wi« tliink iW poittioit 
M Uikon up in rvctvd to Mr. Mitart nuJ Mr. Dnrviu'M vinwit 1a 
at cnditable- Wo tfcould rvcouLmeud bii niADunl l4> tbojuuioi Btud^nt 

nnVoL Hj H> MiWinc. Lvndon : Hdl, liHr4. TKU U n boAh which, 
tb» vniATlibb^d, ■[ijx'ftn nundiitful ; but ^l lliiwri wlm nrhlty itiicttrivljind 

t (^OsliiA rvUlir« U FT««iD«Minr)r, wbk'h it prvtt>iKl>itAdivirvi(iip it iiimtLty 

ntlltr*! It U nvU finiLlcU M'l lllu»tt«l«d. 

7%0 Vitiijf **f XirlutnJ I'/iwiurmmur. i'nuti Ui** FphOf b nf M> Emilo Siigey, 
til kik iolrodnction oud ivrttin bj T- K MO4O0. A.M., MiD^, I'rofcBoci' of 

)■ M ■ wril *' got-iip " Kiltiinr^ iirlntffl In hii iiY^N^nMiit ly|i^ orir* rtdwH 
ira Dtcd nM Ivfln^jb^ «Aid, for tbt.>r tftv, of cnurAc, not na«r; Btil) Ibvy 
ualnuwii to ft conKldiurablc nipaiorDVi^Ti educated ptcpli^, und uti«iippaw 
« %ktm Uiftt tho pniviii adllr^r qddrrHm. ItW n rfovor bti'^li. ind la on* 
o Im Aoy^vnuftl knowlcdiftf of ndoaen mi mrnmidjr ToKiiiDlinjr imo, 

Tht TfMfnuy *'/ li'ftMiif, }j|jl^bjj. Lindlty.MJ^-.F.It.S^, HndTliuniu 
■o«v,Kl'?>. New •(iiljoD, a VoU London r LDDgmims, l.s;-l. Thtibrang 
it«tH>tf|ieJ TTuHi, of ivtji^ juij~Lhiii|; liko iitipmUut luii^tjliciktioti of tb" 
, «dltLan it qiiitf impmnblp, Theri^fni^ nii *i1dilio:i brri'iiii^ h ni^ctiiwily. 
i» biiFi bnn fpton lu tho pr<imit u*ut. It u of itbout Km pH^f, nnd ii 
ltt«n bj « c^uoB uF bnlnn]j-t« who ntiT k)»E>t?o to bn tho b<^>t ntrn tn tli>j 
Uro Mlutilic world. Thr htwU on iKi^ wluib^ Et h ^nil nfv nditfoti. 

^ JTmui/ of^ ZmiAry. Ry F. S. Winilow, M.[l..\- Londco) i -Smitb ^nd 
dcr, 1p<7-I^b iiotn \nfyk mi whSdi WErffiiiV ci|KH:lfd lo pii-u *rij opinion. 
» UmfvfciTv do not, 

TV Owasi -■ ti* THirt, Cvn'niUf dm; f Aw CfTMr/. Djr W< I-< Joidftit- 
iftdooi Longrnwit, MTl. \Vi*r>>H]U niimcUrliuA tn rfliwEilr-r Mr Jordji»'H 
wncih Bo put! thxD foflb infrcaiouiJr. ond sp^ad* mach mcnwy «a hi* 
«4 1 bat TO caaatjlsym wjtii hi* opJiLioot. 



Dtnmum ami Jhiifit, or C^t^M Ay ftdMuB. l\y GvSfgw St CUir, 
F/>^,U.A,f. Id»4««; Iloddor aimI Stovtblon, l^a It avcivlBrilj 
fiir to noticB a b>ck «^ MHO* ■!*« la » fcvr Ium*^ e«pf)d«Ilf wbtia lk« 
AUtfaxW** tUa bw k^D A fT4d «M Mid b ff1>?TDrlT cAmcd <>«t llovQTvr, 
«tt CM! It tfruul ll< K« iro do not l^k Mi. Sl CImt^h book entlUKt to A 
toDg iMtiof in Llt4 p m aioftf or nilifrr i»«m hn^rtMot on**, Uavc*n*r, w« 
iDftj mtf Xhai Lv hu cMHidcnd Ut« ivh<4« qoeati'Mi witJi d gtv^ dp4| of 
olmaau, nud biu il«M JtHtke to ttovt cf tboM nio luc <u«ct7iio^ id tha 
iii*tc«ir. \\'« drt xiU BffNtt » Uft eoMlmddMr bdwvnr, utA «* ui«n ihiU ir 
he ntcd rvAvon ftlono to •ubmdq (be <|QealMaa «oiui4cfod, ho nutt ovate to 
a i^uite dtlTiimit trpult 

n« fV/MM^ mid TarkitA Batht t^nr Tdbv u Mmw a/ rV <U^. Vhf 
J. J„ MilKdi, M-lLl'X Lfittdvi: lljirdvicko. 1»74. Ty* |«uit|»^Ut t4}0W» 
un b<^w 7VC can ccjiiHrutt > (loKoblo Turkish Urtii lu oucr own boMe ^ nail ll 
in ihpKfon} a OMirul liCtlo book. 

Lc«)fnn4a)A| 1(^7-1 ia u Im^ llo. valuiau. iUiiiiroCcJ b^ mora ^^*m 'Vf idatas. 
In tlilx Uin aiJllior •jipnun tii yn/mi »ui dtnil^ tliv aivtv impurtml probliSM 
In ihi> pmetlfxl dliUlfniof wdM g^mpirv. It U 10 bpi IhJbiUfd h^ aimtbar 

IlAif-AfHtr* ritM Ifurrff, Parti, Ik A. i^ iWkAnl, Juc. Uulon; ]^£m 
iiJii L^iirSoL I'^TJ- TtiU 1* Uif^finlparl tifabiriHl]]iJi)»Ur vrvtli. It j 
m^lL Tbo >uihcr'i «ffi^t In a n^^ilnl ii(i«, n^id th« |iul]ljab<n lilvo 
tlici very Il-«i mi^ in Iho couDiry far the vcirk. 

Wh hni« nlflU i^o^iicd : " L'aivrrrilx of Ivmnloii QnMCioni^" bjr Ch X 
\Vor>d»nrd, B,St^ "Tbo l^^hology uf Sotptkum aad l>%4iioa)4iuihn* 
hy Jnutit .UdniTv; and "Thu C«Ji^ uf Suffolk,'' by J. IL Tflilte, 


VhMtnl of ihc Society, b prlvin^ the taojnl lo Mr. llLigpni for IVofcHor 
Xpwiyniilij lUvilt m lvui;[1i with Uiv laiWk ItJ^^b cIaIjiia fui' Ll. OfPrufAfMJr 
Xv«OC«nb'B vFrifitij^ lic miH tlint ihfy itx\\\hit all nf th>im n OiintbiiiKLicn, 
it ihOMhc Imnd, cf iiinllicntuli<^al aUJI aad poTi>r|Oil,oDllio olLrFrLoJidtCt]' 
fwul h«iil work*— dcTctml to lilt fuitbtmncu of lutrannmii'ij udmcn. Tha 
"UftiQQir on Xhf Limur ihriir^ '* coniCLtni iho HaL?c««Bfal daveEojiowTit of a 
lilcMy oriiai;Lh] iJ«ii, *n<\ rantml bat l(i txffvdfid lu a gvval ntrfi b rtdvimco 
ID ifap niMLoiI of ih<« VEiri^titin uf tbu rlvuhiub* nti^E iti ibi'or^lknl (Ijuniiiim 
gvncnlly ; llioti»i>iu1*of p3iri:twj Ubl<n ni» worki ijfiioiiietiK UKoqf,*ni' 
WJtluiC xVMilU oxt}y tittitnthV* ^Jy Uuf rl«iciic <ft iturli lnU^ur unclvr tlic 
faifUiMW of jirftlciuiiil iiinlijf uiMtJi.iiJ nktll, Hiid wlikli Jtrn iicedii hi ih<*pn>wnit 

77^ yiVnvif/iuAii/ iitivivty't Xew ^nni.—The Council lud *»pi-i'tvJ timt 
\ht Shifty vr^Lihl ])3tti> \wt<n In ptuM^ulim nf tliolt nnw TiHiirirt in Itiirlbi^on 
)UuK ib liiQa for ihLe btinm^rrary mwltn^f M Au y unrtrut^i^n caua» fur 
d*4*y. litiwn^i^r, bnvp i>ccm7pJ ; bui tlic Council hatf imw U'Cii rtwudPnl by 
Mr. Hurry^tJia *PcliltflPt, ttnl in April ntti Ibn dworfttjoru* drui tUtm^ nf 
tbe rooiUB will bu cmnpltHrlj liuiiiliu'.l. A" ■qtJiiRtJou iif pnidcnci.^* a-, vdl 
H of fiBiTmieacc. il will bt jitobnlilj tliuu^-fii nrcEonry lo defer ibc migTJH 
ItW itf tha ScicitH- ffom ■S'lnicrwt IIoii«^ till thi^ iron^iunoi] of tho pruoot 
MBOii> TbUvtlll K^*tt tLmo for U^c vnlU to bccoDiio prrfcclt/dryT L^AptrtiAlly 
In Uio banaii-iilr itud iLuM ihv nxiiii* wIU bv lUMiLif lULirij IinbitHble fir iLh 
M<4uit-«>0r«ljuy. Jt rnftT br> n>» ^'vll lo rvct^frl ihAt thv torrAnt-o 1o tlie 
imhu U the flnt dour oa tbo bfl bimd on catcri;]^ tli« qiLAdmngle from 

Tfu J^td r«ftf7/i«p/'fA«''Jtf<m^%AU<r>H.''^[tiflftfflctlliHt«pPHk«wvlIfar 
IliC pn>|fnda of ibc Afttrunamijc^ Society tliat tbc Wt volnmv gf lb v " Monthly 
TtnitrvA " Ijl Uin Ur^nt thiil bu m-nr nppifAjt^d, It Hi'^rlj AihlUu the 
gntral Activity nf tlm S^x^iHty dunni^ Ulu pHvl yv^r, m wrll m tbv {trogrDM 
ti AftrtOKiaiioBl otiiucc. t^uturjil of tJic papera atv of mui^ tbjui u«uil 
tttetMt, mvA ninv ihB.ii iho or<!inftrj tiumW nf pUlci Ubaitmta ujiua oftho 
a«if« Imftirttut. Thf^ rjiluAblo ch«iUof Ibc trontiu of YcrdUH <>r 1^7 A and 
IMl* tlnwu by Mr. I*i^Lrr, may ho epfCiiJly i^faf ivd to. ThoBe ibow tlu.* 
tstf of «quBl JiMctcrftlion oad rotiudkiioa of J]jffr»>i <^^ tgtu«> ted al>o 
Ibe liM* of cqiid durBiio^ f<<T inuiniftl coutbut in l^^'^i *<^^ ^'*^ tilenul 


«A^ with «IU all tb> deislfed 

arih*.iU-^UhMnAai7MlMbii«i4lJ*pnk dia fobliniii^ 

(vvi ««ib tf tfe ctt^MM «f lUi ■imfci h MiBi, Mil rnAw^ 

II tan ihA th«f* b M tbMc* «r p-fcMAii^ h ctthav m Urm 

or Uctmj, 9vi«f l» iW ffSfMM^ «Ue4 ma >ici*<nlT m 

h U ha | ri, fcoVMTOT, tto MOW UMM WJIt W pr ■ ' ' 

|tfi|f««l«|F lUi kvilllWt pradMdDO. and Ilia* iii«k-- it mi.,... 

U^whiK PsdChmt S<^iiiidt hju bR* r<»)Li#4i#d to forwMi 
MlhMin of tk* [TT^Hr tapfc of tmufcnin^ ikt km^ vimb itevr la 
■llth*grapht«nfVm«iD(- If Um ml\m»rn kt Dot uceaUc. ^hiUx *°" 
>H<ui* may b« bMod to fnwrt* lo «cWiu« th« vftlnftUa r— m l ta 

C/Miiffj r^ fjU ioM TtfWM JftfiiAU.— SwEQ OOnHn hare ap^euvd 
iba U*i lvtU« iii"htb«| tkN4, Add fKsbtUjr four, of \k*ta b«iug 

iHftilti bj Ur. flnpimor, ■! tho XNu^m Obttnut^rr, md? 
UuN^ BkTom*t«T< OliBcrtalioa* w«r« made vd twitly-iix 

'-3^1, with ■ pi^tAMe vn^fi 

PClBlflFIO BCmijrBTi 

It (bfttn^ t^tfdbfTf tbnt tsch conuict U ilOduiuJ bj ano-hNU thin quAtitltj^. 
-Vf. Ptdaaur bit jutMitutvd ibtu tsIuim ia the H^ailioDB^ and on tbQ 
■bole ib« «ffiiMia«n1 U ffflDtiAlly vnry kooiIi aad it li bnliaviTd tbnt in th« 
ow *1)M« Uk« (Uff^r«iic« U Huruibly nbuvu Uw iLVirmKVt thAt It atlwui rnim 
4niulioQ u the ikindUDt ot irnbdintjoEif dvpouding upon tli{i tramrpimiic^ 
v' ifao atMiaapUerc. The gbwrvAtiaiis weti; Ml lunJu In full Un^liglilt vthva 
ikepbafEWM nnc fflrfrfim ih& tiieridiiui. 


Tfc* {\tmfvuiitiitn n/ fj^jj^"— Th* " Apjulumy,"" la n Titcnttt Tiunilmr, niyi 
tbr Uit kuMiJtn AjrrioLillUfHl < 'Lmiuiiiuaoii fur tim Vt^rina KxliiURtun \iKv 
ffitiaSnd Bcinkc BaAlysm of edible fun^ri made iluJdi th« fliijifrlntvudi^iic'? ^f 
1*Wft»or Nieolfti Socdntl. Thny may bu rotnpnfyd \».-ittL tlmt. ^ri-ii hy 
IVaSrttoCT Chureh for Lycopt^r itun ffif/itntcnfi. wluch ih ttlto edihlo whou 

Ath .... 7-3tt oa^ 7-fi« 7-00 

TW vompovltjou of lb* till wu : 

Phoiiphnnn Arid . . SA-(Xt 

SulpbufiQ ooid . , lS-07 

Iivit M^iuloxidfl . I'Ikl 
MHnpiJifai>pri>Ul4nupiViiJil(> ^-'I-l 

J4d» . . , . 1-00 

8odi . . , . 300 

PaU«h . . , - ■'rfc'fr 

Sodiiun cUoride 'Ml 

TW |vn]UiTtlon of hUroiTfU ^nrivd in drivd apci'iiLi^iiB frutti iHtTt ti> 7^5^ ji«r 
C^L ; 1h« Arvti^ pdr«iiitAfri.> of pliofphoric acid wiu 1'7 per c^nc. 

/■Hnf /'A&Tfr ui /Ac /ff^f'/LEif'iuit u/ Ztff'^f/fiu.^Mr. Fntoeia Darwin, wbo 
■p|HWtDbBV«< mfulL*A ryry ^pwrinlMludy nflliimubj^rt— wLicb, by tlio w*y^ 
li cakuktaJ to ttjr> V tomiirL iLglitiipon hit fatliur^ vicwt — hM r«cifntir?on- 
tri^uUd ftri tmimriAfit pAi^iT on Uitr (lIo^l- AubjcLt lo tho pn^ciof a coiitem- 
fonr^. H^ujAthnt in nuuij rj^plli^iLnroji', ].jithyTiisfoviiiMAi]ra,El]fiinH«cTt 
Yiiitinif tbr ^r^wcr rttiU "n n plhUgrat u bu'li li forfn^d of tlm f^ariiin and th« 
WLfaiidvd iJh^, but in iba Foirld ruou>^i' tliU iHUtl'urm i» miuJr up by tbe 
abv aft«it«, Ota ^rina bi^En^r tlj^'bily cr^1i?<i iuUi ■ npiral olofu itp Tfi tbr^ an* 
tpVDM to lb* lal>ij to Ihv iN^nikU, Tbo niA- an nttat^bed, cue on oiu^ udo, 
lO tJuf [HQxiliiBl put of tb« cnriiia ^ m tlmt wbtm tui ijj»ct reit» an th«ni> 
It* ««fgbt t»Ar« on tho wriiiA, ami cauwji rhf* put-ii — whidi it ixiniaSnticI in 
It M ia A abMth — to be foKcd oiik TMa dircotbn of movninoAt of th« jiutiL 


JI. daiiii/i:jv. /J. awrafifJiif 

























PorrtAt scusrcc ttxuir. 

it lowvurd ud t» tbo left, %o tlwt « b«« rmU^ on tiie iipudoi aW uil 
puahiD^InltobMd to th»Wt of iki aiUrd-ap nHan, wrnM conui lu ooo- 
lM«<ritklb* jd«tllMild>n«dffllOf itiab«ath; but tf tb» 4[|»nrt wftnl E« 
lb* rigfataf lh«oci1 itwouU #«aipp tbv futil MltcffoUioT. Tiit< end of tW 
|Bfin is oDtctpd Mik Un, Rpd pEcteM> Uin «ame ftmOuD «i iW kr««ii tn 
Lwhynu in — ming flto b» with polfao. 7r Klb«rBlartt,of gnailmpovt- 
uk,^ br tbtt cmwfbcltllutbii <i4 lb* pUal lliAt lli« bt«> i^Mhl ki> 1i> tl* 
Uti *\( K\w oeol. A« i baIUt iif hM> Xhtj til Wt intsHnhl/ do fn to Ibo 
I«ft t 1k« vtr^ ftw hm§ thu 1 htv* MML ffotag to iho rig:l]t «ppoAr diwttlw- 
ied AftA ttD«Uo to A»l Ikcir v^vbtc tb*GoroUk Nov,ion*eli Uoii«0Ur<- 
bdl^v tho kMMt'i fooboicbi luw 10 fwt» dinra a tdOBial fanwd than hf ii« 
Ute of th4 TMdUnm, Ulair br tW npp«r Mfiuio of th* iMth lAiMttt ( lb« 
OltiwiOe inio thi* tuoDd if a luuow luvbirm^ ltauka[f |<)Tntri« ite la(U Lc 
h«irinff Ju lil^brvl potnc to tlu> left tf iho mbdJIe f^ixSt of Ut Ihv. At 
bofor* ciMoilf Ui« €ftp olmoM bboldi mp iLt luunol, m> tbfti tA ipfi la th» 
ntfctw-holctt tin prvbo«oi> nuat pua <n'er ihc U>9 ^r ibe flop, jwd Pivat 
tb^roftira CnnI aJrag tb# hiftuii part of lb« mnnit] ; but liom at Ik* <» 
tnocc ucb tbo ygbfiit point ii to tHo bsA, tbc bc« AoJ* it iweooiW7 to |ro 
to t\ii9 left of ibe i>iitrd-uf tarifla* to mi^ lli« oocui-boUi U lb* caa«l 
WAV. Tf ihifl i^MT of tho fanftion of th« ItAp, itImi oMitirttn^ Is nUtlrw 
vrith tbc dippoAJtioB of tho pittn, GArina, Jtc, b« ooRwt, it ■44< uoUmt 
(R>laiiL-ii t) llw luoj; tUt of [QcdAiitsDu frir Iwuriny tho rm i> f *rri H w< in i <f 

A, Jloifyiock /W^w*.— At & (DK^fe/ of ibc Iloyal flurtioaltdnd Sodttf 
(Jan, :£1), 1 V>f«ur Tblwltoa nforEnwtainntnrcnikrbiioniiMiiiittefbiijrtt^ 
wbioh tviL« i^mvin^ tx0«4c!ingL^ dvitraetlrs (o Wlyt^Kk*. It biii hva 
idtoXifitd br i^Hipler m 4ht« cuaabyt ftod BdbMqii«aUjr bjr Divica lie 3U- 
KUtiiflUtu iu Fnuuv. nm Pifcniuti MatBOavrfian H yonligne; it ww dnt 
dfliCRbfld from fprciia«n« eoIl»4od U ChUi bv Ekitara 

2>r. J^f^tf/ »H r'lV^— ■* f^tJli[iifli/« .Touninl *' f jc Tchmmj (\^A) crxiUlu 
A lEVUr« on ihlt HiljrM^t Iv l'rof««tt>r An Umv. vrbirli in of JTrl/tVfl, w ll 
v^rM»tt nL'>Li'r« tlillori^t <^ii>ic4L to ti<l pa*^ GmnH byt^r crtm " Uai^ 
denora' Cl»roijl.]i'.'* Piofci^it Ortj »•T^ the '* Oafdewn' (Jbn«i*de * cMm 
HiTfUtkon to Iir- Ci^jrf^ri hr1ii|]1nf forvnrl, luiui '' obJi^cTiiJo Iu ihv llurtniiw 
theory, tli« clrcuiuJiUHf:(4 ihnl !Uv ritttivKLfin of lii>t Aiiii>riran ti>«« Im 
rtfutudt in tliv <;i]UT>r i>t 4 few fcnrv of yr^rt* io ihr iirilDCth'ia ol tu ^foat 
KTt mTiJiiJur, tif iJiTiAEitiii M bH4 \)Mn obtHiriMil b Kiin.<p> lod AfM dutUw 
t«iM fif oinCiiri«i." Tpou wbkh it nay bo r*nuirkiHi, 1. thtkt Uiuro w ia 
Xortb AiDfrica Micr»1 i|icciM (o imtk wilb, njfvlaat |b« mquU oa« ail< 
tiTOMt In Kuro]^a ond WMt#m A»U : And, ?, EUnt iHa Am«rioan inHi*ti*A ta 
^uosliMij for lb* ruiut pitrl. t&io a^t b»en if)kl#, but nitb*r gni«c4cd ftb4 
inpfOF«d witbin th'< JA»t lnn> ot thrc* kut^ yow- Ao moat |^Mtn|E■tVll 
bora Yi4y well ktioiv^ nil our viixa inry ffTHii]5 u to ibtir flrdt b tbt 
d ftnU. i^o ibat catura bad b^ ap? hvgim tiho work vbiob Ui« coW 
iliij- in tlti« Lv»r otdy ModawtQS ml dirfcU> nd jcvu Ut credit for. 

^rrj'n''rK PlmtU in Fntniv. — TV Aft Gn/'^^"Sl'^'^ ^^^liin*n'* J<>vr^" 
for l-Vbriiioir', lL»t Jfyuntitv yratviiaidt$t A rttlMr iuii^iliouu plant of ibtf 
Amorioia tbr», bu rettiitly bceo foond m abunduct b Fpano^ hi tbl 
nHifbbmiiliood rit NuiIm, Uti thought to IttTO ofpfwrd tbvra bctvMD 

Mirarrno ^omw abt. 

thtjMn ISM Mid lA^ a»l to hiiTe bo<u m mm* w»y recohed f/oni lli« 
Vt^jtA ^Ul«, hut l^«' ni«nn«r a( Ust coining «1ar1i?« ^itqiiiry. 

Vr.Ctdi, tbe tiUlar, iB^i ilial l^r-Wcpd bu dewriW. b tb new nnd 

iklcnMiog «arit AD thn"Fruh W«ter Altfi« of tt>d L'liiM Stiii^*," a a*v 

^NdM«f .VAtfi^owvuif whicU bi? colli M./rftiir, Uii rcmvlie Hptwj lh\% 

■Jwui are of fulor^t lo Al;^li:i|j»i>i- Hi* hnv*— *^ T fi^uniJ llii* pUni In « 

4|gMat poal Lii ' HviLr ^tftd^nrr, fitrnimj^ pt tilnmi'iit^u^ f^Uv inu*^ with 

nSAj pai ' upi 4tfAindfji/H> wid othn tXxfo, 'Hio Tpriouply i:*iJ-r»?d ftud initio 

kod fitaible iUami-'aU nrv alwa^-^sJuiplL-, and uf uiilfurm, crriLL-orlir mkifomi, 

ifWrtlw throog^li thvir whdo Uti>:lb . vxonpCing (hot, in tutiic iaitnncfti, 

P IIb* AT* kqaU, looJ, bulbiiiia rulrLrtfcairmji trt tbi^ bLi-eieIi. Th<tii^1i tbi* 

■di AClhv fil&JT^Vnii, ia all lht< x^i'^rJiii'^itH F ]i4v-<f«*M]i^ !LrHnhrii|>U,v trrun- 

CRMt it » Tfij pcMubk Ibat in lh# joiing trirliomn (bo npvii in pcvlon^d 

ulo m \wtg luur. m in most of tlv ^l/iufi^/if'Jin. TIid inner AlAmtat 1« 

Maatiioa vety dlillnctly RTliciOntcd: ofirn, howvrr. U U not At all mi- 

Tba abaalhA ar* nna, not nt idl imrLtiLUFwil, nmt .< jmTK fitojact buyand 

tWEoavr tric1it<ma- Tliv f iH7ir4 «tu cvii^iitrjc^l. vL^ li, mith a ]ti9iiy 

diitiiitt, altiiatigh rcry rlav f!ont. Tlii*y an' fllH^^iy* ojtHouvl in dfvtinct 

«ala,BApd «n» tardily MTvml ia d tiUmiont. pluccd nX ijittrvnlt in iu looffth. 

" Tii« l» Ibi? li;*L UittAELi^r (It luut/ Ait^H Mr. Cii<>Li» " ihni I kmiw or, 

ID wLkih ft t|wrirH AfEhiii i^iiiiii hm hffin f^niml Sn frtilL nnd 1 1 tt int^rt^tin^ 

1* a«la tlw nMintdinoo of tho qKin-v t'l tboao of thi^ mnN cumtaonl^ 

flf oi^«MM«r: tho«*tliKt htvu Imuii hlArMd bj )L UoZit^riuij m Ui^ r«>Daal papier 
ID ibA '^ .Vnnaln dn* acii'ucMNttlunHM." While iHloplinf tbe coiidiiflcoaof 
Lmmm and Gilbert, Villa nnl ffoUHingBulCH tbii |iliiii* liitvc no powof at 
thmMnp nknuva dirccllj from ibn nirt }i(^ <liU lolJi tlint tbc alruo^phcrie 
■ iln ogpa at tlit* HLirct of that vrliicli v\iUtn iut'i iIjo njiii|)L>]iiUkjii vf tk» 
tVMBi of tbD pliLcL Tbu fT»idt« of n wrlvi or int'MtlJgAtinn* wbi?]i M. 
Dafatftmin Lm carrir^d out trnd t^ »bov^ that atmoAjibf ri^ nllrotfcn ia llxcd 
nUkwd tn lb« nniL through thi« lui'd&uiji of llii> hvilroi^rbomt, tui-h ak 
in coijaDCtioD wtlb nlktlio*, and IbHt tlii' 1i\Jir:cin iv fiiimirptl h^ 
abMDCC Qfaxy^vo. Ifi oth«Ti*oirdh the (i;iatioa of ntrntxphmc mlrojrFll 
irb#n k^rvanb naKtrlala are In |iro»H ot di^uoiiipuiiiion in an 
atnotyfctio aiUwr fivprir^d oroiy^on or ia wbich Ilml utuincat ii dafidant 
Und^r thcav drounuttiuwa cubuuii: acid a»d bjdnii^i'ji nrc bollj trlrvu crIT, 
Ifca hMrr trnUin^ vitb ritTOgcn tti fcim nruaioritji. Ai-crinliii|E lr> lbf< 
««riler raacarcbvH of ihanardtbcm arointomwoitrnini^xiHLtHlto Ibc- Bcti^a 
of tbc atmgaphciv^HUi bpiivr ijiLvlixLiiir iLud a luvrci ilc^DxIduJni? iiraiau- 
!■ tb* fiiM atfutniD tbr» nilrrtj^'rt \n nhtHliwd ^m tlin atmmphatv, 
•■i iBpraf;iial«a ibo fubjaeont eoil nrouad thii r^ioU; m tliA iMooad tb* 
voiii;^iind« ate coavorUd into inaolablc lmumb<4. Tb« ur of 
Mil ia thn*foro At a ontlain dflpth dupriT^d ctf oxy^n; bjrdrogwi U 
iic<d a* tbo n«ilt of tho di'cnmtii>fltEc>ii nf ^ir^muio «uhitui»c<; and thU 
bjdn^n uuilca with lb<f uitfOK^a lo fonu niumuiija. V thc^ view* «rf 
MRact, tbtj wiU bnra « comldflrablo pnrtirdl im^rlnnri.- m a^cultuns 
the Tallin of a laontirD deipanJic^ TiC't f>'> nucb an tbo aclual amoaUgf 


I »C«UR 
I «lBO«pJ 

«taba MOdi-M 5«Mdltk« W HtMAwt MiCMr to U ftUa to ddoafti 
ft cteKtaMk &tf-iW ^n<w» oc ^MTv iJ nkU. 

nii>Vwwf «< iifaoUhr lifti^^M. 3d#lMu kM OMd* tamo <m4 
flMite (''Katarlbm^" UTi; No. 4»> on tk. «fMl of low ifiar«r*M> 

to •io<4ici vluflh b*d boa PipMcd to A Wv twiif nfre, MipU» M 
lUt oUabnttdf iioookd loaCf ^oraOlf «r ^bd«s ii«ro, hn«b' 
iwftlbufd whhoftt uj diattAfort, |»vrid«d Cftlx it b uko from vhM 
VttMik. At3VH;*riKU«^opJno««tt and Matwni*]M«l&>^aai 
ar«knfai3t. At — JCTm -fitrtbe Mragr ftkalicdir UquU Woo^ * «£l 
■ftJIf pbeodtQilwinoolh in Uii< MhU lb» |vly bbamm icin»1tiiin*i 
lOHRM AfpMii Um ooU Hub ofdnwj ieo. It Km 1o bo t»olod f> -ATt* 
frrmliku «i/ l » p n* rioft <if cold, and ihoa b bti nnlj- Kvminted X'n <^ 
Tho oeJd«M pfKrikm pfvfi«rtd bf U«Imi« bJ n t«Dipirt|Di« jif 
«ii^>«K]rul uDialtijui^ Ho ik> 4MCdbai Uw •tcclorpMlooUnftii^ 

flL^iiLii ihUpi-Ql bit) MrauvduJoabftiMirtRillcdi^ '*i^i...- 

lhet*>ialbMit«lMMiiiU ftli#*« ftuptd. Ilntmlte^ frcm tic fftct tlijt hn 
tmifkot TV. KM^wand. wbkfa fxtb fcrtjr fr*ini af alum in k ^au^^Kmll 
W *v f'putifd bv tW btJt*r«, «bf> o>KK«d thai thtj pul na iJum iota 
1^ IftBdi wd UfoaaiKlffd an indvfvixlviit aajJivU* wbkEi w ni'U b^ 
Vr WiflklTii, villi the naolt «|a]|p dlBennt frvm thai nf Proff«tt>r B«d* 
««^v4i^l)ui tk«ro vM RO Atum » IJWO s>*^m of ib« brvw). Ho 
•iVbMM b«4ar« w&iNu tUa ea*« c— ^MiwriJu There u tliu a T07 
ilpoitlfti |fe^nt ij^h* f*ivii«iifti|^ T^t,, whf4h«r PmfMHur WmklvD «r I'pointcir 
Bidwoad ia OdfVcot. \Vu gxrtr no dtviJtd <^aioti on it* potni^ but »« c«r- 
kU| Iv^lina U> tbe beUoT that Frofnoor M'ankljD i« bj no meant in Ui« 

irWv w naffiNm Ftrntt^r—Hr. W. CfOf^k««, F.TC.S,, hat puUU«li*d in 
fnaaj nuH-bcfa of tb« ''Cbvnkal Neva" a iao*( lalnahlv piifxr oa Ibo 
'ini!iiiiD«i cif cbpJiiiriii. in wbirh b* iaT«a mi #thju>iii« tint uf iha loralliiaa 
u «hkeb ic ii found. Tballiaa i^ be «jv, a rtrj vid^lj^ duiribalod 
CBftki— ol uf iroo aod cuppca J7n:«a. Upon eiauininjE ■ la^TC ccJlectioo 
of |ifrltna fram difr^tfit |iiuta nf tba «^d. tl wat found preiaiii In than 
tbaik ono^iigfatb. It u aoi cirnfiDMl to anj fiarlicuUr iueUitj. .VmoaipC 
Ikvo cni IB «bkb it oecnn ao«t abandMitIt 1 iJthiiuA^ b ibcaa atm il 
dM«vic4oaMltatBmimABfvcalfaelO0^0DQlh['Uii« VKiMoflb«ba1b 
if A* Dro), maj b* ncoUoned am pjritaa from Tbaav, near ^a in Bal- 
pooi, bum Natuur> FUllpTilki; Aim, Ibc tootb 4f SpttA, FiaaoB, Ireland, 
Cmrwmll, Cambtriartd, and difrn>nl paru cf Sonh ind Saiilb AmBT^CM; 
M «opf«ff pjrittfa frvm Sp&iDf vi w«lJ a* Hi erud* auiphuf pr*par«d tmn tbia 
«•; Iji Uinda and t**^*"* from Tbeox -, io Uc&d«( fiTaminrj owtallic 
jioc; niflild* cf cadtnian^ mdallif cadmiutDt ajid rako auJphnr fmn Nbn- 
TiB> MoalaHTin ; is nalifa aaJfbai from Lipah and Spain: in U«Rm(b, 
■Cfcnijr >od BiitiiucH^ vnmt aa w<lt m ia ibt luutufaciutod prvducb ffon 
liaaa uiMnU (rpN|u«itl/ In aA-rallvd pure nwdidnal prapafaCion* ttf titON 
MMai*)j is Moimceda) atlanaa and telltirium (probabtjr ^ aelvutdo nod 
tdloiida); aod varkiM d«btf akbrtaDccc Vide "CIhoiic&I N^»V tVb 13, 

.^ Itmfthiit vf Amtirtvottf-Xn a tnt« nuinbn of Ibc ^ Pnxie^inp "* of 
IbvChm^EalSodvtjDf Qcrtin, Mr. W. Hamfaj-* is a prdimtnon natic* on 
Ibtl •uljtc^ alalaa tbai Mr It. W. K Madvcir.of tba And4i»n;i:£ L'nt- 
T«Bt7t ^I'k'lP't ^ aueotdad in foRBinp pboapbkde of antlmoaj'^ I'>-1», aa 
ft nd powte* oAolaUf b bwvo^ «lW, ud binilphido of tvboa, nod aui< 

AntlnMO^ . , . > 7&^d» 
]*boi^^>na .... 9041 

€•• «lio " CbcvkaJ Xcn," Ftbria;?. 

Ml. & H. Ittn^M baa Coaod that vhan farbr«iip and and a niUl«i« of 
^boapbata of aoda iftd jpt^n titriol intb a Uulo watc<r a«9 btivdocod btto 
atufao,ibaCBtbonicadd Ufradwallj^ ndaOBd tocarlnalcihiMff. Tbaantlar 
cmitfiTTi lUt phMiofaaoaa m rarr impnrtant fctf vtgnlailon. Vidir •* BilL 
4* h 80c Chlw. 4h PaiU;* VdL It- ^'^ 10. 

inU «n Ar AJmiimSim» t^ rMf— Thld aubjccEt wbl4 alt.-vbat^w 

Tou xm-— do, U. P 


rorcLAB »rir^cK itvnKv, 

• pafv vc«i Woce tli* Chendc»i AviirW of IjitAom^ «t ■ twtml mrrbn^, 
3lr. X fklL of tb0 l^iboialofj «t Bouufwt ffonw, tT« my* U«t Qm !■ 
iHlii1t«t*tiid lo ft vtrr IftTf* oitoDC^ Dot o«I]F viih (mvm rtf vtriDix kindv 
lnclB4i«f «xhftQ*(*d l«*>l**«v«, but nUn v^tli iufoipinM m1ataDn«v w^b « 
qnuiK. madt ind mzoMic oiidc of tnc ; ibon lalt«r mbitipmi ui? tUM 

talB DO IsM ibM ft) per test or«|waft» Md &0 ijf tie oi^:neife <aU& TlH 
UtM Bttx iMidUT b« w f Hrt rf bj ffHodJitr u? <he im. u>4 
awfOitio lUcUa wil^ > nagve. Th* being myiUTwl Uv pvn Iflft 
«a»4aof F^«pdboh*Jk«Bil tHvMaaLlue, In iLe |i»f«nttioa of 
tM>1anvi^ llMjr »« n&d b^ «idt f«m-irftt*r> md Otm dthd, 
b#te|r Add«d In Mdu ei*M to niUn lb« wthniraacT. Hi* nrtlrla knomt h 
tha ■*aA!(W mUtuTv" mnrfm •MfnalflD^ of uKftUted tnh-lmvft. U 
Mwrbinir Tcr tbfr praMOKv of Ather Uhtiv th«n ibrHi of thn Itw-fiWnt ih* 
Wl iMthod i* t« haal « MDall laftvtilf nf the tu^piMlAd t«* with wttm 
uiil Urn ]a*r«« »• wfteMaitlT BrdVtnril tn wliuit of UJnp vnfbldtd. TWf 
■iMcld ibfA tv «fRBd ««i on ft ifUrft nT glHf, Mid ouarniij nftmlnid ft* tt 
tlM dMwo of tbv MViTOfM ftsd l^cfcftVBcUT ot tJi* v#miidB. ■!»> tbvfbr« 
of IfaftcdbW A« fffiimih aad thoMomat«»)Ad tke p«f diftiUM af tk* 
hiin » il>*«» ^ tbe nfcmDa^ Tb« am i arid dlfllmwH wUdi th» Mb* 
If«r yiwvnti wb«i cottpftifd wlib otWr Imvm wmv tnknilrly d><grib>t 
nM dMuikft] contpodUva of fen ww f>mi lUacuatcdj lb« ftttnaat of lii|{»n 
■nd ft tMMwkn Mn^ trrr Imfcttut 

AAir^tr t/ /loAdB C%nmCiL— At h oc««tom of ttoUu tfmtf^ vUel 
liflb] ft mvJit tlttlfiv ftt Rmm^ ft mn1«iif of Iba Cbvcalcid <S(>ctIiiit, trnd-f 
lJi« iiri<«i')i-TirT (tf lWf«MrCnnnifum, ibifTto^ftdhciivkuiftDfli tbonnt; 
of or^nftJ <'hffmustl fMMiKh lo tUK, ftsd co lit oftuer Tk* Soetioa W 
of oplaliiR ibftt loftTftkra iiftiTiij in lbu«Ir|firtinnMil Udcilrftbl* ilsAtibi 
pTofwion fif nhombiltjr ftbniTld ofli^r '.ti ttidnnti ftHtHrj|BftUc«ft*Uthtf 
fir«Mat«d ^7 ftii|tii^«*riB|f or hj o^Ldo*. To cbU iIm * Chtmloil 

tdAMi ■*A<amiWc<vnplmatftDdaiora!)>rsuKfE«lkQ Diijcbttvnadola 

lftnd,wiib tbft ftddUiaud fiHMfaitfit Ihat #ngiitotfi aal nodicftt in«B «« 
oonibuAUr raeKocldafr upon IW tfAifco cf the iirofcMMMJ ckttbL'' 

.V. Pk^r tmfirv m m n i m I%t4t-L^K^pytpAy. — Acrorliax lO(h«"Cll^ 
tniofil N^m" of FAbruftrr l-l. M7J. M I'mil f<Mrluo^ ft podlir* inago m 
paptt eov«»d *il^ a Uj*t af albam«n mUtd with n oasMBlnted HkUlfai 
of b1i:hniiiink of ^tc^. AlW a tufTidDal iimiUiioo modtr tb« aafMliv^ 
thw fiapariiMrrmdwiiblkho^plib^nili.aed tbca bmnaraadio ool4vil«r 
to dutolni ibo uaaltortd albumui. 


TCtDombar tttat lonaa joan ^go m ^to tb* onlj iUuunM |W|Mf 
bpda|»poaT«doQthifButjaC!t)tijProfbtfei>rnm]CT'. N<wllr. ILWoo^wit^'] 
P.R£., bii4 coiu«;b«in« th* Gfok^nl 6occt;, i^ olTor aUitiuaal 


c« lU« unportimt qD«Li«it. Tbi» &iitior, after pTing a br!f€ «lEclch of iba 

rbm ftp|>i\w^U ftoil iEiil^r from birder ipoka of ibo foull btnb And Iiuii 
RftDes wUdi be ciiaiidi>ri>J x<y link tcwitber niDio cIomI^ tbo Sauruptida 
m « ebwL Hie mtaL rwniulintrla t«x<[|t dUruvtiritti of foHil bl/il> ^re : — 

RfflUiB^Ukd lAJl, «cuipn*nl of tnent^r rrce uii Bpprkreiitly Li^iuttliylowi 

nrUbne bftTtn^ n<t tnUriTMM pfoo»a^M^^ mid tapvnii^ ^uhinUv to ibu end. 
— IL tdkl^^armu diapar (TilAnb). diawTfltcd by Tuif-jMor U, C, Morkh tu 
btn \m ibA Uppor CfttfL«*[)tii bad* <if KxnHU^ T.S. It pnuftiwd wall- 

«» MOreor IVM uiclitirid Whiritfdi.^— III. OfitBdnptr^x toiiapitti (Oiron)^ 
a EoeiVUt triiv3 frntn Ujq lAinikm CLn; uf Sb«<p]>i<>-. liir akull of vhirb iili-hna 
hm b«ia diMNTond, bu rorj ptcum«nt dtrnticulution* of tb« iJvftoUi 
fiAipDv of tb« jaw«. 

Tbe vrtbor tbi-r rrriirAtil la lliti DinoMUTiiv •'■m" ut which bo condd«T«l 
te pof t poiou of itfuctiiru Condinjf b^wuib ibv h»-cjillu<i vringleM blid& 

L Cbv^uoyriAfAH* j0Hgrvv4 4A. Wimacri, from Ihc Oc>lile of 3alaibaf«o, U 
ibnrt iwobol In InagUi, hnvuii: ■ BtnuU hfwl, wJtb ti}9Lbe4 Jqwji, iiuppDrtrfl 
fltt a loon MAd vUadv iMCk^ Tb^ U]a« badot ■» prolcmf^d In fr^^nt of »n it 
kUwl lb« nwubuluui ; tie pubcJi nte Icm^ i\Url ilendrr, Tb« bouea of Uic 
far* limba qrr itnaJT, uul iv«n iirulmbty fiiRtbilJvil witb two clnirnl di^ti. 
Tb« ki&d limb ij wry li^rgv, niid dJA^nd na \u ItM^^ ibo femur bflln^ 
ilurtvt tlun lljf^ tibtA. Tbe proaimnl diiifiaa of ibc UfAUf i> MJctjlMtrd 
vHli th* tibli^ M In blnU — IL Thn hu; a ciirnlvcir^^iji Mf^iiiiintHnir^ nuiging 
ftou tiM IJAi to tho W«HJdtMit bAd Aroi^ but nut mtAMTu bind iiiobi, and 
A(vt rvduccd farolioib; il mored with fm Alqi*. cb»fly if cgt loldr ou 
lb Ucd Umba, vblfb U tnw oUo cf the wytflxlile'rHdirig limrdi of lb* 
MflvMoic rocU. 

Ttav RulWr TJVAl dfvw Altendoa ift tbt Frillcil UzflrU uf AubUbUa 
(CMnwytfoaiTwnriT Kingii^ Omy'l. wblcb Ima Ifa fum lErubh bf<rr inuL^li <miillor 
llta the biA'i limhfl, i&nd bH b««a ohHrrud not ouly to nt up ooeuIoruiUy, 
bal lu j-iia bubituaU> upon tbo fjonad OP lu bJnd J«gi^ itii Jbro pAwm uob 
Uttthifi(^ Ui#at7tb>wbkbrjpriglitcArriA{ciwcTiritA£QHpodn] mod J Anacltin^ 
tftlMflAeruju nad ptlvkc fcuiWL 

nw SaIeiibiifr:L^ Li iiirHf oiiv t la wbUh l^tcrwAUitA aic fivqucuti JLml vrliicb 
Ih jlddc^ ihe nruniuv nf ^frvAifrryi^ny:^ aulL of O^rn/jA^jaMuj, bu aUo 
ifisUbrd A ^kb hcAhng A btp^ditl trtu'k. r^vimiUmx tfbnt tiJ^ght bu pr>. 
duonl hy C'A£»r'it/<iuuMfiu or C*>rnppofp\aihiiM. ii ^hovn a nirdiAQ Irnuk. 
bmfd b^ tbn tbU In Mng dnmi Qloa^tbo gruund; un ucli hide of ibU 
dtt bM f«<'t witb ouUpnad Lou Ivirif tbtir mark, wbila tbo furofitAi Ju«c 
back tb^ gioandt luario^ doi-l^Lfl iaipr«i»k»u acuuvr tbe utdian lioc. 
HtMii ik* Aiiibnr iboujrlit ibAl wViilo Komii of tbe tdp«<LjO iraclu whitb nn 
4<t with booi th» Triw tipwanSa diaj bif thv " tpocr'* of Ktruthioiu birdji, 
iMit vX ibciu itri: due lo ib« bipcdaJ pro^ rr-fioQ '>f the Snondv? Roplitc^ 

(TUi Afcafjiift wAa unnvfiidablj '' oriitibod om " i^^ ^J[|^ iMt ncimWr,] 
iWiVf Z'*«fc>ier u/ lAe ^JiaFot^y of Jfsfr'*^"phtMhiti ''**'-™ ^"* **•* hKnigbt 
>pcAl Sociotj (DdC) by Mr. J. V\'^ jjulke, P.UL^,ui a nctst 


frim-AB R'iDcs nrnv. 

ft iMl wiMk ft fTMl pwt of thm Ttftibfml MtaA, i]» scktf- ^ ft r*iii* of 

«rfth»ifaTU— * <ifwiftH/tb» patoaJ ■ppwNi Tki ptoij^iwiJ^ <rirf^ 

Um> ft vmj Uqia hMJ ■JitmoUat fnem^tai iW Ul p^rjif^y nfftiaa ^ 
Mflt «f ■ Mif qoftdttlk pfdei, te frvA «tf shki lb- betkw itvlvt badtf 
raftt ««t lab* itt «ctnpUff7paU. In fivst of C^ Hinjwiil tbe ^Jtfilil 
ftTB pHtUZI; vBibl«, alw ftrps>t«d by • Ovwv^ Of ibt i%fci Tu^ihfc, ifae 
dm* hM( «« timl^ •■ebrUMd. Md tk« »-f«ih «al iip^tJi fam fttt 
wm». TWj art cooftrictoJ u Um BiWe. wmi ttdr oinwrw 
vhM aptiiR frnm ib« javOkp nf t«ii vtrtulvi^ m bm 
j«Maf itedOtfad e«ttr Md of tb* tii^w^ |iiiini h tf ib« »«« 
tobm, tftckidl^r * W* iwb rffwW k«f. 1W ivmI ftacvHvt 
TerM*ft] coluou* wbkh Mowid lA ft «Mlkr l»a*Uft>t, Inrjtrffla 
MimiRi uO Mf«rft1 Ti*n«%inB, N**rtk*tkDn t^ *Ub omrtdia mt«»«1 vary 
Ibb bony pl*loa vf imfUftH; poiljffCB«l Ibrm, rpsTftrdad bj iIm autb^r •« 
divmnJ jralBft la onnptctiuQ vilb tbv qvntioa of t^ g a»rifl rmak «f 
■tfffwtfAarfMy, IW vnfcv tfUUd fkKt in /Jjyj.7i^UJa« tfc« ewtrn of lb* 
•un) ttfUbcB «r> ^IkteU, Md Munded Wlov, wUla la Tjim— nJiw i^ 
— qUBff O wd IftKnIlj cod utubUMl b«t«ir. 

I»MdA^/V^Mftr JEp«M.--O«0ki9biiwillW*arf7 ta|M«s«fdu 4mA 
of tbb enhNDt ««ik«n U* vu » F«a*ir oT Um Qu ciifipJ Boeictj af 
I^OTidi^, ftod bo ««• tiha BUibor q£ tvotxa ]Vf«ni oo tbe Cn*Ucm Bui 

AA'^Lmirfi^mdu I%,$pkat B^Ji cf Oxny-U. H. HIM pfll*« 
ciil» io A iwlv Iv tlw F^vncl Acadcmj (nja ''Th« Acftdco?*'), UiB piocv li»- 
portent pMnUfthtipW «f th> cnftkmi ^ oirttMr nvv ptpy of ib« fviAlf 
LifliBridc UUl/ found id ih« ^ HfbftM b«di nf Qi<nC7< Tbn iDtftrorUul 
vpac" U vidr, ftiHl dLffcn mudifrom ihttX of th« Lm-i. Tb* wtiiUBn* Wr'> 
ftDtl inJicftt* an an&iniA of ftoeiunu] habtU; th* t*Ripii«a3 ffHU tn iHil«d 
p<atmjrl7 to tb« froDtiil, «UU bi lb« AV^h^Mm ibtr an directed bae^ 
witrdA ivithoat }jaing widd. Thfi iwth an noi » ibarp a> tk<Mv of ibv 
Xnriitnd tba toe franolar of Ite ■*I<P'>' j^*' ^ &' I™ dc^rlapM- Tb» 
mdiii* bw a gi«at ttaomblaocQ w dMao cf tlf^ froJE^ bui iti il^ni pcaM 
tbrffu fit wi iDl'tnal brtwtvn ihc (iiwl nod •ecoDd up^r pmKjan^ and ibl 
flnt uppar prvniolAr Li T*ry ■tnui and piaMau tbw **p*<t rJ a cttiB^, 
nnib"? of which jMfoliuitJn is uolind iti thi« FmaL Tbo Una of ti* 
luwH mariElarj lilha lame ni ibat of GaSoffn^ and tba tjnpiEie baa«l> 
»1» fimiUtLj dtftolopod. 11ii« foaifl^ to «kl^ M. mboi a^lpn^ Ik* mm 
i>f AfiTrtt^T/iuf ^m'^V^nutU dotvljoUicd to tb« Cofay*, Ibtmgb U al*o pnanlf 
icimn DflluJU'R nlth tha Zori 

^1LF.'\ tbt» vritwonOiU MjtH Li ib«*-0f<4««k<i: M4jrukir''f Fv^ 
nT»t7>. lie ujv (t WM H)ii|cani bf Dr- .^tul'lnv iTul iW word Katwi^ 
cniuo to u' frini the 1"bfr«CMn>t ui Jttbvt writen vinra bU Uxm har'* 
adopted il h >urb ; bui t^t^^ ^traIpvI auiboriij of tW pntfrat d*5 coafaiti^ 
ftPd aUUa " Uiat ut mtaid ia iba RrflUli lanenua ia uf TiaB' 

fcissTiric sDiVA&r. 


iMV jft A ivckor BtoQo; Au, antUc i>r «cftt; tt^amot 

, nWkL Ifaa r in «wrn U vri;lioiit ftCCMit, ikjtd MiuidMl likv t tn tMrVj 
m iBfnar^ or m h^^ f I'l )- Hu? wofd Sftnra U pronAuiieftd tj Uifi eountty 

thu tbff ATigT/>-!>*n>Ti .Swrtu, ■■ rirlt»/' k»d comfCtJf •oimdcd bj lh# Wilt* 
diifo d«c«Tiduit£ oT our 5*£0ii forarMbcn, irbo ^bll r«i«a muj othtr 
wori# of iLc umo ori^u \a gTt«t puritj ; Air^ At O^ftn Thmch Law tfbwncd* 
*i lAtjr btifi nat gOD« inta ti*, but w« firtQi tbtm/' 

TJti JV«fiirir ^mc/ /<in7i4fBi7ii «f iHtfif.^At a totctio^ of iht Qc<»\a^tt^ 
'AtfcdfedoD, bdi Jk^uuitj 2, Mr. U- 11 Johnun, FO <^, i^d i pa[h'T en 
lUa Mibjoci- Tb(t DbjocI of tbc popar woi lo «hov tbo nttLra nf Mv«r>l 
BCAbot tti • l^rx*^ trr^up <^f budiva oaurriajr ia Mdimvatvy deponit* of 

^^H^doouj. Thorn ipcciAllr Llladisl lo vurv tbo S<pt>m from th« 
^^Hpdon Aod Kimmfindgfl ClnrAr (he FUnU from the Ch«lk, Iron P^nbca 
^^^b tlio CbitUc, Ujft PhikiphMlc nnduU4 «f ibu ftitrili, tlii> CIh/ TnviMlmiti 
^^^bloB of tliu Cubunibrmu writH, ind lh« IroQiCoiw fiom thu W'volwich 
^Ih>> Ify tbc ^Qtlc action of »]vaitt the fltmcturc of tb«e bodJu i^ 
ntvabd D lu to bu tfuily aKomuwd bf xht mlcmiPcrjiD. Tbpy w th<!n 
kaoA all lo ngtro in pOMcwitig ■ lilicitiod ory«bic itRicturc, whicb 11147 ^ 
icBCfiM ■» A ntiwutk of Abre^ «r a xuam pcrixKAieLt in ?Vf<rj dir«cti(ia bj 
BMomoHiiir rAiwUv ThU »triicUiEv> wiw Mibnqui^ntlf Ailed in with olbnr 
■iteriftJr neb a« ouboDaU of lioi*, titioo, buuJpbUfl of iron, pb«pli«to of 
Infb CBfbwjJitr uf jrtinf Ac., Uid pftrllc^uliif *ub«t4[iL<fl Uiiw Gtt'^J in di»i>mUjuiE 
>pM tb« nUlJTii ftlinmljuir^ 4^r Uia «ii1uiUr)i?i*i illk«olv#J in tK^ inttrratilii] 
wttttr of Ibrt •uiTOiuidmj^ raalriK^ 

JUUr 9/ 0«n«mmfi u/ (hr^ Suit^h Affte<in D$4inoniia.—X papflr wiu Kad 
BQ ibw nioJc of oi?ciim-fi<v of the Somh AfHun dUmnnJflj hoTure tb* G#c^ 
h^ictl iiibci^ty nf Londan, by Mr. K. J. iJiiun, ajiJ i^ yiublUbod ia tho 
"Oeotogicd Magadne'tJ^diufj, Ij^r<lj. lu thu tbeaoihor itat^J tbaltbc 
4lMi«idi of Souib Afna oivut in jwciiMftr f^irrtiJAr nrcju, wbioh ho r«^Afdii 
m *■ ^p**," vblc^ fonsdly ccjiiljtntvd ibc oodopcu^q botVTMD luulUn mhl- 
%btADir and »i^rfm TLilcanon Tbv Hurrvui^dmti cuuutij uuneubi uf bori- 
Antal i^altv, l^roujfh tHMl th^t pipw uc^rnl n-'Mrly t^rimJIy, binding 
^mtfdt tlio odlgvt of tb« et)ot«* >t tbo <«nUcU Tbc twk occupyinir tboae 
fiprtWM ngvdod by ibeauibor m pfohnbly i^nbbrc^ ftlihuu^h \q a tutj 
lltiivd oonriition. luiMcalAtbl bfftvB«n Ibn ibnla-bMU ihwr* ntv »hti>^ of 
tiirite, Jkc;, ADd t^rkca of tb* >«ae ^xh» a1«u isi1er*t<Lt tba UkiIm at Ir^ 
fKU IfTtdmU WtUiia the piptji ibrre uu Ljoiilu-rtd nodulei of the ujixa 

Aolttiti^ Wtth n-Aard to tb« nJauon at ibe dikiDOmb to tba mck af Ibo 
ppmia «bich tbny nrr fnunil, ibij ■ulbur >Utc4 tlint Lv ihrjujrljt it prub«bU 
tbtt iha \MX*r wta only Eh« ttRwni in brin^ii^ tbfm to ihtf laifd^'o, a lai^u 
pPBpcrtkiD of tbo difti90i}d« found LKiuudng of fngnwti* At tb« Mm* 
tin bo rttnubvd tbtt Kfrcb plpo furjtiabcd dumoatdi of a diflercal cbofiucw 
baa tboa« bnmd in oUiht piiv*. 

IlwvFvrjr a/ a AW f/ivtM o/" ^oA «/ 'Af ^mmi* AavifpU m fJW JHlT- 
4«v GnT 1/ IViUUr*.— Al Ui« doatbly m«eU"8 °^ ^^ Uancbsctr 
QiKilf^giMl Soatitj, hvid on ibe ^Ib of Ju^^^f \tM, Mr. John Ahkcor 



Kris,, fit Rftciip, Aihllilud uid denntb^d « Dumbfr nf nsy fin* wftdaH 

of tuJh fjf the gtiniu Acrotofii, now to Beicnoo. whif^b ho ud «l<UJMd frtA 
the ikitrw biuughl <jut b «iCAriitiiig \ Itumd llirov^b Wblvmolb Ita 
in tba Dcdghliaufhood cf rrpbi^an Brirl^^ near Ilnlifu, ir ■ hud ft finV^ 
ibftlo, ivpuatiog tbo tlurd traai ibo lourtb, or lUodoracout Gni, ft* 
prindpftl epvcUiWDB bftTtriK bMD o1>t«£avd JVoiu doJoIu ooacnCiot4 "Ud 
riKWintl in ihff Kim]** At lliiH hnrixf>ri, Thfl «|i«ijnHn* *nmpr«e I<p» Twirfr 
pDrfiji;t hcndfl (in tbo jn« of dm a tiMth ib Mchibitod in ibFv}, and t?nnt 
{NuU of tUo body I illmtrnLkig tbe fonajuid structuro of the &b, ucnpi 
whlpl] uto the romainii nf two tir Ihro* fin-fSTi. Tbn italu lud bHd-pbJn 
uu hMullfuMy ^mviii'-aV*4 nnd O0var*d vUh * liun flDftnelitb* AmHrVoif 
ibomboidAl iu fonn and jjrafiudy couIptutDil^ bavin)} a cunber of dutki 
wbTing ridgce DDi] furrottA tmvcniag thtna In tb« dinctlon «C tb«^ loro|rt 
ftXLfl* Torjing in □umber ocaontiajf ^o tbo pooitiait iboj o^oipi^ on 1^4 b^f 
of Ibe IjiJji Ibe nJ^ ItiLttn)^ a etruui^ tendtiacj Iv lifurctf?, and [k>IubAf 
^uenlly ro fnrlhpr ^irbilivid? into twd oi thrM biandii^i, <bM« ofL^n i|A 
oomTergii]^ nuA bocomin^f tf?-iuuted. Tho gcmu AeroJopU boa l>*m ^^inl 
by ProfoMcr A^imiIk, MM. <?oj uad King, tlio ipcclmieiui bavjay been J^ 
tuD»d froiB tbo DJ]ifrni«t«n liai^l^inv I'T thi» oounbj and G«nBuy, Tli 
ipedmcnv, boncYtT, iimlor onpidorntioit ban; mucb Lug«r KvIm^ aod 6At 
b tb<^ Biylr? of jnmmecjlatJLiji, an well u in many otUe; i—ntlal p«;ilodv^ 
tr<.*ta (utyof tho Qgutea referred to, bavtan; do doabtuto tfa«Jr tfcBidlBtifl 
a nrfT f>pci?]ii> f>f tbid nvro fiab. Tbo dUcoTory aUoeanioa tbU pnaiuiaVi 
now livmi)/i, wh'u-h bu pruviuus]^ lii^ur^ Gi>ii«1il*rud ntalmoat bamn |{nuDi 
It ii now ka4>wn If) bo (v>-«Ktt>nAivu wiib tbo o>rbcnif<9rDua «yilDcn, nnja^ 
from tbff moLinlun Umoatooo tbrou^b Uio mllUtono file iuid coaI mnftx* 
Into t)L^ I'mnlnn rannAlioii, vrli^rn It nppAan to baT# AttatnMt U* nuuiM 
dovdopmOitC, itfl iviiiiiitid Imvinjj; h-ati fvurid tb»r« rnon plonlifvllT, bflk 
In our OTTU couutjj and oa tbc ('tmUncnt, tbaci in any of tbv oldei ufuUo 
Of tho flTBEnm, It JA liiioindud nbcrtty lo httro tho apftdmn:^ d«M>ib«d li' 
flgurod, tc tbat Ib(^ ]>a1[toiitiolopat mjiy hate ao opportvcity of JBd^pig ^ 
Ibti vrLlu« of tbe dibDJVLTy. In addhimi to tba fpnlmnnit nbor* ntvmj ta 
Mf- A-ilk^Q AUa vxh\hiia\ rnmakiu cf four or flro otbM ^onora nf ttA, Ttt 
A««ntb<j4i-B rp^ OL«dodu«, KbiiLodun* Ctpnoauitbua and ralMonisoai^ t* 
gttbcr vjtb u cuiiHidijriiUfl rnr'ivly of utLvr fi-vdUn, al) ftom tha mof 
Iccfllity^— [M'o may mpntioti that tbo» utitttHUiiMitf bnro bfton mad* to ai 
by p contnpoud'Ut who La» ^ivBii n>i nnmo or oddrrw.] 


,"fn iu^ettioiU fhrm of J^fVnnd-ta' bv bcvn doilKd by Mr. Eniloj, U !• 
ittfA fot indicating bnat, 9n>i[iK coaI. and praaiotiag uaifbriiity <if |irodaO- 
tioD tn inHft-kibiAf nvAinir and in Alh^r plnnu tvh*t« a oartain dvgrvr at Wtf 
IB trqui^ti^ I'hv pyrLinint^r for itialt-kibi«i« 4 fL bxigi nnd baa an aaaaicl 
dttU 4 in. iu diamt^tti; tho diiJ U ladicBtc^d tn^ 300^— black ^guma oa n 
v]]it« HTound, <.>P0 of lho» pyToraotcri hu b«oiL tnud 4l Ibe VaUoy Uil, 
aoai Dolyboad, and the pniprwt'ir ha« toati^ H and found it TOrj Mcuitifa 

pflopw liHt,«liLch I* t^>fy importiiat \a inrJtkilu«. Tbu» pfrciootuiuo 
10*4 bj Uio OovomitfffJt (lA]MLitmv[itii fur Ukiii): Ltri*4; i1i«t at* a1«o iu«d 
for isflinttD^ tli« %^Bil* Iihiil in tliitti of viittlm jin'l locriirnttveii, ^r indifitV- 
iag tho tcmporoturo of blut-ftiroooUf gai ratorUf uul oLlur ujEful pary^itf 

to lapidlj do bway with the Dcccwatj for muttit'ii^i b tba Ahape cf bmid 
IaKw. Tliift lUAohiiiG U jL-«igEi«l for boliaif "i ujIui?a wLich im worked on 
IW wld* vork fij Inng wall tftiori^ It ii driven bj <?cmipK'»rd axr, Um 
pfipun Tvqulrcd Wmg ffviu ^ t<.h 30 LW pvr utunrc incbf MGotdin}; ia tbo 
Mora vf tXm cu&l, tu 1» ivl. TIjl^ livi^-iil v! Uiv ijjndiiciiT i* £2 iu., luut 
tte(m;gv of ib« ifbA^Ucui Iw niitd#< ia *iiil uny i^r\1iTiJiry lUillifrv tmnwij, 
Tha Mtier Lobs lU ovo vftf iota the oonl, cutting from nnthiQif up lo 3 IL 
«r men In dcptb, tlio tblckitcsi of thn gnxrvo betntz 3 uiuIil^ji, Thv *ui»,ll 
ami ninda bj bolin^ r?pn>iionli aaW fiam 2A In HA par conL of tbo 
fiMnritj' «f ullaII c<uii produ^il by hnjid kclin^. Thu JtrorsffV r^toofbolug 
ia hud coHJi «kb n plv*«ulv ul' ^lO llf^ per p^uiw inch) U 20 yAnU {ivr 
bur, irvUtfin^ (it'>pp4|fi-4, and tlii» niitv hi- fv-iEiviJon^ 10 pt^uftl ilia wodc 
lAJch vouLi bo ^oho by nl l»ul tbiny mpu ic tba aaioo tim«. Sw " fi^ 
pixt of liio Moncboslu Sadvty foe th*i l^crcuQlJoji df SdoaUilc IndutUy.* 


Tht Kiay >r< vAjilA 'Av i^uJv ujda m/j «£f /WJ.^A pn^i by Ilcmn I^]thIn* 

W«T ftrad Viiit| whirh t-fftiti^nlly ii]>pfTiuvd in IfiM " lOutitf^hrift fur Biobgio,^* 

Jfaod tJL^ UaA I^i«of >oau> mi«rMt. Tlii^ prciK<Qt pikpordonla «aly with ibe 

pMOPWM aT^ivDttftcratioii which -Hcur 111 tlicb^dy wUi?u (arjmg pro|xirLicin» 

«f ■NAtmd fit tro ^t?t] Mf:Kjr1> InsiDio of tbHa IjAQOgrftmcijiv rt( mtiwl 

1fw« iriviu with »0r lAJ, lUO, luxl I A<I promniM of fM i Ic olhon ^) (.-mm DIM 

if ONBt viUi ^UO Lif fki ; ANil Ki> iiij, niwir uvpofiiuoiiui dfauHt^d ib«i fht b 

tWotb^d iQ lAigH qtuuitiliM fr^m liiM inimlincv *nd IbU wilhio ccuUiin 

HbLU tbo JoJ^r tiw quaitlily cf lut ia Ihc food tiio mai^c !« «b*orbod. Jlut 

wbiB m oceUu) propurLiuu hu been atarvd u^ jd Ibd btidy, Icm iAtak^u up 

ftooA iha Intu^rux Tba moit iin|)aruuil canduidan %.l which Ui«y h«v« 

ftTnT«d U thftC ftlbiimoQ i», undor onEiiutry circiLiiuttccuAT luoro uui^j eplit 

tip In ihfl bodyiulo AUiplo producAU Lb ah r4t,K»thnt «i> tat (rum fal i^mrdiDj; 

tbfl diaiiito^ntifin ftf AlhiimMi, AltiiimHH^ if ftlHri in •ufficivnl quuitiiy by t 

Kundwor^n* auinul, dolAyi the oiidatioiL of tho Ux, by ipliltiiii? up uiLo 

aotne ti.irai i^ irlciviiiuui cuu^pLmiid itjil i^ttfrr Hu.^>rjilriry jirml itct^ tha funocr 

^ wbiob i* mfn •AMdly aiitUmlJlta tbHu tirdiriMj f«l. Thn lut dsrir«d Aoift 

Uhi albuinDu must of coviM bv catidUilod m focd fai, f^d liowiag It la ibU 

light. It maj liu lAkd tbiit tbo rounimptlaii of &t k» ihu body tiicn>Mv» with 

tbo MUHuil of klbuman pr^tnt \a tbu b<tdy, or in otb«r wi^nU^ lb« b«1lor 

tiw g<ntr«l Ototo of ihn nutritiuu ^ tlicr body, thfl Bior« fftt u diaznte^ralcd. 

I^otlj, they sbcv ibftl the djaluiir^r&limi of ftt int^ren^f* ootably with 

SI6 romAi ecactc^ iztot. 

yire tbg Mto*iag rtplwwtton ftf tMn. Tbn «• j tknt «&n iht pm^ 

Thk»Tpw4mil,p« fa mJwUhify al i ^ m , f <g&*dllMiliJifa;-yJM^ 
tb» prewst TftwiifcL TW w cmj powidwliB oHKUnt txlnct* m( alf 
Uiv^*«ifioindtaMa,b«ltb*nds1lk»UiL TWtv^cMaimoDatdMi 
MpUMtely, 1W ■mbom AoT— 1. That earbdne teU i* Um ifMl d 
«Oi^lBila« ef altmnctt hj b^t; aad 3l Tbat ft]biim«a, ^<T«i-ri •' 
Tc^iUe Mil*, U Muiwmad Lfito cMbUa. 

MMcik— 1>T. X L, fldUiin, H.A,, ku beta f#od cM>«v^ 10 ferwtfd «« 

prafUtlj' illii«CraE«d, >ad duJj dtrvtij with a wj iMpotttDl qnitfte 
WoiwETtlBt tb« iJiM vilt ooo* vbffl all tb« voden iidcw «f it* «- 
QACXliMi brtwvn nii^ht^i DinMe sd mjt coodiimi oftbactpOhriMvilW 
OMoplvlal/ CT«rUiro«ii, Till tbMi <rv mul necflpt Jortria— Ub« liuB«f 
tb« auUior, whUb Afn ecMuolj [u vitl be •■«& by bU mmj. poUkM^ 
SmtUi ft KIdrii,] moM iuf«clcM>. 

iUAtfJtyicaf ^^ivdvuBw Ay J^iil>-It U aUnwIj wpoftaC lb*i tatfi 
CDMn* ma^ be deviled of Mn£ag |i«cbdlogM«l tpcciaicai b^ pwt, w tb» 
th'tv tEUj pmvfVB ill tbeir duiainMi. Wa bina bMrd of tuImi fdfli 
th«l (ihvv b*M ptopflMd, bal aoaa of ibiB tf<nt ao prMtk>l u ihM IiL 
ItiduirdA>D,ftii AaxticAa nlcnacopiM, d«Nfib«« iaarvctnCBuo^Wrcf lbs 
■' rbUftdclphia Mr^inl TirnvflL** Ila uj«:<— Fbc« bmiibII fri^Aitcf a? 
tumour or pokXholcigictJ ■tructoro, wf a q«rtw vo bftlf no iocb ^qoiMwl 
uua-l«i4b tri nit Inch iblck, In a couple uf dncbaia at widrttoJ MbiCkO «( 
■[>etil0 nF pfiiMb, ftod aJlnw h to fLitly tmbibo xhm Iliii<f hj toabiag i^mit 
fof fortj^cybt h^un- Tb* ftotuitoo u beat auuJo by tifnpLy p^onog balf • 
ouDcectf rtin vrnlcr upon an ouace of di/gnnuUr acetate of poBabiat 
d«An IxitTle, ^Vhta tlii? tliAnc ii t^Wj iMiir»|ad vdth IbU Mlkk* U^uld,!^ 
iBi»T«it With q fifkir uf fiircijpA nitliaat moeh fnMnNi,«ad iaMrt itla* 
■hort ^eco of iiiJia-niUbvr tubinjr, or wnp il up <a»raUy ia a aavbvf i^ 
ibaM* ot thin <hwt nihbi.-r or ^>ilMi Mik, CjUf tli* vboJe fi/vily «t ib» tail 
with Ktrut thread. Whoa thus ptrjwi^ «pedB»a* ^am be iaeloecd «ilh i 
bjtier lu Mil tudiiitry eitTDlt>{« md aenb Icog diMaDOe% doablltH ibviiaudi 

tion that fibuuU ho aniwismd, uid tbat carly< for Anjorlcau pliyhlab^^Ui 
ft|tp«ar to ihink it Ihu^Ima In the Imi nuaikor of iba " I^an^" a I'inu4> 
Tiiilao jouriuiJ, it iv ttaleU ibai miMt quv^JoM bare tito aSdMi >sd it ia 
wfjie to |i>jk ml bolli. Whjie we Laiv bten ilauJifecting with carlulJa >dd| 
oLlinM *nd «cia] ifhs iod fumi^ting viih ban«L tii tad tulfhur^ J«naH 
CocbrWLi U.Di profcAt&r of hyuifuo anJ n^fdlcal jurij[inii)c(icii U tbe 
Modleal OoU«^ nr AUbAiiiA> arid ctmmt i>r iht ^lkIh M^dioi] jVwdAiia^ 
tehouJy qiLflktioni if lb«ro bv JUiy diaiofecbuit rinue in tlvM* Cvude mti» 
liala of (kuf fArkitHr^ tr^lAtion. Firorcvcif C»cbraa arriUa nearly tuv 
MdnBUBin tlii> "AfubEl* lle^UtiLr,'' of Ji Uia djUA, on tblitubjwt, and Ut^ 
ica luowclf beluad Kim* tlubbom ftwlj. Uv U vvW«Dtlj w«I] read u Ibi 



(■Tiff in thiit I'itv Win ilim lij ilii* (liKlufrtoiiiig; a^f^iicv of cArltfiHe it^i^l, rr*v 
Amot C^JcbfVD MyB Uiore ii cot • ptvtiolo of ivliaUo o^idcncc tc vhavv th*t 
i^f lt*Tedciii«d Muy benefit At ntl ftoon nil Ili4 (jmbulicAdd ■CAtU-trd In 
lhi4r lU^AU (uid yuriU. Ik mnl'indK fhnf If ^nflhilii: lU'iil linn Aiijr fi'v^Ar 
to (Introjr tJiv ifif«rLiiVUH p-mm of jtUow fjirirr, it nu^ht Ui txlttbil tbot 
pQiiTtJ Uii>at cloulj wljtr; it. liu btxjii dkhI frt-tJir ustsl- Jlc abours iLiit tliv 
CK7 ITaspi IaI at Mr>Ulo \iu bpi-n morf IhnmiigtEly fl LMnf«<rr-i1 ThnnAnv 
Otbar poK oT thff citj ; Uiftt fliu vvbalo nin)i»i>birr« in tb^ vloiiiily liri* bin fi 
ntvtlvd vtrtlh ti fur wot<ti> vkd i?t tbv iirulvi'tirt* tirluea tjf di>4nf{.-L-UDU 
bVM &XLpd l^obprk ihfl pm|jjM> »f nOlriw TiprfriTi tb« brvpitnl and ridnit^r, 
ttd hare Uao (nihi To QioJitV iti tvpc, wliib nt 4-»tbtr pbvaa in Iho dtj 
whefv diiLufccbiiiU WKFii hul uw^I Oi^rv wiu iu> fu^rr. J(< lIhIuli thnt in 
lh» vxp'FUnfd or Uohlla, tiinii and m>iiMy liai^ b*HTi tliitivra nwit;' in tlia 
bM of <lisinf«otuig ig«nta- 

£mnMijf the Itemmnt *r/ jytrm-ah, ihr Ormi Ii*Jiai J\te4.—\ caobem* 
poivy iimtM thftT i1iif rfnlmn S^dcotific CoinoiiMirin ■p]>Dij]t«<J to <<vaTiin«, 
inm ui aJllh^Jp□L■>f-M^ poii^i of viow, tbo tviauiu of the Irnliftn pool 
FVlnrcbt aud 1u jiubLiab lUe roHulb <if je« ubM^fiAtiuus »( Lbi< ceaUiuiry of 
lb»gn«it piv% prorM^pdj w*i lonm fmm " Tj* NuIhit*/' Itt thu bt^piituTig of 
Dvceokbcrt to vpcn ibv Lira cf red ^rAbkti^f amid a UrgQ gatbcHi^^ of peopU, 
Tbff tLiDtH, iiutt-H^l tif bi-Lutc i!i»o lAlji4rd iu n <uffia of va>d or juoUli -rvura 
fpfaiul ij]M)iL A ilnipla jilnnli, nrd tPAta »f nn Hinbur cotnur^ moiiit, «nd pnrtly 
iaouLd«n>l< Tbo crftniuni) of iD^iitui tifx, iritp iuuctt tb« fronuil bniio 
BBch dATtlcpod. Tliftjunji ilUl CLmtAiii tmny t«ib, nnionff wbbU w^te a 
BUabar 'tf Eaokr* and inclaor* vaiy v-vU pmoiTDd. Tbo orbita Wtu r^ry 
hrge- Nrnrtj all tb« Tritflbrv nrid nb* v«n: fnuiid. Thv bouwof ihf 
|aJna wro in ^lud rondititm, h aUh tbi* «eii|iijla, ih« buniurm, ud rbn 
«|hirboii4« of tbo Dmi4 ; tb« ftptiphvavv of th« ffmim v«r» vvrj pfonuD^nt. 
Th*ra W4a didco^rnd aIbo a quonliiy t^f flmall boDirB wLich ptolnbly com- 
^tmd iba hwiibi nml llin frrt- Tbi> vitjIiui-dTh vforn rvducL^d bi a dork 
tovdtr- FKim Iho aim uid longtb cf tba bnui»» wo miy ci^ncludfl that 
ISlnrcb v«i A mnn of mlddlv bd^bt mid rubunt coonututiorik 

TV iJfyyiVnn.' J'lAi* ^ £A« ArftsririiJt /Aijtwr 7,rtKx— Ii i* itUI»»Ll lu lb* 
" BMtoa Medicnl and StirgtOl JoymnV ihiiE ibo liiimr biw ni pcvtnl tu f<iri^* 
a MMAfti'.hiiJeHi boA " prudurcd notbin;; but ctpimu-T^Atin^i kcfoC dniiluti|f, 
kyporritTr blMiU-iuidL, 4Jkd ^Ut» cuii>tftblrik" Tttu liiir will pmbably bo 
Bicdified or np(*AlAd bj th» nw l»^UiiLr». 


^Inffot tf l^aiittm. — Ad in^t of tbts i^xcpndingly r^rr mi^tAl wui 
■UUiad flt VknnA UHtsumJucr, In ibu Kej^UhIi i^j^pitrirni^ni- Ii wuvoluwl 
■t S^fiOOlj bAi&ng be«Q bxtnctfd fioin about l^^^^oOOOf- 4->^^^ ^f F^"^^"^" 

T^nuMT^v Simifir r«g£*^TU "CtMniail N««»," qMiftr <«■ 

Jowbf jkradBtiUe, duo lo U. JvbUck«k U ai <ih bJ lb» «<j<k» a 
It MTVM to mUTD l^ft iMlofie of Mod ftlteitd or bunif <mA 
pSanglEig ib« finlelfr— pnvfouLj brought ut m tku i f -nd hmtt mmd 

lt(|iirt>: jdlttfr pruiiftlfi, £0 pvu ; uJbiv, SO |iuti; lont Ma;'* ben, 

wliioli (rok ptfttid rHtnU; Kt ^'ieib«d«a^ w4 ri vhicb u aeoHBrt »| 
in Uio "Cbvuii^jil New*" (rcbnur? 30, ti74>, and ui lb* Ui 
BfCliui^IIaf FijicfalJMcrUivdbbivturLiuociUunUwcDkvaor iW 
A m*»HX>k'mai dUound of tirantpaJno Dajmti^ *j(liibvt«d At r»ti* titi 
!>/ CiMicr, of AnukriftAi «m bicacbed b b«r utDOtMca mp ap um 
tuani li]jbt, but raiiUDcd iu colour «lieii bnuid b aibMUiw «nd 
li |VM«iT«d from dftjItgtiL TWc dull jdlotr diAnendi frtna thn V«a1 riti 
v«» aalMlfd, otw «f vbjch wm pnunrrtd (or <aiopftriMa, kLiU Ibc otWc 
wdM *u1gccted to xumli^in^ ffjipt-rlEiiinttit <>i IsiaiF bMlid ta iwIsHi 'm m 
cnrMutof bjibogba^ il vw f«snd r^loiirlHB wkca «flJd,Wt gtAdiulif «*• 
MB«dlaioota«r on >£po«uM ta AiflvibL If b««iAlb&eiaTCtttof cl;k«iB» 
th« ruaull ««s tb« wuin. 

p«ptr vai coulribaMd to tbo Cbnmioil &«dc4T ID X^twmbet b? N> & 
AUikdyae vid W, Fli^Iit on Uio cryiuUo^nflao ud tfh a m ka l dinaMMw 
of ekl<do&il« and lanarkilu. Son* «pM]lm«M from L«ivibilL% jMcttdf' 
pro«imd fbr ibo Drilbb Miucuin, bnvU^ btvit foood on «ad/*t» »<j 
conpoilliim dllMig twm lliitt i>f t^odanit** i^ jijiedroini of cnw 
«■■ aJm auulnod, mmI, wbil* aoitbor oon) j^i* acodrd*d vrllh thaloT 
iMib •KtmA in ftliovrlDg bM« Dnnonl to 1ju f»d B«»lpluUc ip oambsDvtion nkl 
Imd b jdrvb) and no|itirr h jdmtfi. lADubll* wa* fouad b> ocnialii na men* 
and to bp a coiiip<iiiuJ of l^dd aulphaU and Id^ oiide^ M Xlaid ku libjiim. 

ndnM of lulphur prodooMl .... 0^800/)00 v«i 

Thtf fwioftliMvnrld to IWmuu^mj ptvdocvd 16d,eOQ 

Bi)ual la p<m tona lo 


Thaqiumtiljrof aulpbiu produord Ooui tkv K«BiiDgof pfritsblmf^iAmif 

tldn iiidu*try Luin^ o«api«d alooiE «xck»T«J; in li« prodvotiiM oi^J 

flulpbufic acid. 


hifh nii<m»copic powira Ibo foUowU^ divta^U innr broa^bt oat : — Th** 



wan oonjpcKd of fubuicoiu juil muiculir ttntib. Tbo Ciriiivr 

'il^ tcautifdllj ditlio«t4 niinuL« tjudurniU, mucb ro^iMiililLitj; Ibnt on 
giiUdiuu; tbe UtiLT niifniBJa up ciTlLrcd lnypn b tht fiillcrfrioj; »l&^rui 
fo>ei tka conuoi inH«rd«r two oUiqua iiilr4*»Mbg nrli otb«T hE no Acuto 

Utt^ ■bowt dD»-«i;f]iLb p«rt ■! thv li>tiit lioiJjr clUntfttfr, uiil fuTSwd t, "tub* 
cbttfaa" lotho IcJOAclj^l^bp Doutaiiiod xucom. Tbo mouili vu a bquJ] 
iSfimUr npertiue in ikd cflQtra of n pApiUfi, occupjiit^ 1\k moat pruEulnsnt 
pdTiioD of th« ii>aiidi>d ftntwior eiirorait/ of ilio vocm, Aod thd loogitudin*! 
BtiCtiluUxMtUTMVinjrfntiD it yu rcrj* nLronirl; proTiounccU. U^ntinunue 
Aom llib wtid tl)HtMKipbiKii^>il>uut ^g iucb m ]eu4nh, «uil ^^^ mdi in tliiol- 
Mti, TiLb vtfonglypronounoisct wiLlUtavIo Up of a ]oD}pludjrLfil tnd «irouE(a 
eaacuW kjcr. At tho jiuxctioa at iLf puUuI with the hLouuicU vpa a 
cAMHpd«CM(1 vpblni^liT. Tlia Atoi:iiu;li, ur rHlliir htiuKiitjLry lubiv Jcit" 
vblefa tlw <MOpbJigii'* npi^EiULl, r>ifiAiiL|«il from ihu Hptit^olnr into h il^ioit* 
naaikmwouaHtal Dovl^ ^^ ij>ch In thkkn^sf, pureuv^ nBtruRlit coorso 
tlOBf thn bodf leu^ of lUn wunup diminiA^iDfC «i tbe cvctm to ^J^ inL'b. 
«id eould b« trocDd t> within huM on inch of tho liuL ond, wbotv le 
tenoiikAtctl in a c«cnl oitromlty Jibaut ^^ of tin tut^b lu JUmcli-'r, Ituir 
Urw4«t] Ebe ctmvi'LutKrl nvnrinn ccVw, vr, tu Lbp cJiW of thq iimtq nunn, 
cilttf «LoT« or bi>l<iv ihu iperm dnct. lU dulL'htQ »(il] vai mudtj Up of 
iHjtfaM U>0|:^tudiDA] and cfr^ivlar Ahn^ and relainiHt uitbla It fut gbbul«« 

kvm tba blood fpftlic ho4l. Tbcalinioatiiry ^nd wu flDcircW ttifonghout 
iticniiiv brnirth l> tb? rapriiditctlvo or>f(in*. It ^vIILiUlia Ivsv^ii thiti tbitru 
«M B» inftJ upHtlum, n flrnimiQiini-ii pfiulMjf mmnvri^ft with \h* Hfii 
IdMoTf #f tlo worm pM^^l wUhii} tbo YoncnlAr ai\hnlo of tbu hoot, (Lod with 
A0 Biftrioicat bbl4uui>d ffv>iu Jk \il4l fluid tiDiujiamlJvol/ ^ivo from clT.'le 
fioinot* ; 111* (UjiJirnury oK^rcta of ihci pnriukiiu to\jig tbua f«ilQc»d to a 
BdnaUDi if cot tn nctunl nuliilj'. 

0* Muvmcupie Ommtt.'-Mi. V. KilUjti mnbn kdxk rDUmrka on iIiIa >ub- 
jict in ft Utt<r to ibc> tdifnr of thi> '' Mnmbljr MirmtrrrpiL^il Joutnul " 
(Xo.fll\ wbkb tiro wt>rtlij of tdig troordcd. Uowja!— " tordrj iDttuat- 
b& vhrif uiilj f tft7 uliftlUiw culU jun rvt^ulrvdr I bAi« found nfithluj; bottAr 
ikn upbolt* diMulv#i1 in birt»'«li>, wUb ft iiiiihT] qivtniiij of jfnld ftit* added. 
Tbe cv;Tl» «Aif>u|i 1m maia b]r iho odditioa nf nucfvsir? Enjori of Tftimihf 
«rb Uiiir 111 bo iArd4.-ncd hcton tbo nuit la jjut on. l^lii^n iblck enoDgb, 
^ abdM «boii]d ba pbu^txL in ft cool oven end Allowed to nm^a ftlL A^gbL 
^Bcfdcf to fttutb tbi^ cnvrT, 1 put « CfLMh lityuF of Mphnltc (without gM 
^) tat th« mrfftcr^ uf thi? t'tll, bjlJ alkhW it to raumln oipowMl ■' or G mlbtllOC 
TUfoveriOfty siov bv plAcctd upou il, nnd pivucd upon tbe cell by a vlido, 
T^tkruiiUj bsfttod to cDiarv pttif«ct coatAGt, And It mftj now bo flsi«b«d off 
*^t^an«it«rior :1iiK "t tlj« ftftphilu (No.2}j ur If U Li wbJwd to put n 
nkciftd ting or rin^ K'und it, « Uj-4T [if onj^njirj i^iaH-Iac vAmith should 
^na iDiujj^ it boforo waoft (Jteni. 1 btii« found tho dAiumu cotntnti nutdc 
kjWr. W, White, of Utcbmu, tbe bort mudiaia for miiin^ the ccjbura 
*ltl; ft f«w drops of ^Id iiio Jcny bo addod tvi^b ^^^ntag^- i vodd 


roFrLiD aciBBicft unsvr. 

Adruo tho ow of line whitiN ID pT«r<Knc« b> whit« latidi u tW bU^rlm 
jilluw ill Lh4<3iurM or^tntnih or i«c. I gim ttv pf tfer m^ larcfate 
■>r |iuTp]u laJi4 ii/t ttid alienor ring, Uniibmg with ta mtohor ridfr ^ ^ 

buiIJi- fay, trihMl (crwlj JcHnci by linirolf ia % cODtnbuti^oi td ita JLdA 

ci^AiDlr liny ba »|>|Mir« tn fmti> k^fC hli fpinp/rr tfcrrm^hniJt In tbtnoN 

Jidmtrablv nijinci«r, und hih Iiiih IVnin^d u x-K<Ty rt<iflUtil ronpiuinD taaW 
otbcr j^ilcEJLcn vlia vlutll bi« immelcj* toi tbo present Mr. ^'vaiM 

^utod wbnt I r^n'4(]i>i'i>d i^ bu nn i^rTOarrciLta ilvArji appcuinn ia n timf 
i]lii*trDU.-d I; Urv^ JJax'raiui, tu jirura uii iucruiM nf aperltiR) alleged to b 
JiblniD^d bv imruf'TtiLori loDi»»* and pointe^i <«ut fcnv imii vd» ttkiri riM 
^?roD^ pmitiona tn impTMtlmbla ct^nilTUOllaQ^ The ailUket of ibfoar 
iBrsircil lu liifl ntetrlv iHnltH! Ilu^ tiiyn iitu> Jmn|{lHiii\ ttuiM Ivjima, tn J ihtft 
deaert^ thvm, n?^n1li««ii nf ihi*\r MhaiinXf ifvvttnatHiTi tri ■ po*t«ri(V coo)^ 
gife ffxr^Lri nt the r)-c-pi4'qx>, Thr aiibjix-t U^ Lql-ii brpt up ntiaurrtlr^ 
lKnTOf|K]iidwtA, whb wbouL I liajo atilk to dcnL It la di^cuk lodnt^ 
witbout «xdtiDg tome Atr^KQ of imtiition, b(!CKU» tba n^tuni of meh Unr* 
tuTTTi implioir i^iKiTnncfi £)f t-ho Invu-^ af optiot— 4*;imceirblcb bp»ba|h<Bt 

00 eiut'll^ iteliuud tbut cIikeu BbuiiiU Im cjo «rrjr i>f tb« poaai^ufBr^ 
tbroug'b rclrantiiig ■urfiK'at. Accrofding to dirp^rillton, aa do modM of mh 
trgvuntv dilfL-r: pcEliniv uij oirn b rut obnoxtuas tra^ Lvt It bo cvQpsvi 
8oDiri iilv?:ijN wnio in 1?ie ijraL jwrdun Ainxulof, iind iviiVrtta tbmr rlfviVBif 
to cotnmniid bQlief, o<iiir0fliiix rio tr^ihr, and in^'^'iniifiBtl npHo« ote^ i^ 

Tbia ocuctly 1>riu|-:4 firlb fruit. I njanlnajd jilnd lo Dxi:bnDg<a notLiiu<i6 
ptACrtCft! workJnff men, and to givo mj' nwn in rtidinfirT phrvoolr^, !*■ 
tbore iri d)wu»eiinn vriili a uiftft^ of wliicb tliia npvtturo ^iiwliooa kAmA 
bome ci*iiT|]l»fl- TLiis iJi ibrj tfliwC piWucilIva uf ntij, for il?t lUDin ■Onfli 
caniiitt merely in pirking riir. ridifnuliclkmit nnd nnoniAUvi of pblMi» 
«CLDnco U toFMd flttido, nad lU oold rcoaouing Ai«idi^d bocAuM tl u ool i^ 
dunUxiJj itnd nbuiH) in luiatakcu fur kci^ii AiifumifjiEp Svtiir ujAf 'PP^^IH 
diuuBBion, ■tii.iiii^ ui>t j'nim tll-tumpir, llko f h>t Irud, Luc it i« ipl t> o^^H 

1 find it dilHctjk tn ny^Lmiri Ih't pnipufimEj iLl timrvi IhoD^-h qnlu kihh* 
hern r»w can nccepL iu A;;uU) tbi^rs is Ibo ai»k adJ amiubls «l>Io, liiatoA 
neilb«r molfu or nn^wcr n itrong obj(^ti<>n, vtyJDp, ' I urn tnry thut J hi"* 
di&ltjrbod y"u, ffuntlumun ; J will drop iliu quu*tio(i rnihi.T ibui disagtcrl' 
Jbia I (Auuot Uk" cji^dil fur, but judginv frvirt tbc nlLiliidu of *iiii)a of aj 
oppOQoQti, it wniild will HI if I urn h wnlf nmon^l Tb* lamb*/' 

Tttw AVtt' Aufteri'* Tfrf-JfcfM bcivc bcon received bj? I)r, Woudvruit, sf 
Anierlcft; find «llbojgh tbn tVitt wjia imncunccil Irt Uin " Qiii<li«tt CliA 
Jfrnmal/^ v-» bme nnt 4i^n il till wa obiniTod Ur. Wncultnird'iiaoiiof of tbt 
cnrcumalnooa in tL« '^Lfiu." TbU i«Uci4tiM thfl'-QjickcttClubiouMl" 

" Monlbl/ Microscopical JoumoJ^" vol. iti. |k IGl 

fcuKTinc nnuinT. 


ii Mt aoiit tola* tknonf t1i« Mltr joumfllh Britiih and fcnign, vlioh 
■tt rcOavfl. iJf, %V4»iK)wArxt mv< :— " t lunv^ nu-uUiH] hi^ii\ fa n rimtlcr of 
JBtiml, thM 1 hnto rccantly rxflmiHid two new iPkt-fiUlM by NoIihtI— tlin 
^ Jst TuWd for Prafnar ISiuTiafd, of CcJumbia Collage j tbi^ cucrnd t>r tho 
Anoy Mcitichl MuMiim— iq vrbicb tbe niftk«i bu Ltteoiptnl tajmleliova 
nrif* im flnftM t)ift« at xha rJnntMPih bAiul- TbpM plntoi Iuta iwi-nty 
tendf^ 'J'ho i\t*t tm r.(iTtiif>jpiind rti»^t»ettviily I43 Ibv Ifll^ l;d. &Uk, 7tli, Ull), 
lllh. ISUi, ITlli, nuJ HHlj ^r llix vlt vlnli*- TL- linni jii thn «i4?ci>n(l ^loiip 
(€ IPD hftu'ls purport In be mW »l thi* folluwiiiir ili^timf*'* iijmilT^TIw 
Uth band 1,',^^ of a Tarn libit, iho Ivth bniid uJo'" '^^'^ tn ori tjp lo tha 
^b b&iid, Ibc* of nbic}i ftrc Mid to !« ,r,^j of a VaiU Hub it^arU Aa ] 
lav# iiDt 5*t boHi abiA tA nuo1v» Mny of thuik nftw bikPi!\ 1 vlll nrif at pns* 
«W cocpnm AD opiujcn n« i> vrhotb«r ^Cllv^t htn ulun^ly «vic^«U«il io 
niioir tliem u itt LcmpLed. " 

Pitptne/ t^f Quarter on Mvrnirniptriii iS)f^A?£^— Tho fcillawii]^ barol«ra 
|aUl*bAf1 in Uie " Moatblj M^croAcopicol JouruAl " fot Jimuv^, FobrUJUy, 
ud MmcI), and »omi^ rvpvuiilJf bLtiM uf Mr. TUIlinpir, ifv uf gnnt in^- 

K«toa oa «>cn]Icd A^ixmUui- By !^, J. McJntiro, FRM.S,— Further 
B«>MrcbA> Inlo T,b« L&fu History i>r tho >tt>nAd«. Bt W. 11, IHI- 
Hiig<T, KK.MX, flful J, l>ryint*]^, MJV^hi thi* Mimupopift Sini»> 
tun of A CfnuiLtiTid t^unrti'porpbjry frotn tSiIivny, }Iy J^r-^foMCir 
Edward Hull, H..V. FJl.^.^TW Btructunj of tLo 8c»1h of UpI^iQa 
8i(ribiriD>, Bv G. W. MoTDhomui.^'^n tbe OrigHn nnd Dcrohpmimt 
cf lU CobanuJ Hl^^ Onrpatdc* in Mah. 11/ I'r. H> If, SclnDidt* 
Xvw Oficwif, — Fuilbrr ll«raudii!B blu Uio Ufa Hialory uf tbfi 
Han»di. B; AV. If. iHlUagfr, F.IUU&. bud J. DntdoJ^, M.D,— 
On « Simple Mothod of IVcpuin^ Leotiui&'niiuitrAtiaiiA of Micnwcoplc 
(H»jf«lA. Jlv lUf. W. 11. llMUngor, F.R.M.a— A M.itLml .if 1lif»*rt- 
bff Fcvlrim Sfol^t. i^y K H. WenljMn, V,I MLM.S,— I ha l'i>«iJvnt'« 
.^dJjy*, — FuTthrr ]!r«iEirobc« into ibr l.lf* Hwlory of tbc Monads 
Bt W. n. l>4lLIu;j«r, FJLMpS., uid J, Ih^nlhl?, M.Hp—Furtli?: XotM 
<a tlio Zoor^fTiiit <rf Cru6tnj?Fa Add o:b«r TrirffrtvbniU, Ity .\liWd 
^■TidrTTj l>jc-CuTxr on {'umpAnitlTi^ Atintocay At ihn Lundori Hof^tAl 
MrdJi^ L-ullpnti,— Arjffiildf A|wrt«tu ot <>l'jp<il-ylft"w*. Ty F- H. 
^Vinbdfjl^ Vice-rroaidunl B.M-S.— Fiirlhof lUmark* on Immctiiija 
ApNtWvii. IS J, J. WLh>dHArdT AHuUuil^urvcoit i'.B- Kutj, 

A Xnc Fjmt ^f J/iuiHium and JVintMum Tktr^f^^^mUr vrw hdhid tim» 
rikcn dtuTLbtd In a l^'ronch wi'^niirir joumni, li is fcmivd nf x compoand 
^ililt MOftrfifig tif tv«o diif<>riLiliy v:tpiiiiHibl« fapUiU dvctmplAUdk &f 
iKKSRuf iFrxipemUfv il trndt tii uurfll^ by dvcioiH to IwUt up; iu hh 
dalig it movn ono or lb« olbtr fif n pkirnf tTidic«Sf»^T >i jrwIiinU'dHoIii, 
tbaccKT of vblcb rvgijtrn the Ugbcat tcnipor&(||j^ Atudncd, Tic othnr tha 
IpwwL If rtqulivd, a tblrd arwdic may be ^d«d by eia<X^iu ^^ wblcb llio 


roFCJUhB wmcs nrrair. 

ACinHl Umpeniora it haf oioeMQi n«j W K«d ofTvtibaDL ifilirtiic 
t-itJii?r uf tim uUifirK Tlin Inrtnnum n i«c4 a! •W(r«1 selaeivk^ 
•tatioiLiia S«riU«Tl*tiA and Kuatla, Had ^t-h frry^i ikii<fMiti<i&. 

Tl# A^)or«eBff '>f VohtiU i%BHb.-TLc - PbiloMFUal lUpM' 
rfo. 40, MBtM lha£ M. SleAui Lm hbd/ conducted ft aefiM of naMkia 

Vriw'l*, uifltiTod of the irkje vwwit tilbiTtlu lui'd i wtth them be Uiitc^ it 
tha following nvtdtat — (I.) The- I'elodtJ of the fiVijtoratioli c4 a Iqdd 
rff*in « lulio ijt invsrMlf proparlioiud to thi JUiAato <•( thi> lurd ef tti 
liquid fr»tn 1b« i^pvo «nd of eJia tnW. TliJt Inw h'lliU with ri^niut fiiaftMi 
vb«L Um divUno* cif thd ]«Tal » litUv 0E?4cdj 10"*. <:f,) n* v^laeiij tf 
tho flinpciratuHi U uidqwndeat of iho diuucter fi Oi» Uibft. TU* i«n1I 
vfti nhmlnnd rrcm «*vpi^Hmoi]U vi(b tuhM tb# <lfiun«biiF «ir ivUdi mieJ 

tatnpentiurp «r> fnr u with thi« the v^paar-preMUM <f tire liquid riM^ If 
^ ba iho niRxitnum tir<^1utlritj c^f thn THpcmr mrfHpoiidlng la thftinnTiV 
ton cf th« obAorvAti^n, P th« atmoi^>boric prMiuro uDd«f vrhidi lb« fi^ 
wapor»tc«, th« vclodtj <^ ihv frnporatSon U propArU^-tail to tli« lisffvtttB 

4if ft fnirtiiin <^f vMrh P Ta tb« mim^ntror aril P-^ Ihu d-vnnmlTiJirrir, [T 
tho pronurc i^f the vapour boMniQa oqufU U thnl of tiio ur. Lm Eo^ltfis 
tocaotM bifimivlv grtnt, nnd Aljininc* tkat iiadirj thjji condlcIoD the I^oU 


niMt iulflrofttiiifrJLd iuip^rtnnt pui^en tliac hATfl kppeAKd la lli«t Jomi 
ftifianiD jrnnrv it thnt hy PrafrH^T Tr^daU ou bU ci|ionniotit* lA ibtoaa* 
■r«jknce«f fo^^L^unla (P.P.3. Nf)). ll will bn faond m full M p, iTik 

/nffffj<ir»tmf .S'lt^jj-frmrr* 7™*(*n/«^jF/y £Afrfn>»'j/.— Mr L>oalut ouuitibrtei i 
p(ip*rft» fHn miViJK't rn tlm " Cnmpfi* B<*n<1in" (ItewiiJ»«r ^3. \SCa\ Bt 
Mja thot coxboji luid plaiiaum act oppMiioly, Tinii» « cilinder of i5J*Tn«f 
cbinoftl bvirif tuUTUnli'd for ibn bitlt of nn <iWiKm»p«, If oa* liricg iii<f 
ft pOiltivdy ohftiyi'il hrMj*, (hn l^tvM will i|uicb1y liivi-ry* Lit Ibtv iniirLt- 
eLuged br the mt'tnllic bjills '>n dlber vide , ifacn dirvrrt AfT'i^i ^ ^ 
rgn^ti dliwhurgi^ii : imd so un, ni lonj.' u the docnirttd body 5* irid umt. tf 
it be ntmnved b#ff<ro tho IcnviM raocb tho holU, tfi»j nouua ftput, «1ik 
poviltTD idoi^lrtcity; thui Iho rftrb<nti hu fittnvrfd lb^ n(|?fttiT« r1#c4rkilT ^ 
flow oft" Thtt wnult* *rfl iUdMrfirtl viiHri- a nnjjhtivHj i<1i<ctri6»d bedy » 
Ufedp Tbtt «]L.>cirDBi;Tpv j« nlloct^d iJoEj ni n rsry nsb&ll dwUnroi tb« ttfiv 
•epftifttc lew quickly, fttid tboy oonio to^tbtr promptly, irbwwrrnh* K** 
of iilcctiicity ia niihJrnwn, Thv^v pbuuoiupflrv Rm quite oppodt* t» Ih"* 
(ibsarvad by M. l^minD wiih tho upbLoffiKtic Idmp—tbAt I*, wkh » toffi^ 
tli-Wunt plnlirmm ^^rc^-wbii^b iudicaio thai incftodftfOaDl ptfttiavm tV^ 
pOfli^vH uli-uIrkUy lu l)im unjiy iniirv rvtidiLy thuu nvimtiTr. 

A Phyw'rfil iS'0i?Wr/^nH itiiich WfiTilvd in l.,cndoii, nnd aow at it v^UhM^ 
Jl Qmnf^roiuly-attci}d«<l mt^tdufr was htld on SftlurdjiVf Tth. N* 19r4, iB 
tlui I'hy^ii:*! Lubomlory ftl tho Scloncn SchooU, Soaih ]u'ni«ft)r1r>n, fcv ibf 
purpofl4 (if oaLallUbing a Pbjvdcftl Sod^ty ia Lccdos* Tbo char ■* 
tnbua by Ih. J. 11, CUdstosv. Tho by«-kiin propuod by tin Ontnoif 
OmanutboQ «frjHjmtvd oi\ Nov. 3D vera rncnirod Kod ■'***«*^t* Tfa» 64" 

M^ wcTv cboKTi afflo-n for ihn fim ne^aani — Prnaiimt^-'Or. *}. TI, 
O, n F«Ut, F.ILS. 5rxTrfflFw^l>w,f R AUriomn find Prof .\. W. 

T. Jt, Gooderc, M,A., Prat D. D«iirid, B. LiEvj, Dr* E. 31iIU, ood il. 


iiV^ CyJi^/Eoi.'^ur firel Krlid* (*** \i^ MS) ili0ff4 tliAt it is [Li>Iinigiar 
«RNn id#ft tb«t hu^ «i]ttU^«b im in PTiiCPrini. But br^Mu* tbi* tro 111117 
liftrlo « pApcr vhisb Uf. Sftrillo Kent, KL^., ¥.Z^^, read boraru tbo 
Zwkykil ^^■cJl.1ly (if Tendon nuMiu<;]ki%o(iflbu|f'irciiliHlopijil t>r cuLlli^fi«hp 
anonxDOrd by th« R^v^ M. Harvny m iJitnty ^nrniiTiliifwd in rnriooption Bay, 
K*«fMiiLd1*rid, and of which a imljulu «iEtoi.-n fpi-t Iodjt bna been wrurt^ 
fW tko St. Ji^hn'i MuJii^ujn, Mr^ SjivlUa Ki?nt cuntributrKl Uiu aJihtljiud 
VtidflBC* dfftti arm afno fi>et [rpT>^ prv-iorroil In fbo iFrliiBb Museum^ tn proof 
4lborlfC*'i*^i^il'ii*^^'J^ii* oc^Minniilly ultfiiEiiTd bv Prrtiun mi^mbrrit of thi* 
ttteoftbe MulIuKN, nod |»nijH>«<rl tu irWitiUo tLu iivvi ;£i-]ji.<ri(; UUd d( 
JfifdbKttfAtf for Ibinri^pATtFiI rVfplinn ; hr* fiEflb'T cit^^4k«d diarinjjuUb- 
bflhu KAvfoondlvide-xiuitpli? u M^iyhfk"fhU ITuricvf. in rcco^iljoo nf 
lli Mfvlo* lo fdrotCL- nf[iilf>ri'd tv Mr. lljirvi^y, in lijji rtfrL>E'd of. atuI iitfpa 
hh« to |ii««ri*n0, a<> TKluvblP (L traphy, 

Im, WD Iflvn. bwa pl^icpd und^r tlH? diftctitm vt Mr AlErnndnr Agrwri*, 
«* «( £M«flK>r -\^>i£p luid fllr, Cutpj, botb of vhom ato ihomuirlj^y 
tfl»mij[ wilL Pir«ri;«xpr Afnkut^'ji plr^ni with rc(?inl lo tbo Muhilio. 
kniEtr wilh ibe rcdli-rtioTifi, Who will uiku Unf AEnVHii Tf*f-f.iir«Klilp 
btUr tbc^u^b wn brar it bu bf>»n nfTpTVJ lo i mMt diatiofzuiBbfld 
fl«>4idrt»— fMi* wbo waald do it inADitE^ ctpIIl 
A Hflv Chi^ilraftBH ^ JfAvk— Ani>ibcr of tb? coRtribiil^^n ti tiin pfjumttt 
ttiD9bw«rtb«**l>apalAr SoUnco Coviow," Mr. GarrfHl, RA.^ F-l.X, inlvlj 
V'ftk 3) read a pjiptr birftinr ihr TfyAon'icn] J-^riciftj of I^ndnn, in which b« 
pV>Dpaaed a nw rlnulQi^iitinTi nfbrnK f^unfU'd mmuly lici \hv iliijio^itinii of 
^•VBIOBrta «£d Mb^r mf) pnr(< ThvdvpmijiKiW whifh Uq had abtorvf^ 
''^viij ai»| wvrtr tbc *mUeni, the r»tdcin>-cmidiJ,thcftcceMoryfomortKftiid»il, 
4* «ifinU<tu)dino«i]|i^ mu! vhtf itiu^iiiKiTy uml-Uridipufu*. Aft#T lUtlntf vblch 
*>ri^«a* an pnnntor nbnann tb* dlAuaal fiuniJUiof birdu, ha »bnwtid ihat 
Uie prcKUCQfriHWDc^aftbe ambUii« piaAcla iBiiotn^^nAtirlyci^rrcUl^d with 
Otkrr charirlpni ih«i 11 dlvlti™ nf ibc wbolc duv Into Jfomalitffmafi *rnl 
4a tmafty M J/i| d^pond^g ou ihnl populiAnty, wmild ftjind the tt<at of mucb 
CdtScUm. Tb« nomflL^ntiiLiUoujlird^VfurAdlTipd^diftU-tbii C3nU]fLrrni<fi, tb« 
ilavfifannaK. tb« Ciccnilfcrrmw, ond tbi» rbfLmilr!lf(rn»«d ; th>t Anomalo- 
laoatLiiK iato Ibe PMM«rifOTcnir«. tbo Vioiriirintii, and thv Cypwlirbrmo*. 
Auuja^ Iba laitft jiuporlaot cbiDgr* propcer-1 or vubntnatiatcd vrcm tbr 



f _'^' — J — ^ r.vWU >^ Jfyjw^-Af * n rmM 
J^oiMs • low fmm «r AA^ iamrh te g ihil i M ii «• Afi^ pv«f 

lUMof ifc« 5«nh«s Adwic Mrf >b* 4B On aMlhaB a^t of 
Anvtea. Mr. Pimna Aomd Aat iha ivdtfldn In tb* 
ISn^^ tMtb, «%kk ■** SiMi <igM to ilma te «Kk vam te 

a«acb«!t(«tk.lilMlIc; vUfaiUMsEftmwb^ MfUaO^ 

tfa MOM «aA«r *UC^ J<M7D» dMOiM U M ft tTM iT«dB«, 

Tb J&w rWJb ^mg^n.— W# RT* fiafbRird tb^lUi ipb^id 

dm to cb« lf«M«. Anktoo, tb* pscfriftto «r tW v^t-tavw^ » A] 
J««iwd." TWm B»»>n« >UR« anoM— i«M «riU Mr- W. s. 

nijaiiKi lnnm iTnl ■mp>iif«ni1i In ii<iiiii Thn iiiwIflttHnji andw*] 
sododbcibai, villi Mt. Ktai^tidttMtt^ op^iaad la ha bant 
A ■frill It, bm tlM, aod ifa c klly, M u w^MiiMi MianlM* 
w rt ori lj »U«s sunt cnfliil* MCni^ 

A StBOfmif EpAeihtrv^-^Jii a anliii|f«f t^ TliEMclpbb And^qr 
ScUbm lata bit j*tf, Ur Gvntiy ^giMrMBleiM a Mflot cf a gml 
of vphraMnla ttUcb j iM l i d (biuufb ihm cowo ofL>wiafc wgi en Uic S( 
IttDoa rifftf ooa aflwiiw, Thm mwttm t— artiBiairi m b* aliooi a 
b leagd bf Bflailr a half mlk U width, aod WW M dnaa ■■ troB to 
^•tfttt-faj on tb* opiiftdlv aide of 1^ slneL 


*-_ ^ 

y f 

* ' 




THE P/uiTvuf-aWin* constitute a natural and strongly mark^^d 
grmip i>r hyiirou] Eoiip!iytus. To ibt t^^teuuitiat they 
P'^ftKBl Nviiijnt Htructural chur^ct^riiiticd i to tlic biobgidb 6b- 
J^ttTCiuwl fAJiciuatiuj; piobltius; wljil« they ddi^liL tlm eye of 
^o IflMt ficientitic oWiv^r by tha gracofuinetftt and delicacy of 
%eir fratbirry fcirnii. Not ouly um l]i<* fraturt^s of the family 
■h^iplj out mmI :>r very dellnLtt* type, Lot uuly are ita liubit 
^^ tiprcHtrai ainj;iiUi"ly lilftliuttivf, but it aUo offers to ua 
><>Qw morpholo^cal pt^iiliaritii?^. wliich, ns it wera, ieolate it 
^ttdogivt itA recent kindmi. A sketch of Lliis most exquisite and 
<'Hgiml ^TDtip, a* ftte as may I* from the t^clinicaULit^s of tha 
^«jre 5pccialist, luiiy poBaibly have sam« intercbt even for thoao 
*hoar6 not themsc-lvea fclucleiit* of the Hydroidsi, und fittiugly 
^nd a pUcc in thi^ r»S^'* ft' thr^ I'uitlah Science IUvietv, 

Tlip ma*t olivimwi thiirjiflcr uf thi* fumily, su^rj^ted at once 
^ tic lutniu, in tho pluiuotid haUit^ whjdi given it its peculiar 
bciiLitj. Eacli cclory cfrnKihiu nf a number of d^gant plume- 
*i«« diootf, dclicotcly wroujfht iu chitinci irhJch cither spring 
''^^ttlj' from the tiailiiig fiLiv Lljut binda Lhum lo wt^tnl or stone, 
^* bomc^ on Lrrect :ind brauohiof; stcmSt form lar^ and conipuaite 
^*Qwtb?i wliich ttiv aliiichHt like jniiiiatuio* juilniB in genera) 

J'P^ct. Our Briliflh upccici* ntc for tht? moet purt of the simpler 
*tit irnd rtf hnmblt? *i?/? ; bii( in tlm tt-.irmtr aeaa the f:uaily in 

J?P'^»cnitd by lovely arboa'Bwnt ionu^ which sometinaoa attain 

^frttiilie proportbjiiK. Anotli^r ^itJit-ot rliaiact^rof the Plumula- 
^^ fa ui ily u found in th? diipof^ilion oftbccalycWfOrdvroltiogi 
^^apolypitOfOn oner »de of tile niiuLilEfsoi^1y«inii(eadof ou two 
^^^ lu in the alUi'd laiuily uf the T^iXuhriikn^. Each of the 
''^vati- piuiiie uf tlif plumule bear* on its anlcnor aepcct a 

^'^tCie line of thcw little cup-iiko rvcvptacleG,tixhibitUJgia the 

'^CrL. nil. — jrO. Lit. Q 

rOrVLAE 8C1S5CE ft&TIBir. 

vftrioui itpccics lannj quaint an<i elrgnnt fcnof* hjaltDG or 
]!Hfr'Uctctl, nml oflr^n nd^wninl with ('iirfaiuily creiutted or 
tipinoua iiUkrjtiD«, In cuo dt-'otion tbc o&Ijclca &ro aot do«9 
together in a oonUniioi])) wri?* (PL CX„ %. 1); in unothor 
tlicy ATo moro or tc»j r«raoU (PL CXL, fig. I); anil thid ap* 
pamnMy trivial <)ijitiiictiiin in >ui«ocanted wiUi otiicr mom im- 
portonb differeacoo which divide tlie fomil; into two weU- 
maik^ groiipcw Of thne I efaall liave more to ny Ii«Teaft«r. 

A dry account of tho «tructtiittl feabiroi ftDd thf^ iirRiti|*e- 
mmt fif pnrU, hr>wrvor ncariratr. cnn giWt no idnn of Ihr Uvttig 
beauty of tlifme exquUito oj^rti»nu, Tho f;m«« of tbeir duttm^ 
ihv lijaliTit- di^licacy i>r tIteU tvxtuf«f the liAiuelew Gltaria of 
tb«ir entire Jigiire cannot bo oipfWMd io a dugnodv. In tbf 
nlt'.'iiipt Io rrncW thrm the pmoil is nt larilt — tniirli mnrv ' 
piru, V«t I tuujft tD(i?itvoiLT to 0X0 a ^-Dtiml notion 
cha^ctrriiitiL- furin m Lhri li\int[ Fftftte* and to Bi^sgeet Um; prin- 
cipal elcmentH of tin beniitv that U common to tha antife 
fidoily bHbrc prvit^^r^ding to the vpccial points of ftmctujo to 
whicb thti paptr will bi- chii.*fly d<*voU<L 

I ahall »ol«ct a$ an iUii«tmtJoo ono of iht^ noalle^ Britiife 
specify (PI, CXI„ fiff. 2), whicb in neither bettor nor vonft tbaa 
it* kindred, b»t a fair arcm^ sprcimr-n of \U ncc I 
thfm, n iiii'tw of rock, lIh» »iir&c4« of whidi and of tbit tin 
tubed 0! tbc S^mtii incrualinsr ^U >> n«ttM over hy the i 
of fibres, fyom which tia&i a whole f'^reit of ^iquisjCe plumttt 
'fbo tallest of tbcm is Loss than an inch in heigbl ; thf^ aro all 
bnt cobnitbwi, im drlicuffiiv tbi^ horn? mntrrUI rnrnpruinffthfriD, 
and tbcir tdcndfr, nbadowj farnxi aro only distinpuHbablc in « 
fitroag li^'bl. TliH tniling titbiilAr tbivad frovi wfiich ibcy 
nning may Tcmirkd iia of tbo rA?>oin« that Kireo orij^ to tlio 
mndM of th4i fr.m ; tfc in thtr t^mmmon b;«pi of tht Pltimiibirtia 
coDUoaonwotlU), holdini^ ib many &miU«« in o^^anio nnton,sal 
bfiidiDic tbton Io the HiidUo« a\tn wtiicb ilicy nnvd. Vjktk 
phime * w pushed forth as a bud from tbe proUfio pulp per- 
vading iU an<3 U \Uvt£ n bnincbing lube inclosing tn offset Iraia 
tbo commooi fl«ib. 

Till- pltiino h a colony, afaarizv tbc life of a (real oomnoa- 
woaltb and bolpdng to Donriah and enlaj|^ it. Tfao delieaU 

CjTf Kt for tbo oioftt pari nlternotoly along ita aun ttcoib 
at ftttorvnb mimito tnuiRpann* eitp« (PL CXI^ fig. S t\ 
tha Iiomea of aa many hydna which copand above tbcm thcu 
wTMtha of tlender, bcoided nnn*, oJl of tbeu bound UmtlMr at 
oDoocguiMnbytliflmDiiBod thread of 6c«lip6radi]%tAoatrD^ 
turn. In lliii tf«liAn of tbo rinmularinn fiunilyt tbo poljpftc* 
Are not wboUy reliactilc witliin Ibe calycte i on^ iht horn d 

* Etvipl lb* fm, wbicb i« iivfhfoi inmediAtely frooi llw nmktf^ 



ImkIj u protoctcii by it, the rest ia alvmy^ ex^&od. In the 

|Vat vpooiM u curmpicuuua liaiut of op^u^-wlnLt p.noircle^ Ui» 

h like a fprdlL^ & liltlo IxJow tLo tt^ntaclo^, and odda much 

bbeanty of a tcUmy In Ml Hfu uud activity, when tl«iTuiny 

hptMom in ciLf^r pimuit of pr^yi stretching thcmiielvc^ for-* 

t^RDt! ciiaUng forth their tlowpMike wrejiLhs, mw Hudile.alj 

«bipimj; th«ii anDJt to^th^n and th«n a« suddenly flinging them 

luk; Dowlioldin^ them motioulttA, the tips vkiganLly lecurvhrd, 

MdtlHD OH flome Lilnrm shrinking into hnlf their dze, and f^ld* 

bf lh*m togeUii^r Mk*; flowers dosiai^ tJie^ir p(?tala vrhun tltt; 

■all goo«. Di^tribiiLi^d over tl\u titum und bnuiclis^ are a 

na^ of AQialler cujia {ctdtccttit llio Itallaus cuU tlivm] of 

|KQlar forrtt and *ixuctiirc, which contain, cot hydne, but 

iMidi of another kind, of which I ^IijlU hare much to s&y 

(PLCXJ., fig. 3*)- TLoy are verj" tharhoitristic of tbe Plii- 

Bolariao fiinUy. uudL as we shall eet*, augge^t Aoma curious 

oecuktiona ; a.Ddi it mAy b^ niTord a ciii& to the gemealogy of 


And if in the poly|iit^A, with th«ir wrL^^ithed :Lrm4, which «tud 
^mirhc4) of these vegetative anitOttla, wo may fitncy n rcfioia- 
Uuc« to thf* ftow>*rs f*f thr- plant, Wfinijvy mIho find thecounter- 
flrt of tHc 3ecd-vcs9cL in tlic clcgntit reproductive capsules 
ta/tlumd throughout thi? colouy, la tlie *pet*ies now under 
ntsider^OD (i'fumutorus oomuao;>if£) thoy aAHumo the shapo 
tfin inverted horn, find an.^ formed of mattriul Iraushicenl 
utho fincft glfi±3. Eiich of them, in tact, 15 a litUe cr^-stal 
onmncopiA, in whidi is todginl wie of tlm rr productive memhi-rs 
of tiu «omtnonw^aUli, a chm toully distinot &om that which ia 
dttfged witJi the funrtirrn of nli in en Lit ion* Tfii?^ graceful 
Mo^rUoloe arc sevcrtil titncg hiiTgor than t)io c^lyclca, from tho 
of which they tpring, Miiglj^ or in p:iLrt, ;Lud witliiu (hem 
WB OTft ord prcduLikrd aud tha embryos luatnrod which a.T^ to 
(five ri*- to auw colonittf. (Ph CXI., fig. 3 y.) 

It rourt be noted in passing thiit there ia nothing eljffor 
l^ognlar ia th^e beautiful orguiiiflHis ; lie awkw^ud atUtadc or 
ten Uue- Thi^y arL* flcule and wavy; the mid-rib of tho 
ft i.H brnt into the prctLieH curves a,nd the pinnx &ru 
tly Arched. Th«y aro like the Birch umongst trec^ in 
«<, dclicjt^f and gnue. 
Plnmularia comticopim belongs;, as I have said, to the 
ion of t^ft £uni]y 10 which the calycloA arc more or loea 
t« fifom 00© smother, and the polypiUs only partinlly re- 
in tbi# diviHOR thc*^calicetti"* nn? didtrihutcd ut 

lat tbAM " llttJo Clips " hflVL^ bntn namDil " rionintL^hcFl<v" And *'Saico 
^ ^7 vrit^rt *a iho Hy<]roi<U. 




InUn'iila aloDpf tbe sUm and braii^*hc>«, ^Qr] tbe feproductiv 
«4paQle« are UDprr>t«cUd. Id th^r other priDcipal »ccti<»n, tfa 
coiycloi Bm Tnngtfd clotio together in a (^nntinuou^ tcri^j ai 
tbc poljpitcs €An withdrnw tlirin»^lv« uI)o!tj tuto th^r UU 
dpelllDfCk : tit* " oali««1tL ^ air^ dt^powd In definite and tjoDsta] 
efder roiiud the calyclt*^ and t1\c reproductive «3pmiLr« a] 
(tthcr cnlli^crfd in j^rnnpfl iLtid inclfHtfd in \ pod^liko caifo, i 
ftll biitr tmivrrvnlly jLvoantcd with vomc kind of proi^ctii 
nppe^mlit^. Iii Pl^iie CX,» fijt- 1. a mtfrnber of iliU secliom 
reprt^atc^« and a iiplancu at it^ will thov thatt hovf Tcr it mi 
differ in tnimitn *f rwrTxin* from tlip fnnn which t liavn j« 
drfCiibnl, it proictilii tlic tiELmti f^ncnl habit, uid id lu coi 

aiiciiuiu fjr j^nicR tif fij^tijv »iid delicacy of dcdiul. Twu uf lli 
bbedand cr«ttcd ca^e which ih<?]li:rthe roprodiiclivc capdidi 
are^ovDstaiidingontfroiu tl>f'iitid-iibi;in"iigHi. \hv piiiiiv,iLn 
will at onco uttract attention from tho Fin^ilntily of tbdr fori 

A fknuliur lut-inber cif tiiiH tvction of ihc PlumuUiian ifrmi 
Is tbo common "Podded ConUlino,'* which ovrrtpTeada *oni«< 
Um larger Tiici, coK-nog them witli iu ni.-twork of librcv. aa 
bangiiiff '^ omrr qimv a mollittid^-of itii.inibnT plumi^ Whi 
mnnMl liavewTcij of tlir *• jioijdnl wn-il" ( /Tti/i't/nyH ttiJitjntMQ 
inveitcd throughout by ihit 4-I(*(-nnt byiroid^ uver^ruvm by th 
ramifying tbrnkd. which had pii^Jt^d it« way over »t<rni, tunnel 
and hnuichbt, and c^n'tt^nt allpoictd hirndt^l^^of Ui^plumou 
ahooU, cocl) of vhich Utrc aloft a compnny of potypitc^ a m 
parTUitic popoibtiotil 

Such n ooauDonwmlth in a wonderfully complex tiutt^; 
BiDgk g^rm \t* origin ; & single life p^r^-ading it ; ihoimiKb < 
fwwi independent ckmciit« incladccl in it# manifold individii 
atitv. A ttin^hi phimo of A. p^nnntuta (PI, CX., fi^, 3) t 
naoa«Tat« mo may bcftr somti tifUm btmdrcd hydrat ; and 
pln&M fa Init one stat« of a i^mt forlenUion. I1nn:i r«viknnM th 
number of pnlypito* on a finck tpo^imen oi n Uri^o f-»iTi(C 
■ppri4<*, which reiichni u h'-ight cif tbriM^ fi-rt, at nut In* (kft 
cifiht miUic^nfl : and thitj %i but & pixmy oomp^tni vtth it 
gigaotjc form fiom Ihe Ve\vw I«1andj^ de«eribipd bj Senipdi 
which attAin* a bright of livo or ut £nt aad «pr«adi pi 
vertUible rnrr-kt ovt-r ibc h«l nf tJw m«. 

Wo xTe not ao|tuiute-d wUh muny laHatioAU upon th« Plum 
larlan type ; tbo fauitty haa hitherto lucliidT.iJ few ^.-aerik«bc 
tbf>nuDilK-r will p^>illlHy incrpnitc cofmid^^mMy aii wo 1 
IDOTO bmiliar with thr t[ifidiii<nliflaiiii>ribrTv>pEijdurlitc 
TW ^r tbe lub-gronpt I liavo ulrcudy bnotly char*-' 
in tho ■^Sea-beard" {AtU^miutaria), 009 of tbo t. 
wutt on oiir Kindy »hnn«, tba piiui« tro nngod ronii i 
in wborh, and tlio ]dim>ove appeaiaaco U l»iU l*b« lj 
ftoin tbe nonual nrraoj^meat in tliii c&io la appantaLlj ^t 



hit lire gKji U?1ffv^f^ii tlil^ ami tlo irxnnion plieni in timl^l 
mrr Ij tnlrrtn(^(li&t<< f^rmj. In yot another toctton, the piEUin 

are»haHj'ti*Hlj ami i-arry imly 3v fcingUi i^iiljrln hiii) hv^Irn, ntid 
berv Of^itii tbv I't-fLflu-fj clmmcUr ii^ k^'u; di.ilinct ; but tho losa 
ia tjiii Tt.'!tpTrcL lb n)m|jtu]Ki1«^(l fiir irv hUmt itli-fnt'dLn of timiitj. 
i tingle species of Una foction {I^tuvtfr.Ui'i'la oitd^ua) iA f^vnd 

^ our tTiiirr«f ZL faJr^Mikc fmni of *^\(juiHlc drlicncy sod gr&ca; 
ttd, aimngG to ur, it U oc|iui]ly nt home ^t tho AntijKxleff- I 
bare mas^-teei of AuHtraliAii allege nwi vhlch il nprcntU id cstra- 
oidifiary luimrincc?, a^ tli<>u^h tlie ImbilAt w«rc thoroughly ^n* 
ptM to it. J'Voca (lie tame region I have obtoiued ouutlivr 
ud xerv n^umrlcatilu form [utill uufliincribvil) which U reforabl* 
W ihi-i flecti^sQ. Otht:r <tulj-{Uvi»ioii:i of Uir Plumukrinn &mil7 
tj» fOQiKW, as I havo said, on diftoreno^ft Ld tbu rcproduotivo 
ijit«iD«with A single except ioTii lo ivhieh I abnJl icfer more pot- 
tolnrly hcnsi(l-*r. Th" prliK'ipid vnnntirt in iitrrnnl lup^ct 
hst now Im-vd notod. and it wii! Ifpw'rn tltiit th(> main fcMnre* 
jf form Jiiid ha1>it art* BTTonj^ly luarkeif antl very constant 
ilmiughout the iribc. 

! nrt)i.'<<<^l to tii3ltt<r unma very Int4*rf»KHDj; point* of structure 
vticli nrc- peciilmr ty tliiii ^mily and liJivc no pnrulkl aEaongtt 
ircant hythoid Kf»«phyt<^» AlUtt^Knt ha* tW^tiutnUy been Ttud% 
i«Lhe ■^catiL^tht" which occur on tho Plutnuloriua oolonieei in 
idrfhioH trt ih"* ralv^l*-* iti which ihe liyflra> ar-* Iori*if€*(l, Tliey 
oLibit imri^nip tormH, b<^hig fiv»rarlime.^ tubidnr (PL CXI** 
fit'* 4) adlI jinnii'timf-.* ciHhH<h;nM*(l ; thry som<-timrM ronnUt 
of a iiiUiflo chainbL^r iLiid :Jiiini!timc5 of two chamUor^. pbc:cd 
Q&c ahuve the other. In t}it UtliT caFi» the Kiwf<r |iiir1ian 
tt tubidar (T). r\l,, fig, i), wjkilo tho upper cspatids ioUi u 
ilOini*plirrirnl Kiwl ; tiir^ whi>li' tuny \\f. i^tnfuircit in ji ^fihlet on 
AfUnd. Thvfit' t*unoiitf uppL-zul:ii;t.'s art*, Jikt* Ihn cnlydeR, an 
ntcndim »f the homy i.'uvL'riii^ ;vhit^h jii\l'»1h iIm^ wlji»h* of Uici 
comaioa f^e-h of tho hyt)r<i)d- In one section of tho family 
Ibtir dif|x*itif»n i* irvftriahlj UicMLine ; two T--|and out lalerally, 
flW on each «df> of Iht? yalyolu, and onp^ wbich u oftan of con- 
■Id^blc kir^th, ia iLiJIit^reut to tie (Vuiit uf it, iifid ha* \he 
*ppwrai]<ie of siippoMiTjg it hhe a btackK (Pb CX.^ fig. (J), 
Jttlho other Kccti*>ii tb^rc it ug *nc]i uniformity of aiiange- 
Bo^: Uw •* calictUi," whi<^b nm b<irc of tho cfjp-«hnp^i1 type 
l^LCXI-j fi£, 3), Arc distnbiitfd, uftcn profusely, over tb^j 
ccklouy, ill thi> n«-ighbourhood of the calycL«s» along tbo courto 
^' th« piuoaf, on ttic central stenit and cvcd at tjmee on tho 
*»*piii(r '^*''^' Thry an? vi>ry n*ef«l to the tystcmalisti oup- 
pljiQg him with gx>od cnturia for tbr diacrimin^ition of apccic^ 
Sut cht^ir ehkf inli>re«t lie* in the Dnture of CheLr cuut^^uu. 
^TiCTi exAmia<^d in the living stale, they are found to iudow 

^oCbhoot from the common fleBh, nr mther from the outer* 



jQoct k7cr of Uie Gommou fl^b (I'l. CXI., Gg. 4 cT,. TItu i^ 
«hoot in coiDpoe«(t of n ttoti j^auUr icttMtiuioe, tleresd of 

of matctial of wbioli llie IiuniLle tiiiA^pod la Eoade; & p^f* 
tu^mitliitl iniu«t without connEit^cic^r 'v iitabiKtv, ca|iabkef ^ 
9;trui^-^L bcbftriour, And «ctiULlly ^^ bcK»v)iif ** like a crcitnntf 
mucli lower rank thao the orgntiaiA with i^ch it U amoMid, 
Id the compouud rarcotbeca (I mm*! fttandoD tli« elc^il 
ItAlJAii for tho TEn>rfl cnmhroufl Gr^pfc d«(rigiation) » eolmui rf 
fortfyKk- prnftdc^ the lower nttd tiiViul^r diooiMr (PI- CXL* 
fig. 5 i;), and on pafvln^- Entc itn' teiroiual cup diT{d6i» In iMrt 
cases, luto two l^stx^, which ar« oltarEedwitli (HfTf-rmt functl^i^ 
Ft^ni Ih* inferior ln)\nn (PL CXL, flg< 5ft), when tlw PluDuiUritt 
» in hf:a]UA- AQd ii-igoraus oonditioti, loog filnmc&luj tmjtf— 
Afv emitiHl, iMtpn«ioiu of ili« >an3«lo run, beariiir Iba 
elo40«t r«B4?niblafl<« to Ihoeo wkicb ad Awoiba pcutbcv fora nil 
mo\TB sliiggi'ihlyjilongm «?arch of food. Froiatli«topof«mT 
Quptbrna th^■aLb tif Rircodc 0trr«in forth, pJowly kogtfacaAi| 
M t.hny folltm Uir cotirM' of tlir tNiri or br;itLi.'h, ititEil Um* pliv 
U i&To«ted by th(* tiviDif ^Hujni:?r. Tbv txtrvinity <if tM i^ 
toudlo prooen i« ii«iLfLl]y cla»e1y a|^ir«Ked to tlir sur&4)f) oftfe 
atcfu, over vhi^h it gtidcj tlniort iitipftceptiUj. In »om Of* 
tlict nrcothcca tx ftrniiib^J with tiffonpfrtiirrn, oih» l«niiitn! iOJ 
the other opening into the cAIJcll^5 nnd Ihrcii^h thr- Inticr tib* 
•iroDifv (iroiujiliL-'iiiit oOT^ilioui? uie di^fhur^L I Uiiuk we ma^ 
refpnl tbuo ouiioue flUuotureB w di^fiiaci £ooidd in the hydrm 
couuLionwcallh ; a hnnd of f'tvAlthv worki^rs |if*tH-iiliQg a ibUH 
iog oontrajit to the viviu>ioaK hyi^nci, rt««li]iff along oa Uirft 
mjvtcTiouti erruudfl, and ^diiLoit uoiwrociveo vn^'cfofiuig tM 
colony with their vl^cder threads. Xhero wemfl to he a plW 
eoikstaat cfHm and ri^flox of thoee fftxeaios of uitM^dfk Afb^ | 
tiina the outBow lit fiay«d, and lu dowlj aA thoj had adtiDOW 
the prootapcci are withdrawn, until Ihc^ duapptar altogHhct 9 
lh« Lobe* which originated them- liia may tnsly be e^Mj 
marvelloQi rtnicturc, or aMcmhlug^ of AtfucUiros. K !• Q 
though n comph-x Rhinopodnl ind a comply CtalntoaQ 
oTganimi were hound up together, Vk\i hare liere uneeUdI 
aira hydne fraterniiJng m one and t^ iame commoiiVfflltli t | 
The upper lobe of the celutim of taicede parvtdltie tltf tiilmH 
rn^r (Ph fXI.. flg<. 4 a and 5 (i) pUyff a tptt ditTermt pan 
It eniLt* no ainogboad proo eiwee wfaiigbt out of it* vuhvlaBH 
hot it hear* a speeUl apiduratus of ila own. IL indcera j 
Duokber of loag, fllot>d«r) eon»whul b««n-ahaped thread idH 
difipoMHl in A diiKt4-j witliin th^ Muvndo il little lw*li)w tU 
nuDmiL From tLcM*, whrn the apponiai ii in actioDt ^^4 
delicati- tUnvdH lui? diu^tiat^'pd, (liat >traiin upward* from til 
extraoiity of the ear^otheca. Tbeee &oe ojclornlo Uoei en 

m ftut lo QDoraiouA dietaocei, iuUttwiuiug and vavinfg about 

is tlic v«t«r. At tiiQca a tull may bo sc^n alowly coatraoU 

f iigtUil r hvFC obiHrvrd ono rlrnggiug <!own witb it n ma^fl t>r 

I Atf vUiab it bud cnLJc^tcil.* A vprcitacn wliicli 1 posi^^ss of 

M AiuItkUuu PldiimUnmi pri-w^rvL^l in tliiid, exhibit* a really 

WDdcrfoI difepJoy of (.Iicao tlircjifl-likv ur^aua, ^lieuvts of 

vli^di Hij-nnfiuiit ft largo proportion of rhi^ mitlutudiuoii? ^ crH- 

«elU»'* and quite chan^ tbo Q«pcct of tlie hydroid (PJ- CX,, 

%. fi). The JUiluui uaLiiriiLii't Mt^rifi'gliiiJi, who firvt Bj^red 

I^MO ori^uie («o &r 00 i kuun), ropro^uuts Lhum in this coudi- 

liou. From Lbe aperture of vvi^ry oup ririi'H (io hia figui^) a 

liiil of Very DumtJTOUA t^ctoculoiii ftppondaijea- Tho wh^U 

Mnictuie IN tioL itulikn a vrry di^liuute pulypite, iitid as Huch 

h» M«Ru to iuiVit rcfr^rdud it. 

No dMcnpLioLi can ^^tf uji jidetjiuUt? Mea of HiiB n^nnOeiful 
appvatu* a« it appt-tLi^ wiien in hill aotion. Tbc I'lumuloriaii 
colony, indrc'df oltV'rK iis u reinaikjiblt^ coiubiiuitioii of vitial 
iDovemvnU in Ibc phy ot tliv polypiU's a^ tbey B<!ek tlieir food, 
thft •tcaltbj uut^iii^ ut' the aEuteboId p^UL'<^^AL-^ jih Lljey slowly 
tmv«n« U^e st&Qu, and tlie mpid emssdoD and exUinsion of the 

I may ixittDti^jo in passing; ihat the tbread-cell, wUioU £i 
attfakeatlj cLarftctccial ic c.if Ccclcalerate vrgankms, baa alau bt«n 
dfito^ed in lomo of the Proto:toa. 

WbcD wc como to uiquiie into the function of the curious 
ttnictiiTi'k whicb 1 have just dcKTibcni, vsg am very muob at 
&aJL Aj the tlircad'cellf arc i^tiugiujj t^r^aue, tbo eupcirior 
lobn of Uie sarcode ma^ (i>r s:iroo4ty]i^) may caturally be re- 
gmrdcd ba po many fort« with lioavy armature placed for tbo 
tirfrtipi^ nf ihn colony. They laay hi-Ip to keep ofF cnmivoroQH 
cnemic*! *ucb ha the nuked molluscs {yitdibrtni^hii)^ vrbich iirc 
fimid of browsing on the pulypil^^K uf the Hydroida, Bill what of 
the anii£boid pruccteco eruiUcd fi^^iu the Lower lohc ? It ecomi^ 
ncK itnprnliablfT thut tbcy may Ik? ijubs(?r\ie[it in some way iti 
the work of nutrition ; or if not* they may be imtrumentat in 
IcMpiag lbe -burfttcu of the plume fr^e from impurities aud 
icwiffa K'rowtha wbiob might bu dolrimenlol to the vroll-beinf 
of tli« ootony. CoDbidenng th^ imm^^use uurnber of thr? Kart^o- 
thrcff and tho varioaa struoturcs ntid activities conuactud with 
tbem, i1 is in]po9»ihle t» iliiubt that tbey must b<iar BOine 
iiaportant rtdatiou to Iho iiCo of tlte bydroid. 

Wv may rugard the amcBbold pioov^wt, 1 tblnk — and this is 
tboir mo«t inttnot^ing oepcot — as jl cluc^ to the genenlo^ of the 
Hydroida, as evideuto uf u time wbrii them wua a mucli cloticr 

* Fiii ft pBp«' by tbo uithDF, «atttUd OMnimtwii to tJu History *>/ 
CJW IIsfdrMf, " AuiaIb of N«t. Bht" for Nov. :»7$, 

S3S mVUfe ^CIT^Ifm IKVIKV, ^ 

rcUtii>n»tilT> Vrtween tlicra :in<l the Rliwrpoih tlinn nov <^iti; 
uji • aurtlvnji/ indt'i-il, fn>na a n^niote and very early stage m tin 
evi>lution i>f tlio Order. Thoy indicate tbe lioc of doiTUpmcBt 
*lmig whioh thr Hydroidn huw pnoti^, (ind Ihrww a li>;M int 
the rmdln «f (liP rurc. If ;vr rany (lcc^^pl I'rofc^s^r •Uiiuan'i 
i£Lfj;i-riinuH iiili^qin-^itiuii f»f x\u* GraploUte4« a tiilje of ^ilurisA 
foaifilst wliid) liua bi:4M!i liaaEliii-i obout from one divin^D of tbe 
sininiiil kingtlrtiii to nnr>thprj hut hjw nnw HrtMrcI dnwa amau|ll 
the J I jdroido, vo nliuU hnvc still mere dirc^ct teStilQOAy t> tbi 
viiine tfHet'L Tlie Gr;ip(,ulitr<4?oiiu^li(of » Uilmlar steiu, tanking 
a Borioa of tuhiikr ufls'.-ta eu odu eido of iti or on two oppocito 
Htdc-fs and Jrrk'HiTkg n ^o\k\ red -tr nxU. ll bnxni »iifficieiit]j 
cliTfio reflomblancQ lr> thp Hydroitlft in (jprirml lupcvt and 
jtrFnng^tiieTit. of jJiirls fo jiiMify its ajcAoeialifiii wirh iln-io, not* 
witLi^tandm^ D«?rluiii pciiuU ef dis'i*rgoQCe. The tubular of&cU 
have bt^eii usually icf^rdeil as v^iulvalifiit (o the culyclce in thtf 
rect^nt £|>€ci(?s : hut AllmniiT from an exiuninitioii oF Uidr >Uiia- 
tiire, has come lo thr^ roTieluhkm th»t Ihr/ reprc<scnt lenrcotbeo 
ratlier than iht* dwelliu^j* ■>(' tht' iwlypiica, lobimthe Gnpt> 
lil'j IB a rtumtiluiiMii /rriVrux eLilyoW aud (prolt&bl;] poTypiti^; 
n PhmmliLrJEin hnnSK diftinguif ITnbl? fr>:jn] a componto Hhbopod, 
reduced to a ]evc! witH tlii» humble type in itsi -way* of lifcv 
and deptudi'Ut for ita mttrirnvnt ou 1I1& movementi of iti 
protophv?iQ- The GrapioliU-, wo may say. accordiuj; tc Ua» 
view of it, indi>nteft ihe imn^itJori from lh*> Proto«ain lo tJw 
(.■crlcnl**riite structure-. It can hardly he r^dmit.ted tJjdt Ihtrt b 
a"* yet aa adetjiLiitf foundatior: for thU iTigeoioua tlit'OTy,* hut 
whether we acii-pt or not the conjecture of the occompliebcd 
htnlogiBt, T shnnfd lie fnellned to hold that tbe m&ro prpseuciifif 
the amffihoid bodic-* in orynnic connrction with the 1'Uudu- 
larijui, Me by «idr» with the pftlypitcs, nt niwndaUvl ntuidf in one 
and the same e^Umy* jh in it^flf no ohreure indication of a 
gfnpnlo^'enl irlutJonRlifp l»twt«n Hhi^opoil and CcplenU-rati: 

and ot their primitive affinity. 


on tljw pHt.'iihnr rfnielim t>f Ihvir tuppoMd n1yd«i^ whU'h diflpr 
1»D tfiinkf« fruDL Ihotv of nl] ri!rcDt b^drvidi, Th^ir entity U ntttntam^tt^j 
cdutiDtioui >Tkli ilibi itt dm mum tliTijj, 4di1 thuro u an omviiicULia or pti- 
tilionof any kind il iIioImlao; and id lib tbty s^a p»ifoetly tritJj tl]« 
Mrr:i:>tliccji], ^TictrJU, 111 iLo liiinir li;drL>ida, (hocnlydt » in*TL<d olF, B^m 
er IvM iJ LHl ((jL'llyp u h [inkier diamtHf, l>y il c^nidLrlL-UiiU vt impetfeel dl^ 
phriigm. Diit it iv\ny hi rciuaitL-d on thi^ tbattlie latior cbiLMci^rii bjao 
monna anlvcrsAl- In llif v^nun ^Vrtici, (ot iiuiii«dcc, i}j« culyde* uro aot 
pifpArJktii) f^riii lli» tifiii tv iiDip'cniihtii<*IJ[in, juiJ (hr pt'lypifi^ u'V^ fon'mfal 
fr77i ifirAffri>ri^ MmiJufEvj rr^'//y ^ronj fAfwj ih/v f^ foAf f^ tA« iff vl tu tb« 

irvcufl CtijifMiia ilit'r*' ia aIbo nu nbacoce of all couUihiioo M tho bMe of 
iLu ml^elrs: au tliAt tills cbaTMccrrinlc of tbft nfaptalltAfiaotn 

a« iff dwirrutfd. 




Th* nrcrrthf^oji?, 90 far tut thfh amaitotd iUm^nt is con- 
^amodt Arc peculiar t4> Ihc I'lumTihtrinii ihiailr. Itut bryoii<I 
hi limU* ^vl- meet vrltli 4omi< i^iiri>>tu MrurLiiri>4, vliich remind 
luoftl^^ iLppuistiie of ihrvfLd~Ci.[Ut with «r1iicfi Mk-v art* aUo 
ftiniiF^)i<H]H ThiiA ill n mriNt form (^Ltt/trizia) otw 
Uiacd from jn'tnt ilr]>thii by the? (liHin^u^Ki^ XQrw4^iAii 
ntili^Bt, SftTS 'hi? cr^rvpin^ ntein pK» ongfn lo a nmlFitcilL- 
t^ llsader tubuW C4i»es etich of wl]i<Tli itiolo^i^ a ihri^ad of 
pucodey tenninatiag eiItivi?! ill nn onlargtH! cupitiklum, in nhicU 
ft CLUmhcT of thmul'cclt^ mrt> imtii'^ricfl. A pniall onfic^ at 
li»nimiiHL fif tlu' luiniv lubt-, jjr>jtrt'Unic '^''i^ tiiiHoiw |iut?ii uf 
re, Ri^'i-*^ a pawa^o t'> the tbrf*a»i-Iikc d^irtn, ^vhioh aiv 
[Urd ffoiri tlir o>'lU» llicft'- rlefrofcivv zijoids if i*iw!i bt* 
ir pntiLfc, nr^ tlLtckly diirtTibiitcd unonfcrt tho poljpit^ 
deh Air complrli-ly rjiviraiitti l>y (Iirii Jtmiigif prot^orn. 
ruaind us forcibly of "calicetti'* <l<-i>nv<.-d of t^dr 
ilv LiA)e«. AnotUct njipc-ndo^'v of still iii(.<rt^ i'^Uauidiuftry 
oc(!)ir« iij Ui^gcnniiOjj/jioef^jiiiidmArkian ntlvanoooa 
rimitivc st.ructun^ I Lure bcm docnbicjf* And it is a 
no littlo Int^reel that an appendn^i* iniricllr idenitc^l 
Oiifl is met witb on & FJiLmularian Ltt<r1y obtoiotd from 
dfrpttiM (iff l^lit* oorut of Norwnjj* ™?i"iij>yiii^, n* it «*<-mfi, 
place of tlu! (inliimry naruotbcctc, wliiohnrt? w.tiitin^. 
Tbi* flpjK'i]du)'e(PLCXI-.ti>T-€)i*at4!ntiwuloidorgftni>fv«fy 
\ih- iipin-'Hi-ELin'i', &ttu«hi<ii b^}ov lo the coinman fl«h of tho 
ijl^j and trf'rmin!jring nhorp m sin onlarg»<il Wnd, bearitg 
kOTDiu ( lircAd-ccI^ iTom which lonir, borhwl ttiTcnd* aro 
It in very ftiteii«il(', midcu^ifkUr of tlnMnovt vigoroii* 
Lentil. Tlio ba*o U prot^^ut.LHl by ji siuidl <:hilinoU9 cup, but 
in Inink ia imkj'd, Oth< or two rtt"lbi.^Ht' Ktrjiiii-** orgSRii»r^ 
itfttioncJ like wiitchftil r^rnfind' iioat cnch cidyclc, nxnund 
ihi^y fM-iiiitfr ibi? iiuiHl, ininj^-titr mcjii-inriitA, fwintiug 
!vc» in nil dirw-'tioLi, auU faHtnih' iotiU tht*ir |judO-Uko 
Thoir Ap|>raranci^ in n riiiiitiihuijiii, ^h a Mibetitute 
tho ueiial ^^cnlioctti" in pijfnitimnt ; thoy arn probably an 
riiiCfd jnoditu-Ji1i<»[i <if tl^e HJinplrr :<I.rtictiiTi^ 11 trir occur* 
in ulentiiiftU /orvi on tiwo iipj>OLo« brloiij^nijr to dSffen*Qt 
ulim JF< ccrtaiiily rc[uarkdU4\ Hijd points pjubalily to a 
ion ancoetor from whicli Imth uri? dcsacond^ip 
cannol piin"iic tbn liistory of Uicw ourioiu fttnictiirc.-t 
lor, biil mt-ryly rt'inurk that th^y *wm lo r«plac« Uie ntoru 
litivi? fonriH, witti wliid) thr- pi-otop1u«mic iuovemonta are 
^iat^, and which» sn iiiran wo knt>w, nrr abfioliiMy cotiItiwI 
thv PIuiuLiUrian thmily. 

;^JluBUthB estOppiiiHul 11amul»Tua (C^ifWhum^Mm miJii)tawUiolil bar 


rorULAQ ^'tUM^S SK^lffW. 

I pui on to noUoe briefly anotlMr itrueUunl &«iim, vbx^ 

Im |M*cifUur to iJie family, a.nd, indeed, to one ioemu «( 

iu ikfecenoo bo^ already bc>0D Eoado to tbc clegftat vM>bi* 

recfptnclAfl vritJiiti which* ova xt>t mjitunHl in iiiic- cf Ik 

prindpcU <liviiu^>nB of tbi? llydroido. Tln^r iiru ocuaUy iiitfr 

iiiilrd Kut^Ij^ uvrr tlic cd1ii»/, ur nuuHal lofretJ]t?r ou cerliii 

portioau of tbo Btem. la sgibc of Uie PluouilfthAitf, bov<i^«. 

thfiy are coIIul.1^1 iit rumII grou|Js "'^ich sre JucluMd ib> 

ennciiu3p^4]ki3(!CLioCi'LCX., fie- 4}. Tb<40«>f^lJ<n (bukcbi 

^.j|» tlir-y JtTc called, am iiilirrolott-d aniott^iii the jikiDSf^ 

4d fact tak« thu ]>!&<:«} oi & puuu li'l. C\.> ^}f. I> Tbffctft- 

»<ial <.if u uiiii-rlb. Cram wliicb a ntuutier of cuivod and (vrnricJ 

bppf^ndJLgi^ii »rc ^von off on oppoAJto fudcfl, tho oxtnimiliei */ 

wbicU nifntii aknv-, wLUc; Uic ^ptiot!> between them atc fiHedU 

hy a dtflicat^ chitiuouj* expansion, and tbu laliulo fonwadB^i' 

jveceptacle. giving 6h«lter to tbn reproductive c&pvolc*. 1W 

ilotUirttn boRic on xhQ mid-rib, n«at tbi> bm of tbe hbfft 

hBpp«ndBC:<^». Tliu (\'c<ll-dcrl^Iop<:il podOike tftiuctarc occvrt 

tjn a limiU'd mittibt^r ot aptwis*; Uut l««i 1^'K^y ^ 

pToUvtivL- contri^^nccd &rc nicl wilii un ctlor tDcmbao 

jjfktfuilv, whicb ctc-arly rf*prraont oflLtli^r itagv« iu tb» 

ita evolution. Ify collating thcticf wc src dbU to tmM 

wbole froii«e of iU liisLory friwii the firit iJigijt inudlfictUlaDW 

. the normul pUiiuciitd to tbc peHccb Mririthu Tlic morphologw^ 

^ record is compl^itef and we have tbe oTg&n before UA both in fb 

inb&cy imd in ita tnaturiiy. 1 may stale» to bogiD «itit ^ 

the ammlii i%A isic4iim<]rph*>MHl pliunulo; a ft»coiukni' plw 

modifiiHl to fi>rm n protective oovcnn^ for tbc rcprnduciive d^ 

fiiilm. Tbe uiLd*rib (PI. CX., flg. 4 4i) is 1ionui]0{£utu with l« 

' muin (ftom of tW plume i tbo lateral appendftgw (Ft CX^ fif- 

\4 6 /f ) coniGti tilting t Uv fnuTiinirorlf of tbi< cA<e ve hocnokfPM 

^witli the pioniL-f which, howoicr, bnvo nado r gona a tiiif> 

mdiiptuig tJjeui to tlieir itevr ufticr. Tlie caljrdva oni >i^ 

tpvearad, and only thi? >«calioetti,"0oiiHluiM» tli« two btnl 

hmd Ntnvtinx^ tluf ikotorior, remain. Tbese often atuin tf 

dibnornully Urge dio, ^nd Rive to tho Ftractoro itc cmUd IP^ 

Urmiteil iipEKunuicvp Ju lliin v-^y Ihn pinnn in inmtiafWit 

into a support far tho cbttinoua vrM of tbe fvi'£'u/u- 

Tli€ coimc of deTclopmrut tha; L&a r-^AulUxl In tbe formtfii' 
rof thi» curioLtf rc'ceptMln can b« cImtIv tracod. I «.hall ji^T'a 
^w of tbe pxtndpnl modiiications vhicb have led u|i to it. ttv 
w«d« of rlumiUarian at l«dut, bek^igiit^ to tbo *cction of it* 
Maixkiljr in vbich tbe c^n6uta or on «quivaj«at !« usuhUt pcw tf i 
til tkogotber defititute of ax^r traoo of this organ. lU iq 
dnctivo cspmlea ate unprotect^^d n» amooigit tbo tljpdn 
g«o«r«Uyt and art< Loruv on IJm Enain «t«ni or tovmrdi lb« 1 
o( the pinniB {?!. CX., Sg. 3». In a beautiful Atutnlkn ft 



bvtfver, vri> find a dcviatiou from thif priraiUvL' arnuig^ment. 

Id lliiH faptN:;e^ IIl- iirmaxy plum*^ gives off at iutcrvols a 

acnabcr of H^ondary plum^ or plumulo^ which occupy the 

plfccf of oriiin-try iiinujd", smd in tliia wity jl niiuiiied c^>irjpoailc 

Amcturcix formiKi. ^^lae of thesi; plumnton cxliibit u (*urious 

jxculuiriiy ; vwty Iwre aud iliert? it piutui ucoiu^» wLiuh i* 

d«litute of cal5«lee. but oarhea a lice of earcothecaa on each 

iide(P]-OX.t 6g. ^^-Cf), iLndti^ar tlifi ha^ a siQgls r«prodiLCtix~e 

ttpiiuo. ^ucli ulmormjil piimro are nlwAyi^ (Hirved iu^iiriief &g 

ai to bi^tiii over uml in xouil* mcjistuc fliii'Lii \\iv cupgtde. TUcy 

octur Ai iitEtirvLiU, and altenialely oii tatU tidt^ of the plume, 

tm of the ordinary |>im»E iatfo-vcuing Ijctweuu lacL pair. Id 

»tfe«r TMpocU tho plumule is ptrrfecUy TiortnaL 

In tuioUier «pcoici (Africtm*) these Dioditiod pinoo? ;iltcmutc 
gp both «id«4 of 1h» pliunuhr with the ordiuury pliiUtc, In yet 
^btber form (Auatrulimi) t (t// the jthmoti on llir plumules pro- 
^^cin^ tho reproductive! bodios are Ihua modillc^d ; ih& calycloe 
wich their pofypit** have aitogfthcr di«appoaix^4 and orly the 
Int^ral ^* fuije4.«lii," iducIi t-lotjgat«d, n^muiu. All the piutiuarv 
fton rtxiuccd to tht: cnuditiott of M.-rnit&d appendfi^'S, wluoh 
bead forvjL7d 10 mett one aiiutiier, and overarch the eap^idoaat 
Uwrir Insc. In thi« cose the plumule ia a <;i?r6u/a, miiinf the 
mpmbnuic which tuilt^m ilio Uf^^ral oppendftgeB. In niir own 
^ffoddtdCoTaWiav" {At/laophfnia />^Tima)^thi^ rLoment let riijp* 
piled ; a honiy oui^ruwlh friim thL< ittuUiited pinnae Itiods them 
ftll together, Aud completer tb<? cloued coskt^t iu which the re- 
prodiictivr itv^ntM^rs of th*» colony ari* lodged (PL CXh, fig. 4). 
The vAnoiw iitagcA in the cvohitiomiry process 4Ue here 
fly iJAcvahle. W'l^ uiay iiut« Ok.* pUimult^ (.'hnnj^ing its 
'^iflkAracter liltic by littk' tiirou|;h a ocriut of intc^rme^iiLry forms 
until nt length it p-v<ft».* iiitti tlit< ctfi-f/itJuy anil »«i f«>llow the 
organ atcp liy dt^p froin it^ ntdimeats to itd pertcct nUito. 
Wshtt^tiEr&L an cMx^isloiml pinn^i modified as a tmp|Mij L and 
•Mtor for a r^produetive eapeulu; then thtf number of such 
fuDiiflc inarcviAe?( until thv entire jiIluuiiIi; is involve^J in the 
eliADfre and hoeomc* ulro^^thcr t-iih^crvient to the pr»t<"<tivo 
fuiictum; llicii Lilt pinna'. hithuili> di^juitel uiid iud^p<-iidciuL, 
walttfi&ndtho phimule^&it it wc-rc, Uieappuurf in the pod-like 
cof^ultL There it no surioujf gap iu the moiphologieal re- 

Onc! or two variai]on« npon thrr ordinary stmctuK! occur. 
Thus in the fin^et of our firitith PlumuhuianFi the " Sea*Palm " 
{Asfiacphetiia mynoph^llum)t the lateral appendages of tfae 
bciififini] opi^n oorimUi wich v;hieh it if ftJirLtvihed differ in 

* Ayfaophmia poiuia^ XirrhoDpHijcr, 
t Agtaapktnic rdmiuo. If uak. 

rortiLAfL 0CIB3CS asvttw 


ftomc dcgrw from Ihoac which Iiavc hopn <ie*nrih«L Eidi '^ 
thc>m eoimvu of nulicirt sCi>Tn lioiniijriiviQglf'i^JLkcli-, rlortjr 
iMiuivalcnt of the ordincuy (rimiti (I'l. C\.. ti|f* 7 jj),«iKl6tft« 
tho front of tlil* cilycl^ nii<i tb* sarroihw* whidi louaUf 
adhcvte cloeelv to it, ri*'>fl a tall rccnrv^vl uppriida^i-, l*»rt*>( 
tilrm^ n^v *^igr ti liurM>f "cjiluM-lti." »ht<-hj;i\f iT.tJji-:i(]|i™iui«-'' 
of Wiui: ficnjitwl like II «w 11'3'*^'^m *V" 7 a J. Tht-w -^<^-«ilx»»T 
ap^eiidtti^eH liL'tid inwunitt, llieir L'itn>ttiU4C« criWMiig aIkiviv t^^ 
fionnUtutfl tJic protcctivo porttoofi of tlic o?HttJo. TJwpi»^ 

not fiiiE;ieM'?^/<u'iTol'thc wittrior *arcolhiH-u,vbicJi id |rr<v«akt "* 
uhiulI, but tpriiE^'. :l- f Lzt^v alii^l/ Muit^. fiofii llic rtcm ^^P* 
porting thv ml yi^l^ K*t.Weon tin? I^vltt^rnnd thi» tari.'otli«<ft ; nix* * 
inmmi<-caAi4 aUmm ri^cliiitg ii cirfLuD In-ijclit Uu-y jrivt uri;^l* ** 
aii'comi cul5«k [\'U IX, ti^% 7 c'J, U-arinj; :i wimUr apperwl'^ff' 
oiiDikrljr iilocL-O. IIk-j uiiali I tliiiiki Iw nguiM u of _<■*" 
nntiLiv of ra^itrUs, tbougb abnormnllT developed. Utii in** 
Tiiich detail f do Dot propone to rntc-r E^crr. 1 jn«fi^]ir vi^ "^ 
<iirect atttMition t'> lht» iluvd^imienlal history nf tlie wirf^***' 
m fully imMd<sl to ua in LIili «<rri(4 cif i^^tieui'i; 'pc-cific fona^ . 
I Imvo thus i<ndnnvoiiio(l. with aj little tiHt of Icdmi^*^ 
plinLv<>lc>gT n^ p<K<»]Uo, to indicate tlK? chi<!f cLoTftclerisUo* ^ 
the l^ltirmiUria^n f:imUy, llie in*rtt MgvtiliCAiil poinl4 U *^ 
hitttoQ', and thi.^ Icudintf Irail?^ of lb rrrnarkjiUo locality 
have only to fi"gg<'^l in cWin^ tJiat rhnun «hi» imrk mfl 
hcoJtb (tt Una f-:"a»n by llic wiwid*.* timv muliJv tiiid ef 
iiUTtnlirn! iif ihi' tribf Ihut I hive btttrmjiifHi to nki-iiOi, ^iitutf? 
tbu waita ou the l>uicli or in tliL' t'liuntiirktf uook^ And comiT** 
tli4* Ui]:il pO(tK nnd niay Htiuty Oieiii at Bn1-J)And viib nttx' 
doligbt and profit to th«i&H-lvc^ 

W-ITK ex. 

4 S. itinM>fanit OrfAnnqai Johnrtdd, «f th« uMttTil »»< 
H 3v jff JiKy>AiMi"ii p*wwflft</ii, EtU» fuul Sifl^Qilrrt salunl aim, 
^ 4. T^ ticfMtt ot AfftaapSmin ptumn, Luiudu^ ■■milliil 
Tb> nui'HK h,h. L^tem] iffood^gML c 0«n of tW 

It JK^ Tortloncf ■ pluaiulA of «c Anftir«U*n ffr^bf, tiwHuf vkiIL^ ' 
jaaaai. «, a Notwid puij>»r ^^^ oi3y«lti. A, ft. 
piaaK, villi nutodidnri but «iibo«L vilfdoit 


r ^ ^^ 

PI. ex 

, \ 


:■: z^-' :.-:::[■:: N\vK^ 





r J 

I .'A 

\4Vi::'- . 




r . 


4 ^ 



1^ ■ 



cup ifi vhkh thp potypicif is LoJ^. b Tha ■□Lurinr mm^ 
tbocfu tr'. Oouof Lbo boikn-jhiipod ;hriiiu|-M]A. r, Unu <'r ibo 

niyrrap^yHurn, Lintiraui, nm^iflod- (, Porljon of ibc mid-rib* 
fh Slioit iicnr, Ijrnnng « »&nula cnlvdu it}. «. Curtfd 



3. t'lwnHlnriix cam¥i't^iir, Iflnrhfl, nntttnl *ifL#. 

S. A pnrticm of uiw of iht" jiIiiukim ninjrnilifKl- a Tho ealjol*. <■ 

4, One of ihu iHft-rnl nir^ltivOD of AfiitmjiJinriti p'tim/tj Llnr., 

kE|'>w1]V fbik ilin>ad-<sll« laaetion, m^fniiGoi. <i. Thu iippur 

thfl tlirv-iiJ-rtiltK ^'- TUfi }n^M Ijitir, frrmi whirh rh^f a mabiMd 
prfWMot nrif^ r, J'Ll? rommoa flvsli, fri^m the oiiter liiycr <^ 
vlurli tlLi> »nrcopCj]« ir\kt9 IIa origin. tJ. Tliw cliiUiwu* cuu 

oftho utreftThatn- 

BbcHiritf ori'.i uf lIjd OJiiirlmJiJ prucnaw^ n. Tlie upper Io1>c 
viiFi tliiv*tii-crlU. ^. Tbcriicnnli;^ pntftwi. r. Tht^lcrniinal 
oup*bK|4iil diKDiW in vvLIck iLc lDbij« OTD ]uiit;f«d> y. The 
ijjii-riur tubtilar i:hiiinbi.'r. 
(L PoTlinn nf n ptnnn nf O^i/iutit/'mtt pttntnififfnii , G. O^ Sm^ 

luid one buh>w lliD ciUyctc. a. Tlji: a^iuitl nUitLnouR ci^p. b. 
T(it^ t1i>iibUi hficl bxt'-ri'ili> Tt^tiik, e. X\iv vnlttrgvd ciipituliini^ 

C^nifLiniflfr tbrcml-celk 



Bt RICHAKIJ A, niOUrUH, K.A. {t;i»ll.MtTQ»j, 
iii>M&A&T nuow to' nyo'4 tvttMi!. LDinw^C} ivtiio& or "tat 

ON Dt-ccinlier 9 of t!ii^ ;ear tlie iii^jtiL im^ioTbuit lutUoni 
mioal «v6at of the preMnt century will uke p1a<^. 
VoBUi will pom in tnixuiil acroM Ui« Taoi^ of tht^ «iid, aHoMLUg 
thuf the tucann of dctcnainiDf; h«r ovm duitonco and thcnco 
the di:rUnco of the txtOt the fuudAmcutal eteincni of iJjiqcid* 
signal adtrooomy- It ia tni^ that another tnm^it will occur 
(Sight ^«ifB hiltr, jel lJi(? ciii^vuiuit&iivt^ iioL Ijciii;; Ihtn ao 
&vourabl« as th«y will b« nexf B^c'mbvr, tho Lraxi^it oi th« 
prcflcnt year rctaiiu iU ]>DfitioQ u the most noloworthy utroDo- 
mical evdQt of the? ninfili^alh century. Mo«t of tbo rMtlors 
of Uie iV)rrLi& Sas^fCK Ketteit arc douhtlosd &wiiro that tlie 
drouiii5Uiico4 of the two tran^ita kavo be«n the ooca^boti of 
ooiuidcmble cootJorcrfy (in which 1 li&rc nDf.>rtuiMt«ly felt it 
my duty to iMke a lu-go »buv); and comr miy feu* that tbft 
oircumitAaoM of the ooatroreTrsy are to fonu tiie siihject of (he 
prefect fwpoT. That, however, is not inypnqiow. Cootfinpr*y 
cim cnly bo juftifiod when miqc useful purpose may bo fultillod 
hjwtsatcif itj Ail tliv it«tal>ll>hfnf of »orm} new truth or tho 
reoof[xiiUoii of aome new method of re«carcli. When th<-r« It 
DO mcfa reason for dEaousifoii or irgiim>^t thd Irue Lorer of 
raeace IB bouDi] to avoid cotitr^>TcrBT« o« ncccwvily IcfldiDjr 
to miKchvvniK H'^iiliA, iiiLfxktiipiTiitiird^d (in the caw mppo«4<a) 
by any f^iii citbcr to knowlci^Eo or to our mean* of aci. 
kno«]edgtr. I do not know. Indeed, UiAtconlrovHriryiftjt.'-H-.. . 
et«n wher« it tends to cvtnUi&h ttomo now truth, if UiAt truth 
u ono wliidi muKt in the loftg run m&ke good it* giuund; in 
meh ft coie (m, for cxAmpI«f tn tbo ewo of ray riew* rv«p*ot£&j[ 
this ooD^tituUan of the beareas) I prcftT, for my own potU to 
lot th« matter bddo it« time. Bui ia tbe «0Dtj^Teniy about ihc 



taoiit of tlifd year th^ elemBnt of t]iii« was conc^meJ in fluch 

■ireff that it was impottdble to wait boyood a ccrtntn point, for 

ll* wmtioTprajr rclfttAtl to ihi* rlioiof' of trii^JidilK for iibsr-rvinK 

u ovcot which onuld not hn poitponod. 1 hikd, thtfre^rre, ii<tcA 

rcastm, nfttr waitio^ fftnu 136fl, wheii tbe cimller was CirtX 

mooted, to the spriog nf l*i73, some twenty mrtnthB Ix'forp the 

tiaoat vBfl t« tiikf? place, for itrging '^i" Ttrws ^liicb Mcmcd to 

^zi« ooTToct, ftnd whkh bftvc ttiiou btayn admitted by nit to be >o, 

Hpflanie!(Uy And as piiLlicly Jti ptr^Mble. But !hi iiutiii iu tbc 

pQta« came when th^ ^asX chfui^ei bad beeci made, and the plan 

of operaltonji definitively decided upon^ the ducunlon of the 

'>riginid nohcmt- or of tbo modifit^d one, nnti thi! oonvidortttiooi 

of difiLdT!LQtai;i::i whicli would liavia rciiulicd fiom oiic« or of 

idiantagw wliicb mi^^lit h&v^ he«n oT:4aiDi?d fri>nL yet more 

<it<aim tnodilicAtioLLS, wa* bcnccfoith improper. Gertuiiily 

thay wonid \v^ jjofiropiTr on mj part; nor do 1 IhmV that 

the; hiitory of thisi matter recjuircd tJiat Any AtrtRH Ahould be 

laid bj others on mbl&kej whieh have been in the m^in eor- 

roet«di or on tbo thictitcnod ]<t^9 of opporLimitios wbich will 

nnt now h<- nllriwnl in p;i4j: nwrty iiniiti'li '>'(!. 

For fortunatdy ufarplL-uaantcriiLik than anyon whidi I Uavo 
Lttbrrto beien enga^d in (.-uurkeE^fion with tlie LnttiMt of 1874 
lico now before me. 1 propoao to doeoribi' hovr the v&xioua 
nations wljich tftWn pjirt- in »tf-imitifi(? fpflMrch propcise to take 
advastogc of th« opportunitiee pToncnted by the approaching 
tmnHit ; *nd thcs UJc t* a plen^ou.^ one, K'CJiiiBf there if? Ee-art^cly 
a riofrlo point of vanta^a in tbo whole 6eld of opcrationit which 
will not be adequately occupied. 

Lttt iu in tho firfft plnco coDnider tho mathod^ available for 
obwrring tin? approaching Lnuisit, then the regions wb»ro these 
miom mctbodd oao be moet suitably applied, and locUy tho 
diapooitionD made to oecupy iu suitabl*" force ihose fav^iun^d 

lti« hardly neoe#aary to enter here at any length Icto (Ji^ 
prifioiplM on vbioh tht.' dL't^^rminatior: cif tl^o inn's diEtance by 
iDeuts of tJio observatlou of Wuuh iu transit, depends; because 
the whole Hubject hft» been nTroady very fldly d«>alt with eUe- 
vWejtiMl u autKciently iimplc The following ;nert? outline 
of Um matter may, howev&r, he permitted. If lwf> ohB&nrera, 
Mparatf^ by a fiufficiaot distanoc on the earth, see Venus in 
transit at thn snme moment, they udU aee her diec proj^^ted ou 
the different (lart^ of the ^un'ai face ; and it ii manifeei that 
if tbo diataniio Wiu-oi^n th^t twu ob«wvers on the earth be 
knonif th« dieplaoemi^ct of V^nua on tbe snn'a fncc, if obaerved 
with viifRcient accuracy, will give the means of defining tb« 
diatoDGO of Vcnuf, and tbcuoo (by Kepler's third law) tha dia- 
timoe of tlui mui. 



Thiff b tl:c method whioU itt vomotim^s known a* the 
mt^lliuit. It iudiuaiea Lhi^ circuuiatuEiCET nlikh lj<<!£ At Ik 
of all Iho tnctliod£ of obaerviDj^ the truDSiU Tbo 
involved in thin mrt.hod nre-. nafiicienbl; maDiGesL IVo 
tionn, in orOer to be broiij^lit into companAon, eauit be' 
i'ither At tlic- Eitmi- inntjint itf ;ibH>1uti* time, or nauiy 
cx:ict ditTevc-nce of ikl>«o!ut« tim^ beia^ kDonui and 
oliftr;r\crb axt^ at oppi>bi1t^ partfl of tbe o&rLli this von 
\fl1vR« the neceesiry of 1ht> acoLintto linUrminfttion of tbo T 
tudu uf each ttAtitm, and of Ihc locst time of tach olwnsUML 
Moreover, the determination of the exaot poftitiou of Vcitii»jB 
the suD'fldiMJ ib not only d taak of considemble diffic 
itdoU, tn:t, inasmuch aji it rcquirci timr, ivliilo V«nua it 
whili? tfii^vllinf; oiawonK the poEtitlon of Vchili nt a&j 
tuittaiit h3a to be Inferred from observations tiot uti 
tilftt iluUnt, Aiid if thu8 not in rcrality a din^t i)«.-termiaA 

Tlmf^ coTmiilcriitloiDL led Ifnllry to d^vi^ hh now fj 
method^ in ^vhich an oWrvntion of dmntton in v^ibititutcd 0br 
the del^rcuiiiulfon of pt.Hition at a ]Mirt[eiiUr £rii(liuiL If M 
cWrvt^r at a. northern station timca Voniu' ika she Invtlrt 4liil( 
n rprtnin Mioni, it In*r.ritni'j: iiosBsibln In dHorminr thr p^riflt 
of the chcnl ; j^o iil^o thr pcMtinu 'of tbo obord nlon|; i^likh i 
(uiillif^rn r)hK4!rver uote^ the LtuiimL, can 1ie inferTL<d from Ike 
obei<rvod duration.* Thonco th& dietaroo kietveeti tU« t«t 
chordit cnn be dodiiceil ; nnd thin is prccJ^rly what is rer|idivl 
and woiild ht^ oblainc^d (ii« vrn have Mfrn) for ttc direct flolattn 
of Ujt^ prolixin. 

The dil^eultif^s in HalkVa method aio ^aatly rccogiKiMd 
FirKt, thi^ wlioli? Irau^it R\ttdrr« to bo scon, since Lht* U>f;in8iU 
luid end luvo to bo olw^rvod. At a tmntit mny U«t mrMA 
bonr?, thi» circmn^liuicc Jiitrodticvn n (Utublc liiffictilly ; for llH 
s^ltffsiioTi of etatioQs it Wmtti^d by the tact that, inftUitd of hdf 
thei^rtSi lieiLig a^JiilibL', the portiou of tUe uiilb wlitre tb« 
tvholf^ trnridt is vigihli^ ia onl^' the part oomn%on to th'^ttyi 
hemhphjtrcA vthich nrt^ in day-li^ht at the bt^nning nnd ciii 
of til© traiitit; and, moreover, a ^ition requir^^ to be wti 
placed (SQ as lu produce suilflbk pomllactic di^pluceu^t df 
Venus) hiith at tho bf'^nniiig jind cml^ and tlipre may be w|f 
frw »tAtion» &g aitnntcd. To thiii nuiy he added thr circus 
jitauoj^that it U anteeetieutly le^^ likely tL^I f^ToumUi* roct«a^■ 
oLogicaL condilitJiif will prevail loth &i thi' bt-gfianiu^andatthp 
find of the trnriKit, thnr nt one or nthcf ppodi. Bnl thf*, 
pcrbiip^^ i» counti^i'baLmccu by tbc adt^itnta^c thnt jm oblci^ 

* I hbxe here tftltca »■> ac'^oant cf tbe nrtli'* fot^Lion, and luvo 
oaly of \hi} matton nf VtDLiVji cflntfr, not irUhlit^ lo d^ niik any bril ife 

rcmffb vltfuianu of iXw prcrljlitii^. 

tys m rsa 


' lor th« mMfeftd Dttt 10 W 

4 good Hafk^an Hitka m 
»&d mar b4 (in &«C, tat 
far Dctide > mtkod. 

devted hb OMtbod to taeet tte two ^t^Mttsv bhh 

laof^ to 9ipp1v iriUt pvtimlftr foK« to tW tntoA tit 1761. 
&ctt hi: f^>iind, wiica fltudjiB^ the rooditioot of list ti«iuit« 
It HsUct'c method would fail touUy for it. B* vuggMtsd 
A'ia0t«»il of tbe durfttion of tbe tniwit tbe «b«olnt« timoU 
IcJi \he tr&nciit tieg^D ^^r raded •boold be d<4amiti«d. It U 
that n QorUicm obt^rrrcr K> pbeod tlk4l VcfiiM wouldi w 
%iy htni, travel ttong n oritaio cht>itl, nr ft porlioo of such* 
tlio tr&DRt bcjcia at & dilTcTcot iimo thaswoialdft 
ol«erv«r, from vtioie station sh* voiild mppetf to 
a difTcT€Tit chord, either longer <te ehorUr, acMfdingfta 
,tnu)}dL tiiok |i1:uTn jirnii* tlwf lower T'T i)]>pr-r pivtion of tha 
AC* The {iiltercrtco of Simci m> caoccd voiili be itm or 
AcooitltLg QA i\iv eh^nU v/m iimrcr or Cuftlirr afttrt* 
the <3ot«Ttiiin(itioa en thia limfr-difl'uri^Qoe iovolvee tho 
tniittoii of the dir<tftDco U-twcen the ohonl« In t1ii», fir«^ 
ciily &i iu HtiUsy'tf motliod. And a nmiUr rocaork AppliM to 
tttobHcrvaiiuii of Fgn?si by 1w» uluwrvrrHj otii* n(. n stiitnhln 
uEid rli« other U a utiilobli.' N>utl:«ni utoUon.* 
chief dii^GculLv preHeut»l in Drli?]f-*s luetlLoii cunxUb in 
t that it rcquir«ie tho loneitudo of each fftaLioQ to bo 
uiatclj dctf-niiiiJiM!, EiEid aim Lha CJC&ciincimciit of locfil 
rheoi tlitJ transit h«<^aH or t-vd*, ai tho com* may l>c. Thiii 
^ is aiulo^us lu ►jli« of ihoac alrettdy co:jsicIr?rwl in 
vttti the dinrct method. 

Ij, Chciu rcnutin^ a method which modem progn^fi hai 
mvttlhbl^ vU,, tbo photogrtpUic mufhod. Thi# 
rkred attronomic&IlT, r«c|uirta no ex]jLuft:ilii}T^, linoc 
UMunt* incrrly to tbfl milwtiiiitjnti of photompby for 
in applying the "dirrct mciho<l-'' It rt-movta 
ImI difllridty ooo«id«vd In cl<!ahiijf witli that routhod, 
the tiret uaWucbod, though tho poaailiility of takinic 
^7 phntn^'Taphrt (hiring th9 progmB of lb« t/ftnrit, tnd of 

UkpMil hj thtf pbotognphic raethott 

^^,» b mtMiAtm IUV« mtthtd, I Ivn nTiriwhrf fa cbo 
■mu u« ifaiMiiiai «f tftt dU» 4f V«Ma Of omw A* ofawrvw 
jteta«M Aer<~|n«fV««^iMtr>avwtfe<d|B«f tUau'* 
W—a Bbmir iW BiM^ Bfhg a« M^ tAi — f^ 

xttL— fta LO, a 


ropruLB fcuc5cs nsnsv. 

of a gf»U 

I Ivm Oitxt to tho coniidonition of the plAtu of tlio 
\tiooA Ukistg put 111 Uio obKnnLioii of the tnuiftil of 

To Ani«rioft« 1 conoriT«> the pride of pUce miut lu oil 
bo ^oanxlMl. Sho might rouonably faAV« 
tf with but Ai^A «flWU on tbe occw«& of tbu 
[^b«>muM I he tnaiii of ISffit will &11 pTO-«miii«Dtly in 
lue). But tbo Amencui GortmimiHii Iiae roted a 
(30,l)0iV.) tvt<» AK gr»t u titht wliich bst b««n gnnUd If 
Ofili^ tioventtncAt* for the pufpo^. 'n>fO, ns E ttfA 
■Mtitioned, Am«rto» hai nQder(ak<.*n tJt« inott difBcnll 
aU tlie tvk» vhioh tho proper obiMrvmUoa of the inaA 
iilfirwl becMMLiy, — 1 nwao tho ™^?iipalion of tV 0>w*ft 
UorcoTCTf tlir proLimlonrj iiiTotJ£atioii of the 
Uie Uniiiil by Aiui<vbcan lutiuiiomen in nltogi^i 
contnutix^v fitro«i^)y vilb tlie pTct<«vUi>U3 but 
i^&MuifiMlA ptiblUbtnl by Ui« nfficUl mtrouatDers 
lUoOi vhicb UioU bo ounolMi. 

T baw lielbro too tv* I write the nrioi tif cliirU piil ^ 
tlK' r^uimfMion eppoinUHl to iuveeUtrato ihA^ cixemm^i 
ihtf UiauAU Tbfeo conaiib of f<>ur fii^^l^-cAtMruteil stere'ignpoia 
ohurti tbovinr ttmt bfttniirpboro (mnd u friupo borood) oft tie 
[jMtftti nhkb u lunwd Kuuw&nl* ot Ibc tituo of (I) Jagnv 
■ioT oofttMt, (H) incrne* i&loiiair «^otuct, (3) r^n^i iotcntt 
itaotp ud (4) egnM exterior tumtad. On tlxf^w chuxUiK 
BUirkcd two mum of cuttm, one ouried Uirouf;b poiDte «Imm 
tbo cobtAAt oocurv at Uio ntiv imstimt, and tlut other otirkd 
throuifli jM>iuu vbtio tbr oontoot oocun at tho «ame part cf tbt 
tuif« limb. AfUT n cttreffil itudy of (.<eich cbart (a Rtody u 
careful at U^at vliich I gave to the A(trotiomer-Ro5ml oborti ^ 
L049)i 1 401 able to ]Hrotiouiioc thciD tiu^olailr accurate Itf 
degree of approximntioD whieh the autbuTK oliim.t 
Tbo Atuoriooa aatiooomora ore diqxwd to relj cbkfij a 

* h mu«l be Dotfld, ba«et«r, thfti ooi Goitnoaiot uubekUliaflj C'i'Ml 
tU liiftt th« AOfaaam^nfTel «JieJ. » thnt h vr«niM be alboget^tr iniiir 
to ■cteii the Ikiliib UArmnnt of itiKginwa b tbo amihta, 

t Tbwibe?erjr«UbdiBlaliT«riif>(Jcautth««rKvectiie]|jr iiUiffW' 
UM »f ctjriM for lb* tiaa*»rv«4 in the prcyMrtke, to iu^ii«iuit ooM 
vbkh an wi in tfXlxj titdt* of (ho tei tMt ri al apbtfe. Th* Dni^iist 
error b fmx! oat to be c»n ttua IS', vhjd), ni" (lii: «iuhar i^r 
"bATingivFfiri tA t^ wdo 00 wbUb U»ohlM« ban bf«a oo<«trw^ 
be couMUvod u vilhia the uioeToUiibU oron proloeei by 
dwi^" Tb« ttulnDm imr to fO«r tim* ■» e^Mt whmi tbo 
rf TeoM'A fheJoVHMe ta eltoffolicr w0Mt*d So tb« o«*l ir«7^ 
ta«kkb Uu nsukkv lieiMR^rhUirapof ooa #i|p^ la tb* 
(but*tb4«fKeie*ediMfa«tnl u lo be poMtUte or ei^iv 

rurifixTKoct fo« Tsi T»A»n or vixt&. 


w pbotofCr^)lile EOOtbodf applied at statUm* whert tA4 v^hcU 

pM can bt j<*«it, Tlie ccnditioD iUliLifvd U of Hnrac; 

■pcftacwe u IndicatiDjf a dudnction hetv^pn two pos^iblA 

lotanpikio nieUiod** oac oorrcspondiDg W Dcli^lc*^, Lhc oLher 

|Buky«. The Eu^liMk amu|a;«m4;rji«, f^r Qtumplc;, tueludd 

m ^pluatioQ of photugr^pliy tti the SAQdi^JcL I»bitds, whoro 

IK tL« begi&Din^ cf th« tnoait cita be soon, and at Alex*- 

bift, vbcrc only tbc csd cao be seen. Such photogrApha 

I, of oauru*, <iidy hhva value wbm Ibo ;ib*u]uto timt^ lit, which 

k is token u accuratdj kDOwn, On tbe other band, the 

Mriam statioua are ^ i^lected that phntoi^raphj can bo 

«a tiiroog:hout the ^holc oomtiDUftacc of the troDsit, ond 

My bv indiaiUiig th<f churJit of tr^ULsh, will hnvn a Vftlue 

t|KDaeiit of the exact dvtcrinifiatioti of ubecjlute time; «o 

il, bi ^If the oHgliia! orror of the Att(.i'oiioi[iL*r-^^a] (LhaL 

11^^ motliod &iXi totCLlly in 1871) wo^lU, if not correct^ 

n afliwtHptl th« iipjiliujitjiiii cif Uii- phulo^ntjiliic ns well ju 

ftcT mothod^ FortuniLlc^Iyf lUv Xnu^rifun ^^trouom^^rt) h^vo 

t bwu lUkAled bj iti* utid at &U Lht; aUllund th«y f rupoba U> 

np/t tlio ffbolo tfiuiBit will bo vinblc, &i will proA^atly bo 

10 p«rticalftrly noted. 

n^ plan thL7 udopl Ibr uJioto^iaphiuj> tlm Aim dlfEnrt 
ectially Trom Ihut itliicli Edj-up-j^LU u,il.ron^>mers propow 
Koploy. ^'For tho purpose of oljUiiaing au oalarged imaf^o 
Mt pbotograpLic phitc, wntc» FrofcM^or Hilgaid, cf Woah- 
(dMcribizig tha ordin^iry method}, "the image of tbe 
after bcjfj)e fvrmtrd iii Llie fpouft of tim tdloacope, U enlarged 

At U»»aftiiiA limQl niiiKi fpmark, thnt tt vmna E« tne nltc^thEr proper 
lb* IhilkJojui iljitiODa ill rjuciiii^rr iliculd bo occujiiod hj photogrftphor*. 

inllihl'^ mft1in(1p hiid ivntpyin^ rvniy niKilHblf^ BfAtiitri ; find ft 
Imto bMn a xontlvr to 1m recited, fand nay otio of Iho iwfiotu ongi-* 
n0*itcd bf Sot 0. Ally bcui DcgUctcl 1 uot* ihiobacauwIbeArd, 
KifrlAy In Amaritn, lomo rftth«rVio*fri«Tncn(nTiimuon thn Antn- 
fUjol'* urr^Uj^^lipnHi^ <U«Ir«1iiAt thOdVui^rienmtnboiili dutiMijHh 
tobaefiipfE pArtJoB ui tLe DtjljaluAD n-iriUD. uf wbi<:li tba Soudwicb tAltintls 
I tbo IcAiihg lUtioni. tC vat i)oiibtl»>« n miirnlti: on AtryV p»rl. to *\^ 
liii Uiia Kffiarif fUrcoJy (vrnptr t'^^i*'^'^ f'^fr *^ould be oceupi«d inattfAd 
ElatUfmo »t«lluiitt dUijr<lii'4 luuto jtdviir:liif uuuji ; nnd it wnn flcll that 
^Anrnrin (i4fnin(^iTiAni ilArllnnJ 1a rliAnjjn Lli^lr plnnn Ynt thn Mriipn- 
«( dii* I>eluJcnii region, » rtvff a« tbo otbirr )ln.][(iyrtn lUtianr, won 
illy prop*!. AtL culiioai Ami:riuu) hucaoK^unLy compuv^d tiJr 0, Aiij'tt 
W lAwwoll-toiQwn Hpp^ fif ibo fni whrt bid ImI hi* tail! **Yoar 
moiaieJvlEoynl/' wl^ bv, '^ tt^bo Ij^i" UM Iiik In juI over Jivliato'A mfilbod, 
to aiib Ncfwcomb tj> lote Lid hIhd.*' TtnL 1 nnai ojtitoM I clmuld 
■•a Tery £ottv to Iidtu if«» tbc DoliiUiiiii BtJtiii7i;4 in*uffid4nlly pro 


ropuuB soMXcm vcniw. 

I17 a 1«u or comeni to the dctlred >}», th% |»1»otolMlbgm 
ttv Ukt/ oic callc^il, lem;; lbii» cubfccO to i d i i mrf U 
about four iivcliM. Thi^ plui bM bvoQ wlotx«d Ibr 
pboto^&pljic appamluo to be? uvd bj tht^ Bntiidu Oofl 
ni;d HtiAian txiTlii^ tn^tDmiAaoDod lo obaen'e the tnuH^ 
V«i>u». A diffcrcijl pUn ha*, )wv«\-eT, Ijwo adopted fiw 
American partk^ wirh ihn ritrw ofaroldi&g fionnii* iliffi<^]liin 
wliicL Ibc ioimcr nk-llic-l mar be thought •sit^^cL Thca^ 
t-oGcrivMl to T4^')i? in xhv fiLct that U'^t onlj alt iniTwrfrvl 
in Um food imAf^ an- lhu« ruUrpod, but limt tW ofri 
iapcrfertlAnt of the rnmont are fiUp^nulded. To mrmi < 
objection it «:if dt^-mrd brrt to tnttki! the Ukuettpc w I 
that Uie iutn^ ftffuied in iu prin<^ipa] fnrti^ wonM D» 
further vnIar|-em«nU H^^re anotti^r diflkuky pnwDted it{ 
The t«te0co])i^ inii«t b« fiiriy feel- in l4i<iigtb in onler to gtn 
imago four incTicn in ftiamoUT. Such a itAimfope^ pMwm 
Uh* Ktn, wciLiM K'Hn.-L'ly U* mnn|rnblr!. Ht!noc titp pbui 
dovla«df vtbicd Prof-L^^^or U itik>ck wa* the first to pa^ I 
piacUcal o|Krralion. El conMnt^ iii tUiu^ the long tHcMDpl 
a boniontai poriiion, and r«1l<*cting Ibo sun> mji» into 
objrct-i^taen by lui^u* of x ptan« glaai mifroTt moted 
c]ockwork|*o aa to throw t]i« iaiafE« of tht aun ooiAltn 
ioto tbe tfleacop^. Thifi ucod uoi W done wilb gn«t pi 
fliou, Etiic«, as hnfi Alntndy been aid, tb« Ciui«i of oxpoAR' 
cactvdinf^lj itnalli and tht mirror con at any tiiuc be lu^iua 
It i« obvium that,, in tbii amugcment-T ai much dtrpi-tid* a 
the perEoct fiffur« of the nairror, aa in Uko otbtr upiMi tin 
the onUrging Xciu ; but it ii, doubt1e«i, an advtattg* ^ 
difTercnt mT(h<xb nbould bo employed, to loo;: at a puffic 
niuuW<r of ittuliuvn are occupied to tfive an itidf-pi-^dF^t t« 
lor thu nui'ti distance from obMrratioaa by each tncltnid al 
iiinoe such nnly cjin bn ronddprpd «b etrietly comparable. ' 
con<Lition u amply fullillcd by the abundant pr^tviiion nAiA 
tbc Ammcan fioVL^rnmejtl for the obwrvation of tlie impot 
cveot in protprct.** 

I may ieiittrk,hovreTer, that Profcaior Nenraocub, with Wl 
I bad tbo pkftfurc of a coiivcr»tioii reUtivo Co Ibc mh, 
ntl^w.lwK vr-ry ij^*nt UnitnUmejp lo thn advnn<a|ce« of 
Amcrieau incl1i->L Ha rL-ui^rkol that by eiuploylci£ 
uM-tlmxl the a^innnnrutir b eVAUod U> meiuMm- liie diataiK 
Venus &01U the rm** centra linth an exact kiv^wied^ of 
vaUie of the flniin<iwl diaUinor. Wauvt, Un- focal Irn^ af 
tole^aopo being knnwn, thi- vah-i- c-f any diietancv indi^aM 
the food imafv U at utjctf i^ti'iuuunl. All thai la necaai 
then, b to d«Lcniiiiio Ihc cen1r« of tlie AoUr iin.i^^r, whTUi 
be wifely done by meafUKuicuU nude from the limh. Mautfi 
*'^otogmphie vObcta affecting tba puitiuo of tba liml 

FUTAKJkttOKa lUU niK TlUNtlr O^ TtSV^ 


h» ]ilx>tognph could ftpprociablf nfToct th<* <Utorinin&tioi) o( 
k centre?, cvco tl^ou^h nucIi i-ffrctit ui-rr not iib»p1ut43lj 
aifomi all round. BuL in Uio onliimry mclLoU of phot> 
nLpbfn^ tbu d^teriuiiiAtiuu of xLv lur-ili^cm^ce of Venue tVom 
^ ccotrc in not rvlinM^ (in q probk-m of ffudi extr^OM 
eUcut). l>ccftioc the t^timtttfl'i dimfTt»ioii» of tlic fclor imo^ 
lild not b« accurutfl^ dctiTuaintd, white tin.* cUcrv^d 
mcfudou, hc'ins d^t^nuiced fmui flic pliutuicitpliic limb of 
mn, vonld bo fttTwtcd more or Jen by photognphlo 
mdinti<tn. No apparent aharpncM of tim limb cto lender 
FTTftin th« fact that tlv limb in tUo plkotogmpbie ijnngQ 
•rr««pondM Ki the tru« Hnbr limb, I iniut«oni<«9 tbiit Pro- 
NrwrombV rpnsoTjlug s^vms m me Irri^fViUble. It will 
olMcrvrd tJut it dor » iic*t drpcud nn practicol or fochnicaL 
\ed^ of pboto^raiiby* ^inor tFn- pLoioj^miilik irrnilintion 
NmonstrvUf €xiftt«f und it deiuoHiBttitlU \uriaiik' in Amnuut. 
1 k convvrwt.ion willi Dr. If. ]>rijHi, i*f NVw- Vurk, wJms** 
perioikcc in tlicwc mattcw »» wdl known to bn um^urfae^icd, 1 
nl Pmrc^Aiir NrwcuniVn doubU full/ eoiilinui-d. ll JH tiuc 
Dr. Hutberfurd, ^ho»o ([reat prudtcjl t-xpthenco in tol&r 
pby i;( tLDi:[iiettiiJi)ed, upi^rrirfl wJtb lij* rminent British 
in 8ucb work. Dr. U<>! In Kur*. lint Uicn it i$ to bo 
iLctimI tbat Ixttb ItuthoiTunl iukI ]>o \a Uxiv vU-^v tbo 
4^ as photograph(^r9« whil<T NVwooiub (iiid Dju[ht \i(jv it 
ail ii^Lroriimutvil «i:iiMl|ii.»ii]U a:id iti lliir« aw? ibr jutmno* 
cal, not lb<.< pboto^uphtc rt^latiiitid, uru clitvfly in qiitation. 
do not wact li4udNjiuv solar picture-^, but pkturta wjjicb 
br c<ftitid(^ntly in^nsTirrd; rtnd ccitfttnly tbcr j^lan adopted 
AiQcnciUi afHtitJiioiiuTH lA ihitX. wlacli br»t mrit^ (hiK 
MDeaU I miiv adj thai a vcty tniiufiil Amoiloan a*tro- 
r, apcaKii^i; tu me ou tbi* subjttt, umdt' tltisi ttroii^^ remark* 
T4»gird.,tb0 pboti^grKpbic mMbod Hdop!o«l by Ih^* BiiUfb 
Dotn^nt at iiivolvirg n mirfnkc a^ iai^i a* Airj's orijpnal 
blakfi vuuld havt^i Ucu if imorretted, " • 
Tlic pru^riimnu of tlic Aiuc^ivaa exf^i'dltii^ni \a aa fi^llowa:— * 
t par(i(K will Uke tbo ii^ld, iliic^ in the northerti 
he-je, ** whtTc tbe mctcorologicoi c^mditiomarc Mipposcd 
Mou-wlmt moro favounibl« tliau ui tuirtviuiiiding ittaUons 
Uit! tfoulhci'n ]Lf!ini«ipUeiv/^ wbcie tbort- will Ijc five- Tb*i 
ikonlK^m 8iolioii)i will] be (I] nt VWnohtck, In Siberia; 
V) tt Tim-I^LDi. in China; ami l3) ut r<>rir n« yet undetcr- 
iiwd place in Jn]mti. OHgiiiall}', in ri->pni(*i» tu the ttmugly 
mmcd yrtph oi the A^tr(J|]om1^-l^|}ld ibat two DcIi.Ocun 

* Loid UadM^Ti it it t<:> ^ noltJ, will eiiip1<]_v ifto atoic mciLod lu l]i« 
DfiiriD RutrDnomert, x'lfT t^ictuWy ta*zlll^^ iu n wiIcb of phLiio^mphic 


fom^Aii SCIB5CE nevisw. 

atatiotie should be cccupi<^, ot»c on tke f^ndwich loUtidf 
niid Jinolliprr iit. Tnliili, Hir AirfHrfitiv lIiLHt^bt uf 

ffatloD. But ftlfK-i* (Jj«-ii ihf \^fa of hariBg an^ 

irmuiningMHlimiAnTi^ nil Ui lir iti lhr<HiulJirfni H^llt-jran 
tlio iidjcqitAlf^ manning ol' wlicuh I m^^ ^ wauTnly tut 

to eoBv*y tli*» \4irions soutli^m olt^ervitig |Mintfi« lo 
rtationis'' Hiilo'l rn*ni Nt-w "i'orlt diijing U«- fir:*! work liF 
And iit **to 1^7 in pTArivif>fi« a( C^pc T(>imT at v«ll aa & 
of littiK r^>r ihf; lake; of tlirir c^g%, wljmvitb to albumcoi 

t»bij1^>j>niph p1&t4». ThoD n paity will, wo^ther penoitti 

con^iitk-ns of the? wind ncoowtotlioCroitt lnlimtlK U im 
euougb J>Ic^vi^ioIlal will btr k-ft with Iht ohsfrrver^ aikd 
priaooierd^ to lajt themai wbole year- From Kergvolew tlw» 
Trill saU to IloWt Town, tlienou to Kluff llarl<*ar, in Se» 
Zealand, and thnnco to Clmtlinm I>:1anrf, ihu lost tontUfro p*hA 
of ob»cnation( which is rith'^'r uDiiduil>it(,'f] ox ^Lie inhabotw 
cannibaU. Hi>t« (Le fSr^rofura uill rt-main tfll ih^ i 
over, aud will thcD. ili'? p^Diiblc ^lunibals allowiog, rcvi 
vnrious fLtattopfl tn tnkft «p tho diffirTviit pnrt-i«, mppMh^ 
them io l»o iotnd." " Koch lintion will he provided wiUito 
priTitiTiid fTin^runn-nt!* : The phntngnipliir ti'h'*ft>jie jftA 
dcftcnbcd, uiih it 5-incU ohjecfc-j-kw <^>rn-ctod f.>r ibooietiiJc 
ntjg, mid fijrty fett fi^f?al length ; a rHf^rop<* nf fir^ iwfcei 
npcrtijro nud fight, fc^^t focal length, (^nfttorinlly mounts fc< 
Lht ohT<rrviifif>n <if irrkutiL<*tK ; a UiuiHJt, irnlniinent I'*r thf 
ciotcrmination of tinif^ and £eo0nplucal poijition ; and u 
astronninical rlock, Tli« t^lescf*pe^, liot.h vir^tinl and pTwlo- 
graphic, haT<i boea ordered from the w»:lMcnowTi tirni of -Uf»t, 
l-brk. mid Son*, whn hiiv*- ji[*l. cr>nip!rtpd nnd niounlrd * 
WaahtngtoD th(* grviilort rcl'rn<-L:nif tcJciioopi; in the wcriiL 
Although the ])hoUi^]'jL|iliro method i^ mainly rvlied vo, UK 
4;yo-oh8erva1ictifi of iilj^tl'^ and c^^ro^aro not tc bo ti^t*ct(d, 
and it h pr[>pcMvl ttj stipplenK^iit thErtn by mf^uiiring dv 
riistAnoc-s of the ctifpa vhilci tho plnnrft in <nitmng tho tfiA 
dim! ;md It^Ji^iii^ k." TliiK lul jioiiit f n-.fc>rd a^ om tf 
oxtTcme ltI]p1>^tn1lGC^| UA "vrLl) hi* i^nthiTed frrm mr retmiif <o 
the buhjei-t in ** TIiu Sim/' and iu thi? MoiitJily Notices oF lb* 
Aiftx-nomicftl Society, \'M* xxx. p. 4C fi s»], 

Whilr nil tlir AmfrTiMii »tj;(»m*, a* well norlheni •* 
Aouth<-ni. im> Hallcyan, tho KiitfliKh i;taUoiu vcrc for 1h« mfii^ 
pait hehyrLrd <Jiii^iiJhlly slh Di-lialt^ii, Til fwcl it iH « ratbtf 
starthng cirenrastanot* that the Astronomer-Roy al> in ^ 
onginai ddcription {MuuLlily Ifoticesi vol. xxii« pp. 96, 51) 

rscTAtiATinstH ron inn TiuKffiT or v^tif^ 


tf ihoM amocg thoEn which r^aUy ara Hal]<?jfiQ as in>)l a« 
MUeaiit feil'^i Ut ni-dV*' nliat. hotli nign-*** iwd <'gii'»« cim be 
dlMrvod, Uk! htrjm^o di;ir1« UlitHtnLtin^ Un pnpcr not Aogp^- 
fQf[ in luiy way tluL simh i:^ ihn cHse. Kiglit »tuli[iii[* hiivo litwn 
pKi\idcd ?or by Ibe Hi^mi^ Govi>nimont,(tbil<> ono w now provided 
lirlij Ui« Indifiu Gt^fT-^iiJLJL^DU Onguially five itatioQ^ wero 
I* Imvo IiO'^^i oci?Li|'U'iFf :imi nrklrlv fnr tha application of 
Ikeli^Ic'i inrtlKut; nttil thti iri^imi in North Iiidii, for trhich tha 
IniUan Gijvi^riiriioht w;U pi-ovitL*, UikI tj'.i'ii cwrloukt'd altop^tht^r 
iMuoUilj Nutk>t\ ^d. iix. p. 37>> 1ii^*iii;^ titri^^oljf uiuUIrd 
frwj the charu illuftritmg <Sir G. Airy'n ptpcrr. 

It 13 vrtl to noto, fij^f, thi;t nmpEc pn.ivi^ion lian been nrndt 
hr the apnltftitiou of IVliKVt method, Ko K*« thim Ihr^ 
^tlioaft will bo ouctifjif-d io tln.^ ^loup of Hit* i^aDdwidi Ulaads, 
Vbfre CtpitAtn Tiiptnnn {thf liond nf ihi> pnliTp ptitprprit^) irill 
lic rtfltioncfl. Hfrc pK*>lotrrapby will hi^ upplini «prctnJl7 to 
ike detenu initio 11 of tliL' iii'^iri'^TiC f>r iugrc'i*. by m uoiilrivuitco 
d Juuttcn^A (improv«i by Do Li Hue) caaUiui; Iho photo* 
^npAi^ to takp siiiy snr(*p*#ivr pictrin?>i nf Ihi* ingrpts. Under 
Uptoin TopmAn'A commund will Ic l.inrtcnnnE^ Jinnrndcn nnd 
-Xublf, Awl 3M<imr*, JoliriKOTi, Fi^ilic**, uTid IkrniicK'. The ob»&r* 
mioo of atctk-rated ititfTifea ha3 btvn wi-U provided for* 
Qfi^blly Hs fttimtf of tlR> ILiJl^nn i^t^itiniih iir Japnii and the 
tofth-c&flC of Aaiq arc LiccUcnt for this piin^^ nXt/o, 

Rflardpd ingTi-:« will bt* oWtrnd at Kftrgiirlr-n'* Idnnd and 
fiodriguc^ According; Io tht; piiMisJir^d ritAtcniL-nU there ^ill 
le Ivrii nUtiouK *fu Ki^n^irlen's Ivaiul^ but Fr, P^^rry, who i» 
chi«f in tlue ri<<>'iort, ha^ powc-r to &£a^ one party to Hunrd 
lilsod if fi kHdit»i»; ^hi^l! In: finiiul to lie prsicticiibk'. The 
tW^ Etatiojit^ hi.<-ro uro nil llnlleyim aii wrU nfl UcUjI^oOt 
tile tthoU^ Lnui.-iit Ui-iug "lodt fuiiiiiTnUy vinibfi", ft. i* wHl, 
Iherelorts Itt note iba! snipto provision bae bcwi mady for 
ffhio^ Hallov^ii mi'tbod. as woll as for pb olograph iti^; Llit; 
■Dofc projpfPto of th<^ traimt. Thn ohflf rrcrB under Kr- Perry 
ill bo Kf. riiJ^rr-aYrf, Ljciitcimuta Cuibii, OtMidiiilj^i?, ami 
okci, ;in<l >lr, J. B. 8iiutb. At iWri^iu-v, Lieur^uaanlA 
Qle and Uoggao, zmd Mr. C. E. Btuton, will be th^ ob- 

Aeodcntcd c^rc** will be obacn'ci:! at Chrintchnrch, New 

nland. by Major Palmer and LieTii<?nant» Darwio aiui Craw- 

•d. Tbii station, Ukc the rftAlioii» for obBcrviti;; retarded 

p9n, is Hn11?y!\n also, aiid 14 new well provided for aj a 

ition for obdcning tho whok tnuiidt'. 

BrtnnJoct egr*!** will bi» t*b¥trv<*d at Alpinndrla by CaptAlne 

fo»oe and Alney, and >tr. S- Hunltr. 

Th^ namn of tlie olserwi-fl -it Pc-fihawur, In Xorth India, 

ivo not been publUbcd, b\it it h known th:^t iho whole 


lOrCLAU «<:1LX< K StVIEV. 

Lnadt nOl be ol«cr\«d at that EtfilioDt and phot<<giD|J:iy 

.^npLoy^d- I may 1>^ ^nrmLtu>(t tf> not*, iti pft«ilng, ttMi t\yi 

ftppronchcn nmdo trtivarfN the cniinw nt)ir KC^tiiaU^ adcfte^ 

U'Lim I pomttsl Lo I'ettbawur aa a station wbicb oii^ht ul- 

duulitedly ti> lie occupi^i &t firet for u>mc inoalh» ooihiog 

ivas (aid or liono ; tii«ni « phntop;rapkic ninlioti at D^lht toy 

, BU^cste<l, Peshhwiir WiDiiE «ooiU<>a; tlinu tbo locde vu 

^diatig?:! to IVdhamjr; IniiUy (uiid ^(Uite rec^mly) il vrunh 

souuccU that cot^latt ob^rvationn bad be«i amply pr<rtid(d 

for, so thnt in ihn long run, i>t about Marcb 1m7I)- vlinl [ 

had nilvocatcd in Mu'ch 13€9 %va4 ailoptod to tbr ItCUt- 

Ailbocigl] ;it IV^hauur the wlkde tmntit will U? xitible, ihu 

bUUou ift fcpedatly Buited for tb<f obw^rration of tbe itttfM 

c^j^efiH, bi*i]i|^ for Ihia pnrpoi^ Aiijiorfor fo AJramdHa. 

Thfi t^tnl coi't of the Britieb cipcditioiu, rxclu*JT<! of lU 

Lord LiadHu>*H nUtiun at J^AuriliuB mui.t \jc mcntiocfd it 
tliui connect ion. Tlie work done Uierv will pmUibly U ol 
kvst iL« Tclinblo ns tbfit done at any otbor «lutioDi and (In 
p}tolu^r7Lpbii< pn.*jmruliiiiis ur<', un tlie nholtr, tnimf rrEnjitabt 
Ibaa tlicjfie ndoptetl anywlieio clef- 
It mti_v be mtrnliuiLed, nl»o, ibat Colooi-l r«ni|FbeU i*iU 
procc^^d to Thebee on a private expedition, workio^ witb U« 
Egjptinu purLy ns a volunteer- i 

UuEsia i« {^etioguisbed by the bir^eitrsg nf tbo nucib^r of ' 
MtitiouB sUt will provide fur. *Siie willlmvp imlrwi tbiiu upirtj- 
Mx statioiiHi mn^inj^ from tbe Blaok Sea to ibo r^j^ioa o(^c1lpivA 
by Amcncnu n»lroDomcri in NoilL CLioa* l^ltven of tWi, 
KlatioD* (thu more ('Mterly »oction) will bo ilnlkyna, tho. 
remainder covering ji Imgfi pJiil of tbr; ir^tou wbcQce tbo' 
retardf^d ^i^retie nill be ta\ourab1y obt^ervjible. 

It lias rccmtly been avnotm^cd that tb? Gctthoh a«troiMliefl^ 
will ocviipy fivu Moulboro Ifallovun i^taUoos, ono of tbcaft bcSlfQ 
tbr detioWr; Ili-jiid Itdand. Tbcir origiuiil fniipoie m* ^ 
occupy ono ntaiion in tbe NL>rlh, viz, at ClicfoOf in China, ob0| 
in titc AiuklaTjd IvIaDtJ!^ find Macdonald Icknd* httAdei^ 
(iboio^rnphtr itiition iti I'^^rsifl. Tbcy wjll rely considerably »* 
tbc '^ direct mctbod *' ot obitcn'iition. 

Fmnce will occupy Sve sUlioiw, all Hallc^-an, buying difclinf^ 
tf> occupy (sia invilod by our Aetiouonirr Jtoyal) tbc ibwj 
1>rTli)i1ruii siJirionK. Marrptewtfi, Hourbon, !uid SuMf. The ^etedw 
nldtioutt urts in thi^ Norths China (iwo) ami Japan; in t^ 
SoiiC.1i, GiEuplitll J-tbiTtd jiiul St. I^urn Ivbiiid. 

On tbii wIkJls it may \tv wiid liiat tuitplc proviidnn ho« b«** 
tnndt- for Ihc i>bMi?r\^tton uf th4> riLiMf itiiporiant avtroiMiHiM 
c-vont of tbo ucfiitury. Every region vbcnoe usptid obecrvntio>^ 
cnn \hs umdvj will \m occiipini by obfening jurtiofi, and ii^ 


will U- mndi*. (*f rvny ftVJiiluli!*" mi'llMid." Lrt iiK hcjp« tliJit 
tti^ FucooM of tlio (atprditioDH wiU rtmnvo imy unpl«a«aiit 
fw-oUfvti**nH of former o»uifri>v*-r<it*H. In Hie ivurfls ijf a le^uliiig 
w<vklT j>:iiimoJ, *• If w*>aThcrr and other condilione only fn\our 
thr (i|jM?ncn nt thr ^nn'oiifi »laticm#, vrr. Iiclif^vi; ihiH. nsulU 
will btr obUiiDc<l 80 wili*tiit>tgry ibt to U^vh no tbou^lit or 
ittdiufLtiou iu iuiy 4^iiJirter fur a r**Uiru Uj l««i j)lKifliag <mii- 

• I *houU li*r» Iton flar!, li*nrovrr, lo lioar tfafit photofrnpltic riWtw- 
rLoriA iTvTp lo bfi inid« nt Cnpa Town, I^nrt XfiIhI, ntiil in South KTiuIn^iHrrLr, 
^hvn, thaa^h lli« trtulti 1nui«i( will Im ii»im, tlL« pfanM viill bt proj4Ct«d 

frnm ftn; oihrr nrceoiblv *lAtioD. 




Br A. LKmi ADAU^s MJl, F.ILS. 

Til R contracting cf the nnge and r«t<i1kng grouDcls and di^t^r- 
mtiuri of food and cUmnUs fi^om fur l>ack cc^lo^oal ppocitf 
op ti» UiA pmifuL dttj, Imvc UBi|iiiwtiouEtb]jr iutlu<Tnci<«l not otjlr 
tho bulk nod outmud lupcot, l^ut ftUo raoditiM Ui« bany •keUtoa 

WHh nfiv«Doo to th« Bmt Tribv, vhtch is chly ooe of muj 
«3Liuii|dr«, vc find ttml the Ur^r^t ■iw'ciiiiciiB cpf fcrMiliced JB* 
dividtiuU diACovurv'l iu Euro|>«iu cavonut, ftirfiw«»oiU, EUid in 
bogfl ar« nUtiT^l; luucli Urgt^r tlian ahj iasUaoe amocki; lirlnj; 
■peoteii only von bulkv cxampt^F of Clie grindy bair { t^ /ifnw) 
tatQg cotDparibUv it&d Ibcv fnll rdicrt u i^irds dliuetiAjuoka* 
A ociin|imiAMi bHvetni Lho «uulkT fiWEil cnvc bosi (C^ prfMUf) 
jkivl tlii? brown bear (C arcfotf), vbovai that if n[>t iJi^^ticAl 
^07 were elo*^1jr billed; Indeed, ukiDg Into coiuid^ffiUiMi 
^a rDriiMi wkhIcs bT vhL«b &iui&ab l^vo been pxprlbxl troai 
tboir nnoiptit hnnnti, tlimti DtM-roA goad ctinjtt* to 0i|^ii>w ibat 
tjtctfc lwi> bcarn d-iina a common uiccsctiy, Accoidrng, tbeffi^ 
fore, to lbeBbf>i^ viow it may befalilyadranoedibatUKi g^tal^y 
bear wa0 at one 1tm« c-tainion to Europe and Nt>rtb America. 
Aj^D) coiwidftring lb** rplativn <UigTr*S of forocUx of UtIi 
■pedes — JUid in tl3«*c rcspocUi tbcy dUFcr iqicciliaJlT t%i « 
«ztent — It u v«U knomi that tb« griuly ttf^r is ()r« only 
wbkh Till attaok man mMbalkngcd ; indeed, tbo AT<HiCt browo, 
bla^k, and san bean, Ac-> rarely aisail him, nnU^ whrti pros>edt 
a« in oaae of mn&dm or in piardinc; tb^nr p^m^. Wc taay 
beli«re, tborfrfonv tint primv\ml nun wimlU hn^r wagMl a 
deadly vrar&rc of-aiiul ao conspioooiu «ad powiiful an (raony, 
fLTid vuidd bav4T Pittinniruited Llu^ Enore forociuui Iv^m, tltUi 
loariajc ^^ bfomj bear (LVvfU ai^fto«J to purrao U^ vrnya anil 
fr«^t»-ut Iu ancient tiMitibky tinttl Bilviiix^iRg dvitimti'ti^ in 
Kii ' '^ ' tQ tk fow mounUtnow a&d pcolwUd 

. iwi-FU tLt) brumi and gtii^y bout h 

icATtnAL RibTonr aw in5riiTQunoN or nr^Tt-v 'J5\ 

^1^9^ but Dut BufiGcitmllj intimatv to Icid uaiumlidtd to con- 
sider 1)L«m one anri tbe (Ame Hpecte^, In feje^ of caurrw the 
latter IB ffQptMiori but now aud then individimh of the brown 
xpffH!]!*^ im- mrt with in Xidn, ii" rtTiyt.hlrig, 'uily fcliglitly Ics4 
b(4kj. Xhu«v, hoTv^Trvvr, (irc owrpticiu. wht-ion.i ILt? nrawDP of 
tilt* tJi^al t'ltiuct cavtr licui" (f.^- «jj«l.'tui) Atftn llial Llit- atPrjigrt 
dimfineioTiff of ti^^:* nriirtnl oirnoricd corfiidcrabiy that of onv 
recent ^icrnni. Now lo rctnUnL to thr gmgrnphical mtlg? of 
thti browu bvftr (£/. arvf^M). In Amia it U rpnttkd oviir 8ib«ri& 
anil the HimttUyj. Ou tht* latter ckuun, prolmVJy fiomiiloiip 
sojonm ID tbe nni^^ ro^iona, il« fur h&i become more fulvous; 
himoc tbo Appcllatioii of Icabelbi* imd wbitc boura boston^ on 
tha denizens of tli« Ctuhmcro and inoro ctwtom rftnjio*. Thin 
ftbcrnu^t form of a WE^U-kikL>vTii Tiuijital. Ibu ftir of wliioh 
^nerally rariw from a dark brown lo ewn bUok, Buch af 
obtiMHA in the bears of NortLcm Europe nod A«ia, ia iDt«DA«lj 
iik«tru«tiv« to natiiriltxt*, wlm, ft>r la^k of better icformatioD, 
>ro ofteii compdli-Tl to liCHtJ>w specific iiaimrsun Hluodcr fipitnda- 
ifoufl. A dlM IiglHJ>r coloured varielj {^'. syria/'iti) U met 
TFitb on the moiintnina of EiMtcrn Tiirkiiy ami the Caucasus. 
lu Atnf-nt';>, in the Ali'iirinn JslamliJi fhrrc uw ^ brown nnd red 
bcars/'t »*"Jiich. uniortuiiatelv f >r our warily arc not yet dcKoribed 
with jjrealer af^tiraey; it Ia^ liowi*ver» recorded by Sir John 
Kichai^jon, that " the barrt-d Innds lyiuj* to tbt* uorlHward 
unH i>n^twnTd of rtr^vit. Slave l.aki-, nnd ext'^ndifig to tbe Arolie 
Smu arc frcxjH^'Titm! Iiy a ;ipfcio>« of bear which differs from the 
Aim.-ric-at] bWk b^-iir lu ifj= gn-JitiT ni/i.», prolil*?, pbyMiognrimy, 
loftj^r roles nod tAil, and fr^m tbe iz^tziy bcnir aJno m colour, 
uid tl»e cxinip^iJitivc KiiulliieM rjf if^ dathf. ItA f^rt-ater affinity 
i« witli tbo brown bctw of Xorway, but it« identity with that 
ipcein haw lUil htt-n twljiblithi-tl by rirtiml nnm|)iiri*rin. It 
frvqnt^nti tht* tn^ <:oaiil in tbe autumn in coui^idcrablc numbcri 
for tbe purptjoe of fet^dlci^j nu fi!»b/'t 

* Tbij* fho>tA hiivr f.ntiti'»ih nntiirM^^lA f>ljoi\1rl bt lo g^vliijf i^pi*clfb riAniBf 

Tnuocticffu/ Wol. XT. , ji. 33l| ^m n mutilnlci Ni^paiil apL'CjDi^ci at-nt to the 
UuMnfn of ihfl Initin Houuy cmcmi^rBlni. wnnnj^ olliiT nlmr/LrtJtn, that Ihiji 
>n oiTltJ L\ jAithififmta hai itJi 'Mitu^ otTihU iMid itrui^hL^' Niiw £ hAT« 
Aiot or cuLmiu<:d, [ mny coalidonti) »tnte. up-vrarda of cav Jiuadred sped* 
BUOM, ftnd oiU iiBL'tt IliiLt Uui cUwv oQ ibo fofn fi^Dt nHf fully rurved, And on 
lb» bind f««t that thuy aro cotflll bitlcurrod- Tliu qnoAtion cM^iiim^ilntoJ by 
Ibif dkftiUiTiiiKbrd trivuller ind TiHluralittl nt lIik Iliul- woa, whrlLtfr or oqI 
Aa aboT« bear vns n tTi«<vftiinl«<r Ndw. ^khiu^h ft dw>i not often uMnd 
tttM^ tbu cun'«d oIa^o nr<r of gn-a.t utUity in pfccotyiup it« ftjoticg od 
^■dor* uid tuft or >ii-li1i^]^ tail, tirid on rji;Vj declivities 

t ljin>rml(irir* '* ^'l^3■)^;Tf*J*ft"'1 TravclB," ViO. ii.^ p. 74. 

I '<PtoQa Borvdi Am«tieuiD," p. 91. 

TOrULJU; K1S5C& xsnBW. 

T\ie point, bowcvcr, still luivcttM U, nhcUier or not tUi 
^ bnjrtm-grotinfl btAT** » idfiDtical wSUi IKe bmwn Tv^r nf 
Europe, »Dd wWkoT or not^ in coiijunatioa viib the erizily 
bear, Iho iwo represent Ibp same i^pecipv which w«r« tpteftd 
oviKT Euro|M* in iirchbtonc timc«, ilrfcniog to tpccitv wfaidi 
li&ve c«A»ed trt pxirt: ; nlthoiigh miii*ti n-miiittM U» IvtU^uf^n g'^vM 
deal of TAlunblf^ infonu&tioD boa boon pLiiwd in rclulion tg the 
natiirvl li«1'>ry i>f rxtincrt Warn from m rtwlf of iIm- thjtrvUm 
im<l bal>it« i>f (h« livitif?. Thtin, anaop^ th? iDoet puailiBC 
fcaljin^ in tvininvtion witfi the ri^tnaini nf <<xtiiicl, fboiil bc<m, 
met witli in (avi^ttu, ar<- di^oTt^puncicv in nxe UtIwic^d tbc teeth 
ukI U>iii?h nf nilttll iniliviiliuila. Su la^uk^ i« thU UiAt |hUi»* 
OBtnloj-itU cuiDot behave thnt tl^4'y ti?pn^f«m Urj|;« &od AoftU 
vaiirtirfi uf im^ *j)«Tinii c^nkMiltTin^, lukwrvf-r, ill* Hdvuiitot^ 
vpJ4i}<hI by UkFf progvnitoi* of ihc pri-»&l tribe cf tb^ mrmtjcrn 
AAd till? cgnlnclotl range ftud foud of tlic Uttrr* tbcrc Mreia« 
pioU tvfuoa to sttppoee u lygardd dimenBionfl that tlio Um, 
lilro deci and wveral ctltn animftls bavu abfrulnlcly dtfgm^ 
rBtotI, and am decri^ajtiug iti idvc. Indood, «v-«ryone irtio 
bu I'lamincd tbc rcm&inn of tli^ onocbtcd quadrapcd* foUDd 
aloti;; with tlie fxiiviTO of fowl! beant Uon«t &Dd io fottlt, muit 
bi'licsi' llmt uU tt.'tl buLnpluoutlj in tbo«c dajrA,uid aboaliouMsd 
to Ib4< rmxiiniiTn dimf^nidiinii of llirir »pocle9, 

I found lliat the flimaiUjan browD U-ui wa« nibjoct to muA 
divinity in dimcnnons >o mijeJi *» Ihat ccrtAiv old mftJot |irt- 
•entod Tcmar)c&b]« coDtnitft* Io anudlci^ud ftdvilt iodiviidual* 
of l>oth FovoH, na much, m faot, tn the bony akeleton and outUtM 
of tbc vmni»l fidgc» aj in coloratjon; morroxerB ao nuirluM) 
ore theM^ dU(.'r«j)iind4% that mpjHMing ihHr »k<>l<-toiifi b*d 1>60ll 
found in a fottii itate, tUi^ cr^ntptinitit-t; aiMtoniift could rcaiotlf 
be blamed vbo pronoiuiced tbt-iu to boloo^ to diflTervot •pocSo*. 
At^iOt 1 fonad tbtt the largvtt or pat^Unb beora an more 
luldioTnl to pancing Ihi-tr Inttrr dayn in cavemA ilinn »re 1lk« 
joungi'x and nyiru ttfljrt-. Tliia ifiu d^mowtrntrd by tlio 
appeoraDcea of thi*ir ri*tiedit«, whic^b nn- imrt with It* Hvhidod 
IDMitit«in for«it^ ^brr<t th-? dfn i>i qIUuUmI dtht-r undctr b 
ibcKiug precipice at in (io rock, from wbenc« t]w uvmitr 
dciconda daily to tbv rwarrl U'lnvr, wborrs after brovna^ until 
miil^yt it i« a babil of tlie iuditidual tn ivpuir t<i tbr nriglw 
boiiriii^ Rkfiogf tifcnally f]i:iii<d hy 1r««i, and wallow in the mixldy 
vator- In oonfvitU''Tiri.- I hr m^v* t^( ttuflu pooti an- lirjitrn and 
p1aitcrc<l lik« a U^^vir-iUm, Vflulri ftrm thp inaTj^in bfldrng 
tovardt 1\k: ilf-n itre divp jnjprruiiiiu in lb<: turf, c^uw^l tiy ibo 
animal oonttantly troculi»t; in Ibe ktuuL* footprint*-* Thua 
it pursuca tino 9>'tiu lOku: of its vraj*, b^benmiiog in tbif livn 

* Adtbfr, • VaDaMinci oT a ECHviClit la bfa," p. 24L 

KJkTUUAi, KixniuT A3(D m^raiiiiTrici?! or niCAn.*. 


forncarly Tialfthp yeiu-, !ii\d dmdiag tike remnimler lic-twtN^ii n 
olreitnuoriti^d t'ociliDg ^ound and the prxili until* dyiu^ in its 
Iiir, dip bcidy i"iflirr fnimljlr^ intn <|p<?njr, or U purtly or ^n~ 
tir^iy coT«r«d cvur by t^alcnrocniH drijipinf;^ from l.lie r<wf £>f the 
CftveTDt or by ddhiin waalifd iti fruin lIit? ilt^oiijiijKitihg ■urfncm 
above or nround thf^ exU-m^l op*>]iirLj>, Upon tie top of tbia 
^i;po)iit oUirr gruf-mtlL^ns of In^nrf^ ini^bt ^ppofir And dtsappeojt 
and BO on f>r o-jfc^, tJi<^ rctrrnt txtcomiji^ irithcir the nbodo of tho 
"pjuturi^t femalf% or tlw: Kylk^nrittni^ dru uf i>up or mjvny in- 
^iridtisls. I>^l MF ae^ bow «iicli dat^k apply to byf>ono rpoohft, 
as diflplayud in tbt^ Anclmt. bone cdvcnm of Ku^luud. 

In Um rci^Kut on tlie crxplomtioTi of Brixham Cave, near 

ToTfjtuiy, Dcrotinbirc," Mr. IJiwk ho* df^tf-rminiyl, from dovia- 

tionB in dental oLanioler>d and niic-j what Uo believes to lx> no 

I«M than ihrte spedea of bconi, vi*. th& (jieat oavo bear (i/. 

mpft^WMs), tbp ^zaly b«ir (V'./f.y'f>x ^oM^thn), wid th« common 

brown brar (t^, ardfi* vrl t^ prwnijT). Onr circuiiiflonc« 

Oonseet^<i vith the iirsdn^ r«TQaIn» «tmok him m rii>markablr>, 

&ud IbAt Wft^ *^ tbif number of Liistanci^fi in which boncti obvi- 

Ottnly bf'longlii^ ti> the skeleton of ih** rarw* niittmil wrro found 

collected tfigothcr in ono *pot.,*' th>a iiirlicutin^ t4iflt the 

mrcatiuu hwl lhv>n either eonvr'yed inia tbi< cavern by otbrr 

oamivoros or tlmt tho bvars li^ died thi-ro. Ak^ih, vitli 

reference to thU andent British emporium of ^itiTi<*t nnimaJa, 

ffe find him adding, "There can be little dotibt thnt nmon^ 

Ihtfi beam' rtTlii"-*, iw with ibow of tlir hy^rj;i, unmr iit buwt miiitt 

ham bclonjfed to unimnU which hiibitually it«ud th<.- cavr-.m a* 

a place of rd^ii^, atkI Mpeclally, perliaprt, at tlie time of pzutu- 

rition, and whoa thoy weie imrting their yoim^.'* 

\u furl ] in j^iijipcirt of iJir- Utlrr fclAt-i'mcnt. il inny Iw ob*<*rvRd 
that tht' jouiifj un* iiivuri:iMy brjrii bolorc: tho iiho-tH.^r Icnvcx 
b^r wmtur ivljt^ii).. and Ibiil they uE\i.-u uocrjiiipajiy Uie [MU'etit 
for two yeanu Of cmirsf*, a 4len or cavern may at any lime 
Ix-roTO*^ the rrtrrat of divfrrK carmvoroiL> ({iuulrup<*ilA; much 
dcpi^ndinf;^ on how the various sort;* prodomiuttte, Tbiw, forin- 
ataiicc. In n coimlry wtieri* Uonsi ti;fer!i. byunaa, bcivr*. aud W) 
jbrtJi are eommon, it mi^jht jiiat happen that one or other will 
retein alt^rnat* pnwc^sion of the irtrirat And drag its prey 
thereunto, no that tbt- tiuviii- mi^bt gi-*t inti»rrain^led. In 
Grriit Uritain. in thodayflwheaaucbcaveHa*Kirkdidi\t Uriacbam, 
Settle,; the Gower CavVij of South Wales, and Kent « l{ole,|| 

• '' Philowi>hlfiil Tmti'uicti'Mi*,'' voT. oUlili p. 471, 
t IliicklHid, *' IMiqiiS/i^ llilflviiuiip/' 

t Cidconvr, *' l*A]v(iDtL^L^>;ftL;Al Mfii»oi[fi|" voh ii,, ^ 035. 


TO^LAIL #CIE3:c^ ItXTltT. 

wero tenants by mtd (^oadruftvdf, laasy of vliid) Are eUb«r 
now aniDct or Iiavc bora rcpeUcd to dirtkut Und^. it ftppean^ 
if wemre to juil^ rot only from t]i«r vnricty bat tlso tturdinacoi- 
flioos of imtiiy of tli«^ rcxcaiiiA, tliAt tlm Britif^ uc* UieUi whe- 
ther itthiilir or conTieptad with the CouUnvnt, wu ovcrnm bj 
the l&rgt:r DL^immtLlia, to vriU tbc lion, liycna, ie&r, de<er, hip|H^ 
poUniLu, rhiDoccTOfl, olof^nnt, ojc, nnd bjson, not to vpduc of 
bo«t« of smaller m&miDali. Now* on ibc JiimiiUyu iho ^it€ 
prif<i:1alury qiiaiiiiip^L< huve more or U*4« & ban) rintggle for oxint- 
<Taeo, owiDg to tho comparftiho |mucity of, and diBirulty in 

Emoitring fiLjlit-Ut^-nc!^ rw <HiTnjnrc-cl \iith Up-t^k of Afef ft&d the 
kc in iesf til^iafs tiinniiovt^ Thit plantij^radci>carise«pcciAU)r 
jiln LJtKid^jmta^ tu LliiH re^iieL^t, utnl wi< iirn] iiot lbiTi-fi»n^ W 
ttftoiueb«d to find tbitt. it dutnitt^ obicfly on vtgetubJe IomL 
Ifeocc modiflaLt.joiH ia the ^bnTnctrr^ aiid position of the teHb 
iLrc likely to occur under tbo cLnn^r^ hnbite of lifo; indeedi 
cuu«di-r(<d m an etptuiml <]f dtnorc-ptucJi^ m Uvo dcntn! coiw 
etruotion of extiuot TmLinmalB, it h of tbe utmoit impartoooc 
to fully re-.4lLMi eiioiIfLr contiugtracie^, l*Luai ia rcJai£oQ Ut the 
foodofrcc<^nti:pi;«irv, vclim] tbf*^;rmdyb«iu' (till cliojpil£t<» the 
baunttf of ibe buffjilo ou tin? ptninc-A 4iiU plaiua of Ui« Wcvti boi 
destined at q<> ditlnnt period ti> be avr^pt otf the Coiitincot, wbilit 
(be AnKTJom lUcb bau,es6CDti:kl]>- a vci^Ublo feedvftwill liiagei 
on just .'w m^y bnvo bnppc&pxl in Kuropf wiUi tbo ov'e bean 
iind thf^ C'r^ir^ arcfoff. indeed, wbftt is now going on id tbi-New 
World iu reUUon to t!]i- extinction of aftny of tba wild c|(itid- 
rupotlif to witi Uie bear, bcuvor, dkt Ao.^ vu acoocupluhcd m 
Europe before the bJsloricnl nrriod. Rut tho etetemeut Id Dot 
qtuto ooirect tbal the bbick Wr of North America ia parLi&l 
to vegetAblo food, triiucmucTi m l»tb it end thi* li(iTm»«^To«uid 
bear, when oompdled by dearth of Tef^etabltT food, rvpolr to the 
eeA-flhore aid f^ed on rasrine aalm^; tDoreov^r 1 ^ave feed 
the brown bcttr on the IlimaUs'^s ^mxi aftrr coming; fori h from 
the long wintur ditfrfii, tiiuki- alUielii ou camIc adiI bnrei-A, awl 
when hard proiood for oarly ptanU which bad not had tqnc h* 
fpring iip» even di^vour (he caicsM of onr? of ile own vpisoic^ 
In ^ict. boar* will ont almoct any deicnptioD of food* 

With reten^cn tn thnir cDunUUilional jir^nlinriUea. Tba 
hybeniatiu^ fpedoe teeiD to posKsa very aeiuitivo nvrvoiu centra 
fauth aa regards esUevce of heat and cold ; even the Pohv hear 
is aaid to oecagonally foil inio a Icibargie coii>ditiou in tnld- 
winttfiT. No doiiM, thirrrffirr, from tira alAindiuit itnuiina wtut 
with ia cuve*. that Uie extinct formaalao bybematt*d ; na4 frota 
leoTcity of fuod, hat on acc^init of cUiDale aaiI tLcir particubr 
OTgaaiiatioii. One of tho tnc«t trying ordeals ia Um Canadian 
foroAt duritrif nudjfuminrf i$ tbo annojaooo oocanooed hj too^ 
quit^m^aud the lUU more veDOUoiu black 0r, Keither tsan 



tot wild boMt csjoje ony particular excmptiott Irom tli^^o per- 
sirteot lonncnlni** Tho junflt/tMr ti^hrrninn \» oO^n conipellwl 
t^ffivti up tiiit pQiftiinc ut Uic most bMnptinf; moments, and the 
TuodfUtlir ifl Jrivtu iuU» Lh»? c Wrii^ifs uihI LhelieHraml rile into 
tlia I&kee. In X^\a at the pame ee&eon It is abo a oommoD ooour- 
rnct to sec the ] LiQaUyim brown b«ar boflldn^ <ir «oand addep on 
ih&a^Uing miHucr^ of af^CficuT^nf mnch to ownpr ih/^ tt^rmoutfi 
of inKcU u for c;'tr>lTic3«i ; in fai;U thiEt 9ipcx'i(-fl (1<K» not liixplnjT & 
vffld^t plinbility of cinnstitution tct <*Dable it to ¥rttJutiUkd 
aUaD«a of heat and cold. Xow, wh&t^vei may have been ttiA 
<6aiActor to Uic^h^ rcnpi^tK of mich of it* otMnptfrra fu th« 0AV9 
lion and the hjcua in pr<>-hif^jric times their prciicnt dcsccncj- 
antj haTO become realrii'ted to warm wjfiona. allhoiigTi iho 
ttfler. K» c1om]j allied tolbc foroier, h a ntttivT- cif iiurllvm ;» 
wl BB foiddln nfid lioiithrni Ania. ImWd^ in ntti^ir^ptJnj^ to 
ipeculot^i OD the nature of tho climatcn <iimQ£ tho aivc period^ 
from a knovledge of the prevent diiLractors and baimt* of 
Un&g ^Mct«4, wo muat always bc^r m mind the ex^mpln 
of Uio }ni\Tj mxTmnnth and rhinocrm*, but fi*r thr (Jf^onvpry of 
nUeh it wijuld ritill bo a wonder how. it' lilcr tJiHr naked 
mnMOtativeK, ihey coiM havt- withKUHid the nj^iiiini ofiiorttivm 
*bl«i9. Probably thu bippopotauiia of thoBt> daya w^ abo 
WtiTfid with thick fur, an<i tl<: shaggy manr.: eoto rp4trict*<l to 
tlk lower and fore nartff of thn [ion may hav^i been continuodi 
more or !«»■, nvi-r tbii riiUrrT body, Agiiin, iinhiralinlii nrp npt 
t* aMoetate tho reiBdccr with Arciits olimati^tf, and artpn- that 
^jlar ivmditi^iirH iiiUKt base pfvvailt-d iit uim titni? iti tbi* 
^tb of Franco, whi^r^ thn fo*til romaitifi of tliia animal have 
KtD di»c>vcn^d. Hut nllhnta^h thr climjitti vJ\fi, lut i1i>uht> 
»OTO nf^0t<ni* thiiii thin at prvJtut, llicit*^^ in no nord that it 
>WU have eqiuilW that nf F^pljiuiE of tl»< [ day, 
iwttnuch a« the caribou r>r w'KidUrd Ci^iodot-r wa^ common 
^TitiirNcw EagLoDd .States of North America within th^ laat 
t»o hundred yean, and I found it plt-ntiful ia the furo«t« 
*f Xew nninswkk, latitude 45* N. Indeed, i!" we wr-na to 
ftppote w<>etom Eiiropo crtver*»d with f-»ro8t m>oii, whereby Uw 
^''^aa temperature wo^dd bo lowered, thei-e it nothing to liave 
P^ventsd the iniinnl from migrating in tho colder portion of 
^ jmr from. Norway t^ tho ahorcA of th« K«dit«nano&a, juBt 
u filohardson ** found thr> barren-|^oiind reinde^ travevdng 
^QQtr diatancefl in nortJiem C-nnada. 

h hr\s just hitnn vtatMl that the fowil btsiv* met wiUi in 
°™frTai of (Jcrmany arc d(^roontlt1'ahly much lur|-LT tlian oitbcy 
(frtsil cr riweat *j>*.-L4meu* of th'< ^ri/«ly bear. It U the ciuw, 
^^ thai «kuLlfi and bonce dng out of bog« in Great Britain far 



cxocod tbc? dinicftrion« of nnf tivia^ repn^KnUti^^ «f tb 
hmvrn lioir, l>iifj N|>f)n>Acli iti thi» tv«|>prl to th^ fonnv;* 
that, con^i JvnOK tlt«; ooutpuruUrt-ly iD«>ikm hiftori<9 of snnf<l 
tJie <)e|>ri8ir« of tlieee ft^na and tiirlMries it lui IjM'd mmuKl 
bf ^li, Bu«k, in his adinimbio rL^xirt ulruA'ly rcrf-^rrfd to, tW 
th^ ^jidy l«Tir lin^'ml on in Kit^lnTnl [tiu\ frelMiiJ tocoOK 
pftrutivi^T Ept*ulcinK r^-^cut tiin<!i", probLihl^«|i to the pn>-tirioriv 
rpijd], wljt!ij iLiMleet huUbotme tri1iej(hr<-n<;i)r-TitiruUjrflifttri)iiil0i 
oi^ the Gountrr. Now, ooEifiideriDjj; Uiat all Xhe^ £om\ \em 
wpn? co-f^Utf^ntt an<l taking iuto ci>n«i(lrnitioii Uiat they vsit 
pJjLCCicI, more or Ifttv, aq tiiu Kamo footing nfi rcgardB food, it Aft 
«caroe1j be ibat Uie mduII vivtrr ih^^cn-tc ile^^cr-ruktiU «f Lb 
]&Tff&y the diffi>renc€« in ^JTe hein^ loo ffTOOt for tti^li r% t^j>p«i- 
tloD» unk'cs wc ^n to hc-li<-vi.- that a tar i{it?at<^r T&fiaUli^ 
exivtod then thui now, in which cn^tf <Ji^«0(»ric:y vwild biiv 
bocD A niarkci (.'ImiacUrr in many i<prcioi. \Vc might MttvT* 
hov^ver, from th^ fj^reat leudeacy to varlAtioiit la ()imrai30D> 
and colouring already pointed out in th« ca»» uf tb<} brcint 
l»oj, and tlic eiiveni'-hiiiiiiling ptopcnfiticft of iho Urgtr m 
aged individnubf tlmt tbi: gr^at foi^it ca^x l>car (tA «|mnii] 
«Ioad in much the same relation to th^ U, ferojs /uiifti 
and waa only a large voricty of tlio latter, just », Ia it 
f robahihty, tlin no^alted "gigantic iiriiG " (tood lo the **pf^ 
wild bull *' {Hint prlmigenxu^)^ In iiict, abundanco of M 
»ud uur^MtricttHl frei'ilLim aiv aj iiHCKVJiry condiUom of l^ 
prosperity of an animnl nn the contrary prodiici^o a MUDted fttti 
ilel^rioniteJ race. Wluif, long iigvr'i )j^vr p;4i«ed awr^y 5il*fl» lb! 
beaver built it^ tinm cm the bftnlw of tlio TharDCfs ^r the hipfO- 
polumua, el(*jihiiur, auU rlirnoui*ro4 fet] ou it* binkc ; ttha 
berdj of cnormoua ozea, di?cr, &ud tho like pastured fr«^y ont 
th^ connt.ry, In^foif* ninn liHcl invented :ii)t more d<*adty inifil** 
mcnt than a Hint arrow or n »tonc halchot f Kinallf, «b 
come to t]tr mii1iili(in!< in tht? ph^Himl nftptx^l nf thr conlinmli 
togetlii^r witli tht' subocqucat ^tnif^^k^ tL>r cxi^tti^cv tad 
grndn^d d[:«ap|)t'jir;iiLi:r> uf the xiH^ritv until only IIk d^Mtr-wolf 
and browu bear remain of all tlio largo aniiualji which Uko 
freqnenl«id Kurope* Indrcd, it is only iitxTwivry to Him'ey Uv 
lomainD found in Kngland alone, tc Iw^ortio mtii^fied thtt 
thf^ l:irgr' ii.«Kej]Lbl£Lgi^!( ol' 1.-/1/ nivuroUB aiidli^rhivonitutqnadrupedl 
W(Tc? dL'uiKL'ns of tbe are:u at a pt-riod wh^n onr l^bnd wu Dot 
only li poiljun of tlic^ continrnt of Kuropc, bat when it^ climailBft 
and t'^pogrnphio condiUoni muj^t havo bovn diffi::rcatt from wNu 
obtain ni tbt prenenl day* 

None of tbe following ^^'^ ^^ ^'^^ ^^^*^ hitherto htm 
discovvrcd in Eonil jitatcA. This circuniftiinc^^t ho^ev^r, may b* 
owing more or leM totha faotthat thaMdlKof thoconntri#« thoy 
frequent have not been aubjeclcd to the same searching ffcratiay 


^hlOMc of Etm>pn in R<cU4<r&I and Un^At Britain iu particular; 

Pwllieauue tuuc^.il mu»t ht ubbcrvi-d UmL ;Uthoitj^U mveinB are 

cemiaoo id Xcrtb AmBriiAi no tincea have yet turned up of the 

^nl^ beiir, intlictttiijg eithtir tbnt its progeiiitorH wore not 

ttrtnt^iiDtint;* '^ in Kuicpe, (jr uIhd tliat the atiiirtal i^ a fiir 

bhin modem oocapotit at tiic Continent. TL^ ^ame imty be DOtd 

Bf Ibe Amarioftn bUck b^or, which is rvstriottMl tti tbo tumpsratd 

Hnidee; and aUbau^ili di«appearing ^Itb {he furt.>aU, wa«t 

^Mhin Uio hiEtoriqnl pciiod, very pletitiful from Menco north- 

rvudft to the confines of the Arctic Circle. Thisapccie^ like the 

I Imm and griizly bears, prea&Dts tlie sann? Tumtjili^ with r&- 

I faiooe to C4>ljitriflg and t^ituro of the fiir ; thy Polar hear 

F {V, rn/jrillmtta) being tho only one of tb«? family t}mt preserves 

tirilaiity id lhc»c rwpects. lis fi*od h also more unifcrm, 

and hrin^ ft'»ttict*.»d tothe Areti<7 regiocfi tlitre nre iiot the same 

i£liucQcc« adtctm^f it as vith the precL-diugt Gpr<^aU over vast 

i»iiiiiiietit0 vbich differ much in diionte, nsp^t, and natural 

ItvductionR. Although cuiny beta? vary v^ry mLich iu outward 

■forAmucff nni] aitc^ological chwcter^, we lind, a^i in e<[iLine 

Ik feline cp«cic3, n g«afiral diapoeition to poiticular ni^kijiu;^ 

«& certain part« of tho body. For examph', rbp jipitial and 

^oolder ftripc3 so distinctly dotined io the Tscbrn, rq)euted 

ht th« acE, ami now luid thi^ti appenring iti tlict licina.% are rvpre»- 

asated bj the I i^ht-co loured shoidder atad hriNkot luarkiugv in 

ti]0 he^t trilM- bo well iseern in Ibe bWk Jinil huh lit^MrFi, ivhilaL in 

tho h^wn and grizzly tho collar h faint ^n^i i^onrocly diecomiblei 

npfaii wliea the winter ih bein^ replue^^ Ity tlie Aiiinm?r fur. 

Tlio wdl'knowi:! long-noBod l>o[ir {(j\ Itihtfitue) of Hin- 
doitao, iro dialincl in GHt^ologii^ii cbar&der^ fiitm any othi^r 
UMtmber of thu fTenua. rt^taina ako the whito mark on tJib &oul 
of the cb«*t^ Wbali.ivyr mny linv« ln?(in the distribution of 
lihia fpodcs in pre-hietonc epocli^, it is now rc^t^tricted to th<» 
torrid ivgiatih of Ihr? abov*? lonnLry* Rpvctrtiuft lo thi; North 
AmfTi^on blaok be^, wo find Ui^ whito tfpot it odIj ooca^ionally 
pmcut 001 xtA briaket; and Letter dutjiivd oa the black or 
fptetadod bear of thn Coidillerofl ( l\ OTViaf^m), n Ppedo* dia- 
tioct in iH7^'rntl nv|^L;te from the lasU imd ntorr t-lotcly a1tif?d 
u> tbu bhick bi-'ar of Asia, iho UL-areiit habitm uf uhicb i* in 

Itho Em0t Indian I^landA, wLt^ie it i^ known na tfit briuinif, 
Flroan th«aiC9 it cxt«tid« nofthwardd to Kn*t^ii> Sibivia, ovor 45 
I d^'grccK of Idtitudcf and throughout countriifl diH^nng very 
J much in pliyiiiral and oUmaml oouditiortM ; mon^cvcr, i^xcoptinfc 
1 that ittf fur ia longer and thicket iu the tGmper;it« (b^iD torrid 
I nglon«, there i« little dilTer^ice eitiier iu the coloration of 
I ttepikoi in Ewtcological cbaractcrr. However, like vaiictic* 
F of tbo brown bear mot with lu ivgicm widr Apart, it baa 
i received T&rioua namcflL, which arc now cla£ac<I under tlic one 

I roU XltT.— 50. Lll. B 


roruL^ tcoacs nsnxw. 

ootmnoo ■pf)clJaUMi of Malayan boor. Tbo uuroal U aUq 
pletrtiAil ajoog the MKitbern rl ip^ nf tbe Himainyms from 
vrbeoee epocuoMtt eccit to Cuvkt wcru d««crib«cl ir Mm aji a 
new fqwHf^s i^<l ittini?d "Thibet Br«f,*^ whervsA Uie itpe«i«»ij 
not mot witli io Ibal «lfvated i^fvion. Tba vbiW onxk c« 
Ui« lirialctt of Llic Soutb AmencaD Uock bear (£/* oniahM>aod 
U]« above is wry tDiAcb alako. It asiEumM Ui«i ibapo of a cro- 
Bcffot, and to ihc hunter a an cx(»;Uc&t paint zl wbicJi 1o diroot 

AloDjf tbe bftitf of the chains wlui^h encirde tbo Vnllaj 
of CnbtDaM tlkore ia an intoroonunuiucatioi] bttvrwu th^ 
binck and tbc aforc-fncodoocd Uabcl-coloarod bear ; in Esctt 
boro U a border ILdi^ vrbeve the two m«ri itnd dlspat^ tli^ 
fcmtliiie ; M> that in autuion, vben the jungle fmitf arc plenti- 
ful and t)i«i Indian com and other gnint: nrp riprming, ihn 
latter, dctccndiD^ from hi» alpine retreat*, piub» aoiitb* 
muds into tiiu valley* &&^mri;ttH! by tbe fonuer for the jnif- 

Cof fi^inj; on wulnuto, n]ulbeni«e« and vild appka. 
, considering the &peeiflc difTprmmv b^itwiwn Ihr twt^ and 
that Xhp brovn U the kfgcrt it if a liict of vbicli I bad 
ocular dcmoDitration tint ibt^ bU^k Iv^r itn taun^r 
lii-t autA^oniat tban bo boldlj attacks hitn. and oofo^ 
retreat. Indeed, it i^ a ooquxiol ocenrKnce in mcIi 
vnlloy^ to observe tho Malajan bear in an a]^o or wnJnut-1 
gieodjty deroiiring frvit, whllct bb brown iwmpe^r in fwding 
on wbntcvcx bappc«)« to be; knoclwi down, but no sooner doea 
Uie fanniTr d«criid U»in tlw. laUnr ib^camju into tiiejuiigl«. 
A altmlar i^mpcULion b(?tWL*ta allied fuvms of the aamo gooui 
talc» pl^Kv at li^Wr elevations on than tai^m. Tbcvo Un 
ibex Jind f^eat homed wild g^cftt oitablUh tbomi^rM en 
crrtmii fenling uiotuitkaaildi»puta aach oUicr*!! foutiog, ao that 
tbe two aro ru^y soon on tbe moa mountain ! infa«t,tlionik 
more or leas iinivenial, and tbe ooinfwtJtioD is abnyv mo«l 
OTO bctW9«n allied forms ; b^it. rtruoee to my^ it U not im-ari* 
ablj tbc mniit powrrfiil luiimal tlmt ia Tictoviooa ; nor doo* it 
appear wb; or ivh^oforv. At all evanu, thi» enmity baa amoDg 
otber eflecta that of both contractbg and crtcnding t^ raose 
of •pccJe«, and whvn ap|>li«d to tba ttody of tlia geognplital 
distnUitioci of Livi&j^ lujd oitiuct fonn« it enabk^ tu to undir^ 
atand bow an animal may be clie^ked in ila advaiMW, drivM 
back, or c^-tn nlenninated by ou« of ita own cienna. 

In tracing tbe g^o^pblw dUtxtbntlonf of Uvfng and «^ 
tinct bcoTi wo naturally wonder bow tbo gridy found ita way 
to Ainoiiea, and bow tbr black 1)ear of Ana ([uinnl itdtnHtance 
into tbe Ea»t Indian I^binds. Th« only reply is (bat tbe 
Alflicixu Iftlandt ere remnantaof a ninken arm whicb c&ilcd 
*<m >vw and OM Worlda, and that the iklohiyon pcnintBia tt- 

1 aaa 



famlfid further t*outhwDrd« ] moreover, M just obACrvocI, iht laxMO 
Is applli^ljtti to GreAt Itrltain and Trvilanil. Tbus tbrougli 
muUtioikft in tbc relotivc cooditiona of ica luid hand xro find ttuit 
mmny *piH-ir* iinn^ntninril to matxi ovpt viw(. ixintUi nf rnimtty 
becaino ni«trict4?<l to simfUl Ulnndji ; uiid tf> the bL<ar tritx?, of &U 
otbt?rt, thin woulil lie tniii^c ^ Uitir iiinNtiiiili^iJ^l h^tbit cif 
va&deriDg from pkci^ to ptaoa ; &dd thereto now clim^tio con- 
ditiobK, coD«^4;](?itt on tho ^^eologLc^il change*, nnd w(t mhj 
Ekiriy bdiovo that modi lien ti<>Tin not only in tlitt habitat, but aLho 
Uie outtffiird jtji|)UtniiieR mid iiit^TrtiH] iitm(.iiriiy would ultim».tely 
malty eo that tho caiin^t nalui^lirit, tfu^tinf- to bodily appear' 
ancoa u <epre«<vDt'?d h^ apei;im«u» fiuni vaiioub rcgkonif, h apt 
toasogn difiticctivo cUanicterd to what are merely varietiea of 

• 3 





SINCE ihtt time when Uclwna were definitely ^^TutratArl from 
lao^&es, algtc. aud fungi) uudvr one or M\cr of wbich t^ 
were iniiiscriminately )ti<fluded by the catli^r irribert^ they 
have imiil qriitc recently been rr^Tilc^ m i»D9titiitill^ i 
distinct pl:iB[i of pluDts. Pfot onlv liciicuiE^bi, l>uL crypiogaiaitii 
in g^eral, liavo iu &U modem sy^iema of clivifiiiCAtioti %'icvcd 
them ns entilled to as detinite a positJnn in llin w^taUr 
ki&gdoiD a3 the nlgio oncl the firo^- Kotwccn tltt«e tv« 
classes tliay liave tiniverKally bis-n lit-UI to occupy an into 
modiato pUoi?, though thoir connecliun with tho ono or the otto 
is in most of the projirisorl nrrangenieDU of ihctr fAiniLietf afti 
tiibee^ not eufficiontly mani&st. In NyinnUur'a arrnjigcountf 
howevur* wMc!i, in iL^maio features at least* is ILe looflt iMtraal* 
&nd coiiaeqiii:^lly iho iuo?t sciuntifio yet propound^ lidKV 
iLr«T coiiiLected with the nl^^ on th« onir hjLDtl 1>y tncB&S of tbc 
tDferlor gert«ra of th& Coiiemaeei, x^d with tbu fuc^ on the 
other band by mowis of Uie ioftTxcjr gsaera of Uio Pynnc- 
carpei- At the eame time it hoB always boen dil^eidt to dn« 
very deBnitely the boundoiy-liaes botvetnt the three flkflw*t 
though of lut<* yeiirt, with tho contioEt hoth of nlgolof^llti and 
inycologifltd, the licheri territory hw f^rtidtisdly hwai cahvecd *l 
the cipi^nse of itn neighbouTB. ALdcd £rom the alg» nxid ihe 
fijiigi it hns tmifio utrioiu important acquifitioiUs whicA of 
right hdtmg^l to M jill ttloug, though it» title^eeda to 
them were written in ch&racteri so iniDut« or ob^^uro Uut 
it rcijuired Itnth miproKctplcaJ aid and keen research Ti^Jitly to 
interpret tbera. 'i'hc rctult was thut Uchenisia ?uppoflcd tW 
they hail grwui (^uiid* for KOiPving that thtrir m«L"h-lo\«l, 
if in 6omc roapccU difficult science, ww at length in a &ur w»j 
of hanng itjt )imit« well defm^yt, wilfi rvpeet to the other 
two noi^bbouriug cb^cfi of cryplogamics. Very rccoatlyi 
bowerer, a theojy hati hetoi storied, which, aboidil it he 


05 mil LH;;IK^-«osll[HA QtiK5Ttci:f< 


^B^^d, voiJd virtaanj deprive licb^OH of the poHtioti wlnrfi 
bad liitherto hi^o a^tip^ed them In tb>^ vt?g(.'Ul>Ie kiof^dom. 
y^t tiiougb \he uaiDtr might Mill be rviuint-d foi tliu sake 
■ifcotiviuiivnc^s ^^ ^' "^^ avsociatiutid, it would vcrvo no Longer 
t)coQT<7 ^ ^^^ minds iJie notion i>f a diatiuot diLitt of pIuDU, 
fcutoDlj to remind ub of its dcigradatioTi f^om a position ODOC 
uhi^ uaJ ApparcTktly rocrc stable thim that held dther by 
^jJgwor the ftingi. •' LidicncK fijcrunt ; itlgo-fimgi modd 

The thcorj r«fcrr«d to, and now well known tts the " Schvco* 

tecrua bfpothe«ia," has been faYOuntbly received by vurioiu 

^tineotal rryptHOgrmiivU, And biui giren Hbp tn a very 

^EktidcTiiMc amoutit ot' di»3iu]»iDD. No licbrnistT however, 

tto ai yet giVt-u it any su]j^)OfL; nor, jucigiug from prrannt 

4>|Hftr&nc(M, id at &11 \ik«\y to do ^o* It may vi^ry succii^cLly 

'^ «tat^ Ibimr^L^chi^H mo not aiituiirimoiiri pKnls but' art? 

^E^ttposcd of nn rdgiiL nnd n parasitic; tiir^j. T\m s^oi^ilnr 

YpOth'si^'S which if wi^U funded would he frulirt'ly snJjVfjsdvn 

°' iU prerioua ooncroptioDB cf the nature of hchc^na, waa ^nt 

pu1)tic liy Profi?*iS(>T SchwendvnKr in l«fi>^» tonard* tlie 

ndoD of a p&pi^r eotitlod *' Untersuohiin^ c^n ubi:Tr deo 

teiLthnlhL-*</' AcciTrditig to the viitw hrrp pmpminih-d, 

■MiiadividuulHclin id to hv uonsidt^red u« an alpLKtypt' wUioU 

^ becotue the bout uf a parasitic funguB-^fowIh ; whr<ii<:tt it 

Wlowi tijat ihefte alpp, under the name of **^nidia/' have 

■^tljcrto been erroneously rc^rdcd by oyptogixmists as t^peclat 

^vg&tLfl of bchnni:. In a Kubse^pient paper, publisUed in 186S, 

I*iC Alt'rnitypeu dt^r Flechtcn gonidien, he expressefl bis 

*wvr» at «liU poatt^r lengthy rind endeavours to strengthen 

^^ UDpliff hi« theory by various orgumenU founded upon 

Personal obnprvntion- To render ths tiieory more intelli^ble, 

*^d to prepiLie iJitt way for enteriDg into details, it may be 

'<j1I to give the general eonclu^inn which he arrives at Jn his 

™*ti, ftnd, in this inBt^nce, somewhat piotoriol language- *'As 

«c mult rf my ronrnrf-he*/' he wiys, "all ih^se growths oris not 

"Ojple plants, not iniiiridnaU in the usual at-'nge of the term ; 

"icy ire rather colonfe*, which eonri^t of hundred* and thoii- 

f^^ili of individual-S of which, however, only one aot« as maatcr, 

•mo th^ others, in p*T|ioti[nl tnptivity, jimvide nouri/ihmeut 

^T tbcnuclveii and their mactrr. This master i^ a fiingua of 

t^Q order Ascorfiycetfi, a panndte which ix accustomed iu live 

iifOQ the work ot othere ; its slaves are green algto, which it 

hu toiight out, or indeed caught hobl i>i\ a»d fcircer] iulo its 

^nvicc. it mnoiindi* them, n^ u spider doea its prey, with a 

fibrous net of narrow me^he^, which in gradually converted iaia 

tfi inpoaotrable covenng, Wliilcr, however, the spider BQokB 

iU prey and leaves it Ijiug dead, the fundus ineite?« the algn 

rgrvLAt sasrct Bsntv. 


ixikm in itjoct to move tapid actifity 3 mj^U^man 

>ow thtsh7potlicaUiMn«Ul«iTeb«aifQ|EKictted U 
d^nf^r fmni tvo dlftvettl wtBve*. Df Umo tfar ooe vte 
«»UcfTEUoik mwlo (of «oane not fienmsfy) I9 ISykada 
" I^Afifi. Or." p. U7t 0> tbQ cAbct tlat if Uie fooiiida ia 
wiooi cephalodia of UebcoA nr« pwitic algp^ Umc it wovld 
be DooDWj to regBjd ofZ lidicn^oDidis sa md 
Mfluig Uut in vk ULftUunical point of viev Uiej 
And the other and more iraoHxlLAttr sowce T«ft an al 
more AVionnIj ptit forwvd W ProfMnor De Batj m 
Hftadh. dor Thja. Bot' ii. )>. 291, wh^re, in 
•OCEM fftDen of the 0?UffTOiM^ he nji : >* Th«se u« 
perCrcUf devdop«d states of pUnta* wbote UDpecfect 

Vhroococoacca^ or these Utter are tjpicel alfcv, which Mmn* 
the form of ColUma, Fphfb^j Ae^ through e^taiti ptntfiie 
Asoomjfc^-s paKrtntinj* into Ihcm, BprcWUnc: their isreeliMift 
Into the ronUooawdjr groinng UiaIIha, and fre^omtty lUtacJied 
to their phTeocbrOBK^tx^rin^ cdU.'' Tokicv the olUrnuUivt 
tbii« propot^ ut hifa it&ri£n^*puttiif Scfaipendesier, eocnmffief^g 
ihlh thi- Ci^UffTTMcsu nude varioui ob«erv&tio» ud wtperimento^ 
vhich v«Te aflPTWun^ (^tended to other tribes mod gMieiv, the 
remit of which htu t> lend liim to tbo eoodiuioB that liobou 
oonidiiL iif tlifi tvo firiiii:inly dUtinrt rlrtDTDta alrMidj mo- 
tioned— that th^^ lJo)iui-;:uQidiii are &t|^ and the lk4»tt*4hAlhu 
e pamfUe fiuig^un. ThiK ixt^iUuii hn oidfAvoufs toMpport bj 
the f»lbwJDf( ootinderAtiona:— 1. That &« fot tiw gOQCtie 
reUUoivhip of tlio goaidia to tiw hjplw (1h>t in the 
fliamentoeo tUnie whieh in conjunction with the 
edlidar pOTtioD* or thegouiditi, cuuvtitutcs the 
faM la no ei«e bicn directly proved^ but enlytanuBMl lor 
tomic«] rauoflu. S. That ^emicaUy the gocadut mcmbraiiea 
tUfTer from the hrphal membnnei, tbo fbrnua- having an alnl 
antl Ui<^ hitter u riiiijcal rettctioii. 3< TlAt the varlMU goniduH 
formp, alike in Mrnctnre and mode of incrMso, oorrMpond la 
paniliel type* of unicellular and fikinteDto«e algEu 4. l*hftt ae 
the germination of the uporehu not b«enobMr\'«d forthcr than 
the eoflBtnduvtneiit of a hjpo4hilfaia» this is pmbaUij ovins in 
the want of ihe 00-omratlofli of the requi«iie algal- ^ Tliat 
between lichens and i^nv9o«iiyc«t«r there U a \tvy AiiJunf 
eoTTf«po«idvfioe in Um> dtnelopiDent of tic fnifti fleet ic«i. Ia 
the MMx>nd of the tvi> paper* above mentinncdt ha t^nlcrs int<» 
further flutuiln, and ontuncmtea the ^^oiu &]f^l-t>-jn>^ which 
h«t r<ft:an1>( ah oi>OMijtiitiDg the gonidia. Thc«e typf^ which ar« 
-'•diL in numlH-T, he indiut^ iind^r two gr&njtt, ni» " Vhyot^ 
iiaci^' and " CbiorophyUaeoo:*'' «o ealkd tro4a Ibc coievr 

o^ niB UGiuv-ootfiDU QnxsnaN* 


of ihoj respective ccjI^codUilIi. To Uio lbniku<r |;ruui>, Llittt 
Titb b]ui«b-gTe«n celltlles, he asef]^s Ave typ««, viz. I. lSiro9^ 
pionsmi 2. Hivuiarict; 3. ^c^9ne}nciXi 4. ^iO9tiKfuu:e€0 1 
5u dbooiooddaoecv : uid to thr ln:ii>r grLtirp, Ihal with chlcro- 
pbjiHfTGert ceUukti, he aMjintt the rcmninirig three typca^ vis. 
6- ConfervaeecB*, 7. ChrGol^idefv i H. PaJytifillttceir. 

£uch i^nera and i^pcclea of thc-^M &3 Iivq iu waUir are of couiw 
«ixclikd«il from tlJe tjtU'Jition, nit it It ovif3«tit that fho fiingufl can 
fanve no aooosa to tttem. The nullior oltio d«4onbcs the occur- 
reooe of th««e Ro-ralled al^I-typt*^ in variotw ^nein of licli«?Tu, 
and mftkc« leogrtbencd ob«e^^AliolIe upon tlio cbaraolcr they yre* 
nol unl till! inadifimtinnH l1ti«y uTidr'rgo ut Aavirml individuul 
ipeeitfi Amongst other in»tfLnor^ julducccl hy him, he; tintts tiic 
bfphai (fnteririg riiu fmndn of tiEtT^nmt, ^il^ii^ k;^. Svfo»ipltont 
ffogtot^ GUsocapsOj and euoomp&eaing tho ^nidia with a net- 
work; ifhilp in n ivrtAiii nuniiier of ^i^rUf t'.g. RtKcriUit 
AmotdiOf Lempholcmma^ Paitnann^ he found thf^m uniting; 
tbcanarfrtifl to t]m goiiidm liy jtn uciu^il Jnni^L:t>u. hi llie (;cui> 
oteion of hie paper, he ob^e^rves that tho al|j;al-nntur9 of the 
llfihea-gonidia, which he mainUin^N hiu liocn ^tabliishcd in the 
GBJK9E ho hoi roviewod, is extremdy prolxililit aluo iu ovi^ry othet 
<3BMt auid thai oonwqueutly tlie gonidiuxiif aa hitherto supposed, 
U not a f^-ddveloped or^n of tbe lichen. But though not 
tbua to lie regar<{«d, ij^ouidia would hUU, iiiaphyF^iological point 
of vioT, romaiEi ^u inGininiQiitEi of avsiiiinnnti^n and of u H^xiinJ 
ioerauc- AlUioti^h th^ have n«>t. th^ power in thE^mAclvej to 
f«m a Uiallutf, ib^y aru aa ^^lieuUai countituvm of it, and are 
ttDdeaiably the mostt impoitant, though not the uuly ministers 
of iititrinn?iit for the eoopnsite plant c&U«d a •Michen," ina*- 
nuicb &5 thiii ia al*o partly lijmiBhi^d by mcoiki of the nth«tia- 
turn. From this general outline of ihe hypoth<?*iH of Schwen- 
dener, it will at om^v be pcr<^«ive<l that ita adoption would 
CTitirr-ly Kiihvert aW oiir previnnh noTionir ^s t^ th^ mutual rein- 
tlooA between the tiiutneiitoae tissue niirl the gonidia of lichena. 
Kay, Toor^f it would necessitate th** de^pTulHtion of lielienA from 
ihQ pooitiou they have ^ long held na an iEtdependent class, and 
ID wiy iiyvUin iif cla^Acatiou won1d render it eKtremi-ly di1f[> 
cult rj|irhtly to diff)cse of the half algul, half fungal monstrosity, 

Paeain^ over several othi^r wriU-r^i who have, uiore or leee 
diructly, nuuie contribntfoii;^ of ^ealer or Ibbh imi>iirtAnc<? to 
tlio above thoary, vo oome to a more rocont, and in tome r^ 
sfirieUt tile mo»t plaiwilJe tuIvociiI^? of the liypothe.^]s< ThU is 
Dr< £. Boniot, who^ i?xte:iHive, and from a Schwendenerian 
|koi]lt of view, eihjiuHtive memoir itpon the tiibjirct, enlitilcd 
•^tocberchw *nr len Gonidio« den Lichooe,'' appaared in *' An 
des Sc. Nat^** & Mr. t. xvii. (I $7^1). In this he expands ai 

TOPTtlB OUll!lt!B WflBWi 

further illitstr&tei tho Tbnrv pat fiwtb bf him ia ft pnviiV 
commnTiik^tion to tli« Academy if Selmcwi ni ParU, niTcufUii^ 
in it« MX oxtont Schwi^ndoiuii'* tfaoorj u tbo only odc cb^Ui 
of ripliLitnuf; !tatiiifiictf>Tily miu^y olxtoum phenafOMia In tW 
pbTviolo^ of Itoht^ii:^* His attoouaU for iU n^eotion 1rrii«h«aiili 
miiD the cirouDutAnce of ScLwendeiier not hnvin^ sitlSciflDllT 
domonntnit^d the rel&tiocis of tlie faypb«o tuid the ffoiudw, noA 
thr? maiuntr iti wliiclt llidr cotuinotion U«9tjiblubt?tU Ftir,» 
he obBen'Bs, it ie of t^^^atial Qi(>ra«nt to ehow that tbeee r«l^ 
tjoiL« are nuch a« neceMJirily iiiv»lre tlie Ki«n of pariwliAitf«rf 
that apart from tlii? Ihcr cnimot othorwi»(f ho rightly iohnw 
pretfML No(Jciti|t * li^ great EiiuiLority pnv>iit<?d lij tb« i^Dtiudii 
of lichonB to cerluiii al|>al types, be arg^ef that IhifiUniHa 
mf-rcly occid^^ctal c;rcumitiiiLce> inaAnmch Afi tlic«c goaudiB 
multiply und rq^nxliicn in thit nmxtQ v^r nai tbo corrospodttiqg 
&l|fits ^nd in uitire independence of ihtt bypbit-. At cooatdc^ 
ftbl^ lengtli fae pofiaec in revie^r an ext«iuive e«ne« of Uohattf^ 
ftod, as tli« result af imiiicroas obnrvationH identifier tMr 
goniilfa wiUi cml.ELin *\g^x\ gpn^ra and E]x\cinc. 

Adopting XhR tvro gT'^ujpa of SctiwcodciKr tvlrettdj referred to^ 
he etacuTkea fint tlit' t'hloroph^HitCfctj via.: TrmiUpohUa^ 
Mart.; Phytlactidmin^ Kiitjs. ; Pnft(>n>ocu«, A^. Of ihci* 
h<^ b^ traced the r^semlilarce hetn-tvn Trmt^^xthtia md 
lichcQ-goiudiu. in tliiiti^cii genenk, vix. L RoeceiUt^ tkS iJrcody 
pu]iiti*d otit liy St^hw^nilpner ; 2- Leoanora^ ia fium^nnit 
epoctos ; 3. DiHnia repandtt, Fr. ; 4- CVmo^DVHlltnt L*tutui 
Blir. ami C^ con/trn'fniUji, Nyl. ; !i. By9eioca9iU*n iiJiWKm, 
Mnt, ; 1>. Lit<ndea htUa flJcl^j:), And J#. mi'<irD9|>mrrii, ^yl. ; 7. 
QraphiH tf/*£f(tnfl, Adi. ; 0, nmfrirfa. Pert, WlU tf» AfitorMf|fljni» 
NyL; 8. Ope^rapka rar»a, Pfirft.» and U. Aerkint-tj*, Mnl.; 
9. Stirpjuitidi-uvi cra»»^i7ru Diib^. ', 10. Arthonia ctnx^ 
6arirta, WiLllr. i 11. Mnla^iUa arti^mio'id^ ; 12, CA^o<C«<itoA 
layrtlcoln. Pre, nil d (7- TUf^j-irnfotein, MaU ; 13. FsrrNom&j 

had farnierly hcva ivcv^nisit^ LyDe B&ry. Tho ;ena« i^AylflB 
CtfJium Le regnrdH w fiimifJiing tho f^nidia to OM^m^A* 
,^ctuc^ Mnt. ; vfhilr a K[KN!irit cfl^ Proloauca^iat tiz. P. riiWi^ 
Ag.p iff simile to tlict ffonidia of ^kysda 7JcmVftn/i> u ptoved 
by di>wicg: the «pore4 of tlie hittM upoQ the furm^i. Sirailady 
li« rtviows SchwnndoDer'E other group, ih* fJtynwftfvinaoM^ 
and fincU tbc following genera helonpng to it fuminhing 
goQiiia to various ffraeraaudfpt^rieE of lichcDft: — 1, ddotkrix^ 
A^i, to hiehma ; "1* Scyt^nsma^ Ag.* to J^phtltiUt JlegfUch- 
looCm, ItiL^ to the cephalodia, cf SUrtw^auion ramt U amt m f 
6w, and to various Pa'mcma ; 3. Lyn^fiyAt Ae^to J3I«i^fe^ 
f:ai</'>n i^mufotutn ; 4. Ko»toeU>CdlUm{^ArncidiajPhywnia, 



irawDB, StictiruL, luicl ccrt^nn Panfuxn'oi ; 5, StiffaTieTiia, Ag^ 
U ^KA«N0#p/W%a Z^i»orman(ii» Bom., SpUoH^ma par^^ 
■inmHf Kpfwbe puh49C^fj and Uk« copbolodJa of fS^f!Tvir'tu/'>a 
/Matfum ; 6, (rtovci|>tfa. Kute, to b?rn'-Uis«<h OmphaUiri^^ 

wtdo cepbidodin of StcreocfviLloTi, A--I mny rt&dily tio in- 
land fhoa ilid abt^vtF, Uiero ik n<Jt ii clifTun-nl nl^ ctirrenfjond- 
iMg to ttch £peoie« or even (^niu of liobec; for, ru» itornot 
ihiniji, u itnuill niiinlwr rtf fhp fomipr f irnUh rJiP {^^inliUji for 
t peat numy [JitlVrm^t liclit^nn. In thft l]t^'hi:r liulK-nn, her 

ibc hrpbsei, thoufi^h in ct^ritiin of tlie Eipt^ie^ ubove eniiii^^'nitcd 
k hoji bn^n nMe to dett^cl. ihe ftaiue kiud of adbeuon botwccn 
tbstvo a* in tho other caK>f. 

WkU) reft'tci^cc tn thi^ vltnl Muhji^ct f>f ilii^ rclutioii^ of tlie 
bfto to the f^nidiu, the uutlmr lUKcrtri that th^ri* H not th« 
kid cTidfTQciT that ihi? i^^unidiji urii^iMuU* fiuui tbe hypbra 
■ij more tbui ih^ hypha^ from tiio ^nidin ; Init tliiil, on 
tte coDtnuy. thp. two nu^ originciUy :jiiit4i indopnitlrtit* and 
tlinL their union ii :« BulHo«|uri]t frvcint. This Iil* Ulusbrales 
ttd cndeavoun lo prove from oliflirrviiUon* direcUy inadc upon 
Vttimu of tb* licb^s which be ibua reviews. Ir doi?;g no b* 
^Ova tbiit wbiLo in tlic git^t ui^ji^iiLy of licLen^ tbc hypbn 
V>tbpe* tlioftlgn, forming » toon? or laa^ tunhnichxg nir^ivork 
•wno it* yet in crrtain ciurn th*^ imipn is sometbni^ more 
tbo iftgn contact, ttdnj; u pM*riotr:iUon by ibo bypba into the 
nteiior of the aJgnl-ct^U* In pucb irxMUMOva, c.g» in ^^I'TK^ff^KA 
fiunatuia, B*>ro-5 tbn ti^W heeompa enlarged, rbewaU t.lncfct-iw, 
^ ooat«nbt become colourlr«« ; at Icngtb tlie wull sbrivcU up* 
ud Ui8 f^idiimi flcully bcooint'it a dvjul ineuihrAue. Ir ibon^ 
'■W vbcTc the algw an- <;ontpOH^d of inileptudttit clIIh, tbo 
Uodifiaaticiti wbicb tbey nrd^rgo w* th? restdt of tHs tiuion ]■ 
'M very mftrkcd, but in tbotc irhorc? tbcy arc filamentous tbo 
^IteiBtion In much monft iHidbhs wliilo in some otber inntanceo 
u» icdividnal colld are altered without the generaL Appcomnoo 
* Iba jdgnl iUp]f b*"-ing Vi*ry rjiiicb afrcct*?d- VaririMs otbrr 
l^inti in oonrrction witb tlio rclatioas bc'twcon tho hypbn 
*<i ihc gonidia are tj>htli«rl upon by Bf>niet in Lbc cuiirs* 
^ hit neoaioheti, v^hicb €:itend in all over eoine €0 ditfeTent 
Wwrt of licbena- Without, bowi-ver, entering upon tb^'w 
^DT detaiLa, euffico it to eay that a« tho result of hie inVMti- 
KUioim, he can:Aic]er!4 Limt lie i% fidly wjurant^l in eKtAbliabing 
^ two followjng propoDitions;— L Every gonidium of a 

* HnMtdiwi Dot BMm to bo nwaio tbat thU geov ia catirvly puwtic. 
*^^ Wkagi Wj tho PjTtnowirppl. 


lkh«& nuy bo rdciTvd to a fiMMiei of aIcaL. ^- lli« 
of llie hjpitt vitb Ui« goDi<tiA is of such a nature as to exd«de 
all poeeibilitj of the oav oi:g^ baiog produced bjr Ui# ^UiqTt 
vid tLo thmiy of poruiUsai can aloac espUin it Mtkfiiotorfly. 
T]ii» nloiM, hm uims, can aooouot &r tbe ffooidia of VC17 divoie 
lichens bdng a&oat ideotical, as wS as lor Uio nuirkod 
dlffmae«« b«tTe«^ tbo gooidU of c«ruia other lich«Da 
vluch the tholliu uQd friactificatioa art identical, in the 
vrtty, t4Xk, hf tliinkt cam oolv he rightly tu|>UiuAl tin? ori^n of 
d«ad gonldia found in ihp iulcrior of Jicbcns, aa abo tbe 
ooc!UrTeQc« in the mne t^alliu of di^milarly coloured gonidia. 
As had hcfn m^gcetcd by Dc Boi^i \-arioui cxpcnmoob* h«To 
tu-rn mHidf^ in llit* w»y of hVhrn> nnd algn-aikiirt'^ in unlvr to 
odccrtALU Kith ccrtfiutj whctl^tr the f^crminatinjc Uch«u-«pon 
dti%'v]opeH ^iJidiu 4)r uiflf aQLl whtlLer iht^A& laLier in a free 
etAto form from IheonBolves hyphfo or noL Aooonlini^lj 
Pmfmnr Knv^ in nrdi?r to t4«t< t)ifi uppliojthilil.y nf tbn Uimtr 
ivith r<vfK<t to the CiMcTnacti, made certain cxpcnmmtci, wLico 
weie it^ottitM] 111 iMitWr, 1^71, in " MiiualAk i^t k. Akad. ^a 
Wi^^eiiech. za 'Berlin," Thcee ooa»lrt^ in sowing tba fponi 
of CUUmit g^auf^^criit, llffrn*, upon X&ttoc UchofiOHb*, VniicJi^ 
whiah roiilily ^(crtmnukting MTtit forth DUBQ<rrotu fiLuneota that 
penetrated into ami nptcad witliin tlic vnbvtxatum (m« our 
PUtoCXU.t fiff, 8). Aft«rtiiidi;rKui;ig various phaaw of oeT^lop* 
EDtiiLt Lliey At It^ii^lli HurTL>Liudi<jl Ih^ uiouillfoirai gmudiA, aim! 
formad tho ^ collcma-myceliuM," or hypha-maiw, to that ht 
tlufl way, in prcxxw of timfi tli« Nortoc become* ooorr-rted into 
a Collect although no fructification ootdd be obtaiOied. Hcooa 
Heesfl infiernxi thai rveiy OoUema ia in (nx naburo a ** Qoatocp* 
vhich fthould no hypha come to it remains eo, bat wbiebp 
ihould it be Hixa inoculated, undc^rgon the abovo tramfemfca 
tion. Wo may hi^tt oIjmfvq that whila Boom* axperiiMnt 
appears to confirm SehwcndenerV theory aa to Collcota bain^ a 
oomponnd organitalion (and it ba« coortantly been addooad as 
oao of its main siipport«), he at Die uma time rtroncly 
aiupoeta^ nay, «t«ii plainly imat'rlA^ timt the fiia|{i»^iypha 
wpraao&tcd hy tbo latter (^hwcTniL t. x. fij^f. 10-21) at 
cJitaokbig a nosloc, are in reality thwe of a irtMo moiLld. Hut 
wli«ther thif bo h> or not, bo^hwntcrc a^u:^ in reguding NoitAO 
&« an imh-pRiwhijt algal, vhieh mayi'itJier normally ontitintie 
eO| or beoome the bo«rt of a parasiti«al fun^pu;, aikd by it 
bo oonverteil into Collenia. Strongty impmuvtl hy IJw ugu* 
monls put forward W l>o Bary, Solnroodenvr, mid Houai, 00 tA 
thtf natuTR of Ui« CiJUmncri^ M>mo, ainongM vimm i« IVrfMor 
CohHf wUilo re^taiding tlic theory as antenabk with ravprat to 
th« other fiunilic^ vouUciclqdn iha OoH^m^M aitogetJacr from 
tho <]aM of UcbnniL 



A few 7<Ar» f revioiu t^ tbia, however, ituti(^t«d no douLt 
by the Tt^FtadiCM of Colin, n microno-opUt of (}ip tin;t ord&Tf who 
in lti62 indicatf*d Uiu proilucticia i>t' zooi^poroA in the i^c^aidJm 
or ftl leut In Pn:'ro«r>rt?fjjf, whit^h )ii? tiup^aod nii;(1]t ooiue 
iroDi Uclion tlialli, coi-latn ci>lIatf.iAl imculigalii^iiu }iail U^ea 
mmrlr liy Fnrmn(j^in anil Karn.j»('ti:ky. Thi* rj-null*; nf t.h)>fle Wi'TP 
rccorJt^ in ac^-cjal contincTitid jtiumnl;!, c, g- ** \lr-m. do I'AcmJ. 
imp. Sc. SU Prf^r»lH«irg," 1887, uml Milling. ''Biol. Biill. d« 
rA«ad. do St Pel*;rftboiur|:,'' I8ti«. HavicR obUiincd uLloro- 
phjllnenoni gonuiiH fi^m ihe genpTO Physda^ Kivtrniti^ nnd 
C&Ktovioi tbcy mieut^cdcd in cultiviiting th<-m indcpcndentJy of 
Uie Uclic-rui IbejiHr-lvT--^ .W-unlin); In Ihdr r«porL luiiiio tif 
tbet^ a£ tbotie of Physcia paHftina, produced tooffpQT^ while 
otiien continiii?--ij to incri^H>i<i hy vi^^etafli'e g^mwih. TTkeflo 
fpae gODidiu thtfy uonoludird wr-ro idpnticul with i\in gcnuB 
QgivloooccrA^, Na<v>, whicli i» tlitm tii>l iiti itiditpftLdr^nL ulgn, but 
only ft phflfle of the f*onidi& of tbt.' hcLuite uudi-'r ruvi^w, So 
mlno vitti rcfpc>ct li> the pbjco^brmtuicL'ju^ guuiiia obtained 
fromCWfcm^utidPfZ/ryrjEEimilnrly 4;u][.]vat^d, th^y fouiKl that 
tlwM were cup&ble uf mainlainiiig an indi^prndr^nt. lite, and in 
8omo CftAM v«re idt-ntical witb »o-ouUod ul^i. lleiicfi tli«j 
cofkoltidcd tb&t tli^iK^ fr<^^1iving ^'uiiidja Dugbt to be r>mittcd 
from tb^ Iffii rtf nl^, SoraevtiAt f^imilHr 4>xpf^iinpnti; vrere 
•ub^cqurctlynindcby Wcifouiii [t'trf- " Apr- d<fl. »Sc, Nat/'sw, v, 
I, xxi. p. 317) OQ Phijticia pftrUthm mid Ph. puliej^uhutHyhvl 
in neitMr cftfiQ va» unv litliMi-tliiLllufl prodtic^^. IStirnet ftl^o 
attempt^ ibe ciilTiv;4tii>n of sjKiroi^ nnd al^'str together, aod in 
bit maafkir given ddnilfl of the experiment in vfhich he vma 
moii niL-CTKitfiil, wbcn* som^ upflro* of Phyucut parietina 
were sown up^fH & layer of Pi-oheoccu't viridia* Ciffrnination 
of the frpore* t/irt V jilnre ^ome days HiibRwjnently, and They put 
fortb iwiiolciilnincTilt, wbich PjK^ily i-long-atingand rwiiifyitiif, 
wJienti^ tbt*y L'iirm? in contiich witb the tells of the- I'rntflcocciw, 
adbered either directly or by a lateral hmncb. tb^ film neat in 
eiUnr caw lieing applied eli>9ely to f be gunidium and jjurrouod- 
iag it [*ro our Plate, 1]g^ 5]. He adds that if tbo pracnco of 
the marrti till] nditinvnf did nr>t show the tnio ratiiTfi of iht^tc 
fx hciU*, it would Ijc iniTioHiihle to dietifip^fili tbo gonidiileTOua 
AbnuiiU from Ibe udidL lidit-u. All otbtfr tfipciiment^, 
iMTWonw, of thia kind, aru certainly, in 8o far, at l^aet, m tbe 
amount of labour cxjji.-tidt^d, noil the vitiiety of mi^LluMlii 
ftdoptcd, and liir apparent caro taken to eiiBUre Auccefiii, com- 
pleielj ca»t iuto tbt? shmlr by ihiav uf Dr. TrL-iib, A abort 
nodMbyhim in " Licben«>ticnltur,'* in "itot. Zeit,,'* Nox'- 1873, 
mtfl folfowi^ imiu^'diiilely afterward* hy a lengtbeucd mcoioir, 
•ntitJcd *' Umlericickingen over de Natuur dor LichoDCn,** 
LfCideitt ^o\\ 1873. lu the secortd section of (bia be fiv^ ■ 


rortLAi: 8Ctt%cx. urm. 

drt&flod accMiint of the n-M^rcbm luitl ia|imni«iiU oa flte 
subject whicli Zionudc in t^:t*3- Ualortunatel^r ^'^ biii«l^ 
in thr Tii-w ijf tlifT Eiitii- i.rcTupi«<l nud tlie pftiw lakcBt moit of 
thcM ccdud in ao &bortjvo nuuui«r; Mkd wiUl fmptfi «T«it to 
Mm moat fftvourable of the nnilU oMaitted, be is fisvccd t^ 
aakii*^wlodffD, tlmt whiU tb«7 would Utd biia to iafer the truUt 
of Sc-bwiniQcner*)* throcyt tliey wonld not be vboUjr decuivi% 

S^ucbf Ihoip miiy bo r«gArdf4 ta & Tei; brief outiiii^ of tli» 
maiD ft-'iiturei of tbo Qotorioua *' ScJi««iiileDcriim hypothc«tt^ 
und <if th^T phyvinlofficftl ftrgiimont^ 3.r>d th«cuttaro«zp«riiii0Dt» 
hj whiclj it hoA been tliQtigbt to be laliatAatutaL We 
thercfuT4? proo««d flimiUrtj to cit« ftn equally bri«(falc«4c1i of 
tiio leatioDA whicli liftve b^a ftd^ced on the otbor aido to fhow 
tKat It U <|nito tiiit«ntil>Irs having do BoUrl ffnindation to nst 
upoD, micl DO ccrtAia proo& to mistoiD tt, AmaIkmIj intitiMtifldt 
it lnu U|i ti> iJie finv^nt tlin*? Kwii iuiiVL<riallj rejected ly 
lichcf^iiflFt. And tliift cot l<:oatide it wsa amuitlitng notvi* 
•taillliigt ai*! *tTih\cr«ivp, >nit upon otber ground)! whicrh bare 
appoired to tbrm to bo quite good nnd miffieimt.. Amonj^vt 
otbon Nybmdrr, KmupdlmliPT, Th. Pri™, MuUrr, bave gtvcn 
Jbrtb tbcir verdict upcn the subject in ycry dccidod tcnitti 
regarding tbtT (lieorj ha impowfbl«, nay* even fttvurd, No^ 
iQQoodt wan it to be €i|koct4*d that tboy would ftuid bj aq» 
tfrn^no aikI iHU' UiHr fnvnnrit^ liebenn mr1iU?u1y i&eprived of 
thcdr autoDoiucjiiH ^xintcnco, tmd be ci>nv«Ttcdf «s if by tJM 
vtroke of K uM^icimi'H wuid, into a H(>ii.b'r-like uia^ler fuugu^ 
and an impnaoDod algal «bvo, Saroty it rau^t have boon ik§ 
v»ry novelty of meh n idmnge tlieory iDUch more tbau tbo 
fipparmlly pbiiEtJIjlrt argiirorrnbt by which it wax fUp|>orti>d ibat 
huj( n^ciuiimf-udrfil it to Uir- ac?cf<p|jincHT of anj botaiiipt of the 
vo<aU<.*d " ni>w kjIiooI.'' AU tbe lichoniflts iait Bined bavo 
mjulti vaiioiL^ conUibulioiw of gronter or leoMr loBftb im 
oppodUon to thnhypoi.hivifl. whiloKoexbnrmsdTuclrfirtnuiluifa 
aJtci mont decidedly reAiw^t to Jion-pt il, aud exprenai 
themielvei a« ctill ooDCinuing finoly Ia bold that lii?hen« mto 
independent ptantA. Some of iho contrlbntioqu idomxl to ho 
ioatt«Tod orer varioiui botanieiU jovimals, wbilo oCtwvs mn ooo- 
taiDcd in separate lichcnolc^Cftl tftatiMa. Tboao of NrUnder 
arc conutned chiefly in *■ Lapp, Or.'(lS*S6).p. 117, *' NiwnU ilw 
Ccpbalodiisf in " t-lora," ibM p. 185, "Circa evol«tioncia 

rlmi«:im Coll<nnac<«ntin NotiiU C ^i^ 1 ^tO, ** Aiuroadvrnio 
Tbeoria GonidioniiQ algologica ; " "Oba. Licb. Pyr, Or.* 
(1873)p. 45, "Ccntn liypoUieaim paruilocam Sc^iveuiipnxl- 
aaata f and looto e^odaUy in " Fton," 1874, p. ^, reprintod 
whli arUiUnm in "OretHllpn," XL n, 145, ^On tbo nlg&Jicbon 
I — .«L«;. and tho fiutritioQ of hcfacof." Tlo obMrratioiM of 
enleis at eoaudemUo lengtb into Uie 


oa Tus ua]fi:ii-<;t>:<ii>i\ QUE^rtos. 


Sobw«ideii«ar in fevour ©f hu hypoTfieeid, aw <iontAirn>J in liic 
ireU-kiKnra '* Gi»chtcbtc utd Litf'Matur d^ Ltcht'Dulo^'ie,'* jii, 
Bd. 1&72. ThftM oF Dr. Th. Frit!* arft royordod in th*> intrcK 
ductinn to hi» " LiclicnocnLphiii Scftndinnviciu" 1871, pp. 4-9* 
tboii^h he does not enl^r veiy minutoly Into di^tailif. Dr. 
Uulier huB also made a short communication tijtoi^ ilie Hubji^ct 
Id the '* inotn,"* IR72, p- 90, In which lir i1*vUro« the new 
diOOfJ to be importfibic, Jind at th^ Aamn itmr pnti forth a 
hypotli»«ifl of liLd C'WD* wliicb Lt* thinks would ^nvi^ u uc-w and 
moTt ntitural intcrprctfition t^ the rc^aichcs of Schweitdcaer* 
AihI not only havi* ihmr^ 1ti*-hriitHU rnfj^rml the fi^ld to 
maintAin tho old uui wcll-tiditubiishcil theory, but other 
botuiUU, such ad Professor Cjir^pury, Imve zdno l<mt. thmr 
ralaftble otti»tAnco, Tliiu Utter di^tin^i^hbad Lutjiniet has 
DUdeuiafl nhiable oWrvntinnN upoJi,nTt(1iuicjitced vovy 8(j-ong 
tfgomenta a^iniit,thcihypath(?5i£iuupc;por ^^ Ucbcr Hienciircn 
Annditrn iu Brl.ruITdpi Flet-Utaa* wuimdi dii*jiT 8i:huuirot.Mfr 
uoD," ia Sohrifion dcT Physik Oekoa. GeeoUsohail la KocnifUtt* 
bcqc. I872t AUh. ii, p, 16, 

To givo, bowovcr, anythiuj; liko a fnir abfatmct of tho dcv^^tilI 
vgooMTiitA luml by thoK* ivHtc;rB in iUc Mii'iaus latrmoini And 
mot oov quoted, would of itaolf far oxcutd tho limits of the 
preip-rLt AfUcle- AH, thexeFore, tbat wt- can attempt tu di> is 
linply to point otit th^i baring upckn the leadin^if principloe 
of Um Scbwcodcncmn hypotlicMK, *i^ ori^innlly propounded by 
Ih^tuthor, mid fiubd^quenily ^thijr lUiutraieU 1>^ Unrnot and 
uUiTTK. And< iudt^d. if these leadiiit- principles can br Khown 
to be untenable, nnd U JiJivn no fmrndntion in fact, then all tbe 
iiileidiaTy point-* with them must necowarily loao all 
tWr fnrci^ and mtaniutC- '^ic lH*«t Tnothod, prohably, &ii it 
ctftuolj i» lh« mout GODcie*>, of Bbuwiug the invalidity of the 
littjry under diicuwion, will 1*^ to rev-iew the two main f^rm- 
tidentiom upon vhiob thr SchwcndcnoriRn theory U evidently 
fiftoid^d. And which the tvl.-lmttLjJ ?uitlicirj in iim[irf» rrceiit oom* 
tmaucaUon cnUticd " Dio Fh?cbltu iila Purajiitt?!: dtr Alpjn ' in 
"Verh*iidl. der Naturf. Gtwilschafl. in H?i«-'!,*^ 1873, again putA 
pniutoeiitly forward- AiUrwitrdi^ wo i-\\tiii ni>tico any objcc- 
Uom of A difTrn^nt imlun% whrcli dit imL mi dinuitly comi^ntidcr 
*ilhor of thc?fi hoadrt. Thu two moia considemtioinft roCcn^ 
to^^bh-'ii thus fnll t<j Iw- diw-.n^wd jipt' — 1*1, [.lie a^reemttnt of 
^"Jhcn-ffonidia witli algcoj and 2nd, tho iclatjon Iwtwoon the 
r^tiia uud>Uiij ii}pphn-. 

With ro*poct to tho formor painl, Schwendeuor, aa already 
*?wiUd, ArtftrlA " That ihe dilT^itiit gouidta-fovuiii. aw to slruo- 
tnm and iDBDn«- of inerefiee, correfnond to paralkd typct^ of 
^ocUuUr and 61amcutosr? i\lgsi Kovv there can bo noqU' 

Lion U«t tie bjpDthcvli hai its odgiav aod itt mIg 
thv TW Oi pbUoc^of Uw gooSdia la «trtaia d^ or 
aipe, utd hoi iot %hU it would ikCTcr hove twoi hcftfd o(L 
a r«M>n1iJaiie« }a'l |>nr\'ioiuIy been ckoUced by BtitfaOT*, and i^ 
Cu- bAck u 1849 TlmitM, im "Aao. Xat. ffisL,*" sk iL 
ml. UL p. 21!t, lind diftinrrlT rtrnvn au«atjcm tod^eimv- 
•Uncc In thtf, bcvevcr, he riji^btly saw }mt M it wen « 
pirallrlirim 1«tvi«o the two; for ** •Lmiladtj," be it obivfTed, 
» n^tb«T loglaltv nor sdmtificdly ^n^Ajmwis with *'idtt< 
titj," Juif£W)bii 'nJwi. in " tUU Zeit*." IdM, p. 521, poblfll 
6iii the MimiUrilr of <vrtAi& licbcfi-f^nidia to £roc tlfftH fbn&f ; 
tliougb 8chw(-iKltiai-T rrtf^nl^ this a^ cvidrticc n£ ideotir^j. 8ub> 
>»quenlly Njliixfer, in '* Flora," 1870, p. 93, wben 
OoUciftg tbo algological titrory of gofiidia« Ttstj 
obmypi tbai uieb an aanatuiml «3EJj^taxe« v th«j wovdd 
noMi racloaed in ft prbon and de^vod of all an 
liberty, is not at all coiwrnaut with tbe mamwr of aklct«ne« of 
thootborB]giD,ud that it hae no par«Uel m luUane. for tujUtbg 
pbjriologicojlj analogoit* occun anywhcro Mm^ H«i aUo Mkt 
wbal. prereotl tbe gonidia of licbonti preAtntiDjf fbnv and ft 
St niciure tfaiillar to «lRtt (or the gonldUof alg« P)aA b c«ftai& 
•pooifled iostaooca. and jot both remain di«t£xKt cLasMfl of vcfi^ 
taUon, Doticing' af a cfttvi in point that altbon^b cfalorophyU to 
owly similar in mcftn^A, ftsm and phccaOfiTLmics, no oiw ha* 
i^rer 00 that ^cfouDt imltM tbcm in oiw aiul th« nme 
Tli« mctt accurate \iew to be etiicrtoiiwd of tboao aJfiic ' 
bavo the appetrtncw nf gonidU [r, 1»» ohvrvo-, to rv^ud t 
at \mrt portly u bcinff id reality not al^pr, hut crmtic li 
ffonidla vrjfi'tatiii;; sihiirirmally, Tliw 'ut the view cakeo 
KrcinptiUiubcr, ytho h^ida that tUcn? are no conoluaivo 
agalniit the itMumpUoii that th« UcboD-gonidia may be wU^ 
d9\'cl'>ped ovgmf of tbo licdicu proptT nitbcr tban oi^^ ud 
thnl^ thfttA i^iidiii ean coiitiTiut; lo vrf^HaU; ve^moAvijf anil an 
be nixlnk*^ for uu^ooUuUr al^£v. !^ aim Tb. Fri«0, 1. c. Myv 
that U i?t IiLl-I/ Ihat rarioiH luodeni families of **alg>?*' euo* 
«jflt of Uoheii-£i>oidia gvi>wjii£ frve, which nu^t Lh«rdbro to be 
ddiutcd from (bo iyitmi of alfun. Af^n*iii " Oha. Pyr. Or-* 
h c> Nytandor arguoi that wen tbo hypothwid tnie, ** Liohoai 
wotjJd plow l)rat and i>c<ur uiuet abundjukUy in ploccB wbow 
those ni^t^ nitidh are rcj^rdod oa tbo gouidia of Ucfaona abovodp 
wad would there alao be oUcrvcd to be cranuned with tbiwe 
elomonts." On th« contrary, bowev«r, bo affimtf (and the o^ 
piriLitc^ tif nil Eirld4icbrm»td will rvnfj tbe avicftion) 
■'Liohi.-nii aroid tli«M vLaFions* whkb lurif not ifUishitcd ox 
■parfngty by CoUemacei and a few otbofK vhicfa aro not alwap 
woU dev^Uiped, and which do not contain any srich algoid- 
gooidia in tluar Usxtorc." Morcovicr, be adds (^{i. 47) Lbit ^ eo 

09 Tfa LlCaKS-^OlSlMX QrK?nox, 


br %n vlitit nro cilIIwj n.]gt^ut'p<ttt\tiig in th^ turbid bypotliiJiiji 
■>f Sebwcndcncr, Iroca c^ni^titriiUttft Iriic^ nlg^t t^^t on Uie con- 
toiy It may bt* uffinruMi that iliey IjiiVL* a Uchunovo nnture, 
^boKt It follows tliat theao p«cu(lo-alt«-* are in a njntomntic 
lrraigeRi4tnt tn h*» r^^ptrntl ntMirr to t,)ip lirhenfl, and that tbo 
elMof alfTi^ hithorto eo xti^u-ly liinit<Hi rtbmild be ctrcum- 
flribwl by in-w .^uil JniT-r liriiitO' ffj tliis la*t oljrtPTvatioQ 
tlkiTc^ DO doubt li<^A fi compli-'tt? ftnawcr to tliL* abovo t^oiuidm^ 
tlon addni'.Rd Uj Prh wen dinner in fcupjwrt. of hh Ibi^ory. K<*nco 

Ssnlc, SiJ^timmnOt Ag. (= to^tjVuft/ir'fi, NyL), ^Ttmpfumj 
KuU ( = ^pL^of^^'r^, Bom.), and probably vomo other* aro 
w yrt. kpuwn Fjoly in a vtiy iiiippifect vonditiun. Tlii*, tut 
Till at onco Im> p*irtpivc<i, vp'ould wry oonmdombly rodu«! tbe 
lf«U givfTCi by 8clnr<md<riii»r and Rurin^t ; xjh\ if it, In? criucy^lwi 
(nor can St recMonabJy bu donitd) tbat MOmo otli<^r »I^ ffcucm 
UN but fme liviu^ Licbeu-goiiidia, ih^o IhU would ubfirly 
dvindle down to nothing. Sticli a t^olution of the, in »omo 
Oiatf fta/, uid in i>ih*\ri only faiu:k4, identity of certain hi;|>- 
po ><d A^ftse witb li<;heiii*^iudia, 14 ti^taiiily mucli moro nntnrsl 
H^U lEtUuligiU?* even 04 it leaU iipoQ earur ^roniidfl, tbnn t,ho 
mtoodandprm^t/aci^mnj^t improbable Schwendenerian theory. 
Ah& very ^rikiag exmnplc of fhix/andcd id^tity* which after 
aU u only "' nmiUrity," lot uh tAlcd on^ of Boniot'a Btronp 
|iouii«i via, tbe jd*Titity of Prctocooati9 viridur with tbc gonidja 
of Ph^ieia pavUtma^ for ihis is evWontly what b** wi*hfrti lo 
b« mfcTT«d from Iiis culture txporimont. Th« two are no d(»nbt 
t«<T *MFlitor, bnt n rnffltPtjt^n tt> f-nr Pint*?^ figw, 3 and 4, will 
foffioa t« Khow that tbcy aro not identical ; for, tsa will be Aeen, 
tke gonidia of Phync'ui par-lethia are Urgur, and multiply 
ttivauelveM in a le«GCr dogroe, while tlo Protoccccun multipfion 
Itjdf with the ittmnxt, rpnjlinrw; nnd celerity, much morf^ 
quickly indeed than do tho j^nridia. h'^ uno di^oc 07nnc$< So 
much, Uirii, for tb« Arst uf tln^ Iwu ttmiii otiriBdJertttroiiii by 
whicit tiohweDdtmcr ooekn t^ aupport Lie hypoihi^iB, 

W« turn, tlierefoie, (o l\w i^econd of tbesef, via. the relation 
betwCiGil tho goniiiin. and tlio hyplim. Horo ho affirms, *' That 
3tt ypt th" gntiHii; rf■laliut]^hip uf th" gimidia i^n Hip hyplmt haw 
liovbcrc twon difLVstly proved, but only aHuum^ fur otrnt-^mjcol 
Tfopon*," wliilat, itA I16 Add», *' ihv analoiuical LxitniPcLion iLfwIf 
may ftowibly dnpcnd on 'oopnlaUon.'" Now, it ia worthy 
of notivf^ Uiat tbiH a^^^cfttoii 'n diri^tly nt viiriniitrf- wfth what 
gdiwondciifa- hiroieU ori^rmally boh<ived, aiid whii^li b<i mp- 
potftAl Ijv fig^* iii Niegtdi, '^BisitiSge zur wiw. Boujuk," 
Heft, ii., p, U5, t. i. f. IS, t. V- f. 15. This \iew, he thought, 
■was Bufficicntly cM^bli^hod by the previous observations of 
Bay^rholTcT and Specnchueider^ thcmgh he maintained that t1 

rOBTlAtt SJUnCE 1l£VIEVf> 


gunidia were prcidiicod from tbc intcnaedi&tc joiDts o; Uk 
hypha nad not from the U^rminal ceUs. If^ ibeDf the figoiv 
l^ wliich bo iUuitmtod liU original viows upoQ tlu« poiri «*> 
oorrect, iki: thf>y pnwtimablv w«rct it U a I^tinut« InimMi 
that tl]<v change in hjji optDion more im-mdiiiiti^j originitcd s 
th^ i1i>«irr to ohiaiii nilditioiul (^uufirmutiuQ of di« fuadftmitil 
j>rinci^l(< »f hn theory alrc^nd^ noticed bj proseuic the ccaiM»- 
tion, r«d nr hhkuicwI, of thf* Jijp>m to tho "alga" (gooidll) 
into hi« service. It is, ind^d, \vtry (litKo[i)t, on crerj liduHil 
wlio Inu iTLAuli? tlie L*xp^imimt^ well kmivii, ta Unac thU ooBHfr 
taoa Gxoept in the earlieet staged of lidMsn ii«Td<ipnuTnt,t|^ 
even tttere only imHer exceptionally favourable circitiutiTattl 
Houod the vEirioris <TXpcinTiKfnt» itltviuly noticed in Licb* 
iniltHiin? wRfi? initLitutwi diiefly f^»r tdn |HU'|HMM)f ^ui'-iFriAinii^ 
a prinio initio what \titA tiw ori^a and the obimi«UTT of \3ao 
reULUoubhip. And Le^e wl-i may obsi^ve Uini &um lli» 
reeordod, wliidi are in vuTimjE rc^ipcx^t^ confo^odly iiiiAti^ttfr 
tnry nml incimclusive, the byjuitlir-JiA In reftlity dcrivee Lltde <c 
no Kupportf dinoe in gwat i>CLrt, at lo4<t, tbo phcnooHM 
wiUicwtsd, ur asid to have b^en witoeflSdd^ ate oipaUe if 
another iind tnorr* prolmbl^ intorpretAtion- Tbua^ ^^ roipiS 
to Rcesa' famous cxpnrinnont witfi Nostoo and Collcma ipoicit 
tbero uan Ug Utllo doiibt that Nylander'a bypo^bcMi*, ai a* 
pr<i?scd in *' Flora " 1868, p. 353» ci a^, is corrt?ot, ni. tbtf 
"Nofltoc" IE in p^irt, if not al1og«t1i«ri « nidimentaij or m- 
de^'cik>ped atato of "Collcmn,*' nncUogon*, o» it won$t to t^ 
''kprariie* amongst the Liehentioei. He hai obn>rved 
nofitocinij thoiU arc fr*>jucntly inctwitb in ^oudy ami gia^ 
plncp9, anil in fJie same !ipnt« nhnrtly afl^rEVanls aro fi. __ 
i)oll«TnA ptdpoQumr which entirely nffr©^ with our oim obsc^ 
vations an f bulky (lelrit.ns at SIjutp in Siirrt'y, and in thocift 
of vatiouft oLliLT spKies of VoU/^iace^i on praveily veil in tl* 
We^t. ][igtilan<]H> Thiri cprt^unly neemR a mneh Tnotc natvll 
solution thftr tlic '• rlimorpbic " theory of Dr .MuUi;r in ** Kloia," 
1872, p- 90. Rut pveu were tliiM imi tla^ rrbilion lM>'^viRtt 
Jfotftoc und Collcnmt the OKporimentd of I{eeE«^ vronldi «iWr alif 
prove aJHobiLely nothing in favoLir of hh tbi«ry in iJiji jortici^ 
iar icRtnnw! lor had ho *own tht? tftor^ of a ParxMia « 
Opfjjrajxha ujimi liip nostnr, be %roidd Xx^xtt witiirMwd arimlkr 
phunomc-uon- iSo, aJ^o, with rt^^^Ktet to tho fiUmcnt fEttiDii 
hecii by Uoinet and Tiimb euteijiig itiCti Prutiicaocuti. Hu^ 
ii^in, would not pro\-o tUn pnjiihoii taken up by UMUDa far^ 
Jl. Nannan, an tNiunlly ptncCii-'nl :uid di^tisgiushed ubmfa, 
has 8utin bypluD eurroimdin^ llio chlorophyll of yun^M-moMij* 
nnd it« grains of pollen, vid^ '' jULelceiLiettuu,'' Wl% pp. M 
and 252, Jtnt though from the n.iliir<> of tbo 
(liiHoult to be corrijatly aACcitaincd, and tbc\i^h tbe 

OH ms Linrxs-oonMi 41 


otfCitaUoa mre tlutf inooaclnsiv^, vrhAi we believe t4> be Uie txtio 
a«m«r4ion betwom iho filAni]<tito^e tiwi^ ftnd t]i« gotiMia Ibid 
b«a nffidrntij crt«bl:Th*Ml by the oWnatif^n* of ftft^rlioflert 

IVBB17 himself, ill 111* Tr^^litfr- " Mi>rphf>lop<f iind Phyfliolnpr 
Jut Pil&? I-"'lR'Iit<^i, inwl Myx^myiwr^oi,'* p, 258^ Jtc.^ had 
rtirfitjctly iJiown that, thr irfu**n g'Hiiflitira onginntM in the 
apaiuiori uf a >hof J lttt>ml brautrh of l h*-. hy^AiA^ vfh'taU htv^OTimt 
tto-df AA ft clf>bular-ci>U, and iwquinu^ a gret-n ot^lour. Thit 
piWlllttttfTN\lrtminrin"FI*ira," IKT4,|<. 7fl,n£<i*rts^i^therGflull 
CfcbcniiiiDti, Ckriw^ oriKfinnlly within (hi? pnmrir^ i^hloropl^U- 
tt pl^f«oo]in»tii-lH!iir[ti)i; Cf-lliilr, mill in iKit tiitruilnk frum miy 
ntenul <ttuin«r. And iLat tht^ ^^Liidia tf»i'iupn.-lirt?i iirp not 
fairpfl IVfim hny fon-jgii unutri^, will W ^iifficieiilly evident 
iWft rdi?Timcc to Ki^. 5 &nd ^ of mir I'lntc, wlKiro in the 
Wc tliiLK of A ltirlii.^uncc<oii» niid a ooUfminLitni^ uppek'i, it i» 
iffuent that thuy onj^ioaltf in tlii* i9i4l*t i for it ii4 in the 
fnog [sidift tTiat tlifry mny Ikt niosl coiivt-iiinkLly sLodied and 
teth'^ir ori^tj IK meat eltwrly M^ni. 

Oac*' fnmiT^il, oA T5e BAry prociwdH to bIiovt, thn ifoniilium 
Liwmi«a iDd<>penii^ntJy by dtvifeion ; but thr>uj:fb u«iuiUy «eeu 
|iIh^ on tJi€ braiiclik't* of ttif liyphfc, yet thii i« not univer- 
*Uj ihii cnH(% for 11 TitimluT of thr-in r^ci-ntiiJilly lic» witliotit 
•ltpito»"cntl<-trtll:H"tiircriitbi>hyp]iiP» TliiflhitiKtillmorc rccf fitly 
Wn oonfirmed tiy Th. Fri*^, " Lldi. Scand-'^ jk 7, wlio, from 
<tiicci obflcrvatit^iUi adopts and drtbnd? llit^ opiiiioii. For, 10 
he^ilM, th(< hyplup H.r«* nfit only riotkgnU-d jnia Tlliimenta, hut 
i'k acod out inhort brandms *^f^ vriiieh the tcnninfd cell 
EiuILyfliUU«Lf 1kwoiui*h tmt^lot;c»M-, :ii leiij^h ih tillml with 
trU, Ib MtbsoqueDtiy ctmDgi.<d iLit'> u ^oiiidiiLiu. wlii^b 
'kally i* vnrioiiHly drvidf^) *itnl girfs nrigiii To rtthrr gonidi:*. 
^^^ rwiprct aim to u >iumU>r of thrjit j^ntiidm ticin;; found 
ore url H^tt<-rnl niiiuii^t jbr ][y|ilu±<, the- mrrn' :iiilLor ri^clitly 
>fpu« that tbie t.^ircunLdtaQccT in by no mt^ans iintagonietic to 
Ur opinion that, tbcnr- U normnlly pii^'int n connwUmi hctw(.TTi 
UiF£imicLiA and the hyphiL\ At Ixsihn^ uli^c upon thr point in 
kMQii, Kn^taiJrlbtibtir, U C. ob^^ivi-fi t]jat Sctiwnulv'ni^r auei not 
tOtfopt l£i expbLtn from vhnt Kun^^ th<> fitnj^l hyphLp, which 
itffilve the grwti aljfa?^ arc dcnvpd- On the assumption, 
r,tlia1 be would explain it hy ujiKcrting thut thf iilmiienT* 
iocslL En^vn the |;ermiiial>it£; hclidi-ipore arc the Jiypha? of 
ftm mdimentnrr thidltiK, he nrge^ that the idea of such 
in wfirch of an algul b-wt, and pting ri»c to a 
with fnwtifictttion, u Soci>n*wivablc. Motcovit, 
ore vpeCMtt of lich^uB which in many eountnt-ti nev^r 
_ jt and vfaooe propagation can conaeciupnlly be carried on 
^fliy tD^'osa dt the 4or«dia? and the hypho: of such ooaM\& 
laL xiu.— 90- m, r 


m.flciBrcs ainsv. 

tiunw^r^ alone no tnor« tervd fbr proptjiffttioii tiian Hk» b;>ti 
from tli^ pileiH or ^alk of an Aganc, while it U bl^ 
impn>bal>1o tbnt they cotild iicqiiirc ihU &caltT br intcrpMitlO 
of n fnnnij^i aljTril. On tUi titli^^r liaixl^ he arf^tu'^ it I« tnn^ 
more cimforaiftblo to luiture tint Uje f-onidia* &« MlM«rd«fM 
organs of Uie Hcbenai aboutd, lik« Uio »f)o<ri!fs coablc tile fajfilu 

Ctnaoeedinji; fiY»in thf^m let propagate? the i&dirnluaL TliiJ v 
icdiffVi; to b(^ Uir true; ilixlriuo conct^miuf; the relatioiu iif tl 
j^nidia to th« hypLa?; and when the nev thooirf hMt hid Ul 
hn^« if bntlianl day, will no douU be fpmcnUlr ucoeplf^ 
Dut apart ultogrthtrr from then* coot icivrat ion*, tbtfn.* rcraciiat 
anotlicr a^^llm1^nt, whiah of ilA.-H 14 ^iilHcirnt to alwir, whatever 
tho connection in otber renpet'T'^ )jf^tv>«Q (Ii«Me two e&cm>«li 
may be, it i* ccrUinly not that of a ** ftrng^w*" with aX^ 
cnloQiJ^K or lirh(Tii*goiiidia. For Sobwendctier'i maktrr |iaivilf 
turns <Ki% to be DO fun{fus aft<tf all, oa baa deariy btx'n fbK* 
Ire Nyhimler» in " Grevillea,'* if, p, 147. itot^: '♦Th* anainmiol 
tiliimo-DtoAo cl«inciit« nf Uchcnn afc iliMin^^uUhcd by t-af>Mi 
clmmch»r* from Uir Iij|»}kp of fiiiif^i, T!ir.v iir^ firmi^r, ijartit 
and at oiictt pr««oat thi^mwlvea iia th« tviiurt* uf Ji^lwii?* *** 
(lie i^thvr liand, the hypLa< of fntgi aiv very soft; ibej po«t* 
a thin wall, and aro net at oil gelatinous whilo tboj ^ 
(inmnlialrly tliivolved by llir ap^ication of bjibatc of polaihi 
^0." Thifl welt-markcd and tOMntial difftinction briwiwD 0^ 
Lwu. which ohaerratioD luupl; VBrifieii at uuci- L-0nm«BT 
d<imoih"hi-^ the funzal pari fifths Schweod^nennn hypothefit 

80 nmcb, then, for tJii; lwi> lca<ling prinHpIn u\trtn vbkh tU 
now thtHiry tvid<>ntlT re*t* The thw* othlir minor (Maw*!**** 
tioni otiductxi by tbo author in ita mipport. a« 4i>iitAl l^ "* 
ahove, aiv diJcpoM'*! of iiy Von Krempelhnher, 1. a, in a T^ry fr* 
vord^ To thcM^cond* nerGpU» iw. tliiji dilTcrrnceol iisit^ 
U of no importance, vince Ui« iaembran«« of tbo tbM 
<iri^inatinj> fr<>in the hyphjr ^\i* the Mmo rcaclion »3 rbtf ^ 
th" giHuihri-T«>-rTit>r:i™'» To tW fourth, be nfpli<% th:it M>r)n,A 
ih<i ohjcTvaiirtia ot Tola^nts iSc-, did not witiivly :* i' 
directly t^ftublitbitif^ lb<> d'r\~eloprnent of tlie ifiMiidia :.-;,. 
hypbas FtiU, from tlicir roj^iUr appt^i&Dco upon ihv latter, tk»' 
pmlnliililj UiHt UiiH was tbrir nr^n cnnmit reoaouably 1^ 
d«tiii.sL Anil to tbn XoaI ooDiideration he roplici that i>r'- j-**^ 
aenc« of gouidia U not the only djHltiiK'uiBbiii|[ (flaiur-^ 
a^'on tho !owe^ tit:bci:s and mch fun^ (/'^v^itomyotfi/ 
on aKT***tiient in thiHr fn»LificaUoiu Sot limitiM thf«v par-' 
tiouLar ol^eotiont \t> tbo bypotboiit, Ihero aro vontiu* oCbrc! 
noTO K^neral cneai of ^ual validity^ whkh bavi- bom adilwid 
W M -1 ' . rill havtt rffcrenci^ to tb<* ■ ttJi 

ti^ ' " :i5, Witb r^pMl 10 III :■ >*m 

NvbuMUf, ''Ob^ I'yr. Ov.»'Lcu^ba4 vlat4><l tbaC ■'u ia amnJi 

05 nil ucriE>-cmapu qubctior. 


Mchif^T prnmoteil &ihI acTJve^fts for example (putting forUi 
n3iiiij-ptirtB cuul}cretitinff c^ilontic ra«tt*r; whilci on the con- 

Wfj, thoBH pufUoiu iif tUfl UuUliu Tfiiiul*? from the ^iiiJm nr 
i^wiced in nga— as befit appears in iu^radBaUcrustaoeouaUoheoa 
-having Wt ibcir Life, become «ntir ely taitareous, fonutDgaslt 
rare but * Cbiakc-n<f<l dr^jwiu/ Now ili: thr g^itiliu of nU liohcnx 
IftnonDOJl/ covenrU \iy d:c filanicfiittiwr ti>.9uc^, nhilt^ i^t innxiy a 
pirtintious cortictil ftmtiun entirely turrouDdfi the otber por* 
faM of the thnlLu^, it i« trident that, thiis i»<>Ut^ fn:<iD the 
Dllir world, tbcy oan <lL*nv** nitrimnut fur ihoir ip'OArih und 
only fi\»Tii the Ih&lliu iUclf, to whii» nutrition. Jicuoixl- 
,Si"hw>>niif'ripr, tut alrendy intimnt^d, they thrniM them- 
julMKTvr. But, ft* i* very aptly oWrvcd by Th. ^^^^ 
c, p. 5, " li irt vvry well knnwn thitt Ath^T phint*, froni whitli 
Bcutlca dmw their nouns Jum-nt, lt.'c«mt' in cotieLH^uenou 
ragtitd,«tnkmi :Hid rlJri, uvhilo hprp 'ne nee planiA(n1g»1<^olonl<«) 
a oil side* infi^tod l>y pJiraititcM ( fujiiEri ), wluelj not only dfi notn 
Ufc any injury, hui. nnt tvi-u mj itwiU^l aud [■l.imiilareU UihI 
bwgrow* increase and multiply all tlie mort>."' Wi'll may ho 
KcuLinia ^^nuM.^fuI jmd iuvi^mlingparahitihriL — who cait N'fnfi^ 
leard of nuch a tbin^?" Add to thii:, that, ax iihuwn by 
frlanderal conBideraUe lrn«Ui iu "Fliriu" I»T4, ]j\t. 59-Gl, 
fcheus derive thoir nourialanctat diixKitly from iha atmosphero 
nocdving: uothing from thu siihtitratiiiii imle«s aa If niL-chafii- 
■Jljjit^, iron and Hm*'), aad ilmttliiBpnnolr!it.**chi4>Ey through 
L^tortBce (thr c^irticul stratum) of tim tlmllu-i to tlm ^ouidial 
trtxiiTQ wh«ro rhe active life cldt'tly haa iu eeat, and it te 
WJy d^monFtralod that Scbweiidcner'A idea i« not only ^ 
Pw* mewl. imprf>halil^\ but a]*o ^i j^JM^mori rintinily rmmeou*. 
Another slroutf <jbj^s;tion ha» l«-n mnAn on tht^ ncoreof 
^ribiitimi f>f lleheusp On tliiti point Krempelhidn^T arguM 
as miny Hchpns are cOHDaopolitan, njid n^ tlicir tj.-iuilin nrr 
trcjvheiD aliki*^ it iniiHt^ on tho Srhivcndiqu-rbii liyp"tli«iif< 
btt die:*e ans &I||U\ he &ieujmod that tmch iil^to have aa widi.' and 
VinemJ a difttritjntion a& i-ha lieheiL^t ^n<l ^^^^ thiJt Uijug 
Dtirely contntry to our praeont knowlodc;n of Gilfi:a1 ditttrihution, 
iblbi? bijihesL di'grot- Iinpruhablr. M«reuvpr> mid us hi-ai- 
Dgmoro directly upon tltie ar^uui^nli U may <^uite pertinontly 
t^ed, how 16 it ihat licheDi^ if Lhu cuEiipo^itc plauFx jvprc- 
niUd, ar« mot with in nitiuitionn nhrr^ neither nl^ni uur fun^i 
ft eocii ? Thi^ has Ijten very di?iiiiic(ly put by Dr» Mullert h d, 
Avie he ob9erve>f that in the high Alp«t amongst huge ex- 
kittce of rocksi far removed ftom wt)OfiN wJicre t^c j4«c:i^^t 
to oeear, aud whore tdgiti ajc hut r;iri^, Uelien* irL? often met 
*itb in £jcat abiunkmcir. Thi> ia ami>iy coulinncd by our own 
mcTttknu amon^t the bighor Grampl!\D§ in Bm^mnrt where 
I t4 


rorn^& sctsieci itvnr. 

tomrdfl th«ir nnnmiler oinidjfl esrtoonve metee of 
graiittir and 4|iiviin»r Itoiiltlrtv, vthrw not ti single faa^^v 
toon, and vImtc xXjck are uaktt<yirn (for tht <t^tcatM* » 
TimrrHt )<[inij(,'« and rilU ares«t Schweudeoe/d tnni fliowi 
ncchuM)* iha £rtcA#naw0 are faflicU>ntly plentJIu] tad vtri 
OtliPT aT^ummt*. cf gT«ftt«9 or \em forc«, bnv» been made 
Kfomppllmlirr io ibt- Hfott ve Ijatw quoted, but 6tir limiU n 
□ot jH'Tinii iw* lo eulcr upon lbef«* We eluJl Uicrrfirrr <r 
t«nt outv^Ito* 1>r nmpiv ntnting in ^onoludon the Uih^ getxr 
mod a« wc ukc it un^Losivc-rnUc objections roMi^ to Ibe jmi 
tlie*i» bj Pmfrtwr Cafpiry in tlir pper Bbovu Tiottc^ Jm 
hn iirp-*; — Irt. Thrit if Ibi* theory werv tn**', thr ftngi 

Cmiiti^ vToiibl hi h-ixi^ iintl nnmhn' of cflU excised ma 
jidrrd tiincfl tlw noiiriHbtDjf pliuit, tluugb nntbiaf; Fucbcbi 
wli^re wciir* in iiAttiii-. 2iid- Tlw* tliMiry iw ImpfuHiblr, fijril 
"fttgiD*' in whicb thi? fiiu^n it parasitic would div|^7 4 
gro<nlivt bmli.h mid vigniir, nnd nf tlin mmj* tlioe VMM I 
multi|ili^d, which itii^lBiird. 3rd> That the ilMoryi* impafltt 
bnnuM? ibt? TiouriiJiJug ^ ali^fi * iKuig (-tiiirpJv nicliinnd m ll 
fUnfnw* «ividcDtIy cah Aupplr to it no coiiriehm«nu 

i'hriiu- of ciur ri'itdf^rf irUii tlhIi Io kunv inrihifr d^Ulll i 
tlic bypothvMH Qcd tliv obji^otiom tbaa v<f biivo bo^iUll 
ICive in tb(> i^ace Qoir ftt our dispoeal, vill find .^iicb to i 
v&riotiA mem-^irti, pitpen and worbe v^hich ire bare qvoUd^l 
aljto U> ft oortAjn cttcctt iD Mr. Ari:4i<<r*b eicell«Qt riimmii 
Iho iiiibjt^-r, >MJuiLrt.' J&uro. Mtcr. 8c." rol. xiii. ]^ $t7,tf 
Ti>b xiv, p. 115. A tniTMUttfin by tbr aiar gmlliriiMi i 
$cbvr<'nd(^i«ir*ii nioft reoi>nt con iribu lion to tbe hjnothiite. W 
vhicb bi? rrplic« to vruiotuv objection* tbit bave brai vrgJ 
iwuntt ft, rnf iltrvl "On tbff XiUnrrt af lb« Gonidlaof Liclv^i 
will al«o be found in tbt* tuao y^nirv^ roh xiti. p« S35. Ja tba 
ax 1CV3 t>n\y tn bp ptpw*t^, 8chwendereT fltiU taxkamwrf 4 
mnit^tciin hi^i (hn^rr in elII it^ intcfn^tyt and farther illitfUM 
by otiirt Bimilut <ilH<riiLtic»iHf thb M*iiuaioTiAl *' Roaum ( 
Uchf^nolofEy," or tbo unnftturol tiniea between a copitivc Alp 
(!»11]hI and a tfrnDt Fungal nasXti* 


Rpt, t. « wul I. tWtkiwor th» tlMUw nT /WfMrw ITmip^/i^: 

Icnydiftmitai^wlMDcv it m critot tbM tbo jtiN^th iwfr-] 
d«coa fron (i* Ial«i«l <«llaU «f tl* lahUpw 
Mit dniri^ frwD vij otbav f ludur* 

on TUB UCBBTt-OOSlMA gi7B9no». 


flo. 1 « and £, IddoM glnb^M of CdJ^<i fitrtttm io diflurvnt condition*, 
wbm'fi it u Ktu UiAt tliP ^jidJB utifziuAtc &cm lie vc-rj bc^in- 
Qtng in tlio iudin th^tnMiJvc*. 
4 jl Ootliiiba of i%y«c«a /Mrw4iW 

V Si Cupicd Ei^m tbruL-t I'Pl. X').u>d ithuwlu^ lbs iporra ot T^imw 
filuiiOQl-j^crii^fl ivticb inflnit thc^mfiolTu into or £i th«u«alTM 

UpUa llt« globules Vt tlll^ J ITj'lN'irtl^r'J. 

n K Cqdpd from 1C«««i, mi] iihnwiiig thi» iiUm^r-g«nn« of lb« ^(»n«<f 


Bf W. a BAELOW, FJUk^VJ. hm. CX 

I LLiitisuliUil 

J\ puunl1vrllieexpvkiaB0ra&-ft«b' 

uriM of ftfiieoktMl Aouodff the air U ^«cted in imBmbDA v^ 

Sill rjinniiljT and praiure^ and Jn Uiv d iftWi < of ludJiiMr^ 
w\n<h tbej coidbmiws wid Uramil^k 

It sppewed to rae tUt it votki b> tDt«mtiike and ffoMIr 
^lUrfiiL a* tending to tlix-JtUlc tlio pvoccA o&d lAxtfi of ti^'*' 
Llion, Iri coijritjuct tiii iEi»trumoiLt iriucJi «bodld naCfOfd tii^ 
piri'iiEiutic acttoBi )iy diagauw^ £d a manner UMlciipKut«tl** 
In wKiih tlH- lndf<«tc>MUBgain of s a«nnp<ii0i» notfdi tk 
BotiMi of tbo cn^oe. 

ooQildttJag A viritAMo 
reoDditiiiiiH to bn mrt iTi'rr , . , 

Utiri v^irre rery varUbU, nomc of tbem bcio^ extrefotljr m^* 
tadt Mfccoidl^t tliat tbe Impulavs and clianj^n of pc taani r foU^ 
<KJior occasioiULlljr with gntt mpldity. 

ft wu ilierofora ii««eicafy that tli« morifi^ [taiu tbfiall t^ 
Vftr; light, and th&t the tnoTcmcnt o^d nurking tboiUd bo 9^ 
OOtuplUhixI villi at IhUu friction on po»idble, 

Tbo initrutxM'Ot T hnvn mmitnictM ooaiKiO of a ntnxO >p^ 
ll^-tjiinipol aboiii 4 inclicTi lonff, haYio|t ui orduiai3r moult 
pLfy?<- ootinfctftl la a tiiltf | ao indi Iti dlaiiwt«r, tbn UU 
of vliieh in witicncd Oiit to afl to &rtD aD tfwftura (3 
F| itichm diaoirtrr. 

Thb apcrtw u cohered w£Ui a loeiDbnne or gvUbmtn' 
ikln or thin guttaporcht. 

TOT tooc€inmv,'xs mniKO ar Mtt totce, 

A sprinfT vhicb canaca the mnrkrr i« made to pietu agaiiiHt 
the mmibniDe wdJi a slight initial pn^niiirc, t» prev^'Ht a« iar 
»* pntcticAbLo tbc cffccU of jar and cgnwc^jiirtit vibrtttoty 
Mf ioTL 

A VPT}' U^lit ami of aluiiif ninni U eouutfotwl witli tlr Kpriiitf, 
uid Itoldi th<!< niaik^r; and n coEtiituoud etrip of paper iti umm^ 
lo pt»> nnii^r thr iTmrki.^r in tbe t»vn& manner as that employed 

Tho marker conei^tB of a Ginnll 6nd enblc bnieb, pla<:^ m a, 
'>ght tiilnr of glHf« -^ of un iui;L in ilinind^r* Tliu tube h 
r<»uiidcd at the iowwr end, and pieroed ivitli u liolr About ^^^ of 
Wi itKh in diniufrtpf, Tlirotigli this Uoht the tip «f Mie bnis-li is 
■Qttde lo proj^l, and it is fed by colour pnt into tbe gixA^ tube 
te wbicb it ift held. To proridc for tite escape of the air pusft- 
t^if Uimufih t1w> imtriuaeiit, u vinutl orifice is made in tbe eidd 
*)f tlnj tube of tbe »pc4kiog*tnimpt'l, so tliitt tbe pressure 
ewted upon t.ho m&mbrano and it« faring i« thai diie to tlii* 
^iOsrcbco ariwng from tlic qnantitj of air fi»rc(?d into tb<* 
1nuzq)rt and that whicb con be dL*livoied tbrougb tb^ ori^oi^ in 
'v*D time. 

Tbtre Ufing an inlt.ijLl prcMUCo upon, tbe jneiubTane, lo 
pTGvijnt vibratory ac;tiou us boforc desCTiU^, the ftrcrjgth 
of thp vptiii^ lunl the wilt* of tbe orifit-c hud to b.- j&iljtistrHl, 
fto tluit while the lightest pfvw4niirpa arising mirltr atritrubi- 
tioo could bo recorded, tin- gri'iLt^*t. prcwnrc* should not pn> 
dnic« a movuoKjnt coccv43Uiti|>; ibc Uiuil of the widtli of th^ 

U will bo »tcn Ihflt in this conetruction of th^ iiutrumtnt 
tbi' huihii'ii dpptioation of pri'*auit i» ns *u<i(3enly i"ecord<?<.l, 
Aubject ocly to tho tnodiHcatintif accafiionr^d by ihii innrtia, 
motixuifum, and fndion nf ibc' ]mrt» niovi*ih Bui ibf^ a-curd 
of tl» fudiJon cc(«atioD of preftsiire is fuHlier aflfected by Iho 
tiui« frquirrO to dlKbargo the air tbrougb the escape oriUce. 

JnoADkucb, howovor, ns tliv&i? ^weral rtfoctK crt *tnjdnr under 
Bsmilar circiumdnnorst, the »ajtie diagram should ulwuy-i be 
obtained fcom tbe -lam* pmrumiitic sciion when the iaflirument 
ia ill proper m\j uA^meut. ; and this result i» fctirly bomc out by 
the Dxp«rimentJf, 

Wc arc thus cTmbli?d to iroco to what extent tbj> pneuuatio 
action laHeii with diifere]>t atticnl^tioiia; and il wili l>e si?eu 
that, although tbcTG axo inElan<v!( in which coriHiciE>nLbl*> diffet- 
«inc«* hi Kound do not tiuikfMuuch ^ari&tiuit in tli<^ di^igruni, ^rt, 
-M ft rule* ^cry change of eound or ^iouUtioa produiH^^^ 


rotTLui wcasct bttibw. 


Befoid refefnog to tbe |)cctillanti<4 of tbn dim^nuus it air 
be dMimU? to $a.v « few vardu na tbc ijuaiititf«a o( ftir w«4 iu 

On n'ft^r^^c& lo medical QUlhoritie«,'iC sppeofv tfaflt tliv ft^n- 
agt- ^iiiaotify of air expelled in one ro^pimtioti i« criimAkd tV 
40ciiH« itM^r*, aod lint tbu total alt»q«oe of tbe lun^n 
cntimfttrd to ;i>'fni|[VT LlC ciiliic inclree. 

I have ajcenain<^ by Pi]ipriTii*mttl«t « TcdUKinniAdiicirpI^ 
bfat«rV rkijiy whwc <ubic cnntc-nt 'vIx'B !ul! wna M3 nWf 

of m\y>ut 44 cubic iucb<4 for oftcb rof^mlion. 


Also that l^ flUEtkg mid pmptyitig ihv liniat u ttMoplddi 
kdicAblc, th(r 5iZ cubic incbc* o&ukl bi> fiLkd mib iix 
rtttirrrif, cir At;[inl I4R cubic iiidtttt fur imc^ rvi^kfratiuii. 

I aiift toadc tb<^ foUowit£ex|>oHii>ctit tnm«G«rt&iD tbe tx^ff 
qunntiiy of air luvci id pixmonDuiag ■yllftblrak ^^^ 

liiDfc Uie anroo bftUoon aiid ipeakiDit into ftn eUiHc 

onuiuiuiiL-ating witli it, 1 >^cl Dom i bix>k uatil tb*? l*Ul 

waji liUfd, tjiking cauo to cUw ili« elastic tub« vliA it 
ticcnwuy to uJtt- IjtxvtJi. 

Tbc r««utu were ot foUowt t^ 


74.>fi7Wiiib OMrl 




64 ,. 



UDotlirr pat of ibe hotk 90 ^ 



« ,. 






SboiviDg an avrnfre of about 1| cubic iocb of air fta ^A\ 
RTlIabl^ and rather more tJian Jbur inflbbka ^ i««ood, a»-, 
dudtn^ «t^3p«. I 

Vftbout I't4kpar J^rnn fi%^ to vix vjlbblca nui be pimowiMil 
in a arcoDfl. 

Tba lungi appear to tr mpaUe of oeriti^ «^)ei«(Wrtttfale 
prcomre in tliv rKpnlniob of aii; bac Jbtiact artimktjflii 

nu LOOoaBinr, on irianxQ tr ms toicx. 


dIfflcTiU af[aiiut % presmre of *2 inches of water, ami I 
\woL pronouDce an^ wr>r(ls a^n^t a prcvfure of 4 inclics 
pat Mdmdvrtble Gx«Ttic>t}« 

le Mlowing diagroim tnadc by the inslniiacnt show the 
» of aocui-Jmici.' ubiAiued vheQ lliu aami^ wordi are iv|>eal«d 
N Mm* i]M>ftker : — 

c of th« firxt fcatupca mtinifG^tocl in ustn^ the instrmncat 
» Rcfjim prcKluiiinl by tht* siU-iit tli^lrurgi- «f Jiir friJin thi^ 
b, »ft<jr a rtylltiblc or wonl or a peT3Unc^^ is pronounCciJ. 
aiTent 4ii-4'}iarg^ ftppean lo d«|>ent] on tiie forc^ rei|iiired 
D liut syllaUo, if moro tliati cno ar^ ooD«eciitivf Jy uttered, 
H mo«t di-vHi-tfKn! ill l-UkA^ lyLLiNes tcrtniniitiiijj^ vritli Uie- 
lUUlU U'nuwi '■ Explodtiittt," wheUier witb or without tUe 
- vo«el K afltr tliizu* Tlua elTt^t ia exhiUted in fig- L, 



b tbese d£Afi:ntmA lilt- iKirt inatkr^l tl if^ the filvnl *\it^hArgef 
tnr! i(* npivnnincv m Iho dmf>Tum U imdi?r Uio control cf tbo 
Will ; for,byiiol<iii»jx the hnhlli tmiatvliiilrly nfti't (Jtuimuui-'jiij^ 
!l>r uMn), Uiii inisi at tla^ dlup'iLCzi (!nii V alti^fcd and th(> difn 
th^rgo cf air fioMpocuid or Irt ofT i^OiJiio)!/, a« exbibiU^ io 

If, liiM«>a«l of t«irmlnMf]iif- wieli lln* "Kxplui*ut*," nnrvtlinr 

""^lahlr hf iKMod to onrli worij, tciakiTij; tlirm 1*-nmn»tp with 

niii»i>amiii> nf *oft**r *i>imH, fli^ air wUicJi wiiW liavt bwti 

kI'. ]i(Jy il]-«liarKC4l in iiM*d to ff^ini the «llnUc ftdded^ aBd Ibo 

ful>Hri|uetjL nUeiiL diAL^baj^r- is rt^ry nitidi diiriinivh'id (ppft fig, 3). 

Tlw*re am otli*»r fliUmt or, raclier, ftiHeiiflltlo aciioD^ which 
offTiir i«7iMrA ccTtnin wnirK w'is exbibit»>fl in The diflci'CTic« 

f'mi th'? word ^'■^rtvyjnTnf/iii'ftrfr" ftiid Ih" ^'llnbW "i**" 



<\ iiilimiiiir';i!'' 






HiyT9 It ir wru tliat fh'^ pnrt j>^ whi^h U Ihr* MS^ondnry vt^iuid 
nf tjir *ribHc *' A >,'* l-i'cotnt^s cnmprrs^, its length Wiiif 
■liort«i>od tind it* livight im^rt^iKiMJ ; aa that althoHgb nearly Itk < 
MU?]hIc Jw ri'jjflrda *ou!hI, it Wcmhh.- <lu\^jK'»fied inl.i> ihc fona 
j/, nail ft>n8l.itute8 the nnt«t |Hifnjj[Kiir future ut'tlie 'liagrmii 
nljKa tbe wLi^lc vrord ie pronouncctU 

S->mo vford^ are thoHtntxl rvhcTi n hvIUIV J* nddtA TMft 

juintl with ** ^frrriffth" ^'-Streu^h'^ in, I U'liove, the only 
w<ird of otjr KjlhUct ill the Knglitli Un^^uuge which eontaina 
aevcfi oonftontinlft, all of which ftre pKHJOiincwl. 

Ah a teft of tlio rapidity oF Action of tbo iuttrubout, I b«Vtt 
ii*c*l the old nuTscrjr vrordit, " /"irfer J*i}<r pickad a p^ tjf 

T!n« )a nid at tbc niu of ux eyllftUtf p«r wowl ; aikd it 

vtll l^* nb«#rrM t^Jiit thE»ra> arc twcci |>rini?i|Ml upwnnl and tv» 

principal ttawnnAnl movement Lo uuuj uf tbc ^IUjIbh Uaulu* 

(itlu^r -lubtiili^iry aottoBft. 


FM#r Pippr vielrcd « p«ek of pidiM rqip«r. 

AJ>otl>er ciiTkoiih iivt le tiiti oontiiiuvUa Douurj ^f the loutfil iL 

fiiv f1«g!rc« of c^>mpraMo& ui Oilfvttml wortii ukd i^IUUm. 

UKMiurv. on imnso »* «"■■ '"«'» 



VDitl lUed ill Uie Tour rolLoviUjE Uisb i« " Inc^mpffh^^ 



Th* stcond in whiapered forcitilv, 

Th^ thini i^ .-^ixiki^a flt lU** or^liiuTT tono of tbd vim9^ 

An<l Uurfoiirtli it BpftW*!: t4>i[4lty. 


joTTUX scnuujc 

tltliough ihr.y hteauui tmxlilu?'.! whim grouped tiigti-tFi^, tr« 
BiO» cr l«u disoemiblA in tbo lint<^ ooutiniioiulj fpokea ; tati 
ttd rimilariry of •oiind at the l^iniijuJoD or tlw firct diMe 
ttlko^vliioh <^oQjttituto« tho rjivnio t^f tho Tcnar, it repracBtad 
la tlift aitailarity of fonnf or in ILp clianictcrof lbui(iiiD,prtiic 
tmninatloiv of tiae diagranu of tbe^^ Uiree lioo^ 

llie mbjtcl mi^lit be pursued nuich iuitlun by nhoviig tbe 
diAffnu&it of tbo tEaiU'j wardj: «pok(»n by diffiDrmt iodinduibitlitf 
tMilunc^ pnxhic«J by tbe win-bi aiid ftrirteocctfof otbcilaiigaip>t 
the effect produced by cIiaq^ of acc^t, Jte. 

My olject^i ho'iffevtr, lias not bc<cti to pumie tbe talgeci mk* 
Bln£# detail, but tA thaw tb&t tU« arttctilatiim of the bosun 
roiee is ftooampanied l>y <le&titte jiDeunntie zictioii4» uid Iblt 
tikooe BctfoDs Toany of which are Infcnnible toordinary obwm- 
tiottt are capablA of being recorded* — d J^ap^ m^ ^/orf 1^ 
Scyot .&»0f«t^, April 16, 1674. 




roHUKit b« doufcud tbiil ik« aiady ot tha mind, nr> In (rth^p woHj, fbc 
psmh of aunlal fiby«f>fnicy, ii vt tmci Cbv iiioU difHouIt Aad *t,tnii:llvv 
tf^lf vMiin Lhtf wid« no^ of aripntitir iiulij'<(rri<, lit ditll^nlfy mnlu 
CrnfttiM v*rj niturv of Ibo iu1>jw-t, Tor it fajia within iU^Mp llm impirUnt 
^UKdou»— b tLi tnkid ricliurivulv lUu r(^<^It of iba uvrilr pbjriciL upen- 
buiK of bmifi^iilMAiir^^ ir In tUnfv nnnihi^r mk! hiotv mjitt^iimiB t^tic 
■ap^ in tko t'Ubvmtioi] of tli'm^hc P 'I'baM U* gn^^i* i^uoBtJorUf and 
Viea ubicb uahbppily caaaot ht decidod poiilitBly tt pTvaeaC, uor b mil 
^Ulinity ht/ulutt}. SdLI U ii pouLblo to Rrrkfl^ Iroin a piiub of ttr}At>nta, 
it •aiQQ aort of oonoliuicka ^ and «n an rtwiiTu that ctvImti mva *>t oooHdi^r- 
■Uo nMmUl pomta bafo Uiiinl al tliv dfciuou thut iiuaci u liinplj 
1iiiilil-|0«r«T, I-', ibo mult of phfiiisl at chamlul chAn|j;Qi In Iha lub- 
■mim of Ui« tUtUfi, 4nd tbut thvn u mithlnjr wbAt«vM pnwcni in ih» 
lU^of ft »tU cr RpiriL Tbat, buwvviv, in uul tbu vitiv propoundnl hy 
'^Ctffpont«r, vbo, to f«r it v« ran p^rcvivv, bvliavM nn^aoatioiubly m 
^Mbtaieaof • M«], but ondHToun to cipEain mopt monul pboDamca* 
*T<udbwj phj^oltkglcd Uw»^ The diHlcullj of duiiig fot mantel qu»illaM 
^^ia a ooiapaniliTtly watj raaiUr Id lh« fAA4 of thu iirdinny nrguM nf 
^ Wt, V admitlvd on «U KeAda; tad indvod tbtf punly pb^iiobgkftl 
'^(■do of trvatraeitt w a mctbod whicb (ho great mctnpLjaiciau, Sir W, 
^Un^tcn, iwiar for « raonuAt aitdrnptwl, and wbjcb wo may My bu nat 
Ha tM cm *Dj •>i4««iT« BcaU lill 1>e. Carf^nt^f ti»lc Uw inatirr in httad. 
'W inlc«d il vroold h»a be«D ^iflicult ftrr any uniinarj iludeut of tdhiUI 
u^^niiuTu U> nlinnpt, for fa« «ha vuuld rodcavour I* wlm tha rariaiu 
lamina It iimlvat mut pMra aa iDtliDat^ arN]UAJrLlan7«y not oclj with 
iblBvabdd doWQ fay ibt aatafpbyaltal Hilimlt, but lumt alu Lara tr^itn 
MrtOM ftftMlion 1A tha phjuiulfyy of tlic itiLu'I f*! Ihi^ bi^allliy aad tb* 
_ ^Mft c^ VTo CMtfwt Hy ibat 1>^ Caipratt^ has utjf£<^l hia rc*d«f* oa Ibc 
^^B|nD of tka < ai iMma «f a muI, fcv «» ciiirHlT« fad ui ba emiTinwut by 
■^ly^oal IMi ^d««ad by Utn bi ibia pait «f Um t«timaoy, Hal v« 
GumoL LelpvxpvtaWiftfVadnnrBlWDoftbtooffrrMy of bia upmiaiitt — tbeir 
DuctbfT, povwr, lid liBfwiia variety— 4n pwriBg that Kba atnnl ^jthkml 

* -< TVlf>didM<tf)totdI1iy^<J<Yyt«lth>MrABpliMilaiilollMlMDiiw 
aod DiM^plJM«r tfcaMind.and tbaScudyofllaHofhidPliaoaaaM." Bf 
W. a OaipMtar, MJX, F JtjS. Undon : Uaoiy S, Kiag & C«, 1^4. j 


^B n^i-iTi.Jtii «€iKscs BKTiRvr. 

Aned, hahfAmnjin hu b^ODO fulled ielorMtIo «T«a u criiDuy M«ltt> 
frff Htv imijilrt-r L>r [jifUau* bu lut tteat^tA at mooUl pufllHntlj ki t^trj 

CWM* io potQi on vvfTjr quulian ifd«ed in 1^ woriE, thfti ia •ooi^ mo « 

Tbio trMtiK, irMah ucJudcfl otcr aerai boednd ^o^ct^ U ^itI^ inw 
tvo tccLiojiv, Uiu Ciiici iadudliiif tb« fiicU of geuoral phtlcA^li), lit «dirf 
dov<itAi] ti^ ai(ir0 npficUl tritncfkaa of t)m ■ubjMir Thv cbApttm j lit 
iEmdiriMiin, vrUcli ■»< tc »»nm rwf^ brim-lViU of J^llftblo U)«cd(tt<^tll« 
the gvtii!nd rrlbtiuuB britwcf D iniud jind bod; ; ou Uie ncnoiw tjfttem mi 
itj ftincUoDji ; on Alti^tion, Ktiulloii^ pptccjitiim, nod ifniinct ; ldMli» mA 
lA«hnkttl-:\r rvcilon; tko caidUoax, Unlit, oiid the wUL. la «ul of 4m 
«>irifnil cLuyt*^'** tvwn nt vtih'n:h aiv tMilikTuvil fmuL bii tnMtue on "Qmm 
Fliito«ki]ilij,'^ Or, Ciiqi#ni«r ^vh ainpli- clrtfitl^ whicfa g<o la ibov ttr 
oppralloi] of tbc pkrliouJnr fno ultj trith wH«b b« U dctlinf;, ul bv fmv 
tbat it U «uliiiiTelj Ibc rvnult of cortua optnliom of Eb« niM. Q» 
iriiboi ihAt hn bAd ipFU!n lo glr* iha ftuthor'4 tTfruiai^Eiu and bit ivAt ^ 
dnwku^ »i>Bio (if U{» co^tditntnt, but It ii impoMiblo lo quoU^ W« 
LtiHu, etij^cc oii/ftihwr AiiL tbv dtat^tuimL ihM in miuij' Civos Uw 
U alniml aynri^Bli<^,irhnff iht >ib(iiidhn«t of iiuUlIMB brcu^t fozviri,tfi 
Jit. CiopQitor'd voll-knowii ciccJknt vtjlo «l cocn^pimtk^ wdu t« aife 
the rtAdio^ uf Uie booli » |>Uiiutirv Inttuodof k IjuJc. 

In Iba b»mnd pArl, dijii vUirh b doTOUd tG Vfuf^id pbjuakfjfi At 
fullawju^ tinl]jtf4;Ui lOit d<jnh with i — iLirmory, CODHdon Bcsae| 

tTij^, tiiid KLiEinikrribcjIiKiri : mr7»tD«Tum and iprntuilma; intaxteUM ■! 
dclinumi LDaauilji iaHuaa^^o of Dojltal alAlcO 00 <^o Ofjmnle hiiirtif : 
miud luid viU in tuitun ; ud, ImLIj, ml ft)^Hj(u1ii (XfiiUuiiu^ utt kfCDVBl <J 
Dr Forriiip'ii nrpdflin'iTLta] r^tAAirbut an tht brua. Xovr, aU Omn MlfNfi 
frrt^ Irontod In thi? umo uibouethc and ftWrbiag stjle «# IboM mt bM 
reff trcd lo already- And of nil wc ibiiik the cbttpter nUdi dMb wllb lb 
qucAflon (if spErltuiJivrii rdtd moiimcrinn it on^tho TniNl iaUmtil^ mI 
ii]ipi>rt«iit Lr-, Carpantor tftJfot ibo taiddio coitrnc iatJM«v ii»4tcn^ &<< 
is, be cHtler sc-'flV ■! bolb aor bvliava m vilbvc lie ■btnn fa^ de 
most unple omh tbtt niMmi-riitm S>i hi Tinqin-HtinndbU uiflnaoe* vh^k «« 
lujiid m Mo to wort over oaotbcr, and ho ftrg'aM ibU h U ca|BU« <f 
bemg bennlidaUj cxorU^ ici c^L-rUda cuc«y u ws kmnv oimdTw ihil k 
hubtou; while li« AJi iJjiitiiii'liy ftppowhi t^BMo^iJlod ifiritnalMi m^ 
4)f the Uful ^lanDjf hiioibuFe in atLi-t0n<(^ lit |nro« bia otvfi d^Jnt^rf 
iFuri^ua H^fwrv, aud cuuiJi*?iiitrvi abuudjuit cian)pl«« botb ftvm hb ^«i 
cipoiiflQC^ aod thBt of othcr>T to ihov thv abcuuni^O tiaicruj <J la cilij 
flfdntuolityt tl« nicntkini Hi. WaIUm m a nouzbiibU in«UAoe id * 
ckvKr man haag kp conkpEtfUdj lud anfij In bU bcUftf tm tU« lalyact. 
And, indeed, ono ciuini^l biti r«^i iliHt so abln and p«iial « maa ■■ Uf. 
>Vk11i\0v uadoublodljr lh phoidd bo brought among tbo CTOvd of Vtf^lt 
pctrplt: M'hu Aiu mii|iiallacjthlj decdvcJ by lba*F diarUtaas lb« ta-ctMtd 



Tb« Mthor'i atMn«eii>ii« ■>» t»bli>-tamlfl(? nr* alto oT tat«ii«e iDlcr«Bt, Tor 
W JoA DOt tuitpljr p^w Lif cnri) upiaiiiiui un tbe subject* but %<f quotot a 
OttaWr of pa— jjBa-^oiany po^t oT llfm— iV^iin tbc icTf^nl writcTa on Iha 
ulJMitf Bad ihon bv shows ths ati^r tkhonrAAy ol th,c profoutiont Uld 
dmn. Hioae vho tn Inlciutnl \ii iiiin tahjvcl vhuhuI iIv &a;lliiu|^ b«4t«T 
ibu fcMd T)r f'trp«nTnr'4 thtAtiui, fiir thfln>m th--^ vvi1l fnd Abundant 
Munoajr Ei^m bfrlh I'ln^LiA vjil Amuricaa wriUrv <>n U» lubjcct of tnU^ 
feniDlf. wIuIp lIict)^ wiU ilIw fjiid Uta OMertloni orihu ■|ilfIluftU*Ui titmUwd 
b a psffwtlir fiiir niun«r, kdA ihovn la bs al) ot ihitm p«rf»otly wortlilAM 
H Muailfie BUU^maniL Jndeodr wz b*T« xMTfir knowiL a ou* of tifliof in 
tabb-tuniniE vfLkJi vru nul MilnrHctwHr ««;Kn«cl ud ilujie awaj wilL 
v^cn Pn>fi«aor FKmilftjV spjuintuj vaa emplciycd. tnd tha Hipp»«4 
Mdka donoculntfll to bo pcvitivo iLDd active zuoicmcnt 

Ea avcry ctttd of tha diftplf^i uf tliU book thv autbut b Qui luv ludd 
ID ^ raoda oi Ft[ffiidng iriTor, nnr Iam tiaci in hit dlaptny of fubi and 
ai^uwcU tandknir ti tbo Uucicfrttioi] of ot^uplox anntol pbraEimcaa. 
Umb^ if tllflrv ui ui vitvi Kiyirbfitv, h u in tlM aboildaal uamplca wbioL 
U> writing aiTordj of vU^wv wfai«b f^tf MlaDllflc VHn vould fnkc upon 
fttnaJTca to nfutvu JSut in tboac lid a iv^a amount ot lateti^l^ au<i by 
liUDf Lbrm io bant! Dr^ CarpcEiUi Lai. ^« wuuid Ui'mik, aaluljod ticia Ihi 
W<Cb1tl«r and l«*t1 1«afnHrl at hi* oppAnMlt*, la giving Ur. FrtrnM'a ritwa 
ia ao appeodix at Ibe end of tbo Tobime, we do not kaov Uiat ho ba» doao 
vImIj, Ibr afbval! Dr. Caipootor'A book b cna ftildr«M*d tci tb« ganaialwoild, 
mi Dr. Ftaim't orp«riin«nii ar* only ibA** vhlfrh, in tb« prMMt pban* of 
lbftfBbj«Qt,Bi9 adapted to micU a plac^ u iJiq ^TbUoBophini Tmuactionii'' 
And wn my lldj ooi froTn ury irut of vlmKmlon ftv tbo ailgtnaUty of 
h- Ffrrivr^ laoat in^jtarlanE inrAtligiiinMr but fMni tba tbv tbat U* 
mdiA axo at yet bat iaccmpUtBlj fbiuid«d, and tbat tbc7 oaual }k n^ 
vnmy £SmM bcfbrv tbcy an iiuindoDlIy iLdmil(«d 1o ^lov of tba 
it>" wbLch bare bMf dimvn from thaoi btini^ finaly oatafababtfd. 
itVT, tbJ* u a uatUr of Tiry ilij^Iil iuiporUncft acd it cau in nu way 
<Aiffl OUT eritldom or Dr. OHrpfenlvr'A ««ny, vbicb wo ronudor in erery 
Fti^t vortby of tbo nputatUn of ilo a^itbor. 


TITE r*;T*C my mnr^ ^^ luubU Ut ciObr a fall nutloi nf Ht. Darwte't 
tT 1jk4 wofft; M il did ttot feacb lu lill towdri tha lait wo«1g b 
Jnuc- Wo Ena«C ibanlbTo eosloot oanslTov nitb • rcry bnef oecvoiLl of 
tU^ Ibe aecond nlJtton<'f a bmC RinarkabJo VMf ntdf^ Ini mada Ua 
ipptaiawBO brfon )lr, Parwin waa known to tba fXtatfal pabUi±— to ibi 
jMT IM2; reaomaic ^ <nir seat nrnnbor • moc« fbD aoconat of tbu. 

* « Tb« Stracton and DUtHlalUn of Coial Boda*- By ChariM 
Dvwixu M.A^ FJLS. Wkblfa/^PtaUtf. Sad ftdU^ iie,^^^ Loalcm; 
SiBiUi, Elder, & Co., ]nT4. 


rorrLAii «ciurcB Ksnnr. 


toglrftJ Tart* ron»mfnjf ih*' ^i«tib iiT ;^fH»]-r»«fjL Thnv li, bowe 
point oa vh^fb wo tany cbvnrv thai th« took hM Mpndd t 
UtAt Ij v&lb rvfcraace tc the vmliMblo vik whkh bw t«r(i «loo* 
tbe lui f*w imm an ih<* Anif^cvn oantinPDl t>/ Pmrrvmr Dh«. 
tlio mort w»rth^or c<)t« fc«c*iihi I'rafikuor Datui, Jtmigd to mj 
yinvn «bj«h oro in point cf Tut diamTUitfJI.T oppovd t^ lb««c ad 
bj TAr^ r>arwln. In tfat« book, boverar, U>. Dnnrio cftdtvvnun U) 
ftfid «B tbisk raodt tttUfaclorilj ■»— tb^agb wv ibdl dwTill oa ibii xitii 
in <mi Mxt rvrtuv-^ibtt bb ova vlovrf nrc Cn tk« ainia rorrrct Aod 
HUd tbfi wrMfTtv oT'lliAUt* rrorMwnrJ, IWliiJak'vfn hii riTaur,br 
lattCT- Mjfv t" b" Mcount <>r th« roja^ oT II. M.S, /T^ ;'^" Aflor 
dud] cf ibo UiQiLt UiurHT Itcefai anil refle<Ltiii|( much vpca 
trying if it wore poiaiblfi bv inj* mtfin* ta nmdo Urn oonrtmdcw to 
S^. Damn bat cihb*, I cannot bclp ruddiof^ UilI hii tiTp^Lboii* 
MtaafaClor^ to mj mTinl, ai^il Hpi.-« b^ronil a mfto li5{xitb«M» iolv lb« 
ibrory <if rurnl n«fK'* But ih^n, dii tbo olbn buod, tbrTF la Iba arblac 
cf ChamiiM, whiflb in <tifliDctlf opp<>iitc. U^wctcfj ire aball aoa In 
TtCTit natLce tavard* «h«>ni tlio umh of 1«aEciuuny prvjucpiiiatna. It wj 
ulficfl hrm to |Kilnt nui that Mr T>ittw!n gf raji an abtjcdanf* iT aiidfW 
mtioh td it quitfl ne*r, b^nriog on IhiH tiup^rtaot quwli^ ; and tkai it » 
bla lEHually bri|Tjiy tlylei vbich fur triHjtoB and cltmrai an almaA la 
pan]lAlf*d in tb« Rnglitb Un^as^ ThvH^ i*« toi), aiuitiNr qadit^ whUM, 
it vrouid bo unj art n^ to indiwte, and that i« tbo mutncr ia wkkh tb« 
author deaU with bLi oppancmt* — it U EDtannUjr vf Ith kinde*^ aad 
■Id^raf-Ifin, V.vmj one* nf |h» poinu it puvbfd «rai mcoa Iban tlwj 
be bj ibf vmtot Lioieolf ^ aai] wfjorcT«f th^y tpptar to oaimigk Mr. 
■in'* cvidwHii', tbcy im <ini»IaHiIy vid fatly aibaLttrd- UV 
mU ^noLt^b Ift ihnw thi* t^imlily nf Iha bOf>k baforv ai ; wa BVgiaC to 
pat off our crlticuaa of k Fur AO long a p«riod< 

LABDNKI13 im>R0STATir3.* 

ONR bntt ntmut thim^bt Ibnl fjirdii^rV tnHiVt, ibnagb tbtj 
l*nt at ibt <l4tv <7f ibHrpubL^^atioD, couM hudly bar* bam 
at tbi> date vitb mucb eboDf i> '>f oucrw. ni>wcTtri vs fbliCY 
uuinif aiww nlltlon the {niUiibmof tbv pmuai viibma bava 
unviv in tboir HlKtioa <\i an «dilor. ind Ihararorai from tbia fart aJoa*, va 
baia raaMa lo Itaae^a* thai lbs book Las br*n bfouftbl vp (o dair^ Aoi 
lU* if mllj (ba can -, to that im aiay mj Ihil tba nUlot't laKun ban 
sot bMA tbieam awar, but, on tha ooitUary, Ibat tbay bar* pfodaoal a 

HjmdbMli of NatnttJ 
** HtdroataiiM oad Pnvanaitiu'' nav 

." Ily D;f>nyaiiu Lardnor, D.CX. 
dan, tb# pamlM jaan n-vritkc bf 

Iba>uin l^irj. h\K^ii, Lectun? ea rby^ea ia L'nitctaity CoB^ 



filos* wUe^ In In # tmy «rij far tuipHricrr to irlat we h«d imfl|rta»d would 
hfl** b««o th* CAM, Wit nnfiMt thiit vr* hnt» b««n t^WMbl^ dJMppotntad, 
vdibftitfce book u DOl bx ^D}' nK-nB6 ao bukifard u we bad tmAi:uit?d, 
ir« thUc Ui« mlitor Uu betn Tt-iy vik in omiliinf this j^ubjnci uf hcKi, 
vMcb origtDAlIf MCipivd pnrt of Ihu volume. \Va thinkf loo» tliut ha ha* 
leibecD «BwiM in bv iDtn>diicti>a &f « nuaiber «f ui4mpl'» wtaich ciui b« 
Tttdllj worknl uuL bj^ tliv Mudnnl wlio Ijhh frwn itii MlmnifDliiry k]i4>wl«idfc« 
«r tlf^br* uut gttain«try. Thii, uf couiw. iDtl:** Ihv ba>k innru rtliiAbU 
b tlu «tiad«Dt whii m«fui* to p) io fOT sucli ftn cKBaiinati<-tfi *« that of eoaUi* 
cthlioD ailiiii Lijuduu Uuirenuly. iDtltcd lhf< work vru Fil»olute1> uwloM 
to nA ■ mui b^fbr*, for il« vinmplc* wurv of ]h4 lioipUHl pouitda idsiiL 
Slill, U m«4j p&rti it ib defo^tiva ; tLaL, for <Luuiplu> on fivLu/ niuUacM, 
KnLabn L!Ul« ihtiX U not Eo Ijq fuuud jl« tbu tjU ifJitiuii, nljiU ill*: niuouat 
itf wort dcna hotii in thU roiintTT ami niifi^nd «n tJiU ^iflrtJciiUr mlj^t U 
lodMdWitk v**t JinJ irit^r<u<lJU];. In Up-i jiuU JllLiiilTntJi>ii4 tins work iSt ad 
^ wul vitb dw I0-Ca1IdJ L*rdDfr'e 1kh<La> vicpUpuI, nud the Amount of 
tnr Qjtttcr, iscttidin^ ttao cxnllont mcftiiplci at tbe end. ij vary c^ddiUot- 
lUb Wo d> aat tbinlEp luwDi^r, that « finj^b iUiulrntioii it to Ic fijuad 
dvODiflteul iU ii»4Ei^ wLicb «UtJ [jut ttXul iu Lh« <,ildci uditlou* 


II Jt SUtKLF.V in»BKKl) in now tt> w^tl Unuwn MA wntiron tb« «ub- 
^ )miI* of lJ>e gnrdan u)d thctfr?enbouB?tthni thp mfMv aiu:tounMm«nE of A 
Mr work op » new edition from Uin pea U HuJU^riiml lo Uriuj? *mpli> rt*ulom. 
Tl«pn*nt work U « ngwl;adl1lldl|e^^U]lto^ lUotiu vqnnLtapUMJt wLub, with 
tUledUGcultj, inflir bvbrau^ht uji b^iJl n1]^> nr? in p^wrnflirju uf tbo moest 
A*dcv of n gnffiiboiiWH Itiit bLI of Llii> Ixnik lh jiot <ltv<itf*l 1o tbcH^ for 
I TCvj ct>uidc<i*ab]u pc^rti'm of ii it occupied by u doafription of tba Titiovia 

AlOtln of ^llfUo);, lirddiug OJld JknipAgAllUg TCMfti »4)cbr ^"f UAAmjilr, tti eIio 

dsMff rot^. ih" rllmblttp rriM, llm j^ulljir rout, tha fntrj r^uA, ihi 7«UL>fv ntav^ 
ud Iba Ti)d«ravqo Ktt*. Tkoti tvv^ml «if tb« mitbor^o dJiapton hikvo tJ) do with 
mch t^uralioiu W s1wka£>r rosea, roae« under gloat, rosea id Iowa gnriflnar <oaea 
Iv d«contlfina, the Dm^mipi r4 tho rr0r«, tnd nn buying naw nu», at mndlng 
IMftvtj rail or priat, tbs cunocitica of fo«o g^rowiti^t tha nw hIiow ; lutlf, 
iMuEodTn of monthly work Tiidtn-d tlifni m n't Tirm uf iufunuatloa wliich 
tb* ftnuttoo' r<H» IoT*r n^^iiim* tliat will ririt lin fcmtid in Mr fTtbbvid'a 
ivork; furthrmiOE^ Iba nachor puMQiarM q MyAy MyU'-, fu Ibtl tli>i itwdcr 
}« limvt'ntrd fruiu f»lliij(r hulvup uvi<r bit pHir«*> Tbv illu£[Mtii>iia to 
(ha Yoluiii» W' pnrtly wur^Jcuti nrnl yarlly onlniircd Utbngrnpba; thixo 
latter are Jijiillo-pag*, and rvpruvnt n aiaglo fiowor natuiaj oiit. In acuno 
eukH tbey «rt< only fklr ; liiit In othcn — Iho yolbn roaut, far oxn^i^plu— tkaj 
u« i*«U; oJH^uuiit^ly rtndarqd. 

' ■* Th« Amtl^iir'a llfiH IkinV : ^ompnain^ lb« niihivitloarf 
A Lb« Op0ti Ground Biid umlur GUi»," Jlit-., ilc By Sblfllj 
2iev KdilioTi- Lnndon: Gn>i3mbridgn, 18*4. 




rEBE l«ci-bcKik*fO(ttinuo io Iw pub1i«h«d en erorj con«cft«bl« m\i*d. 
tnd n far At w« TiJiTn jtl wr^n ibirjr arv nttWMted to vriten vki nr 

Tuu^rbly undcntflnd Uia »uljoct iJitj Lave taken Ia hand, aad, ifiiU qk(» 
impnrriint, itTf p.%jt*\t\n of tdArhlng ih^ Al^moDta of th» bnuvsb nf toiiMrip 
on wbi«h Itwy vrltn, *iXh d«HrnMt< und 1<«wovCi etf tHjlt^ IV* 1h*f^ 
fciTc think tliM ctiniivtribU crtidii u Jufr to IV^rtoKir Oooden fcr te 
iklU bd 1via*hown in iii»r?]y cbooajn^ liii writcrt. In tho jiiiini Mmn 
vv ^v« • book which bt bintfdir hu vfdtien, tmd «« may oz|rH» «m 
«ltnsiB« sallflfnctlLi^i vilU tt, fur tha aulhur bv endottovrad Dot vcnljlJ 
00Tiv«j fiut TO hiA rtfAilftrf^ hut (<> crtrttKy It ^n iiti«b it mana^r lb*t pnnd^ 
ia bvdlfed in ortjij df^vripiioo. We nolo oIm tbat Mr. 0»ilcvfi IM 
wideni^urod n iar m poonbU to |Wiat tnut to Ibc atudeot the z«UliLm ton* 
jB flBch caa« bj h»t l<^ tnerc nivhhEikiil actjnn. Thin in a pofoi Of mf 
great imyoHnnoc Jt &i ot interoht to habw that iha book coaitabi m 
oulliat? (i oar* pari uf )tr. OooJevfv'A Irdura al the t^ool of Hbcth for 
It filiflws na that ibe ti-tirhin^ of ot Il^uiF (hJH pnrlloTi of tricacft la ibiwu^ 
and GQitiplbt^T- Wc ctumat do more than i^vc tbo bcflda cJ tb« dtfcrai 
dulytcL^ nbiob tliv wiitcr hait takra U uu bjnJit^If lu t»ucli upou, IIkjui^ wt 
abtiuld hitv^ wiHhtd 10 mfllr^ nae or ivn rpmark* d/irv-pnc rf hU obamaCic** 
OB Sir J> Whitvorth's eicpiiriiaontfl nt\ tbe muJl-boro rifles Tbe nlfMll 
oeauid of un, iu tbu wjilcut trfnii, li rtillawi, vacJi beading beSiif wrfiii 
Into an immeDiiP nTimbctr of A^^iunte brjuiohofi^ vii- flral, Introifc i c li ott M 
tbe Trl&tiun of fuiou iui4 mntttiFi and tlio diEiiircnt hkm of foTEv . dwo tb> 
fbUowiu^ i:ha]it«n:— Tbu pfintlT<Jufcrum uf furoo» and lU nn-iiin on ■«b 
and fn<!lJoti ; on ibe frentTe of gmvilv^ on mamt of tbo moefaanical p«ir<n; 
on tha equilibrium nnd preasuro of Quida; oa tha (^quiUbriiun aad pnvon 
of ^aahb; ou puLupa; ou Ibe h>dr»u}ic pr«M Kad b|ilr«ii1ie ert3ifl«i m 
motinn ill onv plaoti; on cin^jtur motion f oo^rdav baann aad bridgaii (ft 
dtroDgtJk of tuW Ekud the catL'Diit? ; and lndU> od •>!!)• uDvcbaoical iarvr 
tioM, On oJl ib«if iiLt^jitioiu tho ^uihur hppnkia, anit fipeabt |o tba p<dnL 

Thtf other volume la n mAnuAl of i^uidtUUvit cbmaical aiuljAa, vhkkbH 
book c7c«11dnt m dwign, but hnzdlj so thotouah in ito ooucopllou tt ^ 
niw1]iuiii.'aJ work. Still, U ia hii hdininbla Imroditt^dcui to tb« MbJM<«A 
l*bich it tfoata, and tbo authorv aeem t> hav« taknn cflr» to point out tfr«T 
posilblu accident 1o whicti tli-i ataileiit it lmbK% Tbo opl; lauU «« hart t* 
find Ifi ajt rii it* EtTigtk ft HppiiJtr« na Efaough tbr niLtlLcmi tmM a atMdMl 
feriKcUy i^onmt of ohi^mijiiiy comiaoncitig tbo itudj of lb* pnctic*! £i^ 
aloD, If aot ilicy bnve mado a mialnkv, f^irHrd'>j]4ilcuUMJerilat4l1 piobilli 
that anjnni^ wnijlit ht* ELkttlj (n Atljtmpt jc^ii'iinfra knnwladg* of onefktA 
chooiiatr; bcforfl h-> had \Kiin inttintod ia iha clcoscnta «f at ]ftai tbf 

• "Piinriplcfl of M^k'hftnict." By T. .U Gc>odaTo, M-A., HaniTlcr«- 
Ltw, I^trlimr on AppliiOf Ttlechanio) at tUo School of Ubr#. LosiM^ 
Lonjrmani, 1871. 

" Qiijilifnrive Chamical Analj&ia and LaTiorvlm rnctioe.** Dr X L 
Tbi3t|io, l^.ir, F R.S.R . l^r*i»or*f ChiiriirtJT ill AndWfmiafi rnlrrnlto, 
Olai^j ind M, M R Miiir. RH.SE. London ; l>)npuuuvs IW-I. 



brrs^uiitf limncb^ If tr>. he would find thn AnhJ^rl diHicult in iIia eitrpme, 

■Ml V* do not »o tbjit, in »a?h a i^ftw, titwprtftiuil lotumij would pravtfajk<«fly 

iDlrCidiKtioa to lb« Itold of ^)rucliait riw-nrcbp \VhiI«. oa tbe oCher lund. 

If l^ rv«d*'r tJi Hlrwuly lnfunniKl, ■? far nit n iii tuontlis' ooiir*« if UUalj to 

«cfai*f*,«« f AUVT ihflt bo Kill voDiddfif much of M«i9t». Tfaorpi> ocul Miiir'a boak 

MldloUfik, Still, In «II tfaftt rvljitiA tn lhL»otxh[iAry labomUrTy irm Ic, tint »tn- 

«il] 1v fully rxc^Dipnniivd h^r lh#? jifTuHiii of ibin vo1tiid«. Forwi^Hml hi It 

yf of (boH littlo faptn J^lativu to tho bcfodia^ of tahce, tho prcparntioa «f 

4r>»'ccckcd Florence SobJui, CLnd laimj utUu^r ti Uiu«^ pciicilciil iLUIicultJoi 

vbbdi thn htiii1<*nc pTMitiiftlW overcomeii only tlirougb ih* nid ftf n ff<Ti»d- 

BHtUTid cbrininl nw<iMiuit, Whcii Lo thic w<< ndd nn eic^^Ueot iTftocu of 

^■lUutifc iuu1ybi«, wq cad uy tbnt Iho nuilioni bnvi? douif (linr woik 

cndiCfthly^ Tbn^ U only tm*t qu(^■t[oll if ct thould like tn ruk, nnd Ihttt !■ 

vfc«Oi«> ^ t'i«0iiiua iDDd« of conductui^ tbci method of ouidyaU bo not 

ttfliv »Implt than the antbor^a ? It epftnl^tly ia sUi^Tl^^r bj dividing tbe clr* 

M«nfift fif ftiiAljiite Inro ihr»e ^up4 — tb^ cliJnnihydria Kciil, Aiilphnr^ttAd 

IjdrogoiiT and tLo lolpbicle c*r Mntnitiiuiii rlu^^. lu any oobo wo nro v^U 

with UwN tvro woUoi of Ufatn. Lauguimia. 


ALTHOlTOn Ik ToluRtv withthi; lillt; of thv pnuent one Lordly de«ervoito 
Ikl«r» in ■ 8(dAni^j^ UntiAW, vat a cookery bonk, vh«D welJ done, ia 
n«ilj * work in which nil tat^n, wlmihcr ea*aiu or not, moat fed on 
intt^roxt- Anil «*> it I», laut uiiqucflLUiimljlj', In tliu fin^MUt i^iuv. Tlu- book 
BOW bafATQ II* it not <in0 a{ iti^ ordinary kirn!, vliost' inMtruciiuna Hbout tha 
llttplut ^iHf would hi^ HLRipLy (it'Etvii^'jLiil r^T nDVOiiD whoK iacoiaQ WJU 
llM ttun n ibouuuLd ii-^ianr^ On iht c^outfiiry, it b nddrafispi) u> thot« whtf 
tero bfvn rtinip^llu'l tu |j;Uo up tbo cod and ny^ter-ULict', and th« tiiuo- 
li<kaourcd BEidil<< of niuLfciii^ ■>> vutliulj Inyood tbi^ir incomfi- Tbo AatbonM 
hMA undokround lo biybffirv h^r r»Miilj<rHft vi.Ty lAluabl^ rnrioly ofdish^e of 
4ll kicidii; butitUof ImparLUEjMi ki U>iir ill mjnd diatinctly her remnrla on 
llt« to^Kt of d«dtng >vitli tho buicbcf ojsd Esbniou^'flrt for th[rnt Afa of tbo 
hSbkmL lm|iort«iir«, iooda iuji»ii-ijJly aa vt» itrir tvrmv liow vt*Ty iirdv^nnllj 
lb«j ftr* zic^U'Ctcdi luid thflt by tbijai' wh'i maul iiniid tU»m. Sbu njft, " to 
ftrftvui Lbt'iv being uiy real din^dilty ia procujinjr the rm^'criinLr tcquir^ 
6vr h*t llttlo dlAhM In iho foUiiwin^ nir^jpu, :hcy an ptuc^jiwly thcun vhldl 
m^ \k movl Miily and cb»ply oUUinod^ ilut it will not do, if ocvmomy ll 
lBOli}« ordrii tbeni ffrrni tliC butjjlior ur tj*hmoiij£«r. Tun to ona if 
ihtf irUL und thi^ wH^bl nr cut ank-'d for, mid t"u in nnii hIhm If any othvr 
will aniK-tr. Ibu tipfULUh proTcrb, *Hv wlir> ttimt« n thui^ ^j» Tot it^ Lu 
wbv <timld iijju ■ tbiEt^ dcJiJa for W thoutd bo born^ id mind Ij all boiu^ 
witf4 mi>d oiokh True artifltj? aii; nlwava mceit tnrufu] about tb^ kind and 
i|MbUty of tiw mutoriiJ tbey lur, iintl '' u aa!i/ ^y j^irij/ /o atarkjt aiut i^uot- 
mtf/ar ftmrtelf t}iia£ i/ok uriU ^jH Me< titfht tAiup. TJiv ayetoiu of Miudiug foi 

* "Idtilo DiiLn«n; hop/ to Servo tbeDJ witb IvIcpDCe and Ecunoniy." 
By Uory iloopcr. Pmlismc <^ Duuiwtio KamouEt ui thxi CrysUl PtUiito 
School of .Vxt, bjodou: Uvnty Sp Kiny li C»., 1n74. 


rorULJhA KlftKCft UKHt^r. 

Um aiiiitlirir Mvimt t»f (liti irftCioiinl tucrvH in «iMibrrr," If. v vt ktfi. 
out iiicliafA ibttifpi may b* nalrsvi&llj ttHowsd, t* d4ub( hm Ehat tpm: 
dnl^ni b^.' 4 lU'ct^d iQirbrdA tbo mu«fa-^w(0il «nil< Jlut it u< b<f mKW 
of Mlct^tJu^ diflbcd lluLt vre taiv wivclaII^ Id comjuriid. Fof w roMnb 
uwrt Uint the rwlvt who hit Bar cxpaiiaixoa «riU tavd tJirocqi W 
YoliUDc wiUiout findin{^ bdr-a-dasea dbkoa vkidi nuiy not hv lanHy ffr- 
pu«d fur kijyLiui^ ihliuM iiiuooie h vicii 300£ ft'jvyr- Ami afiu. it ii 
MOWiiry to |pT4 ibo Aiithoppac i^rodit fnr her MUctioa of dii^ia. IiUmIb 
tllurcipvct her book ii & pcculifli fjct^tioni h wniil4 olniuft mms t) Uf« 
Anuii l>^-|ln^vd by a Fmndintijimi}. TJir^kfijEhout bur nnvt >n inufod 
<iviLhAtUiU «ih! a n^vd fijr ||cod laHl« whidi iji tint oOm teb« fOaad taAM 
<ountrrikiTinjif writvrafur Uic kitchea. In hTjEv^vinlmnivke^ni tlwivt)ic^ 
4hfl riLiUiur uticririi. by a fa* idling bxhiuvIm, h^w iwlljr OdTi^atMl «f CUt 
inprdJa. WDDcodonWawDtioiitwoDr (hi#v. i?'ariEi*bUke#,lk«MlitWMo4i 
«f co^kiiiK vt^jf^UblD-mRRQW by ciiltjri;^ it iiito uticm, a nioiiv wbitL «^ 
luHy d«*i-tn)ya iti lUvoiir: llw raxnr lh\ag may Im Mid a^mu: ODUtt 
Agnju, in cooking Aih, ulv Tot oXAinpla, ihvtv U «uin|)]i}t« dwIfUdM «f 
devour b/ rciijovinjf t^fv iiLiin, Liuiti-juL of wuipK fcmpliiir IhAon; mil tlM 
niurh JlAh i* Injnrtul by nn aIvchi'm (if TWjpir In (lii^ mnil«r offWlll^Ai 
HuthoruHK ndrtw4 thr cinploymratc^f ALhiloh^Ftn,)nnJv by hnttan, eiOtioii 
S^ntL Hbv MJB it lA btimtvly lp«f eipoiuir; tliiui a fire, vod likAl ''loyaf 
4lloJaliit» given in tiin b)1U or Tato mHy b* iQMUd in thU ovm vilh •avFt 
^undfiil at tlpOftiD'l vtiU h<i fLjimd <|uiti>MnIe< lulf doD« oa lb«fpit-'* U'U 
f Pl^vrd 1^ tLi?quMtiuu wolmuw Bunqof OucRttdcni will cApiui a donte. Ikt 
«h?n th? nitllior tnyt that rtntDrktion IDilll bfl Attendtd 1<>^ And ibo ap AiL 
lA tbifi r&ipcct, "thn pUii i^if rliD t'lnl pAUntn>FlAirftl,ciLMaQii;jttaAa W 
DDVor Uinj euqiiMed." ^Ijl* hIfhj Ji<i.'vmuitfud« tbv umi of ica^BtOTOii vkKk 
we bftlif F^ thn CiyAlit FhImc CompAoy ai* nov lArgrly inimdadBf isam^ 
th<- eiiiTOundinif InhntiUnta. We ^lah wq hni vpAOc to give ume ef tfet 
If ritcTA ob>ervftti<in!4 on tliH uitii of tb<r Aifsw-ptu cutd ihe fr^inif-pAQ, 0v (kj 
Ara omin^ntly prnf lii^nl, Hnd HhAvn i\]l titu la ihn pnLnl. 8a U ie vith npid 
Ift ivr r-niArlifl <in lbi> p^ii-'fnl mnni^rvOTcnt or lln^ laUlo, ll»« ii*» ctf vJM^ 
And HO Turib. ItuteeJ. wr? nrn wull p!i<ivied Whtli iZitr ^ uTucir. and vr Inul 
our roadt^n w;U excato ilic leogtlj la vliicli our retuArki hAVO *it«M 


AN lufOTNllnff lidU* bnnk i« ThU, nrid vr^ ritn qiiito liriAuine thic It fMOvd, 
wln^n di'Iiver?J| i Tcry cftpilnl thoiij*h BTfctehyWlujv, Veil »o dA 
Be\^ ftbal oimm U lum Tu |iifMiuitiv»- E^tllL ^f iE p1i*(i><i-* tbv HUtbnr, 
not kDr.'Lv vtLrim uv Rro Ti^ blnihA. lE i*. nf niiitH>, A mrflc i-iiil]|!n«>«r 
'— indoL-d ia jnnny izonm ils skofcbi.!! uc tou flight — of ibe r AnoUA dfOi^ip- 
tion of uyf» Uj bi: uwt ivilh lUrou^lioul tint nniniAl klugdoai ; And U b«t b 
AddilJf>Ti, A r«>v rvniArliH nn AlU^d iubJ»4M)i, m, far iiHUooA, M, PmkWc'i 
obiprrAtioiia on Ibc cbruigvA ol colour to fiiJi aai ^ru*iiio«A- It ii ^f^J 

* "A ropi]lAr1>»irript;nD <if tbo HmnAa Et«, wiili Bfcurhim tbo Emtt 




3l0tHtoJ t but naf!ntai>aMy th> AULbur, a^iJojilI v uuAoqiMintod with tb« 
wtijcclt bu not VHd« «•• of UmM nicmiititft vrblch iire mwt tmcoDimou, 

■Eidj BcMi by ABjono who |i«i a liucvJoJ^ of phftjolofy cr coinpAntli* 
UAt,>mj, Still the Aubjoiit 11 ujcbI iatcmUuij, and il« Autboi'j oLnrra* 

■Jioirfthifr tbo iittio Tolume U not an nnwrlrcm* ono> 


AVRTi rllcton of " Mmiiidm^'if Tn^wury jf N^himl HJntorj " w n<«r 
Mbr* U«t MifM^ininrit a fv^ fi1WirrTBrtAn4 nt our hnndv Ami in lb« 
ffvt plftcc wc pJiouM have «ondflmnr^ tlic irork if it Lad Lcpn jji ili Hnl «li- 

&a; but &» it nuw corau (i>rth uiiil^r Uin rliBfHi> »f ■ dLCTiircf^t writer fraai 
Atautbnr, Aur '^tiiMirrMtirirk* vf* M t^tirti- of a ditl'-trvnl nnEim-, And Ibm 
htn tli» follontQjf nrd^iii; iba Lm^U Luiinir publittbr?J, lou^t bo wA/, Jn ^ntit 
iDiifMf Ito vlprnfol ; xnA tlicrRforBit-aUihktJinpuljlbhennfn polio much 
tSUUDfr in giving Iho work U> % ivpADHihta udlfnrfthd jkiLmii liliii la hntig 
oat ft new odilioo^ But if ■« hu^ to do ^ith Mr- Miund^f limKlf. «ra 
OBTWWy ihould indu1g« ^n & hltlo nn^r nt hi* v^pt<nw. Fofwhrnt. wm 
vtnld Atk kisi, hiiTrt jron fitDdtirod #uck n I'cilufiKf V It bM tMon ttpan^ 
■ftD to prial, difHiriilt to ilh?Uii1<, nuJ^ n^Hitr* bJJ> tt L-Aimut hv wrll duuv bjr 
• liulv vrit*7, wliil^ il Ehp> Mkmji limn w« innj rrinirilitiii timt t[« ivp* u h> 
loudl ikAt OTtfoa brief r^.'fi<ri!Eicc ta il ii yninTuI l« tha cjeo: wliilo flajJlj^ lU 
flgw* an) ridivLiltriuly tiLi«tl. Jui*i, fur jiii>i«iiei\ iniiij^W vi vU^inai wLidi 
birolj na^iuurM ari inch tniL ii-bnir IN |i-n|rth. Ami yuu fp*t »riin« ctooMptiiiii 
tti^ pbin of il|[islr«iiaa. Still) wiili tbiu duDdTontogt*, wc ktT« mou- 
tUnir Uii ihv riLhisr ildc. Far ciaiuplc* llni iLtiMEmtlorm mrv nLuudnnt, tJin 
BUtltT »KUndt m-*T iniird thnn H(Xi lutM*"^ &nd tho RTtJclvH, ihonpb many of 
tbfsi ftrt brief, An^ wUIiaI xt^tj good m poiat of lanilrr. The protcnl 
AdhArhM diini^liLi work omdiCAtitT, i>>peHftUj whi^n wp r<in«<)iUr ili)ilh*1iad 
to d««l ^Ib n »tvf?nt}-pod volumo. Ho bu tEitrodutvil n c^nkidvnbk 
qtuotily of entiiTily dotcI mntlfr into tlio pagH* 


113W. W6tk wbieh Mr- Proctor hra junl inutd |u ibc pubUi: 11 infiDttfily 
th« moat impcrtuil of liii numeroni IrafiliKc, butc nitd eicopt bu T6ty 
culjct rttmra. Wv mj tbis luort^ wp^hlly <A' tJit? xicotid pari of lh« prafcnt 

* * Th* TrfdwiHT of Xiitiiml Hj^tofy : a PnpMliir IHclioiiHry of Zr>olo|fy/' 
Bt R !Ujt]indi>r. H#TL«tHl and corracud, wjili an »tItm SLip|iJ«ni«Dl, by 
K, W, fl. U^Uiivanh, KUS., Ril& Wilh 1)00 Waodoutt. l^doo: 

t "Tha UnivpTHi dfid tbe CcunTn^ TnvtiJtii**' By Iticbnrd A- Proctor, 
B.A-. ftsraicrlr S»i«t*rT to lh« lEitynl AtlnmombiiJ Sodatj?, J^^aloat 


FOPOlAft 3GlBirGH KffmW. 

ToluDM, ibnt p«r1kabrlj rekUng to tfao Tnant «f Vcvub Unqi 
ablj tho TBTiouk ««ttj< whirh oecupj iha Cm piii «# tin roliUM ni of a 
moit wortbv lype, and cm, u uv moat ^J" 1^ *utboi^« utktM^ imtlcti IB 
th« douni rtjiHi ud witli ki wnuunt vf kuuwlodirc (if Ui Asltjict wbkb 
iinfOTliiDDffH' ii v«ry »f Mim iit tianil «h«ii infiiriliriii fv ihn pvUlft U 
required- They rcklo to Ue B>>««]l«d MLt-«tn4as«, tad thbj deal at kitgtfi 
wtth Ukc wbola unbjccL Thoar mmja ifnt ntjirSnc* fran luioiu pNpsn 
wbkli Mr. I'nxif iff hju communimtMl *tUiin lb* piA4 twrt^m uiof lUu or » 
to tb« t^oml liUFBfy ud ecifatiSo jounmlt, a&4 Uirj ooataiu •« ablo fX- 
pitHUm, ftud A fUU une, ur t1i« ouUi(ir*a dUTeivnc tici*» m t^ v«1u«oi of 
nd«iMl vpM«L Tbi> clifcpiort of tbo iTBftUit lAttewt— >ht LmM frott a po^*^ 
iipwuWifi« fUiadpobt— MppTAr lf> ut to bni Uk«o -vLicb bo b«« cslill«4 " A 
Niw Tbeury uf tbo UcnvFiw." Vkv cuinut. U Ui« rvrj Utnitod >t>ai b^ 
foN o>, ftlt«Drpt t^ gin A tunoy of bU Twvn oa Ui« poul, or la hBdifirtt 
vhftt»pp«uvtaui lobe c«rD(iri?ij« in iiaai« of hU Idt«#, but we ilto ouisoUei 
Itpn wiUiout>Unt MprDwIou of our lidmtntidn. Not iriUwat Infawtf, 
too, trv tW cbtvrtBtioiu <in hk raamritcb^ cbvl, vbtdb w# •obhIia* i£aM 
DOtioeJ ]Q th«BV p^* ; uj^^ nvvi*! <rliier cfcoptera mS^jbt fikfiiiri*« wHll pc^ 
l^t fidmKBi Ifl □□cioed Ooit tUh^ig Hv »J»&uU oomiunid to Mr. Ptoeior'* 
noCioiv tnd tiMt lA (b* pniprl«rf of nulrinir « niioaAfy aTtah el«pttr,M Ibtt 
l^«BCud«nt witu]<th«vf ■ reitfcl J itrtMuw of fMinjr wliAt be ltd bocn dudnir ■'^ 
^roughoat the li«xE. Sucb ii tfbpme would be of adTuit^^ So tb» muuit 
rtftdor, And it vould bs '4 infinity wtrrioe ta tba rvtiewor, wbo wtnld tii», 
Lb mimj ca«-* wbcn 1ll^ li** md Uio juihi auttor UCn*, b* Mvod iLc 
tjoublo or |^iu|E '^nf'i^ uKir* <n«r the taxa¥ Md^ 

Tb« part of Mr. IVoftor'a rolumo wbifk poww M moit intaEcM to iS* 
tuorv punJj acWotlEic iiuu in ihiii vibjuli MaIm to ibo IniuLt wUdi k 
mpLdlj MpproAcbtng. AixJ ibU 1a liurtEiw jn «lila il U vndlB^ dSftttfA 10 
lb« lomtiitdor of tb<i vorlr, bda^ in point of hot to aauij fiW** rvpHotad 
Cniu Ura '' ProcMdiQff* ;if tbe Jlojid Avtrocoiiucal Sadetx." On tUi 
fteeooat ikty Ad lutt poaui tbnt HtruiEi af utmiDibtj whicb, if ll «naM lukfs 
bMapKMvl* "'(■MUb«iifidoubt«dl]' dMinblt-. But tb<jpo«nia* »aUdinMi 
uf bet, wbith tbtf md ctudoiit wilt nttdviUi pbswuitb And wv ibliJi lU* 
■11 tiio more b«cnir*F, amricir th** paptn tfaftl biit« bvM lopfodwod, I* f>M 
from Ibo .V»tfcncnicr Ito;«l cn'ticiMnff »tac of Mr. rroeCo^a work, «rf 
UWwin ib« rtpljr vbScb Ibo outbtv tAl culled upi^n to unik^ TU« dflit* 
BDc« nf <:fdolnn ii of T»vf gvoftt bnpMtiiaMr ud tolborottdor of Mr. I^Tovla/ft 
nmnritf ;t crrtAiolj- tMcns tbiU h« aIodc io rif^L ilut tbcv* w, Janbtli<n 
n tnue^i lo b« v^ed u|juii tbo alber «dde, Uiil aiijddii wbo mst IbOy 
inio tbo fPBttDt voold «3iponcee« • ptanir dilliculty vboitt ikdUau Ikim « 
aon ro*dor of tic pt«Mnt raluno. Ono tbiitft in porfocilj certun— Ikftt 
ao Alter pcnon owbl Iw cbuwo to tcmmMtd ai mtno nutbua ttma irUdt Ibo 
ootBiUff tiBiutI ccnld b* <^«arT«d tbui Mr- R. A. l^^oolor ; utd w* tnuC IbM 
If bo dom aot uodfttAJio tbe oWrvAlka of Vvao* 1» ihia c»d, it vUl bf 
fdoM t^na iunu mMlra rvUtii* b> haaldi, .\win4l7 bo bu abown htn* 
Wf dotpl; lnl««ot«d in LLo work bvforo tb« ■rtvoaoflMM of tbk cMStiy 
AjMrki, Aod w diaU oertoinlji bo vjKOi^f*!/ jutp^ivd U ba do* oM 
i on Maw of tbo «tpadkdou. 

RXV1BW0, 2W 


r'KTTtV U niiTvI* ntn ^fwnr^i yet ibi-rp uto totnt wlm csjiwt thii m 
^darv a nco of pun poetiool Bfisant vUl arUawlio wiK ivork vrnUbU 
mahn in the rivt-voild. IVrLap* Mr. IticLuUaou U. m it vrvns ibe 
nmihtdoinr oTthU fuiuTM r*'''^, HU linvi im fjiirly vriiten t tnl though in 
EHtffi tli«7 AM fAili^ iWlicnvntfe if} tho rrtatoiDc«iit ci fcH^t tht.-y hk a^ an^umlt; 
u done b Kwlr^itt oouid uiak'j ihem. Thdt ^ulurB in tiriuEl> tbui ; Flnt 
ttea la an ininidDrZioTi , nnd thru lolbw ■HrtM»r jfi^ologirkl ftWtch«a in 
ftCM, via. ihc r**i«v-iiv« n^-os i^f dmoi, wnkr, fir^, Torwli^ ic«, and laaa. 
la tbv Ap|i«iiilj.\ Mr, Uk-hhrdniJjj vipUiufl tbti U-chuicjilitJwi whlrii bo i?ia> 
flop, an that liU \Tnn mny hr int»Iligib1<', not tucivI^ ti tha ituduot of 
ntard f«icncc<, but to thu ^oordUr cducaUd rcwl^ir. It U, aTlirr nil, ic 
ffllnibuiBii utva cliirflj thai Uiu potm will bif of iikinmij fftr ilif /fwiloifii^jil 
rharftlom mitond tupluAin'ly Ij Ihe flouniTV »iiiTi'mn<1in(r' ^V.« think Lhkt 
tb« aullkOT yf*M fiol uiittirt in bi« Avluotian of thv spirit ; bat be fiuittot a>m- 
plain if minv ^uuUieizi imbira, utile« tbiry jub w«U-r?ad jfnln^iiLi. Toll in 
■■DjcaBaatoBMb»poinTi. Inntu^ iairucdi^ too,hiiriiymguuiiiinrhQt 
yaatkpato, Snrcl t ixo cno ever pronuucccd rDsiKfn id auch a muaor n» 
4M li oumiHsllvd Ki Jij lu ibt) f^itli^fvitj^ Yim :— 

"Wbal Ami hfMtJivd Ufn with CJixt ^^mnbabn-vl in nUJim 

W« bavo «&id uiK>(i|rh to ceqJaio frhflt wo tbink of tbo cffbrt mmjo hy tho 

authrir, and ibn miutrr muit now iaU^ up ihn bonk und Judgn of it tor bim- 


TITS don't kjKJV bciw ii if^ but iinfiribtiHivly pDuiili bT^^^'^rnll* ilo itut 
IT muob tika bookaof thi< lond. To bv turu n f^trtnin mtinb^F i^wl 
dMOi with avidity until, UIit tbnold goatluaiwi of furmor doya, tbpy timidly 
rfw from Ihvir cbni™ ImI ihfy raighL fflll lo juecna from tbt ahock. Bill 
lit do aot bvlittva tlmt tlxo oiji» *ij poaplt— w* mean pocplo who r«ici 
•dcndflc booltff— var<> to jienrw n pliTninlnjfic*! r-Mmj, W« dr» mjt tbUk, 
diarafoni iba: Mr, HinT^n"* lubnT^j-f «iU iih-«t with th« *m'iMv* ihwy unqu^ 
doaably doaarvo l fof ibou^h bo linn nut brought out Lja rci4>Ticc ll« one wfao 
^000 iota Ibe htibjis^t txii^ht 1ihvi> Jojio, niitl t1iim4;b be bai K-E^ ^ncb a 
ibsr of tinpoTt^riF. jih^Htnln^nil ifiit^tfl.ionq LmMiirUml tbM wu almr^t 
no&dor At the title ho bu cha^co, rtiU what ho hiw donv bo hM doav wvlj 
far tbv public, far Ibu jttylu uf i^umpoijiion ia really out of the comcLoa< 
Fsda«d,had not thft idltAr Atniwt tho rnntrjiry In tho pn^fltcr,WD Hbould ban: 
tbo BQTvml artiotva vvn from tbc taina pvn. It ia our Intention, 

* "^ A TaJa of A^- 1 luring q Daaeriplioii ot tom^ <tf tli« Oaoloiflcal nnd 
Hialonc«] ChajiffM «>bicli Jimu oonurtd ia tba Nol^hboiirliood ot Edln- 
buTghn" Hy H. RlcliftjJfcrt), S<ftwtary lothft OooIogkilSopim^rfEditiburgb. 
Ed&bufCh : >^r»iciifttiiii \ Ooutfljua, ltiT4. 

t '* I'tvaiology for iViclioat L'io.' Ry rariodi Writpm. KJit>d by 
Jtai«9 n>titop. Two valit Londoo : Honry S. King A Co,> 1674. 



no^ru^n ect»cK ftBrusir. 

30 nolirii^; tW br^lr, to cimfirie onr itlicftlka to ewe ebiftor tJoa^ « 
raillT <!f mtM impqrluire. and M tlw odhor p«la 1i ftim«d Mealinlj nvw, 
lb* oth*r pm^Iotb cf Iba vfltic li«bg iDcn>lv rv^twlL lbb«b«ptorii thai 
upoci Ui« F%jfli^ogj of ALeoboi], anil v« lutr mj otf It at «ae« IhAi It 1a a 
fiuf ami tblenbl; iiujiBTtMl, it a liltiv nupnidal, vcutiut *»i tkf baari^p uf 
ih« qmstion^ whether ak<^bc1 i* a pouoD <iT a fo«l. Ju hia aceoont «l Ua 
iaib>ua f|vcica ot aIcoIiuIfc dtinl: t&< author ta ptiftttlr (»tTc<C in hU Mal^ 
WHTt Arib« iiMunrof tJjc Uiiw dmHw of alor^1-'th«l Toi U« K^al svfta- 
ftMum, tbat fortli« a|iolbKaijj ud tbat fvr orJiii»Tj^ rdntiiinptton ; thai 
fom wbicU U Acnt out la bo coniuia«d auioog nviura uiUv «e kaov 
natblngof. Vtiti In hia PialamoQl nam Uii>^rfccc vhldi alroM ptodum 
ia t^JipvTiBt'.'atj upm th« fr«f'a fikot, ±f-f w« dhUvr fraea liin InCallj. W* 
nre quite aivArt ttnt vocb rtalaiiunb ban b«va mndo bjr mcstilic mfp ; 
thai, Civ rtaiD|i1«, vtak <f>iriu c«a>f an increan ia tlA« rifrvlaticn cf friif*' 
ra«c, aad tlron^r •pinii fcbuUtfly abo^h it, and t«1aUy J*tl»j- (Im U^tiunt 
of tbo piut« ducb rip«iiuir»t« arif lot^Jlj valud'va ai practkal tcMit Wa 
ksaiir, iVtuD thv iVQiti nf niany a-ijipHiiiitfiu <vt ihf auhj'itt, thai Uiv tActa 
of aleobtfl on tfa« frog'a foot aw D<vt unc<>rluE>, nnA ih«l <j^q It wqtjipfa 
idinng*pinUof viua to produce aucb an cflk: ai tLnt dnvribfd, BHadDit 
wb*ii It ii rufiintrd tha part qaickly twdiivb. And K^un. nbj sliuuld «a 
oalctjUu ibal tbv Mino ibiog waiild <cchir ko tba orculMJcu dT a w^na- 
bbwltd MuiuiHl lu bap|>ni» U a ciiId-UoodHl one? Wp do not otjvi to 
■u<;}i npi^rioivnlt; but what w« dn object ti U ihn wbrilf mIo faa bwa bt 
vhitli h>inv t.->a qiiiiJE-vittfd iadiTtiiial |iro«tf da to d mw moal Ba1kaff«tMl 
CuacliugooJ fmui thow ti^iiLiah A]i«u. IJm autliur Ktai cli-atlt not bate bvra 
a mMical dibh, or flw Iim rnuit liav* bf*n v^mili'tfLLlly i/T^ract *^Mn ba 
«I<OtD tiifli a htitijiiM aa iht fL>lloviag OM in ooDni;L.ition wiih tJto abaA«^ 
tio^iuf nlojliitl. IUhlii^" It tf fichf (1 WrM AlroHirA fi* whit ■j A awarib BJiUtfaJy 
fA^/fNifT/'inj i»r*u ri# fV lifu«tf : rA^ ni^i i/a rh^ fdAf ^ hji. fhr iartMjt rOmtSm 
jw> rf/jjfrfr«u£/r frcnv ttfk.' Stithy ni] rat^ical man vouUl hat^ falk^lbtaao 
dirv n DU^tfdiD aa to imaimiu IbaL nil iWrptwi Mta l^fU i/ aVuliol taLsa 
plan tbwuglL tho bictvala. Wliy, lli«i]iiLr^ iiabtunl on iba i-uj ra(4<if iL 
AUoir ii« to »laU that an ciccptHnal i|aaatiiy of matlor, mtttlj tXv bitj 
OAtviiabi ar* |aL«n up Ibroufli Iho ladralti; bikI nil milj aim^coiMi 
mfttt«r, jcvt 3f«h m«at. logar, broad mid |<talor«, paw aot Uimigib Uw 
lac4cAl*i but by tli* ivry Mmo ''t>*r"***^^ tbroafh wbidi iba idcobol y^'^ 
— hj ibo lUud-iiwifU Uifki turround tba atotnacb^ 
llanj]^ |«:>iLiicd out ao gnat ac nrcr. U ii of vniirar plaJa tfba! tliaasilur 

baa nut be«ii midkally edat«kbed| and iLtrtrpTo m mu»l rvou^e uiaay 

nt Ida abOHbtnU Bltb cnttdoL Bui 

hb ganatal laanlt, tbal adcohol abould b« takan to uodamUoa, 

nt Ida abOHbtnU Bltb cnttdoL But wo tncMy n^reo with 


iLould b« iadubrnl iTt by platL^Tk aad odiabU pvnoe# tbmby 
lympbntio Um^naurtttM, u itrj an oaUad. In all that rtlatn to llw 
fienvnl ulbvU of alccdwlio atimidiaila, w apa vtutiivly in vaiaon vkb 
tJic auibor uf tbii diopter } and U b only wkcn bo Womoi |dtytioLdfikal 
that n M^tn oaeapdlad to ar^ dliaf;waiBf«/t. Kor InHancvv bo my* iW 
paKof lb« atooM la ow ri a d offi lo t&ia «» of couca» i^po* ; baiwb«« h« 
taUa uUuby tbo aSiikMtnry canJi w^ are at absai to «o4tTi«nad Unti 
if b" '*tWbidiary>Nad«UB, wooulJ alavo bnmadnikiifUbiaaaMrh 



im. But lbpj« «To nty flitiEd] feulu ta laie to find wicb nn ankh wIik^U 

twrliop i>f llic wii-nU *^l[|*r vlispT.^n, which ar*, vif Si-lipvp, r*pririlji ttcta 
JiHnfttl jo*iiTiai*i Tlicw are m followa i— Tbe trnin id<! JtBaorvaiiU^ thi- 
ftnillj^ of bi-Aring: Iha ^yn *nil •iglii : ilif «nAn of umpiCl ; lb" wn**< of 
(M*! digntjao; (botkin; cr>TpulDnco; ihu balb ; llit 04>ut# uf l/mah ; nnl^it 
^ pun ^ respimtiim ; UkiDir <oM; jjilluontni h<Mulihbi>i »li!op; ^Iwplt'fv- 
nw; tpntilfllicm : Ibp Hfi^r HTi't ill diNvnsM: nunrulnr ifioLina ; oecitpilicm 
iDd ^slth ; And lailly, trftjning and gyrnnuticd. 


ONE vijdH imasinfl that no book vxiLd bq aiiyre popiilnr ibau a WL>ik 
wlikh tri*htiyi !nl\v K\t{ tnirlj of tb« diiTt^n^ct vArintia of food, md of 
ttMr Adiiin od (h« hupun bodj'^ Yot it i< itrAn^o thot. m a mU, bocliA om 
fottJ.for^Jn;* rrojMiH i>r otbDr,u« b^no mnuu popuW.niid tirr rend bj viTj 
fiir, 4-vi-n 'tf lho«ii aiAlErjil ninn vhnm thij MprJjilEj f Arii'i^m. M'LWftvrr, 
V| tnut tb«t in thii privn^nt LniitnTii;^ IhiK niK- ^ill not hold p^<^ for 
tlii nuihof hoi heta il pftiristc»inlfoJi3Ct into tlii* volume cv'crjthina ui llic 
lliinlMt r1>1fr^>u £if u'lt'nUl^e Vnliin whirl) Im^hra on Uit aiibji^t ; jin(L hi- bm 
Moolj^dimciff^, butbvkuUkon ctao that onJj th« iLiotC n^^'tnt rk^wv on tbif 
ibpoologir of divmtinn bnvo fbuiiJ n fil^cti En lit* ptiijw, Tljt book is a vff^v 
n*| oni*. of foiiTN^ froiri tb-* i»nr#"ii(!cj iintiirH i,t t}w iTentmvnt iiilo|ilw| in It, 
fojit c'**fft nfiftrly ffMf [in^A ti Inrpi OfiUvft, ami nf t(iiJip(irativtl> »mhU 
(j'pc. Yvt «v du fiot think Ihv nuLbor btk^ wiwLihI tpHCn; for UitMU^btiUt 
bi«|iponntohntPHdfrpt>^1flbahiCofrtmdr*rii!Mrti>n. andbiiilyTcicromflikftbLj 
pMd, ftod, ftbarc alt thJngi^ oLoAr tod dvdcivc^. The pfirl wbicb w^i>nifl tci on 
of f^ftiMt InUTUfll ii lIiHt la whip]) bo diicuufi* ibt^ phyAJnln/itii] qiiiihtion 
rtgiudinjf lii« «xnrt tiaxtitti M xh" wahTa f^f tb» hiiiuM] bodj, hnd bDLi(?ii 
liit Ofiturc of tho food whi^fa vj shoiLtd tuki? in ^oinptnvAliifQ t\yc tlio ]o#« 
CMAnl bj tIuI mUioii ; in olbrr nordi*. to rrpulr otir l>i>dW <H Cftiii** 
ln*nj othwr pointi flr* diMuwcd in tho work, (u for ift-tmio» thfl followinjj 
—TIiD clmtRchlion of fotrJi; rmiuinl juld Vi'jfntablu fnoJn, itnd br'TirtJIgica; 
ihi- pr^jif'nntinn of fiind i pnncjplf* I'f diut^flk* ; jirnolicid ilielrlici : ibom- 
poitlic dioU'liu: nnd hn*pit;it ditrnrirt, Itiil it ii t> th« phykiolopu^o- 
dwtJikftl p*:l -nn wuaM<Jr>tji^ iiftr. In di«uN*ing tblapart of llic *uLjiVE tho 
tntbor hnji bfvn, nf iM^iim'. fri;Ni Iua iiird^i^Al and dkiTiiilml liiiowtt-rl^-i-, (^^tl« 
U bani#| ud hfl b[U dono iuJi uiirk vhvdL 11a ]i«a Itmn^fhr. bvfijn* (Hi< Tvndor 
ta «caf>unt of infi^mmlion vhirb hn» tiU iii:ivr Iniii in thr? proceeding* 
udjiuimals of FnplJBh jinil fon*i;fn wocioti™. So ihtit, in [nint of fuel, bb 
ti>«v^ ctt thrMQ he nd^ptip will itrik^ ibc ^ivai mnjodt/ of bti ruRdnri u 
bcoDg mhKilutfJy hotdI- Wc >vi>iilil n-p'^i'iAll/ ra(vr to tboiv rpmnrUnblj 
iiwiffBte nlw^vhlionh nnd chTi-fiil ^'xprim^iiW «r M4>*Arij Flck lind WibU- 
HftUs, in SvffitiorlnriJ; nint, <if ^«« Ynrk ; Vntkvt, Iviffci, nad UilbeTt. 
of EDnlAod. In dealin^jf with tbo KaiilU arrircd *t hj oacli of tbotc aullir^ 

' "A Tpflati** on Kwd nnd Oictst^O", pbyaioV^<^«llj find tbTniiouticAlIj 
LcTod." Uy b\ W. J'nrr;, U.V.^ b\ii.S. J^ndop: ^:burobi]l, 1^74. 

ronrL\it sciETcr xiiTicvr. 

Mm, 1b» Milii>r quL^m nmpi; frmn iTitir worlv cwc* «hkfa ftuppari tbnt 
tUm, luid nconii «jrp«riDii«iifii vhteh Unv* b«** Mtrftf rti ttwo fw iba 
pwpoM of ttcctudniDg the truih nftlrf ll>foriv« vkicli tWr M t^tilL TW 
^TMt potnt irtildi •& alike g? I* pruivi Li ilii- criTr^ratiTvlj mkII val«* cif 
ulOOfOon* find in ardinw^ diet. W* t4r rc»vjtirklkv#. f'^c il will 1m k- 

DiTF^pnTi wfta mnildvnd U> bo the thief elcmm: t^it tru 'i^ up in 
Epujiciilar trmrtiiw. Bat now ronlt* ahov * dUfwut £■«. It nraM, ftw 
Lhii ftjipviimeut* nc>c«ilod In tbo Fnaant volttmi\ iLu the niiMd<ad^. 
htfoomn n*[«d dudn^ HcUnn tfi (hv utVDt tliM vtf Ino^rla*!), And 
that niun^DOEi* toctd it ant ni »1] ^ miieb iv^uEnd for tW nnjdoi 
maM:le~tiv cummou Ubcunr. Of txwnv it "^teniH he out oT oar pcnm 
to ((ito ihA fiiMj nn whkh Dr. Vnnf roiindi ihtH cnndujdfaii ; xhom vd 
muit Ionic Or ihv mAor to diicoiri^ hiaiMlf ; but v« |9QaLb« kla, if W 
hni'>» pliTiblogkol ItBlv.ui unplv ntuni for tbe cu^ iwy txpnuM fai ifai 


rU not Torj lauff finer va b*d ft Im^Ic from tlu« MUtbor oo tba «cihf«cf of 
thn Glociid Feiidd, Old tre fucjr that ;h« vrilcr I9 «1uv K ««i 
fiotriuti^l d(ic}<tcd ^ my ttot^dag in uivar to il^ oooodcring it • wvA 
fi^uadfd cu tfrfuUMU* idcfia, tTafortuuntc^^iKc nfe eompidlod to coin* la ■ 
cmduiilan 1.^ i Ukfl ktnd ; nod ultbDuifh ib« aalhar U «ie«wli«4; *«* «rv iv 
«i«Df bis fonfin-crinici, ttHa romjArM lb* motion of thw ««nk |4 Chat of 
a tup. v<t i-^iteialj iMvk tbc critk*a jbr^nicDl n soubd oac. Mod Colopil 
Dfa^o^aV aibirh on k wodJe {o itia t xii^mr. linrBrrr, thnu^h wo do tiot 
boHoTV in tb« PorrMtBdM <<r ih* ftutW^ fcitclu'ion', «^ foAj givfl tlktvi 
hvnna CuUcirivftnd with tli«m ooneludo our uolkv of the l»ok^— fl.) IW 
««Tih TotAtM OP Ita uk In tha nme munu m tf prv^cDt tu^bt in vtn^ 
poa;r- (2^) It rtTolTM TDund tha «w aUvg * piano mabuif a MigU tt 
ftbout W C2' with lb* ui* or dlumal roi^doL. {a] Tbo ocnl-wu* id 
diuTAiil MUtJon tnM« 0111 n Hn-lf> tm tkn liMi*ni irninil tba p«l« nf Iba 
«dlptiCf M ftU remtd tM»poU o< a cmtf*, tho Mnira bda^O* fro« ti» p«b 
of Uic vcljptii% (4.) TUe orth'fl uu bM a wttU oUtpdoal nknetnaA 
round iu lar^n ftvltlfin h «t>3iit 1?^ yrVK 

e3nTH90M.\N REPORT.t 

ITiiio Uiogratlad tfart avBunh df^Unwda Uragu^ lo tb«paili6ii^ 
tioo«itki»HlKi«t;ika t«1ub* wbkh ia Wbao w^ bcMf tbai wiUi ««» 
iMiad Ulo b tb« jrar IdT^ oaa^a bj vj i« 1674, and f«t imIIj nrvoda 

* " T\v r«m L>r Ui<i SuppMi] IViptr Vottvi of tlia Ftiod 8|jin, iaJ 
nn KipUriiLl'in vt tb* Apptfut Accelantion <£ tbv UdcbV 3I««d MoiLm t 
Kith crth^r OvanwtHcal TroUanu la Aittunomt Utbatin mualfad." IIt 
UcuL-i^'^1. l>raT»a.RA^FJUl-a Usdou : ClufaDaa ft lUU, IFTd. 

t " A)»4RqNfftcifliaeBoajd0f Tbnmaxd tho SmilksMM Imtita- 
Cion, Tot Ui« V«u IdTL" lV«rfdEigia^U.&A*; 1673. 



lh« prvGecdinxn of tho Inilitatbn for tba ^mir 1671. Iloworifr, m our 
rMu!«TA ai« Mpwdftlly iafjruiAd fuily In tIji' ApptndU ta the TUpott, v* 
«Dpp«e tbof >!<« uninloKBUd m tiic ponod of publiciuiiiii, TJi<t piipirN in 

taIuv. TIi* dm it a mHnnlx of Sir J- !■'. >V, Hikr-rfcn^], hy Mr N. 8. 
iJodgC Tbu nxtmoEf runt li* othoul ivrinty-ti^iit pD^«, but it U Tvall; aao 
of tb# Iwit vtd bkppicul (A«ya vru bAiQ uvi-r rvitd. Tt)VT life ^X eIiv y;n-.nt 
IliNVclid U noat Ullinp^y wrilUn, nnd n'*i tliiikk tliiil Uw uho Khvi< ^fi^iitt 
tbmigll iht fint pn^ irill plibcp ILd book daivn until tSicr Lave com' 
pUtedlL The BPil pttp^'^ Ifl HD inlJrtM W ihu French AmJcoij by M. 
-llHgO on tba lubJQtrt of J<^»pb Foujior. Dr, OdliDg^ii nddTOM lo tbo Oojal 
Ittililutloa oQ ProftHor Gmbrun'n ncI-iallAc v.itU U ftbn on tihU Attirir^ ; 
bolof cuiuvtf tl i" fMjrjjliHT Ui tiiHuy ^if our iiml«rH. A L^jipiUl jm^ U UmU 
by PfoHMKir Hrlmbolfs on f.lif *' R*»Jiition* nf tin* Phrfleil SritDPi** tr> 
QtMbix in G^ncmir Thia wm dclivtfcd borore ih* UQiTowily of Hoidol- 
bvrj, nnd U trftDAloled bf rrofEiunr iCroirh- Dr. Knmliubnrr loo, jflTM ft 
IffMd |4iptiT, which WM nrlfrtnully reAil bftfiwi thi> Viunn^ Snr'ititif ft* t1i4 
Diflianorv rif LV'ful Kn'>vr1«dfro» On tho «ul^ort of *' AltornAto Gcinrfslion 
uid Piirth4'iJo^4?(]is)a in tbi? Animit] Kingdom-*' U :■ to bt? rrv^ri^d thiii 
ilw Butbor did not dcEkl iD<^rr fully wiTh hit 4iibJ4Ct. Ha Iho olhor lined, ii 
wriwir wbo bait ^%'on lu* if nnytbinh-, taa lonjf a puput, »i Mr. K, D«i Fur-'Jil, 
M.A, who irfirw tiH inf Ip*" 'b"ii f*'"' pmr*'" "'*" njibk M^^tb^?JB nf IiUfqinlit- 
tion applicable lo Ib^ Graidihliiiit .A \rrvgn\nr Soriv^, itich «* TELbl^a of 
MafUJItj, Jtc A:c-*' Tbid pnpor id, ho^cvar, oF the ubnut vaToo lUid iia- 
pi^HUicfl &i m'tUHiitvv And to tucb wir Hp^lally rHi-Dtiimiind iL Aiu<iu|^ 
Ot^Vf pftptrs of ijQtcTMt irj tti« r^lumo wu iriay rt^hr to tbc foUawing: — 
" The L*wgTj»poof th« Dnknta, or yioui Indinnn;" *'Iodlmi Mound* dvat 
FiW W^dnworth, DnkatiTftnilfity;" " TDntrnctiou* ifk rflpinln 11*11, wha 
W Oonimvndof of An Kip^idiiion ti) the Xorlb Pol^i," oostAliu vora* TViy 
nltebbr odrii-'o to tbe tinturnlidti moiv f^^pvciJiDy in tbnl ymi dcrotod to 
p, whi^h Mbj thn lull- Trof^raor AgHseiit, 




jIakimJ Sevord ff ifcwif" unti tndwdry far thr I'mit IB73. Kditod hj }^. 
F. lUrd, irith tli4 JuBaCauce of ICmiUflUt Mr<:i of Sdi^u^rc. Nt^w York; 
Rmtf, ]S74^ Wc hm plriur^d ut m^q thii iblnwork bnjii!i<dd«dly itnprorvd, 
lodeod it oDv f[>rmii a icry TAluobla roi^oTd, which, of courio, will not bo of 
UUaUuiCD U> tljt* ^pwiiiliitt, )ju{ wjLI \ttin r iiit hiiiti^UM^ boon iu iht ruutloor 
ia •cionrifio mnUi-rx '\'\*» imtlM^A of n^^irk domt aro ftlmo^t InvjirlnhlT 
Jnditioivly oxiMiilcd, and. an fnr a« wi> ciin ecc* thoy ta>?]u(I<< Mnicat nil tbv 
hc7l* '>!' yrutinl inlcrut. Tbo ftuibii Iiili n«ociftl*d wilL hiet a number of 
cniini*iit H^kan b tbu i^o\At at tfi\atieo^ And ho htm thtu onsufvi] thv ho- 
cufmty of bi« nporti. 

DitiA* Sppfiali-n ind I'tmiih-SciirnM. An I'lstAy. By li. G. Suckling 
Bnrwnv, B-D- Li>ijdiju: T/;(i|riijiius, 1874. TLi» jsabcuk wlucb wouuly 
cotlco In «ouHory rr> tho publiiibon,. If in nriltea by nn i^ed ponon^ vbo. 


rorOLlll MTlK^Cft KEVIBV. 

ni«npl> to JD batUo ft^nuut iht doctncv of aiolatkn. Mr. Own^ 
AdiDirt4« no Afford to toulo «t th* lutfkov* frfbrte to d«aioli«h binL 

FJl.!^.. Mid '/ftrfu'yy, IyT, O, Boancj, M-A., RO-S. London . Soo-tJ 
fhr Pmrnntinir I'lipfcft Krii-ii^ iMl^rvr. TIiom uu iwo UuloW>k* Lb(ciadtd,iJ 
eaunc, for merv htf|;inn«riiT find (tr« both T«r7 ffc"^ ^- l*<Kia«y4 A b 
paiatof •tfKta^cli Utt^r ndji|)t<M to ttio cl^ftcf iWcn U Eft intM^ltf 
rhin )Ii: T«e Or^ CUrk*s> Bulb Wkn ui-, w« lluak, idagalul; dsi«cdf« 
Tivm Lhjrir fthMncc of iilurmiion. Wa point tAbont bMMOM «t IhiDl 
that, of nil U>okt, tliojie ktttfadmi fcr tltc yciua;? Bhculd br full ot wo^nk 

iatorDitiDj; account of * pUa of engiacvria^ oWrvalboa canM ooE b^ It* 
autbvr. Olbwrwiiv it i» of Ulllo laUtcat t> EagitdU randcTL 

^^nvu; Ataj«f* v/ rhr Vhurf Si^nul OJUrr 6> the SKirtafjt t/ TTar fir^ 
Xmr \H7-}. Wubta^n : (ioviTmnont I'rliilinfl: OAipp, iSjit II*ft • 
lurflMi DitvnBivif rcpart on thti roitJilion in whii-b t^lofrntiilijbiaAwM^ 
Hiose wbu af H nt Ul iutarvttcd in nit'lToruloicy will vltain mkicliuifcnw- 
tjca rcUdvo to thp •ribj^clt tlii> raoditnfl* 4<aLpl'iyMdj tit., A«^, in tJ)ii WKk 

7"^i- iVfirUoot fl/ /'-W* in Sritt}/^ iffi<i Art. V\y Jnbo Tlmha. IvaAmt 
fj'ii^k'wotjd & Co., 187 L Thi^ia bjno mciuiftfl btwt liki'the ADwriv* ««fc 
iioLtCL^il KbiiV(>. It is lull df ^tfiriag I'min, luid U [u<4t lojudlcdaiulj tianA 
Si ill it ii nuE without inEtrfbting TuNttrir, ind it bM ft Oipitil ii**! tiignnif 

of Profoa»rTj'iidftll, 

W? ham nldo n^i^ivL^;— "Tbo AquuaI tlqnrt of the Dowdof ^Ut 
BJucnliou Lif the Fint ^obool Uiatrirtof rcauftjltuitjt," ftir UtajMrttddf 
ISIJ ; " The I^ITOE at Sir Jam** ^Voun^ Sinjpton and Miohtct F«t«dB5i'* 
by tbd Religious Trivit^i>cict>j 'BoUnicnl THfcle^for tbcL'soofSEAdcnts* 
by R n. AvuUng, R,^r. (HjiiEiilton Adnmi^ 1^74), wbifh ■■«■ not lud, bsl 
MD only fit for ftudi-nta wbo bihTO ]L^Arht|batfiny ; "Tliu VncMion/'tPova. 
b,v J-f^- Nninur (rik*if"TV^ lS7-i) ; 'ISpinlUBliTm, Bud WU^ 1 Object to V 
by Thv l?iir T- ARhi^rrift (l^mdon, Tvfttdi*'^ lS7i», a vMy ablo <]mlai^bt 
oit spiLiiaaEJFiii j '' HIdU frr llcflUh/' by J, S. StocboT, M.lK |]^mAm, 
Cbiitdim, 1S74), cvmuAta of ino muful luctutrt HiJreBwil to Ibe l^ufit 4i 
ibir Inrtuxnco of rir, TVntpi, fund und wlnu iiri tbw *jnt*m. 

Tbv futlovbg booka wiil^lfo notjcisl tfi our D<it nombprj tb«j ifrivwl 
too ]4li« ibr ration In tbu jjj ?»ciit} luue :^'* A Muiuftl cf BctsDyi" bf 
Robert Brown, M-A-, Pb,U. (Blnckwood;^ Co., iwrij; ^ DMdo^lTimnf 
cf Hueouri Iro^ Ofm tuid L'oa] Kiald*," Ly lUpbafl TiuopcUj (New Vo^, 
fiipn, 1&73}; " Iti^poftdon the (Juu]u|ficnl dtirvey vf tlio Scntv rd Mti*Mi\ 
]^>fi 1(1 m7i;' by .T, i\ BrmuJboH F, B. M«ol(, Aftd A K ShMfld 
(Ji5flpni>n rity, U-»|iuij, Hr3»i " Uc«bgk«l SuMiy o^ Vid^k, lle^xx of 
IVigrau," by U. a Siuilb, TflS. (MKlbonnit*. Knn% IW^K >'ie«F«ti 
rf thb ['nifnd 3tiitr* Uucdogifnl Surtfry &f ibo TtirllorJttf,' iv \kt Jf^x^ 
]S(l7-0, unJar ihn Dupartmont'of ibo Inlctlor (Wubiu^lon Otnvremaii 





*iji<h bHtc t\\\w l»v>ri nJajtWkl fc^r (iTiwrvif)^ lliM kjiprnAi'bing tmniit 
4 Vcuuh It ic tfttiifuCtury tn nolo tbnt ihc purl vLJcU Kit^Ifiikd U lu UJu> 
ulv Hnrfhiii iif bvr i^iMilmn m Ihn ^ri^'iiLUk: worU tbhn thM ongina^ly^ 
jVfipiHd for h^r lDit««<t uf hvi- pUUJotii^ «bo *i'i*L Dunr opcupv no lf«« tJijut 
*n*. Ioil4nil "f HppK'"^ '"■'> J^''^J'Ji-> [iii--lIii>iL eJnr will «|>plj' not cnljT 
boihlfklJoy * ■ml iWulf"" MiiitlK»ls Iml tin* phpit.i*^rnp|jie nnd iba difwl 
><iujj. TJm ooDCisHioru ^Jiich ItJkv-c bixrn ijin<li', in fott, liv tliu nlKdnlfi 
H oir Xdkiuiil ObKiiAttirv Afi; am^la in ttii'iii»-U<'AT ftjjil luiiiiiiimblif 1u 
lllM vto liml nf1uL^-d, hy ]rin/ trnLliiWi, \^iini Tui^ht Almriii ba tanned A 
*i4i4 intcrtut ia iutlmbUiLv <<i JjiiMJiiwrur- it ii a poioi uf biqhII impot' 
^■ftoe Ant cUr chunfe uf pUc tind beufi bflbcLcU ^tlt^iUl/, n^id ni* It vri-m 
VFtpeiUt-mlr. >^t* bm^ ^« HmIW* mittbiHl in ia hv hpfiticd tltq run 
fBJifj' oveilorik tlic tii}ziie nmriUMr \i\ wliKb iCa Almnia^rs hare bci>u 
^Wq nf XoTC ibnt tlm xiilue of tU^? uiicn orrrlonknl XnrlU ladUn 
1*^1)11 li fuUy rocupQi»fld, wv ijurd notormni iho niopi bj" which n pinii for 
^3yii[it,' pbvtojjrnphv ofilv iit U'-IIji irWuiiHv Uimmp< iiiL'tumorpboK^I iDtn 
*JwiHfin t'» npiily aU lb" imiiUblM mi-lhinl* \\, l>Mhnwiir, lbr vhry ccmrw 
pOTitwl tut br Mr, PfirtiT in l^UI. On« mujilimiinn orly of ihn kind 
^v^ti^^a ^ ^<-' bt^ro Dotktit, It i» commi>Tdir ttM«d ibnl fbi^ro art to bo 
tiiuKnglUh tUmvi.i ilI iCvrv'U' Ir.'i> ]j<uiJ, niiil JE ij in tbii niniiiirr tlint iha 
'^tamwidi *ul<fmflOl jJ»t publnbid pToafttii* Urn mjitlflr, ll >houU b* 
btDwn, ho4«Tvr, tbiLt th'i 1^ lul uf tilt? Ivar^iLi'lKCi purCv tum binttiicti^iriA Ct 
pat on* of ib« ]Mirti<-4 mt Miu'ilmmlil, nr ETifjinl )-Iitm!, tf povlbl^^; lii Ullj'^r 
*DTiit nnotbi-r ronHUinTi bM b«i-n Madu hy iirvi'i^nich in ificr^'t' hir 
''WMV* Wxf "nh'tn jn>mi bv slifthlu" 

TV Atnrrinm 'ind Eui'r>jv^ift Mnfutdt of PhataffnijihiUif tMe TVffiUil.-^ 
^mt nltont]<>n bnn mrmilly b'luii dirif^loii tc tfa* i^tiji^lLiiii ijf tb* niUtLi\> 
^ikUbtyn |ii«enTvd bv lb? X'fi> nnJilnA* oi' pbi^t^grnphmg Ibe trAn«it i>r 
Vtno* mitiptcd ic-pi^ciivi^lj" by tiio Atnt-rkan and by iho Eumjhniti 
(■huptrrr^. ibe riijuid/t^rt uf Ebo Aniffliti^^ whoui* of ob«rv«lJi5n« conwdcp 

for ucurinj^ bonutiful iLii]-|iit<liirf^r i? nut tJiMLwurlliy urKiii^lj fur rrcurdiiii; 
ndtfilicatv ji pborionicuuD u Ibo tiun»t of Vduub^ Id Ibo KuATQiotbiid 
Cxa fooiL Inuu:^ h -t^il'wiWy riibii^r^il, nad tdlbui^gk ibi; aioitunt of cnW^t* 
mpnt— Ibnl i<, tbv tc6\-* <iT iliif Jivin-pjctoivj^-'lH ibdmiiticftllj i^jilciitsbL-, 
VOL, 1111. — >o, T.i:. X 



«liicd; rdiafcU. Aocotdlnjrljr, the \hI cmUdmI* «f aoricy wb» tbii raotk 
f« empiTofvd, itik/ be iw|fAtilHiT ah ilp'rintd IVdu ihn pklum Itvlf, Uiai ii^ 
iroui tbo iiU3UU74iiiD(it af the pbotugrspUe diM, lajuniacK tiiwr-v^ 
till* dUc U oiilMs«d hy pholo^phk imdUiba, H U jaaaiUtt iJial 
AlamMil of uTiMinnimy U lEitrndiirocI, iba femnuni of Irmlktica bm 
vojirtbU iindfT T&T^kOir ooniJjtiaM. En lli« Anaricvi artfc^ tl* CofVl 
idiojltr ii uacl tci ^ivv tite (ifioto^pblc ptdun, UXil Ikv* l^«Cikof Ui 
[flctzm in knnwD it on ^ duo* it (l«pMii^4 ciitrdv on Iha fecaJ Vtiirtb 
tbd objccl-fflMt. Tbft Cfint»> of tto pbotograpliic ioIat due i< ilrtniaabli 
Willi ixrvnl nxumcx, iiu inaU«t Iicjkv |£nnt vr Lvv ■null Itic rstrot of 
phiitvi^nijihif irnul&tiiiui nmy b#; m, &l4>k, Uin (Wirm orUia dl*r Af V 
Accumtoly d«t^iDaiuiUc^ and liAiico VA Utu ai»th<rd thodittaDMCtf Vwna 
trooi Uie Aun'a ccnUo cu ba d«(eriLiii«l indope-tidoatJ; of Uie pbotagnfkls 
ppciillt^tlBi of tha plecura^ T)i« AiiK'JImii Avmnornorv mAiniAin Ik&i thi^ 
matliod U vtffj DiLiG^ iB«tu IraKwpilliy ibut lli« oibvT, «ntl thvir qfnriwi 
would >pp«v t(» btt tvnfinuifd Vj tlv! npfriiiivjit* oa |>Untp|:nptitc inW^ 
Ation whirh IM Ixirl«y In adopt Pnkmat WiiiLnck'* mvttiod U 
pn-formoe \<- Vi. IK} la lCiio''f. 

OUtrvanvn* 1/ (Ar 7Vun*| at Cnjtr r«i<n.*-MT' Pn:v[fiii bu puiaud «Vl 

bj Uio twi> photiQicnLpbJc inothodi jiul d««arib<<d— voaJd bMT« (rfvai *«)d«, 
flud cii^ht — if weAtbrr pjcml bad at the f«w dIIkt Bnilbpn ttaiko^— 
becoma r£ pmniount laip'Frtaniv. Vcdiu iriti W Ihrrwn Inlbrr fran tW 
aun'ft oentM, « mcq at Cape Towti, than at ttcvy otb«r Matioo, It m ta be 
b^«d tbat no vjipurtiiiilly n«llj ataUiiible for tZia iffTectiiv ufawrraiiga r/ 
the triniiit nrilk be thrown avft^ ; and th«ujrb wa do ao< boar of Hfj 
movutoB ai Gmrnvric^ ff^ oroplcybiff t)kb vtlhod, 1e ^ rtlU p^aaJUa Ait 
tha aaXboriljM Ui^^fA ara prnpHrinir t(» atidl (lianiarltrA nf Ibn ■m nr **'^' * ' 

tha May mof tia2 of tbo Astraaomin] Hori«^, d««aibrd tha *^JtttmAm* 
iuad« at rualkowa upoa tbe atnaU oaatpanHin of lV>cyoA ; ftot thfl old wd 
MimparaliTfll}' itDU-kQcnra cotDpaftioo, iki ■onw 'PfOtf to MffOW^ Ator 
prcat dtiajr tbr dttulii, he »liidi up l)jf rrtoJt nt (cdlov* s-— 
" If itu tahiT tha mmu nluoa fivui my obfcmaUoitt for tbi twv ywih wa 

^^ 187*, April IQ n«7 





l^a, UatcbBA 
1874, April 10 

'■TbbdktioKW la Ibablarml woold, tl«itfb*^ OTtm loWTatf»Wtl«l 
by alioiit y'K Itut 0«tQf to tba diflcnily of tlm nvMma, iha tawn 
Valoaa ibaia*«Jv«a muit ba aubjarl to 4iii^h imofrtalBCiM iWl iJw t*«lity af 
tbt apparait dimirmlka mnat bo Mnudercd doabtftal' Ilat Id rof^anl la 
iba lacTraae of ibe p«Ml]aD-wig^, tbrT« tttD MiTHly ba «ny doata. Xat 
0(i>y dov* iha obaanad incfMaa of tP^ cowapo aJ lo ft MuMmU^ 

MCUVTinC Ht:iIV*Kr. 


«taaa^ nf pliuv, uvaunilag tn 3"-0, bat thfl tnfluiirM of dlrxTtlon ftm in 
ifa«iu*eIiV4 ntucJi Maor, ajiJ moroCOTt^ tluA t^^^o nf diqUace* 

" [i U nell Ituova Uint Piviwor Auwcm, at fiion om ho bud n^ocdtci^ aij 

Dfa««iTHtioDi of IfUt voitr, npcAtod hit inTOBtiffittlonii mto tho vgjinbl* jTOptr 

motion <rf Pre<:>oa, tiAiIiDir LliUMlf ftLh> of 1li4 'ibfturtfttiAiiii <jf thu vIjit 

irhlcb fa&vc< bmi miuld *i[i(ri> i^^. Frutii ihm In* ccmi^Eudi-^ timl jt wu 

Jctublfvl wboltm lb» obJMt obvorvMl b;r in« wu naltj the Aok body^ 

iliMiirbtijjr tlvc proper iiictioa L>f Procjonf but thtt the lUiubl wonlit b-- 

i^l If it ■pjM'iLnvl iTiiH "ptiriir ibiit cliit ikWilioii'mTul't htvl iiiii1itr/nni' mi 

of frun Vl*^ I') H^"n And lliia irji.Ti«iuv Iim titHi- vhiiwn ifa^ir iibnv4 

most t^miU'kiible moDiir^r, J or>n>ulcr it, tin < f 'T'^ '■•}■• •{• \ \-]\-]y 

.Uhfld tbitl <biT objirct T liivp oLmrrvd ii lurtuhL] , i ii<' ^ i»ljijiiiIiIiiFj u !^i~iti' 

iO« hA4 b«wi lhoor«(ieiUy pripod by Tho cftlciitationi ot AuwuWf 

bape tb&t tho artrcFnonaacal world will itj-fSci* wiLb niu in tbr? trinmpb 

olMttincd fnr the liboun of mj hi^mouivJ fHrui], iiiul Ibmii^ tbmn for 

<DiaiiQon BcicitCOi In orler to romovc &nj' dAiptioiithnt mi^bt b« UJten 

ikaX Ihe wUb^d-tit r««ul( bftd la ftiiy dcffTQC bn^fi iljicif lie c4uo of ibo 

rf«<:^itii:«i, »nd AffAf^lnl 1h^ niAMUTumoiii aC tht plivi* of to dlfllrnlt hd 

ot^tctf I ^11 j^Vt iVRinrk tliKt J baJl nnt loi)ki<Li n^ia At Uio pMpar of 

Aawm In qiifetlott one* il* HnC rrrcript iMt eomnirf^ Miil bnd totidljr for- 

fotuin Iha dnti ftf !;* criterion. Kiid tbti muLuji] r^lnticjL of thv twn jiijlv^ 

I did i»t AfliuB tjiho It up uAtil A^tt-'f I bad >uccc«d»d iia mAldng tba tint 

gbKrvfttioD, dud tliu i^ftulu of tbnc pkpoT irerc «vr-n Ic4a prratint to lh» 

mad c^ nj vi^taiit, H^^rr [■imEi'Limnri, vhotii ^miii^i^r ■■}'■■ uppt*D.Tit ^nQ«> 

oilf In bafo oodq the ocjiiipniiJt<ii utuu bf^llur llimi inino.'' 

IhtfnnMwnjf tkt Sal^r r*iialtm bji OiMtruatiMii vf Jimv iff OpiKmtii/n.^ 
IjQnJ Lind«t.j Mid Mr Gill, in a rflAHnt riLiinh'rr at ih>> '* MontHIj Noli^ptof 
^ .iMrorkOEnio^l H«(ri4l>," doarribf-* lb«ir pliinfl F^r obourrmg Junn in order 
to dttUiriuLift If lo »un' J dUlnncoi " Tbu luctbod ib>ia;mund* lUvlf," tbi*} r«- 
Oink," DOtbj A ffiTouribiB fru'l^r inf pnrnllnx twch fti U nlTnnJ^ bra traaiit 
^ Vquoa or « lavnuru-btn 0|^-^lUnD (if M4r><T bni bv ibo «xtivnio prftciiion 
v^tb nbicb a uiiiiuU.' puijil of liiz'lit CdU b^ bidx^tcd luojnipfLrird wltb lh*l 
^tb wbicb H web 4^nn bi^ brtdg^hl ihtc (vvnta^t mtb a dito- Wa «ra uut 
MniQ ibftl Mty TOitUtAbavi! bviMi pubUibcd of thb npptj^wiiun ofth? D3«<tbod, 
l^ot^ tbvn \^ iKi JuLibt tliiit It ii mijulilii uf iiCfviit Jv;cujiiL'y. t| hu Bp- 
pnn4 to at tbiii if wm ttOr-irl AiiilA]j[<> HiJi-rH iukI nb^iirrc (bu pimltACtio di*- 
PWoKDt of A minor pbuot rttliititc to tbwi^ alms by ibo t^iirtU'« n^tnliun, 
*«li«Ta ft method of dcittrnilning Ihr utrln^ pnrnLliiK, wlilcli i« Crvv f^om the 
^^tlH Mid disAppolnlmenlJi ntltindinn; nbairrvittlonB m wbich ci^opam- 
^ i> acQjMtry, bthI wburn ibo jnivit oimplud? iirrMigcMaoiLtA nnd portWl 
^Wtitinti nuj be Upiel by uufOTfjumblc wi^iilhrr nl ibc oppn*llfl alAdon. 
" Tbo MCCurftcir of tha propofad nlotbod wiU dcpood — 

" t. On tbv Hrnniinl of rlwplactniflDt tb^t fiui bo niMUtind. 
" ^ Thil lU^urocy niEb vWh lbi> mi^uurvn tao bo nmdr. 
*'d. Hie itcimbvr of ni^hu urt whkb tbir uiMiiAiiri^ ruj] b« n>p«f 
w!ii«h wlCl )mrtly 'lopuTL^l nn Ibti iii^liEt on wbieh ^ 
tttuatod ttan of C(HnpjLri"on ciui bo fakud. 
'Tb» pJanot Juno fit tha oppoiilion of IF47A ftpp«M« to b« *^ 
^%vliiatod for 4 trial of tbb iD«tbod. Mhuriiiun (tbovlal' 



roruLAb ecuEACB Asrunr. 

ia oppMicioo on NoromW A^ l^n, bM a hfiHionlAJ ]>«n|Ux oC S"'7,«' 
•eulh dediullon of ft^Mf. If v* Buppotq tb&t ^e uav U^u to irWMr 

«d lit Mtting ^^n Ea iJu<M»ra hi ui khitad^ of 40*, and oW>t« tiLL bi 
plonvt'v Altihido if SO*: tbm for aip|i«[ii-iD ve b«To — 


tvaOi^ le A^ft. 







SO 7-70 

30 70S 

40 d'U 

Tiuko btbiliible fur oWrvfLiiua 

ll"j iLiid hnrt> ^l laimjtoi botli atrudn^ aod wtUn^ duriog wiatb wt B«r 

" Tbp obwr^'iTiont i^jin hn miul« idth Adntiug* tot tk month pTfaodiif 

lUtd n luoiith foli^wliLjf ojifoiiEinn. 
*' It will Jiut bo puvibli? to i>Wrvi< thvplaiibl at »a lar^ an bonr aiitb >> 

ADfjlc ortJiD pUnvl U about ihn^c b(r»r» imd a tnlf; ottr tlmilaHj ab"^ 
fifli'r itppiuluiin HbnU wi tii' jlUIh Ii> tijiriiiiMuii' uWrmlKUi xnHrlj"* 
Ctunlruhte, nnrl mo^^Vtfr iJi*; br>rir<inlHl j^nntniu wiJI be ■ l>tU«i 1ml Xni' 
iKitliBtniiJiiijf thini fur fifty uL^htf nn Htoro^ pitndlacik' difpE*«fnLUda li 
A.n. of Jibout I:;'- ciui If obcdncd." 

Vtirifthdilij uf Jimi AVdTf^^Mr. Hlrmin^hBiii hiU oomniQiUMlld to fc 
Ajtron<*iiucniyocjetyaomoobaerv»lJoiii w]ikl ttppcur Ic ahcnr tbtA >ranl 
of thn Btnn b SclycllflrupV Wi'U-ltTiuwu Cjitalogna of mi finn nrv rwktt 
in brigbtncB And in colour, Jlo Jind AtF«ad; di«ciM««d tfai' p^^l«U4 mi>- 
Inlit; of N'ci, 253 l*hmh U now mTiuUe). Tbo otbcn vbkk 1m 
wltJl (Jn Xoa IH 101, 74, T;, iti. lA!*, md 2*1, Wo ^iiMo tbo 

d^miTkH, lu cJtli^uUtinl t^ bo or iuEaroAl la obvorrtfUi x— 

" 1 fini AuAicbud fcir Nu. 1»0 aj F«b^ll'■^v ;t, 167?!, ftdd fniled to frid t ltd 

-«Ur in, CT neMr iu |VMltinn- 1 wrm iv]nHl1j nntiifvHnral on Febrouri 
lud 8, on !J«ptoml>DT '2% nnd iVvci^tuWr ¥6 ; uid <ui L>o«mboi U9 1 wtbA* ^ 
Idovn. DuDiia nad L^'nn. of tho Hojiil Obnmilgr/, ivquoMbic tbi;! it 
might bi> liMkod for. Thi* ttn* neflOTdinglj dono^ nad Mi. rh^voing, »W» 
tnido \hif i]b*trTAlij>n witb thv Imiuil-oiruli}, f^>u&d, <ii) if nii»«irr S. tbal tW 
«aot poFulivn cf \tO w« (Kfiijui^d bv n T-uuurriUud? ccluojttBtf atu. 
•von a tingo c?f ml. Ic nn^ qfltrwitd* idvntiHrd >» on* of 
tAht^t H OjrnefiijfirJijH. Tlii i«lOr, wbteh I kjhiw, n^ipMi^ U>tan 
)''40 tbw) th*.^ Ttb uiHjjxjJluJis nud »f n bliilib-Mbit'j iu]i.rijr. 8cl^« 
T]ot>fl II (ti cno or Ibo M\ir% la iW Darpaf i'^uUipjv, wh^rv it b 
tlio 7tb magnitudo luid mnrk-nl nj^/n j to vhit U cccnu to W 
loAflt in CAflour. If UDt jn mii^mhu'lc- 

'■ >'o. J01 b lalido b/ ScbjoLiiinip fram a coto by Pinni. vbo 44ttAf 
It ta T«d| wilboul «tatii»v lliu iiinf;niUid<?, »nd rather toof-blj fitw ittf^ 
•itioa M prccnlbif b} abofit 3' aaotl^t of bis tXrni rKo. W) on Ui* «■• 

^IIUXIIHC tiv^M^hV. 


pmllbL I fJlod to tlad iht rciJ hCjik^h (Vbj'uiix't 0. ]^i7-1, uilO vjiji infi^rmKl 
b]r Mr KnCTi, tA wbom I c^rHmmunirMlMl mv lAiIutv. 1l»it h^i wmm h|iiiiLI^ 
vuHCecvfol (111 tvro pruvluu* iM?ciwirfii*— irn Jniiv ^■i mul »Vuj;ti«t ^, l^lflji, 
niniTtFr. un Jfttiujii} h'^vf Lh« pin-iu jmr. I riMiiiil n mat lii Ihii piiiiljnij 
■3f 101. n» viJ] u 1 could ]c[*ilU1v i| in a linrrii/J nbttirVhUtHi- 'rii» pfUAdfc* 
uf ckiurU Jj*l not pvriiiic ruu (<> cKA»4li^<: it vii Lili-imitv, bill it ApprArecf 
t^ut ']|» ^-.1 njji4(niLm]o, nii't *li}f]ilLr liuyoU »Uli ml. T \\n\v ui>li?bwvtHl 
ir tinri^ 1h«n ; hut 1 v'^tiT'! tui/j^f*: lliuT il >liou[i! b'^ dn^rvlj' n-At«bv4 in 
il^pitirni cxi^^Hrint p^^4Jtioii fur eburrvdli^m, when ild Jery prabaUc varik- 
tn^lf lu^lffat be clvterujiatiL 

"hi No- 74 t liflT« romArktd diirtfNnc» within ilm lifnitorAL-* nii^j|T)ituct*j 
kftb c&DnJ«nkblo <;L«n(ro» Dr>n)tour: ^iJl'Uijeiii, tliii« tiOUt it— J^r4M^ 
r«^ C^ Ofrj.. nrvJ r^^* $. 

' Mj ob«rvtttioiii of il wi'ffti » fiini>ffi 1^ 

"lera, Fib- 10. Omii^, *<, 

"IHJ^, K-1i, -.'. Omit£«, r.'rtiiK A nurfM ft'a; iiitviiAi- bin* ; ^V, 

"Xcr. 77, 4t<wHliPd br SrliJk'lU^Lip m rat^, T<7, fttf«mit li-u ihvi H, ittih rh« 

p^ jtfwible rtd lingc. 

"Ii [Qjij not b# out nf plfioo bcr* larrW ion iprv rciixuWlTci nmng»«Ur 
n^Bh I fijiiriJ whi'n bv*ltififf fi*» 77- Oh Fihnmiy ^. 1S7;1. II ftpptmrvd 
A^ixt lUo 'ill mtigiiiLudfi ^vjlli A cirniei -if tbi? Ihli ; putitioii W^. Dn 
Iktmbr 2ij ib<* !»rj;e «ar «*nin*il of tbp lilh Jiiiviilludr. Hn Fr'hnwfy ^ 
iLlntrknl n«U4r ibfl '>th, uml on Mmvh b il jiffit^nri'd i>f ibit ttlh iiiMgni- 
In^ tgaia, Il> roLiitbly niij-mMninti^ plncv tiy t^qiinlorrpJ ii li.A,, 
6^Jl"4l>. nit'l-2*.'j4' i^Tl". tUMHull nppiitv-ni Hinn^« ninjr, iiidiwd, 
)* 4(J« t^ frrcn of t-itruintiun ; but 1 oonHder 1^ worib ibu tilE'Otioa at 
<Wntr*» att il untrlKirnjcIv (iu|K-riijr li^ dr|Hh c^rioloiir i^ reij ruMiii ijf ihe 
Ifaii iu Hr1iJHl[i'rt)|r- CitlHtn^iiii : Aiikl (lin f.u-1 tbhT. Ir, vha inl«n^il hj 

i^biliu. Tiom irc^nl nirndurcp. I llnd ibiti tic nnjiLUnr disLaDM nf 
Utfvn^t Sh lory, fiiii] (!ii» ]>n*iLlnii m^ 

"•Sa ©, tJhk'M i niwtnliv it* id»i)L"i.VH |)r(T-i'Ut» -n iii-rMir<^ <>F complete 
tlunjoof CuWr. hapiiPOlH a> oinj of 0i:bjtlkni)|is i.iuii ftiiM m ihe luiU 
■Um il U nmrUod * 'I'Ut,' blit In tne it alwat* »howi n nii« bla* tint ^ 
viola A] 0/>nn»f, ni'Hr jt, i9 ilrvply n»uipv> 

^Xoh J jJf *bicb a d#scriW jii ibu Cata1i>grjc a< n r^^d «tiir -^f >r^ m&gaU 
*i^ bn» bcvc iiImti rd Lv inr an KviTal iKCHwiou* im n liiw (rtmijfo tiar u£' 

" V<»- :if^fiitnUbri hn uii^ciibtv^t icntftni'o of chtii^- It vi oaUUgLivd lur 
"»fi it .\nr^']ft<jdi:r^« sUii* *if tlic ItU nifl^-uiuJr, nnd follovcd by ft blue vtu 
'^tkmiiiii* pjimElid- Oil AjJiU ]^, lr^7;), I i^uUd it na a gncd rod, but HO 
[fiotH t^iTi 7'fi, i\rid I'Jtiimiitiul thi> Llu-i Alar Ai tli>' I'tli iiiiif^lfndK On 
^Viiajy Ifi, 1874, tUt- ffd hcM'M only of Hm n "i ninflnitudB, itnj it wm 
owjrtdw^ flvnn mirtlTi'r b> ibo It^v- Mr- WVbb, -ai iln- 12tb. On Fubruwy 
*7, I Itoujrht thtf iiiir hod riiun to th« 7tb mr»|jiiiiudr, witb A high calonr;* 



JIJVv Cvmfi.—Thc titir cyiinut ifitrotml by Coggia bus pdI jjuaMw 

WOf apo^l TaloKopic fntlarot <if inlpfHt rip to llitf pTHfflt lUVC^ Ssec^ 

luB found tlifti iIld luidL-u* )ircicaU» r^tram rbMmbllns lh4t of orbofr*-* 

rHultaofhLsfltiid^'of tbv Auu'v »uffiiLM3 vHlh n ^dc IS-idcIi ifH&Ktqr tibf 
Allr.'g1i43]if ObiPTViitcir^, iVimiifUAniiL JIl< tiu b«i-n ruiveAfiid laiiEitlni| 

minutn eoinpoiicmth "Itv lAUinj; itiUjininj^ic.'' hi* ictj^ '*J>f lh« Wicf ■! 
nre intRrvalit (if rlvftuiiiun, vhith ntintil llt« uw of hijrfa pcwmortodi 
Ivloicoipfl, I found the nco-gtoioM rcHiUod into an ordor of niaitt oo» 
pODMitJv KArccIj bkU^erto cl^tvrd. Thcaie cdaipouMiU Ifatn torn ^ravi* 

xni]]i]t«< bodJiMt prt.'ictil oror tli" whole nolar eurfocM*, faialK ^iscnaU* b 
the fogulv, oiid m Uio pcatiiiLbrci-- or Ibe i|ioli luv cxpuuJvJ u\tn kiiif fi*- 
fjlcDti^ vhoiK lig^rti^tliin rorijin tho tliBii?h*i1mvn at Mr. lMni,vl^ 
BggMiffMioii of pronulni funtiA tliu tti'c*-^ ruin. II14 UtUr t4nn tboiOii U 
eoipJojrud IjiTVHftQif I lb;jil(, <jji]> Hh Tat iv il mdjr b- auci— TJ to |i90q^> 
> t^Tidfrtr}' of ihiVL^ gtuniil4-t to uiiitr t» n'lutiors of ippiunnutolr hUM 
Aivo. rhogTBEJul^iuv DccHionolIy BL«n mn^ly, biofd fro^ucnUy ii»l<dtt 
duftera of from l«o 01 tLrce, U un ni ilji:ict, tuid Lrj ibtrli dc^^w il' 
jutUprudtlon, mU jif^bnp bjEhi^lrMrftJAltrtpt^rpn^ililon, fonm thi* RiM^iiiDUi 
of brilliiui'T of tbo ricc^ivin nolnl bj Mr UUiSgnah, and nrcount ftc Ibi 
irri-Kuliu- outUjiu of ibu Utttr. wL!cb bo bud nljvady jvmvki^ Ufoo. TTill 
tba bir^fflt flprrtiirr*) nnd pavor*. not rtily ibrri do \haae brillJiOil boA* 
Apponr vjikihti but IVurn lhi>[r nppATuut ntut, U \o bo tftktci liii* ediooL* itf 
Jtpacu* wlijcb il iJiivr hjiich'^ mtvnviitibflwiirij iliv^ir VJ'uipouiiut pnrU." 
tnftin, HfTcr cMn^rnl rmiJtiF]i-rnlii}t] *tf tU» [imbublr ntji] munilud* of 
objpotr, thai ibi? oud'b lighL t'v;hiab i^omctt frDEn them olotoat wbflfljf 
ii^iUIy pfui:i?iTLl» fru^i^ Im tbiu^ i>ni?-hA.U of lIib #liu'# nbule turfliGf. 

^tieialy bavi; hili-1}^ bL^pu cbbrautcriprod by iiEipi<0Miat coDUntujUB. Jo l^fV 
Coloael i^UHuge, Pigfruor rnUhnnlf iiud Mr. I.icpckyef, oambbiai b » 
umucccufut BticiinptioriJiiiovc&om tb« L'cundl tlic ^c«r«Uvy ^Ui^ ProeVk 
Sit Edoiutid Bvckctt, Cnplniuji Noblv find Tupuiaa, rind Mr. Brawid^f (Vr 
Prvctuj' rvfiuiiud tb« <^>^^*^liifyHbip Ijifit Nu^vuibHi, bv^u^ UioD in Amj^XK 
ftiid vt¥ betivvt* tbit ??<ir K. Hl^HloII ftnd Air llnmiiinjr dirtlltt*d lobt p^h 
DoiaiEintioii ngnin>, Thld yuar tb«rc irppifU-a to h&\e htm ■ fAllia^-ttl 
mnuug tbi^ iIIihtq] louL* of ll^7.% t-'ubi^tl Siraug^ otjcdiai; Ut Vndt^ttl 
I'rttcbMrd ^ A ^'ic*-pr«(ddtfDt ot tXw Stx-ivty. Tba PM«6d*fei, I'joftMir 
Chj'Iijy, vitb hiv umial vJiill Mid JLtd|^ni-ut, brLiu|rbt ibiT lUAck to a 
puiulici^' oul llmt Profcuur rnii'linrd ^nu nberDt- ^^> Eue^^aJU 
DO AttDiupT liu boon nifid* I0 briu^f fl^Mu b«f<^r* Uio COQlifll tb* 
tchflme for ^>bbLiiiiuj: a uvw |p>Trnifiifi3t obMitMor? for |Vodktii« A* 
vratbor by Bludyio^ the »ur>-«pol& 

sci£xnric situvadt. 



TarCvta SiftvoiMt in Wijrn-k-^i*ii4rr.'—tt inDir ltit(?r»t liryoUt^la to know 
l)ui 31r. J Hngntill lift- f 'unrl ihi« raott in lV'iitvii!kAtairc, on iha raorUr 
of « brick bridjfc, daot Wji^tioix-Warcn ; in Uiifl btbitat ftmalJ, ftppurnily 

bMjkj Itom^ nbiii4; Jn \iaih k«bltau, hnwitT«T, Hrrvn. i'n/^rt mih/Uhi 
ifaaitnoAncd to oolitic «nil«, a* be ri>uad it AbuiiJactlT on muii^itppcd 

tA. »1 ILtrboTT, (V-mt; •Ciiiuptua, Kj^iuLun. W ilticaii^, and iin niArir 
Uikt jU Hvnrliir ; nil thotr b?!iULii}« %Ta an lb* Uiu, viJ ikTv aU tii ?v>iitli 
VffwicLitiifr Tlif> fi)rmp Lo lit^dn nt \Vilijw;olt< n^ohi » be topical. whUdt 
«Ditbut7 ftDd tke olkcr lonlillei tbu pilifefoufi l^nzj nppoftn la provkll. 

JDlTAi^ Jifffiitt'-ir.—^"Cjitt!%'i\U-ik" frnjk Itml ibu aiiiiauiii;«.[lip[iI xbnt tliv 
bit pvt (tf |)r-(HMrin||[U>Ji Blon}f'|>MritlA>id wnrk U rvwlj vriU b" gratrfytn^ 
(»M«iia of Qur r«Advrii, It it uTufrtrm vith thif luHt oditlon cf 6ov«tbj*t 
'&llU*h lk>CMi>/' ood U iwuod bj tbe Mmo pubUiba (Mf. iUrdvriuk*, vC 

Mtamnnff JA# Onrt^th^r^ft of JHmiU^^Wt, K. Aakcnm^ mvuuTM nitli k 
adcNEutor ibo ndvAuco ot tb^ ^irowifix-p^ioi »f a root err Inwioli io n gku 
tiAp In tho A*ld of thfi ini>-Ft«r?o[>9. Thf (tpin U (Ixnl lijr f^rrk or Mhtr 
niD» ftt ono tad *rS thd tub«, «iid tba ^oadJlioni of ligbti lampdrMuri^ <uid 

J^ fffrtilititttin (J^ tJtntititiA t:t/ Humhiir jlfrnt^TbH clcMwd ^^vritiDti 
(OmAfwM ^IhhA-wmi) hu llavoia an i&di und n ijunitf<r or moro In IcoK^b. 
ThiviiiAiktvd, brifhi bluu tluv^tri* uf U;ii nuiuum, jijipitu Xa bo »J^ujb lc 
ibabud.j* tlifiy Tiflv«r opfrt, Thri i^itrolln U rvlntwl Tip n^i h* (<> loavo no 
■fcoing At ibfl lop. J b« tlowtm rkru nil nvnrJj vtvii, with two Blig:iu4]i cod- 
lidrnlilj nbovi; Ibe Av« pjitbtirn, Tliu wrlLcr ui>a l^i^ ajub but irni* wa^ in 
*kiA it f*a ba fmiUmd, fhivT \% by iniHJ^rii ; but who itin nhl^r i* wd kto 
jHt told. *' 84>Tflrnt <>f tii^ atudCDti, it* w<ill n* ii\ytr\f^ infiro tli&n tiro y^f^x^ 
ap), bftTB oftou snn bmiiblQ btrec HJiLtiiu^ IhoH Llu^ezh Thay pr; izir uil- 
rviii lb* opamng vith ih«Tr moutb orgnn* mid 1^^, and tliQQ pup lueo tli« 
tvnl-sba|p#d catIIj, vhicli Ibe; juit fill/' 

7Ar ^TrwcfHrr ^ /Vbr»<r-^/«- — llr. if, JEnutliwitLtQ In dulift^ii^ boforo 
lh« Qodied f'luh n istifli of lucliirM on Ve^Irtbl* llitlolrjgy, Tbo foilow- 
bg w kb ub»crvfltion»onei>-c*IIcdlibio-CtlJfi : — " 'IWjp nru aIiuojI *ciii;»ly 
edtofined tj) till- VKHCuUf btindlt^, jtnd boncu jtr^ ruuiiil \n vtihhI iimf bn4i 
liMM, bill Tviy TATplj' ID piili Of buJi, I'hiry his) diaL ngu ubud by Lhoir 
grmL ItraBtb, and loucli each otLvr on nil aidui whb mare or Iua* LjUllctuH 
Gw«^ M riiAt In nuE)Ini> thny un funifoFTti, pyrnmldnl ot nriTiErjiI, And Iijito 
Tujnuotj ftcy tfAn*i'i»niv pnrliticinii, but wi' liiid ruch m tijv brDiiobod boflt" 
vdb of KupborUfl- librt'CcLa uv jhuilLI} aJJofk', aul] alvayi mure or Iom 
4leh«i*<l, with Iho rtH^nndnry nnd loTliary Imnin/ir' ilinTinei. Thfl thiokon- 
kof u grMU«l in biiHt iwiiuc, had in it al«o U^a ^Oi^uiidiiry Inyun nro most 
dvluactf ibvH uf vtoud-or.'lU budi^' njuru buuiuvfUtuUB. itud pcrtrs an abut 
vmltj prDKOl. A nniitl] widc^Liimini^ <|arh| hAnil iwun ntnrtho bordered 
is wocd-ColLa of jow^l TiDo, lai-KUTCQD, JT^^num, Zo/i/miUp JtCj ud 


turcuft j^iu^cm jiLTttM. 

vUk BafTifwcr tnnw in lit wood 4f JSmtm /■«««, B w Jf fftnl bod* v* 
obMcnUflia Ike oa;cT vood-oFlbW ikv smul nap «f conftn. rad ib* 
■utatlMi It BOf* ibtriilf df^nad hf vjipBttiiaft of vitrir mU. YThmti b«- 
1I||d|S«J, ■« la Aporiptmvtr noA JfirfWwar, tL« iodi&« iMti pvodtfce 0a 

!^i«Dti£e CoPiDuttoc of (ha IWj«l ElarttOkUnr*! SoaHj t MmcU 4. 1^<>. 
th« lUr. 3f. J, IkriKhj taSkd ■tlcndoo Ut tha idlkm^ c>3aiauntcBli«i 
toad* hj i'wftMor t'mtmri to tte Imiltai Hf^rpttva^ at Ita BMvtiog «a 
UocccaWt 1^ on Cryp^^f^BM -rt^tUtkn Jboorf viibw Uw cff «f as 
oaokh, wUdi vai iMoftMia^ ia caaoeciM vith iHtfd ha had htnualf 
broafbtUfsArtbooonmUaatoaAlaTthOudlt^ltCX Tha*9)|hihl k<«« 
A^Tta Pr^itmtr Paacari at Ctan, aad wt* atlll &p*h, tha ■» rfaot hftna^ 
not nvn b««D ft^nwd. Ha aoco, br>nttv, nullcnl iha appenraaea cidiA 
blololiMt wiibin fh« *b#)], anil baviiy taoJcvn it cfaa la morrtta% tlM cg^B 
ht found Ehflt th«7 vwv prvdaoHihjlh«^wtbofMa«t«fiiiti- laali^H 
or m ilmllaf kiad had already been rtudlol bj iiiB^ and ha had oiotfiLaftlcaicJ 
Jha fwnlta to ih« Boua1«al CosgiBai hr\6 at I^nsano Is IASOl TW Uav- 
k J< BnM«7 had found O^Ak^pnn'wN ArrAvtm in thr islarior of a firwi'j 

/Vu*A^ af iitnt* ihr^myh fnHaul Mrmiimn^t 1^ Ftirmtt. — Tha ■xpwaalt 
■which Wtc hwn nuklo on thu nibj^rl fyll/ btar out Iham vtll-baevm 
«]perlaifloc«of Clnham on the poBoaifQ of gn«(* thfOugh caeaitc^u^ IL 
llM^flflinTMTiihMihc vrbitei^taDnthfiil^yaataontfua man It ai»Talif> 
of thaqiiii-mi Ml a l^r^ir ofnitropon. Th^icaTaanf oortala T«nHia^ TB17, 
ihhi onthi? UrJnf* pUnl.uvreilucnl. uu fbiii]^' durui^ the vintaf fal Jattaj^H 
to tbo cfOKl^itiLii] ut a pvlUcl4 «iidu4>d viib vluticitTf uvd, n|ifraiiniloft al^^| 
iiL'tlibiy but tJjv ailinilnr Ujcta Jt vm thcM nJbid DcnhnnaB vbU 
>rni*| \a rnjMHi tir&liMn'* p-tjHrmiiHni. Kxipqit in a f^w modiflaiUnna of 
dWiU, hit Mlowi-rl iifirtlj Thv Oburw nf tbat iULiitri^ot ^bjiici«t. la 
four cipcriisoDU nuide with dilTtfrtct mcmbianca, he obtained iht iuQoviag 

CO" I' l» 1' !■ 

O «* 0»:dl>« 7* Ii"dl^ ^M 

Tba aacporivKintA mad* ludor eanditioci «*f paainr*^ lanpeiBtaflat aH| 
niulMuto, wbtcb iIouhtlvM wcra not idonikair ytt agrva vuficient^ sH 
«ilk LboHi nf ( Irnhani, and lUrovr n* In rroL'lndn that lb« Palwail A^^H 
»arf«H<< uT TO|c«tabl«« hnvv for asTbonio acii ui in^ihMAiiv ^v«vr whl^^| 
l)iirUvn to dAeea Xiaat* a« great w thM of ajltofvtj^ and *U or wmo t^^| 
tbil otcacjjimL ^tiTv* difJi aAar bn i!ppA«L*d iha cip«fni«iit with cntjI^H 
aclpd. porfccitj dtjr, nnd Cound fx iu rtitsdtj ooippifa d ^ih fi«l|iJ^| 
numboa ^arjin^ fn>in niii» to nlenn ; U Kviof. tbcft. tbnt drj nHmakr 3P 
pUM* 1«H vipidlr than vbMi moiit. iCqiladBg ibo vt^ublv Sim b; 
oaoalfiboncT li« oMaiscd « •LtniUr rtfViU. Tb« diJwwa ia the oaH of dt; 
cvj^m aad nitrogen i» lam uiurked. Ha iiTinarLd^ ia tnncrlnit— . Uwi thcv 
aipvtlAieiiti prora fhd dUlpU nf omrK^ts arid thfoocb Iha ott^Ja of 
I^Td^ jiift a> DiQcb a« lhoi>a of Patnwbot on momWiHt a^ a^a>«w 
Mlarliou proT* cnd>9Eca«M %j cvllakA, 

KciciTtnc mticiftT. 


tike f<iU«*iiig^tntl«m4;n v«rv vl*«tc4 tfllwvt of 1^ i^«detT?— 1«M Lvv- 
tblui BrU, r.CJ^. . W. T. Dli^fiird, FQ^ i ll«orr Hhtbad BiMiy, TAA t 
TliAVM I^«l*r BrufiE^, M.t>, 8^.0.; iVAiwav \\\ KUfdon fliflbtd, 

PavoaU O, IIe»^it. 1 TLC.1^.: Ji^hn Iliol n*ir.rf, F-LS.: Si Hbiiiy 
Kvmiwr MidHK II'^O ; i:<ln<iTi'l JKin#« Villi, U.^ ; It«T. Si^pbtn JoM^b 
Pmr.RRA^,} n^nrv WtldbLT^ Km^i'V, )LD.; Alfred R. C. Bdvjn, 
F.O,a; Ll;»tf» Willian Wikxj. M4><r JCli 

i''Jrjfp/f> ,'f'*iVf ^y nVMi.— .\nordinp lo C nuclnti, vim htm % pApvr in 
tbe " Coiii|»tf« lE^nJui," April 3X^ vriuu vhni «oanil oaocun *f«tie ■cJtU in 

lit ariir^Hjnl, iiiui^it with jtltrinE ^-Iti ar f\ll]partof bot^rrfetdd. VtMuiia 
U founrl id <iEiu»iitic« not VK0*«4inR ID ro Jliiffr«»« p*r litf*,ftad«tdglMr 
fatty aeid id ii]hic«C intiniteamiJ pmpmicciL Wfaea viar Vk Ailvcud wtUi 
tS^ dist'Mi" hnrtrn M " ttMntd' or "pfluiw," bamIc vod mDUc^^tic lurSd* ftr* 
d«v|i3o|iii<l tn jibrMit i^qtjHJ f]Rt|Mrlin(i*f «iid Co :b« iudoubI of tf~^ lu tf^I ^^'i'*- 
pd litre- In l^ie dw-iv*? uf bitttmvj*, acftic acid i« d«T«loprJ. aloQfl: vith 
bmyrk *^id mid imrr* of hjj:*J'i^ f""?' i^*!*- Tlw anmuil of tuijric idd 
ftnatd it Inr^br lliMn in alpoholir Irrnjcriliktionp The author intoivlt to 

iBlT*ltif«tC ilt" iJW'a^V flf " A(<^'ri]|-i: " rail n flltUFK fiC<wiuTJ. 

Aha&'i^ /V^'tf/f^fvi "llfrr 'Wnr iWfrliJ, m Xhfi '* .Tmirniil iif tbv 
Cfatmicnl Sjinclv ef ilcrlin," nbrlroi-Ud by tho " Chtmlc/J ^ew^ " Juno 11, 
eoockutJoi tlifll— (1) Aliiiljiil jw^T, likv nil '►llitir plmiiji, ^ijijirr* Us lU 
d«*«jA|)mi;<ni nnr! inririiw* llr- vi^op^rhtUiimf fnv* "tyjp.Ni, (J> If »ir Mjtd 
free Oiiypm ivnr iKcdidoJ, tlip rout «Aiiiiot pttv. Thete two facts «Tcftarti 
tliQ thirorit* of rnHleur cm fci'iuviLtntlon. (3i VcR»t, kii cinilindUlincilon to 
all mh«r pUntHf irhi'ii In »a1uti(iTi4 wNia in prrrriBth )a pi^bibto, Uim ft irtfA^t 
•IBaitir ffv fnxi ax^j^vh. Ic mn CL^mjilufvIv I'xlnict fri'i' iMv^m nuxr<d witli 
0.000 ml U[iiT# ijf corbujiL' mitl, (4) JtHc<ir racrm'MfU biu (In ntne |irQ* 
pfftt. nnd ^icirrt nlk^idmtit? IcrinrMTRtiun in n ^ncrhBrini^ toliit[<tn. {^) 
Urowlh And incjciii* '^f yL'jut niny fiik^j plflcc witiioul fL^rmonUtlirj, and, 
itfrnLD, IrrmtiiitiiLkin Alli^'Lil iinmih nT jr^inl, Tliv ciuliiJnJc kcii. lLii>wli ihll' 
b funiivnfvlSin i« ivrjiniluililt ^•''t Il« }iiirUy^ f^^L^ In ftiiitJitjIi* ai^iIiLlintM, 
rxp»rd t> the (itr. ^T^AVili jif till- y''n*x pUut nnd fcmifnlJiUcn L.ioi:iir aimul- 
Uo«c)U»1y Ifi iK^t-;?iLt piLilB cif iliL- Sli|LiId. '7( l-^E^fmuutalioE] U ibii vjipKiK 
ttco f)f nn nl>rii^riM«] Ini'i^iiijiWa vliul yinv^ftu, tn ivIiLoh nil Uir^ bodin* 
noaifrd fiirttiFiiiilnli'miif l)»4 Tpji-ftito mu viinuftniiu'xtfttj' iLnd biii'niirniiiiulj 
0»<4|mp(p. Tlint rvFiulu wiW jims^ iir;.'M!Bl tpclnjuluxii^l lulernd. 

Piillciix ««>«, iti " L*oinpt<4 1'uii'tiio,'' April 27, that ttxo lEow uf |fuu ij a R«l 
dtoH4"i filin^li |i4i ii]Liii>M4 ifuiminm: 'J'ljn nlJiiiHniArjk' iiu1j*tttnr^i-H, |i1ftc\>il in 
n>«rr* in t]i-> iijlFrinT ti"*"--, jrnl«*iul "'• ]noi[KitiM|j; llm plmit* ^rnwtli, uv 
dWcTied to production of jfum, niid n portion ncojmulnt'?, nwnitin^ tbo 
imiJiat af iWir irinifortumioii uboiit ^runinij- prnlre*. wblcli mam lo ftct 
M Mntma of trriLMion- Tli" ^>u i» iiiLAlog>^itii 1^:^ what oumv wbanan 
lonct depodtfl ott4 of iu rjpc* >" ^ iumm uf & plutt leidiaf to fcodi 


roFTLJUK EClto^CK nKtlVlT. 

of B pUtf vtidi coiiButB of new octb MJin)- « nuu« *S juiuiyit* tmxtrr 

(pftrtiL^iiTirly foi?ntii j dc^tbi^d. not for tlic *aAt« at Ih* plonU iu>if, btit Ice 
the dfiVriloptnoEtl af |?Lf duiJl p*rv»Ltr vWIj ii|]|]MnL Wv prod 
i^iLi »E rAjMirji^Li <jf iJki> uutriiitY [uti(l«r bM nu i>1h«i IIiLizi di>a thtt 
pMft vihiiTixlvi cftli^i fiUiiT. SatrinoUioQ of the Wk u ik# bc*i t« 
Mf. IMlUciLX** caifUtiatioD UthU:— Toodm th« dtAooM tWmaloriaU 
nf^tfopriniod it> fonnaijon uf sMiu uituit Iw tireuyhl bfldi Ifi tkvir imd 
'df4ti»iUioii' )|iiiicu« iu>ir* pavuFtdl ititnviiaTi for tfavm dii«a b^iatfoJiMid 
thjui llmt 4>f tbo ^nmcif ctDtrr«> N«w (lie vMmda of llic Wit 
tbv ptoduddos of Dew ImucB^ nnd under thU BtPNig ujuduiion Usv 
jDtttlnft are «cnplayad in eonnAUiMi oT nov c«lli, imd i^ma* to b* KitncM ■• 
tL« vrroDi; dirocti'in. (&C hko CAfrriKo/ AVvni, Jvht 10,) 

JVi^pvrW /*iT^'' d Tr*< ./W Urw^Aa nrucle an tkw tuljer* hu 
«|»pe>f«fl in tbp *^r;rjinp>i» Hviidu«,^'bj M MuifuliM. Tbo fbUowi^to 
tttkf ftbatntft of Ibc sudiod of uuojf itio p*T«r aa a (|uiltaiif« ^ 
Vilaf!^ wtKEZi L: hiw urirtd At fall ftlkjilinr, Ul^ravn 
t«T. 1'Ti>r poMt fiJ Ui» ptjiirr Afv *i)an lil].-d up with globdli* of ■ nrtiJt 
Dl, 4Ld th« fiJIrattoD BlhckfEU. Jilt PH*^ ^ ^oo vduLciI «ilh di^ 
tillril vbi'irtlll lHd Atlnlbi mictiao hna (lbqipc«r«d,ftiiddrtHlKt Atpui|i*rv 

tun or rt^" la 417* L'. Jil IbU tWo lh« pipoT »■ an «A«ifliiC t««e for mn^ 
irliicbi if iiiuu«ned erm in > vcv^ dilu:« loluUon fM ten or fiftoeo mJiWn 
it roDiTTbi ]ntr> ttfboiLkii>i>f ArBuionlTL Tb4< t<«t*pa]WTAhciuU WcokniMd 
yoUcrv with tumtoric. It im tkm d^td ofrsb, sad pnMfrod Id a iicpf<i<d 
bt>Et1r<, If « jkUp of tb« PH>^' ^ mulKd Li & H^utiaa t4 ur^ 
niiU ^^i^^j^.Ili j^irl, it ancin bAfiimu cnwrnl wli); firtjwu apaiiL If li 
(]Uii<ed todctMl un« iti ik liquid, it ntiulHnt benvutmBMd. If 
CArboiiAtB* AtQ pnwjtit, Acui cniJUifb muc4 bt vddod tu dccaiu^w Uw bi 
n«u* ntiii-h uiaj bo ronned. Tbim nlu mighi Indutw an ^rrtir. Tlwj do 
Dot imnitfdijtlolj cvl>ui- tunuvri^ pHpor btcvs, but ufUc tba l^at of • lttti« 
liniv lh« brown tlat appvus, cepw^lj uu vifcsurv lo Um ur. Xvflnl 
■Unlino MJt« do not interfrm. Th** fmnvntniion procwndA ■» wallUi^ 
piVMne* of pbvitiu Acid ■!» in ^u AbMno»^ 'f'hn iiiniiririTiii ililiiniilnnliiiii 
of um may be nlw |ifrf<inufd wUb thb pK}iu. 

'vrcU-lmowp re«AnJin on ibis pcctttiAr ^loimttf matter barv fao«i «|iin 
complvtul/ ojaftnucd. M^ J^ J. Mi^alrir^^ in ibe "CouipiH TfiiDJin,** 
Ailly euolfniiji tho rtiutli of Cliurch u in ttjn [jfrwint*! of ooppv in llw 
fimtktr cf li« ToiuaiMt Coppvr t*x if U Lt tbv f*^oo« bWnbtd ^r tW bM, 
in tLv qtatfl uf tiivra cnrbonat* (m^W^ftf)- 

/foir AntulWr i« Wattr i> y|r*Mi<«u ^oiJf — Tb» quMlioi b Mi«1«>< 
b A Ut« mnnb-ir of lib -' tklL dc^ U Sac Cliinx.,' Ij U. L A. D*cW. 
n* my9 Uwt L pari ut vtj^taHinv ntwiuuw ndd diaMitiCT« «ftf7 34 bcmti* 
digMtlaa, InaBCpAttAAf vmUfBt i;i*C. T7i* uvfpbo-i* Aolr in dm aw> 
MOdilkoa, nqniftt J08of «vtef. If the «rjBEAlUbe Mid Itiv W* ilbaalni 
■tAbdliagk«Al, And lb« aolutlon feh lo vLAnd fur iir«nly-fi:iar hmui^ It 
CAOCAtBA CO 1 pari «( Add 4ft of VAUr. T&« lAtctfbOM nd^ a tiiv i^m 
eli«BBi«iaa«c4 tMnnn* diaoJnd fe 30 pArt* cf wAtcr. 

UjMbVH (offlM two bydnU^-Uw oso eMlniaiBg£*)irir*taA«r«Ai«r, 

scnumnc stjvmabt. 


%a^ fonnrn^ nbltr^iji> rhinnbjfr priHtax. Thu netnbpdrml pt^vIbIbmid 
i\f ooOKdtfvd vtAbLo oD^y at r^liktiTaly bijfh tamponauFfltfi. lie, 
bottcTCT^ £0^4 Uiftt baLlj [L* jiritiujitii: uitl tbi» iK'UbiT^JraE fiTirn cwi be pru- 
dovd tt low Eumphntliifcfl Tlif* Ti-Tn]v>Tntiiri5 nf ML*, wliicih h>Jt iHwn tn- 
HfcWiJ M Uav inAnof t^idit fur the produotivii of pjnn&tio bonx. La ia 
nalitj oix^j ■ ltiiipcr«tbrie atut tbo bi^b^rr limit cil wliioh Lbo pniducl^im of 
prImMk honx hu l>>0n iildr-rvMr tmrw tlila nail biMw npAfi >>f Ui w*loraT. 

Tl^ Ammmt fjf Citrbanv Aciil G09 iW f^ /UwrjJTA-jih— ll tnuia tb&l s 
*iiH of 6«uniuiiittioiu h>rL« b-eo rtc^ntly mftda bj M. Tniohotj who bM 
f ubUibod Uio ranlu in papunlQ thu ■'Campt«i ICrndiu"<lxKviLp<6T6), 
ml ifaft "Dull. 3oc^ CbiNLiLiiiit," llJs ruirdiixl uf HbjJj»ifl uiiuautUd lo 
ffeHlaf a Imiwti toUhia ^r air ihroogb a (rrwLiMt«il vilatJiii of Wlnni 
kjittiliV tXlorriii^ tb^ biAjium (nrl>(Ni«l« lO dvpocit, mmI rttUtJUi>r tbo w>ln- 
tfnL Be Sndji; lit, ibnt At CltmiaDV-FcTr«ail, wK-re Un- rj^ftfrlnjouU 
vmmuif, tbfl prnportim af carb^Miii- |rn* If n liltlis grorilpr during lb«rftJrtit 
ftatiD.t^ dftTliaac— a foci conllnnAtcry of tli: vbd<irviiiiucH <>/ ^»iuwm 
nl DuunisfsulL Socf, ibut tbn tirkipurlloii i* ui>tn«ii»ibL7 ^n?AUr b Uiq 
AtfikiMD m ibo *>pwi rnimli7'. 'ir\\. ifinf in lb»» vii'iiiitv nf |rnTfn-I<?iivnd 
plurb tho i^iuniCily of cnrbonie (:«« vnricp rotftblv, luwrdiajf u th« graim 
pvOara «jijiowd 1" ftill Ji^iiliiclic, Ui cl^JTiiM-d %hi. or «n' iti tlio lOiflitQ ; the 
■mAQDU b«ing :V''j4, 4'lJ'i jLiJCliV41lpnrt< m Ht/MlO nf ivir 4tb, Ibnl thd 
fVJoni lUfiiLD M <J'>^]-1 niini^nuu cpf ciLrbcxjic t^vt to tbv litrv 'rt nir, or ']'09 
Hrt(iii lO/KW; b uluuIu-t ^cry iiynr ibut iiimally t*fiui»Bi|. SiHh tb*t thn 
iToponion of cvbouic ^t*t d^mmiibva mlh Uio uttlludv, Ibii* : 

Clcrmofit-Fcmujd . . - %>5" 
PujHle-IlAmA .... U4(( 

Wl, If*. 


Ti<lB of L'U. 
Ill Llr^^ "f aIt. 


iKar fo Defect Paire Co^firtuff Master in Ti'i»p.— M. Uu ClivrvUlc |liv«» 
■U fcllowfn^ &ut- Mu »nTii' — " I'okt Jitto Ji J^Tam a aimaII qiiunlily of the 
Mm uiidvr txiiininiticin, uid dtuolvs ta it a iDonul of ^i*tA»taH tf tfacrc u 
B» dopcsit* <bQd if Ibi: niii? Ukvu a ^cuuL tint, JL bu haC l^ecu ftrlilJcIfilly 
ntotUMt. If B violot dcpodr liiui b^ph fcrriiKHl, thn vtnr hu laan cukKjrvd 
«Ufa fU(;TbNTiM<«P)ulb«rri«i. If thu <E<i|>«hii im rod, UirUrix-l nr pcocb- 
*Md ba* bsNi u^Qil ; wid ifiioK^L-jrcJr loj^woixl, If tbo MuliDiait u ^ioloV 
^hte- privdt bttrriw hive bi^rn v^plmrH). nnd If d bright rlalfll, UdnEiiL*^ 

TXr iW^ffwrf yatwe of tttrloirt CotobreJ Tt^tf^Si 4 rtMniit mncliug 
of thw Obaiulciil SuLlion of Cm " Glv^uw rhLloaupbiced Sjcitly." nii itH' 
^tn&nl pipAr flb tli^M mibJACt waw rnnd hj Mr. J«»hv McI'ulHDd, fViAirtaDt 
to the J'tofbnoi of OboBiitfl^, l^t Aixlran^ft, In IkU the rbulli»r 
itUQjtd a loria of EMpurimcDU wlikli be hnd pra«rcut«p(l fbr tlic< |iiir- 
|aM<ir ildtorinlnin^ the DBtim of the eoJ^miTij^ matter hi tho gncD aud 
iDd wax laparv. >l« dialiactly ft^ci^fliuiiixl ihnl tbe< itmaa <nr«d Uioif 
culcmr to tbv jin^wiJCti uf dulii.'ulii'« iEiwii (anwaito of copper). Tbdf 
avn|rn v«ight hh !£ frmmtv *^^^ '^<^ Aivrngi? dmc acpupiod in tunuDj vu 
iVTMileea minateA. tiuidod hy tbo colour Aud b/ tba *llUcoouft fidour 



HtiMird w W M> ^ teat, df lh> ia|Hr.t>i«ftl tt)l>:t5 tfi«u, f« iV4>t ^tvl 
td UMttlaaa irij ^ahg NUMfli to foimn twA peofll* ir uk#q illtvotlj la 

And lanv4 BrrvaJntt »iaBM«t iMniie InJllitnuaa afuH ^ll^^t il«ni nf 
^m — UlIiB ^jf iBiwii'u UfltcOfT-. niitivf u TrRnUioD, vv AMfid I5 

^^P IMMefc'K pweian. mJ b» q«m£iT vm aftflnemnlii eiiraull; «ictenutaid 
^^^ Itr WMWM of iiiK<nk MlfUdi «lii«ft>telj cntkGt«d, wa^ed* and drM 

^^^ BTirtd At, wkil*, ytlliiw, bl«r, nd, aad ^m* i>poi» bomg UKpnJauB**! 

^H Ak^— UanalM; gloved vHfc idUvMnw* 

^^V Afit^tU^lj- i^Akibm*, eo«ufaih|r l«ct fm oal of TormUlaa; ik« 

W taf«lii v*i7 bjfkl; vol«iiv«d ; lUlfftit ft«b. 

I Owi^— r< *K »j— ^ oolgitf du« tu vMair; BMiUSr mbi natality n^ 

I arvMde MAI dttviwlMid, bfti pMteUf tkout 1 |>«rMnL 


Dawn, KicA.wW h** |niUi»faod « mt^^^t! nporli upon tJM nibjtvtr . 
vrlikfhkAi*lK<ttn-pH*1«d (r^Mt tho " TiM»**hon* ')t th* Oqjt^gkal Sockirl 
Ar fuu^' Tbf ««Tk li foU iu fXtrnJ rn«ily uur liiuvwkdffP nf tkr ^ 
Iawt OuthinilMoat Fin, II »Im ocHlatu « I^M ^ ibl 4|»«iH uf U* 

Mi>fcUe ari Urv« <^«*1 M'VMV*^ •^ 4HMMM Um obRMIcr «r SitlDttii^ 

73U AiUl Aa^ yVwM « frwofc ^n al Atptr4, kitv* br*a ivry nrvr^Jlt d«- 
Mvibtd V ^ Man* in bi* rvmii warb wi tin* ««l^L With rr^Atd in 
tbv iiii:^ptt|>bf of Ha - Ocvaa Uiitam)Ml«*," w M. LHiIbm odfa inv ■«« 
(4XCV|>Cinp 1b« Cbi«B*J Md tk« 5ortb ^b), Ln tbvirft bow lErUbiH aad 
Itdud aUad oa a Mit ol kRMe, tbc hMoiuy (it irbicJi tm Uie AtlMibC 
•U* roladdtf aaflMMit); Marth ailk lbi> HOD IuK ciAlng.- IUm (Mn ■«- 
l#«d,<.f coDiwVtn HUck ■ tu«to*r that vr«|t|i tS* tfhCt-h I*UmI« vUrtiad 
DOO f«H tbr^ «ra«ld ba jotavd to pnuiT« And W llf«niAk. Urt tb« Ftfo* 
1i1*iidi, loiUaJ, «d Kdikall thuU iiiH ka bUndi. Av U nalord ta tW 
iwtgtibftbood «f A iaqa«lai»ai f«a1tw» tb* rarfsM of tlib briracv la may 
invfahr apM*! KeatW4: wpnihl>j tlu-rv an to b« m*«4 Ivo taI>i* 
MlMkriJa; indcr ikr vn in tt>p Wrti et Srotkml, Mpnilnif U oa tha ivt 
bftad fnm lb* lltbtiJ'**, miiI «>q Uhi Atbw Avim Irclvid. Ttio TcttiivU d»- 
ymlu *t lbs T^Bll* of l^uifbbid «rr a«tJuU)} viTj itellat l» lfcf4» of ||v 
Kwih of t>anf*, ftnd «» i^uUlj rrfAmUv to tfa« fpiilDglr*l fnrmillit 
aImq tlM »iut-lto»> Am-rtur Uw iidttMiu-i ikpoHl* aud ttUuib jva- 
iviaiat. Next in ynint if iVrqpiiifj inindi jtrairiil^ liihfrh ii funid li wfilf 

*ll»ficd niHHa M vnriojj* |nji*il^ ^-'pt* inllj' Eo ihe woat of ihe BritUti lalea, 
«nih nf Cork in iLa Ilr1»rn1 t'tinriiel, bntwevn Ijind'n Knd and rho Sar- 
lifigiie>I»bui(Uf ftad olu in tbc Chniin«L Jn tho oasicm put of tbt C'faiantl 
fwrvl occopw • lat^o tartMt^, miil H^irii« |u iiiiil<i tlm Qratfutoiid uf Cpptsr 
XorviJHidT ti^ Ihfit nf Kn}fUri4T. In ihi- rriiMl Clmniiii! and I'l the ^ujlh 
of IroluidT^i. J'cImm «u^rK™^ ^^^^ ^^<i ongln of tbn gnvol ia probably a 
itbraalita oxitcrop of Old Jtod SduijtuuL- ; duuili uf Kiojoutli nnd ut Sur 
PtriRlitinKT b^ T^rt-nvd lo thH ptnTanifaTioTi und«r tho ipd iif lh« ktvmc4hmi« 
TtWc bcdj, Tlib dintribifti-in of irmd in m^^C invi'itijrhErt]* The p&t«bM 
<if tiiid'lKtlCom in tUiT Cbnnnel nre due doultlru lo tbi? l^ljL^tuo^r ■cliitu. 

I^lnjotCHC ror^k* of 9iiHei, whicih wilh <\yiimi>ncv>d m 1>H73. it— «avt the 

*' (ImIoj^jciI Mapiunc,'' Jiuip* 1871— ni>w bcin^r C^irried ca with ijrcfll 

^inrt^r. 11w mtnpltiin nf the lllnintiud ninc]LL:id tit buttJiif ]iil« ^iruvi^d n [inPAt 

■(iFp««H Atr. HttiTy VV~iH«E, In hiA Sitth Qitartorlj Uhp'irt, dnivJ. M»r«h 

^tb| tUtes lliat n total tloplb of t\'l fcttt bns bcou rcncbtlH The dnil, 

«»UbI ch« •' Cr<iwn/" U ft ring of luft ultul 3J ijiahu in diiujinUT, and hM 

W durumds (ttt in it touud ili loitfnp *dg*. It ra^'olrM ui a ipouJ tfirjiiig 

^Di 160 liirnt A miTiuLr iii iKkft ALfiifii* t» ^^00 in hud ruclft W'utei ij 

PUiniM dottt] tbfl t'L'ntfp, nnd fi<iiiLjf nt Ibf 9iJr4, i^nnvuvn ibc rf;^Ari'i in au*- 

PvhviftQ lo th» miriiico. Thn diAuioiuLi ni-u not btilUuilT nnd bh\tt no 

*^1««raf(^ plniic*; lb«j «omo from UraBil, and »tu cidlcd " Cnrboundo." Tib 

^iHbrvkU^ht up %TV tnmtfT\mt^ tiv r-l" triTvn tv^X hn^ In cmo picco, and form 

* be«utkful »Ction of all tlio strata pnta^d throiiffli. Th*: Ut:t ibit HtiltcAt* 

*AcU> Mv fi^utid iyiiiK 1^^ iitfbL lui^lrj to \\nt t,i.\» u( llio bunv u nti UdUput* 

**bl* inNhifthn-t 1Ih> bfl^I* are bdrtinnlftl- 

Tb« following fltriLlA bnvu biinn |HiiifiErfttvd: — 

tl¥i In. 
. 17 

. 9 

&h*I*. . 

. fl 

JSJcM limMloQo ^ 

. S 

^)iiil» - 

■1 fl 

«4innt<iDP . 

1 n 

^hid» . 

. 4 

JMmvrton* . 

. a 

^bd# . 

. 4 

I.iRW4tOfl« , 

. 4 

hlii4 ^ftk . 

. :e (1 

Or«T ^hiil^ . 

. 3 

^lanl ab<l» . . 

. 14 

^baJr*, whb rryhtalA ofCAr^ 

boDikli> of limit. 


. <1 

rin-y hbntfl , 


. 1 

rirHninb Jibnlnn, will 


prpaiini . 


. 90 

lmpiiT« pvpmm . 


. « 

Puro irrpuii 


. 4 

Im^iiTH fvptuui . 


. « 

Vttt9 ^jutink 


. a 



Pfiri; fFfptum^ impure . IS 

lUuti tlmlu . . . . H 
G^puin in iioduliffl and 

vovni .... 13 

pTTpium miwl . , . e 

Ittock lulphuTQEu lajirl . 1 
Ctrxemih Bind, wiih nodolM 

oft-biffi , . - *l 
}?RTldy HbJtlvp vjtb D^ulvi 

ofdivrl . . . , 3ft 

CftrbotiHtii of [hnu winfl . 2 

Ilurd tiilphuToufi black ibnl^ 1^ 

Sott vulpburnut blAflt flbiaU 7 

Ilud tbnlo. with cbtfil . 13 

Hltck ibplp . - . :£ 

Vnj <til|k|irirom block BliiiJia li 
l^bt/ tlikdiip witik g^ipfuui 

Dirk «hitl« ^ . . . a 

Qrtj «hAti« " Kimrnvridgu 

CUy," vtry fc^ihhr»iu , JJB 



Ut. H. PfryioB Muidwi tiiftt th* fint leo f««t rcfnMKt lb« PorWk 
b«4b> BDiI (1m Ml 1 110 tiBM ik» Pueikftd U^ 

Thfl netBH MridunC owing to llu bori&^iodt »)lp^&iig riorc tlia hab 
pnNM^ M MHVW diffiMiliM. Th»whol*aC til* taCkl* baft DOW <ivH 
If) bocD raowTDNd, u)d t^ borinit la pmubm^ It U Mitid|Mt«l dai a 
dapch nf 1,000 frat fma ikt wattm^ wUl fan ruchfld thU «v«k, wkk^ 
irill tttttldrt* tba ftilt coMiaet with tho Viimvad Bock Udriaf C«npt^* 
It i» Id bo bop«i Ibat aoAacat fund* will b« forth caaJny to toiUi 
tlia lioring to b« wm ttaiHi J, ta tbn laiaiaat Anacblof lu tha aipl 
btauiiytac m tb* dtftli inarwaM, ■■4 tha mftrrt Uaoa ipvad vitb 
lii« JlOtiiig Compwir haTa Utelj beM |iii>iciilin Aa ir«ak vouti 
It pnbabla that a aMotb or t«o uciTe wudU aahii tha qvMdfn c# 
aMdadiaa tha Waaldaa lormattoa. 

TTkOa^jUJii^'CV riHMaMcib«TaWafiaij4««UwiihbjUr.JM^ 
Haf^luir. U.A, hi hi* worh on thin «nbjMTl, vfakh hiu baaa jribfchaJ ^ 
Maw. TrubD«r, ^ Paiamocl«r lta«r, Ultb ngud ta tb* ■•wiiioi ana W 
tba raal-asida of tlw l'aU«4 dUM^ moUlaiaR ki all tftf.OOO t^m^ mIov 
baddM tho lignHea of lli« Far W«at, tha rut ^aaniii;i P**' vu^< 
aoonnbilttfi aad wiiU diatabutloD «f Ikau «icfe* ol omU— whlob, ap to th» 
pMwsAt lliuv, b»i» liarllj bcua deicbipcd to thj cnlly (RAt cituol— it la^ m. 
Mr. M4Cf»UtiaJnKily c^^Witma, lb* raanlfru dadinr ol ABM«f« «oon IP 
b«CQ&i« tbo |imv«t ti>«I-producbi|7 «nun1rj Is tb« votU, Tba IbUov^ig 
tabl« alumn ibe relauou beiir«ii %nn aj>l pvdxtkia uf tha ivjooa n«1 
pndndBgaMntriMttf tbawarid (girennnpLOTtorUr Maffarfeuia'ft adnb- 

Oitf jwlNl»<Oi^* 

Tha Unital Sui«a , . . 







Culi, Awtnlia, Cli«g^ &«, 
Tottda. . . . 

















V.RIi.S-, bfetffixwlato ihkMbjcctiaa pipl^t i«*A befon lhvG«ohifiad 
Spdalyf tt ana uf in mmHUtgt thU iRitltai. TW atflhor ftnrt dr«erU«d U« 
fmttai fkj^atX ehanciatf of lb* thIUj </ tha Hklnr, nnd JIsahwI tvpf nl 
Iha bnwthtxi wbkb liara bcoa pat fonwit t» ' ^ n 

ophdoB «w that ^urfii? portJun* 'jj tb* IDocHiie ^1^ ■ .' «'■ 

Iha gnal itlli'j briviwa iho SrLvAnva'ii! aitrl iba Vii^*a nn (ran 1^ 
Devo^ua UtU nortb c/ Muu iiiLi ibe ami ud« iM«upibd bf iba 3A«aM 
rudu 'if SwUtHrlanil. Thnc, after ibn pLjiical ilUlurbMicaa vMidi do*U 
tfru MkMHM ppaah in iImw ng^MM^ tha 

C«utadM Hud llnu't, ilia rivur tlnwAil nXnng na i^lnrnud pLnJn f^rmul of 
IImcoo doponUf tho romolafl of which «liU rxint nt th« Hld«A of lliir vaUih^ 
lirlwmi HojhI ud Mkide^ At ihL^ iotuo time tbu Itllnif ilowcd lu a oiiaur 
*>U*^ thriiit^b ih'i upLind pannrry formnd of DrAvwimn roelt*, whit'li now 
coartitnt^ the Tbunofi, ikii L I iih(tr<riJolf, unit tliu lii^hLniul Ifiug t<»wiu^j» 
BuDQ, Ukd by itu onliniuy eroeavc ncltuu uf Lli« ^t«i£ nvor tliv t^rtiiif vru 
gmiaaj]^ fai-ni*d tmd dcopuiud id itn protcnt krtl In f roportiitn lu ib'^ 
tforjr^ di^'p<inoJ, Ibn miv-l; dfti Miocene ttnio of tba Aran bf twccD McLiair and 
Blint wen alw jii i^ri^nt jtKjt w^jni uwaj, Imtiik^ (Iif^ (tu^Lirij^ pEnlii. wliivl; 
prcMota ft dfCvptifii oppvunuifia E>r baving once htvit ucoLipiiiil by m gr««I 
lake^ Ttc paper gnv« rue to u iaiportaot di^ouaajoD. 



TA* 7>«MwAUiii(rti nf DtittniUionhy Tntn.—A viliiablfl poper on variAUt 
dfilODfrtiag aubetiincM whn hiuJ by ,Mp, F. A.Abel, FjE.Kj nlnn f^ly nieol- 
tn^ nT till! JtuyiU dixjicty. Tbv imLbiu H^ys \\mi n ij^l?iiL iliiTtiQiJco a^ipcrirrU, Rt 
fini. Id be cnUbluhsd in llio po^ap pos^t^ed by tiibt?4 of diJJ'tfeol inatMiula 
of bTQDnag tbfl tTMJAmiMickii .jf iliiturLiitiiiQ, tbu pliLF^ tubvA beiiif fu iJi Ad- 
miM of thp olhflis in this fi'iptcL U WM cTtrrunlly rsitnMiihpil tory 
tlmurljt b7 a vtliii o| i>ipQrtmonU. tliit ihja dilTLirviicb nifi nut dltl^ la Any 
d«dBtTB ext?Dl| Ut IUa i>hy«i('jit pt^ciilJAri^ci iin re^pird 1o »i7n'>twlty, i^luti- 

*ity, ft«-) of ibe mftlrriil^ ■ ipitrini^ Uih lubft^n but clifufly tn iJifFpr»m'rt m 

tb« d«|fnf "f nart:bncrt of tbejr inner pnr/nceB> nud iu ibo muM^iwht 
Tviatlon uTlbu n*ti>ljiiii-v irppuAcd by tUotn auifBiv* Li> tbe ^Jt»-h4ir. TIluk 
ihft powpiT of n (flniH luliK lo frLVOiiT ihn tr«bNUii^um of doUmAlLikfi wnH 
r«d««^r by ftbaul two tbird*, bv cnnLjiiff Lht^ lienor f^urfAcc witb a dlni of 
P^Dch dijdk. vbUo Uie fjLcililv of InuidiiiiiHioD. throu^li n brov lubt^ vas 
nmtly doublM by poliihinp lU intprior, and waa [neniiu^d tbrutfolfi witb h 
papvr tub* by ci>At&rjir Uw intonor witli jrlft«nd pnpur. Tbu fcillowjn^ atu 
tamo vS tho (wi]]> t^BtAblinliftil by ibc^v vxiietum^nLe cu Ibc ImziMDiwIuu of 
diilefiati'iv by tubtf*: — I, Tht^ fli^wnfn f-fi whii^li dpinnnU'on niny bi> rntib 
Diitltfd througb tbo Hgvncx f*' a fiibo Ui a dUtinct nnvn^ of i-ipbitivu auln 
ilau^fl it ffguUtcd by tliQ RitluwiiiiE cuiiJiUmii;— >rrr) lEy (be JiAtutc urn! 
Uw quADtity of tbe BubitAoco cEnployod ad tha initiAiira dPli^nAlar^ AAd by 
lb* ii«t4ir« of Ebi: »itb*liLiire f^ 1h' JiFcmAlml, bill fiDt by tb« quantity of Iba 
latUr. Ti'if by thif tti'rf'iitiii-ai nmditum In wbn'h If if npfiwd by tb* tuition of 
tbo detonatirni- <A) Uy th\* ridulian wlairh tbo Juimttir of tbo " dct'>fi»tor/* 
«ad <^ Ibe cbATcv t> bv d'llountr'dt bi^nr t,^ thnt of ibe Ub« ciuplc^cd. (c) 
Bf iLa MtbU^h of Uiu HUlPtiul coinpofliEjj iho tiibp. nni tbo Ron«f;uMil 
MiUliBe* which It ntium lo tfio Iaic-mI lniiLHinu*j(jn of tl\i\ foioii ilvtvlopod 
At tbe iiulaot of doLuOAtioa, (i/) Ity Ibc nutouul uf funra expvudi^d m vrvr- 
eoming lh« ft^dion bfittpon tbe /ju hdJ rU<« aldr4 of the tiibp*, or otber 
inpcJiQifati iatiolufffld into tbo JaIIvt. (') Ut tbv dcgrvtf of tiamplotDHoit of 
Uia duui&elp Aud bv dc p-Jiiiionti AMifroctl t<> tbo dvlJjiiALur And tlio cbun* 
io b* ilAluiiud. T. Tltr itAtuiu ibpjirt froiLL Atifngtb ^ir piiw^ir to timAbC 

52(> POPCLiE fables SKnew. 

^ /Wnf ilnJrr fr«ir Orwtr/t'r Copw^m ^ fW, «1ikJb W bra 
rtc^ntly nhibitwi bj 1kI«Hri. KrtAbu, hppuin la 1v s iti^t Upvnku 
AmuiK«iDettl for ftftUnfr » fir* wtil* cxd fVoDi lb« UiUpmu TbU tHilfr uJ 
gT«i« prat Idea ft nixni^lc nicibod uf £»i)fig fuel up» fmio undcnir'AiJk Um Arr, 
ialo nil dtfPvHplbni of«lv fntl'boia Ami Ib^^tUM. II7 tLi« prib- 
dplv p( fwiUutr from Ulnr ih« ^ ||t«n U ftO IrMb tg—qlupU^i of t&* 
fiial, ih* t|;nkui^ i>r l)>t frrfh tvnX \m n i^n'luB] |ErKY*>, ^\v.\e >1 tba Man 

tiiDtf buint out ; tUi? b«Al of tbE^ vuffair? of tbv tire U Dot aImimI bj ika 
Mpply (>r fmh fuc'E, nitd fio r»M afr i< ndmiit«J 10 tha Il«rnk» »liU* f>W- 

tliB eonl m pu^bvd u)> mid oo(wutl» rqitt^ly fujoi Ui« initi? of iJb* g^iXft 
MT<t it rvctilt c<>^i«<iufiil, wLlb »ftirpcli nnjr rtrtitt< «tc«^ Aon »Kcii, mhitk 
ilfiip <li;jirn tb^l■U|;h tha i^iAb^'bud wUbiMil r«biiij;. Fraib VftfioU* Ch^ 
uuiBUiiU wliJi^Li tti'> invcnlur lum rp(i-iv<^.Il «rviu» lli»l iVfv It a flMt 
nviii|E in i]i<r eh^ '^f IIm ^mI : lluiii w\9 flmi idnn ibt-tf cnal bill ttttflfvl 
]0U A ludHtli, biit GO inlTixLuctujr tfat oflbivv bunivTV Uikj oaIj wd Hal 
qunnlUT 1q four ninnili-. 

,1 VtffnJ !>t%eiM^ t*-TTii a/ >W'5«f', — TJifr liitmil^oii '^f UiA lt*r, X 
WuUuiM'rofl 4S iJmiileii w faUo*» b thv *-ObcibW Nrw*.'' TU 
InvmilAr nyi iba ^ttnt lUlKtuhr Ib »utit^. t|£. ''hiMr 10 prt ■ b«^lftf> 
4-h«i«f4l tx^ tmpwtkfi^ n fnnJHl licnt, vitb lidf tin ■mookt of favl e<i^ 
niiniLT u>«d." Wv ^mj' ibe Ki^tc*) ht tLv ginU hi w*, idiI ■« aiiA 
nindiJl; niTiiLil U km ibi> iuo«i dirvrful ud tbi brlfbtchi flra In lW 
pWa, but Mt to lb* nmrrtiDl />f CHial itfUAlj fiiutirtnriil «n im oftAblo 14 laf > 
Aixanlin^ lo wnw r\{Hri3L«ntff w-liirb biivv bf4A p«tf(fi»pl vidi itl>> JiMb* 
11, f'nrlii. romamnJrr iC-ijal N»vy, llrrc H U<itb id Ifw rnnmof'i ■Ui*--' 
nirbl fbiiT Ilj4^ iBftfiT«t«ekiioniTiJi th« r]m4UEii|i|^ nTfiiri. Cn^mka 
ii«, nf iWiicptlivM. (i]inient«rt «ifvn»raT*J wtili Ikti ^nu in bia 
fbuut from Ae^a I6f In7'\ ti} fwpum^^'f 1. If'T;!, ujkafig nuctJMrftrit.b 
frUck cftnl d<itUm«d f** SJi- pee toii| fUi]<lj}ii^ iLU Uro d*l)f litr 
■ruAll lUiUjf . »^tcli V kt^llD)^ p»UfOc» fLf Uic fonlt, ^-, uil «flvc 
AaWf I1H- Ibi* drrttM b'fc lo Ivm t;M>lf oiil ^nrln^ Jbr nitfbl ^ 11» 
of c<4t Xft lU; vn« Xt^< n* CmaI or ibn j:t«i« U c«int^>ft*tl J'^i^b ta 
diKir>cuillnK (4Tl^nipp4> uf df b*Ku vilbb ibv rowu ^ bj ibk maun 
«ir ebLaibar U bnniHl tid«r th» zrtlt^ tit wblrfa ih* itli U r'vt*T"*'*r'H 
ffum vUbls or witboul iL* bftiMiv, Ui^fXa^ tlie iJfAiijEWt u*dcf ao^ 
4tnvilT ibtbUtfW ibv (Ir^tort. la n llr^^mtr wlibcb W beta fittctl tif m 
M - ■ ■ -^f iW ';l!ifv vJ 'Sft* <^ Il»-j l-.>fnl It-irJi, tb- fci- '*- 

Ti, :!. til* iiiflijn anrvr, nnil ;lr«^rr* i1* lUpfJyf'rimii .>. w 

U u •up(Hi*ti|, vrotFlnlbii; ifctf iHWVf, 4^ lie mri* uaw ih# 

noitr^u lentff j^uw*^ Any kiad ^ fuul rtu l« uind, oad > ^^»! 




cv be bomt om cuily tiid witb na food truulls u InmEui ; coko ud ciniUn 
tBtfht bnfVt OTof Bjid Aftr n^ntn, iinlil Ihi^ br^^mfi u fldf^ an ntul Th» 
MtuftOD th» tfro Jill dfup tlm>ugh tha botlj^m of Ihn f^lu uio i^r throafch 
tlM ilh«liuu;lp?r, cvufv<iui^iLl> d\M ftxjai (b» firo u trrratlj' djiaiaJsb«d b 
tbiDAm; tha ilrtiij^hi niAy hn Tcgiilntfil At pUmnim with a r&1ir«. Ttaa 
in**n1ii>a msy be du^t A|iplj«d U> Auiv oxi^Uoj^ |rT«tv« at Uiv ooat of d fcrv 


Jb 2tfoaJjfttfiDn of finotim in rA* i^niM. — Dr. Vvnd Fonior hoi 

«Mllnb1« lUtmct of a p^n rvad boToig lli« IVj*l Socwt/. II h 

!tl Afltmr^e Sn tha '- PmntdtngN of thn Hoynl iiadfttj" vi^U nli. 

TcL Ifil, H« lap ttint amdiLff 1h« (npiTimt^iUji miv rdat^d m mow in 

Iktthu D>[iAnimlJo[] nnd extULPUuu of tboK ilivruly nuxlu on coU, dogty B&d 

ttUdn, u v»ll MA A MVMriM of vqwiimci^ti aa otbc^r vortrfantuf. In 

of vbich IbfT jiuthuf iccr^iwd a irrvtt vf muuvy from thtt Couuall uf tho 
Sapd Sfvitty. In oddition, <ho iwilr* ^if ATpifrim^irta on jnrlnlii gcuioa- 
joK** rstf, pifttonoi, fropfi, toad% nod B^hot an cafr^ted, Tho motbod of la- 
iwtiflptinn co&iLAt* in thu HppllrAiinQ iif iUk itlmuliu of nii iailui^'iil cum^nt 
of •kwtm^diMoUy to thv vtiifftc*; of rU«i brAin in 4nitn«U r-i)il«nd only 
fartUUr itiKrCBibtf] during tboprorfi«of ujipLontion, cnmplotc outtetlicaui 
MldliiUUiiL^ nil Rordon^ It in BupjileitiuutiHl hy tbe inDtbotl i>f Iot^caI 
^r* Iv^umt oi iha hwniipbarAA. SpueuJ 4ttATa£it^n id ctlbd to th* 
witL wkich * fdna rault fi^Uo^tn aiimulation of & dc&dte ■»*» 
m math », that wltii uuaa thi- bndu Lim beon ucumtcly mapped out^ Utu 
vpcriuontuT ciui prodict witb octtuntj iba roiult of BtunuUtibuof « ^itca 
n^flB or centra. The tlioory ihM. tUc pbDni>ineDA vn dito not to EidlAlitm 
tf^OfftkAlcnalTBa, but to cnnctticlion of ihi Hnctric rurrcntv to bnnJ gimgliji 
md motor tnctB, U ooiwdtftd to btt di*po«fd cf by tbo fact af tho produtiiE 
nd fwdkUbto cbuwctcra cf tlie rcoulta. acd by the ra«fkod dl^TorBuct^ In 
lbo pboDnrn'iTm vhlr^h ht« obiPTmd wh^m ivglrni^ In ctoa^ locnl TvlMliin tn 
MAb otbcer Are cxoited^ Otbirr fsot« iWi pnibtvd ont boaricg in tlia mnio 
flhwttiuii , ummg tfUiorv, iha bitnnoDV and liijoiolLig} tubsiJilIi]^ 1jijl«ri^] tbi* 
mdii of oXpBrirnvnt in *[i UiA dJFlitr^nt miimitlft. The •xpcriDienU ott 
Tnoukoy an Bnrt ilriinriT-iriT Itcf<!irviicc i^ <:ontinuikUy mado in tho dntcrip- 
llm to flfrtin<n of thi bntio, on wUkb on; lii^Iinmteil tbe pnalii^rt iiTtd i^xtricir. 
4f tiio npoiUf otiinutAtiim i^t vhlch li followed by consult mid delinitD 
fNoUik A complcto flt&tcmeDt of Xhfoo fmuIU in the preneat abatrut U 
hipaiiidWik. Graiflrally, it mny ha iil*UMi tluiL lbo cmLnu for tbo nioTBinonta 
fit tbo limb* am ntujitod in thu foaTolutioni bounding th« fisun of fLolaado, 
Hc^ tb« uoi^ndjiiu finrlriinl convolution ihtb (t* paaUT>pttrl«Cftl WtmlDfttioi; 
■ Ita ba^k na th^ |^Hrivt»-rtedpSOd flMORv ^» uceDdlng- frontal, nnr? 
Iiduiar tanojix&tion of fho aiipvrior froneal cckn^olotion. Contnif lor 
UMdua) aummcntfl of tko limbA, bjind-, and feet aro diiFDrcatiated in 
tJtew pofiTolntifina Fiirili^r, in tho juMniilng froTilAl ron olntlon, on a 
Ifni with ikv piMtcnct turmujatioa of tlw iniddio frontnlj uo coatros for 

VOL. Xm.^KO. LtL T 

U MtflOB 

tuhft - V^i iwa II JlMp I t i J la our arpiAiiaii «rtMfcly jjd) wgaM Mdto 
t»«iy1iiBikft teoapAMn of lb* MMcAi vti^on mkbIm tnj 
laliJMllM ■iriiiB 111 ite fu* oribapob«;te ik* nttdo, « 
WMtilMt^ipMviljlaaedlxaefAn, n r^nd ai t^ h^jl 

ffcnrnw^Wdr IUuIkII Ibond 1M Ifae twhmh «I ibv ntll«Mk« Ui « 

tU MppoiiliMi dwl lb* foAaob had % pNO&r dworffVMbDfF aotinn ii|m» Ifa 
niuwki tkiua. In not? ktfUnn tb* T«oaai * A«(ii^ Ua nwck b |i^ 
fofllkft to Iha bagtb or timo it lanniral ix oootiui with U: m tbu, tfltm 
aCUr A far bo^r^ b «vtiD-bloodtd iodbmU*, «>d iifl^r 4 i^>r ktyvr Um# b 
lb* fkof, dw wnondnd iaBid«bMan*alinaiidUnuBiit,uid i^t iw i l i didi 
Mlw«idfdak«^M|«Ur-Eio*ipp«no««, TIm ftnctw* nmifaid «cbi 
Mrtll It WM fff«««d open <v MtetfikeJi wWa it loH ft8 Mtukt^T, wd 
pflbndf Mdcv Ibii ■kmeo|«v tlu i9fi>ma of a Bboto gnndtt eiM.' ; 



SimiJu Atonal Cmrtty^ntththrvtr^. — W^fnu a ifond mfii] j profi.*»li'>rH3 
tton uo fiotapUtttl^ i^itmnt of IbLa. W« ounalvwi hftv« known mvn wbo 
lucinl tWth« LroA WMiiot b> bo broujfht eran to a fuJ-^o^t; wbonai 
vben rigbt)y dj^n*, ll Ij> ilonr^ wfTh k KhiU-hot iro?r, pnin linbff Ui^r cota" 
fitfltify Avoided. t>r J, ti. CftxntJun mjLkat tb« fullomag ti<ia>krJuf on thu 
wbjpct b ibo " Mc^ioal Hdwji and OaEOtW imU, m th«y an irorth; of 
bring rKVndcd, we glvD diFin n jiluv. Ho wy» >—" I mw !□ Dr. Fajrvr'ft 
innlc OD tbo'TkuiAtoT^ydiji of India' thM ttu notuiil cautery vu uAod 
Bcw»cc«fiil1y fwbiiJi lu ouotbcr pUcu he caIU « r>(Mv< ii^iiik Thin ii 
ODt whAt T wni nlwftya tnu^rUt Jtnd mwu m v^tunl cuutwy. 1 eaniQl1«4 
' C^fCin Sut^fol l^itfUooarj,' «<tiUd by Luo. 'i'bcri> it ia colled tui inq 
kuBtateof ioouidosoeiicc^wbich Uibcccn^g loMauador, bcl^ivul white 
hwL |T*mf- SrmnH, \n hU Wnin, nlU ll a rrd-bnt Irt^n, I aIia itiaJo nuajr 
iaqwiiMof nncduAl Mood*, uid nL spoko of it u a rod -hot iron, HavIq^ 
tvte avlMed in iimId^, utd onus luud, nctunl oujUry, T hopH E linr>w »nnic^ 
tkfaig oa lli» •iibjfct Wh^n fcinjtl cmitAt^ Ij M U^ m^, ibo iroa mut ba 
bwlcd til] it ia rvbily ot » Trliil« boat, nnd hak* lUniuttt oa nhila m vblto 
|Bp«. Tf ihcQ nppliiM], h duwtnrytt tbv ^l ltiBtanUuL?oUfity» L^rin^ no ppln ; 
bot It mutt ba romcvcd quickly on lh» h\*At di>crtnf]Dg, juid tbun Mnnthor 
Iron JippUod. Sfivrnl irifQif art! rtiqiurcd tor imOt And n fleroo firu Itnpt up 
by l>ftl■JW^ Utl >ijiJr olji^ct id jLtudnt'd; batlf n rcd-bot irim only 1« UBcd« 
(fa» k^ony i« int<>iut^ aa ivn nil Unccvr who hnve inu^hed iL TI)'> tint tUno 
I Mw it iMcdf oa a girl <?r ftigrto^ju yaarA, aa [liim was jrivonr to my gT04t 
Htonubinont ; ihe eccoud t»u<?. tm mi i^Idurly pi^rKii^ l^both for fong^tii iu tlio 
ifp«r nwxillnry bono}, bor tcrewhiti^ was fi^otrulT llU I told ihu upuntoi 
bu uomweEfi not hiHt licit ui]i?Li|j;b. ]lo iLtii fu<iai>Ati^d mo to boal tbmu 
pc^trTj, whlftb bojnfc- done, not a tuuiuiuf ivaa buard, Tbcs iron* w^t» 
bfioj lamd only ntd-hot. Tbo lut timo wu ofmoiDg foLir or tiva Ntoofloa in 
ftJjiTDcinl* bunt«'* nbouldn. lie anvtr flinched, and icarot^ly 4vr?ui«d wun 
«fwlutwB«bdnjf dour^^ T]i»cinly thln^ bn iiiitifj^l — for be nnTrr movfld — 
w thft Jii^Q^ mAdo by ih« doHrD^^tiAn of tb« cJdu. AcIuaI ntuttuy us 
jdftlCM, I WL»uld BUp^t umn^:— to obUin the while hMl fot buLiu] 
■MMay at IftTga qdrit b1m>F'pi[w/' 

Rfmtayyvftha Flti/hi o/ittrdt. — In ona of tb» numban Of Uio '^ Comply 
Bcidiu,"M. MttTpy, TTbo I#lboDr. Poitifr»>v orFrTuic«,bM ApApeion tho 
lU}vo laljcet. Hi* iiwd iMi^tUh nrtillual birds ftir rtpirimFiil Compfirfiig 
Ibw wijl^-vtrollo with that of correcpondiDg reid birtU. ho porc(dri><t tlutt 
kfoottr inu»L bu thrco or four timc^A mt>ia rnpli thmi tho Littor m ardor 
tb« WriiLfbt, SdiUM i^tiriditJori, tburi, inr^rt^u^ tfau rflsiitAnor of tbo 
tbo wing nioirt hu wimtiiig La hid bpfioiutiu. lliio is, he idiofr«dr 
^ (nukUtiou of tho hiid. Ak shoTve inoitia , tbtl (bt aubmUtaJ tu u 
mpiiUlvn fofpn, ll redata atmngJy aI flwl, then BO]uire* rplodty, 
H t4iniiii t^ reuuit niter tbo Uorcu boa ceuatid ti> ^cL Moro a light dioe 
in A dimcliiin pcrpMidiculAt U> iU plnne. It oiftj be ahomi with 
*n|btarlng dj-titttartmr^t'^r vhnX tb^re ia— (1) a cocflidfinblfl miBtiuica at 
™h>flipnjnjr, from luortin of Ibo nir coluzna ; (^'1 a veolccr pFcaeiuv niuo'- 
^Ml Ifcrou^bdUt tbu nioTcmoiLt ; (3) a tcndoAcy t; iutpuldivn nf tbo diac^ 
\l ban nt^pinl, fmm ihft Mqulri^d vi^hiciiy of thu rui ailuTim, Thtia 
iMsMttEMof tbu AirtomovumoutA of bodloa Ooiuiot^ of n regular njjrimfj 


pwifijui tamcii iiHrite, 

p w gidia «Bd MldwviJ hj two nriahb iMmv 1^ hrmv 1* tfcftt veJMkt 
f«iB«i«xp«MW«lMi km tMvfat t« !!»■— n> 7h« NflMiittOi of tk« Mr: 

«iBf «f tt hM «mU fiid ia a« air B B» «oUa fvknua i^ litfot^boiit 
4«Mat, it WH0 flaoMi ia ikim ailMl eoodiliflAib Kvir, Umoxh 
liAiA. iba wbf tt ea^ ImImI of It* 4«aHrt coowi tv act on a nvvr eolonaj 
«f ^pWlMhiMdiin4«pfaai B«t, AfnllwaliOfft duMi«a«r tW 
•00, «Kk of tbatt odlottv bM svt liao io M^im tbft T«kdlr of Lbo 

fMkbteMR^ TAtMTt tbli Umoi^ M, Mflfvjrg&TaUtutMrklfcdnUthcri-' 
aofttil BOT«n«Bt <rf ibmUUmi: ftBte^Uir odi. ^^g^, to t^ («d of alc«i|?i 
cm whk^ vM driittt vouDd wUb tfo wings w«i« aude to beat bj i 
of a «t<i»4tiir»a wpanip^ Wlm ibe vm wm ititianuy, tka 
Jiinfttiil ht w ito wotAa powliMi ia onfijc of dboui 60^, On 
tte m Id mttam par wcco j i dM ■mfJilad* wm nUacad to 30r and 
90°, ibotriag th« oflM of tmatUm* of Ik* lu on tto Tobd^ 



n* iOrM <^taH9 ^ Off O^^Hi'us wLldi li a pMitdottoqdi 
KrakydoUK b d«ciil«d by ntffr Dr. F. Wlbvl, wboM paper oa thU 
iftao<ki«diatbo<-G«*ki0k»lMagai(B**'ICrllanhl9r4. U«ji 
a oodDnt bet tkax whUft qnarti aa ccwmaniy aonna njHalMiaJ, 
mdjr bNa o l ww T od in dwtiartly flhroat fbfna Tho beft-kmnm 
lAlbataf aBa»-«iU«d flfevmu ^ituU of aoolk AAica. Th« ol^ao^ 
«TV,4/ lU paporof Ih. mbd u lo ikftir tlud tUa nbflHioa fa 
ofiginil funa uf ^iwrl«T tiut u» narvly a pndacl of 
wUah tka fibMU atnataia of a |««-«xM^ MMii laa beta nljtUf^ 
"Wibil baa *"*'^**^ two TtoatMi of tbfa AMoa MiacnL^lLo 
andtbactfaarbbia T^ bvawa nritty ocxnn In thalamaf biadtlna 
higblj dUoooo* bi<o«Q irofiitao*. Aialyila of tbo fibtoua nupjmd ibond 
that it ccatiia*— «lic^ fi'M; ittnc onde^^Mi wUcr. C 15, Tn^eJ 
wilt b^dTTJchbrvi iidd, tA« ima U fcfoorfd, and a wblta Ataofli itticaoA 
maUrUl ii obuincd. Honco fan concladM tku tb« fanwa mfaaial 
ijf a Buitara of wUla quarts nd frrric bj^iate In tb« ftn «f 

HlhiT til A-o^aaliff T— TUi ^luadob U fdlf ftaawwvd by Dib A. 
iuapaparlntba " PnoMdingi of Ibo Vjuu Aiadtfoj of Sdaoa*" 
ooiUadatlsa|Ftbbih«yaickrambaraf tba'-Qooliaffinl Magadna." 
«a«au tbat nnid mUonUr diflona^ fnaa oao anotbw b«4b c^vauoallf 
laorp^Io^callj, have bitborto ba«n groupad tosnflbei i^ndct tbU 
aaaia; ud, altbon^ our knowladp of wany tti ib«*v f«riotu» la 
iaip Mft e ^ yai lb« aaUurr fotb JoMldod la raff rriofr tboa !» fonr 
tjpe^ awulyj— <lj Tbo Brocftaatito of Bdil^ya la I]vi«aiT, at 
two TaitodM (a and A) ma w Ba gah ia; aad aema <M Iba Comi 
fiiMbantUoa ^) Tba Wari^koEia of Coiawall, ^ • 
ftca fUiUii^ (^ '□w BndMBtiie yf NMcba-TagiUE, 

«oii3inrjo tfuviiAiir. 


^jbofit- (4) The KMri^n af Itauii, nnd n fjurth mrloty (4) from 
llj'itiiiijL iJr. Hcbnuf potnt* niLl Ihnf Ehit rulntion bAtvm^ri tb* orr«tal]ino 
fnniu *:( K^^^iiuiUt-t mid th<mt V't MuWiiU'. Junt on Mnlucbirt wiu 
un^&Uy rlrtiorlbHit itA |it1'irmCir^ Ami ^uhiWi^m'ntty clKiArtniitvl Ia b« 
lUnocililUC, » it nppoan that coroful Jnouuroajcnbi of Brocbiuilito Urtd to 
MDOT« it frpm liie pnBiualia d>hIcuih Th& autlioi botifivoa thnt tiiina 
mlotl«a fif Bnchujiilitc nro m^modiniir anil otliirn trif^lintfL In ndttitiori t» 
l^ crjlEAllc^frApliLG dDlnili* lliu p^por iodudei a eampaiatLTti ntritiw of tho 
pUBfjCPetic nudcbcmiciil ivlad'^ii* af lliu IlrocliAatttc grxiJp uf juiucmln. 

A jtriP -IfprtftTci/-' ATffifV^Tpf.^lIcrf v<ya Kobdl hu ffivon thin httist-* tO a 
Off* flcii^WpliKli^ fr<im Bjimlii iii XorwAj, It 1p dlo«criM aa com put. 
wkh nn impcrftict cL^hm^'D in two dSn-ctiona nL^ul^ ai a right nnglfl, Th* 
firtetim U unflVt<D nod uplhTar^r ; luatra aily ; r^obur lAtiit rvd in ynUnw, id 
lUnfngiurJjtatriuiMiJOtiDt. (L = ^l^t. H. = 4—4. When Luntail pUu^ 
pluinKoa with a v/liitrf Hj^rhL KB. fuRM ^imly AtH vnih iaxnmonprnrrn in a 
blAbfay tmaincl. k^olublc vd hjdrocblorio oddf but witb gnatur rondiTinAA in 
■dtncAcid, With tuJphimc acid, bjdjoQuanc tkdd U urL^htil nml luliibHta 
ofBoM MipAvntu CNita iht. AitliLiion. AnnlygiH gn\it 








liti ^ K 








B-tO fr- 100-03 

Bseladkip iho ^icA wd kluniiaiL imd Iba ujffGn <>f thd lime 4cd *ndii. And 
tWMi^Rr tba uialy»U up to 100, von Roboll ci^unudt-n pure kj«riilfiji« to 

«aviit of i' m^, yS^ 40-M, Cft &-UJ, N» 1-SS, FI fi'3^ fe>m which bo 

calcoLttca tbc fgnoiila lo b? SXi^^ P -» V^ T^^ in whioh n amAll portioc of 
Ite <alriuin 1a ri>plflrcd 'bj cmljinn. 

T3U il^tfmt JifftwrQifii c/ V-'fittfL-iW. — Uf ooLino in tuoU a di«triot ta thftt of 

V«Mtii» tbcrv luiMl be new luintirabi Appi«riu)i: ft\rai tiuio to tido nAcr 

Vaptl<inibjirotAkrn placet. rmffm>rJ. Voiri llAtb, ofBuiiTt.faiui publUhc-d nn 

UaportftnC pApcr <>□ lhi« tubjocl. The fourth port i^f thji natny biu jiut U-cn 

fublubvdt nod itO)[)ai?iUijf utH^rHjiUIi'nl, Ki:olry:[cf]], and iLtJu'^n JoyiiJit L>b<i<r- 

Winnt <rn lb« vidnilj i-if Mju-R Mnritlmn ; i^n fUlAliKh ; mill iiri V>4li»^uj(, 

Uadcf th*^ loJit head, Vom ItntJi hao ainrij importoat absorvatioiu od tho 

nJDETftla furuwd hT. t}ip> intpUnn nf 1H72. llv jihowH Ibat Ibr compoiiii-m i>r 

JhorMCoiiQiiV' of Srac«bi iv rt']|i[>«d cn tliAt iif thu Ai>dt]&U K^fiiip, litrid niAhv4 

Ikiapivlut obwri^Atiioii tbat apphf^litc^) nrjdaliLri nnd micnviomniho, nbiab 

nalik«« hi ownrrinft In ibi* punm uf Latil^ hhrc sa\i\tjcd nlilo frfm ibo 

lEGQQof MS ivat«T (ricb la diltmdfi ai' flndium] on Tho filicato of tbo UvM. 

Uilwominitc oocun in bcxAt:rviAl piiflDi?*, with pvtAniidnl (d&iicB oil tbo 

U«I fld^'^f, Knil hflH 4-1° JO' ju tbc bjuud aaiflu uf tbtf pjrniLud. Viiui ilblb 

*v>dudm ittMi tlijkt luuctifl vu ono of the rnults t>f oublLtnitim At ili« 

MKptttni of 187jf iibweU » AuuitOi bornblecdv, CMolinito, bJotit«, bcmatite, 



falflO*. TW 



if My. 

w««U rdy «poD m ill 

Oltata,— 4t ft Mnatt «Nlbt<' 

WW Mi flMi llr.Oi**n '(^ 

1^ W kid •dfl^CBd ■ mW 

For M^ oollirtiiw W i^ 

B the cdiDct tb^ f«r iMifi v^- 

UU ;— K« loA *ft qtdiiT *lpb»Wt>d mtU b»ok, ^i b ihMoo^w^ 
laptop* d phafcrtka J h mAln g ertaj fegtkn ^ 9Utf ^trpantktL tta 
Cdv a ifMinMa d «b«U ktortiMt— tJad>r(l>«M«Btir«A UkociM^^V 

flfei f* d«. This OMthDd b* CmsA loy hmij loc i|ifiiiiiii n^pM f* 

rHd ft v«y niMUo «M7 bolbro lb« lUjU SMiotr* ivkk^ tnlJ Ik |«d^fl>^ 

kbdMl Mbjecift. Tb« ftllowfftf b ■ thixt utjdtmt U lb* c^m^ p«bt* ^ 
inrttfrwl in th« mttkm 4oTo4«d Ia X«^}— <1> Tk* nEpbwoiai «f t^ 
Uilwtvtftli rtnictef* «l tfat fluiw* or the •vuina pflg by th« pUmkn ^ 
lh> 1mi«r t^ftmpn\9. (i> The InttDAM <t lh« rvlk k; Um ioM^titf ' 
•■lb pdilamlMl frou tko iaoer tgfjf-«A|H«lrx. (:t> Tho huumjiM^i^ 
covdMoft of Uk« Off M Icrttll-AUiiiL <4> Hk bmitaOcn aT j^-eb^rtrf 
ti> ih« cbim(«-T«teh. {0} Tb^ nfcuiTMco <jt lado 
PCTpi d ot (iko vitoykau) whkh Ukv p4ft ia tlio Ciawatim 

ovfti wbU 1*4 lu fgnmii^ loftih** M m la fonn « naf t^ tlio «bA 
(7> Tb« or{(|la <jt iht al>»cj#U ty urj^oitUoa. (St TIip ibtiiimx irua 
tlSlj <i n pftrt tifUibwtUariboyrlk-oAr. 1^) "^h- ilrr jj wi^on nf 1^' 



tpUftBOSth, nd thv dftvdopBMDt of & tteond^ff viiouth. (10) Tkfr 
iJcpoMiili of a poir of lug* OBrre*gMiglu by ioTn^fttian of tbo 

iVf^iraa c/ Miof^toopy dnnttf/ Vie {Jaarter.^Tha foUoirinK iii 4 iiiiL of Clw 
fcn ibAt bnvQ i^Tl^-Arcd in tho '' Monthlj Mlcri)«copic»J Jouroa] " donaff 

Omttilmtioili towMrdf i Knovlvcf^v nf ihv Appt^adK'ulFinrL B^ Al&od 
Sukldn, y.L.S,. l'\ll.M,ti., I««turcr on UompkfadrA ^Vunuiuiy ni ibo 
LobdOD lltMpitnl Muiicol CoUogv. — NuCu uj liiit VsrifloLiiDti of 
&lnia1uf« b^ tii« MovommU of C<uiipt«jBad lIuidtL ilj Dr, J£oya«iiL* 
liggct;. KH.^., &G.— NotQon tli« IVeiidwt'vRviiuriuciJ the ^^oatoIioi 
fat Apknntk Iuia^jwi, iu to lLv I'dudiilw opoa whidi it JifbL ^j 1)t. 
iCoyttCD-l-i^Dtt, F.R.^.— t>n Itofj Mow, lly R. Br»tliwhlC«, iUU., 
PX'&— Tbc Funt^ of the UAWthom (A^«t«liA Unwt\9,, Tuliune; 
^Ecidum LtixttLiui, QrevJ. By ThouuutT^iyliir, ^uprin]«ii[]titi,of iha 
UlViMQOpic*! UujikrtiUDni n\ Ihc [.'ominUtii^d of Agncultiirt, U.S.A. — 
P^ta U tb<j Jlutvtuic)' of tliu UuBiAa Kitlucy. By It. BctAWuU, 
firighuvL— TEut ScdlEu uf Lfiubqi ju h^cu with n-floctA! anil TrAno- 
aiittfil LighL By John jVnthonj, M.U., F.ll.M.fe, — ><ktt« on n ouriotu 
I'rolioK^a iji an uiikiijwa Motb. Bj 8. J, Mchityrr, FhILM-B,— An 
Liitrumnni for irJErluiiiLi^ ]'^bnuii:«tia Bnyrs ■» iciwiiirizi^ Aponurvii of 
BliCTUMopc Utrjoct-gluBQ*. B^ K U. ^VajJiaiD, VicQ-iVaeidoiiC 
Ii.MJ?«--OiL tlio CoailiuctioD of tlis Bark vi Double^bordored 
KcTVH l^fan-. By ]>r, 11, li. Schiuidl. uf New Orlcuu, U.S;.A.— 
TLc Titfory of ImmersioD. Bj llcv. 8. X-mUc Brdccy, JLA. — 
Ou a<fLtuu Biftdcd silica FUin» .Vrliikcully Fujuiwl. J^ Oenry J, 
Njwk, KJ^s.^ Sflr. li-M.R,— The ^iucnrial Urpifiri nflbv B]i:TV-fi5_ 
By John iUlbimy, M^,, F.U.JJ.S,^^n tbo Uio of BliLck Skadow 
SUrhiBtfa oud vu a Black SkiMlow Uluuiiuhlor. lly Br. Ri>yHbin-> 
Pjgjott, M.A,, yjt.S., &*.— TbeTlioory of Immewimi, By Ruv, 8. 
JUaittBmkuy, MA."UnBogiIo«efl. ByK Bmthwmt^, M.D., KL.8L 
JfiiMaMipii? ^nififtfpr f/ /ruA iTniiitrjA. — A pftpar hu bwui publUbcd 
itt |U« nbjoot IB tbo ** IJootogiciLl MAgouno'* by lViftiii»i>r EJw&M 
lull, I-'.ILS. TwLj gnuutca are dMciibvd by tL« aqihor, Lkoee uf Cj» 
U^ aod Co» Wkhlow, He Aaya of iJjh titKt iLht tbv thrM slioM 
>bkk wfiTO pnpiurL^ Ajr him '* abow Iki' giFDiTal sUucIutq of the ^rfUJ^ta 
iftltflBiely wulL With Lbo i^iucbobject-gkusffujd uiidt-f i^ilitn^ul h^\t\, iu 
CDtuCitaeDtt >ipn hr^iu^htciui in tViAr rolhUii-piVfiortiuriH ; lliij DuutAbitudmiC 
■diMCiJ l>cliig onlicjcJitfWi iK'At filicn, tb'jn thn triclinic ftilnpAr, iLeQ miCAf 
Vid UMiy niAgiii^tju?." Wlib fv^^cini Lu thu uUru, hi.' uija ihjLt, u luQal io 
fiKbUtT il (vfoit Iho buu ua wbieb Ibe oilier uimenia (ttflvpixr 4itd mica) 
^ iiobcddcd. It IB itMlfwithgut vryaEaUiiic fi^inu, rcacciviag only tba forms 
pyn, tA kt by tbo >id» of thu fvlfp&i cr^vuls ; and wiili pu]arijH<d liifht iZid 
^^i^nidiuy vd^ am cftcQ ivm lined by uutow pandtBl bnads of dlFeront 
t^Muiiic colounw 'l^ivn interior portlooa riktlrlti vh. mlAliug the aualyioii 
IvVUlial oorgDOiu tthiuW tsi otiIoujtdj^/ nui? rotour ajcitiflJiui'H impviu'iptltjly 
^Adkf <dT Tato ocuthor o^r tbo ticldG of vji^v, liLw tho blondinff of thit 
wloiiw ia M r^inlmw. Wilt Ihu ^jucb object'gUiaa the iilicQ ia icfln lo bo 
'^pUretHuUir, andfiuid babble U «om*] of tbs c«llflfomf^ into vlow. Witii 

nvn.^ acvmcz 

<««-«Us4 « «*MMtk << to ftftaa i9M^ feM f-hkk it tflfK 
U tofanatoifctor«pg«fa«to panduMtioa W whkh tofcuMto>i* 
tofl faMc4vw attqri^aJjyM^JyiMiiiL SomatfiBM to wlbcMi 
l» kv dfklr «OTi4 Km. I^k« wdtDcUlHmM^iAtodkftrf 
Vflik nr^ «> to inriic «r C<u -\S-kUow, h« ii9i fli 
<J Dr. n«^fciia Imt* Hill* Uk In vlit*] !■ to -^d 
XiTlfc^iM, to MittBigifi Knali tb* pnttnM of • ■•» 
WdMji/lik^ bfda<«too«to(ki^«UAbe «id iMiMKir 0«W* 
wiffi i^W >to» f dittrt ftCM rhiBiWal ngmlaadiM, TlibMAniditei^ 
M ltj wi^ fita fcfr haT» M t iB ti ia» to rTi J , <»fl>p4 far tbo ItaJifr 
«M «f ^bovwfmM«f ImM^itiott. the iDcfc Cram wbkfc tb»l^ 
kto^ wyfcdillwi grMwhr,>»afcato*of* liliwc— fMfci 

tohfcfcbiwIPcaMjarfcrthLwlij ttJatridtaSc 0il«p«f , laa 4btt- 

■iliihglii iHiiBiiiiili. Ill iiilk lull tiiiiliii 1 i1 II ■ ^'^- 

•a •» la lapiMMl, cb m a uift n to lAilvwr, a frvt nuiMj of Hcli ffA«» 

^tokMj 4a» to ff?!^ t^'Vnw J to wctic* t to rfgpk IWtk 
^-itteh o^«ci-|Imi bumtoin r*Ui cf Tujfaig topM ud ttiii* MBt 10* 

■)■• •Iniff^ oton bfbi LIT tfviml, and tfi>alekidf ihum^ tb n** 
h mioBi dlfveOacu. Thvy tiv qriita 4iKnot *oa to inlii^ «^ 1 htfi m 
fo*d Ite NCMdniff toit aaturo. Tbaodb ftt* ofta dl^dicd b livi^ « 
•Inti ptow, piA^i nfnf hi doiagt filiiii TiM edit Jbr to oi^ 
fttt «entitai ioid baMM,b« toy ut oly HibU* «iU • rvfy blgfa J9^i 
■Opa» hofTgraTi w * rtiai oaritijak" Abaf vitb toorilMndiiMU* h**" 
uv iCju Id b* tomad, with i Ugb pvwtr, iwr iMMfbiUft «ni^ ito 
(MnioAiAd hj fodfldid «od% abI rvidMilj boUow v flikd «rkb pM Cbt 
of toMt rmttobli &r iu l*mth, Kim to copUta * -ray mauls biU^ 
SMT to Oratir, ftnd aiwUitfr at totod of to tuba itjcit 

far tU» ppp^" ^M ^••B '^lilT 4«otod in ut AomHow JouimL Or 
IfiVMitoT ffBpkT* a £Um Labs oT odamtlBot iij«^ Au bv phgiit b to faU^ 
\ Aooowvf*^ ftod «Uo«< to KOt, or otba* ^art of to ylastf to ^mv to tl^ 
Of Mvna to part maat ba fiAcJ al toma poiott dtor wUb oatb or ^ 
damp blbntmu papiT. TW ftaa add of to nm haa ttov mnm Cur |ntf^ 
«)tb«r ia waI/t «t in noUt •ir—frateabtj to latter. Tlw toba BS t* 
piljectvd to a k^ovs dcitiva tjf boat bj to «m uf Satl'i hot-air cb^* 
T^ tnbtv barii^ twoa find on Um itage, oan ba aocaralalj iihaonrad aMif 
Wr miautai^ or aAvr a kag«r to«, a miflwawtar bnai^ all tbal ia a^' 
fcLT dvQeraiiua^c dl*La&c«a. Tb* wrroci wbkb ma; naaJt I^inb tow ^f 
nUjoB arc fVuklj atlsM Ia Th!a •impla tfcadiod la paniMlartj i \tfA 
lot> iJknnft^«fl«ot(i( tigbl as pwirtb, at to vbok 

la A#< contMd cf to otaarTTt. 

acirannc erHHiBV. 


T%t Unin of the Linxr AffjmrJiciJB,^l>T. JloirmtiiiD, In du vmtj on thlft 
■ibjKt, nyi that io tkt %Bir of th^^ Irnnr nuunmnlR w9 tinr) gaiianiJl7 Iba 
MB* three Uttita rhs in human LAir^ bat Jiirt:iin^ to auob n dcgTBO thftt* m a 
Mb^tlMbr c«b b>i iiuilj r«i!iviiiEL-4l ua tn^luii^ag^ Ui jlu Amuinl The c^iiiji^ula 
b nHMCaflUuiiilA ti«A «)>tolLit#]y nuO ruUfirvly ]hf|;«t f;tflUj nLiph ^vc tbu 
Vmt m chamctcridLia nppcaruicct iw 1a etea fspeciiill; v?U jri the wool ft-otu 
AMp. A ionlhL*tl or miF-llke flppflnrnius of tJie contour of cisrtniii nnlmil 
liifi dopiiOili upon Ibo lArg«r dcvelopmeut aad pa?uLiAr rclatioru of Ihtt 
srticiilnr <£!]«> whoMi pf'tnts ttixnA fliit so fnrfrimi tliu hur thnt tlio lattM 
Lms fraEhvrvd «pj)«&nuic>^r aj« in n UnM-mniiHe, Amnntr uiliiuklH tlu< ^ti^nter 
Wfeof th4 haar u Tormcd b^ th« mcMiulInry eubsUnfc, 1ho oortknldubBtnnco 
Uac onlj ft tbin Ujt<i ; often, iD^ved, la mduccd lo n hcm-Uko ■tnak- 
Thlm jirA<kiin^nftBc« of tbe mudulljuy Hulti<iAnDi> » »«ipn beet in tlio ibjifr <kf 
dMblir; tovr*zdv tho vod thv rartiui] BuLrAtADCij pr^doiuinnti-d, tbH in'>' 
dlUAlJ becoming thlancr. Ooctmllj tbo cortlcnl aubfltauca boa the aeuuo 
^BffflTf r* in hnmnn hur, and ihe wniQ v^riet^ of pi^menlnEinn ; In Himn 
■iIbmIi, u Itie CAt, mt, and iiuitifiL*, tbc c^rticnl Hnb«tanc4> U movo tmiifJuoiTat 
■uij cif liiHSi fUtiuLu:*! icwLubliDK, utidrr tho uiicmaci.'pa, n livnliiifi vnvcdvpu 
of tha mrdulldiy BiibftAnci?. Thp mi^dLillory Bubctitnca [fi juiiinjif* ii vlq 
iaiflHi«dn^ ttudj, diHenaj^ ^rentl^ from tbe dnijie Inj^or m tuman hAtr, Tbo 
irfl'"H' Htjucturu U ^rm-mlij ivrv v^id^nt, wiikoui tbu eiapliijiituat of uij 
iM^ant. Th« ntd^li TMry grvntly la ai2tf and farm. 

I^rpd 6tryiitio7*s in Mvd, — The Itor. F> R, Gtiuldiri^> in a oaminLiDioatioD to 
ttlMifaiMrft'^ AmoricfLLi Journal '* for Mnrcb 1674^ nfllta tlm ]>rinli--|^^^ of cftll- 
bffftHnQllnn to ■ nfttiinil pbcnoEnenon which hu t^n^ t-iilii^E^d hit tiJt«F«0t 
■■d t^t uf & fuir oLhoMf but <frhic]i rtitiinm^ fm fjit as ki]r>WD, without ax- 
pbatioa- It it ^lAl offllight but pUlnly lufirlwd Btrinuoufl of thd ^l nflur 
a ftMsiag, looking tii if ■ TViy ll^ht htincw hud been dmwn ov«f il fiom 
B OB dh w o t lo •oulh'fjvt, teaviait irrcffulnr furruwd, inryin^ fr^m htilf aa 
lodi (D an incb and a balf in iJtftiLlj^ and fr'iu t-vaUu Ui ciutn-. IIU ittcn- 
tfOBVia firm drftwi> In il in I^J^J^ in T 'pp«-r (Wiririn, dunngf Had nffor tbo 
fluiwinif of Ml «x1aiiBiT0 and toTcrv *' bloclc f^U" Aftor nuidiitj; for trti 
7«ar«lTiingloD wban tbcvawero tJii Mfi^A^/roifi^nnd ofoiiintT nr> iiriHtloDJ% 
kp* rtitnm«d U> the noufttiJiiM of (livirgiH, mid wb* «i}on naiindrHl of former 
aWt>atiuiiH hy at^:Ui^ iho aoii of hit gatdon icry dovply juarkt^ the nAuio 
vaj lu brtfiif>% during, or Tathnr tavnrd ihn dote of a hard frv^n^, Tbta 
flaco » aboit ffirtj tniloa dnitant fnm tbo other, and tbo sotL wholtj' 
dlflbivalt tbot boicff luaaEone and tbu granite. Thcae atHn jnTKnAhly 
nil ftofn north'Wcjit to Hfnirh-niut, nnd thin 1a ro In ahivlnd ta in minny 
filiCtt, iod wliLithur tbo vind at tho tinto bhiw, ^r whothor tbo aif tu atiU, 
Th^begia lu opprar bc^fuin Ibo frc^oa smfacc haa thair«xL F^rthnr* the 
^ImtloD ii at right angW lo the »traHlirMition of the lyiurttfy, thi oiit-^np* 
pifl^ of Iho locka boinjT ht^re m a Una ^m north-eut ta south-wMt. If 
lU ctancidvMV W connuctvil with iho v«u90 uf tbo alrUtiun«i it U in Mmo 




f opnax BCII3CIE ncnnr. 

w«y boyODd tbv kim of th« obMnan. TIm vriUr voodd bo ^mA U recdi* 
ftDj facU tlut will prove wlietlitjr ttiy tutdomity of dkvcCioa ii olwmAit 
elwvrliiTrT, njid thmt will, if eo, )miI tu Iim expkmtbn. 

A JImMffTUat i'md'ilnjn.^ht •* Pag^BSk^viert AnnUou/' OX., p, UH, b 
d(wcnbi-:d by IItt ZvlUier a ^cri^ of vxpcniucot* «itli & fxai uf lutiicnM 
peiuliilmri of i^iich mirpriAiiiif LL"]^<^ju:y thai it PM<*^ru to mwn tvUiB vd 
£ruiUi;I Md f^r iDTwtig^tiJJi- Thbi taHtrLiintnt coomta of » aJiott kfk' 
SodU] tod auBpoadcJby a TcTtknl pl^Ci? of£ufl v«ccb-jpiiji^. aadtmjl4|V 
OU Vfid A hniLi7 l^iulitn wdglit And mUTor, Td piwTfnt tfaa odi«v «0d ftott 
dililgr « DLJCond vAlch-fpriag la attachodr rmd ilnAUiivd bakow. TW Ma 
p(rl»t» of pup|Hift Vw tbi^'rvf^m u^U'ly iu th4 muiq Tcnuakl, Mud oe i^ 
iliHUujT, uiiB AbuvD tmd tbo oUitir bulow the pendulum. They a» oommIbI 
with th« top imd bottofD of a v^rtiod lod, which toati <4i a tripM^ «ft 
Icvolling ecrtwv. iTtbo twopdnU lie Jo the mum twiical, Om wifhivfil 
romAin in wij pnnlion ; but if oon of ihit Iflvi^Uinj^ •otvii i» «lighll^ mm^ 
the pfToduluiLi will uniiu« A pDViiioD uf oqaiiibritini ruvund which tlvil 
Tibrat« if duturbnL I', will act, ia iacti prt^cjAolj hkv a codiulos |«dA> 
luiiii ux^pl llinl thr* tfFtcl of gfnTity hnn bopD jfFuttj iUminiAlL«df » IkM 
thu tiin« of TibratioD la u^auAMd. lu flccdibilLly ia gf coumt itftdUynM 
by aLirtiii^' iLd IvvdUmf jkjt^w, lu iLv jutUuuimC actooUx ciii|ilci|dt lb 
pimduluiu WfigTt^d kbuut 11 Ilia J mid V!\n»n romcicd tVTta iU MffM 
Aad tibrnlfU ivrtioally lika a coutinoa pcndoluui, tta tUAc of oJcUUli«A <■ 
About '^G of a *ccDud. Tba aprliiga wc;q dU^ut uiyLt ii;cb«» luD^SDllh 
dpli^ry of thD in^trum^Dt vhm such Uuil iln Tihnilloiiia w«i<« oiiil^cl 
wLuD lIii) Umu was iacreefied to thirty vODondei, ooiTMpmidillg t« 
tii7U of the fofce of grarlly of I4<0W tiuiefl' 

]fyj0 £^A-/ wt Jnttnctiiin VarrniU oftht CVwJiofMr,— Tb'ut id •p«petvUA 
dot'^ ii{>t w(Oi XatuT obMmclifm. Jt iq^pi'iui ja fnll tn tho "OowflDi 
itei]du«^" While phyAkisEA ^iitrally ndiuli liiAt. tba s^MOfl iMdlM^ 
lira;*, produced by iDtruduc^tion of a Loydon jar \a\a t^a lucluiMd ciRaiVU* 
due to vArifliiouG <>f tLu icuipomturo, and nut Xa m\y ]J4ttiruIiit UtcTAtiana 
lJii4 phjfljcjL) njitum *>t i\w ^\iK:\niT^, \\v yvit uflrrx kjuii? ti'niArLii tn le^paA 
ortkie view: — 1. Uii« mciy obtifno rhu thcrmkl Aupariontyoi Ibv omd^a^ 
^pftrk oiL:r the oidiuiuy ■p<uk ou coinpariu^ to^vtbvt Ujv tpnctm obt^iu^ 
undor ditf^reui. tunditlona, hy moiuiii of ihn i^uiur inbKtAricii*. % The tfoev 
of the conderut^r bviii^ duo to u>c»iuv of tiiui]Jvnti4Vf tboto u gndiul 
puBO^ from ibt^ e^itcLm obtAiued with iho AUittili; cf tho onlLaAij ipiilr tt 
iboM whfrii a pafftrful Ij^ydtm jar ii t-mplof od, 2. Tba Mtion of Um eo^ 
doEu«T doQA lint iLppcAT tbo umo ID diflijreuc «poctrjL 1. Tbe diflerail IhM 
of Uitj mute spiiottum An> not idivnyB i^qiully AJK'cIt^ by Mkf. oiDih^Mff_ 
^. Thf< lJni.<H intcDhifii'd T>y th* «ai)(lrpvr btouiuH ntbiilou* vid ooIumI 
Q, Tbo brojukuing of onm^w liuci at bif^b tiMupomturo u #xpJaui0d by ^ 
pt^rEurbHtJuM iji^ur):i>'i« by ti(» u»L]>.H;ii]ur tJiovtaimtt«, whott tit* tea* 
Mppliixl nr>? CftUfeiJprublij. 7. 'Vhe line* of voiiMtLiu of Kdid or h^ujd wb> 
*tancua d^ ticbuloui^ 8. It pccida iKCoiaary Ut diatini^iiUi Ewv fcubbfif 
Gontbitinoi fpi!«lrA pn>cvv<)in; fruiu Uiom or Ihv Mcood onter, n>. («X 
ftpuctrv, 1b« li(u>it of which ato volvgvd by incmiM of lomponAim ; (l)h 
tliotv thclkcaof wbicb one thcij ooliu^moDt to tlic UiUo fmdon uftht 
ui^lrcuTok ]f, jii It HfimAj thnrvU domnttni^n a fndtULl iTiwtlftriMliaD if 



tho iJiidfli bfuidd of s vpvwtium of liitt firkt dnliT intJi tTi*< numw onpt of 
^'<>ki« of the H30oad order, it ii in jjoitiH^uciioij ^f na iotmsao of tompiiTalutiW 

It 1 tVoiinr tpT m OrttirutTf Comjuin t/v Ufft f "ITii* u tui important 

puii]], ftQil it u decided ID ffiVouT of the round oao bv M. K. Uiicliemu], vlj*^ 

u^ Ihm it hu th« fnllnTiiig ndriLntflgp* jta; tho nrdlnnry form («a 

"Cuiiiptw Hunduan" voL Uivii, p, Ht*0) :— 1*1. A cnagnotio pawoTr for a 

ftteii dJBUiul'^r, duulJi? LbitUif h ui^Jln ivIirMii Ii^dk^Lj lo v^uaI b> Ibudiit- 

nelM. ?i3d, THr i'iiHr>'nr" nf two inrmml jHiiiiFH irinhtjid of tmv, vhlcli hu 

Llio Afe«t of nuunininiti^ Iho |ioutioa of tho two ftolvt oonstant ; thi> iQUff* 

JiilE«oi *«vni» tobc h> viicr^licJilly proorvcd, ibul uvcu iho otrungut juimrkt 

Of t Ifoll^A mAcbtTie do not rjMw anj dlflpUrPiimnt nf Hw pnltift rif th« 

tti^et. Srd* A muiv fuliefnctitry iu'Muih <if flimpvoduix tin.* mo^irt vrhon 

it b well luoiuttod nud biduictd by a pliiUi of aj^i^Lo; it dKUu tbcii lo taovo 

M If plimd in & 1i4;[iii<f. 4Lh, Ad incrciupi in HinmbUity of iKii nu^pipit 

)tropcvtii>ojtl Ut iU diiimotj^r, fiUi. Tbik pnAMhility uf mnilnhliimj; tb« 

jua^ueiuiD of ibv tDBt<l by ukuihb rjf K wuuiLtl (iiH|Mi<>lii! rlrtit?, t'Iihuj^ld^; tho 

i,\toa hf OD ■mmut <-Jilt'u]hl^1 >ji<fori^bQnd. nnd fiiiu pomiEUji}^ tbo com- 

d^ of ibo compuo bflforo Ulo Mx!inj< «f tbo toimL Tbu idea ^m 

by f'liiklaiii [>- V«'iilfl. 

A Vifttftfiipr fumfti ittlit a TimntrvUr: — M. T«iTi^ii«in, (ml* tin- ''Chomi- 

^aX Now*,*' tiM« |d[ndiiiilvd tuuiiii^rorkH witli iflidcn rmd n sciall loos 

<LlMi^uu»)< By motiug tba niidmi iIlu mU^ tif irlbniLlua cjia \nt viiried 

tfai^u^Qut jm octjiVfi. Ho bu other tuomi^-forlcA vilb laiuofl, bat Lin- 

fTadij«t4id- Ono of tho Termer lor nUudiu^ forktj nnd vte of tbo litter 

^or ouxtliiuy furlu) JLTu ii&eJ&trJgbt AUg^Juam tbe sfltiiti Lijrij>jJit«l plant, and 

xuny tUub maJce boritanlAl and t^rticul vibrnltoni roipci^lJiuly. Soma 

powJond (LTiLiiuoEiy U ^uuim?d lo a bmncli nf tJic; Auxiiuu-y tirk, lUid tbJs, 

l^lumicHtwI with H tAUip, ^vv« bright luuilnoiis [lointR 'J'lii* forliA Are llmt 

"brought into imieir^j iLrid IliuQ Ibe vJirihtiotifl af tbo vILipticril oun'o (got 

ifuBx co-tilftitnrc of tho vibrntjoii*) whi'n llie vlidcji mc moved ero na(«d» 

■.limff witb till' nitmber uf hvals In a gh^^n Unt'u IW a fi-'W fiirtltc-r aiupi 

<t)« )« CiRkblvd U> lutourUin Um fihaoiitlv nuLnbur of Tibntionm for tfAtiEi nati^ 

/^tfm» '^ t?u .\f{ifffipt filer /Wn'jif id'wr. — ProfcMoi ViHui bu \ 

MTlttlbuticin fTjimipof (if ThU qiioation in " I'of gvtidorfTi Annalc^n/' which 

k thii> brivHy nbnti'acb^d in ^'^ilUmiLn'a .\mi;ricnn Jcunvd." A buAin 

of polBiisfd liKbt ^^M poMcd Lbiuuj:li tbv \k\\*^ of a pvwvvrul vU-ctvi^ 

nugntft. And a ^Ut* t'ylinder inierpospd, nliir-h Ac1*d Jik.* 4 ryUrirJricid 

luki. Tbid oytindorfculd llim bft tirni^id i:nd otor *rid irith any dcMwd 

^bxdCy. Wboa itdt Jiia^u^tiwdi K i>f ^"ijJ«; producod iiQ itIIU^I un tho 

pliDB of polnhHUdmr], wliollmr fn irii^tJiiri nr noL Itiir, wIkti c-jxnvtvl t<\ 

totolTO mpidly, lliu angle tbrouj-b ^rlitcb it turut-il tbv pinno cf putririiatioa 

Was^jQisidoniUy dimiuiabed, lirieu In tncb n'volutioa it rmujuncd In tba 

aiiiil dtrpcliitn IiiLi pliort a xiinu 10 ncqitiro lU fiiU mn^jilic poUriiT^ To 

ioipoFt ■uOicWQl difiiun)(iiotic iniiinHliy (o bo porcvptiblo Lj tbu dintifru oi' 

iH^nl Uiiui 1X)1;;" vrnh ivquirtiUi whjli<i Ui prt>duC4 Lluj mjui^'IvCu vU'vct, 

WM niVi-JUmry, 

ITi^awiVj^ to JtUot Thallium mmIj/. — Mr, CrooJiei^ in oats of 

A. E.lkttw. fivtiM 
M^iAtfv Cms CM9 

wind*. Utbec«Mi<l 

4*hi»|lwirf ft i l t ^ <r i i lli iili>'* 
iWnMDhtMM^vldi ft44«f «l nuidkff*, 

On M Alffath of a tack iq«M«v «tlb tW*iAa«ti^4i«<ntw!0d.rf 
Wfctn dfy Ufa ii i» ih» mmMmt, wrf ^ik IW vfM «d «r ti« 

■t lU sMt^i liold lb «itbOT <Dd M lb«t IW km «f 
]%jbt «11] ^ «f>ft Ch# wUto ma, <r a tkm% ot ftfm Md la 
mmdi vrw iffc, ofbf , or too* la Ji^ Tfc> wngimio mn al of th> W> 
oTHfte viA Uw fw aitipci of vkiaOp pt^Mola nuj boBatilal oi nfvlar 

OTtforw fcrghw«niMi» Jf a tiM lib « AuU L«a« S;** ' ii touted 
ilinr1jlnkt.rBr«bris|rtak«itogh«Uianuadi tkoMvt lauailljrta 
<f ooTTM will 4ff>V| on* for mA foaad ud aUlw lor a fftv^B aooad^ 
wbktbr wocliod by aftNMM or 4woenagn> ao tbt U wooM U p u wa W i hv 
Itidlcat* Chii taaok^UiPD«rTM; la otirtr wnrdip tl b i !»■ phoowuqpiipL 
hj UW 000 oia tad ma* looo vidck mmm 1h« laomlnBa la rilna&aia a 
ifaiglo fAw^ vd of own* a oCndff^t lin" viU «pf«ar q^Ma ilio venHdu If, 
vhil* iha vovd lo omliiiuoi^ lb« liiUi bo fwiini^ back and fofth ui. rl^^ 
aaglti la tbo liao, thotiooow tin* vill a^pfvar, vbiah iaajb»«tb«r«v|i<^ 
WprawBtiny a fui* Add aljaplo toond, cpf it maj ba Min^juoi liaciw^ Anm* 
\m^ imr-lonov fivc^Mly m in Kibiijr'a sauuMaa^c Oauaa. Willi ilia Uaba^ 
laoai UarhMtd, aid ailoir tic btam of li|bt finaa^crfivaalrvAalnaia 
Utttata, \%mm maj bo pn^fclvd of «a laaicaao Aacu Tb«f« u do trouU* in 
Iba vorU In niahb)|r Ibnn vIb^I or DM foot ampHlsd*, or ann If 



^^ f< dU(ju»fQ of bui tbno or four fiii?t, tlia curvM vill rproal oat ti tvo or 
^^vtvt Trtftt In Innsth -«4ioa ft tin« U iiuulo to wblcii Uio ta1>« cad roMoiuUj 


AwmnaTi'n 0/ TmM of C^/tntPtimi. — Profauor Ag«uU nyt^ in th» 

Wt pftper bo wrote, vtilrh vv onf^ only rccoQtly printr^ bj Uio '^ Anorifiui 

T^AlunilUL," " liflt me I10TO u> tlint Ciuiu att$\t ttpBcamcat of Cotmciaiv^ 

obuiood In difldTQiit parr* of tho vorld, bnva bcvn ladintM thMd 

iappoB«d mo4Jr» liWAd 011 tlio CDuditioiu cf ibc tooth at different 

period* of ngc^. To show tlji^L tliiM »^i?iiU uiit Ihj accviiud ab hu 

utquoadooibU roialt, lut ino wir tliiLt I Zihtv 4inmiiiMl th» 7»n»fr of the 

lUtm aoppOftd ^nom. Thcv oro &U proTided witli koclcd molAr Uotli, 

vhilo the advlU Iiky^ thn tUl frlaJnni tmpptHi'd i^ }ja clmjw^tflrlttlc of Uw 

CtftmcioD lypo iLJonp, I Km thAfi-fon^ intiJ>1lM thAl It in xr^irth whtU to 

Cijll«0t Urgelf And pr«crYi> 4 nnmlrrr of ppix^imons, trvim :)' thi.-Tia BJioi^lsa 

nod vkAtJv mid occupy n fml dt^ol of ruum. ui order Uf loam lliclr liiitorj, 

itUoIi hoji liul Ahowaof ivhnt iin]>i^rbuu:o hn^ been f bo idonlili^^vtioa of tooUi 

amoDg fcruuU* ThtuinWIut drop their L^eth, nnd Hc-iittor thorn aJfioH tin 

bed of the rw?44n in ^'i»l nii^nbt^r*, pioTinWy Jpti or twenty llnmn it* in«ny u 

thn^ faAvo il OQo timo vtilo li«ta^, bi? that It it >Lot to be wcmdDrwl nt UiAt 

ve •ofraquBQllj niid Id ci^llcctionti f>f fosAili loot^^ tcolh s/l ltk^Tk\ *nd that 

«o 10 nnly find thn jxttr of dharlu with t^tli 1ti thftir plju'tut Of ^noTtft 

In lbo*c fp«doi in tthicb tha tselh ok Jtolntcd and do not nupport ono 

niotbwv ttv *h()uld hiudlj «rcr cipoct Vo tnd Itiom tywi Eu pouSUlki; 

uhll* tbn«e vblrb an> prouni upun on^i nnnthM mny ho fniind In th#t fonril 

ttnU, and tbol occum a^kin mid ajTh^i^i i^i^^I (Luirmj^ tiiu f^l ti«faui thcTO 

ATO ft number of aliiiilui iu nliidi Jawn with Iwjlli iwrmiavi lQ rowi nro 

ReMifin hHvjen the Coiour &f MrfdiH Bi>d> m»rf lArir (ieoffrafihiati 
lHitnttdimi.^-.\ ccnamunlcALion bu lately tcvi) tundit to tLr.i ,\cnJ(!i[uy of 
8piencv« 'if l^irtt, by ^Tr, Alpli. \niftA-KdwHn1a, upnri tbj> r-kUHnnft tiviatin^ 
botwo«n the oflhiiT of corFairi bird4 nnd thnr guo^npliitvi] dJHtributioiJp 
3iaTlr)8 jipcdol rdensace to the fauna of FulyUtiiia, flu iiiqumu bmrft 
^mhraped not only nfomhn into tha abvoliitA fn^t of mcdJUiWin in th« vny 
flf bUch pluuio^p but alio Ibo do^«<i to wliic^b thU indni^nco linA inodiSod 
Od truu trulmiTf. KeforrinK to the Tnct that binln with btack ptimutgB 
Aft tound in nil part* of thp ginbr, 111 ^'I'Tlnin fniniTi'^ of widff prograpbUil 
tltCM, bo etfttcii that meloniaDi is exhibited docidcdly ody in tha aoutbem 
bfi[ai0pl«iVt ajid i4(irti!iaUy Jii tbo poiti^jii ouibraciu^' Ni^w ZaklMid^ 
Papaaotia, MmlA^wuirr flnil [ni«rm«c)intc I'^^one. Thii«, ta the Nwanj, aJT 
the ipodM of tho northcvu Lcaiupbi^rD nn> whit«; in I^vw noHond, 
lowcrvor, ihCTD It & vpfcir^ tbat is oatirplj block; wbilfl m OhUi luid 
«Wwhar« m Snulli Aorintn we have tha Coaeorobn Rwan, entirEly whlio, 
with *0Ri4^ of tha qutlU block* dJfTuring in thU ro#ptrct oionn from the lUlEisd 
^wcive in ChmrL AjfuJu, iu ^peAktuj: of the black pormtB, Prufenor Miln^ 
£d«vnrdM iT]i>ark< that none of tbiMo uTi^ to bo foucd bluk in Aneriu or 

^ ckb dtp, «ba kn »- 


«r NwUafc «• of wUdk of t ^ 
4f ialMkift tMCtK*ct> «#B*i>e« 

idttl«iaflfaodafIlw«li»popikfii3ft. Ia tho* havy-McntiBg woitai 

«&MofApc&° 7b lUriTMie^ «f Ml ii BOHk fac|«^ UKkiMCdlovr, 
Mi «llh TCijftrsidAbI* miilftUi^ 7^ ih« povpoa* «f b<isv Bad** 

ftaBdiBf lh« Map «f Ihi* tfitt^ oo uuMaE t j^ v* vill dwipwte Ikw «i 
Mtown^O) Ydtow wocker*. auTM m>d IbbAcm, (S) Yellow vatkMfli 
faODi^ ttifcna. (3) Bbfk wcrkm; ^aar^ nA fvnqpam. Tlw tdtbv 
ikM ftoAMifa Kt hnftfa to iHcnb* tbom ia tbs " rmnwIHip of ib« Oili- 

b vMitlj tccM Mftly tail Ea lb« drigUomfacod oT ikrabi uA flownt^ nl 
tb< if«M Monpied ia >bdat from fbor to fiv^ fa*t n|iun. 

Hum TjiJatifh, aw AI^umm BittL—Tho doKdpUoa «/ tUi Urd b J 
iMDratf. ft b hf Vr.TlMJ. ll«U.Md>pfMratBth«**TnM«ciJiw*Artb> 
Qt^Sirm^ A»d«iuT of S ffapwfc" Eto Mp lh*t lb* dM, «ggi, tod jmbh 
In down, woro *U obUiuDd oboutJidj 11, If^ ftt Bovyd Ldaad, Cal 
lUrbor, t*ftg> IilftDd, Sbnmagijik They wva alu fnwnw at UdHDff 
llartforr I'tik*, ind mskl al Kadjak, bat aol at Uaalukkif a to Um «Mt id 
Uidoiitk I'a«^ Oa aatariiif Cc«l HariKV, Uaga, va wa at om amck 
with a paculiar whita \bm wHtsk wonnd aiouod ihA ptwJp&tiwa MU <d 
Hovod bland, ind waa atcn t« ba caiuad by the pwaa n oa <dtawb > asd aa 
•oon a* oppotiualty waa aflordcvd, 1 todt a boat uJ wcot to iIm localty 
Bo anailDo IL Tlin unla, In th«&v podiJcin. WDt« imlJkn aajlUng 1 hid 
araf lacn balor*- At flr*l U appaarfd u if ihvj vr««a laaUaMl Li Ifaa pir- 
pNMBrdMbo* uf tbarodE,butuaac)at««iaBiiiiaiwiItBppeac*dlW twa 
pawlkl atiala oC the nwtunuqihjc »Dd«lcna or tha cltftv Mag- hvdat thM 
Iha Nil. hid wmIWoI o«I| r*TfT^f*tf ^^^ ^^^o^ ^ '■^ '^ ^ *>!>' ^^w 
«D« to lov hiohoa, nun «v !«« ImKoIady. Tha nvCa v«ca haSl wbwa 

scmtrmo ^mmiAitv. 


ihtsMt hrahio Wgctf «ffan!*(l a p»tlAl HtippoH, thauflli 0Tl>toillTi(T avw mrir* 
than h*lf ihcir w&dih. Tho lin*^ of n<«u j^niuitlf ffillowfM th'> winding 
pKJwtiOEU ofthrwe ]tN]gR»F>vryiitLflfr4 ^tIu^ h tvry liuguW appc^anvnc? lo 
iho cMff, H^inllj when the wTiita bird* woto ■ittinp oa Ihcflx Tbo casli 
wcff« built with diy KnH, Ac^i^utlaatDd t^^ihcr nod ti> tlio rock in rdoio 
uamplaisvd omiuutj p<^rliu|vt by h luiir^uvw^rvlvil b/ Uie ban] for 1h« pur^ 
poM. Th»rn»t* but n Vflrv abullnw d^pn^riori M tbu top, in whiob Ifty 
two qfpTL Thfl wbolo c^atAblwhrDi^nt hivj no intolrrablc odour of fnujio, uid 
^Ibe naiUi wcro very filthy. Tbo Unlfl hnnlly mnviHl Ht nut upprriArb, only 
Ibca* within r Uv ynrtta leaving their potta. 1 iwliud iiji i^nd t>ok doflm 
t«i>JMttl*k oaa CDDtaioiiw tiro youi^if bin.).?, nnd thi otbtir ?mj)ty. Wind 
ccmdl^ uph WD wnro oblj^cd to putl iLWuy, nud thu bird, whiiih i-Aniu bnnk, 
lijrh:odaQtbfttOCk«lwr«lUTtL«lt«Adpua|{hAdbatfn,wirh ovidonl lafouUfa- 
mcQt 4t tbftiDyit«riaiu dluppBuwiot. Aftor flyinjc nbmii a litUu, abr Hjfun 
HBttl^I on t1]>.* 'qi'id Hnd hiittdHiity irjaklaj^up hur ininrl tliJit r<ml ptny rui thi 
put of aomo otbar bird hud tiib«n pluc, tho common^od k fiirlouM uduUt 
on h*t DMKat pflLghbour, Aj wO pulled avray, thn HltT>i fitLli>ir» bi^ru) to 
b* ftftict«4 yb thi? mcitlon at ibn bivi!, and vlth thrt mrtfti hidlorfiiiA (k«pr«a- 
dOd <4 nftiiMii, initat&nfE %» ulatvlr m n. bird rntild do tho mottoiu sad ox- 
pEiBioOB of b BPAtuch pt^noi], th^y vory soon <]cpoflitcd their dumcr on ihta 
idjgs <3f tbfl nmt. It vu cninpo5cd of nmnll flshta cir ininnow»» Ino mud) 
ditorpmlMid t^i bd idcTLtiiS4>d, K^Tfpii in n mcidjimbily frvh rondkltin, vn> 
obUiD«] about tilt' »MLi(^ iJujr. but moat of thmu in^rD rnr iidvftuctid toward 
hatchinff. Then birdi im ve<ry ciirimiB. nud u^otit* irn aIwavi K*on ci:iining 
frota n ttocb i^f tham when a b<:int cir othf^r unii^ufd object npyiruichtv Thc40 
toiiia fvry BOOH ruhini t<] tbi^ lluL'k if iiul taulestwl* nuiI the vrbole Bock 
tbflD prcce^dj bi> innstiguTd th& ph pnomenon. 

CW^ir^/CiiA,— The foUaviT)|r Tow mtimOTand* nuay bo nccoptAblo in rofonnco 

Iotfa« '' OitttWElnh" ]u«|Htr (»/ April lut. Tbty nro ahai bi ha hy MAJnr* 

Guuftl Nidhin, f>t S^'k(l, D«fi]U]>ort:— '^Oa my wjiy to IV>inniido, lS'27t 

thfi ai?iT mugbt ■ abork of Dome siiw i in it£ ^toiiurh vo found a portion of 

Uin %Tia nf a i^inlurti of tbb dftMnptiim ; btii wh^itlxrir Poiilpi?, An. Ar., 

' iTM iK^t thi>n hbU' tn dttt'jrmine- Tbe ^iild ' portiir ' wu «baut d f^t 

^bf, 4 inchm in djun«|cr at oaa Dcd, uid '1 ificbvi? &t tho ttbr^r. Both trcds 

^On ahirply cot olT; Jind ihntv wu eio nppiMiraacD uf decoiu portion by 

^l|{Miofl, which ml^ht Joad t> tho jiuf^poiLtioa thnt the hokot-Bhitpvd Ap- 

*^ttdi^ wvr« luckvi^ dnforutcil by that pr>ccj4, I hnvo a acqaII au«fully- 

^^K^tflhed 8*<pSut«ulbiH, dnne si^mn tinivT nftKrwAnLt., the mtckuT'e <if which 

^i^*** vppy woll in fonn with ihm^ ihtiwn in thi' VlMn, p, 122. 

*'A> Wf^U A* l<aa now remotntor, th»e|ocltet-or h^iut'flbaped pKceMCA 
*^^ni*bfliil IJ^l-infi-, And hungbynteana uf a ihort nocli, wmft flord mckm 
•*^>TO Ihi' arm ; Ibo *iib*U)iRa of [hJa IaaI being; tit ihe uBUftl cr^yiab-whito 
**<^ttcir. ftmindintr onoof the Aflr-tboiled AlbumO'i of a dudc'j cg|/, u f ariM 
^^lom ij MArvnird. 

'Tta« Taov«mcnt« of tho Dhov^mei^tioncd SopioteulhiB am vond'rfully 

u ii nit» unijuh! tht cnraJ-rutifs, Ji;£t toiiGhia^ the wbitfi ^nutl with thd 

of aa txm; And th^j ^>Q Alarm, diflchArgicp n di>ud 6F Jw^pUn Aridt 

^T^etccT«r tboroof dodging back in t^uitv An oppodte diiectkni) with tha 

<ViicbiVM uf Lghtiiiiiy:. 


336 ropcta& sciuiox utvifir. 

boh b » rock. In t^d 1 •olkiUd him ta cpom cmt ^ gMtk p«U» wkk » 
baat^houk ; lI Iiwt. bLva Ui«/ wo tHtdor tlua b» liM^ be dikbuiM ^* 
tootaal* of bU wpit-bng aH am u*i, uid tfoiil uj wiMUoftt ftod liu wt uit 


Tht Attatam^ of tht fftriM4 J^hrowvmo^— In a intarotting pftp«r of ti« 
Rofal Soctolt, pubtabod b ibc ■ Pr^oe^^iifft" Jot Mvcb, Dr. J. D. 
MwdociAld Ml«n Lutn « utbiut^ aoEuaat of (hi* «lji|faUr miifinm. 
vhiah is w:^ oxfultootl; iIlui1m!Ml in th» plt-la vh^rb, itnfnJv oooi^ 
fur Ibe rroCMdjnga of t^e iCojvl i>od«ijt aocompwaB U»o fftfu. Hm cbm 
«bLeh MVnmp*jticit ttia ahuhaI «hiub iiia»i >tiiiig«. Dt« MftcdM^U ii&j» n 
tbu point that A ipvcinuui Wki Ukm in tb« lovifig-M^ l«l wttt ite 
•lUltioii or ft Dum«Toiu fiOROay of ji>^j< in a W|t« ncjfttiaoui but l«i^ 
nidnmehtAl et^f. Thin uiti*r«Aiji)tf iiMt wu >b*^ \\ku ft bnrcl, but wfib 
both ii^dfl open, Uid tba oxUniftl luf&M Vft« ftOBW^tt lubcvflttlftbid md 
itnvveii. Tb« Till of ibo tuba |inMii(ed aamcfoiu louki and pottefti 
ii|imtiH|jpt.»Wrv^nifiK)TMy ^ftflpJtoimMginoLtlybattbwjngfc whkli «riarinf 
onmiaU wen DbMWftd 10 p««L ThMo opoiiog* guk«i«ll;, thoygk Mt 
bTormbly. |4arc«d tho iubarcaUlson*. As «it«nuJ mettbnMM. w&lh •■ 
bitirmiJ lining, wem duUftdl; vulble« bdUi iDCEoii^f to b« rfTftidftMM a 
lh« rinii of tho labt. Ib« ipftcv btcwova ihm» IftjTMi wft* Ubd np wlik » 
pulp; BU^tuice. in wlucb fcatUrrod QoeUdfiaitt bsdU* ««n dftoctod willi ft 
bigbffT pawvr of ilfi uiiuuwopi^ I bft*« bMii |iftttk»lftr b 1^ di<crt|doi 
ftftbo COM, w >ome fhr-retoh«dfu«ftniivmnBdoAitoitonftlaftiMMta Iha 
i7Utdn)[, plvrciiiUt uid I'Mu'iuk iuipUiUCQU of TAnmin vrovid 
ftod ndocD a l>4>]I>4]injtM >r(tiJiMft, « Stljnjin, or ft Pyroioaift tufaft te Ik* 
r^uind p&ticm : fdf thorq U ucqiU/ o ^tmI uEufonni^ In Ibo nbToctw mfl 
appfla^ikw vf tliia cju*l 

A A'fniiuu '>^ r^hr /loluu bift b««n eondo^trd by Mr. AlAXJttdor ftgrw-ji 
i'ftrt ill, of hi» work, quarto, wbiobbftft tbttj-bropUtti, baa ^W noaUlf 
beso iBUed. ProfoBoot S- E. Vcnil ilxu Dcticn iti ^yran<* la ft lala 
aiUBb*f of ^'Sillimu^ Amonma JoanoL" Ho «ja that Thb »f wllrt 
irorii U profiuolj IltuDatcd bj ludqoo plaloBf a 1*^ pwt of urbkfc hMI 
bftco laiidif by dilTtvcot pbotu|Xftpbic priulin^ pcoooae^ dlivcdj 
jihoiogiaplia of tfao ipeciinoaa, aikt fttft nf unriniUtd ^icaUa&oa* Ha 
Woodbuij-Qpo pTOC««B» iio AllKrt-tTp«, Bad ibc lUUotjT^, bate aSX boaa 
anootaifuUj fljuplojvd. vlulu lapfiiur Ltbiii^nplu bar* alu fcoon oaaJ tv 
ftona ofttonL Tart IlL »n|aio« <]otaLlad doaeilpEfawa of dl Iba 
ijadtti, ocvpt tboao of the «ut coHt of 3floctb AjooDCfti wbkb 
dneriWd ia Part U- SuJi ipTdea a»» bonvrar* mbcrcd ia in ihalr pnf« 
ijiiamAtio fdaoaft Twcstjr««jgblp)fttOiLllarinto Put DLf tba 
iwoDtaon rdata t« ilruotftfoi aadloloikff to l^ut IV., but an unoASft 
«dvaiioooftbstm,owfaif to tl« Iom ol tbdMS^S^ilrawbi^aod 
Cbe ^aitai^ hj tha graa Uoaaoa Sr« ia Xonmbv, 1&J% , 

' ■■■I. f 

A I 


m«bt attnjMit qu'oa I'vnlcnd urae pluji dn i^UUit, on diimoLo* avcc? plus 
d*4U}aD«oicnI,qoo cca cxc<utndli^ muAicnli^A ^lur r.VllciniLiruft • ch«rcfad dau^ 
OHH ilenuora tempi & Importer chof naiu." — DuroMit, 1^74. 

MDUFOvSSR, thoii^b ia the above «aitciicc unmlRl&k&bly 

hitiAcr and L'tft^n^rt^ arid dliuwing himJolf a far from pn>- 
mtEinff prowlyt*! aj» fir as "th^ miiwc *>f the fritiu-e" it con- 
cerned, imd tboij^b t.hii! family ^^similnting hie mi^dcoL ta^tc to 
our BritiKh Htunilard — mn^h nt it t& — iv, nftvrrrtfu'lchia. entitled 
to be He&rd with n^f^ocU &t dl evetitrS bci long ha iisbf^s am 
QDdef CKizulderatioQ, HBeing th&t h& tftti for a long period lud 
aevoortl himdred of tbcse cold-blooded mugiciaDe under (^austJlr]t 

That ci^rttiin &ilim prodiioc nt certain :K^ujrinii lujiiciHf — naj, 
nions tliat many stidi euiindtf nui b<< luroii^liL tiiuUtr tlie cutA- 
f^ry of mueka] notce — ie known but to few ovon in tbo«e our 
ilityiS Umiigh *JvT i\pt did ^^^t fwriiji*^ t,hi? nntipi* nf Hint, mont 
obtorvant ot^ M nhtural hiHlomn^, AriatotU} ; * and ihut which 
be Uiougbl ftud wi-olt iu Crrcek ojj LUIh flubjecL huM, of tutirHP^ 
M in otb«r things, b&cn oclio&d 4oiuo ccntiirioe kur by PHny in 

More recently rt(jorfi<4 oljservationfl upoD the «ound< pro- 
duct by ^fth^ft are hut few and ftir lii-twtf u. Oue uf the lipst 
P0rbsp« nf idl Aocount^ ta tliftt givon hy Sir J. EmeraoQ 
T^SDcnt, t&tc UoTcmoi of Ccyion-t Whon at Ualticitlao 

t " Xal. H^Jt" lib. x\. .FJUii, lou f rtij>i 7^>:.y 'lAiVr^^r, Ub. X. cap. ii.), 
(|a<4u AriiLitlu'B ftftiflijiirni, hui ii/ltij" nothinp nnw to ll. 

t «9totoliM of tins NfttUTtJ BiAoiTy of Coyloa/' |>p. 390-^ and 401. 
Loodm; IWJl. 

Tou %m. — 1X0. tm. s 



porrLAii eassct asnBw. 

— A place bftlf vr%y do^vD th« «4Kt coftit of tliit iJ^oftd -k 

niAilf; «9mf; inquiri^v about oertain vjtoi^b *^ ictfcoibliiik* U< 

faint ttwtiet octM of ftn Mahasx barp," which w?t« ^U^j^to 

prucL-ol fiuiit t]i« Lottcui uf B uci^hioaiing IaLc. Tbc €^cc^ 

tneo tciid that both tber iin4 thojr falh^^t kiurw <if thp.»s totatli, 

which were dcctftrod to nc? muliblEr (iuniit: thr dry iwa^'^n, but tM 

couM vfbcu Ibv lake hbd bi><>a duvoU^n Aiier the mius. Tfa««^ 

th*ir islUU proceeded not Jjoui a fish, but from Iwo spcci» oJ 

mollusc (n jtiJ^jpina and n CtfriAm^i), kiur^wn br tUv-Tml 

name of (ji>m ooo£<vn9 cnufoo, ci Ihc *' cryinif dif^U.* * «Sir £• 

TMintvt took a boat and viiited the lake bj nMkOQlight, lod 

thue dt'ecrLbf.--) tli« fi^tmda whicti lie beard :- -**Tbcy c&zoc up frvA 

Mm wnt4*r lik-P th*» gfciiTlf> Thrilltof n inTwirji! dinnl, or tJirr&ial 

vibmtion* of n vino-ybuB wheu ita rim is nibbi?ii by a iDf>iit*Q*d 

f1ii|;t*r Ii WLU nuL one niifllaiDol note, hut a muUilddi? uf XMy 

aouiid^ ench o1«ar and distinct in itself t the swo^t^t tirtte 

TiiiTig;ling with tlip Invircf, ?>vh, Oti applying ihi^ rjir to tlv 

woodwork of thci boat tU(> vibration wpfi |{r«utty ir<:itttipdin 

volianr"," Tbr* wmmlf* varM coiifidrfaSIy al di^rent jMnfiCi^ 

and could be Ix-alwcd, a* it was pCiWhW to row nway oo1»f 

tbi*ir inJlm'iic<\ Th(h fjrl, thought Sir K, Trimrnt> h-^ida jappirt 

to thi? view of thr ti»JiifrmvaT tlial Ua« aoimdi wtixu prodtjowl Iff 

mulluHs aiid not by fj^b. SUdUm aounds bavv bc«D btsifiiiA 

tho iarbotir of Boml:«j; deeoribad ba "like the pralradd 

bocuziing ufa dihlAiit boll, the d^iii^ oadcncc of an .^olionbii^ 

thft Qottiof a pitirh-pipr f>r pilcb-fbrkT oraoy athi't bTii;-^ir»w»» 

out mnfQCdl n^tp" Fhi^a nmii<U came frvnu all dui-clioa^ 

aJmnpt in k^uiI ttren^h, a.nd wwe from the nirftcet of di* 

wau-r all round the ve«^l. 'J*he flub whicb ww allogod to pro* 

du<N* thfttiT HiundK i?Invly nuiMiibliHl in nisc and «baj>o Um* frails 

water pet^ of the north of Huropis lVd« pb^ommA wtfC 

CM«fkiUy obaerved and nnipd hy r party of Iiv4> intt^llij^i 


11i«T "Magnan"— a lisb found in l^irlakoat ColiitnKi— i« 
Stated by the fiah«mum to make a groni when UiBiurUd itiwl^'' 
watei ; and m certain Aat-liKh in Siam, acconliag Ui Pali^pkx* 
*' fiut ODUoKipa un bruit Crd« *onorfr ot mtoi« bftnnoDioux,'* 

Ac Pjilrb-ru in CliiU, at tli*? inout)i of thtf PnM:«fco*■b^ in ti»9 
Miffiuippi State, aad of tlie "'Qa^on cxj deJ Inde "river of- 

* Tt la kaown, from Iba o1)iiwmiiu(u of tbe IkIb Piq/. Qrttti, tfuu ^ &fr 
IsMt of 1h« f^ivi3poilou« mnlluvM (Tht*nia arW* *! wm) hw Uut pnwo' 
pn^luonjf *ound>— flppvcqUf bj tbe uouili. irkkh U vawd kj twu WvQf 
phtw — At Ibnt it (i pc^Un ibai the vooada la i|M<ti(ai wnrv ivdijr fta^ 
^Dfod bT Ri4UdN*i ft pa«t aa wUck Sir K ThamwI wm Mt >kiU l» 
Mtitfj kiB*>lt 

t If flfewld b« ft^ind difti tbd BMBit hA«fd bj filr KL Tiawrt '* 
•TidcaUf »04 MMibly tnta du dvpUi *f lk« liW." 

na toxG or /uuu. 


bnflfth Ahcr«of tbefrulfof M^xit^Of ttfBilariubmariii^ aounds 

btcW^ roniArkcii, but ij wbal ^[limA] pixtdui^n] b at pm- 
nt UTiknown, Dftfwii), m^roovrir, njent.ioTit*rl aji-kcpiirrinf; in 
i<^ llir> i'arftti-t* in South Aui'^rir.ft, n kind of ,5'7('.r-u'<, wilW 
armndo," which U reinarkabl<> Ibr & har^li grat-iTij- uojut, whiL'li 
cc^ whcu cniight hy hooic and Une, aud wluch cau Ix di«- 
hMird wh^n ihn fi*h ii^ N>n4^ih thw wut^r,* 
if nuMt jcrapbit' unU jiiiAlvtic £!i>cript-if>n, howrvcr, of •nd) 
u^'i^ iiH ib»t i^iveii bv M> DijI'lH;!;^, who Uim ^Ir^scrnbiH hi^ WH* 
tirraa when trftvor^in;^ ia u Ssbing-bjii^t^'^f *ff tbtr cvait of 
laiirn II nborU of Mai^Tvs ^Sf.Urna fnj\i/dii')y w oliwelv packed 
gelhtc (u ti> bft lit^ntlty ** o6te-&^6U "-^ 

"Todl A crnup >it tAiiitU i^u'iine mullitnitfi tie aoiih myil^rCnut, bftn>f]iirH, 
JV c?iui*fcrt itiriD), fmpjwfnnt IVitvitl* <!iL TiHtiiritlUtfv il »*■ •vritrn bom 
tt* «orlO dWrrvment pMnttg^r ilumat Wr corift> imtuitd duqud ll 
flum dt It pane A at J^fcDcliT} do qiieltjuud liiLJlticinRtioD> AuditlvM; 
iri«frti«, rMtf^'DDuj^birrFciCour imj^iLuibteril De tOfdem jmu d ojjivlJLtar c^dd U« 

• Titrt \l ilinliuiCTi^ni uetlviu'^uli ^uh t'v^t lif tri^iublriuvul pbjr^qut) qu'ii 
■nt qui prodiiiuut lo Uoublti (if^rvijux viqiivl il u oio iin mnojotit 4a pralv^ 
^ luiu il irou¥Pra b *ccrflt <lii l^por dpjrf* d'oninunioot qu il n £pn>uvd 
IK b triple noil V(imji4(flM iwdflationA qui >ijm vmnin liiupLn/iui-nt vt jiinml- 
Mnwot «DT«hir ErjiiE nr^ ^Itif 1 noitv»nit(A itn Ia h;iT4JieiUl](^(i nonimM 
lalUat do* inotivvmi:iiU Jo tri^t>iilflti<ia du cbour'iiiiurD , nouieout^ oQi:i«re 
U nirnnt mr^Mtn (iv> nnnt ^trR^ff<l^t qut fitsdnalnnt h» nr^«n<]i BiuUtilii; 
I1VMU14 «n1in iJii trjixli* ilii tTmi.>niiMiou <la4 vilntJiinB •ciiOTot qn'il fwr- 
'Ail k triT^n UQ milit^u tiqiLiilri" Piirthfir ivn tb« m^iH^ iirv ibu 
cKbi*d ' — "Cn n$Mcm\t\ti^r*t 4lf< «fkn» i^vlnbmliriHirtut, buitntnnrKUt mmniv U 
^vtil un ^^luid potnbra 4a Jonv d'crgav* " (ubiiilo of Cbarloi Itftb- 
%!) "quj MTni^nt ruiupI^tT'inifbt ddMceordil«, cru^H^rpboniis d'uim b(j;rvrmn« 
Diaiptihlp, ftiLir)iii»th inuK. Im SH'innrdiu du ^upi nHmnt'prlA pnrr.," itfi. 

M, Dnrnwil hftji furllipf bmn i»roriiifTd by some pikit*, wlioie 
tinsotij lie t'onnKleied r«]iab]e, thai n scit «if>t,uii who w^k 
jBfl up the Girt>m]i^ 011 bptLiing for the lirrit iititr tUn wumU 
■tod by niiracrou* maiicr<*e in tb^ Dei((bbonrhond 6f Ibt 
[^ viu llirowij into n ntnie <.tf gra^l aianu, ^uppo^tig that he 
I (q)ruL|» a Itak in Ibe bi>ld ! 

rbough pbLTtK'iDi.ria suci» ^vs th<>4i; JTJ>t (ieseribtd havt? l^ecii 
'n tim^ trt time' obftTvpd, wjorit-red at., nnd nril^ by ini>r4> 

Icfft aompctcnt witiif^vetp, tt vraA nut viihin tho la^ 
MH yean that any att^Tnpt hMil h^^n iimdi^ tn inquire iiiln 
ir i)atiir«, and f/> iovr^tignlo by p^itictit urid aloscr obm>rv»- 

I, ntid bv mrc-ftillv ^MiTtduct^d i<xperiiiu*til's lUt^ oigan or 
QJLH by wkicb they are prxUiccd. L'ntiL quite roccntly, thcn^ 
lisd be«at m«re«t conjertiirp. It i« t<i two Kti*iicU D^wt!rvenit 

■ *' ^Aluraliar* Voyfig* Uiaiiud tb« Worlti,'* p. 130. Loud* ; ISflO. 

K > 


MVrt^p^tcd nnd m-'^U tul.ioriotiH nbc-?rvxtionft auid CiStwrtiMOb 
M. Diifnv^, onrrini <iiit. upcm larvcntl htifjar?>d3 of UiMi DH^ 
inhabitanU of thv }At4itvnwa^*atj that ve ov« «U ctv ontmi 
iiifotumilLJii — which, it must be &dinittcd« ii wnDdcrfiulT fiJt 
&ild«x&«t^on thi«liilbcrtiiohc4ntTi9a&dt«tiiUyii«gl«et«dBilEf^ 
It lum lon^ born known that EDany xonawn of the Gtirw 
^mUv pa«K£i*t iQd ^^roi^ the bculty of eiaittiDg McnJ* 
wlirji »Ull uDtl^t water, fVoni i?1iich circnrartimoe tlM^r hurc h^ 
collwlivplT t»*nn«l ■*Orgftfio"'iii Italy, imd in Ffmue** "Gp** 
din." • ri. Slorcflw dwMrriljf* U»«? ait-i>ladcl« of tbo « TTil^fiih' 
OrSappbirin^Gun»«rd(Tnj7^rt hii*itnth)w pcwwrainglhirls *>ii 
etroTig Emi!<ctc*, the fihrm <>f whioh arc of T.bc> */W/i-''' 
RTicl nrr tliii* piiwimnbly voltrntAij. Thn»i- iUB sin] .. 
Iwit Ijukco ficrvc* whidh Uikc origiiQ from the upper pan u( U< 
Hpinul cord, below die |Mieii[nngwitnGD«rTe,»iid dove to tbeli^ 
pair of dcowJ nerves, Tbo mnnoim mrmbmnv Udwje Iheiif 
hlAiddar 1* thrown inln « fold nr dUplirn^iu (cuuip. tAJj^.3)» 
wbtob mbdividoi the amn ouvity into i«d soooodai^ cbnnibet^ 
whinh ec<iiiiuijiiicatt by an n|*«tur<» (/. fi*;, 2) in thi* piirUli'<ii 
bavinp fl^*m'*fimrfif'iial annlngy totbopiiptl of ibi*rye: forxinfcf 
ibi' micmrk^ipp tbif* nljiiclure ifl *ccn tolmjjiti^iJed wilbfpto^ 
tM<bke inudt^idjtr I^brM> ditpMed 4vino^ntn rally tn thp opwrfb 
while ^tber fibre-, radially arr&ftgrd, van at « ijA^i^t to tha^ 
B^tli M^te of fihrfr* nro m tb^ *mi>afA, prc«iiDiub]y iftvchmtsrT* 
wioty. In A<3^iit 131}3 M. Morcau "* rtacriliord*" lu he tcA* 
It, a f^ndLi: by wction of ila «plna) cord Hl^re ibo iVw 
rf^ion, and, nftcr ojxMitng th«abdomfii of th'^ li>b> b<-apfdi^ > 
£hpbU gnli-anii' rnrrpnt to tbr n^rvH prnawliTLc to UW w^ 
bladder. Immc^liati^tj thrrc were prodticL^ ft0Mna^ audibU ID 
ponoriA al t^onie dlHtanc^ having tbu Mime irharaci«r as t^Ml 
f^mittM by the fi*h durirg lifc. A wirrrtit wan Bcit ofipBrf 
dtrffi*tly l«tbr tutiTcTc* [>f ibi'idr-bladdrr, btif, ivillHMit rwidl* M* 
MoKAu thee cni a window m tJi4> lovr^r portkn of the bladdsuj 
•o a* Id) expo*** ih? diaphragm io vivcw, and itpon gnhanwatM' 
b«lnf[i^m riq:«atnl, Uiis ractnbrue ira» Myrii to U? thrown ti^l 
4 iUte of riliratioi), bui iw soiintfci wm* jirtHb>o<<d. M. Mof***!. 
wlKidoMnot MMD to have been «£iiiilk<d with th^p r^Aiilii^llicn 
propopca to «oittinne htn vTi^ijaaaX^ aI wmr futnrr timo.t V^ 
ibftenee of found in ibn Injrt •ipnriibnQt **^enait to mv to faCj 
oiitiy accomitcd for, noting that the mmilin&oua c^viiyt 

• The Ji^ of Atbtdtk prehiUy «Btinn<d flahw of ika> AmH;, Yi 
ihiftU ttni tb* MMl pvotehl* daarftliftt wf tli* word trmni»d m fr>cn iM| 
lM«h j w^h*irD«jrh'*g**> in ikUuii*a to tb* piv«LAHtv of iin hud nf 

t S«> U veU d«« Vtnmem. •-C««p(«d Km^twr" t<nM ii£. |k 0(L 

TBI so^a OF reai££. 


VlMi di0t«ni^ed "oith a f^s lo whieli icupulfitr vould have bcHiit 
trunailtcd b^ tbc vibr^tioD ci the dt&plira^m, had uow beea 

^mtichforMtMorefiiu ThcrcHtoftltisartrirlcmiintpcrfgn^^bc 
(kiDlcii to the mlnilnhlit iv«i?ftrrTie« of M. Dufbw^, whiMi* olj>«eT-« 
TftlinDfl ftnd cxjic^nmcnt^ hnvo b(?«ii so mim^rouA, eo carcrI'LiUy 
C0Qdiiri44}. aiitl sfj pividiicttv(> of vnliifibic ry*iilis tlmt. thi» 
UfrtnX IB ftt lou^'tli i-uulknl to roduui lo ayatcm luid diMiity^ 
V lU-iiiiportarfi. rttq> In any branoh of tcienci? — -ttit- vuriouA 
ttourtio ph<mom<!n& which he luu ob^rvrt) ojuong flslkt^* 
6Ddt [durtiottiEu.i muy lif? dividHil jiit'] twn firimordi;i1 groups or 
^GUa^ne«." Undt^r tli« 6fdi of liiuao miiy U^ pUot^il tbt? 
vuioiuKiuDdft which li^Eii^ producu wht^u toKt'ii uH t.lie houk uei^ 
luUfBiid ftrcpitfbi^'l iDtriQ )iUfUi(ft orii[>niooUiorn?ccpt.acli.\ 8ucb 
Knodfl Are occidi^ilji], U-mporfirj, tnr tHh(^ ukvI juirt rvidriitly 
biijluntary ; ofiea convuUivt% bt-hij» pi'odueud ftometirawi* by 
^ purl tif the orgTkOiMu, at on^'ther time by aiiuth^r jjhiI- 
Bodj lound* ans 4ub»L-m^?nt to ilio cjorcisn ^f ii function which 
Qanot l>fi txprcftwdf oud cauiaot be bruugl^ib into rcblicjn with 
any ii]U>nTion on tho pATt of the antrn»l. Among fluch uoi>«d 
arfllhojH? pr<«Ji;c<*d by unuciinl mnvcmi^to of the bony elemoaU 
of tlu jaw or ^lI-L-uvi'dn^ (*'(ip"n-nda"), (>.g. in the ImrboL, 
l«ch, »rp, guinaLYl, and othur*. In the ahf>rt-fTiout<!d v^ittj 
(^ U)« t«a-horf« (//^^firamj^/^^) & peculiar iharp aaund U 
nado by a Uttlo cticjvroD^«l}opvd bon'^, l^ooely arti<;idaud vitb 
t»o of lilt' Umy {piVii^*ni'i'}iLir ) <'lnnn'iit* nf ihi' ^ll-fn»v*>riiig, 
fweinl>linK lliat pTuducixi by ihu aixddc-n return of n displaced 
fwt triidiiit iiiUi iU \ttmy g[\i'rve. Tli*? ti?[K.'h, t'a.rp, Uintah, and 
oUitT Uiick-hppM ti^ih, mitkii a pccidir*r noi&o if tht'y bt.' Oucn- 
pcll^ fiiiddr^ily t^inpiMt thtt tnixith. This in ibo trjuch im sn iifUrii 
lepvutod ati to be m u dp;;r»-i» t'ompanible with the croftkintf ofi^ 
ffo^. Tu »uvb wLUidfl M. DuIifMiK yivts ibt ii*ih« oV "pbeno- 

Wilb n^^uicl to tUcr ^nuHrU nt tW »ccr>nd c»tegoni\ which 
botwr nmril tli<j utlfulmu *)f tbii phyuolOj^iKt^" Uich- are 
robiutflry* oi>uHU:Lt, aud ^ro alwuvti prodiiocd by 1\k tame oigou. 
y ar0, fooreover, nlwayn r^^produc^d imdor aaalojf erne drciim* 
C«Si arc evidently inUaDtioiuxL. and can even tcrve tocharac- 
a *p^i«i, ?»Ltcb are thtt ** phiOnomi'MML b<ToiiiiUiiiiuii 
era." The pbunouioua of tlii^ cat^^ry are furthc-r divided 
Jilt Dufose^ Imo gr<iijp or sections. Tb** finrt of tbew arnva^ 
'*«aprc»*ivc noi«s, or incommfimurabli? txprcwivc 
iauiu!«." All tliu noitn an? not idl i^u^udercd by the saints 

lEoohcrebm nir loa bruilA «t iun «0Q* aKptMAlf* )u* fbnt •DUiidrb l«a 
pumuu" d'Kiitopc. " Aiuftka d«4 Sdouco* Naiutidloai*' ^'*'" ocjiei i^otogie, 



ftiY^ndiuj ^T^upA or ** diviAona." Ili^ fim dhiraon icch^ 
nil Ih4' n(])t««dv(* iF^imdA of a larrh tntnrr. And co>naLiri«, i* 
itij &v Ibo fsttpfl of Ktiropi? «re ooii<)?^Qi*d, ttnW Obu mMirwifi 
— OfHt cif <t rid II I At toil, ImviniE fui iIa Ctttiar tbo friction of tk 
diJUtal or)ciui». Of »onch coiiuds — "1>nLiU de suidmbtioo*'— 
tbere Ate Ivro modee of Cftusatian. 

a. By ffiPtion «f tho pliAnrDj^I t<n»ei," Tl**aw iif»it« vv 
i!hAnu-ti<nW Ijy UriiiK v<iiti|H>a«l of BOOmnvUti ciniwiooN cW, 
vlioct. rcru;-h uiid |jiorL-iD^, without fl^xibifftv or foftiiMc> atd 
l^ ojiiimeijciug and <^ding abru}jtlf ("bnuipciDCDt ''), Tie 
tnvt 'Tt;inipl<^ of tUit biu bot^u found in n ipvcicc of nUKtert 
immcly th« "tNtJirel*^ (^co7iti)er hrachyi^rtts* Linn.)* kw>wT> ia 
the fltlvmarkelJd of VorU luwJ^r tbe mme of ^ MAquervM 
UitardV^und l»y iIibI of **S^voi"an"'on Ibc cnn«*<»f old l'rc»\'aiOi 
Ili»l.h tln^ ni;ilc« iiiul f£»maloi( nrv ii^iizilly ^imnnnis «inl i"*j»»iUl) 
so in tW liottol part cif kiiixuiut: iimL UK'n^vcr, prcee^t Uoi 
!iihaiil:k|;i^to tliepiiyHiuIi^iHlttluii thv\ will li\<^r(>r tnoiviliant^ 
niiimL<M— on rainy dny* for circn cixtccn or ncvTcntccn »ll** 
n*inovul rmin tin- wiiirr, itvilljiiiit ^i-d-miiig in ^iitfrr. M. Du^bw 
ifiadL< tovi-'rii] i^ipcrtiuc^uta itith Ujl< raur^L, aud fo^ind Uut 
|jiiiTOiui'iii^ the air-yad'Irr iir olWr ^JHtvr-i lihd i>o iit9iui>^ 
im t]i.> *.>htuIp omifl<?d, wbilf^, on tli*j otlivr hnnd, thoy ontittlj 
iv-.tft^il uhi'it v;LriiiiLA Mibi^lancr^, ?iUL-li ji? 1>lU <}f kid gk>vi^ biiJ 
i^^L-ii F-lui1<--tl bet^^L'tii (bt ph!ir>Tifroal tt*olh- Ibotfo ((*nf#-#** 
rrhura, m Ciirifrr Ll-eiu^ tlieiii, Vfbidi* tiki' a gtUt jntlnitflT 

f'naril lh« »p]iroa(^hrii nf the giillnL It. mnn t« bol^ iLut 1^ 
iiurrhi^il JircW ditfi^r fri^n ihcw? nf moul of itw iii*cktiKl 
fauiily iu baving tbi'tr luikci^tie Liniti;^- tic^t clothed vith a nlUib 
<-nrt<JLi-^iiiou;i cuslii^^'ii, Uit fincni#li.-d iiiflidfr with ralcanow 
iibil/>«, nriH cttmnng l/jnll3*-likf* nrgiiivt of tho hnrdtio^t nf emnk^X 
Thr YD.rioijFi inii^dcf, too, of the byoidtftn ApixuiUija (tliot whkk 
mainly Ei}flueuct>8 the moveui^U of fb«< lioiipi njrmsK th> 
lowiT pbaiyngffll twitli) arc iTlalivtly IflrgHy dcvi^Iof>tO. Il 
Kji»H fiiii hnr fnimd tlrni whttr tlir fiNb v]u rvuminod in a vcav) 
filled with st-H-wuUrr, l-ht Kmiids emitted ^W'tp not *P«ia- 
puiiletl )>y fbe HberiLfiini of a (iiiiglr Inibble itf ^ilh fruiti ;iny (^ 
the? n^Miml f>pr^ning> of tho biHly, nor did tbc liflh ooioo to tlv 
Ktu'fncp tn .tttidliiff thr Inmi uiQiahrul 4if nir. 

£• By Hit Miction uf doitiwly Lard prciDinatcw from Uic jnvs 
pl/tyini^ the jmit [>f iut4riiiuiXi11;Li-y l^t-fh, fiois^ Ix-inj; llitiv ]in>* 
diipfd which rpMfUiblc tbe grindrnj; of tlw> tcclh of pigw^ ^r«f 
n-rtaiii ruuiiimiilA. Only otw iWi in ns yH klirim to cmplDyna^ 
in (K'b allium, Damdy Ihv Sui^lisb [OrthrnfforiiitiUf mcla)^ WUidi 

' TbM9 bonei an deacrilird mid n|iuif<d tn sa aciiriTr " Uw Flik* 
IVrulliVt" PoruE.iM fiviiortt Rktikw, Oct. 1871. 

thi »ono or nutc^ 


hm two bard proroineDoeai one cm eoofa jaw, fulfilling the 
fBuOkni of ini^TmaiiU.'uy Ti>eth- 

Wf now cmuv. to the Hicond tUviitionf vbidi conipriH>s aJl 

tindi pf blowtnff mundr, " liruit*^ dc BOuffl<?."' Mimy fj»h<» pr»-i 

dufw *TH.^Ji ikjund^t aroonf; [.hem heiiig i.h* tvirp tril* and tht> 

^i^fu^ ^^arvM; but the mont rrinjirkithlD cAccto have befiU 

ooriceil in the loach (C^al!rf£ui), Uii? l^iW), anr) Uim cnrp. All 

tb«e finhti* have *in flir-bUidor pnwidtnl witi a duct, whit-'H com- 

ttiumcat*?* u'iUi till* h'ullt^t, and wliidk lH,n)oivo><-r,di^u](^1, iii the 

twj> tribe, into twtt <^harabcrfi, which, JiuwRVfrr, cKunmiJ&icaUs by 

a Iiw»vru» on^tnt-iion. hi lh« IemcIi thin orj^n IIki in front 

ofind out ai't\ic atHlom^, in a boa foncfid for it by bouy j>kto« 

derh^l from the Mvt* of 1 lit- rtH?«>nd nrul l.hird vcru»W»r- Au- 

'ordinp to tbe roworchcfl of Wclrfr, whi<?h hnv^ h**on coiitirni^ 

}? RrrchH and olhpin, llm jiir4Jnl<Jrf in lhi5 ti^rhi^i JimMi:>Jirh 

» bnfuj^ht into rcbtion witli the orf>thUK of hearing throijffli the 

^t<ljiiiu of a chain of Wll'S f^o tbat Ibc fJight^^t viLmtionn of 

^^^ w&ll of Iho bladd«T cxa bo trai:L«mitt«d to Ui«m. Wither, 

^ conw^rin^^c^L's theUr rcffi^Hod tlie air-bladder aa an or^n for 

lb* mnfouvnunt of the iwriiidB transmittal to the body of the 

^il i)' tike burrfiuudii:£p uic^diom, l*'mm L-xpcTimcnt« intido \i[mtt 

*i<' Iflirbei and "awmnier" ^C^jtri/niia iloftulu), M. Diifoflad 


41. Tliat tin? wttiiiilic caait.l«) hy Llietw Mi are voluntary, 
beoaniic the animal oaa o^«q or ctixie nt p1<>aHuri? liitlo valvL-ri in 
tbe duot. of th« air-bladd«rtWhiL!h control tin* «crtpi- of jift*. ffom 
Oiif roccptAclc— an net cMKnutial to thv produrLiun oi iM>iind. 

fi. Tliat i.ho fiinctioi] of thn air-bbiddi?r nnd dui^r. in mlilitioia 
to aoy nChrr wbicij tb^^y may iliHclmrfft- iti cLiinmon with tliciC 
or^aaii in ot.hi?r fi-^ht^** in ■• to produr^ a r^riflin *iu?*ntJty of gaa, 
aiu ia oxpH the Mini: with the t-pvoKl rcof^-HXtry for the formation 
of toniuh of pxpTrvminn : " lunl ibat lhi< pritji^ipril ji^rnt in Cb«> 
propuUion of this fcojt iv, Llir^^tiifh JI0 uiiut^uucal rt-JattoiiA, tbe 
po«f4!rioT loUf of tl)(4 air-l»ladder. T]]i' Kounili^ nmitt^^;! by the 
ioftoh bavo a grmicr mteiuaity, and prnfcnt ^rutitor viiHctiot, 

Wc nowcoote to the KC^ond and moatiiuportantaectjouof tJie 
•Moad i-Jiti'gory, Thifc indudi?^ sonnda tuiving tho following 
cliaraot«r, Thoir HvUrffi ia more or Ion* mvlktI- and iwft, ana 
never excites i^iich fienRRliotin n« im^ prodt^td by 1 hr fi^'riuiiipg of 
teetll- It is moreover, :<iibjrot to an vxtraoidinnry dc^f^rue of 
eliangA, vnjyinfjf frpcpi^nLly, jiiid m-en ebanginj^ during the e^- 
tcvt of a «ound. Such suundfl oorn bo approciatod nnu^ioaliy ; 
are^ to other words, " ciirnrni*nMumbb^.* 

Let the Trader pJnce n lin>£cr in <^eU ear, and then ** s«t his 
tfeth** hnx^b Aflj^r hr;irint; a dull low muimuii like tlie 

nimblio^ of q di!<laiit eluriot, he ciaj poodbly excLiim, iu tS 

UngURge of C;iLnll[j*-- 

Notio. Sneh K^utKlUuf AlutrJly dtOTcrettkliuL Tbo Mund 5 
qucjitinn ifi duo iv & Tibr&lion c«LUt«<l hy tLt: conlractiou of W- 
temporals an'1 maitselert— thr»% *' HMprmnrJi^ " iiiT»cle«, u «^ 
btiUevo ihvj bnvc been ^enand— and hfo- hM-o mvc*ligo(c<l t 
mnnj otuervtm^ uroong Xhem Uin iieli^mted \\'ollMtAn, u^ 
litir^ in oonMquec^w r^ooired amay nuntti isc« H'oUcwtonK^ 
v£6ralt07^ AgUaHo ^rlUim (Gnnmldl), firvif <£« roUUxJif^ 

LiKtnn rjvAViN] bn ooiml Ltir? vibrALii)ii»i>f thru-Mmixlitttad Ibun^ 
only iram It to 36 in a d^ctond, »o that tL^y can liturdl^ be Ftf 
gantti a^ '* cfimmenMLrable,** I.e. [mincal saimcb. If Dt>|ir^ 
rcctmt concliiriona be corrwt, thnt a tound compotod of l<*ee 
tliAD 1(2 I iljnt.ioiin pt^r sccwid LJtaiint be? apprc^cuilxi] mUMcrUl^ 
New M. Dufoaei^ baa diMOv^rvd t,hat in noaBy fiflhca the touodi 
pruduLi^ l>j/ them are ene^DliAUy of bd analagovu uatiuv^ utm 
thnt Thn TitTntionii int^ which tlir«p biht b* analysed can b^ 
intznurr<] Iry zippro prints inKlrument). Purtbcr than thtt, bv 
haa dionii tbut thi-re nti" tuo rut.-UicKLi of tJi« <iatuattoD of iQcfl 
sound* — I, bj iLo LOulfAcLiuu of musidoe Ij^ "" cI**«o coolt- 
^iily to the iLir*h]«(I<i*?r, >k>1hn1 thtt UtUtr folfiU tbo office of a0 
uiistniinrnr. of rciikforcrnx^nt of Kmad, in other vordjs a kind o 
fiuundii]p'-L«aM; 2. by tb<.' <v)Utra^fon of mtucW wUirh ar« 
part oudparofrlof tJioair-biadder Ueel£ Su tlxfn clud latter nu* 
b^ rvgnrded vn toto ns an iDfitrmnent of miMk, simI not menlg 
as playing a «c«ondar7i-^«, Tbc Mailnl Gurnard) " Mnflauat 
^Triffltt eataphmctAi^ Limi.), oSbr* a ffnod inilaiioft of llw* 1in> 
of tboeo mt'tbi^dfl. In thv abdcmen of tbis 6il»« arcbcd over bj ili<^ 
ril>»i and lying witliin tiw* sc-^^Alffx] ^ Intpnil * rait^cW of Tiivier 
may ho mxo) on citbcr mdo a mu»clo (tnt, t^. \) vliich hum 
along ibis itIiciIl* 1i-ii|^,1i of fJiin aivily. Tbi» mtiHrlr k aU&i<hi\^ 
poBt«Horly to otrtloin bbioiu lulcniot apoQcuciotfcaf aod, aflri tn< 
crc-wiiii^g in filze aoJ Ijeatming cyliBdrical antedof ly» ^iltU int<^^ 
two flifif, tW ftbort«r of wbicb is atiacbiNi bj a t«[xlun to 
«o-callr<l^lmniF-ni1'' rtemrnt of the pectoral lia (A, fi^. 1 )r vlil 
tb« otlivr t«fininat«» at tho back of tbe akull. 'fbct^ ma*r 
v« furiLi-r u>nfi|)ictiou« by tjjejr red oalour, baift iDi)n-m'i--r i 
cbaracUr* of voluntary n]U>cle«, in that tti«ir utljmat« ti 
atv trau»T«r>cIy vtiripfHl, ni^d m\v. 4;i|j|iUm1 by »{ji!ciaj braivj 
from tbc third pair of c«rtifal aur\'C« (^, 7, fig. 1 
wbicb in olba gxtmardd pau to tbo *^ intdncik " mutdcf ( j, 

* ** ITpm a;j Mr ■ aoiiy noUtui(t nogii.* — £«>U (Aii^riwp}. 

f1<l|l^tVtKf 4«< V4-.— &«p9b4b 

80iie or FUSES. 


^6^ 4) of tbo ftir-blwlilfir.* M. Diiff^m^ bu cetAblidiod U)« 
curious foci thitt, in tli<? ouijorily of cotpjs it Ik iint the totality of 
tbo flc«hy bundlM of tbc iniiucoHiiilD wlmrb cvutnbct U> prodiico 
•ound, bi*L tJtily thai portioa of lie muKular auifiiep whii-'li in in 
^ittmediate cootact with thi! nir-bta^fd^rr ; aod Uiat* uuder tb(.<«e 
^irctuuMADCcfi, wbatcvcr or^aiui, ^firtiicr bony or otbriwLAe, are 
*«tc<l apou by Ihetc mutcl««t eoio^ only into pky lui aocoeiorioe 
to tltv production and propagation of found. 

L«t ufl now bristly contider thv looond of the two metbiMU of 
tbe pioductioQ of " commm»iniblc " iouud*. Hcil* tbcf &ir- 
bJaddcr in ili^lf "a ^itrraror of lound*, » cgmplrt4>ly ind|- 
pesdent of ihc^ re^t of tLc or^aui^m of the ^sh iw nny t^bcv 
«pp4u«tufi of ' p^iphokis' 1 "r <'Vi'ii of pbonatton ^itL which tJio 
&IJUU&1 may be c3uIow<^i.'* Aftnr pjncing a fpiroonl on Ua 
back, making ;i lung ininiion tii ihr< al>tlnmmftj walU, and oaxo> 
fullj dittirini; aiidu any vi^ui^ra wiiicrh may obntxijct the view, if 
the tip of a flngi^r be brhl in ronract wftli tbe aii-lliulder, 
Tibration will be felt cxnctly in^nchront>us with* aud having tbfi 
Mam** iiitm^fty nx tb« Niiiiidn imxlixrcl bv l)jn (iih. TblR can ba 
further proved by Ecmane of a i»telhofi<:4k|it< ajtplicd to thie orga&. 
KorLbier thaii this Xhv air-blhdder will \m fluen, during th» 
^nuaaioa of Bucb fiousd*, to bo alTcctcd by movetnctitA whi<^ 
may eitbcr tbfnw tbc origan into fidd» Kit svibj^ct fi ici a |{t«ut«r 
tcoudoo in vnrioiu purtd; and 1h» ovcti to such a du^iv na 
■OHunvliiit Ui jilFtir iU ((rnt-ml Bbh|H?- H^viiigiufklnt^d th»t organ 
muoli ai pottible by delicate yet rapid niunipulution from thft 
of th^: Iji^dy, wiT.h the rjtcrjjl.ioa i>f <hT* vtw^rU aiiil nerves 
Hhich pftta to it, let a itctho^copu, providod at it^ mouth with a 
<)in|>hiagnj of gold-beater « vkiui be apiJlvd to the antrrlor phit 
of the organ ; then let the nerTes whieh pzux to thn btt«r bo 
aRVt?ivdt tifrt on one »idc xmi tlicn on the other, vtheii ii will ]m 
foUDd that th» iot:iid tlnit iUctvastn in int^^n^ity, and locally 
ceAMfl altogether. Fmmthisiiud other vxponuicDt» H. DnfoMJ 
ooncludei that Cb^ air-lladtJer, In the majority of thtT gumitrd 

o. Ib n pby%iolngical orgnn, which, whatever may be its 
Other fLmotipna, in a 'j^i^nttur of Aomjdxi. 

/9. That its "intrinsic" nnuolfa, by th^ir vibruiioa, tuded 
ftDd intensified by the rest of tic cr^ans, arc the agi:nlA of Kiich 


* The uialoiaiflt ^Uh^iIua uiimlKmi^ niiiikfi|r oih«r bnuobva vt th« pDou* 
■uo^Vliu^ ni-rri?, t^truiii whtirh run "ir^t'-rmviubninMAirtkidon nuiar/iHtr. itido 
all iEP>(>hiih-i} Lj; du-^u nil vcidcAin clm'tjrritiili.v hum Tpuhtt] iidrt<^iiuiiiur. 
^i£iw hit jitrrvif ifpmct ir-tifvie tn'i'n> Cfto'u t-in^titt. i^Sf/tnirvitt ail Anu/vaiium 

t TbiB id A void ooint^ by iJ"^. It »pp*M» 1o b* Jeri\cd Ut/m !•*- 
^l jit. rfr/pfiu), loy urtit'uULH tiouad, m iijJiJOnwi to flfcuj. 


rorcuB tfOBtcM unnr. 


f. That otbftT tnuwlet. by Uicif MCl X fltio*, c» «lict iki 
■biiiv iif ilvf or|fK«, and Uiub iDodify tte q«i^ilJ of the eovii 

What part Ui«mtrnimlpQitit]ott,or*^dttplm^ta'(ieefi^lt 
d, 'ffr t>k«« ia mulilit^UoM of M«nMb do«M ujC M«ca to k 
cl«Ari J citobliilMdf except tbst* m t ko niaagrai, mt BO J at0, wfan 
It k filrly der^loped, it dnM no nwint tlwB pUj & vmj iwaad u y 
part — ^uo cffct btco icecMMire* Uen pev importaai <kii 

will i^ol iJ«<rmilufitocoiwid«rtli«U»ttf«flis^mcMiifi4«UciCifl«f tU 
nir-hbiM'TtUod tbct coDoomilant iuisIioim in rocml pbmottm 
rtcflu-::bU-thc4>T&omT whicbarc mv^ with in UicinugTe,iUD.fariii>, 
tite rloren auij tbc iUr'-vl<>|ri.t-nu; but niciitiuu iDUvt not U trt' 
tiftJy (itoiEted of th<> fa«t that in ooe of tJi« Ma-bontf (/fij^ 
mnt^f uj< ^rrrirew^^) tJi« rnr<cliMtt«iu of t lir production d mm 
iv rMlu<MHl to iU dmplc4t «£pricivion, twio^ mcentlF tfco vibnisoD 
of vi^luiilary [ni]M:l» rciulori.-ttl hy ah air-bUddcT harinf 
DoitJicr duct DOT diftpbn|:m,cor"liitJiAiic"innMk6,lMtii«ff« 
of orgnAfl bong DO belt«r developed tliftQiD ^hm whicb iI>mI 

A^ «pftc« further &i]5 ii» for a proper rericw of the gumiL «f 
the j>ift(-in« orcbwtra, «4> miut coQt«ot «ur««dvaf with mw 
cuunple. Wc will take the inAignrff, a de#Cfi|iti(io of whatt 
loimirul [if>rfnnniiiic'p hus liron nirmdy c|iiot«d at the b^graaii^ 
of tbJB urttde. The wuiultf cmtlt^Hl hy these f^^hv^ ozo hoIaUi 
T>riiicipn]1jr for their teogT-b, Laving & me&n of 2^ M>outubi, tSO^ 
for thfir unitbrmity, **qui vajii«qii'ft U naonotonu k ptua ftti- 
giuii4>«" y\u* timbre vimi>tt verj much, th^ nuwt co«ataon 
btiintc that of a ccinmoni recd-or|t;iLQ or tbo reed of a Aag«^kl 
Aikoiiier piett.j ft^i^ueuL tlml*ri na^mMivt^ that rif th«? lai)^ 
n coiJtHrri-haMF. Some ii4:niirk nriv hownrr, Ipu: A^cet, ajid nuj 
h&v^ 0amd likoncM to the tODc ot a liiirdj-gtirtty ov lattlo^ wkijo 
i>th^i'Fi Hr4* t'lciU' JLtid |>iue, rvsviiibling in their tiuiffr* those ra^ 
<iucixl hy a hniitboy, hartnonica, or &ccoid(.V»ii, M, Dulov*^ wtHil 
Ujuittlje range ofKuiinibiproduocdh^ the maigr<f», from liiemod 
RCnt« to the dt4rp4>9t, to three or four toncfc I'Jior baro gao^ 
rally a iCTBaL U-mlyiicy *' tu tle|{L-u<^ate iiitu n huiiiirLin^ Mimd,'* 
eitljvr from an ejc^^tw^ or from a want of tDtvofiily* 

It wmjltl have Ivccti intcreMirg, had the liuiiLe of tliia artldfi 
ppTmitted it, to havv i.'oni(u]L«rtHl nioro fullj the phcnoineika of 
!*fnind Jxiid dctcrihcd, fttim a musical niid phjuieal poiot uf 
vifw; hiiL JIM thi' Mihji^ot has in the^e ^&^i^ been roganUd 
rather froiu a hiulo^^tcal Htiind-poiDt, I would Eaiu IvAVfs the 
njotr mivhiuiituU part of tt. — oue&auj:ht«itbgr«&ti&t«i«ll,aad 
most fulJy and ably difct^fiod by Hh Dufo6ie--t« the cun^idcmtioo 

Im and flcir>titific miuicbu, fur '* U vibmUoE mwou- 

Ic mi'Bitt qui,ttu movcn dc rec^ciclicj* oxprrtmrntolc^ n«j«t mnl- 
CtpU^«S pour fiiixti uut^ ^ludt? bi«?L] ^ppruftjuilif.-, UtnoonipUte de 
«e fi^t DAtivol, r^c^'era au roii^ cW pb^noiujiiie* lea plua 

It sppu&Tv ibnt out of more thiui 3,000 epi^cica of fi«bo« no 
inon? iJvui 52 AW at [irfsfiit known lo prailiica tnund. Tliitf 
oHiU««t0 meat csfigvlarlj wilL th^t vliioh bappcne among the 
oLhfrr Utw \cTti-bTiit« clBMitf, conUining nt bs«t 1 2,000 qvciea ; 
for here cvcvy individuttl pcwcwtf* a lary&x — in other worri*, an 
«irgaii of vmcv — aiiO uui uf tbtiivc tlioiM? timt Aire* iucjtjEiUtf 4>f 
vsenMtii^ tbe functicm of tbia organ ar« id a veij hoaII 

Not only IK there cvvr/ reiuon to bcljpvo thnt tlir tnujontjr 

€>f wiuikU piixliii-td by liobca lire not c^ua] iit(i:Ta)j(r«.'N but are 

Truly vvtimtAT^ ; but there 14 amoit^ buc± aa t>ive teiit to them 

a Dko«t rrmarkJiblc diz^clopmcnt of 1\k organs of bc&ring in all 

««u*t)ttal patti^filir« — e.g. In l)i« vciuioircuUir oanuls otulitbit, 

aikI ntrvta' — corrcbiti^^ wiUi tb« dc^froc of jHrrtVctioii of the 

iu«tnuneii1. FuTtbpr thno this, tis ih»? eoiiads geu^^rally &tcf\ 

in &equeBCT and intensity at the biccding aooeon. it will Tki>t bo 

imnAcoikiUe to rrgtirvj thi^m — ^tuuUii^, asvt?do. UiAt t.hi* o.hirp 

of tlie crkkct and tbt! cniuk of the fnrig is ouch iu itj* way 

an alluring urenad^ — aj Diipt.iaL hymns, or. lo u^ lan^ifuaf^ 

AMTTibul to Plut^rclit Its ^ dcafcuing epitlialamia.^'t More thuD 

tbi^; (tf^iTig tbnt the ourjf, niifl nfhi<r«^ nf ihp mmp fHini|y» bnvn 

given immbtakenbic proofs ot tlioir optiiudc to rrccivi: :u>mo 

nvlinipnle of eduL'aLiun, iuu] in jcuL it^ri In r tii ivrct-ivt* oftUiId 

bounds, it can yut h<; poaaiblc Ibut tbo moml udmonitionH of a 

8l. Antbony of Padua — hy many still r«^rdi^ il« a work of 

npcrcrof^ti<m— niAy, no lcn» thnn thf^ ankoron* t%FAn^ of tlic 

itvitud Viithrr, af1i-r all uvl Imvr lUUr^n ii|miii tjiisUly deaf lAm. 

■ Sue Itj^tiiiu* "^ jinarariiuvhii TTfil^fjan-ftvnsi": \»ttt Liif. lii* Altit: Dn* 
GtbbtUbynEitb dcr Kcodbciiljsrlitf" (!:<(< jvkljulm, IVT^j: anJ tbo tvouufuJ 
prifanllcma, made, wc bcllcvr^ by Mr, CliArlc* Slcwt, tbo Ciirator. ia Uid 
MutT^m cif St. ThihiTiJu' llfiHpirnI, l/>iiilcirj, 

t 3J. lJu^>«aj vuggvfltfl timt tlt^ iton^ uf tbo fWblc^d Simit titd iU origin id 
tho uttcr&AfiM of Hh'^Ala of mnJsro^ It ia probable thnt tha ^ofu — tbnt 
"iDtmllaiijt marinl," «i Alh^mnus lom^fld it, cauglit In Tho "Triiuni 
IfiQUluTii " III (ifnntUh tbo lnbluA 6f Ki>iiLtiii vi^iouMA^ vju, nn Utjadulet iad 
Uumi vutegnlEd, u^juq utlitir ib&a ibo uiniffre. 



All LTin dj^urta hav* tmn sdulcil unl dtawti liy tJw vUbur frwn pbiM Aoiu^tftaf 

Fjq. ]> Vioor or lb<i tipp«r «iitC*oa of tbo irotit p*i1 ol tb« Mij «tf tl* 

w jmrdnncftbcikuLlumlof Ibt rnHitpATtartliifBpinc bMbnurv 

I moTvd ; nb*) ftU ttia *' ^nllatenl " miuclct, (t3^ «up*rt<^Iud 

■ d»p. HitbtTinuriorviidoftbtltodjr apdionUiv IsftoiU tDtb* 
I Uftni of riLUM]«», and Ui« Hbft M fiT u tb# durad Mrfa of tk 
B abJoUkcu. A fiortion irt ihv uiTi:ibn.n« lintof^ til* »b4«n« it 
I nUiuaI,to wliLch an Atia<h?d thu 'MjiUiu.»u1 " miliclei n« 
I v»i<an f>r ihfi p^uuirior half of thii tantcla hua bMli MpQIBid 
I frooi lU &tiHctim«t)U uid rfldAciod, ic otdor tv riiim niPifi 
I iui:v^ r^il/ thv ci;uim nbicH tb# cDlin muscle d^ciiDflb 
B f i>. IjTfl p]1-Oi>VfTr, or ''opercLiluui," vl Olbctorj lab* ^ 
B brnla, a;>, Optic lobv. « L Ci;rrl>r4L Lob«- rL CunUllaib 

■ Ml tf, MiTd^ilU obltm^U, or flr*t pitrt of nfuital ccri, '. T*v 

■ cpivlml iii>rviA« bftlfin^nff u> ihik t\(t\i piUr- ji. TH> ilii**T»iia 
B [of whjpi) oiilv ivj> hfv rv{in»*i]tvd is lb* ftUilo) «l Ibc dut« 
B doiujitd for ibfl '' iatmcotr^r' niusclorttDd tl>« |fft^|tki) 1^ 
B TiflMptd L^prin ihL-mouE«iilii ihi? ^crtobnil foliiittb. On AU'Wi 
B \n^ thU jiAiiglian, it U foiU]<i tJjut tba n«rT« 4r«|4rt«M 
B to tbe uiiude it a cjuLiuiULtii^u uf ibv bvfMi — lb 
B ntifit erttitiof^ of th« Clino roou. j. TIm B>rv« of U« 
B " ijilriLvoetitl " tuutfclv ofLor lU emi:qcc4icv from tbo gBf^lML 
B t. Two i]«riv« JiririitJg from ll^v inuMT^^t ^^i ttitv WB^ U tb* 
B ^<cpuf«uliim" and ni>i^hhnuriDg|wU '. Xbio* looil^u of tii* 
^ Ci'tvltjii DBrvo of Ulo ti^bth pntf. A. A {jnctiot nrtb»"W 

lut^rHl" buao (Cufier)— ll^JMU^u(ll^ iif ibv " cUriruUr " brcca 
or EiK^riJ fiii^ilLTii noEiiuiidjifiiri', ■ UttI« wvptmt^d from lb* 
'^opfTCuluuL" am. l^i-ti "iDt;iio>«tAl^ mu«dc. ibc poaiftfrv 
flntUiui^d purtiua qf ttbicb bid bi-eii n.-na:t«l- tu i>ilr»aiilj, 
v-hicb II pcitnE^d, ooull not be Kpnataoud. (I. Tks *'jrr«4t 
li^Lrml " muKlco, aiipcr^cuiJ mirl i^p^ uf thtj l«f| adv^ «e^ la 
Hw-liim^ hiiiuiiK*! wfbloh (Iih rJkiH urt v»ibJt>, kl» U Mcdco. 
#, f, Kyi4, H. Air-bliiM'r. 

FlO> $. Ttc >irMnrTH-r-fii"rifhiriiinl7irTinH"Prrrlrifi''(T^ijfi4iV^Jul 
li Ifl Kim from tU lawer Aipwi, jud U ^lutndMl te ■ ^i^tu 
<|iiiutti1j of pu Ihftn it would oiiinuftll; coataliL m. fvindpal 
Ubfl. ■-«, ^Hp lti|{bl and Uft *^}^-r;iJii:iilar loba icspeotivvfj, 

Fro, 3l Tlifl iuiiui<— «1ai> rri>m iFjo mff> nfpwt — cptnivl by > crufi«] 
inci«ioa ; tbo four tnuugial&i Hap* rtculEin^ froan wblcb «f« 
n1b?ct(^ over the appcndicuitf b>bc« ('U, fdl. A, i^ C^rity of 
Um princ'Ipji] lohn trapnnitid by tbo dbiplinijcu) (if> Juio tWfl 
diviiiont- Ihd nnti^or (A) QJiil pMt«nor4Fjob&ub«n. ^,Tb« 
*^ dittinbrufriii " r Duvtmof) Ixia? obttqndjr from before 
vudA uul from tkbof e dawnnurdir « i&dkadng lu « 

TKx ^m or rmiRfl. 


tUlpliCAl ffimtmtt/^ m ^. MnlUn MjiJ'^ei, iYi»:nmiitii>^ a kind 
nf '* ntfihiH " nt Tnid-rSli tit ihn miirp ippJinihiH. 

F[«, 4. TxannraFM vootloa of tfco bir-lilftdivr uf llin hhhiv ftiih. rn^ Lt. 

Rljrht flnil liifl (ippr^ndlrnlftr I^kh**. m ni. f'flvlTv nf tlift prin- 
cipal IrtW fiM I. M«^timn limilin, ■' ft*, Th" Iwi "intripflici*' 
miieiclu of tke nlr-bliuldr^r. TLo obUqUe ilin-cLUiD of UieJr 
flcahy biindW of Hbrw mn hp vj?n. 
ProK 9, ft, 7, Vorioufl phuoi of dijviAlapmoiit cif Iho «It'bladdor of tL« 
miinir fiflli. Tlir Irttrribi^ a* brtfpirfi, 

Kpn^M-ntcl ia MOliijn tn ebow iba in^iompLcto JiApbragm {^J), 
^hioli proj^ci* ftl lie Ifl'el of tho labulu inixmua (c) of *om* 
EnunlniioEi with tha It^n Inbo. r^, pj. Intninal nurfnca of mAin 



Bt BICIUaD \. ntOCTOB. aA^ Cimcum& 

SI>\rRnftliv&cUofMUTDc«are0tma^rtbniiiuiy flctiotuvlnefli 
e-i^Q tbe bvdiwt iaugimitioii cMJd deviie. So Aiai^ 
BTv tljvi: that ovcD th^ studcQt of BcJcoce vb» 1a» Wn «ii{g^d 
in tho vork of nttcUfJn^ Uiemii emr*1y vilUnff CA a^lnnitlUaiii 
Ukrir fiill idfnificBiioc, ar to acc<?pt kII tbo iDmnDcm wb»di no 
dii««tl7 or indirecTtly d^^iicible from tlu4&< Thin, true to all 
depanncnU of tckDcc. i> c«|xt:utllv notewortliy in AAronom); 
toid pt?rhsi|tfi tbfiTfi \% Eko burniiHi nf luiLnKiucny io irhich it U bum 
Ftrikiiigly nnm tliui ui Uiftt wkick trUti^ to conk-u. Dnrif^ 
tl)» Uft iiiinrt«r of a ocQIiiry difiMvorks of tin- inn»^t surprioqi 
DAturi' liuve bora oudo Ropoctinf tlwee ujiEtcviotiB U^Qi^i 
r^UiJiina hai^ bom raviolod which brin^ thftm foto MHOOAtJDl 
vith oth^r object* oocc rcfC>r(Loil kji of a IoCaJIt diffevcni antm^ 
und tb4> phth trr'EiDL u|jeflird lo^ardit ivML^tii jrut morei iM«*«f^ 
by vMcIl, moro thui bj aoy otlier» whicti even &j<roBom/ W 
dUMwtvf. vt^ vf>m brought inlo tlv- prpHmop nf InGmto ntw 
lu^d inlinUf 1itnf> The oortli on which wo tiro — u^y^ nor i^li^r 
HVKtvoi il^r — MT-in^ rubicrr^d tu uilvr iuiifciiifiraiii^t cmnpaivd 
with Lbi* ti^nii^odoiufi dimfiiuioBi of oomrt-travi^viavd upvco ; whib 
ftll thr f^ras Af hjstovy, and oron thaw- which meuiif^ uiir AUtbAl 
«xi«t«nor, BPoin &« raoro xvondji compaTod witli the mwfid 
timp-i»lr^\'nb to wbkh w« nm mirodnond by tho tttudy it. 
eometic nbenoaiecuL 

OdooF liio moit intcrMtiiig |>oiiil« auffgrslol by the 
coinotio di»^ovcfrit<< t< Iho quifttioo, how com(^« uro 
ckMnflvfl. Tbot Ibej art? not all of the anmr on)«rr in mavf- 
fc«t, «heith«trwe coiuider Uioir mto, or tbe tJjApo mid eit«tii 
or tlirir oHkitA. Bnt proci^ly u in &»to;£ii^l t-ljmfh^* 
lioD nii>ro ninr i>r developmPuL !■ couiiiiorp^J a uiiioh lci» 
iRipprtAiit prtinr, Ihfln bojuo tvally ch4nMt'ri5iio ditT'n-iziT li 
MnioUmr, or rvi^n ihm a diflWnticfl of difrribmion, *o in diHJ* 
iyi^^vf^v^ It would be umatufnctory m Uio «xtr«ixic 0D«Jd wt 

ikuoH or 

^*Vo no more churn «t**nrti<^ diffor(>nco to dml with Uiftn thot <if 
**ittlffnwonfc SnppfjMTit^, fi*r iii*ljnic<% that Vf ctttM M'piinit* 
**»ni*!U inUt IhoM? with or witliuut iL ituck*u«j or IhoM? W](h or 
^thoiit » lAit ; Hucha tlaniiticatiiiu, il' it waa f'*nmi to tufrnsjif iiul 
^ith B reol di^erence of nittnr^s wotiM bo iDUch mora aatififno- 
'•^ry timn the nnmigcmcat of florn^^in* into vnrioue orders difltr- 
V*K '>iJj' ia siJte, One of tlit- mo*t iuteiL^i^ug t^m^flions, then, 
*^ tJte cotoetic Hfltronuiny of il f*w ytvirs ag>> was this — Arr Ihi;. 
P'^tiiliarit.iefi jimt rofi'T'ri>d to— tho aVtv^nc^ ^r presi^nc** t^f ti 
"^^IciifTor of a. tail — rwiHy chni'nc(j*ri»tic,or iJo they oorct'^puinJ 
p^ aiurt iUffer@iic<*s of Jt'v«<lopiU4^nt ? I suy thut tbis qudstioc 
■'TfJougtfd U> w>mctii; ftplronomy ofa few ycaj^ ago, though even 
*lirn tbe<TV wi*ri* rwdoOH fut rRgTirtling the vatious foran of 
■ •truotarB obierve^d in orfcnir:tscn<lepr-iidingoiily on dcTolopmvnL 
^^Hf euuniH romt^ts wlikh, ilitritij^ Lliti whole Liitif? of IhHr viMliilitv, 
^^Bbwed neither tuil uor wuU-do&Qtfl nu^t^uj, could nHord iio 
**itni-ns of aiitweriTiy tin.' i|Mrfcti<.)ii. Rut n comer, like rJoiiati'* — ► 
tiio glorious plumed comH of 185ft— which npponrod a* a mere 
glntflditr hjixt- cif light, tixit] ^jmihiaUy duriiif; ita ji)j|iro>ich tn r,h« 
sun rbwumM oue form ;Lttcr anothi^r of cometio adonimdnt — the 
DucleuB, tho fau-sliaped i*ipLiiiHioa. tlii^ long curvi-d tiul, aU'iu- 
tioTifi withtn tho IaiI and f*nvc-l:)prv out^ido thu fitu^ whilo tinuUy 
rvrai HiihMdiary UiU nmdtj Llidf a|J|ieHiu]ii;i: — tt-aclief* m uiiini^- 
tftkftUy that rike«<* featuni depend merely on development. We 
mi^cht^ a* niuftinahly place the chickwi in another cIms than the 
full-fn^wn fowl becftiiw* it has neitlior comb dot coloured tail- 
others a« w^t n EtnaU cumoL in another order thnn that Ui 
irhicti Doimti*i4 belong lH.-eiiUKe the itmall one Mhovri neither 
tail uor coma. Tlio i-radual hn of theee ftjipeud^K™ hy 
Donati'* comet, during it* rt-trfmt. into nutpr spiir-e, of ooiir^ 
ftrcQ^^entt this now. ifnt pirhupn the moot rcmnrkAhk proof 
ei-er afforded of tbi- variety of appesranee whiob the samt oom<it 
niay prMouti waa that trivi>ii by HftHcy** comet at it« return in 
lK,1/5-3ft ; for on thnt orrafllni], nft'*r «howirg a fine aima and 
tuii diinn^ jt:^ npprojich towtirdu thu tmu it wtui sei^n in ilie 
mmthvni hemiKiihiTe hy HerHihel and Mauleai, ntiLonlj without 
toil. Lut io\t:u without eoma^ appcAnnjaf in tact proci^Iy Like a 
irtar of ihii" wi'cnnd magoitudi-- AfUrr this* — tliati«tn wiy, ihiring 
iU rctrcnt — it ^rlnnlly rtimimod itt coruu, and vv/sn seamed to 
hv tbrawinif out n new LilU hut no cumpIeLe LiU wjib foriutd 
while the oomot fL^iuained vii^ible. 

Jndf'vd tht* dilT'Triin; lu^iwivn the appwunnco prcn^imtfid hj 
th<T Kimc <v)ni<'t hofoTp ntnl uiUrr its Tu-uriut a|iprouoh tii tho 
lit only ri'irivikahh* in itsi-ll", Imt nuhjett to leumrkahlc 
'* What 14 very remarkable," eays Sir John Hei'echet 
point, " thu FJm[iu and hi/c aro ui»nally totally dif- 
ferent after the comet'e roappearanco (on the other side of tbo 


«uq) from whnt tlinjr tn*rp tmfnnf lU ilMtppnsLrannv Batot^ ^ 
rem&rkfl on tb« v^oom1 point, "like tho*c vrbtch nppouvd in 
ISJ^H nnt! 1861, wilhoiit ult^igfither (ifHappenHn]; ajt tf ?t«r^)n«iil 
Dp by ih*> ALIU4 n^^T attaifiini^ a ocrlain maxiinuin or cHmu 
of ftf>Wii*V)iii Hni1 MKi', tlic nw»y, nnd nt Ui?e satlia Une move 
ftoTil tiwrird, ntii) arc s<vd io tht* ftouthcm honuvphcrot ^^ ^dtd 
rnmiiJUiU n? a litij^lilei mid cu'^rf [|1uiii>iM dittt-nue of wludi iW 
hero wiLoesaed the graDd44t dieplav ; ani on the ot^«v band ^ 
hare rwwive m it wcrrt many comrf4 fnm thr f»iitbrm ikt, 
whr>^ ^ronUvt duipUy rht- infiflhiUQte of thd «ouLhenk ptiti «l 
thi^rjirtU only have wilii(.-aHL'd. li^tUKi i-«ry qII«ii bappfliB Uttt • 
cotutft. wliich befcifvi %U di^nppearaiice io the son'a nn «u bd 
& A.H^1>Tc: and inn^iScaut cIiJitcU i^^ppcan mftgnifinl and 
glorified, throwin^if out nn imrnQDH" tail, and t^xhibtHog trnvj 
■ymptom of vioI«ut emt/<m«iit, aa if act on fir^ bj a Ha* 
ftpproncb to the aoiirce of light nnd heatv 8uch waa the oaf 
with tho £r<i;t comet of 1G80, and that of 1843, both of vilnck 
AP T Ehull prrMtaiitly lak^ iicnuiou to <-x|>1itin, u-aiiy <1id appnwi 
cxtremeiTneftr to the body of thf- pitn«iiud xtnut hn\'c xm^crpm 
a very violient h^at. Other rr-me1e, fiiiiii^hed wuh h««tiUfkil in^ 
conspicuous tail^ bt^forc thoir imtscnaoD it tho nm*fl rftjVttt 
their rpiippe:tmnLV^ utv vtcqi xlrippftil tif Ihnt appondlgp. nA 
altogether so very dil^CTOlLt. that hut for & knowlodgtfr of ttcir 
<-ciitr-<t<i^ it would Ih? cjiLtl«< iinjxtt^ibl^ tr^ identify Uvm ai th« 
enmo bodies. S^mo, ontho othtjr band, which bftvo eacaptd 
tkolioe ult.ii^ljicr in (ht-ir ji[i|hr(]Hch t^ Lhr Min, bant «pon u> 
lit oQot^ in the pl<TLitiid« ct Ib^ Bplcudour, ^[mUi tmCEr 
pectedlj, fU did tbal of tLo year 1861/' 

ft voj cJDnr,th&Ti, lon^ Bitjce, that roTDfrte coDDot be filmwiflH 
f-iUier itLvoi'diug ti^ thcii si^i? or thtdr dovelopmeDL Buttlw 
bus b^tfu even more 0Qin'luj<iv(*ly abown by Urn tp^ctratDopio 
AHinlyfiiH of Urge and HZiiall t^urut^U. For oerUdu lin|;)il bndl 
ew»ij in th<? sfw^ctru uf thn smaH ovmwta which bad beca 
rxamiueH before thr prrsnnt ymr. arc found also to characteriK 
the ape4:trum of <he oomet which adorned our iionh«m ifcu* 
k4t Juue aiid July, and tu be ehovm not oul; hy the coma, but 
nl)^ by the tniL 1 do not here ent^r into any special goob- 
dcmtioD of thr? te9ult» of vpnctroecopic analysis SAApplied (otl« 
comet, becfluwe Irt »ay truth our Np^tmncopicti liaro not m*t 
with any noteworthy siicceiw ; and w* onteX vttdi till the i^ectr*- 
ttoopi<iJ* of rh« iiiutbfim hnmiaphen? have wnt in tbeir Btib^ 
mt^nta hisfon! wc cjlu dcttrminr ^vhctht^r any upccial accovoa 
ha^ beeti made Io tn\r kiiowlwlgt. It niny. bowoveo-, bo aJauBcd 
from wbnt hns bocn obwTViJd h(?re* that tb<* cbaractehftk §f9C- 
tnun nf i->iinrt.A, Int^ .ind «niAll, is That threi<-1)aiicl c^m- 
triim whicli wa^ iinrt recodified during tJt« fp«<)ii 
invcstigaUon of TviupftrN nnall comet in the yrar 18fl<L 



Ooiii«tft, ibcD, mun be c)u^^*d in in>m<i ftihitrvray. It u not 
difficult tt> *el«t tbe piirpor mttlotl cif t^la'iiufication — a inftthod] 
not ikQlv Fatisf^torr a» r^~pe«f£ che digtiuctLoDfl on whioh it de-* 
pentb^t hilt cxccodiDgJy su^gcvtivo (as, in feet, every jii^t niodi^ 
«f clAMitic^ton nmj be expfK?L«d t« ba). 

I would divide comets into t^rso clftSMOf accoidi&j; t>> the 
imtiire of their pntlis- 

Fit«ti tbcrr Arc the comets wbicb have paths so Eoodflrate in 
coEt^nt thnt tb«*ir pcHotU of nfvr>Uiticin H^long to tbe mme 
order a» tbe perioos in wtiich tbu pUTi(>t!i reirolve aroimd the 
sun. Tills cla«8 fiif^ludm all The comets which Itave boon 
dcflcribcd ri9 Jupitor^fl comct-fiimilyi &Q-1 aD Ujom Hlmilarlj 
ff»]»tnl tn S;it.Tini, lo UmnuK, Anil lo NflpMinp> Other (^omete 
of K>mirtt'bnt jn"civteT period tliJin NcptimuV ccmrl-fhmily mayi 
|>t*rlm|^H) bff retarded as hfiAOciiil.t-Ll witli as vi^t iinJiHi?(i;^(*red 

gbuieta novohiDg oiitsicio tho path of Noptimo, and thifrefore mt 
plotting tn thn wimp fiiinily, I "VAiiihl nntj iinw**vPT, ntt^^mpt 
[to define vrry uurrowly the boundivry of tbe vnrioun eJjwacs into 
[vhidj Liuiirt?! may he (livMcnl, ;md in wbjLl. fulbitts 1 sliull limit 
tny rdEnai'k^ to comett which are cioarly members of uno or 
other cUw, Icnving out of cmi«i (knit ion those? n*|Hictiiig which 
(Ibr wantf porhnpti, of more complot« infomuitian tbun v/c tt 
proMTDt pwQieNi) ^To Way fc^d dcHihtfiiL 

Secondly, tbf^ru uro coQn?ta of lf>Djj pyrioda, but which yet 
tli(»w iiiiiiiistakiibly, b_v llmir uioIiijuk, Llmt, Ibey aiL' in rettlity 
IDeiDberF of the eolar Bjfitom — such, for instanci*, a& DonaVi'A 
comet, wbieh Toay be crpi't:tod to rH.nm io tb*^ *un'* nrrigiibi/ur- 
bood in th« cuutku of about two thoiwiincl yi^nr*, 

LftHtly, tbi-re cm.- tbe corutstt wbucu^ iiit»tL<:iiin iinliaite ii pnUi 
not re-oiit«nn£; into iUolf- Tbc^ are of two orders ; those 
irbich retreat from the f^un on a, path tending with continual 
fQcrcuBc of dutnncv to beeome inon^ und mfirv. nc!:ir)y rtLrall^L 
to tbe path by whidi they bad npproadK<il him; and tlioKt 
wbo»e reir«atiTi}>; mih carried them dtvorgingly away so that 
they retreat towards a dilfcrcnt part of tbe bcarens than that 
from whii^b th.^y arrived. TKbnically, the two oni^r* an* thodo 
of comets pi^miinjf (i.) panilxiUc uud (ii.) hypcrltolio j>atb?u In 
f however, we may di5ml% the parabolic path as Djever 
followed by any comet, a^ny more tlLQn a truly eirculur 
T actTmlly fnllmTrrl by tiiiy plnnH. We in:iy tJiWn it fnr 
any comtt which .■K-vms to fellow a pnrabolic path 
either an vnormoiuily elongattnl oval patb^ rmd so 
»Mrond olaaB ; or a path oarryinff it for over away 
iata outer tp^J^f aiul 'nearlt/ in tho diriq^tion tniin which it biut 
arrived, but not «xacti}t* A cnmet'i path could cmiy have th« 
trar pnrrt^iolic form by n in-rfcK^t inarvi-l of ttiincidcnoe ; and In 
point of Inet if a comet could by Bume amasinf^ chaiioe apptcao 



our tun on micti m pnth^ tiie v^ry li<iut nf thfr muliiliuliniiuft 
dirturVing: Attroclivnv to wliioh the coinct "would bo cxpooed 
would n^co to t^bangtt tho paih either to IbB cUipti<r or te 
hyperbolic foim* 

Aod here we ma^ psiUBe to imiiiirtr how fhr tbo nwoDd •f 
threo claMC0 into which comets havo Uiud boca divided cna 
raganhul rm n c^I^isa JiimiU iXjea lbs jurrc tjal lUal n asmt^ 
Q K-cnUrruiff path— fo that, unlees pertiurbatioiu offecC ii, 
aiviiieL will tiuvrl in ct^ntiniinl dcpciiil<-ncc on mu r>tm — affovd a 
ctufflciODt reuon for (liitLiQguubiDg; the ooinot from otbnn vhkfa 
tr.tvcl ou a hyperbolic path? It apitcuTS (u luj? tliAt Uiii 
fjiicvtioii ^mlu of heiiiff ansvrered id two v^ys. W|>«ii m 
rt'uiemU'r that a comet npproociiiiig our i^jstvm oti a dUgbtlr 
hyperbolic paUi might huvu that puLb dtungod into on ttlliptic 
ti^iucby thcpdturljalioiEa towhich the Df>ini,-tvatildl)c subjected 
duilnf^ JU Tisit» we may rea^onahly deci^le that the m^re act <i 
ft coniet pursuiDg an elliptic path oiight not to bo comiden^ a 
valid reojmn f^v ili«^tiiigiLUhing it frnm our of tho hyperfaolie 
oametsi Hut when wo convidt^r, on the oUirr liiniU tbit Uim 
are camel-? liki? tho&& of Jiipitii^r'* family, whf<?h ar^ quite dU- 
tiiictly a^potalod by the oature of tht-ir patha from the bypvrbolie 
ci>mE4«, we mcxy not unrnnAoiinbl^- tiifor that som? at lewt of 
tho^^ which tr&r«l on ^rJIiptic patbn of grctt oocontritr arc ii 
reality to l« nlawsified H|i;irt from tJi« bypj^rlioUc oomctj^ « 
huving hidadifiorcnt origin ondftdtffereut history* AVemi^l, 
inileeflf r<?vcf>i^.' (Im jtrguninit jii=t addnc«d, (ind reo^n that 
bypvrbolio o^^ull^U oij^ht not to be oln^ficd Apturt frofU 
ixiiueCa of Wgpenifd, U^cnuif iwrttirbaUaoK pjccitfil within t!ta 
Bobr Eyb-t^rm might chauge an cJoQgut«d eUl|>tia orbit into a 
hypi^rlKilic nne, Tbp poiut at itsut* h ihus w>nii to resoliri- iiaelf 
iikti> thi^ f|tLcstio]i 'wbcthor wo c^na iis^crt ilint tbcro ar« coittrfi 
wLii'h fnnu Uh^ Hiiliu-at lUum (tbc- youlh of the? toAsur vyvUm) 
buvi* beloD^d to it (t.) with ehoTt pi^'hoda and (ii.) with l:iiij; 
pmods while (iii.) othor c»jmeU Imvcr vlaittxl it Cium utlx^r xyy- 
tisias. V,'v llad iu £ict thAt thi? ntt^mpt to cUcsify loadf io 
tluA case, 04 it h&6 Ic^d iu no umay c^tliers (u pcrbnp* it iDevitftUy 
muRt l<«d^ if properly oonduotcd), to the qucAtioa of origin. 

And bcTc perhaps the qneation w£U arisen may wo n-rf- ctit tin 
bo aeparaloi-i from the hyperbolic €omct4 which ri«it our 
from intrfiir-^nur space ? I am aieaw that the theory of 
and meteors which f^Iapaielli hai advaoced, and which louy 
in thin iT^tiuitry liAvn viewed with conaidemble tivour, poinU to 
this conclusion. For aocordin^ to that theory mcteor-«jH£«0 
an: group* of discrete bodies which have h^en dnwji townrtb 
ev aobr tyaUm^ gradually leD^heiuug out u the procces of ia- 
draught coritiiiiirfd, and bttve then been compellvd by tha 



PHRIaoQ* to wbicb thcj liavc been subjected witUin our 
ntem, ta Itt-uoim^ luprnVvrx of i1 ; nxui nn c^ometii anc] m^riiror* 
fsltms hav« Ix^tn fi>und to be a<ftucii;ted toeetUer Id »oTno 
>i>Tt1*rii>n8 wnv, this theory of the introdiiorioii of mpleopw 
ffltcm* i» in reality a tlicory of comets. Now »inci* somo 
inly lunnii^ thr m*ii-i»f>r»»yKtrTri* hiivr? pi'MntlA «f mmli'mtit 
Uii* tlioory «f .Scbieiiiarvlb'^ wt)ulU xeffard th*; abrjrt- 
oomeU A4 dr&tni uiit uf the intei^it^tbtr depUiH, white 
7 it wouJd b«>tib«;ard not i9 »t«iid <Schiapai^Ii\ theory 
bypcrlKiliff ciimHi. Tn Hurt^wr know ihul ho limiMr*lf re-^nU 
|h Ui<flry iwt rCHiiuiiiii; tho occusional appwiruoco of njt-t/«r* of 
^perluUc path* ami tberefoie ah nuL inettly fuusiHUrEil. wilU tLe 
peDom«iifi of hyperbolic com^tf, but Jiocoimting for thotn. 
idopting hi* thrt^ry, Lhitn, Ut it* fuUrwt uti-nt, v/k ^hmM 
^l^^i nil comotii and mcrtcon a^ bodice ooinin;^ from th« 
tcntcUiir depUi ; for It it not eaay ti> neu huw auy aiuiel ot 
t«or^r«t«in could bc» ^n far di8UD;;p.tiF:hed from lU folIowB aa 
be R^ftrdcd xui oiiginnlly a mcmWr of thf? sol^ »yi^tciii. 
But for rcaionR which appear Lo nut iniumtrQvertihUi, J find 
tmpo»iblQ to give in my udhftdon to ScbiaporclU'ii viavea^ in 
w form in whir^h h^ preimced t)i«m. A line ought to \m 
llydra^m bct^rccn wbat bo^ bc^o proved and what ha« 
fei>t htH^n provtKl nf«pr?^ thit opinionH which Sf^hinparelli haii ] 
Mruoed. Hi* mofl't bappy cnn^qition, thnt oictcom would l« 
tnnid to travel in thu pnlliK of cucu^t*, han been rcaUtedf an) no 
pMtiU^ quealioQ cjiii ht^ miwd aa to the complot^aeas of tho 
Oanonttrution ; but It 18 quite othervlsd with hii auppo»ltion 
'^•pcctiiig the iDnnnor in which meteoric t^ivtcm* or comet* 
taxo liwn intrfHln«'<l intrt the iolar mtctn. It not only lifts 
"ft fccen proved ihiit cometii have been oompclli?d by tlie ! 
|Giturbation« of the planets to become permanent memtHfrH of 
^ Mtar fyvtcm, biit grave doubts rc«t on the bare poadhilitj 
*f fUuh an nxput occiim'ng. 

Ltl it he reu)eml>:?red that the; conilitions of iht problem 
^<^ |Huvly dynamical. We Iciiow that a comet'rt bead obey* 
^^it lavf of gfrarity, and what«v«r pocuJiaritJeB tnay nlf>*<et tli« 
^1^0n» of iho. mnUi<T nf r^>me1.»' t^El* are fiol by any m<!ftnA j 
Jwh 30 would b^lp to render easier the ciipttjrrj* eonf^civt^d by 
**WBpareUi. CuufininbC "'ir*'Iv<"* them in gravity, we can 
^^irrrnin^ readily in what way a Gomet might be captiUHi. 
^^c tl^c dUo of a partJcki travelling towirdu our mlsu KyKtcta 
»Din out th« intcntollAr d«ptbs under the inlhieitco of the sun's 
^tr&ction. Svich a particjr mny Ih^ n^rtlinl iw pruti^ically 
'Plvowhing the eun from on in&nitc dintanct,* and wu know 

Ho pcivi OMiUfir*<l U th« v«kcitj or th« portiolc at ptvii ^JvEioie** 
W 1^ «aa{ BDd tkfl «timitoJ Telodty is iipprt^Uy tlic fniue wbcUiir 

ronjULfi KEiscx unsir. 

iU vijlooity at fl^ireii dMuioof from Uw mou Thui, «hm ^ 
Uio iliMance of Nepttina Ita velodtjr voiilJ be 4'7 mUn fcr 
fecODd; at tho diAtanoc^ of Umniif, 6'B rniln per MMud; *t 
Anium, ft'3 mitri; of Jirpiti-r, )L*3 iitiliv; nF Uin lutncfiU 
teom 15 to 16 milM per second ; nad t)i4i velocity ia amaf 
the distance* of Matfl, the EiuiIj* Veuu^p am! Mercor^t wwM « 
&0*ti nnli^^, ^L^-9. o0-3, mtd 41-4 milcv pi^r f^oood rofkf«tivii)f 
Now viG ka^w tItAL thi; grahtr>t rf-lncitv vhjdi anj gifvB 
pLiiDDt out conuikimicat^ to a body apprajichii^ it Qoder ^ 
m)lQ influeiKie (toot i»t«rvt«lUr epnce b vtrry uiticlt !«» tku tk 
veloci^ vhicb sodi plaiMt can coEomiinicAt^toa bod^ftj^iroidK 
iag it under tlw rtin*? inRiicttcc in addition to \i§ omi fov tfc* 
cotnEuuDicuUon of vulocity to il iiUAJri^ ^^y ^ ^ pfetf* 
ft^qtiiiiu^ tiat«, and iu tbo U^ler of tlie two i;aaM jut cat- 
fiderod the bf>Jv i^ for a much fmallcr time und^ lie ii- 
flucuoc of the pianct-* And the rclocitj which a phnA ad 

th« piirttclo bo «uppo*«4 to eomtt tr«m tliiv ditbuioo of the nautst ilv *f 
from im IgJ-mto dijuacvi XLU b cftaity *t«n from tlic foctztiiU 


irhorft'i' Tqir«<«nU iho radiuj of 4 i»Kiihr Oflkil da>cnb?d wtik nlootf^ 
ftml Ti* Uin vqlocUr at dUlAuot '■. ofnlfodv intTPllIcir m W ucbit htnlf 

D > uvtt't lulocU^ * 19-3, 

t«kh^ II mile M tU ualt of l^c^i, «»d « «M«nd m ib« imit ff i^; 
£:ir lli<>(if;L ire bftT« pat r - unHy, thU dnt4 not force u* ta iMk*rM*t 
LiihoT Imjjtli, biJEMuu woooly rvfjiiiw tc cooiUcr Um zMta bwte ftJM W ' 
Th«n W4 hm— 



If A i» vada inSnitf*, But If fl b» tAJnn v^s*! to Wf Lho iliitMOi of Alfl» 

r - 2A^ - 0-0000047^ - C-OOOOOoOOOdOOnrA -* amnltcr tcrmt, 

■boat ^i iacl(*«. In (jlLurvrardj,7tic-Mi % Udj «rpptV«C-bJ*g: lAa wnf* 
bOiiity wooM h»Te a volwifj ^rf 4T>uth W'ft mJW jer Kcond, • Wy^ 

Enehing th« sm fwm lho di*injio* ^f Alp^ C«at*iih, *f» that it* »«» 
loQf^ maj bo itimhloi u bulf th« ditUoM of that «tiv, wouU b^t** 
valodET IcM bj 4| IiiiJhv per K^^oaid, « dtfltKOoe to ffoull iliAt U imj ^ 
r*g«ii|td tft erftaOiL?«ij|. It La « rarioua oi