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PORFIRIO DIAZ 

PRESIDENT OF MEXICO 



THE MASTER BUILDER OF A GREAT 
COMMONWEALTH 



BY 

JOSE F. GODOY 

Author of " A Few Facts About Mexico," " The Legal and 
Mercantile Handbook of Mexico," etc. 



WITH 60 ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS AND DIAGRAMS 



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
NEW YORK AND LONDON 

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PREFACE 

"T LOOK at Porfirio Diaz, the President of 
A Mexico, as one of the greatest men to be 
held up for the hero-worship of mankind." These 
words, uttered by Senator Ehhu Root, when in 
1907 and as Secretary of State of the United 
States, he visited the Mexican RepubHc, fully 
justify the publication of any work which, con- 
taining reliable data, may give an impartial and 
truthful account of the life of President Diaz. 

The wonderful career of this great man, both 
owing to his military achievements and to his 
great success as a statesman cannot fail, and has 
not failed up to now, to claim the attention not 
only of his countrymen, but also of the whole 
civilized world. 

In the English speaking countries, the desire to 
have a thorough knowledge of the past deeds and 
present achievements of General Porfirio Diaz, is 
frequently manifested. The writer of this work, 
therefore, thinks that a book prepared like the 
present one and based upon accurate information, 
a great deal of which has been obtained through 
personal observation, will prove interesting to the 
reading public of the United States and England. 



IV 



Preface 



It may be here stated that, in order to present 
the facts, as they really happened, and with 
preciseness and accuracy as to dates and some 
other circumstances, the President himself, some 
members of his family and his chief advisers and 
many of his friends, have been consulted : thereby 
correcting any misstatement, that unintentionally 
might have crept into the narrative. 

The illustrations which accompany this work, it 
is to be hoped, will add some attraction to it, and 
the charts and maps, which have been especi- 
ally prepared for this biography, will greatly aid 
the reader to grasp and better understand some 
of the incidents in the life of President Diaz. 

Still another feature of this work, which we 
think will give it more weight and importance, 
consists in the characteristic opinions that appear 
herein, regarding the President's life and career, 
which many prominent men residing in the United 
States and Canada have especially prepared for 
this biography. 

Our heartfelt thanks are extended to all those 
who have kindly aided in the preparation of the 
work, which we submit with diffidence to the 
English speaking people, fully aware that it can 
lay no claim to great literary merit, but knowing 
also that its contents are reliable, accurate, and 
exact. 

J. F. G. 

New York, January, 1910. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

CHAPTER I 

Birth and Parentage — School and College 

Days ....... i 

CHAPTER II 
The War of Reform ..... 5 

CHAPTER III 
The War of French Intervention . . 12 

CHAPTER IV 
The Restoration of the Republic . -23 

CHAPTER V 
First Administration of President Diaz . 30 

CHAPTER VI 
His Marriage and Travels . . -35 

CHAPTER VII 
New Presidential Term from 1884 to 1888 . 41 

CHAPTER VIII 
From 1888 to 1892 ..... 49 



vi Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER IX 
From 1892 to 1896 ..... 56 

CHAPTER X 

From 1896 to 1900 ..... 66 

CHAPTER XI 
From 1900 to 1904 ..... 74 

CHAPTER XII 
From 1904 to 1910 ..... 85 

CHAPTER XIII 
Private Life of President Diaz ... 97 

CHAPTER XIV 
The Past, Present, and Future . . . 106 

CHAPTER XV 

Opinions of Prominent Men Regarding Pres- 
ident Diaz as a Soldier and Statesman 124 

APPENDICES 

I. Summary of the Message Read by Presi- 
dent Porfirio Diaz at the Opening of 
the Mexican Congress on September 16, 
1909 197 

II. List of Battles and Sieges in Which Gen- 
eral Porfirio Diaz Has Taken Part . 203 



Contents vll 



III. Medals and Decorations Received by 

President Diaz .... 206 

IV. Banquet of the Chamber of Commerce of 

the State of New York Held at the 
Waldorf-Astoria in New York City 
on Thursday Evening, November 19, 
1908 ...... 209 



V. The Meeting of Presidents Diaz and Taft 

at the Frontier . . . .219 

VI. Mexican Finances and Commerce in 1909 232 

Index 235 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

PoRFiRio Diaz . . . Frontispiece 

The National Palace on Independence Day 4 

The Battle of Miahuatlan ... 8 

The Battle of La Carbonera ... 12 

Escape of Porfirio Diaz .... 16 

The Battle of San Lorenzo ... 20 

The Taking of Puebla — April 2, 1867 . 24 

One of the President's Reception Rooms — 

National Palace . . . . .28 

General Porfirio Diaz .... 32 

Carmen Romero Rubio de Diaz, Wife of 

President Diaz ..... 36 

Ignacio Mariscal, Secretary of Foreign Re- 
lations ...... 40 

The Post-Office — City of Mexico . . 44 

Views of the Post-Office — City of Mexico . 48 

President Diaz — From a Painting . . 52 

Mrs. Diaz 56 



X Illustrations 



PAGE 



Children's Asylum — City of Mexico . . 60 

Jose Yves Limantour, Secretary of Finance 64 

President Diaz in the Executive Chair . 68 

National Legislative Palace ... 72 

National Geological Institute ... 76 

Ramon Corral, Vice-President of the Re- 
public AND Secretary of the Interior . 80 

Views of General Hospital ... 84 

The Dry Dock at Salina Cruz ... 88 

Mrs. Diaz 92 

Amada Diaz de la Torre — Daughter of Pres- 
ident Diaz ...... 96 

Porfirio Diaz, Jr., Wife and Children . 100 

Luz Diaz de Rincon Gallardo — Daughter 

of President Diaz .... 104 

Some Members of President Diaz's Family . 108 

Chapultepec Castle . . . . .112 

Production of Gold and Silver in the Mexi- 
can Republic (Diagram) . . .116 

Chartered Banks in the Mexican Republic 

(Diagram) ...... 120 

Manuel Gonzalez Cosio, Secretary of War 

AND Navy ...... 124 

Foreign Capital Invested in the Mexican 

Republic (Diagram) . . . .128 



Illustrations 



XI 



JuSTO Sierra, Secretary of Public Instruc- 
tion AND Fine Arts . . . .132 

President Diaz — from a Recent Photograph 136 

Post-Offices, Telegraph Lines, and Wire- 
less Stations in the Mexican Republic 
(Diagram) . . . . , .140 

The Monument of Mexican Independence — 

City op Mexico ..... 144 

Justing Fernandez, Secretary of Justice . 148 

Some Harbor Works in the Mexican Re- 
public ....... 152 

Astronomical Observatory near City of 

Mexico . . . . . .156 

President Diaz ...... 160 

National Opera House — Front View . 164 

National Opera House — Side View . . 168 

Olegario Molina, Secretary of Public Pro- 
motion ...... 172 

Department op Communications and Public 

Works . . . . . .176 

Leandro Fernandez, Secretary of Commu- 
nications and Public Works . . 180 

President Diaz on Horseback at Chapulte- 

PEC ....... 184 

Exports and Imports in the Mexican Re- 
public (Diagram) . . . . .188 



xii Illustrations 

PAGE 

National Medical Institute . . . 192 

President Diaz ...... 196 

Increase of Mining Properties in the Re- 
public (Diagram) . . . . .200 

Battles and Sieges in which President Diaz 

has Taken Part (Map) . . . 204 

President Diaz ...... 208 

Railroads in the Republic in 1876 and 1909 

(Map) . . . . . . .212 

Department of Public Instruction and Fine 

Arts ....... 216 

Presidents Diaz and Taft . . . .220 

Views of the Meeting of Presidents Diaz 

AND Taft AT the Frontier . . .224 

Views of the National GeologicalInstitute 226 

Views of the Children's Asylum — City of 

Mexico . . . . . .228 

The City of Mexico, in 1876 and 1910 (Dia- 
gram) ....... 230 

Surplus in the Treasury of the Republic . 232 



PORFIRIO DIAZ 



PORFIRIO DIAZ 



CHAPTER I 

BIRTH AND PARENTAGE — SCHOOL AND COLLEGE 
DAYS 

IT is a remarkable coincidence that Porfirio 
Diaz should have been born on the anniversary 
of the Mexican independence. His birth took 
place on the 15th of September, 1830, just twenty 
years after the great Hidalgo proclaimed, with a 
handful of patriots, that Mexico should be free.* 

He was bom at the city of Oaxaca, where so 
many distinguished Mexicans have first seen the 
light of day; among whom may be mentioned 
the great President Benito Juarez, the late diplo- 
mat and financier Matias Romero, and the able 
Secretary of Foreign Relations Ignacio Mariscal. 

The parents of Porfirio Diaz were Jos6 Faustino 
de la Cruz Diaz and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Petrona Mori. 

> Although historically, and as a matter of fact, Mexican 
independence was proclaimed on the morning of September 
16, 1 8 10, tradition and custom have made the celebration 
of the event to be held on the evening of September isth. 
I I 



2 Porfirio Diaz 

He lost his father at a very early age, and as 
his family, consisting of his mother and several 
brothers and sisters, was not in affluent circum- 
stances, he had to assist with his labor in attending 
to their necessities, while he was at the same time 
acquiring his education. 

Like the mother of Washington, like the mother 
of Garfield, and like the mothers of other great 
men, Petrona Diaz devoted all her time, her 
energy, and her labor to the rearing and education 
of her children, unmindful of the great stress, 
suffering, and work that beset her path. A 
mother's love triumphed over all obstacles, and 
at the end she saw her incessant labors rewarded, 
for she gave an education to her children, started 
them on the road to success, and thoroughly pre- 
pared them to meet the vicissitudes of their re- 
spective careers. The character of this noble 
woman, her perseverance and her self-abnegation 
indelibly impressed themselves on her son, and 
have formed some of the traits that have distin- 
guished Porfirio Diaz during his eventful life. 

He received his primary instruction in one of 
the municipal schools of his native city, and there 
he showed from the first a desire of obtaining 
knowledge and of taking part in all kinds of athletic 
sports. 

Afterwards he entered the National and 
Pontifical Seminary of the city of Oaxaca, and 
remained there from 1845 until 1849. Although 
his mother at first intended that he should become 



School and College Days 3 

a priest, she yielded to his desires, so that he 
pursued the studies then required to qualify a 
student for a lawyer's career. It is said that he 
was always found in the front rank of the best 
scholars of the seminary. 

At that time a student had, in order to attain a 
degree, to meet great expense, and was obliged 
to contribute to the outlay necessary for the 
public exercises to be held in the institution. The 
pecuniary circumstances of Porfirio Diaz pre- 
vented him from meeting such expenses, and he 
therefore had to forego the attainment of a degree. 

While pursuing his studies, the invasion of the 
national territory by the American troops oc- 
curred, and young Porfirio Diaz, with other fellow- 
students offered his services to the then Governor 
of the State of Oaxaca. The Governor accepted 
their patriotic offer, but did not require the young 
students to go into the battle-field. 

It was in 1849 that he entered the Institute of 
Sciences and Arts of his native state, in order to 
complete his law studies. In all his classes he 
showed a desire to master the intricacies of that 
science and to give heed to the advice and teach- 
ings of his professors, one of whom was the 
renowned Benito Juarez. 

It may be said that ever since the time when he 
offered his services as a volunteer against the 
invaders of his country, and while he was scarcely 
seventeen years of age, the young man who was 
to become one of Mexico's greatest military 



4 Porfirio Diaz 

leaders, showed tendencies and desires towards 
army life. We cannot say that the study of law 
was distasteful to him, and he undoubtedly would 
have been received at the bar, if it had not been 
that subsequent events led him to take part in 
public affairs and forego a lawyer's career; still 
it is certain that the dangers and glory of a 
soldier's life greatly attracted him. 

However, there is no doubt that the training 
that young Diaz had in the study of jurispru- 
dence not only served him greatly afterwards, 
but has enabled him, when at the head of the 
government, to understand fully the legal aspect 
of controversies, the necessity for the reign of 
law in his country, and the propriety of framing 
adequate legislation for the attainment of peace 
and advancement in the Republic. 

We can further say that, while pursuing his 
professional studies, there were instilled in him 
the true principles of republican and liberal ideas, 
whether because his professors advocated such 
principles and his fellow-students likewise admired 
them, or because his character, his aims, and his 
pursuits led him into the ranks of the Liberal 
party, which had already entered into a death 
struggle with the Conservatives. 

It was in the year 1853 that he abandoned the 
attainment of a lawyer's profession, the lack of a 
title being the only thing wanting in that career, 
and he then entered public life. 







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CHAPTER II 

THE WAR OF REFORM 

IT is not our purpose to enter into political con- 
troversies, it is not our aim to describe fully 
the political conditions existing in Mexico during 
the early years of the life of President Diaz; 
therefore, we will merely say that, while he was 
pursuing his studies in the Institute of Sciences 
and Arts of Oaxaca, the "irrepressible conflict" 
between the two great political parties was taking 
place. Those who advocated one set of political 
principles had to endure the persecution of the 
other party, and it was owing to this circumstance 
that some of the professors, who were teaching 
young Diaz, incurred the displeasure of the Con- 
servative authorities. They were dismissed from 
their posts and otherwise subjected to indignities, 
and many of the students who professed their 
political tenets left the institution and joined the 
ranks of the opponents of the state government, 
that had fallen into the hands of the Conserv- 
tive party. 

Porfirio Diaz was one of the most active of the 
young students who took sides with the deposed 

5 



6 Porfirio Diaz 

professors. Orders were issued for his arrest, but 
he eluded them, and fought his way through his 
assailants, in December, 1854; finally he joined 
the forces of the Liberals, who were struggling 
against the Conservative troops in the mountain- 
ous districts of the state. As the opponents to the 
government were comparatively few in number 
at that time, they were dispersed after an in- 
effectual struggle, and Porfirio Diaz was compelled 
to remain hidden during the months of July and 
August, 1855, in order to escape the vigilance of 
his enemies. 

It was then that the Liberal party gave its 
unqualified support throughout the Republic to 
the "Ayutla Plan," which was, or became, the 
platform ratified by the Liberal leaders and 
embodied the principles that received the support 
of all the members of that party in every district 
of the country. 

The contest between the Liberals and Conserv- 
atives, which is known in Mexican history as the 
"War of Reform," was then carried on with great 
fierceness, bringing about much bloodshed and 
suffering. Porfirio Diaz from the first took a 
most prominent part in that struggle, and in 
December, 1855, he was appointed subprefect of 
the district of Ixtlan in his native state. As 
such he reorganized the public administration of 
that district, and raised troops to oppose the 
Conservative forces, which, under the command of 
the prefect of the department, were sent to crush 



The War of Reform 7 

him. Speaking of that period of his life, the 
President himself has said^: "In my youth 
stern experience taught me many things. When 
I commanded two companies of soldiers, there 
was a time when for six months I had neither 
advice, instructions, nor support from my govern- 
ment. I had to think for myself. I had to be 
the government myself." 

It was then that Porfirio Diaz for the first time 
showed, in a limited degree, his great qualifi- 
cations as a military leader and as a public 
official. 

It would take too long to describe the vicissi- 
tudes of the campaign in which he took part. It is 
sufficient to say that in all the various encounters 
with his opponents he showed great military skill, 
unfaltering courage, as well as commendable 
humanity towards his enemies. While defeating 
a large body of the Conservatives on the 13 th of 
August, 1857, he was severely wounded, but as 
soon as he was able to be on his feet again, and 
even before he had fully recovered, he re-entered 
the field and fought bravely against the enemy. 

Finally in January, 1858, the power of the Con- 
servatives in the State of Oaxaca was thoroughly 
crushed, for the time being, and the capital was 
taken by the Liberal forces, among whom the 

> All the quotations in this work, which are autobiographic 
in form, are taken from the Personal Memoirs of President 
Diaz, published in Spanish some years ago by Hon. Matias 
Romero, late Mexican Ambassador at Washington. 



8 Porfirio Diaz 

troops led by Porfirio Diaz took a most prominent 
part. He had not yet been entirely cured, but 
insisted in leading his soldiers to the assault. 
Afterwards he was placed at the head of affairs 
in the district of Tehuantepec and joined in the 
pursuit of the Conservatives who had not sur- 
rendered: they were met at Jalapa, near the 
capital of the district, and were routed. 

Soon after the city of Tehuantepec itself fell 
into the hands of the Liberals. Porfirio Diaz then 
acted as governor and military commander of the 
department. As the majority of the inhabitants 
of that district were at the time hostile to the 
Liberal cause, and Porfirio Diaz did not have 
sufficient pecuniary resources and troops at his 
command, he had to display great tact, administra- 
tive ability, and courage to hold that district in 
the hands of the Liberals, and on more than one 
occasion, and especially at Las Jicaras on July 
2 2, 1858, he had to meet his opponents in the 
open field, being successful in every instance. 

During that period in his military career he 
fell ill, and, while in such condition, his enemies 
assaulted the post entrusted to his care. He 
hastily rose from his bed and, sword in hand, by 
word and action encouraged his soldiers, who 
seemed to be faltering, and personally led the 
charge against his opponents. Finally a vertigo 
seized him and he fell suffering intensely from the 
fever. His soldiers lifted him from the ground, 
and he was again removed to his sick bed, but 





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The War of Reform 9 

not before he knew that his enemies had been 
defeated. 

By that time he had already attained the rank 
of commandant, or major in his mihtary career. 
His splendid victory, against great odds and 
superior forces, at La Mixtequilla on the 17th 
of June, 1859, gave him the title of Colonel in the 
National Guard. Upon his taking the city of 
Tehuantepec on the 2 5th of November of the same 
year, he was made colonel in the regular army. 

During the years 1858 and 1859 the Conserva- 
tives had gained the ascendency throughout the 
Republic and had established their government in 
the City of Mexico, while President Benito Juarez 
remained at Vera Cruz, upholding the principles 
of the Liberal party. The Liberal leaders had 
met with many reverses, but at last, towards the 
summer of i860, the fortunes of war changed and 
the Conservatives sustained many defeats. It 
was then that their power in the State of Oaxaca 
weakened to such a degree, that they may be said 
to have governed and extended their authority 
only in the capital city and through the country 
surrounding it. 

The Liberals attacked that city and captured it 
on the 3d of August, i860. Porfirio Diaz had a 
prominent part in that siege and assault, and was 
severely wounded in the leg, but this wound did 
not prevent him from accepting and actively 
performing the duties of chief of staff. 

During the period we refer to, and for several 



lo Porfirio Diaz 

years afterwards, his younger brother Felix fought 
by his side with great bravery, and later on 
met an untimely death. 

Towards the end of October, i860, Porfirio Diaz 
left Oaxaca with a brigade that was sent to aid 
General Jesus Gonzalez Ortega, commander-in- 
chief of the Liberal forces; but that brigade 
arrived too late to take part in the great victory 
obtained by Gonzalez Ortega at Calpulalpam 
against the Conservative forces led by General 
Miramon, but not too late to participate in the 
triumphal entry of the Liberal troops in the City 
of Mexico, which was followed soon after by the 
restoration of President Benito Juarez. 

Porfirio Diaz then returned to Oaxaca in 
January, 1861, and shortly afterwards was elected 
a deputy to the Federal Congress by the Ixtlan 
district of his own state. He left for the City of 
Mexico and entered Congress. His labors as a 
legislator were of short duration, because while 
the power of the Conservatives appeared to have 
been thoroughly crushed, many of them gathered 
together, and in June, 1861, had even the hardi- 
hood of trying to attack the capital of the 
Republic, so that Porfirio Diaz considered it his 
duty to leave the halls of the legislature and again 
enter military life. 

At the head of the brigade of Oaxaca, he was 
successful in thwarting the attack made by the 
Conservatives along one of the causeways of the 
capital; and then with the same brigade he joined 



The War of Reform 1 1 

the army corps commanded by General Gonzalez 
Ortega, that had been sent in pursuit of the Con- 
servative forces. 

With this brigade alone, he overcame the troops 
led by General Leonardo Marquez, near the 
village of Jalatlaco, and totally crushed his 
opponents. It was in that battle that Porfirio 
Diaz came near losing his life at the hands of his 
enemies, owing his safety to the instinct of his 
horse, that brought him back safely from the 
ranks of the Conservatives, which he had entered 
alone, leading the assault, unattended. That 
glorious victory was the means of his attaining 
the rank of brigadier-general. 

The Conservatives had yet to make a final stand, 
and they did so near the city of Pachuca, when 
they met with a signal defeat at the hands of the 
Liberals on the 20th of October, 1861. Porfirio 
Diaz took a most prominent part in that victory, 
which may be said to have given the death-blow 
to the power of the Conservatives in Mexico, and 
to have put an end to the War of Reform. 



CHAPTER III 

THE WAR OF FRENCH INTERVENTION 

WE now come down to the most important and 
glorious period in the military career of 
Porfirio Diaz. 

The unjustifiable intervention in the domestic 
affairs of the Mexican Republic by France, Eng- 
land, and Spain, towards the end of the year 1861, 
led to the invasion of the country by the forces 
of those three foreign governments. Spain and 
England soon withdrew, and it was only France, 
then governed by Emperor Napoleon III, that, 
assisted by a few Mexicans, led the onslaught 
against republican institutions in Mexican soil. 

The army that was sent by President Juarez to 
oppose the invaders, in the early part of 1862, 
comprised the Second Brigade, which was com- 
manded by General Porfirio Diaz. 

The very first encounter between the French 
forces and the Mexican patriots took place at 
Escamela, between Orizaba and Cordoba. A 
portion of the brigade of Porfirio Diaz met the 
enemy there, and afterwards, being reinforced 
at Acultzingo, gallantly held its own against the 
invaders. 

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The War of French Intervention 13 

All the Mexican army then retired towards 
Puebla, where it arrived on the 3d of May, 1862, 
and there the general-in-chief , Ignacio Zaragoza, 
decided to make a stand against the foe. 

On the 5th of May the glorious battle, which 
resulted in a crushing defeat of the French, took 
place. This brilliant victory is still celebrated 
every year throughout the Republic. On that 
occasion Porfirio Diaz commanded his brigade 
and fought gallantly, and towards the latter part 
of the day led the pursuit of the vanquished 
French troops. In his official report of the bat- 
tle the commander-in-chief of the Mexican army 
highly praised the bravery displayed by General 
Diaz. 

Thereafter he took charge of the administra- 
tion of the State of Vera Cruz, as well as of the 
military operations carried on there against the 
French forces. These received fresh reinforce- 
ments, sent by Napoleon III, and again advanced 
towards Puebla. General Zaragoza had died, and 
General Gonzalez Ortega was at the head of the 
Mexican troops, who held their ground in that 
city for a period of two months. The heroic 
deeds achieved by the Mexican defenders in the 
daily struggles against the besiegers, and in which 
General Diaz took a prominent part, make a 
glorious page of Mexican history. 

Finally the city had to surrender, and General 
Diaz fell a prisoner in the hands of the invaders of 
his country. He and other Mexican officers re- 



14 Porfirio Diaz 

fused to sign a document, binding themselves not 
to endeavor to escape, nor to write to or correspond 
with their families or friends. On that account a 
sentinel was especially placed to guard him, but 
Porfirio Diaz succeeded in eluding the vigilance of 
his guard and finally reached the City of Mexico. 

President Juarez wished to appoint him Secre- 
tary of War, but as he considered that an older 
and higher ranking officer should be appointed, 
Diaz declined the honor proffered him, and merely 
accepted the command of a division of the army. 

When President Juarez decided to leave the 
City of Mexico, and that city fell into the hands 
of the invaders, General Diaz continued defending 
the independence of his country and valiantly 
fought in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, and 
Puebla. Notwithstanding that, when Archduke 
Maximilian became head of the so-called empire, 
proposals were repeatedly made to him to abandon 
the struggle and receive high honors and emolu- 
ments from the Archduke's administration, such 
offers were always indignantly rejected. 

One of his great military feats during the cam- 
paign above referred to was the taking of the city 
of Taxco, where superior forces, well equipped and 
with abundant ammunition, were not able to cope 
with the strategy and valor of General Diaz, who 
led the assault. Very soon after that event, he 
received the full rank of major-general in the 
regular army. 

We now come down to the period when Field 



The War of French Intervention 1 5 

Marshal Bazaine assumed command of the Im- 
perial troops and laid siege to the city of Oaxaca, 
where General Diaz, then acting as governor of 
the state, made a most brilliant defence. The 
siege lasted several weeks, and when all food and 
ammunition were exhausted, Porfirio Diaz, seeing 
that further resistance and sacrifice were useless, 
surrendered, and then had to endure a long period 
of imprisonment. 

In spite of the renewed efforts of his enemies 
who offered him liberty and power, he continued 
to refuse to give his promise not to take up arms 
again in favor of his country. To one who, at that 
time and in the name of the so-called empire, 
offered him high honors and large rewards if he 
would forsake the Liberal cause, he answered for 
himself and his fellow soldiers in these noble words : 
"We are resolved to go on with the struggle 
unceasingly, and decided to conquer or die in our 
endeavor, so as to leave to the coming generation 
the same republic, free and sovereign, that we 
inherited from our forefathers." 

During his imprisonment, he spent several 
months digging a tunnel from the cell where he 
was immured. Unfortunately he was removed 
to another building where, with redoubled vigil- 
ance, he was kept confined. Notwithstanding 
the precautions taken, he contrived to escape. 
It is interesting to know the manner in which 
he made his escape, and we will herein insert a 
translation of his own account of that exploit : 



1 6 Porfirio Diaz 

On the afternoon of the 20th, I rolled together three 
ropes, which I placed with another rope and a dagger 
under my bedclothes. The dagger was well sharp- 
ened and it was the only weapon I had at my disposal. 

When the bell rang for the retirement of all in the 
prison, I stepped upon an open balcony, close to the 
roofs which overlooked an inner court -yard. I had 
with me the ropes concealed in a gray cloth, and when 
I noticed that nobody was near-by, I threw them on 
the neighboring roof. I then tied my last rope over 
a projecting stone gutter above, thinking that it was 
very strong. The light around me was not sufficiently 
bright to enable me to discern distinctly objects near 
me. Having tested the strength of the rope and 
gutter, and becoming satisfied that the latter could 
support me, I climbed to the roof. There I united 
this rope to the other three, that I had previously 
flung overhead. 

I had selected as the point where I would make my 
descent to the street, the corner of San Roque, but 
the walk to that corner was very dangerous. Near 
me was the roof of a neighboring church which over- 
looked all the convent where I was confined, and a, 
picket of soldiers was stationed there, a sentinel being 
on guard whose sole duty was to watch the prisoners. 
I started and soon came to a portion of the roof which 
had many windings, owing to the fact that the con- 
vent cells were built between the corridors and several 
rows of arches. I wended my way along, concealing 
myself every time I could, and often having to crawl 
on my hands and knees. I went on slowly and 
as a matter of course towards the sentinel, while 
seeking the place from which I had to make my 
descent. 








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Escape of Porfirio Diaz, Puebla, September, 1865 



The War of French Intervention 17 

I had to cross two sides of the court-yard, and this 
I had to do carefully, in. order to make no noise while 
stepping on the loose pieces of tile and glass, which 
were scattered over the roof. While I was doing this, 
the lightning at times brightened the sky, making it 
possible that my presence would be revealed. 

Finally I came to that portion of the wall, where 
the sentinel, standing on the church parapet, could no 
longer see me, unless he looked down very low. I 
continued walking erect and slowly, trying to find out 
if any alarm had been raised. It was then that I 
encountered the greatest danger, for the masonry 
sloped and was very slippery, especially after the 
heavy rains that had fallen. In fact once my feet 
slipped, and I was carried along towards some window 
panes, which could have offered little resistance to 
my weight; but fortunately I did not fall. 

In order to reach the roof on San Roque Street, 
where I wished to descend, I had to go over to the 
side of the convent where the chaplain resided. This 
chaplain some time before had denounced several 
political prisoners who, while trying to escape, had 
cut their way through his rooms, and owing to his 
evidence they were taken out and shot soon afterwards. 

I came to the roof of the chaplain's residence almost 
out of breath. Just then a young man, who resided 
there, opened the street door and entered ; he seemed 
to have come from the theatre, for he was hum- 
ming a lively tune. He went into his room, and then 
came out with a lighted candle and started to walk in 
the direction where I was. I hid while he was passing, 
and fortunately he did not see me; finally he went 
again into the house. All this probably took a few 
minutes, but those minutes seemed to me hours. 



1 8 Porfirio Diaz 

When it appeared to me that he had been in his room 
some time, and had gone to bed and perhaps was 
sleeping, I stealthily went along the roof opposite to 
the place where I had ascended, and finally reached the 
San Roque corner. 

There was at that comer of the roof a stone statue 
of Saint Vincent Ferrer, and it had been my intention 
to secure my ropes around it, but unluckily when I 
touched the statue, it seemed to be about to fall. 
Although I imagined that it might have an iron 
support to make it stand erect, I thought it safer to 
secure the ropes around the base of its pedestal, which 
formed the corner of the building and appeared to be 
strong enough to bear my weight. 

Fearing that if I went down directly at the corner 
of the street I might be seen by some passer-by, I 
decided to descend by the side of the house which 
was further from the main street, thereby having the 
advantage of being in the shadow. Unfortunately, 
when I got to the second story, my foot slipped from 
the side wall, and I fell quite a distance into a pigs' 
sty in a garden. My dagger dropped from my belt 
and fell among the pigs, and when I stumbled over 
them, they set up a terrible squealing, as perhaps one 
of them had been wounded. This circumstance might 
have led to my discovery if anybody had been aroused 
by the noise they made. I concealed myself again 
as soon as I got up, but had to wait until the squeal- 
ing had subsided, before venturing out of the garden. 
I went over a low fence and reached the street, but 
had to beat a hasty retreat, as a policeman was just 
passing by in his round, to see whether the doors of 
the houses were properly fastened. Much to my 
relief he went away and then perspiring and nearly 



The War of French Intervention 1 9 

exhausted with fatigue, I hastened to a house where 
I knew I would find my horse, a servant, and a guide. 
Having arrived safely there, we three loaded our 
pistols, jumped on our saddles, and after avoiding a 
mounted patrol which was passing by, we went to 
the outskirts of the city. I was nearly sure that we 
would be stopped at the city gates by the sentinels, 
and it was my intention to fight my way out. How- 
ever, we found the gate open, the guard seemed to 
be asleep or away, so that we went through at full 
trot, and then galloped along the road. 

We have given a detailed account of this re- 
markable escape of President Diaz from his foes, 
both because we consider it interesting reading, 
and because it is a sample of the various hair- 
breadth escapes that he had during his military 
career. 

While his enemies set a price on his head and 
were vainly endeavoring to recapture him, General 
Diaz gathered fourteen cavalrymen, and with them 
began his third campaign against the Imperialists. 

By June, 1866, he had already quite a small 
army under his orders. Then followed the bril- 
liant victories he obtained at Nochixtlan, on 
September 23d, at Miahuatlan on the 3d of 
October, and at La Carbonera on the i8th of the 
same month; the latter being such a well earned 
and glorious triumph over the enemy, that 
General Diaz thereafter was often styled "the 
hero of La Carbonera." 

We cannot forbear making more than a passing 



20 Porfirio Diaz 

reference to these last two victories, won by 
General Diaz in a most brilliant manner. At 
Miahuatlan he had only 900 poorly armed soldiers 
and lacked ammunition, whilst the enemy con- 
sisted of 1400 men, well equipped and having 
two pieces of artillery. The moral effect of that 
battle was great, and it served to raise the spirits 
and the patriotic ardor of all Mexicans throughout 
the Republic. At La Carbonera, although the 
opposing forces were nearly equal in number, the 
Imperialists were regular troops, consisting of 
French, Austrians, and Hungarians and some 
Mexican auxiliaries, and had six field pieces; 
whilst the patriot army was made up of less 
efficient troops and fewer guns. This victory left 
in the hands of General Diaz 700 prisoners and 
five cannon, while all the infantry officers of the 
enemy were captured. 

Thereafter he besieged the city of Oaxaca, and 
during a period of twenty days there were incessant 
encounters with the besieged, who at last surren- 
dered on the 31st of October, 1866. The number 
of prisoners then taken was iioo, and a large 
amount of ammunition and thirty cannon fell into 
the hands of the victors. 

During the month of December, he defeated the 
enemy in different localities near Tehuantepec, 
and then he prepared his forces for the onslaughts 
on the so-called empire, which were to take place 
at the cities of Puebla and Mexico, while the final 
and last act of the tragedy of the French interven- 



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The War of French Intervention 21 

tion in Mexico was being enacted at the city of 
Queretaro, and terminated with the execution 
of Maximilian and his two generals, Miramon 
and Mejia, at the Campanas hill near that city. 

We do not wish to use language that might be 
considered exaggerated in any degree, but the 
taking of the city of Puebla by General Diaz on 
April 2, 1867, must ever remain one of the most 
brilliant pages in Mexican history. 

Two circumstances render the surrender of 
Puebla at that time as most remarkable and 
interesting. In all other instances when that 
city had been besieged, it had fallen into the hands 
of the victors after incessant and daily combats, 
lasting through weeks and months, but in this 
case Puebla, after a few days of siege operations, 
was taken by the energetic and vigorous onslaught 
of the Mexican patriots led by their leader General 
Diaz, and a few hours of bloody struggle brought 
about the unconditional surrender of the garrison. 
The other circumstance to which we may refer is 
that, although the Imperialists, about the time 
when the taking of Puebla occurred, had cruelly 
shot many of the prisoners who had fallen into their 
hands in various encounters, General Diaz, with 
his customary humanity and magnanimity, spared 
the lives of all those who surrendered. 

Without loss of time he gathered his forces and 
fell like a thunderbolt on the hosts of the enemy. 
He thoroughly routed his opponents, who were 
under the command of General Leonardo Marquez, 



22 Porfirio Diaz 

at San Lorenzo, on the loth of the same month, 
April, 1867. 

Immediately he marched on towards the City of 
Mexico, to which he laid siege. At first he had not 
sufficient forces to thoroughly establish the field 
operations and surround the capital ; but gradually 
fresh troops came, and with the guns and ammu- 
nition captured at Puebla and San Lorenzo, he 
was able to prevent any successful sortie from the 
capital. The capture of Maximilian and his 
generals at Queretaro on May 15th, became known 
to the besieged and proved most disheartening 
news. Still General Marquez would not surrender, 
and on the morning of June 9th he tried to cut his 
way through the lines of the besiegers, but General 
Diaz ever watchful thwarted his purpose. 

Finally the city capitulated. The siege had 
lasted from the 12th of April till the 21st of June, 
1867. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE RESTORATION OF THE REPUBLIC 

UPON entering the capital of the Repubhc 
with his forces, General Diaz avoided adopt- 
ing any harsh measures towards his enemies, 
established proper police administration for the 
city, preserved public order, and safeguarded the 
lives and property of its inhabitants. He ad- 
ministered its municipal affairs, until President 
Juarez and his Cabinet returned on July 15, 1867, 
to assume the full administration of the Republic. 
General Diaz, during his brief stay at the head of 
the city government, elicited the commendations 
of all classes of society; the municipality through 
its Common Council tendered him a vote of 
thanks, and he was able to turn over to the 
general government a surplus of $300,000, over 
and above all the expenses incurred, while he had 
been at the head of affairs. 

He was offered the office of Secretary of War, 
or the command of one of the divisions of the army, 
but as he considered that the Republic was fully 
restored, and his services could be spared, he 
preferred to retire from public life, and he did so, 

23 



24 Porfirio Diaz 

like Cincinnatus of old, going to live on a small 
farm, called La Noria, in his native state. 

Later events brought him again into public 
life, and he was acclaimed by a large portion of 
his countrymen as a presidential candidate. The 
triangular contest then ensued between the 
partisans of Diaz, Juarez and Lerdo de Tejada. 
The elections were held and political dissensions 
began, which gave rise to civil war. 

During that fierce contest General Diaz suffered 
great hardships, but he never flinched nor deserted 
his friends and partisans, who at all times followed 
him on to victory, and never were cast down by 
defeat. The political principles which he then 
sustained were embodied in a document, called 
"Plan de La Noria," having been prepared and 
given out to his countrymen at the country place, 
where he was residing at that time as already 
stated. 

The sudden death of President Juarez termi- 
nated the fratricidal struggle, and thereafter Lerdo 
de Tejada was elevated to the chief magistracy of 
the nation, with the acquiescence of the followers 
and admirers of General Diaz. 

During Lerdo's administration and in the year 
1874, Porfirio Diaz was elected a member of 
Congress. His friends again looked upon him as 
the presidential candidate for the coming election, 
and public opinion began to manifest itself in his 
favor. 

It was then that President Lerdo de Tejada, 




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The Restoration of the Republic 25 

through a mutual friend, proposed to him the post 
of Minister Plenipotentiary at Berlin, which he 
declined. 

Soon after the electoral campaign began. The 
attempt to re-elect President Lerdo de Tejada 
against the will of the majority of the people, and 
other causes which it would take too long to re- 
hearse, led to the breaking out of civil war; the 
opposers of the administration upholding the 
"Plan of Tuxtepec,"! which embodied the party 
program or platform of those who supported 
General Diaz for the presidency. 

As Daniel Webster has expressed it: "There are 
enterprises, military as well as civil, which some- 
times check the current of events, give a new turn 
to human affairs and transmit their consequences 
through ages." Such an enterprise was the one 
that General Diaz undertook at the time referred 
to. 

If it were possible in this work to relate the 
incidents of the new contest, the resourcefulness, 
activity, and tenacity of General Diaz in upholding 
the political principles or platform that had been 
proclaimed at Tuxtepec, and afterwards modified 
at Palo Alto2 on the 21st of March, 1876, would 
still further be made patent and manifest. Suffice 
it to say, however, that he and his followers fought 

» Tuxtepec is a small town in the northern part of the State 
of Oaxaca. 

2 A small farm in the northern part of the Republic, not 
far from the city of Matamoros. 



26 Porfirio Diaz 

bravely In various states of the Republic, and 
had their ups and downs in the fortunes of war. 

At one time President Diaz left the country and 
went over to the United States, and, after having 
been in New York and other cities, embarked at 
New Orleans for Vera Cruz. During that trip one 
of his many hair-breadth escapes occurred. He 
entered the steamer in disguise, because the ports 
of Vera Cruz and Tampico, for which it was bound, 
were in the hands of the partisans of Lerdo de 
Tejada. While at the latter port some govern- 
ment troops took passage for Vera Cruz. Several 
of the officers recognized him, and began to watch 
him closely. He therefore decided to elude their 
vigilance and threw himself overboard, providing 
himself with a dagger as a defence against sharks. 
His escape became known, and thereupon boats 
were lowered and started in his pursuit. He swam 
with great skill, but the boats at last gained on him 
and he was captured. When taken on board he was 
well-nigh exhausted. Thereupon the officer com- 
manding the government troops attempted to 
court-martial him on the spot, but the ship's 
captain would not consent to this inhuman and 
arbitrary proceeding, and merely permitted that 
he should be held a prisoner until the steamer's 
arrival at Vera Cruz, there to be delivered to the 
authorities of that port. A close watch was set 
upon him, but during the next night, which was 
very dark, and while a storm was threatening, 
he left his cabin unperceived, and sought refuge 



The Restoration of the Republic 27 

in the office of Mr. A. K. Coney, the purser, who 
had befriended him. 

Thereupon he threw a Hfe preserver into the 
sea, and this led the government officers to believe 
that he had again jumped overboard. A fruitless 
search in boats then ensued, while he hid in the 
locker or wardrobe of the purser's cabin. There 
he had to endure great suffering, having to remain 
crouched and not being able to sit down. He 
even experienced the immediate fear of being 
discovered, as on more than one occasion Lerdo's 
officers entered the purser's cabin, stayed con- 
versing there, and even played cards. His self- 
imprisonment lasted several days, during which 
time he lived on some crackers and water, which 
the purser gave him from time to time. 

At last Vera Cruz was reached, but there he was 
still in great danger, as the city was in the hands 
of the government forces. Fortunately one of the 
friends of Porfirio Diaz was able to smuggle a 
disguise for him on board, and in that costume he 
contrived to leave the ship's side in a row boat, 
which landed him far from the city, where some of 
his followers awaited his arrival. 

Thenceforward he continued the struggle with 
greater success than theretofore. However a 
further complication arose, inasmuch as the chief 
justice of the supreme court, Jose Maria Iglesias, 
having held that, owing to the illegality of the 
elections, Lerdo de Tejada could no longer be 
considered president, he, as the chief justice, who 



28 Porfirio Diaz 

under the Constitution was the vice-president of the 
Republic, was entitled to be considered the .chief 
magistrate of the nation. 

Mr. Iglesias withdrew from the capital, formed 
a cabinet and retired to the interior of the Republic, 
proclaiming himself constitutional president. On 
their side the supporters of General Diaz again 
gathered in strength, declared that the elections 
lately held were void, and that new elections should 
be had. President Lerdo de Tejada prepared for 
the coming struggle and collected troops, which 
he sent under the command of a well experienced 
military leader, General Ignacio Alatorre, to put 
down his two opponents. 

There is no doubt whatever that public opinion 
and sentiment throughout the Republic were in 
favor of General Diaz, and therefore well observing 
persons considered that the final issue of the con- 
test would be favorable to him. 

The supporters of Chief Justice Iglesias melted 
away and left him, as it were, alone with his 
cabinet, and he then with his friends departed 
for the United States, landing soon after in San 
Francisco, California. 

The troops led by General Alatorre were defeated 
at Tecoac by the supporters of General Diaz, led 
by himself and by General Manuel Gonzalez. 
Thereupon President Lerdo de Tejada precipi- 
tately left the Republic and went to New York 
City, where he spent the rest of his life. 

The inhabitants of the City of Mexico welcomed 




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The Restoration of the RepubHc 29 

the arrival of General Diaz, and soon after General 
Juan N. Mendez, was placed in charge of the 
executive power, and in December, 1876, new 
elections were ordered to be held. 

The large majority, which the candidacy of 
General Diaz obtained, conclusively proved that 
the people wished him to be at the head of the 
administration of public affairs, and that they 
considered him the statesman who could adopt 
measures and carry out a policy that would pre- 
serve peace and foster public improvements. 



CHAPTER V 

FIRST ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT DIAZ 

ELECTIONS were held for members of Congress, 
and on the ist of April, 1877, that legislative 
body met, and a month thereafter formally de- 
clared that General Diaz had been elected president 
of the Republic by the nearly unanimous vote cast 
in 200 electoral districts. Although in some 
districts elections were not held, owing to various 
causes, the omission thus occurring would not 
have in any way altered the result. As this elec- 
tion was considered a ratification of the former 
one, the term of office of President Diaz was held 
to extend until the 30th of November, 1880. 

He immediately inaugurated the plan which he 
has always followed, of living unostentatiously. 
He therefore declined to reside in the National 
Palace, and dwelt in a house of very modest 
appearance in Moneda Street, going to the Palace 
every day to transact business and to be present 
at all public functions. 

One of the first tasks of his government was the 
re-establishment of friendly relations with foreign 
countries ; but at the inception of his administrative 

30 



First Administration 31 

labors, he encountered some difficulties with the 
American Government, which refused to acknow- 
ledge that his authority over the Republic was 
thoroughly established. It may be said, there- 
fore, that for some time the relations between 
Mexico and the United States were somewhat 
strained. 

Another branch of his administration to which 
he gave at once particular attention, was the 
fostering of enterprises with foreign capital, 
especially the construction of railways. It is 
from that time that the great railroad era for 
Mexico commenced. 

It may be supposed that the partisans of Lerdo 
de Tejada and Iglesias did not look with favor on 
the new administration, and therefore it is no 
wonder that conspiracies and plots for the over- 
throw of the new government were initiated. 

Among these the most serious one was to have 
led to an outbreak in Vera Cruz in June, 1877, and 
the conspirators who had followers in other states, 
and even in the capital of the Republic, thought 
that the success of their plans was assured. Some 
of the garrison were made to join in the machina- 
tions of the enemies of the Diaz administration, 
and even the crews of the war despatch boats In- 
dependencia and Libertad rose in mutiny. Prompt 
measures were adopted, and although through 
some misunderstanding several of those who were 
considered ringleaders were hastily condemned to 
death and executed, the severity and promptness 



32 Porfirio Diaz 

of their sentence struck terror among their fellow 
conspirators, and the revolution was smothered 
at its very birth. 

It was also during the first year of the new 
administration that General Mariano Escobedo 
invaded the Republic from Texas, but both he and 
the other partisans of Lerdo de Tejada who had 
risen in arms in the states of Tamaulipas and 
Sinaloa were defeated. They were magnani- 
mously pardoned by the President, who then 
inaugurated his far-seeing and able policy of 
attracting his enemies to his side and making them 
his friends; and thus we see that all Mexicans 
thereafter, irrespective of party affiliations, worked 
in common accord under his guidance, for the 
establishment of peace throughout the Republic. 

Measures were then enacted and carried into 
effect for the increase of the public revenue, for 
the proper and honest administration of all public 
funds, for the encouragement of agricultural and 
mining enterprises and for the adequate adminis- 
tration of justice throughout the country. 

In 1880 General Ulysses S. Grant, whose friendli- 
ness towards Mexico was well known, visited the 
Republic, and was extended a most cordial and 
enthusiastic reception by the government and 
the people. This courteous treatment of one 
of the greatest American military chieftains, 
served to strengthen the bonds of friendship 
between both countries, and marked, as it were, 
the beginning of the great popularity that Presi- 




General Porfirio Diaz 
In his earlier administrations 



First Administration 33 

dent Diaz enjoys in the United States, and which 
soon after was exemplified by his own cordial 
reception in that country, to which we will refer 
hereafter. 

During the period of the first administration of 
President Diaz, the salaries of all public employees 
were paid, the instalment due yearly to the 
United States Government, by virtue of the award 
made by the Mixed Claims Commission, was 
punctually cancelled; the importations and ex- 
portations notably increased, the latter being 
about $24,000,000 in 1879, ^^^ $32,000,000 in 
1880, and railroad and telegraph lines were 
inaugurated and other public improvements es- 
tablished. In point of fact, all branches of the 
public service were attended to properly, and a 
degree of prosperity was experienced throughout 
the country. 

At the beginning of 1880, the question of the 
presidential succession, that had been agitated, 
was at fever heat, and several candidates were in 
the field. General Manuel Gonzalez was the one 
who had the larger and more important fol- 
lowing, and although many people wished that 
President Diaz might be re-elected, as at that 
period there was a constitutional prohibition with 
regard to the re-election of the president, he 
would not allow his name to be put forward, 
and at the same time abstained from exerting a 
direct influence in support of any of the leading 
candidates. 



34 Porfirio Diaz 

General Gonzalez received a large majority of 
votes, and Congress duly declared him the suc- 
cessor of President Diaz. 

On the first of December, 1880, General Gon- 
zalez assumed the reins of government, and for 
the second time in Mexican history there occurred 
the peaceful transmission of power from one pres- 
ident to his successor. 

President Diaz could justly say, at the termina- 
tion of his first administration, that his policy had 
been from the first, in the words of the martyred 
President Abraham Lincoln: "To do all which 
may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace 
among ourselves and with all nations." 



CHAPTER VI 

HIS MARRIAGE AND TRAVELS 

WHEN President Diaz turned over the ad- 
ministration to General Manuel Gonzalez, 
he expressed himself in the following words: 

My aim has been to attain peace through the strict 
observance of the Constitution: and as peace cannot 
be lasting without prosperity, or the sure and proxi- 
mate hope of obtaining it, all my efforts have tended 
towards its promotion, especially by giving due im- 
petus to interior, as well as to foreign, commerce. 
The result of my labors is just beginning to be noticed, 
and I have no doubt that you will know how to con- 
tinue a work that is so greatly desired by the people 
at large. 

Privately he assured his successor that he could 
command his services, should he consider them in 
any way necessary or proper for the success of his 
administration. President Gonzalez immediately 
accepted that offer, and appointed General Diaz 
Secretary of the Department of Public Promotion. 
The latter devoted to that department all the 
energy and talent, that he has always shown in 
all public positions he has held. 

35 



36 Porfirio Diaz 

The first work he accomplished in that depart- 
ment was his inspection of the port of Tampico, 
where, accompanied by the celebrated engineer, 
Captain Eads, he laid the foundations for the 
great improvements to be carried on in that im- 
portant port of the Republic. He accomplished 
other labors in the department under his charge, 
and initiated various public improvements; but in 
May, 1 88 1, he noticed that some of his colleagues 
in the Cabinet, or several of the most ardent 
partisans of General Gonzalez seemed to be jealous 
of the influence he exerted, or that they thought 
he did exert, over the President; he also noticed 
the continued affection and popularity that he 
seemed to enjoy, and not desirous of being an 
impediment or obstruction in the path of the ad- 
ministration. General Diaz resigned his post as 
Secretary of Public Promotion. 

Soon after, however, he was elected a member 
of the Federal Senate, as well as Governor of his 
native State of Oaxaca. It seemed to him that 
he could be of greater service to his country in the 
latter capacity, and therefore he accepted the 
governorship. 

He did not find the administration of the state 
in a very flourishing condition : the public treasury 
was exhausted; many public schools had been 
closed, owing to the lack of funds for their support; 
the public expenses were unnecessarily high and 
the public revenues were unfortunately very low. 

He commenced his administration under these 




Carmen Romero Rubio de Diaz 
Wife of the President 



His Marriage and Travels 37 

unfavorable circumstances, and immediately set to 
work to correct the abuses then existing, to im- 
prove the financial condition of the state and to 
promote public improvements. One of these, 
and a most important one, was the construction 
of a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec 
which, in later years, was to be justly considered 
one of the greatest feats of engineering in the 
Republic, if taken in connection with the most 
important harbor works afterwards carried on 
at Salina Cruz and Coatzacoalcos (now Puerto 
Mexico). Great strides were made in the state 
in the Department of Public Instruction, as he 
reopened the public schools that had been closed 
and also inaugurated three hundred additional ones 
and an institute for manual training. 

After having placed the administration of the 
state on a sound basis, he asked leave of absence 
from the Legislature, and went to the capital of 
the Republic to enjoy a well needed rest. 

General Diaz had been married to the daughter 
of Doctor Ortega Reyes, and after a happy union 
with her, she died during his first administration. 
At the time when he returned to the City of Mexico 
he had been a widower for some years. 

It was then that he renewed the acquaintance 
of the noted statesman and lawyer, Manuel 
Romero Rubio, who had been a member of the 
last Cabinet of Ex-President Lerdo de Tejada, and 
who therefore had been his political opponent. It 
was soon noticed that the frequent visits of General 



38 Porfirio Diaz 

Diaz to Mr. Romero Rubio's house, were mainly 
due to his love towards the eldest daughter Carmen, 
whose beauty and accomplishments, as well as her 
charming disposition, made her one of the most 
popular and beloved young ladies in the best 
society circles of the capital. He became engaged 
to her and in 1882 they were married, their 
marriage being one of the most important social 
events at the time. 

During their honeymoon they visited the United 
States, where they were most cordially and 
enthusiastically received. They went to Wash- 
ington, New York and other leading cities of the 
American Union, and although General Diaz 
would have wished to avoid all public manifesta- 
tions, he could not prevent the government and 
people of the United States from showing him and 
Mrs. Diaz the high esteem in which they were 
held. There were balls, banquets, and numerous 
other entertainments and excursions given in their 
honor. 

Highly pleased with their trip, and grateful 
to the American people and officials for their 
kindness and real affection shown them, General 
and Mrs. Diaz returned to the City of Mexico, 
and went to live unostentatiously at their new 
home in Humboldt Street, which is now occupied 
by his son Lieutenant Colonel Diaz and family. 

Even before his return the voters of the country 
in general looked to him as the probable successor 
of General Gonzalez. Some of the friends of the 



His Marriage and Travels 39 

latter statesman would have wished to have him 
continue in office, in spite of the then existing 
constitutional prohibition as to the re-election of 
the chief magistrate of the Republic, but public 
opinion seemed opposed to this plan. During 
the last year of President Gonzalez's administra- 
tion it was plain to all that his logical successor 
would be General Diaz. It must be said that 
President Gonzalez himself became convinced of 
that fact and did not antagonize the trend of 
public sentiment, which finally, in the summer of 
1884, brought about the election of General Diaz 
by an overwhelming majority. 

The last public office that General Diaz held 
during the administration of President Gonzalez 
was that of Commissioner General of the Mexican 
Department to the International Exposition held 
at New Orleans, La., during the winter of 1884-85. 

It was mainly due to his popularity, to his 
untiring energy, and to his well directed efforts, 
that the Mexican Department attained such great 
success at that exposition. It was then really 
that the people of the United States had the first 
opportunity to get a thorough knowledge of the 
great natural resources of Mexico and of the 
condition of its manufactures, which promised to 
attain higher development. The Mexican exhibit 
elicited most favorable comments from the 
American press, ever ready to render Mexico due 
praise for its advancement. 

The last months of the administration of Presi- 



40 Porfirio Diaz 

dent Gonzalez were rather unfortunate, inasmuch 
as the over-issue of nickel coins, the proposed 
settlement of the so-called "EngHsh Debt," the 
issuance of certain stamp taxes and other measures 
which were considered impolitic and unwise, 
aroused public opposition in the press and in 
Congress. 

The stormy sessions held by the Chamber of 
Deputies in the winter of 1884, and the bitter 
denunciations of the government by the news- 
papers, it is considered by many, might have led 
to a public outbreak, or even to a revolution, had 
it not been known that in the elections lately 
held, General Diaz had been the successful candi- 
date, as already stated, and the thorough con- 
viction that the opponents of the administration 
had, that under the new government public abuses 
would be abolished and proper measures adopted 
to correct all errors made, to restore public con- 
fidence and to dispel any fears of public disorder 
or discredit. 

On the ist of December, 1884, General Gonzalez 
turned over the reins of government to President 
Diaz, and the latter again took charge of the 
administration of the nation. 




Ignacio Mariscal 
Secretary of Foreign Relations 



CHAPTER VII 

NEW PRESIDENTIAL TERM FROM 1884 TO I 

BESET with great difficulties, especially as 
regards finances, President Diaz began his 
new term of office by appointing as members of 
his Cabinet, the following well known and public 
spirited statesmen, namely: Ignacio Mariscal, 
Secretary of Foreign Relations; Manuel Romero 
Rubio, Secretary of the Interior; Joaquin Baranda, 
Secretary of Justice and Public Instruction; 
Carlos Pacheco, Secretary of Public Promotion; 
General Pedro Hinojosa, Secretary of War and 
Navy, and Manuel Dublan, Secretary of Finance. 

President Diaz found the Treasury in a depleted 
condition, heavy debts were outstanding, the 
salaries of public employees were greatly in arrears, 
and much difficulty was experienced in the col- 
lection of sufficient revenue to pay in part current 
expenses. The financial question was, therefore, 
the one that necessarily first claimed the attention 
of the Executive. 

In desperate cases it is necessary to use des- 
perate remedies, and therefore on the 2 2d of 
June, 1885, and thereafter, stringent measures 
were adopted for the funding of the public debt, 

41 



42 Porfirio Diaz 

the proper collection of the revenues and their 
possible increase, the diminution of unnecessary 
expenses in all departments of the government and 
even the taxation of salaries of public employees, 
such salaries, however, being paid with due 
regularity. 

The policy pursued by President Diaz at this 
time may well be described in the words of 
Macaulay: "The real statesman is he who, in 
troubled times, keeps down the turbulent without 
unnecessarily harassing the well affected ; and who, 
when great pecuniary resources are needed, pro- 
vides for the public exigencies, without violating 
the security of property and drying up the sources 
of future prosperity." 

It was at the beginning of this presidential term 
that serious difficulties arose, with regard to the 
relations between Mexico and Guatemala, owing 
to the plan adopted by President Rufino Barrios 
to assume the control of the administration of 
the five Central American republics, against the 
express wishes of the inhabitants and governments 
of Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. Mex- 
ico could do no less than protest against the illegal 
acts of President Barrios. However, the death 
of that leader in the battle of Chalchuapa put an 
end to those difficulties, as the new administration 
of Guatemala nullified all the acts of its former 
Executive and peace was restored in the Central 
American republics. During that agitated period 
an army corps of 18,000 men was stationed at the 



Term from 1884 to 1888 43 

Guatemalan frontier, which was promptly with- 
drawn when all danger of international conflict 
disappeared. 

The reference made by President Diaz in one 
of his messages to Congress in 1885 to the 
Guatemalan incident, is worth quoting, as therein 
he reaffirms the wisdom of well known principles 
of international law. 

He said : 

Congress may remember the attitude assumed by 
the Executive, when General Justo Rufino Barrios 
decreed by his own will the union of the five Central 
American republics. The policy we so pursued met 
with the approval, not only of a large majority in our 
country, but also among other nations that uphold 
the theory that the old right of conquest should not 
prevail among the free peoples of America. General 
Barrios' death in the battlefield of Chalchuapa, 
and the repeal of the measures of that ill advised 
President, as adopted by the Provisional Govern- 
ment of Guatemala, put an end to the war, and 
to the difficulties that thereby ensued to us. The 
heroic bravery of the patriots who defended their 
autonomy and the immediate signing of the peace 
treaty brought about a satisfactory solution of 
that conflict, to which solution the whole civil- 
ized world could not forbear to give its approval ; 
and what has occurred has served to again demon- 
strate the principle that the respect for the sovereignty 
of nations, however small and weak they may be, 
must lie at the basis of international law. 

President Diaz, as in former times, gave all 



44 Porfirio Diaz 

encouragement to the fostering of new mining 
enterprises, to the construction of new railroads, 
and to the establishment of new steamship lines, 
while, as far as it was possible, the telegraph lines 
and the mail facilities in the Republic were duly 
increased. It was also during this period that new 
impetus was given to the important works of 
drainage of the valley of Mexico. 

In the State of Sonora the Yaqui Indians, and 
in the State of Yucatan the Mayas rose in arms 
in some outlying districts, but government forces 
soon put an end to their incursions. A local 
disturbance occurred in the State of Zacatecas, 
which some feared might assume greater propor- 
tions under the leadership of General Garcia de 
la Cadena, but his death put an end to such illegal 
agitation. 

The credit of Mexico abroad attained a most 
satisfactory condition, and from that time, it may 
be said, with perfect truth, that Mexico's public 
credit in Europe and in the United States has 
been considered first class, and that the name of 
President Diaz has given to all Mexican obliga- 
tions, during his successive administrations, the 
seal of honesty and solvency on the part of the 
nation, which formerly did not enjoy any credit 
in the financial markets of the world. 

It was during this presidential term that Mexico, 
recognizing the importance of its diplomatic 
mission in the United States, built and furnished 
an appropriate residence for its Minister. 



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Term from 1884 to 1888 45 

A passing reference may be made here to the 
once celebrated Cutting case, which was a contro- 
versy arising from the sentence by a Mexican judge 
of an American writer accused of having Hbelled 
at El Paso a Mexican citizen, and of having caused 
such libel to be circulated in Mexican territory. 
That case gave rise to annoying controversies in 
the press of both countries, and to the interchange 
of very able and interesting notes between both 
governments, which finally led to the satisfactory 
termination of this disagreeable incident. 

The success attained by President Diaz in this 
period of his administration made all patriotic 
Mexicans consider it necessary to have the Federal 
Constitution amended in such a way as to per- 
mit his re-election. This was done by the express 
vote of the legislatures of all the states, and in 
due compliance with constitutional enactments. 

In order to give a further outline of the ad- 
ministrative work done in this period, we will 
quote some paragraphs from the last message of 
President Diaz to Congress, which he delivered on 
the 1 6th of September 1888, after the presidential 
elections had been held, and he had been almost 
unanimously re-elected Chief Magistrate of the 
Republic. 

After stating that public order and peace pre- 
vailed throughout the country, and that the 
international relations of Mexico with all foreign 
countries were most friendly and satisfactory, he 
said: 



46 Porfirio Diaz 

The elections held for the renewal of the federal 
authorities have taken place, under the peaceful 
conditions existing in our territory. No political 
question, not even of a local character, has disturbed 
during the recess of Congress, the public order and 
harmony fortunately existing between the federal 
and state governments. These favorable circum- 
stances have allowed all to devote their attention to 
public and administrative improvements, to the 
progress of public instruction, and to daily strengthen 
public security, and all these factors have proved of 
great influence and still continue to give a good 
reputation to the Mexican nation." 

With reference to public improvements, the 
President stated that the aggregate extent of 
railroad lines in the Republic amounted to 7500 
kilometers, that the telegraph lines had been 
increased by 950 kilometers, and that the works 
of improvement in Vera Cruz harbor were being 
carried on with due regularity. 

With regard to the Department of Finances, 
the President said in part as follows : 

The work of reorganizing the public finances is go- 
ing on, but like every other administrative reform of 
importance, it will require some time to have it carried 
out to a satisfactory conclusion. Nevertheless it 
may be stated that, although the financial situation 
is not entirely prosperous, there are circumstances 
which rightly make us hope that it is continuing along 
the road of improvement ; because the Republic shows 
at the present moment an extraordinary development 
of the elements which constitute national wealth. 



Term from 1884 to 1888 47 

The Treasury has been able to fully meet all payments 
decreed in the appropriation bills, thanks to the 
increase in the federal revenues. This is due to 
the enhancement in the value of private property, the 
development of commerce, and the greater exporta- 
tion of Mexican products, as well as to the favorable 
condition of our credit, which never has been as high 
as it is now. 

Farther along in his message he says: "The 
exportations of national products rose during the 
last fiscal year to $48,745,560. . . . The revenues 
continued to improve. During the last fiscal 
year which ended on the 30th of June, the total 
revenues amounted to $32,508,564." 

The closing paragraph of the message of Presi- 
dent Diaz is well worth quoting in full: 

Since November, 1884, the development of the 
country, which at first was difficult, became after- 
wards more rapid and has had a continuous increase, 
in perfect accord with the development of the public 
administration whose advancement, although labori- 
ous has been sure, and to which I made reference in 
my former message. Public improvements, such as 
railroad and telegraph lines, as well as all the ele- 
ments of public wealth which then existed have had a 
most satisfactory increase: and public credit which, 
owing to inveterate errors, as well as to unfortunate 
circumstances, had made it entirely nugatory, has 
become favorable to Mexico both at home and abroad, 
and every day has been consolidated and served to 
attract foreign capital and industry, which formerly 
seemed to avoid our country. 



48 Porfirio Diaz 

Although President Diaz, with his customary- 
modesty, ends his message by saying that the 
results attained at the end of his presidential 
term, were not due to his own unaided efforts, but 
to the assistance that he received for such labors 
from the people at large and his advisers, there is 
no doubt that his name, his tact, his activity and 
his well devised plans were the leading factors in 
the success of his administration. 






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Upper Stories 




Staircases 
Post-Office — Mexico City 



CHAPTER VIII 

FROM 1888 TO 1892 

THE elections held throughout the Republic 
resulted overwhelmingly in favor of the 
candidacy of President Diaz, and after the due 
ratification of such election by Congress, he was 
again inaugurated on the ist of December, 1888. 
The public rejoicing over this event plainly 
showed that the people at large gave the seal of 
their approval to the administrative acts of his 
government, and that they desired that his 
policies should be continued. 

From the beginning of this new term, it was 
manifest that President Diaz wished to extend 
the influence of Mexico abroad, and to let his 
country be known in all the leading nations of the 
globe. 

It was with this end in view, that a treaty for 
the establishment of an International Boundary 
Commission between the United States and 
Mexico, was entered into, the negotiations for a 
new extradition treaty between the two countries 
were commenced, and treaties of friendship, com- 
merce and navigation with Great Britain and 
4 49 



50 Porfirio Diaz 

Japan were concluded, while other international 
pacts with various nations were being negotiated. 

Among the countries that at that time entered 
into friendly relations with Mexico, we may- 
mention Brazil, Japan, Russia, and the Argentine 
Republic. 

In October, 1889, the first Pan-American Con- 
ference opened its sessions at the city of Washing- 
ton, D. C. Mexico took part in that international 
gathering and was ably represented by Minister 
Matias Romero and General Enrique A. Mexia, 
both now deceased. It is needless to say that 
said Conference was as greatly advantageous to 
the United States Government and its people 
who promoted the meeting, as to the govern- 
ments and countries which took part in the same. 

We may make here passing reference to two 
incidents that occurred in 1890, which showed that 
the friendly relations between Mexico and the 
United States could not be disturbed through 
slight causes. 

When presenting his credentials to the Costa 
Rican Government, the American Minister to 
that country uttered some phrases, which rightly 
wounded the susceptibility of the Mexican Govern- 
ment. Upon the proper complaint being made in 
Washington, the Government of the United States 
rebuked its diplomatic representative for his 
conduct in this case. 

The other incident refers to the ill-advised pro- 
posed purchase of the territory of Lower Califor- 



From 1888 to 1892 51 

nia. President Diaz in his message to Congress, 
on April 18, 1890, alluded to this matter in the 
following words: 

It seems that a happy termination has been had 
regarding the disagreeable incident initiated by the 
Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles, in California, 
and seconded by the government of that state, 
with reference to their proposition to negotiate with 
us the sale of Lower California; since lately, owing 
to a report of the American Secretary of State, 
wherein he showed the impossibility of such negotia- 
tion because it was entirely opposed to the unanimous 
sentiment of the Mexican people and Government, 
the Senate of that Republic unanimously resolved 
not to take such proposal into consideration. Thus, 
disagreeable discussions on that subject will be 
avoided, although at all events the resolution of the 
Mexican Government in regard to this matter would 
have been the same, because it never could be other 
than that approved by the universal sentiment of our 
people. 

It was also at the beginning of this term of 
office that due attention was given to the improve- 
ment of public hygiene, the construction of a 
national penitentiary was rapidly pushed on, 
while the survey and sale of public lands were 
duly attended to. 

The death of Ex-President Lerdo de Tejada in 
the city of New York having occurred, his remains 
were brought to Mexico City and an imposing 
funeral was held there, at which President Diaz, 



52 Porfirio Diaz 

all the members of his Cabinet, and the leading 
statesmen of the Republic were present. 

Mexico was well represented at the Universal 
Exposition held in Paris in 1889, and the number 
of premiums obtained by its exhibitors showed 
the importance of a Mexican exhibit at that fair. 

Towards the end of January, 1890, the last in- 
stalment of the debt due the United States, 
growing out of the award of the Mixed Joint Claims 
Commission, was paid. 

It was also in 1890, that the harbor works in 
Tampico were inaugurated, while those of Vera 
Cruz were rapidly being pushed forward. 

That year also witnessed the beginning of the 
construction of the General Hospital at the cap- 
ital, which, when terminated some years after- 
wards, deserved the encomiums of all foreigners 
who visited it. 

During the beginning of the year 189 1, the De- 
partment of Communications and Public Works 
was established, and thereby one more member 
was added to the Cabinet. 

It was then also that the Sanitary Code was 
issued, as well as a new custom-house ordinance 
and tariff. 

Mexico having been invited to take part in the 
World's Fair to be held at the city of Chicago in 
the year 1893, the invitation was accepted, a 
commission was appointed that gathered a large 
variety of exhibits and it afterwards successfully 
presented them at that exposition. 



I 





President Diaz 

(From a Painting) 



From 1888 to 1892 53 

During the year 1892, the fourth centenary of 
the discovery of America was duly celebrated 
throughout the Republic, while a commission, 
sent expressly by the government, worthily repre- 
sented Mexico at the festivities held in Madrid on 
that occasion. 

The total loss of the crops, the high rate of ex- 
change due to the depreciation of silver, and the 
economic crisis which then ensued, brought about 
a reduction in the revenues of the government; 
but President Diaz, acting with foresight, adopted 
measures which brought about the satisfactory 
result of increasing the permanent revenues of the 
government. He furthermore obtained a loan 
abroad, which served to avoid and overcome all 
financial difficulties encountered by the federal 
administration. 

As the Constitution of the Republic had been 
amended, so that it permitted the re-election of 
a president for one term only, it was plain that 
President Diaz could not again assume the reins 
of government for another term of office. As all 
thoughtful men and patriotic citizens became con- 
vinced that, in order to continue to enjoy the 
blessings of peace, to strengthen Mexico's credit 
abroad and to keep up the material advancement 
of the Republic, the presence of President Diaz at 
the head of the government was indispensable, an 
amendment of the Constitution was adopted in 
strict conformity with law, permitting the re-elec- 
tion of the President, without any restriction as to 



54 Porfirio Diaz 

the number of times that he might be re-elected. 
It was then that the candidacy of President Diaz 
for the term of 1892 to 1896 was presented, 
and was enthusiastically received throughout 
the country. His election soon followed, by 
nearly the unanimous vote of the electoral 
college. 

In reviewing the acts of his administration, 
during the term then ended, we may properly 
make reference, as we did in the preceding chap- 
ter, to the message he read to the Federal Congress 
on September 16, 1892, which was the last of this 
term of office. 

He begins that message by stating, as in former 
ones, that peace and order existed throughout 
Mexican territory, and that the relations of Mexico 
with foreign nations were cordial and friendly. 
He then gives a succinct, but fair statement, of 
the progress attained by the Republic in all the 
various departments of the administration, show- 
ing, among other things, that great strides were 
made in the Department of Public Instruction, 
that the mining and agricultural resources of the 
country at large were being developed, that tele- 
graph and railroad lines continued to be built, 
that the harbor works of Vera Cruz and Tampico 
and the drainage works of the valley of Mexico 
were duly attended to, and that the necessary 
measures for the improvement of the financial 
status of the nation were being adopted. 

It was therefore proper and just for President 



From 1888 to 1892 55 

Diaz to close his message with the following 
phrases : 

As on former occasions, and with the same frank- 
ness and truthfulness, I have given you an account of 
the administrative acts performed since the date of 
my last message, without concealing from you any- 
thing that might serve to give you a right under- 
standing, not only of the advancement made, but also 
of the difficulties at present existing. As you may 
have observed, the latter refer to the financial con- 
dition of the country, which is due to causes that are 
not subject, in any way, to the influence or authority 
of the government; it is therefore proper to modify 
some of its effects by the adoption of prudent meas- 
ures relative thereto. Furthermore the advancement 
which commenced some years back in the Republic 
has not encountered, nor is it to be feared that it will 
encounter, a considerable setback, and the potent 
influence of peace, which is now fortunately consol- 
idated, will undoubtedly be of great service to the 
Republic in its progressive advancement. 

Even if during the presidential term that is about 
to terminate, no other advantage should have been 
secured, but this inestimable benefit, my aspirations 
would have been satisfied, because the obtainment 
of greater happiness for the Mexican people is princi- 
pally to be due to the virtues which have preserved 
them in the critical period of their history and to their 
love of order, economy, and labor, which shall place 
them some day among the nations most apt to gather 
the fruits of our modern civilization. 



CHAPTER IX 

FROM 1892 TO 1896 

THE same manifestations of joy and satis- 
faction were shown upon the inauguration 
of the new presidential term. The same policies 
that had guided his former administrations were 
continued in the one that commenced on the ist 
of December, 1892. 

President Diaz carried on through the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Relations the promotion of closer 
ties with those countries to which Mexico had sent 
diplomatic representatives, and at the beginning 
of his new term of office he initiated negotiations 
for the establishment of friendly and diplomatic 
relations with the Chinese Empire. 

Certain boundary questions between several 
states of the union had caused some friction and 
displeasure between such states, but the friendly 
action and advice of President Diaz led to the 
proper adjustment of those difficulties. In the 
State of Guerrero some local disturbances occurred 
in October, 1894, but they were quickly suppressed, 
and did not affect in the least the peace and order 
of the rest of the Republic. 

56 



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Mrs. Diaz 

Wife of the President 



From 1892 to 1896 57 

The new laws adopted with the view of raising 
more revenue by means of new and additional 
taxation and through foreign loans, began to give 
satisfactory results, and it was noticeable that 
the economical crisis that had threatened the 
country during the last year of the preceding term, 
had nearly passed away. 

Mexico continued to take great interest in all 
international gatherings, and Mexican delegates 
were sent to various congresses held in the United 
States and Europe; the policy of sending such 
delegates, having proved most advantageous, as 
it has given Mexico a standing among the pro- 
gressive nations of the world, and spread within 
its borders the knowledge made in all the branches 
of science and art. 

It proved most satisfactory to the Mexican 
people to know that, according to the official re- 
port published with reference to the World's Fair 
held at Chicago in 1893, the number of premiums 
granted to Mexican exhibitors was 1777, thus 
showing the great merit and importance of the 
Mexican Department at that exhibition. It may 
be stated here that the policy of President Diaz 
has ever been to spare no expense and to devote 
great energy and labor in the participation of 
Mexico at all international expositions. It is 
dtie to this policy that the Mexican Republic has 
had the satisfaction of being so well represented 
at all those expositions, and of attaining in the 
succeeding international fairs held at Paris, Buffalo, 



58 Porfirio Diaz 

and St. Louis (Missouri) , the same success as at the 
Chicago Exposition. 

At the beginning of the year 1894, the boundary- 
questions pending between Mexico and Great 
Britain, relative to the State of Yucatan and the 
province of BeHze, were satisfactorily adjusted by 
treaty, thus putting an end to vexing and danger- 
ous controversies between the Mexican and British 
governments. 

During the latter part of the same year, some 
difficulties arose with the Guatemalan Govern- 
ment, regarding some illegal acts committed by 
officials of that government within Mexican terri- 
tory. The excitement among the people due to 
those difficulties rose to fever pitch, and the patri- 
otic sentiments of the citizens led them to desire 
war with the neighboring Republic. President 
Diaz and his advisers had to act most wisely and 
prudently at this juncture, and it was due to this 
prudence and wisdom that an international conflict 
was avoided, thus preventing the shedding of 
blood and destruction of property in both repub- 
lics. All questions pending were finally settled 
on the ist of April, 1895, by means of an agreement 
entered into on behalf of Mexico by its Secretary 
of Foreign Relations, Mr. Ignacio Mariscal, and on 
behalf of Guatemala by Mr. Emilio de Leon, its 
diplomatic representative at the City of Mexico. 

A great stride was made during the year 1894 
in regard to public hygiene, by the promulgation 
of the new Sanitary Code, whose wise provisions, 



From 1892 to 1896 59 

properly carried out by the efficient head and 
members of the Superior Board of Health, may 
be said to have eradicated yellow fever from dis- 
tricts which formerly suffered greatly from that 
dreaded epidemic, and to have prevented bubonic 
plague and other contagious diseases from entering 
the Republic. 

In the same year, 1895, the public debt was 
definitely arranged, without impairing in any way 
thereby the credit of the country. 

In October, 1895, the International Congress of 
Americanists was held at the City of Mexico, and 
thereafter other international gatherings have 
selected the capital of the Republic as a place for 
their deliberations; the honor thus conferred on 
the City of Mexico being indicative of the high 
credit and reputation that the country now enjoys 
abroad. 

In the message that President Diaz read to 
the Federal Congress on the ist of April, 1896, 
that is, during the last year of the administration 
to which we are referring, he made most important 
declarations on what is styled the "Monroe Doc- 
trine," which we cannot forbear from quoting in 
extenso, because they give a clear and precise 
understanding of that doctrine by General Diaz 
and by the Mexican Government. 

His statement and the phrases that comprise 
it, attracted so much attention in both countries, 
that some considered it a new departure in inter- 
national law, or rather the reaffirmance of well 



6o Porfirio Diaz 

settled principles with reference to the question 
under discussion. 

The portion of President Diaz's message in 
question, was as follows: . 

Among the events referring to that great Republic 
[the United States], that, since my last message have 
greatly claimed the attention and interest of all 
American nations, there is one regarding which I shall 
say a few words, impelled thereto by reasons of 
national decorum and convenience. Owing to an 
old boundary dispute between Venezuela and the 
territory called British Guiana, which question 
recently became acute, on account of causes which it 
is not necessary to examine, the President of the 
United States of America sent a message to the 
Congress of that nation bringing to its consideration, 
as applicable to said controversy, the famous opinion 
or doctrine which was presented by President Monroe 
in a similar document, and that since 1823 has been so 
well received by the American people. It was very 
natural that the reference to that doctrine, which 
opposes every attempt of European usurpation and 
every monarchical tendency to change the republican 
institutions of the New World, should be enthusiasti- 
cally received by the free nations of this continent, 
and bring forth manifestations of sympathy by the 
peoples and even by the governments of America. 

The Mexican Government was invited through 
international channels to express at once its opinion 
on that most serious question; but the Executive 
considered that it ought not to give a hasty opinion 
on a matter which at that time not only comprised 
the Monroe Doctrine, but also referred to the applica- 




W 

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.-I D 






From 1892 to 1896 61 

tion of its principles to the case of Great Britain in its 
controversies with Venezuela. As we did not know 
that question, perhaps, as well as the United States 
knew it, for it had received special information on the 
subject from the Venezuelan Government, we could 
not be in a position to assume that what England 
pretended to do could constitute an attempt at usurpa- 
tion. Neither could we believe that every boundary- 
question in its very nature, and even when relating to 
questions still under dispute could give rise to an 
application of that wise doctrine. 

Furthermore, the mere fact that England should 
refuse to submit to arbitration its rights to a portion 
of the disputed territory — since it admitted it with 
reference to the balance — could not in our judgment 
be sufficient cause for that unfavorable opinion, since 
the Mexican Government itself has declared, on more 
than one occasion, that it will not submit to arbitra- 
tion certain territorial questions which, according to 
its judgment, affect the national honor. It was for 
this reason that I personally avoided making any 
manifestations through the press, regarding a question 
which directly related to the interests or the finer 
sentiments of three nations for which we had similar 
regard; and I merely said that naturally I was a par- 
tisan of the Monroe principles when well understood, 
but that I did not know whether they were applica- 
ble to the special case to which reference had been 
made. 

But now that fortunately, and as it was to be 
expected, the critical period has passed, which it 
was thought might lead to war between the two 
great nations into which the Anglo-Saxon race is 
divided: now that our sister republic Venezuela is 



62 Porfirio Diaz 

continuing at Washington its peaceful negotiations 
with its powerful adversary, it seems that it would 
not be improper to yield to the desire of those who have 
asked the Mexican Government to express its opinion 
with regard to the Monroe Doctrine. Without 
entering into disquisitions as to the origin and the 
historic moment which gave rise to its proclamation; 
without entering into details as to the proper limita- 
tions which its own author set to it, and which were 
referred to so skilfully by President Cleveland, the 
Mexican Government can do no less than be in favor 
of a doctrine which condemns as unjust any invasion 
made by monarchical Europe against the American 
republics, against such independent nations which 
to-day are administered by that popular form of 
government. Our general history and especially the 
struggle of our people to shake off the yoke of a foreign 
empire of European origin, form and elements, and the 
torrents of blood, shed in that terrible struggle, testi- 
fied before the world our love of independence and our 
hatred of all foreign intervention. 

But we do not consider that in order to attain the 
object that we desire it is sufficient that the United 
States alone, notwithstanding the greatness of its 
resources, should have the obligation to aid the other 
republics of this hemisphere against the attacks of 
Europe, — if such are yet considered possible, — but 
that each one of them, by means of a declaration 
similar to that issued by President Monroe, should 
proclaim that any attack from any foreign power, 
which may be directed to injure the territory or the 
independence, or to change the institutions of any 
one of the American republics, should be considered 
by the nation making such declaration as an offence 



From 1892 to 1896 63 

against it, if the other nation which sustained the 
attack, or to which a threat of that character 
is directed, should ask its aid at the opportune 
moment. 

In this way the doctrine, now styled Monroe Doc- 
trine, would become the American Doctrine in its 
most ample sense, and if it is true that it has had its 
origin in the United States, it could form a part of 
the international law of all America. What are the 
means of attaining this result in a practical and con- 
venient manner, is a question that cannot be discussed 
in this message. 

Long before the end of the term of office of Presi- 
dent Diaz to which we are referring, public opinion 
again demanded his re-election. It was at the 
urgent solicitation of all parties, that the President 
allowed his name to be brought again before the 
voters as a presidential candidate. We may 
say that the canvass in his favor in this in- 
stance, was as successful as it had been on former 
occasions. 

Before the close of this term, he read before 
Congress on the i6th of September, 1896, his last 
message, which showed a most satisfactory condi- 
tion of affairs all over the Republic in all branches 
of the public service. It was during this term to 
which we refer that the public revenues exceeded 
the public expenses, the former amounting to 
$50,000,000, and that there was left a balance in 
favor of the nation of about $4,500,000; a most 
satisfactory result, for which due praise must be 
given, not only to the President, but also to Mr. 



64 Porfirio Diaz 

Jose Ives Limantour, who was at the head of the 
Treasury Department. 

President Diaz rightly and properly concluded 
the message to which we refer in the satisfactory 
phrases that he addressed to the members of the 
Senate and Chamber of Deputies, as follows: 

As you may have been able to infer from the facts 
that I have briefly stated, the nation has not halted 
on its onward advance, and every day all the branches 
of the public service are improving, even in spite of 
some obstacles which might retard that progress. 
So we have seen that the national revenues, whose 
excess over the public expenses was such an agreeable 
surprise upon the termination of the first half of the 
last fiscal year, increased so materially in the second 
half and in the months that have clasped since then, 
that to-day we have at our disposal a larger balance, 
and this has been done notwithstanding that new 
taxes had to be levied, causing thereby some in- 
convenience, in order to substitute the revenues 
heretofore obtained through interstate imposts. 
Furthermore, the very noticeable advance in our 
mineral products, shown by the increase in the expor- 
tation of minerals ; the registry of property amounting 
to $30,000,000 in a single period of three months, and 
many other data that we have at hand regarding 
public wealth, tend to prove its growing advancement 
within the last few years. In order that this era of 
prosperity, which has for its basis the present existence 
of peace and public order, may continue without any 
interruption, we must rely undoubtedly not only on 
the good sense of the Mexican people, but also on the 




Jose Yves Limantour 
Secretary of Finance 



From 1892 to 1896 65 

patriotic efforts which have been shown by the 
members of Congress. 

We cannot close this chapter without making 
reference to the abolition of interstate imposts, 
mentioned in the last paragraph of President 
Diaz's message, because the suppression of such 
imposts was one of the most beneficial measures 
initiated and carried out by the administration of 
President Diaz, and has proved to be a great in- 
centive and means of developing the resources of 
the Republic, and of attracting foreign capital to 
aid in the progress of all industries. 



CHAPTER X 

FROM 1896 TO 1900 

THE beginning of the presidential term of 
General Diaz, which commenced on the ist 
of December, 1896, showed that the increase in 
public revenues was such that the tax on the 
salaries of public employees could be done away 
with. 

Various financial measures marked the first 
months of that term, such as the issuance of the 
general law regulating institutions of credit, 
the provisions regarding the collection of taxes 
on precious metals and the amendments to the 
tariff regulations. During that period of time, 
large amounts of money were spent in the prose- 
cution of important public improvements, such 
as the National Penitentiary, the General Hos- 
pital, and the drainage works of the valley of 
Mexico. 

The banking facilities of the country were in- 
creased during this term of President Diaz's ad- 
ministration, by the establishment of various 
state banks, and certain modifications of impor- 
tance were introduced in the Department of War 

66 



From 1896 to 1900 67 

and Navy ; the army having been newly equipped, 
its efficiency was thereby improved. 

During the year 1898, the war between the 
United States and Spain occurred, and President 
Diaz maintained the strictest neutrality towards 
the two contending nations, and thus prevented 
any controversy arising with either of the bel- 
ligerents, on account of any act performed by the 
Mexican authorities. 

A passing reference may be made to the submis- 
sion to arbitration of a claim presented against 
Mexico by Charles Oberlander and Barbara Mes- 
singer, owing to the imprisonment of the former 
by the Mexican authorities of the territory of 
Lower California, as it shows the policy already ini- 
tiated by the Mexican and American governments 
of appealing to arbitration for the settlement of 
controversies regarding pecuniary claims. It may 
be added that this case was submitted to the 
Argentine Minister at Madrid, who decided that 
Mexico was not liable in any way and rejected 
the claim in its entirety. 

It was at the beginning of the year 1899 that 
Mexico and the United States resolved to raise the 
rank of their diplomatic representatives to that of 
ambassador, and Mr, Matias Romero, whose long 
and successful services were highly appreciated, 
was appointed Mexico's first ambassador to the 
American Government. Unfortunately, death 
claimed as its own that distinguished diplomat, 
and as a matter of fact, the able Sub-Secretary 



68 Porfirio Diaz 

of Foreign Relations, Mr. Manuel Azpiroz, who 
was appointed successor to Mr. Romero, was the 
first Mexican diplomat who presented his cre- 
dentials as ambassador in Washington. 

The messages read by President Diaz in the four 
years of the term of his administration to which 
we are referring, plainly showed how satisfactory 
the financial condition of the country was, and 
what great strides had been made and improve- 
ments effected in all the branches of the public 
service. 

In the month of May, 1899, Mexico took part in 
the great Peace Congress, which was held at The 
Hague, upon the invitation of the Emperor of 
Russia; it lasted a period of three months and 
was fruitful in beneficial results. It may be stated 
here that Mexico and the United States were the 
only American republics that were invited and 
took part in that important Congress. 

Speaking of its work, President Diaz in one of 
his messages to the Federal Congress says: 

The fruit of its labors, during the period of its 
sessions, consisted of three conventions, and as many 
declarations, all signed by the delegates of Mexico; 
the former referring to the peaceful settlement of 
international controversies, to the laws and customs 
of war by land, and to the application in wars by sea 
of the principles that had been adopted since 1864 
by the Geneva Conference. The declarations relate 
to the prevention of the use of certain kinds of 
projectiles. 




President Diaz in the Executive Chair 



From 1896 to 1900 69 

The convention for the peaceful settlement of inter- 
national conflicts is most remarkable, both on account 
of its essential characteristics and the manner of 
procedure therein described. By virtue thereof a 
permanent court of justice, with its administrative 
council is established, which either by the issuance of 
sentences that shall bind the nations making the 
agreement, or by the signing of opinions, supported 
by the moral prestige of those who prepare them, 
shall act as a means to peacefully settle any inter- 
national conflict, which does not relate to the honor or 
to the essential interests of the nation. 

As a consequence of our participation in the Peace 
Conference, Mexico as well as the European powers, 
the principal nations of Asia, and the United States 
of America, shall have its international judges in that 
permanent court. We will also take part in the 
administrative council of said court, which shall 
consist of the ministers accredited at The Hague. 

In the same message to which we have just re- 
ferred, some paragraphs are found which fully 
explain the successful financial operations carried 
on in Europe by the government, through its 
Secretary of Finance, Mr. Limantour, and we 
cannot forbear making the following quotations 
from the same: 

In strict compliance with the prescriptions adopted 
by Congress in the law which authorizes the executive 
to convert the national debt payable in gold, adequate 
arrangements therefor have been made, through the 
Secretary of Finance, while that functionary was in 
Europe on a temporary leave of absence. Detailed 



7o Porfirio Diaz 

information of that operation will be sent to Congress 
at the proper time ; but I can at once point out the 
principal advantages which it will have for the public 
treasury. They consist in the reduction of one per 
cent, in the rate of interest, which will be quite an 
economy in the annual payment of the same ; in the 
suppression of the deposits and assignments of certain 
funds, agreed to be given as guarantee of the former 
loan contracts, which will permit their disposal or 
their use hereafter in the manner that might be more 
advantageous to the public treasury; in the cancella- 
tion of the mortgage of the Tehuantepec Railroad ; and 
finally, in the unification of the foreign debt. 

During the beginning of the year 1900, the great 
harbor works at Salina Cruz and Coatzacoalcos 
were commenced. These works, with those under 
way in Vera Cruz, Tampico, Mazatlan and Man- 
zanillo, were ultimately bound to convert those 
ports into the safest harbors of this continent. 

It may now be both interesting and important 
to take notice of two incidents referred to in Presi- 
dent Diaz's messages of 1900, which gave rise to 
manifestations of good-will towards Mexico on 
the part of the United States, and of the upright 
manner in which American courts have dealt with 
matters wherein the Mexican Government was 
concerned. 

We refer first to the action taken by the At- 
torney General of the United States, at the request 
of the Mexican Embassy at Washington, under 
instructions from the Mexican Government, to 



From 1896 to 1900 71 

discontinue two suits brought against Mexico in 
the courts of the State of New York on alleged 
claims against that government, thereby reaffirm- 
ing the principle of international law that a 
sovereign nation cannot, without its consent, be 
sued in the courts of another country. 

The other incident is the dismissal by the Su- 
preme Court of the United States of the appeal of 
the claimants in the celebrated La Abra and Weil 
cases, against the decision of the Court of Claims, 
setting aside for fraud the award made in favor of 
such claimants by the Mixed Claims Commission. 
We may add that thereafter the Senate of the 
United States declined to intervene in any way in 
favor of the claimants, and that the American 
Government not only refused to collect any 
further part of the award, but went even further 
and reimbursed Mexico the part already collected 
by the United States and paid over to the owners 
of those fraudulent claims. 

The success attained by President Diaz in all 
branches of the administration was even more 
marked and conspicuous, if possible, during this 
period than in any of the former ones ; and there- 
fore it was nothing but natural that public opinion 
with great unanimity should demand his re-elec- 
tion. This event took place in the customary 
manner, there being no opposing candidate, and 
the votes cast showing an overwhelming majority 
in his favor. 

On the 1 6th of September, 1900, he presented 



72 Porfirio Diaz 

to Congress his final message embracing that term 
of his administration. 

The following is the closing paragraph of that 
message : 

I have terminated this brief statement, which, like 
those of former years, shows not only the advance- 
ment made by the government in all its branches, 
through its constant efforts to improve the public 
service, but also the continuous development of the 
elements of wealth which are so abundant in our 
country, and which merely await further labor to 
bring about greater results, in the midst of the peace- 
ful conditions that have existed in Mexico for about 
a quarter of a century and which fortunately are now 
assured. On an occasion like the present one, it is 
but natural that we should congratulate ourselves 
over such a prosperous condition and pay a just 
tribute to the Mexican people and their worthy 
legislators, who have so efficiently contributed to 
establish and maintain such a flourishing state. 

Of course in a work which is devoted to the 
description of the life of a statesman, and which 
therefore is more of a biographical than of a his- 
torical character, a great deal has to be left out 
which would really pertain to the history of the 
country to which that statesman belongs. And al- 
though it is true that the biography of President 
Diaz during the last fifty years, and especially during 
the thirty years last past, may be said to be nearly 
identical with the history of the Mexican Republic 
during that period, we are compelled, nevertheless. 




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From 1896 to 1900 73 

to pass by and omit many matters, which are 
rather historical than biographical in their nature, 
with the further object of devoting some portion 
of this work to the private life of President Diaz 
and the traits of his character as a private citizen. 
It is for the reasons above stated that we have 
merely sketched, as it were, the leading acts of 
the various periods of his administration, and 
this is the course that we will also pursue in the 
remaining chapters of this book. 



CHAPTER XI 

FROM 1900 TO 1904 

DURING President Diaz's new term of ojffice, 
the improvements made in the capital of 
the Republic were numerous and of great impor- 
tance. As the great works of the drainage of the 
valley of Mexico had been terminated, those in 
the interior of the city were commenced. 

If it is true that in the preceding years many 
improvements have been carried on in the City of 
Mexico, it may be said that they greatly increased 
in value and extent, as we have already stated, 
since the year 1900. The establishment of ex- 
cellent drainage, the construction of good asphalt 
pavements, the improvement in the electric light 
service and in the tramway system, the increase 
in the number of private dwellings, especially in 
those portions of the city known as Colonia Juarez 
and Colonia Roma, and the erection of handsome 
public buildings, such as the City Post Office, the 
National Geological Institute, and the Children's 
Asylum, and those being built, as the National 
Opera House, the National Legislative Palace, the 
Department of Public Works and Communications, 

74 



From 1900 to 1904 75 

and others, have rendered and still render the City 
of Mexico, a most beautiful, healthy, and con- 
venient place for residence. 

The official census of the Republic having been 
taken in 1900 and published later on, showed that 
the population was 13,546,700 inhabitants, giving 
an increase of 914,340 inhabitants, as compared 
with the census taken in the year 1895. 

At the beginning of the year 1901, diplomatic 
relations were re-established with the Government 
of Austria-Hungary, which had been severed since 
the war of French intervention. 

It was during the year 1901 that the Department 
of Justice and Public Instruction was divided, so 
that it had to devote itself merely to the judicial 
branch of the service, leaving the new department 
to conduct all matters regarding public instruction. 
A new Cabinet officer was appointed. This new 
member of the Cabinet was the well known littera- 
teur and statesman, Mr. Justo Sierra, whilst the 
able Secretary of Justice, Mr. Justino Fernandez, 
remained at the head of that department. 

During the same year, the Second Pan-American 
Conference was held at the City of Mexico, and 
delegates from every one of the American repub- 
lics assembled there to discuss important matters 
of policy and international law relating to those 
countries. 

President Diaz, in advance of that conference 
had appointed a most able commission on behalf 
of Mexico, which was presided over by the late 



76 Porfirio Diaz 

Senator Genaro Raigosa, and had for its secretary 
Mr. Joaquin D. Casasus, who afterwards became 
Mexican Ambassador at Washington. Both of 
these gentlemen, upon the meeting of the con- 
ference, were appointed president and secretary 
general of the same, and their able and painstaking 
work, taken in connection with the labors of their 
fellow-members in the Mexican commission, 
greatly contributed to the success of that inter- 
national congress. 

The strained relations existing between some 
South American republics at the time when the 
conference was held, lengthened its labors, and 
rendered it necessary for the Mexican delegation 
to exert great skill, forbearance, and tact, in order 
that such labors should not prove fruitless. How- 
ever, with the aid of President Diaz and the mem- 
bers of his Cabinet, as well as with the assistance 
of all the able delegates from the other American 
republics, the success of the conference was 
assured and it closed, after having signed several 
important treaties, declarations, and resolutions. 

The conference was likewise a great success 
socially, and all the delegates declared that they 
had been most royally entertained by President 
and Mrs. Diaz, by the personnel of the federal and 
city governments, as well as by the governors 
and committees appointed by them, in the states 
which were visited by the members of that inter- 
national gathering. 

We may also refer here to the co-operation of 




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From 1900 to 1904 77 

Mexico in the Pan-American Exposition held at 
the city of Buffalo in 1901. This exposition was 
unfortunately not as successful as was anticipated, 
owing to the dastardly assassination of President 
McKinley, which occurred at its Music Hall on 
September 6, 1901. The Mexican department at 
that exhibition was highly praised by all visitors 
and the number of premiums that Mexican ex- 
hibitors obtained was most gratifying. 

The improvements made in the Tehuantepec 
Railroad, as well as the signing of the contract for 
the construction of a railway line to terminate at 
the Guatemalan frontier, and the building of 
other railroads throughout the Republic, showed 
plainly that the policy of inaugurating and es- 
tablishing public improvements, and connecting 
by rail the most important parts of the Republic, 
was to be continued. 

It was during this term of office that permanent 
legations were established by the Mexican Govern- 
ment in the republics of South America, one of 
said legations being accredited to the countries 
lying on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and the 
other to those lying on the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean. 

During the year 1902, a controversy existing 
between Mexico and the United States, regarding 
certain claims of the Catholic Church of California, 
was submitted for decision to the permanent court 
of arbitration, held at The Hague, and though 
its decision was adverse to Mexican interests, 



78 Porfirio Diaz 

President Diaz will always be praised for having 
adopted the policy of peacefully solving a contro- 
versy, under the terms of existing treaties and by 
submission to a high court of arbitration. That 
was the first case of importance presented before 
that international tribunal. 

In the same year, Mexico established diplomatic 
relations with the Cuban Republic, and at the be- 
ginning of the year 1893; a diplomatic representa- 
tive from the Shah of Persia was received by 
President Diaz, a treaty of commerce and friend- 
ship having been signed between the two countries 
in the preceding year. Soon after that a Mexican 
minister was sent to Persia. 

As Venezuela had signed several agreements 
for the settlement of certain claims against said 
country, the Mexican Government availed itself 
of this opportunity to enter into an arrangement 
of that character, with the object of settling certain 
demands of Mexican citizens against that Re- 
public. It is satisfactory to state that thereafter, 
when the case was submitted to arbitration, a 
judgment was obtained in favor of the Mexican 
claimants. 

As the financial situation of Mexico was most 
satisfactory, it was considered convenient to take 
some steps in order to establish the gold standard 
in the Republic. Mr. Limantour, the efficient 
Secretary of the Treasury, acting under advice of 
President Diaz, and aided by a commission com- 
posed of skilful financiers, well versed in economic 



From 1900 to 1904 79 

questions, made thorough and laborious investi- 
gations on the subject, which thereafter resulted 
in the establishment of the gold standard, under 
conditions highly satisfactory to the financial 
interests of the Republic, and which have greatly 
aided in the development of the resources of the 
country at large. 

The year 1903 marked the termination of the 
drainage works of the City of Mexico, which served 
to improve considerably the sanitary conditions 
of the capital; and it was also in that year, that 
the bubonic plague which had appeared in Mazat- 
lan and other Pacific coast ports was stamped out, 
while yellow fever, which again made its appear- 
ance in Tampico and Vera Cruz, was finally likewise 
eliminated as an epidemic. 

During this term of ofHce, President Diaz, 
through his Secretary of Public Instruction, gave 
considerable attention to the increase of educa- 
tional facilities throughout the Republic, many 
new schools having been established. Archaeolo- 
gical research likewise received an impetus, due 
to which many important discoveries have been 
made in the rich field that Mexico presents in that 
branch of human knowledge. 

As the end of this term of administration of 
President Diaz approached, it was plain to all 
rightly thinking men that it was necessary for 
the continuous prosperity of the country, not only 
that President Diaz should be re-elected, but 
that his term of office should be extended to six 



8o Porfirio Diaz 

years, and that, instead of the cumbersome con- 
stitutional provision existing regarding the ap- 
pointment of a vice-president, such officer should 
be elected at the same time as the chief magistrate 
of the nation, and that his term of office should, 
as a matter of course, also be of six years' duration. 

Accordingly, and in strict compliance with the 
provisions of the Constitution, that instrument 
was amended so as to extend to six years the 
presidential term and to provide for the election 
of a vice-president. 

Several statesmen of high reputation were 
mentioned as candidates for the vice-presidency: 
these were Mr. Ramon Corral, Secretary of the 
Interior; Mr. Ignacio Mariscal, Secretary of For- 
eign Relations; Mr. Jose Ives Limantour, Secretary 
of Finance, and General Bernardo Reyes, former 
Secretary of War, and who was then Governor of 
the State of Nuevo Leon. 

The leading political party decided in favor of 
Mr. Corral, and in the spring of 1904, when President 
Diaz was re-elected by a nearly unanimous vote, 
Secretary Corral was proclaimed vice-president. 
He had theretofore been Governor of the State of 
Sonora, and Governor of the Federal District, and 
in those posts, as well as during the time that he 
had been at the head of the Department of the 
Interior, he had shown high administrative ability 
and a steadfast desire to follow the lead and pursue 
the policies so successfully carried out by President 
Diaz. 




Ramon Corral 

Vice-President of the Republic and Secretary of the Interior 



From 1900 to 1904 81 

At the beginning of 1904, a portion of the State 
of Yucatan was segregated, and duly established 
and organized as a territory under the name of 
Quintana Roo. 

President Diaz read his last message to Congress, 
relating to the acts of his administration during 
the term of office which was to terminate on the 
ist of December, 1904, and in that message he 
stated that the friendly relations existing between 
Mexico and foreign nations had not been inter- 
rupted, excepting with reference to Guatemala. 
The following quotation from that message will 
give the full details of the disagreeable incident 
which occurred with that country: 

By the documents published last month in the 
Official Journal, you may have learned that, while 
some soldiers were passing in front of the Mexican 
Legation in Guatemala conducting a prisoner, the 
latter escaped and entered the vestibule of the build- 
ing, when his custodians, without asking permission, 
also entered and took him away by force. The Mexi- 
can Minister, as soon as he knew what had occurred, 
presented a protest, as was proper, wherein he asked 
due satisfaction for the insult and the punishment of 
the offenders. The Guatemalan Government ordered 
an investigation of the incident, and undoubtedly 
being misinformed as to what had happened, refused 
at first to grant what was demanded, although it 
stated that it was sorry that such an incident had 
taken place. Owing to the friendly feelings that have 
always guided our intercourse with Guatemala, my 
government did not wish to go very far in showing 



82 Porfirio Diaz 

its displeasure, and merely recommended our diplo- 
matic representative to insist on his demand, since 
through various persons who had witnessed the inci- 
dent, he had no doubt that an outrage had been 
committed. I have the satisfaction to state that this 
firm and likewise prudent conduct brought about the 
result that was to be expected, as the Guatemalan 
Government gave satisfaction to ours and granted 
what had been demanded, namely, a statement to the 
effect that it was sorry the incident had occurred and 
that punishment would be meted out to those who 
were directly implicated in the same. 

The message to which we have referred also 
shows that in the Departments of the Interior, 
Justice, and Public Instruction, as well as in those 
of Public Promotion, Communications, and War, 
great advancement had been made and due atten- 
tion had been given to all branches of those 
services. 
i^ The purchase of the so-called Vera Cruz to the 
Pacific Railroad, during this term of office, was 
the initiatory step taken by President Diaz and 
his Cabinet, to obtain the control of the leading 
railroad lines of the Republic, and thus bring 
about more satisfactory, better, and more uniform 
service in such railroads. -- 

A portion of the message on the subject of 
finances and public credit is so important and 
interesting in itself, that we will quote it in its 
entirety : 

I am glad to communicate to Congress that the 



From 1900 to 1904 83 

results of the fiscal year, which terminated on the 30th 
of June last past, have been satisfactory, in spite of 
the scarcity of money and available capital in the lead- 
ing cities of the Republic during the greater part of 
that fiscal year, and even though the taxes and im- 
posts levied on taxpayers, had as a general rule been 
diminished, when the federal impost was reduced 
from thirty to twenty-five per cent. 

The total revenue of the year exceeded the sum 
of $85,000,000, and although all the accounts have 
not been audited, there is no doubt that such revenue 
exceeded by $8,000,000 that of the preceding year. 
It must be stated, nevertheless, that the proceeds from 
all municipal sources in the Federal District, which 
for the first time constituted a part of the federal 
revenues in 1 903-1 904, represent a sum amounting 
to nearly $4,000,000. 

Referring especially, as it is customary, to the 
two great sources of revenue which represent more 
than eighty per cent, of the total income of the 
Federation, I have the honor to inform you that the 
importation duties, without the additions authorized 
by the law of November 25, 1902, have increased 
by nearly $2,000,000, and that a proportional in- 
crease has been noticed in exportation duties and 
port dues. As far as the aggregate revenue from 
all imposts which are classified as internal revenue 
taxes is concerned, such revenue was more than 
$1,000,000 in excess of that obtained in the preceding 
year. 

The foregoing we think fully justifies the con- 
clusion of President Diaz's message, when he said 
to the senators and deputies: 



84 Porfirio Diaz 

Although the information which I have given you 
does not offer any novelty, it does show clearly the sit- 
uation of our country, with reference to those branches 
whose administration is in charge of the Executive. 
They fully justify the opinion, which is now generally 
entertained in the whole civilized world, that this 
Republic has fully entered on the high-road to sure 
progress. Peace and legal order, attended by good 
judgment, which is now a trait of character of the 
Mexican people, are the well known causes that have 
brought about such a favorable condition in Mexican 
history. The permanency of these benefits and their 
growing development, shall hereafter be dependent 
on the same causes, since all obstacles which formerly 
ran counter to public prosperity have been removed, 
and in order to preserve and increase it we shall not 
have to appeal to other means but to the labor and 
industry of all good citizens, and to the opportune 
and patriotic efforts of their representatives, when 
exercising the powers that the Constitution has 
vested in them. 





o "S 



o 



CHAPTER XII 

FROM 1904 TO 1910 

RARELY have the inhabitants of the City of 
Mexico witnessed such enthusiastic mani- 
festations and such interesting festivities as those 
which took place in December, 1904, and January, 
1905, to celebrate the inauguration of President 
Diaz in his new term of office. Similar festivities 
were likewise held in all the leading cities of the 
Republic, and they plainly showed how well 
satisfied the people were that he should remain 
at the head of the administration. 

We will not describe those festivities, but refer 
incidentally to the grand banquet held at the 
School of Mines, in honor of the President, at 
which the members of his Cabinet, many of the 
governors of the states, all the members of the 
diplomatic corps, and other notable persons were 
present. The illuminations and the grand review 
and parade of the artisans and manufacturers, 
with allegorical cars, were also a great feature of 
those feasts, which terminated with one of the 
most elegant and brilliant balls ever given at 
the City of Mexico, dedicated to Mrs. Diaz, the 
President's wife. 

85 



86 Porfirio Diaz 

The events that have taken place during the 
present administration of President Diaz, and 
the measures which he has carried out in that 
period, are so recent, so fresh still in the memories 
of all those who take an interest in Mexican 
affairs, that it does not appear necessary to give 
detailed information concerning them. Still, pass- 
ing reference may be made to the most interest- 
ing of those events and to the most important 
of such measures. We may add also that the 
same success that his former administrations 
attained, has been the lot of the present one. 

Two great financial operations have been carried 
out to a successful issue during President Diaz's 
present term of office, namely: the establishment 
of a gold standard, and the consolidation of most 
of the railroad lines of the Republic to be con- 
trolled by the government. 

President Diaz was ably assisted in the carrying 
out of these measures not only by Mr. Limantour, 
Secretary of the Treasury, but also by the leading 
financiers and economists of the Republic, such as 
Messrs. Joaquin D. Casasus and Enrique C. Creel, 
both of whom have held the post of Mexican 
Ambassador in Washington, Mr. Pablo Macedo, 
and others. It was fortunate that the compli- 
cated scheme to effect the change of standard was 
carried on at the most opportune time, when the 
financial conditions of the country permitted it, 
and when the fall of silver made it easier to be 
put into effect. Financiers throughout the world 



From 1904 to 1910 87 

have praised the manner in which this most im- 
portant fkiancial change was accomplished, and 
there is no doubt that it is one of the measures 
that has evoked more encomiums abroad for the 
administration of President Diaz. 

The other great measure to which we have 
reference is the consolidation of railroad lines to 
be under government control. The difficulties 
encountered in dealing with railways in Mexico 
by the Federal Government were not as great as 
those met by other governments, especially by 
the United States ; still in order to protect the in- 
terests of the public in general, to prevent abuses 
on the part of the companies, and to be able to 
fully regulate fares and freights, it was considered 
most important to have the greater part of the 
railroads under absolute control of the govern- 
ment. The operation was effected by the aid of 
foreign capital, and many of the leading railroad 
lines from the American frontier, and from the 
Pacific and Atlantic coasts, passed into govern- 
ment control under one consolidated company. 

Regarding foreign affairs, we may say that one 
of the most important events relative to them 
arose in connection with the republics of Central 
America. 

The dastardly assassination at the City of Mex- 
ico of Ex- President Manuel L. Barillas, in which 
men in high authority in the Republic of Guate- 
mala seemed to be implicated, brought about the 
demand for their extradition by the Mexican 



88 Porfirio Diaz 

Government. The refusal of Guatemala to grant 
that demand led to difficulties and nearly to a 
severance of relations between the two govern- 
ments. The attitude assumed by President Diaz 
and Mr. Mariscal, Secretary of Foreign Relations, 
resulted, if not in a satisfactory solution of the 
question, at least in the resumption of friendly 
relations between Guatemala and Mexico. 

A change of government in the Republic of 
Honduras, the difficulties which led to a war be- 
tween Salvador and Nicaragua, and the threatening 
measures adopted by Guatemala, brought about, 
at the request of all the Central American re- 
publics, the friendly interposition of Mexico and 
the United States in their domestic affairs. A 
preliminary protocol was signed at the city of 
Washington by the diplomatic representatives of 
the five Central American republics, in the pres- 
ence of the Assistant Secretary of State of the 
United States and the Charge d'Affaires of Mexico, 
on the 17th of September, 1907, and thereafter, and 
by virtue of the provisions of such protocol, a 
Central American Peace Conference was held at 
Washington in November of that year, when each 
Central American country was represented by 
two or three delegates; the deliberations of said 
conference and the signing of the protocols and 
treaties agreed to being effected in the presence 
of the then Mexican Ambassador, Enrique C. 
Creel, and of the late W. I. Buchanan, Special 
Commissioner of the United States. 




u 



O 

Q 






From 1904 to 1910 89 

The signing of a treaty, providing for the or- 
ganization of a High Court of Justice at Cartago, 
Costa Rica, to decide all matters of controversy 
between the Central American governments, was 
one of the most important measures adopted by 
said Conference. That Court was duly organized 
a few months afterwards and has already acted 
upon controversies arising among the Central 
American republics. 

Further trouble in Central America has brought 
about the friendly interposition of Mexico and the 
United States, at the request of the governments 
affected by the same, and it is to be hoped that 
the signing of the treaties above referred to, and 
the friendly offices of the Mexican and American 
governments, may, if not put an end to, at 
least tend to diminish the gravity of, many 
controversies that hitherto have led to the 
shedding of so much blood and destruction 
of valuable property in the Central American 
republics. 

At all events, even if this satisfactory result is 
not brought about. President Diaz and President 
Roosevelt must receive due meed of praise for 
their well directed endeavors to assure the peace 
and public order in the five Central American 
republics. 

The visit of Secretary of State Elihu Root to 
the City of Mexico towards the end of the summer 
of 1907, and the magnificent and enthusiastic 
manner in which he was received, undoubtedly 



9© Porfirio Diaz 

served to bind closer the ties of friendship exist- 
ing between the two republics. 

It was during that visit that Mr. Root delivered 
the following remarkable eulogy on President Diaz : 

It has seemed to me that of all the men now living, 
President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico was best worth see- 
ing. Whether one considers the adventurous, daring, 
chivalric incidents of his early career; whether one 
considers the vast work of government which his 
wisdom and courage and commanding character ac- 
complished; whether one considers his singularly at- 
tractive personality, no one lives to-day whom I would 
rather see than President Diaz. If I were a poet, 
I would write poetic eulogies; if I were a musician, 
I would compose triumphal marches; if I were a 
Mexican, I should feel that the steadfast loyalty of a 
lifetime could not be too much in return for the bless- 
ings that he has brought to my country. As I am 
neither poet, m^usician, nor Mexican, but only an 
American who loves justice and liberty, and hopes 
to see their reign among mankind progress and 
strengthen and become perpetual, I look to Porfirio 
Diaz, the President of Mexico, as one of the greatest 
men to be held up for the hero-worship of mankind. 

It was also during that visit that Mr. Root, at 
a banquet tendered to him by President Diaz, 
made the following significant and interesting 
remarks : 

I cannot keep my mind from reverting to a former 
visit by an American Secretary of State to the Re- 
public of Mexico. Thirty-eight years ago Mr. Seward, 



From 1904 to 1910 91 

a really great American Secretary of State, visited 
this country. How vast the difference between what 
he found and what I find. Then was a country torn 
by civil war, sunk in poverty, in distress, in almost 
helplessness. Now I find the country great in its 
prosperity, in its wealth, in its activity and enter- 
prise, . in the moral strength of its just and equal 
laws, and unalterable purpose to advance its people 
steadily along the path of progress. Mr. President, 
the people of the United States feel that the world 
owes this great change chiefly to you. They are 
grateful to you for it, for they rejoice in the pros- 
perity and happiness of Mexico. We believe. Sir, 
that we are richer and happier because you are 
happier and richer, and we rejoice that you are no 
longer a poor and struggling nation needing assistance, 
but that you are strong and vigorous, so that we can 
go with you side by side in demonstrating to the 
world that our two republics are able to govern them- 
selves wisely — side by side — in helping to carry to 
our less fortunate sisters the blessings of peace. 

The disturbances caused by some evil-inten- 
tioned Mexicans along the border in the years 
1906 and 1907, and their ill advised and illegal 
attempts to bring about public turmoil in some of 
the northern states of the Mexican Republic, 
thereby hoping to gain booty and plunder, have 
proved once more the friendship of the United 
States Government towards that of Mexico, as 
the American authorities promptly arrested the 
ringleaders, who violated the neutrality laws, and 
had them convicted. 



92 Porfirio Diaz 

Attention may be called to the holding of the 
Second Peace Conference at The Hague and to the 
Third Pan-American Conference which met at Rio 
Janeiro in 1906, in both of which international 
meetings Mexico took an important part, thereby 
reaffirming its policy of goodwill, conciliation, and 
friendship towards all foreign nations. 

Although not as important as other interna- 
tional exhibitions, the one held at Jamestown, 
Virginia, in the summer and autumn of 1907, 
presented some interesting features, among which 
may be mentioned the Mexican exhibit and the 
daily concerts given by the Mexican military band. 
The enthusiastic way in which the anniversary 
of Mexican Independence was celebrated at that 
Exposition clearly demonstrated once more the 
kind and friendly feelings entertained by the 
American people towards their southern neighbor. 

Another instance of a similar character, and of 
the high regard in which President Diaz is held in 
the United States, was evidenced at the banquet 
given at the city of New York in November, 
1908, by the Chamber of Commerce of that great 
state, which was in part dedicated to him and to 
Mexico, and where prominent men from all parts 
of the Union were present and applauded and 
evinced great enthusiasm whenever his name was 
mentioned. 

Still another manifestation of regard toward 
Mexico's Chief Executive was the important 
meeting held at the frontier on October 16, 1909, 




Mrs. Diaz 
Wife of the President 



From 1904 to 1910 93 

between President Porfirio Diaz and President 
William H. Taft. 

The great strides in all classes of public improve- 
ments in Mexico have been intensified during the 
present term of administration by the completion 
of the magnificent harbor works at Salina Cruz, 
Manzanillo, and Coatzacoalcos (now Puerto Mex- 
ico) , the inauguration of the new post-office at the 
City of Mexico, and the activity displayed in the 
erection of other public buildings, already referred 
to, as well as the opening of the railroad to Man- 
zanillo, establishing a new all-rail route between 
the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and other pub- 
lic works of great importance throughout the 
Republic. 

As the time draws near for the celebration of the 
centenary of Mexican independence, the govern- 
ment and people are striving to do their utmost to 
commemorate that great event. No one is more 
interested than President Diaz in making that 
celebration a notable one, and judging from the 
preparations so far made, we augur a great success 
for the Mexican Jubilee. 

During the period to which we are referring the 
local campaigns against the Yaqui Indians in 
Sonora and against the Maya Indians in the new 
Territory of Quintana Roo were successfully term- 
inated, and the same thing occurred with reference 
to the strikes in Orizaba, State of Vera Cruz, and 
in the Cananea Mines, State of Sonora, due to 
economic causes and labor agitation, but not 



94 Porfirio Diaz 

having any political character whatever, and 
which were similar in effect to the strikes that 
have taken place in the United States during 
the past years; these events, however, in no 
way altered or disturbed the peace prevailing 
throughout the Republic. 

The trips undertaken by President Diaz in the 
last few years to Guanajuato, Puebla, Merida, 
Chihuahua, and other cities for the purpose of 
inaugurating public works of great importance, 
and the enthusiastic manner in which he was 
received everywhere, served to make patent the 
affection and high regard in which he is held by 
the nation, and to show how united are the 
Mexican people and what little sectional feeling, 
if any, there exists in the Republic. 

During the year 1909, there was some political 
agitation in various portions of the country, 
owing to the preliminary canvass for the presiden- 
tial elections to be held in the summer of 19 10. 
Although President Diaz most emphatically had 
shown his disinclination to run again for office, 
or continue at the head of the government, and 
his desire to retire from public life, and had even 
expressed that desire through the public press, 
the Mexican people with a unanimity almost un- 
precedented signified the wish to have him again 
at the head of public affairs. He reluctantly 
consented thereupon to be once again the standard 
bearer of the voters of his country. 

A great many of these voters considered that 



From 1904 to 1910 95 

Vice-President Corral should hold anew the sec- 
ond place in the government, as he had shown 
great tact, administrative ability, and was in full 
accord with the policies pursued by President 
Diaz. There were other persons, however, who, 
without the consent of General Bernardo Reyes, 
Governor of the State of Nuevo Leon, presented 
his name as a vice-presidential candidate. 

The political agitation which ensued, in no 
ways greater or more virulent than that which 
takes place in the United States during some 
presidential, and even in many state, elections, led 
to slight perturbations of public order in some 
cities which, through sensational reports of a few 
correspondents, were exaggerated and magnified 
abroad. 

Soon, however, that agitation ceased, and Gen- 
eral Reyes himself withdrew his candidacy, or 
rather stated that he had not aspired to the vice- 
presidency, and in order that this might be well 
understood, he withdrew from the governorship 
of the State of Nuevo Leon, and went abroad to 
study the military systems of foreign governments. 

It may be interesting to state that, while on his 
way to Europe, General Reyes was interviewed 
in New York City, on November 13, 1909, by a 
representative of the New York Herald and in that 
interview he is quoted as saying: 

I expect to leave on the George Washington next 
Tuesday, for a prolonged stay abroad to inquire into 



96 Porfirio Diaz 

the European recruiting system, and to study military 
conditions. 

I want to emphasize the fact that I am not a rival 
of President Diaz in Mexican affairs. He is my friend 
in politics, and I am his friend. I know that of his 
own will he does not care to be President, and never 
would accept office again if his wishes were consulted. 
But the people want him, and like a true patriot he 
will serve his country. 

As for myself, I am only too glad to assist in help- 
ing to make Mexico more patriotic and devoted to 
manufactures, education, and good government. The 
next election will be held on the second Sunday in 
July, 1 910. The people are already preparing to 
re-elect Diaz as President. 

The day is past for the Napoleonic form of govern- 
ment, with strictly military rule. No man could have 
achieved more for a country than President Diaz. 
I know that the people are anxious for him to serve 
them as President again, and beyond question he will 
be re-elected. 

Undoubtedly any one who knows the temper and 
desires of the Mexican people will agree with 
General Reyes in saying that President Diaz will 
be again elected to the presidency by an almost 
unanimous vote. 




J^f*-* 




Amada Diaz de La Torre 
Daughter of President Diaz 



CHAPTER XIII 

PRIVATE LIFE OF PRESIDENT DIAZ 

THE foregoing pages have given our readers, we 
hope, a sufficiently clear idea of the serv- 
ices rendered by President Diaz to his country, 
as a soldier and a statesman. In this chapter we 
intend to devote our attention to his life as a 
private citizen. 

From his childhood he gave evidences of being 
active, energetic, and hard working. Two of his 
principal qualities and traits of character are his 
memory and his ability to judge and pass upon 
the qualifications and aptitudes of other men. 
It is stated that General Ulysses S. Grant never 
forgot a face. The same may be said of President 
Diaz. Any one who knows him, who has met him 
several times, will really wonder at his remarkable 
memory. Incidents of apparently no importance, 
facts that to others may be deemed unnecessary 
to be remembered, will be recalled in all their 
details by the President, many years after the 
events to which they refer may have happened. 
His clear insight into the character of men has 
7 97 



98 Porfirio Diaz 

enabled him to choose his chief advisers and those 
who have aided him in his governmental work 
from persons who he knew would be most apt to 
ably perform the services required. 

Another of the most prominent traits of his 
character is sincerity. As Carlyle has rightly ex- 
pressed it : " No man adequate to do anything, but 
is first of all in right earnest about it : what I call 
a sincere man. I should say sincerity, a deep, 
great, genuine sincerity is the first characteristic of 
all men in any way heroic." 

His astonishing good health and his strong 
constitution are also distinctive of this wonderful 
leader of men. At an age when most people would 
be incapacitated from work, either through dis- 
ease or the impairment of some of their faculties. 
President Diaz attends to his business, takes 
violent exercise, goes out hunting, endures great 
fatigue, and does a vast amount of work. Un- 
doubtedly his regular and abstemious habits 
greatly contribute to attain the result to which 
we refer. 

He generally rises at six o'clock in the morning, 
and after his bath he takes a slight repast, and is 
ready for work. He then devotes one or two 
hours to his private correspondence and to the 
reading of the press, sometimes noting with pencil 
some of its most striking passages. 

All the winter and spring he remains in the City 
of Mexico at his private residence in Cadena Street, 
while he spends the summer at Chapultepec 



Private Life of President Diaz 99 

Castle, although then he comes down to the city 
regularly, on the days set aside for public recep- 
tions or for any private or public functions at 
which he may have to be present. 

When in the city, he is usually at the Palace 
at nine o'clock, and at that hour either there or 
at Chapultepec he attends to his private corre- 
spondence with his efficient private secretary, 
Mr. Rafael Chousal, whose many years of con- 
stant service at the side of the President pe- 
culiarly fit him for the prompt despatch of his 
correspondence. At ten or half-past ten o'clock, 
he begins to confer with his ministers, each 
one of whom has separate days of the week 
to meet the President for the resolution of 
public matters entrusted to the appropriate de- 
partment, although he usually receives daily 
for such purpose the Secretaries of Finance and 
War. 

At about half-past one in the afternoon, he 
returns as a general rule to his private residence 
on Cadena Street, and takes lunch with his wife 
and some members of his family, and afterwards 
enjoys a slight rest. 

He returns to the National Palace at four 
o'clock on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
to receive all persons with whom he may have 
a special appointment, and whose names have 
been inscribed in a register. From the list thus 
made, he selects the names of those whom he is 
able to receive according to the time that he may 



loo Porfirio Diaz 

have at his disposal. He does this also when 
residing at Chapultepec Castle. 

It is sometimes eight and even nine o'clock 
when his task of receiving visitors is terminated, 
and then he returns to his home, and after supper, 
when not going to the theatre or to fill some other 
engagement, he converses with his family and 
receives a few friends who perhaps may bring some 
public matter to his attention. 

On the afternoons when he does not receive the 
public, he visits some public establishment or at- 
tends to some other matter of importance. 

He usually devotes Sunday afternoons to visit- 
ing his intimate friends. 

He rarely ever takes a vacation of more than 
a few days at a time; generally devoting that 
period to his favorite pastime of hunting. Of 
late years he has gone to Lake Chapala, where 
he has spent his few days' vacation in boating 
and riding. 

As before stated. President Diaz has been 
married twice, his first wife having died during 
his first term of office. 

The present Mrs. Diaz is, as mentioned in a 
former part of this work, the eldest daughter of 
the late Secretary of the Interior, Honorable 
Manuel Romero Rubio. 

The marriage of President and Mrs, Diaz took 
place on the 7th of November, 1882, at the house 
of the bride's father, No. 5 San Andres Street, 
City of Mexico. As it is customary in Mexico 




Porfirio Diaz, Jr., Wife and Children 



Private Life of President Diaz loi 

there was a church ceremony and a civil one; at 
the former Archbishop Pelagio A. de Labastida 
officiated, while the civil contract was signed before 
Judge Felipe Buenrostro, 

On the same date in the year 1907 President 
and Mrs. Diaz celebrated their silver wedding, 
or 25th anniversary of their marriage. The cel- 
ebration of that event was simple in its nature, 
there being a breakfast for the family and intimate 
friends and an excursion to a country place near 
the volcano of Popocatepetl. As is customary on 
these occasions they were recipients of many and 
elegant silver presents. 

Mrs. Diaz is a most accomplished woman, knows 
and speaks several languages, and was educated at 
home and abroad. Her great charm of manner 
and her kindness of heart have made her most 
popular, and she is designated by all classes of 
society by the endearing term of "Carmelita," 
Not only does she perform her duties in society 
gracefully and well, but her charitable instincts 
continually make her devote her leisure mo- 
ments to most worthy objects. One of these is 
the promotion and maintenance of the "Casa 
Amiga de la Obrera" (Working Woman's Home), 
an institution established by her and that, as its 
name implies, renders great benefit to the working 
classes of the Republic. 

President Diaz has had no children by his 
second marriage. His son and daughters are 
Amada, married to Mr. Ignacio de la Torre, 



102 Porfirio Diaz 

Lieutenant-Colonel Porfirio Diaz, Jr., and Luz, 
married to Mr. F. Rincon Gallardo. 

The eldest daughter has taken a most prom- 
inent part in social functions, and is greatly ad- 
mired for her beauty and sympathetic nature; 
her resemblance to her father is most remarkable. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Porfirio Diaz, Jr., is a civil en- 
gineer by profession, and besides devoting part of 
his time to the exercise of that profession, he also 
acts as a member of the President's staff. He is 
active, open-hearted, and fond of study. He is 
married to the daughter of the late Senator Genaro 
Raigosa, who was President of the Second Pan-Am- 
erican Conference. Although the son of one who 
has been at the head of the government for so many 
years, he has never endeavored to owe his advance- 
ment in military life to his father's favor, but to 
his own meritorious service. The second daughter, 
owing to illness and to her having quite a large 
family, has not taken part as actively as one would 
suppose in social functions, but has devoted her- 
self to her home life. 

Mrs. Diaz has two charming sisters, one being 
the widow of the late Senator Teresa, who for some 
time served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary from Mexico to Austria. She 
has a son Jose, who has been partly educated in 
the United States. Her other sister is Sofia, 
married to Mr. Lorenzo Elizaga, a prominent 
lawyer and Congressman; they have one child 
only. 



Private Life of President Diaz 103 

President Diaz has several grandchildren, the 
sons and daughters of Lieutenant-Colonel Porfirio 
Diaz, Jr., and of Mrs. Rincon Gallardo. Air the 
members of the family are thoroughly united, and, 
though living apart, they see each other daily and 
take part in their mutual joys and sorrows. They 
all look up to the President with reverence, love, 
and admiration, not only as the Executive of the 
nation, but as the kind and affectionate head of 
the family. 

Both President and Mrs. Diaz, although charmed 
with their home life and loving their beautiful 
surroundings and their kind friends in the City of 
Mexico, do not dislike travelling, and they have 
visited great many of the states of the Mexican 
Republic and of the American Union. Although 
on various occasions a proposed trip to Europe 
has been talked of, so far they have never left 
the American continent. 

President Diaz knows thoroughly his own 
country, because, both before and after becom- 
ing President, he made himself acquainted even 
with some of the outlying districts and places, 
which other Mexican statesmen have never visited. 
This knowledge of his country has been most use- 
ful to him for the proper administration of the 
public affairs of the nation. 

Perhaps there is no man living who has been 
shown such honors and received so many marks of 
distinction from foreign sovereigns. In the Ap- 
pendices we shall endeavor to give as complete a list 



I04 Porfirio Diaz 

as possible of the medals and decorations received 
by him from all the leading countries of the world, 
besides those that have been bestowed on him at 
home for his military feats. 

Being brought up as a soldier, President Diaz 
did not devote himself to public speaking during 
his early life, but since he assumed the presidency, 
he has become a fluent and eloquent speaker, 
ready at any time to give his views clearly and 
with proper effect on any question brought before 
him, and with relation to any event or circum- 
stance. 

Although in the main chapters of this work some 
reference has been made to the battles and sieges 
in which he took part, these have been so many 
that we have mentioned only those of great im- 
portance, but in the Appendices will be found a full 
list, together with a map that may serve to give 
a proper understanding as to the places where 
they occurred and to locate them. 

Despite the fact that he has been wounded in 
battle and that he has led and is still leading a 
most active and strenuous life. President Diaz 
is to-day hale and hearty, strong and ruddy, 
and in the full possession of all his mental 
faculties. 

Gladstone, speaking of Macaulay, said: "One of 
the first things that must strike the observer of 
this man is, that he was very unlike any other 
man." Those who have met President Diaz will 
agree that this remark is applicable to him and 




..^'pf^' 



Luz Diaz de Rincon Gallardo 
Daughter of President Diaz 



Private Life of President Diaz 105 

that he strikes one as an extraordinary man, as one 
different from and superior to most men, and in 
every way as a man whose face and bearing can 
never be forgotten. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 

BEFORE closing this sketch of the hfe of one of 
the leading statesmen of this continent now 
living, it is perhaps proper, and it may also prove 
interesting, to summarize in a few pages what he 
has accomplished for his own country, what is its 
present condition, and what the future probably 
has in store for the Mexican Republic. 

As we have seen. President Diaz is one of those 
men who have begun life without any special 
advantages over their fellow-men; he started at 
the foot of the ladder of fame and has reached 
its very top. Under the most discouraging 
circumstances and overcoming what appeared 
to be insurmountable obstacles; without great 
influence, family connections, wealth, or powerful 
friends at the start, he has attained the highest 
public position in his own country and by the 
unanimous consent of his countrymen, as it were, 
he has remained there at the head of its affairs 
for over a quarter of a century, and those country- 
men still express their desire that he may con- 

io6 



The Past, Present, and Future 107 

tinue to hold the reins of government for years 
to come. 

It is difficult to tell accurately what are all the 
causes and circumstances that have brought about 
his most brilliant career. Those who have read 
the foregoing pages can form their own judgment, 
and in the succeeding chapter we give the opinions 
of many of the most prominent men in the United 
States and Canada regarding Mexico and its 
present Executive. We think that all will agree 
that, taking into consideration the traits of his 
character and what he has done for his country, 
he well deserves the place and station he holds 
among the Mexican people. 

The life of this great leader may be divided into 
two periods : the one devoted in its entirety to mili- 
tary achievements; the other to statesmanship. 

As a soldier we have seen him start as a volun- 
teer, when quite a young man, and then, through 
his bravery and tact, win his military degrees one 
by one, until he reached the very highest rank. 
In that military career, besides having performed 
the usual exploits of those who follow it, he had 
in various instances narrow escapes from death 
that are extraordinary and romantic in the 
extreme, and everywhere he displayed great valor, 
forethought, and perseverance. 

In order to review his public life as a statesman, 
we would merely have to examine the official 
records of the Mexican Government, as there 
we would find it fully described. The most 



io8 Porfirio Diaz 

interesting part of his life as such is undoubtedly 
that which began in 1884, when for the sec- 
ond time he assumed the reins of government. 
With a depleted treasury, with everything ad- 
verse to him, and with Mexico's credit abroad 
at the lowest ebb possible, President Diaz 
began one of the most brilliant and impor- 
tant administrative campaigns ever recorded, 
and initiated a most sound policy, which has 
brought about great and satisfactory results. 
Although, in former pages of this work, we have 
referred to his administrative acts, they are so 
interesting and so necessary to the proper under- 
standing of the present condition of Mexico and 
to get a correct idea of the far-seeing statesmanship 
of General Diaz, that we cannot forego summariz- 
ing them here. And for that purpose we shall 
refer not only to the messages which he presented 
to the Mexican Congress at the beginning of each 
session, and to other public documents, but also 
to his official reports, addressed to his country- 
men, published at the end of each presidential 
term, although there was no requirement on the 
part of the Constitution or the laws for his so doing. 
On the last day of his first administration, that 
is, the one that preceded the term of President 
Gonzalez, he said in his report or statement then 
issued to his countrymen : 

On this solemn day, the last of my constitutional 
period, I am not required by law to give an account 




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"^ rr-l 



The Past, Present, and Future 109 

to the legislature of the condition in which the country 
is left by me : but my own conscience, frankness, and 
good faith, and other circumstances, well known to 
all, and which appeal to me especially, make me con- 
sider as a sacred obligation the necessity of address- 
ing myself to my fellow-citizens, so as to inform them 
how and in what degree I have been able to pay the 
debt which I contracted when they placed in my 
hands the executive power that to-morrow I shall 
deliver to the successor whom they have legally 
designated. 

I am very far from pretending that I can be con- 
sidered the only and exclusive factor in the advance- 
ment made by the nation during the small portion of 
its history which has occurred during my administra- 
tion. It is a very common error to attribute to one 
man alone the events of importance which take place 
in his country during his lifetime. Those events are 
always the necessary results of many circumstances, 
some of which are logically and slowly combined, while 
others occur suddenly and by chance. The man that 
the public looks to as the most visible point is but an 
incident in the aggregate results, and if it were 
possible at any one moment to eliminate one circum- 
stance or cause alone of those that surround him, the 
events would follow a very different direction that 
perhaps might defeat his best laid plans. 

In the present case, the desire for peace, tranquillity, 
and progress which the nation felt, the substitution of 
former functionaries, whose activity had been ex- 
hausted through lack of faith, by others who were 
vigorous and active; the powerful aid imparted by 
the Federal Congress; the measures initiated by the 
states ; and, finally, the efficacious co-operation of the 



no Porfirio Diaz 

members of the cabinet, were the principal elements 
which brought about the improvements that during 
the last four years we have been able to introduce in 
all the branches of the public service. 

The above words of President Diaz, like many 
that we will find in other documents emanating 
from him, show clearly his modesty and his desire 
to attribute to others his successful acts, the 
credit to which he is rightly entitled. 

To obtain a clear idea of what progress and ad- 
vancement Mexico has had during the last thirty 
years, while most of the time President Diaz has 
been at the head of the administration, it would be 
well to compare the conditions existing in the 
Republic in the year 1876 with those at the present 
moment, 

Mexico had then few diplomatic representatives 
accredited to other countries, while to-day all 
the leading nations of Europe and America, as 
well as China, Japan, and Persia, have ministers 
or charges d'affaires at the City of Mexico, and 
Mexican diplomats reside in all the capitals of 
those nations. The consular corps of Mexico 
has likewise increased and proved most effi- 
cient; and the diplomatic and consular services 
are established under permanent and proper 
regulations. 

FurtheiTnore, since the first administration of 
President Diaz treaties of commerce and friend- 
ship, extradition, and others of various kinds have 



The Past, Present, and Future m 

been entered into with the leading nations of the 
globe. 

The annoying and difficult boundary questions 
with Guatemala and Belize have been satisfactorily 
arranged by means of conventions which settled 
the rights of all; and in our northern border, all 
questions likewise arising from boundaries and 
other similar subjects are in the hands of a 
competent commission, while the difficulties 
due to the changes in the current and bed of the 
Rio Grande and Colorado rivers are being at- 
tended to. 

Our friendly relations with all foreign countries 
are closer than ever, and the participation of 
Mexican delegates at The Hague conferences, 
at the Pan-American conventions, and at other 
gatherings of international character, as well as 
the valuable exhibits sent to the universal ex- 
positions held in Europe and the United States and 
to which we have already referred, have given 
Mexico a high standing and lasting influence 
among the civilized countries of the world. 

We may add here that besides the congresses 
already mentioned, Mexico has taken part very re- 
cently in the International Agronomical Institute 
held at Rome; in the Fourth International Con- 
gress of Fisheries, in the Conference for the Con- 
servation of the Natural Resources, and in the 
International Tuberculosis Congress, all of which 
were held at Washington, D. C. ; in the first Pan- 
American Scientific Congress held at the city of 



112 Porfirio Diaz 

Santiago, Chile, and in the Pan-American Sani- 
tary Convention held in December, 1909, at the 
City of San Jose, Costa Rica. 

President Diaz has been most successful in his 
dealings with all questions relating to the inter- 
course between the Federal and State govern- 
ments, and difficult questions of boundaries, 
privileges, and rights have been equitably settled; 
while controversies arising from election contests, 
which in two or three instances might have given 
rise to difficulties of a serious character, have 
been arranged through the vigorous, prompt, and 
well directed action of the Federal Executive. 

We may here remark that most of the statistical 
data that we give in this work refer to what has 
been undertaken and performed by the Federal 
Government. We may also add that the same 
march of improvement that is noticeable in federal 
affairs has likewise been carried on in the various 
states of the Mexican Republic, as well as in 
the municipalities of the same. Nevertheless, the 
character of this work precludes us from making 
more than this passing reference to such improve- 
ments and progress, which do not refer directly to 
the life and work of President Diaz. 

One of the subjects to which great attention 
has been given while President Diaz has been in 
power, is that of public hygiene, and under the 
able direction of the Secretary of the Interior, 
Vice-President of the Republic, Mr. Ramon Corral, 
actively assisted by the eminent physician Dr. 




u 



CI. 



U 



The Past, Present, and Future 113 

Eduardo Liceaga, the sanitary conditions of the 
RepubHc have been greatly improved, a Sanitary 
Code is being rigidly enforced, and the extirpation 
of yellow fever and the prevention of epidemics 
have very properly called forth the plaudits of 
foreign nations. 

The improvements effected in the rural police, 
the amelioration of the jails and houses of de- 
tention, and the inauguration of a large and well 
built penitentiary in the Federal District, in con- 
formity with the most approved methods of prison 
management, have shown that the Department 
of the Interior has given due attention to those 
subjects. Likewise the inauguration of the gen- 
eral hospital in the City of Mexico, introducing 
therein all modern improvements in hospital 
service, has undoubtedly contributed to the 
diminution of the number of persons afflicted with 
disease and to their cure. To those who have 
visited the blind, the deaf, and the orphan asylums 
at the capital, the progress made in such estab- 
lishments has been plainly visible. 

The embellishment and improvements notice- 
able in all the cities of the Republic and especially 
at the seat of the Federal Government, such as 
sewerage, lighting, and other municipal services, 
as well as the extension of the area wherein 
modem buildings have been erected, clearly 
testify the prosperity of the nation and the well 
directed efforts of the Government on the subject 
of municipal reform and improvement. 



114 Porfirio Diaz 

Notable advancement has been made in the 
Department of Justice. The courts have better 
and more commodious quarters, and modifications 
of an important nature have been made in the 
administration of the law, so as to insure prompt- 
ness and despatch in judicial matters, as well as 
to render less costly and complicated the con- 
troversies brought by litigants before the federal 
courts. 

Owing to the separation effected between the 
administration of the Departments of Justice and 
Public Instruction, the latter being now under a 
new member of the cabinet designated as the 
Secretary of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, 
special attention has been given to the latter 
branch of the public service in the Federal District 
and the territories. 

The educational establishments for provisional 
studies have also greatly improved, and all those 
institutions in the City of Mexico are to be con- 
solidated into a great university, to be inaugurated 
during the centenary of Mexican Independence. 

The Department of Public Promotion, now 
under the able direction of Mr. Olegario Molina, 
former Governor of the State of Yucatan, has 
done valuable and important work during the 
period to which we make reference. 

The survey of public lands, as well as the sale 
of the same, proceeded at a rapid rate, and the 
mining industry developed to a great extent. 
Thus, during the fiscal year of 1 908-1 909 the 




Chapultepec Castle 



The Past, Present, and Future 115 

total production of gold and silver in the Republic 
amounted to $125,894,089.33. Of course, silver 
represents the larger amount, and Mexico now 
is considered as the first silver-producing country 
in the world. The notable increase in the pro- 
duction of gold is most remarkable, as in the 
fiscal year of 1877-78 it was $1,473,912.32, while 
in the fiscal year of 1 907-1 908 it reached the sum 
of $40,527,185.20. Another metal whose produc- 
tion has increased in a remarkable manner, is 
copper, and at present there are two enterprises 
in Mexico for the exploitation of that metal, viz., 
El Boleo, a French company in the territory of 
Lower California, and that of Cananea in the State 
of Sonora, which can compare favorably, in every 
respect, with any similar enterprises in any other 
part of the world. Gold, silver, and copper are 
the mineral substances whose production is of 
greater importance in Mexico; yet, iron, coal, and 
other minerals are being exploited on a large scale 
in the Republic. 

Agriculture has received an impetus, especially 
since the inauguration of great irrigation works 
in various states. 

Industrial enterprises, especially those organized 
for the manufacture of textile fabrics and cigars, 
have been making most wonderful progress, and 
companies having several million dollars of 
capital have been established within the last few 
years with machinery of the very latest patterns. 

During the year 1900, the official census was 



ii6 Porfirio Diaz 

carried into effect, and it showed, as before stated, 
that the total population of the Republic aggre- 
gated 13,546,700 inhabitants, while in 1878 it 
amounted to 9,384,193 inhabitants. 

We need not here refer again to the success 
attained by Mexico at various universal exposi- 
tions, such as those held at Chicago, Buffalo, Paris, 
and St. Louis, Mo. 

As during the administration of President Diaz 
a new department was organized especially devoted 
to communications and public works, we may also 
glance at the satisfactory results attained by that 
department, which has been at various times under 
the direction of General Manuel Gonzalez Cosio, 
General Francisco Z. Mena, and at present under 
Mr. Leandro Fernandez. One of the most im- 
portant labors of that department is that relating 
to railways. And here, since the policy pursued by 
President Diaz regarding railroad construction 
can be considered pertinent to this subject, we 
may be allowed to quote the following from the 
interesting work of the late Mexican Ambassa- 
dor Mr. Matias Romero, entitled Mexico and the 
United States. 

President Diaz deserves a great deal of credit for 
his efforts to promote in Mexico material improve- 
ment, especially in railroad building. When he came 
into power in 1877 public opinion was very much 
divided as to the policy of allowing citizens of the 
United States to develop the resources of the coun- 
try by building railroads, working mines, etc. Our 



The Past, Present, and Future 117 

experience of what took place in consequence of the 
liberal grants given by Mexico to Texan colonists 
made many fear that a repetition of that liberal policy 
might endanger the future of the country by giving a 
foothold in it to citizens of the United States who 
might afterward, if circumstances favored them, 
attempt to repeat the case of Texas. President Lerdo 
de Tejada seemed to share such fear, judging by his 
policy in this regard. But President Diaz, as a broad- 
minded and patriotic statesman, believed that the 
best interest of the country required its material 
development, and that it would not be advisable to 
discriminate against citizens of the United States, 
as that country was more interested than any other, 
on account of its contiguity to Mexico, in developing 
the resources of our country by building an extensive 
system of railways, and would, therefore, be more 
ready than any other to assist in building it. He 
trusted at the same time that, when the resources 
of the country should be more fully developed, it 
would become so strong as to be beyond reach of the 
temptations by foreign states or individuals. The 
results of the work done in Mexico so far show that 
General Diaz acted wisely, and proved himself equal 
to the task before him. 

The extension of railroad lines in the Republic 
in 1877, when President Diaz first came into power, 
was 578 kilometres, while in 1909 it was over 24,160 
kilometres. 

Among the railways built there are lines of 
international importance, such as the Mexican 
Central, the Mexican National, and the Mexican 



ii8 Porfirio Diaz 

International, connecting the leading cities of the 
Republic with the frontier towns of the United 
States; the Tehuantepec Railroad and the branch 
of the Mexican Central connecting the Pacific 
Ocean with the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pan- 
American Railroad that reaches the Guatemalan 
frontier. Another important railroad lately com- 
pleted is the extension of the Southern Pacific 
from the American frontier to the port of Mazatlan, 
State of Sinaloa, which was inaugurated in April, 

1909- 

It would take too much space to give in detail 

the progress attained by Mexico during the last 

few years in the extension of its telegraph and 

railroad lines and in the improvement of its 

mail service, but the tables and maps which form 

part of this work will give our readers graphic and 

precise information on those subjects. 

Wireless telegraphy has also been introduced in 
the Republic and at present there are several sta- 
tions in operation, while others have been planned 
or are in course of erection. 

We have already had occasion to speak of the 
wonderful work done by the Department of Fi- 
nance and Public Credit. Its labors have been 
praised and highly commented upon by all foreign 
financiers, and have brought about the greatest 
confidence regarding all financial operations under- 
taken by Mexico, placing her credit abroad as high 
as that of any nation. Whenever a loan has been 
issued, it has immediately been taken up by the 



The Past, Present, and Future 119 

leading bankers of the world, even when the 
Government shall have merely guaranteed its 
payment, as was the case in the winter of 1908, 
when bonds for irrigation purposes, upheld by 
the credit of the Mexican Government, were con- 
siderably over-subscribed, both in the United 
States and in Europe. 

The banking facilities of the country have been 
greatly increased, as is shown by the following 
figures: On June 30, 1897, there were ten banks 
in the Republic under concessions of the Federal 
Government, and their total assets amounted to 
$146,746,108.36, while on the 30th of June, 1908, 
the number of such institutions of credit was 
thirty-four, and their total assets amounted to 

$756,527.309-So- 

If we now examine the figures referring to foreign 
commerce, we will readily understand the great 
advancement made in Mexico in that regard. In 
the fiscal year of 1875-76 the total value of ex- 
ports was $27,318,188 silver, and the importations 
amounted to a little over $37,586,987; while in 
the fiscal year 1908-09 the total exportations 
amounted to $231,101,795 silver, and the impor- 
tations to $156,504,447. 

The large amount of revenue now obtained has 
permitted the Government to correspondingly in- 
crease its expenses ; and thus we see that while dur- 
ing the fiscal year of 1876-77 the appropriations 
authorized by Congress amounted in the aggregate, 
in round figures, to $25,000,000 silver, that aggre- 



I20 Porfirio Diaz 

gate for the fiscal year 1909-10 is $97,871,750.96. 
And it may be here added that, while formerly 
there always was a deficit, during the last few 
years there has always been a balance in favor of 
the treasury amounting to several million dollars. 

We may finally say that among the commend- 
able labors of the Department of Finance and 
Public Credit, reference should again be made to 
the abolition of all internal imports as between the 
states, to the change so skilfully effected in the 
monetary system of the Republic to a gold basis, 
and to the consolidation of most of the railroads 
in operation to be under the control of the Federal 
Government. 

President Diaz has paid great attention to the 
work of the Department of War and Navy which 
is now under the able direction of General 
Manuel Gonzalez Cosio. Accordingly we find that 
the efficiency of the army has been increased, hav- 
ing been supplied with new guns and cannon, most 
of which were manufactured in the Republic, 
some being made under the patent of General 
Mondragon, a member of the Mexican army. 

The National Military School at Chapultepec has 
been greatly improved and so has the National 
Arms Factory. Although strictly the rural guards 
do not form a part of the regular army, we may 
here make reference to them, and say that their 
bearing and discipline and good service deserve 
the praise that is generally bestowed on them. 

The Mexican navy consists merely of a few gun- 



The Past, Present, and Future 121 

boats ; two of them, the Tampico and Vera Cruz, 
were recently built in the United States and two 
others, the Bravo and Morelos, in Italy. 

The economic crisis experienced in 1908, through- 
out the United States, as well as in Mexico; the 
continued depreciation of silver; the earthquakes 
occurring in the State of Guerrero ; the floods in 
the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, and 
the failure of the crops in many other states of the 
Republic due to frosts in 1909, have not halted the 
march of progress and advancement of Mexico, 
but have really served to prove how readily the 
nation can recuperate its losses and continue on- 
ward along the pathway of peace and prosperity. 

After this cursory review, we think that the 
friends of Mexico and its people ought to feel 
gratified and pleased at the condition of the 
Republic, under the peaceful and well regulated 
administration of Porfirio Diaz. 

There never was a period in its history when 
Mexico's relations with other countries were as 
friendly and as close as at present. This is the 
case with reference to the United States as evi- 
denced in more ways than one, especially in the 
mutual respect and regard towards each other 
manifested by President Diaz on the one hand, 
and Ex-President Roosevelt and President Taft 
on the other, both through public documents 
and in private conversations and interviews 
published by the press. 

President Diaz can well apply to the policy he 



122 Porfirio Diaz 

is pursuing, to his administrative acts, and to the 
present condition of his country, the eloquent 
words of Daniel Webster: 

Let our age be the age of improvement. In a day 
of peace, let us advance the arts of peace and the 
works of peace. Let us develop the resources of our 
land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, 
promote all its great interests and see whether we also, 
in our day and generation, may not perform something 
worthy to be remembered. Let us cultivate the true 
spirit of union and harmony. . . . Let our conceptions 
be enlarged to the circle of our duties. Let us extend 
our ideas over the whole of the vast field in which we 
are called to act. Let our object be our country, our 
whole country, and nothing but our country. 

Many who acknowledge and admire the satis- 
factory condition of Mexico at the present time 
express the fear that it may not continue when the 
present honored head of the Government shall no 
longer direct national affairs. 

The late Matias Romero, in the work already 
quoted, answers the above in the following words : 

Mexico for nearly twenty years [now thirty ypars] 
has been free from political disturbances and enjoying 
all the advantages of a permanent peace. Those who 
took part in former revolutions have either died off, 
disappeared, or are now interested in the maintenance 
of peace, because they are thriving in consequence 
of the development of the country. Even in case 
President Diaz's guidance should fail Mexico, I am 



The Past, Present, and Future 123 

sure peace would still be preserved, because there are 
very strong reasons in its favor. Railways and 
telegraphs are great preservers of peace. In case of 
insurrection it was not long ago that it took months 
before the government could reach the insurgents, 
and in the meantime they could organize and fortify 
themselves and make considerable headway before 
they were confronted by an enemy. Now the Govern- 
ment can send troops at once to quell an insurrection. 
Peace in Mexico is as assured as it is in any other 
country, and life and property are as safe there as 
anywhere else. Public opinion seems to share this 
view, and capital, especially foreign capital, which is 
so conservative and timid, is now freely invested in 
Mexican enterprises. 

President Diaz's health and vigorous constitu- 
tion lead us to hope that he may yet rule the 
destinies of the Republic for many years to come, 
in compliance with the unanimous wish expressed 
by his countrymen through the press, through 
public manifestations and in all conceivable 
ways. 

Still, should anything prevent his guiding the 
ship of state, as he has laid the foundations of 
peace and order deep and indestructible, we may 
rest assured that, under the conditions existing at 
present in the nation, and brought about by his 
foresight and administrative skill, Mexico will 
continue to be a progressive, enlightened, and 
peaceful Republic. 



CHAPTER XV 

OPINIONS OF PROMINENT MEN REGARDING 

PRESIDENT DIAZ AS A SOLDIER AND 

STATESMAN 

IT would take too long to quote at length the 
opinions and commentaries of noted men and 
important publications in the English-speaking 
countries, regarding the life and career of Presi- 
dent Porfirio Diaz. It would also occupy too 
much space to give even a slight resume of the 
occasions of a public nature, occurring in the 
United States and Canada, wherein a passing or 
elaborate reference has been made to such life and 
character. In the appendices to this work we give 
a description of two of the most recent public 
festivities or events, in which special reference has 
been made to his deeds and administrative acts: 
one being the annual banquet of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the State of New York, held in 
November, 1908, on which occasion the name of 
President Diaz evoked great enthusiasm, said 
banquet having been partially dedicated to him 
and to his country; and the other the memorable 
interview held at the frontier on the i6th of Oc- 

124 




Manuel Gonzalez Cosio 
Secretary of War and Navy 



Opinions of Prominent Men 125 

tober, 1909, between the Presidents of Mexico and 
the United States. 

We have also the pleasure, which we deem a 
high honor, to insert in this chapter the opinions 
and commentaries especially written for this 
work, by some of the most noted men in the 
United States and Canada, including most eminent 
statesmen, diplomats, governors, federal officials, 
army and navy leaders, presidents of universities, 
literary writers, newspaper editors, successful 
bankers, and in fact men from all leading walks 
of life, all of whom are cognizant of the facts that 
constitute the life of President Diaz and of the 
services he has rendered to his country, and 
many of whom personally know him or have 
visited or resided in the Mexican Republic, and 
whose impartial and unbiased views we know will 
be received by our readers with pleasure and great 
weight will be given to them. 

The following are the opinions to which we refer, 
written especially for this work, as before stated, 
and that we present in alphabetical order, accord- 
ing to the names of their noted authors. 

Adee, Alvey a.. Second Assistant Secretary of 
State of the United States: 

I have always felt a repugnance to seeing any 
personal expression of my opinion on public subjects 
put into cold type. 

I may, however, truthfully say that my admiration 
for President Diaz's high qualities has steadily grown 



126 Porfirio Diaz 

year by year, as he himself has grown in the experience 
and abihty which are so indispensable to his high office. 
His career is one especially fitted to serve as a model 
for all those who aspire to rise in the world by merit 
and by their own sheer effort. Coming from the 
people and knowing the needs of the people, his 
course in rising from one high plane to another has 
always obeyed his keen sense of what the people of 
his country need, — stability and the opportunity for 
healthful advancement. Keeping these vital condi- 
tions in view, it is no cause for wonder that he, aided 
by the cordial support of his countrymen, has made his 
people, his country, and himself, what they are to-day. 

Bailey, J. W., United States Senator: 

I am pleased to know that you are preparing a 
biography in English of President Diaz, for such a 
publication will be both valuable and interesting. 
Of course, I understand that no one outside of Mexico 
can fully appreciate the great work which President 
Diaz has done for his country and his countrymen; 
but I know enough of his services to consider him 
entitled to a high place among the great statesmen of 
the world. In common with all other intelligent 
people of the United States, I feel the deepest interest 
in the progress and prosperity of Mexico, and I shall 
feel a sense of personal obligation to you for pre- 
senting to our people a history of a man who has 
contributed so much to both. 

Barrett, John, Director of the International 
Bureau of American Republics: 

President Diaz undoubtedly stands out as one of 



Opinions of Prominent Men 127 

the monumental characters of Pan-American history. 
The historian who writes in the near future, or a 
thousand years from now, will not fail to place him 
in a unique position of prominence, influence, and 
character. There are few names in the development 
of the Western Hemisphere from the time of Columbus 
until now, which are better known from Canada south 
to Argentina. Throughout the United States there 
is a profound and sincere respect and admiration for 
his personality and his power of administering the 
affairs of his country, forcefully and yet kindly. 
The material, social and educational advancement 
which Mexico has made during his incumbency as 
President is not surpassed by the record of any presi- 
dent or ruler for a corresponding time in the history 
of the world. This observation is in no sense ful- 
some praise, nor is it prompted by any desire to say 
kind things of the head of one of the nations belonging 
to the International Union of American Republics : it 
is inspired, on the contrary, by thoughts growing out 
of a careful study of what President Diaz has accom- 
plished and of his personal mental and moral traits. 
A biography, therefore, written by such an able 
authority as Mr. Godoy, should be widely read by 
those who wish to be thoroughly informed about the 
leading characters of contemporaneous Pan-American 
history. 

Bartholdt, Richard, United States Represen- 
tative : 

President Diaz of Mexico will go down in history 
as one of the grandest figures of the Western Hemi- 
sphere. He is regarded by the outside world as a 



128 Porfirio Diaz 

benefactor of his country, and as the embodiment of 
law and order as well as of all peaceful achievements, 
and he is almost as popular in the United States as 
he justly is in his own country. 

Bates, E, A., General (retired), United States 
Army : 

I have watched the career of this great soldier 
statesman from the beginning to this time and always 
with the greatest admiration. His early exploits as 
a soldier proved his power and ability in that line, 
which taken together with his sincere patriotism 
naturally brought him to the head of affairs, when 
his success had contributed so greatly to establish 
the real independence of his country. His amazing 
executive ability, his far-sighted statesmanship, his 
liberal views, so in accord with his times, his firmness 
and honesty in dealing with the great problems of 
state he has had to solve, has enabled him to organize 
the Government of Mexico on a permanent basis, and 
to guide it in its progress upward until now we have 
reason to believe it will continue its stable course, 
after his strong controlling hand has been taken 
from the helm. 

Many men have been "Father" of their respective 
countries, but few have had such an unquestiona- 
ble right to that title as Porfirio Diaz, President of 
Modem Mexico. I regard him to-day as being one 
of the greatest, if not the greatest living statesman. 

Bell, J. Franklin, Major-General, Chief of 
Staff of the United States Army : 

It affords me very great pleasure to avail myself of 



Opinions of Prominent Men 129 

this opportunity to express my admiration for the 
magnificent qualities and achievements of President 
Porfirio Diaz — in some respects the most remarkable 
ruler of the age. Every one at all versed in history 
will concede, I think, that President Diaz is a states- 
man and executive who, seems to have been specially 
raised and developed by fate to meet certain condi- 
tions and to occupy a particular place in the affairs 
of our great sister Republic, Mexico. Certain it is 
that no one else could have filled that place so well 
as he. 

But it is upon his abilities as a soldier that my in- 
terest has been naturally most centered, and I like to 
honor the profession by referring to him, in this 
connection, as General Diaz. In all of his public 
endeavors, from the time when he first entered upon 
a m.ilitary career, through the turbulent years that 
intervened until his election to the presidency, and 
since then in suppressing occasional disorders during 
his very prosperous administration, General Diaz has 
exhibited that force, energy, and indomitable courage 
which go to make up the ideal soldier. Nothing has 
been impossible of accomplishment, and obstacles 
only served to make him more earnest and deter- 
mined. His is a strong character, indeed^ and he will 
tindoubtedly go down in history as one of the world's 
greatest leaders. 

Bliss, C. N., Ex-Secretary of the Interior: 

The remarkable work of President Porfirio Diaz in 
the establishment of modern and efficient government 
in the Republic of Mexico is well known and appre- 
ciated in the United States and throughout the world. 



130 Porfirio Diaz 

The great progress in establishing good government, 
education, and financial stability in the Republic, 
during the past fifty years, is proof of the ability 
with which the government has been administered and 
also of the patriotism and intelligence of the Mexican 
people. Citizens of the United States are greatly in- 
terested just now in the event about to occur of the 
meeting of the Presidents of the United States and 
Mexico at El Paso. May that happily planned meet- 
ing be a visible proof of the pleasant, kindly feeling 
that exists between the two peoples, and evidence 
that such good feeling will always continue, to the 
mutual benefit and progress of the peoples of the two 
republics. 

Bone, Scott C, Editor of the Washington 
Herald and President of the Gridiron Club: 

The strong character of Porfirio Diaz, and his re- 
markably successful career as President of the Re- 
public of Mexico, have long challenged the admiration 
of Americans. They have watched with great interest 
the wonderful development of the country under his 
wise administration and been deeply impressed with 
the freedom from strife throughout it all. He has 
ruled wisely. The president of no other republic 
has ever so stamped his personality upon a country, 
for such a length of time. The beneficial effects 
of his governmental policies, and the lesson of his 
personal life will endure forever. The press of this 
country has paid tribute to him many times in the 
past and rejoices in paying tribute to his greatness 
to-day. 



Opinions of Prominent Men 131 

Brewer, David J., Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court: 

Evidently President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico is one 
of the strong men of the day, and has accomphshed a 
great deal in securing peace and order in that country 
and in developing its civilization. 

Brooks, Bryant B., Governor of the State of 
Wyoming: 

Four years ago, while visiting Mexico City, I had 
the great honor and pleasure of meeting President 
Diaz on three different occasions, and I can state 
frankly that I consider him one of the greatest gen- 
erals, scholars, and statesmen that I have ever met. 
Both republics, as well as the entire civilized world, 
stand indebted to President Diaz for his marvellous 
reorganization and successful administration of affairs 
in Mexico. 

Broussard, Robert F., United States Repre- 
sentative : 

Mr. Diaz, in my judgment, is one of the fore- 
most statesmen of the age. His position, for so 
many years, as head of the Republic of Mexico has 
been a trying one, requiring the highest skill of states- 
manship, great firmness of character, and good judg- 
ment to successfully carry it out. He has met every 
difficulty, and promptly solved it; he has placed 
Mexico in a position to advance very rapidly and to 
develop her natural resources, which, to me, seem 
scarcely to have been touched. 

There can be no doubt that a continuance of a 



132 Porfirio Diaz 

policy he has pursued will, in a short while, bring 
Mexico to the front as one of the richest nations of 
the world. Her timber, her enormous mineral 
wealth, and her agricultural possibilities are matters 
little known to investors. 

The stable government which he has maintained 
in the Republic, if continued, must inevitably bring 
out the very best there is in the development of these 
resources, and when that time comes Mexico will take 
a prominent place. 

Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, Commissioner of 
Education of the United States: 

As Americans, we take pride in the great contri- 
bution to civilization which President Diaz has made 
in his long administration of the affairs of our Sister 
Republic of Mexico. The interest in his great work 
is widespread in this country. In particular, the 
attention of American educators has been directed 
to the great progress which education has made in 
Mexico during President Diaz's administration, cul- 
minating in the organization of the great National 
University, which is to be opened in the near future. 

Brown, H. B., Former Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court: 

I never met President Diaz but once — at a public 
reception given by him in the City of Mexico. I was 
much impressed by the gravity and dignity of his 
face and could well understand his power as a states- 
man and his popularity with the people. 

It will always be said to his credit that he was the 




Justo Sierra 

Secretary of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 



opinions of Prominent Men 133 

first to establish a stable government in Mexico, since 
the Republic was proclaimed, and that his adminis- 
tration has not only commanded the affections of his 
own people, but the admiration of all foreign powers. 

Brown, Philip, American Minister to Hon- 
duras: 

I consider it a great privilege, though I hesitate 
to venture any comments concerning a man of such 
heroic mould, a man of the century, whom one in- 
stinctively classifies with Bismarck, Cavour, and Lin- 
coln. It is a task which should only be undertaken 
by men of special talents and a profound knowledge 
of public men and affairs. 

I desire simply to state that I have always had the 
greatest admiration for the splendid statesmanship 
and colossal strength of character which President 
Diaz has unfailingly shown in the face of immense 
difficulties and unreasoning criticism in directing the 
destinies of Mexico. 

Whenever the opportunity has presented itself in 
my diplomatic relations with the statesmen of Cen- 
tral America, where, as you know, the most baffling 
and discouraging problems have to be confronted, I 
have always taken satisfaction in holding up as a 
model General Porfirio Diaz, who in a large-minded, 
courageous, and patriotic spirit has faced and solved 
in large measure the problems of his native land. 

Bryan, William J., Presidential Candidate of 
the Democratic Party of the United States, and 
Editor of The Commoner: 

President Diaz has left an indelible impress on his 



134 Porfirio Diaz 

country. His administration covers an area of great 
and permanent improvement in the condition of that 
nation. When I was in the City of Mexico I was 
especially impressed with his interest in education, 
and to education the people of Mexico must look for 
the laying of that broad foundation which is necessary 
to stable government. I need not comment upon 
the executive ability of President Diaz. He has 
won a place among the great executive officers of 
the world. As one who feels deeply interested in 
the future of the Republic of Mexico I rejoice in the 
progress that the country has made under Porfirio 
Diaz. 

Bryce, James, British Ambassador to the 
United States: 

No one who knows the history of Mexico during 
the last half century, and has followed, however im- 
perfectly, the career of the present head of that 
Republic can fail to have been impressed by the 
extraordinary talents, both military and political, 
which have given lustre to that career. Under the 
administration of Porfirio Diaz, as its President, 
Mexico has grown to be a great state, second in the 
Western Hemisphere to one other only. Her mineral 
and agricultural resources have been developed with 
amazing rapidity. A network of railways has now 
covered her surface, where before there were practi- 
cally no lines of swift or easy communication. Order 
and public security have been established everywhere 
throughout the country. An effective army and 
police have been created. The different elements of 
the population live peacefully together and the tran- 



opinions of Prominent Men 135 

quillity of the community is but rarely and slightly 
disturbed. The national finances have been skil- 
fully regulated, and while the revenue is expanding, 
and is regularly collected, capital flows freely in from 
many quarters and industries grow apace. Magnifi- 
cent public works, including the construction of 
great harbors, have been executed. The capital has 
not only become a handsome and well appointed 
city, but has been rendered much more healthy 
than it formerly was. Foreigners are welcomed and 
perfect religious liberty is assured, not only by the 
law, but by the enlightened policy of the President's 
government. 

Whoever remembers the vicissitudes and troubles, 
the revolutions and civil wars which fell to the lot of 
Mexico in the fifty or sixty years which followed the 
attainment of her independence, will regard with 
admiration the achievements I have mentioned, and 
will honour the man to whose energy and capacity 
they are so largely due. 

President Diaz stands out to-day as one of the 
foremost men in this age of the world. 

Burleson, Albert S., United States Repre- 
sentative : 

Porfirio Diaz has given the Republic of Mexico a 
place in the galaxy of progressive nations of the world. 
His administration of her affairs has drawn his coun- 
try into terms of lasting friendship with the dominant 
country of the Western Hemisphere, and in my 
opinion history will write it that his term as president 
was the beginning of a glorious era of Mexican national 
life. 



136 Porfirio Diaz 

Burton, Theodore E., United States Senator: 

Porfirio Diaz has won for himself a most notable 
page in the world's history. Nature is chary with 
her gifts and it is allotted to but few men to achieve 
distinction in more than one line of endeavor. Fam- 
ous as a warrior, President Diaz has won yet greater 
glory as a statesman. With military sword and 
epaulettes he pacified his country in the distressing 
years of civil strife. With peace restored, he laid 
aside the accoutrements of war to assume the duties 
of civil leadership. 

Possessing the love and respect of his countrymen, 
President Diaz soon won for himself and his nation 
the confidence and esteem of the world. Prosperity 
spread her magic wand over the land. The material 
advancement and industrial prosperity of Mexico, 
coincident with his presidency, have aroused the 
admiration of all nations. His life marks a splendid 
era in Mexican history. 

Burrows, J. C, United States Senator: 

President Diaz is, in my opinion, one of the most 
eminent statesmen of this or any other time in the 
history of the world. He has exercised his wonderful 
genius in enhancing the wealth and power of his na- 
tion, and this he has accomplished to an extent that 
will excite the wonder and admiration of mankind 
through all future ages. 

Cannon, Joseph G., Speaker of the House of 
Representatives of the United States: 

In my opinion, President Diaz is the wisest and 
safest man who has ever been the executive of any 




President Diaz 

(From a recent photograph; 



Opinions of Prominent Men 137 

country on the American Continent south of the 
United States. 

Carnegie, Andrew, Philanthropist: 

One of the most pleasing recollections of my life is 
that I was received in the City of Mexico in special 
audience by His Excellency President Diaz, one of 
the greatest rulers in the world, perhaps the greatest 
of all, taking into consideration the transformation 
he has made in Mexico, for he is at once the Moses 
and the Joshua of his people. He was pioneer and 
led them upon the path to civilization, and in the 
late years of his life he beholds the entire civilized 
world taking Mexico by the hand as a sister nation. 

History is to class President Diaz with the few 
leaders of nations — most of whom have fallen in the 
hour of victory, while he almost alone has been spared 
to live and rejoice in the elevation of his people. 

Carter, Thomas H., United States Senator: 

President Porfirio Diaz is entitled to full credit for 
the establishment of stable government in Mexico 
with all the advantages and blessings incident thereto. 
In a broader and larger sense he is entitled to special 
consideration for his vast contributions to peace and 
good order throughout Latin- America. By common 
consent this great man is accorded a place in the 
front rank of the world's constructive statesmen. 

Clark, Champ, United States Representative: 

I am delighted to know that you are preparing a 
biography of President Porfirio Diaz to be printed in 
English. 

I regard him as one of the greatest men now living 



138 Porfirio Diaz 

or who has lived in the last hundred years. The 
work which he has done in Mexico is little short of 
marvellous and gives him a place with Lord Clive, 
General Washington, and Prince Bismarck as an em- 
pire builder. 

Clayton, Powell, General, Former American 
Ambassador to Mexico : 

My residence 01 over eight years in Mexico, as the 
American diplomatic representative, gave me un- 
usual opportunities to study the character of the 
soldier and statesman who, during an exception- 
ally long period, has ruled supreme in that Repub- 
lic, — a supremacy not based on arbitrary force, 
but freely accorded by a grateful and confiding 
people. 

Physically, General Diaz is endowed with great 
bodily strength and constitutional vigor, each well 
preserved by daily exercises and abstemious habits. 
His many-sided mentality, like his body, is strong 
and vigorous. Remarkably quick to perceive, he is 
equally prompt to act. His power to measure quickly 
the moral and intellectual stature of men seems in- 
tuitive. Firmness, courage, persistency, zeal, and 
untiring industry in the public service are his promi- 
nent traits. 

He knows Mexico from capital to border, and his 
watchful gaze reaches all parts of the Republic. 
His doors and ears are open to all who come with 
just complaints. 

Though a soldier, his constant exertions are for 
peace. Liberty -loving, he is the unrelenting adver- 
sary of licence. 



Opinions of Prominent Men 139 

To him Mexico owes her wonderful development 
and high standing among civilized nations. 

When his bright star shall have set, may its after- 
glow continue to light Mexico's pathway. 

CocKRELL, F. M., Interstate Commerce Com- 
missioner and Ex-United States Senator: 

I am a great admirer of President Porfirio Diaz. 
His long, illustrious, and honorable career as Presi- 
dent has demonstrated his wisdom, his statesmanship, 
and wonderful executive ability, and has proved a 
blessing to Mexico and her people. 

CoRTELYOU, George B., Ex-Secretary of the 
Treasury : 

The career of Porfirio Diaz is certainly one of the 
most striking in modern times. Coming to the head 
of the State at a critical period in the history of his 
country, he has remained for over a quarter of a 
century a dominant figure in Spanish America, 
guiding his country with a firm and wise hand in the 
ways of progress and civilization. Fortunate it is 
for Mexico that such a man arose, under whose 
leadership she has been enabled to attain her present 
high place in the family of nations. 

CuLLOM, S. M., United States Senator: 

I have long considered Porfirio Diaz, President of 
Mexico, as one of the great men of his day and genera- 
tion. He is a great ruler and his country owes to 
him a debt of gratitude which it never can repay. 
It will be a great misfortune for Mexico when the 



I40 Porfirio Diaz 

time comes for him to lay aside the burdens of his 
high office. 

Curry, George, Governor of the Territory of 
New Mexico: 

The Republic of Mexico, in the person of Porfirio 
Diaz, has evolved the highest type of statesman 
known to the present age. The story of his life 
should be placed in the hands of every American 
school-boy as an incentive to patriotism and true 
manhood. 

Diaz has arisen from peonage to the throne of a 
monarch. For the past thirty years he has been the 
uncrowned king of a great nation and the savior of 
the Mexican Republic. 

The world is familiar with Diaz's desperate en- 
gagements on the battle-fields of Mexico, when do- 
mestic as well as alien foes were relentlessly crushed, 
when he led his people to victory and lifted the nation 
from a state of ruin and degradation to peace and 
prosperity, restoring it to the respect and confidence 
of other world powers. While he is just and merciful, 
he rules with an iron hand. He exhorts his people to 
be industrious, law-abiding, and to pay their debts. 
He is in the highest sense of the term a king, but scorns 
the worldly trappings of the position. He is a man 
of simple habits and an unblemished private life. He 
is not a man of wealth, though he could possess millions 
were he not truly a great man and a great ruler. 

Curtis, William E., Ex-Director of the Inter- 
national Bureau of American Republics and Cor- 
respondent of the Chicago Record-Herald: 



Opinions of Prominent Men 141 

President Diaz is a man of broad views, and during 
his long and uninterrupted administration has fol- 
lowed a definite policy of progress for the develop- 
ment of the resources of the country and its elevation 
to the position to which it is entitled by territory, 
population, and wealth among the nations of the 
world. The success of his endeavors can be measured 
most accurately by a comparison of the conditions 
which existed in Mexico in 1876, when he first as- 
sumed control of the Government, and in 1909. 
When he came into power on December i, 1876, 
Mexico was in a state of political, commercial, and 
industrial chaos; life and property were of compara- 
tively little value and had no protection from the 
courts or the police. To-day no country is more 
peaceful or secure for strangers as well as citizens. 

General Diaz is now seventy-nine years old and is 
serving his seventh term as president. He has full 
consciousness of his power, and his policy is as fixed as 
the movement of the stars. He has become accus- 
tomed to the exercise of power; he is so keen in his 
perceptions that he can read the motives of the men 
he has to deal with. Those two qualities are, doubt- 
less, responsible for his success. 

Daniel, John W., United States Senator: 

President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico is universally 
recognized as a great man. His work for his country 
has been eminently successful and characterized by 
his great qualities. 

Davis, Henry G., Ex-United States Senator: 
I count among the most interesting and fortunate 



142 Porfirio Diaz 

occurrences which have come to me the opportu- 
nities I have had for a personal acquaintance with 
General Diaz, As chairman of the Delegation of 
the United States to the Second Conference of Amer- 
ican Republics, which met in the City of Mexico in 
the winter of 1901-1902, I met General Diaz both 
officially and socially, and it was a great pleasure to 
renew an acquaintance I had made with him a few 
years previously, when visiting Mexico. General 
Diaz is a striking and commanding figure in modern 
times. Probably no country during the past century 
has felt the influence of any one man more than 
Mexico has of General Diaz. Although a soldier 
both by profession and nature, whose military ser- 
vices had been of the highest order, yet his greatest 
victories have been in the direction of peace and 
tranquillity. He has brought out of turmoil and 
unrest a compact and stable nation, and has turned 
strong and impulsive elements of population from 
industrial indifference and defiance of law and order 
to commercial activities and defence of governmental 
authority. He has quelled the spirit of insurrection 
among the people, and set an example to the countries 
of Central and South America. Under his forcible 
and effective administration of affairs, the people 
have advanced in all lines of domestic and commercial 
welfare, and the Republic has been brought to a much 
higher plane in the sisterhood of nations. His per- 
sonal character and executive strength have been a 
guaranty of the safety of foreign capital, the intro- 
duction of which has done so much to aid in the 
development of the country's wonderful mineral and 
other resources. One may speak of almost any country 
of the world without any one man predomina,ting 



Opinions of Prominent Men 143 

therein, but Mexico and Diaz are inseparable. He 
has built so well that I am sure the foundation he 
has laid will endure, and that Mexico will continue 
under his successors in the march of progress in which 
he has so masterfully led it. The citizens of Mexico 
in grateful remembrance will always hold him in the 
same pride and affection that the people of the United 
States have for their immortal Washington. 

Day, William R., Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court and Ex-Secretary of State: 

The great career of President Diaz has attracted 
the attention of the world, and demonstrated his 
superior qualifications in leadership and those great 
qualities as a statesman which have given to his 
country a long period of peace and advancement. 

Your proposed biography cannot fail to be highly 
interesting, and give to the reading public a more 
intimate acquaintance with those eminent traits of 
character and conduct which have marked the great 
career of President Diaz. 

Denby, Edwin, United States Representative: 

I find myself somewhat at a loss to give you any- 
thing regarding President Diaz, worthy of reproduc- 
tion in your forthcoming book. I share with the 
people of the world its great admiration for the long 
and splendid service of this distinguished Mexican. 
We of the United States really owe him a debt of 
gratitude for the great works he has wrought in Mex- 
ico and the peace and good order which under his 
strong but benign rule have prevailed in our sister 
republic. How much of the present friendly and 



144 Porfirio Diaz 

satisfactory relations between the two republics may 
be due to President Diaz, it is impossible to say, 
but certainly he has contributed greatly to that desir- 
able result. May he have many years of active life 
ahead of him. 

De Young, M. H., Editor of the San Francisco 
Chronicle : 

If the object of government is to secure for the 
people governed peace and prosperity, President 
Diaz must be regarded as a great ruler. When he 
assumed the guidance of the affairs of Mexico, it was 
a turbulent country in which life and property were 
not always safe ; by his wisdom and firmness he suc- 
ceeded in replacing disorder by order, and through his 
administrative ability he put the finances of the 
Republic in such shape that its credit stands very 
high. To his energetic efforts must be attributed the 
fact that Mexico, which a quarter of a century ago 
was in an extremely backward state, is now one of the 
most progressive nations in the world. His policy 
of encouraging the investment of foreign capital has 
given a great impetus to the development of the 
resources of the Republic. Foreigners who find their 
way to Mexico, without reference to the country of 
their origin, are all admirers of Diaz, a fact which 
speaks volumes. If a man is to be judged by his 
achievements, and not by finical notions respecting 
forms of government, Diaz is a great man; so great 
indeed that his countrymen fear that they cannot 
find a fit successor to him and therefore, although 
professed republicans, they do not hesitate to main- 
tain him in office indefinitely. In this way they show 




The Monument of Mexican Independence 

City of Mexico 

(To be inaugurated September, igio) 



Opinions of Prominent Men 145 

their wisdom, even though a ruler for life seems an 
anomaly in a republic. 

DoLLivER, Jonathan P., United States Senator: 

I believe that General Diaz is recognized through- 
out the United States as a great constructive states- 
man and a popular leader, whose policies lie at the 
base of the development and progress of the Mexican 
people. 

Egan, Maurice Francis, United States Minis- 
ter to Denmark : 

From the point of view of statesmanship there can 
be, it seems, no question that posterity would regard 
Porfirio Diaz as one of the greatest reconstructors 
of the world. The difficulties which he met and over- 
came in his work can only be guessed by even the 
most intelligent student of the results of that work. 
The processes by which he united a divided country — 
processes which often seem drastic and even radical 
to those who looked at Mexico from the point of view 
of men already politically educated — can only be 
analyzed by experts who can realize the tremendous 
problems he had to meet. With the sympathy of a 
Lincoln for his people, with the knowledge of a 
Disraeli of the influences outside his country, with 
his power of compromise in political crises worthy 
of a Gladstone, and the insight into the internal 
needs of his country of a Castelar, he stands before 
the world to-day as a Caesar who has resisted all 
temptation to despotism, and a Napoleon who has 
learned that the greatest thing in conquest is to 
know its limits. 



146 Porfirio Diaz 

Elkins, S. B., United States Senator: 

For twenty- five years or more I have been interested 
in the people and familiar with the affairs of the 
Republic of Mexico. During this time I have had 
opportunities of learning something of President Diaz 
and his great services to his country. 

I knew President Juarez, having met him at El 
Paso, when he was driven to the frontiers of the 
Republic by the French and Austrian soldiers. He 
was highly educated, an able and remarkable man 
and a great lawyer, but different in many ways from 
Diaz and not his equal. 

I regard Diaz as one of the greatest men of his 
time. I say this after following his career closely 
and a limited personal acquaintance made while 
visiting Mexico. General Diaz is not only a great 
soldier and leader, but he is a statesman of the highest 
order. He stands amongst the greatest rulers of the 
world. During his service as president he has brought 
order and respect for law out of confusion and chaos. 
He has given the Republic of Mexico peace and pro- 
tection to life and property, such as it never before 
enjoyed. He has promoted the progress and devel- 
opment of the resources of Mexico and started the 
country on the high-road to progress and prosperity. 
He has elevated Mexico and her people until she is 
recognized as one of the leading nations of the world. 

Under his administration, the people of Mexico 
have become law-abiding, law-respecting, and pro- 
gressive, and are making advance in every direction 
towards a better civilization. Before Diaz came into 
power, Mexico was subjected to constant revolutions; 
there was but little respect for law ; life and property 



Opinions of Prominent Men 147 

were not secure. These results it may be said are due 
largely to the genius and ability of this wonderful man. 

General Diaz is a man of lofty courage, great exec- 
utive ability, and fine judgment, modest and retiring, 
just, generous, and fair. In many ways he reminds 
me of General Grant. 

President Diaz's services to Mexico, Mexican civili- 
zation, and Mexican progress in every direction cannot 
be overestimated. 

Englebright, W. F., United States Repre- 
sentative : 

The people of California with feelings of warm 
friendship have viewed with pleasure the continued 
prosperity of their mother country, Mexico, and 
congratulate her on having had for many years such 
a president as Porfirio Diaz — a most able ruler and 
one of the great statesmen of the times, whose patri- 
otism, united to his great force of character and his 
marked executive ability, has brought his country to 
its great position as one of the great nations of the 
world. 

Fisher, Sydney, Minister of Agriculture of 
Canada : 

I regret extremely that I have never had the honor 
or advantage of meeting the President of Mexico. 
Personal friends of mine, who have met him, have 
spoken so highly of him that it is my ambition and 
intense desire to take the first opportunity of making 
his personal acquaintance. 

His work in Mexico is such as to place him among 
the great statesmen of the day and of the time. We 



148 Porfirio Diaz 

in Canada feel the utmost interest in him and his 
country, it being a portion of our own continent, 
the conditions there being somewhat similar to the 
conditions here in Canada. 

I have had the good fortune to meet a number of 
leading Mexicans and they have shown a devotion to 
their country and to their work which explains the 
great success of their government and their people. 
I have no doubt that the President has been an 
example and model for these men in their public 
careers, and that his influence as a leader has been 
great all over Mexico. 

A work such as you speak of will be eagerly looked 
for by all the English-speaking world, who look upon 
your President as one of the greatest men, and of the 
most interesting career of the present day. 

Flint, Frank F., United States Senator: 

The close commercial and social relations that 
have existed between the Republic of Mexico and the 
State of California, for many years, by reason of the 
proximity of the two countries and the strong racial 
ties of their people, have enabled the citizens of Cali- 
fornia to acquire more than the average knowledge 
of economic and political conditions in Mexico and 
to become familiar with the high character and 
remarkable career of that country's President. 

Our people have long been great admirers of Presi- 
dent Diaz. His acknowledged statesmanship, his 
patriotism and love for his people, and his devotion 
to their interests, have won for him universal com- 
mendation. All these qualities, together with his 
courtesy to the people of other countries visiting or 




Justino Fernandez 
Secretary of Justice 



Opinions of Prominent Men 149 

residing in Mexico, and his fairness and liberality in 
dealing with foreign capital seeking investment in the 
Republic, have made him almost as popular in the 
United States, and particularly along the border 
states and territories, as he is in his own country. 
His repeated re-election, without serious opposition, 
demonstrates his popularity there. 

Foster, John W., Fonner Secretary of State 
and Ex- American Minister to Mexico and Spain : 

During my seven years' residence in Mexico, from 
1873 to 1880, I became well acquainted with the 
military career of General Porfirio Diaz, and was 
brought into intimate official and personal relations 
with him during his first presidential term. Since 
that period I have made several visits to Mexico, and 
have been enabled to note the development and 
progress of the country under his administration. 
I have no hesitation in pronouncing him the great- 
est statesman of the Latin-American states in any 
period of their history, and one of the most dis- 
tinguished statesmen of the world in his generation. 

His military career during the French Intervention 
showed him to be a soldier of a high order of ability, 
and his achievements in defence of his country greatly 
endeared him to the Mexican people. The value of 
his services as president, and his ability as a states- 
man, may be estimated in various ways. 

From the establishment of its independence to the 
time that Diaz assumed the presidency, the history 
of the country had been one series of disorders and 
revolutions. Bloodshed and anarchy had been the 
rule rather than the exception. Immediately after 



150 Porfirio Diaz 

Diaz came into control of the government, order pre- 
vailed throughout the Republic and the life and 
property of every inhabitant was assured. Speedily 
the courts were re-established and the civil adminis- 
tration of the law became supreme. In the past 
thirty-three years, during which Diaz has been prac- 
tically at the head of the government, there has been 
no serious disturbance of public order in any part of 
its territory. Within the same period, the other Latin- 
American countries, almost without exception, have 
experienced revolutionary changes of administration, 
or have been rent by civil war. 

In 1876 the public credit of Mexico was at the 
lowest possible ebb. The public debt had been 
either repudiated or in default of interest payment 
for many years. Its government bonds were of no 
value in the money markets of the world. Its rev- 
enues were in a demoralized condition, the budget 
showing a yearly deficit in the expenses. The first 
act of the Diaz government was to meet a pay- 
ment of about $150,000 due the United States. The 
public treasury was empty, and a resort was had 
to private bankers to raise the sum, for which twelve 
per cent, interest was paid. Within a few years the 
public debt was recognized and refunded at a lower 
rate of interest, and is now in process of gradual 
redemption. The government bonds command a 
higher price abroad than those of any other of the 
Latin-American states. The annual receipts are 
greater than the expenditures, notwithstanding 
the large outlays for the national debt and public 
improvements. 

Mining and agriculture early experienced new 
life and enlargement, and foreign capital from the 



Opinions of Prominent Men 151 

United States and Europe poured into the country 
for their development. The wonderful railroad con- 
struction which has taken place was only made 
possible through the aid and protection of the Diaz 
administration . 

These are some of the evidences of the statesman- 
ship and beneficence of Porfirio Diaz, which entitles 
him to a first place among the rulers of his generation. 

Fox, Williams C, American Minister to Ecua- 
dor: 

I consider it as one of the most interesting occasions 
of my life to have met and known well General Diaz. 
He is undoubtedly one of the great figures in the 
world to-day and every item in regard to him, justly 
recorded, will be a distinct addition to the history of 
the Western Hemisphere. 

Frye, Wm. p.. United States Senator and 
President pro tempore of the Senate: 

A biography in English of President Diaz is a work 
well worthy of the best efforts of any writer, and I 
am glad that you are to undertake it. It cannot 
but prove of intense interest, not only to the student 
of history but to the lover of romance. A mere 
recital of the experiences of this great soldier, patriot, 
and statesman during his long and eventful life will 
make a tale as fascinating as a Kipling novel. 

Gallinger, J. H., United States Senator: 

The progress and development of the Republic of 
Mexico during the last quarter of a century have 



152 Porfirio Diaz 

challenged the attention and excited the admiration 
of the people of the United States, there being a close 
bond of sympathy and good-will between the two 
nations. The part that President Diaz has played 
in the material and moral welfare of his country is 
well known and recognized, not only in the United 
States but also in Europe. Nothing exceeding it 
has been accomplished by any statesman, and the 
great work that he has done for the elevation and 
advancement of the people of Mexico will be a theme 
for future historians. His high character, patriotic 
achievements, and illustrious career will form a bright 
page in the world's history, and will be an inspiration 
and incentive to all lovers of constitutional and rep- 
resentative government. 

Gardiner, Asa Bird, President Rhode Island 
State Society of the Cincinnati, and Secretary 
General of the Order: 

In the closing years of the 19th century and be- 
gining of the 20th, history presents as one of its 
very greatest public men in that period, His Excel- 
lency Porfirio Diaz, President of the Republic of 
Mexico. 

As a general in the field he was particularly dis- 
tinguished in restoring the independence of his 
country. 

As President of the Republic, no chief executive in 
any nation ever exhibited more ability in that ca- 
pacity, wisdom, prudence, sagacity, or love of peace 
and order. Guided by this great man, his country 
has made wonderful advances in all that makes a 
nation great and respected. 




Some Harbor Works in the Republic 



opinions of Prominent Men 153 

Garfield, James R., Ex-Secretary of the In- 
terior, son of the late President Garfield : 

With your other American friends, I am glad you 
are writing in English the biography of President 
Diaz. I am sure the book will be most interesting. 

President Diaz is one of the great figures in the his- 
tory, not only of Mexico, but of our continent. His 
statesmanship has always been of the highest con- 
structive type. While maintaining peace and order 
at home, thus making possible Mexico's progress, he 
has gained the friendship and respect of other na- 
tions. His friendly spirit of co-operation in the 
consideration of problems affecting Mexico and the 
United States aided the settlement of many difficult 
questions, and has laid the foundation for an endur- 
ing peace between our countries. In a very striking 
way this was shown at the Conference, of which he 
was a member, between the representatives from 
Mexico, Canada, and the United States, held during 
last March, for the consideration of the conservation 
of the natural resources of this continent. 

Goodrich, Caspar F., Rear-Admiral United 
States Navy: 

It is a great honor to be asked to express my 
opinion of the character and work of so distinguished 
a;statesman and so wise a ruler as President Diaz. 

What his labors have accomplished in general 
is known to all. Personally, I have witnessed the 
effects of his consistent and dignified administration 
of affairs in the universal atmosphere of contentment, 
in the good order, and in the safety of persons and 



154 Porfirio Diaz 

property in the ports of Mexico, which it has been 
my good fortune to visit during my cruises. 

President Diaz will go down in history as one of 
the ablest, broadest minded, and most revered leaders 
of his era. His reputation can be no exclusive 
possession of his own country, for all Americans, 
from the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn, will insist upon 
claiming him as of their own. 

Grant, Frederick D., Major-General of the 
United. States Army: 

My father, General U. S. Grant, was a great per- 
sonal friend of President Porfirio Diaz, and I have 
inherited for this distinguished general and states- 
man the admiration felt by my father for him. I 
also have had the honor of meeting and being the 
guest of President Diaz in Mexico. 

No man has ever done more for his country than 
President Diaz, during whose administration Mexico 
has enjoyed greatest prosperity and made wonderful 
strides forward. 

In fact, words are inadequate to express my 
admiration for this great and distinguished Mexican. 

Greely, a. W., Major-General of the United 
States Army (retired) : 

My first knowledge of Mexico came from a visit 
to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in 1865, when the 
country was overrun by a victorious enemy. I was 
again in this section in 1873, and in 1875 bailt three 
hundred miles of telegraph in the American valley, 
and so became familiar with the prevalent lawless, 



Opinions of Prominent Men 155 

revolutionary conditions which so distressed Northern 
Mexico at that period. Later I visited time and 
time again not only the whole frontier, from Cali- 
fornia to Texas, but also journeyed to the City of 
Mexico by one route and returned by another. I 
have, as a university professor, studied the develop- 
ment of the country, the progress of its institu- 
tions, and the improvements in the status of its 
people. 

I have thus followed the growth of the Mexican 
states from revolutionary and unsettled conditions 
into their present proud position of a nation, com- 
posed of united, thriving, and well governed states. 
Great as has been the development of the resources 
of Mexico, they have been paralleled by its progress 
in education, arts, and sciences, and by its adoption 
and application of industrial and transportation 
facilities. To me, yet greater has been the transition 
to habits of peace and of amenability to law, whereby 
rights of person, property, and life have been wonder- 
fully improved and generally conserved. 

These astounding changes have, in my opinion, 
been wrought through the energy, wisdom, genius, 
and administrative ability of President Porfirio 
Diaz, whose career I have followed with increas- 
ing surprise and admiration from decade to decade. 
President Diaz was absent when I visited the City of 
Mexico, and so my judgment is not warped by 
personal relations. 

My opinion is wholly based on study, observation, 
and reflection, which cause me to consider Porfirio 
Diaz as one of the great men of the past half-century, 
I honor him as a man, who has raised up Mexico, 
made it a great nation, instituted peace and law, and 



156 Porfirio Diaz 

above all made possible the progress of his fellow- 
countrymen. 

Hadley, Arthur T., President of Yale Uni- 
versity : 

The work of President Diaz has been so great, and 
the existing position and prosperity of Mexico is 
such a monument to his ability, that any words of 
commendation which I might attempt to offer would 
seem commonplace and superfluous. 

Hay, M. E., Governor of the State of Wash- 
ington : 

I consider President Diaz one of the truly great 
men of this age. The great work he has done for his 
country and his people ranks him abreast with Wash- 
ington, Hamilton, and Jefferson of our own country. 
His management of the affairs of Mexico has been safe 
and conservative and yet as progressive as could 
be with safety to the nation. 

I had the pleasure of spending a few weeks in the 
Republic some five years ago, and was greatly im- 
pressed with the love, affection, and respect the people 
of that country have for their President. Seemingly, 
all classes are commencing to see what a great work 
President Diaz has done for their nation. 

Hayes, E. A., United States Representative: 

I regard President Diaz of Mexico as among the 
greatest of the constructive statesmen of this age. 
That he has accomplished wonders for Mexico must 
be the opinion of all who are at all familiar with its 




Astronomical Observatory 
Near City of Mexico 



opinions of Prominent Men 157 

recent history. He is a world-wide character, and 
must be counted among the greatest men of this age. 

Hill, David J., American Ambassador to 
Germany: 

I have never had the honor to make the personal 
acquaintance of President Porfirio Diaz, and I know 
him only through the reports of his public life in the 
administration of his high office during many years 
as president of the Republic. I am, therefore, able 
only to express my great admiration for the inter- 
nal policies which have so efEectively promoted the 
development of Mexico socially, economically, and in 
all that makes progress in the growth of civilization, 
and also my appreciation of the wisdom, moderation, 
and spirit of friendliness with which the Republic 
has managed its foreign relations, and above all 
the manifest friendliness toward the United States, 
whose people I think are happy in witnessing the 
prosperity and development of Mexico. 

Hill, James J., of the Great Northern Rail- 
way Company: 

For many years prior to the advent of Porfirio 
Diaz to the presidency of the Republic of Mexico, 
the various states of that country seemed to lack 
co-operation, growing out of efforts and ambitions of 
local politicians. The administration of President 
Diaz has unified the Mexican nation and greatly 
strengthened its position among the nations. His 
work as the head of the Mexican Republic during 
his long administration of its affairs has advanced 



158 Porfirio Diaz 

his native country more than the work of any other 
ten of her sons. 

Howry, Charles, Judge of the United States 
Court of Claims : 

Porfirio Diaz is generally regarded by the Ameri- 
can people, not only as a very able administrator 
of public affairs, but as a great man. That he is 
powerful, his long tenure in office proves and goes 
without saying. That he is masterful, is demon- 
strated by the success which has attended his efforts 
to rule his country in peace and without disorder. 
That he is wise and justly entitled to be called one of 
the foremost men of his time is acknowledged by 
those familiar with the progress of his country in 
everything that makes for social life and civiliza- 
tion. 

Porfirio Diaz has proven his right to govern. 
Without knowledge of the means employed for the 
perpetuation of his power, or that these means have 
been at all inconsistent with the rights and free will 
of his countrymen, I should say that his place in 
history is secure as a ruler. But more than that. 
During his administration, Mexico has prospered as 
never before and made rapid strides among the 
republics of the Western Hemisphere to a conspicuous 
place in the family of nations. 

Jordan, David Starr, President of the Leland 
Stanford, Junior, University: 

I regard President Diaz as one of the ablest and 
most efficient rulers in any country within the last 



Opinions of Prominent Men 159 

century. He has had clearly in mind the possibilities 
of Mexico, and has brought it from a position of 
scattered and warring tribes, to be the beginning of 
a great nation. I once said to President Diaz that 
he had made of Mexico "una gran nacion," "No," 
he said, "el germinillo de una gran naci6n"; but the 
little germ is already on the way to fullest develop- 
ment, and one cannot speak too highly of the strength 
of mind and persistent devotion of President Diaz. 

Kahn, Julius, United States Representative: 

I am glad to learn you are writing the biography of 
President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico, as I consider him 
one of the greatest men of the nineteenth century. 
He has given his country stable government and has 
brought to Mexico an era of prosperity, such as was 
never known in all the years of her history. He has 
cemented the bonds of friendship between the United 
States and Mexico, and has done much to promote 
industrial relations between the manufacturers and 
producers of the two countries. He will rank in 
history as one of the wise statesmen of the world, and 
I trust he will be spared many years to continue his 
work of advancement. 

I believe the life of such a man must be an inspira- 
tion to the youth of all countries, and I wish you every 
success in your undertaking. 

Landis, C. B., Ex-United States Representa- 
tive: 

We speak the name of Mexico, and think of Diaz. 
In the United States, for many years, the man and 
the country have been one and inseparable. Diaz is 



i6o Porfirio Diaz 

Mexico and Mexico is Diaz. As long as language is 
spoken and history written, he will be included among 
the world's great men. In the fullest meaning of the 
term his career has been that of "a nation builder." 

Lane, Franklin K., of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission of the United States: 

After a visit to Mexico a few years since, I delivered 
an address upon Mexico and its president, in which 
I said: "President Diaz is one of the two or three 
great men of our time. Neither the President of 
the United States nor any monarch in Europe has 
the personal power that the President of Mexico 
exercises. His rise to the presidency is not remarka- 
ble, but his ability to sustain himself in that position 
for nearly thirty years is the achievement of nothing 
less than genius. He is the most remarkable man 
who has risen in all Spanish America during nearly 
four centuries of occupancy. I found him respected, 
admired, and loved. His people are proud of him 
and personally attached to him, — and well they 
might be, for his policy has been national, his impulse 
is patriotic, and the history of his regime is one of 
tranquillity and unprecedented prosperity." 

I can add no more to this expression of opinion, 
nor would I take one word from it to-day. 

Lodge, H. C, United States Senator : 

To do justice to such a career as that of President 
Diaz in a few words would be impossible. He is 
one of the remarkable men of our time and the great 
work which he has done for the peace and prosperity 





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President Diaz 



Opinions of Prominent Men i6i 

of Mexico constitutes an enduring monument. You 
may rest assured that nowhere is his work more 
appreciated than in the United States. I had the 
pleasure of meeting President Diaz many years ago 
in Boston and I well remember the great impression 
he made upon me as a man of the most exceptional 
force and ability. 

LooMis, Francis B., United States Commis- 
sioner to the Tokio Exposition and Ex-Assistant 
Secretary of State : 

It was my good fortune to be in Mexico when Mr. 
Root, as Secretary of State, visited that country in 
1907 and to participate as a guest in the series of 
memorable and sumptuous entertainments given in 
his honor. 

I met President Diaz many times, and upon one 
occasion had the honor of a long interview with him, 
lasting quite an hour and a half. Our talk was dis- 
cursive, covering a wide range of topics, but centered 
mainly on international politics and practical ques- 
tions of economic policy bearing upon the material 
development of Mexico and the United States. I 
have talked at some length with several of the con- 
spicuous "rulers of the world," but I have never 
known the head of a great nation who conveyed to 
his listener a more convincing sense of virile char- 
acter, of moral, mental, and physical fitness than did 
President Diaz. He explains himself and his won- 
derful career, and after half an hour's talk with this 
uncommon man one ceases to marvel at the versatility 
and importance of his achievements. He is the per- 
sonification of Ef&ciency. At seventy-eight he has the 



1 62 Porfirio Diaz 

resilliency, the flexibility, the endurance, and the 
psychic power of a forceful man of forty-five. 

Early in life General Diaz learned, like the late 
President McKinley, that the man who can master 
himself is greater than one who can take a city. 
President Diaz is the ruler of himself, — a model of 
self-control. The great qualities of Porfirio Diaz are 
moral qualities. 

It now seems probable that historians will be dis- 
posed to agree that prior to this century the New 
World has produced no more competent ruler than 
General Diaz. Those who have really adequate 
knowledge of the difficulties and of the magnitude of 
the task which has confronted him for nearly twenty- 
five years will readily understand why just and 
thorough students will be inclined to assign President 
Diaz a very lofty place in the chronicles of his time. 

It is true that General Diaz is a successful sol- 
dier: it is true that he is a remarkable organizer: it 
is true that he has turned an impoverished, feeble, 
and slightly amalgamated federation into a closely 
knitted, progressive, and prosperous republic — but 
his real victory, the resplendent and crowning tri- 
umph of his career, is to be found in the substantial 
fact that throughout the length and breadth of Mex- 
ico he has instilled into the hearts, minds, and lives of 
the people an earnest abiding desire for peace and 
genuine loyalty to law. 

President Diaz seeks to educate his people in pa- 
triotism and in civic righteousness. He strives to 
indoctrinate them with high and imperishable prin- 
ciples. In a large measure he has already uplifted 
and enlightened them. When he passes away much 
of the good that he has wrought will remain, for it is 



opinions of Prominent Men 163 

not small or specious in quality, or in any sense 
ephemeral. 

I believe him to be one of the most useful men the 
world has known. 

Low, Seth, Ex-President of Columbia Uni- 
versity and Ex-Mayor of New York City: 

The career of President Diaz marks him as a man 
of commanding ability. Under his long adminis- 
tration as President of the United States of Mexico, 
that country has made steady and remarkable prog- 
ress. Good order has been maintained and the cur- 
rency and finances of the country have been placed 
upon a sound basis. As a result, the great natural 
resources of the country have been made available 
as never before, so that Mexico has enjoyed under 
the administration of this remarkable man a greater 
degree of prosperity than ever. The relations of 
Mexico and the United States have never been more 
friendly than during the incumbency of President 
Diaz. The two countries gave to The Hague Tri- 
bunal the opportunity of exercising its functions for 
the first time in the settlement of an international 
dispute. So that externally, as well as internally, 
President Diaz has led his country successfully along 
the paths of peace. History will accord to him a 
distinct place among the great administrators of the 
American Continent. 

Lyman, Hart, of the New York Tribune: 

The Tribune has often expressed its admiration of 
the far-sighted wisdom with which President Diaz has 



164 Porfirio Diaz 

for many years directed the Government of Mexico. 
It seems as if the ancient dictum that no man is 
necessary were refuted in his case. 

MacArthur, Arthur, Lieutenant - General, 
United States Army (retired) : 

The fulfilment of your purpose to publish in 
English a biography of President Diaz will be a most 
fortunate event, for the large audience that is re- 
stricted to that language as its only literary medium. 
By this means precise knowledge will be imparted 
to the English speaking world of the great man, 
through whose flexible and master-mind, the ideals 
and aspirations of the Mexican people have found 
adequate expression. 

Endowed with military and political perceptions of 
lucidity and range, Diaz has at critical moments been 
enabled to contribute all of his great abilities to the 
good government and welfare of his country. En- 
riched with rare gifts of understanding, rendered acute 
and comprehensive by observation and study, he 
has thus impressed himself indelibly upon the politi- 
cal life of Mexico, and upon the intellectual life of the 
age. 

Hundreds of very great men have passed through 
the world without leaving any visible trace of their 
existence. Enlarged scope of thought in respect of 
national interests, broad conceptions in behalf of 
patriotic purposes, therefore, are not in themselves 
always sufficient to impress contemporaries. 

Fortunately, in this instance the right man syn- 
chronized with the right moment, and as a conse- 
quence, Mexico is now one of the seminating powers 




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Opinions of Prominent Men 165 

of the earth : and Diaz himself must be placed in the 
small class of constructive workers of the nineteenth 
century which embraces Cavour, Lincoln, Bismarck, 
and Ito. 

Discreet statesman, sagacious diplomat, patient 
administrator, loyal soldier, and patriotic citizen, 
long may he live to inspire the best aspirations of his 
own country and to enjoy the respect of mankind. 

Macfarland, H. B. F., President of the Com- 
missioners of the District of Columbia : 

President Diaz deserves his unique distinction 
among the rulers of nations. No one has had a more 
difficult task; no one has discharged his duty more 
efficiently; no one has had more appreciation of his 
achievements; no one has had greater affection and 
admiration from his own people or more respect 
and regard from those of other countries. We of 
the United States, and especially we who live in the 
National Capitol, share in a peculiar degree the 
general sentiments of the world respecting President 
Diaz, because of all that he has done to strengthen 
the close and friendly relations between the United 
States of Mexico and the United States of America. 
We realize that he is not only one of the greatest of 
men but one of the best of friends. We congratulate 
Mexico that he is still willing to direct her affairs, and 
wish for him continued health, and evengreatersuccess. 

Magoon, Charles E., former Provisional 
Governor of Cuba: 

That the demand creates the supply, is an aphorism 
that, while it may hold good in commercial matters, 



1 66 Porfirio Diaz 

is not always borne out in the affairs of state. It is 
true that Russia had its Peter the Great, and Germany- 
its Frederick Barbarossa, but they were conquerors 
rather than statesmen, and even Switzerland with 
her William Tell presented an instance of successful 
rebellion much more than the evolution of a power 
that had its victories in peace as well as war. 

The combination of the qualities of the soldier and 
the statesman, moreover, seems to be the distinct 
product of American soil. The United States found it 
in her hour of need, in George Washington and subse- 
quently in Abraham Lincoln, while later still, a most 
striking example is to be found in President Diaz, 
the present President of Mexico. 

What that Republic owes to him cannot be over- 
estimated. For more than twenty-seven years he 
has governed Mexico with a strength and power hith- 
erto unknown under a democratic form of government, 
and yet with the wisdom that finds its vindication in 
a march of improvements which is unequalled in the 
histories of nations. 

He found Mexico bankrupt, divided against itself, 
infested with bandits, and a victim, of all sorts of 
maladministration and corruption. Under his watch- 
ful eye millions upon millions of dollars have been 
honestly expended on harbor improvements, drainage 
works, and engineering projects; not the least of 
which was the boring of a tunnel through the Eastern 
mountains, thus draining the valley of Mexico into the 
sea, through a system of canals and sewers that cost 
more than twelve millions of dollars. 

When General Diaz first assumed control, there 
were only two small railroad lines ; one connecting the 
capital with Vera Cruz, the other connecting it with 



Opinions of Prominent Men 167 

Queretaro. At the present day there are more than 
15,000 miles of railroad. So, too, with the mail 
service: in the primitive time it was dependent on 
stage-coaches, which were frequently held up and 
robbed, while now there is a safe and rapid service with 
twenty-nine hundred post-offices, and, in addition, 
there are upwards of forty-five thousand miles of 
telegraph wires in operation. 

Meanwhile he has been steadily reducing the public 
debt, putting the national finances on a gold basis, 
and managing the business affairs of the country with 
such sound monetary ability, that the nation has a 
surplus of seventy-two million dollars in the Treasury. 

What the debt of the whole world is to this wonder- 
ful leader, to his magnetic personality, to his pro- 
found statesmanship and his superb military genius, 
cannot be computed. It was from his example and 
achievements that the seed of progressive improve- 
ment was sown in the sister republics, until by the 
action of the Pan-American alliance it can be safely 
said that Central and South America have been 
remodelled and regenerated. 

As to the United States, the proximity of Mexico in 
its present state has proved to be an unmixed and 
unchallenged blessing. The opportunities for the 
employment of labor, the openings for the investment 
of capital, the extension of new interests, have added 
to the general prosperity of the nation while the con- 
fidence reposed in the stability of Mexican affairs, 
under the present administration, has fostered and 
increased it. 

The niche of President Diaz in the temple of fame 
is an assured position. To the peon, to whose interest 
his life has been devoted, he is already more of a god 



1 68 Porfirio Diaz 

than a man, and while republics are proverbially 
ungrateful, yet surely educated Mexico can never 
cease to honor and admire the genius, whose hand, 
though it has been of iron in its inflexibility for the 
public weal, has yet been gloved with the velvet of 
justice and honor. 

Marcil, Charles, Speaker of the House of 
Commons of Canada : 

I regret that I have not the time at my disposal to 
give you a full appreciation of President Diaz of 
Mexico, as I should like. I may say, however, that 
his name has been so familiar to us here in Canada 
for the last forty years that we rarely ever mention 
Mexico without an allusion to its Great Citizen. He 
is uncontested! y one of the great men of the American 
Continent and deserves well all the honours that have 
been heaped upon him. A country and a democracy 
that can produce such a man must necessarily have 
a great future in store for it. The relations between 
Canada and Mexico are becoming more important 
every day and we know that President Diaz has not 
been a stranger to this. For this we are grateful and 
all Canadians will join in wishing him long life in the 
interest of his country. 

McClung, Lee, Treasurer of the United States: 

One of the marvels of the nineteenth century and 
the early part of the twentieth has been the substan- 
tial growth and development of our neighboring 
republic, Mexico. Conditions in that republic, at 
the time of accession to the chief executorship of 
Porfirio Diaz, were in such a chaotic state that it 




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opinions of Prominent Men 169 

required a man of iron nerve and steady hand to 
govern the country's affairs, and such demand met 
fulfilment in the person of the new ruler. Since 
that time Mexico's progress has been not only sure, 
but rapid, and the credit due President Diaz for the 
wonderful development and substantial prosperity 
of our sister republic can hardly be overestimated. 
He has known his people, has realized their points of 
weakness as well as their points of strength, and has 
adapted himself accordingly. The recent meeting 
between President Taft and President Diaz at El 
Paso was a fitting expression of the appreciation and 
cordial good feeling that each republic thus repre- 
sented entertained for the other. 

McCreery, Fenton R., Ex-Secretary to the 
American Legation in Mexico and American 
Minister to Santo Domingo: 

Every American at home and abroad should honor 
the name of Porfirio Diaz, the Chief Executive of 
Mexico, who has fostered development, furthered ad- 
vancement, practised and encouraged industry, until 
he is universally recognized as the Master Builder of 
a Mighty Commonwealth. 

McGee, W. J., Secretary of the United States 
Inland Waterways Commission : 

While Ethnologist in charge of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, I had occasion to visit the 
Republic of Mexico repeatedly, and on one occasion 
to spend some time in the City of Mexico, where I 
had the honor of meeting His Excellency, Porfirio 
Diaz. Both as a visitor to his city and country and 



I70 Porfirio Diaz 

as an anthropologist I had occasion to form opinions 
concerning your great President, which opinions have 
more than once been expressed in a public way. 

After observing the development of the Republic 
of Mexico under his leadership, I felt compelled a de- 
cade ago to class President Diaz as in the front rank 
among world leaders. To my mind the actual world 
leaders of to-day form a small class, including Diaz 
and Roosevelt of the Western Hemisphere, and the 
German and Japanese Emperors of the Eastern 
Hemisphere; while those of past times comprise 
Washington, Cromwell, Napoleon (whose leadership 
was out of the main line of human progress, and 
hence futile), Peter the Great, Julius Caesar, Alexan- 
der the Great, and perhaps a dozen others. Not 
only in this class but well forward within it do I 
rank Diaz; for he, within half of his own lifetime and 
despite the ever-increasing complexity of interna- 
tional relations and other human affairs, took vir- 
tually raw material and made of it a great nation. 

May I note a coincidence which greatly impresses 
me and which you must have observed with interest: 
i. e., the striking physical similarity between Por- 
firio Diaz and Theodore Roosevelt? They must 
be almost alike in stature; and they are quite alike 
in impressing beholders as of heroic height, though 
they are hardly above the average. In form and 
expression of face, in shape of head, in manner of 
movement, in the appearance of unlimited reserved 
strength, in physical vigor and intellectual bright- 
ness, they might be twins. Seldom have I seen two 
men not akin so much alike; never when the two 
were of distinct ethnic stock. Allowing for the dif- 
ference in age, they are as if cast in the same mould. 



opinions of Prominent Men 171 

Metcalf, Victor H.. Ex-Secretary of the Navy 
of the United States : 

President Diaz is one of the most remarkable and 
striking figures of modern times. He has always 
been an inspiration to the Mexican people, and it 
is due to his broad statesmanship, his elevated 
character, his high integrity, and bis thorough 
knowledge of his country and its resources that 
Mexico owes her present position among the World 
powers. 

Mills, Anson, Brigadier-General, United States 
Army (retired) : 

I am glad to learn that you are writing in English 
a biographical history of President Diaz, for in the 
first place, I do not believe that there is a person 
whose biography will be more interesting to the 
English-speaking race; in the second place, I know 
of no one better able to write such a history than 
yourself. 

President Diaz has been to his people what our 
General Grant was to ours, each having brought 
his country out of comparative chaos to a condition 
of good order and good government. 

I feel gratified to make the above statement for 
the reason that as a boy, in 1858-9, 1 went to the bor- 
der, settling on the Rio Grande at El Paso, and have 
been more or less connected with the Mexican people 
ever since, and know that the subject of your bi- 
ography has conferred upon his people as great a 
betterment in government as any man of modem 
times. 



172 Porfirio Diaz 

Money, Hernando D., United States Senator: 

The character and career of Senor Porfirio Diaz 
will go down in history as one of the most remarkable 
of the great men of the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries. I have not the good fortune to be per- 
sonally acquainted with this distinguished man, 
but have greatly admired him from my slight know- 
ledge of his life. To accomplish what he has done 
proves that he is gifted with genius, common sense, 
and tact which have enabled him, moved by a high 
spirit of patriotism, to harmonize conflicting elements 
among his countrymen and guide their destinies 
peacefully, honorably, and prosperously for so long 
a time. To his contemporaries his figure looks 
large: to later generations, it will appear of heroic 
size. The great Mexican Republic is to be con- 
gratulated on so wise, so good, and so successful an 
Executive. 

Morris, Martin F., Ex- Justice of the Court 
of Appeals of the District of Columbia. 

If successful accomplishment, combined with bene- 
ficial result, be the test of true greatness, no greater 
or abler man than Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico, 
has arisen within the last one hundred years. Por- 
firio Diaz found Mexico rent by factions ; he has made 
it a great, prosperous, and united Republic: he has 
placed it in the front ranks of civilization. And 
all that he has done has redounded, not to his own 
benefit, but to the benefit of a peaceful and pros- 
perous and happy people. 




Olegario Molina 
Secretary of Public Promotion 



opinions of Prominent Men 173 

Morton, Levi P., Ex-Vice-President of the 
United States : 

Without any personal acquaintance, I can only 
say that President Diaz, in point of character and 
career, will, in my opinion, rank in history with 
Washington and Lincoln as the greatest Presidents 
in Mexico and the United States. 

Needham, Charles W., President of the George 
Washington University : 

The life and career of President Porfirio Diaz has 
been so eventful and brilliant, and so full of patriotic 
service to his country, that it is difficult to speak 
appreciatively of it in a few lines. There are a few 
men that come out of the centuries who seem to be 
capable of filling both military and civic positions 
with wonderful efficiency, although it would seem 
that the disposition and talents required for these 
two lines of service are so different that both services 
could hardly be rendered by one man. President 
Diaz's military career is one which shows that he has 
power to command and to direct military operations 
with success. As the Chief Executive, where many 
complex activities make the greatness of a nation, 
he has shown a breadth of sound knowledge, a prac- 
tical statesmanship and patriotism that can hardly 
be excelled. His name will always rest among the 
very few in the world's history who have served 
their country in peace and war as great generals and 
executive officers with marked success and unselfish 
patriotism. 



174 Porfirio Diaz 

NoRRis, Edwin L., Governor of the State of 
Montana : 

I have for many years followed the career of Presi- 
dent Porfirio Diaz with the keenest interest and high- 
est admiration. 

His acts demonstrate that he has loved his nation 
and her people and their progress shows that he has 
served them faithfully and well. 

His brilliant statesmanship, splendid ability, and 
patriotic performance of duty mark him as one of 
the truly great men of the age. 

NoYEs, Theodore W., Editor of the Evening 
Star of Washington, D. C. : 

I think that President Diaz is one of the world's 
great leaders and rulers of men. I met him in 1896 
when I visited Mexico, and in a letter printed in the 
Star after my return to Washington, I said: 

"There was a time when heavy investments of 
American capital in Mexico would have been viewed 
as impossibilities, rendered such by local hostility 
towards foreigners, and especially Americans, and 
by the lack of a settled, organized government to 
repress lawlessness and to guarantee security to 
invested capital. That stage in the country's his- 
tory is happily passed, Diaz, one of the world's great 
men, rules the Republic with a strong yet tactful 
hand. He is at once a soldier and a diplomatist. 
He welcomes the foreigner without losing his hold 
upon his countrymen. He has checked the revolu- 
tionary tendencies of Mexico, formerly a sort of 
Ferris wheel among nations, notable for the magnifi- 



opinions of Prominent Men 175 

cent impressiveness of its periodical revolutions. 
The army is back of him, and through the railroad 
and accompanying telegraph which his policy has 
sent everywhere in Mexico he can, as I have al- 
ready suggested, drop soldiers upon the backs of 
conspirators as soon as they have fairly begun to 
conspire. He has, to a great extent, broken up 
the elements which threaten revolt, conciliating or 
crushing possible conspirators. 

"He gives the impression of a man of great force, 
but with powers under perfect restraint. He seems 
what he is generally considered to be, 'The right 
man in the right place.' " 

Page, Carroll S., United States Senator: 

I note with gratification that you are engaged in 
the preparation of a biography of President Diaz, 
and heartily commend a purpose at once so laudable 
and so patriotic. 

President Diaz is one of the most striking figures 
in modern history. For more than a generation he 
has stamped his influence upon the national life of 
our sister Republic on the south to a most unusual 
degree. In him she saw and realized the hope of 
autonomy. 

The greatest general in Mexican history, his genius 
brought peace to a troubled nation. A far-seeing 
and patriotic statesman, he created and has main- 
tained for Mexico a financial credit of which her 
people may well be proud. His broad-minded 
philanthropy has gained for his administration of 
Mexican afiairs the respect of the civilized world, 
and, by a private life as wholesome as that adminis- 



176 Porfirio Diaz 

tration has been pure, he has endeared himself to 
those thoughtful and patriotic men everywhere who 
are working and praying for the uplift of humanity. 

It is both a privilege and a pleasure to offer an 
appreciative tribute to a man so noble and to a career 
so notable. 

Parker, Alton B., Judge, Democratic Candi- 
date for the Presidency in 1904 : 

Our people will welcome the biography of Presi- 
dent Diaz, and will receive it with entire confidence 
in its accuracy because written by you. 

During his incumbency of the ofhce of president he 
has rendered to the people of Mexico a greater service 
than it has been permitted any other statesmen in 
the world to contribute to his country during the 
same period. Mexico sorrily needed a constructive 
statesman and found one without peer in Porfirio 
Diaz. 

Rejoicing as we do in his success, and in Mexico's 
good fortune, we will follow with exceeding interest 
the tale of his life work for the people he loves so 
dearly and serves so brilliantly. 

Perkins, George C, United States Senator: 

I am more than glad to here indicate my high 
respect for the ability, honesty, and patriotism of 
that great man, President Diaz. Under his adminis- 
tration of affairs in Mexico, that country has, I have 
had reason to learn through business and other con- 
nections, had vigorous and able administration of 
good laws, which have made life, liberty, and property 



opinions of Prominent Men 177 

as safe there as in the United States. In thus inau- 
gurating and maintaining a system of government 
under which our Sister Republic has thriven and 
progressed as never before in its history, President 
Diaz has performed a work in the interest of general 
civilization and advancement, as well as for the 
immediate benefit of the Mexican people. His 
great work is especially recognized by the United 
States by reason of the rapid advancement of that 
great Republic which adjoins us on the south, whose 
peace and prosperity are nearly as great concern to 
us as our own, through the intimate commercial and 
social relations which exist between us. No one 
could have done the great work better than Presi- 
dent Diaz: probably there is no one who could have 
done it so well. The result of his long and success- 
ful public career is the establishment of relations of 
the most friendly character between his country and 
our own, and the opening up to business enterprise 
a land which presents opportunities that can scarcely 
be found in other parts of the world. I am very 
glad indeed to express my appreciation of the work 
of President Diaz and my admiration of his character. 

PiNCHOT, GiFFORD, Chief of the Forestry Service 
of the United States : \y 

In brief, the impression made upon me by Presi- 
dent Diaz when I saw him last winter was of a man 
of great natural force, kindliness, courage, and pur- 
pose, keen to do for his people the best that could 
be done for them; sensitive to the opinion of the 
civilized world; and carrying forward the work that 
lay ahead of him with foresight and great intel- 



178 Porfirio Diaz 

ligence, and a complete knowledge of the materials 
with which he is compelled to work. I thought him 
a great man doing a great work, with the aid of a 
most unusual physical and mental equipment. Until 
I saw him I had never seen a man of his age, in whom 
vigor seemed to be so complete, and purpose so 
undimmed. He seems to me to have done more for 
his people than any other ruler now living has done 
for any nation. 

Post, Regis H., Governor of Porto Rico: 

Let me express the deep admiration which I think 
every one feels for President Diaz — a man who has 
sacrificed so much for his country, and has made it 
one of the foremost nations of the world. 

RoDGERs, James L., American Consul General 
at Havana, Cuba : 

It gives me great pleasure to learn that you are 
about to publish a biography of the distinguished 
and illustrious President of the United States of 
Mexico, Porfirio Diaz. Of all the men who have 
contributed great and everlasting good, not only to 
their people but also to those of the world at large, 
it has always seemed to me that President Diaz is 
among the foremost in history. Under difficult 
conditions he welded a people into a national unity 
which has stood the test of time, which is constantly 
expanding in all ways for the common good, and 
which will ever remain as an imperishable memorial 
testifying to the genius, the patriotism, and the char- 
acter of its creator. 

Ryan, Thomas, Ex- American Minister to Mexico, 



Opinions of Prominent Men 179 

United States Commissioner to the Five Civ- 
ilized Tribes : 

During the four years I had the honor to represent 
my country at the Mexican capital, my official and 
personal relations with the Mexican President were 
such as enabled me to form very definite opinions of 
his character, abilities, and motives as man and Presi- 
dent, and I was profoundly impressed that his state- 
craft and patriotism entitled him to be classed with 
the greatest and best rulers of his time. 

Always delightfully dignified, frank, courteous, 
and impressively instructive in his intercourse with 
men, it was in his home life and in his neighborly 
relations that he daily revealed the qualities of 
character that reflected in a remarkable degree nobil- 
ity of manhood. 

It is hard to conceive of more adverse and embar- 
rassing conditions than those under which President 
Diaz entered upon his marvellous reign of power 
more than thirty years ago. The public affairs of 
Mexico had been reeking with corruption more than 
half a century; during that period the people had 
been chiefly occupied with the horrors of revolution 
and the ways of lawlessness; a powerful banditti, well 
mounted, thoroughly equipped, and skilfully com- 
manded, swarmed in the mountains from which they, 
at will, swooped down upon and looted the valleys, 
the mines, the haciendas, the towns, and the high- 
ways, with friends everywhere to furnish them infor- 
mation and protection. 

There is ample reason to believe that it was his 
whole ambition to establish a stability and character 
of government that would guarantee to his country- 



i«o 



Porfirio Diaz 



men, irrespective of class or condition, under salu- 
tary laws and wholesome administration, absolute 
enjoyment of the rights of citizenship, full security 
of life, limb, and property, and command the respect 
and confidence of all nations. 

To this mighty problem he at once dedicated all 
his powers and all his genius, with the result that the 
people of Mexico were long since diverted from the 
ways of disorder and for many years have been de- 
voted to the pursuits of peace; the once formidable 
and terrible banditti disappeared in the earlier 
years of his administration; life and property are 
everywhere secure; corruption in public affairs is 
minimized to conditions no worse than prevail in 
other civilized and well governed countries; foreign 
capital by the millions has been for a considerable 
period annually pouring into the country and em- 
ployed in development; all industries are active and 
prosperous; a network of railroads and telegraph 
lines covers all sections and her harbors are filled with 
the vessels and commerce of the world. 

In the Mexico of to-day Porfirio Diaz has attained 
to the very fulness of his noble ambition; in the hearts 
of his people his great name will be forever sacredly 
cherished and the pages of immortal history will 
record his name high among the world's great and 
good rulers, whose fame will grow brighter and 
brighter with passing time. 

Sanford, Edward T., Judge of the United 
States District Court at Knoxville, Tenn., and ex- 
Assistant Attorney-General of the United States: 

I regret to say that I have not an intimate acquaint- 




Leandro Fernandez 
Secretary of Communications and Public Works 



opinions of Prominent Men i8i 

ance with the facts of President Diaz's career, but 
from my general knowledge on the subject I have 
regarded him as a statesman of the greatest ability 
and extraordinary force of intellect and of will, 
possessing in a remarkable degree the qualities of 
constructive statesmanship which have enabled 
him to accomplish such splendid results in the uni- 
fication, development, and upbuilding of Mexico. 

Schley, W. S., Admiral of the United States 
Navy (retired) : 

I am glad to add my opinion to that of others re- 
specting your great President Diaz, whom I regard 
as one of the great men of his time. His govern- 
ment of your splendid country has been most wise, 
most beneficial to his people, and the peace, pros- 
perity, and happiness under his continued selection by 
the people has placed his name and fame high on the 
roll of distinguished rulers for all time. Few men 
have done so much for their country, and none could 
have done more than Porfirio Diaz for Mexico. 

Scott, Nathan B., United States Senator: 

I have met President Diaz personally and esteem him 
very highly. I think he is one of the great men of Mex- 
ico and one of the great men of the day. Under his ad- 
ministration Mexico has advanced rapidly in thematerial 
development of her vast resources. Peace and quiet have 
been maintained and his life has been a most useful one. 

Sherman, J. S., Vice-President of the United 
States : 

President Diaz is a statesman of progress ; a master 



I«2 



Porfirio Diaz 



of diplomacy; an executive of the higher type; a man 
of whom any country would be proud and who is in 
thorough touch with advanced ideals of government 
and civilization. His long and, it is to be hoped, 
continued administration of the affairs of Mexico 
carries with it the confidence of nations in its up- 
rightness, strength, and purity. 

SiFTON, Clifford, Ex-Minister of the Interior 
of Canada: 

President Diaz is unquestionably one of the great- 
est men of the age. 

He has given Mexico a strong, orderly, and efficient 
administration. He has made life and property 
safe, he has promoted laws under which the Mexican 
people have been enabled to peacefully develop the 
great natural resources of the country and achieve a 
high degree of domestic comfort and prosperity. 

Under his administration Mexico has become a 
modem and progressive country commanding the 
respect and confidence of the world. 

The highest testimony that can be paid to President 
Diaz is the hope which is everywhere expressed by 
those interested in the future of Mexico that the 
future government of the country may be carried 
on with the same wisdom and far-sighted statesman- 
ship which is displayed at present. 

Simmons, J. Edward, President of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce of the State of New York : 

I am honored by your request for a few lines to be 
included in your biography of President Diaz. I 
congratulate you on the brilliant opportunity which 



Opinions of Prominent Men 183 

such a task presents. You have an inspiring sub- 
ject: and I have no doubt that you will produce a 
biography worthy of your theme, and one that will 
remain through the coming years a standard authority 
on one of the most important lives in the development 
of the North American Continent. 

Elihu Root has so completely summed up the life 
and character of Porfirio Diaz, that it is difficult to 
add anything to his splendid pen portrait of him as 
"one of the greatest men to be held up for the hero 
worship of mankind." 

You will perhaps recall that, in introducing you 
to the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New 
York at its annual banquet held November 19, 1908, 
I quoted from Senator Root's eulogy of President 
Diaz, and the most I can do now is to refer to that as 
the best expression of American opinion regarding 
the head of your government. 

The high estimate that the Chamber of Commerce 
of the State of New York, of which I am president, 
puts upon his achievements was shown v^T'hen, at that 
banquet, it placed the portrait of Diaz beside that of 
Washington. Like Washington, Diaz has been a 
nation builder : and he has laid the foundations of Mex- 
ican order and credit and liberty so deep and strong, 
that they will endure for ages after his life work is 
ended. The confidence of the citizens of the United 
States in him has been signally demonstrated by the 
large investments made by our capitalists in Mexico. 
The magnitude of his achievements can be adequately 
measured, only when the immense difficulties which 
he had to overcome are taken into account. 

May your biography serve to keep ever clear 
the memory of his dauntless courage, his genius 



184 Porfirio Diaz 

for leadership, and his vast work in reconstructing 
a nation, so that through the coming centuries 
mankind can enjoy the inspiration and uplift of 
his character, 

Slayden, James L., United States Represen- 
tative : 

It is indeed pleasant news to hear that we are to 
have a biography in English of that very remarka- 
ble man, Porfirio Diaz, President of the United States 
of Mexico. 

I know no one so fit as you to write that book. 
You know the man, and while you will do the work 
con aniore I am sure you will do it as a just and criti- 
cal historian. 

I look upon President Diaz as the most extraordi- 
nary man of the century. He exactly fits the place. 
His genius has made Mexico a great, strong, vibrant 
nation. A progressive statesman, he yet has the 
essential balance of conservatism, a soldier, he stands 
for peace, a patriot, he studies other countries and 
does not hesitate, because they may be foreign, to 
catch every valuable suggestion and apply it for the 
benefit of Mexico and the Mexicans. 

Stephens, John H., United States Represen- 
tative : 

I regard President Diaz as the greatest statesman 
and patriot that Mexico has ever produced. 

I represented for several years the El Paso District in 
Congress, and during this time many vexed questions 
arose between our country and Mexico, and I always 
found the Diaz Administration willing to meet us 




President Diaz on Horseback at Chapultepec 



Opinions of Prominent Men 185 

on a half-way ground, and to satisfactorily adjust 
all differences; one of these questions was "The 
Equitable Distribution of the Waters of the Rio 
Grande River"; another was the Free Zone question 
which was a continuous source of trouble and friction 
between the two governments. 

The wise policies of President Diaz have put new 
life and energy in the Mexican people, and I firmly 
believe that he has placed Mexico on the great high- 
way of national peace and prosperity. 

Stevenson, Adlai E., Ex- Vice- President of the 
United States: 

I am gratified to learn that you are soon to publish 
a biography of President Diaz. Your book will be 
of deep interest to the people of the United States. 

President Diaz is an eminent statesman, — one of 
the really great men of the century. His marvellous 
capacity as an executive has been displayed in the 
government of his country. Under his efficient 
leadership Mexico has become one of the stable, 
progressive governments of the world. 

It is my earnest wish that he may long live to 
preside over the destiny of our Sister Republic. 

Stoddard, Henry L., Editor of the Evening 
Mail of New York City: 

Opportunity, continuity of tenure, and the signal 
confidence of his countrymen have all worked in 
behalf of Porfirio Diaz and the man has measured up 
to them. Under his generation-long rule the Re- 
public of Mexico has moved out of a state of halted 
development and administrative instability and 



1 86 Porfirio Diaz 

taken its rank among the strong, progressive nations 
of the world. No living ruler save the Mikado has 
witnessed so great a transformation in his own 
domain or has so largely contributed to it. Diaz 
is of the great ones of his country, and his is one of 
the large figures in new world history. 

SuLZER, William, United States Represen- 
tative : 

In my opinion General Porfirio Diaz, President of 
Mexico, is one of the greatest patriots, and one of the 
most liberal and enlightened and progressive ad- 
ministrators in all the world. I know him; I know 
his career; and I know whereof I speak. He has 
done great things for Mexico. He has lifted the 
Mexicans to a higher plane, and has pushed his people 
forward in giant strides in the great march of civili- 
zation. He is a great soldier, but a greater civilian, 
and combines in his magnetic personality many of 
the remarkable traits and characteristics of the 
great Napoleon. Take him all in all, he is a most 
energetic and remarkable man from every standpoint 
— the greatest man Mexico has ever produced — one 
of the great, far-seeing men of the time — one of the 
great heroic figures of the world. He will occupy a 
large niche in the Mexican temple of fame, and the 
future historian will give him a brilliant chapter in 
the annals of the Western World. 

SwANSON, Claude A., Governor of Virginia: 

I have always been a great admirer of President 
Diaz. I consider him one of the forceful characters 
of this century. His great intellect and will force 



opinions of Prominent Men 187 

have made him pre-eminently successful and clearly- 
designate him as one of the great men of our times. 
His successful administration of affairs in Mexico 
has been striking, and the advance of the nation under 
his direction has been wonderful. His career has 
been so striking, and so continuously successful that 
it has given him a deserved reputation far and wide. 

Thompson, David E., American Ambassador 
to Mexico : 

In cheerfully sending you in brief my opinion of 
your most worthy President General Diaz, I quote 
from a speech recently made by me at a banquet 
given in Mexico at the American Club, on which 
occasion a likeness of the President was unveiled: 

"As I look back over the thirty-three years since 
my first visit to Mexico, the evolution has been such 
that in all history there is no parallel. All this change 
can be accredited to the guiding master-mind of this 
one man: and the work of this master in war and 
civil life does not end thirty years back, as is generally 
reasoned, but more than thirty years beyond that — • 
over sixty years of self-sacrificing life devoted to one 
effort, the welfare of his country. 

"Self with this man has never been first. His 
youth was spent as one of the poorest of the poor, 
and after more than sixty years of the hardest work 
known to man, his country has all that his efforts 
have brought: he is still what may be called a poor 
man : a living example for all men of all nations, from 
the highest to the most lowly: an example of patri- 
otism and honesty never to be overreached." 

The thoughts I have expressed were formed through 



i88 Porfirio Diaz 

my intimate acquaintance, covering a long period 
of time, with the country and the man. I am con- 
fident they are right, even though largely from the 
heart, which holds deep affection for the man. 

Tracewell, R. J., United States Comptroller 
of the Treasury : 

I know, as do all reasonably intelligent persons, 
that President Diaz has proven himself one of the 
great men of the present century and has given Mex- 
ico a stable government, under which it is prospering, 
as it never prospered before. He recognized condi- 
tions as they were in his country, not as he probably 
would have had them, and has been instrumental in 
moulding a form of government suited to the intel- 
ligence and needs of his people. He has extended 
liberty of thought and action, where it could be 
extended without anarchy or revolution, and has 
remained at peace with his neighbors. He is entitled 
to the gratitude of his people and the respect and 
confidence of the civilized world. 

Walcott, a. D. , Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution of Washington, D. C. : 

I have always had a great admiration for Presi- 
dent Diaz, particularly in his recognition of the prac- 
tical value of scientific investigation in the material 
development of Mexico. He has encouraged investi- 
gation in every field of scientific activity and, thus 
fostered, these researches, especially in connection 
with geological and geographical surveys, have ad- 
vanced with such remarkable rapidity as to call 
forth the praise of men of science everywhere. 



Opinions of Prominent Men 189 

Warren, Francis E., United States Senator: 

The career of Porfirio Diaz as citizen, soldier, and 
President affords a wonderful example of the transi- 
tion of a revolutionist into the ideal presiding au- 
thority of a republican form of government. 

With Diaz as President, the Republic of Mexico 
has enjoyed a stable form of republican government 
during a period of the world's history when such 
stability has enabled Mexico to keep pace with other 
great countries in the progress of the world. 

Mexico has great natural resources: it is rich in the 
fertility of its lands, and unsurpassed in the diversity 
of its crops: its mines are the marvel and the envy 
of the capitalist of every land ; — and these beneficial 
resources, combined with the progressive and yet 
conservative methods of the wonderful administra- 
tion of President Diaz, have placed Mexico in the class 
of great nations of the present day. 

With many others I believe that the cause of repre- 
sentative government on the Western Hemisphere 
has been strengthened and advanced by the great 
career of President Diaz, and I believe also that he 
is entitled to the confidence and respect of all who 
stand for free government. 

Wetmore, George Peabody, United States 
Senator: 

I have not the honor of a personal acquaintance 
with Porfirio Diaz, but it seems to me that no one can 
withhold a tribute of admiration from the man under 
whose direction the resources and wealth of his 
country have been so wonderfully developed, and 



190 Porfirio Diaz 

the stability of the Government of Mexico assured for 
so many years. 

Wheeler, Benjamin I., President of the Uni- 
versity of California : 

I regard President Diaz as a great man. His has 
been an eminently successful life. He has put con- 
crete foundations under the Mexican State. He 
was exactly fitted to the emergency of his times, and 
created out of chaos a government definitely suited 
to conditions. It has been seldom in the history of 
mankind that a personality has risen so exactly suited 
to the needs of a people. 

WiLLSQN, Augustus E., Governor of the State 
of Kentucky: 

I have for many years read with the greatest in- 
terest the wonderful history of President Porfirio 
Diaz, from his youth, bom as one of the common 
people and come to power and honor by his great 
ability, his splendid courage, his true patriotism, and 
his strong common sense. He is a wise man, a brave 
man, a patriot, and a great President, and the honors 
which have come to him have come not by favor or 
chance, but by splendid usefulness and great achieve- 
ments. 

WiNTHROP, Beekman, Assistant Secretary of 
the Navy of the United States : 

President Diaz is deserving of the greatest praise 
for what he has accomplished in Mexico. The 
unification of Mexico, the strengthening of the coun- 
try's finances and credit, and the establishment of 



opinions of Prominent Men 191 

its peace and prosperity, all of which have been 
accomplished through the untiring efforts of Presi- 
dent Diaz, have been important factors in placing 
Mexico in the position she now enjoys among the 
nations of the world. His patriotism and devotion 
to his country have deservedly won for him the 
admiration and love of his people, and his long 
tenure of office, his election to which has in one or 
two instances been practically unanimous, is a strik- 
ing example of the confidence and esteem in which 
he is held. In the history of the past half-century, 
President Diaz will occupy an enviable and leading 
place as an able administrator, a clear-sighted states- 
man, and a loyal and devoted friend of the Mexican 
Republic. 

WoTHERSPOON, W, W., General, President of 
the United States War College : 

History has again and again shown that when a 
nation is most in need of a great leader, destiny 
seems to furnish the man. 

In 1876, when the integrity and future welfare of 
Mexico called for a strong, wise, and honest man to 
guide the ship of state, a worthy son of our sister 
Republic stepped forward in the person of General 
Porfirio Diaz. He is a man of the people, by instinct 
and training a soldier, a veteran of two wars, in both 
of which he fought and distinguished himself. 

The history of Mexico for the past thirty-three 
years is the greatest monument to the honesty, patri- 
otism, and wisdom of this great man, who in the so- 
ciety of nations will always be considered the right 
man in the right place. 



192 Porfirio Diaz 

Wyman, Walter, Brigadier-General, Surgeon- 
General of the United States; 

It is a satisfaction to express in writing the senti- 
ments I have so often expressed verbally — sentiments 
of respect and admiration for President Diaz inspired 
by a study of his career and by three personal inter- 
views with him on matters pertaining to the public 
health. It is not alone Mexico that has been bene- 
fited by his splendid achievements ; the United States 
also has profited by the firmness and intelligence of 
his administration. 

Others will doubtless comment on his great military 
and political record, but it is my especial privilege to 
testify to his active interest in the advancement 
of human welfare through broad measures of hygiene 
and sanitation. 

This has been demonstrated by the great sanitary 
improvements in the chief maritime port of Mexico, 
Vera Cruz, and elsewhere, and also by the adminis- 
trative support he has given to the Superior Board 
of Health. This support has shown its results in the 
effectiveness of the Board, whose radical and suc- 
cessful measures to root out the bubonic plague in 
Mazatlan in 1902 and 1903 was one of the most 
signal victories ever achieved against this epidemic 
disease. 

It has always been most gratifying to the visiting 
sanitarians from the United States to receive the 
personal greetings of President Diaz and to observe 
his manifest interest in the objects of the various 
sanitary conventions. 

The encouragement he has given to Doctor Liceaga, 
the President of the Superior Board of Health, is 






^ o 




opinions of Prominent Men 193 

noteworthy, and when it was announced at the Third 
International Sanitary Convention of American Re- 
publics, in the City of Mexico, in 1907, that yellow 
fever had practically been eradicated from the Repub- 
lic, and the same forces which had been successfully 
utilized against this diseiase were then being em- 
ployed in the eradication of malaria, comments were 
freely made by the delegates laudatory of an enlight- 
ened public policy that has placed Mexico in the 
front ranks of the nations which are emphasizing 
their civilization and cultivation by sanitary reforms. 
I am glad of the opportunity to pay this just trib- 
ute to President Diaz. 



With the presentation of the foregoing com- 
ments of representative men from the United 
States and Canada, we terminate our task. This 
task has been to us highly inspiring and attractive, 
as thereby we have been able to lay in detail 
before our English-speaking friends the facts and 
circumstances which make up the biography of 
a man, whose great military deeds are well worth 
recording, and whose triumphs as a constructive 
statesman entitle him to be called "The Master 
Builder of a Great Commonwealth." 



13 



APPENDICES 



195 




President Diaz 



SUMMARY OF THE MESSAGE READ BY PRESIDENT 
PORFIRIO DIAZ AT THE OPENING OF THE MEX- 
ICAN CONGRESS ON SEPTEMBER l6, I909 

Taken from the Bulletin of the International Union of 
American Republics, November, 1909 

The conventions negotiated at the Second Peace 
Conference have been ratified, and the Government, 
on September 6th, subscribed to the international 
agreement concluded in Madrid in 1891 with regard 
to the registration of trade-marks. The conven- 
tions on public hygiene, signed at Paris in 1903 and 
at Rome in 1907, have also received the formal 
adherence of Mexico. 

Immigration statistics show that during the six 
months, January to June, 1909, the number of persons 
entering the Republic was 24,300. Public health 
reports are satisfactory, and a sanitary station has 
been equipped at the port of Salina Cruz, at which 
point the bulk of Asiatic immigrants enter the country. 

Improvements at the capital are progressing 
steadily, 72,000 square meters of asphalt pavement 
having been laid down, streets widened, and other 
measures taken in the interests of the inhabitants 
of the city. 

197 



iqS Porfirio Diaz 

The heavy losses of life and property occasioned by 
earthquake and floods have been met by government 
aid, and in response to the necessities of the times 
relief has poured into the stricken sections from all 
parts of the country. 

The compilation of laws undertaken by the De- 
partment of Justice has been brought up to date 
and the work of revising the Penal Code is nearly 
completed. 

Transactions entered in the public registry of the 
capital from January to June, 1909, aggregated 
971,218,938 pesos, exceeding by over 300,000,000 
pesos similar entries in the corresponding period of 
1908. 

Scholastic reforms have been introduced and new 
schools established, prizes offered for technical re- 
search, and archaeological investigations continued 
with interesting results. Mexico was represented 
at the International Congress of Musical History, 
which was held at Vienna in May, 1909; the Fourth 
Latin-American Medical Congress of Rio de Janeiro 
in August, 1909; the Medical Congress of Budapest 
during the same month ; the Leprosy Congress held 
in Norway in September, and the Congress at Rome 
for the discussion of labor accidents, held in May. 
A delegate of the Department of Public Instruction 
and the National Medical Institute was present, in 
July, at the celebration of the three hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the University 
of Geneva. 

In regard to internal development. President Diaz 
stated that during the period between January i and 
June 30, 1909, the Department of Promotion issued 
715 title deeds for lands transformed from national 



Message of September i6, 1909 199 

into private property, yielding receipts to the Treasury 
in the amount of 117,087 pesos. 

The Geographical Exploration Commission contin- 
ued surveys and completed maps of many sections of 
the Republic. The Nazas River region is at present 
being studied with a view to determining its cultivable 
areas as effected by the development of irrigation prob- 
lems. Measures are being perfected for the connection 
of the Mexican Geodetic Survey with that of the United 
States, and for the establishment of such stations as 
are required for the completion of the meteorological 
service. 

Deeds to mining properties during the period 
under review were issued to the number of 2072. 

Ninety-six applications have been presented look- 
ing to the utilization for various purposes of 500,000 
litres of water per second from bodies of water 
subject to federal jurisdiction. Concessions have 
been granted for the use of water for irrigation, motive 
power, domestic and industrial purposes and nineteen 
title deeds have been issued authenticating new 
rights or confirming old ones. Special subventions 
have been granted for the irrigation and colonization 
of 130,000 hectares of land situated in the states 
of Sinaloa, Chihuahua, and Tamaulipas; agricultural 
and dairy industries have been fostered and forestry 
preservation has been provided for, through the or- 
ganization of a technical staff and practical schools. 

In the half year under consideration 603 patents 
of invention were granted and 429 trade-marks reg- 
istered. Commercial names and announcements to 
the number of 68 were also registered. 

At Tampico, Vera Cruz, Puerto Mexico, and Salina 
Cruz structural and sanitary works were carried on, 



200 Porfirio Diaz 

canals and waterways were improved, and in various 
sections roads extended. 

The total extent of railways in the Republic is 
24,161 kilometres, federal lines aggregating 19,321 
kilometres and those under jurisdiction of states 4840 
kilometres. Between January and June, 1909, rail- 
ways under federal jurisdiction increased by 250 
kilometres. The chief contributions to this increase 
were made by the Cananea, Yaqui River, and Pacific's 
line from Alamos to Guadalajara, which has been 
completed between Navajoa and Culiacan and Mazat- 
lan ; the Inter-California Railway ; and the line between 
Chalco and Rio Frio, the two last-named roads hav- 
ing been completed. " 

Post-offices on July i, 1909, numbered 2964, and 
during the year the amount of correspondence handled 
was represented by 184,000,000 pieces. Interior pos- 
tal money orders were issued during the twelve 
months to the amount of 50,110,000 pesos, of which 
25,210,000 pesos were credited to the last half of the 
year. Postal money orders abroad were drawn up 
between January and June, 1909, in the sum of 
2,287,000 pesos. 

Owing to a modification in the equivalent of Mexi- 
can currency, the rates of postage on parcels sent 
from Mexico to Great Britain and to other countries 
through the intermediary of the British service were 
doubled. For this purpose a supplementary con- 
vention was entered into. The system of advice of 
payment was introduced in the postal money-order 
service with Germany, Canada, France, Great Britain, 
and Salvador, and on August ist a convention went 
into effect establishing a money-order service for a 
maximum amount of 200 pesos per order between 



iii''''-''-'i^i'iji ' 




FISCAL YEARS 1899-00 igoQ-Ql 1901-OE l'302.-05 1903-04 1904 -OS 1605-06 1506-01 190T-08 FISCAL YEARS 



W? OF MI"NL5 10.376 lL8fc5 14.533 17.4^6 19.548 ZOAIZ ££.554 26.353 31.194 N?0FM1KE5 



• INCREASE • 
INNUMBLR OF MmiNG PROPE,RTIE,S ITSl THE, REPUBLIC 
• FKOt^ 1Q9S TO 190a • 



?aggsy 



Message of September i6, 1909 201 

Mexico and Austria, including the Austrian post-offices 
in the Levant, 

A parcels-post convention with Canada was con- 
cluded, to go into operation on October ist, and a 
modification of the postal money-order service be- 
tween Mexico and the United States was entered 
into. 

Additions to federal telegraph lines were made 
between January and June to the extent of 3383 
kilometres (2 1 1 4 miles) . Wireless stations were estab- 
lished at Payo Obispo and Xcalac, in the Quintana 
Roo Territory, bringing the number of such stations 
in the Republic up to six. The improvement in 
receipts from the telegraph service during the half 
year are noted as compared with the preceding six 
months. 

Total revenues for the fiscal year 1908-9 sufficed to 
meet all budget expenses, the economies exercised 
in expenditures occasioned by ^:usiness conditions 
having been made without detriment to the public 
service. 

"While both import and export duties declined as 
compared with the preceding fiscal year, in the case 
of the latter the diminution is more apparent than 
real, being less than the amount formerly obtained 
from export duties on henequen and dyewoods, on 
which export duties were not collected during 1908-9. 

Many improvements have been made in the mili- 
tary and naval equipment of the Republic. The 
British-built General Guerrero, a. gunboat of 1800 
tons displacement, has been placed upon the Pacific 
coast and modem guns mounted on the training cor- 
vette Zaragoza. The smokeless-powder factory has 
been thoroughly equipped with new and adequate 



202 Porfirio Diaz 

machinery, a new rolling plant added to the National 
Gun Foundry, and the regulation armament of the 
Mexican Army has been augmented. 

In concluding his message, President Diaz sums 
up the internal affairs of the Republic in the following 
terms: 

"In the foregoing review you will have observed 
that nothing has occurred in the administration of 
public affairs of a nature to impair the confidence 
of the Executive in the future of the Republic, seeing 
that both in our foreign relations and in the vital 
matter of our finances, notwithstanding transient 
difficulties, as well as in other departments, we may 
note all the evidences of that prosperity and progress 
which for years past have been characteristic features 
of our situation. Happily the Government has be- 
hind it the force of public opinion, which upholds it 
in its efforts to stimulate the country's progressive 
development and to maintain its credit abroad at 
the high standard to which it is entitled, both by the 
excellent sense of its people and the exalted wisdom 
and patriotic sentiments of their representatives. " 



II 



LIST OF BATTLES AND SIEGES IN WHICH GENERAL 
PORFIRIO DIAZ HAS TAKEN PART 

i8S7 

Ixcapa, Oaxaca, battle of; August 13th. 
Oaxaca, Oaxaca, siege of; December 26th. 

1858 

Oaxaca, Oaxaca, assault of; January i6th. 
Jalapa, Oaxaca, taking of; February 25th. 
Las Jicaras, Oaxaca, battle of; April 13th. 

1859 

Mixtequilla, Oaxaca, battle of; June 17th. 
Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, battle of; November 25th. 

i860 

Mitla, Oaxaca, battle of; January 21st. 
Fortin de la Soledad, Oaxaca, battle of; February 2d. 
Marquesado, Oaxaca, battle of; March 9th. 
Ixtepeji, Oaxaca, battle of; May 15th. 
San Luis, Oaxaca, battle of; August 5th. 

203 



204 Porfirio Diaz 

1861 

Jalatlaco, Mexico, battle of; August 13th. 
Pachuca, Hidalgo, battle of; October 20th. 

1862 

Acultzingo, Vera Cruz, battle of; April 28th. 
Puebla, Puebla, battle of; May 5th. 
Orizaba, Vera Cruz, battle of; June 14th. 

1863 

Puebla, Puebla, siege of; March i6th to May 17th. 
Taxco, Guerrero, taking of; October 28th. 

1864 

Nanaguatipam, Oaxaca, battle of; August loth. 

1865 

Oaxaca, Oaxaca, siege of ; January 8th to February 9th. 
Tehuitzingo, Puebla, battle of; September 22d. 
Piaxtla, Guerrero, battle of; September 23d. 
Tulcingo, Guerrero, battle of; October ist. 
Comitlipa, Puebla, battle of; December 4th. 

1866 

Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, battle of; January 6th. 
Lo de Soto, Oaxaca, battle of; February 25th. 
Pinotepa, Oaxaca, battle of; March 28th. 
Putla, Oaxaca, battle of; April 14th. 
Huajuapam, Oaxaca, battle of; September 5th. 
Nochixtlan, Oaxaca, battle of; September 23d. 
Miahuatlan, Oaxaca, battle of; October 3d. 



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MIAHUATLAH OflXACA 

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TAXCO GUEETtEEO 

TECOAC TLAXOAl-A 

te,h:]aktei>ec OAXACA 

tehuitzingo puebla 

te.i5uisistlan oaxaca 

tlaxiaoo oaxaca 

tulcingo puesla 




Battles and Sieges 205 

La Carbonera, Oaxaca, battle of; October i8th. 
Oaxaca, Oaxaca, taking of; October 31st. 
La Chitova, Oaxaca, battle of; December 19th. 
Tequisistlan, Oaxaca, battle of; December 26th. 

1867 

Puebla, Puebla, siege of; March 9th to April 2d. 
Puebla, Puebla, assault and taking of; April 2d. 
San Diego Notario, Tlaxcala, battle of; April 6th. 
San Lorenzo, Hidalgo, battle of; April loth. 
Mexico City, Federal District, siege and taking of; 
April 12th to June 21st. 

1876 

Matamoros, Tamaulipas, taking of; April 2d. 
Icamole, Nuevo Leon, battle of; May 20th. 
Tecoac, Tlaxcala, battle of; November i6th. 



Ill 



MEDALS AND DECORATIONS RECEIVED BY PRESIDENT 

DIAZ 

From Foreign Governments 

1886, August 26. Knight of the Grand Cross of the 

Royal and Distinguished Order of Charles III 
(Spain) . 

November 20. Knight of the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Sword (Norway and 
Sweden). 

1887, April 25. Grand Cross of the Tower and 
Sword, of Courage, Loyalty and Merit (Por- 
tugal) . 

May 2. Order of the Liberator — First Class 
(Venezuela) . 

1888, April 26. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor 

(France) . 

1892, April 12. Grand Cross of the Chrysanthemum 

(Japan). 

1893, April 24. Grand Cross of the Order of St. 
Maritius and St. Lazarus (Italy). 

1895, October 25. Grand Cross of the Order of 
Military Merit (Spain) . 

1896, October 7. Grand Cross of the Order of 
Leopold (Belgium). 

206 



Medals and Decorations 207 

1896, October 26. Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Red Eagle (Prussia). 

1 901, September 30. Grand Cross of the Royal 
Order (Hungarian) of St. Stephen (Austria- 
Hungary) . 

1902, December 11. Decoration of the First Class 
with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion 
and the Sun (Persia). 

1905, April 22. Decoration of First Degree of the 
First Class of the Imperial Order of the Double 
Dragon (China), 

June 29. Grand Cross of the Most Honor- 
able Order of the Bath (Great Britain). 

1908, April 21. Grand Cross of the Netherland Lion, 

conferred by the Queen of the Netherlands. 

1909, April 16. Decoration of the Order of Alexander 

Newski (Russia). 

From the Federal Government of Mexico (Military) 

Special decoration for the taking of the City of 

Puebla on April 2, 1867. 
Honorary Plaque for the War of Reform. 
Honorary Medal for the battle of Pachuca. 
Honorary Medal for the battle at Acultzingo. 
Honorary Medal for the battle of the 5th of May, 

1862. 
Cross for the siege of Puebla in 1863. 
Cross of the First Class for having fought during the 

War of French Intervention. 
Cross of Constancy of the Third Class. 
Cross and Plaque of Constancy of the Second Class. 
Cross and Plaque of Constancy of the First Class. 
Grand Cross of Military Merit. 



2o8 Porfirio Diaz 

From the State Governments of Mexico (Military) 

Decoration granted by the Legislature of the State 
of Guerrero for having fought against the 
Intervention and Empire. 

Honorary Medal granted by the State of Chihuahua. 

Honorary decoration granted by the Legislature of 
the State of Oaxaca for the battles of Miahuat- 
lan and La Carbonera and for the siege and 
taking of the City of Oaxaca. 

Honorary decoration granted by the Legislature of 
the State of Puebla for having fought against 
the French Intervention. 

Honorary decoration granted by the Legislature of 
the State of Puebla for the siege and taking 
of the City of Puebla on April 2, 1867. 




President Diaz 



IV 



BANQUET OP THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE 
STATE OF NEW YORK HELD AT THE WALDORF- 
ASTORIA IN NEW YORK CITY ON THURSDAY 
EVENING, NOVEMBER 19, 1908 

Extracts taken from the official publication of the 
Chamber of Commerce 

The One Hundred and Fortieth Banquet of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, was 
held at the Waldorf-Astoria on Thursday evening, 
November the nineteenth, nineteen hundred and eight. 

The decorations, in coloring, design, and historical 
significance, were more brilliant than even at the 
former banquets of the Chamber, always distinguished 
in this respect. 

The controlling idea was that of the oneness of 
the North American Continent in development and 
destiny. In place of the seal of the Chamber, which 
at former banquets had been placed above the chair 
of the president, the portrait of Washington, by 
Gilbert Stuart, had the place of honor, and was 
surrounded by a beautiful cluster of American flags. 
On the right of this was displayed a portrait of Presi- 
dent Diaz of Mexico with the appropriate back- 
ground of a merchant flag; while on the left was the 
14 209 



210 Porfirio Diaz 

portrait of Sir Wilfred Laurier, the Premier of Canada, 
surrounded by Canadian and British flags. 

Around the banquet-hall, completely covering its 
walls, were superb combinations of the flags of all 
the principal nations with which the United States 
enjoys commercial intercourse, together with banners 
bearing the names of all the states of the Union, 
and the coat of arms of the United States, New York 
State and New York City. The Corinthian columns 
around the room were surrounded by gilt eagles in 
clusters of silk flags and pendent from them were 
silk American banners. Rarely if ever this famous 
dining-room presented as magnificent a scene as on 
this evening, when, amid these brilliant decorations, 
the four hundred and twenty-six members and guests 
assembled, and the boxes were filled with ladies. 

The guests of the Chamber were as follows : Right 
Honorable James Bryce, British Ambassador; Senor 
Jos6 F. Godoy, Charg^ d'Affaires of Mexico; Honora- 
ble Clifford Sifton, P. C, lately Minister of the Interior 
of Canada; Byron E. Walker, Esq., C. V. O.; Honor- 
able ChaunceyM. Depew, Senator of the United States; 
Rear Admiral Caspar F. Goodrich, United States 
Navy; Lord Northcliff; James J. Hill, Esq.; Chan- 
cellor Henry M. MacCracken, New York University; 
Andrew Carnegie, Esq.; Reverend James M. Ludlow, 
D.D.; J. Edward Simmons, President of the Chamber 
of Commerce of the State of New York; J. Pierpont 
Morgan, Esq.; Charles Stewart Smith, Esq., Ex- 
President and honorary member of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the State of New York; John S. Ken- 
nedy, Esq.; Honorable John G. McCullough; Honor- 
able Cornelius N. Bliss; Thomas H. McKittrick, 
Esq.; Honorable F. C. T. O'Hara, Deputy Minister 



Chamber of Commerce Banquet 211 

of Trade and Commerce of Canada; Mitchell Innes, 
Esq.; Honorable John Bane; Captain Frank W. Kel- 
logg, United States Navy; Robert Gill, Esq.; Thomas 
L. Willson, Esq.; St. Clair McKelway, Esq.; Charles 
R. Miller, Esq.; Oswald G. Willard, Esq.; Hart 
Lyman, Esq. ; John Foord, Esq, ; Samuel S. Fontaine, 
Esq. ; and John W. Ewan, Esq. 

The first toast of the evening "The President of 
the United States" was drank, the entire assembly 
rising. 

With great enthusiasm the second toast to His 
Majesty King Edward VII was drank, and then 
Mr. Simmons introduced the British Ambassador, 
Right Honorable James Bryce who was greeted 
with cheers. 

In the speech of Ambassador Bryce, the following 
phrases are found : 

"On this continent you have three great countries. 
I see behind me here, flanking the portrait of your 
never-to-be-forgotten first great president, the por- 
traits of two distinguished statesmen, the President 
of the Republic of Mexico (great applause), one of 
the most remarkable figures of our time who has 
for so long guided, and guided wisely, the fortunes 
of that country; and on the other side the portrait of 
the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfred Laurier 
(great applause) who has shown a rarely equalled skill 
in leading the legislature and in directing the policies 
of Canada for a long period of years, a man also of the 
highest gifts and of the highest character. We of 
the British Empire appreciate, Mr. President, the 
compliment which you paid Canada in asking these 
Canadian gentlemen to come, and in honoring 



212 Porfirio Diaz 

Canada and ourselves by hanging the picture of Sir 
Wilfred Laurier on the opposite side of that portrait 
of the President of the Republic of Mexico (great 
applause). Here are three great countries occupy- 
ing practically the whole of this Continent, each 
of them of great natural resources, — and especially 
as regards Canada and Mexico, — of far greater re- 
sources than have yet been fully developed. Each 
was made to supply the needs of the other and to be 
a market for the other, and thus the prosperity of 
these three countries is naturally connected. The 
more trade there is between them the better for all 
(great applause). And that is true of all countries. 
It is true of the United States and Great Britain; it 
is true of Great Britain and Germany. The more 
trade there is between countries, the more they send 
to one another and take from one another the better 
for each of them, and the stronger are the guarantees 
for general peace and good will (applause). 

" That is a subject, Gentlemen, that I could willingly 
pursue, if I were not afraid that somewhere along 
the length of the road I might come upon a notice 
board telling me that I was approaching contro- 
versial topics, because there are those who do not 
prize as you and I do this abundant interchange 
of commodities and do not recognize the benefit it 
confers. So I pause. But this I will say, and this is 
matter of no controversy, that there never were 
four statesmen in this continent who were more 
desirous of peace and good relations between all parts 
of America than President Roosevelt, and Mr. Sec- 
retary Root, representing your country (great ap- 
plause). Sir Wilfred Laurier, representing Canada 
(great applause), and President Diaz, representing 



Chamber of Commerce Banquet 213 

Mexico (great applause). I think it a great piece of 
good fortune that the power of these four distin- 
guished statesmen should have coincided. Thanks 
to their good will and pacific sentiments as well as to 
the actions of the British Government, the past 
eight months have seen a treaty of arbitration con- 
cluded between the United States and the British 
Empire, a treaty which includes Canada, and also 
one between the United States and Mexico (great 
applause). These treaties, Gentlemen, express not 
only the excellent purpose of the governments but 
also the hearty desires of the three peoples. I need 
not tell you that King Edward the VII and the 
British Government and people entirely share those 
sentiments. They rejoice to think that this conti- 
nent is becoming and has become the home of what 
we trust will be perpetual peace (great applause)." 

President Simmons then proposed a toast to " The 
President of Mexico," at the same time reading 
Secretary Root's recent tribute to Porfirio Diaz as 
one of the greatest men to be held up for the hero- 
worship of mankind.^ 

The toast was responded to, with great earnestness, 
by Senor Jos6 F. Godoy, Charg^ d' Affaires of Mexico : 

"Mr. President and Members of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the State of New York: Six years ago, 
on an occasion like the present one, the following 
words were spoken regarding you all: 'You belong 
not merely to the city, not merely to the state, but 
to all the country, and you stand high among the 
great factors in building up that marvellous pros- 

» Inserted at page 90 of this book. 



214 Porfirio Diaz 

perity which the entire country now enjoys.' These 
words were uttered by that great and illustrious 
statesman, who is now at the head of the adminis- 
tration of this country, President Theodore Roose- 
velt (applause). 

" These words are indicative of the honor that I now 
enjoy as I sit by your side and join you in celebrating 
the anniversary of your important organization. 
But the honor conferred on me is greatly increased 
by the circumstance that it has fallen to my lot to be 
designated by the chief magistrate of my country to 
convey to you his greetings, his good wishes and his 
appreciation for the kind invitation sent him to 
attend this magnificent banquet (applause). 

" I think the name, the achievements and the traits 
of character of President Porfirio Diaz, the present 
condition of the Mexican Republic, and the satis- 
factory relations existing between our two countries, 
are well known to most of you; but at the earnest 
suggestion of some of you gentlemen, I shall speak 
briefly on these subjects. 

" No better introduction to my remarks could be 
made than the eloquent and well-deserved tribute 
paid to President Diaz by Secretary Root which 
has just been read by your president. It makes 
much for friendly and appreciative relations between 
our respective states, when a high officer of your 
country is able to speak with such warmth about 
our great president. 

" If we compare the Mexico of to-day with the 
Mexico of thirty years ago, the justice of the encom- 
iums of Secretary Root on the administrative ability 
of President Diaz is apparent. And if we examine 
the incidents of his career as a soldier and as a states- 



Chamber of Commerce Banquet 215 

man and his pure private life, we find likewise the 
eulogy quoted fully justified. 

" Mexico is to-day at peace with all nations of the 
world; her credit abroad is first class, as you your- 
selves can testify, since a few days ago bonds for 
irrigation purposes, guaranteed by my government, 
were considerably oversubscribed both in this 
country and abroad ; public works of great importance 
are everywhere under way or completed, some of 
them, like the harbor works of Vera Cruz, Manzanillo, 
and Salina Cruz, the drainage works of the valley and 
City of Mexico, and the railroad that is to be opened 
to traffic in a few days, making a new all-rail route 
between the two oceans, may well arouse the admira- 
tion and wonderment, even of those who, like you, 
are daily viewing extensive subways and tunnels, 
magnificent suspension bridges and lofty skyscrapers 
{applause) . 

"In the Mexico of to-day peace and tranquillity 
reign supreme through the land, public instruction has 
made great strides, sanitary regulations are strictly 
adhered to, and public safety and the rights of all 
foreigners, as well as all Mexicans, are rigidly safe- 
guarded. 

"In this connection, permit me to refer to the report 
of the Special Agent of your Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, Mr. Arthur B. Butman, who as late 
as last June said: 'The growth and influence of the 
Mexican Republic is daily becoming of more impor- 
tance to the world at large. Its leaders in thought 
and affairs, realizing the necessity for outside aid 
in developing the natural resources of the country, 
have wisely framed such laws as are a safeguard to 
the commercial, financial and industrial interests, and 



2i6 Porfirio Diaz 

the constant increase in the foreign capital invested in 
Mexico is the reflex of their action,' 

" I may here add that the reports of the active and 
intelHgent consular officers of the United States in 
my country, have furnished full data regarding 
the present conditions of Mexico and such informa- 
tion was officially summarized on last September in 
the following words : ' It reveals a continuous growth 
and extension of the country's industrial and vital 
interests, contemporaneous with the progress of the 
United States and Canada. This is possible under 
the sound, stable administration of the national 
affairs of that country and is aided by its immense 
natural resources.' 

"All that I have said is sufficient to demonstrate 
the flourishing condition of Mexico, and that we, 
Mexicans, by placing General Diaz at the head of the 
administration have, as you say, 'the right man in 
the right place and at the right time ' {applause) . 

"The commercial relations between Mexico and the 
United States are at present most satisfactory, and 
in that behalf I may say that the great State of New 
York, as well as this metropolis, have powerfully 
contributed to bring them about. And nothing less 
could be expected from a state so enterprising and 
resourceful; from a state that has at its northern 
extremity Niagara Falls, one of the greatest marvels 
of nature, and towards its southern boundary New 
York City, one of the greatest achievements of man; 
from a state that gave prominence to men like 
William H. Seward, chief adviser of your great 
President Abraham Lincoln, who always exhibited 
friendship to my country; from a state that has 
given a resting place to one of the greatest military 




< 




fe 
^ 
3 






2 '^ 

^ o 

"-l-l 

o 



o^ 



Chamber of Commerce Banquet 217 

leaders of the age, and one of Mexico's best friends, 
General Ulysses S. Grant {applause and cheers). 

" The friendly and commercial relations between 
both countries are being fostered by the wise policies 
pursued by both governments, and I consider that 
under the administration of President-elect William 
H. Taft {applause) the same policy of amity, good 
will and mutual respect put in practice by the 
present Executive will be continued, not only be- 
cause of the wise and far-sighted statesmanship of 
the President-elect, but also because by so doing he 
will give life and being to the express wishes of the 
whole American nation {applause). 

" And now I will close by expressing the hope, in the 
name of President Porfirio Diaz, to which I may be 
allowed to add my personal and humble desires, 
that the succeeding years may bring greater pros- 
perity to the Chamber of Commerce of the State of 
New York; that those succeeding years may carry 
still greater happiness to the citizens of New York 
City and State ; that every recurring year may bring 
in its train greater material and moral advancement 
to this great nation ; and that every ensuing period of 
time may render closer the commercial and friendly 
relations between the peoples of our two independent, 
progressive, and peace-loving sister republics {voci- 
ferous applause)." 

Senor Godoy's address was received with many 
manifestations of enthusiasm, which were renewed 
when Mr. Simmons on behalf of the Chamber, pre- 
sented to Senor Godoy the life-sized portrait of 
President Diaz hanging on the wall of the banquet-hall. 

The last toast was to "The Prime Minister of 
Canada, Sir Wilfred Laurier" which was eloquently 



2i8 Porfirio Diaz 

responded to by Mr. Walker, President of the Cana- 
dian Bank of Commerce, Honorable Clifford Sifton, 
P. C, Ex-Minister of the Interior of Canada, and 
James J. Hill, Esq. The text of these toasts was 
published in extenso in the account from which the 
foregoing was taken. 



THE MEETING OF PRESIDENTS DIAZ AND TAFT AT 
THE FRONTIER 

Details of the Interview and Festivities 

The memorable meeting of Presidents Porfirio 
Diaz and William H. Taft at the frontier of 
Mexico and the United States, on October i6, 
1909, is thus described in telegrams to the press 
of the United States : 

El Paso, Tex., Oct. 16. — The long-expected meet- 
ing between President Taft and President Diaz of the 
Republic of Mexico took place here to-day. Outwardly 
it was attended with a display of soldiery, a flare of 
trumpets, a boom of cannon, and a pomp of ceremony, 
suggestive of supreme authority, but in the actual 
handclasp of the two executives and in the exchange 
of courteous words, there was simple but cordial 
informality. 

President Diaz was the first to speak. He assured 
President Taft of his warm personal regard and his 
high esteem of the man who had accomplished so 
much in the Philippines, in Cuba, and elsewhere, and 
who had now the honor to be the chief executive of 
so great a nation as the United States. President Taft 

219 



220 Porfirio Diaz 

declared he was glad to meet President Diaz and to 
know the president of such a great nation ; especially 
glad to know the present president, who had made the 
nation great. 

Both presidents dwelt upon the cordiality of the 
relations existing between the United States and 
Mexico. President Taft declared that to-day's meet- 
ing was not necessary to make stronger the bonds of 
friendship ; it merely typified the strength of the bonds 
as they already exist. There were less than a score 
of persons permitted to witness the meeting of the 
two executives. Even these were excluded later 
when President Taft and President Diaz withdrew 
into an inner room of the Chamber of Commerce 
building, where the historic meeting occurred, and 
were only attended by Governor Creel, of the State of 
Chihuahua, former ambassador to the United States, 
who acted as interpreter. 

The scene of the day's ceremonies shifted from 
time to time from this thriving little American city 
across the Rio Grande River to the typical Mexican 
settlement of Ciudad Juarez. 

In the customs-house at Juarez, President Diaz 
received a return call from President Taft, and this 
evening entertained the American President and a 
large dinner party at a state banquet which, in all its 
surroundings of lavish decorations and wealth of 
silver plate handed down from the time of Emperor 
Maximilian, probably was the most notable feast 
ever served on the American Continent. 

It was at this banquet to-night that the mere formal 
and public expressions of regard between the two 
executives as the representatives of the people of the 
United States and of Mexico were exchanged. The 



Meeting of Presidents 221 

banquet also marked the end of the day of interna- 
tional pageantry — a day of cloudless skies. 

Toast of President Diaz 

The culmination of the day's program came when 
President Diaz arose in his wonderful garden banquet- 
hall, and lifting his glass to the President of the 
United States proposed this toast: 

" Mr. President, Gentlemen : The visit that His Ex- 
cellency President Taft to-day makes to the Mexican 
territory will mark an epoch in the history of Mexico. 
We have had very illustrious American visitors, such 
as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and the Hon. Messrs. Seward 
and Root; but never before have we seen in our 
land the chief magistrate of the great American 
Union. This striking trait of international courtesy, 
which Mexico acknowledges and appreciates to its 
full value and significance, will henceforward estab- 
lish a happy precedent for the Latin- American repub- 
lics to cultivate unbroken and cordial relations among 
themselves, with us and with every nation of the 
continent. 

"Actuated by these sentiments, which are also 
those of my compatriots, I raise my glass to the ever- 
lasting enjoyment by the country of the immortal 
Washington of all the happiness and prosperity which 
justly belongs to the intelligent industry and eminent 
civicism that are the characteristics of the manly and 
cultured American people and to the enduring glory 
of its heroic founders. 

"I raise my glass to the personal happiness of its 
illustrious President, who has come to honor us with 
his personality and friendship, an occasion which will 



22 2 Porfirio Diaz 

serve to strengthen the bonds existing between the 
two neighboring nations, whose respective elements 
of life and interests find in themselves reciprocal 
complement and enhancement." 

Toast of President Taft 

In acknowledging this sentiment, President Taft 
raised his glass to Mexico's President with this toast: 

"Responding as befits the cordiahty of this auspi- 
cious occasion, I rise to express, in the name and on 
behalf of the people of the United States, their pro- 
found admiration and high esteem for the great, 
illustrious, and patriotic President of the Republic 
of Mexico. I also take this occasion to pronounce 
the hearty sentiments of friendship and accord 
with which my countrymen regard the Mexican 
people. 

"Your Excellency, I have left the United States 
and set my feet in your great and prosperous country 
to emphasize the more these high sentiments, and 
to evidence the feeling of brotherly neighborhood 
which exists between our two great nations. 

"The people of the United States respect and honor 
the Mexicans for their patriotic devotion, their will, 
energy, and their steady advance in industrial devel- 
opment and moral happiness. 

"The aim and ideals of our two nations are iden- 
tical, their sympathy mutual and lasting, and the 
world has become assured of a vast neutral zone of 
peace, in which the controlling aspiration of either 
nation is individual human happiness. 

" I drink to my friend, the President of this great 
Repubhc; to his continued long life and happiness, 



Meeting of Presidents 223 

and to the never-ending bond of mutual sympathy 
between Mexico and the United States." 

The Day's Ceremonies 

The day's ceremonies began this morning when 
President Diaz, in a state carriage, with gold hubs, 
gold-mounted doors, black horses, and gay cockades, 
crossed the international bridge with an escort of 
soldiers. The main body of Mexican troops were 
left behind at the bridge entrance. The Diaz car- 
riage was driven at a smart pace through the Chamizal 
territory, to be met at the boundary by the American 
troops and by Secretary of War Dickinson. 

A salute of twenty-one guns was fired as President 
Diaz stepped from his own carriage into one provided 
by the American authorities. 

With an escort of two squadrons and three batteries 
of American field artillery, the visiting President 
was taken at double-quick time through the streets 
of the city to the Chamber of Commerce building, 
where President Taft awaited him. 

President Diaz was in full dress uniform. Gold 
lace was at his throat and his cuffs, and a broad gold 
sash was around his waist. On his breast glittered 
many decorations. 

Loud Cheers for Diaz 

All along the line of march President Diaz was 
cheered by the crowds. With plumed chapeau in 
hand, he acknowledged the greeting with bows to 
left and right. Secretary of War Dickinson rode 
behind him, and an aid occupied the forward seat in 
the carriage. With President Taft when he greeted 



2 24 Porfirio Diaz 

Diaz were Secretary Dickinson and Postmaster- 
General Hitchcock, Capt. Archibald W. Butt, Gen. 
Albert Meyer, U. S. A., Assistant Secretary W. Michler, 
and C. C. Wagner, of the White House staff. 

President Diaz was accompanied by members of 
his Cabinet and military staff. The private interview 
between the presidents lasted for fifteen minutes. It 
is officially stated that it consisted of but an elabora- 
tion of their public utterances, and that no matters 
of diplomacy were touched upon. 

Formal Greeting to Diaz 

Secretary Dickinson, in greeting President Diaz at 
the boundary to-day, said : 

" You are the first chief executive of a nation to 
cross our border. In this act you are giving not only 
to the people of your and our country but the whole 
world the highest manifestation of the cordial rela- 
tions existing between these contiguous sister repub- 
lics and of your desire to make them, so far as you 
can, perpetual. 

"We fully appreciate the honor of your visit and 
we realize the magnificence of the noble purpose that 
inspired you. In behalf of the President and of the 
people of the United States, I give assurance of their 
cordial esteem for the Republic of Mexico and its wise 
and beneficent president, and welcome you to their 
country and its hospitality." 

Those Present at Interview 

Those present at the interview between President 
Taft and President Diaz in the Chamber of Commerce 
building, El Paso, were J. H. Dickinson, Secretary of 



Meeting of Presidents 225 

War; Frank H. Hitchcock, Postmaster- General ; Gov. 
Campbell, of Texas, and other state officials; Capt. 
Archibald W. Butt, President Taft's military aid; 
John Hays Hammond, Dr. J. J. Richardson, Wen- 
dall Michler and Charles C. Wagner, the President's 
assistant secretaries. 

The President of Mexico was accompanied by Gen. 
Manuel Gonzalez Cosio, Minister of War; Olegario 
Molina, Minister of Commerce, Industry, Colonization, 
Mines, and Agriculture; Gov. Creel, of the State of 
Chihuahua, formerly ambassador to the United 
States; Col. Pablo Escandon, chief of the military 
staff of President Diaz, and Ignacio de la Barra of the 
Mexican Committee of Arrangements. 

Exchanges between the Presidents 

President Taft said : 

"I am very glad to welcome you, sir; lam very 
glad, indeed." 

President Diaz answered: 

"I am very happy to meet you and to have the 
honor of being one of the first foreigners to come over 
to give you a hearty welcome." 

President Taft said: "It gives me not only great 
pleasure to welcome the President of the great Repub- 
lic of Mexico, but to welcome the present President 
of the Republic of Mexico, who has made it so great." 

President Diaz replied: "I am very proud to 
grasp the hand of the great statesman who has made 
such a record in his life — in the Philippines, in Cuba, 
and at present at the head of the great nation, the 
United States." 

President Taft continued : 



226 Porfirio Diaz 

" I wish to express to you my belief that this meeting 
is looked upon by both peoples with a great deal of 
interest not as making stronger, but as typifying the 
strength of the bond between the two countries." 

President Diaz : 

"My friendly relations and my personal acquain- 
tance •^'ith you will make thousands and thousands 
of friends of the American and Mexican peoples and 
beneficial development will have to follow for the 
good of the cotmtries." 

President Taft : 

" You have already met the Secretary of War and 
the Governor of Texas; I shall be glad to have 
the privilege of presenting to you the Postmaster- 
General." 

The Postmaster-General was thereupon presented 
to President Diaz. 

President Taft : 

"I should be glad to have the privilege of meeting 
your staff." 

The Minister of War, Gen. Manuel Gonzalez Cosio 
was thereupon presented to President Taft. 

President Taft, addressing the Minister of War, 
said: 

" I have been Minister of War and therefore I have 
sympathy with you." 

The Minister of War said : 

" You have been an excellent Minister of War, and 
I have a good example in you." 

Retire for Private Talk 

President Taft: 

"I should be very glad of having the pleasure of 



d 




-^I^IAIN STftlRS ^- Q 



Meeting of Presidents 227 

taking you and Governor Creel, who interprets so well, 
and who is my personal friend, into an adjoining room 
for just a few minutes." 

Thereupon President Taft, President Diaz, and Gov- 
ernor Creel retired to an adjoining room for a private 
interview, which lasted about fifteen minutes. Less 
than an hour after President Diaz had withdrawn, Mr. 
Taft was on his way to Juarez to repay the call. 

He was received at the Mexican end of the bridge 
by all of the troops gathered there as an escort to 
President Diaz, with the same honors and distinction 
as had marked the visit of the Mexican executive to 
this country. 

Mr. Taft found the little Mexican frontier city a 
veritable cloud of waving colors. The rough adobe 
walls of all the buildings had been hung with the 
national colors of Mexico and the United States. 
The streets over which Mr. Taft journeyed from the 
bridge end to the custom-house had been converted 
into a continuous court of honor. Garlands of flowers 
and varicolored banners were looped from one tower- 
ing white pillar to another. 

The interview between President Diaz and Presi- 
dent Taft in the custom-house in Juarez, was as 
follows : 

President Diaz: "Your Excellency, the Mexican 
people and I feel very proud indeed to have you on 
Mexican soil. I believe that the personal acquain- 
tance which I have made with you and friendly feel- 
ings which already exist between the United States 
and Mexico will be a guaranty of the continuance of 
the friendly, cordial, and strong relations between 
the peoples of the two countries, and that success and 
pi'osperity will follow." 



228 Porfirio Diaz 

Breaking Traditions Significant 

President Taft: "This is the first time so far as I 
know that a president of the United States has stepped 
beyond the border of the United States, either on 
the north or on the south, and I esteeem it a great 
privilege to be the President at the time when that 
event has happened. I hope it is significant of the 
tightening of the bonds between the two countries. 
Railroads and other means of communication like 
the telegraph have brought us closer to each other, 
so that the City of Mexico and the City of Washington 
are far nearer to-day than they ever were before. 

"And that means a closer union of feeling between 
the two peoples, a closer feeling between those re- 
sponsible for the government of each country; and I 
esteem it the greatest honor of my life to have the 
privilege of representing the United States in such 
a significant ceremony." 

President Diaz: "I thank you very much." 

President Diaz presented to President Taft his son, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Porfirio Diaz, Jr., of the Mexican 
army; also his nephew, Gen. Felix Diaz, chief inspec- 
tor of the Mexican police. 

Banquet at Cuidad Juarez 

President Taft and President Diaz sat side by side 
at the banquet. 

The conversation was carried on partly in Spanish 
and partly through the interpreter. Mr. Taft retains 
much of the Spanish he gained in the Philippines. 
He received from Mayor Felix Barcenas, of Juarez, a 
cordial invitation to visit the city. 

An interpreter began to translate the mayor's con- 




u 



TJ 



u 



Meeting of Presidents 229 

versation, when President Taft said he not only- 
understood, but greatly appreciated the compliments 
of the mayor. 

The Maximilian silver and gold service used to-night 
at the presidential table is valued at $1,000,000. 
More than $200,000 worth of cut glass also was used. 

Three trainloads of flowers were gathered at Juarez 
from different parts of the republic to decorate the 
patio of the custom-house. A temporary room, con- 
structed over the patio or open court where the dinner 
was served, was to-night a mass of varicolored 
blossoms. 

A roof had been put on for the occasion, special 
tables had been constructed to fit the table-linen 
brought from Chapultepec, the national castle, and 
other arrangements were on an equally elaborate 
scale. The chef who prepared the feast was M. 
Damont, who for many years cooked for King Al- 
phonso XII of Spain, and who is now official caterer 
in Mexico. 

The ranges on which the food was cooked were 
transported 1500 miles, from the City of Mexico. The 
wines served were the oldest that could be found in 
the republic. The silver and gold plate was shipped 
to Juarez in twenty specially made boxes. The ser- 
vice has been under a special guard ever since it was 
brought to Juarez. 

The two presidents, with their retinues of officials 
and the newspaper men in both parties, occupied a 
large centre table, while the remainder of the guests 
were arranged about it. The atmosphere of the 
room was heavy with the odor of Mexican gardenias 
and jasmines. Electric lights were half hidden among 
the petals of some of the flowers. Behind the two 



230 Porfirio Diaz 

presidents were large oil portraits of George Wash- 
ington and Hidalgo, the Washington of Mexico. 
Above the two portraits hung the Stars and Stripes 
and the Mexican red, white, and green. Altogether 
there were only 150 guests at the dinner. 

President Taft Returns to El Paso 

President Taft made his way back to American soil 
to-night in a perfect blaze of artificial light, and with 
an escort which changed at the international bridge 
from Mexican to American. 

In token of remembrance of their historic meeting 
both presidents were presented at the dinner to-night 
with goblets of gold, the gift of the city of El Paso. 
Apart from the international significance of his visit, 
President Taft was warmly greeted by the people of 
El Paso, was entertained at a formal breakfast at the 
St. Regis Hotel, reviewed civic and military parades 
and spoke to a crowd of thousands in Carnegie Square. 
He said, in part: 

"El Paso has been the scene to-day of a function 
that I hope may weld stronger than at present the 
bonds of the great republic south of the United States 
and the United States. 

"It has been to me a pleasure and honor to meet 
that great man to whom more than to any other one 
person is due the greatness of the Mexican Republic, 
Gen. Porfirio Diaz. 

"For the first time in history, except one, and that 
was when Theodore Roosevelt stepped over the 
border in Panama, when we were so mixed up on 
the Zone with Panama that it did not seem to be 
quite stepping out of the country, a president of the 



Meeting of Presidents 231 

United States has stepped upon foreign soil and 
enjoyed the hospitaUty of a foreign government. 

"I am glad to have taken part in an event signifi- 
cant of the union with our powerful neighbor. I know, 
and you know better than I, that the prosperity 
of the United States is largely dependent on the 
prosperity of Mexico, and Mexico's prosperity de- 
pendent on ours, and we wish for her all the happi- 
ness and prosperity that can possibly come to a 
republic, as she does for us. 

"Therefore, an event like this that marks the 
undying friendship of the two countries is one in 
which any who takes part may well have pride." 

Departure of the Presidents 

President Taft returned from Juarez at 8:35 p.m., 
and left for San Antonio at 9 o'clock. 

President Diaz late to-night is speeding back to 
the City of Mexico. 



VI 

MEXICAN FINANCES AND COMMERCE IN I909 

From a report, presented by Mr. Jose Y. 
Limantour, Secretary of Finance, to the Mexican 
Congress at the close of its last session, on De- 
cember 14, 1909, it appears that the surplus left 
in the National Treasury at that date was about 
$75,000,000 silver. 

This surplus was made up from the balances 
left on hand at the end of the fiscal years com- 
mencing in 1 89 5-1 896, which were as follows: 

1895-1896 $5,451,347.29 

1896-1897 3,170,123.50 

1897-1898 882,698.89 

1898-1899 6,639,670.90 

1899-1900 6,316,388.54 

1900-1901 3.575.798.88 

1901-1902 3.065,534.99 

1902-1903 7,800,893.91 

1903-1904 10,092,157.72 

1904-1905 12,931,090.86 

1905-1906 22,505,712.02 

1906-1907 29,209,481.54 

1907-1908 18,594,426.51 

1908-1909 5,808,117.48 
232 



miPLUS SMTOE 




NAT10HA.I- THEATRE, - MEXICO CITY ^^s^^^ DKMHACilL OF THE. VALLEV OF ME.XICO. 



SURPLUS 


^13fo.0OO.000. 




SPE.WT TOR. 










SUR-PLUS 
AT PRESENT 


7S,ooo. ooo. 



Finances and Commerce 233 

Thus, in the fourteen fiscal years mentioned, 
the aggregate surplus amounted to over one 
hundred and thirty- six million pesos. Seventy-one 
million pesos of this surplus have been spent in 
important public works, in conformity with legis- 
lative enactments, leaving at present in the 
National Treasury, as mentioned above, about 
seventy-five million pesos. 

The official report of the Statistical Bureau of 
the Department of Finance of Mexico was issued 
shortly before the publication of this work. That 
statement shows that during the first three months 
of the fiscal year, 1909-19 10, the total value of 
imports was 39,873,936 pesos and of exports 
60,928,122 pesos, thus showing a gain of 4,816,481 
pesos for imports, and of 9,949,856 pesos for 
exports over the corresponding period of the 
preceding fiscal year. 

The figures given above we think conclusively 
show the flourishing condition of the finances 
and foreign trade of the Mexican Republic. 



INDEX 



Acultzingo, battle of, 12, 204 
Adee, Alvey A., opinion on 

President Diaz, 125 
Agriculture in Mexico, 115 
Alatorre, General Ignacio, 

sent against General Diaz, 

28; defeated at Tecoac, 28 
All-rail routes between the 

Atlantic and Pacific, 93, 

118 
Amada Diaz de la Torre, 

daughter of President, loi ; 

married, 102 
Ambassador, Mexican, to 

United States appointed, 

66, 67 
America, centenary of dis- 
covery of, 53 
American cities visited by 

President and Mrs. Diaz, 

38 

American Doctrme, as dis- 
tinguished from Monroe 
Doctrine, 63 

American Government a t 
first in strained relations 
with Diaz Administration, 
30; close relations with 
Mexico, 44, 67, 70, 90, 92, 
121, 228, 231 

American invasion referred 
to, 3 

Americanists, Congress of, 59 

Americans, prominent, opin- 
ions on President Diaz, iv, 
107, 124-193 

Appendices, 194 



Arbitration, in Oberlander 
and Messinger case, 67; in 
claim of Catholic Church of 
California, 78; in claims 
against Venezuela, 78 

Archeological research in 
Mexico, 79 

Argentine Minister at Madrid, 
arbitrator in claim against 
Mexico, 67 

Argentine Republic enters 
into relations with Mexico, 

50 

Army, efficiency of Mexican, 
120 

Attorney General of the 
United States acts on be- 
half of Mexico, 70 

Austria-Hungary, relations 
re-established with, 75; 
Mexican Minister to, 102; 
decoration to President 
Diaz by, 207 

Ayutla plan, proclaimed, 6; 
platform of Liberals, 6 

Azpiroz, Manuel, Sub-Secre- 
tary of Foreign Relations, 
67; becomes Ambassador, 



B 



Bailey, J. W., opinion on 
President Diaz, 126 

Balance in treasury, 63, 64, 
120, 232 

Ball given to Mrs. Diaz at 
Mexico City, 85 



235 



236 



Index 



Banks, laws regarding, 66, 
119; number and assets of. 

Banquet, to President Diaz 
at City of Mexico, 85; 
by Chamber of Commerce 
of State of New York, 92, 
124, 209-218; by President 
Diaz to President Taft, 
227, 228 

Baranda, Joaquin, Secretary 
of Justice and Public In- 
struction, 41 

Barillas, Manuel L., assassi- 
nation of, 87 

Barrett, John, opinion on 
President Diaz, 126 

Barrios, General Juste Ru- 
fino. President of Guate- 
mala, 42 ; plan to assume 
control in Central America, 
by, 42; protest of Mexico 
against acts of, 42; death 
of, 42, 43 

Bartholdt, Richard, opinion 
on President Diaz, 127 

Bates, E. A., opinion on 
President Diaz, 128 

Battles fought by President 
Diaz, 203—205 

Bazaine, Marshal, commands 
Imperial troops, 15; takes 
city of Oaxaca, 15 

Belgium, decoration to Presi- 
dent Diaz by, 207 

Belize, treaty between Mex- 
ico and Great Britain re- 
garding, 58, III 

Bell, J. Franklin, opinion on 
President Diaz, 128 

Birth of Porfirio Diaz, i 

Bliss, C. N., opinion on Presi- 
dent Diaz, 128 

Boleo, El, Company of, 115 

Bonds for irrigation purposes, 
119. 215 

Bone, Scott C, opinion on 
President Diaz, 130 

Border disturbances stopped, 
91 

Boundary questions, between 



Mexican states, 56, 112; 
between England and Ven- 
ezuela, 59-63 ; with the 
United States, 1 1 1 

Bravo, General, gunboat, 121 

Bravo River, see Rio Grande 
River 

Brazil enters into relations 
with Mexico, 50 

Brewer, David J., opinion on 
President Diaz, 131 

Brigade of Oaxaca led by 
Diaz, 10 

Brooks, Bryant B., opinion 
on President Diaz, 131 

Broussard, Robert F., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 

131 
Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, 

opinion on President Diaz, 

132 
Brown, H. B., opinion on 

President Diaz, 132 
Brown, Philip, opinion on 

President Diaz, 133 
Bryan, William J., opinion 

on President Diaz, 133 
Bryce, James, opinion on 

President Diaz, 134; toast 

at banquet of Chamber of 

Commerce of State of New 

York, 21 1-2 13 
Bubonic plague, prevention 

of, 59; in Mazatlan, 79, 192 
Buchanan, W. I., witnessed 

signing Central American 

treaties, 88 
Buenrostro, Judge Felipe, 

performs civil marriage of 

President and Mrs. Diaz, 

lOI 

Buffalo Exposition, 57, 77, 
116; assassination of Presi- 
dent McKinley at, 77 

Bulletin of the International 
Union of American Repub- 
lics quoted, 197 

Burleson, Albert S., opinion 
on President Diaz, 135 

Burrows, J. C, opinion on 
President Diaz, 136 



Index 



237 



Burton, Theodore E., opinion 
on President Diaz, 136 



Cabinet of President Diaz 
in 1884, 41 

Cadena Street, residence of 
President Diaz, g8 

Calpulalpam, battle of, 10 

Canada, prominent men of, 
opinions on President Diaz, 
iv, 124-193; relations be- 
tween Mexico and, 211, 212 

Cananea, strikes at, 93 ; cop- 
per production of, 115 

Cannon, Joseph G., opinion 
on President Diaz, 136 

Capital, foreign, in Mexico, 
123 

Carbonera, La, battle of 19, 
205; hero of, 19 

Carlyle quoted, 98 

Carmelita, popular name of 
Mrs. Diaz, loi 

Carnegie, Andrew, opinion on 
President Diaz, 137 

Cartago, High Court of Jus- 
tice at, 89 

Carter, Thomas H., opinion 
on President Diaz, 137 

Casa Amiga de la Obrera 
(Working Woman's Home) 
established by Mrs. Diaz, 

lOI 

Casasus, Joaquin D., member 
of Second Pan-American 
Conference, 76; appointed 
secretary general, 76; Mexi- 
can Ambassador at Wash- 
ington, 76; takes part in 
financial measures, 86 

Catholic Church of California, 
claim of, 77; settled at The 
Hague, 78 

Census of Mexico, 75, 115, 
116 

Centenary of discovery of 
America, 53 

Centenary of Mexican Inde- 
pendence, 93, 114 



Central America, difficulties 
in, 42, 43; settlement of 
same, 43 ; conference of 
Republics of, 88; interposi- 
tion of Mexico and United 
States in, 88, 89 

Central American Republics, 
peace in, 87, 88; sign treat- 
ies in Washington, 88; fur- 
ther trouble to be averted 
in, 89 

Chamber of Commerce of the 
State of New York, ban- 
quet of, 92, 125, 209-218 

Chapala Lake, 100 

Chapultepec Castle, residence 
of the President, 98,99,100; 
National Military School 
at, 120 

Charg6 d' Affaires of Mexico, 
present at signing protocol 
of Central American dip- 
lomats, 88; at banquet of 
Chamber of Commerce of 
the State of New York, 210, 
212; toast of, 210-212 

Chicago, World's Fair at, 
52; success of Mexican 
Department at, 57, 116 

Chihuahua, visit of President 
Diaz to, 94 

Chinese Empire, relations 
with Mexico, 56, no; 
decoration to President 
Diaz by, 207 

Chitova, La, battle of, 205 

Chousal, Rafael, private sec- 
retary to President Diaz, 

99 

Cigars, manufacture of, in 
Mexico, 115 

Ciudad Juarez, meeting of 
Presidents Diaz and Taft 
at, 228; banquet at, 229 

Claims against Mexico, Ober- 
lander and Messinger, 67; 
Weil, 71; La Abra, 71; 
Catholic Church of Cali- 
fornia, 77 

Clark, Champ, opinion on 
President Diaz, 137 



238 



Index 



Clayton, Powell, opinion on 
President Diaz, 138 

Cleveland, President, mes- 
sage as to boundary dis- 
pute between Great Britain 
and Venezuela, 59, 60, 62 

Coal produced in Mexico, 

115 

Coatzocoalcos, see Puerto 
Mexico 

Cockrell, F. M., opinion on 
President Diaz, 139 

Code, Sanitary, issued, 52; 
new one adopted, 58 

Colonel, Porfirio Diaz ap- 
pointed, 9 

Colonization of lands, 199 

Colorado River, changes in, 
III 

Comitipla, battle of, 204 

Commission to aid in estab- 
lishing gold standard, 79 

Common Council of Mexico 
City votes thanks to Gen- 
eral Diaz, 23 

Communications, see Depart- 
ment of Communications 

Coney, A. K., purser of 
steamer, 26 

Conference at The Hague, 
First, 68; Second, 92 

Conference for the Conser- 
vation of National Re- 
sources, III 

Congress, Porfirio Diaz enters, 
10 

Congress of Americanists, 59 

Conservatives struggle 
against Liberals, 5-10 

Conspiracy at Vera Cruz, 3 1 

Constitution amended, 45, 
54, 80 

Consular service of Mexico, 
no 

Contagious diseases, preven- 
tion of, 59 

Copper production in Repub- 
lic, 115 

Corral, Ramon, Secretary of 
the Interior, 80, 112; elect- 
ed Vice-President, 80; 



posts held by, 80; again a 
candidate, 95 

Cortelyou, George B., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 139 

Costa Rica, opposes President 
Barrios of Guatemala, 42, 
43 ; address of American 
Minister in, 51; takes part 
in Peace Conference at 
Washington, 89 

Credit, institutions of, in 
Mexico, 119 

Credit of Mexico abroad, 
118, 215 

Creel, Enrique C, Mexican 
Ambassador, 86 ; takes part 
in financial measures, 86; 
witnesses signing Central 
American treaties, 88 ; Gov- 
ernor of Chihuahua, 225; 
present at meeting of Presi- 
dents Diaz and Taft, 225 

Crisis, economical, 57, 121 

Crops, failure of, 121 

Cuba, diplomatic relations 
between Mexico and, 78 

CuUom, S. M., opinion on 
President Diaz, 139 

Curry, George, opinion on 
President Diaz, 140 

Curtis, William E., opinion 
on President Diaz, 140 

Custom House Ordinance, 
new, 52 

Cutting case, reference to, 45 

D 

Daniel, J. W., opinion on 
President Diaz, 141 

Davis, Henry G., opinion on 
President Diaz, 141 

Day, William R., opinion on 
President Diaz, 143 

Debt, public, see Public debt 

Decorations given to Presi- 
dent Diaz, 103, 206-208 

De la Barra, Ignacio, present 
at meeting of Presidents 
Diaz and Taft, 225 



Index 



239 



Democrata, mutiny on board 

Denby, Edwin, opinion on 
President Diaz, 143 

Department of Communica- 
tions and Public Works, 
52, 93, 116-118, 200 

Depreciation of silver, 121, 

Deputy, Porfirio Diaz elected, 
10 

De Young, M. H., opinion on 
President Diaz, 144 

Diaz, Amada, see Amada Diaz 

Diaz, Carmen Romero Rubio 
de, wife of the President, 
100; her marriage, 100; 
entertains delegates t o 
Second Pan-American Con- 
ference, 76; her residence 
after marriage, 100; her 
character, 10 1; ball in her 
honor in 1904, 85; silver 
wedding of, i o i ; pro- 
motes Working Woman's 
Home, 10 1 ; travels of,' 103 

Diaz, Felix, brother of Presi- 
dent, 9; fights bravely, 10; 
his death, 10 

Diaz, Felix, nephew of Presi- 
dent, present at meeting of 
Presidents Diaz and Taft, 
228 

Diaz, Jos6 Faustino de la 
Cruz, father of President, 
I ; death of, 2 

Diaz, Luz, see Luz Diaz 

Diaz, Porfirio, birth, i ; par- 
ents, 2; his education, 2; 
receives primary instruc- 
tion, 2 ; enters National and 
Pontifical Seminary, 2; 
offers his services in Ameri- 
can war, 3 ; enters Institute 
of Sciences and Arts, 3 ; in- 
structed by Benito Juarez, 
3 ; studies law, 4 ; abandons 
that study, 4; joins Liber- 
als, 6; appointed subpre- 
fect of Ixtlan, 6; his first 
battle, 7; is wounded, 7; 
his personal memoirs, 7; 



goes to Tehuantepec, 8; 
battle of Jalapa, 8; battle 
of Las Jicaras, 8 ; wounded 
again, 8; battle of La 
Mixtequilla, 9 ; appointed 
colonel, 9; at siege of 
Oaxaca, 9; enters Mexico 
City with Liberals, 10; is 
deputy to Congress, 10; 
battle of Jalatlaco, 1 1 ; 
battle of Pachuca, 11; in 
War of Reform, 6-1 1 ; in 
War of French Interven- 
t i o n, 1 2-2 2 ; commands 
Second Brigade, 12; fights 
at Escamela, 12; battle of 
Acultzingo, 12; battle of 
May 5, 1862, 13; siege of 
city of Puebla by French, 
13; is taken prisoner, 13; 
his escape, 14; declines to 
be Secretary of War, 14; 
takes city of Taxco, 14; 
surrenders at city of Oax- 
aca, 15; is taken prisoner 
a second time, 15; how he 
escaped, 14-19; his third 
campaign against the Im- 
perialists, 19; battle of 
Nochixtlan, 19; battle of 
Miahuatlan, 20 ; battle of La 
Carbonera, 20; takes city 
of Oaxaca, 20; assault of 
Puebla, 21; his brilliant 
victory, 21; wins battle 
of San Lorenzo, 22; be- 
sieges City of Mexico, 2 2 ; 
enters the capital, 23 ; retires 
to private life, 23 ; remains 
at La Noria, 24; his con- 
test for the presidency, 24 ; 
isagain elected to Congress, 
24 ; is offered post as Minis- 
ter to Berlin, 25; is pro- 
claimed presidential can- 
didate, 25; his plan of 
Tuxtepec, 25; goes to the 
United States, 26; his 
escape from a steamer, 2 7 ; 
in new civil war, 27; battle 
of Tecoac, 28; welcomed 



240 



Index 



Diaz, Porfirio — Continued 
at City of Mexico, 28; elect- 
ed President, 29; his first 
administration, 30-34; 
lives without ostentation, 
30, 38; end of his first 
administration, 35; visits 
the United States , 33, 38; 
Secretary of Public Pro- 
motion, 35; senator, 36; 
Governor of the State of 
Oaxaca, 36; withdraws 
from public life, 37; mar- 
ried to Miss Cannen Rom- 
ero Rubio,38; his reception 
in United States, 38; prob- 
able successor to President 
Gonzalez, 38; Commission- 
er General of the Mexi- 
can Department at New 
Orleans Exposition, 39; 
re-elected, 39; succeeds 
President Gonzalez, 40 ; his 
administration from 1884 
to 1888, 40-48; his policy 
during that term, 42; ac- 
tion regarding Central 
America, 43; financial 
measures, 44; messages to 
Congress, 45, 48; re-elected 
in 1888, 45 ; new term from 
1888 to 1892, 49-55; his 
policy as to proposed pur- 
chase of Lower California, 
51; again re-elected, 54; 
administration from 1892 
to 1896, 56-65; encourages 
Mexican exhibits at expo- 
sitions, 57; difficulties with 
Guatemala, 58; his state- 
ment relative to the Mon- 
roe Doctrine, 60 ; re-elected 
in 1896, 63; his message 
of September, 1896, 63; 
his term from 1896 to 1900, 
66-73 ! declares neutrality 
in war between United 
States and Spain, 67; re- 
elected in 1900, 71; term 
from 1900 to 1904, 74-82; 
takes interest in Second 



Pan-American Conference, 
7 5 ; entertains its delegates, 
76; receives diplomatic re- 
presentative of Shah of 
Persia, 78; acts regarding 
gold standard, 78; re-elect- 
ed for six years in 1904, 
80; his messages during 
that term, 83, 84; his 
inauguration in 1904, 85; 
festivities on that occasion, 
85; establishes gold stan- 
dard, 86; consolidates rail- 
way lines, 87; his attitude 
regarding assassination of 
Ex-President Barillas, 87; 
friendly offices in Central 
America, 89; banquet of 
Chamber of Commerce of 
State of New York partly 
in his honor, 92; interest 
in Mexican centenary, 93 ; 
trips in the Republic, 94; 
declines at first to be re- 
elected, 94; consents at 
last to be again a candi- 
date, 94; his private life, 
97-105 ; his traits of charac- 
ter, 97; his sincerity, 98; 
his memory, 98; his habits, 
98-100; his family, loi; 
as a public speaker, 104; 
how he began life, 106; as a 
military leader, 107 ; his life 
as a statesman reviewed, 
107-123; statements 
issued to his country- 
men, 108; regard and es- 
teem of Ex-President 
Roosevelt and President 
Taft for him, 121; peo- 
ple wish his re-election, 
123; opinions of promi- 
nent men on his life and 
career, 124-193; his mes- 
sage to Congress in Sep- 
tember, 1909, 197; list of 
sieges and battles in which 
he took part, 203-205; 
medals and decorations 
granted him, 206-208; 



Index 



241 



Diaz, Porfirio — Continued 
enthusiasm for him in 
banquet of Chamber of 
Commerce in State of New 
York, 209-218; meeting 
with President Taft at 
frontier, 219-231; banquet 
by him to President Taft, 
200, 225 

Diaz, Jr., Porfirio, son of 
President, 102; a civil en- 
gineer, 102; lieutenant- 
colonel, 102; his marriage, 
102; his family, 102; pres- 
ent at meeting of Presi- 
dents Diaz and Taft, 228 

Dickinson, J. H., present at 
meeting of Presidents Diaz 
and Taft, 224 

Diplomatic mission of Mexico, 
in Washington, 44, 67; 
in Austria-Hungary, 75; 
in South American Repub- 
lics, 77; in Cuba, 78; in 
Persia, 78; in China and 
Japan, no; in leading na- 
tions, no 

DoUiver, Jonathan P., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 

145 
Drainage works, of City of 

Mexico, 79; of valley of 

Mexico, 54 
Dublan, Manuel, Secretary 

of Finance, 41 



E 



Earthquakes in State of 
Guerrero, 121, 198 

Education, see Public In- 
struction 

Education of Porfirio Diaz, 

3.4 

Egan, Maurice Francis, opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 145 

Elections, Presidential, in 
1876, 29; in 1880, 33; in 
1884, 39; in 1888, 45, 49; 
in 1892, 54; in 1896, 63; 



in 1900, 71; in 1904, 80; 
in 1910, 94, 96 

Elizaga, Lorenzo, married to 
a sister of Mrs. Diaz, 102 

Elkins, S. B., opinion on 
President Diaz, 146 

El Paso, publication of libel 
by Cutting at, 45; meeting 
of Presidents Diaz and 
Taft at, 225 

El Salvador, opposes Presi- 
dent Barrios of Guatemala, 
42, 43 ; war with Honduras, 
88; takes part in Peace 
Conference, 88, 89 

Empire, Mexican, Archduke 
Maximilian becomes head 
of so-called, 14 

England, invades Mexico, 
12; withdraws troops from 
Mexico, 12; treaty o f 
friendship and commerce 
with Mexico, 49; treaty 
with Mexico as to Belize, 
58 ; dispute with Venezuela 
as to boundaries, 60 ; postal 
convention with Mexico, 
200; Order of the Bath to 
President Diaz by, 207 

Englebright, W. F., opinion 
on President Diaz, 147 

English debt, settlement of 
so-called, 40 

Epidemics in Mexico pre- 
vented, 113, 192 

Escamela, battle of, 12 

Escandon, Pablo, present at 
meeting of Presidents Diaz 
and Taft, 225 

Escape of Porfirio Diaz, at 
Puebla, 14; at Puebla, a 
second time, 15-19; at Vera 
Cruz, 26-27 

Escobedo, General Mariano, 
invades Republic, 32; de- 
feated, 32 

Europe, leading nations of, 
friendly to Mexico, no 

Exposition, at New Orleans, 
39; at Paris, 52, 116; at 
Chicago, 52, 57, 116; at 



242 



Index 



Exposition — Continued 

Buffalo, 55, 57, 77, 116; 
at Jamestown, Virginia, 
92; at St. Louis, Mo., 116 



F 



Federal District, revenues 

of, 87 

Fernandez, Justino, Secre- 
tary of Justice, 75 

Fernandez, Leandro, Secre- 
tary of Communications 
and Public Works, 116 

Fifth of May battle, cele- 
bration of, 13 

Finance, Department of, 46, 
54, 118, 120, 231 

Finances of Mexico, 33, 41, 
53, 54, 68, 78, 79, 82, 83, 
118, 232, 233 

First administration of Presi- 
dent Diaz, 30-34 

Fisher, Sydney, opinion on 
President Diaz, 147 

Flint, Frank F., opinion on 
President Diaz, 148 

Floods in Nuevo Leon and 
Tamaulipas, 121, 198 

Foreign governments, friend- 
ly relations with Mexico 
of, 30, 45, 54, 56, 81, 87, 
91, 121, 202 

Foreign Relations, Secretary 
of, 41, 56 

Foreign trade in Mexico, 33, 
47, 87, 119, 201—203 

Fortin de la Soledad, battle 
of, 203 

Foster, John W., opinion on 
President Diaz, 149 

Fourth International Con- 
gress of Fisheries, 1 1 1 

Fox, Williams C, opinion on 
President Diaz, 151 

France, invades Mexico, 12; 
decoration t o President 
Diaz by, 206 

French Intervention, War of. 



Funeral of Ex-President Ler- 

do de Tejada, 51, 52 
Future of Mexico, 122, 123 



G 



Gallinger, J. H., opinion on 
President Diaz, 151 

Garcia de la Cadena, General, 
leads disturbers in Zacate- 
cas, 44; death of, 44 

Gardiner, Asa Bird, opinion 
on President Diaz, 152 

Garfield, James R., opinion 
on President Diaz, 153 

Garfield, President, reference 
to mother of, 3 

General Guerrero, gunboat, 
201 

Geodetic survey of Mexico, 
199 

Geographical Exploration 
Commission, 199 

Geological Institute, Nation- 
al, 74 

Gladstone quoted, 104 

Godoy, Josd F., represents 
President Diaz at banquet 
of Chamber of Commerce 
of State of New York, 213 ; 
toast of, 213-216 

Gold production in Mexico, 

115 

Gold standard in Mexico, 78, 
86 

Gonzalez Cosio, General Man- 
uel, Secretary of Commu- 
nications, 116; Secretary 
of War and Navy, 120; 
present at meeting of 
Presidents Diaz and Taft, 
225 

Gonzalez, Manuel, fought at 
Tecoac, 28; candidate for 
the presidency, 33; elected 
President, 34; assumes 
office, 34; his presidential 
term, 35-40; is succeeded 
by Porfirio Diaz, 40 

Gonzalez Ortega, victory at 
Calpulalpam, i o ; in pursuit 



Index 



243 



Gonzalez, Manuel — Cont'd 
of Conservatives, 1 1 ; com- 
manded at siege of city of 
Puebla, 13 

Goodrich, Caspar F., opinion 
on President Diaz, 1 53 

Government, Mexican, to 
control railways, 86, 87 

Grandchildren of President 
Diaz, 102, 103 

Grand crosses granted to 
President Diaz, 206, 207 

Grant, Frederick D., opinion 
on President Diaz, 1 54 

Grant, General Ulysses S., 
visits Mexico, 32; enthu- 
siastic reception of , 3 2 ; per- 
sonal friend of President 
Diaz, 154 

Great Britain, see England 

Greely, A. W., opinion on 
President Diaz, 154 

Guanajuato visited by Presi- 
dent Diaz, 94 

Guatemala, difficulties with, 
in 1885, 42; settled, 43; 
President Diaz's reference 
to, 43; Mexican troops in 
frontier of, 43 ; difficulties 
with, in 1894, 58; settled, 
58; railroad to frontier of, 
77; incident with, in 1904, 
81; gives satisfaction to 
Mexico, 82; demand of 
extradition in Barillas case, 
88 ; threatening m.easures 
adopted by, 88; enters 
into Peace Conference, 88, 
89 

Guerrero, disturbances m 
State of, 56; quickly sup- 
pressed, 56; earthquakes 
in, 121, 198 

Guiana, British, dispute re- 
garding, 60 

H 

Hadley, Arthur T., opinion 

on President Diaz, 156 
Hague, The, First Peace Con- 



ference at, 68, iii; settle- 
ment of claim of Catholic 
Church of California by 
high tribunal at, 77; Sec- 
ond Peace Conference at, 
92, III, 197 

Harbor works at Tampico, 
54, 70, 199; at Vera Cruz, 
54, 70, 199; at Salina Cruz, 
70, 93, 199; at Manzanillo, 
70, 93; at Puerto Mexico, 
70, 93, 199; at Mazatlan, 
70 

Hay, E. M., opinion on Presi- 
dent Diaz, 156 

Hayes, E. A., opinion on 
President Diaz, 156 

Hero of La Carbonera, Presi- 
dent Diaz so named, 20 

Hidalgo proclaimed Mexican 
Independence, i 

High Court of Justice at 
Cartago, 89 

High Court of Justice at The 
Hague, 69, III 

Hill, David J., opinion on 
President Diaz, 157 

Hill, James J., opinion on 
President Diaz, 157 

Hinojosa, General Pedro, 
Secretary of War, 41 

History of Mexico nearly 
identical lately with life of 
Porfirio Diaz, 72 

Hitchcock, Frank H., present 
at meeting of Presidents 
Diaz and Taft, 225 

Honduras, change of gov- 
ernment in, 88; enters 
into Peace Conference, 88, 
89 

Hospital, General, at City of 
Mexico, 52, 113 

Howry, Charles, opinion on 
President Diaz, 158 

Huajuapam, battle of, 204 

Hungarian decoration for 
President Diaz, 207 

Hygiene, improvement of 
public, 51, 58, 112, 197; 
conventions as to, 197 



244 



Index 



Icamole, battle of, 205 

Iglesias, Jos^ Maria, presi- 
dential candidate, 2 7 ; 
President of the Supreme 
Court, 27; contest with 
Diaz and Lerdo de Tejada, 
28; his supporters leave 
him, 28; lands at San 
Francisco, Cal., 28; his 
partisans at first dissatis- 
fied with Diaz administra- 
tion, 31 

Imperialists, final defeat of, 
21 

Importations, increase of, 
33, 83, 119, 201, 233 

Imposts, internal, abolished, 
65, 120 

Independence of Mexico, 
anniversary of, i ; c e 1 e- 
brated at Jamestown, Va., 
92; centenary of, 93, 
114 

Independencia, mutiny on 
board of, 31 

Indians, Maya, rise in arms 
and are defeated, 44, 93 ; 
Yaqui, rise in arms and are 
defeated, 44, 93 

Industrial enterprises in 
Mexico, 115 

Institute of Sciences and 
Arts of Oaxaca, 3; Diaz 
studies in, 3, 5 

Institutions of Credit, see 
Banks 

Instruction, Public, advance- 
ment in, 54, 82, 198, 215; 
Department of, 75, 82, 198; 
Secretary of, 75 

Insurrections in Mexico easily 
quelled, 123 

Interior, Department of, 79, 
80, 82, 112, 113, 197; Secre- 
tary of, 80 

Internal imposts abolished, 
65, 120 

International Congress of 
Americanists, 59 



International Congresses, 59, 
III, 198 

International Exposition, at 
New Orleans, 39; at Chi- 
cago, 52, 116; at Paris, 
52, 116; at Buffalo, 55, 
77; at _Jamestown, 92; 
at St. Louis, 116 

International Tuberculosis 
Congress, in 

Intervention, of France, Eng- 
land, and Spain in Mexico, 
13; war of French, 12-22 

Iron production in Mexico, 

115 
Irrigation in Mexico, bonds 

for, 119, 2 1 5 ; works for, 199 
Italy, Mexican gunboats 

built in, 121 ; decoration to 

President Diaz by, 204 
Ixcapa, battle of, 203 
Ixtepeji, battle of, 203 
Ixtlan, Diaz subprefect of, 6 



Jalapa, battle of, 8, 203 
Jalatlaco, battle of, 11, 204 
Jamestown, Virginia, Expo- 
sition at, 92 
Japan, enters into relations 
with Mexico, 50, no; treaty 
of commerce and friend- 
ship with Mexico and, 50; 
decoration t o President 
Diaz by, 206 
Jicaras, Las, battle of, 8, 203 
Jordan, David Starr, opinion 

on President Diaz, 158 
Juarez, Benito, bom at Oax- 
aca, 1 ; teacher of Porfirio 
Diaz, 3; resides at Vera 
Cruz, 9; enters City of 
Mexico, 10; resists French 
invasion, 12; appoints 
Diaz to command a division 
of army, 14; leaves City of 
Mexico, 14; returns to City 
of Mexico, 23; again is 
presidential candidate, 24; 
sudden death of, 24 



Index 



245 



Jurisprudence, Diaz studies, 
3,4 

K 

Kahn, Julius, opinion on 
President Diaz, 159 



La Abra claim against Mex- 
ico rejected, 71 
Labastida, Archbishop Pela- 

gio A., married President 

and Mrs. Diaz, 10 1 
La Carbonera, battle of, 19, 

20, 202, 205 
La Mixtequilla, battle of, 9, 

203 
Landis, C. B., opinion on 

President Diaz, 159 
Lands, public, survey and 

sale of, 51, 114, 199 
Lane, Franklin K., opinion 

on President Diaz, 160 
Las Jicaras, see Jicaras, Las 
Lawyer, Diaz trained as a, 

4 

Legations, Mexican, in South 
America, 77; in America, 
Europe, and Asia, 110 

Legion of Honor of France, 
President Diaz given deco- 
ration of, 206 

Legislative Palace, National, 

74 

Leon, Emilio de, signs for 
Guatemala agreement set- 
tling difficulties with Mex- 
ico, 58 

Lerdo de Tejada, Sebastian, 
presidential candidate, 24; 
elected President, 24 ; offers 
Diaz post of Minister at 
Berlin, 25; attempt to re- 
elect, 25; struggles with 
Diaz and Iglesias, 24-28; 
his troops defeated at 
Tecoac, 28; leaves Repub- 
lic, 28; goes to reside at 
New York City, 28; his 



partisans conspire against 
Diaz administration, 3 1 ; 
death of, 51; funeral of, 
52 
Libel by Cutting at El Paso, 

45 

Liberals, struggle against 
Conservatives, 5-11; Diaz 
joins, 6 ; platform of, 6 

Liceaga, Dr. Eduardo, active 
in sanitary matters, 113 

Limantour, Jos6 Yves, Secre- 
tary of Finance, 63 ; suc- 
cessful financial operations 
of, 69; goes to Europe, 69; 
arranges gold standard, 
78, 86; candidate for the 
vice-presidency, 80 ; aids 
in consolidating railways, 
86, 87; report on surplus 
in Treasury by, 232, 233 

Lincoln, Abraham, President, 
quoted, 34 

Loans, foreign, 53, 118 

Lo de Soto, battle of, 204 

Lodge, H. C, opinion on 
President Diaz, 160 

Loomis, Francis B., opinion 
on President Diaz, 161 

Lower California, proposed 
purchase of, 51; El Boleo 
Company in, 115 

Low, Seth, opinion on Presi- 
dent Diaz, 163 

Luz Diaz de Rincon Gal- 
lardo, daughter of President 
Diaz, 102; married, 102 

Lyman, Hart, opinion on 
President Diaz, 163 

M 

MacArthur, Arthur, opinion 
on President Diaz, 164 

Macaulay, T. B., quotation 
from, 42; reference to, 104 

Macedo, Pablo, takes part in 
financial measure, 86 

Macfarland, H. B. F., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 
165 



246 



Index 



Madrid, festivities of centen- 
ary of discovery of Amer- 
ica in, 53 

Magoon, Charles E., opinion 
on President Diaz, 165 

Mail facilities, increase of, 44 

Major-G e n e r a 1, Diaz ap- 
pointed, 14 

Manufacture of arms, 120 

Manzanillo, harbor works at, 
70, 93 ; railroad to, 93 

Marcil, Charles, opinion on 
President Diaz, 168 

Mariscal, Ignacio, born at 
Oaxaca, i ; Secretary of 
Foreign Relations, 41; 
signs agreement settling 
difficultieswith Guatemala, 
58; candidate for vice- 
presidency, 80; attitude 
regarding Guatemala, 87 

Marquesado, battle of, 203 

Marquez, Leonardo, General, 
defeated at Jalatlaco, 1 1 ; 
defeated at San Lorenzo, 
22 ; defends Mexico City, 22 

Matamoros, taking of city of, 
205 

Maximilian, Archduke, head 
of so-called Empire, 14; 
proposals made to Diaz by, 
14; capture and execution 
of, 21, 22 

Maya Indians, rise in arms, 
44; are defeated, 44; cam- 
paign against, 93 

Mazatlan, harbor works of, 
70; the Southern Pacific 
Railroad reaches, 118 

McClung, Lee, opinion on 
President Diaz, 168 

McCreery, Fen ton R., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 169 

McGee, M. C, opinion on 
President Diaz, 170 

McKinley, President, assas- 
sination of, 7 7 

Medals given to President 
Diaz, 206-208 

Medical Institute, National, 
192 



Meeting of Presidents Diaz 
and Taft at frontier, 92, 
124, 219-231 

Mejia, General, execution of, 
21 

Memoirs of President Diaz, 7 

Mena, Francisco Z., General, 
Secretary of Communica- 
tions, 116 

Mendez, Juan N., General, in 
charge of executive power, 
29 

Messages of President Diaz, 
43, 47. 55. 60, 64, 66, 68, 
72, 81, 84, 108, 197-202 

Metcalf, Victor H., opinion 
on President Diaz, 171 

Mexia, Enrique A., Mexican 
delegate at First Pan- 
American Conference, 50 

Mexican Central Railroad, 
117, 118 

Mexican delegation to First 
Pan-American Conference, 
50; to Second Pan-Ameri- 
can Conference, 76; to 
Third Pan-American Con- 
ference, 92; to various in- 
ternational congresses, 1 1 1 

Mexican exhibits, at New 
Orleans Exposition, 39; 
at Chicago, 52; at Paris, 
52, 116; at Buffalo, 57; 
at Jamestown, 91; at St. 
Louis, 116 

Mexican International Rail- 
road, 118 

Mexican National Railroad, 
117 

Mexico, at First Peace Con- 
ference of The Hague, 68; 
settles claims against Ven- 
ezuela, 78; relations with 
Guatemala, 88; visited by 
Secretary of State Root, 
90; interposition in Cen- 
tral America, 88, 89; min- 
ing in, 44, 64, 114, 199; 
economic crisis in, 121; 
advancement of, 108, 121, 
126; revenues of, 63, 64, 83, 



Index 



247 



Mexico — Continued 

232; railroads in, 44, 46, 
54, 77, 82, 116, 117, 200; 
public instruction in, 46, 
54, 79, 114, 198; future of, 
123 

Mexico and the United States, 
work quoted, 116, 122 

Mexico City, in hands of Con- 
servatives, 9; entry of 
Liberals in, 10; attack by 
Conservatives, i o ; Presi- 
dent Diaz leaves, 13; be- 
sieged by General Diaz, 2 1 ; 
surrenders to General Diaz, 
21; Juarez returns to, 23; 
welcomes Diaz, 28; Second 
Pan-American Conference 
S't, 75; great improve- 
ments in, 74, 113, 197; 
drainage works in, 79; 
sanitary condition of, 79; 
assassination of Ex-Presi- 
dent Barillas of Guatemala 
at, 87; new Post-Office at, 

93 
Miahuatlan, battle of, 19, 20, 

204 
Military decorations given 

to President Diaz, 207 
Mills, Anson, opinion on 

President Diaz, 171 
Mining in Mexico, 44, 64, 114, 

199 
Miramon, General, defeated 

at Calpulalpam, 10; execu- 
tion of, 2 1 
Mitla, battle of, 203 
Mixed Claims Commission, 

award of, 33; payment by 

Mexico of award of, 33 ; 

last installment paid, 5 2 ; 

awards in La Abra and 

Weil claims, 71 
Mixtequilla, La, battle of, 

9. 203 
Molina, Olegario, Secretary 

of Public Promotion, 114; 

present at meeting of 

Presidents Diaz and 

Taft, 225 



Mbndragon, General, patent 

for arms by, 120 
Moneda Street, former home 

of President Diaz, 30 
Money, Hernando D., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 

172 
Money order service, 200, 201 
Monroe Doctrine, statement 

of President Diaz as to, 

59-^63 
Monroe, President, reference 

to doctrine of, 59, 60 
Morelos, gunboat, 121 
Mori, Petrona, mother of 

Porfirio Diaz, i, 2 
Morris, Martin F., opinion 

on President Diaz, 172 
Morton, Levi P., opinion on 

President Diaz, 173 

N 

Nanaguatipam, battle of, 204 
Napoleon III., French Em- 
peror, invades Mexico, 1 2 ; 
sends reinforcements to 
Mexico, 13 
National Arms Factory, 120 
National Military School, 120 
Navy, Department of the, 

66, 120, 121, 201 
Navy, Mexican, 120, 201 
Needham, Charles W., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 173 
Netherlands, Queen of, deco- 
ration to President Diaz 
by, 207 
New Orleans, International 

Exposition at, 3 9 
New York City, visited by 
Porfirio Diaz as an exile, 
26; becomes home of Ex- 
President Lerdo de Tejada, 
28; Diaz's second visit to, 
38; death of Ex-President 
Lerdo de Tejada at, 51; 
banquet of the Chamber 
of Commerce of the State 
of New York at, 92, 209- 
218 



248 



Index 



Nicaragua, opposes President 
Barrios of Guatemala, 42, 
43 ; war with Salvador, 88 ; 
enters into Peace Confer- 
ence at Washington, 88, 89 

Nickel coins, over-issue of, 40 

Nochixtlan, battle of, 19, 204 

Norris, Edwin L., opinion on 
President Diaz, 174 

Norway and Sweden, deco- 
ration to President Diaz 
by, 206 

Noyes, Theodore W., opinion 
on President Diaz, 174 

Nuevo Leon, Governor of 
State of, 80, 95; floods in, 
121 

o 

Oaxaca, city of, birthplace 
of Diaz, I ; birthplace of 
other eminent men, i ; 
taking of, in i860, 9; taken 
by French, 15; taken by 
General Diaz, 20; sieges 
and battle of, 203, 204, 205 

Oberlander, Charles, claim 
against Mexico, 67; de- 
clared not valid, 67 

Opera House, National, 74 

Opinions of prominent men 
on Porfirio Diaz, iv, 107, 
124-193 

Orders, foreign, granted to 
President Diaz, 206, 207 

Orizaba, strikes at, 93 ; battle 
of, 204 



Pacheco, Carlos, Secretary 

of Public Promotion, 41 
Pachuca, battle of, 11, 204 
Pacific Ocean, all-rail routes 

to, 93, 118 
Page, Carroll S., opinion on 

President Diaz, 175 
Palace, National, in Mexico 

City, 30, 99 



Palo Alto, farm of, 25; plan 
of, 25 

Pan-American Conference, 
First, 50, 1 11; Second, 75, 
76, 1 11; Third, 92, in 

Pan-American Exposition at 
Buffalo, 57, 77 

Pan-American Sanitary Con- 
vention, 112 

Pan-American Scientific Con- 
gress, III 

Parcel Post Convention with 
Canada, 201 

Parents of Porfirio Diaz, i 

Paris Exposition, 52, 116; 
premiums obtained by 
Mexican exhibitors at, 52 

Parker, Alton B., opinion on 
President Diaz, 176 

Patents for inventions, 199 

Payo Obispo, wireless station 
at, 201 

Peace Conference at The 
Hague, First, 68; Second, 
92, III 

Peace in Mexico, 54, 64, 109, 
121, 123 

Penitentiary in Federal Dis- 
trict, 113 

Perkins, George C, opinion 
on President Diaz, 176 

Personal Memoirs of President 
Diaz, 7 

Piaxtla, battle of, 204 

Pinchot, Gifford, opinion on 
President Diaz, 177 

Pinotepa, battle of, 204 

Platform of Liberals, 6; of 
partisans of General Diaz, 
24, 25 

Political agitation, 94 

Population of the Republic, 
75. 116 

Porfirio Diaz, see Diaz, Por- 
firio 

Porfirio Diaz, Jr., see Diaz, 
Porfirio, Jr. 

Postage between Mexico and 
Great Britain, 200 

Post-Office, new, at City of 
Mexico, 74, 93 



Index 



249 



Post-offices in the Republic, 
200 

Post, Regis R., opinion on 
President Diaz, 178 

Preface, iii, iv 

Premiums to Mexican exhibi- 
tors at Paris Exposition, 
52; at Chicago, 57; at 
Buffalo, 77 

President Diaz, see Diaz, 
Porfirio 

Presidents of Mexico and 
United States meet at 
frontier, 125, 219 

President Taft, see Taft, 
William H. 

Primary instruction of Por- 
firio Diaz, 2 

Prisoner of French, Diaz, 13 ; 
escapes first time, 14; 
escapes second time, 16—19 

Prominent men, opinions of, 
on President Diaz, 124-193 

Promotion, Department of 
Public, 82, 114, 198 

Protocol signed by Central 
American diplomats, 88 

Prussia, decoration to Presi- 
dent Diaz by, 207 

Public debt, funding of, 41 ; 
arranged, 59 

Public instruction in Mexico, 
46, 54, 79. 114, 198 

Public lands, survey and sale 
of, 51, 114 

Public Promotion, see Pro- 
motion, Department of 
Public 

Public Works, see Depart- 
ment of Communications 

Puebla, city of, victory of 
Mexican troops over 
French, 13, 204; siege of, 
by French, 13, 204; sur- 
render to French army, 
13 ; taking of, by General 
Diaz, 21, 204; visit cf 
President Diaz to, 94 

Puerto Mexico, harbor works, 

^ 70, 93, 199 ^ 
Putla, battle of, 204 



Q 



Queen of Netherlands, deco- 
ration to President Diaz 
by, 207 

Queretaro City, capture of, 
22 

Quintana Roo, new Territory 
of, 81; campaign against 
Maya Indians in, 93 

R 

Raigosa, Genaro, President 
of Second Pan-American 
Conference, 76; father of 
Mrs. Porfirio Diaz, Jr., 102 

Railroads, consolidation of, 
86 

Railroads in Mexico, 44, 46, 
54, 77, 82, 116, 117, 200 

Railroads, policy of President 
Diaz as to building of, 31, 
44,46, 54, 82, 87, 116, 117, 
120 

Reform, War of, 5-1 1; end 

of, II 

Revenues, Federal, 33, 47, 
63, 64, 83, 119, 232 

Revenues, measures for in- 
crease of, 32, 47, 57, 77, 
119, 120, 201 

Reyes, Bernardo, Governor of 
Nuevo Leon, 80, 95; candi- 
date for Vice-President, 80; 
again offered candidacy, 
95; declines and goes to 
Europe, 95 ; interview with, 

95 

Rincon Gallardo, F., mar- 
ried to President Diaz's 
daughter, 102 

Rio Colorado, changes in, 1 1 1 

Rio Grande River, changes 
in, III 

Rio Janeiro, Third Pan- 
American Conference at, 

92 . . 

Rodgers, James L., opinion 
on President Diaz, 178 



250 



Index 



Rome, International Agro- 
nomical Institute at, 1 1 1 

Romero, Matias, bom at Oax- 
aca, I ; publishes Personal 
Memoirs of President Diaz, 
7; Mexican delegate to 
First Pan-American Con- 
ference, 50 ; appointed Am- 
bassador at Washington, 
67; death of, 67; quoted, 
116, 122 

Romero Rubio, Manuel, mem- 
ber of President Lerdo de 
Tejada's Cabinet, 37; fa- 
ther of Mrs. Diaz, 38, 100; 
Secretary of the Interior, 

41 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Ex- 
President, interposes in 
Central America, 89; high 
regard for President Diaz 
of, 121 

Root, Elihu, estimate of 
President Diaz by, iii., 90; 
visits Mexico, 89; eulogy 
on President Diaz by, 90; 
remarks on Mexico by, 90, 

91 

Rural Police improved, 113, 
120 

Russia, Emperor of, invites 
Mexico to Peace Confer- 
ence, 68; decoration to 
President Diaz by, 207 



Salaries of public employees 
taxed, 42; tax abolished, 
66 

Salina Cruz, harbor works 

of. 70, 93. 199 

Salvador, see El Salvador 

Sandford, Edward T., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 180 

San Diego Notario, battle of, 
205 

San Francisco, California, 
Chief Justice Iglesias lands 
at, 28 



Sanitary Code, issued, 52; 
new one promulgated, 58; 
rigidly enforced, 113, 199 

San Jos6 de Costa Rica, Pan- 
American Sanitary Con- 
vention at, 112 

San Lorenzo, battle of, 22, 
205 

San Luis, battle of, 203 

Schley, W. S., opinion on 
President Diaz, 181 

Schools, public, increase of, 

79. 198 

Scott, Nathan B., opmion 
on President Diaz, 181 

Second Pan-American Con- 
ference held in Mexico 
City, 75 

Seminary, National and Pon- 
tifical, of Oaxaca, 2 

Senate of the United States, 
action of, regarding La 
Abra and Weil claims, 71 

Seward, Secretary of State, 
reference to, 91, 216 

Shah of Persia, sends repre- 
sentative to Mexico, 78 

Sherman, J. S., opinion on 
President Diaz, 181 

Sieges, of Oaxaca, 9, 15, 20, 
203, 204, 205; of Taxco, 
14; of Puebla, 13, 21; of 
Mexico City, 22; of Mata- 
moros, 205 

Sierra, Justo, Secretary of 
Public Instruction and 
Fine Arts, 75 

Sifton, Clifford, opinion on 
President Diaz, 182 

Silver in Mexico, production 
of, 115; depreciation of, 

121 

Silver wedding of President 
and Mrs. Diaz, 10 1 

Simmons, Edward J., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 182; 
remarks at banquet of 
Chamber of Commerce of 
State of New York, 213 

Sinaloa, uprising of Lerdo de 
Tejada's partisans in, 32 



Index 



251 



Sisters of Mrs. Diaz, 102 

Slayden, James L., opinion 
on President Diaz, 184 

S o n o r a, campaign against 
Y a q u i Indians in, 93 ; 
strikes at Cananea in, 93 ; 
copper products at Cana- 
nea in, 115 

South American republics, 
strained relations of, 76 

Southern Pacific Railroad 
reaches Mazatlan, 118 

Spain, invades Mexico, 12; 
withdraws troops from 
Mexico, 12; war with the 
United States, 67; decora- 
tion to President Diaz by, 
206 

States of Mexican Republic, 
improvements in, 112, 113 

Steamship lines, new, for 
Mexico, 44 

Stephens, John H., opinion 
on President Diaz, 184 

Stevenson, Adlai E., opinion 
on President Diaz, 185 

St. Louis Exposition, 116 

Stoddard, Henry L., opinion 
on President Diaz, 185 

Strikes at Orizaba and Can- 
anea, 93 

Sulzer, William, opinion on 
President Diaz, 186 

Superior Board of Health, 
labors of, 59, 192 

Surplus of revenues, 63, 120, 
232, 233 

Swanson, Charles A., opinion 
on President Diaz, 186 



Taft, William H., President, 
meets President Diaz, 92, 
93, 124, 210-231; reference 
to, 217; banquet by Presi- 
dent Diaz to, 225, 230; 
toast and remarks of, 222, 
230 

Tamaulipas, uprising in, 32; 
floods in, 121 



Tampico, harbor works of, 
52, 54, 70, 199; yellow 
fever stamped out in, 79; 
gunboat, 121 

TarifE regulations, amend- 
ments of, 66 

Taxco, city of, taken by Gen- 
eral Diaz, 14, 204 

Tecoac, battle of, 28, 205 

Tehuantepec, taking of city 
of, 8, 203 ; Diaz prefect of, 
8 

Tehuantepec Railroad, im- 
provements in, 77, 118 

Tehuitzingo, battle of, 204 

Telegraph lines increased, 33, 
44, 46, 118, 201 

Telegraphy, wireless, in Mexi- 
co, 118, 199, 201 

Tequisistlan, battle of, 205 

Teresa, Mrs., widow of Sena- 
tor, sister of Mrs. Diaz, 
102; son of, partially edu- 
cated in the United States, 
102 

Territory of Lower Califor- 
nia, proposed purchase of, 
5 1 ; President Diaz and 
Mexican people oppose 
purchase of, 51; United 
States Government does 
not consider purchase of, 

51 

Texas, General Escobedo in- 
vades Mexico from, 3 1 ; 
grants to colonists in, 
117 

Textiles, manufacture of, in 
Mexico, 115 

Thompson, David E., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 187 

Tlaxiaco, battle of, 204 

Torre, Ignacio de la, married 
to daughter of President 
Diaz, loi 

Tracewell, R. J., opinion on 
President Diaz, 188 

Trade, foreign, in Mexico, 33, 
47. 87, 119, 202, 233 

Treasury, National, surplus 
in, 63, 120, 232, 233 



252 



Index 



Treaty, of extradition with 
the United States, 49; of 
commerce with Great Brit- 
ain, 50; of commerce with 
Japan, 50; setthng difficul- 
ties with Guatemala, 58; 
of friendship and com- 
merce with Persia, 78; by- 
Central American repub- 
lics, 89; other treaties, no, 
III, 197 

Tulcingo, battle of, 204 

U 

United States, Porfirio Diaz's 
first visit to, 26; Mexico 
pays av/ard of Mixed 
Claims Commission to, 33; 
residence of Mexico's dip- 
lomatic representative in, 
44; Boundary Commission 
of Mexico and, 49; nego- 
tiation of a new extradition 
treaty between Mexico and, 
49; advantages of First 
Pan-American Conference 
to, 50; friendly relations 
between Mexico and, 50; 
Conduct of American Min- 
ister in Costa Rica rebuked 
by, 50; plan for purchase 
of Lower California not 
considered by, 5 1 ; last 
installment of award of 
Mixed Claims Commission 
received by, 52; action in 
boundary dispute regard- 
ing British Guiana by, 60; 
war between Spain and, 67 ; 
good will shown towards 
Mexico by, 70; contro- 
versy as to Pious Fund 
between Mexico and, 76 ; 
settlement of said contro- 
versy between Mexico and, 
77; interposition in Central 
American matters by, 87- 
89; action on border trou- 
bles by, 91; Mexican gun- 
boats built in, 121; econo- 
) 



mic crisis in, 121; geodetic 
survey by Mexico in con- 
nection with, 199 
University, National, inau- 
guration of, 114 



Valley of Mexico, drainage 
works of, 44, 54, 66 

Venezuela, boundary dispute 
between Great Britain and, 
60 ; Mexican claims settled 
by, 78 ; decoration to Presi- 
dent Diaz by, 206 

Vera Cruz, gunboat, 121 

Vera Cruz, President Juarez 
stays at, 9; escape of 
Porfirio Diaz at, 26, 27; 
conspiracy against Presi- 
dent Diaz at, 31; harbor 
works of, 46, 52, 54, 70, 
199; yellow fever stamped 
out in, 79 

Vera Cruz, State of, strikes 
at Orizaba, 93 

Vera Cruz to the Pacific Rail- 
road, 82 

Vice-President, election of, 
79, 80; Ramon Corral elec- 
ted, 80 

Visit, of General Grant to 
Mexico, 32; of President 
and Mrs. Diaz to the 
United States, 38; of Sec- 
retary Root to Mexico, 90 

W 

Walcott, A, D., opinion on 

President Diaz, 188 
War and Navy, Department 

of, 66, 120, 121, 201, 

202 
War, of Reform, 5-1 1 ; of 

FrenchIntervention,i2-2 2 ; 

between the United States 

and Spain, 67 
Warren, Francis E., opinion 

on President Diaz, 189 



Index 



253 



Washington, D. C, visit of 
President Diaz to, 38; resi- 
dence of Mexico's diplo- 
matic representative in, 
44 ; First P a n-American 
Conference at, 50; first 
Mexican Ambassador at, 
67; Conference of Central 
American republics in, 88; 
international congresses 
held in, iii 

Washington's mother, refer- 
ence to, 12 

Webster, Daniel, quoted, 25, 
122 

Weil claim against Mexico, 
rejection of, 71 

Wetmore, George Peabody, 
opinion on President Diaz, 
189 

Wheeler, Benjamin I., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 190 

Willson, Augustus E., opinion 
on President Diaz, 190 

Winthrop, Beekman, opinion 
on President Diaz, 190 

Wireless telegraphy in Mex- 
ico, 118, 199, 201 

Working Woman's Home, 
Mrs. Diaz establishes the, 

lOI 

Wotherspoon, W. W., opin- 
ion on President Diaz, 191 

Wounds received in battle by 
President Diaz, 8, 9 



Wyman, Walter, opinion on 
President Diaz, 192 



Xcalac, wireless station at, 
201 



Yaqui Indians, uprising of, 
44; defeat of, 44; cam- 
paign against, 93 

Yellow fever, disappearance 

of, 59. 79. 113. 192 
Yucatan, State of, uprising 
and defeat of Maya In- 
dians in, 44; settlement 
of boundary question be- 
tween Belize and, 58, in; 
Quintana Roo Territory 
segregated from, 81 



Zacatecas, uprising of Gen- 
eral Garcia de la Cadena 
in State of, 44; end of 
uprising in, 44 
Zaragoza, gunboat, 201 
Zaragoza, Ignacio, General, 
wins battle against French, 
13; praises bravery 01 
Diaz, 13; death of, 13 



3l|.77