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Full text of "Portrait and biographical album of Gratiot county, Mich."

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GRi^TIOT COUNTY, MICH. 




gOF^TI^AITS AND BlOGl^APHIGAL Sl^BHiGHBS 
ppoginent and I^epPe^qtatiVe ditizeq^ of tp (JountJ 

TOGETHER WITH FORTH AITS AND UlOdRAPIUES OF ALL THE (iOVERXORS OF MICHJGA N 
AND OF THE PRESIDENTS O? THE UNITED STATES. 



ALSO CONTAINING A COMPLETE IlISTOUY OF THE COUNTY, I'ltOM ITS EAKI.IKST SETTLEJIEN' 

TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



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FIRST PRESIDENT. 




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i^(^^'f^<^(^i^,^f^^f^f^<^<^?sg:m^t^^^c^/^j^^'m^^^^^^ 



GEOBOE WASHIKGTOK 





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HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland G>., Va., 
Feb. 2 2, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
N J iJi"^ I ^^^ became a prosperous 

planter. He had tveo sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools aObrded, save for a short time after he left 
scIkwI, when he received private instruction in 
^ .^ mathematics. His spelling was rather defective. 



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Remarkable stories are told of his great physical 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
acrive service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George, 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was lo pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. The 



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trip was a perilous one, and several times he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
. commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
docks defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was leveling my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not bom to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 
him. 

After having been ^>it, years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
took advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
to resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the ix)rt 
of Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if ix)ssible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under ever}' possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 



commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 7 89, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country ; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the countr)% 
owmgto the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean ; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 1 2, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in his throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne with military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tall, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beauriful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without being dull. 



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SECOND PRESIDENT. 



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i -^^p<&- JOHN ABAMS, 




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OHN ADAMS, the second 
President and the first Vice- 
President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy),Mass., and about ten 
^' miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Vdams, emigrated from England 
x)ut 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams, His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
"school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, of diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature," 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
> tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
\ 1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
'K and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
jf marris^e, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
^^ tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
V^^ stcpstoward holding a town meeting, and the resolu- 






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tions he offered on the subject became very ix)pular 
throughout the Province, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocates of the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himself 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of five 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with the 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife, 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or will 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, * that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.* The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows* 



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games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not.** 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France^ and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such proposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negoriated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to go to England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping and despond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, i785,Cx)ngress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to ap|X)int a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President,though not without much opix)sition. 
Serving in this office four years,he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in polirics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 



S) 



French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
class of atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were stix>ngly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these disdnguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strenj^th 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his i)eculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporring. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declararion of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his l)ed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER," When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannops, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, "It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spirit into the bands of his God. 

The j>ersonal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests,was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abnipt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 



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ST 



THIRD PRESIDENT. 



27 










THOMAS JBFFERSON. 



HOMAS JEFFERSON was 
born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
well, Albermarle county, Va. 
His parents were' Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter bom in Lon- 
don. To them were bom six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obode of fashion 
and splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences,that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
^ previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
"j hours a day to hard study, allowing himself for ex- 
*\^ ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
/ high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 



■'s. 



there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow. 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon, 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 ^^ was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consi^ed of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776. What must have been the feelings of that 



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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



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man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
soverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
of the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, us Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monticello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died, 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet This position he resigned 
Jan. J, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquiUty and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purjwse of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a f:ir more dangerous 
character. 

In r8o9, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and uiX)n the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 









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sary of the Declaration of American Independence, V 
great preparations were made in every part of the •' 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the fraraer, 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expresied the earnest wish that 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 
divided. 

In person Mr, Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver* 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discemable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 



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FOURTH PRFSIDENT. 









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AMES MADISON, "Father 
of the Constitution/* and fourth 
^President of the United States, 
was born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great republic were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 
reward. 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
j esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
ix>litical attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
18 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 



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prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 i, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subse- 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and agaihst revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-Hovir.g voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 






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f intellectual, social and moral worth, contnbuted not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the G>ntinental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his tenn having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an eflkient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention ; and the present Consri- 
turion of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little power at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the peopleof the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
rj and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
^ to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
^ went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of ftmarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has consrituted our republican court as Mrs. 
Madison. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 



JAMES MADISON. 






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British orders in council desttoyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ships side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 181 2, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, 18 13, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infant 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
18 1 3, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
ditator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the door to, 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidcnrial 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, i8i5,the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 18 17, his second lerm of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July la, 1849. 



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^'l AMES MONROE, the fifth 
jL President of The United States, 
'^ was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia lo deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
Great Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
Had he been born ten years before it is highly 






dence 

probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hoj^e- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came inuring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
lo deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and esjx)used the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 



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for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 
shoulder. 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry ; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the stafl* of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy- 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefl*erson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun- 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 



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he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many -others of the Republican parly, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathised with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 
authorize. 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
. James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
right equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold' worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed b/ the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 



Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three years. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Their united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United Slates. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the worid. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying rimes, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return of 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison s adminstrarion. At the elec- 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the ** Monroe doctrine,'* 

This famous doctrine, since known as the ** Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not ^lish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any jx)rtion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
powers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States.** This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his second term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1831. 















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SIXTH PRESIDENT, 






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OHN QUINCY ADAMS, the 
sixth President of the United 
^States, was born in the rural 
home of his honored father, 
John Adams, in Quincy, Mass., 
on the I ith cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker 5 Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 
Charlestown. 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. Again 
John Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to study; then accom pained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 178 1, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
years of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence, 



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in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father 10 
Paris, travehng leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent; 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. After 
a short visit to England he relumed to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the worid, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive; 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, .resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisUng them in negoriating a commercial treaty with 
Great Britian. After thus spending a fortnight in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in Ix)ndon, he met with despatches 
direcUng him to the court of Berlin, but requesting 
him to remain in London unril he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in London ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 

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/OlfJV^ QUINCY ADAMS. 






He reacl)^ Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purposes of his mission, he solicited his 
recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
. familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while ke 
kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 1819, for the United States. On the 
1 8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roes administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe s second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciring campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine ; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault \\\)ow 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
the past history of our country than the abuse which 



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was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams ; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his libraiy 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew- 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen ^ 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- N^ 
sentative, towering alx>ve all his peers, ever ready to ^^ 
do brave battle* for freedom, and winning the title of ^ 
"the old man eloquent." {J\x)n taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in Its moral daring and heroism. For i>ersisting in 
presenting petitions for the al)olition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination : 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed torei)eat every night, before 
he slept, the prajer which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " TAis ts Ihe end of earth ."then after a moment s 
pause he added, ^' I am eontetti!' These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man E1oc|uent.** 













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SEVENTH PRESIDENT. 



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/ 

t «-J^^il^^ NDREW JACKSON, the 

^L/Mm^ mW^^^^Ui seventh President of the 
United States, was born in 
VVaxhaw settlement, N. C, 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father s death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 
tractive. 

Wlien only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
i7»i, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. ** I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desjjerate 
blow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
\^ mother was successful in obtaining their exchan^^e. 



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and took her sick boys home. After a long illness 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such as 
working at the saddler^s trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of Nonh Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 17 91, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into djsfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in 
the Nadonal House of Representatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 






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sessions, — a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
*• wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which ix)sition he held for six years. 

When the war of 181 2 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time (ien. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack iijxin New Orleans, where Gen, Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez ; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions ; and he i)ecame the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of **01d Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe [)istol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of theTallaixjosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, (xen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 



of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an artiple suply of arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revoking. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
ix)wer of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than (ien. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault. The battle was long anddoubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which .soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for (ren. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of alx)ut 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of (»en. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by*Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 









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EIGHTH PRESIDENT. 



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ARTIN VAN BUREN, the 
eighth President of the 
United States, was lx)rn at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a fanner, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate educarion, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
a lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending six years in an office in his native village, 



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he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jeff'erson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that rime the Fed- V 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him, 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, the 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, 
constantly gaining strength by contending in the 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the vicrim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In t8i 2, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
.the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison s adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 






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the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage ** which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 
State. 

In 182 1 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
the Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
"State Rights*' view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret spiings of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
to ratify the nomination, and he returned 



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home, apparently untroubled; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-electbn 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite ; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu- 
tive. On the 2oth of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administradon was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in- 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald^ 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this rime until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 



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ILLIAM HENRY HARRI- 
SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, was early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 
speaker. 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
William Henry, of course enjoyed 
in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cuUivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
^ having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 



dent Washington. He was then but ig years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then 3l\>- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 
position. 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called ** The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap- 
lX)inted by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these resiXDnsible 
duties may be infened from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all ftie 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 
settlement 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. About 



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WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, 



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the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or "The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or "The Prophet.** 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in ai>y enterprise m which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites ui)on the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
anorator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator : he was, 
in the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 18 12, his army began* its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtremenis on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
litde army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
ous yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
unril day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing the foe. 



I 

X 



Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from theCan- 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The honzon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the setders. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be diflicult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re- 
sponsibilities. 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1 8 16, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District, of Ohio. In Congress he proved an . 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1 81 9, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry-Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren 's term, he was re-nomicated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison s election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 






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TENTH PRESIDENT. 



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JOHN TYLER. 

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OHN TYLER, the tenth 
Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
i et of the court in which he was 

not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
^ Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
I was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
^ unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General Govern- 



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raent, a protective tariff, and advocatmg a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes. Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his- professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he s[X)ke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nuUifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, — a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a split in the Democratic 






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Vf party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
^'\ fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
/^ ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
*'^* forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
T sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
^ vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1 84 1, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time. President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
op|X)sed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record, 
(jen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 



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approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he '/ 
proix>sed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and ' • 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. ;' 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. ! 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- \ 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms, y The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. AH the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs ^ 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciHate. He 
appointed a new cabmet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vitu])eration. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his terra, 
he gave his whole influence to the supjwrt of Mr, 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither j)arty, and 
probably to his own unspeakable lelief. His first wife. 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, PresidentTyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Charles -city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with mformation from 
books and expaience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
moans for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. C7al- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a meniber of their Congress : 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 



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ELEVENTH PRESIDENT. 



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JAMES K. POLK. 






AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
President of the United States, 
was born in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C.,Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the fornjer a son 
of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1S06, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk fainly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk si)ent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
niother was a superior woman, of strong common 
"S sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother s training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct-r 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he miglit not be able to endure a 



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sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 
. This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 181 5, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 
service. 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, lx)th in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk s health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he wentf to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably l)een 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called ui)on to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 



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vj^ courteous in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 

f •? nature in the joys and griefs of others which ever gave 

t:;, him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 

J strong influence towards the election of his friend, 



JARfES K. POLK. 









Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
.^ for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
A tinned in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
^ Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
^ tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
^ passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
S March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southem usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 1 4th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 184 1, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and^the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
r ' V ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
N^ other States. In the meantime. Gen. Taylor was sent 



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with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the . Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion, "was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. TJje day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused^ 
It was by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

* To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-fgur years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge — was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 15th of June, 1849, i" ^^^ fifty-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 



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TWELFTH PRESIDENT. 



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ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth 
President of the United States, 
^was bom on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, fearless and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 18 1 2, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison,on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
led by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 



company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 181 2, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every jxissible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to liis jxjst. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses* 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Major Taylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 



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ZACHARY TAYLOR, 



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tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty -four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to comi)el 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefi by treaty, 
had promised they should do. The services rendered 
here secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
to the rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula, Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Creorgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for fist. years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palnia, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over tlie 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
yki^ sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready.' 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in jx>litics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had been long years in the public service found 
their claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 






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had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It Is said that Daniel Webster, m his haste re- 
marked, *' It is a nomination not fit to be made," 

Gen. Taylor was not an elo(]uent si)eaker nor a fine 
wnter His friends took possession of him, and pre- < 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opix>sing candidates, — 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , exi>edi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slaver)' 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 
Indians. 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but liule 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the 9th of July, 1850. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — " With a good store ot 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a co.xcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
'touch with a pair of tongs.* 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth s spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind.** 



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THTRTEENTH PRESIDENT. 



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ILLARD FILLMORE, thir- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of Januar}', 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. . She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

Tn consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy ; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught hira to revere the Bible, 
and had laid Ihe foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 



enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate; 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, — Judge Walter 
Wood, — who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
and then enters a law office, who is by no means as 



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well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas, He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature, still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degree the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress. He entered that troubled 
arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him strength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 






Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in \ 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- \ 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- , 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in trumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesofZachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of St^te. 

Mr. Fillmore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measures of transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmore s adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In r 85 6, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874.. 



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FOURTEENTH PRESIDENT 



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RANKLIN PIERCE, the 
fourteenth President of the 
'' United States, was bom in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revohitionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could rlrsiio, :in intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
! doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Witliout de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar ; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me. He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 



genial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Uix)n graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
jKjlitical career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of ix)litical life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied. Of the 



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three sons who were bom to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States ; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce s health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he en^barked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27 th of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a "Northern man with Southern principles.*' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen, Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 



His administtation proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy l>e- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an " inepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of aff*airs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly. alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unix)pular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suff"ering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 



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FIFTEENTH PRESIDENT 



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AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic sppt in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was- a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1783, with little prot>erty save his 
own strong arms. Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 



abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 
facility. 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 18 12, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate one of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1 831, he rerired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission, he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Uix)n his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repri- 



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sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received ; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Polk s accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the resix)nsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Crande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 
movement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1S50, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side ; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
ceived 114 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The ix>i)ular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th,* 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in ix>litical principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear w\ioxi the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
In this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered. He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 



ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 1^ 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan s administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion s share of the territoi}' of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan s sympathy with the pro-slaver^' 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no ix)wer to prevent it, one of 
tlie most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no ix>wer to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
» was not the doctrine of Aitdrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand w\xm his sword-hilt, he exclaimed, " The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston: Fort Sumpter 
was l)e>'ieged; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized; our de|X)ts of military stores were jilun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
api^ropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked -for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 
scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country V 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 186S. 



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SIXTEENTH PRESIDENT, 






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^1 BR AH AM LINCOLN, the 
1^ sixteenth President of the 
¥^United States, was lx)rn in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
I S09. About the year 1 7 80, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
'"^ Lincoln left Virginia with his 
family and moved into the then 
wildsof Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily approached by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme ix)verty with ^so. 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth forever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our worW. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log -cabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none ; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he buil! a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
" All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son "I owe to my angel-mother. " 
When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 



cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 
memory. 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. Thore were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham s sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., III. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with com, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education, and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
Gods word, "Thou shalt not take the name of the 
I^rd thy God in vain ;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven- 



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ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



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ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointment of Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post>ofiice was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected. Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1 839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began The practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between' Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. I>>uglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
slavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
the Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the 1 6th of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called ** The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
prominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
and as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to tl\at of Washington, 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured ui^n this good 



and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this ' 
high position. In February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was frought 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had . 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to" get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexi)ected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Con- , 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train hud 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration havi the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell tu 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, both personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capitakjust as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had been 
made for his assassination,and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would Le present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the lx)x where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its niler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of Washington s, its father; hiscouritr>'- 
mcn being unable to decide which is the greater. 



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S£ ^ENTEENTH PRES/BEiVT. 





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NDREW JOHNSON, seven- 
teenth President of the United 
States. The e;irly life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of ix>verty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was lx)rn December 29, 1808, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
''\)oox whites '* of the South, were 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while heiorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor o{ his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British slates- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow- workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 



pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed on- 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 
reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos- 
sessed some education. Under her instrucrions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man*s party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of RepresentaUves of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1H40 '* stumped the State,** advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to those 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a sf)eaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these resi)onsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abil- 



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ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had ^yarmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the free States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin : 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. " Sir," 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston- Baltimore convention of i860, he 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 1861, when the purjwse of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter inconsistency with, and the most violent 



opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress ; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors,** the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 2y 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it voteui3on all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the no( guilty 
side would have sustained the imi^eachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though im potently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until •187 5. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875; ^^^ ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 



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EIGHTEENTH PRESIDENT. 



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LYSSES S. GRANT, the 
eighteenth President of the 
^United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town. Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 
Indians. 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibirion of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resacade la Pal ma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 






side of the animal, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 



From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 
pultepec. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States ; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, — 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the Stale, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of- Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 15th of 



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ULYSSES S. GRANT. 









June, 1 86 1, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a Major-General, and the military' 
district of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies* lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and tactical meas- 
ures put the Union army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon the duties of his new office. 



Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge 



4 



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the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- |^ 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- k 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5 th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selecrion was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. It 
is not too much to say that his modest, courteous, and 
dignified demeanor in the presence of the most dis- 
tinguished men in the different nations in the world, 
reflected honor upon the Republic which he so long 
and so faithfully served. The country felt a great 
pride in his reception. Upon his arrival in San Fran- 
cisco, Sept. 20, 1879, the city authorities gave him a 
fine reception. After lingering in the Golden State 
for a while, he began his tour through the States, 
which extended North and South, everywhere mark- 
ed by great acclamation and splendid ovations. 



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NINETEENTH PRESIDENT. 



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UTHERFORD B. HAYES, 
the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was bom in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1 280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was bom in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was bom in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel and grandfather of President Hayes, was 
bom in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was 



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born. He was married, in September, 18 13, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been ^ 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The joumey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sard is, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 



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subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighlx>rs were in the habit of in- 
<}uiring from time to lime " if Mrs. Hayes* baby died 
last nights" On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar tenns with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
him, said in a bantering way, ** That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

•* You need not laugh, said Mrs. Haves. " You 
wait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 
mother. 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deei>est interest 
in his education ; and as the l)oy*s health had ini- 
piDved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at C'ambridge, Mass., where Vie re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 
fession. 

In 1849 he moved to Cincmnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a ix)werful influence uix)n his subse- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members such men as Chief Justice Salmon P.Chase, 



Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in ever)- respect, as 
ever> body knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor uix>n American woman- 
hood. The Literary Club brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
(Qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 
modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominated to the ofl[ice of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 86 1, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
C>ctol)er, 186 1, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevettcd 
Major-General,*Hbr gallant and distirguished ser\ices 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the amiy ; but he finally declared, ** I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
auf;urated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with sarisfacrion to his party, 
but his administration was an average one 



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TWENTIETH PRESIDENT 



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AMES A. GARFIELD, twen- 
tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
1 83 1, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 
ment. 

The house in which James A. was 
l>orn was not unlike tht? houses of 
f poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
twecn the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
hard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
their four children — Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
James. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
tracted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
this time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
tell how much James was indebted to his biother s 
toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his fathers death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
ters live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
mother in her struggles to keep the little family to- 



gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor, 
the humblest fjiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The jxxjrest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

. The highest ambition of young Garfield until he 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making maifey applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he went 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a inember. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
** exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 



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JAMES A. GARFIELD. 



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** President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious conrictbns. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christun 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called ' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian comnmnions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
tarian charity for all *who love our Lord in sincerity.*" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. ii, rSsS, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the OTd flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalnr, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army.** He was with Gen. Buell s army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 



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his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars 01 the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gen. Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddin^. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. There he remamed by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
belter than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June,«of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened Us existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favo.* with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no further 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hojie. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and Au^st, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J, on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
worid wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 



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TWENTY^FIRST PRESIDENT. 



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HESTER A. ARTHUR, 

twenty-first President of the 

United States, was bom in 

Franklin County, Vermont, on 

theiifthof October, 1830, andis 

the oldest of a family of two 

sons and five daughters. His 

father was the Rev. Dr. William 

Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who 

emigrated to this countr)* from 

the county Antrim, Ireland, in 

his 1 8th year, and died in 1875, in 

Newtonville, near Albany, after a 

long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, Schenectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
in Vennont for two years, and at 
the expiration of that tim^came to 
New York, with J500 in his ^xxiket, 
and entered the office of ex- Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start General Arthur 
soon afterward married the daughter of Lieutenant 






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Hemdon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 
children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon- 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs. 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, (o) 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a h) 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- ^ 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride (^. 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly v^ 



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followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that foj^nded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge- Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed hira Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan s term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the leading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
was Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few month? only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin s bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 



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tionswere throbbing in unison, longing for the le- ^ 
covery of the noble, the good President The remaxk- / 
able patience that he manifested during those hours ^ 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly nK>re th<an human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur s every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every acdon displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- \ 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested \ 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most t 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New Yorit, 
Sept. 20, 1 88 1. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duries of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President s long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and srill farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands ; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he has happily surprised the Nation, acting so 
justly, so wisely, so well, that but few have criticised 
his administration. Should he continue during the 
remainder of his term to pursue the wise policy he 
has followed thus far, we believe President Arthur's 
administration will go down in history as one of the 
wisest and most satisfactory our country has ever 
enjoyed. His highest ambition seems to be to do his 
duty to the whole Nation, even to the sacrifice of his 
warmest personal friends. \Vith the good of the 
people at heart, and guided by the wisdom already 
displayed, he will surprise his opponents, gratify his 
friends, and bless the American Republic, during 
the years he occupies the Presidential chair. 









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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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TEPHEN T. MASON, the 
first Governor of Michigan, was 
a son of Gen. John T. Mason, 
of Kentucky, but was born in 
Virginia, in 1812. At the age 
of 19 he was appointed Secre- 
tary of Michigan Territory, and 
served in that capacity during the 
administration of Gov. George B. 
Porter. Upon the death of Gov. 
Porter, which occurred on the 6th of 
July, 1834, Mr. Mason became Act- 
ing Governor. In October, 1835, he 
was elected Governor under the St ate 
organization, and immediately en- 
tered upon the performance of the 
' duties of the office, although the 
State was not yet admitted into the Union. After 
the State was admitted into the Union, Governor 
Mason was re-elected to the position, and served with 
credit to himself and to the advantage of the State. 
He died Jan. 4, 1843. The principal event during 
Governor Mason *s official career, was that arising from 
the disputed southern boundary of the State. 

Michigan claimed for her southern boundary a line 
running east across the peninsula from the extreme 
southern point of Lake Michigan, extending through 
Lake Erie, to the Pennsylvania line. This she 
claimed as a vested right — a right accruing to her by 
compact. This compact was the ordinance of 1787, 
the parties to which were the original 13 States, and 
the territory northwest of the Ohio ; and, by the suc- 
cession of parties under statutory amendments to the 
oidinance and laws of Congress — the United States on 
the one part, and each Territory northwest of the 
Ohio, as far as affected by their provisions, on the 



other. Michigan, therefore, claimed it under the prior 
grant, or assignation of boundary. 

Ohio, qn the other hand, claimed that the ordinance 
had been superseded by the Constitution of the 
United States, and that Congress had a right to regu- 
late the boundary. It was also claimed that the 
Constitution of the State of Ohio having described- a 
different line, and Congress having admitted the State 
under that Constitution, without mentioning the sub- 
ject of the line in dispute. Congress had thereby given 
its consent to the line as laid down by the Constitu- 
tion of Ohio. This claim was urged by Ohio at 
some periods of the controversy, but at others she ap- 
peared to regard the question unsettled, by the fact 
that she insisted upon Congress taking action in re- 
gard to the boundary. Accordingly, we find that, in 
18 1 2, Congress authorized the Surveyor-General to 
survey a line, agreeably to the sfct, to enable the people 
of Ohio to form a Constitution and State government. 
Owing to Indian hostilities, however, the line was not 
run till 1 818. In 1820, the question in dispute 
underwent a rigid examination by the Committee on 
Public Lands. The claim of Ohio was strenuously 
urged by her delegation, and as ably opposed by Mr. 
Woodbridge, the then delegate from Michigan. The 
result was that the committee decided unanimously 
in favor of Michigan ; but, in the hurry of business, 
no action was taken by Congress, and the question 
remained open till Michigan organized her State gov- 
ernment. 

The Territory in dispute is about five miles in 
width at the west end, and about eight miles in width 
at the east end, and extends along the whole north- 
ern line of Ohio, west of Lake Erie. The line claimed 
by Michigan was known as the ** Fulton line," and 
that claimed by Ohio was known as the" Harris line," 



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from the names of the surveyors. The territory was 
valuable for its rich agricultural lands ; but the chief 
value consisted in the fact that the harbor on the 
Maumee River, where now stands the flourishing city 
of Toledo, was included within its limits The town 
originally bore the name of Sw^n Creek, afterwards 
Port Lawrence, then Vestula, and then Toledo. 

In February, 1835, the Legislature of Ohio passed 
an act extending the jurisdiction of the State over 
the territory in question; erected townships and 
directed them to hold elections in April following. It 
also directed Governor Lucus to appoint three com- 
missioners to survey and re-mark the Harris line ; and 
named the first of April as the day to commence the 
survey. Acting Governor Mason, however, anticipated 
this action on the part of the Ohio Legislature, sent 
a special message to the Legislative Council, appris- 
ing it of Governor Lucas' message, and advised imme- 
diate action by that body to anticipate and counteract 
the proceedings of Ohio. Accordingly, on the 1 2th 
of February, the council passed an act making it a 
crimmal offence, punishable by a heavy fine, or im- 
prisonment, for any one to attempt to exercise any 
official functions, or accept any office within the juris- 
dicrion of Michigan, under or by virture of any au- 
thority not derived from the Territory, or the United 
States. On the 9th of March, Governor Mason wrote 
General Brown, then in command of the Michigan 
militia, directing him to hold himself in readiness to 
meet the enemy in the field in case any attempt was 
made on the part of Ohio to carry out the provisions 
of that act of the Legislature. On the 31st of March, 
Governor Lucus, with his commissioners, arrived at 
Perrysburgh, on their way to commence re-surveying 
the Harris line. He was accompanied by General 
Bell and staff, of the Ohio Militia, who proceeded to 
muster a volunteer force of about 600 men. This 
was soon accomplished, and the force fully armed and 
equipped. The force then went into camp at Fort 
Miami, to await the Governor s orders. 

In the meantime. Governor Mason, with General 
Brown and staff, had raised a force 800 to 1200 
strong, and were in possession of Toledo. General 
Brown's Staff consisted of Captain Henry Smith, of 
Monroe, Inspector; Major J. J. UUman, of Con- 
stantine. Quartermaster; William E. Broadman, of 
Detroit, and Alpheus Felch,of Monroe, Aids-de- 
camp. When Governor Lucas observed the deter- 
mined bearing of the Michigan braves, and took note 



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of their number, he found it convenient to content 
himself for a time with '* watching over the border." 
Several days were passed in this exhilarating employ- ^ 
mentf and just as Governor Lucas had made up his 
mind to do something rash, two commissioners ar- v,: 
rived from Washington on a mission of peace. They 
remonstrated with Gov. Lucus, and reminded him of 
the consequences to himself and his State if he per- 
sisted in his attempt to gain possession of the disputed 
territory by force. After several conferences with 
both governors, the commissioners submitted proposi- 
tions for their consideration. 

Governor Lucas at once accepted the propositions, ^ 
and disbanded his forces. Governor Mason, on the 
other hand, refused to accede to the arrangement, and 
declined to compromise the rights of his people by a 
surrender of possession and jurisdiction. When Gov- 
ernor Lucus disbanded his forces, however, Governor 
Mason partially followed suit, but sUll held himself 
in readiness to meet any emergency that might arise. 

Governor Lucus now supposed that his way was A 
clear, and that he could re-mark the Harris line with- ^ 
out being molested, and ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with their work. 

In the meantime. Governor Mason kept a watch- 
ful eye upon the proceedings. General Brown sent 
scouts through the woods to watch their movements, 
and report when operations were commenced. When 
the surveying party got within the county of Lena- 
wee, the under-sheriff of that county, armed with a 
warrant, and accompanied by a posse, suddenly made 
his appearance, and succeeded in arresUng a portion 
of the party. The rest, including the commissioners, 
took to their heels, and were soon beyond the dis- 
puted territory. They reached Perrysburgh the fol- 
lowing day in a highly demoralized condition, and 
reported they had been attacked by an overwhelm- 
ing force of Michigan malitia, under command of 
General Brown. 

This summary breaking up of the surveying party 
produced the most tremendous excitement throughout 
Ohio. Governor Lucas called an extra session of the 
Legislature. But little remains to be said in reference 
to the " war." The question continued for some time 
to agitate the minds of the opposing parties ; and the 
action of Congress was impatiently awaited. Michigan 
was admitted into the Union on the condition that 
she give to Ohio the disputed territory, and accept 
io return the Northern Peninsula, which she did. 



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SECOND GOVERNOR OF MICHIGAN. 















ILLIAM WOODBRIDGE, 
^second Governor of Michigan, 
was born at Norwich, Conn., 
Aug. 20, 1780, and died at 
Detroit Oct. 20, i86i. He 
was of a family of three brothers 
and two sisters. His father, 
Dudley Woodbridge, removed to 
Marietta, Ohio, about 1 7 90. The 
life of Wm. Woodbridge, by Chas. 
Lauman, from which this sketch 
is largely com piled, mentions noth- 
ing concerning his early education 
beyond the fact that it was such as 
was afforded by the average school 
of the time, except a year with the 
French colonists at GalUpolts, 
where he acquired a knowledge of 
the French language. It should 
be borne in mind, however, that 
home education at that time was 
an indispensable feature in the 
training of the young. To this and 
and to a few studies well mastered, 
is due that strong mental discipline which has served 
as a basis for many of the grand intellects that have 
adorned and helped to make our National history. 
Mr. Woodbridge studied law at Marietta, having 
as a fellow student an inrimate personal friend, a 
young man subsequently distinguished, but known 
at that time simply as Lewis Cass. He graduated at 
the law school in Connecticut, after a course there of 
nearly three years, and began to practice at Marietta 
in 1 806. In June, 1 806, he married, at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, Juleanna, daughter of John Trumbell, a 
distinguished author and judge ; and author of the 






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peom McFingal, which, during a dark period of the 
Revolution, wrought such a magic* change upon the 
spirits of the colonists. He was happy in his domes • 
tic relations until the death of Mrs. W., Feb. 2, 19, i860. 

Our written biographies necessarily speak more 
fully of men, because of their active participation in 
public affairs, but human actions are stamped upon 
the page of time and when the scroll shall be unrolled 
the influence of good women upon the history of the 
world will be read side by side with the deeds of men. 
How much success and renown in life many men owe 
to their wives is probably little known. Mrs. W. en- 
joyed the best means of early education that the 
country afforded, and her intellectual genius enabled 
her to improve her advantages. During her life, side 
by side with the highest type of domestic and social 
graces, she manifested a keen intellectuality that 
formed the crown of a faultless chaiacter. She was 
a natural poet, and wrote quite a large number of fine 
verses, some of which are preserved in a printed 
memorial essay written upon the occasion of her 
death. In this essay, it is said of her '*to contribute 
even in matters of minor importance, to elevate the 
reputation and add to the well being of her husband 
in the various stations he was called upon to fill, gave 
her the highest satisfaction " She was an invalid 
during the latter portion of her life, but was patient 
and cheerful to the end. 

In 1807, Mr. W. was chosen a representative to the 
General Assembly of Ohio, and in 1809 was elected to A^ 
the Senate, continuing a member by re-election until 
his removal from the State. He also held, by ap- 
pointthent, during the rime the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney for his county. He took a leading part in 
the Legislature, and in 181 2 drew up a declaration and 



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WOODBRIDGE. 



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and attracted great attention, endorsing, in strongest 
and most emphatic terms, the war measures of Presi- 
dent Madison. During the period from 1804 to 18 14 
the two law students, Woodbridge and Cass, had be- 
come widely separated. The latter was GovcTiK>r of 
the Territory of Michigan under the historic **(*ovemor 
and Judges" plan, with the mdisi)ensable rwjuisitc of a 
Secretary of the Terrilorry. This latter position was, 
in 18 1 4, without solicitation on his part, tendered to 
Mr. W. He accepted the position with some hesita- 
tion, and entered upon its duties as soon as he could 
make the necessary arrangements for leaving Ohio. 
The office of Secretary involved also the duties of 
collectorof customsatthe portof I>etroit, atwi during 
the frequent absences of the Governor, the dischargeof 
of his duties, also including those of Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs. Mr. W. officiated as (Governor for 
about two years out of the eight years that he held the 
office of Secretary I - nder the administration of "Gov- 
ernor and Judges," which the people of the Territory 
preferred for economical reasons, to continue some time 
after their numbers entitled them to a more popular 
representative system, they were allowed no delegate 
in Congress. Mr. W., as a sort of informal agent of 
the people, by correspondence and also by a visit to 
the National capital, so clearly set forth the demand 
for representation by a delegate, that an act was 
passedin Congress in 18 19 authorizing one to be chosen. 
Under this act Mr. W. was elected by the concurrence 
of all parties. His first action in Congress was to secure 
the passage of a bill recognizing and confirming the 
old French land titles in the Territory according to 
the terms of the treaty of peace with Great Britain 
at the close of the Revolution ; and another for the 
construction of a Government road through the "black 
swamps" from the Miami River to Detroit, thus open- 
ing a means of land transit between Ohio and Mich- 
igan. He was influential in securing the passage of 
bills for the construction of Government roads from 
Detroit to Chicago, and Detroit to Fort Gratiot, and 
for the improvement of La Plaisance Bay. The ex- 
pedition for the exploration of the country around 
Lake Superior and in the valley of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, projected by Governor Cass, was set on foot 
by means of representations made to the head of the 
department by Mr. W. While in Congress he stren- 
uously maintained the ri^t of Michigan to the strip 
of territory now forming the northern boundary of 
Ohio, which formed the subject of such grave dispute 
between Ohio and Michigan at the time of the ad- 
mission of the latter into the Union. He served 
but one term as delegate to Congress, de- 
clining further service on account of personal and 
family considerations. Mr. VV. continued to discharge 
the duties of Secretary of the Territory up to the time 
its Government passed into the *'second grade.** 

In 1824, he was appointed one of a board of 
commissioners for adjusting private land claims in 



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the Territory, and was engaged also in the practice of 
his profession, having the best law library in the Ter- 
ritory. In 1828, upon the recommendation of the 
Governor, Judges and others, he was appointed by the 
President, J. <^. Adams, to succeed Hon. James VVith- 
erell, who had resigned as a Judge of what is conven- 
tionally called the **Suprerae Court** of the Territory. 
This court was apparently a continuation of the Terri- 
torial Court, under the "first grade" or **(k)vemor and 
Judges" system. Although it was supreme in its ju- 
dicial functions within the Territory-, its powers aind 
dudes were of a very general character. 

In 1832, the term of his appointment as Judge ex- 
piring, President Jackson appointed a successor, it is 
supposed on politica] grounds, much to the disappoint- 
ment of the pubBc and the bar of the Territory. The 
partisan feeling of the time extended into the Terri- 
tory, and its people began to think of assuming the 
dignity of a State government. Party lines becom- 
ing very sharply drawn, he identified himself with 
the Whigs and was elected a member of the Conven- 
tion of 1835, which formed the first State Constitution. 
In 1837 he was elected amember of tFe State Senate. 

This sketch has purposely dealt somewhat in detail 
with what may be called Judge W*s. earlier career, 
because it is closely identified with the early his- 
tory of the State, and the development of its politi- 
cal system. Since the organization of the State Gov- 
ernment the history of Michigan is more familiar, and 
hence no review of Judge W s career as Governor 
and Senator will be attempted. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 1839, under a popular impression that the 
affairs of the State had not been prudently adminis- 
tered by the Democrats. He served as Governor but ' 
little more than a year, when he was elected to the 
Senate of the United States. 

His term in the Senate practically closed his polit- 
ical life, although he was strongly urged by many 
prominent men for the WTiig nomination for Vice 
President in 1848. 

Soon after his appointment as Judge in 1828, Gov- 
ernor W. took up his residence on a tract of land 
which he owned in the township of Spring Wells, a 
short distance below what was then the corporate lim- 
its of Detroit, where he resided during the remainder 
of his life. Both in his public papers and private 
communications, Governor W. shows himself a mas- 
ter of language; he is fruitful in simile and illustra- 
tion, logical in arrangement, happy in the choice and 
treatment of topics, and terse and vigprous in expres- 
sion. Judge W. was a Congregationalist. His opinions 
on all subjects were decided; he was earnest and 
energetic, courteous and dignified, and at times ex- 
hibited a vein of fine humor that was the more at- 
tractive because not too often allowed to come to the 
surface. His letters and addresses show a deep a.nd 
earnest affection not only for his ancestral home, l>ut 
the home of liis adoption and for friends and family. 



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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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tJOHN S. BARRY 





OHN STEWARD BARRY, 
I Governor of Michigan from 
Jan. 3, 1842, to Jan. 5, 1846, 
and from Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 
I, 1852, was born at Amherst, 
N. H., Jan. 29, 1802. His par- 
ents, John and Ellen (Steward) 
Barry, early removed to Rocking- 
ham, Vt., where he remained until 
he became of age, working on his 
father's farm, and pursuing his 
studies at the same time. He mar- 
ried Mary Kidder, of Grafton, Vt., 
and in 1824 went to Georgia, Vt,, 
where he had charge of an academy 
for two years, meanwhile studying 
law. He afterward practiced law in 
that State. While he was in Georgia he was for some 
time a member of the Governor s staff, with the title 
of Governor's Aid, and at a somewhat earlier period 
was Captain of a company of State militia. In 183 1 
he removed to Michigan, and settled at White Pigeon, 
where he engaged in mercantile business with I. W. 
WiUard. 
Four years after, 1834, Mr. Barry removed to Con- 



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stantine and continued his mercantile pursuits. He 
became Justice of the Peace at White Pigeon, Mich.i 
in 1831, and held the office until the year 1835. 
Mr. Barry's first public office was that of a member 
of the first constitutional convention, which assembled 
and framed the constitution upon which Michigan 
was admitted into the Union. He took an important 
and prominent part in the proceedings of that body, 
and showed himself to be a man of far more than 
ordinary ability. 

Upon Michigan being admitted into the Union, 
Mr. Barry was chosen State Senator, and so favorably 
were his associates impressed with his abilities at the 
first session of the Legislature that they looked to him 
as a party leader, and that he should head the State 
ticket at the- following election. Accordingly he re- 
ceived the nomination for Governor at the hands 
of his party assembled in convention. He was 
elected, and so popular was his administration that, in 
1842, he was again elected. During these years 
Michigan was embarrassed by great financial diffi- 
culties, and it was through his wisdom and sound judg- 
ment that the State was finally placed upon a solid 
financial basis. 

During the first year of Gov. Barry s first term, the 
University at Ann ATlx)r was opened for the reception 



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of students. The Michigan Central and Michigan 
Southern railroads were being rapidly constructed, and 
general progress was everywhere noticeable. In 1842, 
Uie number of pupils reported as attending the public 
schoob was nearly fifty-eight thousand. In 1843, ^ 
State land office was established at Marshall, which 
was invested with'tiie charge and disposition of all 
the lands belonging to the State. In 1844, the tax- 
able property of the State was imaod to be over 
twenty-eight millbns of dollars^ the tax being at the 
rate of two mills on the dollar. The expenses of the 
State were only seventy thousand dollars, while the 
income from the railroads was nearly three hundred 
thousand dollars. At this time the University of 
Michigan had become so prosperous that its income 
was ample to pay the interest on the University debt; 
and the amount of money which the State was able 
to loan the several progressing railroads was one 
hundred and twenty thousand dollars. Efforts were 
made to increase the efficiency of the common schools 
with good results In 1845, when Gov. Barry's sec- 
ond term expired, the population of the State was 
more than three hundred thousand. 

The constitution of the State forbade more than-two 
consecutive terms, but he was called upon to fill the 
position again in 1850 — the only instance of the kind 
in the history of the State. He was a member of the 
Territorial Legislature, of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, and afterward of the State House of Represent- 
atives. 

During Mr. Barry's third term as Governor the Nor- 
mal School was established at Ypsilanti, which was 
endowed with lands and placed in charge of a board 
of educarion consisting of six persons. A new con- 
stitution for the government of the State was also 
adopted and the ** Great Railway Conspiracy Case " 
was tried. This grew out of a series of lawless acts 
which had been committed upon the property of the 
Michigan Central Railroad Company, along the line 
of their road, and finally the burning of the depot 
at Detroit, in 1850. 

At a setting of the grand jury of Wayne County, 
April 24, 185 1, 37 men of the 50 under arrest for this 
cnme were indicted. May 20, following, the accused 
parties appeared at the Circuit Court of Wayne, of 
which Warner Wing was resident judge. The Rail- 
road Company employed ten eminent lawyers, in- 
cluding David Stuart, John Van Arman, James A. 
Van Dyke, Jacob M. Howard, Alex, D, Fraser, Dan- 
iel Goodwin and William Gray. The defendants were 
represented by six members of the State bar, led by 
William H. Seward, of New York. The trial occupied 
four months, during which time the plaintiffs exam- 
ined 246 witnesses in 27 days, and the defendants 
249 in 40 days. Mr. Van Dyke addressed the jury 
for the prosecution; William H. Seward for the 
defense. 

The great lawyer was convinced of the innocence 






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of his clients, nor did the verdict of that jury and the 
sentence of that judpe remove his firm belief thai his 
clients were the victims of purchased treachery, 
rather than so many sacrifices to justice. 

The verdict of ** guilty ** was rendered at 9 o'clock 
p. M., Sept. 25, 1851. On the 26th the prisoners were 
put forward to receive sentence, when many of them 
protested their entire iniK)cence, after which the pre- 
siding judge condemned 12 of the number to the fol- 
lowing terms of imprisonment, with hard labor, within 
the State's prison, situate in their county: Ammi 
Filley, ten years ; Orlando L. Williams, ten years; 
Aaron Mount, eight years ; Andrew J. Freeland, eight 
years; Eben Faniham, eight years; William Corvin, 
eight years; Richard Price, eight years; Evan Price, 
eight years; Lyman Champlin, five years; Willard 
W. Champlin, five years; Erastus Champlin, five 
years; Erastus Smith, five years. 

In 1840, Gov. Barry became deeply interested in 
the cultivation of the sugar beet, and visited Europe 
to obtain information in reference to its culture. 

He was twice Presidential Elector, and his last 
public service was that of a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention held in Chicago in 1864. 

He was a man who, throughout life, maintained a 
high character for integrity and fidelity to the trusts 
bestowed upon him, whether of a public or a private ^ 
nature, and he is acknowledged by all to have been v 
one of the most efficient and popular Governors the ^ 
Slate has ever had. ^ 

Gov. Barry was a man of incorruptible integrity. Si 
His opinions, which he reached by the most thorough < 
investigation, he held tenaciously. His strong con- ( 
victions and outspoken honesty inade it impossible for 
him to take an undefined position when a principle 
was involved. His attachments and prejudices were 
strong, yet he was never accused of favoritism in his 
administration of public affairs. As a speaker he was 
not remarkable. Solidity, rather than brilliancy, char- 
acterized his oratory, which is described as argument- ^ 
ative and instructive, but cold, hard, and entirely 
wanting in rhetorical ornament. He was never elo- { 
quent, seldom humorous or sarcastic, and in manner 
rather awkward. 

Although Mr. Barry's educational advantages were 
so limited, he was a life-long student. He mastered 
both ancient and modem languages, and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of history. No man owed less 
to political intrigue as a means of gaining posi- 
tion. He was a true statesman, and gained public es- 
teem by his solid worth. His political connections 
were always with the Democratic party, and his opin- 
ions were usually extreme. 

Mr. Barry reUred to private life after the beginnin^^ 
of the ascendency of the Republican party, and. car- 
ried on his mercanrile business at Constantine. - He 
died Jan. 14, 1870, his wife's death having occurre<i a 
year previous, March 30, 1869. They left nochilciren. 



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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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LPHEUS FELCH, the thiid 
Governor of Michigan, was 
^bomin Limerick, Maine, Sep- 
tember 28, 1806. His grand- 
father, Abijah Felch, was a sol- 
dier in the Revolution ; and 
when a young man, having with 
others obtained a grant of land be- 
tween the Great and Little Ossipee 
Rivers, in Maine, moved to that re- 
gion when it was yet a wilderness. 
The' father of Mr. Felch embarked in 
mercantile life at Limerick. He was 
the first to engage in that business in 
that section, and continued it until 
his death. The death of the father, 
■ followed within a year by the death of 
the mother, left the subject of this sketch, then three 
years old, to the care of relatives, and he found a 
home with his paternal grandfather, where he re- 
Tuained until his death. Mr Felch received his early 
education in the district school and a neighboring 
academy. In 182 1 he became a student at Phillips 
Exter Academy, and, subsequently, entered Bowdoin 
College, graduated with the class of 1827. He at 
once began the study of law and was admitted to 
practice at Bangor, Me., in 1830. 

He began the practice of his profession at Houlton, 
Me., where he remained until 1833. The severity 
of the climate impaired his health, never very good, 
and he found it necessary to seek a change of climate. 
He disposed of his library and started to seek 
a new home. His intention was to join his friend, 



Sargent S. Prentiss, at Vicksburg, Miss., but on his 
arrival at Cincinnati, Mr. Felch was attacked by 
cholera, and when he had recovered sufficiently to 
permit of his traveling, found that the danger of the 
disease was too great to permit a journey down the 
river. He therefore determined to come to Michi- 
gan. He first began to practice in this State at Mon- 
roe, where he continued until 1843, when he removed 
to Ann Arbor. He was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture in 1835, and continued a member of that body 
during the years 1836 and 1837. While he held this 
office, the general banking law of the State was enact- 
ed, and went into operation. After mature delibera- 
tion, he became convinced that the proposed system 
of banking could not prove beneficial to the public 
interests ; and that, instead of relieving the people 
from the pecuniary difficulties under which they were 
laboring, it would result in still further embarrass- 
ment. He, therefore, opposed the bill, and pointed 
out to the House the disasters which, in his opinion, 
were sure to follow its passage. The public mind, 
however, was so favorably impressed by the measure 
that no other member, in either branch of the Legisla- 
ture, raised a dissenting voice, and but two voted with 
him in opposition to the bill. Early in 1838, he was 
appointed one of the Bank Commissioners of the 
State, and held that office for moie than a year. Dur- 
ing this time, the new banking law had given birth to 
that numerous progeny known as "wild-cat" banks. 
Almost every village had its bank. The country was 
flooded with depressed "wild-cat" money. The ex- 
aminations of the Bank Commissioners brought to 
light frauds at every point, which were fearlessly re- 



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ported to the Legislature, and were followed by crim- 
inal prosecutions of the guilty parties, and the closing 
of many of their institutions. The duties of the of- 
fice were most laborious, and in 1839 Mr. Felch re- 
signed. The chartered right of almost every bank 
had, in the meantime, been declared forfeited and 
the law repealed. It was subsequently decided to 
be constitutional by the Supreme Court of the State. 
In the year 1842 Governor Felch was appointed 
to the office of Auditor General of the State; but 
after holding the office only a few weeks, was com- 
missioned by the Governor as one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, to fill a vacancy caused by the resig-- 
nation of Judge Fletcher. In January, 1843, he was 
elected to the United States Senate for an unexpired 
term. In 1845 he was elected Governor of Michigan, 
and entered upon his duties at the commencement of 
the next year. In 1847 he was elected a Senator 
in Congress for six years ; and at once retired from 
the office of Governor, by resignation, which took 
effect March 4, r847, when bis Senatorial term com- 
menced. While a member of the Senate he acted on 
the Committee on Public Lands, and for four years 
was its Chairman. He filled the honorable position 
of Senator with becoming dignity, and with great 
credit to the State of Michigan. 

During Governor Felch *s administration the two 
railroads belonging to the State were sold to private 
corporations, — the Central for $2,000,000, and the 
Southern for $500,000. The exports of the State 
amounted in 1846 to $4,647,608. The total capacity 
of vessels enrolled in the collection district at Detroit 
was 26,928 tons, the steam vessels having 8,400 and 
the sailing vessels 18,528 tons, the whole giving em- 
ployment to 18,000 seamen In 1847, there were 39 
counties in the State, containing 435 townships ; and 
275 of these townships were supplied with good libra- 
ries, containing an aggregate of 37,000 volumes. 

At the close of his Senatorial term, in March, 1853, 
Mr. Felch was appointed, by President Pierce, one of 
the Commissioners to adjust and settle the Spanish 



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and Mexican land claims in California, under the V 
treaty of Gaudalupe Hidalgo, and an act of Congress % 
(>assed for that purpose. He went to California in *; 
May, 1853, and was made President of the Comrais- ^ 
sion. The duties of this office were of the most ira- ' 
portant and delicate character. The interest of the 
new State, and the fortunes of many of its citizens, 
both the native Mexican population and the recent 
American immigration ; the right of the Pueblos to 
their common lands, and of the Catholic Church to k 

the lands of the Missions, — the most valuable of the % 

r. 

Sute, — wereinvolved in the adjudications of this Com- 
mission. In March, 1856, their labors were brought 
to a close by the final disposition of all the claims 
which were presented. The record of their proceed- 
ings, — the testimony which was given in each case, 
and the decision of the Commissioners thereon, — 
consisting of some forty large volumes, was deposited 
in the Department of the Interior at Washington. 

In June of that year. Governor Felch returned to ^ 
Ann Arbor, where he has since been engaged piinci- =1 
pally in legal business. Since his return he has ^ 
been nominated for Governor and also for U. S. Sen- -^ 
ator, and twice for Judge of the Supreme Court. But 
the Democratic party, to which he has always been 
attached, being in the minority, he failed of an elec- 
tion. In 1873 he withdrew from the active practice 
of law, and, with the exception of a tour in Europe, I 
in 1875 has since led a life of retirement at his home Vj 
in Ann Arbor. In 1877 the University of Michigan |: 
conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. For 
many years he was one of the Regents of Michigan 
University, and in the spring of 1879 was ap[x>inted 
Tappan Professor of Law in the same. Mr. Felch is 
the oldest surviving member of the Legislature from 
Monroe Co., the oldest and only surviving Bank Com- 
missioner of the State, the oldest surviving Auditor 
General of the State, the oldest surviving Governor of 
the State, the oldest surviving Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Michigan, and the oldest surviving United 
States Senator from the State of Michigan. 



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ILLIAM L. GREENLY 
Governor of Michigan for the 
year 1847 , was bom at Hamil- 
ton, Madison Co., N. Y., Sept. 
1 8, 1 8 1 3. He graduated at Un- 
ion College, Schenectady, in 
1 83 1, studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834. In 
1836, having removed to Michi- 
gan, he settled in Adrian, where 
he has since resided. The year 
following his arrival in Michigan 
he was elected State Senator and 
served in that capacity until 1839. 
In 1845 he was elected Lieut. Gov- 
ernor and became acting Governor 
by the resignation of Gov. Felch, 
who was elected to the United 
States Senate. 

The war with Mexico was brought 

f^ to a successful termination during Gov. Grecnly's 

administration. We regret to say that there are only 

few records extant of the action of Michigan troops 

/ in the Mexican war. That many went there and 

fought well are points conceded ; but their names and 

v^ nativity arc hidden away in United States archives 



and where it is^ almost impossible to find ihem. 

The soldiers of this State deserve much of the 
credit of the memorable achievements of Co. K, 3d 
Dragoons, and Cos. A, E, and G of the U. S. Inf. 
The two former of these companies, recruited in this 
State, were reduced to one-third their original num- 
ber. 

In May, 1846, the Governor of Michigan was noti- 
fied by the War Department of the United States to 
enroll a regiment of volunteers, to be held in readi- 
ness for service whenever demanded. At his sum- 
mons 13 independent volunteer companies, 11 of 
infantry and two of cavalry, at once fell into line. Of 
the infantry four companies were from Detroit, bear- 
ing the honored names of Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Scott and Brady upon their banners. Of the re- 
mainder Monroe tendered two, Lenawee County three, 
St. Clair, Berrien and Hillsdale each one, and Wayne 
County an additional company. Of these alone the 
veteran Bradys were accepted and ordered into ser- 
vice. In addition to them ten companies, making the 
First Regiment of Michigan Volunteers, springing 
from various parts of the State, but embodying to a 
great degree the material of which the first volunteers 
was formed, were not called for until October follow- 
ing. This regiment was soon in readiness and pro- 
ceeded by orders from Government to the seat of war. 



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HE HON. EPAPHRODI- 
TUS RANSOM, the Seventh 
Governor of Michigan, was a 
native of Massachusetts. In 
that State he received a col- 
legiate education, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar. 
Removing to Michigan about 
the time of its admission to the 
Union, he took up his residence 
at Kalamazoo. 

Mr. Ransom served with marked 
ability for a number of years in the 
State Legislature, and in 1837 he was appointed As- 
sociate Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1843 he 
was promoted to Chief Justice, w\jich office he re- 
tained until 1845, when he resigned. 

Shortly afterwards he became deeply interested in 
the building of plank roads in the western portion of 
the State, and in this business lost the greater portion 
of the property which he had accumulated by years 
of toil and industry. 

Mr. Ransom became Governor of the State of 
Michigan in the fall of 1847, and served during one 
temi, performing the duties of the office in a truly 
statesmanlike manner. He subsequently became 
President of the Michigan Agricultural Society, in 
which position he displayed the same ability that 



shone forth so prominently in his acts as Governor. 
He held the office of Regent of the Michigan Univer- 
sity several times, and ever advocated a liberal policy 
in its management. 

Subsequently he was ap[X)inted receiver of the 
land office in one of the districts in Kansas, by Pres- 
ident Buchanan, to which State he had removed, and 
where he died before the expiration of his term of 
office. 

We sum up the events and affairs of the State un- 
der Gov. Ransom's administration as follows: The 
Asylum for the Insane was establised, as also the 
Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind. Both of 
these institutes were liberally endowed with lands, 
and each of them placed in charge of a board of five 
trustees. The appropriation in 1849 for the deaf and 
dumb and blind amounted to $81,500. On the first 
of March, 1848, the first telegraph line was com- 
pleted from New York to Detroit, and the first dis- 
patch transmitted on that day. The following figures 
show the progress in agriculture : The land reported 
as under cultivation in 1848 was 1,437,460 acres; of 
wheat there were produced 4,749,300 bushels; other 
grains, 8,197,767 bushels; wool, 1,645,756 pounds; 
maple sugar, 1,774,369 pounds; horses, 52,305; cat- 
tle, 210,268; swine, 152,541; sheep, 6ro,534; while 
the fiour mills numbered 228, and the lumber mills 
amounted to 730. 1847, an act was passed removing 
the Legislature from Detroit to Lansing, and tempo- 
rary buildings for the use of the Legislature were im- 
mediately erected, at a cost of $12,450. 



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OBERT Mc CLELLAN 1), 

^(iovernor of Michigan from 
Jan. I, 1852, to March 8,1853, 
was born at Grcencastle, Frank- 
vj^ lin Co., Penn., Aug. i» 1807. 
Among his ancestors were several 
officers of rank in the Revolution- 
ary war, and some of his family con- 
nections were distinguished in the 
war of 1812, and that with Mexico. 
Fiis father was an eminent physiciau 
and surgeon who studied under l>r. 
Benj. Rush, of Philadelphia, and 
practiced his profession successfully 
until six months before his death, at 
the age of 84 years. Although Mr. 
family had been in good circum- 
stances, when he was 17 years old he was thrown 
upon his own resources. After taking the usual pre- 
liminary studies, and teaching school to obtain the 
means, he entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle, 
Penn., from which he graduated among the first in 
his class, in 1829. He then resumed teaching, and 
having completed the course of study for the legal 
profession, was admitted to the bar at Chambersburg, 
Pcnn., in 1831. Soon afterward he removed to the 
Qty of Pittsburgh, where he practiced for almost a 
year. 

*^ 1S33, ^^^' McClelland removed to Monroe, in 



the Territory of Michigan, where, after a severe ex- 
amination, he became a member of the bar of Michi- 
gan, and engaged in practice with bright prospect of 
success. In 1835, a convention was called to frame 
a constitution for the proposed State of Michigan, of 
which Mr. McClelland was elected a member. He 
took a prominent part in its deliberations and ranked 
among its ablest debaters. He was appointed the 
first Bank Commissioner of the State, by Gov. Mason, 
and received an offer of the Attorney Generalship, but 
decHned both of these offices in order to attend to his 
professional duties. 

In 1838, Mr. McClelland was elected to the State 
legislature, in which he soon became distinguished 
as the head of several important committees. Speaker 
pro tempore^ and as an active, zealous and efficient 
member. In 1840, Gen. Harrison, as a candidate for 
the Presidency, swept the country with an overwhelm- 
ing majority, and at the same time the State of Michi- 
gan was carried by the Whigs under the popular cry 
of " Woodbridge and reform *' against the Democratic 
l)arty. At this time Mr. McClelland stood among the 
acknowledged leaders of the latter organization ; was 
elected a member of the State House of Representa- 
tives, and with others adopted a plan to regain a lost 
authority and prestige. 

This party soon came again into power in the State, 
and having been returned to the State Legislature Mr, 
McClelland's leadership was acknowledged by his 
election as S[)eaker of the House of Representatives 



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in 1843. Down to this time Michigan had consti- 
tuted one congressional district. The late Hon. Jacob 
M. Howard had been elected against Hon. Alpheus 
Felch by a strong majority ; but, in 1 843, so thoroughly 
had the Democratic party recovered from its defeat 
of 1840 that Mr. McClelland, as a candidate for Con- 
gress, carried Detroit district by a majority of about 
2,500. Mr. McClelland soon took a prominent posi- 
lion in Congress among the veterans of that body. 
During his first term he was placed on Committee on 
Commerce, and organized and carried through what 
were known as the " Harbor bills.** The continued 
confidence of his constituency was manifested in his 
election to the 29th Congress. At the opening of this 
session he had acquired a National reputation, and so 
favorably was he known as a parlimentarian that his 
name was mentioned for Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. He declined the offer in favor of J. W. 
Davis, of Indiana, who was elected. During this terni 
he became Chairman of Committee on Comiiierce, in 
which position his reports and advocacy of important 
measures at once attracted public attention. The 
members of this committee, as an evidence of the es- 
teem in which they held his services and of their 
personal regard for him, presented him with a cane 
which he retains as a souvenir of the donors, and of 
his labors in Congress. 

In 1847, ^^' McClelland was re-elected to Con- 
gress, and at the opening of the 30th Congress be- 
came a member of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
rions. While acUng in this capacity, what was known 
as the " French S|X)liation Bill" came under his si>e- 
cial charge, and his management of the same was such 
as to command universal approbation. While in 
Congress, Mr. McClelland was an advocate of the 
right of petition as maintained by John Q. Adams, 
when the petition, was clothed in decorous language 
and presented in the proper manner. This he re- 
garded as the citizens'consUtutional right which should 
not be impaired by any doctrines of temporary expe- 
diency. He also voted for the adoption of Mr. Gid- 
dings s bill for the abolishing of slavery in the District 
of Columbia. Mr. McClelland was one of the few 
Democrats associated with David Wilmot, of Penn- 
sylvania, in bringing forward the celebrated "Wilmot 
Proviso," with a view to prevent further extension of 
slavery in new territory which might be acquired by 
the United States. He ar^d Mr. Wilmot were to- 
gether at the time in Washington, and on intimate 
and confidential terms, Mr, McClelland was in sev- 
eral National conventions and in the Balrimore con- 
vention, which nominated Gen. Cass for President, 
in 1848, doing valiant service that year for the elec- 
rion of that distinguished statesman. On leaving 
Congress, in 1848, Mr. McClelland returned to the 
practice of his profession at Monroe. In 1850 a 
convention of the State of Michigan was called to 
the State constitution. He was elected a 



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member and was regarded therein as among the ablest V 
and most experienced leaders. His clear judgment ^ 
and wise moderation were conspicuous, both in the ^, 
committee room and on the fk)or» in debate. In 1850, ; 
he was President of the Democratic State convention [^ 
which adopted resolutions in support of Henry Qay s v^ 
famous compromise measures, of which Mr. McClel- 
land was a strong advocate. He was a member of 
the Democratic National convention in 1852, and in 
that year, in company with Gen. Cass and Governor 
Felch, he made a thorough canvass of the State. 
He continued earnestly to advocate the Clay com- 
promise measures, and took an active part in the 
canvass which resulted in the election of Gen. Pierce 
to the Presidency. 

In 185 1, the new State oonstitution took effect and 
it was necessary that a Governor should be elected 
for one year in order to prevent an interre^um, and 
to bring the State Government into operation under 
the new constitution. Mr. McQelland was elected 
Governor, and in the fall of 1852 was re-elected for 
a term of two years, from Jan. r, 1853. His admin- 
istration was regarded as wise, prudent and concilia- 
tory, and was as popular as could be expected at a 
time when party spirit ran hi^h. There was really 
no opposition, and when he resigned, in March, 1853, 
the State Treasury was well filled, and the State 
otherwise prosperous. So widely and favorably had 
Mr. McClelland become known as a statesman that on 
the organization of thecabinet by President Pierce, in 
March| 1853, he was made Secretary of the Interior, in 
which capacity he served most creditably during four 
years of the Pierce administration. He thoroughlv 
re-organized his department aftd reduced the expend- 
itures. He adopted a course with the Indians which 
relieved them from the impositions and annoyances 
of the traders, and produced harmony and civilization 
among them. During his administration there was 
neither complaint from the tribes nor corruption among 
agents, and he left the department in perfect order 
and system. In 1867, Michigan again called a con- 
vention to revise the State constitution. Mr. McClel- 
land was a member and here again his long experi- 
ence made him conspicuous as a prudent adviser, a 
sagacious parliamentary leader. As a lawyer he was 
terse and pointed in argument, clear, candid and im- 
pressive in his addresses to the jury. His sincerity 
and earnestness, with which Was occasionally mingled 
a pleasant humor, made him an able and effective 
advocate. In speaking before the people on political 
subjects he was especially forcible and happy. In 
1870 he made the tour of Europe, which, through his 
extensive personal acquaintance with European dip- 
lomates, he was enabled to enjoy much more tha^n 
most travelers, 

Mr. McClelland married, in 1837, Miss Sar&H 
E. Sabin, of Williamstown, Mass. They have haul 
six children, two of whom now survive. 



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NDREVV PARSONS, Gover- 
nor of Michigan from March 
8, 1853 to Jan. 3, 1855, was 
born in the town of Hoosick, 
County of Rensselaer, and 
State of New York, on the 2 2d 
c) day of July, 1817, and died June 
6, 1855, at the early age of 38 
years. He was the son of John 
Parsons, born at Newburyix)rt, 
Mass., Oct. 2, T782, and who was the 
son of Andrew Parsons, a Revolutionary 
soldier^ who was the son of Phineas 
Parsons, the son of Samuel Parsons, 
a descendant of Walter Parsons, born 
in Ireland in 1290. 
Of this name and family, some one hundred and 
thirty years ago, Bishop (iilson remarked in his edi- 
tion of Camden's Britannia: "The honorable family 
of Parsons have been advanced to the dignity of 
Viscounts and more lately Earls of Ross." 

The following are descendants of these families : 

Sir John Parsons, born 148 1, was Mayor of Hereford; 

Robert Parsons, born in 1546, lived near Bridgewater, 

England. He was educated at Ballial College, Ox- 

ford, and was a noted writer and defender of the 

Romish faith. He established an English College at 

Rome and another at Valladolia. Frances Parsons, 

bom in 1556, was Vicar of Rothwell, in Notingham; 

Bartholomew Parsons, born in 1618, was another 

tooted member of the family. In 1 634, Thomas Parsons 

was knighted by Charles I. Joseph and Benjamin, 

bri>ihers, were born in Great Torrington, England, 



and accompanied their father and others to New 
England about 1630. Samuel Parsons, born at Salis- 
bury, Mass., in 1707, graduated at Harvard College in 
1730, ordained at Rye, N. H.,Nov. 3, 1736, married 
Mary Jones, daughter of Samuel Jones, of Boston, 
Oct. 9, 1739, died Jan. 4, 1789, at the age of 82, in 
the 53rd year of his ministry. The grandfather of Mary 
Jones was Capt. John Adams, of Boston, grandson 
of Henr)', of Braintree, who was among the first set- 
tlers of Massachusetts, and from whom a numerous 
race of the name are descended, including two Presi- 
dents of the United States. The Parsons have be- 
come very numerous and are found throughout New 
England, and many of the descedants are scattered 
in all parts of the United States, and especially in 
the Middle and Western States. Covernor Andrew 
Parsons came to Michigan in 1835, at the age of 17 
years, and spent the first summer at Lower Ann 
Arbor, where for a few months he taught school which 
he was compelled to abandon from ill health 

He was one of the large number of men of sterling 
worth, who came from the East to Michigan when it 
was an infant State, or, even prior to its assuming 
the dignity of a State, and who, by their wisdom, 
enterprise and energy, have developed its wonderful 
natural resources, until to-day it ranks with the proud- 
est States of the Union. These brave men came to 
Michigan witli nothing to aid them in the conquest 
of the wilderness save courageous hearts and strong 
and willing hands. They gloriously conquered, how- 
ever, and to them is due all honor for the labors 
so nobly performed, for the solid and sure foundation 
which they laid of a great Commonwealth. 



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In the fall of 1835, he explored the Grand River 
>|j Valley in a frail canoe, the whole length of the river, 
^ from Jackson to Lake Michigan, and spent the following 
winter as clerk in a store at Prairie Creek, in Ionia, 
^ County, and in the spring went to Marshall, where he 
resided with his brother, ihe Hon. Luke H. Parsons, 
also now deceased, until fall, when he went to Shia- 
wasse County, then with Clinton County, and an almost 
unbroken wilderness and constituting one organized 
township. In 1837 this territory was organized into 
a county and, at the age of only 19 years, he (An- 
\ drew) was elected County Clerk. In 1840, he was 
elected Register of Deeds, re-elected in 1842, and 
also in 1844. In 1846, he was elected to the State 
Senate, was appointed Prosecuting Attorney in 1848, 
and elected Regent of the University in 185 1, and 
Lieutenant Governor, and became acting Governor, 
in 1853, elected again to the Legislature in 1854, and, 
. V? overcome by debilitated health, hard labor and the 
responsibilities of his office and cares of his business, 
retired to his farm, where he died soon after. 

He was a fluent and persuasive speaker and well 
calculated to make friends of his acquantances. He 
was always true to his trust, and the whole world 
could not persuade nor drive him to do what he con- 
ceived to be wrong. When Governor, a most power- 
ful railroad influence was brought to bear upon him, 
to induce him to call an extra session of the Legisla- 
ture. Meetings were held in all parts of the State 
for that purpose. In some sections the resolutions 
were of a laudatory nature, intending to make him do 
their bidding by resort to friendly and flattering words. 
In other places the resolutions were of a demanding 
nature, while in others they were threatening beyond 
measure. * Fearing that all these influences might 
fail to induce him to call the extra session, a large 
sum of money was sent him, and liberal offers ten- 
dered him if he would gratify the railroad interest of 
the State and call the extra session, but, immovable, 
he returned the money and refused to receive 
any favors, whether from any party who would at- 
tempt to corrupt him by laudations, liberal ofl*ers, or 



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by threats, and in a short letter to the people, after V 
giving overwhelming reasons that no sensible man | 
could dispute, showing the circumstances were not *♦' 
** extraordinary," he refused to call the extra session. ^ 
This brought down the wrath of various parties upon 
his head, but they were soon forced to acknowledge 
the wisdom and the justice of his course. One of 
his greatest enemies said, after a long acquaintance : 
'though not always coinciding with his views I never 
doubted his honesty of purpose. He at all times 
sought to perform his duties in strict accordance, 
with the dictates of his conscience, and the behests 
of his oath. " The following eulogium from a politcal op- 
ponent is just in its conception and creditable to its 
author: ^ Gov. Parsons was a politician of the Dem- 
ocratic school, a man of pure moral character, fixed 
and exemplary habits, and entirely blameless in every 
public and private relation of life. As a politician he 
was candid, frank and free from bitterness, as an ex- 
ecutive officer firm, constant and reliable." The 
highest commendations we can pay the deceased is 
to give his just record, — that of being an honest man. 
In the spring of 1854, during the administration of 
Governor Parsons, the Republican party, at least 
as a State organizadon, was first formed in the United 
States " under the oaks " at Jackson, by anti-slavery 
men of both the old parties. Great excitement pre- 
vailed at this time, occasioned by the settling of 
Kansas, and the issue thereby brought up, whether 
slavery should exist there. For the purpose of permif- 
ting slavery there, the ** Missouri compromise '* (which 
limited slavery to the south of 36^ 30^) was re- 
repealed, under the leadership of Stephen A, Douglas. 
This was repealed by a bill admitting Kansas and 
Nebraska into the Union, as Territories, and those "who 
were opposed to this repeal measure were in short 
called ** anti-Nebraska ** men. The epithets, " Ne- 
braska** and "anti-Nebraska,** were temporally em- 
ployed to designate the slavery and anti-slavery 
parties, pending the desolution of the old Democratic 
and Whig parties and the organization of the new 
Democratic and Republican parties of the present. 



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KlNSLKY ©. BiNQHAM, 






INSLEY S. BINGHAM, 
Governor of Michigan from 
1855 to 1859, and United 
States Senator, was born in 
Camillus, Onondaga County, 
N. Y., Dec. 16, 1808. His 
father was a fanner, and his own 
early life was consequently de- 
voted to agricultural pursuits, but 
notwithstanding the disadvan- 
tages related to the acquisition 
of knowledge in the life of a fanner 
he managed to secure a good aca- 
demic education in his native State 
and studied law in the office of 
Gen. James R. Lawrence, now of 
Syracuse, N. Y. In the spring of 
1S339 he married an estimable lady 
who had recently arrived from Scot- 
land, and obeying the impulse of a 
naturally enterprising disposition, 
he emigrated to Michigan and 
purchased a new farm in company 
with his brother-in-law, Mr. Robert 
Worden, in Green Oak, Livingston County. Here, on 
the border of civilization, buried in the primeval for- 
est, our late student commenced the arduous task of 
preparing a future home, clearing and fencing, put- 
ting up buildings, etc, at such a rate that the land 



chosen was soon reduced to a high state of cultivation. 

Becoming deservedly prominent, Mr. Bingham was 
elected to the office of Justice of the Peace and Post- 
master under the Territorial government, and was the 
first Probate Judge in the county. In the year 1836, 
when Michigan became a State, he was elected to the 
first Legislature. He was four times re-elected, and 
Speaker of the House of Representatives three years. 
In 1846 he was elected on the Democratic ticket. Rep- 
resentative to Congress, and was the only practical 
farmer in that body. He was never forgetful of the 
interest of agriculture, and was in particular opposed 
to the introduction of " Wood s Patent Cast Iron 
Plow " which he completely prevented. He was re- 
elected to Congress in 1848, during which time he 
strongly opposed the extension of slavery in the 
territory of the United States and was committed to 
and voted for the Wilmot Proviso. 

In 1854, at the first organization of the Republican 
party, in consequence of his record in Congress as a 
Free Soil Democrat, Mr. Bingham was nominated 
and elected Governor of the State, and re-elected in 
1856. Still faithful to the memory of his own former 
occupation, he did not forget the farmers during his 
administration, and among other profits of his zeal in 
their behalf, he became mainly instrumental in the 
establishment of the Agricultural College at Lansing. 

In 1859, Governor Bingham was elected Senator in 
Congress and took an active part in the stormy cam- 
paign in the election of Abraham Lincoln. He wit- 






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KINSLEY S. BINGHAM. 






nessed the commencement of the civil war while a 
member of the United States Senate. After a cora- 
ls paratively short life of remarkable promise and pub- 
;'^ lie activity he was attacked with appoplexy and died 
I suddenly at his residence, in Gteen Oak, Oct 5, 1861. 
^ The most noticable event in Governor Bingham's 
first term was the completion of the ship canal, at the 
Falls of St. Mary. In 1852, Angust 26, an act of 
Congress was approved, granting to the State of Mich- 
igan seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of land 
for the purpose of constructing a ship canal between 
Lakes Huron and Superior. In 1853, the Legislature 
accepted the grant, and provided tor the apix>intment 
.^ of commissioners to select the donated lands, and to 
iJj arrange for building the canal. A company of enter- 
prising men was formed, and a contract was entered 
into b^ which it was arranged that the canal should 
be finished in two years, and the work was pushed 
rapidly forward. Every article of consumption, ma- 
chinery, working implements and materials, timber 
for the gates, stones for the locks, as well as men and 
supplies, had to be transported to the site of the canal 
from Detroit, Cleveland, and other lake ports. The 
rapids which had to be surmounted have a fall of 



^ seventeen feet and are about one mile lone. The 
^ length of the canal is less than one mile, its width one 
^ hundred feet, depth twelve feet and it has two locks 
»^ of solid masonary. In May, 1855, the work was com- 
^ pleted, accepted by the commissioners, and formally 
p=i delivered to the State authorities. 
"^ The disbursements on account of the construction 
S of the canal and selecting the lands amounted to one 
million of dollars ; while the lands which were as- 
signed to the company, and selected through the 
agency at the Sault, as well as certain lands in the 
Upper and Lower Peninsulas, filled to an acre the 
Government grant. The opening of the canal was 
an important event in the history of the improvement 
of the State. It was a valuable link in the chain of 
. lake commerce, and particularly important to the 
y V interests of the Upper Peninsula. 
^ -^ There were several educational, charitable and re- 
formatory institutions inaugurated and opened during 
Gov. Bingham's administrations. The Michigan Ag- 
ricultural College owes its establishment to a provision 
of the State Constitution of 1850. Article 13 says, 
" The Legislature shall, as soon as practicable, pro- 
vide for the establishment of an agricultural school." 
For the purpose of caryinginto practice this provision, 
A^ legislation was commenced in 1855, and the act re- 
quired that the school should be within ten miles -of 
Lansing, and that not more than $15 an acre should 
be paid for the farm and college grounds. The col- 
'^ lege was opened to students in May, 1857, the first of 
^/ existing argricultural colleges in the United States. 
fA> Until the spring of 1 861, it was under the control 
*^ of the State Board of Education; since that time it 



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of Agriculture, which was created for that purpose. 

In its essential features, of combining study and 
labor, and of uniting general and professional studies 
in its course, the college has remained virtually un- 
changed from the first. It has a steady growth in 
number of students, in means of illustration and 
efficiency of instruction. 

The Agricultural College is three miles east of 
Lansing, comprising several fine buildings ; and there 
are also very beautiful, substantial residences for the 
professors. There are also, an extensive, well-filled 
green-house, a very large and well-equipped chemical 
laboratopv 9"^^ of ^^^ "*<^^ scientific apiaries in the 
United States, a general museum, a meseum of me- 
chanical ihventions, another of vegetable products, 
extensive bams, piggeries, etc., etc, in fine trim for 
the purposes designed. The farm consists of 676 
acres, of which about 300 are under cultivation in a 
systematic rotation of crops. 

Adrian College was established by the Wesleyan 
Methodists in 1859, now under the control of the 
Methodist Church. The grounds contain about 20 
acres. There are four buildings, capable of accom- 
modating about 225 students. Attendance in 1875 
was 179; total number of graduates for previous year, 
121 ; ten professors and teachers are employed. Ex- 
clusive of the endowment fund ($80,000), the assets 
of the institution, including groimds, buildings, furni- 
ture, apparatus, musical instruments, outlying lands, 
etc., amount to more than $137,000. 

Hillsdale College was established in 1855 by the 
Free Baptists. The Michigan Central College, at 
Spring Arbor, was incorporated in 1845 It was kept 
in operation until it was merged into the present 
Hillsdale College. The site comprises 25 acres, 
beautifully situated on an eminence in the western 
part of the city of Hillsdale. The large and impos- 
ing building first erectqd was nearly destroyed by fire 
in 1874, and in its place five buildings of a more 
modem style have been erected. They are of brick, 
three stories with basement, arranged on three sides 
of a quadrangle. The size is, respectively, 80 by 80, 
48 by 7 2, 48 by 7 2, 80 by 60, 5 2 by 7 2, and they con- 
tain one-half more room than the original building. 
The State Reform School. This was established 
at Lansing in 1855, in the northeastern portion of the 
city, as the House of Correction for Juvenile Of- 
fenders, having about it many of the features of a 
prison. In 1859 the name was changed to the State 
Reform School. The government and dicipline, have 
undergone many and radical changes, until all the 
prison features have been removed except those that 
remain in the walls of the original structure, and 
which remain only as monuments of instructive his* 
tory. No bolts, bars or guards are employed. The 
inmates are necessarily kept under the surveillance of 
officers, but the attempts at escape are much fein^er 
than under the more rigid regime of former days. 



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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 












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OSES WISNER. Governor of 
Michigan from 1859 to 1861, 
was born in Springport, Cayu- 
ga Co., N Y., June 3, 1815. 
His early education was only 
what could be obtained at a 
(jiiiinon school- Agricultural labor 
' and frugality of his parents gave 
i him a physical constitution of unus- 
^i> Lial strength and endurance, which 
was ever preserved by temperate hab- 
its. In 1837 he emigrated to Michi- 
V/^ gan and purchased a farm in Lapeer 
County It was new land and he at 
once set to work to clear it and plant 
crops. He labored diligently at his 
task for two years, when he gave up 
the idea of 'Deing a farmer, and removed to Pontiac, 
Oakland Co. Here he commenced the study of law 
in the office of his brother, George W. Wisner, and 
Rufus Hosmer In 1841 he was admitted to the bar 
and established himself in, his new vocation at the 
village of Lapeer. While there he was apptx)inted 
by Gov. Woodbridge Prosecuting Attorney for that 
county, in which capacity he acquitted himself well 
and gave promise of that eminence he afterward at- 
tained in the profession. He remained at Lapeer but 
a short time, removing to Pontiac, where he became 
a member of a firm and entered fully upon the 
practice. 

In politics he was like his talented brother, a Whig 
of the Henry Clay stamp, but with a decided anti- 
slaver) bias. His practice becoming extensive, he 



took little part in politics until after the election of 
Mr. Pierce to the Presidency in 1852, when he took an 
active part against slavery. As a lawyer he was a 
man of great ability, but relied less upon mere book 
learning than upon his native good sense. Liberal 
and courteous, was he yet devoted to the interest of 
his client, and no facts escaped his attention or his 
memory which bore upon the case. He was no friend 
of trickery or artifice in conducting a case As an ad- 
vocate he had few equals. When fully aroused by the 
merits of his subject his eloquence was at onca grace- 
ful and powerful. His fancies supplied the most 
original, the most pointed illustrations, and his logic 
became a battling giant under whose heavy blows the 
adversary shrank and withered. Nature had be- 
stowed upon him rare qualities, and his powers as a 
popular orator were of a high order. 

On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 
1854, repeahng the Missouri compromise and opening 
the Territories to slavery, he was among the foremost 
in Michigan to denounce the shamful scheme. He 
actively participated in organizing and consolidating 
the elements opposed to it in that State, and was a 
member of the popular gathering at Jackson, in July, 
1854, which was the first formal Republican Conven- 
tion held in the United States. At this meeting the 
name " Republican " was adopted as a designation of 
the new party consisting of Anti-slavery, Whigs, 
Liberty men. Free Soil Democrats and all others op- 
posed to the extension of slavery and favorable to its 
expulsion from the Territories and the District of 
Columbia. At this convention Mr. W. was urged to 
accept the nomination for Attorney General of the 



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State, but declined. An entire State ticket was nom- 
inated and at the annual election in November was 
elected by an average majority of nearly io,ooo. 
Mr. W. was enthusiastic in the cause and brought to 
its support all his personal influence and talents. In 
his views he was bold and radical. He believed from 
the beginning that the political power of the slave- 
holders would have to be overthrown before quiet 
could be secured to the country. In the Presidential 
canvass of 1856 he supported the Fremont, or Re- 
publican, ticket. At the session of the Legislature of 
1857 he was a candidate for United States Senator, 
and as such received a very handsome support. • 

In 1858, he was nominated for Governor of the 
State by the Republican convention that met at De- 
troit, and at the subsequent November election was 
chosen by a very large majority. Before the day of 
the election he had addressed the people of almost 
every county and his majority was greater even than 
that of his popular predecessor, Hon. K. S. Bingham. 
He served as Governor two years, from Jan. i, 1859, 
to Jan. I, 1 86 1. His first message to the Legislature 
was an able and statesman-like production, and was 
read with usual favor. It showed that he was awake 
to all the interests of the State and set forth an en- 
lightened State policy, that had its view of the rapid 
settlement of our uncultivated lands and the devel- 
opment of our immense agricultural and mineral re- 
sources. It was a document that reflected the highest 
credit upon the author. 

His term having expired Jan. i, 1861, he returned 
to his home in Pontiac, and to the practice of his 
profession. There were those in the State who 
counselled the sending of delegates to the peace con- 
ference at Washington, but Mr. W. was opposed to all 
such temporizing expedients. His counsel was to 
send no delegate, but to prepare to fight. 

After Congress had met and passed the necessary 
legislation he resoh ed to take part in the war. In 
the spring and summer of 1862 he set to work to 
raise a regiment of infantry, chiefly in Oakland 
County, where he resided. His regiment, the 2 2d 
Michigan, was armed and equipped and ready to 
march in September, a regiment whose solid quali- 
ties were afterwards proven on many a bloody field. 
Col. Ws. commission l)ore the date of Sept. 8, 1862. 
Before parting with his family he made his will. His 
regiment was sent to Kentucky and quartered at 



Camp Wallace. He had at the breaking out of the X 
war turned his attention to military studies and be- f' 
came proficient in the ordinary rules and discipline, h 
His entire attention was now devoted to his duties. | 
His treatment of his men was kind, though his disci- ih 
pline was rigid. He possessed in an eminent degree 
the spirit of command, and had he lived he would 
no doubt have distinguished himself as a good 
officer. He was impatient of delay and chafed at 
l>eing kept in Kentucky where there was so little 
prospect of getting at the enemy. But life in camp, 
so different from the one he had been leading, and 
his incessant labors, cx)upled with that impatience 
which was so natural and so general among the vol- 
unteers in the early part of the war, soon made their 
influence felt upon his health. He was seized with 
typhoid fever and removed to a private house near 
Uxington. Every care which medical skill or the 
hand of friendship could bestow was rendered him. 
In the delirious wanderings of his mind he was dis- 
ciplining his men and urging them to be prepared for -. 
an encounter with the enemy, enlarging upon the jus- ^ 
tice of their cause and the necessity of their crush- 
ing the Rebellion. But the source of his most ix>ig- 
nant gnet was the prospect of not being able to come 
to a hand-to-hand encounler with the "chivalry." 
He was proud of his regiment, and felt that if it could ^ 
find the enemy it would cover itself with glory, — a 
distinction it afterward obtained, but not until Col. W. 
was no more. The malady baffled all medical treat- 
ment, and on the 5th day of Jan., 1863, he breathed 
his last. His remains were removed to Michigan and 
interred in the cemetery at Pontiac, where they rest 
by the side of the brave Gen. Richardson, who re- 
ceived his mortal wound at the battle of Antietam. 
Col. W. was no adventurer, although he was doubtless 
ambitious of military renown and would have striven 
for it with characteristic energy. He went to the war 
to defend and uphold the principles he had so much 
at heart. Few men were more familiar than he with 
the causes and the underlying principles that led to 
the contest. He left a wife, who was a daughter of 
Gen. C. C. Hascall, of Flint, and four children to 
mourn his loss. Toward them he ever showed tbe 
tenderest regard. Next to his duty their love axxci 
welfare engrossed his thoughts. He was kind, gen^ 
erous and brave, and like thousands of others lie 
sleeps the sleep of the martyr for his country. 






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GOrERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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LFSTIN BLAIR, Governor 
of Michigan from Jan. 2, 
1 86 1, to Jan. 4, 1H65, and 
kown as the War Governor, is 
and illustration of the benifi- 
ct^nt influence of republican in- 
stitutions, having inherited neith- 
er fortune nor fame. He was horn 
in a log cabin at Caroline, Tomp- 
kins Co., N. v., Feb. 8, 18 18. 
His ancestors catne from Scot- 
land in the time of (ieorge I, and 
for many generations followed the 
pursuit of agriculture. His f^ither, 
I George Blair, settled in Tompkins 
County in 1809, and felled the trees and erecled the 
first cabin in the county. The last 60 of the four- 
score years of his life were spent on that six)t. He 
married Rhoda Beackman, who now sleeps with him 
in the soil of the old homestead. The first 17 years 
of Mr. Blair's life were spent there, rendering his 
father what aid he could nix^n the farm. Fie then 
spent a year and a half in Cazenovia Seminary pre- 
paring for college; entered Hamilton College, in 
Clinton, prosecuted his studies until the middle of 
♦he junior year, when, attracted by the fame of Dr. 
Noit, he changed to Union College, from which he 
graduated in the class of 1839. Upon leaving col- 
lege Mr. Blair read law two years in the office of Sweet 
^ t>avis, Oswego, N Y., and was admitted to jiractice 
^ '^4^ and the same year moved to Michigan, locat- 



ing in Jackson. During a temporary residence in 
Eaton Rapids, in 1842, he was elected Clerk of Eaton 
County. At the close of the official term he returned to 
Jackson, and as a Whig, zealously espoused the cause 
of Henry Clay in the campaign of 1844. He was chosen 
Representative to the Legislature in 1845, at which 
session, as a member of the Judiciary Committee, he 
rendered valuable service in the revision of the gen- 
eral statutes ; also made an able supix)rt in favor of 
abolishing the color distinction in relation to the elec- 
rive franchise, and at the same session was active in 
securing the abolition of capital punishment. In 1848 
Mr. Blair refused longer to affiliate with the Whig 
party, liecause of its refusial to endorse in convention 
any anti-slavery sentiment. He joined the Free-soil 
movement, and was a delegate to their convention 
which nominated Van Buren for President that year 
Upon the birth of the Republican party at Jackson, 
in 1854, by the coalition of the Whig and Free-soil 
elements, Mr. Blair was in full sympathy with the 
movement, and acted as a member of the Committee 
on Platform. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney 
of Jackson County in 1852 ; was chosen State Senator 
two years later, taking his seat with the incoming Re- 
publican administration of 1855, and holding the 
position of parliamentary leader in the Senate. He 
was a delegate to the National Convention which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln in i860. Mr. Blair 
was elected Governor of Michigan in i860, and re- 
elected in 1862, faithfully and honorably discharging 
the nrduoii'^ dutJo^ of the office during that most mo- 



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AUSTIN BLAIR. 






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mentous and stormy period of the Nation s life. Gov. 
i^ Blair ix>ssessed a dear comprehension of the perilous 
* situation from the inception of the Rebellion, and his 
/§ inaugural address foreshadowed the prompt executive 
policy and the administrative ability which charac- 
terized his gubernatorial career. 

Never perhaps in the history of a nation has a 
brighter example been laid down, or a greater sacri- 
fice been made, than that which disringuished Mith- 
igan during the civil war. All, from the " War Gov- 
ernor/* down to the poorest citizen of the State, were 
animated with a patriotic ardor at once magnificiently 
sublime and wisely directed. 

Very early in 1861 the coming struggle cast i^s 
shadow over the Nation. Governor Blair, in his mes- 
sage to the Legislature in January of that year, dwelt 
very forcibly upon the sad prospects of civil war; and 
/^ as forcibly pledged the State to support the principles 
= of the Republic. After a review of the conditions 
^ of the State, he passed on to a consideration of the 
° relations between the free and slave Stales of the 
Republic, saying: " While we arecitizensof the State 
of Michigan, and as such deeply devoted to her in- 
terests and honor, we have a still prouder title. We 
are also citizeas of the United States of Amenca. By 
this title we are known among the nations of the earth. 
In remote quarters of the globe, where the names of 
the States are unknown, the flag of the great Republic, 
the banner of the stars and stripes, honor and protect 
her citizens. In whatever concerns the honor, the 
prosperity and the perpetuity of this great Govern- 
ment, we are deeply interested. The people of Mich- 
igan are loyal to that Government — faithful to its con- 
stitution and its laws. Under it they have had peace 
and prosperity ; and under it they mean to abide to 
the end. Feeling a just pride in the glorious history 
of the past, they will not renounce the equally glo- 
rious hopes of the future. But they will rally around 
the standards of the Nation and defend its integrity 
and its constitution, with fidelity." The final para- 
graph being: 

** I recommend you at an early day to make niani- 



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fest to the gentlemen who represent this State in the 
two Houses of Congress, and to the country, that 
Michigan is loyal to the Union, the Constitution, and 
the laws and will defend them to the uttermost; and 
to proffer to the President of the United States, the 
whole military power of the State for that purpose. 
Oh, for the firm, steady hand of a Washington, or a 
Jackson, to guide the ship of State in this perilous 
storm ! Let us hope that we will find him on the 4th 
of March. Meandme, let us abide in the faith of our 
fathers — * Liberty and Union, one and inseparable, 
now and forever.* " 

How this stirring appeal was responded to by the 
people of Michigan will be seen by the statement 
that the State furnished 88,1 1 1 men during the war. 
Money, men, clothing and food were freely and abun- 
dantly supplied by this State during all these years of 
darkness and blood shed. No State won a brighter 
record for her devotion to our country than the Pen- 
insula State, and to Gov. Blair, more than to any 
other individual is due the credit for its untiring zeal 
and labors in the Nations behalf, and for the heroism 
manifested in its defense. 

Gov. Blair was elected RepresentaUve to the 
Forrieth Congress, and twice re-elected, to the Forty- 
first and Forty-second Congress, from the Third Dis* 
trict of Michigan. White a member of that body he 
was a strong supporter of reconstruction measures, 
and sternly opposed every form of repudiation. His 
speech upon the national finances, delivered on the 
floor of the House March 21, 1868, was a clear and 
convincing argument Since his retirement from Con- 
gress, Mr. Blair has been busily occupied with his ex- 
tensive law practice. Mr. Blair married Sarah L. 
Ford, of Seneca County N. Y., in February, 1 849. 
Their family consists of 4 sons — George H., a la'w 
partner of A. J. Gould ; Charles A., a law partner inrith 
hir father, and Fred. J. and Austin T. Blair, at home. 
Governor Blair s religion is of the broad type, and 
centers in the "Golden Rule." In 1883, Gov. Blair 
was nominated for Justice of the Supreme C7ourt 
of the State by the Republican party, but was defeated. 






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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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ENRY ROWLAND CRAPO, 

Governor of Michigan from 
1865 to 1869, was born May 
24, 1804, at Dartmouth, Bris- 
tol Co., Mass., and died at 
Flint, Mich., July 22, 1869. 
was the eldest son of Jesse 
and Phoebe (Rowland) Crapo. 
His father was of French descent 
and was very poor, sustaining his 
family by the cultivation of a farm in 
Dartmouth township, which yielded 
nothing beyond a mere livelihood. 
His early life was consequently one 
of toil and devoid of advantages for 
I intellectual culture*, but his desire for 
an education seemed to know no bounds. The in- 
cessant toil for a mere subsistence upon a compara- 
tively sterile farm, had no charm for him ; and, longing 
for greater usefulness and better things, he looked for 
them in an education. His struggles to secure this 
end necessitated sacrifices and hardships that would 
liave discouraged any but the most courageous and 
persevering. He became an ardent student and 
worker from his boyhood, though the means of carry- 
ing on his studies were exceedingly limited. He 
sorely felt the need of a dictionary; and, neither having 
» money wherewith to purchase it, nor being able to 
procure one in his neighborhood, he set out to compile 
' , one for himself. In order to acquire a knowledge of 
the English language, he copied into a book every 
word whose meaning he did not comprehend, and 
upon meeting the same word again in the newspapers 
and books, w^hich came into his hands, from the 



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context, would then record the definition. Whenever 
unable otherwise to obtain the signification of a word 
in which he had become interested he would walk 
from Dartmouth to New Bedford for that purpose 
alone, and after referring to the books at the library 
and satisfying himself thoroughly as toitsdetinition, 
would walk back, a distance of about seven miles, 
the same night. This was no unusual circumstance. 
Under such difficulties and in this manner he com- 
piled quite an extensive dictionary in manuscript 
which is believed to be still in existence. 

Ever in pursuit of knowledge, he obtained posses- 
sion of a book upon surveying, and applying himself 
diligently to its study became familiar with this art, 
which he soon had an opportunity to practice. The 
services of a land surveyor were wanted, and he was 
called upon, but had no compass and no money with 
which to purchase one. A compass, however, he 
must and would have, and going to a l)lacksmith shop 
near at hand, upon the forge, with such tools as he 
could find in the shop, while the smith was at dinner, 
he constructed the compass and commenced life as a 
surveyor. Still continuing his studies, he fitted him- 
self for teaching, and took charge of the village school 
at Dartmouth. When, in the course of time and un- 
der the pressure of law, a high school was to be 
oix:ned, he passed a successful examination for its 
principalship and received the appointment. To do 
this was no smatl task. The law required a rigid 
examination in various subjects, which necessitated 
days and nights of study. One evening, after con- 
cluding his day s labor of teaching, he traveled on foot 
to New Bedford, some seven or eight miles, called 
upon the preceptor of Friend s Academy and passed 






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HENRY HOWLAND CRAPO. 



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^ a severe examination. Receiving a certi6cate that 
^ he was qualified, he walked back to his home the 
same night, highly elated in being possessed of the 
acquirements and requirements of a. master of the 
high school. 
^. In 1852, at the age of 28 years, he left his native 
^ town and went to reside at New Bedford, where he 
followed the oc* upation of land surveyor, and oc- 
casionally acted as an auctioneer. Soon after becom- 
ing a citizen of this place, he was elected Town Clerk, 
Treasurer, and Collector of taxes, which office he held 
until the municipal government was changed, — about 
fifteen years, — when, upon the inauguration of the city 
government, he was elected Treasurer and Collector 
of taxes, a |>osilion which he held two or three years. 
He was also Justice of the Peace for many years. 
He was elected Alderman of New Bedford; was 
Chaimian of Council Committee on Education, and 
as such prepared a report upon which was based the 
order for the establishment of the free Public Library 
of New Bedford. On its organization, Mr. Crapo was 
choien a member of the Board of Trustees. This 
was the first free public library in Massachusetts, if 
not in the world. The Boston Free Library' was es- 
tablished, however, soon afterwards. While a resident 
in New Bedford, he was much interested in horticul- 
ture, and tft obtain the land necessary- for carrying out 
^ his ideas he drained and reclaimed several acres of 
^ rocky and swampy land adjoining his garden. Here 
S he started a nursery, which he filled with almost every 
'^ description of fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs, 
flowers, etc. In this he was very successful and took 
great pride. He was a regular contributorto the New 
England Horticultural Journal, a position he filled 
as long as he lived in Massachusetts. As an indica- 
tion of the wide reputation he accjuired in that field 
of lalx)r, it may he mentioned that after his death an 
affecting eulogy lo his memory was pronounced by the 
President of tiie National Horticultural Society at its 
meeting in Philadelphia, in 1869. During his resi- 
dence in New Bedford, Mr. Cra|x> was also engaged 
in the whaling l)usiness. A fine barque built at Dart- 
mouth, of which be was part owner, was named the 
"H. H. Crapo*' \\\ compliment to him. 

Mr. C. also took part in the State Militia, and for 
several years held a commission as Colonel of one of 
the regiments. He was President of the Bristol 
County Mutual Fire Insurance Co., and Secretary' of 
the Fkxlford Commercial Insurance Company in New 
Bedford; and while an officer of the municipal gov- 
(^ ernment he com piled and published, between the years 
[836 and 1845, ^^'*^ numbers of the New Bedford 
Directory, the first work of the kind ever published 
there. 
\^d Mr. C. removed to Michigan in 1856, having been 
^f^ induced to do so by investments made principally in 
pine lands, first in 1837 and subsequently in 1856. 



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He touk u[> liis residence in the city of Flint, and en- 



gaged largely in the manufacture and sale of lumber ^ 
at Flint, Kenton ville. Holly afid Detroit, becoming \ 
one of the largest and most successful business men 
of the State. He was mainly instrumental in the 
construction of the Fhnt & Holly R. R., and was 
President of that corporation nniil its consolidation \ 
with the Flint & Pere Marquette R. R. Comi>any. 
He was elected Mayor of that city after he had been 
a resident of the place only ^st. cr six years. In 
1862 he was elected State Senator. In the fall of 
1864 he received the nomination on the Rei)ublican 
ticket for Governor of the State, and was elected by a 
large majority. He was re-elected in 1866, holding 
the office two terms, and retiring in January, 1869, 
having given the greatest satisfaction to all parties. 

While serving his last term he was attacked with a 
disease which terminated his life within one year 
afterwards. During much of this time he was an in- 
tense sufferer, yet often while in great pain gave his 
attention to public matters. A few weeks previous 
to his death a successful surgical operation was per- 
formed which seemed rapidly to restore him, but he 
overestimated his strength, and by too much exertion 
in business matters and State affairs suffered a relapse 
from which there was no rebound, and he died July 
33, 1869. 

In the early part of his life. Gov. Crapo affiliated 
with the Whig party in politics, but became an active 
member of the Republican party after its organization. 
He was a meml>er of the Christian (sometimes called 
the Disciples') Church, and took great interest in its 
welfare and prosperity. 

Mr. C. married, June 9, 1825, Mary K. Slocum, 
of Dartmouth. His marriage took place soon after 
he had attained his majority, and before his struggles 
with fortune had been rewarded with any great meas- 
ure of success. But his wife was a woman of great 
strength of character and |K)ssessed of courage, hope- 
fulness and devotion, (jualities which sustained and 
encouraged her husband in the various pursuits of 
his early years. For several years after his marriage 
he was engaged in teaching school, his wife living 
with her parents at the time, at whose home his two 
older children were bom. While thus situated he 
was accustomed to walk home on Saturday to see 
his family, returning on Sunday in order to be ready 
for school Monday morning. As the walk for a go6d 
part of the time was 20 miles each way, it is evident 
that at that period of his life no common obstacles 
deterred him from |)erfonning what he regarded 
as a duty. His wife was none the less consci- 
entious in her sphere, and with added resix>nsibilities 
and increasing requirements she labored faithfully 
in the ]x;rfo''mance of all her duties. They had 
ten children, one son and nine daughters. His son, 
Hon. Wm. W. Crajx), of New Bedford, is now an 
honored Representative to Congress from the First 
Congressional District of Massachusetts. 



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GO VKRXORS OF MICHIGAN. 





HENRY p. BAIIPWIN. 





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ENRY P. BALDWIN, Ciov- 

ernor of Michigan from Jan. 
4, 1869, to Jan. I, 1873, is a 
lineal descendant of Nathan- 
iel Baldwin, a Puritan, of Buck- 
inghanishire, England, who set- 
ded at Milford, Conn., in 1659. 
His father was John Baldwin, 
a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. He died at North Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1826. His 
paternal grandfather was Rev. 
Moses Baldwin, a graduate of 
Princeton College, in 1757, and the 
first who received collegiate hon- 
ors at that ancient and honored institution. He died 
at Parma, .Mass., in 18 13, where for more than 50 
years he had been pastor of the Presl)yterian Church. 
On his mother's side Governor B. is descended from 
Robert Williams, also a Puritan, who settled in Ro.x- 
bur\', Mass., about 1638. His mother was a daughter 
of Rev. Nehemiah Williams, a graduate of Harvard 
College, who died at Brimfield, Mass., in 1796, where 
lor 21 years he was pastor of the Congregationalist 
Church. The subject of this sketch was born at 
Coventry, R. I., Feb. 22, 1^14. He received a New 
England common-school education until the age of 
12 years, when, both his parents having died, he be- 
came a clerk in a mercantile establishment. He re- 
mained there, employing his leisure hours in study, 
until 20 years of age. 

At this early period Mr. B. engaged in business on 
his own account. He made a visit to the West, in 
^^37 ♦ which resulted in his removal to Detroit in the 
spring of 1838. Here he established a mercantile 
nouse which has been successfully conducted until 
e present time. Although he successfully conducted 



a large business, he has ever taken a deep interest in 
all things affecting the prosperity of the city and 
Stale of his adoption. He was for several years a 
Director and President of the Detroit Young Men's 
Society, an institution with a large library designed 
for the benefit of young men and citizens generally. 
An Episcopalian in religious belief, he has been 
prominent in home matters connected with that de- 
nomination. I'he large and flourishing parish of St. 
John, Detroit, originated with Governor Baldwin, who 
gave the lot on which the parish edifice stands, and 
also contributed the larger share of the cost of their 
erection. Governor B. was one of the foremost in 
the establishment of St. Luke s Hospital, and has 
always been a liberal contributor to moral and relig- 
ious enterprises whether connected with his own 
Church or not. There have been, in fact, but few 
public and social improvements of Detroit during the 
past 40 years with which Governor B.'s name is not 
in some way connected. He was a director in the 
Michigan State Bank until the expiration of its char- 
ter, and has been President of the Second National 
Bank since its organization. 

In i860, Mr. Baldwin was elected to the State 
Senate, of Michigan ; during the years of i86i-*2 he 
was made Chairman of the Finance Committee, a 
member of Committee on Banks and Incorix)rations, 
Chairman of the Select Joint Committee of the two 
Houses for the invesrigation of the Treasury Depart- 
ment and the official acts of the Treasurer, and of 
the letting of the contract for the improvement of 
Sault St. Marie Ship Canal. He was first elected 
Governor in jS68 and was re-elected in 1870, serving 
from 1869 to 1872, inclusive. It is no undeserved 
eulogy to say that Governor B.'s happy faculty of es- 
timating the necessary means to an end — the knowing 
of how much effort or attention to bestow upon the 
thing in hand, has been the secret of the unifonn 



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success that has attended his efforts in all relations 
of life. The same industry and accuracy that dis- 
tinguished him prior to this term as Governor was 
manifest in his career as the chief magistrate of the 
State, and while his influence appears in all things 
with which he has had to do, it is more noticeable in 
the most prominent position to which he was called. 
With rare exceptions the important commendations 
of Governor B. received the sanction of the Legislat- 
ure. During his administration marked improve- 
ments were made in the charitable, penal and reforma- 
tory institutions of the State. The State Public School 
for dependent children was founded and a permanent 
commission for the sui)ervision of the several State 
institutions. The initiatory steps toward building the 
Eastern Asylum for the Insane, the State House of 
Correction, and the establishment of the State Board 
of Health were recommended by Governor B. in his 
message of 1873. The new State Capitol also owes 
its origen to him. The appropriation for its erection 
was made upon his recommendation, and the contract 
for the entire work let under this administration. 
Governor B. also appointed the commissioners under 
whose faithful sui)ervision the building was erected in 
a manner most satisfactory to the people of the State. 
He advised and earnestly urged at different times 
such amendments of the constitution as would per- 
mit a more equitable compensation to State officers 
and judges. The law of 1 869, and prior also, permitting 
municipalities to vote aid toward the construe- 
tion of railroads was, in 1870, declared unconstitu- 
tional by the Supreme Court. Many of the munici- 
palities having in the meantime issued and sold their 
bonds in good faith, Governor B. fell that the honor 
and credit of the State were in jeopardy. His sense 
of justice im|)elled him to call an extra session of the 
Legislature to propose the submission to the people a 
constitutional amendment, authorizing the payment 
of such bonds as were already in the hands of bona^ 
fide holders. In his special message he says : '*The 
credit of no State stands higher than that of Michigan, 
and the people can not afford, and I trust will not 
consent, to have her good name tarnished by the repu- 
diation of either legal or moral obligations." A spe- 
cial session was called in March, 1872, principally for 
the division of the State into congressional districts. 
A number of other important suggestions were made, 
however, and as an evidence of the Governors la- 
borious and thoughtful care for the financial condition 



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of the State, a series of tables was prepared and sub- 
mitted by him showing, in detail, estimates of receipts, 
expenditures and appropriations for the years 1872 to 
1 87 8, incl usi ve. Memorable of Governor B. s admin- 
istration ,were the devastating fires which swept over 
many portions' of the Northwest in the fall of 1871. 
A large part of the city of Chicago having been re- 
duced to ashes. Governor B. promptly issued a proc- 
lamation calling upon the people of Michigan for 
liberal aid in behalf of the afflicted city. Scarcely had 
this been issued when several counties in his State 
were laid waste by the same destroying element. ^^ 
A second call was made asking assistance for the suf- % 
fering people of Michigan. The contributions for 
these objects were prompt and most lil^eral, more than 
$700,000 having been received in money and supplies 
for the relief of Michigan alone. So ample were 
these contributions during the short period of about 
3 months, that the Governor issued a proclamation 
expressing in behalf of the people of the State grate- 
ful acknowldgment, and announcing that further 
aid was unnecessary. 

Governor B. has traveled extensively in his own == 
country and has also made several visits to Europe 5r» 
and other portions of the Old World. He was a pas- == 
senger on the Steamer Arill, which was captured and * 
bonded in the Carribean Sea, in December, 1862, by * 
Capt. Semmes, and wrote a full and interesting ac- 
count of the transaction. The following estimate of 
Governor B. on his retirement from office, by a leading 
newspaper, is not overdrawn: **The retiring message 
of Governor B., will be read with interest. It is 
a characteristic document and possesses the lucid 
statement, strong, and clear practical sense, which 
have been marked features of all preceding documents 
from the same isource. Governor B. retired to private 
life after four years of unusually successful adminis- 
tration amid plaudits that are universal throughout the 
State. For many years eminent and capable men 
have filled the executive chair of this State, but in 
painstaking vigilance, in stem good sense, in genuine 
public spirit, in thorough integrity and in practical 
capacity, Henry P. Baldwin has shown himself to be 
the peer of any or all of them. The State has been un- 
usually prosperous during his two terms, and the Stale 
administration has fully kept pace with the needs of 
the times. The reriring Governor has fully eamed 
the public gratitude and confidence which he to-<iay 
possesses to such remarkable degree.** 



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GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 



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OHN JUDSON BAGLEY, 
^Governor of Michigan from 
1873 to 1877, was bom in 
Medina, Orleans Co., N. Y., 
July 24, 1 832. His father, John 
Bagley, was a native of New 
Hampshire, his mother, Mary M. 
Bagley, of Connecticut. He at- 
tended the district school of Lock- 
port, N. Y., until he was eight years 
old, at which time his father moved 
to Constantine, Mich., and he at- 
tended the common schools of that 
village. His early experience was 
|\| like that of many country boys whose 
parents removed from Eastern States 
to the newer portion of the West. 
His father being in very poor circum- 
stances, Mr. B. was obliged to work 
as soon as he was able to do so. 
Leaving school when 13 years of age 
he entered a country store in Constan- 
tine as clerk. His father then re- 
moved to Owosso, Mich., and he again 
f engaged as clerk in a store. From 
early youth Mr. B. was extravagantly fond of reading 
and devoted every leisure moment to the perusal of 
such books, papers and periodicals as came within 
his reach. In 1847, he removed to Detroit, where he 
secured employment in a tobacco manufactory and 
remained in this position for about five years. 

In 1853, he began business for himself in the man- 
ufacturing of tobacco. His establishment has become 



one of the largest of the kind in the West. Mr. B. 
has also been greatly interested in other manufactur- 
ing enterprises, as well as in mining, banking and in- 
surance corporations. He was President of the 
Detroit Safe Company for several years. He was one 
of the organizers of the Michigan Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company of Detroit, and was its President from 
1867 to 1872. He was a director of the Amer- 
ican National Bank for many years, and a stock- 
holder and director in various other corporations. 
Mr. B. was a member of the Board of Education two 
years, and of the Detroit Common Council the same 
length of time. In 1865 he was appointed by Gover- 
nor Crapo one of the first commissioners of the 
Metropolitian police force of the city of Detroit, serv- 
ing six years. In November, 1872, he was elected 
Governor of Michigan, and two years later was re- 
elected to the same officj, retiring in January, 1877. 
He was an active worker in the Republican party, and 
for many years was Chairman of the Republican 
State Central committee. 

Governor Bagley was quite liberal in his religious 
views and was an attendant of the Unitarian Church. 
He aimed to be able to hear and consider any new 
thought, from whatever source it may come, but was not 
bound by any religious creed or formula. He held 
in respect all religious opinions, believing that no one 
can be injured by a firrh adherence to a faith or de- 
nomination. He was married at Dubuque, Iowa, Jan. 
16, 1855, to Frances E. Newberry, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Newberry, a pioneer missionary of Michigan, 
who took an active part in the early educational mat- 
ters of the State and in the establishment of its ex- 
cellent system of education. It was principally 



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JOHN J, BAG LEY, 



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through his exertions that the State University was 
founded. Mr. B. s family consists of seven children. 

As Governor his administration was charac- 
terized by several important features, chief among 
which were his efforts to improve and make popular 
the educational agencies of the State by increasing 
the faculty of the University for more thorough in- 
struction in technical studies,by strengthening the hold 
of the Agricultural College upon the public good will 
and making the general change which has manifested 
itself in many scattered primary districts. Among 
others were an almost complete revolution in the 
management of the penal and charitable institutions 
of the State; the passage of the liquor-tax law, taking 
the place of the dead letter of prohibition; the estab- 
lishing of the system of dealing with juvenile offend- 
ers through county agents, which has proved of great 
good in turning the young back from crime and plac- 
ing the State in the attitude of a moral agent ; in se- 
curing for the militia the first time in the history of 
Michigan a systematized organization upon a service- 
able footing. It was upon the suggestion of Gov. B. 
in the earlier part of his administration that the law 
creating the State Board of Health, and also the law 
creating a fish commission in the inland waters of the 
State, were passed, both of which have proved of great 
benefit to the Slate. The successful representation 
of Michigan at the Centennial Exhibition is also an 
honorable part of the record of Gov. B. s adminis- 
tration. 

As Governor, he felt that he represented the State 
— not in a narrow, egotistical way, but in the same 
sense that a faithful, trusted, confidential agent rep- 
resents his employer, and as the Executive of the 
State he was her " attorney in fact" And his intelli- 
gent, thoughtful care will long continue the pride of 
the people he so much loved. He was ambitious — 
ambitious for place and power, as every noble mind 
is ambitious, because these give opportunity. How- 
ever strong the mind and powerful the will, if there 
be no ambition, life is a failure. He was not blind to 
the fact that the more we have the more is required 
of us. He accepted it in its fullest meaning. He 
had great hopes for his State and his country. He had 
his ideas of what they should be. With a heart as 
broad as humanity itself; with an intelligent, able and 
cultured brain, the will and the power to do, he 
asked his fellow citizen to give him the opportunity to 
labor for them. Self entered not into the calculation. 



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His whole life was a battle for others; and he entered V 
the conflict eagerly and hopefully. ^ 

His State papers were models of compact, busi- #??* 
ness-like statements, bold, original, and brimful of ^ 
practical suggestions, and his administratbns will long ^ 
be considered as among the ablest in this or any 
other State. 

His noble, generous nature made his innumerable 
benefactions a source of continuous pleasure. Liter- 
ally, to him it was ^ more blessed to give than to 
receive." 

His greatest enjoyment was in witnessing the com- 
fort and happiness of others. Not a tithe of his char- 
ities were known to his most intimate friends, or even 
to his family. Many a needy one has been the recipi- 
ent of aid at an opportune moment, who never knew 
the hand that gave. 

At one time a friend had witnessed his ready re- 
sponse to some charitable request, and said to him : 
**Govemor, you give away a large sum of money ; about 
how much does your charities amount to in a year.^** 
He turned at once and said : ** I do not know, sir ; I 
do not allow myself to know. I hope I gave more 
this year than I did last, and hope I shall give more 
next year than I have this." This expressed his idea 
of charity, that the giving should at all times be free 
and spontaneous. 

During his leasure hours from early life, and espe- 
cially during the last few years, he devoted much time 
to becoming acquainted with the best authors. Biog- 
raphy was his delight; the last he read was the **Lifc 
and Wotk of John Adams," in ten volumes. 

In all questions of business or public affairs he 
seemed to have the power of getting at the kernel of V 
the nut in the least possible time. In reading he 
would spend scarcely more time with a volume than 
most persons would devote to a chapter. After what 
seemed a cursory glance, he would have all of value 
the book contained. Rarely do we see a business 
man so familiar with the best English authors. He 
was a generous and intelligent patron of the arts, and 
his elegant home was a study and a pleasure (^ 
to his many friends, who always found there a 
hearty welcome. At Christmas time he would spend } 
days doing the work of Santa Qaus. Every Christmas ^ 
eve he gathered his children about him and, taking \ 
the youngest on his lap, told some Christmas ' story, ^ 



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closing the entertainment with **The Night 
Christmas," or Dickens's "Christmas Carol. 



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HARLES M. CROSWELL, 
Governor of Michigan from 
Jan. 3, 1877 to Jan. i, 1881, 
was bom at Newburg, Orange 
County, N. Y., Oct. 31, 1825. 
He is the only son of John and 
Sallie (Hicks) CroswelL His 
father, who was of Scotch-Irish 
extraction, was a paper-maker, 
and carried on business in New 
York City. His ancestors on 
his mothers side were of Knicker- 
bocker descent. The Croswell 
family may be found connected 
with prominent events, in New York 
and Connecticut, in the early exis- 
tence of the Republic. Harry Cros- 
well, during the administration of 
President Jefferson, published a pa- 
per called the Balance^ and was 
prosecuted for libeling the President 
under the obnoxious Sedition Law. 
He was defended by the celebrated 
Alexander Hamilton, and the decis- 
ion of the case establised the important ruling that 
the truth might be shown in cases of libel. Another 
member of the family was Edwin Croswell, the fam- 
ous editor of the Albany Argus; also, Rev. William 
Cxoswell, noted as a divine and poet. 

When Charles M. Croswell was seven years of age, 
his father was accidentally drowned in the Hudson 
River, at Newburg ; and, within three months preced- 
ing that event, his mother and only sister had died, — 
thus leaving him the sole surviving member of the 
family, without fortune or means. Upon the death 



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of his father he went to live with an uncle, who, in 
1837, emigrated with him to Adrain, Michigan. At 
sixteen years of age, he commenced to learn the car- 
penter s trade, and worked at it very diligently for 
four years, maintaining himself, and devoting his spare 
time to reading and the acquirement of knowledge. 
In 1846, he began the study of law, and was ap- 
pointed Deputy Clerk of Lenawee County. The du . 
ties of this office he performed four years, when he /*s 
was elected Register of Deeds, and was re-elected 
in 1852. In 1854, he took part in the first movements 
for the formation of the Republican party, and was a 
member and Secretary of the convetion held at Jack- 
son in that year, which put in the field the first Re- 
publican State ticket in Michigan. In 1855, he 
formed a law partnership with the present Chief- Jus- 
tice Cooley, which continued until the removal of 
Judge Cooley to Ann Arbor. 

In 1862, Mr. Croswell was appointed City Attorney 
of Adrian. He was also elected Mayor of the city 
in the spring of the same year ; and in the fall was 
chosen to represent Lenawee County in the State 
Senate. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1864, 
and again in 1866, during each term filling the posi- 
tions above mentioned. Among various reports made 
by him, one adverse to the re-establishment of the 
death penalty, and another against a proposition to 
pay the salaries of State officers and judges in coin, 
which then commanded a very large premium, may 
be mentioned. He also drafted the act ratifying the 
Thirteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
for the abolishment of slavery, it being the first 
amendment to the instrument ratified by Michigan. 
In 1863, from his seat in the State Senate, he de- 
livered an elaborate speech in favor of the Proclama- 



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CHARLES M. 



CRO SWELL. 






don of Emancipation issued by President Lincoln, 
and of his general policy in the prosecution of the 
war. This, at the request of his Republican associ- 
ates, was afterwards published. In 1867, he was 
elected a member of the Constitutional Convention, 
and chosen its presiding officer. This convention 
was composed of an able body of men ; and though, 
in the general distrust of constitutional changes 
which for some years had been taking possession of 
the people, their labors were not accepted by the pop- 
ular vote, it was always conceded that the constitu- 
tion they proposed had been prepared with great care 
and skill. 

In 1868, Mr. Croswell was chosen an Elector on 
the Republican Presidential ticket; in 1872, was 
elected a Representative to the State Legislature 
from Lenawee County, and was chosen Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. At the close of the 
session of that body his abilities as a pariiamentarian, 
and the fairness of his rulings were freely and form- 
ally acknowledged by his associates ; and he was pre- 
sented with a superb collection of their portraits 
handsomely framed. He was, also, for several years. 
Secretary of the State Board for the general supervis- 
ion of the charitable and penal institutions of Michi- 
gan ; in which position, his propositions for the amel- 
ioration of the condition of the unfortunate, and the 
reformation of the criminal classes, signalize the be- 
nevolence of his nature, and the practical character 
of his mind. 

In 1876, the general voice of the Republicans of 
the State indicted Mr. Croswell as their choice for 
Governor; and, at the State Convention of the party 
in August of the same year, he was put in nomination 
by acclamation, without the formality of a ballot. At 
the election in November following, he was chosen to 
the high position for which he had been nominated, 
by a very large majority over all opposing candidates. 
His inaugural message was received with general 
favor ; and his career as Governor was marked with 
the same qualities of head and heart that have ever 
distinguished him, both as a citizen and slatesaian. 



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Governor Groswell has always prepared his ad- ^ 
dresses with care ; and, as his diction is terse, clear, ^ 
and strong, without excess of ornament, and his de- i 
livery impressive, he is a popular speaker; and many )v 
of his speeches have attracted favorable comment in 
the public prints, and have a permanent value. He 
has always manifested a deep interest in educational 
matters, and was for years a member and Secretary of 
the Board of Education of Adrain. At the formal 
opening of the Central School building in that city, 
on the 24th day of April, 1869, he gave, in a public 
address, an ** Historical Sketch of the Adrian Public 
Schools." 

In his private life. Governor Croswell has been as 
exemplary as in his public career he has been suc- 
cessful and useful. In February, 1852, he was mat- 
ried to a daughter of Morton Eddy, Lucy M. Eddy, 
a lady of many amiable and sunny qualities. She j. 
suddenly died, March 19, 1868, leaving two daugh- ^ 
ters and a son. Governor Croswell is not a member ^^^ 
of any religious body, but generally attends the Pres- 1=3 
byterian Church. He pursues the profession of law, ^ 
but of late has been occupied mainly in the care of his «^ 
own interests, and the quiet duties of advice in C 
business difficulties, for which his unfailing pru- 
dence and sound judgment eminently fit him. Gov- 
ernor Croswell is truly |x>pular, not only with those of 
like political faith with himself, but with those who 
differ from him in this regard. 

During Gov. Croswell's administration the public f 
debt was greatly reduced; a policy adopted requiring ^ 
the State insritutions to keep within the limit of ap« 
propriations; laws enacted to provide more effectually 
for the punishment of corruption and bribrery in elec- 
tions; the State House of Correction at Ionia and the 
Eastern Asylum for the Insane at Pontiac were opened, /^ 
and the new capital at Lansing was completed and 
occupied. The first act of his second term was to pre- ' 
side at the dedication of this building The great riot ( 
at Jackson occured during his administration, and it 
was only bv his promptness that great distrucrion of 
both life and propert) V .w invented at tha* time. " 



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DAVID H. JEROME, Gover- 
aior of from Jan. i, 1881, to 
Jan. I, 1883, was born at De- 
troit, Mich,, Nov. 17, 1829. 
His parents emigrated to 
Michigan from Trumansburg, 
Tompkins Co., N. Y., in 1828, 
locating at Detroit. His father 
died March 30, 1831, leaving 
nine children. He had been 
twice married, and four of the 
children living at the time of his 
death were grown up sons, the off- 
spring of his first union. Of the 
five children by his second marriage, David H. was 
the youngest. Shortly after Mr. Jerome's death, his 
widow moved back to New York and settled in 
Onondaga County near Syracuse, where they remained 
until the fall of 1834, the four sons by the first wife 
continuing their residence in Michigan. In the fall 
of 1834, Mrs. Jerome came once more to Michigan, 
locating on a farm in St. Clair County. Here the 
Governor formed those habits of industry and ster- 
ling integrity that have been so characteristic of the 
man in the active duties of life. He was sent to the 
district school, and in the acquisition of the funda- 
mental branches of learning he displayed a precocity 
and an application which won for him the admiration 
of his teachers, and always placed him at the head 
of his classes. In the meantime he did chores on 
the farm, and was always ready with a cheerful heart 
and willing hand to assist his widowed mother. The 
heavy labor of the farm was carried on by his two 



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older brothers, Timothy and George, and when 13 
years of age David received his mother's permission to 
attend school fit the St. Clair Academy. While attend- 
ing there he lived with Marcus H. Miles, now de- 
ceased, doing chores for his board, and the following 
winter performed the same service for James Ogden, 
also deceased. The next summer Mrs. Jerome 
moved into the village of St. Clair, for the purpose of a>'. 
continuing her son in school. While attending said 
academy one of his associate students was Sena- 
tor Thomas W. Palmer, of Detroit, a rival candidate 
before the gubernatorial convention in 1880. He 
completed his education in tlfe fall of his i6th- year, 
and the following winter assisted his brother Timothy 
m hauling logs in the pine woods. The next summer 
he rafted logs down the St. Clair River to Algonac. 

In 1847, M. ^' Miles being Clerk in St. Clair Coun- 
ty, and Volney A. Ripley Register of Deeds, David 
H. Jerome was appointed Deputy to each, remaining 
as such during 1848-49, and receiving much praise 
from his employers and the people in general for the 
ability displayed in the discharge of his duties. He 
spent his summer vacation at clerical work on board 
the lake vessels. 

In 1 849-^5 o, ^^ abandoned office work, and for the 
proper development of his physical system spent 
several months hauling logs. In the spring of 1850, 
his brother "Tiff" and himself chartered the steamer ^ 
"Chautauqua," and "Young Dave" became her mas- Y 
ter. A portion of the season the boat was engaged 
in the passenger and freight traffic between Port 
Huron and Detroit, but during the latter part was 
used as a tow boat. At that time there was a serious 
obstruction to navigation, known as the "St. Clair 
Flats,** between Lakes Huron and Erie, over which 



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vessels could carry only about 10,000 bushels of grain. 
Mr. Jerome conceived the idea of towing vessels 
from one lake to the other, and put his plan into 
operation. Through the influence of practical men, — 
among them the subject of this sketch, — Congress 
removed the obstruction above referred to, and now 
vessels can pass them laden with 60,000 or 80,000 
bushels of grain. 

During the season, the two brothers succeeded 
in making a neat little sum of money by the sum- 
mer s work, but subsequently lost it all on a contract 
to raise the "Gen. Scott," a vessel that had sunk in 
Lake St. Clair. David H. came out free from debt, 
but possessed of hardly a dollar of capital. In the 
spring of 185 1, he was clerk and acting master of the 
steamers "Franklin Moore" and "Ruby," plying be- 
tween Detroit and Port Huron and Goderich. The 
following year he was clerk of the propeller "Prince- 
ton," running between Detroit and Buffalo. 

In January, 1853, Mr. Jerome went to California, 
by way of the Isthmus, and enjoyed extraordinary 
success in selling goods in a new place of his selec- 
tion, among the mountains near Marysville He re- 
mained there during the summer, and located the 
Live Yankee Tunnel Mine, which has since yielded 
millions to its owners, and is still a paying investment. 
He planned and put a tunnel 600 feet into the mine, 
but when the water supply began to fail with the dry 
season, sold out his interest. He left in the fall of 
1853, and in December sailed fwm San Francisco for 
New York, arriving at his home in St. Clair County, 
about a year after his departure. During his absence 
his brother "TifT* had located at Saginaw, ana in 
1854 Mr. Jerome joined him in his lumber operations 
in the valley. In 1855 the brothers bought Black- 
mer & Eaton's hardware and general supply stores, 
at Saginaw, and David H. assumed the management 
of the business. From 1855 to 1873 he was also ex- 
tensively engaged in lumbering operations. 

Soon after locating at Saginaw he was nominated 
for Alderman against Stewart B. Williams, a rising 
young man, of strong Democratic principles. The 
ward was largely Democratic, but Mr. Jerome was 
elected by a handsome majority. When the Repub- 
iican party was bom at Jackson, Mich., David H. 
Jerome was, though not a delegate to the convention, 
one of its "charter members.*" In 1862, he was com- 
missioned by Gov. Austin Blair to raise one of the 



six regiments apportioned to the State of Michigan. V 
Mr. Jerome immediately went to work and held v' 
meetings at various points. The zeal and enthusiasm 1^; 
displayed by this advocate of the Union awakened a ^ 
feeling of patriotic interest in the breasts of many .J 
brave men, and in a short space of time the 23d 
Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry was placed 
in the field, and subsequently gained for itself a bril- 
liant record. 

In the fall of 1862, Mr. Jerome was nominated by 
the Republican party for State Senator from the 26lh 
district, Applcton Stevens, of Bay City, being his op- \ 
ponent. The contest was very exciting, and resulted ^ 
in the triumphant election of Mr. Jerome. He was ^ 
twice renominated and elected both times by in- 
creased majorities, defeating George Lord, of Bay 
City, and Dr. Cheseman, of Gratiot County. On tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate, he was appointed Chair- 
man of the Committee on State Affairs, and was ac- 
tive in raising means and troops to cany on the war. 
He held the same position during his three terms of ' 
service, and introduced the bill creating the Soldiers* ' 
Home at Harper Hospital, Detroit. 

He was selected by Gov. Crapo as a military aid, 
and in 1865 was appointed a member of the Stale 
Military Board, and served as its President for eight 
consecutive years. In 1873, he was appointed by 
Gov. Bagley a member of the convention to prepare 
a new State Constitution, and was Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance. 

In 1875, Mr. Jerome was appointed a member of 
the Board of Indian Commissioners. In I876 he was 
Chairman of a commission to visit Chief Joseph, the 
Nez Perce Indian, to arrange an amicable settlement 
of all exisring difficulties. The commission went to 
Portland, Oregon, thence to the Blue Hills, in Idaho, 
a distance of 600 miles up the Columbia River. 

At the Republican State Convention, convened at 
Jackson in August, 1880, Mr. Jerome was placed in 
the field for nomination, and on the 5th day of the 
month received the highest honor the convention 
could confer on any one. His opponent was Freder- 
ick M. Holloway, of Hillsdale County, who was su|>- 
ported by the Democratic and Greenback parties. 
The State was thoroughly canvassed by both parties, 
and when the polls were closed on the evening of 
election day, it was found that David H. Jerome bad 
been selected by the voters of the Wolverine State to 
occupy the highest position within their gift. 



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OSIAH W. BEGOLE, the 
present (1883), (iovernor of 
Michigan was born in Living- 
ston, County, N. Y., Jan. 20, 
18 1 5. His ancestors were of 
French descent, and settled at 
an early period in the Slate of 
Maryland. His grandfather, Capt. 
Bolles, of that State, was an offi- 
cer in the American army during 
the war of the Revolution. About 
the beginning of the present cent- 
ury both his grandparents, having 
become dissatisfied with the insti- 
tution of slavery, although slave- 
holders themselves, emigrated to 
Livingston County, N. Y., then 
a new country, taking with them a 
number of their former slaves, who 
volunteered to accompany them. 
His father was an officer in the 
American army, and served during 
the war of 181 2. 
Mr. B. received his early education in a log school- 
house, and subsequently attended the Temple Hill 
Academy, at Geneseo, N. Y. Being the eldest of a 
family of ten children, whose parents were in moder- 
ate though comfortable circumstances, he was early 
taught habits of industry, and when 2 1 years of age, 
being ambitious to better his condition in life, he re- 
solved to seek his fortune in the fur West, as it was 



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then called. In August, 1836, he left the parental 
roof to seek a home in the Territory of Michigan 
then an almost unbroken wilderness. He settled in 
Genesee County, and aided with his own hands in 
building some of the early residences in what is now 
known as the city of Flint. There were but four or 
fiVQ houses where this flourishing city now stands 
when he selected it as his home. 

In the spring of 1839 he married Miss Harriet A. 
Miles. The marriage proved a most fortunate one , 
and to the faithful wife of his youth, who lives to en- 
joy with him the comforts of an honestly earned com- 
petence, Mr. Begole ascribes largely his success in 
life. Immediately after his marriage he commenced 
work on an unimproved farm, where, by his jjcrse- 
verance and energy, he soon established a good home, 
and at the end of eighteen years was the owner of a 
well improved farm of five hundred acres. 

Mr. Begole being an antr-slavery man, became a 
member of the Republican party at its organization. 
He served his to^vnsmen in various offices, and was 
in 1856, elected County Treasurer, which office he 
held for eight years. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion he did not 
carry a musket to the front, but his many friends will 
bear witness that he took an active part in recruiting 
and furnishing supplies for the army, and in looking 
after the interests of soldiers* families at home. The ^,. 
death of his eldest son near Atlanta, Ga., by a Confed- ^ 
rate bullet, in 1864, was the greatest sorrow of his life. * j 
When a few years later he was a member in Congress ^ 



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Gov. Begole voted and worked for the soldiers' 
bounty equalization bill, an act doing justice to the 
soldier who bore the burden and heat of the day, and 
who should fare equally with him who came in at the 
eleventh hour. That bill was defeated in the House 
on account of the large appropriation that would be 
required to pay the same. 

In 1870, Gov. Begole was nominated by acclama- 
tion for the office of State Senator, and elected by a 
large majority. In that body he served on the Com- 
mittees of Finance and Railroads, and was Chairman 
of the Committee on the Institute for the Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind. He took a liberal and public- 
spirited view of the importance of a new capitol 
building worthy of the State, and was an active mem- 
ber of the Committee that drafted the bill for the 
same He was a delegate to the National Republi- 
can Convention held at Philadelphia in 1872, and 
was the chosen member of that delegation to go to 
Washington and inform Gen. Grant and Senator 
Wilson of their nominations. It was while at that 
convention that, by the express wish of his many 
friends, he was induced to offer himself a can- 
4«date lor the 4KH«iinaiiioa of ^aeniber 4o tfae 43d Cm- 
gress, in which he was successful, after competing for 
the nomination with several of the most worthy, able 
and experienced men in the Sixth Congressional Dis- 
trict, and was elected by a very large majority. In 
Congress, he was a member of the Committee on 
Agricultural and Public Expenditures. Being one of 
the 17 fanners in that Congress, he took an acrive 
part in the Committee of Agriculture, and was ap- 
pointed by that comrailtee to draft the most impor- 
tant report made by that committee, and upon the 
only subject recommended by the President in his 
message, which he did an^ the report was printed in 
records of Congress ; he took an efficient though an 
unobtrusive part in all its proceedings. 

He voted for the currency bill, remonetization of 
silver, and other financial measures, many of which, 
though defeated then, have since become the settled 
k policy of the country. Owing to the position which 
Mr. Begole occupied on these questions, he became a 
"Greenbacker." 

In the Gubernatorial election of 1882, Mr. Begole 
was the candidate of both the Greenback and Dem- 
-A ocratic parties, and was elected by a vote of 154,269, 
>C. the Republican candidate, Hon. David H. Jerome, 

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receiving 149,697 votes. Mr. Begole, in entering 
upon his duties as Governor, has manifested a spirit 
that has already won him many friends, and bids fair 
to make his administration both successful and pop- 
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The very best indications of what a man is, is what 
his own townsmen think of him. We give the foK 
lowing extract from the Flint GMe, the leading Re- 
publican paper in Gov. Begole s own county, and it« 
too, written during the heat of a political campaign, 
which certainly is a flattering testimonial of his ster- ^ 
ling worth : C^ 

" So far, however, as Mr. Begole, the head of the /. 
ticket, is concerned, there is nothing detrimental to 
his character that can be alleged against him. He 
has sometimes changed his mind in politics, but for 
sincerity of his beliefs and the earnestness of his pur- 
pose nobody who knows him entertains a doubt. He 
is incapable of bearing malice, even against his bit- 
terest political enemies. He has a warm, generous 
nature, and a larger, kinder heart does not beat in 
the bosom of any man in Michigan. He is not much x=: 
given to making speeches, but deeds are more signif- « j 
leant of a man*s character than words. There arc r: 
many scores of men in all parts of the State where ^ 
Mr. Begole is acquainted, who have had practical ^ 
demonstrations of these facts, and who are liable to 
step outside of party lines to show that they do not 
forget his kindness, and who, no doubt, wish that he 
was a leader in what would not necessarily prove a 
forlorn hope. But the Republican party in Michigan 
is too strong to be beaten by a combination of Demo- 
crats and Greenbackers, even if it is marshaled by so ] 
good a man as Mr. Begole." ^" 

This sketch would be imperfect without refemng *' 
to the action of Mr. B. at the time of the great calamity * 
that in 1881 overtook the people of Northeastern 
Michigan, in a few hours desolating whole counties 
by fire and destroying the results and accumulations 
of such hard work as only falls to the lot of pioneers. 
While the Port Huron and Detroit committees were 
quarreling over the distribution of funds, Mr. Begole 
wrote to an agent in the "[burnt district " a letter, from 
which we make an extract of but a single sentence : ' 
" Until the differences between the two committees 
are adjusted and you receive your regular supplies 
from them, draw on me. Let no man suffer while I 
have money." This displays his true character. 



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GRATIOT COUNTY. 



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INTRODUCTORY. 





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N THE strength of the his- 
tory of a section of country 
lies the biographical rec- 
ord of its seitlers and later 
residents. The annals of 
the one class delineate its 
pioneer period ; those of the 
other represent its progress and the 
status of the generation whose experien- 
ces constitute the period closed by the 
era of its collated records. Gratiot 
County is fortunate in its day. Its won- 
derful pioneer era laps on its present 
period and the registration is complete. 
Many of those whose efforts gave the 
county its earliest impetus may still be 
seen in its thoroughfares. Many of the 
characters in the day of its first things are still on 
the stage and watch with keen-eyed alertness the 
manipulating of the present, still jealous for the 
repute of Gratiot, and eagerly solicitous for her sub- 
stantial and permanent progress. 

The projectors of these records strive to establish 
but one claim for its biographical integrity. It is 
prepared from the stand-point of no man's prejudice 
or biased opinion. To demonstrate the exact rela- 
tion of every individual represented to the genera- 



full 



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tions of the past and present is its 
personal record. 

Succeeding ages sweep away the debris of human 
errors and perpetuate the real greatness of a com- 
munity. Character stands out statuesque and events 
cluster about individuals forming the grandest and 
truest historical structure of which any age is capa- 
ble. Only biography can fitly represent the founda- 
tion, progress and ultimatum of local history and 
portray with perfect justice the precise attitude and 
relation of men to events and to circumstances. 

Gratiot County is justly proud of her pioneer 
record, and, so far as possible, the compilers of the 
biographical sketches have striven to honor the rep- 
resentatives of that period as well as those of to-day. 
Labor and struggle, performed in the light of hope 
and the earnestness of honest endeavor, established 
the county on a permanent basis, and is rounding up 
a period of glorious completeness. Her villages are 
creditable and her agricultural community is com- 
posed of the best grades of humanity. 

In the following sketches but one purpose has been 
kept in view — to collect floating threads of personal 
record, through which the enterprise of decades to 
follow may complete a perfect and continuous histor- 



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OR A T/O T CO UNTY, 



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EN. NATHAN CHURCH, 

senior member of the bank- 
ing house of Church, Bills & 
Co., Ithaca, was born in 
Ionia Co.» Mich., Nov. 22 
1840. He is of English an- 
•^^$-V»** W cestiy, and is the son of 

^(1^ Lafayette and Sophronia ( Benjamin ) 
Church. His father was born July 
5, 18 16, in Niagara Co., N, Y., near 
the shore of Lake Ontario, and was the 
youngest of nine children — seven sons 
and two daughters. Four of the sons 
and one daughter are yet living, their 
ages ranging from 84 to 68, and the 
average age being 74. 

The name of Church is quite a prominent one. 
Some of the family have rendered service to the Gov- 
ernment, to literature, theology or science, in almost 
every decade of the history of this country. The 
father of Lafayette, Willard Church, was a soldier of 
the Revolutionary war, serving gallantly under ** Mad 
Anthony " Wayne, and was one of the few survivors 
of the hardships endured by the prisoners of war on 
the prison ship Jersey. He was a near relative of 
Col. Benjamin Church, famous in the King Philip 
war. Four of the seven sons above referred to be- 
came ministers in the Baptist Church, and PharcelUis 
Charch, D. D., now living at Tarrytown, N. Y., is 




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well-known in theological circles as the author of a 
number of able and useful religious works. He was 
for a number of years editor of the New York Chron- 
icle^ which was afterwards merged with the Exam- 
iner^ and became The Examiner and Chronicle, I'wo 
of his sons founded the Galaxy (since bought out by 
the Century\ and now publish the Army ami Navy 
Journal. Leroy Church, another of the seven broth- 
ers, was for some years editor and publisher of the 
Chicago Standard, a Baptist newspaper well-known 
throughout the West. 

Lafayette Church (who has a more detailed sketch 
elsewhere in this work) came to Michigan in 1836, 
and was one of the pioneers of Ionia County. In 
1847, he removed to Wheatland Township, Hillsdale 
County, and in 1854 he made his final location in 
Arcada Township, this county, ujxyn land purchased 
of the Government, where he resides, being oiie 
of the earliest pioneers of the county. While 
engaged in agriculture, he was also a worker 
for Christianity, having been ordained a minister in 
the Baptist Church. He was thus doubly occupied 
until the fall of 1862, when his patriotic impulses led 
him to offer his services to the Government, receiv- 
ing authority from the Governor of the State. He, 
with his son Nathan, and Mr. Turck, of Alma, raised 
a company of volunteers from among the best people 
in the count), and this was made Co. D, 26th Mich. 
Vol. Inf., of which he was commissioned Captain. 



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The regiment rendezvoused at Jackson, Mich., where 
it was the recipient of much attention from the pat- 
riotic citizens and press. (Before leaving for the 
front, it was presented by the ladies of Jackson with 
a beautiful blue silk banner, which was carried into 
many a hard-fought engagement during the war. The 
blood-stained remnant is now preserved among the 
battle-flags in the State Military Museum at Lan- 
sing.) On reaching Washington, the regiment was 
assigned to provost duty at Alexandria, and it was 
thus engaged until the following spring, when it was 
ordered to Suffolk to aid in resisting the advance of 
Gen. Longstreet. Its signally gallant services in the 
field from that time until the close of the war — no- 
tably from the Wilderness to Appomattox — made it 
one of the best-known organizations in the service, 
being particularly famous as " skirmishers." Capt. 
Church served with his company until April 2, 1864, 
when he was appointed Chaplain of the regiment, 
and held that position until the close of the war. 
Since his muster-out, he has led a quiet life at his 
home in Arcada Township. 

The subject of this biography, Nathan Church, at- 
tended the common schools of Hillsdale and Gratiot 
Counties unril he was 16 years old, when he entered 
Kalamazoo College. After a partial course of study 
in that institution, he became assistant in the office 
of his father (who had been elected County Treas- 
urer), and for som^ time had entire charge of the 
business of that office. After three years with his 
father, he taught school for a time at Ithaca and St. 
Louis, one term in each village. He was also for a 
short time clerk in the store of John Jeffrey, one of 
the earliest in the county, in which was also located 
the village postoffice. 

It was, however, in the late civil war that he found 
the opportunities for which he was most naturally 
fitted. An eager, ambitious youth, the series of events 
before the firing on Sumter had deeply interested his 
ardent mind, and three months before he was of age 
he was enrolled in the volunteer army. Aug. 12^ 
1 861, he enlisted in Co. C, 8th Mich. Vol. Inf., and 
when the organization of the company was perfected 
he was made Sergeant. He served in that company 
until Jan. 17, 1862, when, suffering terribly from 
rheumatism, he was discharged for disability at Beau- 
fort, S. C, coming home upon crutches. The next 
summer, having partially recovered his health, he, 



his father and William S. Turck raised a company 
by their joint efforts, which was mustered in as Co. 
D, 26th Mich. Vol. Inf., and of this company Lafay- 
ette Church was, as above mentioned, commissioned 
Captain, Nathan Church First Lieutenant, and Wm. '^ 
S. Turck Second Lieutenant. Lieut. Church's com- • 
mission was dated Sept. i, 1862. On the arrival of 
the regiment at the seat of war, it was assigned to ' 
provost duty at Alexandria, Va., and soon after Lieut. 
Church was detailed as Aid-de-camp upon the staff 
of Gen. Slough, Military Governor of Alexandria, 
which position he held until his regiment was ordered 
to Suffolk. April 15, 1863, he was promoted Adju- 
tant of his regiment, and one year from that date was , 
commissioned Captain. He served with his regiment ! 
at the siege of Suffolk, Va., in the Blackwater expedi- 
tions, the second campaign on the Peninsula in 1863, 
and in the Second Army Corps (Hancock's) through ' 
the memorable campaigns of 1864 and 1865. ^ 

In the great battle of Spottsylvania Court-House, , 
Va., May 12, 1864, in which 4,500 prisoners, 25 flags y, 
and 22 pieces of artillery were captured, his regiment • 
was in the front line in the assault, and was the first 
to reach the enemy's works — at the deadly " angle" — . 
which were carried after a desperate hand-to-hand 
fight. Adjutant Church (not having yet been mus- 
tered in as Captain) was with two or three non-com- 
nJssioned officers, the first to scale the works. His 
regiment lost about one-third of its men in this bat- ^ 
tie, seven of the nine color-guards being killed or 
wounded. His conduct on this occasion attracted the 
attention of Gen. N. A. Miles, then commanding the 
I St Brigade, ist Division, 2d Corps, who detailed . 
him at once upon his staff. He served upon this 
gallant Generals staff until the close of the war, 
except some portions of the time when in command 
of his regiment, holding successively the positions 
of Aid-de-camp, Brigade Inspector, Division Inspec- 
tor, Engineer Officer ist Division, and Adjutant 
General of the Military District of Fortress Monroe. 

He was appointed to the rank of Major SepL 12, 

1864, having previously been brevetted as Major of ' 
United States Volunteers " for gallant services before 
Petersburg, Va, ;" and Lieutenant-Colonel, March 7, 

1865, for "conspicuous gallantry and meritorious 
services " in the campaign terminating in Lee's sur- 
render at Appomattox. The 26th, under his com- 
mand, occupied intrenchments before Petersburg, and. 






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during the closing months of 1864 and the early part 
of 1865, was engaged in almost daily fighting, except 
while in winter quarters. It was in the skirmish line 
on the 9th of April, when Lee surrendered, 'and 
through its lines, Gen. Grant, with a flag of truce, 
carried out part of the important ceremony. His 
regiment was mustered out June 4, 1865, but he was 
retained in the service of the United States by spe- 
cial order of the War Department, and assigned to 
duty as Assistant Adjutant General of the Military 
District of Fortress Monroe. This positon he held 
until Nov. 7, 1865, when he was relieved, at his own 
request. While here, his duties brought him frequent- 
ly in contact with Jefferson Davis, at that time a pris- 
oner in that fortress. 

Gen. Church was not only a brilliant officer of un- 
usually quick perceptions and commanding presence, 
but was distinguished for beiug reckless of his per- 
sonal safety. 

A newspaper account by an eye witness states that 
at Sailor s Creek, Col. Church, mounted upon a white 
horse, led two regiments, his own and the 140th Pa. 
Vol., in an assault upon entrenchments occupied by a 
superior force of the enemy, and that, being the only 
mounted officer, he reached the works several yards 
in advance of his men. The prisoners captured in 
the works outnumbered the attacking party. His 
gallant conduct in this affair elicited much comment. 

On the suggestion of Gen. Miles, he was appointed 
a Captain in the regular army at the close of the war, 
but this commission he declined. 

Returning to the employments of peace. Gen. 
Church formed a partnership with Wilbur Nelson, 
and the two opened a general merchandise store at 
Ithaca. This connection was prosperous and lasted 
until 1872, when, having become interested in lum- 
bering and real-estate speculations, he sold his inter- 
est in the store to Gilbert C. Smith. In 1866, soon 
after entering mercantile life, he founded the Gratiot 
Journal^ of which for one year he was editor, and 
joint proprietor with Daniel Taylor. In December of 
1872, he purchased a saw-mill in Arcada Town- 
ship, four miles north of Ithaca. This is still owned 
by him, together with 1,200 acres of timheredl and in 
that vicinity and a large amount of other land through- 
out the county. He employs at present 30 men, in 
sawing, planing and manufacturing lumber, shingles, 
hoops and staves. The banking house of Church, 




Bills & Co. was organized in 1877, the first of the 
two firms doing a banking business at Ithaca. Gen. 
Church still deals largely in real estate, and this, 
with his other interests, make him one of the busiest 
men in the community. 

He has been an earnest supporter of the various 
railroads projected for Gratiot County. He has de- 
voted both time and money to bring Ithaca into rail 
communication with the outer world, and his friends 
truly say that without his efforts Gratiot's county-seat 
would to-day be without a railroad. He held the 
position of Postmaster at Ithaca for seven years, and 
County Clerk two terms, or four years. He was 
largely instrumental in organizing the Gratiot County 
Agricultural Society, and was its first President. 

Dec. 25, 1866, at Tecumseh, Lenawee County, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary H., daughter of 
Hon. Perley and Caroline (Brown) Bills. She was 
bom May 17, 1848, in that village, and graduated at 
the State Normal School, at Ypsilanli, in the class of 
1866. To this marriage five children have been 
bom: Carrie Helen, Jan. 5, 1868; Leroy B., July 20, 
1869; Clarence N. and Gaylord P. (twins), Aug. 12, 
187 1 ; and Edgar N., Aug. i, 1874. Gaylord P. died 
when about a year old. 

Gen. Church is politically a Republican, but while 
he is influential in his party, he is in no sense a wire- 
puller or office-seeker. His title as General is given 
him by reason of his being appointed Quartermaster 
General on the staff of Governor Jerome, in 1881, 
which rank he held for two years. He is a remarka- 
bly active, clear-headed and successful business man, 
a public-spirited citizen, and has worked effectively 
for the welfare of Ithaca and Gratiot County. His 
many good qualities are so universally esteemed 
that all will be pleased to see his portrait, given 
opposite the beginning of this sketch. 



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]^ohn L. Biohard, farmer, section 33, New- (^ 

ark Township, was born July 7, 1844, in 

vj.^ Pennsylvania. He is a son of John and 

^ik? Rachel (Fiy) Richard, both of whom were 

iir natives of the Keystone State, were there mar- 

\ ried and resided 14 years. In 1846 they 

removed to Qhio, and there belonged to the farming 



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class. In the spring of 187 1 they came to Gratiot 
County and settled in the township of Newark, where 
they still reside. 

Mr. Richard was a child of two years when his 
parents located in the Buckeye State, where he grew 
to the age of 18 years, engaged in assisting on the 
farm, and acquiring a fair education in the common 
schools. Roused to a sense of the necessity pressing 
upon the authorities of the United States Government 
under the stringencies of civil war, he yielded to his 
convictions of duty and enlisted Aug. 6, 1862, in the 
I nth Reg. Ohio Vol. Inf., and served his country 
under that enrollment three years. He was in the 
battle of Hough's Ferry, Tenn., and, while on picket 
guard at Lenoir Station, he, with 5 1 of his comrades, 
was captured by the rebels, and conducted to 
Atlanta, Ga., where they were held two weeks, and 
then removed to Pemberton Castle, Richmond, and 
a month later were incarcerated at Belle Isle. They 
became inmates of the latter place on the first day 
of January, 1864, and there remained until March 1 2, 
when they were transferred to the stockade prison at 
Andersonville, where their sufferings were in no sense 
or degree less than those of the myriads who suc- 
cumbed to the horrors of the place, or of those whose 
endurance proved equal to such frightful experiences 
as cannot be equaled on the recorded pages of 
human suffering. The very name of Andersonville 
must cause a shudder while time endures! After 
seven months of horror they were sent to Savannah, 
and later to Milan, whence, after a month, they 
were ordered to be transferred to Blackshear, Ga. 
While on their way thither the train was intercepted, 
and 250 starved, ragged, forlorn human creatures, of 
whom Mr. Richard was one, were paroled and sent 
to the camp at Annapolis. Two weeks later they 
were furloughed, and Mr. Richard returned to his 
home in Ohio. In six weeks he was exchanged and 
rejoined his regiment. His health was too much im- 
paired for active service, and he was on detached 
duty until the close of the war. On the expiration of 
his term of enrollment he was discharged, at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, whence he returned home. 

Mr. Richard was married Dec. 28, 1865, ^^ Sarah 
D., youngest daughter of Asa and Jane (Staples) 
Richardson. The father was a native of Vermont, 
the mother of Maine. Of this marriage, four chil- 
dren have been born : Earl C, Alice I., Tacie A., 
and Laura M. 



After his becoming a family man, Mr. Richard 
continued to reside in Ohio until 1870. In that year, 
he removed his family and interests to Gratiot Co., 
Mich., and bought 40 acres of land in Newark Town- 
ship. On this he has already cleared and placed 35 
acres under creditable cultivation. He is a Repub- 
lican of unmistakable type, and has served his town- 
ship in several official positions to which he has been 
elected. He received an appointment in r88o to fill 
a vacancy as Township Clerk, and has been since 
twice elected to the same incumbency, which he now 
holds. A branch of the body known as the Union 
Prisoners of War Association, designated the Camp 
of Gratiot County, has been established therein, of 
which Mr. Richard is President. Himself and wife 
are members of the United Brethren Church 



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[j,lmon Townsend, farmer, section 31, North 
I Shade Township, is a son of Josiah and 



Dolly (Parker) Townsend, natives of Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut respectively. They 

i both died in the State of New York, the father 
in Wayne and the mother in Jefferson County. 

Almon was born in Jefferson Co., N. Y., Jan. 7, 
1804, and remained under the parental care until he 
was 2 1 years of age, when he bought 200 acres of 
land in his native county. He improved 160 acres 
of this land, and there made his home for a period 
of 28 years, when he sold it and moved to Wayne 
County, same State. There he remained, farming 
and stock-raising, for five years, until 1865, when he 
again sold out and came to Hubbardston, Ionia 
County, this State, and lived for about one year. 
From this point he moved to Clinton County, this 
State, and entered upon the arduous task of clearing 
and improving a new farm, which he successfully ac- 
complished, and erected a house and barn thereon, 
at a cost of some $2,000. 

Mr. Townsend was united in marriage to Miss 
Chloe, daughter of Gad and Sally Chapin, residents 
of Jefferson Co., N. Y., Sept. 28, 1828. The father 
and mother died in their native county at an early 
day, and the wife passed away from earth in Aug- 
ust, 1880. 



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In 1 88 1, Mr. Townsend removed from Clinton to 
this county and settled on 80 acres of Government 
land on section 31, on which he is now residing. 

Mr. Townsend was again married, his second wife 
being Mrs. Emma S. Myers, daughter of John and 
Lorinda (Wales) Robbins, natives of Massachusetts 
and New York respectively. 

The father has constantly followed the occupation 
of farming, and is at present living in Clinton County, 
this State. The mother died in Jefferson Co., N. Y., 
in 1845. Mrs. Emma Townsend, the wife of our 
subject, was born in Lewis Co., N. Y., April 17, 1834, 
and is the mother of four children, namely, Ardella 
I., Dempster E., Jerome W. and Orrin A. The hus- 
band and wife are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal and Christian Churches, respectively. 

Mr. Townsend is a man of iron constitution, hale, 
hearty and enjoying life at 80 years of age. In po- 
litical opinion and belief he is a staunch Republican. 



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'ohn Lewis, farmer and stock-raiser, section 
9, Sumner Township, was born in Salem 
Township, Washtenaw Co., Mich., Feb. 21, 
1833, and is probably one of the oldest natives 
of Michigan now living in Gratiot County. His 
parents, John and Jane (Lewis) Lewis, were 
natives of Steuben Co., N. Y., and of Dutch ancestry. 
They followed farming, and coming to Michigan in 
1828, were among the first settlers in Washtenaw 
County. Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti were then small 
villages. The first newspaper, the Emigrant^ was 
started a year after their arrival. Indians were nu- 
merous. John was a strong young fellow, and as he 
grew up he helped fell the timber and clear their farm 
of 160 acres. It is likely that these pioneer experi- 
eflces have had their effect on his after life, in mak- 
ing him better able to face the cold world. 

Losing his father when he was 16 yearsold, he was 
obliged to look out for himself; and he worked out by 
the month in the woods and among the neighboring 
farmers. Jan. i, 1855, in his native county, he mar- 
ried Miss Theda M. Noble, born in Wayne Co., Mich., 
Sept. 25, 1837. She was reared and educated in 
Washtenaw County. 



Mr. and Mrs. Lewis then settled on the farm 
which he had purchased when 22 years old. He af- 
terward purchased a larger farm, which he had to 
give up in the hard times that existed about the open- 
ing year of the war. In 1863, he moved to Living- 
ston County, where he rented a farm for three years ; 
and in February, 1866, he settled on 60 acres on 
section 9, Sumner Township, which he had purchased 
the previous fall. To this farm he has added 60 
acres, and more than half of his farm is well improved 
and cultivated. He has also a suitable residence and 
bams. 

Mr, Lewis has been in every sense an active man. 
For 14 seasons he ran a threshing-machine ; and he 
purchased the first machine ever brought into his 
native township. He has also lumbered extensively, 
putting in 1,000,000 feet one winter. He has held 
various offices in his school district, and politically 
is a Republican. His wife has for 20 years been an 
active member of the United Brethren Church. Mr. 
and Mrs. L. are the parents of two children: Her- 
bert H., born Feb. 21, i860; Cora M., born March 
2, 1867. 






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ames T. Hall, resident at St. Louis, was a 
son of Abraham and Hannah (Jones) Hall. 
The parents were both of pure English ex- 
traction, and emigrated to the New World about 
1832 or 33. They first located in Herkimer 
Co., N. Y., and from there moved to Oneida 
County, same State, where the father followed the 
occupation of a farmer until his death in 1856. The 
mother died in the same county in 1841. 

James T. Hall, the subject of our biographical 
notice, was born in Herkimer Co., N. Y., Feb. 8, 
1836. When one year of age he was taken by his 
parents to Oneida County, same State. He resided 
in that county, working on his father's farm and at- 
tending the common schools, until 1868, when his 
parents had both deceased, and he came to this coun- 
ty and located at Alma. Oh his arrival at Alma he 
associated himself with a Messrs. Pierce and Ward, 
under the firm name of Pierce, Hall & Ward, in the 
lumber business. The firm had a lumber-yard at 
Alma and also a mill, and shipped the product of the 






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latter to Saginaw. They were also engaged in the 
purchase of tracts of timber land on Pine River. 
The partnership lasted until 1875, when it was mutu- 
ally dissolved. 

Politically, Mr. Hall is a Democrat. In the fall 
of 1874 he was elected County Register of Deeds, 
running against Joseph H. Seaver, of Ithaca, and, al- 
though the county was conceded to be 800 Republi- 
can, Mr. Hall was elected by a majority of 104 votes. 
In 1876 he again ran for the same position, but was 
defeated. 

After his retirement from office, Mr. Hall engaged 
with the Chicago, Saginaw & Canada Railroad as 
conductor, and followed that occupation until 1880, 
when he became Superintendent of the road. He 
served in that capacity from June, 1880, to June, 
1883, when the road was sold to the Detroit, Lan- 
sing & Northern Railroad. After quitting the above 
business he commenced the manufacture of patent 
hoops, at Alma. His machine was one of three in 
the United States, and cut the hoops from the solid 
log, at the rate of 100 per minute. They ship to 
Chicago, New York city, St. Louis (Mo.), and Sagi- 
naw City, and are meeting with signal success in the 
business. 

Mr, Hall was united in marriage, June 6, 1867, at 
Holland Patent, Oneida Co., N. Y., to Miss Catherine 
L. Hamlin (daughter of Joseph and Delia Hamlin), 
born in Holland Patent, April i, 1841. Their union 
has been blessed with two children : Jessie W., bom 
at Alma, March 10, 1870; and Nina A., born at 
Alma, in October, 1871. 

Mr. Hall held the position of Supervisor of Ar- 
cada Township fourterms — 187 1-72-74-77. Socially 
he is a member of the Order of Masonry, Knights 
Templar, A. O. U. W., and K. of H., and has been 
Trustee of the village of St. Louis one term — 187 1-2. 



illiam J. Marshall, farmer, section ^;^^ 
North Star Township, was born in the 
county of Livingston, State of New York 
March 30, 1833. He is a son of William and 
Elizabeth (Chase) Marshall, natives of the 
Empire State. They moved to Allegany Co., same 
State, in 1841, and after remaining there two years, 
in 1843, ^^^ when our subject was but ten years old. 




came to this Slate and settled in Ingham County. ; 
Here William remained attending the common 
schools, assisting his father in the support of the * 
family and developing into manhood. In 1856, ', 
when 23 years of age, Mr. Marshall left the parental -^ 
home in Ingham County and came to this county. 
He first settled on section 9, North Star Township, 
and now owns 100 acres of good agricultural land on 
section 33. Nov. 26, of this year, he was unitedin 
marriage to Sarah, daughter of Abijah L. and Phebe 
(Driggs) Clark. The father is deceased, and the V 
mother is still living in Bunker Hill, Ingham County, .^ 
this State. Mrs. M. was born in Batavia, Genesee ) 
Co., N. Y. She received a good education in the 
common schools of her native county and attending 
Michigan Central College, then located at Spring 
Arbor and now being at Hillsdale, Mich. Her desire 
and aim was to become proficient as a teacher, and 
so studiously did she apply herself to the accom- 
plishment of that end that, while but 14 years of 
age, her knowledge was considered sufficient to 
enable her to enter upon her labors of imparting 
knowledge to the young, which occupation she has 
successfully followed for a number of years, receiving 
numerous encomiums upon her competency, pro- 
ficiency and the success of her work. She has 
taught in Genesee Co., N. Y. ; Jackson, Ingham and 
Gratiot Counties, this State. She taught eight terms 
in District No. 5, North Star Township, this county, 
the last term being in the winter of 188 1-2. 

When the cloud of rebellion arose and threatened 
the Nation with dissolution, and when every loyal 
heart beat with a throb of sorrow at the injustice of 
their brothers in dishonoring the ** Flag of our Fa- 
thers " by their attack on Sumter, our subject joined 
the ranks of the defenders of the Nation's honor and 
enlisted in Co. D, 26th Mich. Vol. Inf., Aug. 9, 1862. 
He was on detail service most all the time during his 
term of enlistment and was discharged June 5, 1865, 
after serving almost three years. 

Mr. Marshall has cleared for himself and others 
over 150 acres of land. When he began in this 
county he had no team and he had to work two days 
for the use of an ox team one day. He finally got 
possession of a yoke of calves and soon had a team 
of his own. He went to Maple Rapids to purchase 
flour, a distance of 20 miles, and his conveyance was 
a two-wheeled cart with a wood-rack on it; he 



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walked all the way, and two-thirds of the way he was 
compelled to go on logs to keep out of the water; and 
the money he paid for the flour he earned by chop- 
ping a road four rods wide and clearing two and a 
half rods wide, at six cents a rod, through a heavy 
timber. In fact, Mr. M. experienced all the trials so 
well known to the old pioneers of the county. 

Mr. and Mrs. M. have one child living and one 
dead Phebe E. (Mrs. George Belding, of North 
Star Township) is the living child, and William L. 
died at five years of age. They also have an adopted 
son, Benjamin J. Mr. M. is a member of the Ma- 
sonic Order. 

i— <-S€ij4H^«-*---*- — 

I homas R. Payne, farmer, section 28, Fulton 
Township, is a son of Arnold and Loana 
(Parker) Payne, natives of Rhode Island 
and New York State. They first settled after 
marriage in New York, and afterwards came 
to Michigan, locating at Green Oak, Living- 
ston County. They afterwards removed to Ingham 
County, and several years later, in 1846, they came 
to Fulton Township, this county. She died in 1850, 
and he followed Nov. 23, 1879. 

Their family was composed of eight sons and ^yt 
daughters. Thomas R., the youngest, was born in 
Ingham Co., Mich., Jan. 14, 1845, and was one year 
old when his parents removed to Gratiot County. 
He remained at home attending the common schools 
and working on the parental farm until 21 years old, 
except a year and a half spent in the service of his 
country. He enlisted, in December, 1863, in the 4th 
Mich. Vol. Cav., and served till July, 1865. May 
18, 1864, in a fight at Kingston, Ga., he was wounded 
in the abdomen. In consequence of this he was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, where he 
served until his discharge. 

Returning from the army he worked his fathers 
farm on shares until the latter s death. He has 
owned at diflferent times various tracts of land and 
in 1879 he bought 80 acres on section 28, Fulton, 
where he now resides. He now owns 90 acres of land, 
70 of which are nicely cultivated. He has built a 
modern residence and barn, which will compare 
favorably with any in Fulton Township. 

He was first married in Fulton Township, Oct. 23, 







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1865, to Maggie, daughter of John and Sarah (Covert) 
Potes, natives of Pennsylvania and New York State. 
Mrs. Payne was born in Seneca Co., N. Y., Feb. 5, 
1844, and died Aug. 22, 1874, leaving three children : 
Newton B., Frank J. and Maggie M. Mr. P. was 
again married, in Lenawee Co., Mich., Dec. 31, 1874, 
to Sarah J. Potes, youngest sister of his first wife. 
She was born in Lyons, Fulton Co., Ohio, Dec. 10, 
1856, and is now the mother of one daughter, Myrtie 
A. Mr. and Mrs. P. are members of the Christian 
Church. Politically, he is a Republican. 



obert Smith, editor and proprietor of the 

^ Gratiot Journal^ published at Ithaca, was 

^(^^' bom April 13, 1 84 1. At the age of 14 
A^ years he entered a printing office, with a pur- 
pose to master a knowledge of the " art pre- 
servative of all arts." He has worked in 
every sphere known to that business, and is thoroughly 
versed in all its various details. In i860 he removed 
from his home in Syracuse, N. Y., to New York city, 
where he passed six months as a journeyman printer. 
He then returned to Syracuse and after a brief stay 
there proceeded to Rochester, in the same State, 
where he remained till the winter of 1863. He then 
came to Lansing, Mich., and obtained employment 
in the State printing office. In the summer of 1864 
he and H. S. Hilton went to St. John s and pur- 
chased the Clinton Republican, They continued the 
publication of 'that journal till 1869. During this 
period Messrs. Hilton & Smith, in company with C. 
F. Smith, established the Flint Globe ^ the latter and 
Mr. Hilton managing the Globe^ while Robert Smith 
remained at St. John's and controlled the destiny of 
the Republican^ making it one of the handsomest and 
best weeklies in Michigan. * 

In 1869, as above stated, these gentlemen disposed 
of both journals, H. S. Hilton and Robert Smith 
subsequently going to Jackson, Mich., where they 
purchased a two-thirds interest in the Daily Citizen. 
They remained there some eight months, when they 
severed their connection with that journal. Mr. 
Smith then returned to St. John's again, where he 
temporarily established his home. The following 
winter he was induced to take the management of the 
job department of the Lansing State Republican 



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GRATIOT COUNTY. 



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office. He continued in this capacity till the next 
spring, when his health failed in consequence of a 
too close application to his duties. He then deter- 
mined to remove to Minnesota and engage in other 
business. 

He therefore located at Taylors Falls, in that 
3tate, where he purchased a hardware store, and con- 
tinued its operation for some 15 months, with satis- 
factory results. 

In the fall of 1872, in compliance with the 
solicitations of friends, he visited Ithaca and pur- 
chased the Gratiot Journal^ since which he has con- 
trolled its columns. 

In September, 1879, while absent at Detroit, the 
building in which his business was established was 
destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of (5,000, with an 
insurance of $3,200. Looking over the situation 
calmly, he determined to proceed with his business, 
and before he left Detroit he purchased a new office 
equipment, and so expedited his movements that he 
issued his paper without the loss to his patrons of a 
single copy. He bought the ground property where 
he is now located, on which a building was in pro- 
cess of erection, the lower story being well nigh com- 
pleted, and re-established himself in his business, 
which he has continued to conduct, with success. 
He manages a heavy job-printing business. The list 
of subscribers to his paper numbers upwards of 1,700. 

Mr. Smith was married Oct. 5, 1869, at St. John s, 
Mich., to Miss H. Carrie Scattergood. She is a native 
of Plymouth, Wayne Co., Mich., where she was born 
Feb. 8, 1846, and is the daughter of Joshua and 
Caroline (Barker) Scattergood. To Mr. and Mr. 
Smith three children have been born : Robert, Jr., at 
St. Johns, Oct. 18, 1870; Maud, at Mankato, Minn., 
Aug. 15, 1872, and Harry M., at Ithaca, Oct. 17, 1876. 




[illlam H Sibley, farmer, section 18, Se- 
ville Township, was born June 9, 1833, in 
Columbia Co., N. Y. His parents, Will- 
iam and Ruth (Vincent) Sibley, were natives 
of the same county where their son was 
born. The father engaged in farming in his 
native State for a number of years, and in 1839 he 
removed his family to Jackson Co., Mich. They 
went later to Calhoun County, where, in 1864, the 



father died, and the de mise of the mother occurred 
in 1872. 

Mr. Sibley was 11 years old when he came to 
Michigan. He commenced to work by the month as 
a farm laborer at 14 years old, at (5 per month, and 
worked for various parties from that time on. He 
was employed for (20 a month for about two years 
in Branch County. He then went to Calhoun Coun- 
ty, where he remained the same length of time, re- 
turning thence to Branch County. He went again, 
four years later, to Calhoun County, where he re- 
mained four years, and then in Branch County again 
until 1876, when he came to Gratiot County and lo- 
cated again as stated, and has since been engaged 
in farming. 

Mr. Sibley was married, in 1856, to Laura M., 
daughter of Solomon and Lydia (Warner) White. 
She was born June 4, 1838, in Branch Co., Mich., 
and is the second of a family of two daughters and 
one son. Her parents were farmers, and her father 
died in 1849 in Branch County. Her mother lives 
in the city of Cold water. Mr. and Mrs. Sibley are 
the pafents of three children ; Eva M., George J. and 
Clara L. Mrs. Sibley is a. member of the Baptist 
Church. Mr. Sibley is a Republican in polirical con- 
nection, and has held the school offices of the district 
where he resides. 




homas T. Newton, farmer on section 31, 
Fulton Township, is a son of Harris and 
Eliza A. (Perrin) Newton, natives of Ver- 
mont and New York. Eliza A. Perrin first 
married George Chipman. After her second 
marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Newton settled in Oak- 
land Co., Mich., where they lived until Mr. N. s 
death, Sept. 18, 1863. Mrs- N. then removed to 
Lebanon, Clinton County, where she now lives. 
Their family numbered nine — five sons and four 
daughters. 

The second son was Thomas T., born in Oakland 
County, Jan. i, 1842. Educated in the common 
schools, he remained at home until 21 years old, and 
then went to Whitewater, Wis., and lived six months. 
He then removed to Michigan. March 20, 1865, he 
enlisted in the 22d Mich. Vol. Inf., being afterwards 
transferred to the 29th. He was honorably dis- 
charged Aug. 20, 1865. In December of the same 






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year, he came to Clinton County and lived until 
1 868, when he again went to Wisconsin, and also to 
Iowa. After an absence of eight months, he bought 
120 acres of wild land in Clinton County, and built a 
log house. Two years later he sold, and for three 
years he managed his mothers farm. In September, 
1874, he purchased 200 acres, partly improved, on 
section 34, North Shade, which he worked for ^s^ 
years. Selling this place, he then bought 160 acres 
in Fulton Township, on section 31. He also owns 
80 acres on section 36, North Shade, and has alto- 
gether 180 acres improved. 

March 17, 1870, in Lebanon, Clinton Co., Mich., 
he married Miss Martha, daughter of Benjamin and 
Mary (Postle) Graham. She was born in Oakland 
County Dec. 26, 1842. This marriage has been 
blessed with two children : Maidie, born March 15, 
187 1, and Georgiana, June 29, 1873. 

Mr. Newton has been Justice of the Peace for three 
years. He was elected Supervisor of North Shade 
in the spring of 1879, and resigned after serving 
three months. He is a member of the A. O. U. W., 
and is politically a Republican. He and wife are 
members of the Christian Church, and of Essex 
Grange, P. of H. 




Ibridge G. Trtiver, of the firm of E. W. 
Travcr & Co., manufacturers of, and deal- 
ers in, coopers' supplies at St. Louis, was 
bom in Columbia Co., N. Y., Nov. 16, 1833. 
His parents, John J. and Catherine (Coons) 
Traver, removed to Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1837, 
where his father bought two farms — one of 56 acres, 
situated partly within the village corporation; the 
other, located near by, consisted of 80 acres. His 
father s occupation was that of a remover of build- 
ings, in which business the son was for several years 
engaged. 

Mr. Traver went to Tyrone, Livingston Co., Mich., 
in 1867, and passed the succeeding four years in 
farming. He removed to Fenton, Genesee County, 
from there, and engaged in the manufacture of round 
hoops. He was thus employed till November, 1882, 
when, in company with his son, E. W. Traver, he re- 
moved to St. Louis. Continuing in the round-hoop 
trade till the following spring, he and his son, as the 



firm of E. W. Traver & Co., purchased of Wm. Rose 
the Shook mill, known as the **St. Louis Cooperage." 
They completely refitted and equipped the buildings 
with new machinery, and in the winter of 1883-4 
further increased their facilities for manufacturing by 
setting up a saw mill of large capacity. They man- 
ufacture each year millions of patent coiled hoops ; 
each month they turn out hundreds of thousands of 
round hoops ; and another important branch of their 
business is the manufacture of soft and hard wood 
staves. They handle yearly hundreds of thousands 
of racked hoops; keep constantly on hand barrels 
and kegs of all sizes and descriptions, and solicit cor- 
respondence for all kinds of slack and tight cooper- 
age. They employ upwards of a hundred men the 
year round. The capacity of their mill and auxiliary 
shops is about 20,000 patent coiled hoops, 10,000 
round hoops and 5,000 sawed staves each day. They 
have recently improved, as well as increased the 
capacity of, their mill by putting in round-hoop ma- 
chinery. They are steadily increasing their trade, 
taking advantage of the aid of each new invention in 
the way of labor-saving machinery, and may reason- 
ably expect, at no distant day, to be one of the lead- 
ing firms of Gratiot County. 

E. G. Traver, the subject of this sketch, was mar- 
ried at Ann Arbor Jan. 3, 1856, to Minerva, daughter 
of Jacob and Nancy Snapp. She was born June 8, 
1832, in the State of New York. Of their union, two 
sons were born : Edgar W., Nov. 24, 1^56, and Will- 
iam H., June 19, 1863. 



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dward Lake, farmer, Bethany Township, 
occupies the southeast quarter of the south- 
west quarter of section 20, and owns also 
the 30 acres adjoining on the east. Mr. Lake 
was born in Charlotte, Chittenden Co., Vt., 
Sept. 24, 1823, and grew up as a farmers son. 
When six years of age his parents, Heman and Bet- 
sey (Morgan) Lake, moved to Hamburg Township, 
Livingston (3o., Mich., locating, in agricultural pur- 
suits, upon a farm of 160 acres. When 22 years of 
age he went to Iowa, with no capital, and followed 
teaming, etc., there about two years ; next, he fol- 
lowed lumbering a year at the mouth of the Manis- 
tee River, in this State; next, in 1847, the family 



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moved to Bengal Township, Clinton Co., Mich., 
bought a farm and for about two years engaged in 
the manufacture of brooms. 

At the last mentioned place, Dec. 7, 185 1, Mr. 
Lake married Miss Harriet, a daughter of Ebenezer 
and Mary A. (Sanford) Bliss, who was born in Broome 
Co., N. Y., Aug. 28, 1830. They have one daughter, 
Ellen, who was born in Arcada Township, this county, 
March 5, 1859, and is now the wife of Allen H. 
Reed, a farmer in Bethany Township, and they also 
have one daughter, Gertie, who was born in that 
township, March 29, 1882. 

Mr. Lake remained in Clinton County about two 
years after his marriage, then moved into Arcada 
Township and pre-empted a quarter of section 25, 
but soon sold it and bought 80 acres of timber land 
adjoining, one mile north of Ithaca. Of this he 
cleared about 30 acres and made other improvements. 
Aug. 28, 1866, he moved to his present farm, where 
he purchased 120 acres, mostly timber. Of this he 
has cleared 70 acres and sold 40. His son-in-law 
has 40 acres adjoining on the north. 

Mr. L. has built a^ nice residence here, besides 
barns, etc., and has a good orchard. He is a pro- 
gressive and prosperous agriculturist. When he first 
settled in Arcada his nearest neighbor was a Mr. 
Climer, eight miles distant, near St. Louis. He 
erected a log house, and himself and family endured 
the privations and trials incident to pioneer life. 

In this family is an adopted son, Willie H., born 
Dec. 14, 1856, in Indiana, who was taken into this 
family when 14 months of age. 



iUiam Greaser, farmer on section 17, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of William and 
Emily (Leerett) Creaser, natives respect- 
ively of England and Canada. They set- 
tled in the latter country after marriage, and 
in the spring of 1868 came to Michigan. A 
year later they came to Fulton Township, this county, 
where the father died, Sept. 17, 1873, and the mother 
March 11, 1881. Their family comprised 13 chil- 
dren. 

The second son, William, was born in Canada 
East, Aug. 24, 1827. In his early life he attended 
the common schools, and worked for his father. On 




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gaining his legal freedom, at the age of 21, he worked 
out by the month for one year, and then went to Ver- 
mont for a year. Returning to the Dominion, he 
bought a farm of ^bout 50 acres, which he worked 
a year and a half, and then sold. A year later he 
removed to Canada West, where he purchased a farm 
and lived for 16 years. In October, 187 i, he sold 
out, and, coming to Gratiot County, bought half a 
section. Having since disposed of a portion of his 
land, he now has 150 acres, of which 1 10 are well 
improved. In 1880, he built his fine residence. 

Jan. 22, 1850, in Canada East, he married Miss 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Brooks) McCombs, natives of Ireland. They emi- 
grated to Canada, where the father died, March 12, 
1863, and the mother, in June, 1868. Their daugh- 
ter Elizabeth was born in Canada East, Aug. 12, 
1828. Mr. and Mrs. Creaser have had 10 children, 
eight of whom survive : Thomas W. B., Emily E., 
Susan S., Philip W., George A., Lucy A. J., Wilhelra- 
ina E. and Violet A. Sophia and John R, are de- 
ceased. 

Mr. C. has held the offices of School Treasurer 
and Inspector, and is politically a Democrat. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 



volin Church, farmer, section 23, Arcada 
Township, was born in Wheatland Town- 

f^ ship, Hillsdale Co., Mich., Dec. 22, 1853, and 
is a son of Lafayette and Sophronia (Benja- 
min) Church (see sketch). When one year 
old he was brought by his parents to Gratiot 
County. They settled on section 11, Arcada Town- 
ship, and here the subject of this biographical notice 
was reared and educated, working on his father's 
farm until 17 years old. He then devoted one year 
to the acquisition of some of the more advanced 
branches of learning, attending the college at Fen- 
ton ville, Genesee County. When 19 years of age 
he left home, and for two years traveled through the 
Scuth and West. Returning home, he remained with 
his father unril 24 years old. 

Dec. 9, 1877, ^^ was married to Miss Carrie, 
daughter of Francis and Hattie (Hurd) Nelson, na- 
tives of Michigan. Carrie was bom in Lenawee 
Co., Mich., and died in Arcada Township, this 




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v^ county, Aug. 2, 1879, leaving a wide circle of friends 
/^^ to sympathize with her husband. Nov. 22, 1880, he 
;Vj was^ again married, at St. Louis, to Miss Julia, daugh- 
* terof Patrick and Bridget (Rhyne) Fitzgerald, na- 
A. tives of the Emerald Isle. They follow farming, and 
now reside in Arcada Township, aged respectively 
76 and 54. Their daughter Julia was born in Roch- 
ester, N. Y., July 5, 1859, and was there reared and 
educated. 

Shortly after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Church set- 
tled on 80 acres of wild land on section 23, Arcada, 
which he had purchased the previous year. He has 
since added 60 acres to his farm, making 140, of 
which 80 acres are under cultivation. Mr. and Mrs. 
C. have one son. Maxwell, bom Oct. 5, 1881. Mr. 
C. is an enterprising and genial young man, and 
commands the respect of all who know him. In 
politics he is a Republican. 



GRATIOT COUNTY. 



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^on. Archibald Bard Darragh, Representa- 
tive from Gratiot County, resident at St. 
Louis, was born Dec. 23, 1840, in La Salle 
Township, Monroe Co., Mich. He is a son of 
Benjamin F. and Catherine B. Darra^h. The 
family legends preserve the patronymic through 
its descent and trace it unmistakably to its fountain 
head, which was that of one of the Scottish clans. 
It is immortalized by the pen of Sir Waller Scott in 
one of his historical romances. 

The progenitors of the Darragh families of this 
connecrion and generation, founded by inter-marriage a 
line of Scotch-Irish descendants, — a race signally dis- 
tinguished for meritorious traits, inherently honest, 
intelligent and possessing the most valuable charac- 
teristics incident to humanity. The line of Mr. 
Darragh s descent on the paternal side is obscure, 
from the fact patent in the nature of the race origin. 
It is well known that a peculiar feature of one class 
of Scotch is its utter contempt for, and abnegation of, 
precedents and types. A man is what he makes 
himself, is the canon of its existence; and tradi- 
tionary observances and recollections are only " auld 
wives' fables." The present generation is traceable 
only to its immediate ancestors, who inhabited the 
eastern and southeastern portions of Pennsylvania, 









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with whose interest and affairs they were promi- 
nently identified. Henry and Ann (Jamison) Darragh, 
great-grandparents, were natives of the North of 
Ireland, and emigrated to America prior to the 
Revolutionary war, settling in that part of Pennsyl- 
vania now known as Bucks County. Henry Darragh 
became a Captain in the Continental Army, and died 
in Bucks County in 1782, at the age of 45 years. 
His wife died in Bedford Co., Penn., aged 73 years. 
Their family comprised seven children. George W. 
Darrah, thtir youngest son (grandfather of Mr. 
Darragh), was born July 12, 1778, in Bucks Co., 
Penn. He married Rebekah More Jan. 7. 1803, and 
removed with his family from Fulton Co., Penn., to 
Michigan, in 1834. The children were, Lewis, Benj. 
F., Mary A., Geo. W., James, John and Martha. 
The paternal grand-parents of the subject of 
this sketch were residents of Fulton County in the 
Keystone State, and came to Michigan in 1834, 
where they passed the remainder of their lives. 

The name of George W. Darrah (who found 
it expedient to drop the letter that forms the 
distinguishing link in the name), is indissolubly con- 
nected with the history of the Peninsula State, from 
the fact that he was an officer in the 2d Regiment 
Infantry, organized and called out by Gov. Mason, 
to resist the attempted jurisdiction of Ohio over 
Michigan territory. He died in Monroe Co., Mich., 
in 1839, aged 61 years. 

Benjamin F. Darragh was born in Fulton Co., Pa., 
in 1808, and was married to Catherine Bard, Dec. 
4, 1834. She was bom Nov. 12, 1804, near Mercers- 
burg, Pa., and died in April, 1863. In the ma- 
ternal line the descent of Mr. Darragh of this sketch 
is traceable for several generations, as his mother 
came of a race just as signally distinguished for firm, 
sturdy traits of character as that of her husband, 
though of a tyi>e widely at variance. On the 29th 
of October, 1830, Archibald Bard, her father, re- 
corded his genealogy in this wise: "Archibald Bard, 
who is the son of Richard Bard, who was the son of 
Archibald Bard, the son of William Bard, the son of 
John Bard. Richard Bard married Catherine Poe, 
Dec. 22, 1756. Archibald Bard, the younger, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Beatty, who had children : Richard, 
Maria, William Beatty, Catherine, Margaret, Eliza- 
beth, Archibald, Eliza Jane and Martha Olivia." 
The record is made in the first volume of " Henry's 
Exposition," now in Mr. Darragh s possession, and 



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containing explicit and full recoids of the births, 
deaths and marriages of the generation to which his 
grandfather belonged. John Bard came from Ireland 
in the early part of the 17th century and settled in 
Maryland, whence his descendants dispersed. Rich- 
ard Bard, great-grandfather of Mr. Darragh and third 
in descent from John Bard, was born near Philadel- 
phia, Dec. 26, 1726, and settled in that part of York 
County which was afterwards set off and named 
Adams County, in the State of Pennsylvania, In 
1744, the war between England and France termi- 
nated the historic peace established by the Quakers 
between the colonists and Indians, and Braddock's 
campaign, with its disastrous results, seemed to let 
loose upon the borders many of the possibilities of 
savage warfare. As!«aults on the frontier settlements 
were frequent and resulted in murder of the whites, 
or what was in most instances worse, — capture. 
These hostilities grew less frequent as time pro- 
gressed, but did not wholly cease until 1759. 

In 1758, the Indians sent their marauding parties 
into York County, and killed and abducted the fron- 
riersmen and their families. On the 13th of April, 
in that year, 19 ** Delawares " invested the home of 
Richard Bard. The inmates were Mr. Bard, his 
wife, Lieut. Potter (brother of Gen. Potter), a babe 
of six months, and a bound boy. The Indians made 
an entry into the house and were repulsed. But 
they were too numerous to be successfully resisted, 
and capitulation was determined on by the whites. 
They surrendered on promise of their lives being 
spared; the house was rifled of all valuables and the 
other buildings fired. Lieut. Potter was murdered 
soon after they had taken up their line of march, and 
not long after the infant child shared the same fate. 
On the fifth day Mr. Bard resolved to escape, as the 
brutality of his captors and the hardships he en- 
countered were fast disabling him and incapacitating 
him from travel. He was sent to a spring for water, 
but a short time after his resolurion was formed and 
communicated to his wife ; he took advantage of the 
opportunity his errand afforded, vo make his escape. 
The character of the wife may be inferred from the 
fact that she not only approved of his determination, 
but diverted the attention of the Indiana until her 
fleeing husband was beyond the reach of their ven- 
geance. Can the women of this period adequately 
picture to their understandings the qualities of a 



woman who could deliberately ch6ose to be left to 
such chances as lay before Mrs. Bard, isolated and 
alone in the ijower of the most implacable of savages, 
— the Delawares, This volume is honored in record- 
ing her name and |)erpetuating the fame of her act 
of self-sacrificing, womanly devotion. It is probable 
that her native strength of character and superiority 
inspired her savage captors with resi^ect, for her life 
was spared and she was subjected to no indignities 
beyond the hardships of the march and its incidental 
privations. She was formally adopted by the tribe, 
but refused to learn or use their language, 2s she 
would have been obliged, in that event, by their cus- 
toms, to choose or accept a husband. She was in 
captivity two years and five months, and was ran- 
somed by the payment of $200 by her husband, who 
never ceased his efforts to find her after he attained 
his own freedom. The story of his escape would 
grace the pages of romance. His sufferings rivaled 
those of the Unionists who came "out of the jaws 
of de^h " in making their escape from the stockade 
prison at Andersonville. He subsisted on buds and 
raw rattlesnakes, and finally reached Fort Pitt (Pitts- 
burg) where he began his search and negotiations for 
his wife. After their re-union, they settled in Frank- 
lin Co., Pa., where they reared their family. The 
foregoing account is abstracted from the detailed 
record written by Archibald, the second son, and 
compiled in a volume now in the possession of Mr. 
Darragh, entitled " Mirror of Olden-Time Border 
Life." Richard Bard died Feb. 22, 1799. The de- 
mise of his wife occurred Aug. 30, 181 1. 

Archibald Bard (2d) was born June 27, 1765, near 
Green Castle, Pa. He engaged extensively in agri- 
culture and oflftciated for a number of years as Judge 
of the County Court of Franklin Co., Pa. He >vas 
prominent in public life and gained some notoriety 
in literary circles through his biographical writings 
and essays on religious topics. He was married to 
Elizabeth Beatty, July 2, 1799, and died Oct. 18, 
1832. His wife was born Jan. 17, 1774, and died in 
January, 1852. 

Mr. Darragh is the second child and elder son of 
his parents, to whom were l)orn five children, three 
of whom survive : Maria E. is the wife of William 
S. McDowell, a farmer of Du Page Co., 111.; James 
C. is Secretary and Treasurer of the Stockwell & 
Darragh Furniture Company of Grand Rapids* Until 



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he was 12 years old Mr. Darragh was a pupil in the 
common schools of his native county. In 1852, his 
parents removed to the city of Monroe, where he had 
the advantage of the academy there located, and he 
prepared for a collegiate course under the instruction 
of Hon. Edwin Willits, then at the head of a select 
school at Monroe. In the fall of 1857, Mr. Darragh 
entered the Classical Department of the University 
of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he remained two 
years. Through the medium gf ^ friend, William E. 
Crume, he obtained a position as private tutor in 
Claiborne Co., Miss. He was in one of the most 
disloyal sections of the seditious South when the key 
note of the Rebellion transfixed the civilized world. 
The loyal blood in his veins, and the sturdy patriotism 
he inherited from the races to which he belongs, as- 
serted themselves too strongly for him to remain 
quiescent, even if he had not been already marked 
as a Yankee school-master ; but when he took the 
initiatory toward a speedy retreat to the North, his 
departure was made possible only through th*e inter- 
vention of the friend through whose instrumentality 
he went South. The latter, though true to his 
heart's instincts, was prominent in his own disloyalty 
to his country's flag; but, with cocked revolver, he 
protected his friend until the train, which he boarded 
with difficulty, bore him away toward safety. The 
route was made under harassing perplexities, and 
only by strategy and justifiable misleading did Mr. 
Darragh elude the rebel officials and escape deten- 
tion, and more probably death. He reached home 
and again entered the University of Michigan, where 
he remained a year, and was graduated in the 
Classical Department, receiving the degree of A. B. 
in 1868, after the close of the war. 

The influences that were abroad permeated every 
element and involved every class in Michigan. The 
inmates of her educational institutions, pupils and 
professors, one by one, laid aside their books and their 
duties and enrolled in the defense of the Union 
flag. Students, approaching the finale of their edu- 
cational career, grew impatient over the slow march 
of the succeeding days and received the credentials 
of their scholarship without a vestige of the pride 
and gratification which had seemed the only thing 
worth living for when they began tHfeir curriculum of 
study. But one thought ruled the hour, — men were 
needed at the front. Their years of effort were vain 



and their futures of promise only pulseless, tideless 
seas of baffled hopes, ambitions and energies, if the 
nation died in the throes of mortal agony that were 
nearing its vitals. The tide of Northern student life 
that surged toward the vortex of battle through the 
succeeding years of the war, was one of the sublim- 
est spectacles the world ever saw, and bore a weight 
of significance worthy the consideration of kings and 
prime ministers. 

A double incentive actuated Mr. Darragh in his 
views of the situation and his relation to the duties 
of his manhood. The same impulses that swayed 
others held mastery over him and the memory of the 
indignities to which he had been subjected, from the 
simple fact that accident, so to speak, gave him being 
under a Northern sky, brought home to him with a 
sharp significance the realities of the case. On the 
14th of August, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Co. 
H, 1 8th Mich. Vol. Inf. The regiment joined the 
United States forces opposing the command of Kirby 
Smith on the fifth of April. On the 25th of the 
same month, private Darragh, with 62 others belong- 
ing to his regiment and to the " Tenth Kentucky " 
and " Fourth Indiana Cavalry," were captured while 
on picket duty near Walton, Boone Co., Ky., in a 
sudden charge of rebel cavalry, under John Morgan. 
The prisoners were marched on the double quick to 
Falmouth, Ky., and on the day following their arrival 
they were paroled by Major Dick Morgan, a nephew 
of the celebrated guerrilla chief The notice of ex- 
change of paroled prisoners was issued early in Jan- 
uary, 1863, and private Darragh immediately joined 
Co. D, Ninth Mich. Cav., having received a commis- 
sion as Second Lieutenant. His regiment achieved 
its first triumph in the spring of 1863, in the rout 
and capture of Everett's guerrillas, a portion of Buck- 
ner's command at Triplett's Bridge, Ky. It took a 
prominent part in the pursuit and capture of Mor- 
gan, the celebrated ** raider," making first acquaint- 
ance with the devastating rebel hordes under his 
command, on the fifth of July, when a detachment 
from its organization cut off and captured Col. Robert 
Alston, Morgan's Chief of Staflf, with 5 1 prisoners. 
The regiment was in the advance when Morgan was 
brought to bay on the banks of the Ohio, at Buffing- 
ton s Island, and made the attack with a vigor t.hat 
secured the capture of Col. Basil Duke and most of 
his immediate command. While Duke struggled to 






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hold the field, Morgan fled north with his main body 
of troops. 

A detachment from the regiment participated in 
the engagement of July 20th, which resulted in the 
capture of the command of Morgan with the excep- 
tion of the rebel chief and about 500 men, who were 
taken prisoners with Morgan himself six days later 
by Cos. D, I. C. H and E, of the " Ninth," under 
command of Major W. B. Way, who reported offi- 
cially to Gen. Burnside, from Salineville, Ohio, under 
date of July 26, 1863 : "After a forced march yes- 
terday and last night, with almost continued skir- 
mishing, we succeeded this morning, at eight o'clock, 
in pressing Morgan to an engagement about half a 
mile from this town. After more than an hour of 
severe fighting, we scattered his forces in all direc- 
tions. The following is the result of our engage- 
ment: from 20 to 30 killed ; about 50 wounded; 255 
prisoners. Our loss slight. My command is 250 
strong." Within a month, Lieut. Darragh marched 
with his regiment, under Burnside, over the moun- 
tains into East Tennessee. The " Ninth " did good 
service at Loudon Bridge, Knoxville, Cumberland 
Gap, and aided in driving the enemy through Straw- 
berry Plains, Morristown, Russellville, Blue Springs, 
Greenville, Jonesborough and Wautaga, to the very 
gates of the Old Dominion. It had watered its 
horses in every stream from the Cumberland range 
to the Blue Ridge. The campaign of the winter of 
'63-4, in the mountains of East Tennessee, is with- 
out precedent in the annals of the war. The cold 
was extreme, and supplies, which at first were insuf- 
ficient, were at last wholly cut off. The soldiers 
were in rags ; East Tennessee, so often traversed by 
both armies, was destitute of provisions and forage, 
and the effort to keep the cavalry forces mounted 
was a failure. The line of daily march was marked 
by dead horses and abandoned equipments, and the 
situation well nigh rivaled the bitter recitals of Val- 
ley Forge. The men's feet were, many of them, des- 
titute of covering, save the swathings of pieces of 
blankets and cloth, in which they were enveloped. 
By the middle of February, there were but 50 service 
able horses in the entire command, and on the 25th 
of that month, Lieut. Darragh, in charge of 50 picked 
men, was ordered to report direct to Gen. Garrard, 
Brigade Commander, and until March 25th was en- 
gaged in scouting and reconnoitering expeditions; 



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and the command was frequently involved in skir- 
mishes with detachments of Confederate cavalry. 
In April the regiment was ordered to Kentucky to 
remount, and in Jutie was a prominent factor in 
routing Morgan at Cynthiana and driving him from 
the State. It was in the advance and was deployed 
on the right of the Union line opposed to Morgan's 
left. The day was won by a brilliant sabre charge, 
which made a complete rout. The official report of 
the commanding General Burbridge claimed 1,100 
rebels killed, wounded and captured. During the 
month of July, the regiment marched through Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, into Georgia, joining Sherman's 
conquering legions at Marietta in their advance on 
Atlanta. The cavalry was engaged in protecting the 
flanks, keeping open communications, in scouting, re- 
connoitering and raiding, till after the fall of Atlanta. 

1 1 participated in the successful raid around At- 
lanta, under Kilpatrick. On the 14th day of Novem- 
ber, 1864, the " General" was sounded, the regiment 
marched out of its camp near Atlanta and took its x 
{position in Sherman's grand army in the first day's ^^ 
" March to the Sea." The progress through Georgia ^ 
was one continuous skirmish with the rebel cavalrj*, '\i 
under Gen. Wheeler. The regiment distinguished ^\ 
itself at Lovejoy's Station, at Macon, at Waynesboro, ^'' 
and at Cypress Swamp, and won the following special *' 
mention from Gen. Kilpatrick, in his official report 
to Gen. Sherman : " It has at all times behaved most 
handsomely and attracted my special attention." It 
was the escort of Gen. Sherman in the investment of 
Savannah, and made a gallant charge at Aiken, S. C, 
and was in hot action at Averysboro and at Benton- 
ville. 

The Ninth was the only Michigan cavalry regi- • 
ment that marched with Sherman to the ocean, and . 
it fired the last volley at the rebels, in behalf of the 
National standard, prior to the surrender of Gen. 
Johnston's army. The commission of Mr. Darragh 
as First Lieutenant was dated Feb. 12, 1864; that of 
Captain was conferred June 9, 1865. He was mus- , 
tered out of service July 21, 1865, and w^as honor- '^^ 
ably discharged at Jackson. I 

After leaving the military service, Mr. Darragh re-\\ 
solved to fit himself for the legal profession, and, , 
with that intent, went to Jackson to engage in the ;\ 
proper course of study under the direction of Gov. ♦ 
Blair. But the experiences of the years which had •^ 



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intervened since his student days, had made havoc 
with his mental habits, and he found it difficult to 
concentrate his attention sufficiently to render his 
readings profitable. He obtained a position in the 
West-Side union school at Jackson, and had chaige 
of the Grammar Department two years. In 1867 he 
was elected the first Superintendent of Jackson 
County, and discharged the duties of the office two 
years. 

Mr. Darragh came to Gratiot County in 1870, and 
soon after established his banking business at St. 
Louis, where he has since prosecuted the matters 
common to such institutions. He has been inti- 
mately connected with the prominent interests of the 
village since he became a resident, and has officiated 
continuously as a member of the Village Board of 
Education. The perfect organization of the union 
school is largely due to his eflfoits and views, made 
practical by his own experience as an educator. He 
is a P.epoblican to the core, and has been active in 
local politics. In 1872, he was elected County 
Treasurer, and in 1882 was nominated and 'elected 
Representative of Gratiot County, receiving 62 ma- 
jority on the popular vote over the Fusion candidate. 
The canvass was spirited and the entire Fusion 
ticket was ele':ted with the exception of Representa- 
tive and Circuit Court Commissioner. Both candi- 
dates are residents at St. Louis, and Mr. Darragh s 
majority in his home township (Pine River) was 36. 

Mr. Darragh was active in his capacity of Assem- 
blyman. He served as Chairman of Committee on 
Private Corporations, a position for which he was pe- 
culiarly fitted, and he also acted on Committees on 
Stale Affairs and on State University. 

The character of Mr. Darragh needs no elabora- 
tion at theliands of the biographer. From the sim- 
ple recital of the successive events of his career the 
future generations who may be interested in tracing 
his influence and position in Gratiot County, will be 
at no loss to form a just estimate of his deserts. 

His portrait appears on page 190, and will prove a 
satisfaction to his friends, as it is one of the most 
valuable of the large collection in this volume. 

He was married June 8, 1875, to Annie P. Cul- 
bertson, of Monongahela City, Pa. She was born 
May 14, 1848, at Allegheny City, Pa., and is a daugh- 
ter of Albert and Emily (Brown) Culbertson. Mary, 
only child, was bom Sept. 15, 1879, at St. Louis. 



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;• atrick Brewer, farmer on section 15, Emer- 
iT^^^ son Township, was born in Wicklow Co., 
4lfe> Ireland, Jan. i, 1825, and is the son of 
[;!;[ Richard and Ann (Kenney) Brewer, natives 
' * ^ of the Emerald Isle, where they were small 
farmers. In 1850 they emigrated to Canada, setding 
near Kingston, Ont., and farmed there. Patrick, at 
the age of 27, left his parents and "worked in San- y 
dusky (^o , Ohio, until the summer of 1856. He ^\ 
then came to this State and county, and settled on ; 
his present farm in Fmerson Township. 

In this county, March 31, 1867, he was united in 
marriage to Mrs. Ruth Decker {nee Convis), daughter 
of John D. and Submitte (Graves) Convis, natives of 
Rhode Island and Vermont, respectively. They 
were married in the State of New York, and after a 
number of years removed to Emerson Township, 
this county, where they died, the father in 1867, and 
the mother in r86i. Ruth was born in Ontario, 
Wayne Co., N. Y., March 22, 1835 ; came at the age ria 
of nine to Shiawassee Co., Mich., and later to Gra- ;-; 
tiot County, where she was married. ^ 

Mr. and Mrs. Brewer have had four children, two >^/ 
of whom are living: Richard S.,born Nov. 21, 1870: 
Emma L., born Dec. 17, 1874; Mittie A., born Sept. 
3, 1868, and died Oct. 3, 1868; Joseph A., born Sept. 
16, 1869, and died Sept. 30, 1869, Mr. Brewer is 
ix)litically a faithful Republican. He has held the 
offices of Overseer of Highways and School Di- 
rector. 



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f ohn S. Parker, farmer, section 8, Newark 
, Township, was born March 25, 1841, in 
'" Wayn^Co., Mich. His father, John Par- 
ker, was a native of Vermont, and married 
Mary Berry, who was born in the State of New 
York, where they settled for a time. They 
afterwards removed to Ohio, and later to Michigan, ' 
which was then in its pioneer period, locating in 
Wayne County. In 1854 they settled in Newark, 
Gratiot County. Their family consisted of eight 
sons and three daughters. 

Mr. Parker is the fourth son, and actpiired his edu- 
cation in the common schools At 16 he became ^ 












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master of his own fortunes, and has spent all his 
life thus far in the Peninsula State, with the excep- 
tion of two months, which were mostly passed in 
Missouri. In March, 1873, he bought 120 acres of 
land, under partial improvements, and erected there- 
on suitable and convenient farm buildings. He now 
owns 160 acres in Newark Township, of which 120 
acres are under good cultivation, and 90 acres in 
Fulton Township, 55 of which are improved. 

Mr. Parker was married Dec. 24, 1873, to Mary, 
third daughter of John and Nancy (Dravenstot) 
Greer, natives of Pennsylvania. Mrs. Parker was 
born in Clinton County, Sept. 19, 1854. Her parents 
were natives of Ohio. Two children are now in- 
cluded in the household: Jane A., born April 23, 1876, 
and Roscoe B., bom July 14, 1879. 

In political matters Mr. Parker votes independ- 
ently. He is a member of the Order of Masonry. 

oseph A. Guthrie, physician and farmer, 
on section 15, Emerson Township, was 
born in Chenango Co., N. Y., Dec. 12, 18 15, 
and is the son of Nathan and Abbie (Richard- 
son) Guthrie, natives of New England, and of 
Scotch and English extraction. The Guthries 
for several generations back have been physicians 
and surgeons. Nathan Guthrie practiced in Genesee 
Co., N. Y., when that county was very new, and he 
had to contend with most of the hardships of pio- 
neer life. He deserves the credit of being one of 
the foremost in developing that now rich country, 
and his children were the first white children born 
there. 

The subject of this sketch was scarcely one year 
old when he lost his mother, and he was taken care 
of by his aunt and uncle. He Igst his father by 
death four years later, and was then left entirely to 
his relatives. They treated him kindly, and enabled 
him to obtain a practical education in the common 
schools. At the age of 19 he began teaching in the 
common schools, and by spending his earnings in 
better informing himself, he progressed rapidly. He 
studied in select schools, and then gave himself to 
the art of medicine, under Dr. L. Tucker, of Earl- 
ville, Madison Co., N. Y. He remained with that 
gentleman four years, and attended a course of lec- 




tures at Geneva, N. Y. In the spring of 1842, he 
secured his diploma, and he has since acquired, by a 
long and successful practice, the reputation of a very 
skillful physician. 

July 16, 1844, at Sandy Hill, Washington Co., 
N. Y.^he was married to Eunice Town, a native of 
Washington Co., N. Y. She died in Shiawassee Co., 
Mich., in September, 1846, and March 16, 1847, in 
Shiawassee County, he was again married, to Emma 
M. Convis, daughter of John D. and Submitte 
(Graves) Convis, natives of Vermont. She was bom 
in Ellisbiirg, Jefferson Co., N. Y., April 29, 1829, and 
when a year and a half old went with her parents to 
Wayne County, that State, where she received a 
cdmmon-school education. At the age of 16 she 
came to Shiawassee County, this State, and taught 
for a short time previous to her marriage. In 1857, 
Dr. and Mrs. Guthrie came to this county and set- 
tled on f2o acres, 80 on section 15 and 40 on sec- 
tion 14, to which he has since added 80 acres, and 
he now follows farming in connection*with the prac- 
tice of his profession. Their first experiences here 
were such as most pioneer, families undergo, though 
perhaps they were even more severe. The Doctor 
was the first regular medical graduate to practice in 
Gratiot County. 

The Dr. and Mrs. Guthrie have a family of three: 
Justus N., born May 21, 1848; Jesse L., born Sept. 
9, 1850; and Ella C, born March 26, i860. They 
are members of the Baptist Church. He was one of 
the first four Justices of the Peace chosen in Emer- 
son Township, and he has held that office 12 years. 
He was also for some time Assistant Revenue As- 
sessor. Politically he is an active Republican. 






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^{M^harles S. Harmon, general farmer, section 
^^^"^ 28, New Haven Township, is a son of 
^r^i^ Walter Harmon, a native of Connecticut and 
a farmer by occupation, who came to this 
State in 1844, and located in Ionia County, 
as one of the first settlers in Sebewa Town- 
ship. He subsequently moved into Clinton County, 
and died November, 1861, aged about 63. His 
wife, Mary, nee Dicks, was also a native of Connecti- 
cut, and died in this county Dec. 22, 1858, aged 59. 
Charles S., the subject of this sketch, worked with 



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his father on the farm in Ionia County until 19 years 
of age, when he returned to his native State, New 
York, where he was born, Sept. 16, 183 1, in Chautau- 
qua County. Residing in Genesee County, that 
State, for three years, he returned to Clinton County, 
where he remained with his parents until hf^ mar- 
riage, Oct. 15, 1854, to Miss Frances Z. White, daugh- 
ter of Moses H. and Miranda (Wheelock) White. 
(See sketch.) She was born in Jackson Co., Mich., 
March 13, 1839, moving afterward to Ingham County, 
and next to Clinton County, where she lived till her 
marriage. She' is the mother of five children, three 
of whom are dead, namely : Phebe R. and Florence 
M., living; and Worth H., Mary M.and Effie J., de- 
ceased. 

A year after marriage, Mr. H. bought 40 acres of 
land in Watertown Township, Clinton County, which 
he afterward sold and bought another " 40 " in the 
same township, where he followed agriculture for 
eight years. Both these places he found in a state 
of wild natur^ On leaving the latter place he went 
to Lansing, Mich., and followed teaming nearly a 
year. In 1864 he came to this county and lived the 
first year with his father-in-law ; he then purchased 
a 40-acre piece of land, where he now dwells, mov- 
ing upon it three y^rs after the purchase. To this 
tract he has added 40 acres more, and of the total 
80 acres he has 75 acres in fine cultivation. 

Mr. Harmon has held the school offices of his dis- 
trict, and in political affairs he is a Republican. 



rohn M. Everden, farmer and teacher, section 
30, Emerson Township, was born in Ingham 
Co., Mich., Oct. 5, 1852, and is a son of O. 
A. and Harriet Jane (Phelps) Everden, natives 
of Pennsylvania and New York, respectively. 
They were married in the latter State, and two 
years after came to Michigan. They located on a 
farm in Ingham County, where their son John was 
bom. He came with his parents to this county in 
the spring of 1854, and has since lived in Emerson 
Township, section 30. Being the eldest of three 
children, it early came to his lot to be a sort of fore- 
man around the farm ; but, in spite of hard work and 
limited advantages, he found time to obtain a fair 
education in the common schools of his time, so that 
by perseverance he qualified himself for teaching. 




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At the age of 20, he began teaching, and has since 
taught in the winters, and farms in the summers. 
Of the 80 acres, .50 are well cultivated. He is con- 
sidered a skillful farmer and a competent teacher. 

He still resides on the old homestead, with his 
mother, a woman of sterling worth. 

April 19, 1883, in Saginaw City, he was united in 
the bonds of matrimony to Jennie, daughter of Ira 
and D. A. (Westcott) Van Buskirk, natives of New 
York. She was born in Syracuse, N. Y., Sept. 20, 
1862, and came to this county in her childhood. 
He is connected with the Baptist Church, of Ithaca, 
and she, with the M. E. Church, at the same 
place. 

Mr. Everden is a member of Ithaca Lodge, No. 
123, F. & A. M., and now holds the office of J. W., 
in that lodge. He has held I he township offices of 
Superintendent of Schools, Supervisor and School 
Inspector. Politically, he is a strong supporter of 
Republican principles. 

I illiam N. Rogers, farmer on section 33, 
^ .^--^ Pine River Township, is a son of William 




^'p T. and Lydia M. (Beckwith) Rogers, natives 
of New York State. They married and set- 
tled in that State, afterwards removing to 
Medina Co., Ohio, where they resided until 
their death. William N., the subject of this bio- 
graphical narrative, was born in New York State, 
Sept. 16, 1820. He was two years old when his par- 
ents removed to Ohio, and in that State he was edu- 
cated and grew to manhood. At the age of 18, he 
was apprenticed to the blacksmith's trade for three 
years at Ashland, Ohio. This business he followed 
most of the rime unul 1877. 

He came to this county in October, 1854, and set- 
tled on the farm which he had entered the June pre- 
vious, on section 33, Pine River Township. He built 
the first blacksmith shop in Grat»ot County, on his 
farm. He and four others, among them Col. Ely, 
Mr. Porter and J. H. Clark, cut through the woods 
what was known as the " middle trail." He built a 
log house 28 X 16, and afterwards sold his whole 
fann, trading 40 acres for the place on which he now 
resides, one yoke of steers, one cow and one barrel 
of pork. His present farm is all nicely under culti- 



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vation. He has at different times owned various 
farms in Arcada and Pine River Townships. 

April 1 8, 1843, in Homer Township, Medina Co., 
Ohio, he was married to Lydia, daughter of Peter 
and Hannah (Taylor) Clark. They first settled in 
New Jersey, and afterwards removed to New York 
State. Thence they went to Ohio, and lived there 
14 years ; and in 1854 they came to Ionia Co., Mich., 
where they died. Their daughter Lydia was born in 
Tioga Co., N. Y., Aug. 2, 1822. 

Mr. Rogers enlisted in the 8th Mich. Vol. Inf., 
and served in the Union army 16 months. He was 
honorably discharged May 24, 1865, at Detroit. 
During the first part of his service, he was em- 
ployed as blacksmith; and when Ralph Ely was 
promoted Colonel, he was detailed as cook for that 
popular leader. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. have had fivt children: Han- 
nah S., Roxana E., Mary C, Phebe U. R. and Will- 
iam H. Hannah S. was married to Henry Adams, 
and died April 28, 1876. Roxana E. was married 
to George M. Simonson, of Saginaw, and died Feb. 
20, 1867. Mr. Rogers has held the various school 
offices, and has been a Trustee of Alma village for 
six years. In political sentiment, he is a Democrat. 



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^f fe ddison G. Fraker, farmer, section 8, Wash- 
^I^MLng ^ ington Township, is a son of Napoleon B. 
S|t^ and Rebecca (Merrills) Fraker, natives of New 
'Jlsr York State. They followed farming, and in 
1 86 1 came to Gratiot County, locating on 160 
acres on section 8, Washington Township. 
Mr. Fraker afterwards added 20 acres, and brought 
1 25 acres to a good state of improvement. He lived 
on this farm until 1879, when he removed to his 
present home in Ithaca. 

The subject of this sketch was born July 18, 1847, 
in St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., and at the age of 23 he 
was married to Amelia Campbell, the daughter of 
Cornelius and Pamelia (Amadon) Campbell, who 
live on a farm in Washington Township. She was 
born Oct. 9, 1852. Mr. and Mrs. Fraker lived first 
one year on section 7, Washington Township, then 
on their present place four years, then on another 
farm on the same section for four years, then set- 
tling permanently on their present farm. Mr. Fraker 



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has 260 acres of land, and is extensively engaged in 
stock-raising, as well as farming. They have five 
children, named : Jennie R., Howard C, Ernest K. 
(died June 20, 1879), N. B. and Kittie (twins). 

Mr. Fraker was chosen Township Treasurer in 
i88i,<nd again in 1882. He has been School Di- 
rector, and is at present Assessor of fractional school 
district No. 3, Washington and Fulton Townships. 



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i^philip P. Allen, farmer, section 29, Emerson 
iT^^^ Township, was born in Delaware Co., N. Y., 
JliSr April 21, 1829, and is the son of Isaiah and 
}^( Elsie (Peck) Allen, natives of New York, and 
"f^ descendants of the Puritan fathers. They 
followed farming, and died in this State, some years 
ago. 

Philip, when quite young, moved vdih his father 
to Seneca County and afterwards to Steuben County. 
In these two counties he received a pretty fair 
education, and at the age of 19 he engaged in teach- 
ing in the district schools of Steuben County. This 
he followed until his marriage in that county, July 
22, 1850, to Mary A., daughter of Richard Sawtell, a 
native of New England. Mary A. was born in New 
York, July 2, 1830. 

Five years after their marriage they came to this 
county and settled on section 29, Emerson Township. 
Here his wife died, Jan. 8, 1855, leaving two children 
to comfort her husband: Ozema F., born Nov. 14, 
1852, and George H., born Feb. 4, 1855. He was 
again married, April 17, 1865, to Emma G., daughter 
of Ralph and Jane (Terry) Bellows, natives of New 
York and Michigan, respectively, and of English and 
Scotch extraction. They resided most of their lives 
in this State, and died here, the father Feb. 11, 1863, 
and the mother March 2, 1869. Emma G. Bellows 
was t)orn in Marshall, Mich., Jan. 25, 1846, and 
remained with her parents till her marriage, coming 
with them to Gratiot County, in 1861. 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen have a family of four children, 
as follows : Leland W., bom Feb. 5, 1866, Cecil W., 
Oct. I, 1870, Tessie M., June 2, 1877, and Rexford 
E., Oct. 6, 1882. They are members of the Baptist 
Advent Church. 

Mr. Allen is a man who is respected by all who 



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Treasurer for a number of years, and has also been 
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district. Politically he is a Democrat. 




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Fon. Charles H. Morse, farmer, stock-raiser 

and real-estate dealer, residing on section 

29, New Haven Township, and one of the 

representative and energetic business men of 

the county, is a native of Orangeville, Wyoming 

Co., N. Y., where he was born Jan. 27, 1838. 

The parents of Mr. Morse were Harvey and 

Lydia (Watkins) Morse, and natives of Green and 

Madison Counties, N. Y. 

From a " History of the Morse family,** owned by 
the Buffalo Historical Society, we learn that the fam- 
ily history is of very ancient origin. It is quite 
clearly traced to a little town in Norway, south of 
Christiana. This town was named Moss, because it 
was a mossy country. The family took the name of 
Moss, and in course of succeeding generations and 
centuries, as in almost all names which come down 
to us through centuries, it has changed in form and 
* orthography, appearing as Moss, Morss and Morse, 
and some lesser variations. 

It is quite clear that the family accompanied Will- 
iam the Conqueror when he subdued England, or 
came soon after, as the name appears in England, 
and is more easily traced from about that date. The 
first official account is in the time of Edward III, 
A. D. 1327, when the records show an official ap- 
pointment dated 1358. This probably accounts for 
the fact that they had a crest or semblance of a coat- 
of-arms. This consisted of an open shield, sur- 
mounted by two battle axes, crossed, and one ax and 
three pellets in the body of the shield. The motto 
in Latin, ^n Deo^ non artnis^ fido^ — " In God I trust, 
not in arms." 

The Morse family in America descended from seven 
families, who came from England about 1635, ^^^ 
heads of these families named Samuel, Joseph, An- 
thony and William Morse, all settling in Massachu- 
setts. Later, Robert Morse landed in New Jersey, 
Joshua, ** somewhere in New England," and " John 
Moss," in New Haven, Conn. It seems to be a his- 






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torical fact that these are the seven families whence 
the Morses in early days sprang. Samuel Morse, 
the progenitor of the branch of the family to which 
Charles H. Morse belongs, was born in 1585, in Eng- 
land, probably at Ipswich, came to Massachusetts 
with his wife Elizabeth and son John, in the ship 
** Increase," in the year 1635, and settled "south of 
Charles River/' near Boston, and named the place 
Dedham. He, with twelve others, owned a large 
tract of land, built the first " meeting-house " and 
school-house. The " compact " drawn up by himself 
and his 12 associates, under which they were to live, 
is marked by all that severe piety and intolerance 
that characterized the " Blue Laws "of Connecticut. 

The whole history of the family indicates that they 
have generally been men of sterling integrity and 
noted for puritanism. Some have been minis- 
ters in the Episcopal Church, but generally they have 
been Presbyterians. They fought in the Revolution 
and in every war since to the Rebellion. Some were 
eccentric. John Morse, born in 17 12, built his 
chimney in the hall of his house. He shut himself 
in his room and resolved to fast 40 days, but after 
trying it three or four days came out, saying the 
Lord had excused him from the other days! He 
also chiseled his own tombstone, and asked to be 
buried with his head to the north. 

The genealogy of the family, from Samuel Morse 
to the subject of the sketch, Charles H. Morse, is as 
follows: Samuel Morse, born 1585, came to 
America 1635, died 1654; son John, bom 161 1, 
came to America with his father 1635, died 1657; 
John's son Ezra, bom 1643, died 1697; Ezras son 
Seth, born 1686, died 1783; he settled in Connecti- 
cut; Seths son John, bom in 17 12, date of death 
unknown; John's son David, born about 1755, died 
about 1830; David's son Simeon, born Oct. 4, 1781, 
died August, 1867 ; Simeon's son Harvey, born June 
22, 1802, died May i, 1878; and Harvey's son 
Charles H., bom Jan. 27, 1838. 

Mr. Morse had three brothers and three sisters, 
viz: Evaline, born Dec. 24, 1826, and married to 
H. H. Beers; Electa, born Sept. 28, 1828, and mar- 
ried to Lafayette Winchester; Catharine, bom July 
4, 1 83 1, and married to Horace Briggs; Lucius, born 
Oct. 13, 1833, married Rose Cutter and died May 
15, 1875 ; John, bom April 26, 1835, married Sarah 
Holly, murdered Aug. i, 1867 ; Myron, born Fel». 
20, 1840, married to Elizabeth Chittle. 



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The parents of the subject of this biography 
were hard-working, industrious and energetic people, 
and C'harles H. was educated in the school of labor, 
on the farm, necessity preventing his developm'int 
into manhood in idleness or wealth. He labored on 
the farms in the neighborhood, contributing his earn- 
ings to the support of the family, and attending the 
common schools as opportunity would permit until he 
attained the age of 17 years. Possessing a determi- 
nation to succeed in the battles of the world, he de- 
voted his idle moments to his books ; and at the age 
of 16 he was thoroughly capable of entering on the 
profession of a teacher, which he did with credit. 

^'^ '^SSf Mr. Morse accompanied his parents to this 
State, where they located in Orleans Township, Ionia 
County. He then engaged in teaching during the 
winter months, and assisted the father on the farm 
during the summer. Here his father and mother 
died, the former May i, 1878, at the advanced age 
of 76 years; and his mother Dec. 3, 1881, at the 
home of our subject, aged 73 years. They were iden- 
tified with this State since 1855. 

When the nation was aroused from her peaceful 
slumber of years by the flashing of the terrible news 
along the wires from State to State that Sumter had 
fallen, and our martyr President had called for strong 
arms and brave hearts to battle for the perpetuity of 
our flag and Government, our subject halted not to 
consider, hut was among the first to offer his services. 

He enlisted Sept. 14, 1 861, as a private in Co. D, 
jd Mich. Vol. Cav., and on the organization of the 
company was appointed Sergeant. He served with 
the company as Sergeant until Dec. 15, 1862, when 
he was promoted to Commissary Sergeant of the 
regiment, and he always had personal charge of the 
subsistence of the regiment during the time he held 
the office. 

During his service with the regiment, he was pres- 
ent at the siege and capture of New Madrid and 
Island No. 10. At New Madrid, under Gen. Pope, 
he first "smelled powder burned in anger." 

Soon after the battle of Pittsburg Landing, his 
regiment was ordered to Tennessee, and participated 
in the siege of Corinth, Miss., and after the evacua- 
tion did hard service all through the summer of 1862, 
in Northern Mississippi and Alabama, and West 
Tennessee, participating in the battles of luka, Sept. 
19, 1862, and Corinth, Oct. 3 and 4, 1862, — two as 



severely contested and decisive engagements, consid- 
ering number engaged, as were fought during the 
war. 

In November, 1862, he accompanied his regiment 
in advance of Gen. Grants army, which moved 
nearly down to Grenada, Miss., engaged daily with 
the enemy in severe skirmishing, particularly at Cof- 
feeville, where the cavalry advance were confronted 
by the entire rebel army of Northern Mississippi. 

This campaign of Gen. Grant's was apparently 
broken up by Van Dorn's raid on his communications 
and the destruction of his supplies. Van Dorn 
struck Gen. Grant's communication at Holly Springs, 
Miss., Dec. 20, 1862, destroyed a large amount of 
army supplies of all kinds and raided north into 
Tennessee, destroying the railroad as he nwved. 

Mr. Morse was taken prisoner at Holly Springs, by 
Van Dorns forces, while absent from his regiment 
after supplies. He was paroled the same day and as 
a result was sent North until exchanged, which took 
place in April, 1863. During the remainder of his 
service with the regiment he participated with it in 
all its arduous service, scouting in West Tennessee 
and Northern Mississippi. Their battles, though 
termed skirmishes, were numbered by scores. Few 
cavalry regiments saw harder service than his and 
few indeed were the marches it made when Mr. 
Morse was not with it. 

After re-enlistment, Mr. M. was ordered to report 
to Gen. W. A. Pile, at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, 
Mo., who was charged with the organization of regi- 
ments of colored troops at that place. He remained 
on duty with Gen. Pile until August, 1864, when he 
was commissioned Captain in the 117th U. S. Col- 
ored Infantry, and ordered to report at Covington, 
Ky., where his regiment was then organizing. He 
was the senior Captain in the regiment, taking rank 
from Aug. 16, 1864. During August and September 
he assisted in recruiting and organizing his regiment 
to its maximum number, and in October it was or- 
dered to Virginia, and assigned to the ist Brigade, 
I St Division, 25th Army Corps, Gen. Godfrey Weit- 
zel commanding. The 24th and 25th Army Corps 
constituted the Army of the James. 

When Richmond was evacuated, Mr. Morses 
company led the advance of the 25th Corps, and his 
regiment was probably the first infantry that entered 
the capital of the Southern Confederacy. 






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Remaining at Richmond and Petersburg until 
June 2, 1865, he was, with the 25th Corps, ordered to 
the Mexican border, to aid in enforcing the famous 
" Monroe Doctrine." Louis Napoleon saw the " hand- 
writing on the wall," and called the French troops 
home from Mexico, leaving Maximilian to his sad 
fate. 

In the fall of 1865, the mustering-out of troops 
began. The 117th Regiment, to which Mr. M. still 
belonged, was occupied in garrison duty on the bor- 
der, and in October of the same year Mr. M., then 
Captain, assumed command of the regiment, which 
he retained most of the time until the end of its 
service. 

Jan. 12, 1866, Mr. M. was promoted from Captain 
to Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, 
owing to the muster-out of other regiments, the 1 17th 
was the only infantry on the border, and was scat- 
tered from Galveston to Fort Mcintosh, 500 miles 
up the Rio Grande. Mr. Morse commanded the 
|)Osts of Brazos de Santiago, Fort Brown and Ringgold 
Barracks. While at the latter post his jurisdiction ex- 
tended over 300 miles of the border. Here he had 
a chance to observe much of Mexican life, and pro- 
nounces them (save a small educated class), the 
most degraded human beings in the world making a 
claim to civilization. 

In June, 1867, Mr. Morse was brevetted Colonel 
of U. S. Volunteers, to date from March 13, 1865, 
" for faithful and meritorious conduct during the war;" 
his commission being signed by President Andrew 
Johnson and Secretary Edwin M. Stanton. 

The 117th was the last volunteer regiment in the 
service, and their " three years, or during the war," 
was nearly completed July i, 1867. They were or- 
dered to assemble in New Orleans for muster-out, 
and on the 23d day of August Mr. Morse was mus- 
tered out of the military service of the United States, 
after a continuous service of 5 years, 1 1 months and 
9 days. 

Soon after Mr. M. received his discharge, he came 
to this county and purchased 320 acres of heavily 
timbered land, located on sections 20 and 29, New 
Haven Township. There was at the time 40 acres 
under improvement. The farm was originally owned 
by Richard Crispel. After making this purchase, 
Mr. M. at once entered on the task of improving his 
land, at times engaged in lumbering and in real 




estate, and now owns 400 acres, 270 acres of which are 
well improved, supplied with good stock and adorned 
with handsome and complete farm buildings, and is 
considered the most valuable farm in the towftship. 
Mr. Morse was united in maniage, Feb. 14, 1864, 
to Miss Julia, daughter of Nathaniel and Chloe 
(Thompson) Sessions, late of Ionia County. The 
father was born Aug. 20, 1790, and died March 15, 
1880, age nearly 90. The mother was bom in 1798, 
and died in 1879, aged 81. They were natives of 
Connecticut and New York, respectively ; and came 
to this State in 1837, since which time they have 
been identified with the prosperity of Ionia County 
from its earliest settlement, always living in the vi- 
cinity of Matherton. It was there Julia was born, 
Dec. 13, 1838. She was reared and educated under 
the watchful care of fond and loving parents. Pos- 
sessing a mind capable of rapid cultivation and a 
large amount of energy and determination, she soon 
attained a point in her studies which thoroughly 
qualified her to enter upon the duties of a teacher, 
which she performed with great credit. After a few 
years of successful teaching she gave up the school 
room for the home and entered on the duty of wife 
and mother. She has had fiwt children, four of 
whom are living, namely : John C, bom March 8, 
1870; Mark C, born Oct. 27, 1872; Noel M., born 
Jan. 10, 1874, and Katie M., bom July 18, 1878. 
One child died in infancy. 

Mrs. Morse is a dutiful and loving wife, a kind 
mother and a generous and esteemed neighbor, al- 
ways working for the social* and intellectual improve- 
ment of the community in which she may be found. 

She was a twin daughter in a family of 15 chil- 
dren, 10 of whom are living. Her membership and 
identity with the M. E. Church extends over a long 
period of time, and her religious zeal ranks her among 
the Christian workers of the county. 

The official record of Mr. Morse in the County 
and Congressional District in which he lives has 
been an honorable and creditable one. He has held 
the office of Supervisor eight terms, since 1870, and 
also other township and school offices in the gift of 
the people of the township. 

He was elected Representative on the Republican 
ticket in 1872, and the interest he manifested in the 
welfare of his constituency procured him a speedy 
return in 1874. These two terms spent in the Leg- 



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islature extended his reputation as a man of ability 
and integrity, and at the close of his last tenn he was 
put forth as the nominee of the Republican party for 
Senator from the 28th District. 

His record had been marked with such manly ac- 
tion, ability and integrity that the people rallied 
around him even as he had rallied around the old 
flag in its time of peril, and elected him by a hand- 
some majority. 

Mr. Morse has been closely allied with the inter- 
ests of the Republican party in this State, and as a 
representative of the party stands forth unaccused, 
without a blemish. 

Mr. Morse is an Officer of the Day in the Post of 
the Grand Army of the Republic at Carson City. As 
a representative man of the State and county, and 
one in every way worthy the confidence and esteem 
of the people, we take great pleasure in presenting 
the portrait of Mr. Morse, together with that of his 
most estimable lady, in this work. 



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Joseph B. Davidson, farmer, section 48, Elba 
'^ Township, is a son of John and Mary R. 
(Marriott) Davidson, natives of Pennsylva- 
nia and Maryland. Mr. Davidson, Sr., was a 
farmer, and his home was in Ohio until his 
death, in the autumn of 1872. Joseph was 
born May, 2, 1841, in Licking Co., Ohio. At the age 
of 28 he married Lilly Kneeland, who was born in 
Howell, Livingston County, May 28, 1852, the 
daughter of John B. and Lucena S. (Sickles) Knee- 
land. Mr. Kneeland was a native of Tompkins 
Co., N. Y., and followed farming. 

Mr. and Mrs. Davidson settled at their present 
residence on 65 acres of section 28. 

They are the parents of two children : John W. 
and Frank E. 

Mr. Davidson enlisted in the service of his country 
at Cleveland, Ohio, in Co. D, 41st Ohio Vol. Inf. He 
was in the battle of Stone River ; was wounded at 
Chickamauga, and. at Missionary Ridge : was wound- 
ed both in the hips and in the wrist. On account of 
these honorable wounds he was discharged from the 
army. 

He was Highway Commissioner of his township 
for one term, and School Superintendent two terms. 



He has also held the office of Moderator of his 
school district for a number of years. He is a 
thorough Republican in his political views. He is a^ 
member of Elsie Lodge, No. 238, F. & A. M., and 
also of the G. A. R. 



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ihlfred Finch, farmer, section 24, Arcada 
Township, was born in Orleans Co., N. Y.^ 









SejH 26, 1852, and is the son of Linas Finch, 
a native of New York, and of English de- 
scent. The father was by occupation a ma- 
chinist; and, enlisting in the service of his 
country, fell a victim to some rebel bullet. Alfred's 
mother died in Orleans Co., N. Y., in March, 1861, 
and at the age of nine Alfred found himself under 
the care of a Mr. Hall, of Orleans County. Two 
years later they all came to Eaton Co., Mich., where 
Alfred lived, working summers and attending school 
in the winters, until 16 years old. He then went to 
live with Levi Bartlow, in Clinton County, remaining 
with him till 21 years old. For the next five years 
he was variously engaged. 

Aug. 6, 1878, at St. Johns, he was united in the 
bonds of matrimony to Nancy, daughter of Erastus 
and Jimima (Packard) Farrington, natives of New 
England and of English descent. Mr. Farrington s 
occupation has been a shoemaker, and he is now a 
farmer. Nancy was bom June 11, 1857, in Emerson 
Township; was there educated, and there lived 
until her marriage. One year after marriage, Mr. and 
Mrs. Finch settled on 40 acres in Arcada Township, 
He now has 15 acres under cultivation. They have 
a family of three children, as follows : Alice, bom 
March 5, 1879; Bertha, June 27, 1880; and Charles, 
Oct. 20, 1883. In politics, Mr. Finch is a Republican. 



ohn T. Botsford, farmer, section 15, New 
Haven Township, is a son of Reuben and 
Martha (Lambson) Botsford (see sketch), 
and was born in Whitby Township, Ontario, 
Feb. 27, 1849. On leaving his native home, 
when seven years of age, he came with his par- 
ents to Michigan, setthng in the village of Reuby, 
Clyde Township, St. Clair County, for four years; 




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was then four years with his father on a farm near 
that village, attending school during the winter sea- 
sons. In the fall of 1865 they moved to this county, 
where John T. remained, working in agricultural 
pursuits and attending school until his marriage. 
His wife, Sarah, is a daughter of George and Alice 
(Fisher) Cross, natives of England, who came to 
America early in life, ultimately settling in Newark 
Township, this county. Mrs. B. was born July 7, 
1857, one of the first white children born in that 
township. Here she was reared and educated. Mr. 
and Mrs. B. have one child, Ettie E., who was born 
Dec. I, 1884. They are members of the Baptist 
Church, and in politics he is a Republican. 







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illiam J. Courter, farmer, section 7, Ar- 
cada Township, was born in Orleans 
Township, Ionia County, Sept. 25, 185 1. 
His parents are natives of New York State, 
moved to this county in 1854, and are now 
living on a farm in Arcada Township. Coming 
with his parents to an unsettled country, William had 
no school advantages during his early youth, but he 
was endowed with a desire to learn, and as he be- 
came older he developed quite a taste for books. 
When 16 years old, he commenced earning his own 
livelihood, going for a time to the lumber woods of 
Mecosta County. Returning home, he passed 13 
years in working at farming in the summers and in 
the wocxis winters. The last four years of that 
period he was in the employ of Bradley Hayes, of 
Ionia County, an extensive farmer and lumberman. 
During these four years he lost but 13 days* time, 
and so highly were his services appreciated that he 
was paid for that lost time. 

On leaving Mr. Hayes* employ he was married to 
Jeannette, daughter of Ira and Ann (Mcintosh) Bar- 
low, natives of New York State and of English and 
Scotch ancestry. They followed farming, and re- 
nwved from New York State to the vicinity of Detroit, 
Mich., and thence to Sydney Township, Montcalm 
County, where they now reside. Jeannette was born 
in that county, Nov. 11, 1857, where she was edu- 
cated in the district schools, and lived until her mar- 
riage. Mr. and Mrs. Courter came to this county 
and located on 80 acres of his father's homestead. 



He has now 60 acres nicely improved, and good farm 
buildings. They have two children : Ira Albert, bom 
Aug. 22, 1878, and Fred S., bom Nov. 15, 1882. 
Politically, he is a Democrat. He has been Overseer 
of Roads for some time. 



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!{piS:harle8 W. Bayley, farmer, section 25, Elba 
'"^ife*^!^ lownship, is a son of W. H. and Jane 
^{'^' (VV^ilson) Bayley, natives of England, and 
^^ residents of Canada. He was bom near To- 
A rontn, < anada, July 7, 1849. On setting out 
to make his own way in the world, he went 
to Lorain Co., Ohio, where he was engaged in farm- 
ing until 1879. Sept. 23, 1879, he was united in 
marriage to Catharine Eschtnith, the eldest daughter 
of John and Sophia (KeicYi) Eschtruth. They were 
natives of Germany, and emigrated to the Great Re- 
public in 1847, settling in Lorain Co., Ohio. Mr. 
Eschtruth is there engaged in farming and operating 
a stone quarry. Mrs. Bayley was born in Lorain 
County, Dec. 28, 1852. Politically, he votes with 
the Republican party. In Elyria, Ohio, he was 
an active worker in the temperance union, and he is 
srill interested in that cause. 



t ewis B. Wolford, farmer, section 29, New 
Haven Township, is a son of David and 
Laverna (Conger) Wolford, natives of New 
York. He was bom in Cayuga Co., N. V., 
^ Nov. II, 1837 ; when six years old he was taken 
to Huntington Co., Ind., and two years later to 
his native county; in 1858 he came and settled on 
section 21, New Haven Township, this county; in 
1867 he moved into Sumner Township, where he 
lived for six years, during which time he followed 
lumbering in Montcalm County. In the spring of 
1876 he moved into New Haven Township. 

Jan. 14, 1 88 1, Mr. Wolford married Mrs. Ellen M. 
Wiles, daughter of Peter D. and Mary (Babcock) 
Pendell. Mr. P. was a native of Saratoga, N. Y., of 
(ierman-Knglish descent, came to Michigan in 1847, 
and to this county in 1858; he was a farmer. He 
and his wife both died in New Haven Township. 
Mrs. W. was born in Wayne Co., N. Y., July 14, 

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1845. When two years old she came to this State, 
since which time she has been a. resident of Ionia 
and Gratiot Counties. She was first married in 1862, 
to George Bennett, a native of Michigan, who died 
June 20, 1870. She afterward married David Wiles, 
who was bom Jan. 22, 1832, in Ohio, and died April 
20, 1877. By another wife he had been the father 
of seven children, and she, by her former marriage, 
had two children. By the present union there has 
been one child, Mary L., born Aug; 12, 1882. Mrs. 
W. has a farm of 80 acres, most of which is well im- 
proved. Mr. W., a Republican, has been honored 
with office in his school district. 



illiam C. Wooloy, farmer, section 33, Elba 
Township, is a son of John K. and Fanny 
(Crose) Wooley, natives of New Jersey. 
Mrs. Wooley was the first white settler of 
Elba Township, locating on section 34 Jan. 4, 
1855. In March of the same year, she re- 
moved across the line into Clinton County, where 
she still resides. William C. was born June 14, 
1840, in Kalamazoo Co., Mich., and left home at the 
age of 14 to care for himself. He worked on a farm 
until 1867, when he married Martha Harrison, 
daughter of John S. and Louisa (Baker) Harrison, 
natives of Ohio, where they followed farming. Mr. 
and Mrs. Wooley have a family of three children : 
John H., Claude D. and Cora P. 

Mr. Wooley first purchased 80 acres in Elba Town- 
ship, but has added 160 acres to^his nucleus. Of 
his whole farm, 180 acres are well improved. In 
1873 he built his large barn. His was the first fam- 
ily to settle permanently in the township, and when 
he came he found a dense wilderness. 

He enlisted in Co. H, 25th Mich. Inf., Aug. 27, 

1862, and served his country faithfully during the 
remainder of the war. His company was engaged 
under Col. Moore at Green River Bridge July 4, 

1863, with the notorious John Morgan's command, 
and killed more men than there were in the company 
engaged. He was mustered out at Salisbury, N. C, 
and finally discharged at Ja'^.kson, Mich. 

Mr. Wooley is a member of Elsie I^odge, No. 238, 
F. & A. M. He was Deputy Sheriff under George 
Patch. He is one of the representative citizens of 
Gratiot County. 



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rank Manecke, farmer, section 22, New "^ 
Haven Township, was bom in Mecklen- > 
burg, Germany, in 1830. His mother died Sr 
when he was three years old, and then until- he 
was eight he lived with his grandmother. His 
father having married again he returned to him, 
who was then superintendent of large land tenants 
in that country. He was carefully educated, and 
before he left his native land at the age of 15 he was 
well versed in French as well as in his native tongue. 
At the age mentioned he came to the Unifed States 
with his father, settling in Wood Co., Ohio, near 
Fostoria. Here the father bought a farm and pro- 
ceeded to teach his only two children, Frank and 
Frederick, in the art of agriculture. 

On attaining legal age, Frank began as a common 
laborer for farmers in Seneca Co., Ohio, and two 
years later he came to Michigan, locating, in Novem- 
ber, 1854, 120 acres of wild forest land, on sections ^ 
21 and 22, New Haven Township, under the Grad- 
uation Act. In the spring following he set about 
improving this place, spending the winters for sev- 
eral years in this work, while the summers he worked 
in East Plains, Ionia County. In i860 he settled on 
this farm, where he has since made a comfortable 
home. 

Under the last call for recruits in 1864, Mr. Man- 
ecke was drafted, and placed in Co. E, 15th Mich. 
Inf. His regiment was with Sherman in North Car- 
olina, but before it was called into action the war 
closed, and Mr. M. returned home without participa- 
ting in any engagement. Resuming work on his 
farm, he has prospered until he has reduced 100 acres 
under the plow and added by purchase 40 acres 
more. It is one of the most productive farms in the 
township. He has produced per acre as high as 38 
bushels of wheat, 80 bushels of corn and 6 bushels 
of clover seed. His residence, recently built, is a 
beautiful and convenient structure, and his farm 
buildings are first-class. Mr. M. has held the school 
office of his township, and in political issues he is a 
Republican. 

Mr. Manecke was first married April 27, i860, to 
Miss Adaline Burt; she was born in New York, 
about 1 83 1, and died at her home in New Haven 
Township, Oct. 28, 1863, leaving one child, Burt. 






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V/ She was a member of the Regular Baptist Church. 

/, ' Mr. M. was again married Jan. 15, 1864, in Newark 
*^ Township, this county, to Mrs. Susanna Ridenour, 

^ rue Munson, who was born in Medina Co., Ohio, 
Aug. 22, 1830, where she resided until her first mar- 
riage, in April, 1851. Since that time she has lived 
in this State, and, except three years, in Clinton 
County. The children of Mrs. M., by her former 
husband, were : Polly S. and Aminda J., both mar- 
ried, in this and Ionia Counties; and George, who 
died in infancy. 



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enry K. Betan, senior proprietor of the 

Retan House, Ithaca, was born in Sussex 

Co., N. J., Aug. 27, 181 7, and is a son o^ 

John and Margaret (Smith) Retan, natives of 

INova Scotia and New Jersey, and of Dutch and 
New England descent. The father was a far- 
/\^ mer, and died in Waterford, Oakland Co., Mich., in 
1843. The mother died in Owosso, Mich., in 1867. 

When the subject of this sketch was seven years 
old, his father removed to Oakland County, this State, 
and settled on a farm near Pontiac. Henry here 
worked on the farm, occasionally attending school, 
and developed into manhood. At the age of 26 he 
left home, and started a store at Commerce, Oakland 
County. He was in mercantile life about 15 years, 
and then went into the hotel business. He was first 
at Owosso one year, then at Ovid 1 2 years, and then 
lived at Ovid three years without other occupation 
than caring for his wife, who was then an invalid. 
In May, 1883, he came to Ithaca, and started the 
Retan House in company with his son-in-law, Dennis 
T. Covert. This hotel has a very large patronage, and 
has acquired an enviable reputation as a home-like, 
well managed house. 

Nov. 17, 1842, at Pontiac, he formed a life partner- 
ship with Miss Catharine Voorheis, daughter of Jacob 
and Rachel (Powelson) Voorheis, natives of New 
'^ Jersey, and of Dutch and English descent. She was 
born at Peapack, Somerset Co., N. J., Sept. 20, 1820, 
" , and came to Michigan with her parents when 13 
years old, living in Oakland County until her mar- 
riage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Retan have had a family of eight, 
four surviving : Harrison L., Harriet E. (Mrs. D. T. 







Covert), Jay V. and Addie. The two first are in 
Ithaca, the two last at Ovid. The deceased are 
George, Margaret, Frank and Lily. Mr. Retan is 
politically a Democrat. 



r§|IUexander T. Bice, farmer, section 32, Elba 
K Township, is a son of Clark and Sarah A. 
ijJI^S" (Coonley) Rice, natives of Massachusetts 
:ind New York respectively. They emigrated 
lo Michigan in 1840, and settled on a farm. 
Alexander was born Dec. 10, 1834, in Jasper, 
Steuben Co., N. Y. At the age of 25, he was mar- 
ried to Clara J. Armstrong, daughter of Elias and 
Eunice (Hewitt) Armstrong, natives of Connecticut. 
She was bom May 20, 1835, *" Wheatland, Monroe 
Co., N. Y. Mr. Armstrong came to Livingston Co., 
Mich., and lived there until his death, Sept. 19, 
1863. Mrs. Armstrong died Feb. 17, 1872, at Eaton 
Rapids, Mich. 

In 1876, Mr. Rice located on 100 acres on sections 
29 and 32, Elba Township, and he has creditably 
improved 60 acres of this farm, besides erecting a 
neat farm house, barn and granaries. In 1876, he 
was elected School Superintendent of his township, 
and the following year he was elected Supervisor. 
This latter office he filled continuously until the 
spring of 1883, except the year 1881. He is a mem- 
ber of St. John s Lodge, No. 105, F. & A. M. Po- 
litically, he has always been a Democrat. He is one 
of the truly representative men of the county, and 
stands highly with all parties. 



^iPrancifl J. Corey, farmer on section 2, New- 
\ ark Township, was born in Nankin Town- 
^^'n\ ship, Wayne Co., Mich., Dec. 18, 1836, 



and is the son of John D. and Roxie (Fergu- 
M^ son) Corey, natives of Rhode Island and Ver- 

l niont. They have followed farming, and now 
reside on section 29, Arcada Township. Francis 
lived with his parents and worked on their farm 
until of age, moving with them when 18 years old to 
Ingham Co., Mich. 

Jan. I, 1858, at Lansing, he was married to 
Rachel, daughter of George and Eliza (Carter) 
Brown, natives of New York and of English and 






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German ancestry. The father died in Ingham 
County in 1864, aged 55. The mother still lives in 
this county. Rachel was born in Williams Co., Ohio, 
May 26, 1839, and came to Michigan when 17 years 
old. After marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Corey lived in 
Ingham County until the winter of 1866, when they 
came to this county and purchased 80 acres on sec- 
tion 32, Arcada Township. While living on that 
place, they improved 44 acres. Selling out Dec. 7, 
i8?3, they have just become well settled on their new 
home of 40 acres of well-improved land near Ithaca, 
formerly owned by William Hutchins. 

Mr. and Mrs. Corey have a family of four, as fol- 
lows : Lorada E., born Jan. 21, i860; Ellsworth D., 
Aug. 14, 1861; Lorena F., Feb. 3, 1864; and Eliza 
J., Nov. 3, 1868. 

Oct. 28, 1863, he enlisted in Co. H,4th Mich. Vol. 
Cav., and served in the Army of the Cumberland 
under Gen. Minty. He fought at Kingston, Look- 
out Mountain, Stone Mountain and Cottonwood 
Creek, and in many skirmishes, such as cavalrymen 
always meet with. He was in Kilpatricks raid 
through Georgia in 1864, and in Wilson's raid from 
Eastport, Miss., to Macon, Ga., the same year. He 
was honorably discharged Aug u;, 1865, after 23 
months of active service. In civil life, Mr. Corey 
has been a worker in the ranks of the Democratic 
party. He has been Constable for two terms. 



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srael W. Hause, farmer on section 15, Ful- 
ton Township, is the son of Simon and 
Sally (Coats) Hause, natives of the State of 
New York. They resided first in Chemung 
Co., N. Y., then in Steuben Co., Mich., and 
in 1853 they removed to Clinton Co., Mich. 
They came to Gratiot County in March, 1858, and 
returned to Clinton County in May, 1870. Here he 
died, June 11, 1877. She survives him, and resides 
in St. John s. Their family comprised two sons and 
five daughters. 

The subject of this notice, the elder son, was born 
in Steuben Co., N. Y., Sept. 21, 1841, and was 12 
years old when his parents removed to Michigan. 
He received a common-school education, and made 
his home with his parents until he attained his ma- 
jority. He came to Gratiot County with his parents 



and lx)ught 40 acres of partly improved land on ^ 
section 15, Fulton Township; and m January follow- ■ 
ing he settled with his family there. He has built a 
comfortable residence and barns, and has 30 acres 
under cultivation. 

Dec. 2, 1862, in Fulton Township, he married Miss 
Harriet A., daughter of William J. and Sarah A. 
(Sornberger) Carr, natives of New York. They came 
to Fulton Township, Gratiot County, in i860. Mrs. 
Carr died here May 13, 1863. Mr. Carr survives. 
Their daughter Harriet was born in Madison Co., N. 
Y., March 31, 1843. She is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Politically, Mr. Hause is a 
Republican. 



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illiam Alpaugh, farmer on section 5, Ful- 
5L ton Township, is a son of Philip and Eva 
^ * Alpaugh, natives of the State of New 
York. In 1846, they left that State and ^ 
came to Hillsdale Co., Mich., where they . 
died, he Oct. 10, 1874, and she Dec. 16, 1880. \ 
The subject of this sketch was born in Montgomery - 
Co., N. Y., Jan. i, 1830, and received a fair com- 
mon-school education. At the age of 16 he came 
with his parents to Michigan. 

At the age of 22, he started out to make his own 
way in life. He learned the trade of carpenter and 
joiner, which he followed much of the time until 
1882. He came to this county in January, 1865, 
and bought 40 acres on section 2, North Shade 
Township. Here he lived about seven years, when 
he sold and bought 40 acres on section 5. Fulton 
Township, his present home. He has since added 
40 acres, and has about one-half of his farm under 
cultivation. 

Sept. 3, 1862, he married Mary E., daughter of 
Joseph H. and Margaret (Clement) Salisbury, natives 
of Montgomery Co., N. Y. Mrs. Alpaugh was bom 
in Pittsfcrd, Hillsdale Co., Mich., Sept. 22, 1841. 
This marriage has been blessed with two children : 
Evie A. and Edwin G. The latter died when two 
years old. Mr. A. is a member of the Masonic Order, 
and, with his wife, of the Christian Church. In 
polidcs he is a Republican. He is a strong tem- 
perance man, and takes a deep interest in all tern iter- 
ance movements. 



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illiam Siokels, one of the leading business 
men of Sickels, and representative men of 
the county, and whose portrait we are pleased 
to present in this work as a meritorious rep- 
resentation of one of Gratiot's self-made men, 
was born in Palmyra, Wayne Q)., N. Y., May 
30, 1824, and is a son of John F. Sickels, native of 
the same State, whose Holland ancestors settled on 
the Mohawk River over 200 years ago. Mr. Sickels 
attended the common schools of his native State 
until he attained the age of 1 2 years, when, in com- 
pany with the family, he came to Wayne County, this 
State, where they arrived in 1836. Here William 
attended the Northville Academy, assisting pn the 
farm at times until the fathers death in 1839, when 
he assumed control of the farm and successfully cul- 
tivated it for one year. He then resumed his studies 
at Northville Academy and completed his education. 
After the completion of that arduous though pleas- 
ant task, he went back on the farm and remained 
until 1849, when he moved to Howell Township, 
Livingston County, this State, and occupied his time 
in farming until 1854, then went to what is now 
Wyandotte, Wayne Count}', built the first store and 
dwelling house in the village proper and established 
the first postoffice there. In 1856 he removed to 
what is now Elsie, Clinton County, and also estab- 
lished the first postoffice in that village, and was 
Deputy Postmaster. He remained at Elsie until 
1 86 1, when he removed to St. Johns, same county, 
and there held the position of Register of Deeds 
until 1863, and Deputy Register from 1863 to 1865; 
was also Judge of Probate from 1865 to 1869. From 
1869 to 1 88 1 he held a position in the Postoffice 
Department at Washington, D. C. In May, 1881, 
Mr. S. resigned his position at Washington and 
joined his family at Sickels, this county, whither he 
had removed them in September, 1873. 

In 1883 Mr. Sickels built a large steam flouring 
mill at Sickels and thoroughly equipped it with the 
best and roost modern improved machinery, with 
boilers 4j4 x 12 feet and a 40-horse-power engine, 
which is recognized as one of the best flour-produc- 
ing mills in the county. His residence is undoubt- 
edly the finest in Hamilton Township ; and, remarka- 



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ble as it may appear, it is nevertheless true, the 
structure is composed mostly of native wood which 
grew on his own farm. The building is supplied 
with hot and cold water throughout, and is elegantly 
furnished. The library, of which he is justly proud, 
required an outlay of over $2,000 in its selection and 
purchase, and comfort, happiness and plenty sur- 
round the family hearthstone. 

Mr. Sickels was married Nov. 8, 1846, to Isabel B., 
daughter of Dennis Kingsley (deceased), a native of 
Vermont, and one of the early pioneers of Wayne 
County. She was bom in Orleans Co., N. Y., March 
13, 1828. Four children have been born to their 
union, viz.: Dennis K., Annie I., Hettie E. and 
William C. 

Dennis is living in Washington, D. C, and was 
married to Alice M. Hugely. Annie I. married John 
H. Winton, of Ithaca, this county. Hattie E. was 
married to Warren Abbott, who died in 1880, leaving 
two children to the care of the mother, who lives 
with them at home. William C. is unmarried and 
living with the family in their pleasant abode. 

The credit of their prosperity, of their happy home 
and the fine appearance of their large farm of 640 
acres, is not all claimed by the father; each one 
nobly did his part ; and of the mother, for her untir- 
ing labors, all unite in highest praise. That " the 
school of adversity graduates the ablest pupils, and 
the hill of difficulty is one of the strongest * consti- 
tutionals * for strengthening the financial backbone of 
a struggling family," was, undoubtedly, fully corrob- 
orated in her energetic labors. She superintended 
the clearing of the land (Mr. S. being in Washington 
a great portion of the time attending to his duties in 
the Postoffice Department), and the building of their 
fine residence and barn, with the assistance of her 
daughter Annie as architect, and also the clearing of 
another farm of 100 acres, which they own; and to 
her good judgment and fine management their pros- 
perity in a great measure is indebted. Tmly we 
may say, she is one of those women who are too 
often ignored and too little appreciated by biograph- 
ical writers of the day. 

Mr. S. owns the store building in Sickels, besides 
considerable other village property. He was a soldier 
in the late civil war, enlisting in Co. E, 23d Mich. 
Vol. Inf. : was appointed First Lieutenant and had 
command of the company most of the tmie for about 
six months, when, contracting typhoid pneumonia, he 






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was compelled to resign. The Captain of the com- 
pany was O. T.. Spaulding. 

In addition to his other business, Mr. S. is at pres- 
ent devoting considerable time to the propaga- 
tion of fine stock, and is handling, with good success, 
a species of the Shorthorn breed of cattle known as 
the " Rose of Sharon." He has one two-year old 
from the herd of H. M. Vale, of Independence, 
Mo., which is considered one of the finest and most 
celebrated herds in the United States. 

Mr. Sickels and his entire family, with the excep- 
tion of his youngest son, are members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. He is a member of the 
Masonic Order and the I. O. O. F. 




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bharles H. Webster, superintendent of 
Church's mill, and residing on section 7^ 
Emerson Township, was born at Wellington, 
Lorain Co., Ohio, May 28, 1844, and is the 
son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Magraugh) 
Webster, natives of Pennsylvania and Connecticut, 
respectively, and of Dutch and Irish extraction. 
The father was by trade a tailor, and died April 2, 
1845, before Charles H. was a year old. The latter 
lived until 12 years of age with his mother and a 
step-father, whom she married in 1854. 

While but a mere boy he resix)nded to his country's 
call for volunteers, and enlisted Aug. 25, 186 1, in 
Co. H, 2d Ohio Vol. Cav. He served first under 
Gen. Blunt, then under Gen. Burnsides, and finally 
under Gen. G. A. Custer. He was engaged in all 
battles in which his company was involved, among 
them being the battles of the Wilderness, Peters- 
burg and Richmond, at the close of the war. He 
was often detailed for special and important duties, 
and was made a Corporal towards the close of the 
war. Being wounded in the knee and thereby dis- 
abled, June 28, 1864, he was captured the following 
day at Reams* Station, near Petersburg. He was 
taken to Libby prison and confined for four weeks in 
that iniquitous pen. Being then paroled, he found 
his way to his company and remained with it until 
he was honorably discharged, Sept. 18, 1865. He 
served four years and 25 days, and his arduous and 
interesting experiences would fill a volume. 



Mr. Webster has a copy of the congratulatory order 
issued by Gen. Custer to his division, on Lee's sur- 
render. 

Returning home he shortly started for Michigan, 
arriving at Ithaca Oct. 22, 1865. He purchased of 
the State 200 acres of land in Emerson Township. 
For about three years longer he was a bachelor, im- 
proving his farm summers, and in the winters acting 
as clerk, at first in the dry-goods store of Nelson & 
Church, and later in JefTery's store. Dec. 28, 1868, 
he was married to Marie E. Church, daughter of 
Lafayette and Sophronia (Benjamin) Church (see 
sketch), who was born in Hillsdale Co., Mich., Oct 
9, 185 1. She came to this county when three years 
old, and was here educated, and here lived until her 
marriage. Some months after that event Mr. and 
Mrs. Webster moved from Ithaca to section 27, Emer- 
son Township. They afterwards moved to section 
28, and in 1874 they settled on section 7. Here he 
owns 80 acres, and has the management of Church's 
mill. 

They have had five children, only two of whom, 
Addie E. and Albert H., survive. Arthur, Alta and 
a baby are dead. They are members of the Baptist 
Church. Mr. Webster has been Township Gerk 
two years; has been chosen Justice of the Peace 
twice, but did not qualify. Politically he is a stanch 
Republican. 



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eorge J. Butcher, cabinet-maker, furniture 

^^ dealer and undertaker. Elm Hall, was bom 

near Norwich, Eng., June 8, 1833, and is 



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of English descent. His father was a gardener, 
r and came to the United States when George 
f was four years old, locating first at Buffalo, N. 
Y. Eight years later they removed to Chippewa, 
Ont., where Mr. Butcher followed his trade as 
gardener. Afterwards, removing to Elgin Co., Ont., 
he secured a tract of 200 acres of wild land. 

On this farm the subject of this narrative lived and 
worked under his father's guidance, until 18 years old. 
He was then apprenticed for three years to a Mr. 
Maxwell Hamilton, of Simcoe, Ont., to learn carpen- 
try. After serving out his time, he worked for the 
same gentleman one year as a journeyman carpenter 
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the West Indies ; but, laying off for a period at 
Dubuque, Iowa, he became homesick, and returned 
to work once more for Mr. Hamilton. 

Jan. 14, 1856, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Frances E. Webb, bom in Canada, July 14, 1840. 
Working at his trade in that country for three years 
more, Mr. and Mrs. B. then came to this State and 
county, and located with her uncle, Nathaniel Strayer, 
of Seville Township. Mr. B. here built a house four 
miles away, making two trips daily. He worked 103 
days at $3 per day, and lost no time whatever. The 
following summer, with the money thus earned, he 
erected the first frame building in the township, 
which he ran as a hotel until 1 869. He then 
resumed his trade, and, after following that for three 
years, he started his present cabinet shop. He now 
has a stock worth $1,000, and his annual business 
is t3,ooo. 

July 17, 187 1, in Canada, his second marriage 
occurred, he taking this time as the partner of his 
sorrows and joys Miss Alice Hayward, a native of 
Ontario, where she was bora, July 2, 1850. 

Mrs. B. is a member of good standing in the M. E. 
Church. Mr. Butcher has held the office of Constable 
for several years. He is a member of North Star 
Lodge No. 306, 1. O. O. F., has passed all the chairs, 
and is now D. D. G. M. of the order. Politically, he 
is a Democrat. 



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f heron Finney, farmer, section 19, Emerson 
Township, was born in Essex Co., N. Y., 
March 24, 1807, and was the son of Scotch 
and Welsh parents. They were natives of 
Connecticut, and were farmers by occupation. 
Most of their lives they resided in Essex 
County, where they died many years ago. Theron 
remained on his father's farm until 19 years of age, 
when he began to battle for himself. When 28 years 
old; he came to Hillsdale Co., Mich., and was there 
married to Harriet Butler, daughter of Zebina and 
Polly (Porter) Butler, and born July 20,1817. Mr. 
and Mrs. Finney resided on a farm in Hillsdale 
County until 1859, when they came to Gratiot County 
and entered 320 acres of unimproved land on section 
19, Emerson Township. Mr. Finney has improved 



a considerable acreage, and sold all but 60 acres, 
upon which he now lives. 

They have had a family of nine children : Melvina 
R., Mary L., Josephine D., WilmerT., Dora A., Butler 
J., Frank L., Rarason P. and Arza A. The last four 
named are dead. Mr. Finney has held the offices of 
School Inspector and Township Treasurer for several 
years. In political faith, he is a Republican. 



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eorge H. Oliver, druggist and groceryman, 

-, -^ Elm Hall, was born in DeWitt, Clinton 

"Me^ Co., Mich., Jan. 3, 1845. His parents were 
^y^^ natives of New York, of English and Scotch 
descent, and his father was a carpenter. When 
he was four years old, his parents removed to 
where the village of Grand Ledge now stands, in 
Eaton County. It was then an unbroken forest, and 
his father built one of the first houses there. The 
first school-house was also raised by his father and 
a few neighbors. Here our subject lived, grew up 
and was educated. 

In February, 1865, at the age of 20, he enlisted 
in Co. C, 1 2th Mich. Vol. Inf., and was assigned to 
the Army of the West. He was in no active engage- 
ments, and was honorably discharged in July, 1865. 
His health failed him ; and on arriving home he was 
confined to his bed until September. He then went 
to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and took a course in East- 
man s Business College, graduating in March, 1866. 
Returning to Grand Ledge, he was for a time engaged 
in book-keeping. For the ensuing four years he was 
learning the painter s trade. Then assuming control of 
a good business in that line, he associated with him- 
self a Mr. Deering. This partnership lasted until the 
spring of 1 87 1, when he left Grand Ledge and came 
to Gratiot County, to join his father in the grocery 
business. His health not being the best, he has not 
resumed his trade, but has continued in the drug and 
grocery business at Elm Hall. In October, 1881, he 
became sole proprietor of the business. He has a 
stock worth about Jr,ooo, and a growing trade now 
amounting to $3,000 annually. 

March 4, 1874, in Montcalm County, he was 
married to Miss Laura A. Van Leuvan, who was bom 
in Sumner Township, July 30, 1856. She lived for 



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some time in Salem, Washtenaw County, and then 
came to Montcalm County, where she was married. 
She is the mother of two children : Inez E. and 
Floyd E. Mr. and Mrs. O. are members of the M. 
E. Church. He has held the office of Constable, and 
politically is a Republican. 



lilas Hill, farmer, section 3, Hamilton Town- 
ship, is a son of Stephen Hill (deceased), a 
native of Vermont, and who emigrated 
from that State to Otsego Co., N. Y., where the 
subject of our sketch was born, July 6, 1830. 
Three years after the birth of Silas, in 1833, 
the family removed to Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, where 
they lived for four years, until 1837, when they 
moved to Erie County, the same State. Here young 
Hill remained, attending the common schools of the 
county and developing into manhood. In 1856 he 
went to Bureau Co., 111., and after remaining there 
some six months, during which time he was variously 
employed, he came to Eaton Co., Mich., where he 
arrived in the spring of 1857. 

Mr. Hill purchased the farm on which he is now 
living in November, 1873, and located upon it in 
January following, and has constantly resided thereon. 
The farm consists of 80 acres, and is under a good 
state of cultivation. He was married March 18, 
1857, to Lucy, daughter of Edward Bracy, of Eaton 
Co., Mich., and three children have been bom to 
their union, two of whom, George F. and Edwin, are 
living, and one is deceased. 

Mr. Hill has held the offices of Highway Commis- 
sioner and Supervisor and is at present Treasurer of 
Hamilton Township. 



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dward Y. Kelley, merchant at Bridgeville, 
Washington Township, is a son of Joseph 
and Esther C. (Hockens) Kelley. The 
former was an employe of the Government, 
being engaged on Indian affairs and also fol- 
lowed farming. He died in the State of New 
York, in the spring of 1834. Mrs. Kelley died in the 
same State, in 1867. Edward was born Jan. 14, 1832, 
at Danville, Caledonia Co., Vt. On the death of his 



father, he was taken by an old acquaintance of the 
family and kept for three years. He was then kept 
by another family until he was 13, since which time 
he has made his own way in life, working at the 
blacksmith s trade and at other emplgyments. In 
the autumn of 1866 he purchased 30 acres on sec- 
tion 20, Washington Township, and engaged in farm- 
ing. He is now in mercantile life at Bridgeville ; 
has a full line of drugs, groceries had hardware, and 
a large trade. In i860 he was married to Betsy C. 
Woodcock, daughter of Asa and Mary (Ryan) Wood- 
cock, residents of New York State. She was bom in 
1828, and died in Gratiot County, in 1868, leaving 
five children, — Mary F., Edna J., Eddie J., Esther 
A. and Henry L. Mr. Kelley was subsequently mar- 
ried to Eliza Woodcock, a sister of his first vrife. 
This marriage has been blessed with two children — 
Cora B. and Floyd. Mr. Kelley is a member of the 
Masonic Order and of the I. O. O. F. Politically 
he votes with the Republican party. 



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Charles C. Qilmore, editor and proprietor 
I^SA cf ihe Corner Local. Elm Hall, was bom 
in Old Town, Maine, April 15, 1850; and is 
W the son of Solomon and Abigail E. (Stewart) 
Gil more, natives of Maine and of Scotch 
descent. Solomon Gilmore was a lumberman 
in his native State until 32 years of age, when he 
went to Pennsylvania. Here he lived until death, 
about 1862, aged ^2. His wife died in the same 
State a year previous, at the age of 5 1 . 

The subject of this biography left his native State 
when very young, and went with his parents to Penn- 
sylvania, where they lived in the lumber regions of 
the mountains. Owing to their peculiar surroundings, 
his opportunities for education were very limited, and 
he had but one year schooling. His desire for learn- 
ing was however such that he would, after working 
hard all day, spend hours by himself over his book. 
In this manner he mastered Davies* Algebra, and the 
rudiments of other branches taught in the high 
schools. At the age of 19, he set out to earn his own 
living. By accident he got to using the tools in the 
camp, and soon found that he was a natural black- 
smith. He was therefore employed by the proprietor 
to do all such work as came along in that line. He 



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was thus employed until the spring of 1874, when he 
came to Saginaw, this State. Six months later, he 
came to Gratiot County, and located at Elm Hall. 
Soon he built a stumping machine, and pulled stumps 
in the sumn^r, following his trade in the winter. 

Since coming to the county, he has been a regular 
correspondent of the Gratiot Journal^ and has thus 
secured a good idea of newspaper writing. From 
1880 to the close of 1883, his occupation has, how- 
ever, been well-driving, in prosecuting which he has 
used appliances of his own invention. Nov. 17, 
1883, he purchased and assumed control of the 
Corner Locals and his first issue appeared Nov. 24. 
He has a growing circulation, already reaching 350, 
and his paper has constantly improved. 

Dec. 3, 1878, at Elm Hall, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Lizzie Fox, bom at Leslie, Ingham 
Co., Mich., in 1855. She came to Gratiot in 1877. 
She is the mother of two children : Edna and 
Frederick. She is a member of the M. E. Church. 
Mr. jG. is a member of Elm Hall Lodge No. 257, F. 
& A. M., Elm Hall, and has for some time held the 
office of Secretary of the lodge. He has held the 
office of Justice of the Peace for three years, and in 
politics is a Republican. 



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dwin Meaoham, farmer, section 35, Elba 
Tp., is a son of Almon and Polly (Kel- 
ly) Meacham, natives of Massachusetts and 
New York, respectively. They emigrated to 
Ohio in an early day, and resided in Cuya- 
hoga County until their death, in 1852. Edwin 
was bom Nov. 30, 1845, in Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, and 
at the tender age of seven was left an orphan by the 
death of both his parents. He was cared for by his 
uncle and aunt, with whom he lived until he was 21. 
With some money which they gave to him, he came 
to Gratiot Co., Mich., and purchased 80 acres of land 
on section 35, in the township of Elba. He has now 
improved 50 acres of his farm. 

March 21, 1870, he was married to Alice A. 
Crego, the only daughter of Lorin M. and Eliza O. 
(Stone) Crego, natives of New York. This marriage 
has been blessed with two children, — Jessie A. and 
Jennie A. 

Mr. Meacham is one of the most respected citizens 



of his township, and has held various local offices. 
In 1 87 1 he was elected Township Clerk, and to that 
office he was re-elected in 1872 and 1873. He was 
elected Supervisor in 1881 and 1883, and now repre- 
sents Elba Township in the Board of Supervisors. 
He has also been School Director for the past 12 
years. He is a member of the Masonic Order, and 
of the I. O. O. F. Politically he is a strong Re- 
publican. 

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I avid Muffly, farmer, section 3, Hamilton 
Township, was born in Washington Town- 
ship, Westmoreland Co., Pa., Dec. 20, 1830. 
The family removed to Stark Co., Ohio, while 
David was quite young, and there he resided on 
the parental farm, attending the common schools 
and developing into manfiood. 

In 1850, when 20 years of age, Mr. Muffly left the 
parental home to fight life s battles alone, and went 
to Seneca Co., Ohio. He remained in that county 
five years, until 1855, when, desiring a home for him- 
self and family, having in the meantime married, he 
came to this State and settled in Hamilton Township, 
this county. His experiences were those of many 
others of Michigan's pioneer settlers. Hardship, 
deprivation and want were his to battle with, and 
successfully did he wage the war against and van- 
quish them. He built his log cabin in the woods, 
and in the erection of the same used only one single 
sawed board, and that for the door. Here he lived and 
amid the howling of wolves, the crying of panthers, 
and with ** prowling Indians for neighbors " he en- 
tered on the task of clearing his land. Although he 
had many trials and difficulties to overcome, he ex- 
perienced some of the joys and pleasures of those 
pioneer days. He was at the first township election, 
when almost every man in the township was elected 
to office. 

Mr. Muffly, like many others when the flag 
of our country was dishonored by the rebel shot at 
Fort Sumter, went forth to meet the enemy and 
battle for its maintenance. He enlisted in Co. F, 
2gth Mich. Vol. Inf. He was in the battle of De- 
catur (Ala.) and Murfreesboro ; and shortly after the 
last-named battle, while packing and preparing for a 









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forced march, he was accidentally precipitated into 
a railroad ditch, and, striking his breast upon the iron 
which happened to be piled there, so lacerated it 
and crippled him he was transferred to the hospital. 
Here his wounds were un professionally treated, and 
he finally received his discharge on account of disa- 
bility and returned to his family. 

Mr. Muffly was married Jan. ii, 1854, to Miss 
Delilah Street. Seven children have been bom to 
the union, namely : Rufus S., Martha J., James C, 
Vilda, Arminia, David S. and Francis M. The father 
and mother are both members of the Christian 
Church. 




'ames Qriffith, farmer, section 5, Emerson 
Township, was born in Chemung Co., N. Y., 
Dec. 3, 1837, aniis the son of Lewis and 
Hannah (Boyer) Griffith, natives of New York 
State. The father is now a resident of Lenawee 
Co., Mich., and the mother died in New York 
Slate in 1839, when James was only two years old. 
Two years after that event he came with his father 
to Michigan and settled in Lenawee County. Being 
among the early settlers of that part of the State, 
they had to perform the toilsome work of clearing 
and improving a new farm, and James passed many 
more days at work than at school. At 19 years of 
age, obtaining his father s permission to look out for 
himself, he commenced as a common laborer. In 
i860 he came to Gratiot County and located 120 
acres of wild land on section 5, Emerson Township. 
Aug. 17, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Co. G, 
5th Mich. Vol. Cav., and went to the Army of the 
Potomac, where he served under Gen. Phil. Sheri- 
dan. He was an eye-witness of the famous ride to 
Winchester by that commander. He fought at Cold 
Harbor, Winchester, Cedar Creek, and numerous 
lesser engagements. He was honorably discharged 
in June, 1865, having served in the field nearly three 
years. Returning home to his farm he kept bache- 
lor's hall for seven and a half years. March 6, 1873, 
he formed a life partnership with Emeline Decker, 
born in Ontario Co., N. Y., May 16, 1844. This 
union has been blessed with four children, — Sarah 
P., Lewis, Maud and James K. Mr. Griffith has im- 



proved 70 acres of his farm, and has a fine dwelling 
and barn. He is considered a skillful farmer, and 
as a citizen is very popular. He has been Assessor 
for 1 2 years, and has also been Overseer of High- 
ways. Politically he is a Republican. 






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>;^ayid Beichard, farmer, section 6, Ithaca 
Hytptl Township, was bom in Ashland Co., Ohio, 
jy^^ Nov. 28, 1847, ^'^^ ^s a son of John A, 
Reichard, deceased, a native of Pennsylvania, 
fhere our subject lived, assisted his father on 
the farm, attended the common schools and de- 
veloped into manhood. 

In 1865 Mr. R. left the parental home, to battle 
against the trials of life single-handed and alone, and 
came to this county, where he anived in the spring of 
that year, and where he has ever since resided. He 
first settled in Fulton Township, where he remained 
1 1 years, and then went to Ithaca Township, where 
he is now living, the occupier and owner of 115 
acres of fine land. 

Mr. Reichard was married March 9, 1869, to Miss 
Mary, daughter of Edward Waggoner, of Ithaca, and 
two children have been born to their union, namely : 
John E. and Orill. 

Mrs. Reichard was bom in Springfield, Jefferson 
Co., Ohio. 



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^~ ^' orman L. Higbie, M. D., physician and 
farmer, section 35, Elba Township, is a son 
^^ of Oliver H. and Esther (Randall) Higbie, 
"1^ natives of New York. They lived in that 
]L State, on a farm, till the endof their lives, which 
came for Mr. Higbie in 1848, and his wife in 
1S58. Norman L. was born in Delaware Co., N. Y., 
Feb. 16, 1832. At the age of 18 he left home, and 
for the ensuing eight years he was engaged in teach- 
ing school, with the exception of two years, during 
which he attended at Rondout Seminary, Ulster Co., 
N. Y., and two years at New York Confercnce Sem- 
inary, at Charlotteville, Schoharie Co., N. Y. During 
this time, too, he was studying the profession of 
medicine. In May, 1854, he came to Ann Arbor, 



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Mich., and afterwards he went to Iowa; then returned 
to Ann Arbor. Thence he went to Plymouth, Wayne 
County, and practiced medicine for two years. In 
the practice of his profession, he also spent one year 
at Jackson ^nd one year at Howell. He then spent 
two years in the South for his health. Returning to 
Michigan, he practiced medicine in Jackson County 
from 1861 to 1874. His health then failed him, and 
he was compelled to retire from active practice. Jan. 
12, 1875, he arrived in Gratiot County, and located 
on the southeast quarter of section 35, Elba Township. 
He has since added 40 acres to his farm. 

In 1856, he was united in marriage to Jane Hor- 
ton, who was born in Rensselaer Co., N. Y., May 31, 
1832. She was the daughter of Joseph and Elmira 
(Marks) Horton. Mr. Horton was born in New Leb- 
anon, Columbia Co., N. Y., April 7, 1807 ; and Mrs. 
Horton was born July 13, 1808. Dr. and Mrs. Hig- 
bie are the parents of six children, — George L., 
Joseph E., Alice J., William H., Myra A. and Alfred. 

They are active members of the M. E. Church. 
Dr. Higbie was chosen Superintendent of Schools 
in his township in ^875, and again in 1877, and he 
is now the health officer of his township. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican. 



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I illiam Martin, farmer, section 1 3, Wash- 
ington Township, is a son of Henry and 

Sarah (Bugg) Martin,* who Were of English 

descent, and who came to America in 1835. 

They landed at New York July 3, and came 
\J direct to Washtenaw Co., Mich. They located 
on 80 acres in Dexter Township, where Mr. Martin 
died Nov. 26, 1844; and Mrs. Martin in December, 
1859. At the age of 2 1, William Martin commenced 
to make his own way in life, and engaged in farming. 
The same year, he was married to Fanny, daughter 
of Michael and Fanny McCabe, natives of Ireland. 
They came to America at an early day, and are now 
both dead. 

Mr. Martin came to Gratiot County in 1856, and 
settled on 32 acres on section 13, Washington Town- 
ship. He married for his second wife Harriet Miles. 
Dy his first marriage he has four children, and by his 
second, 11. In his township Mr. Martin has been 



217 -N^ 



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Constable five terms. Justice of the Peace two terms, 
and School Assessor three terms. Politically, he has 
always been a supporter of the Democratic party. 



illiam D. Letts, farmer, section 35, Elba 
Township, is a son of Edward and Mary 
(Galligan) Letts, natives of >Iew York 
and Michigan. They were married in Clin- 
ton County in 1 85 1. In 1856 they located 
on 80 acres on section 35, Elba Township, then 
in its primitive wildness. They now have 70 acres 
well improved. During their first years here, almost 
their only companions were the wolf, the wild-cat, 
and other denizens of the forest. They often built 
fires to keep the bears away from their calves and 
pigs, and occasionally they would take the dinner 
horn and call the wolves to their door. Mrs. Letts 
was the first white persoif to go from her neighbor- 
hood to Chesaning. making the trip of 18 miles 
through the wilderness alone. 

The subject of this sketch was married at the age 
of 24, to Vora Dunlap, the eldest daughter of Andrew 
and Mary (Coryell) Dunlap, and who was born 
April 4, 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Letts are the parents 
of two children, — Leroy D., born Nov. 16, 1880, and 
Floyd L., born Aug. 2, 1883. Mr. Letts is politically 
a Republican. He has held the office of School In- 
spector for a number of terms, and is one of the en- 
ergetic young men of the county. 



Tob C. Wolford, farmer on section 33, 
Sumner Township, is a son of David and 
Laverna (Conger) Wolford, natives of New 
York. The father was a mason and shoe- 
maker while in New York State. Aftet moving 
to Michigan in April, 1858, he engaged in 
farming, which he followed until his death in 1867. 
His wife is still living in this county. 

Job C, the subject of this biography, was born in 
Cayuga Co , N. Y., Sept. 19, 1843. When he was 12 
years old, the family movgd to Indiana, and two 
years later returned to Cayuga County. After an- 
other year, they came to this county and settled in 
New Haven Township. Here Job worked for his 




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father until the spring of 1864. March 24 of that 
year, he enlisted in Co. K, 21st Mich. Vol. Inf. He 
served as a private in the Army of the Cumberland 
under Gen. Sherman, for 14 months, and fought at 
Chattanooga, Bentonville and Goldsborough. At the 
last named place, March 29, 1865, he was wounded, 
while on a charge, by a ball which penetrated his 
right thigh. By this he was not permanently injured. 
He was honorably discharged May 23, 1865. 

Returning home, he purchased 80 acres on section 
33, Sumner Township, heavily timbered, and set 
about making himself a home. March 25, 1866, in 
North Shade Township, he was married to Miss 
Emily A. Dean, daughter of Amos and Betsy (Grant) 
Dean. She was born Aug. i, 1843, in Yates Co., 
N. Y. Her father was a farmer and died June 26, 
1858. Her mother resides with her daughter, enjoy- 
ing good health and being quite active, although 76 
years old. Mr. and Mrs. Wolford have a family of 
three: Judson E , born Oct. 28, 1867; Jessie E., 
April 3, 1874; Cora V., Nov. 26, 1877. 

Mr. W. has nicely improved 60 acres of his 
original 80, and has added 40 acres, also improved. 
He is a member of Elm Hall Lodge No. 257, F. & 
A. M. He has held the office of School Director, 
and in political sentiment is a Republican. 



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: rin J Sprague, merchant at Martins Cor- 
ners, Washington Township, is a son of 
Beriah and Maria (Sweet) Sprague. Beriah 
Sprague was born in St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., 
in 1815, and died in this county, Dec. 9, 1883. 
Maria (Sweet) Sprague was born in Jefferson 
Co., N. Y., in 181 9, and is still living, in Gratiot 
County. 

The subject of this sketch was born in St. Law- 
rence Co.. N. Y., July 12, 1 841, and remained with 
his parents until 2 1 years old' He then taught, and 
worked on a farm for a time. He taught altogether 
10 terms of school, six of which were in Gratiot 
County. Nov. 27, 1867, he was married to Emeline 
L Noble, daughter of James and Isabella (Laid- 
low) Noble, of Scotch descent. They came to Amer- 
ica and located in St. Lawrence Co , N. Y., where 
they followed farming, and \vhere their daughter 
Emeline was born Au^^ 5, 1845- In i8^>9» ^^r. 



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Sprague came to Gratiot County and purchased 40 ^ 
acres on section 16, Washington Township. This ' 
farm he afterwards sold, and for one year he was out , 
of employment. In 188 1, he started the store he 
now has, at Martin's Corners. He has been School , 
Superintendent for five years, and in 1882-3 was 
Supervisor of his township. Politically, he is a zeal- 
ous Republican. 

rederick L. C088, merchant at North Star, 
o and resident on section 15, North Star 
" '^ Township, was bom in Delaware Co., N. 
Y., Aug. 27, 1842. He is a son of Peter Coss^ 
of North Star Township, who came here with 
f -H in 1867. 
Mr. Coss came to this county the same year as his 
father, but located at Pompei, where he was engaged 
in the mercantile business until 1869, when he moved 
to Ithaca, where he lived 1 1 years ; thence to North 
Star, and established himself in the same business. 
He carries on a general mercantile business, has a 
stock sufficient to meet the requirements of the 
neighborhood and is having a good trade. 

Mr. Coss enlisted in the late civil war, enrolling in 
Co. A, 56th Pa. Vol. Inf, and participated in the bat- 
tles of second Bull Run, South Mountain, Anrietam, 
Fredericksburg (both battles), Chancellorsville, Get- 
tysburg and others. 

Mr. Coss has been united in marriage twice. He 
was first married Feb. 14, 1867, to Mrs. Louisa 
Swift, of North Star Township, who had by her first 
husband two children, Emma J. and Adelaide (Sav- 
age), deceased. He was again married July 4, 1883, 
to Alice J. Craun, of North Star. Politically, Mr. 
Coss is a staunch Republican. 



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^aniel Qower, farmer, section 30, Elba 
Township, is a son of John and Polly 
(Bowker) Grower, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and New York. They are residents of 
Tompkins Co., N. Y., where Mr. Gower is a 
t inner. Daniel was bom Sept. i, 1843, in 
Tompkins County. Leaving home in the second 
year of the war, he enlisted Sept. i, 1862, in Co, K, 



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Third New York Artillery, and was first sent to New- 
bern, N. C. He then served in South Carolina for 
three months, and then returned to Newbem. In 
March, 1864, he came home on a furlough, after 
which he reported again at Newbem. He was in the 
battle at Ross* Mill, N. C, Nov. 2, 1862; Kingston, 
Dec. 14, 1862; White Hall, Dec. 16, 1862. In the 
latter engagement he was wounded in the chest by a 
shell. He was mustered out at Richmond, June i, 
1865, and finally discharged at Syracuse, N. Y. 
After leaving the service he worked on a farm by the 
month, and also by the year. 

In 1868, he was united in marriage to Mary A., 
daughter of John and Elizabeth ( Chester ) Allen, 
natives of Steuben County, and Cayuga Co., N. Y., 
respectively. Mr. Allen is a farmer and resides in 
Illinois. Mrs. Allen lives in New York State. Mr. 
and Mrs. Gower came to Ingham County, this State, 
immediately after marriage, and a year later they 
moved to this county, locating on section 30, Elba 
Township. After seven months they went into the 
pine woods of Hamilton, where they lived three 
years. They then lived four years in New York 
State and one year in Cook Co., 111., when they re- 
turned to their farm in this county. They have a 
family of three children : Edward W., Henry A. and 
Bertha I. Mr. Gower has held the office of Drain 
Commissioner, Assessor and Director. Politically he 
is bound to no party, but votes for the best man. 



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^lisha C. Cook, farmer, section 31, North 
Star Township, was born in Steuben Co., 
N. Y., March 3, 18 18. His parents were Na- 
than and Chloe (Cobb) Cook, natives also of that 
State. The latter dying in 1824, the bereft hus- 
j band came to Michigan, settling in Livingston 
County, and afterward in Gratiot County, where he 
made his home with his son Elisha until his death, in 
the former county, while on a visit there, at the age of 
88 years. While residing in this county he hewed the 
timber for the Presbyterian church which now stands 
on section 31. 

In his early life Mr. Cook, the subject ot this 
sketch, attended school, one year of the time the 






221 



Groton Academy, in Tompkins Co., N. Y. He ac- 
quired the trade of carpentry, mostly by working 
with his father, who was a millwright. Mr. C. fol- 
lowed his trade for 20 years. At the age of about 
23 he left home and pursued his vocation a number 
of years in Clinton Co., Mich. In 1852 he went 
overland to California, where he remained three 
years, with great benefit to his health, though not 
meeting with the pecuniary success which he had 
expected. Returning to Clinton Co., Mich., he 
followed his occupation several years, teaching 
school during the winter seasons. 

In the spring of 1858, he came with his family — 
which, then comprised a wife and one child — to 
Gratiot County, and purchased 100 acres of wild 
land, on section 31, North Star Township, where he 
now resides. He has since added 80 acres to his 
estate, and now has 1 00 acres in a good state of cul- 
tivation. On his arrival here he built a rough board 
house, which the family occupied until January, 187 1, 
when they moved into their present fine residence. 
Mr. C. has also a fine equipment of barns, etc., upon 
his farm, and his present circumstances give evidence 
of industry, economy and prosperity. 

Mr. Cook was married July 19, 1855, in Clinton 
Co., Mich., to Miss Margaret, second daughter ol 
Peter and Elizabeth (Berdan) Lott, natives of New 
York State who settled in Wayne County, this State, 
in an early day, and three years afterward moved to 
Clinton County, where they resided the remainder of 
their life. Mr. and Mrs. Cook have had five chileren, 
three of whom survive, as follows: Fremont H., 
born April 19, 1856; Harriet L., Feb. 4, 1867; and 
Carrie V., July 22, 1870. Milan, born Aug. 4, 1862, 
died Feb. 24, 1863; and Ida E., bom Jan. 8, i860, 
died March 13, 1883. 

Politically, Mr. C. is a Republican ; and he has 
held the offices of Sheriff, 1868-72, Supervisor ot 
North Star Township, one year, and Township Clerk, 
and takes considerable interest in school affairs. 
He is a member of the M. E. Church and of the 
Masonic Order. 

We take pleasure in giving Mr. Cook s portrait on 
a preceding page, as he is not only a representative 
man and worthy citizen of the county of Gratiot, but 
also one who has proved faithful in all the public 
official relations in which his fellow citizens have 
seen fit to place him. 



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lamuel M. Soott, merchant, resident on sec- 
tion 22, North Star Township, was bom in 
Essex Township, Clinton Co., Mich., Feb. 
13, 1849; his father, named also Samuel M., 
was a native of the State of New York, and is 
now deceased. The subject of this sketch was 
brought up on a farm and educated at the common 
school and at Eastman's Commercial College at 
Poughkeepsie, New York. He afterward clerked for 
about 12 years in Nelson & Barbers store at Ithaca, 
and came to his present location in June, 1883, and 
established a store, where he keeps a full line of 
general merchandise, and has a successful trade. 
He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and was for two 
terms Clerk of Newark Township. 

Mr. Scott was married Nov. 10, 1878, to Miss 
Celia J., daughter of A. W. Belding, of this township. 
Their three children are, Lelo A., Grace R. and 
Ola A. 



[ ewel Smith, grocer, Wheeler village, Wheeler 

Township, was born May i, 1852, and is 

J^g* ^ the son of John H. and Jane (Castimore) 
"^ "V Smith, natives of New Jersey. The father 

1(5 was by profession a millwright, and removed to 
Trumbull Co., Ohio, in 1845. He came to Gratiot 
County in February, 1 863, and located on section 34, 
Wheeler Township. He entered 160 acres of land, 
of- which he had improved 50 at the time of his 
death, March 6, 1872. Mrs. Smith died Feb. 14, 
1882. 

Newel was married at the age of 18 to Sarah, the 
daughter of Richard and Sarah A. Ellsworth, natives 
of New York. She died March 16, 1880, leaving 
two children, — Nina J. and Amy E. Oct. 12, 1881, 
he was again married, to Jane, the third daughter of 
Thomas and Ellen (Thurlow) Wordel, natives of 
England, but now resident of Canada. By this sec- 
ond marriage Mr. Smith has one child, — Nellie M. 

Mr. Smith drove the first ox team to Saginaw from 
this part of the country. He has been very popular 
among his fellow citizens, has held several local of- 
fices, and has never been defeated for any office for 







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which he has been nominated. In the spring of 
1875, he was elected Justice of the Peace, which of- 
fice he held two terms. He was chosen Supervisor 
in 1876, to which office he was also re-elected sev- 
eral times, and he has been Supervisor altogether six 
years. In politics he is a Democrat. He is a mem- 
ber of St. Louis Lodge, No. 188, F. &. A. M. 



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ohu W. Smith, farmer, section 28, Elba 
Township, is the second son of Dewey and 
Phebe (Davis) Smith, natives of Vermont 
and Ohio, respectively. He was bom March 
5, 1846, in Wells Co., Ind., and at the age of 
22 he left his father's farm to make his own 
way in life. ~ For about 10 years he worked at lum- 
bering. He was married in 1873 to Belle, daughter 
of John W. and Christina (Covert) Sutphin. She 
was born Dec. 27, 1856, in Livingston Co., Mich., 
and came to Elba Township in 1874. They are the 
parents of one son, — Dewey D. Smith, bom Feb. 20, 
1878. 

Mr. Smiths father purchased 160 acres in Elba 
Township, in 1858, of which he, John W., now owns 
80 acres. In 1879, he erected his large and well ar- 
ranged barn. He is now actively engaged in farming 
and stock-raising. He was elected Township Clerk 
in 1877, and held that position for four years in suc- 
cession. In 1880, he was chosen Township Treas- 
urer, which office he filled two terms. He is a mem- 
ber of Maple River Lodge, No. 76, I. O. O. F. Po- 
litically, he votes the Republican ticket. 



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uther J. I>eaD, farmer, section 15, North 
Star Township, is a native of the Empire 
State, where he was bom Dec. 11, 1831. 
His father, Sether, was a native of Pennsylvania, 
and removed with his family from Allegany 
Co., N. Y., to Hillsdale Co., Mich., in the fall 
of 1842. 

Mr. Dean came to Gratiot County in 1855, en- 
tered 1 60 acres of land, and assisted his brothers to 
clear a piece of land and build a house for their 
fathers family. He taught school the first winter, 
returned to Hillsdale County in the spring of 1856, 



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and May 13 following married Miss Lucy, daughter 
of John McBride, now deceased. " He came with his 
bride into this wilderness and commenced housekeep- 
ing amid the privations and untoward obstacles of 
pioneer life. He finished his house and continued 
hard work until he made for himself and family a 
comfortable home. He owns at present 82 acres of 
good land, and is engaged in general farming. 
Within one year after he was married he lost his 
house and all the contents by fire. This was a 
severe blow, but he was not the man to give up the 
ship of life on that account. 

By his first wife Mr. Dean had three children, name- 
ly : Herbert E., deceased ; Effie M., now the wife of 
Frank P. Walker, of Ithaca ; and Arthur J. For his 
present wife Mr. Dean married Mrs. Elizabeth Row- 
ley, Oct. 16, 1882, who had had by her former hus- 
band two children, namely : Erastus A. and Ida M. 

Mr. Dean, in religious views, is a Baptist; he has 
been School Inspector several years, and at present 
is Township Clerk. 





saac Wooley, farmer, section 34, Elba Town- 
ship, is a son of James and Margaret (Chan- 
dler) Wooley, natives of New Jersey. James 
Wooley was by occupation a shoemaker. He 
came to Gratiot County in 1855, and entered 
320 acres of Government land on section 34, 
Elba Township He subsequently gave each of his 
sons 80 acres, and he is yet alive, at the advanced 
age of 93. Isaac Wooley was bom Feb. 17, 1829, in 
the State of New York. At the age of 20 he left 
home to work for himself, and, going to New York 
State, he was engaged in farming for six years. 

Sept. 4, 1855, he was united in marriage to Martha 
Whitney, daughter of William E. and Mary (Scott) 
Whitney, natives of New York. Mr. Whitney was 
bom in Ontario County, and was a minister of the 
gospel. Mrs. Whitney was born in Niagara County. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wooley remained in Ingham County, 
where they were married, until 1859, and then re- 
moved to Gratiot County. They settled first on 100 
acres, but, afterwards selling 20 aijd buying 15, they 
now have 95 acres, of which 57 are well improved. 

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They are the parents of one daughter, bom Dec. 18, 
1856. 

Mr. Woqley has been Highway Commissioner in 
his township for three years. He is a member of 
Maple River Lodge No. 76, I. O. O. F.; and politi- 
cally he votes with the Republican party. Mrs. 
Wooley is an active member of the Free-Will Bap- 
tist Church. 



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eneca Sly, Postmaster, and member of the 
mercantile firm of Glass & Sly, Elm Hall, 
is a son of George J. and Samantha (Riggs) 
Sly, natives respectively of New York and 
Connecticut. George J. Sly came to Michigan 
in 1839, and died at Elm Hall, this county, at 
the advanced age of 72. Mrs. Sly is yet living, at 
Elm Hall. 

The subject of this biography, Seneca, was bom at 
White Oak, Ingham County, this State, Jan. 20, 1842. 
He worked on the farm, and received a good common- 
school education, under the care ol his parents, until 
20 years old. Oct. 18, 1862, he enlisted in Co. B, 
26th Mich. Vol. Inf., under the command of Col. 
Nathan Church, and was sent to the Army of the 
Potomac. His corps was occupied in the defense of 
Suffolk, Yorktown and Washington, at which latter 
place he was discharged for disability caused by 
disease of the lungs. He was confined to his bed a 
year. Hearing reports of the healthfulness of Gratiot 
County, he came here in the hope of improving his 
physical condition, and engaged as cook in the woods 
for Fowler & Cleverdon. He was to work "for his 
board, if he earned it, and more, if he earned it." 
This work proving beneficial to his health, he began 
as teamster for the same company. Retuminghome 
for a while, he came again to Sumner Township, this 
county, and carried on farming. 

In 1877, he engaged as clerk in the store of Blair 
& Houck, of Elm Hall, which position he held four 
years. During this time he was elected Township 
Clerk, which oflice he filled with credit four years. 
For a year more he was in the store of Mr. Beeson. 
In 1882, he established a grocery of his own, being 
about the same time Justice of the Peace. He has 
recently taken a partner, and the firm is now Glass & 



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Sly. He was appointed Postmaster in July, 1882. 
He IS also a Notary Public, having been appointed 
soon after he came to Elm Hall. 

Feb. 22, 1866, at Elm Hall, he was married to Miss 
Mary I. Boyd, daughter of John and Elizabeth Boyd, 
natives of Pennsylvania, where also the daughter was 
born, in February, 1846. She afterwards came to 
Ohio, and then to this State, where she was married. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sly have a family of five: Ettie A., 
Hattie B., Libbie, Fred A. and an infant. Mr. S. has 
been an active Republican since the organization of 
the party. He is J. V. C. in the G. A. R. post at 
Elm Hall, and he and wife are attached to the faith 
of the United Brethren Church. 




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ohn MuU, farmer on section 5, Emerson 
Township, was born in Yates Co., N. Y., 
May 26, 1 810, and is a son of Christopher 
and Catharine (Bussard) Mull, of German de- 
scent and natives of Pennsylvania. They 
followed farming, and died in Livingston Co., 
N. Y., in 1864, the father aged 90, and the mother 
aged 88. John came, when very young, with his 
parents, to Canandaigua, Ontario Co., N. Y., and three 
years later they removed to Mt. Morris, Livingston 
Co., N. Y. In 1826 he went to Nunda, Allegany 
County, where, Sept. 18, 1832, he was married to 
Eliza, daughter of Joel and Patty (Tuttle) Knapp, 
natives of Connecticut, and of New England parent- 
age. The former was a tailor by trade. They died 
in Livingston Co., N. Y., the one Aug. 12, 1855, aged 
73, and the other April 11, 1864, aged 88. Eliza 
was born in Rockland Co., N. Y., on the banks of 
the Hudson, Jan. 29, 1807. When seven years old 
she went with her parents to Phelps, Ontario Co., 
N. Y., and later to Ossian, Livingston County, where 
she was educated and married. 

Shortly after that event they went to Trumbull Co., 
Ohio, where he engaged in turning wood plates, at 
that time very fashionable in that country. Two 
years later, in the fall of 1833, he returned to New 
York and farmed for nine years. Going once more 
to Ohio, he resumed his former employment of mak- 
ing wooden dishes. In the fall of 1846 they came 
to Lenawee Co., Mich., and farmed for five years. 
Their next move was to Mason, Ingham County, and 



in March, 1861, they came to Gratiot County and 
settled on 40 acres on section 5, Emerson Township. 
Mr. Mull has since added 40 acres, and has made 
excellent improvements. 

March 25, 1864, he enlisted in Co. C, 2d Mich. 
Vol. Inf., and was sent to the Army of the Potomac. 
He participated in ^^t. active engagements, among 
them Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. While supporting 
the battery he was compelled to sit within a few feet 
of the cannon s mouth, which caused the loss of 
hearing in the right ear, and seeing in the right eye. 
He was also in the battle of ^cllowhouse Station, 
Aug. 19, 1864, and in the battles in front of Peters- 
burg, where he was captured March 25, 1865, just 
one year from his enlistment Five days later he 
was paroled, and he received an honorable discharge 
June 12, 1865. Returning home, he has since de- 
voted his time to his farm and family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mull have had eight children, of 
whom fist^ are living, — Ann A., born Aug. 11, 1837 ; 
Harriet N., Jan. 21, 1842; Mariah E., March 17, 
1844; Jennie M., Jan. 3, 1847; John S., Oct. 13, 
1849. The three not living are as follows: Joel F., 
born Nov. 25, 1833, and died July 10,1858; William 
H., bom April 23, 1840, and died in the service of 
the United States, at Farmington, Miss., Aug. 14, 
1862; and Edwin E., born July 14, 1837, and died 
Aug. 8, 1883. Mr. Mull has held the office of 
Justice of the Peace for a number of years, and 
Highway Commissioner for six years. In politics he 
is an adherent of the Republican party. 



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eorge Smith, manufacturer of brick and 
tile, section 22, North Star Township, was 
born in Onondaga Co., N. Y., Feb. 22 
1 837 ; his father, James Smith, was a native 
of Cayuga Co., N. Y., and is now a resident 
tf Kalkaska, Mich. He moved with his fam- 
ily to Hillsdale Co., Mich., when his son George was 
only six years of age, settling upon a farm, where the 
latter was reared and educated. 

The subject of this sketch came to Gratiot County 
in September, 1869, and, until about five years ago, 
followed farming. He is now driving a prosperous 
business in the manufacture of brick and tile, in 
connection with farming. His land property com- 
prises 1 16 acres. 



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Mr. Smith was married Aug. 18, i860, to Miss At- 
lanta L., daughter of Erastus Shaw (deceased), who 
was a native of Rutland Co., Vt. She was born in 
Tompkins Co, N. Y., in 1840, and came to Michi- 
gan, with her husband, in April, 1861. Their chil- 
dren are: Rosa B., deceased, Emma A., Eugene J., 
Flora v., Addie L., Frank J. and Grant O. Emma 
A. is the wife of Foshen Hoffman. 

Mr. Smith has been Township Clerk, Justice of 
the Peace a few years, is a member of the Order of 
Patrons of Husbandry, and, with his wife, is in re- 
ligious belief a sympathizer with the Baptist Church. 



iharlOB B. Slaughter, manufacturer and re- 
pairer of wagons, Breckenridge village* 
Wheeler Township, was born in the State of 
New York, April 13, 1829, and is the son of 
James and Mary (Voak) Slaughter, natives of 
New York. The father was a farmer, and 
also practiced medicine. He moved to Seneca Co., 
Ohio, in 1841, and died therein 1844. Mrs. Slaugh- 
ter died in 1 87 1. 

The son was 15 years old when he left home as an 
apprentice to the carpenter's trade, which he has 
always followed for a liveUhood. At the age of 22, 
he was united in marriage to Ebaline, third daughter 
of Michael and Hepsoby (Famulinger) Long, natives 
of Ohio, in which State they followed farming until 
their death. Mrs. Slaughter died Dec. 27, 1856. 
He afterwards married Maria A., daughter of Silas 
T. and Harriet H. Jewell, natives of Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire. Both are now deceased, Mrs. 
Jewell dying March 14, 1852, and Mr. Jewell April 
6, 1869, in Ohio. 

Mr. Slaughter came to Gratiot County with his wife 
in 1 86 1, and settled on section 22, Wheeler Town- 
ship. He first entered 320 acres, but has now 160 
acres. He was the eighth white man in Wheeler 
Township. His first home was a 10 x 10 shanty, 
when wild animals were abundant. He often went 
to Saginaw and fetched on his back provisions for his 
family. They were obliged to go four miles to church. 
In spite of such trials they enjoyed to a high degree 
the peculiar pleasures of pioneer life. 

Mr. Slaughter has one child by his first marriage, 
and four by his second: Del L., Ida H., Sarah L., 



Charlie B. and Nellie M. He is a member of North- 
ern Light Lodge, No. 40, F. & A. M., at South To- 
ledo, Ohio. In politics he affiliates with the Repub- 
lican party. Mrs. Slaughter is an active member of 
the M. E. Church. 



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^%:f Mj^orydon Cronkhite, retired farmer, section 






nJ, 



1 2, Emerson Township, was born in Hoosac, 
Y., Oct. 17, 1803, and with his parents 
went to Otsego County two years later. When 
about 14 years old, the family moved to the 
" Holland purchase " in Western New York, 
and he lived there until 1856, when he came to Ionia, 
Mich. From 1868 till 1881 he lived in Saranac; 
and then he came to this county to live with his 
nephew, Albro Curtiss. 

March 12, 1825, at Middlebury, N. Y., he was 
married to Melinda Fisk. She was a native of War- 
saw, N. Y., in which State she was educated. Mr. 
Cronkhite was the oldest of 12 children, and had 
himself four children, two of whom are living: 
Jerome, married and living in Illinois; George, a res- 
ident of Pullman, III., and an overseer in the car-shops 
of that place. 

He is a member of the Baptist Church at Saranac, 
Ionia County. Politically, he was always a Whig, 
during the life-time of the Whig party *; and now he 
is a firm Republican. 



ilUam H. Morrison, farmer, section 31, 
Elba Township, is a son of William F. 
and Rebecca (Smith) Morrison, natives of 
Cayuga Co., N. Y. Mr. Morrison was by 
occupation a cabinet-maker, and resided in 
the Slate of New York until his death, in 1840. 
Mrs. Morrison removed to Michigan, and died in 
Eaton County in 1876. The son, William H., was 
born Jan. 14, 1 831, in Orleans Co., N. Y. His father 
dying when he was nine years of age, he went to 
live with his uncle, remaining Xivt, years. For the 
next few years he attended school and worked for his 
board in the winters and labored on the Erie Canal 
in the summers. He then went to Tompkins Co., 
N. Y., and learned the blacksmith trade. In 1869, 




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he came to Gratiot County, and located on the east 
half of the southeast quarter of section 31, Elba 
Township. This was at that time all wild land, but 
he has now 65 acres well improved. 

At the age of 23 he married Mary E. Luttenton, 
daughter of Almon and Livonia (Blanchard) Lutten- 
ton, natives of Orleans Co., N. Y. They came to 
Wayne Co., Mich., in 1839, and located on a farm, 
where Mr. Luttenton died April 10, 1844. Mrs. Lut- 
tenton died in the Slate of New York, Sept. 12, 1869. 
Mary E. was their third daughter, and was bom 
March 9, 1834. Mr. and Mrs. Morrison have had 
nine children, as follows : William J., Dwight S., 
Der J., Rebecca M., Almon L. (drowned in a barrel 
July 6, 1869), John W., Alma L., David F. and 
Mary E. 

Aug. 19, 1861, Mr. Morrison enlisted in Co. F, 
Third New York Cavalry. With ^his regiment he 
participated in the engagements of ^^al^s Bluff and 
Edwards' Ferry, and was with Banks' expedition into 
the Shenandoah Valley. At Elizabeth City, N. C, 
he was wounded by a musket ball, which he still car- 
ries in his body. He also fought at Roanoke Island, 
and other places, and was finally discharged Aug. 
28, 1865. 

In 1869, he was elected Supervisor of Elba Town- 
ship ; and he has been School Director for a number 
of terms. He is a member of Genesee Lodge, No. 
24, I. O. O. F., and affiliates with the Republican 
party. 



iheldon Wight, of the firm of S. & M. 
Wight, of Sickels, and whose biography we 
are pleased to give as a representative 
man of Hamilton Township, was born in 
Lorain Co., Ohio, April 22, 1847, and is a son 
of Leonard Wight, of Van Buren Co., Mich., a 
native of Rochester, New York. 

Mr. Wight's education was acquired in the common 
schools of his native county, which he attended, and 
lived at home, developing into manhood. At the 
age of 20 years, in the fall of 1867, he left the 
parental hearthstone and went forth to battle against 
the trials and troubles of life alone, or rather in 
company with the life companion he had chosen a 
year previous, and came to this county. He settled 




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<" on the west half of the southwest quarter of section 



16 



4, Hamilton Township, where he has resided 
years, and is at present living. ( 

Mr. W. established his present business in the fall * 
of 1 88 1, and in 1883 admitted his brother as a full 
partner. The business, a planing mill and repair V. 
shop, is a prosperous one; it is run by steam power; 
they have a large single surfacer and matcher, and a 
small surfacer for moulding and siding; and they prin- 
cipally manufacture sleighs, and do a general repair 
business. 

Mr. Wight was united in marriage to Miss Mary, \ 
daughter of Abraham Weaver, deceased. Five | 
children have been bom to Mr. and Mrs. W., namely : ^ 
Charley, Alma, Florence, Freddie and Bertie. 

In addition to his business, Mr. W. devotes con- 
siderable of his time to the cultivation of his farm, 
consisting of 80 acres, less six acres incorporated in 
the village of Sickels, and also to an apiary, and 
prides himself on his success in the last named '" 
business. ^ 

Mr. Wight was a soldier in the late civil war, ^ 
enlisting in Co. F, 6th Mich. Cav., was in Kilpatricks ^ 
raid toward Richmond, battles of the Wilderness, ^ 
Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill, Five Forks, and others, J 
and likewise in all the charges immediately preced- ,^ 
ing Lee's surrender. After the grand review at *; 
Washington, D. C, his regiment was ordered to 
Powder River, Montana, and built Fort Reno. 

While at Fort Reno, he was sent as a herder up a 
ravine about a mile from the fort, mounted on a 
mule. Seeing a wolf prowling around the herd, he 
tried his revolver on the animal, but only succeeded 
in breaking a hind leg. Following the wolf, he > 
emptied his revolver in the chase, and was led about ( 
a half a mile over a hill into another ravine. His ^ 
attention was then suddenly drawn to three mounted 
redskins, who were undoubtedly hostile in their 
intentions. Being unarmed, and perceiving that 
the ravine he was in led to the fort, he took the 
shortest cut home. He asserts that if he had not had 
a good mule on that occasion, he would not now he 
conducting a wagon shop at Sickels. 

Later in the fall the regiment was ordered to Salt 
Lake, Utah, but Mr. W. and a few others were sent 
to Fort Bridger, where he wintered. He was one of 
the 53 who marched back "as a command" and 
were discharged at Detroit, Mich., July 5, 1866. 
Mr. W. recollects many reminiscences of the '* soldier 



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viz life;" and records " that while on Tongue River, in 
' ' Montana, they were * corralled * by the Indians. 
;*\ Henry Evans, one of their number, volunteered to 
I attempt the hazardous undertaking of stealing his 
A way through the line of the enemy to the command, 
' "^ for the purpose of procuring aid. He and Sergeant 
Hall stole forth in the night time, successfully eluded 
the watchfulness of the redskins, and by traveling in 
the night, and concealing themselves in the day-time, 
they reached the command on the third day. Re- 
inforcement soon reached them, and after being cor- 
ralled for 12 days, they were rescued from their 
perilous condition." 

He also relates that while at Detroit, waiting for 
his discharge, and stopping at the Wesson Hotel, at 
about two o'clock in the morning of the 4th of July, 
1866, he found himself on the floor of his room, 
shouting **fire!" He and Henry Evans attempted to 
escape down the stairs ; but these were on fire, and 
they were forced to jump from the first-story window. 
This was a narrow escape, and a poor way to celebrate 
the national holiday. 

Mr. Wight is a member of the I. O. O. F., and also 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Mason Wight, brother and business partner of our 
s;y subject, was born in Lorain Co., Ohio, March 2, 1850. 
He followed the occupation of a farmer until 1 883, 
when he came to this county and engaged with his 
brother in the business they are now jointly con- 
ducting. 

He was married, Dec. 16, 1874, to Miss Edith 

I Wright, and five children have been born to the 
union, four of whom are now living, namely : Lydia 
U A., Laura L., Irvin and Nettie. 
V He also is a member of the L O. O. F. 



^enry W. Myers, farmer, section 19, Wash- 
ington Township, is a son of Jacob and 
Magdalena (Walburn) Myers» natives of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. Mr. Myers yet 
lives, in De Kalb Co., Ind. Mrs. Myers died in 
I Seneca Co., Ohio, in 1850. Henry was born 
Oct. 3, 1844, in Seneca Co., Ohio, and left home at 
the age of 18. He was variously employed until 
Nov. 5, 1865, when he married Mrs. Lovina E. Mc- 
Entaffer, the widow of Timothy McEntaffer, and the 



GI^A TIO T CO UNTY, 






227 



^ 




daughter of Jacob and Catharine (Kountz) Echelbar- 
ger, natives of Pennsylvania, where they followed 
farming. They afterwards removed to Ohio, locating 
in Columbiana County. Their next move was to De 
Kalb Co., Ind., where they died, both in April, 1878. 
Mr. and Mrs. Myers came to this State and county, 
and located on 5 1 acres on section 1 9, Washington 
Township. He has a fine residence, and a substan- 
tial barn. Politically, he has always supix)rted the 
Democratic party. Mrs. Myers has by her first mar- 
riage ^st children, — Isabel, Lorinda, Byron B., Oli 
ver and Olive (twins). 







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indrew J. Hatfield, farmer, section 15, Em- 
erson Township, was born in Medina Co., 
Ohio, July 1 1, 1839, and was the son of Jacob 
and Roxie (Houghton) Hatfield, natives of 
Pennsylvania and Cortland Co., N. Y. The 
former went to Ohio when seven years old, 
and lived on a farm in Medina County until 1862, 
when he moved to Michigan, and came to Gratiot 
County. He settled first in Newark Township, and 
then in Bethany Township, where he died Sept. 28, 
1870. Mrs. Hatfield was of Puritan ancestry, and 
when (piite young was taken to Medina Co., Ohio, 
where she was married at the age of 16. She died 
March 22, 1841, at the age of 20 years, 10 months 
and 29 days, leaving two children, — Andrew J. (our 
subject), and L. Catharine (Shelly), who died in 
Charlotte, this State, in November, 1881. 

Andrew worked on his father s farm and obtained 
an academic education at Seville, Ohio. When 22 
years old, he engaged for a short time in teaching. 
Nov. 25, i860, in his native county, he was married 
to Julia, daughter of John and Barbara (Geisinger) 
Wydeman, natives of Northumberland Co., Pa., and 
of German descent. They emigrated to Canada, where 
they were married, and 15 years later they removed 
to Medina Co., Ohio, where Julia was born, March 
28, 1836. She was educated in that county, and 
lived at home (her father dying April 26, 1850) until 
her marriage. Two years after that event Mr. and 
Mrs. Hatfield came to this State and county and lo- 
cated in Newark Township. He purchased 40 acres 
in that township. May 25, 1864, he engaged with 
J. M. Kidd, of Ionia, as agent and collector for their 






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fanning-mill establishment. This business he fol- 
lowed for 12 years. In April, 1877, he moved to 
Emerson Township and located on a farm of 80 
acres, partly improved. He has it now nearly all 
in good cultivation, and has a very fine residence, 
which cost $3,000. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hatfield have a family of three, — 
Emma E., bom May 25, 1861 (married and residing 
in Grand Rapids); William Forest, bom Aug. 24, 
1862, and Arthur H., born July 21, 1864. They are 
members of the M. E. Church. He is a member of 
Ithaca Lodge, No. 123, F. & A. M. Politically he is 
a staunch Republican. He has held the office of 
Deputy Sheriff. 







I 



enry Qrover, an enterprising farmer, resi 
dent on section 2, Arcada Township, was 
bora in Hull, Yorkshire, Eng., Dec. 10, 
1844; and is the son of Thomas and Maria 
(Sherwood) Grover, natives of Yorkshire, Eng. 
Thomas Grover was by occupation a carriage 
smith, and came to this country in 1850, locating in 
New York State. Two years later, he came to Len- 
awee County, this State, and after a few years there 
he came to Gratiot County, where he died, at his 
home on section 2, Arcada Township, Aug. 27, 1877, 
at the age of 65. His wife now resides at St. Louis, 
in this county, at the age of 68. 

The subject of this sketch came with his parents 
to New York. State, and thence to Lenawee Co., 
Mich., where he was married. Nov. 28, 1867, to Ame- 
lia, daughter of Joseph and Eliza (Clark) Barber, 
narives of New York. They followed farming, and 
came to this county, where Mr. Barber now lives, on 
section 2, Arcada Township. Mrs. Barber is de- 
ceased. Amelia was born in Hancock Co., Ohio, and 
came when five years old with her parents to Lena- 
wee Co., Mich. 

Two years after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Grover 
went to Manistee County, where they farmed for 
seven years. They returned to Adrian, and three 
years later came to Gratiot County, settling down on 
90 acres of his father s homestead. He is a progress- 
ive farmer, and has about half his farm nicely 
improved. They have five children, as follows : Char- 



lie O., born Aug. 25, 187 1; Eliza M., Sept. 24, Vf 

1873; Clara E., Dec. 31, 1875 ; Rose A., March 11, ^: 

1878; Maria B., Oct. 6, 1883. Politically, Mr. Gro- ,;. 

ver is a staunch Republican. ' 




^4 avid D. Stoddard, farmer, section 10, 
■R^ Washington Township, is a son of Orson 
and Bathia (Hulbert) Stoddard, natives of 
Connecticut and New York. Mr. Stoddard, 
Sr , \\.is born Jan. i, 1804, while Mrs. Stod- 
» dard was born in July, 18 10. In 1854, they 
came to Michigan and located in Wayne County. 
Soon after, they removed to Gratiot and located on 
section 1 1 , Washington Township, where Mr. Stod- 
dard died, June 15, 1870, and Mrs. Stoddard, April 
21, 1870. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Allegany 
Co., N. Y., April 24, 1830. At the age of 20, he en- 
gaged as a farm hand, and worked as such for five 
years. Nov. 9, 1854, he married Mary Ryan, daugh- 
ter of Adam and Betsy (McNett) Ryan. In 1856, 
Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard came to Gratiot, and located 
on section 11, Washington Township. They after- 
wards removed to section 10, on a fami of 20 acres. 
They were among the first settlers of the township, 
and found no improvements when, amid the snows 
of winter, they first arrived among the forests of this 
part of Michigan. They have two children, named 
Alice F. and Freeman O. In politics, Mr. Stoddard 
is a Republican. He and wife are members of the 
U. B. Church. 



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ames Bemaley, farmer, section 2, Hamilton 
Township, is a son of Jacob and Elizabeth 
(Nonnemaker) Remaley, natives of Penn- 
sylvania, and of German and Welsh extraction, 
both of whom are deceased. 
James was born in Northampton Co., Pa., 
May 19, 1826, and in 1834 accompanied his parents 
to Trumbull Co., Ohio, where they located. Here he 
attended the common schools of the county, acquired 
an education and developed into manhood. In the 
year 1846, he determined to battle against the 
trials and stmggles of life alone, and came to Eaton 



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GRATIOT COUNTY. 



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County, this State, and entered 80 acres of Govern- 
ment land, for which he paid $roo. This land lies 
two miles north of Charlotte, Eaton County this State, 
and is now valued at $106 per acre. 

Mr. Remaley remained in Eaton County until the 
year 1854, when he removed to Hillsdale County, 
and there lived for 23 years, until 1877, when he 
came to this county, since which time he has con- 
stantly resided here. He owns 250 acres of land, 
and besides attending to his farming devotes a portion 
of his winters to lumbering. 

Mr. Remaley was married, Feb. 13, .1853, to 
Susanna, daughter of Eli Foglesang, of Hamilton 
Township, of German descent, and one of the old 
settlers of Southern Michigan. Of this marriage 
seven children were bom, six of whom are living, viz.: 
Elizabeth (Watkins), Mary (Wilber), Geo. A., Alice 
R., Clara L. and Clarence A. One son, Eli, died in 
December, 1877, in his sixteenth year. 



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illiam E. Winton, attorney, Ithaca, is a 

son of William Winton, who was the son 

of James and Ann Winton, and was bom 

June 10, 1779, in the parish of Dunning, 

Perthshire, Scotland. After the death of 

both his parents, which occurred about the 

year 1800, having a desire to visit the New World, he 

took passage at Greenock, May 12, 1802, on board 

the ship ** Draper," of New York, for America; ar- 

1/ rived at New York July 4, 1802. He came West 

- into Madison Co., N. Y. ; became acquainted with 

and married Desdemona Leach, of Chittenango, in 

18 1 7. He then purchased and settled on a farm at 

Bridgeport, in the town of Sullivan, Madison Co., 

N. Y., and about 12 miles northeast from Syracuse, 

at which place his wife died, April, 1823. To them 

were born three sons, — James Winton, born Jan. — , 

1 i8r9, now living at Manchester, Washtenaw Co., 

s Mich.; William E. Winton, the subject of this sketch, 

J bom Dec. r7, 1820; and David L. Winton, bom Jan. 

V 2r, 1823, now deceased, having died at Cohoctah, 

y Livingston Co., Mich., Dec. 17, r853. He afterwards 

''> married a lady by the name of Lana Houser, by 

* whom he had one son and four daughters, all of 

^ whom are now dead except Mary, who was born Oct. 

13 :^^ — —^ i D H : 



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31, 1830, and now living between Chelsea and Man- 
chester, Washtenaw Co, Mich.; and Ann, bom 
March 15, 1833, and now of Fairmont, 111. He came 
to Michigan in December, 1845, ^"^ ^^^^ ^^ Man- 
chester, Mich., Jan. 21, 1858. 

His second son, William E. Winton, enjoyed the 
advantages of the village school at Bridgeport, dur- 
ing his childhood, his father keeping him during the 
school vacations at the Chittenango Sulphur Springs 
for his health. At the age of 13 he went to Albany 
on a tour of sight-seeing, visiting the museum, thea- 
ter and places of amusement, and where for the first 
time he saw a steamboat, as she passed up the Hud- 
son, bound for Troy. 

In the winter of 1837, being then 16 years of age, 
he obtained the consent of his parents, and came to 
Michigan with the family of Daniel Boutell, and 
after a journey of 2 1 days reached their destination, 
on section 30, in town 4 north, of range 5 east, after- 
wards organized as the township of Deerfield, Liv- 
ingston County, 

Mr. Winton remained in the family of, and worked 
for, Mr. Boutell until the age of 21. In the fall of 
1839 he returned to the State of New York to trans- 
act some business for Mr. Boutell, giving him an op- 
ix)rtunity of visiting his fathers family, but so 
changed in personal appearance as not to be recog- 
nized by any one of them. 

On his return to Michigan, after a month s absence, 
he induced his younger brother, David L. Winton, to 
come West with him. 

He became acquainted with Sarah Ramsdell in 
1840, to whom he was married Nov. 27, 1842. She 
was the daughter of Noah and Polly (Mary) Rams- 
dell, then of the township of Tuscola, afterwards 
changed to Cohoctah, Livingston County. She was 
born Oct. 2, 182 1, at Fairix)rt, some 10 miles east of 
Rochester, N. Y., from which place her father, in 
1828, moved to Waterford, Plymouth Township, 
Wayne Co., Mich., and built the first flouring mill 
there. 

In 1839 her father exchanged his mill property for 
a farm of 640 acres in said township of Tuscola 
(now Cohoctah), where Mr. Winton became ac- 
quainted with the family. 

At the time of his marriage, his father-in-law, 
being considerably involved in debt, induced Mr. 
Winton to take charge of the farm, pay off the debts 
and save the property, which he accomplished in the 

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GRATIOT COUNTY, 



course of ten years of hard labor and strict economy, 
receiving for such services about 200 acres of the 
farm; during which time he held various township 
offices. 

On the 22d of June, 1852, he was left a widower by 
the death of his wife, by whom he had three children : 
Sarah J. born Dec. 9, 1843; Mary D., born Oct. 10, 
1845, and John H., born May 31, 1852. After the 
death of his wife, he leased his farm and made pro- 
visions for the care of his two children then living, — 
Sarah J. having died of croup Sept. 23, 1844, — and, 
having had only the advantages of a common-school 
education, he si>ent six years teaching, attending 
school and reading law. August, 1858, he graduated 
at the State and National Law School at Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y. Armed with his diploma, he went to New 
York, purchased a law library, and returned to Mich- 
igan, and was, Sept. 10, 1858, at Howell, Mich., ad- 
mitted to practice in the courts of law and equity in 
this Slate. 

He visited the World s Exhibition at the Crystal 
Palace in New York, 1853. He visited the United 
States Military Academy at West Point, July, 1858, 
where he was introduced to Gen. Winfield Scott, at 
his headquarters. He attended the celebration of 
the laying of the first Atlantic cable at New York 
City in August, 1858. 

He received, October, 1858, the nomination for 
Prosecuting Attorney, on the Republican ticket, in 
Livingston County, and was, with the rest of the 
ticket, defeated, the Democrats, who were in the 
ascendancy, carrying the county. 

March 3, 1859, he sold his farm. 

April 4, 1859, he was married to Mariette Thomp- 
son, daughter of Joseph R. and Mary J. Thompson, 
of Corunna, Mich. She was born March 15, 1831, 
in the town of Columbia, Herkimer Co., N. Y. Her 
father came to Michigan in 1834, and settled on a 
farm at South Lyon, Oakland County. 

Mr. Winton started June 11, 1859, on a prospect- 
ing tour, visiting St. Johns, Maple Rapids, Ithaca, St. 
Louis, Midland City and St. Charles, and returned 
home. He moved into Gratiot County, and arrived 
at Ithaca, March 28, i860, then the county seat, 
boasting of 15 families all told, and having a weekly 
mail ; a dense forest covered the greater part of the 
present village, not a road opening to it from any di- 
rection. 



He was elected Circuit Court Commissioner No- 
vember, i860, and was appointed Deputy County 
Clerk in January, 1861. Having received his com- 
mission therefor, he enrolled all persons liable to 
military duty in the south half of Gratiot County in 
1863, and continued in the conscripting business to 
the close of the war ; and was, during the same 
period. Superintendent of the County Poor, and, as 
such, had to make provisions for the support of 
quite a large number of families of the patriotic citi- 
zens who had gone to the front to defend the liber- 
ties of the country. Such families were provided for 
at their homes. Mr. Winton made arrangements 
with John Hicks, of St. Johns, who filled his orders 
for supplies. 

He was elected to the offices of Circuit Court 
Commissioner and Prosecuting Attorney in Novem- 
ber, 1864. He was re-elected Prosecuting Attorney 
in November, 1866, and was a delegate to the Con- 
gressional Convention held at Flint the same year, 
at which Hon. Randolph Strickland received the 
nomination. Mr. Winton was also a delegate to the 
Congressional Convention at Flint in 1868, at which 
Hon. John F. Driggs received the nomination, and, 
as was believed by many of the delegates, unfairly; 
and for that and other reasons, whether founded or 
unfounded. Judge Isaac Marston, then of Bay City, 
and William E. Winton, of Ithaca, took the field 
against Mr. Driggs, defeated him, and Hon. Jabez G. 
Sutherland was elected to Congress over Mr. Driggs. 

Oct. 19, 1868, Mr. Winton, wife and his wife's sis- 
ter, Mrs. Gilbert, visited the prairies of Wisconsin, 
Illinois and Iowa, and enjoyed the hospitalities of 
Milwaukee, Chicago, Davenport, Muscatine, Sigour- 
ney, Oskaloosa, Dcs Moines, and returned via Iowa 
City. 

He was elected Judge of the Probate Court No- 
vember, 1872, for the term of four years. 

On the 28th day of June, 1876, Mr. Winton and 
wife, in company with Hon. Wilbur Nelson and wife, 
left Ithaca for Philadelphia, via Detroit, Cleveland, 
Pittsburg, Harrisburg, Washington, D. C, and Balti- 
more; and on the 4th of July witnessed the nations 
grand display. After spending 12 days visiting 
the Centennial Exhibition, the thermometer vary- 
ing from 95 ^^ to 100^, they returned via New York 
Central & Canada Southern, \isiting all places of in- 
terest, and reached home in August 



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Mr. Winton h^s been successfully connected with 
many of the most important suits in the county, both 
of law and equity. He has an interest in the new 
bank building known as the " Jeffery, Winton Bank 
Block," in which he has as good, if not the best law 
office and library in the county. He was a proprie- 
tor of Turck, Winton & Co s. Bank, at Alma, and is 
now a stockholder in Steel, Turck & Co s. Bank at 
Ithaca. 

He was elected the first President of the village 
of Ithaca, in November, 1869, and has been a mem- 
ber of the Common Council most of the time since 
the village was incorporated. 

He is strictly temperate, and is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. He was brought up a Demo- 
crat, but identified himself with the Whigs soon after 
arriving at the age of 21; became a Free-Soiler, and 
represented that party in convention at Pontiac, 
September, 1848, and was chosen Secretary of the 
Convention. He became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party in 1856, and as such attended 
the mass convention at Kalamazoo that same year, 
at which many of the Northern States were repre- 
sented, and where for the first time he had the pleasure 
of meeting Abraham Lincoln, our late President. 

Mr. Winton relates two incidents occurring on his 
way to Michigan in 1837. They came overland, via 
Syracuse, Rochester, the Ridge road to Youngstown, 
crossed into Canada and took the Mountain road. 
A sudden change to extreme cold, after a rainy thaw, 
left the road a bed of ice ; the vehicle, a covered 
emigrant wagon ; Mr. and Mrs. Boutell and three 
children seated back, and their oldest son, John, seat- 
ed in front with Mr. Winton, the driver. Advan- 
cing in this condition, six emigrant teams and two 
loads of Indians following close in the rear, ap- 
proached the foot of Battle Hill. The road up this 
was cut into the side of the mountain on the left, a 
precipice 200 feet deep on the right, with logs laid 
along the edge, a trifle higher than the dirt line ; the 
snow and ice, then as smooth as a skating rink, had 
raised the road bed above these logs. The emigrant 
teams and Indians remained at the foot of the hill, 
to witness the attempted ascent, which proved nearly 
successful * but, on reaching the summit, both horses 
slipped down, the wagon ran back, dragging the 
horses after it; and as the off hind wheel passed over 
the edge of the precipice, with immediate destruction 



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apparent, young Winton made a desperate leap for- 
ward, to avoid entanglement with the horses, down 
this awful gulf, rushing through the shrubs, plunging 
down the steep declivity with such momentum that his 
downward course was contmued for a hundred feet or 
more before he had the power to effect a halt. He 
was greatly surprised, on looking op, to see the wagon 
above him hanging on the edge of that dreftd^U pit, 
in the exact position as when he made that '* loip for 
life." 

Hurriedly clambering up the steep, on reaching the 
road, he was further surprised to find the wagon py- 
cillating on two wheels only; the off front wheel, 
having dropped slightly in between the log at the 
edge and the ice, became bound sufficient to hold all 
fast; the off hind wheel hung over, while the near 
fore wheel was raised up clear from the road, waidng 
to go over on the least stir of a horse or person in- 
side. The horses lay as if dead, the family re- 
maining in the same position. Not an emigrant or 
Indian had stirred. All sat spell-lxmnd, as silent as 
the chamber of death, until Mr. Winton beckoned 
(not daring to speak for fear a Jiorse would stir) for 
help from the foot of the hill. At this, some 20 
white men and Indians came rushing franticly to the 
spot, surrounded the wagon and held it fast, while 
Mr. Winton assisted the family therefrom; and tak- 
ing the horses by the bits, they sprang to their feet, 
and, with the help of men and Indians, took it to the 
top of the hill in safety ! 

On arriving at Windsor, opposite Detroit, just as 
the ferry had made its last trip, a delay was caused 
of about three days, for the river to freeze over, it 
being then jammed full of broken ice from shore to 
shore, slowly moving down the stream from the upper 
lakes, during which lime over 200 families arrived on 
their way to Michigan. The ice a little below 
Windsor parted, all above remaining stationary, 
while that below moved on down to Sandwich before 
coming to rest, leaving the river oj^n between. The 
crossing was effected near Sandwich on the new ice 
formed in this open space, on the afternoon of the 
third day, the forenoon having been occupied in get- 
ting the women and children over from Windsor to 
Detroit, on foot, the broken ice from the lakes having 
been thrown into so many strange, fantastic heaps 
and windrows, reaching up the river for miles, as to 
render crossing therewith teams impossible, and very 



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difficult to be effected on foot. The ice at and be- 
low Sandwich was thrown into heaps similar to that 
at and above Windsor. The new-formed ice ex- 
tended from Sandwich up the river about three-quar- 
ters of a mile, where the channel was still open. The 
new ice over the channel was thin and slippery. 
Great precaution was used by the ferrymen who had 
charge of the crossing. The ice near the shore 
being of sufficient strength, the teams were distrib- 
uted thereon from Sandwich up to within 30 rods of 
the open channel to avoid two crossing in the same 
place. The teams were unhitched and the horses 
led over singly. The loads were got over by hitch- 
ing a single horse, with about 200 feet of rope, to the 
end of a tongue. The rider, with hatchet in hand, 
to cut the rope in case a load broke through, put 
spur to his horse and crossed at full speed. 

Mr. Boutells wagon being uppermost, brought his 
crossing nearest the open channel, increasing the 
peril. He led one horse and Mr. Winton fol- 
followed with the other some 20 rods behind. On 
reaching a point opposite this open channel, the 
wagon went spinning past, when two wheels broke 
through the new ice ; dropping on a large cake of lake 
ice that had floated under, they bounded to the sur- 
face again and passed on ; at the same time a violent 
gust of wind came sweeping up the river, sending 
young Winton sliding over the smooth ice, at the 
halter's end, the horse following for some considera- 
ble distance towards this open sea, with no power to 
stop, except by ordering the horse to stand, which 
the dumb brute obeyed, and by means of the halter 
got himself back to the obedient animal ; and by 
keeping the horse between himself and the open 
river, passed beyond danger. 

They stayed over night at the " New York and 
Ohio House," situated on the southwest corner, where 
Woodward Avenue crosses Jefferson Avenue, which, 
with the " National Hotel," the " Eagle Tavern,*' and 
" Detroit Cottage" (all wood buildings), were the 
leading inns of that city. 

Detroit, then the capital of the State, and one of 
the oldest cities of the Union, was but the embryo 
city of to-day. It contained more log buildings than 
brick ; the streets were entirely destitute of pave- 
ments, and nearly so of sidewalks, and the place had 
no railipad communication whatever. 

William E. Winton's great-great-grandfather was 






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the Earl of Winton, whose estate and strong castle 
was west of Edinburgh. The Earl of Winton, in 
1715, thenof the age of 25 years, very reluctantly 
espoused the cause of the son of James H, known as 
the " Chevalier de St. George," the pretended heir to 
the English throne: Earl Winton commanded the 
cavalry and had great influence with the Highlander 
Infantry. He was, with many other Scottish noble- 
men, taken prisoner at Ix>ndon, February, 17 16; 
and while many of those Scotch noblemen pleaded 
guilty to the charge of high treason. Lord Winton 
pleaded not guilty. He received sentence of death 
after trial, but made his escape from the Tower. 
He is frequently referred to in the "Tales of a 
Grandfather," by Sir Walter Scott, Vol. Ill, Chap- 
ters VIII and IX. 

The Wintons are supposed to be of English origin, 
as their history in Scotland is of modem date, and 
as the " Statute of Winton " is repeatedly referred to 
by Mr. Chitty in his Notes to Blackstones Commen- 
taries on the Laws of England; also by Mr. Green- 
leaf in his " Law of Evidence," Vol. I, § 349, and by 
other text writers on the English law. But whatever 
history may furnish relating to Mr. Win ton's ancestr}-, 
nothing gives him more pleasure than to know that 
he is a citizen of the United States of America. He 
is now making arrangements to visit Europe soon, 
and especially Scotland, the land of his fathers. 

John H. Winton, the only son of William E. Win- 
ton, was born May 31, 1852, atCohoctah, Livingston 
Co., Mich. He came to Ithaca, Mich., March, i860, 
with his father's family. He was kept at school until 
the age of 18, after which he taught several terms, 
and attended the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, 
Mich. He visited the Centennial Exhibition at Phil- 
adelphia in the fall of 1876. He read Jaw in his 
father's office, and was admitted at Ithaca, Mich., 
April 8, 1881, to practice as an atlorney-at-law and 
solicitor in chancery. He was appointed Village At- 
torney in March, 1882. He has successfully prose- 
cuted and defended several important suits in law 
and in equity, and has his office with his father, in 
the Jeffery, Winton Bank Block, south of the bank, 
on first floor, Ithaca, Mich. 

He became acquainted with Annie Sickels, daugh- 
ter of William and Isabel B. Sickels, to whom he 
was married, at the residence of her parents in the 
village of Sickels, Gratiot (x)., Mich., on the 31SI 

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day of May, 1881. She was born at Northville, 
Wayne Co., Mich., Aug. 10, 1854. By this raarriage 
he has one son, William Winton, born July 21, 1882. 
On a previous page appears a portrait of Judge 
Winton. 



dolphuB Willert, farmer, section 31, New- 
Ij^M^ ark Township, was born Aug. 29, 1844, in 
Py^ Germany. His parents came to the United 
>&f States when he was 15 years old and settled 
'^ in Clinton Co., Mich. When he reached his 
* majority, in 1865, he came to Gratiot County 
and bought 40 acres of unimproved land in Fulton 
Township. On this he labored three years and ex- 
changed with his brother for another farm in the 
same township, which he afterward sold and l)Ought 
53 acres in Newark Township where he now lives. 
About 35 acres are under good improvements. Mr. 
Willert is a Democrat in political principle. 

He was married Dec. 3, 1865, in Newark Town- 
ship, to Louisa, daughter of Lawrence and Mary 
W. Smith. She was born Sept. 2, 1848, in Livings- 
ton Co., Mich. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Willert are Mary W., Frederick A., Alfred T., Law- 
rence G. and Ira E. 



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^ndrew Call, farmer, section 28, Elba Town- 
jfv^'>» IP ship, is a son of Sherman and Susan (Ran- 
^V^ dall) Call, natives of New York. Sherman 
"fcr Call was a farmer, and came from New York 
r to Michigan in 1854. Twenty years later he 
was again induced to travel westward, and ac- 
cordingly went to Iowa, and thence to Minnesota, 
where he died, in 1876. His wife died in Wayne 
Co., Mich., in 1863. 

The subject of this sketch was born Dec. 5, 1825, 
in Onondaga Co., N. Y. At the tender age of nine 
he commenced to work for himself, and earned the 
first pair of boots he ever owned. Sept. 15, 1850, in 
Clinton Co., N. Y., he was married to Mary J. Brad- 
ford, the daughter of William and Dorothy (Call) 
Bradford, natives of Vermont and New York, re- 
spectively. This marriage resulted in six children : 
Mary J., Charlotte M , John H., Elba, Susan M. (died 



Aug. 29, 1853), and Sherman (died March 17, 1857). 
Mrs. Call died Sept. 4, 1877, in Elba Township, this 
county. Mr. Call located on 80 acres on section 28, 
Elba Township, in 1855. He has cultivated 75 acres 
of this. His substantial dwelling-house was erected 
in 18^5. 

In 1863, he felt himself Called into the service of 
his country, and he accordingly enlisted in Co. F, 
2d Mich. Vol. Cav. He participated in all the en- 
gagements of that regiment, and was mustered out 
at Macon, Ga., though his final discharge was re- 
ceived at Jackson, Mich. Since the war he has been 
continuously engaged in farming. In January, 1884, 
he sold his farm, and he has since removed to Elsie, 
Clinton County. 

March 20, 1878, he married Mrs. Fannie A. Eddy, 
a daughter of Silas Reynolds, a farmer and wagon- 
maker in the State of New York, where she M'as bom 
Feb. 26, 1 83 1. She was a widow, and the mother of 
two children, — Alice Eddy, born April 18, 1857, and 
Ira A. Eddy, bom Jan. 24, 1861. Mr. Call is a mem- 
ber of Maple River Lodge, No. 76, I. O. O. F., and 
is a straight Republican. 







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ibsalom L. Ward, of Ithaca, formerly of 
^ North Star Township, was born in Gallia 
Co., Ohio, March 24, 1832, and was the son of 
Allen and Sarah (White) Ward, natives of 
Virginia and North Carolina. He was brought 
up on a farm and educated at the common 
school. When a young man he leamed the black- 
smith's trade, which he followed until 1854, when he 
came to this county and settled on his present farm, 
the northwest quarter of section 11. He also owned 
and improved the north half of the north half 
of section 10. Subsequently he erected his resi- 
dence on the northeast quarter of section 10. He 
has thus, with true pioneer hardihood and industry, 
made for himself a comfortable home and accumu- 
lated a handsome amount of property, although com- ^ 
mencing in the wild woods of frontier life. 

Mr. Ward was a soldier in the late war, enlisting 
in Co. E, 2d Mich. Cav., and serving two years. He 
participated in the battles of Franklin, Nashville, 
Lost Mountain, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Mossy Creek, etc. 



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Feb. 9, 1854, the year of his settlement in this 
county, Mr. Ward married Miss Clara Criner, a 
a daughter of George Criner and a native also 
of Gallia Co., Ohio. Of their 11 children seven 
are living, viz: George A., Lina J., John W., Clara 
D., Sarah A., Ada A and Maud A. One daughter, 
Orpha E., died April 4, 187 1, at the age of 16 years. 
The other deceased were, Dennis L. and a pair of 
twins, — Elda and Etta. 

In regard to religion, Mr. Ward is a member of 
the Free Methodist Church. 







illiam Oliver Watson, farmer on section 
7, Arcada Township, was born in Livings- 
ton Co., Mich., Dec. 15, 1848; and is the 
son of John T. and Harriet (Wilcox) Wat- 
son, natives of Genesee Co., N. Y., and Ba- 
tavia, N. Y., respectively. The falher was in 
mercantile life in New York, and came to Michigan 
in 1834, while it was yet a Territory. Relocated at 
Howell, Livingston County, which was then but a 
" shanty town," and had but a few inhabitants. He 
first taught school, then filled several county offices 
in succession, and later became a farmer. He fin- 
ally removed to Oakland County, where he died, 
July 15, 1864, at the age of 55, leaving a large fam- 
ily, of which our subject was the seventh. Harriet 
(Wilcox) Watson came to this State in 1834, after her 
marriage, and still lives, at Breckenridge, Wheeler 
Township, this county. 

William O. left home at the early age of nine, and 
went on a farm in Milford Township, Oakland County 
and afterwards on a farm in Highland Township, 
same county. He was there educated in the district 
schools. After nine years, he came to Ithaca. Here 
he clerked in different stores. Dec. 31, 1874, at 
Ithaca, he was united in marrige to Ella F., daugh- 
ter of Dewitt C. and Edna F. (Utley) Chapin, na- 
tives of New York State. Dewitt C. Chapin was a 
prominent citizen of Allegan, Mich., and while 
there held the office of Probate Judge. He came to 
this county and lived at Ithaca, where he was Reg- 
ister of Deeds at the time of his death, June 29, 
1873. After that sad event, the whole duties of the 
office devolved upon Ella F., who performed them 
for two years, until the expiration of the term for 



which her father had been elected. She had previ- 
ously been her fathers clerk for two years. Her 
mother still resides in Pine River Township, at the 
age of 56 years. Ella R was bom in AWegan, 
Mich., April 10, 1851 ; moved to Dewitt, Qinton 
County, three years later; and at the age of 13 came 
with her parents to Alma, this county. Here she at- 
tended the common schools, and she afterwards pur- 
sued a course of study at the State Normal School 
at Ypsilanti. She commenced teaching at* the age 
of 15, and taught for a number of years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Watson located on a farm in Pine 
River Township; and four years later removed to 
Arcada Township. They purchased 80 acres on sec- 
tions 7 and 8, and now have 70 acres well improved. 
They have re'^ently built a neat bam, at a cost of 
$500. They have had four children, one now not liv- 
ing: John C, born Jan. 28, 1878; Charles E., born 
March 17, 1881 ; Byron, bom Nov. 10, 1882 ; Fred. 
C, born Jan. 3, 1876, and died March 25, 1876. 
Mrs. Watson is a member of the Baptist Church at 
Ithaca. Mr. Watson is a Royal Arch Mason, be- 
longing to Ithaca Chapter, No. 70, and has held 
several offices in the order. He has been School 
Director for four years, and is now serving his second 
term as Township Treasurer. In politics he is an 
uncompromising Republican. He and wife are peo- 
ple of refinement and education, and stand very 
high in their community. 



onathan Qidley, farmer, section 21, Em- 
erson Township, was bom in Morrow Co., 
xi-^ Ohio, Jan. 31, 1842 ; and is a son of Moses 
i-? and Ruth (Wood) Gidley, natives of New York. 
1|l They emigrated to Ohio, where they were mar- 
\ ried and followed farming in Morrow County. 
When Jonathan was bom the country was very new, 
and as he was the oldest of the family, it was his lot 
to bear the brunt of the farm work. He was, however, 
able to attend school to some extent, and hard work, 
aided by a natural bent, gave him a good grounding, 
especially in mathematics. 

Aug. 30, 1861, he enlisted in Co. C, 15th Ohio 
Infantry, and was assigned to the Army of the Cum- 
berland, under Gen. Thomas. He participated in 
the battles of Pittsburg Landing, Stone River, Chick- 




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amauga and Chattanooga, and other engagements. 
He was unhurt during his service, but his clothing 
was several times penetrated by rebel bullets. He 
was discharged at San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 25, 1865, 
and returned to Lansing, whither his parents had re- 
moved. He settled near that city, and farmed for a 
number of years. While there, his father died, Dec. 
10, 1866, at the age of 51. His mother still resides 
near Grand Ledge. 

Nov. 15, 1868, in Morrow Co., Ohio, he was mar- 
ried to Sarah A., daughter of George and Nancy 
(Odell) Green, natives of Virginia. They were of 
German descent, and followed farming. The daugh- 
ter was born in Marion Co., Ohio, Aug. 4. 1840, and 
at the age of 15 went to Mi^rrow County to reside 
with a married sister. Mr. and Mrs. Gidley came to 
Lansing, and in the spring of 1880 to Gratiot County, 
settling on 80 acres of timbered land on section 21, 
Emerson Township. He has now 20 acres cleared, 
and has built a comfortable house, at a cost of $800. 
They have a family of three children : George O., 
born Sept. 18, 1869; Cora E., Oct. 28, 1870; and 
Nellie M., Aug. 22, 1883. Mr. and Mrs. Gidley arc 
members of the M. E. Cnurch. He is a member of 
Emerson Lodge No. 375, L O. O. F., and is now 
Secretary of that body ; and he is also a member of 
Moses Wisner Post No. loi, G. A. R.,at Ithaca. He 
holds the office of Drain Commissioner in his town- 
ship, being elected in 1881. In politics he is an 
earnest Republican. 



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[eDjamin F. Benson, farmer, section 19, 
Lafayette Township, is a son of Benjamin 
H. and Rachel (Brown) Benson, natives of 
New York and New Jersey, respectively, lie 
died in February, 1869, and she April 6, 1880, 
in New York State. The subject of this 
sketch was born in Niagara Co., N. Y., May 15, 1830. 
He remained on his father 's farm until he was 23, 
when he went to Ohio and engaged in lumbering for 
about six months. Returning for a short time to 
his home, he then came to Michigan and worked for 
a time at various things. The winter of 1855-6 was 
passed at home in New York. Thence he returned 
lo Michigan. The year 1856 found him in the 
Slate of Iowa, where he lived eight years. 



In 1864, he was united in matrimony to Malisa C. 
Holstead, who died the following year. Two years 
later he came again to Michigan and located in Clin- 
ton County, on 1 20 acres of wild land, of which he 
improved 80 acres. In 1877 ^^ came to Gratiot 
County and purchased 149 acres on section 19, La- 
fayette Township. He has now 80 acres well im- 
proved, and the timber chopped from 20 acres more. 

He married his present wife April 29, 1866. Her 
maiden name was Rose Wilhelm, and she was the 
daughter of Ernest and Fredrica {Curts) Wilhelm, 
natives of Germany, who emigrated to the New 
Worid at an early day. Mr. and Mrs. Benson are the 
parents of three children, — William P., Ernest E. and 
Rosa. 

Mr. Benson stands very high in his community. 
He has been Moderator of his school district several 
terms. As to politics he votes for the best men, re- 
gardless of ticket. 



H«- 




:ert Woodward, farmer section 30, Arcada 
Township, is a son of John and Priscilla 
(Goodspeed) Woodward, natives of New 
York and of English descent. They carried 
on farming in the Empire State until 1840, 
and then emigrated to this State, being 
among the very first settlers of Allegan County. 

The subject of this sketch was bom in Leighton 
Township, Allegan County, June 12, 1848, and re- 
mained under the 'parental roof until 22 years of 
age. He was educated in the common school, and 
in his leisure time was employed on his fathers 
farm. Sept. 7, 1869, in Plainwell, Allegan County, 
he was united in the bonds of matrimony to Miss 
Helen V. Hays, daughter of Alexander and Harriet 
(Watson) Hays, natives of New England and of 
English and Irish descent. Mr. Hays' occupation 
was* that of a blacksmith, and he died in April, 1869. 
The daughter Helen was bom in Waymouth Town- 
ship, Medina Co., Ohio, and was there reared and 
educated, living with her parents until her maniage. 
Mr. and Mrs. Woodward followed farming in Alle- 
gan County for six years. They then came to 
Gratiot. After buying and selling several times, he 
purchased in July, 1882, his present farm of 40 acres, 
then all timber. He has now under cultivation nine 



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acres and has erected a comfortable dwelling and 
stables. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. are the parents of eight children, 
four of whom survive,— Floyd, Gracie B., Hattie 
E. and Blanche. The deceased are Minnie, Glennie 
and two babies which died in infancy. The follow- 
ing epitaph was composed by an uncle, for Glennie s 
grave : 

" Over the river so still and cold, 
Glennie, our angel has gone to the fold ; 
Sweet little sleeper, your walking will be 
By the river of life and the beautiful tree." 

Mr. Woodward is a member of Alma Lodge, No. 
244, F. & \. M. He has held the offices of Over- 
seer and School Director, and is now Justice of the 
Peace in Arcada Township. Politically he is a Re- 
publican. 



= I^Mjl^avid C. Bounds, farmer, section 2, Lafay- 
ij^P^ ette Township, is a son of Joseph and 
jjf^y^ Mary (Remington) Rounds, natives of 
j^ Rhode Island. The father was a sailor and 
i^ passed 30 years of his life on the sea. He after- 
wards vvent to Massachusetts, where he died 
Aug. 6, 1862. His wife died Sept. 23, 1866. David 
C. was bom Sept. 19, 1836, in Dartmouth, Mass., 
and was 18 years old when he began to care for him- 
self. For seven years he was employed in getting 
out live-oak timber in the Southern States. In 1861 
he came to Gratiot County and located on section 
^6y in what is now Wheeler Township, but was at 
that time unorganized. He lived there eight years, 
and then came to Lafayette Township and entered 
160 acres on section 2. He has now 40 acres of 
well improved land. He built a neat dwelling house 
in 187 1, and his substantial barn in 1877. 

He was married Aug. 22, 1870, to Matilda Mc- 
Kenna, who unfortunately died the following Octo- 
ber. He subsequently, June 4, 1871, married Sarah 
V. Cornell, the widow of Daniel P. Cornell. She 
was born Aug. 9, 1841, in Steuben Co., N. Y., and 
was the daughter of Bernard and Dorinda (Ken- 
nedy) Fox, natives of New York. She bore to Mr. 
Cornell three children, — Bertha A., Ray and Daniel 
O. She has lived in Gratiot County since 1857, and 









is one of the pioneer school-teachers of the county. 
Mr. Rounds is one of the most respected citizens of 
the township in which he lives. Politically he is a 
Democrat. 



:^|^|Cohn W. Smith, farmer, section 28, Wheeler 
^l^ig^ Township, was born Jan. 25, 1846, in 
liw"'' Trumbull Co., Ohio, and was the son of 
fl^ Noah and Lucinda (Hudson) Smith, natives of 
^iF New Jersey and Trumbull Co., Ohioi Mr. 

\ ^mhh was by occupation a carpenter and joiner, 
and lived in Ohio until March, 1883. He then came 
to Gratiot County, and now makes his home with his 
son. Mrs. Smith died May i, 1875, in Trumbull Co., 
Ohio. 

At the age of 14, John left home and commenced 
working on a farm. This he followed three years, 
and then enlisted in the Trumbull Guards, an inde- 
pendent company. They were on duty in the Eastern 
army, were engaged three times, and after a service 
of three years and three months, were discharged at 
Gallipolis, Ohio. Mr. Smith came first to Ionia 
Co., Mich., and then to Gratiot County, settUngon 
40 acres, section 28, Wheeler Township. 

In 1864, he was married to Charlotte A. Pickett, 
who was born Feb. 23, 1845, in Trumbull Co., Ohio. 
Her parents came to Gratiot in 1865, locating on 
section 2, Lafayette Township. Mr. Pickett was 
accidentally killed in 1867, while breaking roll-ways 
on Bad River. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have two adopted 
children : Jennie E. and Wesley O. Mr. Smith is a 
highly respectable citizen. He has held the office of 
Highway Commissioner and School Inspector of 
Wheeler Township. Politically, he is an adherent to 
th^ National party. 



t r/j^(||5^(iinund A. Goodhall, farmer, section 10, 
North Star Township, son of Edmund 
Goodhall of Hamilton Township, a native 
of England, was born in the native land of his 
father, March 10, 1852. His father, with his 
fimily, emigrated to the United States in 1854 
and settled in New York. Here Mr. Goodhall re- 
mained, assisting in the care of the family, until the 







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year 1865, when he accompanied them to this county. 
He follows the vocation of farmer, combined with 
that of working in a saw-mill. 

Mr. Goodhall was united in marriage, Dec. 22, 
1878, to Emma, daughter of Frederick Homister, and 
to their union have been born one child, Nellie V. 

Mr. G. is yet a young man, and being possessed of 
that element so necessary to success and the accom- 
plishment of aim, has a future not darkened with 
despair but brightened by pleasant contemplations. 



amuel Wheeler, farmer, section 18, Lafay- 
ette Township, is a son of Amos and Har- 
riet (Hubbell) Wheeler. They were na- 
tives of Connecticut, and followed farming in 
that State until 1855, when they came to Ing- 
ham Co., Mich. They resided in that county 
24 years, when Mr. Wheeler died. Mrs. Wheeler 
died Feb. 15, 1874, in Illinois, at the age of 70 years, 
9 months and 15 days. 

The subject of this sketch was born Jan. 31, 1826. 
At the age of 2 1 he left home, and worked in a cheese 
factory and on a farm until 1851, when he married 
Nancy Barger, She was born in Medina Co., Ohio, 
Feb. 3, 1832, and was the second daughter of Sam- 
uel and Barbara E. (Holler) Barger, natives of Penn- 
sylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler came to Ingham 
County, this State, in the autumn of 1851, and he 
was there engaged in farming until May 12, 1857. 
On that date he came to Gratiot County and settled 
on 143 acres of wild land. Of this he has cleared 
100 acres. In 1867 he erected a large bam, — the 
third in the township. He also has a fine, large 
dwelling-house on his place. Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler 
are the parents of six children, — Benjamin F., Clar- 
ence L., Dora J., Harriet J., Lucy E. and Amos S. 

Politically, Mr. Wheeler has always been a staunch 
Republican. He was elected Township Treasurer in 
1859, and served four years. In 1864 he was chosen 
Supervisor, and in that office he was retained for 
six successive years. He is a member of the Masonic 
Order, belonging both to the blue lodge and to the 
chapter. 

As a representative man of the county, and one 
deserving the respect, esteem and commemoration of 
its citizens, we give place to Mr. Wheeler s portrait in 
this work. 



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fftllen Curtis, farmer, section 4, Hamilton 
1^ Township, was bom in the County of Cay- 
State of New York, Nov. 4, 1804. His 



^jN^ uga, Mate ot iNew York, iNov. 4, 1804. Mis 
'•Jjlr father, Ashbel Curtis, died while Allen was 



^ quite young and he was thrown upon the mercy 
of others. He lived with his half-brother, 
Israel Curtis, for a short time and then made his 
home with his sister, working out for or ^st dollars a 
month, for two or three years. In 1825 he went in 
company with his brother Daniel to Livingston 
County, his native State, and there entered upon the 
occupation of a farmer. Here he remained, pursu- 
ing his vocation, until 1854, when he came to this 
State and settled in Oakland County. 

In the fall of 1856, Mr. Curtis came to this County 
and entered 320 acres of land in La Fayette Town- 
ship. He remained on the land long enough to con- 
struct the usual " log cabin " of the pioneer ; and in 
the fall of the same year, when listening to the im- 
portunities of his son-in-law he returned to Oakland 
County and remained until the following spring, 1857, 
when, accompanied by his family, he returned to La- 
fayette Township. His experience in establishing a 
home, clearing and improving the land was similar 
to those of many others of Gratiot's pioneer settlers. 
His house was erected in the woods ; wild animals 
and prowling Indians were his visitors. On one oc- 
casion, while en route to a " raising," Mr. C killed 
two bears, and all the men in the neighborhood, after 
assisting to dress them, were allotted their portion. 
At another rime he was compelled to mortgage his 
farm to procure a barrel of flour. In fact, trials en- 
compassed him on every hand, yet nobly did he meet 
and conquer them. He was compelled to cut a road, 
through the woods, to the location he had selected 
for his house, and his was the first team that came up 
the river on the south side from St. Charles, and his 
settlement was the first made in the neighborhood. 

Mr. Curtis was united in marriage Feb. 21, 1833, 
to Sophia, daughter of Daniel Hamilton. To this 
union one child, Abigail, was born. Mrs. C, after 
sharing his trials in the establishment and improve- 
ment of their home, died April 4, 1867, mourned as a 
loving mother, a devoted wife and kind friend. 

Mr. C. is a man possessed of a constitution which 
in earlier days enabled him to encounter an almost 

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unlimited amount of physical labor. His endurance 
was exceedingly remarkable, and even now, with 79 
winters and summers of wear upon his system, he is 
not void of activity. In October, 1866, he fell from 
a house and broke one wrist, and in 187 i he crippled 
his other hand while fighting fire, which has caused 
him considerable annoyance in pursuing his vocation. 

Mr. Curtis was again married, April 4, 1868, this 
time to Miss Helen Clunas, daughter of Thomas 
Clunas, deceased, a native of Scotland. She was 
born in Upper Canada, Jan. 5, 1833. He settled on 
his present farm in Hamilton Township, in Novem- 
ber, 1868. The township (Hamilton) in which his 
farm was located was named in honor of Franklin 
Hamilton, a nephew of our subject and who was 
** brought up " from the age of seven years by Mr. 
Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis owns 40 acres of land where his home 
is located, and for over 40 years has been a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



fa^lBton H. Maurer, farmer, section 16, New- 
^^ ark Township, was born March 14, 1850, in 
Hancock Co., Ohio. His falher, John Maurer, 
was a native of Germany ; his mother, Louisa 
(Sage) Maurer, was born in the State of New 
York. The father died in Hancock Co., Ohio, 
where he settled after his marriage. The mother re- 
sides in Wood Co., Ohio. 

At the age of 14, Mr. Maurer began life on his own 
account, as a farm laborer, and spent six years as an 
assistant at several points. He then took a farm to 
work on shares for.one year, when he decided to ex- 
pend his efforts wholly in his own behalf, and in 1872 
bought 40 acres of land in Williams Co., Ohio. He 
retained its possession four years, sold out and in the 
fall of 1876 came to Gratiot County and bought 40 
acres of partly improved land in Newark Township. 
On this property he has since resided and has nearly 
all his acreage under cultivation. Mr. Maurer is in 
sympathy with the Republican party and supports its 
issues. 

He was married Jan. 26, 187 1, in Seneca Co.^Ohio, 
to Susan, youngest daughter of Wesley and Sarah 
(Rber.sole) Bradford. Her father was born in Penn- 




sylvania, became a soldier in the Union army and 
yielded up his life on the battle field. The mothei 
was bom in Ohio and now resides in Kansas. Mrs. 
Maurer was born Sept. 25, 1854, in Hancock Co., 
Ohio. Of her marriage one child was born Dec. 9, 
1872 — Charles O. Maurer. 





,harles M. Chaffin, teacher and farmer, 
resident on section 30, North Star Town- 
''^ shi[>, was born in Hancock Co., Ohio, Aug. 
29, 1849, and his parents removed with him 
10 Graiiot County in 1854, settling in North 
^rir Township, where he now lives, on part o( 
the homestead ; was educated in the common schools 
and at the State Agricultural College at Lansing; he 
also attended school at Ithaca several seasons. He 
has since become a prominent teacher in this county, 
having now taught school during the winter for the 
last 12 years, by the most improved nomial methods. 
He also attends normal institutes, and is a membei 
of the Gratiot County Teachers* Association. During 
the summer he follows agricultural pursuits. 

June 25, 1876, Mr. Chaffin was married to Sarah 
Barnes, daughter of John Barnes. By this maniage 
one child has been born, Bessie A. Mrs. C. was bom 
in England, and was brought to America by hei 
parents when young, who settled first in Jackson Co., 
Mich., and came to Graiiot County in August, 1854, 
settling in North Star Township. Mrs. Chaffin is 
also a teacher ot many years* experience. She 
attended the Ypsilanti Nonnal School, and has taught 
22 terms in this county. 

Mr. Chaffin s father, John W. Chaffin, now deceased, 
was a native of Virginia, and was bom in 1822; was 
brought by his parents to Wayne Co., Ohio, when six 
months old, and in 1854, after a residence in different 
counties, he settled in North Star Township, and 
therefore was a pioneer here. He was well known 
as a dealer in live stock and in furs. He married 
Clara A. Evitts, daughter of Bela Evitts, and had 
eight children, six of whom are living : Charles M., 
Homer W., Theodore A., Clara L., Perry F. and 
Edith L. 

Mr. C. died Nov. 10, 1873, a highly resj>ectcd 



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member of the United Brethren Church, a generous 
and charitable citizen, judiciously distributing of his 
means for the support of benevolent institutions. 



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saao D. Crippin, farmer, section 23, Elba 
Township, is a son of Stephen and Lucy 
(Bums) Crippin, natives of New York. Mr. 
Crippin's business was lumbering. He died 
in Illinois, and his wife in Michigan. The 
subject of this sketch was born in Warren Co., 
Pa., Sept. 28, 1822, and has followed the noble occu- 
pation of farming all his life. In 1838, he came to 
Branch County, this State, where he lived 18 years. 
In that county he was married to Martha Havens, 
the daughter of Thomas and Polly Havens. She died 
about 1855, leaving one child: Mary J. 

He enlisted in Co. D, First Mich. Light Art., Aug. 
10, 1864, and was most of the time of his service 
stadoned at Murfreesboro, Tenn., on fortress duty. 
He was discharged at Jackson, Aug. 3, 1865. After 
one year passed in the southern part of Michigan, 
he came to Gratiot County. In 1867, he was married 
to Miranda, the fourth daiughter of Thos. and Rachel 
A. Davidson. She was born Feb. 22, 1837. Her 
parents were bom in Pennsylvania and Maryland, 
and were engaged in farming. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crippin have two children: Freddie 
E. and Eva P. 

Mr. Crippin is Assessor of his school district, and 
in politics is a National. He is a member of Elsie 
Lodge No. 238, F. & A. M., Maple River Lodge No. 
76, I. O. O. F., and Major Lusk Post No. 167, G. 
A. R. 




[Ivin P. Bamaby, deceased, late resident of 
North Star Township, was born near San- 
dusky, Erie Co., Ohio Oct. 17, 1821. He 
was a son of Alvin P. Bamaby, deceased, who 
moved his family from Ohio to this State and 
settled in Ciss County in 1825. Here our 
subject lived and developed into manhood, receiving 
the advantage afforded by the common schools of 
the county. His inclination being of a mechanical 
turn, he early applied himself to learning thecarpen- 



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ter's trade, which he soon accomplished, and followed 
for the greater portion of his life. 

Mr. Bamaby was married Oct. 3, 1853, to Miss 
Esther, daughter of Daniel Bleacher (deceased), and 
to their union there were born ten children, nine of 
whom are living: Mary A., Francis E, Flora A., 
Ezra A., Ulysses S., Perry I., James H., Bertha M. 
and Daniel V. 

Mr. B. enlisted in the late civil war in Co. M, ist 
Mich. Cav., and was stricken with disease a few 
days previous to the battle of the Wilderness and 
did not convalesce until after the war. Mr. B. and 
his family came to this county in 1869, and on March 
13, 1881, the father died, leaving the mother and her 
nine children and a host of friends and relatives to 
mourn his loss. 



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eorge W. Zimmerman, farmer and stock- 
raiser, section 25, Arcada Township, was 
in Lower France, Dec. i6> 1831, and is 
the son of Michael and Catharine Zimmerman, 
natives of France and of German ancestry. 
Michael followed faraiing, and died in France, 
at an unknown date. His wife came to the Great 
Republic in 1847, ^^^ ^s still living, well and strong, 
at the age of 77, in Jackson County, this State. 

When 14 years old, the subject of this sketch set 
out to learn the harness-maker's trade, being appren- 
ticed near home. After working at this 18 weeks, he 
came with his mother and relatives to this country, 
landing at New York. He then went to Philadelphia, 
and afterwards to Syracuse, N. Y., where he remained 
two years. He was apprenticed here to a blacksmith, 
and worked with him until the latter failed. Going 
to his mother in Buffalo, he lived there with her until 
she was married, when they all went to live on a farm 
in the vicinity of Buffalo. Three years later he came 
to Jackson Co., Mich. Returning to New York after 
one year, he was united in marriage, in Erie County, 
Nov. 15, 1853, to Elizabeth, daughter of Martin and 
and Magdalen a Marcolf, natives of France and of 
German descent. The former followed farming, and 
died in Erie County, Oct. 15, r882, aged 76. The 
latter is still living in the same county, at the age of 
70. Elizabethwas born Jan. 27, 1836, at Weisen- 
burg, in that part of France now possessed by 



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Prussia, and when a year and a half old was brought 
by her parents to America. They settled in Erie Co., 
N. Y., where she lived until her marriage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman came to this State and 
located near Brooklyn, Jackson County. July 31, 
1862, he enlisted in Co. F, 20th Mich. Vol. Inf., under 
Capt. Warner, and served in the Army of the Potomac. 
He fought in 16 engagements. He was made a 
Corporal in 1863, and a Sergeant in 1864, which latter 
rank he held till the close of the war. He was 
wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., by a gunshot in the 
right limb near the ankle. Otherwise he escaped 
unhurt. He was often honored with special duty, 
and was honorably discharged in June, 1865. Re- 
turning to his home in Jackson County, he shortly 
after removed to this county, locating on a farm of 
160 acres, heavily timbered, in Hamilton Township. 
After improving 35 acres, he sold, and in August, 
1879, he settled on 160 acres of improved land, a 
mile and a half from Ithaca, in Arcada Township. 
He has since sold 80 acres to his eldest son, William 
H., who is married and lives on that tract. He has a 
fine orchard of 1 2 acres, mostly in apples. 

Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman are the parents of seven 
children, one dead : William H., bom March 15, 
1855, Barbara M., Oct. 16, 1856, Lena M., July 22, 
1858, David W., May 10, 1866, Emma E., Aug. 27, 
1868, James Walter, April 21, 1873, George B., bom 
Aug. 13, 1861, and died May 21, 1880. 

Mr. Zimmerman is in politics a Republican. He 
has held the offices of Township Treasurer, and 
Overseer of Highways. He is a Protestant, and his 
wife a Mennonite. 



Irich Wermuth, farmer and stock-raiser, 
section 24, New Haven Township, was 
-j^.-^ t)orn in district of Berne, Switzerland, Aug. 
/•]>S 10, 1815, and was reared on a small farm 
1^ and educated in the public school among the 
] mountain fastnesses of his native country. 
When 15 years old his father died; and as he was 
the eldest of the orphaned children, much care de- 
volved upon his immature years. By economy and 
perseverance they accumulated sufficient means to 
bring them over to the " land of opportunity," in the 
spring of 185 1, when they located in Fulton Co., 




Ohio. Three years later Mr. W. came and ** located " 
40 acres of land on the section where he now re- 
sides. Subsequently he purchased 80 acres more, 
and of the total 1 20 acres he has improved 90, re- 
ducing it to a good state of cultivation and placing 
thereon good farm buildings, etc. He is an enter- 
prising and prosperous farmer. In polirics he is a 
member of the Democratic party, and he has held 
the school offices of his district for x 2 years. 

In June, 1862, Mr. W. married, in Newark Town- 
ship, this county. Miss Mary Willet, a German lady 
who was born in Tellen, Germany, Jan. 22, 1843, 
and came to this country in 1869, settling with her 
parents in St. John s, Clinton Co., Mich.; two years 
later she came to Newark Township, this county. 

The four children in this family are : Adolphus, 
born May 21, 1865; Ellen, May 11, 1868; Frank, 
April 25, 1872; and Charles, May 15, 1876. 



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^|V1[| saao N. Coleman, farmer, sec. 30, Emerson 
^ Rfl l Township, was born in Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 
M^T 2, 1832 ; and is the son of Isaac and Emma 
Vi5^ (Piper) Coleman, natives of Gemiany and New 
rp England, respectively. The father was by trade 
^ 1 mechanic, and used tools nearly all his life. 
Isaac, junior, spent his boyhood days, until he was 
12 years of age, in Dayton, when his parents removed 
to Seneca County and located on a farm in the vi- 
cinity of Tiffin. Here he leamed the art of arts, 
farming, and he has followed that continuously until 
the present time. January, 1853, he removed to 
Michigan and located in Lenawee County. 

Sept. 8, 1853, he was united in marriage, in Litch- 
field, Hillsdale County, to Louisa J., daughter of 
David and Louisa (Ketch) Moon, natives of New 
England. She was born in Niagara Co., N. Y., Nov. 
8, 1836; and, her mother dying shortly afterwards, 
she was adopted by George Perry. She lived with 
him (he died in 1846) and his wife until her mar- 
riage. She had lost all track of her father, and she 
was 25 years old when, by an accident, she first 
learned something of her relatives, and found that 
she was one of a large family of children. 

In the spring of 1855 Mr. and Mrs. Coleman came 
to Gratiot County and settled in Emerson Township. 
He was one of the organizers of the township. At 



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that time there were but few families to assist in sub- 
stituting civih'zation for the unbroken forest which 
surrounded them for miles in every direction. Mr. 
Coleman assisted once in a very romantic and exciting 
bear hunt, and the party succeeded in despatching a 
bear that weighed nearly 500 pounds. 

July 31, 1862, he enlisted in Co. D, 26th Mich. 
Vol. Inf., commanded by Lafayette Church, of this 
county, and joined the Army of the Potomac. Owing 
to physical disability brought on by sunstroke and 
rheumatism, he became permanently crippled, and 
was honorably discharged March 25, 1865. He had 
been promoted as Corporal, and had the credit of 
capturing a fierce rebel by his own efforts. 

Mr. and Mrs. Coleman have had seven children, 
six of whom are living : George J., born Sept. 22, 
1854; Charlie W., Dec. 9, 1858; Ozro E., Oct. 5, 
1861 ; Sadie E., Dec. 27, 1866; Frank A., July 25, 
1869; Ray N., Jan. 31, 1877; Earl, born Sept. 22, 
1879, and died July i, 1883. They are members of 
the Seventh-Day Adventist society. Mr. Coleman 
is an energetic and popular man, and has held vari- 
ous local offices. He was the first Justice of the 
Peace of the township, was Supervisor five years and 
Treasurer ten years. He has also been Township 
Clerk, and is now School District Assessor. Politi- 
cally he has always been identified with the Repub- 
lican party. 




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Tohn Brauher, general farmer, section 24, 
New Haven Township, was born in Berne, 
Switzerland, Nov. 9, 1846, of Swiss and 
German descent. When two years of age his 
father died and he went to live with his grand- 
mother, and when eight years of age they 
emigrated to America and went to reside with his 
mother in Fulton Co., Ohio, who had previously re- 
married and settled there. 

Mr. Brauher received a good common-school edu- 
cation, and at the age of 14 he accompanied his 
mother and step-father to this county, locating in 
Newark Township. They subsequently removed to 
New Haven Township, where the subject of this 
sketch lived until his marriage, in Montcalm County, 
to Miss Maggie, daughter of William A. and Nancy 
(Stiiller) Miller, natives respectively of Maryland 
and Ohio and of English, Irish and German descent. 



Mrs. B. was born in Hancock Co., Ohio, Dec. 17, 
1856; when nine years old she came with her parents 
to Montcalm County, Mich., where she lived until 
her marriage, soon after which she settled with her 
husband on 80 acres where they now reside. Mr. 
B. purchased this tract in 1867, when it was nearly 
all covered with heavy timber; but he has since 
cleared and improved 50 acres of it, subduing it to 
the plow in a fine tillable condition. His prosperity 
as a farmer is manifest. In regard to national is- 
sues Mr. B. is a Democrat. 

The living children in this family are Francis, 
Rosetta, William and Byron A. The deceased is 
Calvin. 



p enry A. Shaw, farmer section 11, Washing- 
K^^H ton Township, is a son of Alvin and Jane 
^^ (Fuller) Shaw, natives of Connecticut and New 
^ York. Alvin Shaw has followed farming all his 
I life, and he and his wife still reside in Wales, 
Erie Co., N. Y. Their son, Henry, was bom July i, 
1836, in Java, Wyoming Co., N. Y. He lived with 
his parents, working and attending district school, 
until 20 years old, when he commenced working by 
the month, also attending school a portion of the 
time. He then bought a farm and commenced 
farming on his own account. 

June 27, 1858, in Wyoming. Co., N. Y., he was 
united in marriage to Louisa, youngest daughter of 
Spencer and Mary (Trickey) Bryant, natives of Ver- 
mont and Canada. They moved to New York, in 
which State they died, Mrs. Bryant, Oct. 16, 1875, 
and Mr. Bryant, April 27, 1877. In 1861, Mr. and 
Mrs. Shaw came to Clinton County, this State, and 
lived 20 months in Greenbush Township. Return- 
ing to New York State, they lived there for nearly 
three years. Coming to Gratiot County they pur- 
chased 80 acres of wild land on section 1 1, Washing- 
ton Township. Mr. Shaw has now 65 acres im- 
proved. Ever since coming to the county he has 
been, to some extent, interested in bee culture, and 
since 1880 he has built up a wide reputation in that 
business. He has a fine apiary of his own, and, 
being looked upon as an expert, he is called upon by 
people from eight to ten miles away to attend to their 
apiaries. During 18 years he has taken 196 swarms 
out of the woods. 



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Mr. and Mrs. Shaw have had six children, one of 
whom is dead, and two are married. These latter 
are: Mrs. Winfield Strouseand Mrs. Herman Hoffer. 
The three residing at home are : Grant, Archie and 
Bertie. Esther died Sept. 7, 1876. Mr. Shaw is po- 
litically a zealous Republican. He has been Justice 
of the Peace for eight years, and has also been School 
Inspector of his township. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the U. B. Church. 





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rs. Laverna B. (Conger) Wolford, resid- 
ing on the southwest quarter of section 
22, New Haven Township, is the wife of 
David Wolford, deceased, who was bom in 
Schoharie Co., N. Y., Jan. 5, 181 2. 

Mr. Wolford was brought up under the care 
^ of fond and loving parents, and remained under the 
parental roof-tree until he attained the age of 23 
= years. He then set forth upon " the ship of trouble " 
A' to fight the battles of adversity which so often are 
=3 encountered by the ambitious and energetic young 
sJ^ men in their journey to prosperity. He left his na- 
^ tive county and went to Cayuga County, same State, 
and was there united in marriage to the subject of 
our sketch, Dec. 7, 1835. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. remained in that county for 15 
years, when they moved to Huntington Co., Ind. 
They remained in the latter county some two years 
and then returned to New York. Two years after- 
ward they came to this Slate and located on 160 
acres of land on section 22, New Haven Township, 
arriving here and settling on the land in 1859. At 
that time the land was in a wild state of nature, and 
Mr. W. experienced the trials and overcame the ob- 
stacles so abundantly met with in the lives of the 
early pioneers. He was a mason by occupation, and 
always followed that vocation until he came to this 
State, when he entered on the arduous though pleas- 
ant task of clearing his land and preparing a home 
for his family, and prior to his death had cleared and 
improved 40 acres. He died Nov. 10, 1866, leaving 
a wife and five children, besides many warm-hearted 
and affectionate friends to mourn his loss. He went 
out to work one Saturday morning, and did not re- 
turn. He was found Sunday noon, and the physi- 



cians pronounced his death to be caused by heart 
disease. 

Mr. W. was warmly esteemed as a father, friend 
and neighbor. He was honored with positions of 
trust, and at the date of his death held the (TflSce ot 
Justice of the Peace. Mr. W. was a member of the 
M. E. Church, also of the I. O. O. F., and in politi- 
cal belief and opinion was a staunch and active Re- 
publican. 

Laverna R. was born in Cayuga Co., N. Y., May 
12, 18 1 6, and was reared and educated under the 
care of her parents, with whom she remained until 
she was married. Her parents were of German ex- 
traction, and lived and died in the State of New 
York. 

Mrs. Wollord retains the original 120-acTe home- 
stead in her own name, and is still residing on the 
same. 

The five children born to Mr. and Mrs. W. are as 
follows : Margaret and Job C, both married ; Lucre- 
tia, Lewis B. and John W. Lucrelia and John W. 
are living with their mother on the farm which the 
latter cultivates. 

Mrs. W. is a member of the M. E. Church. She 
is in her 66th year, and enjoying fair health. 




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Norton Smith, farmer, section 20, Washington 
Township, is a son of Parmer and Betsy 
(Pullman) Smith, natives of the State of New 
York. Mr. Smith was by trade a cooper. He 
came to Michigan, but remained only a short 
time, and then returned to New York State. He 
died Dec. 3, 1843. Betsy (Pullman) Smith is now a 
resident of St. T^ouis, Mich. 

The subject of this sketch was bom Oct. 18, 1826, 
in the State of New York. Losing his father when 
14 years old he was the main support of the family, 
including four girls, until he was 30 years old. March 
4, 1856, he married Adeline, daughter of Erastus and 
Julia A. (Coon) Berry, natives of New York. They 
came to Branch Co., Mich., but after one year re- 
turned to New York State, where Mrs. Berry died in 
1851, and Mr. Berry in 1859. Dec. 31, r857, Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith came to Gratiot County and located 
on 79^ acres on section 20, Washington Township. 
This was then wild land, and they were among the 



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first settlers of the township. Most of their early 
neighbors are long since dead. At first they located 
a half mile from any house, but new dwellings have 
sprung up within a stOiie s throw of the house. He 
had to cut a road to his place, and for many years 
deer could be seen running with his cattle, when he 
went to bring them home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith have six children: Fred E. 
and Fanny E. (twins), bom in 1857; Frank, born in 
1862; Emma, bom in i860; William H., born in 
1866; and Clara A., born in 1875. Mrs. Smith is a 
member of the United Brethren Church. Mr. 
Smith has been Justice of the Peace, Treasurer and 
Clerk of his township, one term each, and has held 
school offices a number of times. Politically he is a 
Republican. 



lohn Sweet, farmer, section 29, Emerson 
Township, was born in Sparta, N. Y., Feb. 
26, 1825, and is the son of Amos and Polly 
(Blighton) Sweet, natives of New England. 
John wsis early left an orphan, his father dying 
when he was very young, and his mother fol- 
lowing her husband when the lad was but 12 years 
old. At this tender age he was left alone to battle 
with the world, and he went to work for an old friend 
of his father, in Medina Co., Ohio, where his mother 
had moved with some friends previous to her death. 
In 1845, he was married, in Medina County, to 
Narina N. White, born in the State of Vermont, July 
2, 1827. She died in Spencer, Medina County, in 
March, 1864, leaving four children, — Lucius B., 
Lucia A., Isaac and Sophronia E. He was again 
married in July, 1864, to Mrs. Sophronia Snyder («<f<f 
White), daughter of William and Polly (Curtis) 
White, natives of New Hampshire, and descended 
from New England stock. She was born in Chitten- 
den Co., Vt , Nov. 7, 1826, and at the age of 19 came 
to Medina Co., Ohio, where she was married the sec- 
ond time. She had four children by her first mar- 
riage, two living: Emma E., born Oct. 19, 1843; 
George N., bom July 8, 1845. Hester A. was born 
Sept. 8, 1 84 1, and died March 15, 1863; Florence I. 
died Feb. 15, 1858. 

Mr. Sweet is a minister in the Baptist Church, be- 
ginning early in life, and has always been an earnest 
worker for that denomination. His wife is also a 




member of the Church. He has held the office of 
Overseer, and is a supporter of the Republican party. 
He has been a resident of this county for 13 years, 
and has 60 acres of improved land. 






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illiam J. Fitzgerald, famier, section 26, 
Elba Township, is a son of John and 
Mary (Berry) Fitzgerald, natives of Ireland, 
who emigrated to New York in an early 
day, and engaged in farming. Their son, 
William J., came to Michigan in 187 1. For 
six years he was engaged with a Mr. Hays, of Ionia 
County, in the summer as overseer of a large farm, 
and in the winter as foreman of a crew of hands in 
the pine woods. In 1881 he came to Elba Town 
ship and located on 80 acres on section 26, of which 
40 acres are nicely improved. 

In 1870 he was united in marriage to Emily, fourth 
daughter of Oliver and Julia (Miller) Richards, na- 
tives of New Yoik. She was born Feb. 4, 1853. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fitzgerald are the parents of three 
children: Anna M., Emma B. (deceased), and Will- 
i?im F. Mr. Fitzgerald enjoys the confidence and 
esteem of his fellow-citizens, and was chosen High- 
way Commissioner for Elba Township in 1883. Po- 
litically he is a Republican. 

ohn A. Pasinger, farmer, section 24, New 
Haven Township, was born in Lawrence 
'^^^ Co., N. v., April i, 1825. His parents were 
of Dutch descent and lived and died in the 
State of their son's nativity. The occupation 
of the father was that of a mechanic, which 
vocation the son followed in after years. 

Our subject remained under the parental roof-tree 
assisting his father until he attained the age of 13, 
when he began to learn the trade of a carpenter and 
joiner, under the instruction of his father, and worked 
with him at the trade until 18 years of age. He 
then set out to battle with the trials of life alone, 
and followed his trade, which he had completed, en- 
gaging a portion of his time in a saw-mill and lum- 
ber interests in Ontario, in the vicinity of the Ottawa 
River. 

Returning to his native county, he engaged m van 







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ous occupations for a period of four years, when he 
was married in that county, June 17, 1849, to Miss 
Lucy A. North, a native of the same county as Mr. 
Pasinger, where she was born June 16, 1829, and 
where she lived with her grandparents until her 
marriage. 

Six children have been born to their marriage, 
four of whom, Henry W., Eugene C, Hannah M. 
and Anna L., are livmg, and two, Franklin and Orson, 
are deceased. 

After their marriage in New York, Mr. P. followed 
his trade for some 18 years, also being engaged in 
the lumber business. In 1865 he came to this State 
and purchased 80 acres of wild land in Clinton 
County. He made some improvement on this land 
and returned to New York. In 1873 he returned to 
his land in Clinton County, and made a permanent 
settlement. He added 80 acres to his original pur- 
chase and then sold 40 acres, leaving him 120 acres. 
Of this, he improved 70 acres, erected a house and 
in x88i sold the entire tract preparatory to going 
West to start a new home. Before moving his fam- 
ily, he changed his mind, and came to this county 
and purchased 140 acres of land on section 24, for- 
merly owned by a Mr. Shepherd. His farm has a 
large orchard, which is in fine bearing condition. 

Mr. Pasinger has held the office of Highway Com- 
missioner and is 'identified with the best interests of 
the township. Politically, he is a staunch Democrat. 




aniel F. Muscott, retired farmer, on section 

12, Emerson Township, was born in 

5J|r^ Western, Oneida Cx)., N. Y., March 19, 
^■^Tiw 181 1. In this town Gen. Halleck was born, 
and Gen. Floyd, of the Revolution, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Indej^endence, is 
buried in the same township. Daniel's father, 
Nehemiah Muscott, was a native of New Jersey, of 
Hollander parentage, and was by trade a tanner. 
A portion of his life, however, was spent on the seas. 
The mother of Daniel, Hannah (Felton) Muscott, 
was a native of New York, and of Puritan stock. 
Both died in Washtenaw Co., Mich., at the age 
of 67. 

The subject of this sketch attended district school 
and worked for his father until he was 21, when he 



began to clear a farm for himself in his native county. 
He was thus engaged for five years, but during this 
time, in Rome, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1832, he formed a 
life partnership with Sobrina Walsworth. She was 
born in Rome, June 28, 181 1, and was the daughter 
of Asa and Hannah (Dickerson) Walsworth, natives 
of Rome. A few years after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Muscott went to Sherman Township, Huron Co., 
Ohio, where they lived until 1854. Then they came 
to Michigan and lived ten years in Ingham County. 
In February, 1864, they came to Gratiot County and 
purchased 160 acres in Emerson Township, shortly 
after buying 80 acres more. He now has one of the 
finest farms in the county, 240 acres in extent, 130 
of which are excellently improved. He has also a 
comnoodious dwelling and other farm buildings. 
And now, as his active and eventful life is drawing 
to a close, he and his wife, both 73 years old, pass 
the time in quiet enjoyment of the fruits of their 
labor, and in reading. 

They have had a family of six, all of whom are 
alive, married, and have families : Sobrini, born Dec. 
22, 1833, Ralph, April 28, 1839, Theodore W., July 
25, 1843, Hannah, July 22, 1846, Ellen A., April 7, 
1849, and Merriti, Dec. ?, 1854. 

Mr. and Mrs. Muscott are active members of the 
Presbyterian Church. He has held the office of 
Supervisor for two terms, and Township Treasurer for 
two terms. 

Politically, he has been a stalwart Republican 
since the organization of the party. 



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I<^Iitewart Edg^ar. farmer, on section 2, Emer- 
- tfeii V ^" Township, was born in Dumfrieshirc, 
' V ^'^ Keir Parish, Scotland, May 8, 181 9; and 

f\^ is the son of John and Jane (Nicholson) Edgar, 
\ natives of Scotland. John Edgar was ot 
( Scotch ancestry for at least ^s^ centuries back. 
He was a farmer at first, but spent the latter part of 
his life weighing metal at the iron mines of England, 
where he moved about 1853. He died in Cletnir 
Moor, Eng., in March, 1855. Jane Nicholson lived 
with her parents in her native county, and was there 
reared, educated, married and died. 

The subject of this sketch was educated in the 
parish schools of his native couniy, and at the age of 
19 began to ^ork as a common laborer in the mines 






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of his native county and Gal way County. In th^ 
latter, Oct. 18, 1844, he was united in marriage to 
Margaret, daughter of Anthony and Mary (McQueen) 
Dunn, natives of Galway, Scotland. He was a saw- 
yer by trade, and -he and wife died about 1863. 
Margaret was bom in Galway County, nearCanmore 
Castle, May i, 1830, and was bred and educated 
there. Nine years after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Edgar removed to Cumberland Co., £ng., where he 
worked in the mines. In the summer of 1855, they 
came to London, Ontario, Can., where he was em- 
ployed as a railroad section foreman. Later he was 
stationed in the same capacity at St. Thomas, and 
remained there seven years. In December, 1862, 
he came to Michigan with his family, and settled on 
122 acres in Emerson Township, purchased two 
years previously. He has 70 acres well improved, 
and good farm buildings. He has also purchased 
1 20 acres additional, which is worked by his two 
oldest sons. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar have a family of seven : El- 
len, Jane, Stewart, James, William George Thomas, 
Mary and John, Politically, Mr. Edgar is a staunch 
Republican. He and wife are life-long members of 
the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. .They are 
among the most respected citizens of the township. 




fames Henry, proprietor of the St. Louis 
Flouring Mills, manufacturer and dealer in 
lumber, shingles, flour, feed, etc., was born 
in County Tyrone, Ireland, Feb. 24, 1825. He 
is a son of William and Sarah A. (Gilmore) 
Henry, and both parents were natives of the 
Emerald Isle. His father died there, at the age of 
84 years, in the same house in which he was born. 
His mother died previously, when she was about 42 
years old. 

Mr. Henry was brought upon a farm and obtained 
a fair education. At 18 he learned the business of 
a wagon-maker, and in 1849 left his native country 
for the United States. He spent two summers on a 
farm in Yates Co., N. Y-, and in 1851 proceeded to 
Allegany Co., N. Y., where he learned engineering, 
which he followed three years and then came to Bay 
City, Mich., and operated in the same capacity one 



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summer, after which he proceeded to St. Charles, v^ 
Saginaw County, where he was similarly employed'; 
six years. In 1861 he went to Grant Co., Wis., and /* . 
became proprietor of 160 acres of land by purchase, 
Three years after he returned to Michigan and fol- 
lowed his trade of engineer in Saginaw County three 
years. He went to Hemlock City and bought a saw 
and shingle mill, which the operated 10 years with 
satisfactory success, and in 1879 went to Cedar Lake, 
Montcalm County, where he built a saw and shingle 
mill and engaged vigorously in the prosecution of \ 
lumbering interests. Two years later, the steam 
boiler exploded, destroying the mill and killing two 
men. At the moment of the explosion, Mr. Henry 
was in the mill, standing near the stove, which was 
about 20. feet from the boilef. The roof fell upon 
him, but the stove kept it from crushing him to death. 
He hastened the re-building of the mill and in 60 
days it was again running. 

In the fall of 1882, Mr. Henry moved to St. Louis, 
where he had purchased one and a half acres of land, 
and built a residence. In September of the same 
year he bought his mill site, which includes about 15 - 
acres, and is largely engaged in the manufacture of £j^ 
mill products. He also owns 400 acres of land in p: 
Richland Township, Saginaw County. His flouring \/ 
mills are 30x80 feet, with three stories and base- 
ment. The wing is 22 x 40 feet in size and two 
stories high. The mills are fitted with the most 
modern style of machinery for the production of first- 
class work, and the power is supplied by six Leff"- 
well turbine water wheels. The fixtures include six 
run of stones, and the capacity of the workt is 1 25 
barrels per day. The flouring and saw mills were 
owned 24 years by H. L. Holcomb, of whom Mr. 
Henry purchased them in September, 1882. In De- 
cember following, the saw-mill burned, entailing a 
loss of j(3,ooo, without insurance. 

Mr. Henry was married in St. Charles, Saginaw 
County, Feb. 24, 1859, to Jane, daughter of William 
and Mary Boyst, a native of New York. Four 
children have been born of their marriage, two of (^ 
^hom are living, — Fred Cook and Myra J. The f 
deceased were William B. and Nellie M. Mr. Henry ^} . 
is a Republican in political sentiment, and, while re- , ' 
siding in Saginaw County, held the positions of Town- v/ 
ship Clerk and Treasurer. ^ 

Physically, Mr. Henry is a fine sample of manly ^' 



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vigor and energetic effort. He has the hardihood of 
a man who has passed his years of prime and yet 
retains his powers of strength and endurance to a 
degree that proves the correctness of his habits and 
course of life. Both he and his wife have reached a 
period of existence altogether satisfying from their 
part of well-directed effort and their future, which 
holds higher and better promise than that of youth s 
fresh flush of hope and ambition. They can rest on 
the fruition of the years that are gone, which assure 
the type of those to come. The portraits of Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry are to be found on pages 250 and 251. 




eorge Little, blacksmith, at Sickels, was 
born in the county of Franklin, and State 
of Vermont, Jan. 5, 1850, aiid is a son of 
Peter Little, of Sweetsburg, Canada, and a na- 
tive of that county. Mr. Little received the 
advantages afforded by the common schools of 
his native country. He learned his trade in Ver- 
mont while quite a young man and has success- 
fully pursued it until the present time with the ex- 
ception of about two years. 

He came to St. Louis, Mich., in 1880, and after 
remaining there eight months, went to Ithaca, where 
he lived for six months. He then came to Sickels, 
this county, at which place he now carries on his 
trade. 

He was married June 14, 1874, to Miss Katie 
Golden, and four children have been born to their 
union, namely : Annie, Ettie, George Thomas and 
William Henry. 

t illiam W. Palmer, farmer, section 28, 
North Star Township, is a native of the 
Empire State, and was born in Onondaga 
County, May 27, 1823. His parents, Gilbert 
and Ann (Pitts) Palmer, were natives respect- 
ively of Green and Columbia Cos., N. V., who 
emigrated to Lenawee Co., Mich., in 1837, settling in 
the wild woods, amongst savage animals and Indians. 
Mr. Palmer settled where he now lives in this county 




in 1854, and whe;e he at present owns 80 acres of 
good land. He has given his children 160 acres. 
He was a blacksmith by trade when a young man, 
but for many years he has been a prosperous 
farmer. 

July 2, 1845, Mr. Palmer married Miss Lydia M., 
daughter of Chester and Aurelia (Guthrie) Savage, 
and of their nine children ^st, only are now living, 
viz.: Ida L., Rufus M., Frank G., Roscoe C. and 
Vere D. Ida L. married Edwin E. Palmer, and 
lives in Mecosta Co., Mich., in Fork Township; 
Rufus M. married Charlotte Henry, and lives on part 
of the homestead ; Frank G. married Llewella Husen, 
and is a prominent teacher; Roscoe C. lives in Chicago; 
and Vere D. is at home, attending school winters 
and working on the farm during the rest of the 
year. 

Mr. Palmer, the subject of this biographical notice, 
was the first Treasurerof North Star Township, hold- 
ing the office five years; has also been Township 
Clerk one year. School Inspector one year, and is 
Justice of the Peace. He is a member of the Mawnic 
fraternity. 

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^Jpr|j> ohn H. Bangs, farmer, section 1 1 , Arcada 
l^pilt Township, was born in De Kalb Co., Ind., 
)j^' ' May II, r847; and is the son of Heman 
and Almira (Chaffee) Bangs, natives of Ver- 
mont and New York. Heman Bangs removed 
from Vermont to New York ; thence to Michi- 
gan ; and lastly to De Kalb Co., Ind., where he was 
one of the first settlers. 

The subject of this biographical notice remained 
at home, working on the farm and attending the com- 
mon school, until he attained his majority. He then 
came to Gratiot, and kept " bachelor s hall ** on 80 
acres his father had purchased a few years before. 
Some months later, he returned to his native county, 
where, Jan. 21, 1869, he was married to Miss Emma 
De Long, daughter of James and Elizabeth (Fair) 
De Ix)ng, natives of Maryland and Virginia. Emma 
was born in Allen Co., Ind., Oct. 6, 185 1, went when 
10 years old to De Kalb Co., Ind., and there was 
reared and educated. 

Immediately after marriage, Mr, and Mrs. Bangs 
came to Gratiot and settled down on his then unim- 



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proved farm. He has now under cultivation 40 
acres, and has erected one of the best barns in the 
township. 

Mr. and Mrs. B. have a family of four, as follows : 
Cora, born Jan. 16, 1870; Stella, Sept. i, 1872; 
Leota, Oct. 5, 1873; Raymond, Aug. 5, 1877.' Po- 
litically, Mr. Bangs is a Republican. He and wife 
are members of the United Brethren Church. 




.aoob Schaub, farmer, section 28, Lafayette 
^ Township, is a son of George and Sophisf 
(Brandan) Schaub, natives of Germany. 
They followed farming in the old country until 
1852, when they emigrated to America. They 
farmed in Lorain and Sandusky Counties, Ohio, 
until their death in the latter county in 1869. Jacob 
left home at the age of 28, and worked on a farm 
until he was married, July 10, 1858, to Mary 
Rice. 

In 1876 he removed with his family to Gratiot 
County, and located on 80 acres of land on section 
28, Lafayette Township. He has improved 60 acres. 
In 1878 he built his barn, and in 1883 he erected 
a large and well-arranged dwelling-house 

Mrs. Schaub was born Oct. 13, 1840, in Sandusky 
Co., Ohio. She has brought to her husband 14 
children: Barney, Anthon G., Christian W., Sophia 
E., Jacob, Jane, Emma, Willie and Wilson (twins), 
George, Frank, Albert, Bertie and Alice. 

Mr. Schaub has been Moderator of his school 
district for three years. Politically he is a Democrat. 



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braham L. Wight, whose Christian name 
was given him in honor of the martyred 
Lincoln, who took the oath of office and en- 
tered on the duties of Chief Magistrate of the 
Nation eight days after the birth of our sub- 
ject, is a son of Leonard Wight, who came to Eaton 
County, this State, in 1858, and settled in the town- 
ship of Benton, where Abraham was born, Feb. 24, 
1 86c. He lived with his parents in Benton Town- 
5ihip, Eaton County, until 1869, when he accom- 
panied them to Chester Township, same county, and 
where the mother died in 1874. 

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He received the advantages afforded by the com- 
mon schools of his county and followed his inclina- 
tion to learn the wagon and carpenter business by 
working for his brother, Sheldon Wight. He is now 
engaged with his brothers S. and M. Wight, in their 
planing-mill ; is present Clerk of Hamilton Town- 
ship, and a member of the I. O. O. F. 

Mr. Wight owns 40 acres of land on section 5, and 
devotes as much of his time to its improvement as is 
compatible with the faithful performance of his 
other duties. He has four brothers, — Francis, Shel- 
don, Reuben and Mason, living. His only sister 
and the eldest child of the family, died when she 
was 1 2 years of age. 

Mr. W. is yet a young man, and, possessing his 
portion of that indomitable energy characteristic of 
the young men of the county, supported by a large 
amount of ambition, is certain to succeed 

— ^-«s«$4H6»H-! 

VWinbrose B. Angell, farmer, on section 28, 
I Arcada Township, is a son of William and 
Rhoda (Bonnell) Angell, natives of New York 
and Connecticut, respectively. They followed 
farming, and died in Stockbridge, Ingham Co., 
Mich., the father Jan. 28, 1864, aged 69, and the 
mother June 6, 1865, aged 64. They were pioneers 
of Ingham County. 

Ambrose B. was born in Orange Co., N. Y., April 
15, 1834, and at the age of eight came with his 
parents to Wayne County, this State. Here he lived 
six years, working on the farm and attending school. 
When 14 years old, he moved with his parents to 
Bunkerhill Township, Ingham County, and settled on 
a farm. Two years later, he went to Jackson, and 
for two years he attended the High School in that 
city. He then attended i8 months at Albion College. 
Returning to Ingham County, he was for the ensuing 
four years engaged in teaching, in the common 
schools. Going back to his father s farm, he worked 
it, in partnership with his brother Malcolm, until the 
latter s death, in 1866. For the next seven years, he 
carried on the farm by himself. Going then to Rives, 
Jackson County, he purchased 80 acres of improved 
land, and commenced farming there. 

April 9, 1877, he received a great financial set- 
back in the form of a fire, that speedily reduced to 




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ashes his residence, household goods, barns, live 
stock, grain and farm implements. His total loss 
was not less than $4,400. Shortly after this, he sold 
his farm, came to Gratiot County and purchased 160 
acres of partly improved land on section 28, Arcada 
Township, where he has since resided. He has 
cleared 60 acres, and now, of his 160 acres, no are 
under the plow. He has commodious farm buildings. 

Nov. 24, 1864, at Waterloo, Jackson County, he 
was married to Elvira J., a daughter ot Hiram and 
Martha (McNeal) Drew, natives of New England, 
and of Irish descent. She was born at Grass Lake, 
Jackson County, Dec. 22, 1840, and lived wiih her 
parents in that county until her marriage. She 
attended school at Grass Lake and Leoni, and com- 
menced teaching school at the age of 16. This she 
followed till she was 22, and at 23 she was married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Angell have a family of six, as fol- 
lows: Mattie R., born Dec. 30, 1865, Edith E., Dec. 
8, 1866, Cora A., Dec. 3, 1867, Florence E., Feb. 2, 
1869, Edwin F., March 5, 187 i, Willie C, Oct. 19, 

1875- 
Mr. and Mrs. Angell are active members of the 

Patrons of Husbandry. He has held the office of 

Drain Commissioner and Highway Commissioner. 

Politically, he votes with the Republican party. 

ollin W. Maxam, merchant, section 29, 
Lafayette Township, is a son of Isaac B. 
and Clarissa (Kellogg) Maxam, natives of 
New York. Mr. Maxam, Sr., followed farm- 
ing in New York State until 1849, when he 
removed to Ohio, and engaged there in farm- 
ing and stock-raising. Rollin W. was born Feb. 19, 
185 1. He remained with his father until 21. He 
then worked one season manufacturing cheese. 
Coming to Michigan in the fall of 1872, he was for 
the ensuing three years manager of a cheese factory. 
He then enbarked in farming. In 1878, he came to 
this county and located on section 29, Lafayette 
Township, spending the next three years clearing his 
farm. 

Nov. 7, 1 88 1, he was apiX)inted Postmaster of La- 
fayette post-office. Jan. i, 1882, he engaged in 
mercantile business, which he has followed since. 




He has a general stock of dry goods, groceries, boots 
and shoes, and miscellaneous goods. He also has an 
extensive apiary, and deals in bees and honey. 

He was married in 1870, to Ida E. Bissell, daughter 
of Warren and Charlotte (Bailey) Bissell. They were 
natives of Ohio, and died the mother in Ohio, in 
1854, and the father in Kansas, in 1879. 

Mr. and Mrs. Maxam are the parents of three 
children: Arthur J., Mabel and Arno. Politically, 
Mr. Maxam is a Republican. 










rancis M. Utter, farmer, section 33, Ar- 
cada Township, was bom in Chatham, 

f^^ Medina Co., Ohio, March 10, 1833; and 
yj^ is the son of Amos and Margery (Hamilton) 
yi^ Utter, natives of New York State. Amos Ut- 

{ ter was a mechanic and farmer, of English and 
German descent, and died in Manistee Co., Mich., 
in October, 1876. 

When Francis was six years old, his father re- 
moved to Shelby Co., 111., and two years later, in 
June, 1 84 1, he came to Michigan, locating in Port- 
land, Ionia County. Here he worked on his father s 
farm and attended the common school, until he at- 
tained his majority. For the ensuing three years he 
worked at farming on shares in the summer time, and 
at lumbering in the winters. 

Jan. I, 1857, in Pine River Township, this county, 
he was united in marriage to Miss Sophia C. Roberts, 
daughter of Stephen and Rachel (Stuck) Roberts, 
natives of New York. They afterwards removed to 
this State, where Sophia was born, in Pittsfield, Wash- 
tenaw Co., Mich., April 8, 1840. She was reared 
and educated in that county, and -there lived and 
cared for her fathers household until 17 years old, 
when she was married. 

Shortly after that event, Mr. and Mrs. Utter re- 
moved to Portland, Ionia County, where they carried 
on farming for 10 years ; thence to Dallas Township, 
Clinton County, where they were similarly engaged 
for 12 years. Mr. Utter was also extensively en- 
gaged in buying and selling real estate. In March, 
1876, they came to this county, where he purchased 
80 acres in Lafayette Township. Shortly after, he 
sold, and bought 40 acres in New Haven. Here he 



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erected a house, and farmed for about three years. 
He then purchased 1 60 acres of timbered land on 
section 33, Arcada Township, his present home, and 
commenced to improve the same. He has 25 acres 
carefully improved, and is possessed of sufl5cient 
ability and experience to make in time one of the 
most successful farmers in the township. 

Mr. and Mrs. Utter have had born to them four 
children, of whom three are living: Amos D., l)orn 
Oct. 14, i860; Francis M., Sept. 24, 1863; Ceylon 
A., April 28, 1875. Clara A. was bom Oct. 6, 1857, 
and was fatally scalded by falling into a tub of hot 
water, March 17, 1861. Mr. Utter has held the of- 
fices of Director, Assessor, Inspector and Moderator 
in his school district. He is at present Moderator. 
Politically he is a Democrat. 




lien Oberlin, farmer, section 23, Elba 
Township, is a son of George and Esther 

(Bowman) Oberlin, natives of Pennsylvania. 

They died in 1868 and 1863, respectively. 

Allen was born Nov. 15, 1 814, in Lancaster 

Co., Pa. Leaving his father s farm at the age 
of 21, he worked by the month until he was 26, when 
he married Mary, daughter of John and Christina 
(Baisler) Wulmoyer. They were natives of Germany, 
and emigrated to America at an early day. Mary 
Wulmoycr was born April 21, 182 1. 

Mr. and Mrs. Oberlin moved to Stark Co , Ohio, 
and remained there a period of ten years. He then 
went to Medina County, in the same State, living 
there eight years. His next move was to Indiana, 
but three months more found him in Lansing, Mich., 
where his home was for the next eight years. He 
then located on section 23, Elba Township. At that 
rime they were surrounded by a perfect wilderness, 
and the howl of the wolf and the scream of the wild- 
cat became familiar sounds to their ears. Their 
nearest neighbor in one direction was three miles 
away, in the other eight. They first entered a large 
tract of land, but, old age coming on, they have sold 
most of their land, and now live on a 20-acre place. 
They are the parents of nine children : Eliza, Rachel, 
Mary A., Esther (died Dec. 12, 1883), John, George, 
Christina, Malcolm and Rebecca. 
Mr. Obcriin is one of the most prominent citizens 




of Elba Township, and is looked up to by his neigh- 
bors. He has held the office of Highway Com- 
missioner. He is an acrive member of the Free 
Methodist Church, and has always been a supporter 
of the Republican party. 



asper C. Sickels, Postmaster and merchant 
at Sickels, was born at Howell, Livingston 
Co., Mich., March 27, 1849, and is a son 
of Aaron Sickels, an eariy settler of Wayne 
Co, Mich., but now of Walton, Grand Trav- 
erse County, this Slate. When he was seven 
years old the family moved to Wyandotte, Mich., 
and two years afterward they came to Duplain, Clin- 
ton Co., Mich., where his father was in turn a mer- 
chant, miller and farmer. 

Mr. S., the subject of this sketch, was educated in 
the common schools, and in 1871 engaged in mer- 
cantile business at Elsie, Mich., until in 1873, when 
his health failed and he resorted to agricultural em- 
ployment until 1880. In November of this year he 
purchased his present store at Sickels, where he 
keeps a full line of goods in general merchandise, 
and is doing a prosperous trade. He also owns a 
steam saw-mill in the pineries of this and Saginaw 
counties. 

May 5, 1870, Mr. Sickels was married to Miss 
Mary P., daughter of Elisha Fuller (deceased), and 
the three children now comprised in their family are, 
Hattie, Claud and Frankie. 

Mr. S. is a member of the Orders of Masonry and 
Odd Fellowship. 




omer Qalehouse, farmer, section 25, Elba 
Township, is a son of John W. and Julia 
(Wilson) Galehouse, natives of Ohio and 
Massachusetts. The father was murdered, at 
Doylestown, Ohio, in 184 1 ; and the mother 
died in 1843. Homer was born in Wayne Co., 
Ohio, March 24, 1838. Being left an orphan when 
only five years of age, he went to live with his grand- 
parents. At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to 
the saddle and harness trade, but after two and a 
half years ill health compelled him to abandon that 



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GRATIOT COUNTY. 



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occupation. For the next few years he worked at a 
number of things, until he finally settled down as a 
farmer. 

In 1875, in the State of Indiana, he joined his for- 
tunes with Mary Pettyjohn, born April 7, 1843, in 
Stark Co., Ohio. The same year he removed to Elba 
Township, this county, finally locating on 80 acres 
of wild land on section 25. He has now comfortable 
buildings, and 60 acres of well improved land. Mr. 
and Mrs. Galehouse have a family of seven children, 
— John D., Charles E., George H., Lucette E., Frank 
Z., Sarah L. and Mary J. Mr. Galehouse is a mem- 
ber of the U. B. Church, and votes with the Repub- 
lican party. 



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eorge W. Marshall, farmer, section 17, 
Lafayette Township, is a son of Nathan 
D. and Hannah E. (Turner) Marshall, natives 
of Ohio. They were engaged in farming in 
that State until 1865, when they came to 
Michigan. They followed farming in Clinton 
County unlil 1878, when they came to Lafayette 
Township, Gratiot County, and located on section 18, 
on their present place of 60 acres. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Geauga Co., 
Ohio, Aug. II, 1855. He lived with his parents, at- 
tending the common schools a portion of the time, 
until he was 18 years old. He then left home to 
work on his own account. He was employed on a 
farm the first year at $18 per month, and the second 
at $20, and also attended school occasionally until 
Jan. 12, 1882, when he was married to Ella Phelps, 
born in Livingston County, Aug. 6, 1865. She is the 
eldest daughter of James and Elizabeth (Hodges) 
Phelps, natives of New York and Canada, respect- 
ively. They came in 1881 to this county, where Mr. 
Phelps follows his trade of blacksmith. 

Feb. 19, 1882, Mr. and Mrs. Marshall located on 
a tract of 80 acres on section 17, Lafayette Township, 
where they now reside. Mr. Marshall has improved 
40 acres of his farm and erected a neat and commo- 
dious dwelling-house. 

In the winter of 1883-4, he taught the school in 
district No. 3. They are the happy parents of one 
child, Allen B, born Dec. i, 1883. In 1882, Mr. 
Marshall was chosen School Inspector of his Town- 



ship for two years. He is also Pathmasterin his "Y 
district. Politically he stands on the platform of >| 
"Anti-Monopoly." 



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»ttJ'|ruce Hunter, farmer, section 35, Elba 
.P^k- Township, is a son of John and Charlotte 
^ (Kenna) Hunter, natives of New York, 
where the former died. Bruce left home at 
the early age of 13, and went to work driving 
team on the New York water-works. Coming 
to Detroit in 1842, he worked a year as blacksmith. 
The next four years were spent in Canada. Then 
he spent a short time in Buffalo, N. Y., 18 months at 
Cayuga Creek, Niagara County, and two years in 
Erie Co., N. Y. Coming to Michigan in 1856, he 
spent 18 months in Jackson County, and then located 
in Elba Township, this county. He worked two years 
in Elsie, then returned and sold his Elba farm, then 
went to Elsie once more. He finally purchased 40 
acres on section 35, Elba Township, where he now 
resides. 

In 1853 he was married to Miranda, daughter of 
Ralph and Margaret Sutphin. Mr. and Mrs. Hunter 
have a family of six children : William H., Frank, 
Fred, George, Eva and Florence. In politics Mr. 
Hunter is a Republican. He has been Justice of the 
Peace, and has been a school officer for eight years. 



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^orace Spear, farmer, section 35, Lafayette 
1^ Township, is a son of Calvin and Charlotte 
(Stone) Spear, natives of Vermont and Can- 
ada, respectively, and was bom Feb. 23, 1832. 
At the age of 17, he left home, and began to 
care for himself. In 1849, he came to Sanilac 
Mich., where he remained a short time. He 
then went to St. Clair Co., Mich., after a year return- 
ing to Sanilac County. Thence he removed to Ionia 
County, in 1863. His next move after a number of 
years, was to Lawrence Co., Tenn., where he re- 
mained one year, and then, returning to Michigan, 
settled in Gratiot County, in the year 1878. He first 
located on section 28, Emerson Township, and then, 
after three years, removed to his present residence, on 
section 35, Lafayette Township. 






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In his 2 2d year, he was married to Mary A, West- 
ervelt, who was born in Canada, Jan. 15, 1838. She 
was the daughter of Garrett and Lucinda (Pollard) 
Westervelt, natives of Canada. Mr. and Mrs. Spear 
are the parents of six children : Delila J., Minerva, 
William A., Ida L., John A. and Alfred H. 

Mr. Spear held the office of Highway Commis- 
sioner, in St. Clair County, one year, and he has also 
held various school offices. He and Mrs. Spear be- 
long to the Free Methodist Church, in which they 
are active workers. Mr. Spear has a license as a 
local preacher of the gospel, and occasionally leads 
services for his denomination. 




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aoob J. Muffly, farmer, section 9, Hamilton 
Township, was born in Stark Co., Ohio, 
Nov. 6, 1837. He is a son of John Muffly, 
of this Township, who brought his family to 
this County in 1855 and settled on the above 
named section and where he and our subject 
^ njw live. They settled in the woods and were sub- 
Tt jected to all the trials encountered by the eariy pio- 
neer settlers of the county. Wild animals predomi- 
nated in abundance and, " although they were con- 
sidered a necessity to supply the craving appetites of 
hungry, ambitious and energetic individuals," the 
howling of the wolves, the crying of the panther and 
wild-cat were no pleasant sounds to listen to, and 
grated harshly on the ear, at least of the feminine 
portion of the household. 

When the shot which started a nation from its 
peaceful sleep of years, was thundered from rebel 
guns upon Fort Sumter, and our martyred President 
called for loyal hearts to battle for the perpetuity of 
the " Flag of our Fathers " and the preservation of 
our nation s honor, the heart of our subject beat in 
unison with the cause and he enlisted in Co. F, 29th 
Mich. Vol. Inf. He was in the battles of Decatur, 
Murfreesboro and others, and was honorably dis- 
charged Sept. 6, 1865. 

Mr. Muffly was married Aug. 2, 1866, to Miss 
Mary, daughter of 2k>roaster Moss, deceased, and five 
children have been born to their union, four of whom, 
John L., Birdsey A., Charles H. and Annie are liv- 
ing. Mrs. M. was bom in Waterloo, Jackson Co., 



Mich., in 1847, and is a cousin to ex.-Gov. Blair, of 
this State. Mr. and Mrs. M. are both members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. They have a fine 
farm of 80 acres, on which they are at present living 
and pleasure and happiness surround the family 
hearthstone. 



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^iOrace S. Taylor, farmer, section 20, Area- 
da Township, was born in St. Lawrence Co., 
N. Y., Feb. 7, 18 18; and is the son of James 
and Tabitha (Borland) Taylor. James Taylor 
was bom in Orange Co., N. Y., of Irish and 
English descent, and was by occupation a 
farmer. He died in Cleveland, Ohio, at the age ot 
87. His wife died in Litchfield, Medina Co., Ohio, 
also at an advanced age. 

The subject of this sketch remained with his father 
on the farm and attended school, first the common 
schools, and then the Gouverneur Academy of St. 
Lawrence County, and taught until 23 years old. 
He commenced teaching at the age of 21, and^ fol- 
lowed that for three years. He then removed to 
Medina Co., Ohio, where he farmed and taught select 
school until 1854. He then became a railroad con- 
tractor, and after a time became connected with a 
saw-mill. In the spring of 1867 he came to this 
State and county, and purchased 120 acres of partly 
improved land on section 20, Arcada Township, and 
devoted himself to farming. He has made rapid im- 
provements, has erected new bams, and now has 
about one-half his farm in a state of high cultivation. 
Though becoming advanced in years, he is a progress- 
ive farmer, and acUvely devdled to building up his 
township. He takes an especial interest in all things 
pertaining to schools and in all benevolent and econ- 
omic projects. 

Oct. 5, 1852, at Penfield, Lorain Co., Ohio, he was 
united in marriage to Maria, daughter of Orrin and 
Abigail (Hickofc) Starr, natives of New York, and ot 
English descent. The Starrs have an interesting and 
valuable genealogical record, which traces the family 
back to Dr. Comfort Slarr, of Kent, England, 1635. 
The book is a quarto, and contains 579 pages. Maria 
Starr was bom in Harpersfield, Delaware Co., N. Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have had a family of three, 



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two of whom survive, as follows : James L., born 
Jan. 19, 1856; Abbie E., born July 29, 1867; Emma 
S., bom Sept. 8, 1857, and died May 18, 1870. Mr. 
Taylor is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge at Me- 
dina, Ohio. He is highly esteemed by all his num- 
erous friends, and has been often asked to hold of- 
fice. He has been for some time Superintendent of 
Schools. In political sentiment, he is an ardent and 
influential Greenbacker, and uncompromisingly op- 
posed to any and all monopolies. In 1880, he was 
unanimously nominated for Representative, by his 
party, — a high compliment to Mr, Taylor s ability and 
popularity. 



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11 obert Gladson, farmer and stock-raiser, 

section 17, North Star Township, was born 
in Oakland Co., Mich., June 5, 1844, and 
is a son of John Gladson, deceased, a native 
of England, who moved with his family to 
Clinton Co., this State, in 1854, and a few 
years afterward to this county. Mr. Robert Glad- 
son was a soldier in the late war for 18 months, being 
a member of Co. I, 27th Mich. Vol. Inf., and taking 
part in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsyl- 
vania. In the latter engagement he was wounded in 
the right shoulder. He was married June 26, 1 870, to 
Miss Amanda J., daughter of John Garver (dec), 
and they have five children, as follows : William N., 
Ralph E., Ellen M., Altha E. and Edith S. 

Mr. G. is a Republican, and has been Constable 
two years, and held other offices. He is a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. 



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f homas Derry, farmer, section 3, Hamilton 

Township, is a son of Thomas and Mary A. 

(Johnson) Derry, natives of England, where 

Thomas, Jr., was born, in Cambridgeshire, Jan. 

26, 1832. 

Mr. Derry received the advantages of a select- 
school education in his native country, and emigrated 
to the United States, with his parents, in 1854, settling 
in Wayne Co., N. Y. 

In 1866, Mr. Derry left the parental home, and, 
following the inclination of his ambitious disposition 



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to better his financial condition in life, came to thu 
State, arriving in this county in January of that year 
and has resided here ever since. He settled in th< 
woods, and had but two acres of land cleared or 
which to raise a sufficiency to sustain himself am 
family; yet, being endowed with that spirit ot push 
pluck and energy so necessary to success, he me 
and successfully conquered all difficulties. 

Mr. Derry was united in marriage to Miss Mar] 
A., daughter of John Swails, deceased. Mrs. D 
was born and brought up on the banks of Lak< 
Ontario, on the identical farm on which the Britisl 
troops landed during the war of 181 2. 

Mr. and Mrs. D. are the parents of nine children 
namely : Albert, Herbert A., Frank, Emma, Agne 
M., Willis, Lewis, Annie and Frederick. Alber 
married Miss Mary Williams, and one son, Earl, ha 
been born to them, Emma married a brother c 
Miss Williams, and to them has been born a son 
named George William. 

Mr. Derry owns 44 ji acres of land, which is unde 
the best of cultivation, with a large bam and com 
modious residence. He is a member of the Pres 
byterian Church, of which denomination Mrs. D. ha 
been a member since she was 16 years of age. 

Herbert A. Derry, son of our subject, is one of th 
enterprising business men of the township, and i 
engaged in lumbering. 

Mr. and Mrs. D. made a visit to the old homestea 
in Wayne Co., N. Y., in 1883, and spent a pleasar 
vacation among their relatives and friends. 





eorge B. Andrus, hotel-keeper, Breckei 
^ ,_ ridge village, Wheeler Township, was boi 
^Av;r in Batavia, N. Y., March 28, 1827; ar 
^i\ was the son of James and Hannah (I>odg< 
t Andrus, natives of New York. Mr. Andni 
' Sr., was engaged in farming and running 
saw-mill in New| York until 1856, when he came 
Michigan. Mrs. Andrus died in 1857, and Mr. A 
drus in i860, both in Kalamazoo County. 

The subject of this sketch remained at home un 
he was 21, when he commenced to care for himse 
He worked on a farm and in saw-mills until he w 
26 years old, and then married Elizabeth, daught 



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of William and Mary A. (Vandorn) Young. She 
died in April, 1862, leaving two sons, — ^Auburt and 
Lewis. Mr. Andrus was again married, to Mary P. 
Doty, the widow of Benjamin Doty. She was born 
Dec. 25, 1 84 1, the daughter of William M. and Annis 
Russell, natives of New York and Pennsylvania. 
They came to Pompei, this county, in April, 1876, 
where he kept a hotel one year. He pursued the 
same calling one year at Ithaca, and then removed 
to Breckenridge, where he is still in the hotel busi- 
ness. Mr. Andrus has four children by his second 
marriage : Jewett E., Minnie, James A. and Kittie 
A. In politics he is a Republican. 





lias Sower, physician, clergyman and far- 
mer, section i, North Star Township, is a 
native of York Co., Pa., where he was born 
5|S. April 5, 18 10. He is a son of Henry Sower, 

ik deceased, a native of Frederick Co., Md. ; the 
latter was a son of John Sower, who came from 
Germany many years ago and settled in Maryland. 
The father of our subject was a soldier in the war of 
181 2, and moved his family from Maryland to Centre 
Co., Pa., in 18 15. Here the son attended the com- 
mon schools, assisted on the farm and grew to man- 
hood. In 1835 Mr. Sower moved to Holmes Co., 
Ohio, where he remained for one year and then went 
to Seneca County, same State. He remained here for 
four years, until 1840, when he went to Richland 
County, and after remaining there ten years engaged 
in various occupations, he returned to Seneca County. 
He remained there until 1854, when he came to this 
county and entered 320 acres of Goverment land 
on which he is now residing. His trials were similar 
to those of Michigan's pioneer settlers, and he ener- 
getically met them, with all the determination of an 
individual whose great ambition was to succeed in 
life, and conquered them. 

He arrived in this county, after having entered 
ois land at the Land Office on Oct. 6, 1854, in the 
afternoon of the 9th of December, the same year. 
Eight inches of snow was on the ground and he and 



his family slept in their wagon for an entire week 
before the customary " log cabin " was erected. At 
last the round log shanty was completed, 14 x 20, 
and he and his family moved into their *' palace." 
He began to chop, roll and burn the logs and cleared 
a small patch on which to raise a crop, and success- 
fully continued his labor until want was driven 
from the door, and plenty entered, and, taking her 
seat by the side of comfort and happmess looked 
back upon the past with satisfaction and content. 

The Doctor read medicine for a number of years 
before coming to this State, not with the intention of 
practicing but more for his own edification, yet his 
knowledge of medicine soon became known to his 
neighbors and the indisposed would not accept No for 
an answer in response to their earnest request to call 
and administer to their ailments. He therefore en- 
tered on the practice through no desire on hii part, 
jind yet, after following the same for a few years, he 
became so infatuated with the profession he has con- 
tinued it ever since. He had nothing to feed his 
horses when he first came here and was compelled 
to sell them, and for four years followed the profession 
by walking to his patients. He was what might be 
called ** the father of the neighborhood." He ad- 
ministered to their want?, cured their diseases, made 
their coffins, preached their funerals and placed the 
dirt uix)n their graves. 

Mr. Sower was married May i, 1832, to Margaret 
Bitner, who died Aug. i, 1851. They had ten chil- 
dren, eight of whom are living, namely: Susan, 
Lydia, John H., Catherine, Daniel, Lovina, William 
and Samuel. One daughter, Mary J., after reaching 
womanhood and marrying, died from the effects of a 
sun-stroke, leaving the children to the care of the 
husband. Mr. S. was again married, June 8, 1854, 
to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of John Klingomon, and 
four children have been born to their union, two of 
whom, Sarah E. and Almira, are living; one son, 
David E., twin brother to Sarah, died in his 20th 
year, and another in infancy. 

Dr. Sower was licensed as an exhorterin 1840, and 
July 27, 1843, was licensed to preach the gospel 
from a Methodist standix)int. Aug. 28, 1853, he 
was ordained Deacon by Bishop T. A. Morris, of Mt. 
Vernon, and received the Elder's ordination at the 
hands of Bishop Scott at Grand Rapids, Oct. 5, 
1862. He and his wife are both members of the 






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^'X for 54 years. 

]\ Dr. Sower's life-long friends will prize this work 

more highly for the portrait of the pioneer, which is 

given on a preceding page. 



^arley S. Evitts, fanner, section 32, North 
Star Township, is a native of Trumbull 
Co., Ohio, where he was bom Jan. 10, 1834, 
and is a son of Bela Evitts (deceased), a native 
of Connecticut. He was brought upon a farm, 
receiving his education in the common school. 
When only four years old his parents emigrated, with 
the family, to this county, settling, in June, 1854, in 
North Star Township, where he has since made it 
his home. He was a pioneer, witnessing all the 
features of a frontier life and having his share of their 
experiences. Deer, wolves and bears were plentiful 
when he settled here. He now owns 80 acres of fine 
farming land, where he humbly wins from the soil 
his livelihood. 

Mr. Evitts was married Feb. 28, 1861, to Miss 
Margaret Bartrim, a native of Ireland who was 
brought to this country when six years of age. Her 
father was Thomas Bartrim, now deceased, who set- 
tled first in Pennsylvania, then, in 1849, in Ohio, and 
finally, in 1854, in this county^ Mr. and Mrs. E. 
have ^s^ children, viz. : John L., Alva H., Clara 
M., George B. and Mary E., — all at home. 



.esse Pepple, farmer, section 17, Emerson 
I^Silt" Township, was born in Hancock Co., Ohio, 
^'^^ Dec. 15, 1842; and was the son of Jesse 
rW and Mary (Tipple) Pepple, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio, and of Pennsylvania German 
descent. The former died in Michigan in 
1869, and the latter in Ohio in 1857. Jesse, junior, 
passed his youth in working on his fathers farm 
summers and attending school winters. At the age 
of 20 he apprenticed himself to a pump-maker at 
Findlay, Ohio. Serving out his term, he formed a 
partnership with his employer, and remained in that 
business until September, 1867. He then came to 
Michigan, and purchased 40 acres of unbroken for- 



GRATIOT COUNTY, 



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est land, erecting the log house so familiar to pio- 
neers. He has since added 40 acres to his farm by 
purchase, and has improved 43 acres of the whole. 
He has a good residence and farm buildings. For 
five years, he also followed pump-making, in connec- 
tion with farming. 

He was married, Aug. 1 1, 1864, at Findlay, Ohio, 
to Susan Beard, daughter of Adam and Delight 
(Smith) Beard, natives of New England. They are 
farmers, and live in Hancock Co.,- Ohio, where their 
daughter was born, Oct. 12, 1842. Mr. and Mrs. 
Pepple have had two children, but both died in in- 
fancy. 

Mr. Pepple is a member of Emerson Center 
Lodge, No. 375, 1. O. O. F. He is an enterprising 
farmer, and ix)pular in his township. He held the 
office of Highway Commissioner for a period of 10 
years, and that of School Director for nine years. 
In 1880, he was chosen Supervisor of Emerson 
Township. He held that office two years, and in 
1883 was again elected. Politically, he is a staunch 
Republican. 




arks Allen, farmer, section 29, Emerson 
Township, was born in Delaware Co., N. 
t'J|i^ "^ Y., July 13, 1836 ; and is the son of Isaiah 
^6 J and Elsie (Peck) Allen, natives of New York, 
jk^ and of Yankee and German descent. His 
father came to Michigan when about 50 years 
old, and located in Emerson Township, where he 
died, at the age of 64, and his wife, at the age of 
58. Parks Allen left his native county when quite 
young, and went with his parents to Seneca Co., N. 
Y., then seven years later to Steuben Co., N. Y. He 
worked on his fathers farm, and attended thedistiict 
schools as much as he could, until the fall of 1854, 
when he emigrated to Michigan with his parents, and 
helped to make a home on 160 acres o< heavy timber 
land in Emerson Township. They were the third 
family to settle in Emerson, and the first to sow 
wheat. They sowed fxve acres, and from that stumpy 
field gathered 40 bushels per acre. 

Oct. 22, 1 86 1, the subject of this sketch was mar- 
ried, in Emerson Township, to Minerva, daughter of 
Ralph and Jane (Terry) Bellows, natives of New 
York and Michigan, respectively. She was bom in 



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Genesee Co., Mich., Oct. 22, 1843. She afterwards 
lived in Calhoun and Eaton Counties, and at the 
age of 18 had made such progress in her education 
that she was quahfied to teach in the common schools. 
She engaged in teaching in this county, and con- 
tinued at it until her marriage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen settled on 80 acres of the old 
homestead on section 19, Emerson Township, and 
resided there until the spring of 1882, when they 
moved into their magnificent residence on section 29. 
This dwelling was planned and built by the owner, 
and does credit to his taste. They have been the 
parents of seven children, of whom ^st. are living: 
Ella J, born April 8, 1863; Ernest R., April 10, 
1867; Percy C, Jan. 21, 1877; J. Alton, Feb. 17, 
1879; Blanche G., Jan. 21, 1883. Ray P. was born 
Feb. I, 1873, and died May 5, 1874; Pearl was born 
June 7, 1876, and died July 13, the same year. 

Mr. Allen now has 240 acres in his farm, with 170 
acres under high cultivation. His place is one of 
the model farms in the county. He is personally 
popular, and has held the office of Assessor for six 
years. In politics he is a liberal Republican. 



oseph Scudder, farmer, section 18, Lafay- 
ette Township, is a son of Embree and 
Rebecca (Every) Scudder, natives of New 
Yoik. They were engaged in farming in that 
State until the year 1835, when they came to 
Lenawee County, this State, and located on 80 
acres. They afterwards removed to Ingham County, 
where Mr. Scudder died June 11, 1861, and where 
Mrs. Scudder still resides. Joseph was born April 
13, 1 83 1, in the State of New York. At the age of 
2 1 he began farming on his own account, and mar- 
ried Mahala Every, who was born in New York, the 
daughter of Abram and Charlotte Every, also natives 
of New York. In 1853 he removed to Ingham 
County, this State. Mrs. Scudder died in 1861, and 
in 1863 he married Elizabeth Every. In 1879 he 
came to Gratiot County, and purchased 100 acres of 
land. He has improved 54 acres of this. 

While in Ingham County Mr. Scudder held all the 
township offices at different times, except that of 
Clerk. He was Supervisor for six years. In Lafay- 
ette Township he enjoys the respect and confidence 
of all who know him. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic Order, and affiliates with the National party. 




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.rederick Homister, farmer, section 10, 
o North Star Township, was born 'in Meck- 
lenburg, Germany, Oct. 15, 1834. He is a 
'*son of Christian Homister, native of the same 
counlry in which the son was born, and who, 
with his wife and two children, emigrated to 
America and located ten miles west of London, Can- 
ada, in 1855. 

In 1857 the family moved on a farm, in the neigh- 
borhood of their first location, and here Frederick as- 
sisted his father and attended the common schools 
until 1866, when he came to Wyandotte, this State, 
and remained 18 months, occupied in hauling the 
rock to pave Michigan avenue, and then returned 
to Canada. In 1876 he returned to this State and 
located in this County, and has constantly resided 
here ever since. On his return, he brought a steam 
saw-mill with him, erected it on his farm and oper- 
ated it continually until the present time. It has a 
35-horse-power engine, with boiler 12x4 feet and 
containing 10 six-inch flues, and does excellent work. 

Mr. Homister was tnarried Dec. 24, 1856, to Miss 
Mary L., daughter of James Turner, deceased, and 
12 children have been born to their union, namely : 
Emma (Goodhall) Charles, John W., Rosa (White), 
Sarah A. M., Minnie E. C, Frederick L., Frank W., 
Mary E. L., James H., Nelly A. and Hattie V. 

The father of Mrs. H. died in the fall of 1862; 
her mother is still living, with the son, at an ad- 
vanced age. 

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bshua M. Davidson, farmer, section 25, 
r- Elba Township, is a son of John L. and 
Mary R. (Merritt) Davidson, natives of 
Ohio. Mr. Davidson, Sr., was a farmer by oc- 
cupation, and died in Ohio, March 12, 1873. 
Mrs. Davidson came to Gratiot County the 
same year. The son was born April 23, 1837. At 
the age of 20 he began to work at the shoemaker s 
trade, which he followed for 15 years. At the age 
of 25 he was united in marriage to Elizabeth Bell, 
daughter of John and Marilda (Mead) Bell. Mr. 
Bell was engaged a portion of his life as a minister 






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of the gospel, and a portJbn in the tannery business. 
He died in 1878. Mrs. Bell died in 1867. They 
were both natives of Ohio, born in Richland and 
Huron Counties, respectively. Mr. Davidson came 
to Gratiot County in 1880, and located on a tract of 
40 acres, 1 8 of which are now well improved. Mr. 
and Mrs. Davidson are the parents of four children, 
— Rosa B., Mary V., Allena L. and Minta M. 

Mr. Davidson enlisted in Co. C, 65 th Ohio Vol. 
Inf., Oct. 12, 1861. After his muster in, he went 
with his command to Louisville, Ky., arriving in De- 
cember, and was assigned to Gen. Wood's command. 
Losing his health and becoming unfit for duty, he was 
discharged, Aug. 6, 1862. He was sent to Camp 
Chnse, Ohio, and thence went to his home in Huron 
County. He is a member of the G. A. R., and of 
the L 0.0. F. Politically he is a Republican. Mrs. 
Davidson is an active member of the M. E. Church. 







^Ibro Curtiss, farmer on section 12, Emer- 
son Township, was born in Wyoming Co., 
N. Y., Oct. 17, 1839 ; and is a son of Wat- 
erman F. and Sylvia (Cronkhite) Curtiss. The 
former was a native of Massachusetts and of 
English descent. He followed farming in the 
State of New York until 1859, and then came to 
Ionia Co., Mich., where he died, six miles from the 
city of Ionia, Aug. 2, 1861, at the age of 55. Mrs. 
Curtiss, the daughter of Jacob and Basheba (Surdam) 
Cronkhite, was bom in Otsego Co., N. Y., Nov. 18, 
1806. When 10 years old she came with her parents 
to the ** Holland purchase," and lived and was edu- 
cated in what is now Wyoming Co., N. Y., where she 
was also married. At the age of 77, and in compar- 
atively good health, she now lives in Emerson Town- 
ship with her children. 

The subject of this sketch passed his youth in at- 
tending school and working on his father's farm. In 
February, 1862, he came with his mother to this 
county, and entered 80 acres of land in Emerson 
Township. He has since added 120 acres; and of 
his whole farm, 140 are well improved. In place of 
the dense forest, he has now a fine farm, and very 
large and convenient farm buildings, his dwelling 
alone costing $2,000. Before making these improve- 
ments, however, he spent nearly two years in the ser- 



vice of his country. He enlisted in Co. A, 8lh Mid 
Vet. Vol. Inf., Dec. 29, 1863, and served under Co 
Ely, in the Army of the Potomac. He participate^ 
in all the battles of that army during the campaig 
of 1864-5. At the battle of the Wilderness, Jun 
6, he was wounded in the right arm by a ball ; an( 
at Petersburg he was struck by two spent balls, on 
entering the foot, and the other between the shoul 
ders. He was discharged at Detroit, Aug. 14, 1865 
after an honorable service. 

He was united in marriage, June 29, 1876, at Si 
Louis, to Lucy L. Woodward, daughter of Allen an< 
Almira (Lewis) Woodward, narives of New Yorl 
Mr. Woodward enlisted in a New York regiment i 
1862, and served till the close of the war. Lucy wa 
bom in Erie Co., N. Y., Sept. 20, 1857, and cam 
with her parents when three years old to Washtenai 
Co., Mich. One year later her mother died, and he 
father returned to Erie County. After four yeai 
they came to Ionia County, and then, in the sprin 
of 1873, he came to Gratiot County and located on 
fann of 40 acres. 

Mr. and Mrs. Curtiss have two children: Blanch 
A., born April 11, 1877 ; and Roy W., born March i 
1882. They are members of the Baptist Cliurcl 
He has held several school offices in his district, an 
votes with the Republican party. 



i eonard H. Bandall, farmer, section \ 
It Lafayette Township, is the son of Isaac t 
and Mary (Webster) Randall. They wei 
natives of Vermont, where they followed farn 
ing until 1839. Mr. Randall died in Veniion 
and Mrs. Randall died in Washtenaw Count 
this State, in 1 849. Leonard H. was born March 
1834. He left home when 15, and worked by tl 
month until June 9, 1857, when he married Eaii 
J. Burgin. She was born June 9, 1841, and was tl 
second daughter of Ebenezer H. and Sophronia i 
(Keneson) Burgin, natives of Vermont. 

When Mr. Randall first located here, he enten 
80 acres, but he has since added 80 acres to tha 
Of his 160 acres, 60 are now well improved. ] 
1875, he built his neat dwelling-house and his laq 
barn. 

Mr. and Mrs. Randall are the parents of sevi 



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\> children : George W., Eugene A., Fred A., Hattie A., 

ft Mary S. (died March 7, 1869), Eddie C. and Minnie 

•; S. Mr. Randall has been Highway Commissioner 

I in his township, and has been Pathmaster for a 

A number of years. He is a National, in politics. He 

^ and wife are consistent members of the Baptist 
Church. 



illiam Kipp, druggist,Brecken ridge village, 
Wheeler Township, is a son of John and 
Elizabeth A. (Leamon) Kipp, natives of 
Dutchess Co., N. Y., and Frederick Co., Md. 
Mr. Kipp, Sr., was by occupation a farmer, 
and came to Michigan in 1861. He first located 
in Genesee County, afterwards coming to Gratiot 
County, locating in Pine River Township. William 
Kipp was born March 4, 1846, in Frederick Co., Md., 
and came with his parents to Michigan. At the age 
of 16, he commenced teaching school, having received 
his own education at home. In 1877, he engaged in 
mercantile life, in Breckenridge, now keeping a full 
line of drugs and groceries. 

Feb. 13, 1870, he was united in the bonds of 
matrimony to Sarah M. Swawze. They have now a 
family of four children: Edith A., George, Chariie J. 
and Albert S. Mr. Kipp is an enterprising man, and 
well liked by all who know him. He was elected 
School Inspector in 1883, for a term of two years. 
Polirically he is a Republican. 



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heron L. Knapp, farmer on section 14, Ar- 
cada Township, was born in Geneva, Ash- 
tabula Co., Ohio, Aug. 25, 1853, and is a 
son of Lucius C. and Mary (Searles) Knapp. 
Lucius Knapp is now a residetit of Live Oak, 
Fla., and his occupation in life has been car- 
pentry. His wife died in Arcada Township, this 
county, Sept. 17, 1858. 

When the subject of this narrative was nine months 
old his father took him to the State of Pennsylvania, 
afterwards moving to this State and county, where 
he settled on section 25, Arcada Township, in 1854. 
They were one of the very first families to locate in 
Arcada. After the death of his mother, Theron 
was taken by his father to New York State, where he 



lived with an UDcle until ^o years old. He then re- 
turned to his father in Michigan. Two years later 
the latter moved to St. Louis, where Theron lived 
with his father until 2 1 years of age, and where he 
was educated, in the graded schools. 

At the age of 22 he engaged for two years with J. 
R. Livingston in the capacity of salesman for his 
pumps. He then began to cultivate the farm of 92 
acres on section 14, Arcada Township, which had 
been willed to him by his mother in October, 1857. 
When he began, the land was all wild and covered 
with timber. He now has 45 acres in good condition 
for tilling, and good farm buildings. He has con- 
siderable stock on his place and on the uncleared 
portion of his farai is some valuable timber. 

Oct. 23, 1880, he was married, at St. Louis, to Miss 
Elizabeth Fry, of German descent. She was born in 
Green Co., Penn., Aug. 11, 1855, and came to Mich- 
igan, 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Knapp have one son, Al- 
bert, born June 15, 1882. Mr. K. is in politics a 
supporter of the National party. He has been Over- 
seer of Highways, and is now School Director. Mrs. 
K. is a member of the Christian Church. 



ohn H. Durkee, farmer, section 11, Arcada 
1^ Township, was born in Rutland Co., Vt , 
Feb. 21, 1820, and is the son of Elias S. 
and Betsy (Sweet) Durkee, naUves of New York, 
and of English and German extraction. They 
followed farming, and lived most of their lives 
in New York. 

John's father dying in 1827, he was early left to 
himself in learning the ways of the cold world, being 
the oldest of the children. He lived for four years 
with a gentleman in the neighborhood, and then 
returned home, working at various things for a time. 
He then once more worked for a neighbor of his 
mother's, and his time was thus spent, on a fann in 
summer and in the mills in winter, until his marriage. 
Feb. 20, 1840, in Orleans Co., N. Y., he formed a 
life partnership with Jeannette, daughter of Peter and 
Sarah Helms, natives of Germany. She was born in 
New York State, Dec. 17, 1819, and died April 25, 
1853, having been married 13 years, and leaving to 
Mr. Durkee four children, none of whom are now 
living. He was again married in Lenawee Co., 







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Mich., July 26, 1857,10 Mrs. Philena (Nevins) Mont- 
gomery, daughter of Nathan and Martha (Smith) 
Nevins, natives of New York State. She was bom 
in the vicinity of Buffalo, in that State, March 17, 
1832. She lived with her parents until her first 
marriage, and by this she has one daughter: Lillie, 
born Sept. 21, 1855, 

Mr. and Mrs. Durkee lived in Lenawee County 
until the spring of 1883, when they came to Gratiot, 
and purchased 80 acres. They have during their 
brief residence here won hosts of friends, and are 
esteemed as worthy citizens and kind neighbors. 
They have had four children, two of whom are 
living: Anna, born Dec. 24, 1867, Fred, bom Nov. 
21, 187 1, Clara A., bom March 15, 1859, and died 
Sept. 20, 1882, Ida M., born Oct. 11, 1863, and died 
April 22, 1865. 

They are members of the M. E. Church. Politically, 
Mr. Durkee is a Republican. 








Jeremiah Dancer, farmer, section 21, 
Wheeler Township, was born in Jackson, 
Mich , July 16, 1849, and is a son of John 
and Jane (Powell) Dancer, natives of Steuben 
Co., N. Y. They were farmers, and came to 
Livingston Co., Mich., in 1843. They after- 
wards removed to Jackson County, whe«e Mr. Dancer 
died, in 1867. Mrs. Dancer is still living, in Wash- 
tenaw County, having married Nor. H. Newton, in 
1875. Jeremiah left his home in 1873, and engaged 
in farming, which he has followed ever since. In 
the spring of 1877, he came to Gratiot County, locat- 
ing on 80 acres, on section 10, Wheeler Township. 
Here he lived three years. Returning to Jackson 
County, he farmed there for one year, then sold his 
farm, and came once more to this county, settling on 
40 acres on section 34. 

He was married, Nov. 6^ 1877, to Harriet, daughter 
of Wni. R. and Cornelia (Vedder) Bradford, natives 
of Jackson Co., Mich., and of New York, respectively. 
Mr. Bradford is a farmer by occupation, and came to 
Gratiot County in 1870. He settled on 160 acres on 
section 17, but has sold all but 40 acres. Mr. and 



Mrs. Dancer are the parents of two children : Freddie 
and Florence. 

In politics, Mr. Dancer is a Republican. 



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ames Turner, farmer, section 10, North 
Star Township, and one of the early set- 
tlers of the township, and whose success 
is attributable to his own indomitable energ)% 
was bom in Mecklenberg, Germany, June 4, 
1849. He.is a son of Joseph Tumer, deceased, 
who emigrated to America with his family in 1859, 
locating in Canada, where they remained until i860, 
when they moved to this State, and settled in Lyons, 
Ionia County. In 1864 they moved to this county, 
and a year afterward, in 1865, the father died. 

Mr. Tumer can look back with pride at his victory 
over difficulty and adversity. He encountered in- 
numerable trials in the establishing of his home in 
the woods, a half mile from any road, and in clear- 
ing his land and during the time procuring the nec- 
essaries of life, yet triumphed over all. He now 
owns a farm of 120 acres all under fence, and 75 
acres cleared and under cultivation. His residence is 
a two-story brick, with main building 18 x 26 and 
wing 17 X 24 feet, and, when compared with the "log 
cabin " in which he formerly lived, is certainly an 
emblem of perseverance and energy. His barn, 40 
X 62 feet, with 20-foot posts, stands as a monument of 
the work of his own hands, and is another link in 
the chain of prosperity indicative of his past labors. 
Mr. Turner was married Oct. 26, 1876, to Nancy 
E., daughter of Frederick Huntley, and three chil- 
dren have been born to this union, two of whom are 
living, namely : Nellie May and Myrtie Belie. Mrs. 
Turner came from Canada to this county, in 1874, 
and followed the vocation of teacher and taught 
eight terms, and was recognized and acknowledged 
as a very proficient and successful teacher. Mrs. 
Turner has a sister, Marie E., who came to this 
county a year later than herself. She also taught 
school, but, as she was beginning her third term, her 
health failed her. She has now been an invalid four 
years, during which time the farthest she has been 
from home is two and a half miles. Mrs. Tumer 



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has live other sisters living, and one deceased, and 
also two brothers. 

The mother of our subject is still living, with her 
children, and has attained the advanced age of 86 
years. She is the mother of 1 2 children, of whom 
James is the youngest. Though she has lived to such 
an advanced age, she is active as a young lady of 
18 ; and even now she practices her idiosyncrasies 
by going into the field and doing the work of a man, 
and in the fall of 1882 shucked 500 bushels of corn, 
unaided by any one. She is aware it is unnecessary 
for her to do manual labor, yet she possesses the 
spirit of energy inculcated in the minds of her chil- 
dren, and cannot remain idle, and prefers outdoor 
labor to indolence in the house or even household 
labor. 

Mrs. Turner's father died Jan. 7, 1882, in the 
township in which they reside. He was well read 
in the affairs of the day, informed in ancient and 
modern history, and respected by all who knew him. 
His widow, Mrs. Turners mother, still resides in the 
township to which they came eight years ago. 



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eorge B. Burgess, farmer, section 24, 
Arcada Township, is a son of William and 
Ruth (Hathaway) Burgess, natives of Ohio 
(see sketch), and was bom Sept. 8, 1856, in 
the house he now lives in, being probably the 
first white person born in Arcada Township. 
He was the sixth of his father s family, and was bom 
about a year after the family came to this county, in 
the third log house in the township. For several 
years after his birth, his parents were obliged to fol- 
low a trail to get to the nearest town, which was at 
that time Maple Rapids. It required years of close 
economy and hard work before they could, through 
the produce of their farm, obtain many of the comforts 
of life. 

Until 23 years old, George worked for his father, 
and attended the common schools as he best could. 
March 4, 1879, he was united in marriage to 
Martha M., daughter of Daniel and Lorana (Silver- 
thom) Tyrrell, natives of Ontario, Canada. They 
followed fanning, and came in 1867 to Arcada Town- 
ship, where Mr. Tyrrell died, March 2, 1872, and 
Mrs. Tyrrell, July 16, 1878. 

Martha M. was born in Ontario, Canada, Jan. 29, 



1858, and when eight years old came to this county 
with her parents, Jind lived on section 26, Arcada 
Township, until their death. She then lived in the 
family of William Burgess, until her marriage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Burgess settled down on the old 
homestead, and now live in the log house built by 
his father. He now owns 40 acres on section 24. 
They have two little ones : Elnora, born Jan. 5, 1881, 
and Ruth L., born June 5, 1882. 

In politics, he is a Republican. 



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eorge W. Skinner, farmer oh section 8, 
Emerson Township, was bom in Morrow 
Co., Ohio, Feb. 14, 1832; and is a son of 
David and Abigail (Bewley) Skinner, natives 
of Ohio, and of English and German extrac- 
tion. They followed farming, and died, the 
father in Van Wert Co., Ohio, in 1879, aged 81 ; and 
the mother in Morrow Co., Ohio, in August, 1852, 
aged 51. 

The subject of this sketch passed his youth in at- 
tending the common schools, and in working on his 
father's farm. When of age, he came to this State, 
and for three years was engaged in fishing in Lake 
Huron and Saginaw Bay. He then went to Livings- 
ton County, and thence to Denver, Col. For the 
next 15 months he worked in the gold mines in Cal- 
ifomia Joe Gulch, Buckskin Joe Gulch, and at the 
head waters of the Arkansas. Sept. 8, 1 861, he en- 
listed in Co. €, ist Col. Cav. He served in the 
westem army, and was engaged generally in skirmish- 
ing with the enemy, in Texas and all through the 
Southwest, in guarding the Unionists, and in keeping 
the Indians quiet. He escaped unhurt, and was 
honorably discharged Dec. 3, 1864. Returning to 
this State, he went first to Livingston County, and 
then to Saginaw, and in the spring of 1865 he came 
to Gratiot County, and located on 80 acres in Bethany 
Township, which he had entered in 1856. 

In that township. May i, 1866, he was united in 
marriage to Harriet A., daughter of John and Eliza 
(Knapp) Mull, natives of New York, and of New 
England parentage. She was born in Ossiar., Liv 
ingston Co., N. Y., Jan. 21, 1842, and when only two 
years old she went with her parents toTmmbullCo., 
Ohio. Two years later they came to I^nawee Co., 



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Mich., where she commenced attending the public 
schools, and when she was 10 years old they moved 
again, to Ingham County, where she completed her 
education. The family came to this county in i86r. 
Six years after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Skinner 
moved to Emerson Township, where he purchased 
80 acres. He has since sold 40 acres, and bought 
40 more on section 5. Most of his land is now 
nicely .improved. He has just completed a large 
barn. 

They have two children: Frank, bqrn April i, 
1867 ; and Jennie L., born Aug. 5, 1870. Mr. Skin- 
ner is a member of Emerson Lodge, No. 377, I. O. 
O. F., and of Moses Wisner Post, No. 101, G. A. R. 
In politics he is an earnest and influential Repub- 
lican. 

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iilliam W. Wooley, farmer, section 34, 
Elba Township, is a son of James and 
Margaret (Chandler) Wooley, natives of 
New Jersey. Mr. Wooley, Sr., was a shoe- 
maker by trade, and removed to Gratiot 
County in 1855. The subject of this sketch 
was born Sept. 27, 1830. At the age of 14 he left 
home, and worked at farming and other things, until 
1862. August 1 6th of that year, in Clinton County, 
he was married to Mary M. Dodge. His father, 
when he came to Gratiot, located 320 acres of 
Government land on section 34, Elba Township, and 
he subsequently gave 80 acres to each of his children. 
Mr. Wooley has brought 65 acres of his farm to a 
state of good cultivation. In 1877 he erected a 
substantial barn on his place. He has also a very 
neat dwelling-hcuse. 

Mrs. Wooley was the eldest daughter of her father's 
family, and was bom April 6, 1 841, in the State of 
Vermont. She was the first school-teacher in Elba 
Township, and taught in District No. i. She after- 
wards taught several terms of school. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wooley are the parents of two children : Maud E. 
and Maggie D. Another child, Minnie B.,died Aug. 
28, 1870, aged two years, three months and one day. 
Mr. Wooley enlisted in the service of the country 
during the rebellion, but was discharged for disability 
before entering the field. In civil life he has held a 
number of ix)sitions of honor and trust. Soon after 
his township was organized, he was appointed 





Treasurer, and he was afterwards elected several 
times to the same office. He has held the office of 
Highway Commissioner, and in 1870 he was appointed 
Supervisor of Elba Township to fill a vacancy. He 
has also held the office of Assessor in School District 
No. I. Politically he is a staunch Republican. 



ferry Shaver, farmer, on section 17, Enier- 
\ son Township, was born in Delaware Co., 
N. Y., Nov. 19, 1822, and was a son of 
Jacob I. and Sally (Kinch) Shaver. The former 
was a native of Delaware Co., N. Y., and of 
Dutch descent. He came to this county in 
1856, locating a land warrant of 80 acres on section 
2, Emerson Township, and remained here till his 
death, July 21, 1873, at the age of 77 years and three 
months. Mrs. Sally Shaver was a native of Con- 
necticut, and of New England parentage. She was 
married to Mr. Shaver in Delaware Co., N. Y., and 
died in Emerson Township, at the age of 77 years 
and two and a half months. 

At the age of two, Jerry went with his parents to 
Seneca County, where he lived until 16, attending 
school and working on his fathers farm. Thence he 
went to Steuben Co., where. May 30, 1846, he was 
married to Ursula, daughter of Richard and Cordelia 
(Reid) Sawtell, natives of New England, and of 
English descent. Richard Sawtell was a physician, 
and died in the Slate of New York, in 1842; Mrs. 
Sawtell died in Gratiot County, in 1865. Ursula was 
born in Chenango Co., N. Y., Sept. 27, 1826. Receiv- 
ing her education in her native county, she went to 
Steuben County in 1842. Six years after marriage, 
Mr. and Mrs. Shaver came to this State, and settled 
first in Ingham County, where they lived unul the 
fall of 1856. They then came to Gratiot County, and 
located on section 17, Emerson Township, securing 
80 acres by the Graduation Act. He has since 
purchased 40 acres additional, and has 70 acres well 
improved. They came into a dense wilderness, and 
suffered severely during the "starving time " of 1857. 

They are the parents of four children, two of whom 
are living: Herman D., born March 2, 1848, J. Frank, 
born June 2, 1864, William, born Jan. 10, 1847, and 
died Feb. 7, 1847, Mary A., born July 21, 1850, and 
died Jan. 10, 1870. 

In politics Mr. Shaver is a liberal Democrat. 



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j^auiel Griffeth, farmer on section 8, Emer- 
son Township, was born in Montgomery, 
N. Y., Jan. 9, 1820, and is a son of Dan- 
iel and Lois (McNeal) Griffeth, natives of 
Wales and Scotland, respectively. They were 
married in Canada, and he became a hatter by 
trade. In 1814 they removed to the State of New 
York, where the mother died, in 1835. The father 
afterwards came to this State, and he died in Man- 
chester, Washtenaw County, in 1847, d^i years old. 

The subject of this sketch attended school and 
worked on a farm until 20 years old, when he set out 
alone for Michigan, and located in Marshall. He 
afterwards returned to New York for one year. In 
May, 1846, on the breaking out of the Mexican war, 
he enlisted as a private in Co. F, 8th New York Inf., 
under Gen. Worth. He participated in three actions : 
Cherubusco, Aug. 19, 1847; Molino del Rey, Sept. 
8, 1847, and the storming and capture of Mexico, 
Sept. 12, 13 and 14, 1847. He escaped unhurt in 
all these engagements, and was honorably discharged 
with the rank of Orderly Sergeant, in August, 1848, 
at Jefferson Barracks. Returning to Michigan he 
engaged in farming in Oakland County. 

Dec. 19, 1849, he was united in marriage, in Inde- 
pendence, that county, to Nancy M., daughter of 
Hiram and Betsy (Placeway) Burgess, natives of 
New York and Vermont. They came to Oakland 
Co., Mich., in 1837, and later to this county, where 
the father died, April 9, 1879, at the age of 77, near 
St. Louis. Mrs. Burgess still lives, enjoying a ripe 
old age of 77, and is active and intelligent. Nancy 
M. was born in Allegany Co., N. Y., Nov. 4, 1830, 
and came with her parents to this State seven years 
later. She was educated in Oakland and Livingston 
Counties. 

Two years after marriage Mr. and Mrs. Griffeth 
removed to Wayne County, and Dec. 18, 1856, they 
came to this county and entered 80 acres in Pine 
River Township. Five years later, most of which 
time they lived in the town of St. Louis, they re- 
moved to Emerson Township and settled on 120 
acres of heavily timbered land. Surrounded by 
miles of unbroken forest, they encountered many 
hardships before they finally succeeded in making 
for themselves a comfortable home. He has added 



40 acres to his farm, and of his 160, 100 acres are 
now admirably improved and cultivated. Mr. Grif- 
feth is an intelligent farmer, and with his kind- 
hearted wife deserves this happy home. They have 
had a large family, and of their 12 children nine are 
living. Their names and the dates of their birth are 
as follows: Mary J., Oct. 8, 1852 ; James A., Jan. 3, 
1854; Emery L., Dec. 28, 1855; Ann Maria, May 
26, 1858; Isadore L., Jan. 22, 1861 ; Hattie A., 
March 24, 1863; Hiram A., Sept. 26, 1865; Nancy 
M., Oct. 9, 1867 ; Florence A., June 2, 1870. These 
three are sleeping their last sleep: Hiram Andrew, 
bom Dec. 2, 1850, and died March 4, 1852; Daniel 
A., born June 25, 1873, and died July 3, 1879; and 
a baby, which died in infancy. 

Mr. and Mrs. Griffeth are active members of the 
Baptist Church, she being the first person baprized 
in Pine River. He is one of the old pioneers who 
have helped to make Gratiot what it is, and deserves 
to be remembered by posterity. He built the first 
frame house north of Pine River, and drove the first 
team from St. Louis to Midland. In politics he is 
one of the most active supporters of the National 
Greenback party. 

Mr. Griffeth s portrait is given on the opposite 
page. 




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ordis Smith, farmer on section 27, Pine 
River Township, is a son of Ira and Zada 
(Hitchcock) Smith, natives of Connecticut. 
They removed to New York State, and in 
1851; came to this State and county, locating 
in Pine River Township. The mother is still 
living in that township. The father died there Feb. 
22, 1878, at the age of 85. They had a family of 
seven. 

The subject of this biography. Cordis, was the 
third son of the family, and was born Sept. 7, 1832. 
Starting out at the age of 20 to make his own way 
in life, he came West and spent three years in differ- 
ent States, and then returned to New York. In the 
fall of 1857, he came to Gratiot County; and for 
nearly six years following, he was employed in the 
woods and otherwise. By several different payments, 
he bought 160 acres of land in Pine River Township, 
where he now resides. He has now nearly 100 
acres well improved. 



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April 19, 1864, in Pine River Township, he was 
married to Mrs. Jane M. (Badger) Rice, widow of 
Elijah B. Rice, who died Nov. 19, 1861. She was 
born in Washington Co., N. Y., April 13, 1828, and 
is the daughter of Samuel and Matilda (Freeman) 
Badger. They were natives of New York State, and 
died in Washington County, that State, March 15, 
1870, and Dec. 2, 1836, respectively. The daughter 
married Mr. Rice in New York State, and came with 
him to Pine River Township, this county, in October, 
1854. Their first meal of victuals here was eaten 
in the woods, and they had to cut their own road 
from Gen. Ely's, two miles away. Mrs. Smith had 
by this first marriage one child, George T.,born Sept. 
4, 1858. 

Mr. Smith stands high in his neighborhood, as a 
farmer and a citizen. He is politically a Repub- 
lican. 




dward Graham, farmer, section 30, North 
Shade Township, is the son of John and 
Rachel (Dean) Graham, native^ of Ver- 
mont, from whence they moved to York State 
and located on a farm in Yates County, where 
the mother died about 1845, and the father in 
1871. 

The subject of our sketch was born in Yates Co., 
N. Y., Aug. 20, 1828, and remained at home on the 
farm until he was 16 years of age, and then lived 
with his brother until he attained his majority. 
When 26 years of age he came to this State and lo- 
cated in Coldwater, Branch County, where he re- 
mained one year ; then went to Calhoun County and 
remained there about a year, when he removed to 
Hillsdale County and engaged himself for a period of 
two years. 

Mr. Graham, at this period in his life, concluded 
to visit the famous Pike's Peak, but after making 
preparations for the journey, and having started on 
the same and reached Illinois, he abandoned the 
idea and returned to this State, locating on 40 acres 
of land on section 30, North Shade Township, this 
county, to which he has since added 20 acres. 

Mr. Graham was united in marriage to Miss Rhoda, 
daughter of Hiram and Hannah (Cornish) Chappel, 
July 4, 1853. She was born May 20, 1835, in Yates 
Co., N. Y. Mrs. (iraham has not known tlie where- 



abouts of her brother for a number of years. Her 
mother died in Chenango Co., N. Y., in 1870. 

Mr. and Mrs. G. have had two children, William 
H., bom Oct. 17, 1866, and John E., born Aug. 21, 
1872. 

Politically Mr. G. is a Republican. 



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uther M. Stites, farmer, section 24, North 
IJ Shade Township, is a son of Benjamin and 

j^^'"*^ and Phebe (Nickson) Stites, natives of New 

j' JLTsey and farmers by occupation, who settled 
in Fulton Co., Ohio, and afterward moved to 
[ I enawee Co., Mich., where they yet reside. 

The subject of this sketch was born Feb. 5, 1858, 
in Fulton Co., Ohio, and was therefore but four years 
old when the family moved to Michigan. He mar- 
ried, Sept. 12, 1880, Miss Effie J., daughter of Luther 
J. and Amanda L. (Townsend) Brink, and bom 
\pril 25, 1862, in Gratiot Co., Mich., being one of 
the first bom in the township of North Shade. In 
political matters Mr. Stites is a Democrat. 

Mr. Brink was a soldier in the last war, being a 
member of the loth Mich. Cav. He died at Camp 
Nelson, Ky. His widow is yet living, and resides in 
Nashville, Jackson Co., Iowa. She again married, 
her present husband being Samuel Evans, of 
Hubbardston, Ionia Co., Mich. 



r^^ l^aron Sloan, farmer, section 22, Pine River 

Ei£J|4 Township, is a son of Thomas and Basheba 

if (Pitcher) Sloan, natives of Massachusetts. 



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j^" They first settled in New York State, where 
the father died. The mother afterwards came 
to Eaton Co., Mich., where^ she died. Aaron 
was born in Oneida Co., N. Y., Aug. 10, 181 5. Re- 
ceiving his education in the common schools, he 
helped his father on the farm until 20 years old, wher 
he started out for himself. To aid him in the battle 
of life, he had nothing but willing hands and a lov- 
ing wife. At the age of 21, Dec. 24, 1836, in Wat- 
erloo, Seneca Co., N. Y., he had formed a life part 
nership with Caroline C, daughter of William anc 
Sally (Hall) Taylor, natives respectively of Nev 
York State and Vermont. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor set 



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tied in New York, and afterwards came to Michigan ; 
and in 1879, came to Gratiot County, where he died, 
in the fall of 1880. She still survives, at the age 
of 85. 

After marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Sloan removed to 
Ohio, and in 1846 they came to Eaton Co., Mich. 
Five years later, they removed to Montcalm County, 
and in February, 1854, he came with his family to 
Gratiot County. He bought 160 acres of land in 
Pine River Township, where he now resides. He 
has sold part of his farm, and divided part among 
his children, and now retains 60 acres, all of which 
is nicely improved. 

In August, 1862, he enlisted in the 26th Mich. 
Vol. Inf., and served eight months, on detached ser- 
vice. He was discharged at Detroit, on account of 
sickness. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sloan have had ^vt children, three 
surviving: William H., Hiram L. (deceased), Almi- 
ra (deceased), Aaron F> and Rachel E. Hiram L. 
enlisted in the same regiment with his father, after- 
wards re-enlisting in the 8th Mich. Vol. Inf., and 
died at Fairfax Seminary, Va. Mr. Sloan has held 
the office of Highway Commissioner four years. In 
politics, he is a supporter of the National party. 

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illiam Towner, farmer, section 24, North 
Shade Township, is a son of Daniel and 
Polly (Budlong) Towner, natives of New 
York State, the latter of New Lebanon. 
The family were engaged in agricultural 
>ursuits. 
The subject of this sketch was bom May 19, 1805, 
in Steuben Co., N. Y. ; he lived with his parents 
until his mothers death, which occurred in 1855, in 
Livingston Co., Mich. His father died in 1864. 
William came to this county in 1853, locating on 
section 24, on a tract of 80 acres of wild land, where 
he now has 60 acres well improved, and furnished 
with a good residence, a large bam, etc. His house 
he erected in the summer of 1880, at a cost of 
nearly $1,000. 

Mr. T. married Miss Diana, daughter of Jacob and 
Sarah (Kinney) Brink, the former a native of New 
Jersey and the latter of Connecticut. He died Sept. 
25, 1879, and she, Jan. 5, 1857, both in this county. 



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Mr. and Mrs. T.'s two children have been, Herbert ^j>, 
M., bom in 1847, and Elvertes, in 1849, and died in (:,^ 
April, 1863. Mrs. T. is a member of the Second- *;N^ 
Advent Church, and Mr. T., in politics, is a Repub- J 
lican. Herbert has charge of the farm. He married 
Miss Mary B., daughter of George and Barbara 
Franks. Their two children are, Verna F., born in 
September, 1877, and Erma V., Feb. 19, 1881. 



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Ifred J. Brooke, farmer and mechanic, sec- 
^^ tion 30, Emerson Township, was born in 
Wayne Co., Ohio, Jan. 23, 1833; and was the 
son of John and Sarah L. (Brenholtz) Brooke, 
natives of Lycoming Co., Pa., of English and 
German descent. The father was a carpenter and 
joiner, but afterwards engaged in farming in Ohio, 
in which State he died, at the age of 57, and his wife 
at the age of 67. Alfred J. lived the first part of his 
life in Wayne and Wood Counties, in Ohio. At the 
age of 16 he was apprenticed to the blacksmith s 
trade, under his brother. After serving his time he 
went into partnership with his brother; and three 
years later he bought him out and conducted a large 
shop on his own account, until 1864. In the spring 
of 1865, he came to this State and county, and pur- 
chased 40 acres of wild land on section 30, Emerson 
Township. Here he erected a small house and shop 
in which to carry on his trade ; but one year later he 
was prevailed upon to move to the village of Ithaca. 
He worked at his trade there some time, and then, 
in the spring of 1878, returned to his farm. He 
has since devoted himself to the improvement of his 
farm, and now has 80 acres, of which 60 are well 
improved. 

March 8, 1856, he was united in marriage at Free- 
port, Ohio, to Louisa, daughter of Joseph and Sarah 
(Tucker) Kelly, natives of Rhode Island, and of 
English and Irish extraction. They moved after 
marriage to Sandusky Co., Ohio, where Louisa was 
born. May 4, 1835. At the age of 16, she removed 
with her parents to Wood Co., Ohio, and there lived 
until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Brooke have had a 
large family, — 12 children; but the death roll is 
longer than the list of the living, and only five now 
survive: Dora S., born Aug. 24, 1858; Louis Am- 



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bTX)e, May4, i860; Alfred J., Jan. 30, 1867; Lillie 
M., Nov. 15, 1868, and Emma L., Sept. 8, 1873. 
Those who are now sleeping their last sleep are as 
follows: a baby which died in infancy; Etta B., born 
Nov. 28, 1863, died Feb. 18, 1865; Alta L., born 
May 13, 1862, died May 18, 1862; Joseph M., born 
March 17, 1870, died Aug. i, 1870; Wilson, born Jan. 
10, 1872, died April 24, 1872 ; Moody, born Aug. 27, 
1875, died Sept. 10, 1875. 

Mr. Brooke is a member of Ithaca Lodge, No. 1 140, 
K. of H., and in politics is an ardent Republican. 
Mrs. Brooke is a conscientious member of the M. E. 
Church of Ithaca. 



^dwin Hopkinson, farmer, section 20, North 
Star Township, is a native of Nottingham- 
shire, Eng., and was born April 16, 1835 ; 
5 S his father was William Hopkinson, also a na- 
ii tive of that country. Mr. H., the subject of 
J this sketch, emigrated to this country in 1854, 
first locating in Lyons, N. Y., then, in 1865, in Han- 
cock Co., Ohio, and finally, in 1870, in this county, 
where he has since lived, and where he owns 80 
acres of good farming land, following agriculture and 
raising stock. He was married Jan. 5, 1865, to Miss 
Eleanor, daughter of James Turnbull (deceased), a 
native of Scotland. She is a native of Wayne Co., 
N. Y. Their three children are, Mary E., Elmer E., 
deceased, and William V. 

Politically, Mr. Hopkinson is a Republican. 





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homas Qrover, a prominent farmer, resid- 
ing on section 2, Arcada Township, was 
born in Southampton, Eng., June 17, 1839; 
and is the son of Thomas and Maria (Sher- 
wood) Grover, natives of Yorkshire, Eng. 
Thomas Grover was by occupation a carriage 
smith, and came to this country in 1850, locating in 
New York State. Two years later he came to this 
State, where he died, at his home on section 2, 
Arcada Township, Aug. 27, 1877, at the age of 
65. His wife now resides at St. Louis, in this 
county, at the age of 68. 

The subject of this sketch was 1 1 years old when 



I 



his parents came to this country, and he came with 
them to Lenawee Co., Mich. At the age of 17, he 
left the parental roof and worked as a laborer on va- 
rious farms until he brought up in Linn Co., Iowa, 
where, at Paris, Sept. 29, 1865, he was married to 
Margaret, daughter of Alexander and Phebe (Sutton) 
Bumham, natives of Ohio. They moved to Kansas, 
and Mr. Burnham enlisted in the Mexican war. He 
died in April, 1848. His wife now resides in Kan- 
sas, aged 58. 

One year after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Grover 
came to Michigan, shortly after returning to Linn 
Co., Iowa, where he was for a time in the cattle bus- 
iness. He bought and sold two or three farms, and 
finally, in the winter of 1878, came to Gratiot County 
and settled on 90 acres of his father s place. He 
afterwards purchased 40 acres, and now has in the 
aggregate 1 30 acres of good farming land, partly im- 
proved. He has erected a neat residence, and a 
substantial barn. 

Mr. and Mrs. Grover have had nine children, 
eight of whom survive : P. Maria, Howard A., 
Anna M., Mary A., Frank N., Thomas S., Perry M. 
and Henry H. (deceased). In political sentiment, 
Mr. Grover is not partisan, but at elections he exer- 
cises his best judgment. 



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Charles C. Proctor, farmer, section 31, 
North Shade Township, was the son of 
Jeremiah and Marindia (Carnahan) Proctor, 
narives of New York, where the mother died. 
The father died in Clinton County, this State, 
ii^ 1855, at the advanced age^f 76 years. 
The subject of our sketch was bor« Dec. 9, 1815, 
in Brookfield Co., N. Y., and remained under the 
parental roof-tree until he was 29 years of age. He 
followed the trade of a cooper until he moved to 
Ionia County, this State. Here he remained for 
eight years, when he came to this county and located, 
in the year 1855, on 85 acres of land on section 31, 
North Shade Township, and now has 55 acres of the 
same under good improvement. 

Mr. Proctor may be considered one of the pioneer 
settlers of the county, and as such he has certainly 
experienced numerous trials and difficulties in build- 
ing a home in the then wilderness and battling and 
overcoming all obstacles. 



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He was married to Miss Charlotte E., daughter of 
John and Julia (McLeod) Nichols, April 18, 1844. 
Mr. Nichols was a native of Germany, who emi- 
grated to America at an early day. He was captured 
by the British and taken to Canada, and escaped by 
swimming the Niagara River. He died in the State 
of New York. Mrs. Nichols was a native of New 
York, and died in the same State. 

Mr. and Mrs. Proctor are the parents of two chil- 
dren : one son, George W., married Miss Lydia Ka- 
nounse, and one daughter, Julia M., now Mrs. Will- 
iam Burk. 

Mr. Proctor has been Justice of the Peace five 
years, and also Supervisor. The wife and husband 
are members of the United Brethren organization, 
and are respected and esteemed citizens of the town- 
ship. Mr. P. is a Republican in political opinion. 




iilliam Stonebrook, farmer, section 24, 
North Shade Township, is a son of 
Frederick and Sarah (Cline) Stonebrook, 
natives of Union Co., Penn., who came to 
Ohio in the year 1822, settling first in Wayne 
County and afterward in Holmes County, where 
Mr. S. died. He was a carpenter by trade. Mrs. S. 
died in Indiana. 

The subject of this sketch was born Aug. 18, 1822, 
in Union Co., Penn. When he became of age he 
engaged in chopping for about six months in In- 
diana ; he then returned to Ohio and married ; he 
moved from Wood Co., Ohio, to Gratiot Co., Mich., 
in 1865, locating on section 24, North Shade Town- 
ship, on 160 acres of wild land; of this he has now 
95 acres in good cultivation. In the summer of 
1883 he erected a fine brick house, at a cost of 
nearly $2,000. 

Mr. Stonebrook married Miss Belinda, first daughter 
of Michael and Hannah (Shotwell) First; her mother 
was a native of New Jersey, and her father of Penn- 
sylvania : the latter was a brewer by occupation, but 
also followed agriculture to some extent. -After the 
above marriage, Mr. and Mrs. F. moved from Penn- 
sylvania to Ohio, locating in Wayne County in i8r9 : 
they are both now deceased. Mrs. F. died in Wayne 
Co., Ohio, and Mr. F. in Gratiot Co., Mich. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Stonebrook are, 



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James H., Elizabeth, Michael, Sarah, Samuel J., 
Adolphus A. and Margaret J. The parents are 
members of the Baptist Church. Mr. S. has always 
been a Democrat in political views, and he has held T 
the office of Assessor of his school district. \6) 



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rs. Catharine A; Walker, residing on sec- 
tion 25, Arcada Township, was bom in 
Stark Co., Ohio, Jan. 8, 1828 ; and is the 

^)^ ^^ daughter of Abraham and Barbara (Myers) 
Van Nostrand, natives of Pennsylvania and of 
German descent. Abraham Van Nostrand re- 
moved to Stark Co., Ohio, and afterwards to Tuscar- 
awas County, where he died, in 1843. Mrs. Van 
Nostrand died in the same county in 1844. Cath- 
arine was thus left an orphan at 15, and she went to 
live with her uncle. Sept. 20, 1848, she was united 
in marriage to John, son of Silas and Margaret (Peo- 
ples) Walker, natives of New England, and of Irish 
and English descent. Silas Walker was a mechanic 
and farmer, and removed to Ohio, where he died a 
number of years ago, and his wife in 1 87 9, at the 
advanced age of 81. John Walker was born Sept. 
28, 1824, and passed his boyhood days on his father's 
farm in Tuscarawas Co., Ohio. Here he was mar- 
ried. 

Fifteen years after marriage, and eight years after 
they came to Michigan, he enlisted, Oct. 4, 1864, in 
Co. C, 29th Mich. Vol. Inf. He died in the service, 
July 6, 1865, at Anderson, Tenn. He had made a 
settlement in 1856, on 80 acres on section 25, Arcada 
Township, and since his death, with the aid of her 
two sons, she has nicely improved 70 acres. Samuel 
L. Walker was born April 25, 1857 ; and Joshua C. 
was bom Aug. 4, 1859. They are energetic and in- 
telligent young men, and likedby all who know them. 
Mrs. Walker has three other children living: Celes- 
tia Pickard, born Sept. 27, 1849, and now residing at 
Mt. Pleasant, Isabella County ; Henry L., bom Sept. 
II, 1852, residing at the same place; and J. Albert, 
born June 12, 1864, also residing at Mt. Pleasant, 
Mich. She has lost three children : Mary M., 
born March 31, 1850, and died Sept. 25, 1852; 
Margaret J., bom Dec. 12, 1854, and died March 26, 









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GRATIOT COUNTY. 






1856; and Silas M., born Juue 11, 1861, and died 
Nov. 19, 1865. Mrs. Walker is a member of the 
Christian Church, to which also her husband be- 
longed. He was politically a Republican. 




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jlfred A. Gross, farmer, section 2, Hamilton 
Township, is a son of Jonah Gross, de- 
ceased, a native of the State of Massachusetts 
and where, in the town of Enfield, Hampshire 
County, Alfred was born, April 14, 1831. The 
father removed his f«imily to Oakland County, 
this State, in 1831, and here the son assisted on the 
farm, attended the common and subscription schools, 
receiving a fair education and developing into man- 
hood. 

Mr. Gross was married April 15, 1857, to Rhoda 
M., daughter of Anson Dayton, deceased, and in 
1 865 came with her husband to this county. They 
located in the woods and commenced the arduous 
task, so familiar to the old pioneers of the county, of 
improving their land for a future home for themselves 
and children. Their trials and troubles were similar 
to those of many others identified with the early set- 
tlement of the county ; energetically did they, each 
one doing his or her part, battle against all difficul- 
ties, until at last victory was theirs, and they are 
now the possessors of 320 acres of land and have 
four children : Frank J., Warren E., Carrie W., and 
Lucy, to gladden their hearts in their declining years. 
In addition to his landed estate Mr. Gross owns 
and runs a shingle mill on section i, Hamilton Town- 
ship. Politically, he is a zealous Democrat. 



I illiam Burgess (deceased) was a farmer 
on section 24, Arcada Township; was 
born in New York State March 21, 1828, 
and died in Arcada Township, March 22, 
1880, leaving a mouraing wife and a family 
of four. His early boyhood was spent on the 
farm in his native State, and when a young man he 
went to Lawrence Co., Ohio. He afterward went to 
Wood County, in the same State, where he was mar- 
ried, May 20, 1842. 

He came to Gratiot County in 1854, and was one 




of the very first settlers in Arcada Township, build- 
ing the third log house in that township. He was a 
progressive farmer, an upright citizen, and a pleasant 
neighbor. He was a member of the Christian Church 
and a supporter of the Republican party. He was 
often chosen to office by his fellow citizens, and al- 
ways gave satisfaction. 

His wife, Ruth, tiee Hathaway, was the daughter of 
Daniel and Polly (Marick) Hathaway, natives of 
Massachusetts, and of English ancestry. Daniel 
Hathaway was by trade a ship carpenter, learning 
that work in Massachusetts. He moved to Paines- 
ville, Ohio, below Cleveland, and afterwards to Wood 
Co., Ohio, where he died about 1852, at the age of 
60. Polly (Marick) Hathaway died in the same 
county, in 1867. Ruth was bom in Geauga Co., 
Ohio, April 15, 1824, and when 13 years old her par- 
ents removed to Wood County, where she was mar- 
ried. 

Mr. and Mrs. Burgess had a family of eight, four 
of whom survive: Mary A., bom July 29, 1843; 
George B., Sept. 8, 1855 ; Willie B., May 4, 1864; 
and Lora, Sept. 18, 1867. The deceased are: John 
William, bom May 21, 1842, and died June 11, 1842 ; 
Lora A., born April 21, 1846, and died Sept. 15, 
1857; Rowena, born May 15, 1850, and died April 
18, 1870; John A., born May 15, 1850, and died 
June II, 1879. Mrs. Burgess still survives, and is a 
member of the Christian Church. 



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, artin Grill, farmer, sect ion 30, North Shade v 
Township, was born Sept. 15, 1830, in r; a 
Pennsylvania. His parents, John and 
r^ ^ Sarah (Funck) Grill, were also natives of 
^ the Keystone State, and the former followed the 
occupation first of butcher and then of cooper 
and farmer. In 1839 they left Pennsylvania and 
came to Ohio and lived for one year in Stark County. 
In 1840 they moved to Summit County, where they 
H\ed until their death, Mr. Grill dying in 1867, and 
Mrs. Grill in 1876. 

Martin Grill remained under the parental loof 
until he was about 21 years old, when he went to 
Illinois and for a time was engaged in farming. He 
spent one year in a saw-mill at Decatur, 111., after 
which he went to Indiana and stopped with his 

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brother for a short time, and after this he returned to 
his home in Ohio. He remained at home helping 
his father on the farm and in the mill until he was 
about 25 years of age. In the mill, our subject did 
some of the hardest work that ever falls to man to 
perform, as the mill was kept running day and night 
for a great part of the year. He was married to 
Rachel Ludwick, daughter of Samuel and Mary E. 
(Dick) Ludwick, natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. Lud- 
wick followed farming in his native State, and later 
in life moved to Summit Co., Ohio, where they both 
passed the remainder of their days, the former dying 
in 1855, and the latter in 1856. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Grill have been born ten chil- 
dren, as follows: Mary S., Hiram W., Amanda E., 
Eliza J., Henry D., Emma J., Martha, Martin, 
Charlie W. and Clara E. 

Mr. Grill came to Gratiot County in 1868 and lo- 
cated upon section 30, North Shade Township, where 
he has a good farm. He is regarded as a man of 
good judgment by his neighbors, and as being a fair, 
upright and honorable citizen, as is evinced by the 
people of his district having chosen him as Assessor 
for 14 terms in succession. 

Mr. G. has suffered twice from the enmity of the 
elements. July 3, 1859, the lightning struck and 
totally demolished his father s barn, the contents of 
which belonged to Martin. March 12, 1871, his 
house was burned, and almost all the household 
goods were also consumed. 



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ohn L. Bichards, farmer, section 33, New- 
ark Township, was bom July 7, 1844, in 
Pennsylvania. He is a son of John and 
Rachel (Fry) Richards, both of whom were 
natives of the Keystone State, were there mar- 
ried and resided 14' years. In 1846 they re- 
moved to Ohio, and there belonged to the farming 
class. In the spring of 187 1 they came to Gratiot 
County and settled in the township of Newark, where 
they srill reside. 

Mr. Richards was a child of two years when his 
parents located in the Buckeye State, where he grew 
to the age of 18 years, engaged in assisting on the 
farm, and acquiring a fair education in the common 
schools. Roused to a sense of the necessity pressing 



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upon the authorises of the United States Government 
under the stringencies of civil war, he yielded to his 
convictions of duty and enlisted Aug! 6, 1862, in the 
I nth Reg. Ohio Vol. Inf., and served his country 
under that enrollment three years. He was in the 
battle of Hough s Ferry, Tenn., and, while on picket 
guard at Lenoir Station, he, with 5 1 of his comrades, 
was captured by the rebels, and conducted to At- 
lanta, Ga., where they were held two weeks, and 
then removed to Pemberton Castle, Richmond, and 
a month later were incarcerated at Belle Isle. They 
became inmates of the latter place on the first day of 
January, 1864, and there remained until March 12, 
when they were transferred to the stockade prison at 
Andersonville, where their sufferings were in no sense 
or degree less than those of the myriads who suc- 
cumbed to the horrors of the place, or of those whose 
endurance proved equal to such frightful experiences 
as cannot be equaled on the recorded pages of 
human suffering. The very name of Andersonville 
must cause a shudder while rime endures! After 
seven months of horror they were sent to Savannah, 
and later to Milan, whence, after a month, they 
were ordered to be transferred to Blockshire, Ga. 
While on their way thither the train was intercepted, 
and 250 starved, ragged, forlorn human creatures, of 
whom Mr. Richards was one, were paroled and sent 
to the camp at Annapolis. Two weeks later they 
were furloughed, and Mr. Richards returned to his 
home in Ohio. In six weeks he was exchanged and 
rejoined his regiment. His health was too much 
impaired for active service, and he was on detached 
duty until the close of the war. On the expiration 
of his term of enrollment, he was discharged at 
Cleveland, Ohio, whence he returned home. 

Mr. Richards was married Dec. 28, 1865, to Sarah / 
D., youngest daughter of Asa and Jane (Staples) 
Richardson. The father was a native of Vermont, 
the mother of Maine. Of this marriage, four chil- 
dren have been born : Earl C, Alice I., Tacie A., 
and Laura M. 

After his becoming a family man, Mr. Richards 
continued to reside in Ohio until 1870. In that 
year, he removed his family and interests to Gratiot 
Co., Mich., and bought 40 acres of land in Newark 
Township. Of this he has already cleared and 
placed 35 acres under creditable cultivation. He is 
a Republican of unmistakable type, and has served 



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his township in several official positions to which he 
has been elected. He received an appointment in 
1880 to fill a vacancy as Township Clerk, and has 
been since twice elected to the same incumbency, 
which he now holds. A branch of the body known 
as the Union Prisoners of War Association, desig- 
nated the Camp of Gratiot County, has been estab- 
lished therein, of which Mr. Richards is President. 
Himself and wife are members of rhe United Breth- 
ren Church. 




9nry Simmon, farmer, section 16, Hamil- 
ton Township, is a son of John Simmon 
(deceased), who resided in Adams Co., Pa., 
and where the subject of our sketch was born, 
Aug. 26, 1826. 
The father moved to Stark Co., Ohio, while 
Henry was yet a child, locating on a farm. Here the 
child remained, developing into manhood while as- 
sisting the father on the farm and attending the com 
mon schools, receiving his education in the una- 
dorned, rudely constructed pioneer log school-house 
so well remembered by the early settlers of that 
State. 

Mr. Simmon came to this County in 1855, and set- 
tled on section 9, Hamilton Township, since which 
time he has constantly resided in the township. He 
has experienced all the trials and struggles as well 
as some of the pleasures of the early settler. His 
home was located in the woods, distant from neigh- 
bors and friends ; the nights were made hideous by 
the howling of wolves, the crying of the wild-cat 
and panther, and the more timid portion of the fam- 
ily were continually in awe of the visitation of prowl- 
ing Indians ; his cabin contained mother earth for a 
floor, dry leaves for a bed and the rudely constructed 
fire-place for cooking; wintered his cattle four years 
on browse which he procured by chopping down 
the trees; at one time carried 100 pounds of flour 
on his back 12 miles to satisfy the hunger of his 
family. Here he lived and worked and prospered. 

Mr. Simmon enlisted in the late war, in Co. I, 23d 
Mich. Inf., and was engaged in the battles of John- 
sonville, Columbia and Nashville. He has been 
Townshi]> Treasurer for five years ; is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the G. A. R. 




Dec. 19, 1848, Mr. Simmon was married to \ 
Julia A., daughter of John Muffly, of this coui 
They have had ten children, seven of whom are 
ing, as follows: Magaret J., Susan, Sarah E., Johi 
Lacinda, William H. and Eva N. 



,mery V. Dean, farmer, section 19, New 
Township, was bom Dec. 11, 185 1, in 
State of New York. He is a son of A 
and Betsey (Ludlow) Dean, the former a na 
of Vermont, the latter of the State of 1 
York, where they settled and resided i] 
1857, in which year they came to Michigan and 
cated in Ionia County, where the father died in 
following year. 

Mr. Dean left home to try the world alone at 
age of 16 years, and passed the ensuing ten year 
a farm laborer. In 1862 he came to Gratiot Cou 
and, in the summer of 1877, he purchased 80 a< 
of land in its original condition on section 1 
Newark Township, where he has since resided 
operated as a farmer. He has placed 40 acre 
his land under improvements and cultivation, 
has made creditable progress in placing his fam 
a state suitable for successful farming during 
brief period it has been in his possession. In pc 
cal belief and effort, Mr. Dean is a Republican. 

He was married in Newark Township, Apri 
1882, to Mary M., youngest daughter of Chester 
Sophronia (Wade) Howland. Her parents were 
tives respectively of the counties of Oneida and 
leans, N. Y. The father was a lineal descendar 
John Howland, one of the Mayflower pilgrims, 
Mrs. Dean is a member of the ninth generatioi 
direct descent from her pilgrim ancestor. Mr. 
Mrs. Howland came to Michigan in its early pei 
and first settled in Lenawee Connty, where the] 
sided 20 years, removing thence to Hillsdale Cou 
and in the summer of 1 87 1 came to Gratiot Cou 
They bought 40 acres of land in section 20, Ne^ 
Township. Mr. Howland had placed 25 acres ui 
improvement, and erected good and suitable f 
buildings on his farm, where he resided until 
death, which occurred March 29, 1882. Mrs. H 
land resides on the homestead. The Howlands 
a remarkably long-lived race. Chester Howland 



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one of seven children, and there was no death in the 
the family until that of the mother, which occurred 
on the day the youngest of the family was 50 years 
old. Mrs. Dean is one of five children born to her 
parents, four of whom are living. George A. died 
when three years old. He was the fourth child. 
The others are: Achsah L., Martha L. and Sarah £. 
Mrs. Dean was born May 15, 1865, in Hillsdale Co., 
Mich. 



^ichael PoUasky, commission merchant at 
Alma, was born Nov. 16, 1832, in Hun- 
gary, of which country his parents, Mi- 
chael and Rebecca (Blitz) PoUasky, were 
natives. The son was a Lieutenant in the 
Hungarian army and engaged in the futile 
struggle of Hungary for independence. After the 
failure of the effort to assert the claims of that peo- 
ple to the right of self-gpvernment, Mr. PoUasky, 
with his wife and children — Rosa and Max — and ac- 
companied with his father, mother and sister Han- 
nah, emigrated to America. On reaching the New 
World they made a stay of eight months in Newark, 
N. J., and removed thence to Detroit, where the 
father is still a resident. The mother died there 
Dec. 25, 1879. 

Mr. PoUasky was about 23 years of age when 
he arrived in the United States. He came to 
Wayne Co., Mich., where he rented a farm and en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, doing a considerable 
business as a dairyman. This he followed two and 
a half years, and subsequently went to Detroit, 
where he engaged in the manufacture of shoes about 
a year and a half. This period was a time of trial, 
as circumstances were unfavorable, and the venture 
did not prove remunerative. His next business was 
a9 a merchant in the Lake Superior country, where 
he operated two years. In the faU of 1863 he came 
to Alma, and, associated with another man, again em- 
barked on the sea of trade. His choice of a bus- 
iness partner was unfortunate, and their affairs be- 
came so involved that the stock of the concern was 
surrendered to satisfy creditors. Mr. PoUasky re- 
ceived a receipt in full for all his liabilities and again 
opened accounts with the world, with a determined 
resolution to continue to struggle manfully for suc- 
cess. His outfit comprised a disposition to make all 



possible effort, and a faithful, helpful wife. He man- 
aged to establish himself again in mercantile pur- 
suits, to which he added lumbering, and conducted 
his joint business interests with satisfactory results 
until 1873, when shrinkage of values and the crowd- 
ing necessities of a large family made heavier de- 
mand upon his resources than his business warranted, 
and he began the manufacture of tubs and pails, 
which promised to be fairly remunerative. He suf- 
fered heavy losses from fire, his stock and establish- 
ment being seriously damaged three times in succes- 
sion with no insurance ; this, coupled with his inex- 
perience, brought such disaster that he was compelled 
to sell his interests. His son bought his stock and 
fixtures and the business was transferred to St. Jo- 
seph, Mich., where Mr. PoUasky again made an 
effort to reinstate himself and win success. Disaster 
again overtook him, despite his efforts to avert it, and 
he made an assignment for the benefit of his cred- 
itors. In 1877 he engaged in trade as a produce 
and commission merchant at Alma, and his final 
venture . has met with the success which his indom- 
itable courage and cheerful, hopeful contest with ad- 
verse fate deserves. 

He is a member of the Order of Masonry, and 
also belongs to "The Sons of Covenants." He is a 
decided Republican in political tendency. Was Vil- 
lage President three terqis, and has held other local 
offices. 

Mr. PoUasky was married in his native country 
March 15, 1852, to CeUa, daughter of Emanuel and 
Sarah Wix, all of whom were born in Hungary. 
Mrs. PoUasky was born April 12, 1831. Of her mar- 
riage, six children have been born, — Moses, Rosa, 
Max, Frank, Marcus and Anna. The first- named 
died in infancy. Rosa died when 13 years of age. 
The parents are members of the Mosaic Church. 

The portrait of Mr. PoUasky is presented on an- 
other page. 

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.amuel Bigelow, druggist, general merchant 
and dealer in agricultural implements at 
Estella, was born in Steuben Co., N. Y., 
March 7, 1827. His father, Samuel L. Bige- 
low, was a native of New York, and directly 
fl-.crended from the Puritan fathers. His 
mother, Catharine (Van Gordon) Bigelow, was also a 



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GRATJOT COUNTY. 



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native of New York, and was descended from the 
first Dutch settlers of Manhattan Island. She is 
closely connected with the family of Anneke Jans, a 
German lady who willed or leased to Trinity Church, 
of New York City, a great part of the land on which 
the city is situated, including the Astor and Stewart 
property. The case of the Anneke Jans heirs has 
become famous in the last few years, and may be 
unsettled for a generation to came. Several of the 
ancestral connections of Samuel Bigelow were in the 
Revolution, and he has a cane cut by an uncle from 
a hickory tree that grew up within the fortifications 
of Ticonderoga. It was cut just after Col. Ethan 
Allen and Benedict Arnold captured that important 
post from the British. He has also an oil portrait 
nearly loo years old, of his paternal grandfather, 
who was a prominent minister in the Baptist Church. 

The subject of this narrative remained in Steuben 
County until nearly nine years old, when his father 
removed to Yates County and settled on Crooked 
Lake, one of the pleasant bodies of water so numer- 
ous in that section. Here he grew into manhood, 
working in his father's mills and stores until 21 years 
of age, and receiving his education in the Yates 
County Academy. Leaving home, he was for two 
years employed as buying and selling agent by the 
Yates County Linseed Oil Company. Thence he 
came to Grand Rapids, this State, and for five years 
he was employed as clerk in a store and as teacher 
in the common schools of Kent County. Next 
he went to Ottawa County, and farmed until 1861. 
Moving to Ravenna, Muskegon County, he was in 
mercantile life for three years. He then sold out, 
and, with his wife, spent one year in making a tour 
of Canada and the New England States. In Decem- 
ber, 1866, he found himself in Gratiot County, and 
for a time he taught school. For several years sub- 
sequent he was in the employ of Mr. Tucker, a mer- 
chant of Estella, and he then started a store of his 
own. He carries a moderate stock of goods, and 
does an annual business of about $1,500. 

Oct. 12, 1853, in Kent County, this State, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Hannah Walcott. She 
was a native of Canada, was born May 14, 1835, and 
died at her home in Estella, in February, 1869. He 
was again married, at Estella, Jan. 21, 187 1, to Miss 
Dora Bell, daughter of George S. Bell. She was a 
native of Ohio, and died Nov. 12, 1873, leaving two 
children, Alberta and George S. 

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Mr. B. is a member of Elm Hall Lodge, No. 257, Si( 
F. & A. M., and of Ithaca Chapter, No. 70, R. A. M. ^ 
He has for some time been Secretary of the lodge. ■■^■ 
He has held the offices of Justice of the Peace and 
Township Clerk for several years each, and is now . -^ 
Notary Public. Politically, Mr. B. is very lil>eral in 
his views, but leans toward the Democratic party. 




^aniel W. Altenburg, farmer and County 
1^ Surveyor, was bom in Wyoming Co., N. 
Y., May 5, 1834; and is a son of Daniel 
and Sarah (Latson) Altenburg. His father 
was a native of New York, of Holland de- 
\ ■, and ha? followed farming all his life. 

In the fall of 1839, he moved to Union Township, 
De Kalb Co., Ind.; and he was one of the pioneers 
of that county. His family was the fifth in the 
township. He afterwards removed to the county 
seat. Auburn, where, in comfortable circumstances, 
he now lives a retired life. He is 74 years old, and 
the second oldest pioneer in De Kalb County. He 
is an active member of the M. E. Church, and has 
been Class-leader for many years. Sarah Latson was 
a native of Genesee County, and of New England 
ancestry. She moved to De Kalb Co., Ind., in 
1834, and died in Union Township May 22, 1863. 
She had always been a faithful Christian, and her 
death was an example to all unbelievers. She passed 
away rejoicing, and admonishing her children to 
serve the Lord and keep his commandments. She 
left nine children, all of whom are yet living, in good 
circumstances, and occupying positions of trust and 
honor. One is a prominent attorney at Little Rock, 
Ark., and has represented his county in the Arkansas 
Legislature. Four served their country during the 
Rebellion, and were honorably discharged. 

The subject of this sketch, when six months old, 
was taken by his parents to Sandusky Co., O., and four 
years later to De Kalb Co., Ind., where they settled 
in Union Township. They found themselves in a 
dense wilderness, and Daniel being the oldest sou, 
as he grew up much of the labor of clearing and im- 
proving a farm in a new country devolved upon him. 
His educational advantages were therefore limited; 
but, being of a persevering disposition, he attended 
school during his less busy winters, and thus, with 



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the help of miscellaneous reading, he acquired a fair 
education. During the last two years that he lived 
at home, he was an engineer on the Elk River Val- 
ley railroad, which runs through De Kalb County. 

Feb. i8, 1855, he was married to Sophia, daughter 
of Lanslot and Maria (Truman) Ingman, natives 
respectively of Fairfield Co., Ohio, and London, 
England ; and of English and German descent. Mr. 
Ingman followed farming most of his life, but was 
also for some time a cabinet-maker. He removed to 
De Kalb Co., Ind., in 1836, very early in its history, 
he and his brothers being the first two settlers near 
Auburn ; and in connection with his brotl^er-in-law, 
Wesley Parks, located and platted the present city 
of Auburn. He was for many years a prominent 
man, and for some time Justice of the Peace. In 
that place Mr. Ingman died, Dec. 2, 1874; Mrs. 
Ingman May 26, 1883; and their only daughter be- 
sides Sophia, but a little later. Sophia (Ingman) 
Altenburg was bom Feb. i, 1838, in Auburn, Ind., 
and was the third white child born in that place. 
She lived in Auburn with her parents until eight 
years of age, when her father traded his cabinet shop 
and village property for a farm near by, to which 
they all removed. There she was reared and edu- 
cated and married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Altenburg moved to the county seat : 
he having been chosen County Surveyor, resided 
there for ten years. For five years of this time he 
was County Surveyor, and he surveyed nearly 
the whole county. He finally resigned, not wish- 
ing to serve under a Democratic administration. 
Oct. 18, 1864, he enlisted in Co. M, ist Ind. 
Vol. Heavy Art., under Capt. Samuel E. Arm- 
strong and Col. Canby. He was at New Orleans 
and at the taking of Mobile, and was honorably 
discharged at New Orleans, Oct. 24, 1865. Selling 
his property in Auburn, he came to this State and 
county, and located on 80 acres on section 17, New- 
ark Township. Here he resided 17 years, brought 
64 acres to a high state of cultivation and drainage, 
and built a very fine brick residence. His farm was 
known as one of the model farms of Gratiot County. 
He made maple sugar very extensively, producing 
annually from 3,500 to 4,500 pounds. Aug. 4, 1883, 
he sold his farm in Newark Township; and Aug. 10, 
he purchased 80 acres on section 25, Arcada Town- 
ship, where he now resides. He has a good location, 



and is fast making a fine farm, 46 acres being al- 
ready improved. 

Mr. and Mrs. Altenburg have a family of seven, as 
follows: Frank F., born April 10, 1856; Araminta, 
April 18, 1858; Henry I., Oct. 4, 1862; Maria E., 
Jan. 19, 1867 ; William L., July 3, 187 1 ; Orville L., 
Dec. 21, 1876; and Daniel T., Dec. 10, 1878. Mr. 
and Mrs. A. are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and active workers for Christianity. All 
their family have been brought up under careful re- 
ligious influences. 

Mr. Altenburg is a member of Ithaca Lodge, No. 
216, I. O. O. F. Politically he is a staunch Repub- 
lican. He has always commanded the respect of 
his fellow citizens, and although he is not an office- 
seeker he has occupied many positions of honor. In 
1867, he was appointed Deputy County Surveyor, and 
the following year he was elected County Surveyor. 
Excepting one term, he has held one of these two 
offices continuously to the present time. He has 
been School Director two years, and Notary Public 
for the same length of time. In January, 187 1, the 
Board of Supervisors appointed him Drain Commis- 
sioner, which office he retained for ten years. He 
then positively declined to serve longer. 



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ames Riddle, farmer, section 10, Emerson 
^ Township, was born in Ontario, Canada, 
Oct. 14, 1826, and is the son of Archibald 
^ ^^ and Bethia (Marr) Riddle, natives of Scotland. 
They followed farming all their lives, first in 
the old country, and then in Ontario, Canada, 
where they died, the father in 1873, the mother in 
May, 1880. James was brought up near London, 
Ontario, and remained as a laborer on his fathers 
farm until 30 years of age. He received a fair edu- 
cation in the common schools of Middlesex County. 
In 1856 he came to this State and county, and lo- 
cated 240 acres of land in Emerson Township. He 
spent two summers here and then returned to Can- 
ada, remaining six years. 

During this period, March 29, 1866, at London, 
Canada, he was married to Isabel, daughter of Will- 
iam and Margaret (Beattie) Scott, natives of Scot- 
land. She was born in Westminster, Middlesex Co., 
Ont., April 28, 1834, and, receiving her education in 



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the district schools of that county, remained at home 
until her marriage. One year after that event, Mr. 
and Mrs. Riddle came to this county and^setiled on 
the farm he had purchased in 1856. He now owns 
120 acres, nearly all in an excellent state of cultiva- 
tion, and has good buildings for residence, shelter of 
stock, etc. Politically he is an earnest and influen- 
tial Republican, and he has held the office of Over- 
seer of Highways for some years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Riddle are members of the Presbyterian Church, 
are conscientious readers of the Bible, and actively 
devoted to the interests of Christianity. 





I illlam Marion CurtisB, farmer, section 1 1, 
Emerson Township, was born in Wyoming 
Co., N. Y., Jan. 8, 1852, and is the son of 
Waterman F. and Sylvia (Cronkhite) Curtiss, 
natives of New York and of English descent. 
He resided in his native county until six years 
old, when he came with his parents to this State, and 
located on a farm in Ionia County. Here he received 
two years' schooling, and in February, 1861, he came 
with his mother (his father having died in Ionia 
(bounty in i860) to this county and settled in Emer- 
erson Township. From that on he gave his time to 
attending school and to farming. 

March 15, 1878, in Lafayette Township, he was 
married to Catharine Mcintosh, daughter of Funley 
and Ellen (Chisholm) Mcintosh, natives of Scot- 
land, where they still live, on a farm. Catharine was 
bom in Rothshire, March 29, 1859, and when 12 
years old came with her brother to this country and 
lived with an uncle in Lafayette Township, Grariot 
County, until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Curtiss 
settled on 80 acres on section 11, Emerson Town- 
ship, in 1878. It was then heavily timbered, but of 
the 40 acres which they now own, 28 acres are now 
under the plow, and they have built a cozy little 
dwelling-house. They are the parents of two chil- 
dren: Nora E., born July 14, 1879; Arthur W., born 
Oct. 4, 1 88 1. They are members of the Presby- 
terian Church. Mr. Curtiss is a young man of en- 
terprise and judgment and stands deservedly high in 
his community. In politics he votes with the Repub- 
lican party. 




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Justin Shoup, farmer, secdon 8, North Shade 

^ Township, is a son of Henry and Polly 

. i^/ (Hilaiid) Shoup. The former was bom in 

'-'■' \ Pennsylvania, in 1795, and died in Sandusky 

:' Co., O., Jan. 14, 1875; Mrs. S. was bom in 

D1804, and died Jan. 10, 1879, in Sandusky 

Co., Ohio. 

The subject of this sketch was bom March 2, 
1834, in Sandusky Co., Ohio, remaining with his 
parents until he was 28 years of age, when he en- 
listed in Co. D, 128th Ohio Vol. Inf., and served two 
years in the Eastern army. He was on detached 
duty at Johnson s Island, guarding prisoners of war. 
He was discharged at Camp Chase, Ohio, June 20, 
1865. He then lived two years longer with his parents; 
next, two years in Kent Co., Mich., then 19 months 
in Kansas, then one year again in Kent County, and 
finally, in 1871, he came to Gratiot County, locating 
on 80 acres of land, on section 8, North Shade 
Township, where he has 60 acres in good tillable 
condition. 

Politically, Mr. S. is a Democrat, and he has been 
a school officer of his township a number of terms. 
He was married Jan. 5, 1868, to Miss Eunice, 
daughter of Edmund and Clarissa (Hoyt) Ring, 
who was born April 19, 1850, in Cuyahoga Co., Ohio. 
Her parents were natives of the State of New York, 
whence they moved to Ohio, then to Ionia, Mich., 
and finally to Kent Co., Mich., where they yet reside. 
Mr. and Mrs. Shoup s children are: Flora B., Eki- 
mund H. and Clara L. 



,^ saac B. Ward, farmer and lumberman, resi- 
dent on section 20, Sumner Township," is a 
son of Lewis and Isabel (McLeod) Ward, 
natives of New England and of English and 
Scotch descent. Lewis Ward was by occupa- 
tion a miller, and both he and wife are de- 
ceased. 

The subject of this memoir was born in Galway 
Township, Saratoga Co., N. Y., Feb. 21, 1829. Four 
years later his father moved to Lorain Co., Ohio, 
where he lived 12 years. Thence he came to Eaton 







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>> Co., Mich., where he died. After coming to this 
' State, Isaac B. worked out for himself among the 
;*\; neighbors for about six years, and then went to Ionia 
^ County. « 

In North Plains Township, that county, Oct. 14, 
185 1, he was united in marriage to Miss Lovena, 
daughter of Harvey and Eliza A. (Freeman) Lewis, 
natives of Pennsylvania and of German descent. 
She was bom Oct. 8, 1834, and came with her 
parents to Livingston Co., Mich., and then to Mont- 
calm County. Thence she went to Ionia County and 
worked as a domestic until her marriage. 

After living in North Plains Township five years, 
Mr. and Mrs. Ward came to Gratiot County and lo- 
cated on 80 acres on section 20, Sumner Township, 
afterwards purchasing 40 acres on section 29. He 
has seen many ot the peculiar experiences common 
to pioneers. When he came the country was entirely 
new, and the only means of getting from place to 
place was by the Indian trails. He had to go 20 
miles to purchase supplies. He now has a fine farm 
with 80 acres well improved. 
^ Mr. and Mrs. W. have been the parents of four 
/; children, three now surviving: Ackley L., born May 
^ 18, 1854; William W., April 18, 1856; Lemuel Jay, 
Ny' May 16, 1861. A baby was born July 3, 1852, and 
died in infancy. Mr. Ward is a member of Elm 
Hall Lodge, No. 257, F. & A. M. He has held the 
offices of Supervisor one year, Township Treasurer 
three years. Highway Commissioner eight years, and 
other minor offices. In politics he is an ardent Re- 
publican. 

ichard Foster, farmer, section 8, Washing, 
ton Township, is a son of Richard and 
Fanny (Hines) Foster, natives of Stafford- 
shire, England. Richard Foster was a lock 
and gun smith, and died in London in 1852. 
Richard, junior, was born in Wolverhampton, Staf- 
fordshire, England, Oct. 10, 1822. When 21 he was 
apprenticed to his fathers trade, and in 1852 he 
came to America. He lived three years in New 
York City, and then went to New Jersey, where he 
enlisted in Co. D, ist U. S. Sharpshooters. He went 
to the Army of the Potomac and fought in the seven 
days' battle before Richmond, at Fredericksburg, 




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Bull Run, Antietam, Frederick City and other places. 
He escaped unhurt, and held at the time of his dis- 
charge the position of Armory Sergeant of his regi- 
ment. He was discharged in front of Petersburg, 
Va., Sept. 14, 1864. He keeps as a trophy a sabre 
which he captured from a rebel Colonel. On leaving 
the service, Mr. Foster went first to New York, and 
then came to Gratiot County, locating on 80 acres on 
section 8, Waslungton Township. He has improved 
35 a»:res, but has also worked at his trade in the 
mean tin.e. 

In August, 1847, he was married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Wilh'am and Martha (Dunch) Fletcher, 
natives of Kent and Middlesex, England. They 
both died in the old country, Mr. Fletcher having 
been a hotel-keeper until his death. Mr. and Mrs. 
Foster have had seven children, four of whom are 
living: Joseph, Richard, William and George. Mr. 
Foster has been Roadmaster in his township. Polit- 
ically he is a Republican. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the M. E. Church. 



.nos n. Kimmel, farmer on section 33, Pine 
River Township, is a son of Christopher 
C. and Phebe (Spears) Kimmel, natives of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio. The father settled in 
Ohio in 1833, and came to Michigan in 1855, 
settling in North Star Township, this county, 
where he died, Jan. 20, 1873. His wife is still a res- 
ident of that township. Their family numbered 14, 
13 of whom lived to be adults. 

Enos H., the subject of this notice, was the second 
child and first son of the family, and was born in 
Hancock Co., Ohio, Aug. 15, 1841. He was 14 
years old when his parents came to Gratiot County, 
and he remained with them three years longer. 
Then for two years he worked out by the month. 

Aug. 12, 1861, he enlisted in the Eighth Mich. Vol. 
Inf. He served four years, and fought in 13 heavy 
engagements. At James Island, he was wounded by 
a shell, and in consequence lost from the right hand 
one finger and temporarily the use of two others. 
He was also slightly wounded in the thigh at Cold 
Harbor, Va. From this he was only off duty for 
three weeks. He was discharged at Washington, 
D. C. 
Returning to Gratiot County, from the service, he 







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bought 80 acres of wild land in Hne River Town- 
ship, which he has since converted into a valuable 
farm and a comfortable home. 

In Clinton County, Dec. 24, 1865, he was married 
to Elmira A., daughter of Zebina and Ann Rice, na- 
tives of New England. She was bom in Clinton 
County, Dec. 7, 1844, and died Aug. 12, 1873, leav- 
ing three children, George C, Rosa A. and Orrin R. 
He was again married, at St. Louis, Mich., July 4, 
1875, to Lydia, daughter of John and Lucy Frank- 
lin. To this union came one child, Archie, who was 
carried away by the hand of death when two years 
old. Jan. 4, 1878, he married for his present wife, 
at Saginaw, Mich., Mrs. Alice Hale, daughter of 
Henry and Sarah Waymire, natives of Ohio, and 
widow of George Hale. She was also born in Ohio, 
Jan. 5, 1 86 1. They have had one child, James G., 
which died at the age of two weeks. Mr. Kimmel 
is one of the enterprising, intelligent farmers of Pine 
River Township. Politically, he is a Republican. 

Tohn Mulholland, farmer, section 24, New- 
ark Township, was bom in Seneca Co., 
Ohio, Nov. 6, 1839. He is a son of 
William and Eliza (Dillon) Mulholland. They 
were natives of Ireland, and became residents 
of the United States in 1828, settling in Ohio. 
Their family included three sons and four daughters. 
Mr. Mulholland is the second son of his parents, 
and resided in the county where he was bom until he 
was 28 years of age. He spent his early life as as- 
sistant of his father on the farm and in attendance 
at school, and, after reaching manhood, had the man- 
agement of his father's farm six years. In the fall of 
1864 he was drafted, but instead of entering the 
service himself he sent a substitute, to whom he 
paid $1,000. He was married in Hancock Co., Ohio, 
March 14, 1867, to Sarah, daughter of George and 
Catherine (Krable) Graham, both natives of Ohio. 
Mrs. Mulholland is the second daughter, and one of 
seven children. Of her marriage three sons have 
been born — Homer G., Everett W. and Arthur M. 
The mother was born Nov. 21, 1842, in Hancock 
Co., Ohio. 

The family removed to Gratiot County in the 
autumn of 1868, where Mr. M. bought 80 acres of 





land in Newark Township. It was wholly in i 
original state, and the family took possession of a k 
house, which was their abode until the winter ( 
1 88 1, when they moved into a fine frame hous 
newly erected. Mr. Mulhollar.d proceeded with tl 
improvements on his farm after the manner of mc 
of his calling who fortify their possessions in wii 
judgment. In 1878 be built an excellent bam as 2 
accessory to his careful and prosperous farming. K 
is an adherent to the principles of the Republica 
party, and his wife belongs to the Methodist Episo 
pal Church. 



enjamin Burton, farmer, section 25, A 
cada Township, was born in Crawford Cc 
Ohio, Feb 27, 1853, and is the son < 
David and Sarah (Dewell) Burton, natives < 
Ohio. David Burton is a farmer by occi 
pation, and resides in Pine Piver Townshi 
two miles from Alma. Until of age, Benjamin live 
on his fathers farm in Crawford Co., Ohio, and a 
tended the common schools, receiving a very fair ec 
ucation. In the spring of 1874, he went with h 
father to Wyandot County, same State, and ei 
gaged in farming. He also did an extensive thresl 
ing business. Two years later, they removed I 
Seneca County, and located on a beautiful farm i 
Eden Township, where our subject remained ti 
marriage. 

Dec. 30, 1878, in Springfield Township, Jefferso 
Co., Ohio, he was united in the bonds of matrimon 
to Sarah E., daughter of John and Elizabeth (Rol 
ertson) Blythe, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohu 
and of Irish extraction. John Blythe was a farme 
and died in Jefferson Co., Ohio, July 2, 187$, at th 
age of 72 ; his wife died in the same county. Ma 
10, 1850, aged 42. Sarah E. Blythe was born i 
Springfield Township, Jefferson County, April 3^ 
1848. When three years old, her mother died, lea^ 
ing her the youngest of three children. Her fath< 
married again. She obtained a good education i 
the schools of her county, and cared for her father 
household until his death. Five years later, she wj 
married. For a little more than two years, Mr. an 
Mrs. Burton resided in Seneca County, on their fan 
of 60 acres. He then sold, and came to Michigai 



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farm is nicely located, and 107 acres are well im- 
proved. It has one of the finest orchards in the 
county. 

They have a family of two daughters: Ada M., 
born Aug. 7, 1880; and Hattie E., born May 28, 
1882. Mr. Burton has made many friends during 
his short residence in this county. Politically he is 
an ardent Republican. 



eorge Chandler, farmer, on section 28, 
Pine River Township, is a son of Charles 
and Alcrnda (Fletcher) Chandler ; the for- 
mer born in Pomfret, Conn., Dec. 2, 1780, and 
the latter born in Windsor, Conn., in 1784. 
They had a family of nine, three sons and six 
daughters. George, the second son, was born in 
Pennsylvania, April 16, 18 *6. He received a com- 
^ mon-school education, and also acquired much valu- 
able knowledge by private reading. At the age of 
21, he learned the trade of millwright, which occupa- 
tion he followed for over 20 years. He had charge 
of building the first grist-mill in Gratiot County, at 
Alma. It was afterwards destroyed by fire. 

Previous to that, in 1852, he went by steamer to 
California, and for four years was most of the time 
engaged in mining. Returning to the Mississippi 
valley, he came in the summer of 1856 to Gratiot 
County, of which he has been one of the pioneers. 
He bought 160 acres of wild land on section 4, Ar- 
cada Township, improved the same, and after 16 
years' residence sold out for the handsome sum of 
^,000. He then purchased 80 acres on section 28, 
Pine River Township, where he now resides, having 
60 acres nicely under cultivation. 

Sept. 24, 1845, at Jamestown, N. Y., he was mar- 
ried to Nancy Woodin, a native of Pennsylvania. 
This union was blessed with three children, — Martha, 
Jeremiah B. and Charles S. The first and last 
named are deceased. March 19, 1877, at St. Louis, 
he was again married, to Mrs. Eunice (Van Burren) 
Hubbelly widow of Dennis A. Hubbell, who was 
killed on Morris Island, S. C, in the late war. Mr. 
Chandler has been for six years Highway Commis- 
sioner, five years TownshipTreasurer, one year Super- 
visor, and three years Justice of the Peace, in Arcada 
Township. He is now Justice of the Peace in Pine 









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River. He has also held numerous school offices. He 
is in every sense a representative citizen. In political 
sentiment, he is a " through and through " Repub- 
lican. 



enry J. Bentley, farmer, section 29, Newark 

^ Township, was born July 8, 1842, in Canada. 

>^*^ His parents, Wilson and Miriam (Jackson) 

^ Bentley, were also natives of the Dominion 

j where they passed the entire period of their 

lives. 

Mr. Bentley came to Michigan when he was 22 
years of age, and first settled in Clinton County, 
where he passed fvst years, engaged in the manu- 
facture of wooden bowls. In the spring of 1869 he 
bought 80 acres of land in a primeval condition, 
where he has since resided.' He has cleared and im- 
proved about 60 acres, and has recently added 40 
acres by purchase, 30 acres being improved. In 
political faith and action, Mr. Bentley assimilates 
with the Democratic party, and has been School 
Director in District No. 6, Newark Township, six 
years. 

He was married in St. Johns, Clinton Co., Mich., 
Sept. 2, 1864, to Deborah E., daughter of Asa W. and 
Rhoda (Day) Ellsworth. The parents were natives 
of Canada, where Mrs. Bentley was born, Apiil 16, 
1842. The four children belonging to the household 
were born as follows: Oscar L., March 10, 1866; 
Melvina E., April 6, 1869; Charles A., July 3, 1876, 
and William J., April 8, 1880. 




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illiam O. Johnson, farmer, section ^^^ Pine 
River Township, is a son of Otis and Sarah 
C. (Plumstead) Johnson. Otis Johnson • 
was born on the Atlantic Ocean, while his 
parents were tn route from Ireland to the 
great republic. Sarah Plumstead was a na- 
tive of New York. William O. Johnson was the 
sixth son of a family of 14, seven sons and seven 
daughters. He was born in Ohio, but came with his 
parents when quite young to Michigan, settling in 
Oakland County. His father, with two of the sons, 
Robert and James, served through the Mexican war l^ 



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and some time after returning, moved to Ionia 
County, where he resided until his death. 

While living in Ionia County and attending the 
common school, the subject of this biography " took 
French leave " of home and started out to make his 
own way in life. He went to Oakland County, and 
hired out to a farmer for 40 days at 12 J^ cents per 
day. The five dollars thus earned, he immediately 
put at interest. He afterwards worked for six dol- 
lars per month, and next was employed in a hotel at' 
$13 per month. In the spring of 1854, he came to 
Gratiot County, and the following fall he deposited 
the money for 160 acres of wild land on section 33, 
Pine River Township. He at once sold 80 of this 
for $25 more than it cost him ; and the remaining 
80 is his present farm. He built a log house and 
while living alone chopped the wood and timber from 
35 acres. After living on the place nine months, he 
went to Missouri, where' he was variously employed 
for three or four years before returning to his farm. 

He was in the meantime married to Mary R., 
daughter of Thomas and Sarah Hale, natives of 
North Carolina. She was born in Cape Girardeau 
Co., Mo. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have had two chil- 
dren : Emma L , born March 4, 1862; Alonzo P. 
(deceased), born May 20, 1865, and died Dec. 24, 
1866. Mr. J. lived in his first log house two or three 
years, and then erected his present dwelling. His 
80 acres are now all underdrained and in cultivation. 
He is a member of the Masonic Order, and in polit- 
ical sentiment is a Democrat. 




Lylvester Wheeler, farmer, section 13, New- 
ark Township, was born April i, 1816, in 
Swantoii, Vt. His parents, Jesse Wheeler, 
Jr., and Sally (Morgan) Wheeler, were also 
born in the Green Mountain State, and, when 
the son was but three years old, removed to 
Onondaga Co., N. Y. Later on, they removed to 
Batavia, N. Y., and after a stay there of two years 
they went to Oswego County in that State, where the 
father bought and improved a farm, and resided 
thereon nearly 40 years. 

On reaching his majority, Mr. Wheeler commenced 
his life's contest single-handed. In 1852 he went to 
Kane Co., III., and a little more than a year later he 



came to Michigan. After a brief residence in Ingham 
County, he came, in the winter of 1854, to Gratiot 
County, where he bought 120 acres of land under the 
Graduation Act. He subsequently bought 40 acres 
additional, and later disposed of 80 acres by sale. 
He holds 80 acres at present, with 65 acres in a 
finely advanced state of cultivation. Mr. Wheeler 
endorses and supports the principles and issues of 
the Republican party, and has been active in the 
school interests of his township. 

He was married March 31, 1837, in Oswego Co., 
N. Y., to Hannah, daughter of William G. and 
Lavinia (Bristol) Peck. She was born Jan. 10, 1817, 
in Oswego County, and has become the mother of 
nine children, all but one of whom still survive. 
They are named Amanda J., William H., Edmund 
J., Almira M., Jesse C, Lavinia C, John W., George 
W. and Eliza A. Jesse C, the fifth child, died when 
he was 26 years of age. 




I^i ovell J. Puller, farmer, section 9, Newark 
Township, was bom April 16, 1827. His 
parents, Calvin and Bethana Fuller, were 
natives of Vermont and New York respect- 
ively, and their family included three sons and 
1^ three daughters. 

Mr. Fuller was the second son, and passed the 
years of his boyhood, previous to the age of 1 8, in 
obtaining his education. His parents removed to 
Ohio when he was five years old, and the Buckeye 
State was his home until 1872. In 1845 he began to 
" do for himself," and spent some time as a woods- 
man, after which he became a carpenter, and followed 
that business for 12 years. In March, 1872, he set- 
tled in Ionia Co., Mich., and there resided two and 
one-half years. In the same year he bought 200 
acres of land in Newark Township, this county, 
whither he removed his family in 1875. His farm 
now comprises 160 acres, cleared and cultivated. 
Mr. Fuller belongs to the National Greenback party, 
and in the spring of 1883 was elected Supervisor, 
which post he resigned a short time after his 
election. 

He was first married in 1848, in Medina Co., Ohio, 
to Elizabeth Inhan, a native of the Buckeye State. 
Three children were bom to them« Julia, bom in 



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1852, is the only survivor. Amelia and Samuel are 
deceased. The wife and mother died in 1854. Mr. 
Fuller was a second time married May 8, 1856, to 
Mary Coolman, who was bom in Ohio, June 8, 1838. 
Of their ten children but two survive. EvalM., bom 
Jan. 28, 1867, and Varo C, born July 16, 1869, are 
living. The following is the record of the dead : 
Lovell D., bom Jan. 25, 1857, died Feb. 21, 1862; 
Clara E., born June 10, 1859, died Feb. 3, 1862; 
Joseph E., born Dec. 12, 1862, died April 23, 1864; 
G>ra v., born March 27, 1865, died Sept. 19, 1866; 
Gracie B,, born May 27, 1871, died Sept. 23, 187 1; 
Ionia D.,born Mays, 1873, died in September, 1873; 
TJlly D., bom Sept. 25, 1876, died Feb. 6, 1877 ; 
Myrtie A., born Jan. 20, 1878, died Feb. 15, 1878. 
Aug. 28, 1878, the mother crossed the river to the 
land of eternal life, where her eight sons and daugh- 
ters awaited her coming. Mr. Fuller was a third 
time married April 3, 1879, to Harriet E. Hayes, 
who was born Aug. 8, 1833, in the State of Vermont. 




f heron A. Johnson, farmer, section 29, Pine 
River Township, is a son of Matthew and 
and Mary (Robinson) Johnson, natives of 
Nova Scotia. TJiey first settled, after mar- 
riage, in New Brunswick, afterward removing 
to Canada. In 1862, they came to this State 
and county, and settled in Pine River Township, 
where they now reside. Their family comprised 
seven children : Matilda, Sarah, Theron A., Bradley, 
Amanda, Mary and Lydia. Theron A., Bradley and 
Mary are yet living. 

The subject of this biographical narrative, the 
oldest son of the family, was bom in New Brunswick, 
April 12, 1834. At the age of 14, he came with his 
parents to Canada, and at 18 he engaged in carriage 
smithing. This occupation he followed for six years, 
and then went to Winneshiek Co., Iowa, where he 
worked at blacksmithing for four years. In June, 
1862, he came to Gratiot County, and followed the 
same business at Alma, for thr^e years. 

In 1S65, he was appointed Postmaster at Alma 
under President JohnsOn. After one year, on ac^ 
count of ill health, he resigned, and bought 160 acres 
of wild land in Pine River Township, where he now 



resides. In the summer of 1883, he erected a large 
and commodious residence. He now has 100 acres 
of his farm under cultivation, and his surroundings 
all betoken thrift and industry. 

July 23, 1856, at Bradford, Ont., he formed a life 
partnership with Miss Julia, daughter of David and 
Phoebe Lloyd, natives of Canada. Mr. Lloyd was 
killed in the Canadian rebellion. Mrs. Lloyd came 
with her daughter to Michigan, and died March 28, 
1866. The daughter, Julia, was bom in Canada, 
March 25, 1837. 

Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have a family of eight chil- 
dren, bom in the following order: Sarah A., June 13, 
1857; Lily, May 29, 1859; Charles El, June 4,1861 ; 
Ella, July 31, 1865; Alice, Nov. 9, 1868 ; Theron L., 
July 29, 1873; D'Arcy Lloyd, Dec. 31, 1875; and 
Ethel, April 25, 1878. Mr. Johnson is a prominent 
man, and has filled numerous offices of tmst and 
honor, showing both his ability and his popularity. 
He was Supervisor from Arcada Township in 1864-5, 
and was Chairman of the Board. In 1881, he was 
the National candidate for State Senator, and was 
defeated by Hon. Giles T. Brown, the Republican 
nominee. He was editor of the Gratiot Journal 
most of the time from 1868 to 1872. In 1877, he 
was chosen Secretary of the Farmers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, which office he has since filled. 
Politically, he is now a zealous and influential mem- 
ber of the National Greenback party. 

The portrait of Mr. Johnson is presented on page 
292, and is that of a prominent and representative 
citizen and agriculturist of Gratiot County. 




:rank Smith, deceased, was a farmer on 
section 24, New Haven Township. He 
was born in Prussia, Sept. 27, 1820. He 
worked as a common laborer in his BAdr« 
\^ country until 1853, when he emigrated to Xht 
land of freedom and prosperity, settling first in 
Ohio and a year later on an 8o-acre tract in tbie 
county, where he lived the remainder of his days. 
Thi^ country was then perfectly ivild. Here he 
cleared and put in good arable condition 25 aCitt ; 
was industrious, honest and prosperous, and a high- 
minded, consistent Catholic. His death — which was 
from dropsy — occurred Dec. 10, 1864, just after hav- 



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ing been drafted for army service. Having gone, on 
this military duty, as far as Flint, where the doctors 
pronounced him unfit for a soldier s life, he return- 
ed home, and in four weeks he was dead ! He had 
been a soldier in the Prussian army for five years, a 
portion of that time an officer of rank. 

Mr. Smith was married, in Newark Township, this 
county, May i, 1855, to Miss Mary Wermuth, who 
was born in Baden, Switzerland, in March, 1833. 
When 17 years of age she came with her parents to 
this country, settling first in Fulton Co., Ohio, and 
afterward in Newark Township, this county, where 
she lived until marriage. 

July 27, i86§, she married George P. Steadman, her 
present husband, who was born in New York State, 
Oct. 2, 1826, and emigrated to this State in 1842. 
He was a soldier in the last war, and, being shot in 
the left leg, at the second battle of Bull Run, he was 
incurably wounded. He, with his wife, spent the 
years 1879-81 in the gold regions of California. In 
politics Mr. S. is a Democrat, and he has held the 
office of School Moderator for nine years. 

Mrs. S. is a noble woman, and is recognized as 
such by her neighbors. Her children by her first 
husband are : Caroline, born Aug. 30, 185 1; Fred, 
born April 23, 1859; and Louis B., born Dec. 23, 
1 86 1, and died Dec. 8, 1864. By her present hus- 
band : Adaline, born Nov. 29, 1867; and Edgar, 
born April 2r, 1871, and died Dec. 19, 1873. 

Barnes S. Lance, farmer on section r i, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of James and Mary 
(Johnson) Lance, natives of New Jersey 
and Ohio. They settled in Wayne Co., Ohio, 
where they lived all their lives. James was 
bom in that county Sept. 30, 1837. He re- 
ceived a limited education, and was about r9 when 
he left home to make his own way in life. For five 
years he worked on farms for others ; and then he 
bought a farm in his native county. After a short 
time he sold out and bought a farm in Medina Co., 
Ohio. Soon hie sold again, and returned to Wayne 
County. 

In November, 1865, he came to Gratiot County 
and bought 80 acres, partly improved, on section 11, 
Fulton Township. Here he has been .content to 




stay. He has since added 40 acres, and now has 
65 acres cleared. Dec. r2, r86r, in Milton, Wayne 
Co., Ohio, he was married to Amanda M., daughter 
of William and Clara (Lee) Lance, natives of New 
Jersey and Ohio. She was born also in Wayne Co., 
Ohio, Feb. 27, 1S43. 

Mr. and Mrs. L have had six children : Ada F., 
born Oct. 23, 1863; Edward E., Jan. 17, 1866; 
Clara A., Jan. 11, 1868; Alfred S., July 30, 1871; 
Dewey W., Oct. 31, 1877 ; and one which died in in- 
fancy. Politically, Mr. Lance votes the Democratic 
ticket. 



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tf ii:;lbert Smith, farmer, section 20, Emerson 
y^^ Township, was bom in Baden, Germany, 
March 22, 1842, and is a son of Ignatius arul 
Catharine (Kline) Smith, natives of Germany. 
> At the age of eight years he came with his 
' parents to the United States, and settled in 
Seneca Co., Ohio. His father died in Michigan in 
1874, and his mother residfs in Sumner Township, 
this county. When 15 years old he left home to 
learn the cabinet-makers* trade, with an uncle. 
Leaving him he spent one year on a farm, and then 
enlisted in Co. A, 49th Ohio Inf., under a Capt. Lang- 
worthy. He joined the 4th- Corps of the Army of 
the Cumberland, and participated in the battles of 
Pittsburg Landing and Stone River, and in numerous 
lesser engagements. At Stone River he was taken 
prisoner and detained about two weeki. He was 
then paroled, went to Columbus, Ohio, was taken 
sick and went home on furlough. On regaining his 
health he engaged in the lumber business in this 
State, following that until 1869. 

Nov. 4, of that year, he was married, at Alma, 
Gratiot County, to Josephine, daughter of Daniel 
and Nancy (Burgess) Griffeth, natives of the State of 
New York. She was born in Wayne Co., Mich., Oct. 
8, 1852, and when she was two years old her parents 
removed to St. Louis, this county. They afterwards 
settled in Emerson Township, where she lived until 
her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Smith settled on a farm 
of 80 acres in 1869, which he had purchased in 1865, 
and he has now 140 acres, of which 60 are well im- 
proved. They are the parents of three living children, 
and one dead : Lewis, bom Feb. 6^ 1^72; Bert A.^ 



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bom Feb. lo, 1879; Emma, born June 23, 1880; 
James, born May 14, 1877, and died May 17, 1877. 
Mrs. Smith is connected with the Baptist Church. 
Mr. Smith is a member of Emerson Lodge, No. 375, 
I. O. O. F. He has held the office of Highway Com- 
missioner, and votes with the Democratic party. 



limeon Gray, deceased, late resident of sec- 
tion II, Fulton Township, was a son of 
Semy Gray, and was bom in New York 
State, in January, 1825. He came with his 
parents to Oakland Co., Mich., when quite 
young, and lived in that county until the spring 
of 1854, He then came to Gratiot County, and 
bought 80 acres in Fulton Township. He afterwards 
sold that place, and purchased 60 acres on section 
II, where he resided until his death, in October, 
1874. 

Feb. 23, 1852, in Oakland County, he married 
Miss Susan, daughter of John C. and Amelia Grace, 
natives of Massachusetts and Maine respectively. 
She was born in Oakland County, March 4, 1834. 
Mr. and Mrs. Gray had nine children, six of whom 
survive : John H., Edna, Rachel, Wallace, Guy and 
Pearl A. The deceased are Capitola, Norma and 
Freddie. Mr. Gray was Highway Commissioner one 
term, and in politics was a Republican. 

— *»'>^§ ^*' — 

illiam A. Krom, farmer, section 26, Elba 
Township, is a son of Andrew and Huldah 
(Skinner) Krom, natives of Orange Co., 
N. Y. The father was by occupation a black- 
smith. He came to Michigan and settled in 
Kalamazoo County in 1849. Mrs. Krom 
died in 1858. The son, William A., came to Elba 
Township in 1867, and engaged in farming and 
speculating in land. He now owns an excellent 
farm on sections 23, 24 and 25, 160 acres in extent. 
His lumber business, which he has carried on for 17 
years past, is very extensive. 

In 1868 he was united in the bonds of matrimony 
to Hattie Oberlin, daughter of Allen and Esther 
Oberlin, natives of Pennsylvania and Germany re- 
spectively. Two children resulted from this union : 







Julia A., born Dec. 2, 1870, and Mary, bom April 26, 
1876. Mr. Krom had the sad misfortune to lose his 
wife Dec. 11, 1883. 

He has held the confidence and good will of his 
neighbors ever since he began his residence in this 
county, and has been honored with a number, of 
local offices. He has been State Road Commissioner 
for a number of years, and Township Treasurer for 
the last nine years. When he entered upon the 
duties of the latter office, he found the financial con- 
dition of the township very unsatisfactory, but he has 
now greatly improved the condition and management 
of the treasury. Politically, he is a " true blue " 
Republican. He is a member of Elsie Lodge, No. 
238, F. & A. M. 



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eorge Noll, farmer and mechanic, section 
31, New Haven Township, is a son of 
William and Betsy (Hart) Noll ; the for- 
mer, of German ancestry, was a native of 
Pennsylvania, where he lived until his death, 
at the age of 56. His wife, a native of Ire- 
land, died in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. George Noll, the subject of this sketch, was 
born in Greenwich Township, Berks Co., Pa.; when 
nine years of age his father died ; from the age of 
eight years to 19, and from 20 to 22 he was a laborer 
for Jonathan Beaver, in his native county. He then 
(1835) engaged to learn the trade of blacksmith, and 
soon became a skillful workman, earning good wages; 
but his zeal in his calling led him to over-work and 
he broke down. In 1843 ^^ went to Canada, where 
in about eight years his physician advised him to 
quit blacksmithing. He accordingly went upon a 
farm, in Ontario, and pursued agriculture until 1867, 
when he came to this State and purchased 80 acres 
of wild land where he now resides. He first stopped 
at Carson City six weeks, preparatory to erecting a 
house in which to dwell. He now has 72 acres of 
well improved land and a comfortable residence. 
In politics he is a Republican, and has held some of 
the township offices. 

May 20, 1847, at Smith ville, Niagara Co., Ont., 
Mr. Noll married Miss Margaret H. Carpenter, a na- 
tive of Ontario, where she was bom July 27, 1824. 
She is a woman of considerable physical strength and 

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executive ability. Mr. and Mrs. N. are the parents of 
ten living children and four deceased. The living 
are: Joseph W., born Jan. 22, 1848; Charles H., 
Nov. 4, 1850; Gershon M., Sept. 14, 1852; Jonathan 
A., April 18, 1855; James L., Feb. 7, 1857; Albert 
G., March 6, 1859; John B., Sept. 25, i860; Sarah 
A., Aug. 8, 1862; Reneldo B., Sept. 3, 1864; and 
Mary Jane, Nov. 8, 1867. 

Mr. and Mrs. Noll are active members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

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[arlow Worthing, retired farmer, section 
10, Sumner Township, was bom Nov. 29, 
1812, in Waitesfield Township, Washing- 
ton Co., Vt. His parents, Abner and Sallie 
(Barloiv) Worthing, were natives of New 
England and of New England ancestry, and 
both died in Northport, Vt. His father was a car- 
penter and joiner by trade. 

When three years of age, the subject of this sketch 
was moved with the family to Addison Co., Vt., 
where they lived until he was 12 years old; then 
they moved lo Windsor County, and when 14 years 
old he went to live with an uncle, a tanner, in a dif- 
ferent part of that State, but two years later he left 
him and returned home. He soon went to Canada, 
where he followed his trade of tanning, which he had 
learned of his uncle. While in the French settle- 
ments of the Dominion he learned the French lan- 
guage, which he learned to speak readily. On leav- 
ing Canada he went to Plattsburg, N. Y., on Lake 
Erie, where he worked a year at his trade ; next he 
was a ssailor on Lake Champlain for a year; then at 
home for a few months; then was on a whaling ex- 
pedition 14 months. While on his return home from 
this voyage he visited St. Helena, and saw the first 
burial place of Napoleop Bonaparte. He also visited 
the curious island of Madagascar; then, crossing 
over to South America, he remained awhile in Brazil. 
He also stopped at the volcanic island of Amster- 
dam, southeast of the Cape of Good Hope. Their 
search for whales was principally in the Indian 
Ocean, going as far south as the 49th parallel. 

On returning to his native country, he resumed 
tanning for two years ; then for a year he worked in 
a morocco factory in Albany, N. Y. ; then two years 



at the tanning business again at his old home in 
Vermont; next, in 1839, he went to Wisconsin and 
Illinois, selling Yankee notions; then joined a boat 
crew at Peoria, III., and went to Memphis, Tenn.; 
then he visited Cincinnati and Pittsburg, when he V 
enlisted in the Mexican war, near its close, and was j 
not therefore called into active service. Spending ' 
one year in Madison, Ind., he worked at masonry 18 
months in Illinois ; was then two years and a half in 
Iowa, and finally, in 1855, he came to the land office 
at Ionia, and, under the Graduation Act, took posses- ^ ' 
sion of a half of section 10, where he still resides. 
Yet unmarried, he boarded with one of the settlers, , 
and set out to improve his wilderness home. He | 
successfully reduced a goodly portion of the land to \ 
a tillable condition, when rheumatism attacked him, I 
and for the last 1 5 years he has done but little work. 1 
He was Supervisor of this township at the first, 
and during the yeats 1856-7, 1861, 1864 and 1868, > 
Justice of the Peace eight years, Notary Public, High- 
way Commissioner, etc., etc. In politics, he is a / 
substantial Republican, and in religion a member of i 
the United Brethren Church. 

Oct. 17, 1862, Mr. Worthing was married to Mrs. 
Sybil Metcalf, nee Kellogg, who was bom in Bradford 
Co., Pa., July 4, 1831. By her former husband, her ' 
children are: Clara S. P., James H., Francis E. and 
Levi F. By her present husband, the children are : 
Sybil L., Mary L. and Barlow A. Mrs. W. is a mem- 
ber of the Free Methodist Church. 



eorge Whitman, farmer, section 29, North 
Shade Township, is a son of Jacob and 
Elizabeth (Case) Whitman, natives of Adams 
Co., Pa., the father being bom in 1794 and the 
f mother in 1795. The former died in 1869 and 
the latter in 1844. The father of Mr. Whitman fol- 
lowed the occupation of a farmer until his death. 

The subject of our sketch was born May 25, 1832, 
in Wayne Co., Ohio, where the parents had moved 
at an early day. He remained under the parental 
roof-tree until he attained the age of 19 years, when 
he went forth upon the oft-traveled road of adversity, 
to battle against the trials strewn along its pathway. 
Mr. Whitman was married to Miss Mary Righley, 
daughter of John and Rachel (Grcenhoe) Righley, 




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natives of the Keystone State, where the father was 
bom in 1812 and the mother in 181 6. Both are de- 
ceased, the father dying in Summit Co., Ohio, in 1856, 
and the mother in Erie County, same State, in 1882. 
Mrs. Whitman, the wife of our subject, was bom 
May 7, 1835, in Wayne Co., Ohio. After their mar- 
riage the husband and wife moved to Indiana, where 
they remained for seven years, then returned to Ohio 
and remained three years, from which State they 
emigrated to this county, arriving here Nov. 10, 1869 ; 
they locate4 on section 29, North Shade Township, 
securing 80 acres of wild and unbroken land. By 
good management, coupled with energy and industry, 
he has placed his land under such a state of culti- 
vation that he looks back upon the past and wonders 
how the improvement was ever accomplished. In 
1883 he erected a large barn, 40x60 feet, which is 
one of the best in the township. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. are the parents of four children, 
three sons and one daughter. John A., Joseph A. S., 
Douglas, and Amanda A. 

Mr. Whitman has been honored with the position 
of Constable of his township for two terms; has 
been Moderator of his school district two terms, and 
Postmaster six terms. He is also one of the Direc- 
tors of the County Fair Association, of Gratiot, Clin- 
ton, Ionia and Montcalm Counties, serving now his 
second term. 

The grandfather of Mrs. W. was a giant in stature, 
being six feet and eleven inches in height. He was 
a soldier of the war of 181 2, and died in Marshall 
Co., Ind., Dec. 15, 1867. 

Mr. Whitman in political action, belief and senti- 
ment is a staunch Democrat. 



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avid H. Payne, farmer on section 31, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of Arnold and 
Loana (Parker) Payne, natives respectively 
of Rhode Island and New York. They set- 
^ tied after marriage in the Empire State, and in 
\S^9 came to Washtenaw Co., Mich. After a 
residence there of about four years, they removed to 
Livingston County, and thence to Ingham County. 
In the winter of 1846, Arnold Payne, with his wife 
and 13 children, came to Gratiot County and took 



up a large tract of land on section 31, Fulton. He 
set about cleanng his land, and built a log house. 
On this place he lived until his death, Nov. 24, 1879. 
His first wife died Feb. 25, 1850. In 1853 he was 
again married to Mrs. Mary (Bussell) Dickerman, 
who died Aug. 31, 1865. He owned at the time of 
his death 120 acres in Fulton Township, the old 
homestead. 

Their family comprised 13 children, the following 
eight of whom survive : Abigail, James L., Day and 
Dwight (twins), Eliza, David H., Albert B. and 
Thomas P . The deceased are : Alma, Lucy, Mary, 
Perry and Arnold. The subject of this biographical 
notice, the nth of the family, was bom in Livingston 
Co., Mich.. Dec. 5, 1839, and was about seven years 
old when his parents came to Gratiot County. He 
received a common-school education, and remained 
at home until 2 1 years of age, when he began to im- 
prove 40 acres given him by his father. After clear- 
ing 30 acres he sold out, and bought 40 acres on sec- 
tion 31. This he worked two years, when he again 
sold, and bought 80 acres on section 32. Two years 
later he removed to Clinton County, and bought 60 
acres in Essex Township, where he lived about eight 
years. He then sold, and invested in village prop- 
erty in Maple Rapids, where he erected good build- 
ings and lived one year, and then traded for a farm 
in Ionia County, where he lived from February, 1877, 
to 1880. He then made his last move, coming to 
this county and buying the old Payne homestead of 
120 acres, 100 of which are nicely improved. 

Feb. 22, 1868, in Lyons, Ionia Co., Mich., he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of James and 
Bethie (Walling) Youdan, natives of England and 
New York State respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Y. came 
to Michigan and settled in Clinton County in 1844, 
where they lived until 1879, and then removed to 
Clare County, where they lived until his death, 
March 17, 1883. Mrs. Y. yet survives. Mr. and 
Mrs. Payne have four children : Harlan, O. D., Verne 
and Edith H. 

Mr. P. has held the various school offices, and has 
been Township Clerk in Fulton one year. He has 
been Highway Commissioner in Clinton County. He 
is a Democrat, and is a member of the Masonic Or- 
der, being a Knight Templar. He is also a member 
of the G. A. R., and he and wife are members of 
Essex Grange, No. 429, P. of H. 






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In the fall of 1861, Mr. Payne enlisted in the 3d 
Mich. Vol. Cav., and served one year. He was in 
the engagement at Island No. 10, and at New Mad- 
rid, Mo. At the last named place he was thrown 
from his horse, and received severe injuries about the 
spine, in consequence of which he was honorably 
discharged. 

A portrait of Mr. Arnold Payne, the father of the 
subject of the foregoing sketch, is given in this work. 



eorge Crooks, farmer and mason, resident 
on section 27, Newark Township, was bom 
Sept. 19, 1835, in Fairfield Co., Ohio. Andrew 
and Sarah (Arnold) Crooks, his parents, were 
natives of the Buckeye State. At the age of 
21 years, Mr. Crooks went to learn his trade 
and spent 18 months in completing a perfect practi- 
cal knowledge of its details. He has combined the 
callings of mason and agriculturist ever since. 

He became a soldier for the Union within tjie first 
year of the war, enlisting Feb. 20, 1862, in the 49th 
Ohio Vol. Inf., and, after three years of service, was 
honorably discharged at Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 2, 
1865. He was in the battle of Peach Creek, and 
his command was attached tp the force of Gen. Sher- 
man, under whom it made the historic march to the 
sea. 

Mr. C. was disabled for a time, by hardships and 
exposure, and was cared for in the hospitals at Mur- 
freesboro, Nashville, New Albany, Jeffersonville, 
Louisville, Cincinnati, Camp Dennison and Cleve- 
land. At the last place he narrowly escaped death 
from strychnine placed in the food by the steward of 
the hospital. 

In the fall of 187 1, Mr. Crooks bought 160 acres 
of unimproved land in Newark Township. He 
erected a dwelling, took possession, and entered upon 
the labor of clearing and improving, and now has 65 
acres under tillage. He was married April 6, 1858, 
in Wyandot Co., Ohio, to Sarah, daughter of Wal- 
lace and Catharine Greer. Mrs. Crooks was born 
Sept. 4, 1838, in Columbiana Co., Ohio. Her parents 
were born in the same State. The household in- 
cludes five children : Alwilda M., Dora M., Minnie 
M., Eugene G. and Alice D. Both parents are active 
members of the United Brethren Church, and Mr. 
Crooks is an ardent Republican. 



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^enry W. Kinsel, farmer, section 15, Newark 
Township, was born March 7, 1847, in Han- 
cock Co., Ohio. He is the son of William 
and Catherine (Damon) Kinsel, who were na- 
tives of Germany. In the early period of their 

1 lives they came to the United States, and, after 
staying a few years in Ohio, they came to Newark 
Township, Gratiot Co., Mich. The father enlisted in 
the 26th Regt. Mich. Vol. Inf., and after a year's 
service died at Norfolk, Va. The mother is still 
living. 

Mr. Kinsel was a lad of seven years when his 
parents came to Gratiot County. When his father 
became a soldier he returned to his native State and 
remained there three years, after which he came 
back to Gratiot County to engage in farming. He 
now owns 120 acres of land, with 75 acres under im- 
provement. He is a Republican in political faith, 
and has discharged the duties of several local offices 
to which he has been elected. 

Mr. Kinsel was married Aug. 21, 1870, in Newark 
Township, to Theda, eldest daughter of Jacob S. 
and Catherine (Baker) Beechler. The parents were 
born in Ohio, and are now residents of Newark. Mr. 
Beechler was the first Supervisor of the township. 
Mrs. Kinsel was born Nov. 28, 1847, ^" Ohio. She 
is a lady of creditable educational attainments, and 
has been a popular and successful teacher in Gratiot 
County. To herself and husband five children have 
been born, four of whom are living. They are 
named : Nora E., Myrtie C, Orin H. and Orpha M. 



omer Roberts, farmer, section 29, North 
^ Shade Township, is a son of Joseph and 
Deborah (Wood) Roberts. They were both 
natives of Vermont, where the father followed 
the occupation of a carpenter and joiner. The 
parents moved from Vermont to Livingston Co., 
N. Y., and from there they came to this State and 
located on section 29, North Shade Township, this 
county, in 1853, securing 160 acres, upon which they 
lived and toiled, and on which our subject lives. He 
has added 40 acres, and by the united efforts of him. 




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self and wife, 75 acres of the land has been placed 
under gpod improvement. 

The father was born in Orange Co., Vermont, Dec. 
5, 1798. He enlisted in the U. S. Army in 181*1, 
and served until Aug. 15, 1815, and returned to his 
native State, and, after coming to this country, died, 
Nov. 5, 1880, leaving four children, namely: Josiah, 
George F., Sarah and Homer. 

Homer, the subject of our sketch, was born June 
I, 1834, in Livingston Co., N. Y., and has constantly 
resided on the old homestead ever since his parents 
located on it. His mother died in 1869, in North 
Shade Township, this county. 

Oct. 4, i860, Mr. Roberts was united in marriage 
to Mary Jane, daughter of Julia A. (McCurdy) Dob- 
son, natives of the State of New York. They moved 
to Jackson Co., this State, and remained there for a 
number of years, thence removed to Hillsdale County, 
from which place they came to this county and are 
now living in North Shade Township. 

Mr. and Mrs. Roberts are the parents of three 
children : Anna E., Effie A. and Libbie A. 

Mr. R. has held the position of Township Treas- 
urer, and in political opinion is a Republican. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. R. are members of the Con- 
gregational Church. 




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Frederick B. Segward, farmer, Fulton 
Township, section 2, was born Aug. 15, 
1 84 1, in Buffalo, N. Y. His parents, 
Clemens and Catherine (Myers) Segward, were 
natives of Germany. They came to the United 
States in early life, and settled in the State of 
New York, where the father died, about the year 
1870. The mother yel survives, in the Empire State. 
Mr. Segward was bred to the business of a farmer, 
and followed agriculture in his native State until he 
was 22 years old. In the fall of 1863, he came to 
Gratiot County and bought 46 acres of wild land in 
Newark Township, on section 35. He there resided 
and made good advance in the improvement of his 
land during the next 12 years, when he removed to 
Fulton Township and bought 40 acres of land, to 
which he has since added by purchase dd acres. 
That of his land now under improvement and in 
progi'^ssive cultivation, is estimated at 75 acres. Mr. 



Segward is a Republican in political sentiment and 
action. 

He was married Oct. 16, 1863, in Niagara Co., N. 
Y., to Emma, daughter of Peter and Charity Deline. 
Her parents were natives of the Slate of New York, 
and her father is now a citizen of Newark Township. 
Her mother died in 1868. Mrs. Segward was born 
June 13, 1843, i'^ t^c Empire State. The household 
includes three children — Catherine A., Mary L. and 
Frances M. 






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apoleon B. Frakeir, retired farmer, residing 
at Ithaca, was born in Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
June 25, 1 8 15, and was of New England 
parentage and English ancestry. At the age 
of 15, he moved with his parents to St. Law- 
rence County, same State ; and here he worked 
on his father's farm until of age. For the ensuing 
eight years he was employed as a farm laborer in the 
vicinity, and he was then united in marriage with 
Miss Rebecca Merrill, who was born in St. Lawrence 
Co., N. Y., Sept. 4, 18 17. They at once settled on a 
50-acre farm purchased by Mr. F., and there lived 
until 1 86 1. He added 120 acres, and improved the 
whole farm of 170 acres, erecting suitable buildings. 

Selling out in the spring of the year mentioned, he 
purchased 240 acres of land in the State of Iowa, 
and started for the new home. While on his way, he 
fell in with parties coming to Michigan, who induced 
him to change his course. He came to Gratiot 
County, and shortly traded 120 acres of his Iowa 
land for 160 acres on section 8, Washington Town- 
ship. He soon after brought his family here from 
Ohio. He has added 20 acres, and of the whole 180 
acres, 130 are improved ; and the two large stock and 
grain barns and suitable residence show the results 
of his labor. He retired from active business in 
1880, and came to Ithaca, where he has since re- 
sided. He owns there two and a half acres of land, 
and a good dwelling. 

He and wife have been the parents of four chil- 
dren, — Addison and Ransom, living, and Ansel and 
Charles, dead. Ansel died in the service of his 
country, and Charles from the effects of exposure 
during the .service. Politically, Mr. Fraker is a.Re* 






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publican. He has been Supervisor of Washington 
eight years. Clerk three years and Justice of the 
Peace six years. He has also been Highway Com- 
missioner, and has held various other offices. 




^rastus C. Farrington, farmer, section 30, 
Emerson Township, was born in Norfolk 
Co., Mass., Aug. 4, 1824, and was the son 
5S. of Harvey and Nancy (Tilson) Farrington, 

-^ natives of Massachusetts, and of old New 
England stock. They both died in the Bay 
State, at an advanced age, about 1868. Erastus 
worked at home until 16 years old, and was kept so 
busy with work that his school advantages were very 
limited. At the age mentioned, he was apprenticed 
to one Erastus Dupey, of Wrentham, Mass., to learn 
the trade' of making shoes. After one year he re- 
turned home, and engaged with his father in this 
business, which they carried on together until he was 
of age. 

At that age, he was united in marriage to Jimima 
Packard, a native of Maine. Eight years later 
they removed to Fulton Co., Ohio, and in the fall of 
1854 they came to this State, locating on the present 
homestead, section 30, Emerson Township. For six 
or eight years after he came here, he followed his 
trade winters, and fanned during the summers. 

March 10, 1866, his wife died, leaving six chil- 
dren, a seventh dying previous to her demise. Their 
names are as follows: Eugene E., bom Oct. 29, 
1853; Nancy E., bom June 11, 1857; Nellie M., 
born Aug. 13, 1859; Charles W.,born July 18, 1864; 
Alice, born March 26, 1851, and died Sept. 1 1, 1862 ; 
Elmer E., born March 15, 1862, and died Aug. 29, 
1873 ; Willie, born Feb. 19, 1866, and died Aug. 4, 

March 25, 1867, he was again married, in Wood 
Co., Ohio, to Laura, daughter of Jonas and Mary 
(Carpenter) Carter, natives of New England. She 
was born in Delaware Co., O., May 16, 1832, but at 
the age of one year her parents removed to Wood 
County, where she received a good education. At 
the age of 17, she began teaching district school, 
which she followed unril 1864, and then devoted 
herself to the study of art. In 1865 she moved with 
her parents to this State and county, keeping up her 



work as an artist until her marriage, since which time 
she has lived on the farm. 

Mr. Farrington arrived in Emerson Township 
before an acre of wood had been cleared away, and 
after securing 40 acres he began to open up the 
country and make roads through the forest, then un- 
broken for miles in every direction. He has now 60 
acres of very valuable land, most of it well improved. 
Beginning in a small log hut, he has lived to be able 
to have a large, well arranged and comfortable resi- 
dence. He is a member of Ithaca Lodge, No. 123, 
F. & A. M.; and has been a Master Mason for nine 
years. In the lodge he has held the offices of J. D., 
S. D., J. W., S. W. and Tyler. In politics, he is an 
ardent and influential Republican. He belongs to 
the Baptist Church, and his wife to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. They are socially popular, and 
few citizens of Gratiot County are more highly 
esteemed by their neighbors. 



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\ OBwell Danly, farmer, on section 36, Fulton 
Township, is a son of Ingalls and Electa 
(Angell) Danly, narives of the State of 
New York. The parents first settled in 
Jefferson Co., N. Y., where they followed the 
occupation of farming until their death. The 
father departed this life May 7, r838; the mother, 
July 15, 1864. Their family included four sons and 
three daughters. 

The eldest of the family was Roswell, born in 
Jefferson Co., New York, Oct. 24, 1827. He received 
a common-school education, and remained at home 
unril 23 years old. After the death of his father, 
the labor and responsibility of managing the home 
farm largely devolved upon him. Although his home 
was with his mother unril he was 23, yet at the age 
of 17 he embarked as a sailor on the lakes, which 
business he followed 14 years, i. e., from 1844 to 
1858. Shipping before the mast as a common sailor, 
he gradually worked his way up to the post of mate, 
then pilot, and for four years commanded a vessel, 
thus earning the title of Captain, by which he is com- 
monly known in the community in which he resides. 
He has a high place in the confidence and esteem of 
a wide circle of friends. In the fall of 1854, he 
located 80 acres of land in Clinton County, this 



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State, and worked during the subsequent winteis at 
clearing the same. In the summer of 1858, he 
bought 80 acres of partly improved land in Fulton 
Township, on section 36, where is his present resi- 
dence. He has since 'added 40 acres opposite his 
farm in Clinton County, and has 100 acres well 
cultivated. 

Jan. 29, 185 1, in Jefferson Co., N. Y., he was 
united in marriage to Nancy Brougham. Her 
parents, William and Nancy (Rilyea) Brougham, 
were narives of the Empire State. Mrs. Danly was 
born in that State, May 24, 1829. Mr. and Mrs. D. 
are the parents of four children : William W., Viola 
J. (deceased September, 1864), James B. and 
Charles R. William W.,the eldest, is at Boyne City, 
Charlevoix County, engaged in lumbering. He is 
married, and has two daughters. 

Capt. Danly was the enrolling officer of Fulton 
Township during the war, and has held the office of 
Supervisor two terms. He is politically an ardent 
supporter of the Democratic party, and he is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Order. 




^chuyler W. Ambler, real-estate and loan 
agent at Ithaca, was born July 24, 1826, in 
Nassau, Rensselaer Co., N. Y. His father, 
Peter W. Ambler, was born in January, 1802, 
in Columbia Co., N. Y. The parents of the 
latter went in his infancy to Nassau. He 
was of English descent and was reared to the 
vocation of agriculture, which he made the pur- 
suit of his early manhood, and later engaged in 
mercantile life. He went in ^833, to Yates, Orleans 
Co., N. Y., and in 1839 returned to Nassau, where 
he was interested a few months in the manufacture 
of woolen goods. He was a man of deep religious 
convictions, and in the winter of 1840 was licensed 
to preach ; he was regularly ordained a minister of 
the Baptist Church in 1843. In 1846 he bought 60 
acres of land in Nassau Township, which he man- 
aged about eight years and sold in 1854. A few 
years later he bought the property whereon he died, 
Oct. 5, 1873. He labored in the interests of religion 
in Columbia and Rensselaer Counties, in the State 
of New York. His wife, Polly (Waterbury) Ambler, 
was of English descent and was bom in jNassau, 
where she died, in April, 1871. 



Mr. Ambler was a diligent student in the early 
years of his life, and, at the age of 16, was placed at 
Transylvania Institute for the purpose of making a 
thorough preparation for college ; but the plan of his 
education was never consummated, as his health 
failed and he was compelled to abandon the project. 
He was employed. for a time on the farm and taught 
school a number of winters. In 1851 Mr. Ambler 
bought 200 acres of land in Nassau, and devoted his 
energies to the pursuit ot agriculture until 1858, 
when he engaged in general mercantile pursuits at 
Brainard's Bridge, Nassau Township. Soon after the 
inception of the project he became associated with 
an individual named Hasting Kellogg, which rela- 
tion existed and was managed successfully until the 
spring of 1869. At that date, Mr. Ambler sold his 
interest to his partner. He had sold his farm in 
1863, and the disposal of his sole remaining business 
interest left him free to select a new location, which 
he was desirous of doing. He came to Jackson, 
Mich., and spent the summer of 1869, there examin- 
ing the comparative claims of new districts in the 
Peninsula State, relative to the choice of a location. 
He fixed upon Gratiot County and arrived at St. 
Louis Nov. 6, 1869. He engaged in teaching the 
winter ensuing, and in the spring of 1870 he became 
a salesman in the mercantile establishment of Hi- 
ram Harrington, and continued in that vocation be- 
tween two and three years. Meanwhile he was 
elected President of the village and served in that 
capacity one year (1872). In January, 1873, he 
came to Ithaca as Deputy County Treasurer, for A. 
B. Darragh, and discharged the duties of the posi- 
tion two years. In the fall of 1874 he was elected 
Treasurer and held the position four years. During 
the period of his official term he became interested 
in buying and selling real estate and in negotiating 
loans. On the expiration of his official obligations, 
he opened an office for the regular and systematic 
transaction of business in the avenues named, and 
has since been engaged in attention to his private af- 
fairs. He is dealing extensively in real estate, and 
now owns 700 acres of valuable farming lands in 
Gratiot County. He also owns town property, in- 
cluding a fine residence and a dwelling with two lots. 

Mr. Ambler has been President of Ithaca three 
successive years and Trustee for two years. He has 
also served one year as Justice of the Peace of Em-* 
eraon Township. 






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His marriage with Miss Charlotte M. Knapp, of 
Nassau, N. Y., occurred Sept. 14, 1850. She was 
born in the same place, April 2, 1832, and is the 
daughter of Isaac and Melinda Knapp. (The 
mother resides with the daughter.) Mr. and Mrs. 
Ambler have had eight children, as follows : Mary 
E., wife of Robert Banwell, a merphantof Belvidere, 
111. (They are the parents of three children — Fred- 
die, Charlie and Irvine.) Sarah M. was married to 
Julius E. Lyon, who is now deceased and left two 
children — Florence and Ix)throp M. She is now the 
wife of Isaac M. Sayles, of Ithaca, and has an in- 
fant child. Eva S. was born Aug. 29, 1856, and 
died Dec. 9, 1864. Irvin S. was born Sept. 27, 1858, 
and died Nov. 15, 1877. The remainder of those 
surviving are Nettie L., Inis, Willie and Fanny. 

Mr. Ambler is a fair type of the substantial ele- 
ment of Gratiot County. He has conducted his bus- 
iness on a basis of integrity and uprightness, and 
guided his life in a manner that secures to him, at 
its later meridian, the comfort and content he has 
earned. His portrait, on another page, is a credita- 
ble acquisition to the list of similar representarive 
men in this volume. 



^dward Downs, farmer, on section 13, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of John and Mar- 
garet (Foreman) Downs, natives of Ohio 
5^ S. and Pennsylvania. They first settled in Holmes 
^ Co., Ohio, and afterward removed to Hancock 
County, same state, where they at present 
reside. Edward was born in Holmes Co., Ohio, 
May 18, 1840. He received a common-school edu- 
cation, and remained at home until 2 1 years of age. 
In May, r 861, he responded to the first call of 
President Lincoln for troops to suppress the Southern 
rebellion, and enlisted in the 21st Ohio Vol. Inf., 
which was a three-months regiment. In August, 1862, 
he again enlisted, this time in the 99th Ohio Vol. 
Inf., and he served from that time on to the close of 
the war. He was in 32 regular engagements, 
besides numerous skirmishes. 

In October, 1865, he came to Gratiot County and 
bought 65 acres on section 23, Fulton Township. 
He afterward purchased 40 acres on section 13, 
where he now resides, and where he has put up a 








good dwelling and other farm buildings. He has 80 
acres under cultivation. 

April 10, 1863, in Hancock Co., Ohio, he was 
united in marriage to Lucinda, daughter of John and 
Margaret (Gibson) Chaffin, natives of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. Mrs. Downs was born in Hancock 
Co., Ohio, Aug. 18, 1839, and is the mother of ^s^ 
children: James E., Ella M., Mary E., John L. and 
Milo V. Mr. and Mrs. D. have adopted as their 
own child Marcia Cole, and she is known as Marcia 
C. Downs. Politically, Mr. D. is a Republican. 



saiah Hatfield, farmer, section 36, Newark 
Township, is the son of Jacob and Catherine 
(Franks) Hatfield, the former a native of 
New Jersey, the latter of Pennsylvania. After 
their marriage, they located in Wayne Cx)., 
Ohio, where they resided more than 30 years. 
Their family comprised fvvt sons and two daughters, 
named as follows: William, Michael, George, Jacob, 
Isaiah, Charlotte and Sally. Late in life, the parents 
moved to Medina Co., O., to reside with their young- 
est son, and there lived till the fathers death. The 
mother returned to Wayne County, where she died. 

Mr. Hatfield was born in Wayne Co., Ohio, Apnl 
28, 1822. He left home at the age of 16, and en- 
gaged in farming, afterwards becoming interested in 
managing threshing-machines, which business he 
pursued nearly six years. In 1853, associated with 
his brother Jacob, he went to the State of Iowa and 
bought 590 acres of land, which they sold after one 
season, and returned to Ohio. They bought 170 
acres of land in Medina County, and held its pro- 
prietorship seven years. Mr. Hatfield sold his in- 
terest therein in the spring of 1 861, and came to 
Michigan. He bought 80 acres of unimproved land 
in Newark Township, and disposed later of 40 acres. 
All but eight acres of the remaining moiety are 
cleared and under cultivation. He is mdependent 
in political sentiment and action, and has occupied 
the various school offices in his district. He is con- 
nected by membership with the Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. Hatfield was married Aug. 30, 1848, to Mrs. 
Polly (Weidman) Shank, widow of Michael Shank, 
and daughter of John and Barbara Weidman. Her 
parents were natives of Pennsylvania, and after their 



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marriage removed to Canada, where the daughter 
was born Feb. 27, 1821. But one of three children 
bom of her first marriage survives, Mariette. The 
others were named John and Henry. Three chil- 
dren have been born of her marriage with Mr. Hat- 
field : Teresa, May 16, 1856; Adam P., born July 
18, 1849, and died March 24, 1850; George, born 
Feb. 2, 1850, and died Sept. 16, 1856. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hatfield are members of the Church of United 
Brethren. Mr. H. was for 30 years a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and has for four years 
been a minister in the Church to which he now be- 
longs. 



[ oah Sooy, farmer on section i, Fulton Town- 
ship, is the son of Samuel and Rebecca 
(Tailor) Sooy, who were of Welsh and Hol- 
land descent and settled in New Jersey. 
rlG Noah was born in Wayne Co., Ohio, June 10, 
1816, and received a common-school education in 
that county. When 1 8 years old he removed to Me- 
dina County, same State, and in the fall of 1866 he 
made his last, long move to this county, buying 100 
acres on section 3, Fulton Township. After residing 
there 14 years he sold and purchased 77 acres on 
section i, same township, where he now resides. 
He has 60 acres under cultivation. 

Aug. 12, 1 84 1, in Medina Co., Ohio, he married 
Miss Sarah Driskell, who was born in Wayne Co., 
Ohio, Feb. 5, 1822. They have had seven children, 
of whom four survive: Elizabeth, Jemima, Avery 
and Corlis S. The deceased are : Perry, Joseph C. 
and Benjamin F. Mr. Sooy has been School Di- 
rector two years, and in politics is a National. 



^enry Bodfish, farmer, section 12, Bethany 
Township, is a son of Oliver and Sarah 
(Walker) Bodfish, who were natives respect- 
ively of Massachusetts and Maine, first settled 
in New Bedford, Mass., and afterward in Onon- 
daga Co., N. Y., where Mr. B. followed agricul- 
tural pursuits and resided the remainder of his life, 
his death taking place .\pril 8, 1883. His wife died 
Aug. 27, 1851. 










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The subject of this sketch was born in Onondaga 
Co., N. Y., April 18, 1843. When 20 years of age he 
enlisted in the loth N. Y. Cav., and served a year 
and a half, participating in the battles of the Wild- 
erness, Spottsylvania Court-House, Cold Harb6r, 
Weldon Railroad, Vaughn Road, Five Forks, etc. ; 
was at the surrender of Gen. Lee. He was then at 
his home in Onondaga County a year, and next, in 
April, 1866, he came to Midland Co., Mich., where 
he followed milling and lumbering nearly 12 years. 
In the spring of 1878 became to his present place, 
which he had bought eight years previously. At first 
it comprised 120 acres, but Mr. B. subsequently dis- 
posed of 40 acres, and a half of the remainder is 
now in a good tillable condition. 

Sept. 6, 1874, Mr. Bodfish was married to Miss 
Emma, daughter of Seth and Julia A. (Crandall) 
Gould, natives of Canada. She was bom in Cana 
da, Aug. 18, 1852. The children of Mr. and Mrs. B. 
are John H., George, Sarah M., Mary G. and Frank L. 

Mr. Bodfish is a member of the Masonic Order, 
and in politics is a " National." 



I^iram Townsend, farmer, section 31, North 

Shade Township, is the son of Josiah and 

^1^ Dolly (Parker) Townsend, and was born in 

O Jefferson Co., N. Y., Sept. 23, 1806. His parents 

( were natives of Connecticut, where they were 

engaged in farming. They moved to Jefferson 

Co., N. Y., where they spent the remainder of their 

days. 

At the age of 2 1 years, Hiram left the home of his 
parents and embarked on the voyage of life for him- 
self. He learned the trade of carpenter and joiner, 
which he followed for about 14 years. During this 
period he spent much time of the winters in the 
manufacture of joiners* tools. 

In the year 1854, Mr. Townsend married Miss 
Louisa, daughter of Amasa and Luna (Townsend) 
Page. Mr. Page was a native of New Hampshire, 
and the mother of New York State. Both of them 
have long since closed life's labors, the former dying 
in i860, and the latter in 1858, both in New York. 
Mrs. Townsend died in 1847, in Jefferson Co., N. Y. 
Sept. 28, 1848, he was married to Miss Luna Page, a 
younger sister of his first wife. 



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Mr. Townsend moved from New York to Michigan 
in 1865, and located on section 31, North Shade 
Township, on a tract of 87 acres of land, of which 
65 acres are in a good state of cultivation. The 
farm is well improved and has upon it good farm 
buildings. Mr. Townsend is the father of eight chil- 
dien, viz.: Luna, Erastus, Ambrose E., Eber L., 
Harlan, Orville H., Frank E. and Ida A. The first 
four were by his first wife. Politically, Mr. Townsend 
is a Republican. 

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^ ilton H. Davis, fanner on section 1 6, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of William and 
Sally M. (Cast) Davis, natives of New 

York State. He was bom in Medina Co., 

t Ohio, March 19, 1851, and at the age of 13 
came with his parents to Gratiot County. He 
remained at home until 22 years old, and then pur- 
chased 80 acres of Government land in Otsego Co., 
Mich. Six years later he sold, and bought 85 acres 
in Fulton Township, this county, where he now re- 
sides. He has 70 acres under cultivation. 

Feb. 22, 1873, at Ithaca, this county, he married 
Sarah, daughter of Peter and Nancy I^ddick, She 
was born in Seneca Co., N. Y., Nov. 6, 1850. This 
marriage has been blessed with three children: 
James E., William T. and Nela M. Mr. Davis is a 
member of the M. E. Church, and in politics is a 
Republican. 





oseph B. Holton, farmer, section 1 4, Beth- 
yl^^lf- any Township, is a son of Joseph and Eliz- 
?^ & '"^ abeth (Barnes) Holton, who emigrated from 



T|v, England to America in 1849 and first settled 
W in Jackson Co., Mich., and in 1866 where they 
y now reside, in Bethany Township, this county. 
Joseph E., the eldest son, was born Aug. i, 1842, in 
England ; remaining with his parents until the war 
of the rebellion commenced, he enlisted, in August, 
1861, in the 8th Mich. Inf.; but, being under 18 
years of age, he was soon discharged, by request of 
his father. In August, 1862, he again enlisted, in the 
same regiment, and remained in the service until 
July, 1865, participating in 13 engagements. When 

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before Petersburg, Va., in April, 1865, he received 
gunshot wound in his left thigh. 

After his discharge he came to Jackson Co., Mich 
and soon entered the commercial college at Albioi 
Mich., where he graduated. Since 1866 he has re 
sided on his present place, where he is the owner c 
120 acres of good land, with 57 acres cleared an 
subdued to a fine tilth. In the spring of 1880 h 
was elected Justice of the Peace, which oflice h 
still holds. Has been also School Director for si 
years and Commissioner of Highways. He belong 
to the " National " party. 

March 19, 1868, in Bethany Township, Mr. Ho 
ton married Miss Dorinda, daughter of Bernard an 
Dorinda Fox. (See sketch of Bernard Fox.) Mr 
H. was bom in Steuben Co., N. Y., April 4, 184J 
The children in this family are : Harvey B., Id 
M., Carrie L., Jessie E., George W. and Fred. I 
Jessie died when about three years old. 

rederick S. Kelly, retired farmer an 
stock-raiser, section 36, Ithaca Townshi] 
was bom in Wood Co., Ohio, May i( 
1832. His father, John A. Kelly, was a nati\ 
of Ohio, and was the first settler in Mon 
gomery Township, Wood County. When h 
went there, the Indians were very numerous, an 
numbers of them would occasionally spend the nigl 
at his hospitable home. When he '* raised" h 
cabin, he had to go 14 miles for help. In th 
pioneer home, the subject of this sketch passed h 
early childhood, and it was but natural for him to ai 
quire that pluck and energy with which all successf 
pioneers are endowed. 

Frederick Kelly's mother, Rachel Shawn, was 
native of Virginia, came to Ohio when very youn 
and there lived until her death, in 1840. Her fath 
was a soldier in the Revolution, serving seven yeai 
Frederick attended the first school in his nati^ 
township. The school-house was a log stractui 
14 X 18, covered with "shakes." The benches coi 
sisted of the roughest son of bass wood logs, split, ac 
the legs inserted therein so as to form a half-ronn 
seat. The fire-place was made of sticks and daul 
and the prominence of the comers admitted of it 
children climbing to its top, which was a fine reso 










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for the urchins of that pioneer school. The familiar 
trick of fastening the door, and then calling out, 
** Teacher, stay out or treat," was occasionally prac- 
ticed on Christmas by the mischievous pupils ; but 
on one occasion the master beat them at their game. 
He took advantage of the peculiar style of the chim- 
ney, and, by covering its top, smoked them out; 
Frederick passed the first 22 years of his life in at- 
j tending school, and in assisting his father to clear 
their farm and make a comfortable home. Feb. 17, 
1853, he was married to Mary Davis, a native of 
Ohio. Two years later, they came to this State and 
entered 280 acres of land in Newark Township, this 
j county. June 17, 1866, his wife died at her home in 
! this county, leaving two children: Ella, born Aug. 
I 25, 1857 ; and John, bom Nov. 25, 1858. 

Mr. Kelly was a second time married, April 18, 
i 1867, to Mrs. Emma Jenner(«<r<r Humphrey), daugh- 
ter of John and Ann (Best) Humphrey, natives of 
I . England. She was born in Sussex, England, April 
, , 13, 1 84 1. Her parents were farmers, and she lived 
_: at home and attended school in England until 15, 
" when her parents brought her to the United States. 
-.1 Their passage across the Atlantic occupied six 
'" weeks. From New York city they went to Levanna, 
Y Cayuga Co., N. Y., thence to Springport ; and in the 
j fall of 1863 they came to this county and located in 
^ Newark Township. Emma s first husband, Henry 
Jenner, enlisted Sept. 3, 1862, was taken prisoner at 
Newbern, N. C, Feb. 2, 1864, and died in the prison 
pen at Anderson ville, April 18, 1864, of small- pox. 

Mr. Kelly enlisted, Aug. 12, 1862, in Co. D, 26th 
Mich. Vol. Inf., commanded by Capt. Lafayette 
Church, of this county. He enlisted as wagoner, and 
was soon made "boss" wagoner, which post he held 
until he was honorably discharged, June 15, 1865, 
after serving nearly three years. 

Jan. II, 1 88 1, he left his well improved farm of 
280 acres in Newark township in care of his son, and 
purchased his present home of 40 acres on section 
1 36, Ithaca Township, near the village of Ithaca. 
Here he lives a retired life, devoting a portion of his 
time to dealing in stock. He has by his second mar- 
riage one daughter, Fanny, born June 8, 1877, the 
I namesake of her aunt, Fa"hny Kelly, who was for five 
r\ months a capdve among the Indians of Idaho. 
Mrs. Kelly's first marriage occurred Dec. 14, 1859; 
"' and by this marriage she has two sons: Thomas C, 



born Feb. 12, 1862, and Edward H., born Junes, 
1863. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kelly are not members of any 
Church, believing that a high morality, as taught by 
our conscience, is the best religion. He has held 
the office of Highway Commissioner for six years, 
and Township Treasurer for two years, besides 
minor offices. He was the second Treasurer of New- 
ark Township. Polirically, he is a zealous member 
of the National Greenback party. 






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|: eter Myer, farmer, section 9, Bethany Town 
|,Mp,fe ship, was bom in Prussia, Feb. 23, 1821 
J [irV^. His parents were natives of the same country 
j\^.^ and there followed the occupation of farming 
'fC until the year 1841, when they emigrated to 
the United States and settled in Dhio, where they 
both died, the former in 1875, and the latter in 
1870. 

Mr. Myer remained at home, in his native land, 
assisting his father on the farm and accompanied 
them to the States. On arrival in Ohio he engaged 
himself as a farm laborer for two years to a gentleman 
in the vicinity of Cleveland, afterward working in a 
brick-yard two summers and cutting wood in the 
winters. His next move was to Huron County, 
where he remained two years working on a farm, and 
then moved to Williams County, same State, and 
purchased 40 acres of land. He labored on this 
land for nine years, when he sold it and came to this 
county, arriving here in the year 1867. On arriving 
here, he purchased 80 acres of land on section 9, 
Bethany Township, and turned his undivided atten- 
tion to the cultivation of the same. He has suc- 
cessfully cleared 62 acres of this land and placed it 
under good improvement, on 40 acres of which there 
is not a stump to be seen. 

Mr. Myer was united in marriage June 20, 1850, 
in Cleveland, Ohio, to Miss Julia N. Midlle, bom in 
Germany, Aug. 31, 182 1. She came to the United 
States in 1850, the year she was married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nfyer are the parents of six children, 
only two of whom survive, namely : Catherine, who 
was united in marriage to John Schultes, and is at 
present living on section 8, Bethany Township; and 



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Mary, the wife of Frank Peach, living on section 4, 
in the same township. 

Mr. and Mrs. Myer are both members of the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church, and Mr. M. has held an of- 
fice in the Church for many years. 

In political opinion Mr. M. is a Democrat. 

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;ame8 M. MoKee, farmer, section 6, Ithaca 
Township, was born in Niagara Co., N. Y., 
Jan. 14, 1836. His father was Anthony 
McKee, a native of Orange Co., N. Y., and o^ 
Scotch and German extraction. James was 
reared on a farm and educated in the common 
schools of his native county. In 1867 he came to 
Washtenaw Co., Mich., where he worked at his trade 
of carpenter and joiner during the summer and 
taught school during the winter. He came to Gratiot 
County in 1873, taught one winter, and has since 
been engaged in agriculture, now owning 85 acres of 
well improved land. 

Oct. 22, 1873, Mr. McKee married Miss Mary 
Killin, daughter of Patrick Killin, and their children 
are : Belle and Berenice. 

Mr. McKee is a Freemason in good standing, 
having taken nine degrees in the mystic art. 



iilliam H. Wheeler, farmer, section 12, 
Newark Township, was born Oct. 9, 1839, 
in Oswegp Co., N. Y. His parents, Sylvester 
and Hannah (Peck) Wheeler, were natives 
respectively of Vermont and New York. (See 
sketch.) In 1852, when he was but 13 years old, 
his family went to Kane Co., III., and after a stay of 
more than a year they came to Michigan. He re- 
mained with them until 1863. They came to Gratiot 
County in 1855, after a stay of six months in Ingham 
County. Since that date, Mr. Wheeler has contin- 
ued a resident of Gratiot County. He owns 160 
acres of land and has 108 acres under fine improve- 
ments and in advanced cultivation. Mr. Wheeler is 
a Republican, and acts for the issues and interests of 
that party. He has been Director of School District 
No. 2 ten successive years, and has served four years 




as School Assessor. 



He was married in Greenbush, Clinton C^., Mich., 
Aug. 6, 1863, to Mrs. Ann L., widow of George 
Hawkes, and daughter of John and Ann L. Cook. 
She is a native of England, and was born Nov. 5, 
1839, near Canterbury. Her parents brought her to 
the United States when she was 1 2 years old. Her 
first husband died March 14, 1861, leaving two chil- 
dren, — Samuel J., born Dec. 11, 1859, and Thomas 
E., Sept. 6, 1 86 1. Following is the record of the 
births of six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler: 
Alfred W., July 3, 1864; George E., Aug. 29, 1866; 
Mary J., Dec. 5, 1868; Warren W., April 8, 1870; 
Cora E., July 29, 1873; Frederick H., July 8, 1876. 
The family attend the United Brethren Church, ol 
which the parents are zealous members. 



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ranklin Miller, the first resident lawyer of 
Gratiot County, was born in Lodi, Seneca 
Co., N. Y., March 13, 1833. His ances- 
tors, back to an indefinite date previous to the 
Revolution, were farmers, and formerly resided 
in the township of Goshen, Orange Co., N. Y., 
emigrating to the " lake country " at the close of the 
war for independence. 

He received the rudiments of a common English 
education in the district schools of the neighborhood, 
and, commencing at 1 6, pursued for three years a 
course of academic studies. The ensuing three years 
he studied law at Elmira, N. Y., and in 1855 he was 
admitted to practice in the courts of the Empire 
State. The same year, he came to this State and 
county, arriving previous" to the first election of county 
officers, when he was elected Prosecuting Attorney, — 
the first to hold that office in Gratiot. He was the 
first resident licensed attorney, and at the next elec- 
tion was re-elected for a second term. Before the 
conclusion of this term, however, ill health compelled 
his resignation; and in the spring of 1859 he made 
the overland trip to California, going the next year to 
Oregon. On the discovery of the gold fields of Ida- 
ho, he was among the first to settle in that little-known 
Territory. 

In 1871, he returned to Michigan, married, and 
remained a resident of Gratiot County until 1882, 
when he went once more to Idaho. He will be long 
remembered as one of the pioneers of this county. 



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He was among those who secured the location of the 
county offices at Ithaca, and he was the first Post- 
master of the county seat, which he named in re- 
membrance of Ithaca, N. Y. He purchased and 
and brought into Gratiot County its first printing 
press. He was the original projector of the Michi- 
gan Central Union Fair Association, and was in var- 
ious ways instrumental in the progress of the county 
and county seat. 



^ohn P. Buppert, farmer on section 27, Ful- 
ton Township, is a son of John P. and 
Christine (Sholler) Ruppert, natives of Ger- 
T7A many, in which country they died. He was 
W^ also born in Germany, Sept. 15, 1815, and in 
\ 1853 came with his wife and one child to the 
United States. For three years he lived in the State 
of Ohio. In the autumn of 1856, known as the 
*' smoky fall," he came to Gratiot County and bought 
80 acres of wild land on section 27, Fulton Town- 
ship, where he has since resided. He has now 40 
acres under the plow. 

He was married in the " Fatherland," in Septem- 
ber, 1843, to Miss Anna B., daughter of Frederick 
and Mary B. (Christine) Buttner, natives also of the 
old country. She was born there Sept. 8, 18 14. Mr. 
and Mrs. Ruppert have one son, George M., a sketch 
of whom is given in this work. They have formerly 
been members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. 
Politically, Mr. R. is a Democrat. 



rohn Biohard, Sr., farmer on section 34, New- 
ark Township, is a son of John and Mary 
(Poorman) Richard, natives of Franklin 
Co., Pa. They followed farming all their lives 
and died in Westmoreland Co., Pa., whither 
they had removed. The father departed this 
life in May, 1833, and the mother Dec. 19, 1845. 

The subject of this biography was born March 16, 
1 8x1, in Westmoreland Co., Pa., and alternately 
worked on the farm and attended school until 21 
years old. At this age he was united in marriage 
with Rachel Fry, daughter of Michael and Regina 
(Spillman) Fry, natives of Luzerne Co., Pa. Mr. and 







Mrs. Fry followed farming, and died in their native 
county, the father in 1853, and the mother in 1866. 
Their daughter Rachel was born May 27, 1815, in 
Westmoreland Co., Pa., and was the third daughter 
of a family of 13 children, all of whom are now dead 
but three. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard moved in 1846 to Ashland 
Co., Ohio, and in 1854 they went to Wood County, 
same State. Here he worked out a comfortable 
home from the dense forest. He is a man of iron 
constitution, and nothing in the way of hardship or 
toil could daunt him. In the spring of 1871, he 
moved with his family to Gratiot County, and located 
on 80 acres on section 34, Newark Township, where 
he now resides. 

During the late war, he sent four sons into the 
army, and twice enlisted himself; but was not ac- 
cepted, on account of his personal sacrifice in risking 
the lives of his sons. Mr. and Mrs. Richard h.ive 
been the parents of ^s^ sons and six daughters. He 
is a staunch Republican, and with his wife belongs 
to the United Brethren Church. They have been 
Christians 40 years. 




■^^^^'ohn H. Jessup, farmer, section 25, Newark 
Township, is the son of Isaac M. and 
7^^^ Eleanor (Schermerhorn) Jessup. The for- 
mer was born in Tompkins Co., N. Y., April 5, 
810; the latter Nov. 20, 1815, in Rensselae 
County, in the same State. Their marriager 
took place in New York, and in 1839 they emigrated 
to Michigan, and at first settled in Eaton County, 
going afterward to Wayne County. They maintained 
their residence there for 15 years, and in the spring 
of 1853 removed to Ionia County, wher^they are at 
present located. Four daughters and five sons were 
born to them : Jane M., Abram M., John H., Alida 
A., Jacob S., Andrew S., Mary E., Edward T. and 
Eleanor E. The last named child died when nearly 
three years old. . 

Mr. Jessup, of this sketch, was bom Dec. 24, 1837 
in Rensselaer Co., N. Y. He was 17 years old when 
his father located in Michigan, and he obtained his 
education in the common schools of the Peninsular 
State. On reaching the period of his legal freedom, 
he found himself with the world before him, to wrest 






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success from opportunity, or to wait in listless apathy 
for the fortune that comes soonest to manly, well- 
directed endeavor. In December, i860, he came to 
Gratiot County, and became the owner of 63 acres of 
unimproved land in Newark Township, of which he 
is still proprietor. He built the customary log house, 
and continued its occupancy until 1880. In that 
year, he completed and took possession of a fine 
brick residence. To his original farm he has added 
85 acres, and is now carrying on successful agricul- 
ture on 148 acres, of which 123 acres are finely im- 
proved land. Mr. Jessup belongs to the Republican 
element in politics, and has officiated three years as 
School Director in his district. 

In October, 1864, he was drafted, and assigned to 
service in the 23d Mich. Vol. Inf., and was in the 
army nine months. He participated in the actions 
at Franklin and Nashville, Tenn., and at Port Ander- 
son, N. C. Was honorably discharged from the ser- 
vice of the United States in June, 1865, at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Mr. Jessup was married Dec. 29, 1859, at Lyons, 
Ionia County, to Margaret R., daughter of Amos and 
Betsey (Grant) Dean, natives of the State of New 
York, where they were married, and whence they re- 
moved their family to Ionia Co., Mich., in 1854, and 
in 1 86 1 again removed to Gratiot County, and located 
in North Shade Township. The father died June 
29, 1857. The mother resides in Sumner Township. 
Mrs. Jessup is the second daughter of her parents, 
and is one of nine children born to them, viz. : Amos 
W., Nancy B., Darius E., Ezra J., Thomas H., Emma 
A., Rosa M. and Emery V. She was born in Yates 
Co., N. Y., Aug. 28, 1840. The sons and daughters 
of Mr. and Mrs. Jessup are named: Charles H., 
Nettie E., Arthur H., George L., Frank A., William 
T., Glen O^ and Bertha M. 



^Ibert Pierson, farmer, section 32, Washing- 
ton Township, is a son of Silas and Phoebe 
(Davis) Pierson, natives of Essex Co., N. J. 
Silas Pierson was a carpenter and joiner, and 
in 1839 moved to Morrow Co., Ohio, where he 
and his wife both died. The subject of this 
sketch was lx)rn in Essex Co., N. J., Oct. 13, 181 7. 
When 18 years old, he wasCapprenticed for three 




years to the trade of harness-maker, at the expiration 
of which time he engaged in farming in Morrow Co., 
Ohio. In 1853, he removed to Gratiot County, pur- 
chasing of the Government 80 acres on section 32, 
Washington Township. There are now 60 acres 
nicely improved. In the spring of 1867, he built a 
large bam, and in 1873 he erected a neat dwelling, at 
a cost of (1,000. 

March 10, 1844, he was married to Lucy J., 
daughter of Samuel and Maria (Gould) Linscott, 
natives respectively of the State of Maine and New 
York city. Mr. Linscott was by occupation a mason. 

Mr. Pierson has been Highway Commissioner of 
his township for three years, and has served occa- 
sionally on juries. He built the second house in 
Washington Township. There was at that time no 
road, and he had to attach pa|)er to stakes, to guide 
to his place the men to whom he went five miles to 
ask to help him build. The nearest trading place 
was Dewitt, Clinton County. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. In politics he is a 
supporter of the Republican party. 



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^homas M. Granger, farmer, section 8, Pine 
River Township, was born March 3, 1841, 
in Hartsville, Steuben Co., N. Y., and is the 
third son of Allen and Margaret (Bover) 
Granger. His father was bom in Vermont, 
and his mother was a native of New York. 
They settled soon after their marriage in Canisteo, 
Steuben Co., N. Y., and they still reside in that 
county. 

Mr. Granger is the third son of his parents and one 
of ten children born to them. He received a common- 
school education, and at the age of 20 made his 
entry into the world in an independent capacity, and 
paid his father $75 for the year's service yet re- 
maining of his minority. He was empty-handed, 
but preserved a spirit of determination second to that 
of no man, the results of which, coupled with persist- 
ent labor, good sense and judgment, are plainly 
manifest in his surroundings. He came to Gratiot 
County in September, 1867, and settled at Ithaca. 
He remained in that place and vicinity nearly eight 
years. In 187-. he Jx)ught 80 acres of land in Sum- 
ner Township, which he continued to improve three 



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years, when he sold out and went to Alma. There 
he built a house and barn and resided about 18 
months, when he exchanged the property for 80 acres 
of land belonging to P. Richardson, located in Pine 
River Township, where he has since followed the 
vocation of farming. He has purchased 17 acres ad- 
ditional, and has 75 acres under improvement. Mr. 
Granger is an adherent to the tenets of the National 
Greenback party. 

He was married May 11, 1859, in Steuben Co., N. 
Y., to Mary B., daughter of Burnett and Margaret 
(Gibling) McDermott, natives of Ireland, where Mrs. 
Granger was born, Jan. 5, 1839. Three children — 
George W., Ella L. and Carrie L. — have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Granger. The only son and eldest 
child met his death at Fremont, Newaygo County, 
Dec. 21, 1 88 T, by a terrible accident. He was en- 
gaged in making what is called a ** fly switch " at the 
railroad station where he was employed, and was 
killed while in the performance of his duty. 

The father and mother are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 




olla A. Feet, farmer, section 31, Lafayette 
Township, is a son of John and Betsy 
(Clark) Peet, natives of Connecticut and 
New York, respectively. The former was by 
occupation a farmer, but alsa worked at the 
trade of a shoemaker. Rolla A. was bom 
Aug. 18, 1830, in the State of New York, and worked 
on his father's farm Until he was nearly 2 1 years old. 
Early in 1851 he went to Ohio, and worked on a 
farm until he was fully of age. He then married Mary 
Odell, daughter of Nathan and Betsy (Wright) Odell, 
and resided for a time in Lorain Co., Ohio. Mr. 
Peet enlisted in Co. B, First Ohio Light Artillery, in 
1864, and was mustered out at Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
July 24, 1865. Returning home, he engaged in the 
dairy business one year, then sold his farm and came 
to Michigan in the spring of 1867. He first settled 
on 300 acres in Kent County. In 1875 he again re- 
moved, this time to Lafayette Township, Gratiot Co., 
settling on the south half of section 31. Of his 320 
acres, 100 are cleared and 100 more chopped. 

Mr. Peet s first marriage was blessed with six 
children, as follows : Frank M., bom Nov. 22, 1852 ; 




Odell, July 9, 1855 ; Gertrude, June 2, 1859; Louis 
M., Feb. 27, 1862 ; Benj. J., Nov. 21, 1867 ; Anna, 
Sept. 17, 1874. 

He is liberal in his religious views, and politically 
he votes with the National party. In 1881, the first 
Mrs. Peet died, and he was again married to Miss 
Ida M. Fuller, a daughter of James and Polly 
(Schance) Fuller, She was born in Eaton Co., Mich., 
Sept. 17, 1865, and at the age of five came with her 
parents to Gratiot County. 

As one of the leading and representative agricul- 
turists and citizens of Gratiot County, we take 
pleasure in presenting Mr. Peet s portrait in this 
volume. 

eorge G. Nichols, jeweler at St. Louis, was 
born March 10, 1845, at Plattsburg, N. Y. 
He is the son of Gardner and Sabra (Martin) 
Nichols. His father was a son of Levi Nich- 
ols, proprietor of the Nichols House, at Platts- 
burg, and was also born in that place. Levi Nichols 
died at the advanced age of 94. The management 
of the hotel devolved upon Gardner Nichols before 
the death of his father, and he conducted it several 
years. In the spring of 1863 he removed his family 
to Medina, Lenawee Co., Mich., where he bought a 
farm of 160 acres of land. 

Mr. Nichols was then 18 years old, and he attended 
the academy at Oak Grove several terms. In Jan- 
uary, 1864, he determined to risk the fate of war, and 
enrolled as a soldier. He enlisted in Co. G, 30th 
Mich. Vol. Inf., and was in the service of the United 
States six months. He returned to Medina, and after 
attenjiing school two terms went to Adrian and en- 
tered^e employ of Japhet Cross to learn the de- 
tails of the jeweler s trade. He remained nearly 
four years, and Jan. 10, 1870, came to St. Louis in 
impaired health, to obtain the benefit of the mineral 
water. After three months he became so much im- 
proved that he determined to engage in business and 
opened an establishment at the stand now occupied 
by Mclntyre s drug store. He conducted the repair 
business, and as he succeeded in working up a con- 
siderable degree of trade he added jewelry, and by 
his good management has firmly established nimself 






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in his business. He removed to his present quar- 
ters in May, 1882. In May, 1879, he was burned 
out on the old site, but with a very slight loss above 
his insurance. His business is prosperous and he 
employs his brother, John M. Nichols, as assistant in 
repairing and engraving. He is also agent for the 
New American Sewing Machine, No. 7. 

Mr. Nichols was married Sept. 27, 1876, at Has- 
tings, Barry Co., Mich., to Blanche, daughter of A. J. 
Newton. She was bom in Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. N. 
are the parents of one child, Carrie E.,born Nov. 11, 
1878, at St. Louis. Mr. Nichols is a member of the 
Knights of Honor. 




^ euben D. Maxwell, farmer, section 7, 
North Star Township, was bom in Monroe 
^ Co., N. Y., June 3, 1834, and is a son of 
■* Cyrus Maxwell, who brought his family from 
Troy to Geauga Co., Ohio, in 1836, and to 
Monroe Co., Mich., in 1844, where the subject 
of this sketch resided until after the war. He served 
one year in that great struggle, in Co. H, Ninth 
Mich. Vol. Inf. ; resided in Ingham Co., Mich., from 
1866 to 1879, where he followed farming five years 
and ran a dray eight years ; then came to this county, 
where he has since been engaged in agriculture, and 
now owns 124J4 acres of good land. 

Oct. 29, 1861, Mr. Maxwell married Miss Jane, 
daughter of Daniel Hillman, now deceased. She 
was born in Upper Canada, and was brought by her 
parents to Jackson Co., Mich., when only four years 
of age (1844). Mr. and Mrs. M. have three chil- 
dren, namely : Grace, Newton and Ira. 




I^^M^A*^^^'* Boop, farmer, section 5, North Shade 
fi^-^;^! Township, is a son of John and Mary 



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of John and 

(Mills) Roop, the former a native 01 New 

York, and the latter of Canada. Farming 

^ was their occupation. Mr. John Roop came 

\ when a young man to Toledo, Ohio, near 

which place he owned a fann. After a period, he 

moved 25 miles west of that city, and in 185610 

Montcalm County, this State, wherein 1882 his wife 



died. He is yet living with his daughter, Mrs. Ev£ 
line Thompson, in Montcalm County. 

The subject of this sketch was bom March i( 
1832, iif Lucas Co., Ohio, near Toledo, remainin 
with his parents until 22 years of age as a farme 
Spending one year in Indiana, he came to Montcali 
Co., Mich., where he remained two years engaged i 
various occupations. He cleared the land whei 
Carson City now stands. In 1857, he located on 
tract of 40 acres on section 5, North Shade Towi 
ship, to which he subsequently added 40 acres. E 
now has 78 acres well improved, with house, ban 
etc. Mr. Roop has been Justice of the Peace sevc 
years, and School Director a number of terms. E 
is a Republican, and a member of Ithaca Chapte 
No. 70, R. A. M. 

In the year 1856, Mr. Roop married Miss Eliz; 
beth, daughter of William F. and Eliza (Earls) Big 
low, natives of the State of New York. Her mothi 
died a number of years ago, and her father is yet li 
ing, in Carson City, Mich. The two children of M 
and Mrs. Roop are: Charles, born Aug. 24, 1858, ar 
Alpheus, May 7, 1867. 



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|?ornelius K. Samson, physician and dm 

?^ gist at St. Louis, was bom in Dov< 

I -^ Dutchess Co., N. Y., March 21, 1825, and 

V ? a son of John and Sarah (Upson) Samso 

/ The father was born in Dover, in 1776; tl 

mother was a native of Waterbury, Conn., where si 

was born in 17.80, In June, 1836, they came 

Michigan and settled in Woodstock, Lenawee Count 

John Samson died Oct. 20, 1837. The demise of \ 

wife occurred in i860, at White Church, Kan. 

Dr. Samson was a resident of Woodstock until 
was 27 years of age, and was engaged in famiir 
In 1852 he went to Adrian and opened a store I 
the sale of books and stationery, and also enter 
upon the study of medicine. He continued the ma 
agement of his book trade about a year, and af 
devoting some time to his medical studies, he coi 
menced his career as a practitioner. In Novemb 
1872, he came to St. Louis and purchased a stock 
drugs and continued to operate at the stand wh< 
he first established himself, on the comer of Mill a 
Center Streets, four years. In 1876 he purchased t 

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building where he has since conducted his business. 
His stock includes drugs, patent medicines, oils and 
paints, books, stationery, groceries, etc. His trade is 
popular and prosperous, and he has a good office 
practice. He compounds the following proprietary 
medicines : Alterative Tonic, Ague and Chill-Fever 
Pills, Compound Cough Elixir, Carminative, Cough 
Syrup, Dysentery Pills, Constipation Pills, Dyspeptic 
Elixir, Canker Lotion, Expectorant, Hair Dye, Horse 
and Cattle Powders, Hoof and Healing Ointment, 
Heave Powders, Nerve and Bone Liniment, Com- 
pound Carthartic Pills, Family Panacea, Syrup Sarsa- 
parilla Compound, Soothing Drops, Vegetable Liver 
Pills, Peptonic Vermifuge, Fluid Extract of Witch- 
Hazel and Healing Salve. 

Dr. Samson was married Dec. 2, 1852, in Brook- 
lyn, Jackson Co.,* Mich., to Wealtha L. Youngs. 
Two children have been born of their marriage : 
Ellie M. and Mary L. The former is the wife of I. 
C. Kendall. 




tndrew S. Jolly, farmer, section 20, Wash- 
ington Township, is a son of Charles N- 
and Tryphena (Pulfrey) Jolly, natives of New 
York State. They followed farming in that 
State, where the former died in 1842. The 
latter died in Gratiot County, in 1880. An- 
drew S. was born Nov. 20, 1835, in Fayette Town- 
ship, Seneca Co., N, Y. At the age of 10, he com- 
menced peddling, which he followed for eight years. 
Coming to Monroe Co., Mich., he worked in the 
woods and on a farm for a year and a half; and then 
came to Gratiot County, in 1854. 

In 1863, he enlisted in Co. L, First Michigan En- 
gineers, and was assigned to the \rmy of the Cum- 
berland. He fought at Murfreesboro, Tenn., but 
was generally on detached duty; and was finally 
mustered out in September, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn., 
and discharged the following month, at Jackson, 
Mich. 

In 1854, he married Mary J., daughter of Daniel 
Brown, a farmer, and a native of New York. She 
was born in Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Jolly first 
located on 40 acres in Fulton Township. In March, 
1 866, they removed to section 17, Washington Town- 
ship, and in 1869 they removed to section 7, same 



township. In 1 87 3, they settled at their present home 
on section 20, consisting of 240 acres, 100 of which 
are improved. They have a family of nine children, 
are members of the United Brethren Church, and 
Mr. Jolly is a member of Moses Wisner Post, No. 
loi, G. A. R., at Ithaca, and votes the Republican 
ticket. 



ohn Jackson, farmer, section 4, North Shade 
{ ^1^ Township, is a son of John and Hannah 
1^ (Mathers) Jackson, farmers of Yorkshire, 






M£ England, who came to America in 1827, and 

jl^ resided in the State of New York the remainder 

\ of their lives. 

Mr. John Jackson was bom Nov. 20, 181 7, in 
Yorkshire, England, came to this country with his 
parents and when he was a lad nearly grown 
they died, and he left the old homestead and en- 
gaged in a distillery two years, then in farming in 
New York State until 1869, when he came to this 
county, locating on section 4, North Shade Township, 
on a tract of 77 acres of partially improved land, 
which he now has in fine cultivation. He owns 
altogether 400 acres. In religious belief Mr. Jack- 
son is a Universalist, and in politics a Republican. 

In 1850, Mr. Jackson was married to Miss Sarah 
A., daughter of Isaac and Jemima (White) Leonard, 
the former an agriculturist and a native of New York, 
and the latter of Connecticut; both died in New 
York State. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson have the follow- 
ing children: Martha, bom in 1852; Edwin, 1854; 
and John, 1865. The parents are members of the 
Grange, and Mrs. J. is also a Universalist. 



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eorge Bichardson, druggist, grocer and 

jeweler, Ithaca, was bom in Monroe Co., 

1^iv:n N. Y., May 13, 1836, and is the son of 
^#^ George S. and Laura L. (Tyler) Richardson 
natives of Connecticut and Vermont, and of 
English-German and New England ancestry. 
They reside in Oakland County, aged respectively 75 
and 74. 

The subject of this biography went when two years 
old with his parents to Genesee County, this State. 



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His father being a drover, George had his full time 
for school until 20 years of age. He then engaged 
on the New York Central railroad as brakeman, 
afterwards changing to the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, on which road he was for a time a conductor. 
After four years of railroad life, he became a foreman 
in the Holland saw-mill in Saginaw County, where 
he remained two years. 

On the breaking out of the great civil war, he re- 
sponded to the first call of President Lincoln for 
troops, and enlisted in the first company of volunteers 
raised in Oakland County, of which he was made a 
Sergeant. This company was never mustered into 
the service, as many more companies offered than 
were needed under the call for three-months men. 
After the disbanding of the company, he enlisted in 
Co. A, I St Mich. Lancers. That kind of troops Was 
discontinued after seven months, but being deter- 
mined to fight for his country he enrolled himself in 
Co. I, 2 2d Mich. Vol. Inf., and served under Gen. 
Thomas. Shortly after his enlistment, he was se- 
lected as special messenger for Gen. Thomas at 
headquarters. Here he remained until July, 1865, 
and after his discharge he returned to Gratiot 
County. 

He then settled on a farm of 320 acres, 160 of 
which he had purchased in 1861, in Lafayette Town- 
ship. Only 10 acres were then improved, but after 
six years' residence he has improved 100 acres. He 
still retains 280 acres of that farm. In the spring of 
1872, he came to Ithaca and purchased 44 feet front- 
age on Center Street, on which he established a 
grocery store. In 1875, he and Mr. Weatherwax 
erected the first brick building in the village. It 
was built 80 feet deep, with a front of 22^ feet, but 
is now 1 10 feet deep. The firm was Richardson & 
Weatherwax for two and a half years, when Mr. R. 
became sole proprietor. When he started in busi- 
ness, his stock was worth but $1,200; but when, in 
1 88 1, he sold out to D. G. Hall, his stock was valued 
at $7,000, and he did an annual business of $18,000. 
Jan. 12, 1884, he resumed the business, now carry- 
ing a stock worth $6,000. The period from 1 88 1 to 
1884 was spent at Petoskey, this State, two years of 
the time in the drug business. 

July 3, 1862, in North ville, Wayne Co., Mich., he 
was married to Miss Jennie A. Watson, daughter of 
J. T. and Harriet (Wilcox) Watson, natives of Gene- 



see Co., N. Y., and of Scotch and English descent. 
She was born in Livingston Co., Mich., May 13, 
1842, and when 16 years old went with her parents 
to Oakland County, where she lived until her mar- 
riage, teaching school for some time previous to that 
event. Mr. and Mrs. R. have been the parents of 
seven children, four of whom survive : Flora H., bom 
April 22, 1863; Rena L., July 3, 1867; Hattie H., 
Oct. 28, 187 1 ; and George E., May i, 1878. The 
deceased are : Iva, Laura L. and Jennie. The par- 
ents attend the Congregational Church. Mr. R. is 
politically a Republican, and has held the offices of 
Justice of the Peace apd Township Treasurer in La- 
fayette Township. He was also Postmaster at La- 
fayette for ^st years. He belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity. 




yron A. Hioks, merchant, Bridge ville, 
Washington Township, is a son of Andrus 
and Betsy (Tilton) Hicks, natives of New 
York State. Mr. Hicks has been most of his 
life a tanner and furrier in New York State, 
where he and wife yet live. Byron was born 
May 27, 1844, in St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., and lived 
with his parents, working summers and attending 
school winters, until 15 years old. 

In October, i860, he came to St. John's, this State, 
where he was engaged in the store of John Hicks, in 
buying wheat, and at other employment. In 1864 
he came to Gratiot County and engaged in buying 
staves, making his headquarters at J. B. Smith s ho- 
tel at Pompei. In the spring of 1865, he bought 
the grocery of Wilbur Coon, of Pompei, and carried 
on business there until the spring of 1867, when he 
removed to Bridgeville. He now keeps a full line ot 
groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, and has a pros- 
perous trade. 

While at Pompei, he was married to Mary Aver>% 
the daughter of John R. and Lovina (Saunders) 
Avery, natives of Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
respectively. Mr. Avery was a farmer. Mary Avery 
was born in the State of Wisconsin, in 1845, and 
died at Bridgeville in 1868, leaving one child, which 
died shortly after its mother. Mr. Hicks was again 
married, to Sarah M. Avery, a sister of his first wife, 
in April, 1870. This union has been blessed with 



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<( three children, viz. Bessie L., Clyde B. and Leo M. 
^ Mr. Hicks has held the office of Supervisor from 
:*„ Washington Township, being elected in 1882. He 
* has also been Township Treasurer for four years, and 
Township Clerk. He is a member of the Masonic 
Order, belonging to a lodge at St. John s. In politics, 
he is a supporter of the Democratic party. 



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enretoh Moench, fanner, section 4, North 
Shade Township, was born Feb. 2, 181 7, in 
Germany, of German parents, namely: 
John D. and Barbara Hoffman, who died in 
Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, Germany. The sub- 
ject of this sketch emigrated to America in 
1853, landing at New York, and settling in Waterloo, 
Jackson Co., Mich. In 18 or 19 months, that is, in 
1^55) he moved to this county, locating on sections 
3 and 4, North Shade Township, the tract containing 
320 acres, all wild land. Of this he has since sold 
ooe-half, and he now has about 70 acres in good cul- 
tivation. 

Mr. Moench was married in 1855 to Wilhelmina, 
daughter of Conrad and Jacobenia Walter, natives of 
\'/ Wurtemburg, Germany, the former by occupation a 
butcher, and both long since deceased. The chil- 
dren of Mr. and Mrs. Moench are : Lewis W., Polly 
L., Henry R. and Wilhelmina. Their Church rela- 
tions are Evangelical and Lutheran. Politically, Mr. 
M. was formerly Republican, but is now Democratic. 



[eter Hofitaian, farmer, section 32, North 
Star Township, was bom in France, Feb. 
19, 181 6, a son of Frederick Hoffman, who 
was a native of Germany, and died in Havre 
de Grace, on his way to America. Peter was 
educated in his native country, and when he 
was 1 4 years of age the family emigrated to America, 
landing at Charleston, S. C. ; two months later they 
came to Canton, Ohio, and in 1833 to Sandusky Co., 
Ohio, where Mrs. H. entered 80 acres of land, and 
finally died. Peter Hoffman came to Hillsdale Co., 
Mich., in Februar>', 1849, and to Gratiot County in 
April, 1854, settling upon his present place May 13 
following, — ^in the wild woods, with only savage 
beasts for neighbors. He had wild meat for a con- 




stant article of food for years. He built the first 
house in North Star Township, a double log house, 
on section 29, on a part of the land he had entered. 
By industry and economy patiently exercised for 
many years, Mr. H. succeeded in developing and 
furnishing a fine farm. He has been engaged in ag- 
riculture all his life, except six months when he was 
in the boot and shoe trade in Alma, this county, and 
18 months in Pompei. 

Dec. 2^, 1840, is the date of Mr. Hoffman's mar- 
riage to Miss Elizabeth Kay, daughter of Moses Kay, 
now deceased: she is a native of Crawford Co., 
Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. H. have had seven children, 
six of whom are living, namely: Eliza A., now the 
wife of Mr. Trask; Charles N.; Adolphus P.; Ann 
M., now Mrs. Johnson ; Mary E , now Mrs. Hous- 
man ; and Phocion P. The deceased was James, 
who died at the age of 1 1 years. Mr. H. owns 40 
acres of land, and his wife 80 acres : total, 1 20 
acres. He has been Highway Commissioner many 
years. 



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rank B. Lathrop, farmer, section 29, 

Bethany Township, is a son of George C. 

and Mary E. (Hall) Lathrop, and was 

^^ born in Washtenaw Co., Mich., Dec. 24, 1840. 

^v^ His father, a farmer, was a native of New York 
Stale, and is still living at Meadville, Ingham 
County, this State. His mother, also a native of 
New York, is still living. When he was but a year 
old, the family moved to Waterloo Township, Jack- 
son Co., Mich., locating upon a half section of land, 
and remaining there 20 years, and then moved to 
Ingham County. 

Mr. Lathrop was brought up to agricultural pur- 
suits, attending winter terms of school. He was 
married in Ingham County, May 29, 187 1, to Miss 
Frances, daughter of William C. and Artemisia Mun- 
son, who was born in New London, Huron Co., Ohio, 
Feb. 26, 1845. Mr. L. followed farming in Ingham 
County until 1875. January 7 of that year, he 
bought his present farm of 80 acres, then all timber 
land. He has cleared 31 acres, and is under full 
headway toward permanent prosperity. He has been 
School Insi)ector and Drain Commissioner one year 
each in his township, and is a member of the Order 
, of Knights of Labor, 



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The children in this family are: Miles, born in 
Ingham County, June 19, 1872; Carleton, Sept 20, 
1875; Charles, born m Bethany Township, June 4, 
1878; Fidelia, July 4, 1880; and Asher, March 31, 
1882. 




[homas W. B. Greaser, farmer on section 17, 
Fulton Township, is a son of William and 
Elizabeth (McCombs) Creaser (see sketch 
of William Creaser) ; and was bom in the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, Oct. 19, 185 1. He was quite 
young when his parents removed to Upper 
Canada. He received a common-school education 
when in the Dominion, and was aboul 20 years old 
when his parents came to Gratiot Co., Mich. He 
continued to live with his father until 25 years of 
age. In 1880 he settled on 50 acres of partly im- 
proved land on section 17, Fulton, to which he has 
added 40 acres. He has 35 acres improved. 

Feb. 18, 1879, in Newark Township, he married 
Miss Ida M., eldest daughter of George L. and Car- 
oline (Jones) Naldrett. To this marriage two sons 
ha>e been bom, Albert N. and Charles C. Politically, 
Mr. C. is a Democrat. 




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Tohn Harrison, farmer^ section 17, Bethany 
Township, is a son of Thomas and Eliza 
(Hunter) Harrison, and was born in Kitley 
Township, Leeds Co., Canada, Jan. 19, 1833, 
His parents followed the occupation of farm- 
ing, and Mr. Harrison was a constant resident 
under the parental roof-tree and followed the same 
vocation until 16 years old. 

Mr. Harrison was united in marriage, April 17, 
1853, with Miss Margaret, daughter of Andrew 
and Mary (Thompson) Lawson. She was born 
in Ensley Township, Leeds Co., Canada, June 30, 
1 839. They have had five children, namely : Thomas, 
born June 10, 1857; Walter, bom Aug. 31, 1850; 
Eliza J., bom Sept. 9, 1861 ; James H., born Dec. 26, 
1863, died April 2, 1864; and John A., born Feb. 10, 
1865, died April 3, 1866. 

In March, 1866, Mr. H. and family came to this 
State and located at St. Louis, this county, and was 



there variously engaged for some time. In t 
spring of 1869, he purchased 80 acres of land on t 
section on which he now resides, lived on it for V 
or three years, and then moved to St. Louis, t] 
county, and afterward retumed to the farm. 

When he first purchased the land, it was oovei 
with timber, and through his own energetic labors 
acres have been cleared and 50 acres placed un( 
good cultivation. He has a good bam and comn 
dious residence and good orchard. 

Their son Thomas is a farmer by occupation, 
sides in the same township as the parents, and v 
united in marriage to Miss Angeline Quidort. W 
ter was married to Miss Isabel Broadhead, h 
farmer, and resides with the parents. Eliza J., th 
only daughter, is the wife of V. B. Ludwig, at pres( 
living in Ludington, this State, and engaged in ** li 
saving service." 

Mr. and Mrs. Harrison are members of the O 
gregational Church and honored and respec 
citizens of their township. 

Mr. H. has held the position of Township Dr 
Commissioner for two years. 



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.dward N. DuBois, farmer section 
North Star Township, was bom June 
1820, in Cayuga Co., N. Y.; his pare 
were Abraham and Elizabeth (Graves) I 
Bois, the former a native of Dutchess Co., 
Y., and the latter of Connecticut. They ei 
grated to Plymouth Township, Richland Co., 01 
in 1822, where Edward was brought up and lean 
the shoemaker s trade. After following this vocat 
for about six years, he went, in Januaiy, 1853, 
Califomia, for his health, which he fortunately rec 
ered. He retumed in January, 1854, and soon afl 
ward commenced farming. In 1857 he settled 
Fulton Township, this county, and in 1867 upon 
present farm, where he has since lived with the 
ception of six years when lie resided in Ithaca. 

July I, 1841, Mr. DuBois married Miss Adel 
A., daughter of Samuel and Lydia (Weeden) Boa 
man. Of their nine children only three are n 
living, namely, George M,, Ida B. (wife of 1 
Jeffrey) and Edward. One daughter, Ella, died 
her 17th year. The others deceased were, Theodc 
Mary E., Harry and Frank. Mr. DuBois and his s< 






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own altogether 2 1 o acres of land, where they are car- 
rying on a prosperous business in agriculture. 

Mr. DuBois was Deputy Sheriff of this county 13 
years. Justice of the Peace four years in Fulton 
Township, and Highway Commissioner in North Star 
Township one year. He was the first Village Mar- 
shal of Ithaca, and held that position three years. 



:yTon H. Sawyer, attorney, at Ithaca, is a 
son of Robert and Caroline W. (Webb) 
Sawyer, natives of New York and Con- 
necticut. The former has followed the occu- 
pation of farmer, and, with his wife, resides 
in Hillsdale County, this State. Byron H. 
was bom Nov. 29, 1846, near Lima, Steuben Co., 
Ind., and lived with his parents until 22 years old. 

He attended the common schools, and at 17 com- 
menced a course at the Medina Academy, where he 
studied two years. Entering the office of Sawyer & 
Bean, he read law for one year, after which he took a 
two years' course in the Law Department of the 
University of Michigan, graduating with the class of 
187 2. Forming a partnership with Thomas J. Hiller, 
he practiced law at Hudson, Lenawee County, until 
1879, when he came to Ithaca. Here he has since 
resided and practiced law. He also deals in real 
estate, and he owns 120 acres on section 5, North 
Star Township, 65 of which are improved. He has 
been Village Attorney of Ithaca for two years, and is 
now Trustee of the village and Circuit Court Com- 
missioner. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and 
is politically a Republican. 




rohn McCuaig, farmer, section 17, North 
Shade Township, is a brother of Alexander 
McCuaig, whose sketch is given, with 

f parentage, on anoth^ page. The subject of 
this sketch was bom June 15, 1835, in Newton 
Township, Canada. He remained with his 
parents on the farm, and attending school until 21 
years of age ; lived five years in Wayne Co., Mich. ; 
then from November, 1861, he lived a year in the 
town of New Haven ; and finally located on 80 acres 
of wild land, where he now resides and has 60 acres 



finely improved. His large and commodious bam 
he built in 1 88 1. He has been an industrious and 
judicious manager, and has accordingly enjoyed a 
good degree of prosperity. 

In 1861 Mr. McCuaig married Miss Jane, daugh- 
ter of William and Mary Clements, who was bom 
Dec. 10, 1 84 1, in Canada. Their eight children are : 
Mary A., John D., William H., Annie E., Samuel S., 
Myron, Alexander and Ernest S. 

In 1864, Mr. McC. enlisted in Co. A, 23d Mich. 
Inf., which was assigned to the Army of the Cum- 
berland, 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 23d Army Corps. 
He was in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, 
Tenn., and in all the engagements in which his regi- 
ment participated. On the mustering out of his 
regiment, he was transferred to the 28th Mich. Inf., 
and was finally mustered out at Raleigh, N. C, in 
October, 1865. Mr. McCuaig has been Town Treas- 
urer 1 1 terms, and has held several school offices. 
In all these capacities he has served the community 
well, being able, judicious, and a man of unimpeach- 
able integrity. 

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J, Miller, farmer and teacher, sec- 
tion 24, Bethany Township, is a son of 
John U. and Esther, nee Cronce, Miller, 
^^ and was bom in Erie Co., Ohio, March i, 
j) ' 1 841 , in which county his father and mother 
i_ both died, the former June 18, 1853, and the 
latter Dec. 8, 1863. The father of our subject was a 
farmer by occupation, and on his farm, under the 
ennobling influences of kind and loving parents, our 
subject was reared. He attended the common 
schools of his native county, and assisted on the 
farm until he attained the age of 18 years, when he 
entered on the " morning " of his . vocation, and 
taught school winters and assisted on the farm sum- 
mers. At this period in his life, although thoroughly 
competent to pursue his chosen profession, he de- 
voted a portion of two years to the pursuit of his 
studies in Oberlin College, the more thoroughly to 
prepare himself for the work of educating others. 

In December, 1865, Mr. M. came to Ingham 
County, this State, and purchased 50 acres of land 
in that county. He then returned to his native 
county and was united in marriage, March 6, 1866, to 

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Miss Abbie E., daughter of Gilbert B. and Sarah 
(Roc) Hasbrook. She was bom in Dutchess Co., N. 
Y., Feb. 3, 1846, and to their union two children 
have been born, namely, Alva R., May 4. 1869, and 
Fred J.. March 26, 1871. 

After their marriage they came to the land pur- 
chased by Mr. M. in Ingham County, and resided on 
the same until the following December, when they 
sold it and removed to this county. They located on 
40 acres of land on section 24, Bethany Township, 
where they now reside. Mr. M. has cleared and 
brought under cultivation about 30 acres of this land, 
built himself a good barn, and has under contempla- 
tion the erection of a new and commodious building 
as a residence. 

Mr. M. has taught 12 terms of school in this 
county, and has given universal satisfaction as to 
competency. He has held the office of Justice of 
the Peace for ten years, and is recognized as one of 
the representative men of his township. 

The husband and wife are both members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and respected and es- 
teemed citizens of Bethany Township. 



a£ oreDBo W. Kyes, farmer, section 19, Pine 
f River Township, was born in Jackson Co., 

Mich., Sept. 20, 1832, and is the son of 

James and Cassandra Kyes, both of whom were 
I^, bom in the State of New York. Mr. Kyes has 

has been a farmer since the days of his boy- 
hood. Previous to engaging in farm labor, he passed 
his time in obtaining his education at the common 
school. In January, 1859, he came to Gratiot 
County and purchased the farm on which he has 
since lived, comprising 80 acres of wild land. He 
has placed 60 acres under improvement and cultiva- 
tion, and thus added his quota to the progress and 
agricultural advancement of Gratiot County. Politi- 
cally, Mr. Kyes is a Democrat. 

He was married in Calhoun Co., Mich., Jan. 26, 
1855, to Sarah S., daughter of Frederick and Sarepta 
(Fox) Wright. Her parents were among the earliest 
settlers in Graliot County, and the family name is 
one of the leading ones in its pioneer records. Mrs. 
Kyes was bom Sept. 18, 1837, in Jackson Co., Mich. 
Of eight children born to Mr. and Mrs. Kyes five 

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survive — Emmet M., Frederick M., Albert C, Charles 
R. and Hattie M. Those deceased were named 
Gertrude, Frank and Melissa. Mrs. Kyes died Dec. 
8, 1883. 

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^^ nman N. Cowdrey, farmer, section 25, 
Newark Township, is a son of William P. 
and Mary (Bmce) Cowdrey. The parents 
were of Scotch descent, and after their mar- 
riage settled in Southern Ohio, where the wife 
and mother died in 1847. The senior Cowdrey 
removed his family, eight years after the loss of his 
wife, to Michigan, and located in Newark Township, 
Gratiot County, where he resided until his death, 
which occurred March 16, 1883. 

Mr. Cowdrey was bom March 8, 1848, in Ohio. 
He was in his first year of life when his mother died, 
and was a lad of nine when his father settled in 
Gratiot County, where he spent the intervening years 
until he reached the period of his legal freedom. 
When he was 15 years old (in 1863), he enlisted in 
the I St Mich. Regiment Engineers and Mechanics 
as a musician, and served until November, 1865. 
His command was with Sherman in the historic 
march to Atlanta and the sea. On the morning of 
the day when he awoke and found himself the legal 
inheritor of man's estate, he started for Ohio with the 
purpose of fitting himself to pursue the calling of a 
carf)enter and joiner. He found plenty of employ at 
that business summers, and engaged in teaching 
winters, thus altemating for a period of ten years, 
and at the end of that time (in 1879) abandoned his 
trade. 

In 1872, he purchased 40 acres of improved land 
in the township of which his father was a citizen, and 
in 1876 erected thereon the necessary farm buildings. 
In 1879 he became a resident in Newark Township, 
and has since been closely identified with all its in- 
terests. In politics, he is a Republican of decided 
type. He has officiated one year as Constable, sev- 
eral years as Superintendent of Schools, one term as 
Supervisor, and is a member of the Board of County 
School Examiners, of which body he has been Secre- 
tary two years, and is present Chairman. He was 
elected to a term of four years as Justice of the Peace, . 
but resigned at the end of the first year. He now 
owns, in addition to his first purchase, 66 acres of - 



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land in North Star Township, and has 85 acres im- 
proved. 

Among the reminiscences of the life of Mr. Cow- 
drey is one unique and startling incident, which oc- 
curred while his father was ^n route to Gratiot 
County. They traveled in the manner common to 
emigrants of that primitive period — family and effects 
in a wagon drawn by an ox team. The road was 
shaded on one side by the uncut forest, and the boy 
and his father occupied the front scat together. The 
day was windy, and suddenly a hollow bass-wood 
tree, about 30 inches in diameter, fell across the 
wagon. The top was forked, and, as the tree fell, 
the spreading limbs enclosed the occupants of the 
seat, and they were preserved unharmed. The 
wagon was almost entirely demolished. 

Mr. Cowdrey was married Nov. 5, 1874, in Ohio, 
to Alwilda, daughter of James and Sarah Hibbins. 
Her parents were natives of Ohio, and the children 
bom to them numbered seven, six of whom are liv- 
ing. Their names are : Mary E., Martha E , Al- 
wilda, Laura B., Edwin T. (deceased), Nettie M. and 
Roberta. Mrs. Cowdrey is the third daughter, and 
was born Jan. 27, 1854. Frank C, born July 20, 
1877, and James R., May 19, 1882, are the two 
children bom to Mr. and Mrs. Cowdrey. The latter 
is a member of the United Brethren Church. 




ohn Jeffrey (deceased), a pioneer settler of 
Gratiot County, to whom the township and 
village of Ithaca are largely indebted, and 
with whose name their growth and progress are 
indissolubly connected, was a native of Mon- 
mouth Co., N. J., where he was bom Aug. 26, 
1812. 

The record of his early life is incomplete, but suf- 
ficient is known to warrant the inference that the 
years of his later youth and earlier manhood were 
passed in the exercise of the traits of character 
which secured the prosperity of his prime and later 
life, and rendered him a valuable acquisition to the 
citizenship of a new country. His earliest known 
occupation was in freighting on the Erie Canal, where 
he was engaged some years, but met only moderate 
success. He went to Niagara Co., N. Y., in 1836, 
which section was then in its early days. He bought 



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a considerable tract of land, and for a number of 
years devoted his energies to the improvement and 
cultivation of his farm. He achieved a success in 
proportion to his efforts, and accumulated what was 
then considered a fair competency. In 1853 he vis- 
ited several of the Western States for the purpose of 
fixing on a suitable field for the development of his 
plans and projects in life, and finally located a tract 
of land at the geographical center of Gratiot County, 
which included the site of the present village of 
Ithaca. He took possession of his property in 1855, 
at which date his permanent residence and the im- 
provements on his estate began. In 1856 he platted 
the village of Ithaca, and on the third day of March 
of the same year the Board of Supervisors estab- 
lished there the county seat. In i860 the action 
was re-affirmed . 

Mr. Jeffrey's location of land in 1853 included 
1,120 acres, and he was continually buying additional 
tracts up to the date of his death.' It was his policy 
to make no sale? of land save to actual settlers, to 
which principle he strictly adhered. At the time he 
died he was the proprietor of about 5,000 acres, in- 
cluding chpice farming and pine lands, and also a 
considerable portion of the original plat of the village. 
At the time Mr. Jeffrey became a resident of Gratiot 
County, the country in every direction was for miles 
an unbroken wilderness, and the position in which he 
found himself was one that required the exercise of 
untiring energy and exertion. But he possessed an 
iron constitution, perseverance and judgment, which 
made him equal to the emergency, and in the aggre- 
gate he probably underwent as much hardship and 
suffered as many privations as any of the early pio- 
neers of Gratiot County ; and to no one of them is 
the county more indebted for its present remarkable 
status of advancement and improvement. Pmdence, 
economy, temperance and industry were marked 
traits of his character, and all the acts of his life 
were tempered by good judgment, sound sense and 
consideration for the permanent prosperity and wel- 
fare of the community to which he belonged, and of 
which he was for so many years a useful and hon- 
ored member. He died March 5, 1874. 

The portrait of Mr. Jeffrey appears on another 
page. It is a valuable addition to the collated his- 
tory and biography of Gratiot County, and without 
it no book of the character claimed for the present 
volume would be in any sense complete. 



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Mr. Jeffrey was married Dec. 10, 1868, in St. Louis, 
to Mrs. Louisa (Smith) Baney. She was born 
March 6, 1835, in Newfane, Niagara Co., N. Y., and 
is the daughter of George and Arvilla (Bromley) 
Smith. Her first husband -was David Baney, to 
whom she was married June 30, 1864, and by whom 
she had two children : Glenn E.,bom June 12, 1865, 
in Pompei, Gratiot County ; and May P., born March 
25, 1867. Mr. Jeffrey left two children : John, born 
Oct. 21, 1869, and Ira, Dec. 24, 187 1. His widow 
f became the wife of Joseph H. Seaver, June 18, 1879. 




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\q\lvl Broadhead, farmer, section 18, Beth- 
any Township, is a son of Cornelius and 
Elizabeth (Jersey) Broadhead, and was 
born in Maryland, July 20, 1829. When he 
was a small boy the family moved to the State 
of New York, locating in Ulster County. As 
he grew up he followed mill sawing for*i4 years. In 
1856 he came to Michigan and was married, in New- 
ark Township, this county, to Miss Emily Rooks, 
daughter of David and Sophia (Thompson) Rooks, 
who was born in Erwin, Steuben Co., N. Y., May 3, 
1837. Their children are: Charles W., born July 
24, 1862; Cora I., Jan. 10, 1865 ; Hattie E., Nov. 3, 
1867; Ray, March 6, 1870. Cora I. is the wife of 
Walter Harrison, a farmer of Bethany Township. 

Mr. B. is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
has served as Constable several years. 



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[illiam F. Brown, farmer, section 21, North 
Star Township, was born April 5, 18 18, in 
Massachusetts. His parents were Will- 
iam and Clarissa [nee Flowers) Brown, natives 
also of Massachusetts. The latter died 
when William F. was but three years old. Mr. 
Brown is a descendant of one of three brothers who 
came from England among the first settlers of 
America. His parents located in Genesee Co., N. 
Y.,in 1819, where his mother died. His father mar- 
ried again, and in 1827 moved to Chautauqua Co., 
N. Y , and in 1833 to Warren Co., Penn. 
The subject of this sketch left home at the age 18 



years, worked by the month several years, and in 
1863 came to this county, where now, in North Star 
Township, he owns 70 acres of land. He was mar- 
ried March 20, 1841, to Miss Mary, daughter of 
Francis Ploof. Of the four children bom to Mr. and 
Mrs. Brown two are living, namely, Eli W. and 
Charles W. One son, George F., was killed in thd 
late war while fighting in defense of his country, in 
a skirmish near Louisa Court-House, soon after the 
battle of Spottsylvania Court-House. He was but 2 1 
years of age. The other deceased son, James L., 
died when three years old. Eli W. is in Billings, 
Montana Territory, and Charles W. resides on a part 
of the homestead. Mrs. B. died Nov. 30, 1840, and 
Mr. B. married again Aug. 20, 1857, Miss Louisa M. 
Miner, daughter of Warren and Sophinia Miner, and 
by her had one child. Jay A. They have an adopted 
son, James W., now 28 years of age. 

Mr. Brown is a member of the Masonic fraternity 
and Mrs. B. of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



elcome F. Fartello, farmer, section 10, 
Bethany Township, is a son of Welcome 
J. and Rhoda (Phinney) Partello, and was 
born in Cazenovia, N. Y, Oct. 22, 1818. 
When eight years old his parents came to 
Washtenaw County, this State, settling in Salem 
Township, the second family in that township. There 
the father bought 80 acres of timber land, built a 
good log house, dug a well, and cleared 12 acres 
when he discovered that he had located on the 
wrong piece of land. Accordingly he moved. When 
the subject of this sketch was 1 9 years old the family 
moved to Clinton Co., Mich., ^s^ miles east of 
DeWitt. 

At the last mentioned place, July 31, 1845, he 
married Amelia J. Hoople, who was borH in Canada, 
Nov. 28, 182 1. By this marriage seven children 
have been born, viz.: Livonia, Julia, Welcome, 
Persis, Elson, Dwight and Olivia. 

In Clinton County Mr. P. was most of the time 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, and had some real 
estate in the village of DeWitt. In March, 1856, he 
came to Bethany and took possession of a quarter- 
section of timber land where he now resides, having 
60 acres in a profitable state of cultivation and 







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the value of the place enhanced by a number of 
improvements. When he first arrived on this tract 
it was all a wild forest. He moved with a yoke of 
oxen led by a horse. His father had settled on an 
adjoining place the year previous, and died eight 
years afterward: was the first Supervisor of the 
township. His mother died two years later. He 
has been Justice of the Peace three years. 

The children are now scattered as follows : Livo- 
nia is the widow of Stephen R. Goodwin, and resides 
in Bethany Township ; Julia is the wife pf William 
Denman, a farmer in Huron Co., Ohio; Welcome is 
engaged in connection with a railroad at San Anto- 
nio, Texas; Persis is the wife of Harvey Atwell, a 
farmer in Bethany Township; Elson is living at 
home ; Dwight is also at home , and Olivia is the 
wife of Ira Bentley, a farmer in Huron Co., Ohio. 



illiam SeiMed, farmer, section 8, New Ha- 
ven Township, was born in Salt Creek 
Township, Wayne Co., Ohio, March 25, 
1833. His parents, Henry and Mary A. 
(Steele) Seifried, were natives of Pennsylva- 
nia and of German descent. His father was a 
farmer by occupation, and after the year 1854 he 
lived until his death in the vicinity of Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

Mr. William Seifried, the subject of this notice, 
lived with his parents (after 15 years of age in Wy- 
andot Co., Ohio,) until his marriage, April 27, 1854, 
to Miss Martha, daughter of Isaac and Eva (Bor- 
ders) George, natives of Pennsylvania and of " Penn- 
sylvania Dutch " ancestry. Both died in their na- 
tive State. Mrs. S. was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Pa., Oct. 9, 1832, and when five years of age her 
residence was changed to Wayne Co., Ohio. Six 
months after marriage Mr. and Mrs. S. moved to 
Hancock Co., Ohio. 

When the first call for 600,000 more troops was 
made to aid in suppressing the great insurrection, 
Mr. S. enlisted, Aug. 11, 1862, in Co. G, ii8th Ohio 
Vol. Inf., commanded by Capt. Samuel Howard, of 
the Army of the Cumberland. He participated in 
all the engagements of his regiment until the battle 
of Perryville, and for the nine months following that 
event his regiment was detailed for special duty on 

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the Kentucky Central railroad ; then they were in ac- 
tive service again, being in the engagements at Cov- 
ington Heights, Perryville, Knoxville, London, Mossy 
Creek, Resaca, Chattanooga, Buzzard Roost, Kene- 
saw Mountain, etc. He was then sick for more than 
two years in the hospitals at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain, Nashville and Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
where he was honorably discharged. May 22, 1865. 
After residing then at his home in Hancock Co., 
Ohio, until fall, he came to Maple Grove, Barry Co., 
Mich. A little more than two years afterward he 
moved to Kent County, where he preached eight 
months as a minister of the " Church of God," then 
one year in the same capacity in Saginaw County. 
In 1870 he came to this county and homestead ed 
80 acres where he now resides, and has improved 50 
acres. He was the third settler on this section. 

Mr. S. is now a minister in the Free- Will Baptist 
Church, serving acceptably. He is a strong Prohi- 
bitionist Republican, and has held some of the of- 
fices of public trust in his district. His wife is also 
a member of the Free-Will Baptist Church. The 
children in this family are: Isaac G., born May 31, 
1855; Henry F., March i, 1857; John W., Feb. 21, 
1859; George M., Aug. i, i86r ; David M., Nov. 1 1, 
1865 ; and Ella E., Oct. 9, 1867. 






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reeman H. Bice, farmer, section 1 1, Fulton 

Township, is a son of Freeman and Sally 

(Hobart) Rice, natives of the State of New 

York. They settled after marriage in their na- v 

tive State, and afterward removed to Delaware (J 

Co., Ohio., where they lived until the fall of 

They afterwards removed to Mecosta County, 

this State, where the father died, in September, 1871. 

The mother afterwards removed to Eaton County, 

where she died, in June, 1873. 

Their family comprised six sons and one daughter. 
Freeman H., the fourth son, was born in Genesee 
Co., N. Y., Feb. 19, 1830, and was seven years old 
when his parents removed to Ohio. He lived at 
home until about 34 years of age, and in the fall of 
1864 came to Gratiot Co., Mich., and settled on 120 
acres in Fulton Township, which he had bought 
during the administration of President Pierce. He 
has now 80 acres improved. 



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^ Oct. 14, 1863, in Eaton Co., Mich., he was married 
) to Mrs. Mary E., daughter of Martin and Abigail 
' Williams, and widow of Chester B. Rice (a brother 
of Freeman H,, who died Aug. 10, 1861). Mrs. 
' J Rice had by her first marriage one daughter, Sarah 
* A., and by her second a daughter and a son, — Viola 
and Herbert F. Mr. Rice is politically a Republi- 
can. 



'ohn M. Walker, farmer, section 34, New- 
ark Township, is the son of Stephen and 
'Lydia (White) Walker. They were natives 
respectively of New York and New Hampshire, 
and after their marriage settled in the former 
State. They came to Lenawee Co., Mich., in 
its pioneer days and there passed the ultimate years 
of their lives. Five children were born to them, — 
Martha, David, John M., Nathaniel and Ransom. 

Mr. Walker is the second son of his parents and 
was bom March 15, 1 831, in Niagara Co., N. Y. He 
was two years old when his parents removed to 
Michigan, and he continued under the parental 
authority until he reached his majority. He then 
apprenticed himself to learn the business of wagon- 
making and served two years. He was engaged in 
labor at his trade and as farm assistant five years, 
when he bought a farm in Lenawee County contain- 
ing 75 acres, which he continued to manage until the 
spring of 1880, when he sold out and came to 
Gratiot County. He bought 100 acres of land in a 
State of partial improvement in Newark Township, 
on which he has since continued to reside and of 
which he has now 75 acres under cultivation. Mr. 
WaH:er held the position of School Director in Len- 
awee County six years consecutively, and in the 
fall of 1 88 1 was elected School Assessor of District 
No. 4, Newark Township, of which position he is 
present incumbent. In political affiliation he is a 
Republican. 

Mr. Walker was married in Fairfield, Lenawee Co., 
Mich., Oct. 12, 1856, to Elsie E., daughter of Job T. 
and Lydia (Laycock) Reynolds. Her parents were 
settlers in Jackson County, where the father died in 
1840, and the mother seven years later. Mr. and 
Mrs. Walker are the parents of five living children : 
Milton D. died when he was nine years old ; Ran 
som D., Cynthia L, Elveretta E., Lydia A. and Jessie 
S. are the names of those surviving. 



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aoob W. Snyder, general farmer, section 
ML^ 21, New Haven Township, was bom in 
"^ Montgomery Co., N. Y., Feb. 27, 1819. 
When 13 years of age he commenced to work 
out for neighbors, at farm labor, as his par- 
:nts were poor; and his education was conse- 
quently limited. He was a laboring man in this 
capacity till he was about 30 years of age. In the 
meantime,'Sept. 27, 1838, he married Miss Mehita- 
ble, daughter of David and Amy (Chapman) Hopkins, 
who was born in Stafford, Genesee Co., N. Y., Aug. 
27, 182 1. When six years of age she moved with 
the family to Allegany County, same State. 

Mr. Snyder came to Michigan in the fall of 1853, 
locating first in Ionia County, and two years later in 
this county, pre-empting 80 acres on the section 
where he now resides, and undergoing the experi- 
ences common to frontier life, more fully described 
elsewhere in this volume. He and his noble wife 
bravely persevered and surmounted all obstacles. 
During the noted famine of 1856, they received but 
$3 donation. Mr. Snyder has improved 60 acres of 
the old homestead, and he has never changed his 
residence since his first settlement. In national af- 
fairs he is a Republican, and he has held various of- 
fices in his township and district. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Snyder are : Ame- 
lia, Edwin F., Laura and Amy M., living ; and Har- 
^rison, who died in the army, and Mary J., who died 
in infancy. 



homas A. Porter, farmer, section 18, Beth- 
M any Township, is a son of John and Jane 
(Atchison) Porter, and was bom in Indiana, 
Nov. 5, 1827. When six months old the fam- 
ily moved to Canada. When he was 16 years 
of age he left home and learned the millwright 
trade, which he followed in various parts of the 
United States until 1861, and he has worked at it 
some since that date. He was for a time in Califor- 
nia, where he was a member of a vigilance com- 
mittee. His re»idence for six years was above 
Sacramento, near Auburn, Placer County, and he 
followed lumbering. 




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He first came to Michigan in 1845, stopping on 
the Saginaw Bay. In 1 861, he returned to St. Clair 
Co., Mich., and shortly afterward he went to Saginaw 
County, where he "located" 960 acres of land for 
himself and brothers, his share being a third: at one 
time he owned 2,200 acres. He cleared 75 acres. 
As he was interested in lumbering in Missaukee 
County, he operated there two years. He then took 
an 18-months trip through the South, visiting the 
old battle-grounds. He entered the navy and was 
assigned to the U. S. gunboat " Pittsburg," of the 
Mississippi Squadron, being in the service ten 
months, and engaged in several skirmishes. 

After the close of the war he returned to Saginaw ; 
came to his present location in May, 1882, purchas- 
ing 45 acres. It is all in cultivation, and Mr. P. has 
shown himself to be a judicious and prosperous 
farmer. 

Since 1854 he has belonged to the Masonic frater- 
nity. He was married in St. Clair Co., Mich., Nov. 
28, 1861, to Miss Julia P. Beech, daughter of Lucius 
and Julia A. Beech, who was born in that county, 
April 4, 1835. 

Stanley L. Nichols, farmer, section 14, Pine 
River Township, was bom in Monroe Co., 
N. Y., June 16, 1837, and is the son of 
Ezra and Hannah (Hipp) Nichols, both of 
whom were natives of New York. At the age 
of 18, Mr. Nichols began for himself in the 
world, and, for three years, worked out by the month 
as a farm laborer. He has devoted most of his life 
to the sanae noble calling, with the exception of about 
eight years, three of which were spent in the army 
and the remaining five years he labored as a teacher. 
He enlisted Aug. 14, 1862, in the 4th Mich. Cav., 
and received honorable discharge at Nashville, Tenn. 
The regiment was attached to the Army of the Cum- 
berland, and Mr. Nichols took an active part in the 
various engagements in which it was involved, and 
upon him, as well as all others belonging to the same 
command, reflected the luster of the 4th Mich. Cav. 
in the capture of Jefferson Davis. 

In April, 1879, he came to Gratiot County and 
bought 40 acres of land in section 14, Pine River 
Township. The entire tract was unimproved, and he 








has since placed 20 acres under cultivation. He is a 
Republican in political sentiment, and a member of 
the Masonic Order. He was married in BerkshiireCo., 
Mass., Dec. li, 1866, to Ellen E. Harrison, daughter 
of John and Chloe Harrison. Her mother was a 
narive of New York, her father of Massachusetts. 
Mrs. Nichols was born Oct. 18, 1843, in Lenawee 
Co., Mich. Three children have been added to the 
family circle — Maud C, Stanley E. and Ida L. The 
parents are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 



ephthah Earl, farmer, section 23, Newark 
Township, was born June 20, 1830, in Sen- 
eca Co., N. Y., and is the son of Stephen 
and Ann E. (Evans) Earl. Both parents were 
born in the State of New York, where they 
lived until the spring of 1841, when they re- 
moved to Michigan and settled in Kalamazoo County, 
where they continued to reside during the remainder 
of their lives. The mother died in January, 1863 ; the 
father's demise occurred in the following April. 

At the age of 19, Mr. Earl became his own man, 
pursuing the vocation of agriculture, to which he had 
been trained. He passed six years as a farm laborer 
and two years was engaged in butchering, associated 
with his father. In the spring of 1861 he came to 
Gratiot County and bought the place where he has 
since resided, and labored until he has placed 60 
acres under first-class cultivation. He has sold ^st 
acres. The family remained in occupancy of the 
pioneer log house unril the summer of 1881, when 
a fine frame house was erected on the farm in which 
they have since resided. 

Mr. Earl was married Dec. 7, 1854, in Ionia Co., 
Mich., to Mary J., third daughter of Nathan and 
Chloe (Tyler) Benjamin. Mrs. Earls parents were 
natives of the State of New York, and on leaving 
there first settled in Ohio, afterward removing to 
Oakland Co., Mich, and from thence to Ionia County. 
They passed the last years of their lives with their 
children, the mother dying Jan. 18, 1866. The 
father breathed his last nine days later. 

Mrs. E. was bom in Oakland County, Aug. 8, 1833. 
She and her husband assumed the care of Viola M. 
Benjamin, a niece, when she was five years old, who 
remained with them until her marriage. They have 

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(^ 1874, who has been in their charge since his birth. 
3* Mr. Earl is a Republican in political sentiment. He 
I has held the various offices of his school district and 
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illiam Isenhath, farmer, Pine River, is a 
son of John C. and Catherine Isenhath, 
natives of Germany, where they lived and 
died. William was born in Germany, Feb. 6, 
1837, and resided in his native country until 
20 years of age. Coming to the United States, he 
located in Erie Co., Pa., and was employed in farm- 
ing for two and a half years. He then went to Ohio, 
and, lived in Ashtabula County until the breaking out 
of the war, when he enlisted in the nth New York 
Battery. He was in the service somewhat over one 
year, and was then discharged on account of disa- 
bility. 

In December, 1862, he came to Gratiot County, 
and with his brother-in-law, purchased 40 acres of 
land. He afterwards traded his share of the land for 
40 acres on section 30, Pine River Township, where 
he now resides. He has since added 20 acres, and 
has 30 acres nicely improved and under the plow. 

Nov. 20, 1863, in Gratiot County, he was married 
to Catherine Mulen, a native of Pennsylvania. This 
union has been blessed with nine children, seven of 
whom survive : Henry A., Mary A., Alvin, Willie E., 
Annie B., Wilda M. and Frankie D. Adeline and 
Elmer L. died in .infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Isenhath 
are consistent members of the Lutheran Church. In 
politics, Mr. I. votes the Republican ticket. 

alvin C. Kryder, farmer, section 36, New- 
ark Township, was born Oct. 6, 1839, in 
Ohio. His parents, Jonas and Mary (Ever- 
hard) Kryder, were born respectively in Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio. He was engaged in farm- 
ing in his native State until the age of 24 years. 
He went to Illinois in 1863 and there remained 15 
years, and engaged in farming in Christian County. 
In the spring of 1878 he sold his farm in the Sucker 










State and removed to Michigan, settling where he 
now resides in Newark Township, where he became 
proprietor of 40 acres of improved land by purchase. 
Mr. Kryder is a Republican in political affiliation. 

He was married Jan. 25, 1866, in Medina Co., 
Ohio, to Charity, fourth daughter of Joseph and 
Sarah (Lance) Coolman. Following are the records 
of the five children born of this marriage, three of 
whom survive: Leslie A., bom July 3, 1867, died 
July 31, 1868; Frankie F., born Jan. 17, 1869, died 
May 24, 1877; J. S. Shirley, Sept. 11, 1870; Orie 
D. F., Dec. 18, 1872, and Cordie M. U., Nov. 26, 
1874. 

Mr. Kryder enlisted Jan. 25, 1865, in the 41st Reg. 
111. Vol. Inf., and was in the service six months, re- 
ceiving honorable discharge July 27, 1865, at Chi- 
cago. He was never in active service, as before the 
regiment could be duly equipped, mustered in and 
reach the front the rebellion was in a state of collapse 
and military necessities virtually at an end. 



eely Amsbury, farmer, section 36, Seville 
Township, was born Jan. 14^ 1853, in Jack- 
son Co., Mich., and is a son of Ira and Sarah 
(Patch) Amsbury. His father was bom in 
Wayne Co., N. Y., and came when a child to 
Michigan with his parents. He was a farmer 
by occupation, and came to Gratiot County. On the 
breaking out of the war of the Rebellion he became 
a soldier, enlisring Oct. 8, 1864, in Co. C, 8th Mich. 
Vol. Inf. Among the noted incidents of the war in 
which he took part was the surrender of Gen. Lee 
to Gen. Grant at Appomattox Court-House. He re- 
ceived his discharge July 30, 1865. At the rime of 
his enlistment he was Supervisor of Seville Town- 
ship, which office he filled seven years. He was also 
Township Clerk two years. He died Feb. 5, 1873. 
The mother is still residing in Seville Township. 

Mr. Amsbury was brought up to the calling of 
agriculture, which he has made the business of his 
life. In 186 1 he came to Gratiot County with his 
parents, where his father located 80 acres of land in 
Seville Township, chiefly in an unimproved condi- 
Uon. The family encountered all the variety and 
incidents common to pioneer life. Mr. Amsbury 
owns 25 acres of improved land on which he is en- 




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gaged in prosperous farming. Politically he is a 
member of the National Greenback party, and in the 
years 1882 and '83 was elected Township Treasurer. 
He was married in 1878 to Izora, daughter of Ira 
and Jane Phelps. The parents and daughter were 
natives of Wayne Co., N. Y.; the latter was bom in 
i860. She died April 30, 1 881, in Seville. 




rs. Mindwell L. (Spencer) Crispel, re- 
siding on section 9, New Haven "Town- 
ship, was born in Ontario Co., N. Y., Jan. 
26, 182 1. Her parents were also natives of 
'^ that State, of English descent. Her father^ 
\ Aaron Spencer, of Puritanical stock, died in 
California in 1874; and her mother, Martha, nee 
Moore, was of New England ancestry, and died in 
this State about 1855. 

When 13 years old the subject of this sketch came 
with her parents to Hillsdale Co., Mich,, where she 
attended the common school and was married, 
March 14, 1838, to John A. Crispel, a native of 
Ulster Co., N. Y., born June 20, 181 2. He came to 
this State in 1836,-where he lived until his death, in 
Jackson County, Oct. 7, 1880, aged nearly 70. He 
was a farmer, a prominent and exemplary citizen of 
the community, and satisfactorily filled several public 
offices, as Supervisor, etc. In religion he was a 
Spiritualist, and in politics a Republican. As a 
farmer he owned at one time two whole sections, less 
only 40 acres. 

Mrs. C. is now in her 64th year, enjoying good 
health and her mental activity unimpaired. She has 
ever been an active, intelligent and philanthropic 
member of society. She attends the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 



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;rigg8 B. Ellison, farmer on secrion3i, Pine 
River^ Township, is a son of George and 
Julia (Drake) Ellison, natives of Orange Co., 
N. Y. The father died in that county in 18 14; 
the mother afterwards came to Michigan, and 
and died in Jackson County. The subject of this 
biographical sketch was born in Orange Co., N. Y., 



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June 29, 181 2. He being quite young at his fathers 
death, the first 15 years of his life were mostly passed 
with friends of the family in Orange County. He 
was then apprenticed to the baker s trade, at which 
he worked until 19 years of age. In 1 831, he went 
on a whaler, and made two voyages, lasting six years. 
In 1838, he came to Michigan and bought 120 acres 
of land in Jackson County, on which he settled and 
lived nearly 14 years. Selling out, he bought a farm 
in an adjoining township, where he Kved for seven 
years. He then sold again, and in November, 1854, 
came to Gratiot County and bought 160 acres of 
partly improved land on section 3 r, Pine River Town- 
ship, where he now resides. He has disposed of 120 
acres, and of the remaining 40, 35 acres are under 
good cultivation. He has a good residence and a 
comfortable barn. 

March 17, 1842, in Jackson Co., Mich., he was 
married to Miss Ardelia D., daughter of Francis and 
Henrietta (Carpenter) Bargarow. He was of Eng- 
lish and French ancestry, and she was a native of 
Connecticut. Their daughter Ardelia was bom in 
Saratoga Co., N. Y., June 2, 1825. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ellison have had a family of three, two living: Mary 
J., Carrie A. (died Jan. 5, 1867, aged 23) and Joseph 
A. Mr. Ellison has held for several years the office 
of Constable in his township. Politically, he is an 
ardent Republican. 

orman H. Wells, general farmer and 
stock-raiser, section 15, New Haven Town- 
"^ ship, was born in Westphalia, Clinton Co., 
Mich., April 13, 1843. His parents, David 
and Melinda (Gould) Wells, were natives of 
^ Connecticut and of English descent, and emi- 
grated to Michigan about 1836, settling first in Oak- 
land County, as pioneers; later, in Westphalia 
Township, Clinton County, where Mr. David Wells 
resided until his death, Aug. 28, 1883, having lived 
in that county 41 years! His wife had died Sept. 3, 
1859, in that county. 

Norman H., the subject of this sketch, remained 
at Yiome until 19 years of age, working on the farm 
and in his father's brick-yards and attending school 
in his district, and at Wacousta, three miles away. 
He received a good education and taught public 







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school a short time. At the age above mentioned he 
set out as a common laborer, lumbering and farming, 
and attending school, in Portland, Ionia County, 
preparing to take a course at the State Agricultural 
College at Lansing, but lack of funds prevented him 
from carrying out the much desired project. In 
1864 he came to this county and bought 80 acres, on 
section 13, New Haven Township. This was then 
principally covered with timber. He has since 
added by purchase 40 acres, and of the total 120 
acres he has improved 1 00 acres, putting it in fine 
condition. He also owns 80 acres on section 23, of 
which he has 40 acres improved. Both of these 
farms are well equipped with the necessary buildings, 
orchards, etc. In 1874 he purchased 40 acres on 
section 15, to which he has recently added 40 acres, 
and has made some improvements upon the place. 

In an early day Mr. Wells established a general 
store in Newark Township for country patronage. 
His was the first successful store in the country in 
this county, and he is considered the father of that 
branch of mercantile life in Gratiot County. He af- 
terward sold out to George E. Blain, and returned to 
farming, in which vocation he has been successful. 
He owns an aggregate of 320 acres, divided into four 
different farms, having a total of 180 acres of good 
arable land. He has also been a real-estate dealer 
and loan agent for Eastern parties for some time, ex- 
hibiting a high order of business qualifications. He 
is a thoroughgoing, energetic and common-sense 
farmer. In political matters he is a Republican; 
was the first Township Superintendent of Schools 
after the abolition of the county-superintendency sys- 
tem, and has also been Township Inspector, Justice 
of the Peace and Highway Commissioner, holding 
each office two years. In all these capacities he has 
faithfully served the public. 

Mr. Wells was married Nov. 6, 1870, in North 
Shade Township, this county, to Miss Martha, daugh- 
ter of John and Sarah A. (Leonard) Jackson, natives 
respectively of England and New York, who came to 
the above mentioned township in 1869. Mrs. W. was 
born in Brownville, Jefferson Co., N. Y., Oct. 6, 185 1, 
and came to this county when 17 years old. She 
has taught school several terms, successfully. Both 
she and Mr. W. are members of the Methfxiist Epis- 
copal Chnrch. Their four children are: Herbert J., 
Laura A., John Floyd and Sarah J. 

V- 



This family have in their possession an English 
sugar-bowl which was owned by great-grandparents, 
and is more than 150 years old; and another, of the 
American order, that is nearly 100 years old. They 
also have a hymn-book, 65 years old. 





0868 8teyen8, mechanic, carpenter and 
joiner, section 31, Ithaca Township, was 
born in Gloucestershire, Eng., Oct. 30 
18 19, and was the son of Emanuel and Eliz- 
abeth (Gasser) Stevens, natives of England 
and of English descent. In his native coun- 
try the father was a tinsmith, and he came to Amer- 
ica in 1 83 1, settling in the State of New York. He 
there engaged in farming, and died in 1842. The 
mother died in Tuscola Co., Mich., in 1881, at the 
age of 86 years. 

When 1 2 years old Moses came with his parents 
to this country, and he lived in New York State un- 
til he was 2 1 years old. He was then married to 
Susan M. Hulett. They came afterwards to Tus- 
cola County, this State, where she died, in Septem- 
ber, 187 1. April I, 1874, he was married to Sabra 
Blair, who died in the same county a year later. 
Oct. 3, 1876, he was a third time married, at East 
Saginaw, Mich.; and he took for his life partner this 
time Mrs. Elmira M. Potter {^e Lake), daughter of 
Nicholas and Alzina (Cross) Lake, natives of St. Law- 
rence Co., N. Y., and of English descent They 
followed farming, and removed at an early day to 
Ontario, Canada. After 20 years* residence there, 
they came to Forestville, Sanilac County, where the 
father died, in September, 1S54. His wife afterwards 
removed to Gratiot County, and then went on a visit 
to Iosco County, where she died, in December. 1874. 
Elmira M. was bom at Smith Falls, Can., Jan 24, 
1833. At the age of 19, she came to this State ; and 
she was married at Grand Ledge, Eaton Co , Oct 
12, 1856, to William Potter, a native of New York. 
Three months later, they came to this county, and 
located a half a mile from Ithaca. Mr. Potter im- 
proved 120 acres of land, and died Sept 7, 1863, 
aged nearly 33, leaving to the care of his widow 
three children, Ida B., George W. and Cora M. 

Mr, Stevens had by his first marriage three sons ■ 



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and seven daughters, all of whom are living except 
one son and two daughters. Mr. and Mrs. Stevens 
now live on the Potter homestead. They belong to 
the society known as Seventh-Day Adventists. In 
politics Mr. Stevens is an adherent of the Republican 
party. 



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rohn Fool, general farmer and stock-raiser, 
section 12, New Haven Township, is a na- 
tive of Jefferson Co., N. Y., where he was 
born Oct, 22, 1823. His father, Isaac Pool, 
was also a native of the Empire State, of Eng- 
lish and Welsh descent, was a carpenter and 
joiner by trade, as well as farmer at times, and emi- 
grated to Wisconsin in 1854, settling in Waushara 
County, where he was a prominent and respected 
citizen, and finally died. John's mother. Diadem, 
fuc Buck, was also a native of New York State, of 
English ancestry, and died in Wisconsin. 

The subject of this sketch was only five years 
old when his parents moved with him from his 
native place to St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., where he 
worked on a farm and at the carpenter's trade, and 
attended school, until he was of age. He then 
worked as a common laborer a few years near home. 
When 22 years of age, he bought 50 acres of land in 
St. Lawrence County, partly improved, and set to 
work upon it. Three years later he returned to his 
native county, where, June 13, 1849, he married Miss 
Lucy, daughter of John and Lydia (Jones) Kanautz, 
natives of the Empire State. Mr. K. was of pure 
German descent, and Mrs. K. of New England par- 
entage and of English extraction. The former, an 
agriculturist, died in St. Lawrence County, May 30, 
1880, and the latter in Jefferson County, July 31, 
1850. Mrs. P. was born in Pamela Township, Jef- 
ferson County, Oct. 27, 1820, and was the third 
daughter and fourth child of her parents. Mr. and 
Mrs. P. have had three children, only one of whom 
survives, namely: Anna E., born Aug. i, 1854, and 
married May 26, 1874, to Alex. McLaren, now resid- 
ing in New Haven Township on a farm; Amanda J., 
tx)rn April 10, 1852, and died Feb. 4, 1853; and 
John W., bom April 2, 1862, died June 2, 1880. 

After marriage, Mr. P. followed farming on his 
place for three years, sold out, and one year later he 



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purchased property in the village of Herman, St. 
Lawrence Co., N. Y., where he was engaged as a 
general laborer and farmer. He sold out there, and 
in the fall of 1854 came to Gratiot County, and pur- 
chased, under the Graduation Act, the southwest 
quarter of section 12, New Haven Township, where 
he now lives. Before settling here, however, he 
spent a short time in Iowa, then in Ionia County, 
this State, where he purchased 80 acres in the town- 
ship of Fair Plains. While there, he and his family 
suffered a great deal from chills and fever. He sold 
out there in November, 1855, and the following Feb- 
ruary returned to this county and settled on his land. 
It was then a wilderness. Here, in a log shanty, 
13 X 17 feet, he and his little family started out again 
to make a permanent home. The scenes of frontier 
life here, and the kindness and sociability of their 
early neighbors, are remembered with an ever-in- 
creasing fascination and delight. 

His little cabin, afterward enlarged to 14 x 22, 
stood till the spring of 1 861, when it was supplanted 
by a good-sized house, which still stands in striking 
contrast with his present mansion, built in 1874. 
His barn, 30 x 40 feet in dimensions, was erected in 
1858, the first frame barn in the township. By addi- 
tions to this structure, he has made it one of the 
largest barns in this part of the county. He has 200 
acres of the best land in the township, with 100 acres 
well improved, watered and stocked, with a thrifty 
orchard of three acres, etc. 

Mr. Pool has always been a strong Republican, 
and as a citizen of his township he has been honored 
with various offices, as Highway Commissioner for 
several years. Township Treasurer six years, etc. 
He and his wife are members of the Baptist Church. 

Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Pool are given in prox- 
imity to this sketch, as they are representative of a 
worthy and exemplary class of citizens. 



'ohn Hamilton, M. D., physician and sur- 
geon at Pompei, was born in Paisley, Ren- 
frewshire, Scotland, Oct. 31, 1830. He is 
a son of Thomas Hamilton, deceased, a native 
of Scotland, and who emigrated to America 
and settled in Carlton Place, near Ottawa, 
Canada, in 1842, and where two years later, in 




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Dr. Hamilton in early life manifested a desire to 
become a medical practitioner, and devoted his time 
and energies to the accomplishment of that purpose. 
He received the advantages afforded by the common 
schools, and then attended the High School at Al- 
monte, Canada. He then turned his attention to 
teaching, and followed the same for some 12 years, 
devoting all his leisure tinie to research after medical 
knowledge, and afterward, before coming to tlie 
United States, was engaged in practice for some 
time. He then came to Michigan and entered the 
Detroit Medical College, from which he graduated 
with honors in 1876. In April of that year the 
Doctor came to Pompei, this county, entered upon 
the practice of his profession, and has built up a 
lucrative and successful one. 

The Doctor was united in marriage to Miss Jessie 
Lang, daughter of Arthur Lang, deceased, and was 
born in Almonte, Canada. Ten children have been 
bom to their union : Amelia, Helen, Thomas, Arthur, 
Marion, Jessie, John D., William R. and Harry H. 

Amelia is the wife of Hiram White, and lives in 
Cranbrook, Huron Co., Canada. Helen is also mar- 
ried, and is the wife of John Taylor, who resides near 
Brussels, Huron Co., Canada. 

Dr. Hamilton is a member of the L O. O. F. and 
Masonic Order. 




obert P. Fleming, farmer, section 30, Pine 
River Township, was born at Ann Arbor, 
Mich., Feb. i, 1834, and is a son of Charles 
M. and Peninah J. Fleming. His parents 
were both natives of the State of New York. 
During the years of his minority, the life 
of Mr. Fleming was passed in the manner common 
to the farmers' sons of the place and period. The 
succeeding five years he spent in working by the 
month, and expended his earnings in the purchase of 
40 acres of land in Jackson County, on which he 
settled at the age of 26 years. Between five and 
six years later he sold the place, and in October, 1865, 
came to Gratiot County, and bought 50 acres of 
land in Pine River Township, most of which was in 
an unimproved condition. Of this he has placed 40 
acres under cultivation. Mr. Fleming is a Republi- 
can in political affinity. 

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He was married March i, i860, at Eaton Rapids, 
to Eliza A., daughter of Gardner Rice, a native of 
the State of New York. Mrs. Fleming was bom 
July 30, 1835, in Cayuga Co., N. Y. Six of seven 
children born of this marriage yet survive, — Edward 
E., James H., Willie F., Carrie E., Cora E. and El- 
vira P. Calvin A. died when nearly two years old. 
The parents belong to the Presbyterian Church. 



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Fi|nilliam J. Naldrett, farmer, section 36, 
.l^^W New Haven Township, is a native of Eng- 




land, where he was bom April 10, 1828. 
His parents, Clement and Hannah (His- 
cock) Naldrett, were also natives of the same 
county. (See sketch of George S. Naldrett.) 

Mr. Naldrett was trained to the occupation of 
gardener in his native land, and at the age of 21 
came to the United States. He first found employ- 
ment in a nursery near the city of Rochester, N. Y., 
where he remained about three months. He prac- 
ticed all the economy possible and saved suflficient 
money to enable him to proceed to Michigan. He 
came directly to Ann Arbor, where he remained six 
years, chiefly occupied in gardening. In the fall of 
1854 he went to Lansing, Mich., and during the ses- 
sion of the Legislature in the winter following he 
was employed at the State House as fireman. He 
was engaged in gardening through the next summer, 
and in August, 1855, bought 58 acres of unimproved 
land on section 30, Newark Township, Gratiot County, 
built a small house and entered at Once upon the 
labor of improving and cultivating his farm. In the 
fall of 1853 he had purchased 80 acres of land on 
section 29 in the same township, which he has since 
sold. He has increased his homestead farm to 112 
acres and has put 70 acres under good cultivation. 
Mr. Naldrett is connected with the Order of Masonr}' 
and is an adherent to the Democratic party in politi- 
cal views. 

He was married Sept. 28, 1854, in Detroit, to 
Mary, third daughter of Christian and Barbara Leon- 
ard. Her parents were narives of Germany, and she 
was born Sept. 29, 1831, in Baden, in the same coun- 
try. When she was 21 years old her parents came 
with their family [to America, settling at Ann Arbor, 






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Mich., where they both died. Of six children born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Naldrett, three died in infancy — 
George, Cornelia and Clara. Those surviving are 
William C, Rose B. and Ernest H. 



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illet Beynolds, farmer, owning 40 acres on 
section 17, North Star Township, was 
born in Chenango Co., N. Y., Feb. 7, 1834. 
His father, Abel Reynolds, deceased, was a 
native of Rhode Island. Mr. R., the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was reared as a farmer, and 
received his education in the common school in his 
native county. He came to Clinton County, Mich., 
in 1854, and to this county in 1856, where he has 
since lived, except three years temporarily in Oak- 
land Co., Mich. He served three years in the great 
war, as a Corporal of Co. G, Fifth Mich. Cav., par- 
ticipating in the battles of Gettysburg, Williamsport, 
Hagerstown, Boonsboro, Snicker s Gap, and in oppos- 
ing Early's raid on Washington. 

Mr. Reynolds was married in 1856 to Miss Lydia 
J., daughter of Nathaniel Neal (deceased), who was 
born Dec. 25, 1833, in Oswego Co., N. Y. Their 
four children are : Elizabeth, who married B. B. 
Tuttle; Jennette; Emma J., who married Marion 
Miner; and Helen L. 

Mr. R. and wife are members of the Seventh-Day 
Adventist Church. 



I homas J. Clark, farmer, section 21, Pine 
River Township, was bom July 5, 1855, in 
the city of Norfolk, and is the son of 
Thomas and Rosa Clark. His parents lived in 
New York and had but two children, Thomas 
and William. The father was a naval officer 
and lost his life in the engagement at Hampton 
Roa.ds when the Congress and the Cumberland were 
sunk by the Merrimac, an iron-clad Confederate ves- 
sel, now called the Virginia. 

Wli^in Mr. Clark was ten years old he came to 
\f loliigan under the guidance and management of 
the CThildren's Aid Society, which at that time sent 
out 4^^ children to find home and friends in the shel- 




tering homes of the Peninsular State. He spent the 
intervening years until 1868, in Lenawee County, with 
different individuals arid variously employed. In 
the year named he went to live with Thomas J. King, 
of Hillsdale County, and, for three years, he worked 
for his board and clothes, after which he received 
wages, continuing to make his home with Mr. King 
until 1880, when he came to Gratiot County, where 
he owned 80 acres of land on section 22, Pine River 
Township, which he had bought seven years previ- 
ous and had been partly improved. This he ex- 
changed for 80 acres on section 21, on which he now 
resides. He has placed 40 acres under good cul- 
tivation and, in 1881, erected a fine bam of modern 
architecture. 

Mr. Clark was married Dec. 9, 1880, to Myrtie H., 
daughter of Reuben and Rebecca (Smith) King. 
She was born April 2, 1856, in Jackson County, Mich., 
and her parents were natives respectively of New 
York and England. Mr. and Mrs. Clark have two 
children, Lloyd L. and Hiel C. 

Mr. Claik is actively interested in local politics and 
is a Republican of decided type. He is a valuable 
cirizen from his active, public spirit and warm inter- 
est in the progress and well-being of the community. 
He is rapidly placing his farm in the best possible 
shai)e for future profit, and deservedly is awarded the 
respect and confidence of his fellow-townsmen. 



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ohn Franklin Henry, farmer, section 31, 
North Star, was born in the village of 
|IS^ Dummerston, Windham Co., Vt,, April 29, 
liJ^ 1829. His parents, John and Sandona (Daven- 
port) Henry, were also natives of the Green 
Mountain State; they moved to Bellows Falls, 
in the same county, when the subject of this sketch 
was very young. Here the latter attended the village 
school during the winter seasons, and after he was 
1 3 years old he worked upon the farm. In the win- 
ter of 185 1-2 he went to California, where he en- 
gaged in packing supplies by mule express to the 
miners in the mountains. About the ist of October, 
1854, he started on his return, on the' steamer 
" Yankee Blade," which, just after leaving the coast, 
was purposely wrecked by the Captain, who ran her 
on the breakers, expecting to* secure the money on 



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board; but he was caught and placed in custody. 
A picture of this wreck is still in the possession of Mr. 
Henry. Remaining in California until the following 
July, he returned to his home in Vermont. During 
the month of August, 1862, he and family came to 
Gratiot County on a visit, and concluded to remain. 
He owns 67 acres of good farming land, where he is 
prosperously engaged as an agriculturist and cheese 
manufacturer. 

Jan. 30, 1856, Mr. Henry married Miss Mary P., 
daughter of Thomas Mills, now deceased. She was 
born in Colchester, Chittenden Co., Vt., on the shore 
of Lake Champlain. The children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry are the following named : Edgar L., Inez L. 
(deceased), Charlotte M., Georgia B., Charles B. and 
George Hugh. Mr. and Mrs. H. are members of the 
Baptist Church, and he is also a member of the 
Orders of Masonry and Knights of Honor. 




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i ownsend A. Ely, Postinaster at Alma, was 
born Aug. 27, 1843, at Wabash, Ind., and is 
the only son of Gen. Ralph and Mary E. 
(Halstead) Ely. (See sketch.) The parents 
were married at Brookville, Ind., and after 
marriage settled at Wabash, where they re- 
sided two years. They returned to New York, their 
native State, and after a year s residence there they 
came to Ionia Co., Mich., where Gen. Ely purchased 
200 acres of unimproved land, and he entered into 
the merits of pioneer life. He vigorously prosecuted 
the improvement and cultivation of his farm. In 
April. 1856, he sold the place, and purchased 160 
acres of land in Arcada Township, Gratiot County. 
The family constituted the first settlers on the north 
side of Pine River. Gen. Ely again commenced life 
as a pioneer, built a log house, platted the village of 
Alma, and embarked in various pursuits for the pur- 
pose of furthering the advancement of the place, and 
establishing, so far as lay in his power, substantial 
business interests at that point. He was engaged 
chiefly in farming, trade and milling interests until 
1 86 1, when he enlisted. On leaving the army in the 
fall of 1866, he went to Florida and purchased 130 
acres of land, a part of which was located in the vi- 
cinity of Jacksonville. The remainder was situated 
120 miles south of that city, and there he set out an 



orange orchard, which included 40 acres of land. 
He spent a year in planting, and the second year 
lost the entire result of his labor, the frost killing all 
the young trees. He became disheartened, and re- 
turned to Alma, where he resumed farming, and pur- 
sued that vocation until 1874, when he was elected 
Auditor General of Michigan, and was re-elected to 
the office in 1876. While engaged in the discharge 
of the duties of the position, his business relations at 
Alma and in Gratiot County practically terminated • 
and when his connection with the office of Auditor 
General ceased, he interested himself in lumbering 
in Emmett County, where he remained until his 
death, which occurred April 14, 1883. His family 
included one son and six daughters. 

At the age of 17, Mr. Ely, of this sketch, succeeded 
to the charge of the farm and other business interests 
of his father, who had entered the service of the 
United States, and he continued the management of 
his business and domestic affairs until the close of 
the war. Mr. Ely became roused, by the course and 
exigencies of the struggle with the South, to an inter- 
est in its issues, and enlisted Feb. 25, 1865, in the 
8th Mich. Inf. He became Sergeant of Co. C, and 
was promoted to Second Lieutenant April 25, 1865. 
He was in the service until Aug. 14, 1865, and was 
under fire at Fort Stedman, and at the siege at 
Petersburg. He received honorable discharge at 
Detroit, Mich. 

When he was 23 years old, he embarked in busi- 
ness for himself, and purchased 240 acres of land in 
Arcada, to which he afterwards added 100 acres. 
He continued the management and improvement of 
his property three years, when he sold out. He was 
appointed Mail Messenger between St. Louis and 
Saginaw, a position which he filled two years and 
nine months. He resigned the situation to accept 
one as conductor on the Saginaw Valley and St. 
Louis railroad. He operated in that capacity three 
years and three months, and resigned to establisli 
himself in the hardware business at Alma. A year 
later he sold out, and was appointed to his present 
position of Postmaster at Alma. He succeeded to 
the place Aug. 6, 1881, by appointment under Post- 
master-General James, and has discharged the obli- 
gations of the office with credit and honor, and to the 
entire satisfaction of the public. In political princi- 
ple, he is an adherent to the tenets of the Repul 
can party. 






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Mr. Ely was married at Alma, Sept. 25, 1866, to 
Maggie C, daughter of Dewitt C. and Edna F. 
(Utley) Chapin. Mrs. Ely was born at Chicago, 
111., June 27, 1845. Ralph C, born March 5, 1870, 
is the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Ely. 

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eorge Johnson, farmer, section 36, North 
Shade Township, is a son of Robert and 
Ann (Bell) Johnson, the latter a native of 
England; the former, a native of Ireland, set- 
tled in Canada in 1842 ; in 1866 he came to 
this county and settled on 40 acres of wild 
land, on section 26, North Shade Township, where 
he yet resides. 

The subject of this sketch was born Aug. 17, 1857, 
in Peterboro, Can., and was brought by his parents 
10 this county; at 20 years of age he commenced 
working by the month on a farm, and by this means 
he accumulated a sufficient amount of means to buy 
a farm of 80 acres, on section 36, North Shade Town- 
ship, where he now has about 50 acres in a high 
state of cultivation. 

Oct. 18, 1881, Mr. Johnson was married to Miss 
Sarah, daughter of George and Lovina (Belden) Ed- 
monds. The latter were natives of New York Slate, 
Mr. E. a farmer. He located on section 26, North 
Shade Township, in 1873, where the family yet re- 
side. Mr. and Mrs. J. are the parents of two chil- 
dren, namely : Glenn, born Aug. 6, 1882; and Ora, 
Sept. T I, 1883. 
On political issues Mr. Johnson is a Republican. 




>rneliu8 A. Deline, farmer, section 35, 
Newark Township, was born Aug. 20, 183 1, 
in Ridge way, Orleans Co., N. Y. His parents, 
Peter and Charity (Snell) Deline, were natives 
of Montgomery County in the same State. 
They passed the years of their marrit^d life there 
until 1862, when they settled in Newark Township, 
and there the father still resides. The mother died 
May 15, 1869. Their family included seven daugh- 
ters and one son. The sisters of Mr. Deline were 
named Miranda E., Mary J., Catherine E., Hannah 
L., Francis E., Martha A. and Julia J. 












Mr. Deline is the eldest child. He obtained a fair 
education in the common schools and engaged in 
farming with his father until he was 23 years of a|e. 
In October, 1862, he came to Gratiot County and 
bought no acres of unimproved land, located on 
section 35 of Newark Township, and section 2 of 
Fulton Township. He has since added by purchase 
40 acres to his original tract of land, and now has 
120 acres in advanced cultivation and most promis- 
ing condition. The log cabin, which was his home 
in his early days of labor and struggle, has been sup- 
planted by a fine residence, of which he look posses- 
sion in May, i^8o. He is a Democrat. 

He was married July 4, 1854, in Ia)ckport, Niag- 
ara Co., N. Y., to Mary S., daughter of Peter and Su- 
sannah (Ziglar) Jones. Her parents Were natives of 
Pennsylvania, and their family comprised 12 children, 
viz. : John F., Evan, Rebecca A., Sarah, Lany E., 
Amanda, Rhoda A., Siglar, Lovisa, Lovina, Mary S. and 
Lotilla, Mrs. Deline was the eighth daughter and was 
born Oct. 15, 1836, in Genesee Co., N. Y. All the 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Deline, seven in number, 
died in infancy 



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laron Stanton, deceased, a pioneer on sec- 
tion 18, North Star Township, was a native 
of the State of New York, where he was born 
May 28, 1827. His father, Hiram Stanton, 
brought his family to Lenawee Co., Mich., 
when Aaron was a small boy, and where the latter 
was reared on the farm and educated in the common 
school. When he was 18 years of age the family re- 
moved to Clinton Co., Mich., where he resided until 
December, 1854, when he came to North Star Town- 
ship, this county, settling on section 18, the present 
home of the family. 

Although Mr. Stanton s occupation was principally 
that of farming, his natural genius and practical 
ability early led him to the skillful use of tools. He 
therefore worked much in wood, and some in a saw- 
mill. He was married Dec. 11, 1854, to Miss Han- 
nah Hawkins, daughter of Benjamin Hawkins. She 
also was a native of New York State. Mr. and Mrs. 
S. had four children, namely: Philena J. (Pritchard), 
George L., Annie F. and William A. Mr. Stanton 
died Feb. 21, 1863, in Alexandria, Va., of measles, 



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about six months after he was enrolled into the 
United States service, as a member of Co. D, 26th 
Mich. Vol. Inf. He was then a member of the Free- 
Will Baptist Church, but formerly of the Christian 
Church in this county, there being no Church of his 
choice in his* neighborhood. Mrs. Stanton after- 
ward (1867) married M. M. Heath, and by him has 
had six children, two of whom are now living, 
namely, Emma M. and George E. 



oren M. Butphin, dealer \xi wines and 
liquors at Alma, was born April 5, 1852, in 
Niagara Co., N. Y. He is a son of Ralph 
^j^ and Margaret (Crego) Sutphin, both of whom 
/^ were natives of New York. They first located 
, ;^ in Niagara County and afterwards removed to 
Michigan, where they settled in Jackson, and after a 
residence there of more than three years they moved 
to Clinton County, where the father died, March 14, 
1864. The mother is still a resident of that county. 

Mr. Sutphin was in the first year of his life when 
his parents came to Michigan. He passed his early 
years in obtaining an education, and at t6 was em- 
ployed as a sawyer in a mill, where he worked nearly 
three years. Ten years succeeding he was employed 
as a clerk. In August, 1883, he came to Gratiot 
County and located at Alma, where he established 
himself in the business in which he still continues. 
In political faith he is a Republican. 

He was married in Ensley Township, Newaygo 
County, March 27, 1872, to Adelia M., daughter of 
Calvin and Ellen Cook. Parents and daughter are 
natives of Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Sutphin have two 
children : Claude L. and Maud M. 

tv'lte^lHv rederick Boyer, farmer, section 20, New 

]<^j^Silii9 ark Township, was born May 18, 1834, in 

\()S^^ "'^ Herkimer Co., N. Y. His parents, Joseph 

^J^ and Nancy (Shell) Boyer, were also natives of 

^K^ the Empire State. He was 14 years old wlien 

i he came to Michigan and settled in Eaton 

County, where he remained until 1858. In 1854 

he came to Gratiot County and bought 80 acres of 

land, and of this he took possession in August, i860. 

The place was in a wholly unimproved state and he 



built a log house and proceeded, with all his energie 
to clear and put his farm in a suitable condition f( 
the successful pursuit of agriculture. 

In 1862 he enlisted in the 26th Reg. Mich. Vo 
Inf., and. served until July 14, 1865, when he wa 
honorably discharged at Detroit. Among other ei 
gagements in which he participated were those < 
Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg. In one < 
the numerous skirmishes in which he took part, I: 
received a slight wound in the right hip. On retun 
ing to Gratiot County he resumed his farm labors an 
has put 57 acres under a fair state of improvement 
A {^ood frame house has replaced the log cabin of h 
pioneer days, and he is in circumstances which wa 
rant him in expecting a future of comfort. He is i 
sympathy with the beliefs and issues of the Dem( 
cratic party, and has held the various offices in h 
school district. 

Mr. Boyer was married March 17, 1858, in Eatc 
County, to Mary H. Boyer, a native of Herkimer Cc 
N. Y., and of their marriage five children have be< 
born : Catharine M., Imelda L., John P. and Hem 
H. Another daughter, Ellen L., died when she w; 
18 years old. 



eorge W. Jennings, lumberman and fa 
mer, residing at Alma, was bom Aug. \ 
1828, in Erie Co., N. Y., and is the son < 
Hiram and Mary (Rhodabaugh) Jenning 
The parents were natives respectively of Vi 
i;inia and Pennsylvania. After marriage th< 
settled in Erie Co., N. Y., where they passed the r 
mainder of their lives, the mother dying in 1829, tl 
fatlierin the fall of 1873. He was a blacksmith I 
trade. Their family included four children. 

Mr. Jennings obtained his education in the cor 
nion and high schools of the section where he Wi 
reared. He was nine months old when his moth 
died. At the age of 15 years, he engaged with 
blacksmith to learn the trade, and worked as an a; 
prentice about two years. Just before he was i 
years old his health failed, and he accordingly abai 
doned the trade of blacksmith, and embarked as 
sailor on a whaling vessel. He continued in th 
vocation nearly five years. He suffered shipwTe< 
once off the coast of Japan. After leaving the s< 




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he returned to Erie County, and spent three years in 
lumbering. In 1854 he came to Clinton Co., Mich^ 
where he pursued the same vocation six years. In 
1858 he came to Gratiot County, and settled in Ar- 
cada Township, where he bought 320 acres of unim- 
proved land. On this he built a " block " house,, 
claimed to be the best in Gratiot County erected 
after that method. He operated on this farm until 
1862, when he removed to Alma, and has since been 
engaged as stated. Politically, Mr. Jennings is a 
Republican. In i860 he was elected Justice of the 
Peace, and held the office successively until 1875. 
He was Supervisor of Arcada one term, and held 
various minor offices. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. 

Mr. Jennings was first married at Maple Rapids, 
Clinton County, in July, 1854, to Zilpha A., daughter 
of Harvey P. and Lydia Lansing, natives of New 
York. Mrs. Jennings was born in 1839, in New York, 
and of her marriage three children were born : Frank 
E., Ida M. and George. The latter died when three 
years old. Mr. Jennings was a second time married 
at St. John's, Qinton County, April 29, 1 866, to Sibyl, 
daughter of Alexander and Jane (Sprague) Fraker. 
Mrs. Jennings was born Jan. 29, 1845, in St. Law- 
rence Co., N. Y., and her parents were also natives 
of that State. Three children have been born to 
them : Harry A., Jennie M. and Morton F. The 
eldest of these died when nine months old. Both 
parents are members of the Congregational Church. 




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iram W. Havens, farmer, section 27, North 
Shade Township, is a son of Samuel and 
Sarah A. (Tubbs) Havens, the former a 
native of New Jersey and the latter of New 
York. Mr. Samuel Havens was a farmer. His 
first wife's maiden name was Amy Bennett: she 
died at an early day, and he subsequently married 
Miss Tubbs. He moved from New York to Michi- 
gan in 1837, settling in Lenawee County, where he 
died, in 1861 ; his widow is yet living, in Seneca 
Township, Lenawee Co., Mich. 

The subject of this sketch was born March 28, 
1837, in Niagara Co., N. Y.; remaining at home with 
his parents until he was 24 years of age, he came, in 
1862, to Michigan and located 80 acres of wild land. 



on the section where he now resides. He resided 
in Lenawee County five, years longer, and then came 
to Gratiot County ; but not until he was 35 years of 
age did he settle here to make it his permanent 
home. He has been Highway Commissioner three 
terms and School Inspector one term; has always 
been a Republican. 

In 1872 Mr. Havens was married to Miss Ellen, 
daughter of Samuel and Rebecca (Burras) Huyck, 
natives of Huron Co., Ohio, who first moved to Will- 
iams County, that Slate, then returned to Huron 
County, thence to Lenawee Co., Mich., Fulton Co., 
Ohio, and finally Bloomer Township, Montcalm Co., 
Mich., where they now reside. Mr. and Mrs. Ha- 
vens' two children are, Alta M., born June 13, 1875, 
and Hiram W., April 18, 1883, both in this county. 



amuel Lepley, farmer, section 34. Newark 
Township, was born in Union Co., Pa., Oct. 
25, 1816, and is the son of John and Mary 
Lepley, both natives of the same State, where 
they married and reared their family. Mr. 
Lepley is a born and bred farmer, having spent 
the years of his early life in the practice of the details 
of that business, preparatory to making it the calling 
of his life. At 15 years of age he found himself at 
liberty to make a decided encounter with the world 
on his own behalf, and from that age until the year 
1849 he was engaged in agriculture at various places. 
In the year named he came to Hillsdale Co., Mich., 
and in 1855 came to Gratiot County. He bought 
120 acres of unimproved land in the township of 
Newark, settled on it and operated in true pioneer 
style. He reduced his estate by the sale of 40 acres 
and has, in the brief time included within the date 
named and the current year (1884), placed 70 acres 
of the remainder in satisfactory farming condition. 

Mr. Lepley is a Democrat in political proclivity, 
and has always been keenly alive to everything that 
seemed to bear any reasonable promise of benefit to 
the community in which he has lived. He was in- 
strumental in establishing the first school in the dis- 
trict in which he resides. Having been elected Di- 
rector, he conducted a subscription and raised a small 
sum of money, with which he hired a teacher, paying 
her one dollar a week. For the first month she had 




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one pupil, but the school has been sustained ever 
since, and now numbers about 50 students. Mr. Lep- 
ley has held the office of Township Collector seven 
years in succession. 

He was first married in Seneca Co., Ohio, to Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of Charles Caty, who was a German 
by birth. Mrs. Lepley was born in Maryland. Of 
her marriage to Mr. Lepley, eight children werelx)rn, 
whose names are : John W., Maria H., William F., 
James C, Cyrus, Mary J., Sarah L. and Andrew J. 
The mother died in March, 1872. Mr. Lepley was 
again married April 16, 1873, in Clinton Co., Mich., 
to Mrs. Mary (Boardman) Leary, daughter of Watson 
and Elizabeth Boardnian,and widow of Walter Leary. 



rank £. Jennings, with the firm of Brad- 
ley & Jennings, resident at Alma, was born 
July 4, 1857, at Maple Rapids, Clinton 
Co., Mich. He is a son of George W. Jen- 
nings, who was a native of the State of New 
York. His mother, Zilpha (Lansing) Jennings, 
was born in Michigan. After their marriage they 
settled in Gratiot County. Their family included 
two children : F. E. and Ida M. The mother died 
in Alma, in 1865. The father is still a resident there. 
He was formerly proprietor of the planing mill at 
Alma, where the son was trained to the same busi- 
ness. 

Mr. Jennings was educated at the common and 
graded schools, and at the age of 20 years he went 
to Ithaca, where he was apprenticed for two years to 
learn the trade of making sash, doors and blinds. 
At the expiration of his indenture he went into part- 
nership with his father. This relation continued two 
years, when it was dissolved by the withdrawal of 
Mr. Jennings, senior. Mr. Jennings, of this sketch, 
formed a partnership with A. Bradley in the fall of 
1883, under the firm style of Bradley & Jennings, 
which relation continued until early in 1884, when 
Mr. Jennings sold his interest. He is at present 
contemplating erecting a store and entering mercan- 
tile life. 

He was married at Saginaw, May 13, 1882, to Dora, 
daughter of A. J. and Louisa Brooke. Mrs. Jen- 
nings and her parents were natives of Wood Co., 
Ohio. One child has been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Jennings : Nina, Oct. 13, 1883. 



Mr. Jennings is an active temperance worker and 
belongs to Blue Ribbon Society and Order of Good 
Templars. He is a Republican in [xjlitical senti- 
ment. 

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ra B. Ellsworth, merchant at Riverdale, 
Seville Township, was born May 26, 1826, 
in Erie Co., N. Y., and is a son of William 
^j^ and Lydia (Bentley) Ellsworth, natives respect- 
ively of Vermont and Canada. The father 
was a farmer in New York, and removed to 
Canada, where he lived some eight years ; thence to 
Lexington, Sanilac Co., Mich., in 1837. He and 
wife both died in Sanilac County. 

Their son, Ira, lived at home until 18 years old, 
when he lived a year with a Mr. Hurd in Marshall, 
this State. He returned to Lexington and for five 
years following was engaged in farming. He was 
then for six seasons on the waters of Lakes Huron 
and Erie, sailing to Cleveland and Sandusky. Coming 
to Montcalm County in 1861, he followed fanning 
seven or eight years. 

During the civil war he enlisted, Oct. 16, 1864, in 
Co. A, ist Mich. Eng. and Mech., and served under 
Gen. Sherman. The regiment participated in the 
battles around Knoxville, but was principally occu- 
pied in such work as repairing bridges. He was 
discharged at Washington in 1865 and returned to 
his family in Montcalm County. They removed to 
Millbrook in 187 1, and to Stanton three yea^ later. 
They then lived a short time at Belltown, and for a 
year kept a hotel at Ithaca. His last move was to 
Riverdale, where he also engaged in the hotel busi- 
ness, following that a little over four years, before 
entering mercantile life. 

He was married in 1847 to Almira Vancamp, 
daughter of John Vancamp. She was bom in 1829, 
and died in 1850, leaving five children: Jefferson, 
Dewitt, Henry, Emeline and Ira. He subsequently 
married Louisa Pherris, a widow, the daughter of 
Rufus and Elizabeth Colbum, natives of New York 
State. Mr. C. was a manufacturer, and died when 
the daughter was quite young. 

Mr. Ellsworth is a member of Ithaca Lodge, No. 
123, F. & A. M., of Riverdale Lodge, No. 343, 1. O. 
O. F. and of Pine River Lodge, No. 343, 1. O. G. T, 
Politically he is an ardent Prohibitionist. 



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German F. F. Schneider, of the firm of 
Wright, Schneider & Stuttz, merchants and 
dealers in grain at Alma, was bom June 29, 
1849, in Pomerania, Germany. William C. and 
Louise (Penzel) Schneider, his parents, were 
natives of the same country and emigrated to the 
United States in the month of June, 1864. They at 
once located in Detroit, whence they removed in Oc- 
tober, 1882, to Alma, and are still living there. 

Mr. Schneider had reached the age of 15 years 
when his family came to the New World ; and, owing 
to his father having become incapacitated from effort 
by illness, he has been their sole dependence and 
support. His first piece of labor was in the capacity 
of a wood-sawyer. He sawed and split a cord of 
" iron- wood," and has still a clear remembrance of 
profoundly wishing that he had never seen America. 
During the first year of his residence in Detroit he 
was variously employed, meanwhile suffering much 
from fever and ague. He found so little satisfaction 
and comfort in the disorder that, while operating as a 
laborer in Elm wood Cemetery, he could not help en- 
vying the freedom from hardship and disease of the 
silent sleepers in the city of the dead. The year fol- 
lowing he became an employe' at the Russell House, 
where he was engaged nearly three years. In 1868 
he entered the dry-goods establishment of Sebastian 
Kirchner, of Detroit, and a year and a half later en- 
gaged with Campbell & Linn as a clerk. After four 
months he was employed by Freedman Bros., enter- 
ing their service when they opened their new store on 
Woodward Avenue. In July, 1870, he engaged with 
James Lowrie & Sons, where he remained until July, 
1878, when he again became connected with the 
house of Freedman Bros. Two years later he was 
employed by Taylor, Wolfenden & Co. He remained 
with them 11 months, and in August, 1881, came to 
Alma. He formed an association with A. W. Wright 
and George D. Barton for the sale of general mer- 
chandise, under the firm style of Barton, Schneider 
& Co. This relation continued five months, when 
Mr. Barton withdrew and was succeeded by James 
A. Stuttz, the style becoming Wright, Schneider & 
Stuttz. The firm is established on a substantial 
basis, and its yearly transactions amount to $100,- 
000 in merchandise only. 



Mr. Schneider belongs to the German Lutheran 
Church, of which his parents are also members. In 
political principle and action he is a Republican, and 
holds tolerant views. He is a member of the A. O. 
U. W., Peninsular Lodge, No. 12, at Detroit. 

The portrait of Mr. Schneider, on another page, is 
a valuable addition to the coUecrion of pictures of 
young and rising men of the present generation pre- 
sented in this volume. 



ff^l ill illiam A. Bradley, farmer on section 3 1 
Seville Township, is a son of William and 
j^p Harriet J. (Fisk) Bradley. The father was 
jJV^ born in 1808, in Litchfield Co., Conn., and 
the mother in 182 1, in Brattleboro, Vt. He 
was first a tin peddler, then a tanner, and later 
a real-estate dealer. He and wife now reside at 182, 
Duffield Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. They have four 
sons, four daughters, all younger than the sons, and 
18 grandchildren, and the fortunate family has not 
as yet had a single visit from death. 

The subject of this notice was born Aug. 27, 1845, 
in Sullivan Co., N. Y., and remained at home with 
his parents until he was 22 years old. He was first 
engaged in lumbering, and later in farming. He 
came from the Empire State to Grand Rapids, Mich., 
in the year 1870 and remained there one year look- 
ing after his father s affairs. He then came with his 
brother to Gratiot County and lo'-.ated on 320 acres 
of wild land on section 30, Seville. They built a 
fine house and a large barn, and cleared a portion of 
the land, and Dec. 31, 1873, Mr. B. was united in 
the bonds of matrimony to Miss Mary E. Whitney, 
daughter of Chauncey B. and Mary (Birmingham) 
Whitney, natives of Cayuga Co., N. Y. They came 
from that State to Ingham Co., Mich., in 1854, and 
in 1867 came to Sumner Township, Gratiot County. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bradley have a family of three : Wel- 
lington, Chandler and Forrest. 

Mr. B. enlisted in September, 1 861, in Co. F, 56th 
N. Y. Vol. Inf. The regiment was on detached duty 
with the Eastern army much of the time at Washing- 
ton, and participated in two engagements, which nearly 
annihilated it. The remnant were finally discharged 
in New York State, with due honors. Mr. B. is polit- 
ically a Republican. He is a member of Col. Ely 
Post, No. 158, G. A. R. 



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Mr. Franklin, the subject of this sketch, was born 
Sept. 29, 1829, and remained with his parents at home 
until he was 26 years of age. At that age he came 
to the New World, landing in New York. He then 
came to Detroit, Mich., and remained in Wayne 
County for six years, when he came to Gratiot County, 
and located upon 40 acres of land on section 20, 
North Shade Township. To his original claim he has 
since added 140 acres, and he now has about 70 
acres under cultivation. He has been largely en- 
gaged in stock-raising, and has one of the best 
equipped farms in the county. In 1876 he built a 
large bam, and in 1883 he erected a residence, at a 
cost of about $2,000. 

In 1856 Mr. Franklin was united in marriage with 
Miss Ellen, the eldest daughter of James and Honor 
(Dean) Watts, natives of England. Mr. Watts was a 
farmer by occupation. He died Nov. 12, 1883, in his 
native country. Mrs. Franklin was born in England, 
March 14, 1 831, and came to America Dec. 19, 1857. 
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin are the parents of six children, 
as follows: Ellen, Mary, John, Anna, Addie and 
William. 

Mr. Franklin and his wife are members of the 
Baptist Church, at Carson City. 



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fames Knowles, farmer on the east half of 
the southeast quarter of section 17, Beth- 
any Township, is a son of Willard and 
Minim (Nearpass) Knowles, and was born in 
Jackson Co., Mich., April 25, 1836 : was brought 
up on a farm. When he was 1 7 years old, the 
family moved to Sauk Co., Wis., where they resided 
a number of years, and where his father bought 40 
acres of land. 

In the last mentioned place. May 4, 1850, he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Henry and 
Mary (Staples) Oler, and a native of Ohio. By this 
marriage six children have been born, four of whom 
are living, namely : Charles, Mary E., Albert and 
Almeda. The deceased are William and Lewis. Mrs. 
K. died Aug. 4, 1874, in Wisconsin, and Mr. Knowles 
again married, June 7, 1877, Mary Thomas, a native 
of Wisconsin, who was bom in 1850. By this mar- 
riage there have been three children, — Leonard, 
Rosa and Ernest. 




Mr. Knowles returned to Jackson County, this 
State, in the fall of 1878, for one year, and then came 
to Bethany Township, this county, and purchased his 
present farm of 80 acres, 30 acres of which are well 
improved. 

While a resident of Wisconsin, during the war, Mr. 
K. was drafted for the army, attached to Co. H, 6th 
Wis. Inf., and served bravely, engaging in the battles 
at Hatchers Run, South Side, Yellow House, Lee s 
surrender, etc., besides a number of skirmishes. He 
was discharged at Jefferson ville, Ind. During the 
service he was slightly wounded in the right shoulder, 
by a minie ball. 

He and his wife are members of the Baptist 
Church. 



P. Covert, of the firm of Retan & Covert, 
proprietors of the Retan House at Ithaca, 
was born Feb. 4, 1846, in Seneca Co., N. 
Y. He is a son of Joshua and Rebecca 
(White) Covert. The father was bom in 1817 
in Seneca Co., N. Y., is one of the descendants 
of three brothers who came to America from Holland 
in the latter part of the 17 th century. They settled 
respectively in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New 
York. From the latter Mr. Covert is descended. 
His mother was born in 1 819, in New Jersey ; both 
parents ate yet living, in Ovid, Clinton Co., Mich. 

Mr. Covert was educated in his native county, 
where he resided with his parents until he was 16 
years old, when they moved to Munday, Genesee 
Co., Mich. There his father bought 160 acres of 
land, in an unimproved condition and covered with 
oak timber. The place was sold 13 years later and 
was justly considered the finest in the township, hav- 
ing been the field of the unremitted labors and cares 
of the father and his five sons. The family removed 
to Ovid Center, where Mr. Covert, senior, engaged 
in the drug business one year and then retired. 

At the age of 22 years Mr. Covert engaged in the 
sale and shipment of cattle, in company with James 
Fires. This enterprise was conducted two years with 
success, when the same parties opened a meat market 
at Ovid. This relation and busine.ss existed seven 
years. On its discontinuance, Mr. Covert established 
himself singly, and continued to operate until April 
25 > 1883. At that date, associated with his father- 



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in-law, H. K. Retan, he bought the Fox House at 
Ithaca, which they remodeled and converted into the 
Retan House. It is the leading hotel at Ithaca, and 
has a capacity for 60 guests, and is doing a fine busi- 
ness. The popular and gentlemanly proprietors have 
secured an excellent reputation for the home and its 
management. Mr. Covert is the owner also of a fine 
home and three lots at Ovid. He is a member of the 
Masonic Order, and also belongs to the Order of A. 
O. U. W., an insurance organization. He was a mem- 
ber of the Village Council of Ovid two years. 

Mr. Covert was married at Ovid, Oct. 14, 1872, to 
Harriet, daughter of H. K. Retan. One son — Leroy 
J., was bom at Ovid, Sept. 19, 1874. 



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Tehu E. Parkinson, farmer, section 9, Pine 
River Township, was born Nov. 16, 18 16, 
in Greene Co., Pa. He is a son of Jona- 
than and Elizabeth (Whitlock) Parkinson, both 
natives and life-long residents of the Keystone 
State. 

Mr. Parkinson is the youngest of the children be- 
longing to his fathers household, and he received 
such education as was afforded by the common 
schools of the section where he was bom and reared. 
He was an industrious and ambitious boy, and at 19 
years of age he took a farm to work on shares, which 
he continued to mahage four years. For some years 
subsequent he rented different farms, and also be- 
came proprietor of several by alternate purchase and 
sale. In June, 1866, he came to Gratiot County, 
and bought 80 acres of land in Pine River Township, 
all in an entirely original condition. He afterwards 
bought 80 acres additional on section 4, and has no 
acres under most creditable cultivation. His fertile 
fields and premises arranged and kept in fine order, 
together with his elegant brick house, which he erect- 
ed in 1880 on section 9, all attest his prudence, judg- 
ment and good management. Politically, Mr. Par- 
kinson is in affiliation with the National Greenback 
party. 

While a resident of Pennsylvania, he lived in 
close proximity to the Virginia border, and being 
a Politirer he suffered many indignities and much 
persecution, which in nowise tended to diminish his 
loyalty to his political faith. On the organization of 



the Republican party he adopted its principles, and 
furthered its issues with all the zeal of his nature. 
On the outbreak of the rebellion, his sympathies were 
strongly with the North, and in September, 1861, he 
enlisted in the 6th W. Va. Vol. Inf. He remained 
in the service over three years. The regiment was 
principally occupied in keeping open the communi- 
cations between Grafton and Parkersburg, and also 
with Wheeling, besides doing special duty in giving 
all possible attention to the guerrillas that infested 
the mountains of West Virginia, a species of warfare 
involving the regiment in many petty engagements, 
which were fraught with more danger than impor- 
tance. Mr. Parkinson was the first who safely con- 
ducted a party of contrabands, 13 in number, from 
bondage to freedom, piloting them through the mili- 
tary lines at the peril of his life, as the act was an 
infringement of military orders, and if detected the 
perpetrator was liable to be shot for disobedience. 
He received honorable discharge at Grafton. Mr. 
Parkinson is a gentleman of well-known philanthropy 
and generosity, and enjoys in an unusual degree the 
confidence and esteem of his fellow townsmen and 
neighbors. 

He was married Feb. 27, 1837, in Greene Co., Pa., 
to Sarah Bradford, a native of that county, where she 
was born Oct. 8, 18 15. Of this marriage, 12 children 
have been born, of whom six are living : Mary J., 
Henr}' J., Minerva, Nancy, Sarah A. and Clarinda. 
The deceased were as follows : Robert, Eli, a child 
that died in infancy, Rebecca, Elizabeth and Pau- 
lina. The family attend the M. E. Church. 




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ohn A. Bias, farmer, on the southwest quar- 
r ter of the northwest quarter of section 15, 
Bethany Township, is a native of the Em- 
pire State. He was born in Cattaraugus Co., 
N. Y., March 14, 1849, ^"^ *s a son of Solomon 
and Emily Sias. In 1859 his parents came to 
Pine River Township, this county, coming up Pine 
River from Saginaw in a canoe, with a family of 
seven children. His father purchased 20 acres on 
section 2, Pine River Township, and resided there 
some years. He died at the residence of his daugh- 
ter, Ann Woodmansee, Feb. 4, 1884. His first wife 
died in New York, and his second wife is yet living. 

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He was a manufacturer of saleratus, potash, pearl- 
ash, etc. 

Mr.. John A. Sias, the subject of this sketch, 
bought 40 acres north of St. Louis, in the fall of 
1877, resided there about six months, and then came 
to his present place, where he owns 40 acres and has 
30 acres in cultivation. 

He was married in Ithaca, this county, July 5, 

1875, to Miss Nancy E., daughter of John G., and 
Esther Thompson. She was bom in Ohio, Jan. 8, 
1848. Their two children are Bessie, bom May 9, 

1876, in Pine River Township; and Katie, born in 
Bethany Township, July 10, 1877. 



omer Burns, farmer, section 23, Arcada 
Township, was born in Rutland Co., Vt., 
Sept. II, 1 81 7, and is a son of Stephen and 
Rhoda (Record) Burns. Stephen Burns was a 
native of Scotland, and by occupation a farmer. 
Coming to this country early in life, he settled in 
Vermont, where he died when Homer was but two 
years old. Rhoda Record was a native of Vermont, 
of New England parentage, and of English and Ger- 
man descent. After Mr. Burns' death she married 
again, and she died in the State of Wisconsin, about 

1873. 

When he was six years old Homer s mother and 
step-father removed to Chenango Co., N. Y., and five 
years later they went to Cheshire Co., N. H. Homer's 
step-father, a blacksmith, not treating him kindly, at 
the age of 1 1 he set out to care for himself. He was 
employed at^ various things until 22 years old, in 
Cheshire County, and then went to Oneida Co., 
N. Y., where for nine years he worked in a pail fac- 
tory. June 27, 1843, at North Bay, Vienna Town- 
ship, that county, he was married to Caroline M., 
daughter of Benjamin B. and Caroline (Hosmer) 
Murray, natives of New York and of Scotch descent. 
They followed farming, and moved to Hillsdale Co., 
Mich., where Mr. Murray died, July 2, 1873, at the 
age of 78, and Mrs. Murray, March 29, 1883, aged 
72. Caroline was born in Oneida, Vienna Township, 
Oneida Co., N. Y., March 2, 1826, and died in Ar- 
cada Township, this county, April 2, 1881, aged 57 
years and one month, leaving a family of four chil- 
dren. For 16 years previous to her death she had 






been an invalid, but she bore her sufferings with true 
Christian fortitude, and complained, not even to her 
family, of her lot. She was a professing ChrisUan, 
and died as she had lived, a kind-hearted mother 
and an affectionate wife. To her husband and sons 
and daughters, her loss is irreparable, and Gratiot 
County has lost one of its noblest pioneer women. 

In 1847, Mr. Bums and family settled in Fayette 
Township, Hillsdale County, and seven years later 
they came to Gratiot County, locating on 180 acres 
on section 25, Arcada. Their land was then covered 
with the primitive forest, and not a stick had been 
cut from it. They built the second log hut in the 
township. During the first 18 months after his 
arrival the immigrants were so numerous that Mr. 
Bums spent 100 days of that time in helping new 
comers to build their dwellings. He has , retained 
140 acres of his original purchase and has 100 acres 
in a high state of cultivation. Though advanced in 
years he is active and energetic and one of the en- 
terprising citizens of the county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bums have had five children, three 
of whom survive: Caroline A., born April 19, 1847; 
Benjamin H., March 24, 1854; Charles E., Sept. 2, 
1856. Charles A. was born March 23, 1845, and 
died when four months old ; Adella R. was bora Oct 
26, i860, and died Feb. 9, 1883. Mr. Bums has 
held all the various school offices at different times 
and is now Assessor. He has been in office ever 
since his coming to the county. In political senti- 
ment he is a Democrat. 



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Ider William 8. Everest, minister and 
farmer, section 11, New Haven Township, 
was bom in Sweden, Monroe Co., N. Y., 
1^ Oct. 23, 1820. His father, Silas Everest, was 
a native of Vermont and a soldier in the war 
j of 1 8 1 2, and his grandfather was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. Mr. E. is of the fourth genera 
tion in America from the old French Huguenot fami- 
lies of Normandy. His father was a mechanic, and 
died in 1858, aged 71; and his mother, Dora, ^^ 
Surgis, was a native of Connecticut, of Welsh 
descent, and died in 1854, in Oakland Co., Mich. 

The subject of this sketch was taken with the 
family to Orleans Co., N. Y., when two years old. 



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where, in a village, he was reared and educated 
until 13 years of age, when the family removed upon 
a farm ; one year later (1834) they settled in Wayne 
Co., Mich., in a comparatively new section of the 
country. 

July 2, 1843, Mr. E. married Miss Eliza, daughter 
of Henry and Maria (Worden) Balwin, natives of 
Dutchess Co., N. Y., of New England parentage and 
of Holland Dutch descent. Mrs. E. was born in 
the towhship of Rose, Wayne Co., N. Y., March 15, 
1827, and was brought to Michigan when only nine 
years old, the family settling in Wayne County. A 
year later they removed to Royal Oak Township^ 
Oakland County. In this place Mr. E. remained, 
taking care of his parents until the death of his 
mother, when the remainder of the family moved to 
Montcalm County, this State, in 1854. Three years 
later his father died, and he resided there until Oc- 
tober, 1872, except the years 1864-5, when ^^ ^^s 
engaged in the ministry at Ithaca. At the date 
above mentioned he sold out his farming interests in 
Montcalm County and settled on the quarter-section 
where he now resides, and where he has made im- 
provements and established a comfortable home. 
The cultivated area comprises 90 acres. 

Elder Everest began the public Christian ministry, 
in the Regular Baptist Church, in 1850, and has un- 
interruptedly continued in the ministry since that 
time. His wife has been an active member of the 
same Church for 34 years. The Elder is a staunch 
Republican, has been Township Supervisor, School 
Superintendent, Highway Commissioner, etc., and is 
a charter member of the blue lodge, F. & A. M., at 
Carson City. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. E. are : William 
H., Edward E., Anna E,. Worden J. and Ada E., 
besides one deceased, Maria.' 




Dlamore B. Moulton, farmer, section 31, 
Pine River Township, was born July 8, 
1838, in Jackson Co., Mich. His parents, 
Warren C. and Caroline (Woodward) Moulton, 
were natives of the State of New York, and 
after their marriage settled in Jackson County, where 
they still reside. 

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Mr. Moulton remained a resident of his native 
county until he was 22 years old, and in the fall of 
1863 came to Gratiot County and bought the fanri 
where he now resides, consisting of 40 acres, chiefly 
in a state of nature. He has increased his property 
by an additional purchase of 20 acres, and has 30 
acres under improvement and fine cultivation. Mr. 
Moulton is an outspoken adherent of the Republican 
party. 

He was married in Jackson Co., Mich., Dec. 24, 
1862, to Mary J., daughter of B. B. and Ardelia Elli- 
son, residents of Pine River Township. Mrs. Moul- 
ton was born in Jackson Co., Mich., April 11, 1845. 
Of this union, one child has been born, Carra B. She 
died Nov. 12, 1880, when nearly 17 years old. The 
parents attend the M. E, Church. 



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ames Qreeley, farmer, section 20, Bethany 
iii^yiSf Township, occupying the west half of the' /S 
northwest quarter of the section, is a son 
of Philip and Polly (Garland) Greeley, and 
was bom Dec. 31, 18 14; was reared on a farm. 
His father was a Deputy Sheriff of Penobscot 
County, and was thrown from his horse and killed, 
leaving a wife and six children, in good circumstan- 
ces. 

The subject of this sketch was the third in the 
family of children. When 18 years of age he left 
home and began in the world for himself. He went 
to Boston and for three years did odd jobs with a 
team. He then went to Maine and bought a farm 
of 50 acres in Garland, where he resided until 1853. 
He was married in Hampden, Penobscot County, 
May 23, 1836, to Miss Sophronia Dow, a daughter of 
Amos and Hannah Dow, who was born in Hampden, 
Aug. 14, 181 2. Of the seven children born of this 
marriage, four are living, viz.: Henry C, bom in 
Garland, June 14, 1837, and died June 1, 1863; 
Mary, born July 18, 1829, is now the wife of Martin 
R. Weeks, a carpenter in St Louis, Mich.; David, 
born Nov. 4, 1841, now in the lumber business in 
Foxcraft, Maine, and manufacturing spools ; Sophro- 
nia G., Oct. 23, 1844, died March 27, 1857; Lucy 
W., July 19, 1847, and died April 10, 187 1; Amos 
D., Sept. 16, 1849, '^ow at home; and Charles F., 
' Ju^yr7>jS5S> !^ow in the employment of Wright & 



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Ketchum, a lumber firm of Saginaw. The first two 
were bom in Garland, David in Hampden, and the 
last two in Kenduskeag. 

Mr. Greeley followed farming in Maine until April, 
1876, when he came to Midland City, Mich., remained 
nearly a year, then pursued farming two years in that 
county, and finally, in 1879, came to his present 
place, purchasing 80 acres, where he has 30 acres 
cultivated and made a number of improvements 



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^(|Wriexander JohDSton, farmer, section ^6y 
Pine River Township, was born Sept. 27, 
^^^™ 1 83 1, in Scotland, of which country his 
parents, Joseph and Jane (Morrison) Johnston, 
were also natives. Mr. Johnston was 19 years 
of age when he came to America. He went 
first to the State of Pennsylvania, and three years 
later to Canada. He resided 12 years in the Domin- 
ion, and in the spring of 1866 he came to Gratiot 
County. He bought 60 acres of land in an unim- 
proved condition, on which he built a small frame 
house, and at once proceeded to the work of clearing 
and improving. He has placed 50 acres in a fine 
state of cultivation. Mr. Johnston is independent in 
political views. 

He was married July 12, 1856, to Maria, daughter 
of Samuel and Elizabeth (Black) Thompson, natives 
of the North of Ireland, where Mrs. Johnston was 
born, Dec. 25, 183.^. Of this union seven children 
have been born, five surviving : Mary J., Margaret 
E., Sarah E., Annie M. and George A. William and 
Joseph are deceased. The parents coincide with the 
Presbyterians in religious belief. 



^diiey H. Dobson, farmer on section 32, 
^^^»-®p Arcada Township, was born in Adams 




Township, Hillsdale Co., Mich., Sept. 25, 1847, 
and is a son of John and Julia A. (McCurdy) 
^ Dobson, natives of New York. They now re- 
side on a farm in North Shade Township, this county. 
Adney came to that township with his parents when 
seven years old and was there reared. Being on a 
new farm and in a new country, more hard work 



than schooling fell to his share, and he worked with 
his father almost constantly until 187 1. 

Oct. 17, 1 87 1, he was united in marriage to Susan, 
daughter of Manford and Susan (Riggs) Felton, na- 
tives of New York and Massachusetts. Mr. Felton 
is still living, in Ingham County, at the age of 68. 
Mrs. Felton died when Susan was two weeks old. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dobson resided for two and a half 
years in North Shade Township, and then moved to 
their present place of 80 acres on section 32, Arcada 
Township, which he had purchased in 1872. When 
he moved there in May, 1874, he found a dense for- 
est ; but he has now 60 acres nicely improved. He 
has done all the work of clearing and fencing him- 
self, assisted only by one yoke of cattle. Mr. and 
Mrs. Dobson have two children : Ada, born July 21, 
1872, and Inez Maud, born Aug. 23, 1881. Politic- 
ally he is a staunch Republican. 






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.eymour S. Teed, farmer and stock-raiser, '^ 
section 31, New Haven Township, was born f^ 
in North Star Township, this county, Sept. Q. 
24, 1856. His parents, Joseph B. and Louisa ^ 
J. (Stone) Teed, were natives of Pennsylvania "^^ 
and descendants of the early Dutch settlers of 
that State. In the fall of 1854 they came and 
located a quarter of section 17, North Star Township, 
there being but three families before them. In 1868 
they moved to New Haven Township, where Mr. T. 
died, Nov. 27, 1878, at the age of 60 >^ years. His 
widow, now aged 48 years, is living with her son, and 
enjoys good health and a high degree of activity. 
She has been the mother of seven children, six of 
whom are yet living. 

The family were pioneers in this county, and Sey- 
mour S., the subject of this sketch, among the first 
born in North Star Township, was therefore com- 
pelled to commence hard work at a comparatively 
early age. He was 1 2 years of age when the family 
moved to New Haven, and here, in the first school- ^ 
house erected in the township, he began to receive 
his first book knowledge. He was extraordinarily 
studious, and, " pursuing knowledge under difficul- 
ties" at night, he injured his sight for life. He at- 
tended a college at Ionia for a time, and at the age i 
of 2 1 began teaching in Ionia, Clinton and Gratiot ^ 












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Counties. Since the death of his father, in 1878, he 
has had charge of the homestead, still the property 
of his mother. There are 55 acres in cultivation, 
and Mr. T. proves himself to be a practical and pro- 
gressive agriculturist. He has been School Inspector 
three years ; is an active and intelligent Republican, 
a public-spirited citizen, and in every public capacity 
has shown himself to be a man of the strictest 
integrity. 

Mr. Teed was married June 30, 1878, in North 
Shade Township, to Miss Melissa, daughter of John 
W. and Catharine (Slepp) Force: the latter are 
natives of Pennsylvania and of Dutch descent. Mrs. 
T. was bom July 27, 1 861, in Lorain Co., Ohio, and 
was 1 1 J^ years old when brought by her parents to 
this county. Mr. and Mrs. Teed have one child, 
Bertha, born May 21, 1879. They are active mem- 
bers of the " Church of God " at Carson City. 

rohn B. Adams, merchant at Riverdale, Se- 
ville Township, is a son of Bradley and 
Nancy (Bacon) Adams, natives respectively 
of Vermont and Massachusetts. The father 
was a carpenter and millwright and a man of 
energetic character, well adapted to the build- 
ing of material interests and with the natural capac- 
ity to enjoy and make useful the future which he 
merited. But disasters by fire and losses in other 
avenues prevented such a consummation. He came 
from New York to Michigan and located at Ypsilanti, 
Mich. A year later he purchased a tract of land in 
Shiawassee County, but after a twelvemonth of labor 
he discovered that his title was worthless. The loss 
entailed was $4,800, which rendered him compara- 
tively destitute. After spending a year with his son 
in Saginaw County, he once morb bought a farm and 
engaged in its management. His wife died in 1863 
in Brant, Saginaw County ; his own demise, at St. 
Charles, in the same county, followed a year later. 

Mr. Adams was born Nov. 11, 1836, in Brattleboro, 
Vt. He was reared under his parents' care until he 
reached his majority. He was reared as a farmer's 
son and acquired a liberal degree of tact, which with 
his natural talents and practical experience has en- 
abled him to carve out for himself a successful career. 
His first venture in business life was in lumber inter- 




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ests at first, and later in mercantile aflfairs, in which ^^t! 
he is still engaged. He has operated singly since ' 
1883. During the 28 years previous to that date he .7 . 
was associated in business relations with a man 
named Freeman. At one period of his life he was 
engaged in navigation, and acted as engineer, mate, 
master and owner of a vessel, plying between St. 
Charles and Bay City. After this he was engaged as 
a lumberman in Montcalm County one year. In 
1876 he came to Gratiot County and located on sec- 
tions 21, 28 and 29, Seville Township, where he was 
heavily interested in lumbering. He brought his 
family to Gratiot County in February, 1878, and after- 
ward purchased 320 acres of land on section 30, 
Seville Township, where he at present resides. 

His wife, formerly Miss Ett Maxfield, was born in 
December, 1836, and is a daughter of Varius and 
Persis Maxfield, natives respectively of New Hamp- 
shire and New York. They are now residents of 
Genesee Co., Mich., and are aged 76 and 68 years. 
Mr. Adams is a member of Riverdale Lodge, No. 
343, 1. O. O. F., and Pine River Lodge, No. 343, 1. 
O. G. T. In political sentiment he is an ardent 
Prohibitionist. His portrait is given on page 354. 






alter Qraham, farmer on the east half of 
the northwest quarter of section 20, Beth- 
any Township, is a son of William K. and 
Margaret E. Graham*; the father died in the 
spring of 1883, in Lowell, Kent Co., Mich.: 
mother is also deceased. 
The subject of this sketch was bom in the north 
part of England, June 17, 1843. When he was nine 
years of age the family emigrated to Canada, and 
five years afterward to Lowell, Kent Co., Mich., where 
the parents both died. He came to this county in 
the fiall of 1864 and purchased 40 acres, being the 
northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of secdon 
20, which he still owns. 

The following spring, March 30, 1865, Mr. Gra- 
ham married Mary E. Adams, a native of Ohio. By 
this marriage there have been ten children, as fol- 
lows : George W., John W., Ida M., Jay W., Frank 
I., Fred, Edna M., Henry, Mary D. and Margaret 
D. (twins). 
After a residence of eight years on his farm he 




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formed a partnership with George }. Acker and 
Charles B. Graham in St. Louis, in the manufacturing 
of sash, doors and blinds, in which relation he con- 
tinued seven years, with marked success. He was 
in the furniture business six years, sold out and 
formed a partnership with his brother, C. B. Graham, 
in the grocery trade in St. Louis. The latter died 
one year later and Mr. Graham sold his interest and 
returned to the farm. He now has 1 30 acres of land, 
with 45 acres under'good cultivation. 

Mr. and Mrs. Graham are members of the Presby- 
terian Church. 







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larleB L. Fleming, senior member of the 
firm of Fleming & Church, dealers in fan- 
cy and staple groceries at St. Louis, was born 
Feb. 8, 1842, in Concord, Jackson Co., Mich. 
He is a son of Charles M. and Elvira (Hum- 
phrey) Fleming. His father in early life followed the 
business of a blacksmith and afterward engaged in 
agriculture, and later as a merchant ; he was born 
Oct. 31, 1809, in Seneca Co., N. Y., and is now liv- 
ing in retirement at St. Louis, whither he removed 
about 1864, and where he has since resided. The 
mother was born Sept. 10, 18 18, at Clyde, N. Y. 

Mr. Fleming was brought up on a farm and com- 
pleted his education by a course of study at May- 
hew s Commercial College at Albion, Mich. He was 
engaged 16 years as a traveling salesman and passed 
the last five years of that period in the employ of 
Johnson & Co., of Detroit, handling specialties in the 
drug line. In 1878 he came to St. Louis, and in 
June, 1879, purchased an interest in his father's bus- 
iness, with whom he continued about a year and a 
half. At the expiration of that time his present asso- 
ciate, John M. Church, purchased his fathers inter- 
est, and this connection has existed ever since, with 
gratifying success. 

Mr. Fleming was married Dec. 11, 1866, in Leroy, 
Ingham Co., Mich., to Abigail, daughter of Joshua 
and Elthina (Wilkinson) Barnes. She was bom Sept. 
29, 1846, at Bakersfield, Vt. Following is the record 
of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Fleming: LinaA. 
was born Oct. 30, 1867, in Pine River Township; 
Lewis A. was also born in that township, Sept. 30, 



187 1, and died Jan. 26, 1873. Duane I. was bom 
June 6, 1875, in Howell, Livingston Co., Mich. Ida 
May was born in Pine River Township, May 25, 1879. 
The parents and eldest daughter are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. 



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>ta Caroline (Barker) ScattergQod. 



B. Soattergood, resident at Ithaca, 
1^ was bom in Plymouth, Wayne Co., Mich., 
25, 1853, and is a son of Joshua and 
His parents 
moved to St. Johns when he was 12 years 
old, and, three years later, went to Mankato, 
Minn., where he resided eight years. He attended 
school until he was 16 years old and was then placed 
in a jeweler s shop at Mankato to learn the details 
of the business. He served three years and con- 
tinued to follow the business until 1876, when he 
came to Ithaca and bought out the jewelry stock of 
A. A. Wood. He transacted business at the stand 
occupied by his predecessor three years and then 
transferred his stock to the store with C. E. Fink, 
where he operated two years. Mr. Scattergood sold 
his interest to Dixi G. Hall, who removed the same 
to the Richardson Block, where the management of 
the business in all its details is in the hands of the 
former proprietor. 

Mr. Scattergood was married Oct. 25, 1883, in 
Hillsdale Co., Mich., to Nellie, daughter of Dr. James 
W. Niblack. She is a native of Ohio. 



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^iram B. Qiddings, groceryman and provis- 
ion merchant at St. Louis, was born July i, 
1 850, at Palmyra, Portage Co., Ohio. He is a 
son of Jonathan C. and Mary E. Giddings 
1 who settled at St Louis in 1866. He was then 
16 years old, and he attended school until he was 
18, when he entered the employ of his brother Charles 
W. Giddings (see sketch), as clerk in his furniture 
store. He operated in that capacity three years, 
when he engaged as assistant in the grocery of Thom- 
as McDowell, with whom he remained two years. 
He then went to Saginaw City and was there appoint- 
ed Deputy Sheriff under R. W. Andrus. He oflficia- 



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ted one year and then entered the employ of his chief 
in his grocery, where he remained two years. In 
1879 he returned to St. Louis, and, after a short pe- 
riod spent as a clerk, he opened his present business^ 
in which he established himself in August, 1880. He 
is a member of the Royal Arcanun. 

Mr. Giddings was married June 23, 1880, at Sagi- 
naw City, to Gertrude B., daughter of Orrin J. and 
Jennie E. (Jeffreys) Showers. She died at St. Louis, 
July 18, 1883, leaving one child — Orrin C, born June 
29, 1881. 

— H— HQJ^i ^ tofctn I . — 

ddney Thompson, farmer, section 8, North 
Star Township, is the son of Jeremiah D. 
and Elizabeth (Hoag) Thompson, and was 
born in the county of Schoharie, State of New 
York, Jan 17, 18 13. His father was a native 
of Dutchess County apd his mother of Albany 
County, N. Y., both of English extraction. 

Our subject is enabled to trace the genealogy of 
his family on his father's side as far back as the year 
16 10, viz. : His father was a son of Silas Thompson 
who was bom in Dutchess Co., N. Y., and who was 
a son of Caleb Thompson, born in New Haven, 
Conn., in 1732, a son of Samuel Thompson, bom in 
the same State in 1 696, a son of Samuel Thompson, 
born in Connecticut in 1669, a son of John Thomp- 
son, bom in England in 1632, and he a son of 
Anthony Thompson, who was born in the same 
country in 1610. 

Mr. Thompson remained with his parents in the 
Empire State, attending the common schools, assist- 
ing on the farm and developing into manhood, when 
he accompanied them to Lenawee County, this State, 
in which place they arrived and settled in 1834. 
The family at this time consisted of the father, 
mother and 14 children, and earnestly and energeti- 
cally did they, with one united effort, enter on the 
task of clearing and improving the parental home- 
steads Their trials and struggles were numerous, 
yet their souls were animated with that spirit of de- 
tenninadon which so often, in the lives of Michigan's 
pioneers, has surmounted the " hill of difficulty " and 
conquered adversity that they successfully battled 
against and overcame them. Mr. T. having acquired 
a fair education in his native State, devoted consider- 

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able of his time to teaching, especially during the 
winters, and thus was enabled to replenish the family 
coffer with the proceeds of his mental labor. 

March 8, 1838, Mr. Thompson was married to 
Miss Sarah Abbott, who died Jan. 22, r839, leaving 
one child to the care of the father. Mr. T. was mar- 
ried a second time, Nov. 11, 1840, to Miss Catharine 
Baragar; by her he had three children, two of 
whom — Jerry D. and Mary E. — are living. Mrs. T. 
died April 24, 1876, leaving her husband a widower 
for the second time. Oct. 6, 1878, Mr. T. was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Eleanor Hill, daughter of John English, 
with whom he is now living and by whom he has had 
two children, namely : Sidney, Jr., and Walter. Mrs. 
T. had four children by her first husband, named as 
follows: Minnie, Marian, Mary and Elsie Hill. 

Mr. Thompson owns a farm of 40 acres in North 
Star Township, and was Supervisor of the township 
for four years. While living in Lenawee County he 
was Postmaster at Dover about four years. Notary 
Public six years. School Inspector 21 years, and 
Township Clerk for 18 years. 



ohn Bums, manufacturer of and dealer in 
\ saddlery and horse furnishing goods at St. 
Louis, was bom Jan. 18, i860, at Toronto, 
Can., and is the son of Hugh and Betsey (Mc- 
Cormick) Bums. His father was a Canadian 
by birth and a marine captain by vocation, 
which line of business he is still pursuing. The 
mother was a native of Toronto and died when her 
son was but two years old. 

Mr. Burns has been the maker of his own fortunes 
and career since he was nine years old. In his boy- 
hood he went to school and labored altemately as he 
found opportunity, and at the age of 14 years he set 
about to learn his trade, and four years after he went 
to Detroit, where he worked in a hamess shop six 
months. He proceeded thence to Bay City, where he 
remained three years. After spending six months at 
Saginaw, he went into business for himself at Port- 
land, Ionia County, and was engaged in business 
about two years, with reasonable success. In Febm- 
ary, 1883, he came to St. Louis and opened a shop 
for the prosecution of his business, opposite the Wes- 
sell House. Five months later he removed to the 



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stand he now occupies, where he has a well-assorted 
and valuable stock. He employs several assistants 
and contemplates the enlargement and extension of 
his manufacturing and retail business. 




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roshua Scattergood, flour, feed and provis- 
ion dealer at Ithaca, was bom April 7,1814, 
in Bucks Co., Pa. He is a lineal descend- 
ant from the early Quaker element of New 
Jersey, his ancestors on both sides being mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, and of English 
extraction. His father, Thomas Scattergood, was, in 
his early manhood, extensively engaged in the shad- 
fishing in the Delaware River; was an officer in the 
war of 181 2 and stationed at Havre de Grace; (his 
military accouterments were preserved a long time by 
his descendants;) he died in 1834, at Lambert ville, 
N. J., where he was keeping hotel, and was 46 years 
old. His mother, Elizabeth (English) Scattergood, 
Burlington Co., N. J., in 1784, and died in the city 
of Burlington at the age of 66 years. 

Mr. Scattergood obtained a fair education at the 
public schools and at 16 engaged as a clerk, in which 
employment he continued until he was 22 years old. 
In 1836 he went to Plymouth, Wayne Co., Mich., 
and there secured a position in the same capacity, 
where he was occupied three years. In 1839 he en- 
tered into partnership with Benj. G. Barker for the 
purpose of prosecuting mercantile interests. The 
connection was discontinued at the end of three 
years, Mr. Barker retiring. Mr. Scattergood con- 
ducted the business singly until 1866, when he dis- 
posed of his stock and interests by sale and removed 
to St. John's,. Clinton Co., Mich. He opened there a 
grocery establishment, which he conducted between 
two and three years. He made another remove to 
Mankato, Blue Earth Co., Minn., where, associated 
with his son Theodore, he engaged in the manufac- 
ture of fanning-mills and steel-toothed horse-rakes. 
Five years later, his health became so much impaired 
■that he retired from business for the time being. He 
came to Ithaca in the fall of 1883, and has since 
been engaged in selling the celebrated patent flour 
of Minnesota. In November of that year, he erected 
a building for business purposes, where he is engaged 
in trade, as stated. Besides his property here he owns 



real estate at Mankato. He is a charter member of 
Tonquish Lodge, No. 32, I. O. O. F., of which fra- 
ternity he has been a long time a member. While 
in Plymouth he held the offices of Justice of the 
Peace and Township Clerk, occupying the incumben- 
cy of each four years. 

Mr. Scattergood was married at Plymouth, June 4, 
1839, to Caroline E., daughter of B. G. and Deborah 
Barker. The parents moved from the city of New 
York to Detroit in 1835. Mrs. Scattergood was bom 
in New York and died in Plymouth, in October, 1854, 
and left fis^ children— Theodore, Edward B., Will- 
iam B., Helen C. and Alfred B. Mr. Scattergood 
was again married Sept. 10, 1857, at Plymouth, to 
Harriet B. Barker, sister of his former wife. Of this 
union one child — Bessie— has been born. 



.lijah H. Trayifl, farmer, section 19, Pine 
River Township, was born Oct 28, 1835, 
in Cayuga Co., N. Y. His parents, Lewis 
and Minerva (Roberts) Travis, were natives of 
the State of New York. They removed to Oak- 
land Co., Mich., in i860, and later came to 
Clinton County, where the mother died. The 
father died in Montcalm County. 

Mr. Travis was educated in the common schools 
and was bred to the pursuit of agriculture. In 1859 
he came to Michigan, and after a stay of six months 
he returned to his native State. The next year, i860, 
he became a settler in this State, and in February, 
1863, he bought the farm on which he has since re- 
sided, in Pine River Township. It included 80 acres 
of wild land, of which he retains 40 acres, with 30 
under cultivation. Mr. Travis is a Republican in 
his political views. 

He was married the first time Jan. 2, 1862, in Oak- 
land Co., Mich., to Nancy S., daughter of Ralph and 
Hannah Quick. She died July 22, 1866, and left 
one child, Bert S. On the 21st of September, 1879, 
Mr. Travis was again married, at Alma, to Mrs. Hes- 
ter A. (Hart) Baker, daughter of Philo and Dorothy 
Hart, and widow of Lewis K. Baker, who was one of 
the pioneers of Arcada Township, and who died Oct. 
19, 1876. Her parents were natives of New York, 
and her mother died in Chautauqua County in that 
State. About the year 1868 her father came to 




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Michigan, and now resides at Alma. Mrs. Travis 
was born May 25, 1838, in Chautauqua Co., N. Y., 
and was 18 years old when she came to Michigan. 
She is the mother of two children by her first mar- 
riage : Forest W. and Mary H. Mr. and Mrs. Travis 
are members of the Presbyterian Chur<?h. 



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^rank £. Miirdock, of the firm of Murdock 
Bros., dealers in granite and marble ceme- 
tery work, building work, cemetery fencing 
and stone goods at St. Louis, was born Feb. 24, 
1849, in Dexter, Washtenaw Co., Mich. He 
began learning his trade in Dexter, and when he 
was 15 years old he went to Ypsilanti, where he spent 
a year perfecting himself in its details. He has 
worked at the same in various places, and came to 
St. Louis, Jan. i, 1883. He purchased the interest 
of a former partner of his brother, who had estab- 
lished the business in which the firm of Murdock 
Bros, are engaged. They have supplied the mate- 
rials for a number of prominent buildings in Gratiot 
County, among which are the opera house at St. 
Louis, the dwelling of Mr. Turck, at Alma, and the 
union school house at Ithaca. They deal in the 
New England granite and marble and all other pop- 
ular stones for use or ornament. 

Mr. Murdock was married Dec. 27, 1878, in Plym- 
outh, Wayne Co., Mich., to Lillie, daughter of Hon. 
Bethuel and Annis Noyes. She was bom April 24, 
1854, at Plymouth,- and of this marriage, one child — 
Agnes — was bom Jan. 31, 1 881, in Norwalk, Ohio. 




ev. G^eorge Older, residing on section 20, 
North Star Township, was born in New 
Pound Co., England, Dec. 15, 1824. He 
is a son of Samuel Older (deceased), who was 
a native of the same country in which our 
subject was born, and who emigrated to the 
United States in 1832 and settled in Athens Co., 
Ohio. Here our subject lived, assisting his father on 
the farm, which was situated on Minker Run, near 
Nelsonville, and attending the common schools of 
the county and developing into manhood. 

Mr. Older was married in April, 1846, to Alletha, 



daughter of Robert Calliss, deceased, and moved to 
Wood Co., Ohio. They remained there for several 
years, and then removed to this State, arriving here 
in 1865 and locating in Sumner Township, this 
county. 

Rev. Older began his studies for the ministry after 
coming to this State, and traveled as a minister of 
the United Brethren Church for 13 years, and visited 
some 19 or 20 of the counties and organized many 
Churches. He is still engaged in the cause of Chris- 
tianity, and preaches regulariy every two weeks. 

Mrs. Older died Aug. 5, 1858, leaving four chiU 
dren— Perry C, Randolph M., Emily A. and Martha 
E. — and many friends and relatives to mourn her 
loss. 

Rev. Older was again married Aug. 23, i860, to 
Miss Frances Kimberlin, and to this union one child, 
John, was born. Rev. Older owns 40 acres of land 
on which he and his family reside. 







V. 



ohn T. Noble, barber at St. Louis, the 
oldest resident of the tonsorial profession 
at this point, was bom Oct. 4, 1849, in 
France. He is the son of John and Anna (Su- 
[)ine) Noble, who were natives of France, bom 
respecdvely in 1824 and 1831. They came to 
the United States in 1854, and, nine months after 
their arrival in the new world, they went to Gallic 
polis, Gallia Co., Ohio, where they resided 13 years, 
the father following the vocation of a stone-cutter. 
In the spring of 1866, they came to Chesaning, Sag- 
inaw County, and two years later to Bath, Clinton 
Co., Mich., where they still live. His father owns 40 
acres of land. 

Mr. Noble learned the'trade of his father, but, find- 
ing it distasteful, resolved to devote himself to some- 
thing more to his liking. He worked in a barber's 
shop in Chesaning, and one 'in St. John's, where he 
acquired the skill necessary to the manipulation of 
the razor and shears. In the fall of 1869, he came 
to St. Louis, and opened the business in which he 
has been continuously engaged ever since. He has 
three chairs, and is assisted by his wife. 

Mr. Noble is one of the oldest members of the Fire 
Department at St. Louis, being one of the first com- 
pany. He organized the first Hose Company in the 



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place and was foreman seven years. In 1883, he 
was Chief of the Department, which, during the same 
year, he represented at the National Convention held 
at Cincinnati. While occupying the position of chief 
officer, he was presented with, a fine silver trumpet by 
the Rubber and Gutta Percha MY g Co. of New 
York, valued at $45. He is the iiventor and pat- 
entee of Noble's Durable Reel Hose Cart, which was 
patented June 26, 1883, and is considered a first- 
class machine. 

In the fall of 1876, he went into training as a foot- 
runner, and, running his first race the following spring, 
traveled as a professional athlete for two years. He 
ran at one time 10 1 yards in ten seconds. 

Mr. Noble was married Aug. 5, 187 1, at St. Louis, 
to Emma A. Gifford. She was born Nov. 26, 1853. 
Her parents dame to Gratiot County in its very earli- 
est days, she being but five months old when they 
became pioneers. They built at first, for purposes 
of shelter, a bough house, on the Alma road. Her 
father owned a large farm, now known as the Good- 
rich place. Mr. and Mrs. Noble have two children — 
John E., born May 7, 1871, and Sarah S., bom March 
10, 1877. 





^dward B. White, farmer, section 5, Pine 
River Township, was bom Nov. 24, 1832, 
in Lake Co., Ohio. He is the son of Nor- 
man and Albina (Gloyd) White, natives of 
Massachusetts. Some years after their mar- 
riage they went to Lake Co., Ohio, and later in 
life to Medina County, in that State. They were the 
parents of 1 2 children. 

Mr. White is the fifth son, and was about three 
years old when his parents went to Medina County. 
His father was a famier, and he lived at home until 
he was nearly 24 years of age. In May, i860, he 
came to Gratiot County, and became the possessor 
by purchase of 40 acres of unimproved land, and not 
long after made a further investment in an additional 
40 acres. He has expended his time and energies 
with judicious management, and has a snug farm 
with 35 acres in fine improvement and under good 
cultivation. Mr. White is a citizen in excellent 
standing in his township, and has been Postmaster 
of Forest Hill (Pine River Township) two years. 



He was married Sept. 11, 1856, in Medina Co., 
Ohio, to Almeda, fourth daughter of Daniel and 
Susannah (Whitcomb) Ross. She was bom March 
12, 1840, in Medina County, and her parents were 
natives respectively of Vermont and Canada. Mr. 
and Mrs. White have fiSt, children living : Cora A., 
Myrtie A., Orrin E., Ardie L. and Lettie E. They 
are the foster parents of a boy whom they took in 
charge when he was two weeks old, and have reared 
him as their own child. He is called Ernest White. 
Mr. and Mrs. White belong to the Disciples' Church. 









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-^ f ohn L. Sinclair, Register of Deeds of Gra- 
_ ^ tiot County, residing at Ithaca, was bom 
S^^ March 26, 1848, at Invemess, Scotland. 
His father, John Sinclair, was a native of the 
same place, born Aug. 26, 18 18, and died 
near London, Ontario, Dec. 4, 1855, whither he 
emigrated and worked at his trade of contractor and ^ 
builder until his death. The mother, Catherine 
(McKay) Sinclair, is a native of Scotland and is still 
living, near London, Ont. 

Mr. Sinclair was still young when his father died, 
and at 12 years pf age was left to face the vrorld 
alone. He went at 14 years of age to Ailsa Craig, 
Ont., where he engaged as a clerk in the store of A. 
G. Mcintosh, general merchant. He remained there 
until the fall of 1866, when he came to St Louis, and 
engaged a short time in lumbering. His next em- 
ploy was with Luther Smith as clerk in his mercan- 
tile establishment, and he passed the next two years 
in his service and that of J. W. Wesels. He returned 
at the expiration of that time to London, Ont., where 
he became a clerk for R. McKenzie, grocery and 
provision merchant. He came to Ithaca in the fall 
of 1873 and entered the employ of John W. Howd, 
with whom he remained three years. He next en- 
gaged with Nelson & Barber, with whom he remained 
until the fall of 1882, when he was placed in nomi- 
nation for the office of County Register, on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket, and made a successful mn against 
George S. Van Buskirk, scoring a considerable num- 
ber of votes in advance of his ticket. He has served 
a number of years as Village Clerk of Ithaca. Mr. 
Sinclair has taken 12 degrees in Masonry, of which 
Order he has been a member nearly 15 years. He 



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;'/ has been Master of Ithaca Lodge, No 123, three 

years. 

He was married June 10, 1870, at St. Louis, to 

Mary J. Finch. She was born in Waterloo, Jackson 
^ Co., Mich., in August, 1847, and is the daughter of 
r Reuben and Jane Finch. She died in Ithaca in 

1877, leaving two children — Anna S. and Ernest L. 
I Mr. Sinclair was again married in May, 1880, to Juli- 
i ette L., daughter of Lathrop M. Lyon, and was born 
j in Clyde, N. Y. 





larles B. Wright, farmer, section 19, Pine 
River Township, was born Oct. 28, 1846, 
in Parma, Jackson Co., Mich. He is the son 
of Frederick and Sarepta (Fox) Wright, and 
his father was a prominent pioneer of Gratiot 
County, with whose progress and comparative rank 
among the counties of the Peninsula State his name 
is inseparably connected. 

Mr. Wright was nearly 13 years of age when his 
parents came to Gratiot County, and he has resided 
chiefly in Pine River Township from that period of 
his boyhood. He has pursued farming all his life 
and now owns 80 acres of land, with 65 acres under 
first class cultivation. Politically he is identified 
with the Democraric party. 

Mr. Wright was married Oct. 28, 1866, in Pine 
River Township, to Sarah, daughter of Henry and 
Susannah (Bigley) Wolf. She was born in Ravenna, 
Ohio, Jan. 17, 1845, and her parents were natives of 
Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Wright have lost two 
children by death : Charles R. and Jessie M., who 
died in infancy. There are now living: Mary E., 
Susannah and James KL* 




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Ijgah Beard, formerly clergyman and 

farmer, section 5, North Star Township, 

was bom in Erie Co., N. Y., Jan 12, 1807. 

li SL He is a son of Victory Beard, deceased, a 

' » native of Connecticut and a soldier under Gen. 

j Wadsworth in the war 181 2, and who moved 

bis family to Delaware Co., Ohio, in 18 16. Here our 



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subject attended subscription school, assisted on his 
father s farm and developed into manhood. 

Elder Beard was married Aug. 16, 1829, to Miss 
Emeline, daughter of Peter Sunderland, a narive of 
Pennsylvania, and was bom in Miami Co., Ohio, in 
1 810, and to their union six children, all girls, have 
been born, namely: Mary E. (Martin), Louisa 
(Vance), Elmira (Vance), Catharine (Herrington), 
Christina (Herrington) and Annie E. (Morris). 

In early manhood Elder Beard turned his attention 
to the gospel, and in addition to his farm labors was 
engaged in preaching in the Christian Church until 
1855, when he moved with his family to this county. 
His labors as a minister have been quite extensive. 
He organized the first Christian Church in Green- 
bush, Clinton Co., this State; and the first one in 
Gratiot County, in Bams' settlement. North Star 
Township, and preached throughout this and Ginton 
Counties. He has recently sold his farm to his son- 
in-law, who has taken possession of it, and has also 
retired from the ministry, satisfied with his labors. 



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I^ilas Moody, farmer, resident on section 9, 
Pine River Township, was born in Chat- 
ham, Medina Co., Ohio, May 30, 1839. 
His parents, William and Maria (Ross) Moody, 
were natives respectively of Massachusetts and 
Vermont. The father is a minister of the Dis- 
ciples* Church, and has been an active laborer in its 
interests for more than 50 years. He was born Aug. 
29, i8io,and was married Aug. 29, 1838, in Granger, 
Medina Co., Ohio. Ebenezer Moody, his father, was 
descended from one of three brothers who emigrated 
from England to Newburyport, Mass., about the year 
1632. He married Lucy Wood about the year 1776, 
and of their family of nine children, two yet survive. 
He was a soldier of 181 2. 

Mr. Moody was a pupil in the common schools 
until he was 17 years of age, after which he spent 
four years in teaching and study, and attended a 
select school at Chatham summers. He spent seven 
winters in teaching school. In 1861, he came to 
Gratiot County and bought 80 acres of wild land. 
Subsequent purchases have increased the aggregate 
of his estate to 400 acres, and of this 200 acres are 
under cultivation. He taught two winter terms of 



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school in Gratiot County, and spent the winter sea- 
sons of the following 20 years in traffic in hay. in 
which he has been extensively engaged, as well as in 
the purchase and sale of oats, pork and other agri- 
cultural products. His stock includes eight horses, 
17 head of cattle, 180 Sheep and 10 hogs. 

In political connections, Mr. Moody is a Republi- 
can of decided type, and has been for many years an 
important factor in local affairs. He has been Town- 
ship Clerk, School Inspector, Highway and Drain 
Commissioner, and has held several other positions 
of trust. He is President of the Gratiot County Ag- 
ricultural Society, and has been connected with the 
County Board eight years. 

Mr. Moody was married in Chatham, Medina Co., 
Ohio, April 6, 1861, to Ellen M., second daughter of 
Luther and Hannah (Jackson) Clapp. She was born 
in Chatham Jan. 8, 1842, and her parents were na- 
rives of Hampshire Co., Mass. The household in- 
cludes two children, George A. and Ira C. Two 
others, Arthur N. and Edith C, have passed to the 
land of voiceless mystery. 

Mr. and Mrs. Moody are both zealous members of 
the Disciples' Church, and during the past 14 years 
Mr. Moody has officiated as Superintendent of a 
Sunday-school. He is also President of the county 
Sunday-school organization. 



fohn Lanshaw, farmer, section 17, Pine 
River Township, was born Jan. 25, 1830. 
He is the son of Hans and Anna Lanshaw, 
'^jx? who passed their entire lives in the Father- 
iT land. Mr. Lanshaw passed the first 25 years 
of his life in his native country in the vocation 
of a farmer. He came to the United States in July, 
1854, and went at once to New Jersey, where he re- 
mained four years, coming thence to Detroit. He 
spent three years in that city, and after a subsequent 
stay in Oakland County for a short period, he came 
in January, 1866, lo Gratiot County, for the purpose 
of engaging in farming in accordance with early plans 
and purposes. He bought 100 acres of land in Pine 
River Township, to which he has added by subse- 
quent purchase, and now is proprietor of 1 80 acres, 
with no in a state of advanced cultivation. 

Mr. Lanshaw took a deep interest in. the events of 




the civil war, and finally became a soldier. He en- 
listed in March, 1865, in the 2 2d Reg. Midi. Vol. 
Inf. Three months after going to the field, 500 
members of the regiment were transferred to the 29th 
Mich. Vol. Inf. He was among the number, and 
served in that command until his discharge at De- 
troit on the last day of August, 1865. 

In the summer of 1883, he replaced his pioneer 
house with a substantial residence, where he now re- 
sides in the comfort and content which is sure to 
follow persistent and well-directed effort. He be- 
longs to the National Greenback party. 

Mr. Lanshaw was married Aug. 3, 1856, in New 
Jersey, to Anna Ziesse. She is a native of Germany, 
where she was born Nov. 29, 1833. Of six children 
born to them, four are living: William C, John H., 
Lillie A. and Minnie L. Eliza L. died when she 
was 1 1 years old. Another child was lost in early 
infancy. 



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ilbert H. Lowry, agent of the American Ex- f^ 
press Company and manager of the West- £; 

em Union Telegraph office at St. Louis, was rr. 

born April 13, 1854, near Romeo, Macomb "^^ 
Co., Mich., and is the son of William H. and 
Charlotte (Teeter) Lowry. His father resides in East 
Saginaw ; he is a native of New York, and was mar- 
ried in Jersey City. In 1851 he removed his family 
to Romeo, and in 1865 to East Saginaw. The wife 
and mother was a native of New York and was bom 
in Dry den, April 12, 1824, She died Feb. 6, 1883, at 
South Saginaw. 

Mr. Lowry received a good common-school educa- 
tion, and, at the age of 16, entered a grocery in 
the capacity of clerk, where he remained two years- 
He then learned telegraphy in East Saginaw, and af- 
ter six months' study in that art he look an office at 
Vassar, Mich., where he remained a few months and 
went thence to Bay City, where he was manager 
the American Telegraph office at the Frazier House. 
He continued in that position three months and came 
to St. Louis in the interest of the Saginaw Valley & St. 
Louis Railroad Company. He operated at the depot 
two years, when he took the city office for the West- 
ern Union, atid during the last three years has been # 
agent for the American Express Company. In the y 



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spring of 1 88 1 he was elected Village Clerk of St. 
Louis by a majority of three, himself and the candid- 
ate for the office of Assessor being the only Repub- 
licans elected on the ticket. In the spring of 1882, 
he was re-elected by a majority of 45 votes, and was 
the only representative of his party elected. He is a 
member of the Masonic Order, belonging both to the 
blue lodge and chapter. He belongs to the Fire 
Department of St. Louis, of which he has been a 
member five years, two of which he has acted as Fore- 
man of the Citizens' Hose Company, No. i. In Oc- 
tober, 1880, Mr. Lowry and Gen. Nathan Church, of 
Ithaca, built a telegraph line between St. Louis and 
Ithaca, which is the only line running into the coun- 
ty seat. It is owned and operated solely by Messrs. 
Church & Lowry. Mr. L. owns also a building lot at 
St. Louis. He is Captain of the St. Louis Bicycle 
Club, organized in January, 1884, with nine wheels. 




homas H. Harrod, surveyor and civil engi- 
neer, section 5 , North Star Township, was 
born in England, Oct. 27, 1847, and is a 
son of Jeremiah Harrod, also a native of that 
country. He came to Canada in the fall of 
1871, and to this country in June, 1872, locat- 
ing where he now resides. He has been Deputy 
County Clerk one term, County Drain Commissioner 
one year, and Deputy County Surveyor one year. 
He is now engaged in the business of surveying, in 
Bay City. 

Mr. Harrod was married March 9, 1873, to Mrs. 
Jaroe E. Leappard, who was bom in England, in 
1839, and was brought to New York State by her 
parents, in emigration, in 1856, and to this county in 
1864. Mr. and Mrs. H. have one child, John J., and 
one adopted daughter, Clara M. Harrod. Mrs. H. s 
first husband, John Leappard, was born in England, 
April 15, 1848; was married Feb. 8, 1861 ; enlisted in 
the war for the Union in the fall of i86i,and died 
in Belle Island Prison, April 17, 1863. Mrs. Har- 
rod s father, John Humphrey, of North Star Town- 
ship, was bom in Corydon, Surrey Co., England, July 
29, 1 8 10, and settled on section 5, this township, in 
1864. He married Ann Best, and they had 13 chil- 
dren, eight of whom are now living, viz. : Jane E., 




Emma, Richard, Susan, John W., Ambrose, Eliza and 
Robert. 

Mr. Harrod is in every sense a self-made man. 
He received a little schooling before he was 10 years 
old, but educated himself almost entirely by his own 
efforts. He acquired his knowledge of surveying 
before leaving England, at the age of about 20. 
Since 1876, Mr. H. has been licensed to preach in 
the M. E. Church, and he has labored regularly for 
the cause of Christianity. The likenesses of Mr. 
and Mrs. H. are given on conriguous pages. 

eorge S. Quick, farmer on section 3, Sum- 

ner Township, was born in Oakland Coun- 

W^^^ ty, this State, Aug. 6, 1853, the son of 
^W^ Ralph and Calista (Treat) Quick, natives of 

T Pennsylvania and New York, and of German 
\ and English descent. Ralph Quick was 
reared in his native State until eight years old, then 
in New Jersey until 16 years old. He then went to 
Seneca Co., N. Y., where he lived until 1834, work- 
ing as a common laborer. He then came to Oakland 
Co., Mich., where he followed carpentry and farming 
until 187 1. He then made his last move, to this 
county, purchasing 120 acres on section 3, Sumner 
Township. Here he has since lived, being an active 
worker until the death of his wife, March 29, 1882, 
but now living a retired life, with his son, to whom he 
leases the farm. He has been an active man, a pro- 
gressive farmer and an intellfgent citizen. He has 
been Highway Commissioner and Justice of the 
Peace one term each, was Supervisor of his town- 
ship in 1875-6, and has held other minor offices. 

He has always been connected with the Presby- 
terian Church, and politically has supported the Re- 
publican party. His wife was the mother, of 12 
children, and she left five of them, and a large cir- 
cle of friends, to mourn her departure. She was 70 
years of age. 

The subject of this biography attended the com- 
mon and graded schools and worked on his father's 
fami until 19 years old, and then came with his 
parents to this county. He has remained on the 
home farm until the present time, and now has the 
active management of it himself. 

June 25, 1878, at St. Louis, he was married to 



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Miss Alvira, daughter of Nicholas P. and Lucy 
(Wright) Watts, natives of Ohio and Kentucky. She 
was born in Mercer Co., Ohio, May 27, 1852, and 
came with her parents to Michigan when very young. 
The family lived in Jackson County eight years, then 
came to Gratiot County. She lived in Arcada Town- 
ship until her marriage. 

Mr. Quick is an enterprising young man, inherit- 
ing the business ability, as well as the political faith, 
of his father, to whom he is a worthy successor of the 
the family name. 






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^artin Montigel, of the firm of J. M. Mon- 
tigel & Co., at Alma, was bom at Erie, 
Pa., Oct. 6, 1856, and is a son of J. M. 
and Anna Barbara (Segrist) Montigel. (See 
sketch of J. M. Montigel.) The parents of 
Mr. Montigel went to Ashtabula, Ohio, when 
he was seven years old. They were residents there 
eight years, and there the son was a student at 
school nearly that entire period. In 1871 the family 
came to Alma, where he again attended school, and 
when of suitable age he was employed in his father s 
foundry. In 1878 he was admitted to a partnership 
in the business, and the connection still continues. 

Mr. Montigel is a member of the Order of Masonry 
and belongs to the blue lodge, No. 244, at Alma. 
He has also taken the Royal Arch degree and be- 
longs to Chapter No. 86, at St. Louis. He is a 
Republican in political sentiment and is Treasurer of 
the Fire Department at Alma. 



^rank Qilken, farmer on section 10, Arcada 
t Township, was bom in Pmssia, at Cologne, 
on the river Rhine, Feb. 14, 1828. His 
parents were German, and his father was a 
farmer and grape-grower. He received a good 
education in his native tongue, and worked on 
his father's farm until 18 years old. He then set out 
for America, unaccompanied by either friend or rela- 
tive. Landing at New York, he presently came to 
Detroit, where he was employed on the wharf for 
about two years. Thence he went to Ionia County, 
this State, where he engaged in farming for 15 years. 




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Feb. 18, 1863, he was married in Ionia County to 
Miss Ursula Raycroft, a narive of Ireland, bom in 
the city of Cork, Dec. 25, 1843. When two years 
old, she was brought by her parents to this country, 
and she was reared in Rochester, N. Y., coming to 
this State some time before her marriage. 

Mr. and Mrs Gilken, after three years of wedded 
life, came to Gratiot County and purchased 320 acres 
of wild land. By his own efforts, Mr. Gilken has 
cleared of the primirive forest and prepared for the 
plow 1 20 acres of good farming land. In place of 
his log hut and slab stable, he has now a substantial 
residence and good barns. One needs but to look 
at his buildings and stock to see that he is a pro- 
gressive, intelligent farmer. 

Mr. and Mrs. G. are the parents of eight children, 
six of whom are living : Frank D., born Dec. 14, 
1863; Clara, April 5, 1865; Lizzie, Feb. r6, 1868; 
Mattie, Jan. 17, 1870; Elias J., July 29, 1877; 
Freddie, June 15, 1883; Thora, born Dec. 29, 1875, 
and died July 29, 1876; Alfred, born July 6, 1880, 
and died Feb. 6, 1882. In political sentiment, Mr. 
Gilken is an ardent Democrat. 



illiam Hayes, farmer, section 22, Pine 
River Township, was bom in Geneseo, 
P Livingston Co., N. Y., Oct. 3, 1821, and is 
the son of Dennison and Margaret (Daily) 
Hayes. His father was a native of Pennsylva- 
nia, and his mother was born in Ireland. After 
their marriage they located in Livingston County, 
where they resided until the death of the father, 
which occurred in 1846. The mother died in Alle- 
gany County, N. Y. 

Mr. Hayes remained at home as his father s assist- 
ant on the farm until he was 23 years old. At that 
age, in 1847, he came to Ann Arbor, and after a res- 
idence there of two years removed to Ionia County. 
In the fall of 1867 he bought 80 acres of land in 
Gratiot County, of which he has since been the pro- 
prietor. It was principally in a state of nature, and 
he has now a fine farm of 40 acres, all under im- 
provement. He disposed of 40 acres by sale. Mr. 
Hayes is an adherent to the principles and issues of 
the Democratic party. 

He was married in Geneseo, Nov. 26, 1843, to 

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Tiizah J., daughter of Silas and Cheney (Kent) Nor- 
ton, natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Hayes 
have had six children : William O., John D., Isadore 
C, Marion A., Flora E. and Herbert N. The eldest 
son became a soldier in the war of the Southern Re- 
bellion. He enlisted in February, 1865. On arriv- 
ing in Washington his command was detailed for 
frontier sevice and ordered to Dakota to aid in quell- 
ing the Indians. He was seized with typhoid pneu- 
monia, and died Sept. 9, 1865. He was 23 years old 
and at the dawn of a promising manhood. He left 
a widow and one child. 




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Lamuel H. Loveland, dealer in furniture 
and undertakers goods, at Alma, is the 
youngest son and child of Erastus and 
Olive (Forbes) Loveland, and was born July 
28, 1832, in Washington, Berkshire Co., Mass. 
The parents were natives of Connecticut, 
where they continued to reside for several years fol- 
lowing their marriage, when they removed to Wash- 
ington, Mass., where the father engaged in the occu- 
pation of agriculturist. They continued to reside 
there between 30 and 40 years, when they went to 
Hinsdale, in the Bay State. Eight years later they 
returned to Washington, where they lived duiing the 
remainder of their lives. The father died Aug. 12, 
1840, and the mother followed to the land of ever- 
lasting peace, in July, 1847. Four sons and four 
daughters were bom to them, in the following order : 
Lewis, Amanda, Lucy, Erastus, William, Orrin, Al- 
mira, Louisa and Samuel. 

Mr. Loveland was 15 years old when his mother 
died, and about the same time the privilege of con- 
structing his own fortunes devolved upon himself. 
He hired out as a common laborer at $5 a month, 
and worked diligently and steadily eight months. 
He bought a good suit of clothes, a trunk and minor 
articles necessary to a comfortable and creditable out- 
fit. Thus equipped, he attended school and contin- 
ued two years in alternate labor and study. At 17 
years of age he began to work in a saw-mill, where 
he was employed two years. He next went to Seneca 
Co., N. Y., where he worked about 18 months in the 
machine shop of Messrs. Silsby, Race & Holly. 
(The senior member of the firm was the patentee of 
the Sikby fire engine, and the junior partner was the 









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inventor of the celebrated Holly water works sys- 
tem.) The employ proving unwholesome, he aban- 
doned it and came to Midland Co., Mich. He 
arrived there in June, 1855, and bought 80 acres of 
pine land, where he spent 18 months in lumbering. 
He sold his place and went to Isabella County, 
where he bought 80 acres of farming land and en- 
tered upon the realities of pioneer life. He reached 
the county Feb. 7, 1857, and was the fourth settler 
in the township of Isabella, and for nearly two years 
his log house was the only meeting-house in that 
section. ^ 

Isabella Township was organized in 1856, and in 
the spring of 1857 the county was organized and 14 
townships. Mr. Loveland was elected first Clerk of 
Isabella Township. He was the first Class-leader in 
the county, and the first Sunday-school Superin- 
tendent. He was also the first licensed exhorter in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in the county, and 
his house was open to the preachers of every denom- 
ination who came to that section. 

His tract of land was wholly in a state of nature 
and he proceeded with energetic and patient, untir- 
ing labor to the work of clearing and improving. 
He pursued his purpose until Aug. 13, 1862, when 
he yielded to the spirit aroused in him by the de- 
mands of the nation for help in her sore extremity, 
and enlisted in the 8th Mich. Vol. Inf. He was in 
the service nearly three years and experienced the 
pains and privileges of the soldier s fate at South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Vicksburg, 
Jackson, Knoxville, Blue Springs, Wilderness and 
Petersburg and numerous other engagements of 
minor importance. He was wounded in the side, at 
the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, and was 
confined a month in the hospital. He was honorably 
discharged in 1865, at Detroit, and returned to his 
family and labors in Isabella County. He there re- 
sided until the spring of 1874, when he sold his farm 
and entered into a partnership with David Lamb, in 
the manufacture of lumber, locating in Saginaw 
County. They were engaged in the prosecution of a 
prosperous and extending business when their prop- 
erty was almost entirely destroyed by fire. Mr. 
Loveland lost $2,000. He removed to St. Louis, 
Gratiot County, where he engaged in labor as a car- 
penter. This he followed about a year, and subse- 
quently spent one and a half years in the meat 



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business. In 1877 he bought a stock of furniture, in 
company with S. C. Smith. After operating two 
years they divided the stock, and in January, 1879, 
Mr. Loveland moved to Alma, established himself in 
thf business in which he has since been engaged, 
and which he is managing with satisfactory results. 
In spite of his several reverses he has continued his 
efforts with brave hopefulness, and is fast regaining 
what he has lost. 

Mr. Loveland was married at Seneca Falls, N. Y., 
May 24, 1854, to Sarah E., daughter of H. H. and 
Eleanor (Runyon) Baker, natives of New York. 
The mother died in the Empire State, and the father 
in Washtenaw Co., Mich., at the residence of his 
son. Mrs. Loveland was born Jan. 12, 183 1, in On- 
tario Co., N. Y., in the village of Bethel. 

Mr. Loveland is a decided radical in religious, 
moral and political sentiments. He has been from 
early life active and zealous in the interests of Chris- 
tianity, and of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
His religion is a concomitant of his daily life. In 
Isabella County he brought his views into bearing 
upon all his intercourse with the world at large, and 
was a pioneer representative of Christian principles 
coequal with his solicitude for the agricultural progress 
of the locality. He was there licensed as an ex- 
horter and local preacher and aided materially in the 
construction of the first church structure built in Isa- 
bella County. He was true to his convictions of his 
obligations to his fellow-men while a soldier in the 
army, and by his consistent life and unremitting en- 
deavors accomplished much permanent good. He 
is a member of the Order of Odd Fellows and belongs 
to the Good Templars. In the work of the latter 
society and the cause of temperance generally, he is 
fearlessly outspoken and zealous. He is a Repub- 
lican in political connection. 




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oseph Bussell, farmer, section 21, North 

f Shade Township, is a son of Jonathan and 

Mary Bussell, natives of England. His 

father, a farmer, came to America in 1853, 

landing at New York and settling in Hillsdale 

Co., Mich., where he lived until 1867, when 

he died. His wife had died in England, in 1845. 

Mr. Joseph Bussell was born April 20, 1839, in 



Devonshire, England. At the age of 13 he came to 
America, and was first employed on a dairy farm for 
five years ; he then came to Michigan and resided 
four years in Hillsdale County, and finally to the 
place which he now occupies. He first took posses- 
sion of 160 acres, but has since sold half this land. 
When he came here it was all a howling wil4emess; 
but by steady labor and judicious economy he has 
developed and equipped a fine farm, and is now sur- 
rounded with plenty. Besides, he seems to know 
how to enjoy the fruits of his many long and weary 
years of toil and care. 

In 1862 Mr. Bussell married Miss Maria, daughter 
of Florival and Sarah (Leslie) Bartlett, who was born 
June 17, 1840, in the town of Cornish, New Hamp- 
shire. Her parents moved from that State to New 
York and thence to Michigan, and they now reside 
in Meridian Township, Ingham Co., near Lansing, 
Mich. Mr. and Mrs. Bussell are the parents of seven 
children, viz.: Rowena, Alfred D., Mary E., Will- 
iam H., Joseph E., Luella and Elsie E. Mrs. B. is 
a member of the Christian Church, and Mr. B., in 
politics, is a Democrat. 



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.rank Abbott, merchant, at Alma, was born 
Nov. 16, 1849, in Pulaski, Jackson Co., 
Mich. He is the son of Jacob and Mary 
(Thornton) Abbott, who are residents of Gratiot 
County. He obtained a fair education at the 
( ommon schools of his native county, and 
studied subsequently at Ypsilanti, in the State Nor- 
mal School. Till the age of 19 years he was engaged 
during the farming season in agricultural labors, and 
obtained his advanced education after that age, sub- 
sequently engaging in teaching, which vocation he 
followed until he was 31 years old. 

In the spring of 1882 he engaged in mercantile 
traffic at Pompei, Gratiot County, where he continued 
until May, 1883. In that month he removed his 
stock of goods to Alma, and there established his 
business interests, which he is still conducting. He 
is a Republican in political principle and a warm ad- 
vocate of temperance. He is a member of the 
Order of Good Templars and of the Sons of Tem- 
perance. 
Mr. Abbott was married Dec. 5, 1883, at Alma 

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Mich., to Fanny E., daughter of S. C. and Fannie 
Blinn. The parents are natives respectively of the 
State of New York and Michigan. Mrs. Abbott was 
bom Nov. 22, 1862, in Jackson Connty. She is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



kOses Qt. Tyler, fanner, section 35, North 
Shade Township, is a son of David and 
Phebe (Orsbum) Tyler, natives of New 
York State. The former was a carpenter 
and a farmer. They moved to Wisconsin, 
where they both died. 
The subject of this sketch was born June 8, 1822, 
in the town of Stafford, Genesee Co., N. Y. ; living 
with his parents until he was 22 years of age, he 
went to work for himself, and was engaged on a 
farm by the month for 10 or 1 1 years,— five years 
for two different uncles. At the age of 30 he mar- 
ried Miss Salina, a daughter of Solomon and Axy 
(Law) Simon, natives of New York, the first-named 
a farmer. They both died in New York State. Mrs. 
T. is the fourth daughter in a family of nine chil- 
dren. In 1863 Mr. Tyler moved to Gratiot County, 
settling on 40 acres of wild land, on section 35, 
where he still resides. By his energy and judicious 
management he has made a fine farm on this place. 
Mr. T. was once elected Justice of the Peace, but 
did not serve. He is now Constable. He is a zeal- 
ous Republican. He has had four children, namely : 
Phebe A., Alvin L., Lyman M. C, Lorilla M. and 
Lucia: the last mentioned died at the age of 18 
years. 



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larles Qrover, a highly respected young 
farmer on section 2, Arcada Township, 
was bom in Ogden Township, Lenawee Co., 
Mich., Oct. I, 1857 ; and is the son of 
Thomas and Maria (Sherwood) Grover, na- 
tives of Yorkshire, Eng. Thomas Grover was 
by occupation a carriage smith, and came to this 
country in 1850, locating in New York State. Two 
years later, he came to Lenawee Co., Mich., and after 
a few years there he came to Gratiot County, where 



he died at his home on section 2, Arcada Township, 
Aug. 27, 1877, at the age of 65. His wife now re- 
sides at St. Louis, in this county, at the age of 68. 

The subject of this sketch, when two years old, 
came with his parents to this county, and lived with 
them on section 2, Arcada Township. Here he 
was reared and educated. He now owns 60 acres 
of his father's homestead, 30 acres being improved 
and under cultivation. Aug. 29, 1 881, at St. Louis, 
he was married to Estella Fields, daughter of Albert 
and Julia N. (Sparry) Fields, natives of Crawford 
Co., Pennsylvania, where, at Girard, Estella was 
bom, Aug. 24, 1857. Coming with her parents to 
Bethany Township, this county, she was there reared, 
and lived until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Grover 
have one son, William. They are regular attendants 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Politically, Mr. 
Grover sympathizes with, the National Greenback 
party. He is a young man of intelligence and in- 
dustry, and popular among his friends. 




areas Bing, farmer, section 5, Pine River 
Township, was born Oct. 16, 18 16, in 
Nova Scotia. His parents, Marcus and 
Mercy Ring, were both natives of the Prov- 
ince where their son was born, and where they 
passed the entire extent of their lives, the 
mother dying in 1826, the father in 1872. The lat- 
ter was a sea captain, as was his father before him. 

Mr. Ring went to sea with his paternal grand- 
father whsn he was 1 2 years of age, and was absent 
on his first voyage four years. On retuming, he be- 
came a sailor on a vessel belonging to his uncle, in 
whose service he remained until he reached man- 
hood. His early seafaring life was spent on English 
sailing vessels, and later he sailed on American ves- 
sels, the first of which was called the Susan Abigail. 
He was quartermaster one season on the steamer 
Atlantic, plying between Boston and Portland, Me. 
When Mr. Ring was 34 years old, he abandoned his 
sea life and went to Boston, where he leamed the 
painter's trade, and for six years devoted himself to 
its pursuit in that city. In January, 1858, he re- 
moved to Gratiot County and bought 60 acres of land 
in its original condition in Arcada Township. He 
began making improvements, and two years later 






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exchanged the property for 80 acres of land in Pine 
River I'ownship. He now owns 1 20 acres, and has 
erected good and substantial buildings, and placed 
70 acres under first-class improvements. Mr. Ring 
is a Republican in political connection. 

He was married in Nova Scotia, May 4, 1844, to 
Zilpha, fifth daughter of Rufus and Letitia (Wyman) 
Robbins. Nine children have been born of their 
marriage: William H , Eliza A., James M., Helen, 
Ada L., Jennie, Josephine, Norman J. and Eflie M. 
The eldest son died in the army, and the second son 
and third daughter are deceased. Mrs. Ring is a 
woman of energy and fine abilities. She has been 
the able assistant of her husband, and is the blessed 
mother of a creditable family. She is one of the 
women whose energies, undaunted courage and per- 
sistent hopefulness have proven such eminent factors 
in the present prosperity of Gratiot County. The 
father of Mr. Ring died in 1868 ; her mother died in 
1873. They were married May 28, 181 1. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. are members of the Methodist